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i I 



4472. The Religio Medici & other Writings. 
I2». Lond. S-c, J. M. Dent, (1920). 

With Hydriotaphia and 4 minor essays. Intro- 
duction by C. H. Herford. and glossar^. Every- 
man s Library, 92. A reprint of the undated ed., 
1900 (Keynes 51). 






THIS 13 NO. 9a OF £f€'R/'M,^D^S 












London: J. M. DENT & SONS, Ltd. 
New Yori: E. P. BUTTON & CO. 




i'/A fU 


First Issue of this Edition . 1906 

Reprinted . , . . 1909, 191J, 1917, 19,, 



ttrouyh steep, wmdmg streets or staircased alleys into the 
Ztl^'^T'' °' ^"^'^ market-places is within a stone's 
throw of the spot in which the famous physician whose 
tercentenary East Anglia was celebrating Jely ^ent ttl 
greater part of his long and fortunate life. A veVy ordinary 
house distingmshed, however, with a memorial tab^ 
?„T" u "'!■ ^^ garden, too, with its rareties, which 
Evelyn, when he visited Browne in 1671. thought "a has long since disappeared. But close at hand 
towers the gr^t east window of St. Peter Mancroft, the mag. 

^J?.M «"''^ '^ "^^'"^ "'•' """'''«" "''Sio^'" worshipped ; 
and Old Norwich affords not a few glimpses from crowded 
streets mto venerable courtyards with vistas of greenery 
beyond which make it easy to imagine the circumstances 
of his abode. 

Although Norwich took the lead in commemorating his 
birth, he was not, as is often imagined, born there. His 
father, also a Thomas, came of a stock of Cheshire squires. 
He was a younger son, and had gone up to London to push 
his fortune in toade. At the beginning of the century we 
find him settled m or near Cheapside as a mercer Here 
Z °^,'l'^' '^5' ""^ *"'"'°'" °^ «>« "^''S'o Medici v,^ 
th ; * fu /u"'y y"" *''"°'' "°*'"g i^ '"'""n. beyond 
the fact that he passed his schooldays at Winchester, and 
thence, m 1613, entered as a fellow-commoner at Pembroke 
Ohen known as Broadgates HaU), Oxford-the college in 

ri^nw% f? r^^ '"*"• ^'' ^'^^ eighteenth-century 
devotee, Samuel Johnson, passed fourteen months of proudly 



concealed poverty. Browne's means appear to have been 

S^^^^;» I ^*" ""'"■ ""'"' ""^ ^"''='« thirst of an 
intellect yet more encyclopaedic than his, and far more 
^venturo^ in the temper of its cnriosily. At Orf«d! 

^nH ^f^J*"?"'' ? •" ^°''"'°"'^ ='°'» '- Shelley's, days a 
mmd of h,s type found lessttan no help from the stud es 

tJ^ ^ "'■■ 7'"' «"^' naturalists of the Restoration 
penod were infants or unborn; even the "universaUy 

Sn t?°"Hr 'T''""' ""■* ""'' litc-minded frieTd Sn 
Evelyn the diarist, were boys at school; and F^ds 
Bacon had only just sounded, in the NoJ^OrgZl. 

BrowT'"°r *° '^' °"'"'~''"= «°'"P«=tation of Nat^^ 
Browne, whose sympathetic imagination assimilated so 
much, never comprehended Bacon; but he was not un 
touched by the Baconian ardour of discov^Tnd it w^ 

S nl""''^ """^^ ^ professional lbia» 
which sent the young Oxford graduate abroad in 16,0 to 
pursue the study of medicine and natural histo^S ,he 

three foreign universities-Montpellier. Padua, anZLeyden 
-which were then the focusesof advanced research 

splm ^^VhltA ""! '^."'"'"8 *"'«" y""* ^-^ thus 
m^^ u '*'*'''' °' ^" '"e i" F^'Ce, Italy, and 

ri^ne rr ^'' ■ ""i" ''"°''"*8« ' ""' «•« Wfe PeVTts 
Sotesta^f t7°/f> ficant glimpses. We see the English 
ft-otestant student of medicine as he paces the streets of 
Montpelli^ or Padua with a crowd of companions evet 

rh'wU'L::t^t''iL'='^. °'«'°«""''«= youfh,Tten7n6 
to the n^nf T^;. ""' ^^^ ^'"^ '"'"' ""1 ■"°ved, even 
to the point of "weeping abundantly," as some solemn 
procession passes by, "while my consort^Sfnf ^h 
opposition and prejudice, liave fallen into an excesTrf 
scorn and laughter." Or we find him a^guTng wTth ^ 
Italian physician "who could not believe perfeclvtt^ 

drbtrjo?^'''' ^°"'' ''--' «^'- --^ - -''- 

These glimpses indicate, in the zealous student who took 

his doctor's degree at Leyden, a temperament of d^Sed 


composed, as »7ort of ~iw ''""° '<> England, Brownfe 

year 1635 by on^ of MT- . """^ '°°"' P'''«=''''°° « th« 
author lovesf "As vet " LT'""^ '•*'"" '™"""<'" «» 
not seen one revo1ut.^n^f LT.TtlT'fr'^y' "' ''»" 
thirty vears •"_, rf„ ui ^"^°' "<>' hath my pulse beat 

doctor,, pres^-lStrTh^ltfp^'Sr^tfr^^^ 

incessally in Br^ ^ylhtt'evrSa^d"" """''=■ 
it be accompanied and outsung '"'' """■■ "°'" 

circle of friendsTor sevefa ye^s brr!T?^'"'"«*°« 
of one of them save the Ma^ • f ■ ■ " *" wdiscretion 

edition '^pp<^^i:D:::iL'x:^^:^iTUr^^ 

by the appearance of the authen«c text Iti^h^^ ^?' 

his man out to buy a cnn» f./ ? account of how he sent 

it in rapt e-item\Tt Vr^KeTght^ltcht'^H* """ 
early to M^te his hundred ^^.d morefag^"^ ofc^f r' 
takes us across two centuries to thrrfl ^^''rvaltons, 
fought for Old MortalityZTth! HtJ^^/J^!"" P'^P'" 
Utin translation, made in Hnii! ^ ""'^ "'dlolkian. f, 
franchise of the ^o^^'en'" "°"^'"'' S^^' «"= «"'i»V. the 
The harsher dogmatisms of the age did not fail t^ r- . 
Browne's sweet reasonableness to heretics and ^°' 
and the formidable Alexander Ro^t ^ ^^S 

1 heavy bludgeon this 

way and that 

X Introduction 

through the tenaons fabric of the Religio without damaging 
a whit its spiritual substance : 

" For it was as the air invulnerable, 
And th$st vain blows malicious mockery." 

When the Religio was thus at length tardily sent forth. 
Brown had been for some years established as a physician 
at Norwich, with a thriving practice and considerable 
private means. He had also married, in 1641, and the 
mild scorn expressed in the Religio for " that trivial and 
vulgar way of union " does not appear to have prevented 
Thomas and Dorothy Browne from enjoying an exceedingly 
happy married life. Browne's view of woman and her 
place was, indeed, as uncompromisingly masculine as 
Milton's, if more quaintly and pleasantly expressed. For 
him, too, Man was " the whole World, and the Breath of 
God ; Woman the Rib and crooked piece of man." He 
wrote this while still a bachelor, but even after four years 
of marriage we find him, in the Vulgat Errors, speculating 
curiously on God's purpose in creating Eve "as a help- 
meet " to Adam. It can only have been, he opines, in view 
of their function as the future parents of mankind ; " for as 
for any other help, it had been better to have made another 
man." It is clear that Browne, who showed in his 
speculative enterprises so much of the temper of romance, 
was not dangerously romantic in private life. He loved to 
feed his imagination on mysteries, and brood ecstatically 
in a Platonic page of the Religio (ii. 6) over the mystery of 
friendship, two bodies and one soul. But one suspects 
that love and friendship alike were in him only specialized 
varieties of that diffused kindliness which he extended to 
all forms of sentient life except " the Devil " and " the 
Multitude," er- bracing in his sympathy the Spaniard and 
the Jew, an'' owning a benign fellowship with the Viper 
and the Toad. Such a temperament promised a life not I 
very rich in the drama of conflict which for many men 
makes three-fonrths of its interest, but one securely and \ 
serenely harmonious. And such was, in fact, the subse- 


mt forth, 
and the 
ivial and 
and her 
aline as 
«d. For 
Ireath of 
m." He 
lar years 
I a help- 
i, in view 
; " for as 
: another 
1 in his 
loved to 
ystery of 
:nded to 
nd "the 
iard and 
le Viper 
L life not 
iny men 
rely and 
e subse- 

Introduction xi 

qaent life of Browne, cast though it was in a stormy 
; time. 

i The civil troubles did not disturb his tranquil labours ; 
amid the « drums and tramplings of conquest," to apply 
! his own famous phrase, he had his "quiet rest " ; for the 
I Parliament was from the first securely established in 
, Norfolk, and Browne, though a convinced Royalist, was 
the most pracUcable of partisans. Hardly an allusion to 
politics crosses his page. During the first fury of the 
struggle he offered the world, in the Retigio, his serene 
exposition of a religious faith utterly remote in temper, if 
not in substance, from any of the contending creeds. 
When the Royal cause was tottering towards its final 
faU he came forward again to make known the resulte 
of his inquiries into the reality of the phoenix and the 
griffin, whether swans sing before they die, and whether 
the right and the left legs of badgers are equally long 
When the death of Cromwell at length opened a prospect 
of the "joyful Restoration," Browne, sUent through the 
whole Commonwealth period, found his voice again in 
a meditation upon the cinerary urns and the "elegant 
coordination of vegetables," as majestically irrelevant as 
Paradise Lost itself to the passions and policies of the hoar 
For twenty-four years after the publication of the Hydrio. 
taphia and the Garden of Cyrus Browne Uved on, famous, 
wealthy, indisputably the first man in Norwich, bringing 
up a large family of sons who distinguished themselves 
and daughters who married well. , He died on his seventy - 
seventh birthday, October 19, I'eSa. To the last he 
occasionally wrote. But it was not until 1690 that the 
world read his Letiet to a Friend, and not until the lapse 
of a generation that his Christian Morals was at length (in 
1716) made known. 

Men whose Uves pass in such complete and unbroken 
harmony are not ofton so detached and lonely in their 
thought. There is no work of Browne's which can be 
said to reflect, or to stand in any direct relation with, any 
dominant body of opinion, any prevailing method of 

II !!" 

5^" Introduction 

•pecuJadon, or any defined Uteraiy tradition. Even his 
entliusiastic Anglicanism was, like Hobbes's theory of 
absolute monarchy, too deeply dyed in the curious idio- 
syncrasy of the thinkers brain to be congenial to plain- 
minded adherents. In the very title of bis first book. 
The Religian of a Physician, there lay, for contemporary 
ears, a certain element of paradox; for the profession was 
commonly reputed to have no religion. A course of 
medical study, he himseU hint^ furnished a presumption of 
Atheism. " In despite of which," he adds, " I dare with- 
out usurpation assume the honourable style of a Christian." 
Our jnterest, as Blougram says, is " on the dangerous edge 
of things": * 

" The honest thief, the tender murderer, 
The superstitious Atheist" 

And the seventeenth century would have added, "the 
devout physician." Browne atfords this piquant interest 
m rich measure. Two great intellectual traditions which 
had for the most part run counter met in his mind in a 
curious, unexpected harmony-a harmony obtained with- 
out apparent commotion or forced diversion of eiUser 
from Its course; as if the contending sb'eams which in 
other intellects josOed each other aside or settled their 
differences by compromise and subterfuge had in his been 
transmuted into a warp and woof of differently-coloured 
threa Is, whose crossing only evolv \ a brilliant pattern. 

Browne does, no doubt, recognise distinct provinces and 
procedures for his " rdigion " and his " phUosophy," but it is 
misleading to class him with the " water-tight compartment " 
theorists, more common in the Catholic Church than in 
Protestantism, who allow their "reason" to have no 
dealings with then- "faith," nor their "faith" with their 
"reason." The "water-tight compartments" with him 
have many valves a. d sluices, and the sustaining water 
flows readily to aad fro. What was most vital both in hh 
religion and in his speculation sprang from the same root 
—an imaginative sympathy with every form of existence. 





h- )-n '"".'*"°'"- " I am of a constitution so general " 

unto an. . . All places, all airs, make unto me one 

Meridl:-' "" " '^''«'^"'' '^'^"'•"« -0 -"r l; 

This is not, the temperament of a keen critic and 

Ser*o "h'"f "" '"""'" "'''" ">« «^'' -- 
mmister of his temperamental needs and impulses than 

ta^!L"»^*;"" '^'^ =""• * "'«'°' """l efficient ^rva^ 
taMhautible m the quest of curious learning. postingTver 
twd and ocean without rest at the bidding of that foX 

re^ed'^srtTnr ''"''•'''"^'"^'■"''-"""S 

oeeaed exhilarating » .arcise, to take the foils and t» 
discreetly overcome. "Tis my solitary .-ecrXi^-cri^ 
Browne, in a sort of epicurean rapture, '< to ,Sse mv 

01 tne rnmty. I can answer all the Objections of 

Saten and my rebeUious reason with that odd riso luttn f 
learned of Tertullian. 'Certum est. quia impossfbite est " " 
It might be said of Browne that he thought with his 
imagination so potent are its intuitions in detfrmiSng the 

fame more than half capture his assent. The allegorical 
descnption of God as a circle whose centra is eve^^wheri 
^fl^\T T.'^r ""^^"^ "P"'='=«h me beyond all 
s^L^I r"^","^ definitions of Divines." And no vision^y 
speculation of mystic or PUtonist appealed in vain"o 
Sir Thomas Browne. Man was the microcosm of the 
universe ; the visible world a picture of the invisible and 
m "that vu gar and Tavern musick, which makes on. man 
merry another mad," he discovered, with awed rapt" e! 
» Hieroglyphi,^ and shadowed lesson of the whole 

W^m" ■ ■,; l" ' '°"°'^y '° ""* «" »» ««» whole 
World, well understood, would afford the understanding - 

xiv Introduction 

in brief, a sensible fit of that harmony which intellectually 
sounds in the ears of God." 

To say that Browne " thought with his imagination" is 
only to say that his supreme merit belongs to literature, 
not to philosophy. Still less did it belong to science. If 
the author of the Religio Mtriici stood aloof from his age, 
the laborioust inquirer into "Vulgar Errors" stood far 
behind it Th-j lofty assumption, in the preface, of 
Baconian phrases about the need of first-hand experience 
and the fallacies of tradition and authority, is in piquant 
contrast with the meanderings of Browne's inquiring 
intellect, just one step more emancipated than tht " vulgar," 
whose erroneous beliefs about phoenixes and griffins, after 
anxiously weighing all the possibilities, he decides, as it 
were by the turning of a hair, to be wrong. It is the old 
story of Apollo leaving his Parnassian haunts to stray 
across the severe threshold of Academe, insufficiently 
equipped with the geometry requisite there. And the 
sages of the English Academe did not hesitate to make 
* the respected intruder understand that he was out of 
place. In an interesting section of his admirable life of 
Browne, just published, Mr. Gosse has plausibly surmised 
that his absence from the roll of members of the Royal 
Society was due to a deliberate determination of the 
committee to exclude him. 

The line between literature and science was then 
indecisively drawn, and Browne's letters to the secretary 
make it tolerably evident that he would have liked to join 
a body few of whom could rival the natural history 
collections of his Norwich home, while still fewer probably 
could claim, as he could, to have dared dyspepsia or 
worse, for Science's sake, by experimental meals upon 
spiders and bees. A distinguished son of his own was, 
moreover, a member. But it may be that the real rock of 
offence was just that which has become the corner-stone 
of his fame— his style. It is well known how peremptorily 
the newly-founded Royal Society set its face against the 
old sumptuous and elaborate prose, with its "amplifica- 



tions, digression!, and swellings o( style," and did its best 
to recover " the primitive purity and hortness, when men 
delivered so many things almost in an equal number of 
words." It accordingly " exacted from all its members a 
close, naked, natural way of speaking; positive expressions 
. . bringing all things as near the mathematical plain- 
ness as they can." So writes Sprat, the historian of the 
Society, and one of its earliest Fellows. It is hard to 
believe that Browne's splendour of apparel was not 
expressly glanced at by this advocate of nakedness. But 
we are not further concerned with his criticism. For 
Browne's ends and aims his writing is incomparable. It 
is not a cumbrous and artificial way of conveying factp, 
any more than a symphony is a vague and equivocal way 
of telling a story. Like music, it creates and suggests 
more than it articulately expresses. If there is any 
E iglish prose which it is not wholly profane to compare 
with a symphony of Beethoven, it is surely the magnificent 
discourse of the Hydriotafhia, with its vast undulations of 
rhythmic sound, its triumphal processions, its funereal 
pageants, its abysmal plunges into unfathomable depths, 
its ecstatic soarings to the heights of heaven. 


Editor s Notb.— The foreRoing introduction is based upon an 
essay vmtten for Browne's Tercentenary and published in the 
Manchestir Guardian: and some passages of it are here repro- 
duced by kind permission of the Editor and publishers of that 

The following list comprises the published works of Sir 
Thomas Browne (1605-1682) as originally issued : 

Religio Medici, probably written in 1633, published, surrepti- 
tiously, 1642 ; authorised edition. 1643 ; Pseudodoxia Epi- 
demica, or Enquiries into very many received tenets and com. 
inonly-presumed truths, which examined prove but Vulgar and 
Common Errors. 1646; Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial; or a Dis- 
SH""? ™ the Sepulchral Urns lately found in Norfolk, 1658 : 
The Garden of Cyrus j or the Quincuncial Lozenge, network 

xvi Introduction 

^S^°Im! *™=^»^ ArtUctaUy. N«iinUly, MrXiolly 
iJii'^'!^?!^*- ^»« "o««Iy Irtto™ on • viri«i7 of rab- 
SjSn. rttr* ^ "• '**'~«' •» Sir Nieholu 

tiifi*".'" ' ^•?'* "P°" occ«»lon of tba dwth of hit inUmtt* 
"S'''J?9°i^"L''mo" Worki. 1711 j ChriitUn MonUt, 1714 


ULIOIO MBDlei •-.... 


HORFOLX, ANNO 1687 " ■ - . . 


GLOSSARY ■ • . . 







Cbxtainlv tlutt man were greedy of Life, who 
should desire to live when tdl the world were at an 
end ; and he must needs be very impatient, who would 
repine at death in the society of all things that suffer 
under it. Had not almost every man suffered by the 
Press, or were not the tyranny thereof become uni- 
versal, I had not wanted reason for complaint : but in 
times wherein I have lived to behold the highest per- 
version of that excellent invention, the name of his 
Maiesty defamed, the Honour of Parliament depraved, 
the Writing of both depravedly, anticipatively, counter- 
feitly impnnted; complaints may seem ridiculous in 
private persons ; and men of my condition may be as 
mcepable of affronts, as hopeless of their reparations. 
And truely, had not the duty I owe unto the impor- 
tunity of friends, p i the allegiance I must eve. 
acknowledge unto tuth, prevailed with me, the in- 
activity of my disposition might have made these 
sufferings continual, and time, that brings other things 
to light, si ottld have satisfied me in the remedy of <ts 
oblivion.^ But because things evidently false are not 
onely printed, but many things of truA most falsely 
set forth, in this latter I could not but think my seu 
engaged : for, though we have no power to redress the 
former, yet in tht other the reparation being within 
our selves, I have at present represented unto the 
world a full and intended Copy of that Piece, which 
was most imperfectly and surreptitiously published 

This, I confess, about seven years past, with some 
others of affinity thereto, for my private exercise and 
satisfaction, I had at leisurable hours composed ; which 
being communicated unto one, it became common unto 
many, and was by Transcription successively corrupted, 

2 To the Reader 

untill it arrived in a most depraved Copy at the Press. 
He that shall peruse that work, and shall take notice of 
sundry particularities and personal expressions therein, 
wili easily discern the intention was not publick ; and 
being a private Exercise directed to my self, what is 
delivered therein, was rather a memorial unto me, than 
an iixample or Rule unto any other; and therefore, if 
there be any singularity therein correspondent unto the 
private conceptions of any man, it doth not advantage 
them ; or if dissentaneous thereunto, it no way over- 
throws them. It was penned in such a place, and with 
such disadvantage, that, (I protest,) from the first 
settmg of pen unto paper, I had not the assistance of 
any f,ood Book whereby to promote my invention or 
reheve my memory; and therefore there might be 
many real lapses therein, which others might take 
notice of, and more than I suspected my self. It was 
set down many i years past, and was the sense of mv 
conceptions at that time, not an immutable Law unto 
my advancing judgement at aU times; and therefore 
there might be many things therein plausible unto my 
passed apprehension, which are not agreeable unto 
my present self. There are many things delivered 
Khetorically, many expressions therein meerly Tropical 
and as they best illustrate my intention ; and therefore 
also there are many things to be taken in a soft and 
flexible sense, and not to be called unto the rigid test 
ot Reason. Lastly, all that is contained therein is in 
submission unto maturer discernments; and, as I have 
declared, shall no further father them than the best 
and learned judgments shall authorize them : under 
tavour of which considerations I have made its secrecy 
publick, and committed the truth thereof to every 
Ingenuous Reader. ' 




For my Religion, though there be several Circum- 
stances that might perswade the World I have none 
at all, (as the general scandal of my Profession, the 
natural course of my Studies, the indifferency of my 
Behaviour and Discourse in matters of Religion, 
neither violently Defending one, nor with that common 
ardour and contention Opposing another;) yet, in 
despight hereof, I dare witiout usurpation assume the 
honourable Stile of a Christian. Not that I meerly 
owe this Title to the Font, my Education, or the 
clime wherein I was bom, (as being bred up either to 
confirm those Principles my Parents instilled into my 
unwary Understanding, or by a general consent proceed 
in the Religion of my Country;) but having in my 
riper years and confirmed Judgment seen and examined 
all, I find my self obliged by the Principles of Grace, 
and the Law of mine own Reason, to embrace no 
other Name but this. Neither doth herein my zeal 
so far make me forget the general Charity I owe unto 
Humanity, as rather to hate than pity Turks, Infidels, 
and (what is worse,) Jews ; rather contenting my self 
to enjoy that happy Stile, than maligning those who 
refuse so glorious a Title. 

But, because the Name of a Christian is become 
too general to express our Faith, (there being a Geo- 
graphy of Religions as well as Lands, and every Clime 
distinguished not only by their Laws and Limits, but 
circumscribed by their Doctrines and Rules of Faith ;) 
to be particular, I am of that Reformed new-cast 
Religion, wherein I dislike nothing but the Name ; of 
the same belief our Saviour taught, the Apostles dis- , 

4 Religio Medici 

senunated, the Fathers authorized, and the Martyrs 
confirmed; but by the sinister ends of Princes, the 
ambition and avarice of Prelates, and the fatal cor- 
ruption of times, so decayed, impaired, and fallen from 
ite native Beauty, that it required the careful and 
chantable hands of these times to restore it to its 
pnmitive Integrity. Now the accidental occasion 
whereupon, the slender means whereby, the low and 
abject condition of the Person by whom so good a 
work was set on foot, which in our Adversaries beget 
contempt and scorn, fills me with wonder, and is §ie 
very same Objection the insolent Pagans first cast at 
Christ and His Disciplss. 

Yet have I not so shaken hands with those desperate 
Kesolutions, (who had rather venture at large their 
decayed bottom, than bring her in to be new trimm'd 
m the Dock ; who had rather promiscuously retain all. 
than abndge any, and obstinately be what they are. 
thm what they have been,) as to stand in Diameter 
and Swords pomt with them. We have reformed from 
them, not gainst them; for (omitting those Improper- 
ations and Terms of Scurrility betwixt us, which only 
difference our Affections, and not our Cause,) there is 
between us one common Name and Appellation, one 
i'aith and necessary body of Principles common to us 
both; and therefore I am not scrupulous to converse 
and hve with them, to enter their Churches in defect 
of ours, and either pray with them, or for them. I 
could never perceive any rational Consequence from 
those many Texts which prohibit the Children of 
Israel to pollute themselves with the Temples of the 
Heathens ; we being all Christians, and not divided 
by such detested impieties as might prophane our 
Prayers, or the place wherein we make them ; or that 
a resolved Conscience may not adore her Creator any 
where, especially in places devoted to His Service ; 
where, if thetr Devotions offend Him, mine may please 
Him ; if theirs prophane it, mine may hallow it. Holy- 
water and Crucifix (dangerous to the common people.) 
deceive not my judgment, nor abuse my devotion at 

Religio Medici 5 

all. I am, I confess, natuialljr inclined to that which 
misguided Zeal terms Supmtition. My common con- 
versation I do acknowledge austere, my behaviour full 
of rigour, sometimes not without morosity ; yet at my 
Devotion I love to use the civility of my knee, my hat, 
and hand, with all those outward and sensible motions 
which may express or promote my invisible Devotion. 
I should violate my own arm rather than a Church ; 
nor willingly deface the name of Saint or Martyr. At 
the sight of a Cross or Crucifix I can dispense with my 
hat, but scarce with the thought or memory of my 
Saviour. I cannot laugh at, but rather pity, the fruit- 
less joui eys of Pilgrims, or contemn the miserable 
condition of Fryars ; for, though misplaced in Circum- 
stances, there is something in it of Devotion. I could 
never hear the Ave- Mary Bell without an elevation ; 
or think it a sufficient warrant, because they erred in 
one circumstance, for me to err in all, that is, in silence 
and dumb contempt. Whilst, therefore, they directed 
their Devotions to Her, I offered mine to God, and 
rectified the Errors of their Prayers by rightly ordering 
mine own. At a solemn Procession I have wept abun- 
dantly, while my consorts, blind with opposition and 
prejudice, have fallen into an excess of scorn and 
laughter. There are, questionless, both in Gree!:, 
Roman, and African Churches, Solemnities and Cere- 
monies, whereof the wiser Zeals do make a Christian 
use, and stand condemned by us, not as evil in them- 
selves, but as allurements and baits of superstition to 
those vulgar heads that look asquint on the face of 
Truth, and those unstable Judgments that cannot 
consist in the narrow point and centre of Virtue 
without a reel or stagger to the Circumference. 

As there were many Reformers, so likewise many 
Reformations; every Country proceeding in a parti- 
cular way and method, according as their national 
Interest, together with their Constitution and Clime, 
inclined them; some angrily, and with extremity; 
others calmly, and with mediocrity ; not rending, but 
easily dividing the community, and leaving an honest 

Religio Medici 

S^1r&5 t "^"^^o^fl^tio" ; which though peaceable 
Spirits do desire, and may conceive that Fevoluti™ of 
ime and the mercies o? God may effect vetThat 

ttr^.^^'l!.'''"" '=°"^''«' *« presenrLS^thies 
dft^n^ff ti*^° extreams, their contrarieties .Vcon!' 
dition aflFection, and opinion, may with the same hooes 
expect an union in the Poles of Heaven. ^ 

lesfer Ci?H.' wr"""- '^^ ^[^ °''"'"^> '^^ ^^ into a 
lesser Circle,) there is no Church whose every nart so 

Xt?onsTHr^^°°^'^°=^= ^•'°^« ArticYesr^on- 
an^ i = •; S"^*°°" ^^"^ ^° consonant unto Reason 
^d as It were framed to my particular De.otira m 
this whereof I hold my Belief; ftTchurch of EnS^d^ 
to whose Faith I am a sworn Subject. a^dttiefS 
in a double Obligation subscribe unto her Art cles ^d 
endeavom: to observe her Constitutions What^Ter 

o tkr±."'r^'' ^'^''f^^«°t' I observe acSg 
fLw r ^ °l "^y P"^''^^ '•eason, or the humour and 
feshionof my Devotion; neither believing this be^Se 
Ltl di<^ ""f /! °' ■Ji^P^'ving that, because c3^n 
CounHwT'^f '*• ^ '^°"'^«'"" "°t ^ things in t^e 
InTrii Trent nor approve all in the Synod of Dort! 
rnvT./; r *t Scripture is silent, the Church is 
wheJe^e'r^uT- '^^} T"^' '*'^ »'»* W Comment : 
r^es of mt rV°^* silence of both, I borrownotthe 
rmes of my Religion from Rome or Geneva, but the 
dictates of my own reason. It is an unjust scandal of 
our adversan'es, and a gross errour b our sXes to 
Sr^ Nativity of ^ur ReligionUm Hetr;^h: 

the fai/hTf P "^'^ ^® L^J^'='"'* *^^ P°Pe. refus'd not 
n^ p ^ ^°'°^' ^^ «ff'=<=tod no more than what his 
own Predecessors desired and assayed in Ag^rpast 

Religio Medici 7 

returned him the name of Antichrist, Man of Sin, or 
Where of Babylon. It is the method of Charity to suffer 
without reaction : those usual Satyrs and invectives of 
the Pulpit may perchance produce a good effect on the 
vulgar, whose ears are opener to Rhetoric^ than 
Logick ; yet do they in no wise confirm the faith of 
wiser Believers, who know that a good cause needs 
not to be patron'd by passion, but can sustain it self 
upon a temperate dispute. 

I could never divide my self from any man upon the 
difference of an opinion, or be angry with his judgment 
for not agreeing with me in that from which perhaps 
within a few days I should dissent my self. I have no 
Genius to disputes in Religion, and have often thought 
it wisdom to decline them, especially upon a disadvan- 
tage, or when the cause of Truth might suffer in the 
weakness of ray patronage. Where we desire to be 
informed, 'tis good to contest with men above our 
selves ; but to confirm and establish our opinions, 'tis 
best to argue -"vith judgments below our own, that the 
frequent spoils and Victories over their reasons may 
settle in ourselves an esteem and confirmed Opinion 
of our own. Every man is not a proper Champion for 
Truth, nor fit to take up the Gauntlet in the cause of 
Verity ; many, from the ignorance of these Maximes, 
and an inconsiderate Zeal unto Truth, have too rashly 
charged the troops of Error, and remain as Trophies 
unto the enemies of Truth. A man may be in as just 
possession of Truth as of a City, and yet be forced to 
surrender ; 'tis therefore far better to enjoy her with 
peace, than to hazzard her on a battle. If, therefore, 
there rise any doubts in my way, I do forget them, or 
at least defer them till my better setled judgement and 
more manly reason be able to resolve them ; for I per- 
ceive every man's own reason is his best CEdipus, and 
will, upon a reasonable truce, find a way to loose those 
bonds wherewith the subtleties of error have enchained 
cur more flexible and tender judgements. In Philo- 
sophy, where Truth seems double-fac'd, there is no 
man more Parado- ' than m- self : but in Di\'inity 


Religio Medici 

Pol^ oT^;.r^ %"'=•' K"""""- °°t«senS7any proper 

fve^"^'*'";"' ^«^°',^« °^«'J °°' look topiato^ yeS 
mZ^^d°^ only himself; there ha&^en^l; 
thlt^i^^i ^ ^ "^^y ^™°°s, though but few of 

hath W„ ^ ^ P^^' ^^""^ *^ °o°e then, but there 

SfdfsXboSfi'rr s»?"' *""' >i«^ 

Religio Medici 9 

from challenging this prerogative of my Soul: so that 
I might enjoy my Saviour at the last, I could with 
patience be nothing almost unto Eternity, 

The second was that of Origen, That Goo would 
not ^rsist in His vengeance for ever, >at Af*et a 
definite time of His wrath, He would release the 
damned Souls from torture. Which error I fell into 
upon a serious contemplation of the great Attribute of 
God, His Mercy ; and did a little cherish it in my self, 
because I found therein no malice, and a ready weight 
to sway me from the other extream of despair, where- 
unto Melancholy and Contemplative Natures are too 
easily disposed. 

A third there is, which I did never positively main- 
tain or practise, but have often wished it had been 
consonant to Truth, and not offensive to my Religion, 
and that is, the Prayer for the Dead ; whereunto I was 
inclin'd from some charitable inducements, whereby I 
could scarce contain my Prayers for a friend at the 
rin^ng of a Bell, or behold his Corps without an 
Onson for his Soul. 'Twas a good way, methought, 
to be remembred by posterity, and far more noble 
than an History. 

These opinions I never maintained with pertinacy, 
or endeavoured to enveagle any mans belief unto mine, 
nor so much as ever revealed or disputed them with 
my dearest friends ; by which means I neither propa- 
pted them in others, nor confirmed them in my self ; 
but suffering them to flame upon their own substance, 
without addition of new fuel, they went out insensibly 
of themselves. Therefore these Opinions, though 
condemned by lawful Councels, were not Heresies in 
me, but bare Errors, and single Lapses of my under- 
standing, without a joynt depravity of my will. Those 
have not onely depraved understandings, but diseased 
affections, which cannot enjoy a singularity without an 
Heresie, or be the Author of an Opinion without they 
be of a Sect also. This was the villany of the first 
Schism of Lucifer, who was not content to err alone, 
but drew into his Faction many Legions of Spirits ; 


Religio Medici 

SSlrfff i^'* «Perience he tempted only Eve as well 

ttt"S:?^et*t^°e^^^£-f- °^ Si"- -" 
quence to delude them b^ tacitelywd upon conse- 

Solar ' ?;,• ">j"'7.'«p»"^B»-'°s 

of the Trmity, with Incarnation, and Reswrection I 

Religio Medici ii 

can answer all the Objections of Satan and my rebel- 
lious reason with that odd resolution I learned of Ter- 
tullian, Certum (st,guia impossibiU est. I desire to exercise 
my faith in the ditticultest point ; for to credit ordinary 
and visible objects is not faith, but perswasion. Some 
believe the better for seeing Christ's Sepulchre ; and, 
when they have seen the Red Sea, doubt not of the 
Miracle. Now, contrarily, I bless my self and am thank- 
ful that I lived not in the days of Miracles, that I never 
saw Christ nor His Disciples. 1 would not have 
been one of those Israelites that pass'd the Red Sea, 
nor one of Christ's patients on whom He wrought 
His wonders ; then had my faith been thrust upon me, 
nor should I enjoy that greater blessing pronounced to 
all that believe and saw not. "Pis an easie and neces- 
sary belief, to credit what our eye and sense hath 
examined. I believe He was dead, and burisd, and 
rose again ; and desire to see Him in His glory, rather 
than to contemplate Him in His Cenotaphe or 
Sepulchre. Nor is this much to believe ; as we have 
reason, we owe this faith unto History : they only had 
the advantage of a bold and noble Faith, who lived 
before His coming, who upon obscure prophesies and 
mystical Types could raise a belief, and expect apparent 

'Tis true, there is an edge in all firm belief, and with 
an easie Metaphor we may say, the Sword of Faith ; 
but in these obscurities I rather use it in the adjunct 
the Apostle gives it, a Buckler; under which I conceive 
a wary combatant may lye invulnerable. Since I was 
of understanding to know we knew nothing, my reason 
hath been more pliable to the will of Faith ; I am now 
content to understand a mystery without a rigid defini- 
tion, in an easie and Platonick description. That alle- 
gorical description of Hermes pleaseth me beyond all 
the Metaphysical definitions of Divines. Where I 
cannot satisfy my reason, I love to humour my fancy : 
I had as live you tell me that anima est angelus hominis, 
est Corpus Dei, as Entelechia ; — Lux est umbra Dei, as 
actus perspicui. Where there is an obscurity too deep 


for OUT Reuoa. 

Religio Medici 

.ubmissive unto the sSti^Tp r.'* '"""^'« "^ 
teach my hairMM .»j ■ .°' *^»'ft ; and thus I 

untothe^fpaith' T^^fy, ^^^nV^U 
free whose fruit ourJnhaD^ P ^f* ''*' alreadyi 
w.the Mme Chapter wlTen^S^ fe'". *""*'"', though, 
jwd. the plants of the fieM°^'''"''"t't«positivfly 

that the Serpent, (if we sh J^, '*««»<*. I believe 
from h« pro^f;,J4 Md wi"'!!^^ understand it.) 
his belly before the curee Ifi^.t •"» ""ti"" on 
PucellageandviririnitvofW^™ ^''•'.the tryal of the 
the Jews, is verf^ fXue Tlll^T'"'"'^ ^""^ °^''»i''«d 
inforas me. that norondv n^n'^ "-•' ?"'' ««tory 
but hkewise whole NaHoM ^^ particular Women, 
Childbirth, which God swii^r' '^P"' the curse of 
whole Sex. Yet do I beKhlt f.Tlv"?*^' "P°° the 
wdeed my Reason wouIH^ ^' *"'* true, which 
*"d this r thi,n „o vutert'^? ^'- .*" ^ ^^se ; 
a thmg not only ateve lut ?nnf ' ^""'^ *° ''e«eve 
•gainst the A^menS^of our nroo^Q *° ^"'^"' "«> 
In n>y solitary and retired i-S^Slon"^ 

co=ft: H^m":$d^°^;rttir°'?^r^« -' to 

with me, esoeciallv thZ. * •'Attributes Who is evi.r 

I confound.^ under^tLdlL/for'.f'^''^ ^'^ °'h«" 
Eternity without a solLdsm o^ thfnr'lt "^^ ^P«^ °f 
an Extasie? Time w?mv'comnr^ ^^f".° ^'thout 
days elder then our se?v^^a^rh^?u^!S'' = t'^^utfive 
scope with the World -but' ^. .- *^? ^"^ Horo- 

Religio Medici 

Reason to St. P«ul>» Swictuary. 

narM nnf ■«» «i.^ A-. i. •' 


his own definition unto Moses ; wd W a short ^ 
Him what He was. Indeed, He onely is- all oth7« 

t^nTT"**""^- ButinElemitythe^reisnodSHn"" 
tion of Tenses ; and therefore that terrible term ft,- 
f»i'natu,n, hath troubled so many weak h^T^ 
conceive, and the wisest to explain, Is in resoect to 
God no pres.'.ous determination of our Estates to 
come, but a definitive blast of His Will ^^yfSlfiUed 

1;^^^' 11"^^ 'H^' fi"' decreed iTfor to nfs 
Ete.Tiit3r, which is mdivisible and all together, the Us? 

'?'"i '^?^"^7 sounded, the reprobatls in the flaml 
^oJ**' .S'^r '? Abraham's Wme St Pe7« 
Tti '"°^'*"?' ^^f ^' ^i^'' thousand y,a„toGol, 
ate but as put day; for, to speak like a Philosooher 

thousand years, make not to Him one moment • what 
to us IS to come to His Eternity is presen^His wT^ote 

ce"ln"pai?,^ F? °°'' ^1^'^".""'* ^^^ without Su^ 
ceraion, Parts, Flux, or Division. 

There is no Attribute that adds more difficulty to the 
mystenr of the Trinity, where, though in areWve way 
of Father and Son, we must deny a priority I w3 

hnwl,^"'*"^ ''°^^ '=°°«'^« ^^ Wor?d ete.^?or 
how he could make good two Eternities. His similT 
tude of a Triangle comprehended in a sZre ™ h 
somewhat ,1 ustrate the /rinity of our So.J^,Td ISlt 
the Triple Uni^ of God ; for there is in us kot thrw 

^^LJT% °J ^"^^ • ^'^''^ there is in us, if ^t 
three distinct Souls, yet differing faculties, that b^ ^d 
do subsist apart in dfiferent Subjects, and yefin^^re 
so united as to make but one Soul a^d suEce K 

B^tfl,7^"' '° P*'^'"=' ^? t° i°f°™ three dTstinc 
Bodies, that were a petty Trinity : conceive the distinct 
number of three, not divided nor separated by the 
mteUect. but actually comprehended in its Uni£^d 

H Religio Medici 

numbers. hwauTPhihlo^^ -^ """^ ^'^'■^ "' 
received in to^K a S"^' ?nr ^''^S?' ??' *° "^ 
Nature there ii « wt of thin« th I" ""' ^^"» <>' 
Front (though not b clp t^ Letterl 'v"e7i„'"<;;'"" 

Abyss of KnowlS^ anH f *^ Luminaries in the 

I was bred in the way of StudV • fh- , J '^f me that 
of. the vulgar, wit^'L c3" ^d ht""^" ''*^" 

Devil himwlf' w t J . Counsel even of the 

Si's? sr/dsFL'S^"^^-"^ h:s 

Religio Medici 


man, but preiumption even in Ancelt Lilr. ... .i. 

though there be threVPerson, "here il h^ ^^l.^ ""'"; 
»v. ^^^^n.-i'hout cont'diclior No^'nTe^He 



contemplated by Man- 'tis the IW„? o '*^ *°<* 
had not been, or as it was before th- I xth^I^"'^i' " 


workstt 'hfghh^tiS'HTm"''?: """'?■ •"» 
inquiry into 4is S^^i-fk ?' ''''°" Judicious 

Creatures. r^tu^^Sfe' "ty'o 'rie^uS'f " "'.^ 
admiration. Therefore. ""*'' 

Search while thou wilt, .ad let thy Rewn eo 
To raMome Truth, even to th- Abys. wSw? ' 

Which Nature twists, be able to uatwre 
It IS thy Makers will, for unto none 
ThI n ,^"?° "° "= '" be known. 



Religio Medici 

Teach me to soar aloft, yet ever so 

When neer the Sun, to stoop again below. 

Thus shall my humble Feathers safely hover. 

And, though near Earth, more than the Heavens discover. 

And then at last, when homeward I shall drive 

Rich with the Spoils of Nature, to my Hive ' 

There will I sit like that industrious Flie, 

Buzzing Thy praises, which shall never die, 

Till Death abrupts them, and succeeding Glory 

Bid me go on in a more lasting story. 

And this is almost all wherein an humble Creature 
may endeavour to requite and some way to retribute 
unto his Creator : for if not he that saith, " Lord, Lord," 
but he that doth the will of his Father, shall be saved; 
certainly our wills must be our performances, and our 
mtents make out our Actions; otherwise our pious 
labours shall find anxiety in our Graves, and our best 
endeavours not hope, but fear, a resurrection. 

There is but one first cause, and four second causes 
of all things. Some are without efficient, as God ; 
others without matter, as Angels ; some without form, 
as the first matter: but e^ery Essence, created or 
uncreated, hath its final cause, and some positive end 
both of its Essence and Operation. This is the cause 
I grope after in the works of Nature ; on this hangs 
the Providence of God. To raise so beauteous a 
structure as the World and the Creatures thereof, was 
but His Art ; but their sundry and divided operations, 
with their predestinated ends, are from the Treasure 
of His Wisdom. In the causes, nature, and affections 
of the Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, there is most 
excellent speculation ; but to profound farther, and to 
contemplate a reason why His Providence hath so 
disposed and ordered their motions in that vast circle 
as to conjoyn and obscure each other, is a sweeter 
piece of Reason, and a diviner point of Philosophy. 
Therefore sometimes, and in some things, there 
appears to me as much Divinity in Galen his books 
De Usu Partium, as in Suarez Metaphysicks. Had 
Aristotle been as curious in the enquiry of this cauE>j 
as he was of the other, he had not left behind him an 

Religio Mp.did 

imperfect piece of Philos 

Divinity. °"°^- •">-' D"t an :.> solute tract of 

Natiira uikil agit f,,,. ,., • ., 
Axiome in Philosophy-: i;e"'a '""^ "disputed 

Nature; "ot anyth.W framed to fin " Grotesques in 
and unnecessa^ s^ces Tn th "P'^P'^^^fo^s, 
Creatures, and such as ^^^re not nr ™°'i. '""Perfec 
but having their Seeds LdPrin'^nf^'^"''J° **>« Ark, 
Nature, are everywhere wh^lfK^^^ "" *« womb of 
;^, m these is the Wisdom n? h- ^u"'^^'' °^ "^e s4 
Out of this ranW Qoi , "'^ band discover^T 

admiration.^ TndeedfThTt tf ^''^ °''J-t of'hfs 
School to the wisdom^f L„ ^T" "^^ ""t go to 
what wise hand teacheH. 7i "' ^'^^^' ^^d Spiders' 
cannot teach ,„., R d fhead's'st^/" "'^^i ^-^^n 
prodigious pieces of N^ure w. f^^«d at those 
?7""lanes and Camelsf these r'^'^V Elephants, 
Colossus and majestick p eces of I ''°u^"'' ^^« t^e 
these narrow Engines th^l.- ''^■' band: but in 

maticks; and the^dvlitv of tJf "r , """°"« Mathe" 
neatly sets forth the wfsdom''^rJ""%9"^ens more 

admires not Regio-Montanus^is F IvT ^^^V' ^bo 
or wonders not more at th^ V beyond his Eagle 

those little BodiTsHhan bu°^o'nf' °\f ^^ ^ou^Tn 
Cedar? I could n;verconte,tm '" ^^^ ^"""'^ of a 
those general pieces of wonder Th^/°l?/""P'^"°° with 
of the Sea, the increase Zimt t ^^"^ '^^d Reflux 
Needle to the North • ami ht ' *"«,. eon version of the 
and parallel those in dorrnh"^'"'' '° "^^ch and 
pieces of Nature whirh •?, obvious and neglected 
do in ^^'^CosZi:i:;\rZ°:^,/'^t'r travefS 

t^ T"^^'^ we seek withoTui ,u^ "^'"y with us 
and her prodimes in ,1. ^- *ere is ail Africa 

venturous%iecTof"Natu;r "h' I"l' ^°'^ « 
wisely learns in a compend?umY'' ^^ '^^^ studies 


Religio Medici 

those that never saw him in the one, have discover'd 
Him in the other. This was the Scripture and 
Theology of the Heathens : the natural motion of the 
Sun made tJsem more admire Him than its supernatural 
station did the Children of Israel ; the ordinary effects 
of Nature wrought more admiration in thtm than in 
the other all His Miracles. Surely the Heathens 
knew better how to joyn and read these mystical 
Letters than we Christians, who cast a more careless 
Eye on these common Hieroglyphicks, and disdain to 
suck Divinity from the flowers of Nature. Nor do I 
so forget God as to adore the name of Nature ; which 
I define not, with the Schools, to be the principle of 
motion and rest, but that streight and regular line, 
that settled and constant course the Wisdom of God 
hath ordained the actions of His creatures, according 
to their several kinds. To make a revolution every 
day is the Nature of the Sun, because of that 
necessary course which God hath ordained it, from 
which it cannot swerve but by a faculty from that 
voice which first did give it motion. Now this course 
of Nature God seldome alters or perverts, but, like an 
excellent Artist, hath so contrived His work, that with 
the self same instrument, without a new creation, He 
may effect His obscurest designs. Thus He sweetneth 
the Water with a Wood, preserveth the Creatures in 
the Ark, which the blast of His mouth might have as 
easily created ; for God is like a skilful Geometrician, 
who, when more easily and with one stroak of his 
Compass he might describe or divide a right line, had 
yet rather do this in a circle or longer way, according 
to the constituted and fore-laid principles of his Art. 
Yet this rule of His He doth sometimes pervert, to 
acquaint the World with His Prerogative, lest the 
arrogancy of our reason should question His power, 
and conclude He could not. And thus I call the 
effects of Nature the works of God, Whose hand and 
instrument she only is ; and therefore to ascribe His 
actions unto her, is to devolve the honour of the 
principal agent upon the instrument; which if with 

Religio Medici 

the honour of our writi"« ThnW 1 ^°^ ""=^'^" 
beauty in the wor W (f^'n J^^ T " * general 
ity in any kind or snlir°°'r '^ f^^^fore no deform- 

Visitation of God, WhT saw ^ff ^1f i^',?^"*'^ 

there was no deform^ ■, ^Mor^'^ '^^^^'^^-'^ 
yet impregnant bv the \ f ^ x? ' °°' ^^ ■' 

not at vanrnce^th A ' a^°°- ■ ^°'^ Mature is 
being both sei^teot'HJlfp^-r*^ Mature, they 
perfLion of 15^ e. °^^;^ere £ WoHh'- ^" ?^ ''^^ 

t^dfo^e «^™7£ -CS^^^^^^^^^^ 

and Labyrinths, whereof the D^vU ^a % .^f*°/^«« 
no exact Ephemerides; and that k™^'"-^/^ 
and obscure method of Wc ^ •!? ™°^? particular 

20 Religio Medici 

admired ; nor can I relate the History of my life, the 
occurrences of my days, the escapes of dangers, and 
hits of chance, with a Bezo las Manos to Fortune, or a 
bare Grammy to my good Stars. Abraham might have 
thought the Ram in the thicket came thither by acci- 
dent; humane reason would have said that meer chance 
conveyed Moses in the Ark to the sight of Pharaoh's 
Daughter ; what a Labyrinth is there in the story of 
Joseph, able to convert a Stoick ! Surely there are in 
every man's Life certain rubs, doublings, and wrenches, 
which pass a while under the effects of chance, but at 
the last, well examined, prove the meer hand of God. 
'Twas not dumb chance, that, to discover the Fougade 
or Powder-plot, contrived a miscarriage in the Letter. 
I like the Victory of '88 the better for that one occur- 
rence, which our enemies imputed to our dishonour 
and the partiality of Fortune, to wit, the tempests and 
contrariety of Winds. King Philip did nc , detract 
from the Nation, when he said, he sent his Armado to 
fight with men, and not to combate with the Winds. Where 
there is a manifest disproportion between the powers 
and forces of two several agents, upon a Maxime of 
reason we may promise the victory to the Superiour ; 
but when unexpected accidents slip in, and unthought 
of occurrences intervene, these must proceed from a 
power that owes no obedience to those Axioms; where, 
as in the writing upon the wall, we may behold the 
hand, but see not the spring that moves it. The suc- 
cess of that petty Province of Holland (of which the 
Grand Seignour proudly said, if they should trouble him 
as they did the Spaniard, he would send his men i^ith shovels 
and pick-axes, and throw it into tlu Sea,) I cannot alto- 
gether ascribe to the ingenuity and industry of the 
people, but the mercy of God, that hath disposed them 
to such a thriving Genius; and to the will of His 
Providence, that disposeth her favour to each Country 
in their pre-ordinate season. All cannot be happy at ■ 
once ; for, because the glory of one State depends upon 
the ruine of another, there is a revolution and vicissitude 
of their greatness, and must obey the swing of that 

Religio Medici 

That a mse man »s out oftlu, reach of Fortune • much W 
sinZt rift f'„J "°?f^=^' *^« '=°'»«"°" fate of men of 


Religio Medici 

enough to deserve, though not to enjoy, the favours of 
Fortune : let Providence provide for Fools. 'Tis not 
partiality, but equity in God, Who deals with us but 
as our natural Parents : those that are able of Body 
and Mind He leaves to their deserts; to those of weaker 
merits He imparts a larger portion, and pieces out the 
defect of one by the excess of the other. Thus have 
we no just quarrel with Nature for leaving us naked ; 
or to envy the Horns, Hoofs, Skins, and Furs of other 
Creatures, being provided with Reason, that can supply 
them all. We need not labour with so many Argu- 
ments to confute Judicial Astrology ; for, if" there be a 
truth therein, it doth not injure Divinity. If to be born 
under Mercury disposeth us to be witty, under Jupiter 
to be wealthy ; I do not owe a Knee unto these, but 
unto that merciful Hand that hath ordered m/ in- 
different and uncertain nativity unto such benevolous 
Aspects. Those that hold that all things are governed 
by Fortune, had not erred, had they not persisted 
there. The Romans, that erected a Temple to Fortune, 
acknowledp;ed therein, though in a blinder way, some- 
what of Divinity ; for, in a wise supputation, all things 
begin and end in the Almighty. There is a nearer 
way to Heaven than Homer's Cham ; an easie Logic 
may conjoyn Heaven and Earth in one Argument, and 
with less than a Sorita resolve all things into God. 
For though we christen effects by their most sensible 
and nearest Causes, yet is God the true and infallible 
Cause of all ; whose concourse, though it be general, 
yet doth it subdivide itself into the particular Actions 
of every thing, and is that Spirit, by which each 
singular Essence not only subsists, but performs its 

The bad construction and perverse comment on 
these pair of second Causes, or visible hands of God, 
have perverted the Devotion of many unto Atheism ; 
who, forgetting the honest Advisees of Faith, have 
listened 'unto the conspiracy of Passion and Reason. 
I have therefore always endeavoured to compose those 
Feuds ana angry Dissentions between Affection, Faith, 

Religio Medici 23 

and Reason; for there is in our Soul a kind of Trium- 

Iht^K^w*"P'fu^r^'^'"*°' °^ 'hree Competitors, 
nrhich distract the Peace of this our Commonwealth 
not less than did that other the State of Rome. 

As Reason IS a Rebel unto Faith, so Passion unto 
Keason : as the propositions of Faith seem absurd unto 

fnTh'^'Jj,'*' .'•'?, ^'''°'''S' °^ ^^°° "°to Passion" 
and both unto Reason. Yet a moderate and peaceable 

t^J^i!^'',?^- ^° *'^'^. ^"^ °''^" ^^^ matter, that they 
may be all Kmgs, and yet make but one Monarchy 

trj^A °°f.«''""!>°g bis Soveraignty and Prerogative 
ifm^f f ■""* ^^ P'*"' according to the restraint and 
rn; • "'<=™stonce. There is. as in Philosophy, so 
m Divinity, sturdy doubts and boisterous Objections 
wherewith the unhappiness of our knowledge tcia nearly 

than myself, which I confess I conquered, not in a 
martial posture, but on my Knees. For our endeavours 
are not oniy to combat with doubts, but always to 
dispute with the Devil. The villan; of that Spirit 
takes a hint of Infidelity from our Studies, andf by 
demonstrating a naturality in one way, makes us mis- 
trust a miracle m another. Thus, having perused the 
Archtdoxis and read the secret Sympathies of things, 
he would disswade my belief from the miracle of the 
Urwen Serpent, make me conceit that Image worked 
Jhlv^n''^* ^' *°.<^,was but an Egyptian trick to cure 
their Diseases without a miracle. Again, having seen 

^T ^aFa"'!"^"*! -"^ ^'''"^' ^^ •'a^'°? read far more 
of Naphtha, he whispered to mv curiosity the fire of the 
Altar might be natm-al ; and bid me mistrust a miracle 
m Ellas, when he entrenched the Altar round with ; for that inflamable substance yields not easily 
unto Water, but flames in the Arms of its Antagonist 
:3k »•' would he inveagle my belief to think the 
combustion of Sodom might be natural, and that there 
w^ an Asphaltick and Bitummous nature in that Lake 
nnw'nUn^f r °^ Gomorrah. I know that Manm is 
now plentifully gathered in Calabria; and.Josephus 
tells me, m his days it was as plentiful in Arabia; tho 

Religio Medici 


Devil therefore made the qtune, When was then the 
mraclt m the days of Moses ? the Israelites saw but that in 
Ins time, the Natives of those Countries behold in ours. 
Ihus the Devil played at Chess with me, and yieldine 
a Pawn, thought to gain a Queen of me, taking advan- 
tage of my honest endeavours ; and whilst I laboured 
to raise the structure of my Reason, he strived to 
undermine the edifice of my Faith. 

Neither had these or any other ever such advantage 
of me, as to incline me to any point of Infidelity or 
desperate positions of Atheism ; for I have been these 
many years of opinion there was never any. Those 
^at held Religion was the difTerence of Man from 
Beasts, have spoken probably, and proceed upon a 
principle as inductive as the other. That doctrine of 
Epicurus, that denied the Providence of God, was no 
Atheism, but a magnificent and high strained conceit 
of His Majesty, which he deemed too sublime to mind 
the tnvial Actions of those inferiour Creatures. That 
aftai Necessity of the Stoicks is nothing buf the immu- 
table Law of His Will. Those that heretofore denied 
the Divinity of the Holy Ghost, have been con- 
demned but as Hereticks ; and those that now deny 
our Saviour, (though more than Hereticks,) are not so 
much as Atheists ; for, though they deny two persons 
m the Tnnity, they hold, as we do, there is but one 

That Villain and Secretary of Hell, that composed 
that miscreant piece Of the Three Impostors, though 
divided from all Religions, and was neither Jew,Turic, 
nor Christian, was not a positive Atheist. I confess 
eveiy Country hath its Machiavel, every Age its 
Lucian, whereof common Heads must not hear, nor 
P°[e advanced Judgments too rashly venture on : it 
IS the Rhetorick of Satan, and may pervert a loose or 
prejudicate belief. 

I confess I have perused them all, and can discover 
nothing that may startle a discreet belief; yet are 
there heads carried off with the Wind and breath of 
such motives. I remember a Doctor in Physick, of 

Religio Medici 25 

Italy, who could not perfectly believe the immortality 

Pwi" , n"- ^"°"!f' ^ **'' familiarly acquainted in 
fh?f "' * ^"1'°^' *"'' ' "^ '^ ^'"?"'ar parts, that on 
I?nes TerfwP'fil^'^ ".""^ gravelfed with threS 
hnes of Seneca, that all our Antidotes, drawn from 
both Scnpture and Philosophy, could iot excel X 
poyson of his errour. There are a set of Heads that 
c^ credit the relations of Mariners, yet question ^e 
Testimonies of St. Paul; and peremptorily maintain 
the traditions of ^lian or PlinV^ yet in Histories of 

mo?rr 'T Q""'=^ '^^ Obj;ction^believSg no 
Zft«*1° ^^"^ c?° parallel in humane Authors^ I 
thfvu^'^YL" '" Scripture Stories that do exceed 

liW. rf ^' °f ^""'l- ^P"^ *° ^ -^^P'-o^s Reader sou^ 
like Garagantua or Bivis. Search all the Legends of 

LTt^^lf hf H ''//"'«"'T^ =°""''^ °^ these'present 
^» RrJi ^fi'° '^'"^ °°« tl^at deserves to carr^ 
nn.l-i> "."'"° ^^""P^"" • y«t ■« all this of an easie 
possibility if we conceive a Divine concourse or an 

iHslmno''"^/''".? '^^- i'"'? ^'°e«^ °^ tbe ATmigh^ 
in hr^™'' ,'.''■' "'^^'' '" *" discourse of man, or 
innr«V. '^'''''^y°'" .°^ ^^°' *° '''« ^^akuess of our 
apprehensions, there should not appear irretfularitie/ 

CaS'^*'T'rl^''"°-"'"= ■"? ^«'f coufdshew a 
t^on^H^%°t '^°"''t?'.'?«v" yet imagined nor ques 
toned, as I know, which are not resolved at the first 
hearing; not fantast ck Queries or Objections of A^r 
for I caiinot hear of Atoms in Divinity. I can read 

Art^ H°'y.°^ '5* ^'«''°" *''^' ^^^ =ent out of the 
Ark, and returned no more, yet not question how she 
found out her Mate that was left behind : that Sus 

intenm his boul awaited ; or raise a Law-case, whether 
au.,?h'.H "'ft lawfully detain his inheritance be- 
?-cf^,^ * "?'/■ u™ ^^ ^'^ ^^*^' and he, though 
restored to Me have no Plea or Title unto his former 
possessions. Whether Eve was framed out of the 
left side of Adam I dispute not; because I stand not 
yet assured which is the right side of a man, or whether 

Religio Medici 


there be »ny such distinction in Nature : that she was 
edified out of the Rib of Adam I believe, yet raise no 
question who shall arise with that Rib at the Resur- 
rection. Whether Adam was an Hermaphrodite, as 
the Rabbins contend upon the Letter of the Text, 
because it is contrary to reason, there should be an 
Hermaphrodite before there was a Woman, or a com- 
position of two Natures before there was a second 
composed. Likewise, whether the World was created 
in Autumn, Summer, or the Spring, because it was 
created in them all ; for whatsoever Sign the Sun pos- 
sessetb, those four Seasons are actually existent. It 
is the nature of this Luminary to distinguish the 
several Seasons of the year, all which it makes at one 
time in the w'-'-le Earth, and successive in any part 
thereof. Thoi : , re a bundle of curiosities, not only in 
Philosophy, but in Divinity, proposed and discussed 
by men of most supposed abilities, which indeed are 
not worthy our vacant hours, much less our serious 
Studies: Pieces only fit to be placed in Pantagruel's 
Library, or bound up with Tartaretus Di mode Cacandi. 

These are niceties that become not those that peruse 
so serious a Mystery. There are others more generally 
questioned and called to the Bar, yet methinks of an 
easie and possible truth. 

'Tis ridiculous to put off or drown the general Flood 
of Noah in that particular inundation of Deucalion. 
That there A'as a Deluge once, seems not to me so 
great a Miracle, as that there is not one always. How 
all the kinds of Creatures, not only in thoir own bulks, 
but with a competency of food and sustenance, might 
be preserved in one Ark, and within the extent of 
three hundred Cubits, to a reason that rightly examines 
it, will appear very feasible. There is another secret, 
not contained in the Scripture, which is more hard to 
comprehend, and put the honest Father to the refuge 
of a Miracle ; and that is, not only how the distinct 
pieces of the World, and divided Islands, should be 
first planted by men, but inhabite ' by Tigers, Panthers, 
and Bears. How America abou..ded with Beasts of 

Religio Medici 


prey and noxious Animals, yet contained not in it that 
necessary Creature, a Horse, is very strange. By 
what passage those, not only Birds, but dangerous anS 
miwelcome Beasts, came over ; how there be Creature* 
Jon'^V* u"^'' "" "°i '?"'"* '° ">« Triple Continent; 
iri A ,1. Tfu °^^u * ^* ^^'"^«' "°t° "'• that hold bu 
one Ark, and that the Creatures began their Drotrress 
rom the Mountains of Ararat:) tley X, to STv^ 
this, wou^d maie the Deluge particuli, proceed ^n 
a pnnciple that I can no way grant ; not only upon the 
negative of Holy Scriptures, but of mine ov^ Reason! 
whereby I can make it probable, that the world was 
as well peopled m the time of Noah as in ours: and 
fafteen hundred years to people the World, as full a 
time for them, as four thousand years since have been 
to us. 

There are other assertions and common Tenents 
drawn from Scnpture, and generally believed as Scrip- 
tare, whweunto, notwithstanding, I would never betray 

^!. M "J? °^ ""^ ^""^u"- "^^ a Postulate to me. 
that Methnsalem was the longest liv'd of all the 
Childrf •. ..dam ; and no man will be able to prove 
It, when, from the process of the Text, I can manifest 
It may be otherwise. That Judas perished by hanginK 
himself, there is no certainty in Scripture : thouKh in 
one place it seems to affirm it, and by a doubtfulword 
hath given occasion to translate it; yet in another 
place, ma more punctual description, it makes it 
improbable, and seems to overthrow it. That our 
Fathers, after the Flood, erected the Tower of Babel 
to preserve themselves against a second Delum is 
generally opinioned and believed; yet is there another 
intention of theirs expressed in Scripture : besides, it 
is improbable from the circumstance of the nlace 
that is, a plain in the Land of Shinar. These axe no 
pomts of Faith, and therefore may admit a free 

There are yet others, and t^.ose familiarly concluded 
from the text, wherein (under favour,) I see no conse- 
quence. The Church of Rome confidently proves the 

Religio Medici 


opinion of Tutelary Angels from that Answer, when 
Peter knockt at the Door, 'Tis not he, but his Angel; 
that is, (might some say,) his Messenger, or some body 
from him; for so the OriRinal signifies, and is is 
likely to be the doubtful Families meaning. This 
exposition I once suggested to a young Divine, that 
answered upon this point ; to which I remember the 
Franciscan Opponent replyed no more, but That it was 
a new, and no authentick interpretation. 

These are but the conclusions and fallible discourses 
of man upon the Word of God, for f uch I do believe 
the Holy Scriptures : yet, were it of man, I could not 
chuse but say, it was the singularest and superlative 
piece that hath been extant since the Creation. Were 
I a Pagan, I should not refrain the Lecture of it ; and 
cannot but commend the judgment of Ptolomy, that 
thought not his Library compleat without it. The 
Alcoran of the Turks (I speak without prejudice,) is 
an ill composed Piece, containing in it vain and 
ridiculous Errors in Philosophy, impossibilities, fictions, 
and vanities beyond laughter, maintained by evident 
and open Sophisms, the Policy of Ignorance, deposition 
of Universities, and banishment of Learning, that 
hath gotten Foot by Arms and violence : this without 
a blow hath disseminated it self through the whole 
Earth. It is not unremarkable what Philo first 
observed, that the Law of Moses continued two 
thousand years without the least alteration ; whereas, 
we see the Laws of other Common-weals do alter with 
occasions; and even those that pretended their original 
from some Divinity, to have vanished without trace or 
memory. I believe, besides Zoroaster, there were 
divers that writ before Moses, who, notwithstanding, 
have suffered the common fat" of time. Mens Works 
have an age like themselves ; aad though they out-live 
their Authors, yet have they a stint and period to their 
duration : this only is a work too hard for the teeth of 
time, and cannot perish but in the general Flames 
when all things shall co.ifess their Ashes. 
I have heard some with deep sighs lament the lost 

Religio Medici 


Imei of Cicero; others with as many groans deplors 
the combustion of the Library of Alexandria : fo? m v 
own part, I think there be too many in the World Md 
could wth patience behold the urn and ashes of ^e 

En^h' Pn°'°"'u":. J ^^""''^ °°' o-nit a Copy of 
Whn/n "A'''"' "^7!"=^^ "wrer Authors thw 
Josephiis, or did not relish somewhat of the Fab^ 

PiZ^\^n° ^"^ ""'""? "■•°'« '*'^° °'hers have spoken :' 
Pineda quotes more Authors in one work, thw are 
necessary in a whole World. Of those three^tlt 

wUhn ?Jlf •° °""^y- '•>*" "" t^o wh ch are*^^ 
witbocit theirincominodities. and 'tis disputable whether 
they exceed not their use and commodities. 'Tis not 

LSlf 'S^W r °' '"y °""' ^"' the deslres^^f' 
better heads, that there were a general Synod • not to 

IS^e LnefitTrP"'^'"'' '•'''''""" °f Relics but for 
the benefit of learning, to reduce it as it lay at first in 
a few and solid Authors ; and to co^demn^o S^e fi ^ 
those swarms and millions of Rhapsodies, beeotten 
only o distract and abuse the weaker judgemen°s of 

Sain Jffi"' """u ^°°i^' ^"^ **"»t exception the 
Samaritans could confine their belief to the Penta 

S °'' ^n f°°^^ °'. **°^^- I '^ ashamed "the 
Rabbmical Interpretation of the Jews upon the Old 
Testaxnent as much as their defecLn from the New: 
and truly ,t is beyond wonder, how that contemptible 

Ettntf^"^*^■!■"'' "f J^'^ob. once so devoted to 
Ethn ck Superstition, anj so easily seduced to the 
;^hS °^ ?''' Neighbours, should now in such a^ 
obstinate and peremptory belief adhere unto their o,^ 
e^foTfh^'r^." ""possibilities, and, in the face a^d 
eye of the Church, persist without the least hope of 
Conversion. This is a vice in thm. that were a ve^e 

k TLoi AnH^'^ "• %''"'^ ^^"=« -^ but consta^y 
m a good. And herem I accuse those of my 
own Religion, for there is not any of such a fugitiVe 
Faith, such an unstable belief, as a Christian ;S 

Religio Medici 


that do so oft transform themselves, not mito several 
shapes of Chnstiamty and of the same Species, but 
unto more unnatural and contrary Forms of Tew and 
MahometM; ttat, from the name of Samur, can 
.condescend to the bare term of PropJut; and, from an 
old behef that He is come, fall to a new expectation 
of His coming It is the promise of Christ to make 
us all one Flock ; but how and when this Union shall 
be, IS as obscure to me as the last day. Of those four 
Members of Religion we hold a slender proportion, 
mere axe, I confess, some new additions, yet small to 
those which accrew to our Adversaries, and those only 
drawn from the revolt of Pagans, men but of negative 
Impieties, and such as deny Christ, but becausl they 
never heard of Hnn. But the Religion of the lew is 
expressly agamst the Christian, and the Mahometan 
against botL For the Turk, in the bulk he no^ 
stands, he is beyond all hope of conversion ; if he faU 
asunder, there may be conceived hopes, but not with- 
out strong improbabilities. The Jew is obstinate in 
aU fortune ; the persecution of fifteen hundred years 
hath but confirmed them in their Errour: they have 
already endured whatsoever may be inflicted, and 
have suflFered in a bad cause, even to the condemnation 
of their enemies. Persecution is a bad and indirect 
way to plant Rdigion: it hath been the unhappy 
method of angry Devohons,not only to confirm honest 
Religion, but wicked Heresies, and extravagant 
Opinions. It was the first stone and Basis orour 
I'aith ; none can more justly boast of Persecutions, 
and glory in the number and valour of Martyrs. For 
.to speak properly, those are true and almost only 
exMiples of fortitude: those that are fetch'd from the 
field, or drawn from the actions of the Camp, are not 
oft-times so truely precedents of valour as audacity, 
rlj'j *''«,^st attain but to some bastard piece of 
fortitude. If we shall strictly examine the circum- 
stances and requisites which Aristotle requires to true 
^d perfect valour, we shall find the name only in his 
JMaster, Alexander, and as littie in that Roman Worthy 

Religio Medici 


£ hS""^ '• "^^ '^ ""y ^ *at easie and active way 

that Title. 'Tis not ;n^h. ^ cJaim the honour of 
Faith to nrocLed fh,.c ^ P°''*'' °^ ^^^-^ honest 

neither the one nor th? othe^ TT^tl ^' •"* "^ 

cannot chuse but accuse *?« .^f Antipodes; yet 

exposing his livLV on such rtrifl^ '^H'''' n^dness, for 

anM that^„Tm'„"^'wr^^f S^°^°V^^^^^^ 
will not give me the lye. if iL^t fh^ ™y conscience 

extant t&t in a noble 4vf«^Lf ^f ?°* ™*°y 
than myself; y^fll^ril^ot'J ^^ I'otV'^l 
Pt=tto't°hl ^^n^r«*« natu^ re°s^ctl°th^at 
being. I would no? S uSn°a°Ce2LonTrr?°^ 
pomts, or indifferent: norTmv f!.W 7'.?°'""='' 

Religio Medici 


which, to commit ourselves to the flames is Homicide, 
*°iii t^'^ *° P^* through one fire into another. 
That Miracles are ceased, I can neither prove, nor 
absolutely deny, much less define the time and period 
of their cessation. That they survived Christ, is 
manifest upon the Record of Scripture; that they out- 
lived the Apostles also, and were revived at the Con- 
version of Nations many years after, we cannot deny, 
If we shaU not question those Writers whose testi- 
monies we do not controvert in points that make for 
our own opinions. Therefore that may have some 
truth m It that is reported by the Jesuites of their 
Miracles m the Indies ; I could wish it were true, or 
had any other testimony than their own Pens. They 
may easily believe those Miracles abroad, who daUy 
conceive a greater at home, the transmutation of those 
visible elements into the Body and Blood of our 
Saviour. For the conversion of Water into Wine 
which He wrought in Cana, or, what the Devil would 
have had Him done in the Wilderness, of Stones into 

f »T^°'"P*'*'* '° *^'*' ^'' ^'^'^ deserve the name 
of a Miracle : though indeed, to speak properly, there 
is not one Miracle greater than another, they being the 
extraordmary eflFects of the Hand of God, to which all 
things are of an equal facility ; and to create the 
World, as easie as one single Creature. For this is 
also a Miracle, not onely to produce effects against or 
above Nature, but before Nature ; and to create Nature 
as great a Miracle as to contradict or transcend her 
We do too narrowly define the Power of God, restrain- 
ing It to our capacities. I hold that God can do all 
things ; how He should work contradictions, I do not 
underetand, yet dare not therefore deny. I cannot see 
why the Angel of God should question Esdras to recal 
the time past, if it were beyond His own power ; or 
that God should pose mortality in that which He was 
not able to perform Himself. I will not say God 
cannot, but He wiU not, perform many things, which 
we plainly affirm He cannot. This, I am sure, is the 
mannerhest proposition, wherein, notwithstanding, I 

Religio Medici 

hI hi^Ai^'^,.'^!''' ^°° Himself; \^o, though 
He be styled tlu Ancient of Days, cannot receive^S 

^r^ n°L'^'i?'^"'y: '^^^ wi before the World 
and shall be after it, yet is not older than it; for in 

Ft. J^"" ??"* '" °° Climacter ; His duration s 

34 Religio Medici 

Joshua, have yet the impudence to deny the Eclipse^ 
which every Pagan confessed, at His death : but for 
this, it is evident beyond all contradiction, the Devil 
himself confessed it. Certainly it is not a warrantable 
curiosity, to examine the venty of Scripture by the 
concordance of humane history, or seek to confirm the 
Chronicle of Hester or Daniel, by the authority of 
Megasthenes or Herodotus. I confess, I have had an 
unhappy curiosity this way, till I laughed my self out 
of it with a piece of Justine, where he delivers that the 
Children of Israel for being scabbed were banished 
jut of Egypt. And truely since I have understood the 
occurrences of the World, and know in what counter- 
feit shapes and deceitful vizards times present repre- 
sent on the stage things past, I do believe them little 
more then things to come. Some have been of my 
opinion, and endeavoured to write the History of their 
own lives ; wherein Moses hath outgone them all, and 
left not onely the story of his life, but (as some will 
have it,) of his death also. 

It is a riddle to me, how this story of Oracles hath 
not worm'd out of the World that doubtful conceit of 
Spirits and Witches; how so many learned heads 
should so far forget their Metaphysicks, and destroy 
the ladder and scale of creatures, as to question the 
existence of Spirits. For my part, I have ever believed 
and do now know, that there are Witches : they that 
doubt of these, do not onely deny them, but Spirits ; 
and are obliquely and upon consequence a sort not of 
Infidels, but Atheists. Those that to confute their 
incredulity desire to see apparitions, shall questionless 
never behold any, nor have the power to be so much 
as Witches ; the Devil hath them already in a heresie 
as capital as Witchcraft ; and to appear to them, were 
but to convert them. Of all the delusions wherewith 
he deceives mortality, there is not any that puzzleth 
me more than the Legerdemain of Changelings. I do 
not credit those transformations of reasonable creatures 
into beasts, or that the Devil hath a power to transpe- 
ciate a man into a Horse, who tempted Christ (as a 

Religio Medici 


T^M Slie^!r&l'° '^°^"" •'»* ^*°"«s i"to bread. 

conjunction with the Ditil ^,°i- . ^"'" °^ ^^ ^y 
that, as thTDe^'l's concSled ^^^/"^Tu""^''' ' 

passives will nnrf^ ,-' .V^ conjoyDed to dwpoged 
that many mysteries asrrih^/t ■' . ^° *"* 


Religio Medici 

nosticks, which fore-run the mines of States, Princes, 
and private persons, are the charitable premonitions of 
good Angels, which more careless enquiries term but 
the effects of chance and nature. 

Now, besides these particular and divided Spirits, 
there may be (for ought I know,) an universal and 
common Spirit to the whole World. It was the opinion 
of Plato, and it is yet of the Hermetical Philosophers. 
If there be a common nature that unites and tyes the 
scattered and divided individuals into one species, why 
may there not be one that unites them all ? However, 
I am sure there is a common Spirit that plays within 
us, yet makes no part of us ; and that is, the Spirit of 
God, the fire and scintillation of that uoble and mighty 
Essence, which is the life and radical heat of Spirits, 
and those essences that know not the vertue of the 
Sun ; a fire quite contrary to the fire of Hell. This is 
that gentle heat that brooded on the waters, and in six 
days hatched the World ; this is that irradiation that 
dispels the mists of Hell, the clouds of horrour, fear, 
sorrow, despair; and preserves the region of the mind 
m serenity. Whosoever feels not- the warm gale and 
gentle ventilation of this Spirit,'though I feel his pulse, 
I dare not say he lives : for truely, without this, to me 
there is no heat under the Tropick ; nor any light, 
though I dwelt in the body of the Sun. 

As, when the labouring Sun hath wrought his track 

Up to the top of lofty Cancers back, 

The ycie Ocean cracks, the frozen pole 

Thaws with the heat of the Celestial coale : 

So, when Th)^ absent beams begin f impart 

Again a Solstice on my frozen heart. 

My winter's ov'r, my drooping spirits sing. 

And every part revives into a Spring. 

But if Thy quickning beams a while decline. 

And with their light bless not this Orb of mine, 

A chilly frost surpriseth every member. 

And in the midst of June I feel December. 

O how this earthly temper both debase 

The noble Soul, in this her humble place ; 

Whose wingy nature ever doth aspii« 

To teach that place whence first it took its fire. 

Religio Medici 



A™'?„?¥S"ii''''' ?''''<='' '" "y heart do dwell 
Are not Thy beams, but take thiir fire from Hell- 
O quench ttem all, and let Thy Light divine 
Be as the Sua to this poor Orb of mine •' 

onely whole Countries, but p^K'-^son^hav^ 
their Tutelary and Guardian Angels. Itis not a new 
oprnton of the Church of Rome, but an o?d one o1^ 
Pythagoras and Plato; there is no herwie in it • «„] 
If not manifestly defin'd in Scripture Tet is it^n 

wtj^^^. '."^^ "^*' a°<> ^oild serve as m 
i-nuosophy affordeth no solution. Now, if vou demand 
Z.°PT° '^^ Metaphysicks of SeVr^^ato^T 

method and proportion. Between creSures of S 
w^tence and things of life, there is a large diswl 

S^ M^n , f ""' ^ '"''" difference; between them 
^. ^f?' * ^^ greater: and if the proportion hold 

S^fat^'^w" ^"° "f"* ^°^^'^ *^«^« sU be yet a 
greater. We do not comprehend their nature.! ™i,„ 

retam the first definition of PorpSy^r^dTstln'gTish 
FaTv°?u°"''u'H7= byimmorti^'; for Sf Ss 
Fall, tis thought, Man also was Immortal ; vet must 

Z7±if» *^' ^S "^ ^ different es^j:ce from 
TtiT-^^MV***"."?^ therefore no certain knowledge 
of their Natures, 'tis no bad method of the srS 
whatsoever perfection we find obscurely in our selves' 

hemTLir^lf l"*^ ^''^°'"*^ ^^y *° a^crfbe unto 
them. I believe they have an extemporary knowledge 
and upon the first motion of their rLo7do what we 


Religio Medici 

cannot without study or deliberation ; that they knoT/ 
things by their forms, and define by specifical differ- 
ence what we describe by accidents and properties; 
and therefore probabilities to us may be demonstra- 
tions unto them : that they have knowledge c-it onely 
of the specifica', but numerical forms of individuals, 
and understand by what reserved difference each single 
Hypostasis (besides the relation to its species,) becomes 
its numerical self : that, as the Soul hath a power to 
move the body it informs, so there's a faculty to move 
any, though inform none : ours u^n restraint of time, 
place, and distance ; but that invisible hand that cc -■- 
veyed Habakkuk to the Lyons Den, or Philip i 
Azotus, infringeth tl^is rule, and hath a secret con- 
veyance, wherewith mortality is not acquainted. If 
they have that intuitive knowledge, whereby as in 
reflexion they behold the thoughts of one another, 
I cannot peremptorily deny but they know a great 
part of ours. They ttiat, to refute the Invocation of 
Saints, have denied that they have any knowledge of 
our affairs below, have proceeded too far, and must 
pardon my opinion, till I can thoroughly answer that 
piece of Scripture, At the emersion of a sinner the Angels 
in Heaven rejoyce. I cannot, with those in that great 
Father, securely interpret the work of the first day, 
Fiat lux, to the creation of Angels ; though I confess, 
there is not any creature that hath so neer a glympse 
of their nature as light in the Sun and Elements. We 
stile it a bare accident ; but, where it subsists alone, 'tis 
a spiritual Substance, and may be an Angel : in brief, 
conceive light invisible, and that is a Spirit. 

These are certainly the Magisterial and master- 
pieces of the Creator, the Flower, or (as we may say,) 
the best part of nothing; actually existing, what we 
are but in hopes and probability. We are onely that 
amphibious piece between a corporal and spiritual 
Essence, that middle form that links those two to- 
gether, and makes good the Method of God and 
Nature, that jumps not from extreams, but unites the 
incompatible distances by some middle and partici- 

Religio Medici 


P«hng natures. That we are the breath and similitude 
^ God, It 18 indisputable, and upon record of Holy 

Wor'^HT\,''"V*?-'=*'' f""^'^'" » Microcosm, or ml 
World, I thought It only a pleasant trope of Riietorick 
tUl my neer judgement and second thoughts told me 
ftere was a real tmth therein. For fir^sfwe «e I 
«« ,^k' '"'' T nV- TH ?f "«*'""'» '^hich onely 
whh^fl ^Z" V""J"°d °f being, not yet privUedgeS 
with life, or preferred to sense or reason ; next we live 
the life of Plants, the life of Animals, the life of Men 
and at last the life of Spirits, running on S one m^'. 

^mnr?h°^'T *°" ^"^ ^^^' °f existence "whlS. 
dbmprehend the creatures, not ouely of the World, but 
of the Universe. Thus is Man that great and tme 
Amphbum, whose nature is disposed to live, not ondy 
like oUi3r creatures in divers elements, but in divided 

to sense, there are two to reason, the one visible, the 
other mvisible; whereof Moses seems to have left 
d^cnption. and of the other so obscurely, th^t some 
parts thereof are yet m controversie. And truely for 
d«l „'f* K^P'?i' of Genesis, I must confess a^St 
t?i^L°^^'^^' ^"^^^ ^'^'""S bave to the pS^r 
of humane reason endeavoured to make all go in » 

M^,i hr -? ' '^'', P«^baps the mystical method of 
&pti^s "^ '° ' Hieroglyphical Schools of the 

nnf^r i"" ^l '""material world, methinks we need 
not wander so far as beyond the first moveable • for 
even m this material Fabrick the Spirits walk as free?v 

IsT/vonrth'^ t^*'°'' "' time.'pli|eTtYLS 
^i? r "le extreamest circumference. Do but 
extract from the corpulency of bodies, or resolve 
f,wSf^y°?'*A'''''f ^trn^tter, and you discover Ae 
habitation of Angels, which if I call the ubiquitary^d 

Si^t^^rt^^"-^ ^°P' ^ shall\ot S 
Divmity for before the Creation of the World God 

^Woi^Id^^*^".^; I:°^^« Angels He crated no 
new World, or determinate mansion, and therefore 


Religio Medici 

fv? ?7 "^-^^here where is His Essence, and do 
ir J '*'?*^j; '""° '° Himself. That cio made 

^ «T ^°L^^' " •°.«"»« -""^ true, yet nrtlS 
far as to subordinate the Creation of those purer 
Creates unto ours, though as mMstring S/they 
do, and are willing to fulfil the will of Gorin the^e 

Ss?orHii^"^?-°^^-- Go-^^e'^1 
rMi!th«m>;, \u°'' "i' impossible He should 
make them for any other end than His own Glory; it 

F„^ ? ^ K*?"^*' ■«"* »" 'hat is without Himsilf 
For, honour being an external adjunct, and inX 
S^««" rather than in the person honou?^, t%Ja! 
necessary to make a Creature, from whom Hi S 
receive this homage; and that is, in theTther 3 
te Ik"* thisTMaa; which when we neglecTwe 
1,? 1,^^ ''"^ •'"' °' ""^ Creation, and miy justly 
^e WorM°K' »°^T'£V"P«°' *« He tattiH 

cluifnn «f 17 -^^ '^a'""? '*,*■"* °°« World, is a con- 
hi* „VL ^'^." ^"^^°^^'' ^*^ "^^ ^^ PhilosopI y 
wirM L , "'''*, '" ^f°^* ''• *"'' «s woakly that 
World was eternal. That dispute much troubled e 
Pen of the ancient Philosophers, but Moses dec. 'J 

C^Lrlhat' •"' "^ "^"''^ "■'^ the new ?e™ ofl 
nX^' A l,*\ * .production of something out of 
nothing. And what is that ? whatsoever is oDoosite to 

^t2 bon"r l^"'^"^' .^* -'''^'> i^ '™Tcon? 
vrary unto God: for He one y is, all others hav« an 

existence with dependency, and ai^el^^eft'ng but b? 
IhUo^nhT- ^^ ^"'^ '^ ^'^"'^ confomLt unto 
tm^vff/. 1^" V"\ """•"^'.■on not onefy founded on con- 
traneties, but als creation ; God, b^ing all things is 
contrary unto nothing, out of which lere Sm 

Ih. Te,i d«cnb«, I,,) H. pl.yrf ,h, „,ibie oj^g 

Religio Medici 

mmd, that boldly delivers a r«r^,.f . Paracelsus 

the equivocal and monstrous pSdictlonsfn ,h» ™'" 
junction of Man with Beast • for if thl c r '=°.°- 
not transmitted and tSused 1 fh! "^ °i "^ ^'^ 
butTav;^ ''"■"°' *bX".^ucUons m^:J CLt" 

dTnTt'hat ?hT^: ^ S.r ^' i I S-Ptori^ 
who^y andt Jl^^ice^i^Tns^ tor^^'^Xf/' 
the performance of her ordinS^ actions t^rl •' 

Religio Medici 


wjritudy of Anatomy there is a nutw of mv.tMJm„ 
PhJosophy.Md .uch as reduced thTv?,, H^m.^ : yet. amon^t all those tare Xo^ri^ LS 
curious pieces I find in the Fabrick 'f M.n r ? ^ 

^ much content myself, a. i„Xt"L„"t ht«°^ 
no Organ or Instrument for the rational Soul f^r in 

ining i us that can be without us. and will hm 

'^^At .t was before us, nor cannot tell how it ent?e^ 

Now. for these walls of flesh, wherein the Soul Anth 
t^V? ^ ■■?■"»«<> before the Resunection. it U no?* 
mLtf^ashe's^'j^^f °"'^'' " ^^^^H^^t 
phoriaJuy ^uflltter^lv-^^^/^r^n T """'^ '"«'»- 
we beh<.^'areVS'^;4rof S; ^ IdXstri' 

■ and C^fe'^'i*" ^^^ ^^ »" "bhor. Anthroioihaei 

t^:? 'forlll^t-hlta^f oTfltreic'a"'w"e ^S" 
came m at our mouths ; this frame we Took upoSS 
been upon our trenchers ; in brief, we have devnnrM 
lor.T\T ^ «^."Pt b«««ve the'^sdom of pX 
goras did ever positively, and in a literal seni affi^ 



Religio Medici 

/.f»r. J J ? "• ^'" ">*' fK»« phantasms aniw-. r 

^d°Ch:?che° iHs^bL"' C^r*"'"' ChShclTs 
«aa v-nurcnes, it is because those are the dormitories 

mits'u/s^ft«^ oTr*' ^?,»".<''»P'o". that 
God I ha^e nSf tS^L. ^'*^', .?««'/««<• ^ I thank 
obligations ?oTeW^M^'™".''«r "''"»• »' "»"'"' 
conv^ul'sra^d'LmbS^; ^nL^^e ot'dVi "fcb^ 
I am insensible of the dread and LnT^'oi^r^f*^^. 

Christ^ ,ZT.~f^ ^"* """='' '"*" » well-resolved 
v.iiHsuan, and therefore am not anerv at the frrr,,„-^e 
our first Parents, or unwilling to bSr a n^rt^f^v 
wmmon fate, and like the bes^t o? tiem to C A, *^ 


Religio Medici 

the Devil work my belief to imagine I could never dye. 
I would not outlive that very thought. I have so 
abject a conceit of this common way of existence, this 
retaming to the Sun and Elements, I cannot think this 
is to be a Man, or to live according to the dignity of 
humanity. In exspectation of a better, I cii 4ith 

]?o„h"^'^'"^''*?'%"^'y«* " -nybest meditations 
do often defie death ; I honour any man that contemns 
It, nor can I highly love any that is afraid of it : this 
maies me naturally love a Souldier, and honour those 
tattered and contemptible Regiments that will die at 
the command of a Sergeant. For a Pagan there may 
be some motives to be in love with life; but for a 
Christian to be amazed at death, I see not how he can 
escape this DUemma, that he is too sensible of this 
Jile, or hopeless of the life to come. 

Some Divines count Adam thirty years old at his 
Creation, because they suppose him created in the 
perfect age and stature of man. And surely we are 
aU out of the computation of our age, and every man 
is some months elder than he bethinks him; for we 
live, move, have a being, and are subject to the actions 

L \xf^Yf^l^' ^^ ^^ "^'"^s °f diseases, in that 
otiier World, the truest Microcosm, the Womb of our 
Mother. For besides that general and common exist- 
ence we are conceived to hold in our Chaos, and whilst 
we sleep withm the bosome of our causes, we enjoy a 
bemg and life m three distinct worlds, wherein we 
receive most manifest graduations. In that obscure 
World and Womb of our Mother, our time is short, 
computed by the Moon, yet longer than the days of 
many creatures that behold the Sun ; our selves beintr 
not yet without hfe, sense, and reason ; though for the 
manifestation of its actions, it awaits the opportunity 
of objects, and seems to live there but in its root and 
^1 «f ^??"°°- . E°tri°g afterwards upon the scene 
ot toe World, we arise up and become another creature, 
performmg the reasonable actions of man, and ob- 
scurely manifesting that part of Divinity in us; but 
not m complement and perfection, till we have once 

Religio Medici 45 

more cast our secondine, that is. this slough of flesh 
and are dehvered into the last WnrlH fW • f^ ' 
ineffable place of Paul, C pro^S sSts"' Th ' 

wm^tmKd my Phll„,pi,y ,,„ iS^ niti, 
a common spectato, doth discover. ^ 

have one part of modesty which I have s^Sdom^dU 


very disgrace and ignoiinyT^ JX^s ai in f 

Wir^d rVM ''^^^^^ "^' *^o« Sst^r ends 
Wife, and Children, stand afraid and start at u, • rt.» 

u^n^r Tv'' ^°^S"t^g.^l aUegiance, begin t^^y 

waters, wherein I had perished unseen^ Spi^ed^^th 


Quantum uutatus ab illo I 
Not that I am ashamed of the Anatomv nf m„ ^ 
or can accuse Nature for olavW fh.T . y. P^'''^' 
part of me, or my o^ vitfous ufe for r^^K"" ^^ 


Religio Medici 

seems to me a. meer fallacy, unworthy the desires of a 
man that can but conceive a thought of the next 
World ; who, in a nobler ambition, should desire to 
live in his substance in Heaven, rather than his name 
and shadow in the earth. And therefore at my death 
I mean to take a total adieu of the World, not caring 
for a Monument, History, or Epitaph, not so much as 
the bare memory of my name to be found any where 
but in the universal Register of God. I am not yet 
so Cynical as to approve the Testament of Diogenes ; 
nor do I altogether allow that RoiomotOado of Lucan, 

Goto tegitur, qui rum habtt nniam. 

He that unburied lies wants not his Herse, 
For unto him a Tomb's the Universe. 

but commend in my calmer judgement those ingenuous 
intentions that desire to sleep by the urns of their 
Fathers, and strive to'go the neatest way unto corrup- 
tion. I do not envy the temper of Crows and Daws, 
nor the numerous and weary days of ouz Fathers 
before the Flood. If there be any truth in Astrology, 
I may outlive a Jubilee : as yet I have not seen one 
revolution of Saturn, nor hath my pulse beat thirty 
years ; and yet, excepting one, have seen the Ashes 
and left under ground all the Kings of Europe ; have 
been contemporary to three Emperours, four Grand 
Signiours, and as many Popes. Methinks I have out- 
lived my self, and begin to be weary of the Sun ; I 
have shaken hands with delight, in my warm blood 
and Canicular days, I perceive I do anticipate the 
vices of age ; the World to me is but a dream or 
mock-show, and we all therein but Pantalones and 
Anticks, to my severer contemplations. 

It is not, I confess, an unlawful Prayer to desire to 
surpass the days of our Saviour, or wish to outlive 
that age wherein He thought fittest to dye ; yet if (as 
Divinity affirms,) there shall be no gray hairs in 
Heaven, but all shall rise in the perfect state of men, 
we do but outlive those perfections in this World, to 
-be recalled unto them by a greater Miracle in the next, 

Religio Medici 


and run on here but to be retrograde hereafter. Were 
Snurj^P*^*" ?"^^« ^"'^^'^^ * P°i°t tot; super! 
Z S^v= ^fT .r- ", r"^* w°^y °" ''"^es to implore 
the days of Methuselah. But age doth not rectify but 
mcurvate our natures, turning bad dispositions into 

W'fof eve^d ^"^' '"'''""^'> brings'onlncur^w: 
vices, for every day as we grow weaker in aee we 
n-ow stronger m sin, and the number of our days dott 
mhtS /* ""Z""" ■"""'nerable. The same vice co.^ 
T^U^i "'"?''°' " °°* ^^^ ^'°"'' *°"gh it agree 
?oubL^ «;V;Cumstances, at forty, but swells^and 
doubles from the circumstance of our ages • wherein 
besides the constant and inexcusable So7 ti^s-' 
t^ncr-t*" """t-rityof our judgment cuts off^e. 
tence --nto excuse or pardon. Every sin, the oftner it 

ev5 Tr'^' '\'^°'^- '' ^<=q«^eth in the q^S^ of 
evd , as It succeeds m time, so it proceeds in degrees of 
badness; for as they proceed they ever multiply^d 
tti tej° Anthmetick,the fast stands f^7',^re 
than all that went before it. And though I think no 
man can hve well once, but he that could 1 ve twice 
yet for my own part I would not live over my hows 
past, or begin again the thread of my days : not uwn 

for^^'Fri^'^'T ' ^^'> «^«'l th^em well?C 
for fear I should hve then, worse. I find my erowin? 
Judgment ^ly instruct me how to be beKurmy 
untamed affections and confirmed vitiosity n^kes ml 
daily do worse. I find in my confirmed a^eXime 
H wf""*!'^^ ^ my youth; I conSttted^: 
them still, I am yet an infant. Therefore 1 per«iWo 
a m^ majr be twfce a Child, before the days of^dotoge! 

A^??n r .'if"' °^ ^'°°' ^^* ^^^°'^ threescore^ • 
„r^?,^ ^ there goes a great deal of providence to 
produce a mans life unto threescore: there is more re- 

?«Tfl^° ^ ^^^' ^^^P*^ for those years; ttoTh the 
radical humour contain in it sufficient oyl for sevenhr 
yet I perceive in some it gives no lig^t i^st tS 
men assign not all the causes of long lifeVthat TnSe 
whole Books thereof. They that found th^lve7<S 



Religio Medici 

the radical balsome, or vital sulphur of the parts, 
determine not why Abel lived not so long as Adam. 
There is therefore a secret glome or bottome of our 
days : 'twas His wisdom to determine them, but His 
perpetual and waking providence that fulfils and 
accomplisheth them; wherein the spirits, ourselves, 
and all the creatures of God in a secret and disputed 
way do execute His will. Let thtm .lot therefore com- 
plain of immaturity that die aboui thirty; they fall but 
like the whole World, whose solid and well-composed 
substance must not expect the duration and period of 
its constitution : when all things are completed in it, 
its age is accomplished; and the last and general fever 
may as naturally destroy it before six thousand, as 
me before forty. There is therefore some other hand 
that twines the thread of life than that of Nature : we 
are not onely ignorant in Antipathies and occult 
qualities ; our ends are as obscure as our beginnings ; 
the line of our days is drawn by night, and the various 
effects therein by a pensil that is invisible ; wherein 
though we confess our ignorance, I am sure we do not 
err if we say it is the h^d of God. 

I am much taken with two verses of Lucan, since I 
have been able not onely, as we do at School, to 
construe, but understand : 

Victunsjiu Dei ettant, ut viven dutmt, 
Felix esse mori. 

We're all deluded, vainly searching ways 
To maVe us happy by the length of days ; 
For cunningly to make's protract this breath, 
The Gods conceal the happiness of Death. 

There be many excellent strains in that Poet, where- 
with his Stoical Genius hath liberally supplied him ; 
and truely there are singular pieces in the Philosophy 
of Zeno, and doctrine of the Stoicks, which I perceive, 
delivered in a Pulpit, pass for current Divinity: yet 
herein are they in extreams, that can allow a man to be 
his own Assassine, and so highly extol the end and 
suicide of Cato. This is indeed not to fear death, but 

Religio Medici 


yet to be afraid of life. It is a brave act of valour to 
contemn death; but where life is more terrible than 
death, it is then the truest valour to dare to live. And 
herein Religion hath taught us a noble example ; for all 
the valiant acts of Curtius, Scevola, or Codrus, do not 
parallel or match that one of Job ; and sure there is no 
torture to the rack of a disease, nor any Ponyards in 
death it self like those in the way or prologue to it. 

Emori nolo, sed m lue mjrtuum nihU euro. 
I wonld not die, but care not to be dead. 

Were I of Caesar's Religion, I should be of his desires, 
and wish rather to go off at one blow, then to be sawed 
m pieces by the grating torture of a disease. Men 
that look no farther than their outsides, think health 
an appurtenance unto life, and quarrel with their con- 
stitutions for being sick; but I, that have examined 
the parts of man, and know upon what tender filaments 
that Fabrick hangs, do wonder that we are not always 
so ; and, considering the thousand doors that lead to 
death, do thank my God that we can die but once. 
'Tis not onely the mischief of diseases, and the villany 
of poysons, that make an end of us ; we vainly accuse 
the fury of Guns, and the new inventions of death ; it 
IS m the power of every hand to destroy us, and we are 
beholding unto every one we meet, he doth not kill us. 
There is therefore but one comfort left, that, though it 
be in the power of the weakest arm to take away life, 
it is not in the strongest to deprive us of death : GoD 
would not exempt Himself from that, the misery of 
immortality in the flesh. He undertook not that was 
immortal. Certainly there is no happiness within this 
circle of flesh, nor is it in the Opticks of these eyes to 
behold fehcity. The first day of our Jubilee is Death ; 
the Devil hath therefore failed of his desires : we are 
happier with death than we should have been without 
it : there is no misery but in himself, where there is no 
end of misery ; and so indeed, in his own sense, the 
Stoick IS in the right. He forgets that he can dye who 


Religio Medici 

complains of misery; we are in the power of no 
calamity while death is in our own. 

Now, besides this literal and positive kind of death, 
there are others whereof Divines make mention, and 
those, I think, not meerly Metaphorical, as mortifica- 
tion, dying unto sin and the World. Therefore, I 
say, every man hath a double Horoscope, one of his 
humanity, his birth; another of his Christianity, his 
baptism ; and from this do I compute or calculate my 
Nativity, not reckoning those Horn comimsta and odd 
days, or esteeming my self any thing, before I was my 
Saviours, and inroUed in the Register of Christ. 
Whosoever enjoys not this life, I count him but an 
apparition, though hp wear about him the sensible 
affections of flesh. In these moral acceptions, the way 
to be immortal is to dye daily : nor can I think I have 
the true Theory of death, when I contemplate a skull, 
or behold a Skeleton, with those vulgar imaginations it 
casts upon us ; I have therefore enl^ged that common 
Memento mori, into a more Christian memorandum, 
Memento quatuor Novissima, those four inevitable points 
of us all. Death, Judgement, Heaven, and Hell. Neither 
did the contemplations of the Heathens rest in their 
graves, w-ithout a further thought of Rhadamanth, or 
some judicial proceeding after death, though in anoUier 
way, and upon suggestion of their natural reasons. I 
cannot but marvaol from what Sibyl or Oracle they 
stole the Prophesie of the Worlds destruction by fire, 
or whence Lucan learned to say, 

Communis mamlo t»ptrtst ngus, ossOms aitra 

There yet remains to th' World one common Fire, 
Wlierein our bones with stars shall make one Pyre. 

I believe the World grows near its end, yet is neither 
old nor decayed, nor shall ever perish upon the mines 
of its own Principles. As the work of Creation was 
above Nature, so is its adversary, aimihilation ; with- 
out which the World hath not its end, but its mutation. 
Now what force should be able to constmie it thus far, 

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without the breath of God, which is the truest con- 
suming flame, my Philosophy cannot inform me. 
Some believe there went not a minute to the Worlds 
creation, nor shall there go to its destruction ; those six 
days, so punctually described, make not to them one 
moment, but rather seem to manifest the method and 
Idea of the great work of the mtellect of God, than the 
manner how He proceeded in its operation. I cannot 
dream that there should be at the last day any such 
Judicial proceeding, or calling to the Bar, as indeed the 
Scripture seems to imply, and the literal Commentators 
do conceive : for unspeakable mysteries in the Scrip- 
tures are often delivered in a vulgar and illustrative 
way ; and, bemg written unto man, are delivered, not 
as they truel^^ are, but as they may be understood ; 
wherein, notwithstanding, the different interpretations 
accordmg to different capacities may stand firm with 
our devotion, nor be any way prejudicial to each single 

_ Now to determine the day and year of this inevitable 
time, is not onely convincible and statute-madness, but 
also manifest impiety. How shall we interpret Elias 
six thousand years, or imagine the secret communicated 
to a Rabbi, which God hath denyed unto His Angels ? 
It had been an excellent Quaere to have posed the 
Devil of Delphos, and must needs have forced him to 
some strange amphibology. It hath not onely mocked 
the predictions of sundry Astrologers in Ages past, but 
the prophesies of many melancholy heads in these 
present; who, neither understanding reasonably things 
past or present, pretend a knowledge of things to come; 
heads ordained onely to manifest the incredible effects 
of melancholy, and to fulfil old prophecies rather than 
be the authors of new. In those days there sliall come 
Wars and rumours of Wars, to me seems no prophecy, 
but a constant truth, in all times verified since it was 
pronounced. There shall he signs in the Moon and Stars; 
how comes He then like a Thief in the night, when He 
gives an item of His coming ? That common sign 
drawn from the revelation of Antichrist, is as obscure 

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as any : in our common compute He hath h..n 

expectation of LrgfeaPjubSee"' "°° ^"'^ "^ ^" 
,»*£-kV^ the day that must make good that ereat 
attnbute of God, His Justice; that must r«:o?d?; 
hose m«mswerable douk that torm^f thrwUest 
understandings ; and reduce those seeming ineauldities 

and recompensive Justice in the next Th?,^. 7i,5^ 

w?nt't'f*''^^''^i '°?''"'« and comprehend aS Sa 
Arfnrc V*= ^'«'«i". «» in the last scene. aU^e 

CatestronhT„f?v '• *° •='?'"?'«'' =»'» "^e up ^e 
mtm^ ?. !i, ^ **"f ^^^* P'*^"- This is the day whose 
r,r^i^*u°°"'y P°^" to °^e us honen m thS 
dark, and to be vertuous without a witness 

Ipsa sui pretium virtus tibi, 

that Vertue is her own reward U f- .< ™ u ■ ■ . 

^ult n h'°'""°° °xi J^'^' to ^e honest wUhn't, 
thought of Heaven or Hell : and indeed I found, "upon 

Religio Medici 53 

?h.??""'i!f'"°**^ '^^ ''"^^ 'oy^ty nnto virtue, 
that I could serve her without a live^ ; yet not in that 
resolved and venerable way. but that the^f«ilty oVmy 
hr^lt'hT°^ f /' temptetion, might be induced ti 
foMrether. The life, therefore, and spirit of all our 
fw" ^.i' u "^"surrection, and a stable apprehension 
that our ashes shall enjoy the fruit of*^ our pious 

and those of Lucian, Euripides, and Tuliai 
are no blasphemies, but subtle verities, and A theists 
have been the onely PhUosophers. ^'losts 

F,i;K''/''^V"'* ^f^ ""^' '« °° question of my 
m«r Pi!°. T" °fJy possibilities, is not Faith, but 
meer Philosophy. Manv things are true in Divinity, 
which are neither mduciSle by reason, nor confirmable 
^ sense ; and many things in Philosophy confirmable 
by sense, yet not inducibfe by reason, thus it is im! 
possible by any solid or demonstrative reasons to 
peiswade a man to believe the conversion of the Needle 
to the North ; though this be possible, and true, and 

!!f ^ "t u r ' "?°° * "°«'« experiment unto the 
senM. I believe that our estranged and divided ashes 
s^l miite again; that our separated dust, after so 
many Pilgrimages and transformations into the parts 
of Minerals, Plants, Animals, Elements, shall at the 
Voice of God return into their primitive shapes, and 
loyn agam to make up their primary and predestinate 
forms. As at the Creation there was a separation of 
that confused mass into Its specits; so at the destruc- 
tion thereof there shall be a separation into its distinct 
tadividuals. As at the Creation of the World, all the 
distinct species that we behold lay invoU.d in one 
mass till the fruitful Voice of Gou separated this 
united multitude into its several species; so at the last 
■ ^/u Tfr,.*"^^ corrupted reliques shall be scattered 
in the Wilderness of forms, and seem to have foreot 
their proper habits, God by a powerful Voice s&ll 

' f ., — , •"' r "J " Huwciiui voice snail 

command them back into their proper shapes, and call 
them out bv their sinde individuals. Then shall 
appear the fertility of Adam, and the magick of that 


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sperm that hath dilated into so many millions. I have 
often beheld as a miracle, that artificial resurrection 
and revivification of Mercury, how being mortified into 
a thousand shapes, it assumes again its own, and 
returns into its numerical self. Let us speak naturally 
and like Philosophers, the forms of alterable bodies in 
these sensible corruptions perish not; nor, as we 
imagine, wholly quit their mansions, but retire and con- 
tract themselves into their secret and unaccessible 
parts, where they may best protect themselves from 
the action of their Antagonist A plant or vegetable 
consumed to ashes to a contemplative and school- 
Philosopher seems utterly destroyed, and the form to 
have taken his leave for ever; but to a sensible Artist 
the forms are not perished, but withdrawn into their 
mcombustible part, where they lie secure from the 
action of that devouring element. This is made good 
by experience, which can from the Ashes of a Plant 
revive the plant, and from its cinders recall it into its 
stalk and leaves again. What the Art of man can do 
m these inferiour pieces, what blasphemy is it to affirm 
the finger of God cannot do in these more perfect and 
sensible structures I This is that mystical Philosophy, 
from whence no true Scholar becomes an Atheist, but 
from the visible effects of nature grows up a real 
Divine, and beholds not in a dream, as Ezekiel, but in 
an ocular and visible object, the types of his resurrec- 

Now, the necessary Mansions of our restored selves 
are those two contrary and incomparable places we 
call Heavtn and Hill. To define them, or strictly to 
determine what and where these are, surpasseth my 
Divinity. That elegant Apostle, which seemed to 
have a glimpse of Heaven, hath left but a negative 
description thereof ; which neither eye hath seen, nor ear 
hath heard, nor can enter into the heart of man : he was 
translated out of himself to behold it; but, being 
returned into himself, could not express it. St. John's 
description by Emerals, Chrysolites, and precious 
Stones, is too weak to express the material Heaven wa 

Religio Medici 


behold. Briefly therefore, where the Soul hath the full 
measure and complement of happiness; where the 
boundless ap{>etite of that spirit remains compleatly 
satisfied, that it can neither desire addition nor altera- 
tion ; that, I think, is truly Heaven : and this can onely 
be in the injoyment of that essence, whose infinite 
goodness is able to terminate the desires of it self, and 
the ursatiable wishes of ours : wherever God will thus 
manifest Himself, there is Heaven, though within the 
circle of this sensible world. Thus the Soul of man 
may be in Heaven any where, even within the limits 
of his own proper body ; and when it ceaseth to live 
in the body, it may remain in its own soul, that is, its 
Creator : and thus we may say that St. Paul, vfktthir 
in (lie body, or out of tht body, was yet in Heaven. To 
place it in the Empyreal, or beyond the tenth sphear, 
IS to forget the world's destruction; for, when this 
sensible world shall be destroyed, all shall then be here 
as it is now there, an Empyreal Heaven, a quasi 
vacuity ; when to ask where Heaven is, is to demand 
where the presence of God is, or where we have the 
ylory of that happy vision. Moses, that was bred up 
m all the learning of the Egyptians, committed a gross 
absurdity in Philosophy, when with these eyes of flesh 
he desired to see God, and petitioned his Maker, that 
is. Truth it self, to a contradiction. Those that imagine 
Heaven and Hell neighbours, and conceive a vicinity 
between those two extreams, upon consequence of the 
Parable, where Dives discoursed with Lazarus in 
Abraham's bosome, do too grosly conceive of those 
glorified creatures, whose eyes shall easily oiit-see the 
bun, and behold without a perspective the extreamest 
distances : for if there shall be in our glorified eyes, 
the faculty of sight and reception of objects, I could 
think the visible species there to be in as tmlimitable 
a way as now the intellectual. I grant that two bodies 
placed ) eyond the tenth sphear, or in a vacuity, ac- 
cording to Aristotle's Philosophy, could not behold 
each other, because there wants a body or Medium to 
hand and transport the visible rays of the object unto 


Religio Medici 

the sense; hot when thei« shall be a general defect of 
either Medium to convey, or light to prepare and 
dispose that Medium, and yet a perfect vision, we 
must suspend the rules of our Philosophy, and make all 
good by a more absolute piece of opticks. 

I cannot tell how to say that fire is the essence of 
well : 1 know not what to make of Purgatory, or 
conceive a flame that can either prey upon, or purifie 
the substance of a Soul. Those flames of sulphur 
mention d in the Scriptures, I take not to be under- 
stood of this present Hell, but of that to come, where 
are shall make up the complement of our tortures, and 
have a body or subject wherein to manifest its tyranny, 
boine, who have had the honour to be textuary in 
Divmitv, are of opinion it shall be the same specifical 
lire with ours. This is hard to conceive ; yet can I 
m^e good how even that may prey upon our bodies, 
and yet not consume us : for in this material World 
there are bodies that persist invincible in the power- 
fullest flames ; and though by the action of fire they 
fall mto Ignition and liquation, yet will they never 
suffer a destruction. I would gladly know how Moses an actual fire calcined or burnt the Golden Calf 
unto powder: for that mystical metal of Gold, whose 
solary and celestial nature I admire, exposed unto the 
violence of fire, grows onely hot, and liquifies, but 
consumeth not; so, when the consumable and volatile 
pieces of our bodies shall be refined into a more im- 
pregnable and fixed temper like Gold, though they 
suffer from the action of flames, they shall never perish 
but lye immortal in the arms of fire. And surely, if 
this frame must suffer onely by the action of this 
element, there will many bodies escape ; and not onely 
Heaven, but Earth will not be at an end, but rather a 
begiiining. For at present it is not earth, but a com- 
position of fire, water, earth, and air ; but at that time, 
spoiled of these ingredients, it shall appear in a sub- 
stance more like it self, its ashes. Philosophers that 
opinioned the worlds destruction by fire, did never 
dream of annihilation, which is beyond the power of 

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•ublunary causes; for the last and proper n tio - of 
that element is but vitrification, or a reductior f a 
body into glass ; and therefore some of our Chy.,ucl<s 
facetiously affirm, that at the last firn all shall be 
chnstallized and reverberated into, which is the 
utmost action of that element. Nor med we fear this 
term, atmihilation, or wonder that God will destroy the 
works of his Creation ; for man Fi.!isisting, who is, and 
will then truely appear, a Microc ,m, the world cannot 
be said to be destroyed. For tlir -j -s of God, and 
perhaps also of our glorified helips^ 'hill ns eally 
behold and contemplate the World in its r^iitome or 
contracted essence, as now it doth it \^x.'. in its 
dUated substance. In the seed of a "l.inr to the 
eyes of God, and to the understanding ol rr m, there 
exists, though in an invisible way, the perfect leaves 
flowers, and fruit thereof; for things that are in posst 
to the sense, are actually existent to the undtrs; landing 
Thus God beholds all things. Who contemplates m 
fully His works in their Epitome, as in their full 
volume ; and beheld as amply the whole world in that 
little compendium of the sixth day, as in the scattered 
and dilated pieces of those five before. 

Men commonly set forth the torments of Hell by 
fire, and the extremity of corporal afflictions, and 
describe Hell m the same method that Mahomet doth 
Heaven. This indeed makes a noise, and drums in 
popular ears : but if this be the terrible piece thereof 
It IS not worthy to stand in diameter with Heaven' 
whose happiness consists in that part tliat is best able 
to comprehend it, that immortal essence, that translated 
divinity and colony of God, the Soul. Surely, though 
we place Hell under Earth, the Devil's walk and 
purlue is about it : men spc'k too popularly who place 
It m those flaming mountains, which to grosser appre- 
hensions represent Hell. The heart of man is the -face 
Devils dwell in: I feel sometimes a Hell wir. ; my 
self ; Lucifer keeps his Court in my breast. Legion is 
revived in me. There are as many HeUs, as .Anax- 
agons conceited worlds. There was more than one 


Religio Medici 

Hell in Magdalene, when there were seven Devils, for 
eveiy Devil is an Hell unto himself ; he holds enough 
of torture in his own ubi, and needs not the misery of 
circumference to afflict him: and thus a distracted 
Conscience here, is a shadow or introduction unto Hell 
hereafter. Who can but pity the merciful intention 
of those hands that do destroy themselves ? the Devil, 
were it in his power, would do the like ; which being 
impossible, 'his miseries are endless, and he suffers 
most in that attribute wherein he is impassible, his 

I thank God, and with joy I mention it, I was 
never afraid of Hell, nor never grew pale at the 
description of that place. I have so fixed my con- 
templations on Heaven, that I have almost forgot the 
Idea of Hell, and am afraid rather to lose the Joys of 
the one, than endure the misery of the other : to be 
deprived of them is a perfect Hell, and needs, 
methinks, no addition to co; . : .at our afflictions. 
That terrible term hath never detained me from sin, 
nor do I owe any good action to the name thereof. I 
fear God, yet am not afraid of Him : His Mercies 
make me ashamed of my sins, before His Judgements 
afraid thereof. These are the forced and secondary 
method of His wisdom, which He useth but as the 
last remedy, and upon provocation ; a course rather 
to deter the wicked, than incite the virtuous to His 
worship. I can hardly think there was ever any 
sacred mto Heaven ; they go the fairest way to Heaven 
that would serve God without a Hell; other 
Mercenaries, that crouch into Him in fear of Hell, 
though they term themselves the servants, are indeed 
but the slaves, of the Almighty. 

And to be true, and speak my soul, when I survey 
the occurrences of my life, and call into account the 
Finger of God, I_ can perceive nothing but an abyss 
and mass of mercies, either in general to mankind, or 
in particular to my self. And (whether out of the 
prejudice of my aifection, or an inverting and partial 
conceit of His mercies, I know not ; but) those which 

Religio Medici 59 

others term crosses, aflaictions, judgements, misfortunes, 
to me, who inquire farther into them then their visible 
effects, they both appear, and in event have ever 
proved, the secret and dissembled favours of His 
affection. It is a singular piece of Wisdom to appre- 
hend truly, and without passion, the Works of God 
and so well to distinguish His Justice from His Mercy' 
as not to miscall those noble i^ttributes : yet it is like- 
wise an honest piece of Logick, so to dispute and 
argue the proceedings of God, as to distinguish even 
His judgments into mercies. For God is merciful 
unto all, because better to the worst than the best 
deserve ; and to say He punisheth none in this World, 
though It be a Paradox, is no absurdity. To one that 
hath committed Murther, if the Judge should only 
ordam a Fine, it were a madness to call this a punish- 
ment, and to repine at the sentence, rather than 
admire the clemency of the Judge. Thus, our offences 
being mortal, and deservmg not only Death, but 
Damnation, if the goodness of God be content to 
traverse and pass them over with a loss, misfortune 
or disease, what frensie were it to term this a punish- 
ment rather than an extremity of mercy, and to groan 
under the rod of His Judgements, rather than admire 
flie Scepter of His Mercies ! Therefore to adore, 
honour, and admire Him, is a debt of gratitude due 
from the obligation of our nature, states, and condi- 
faons ; and with these thoughts, He that knows them 
best, will not deny that I adore Him. That I obtain 
Heaven, and the bliss thereof, is accidental, and not 
the intended work of my devotion ; it being a felicity 
I can neither think to deserve, nor scarce in modesty 
to expect. For these two ends of us all, either as 
rewards or punishments, are mercifully ordained and 
disproportionably disposed unto our actions ; the one 
being so far beyond our deserts, the other so infinitely 
below our demerits. 

There is no Salvation to those that believe not in 
Christ, that is, say some, since His Nativity, and, as 
Dmmty affirmeth, before also ; which makes me much 


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apprehend the ends of those honest Worthies and 
Philosophers which dyed before His Incarnation. It 
is hard to place those Souls in Hell, whose worthy lives 
do teach us Virtue on Earth ; methinks, amongst those 
many subdivisions of Hell, there might have been one 
Limbo left for these. What a strange vision will it be 
to see their Poetical fictions converted into Verities, 
and their imagined and fancied Furies into real Devils ! 
How strange to them will sound the History of Adam, 
when they shall suffer for him they never heard of i 
when they who derive their genealogy from the Gods, 
shall know they are the unhappy issue of sinful man ! 
It is an insolent part of reason, to controvert the 
Works of God, or question the Justice of His pro- 
ceedings. Could Humility teach others, as it hath 
instructed me, to contemplate the infinite and incom- 
prehensible distance betwixt the Creator and the 
Creature ; or did we seriously perpend that one simile 
of St. Paul, Shall the Vessel say to the Potter, " Why hast 
thou made me thus?" it would preveut these arrogant 
disputes of reason ; nor would we argue the definitive 
sentence of God, either to Heaven or Hell. Men that 
live according to the right rule and law of reason, live 
but in their own kind, as beasts do in theirs ; who 
justly obey the prescript of their natures, and therefore 
cannot reasonably demand a reward of their actions, 
as onely obeying the natural dictates of their reason. 
It will, therefore, and must at last appear, that all 
salvation is through Christ; which verity, I fear, 
these great examples of virtue must confirm, and make 
it good how the perf ectest actions of earth have no title 
or claim unto Heaven. 

Nor truely do I think the lives of these, or of any 
other, were ever correspondent, or in all points con- 
formable, imto their doctrines. It is evident that 
Aristotle transgressed the rule of his own Ethicks. 
The Stoicks that condemn passion, and command a 
man to laugh in Phalaris his Bull, could not endure 
without a groan a fit of the Stone or Colick. The 
Scepticks that affirmed they knew nothing, even in 

Religio Medici 61 

that opinion confute themselves, and thought they 
knew more than all the World beside. Diogenes I 
hold to be the most vain-glorious man of his time, and 
more ambitious in refusing all Honours, than Alexander 
m rejecting none. Vice and ixe Devil put a Fallacy 
upon our Reasons, and, provoking us too hastily to run 
from it, entangle and profound us deeper in it. The 
Duke of Venice, that weds himself unto the Sea by a 
Ring of Gold, I will not argue of prodigality, because 
It js a solemnity of good use and consequence in the 
State : but the Philosopher that threw his money into 
tide Sea to avoid Avarice, was a notorious prodigal. 
There is no road or ready way to virtue : it is not an 
e^ie point of art to disentangle our selves from this 
nddle, or web of Sin. To perfect virtue, as to 
Rehgion, there is required a Pamplia, or compleat 
armour ; that, whilst we lye at close ward against one 
Vice, we lye not open to the venny of another. And 
mdeed wiser discretions that have the thred of reason 
to conduct them, offend without pardon; whereas 
under-heads may stumble without dishonour. There 
go so many circumstances to piece up one good action, 
that it is a lesson to be good, and we are forced to be 
virtuous by the book. Again, the Practice of men 
holds not an equal pace, yea, and often runs counter to 
their Tb-^ry: we naturally know what is good, but 
naturally pursue what is evU : the Rhetorick wherewith 
1 perswade another, cannot perswade my self. There 
is a depraved appetite in us, that will with patience 
hear the learned instructions of Reason, but yet 
prform no farther than agrees to its own irregular 
humour. In brief, we all are monsters, that is, a 
composition of Man and Beast, wherein we must 
endeavour to be as the Poets fancy that wise man 
Ch^on> that is, to have the Region of Man above that 
of Beast, and Sense to sit but at the feet of Reason 
Lastly, I do desire with God that all, but yet affirm 
with men that few, shall know Salvation; that the 
bridge IS narrow, the passage strait, unto life : yet 
those who do confine the Church of God, either to 


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particular Nations, Churches, or Families, have made 
it far narrower than our Saviour ever meant it. 

The vulgarity of those judgements that wrap the 
Church of God in Strabo's chak, and restrain it unto 
Europe, seem to me as bad Geographers as Alexander, 
who thought he had Conquei'd all the World, when he 
had not subdued the half of any part thereof. For we 
cannot deny the Church of God both in Asia and 
Africa, if we do not forget the Peregrinations of the 
Apostles, the deaths of the Martyrs, the Sessions of 
many and (even in our reformed judgement) lawful 
Councils, held in those parts in the minority and 
nonage of ours. Nor must a few differences, more 
remarkable in the eyes of man than perhaps in the 
judgement of God, excommunicate from Heaven one 
another; much less those Christians who are in a 
manner all Martyrs, maintaining their Faith in the 
noble way of persecution, and serving God in the 
Fire, whereas we honour him but in the Sunshine. 
'Tis true we all hold there is a number of Elect, and 
many to be saved ; yet, take our Opinions together, and 
from the confusion thereof there will be no such thing 
as salvation, nor shall any one be saved. For first, the 
Church of Rome condemneth us, we likewise them ; 
the Subreformists and Sectaries sentence the Doctrine 
of our Church as damnable ; the Atomist, or Familist, 
reprobates all these ; and all these, them again. Thus, 
whilst the Mercies of God do promise us Heaven, our 
conceits and opinions exclude us from that place. 
There must be, therefore, more than one St. Peter : 
particular Churches and Sects, usurp the gates oi 
Heaven, and turn the key against each other ; and thus 
we go to Heaven against each others wills, conceits, 
and opinions, and, with as much uncharity as ignor- 
ance, do err, I fear, in points not only of our own, but 
one anothers salvation. 

I believe many are saved, who to man seem repro- 
bated ; and many are reprobated, who, in the opinion 
and sentence of man, stand elected. There will appear 
at the Last day strange and unexpected examples both 



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of His Justice and His Mercy ; and therefore to define 
either, is folly in man, and insolency even in the Devils. 
Those acute and subtil spirits, in all their sagacity, can 
terdly divine who shaU be saved ; which if they could 
Prognostick, their labour were at an end, nor need 
they compass the earth seeking whom they may devour. 
Those who, upon a rigid application of the Law, sen- 
tence Solomon unto damnation, condemn not onely 
him, but themselves, and the whole World : for, by 
the Letter and written Word of God, we are without 
exception in the state of Death ; but there is a pre- 
rogative of God, and an arbitrary pleasure above the 
I Letter of His own Law, by which alone we can pre- 
; tend unto Salvation, and through which Solomon might 
be as easily saved as those who condemn him. 

The number of those who pretend unto Salvation, 
and those infinite swarms who think to pass through 
the eye of this Needle, have much amazed me. That 
name and compellation of little Flock, doth not comfort, 
but deject, my Devotion ; especially when I reflect 
upon mine own unworthiness, wherein, according to 
; my humble apprehensions, I am below them all. I 
beheve there shall never be an Anarchy in Heaven- 
but, as there are Hierarchies amongst the Angels, so 
: shall there be degrees of priority amongst the Saints. 
Yet IS It (I protest,) beyond my ambition to aspire unto 
the first ranks ; my desires onely are (and I shall be 
happy therein,) to be but the last man, and bring uo 
the Rere in Heaven. 
; Again, I am confident and fully perswaded, yet dare 
; not take my oath, of my Salvation. I am as it were 
I sure, and do believe without all doubt, that there is 
r such a City as Constantinople ; yet for me to take my 
j Oath thereon were a kind of Perjury, because I hold 
I no infallible warrant from my own sense to confirm 
I me m the certainty thereof. And truly, though many 
I pretend an absolute certainty of their Salvation, yet, 
I when an humble Soul shall contemplate her own un- 
I worthiness, she shall meet with many douhts and sud- 
denly find how little we stand in need of the Precept 




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of St. Paul, Work out your salvation with fiar and 
trmbling. That which is the cause of my Election, I 
hold to be the cause of my Salvation, which was the 
mercy and beneplacit of God, before I was, or the 
foundation of the World. Btfort Abraham was, I am, 
IS the saymg of Christ ; yet is it true in some sense, 
if I say U of my self ; for I was not onely before my 
self, but Adam, that is, in the Idea of God, and the 
decree of that Synod held from all Eternity. And in 
this sense, I say, the World was before the Creation, 
and at an end before it had a beginning ; and thus was 
I dead before I was alive : though my grave be Eng- 
land, my dying place was Paradise: and Eve mis- 
carried of me before she conceiv'd of Cain. 

Insolent zeals, that do decry good Works and rely 
onely upon Faith, take not away merit : for, depending 
upon the efficacy of their Faith, they enforce the con- 
dition of God, and in a more sophistical way do seem 
to challenge Heaven. It was decreed by God, that 
only those that lapt in the water like Dogs, should 
have the honour to destroy the Midianites ; yet could 
none of those justly challenge, or imagine he deserved, 
that honour thereupon. I do not deny but that true 
Faith, and such as God requires, is not onely a mark 
or token, but also a means, of our Salvation; but 
where to find this, is as obscure to me as my last end. 
And if our Saviour could object unto His own Dis- 
ciples and Favourites, a Faith, that, to the quantity of 
a grain of Mustard-seed, is able to remove Mountains; 
surely, that which we boast of, is not any thing, or at 
the most, but a remove from nothing. This is the 
Tenor of my belief ; wherein though there be many 
things singular, and to the humour of my irregular 
self, yet, if they square not with maturer Judgements, 
I disclaim them, and do no further father them, than 
the learned and best judgements shall authorize them. 

Religio Medici 



P^f^i^"' ^^^ °*^'' •^'^* °^ Charity, without which 
fvt Jh * ""^ °°'"'°' ^^ °' "° existence, I have 
^S .,^,f^''°""^ to nourish the merciful dis^sWon 
and humane inchnation I borrowed from my ^ents 
and regulate it to the written and prescribed Laws *,5 
Chanty And If I hold the true A^natomy of my Llf 
I am delmeated and naturaUy framed to such a^p^ce 
of virtue ; for I am of a constitution so general, h^? 
It consorts and sympathiseth with all things. I have 
afr^n^v^' °' "^''"."iosyncrasie, in dylt, hum<^! 
air any thing. I wonder not at the French for thri^ 
dishes of Frogs, Smuls and Toadstools, nor at the Ws 
SL .n'T%r** Grasshoppers: but^ being S^^? 
them, maJce them my common Viands, and I find they 

?n^f Garlt f'^^''^ ^ ^ Church-yard, as weU a^ 
sl™„t c -^ "^^"^ ^**" ""^ *« presence of a 
StW ^S"P1°°' Lizard, or Salamander: at the 
X „^ , 7°^^. Z ^"P^""' ^ ^''^ '° ■"« °° desire to 
S;L P * ^*°°'' 'a •'^'^y *«=■"• I ^««1 °°t in my self 
ti^se common Antipathies that I can discover in 

n^ Ho f^K^t M^*""??* "P"&°ancesdo not touch me, 
nor do I behold with prejudice the French Itali^ 

fc: ;^ m?r= T ^"^"f ' ^"'^ thdrttionsTn 
^„!-Ti ™y Countrymen's, I honour. love, and 
eShth CW. 'I ^" ^"degree. I was born ik^e 
eighth Chmate. but seem for to be framed and con 
stellated unto all. I am no Plant that wiUnot prosp^ 

one rnnn?^"*'"f ^"- P'^^^^' ^" ^^^' ""^'^ ""to me 
one Countrey; I am m England every where and 
under any Meridian. I have been shipwrack"! y^t^ 
not enemy with the Sea or Winds; I Ln stud/pC 
or sleep in a Tempest. In brief, I am averi from 

shon H^' "? C°°f''?" ^°"''' Siye me the lye H 
?h° nl^^ ^ absolutely detest or hate any essence but 
the Devi! ; or bo at least abhor any thing, but that wo 



Religio Medici 

I ' 

might come to composition. If thee* b« any among 
those common objects of hatred I do contemn and 
lauf^h at, it is that great enemy of Keftson, Virtue and 
Reli^on, the Multitude : that numerous piece of mon- 
strosity, which, taken asunder, seem men, and the 
reaso ble creatures of God ; but, confused together, 
make but one great beast, and :-. monstrosity more pro- 
di(, :<us than Hydia. It is no breach of Charity to call 
these Fools ; it is the style all holy Writers have 
afforded them, set down by Solomon in Canonical 
Scripture, and a point of our Faith to believe so. 
Neither in the name of MuliitHdt do I onely include 
the base and minor sort of people ; there is a rabble 
even amongst the Gentry, a sort of Plebeian heads, 
whose fancy moves with the same wheel as these ; 
men in the same Level with Mechanicks, though their 
fortunes do somewhat guild their infirmities, and their 
purses compound for their follies. But as, in casting 
account, three or four men together come short in 
account of one man placed by himself below them ; so 
neither are a troop of these ignorant Doradots of that 
true esteem and value, as many a forlorn person, whose 
condition doth place him below their feet. I^et us 
speak like Politicians: there is a Nobility without 
Heraldry, a natural dignity, whereby one man is 
ranked with another, another filed before him, accord- 
ing to the quality of his Desert, and preheminence of 
his good parts. Though the corruption of these times 
and the byas of present practice wheel another way, 
thus it was in the first and primitive Commonwealths, 
and is yet in the integrity and Cradle of well-order'd 
Polities, till corruption getteth ground ; ruder desires 
labouring after that which wiser considerations con- 
temn, every one having a liberty to amass and heap 
up riches, and they a licence or faculty to do or pur- 
chase any thing. 

This general and indifferent temper of mine doth 
more neerly dispose me to this noble virtue. It is a 
happiness to be bom and framed unto virtue, and to 
grow up from the seeds of nature, rather than the in- 

Religio Medici 


ocukhon and fowd graffs of education : yet if we are 
directed only by our particular Natures, and regulate 
our mclinations by no higher rule than that of our 
reasons, we are but Moralists ; Divinity wiU still caU 
us Heathens. Therefore this great work of charity 
must have other motives, ends, and impulsions. 1 
give no alms only to satisfie the hunger of my Brother, 
but to fulfil and accomplish the Will and "Command 
ot my God: I not my purse for his sake that 
demands it, but His That en/oyned it: I relieve no 
i man upon the Rhetorick of his miseries, nor to content 
, mine own commiserating disposition ; for this is still 
i but moral chanty, and an act that oweth more to 
passion than reason. He that relieves another upon 
the bare suggestion and bowels of pity, doth not this, 
so much for his sake as for his own; for by compassion 
we make others misery our own, and so, by relievine 
them, we relieve our selves also. It is as erroneous a 
conceit to redress other Mens misfortunes upon the 
comnaon considerations of merciful natures, that it 
may be one day our own case ; for this is a sinister 
and politick kind of charity, whereby we leem to 
bespeak the pities of men in the like occasions. And 
truly I have observed that those professed Eleemosy- 
naries, though m a croud or multitude, do yet direct 
Md place their petitions on a few and selected persons • 
there is surely a Physiognomy, which those experi- 
enced and Master Mendicants observe, whereby they 
mstantly discover a merciful aspect, and will sinrie 
out a face wherem they spy the signatures and marics 
of Mercy. For there are mystically in our faces 
certain Characters which carry in them the motto of 
our Souls, wherem he that cannot read A. B. C. may 
read our natures. I hold moreover that there is a 
Ph^ognomy or Physiognomy, not only of Men, but 
of Plants and Vegetables; and in every one of tiiem 
some outward figures which hang as signs or bushes 
of tiieu: inward forms. The Finger of God hatii left 
an Inscription upon aU His works, not graphical or 
composed of L«ttei but of their several fonns, con- 


Religio Medici 

stitutions, parts, and operations, which, aptly joyned 
together, do make one word that doth express their 
natures. By these Letters God calls the Stars by 
their names ; and by this Alphabet Adam assigned to 
every creature a name peculiar to its Nature. Now 
there are, besides these Characters in our Faces, 
certain mystical figures in our Hands, which I dare 
not call meer dashes, strokes d la volet, or at random, 
because delineated by a Pencil that never works in 
vain ; and hereof I take more particular notice, 
because I carry that in mine own hand which I could 
never read of nor discover in another. Aristotle, I 
confess, in his acute and singular Book of Physiognomy, 
hath made no mention of Chiromancy ; yet I believe 
the E^ptians, who were neerer addicted to those 
abstruse and mystical sciences, had a knowledge therein, 
to which those vagabond and counterfeit Egyptians 
did after pretend, and perhaps retained a Mw cor- 
rupted principles, which sometimes might veriiie their 
prognos ticks. 

It if, the common wonder of all men, how among so 
many millions of faces, there should be none alike : 
now contrary, I wonder as much how there should be 
any. He that shall consider how many thousand 
several words have been carelesly and without study 
composed out of twenty-four Letters ; withal, how 
many hundred lines there are to be drawn in the 
Fabrick of one Man, shall easily find that this variety 
is necessary ; and it will be very hard that they shjjl 
so concur as to make one portract like another. Let 
a Painter carelessly limb out a million of Faces, and 
you shall find them all different ; yea, let him have his 
Copy before him, yet after all his art there will remain 
a sensible distinction; for the pattern or example of 
every thing is the perfectest in that kind, whereof we 
still come short, though we transcend or go beyond it, 
because herein it is wide, and agrees not in all points 
unto the copy. Nor doth the smiilitude of Creatures 
disparage the variety of Nature, nor any way confound 
the Works of God. For even in things alike there is 


Religio Medici 


diversity ; aad those that do seem to accord do numi- 
festly disagree. And thns is man like God ; for in the 
same things that we resemble Him, we are utterly 
different from Him. There was never anything so 

j like anotuer as in all points to concur: there will ever 

swne reserved difference slip in, to prevent the identity ; 

without which, two several things would not be alike. 

but the same, which is impossible. 

But to return from Philosopliy to Tharity: I hold 

, not so narrow a conceit of this virtue, as to conceive 
that to give Alms is onely to he Charitable, or think a 
piece of Liberality can comprehend the Total of 
Chanty. Divinity hath wisely divided the act thereof 
into many branches, and hath taught us in this narrow 

I way many paths unto goodness ; as many ways as we 
may do good, so m:.ay ways we may be charitable. 
There are infirmities not onely of Be Jy, but of Soul, 
and Fortunes, which do require the merciful hand of 
our abilities. I cannot contemn a man for ignorance, 
but behold him with as much pity as I do Lazarus. 
It is no greater Charity to cloath his body, than 
apparel the nakedness of his Soul. It is an honour- 
able object to see the reasons of other men wear our 
Liveries, and their borrowed understandings do homage 
to the bounty of ours : it is the cheapest way of bene- 
ficence, and, like the natural charity of the Sun, illu- 
minates another without obscuring itself. To be 
reserved and caitiff in this part of goodness, is the 
sordidest piece of covetousness, and more contemptible 
than pecuniary Avarice. To this (as calling my self a 
Scholar,) I am obliged by the duty of my condition : I 
make not therefore my head a grave, but a treasure, of 
knowledge ; I intend no Monopoly, but a community, 
m learning ; I study not for my own sake only, but 
for theirs that study not for themselves. I envy no 
man that knows more than my self, but pity them that 
know less. I instruct no man as an exercise of my 
knowledge, or with an intent rather to nourish and 
keep it alive in mine own head then beget and propa- 
gate it in his: and in the midst of all my endeavours 


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Religio Medici 

there is but one thought that dejects me, that my 
acquired parts must perish with my self, nor can be 
Legacied among my honoured Friends. I cannot fall 
out or contemn a man for an errour, or conceive why 
a di£ference in Opinion should divide an affection ; for 
Controversies, Disputes, and Argumentations, bolij in 
Philosophy and in Divinity, if they meet with discreet 
and peaceable natures, do not infringe the Laws of 
Charity. In all disputes, so much as there is of passion, 
so much as there is of nothing to the purpose; for 
then Reason, like a bad Hound, spends upon a false 
Scent, and forsakes the question first started. And 
this is one reason why Controversies are never deter- 
mined ; for, though they be amply proposed, they are 
scarce at all handled, they do so swell with unnecessary 
Digressions ; and the Parenthesis on the party is often 
as large as the main discourse upon the subject. The 
Foundations of Religion are already established, and 
the Principles of Salvation subscribed unto by all : 
there remains not many controversies worth a Passion ; 
and yet never any disputed without, not only in 
Divinity, but in inferiour Arts. What a /Sot/wxojuuo/xoxio 
and hot skirmish is betwixt S. and T. in Lucian I How 
do Grammarians hack and slash for the Genitive case 
in Jupitir I Ho\- do they break their own pates to 
salve that of Priscian ! 

Si font in tirris, ridmt Democritut. 

Yea, even amongst wiser militants, how many wounds 
have been ^ven, and credits slain, for the poor victory 
of an opinion, or beggarly conquest of a distinction ! 
Scholars are men of Peace, they bear no Arms, but 
tlieir tongues are sharper than Actius his razor ; their 
Pens carry farther, and give a louder report than 
Thunder : I had rather stand the shock of a Basilisco, 
than the fury of a merciless Pen. It is not meer Zeal 
to Learning, or Devotion to the Muses, that wiser 
Princes Patron the Arts, and cany an indulgent aspect 
onto Scholars; but a desire to have their names 
eternized by the memory of their writings, and a fear 

Religio Medici 


of the revengeful Pen of succeeding ages ; for these 
are the men, that, when they have played their parts, 
and had their exits, must step out and give the moral 
of their Scenes, and deliver unto Posterity an In- 
ventory of their Virtues and \^ces. And surely there 
goes a great deal of Conscience to the compiling of an 
History: there is no reproach to the scandal of a 
Story ; it is 3uch an authentick kind of falshood that 
with authority belies our good names to all Nations 
and Posterity. 

There is another offence rnto Charity, which no 
Author hath ever written of, and few take notice of ; 
and that's the reproach, not of whole professions, 
mysteries, and conditions, but of whole Nations, 
ivherein by opprobious Epithets we miscall each other, 
and by an uncharitable Logick, from a disposition in 
a few, conclude a habit in all. 

Le nmtin Anglois, it U bravaeht Esassois, 

Et lijal Fratifois, 
Lt poultrm Romain, h larrm di Gascongni, 
L'Espagnol superbe, it I'Alemanyvrmgtu. 

St. Fiul, that calls the Cretians lyars, doth it but in- 
directly, and upon quotation of their own Poet. It is 
as bloody a thought in one way, as Nero's was in 
another ; for by a word we wound a thousand, and at 
one blow assassine the honour of a Nation. It is as 
compleat a piece of madness to miscal and rave against 
the times, or thmk to recal men to reason by a fit of 
passion. Democritus, that thought to laugh the times 
into goodness, seems to me as deeply Hypochondriack 
as Heraclitus, that bewailed them. It moves not my 
spleen to behold the multitude in their proper humours, 
that is, in their fits of folly and madness; as well 
understanding that wisdom is not prophan'd unto the 
World, and 'tis the priviledge of a few to be Vertuous. 
They that endeavour to abolish Vice, destroy also 
Virtue; for contraries, though they destroy one another, 
are yet the life of one another. Thus Virtue (abolish 
vice,) is an Idea. Again, the community of sm doth 

Religio Medici 


not disparage goodness ; for when Vice gains upon the 
major part, Virtue, in whom it remains,l)ecomes more 
excellent ; and bemg lost in some, multiplies its good- 
ness in others which remain untouched and persist 
I u^Ij'?,-*^ ?1°"^ inundation. I can therefore 
behold Vice without a Satyr, content only with an 
admonition, or instructive reprehension; for Noble 
Matures, and such as are capable of goodness, are 
railed into vice, that might as easily be admonished 
into virtue ; and we should all be so far the Orators of 
goodness, as to protect her from the power of Vice, 
and maintam the cause of injured truth. No man can 
justly censure or condemn another, because indeed no 
man truljr knows another. This I perceive in my self; 
for I am m the dark to all the world, and my nearest 
fnends behold me but in a cloud. Those that know 
me but superficially, think less of me than I do of my 
^iV . f ?^ ™y °*'^'' acquaintauce think more ; God, 
Who truly knows me, knows that I am nothing; for 
He only beholds me and aU the world, Who looks not 
on us throug-h a derived ray, or a trajection of a sensible 
species, but beholds the substance without the helps of 
accidents, and the forms of things as we their opera- 
tions. Further, no man can judge another, because 
no man knows himself: for we censure others but as 
they disagree from that humour which we fancy laud- 
able in cur selves, and commend others but for tl-at 
wherein they seem to quadrate and consent with -o 
bo that, in conclusion, Jl is but that we all conde 
belf-love. 'Tis the general complaint of these times! 
and perhaps of those past, that charity grows cold 
which I perceive most verified in those which most do 
manifest the fires and flames of zeal ; for it is a virtue 
tliat best agrees with coldest natures, and such as are 
complexioned for humility. But how shall we expect 
Chanty towards others, when we are uncharitable to 
our selves ? Charity begins at home, is the voice of the 
world ; yet is every man his greatest enemy, and, as 
It were, his own Executioner. Non occides, is the Com- 
mandment of God, yet scarce observed by any man ; 

Religio Medici 


for I perceive every m:ji is his own Atropos, and lends 
a hand to cut the thred of his own days. Cain was 
not therefore the first Murtherer, but Adam, who 
brought in death ; whereof he beheld the practice and 
example in his own son Abel, and saw that verified in 
the experience of another, which faith could not per- 
swade him in the Theory of himself. 

There is, I think, no man that apprehends his own 
miseries less than my self, and no man that so neerly 
apprehends anothers. I could lose an arm without s 
tear, and with few groans, methinks, be quartered into 
pieces; yet can I weep most seriously at a Play, and 
receive with true passion the counterfeit grief of those 
known and professed Impostures. It is a barbarous 
part of inhumanity to add unto any afiSicted parties 
misery, or indeavour to multiply in any man a passion 
whose single nature is already above his patience. 
This was the greatest affliction of Job, and those 
oblique expostulations of his Friends a deeper injury 
than the down-right blows of the Devil. It is not the 
tears of own our eyes only, but of our friends also, that 
do exhaust the current of our sorrows ; which, falling into 
many streams, runs more peaceably, and is contented 
with a narro.ver channel. It is an act within the 
power of charity, to translate a passion out of one 
breast into another, and to divide a sorrow almost out 
of It self ; for an affliction, like a dimension, may be 
so divided, as, if not indivisible, at least to become 
msensible. Now with my friend I desire not to share 
or participate, but to engross, his sorrows; that, by 
making them mine own, I may more easily discuss 
them ; for in mine own reason, and within my self, I 
can command that which I cannot intreat without my 
eelf, and within the circle of another. I have often 
thought those noble pairs and examples of friendship 
not so truly Histories of what had been, as fictions of 
what should be ; but I now perceive nothing in them 
but possibilities, nor any thing in the Heroick examples 
of Damon and Pythias, Achilles and Patroclus, which 
methinks upon some grounds I could not perform 


Religio Medici 

within the narrow co-npass of mv self Th,t , 

1 do conceive how f\L I " •'®°'^^ "^ thinks 

there 's L^fte'l^^e <>f^° J°^!^ "^?. '"^ ^,^PP'"«^« 
are three most mistical uSonsitwf ni.°''''"''- ^^^^ 
person; 2. threeVrsonHn one nltoe f"' '° °"t 

ifiere are wonders in true affection : it is a horfv ^f 
^wg'wa'j, mysteries, and riddles • whir^fr. »^ 
become one, as they both become ^o ? ll''" '° 
fnenc: before my self, and yet mShinTs I do nnTl""^ 

Religio Medici 


their looks, nor can our memory retain the Idea of 
their faces ; and it is no wonder, for they are our 
selves, ajid our affection makes their looks our own. 
Xhis noble ruction falls not on vulgar and common 
constitutions, but on such as are mark'd for virtue ■ he 
that can love his friend with this noble ardour will ir 
a competent degree affect all. Now, if we can br^nt- 
our affections to look beyond the body, and cast an eye 
upon the soul, we have found out the true object, not 
only of friendship, but Charity; and the greatest 
happiness that we can bequeath the soul, is that 
wherein we all do place our last felicity, Salvation- 
which though It be not in our power to bestow, it is in 
our chanty and pious invocations to desire, if not 
procure and further. I cannot contentedly frame a 
prayer for my self in particular, without a catalogue for 
my friends; nor request a happiness, wherein my 
sociable disposition doth not desire the fellowship of 
my neighbour. I never hear the Toll of a passing 
Bell, though m my mirth, without my prayers and 
best wishes for the departing spirit; I cannot co to 
cure the body of my patient, but I forget my profession, 
and call unto God for his soul ; I cannot see one say 
his prayers, but, in stead of imitating him, I fall into 
a supphcation for him, who perhaps is no more to me 
than a common nature : and if God hath vouchsafed 
an ear to my supplications, there are surely many 
happy that never saw me, and enjoy the ble'isin" of 
mine unknown devotions. To pray for Enemies that 
IS, for their salvation, is no harsh precept, but the 
practice of our daily and ordinary devotions. I cannot 
believe the story of the Italian : our bad wishes and 
uncharitable desires proceed no further than this life • 
It IS the Devil, and the uncharitable votes of Hell' 
that desire our misery in the World to come. ' 

To do no injury, nor take none, was a' principle, 
which to my former years and impatient affections 
seemed to contain enough of Morality ; but my more 
setled years and Christian constitution have fallen 
upon severer resolutions. I can hold there is no such * 


Religio Medici 

thing as injury; that, if there be, there is no such 
injury as revenge, and no such revenge as the con- 
tempt of an injury ; that to hate another, is to malign 
himself ; that the truest way to love another, is to 
despise our selves. I were unjust unto mine own 
Conscience, if I should say I am at variance with any 
thing like my self. I find there are many pieces in 
this one fabnck of man ; this frame is raised upon a 
mass of Actipathies. I am one methinks, but as the 
World; wherein notwithstanding there are a swarm 
of distinct essetcss, and in them another World of 
contrarieties ; we carry private and domestick enemies 
within, publick and n^ore hostile adversaries without. 
The Devil, that did but buffet St. Paul, plays methinks 
at sharp with me. Let me be nothing, if within the 
compass of my self I do not find the battail of Lepanto, 
Passion against Reason, Reason against Faith, Faith 
against the Devil, and my Conscience against all. 
There is another man within me, that's angiy with me, 
rebukes, commands, and dastards me. I have no 
Conscience of Marble to resist the hammer of more 
heavy offences ; nor yet so soft and waxen, as to take 
the impression of each single peccadillo or scrape of 
infirmity. _ I am of a strange belief, that it is as easie 
to be forgiven some sins, as to commit some others. 
For my Original sin, I hold it to be washed away in 
my Baptism : for my actual transgressions, I compute 
and reckon with God but from my last repentance, 
Sacrament, or general absolution ; and therefore am 
not terrified with the sins or madness of my youth. I 
thank the goodness of God, I have no sins that want a 
name; I am not singular in offences; my transgressions 
are Epidemical, and frorn the common breath of our 
corruption. For there are certain tem-ers of body, 
which, matcht with an humorous depravity of mind, 
do hatch and produce vitiosities, whose newness and 
monstrosity of nature admits no name : this was the 
temper of tha- Lecher that fell in love with a Statua, 
and the constitution of Nero in his Spintrian recrea- 
tions. For the Heavens are not only fruitful in new 


Relig^o Medici 


and unheard-of stars, the Ea:th in plants and animals, 
but mens minds also in villainy and vices. Now the 
dulness of my reason, and the vulgarity of my disposi- 
tion, never prompted my ^vention, nor solicited my 
affection unto any of these ; yet even those common 
and quotidian infirmities that so necessarily attend me, 
and do seem to be my very nature, have so dejected 
me, so broken the estimation that I should have other- 
wise of my self, that I repute my self the most 
abjectest piece of mortality. Divines prescribe a fit 
of sorrow to repentance : there goes indignation, anger, 
sorrow, hatred, into mine ; passions of a contrary 
nature, which neither seem to sute with this action, 
nor my proper constitution. It is no breach of charity 
to our selves, to be at variance with our Vices, nor to 
abhor that part of us which is an enemy to the ground 
of charity, our God ; wherein we do but imitate our 
great selves, the world, whose divided Antipathies and 
contrary faces do yet carry a charitable regard unto 
the whole, by their particular discords preserving the 
common harmony, and keeping in fetters those 
powers, whose rebellions, once Masters, might be the 
ruine of all. 

I thank God, amongst those millions of Vices I do 
inherit and hold frr^m Adam, I have escaped one, aud 
that a mortal enemy to Charity, the first and father-sin, 
not onely of man, but of the devil. Pride : a vice whose 
name is comprehended in a Monosyllable, but in its 
nature not circumscribed with a World. I have 
escaped it in a condition that can hardly avoid it. 
Those petty acquisitids and reputed perfections that 
advance and elevate the conceits of other men, add no 
feathers imto mine. I have seen a Grammarian towr 
and plume himself over a single line in Horace, and 
shew more pride in the construction of one Ode, than 
the Author in the composure of the whole oook. For 
my own part, besides the Jargon and Patois of several 
Provinces, I understand no less than six Languages ; 
yet I protest I have no higher conceit of my self, than 
had our Fathers before the confusion of Babel, whun 


Religio Medici 

there was but one Langi he World, and none 

to boast himself either Liu' -st or Critick. I have 
not onely seen several Counti iS, beheld the nature of 
their Climes, the Chorography of their Provinces, 
TopoRraphy of their Cities, but understood their 
several Laws, Customs, and Policies ; yet cannot all 
this perswade the dulness of my spirit unto such an 
opinion of my self, as I behold in nimbler and con- 
ceited heads, that never looked a degree beyond their 
Nests. I know the names, and somewhat more, of all 
the constellations in my Horizon ; yet 1 have seen a 
prating Mariner, that could onely name the po'iters 
and the Noith Star, cut-talk me, and conceit himself 
a whole Sphere above me. I know most of the Plants 
of my Countrey, and of those about me ; yet methinks 
I do not know so many as when I did but know a 
hundred, and had scarcely ever Simpled furth.<r than 
Chtapsidt. For, in ieed, heads of capacity, and such as 
are not full with a handful or easie measure of know- 
ledge, think they know nothing till they know all ; which 
being impossible, they fall upon the opinion of Socrates, 
and only know they know not any thing. I cannot 
think that Homer pin'd away upon the riddle of the 
fi;>nermen ; or that Aristotle, who understood the un- 
certainty of knowledge, ana jnfessed so often u^^ 
reason of man too weak for the. works of nature, did 
ever drown himself upon the flux and reflux of Euripus. 
We do but learn to-day vvhat our better advanced 
judgements will unteach to morrow ; and Aristotle doth 
but instruct us, as Plato did him ; that is, to confute 
himself. I have run through all sorts, yet find no rest 
in any : though our first studies and jumir endeavours 
may style us Perjpateticks, Stoicks, or Academicks; 
yet I perceive the wisest heads prove, at last, almost 
all Scepticks, and stand like Janus in the field of 
knowledge. I have therefore one common and 
authentick Philosophy I learned in the Schools, 
whereby I discourse and satisfy the reason of other 
men ; another more reserved, and drawn ''—im ex- 
perience, whereby I content mine own. . olomon, 

Religio Medici 


that complained of ignorance in the height of know- 
ledge, hath not only humbled my conceits, but dis- 
couraged my endeavours. There is yet another conceit 
that bath sometimes made me shut my books, which 
tells rs it is a vanity to waste our days in the blind 
pursuii of knowledge ; it is but attending a little 
longer, and we shall enjoy that by instinct and in- 
fusion, which ■^e endeavour at here by labour and 
inquisition. It is better to sit down in a modest 
ignorance, and rest contented with the nat^'ral blessing 
of our own reasons, than buy the uncertain knowledge 
of this life with sweat and vexation, which Death 
gives every fool gratis, and is an accessary of our 

I was never yet once, and commend their resolutions 
who never man?y twice : not that I disallow of second 
marriage ; as neither, in all casts, of Polygamy, which, 
considering some times, and the, unequ^ number of 
both sexes, may be also necessary. The whole World 
was made for man, but the twelfth part of man for 
woman : Man is the whole World, and the Breath if 
God ; Woman the Rib and crooked piece of man. I 
could be content that we might procreate like trees, 
without conjunction, or that there were any way to 
perpetuate the "WoM without this trivial and vulgar 
way of onion: it is the foolishest act a wise man 
commits in all his life ; nor is there any thing that will 
more deject his cool'd imagination, when he shall 
consider what an odd and unworthy piece of folly he 
hath committed. I speak not in prejudice, nor am 
averse from that sweet Sex, but n.xturally amorous of 
all that is beautiful. I can look a whole day with 
delight upon a Landsome Picture, though it be but of 
an Horse. It is my temper, and I like it the better, 
to affect all harmony ; and sure there is masick even 
in he beauty, and the silent note which Capid strikes, 
far sweeter than the sound of an instrument. For 
there is a musick where ever there is a harmony, order, 
or proportion : and thus far we may maintain the 
music of the Sphears ; for those well-ordered motions, 


Religio Medici 

and regular paces, though they give no sound unto tba 
ear, yet to the understanding they strike a note most 
full of harmony. Whosoever is harmonically com- 
posed delights m harmony ; which makes me much 
distrust the symmetry of those heads which declaim 
against all Church-Mustek. For my self, not only 
from my obedience, but my particular Genius, I do 
embrace it: for even that vulgar and Tavern-Musick, 
which makes one man merry, another mad, strikes in 
me a deep fit of devotion, and a profound contempla- 
tion of the First Composer. There is something ir. it 
of Divinity more than the ear discovers: it is an Riero- 
glyphical and shadowed lesson of the whole World, and 
creatures of God ; such a melody to the ear, as the 
whole World, well understood, would afford the under- 
standing. In brief, it is a sensible fit of that harmony 
which intellectually sounds in the ears of God. I will 
not say, with Plato, the soul is an harmony, but 
harmonical, and hath its nearest sympathy unto 
Musick : thus some, whose temper of body agrees, and 
humours the constitution of their souls, are bom Poets, 
though indeed all are naturally inclined unto Rhythme. 
This made Tacitus, in the very first line of his Story, 
fall upon a verse ; and Cicero, the worst of Poets, but 
declamiiag for a Poet, fails in the very first sentence 
upon a p feet Hexameter. I feel not in me those 
sordiu ara unchristian desires of nry profession ; I do 
not secretly implore and wish for Pl^es, rejoyce at 
Famines, revolve Ephemerides and Almanacks in 
expectation of malignant Aspects, fatal Conjunctions, 
and Eclipses. I rejoyce not at unwholesome Springs, 
nor unseasonable Winters : my Prayer goes with me 
Husbandman's; I desire every thing m its proper 
season, that neither men nor the times be put out of 
temper. Let me be sick my self, if sometimes the 
malady of my patient be not a disease unto me. I 
desire rather to cure his infirmities than my own 
necessities. Where I do him no good, metbinks it is 
scarce honest gain; though I confess 'tis but the 
worthy salary of our well-intended endeavours. I am 

Religio Medici 8i 

not only ashamed, but heartily sorry, that, besides 
de^^h, there are aiseases incurable; yet not for my own 
sake, or tlu t they be beyond my Art, bi.. fir the general 
cause and sake of humanity, whose common cause I 
apprehend as mine owi. And to spealt more g(>nerally, 
those three Noble Professions which all civil Common- 
wealths do honour, are raised upon the fall of Adam, 
and are not any way exempt from their infirmities ; 
there are not oi diseases mcurable in Physick ' i 
cases tndissolvabie in Laws, Vices incorrigibV i 
Divinity. If General Councils may err, 1 do no -<j 
why particular Courts should be infallible : their per- 
fectes -ules are raised upon the erroneous reasons of 
Man, u.nd the Laws of one do but condemn the rules 
of another ; as Aristotle oft-times the opinions of his 
Predecessours, because, though agreeable to reason, 
yet were not consonant to his own rules, and the 
Logick of his proner Principles. Again, (to speak 
nothing of the Sir against the Holy Ghost, whose 
cure not onely, bi vhose nature is unknown,) I can 
cure the Gout or btone in some, sooner than Divinity, 
Pride, or Avarice in others. I can cure Vices by 
Physick when they remain incur-ible by Divinity, and 
shall obey my Pills when they c emn their precepts. 
I boast nothing, but plainljr say, : all labour agamst 
our own cure; for death is the cure of all diseases. 
There is no Catholicon or universal remedy I know, 
but this ; which, though nauseous to queasie stomachs, 
yet to prepared appetites is Nectar, and a pleasant 
potion of immortality. 

For my Conversation, it is like the Sun's, with all 
men, and with a friendly aspect to good and bad. 
Methinks there is no man bad, and the worst, best ; 
that is, while they are kept within the circle of those 
qualities wherein they are good: there is no man's 
mind of such discordant and jarring a temper, to which 
a tunable disposition may not strike a harmony. ' Magna 
virtutes, nee minora vitia ; it is the posie of the best 
natures, and may be inverted on the worst ; there are 
m the most depraved and venemous dispositions, 


Religio Medici 

certain pieces that remain untoucht, which by an 
Autiferistasis become more excellent, or by the excel- 
lency of their antipathies are able to preserve them- 
selves from the contagion of their enemy vices, and 
persist intire beyond the general corruption. For it is 
also thus in nature : the greatest Balsomes do lie 
enveloped in the bodies of most powerful Corrosives. 
I say, moreover, and I ground upon experience, that 
poisons contain within themselves their own Antidote, 
and that which preserves them from the venome of 
themselves, without which they were not deleterious 
to others onely, but to themselves also. But it is the 
corruption that I fear within me, not the contagion of 
commerce without nie. 'Tis that unruly regiment 
within me, that will destroy me ; 'tis I that do infect 
my self ; the man without a Navel yet lives in me ; I 
feel that original canker and corrode and devour me ; 
and therefore Defenda me Dies de me, " Lord deliver 
me from my self," is a part of my Letany, and the 
first voice of my retired imaginations. There is no 
man alone, because every num is a Microcosm, and 
carries the whole World about him. Nunquam minus 
solus quam cum solus, though it be the Apothegme of a 
wise man, is yet true in the mouth of a fool. Indeed, 
though in a Wilderness, a man is never alone, not only 
because he is with himself and his own thoughts, but 
because he is with the Devil, who ever consorts with 
our solitude, and is that unruly rebel that musters up 
those disordered motions which accompany our 
sequestred imaginations. And to speak more narrowly, 
there is no such thing as solitude, nor any thing that 
can be said to be alone and by itself, but God, Who 
is His own circle, and can subsist by Himself; all 
others, besides their dissimilary and Heterogeneous 
parts, which in a manner multiply their natures, cannot 
subsist without the concourse of God, and the society 
of that hand which doth uphold their natures. In 
brief, there can be nothing truly alone and by it self, 
which is not truly one ; and such is only God : all others 
do transcend an unity, and so by consequence are many. 


Religio Medici 


Now for my life, it is a miracle of thirty years, 
which to relate, were not a History, but a piece of 
Poetry, and would sound to common ears like a Fable. 
For the World, I count it not an Inn, but an Hospital; 
and a place not to live, but to dye in. The world that 
I regard is my self; it is the Microcosm of my own 
frame that I cast mine eye on ; for the other, I use it 
but like my Globe, and turn it round sometimes for 
my recreation. Men that look upon my outside, 
perusing only my condition and Fortunes, do err in 
my Altitude; for I am above Atlas his shoulders. 
The earth is a point not only in respect of the Heavens 
above us, but of that heavenly and celestial part within 
us ; that mass of Flesh that circumscribes me, limits 
not my mind : that surface that tells the Heavens it 
hath an end, cannot persuade me I have any : I take 
my circle to be above three hundred and sixty ; though 
the number of the Ark do measure my body, it com- 
prehendeth not my mind : whilst I study to find how I 
am a Microcosm, or little World, I find my self some- 
thing more than the ^eat. There is surely a piece of 
Divinity in us, something that was before the Elements, 
and owes no homage unto the Sun. Nature tells me I 
am the Image of God, as well as Scripture : he that 
understands not thus much, hath not his introduction 
or first lesson, and is yet to begin the Alphabet of man. 
Let me not injure the felicity of others, if I say I am 
as happy as any : Ruat calum,fiat voluntas Tm, salveth 
all ; so that whatsoever happens, it is but what our 
daily prayers desire. In brief, I am content; and 
what should Providence add more ? Surely this is it 
we call Happiness, and this do I enjoy ; with this 
I am happy in a dream, and as content to enjoy a 
happiness in a fancy, as others in a more apparent 
truth and realty. There is surely a neerer apprehension 
of any thing that delights us m our dreams, than in 
our waked senses: without this I were unhappy; for 
my awaked judgment discontents me, ever whisper- 
ing unto me, that I am from my friend; but my 
friendly dreams in the night requite me, and make me 


Religio Medici 

think I am within his arms. I thank God for mv 
happy dreams, as I do for my good rest; for there ^ 
a satisfaction m them unto reasonable desires, and 
fn^i^".*^ ^ content with a fit of happiness and 
surely It is not a melancholy conceit to think we are 
all asleep in this World, and that the conceitl of^Ss 
wf,T " nieer dreams to those of the next ; as the 
J^antasms of the night, to the conceits of the day 
There is an equa^ delusion in both, and the one doi 
Dut seem to be the embleme or picture of the other • 
we are somewhat more than our selves in our sleeps! 
and the slumber of the body seems to be but tiie 
r^,"^ °^ '?" ^'^- ^t " ^ "nation of sense, but 
mff i ^'Yfu ''-^^°° * ^"/ """^ "^^S conceptions do 
not match the Fancies of our sleeps. At my Nativity 
my Ascendant was the watery sign of Scorpius; I 
was bom in the Planetary hour of Saturn, and I^Lik 
I have a piece of that Leaden Planet in me. I am no 
way facebous, nor disposed for the mirth and galliard- 

wh„?;r°'°^^i r^>,°''* ^^"^ ^ <^ compose a 
whole Comedy, behold the action, apprehend the jests, 
Md laugh my self awake at the conceits thereof 

S n ^r'y ^' ^^*^"' ^^ -"y «ason is then 
fruitful, I would never study but in my dreams; and 
this time also would I chui for my devotions: C 
T^^' memories have then so little hold of our 
abstracted undersfmdmgs, that they forget the story, 
and can only relate to our awaked souli, a confused 

whn Wk'° *^^ °^ '^' '}^' ^^'^ P--^^''^- Aristotle, 
who hath wntten a smgular Tract 0/ SUtb, hath not 
methinks, throughly denned it ; nor /et GaKn7thoS°h 
he seem to have corrected it; for those Noctalnbuloes 
aad mght-waJkers, though in their sleep, do yet inioy 
fWth °°-°^ their senses. We must therefore iay 
that there IS something m us that is not in the juris- 
diction of Morpheus; and that those abstracted and 
ecstatick souls do walk about in their own coips^ 
spirits with the bodies they assume, wherein they^se'em 
to hear, see, and feel, though indeed the Org^s are 
destitute of sense, and their natures of those faculties 


Religio Medici 85 

that should mform them. Thus it is observed, that 
men sometimes, upon the hour of their departure, do 
speak and reason above themselves ; for then the soul, 
beginning to be freed from the ligaments of the body, 
begins to reason like her self, and to discourse in a 
strain above mortality. 

We term sleep a death ; and yet it is waking that 
kills us, and destroys those spirits that are the house 
of life. 'Tis indeed a part of life that best expresseth 
death ; for every man truely lives, so long as he acts 
his nature, or some way makes good the faculties of 
himself. Themistocles, therefore, that slew his Soldier 
in his sleep, was a merciful Executioner : 'tis a kind of 
punishment the mildness of no laws hath invented : I 
wonder the fancy of Lucan and Seneca did not 
discover it. It is that death by which we may be 
literally said to dye daily ; a death which Adam dyed 
before his mortality ; a death whereby we live a 
middle and moderating point between life and death : 
in fine, so like death, I dare not trust it without my 
prayers, and an half adieu tmto the World, and take 
my farewel in a Colloquy with God. 

The night is come, like to the day, 
Depart not Thou, great God, away. not my sins, blacit as the night. 
Eclipse the lustre of Ttiy light : 
Keep still in my Horiion ; for to me 
The Snn makes not the day, but Thee. 
Thou, Whose nature cannot sleep. 
On my temples Gentry keep ; 
Guard me.'gainst those watchful foes, 
Whose eyes are open while mine ctoii^. 
Let no dreams my head infest. 
But such as Jacob's temples blest. 
While I do rest, my Soul advance ; 
Make my sleep a holy trance ; 
That I may, my rest being wrought, 
Awake into some holy thought ; 
And with as active vigour run 
My course, as doth the nimble Sun, 
Sleep is a death : O make me try, 
By sleeping, what it is to die ; 
And as gently lay my head 
On my grave, as now my bed. 


86 Religio Medici 

Howere I ntt, grest God. let ma 
Awake again at last with Tliee : 
And thus aisur'd, behold I lie 
Securely, or to awake or die. 
These are my drowsie days : in vain 
I do now wake to sleep again • 
O come that hour, when I shall never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever. 

^w't ^"^ '^°™ative I take to bedward ; I need no 
other Laudanum than this to make me s eeo^ aC 

The mp?W T u ' M*^ ^'^^P ™*° t''« Resurrection. 
„hi„ ™*od.I should use in distributive Justice I 
often observe m commutative; and keep a Geot^et 

&&!:%""? *° <=-^-dict and cross m^ 
= ^t i u. ^®' ^^ance seems not so much a vice as 
a deplorable piece of madness; to conceive ou^selVS 
pipkins, or be perswaded that we are dead is not^ 

Sb°or:' r this""?.'^^^^^- ''«y-"*e power ^ 
Dosit?nnc nf • ^^^ °P">ions of Theory, and 

positions of men, are not so void of rea^n as 
their practised conclusions. Some have hSd thlt 
Snow IS black, that the earth moves, that the Soiuts 
air, fire, water; but aU this is Philos^pS^ I^d ttere s 

f.H; fr-/ '"' ^° ''"' speculate thrfoUy^d 
indisputable dotage of avarice to that subterriie^s 

WorU ador^° wrr''^''° ""y^"" *° ''°°°« *^i the 
r,n!:r *°°'^?=; whatsoever virtue its prepared sub- 
stance may have within my body, it hath nfinfluence 
nor operation without I would not entert^a b^ 
?S'. ^ f t'op.that should call me vi^, IrTe 
l^ If"^ K*^'^ °°ly do I Jove and honow my 
e^«^. * ^'',>ve methinks two arms too few to 
embrace myself. Aristotle is too severe, that wUl not 

Religio Medici 


allow us to be truely liberal without wealth, and the 
bountiful hand of Fortune. If this be true, I must 
confess I am charitable only in my liberal intentions, 
and bountiful well- wishes; but if the example of the 
Mite be not only an act of wonder, but an example of 
the noblest Charity, surely poor men may also build 
Hospitals, and the rich alone have not erected Cathe- 
drals. I have a private method which others observe 
not ; I take the opportunity of my self to do good ; I 
borrow occasion of Charity from mine own necessities, 
and supply the wants of others, when I am in most 
need my self: for it is an honest stratagem to take 
advantage of our selves, and so to husband the acts of 
vertue, Siat, where they are defective in one circum- 
stance, they may repay their want and multiply their 
goodness in anotiier. I have not Peru in my desires, 
but a competence, and ability to perform those good 
works to which He hath inclined my nature. He is 
.-ich, who hath enough to be charitable ; and it is hard 
to be so poor, that a noble mind may not find a way 
to this piece of goodness. He that giveth to the poor, 
Undeth to the Lord : there is more Rhetorick in that 
one sentence, than in a Library of Sermons ; and 
indeed, if those Sentences were understood by the 
Reader, with the same Emphasis as they are delivered 
by the Author, we needed not those Volumes of 
instructions, but might be honest by an Epitome. 
Upon this motive only I cannot behold a Beggar 
without relieving his Necessities with my Purse, or 
his 'Soul with my Prayers ; these scenical and acci- 
dental differences between us, cannot make me fc "t 
that common and untoucht part of us both : tht > 
under these Centoes and miserable outsides, tlii-^e 
mutilate and semi-bodies, a soul of the same alloy 
with our own, whose Genealogy is God as well as 
ours, and in as fair a way to Salvation as our selves. 
Statists that labour to contrive a Common-wealth 
without poverty, take away the object of charity, not 
understanding only the Common-wealth of a Christian, 
but forgetting the prophecie of Christ. 


Religio Medici 

shadow of Himfelf Nor U 'w f "'^T * ^'^^ o-" 

o^inJ^s deserlLtTt thTh^l'""^* "f"^^^ affection of 
Thus we Svir^'^o^T^^l '° P"'/* *'*^«- 
she be invisible- thu?;w"^!L°r*^ ^^^ °^ s«°se 
that we love b^ot tut Prtt^^°"' ''°^J* ^"'"'^^ 
that insensible part tlS our a™. "^ "".^'''^^ ''"' 

us a;fo^'?J:„*fe^*!°°/, ^°»'i of affection betwei'n 
betake our .,«j"s to k wom^ f'^'^l ^'^^^''^ ' We 

Religio Medici 


summum bonum is a Chimxra, and there is no such 
thing as his Felicity. That wherein God Himself is 
happy, the holy Angels are happy, in whose defect 
the Devils are unhappy, that dare I call happiness : 
whatsoever conduceth unto this, may with an easy 
Metaphor deserve that name; whatsoever else the 
World terms Happiness, is to me a story out of Pliny, 
a tale of Boccace or Malizspini, an apparition, or neat 
delusion, wherein there is no more of Happiness than 
the name. Bless me in this life with but peace of my 
Conscience, command of ray affections, the love of 
Thy self and my dearest friends, and I shall be happy 
enough to pity Caesar. These are, O Lord, the 
humble desires of my most reasonable ambition, and 
all I dare call happiness on earth ; wherein I set no 
rule or limit to Thy Hand or Providence. Dispose of 
Tie according to the wisdom of Thy pleasure : Thy 
will be done, though in my own undomg. 



URNE buriall; or, a discoursb of thb sbpulchrall 




•he is to be burieT? who h,?h ^i" ^""f- "^ '^'■•' "^^ 
or whither th^l ^''^ ^t^^.f'^? °l^}? "h-- 
many lie like thTV,,,,^ scattered ? The ReUques of 
the Lrth • And wh«r»°/ Pompeys,! in all pirts of 
these mfy'se^^'totave SrK wH ^9" 5?»ds, 

K due^-ito v^rti''^"'"^^^ -"^ 

sepulchral PitXrs ^h.Vh ? *^^^ ■"« ^ a°d 
silently expr^t^ oW mort^^ t°h. '™^-'^' "tf = 
gotten times, and ^CMouTysSikh ^l' "V""^" 
•n this corruptible framfsor^a^fn^^^'K^.^ 

; Brought b, J by C,t' rXV°" '°''" "" <^"«^^- 

The Epistle Dedicatory 93 

rupted; ye* «ble to outlast bosei long unborn, and 
noDleit pyL among us.' 

We present not these a'i any strange sight or 
spectacle unknown to your eyes, who have beheld the 
best of Urnes and noblest variety of Ashes ; Who are 
yourself no slender master of Antiquities, and can 
daily command the view of so many Imperiall faces : 
Which raisetb vour thoughts unto old things, and 
consideration of times before you, when even living 
men were Antiquities ; when the living might exceed 
the dead, and to depart this world, could not be 
properly said, to go unto the greater number.' And 
so run up yotu thoughts upon the ancient of dayes, 
the Antiquaries truest object, unto whom the eldest 
parcels are young, and rjarth itseT an In&nt; and 
without .Egyptian* dccuimt makes bat smalt noise in 

We were hinted by the occasion, not catched the 
opportunity to write of old things, or intrude upon the 
Antiquary. We are coldly drawn unto discourses of 
Antiquities, who have scarce time before us to com- 
prehend new things, or make out learned Novelties. 
But seeing they arose as they lay, almost in silence 
among us, at least in short account suddenly passed 
over ; we were very unwilling they should die again, 
and be buried twice among us. 

Beside, to preserve the living, and make the dead 
to live, to keep men out of their Urnes, and discourse 
of humane fragments in them, is not impertinent unto 
our profession; whose study is life and death, who 
daily behold examples of mortality, and of all men 
least need artificial mtmettios, or coffins by our bedside, 
to minde us of our graves. 

'Tis time to observe Occurrences, and let nothing 
remarkable escape us ; The Supinity of elder dayes 
hath left so much in silence, or time hath so martj'red 

> Worthily posse that trne Gentleman, Sir Horati* 
Toumshtnd, my hone " ^nd, 

> AbiU td plum. 

' Which makes the world so many years old. 

i i ^ The Epistle Dedicatory 

thin, lid to be frtched from '^' """Pj" K'"" 
SimpUcity flies owrv!„^-" •'" P"**"* "orld. ,n u! wh^ '""'"/'y «=»'"«» « long 
ourseh from" Jr have enough to do to make uS 

S.t;g,^°<?,&',«",t srett;'™^'- •^'^ *^- 

tion. A7ompIe«tlS2ce of ™^^ w ""' '°«™«=. 

the'^oK:etgV fe,lf - :-^^^^^ 

Originals of themselves -I r^?^ ^ ^ *,'"'"» *""• 
nont here can pretend Vek^nn ^''^ °^ "?' ""«» 

now ye at their merdM .?♦ ' ^"*^}°?e obscurity, 
civilit^ they broSlht UL theJL' r"°^"''« '^' ««'y 

you. are thras/riiT' a';T\'^'^^^ 


UmeandSs, ' P™^'""' ""y^'^ «ven to 

Your ever' faithful Friend and Servant. 
Norwich, May i. Thomas Browne. 




In the deep discovery of the Subterraneui world, a 
■hallow part would satisfie some enquirers; who, if two 
or three yards were open about the surface, would not 
care to rake the bowels of Potest,^ and regions toward* 
the Centre. Nature hath furnished one part of the 
Earth, and man another. The treasures of time lie 
high, in Urnes, Coynes, and Monuments, scarce below 
the roots of some vegetables. Time hath endlesse 
rarities, and shows of ail varieties ; which reveals old 
things in heaven, makes new discoveries in earth, and 
even earth itself a discover> . That great Antiquity 
Amirica lay buried for a thousand years ; and a large 
part of the earth is still in the .me unto us. 

Though if Adam vere raade out of an extract of the 
Earth, ul parts might chal'enge a restitution, yet few 
have returned their bones iarre lower then they might 
receive them; not affecting the graves of Giants, under 
hilly and heavy coverings, but content with lesse than 
their owne depth, have wished their bones might lie 
soft, and the earth be light upon them ; Even such as 
hope to rise again, would not be content with centrall 
interrment, or so desperately to place their reliques as 
to lie beyond discovery, and in no way to be seen 
again ; which happy contrivance hath made communi- 
cation with our forefathers, and left unto our view some 
parts, which they never beheld themselves. 

Though earth hath engrossed the name yet water 
hath proved the smartest grave ; which in forty dayes 
swallowed almost mankinde, and the living creation ; 
Fishes not wholly escaping, except the Salt Ocean 

> The nch Mountain of Ptn. 



bill IkmeT'" contempered by a mixture of the 
Mm.v have taken voluminous paine to deteririne 

burning ^ ' °* ^™P'^ inhumation and 

somewhat elder in the rfeia7wa^L ^V 1 ' ^""^ 

The same practice extended also farre W«f » o^h 

most ot the Cilt^, Sarmatmns. Gcrmam, Gauls, Danes. 
' 0. CnWff. lib. i. 

Kirkt™^^**"''""'- °°'- " C.S. Coau».ntar. L. L. Gyraldus 

Urn Burial 


Swedes, Norwegians; not to omit some use thereof 
amoDg Carthaginians and Americans: Of greater An- 
tiquity among the Romans then most opinion, or Pliny 
seems to allow. For (beside the old Table Laws of 
Ijurning or burying within the City,* of making the 
Funerall fire with plained wood, or quenching the fire 
with wine.) Manlius the Consul burnt the body of his 
Son : Numa by special clause of his Will, was not 
burnt but buried ; and Remus was solemnly buried, 
according to the description of Ovid.^ 

Cornelius Sylla was not the first whose body was 
burned in Rome, but of the Cornelian family; which, 
being indifferently, not frequently used before ; from 
that time spread, and became the prevalent practice. 
Not totally pursued in the highest runne of Cremation ; 
For when even Crows were fiinerally burnt, Poppaa 
the wife of Nero found a peculiar grave enterment. 
Now as all customes were founded upon some bottome 
of Reason, so there wanted not grounds for this; 
according to severall apprehensions of the most rational! 
dissolution. Some being of the opinion of Tholes, that 
water was the originall of all things, thought it most 
equall to submit unto the principle of putrefaction, and 
conclude in a moist relentment. Others conceived it 
most natural to end in fire, as due unto the master 
principle in the composition, according to the doctrine 
of Heraclitus. And therefore heaped up large piles, 
more actively to waft them toward that Element, 
whereby they also declined a visible degeneration into 
worms, and left a lasting parcell of their composition. 

Some apprehended a purifying virtue in fire, refining 
the grosser commixture, and firing out the iEthereall 
particles so deeply immersed in it And such as by 
tradition or rationall conjecture held any hint of the 

> 12 TabuL part i. de jure sacro. Hominem mortuum in urbe 
ne sepelito, neve urito, torn. 3. Rogum asci<l ne polito, to. 4. 
Item vigeneri Annotat. in Livium, et Alex ab Alex cum Tira- 
quello. Roscinus cum dempstero. 

> Ultimo prolato subdita flamma rogo. De Fast, lib, iv, cum 
Car. Neapof. Anaptyxi. 



finall pyre of all things ; or that this Element at last 
must be too hard for all the rest ; might conceive most 
naturally of the fiery dissolution. Others pretending 
no natural grounds, politickly declined the malice of 
enemies upon their buried bodies. Which considerar 
tion led Sylla unto this practise; who having thus 
served the body of Marius, could not but fear a retalia- 
tion upon his own ; entertained after in the Civill wars, 
and revengeful contentions of Ropu. 

But as many Nations embraced, and many left it 
indifferent, so others too much affected, or strictly 
declined this practice. The Indian ^rachmans seemed 
too great firiends unto fire, who bu' themselves alive, 
and thought it the noblest way to end their dayes in 
fire ; according to the expression of the Indian, burning 
himself at Athens,^ in his last words upon the pyre unto 
the amazed spectators. Thus I make mysdfe immortall. 

But the Chttideans, the great Idolaters of fire, abhorred 
the burning of their carcasses, as a pollution of that 
Deity. The Persian magi declined it upon the like 
scruple, and being only solicitous about their bones, 
exposed their flesh to the prey of Birds and Dogges. 
And the Persas now in India, which expose their txidies 
unto Vultures, and endure not so much as feretra or 
Beers of Wood, the proper fuell of fire, are led on with 
such niceties. But whether the ancient Germans, who 
burned their dead, held any such fear to pollute their 
Deity of Herihus, or the earth, we have no Authentick 

The .■Egyptians were afraid of fire, not as a Deity, 
but a devouring Element, mercilessly consuming their 
bodies, and leaving too little of them ; and therefore by 
precious Embalments, depositure in dry earths, or 
handsome inclosure in glasses, contrived the notablest 
wayes of integrall conservation. And from such 
^Egyptian scruples imbibed by Pythagoras, it may be 
conjectured that Numa and the Pythagoricall Sect first 
waved the fiery solution. 

' And therefore the Inscription of his Tomb was made accord- 
ingly.— ATu, Damau. 

Urn Burial 


The ScyiUans who swore by winde and sword, that 
is, by life and death, were so farre from burning their 
bodies, that they declined all interrment, and made 
their graves in the ayr : and the Uhthyophagi or fish- 
eating Nations about Mf^t, affected the Sea for their 
grave: Thereby declining visible corruption, and 
restoring the debt of their bodies. Whereas the old 
Heroes in Homer, dreaded nothing more than water or 
drowning ; probably upon the old opinion of the fiery 
substance of the soul, only extinguishable by that 
Element; And therefore the Poet emphatically implieth 
' the totall destruction in this kinde of death, which 
happened to Ajax Oileus.^ 

The old Balearians' had a peculiar mode, for they 
used great Umes and much wood, but no fire in their 
burials, while they bruised the flesh and bones of the 
dead, crowded them into Umes, and laid heapes of 
wood upon them. And the CAmois 'without cremation 
or umall interrment of their bodies, make use of trees 
and much burning, while they plant a Pine-tree by 
their grave, and bum {:!->^it numbers of printed 
draughts of slaves and hor»es over it, civilly content 
with their companies in effigie which barbarous 
Nations exact v nto reality. 

Christians abhorred this way of obsequies, and 
though they stickt not to give their bodies to be burnt 
in their lives, detested that mode after death ; affecting 
rather a depositure than absumption, and properly 
submitting unto the sentence of God, to return not 
unto ashes but unto dust againe, conformable unto 
the practice of the Patriarchs, the interrment of our 
Saviour, of Peter, Paul, and the ancient Martyrs. And 
so farre at last declining promiscuous interrment with 
Pagans, that some have suffered Ecclesiastical cen- 
sures for making no scruple thereof.* 

The Musselman beleevers will never admit this fiery 

' Which Magius reades l^an-iXiAe. 
" Diodons Sicitlus. 

• Ramusins in Navigat. 

* MurliaUs the Bishop. Cyprian. 

100 Hydriotaphia 

resolution. For they hold a present trial from their 
black and white Angels in the grave; which they 
must have made so hollow, that they may rise upon 
, their knees. 

The Jewish Nation, though they entertamed the old 
way of inhumation, yet sometimes admitted this prac- 
tice. For the men of Jabesh burnt the body of Saul. 
And by no prohibited practice to avoid contagion or 
pollution, in time of pestilence, burnt the bodies of 
their friends.' And when they burnt not their dead 
bodies, yet sometimes used great burnings neare and 
about them, deducible from the ex t- sessions concern- 
ing Jehoram, Sedcchias, and the sumptuous pyre of Asa: 
And were so little averse from Pagan burning, that 
the Jews lamenting the death of Casar their friend, 
and revenger on Pompey, frequented the place where 
his body was burnt for many nights together.* And 
as they raised noble Monuments and Mausolaum:: for 
their own Nation,' so they were not scrupulous ,in 
erectmg some for others, according to the practice of 
Daniil, who left that lasting sepulchrall pyle in Echba- 
tana, for the Median and Persian Kings.* 

But even in times of subjection and hottest use, 
they conformed not unto the Romane practice of burn- 
ing ; whereby the Prophecy was secured concerning 
the body of Christ, that it should not see corruption, 
or a bone should not be broken ; which we beleeve 
was also providentially prevented, from the Souldiert 
spear and nails that past by the little bones both in 
his hands and feet : Not of ordinary contrivance, that 
it should not corrupt on the Crosse, according to the 
Laws of Romane crucifixion, or an hair of his head 
perish, though observable in Jewish customes, to cut 
the hairs of Malefactors. 

> Amos vi. 10. • SvetoH. in vitajirf. Cas. 

' ' > that magnificent sepulcliral Monument erected by Simon, 

• Macli. i. 13. , , , u T,^ . 

* KarairiciimriM 0aiiim>rlm vtnroniiiirw. vbereot a Jewish Pnest 
had alwayes the custody, unto Josiphut his dayes.— /os. Antiq. 
lib. z. 

Urn Burial loi 

Nor in their long co-habitation ■with Egyptians, 
crept into a custome of their exact embalming, wherein 
deeply slashing the muscles, and taking out the brains 
and entrails, they had broken the subject of so entire 
a Resurrection, nor fully answered the types of Enoch, 
Elijah, or Jonah, which yet to prevent or restore, was 
of equall facility unto that rising power, able to break 
the fasciations and bands of death, to get clear out of 
the Cerecloth, and an hundred pounds of oyntment, 
and out of the Sepulchre before the stone was rolled 
from it. . ■ r 

But though they embraced not this practice of 
burning, yet entertained they many ceremonies agree- 
able unto Greeke and Romane obsequies. And he that 
observeth their funerall Feasts, their Lamentations at 
the grave, their musick and weeping mourners ; how 
they closed the eyes of their friends, how they washed, 
anointed, and kissed the dead ; may easily conclude 
these were not meere Pagan-Civilities. But whether 
that moumfuU burthen, and treble calling out after 
Absalom,ha.d any reference unto the last conclamation, 
and triple valediction, used by other Nations, we hold 
but a wavering conjecture. 

Civilians make sepulture but of the Law of Nations, 
others doe naturally found it and discover it also in 
animals. They that are so thick skinned as still to 
credit the story of the Phoenix, may say something for 
animall burning : More serioi's conjectures finde some 
examples of sepulture in elephants, cranes, the sepulchrall 
Cells of Pismires, and practice of Bees ; which civill 
society carrieth out their dead, and hath exequies, if 
not interrments. 


The Solemnities, Ceremonies, Rites of their Crema- 
tion or enterrment, so solemnly delivered by Authours, 
we shall not disparage our Reader to repeat. Only 
the 1- 5t and lasting part in their Urns, collected bones 
and Ashes, we cannot wholly omit or decline that 


102 Hydriotaphia 

Subject, which occasion lately presented, in some dis- 
covered among us. 

In a Field of old Walsingham, not many monetbs 
past, were_ digged up between fourty and fifty Urnes, 
deposited in a dry and sandy soil, not a yard deep, nor 
farre from one another : Not all strictly of one figure, 
but most answering these described : some containing 
two pounds of bones, distinguishable in skulls, ribs, 
jawes, thigh-bones, and teeth, with fresh impressions 
of their combustion. Besides the extraneous sub- 
stances, like paeces of small boxes, or combes hand- 
somely wrought, handles of small brasse instruments, 
brazen nippers, and in one some kinde of Opale.* 

Near the same plot of ground, for about six yards 
compasse, were digged up coals and incinerated sub- 
stances, which begat conjecture that this was the 
Ustrina or place of burning their bodies, or &ome sacri- 
ficing place unto the Manes, which was properly below 
the surface of the ground, as the Ara and Altars unto 
the gods and Heroes above it. 

That these were the urnes of Romanes bom the 
common custome and place where they were found, is 
bo obscure conjecture, not farre fi-om a Romane Garri- 
son, and but five Miles from Brancoiter, set down by 
ancient Record under the name of Brannodunum. And 
where the adjoyning Towne, containing seven Parishes, 
in no very different sound, but Saxon Termination, 
still retains the name of Bumham, which being an 
early station, it is not improbable the neighbour parts 
were filled with habitations, either of Romanes them- 
selves, or Brittains Romanised, which observed the 
Romane custcns. 

Nor is it improbable, that the Romanes early pos- 
sessed this Countrey; for though we meet not with 
such strict particulars of these parts before the new 
Institution of Constantine, and military charge of the 
Count of the Saxon shore, and that about the Saxon 
Invasions, the Dalmaiian Horsemen were in the Garri- 

' In one sent me by my worthy friend, Dr. Thontxs WithtrUy 
of Walsingham, 

Urn Burial 


T« LfT"^'' ^i' j° *•"• ^""> °^ Claudius, V>sta. 
Stan, and Stverus, we finde no lesse than three Legions 

t^TiH'''^^^ t;.o Province o{ Brittain. Ifdll 
high as the Reign of Claudius a great overthrow was 

hTin K °* '°¥ ^,^'^'' *" Cointrey was so molested, 
tnat in hope of a better state, Prasiaagus bequeathed 
h^s Kingdome tmto A^^ ^d his Dlughters ; and 
Boaduca, ms Queen fought the last decisive Battle 

7^icL"'fr-T -^^^^ ^^^I" *™" ^d Conquest of 
ilf t" n*"* Lieutenant of K«/a5M», probaSle it is 

tL^f^ ^T^"'^ -'^^ <=°™''«y> °^dering it Lto 
Garrisons or Habitations best suitable with their 

.wlow ^°i*° ^""^ ^"""^e HabiUtions, not 
improbable in these parts, as high as the time of V,s- 
Pastan, where the Sa*o« after seated, in those thin-fiU'd 
^appes we yet finde the Name ot Walsingham. Now 

Lf T T- '"^"' ^"', (^'""'^i'«>. Anconiaus, or me, 
that lived m an angle, wedge, or Elbow ot Brittain 
according to the Originall Itymologie, this coS 
wUl challenge the Emphaticall appelktion, as mos^ 
proper y making the Elbow or Iken of 7«»,a. 

frnm thf/"'"" ""^ ""'^^'^ P°P"Jo"s is Undeniable, 
from that expression of Casar.^ That the Rom>^s 
«iemselves were early in no small Numbers Se^y 
Thousand, with their associats slain by BcJ^l 
affords a sure account. And though many Rm2 
habitations are now knowne, yet some by old works! 
Kampiers, Coyns. and Umes, doe testifie their Pos- 
sessions. Some Urnes have been found at CasiZ, 
some also about Southcreake, and not many years nast 

Coynes of Copper and SUver among us ; of Vesbasian. 
I raj an, Adrian, Commdus, Antoninus, Smnis, Sic. But 

,„" ^°i^* *'''°'""^ °^ "y *°"i'y f"e°d Rob. 7«?™, Esq wherein 

104 Hydriotaphia 

the greater number of DioeUsian, CtntitmUnt, Consians, 
Valms, with many of Viclorinus Posthumius, Tiiricui, 
and the thirty Tyrants in the Reigne of Gallienus ; and 
some as high as Adrianus have been found about 
Thttford, or Sitomagus, mentioned in the itinerary of 
Antoninus, as the way from Vmta or Castor unto 
London.' But the most frequent discovery is made 
at the two Casters by Norwich and YarmonthfaX Burgh- 
castle, and Brancaster.' 

Besides the Norman, Saxon, and Danish peeces of 
Cuthred, Canutus, William, Matilda,* and others, some 
Brittish Coynes of gold have been dispersedly found ; 
and no small number of silver peeces near Norwich ;> 
with a rude head upon the obverse, and an ill formed 
horse on the reverse, with inscriptions U. Duro. T. ; 
whether implying Iceni, Durotriges, Tascia, or Trino- 
bantes, we leave to higher conjecture. Vulgar Chro- 
nology will Norwich Castle as old as Julius Casar; 
but his distance from these parts, and its Gothick form 
of structure, abrid(;eth sudi Antiquity. The British 
Coyns afford conjecture of early habitation in these 
parts, though the City of Norwich arose from the 
mines of Venta, and though perhaps not without some 
habitation before, was enlarged, builded, and nominated 
by the Saxons. In what bulk or populosity it stood 
in the old East-Angle Monarchy tradition and history 
are silent. Considerable it was in the Danish Erup- 
tions, when Sueno burnt Theiford and Norwich,* and 

> From Castor to Theiford the Romanes accounted thirty-two 
miles, and from thence observed not our common road toLondon, 
bat passed by Combretonium ad Ansam, Cattonium,Casaromagus, 
&^. by Brttmham, CoggeshaU, Chelmeford, Bumtwood, &c, 

' Most at Caster by Yarmouth, found in a place called East- 
bloudyburgh furlong, belonging to Mr. Thomas wood, a person of 
civility, industry and knowledge in this way, who hath made 
observation of remarkable t^^'-^s about him, and from whom we 
have received divers Silvf i Copper Coynes. 

' Belonging to that Nome Gentleman, and true example of 
worth, Sir Ralph Hare, Baronet, my honoured Friend. 

* A peece of Maud, the Empresse, said to be found in Budim- 
ham Castle, with this Inscription, EUe n' a die. 

' At Thorpe. ' Brampton Abhas Journalltiuis. 

ill ' 

Urn Burial 


Vlfkttil, the Governour thereof, was able to make 
some resistance, and after endeavoured to burn the 
Danuh navy. 

How the Romants left so many Coynes in Countreys 
OJ tbexr Conquests, seems of hard resolution, except 
we consider how they buried them under ground when 
upon barbarous mvasions they were fain to desert 
their habitations in most part of their Empire, and the 
stnctness of their laws forbidding to transfer them to 
any other uses ; wherein the Sfarians^ were singular 
who, to make their Copper money uselesse, contem- 
pered it with vinegar. That the Brittaim left any. 
some wonder ; smce their money was iron and Iron 
rings before Casar; and those of after stamp by per- 
mission, and but small in bulk and bigness f that so 
tew of the Saxons remain, because, overcome by suc- 
ceeding Conquerours upon the place, their Coynes, by 
degrees, passed into other stamps and the marks of 

Than the time of these Umes deposited, or precise 
AntKjmty of these ReUques, nothing of more un! 
certamty. For since the Lieutenant of Claudim seems 
to have made the first progresse into these parts. 
smce Boadtcia was overthrown by the Forces of Wo 
and Agn,oU put a full end to these Conquests; it is 
not probable the Countrey was fully garrison'd or 
planted before ; and therefore however these Umes 
might be of later date, not likely of higher Antiquity 

And the succeeding Emperours desisted not from 
their Conquests m these and other parts; as testified 
by history and medall inscription yet extant; The 
Province of Brittain in so divided a distance from 
Jiom, beholding the faces of many Imperiall persons, 
and m large account no fewer than Casar, Claudius, 
BntanmcHS, Vespasian, Titus, Adrian, Scverus, Commdus. 
ueta, and Caracalla. 

A great obscurity herein, because no medaU or 
h-mperours Coyne enclosed, which might denote the 
date of their interrments, observable in many Umes, 
' Plut. w vild Lycurg. 



•nd found in those of Spittle Fields, by I.««Am>,* which 
contained the Coynes of Claudius, Vtspasian, Commodus, 
Antomtms, attended with Lacrymatories, Lamps, 
Bottles of Liquor, and other appurtenances of aflec- 
tionate superstition, which in these rurall interrments 
were wanting. 

Some uncertainty there is from the period or term 
of burning, or the cessation of that practise. Macro- 
bins affirmeth it was disused in his days. But most 
agree, though without authenticlt record, that it ceased 
with the Antonini. Most safely it be understood 
t fter the Reigne of those Emperours, N'vhich assumed 
the name of Antoninus, extending unto Htliogahalus, 
Not strictly after Marcus ; For about fifty years later 
we find the magnificent burning, and consecration of 
Severus; and if we so fix this period or cessation, 
these Umes will challenge above thirteen hundred 

But whether this practise was onely then left by 
Emperours and great persons, or generally about 
Rome, and not in other Provinces, we hold no authen- 
tick account. For after TtrtuUian, in the dayes of 
Minucius it was obviously obJ3cted upon Christians, 
that they condemned the practise of burning.' And 
we find a passage in Sidonius,' which asserteth that 
practise in France unto a lower account. And perhaps 
not fully disused till Christianity fully established, 
which gave the finall extinction to these sepulchrall 

Whether they were the bones of men or women or 
children, no authentick decision from ancient custome 
in distinct places of buriall. Although not improb- 
ably conjectured, that the double Sepulture or bury- 
ing place of Abraham, had in it such intention. But 
fi-om exility of bones, thinnesse of skulls, sraallnesse 
of teeth, ribbes, and thigh-bones ; not improbable 
that many thereof were persons of minor age, or 

' Slme's Survey of London. 

' RxKrantuy rogos, tt itmnint iptitm sipulturam.—l&ia. in Oct. 

' Siion. ApoUinaris. 

Urn Burial 


woman Confirm*Wa aUo from thing, contained in 

.„Ti, :, ^'"?* '*'" ^"''' ^»»"««xJ with Iron piaf 

of MusicaJl Instrument*, long brasM plates o™7 
wroutht like the handles of n^tt iS^mSnts?b« « 
nippers to puU away hair, and in one a kinde of Ooui? 
yet maintaming a blewish colour ^ ' 

thinf^v " *'"? accustomed to bum or bury with 
fe *^^^ '^^"*"" *'"y ««"«!. dolightid. or 

A^^T V'° "PP".'""^*"'' that they might ^ 
them m the other world, is testified by all Antiaui^Mr 
Observablf from the Gemme or BeriU Ring upon th^ 
finger of Cy»<Ai,, the Mistresse of pS« when 
after her Funerall Pyre her Ghost appear^ unto Wm 
And notably illustrated from the ^.^ts of Aat 
RmaH, Ume preserved by Cardinal Fam^,i whereh. 
^d r"^'*"* "umber of demmes with h^'s of G<Ss 
and Goddesses, were found an Ape of Agatk a g7^ 
hopper, an Elephant of Ambre, rCryst^Ball th^a 
glasses, two Spoones, and six'Nuts of Crystall and 

Sii'^fh"?*?.* °(, F"^' '° "-« Monument of 
ChUderKk,the first," and fourth King from Pharamcmd 
casuaUy discovered three years past at Tourna^Sr 
mg unto the world much gold richly SnlnTws 
Sword, two hundred rubies, many hundred "mLu! 

fnZI^ 1° ^'^ horse mterred with him, according 
to the barbarous magnificence of those dayes in the^r 
sepulchral Obsequies. Although if we steer by the 
tra°'e' S^reof T^ and Septua^nt expression ; L^ 
trace thereof may be found even with the ancient 

"«wV but°t°hi°.°'^ ^'°!°- "^^ Sepulchrall treas^rTo 
buried crcumcision knives which Joshua also 

Some men considering the contents of these Urnes 
lastmg peeces and toyes included in them.and the 

' Vigairi AhhoI. m 4 Lit. 
Chiffitt. m AiuHt. CkiUtr. 



custome of burning with many other Nations, might 
somewhat doubt whether all Urnes found among us, 
were properly Romaiu Reliques, or some not belonging 
unto our Briltish, Saxon, or Danish Forefathers. 

In the form of Buriall among the ancient Brittains, 
the large Discourses of Casar, Tacitut, and Strabo are 
silent : For the discovery whereof, with other parti- 
culars, we much deplore the losse of that Letter which 
Cicin expected or received from his Brother QtUntus, 
as a resolution of Brittish customes ; or the account 
which might have been made by Serihoniut Largia, the 
Physician, accompanying the Emperour Claudiiu, who 
might have also discovered that frugall Bit of the Old 
Bnttains, which in the bignesse of a Bean could satisfie 
their thirst and hunger.' 

But that the Druids and ruling Priests used to bum 
and bury, is expressed by Pemponius ; That Bellima, the 
Brother of Brennus, and King of the Brittains, was 
burnt, is acknowledged by Polydona, as also by 
Amandns Zienxmr.s t Hi'.torii, and Pineda in his 
Vniversa historia Spani&a That they held that practise 
in Gallia, Casar expressly delivereth. Whether the 
Brittains (probably descended from them, of like 
Religion, Language and Manners) did not sometimes 
make use of burning ; or whether at least such as were 
after civilized unto the Romant life and manners, con- 
formed not unto this practise, we have no historicall 
assertion or deniall. But since, from the account of 
Tacitus the Ronumis early wrought so much civility 
upon the British stock, that they brought them to 
build Temples, to wear the Gowne, and study the 
Rotnant L«ws and language, that they conformed also 
unto their religious rites and customes in burials, 
aeems no improbable conjecture. 

That burning the dead was used in Sarmatia, is 
affirmed by Gaguinus, that the Sueons and Gothlanders 
used to bume their Princes and great persons, is 
delivered by Saxo and Olaus; that this was the old 
Ctrmmt practise, is also asserted by Tacitus^ And 
' Dionii ixitrptMpir XifkiUH. in Sntn, 

Urn Burial 


though we are b«re in historical particulan of luch 
ob.«, in thU Island, or that thVSaW.^«?« ^d 

froA whZ ,h ■»<='">' Pfa«i«»; the Crman., usingit. 
irom whom they were descended. And even in /«/£.!!} 
and SUswick in Anglia Cymbnc,,, Urnes wKSe{ Zf 
found not many years before uk *"' 

an^ri ^^''"".* ","*' Northern Nations have raised 
bSr^ne thei&° ?""P"'," ^"?'" '^^" Custome o, 

mS h""^.**.?"! ^•'"^ Commanders shoSd^wa.' 

Sa-s; &;■£ str-" '»^f- S» - 

No^iif* ""».""* custome generally expired in that 
~^«J^'.J' '^i"."'.»° assured pef iod f whe her i 

computes: or whether it mighrnotT^e§ bv so^ 
^d Chnsfanity were promiscuousl/fficed^^one 
them, there is no assured conclusion. A^ut wW^h 

&om them R,?/ •"'""'S.'^d Families still derived 
.,VJ2 ^ f ■"'. *""=* "^'s custome was probablv du! 

used before their Invasion or Conquest and^ th« 
Rmams confessedly practised the ^nT\\^^,,^- 

tall upon the Romants, or Brittains Romanhid 

However, certain it is, that Umes conceivp. of no 

Roman* Onginall. are often digged up both ii «^L,? 

and Denmark, handsomely delcribed and ^t.oht^n^' 

represented by the Learn'ed Phy^cfaii'l^tSln^ 

' Rmuild, Brtndctiid4. lid fyde 

OM tVomii MtHumnta it Antiquitat. Dm. 

I lo Hydriotaphia 

in some parts of t)enmarh in no ordinary number, as 
stands delivered by Authours exactly describing those 
Countreys.* And they contained not only bones, but 
many other substances in them, as Knives, peeces of 
Iron, Brasse and Wood, and one of Norwaye a brasse 
gilded Jewes-harp. 

Nor were they confused or carelesse in disposing 
the noblest sort, while they placed large stones in 
circle about the Umes, or bodies which they interred : 
Somewhat answerable unto the monument of RoUrich 
stones in England,' or sepulcrall Monument probably 
erected by RoUo, who after conquered Normandy, Where 
'tis not improbable somewhat might be discovered. 
Mean while to what Nation or person belonged that 
large Urne found at Ashburie,' containing mighty bones, 
and a Buckler; What those large Umes found at 
Little Massingham;* or why the AngUsea Urnes are 
placed with their mouths downward, remains yet 


Playstered and whited Sepulchres were anciently 
affected in cadaverous, and corruptive Burials; and the 
rigid Jews were wont to garnish the Sepulchres of the 
righteous ;' Ulysses in Hecubaf cared not how meanly 
he lived, so he might finde a noble Tomb after death. 
Great Princes affected great Monuments, And the fair 
and llrger Umes contained no vulgar ashes, which 
makes that disparity in those which time discovereth 
among us. The present Urnes were not of one 
capacity, the largest containing above a gallon. Some 
not much above half that measure; nor all of one 
figure, wherein there is no strict conformity, in the 
same or different Countreys ; Observable from those 

1 Aiolpkus Cyfrna in AntuU. Slamc. units tuUo abunddbat coUis, 

* In Oxfordshire, Camden. 

* In Ch^ire, Tintiiu dt vJms Atbionids. 

* In Norfolk, Htttingihui. > Matt, zziii. * Evripiits. 

Urn Burial m 

r3|.:fesoT!ted by Casalius, Bosio, and others, though all 
.ound mJf.,;y; WhUe many have handles, earl, and 
Jo-g necks, out most imitate a circular figure, in a 
sjiiencall jid round composure; whether from any 
!/».;.:;-, l«st duration or capacity, were but a con- 
jecture. But the common form with necks was a 
proper figure, making our last bed like our first ; nor 
much unhke the Umes of our Nativity, while we lay 
m the nether part of the Earth,' and inward vault of 
our Microcosme, Many Umes are red, these but of a 
black colour, somewhat smooth, and dully soundine. 
which begat some doubt, whether they were burnt, or 
only baked in Oven or Sunne: According to the 
ancient way, m many bricks, tiles, pots, and tistaceous 
works; and as the word testa is properly to be taken, 
when occurring without addition: And chiefly intended 
by i'ltny, when he commendeth bricks and tiles of two 
years old, and to make them in the spring. Nor only 
these concealed peeces, but the open magnificence of 
Antiquity, ran much in the Artifice of Clay. Hereof 
the house of Mausolus was built, thus old JuMter stood 
in the CapitoU and the Staiua of HercuUs, made in the 
Keign oiTarqmmus Prisms, was extant in Plinies dayes 
ff .T^ 2? declined burning or Funeral Urnes, 
affected Coffins of Clay, according to the mode of 
i'ythagoras, a way preferred by Varro. But the spirit 
ot great ones was above these circumscriptions, affect- 
mg copper, silver, gold, and Parfhyrie Umes, wherein 
i>evtriK ay, after a serious view and sentence on that 
which should contain him.» Some of these Urnes were 
thought to have been sUvered over, from sparklines in 
several pots, with small Tinsell parcels; uncertain 
whether from the earth, or the first mixture in them 

Among these Umes we could obtain no good 
account of their coverings; only one seemed arched 
over with some kmde of brickwork. Of those found 
axauxton, some were covered with flints, some, in 
other parts, with tUes, those at Yarmouth Caster were 
' Psal. Iriii. 


112 Hydriotaphia 

dosed with Romane bricks, and some have proper 
earthen covers adapted and fitted to them. But in the 
Homericall Urne of Pairoclus, whatever was the solid 
Tegument, we finde the immediate covering to be a 
purple peece of silk : and such as had no covers might 
have the earth closely pressed into them, after which 
disposure were probably some of these, wherein we 
found the bones and ashes half mortered unto the sand 
and sides of the Urne, and some long roots of Quich, 
or Dog's-grass, wreathed about the bones. 

No Lamps, included Liquors, Lacrymatories, or 
Tear-bottles, attended these rurall Umes, either as 
sacred unto the Manes, or passionate expressions of 
their surviving friends. While with rich flames, and 
hired tears they solemnized their Obsequies, and in 
the most lamented Monuments made one part of their 
Inscriptions.' Some finde sepulchral] Vessels contain- 
ing liquors, which time hath incrassated into gellies. 
For besides these Lacrymatories, notable Lamps, 
with Vessels of Oyles, and aromaticall Liquors 
attended noble Ossuaries. And some yet retainmg a 
Vinosity,' and spirit in them, which if any have tasted 
they have farre exceeded the Palats of Antiquity. 
Liquors not to be computed by years of annuall Magis- 
trates, but by great conjunctions and the &tall periods 
of kingdomes.' The draughts of Consulary date, were 
but crude unto these, and Opitnian wine* but in the 
must unto them. 

In sundry Graves and Sepulchres, we meet with 
Rings, Coynes, and Chalices. Ancient frugality was 
so severe, that they allowed no gold to attend the 
corps, but only that which served to fasten their 
teeth.' Whether the Opaline stone in this Urne were 
burnt upon the finger of the dead, or cast into the fire 
by some afiectionate friend, it will consist with either 

> Cum tactymis fosuhrt. ' Latins, 

■ ' About five hundred years. — Plato. 

* Vinum Opiminianum annorum centum. — Patron. 

* 12 TaM. 1. xi. Dejure Siuro. Neve aurum adtUto ast quoi aurs 
4ettt4s vineti erunt im cum iilo stpeUre &• urerCt se frauds esto. 

Urn Burial 


custome. But other incinerable substances were 
found so fresh, that they could feel no sindge ?rom 
^nliin Jt^'^ I'P"" T"^- T.™ J"''^"''' t° b« wood, but 
tn ^^ '''^"' ^°'* 'V'='^ ^y ^^^ ^'"^ w« f°"°d them 
to he bone or Ivory. In their hardnesse and yellow 
colour they most resembled Box, which, in old exores 
sions found the Epithete of Eternall,i and perhaps ?n 
such conservatories might have passed uncorrupted. 
<; u rf/,"'^^"^^ "^^'^ ^"^"^ g'een in the Tomb of 
LuJT"^' ^"'- ^".''""dred and fifty years w^ 
looked upon as miraculous. Remarkable it was unto 

?^JPf' fr- *■'** '^t *=yP'«^« "f the temple of 
^a«o, lasted so many hundred years: The wood of 
the Ark and Olive Ilod of ^<«4 were dde7at the 
Captmty. But the Cypresse of the Ark of iV<,«A, was 

decSfv"'^"*"^'' ^°'"''"''?' ^ ^'^^"^ -"« °° 
„!•! 1 \,y ^?* fragments of it in his dayes. To 
pmit the Moore-logs and firre-trees found under-grouud 

l^-Jr^fl ^T^ °^ ^l^^*^' *« ""dated ruines of 
vnndes, flouds. or earthquakes ; and which in Flandm 

n„ • ^"'"u '^''^ '5"^'='^ t^'^y ^«". as generally 
mg w a North-East position.' ^ 

,..^"i*''°"t^''7® ^""""^ °°* ^^^^ P«eces to be Wood. 
aCt^^ *f ^''* We>°3ion, yet we missed ^ot 
altogether of some wocdy substance ; For the bones 
rmonrM° ='^i'yP'<='^- b"t some coals were founa 
amongst them ; A way to make wood perpetuall, and 

tinn /°»^J^' ^°' ™J.4 w'^^^O" was laid the founda- 
A "fu""? ^'-^^^ Bphtsian Temple, and which were 
™±*^'wKM°« *'=^*', °^ "'"^ boundaries and L^nd! 
Ohc» ,.Wh>lest we ook on these, we admire not 
Observations of Coals found fresh, after four hundred 
years.* In a long-deserted habitation" even efrg-shells 
have been found fresh, not tending to corruption. 
In the Monument of King Childtrick the Iron 

Inlir (i\a ixawTJ numeral Thiophrtstus. 

' Plin. I. xvL 
* Surius, 

' Gorop. Buanus in Niloicopio 
' OlBmnguccio nilki fyrotichnia. 
At Elmhani. 

114 Hydriotaphia 

Reliques were found all rust^ and crumbling into 
peeces. But our little Iron pms which fastened the 
Ivory works, held well together, and lost not their 
Magneticall quality, though wanting a tenacious 
moisture for the firmer union of parts, although it be 
hardly drawn into fusion, yet that metall soon sub- 
mittet'i unto rust and dissolution. In the brazen 
peeces we admired not the duration, but the freedome 
from rust, and ill savour ; upon the hardest attrition, 
but now exposed unto the piercing atomes of ayre ; in 
the space of a few moneths, they begin to spot and 
betray their green entrals. We conceive not these 
Umes to have descended thus naked as they appear, 
or to have entred their graves without the old habit of 
flowers. The Urne of Philopamen was so laden with 
flowers and ribbons, that it afforded no sight of itself. 
The rigid Lycurgus allowed Olive and Myrtle. The 
Athenians might fairly except against the practise of 
Democritus, to be buried up in honey ; as fearing to 
embezzle a grei^ commodity of their Countrey, and 
the best of that kinde in Europe. But Plato seemed 
too frugally politick, who allowed no larger Monument 
than would contain for Heroick Verses, and designed 
the most barren ground for sepulture: Though we 
cannot commend the goodnesse of that sepiUchrall 
ground which was set at no higher rate then the mean 
salary of Judas. Though the earth had confounded 
the ashes of these Ossuaries, yet the bones were so 
smartly burnt, that some thin plates of brasse were 
found half melted among them : whereby we appre- 
hend they were not of the meanest carcasses, perfunc- 
torily fired as sometimes in military, and commonly in 
pestilence, burx.ings; or after the manner of abject 
corps, hudled forth and carelessly burnt, without the 
Esquiline Fort at Rome; which was an affront con- 
tinued upon Tiberius, while they but half burnt his 
body,' and in the amphitheatre, according to the custome 
in notable Malefactors ; whereas Nero seemed not so 

' SutUm, i» vM Tib. 

Bt in tmfhilkeatn stmiusttUmdum, not. 

Urn Burial 


ri1.n T °°' *^.'* '° "«>' '^•th bones, f he senS 

I Surfoit. iH nita Domitian. 
An^n.^^" """' '^'^^^ ""J «°«hy Mr. M. C«a„J„, „poa 

..oo/2;^nr?Si;'ng Gl^'Th'S'-^lS' Feasts. „hen „en 
knife in their hand!, re^'t^cnt it ih,^^J '".* ^°P'' ""* « 
away, wherein if they Sthev lit ,h.° v" "°'"' ^'^'s reUed 
of their .pectators.-^}S5 ' "**" '""' ^ ""• '"Kb'" 



antick peeces : Where we finde D. MA it is obvious 
to meet with sacrificing patera's and vessels of libation, 
upon old sepulchrall Monumenta In the Jewish 
Hypegteum' and subterranean Cell at Rome, was little 
observable beside the variety of Lamps, and frequent 
draughts of the holy Candlestick. In authentick 
draughts of Anthony and Jerome we meet with thigh- 
bones and deaths-heads; but the cemeterial Cels of 
ancient Christians and Martyrs, were filled with 
draughts of Scripture Stories; not declining the 
flourishes of Cypresse, Palmes, and Olive; and the 
mysticall Figures of Peacocks, Doves and Cocks. 
But iterately affecting the pourtraits of Enoch, Lazarus, 
Jonas, and the Vision of Exechiel, as hopefull draughts, 
and hinting imagery of the Resurrection ; which is the 
life of the grave, and sweetens our habitations in the 
Land of Moles and Pismires. 

Gentile Inscriptions precisely delivered the extent 
of mens lives, seldome the manner of their deaths, 
which history itself so often leaves obscure in the 
records of memorable persons. There is scarce any 
Philosopher but dies twice or thrice in Laertius ; Nor 
almost any life without two or three deaths in Plu- 
tarch; which makes the tragicall ends of noble persons 
more favourably resented by compassionate Readers, 
who finde some relief in the Election of such differ- 

The certainty of death is attended with uncertainties, 
in time, manner, places. The variety of Monuments 
hath often obscured true graves; and cenotaphs con- 
founded Sepulchres. For beside their reall Tombs, 
many have found honorary and empty Sepulchres. 
The variety oi Homers Monuments made him of various 
Countreys. Euripides* had his Tomb in Africa, but 
his sepulture in Macedonia. And Severus* found his 
real Sepulchre in Rome, but his empty grave in 

> Diis manibus. 

* PaustH. in Attieis. 

- Bosio. 

* Lcmfrii. in vit. Alixand. Seviri, 

Urn Burial ny 

n, M *''* ^'■°"°'' " reasonably resumed from h • 
m ns''S"°Th^' ""^"^ ^*''"=,''^^ "°' RichesTdo™ 
S "anlfe'ed^nVre'd^d °Itt iT^" ^°* *» 
take that which no„°e comSs tV o^°*a"J"„'o m^^" 
.3 wronged where no man is posseLor ' ° ""^ 

^B^^LV^" y"' '''"P" ^ tl^i^ ""■» '''"»''«'» and 
aged anders, were petty magick to exnerimpnt . t-u 

th^ It might have instructed Persia. '=°rap'ete, 

H,:ic °^ historian of the other world, lies twelve 
dayes incorrupted. while his soul was viewinTth! 
large stations of the dead. How to keep tZLm^ 
seven dayes from corruption by anoiming a^d wasS 
without exenteration, were an hazardabfelSf if ' 
m our choicest practise. How th^t ,^i^j°l- ! 
^^ation of bo4 and-ashes°Trom%e^l5m1x^r:' 
hath found no historical! solution. Though fW 

StL'is'L' ''f"'' collection, and ^vfrlooke'J 
hi fi-^^r ^- ^^°™^ provision they might make 
by fictile Vessels, Coverings, Tiles, o? flat stones! 

' Trajanus— Z3io» 

Bnfmniahtidu urn attoniti ulOral tantis c«im^Ji. .,S !: *' 
Firsts vidtri fssit.—Plin. I. 29. "rimonm, ut iedtsse 



upon and about the body. And i;> ^he same Field, 
not farre from these Urnes, many siones were found 
under ground, as also by carefull separation of ex- 
traneous matter, composing and raking up the burnt 
bones with forks, observable in that notable lamp of 
Galvanus.^ Mariianus, who had the sight of the Vas 
Uttrinum' or vessell wherein they burnt the dead, 
found in the Esquiline Field at Rom, might have 
afforded clearer solution. But their insatisfaction 
herein begat that remarkable invention in the Funerall 
Pyres of some Princes, by incombustible sheets made 
with a texture of Asbestos, incremable flax, or Sala- 
mander's wool, which preserved their bones and ashes 

How the bulk of a man should sink into so few 
pounds of bones and ashes, may seem strange unto 
any who considers not its constitution, and how 
slender a masse will remain upon an open and urging 
fire of the carnall composition. Even bones them- 
selves reduced into ashes, do abate a notable propor- 
tion. And consisting much of a volatile salt, when 
that is fired out, make a light kind of cinders. Although 
their bulk be disproportionable to their weight, when 
the heavy principle of Salt is fired out, and the Earth 
almost only remaineth ; Observable in sallow, which 
makes more Ashes than Oake; and discovers the 
common fraud of selling Ashes by measure, and not 
by ponderation. 

Some bones make best Skeletons,' some bodies 
quick and speediest ashes. Who would expect a 
quick flame from Hydropicall Heracliius ? The 
poysoned Souldier, when his Belly brake, put out two 
pyres in Plutarch* But in the plague of Athtiis,^ one 
private pyre served two or three intruders ; and the 

' To be seen in Licit, de riccndiiis vitmun lucimis. 

' Typograph. Roma ex Martiano. Erat it vas iislriK»m appelhtum, 
qmi in to cadavera camburertntur. Cap. dt Campo Esquilino. 

' Old bones according to Lyserus. Those of young persons not 
tall nor fat according to Columbus. 

« in vita Gracc. • Tkucydidis. 

Urn Burial 


5flw«M buiBt m large heaps, by the King of CastiU > 
shewed how little Fuell sufeceth. though the 
l^rJ!^} Py" of Pa/w/«, took up an hundre^f^t « , 

^f^Zf^ ^' ^'J?' ^"^^'y • A°d « the burthen 
™r,tT- " sufficient for an holocaust, a man may 
carry his owne pyre. ' 

^^^f""!"-"^'' *"■.* '^"'^ 8°°^ burning lights, and 
Cur se^^"'"? '"^ ''""'"K :• Though^heVmiSl 
fiumour seems of a contrary nature to fire, yet the 

fi^VnH?Pfl"'"'* proves a combustible lump Xr"n 
almo^f f ^""n "^^"^ ^°'" ^°^' ""d some fuell 
te-f^'" ''".P'"^^. Though the MetroMh o 

render the sciUls of these Urnes lesse burned than 

Tn all h^r- ^u' '^i^'^' °' '^^' »^f°« fire ahno^ 
JL iff.n Ki ''■'? **"* '=°'"™°" ligament is dissolved, 

calx "rashes * ^ ' """ '"' '"'"^'*'' *° =°^' 
To burn the bones of the King of Edom for lime,' 
seems no irrationall ferity ; But to drink of the ashes 
hpf h ♦t '^^^^}°°^' f passionate prodigality. He that 
hath the ashes of his friend, hath* an' everlasting 
enters-'lnt""'* ^""'t^^'^ l«»ve, corruption slowl^ 
ft J^f f •„ ^°°^^ "^f". ''"™'' ^'^ '°«J'« a wall against 
S "''P^f^ented f .copels. and tests of metals 
which consist of such ingredients. What the Sun 
compoundeth, fire analyseth, not transmuteth. That 
thTE^rth^ ''T' '?^^f!,?''"°st always a morsell for 
S"f;-^^"°^^"*^"S^ ^^ ^"t a colonie; and 
which, If time permits, the mother Element will have 
in their primitive masse again. 

He that looks for Urnes and old sepulchrau religues 
must not seek them in the mines of TempU : Xre 
r. ,^-' ^!?° anciently placed ihem. These were found 
ma tield, according to ancient custome, iii noble or 
private bunall ; the old practise of the Ca„aamUs%hl 

' Laurmt. Valla. 

• Spcran. Alb. Ovor. 

• Amos ii. i, 

• As Arttmisia of her husband Mauiolut 

'E/ccLTiiurtSo' Ma 1j Ma. 
* The brain. Hiffocrata. 

I20 Hydriotaphia 

Family of Abraham, and the burying-place of Josua, in 
the borders of his possessions ; and also agreeable 
unto Roman practice to bury by hiehwayes, whereby 
their Monumeuts were under eye ; Memorials of them- 
selves, and memento's of mortality unto living pas- 
sengers ; whom the Epitaphs of great ones were fain 
to beg to stay and look upon them; A language 
though sometimes used, not so proper in Church- 
InscriptioDs.i The sensible Rhetorick of the dead, to 
exemplarity of good life, first admitted the bones of 
pious men, and Martyrs within Church wals ; which 
in succeeding ages crept into promiscuous practise. 
While Constantiiu was peculiarly favoured to be 
admitted into the Church Porch ; and the first thus 
buried in England was in the dayes of Cuthred. 

Christians dispute how their bodies should lye in 
the grave.' In urnall inte rment they clearly escaped 
this controversie ; though we decline the Religious 
consideration, yet in cemiteriall and narrower burying- 
places, to avoid confusion and crosse position, a certain 
posture were to be admitted; which even Pagan 
civility observed. The Persians lay North and South, 
the Megarians and Plstemcians placed their b to the 
East ; The Athenians, some think, towardij i— West, 
which Christians still retain. And Beda will have it 
to be the posture of our S?viour. That he was 
crucified with his face toward the West, we will not 
contend with tradition and probable account ; But we 
applaud not the hand of the Painter, in exalting his 
Crosse so high above those on either side; since 
hereof we finde no authentick account in history, and 
even the crosses found by Helena, pretend no such 
distinction from longitude or dimension. 

To be knav'd out of our graves, to have our sculs 
made drinking-bowls, and our bones turned into Pipes, 
to delight and sport our Enemies, are Tragicall 
abominations escaped in burning Burials. 

Urnall interrments and burnt Keliques lye not in 
fear of worms, or to be an heritage for Serpents ; In 
> SisU vittor. > Kirkmamus dejunir. 

Urn Burial 121 

carnall sepulture, corruptions seem peculiar unto Darts 
But wM^'P^f""!!"'^''^ »"' »' 'h^: spinall matt 
•t\t\,Z ■ »"PP"se common wormes in craves 
atovea'Anfi° «",''« "^y there; few in Churchy^ds 
above a toot deep, fewer or none in Churches thona^ 
w fresh doca^red bodies. Teeth, bones, wd ha rg^^B 
the mos lasting defiance to corruption In an Hv 
droptcall body, ten years buried in^th^ Church yard" 
we met with a fat concretion, where the nhre oPthe 
•f^".V°i l^'^f" '^'^ ""^^""^ liquor of' he 4dy 
of the f-^H^f ''"■«.? '"'"P' °^^'"' '"'o tl"" conSst^c'^ 

remained dry and uncornipted. Bodies in the Mme 
mouTdlr'^° "°' "°i/°™ly dissolve, nor bone feq^aUy 
moulder; whereof in the opprobrious disease we 
expect no long duration. The^Eody of the Sfue^ 
ol Dorset seemed sound and handimely '^reXhSl 
Commln ^«^^°'y-*'ght years was found ui rnipte^ 

firmer consistence and compage of partrmiKht 1^ 
expected from Arefaction, deep buriall or cilPcod^ 
The greatest AntiquiUes of mortall bodies mavTem^n 

pX "f i^°*7"'"*'°^*'"'"^'' "« taSTthe 
r^l u' f/*' °' '-letamorphosis of OW«;.«j» 

some may be older than Pyramids, in the putrefied 

oSTe'Tomrr?^' '°"4"''°°- When ffw^ 
?^L ^ u- ^'' °^ ^•'^'' 'he remaining bones dis- 
bud tn" P"^°.P°f '°°' "h/reof umall fragments Ifford 
but a bad conjecture, and have this disidvanta^e of 
grave enterrments, thht they leave us ignoSf^ost 
personal discoveries. For since bones afford not only 
rectitude and stabUity, but figure unto the body ; °t i^ 

p«fcct and nothing corrupted. thi^fl",h no? hidra^ 'b^M^ 



no impouible Phvaiognomy to conjecture at tlethy 
appendencies ; and after what shape the mascles and 
carnous parts might hang in their full consistences. A 
full-spread CatioU^ shows a well-shaped horse behinde 
handsome formed sculls givr some analogy to fleshy 
resemblance. A criticall view of bones maices a good 
distinction of sexes. Even colour is not beyond con- 
jecture ; since it is hard to be deceived in the distinc- 
tion of Negro's sculls.* DohU's* Characters are to be 
found in sculls as well as faces. HercuUt is not only 
known by his foot. Other parts make out their corn- 
proportions and inferences upon whole or parts. And 
since the dimensions of the head measure the whole 
body, and the figure thereof gives conjecture of the 
principall faculties ; Physiognomy outlives ourselves, 
and ends not in our g[raves. 

Severe contemplators observing these lasting 
reliques, may think them good monuments of persons 
past, little advantage to future beir-'s. And consider- 
ing that power which subdueth all things unto itself, 
that can resume the scattered Atomes, or identifie out 
of any thing, conceive it superfluous to expect a 
resurrection out of Reliques. But the soul subsisting, 
other matter, clothed with due accidents, may salve 
the individuality : Yet the Saints we obser\ r: p.rsse 
from graves and monuments, about the' City. 
Some think the ancient Patriarchs so earnestly desired 
to lay their bones in Canaan, as hoping to make a part 
of that Resurrection, and, though thirty miles from 

' That part in the skeleton of a hone, which is made by the 

' For their extraordinary thickness. 

' The poet Demtt in his view of Purgatory, found gluttons so 
meagre, and extenuated, that he conceited them to have been in 
the Siege of Jerusaltm, and that it was easie to have discovered 
Homo or Omo in their faces : M being made by the two lines of 
t 'eir cheeks, arching over the Eye-brows to the nose, and their 
•nnk eyes making O O which makes up Omo. 

Parln I'oeehlaji null* unta ftmmt : 
Chi, tul viso dff;ii uomim ttggf OHO, 
Beni avria j:<ivi eoneuiuto Timmt.—Purgtt. xxili. 31. 

Urn Burial 


Mount Calwy, «t least to Ue in that Region which 
•hould produce the first-fruits of the <tea§ And if 
.ccordmg to learned conjecture, the Ces of men 
^.iVft''^"'''.™' greatest Reliqucs remain, m^? 

"on ^hou^h°th"-' t"'* Topograph! °^ "•"' R"""~^ 
tion. though their bones or bod es be after translated 
^Angels into the field of EuM's vision or ^ome 
S«2? "'""° '"• ^''"''y "^ Judgem'^nro: 

S»rrifi.l ^ ?' enterrment. And since the asheTof 

Christian invention hath chiefly driven at Rit« 
which speak hopes of another life, and hints of a 
Resurrection. And if the ancient Gentiles held not 

enceX te' • ""' ^-"f,^ ^^''' »"'' ^o^e subsfst' 
ence alter death ; m severall rites, customes action.: 

wh.r'.1S'n'''°°'^"'"y '^''"'^adicted their oTn opWons 
T™ ^''"''"'"S went high, even to the thought of 
a resurrection, as scoffingly recorded by Pliny.' Wh^t 
can be more expresse than the exprLion of PW 
■ Tirol, m Eiek. 

Plin. l.VU. c. jj ' "•' "" »'>«»'<« »t, lUran vitam mmU >— 

124 Hydriotaphia 

tides ?i Or who would expect from Lucretius ' a sentence 
of Ecclesiastes ? Before Plato could speak, the soul bad 
wings in Homer, which fell not, but flew out of the 
body into the mansions of the dead ; who also observed 
that handsome distinction of Demos and Soma, for the 
body conjoyned to the soul, and body separated from 
it. LucioM spoke much truth in jest, when he said 
that part of HewMfos which proceeded bom AUhmena 
perished, that bom Jupiter remained immortall. Thus 
Socrates* was content that his friends should bury his 
body, so they would not think they buried Socrates, and 
regarding only his immortall part, was indifferent to 
be burnt or buried. From such Considerations, 
Diogenes might contemn Sepulture. And being satis- 
fied that the soul could not perish, grow carelesse of 
corporall enterrment. The Stoieks who thought the 
souls of wise men had their habitation about the moon, 
might make slight account of subterraneous deposition ; 
whereas the Pythagoreans and transcorporating Philo- 
sophers, who were to be often buried, held great care 
of their enterrment. And the Platonicks rejected not 
a due care of the grave, though they put their ashes 
to unreasonable expectations, in their tedious term of 
return and long set revolution. 

Men have lost their reason in nothing so much as 
their religion, wherein stones and clouts make martyrs ; 
and, since the religion of one seems madnesse unto 
another, to afford an account or rationall of old Rites 
requires no rigid Reader. That they kindled the pyre 
aversely, or turning their face from it, was an band- 
some Symbole of unwilling ministration ; That they 
washed their bones with wine and milk, that the 
mother wrapped them in linnen and dryed them in her 
bosorae, the first fostering part, and place of their 
nourishment ; that they opened their eyes towards 
heaven, before they kindled the fire, as the place of 

■ Kal Tixa i' it Yoli)! Arlfo/uv it ^im iXietw Xn^w irMXtiUimii, 
It dtinetps. 
' Ceiit enim retro it ttrrd quod fait ante in ttrrim, «fc.— I-ucret, 
• Plato in Phad. 

Urn Burial 


their hopes or onginall, were no improper Ceremonies. 
1 heir last valediction,* thrice uttered by the attendants. 
^ also very solemn, and somewhat answered by 
Chnstians, *ho thought it too little, if they threw not 
the earth thnce upon the enterred body. That in 
strewmg their Tombs the Romans aflFected the Rose, 
the Greeks Amaranthus and myrtle ; that the Funerall 
pyre consisted of sweet fuell Cypresse, Firre, Larix. 
Yewe, and Trees perpetually verdant, lay silent ex- 
pressions of their surviving hopes. Wherein Christians, 
who deck their Coffins with Bays, have found a more 
elegant Embleme. For that he seeming dead, will 
restore itself from the root, and its dry and exuccous 
leaves resume their verdure again; which, if we 
mistake not, we have also observed in furze. Whether 
the planting of yewe in Churchyards hold not its 
onginall from ancient Funerall rites, or as an Embleme 
of Resurrection, from its perpetual verdure, may also 
admit conjecture. 

They made use of Musick to excite or quiet the 
affections of their friends, according to different 
harmonies. But the secret and symbolicall hint was 
the harmonical nature of the soul ; which deUvered 
from the body, went again to enjoy the primitive 
Harmony of heaven, from whence it first descended • 
which accordmg to its progresse traced by antiquity, 
came down by Cancer, and ascended by CaMcomus. 

They burnt not chUdren before their teeth appeared, 
as apprehendmg their bodies too tender a mc.seU for 
hre, and that their gristly bones would scarce leave 
separable rehques after the pyrall combustion. That 
they kindled not fire in their houses for some dayes 
after was a strict memoriall of the late afflicting fire. 
And mournmg without hope, they had an happy fraud 
agamst excessive lamentation, by a common opinion 
that deep sorrows disturb their ghosts.' 

That they buried their dead on their backs, or in a 
supme position, seems agreeable unto profound sleep, 

' VaU, volt. M< Uordint quo imtHn imtitut sauemur 
' Tu mants iu hfdt mm. 



and common posture of dying ; contrary to the most 
naturall wav of birth; Nor unlike our pendulous 
posture, in the doubtfull state of the womb. Diogenes 
was singular, who preferred a prone situation in the 
grave, and some Christians' like neither, who decline 
the figure of rest, and make choice of an erect 

That they carried them out of the world with their 
feet forward, not inconsonant unto reason : As contrary 
unto the native posture of man, and his production 
first into it And also agreeable unto their opinions, 
while they bid adieu unto the world, not to look again 
upon it ; whereas Mahometans who think to return to 
a delightfull life again, are carried forth with their 
heads forward, and looking toward their houses. 

They closed their eyes as parts which first die or 
first discover the sad effects of death. But their 
iterated clamations to excitate their dying or dead 
Mends, or revoke them unto life again, was a vanity 
of affection ; as not presumably ignorant of the criticall 
tests of death, by apposition of feathers, glasses, and 
reflection of figures, which dead eyes represent not; 
which however not strictly verifiable in fresh and 
warm cadavers, could hardly elude the test, in corps of 
four or five dayes.' 

That they suck'd in the last breath of their expiring 
friends, was surely a practice of no medical institution, 
but a loose opinion that the soul passed out that way, 
and a fondnesse of affection from some PythagoricaU 
foundation,' that the spirit of one body passed into 
another ; which they wished might be their own. 

That they powred oyle upon the pyre, was a 
tolerable practise, while the intention rested in facilitat- 
ing the accension; But to place good Omens in the 
quick and speedy burning, to sacrifice unto the windes 
for a dispatch in this office, was a low form of super- 

The Archimime, or Jester, attending the Funerall 

* Rasaau, S-c. * At least by some difference from living eye*. 

* Francaco Penuei, Pomfe f»niM. 

Urn Burial 


tram, and imitating the speeches, gesture, and manners 
of the deceased, was too light for such solemnities, 
contradicting their Funerall Orations and dolefull rites 
ol the grave. 

That they buried a peece of money with them ?s a 
Fee of the Elystan Ftrriman, was a practise full of folly 
But the ancient custorae of placing coynes in con- 
siderable Urnes, and the present practise of burying 
medals m the Noble Foundations oi Europe, are laudable 
wayes of historicall discoveries, in actions, persons 
Chronologies ; and posterity will applaud them. 
. We examine not the old Laws of Sepulture, exempt- 
ing certam persons from buriall or burning. But 
hereby we apprehend that these were not the bones of 
persons planet-struck or burnt with fire from Heaven; 
No rehques of Traitors to then: Countrey, SeU-killers 
or Sacrilegious Male.^ctors; Persons in old appre- 
hension unworthy of the earth; condemned unto the 
Tartaras of Hell, and bottomlesse pit of Pluto, from 
whence there was no redemption. 

Nor were only many customes questionable in order 
to their Obsequies, but also sundry practises, fictions, 
and conceptions, discordant or obscure, of their state 
and future beings; whether unto eight or ten bodies of 
men to adde one of a woman, as being more inflam- 
mable, and unctuously constituted for the better pyraU 
combustion, were any rationall practise; Or whether 
the complamt of Perianders Wife be tolerable, that 
wanting her Funerall burning, she suiTered intolerable 
cold in Hell, according to the constitution of the 
mfemall house of Pluto, wherein cold makes a great 
part of their tortures ; it cannot passe without some 

Why the Female Ghosts appear unto Ulysses, before 
the //wwj and masculine spirits ? Why the Psyclie or 
soul of Tiresias is of the masculine gender.i who being 
blinde on earth, sees more than afi the rest in hell ; 
Why the Funerall Suppers consisted of Egges, Beans, 
bmallage, and Lettuce, since the dead are made to eat 
In Homei :— ♦ux^ O^alov TnptalM rx^pm tjcu, 

128 Hydriotaphia 

Asphodels* about the Elyzian medows? Why since 
there is no Sacrifice acceptable, nor any propitiation 
for the Covenant of the grave ; men set up the Deity 
of Morta, and frmtlessly adored Divinities without 
ears ? it cannot escape some doubt. 

The dead seem all alive in the human Hadts of 
Homer, yet cannot well speak, prophesie, or know the 
living, except they drink bloud, wherein is the life of 
man. And therefore the souls of Penelope's Paramours, 
conducted by Mercury, chirped like bats, and those 
which followed Hercules, made a noise but like a flock 
of birds. 

The departed spirits know things past and to come, 
yet are ignorant of things present. Agamemnon tcre- 
tels what should happen unto Ulysses, yet ignorantly 
enquires what is become of his own Son. The Ghosts 
are afraid of swords in Homer, yet Sibylla tells yEiuas 
in Virgil.ihe thin habit of spirits was beyond the force 
of weapons. The spirits put o£f their malice with 
their bodies, and Casar and Pompey accord in Latine 
Hell, yet Ajax in Homer endures not a conference with 
Ulysses; And Dtiphohus appears all mangled in VirgUs 
Ghosts, yet we meet with perfect shadows among the 
wounded ghosts of Homer. 

Since Charon in Ludan applauds his condition among 
the dead, whether it be handsomely said of Achilles, 
that living contemner of death, that he had rather be 
a plowman's servant, than Emperour of the dead? 
How Hercules his soul is in hell, and yet in heaven, and 
Julius his soul in a Starre, yet seen by ^ntas in hell, 
except the Ghosts were but Images and shadows of 
the soul, received in higher mansions, according to the 
ancient division of body, soul, and image, or simu- 
lachrum of them both. The particulars of future bemgs 
must needs be dark unto ancient Theories, which 
Christian Philosophy yet determines but in a Cloud of 
opinions. A Dialogue between two Infants in the 
womb concerning the state of this world, might hand- 
Bomely illustrate our ignorance of the next, whereof 
> Ir Lttciatt. 

Urn Burial 


w^i'^^^'Vu'!? discourse in Plate, denne, and aro 
but Embryon Philosophers. 

Pytkagora, escapes in the fabulous heU of £)««/« 1 
among that swarm of Philosophers, wherein whilest 
we meet w^th Pl^ and SocratJ, Cati is to be fo^d ^ 
no lower place than Purgatory. Among all the set 
^^curus IS most considerable, 4om me/make honest 
without an Elyzium. who contemned life without en- 
couragement of immortality, and making nothing after 
death, yet made nothmg of the King of terroursf 

Were the happmess of the next world as closely 
apprehended as the feUcities of this, it were a mS 
.> ^* ? u^ ' "^^ "J"" ^"""^ »^ 'consider none hereaft^, 
L^^ if.r"* than death to dye, which makes u^ 
^,^ } ^^^ audaaties, that durst be nothing, and 
return into their Chaos again. Certainly such fpirits 

^Tli ''°°*^'^ t.'^^^' ^'«'° "^7 "^'Pe'ted no tetter 
^^ ^^'J would have scorned to five, had they known 
»?^i- ^ i*"? ^'? "".^ ^PP'^""^ °°' *e judgment of 
^ZZt\l^^ ^^r'*''"^X "^"^ -nen colards, or 
that with the confidence of but half dying, the deso sed 

rSw ff'^^ich Pagan principles exalted, but 
rather regulated the wildenesse of audacities, i,^ the 
attempts, grounds, and etemall sequels of death • 
wherem men of the boldest spirits are often prodigiously 
^^^TU ^°\°'° ""^ extenuate the valour o^f 
Mcient Martyrs, who contemned death in the uncom- 
fortable scene of their lives, and in their decrepit 
M^jnrdomes did probably lose not many months of 

wn^wr%°' ^^^ ^^^ ^'^ ^'"'° 't was scarce 
worth the living. For (beside that long time past 

thifh^S consideration unto a slender time to come) 
of JlHtt-°°r^ disadvantage from the constitution 
r«,^i1 ^ ' '[?"='" "atiraUy "lakes men fearfull; And 
complexionaUy superannuated from the bold and 
couragMus thoughts of youth and fervent years. But 

mnwl^'^T °K'\'^>^ ^S"" ~^P°«" aniiosity. prl 

moteth not our fehcity. They may sit in the OichSstn, 

' Drf hfirno, cant. 4. 

130 Hydriotaphia 

and noblest Seats of Heaven, who have held up 
shaking hands in the fire, and humanely contended 
for glory. 

Meanwhile Epicurus lyes deep in Dantt's hell; 
wherein we meet with Tombs enclosing souls which 
denied their immortalities. But whether the virtuous 
heathen, who lived better than he spake, or erring in 
the principles of himself, yet lived above Philosophers 
of more specious Maximes, lye so deep as he is placed ; 
at least so low as not to rise against Christians, who 
beleeving or knowing that truth, have lastingly denied 
it in their practise and conversation, were a quaery too 
sad to insist on. 

But all or most apprehensions rested in Opinions of 
some future being, which, ignorantly or coldly beleeved, 
begat those perverted conceptionSjCeremonies, Sayings, 
which Christians pit}^ or laugh at. Happy are they, 
which live not in that disadvantage of time, when men 
could say little for futurity, but from reason. Whereby 
the noblest minds fell often upon doubtfuU deaths, and 
melancholly dissolutions; With these hopes Socrates 
warmed his doubtful! spirits against that cold potion, 
and Cato before he durst give the fatall stroak, spent 
part of the night in reading the immortality of Plato, 
thereby confirming his wavering hand unto the 
animosity of that attempt. 

It is the heaviest stone that melancholy can throw 
at a man, to tell him he is at the end of his nature ; or 
that there is no further state to come, unto which this 
seems progressionall, and otherwise made in vaine; 
Without this accomplishment the naturall expectation 
and desire of such state, were but a fallacy in nature, 
unsatisfied Considerators ; would quarrell the justice 
of their constitutions, and rest content that Adam had 
fallen lower, whereby by knowing no other Originall, 
and deeper ignorance of themselves, they might have 
enjoyed the happinesse of inferiour creatures, who in 
tranquillity possessa their Constitutions, as having not 
the apprehension to deplore their own natures, And 
being framed below the circumference of these hopes. 

Urn Burial 


or cognition of better being, the wisedom of God hath 
necessitated th(ir Contentment: But the superior 
ingredient and obscured part of our selves, whereto all 
present felicities afford no resting contentment, will 
be able at last to tell us, ne are more than our present 
selves; and evacuate such hopes in the fruition of 
tneir own accomplishments. 


Now since these dead bones have a]ready out-lasted 
the hvmg ones of Methuselah, and in a yard under 
ground, and thin walls of clay, out-worn all the stronjr 
^1^^°5^ buildings above it; and quietly rested 
under the drums and tramplings of three conquests ; 
what Prmce can promise such diutumity unto his 
Kehques, or might not gladly say, 

Sic igo amponi vmut in osta velim.i 
Time which antiquates AntiquiHes, and hath an art to 
M^'ui^ents "^ '""^'' ^^'^ ^'' '^^^ '^^'^ ^^ 
In vain we hope to be known by open and visible 
conservatories, when to be unknown was the means of 
their continuation and obscurity their protection : If 
they dyed by violent hands, and were thrust into their 
Urnes, these bones become considerable, and some old 
Philosophers would honour them," whose souls they 
conceived most pure, which were thus snatched from 
their bodies; and to retain a stranger propension unto 
them: whereas they weariedly left a languishing 
corps, and with faint desires of re-union. If they fell 
by long and aged decay, yet wrapt up in the bundle of 
time, they fall into indistinctiou. and make but one 
blot with Infants. If we begin to die when we live, 

' Tibullus. 
J.. °"^'^p>"^''i^<' «"» kS'Ws Pselli It Phtthonis. Bin Urhrm 



and long life be but a prolongation of death ; our life 
is a sad composition ; We live with death, and die not 
in a moment. How many pulses made up the Ufe of 
Mithuselak, were work for Arckimtdts: Common 
Counters summe up the life of Mosis his man.' Our 
dayes become considerable like petty sums by minute 
accumulations; vhere numerous fractions make up 
but small round numbers ; and our dayes of a span 
long make not one little finger.' 

If the nearnesse of our last necessity, brought a 
nearer conformity into it, there were a happinesse in 
hoary hairs, and no calamity in half senses. But the 
long habit of living indisposeth us for dying; when 
Avarice makes us the sport of death ; When even 
David grew politickly en, U ; and Solomon could hardly 
be said to be the wisest of men. But many are too 
early old, and before the date of age. Adversity 
stretcbeth our dayes, misery makes Alcmmas nights,' 
and time hath no wings unto it. But the most tedious 
bein^ is that which can unwish itself, content to be 
nothmg, or never to have been, which was beyond the 
mxlecorAsat of Job, who cursed not the day of his life, 
but his Nativity : Content to have so &rre been, as 
to have a Title to future being ; Although he had lived 
here but in an hidden state of life, and as it were an 

What Song the Sp/rens sang, or what name Achilles 
assumed when he hid himself among women, though 
puzling Questions,* are not beyond all conjecture. 
What time the persons of these Ossuaries entred the 
famous Nations of the dead,' and slept with Princes 
and Counsellours, might admit a wide solution. But 
who were the proprietaries of these bones, or what 

' In the Psalme of Moses. 

' According to the ancient Arithmetick of the hand, wherein 
the little finger of the right hand contracted, signified an 
hnndzed. — Pitrins in Hieroglyph, 

' One night as long as three. 

* The puzzling questions of THurius onto CrammariMS.— 
iittrcd. Donatus in Stut. 

' KXvrl Una ntp&r, — Hem. Jot, 

Urn Burial 



bodies these ashes made up, were a question above 
Antiquarism. Not to be resolved by man, nor easily 
perhaps by spirits, except we consult the Provinciall 
Guardians, or tutellary Observators. Had they made 
as good provision for their names, as they have done 
tor their Reliques, they had not so grosly erred in the 
art of perpetuation. But to subsist in bones, and be 
but Pyramidally extant, is a fallacy in duration. Vain 
ashes, which in the oblivion of names, persons, times, 
and sexes, have found unto themselves, a fruitless 
continuation, and only arise unto late posterity, as 
Emblemes of mortall vanities ; Antidotes against pride, 
vain-glory, and madding vices. Pagan vain-glories 
which thought the world might last for ever, had en- 
Muragement for ambition, and, finding no Atropos unto 
tho immortality of their Names, were never dampt 
with the necessity of oblivion. Even old ambitions 
had the advantage of ours, in the attempts of their 
vain-glories, who acting early, and before the probable 
Meridian of time, have by this time found great 
accomplishment of their designes, whereby the ancient 
Htroa have ahready out-lasted their Monuments, and 
Mechanicall preservations. But in this latter Scene 
of time, we cannot expect such mummies unto our 
memories, when ambition may fear the Prophecy of 
E/«ai,i and Charlts the fifth can never hope to live 
within two Mtthuulas of Hector.* 

And therefore restiesse inquietude for the diutumity 
of our memories unto present considerations, seems a 
vanity almost out of date, and superannuated peece of 
folly. We cannot hope to live so long in our names, 
as some have done in their persons, one face of Janus 
holds no proportion unto the other. 'Tis too late to 
be ambitious. The great mutations of the worid are 
acted, or time may be too short for our designes. To 
extend our memories by Monuments, whose death we 
daily pray for, and whose duration we cannot hope, 

I Tbat the world may last but six thousand yean. 
.1. Hector's fame lasting above two lives of Melhuselah, before 
tnat lamons Pnnce was extant. 

134 Hydriotaphia 

\rithout injury to our expectations, m the advent of 
the last day, were a contradiction to our beliefs. We 
wboae generations are ordained in this setting part of 
time, are providentially taken off from such imagina- 
tions ; And being necessitated to eye the remaming 
particle of futurity, are naturally constituted unto 
thoughts of the next world, and cannot excusably 
decline the consideration of that duration, which 
maketh Pyramids pillars of snow, and all that's past a 

'^■rcles and right lines limit and close all bodies, 
and the mortall right-lined circle* must conclude and 
shut up all. There is no antidote against the Opium 
of time, which temporally considereth all things ; Our 
Fathers finde their graves in our short memories, and 
sadly tell us how we may be buried in our Survivors. 
Grave-stones tell truth scarce fourty years.' Genera- 
tions passe while some trees stand, and old families 
last not three oaks. To be read by bare Inscriptions 
like many in Gruter,* to hope for Eternity by iEnigma- 
ticall Epitbetes or first letters of our names, tb be 
studied by Antiquaries, who we were, and have new 
Names given us like ro' ny of the Mummies,* are cold 
consolations unto the - idents of perpetuity, even by 
everlasting Language 

To be content tha '.imes to come should only know 
there was such a man, not caring whether they knew 
more of him, was a frigid ambition in Cardan :' dis- 
paraging his faoroscopal inclination and judgement of 
himself, who cares to subsist like Hippocrates Patients, 
or Achilles horses in Homer, under naked nominations, 
without deserts and noble acts, which are the balsame 
of our memories, the Eutelechia and soul of our subsist- 

1 The character of death. 

" Old ones being taken up, and other twdies laid under them. 

' Gruttri Jnscriptionts Anttqiia. 

• Which men show in several countries, giving then what 
names they please; and unto some the names of the old 
Egyptian kings, ont of Herodotus. 

" Cuptrmt notum esse qiioi siia, ««i efts vt sciatur jxaHt tint. — 
Card, i» vita propria. 


Urn Burial 


ences. To be nameleue in worthy deeds exceeds an 
infamous history. The Ctmumtitli woman lives more 
happily without a name, than Hmdias with one. And 
who had not rather have been the good theef, then 

But the iniquity of oblivion blindely scattereth her 
poppy, and deals with ;he memory of men without 
distmction to merit of perpetuity. Who can but pity 
the founder of the Pyramids ? Henstratus lives that 
burnt the Temple of Diana, he is almost lost that built 
It ; Time hath spared the Epitaph of Adrians horse, 
confounded that of himself. In vain we compute our 
felicities by the advantage of our good names, since 
bad have equall durations ; and Thtnitn is like to live 
as long as Agammnm, Who knows whether the best of 
men be known ? or whether there be not more remark- 
able persons forgot, then any that stand remembred 
m the known account of time ? Without the faviur 
of the evurlasting register, the first man had been as 
unknown as the last, and Mtihuulahs long life had 
been his only Chronicle. 

Oblivion is not to be hired: The greater part must 
be content to be as though they had not been, to be 
found in the Register of God, not in the record of man. 
Twenty-seven Names make up the first story before 
the flood, and the recorded names ever since contain 
not one living Century. The number of the dead long 
exceedeth all that shall live. The nigLt of time far 
surpasseth the day, and who knows when was the 
.lEguinox? Every hour adds unto that current 
Arithmetique which scarce stands one moment. And 
since death must be the Lucina of life, and even 
Pagans! could doubt, whether thus to live, were to 
dye. Since our longest sunne sets at right descen- 
sions, and makes but winter arches, and therefore it 
cannot be long before we lie down in darknesse, and 
have our light in ashes.« Since the brother of death 

' Euripides. 

' According to the castom of the Jim, who place a lighted 
wax-candle m a pot of ashes by the corpse.— Lm: 



dmily baunt* i» with dying mtrntntt't, tnd time tbkt 
growt old in it self, bidi ut hope no ion^ duration : 
Diuturnity is a dream and folly of expectation. 

Darlcnesse and light divide the course of time, and 
oblivion shares with memory, a great part even of our 
living b« gs ; we slightly remember our felicities, and 
the smartest stroaks of affliction leave but short smart 
ii)K/n us. Sense endureth no extremities, and sorrows 
destroy us or themselves. To weep into stones are 
fables. AfBictions induce callosities, miseries are 
slippery, or &11 like snow upon us, which notwith- 
standing is no unhappy stupidity. To be ignorant of 
evils to come, and foreetfull of evils past, is a mercifiill 
provision in nature, whereby we digest the mixture of 
our few and evil dayes, and our delivered senses not 
relapsing into cutting remembrances, our sorrows are 
not kept raw by the edge of repetitions. A great part 
of Antiquity contented their hopes of subsistency with 
a transmigration of their souls. A good way to con- 
tinue their memories, while having the advantage of 
plurall successions, they could not but act something 
remarkable in such variety of beings, and enjoying 
the fame of their passed selves, make accumulation of 
glory unto their last durations. Others, rather then 
be lost in the uncomfortable night of nothing, were 
content to recede into the common being, and make 
one particle of the public soul of all things, which was 
no more then to return into their unknown and divine 
Originall again. Egyptian ingenuity was more un- 
satisfied, contriving their bodies in sweet consistencies, 
to attend the return of their souls. But all was 
vanity,' feeding the winde, and folly. The .Egyptian 
Mummies, wmch Cambyses or time hath spared, 
avarice now consumeth. Mummie is become Mer- 
chandise, Mixraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold 
for balsoms. 

In vain do individuals hope for Immortality, or any 

■ Omnia vmiUu ft pastio vmli, n/i^i iriiimi nU pirnint, irf olim 
Aquila it Symmtehui. v. Dnu. Eala. 

Urn Burial 


Mktent from oblivion, in preservations below the Moon : 
Men have been deceived even in ''"ir flatteries above 
tlie Sun, and studied conceits to ^.:. late their names 
in heaven. The various Cosn-.^iaphy of that part 
hath already varied the names of contrived constella- 
tions ; Nimrod is lost in Orion, and Osyris in the Dogge- 
starre. While we look for incorruption in the heavens, 
we iinde they are but like the Earth; Durable in 
their main bodies, alterable in their paits: whereof 
beside Comets and new Stars, perspectives begin to 
tell tales. And the spots that wander about the 
Sun, with Phattont favour, would midce clear convic- 

There is nothing strictly immortall, but immor- 
tality ; whatever hath no b^^nning, may be confident 
of no end — which is the peculiar of that necessary 
esswce that cannot destroy itself; And the highest 
strain of omnipotency, to be so powerfully constituted 
as not to suffer even from the power of itself : All 
others have a dependent being, and within the reach 
of destruction. But the sufficiency of Christian 
Immortality frustrates all earthly glory, and the 
quality of either state after death, makes a folly of 
posthumous memory. God can tmly destroy our 
souls, and hath assure:* u,ir .-ci.u erection, either of our 
bodies or names hs.lj uirectly ■ ■ mised no duration. 
Wherein there is sc luch of ch^noe, that the boldest 
Expectants have fc , ■. •uioi^ppy fr- stration; and to 
hold long subsistence, isoTDss. ba a jcape in oblivion. 
But man is a Noble Animr •';j!eidid in ashes, and 

gimpous in the grave, so.' ■ '; .ng Nativities and 
eaths with equal lustre, n> ■_ omitting Ceremonies of 
bravery in the mfamy of his nature. 

Life is a pure flame, and we live by an invisible 
Sun within us. A » - 't fire sufficeth for life, great 
flames seemed too litt>o oiter death, while men vainly 
affected precious pyres, and to bum like SardaMaialus, 
but the wisedom of funerall Laws found the folly of 
prodigall blazes, and reduced undoing fires unto the 
rule of sober obsequies, wherein few could be so mean 



as not to provide wood, pitch, a mourner, and an 

Five Languages secured not the Epitaph of Gar- 
ditmus.* The man of God lives longer without a 
Tomb then any by one, invisibly interred by Angels, 
and adjudged to obscurity, though not without some 
marks directing humane discovery. Enoch and Elias, 
without either tomb or buriall, in an anomalous state 
of being, are the great Examples of perpetuity, in their 
long and living memory, in strict account being still 
on this side death, and having a late part yet to act 
upon this stage of earth. If m the decretory term of 
the world we shall not all dye but be changed, accord- 
ing to received translation ; the last da^ wCQ make but 
few graves ; at lea$t quick Resurrections will antici- 
pate lasting Sepultures ; Some Graves will be opened 
before they be quite closed, and Laxana be no wonder. 
When many that feared to dye, shall groane that they 
can dye but once, the dismal! state is the second and 
living death, when life puts despair on the damned ; 
when men shall wish the coverings of Mountaines, 
not of Monuments, and annihilations shall be courted 

While some have studied Monuments, others have 
studiously declined them: and some have been so 
vainly boisterous, that they durst not acknowledge 
their Graves ; wherein Alaricus^ seems most "ubtle, 
who had a River turned to hide his bones at the 
bottome. Even SyUa, that thought himself safe in 
his Ume, could not prevent revenging tongues, and 
stones thrown at his Monument Happy are they 
whom privacy makes innocent, who deal so with men 

* According to the epitaph of Rufus aod Beronica, in Gruteras. 

nee ex 
Eorum bonis plus inventum est, quam 
Quod sufficeret ad emendam pyram 
Et picem quibus corpora cremarentur, 
Et praefica conducta, et olla empta. 

* In Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Egjrptiui, Arabic ; defaced by 
Licinius the emperor. 

* Jonuuida it r^ut Giticit. 

Urn Burial 


in this world, that they are not afraid to meet them in 
the next, who when they dye, make no commotion 
among the dead, and are not touched with that poetical 
taunt of Isaiah.^ 

Pyramids, Arches, Obelisks, vieie but the irregularities 
of vain-glory, and -wilde enormities of ancient mag- 
nanimity. But the most magnanimous resolution 
rests in the Christian Religion, which trampleth upon 
pride, and sits on the neck of ambition, humbly pursu- 
mg that infallible perpetuity, unto which all others 
must diminish their diameters, and be poorly seen in 
Angles of contingency.' 

Pious spirits who passed their dayes in raptures of 
futurity, made little more of this world, then the 
world that was before it, while they lay obscure in the 
Chaos of pre-ordination, and night of their fore-beings. 
And ifany have been so happy as truly to tuderstand 
Christian annihilation, extasis, exolution, liquefaction, 
transformation, the kisse of the Spouse, gustation of 
God, and ingression into the divine shadow, they have 
already had an handsome anticipation of heaven ; the 
glory of the world is surely over, and the earth in 
ashes unto them. 

To subsist in lasting Monuments, to live in their 
productions, to exist in their names and prsdicament 
of ehymera's, was large satisfaction unto old expecta- 
tions, and made one part of their Etyxiums. But all 
this is nothing in the Metaphysicks of true belie£ To 
live indeed is to be again ourselves, which being not 
only an hope but an evidence in noble beleevers ; 'Tis 
all one to lye in St. hmocent^ churchyard, as in the 
Sands of JEgypt : Ready to be anything, in the ecstasie 
of being ever, and as content with six foot as the Mole 
of Adrianus.* 

Tatesiu cadmtra what 

An rogut hatid nfert.—'Lucim 

' Isa. xiv. ■ Angulus antingeiiHa, the least of Angles. 

" Iq PariSt where bodiss soon consume. 
' A stately MtusoUim or sepolchnl pjrle, built bj Adrimui in 
Romt, where now staodeth the Castle of St. Angeh. 





I THOUGHT I had taken leave of urnes, when I had 
some Years past given a short Account of those found 
at Walsingham,! but a New Discovery being made, I 
readily obey ypur Commands in a brief Description 

In a large Arable Field, lying between Buxton and 
Brampton, but belonging to Brampton, and not much 
more than a Furlong from Oxnead Park, divers Urnes 
were found. A Part of the Field being designed to 
be inclosed, while the Workmen made several Ditches, 
they fell upon divers Urnes, but earnestly, and care- 
lessl) digging, they broke all they met with, and find- 
mg nothing but Ashes, or burnt Cinders, they scattered 
what they found. Upon Notice given unto me, I 
went unto the Place, and though I used all Care with 
the Workmen, yet they were broken in the taking 
out, but many, without doubt, are still remainine in 
that Ground. * 

Of these Pots none were found above Three 
Quarters of a Yard in the Ground, whereby it ap- 
peareth, that in all this Time the Earth hath little 
varied its Surface, though this Ground hath been 
Plowed to the utmost Memory of Man. Whereby it 
may be also conjectured, that this hath not been a 
Wood- Land, as some conceive all this Part to have 
been ; for in such Lands they usually made no common 

' See Hyirutaphia, Unu Burial .- or, a Discouru of the Setukhral 
Vnus lately fomd m Nor/olh. 8vo. Lond., printed 1638. 

Brampton Urns 143 

Burying.places, except for some special Persons in 

El'7°'*^Tr "^?* *''"« ^^'^'^ an Ancles 
.Mi iff »^"V''^'* P*^^: f°^ at Buxton also, not 
fa th!if M ""» V' S^"" ^""""J « -"y Memor^ but 
t^.™ 1 '^°""''?! FM'^' Colour, Posture; &c 

SfS?HHi' ^".1*° "^T'^" *''°^'' Two GallonI some 
nrnhfhl k',°*'"'" °^ * """^l" Size; the grea^t ones 
FS^rT''^'°°?fS *° Sr«a*<«- Po'^'^s, or might te 
Family Urnes, fit to receive the Ashes successively of 
l^me wr**^ "^^ Relations, and therefore ot^ 
t^Xi ^°^«,™e« °f the same Matter, either fitted 
over them' Vi'V^'f ''°°t' ^^' * ^^^^« Slate. 1^'d 
°Wnlv WH W ^r*^"""-^ *''°. S'"^' 0°«'s ^ere but 
thinly found, but others m good Number; some were 

t^^^'^t" ^°^^^^'<^d Bellies proportionable, ^th 

lS^ffs^H°»)^''V.'l'^=x.?°"" ™^' ^t"^ Necks like 
Juggs, and about that Bigness; the Mouths of some 
?ew were not round, but after the Figure of a cTrde 

SL'^''.; *''°"«' ^°l?^ '^"'^ smaTyet ncne had 
pointed Bottoms, according to the Figures of those 

::'m^J°s!^ ^ '° ^"-"^ ^°*«"--' V'g^-rus! 
^° ,*?,? Colours also there was great Variety some 
7ZrX^T^-- f""" ^^'"'^'^- and facUninrto a bC 
^h^fr J °^f^' ^"^"^ ^^^' argumg t' Variety of 
BoZm, nTv'- ,^°T. Fragments, an especially 
Bottmns of Vessels, which seem'd to be handsome 
neat Pans, were also found of a fine Coral-Hke rS 
somewhat Uke Portugal Vessels, as tho' they h^l^en 

out tne like had been found n divers Plar^c „L 
Dr. Casaubon hath observed about the Pots fS S 
Newmgton m Kent, and as other Pieces do yet t^tifie 
which are to be found at Burrow Castle, an 0?d RomaS 
station, not fkr from Yarmouth. «^oman 

Of the Umes, th6se of the larger Sort such as haH 
Covenngs, were found with tLir Mo«?hs plac^^ 
' Original Gravis. 


Brampton Urns 

upwards, but great Numbers of the others were, as 
they informed me, (and One I saw myself,) placed 
with their Mouths downward, which were probably 
such as were not to be opened again, or receive the 
Ashes of any other Person ; though some wonder'd at 
this Position, yet 1 saw no Inconveniency init ; for 
the Earth being closely pressed, and especially in 
Minor-mouth'd pots, they stand in a Posture as like 
to continue as the other, as being less subject to have 
the Earth fall in, or the Rain to soak into them ; arid 
the same Posture has been observed in some found in 
other places, as Holingshead delivers, of divers found 
in Anglesea. 

Some had Inscriptions, the greatest Part none; 
those with Inscriptions were of the largest Sort, which 
were upon the reverted Verges thereof ; the greatest 
part of those which I could obtain were somewhat 
obliterated ; yet some of the Letters to be made out : 
the Letters were between Lines, either Single or 
Double, and the Letters of some few after a iair 
Roman Stroke, others more rudely and illegibly 
drawn, wherein there seemed no great Variety, 
NUON being upon very many of them; only upon 
the inside of the bottom of a small Red Pan-like 
Vessel, were legibly set down in embossed Letters, 
CRACUNA. F. which might imply Cracuna figuli, or 
the Name of the Manufactor, for Inscriptions com- 
monly signified the Name of the Person mterr'd, the 
Names of Servants 0£Scial to such Provisions, or the 
Name of the Artificer, or Manufactor of such Vessels; 
all which are particularly exemplified by the Learned 
Licetus,! where the same Inscription is often foimd, it 
is probably, of the Artificer, or where the Name also 
is in the Genitive Case, as he also observeth. 

Out of one was brought unto me a Silver Denarius, 
with the Head of Diva Faustina on the Obverse side, 
on the Reverse the Figures of the Emperor and Em- 
press joining their Right Hands, with this Inscription, 
Concordia; the same is to be seen in Augustino; I 
> Vid. Liat, it Lmtmis. 

Brampton Urns 145 

Cofn^nf P** fj,°" """"^ ¥^^ ^""^ Women then present 
Coins of Posthumus and Tetricus, two of the Thirty 

mf,^?r'/°r.*f ^^'^ °f Gallienus, which being of 
much later Date, begat an Inference, that Urne-Burial 
^sted longer, at least m this Country, than is com- 
monly supposed. Good Authors conceive, that this 

wS ffi f'^ "\" ^'=.'2°^ °^ the'Antonini! 
tT™ r • " ^t ^fs Antoninus Heliogabalus, yet 
these Corns extend about Fourscore Year! lower; ind 
since the Head of Tetricus is made with a radiated 
t-rown, It must be conceived to have been made after 
his Death, and not before his Consecration, which as 
the Learned Tristan Conjectures, was most probably 
m the Reign of the Emperor Tacitus, and the Coin 
T'^mf^f^K " ?•' ^^^ °S* '^"^"^ Abroad, before the 
I?%°K9° Emperor Probus, for Tacitus Reigned 
but Six Months and an Half, his Brother FloriLus 

ReigJ^ Five°Y^%"°'° "'"''" ^^°^"^ — '^-g. 

There were also found some pieces of Glass, and 
finer Vessels, which might contain such Liquors as 
they often Buried m, or by, the Urnes ; divers Pieces 
of Brass, of several Figures; and in one Ume was 
found a Nail Two Inches long ; whither to declare the 
Trade or Occupation of the Person, is uncertain. But 
TlT^^ %^°°'""?H "^ Smiths, in Gruter. we meet 
with the Figures of Hammers, Pincers, and the like; 
and we find the Figure of a Cobler-s Awl on the 
Tomb of one of that Trade, which was in the Custody 
ofBermi,MArgulus hath set it down in his Notes 
upon Omphnus, Of the Antiquities of Verona. 

Now, though Urnes have been often discovered in 
former Ages, many think it strange there should be 
many still found, yet assuredly there may be great 
Numbers still concealed. For tho* we should not 
reckon upon any who were thus buried before the Time 
of the Romans (altho' that the Druids were thus buried. 
It may be probable, and we read of the Urae of Chin- 
u^ J- * ^™;'l. found near Dijon in Burgundy, 
largely discoursed of by Licetus), aid tho'. I s^, we 


Brampton Urns 

Uke not in any Inlant which was Miim ignt regi, before 
S^eS Monthl or Appearance of Teetk nor sho«U 
account this Practice of burning amopg t?e.P"*f^ 
higher than Vespasian, when it is said by Tacitus, that 
thiy conformed into the Manners and Customsof the 
Romans, and so both Nations might have one Way of 
Burial; yet from his Days, to the Dates of these 
Umes. were about Two Hundred Years. And there- 
fore if we fall so low. as to conceive there were buried 
to this NSion but Twenty Thousand Person'., th« 
Account of the buried Persons w<»>ld a""""* "°*S 
Four Millions, and consequently so great a Number of 
Umes dispersed through the Land, as may stiU sati^ 
the CurioSty of succeeding Times, and arise unto aU 

^^'e bodies, Whose Reliques these Urnes contsuned, 
seemed thoroughly burned; for beside pieces of Teetn, 
rte™ were found few Fragments of Bones, but rather 
Ashes in hard Lumps, and pieces of Coals, which were 
often so fresh, that one sufficed to make a good draught 
of its Ume. which still remwneth with me. 

Some persons digging at a Uttle D«tance from the 
Ume Pfcwes. in hopes to find somethmg of V^ue, 
X they had digged about Three-Quarters of a Yard 
deeo feU uDon an observable Piece of Work, ine 
Work was Square, about Two Yards and a Quarter 
on e«:h Side? The Wall, or outward Part, a Foot 
?£cMn Mour Red, and looked like Brick; but it w« 
colid, without any Mortar or Cement, or figur d Bnck 
m it but of an whole Piece, so that it seemed to be 
Framed and Burnt in the same Place where it was 
• S In this kir ' of Brick-work were Thirty-^two 
Holes of about 1 Inches and an Half Diameter. 
SdTwoaWaQ, cter of a Circle in the ff -d 
West Sides. Upon 1 wo of these Holes, on the East 
Kd^ were placeSTwo Pots, with their Mouths down, 
ward; putting in thsir Arms they found the Work 
hoTlow belowTand the Earth being dear'd off, much 
Water was found below them, to the Quantity of 
a Barrel, which was conceived to have been tM 

Brampton Urns 147 

Rain-water which soaked in through the Earth above 

The upper Part of the Work being broke, and 
opened, they found a Floor about Two Foot below, and 
then digging onward, Three Floors successively under 
one another, at the Distance of a Foot and Half, the 
Stones being of a Slatty, not Bricky, Substance ; in 
these Partitions some Pots were found, but broke by 
the Workmen, being necessitated to use hard Blows 
for the breaking of the Stones ; and in the last Par- 
tition but one, a large Pot was found of a very narrow 
Mouth, short Ears, of the Capacity of Fourteen Pints, 
which lay in an incUning Posture, close by, and some- 
what under a kind of Arch in the solid Wall, and by 
the great Care of my worthy Friend, Mr. William 
Masham, who employed the Workmen, was taken up 
whole, almost full of Water, clean, and without Smell, 
and insipid, which being poured out, there still' remains 
in the Pot a great Lump of an heavy crusty sub- 
stance. What Work this was we must as yet reserve 
unto better Conjecture. Meanwhile we find in Gruter 
that some Monuments of the Dead had divers Holes 
successively to let in the Ashes of their Relations, but 
Holes in such a great Number to that Intent, we have 
not anywhere met with. 

About Three Months after, my Noble and Honoured 
friend. Sir Robert Paston, had the Curiosity to open 
a Piece of Ground in his Park at Oxnead, which 
adjoined unto the former Field, where Fragments of 
Pots were found, and upon one the Figure of a well- 
mado Face; But probably this Ground had been 
opened and digged before, though out of the Memory 
of Man for we found divers small Pieces of Pots, 
Sheeps Bonea, st\inetimes an Oyster-shell a Yard deep 
in the Ei\rth, an unusual Coin of the Emperor Volu- 
sianus, having on the Obverse the head of the Emperor, 
^J!?** 3 .^?<JiMed Crown, and this Inscription, Imp. 
V,f «: V' yviusiam Aug. ; that is, Imperatori Casari Cote 
Vflno Volusiano Augusta. On the Reverse an Human 
Figure, with the Arms somewhat extended, and at the 


Brampton Urns 

Riaht Foot an Altar, with the Inscription PmIm. This 
Emperor was Son unto Caius Vibius Tribonmnus 
Callus, with whom he jointly reigned after the Decn, 
about the Year 354 ; both he, himself, and his Father, 
were ilain by the Emperor iEmUianua. By the 
Radiated Crown this Piece should be Coined after his 
Death and Consecration, but in whose Time it is not 
clear in History. 



GivB me leave to wonder that News of this nature 
should have such heavy Wings, that you should hear 
80 little concerning your dearest Friend, and that I 
must make that unwilling Repetition to tell you. 
Ad fortam rigidos cakes txUnifit, that he is Dead and 
Buried, and by this time no Puny among the mighty 
Nations of the Dead ; for tho he left this World not 
very many days past, yet every hour you know largely 
addeth unto that dark Society; and considering the 
incessant Mortality of Mankind, you cannot conceive 
there dieth in the whole Earth so few as a thousand 
an hour. 

Altho at this distance you had no early Account or 
Particular of his Death ; yet your Affection may cease 
to wonder that you had not some secret Sense or 
Intimation thereof by Dreams, thoughtfiil Whisperings, 
Mercurismji, Airy Nuncios or sympathetical Insinua- 
tions, which many seem to have had at the Death of 
their dearest Friends : for since we find in that famous 
Story, that Spirits themselves were fain to tell their 
Fellows at a distance, that the preat Antonio was dead, 
we have a sufficient Excuse for our ignorance in such 
Particulars, and must rest content with the comr, on 
Iload, and Appian way of Knowledge by Ir formation. 
Tho the uncertainty of the Er ' of this World hath 
confounded all Hymane Predi lions; yet they who 
shall live to see the Sun and Moon darkned, and the 
Stars to fall from Heaven, will hardly be deceived in 
the Advent of the last Day ; and therefore strange it 
is, that the common Fallacy of consumptive Persons, 
who feel not themselves dying, and therefore still hope 
to liye,should also reach their Friends in perfect Health 

Letter to a Friend 

' 1' 


i ii 


i ' 


A i«A«,„mnt That vou should be so little acquMUted 
tSfJS^^^i^ck ?S.mVexion. or that almost an 
HteD^rLtic^ Fa« shoulS not alarum you to higher 
Hippowancu r »«» Continuation in such an 

J^f*^"" c. I was bold to tell them who had 

«^n s^tooks which from community of semmal 
°1fftrf;:iS'pufii°bope of advan^^^ by 

[°t^"Sion/ ttt^cS^ttt. ' He that^s tabidly 

upon tteet that are to be cut down. 
• Hifpoc. Epidem. 

Letter to a Friend 


' in Portugal: 
in Austria or 
>t be in Love 

^'enice or Paris. 

in He«ven, but 

inclined, were unwise to pMc his 
Cbolical Persons will find litt 
Vienna : He that is Weak-legi 
with Rome, nor an i- n - Hea 
Death hath not only ;i<'"ticular ai 
malevolent Places on Earth, which single out' our 
Infirmities, and strike at our weaker Parts ; in which 
Concern, pa^sa^'er and migrant Bird* have the great 
Advantages ; who are natiually constituted for distant 
Habitations, whom no Seas nor Places limit, but in 
their appointed Seasons will visit us from Greenland 
and M ' unt Atlas, and as some think, even from the 
Antipole; .' 

Tho vvs (.oiiH lot '.-.^ve his Life, yet we missed 
not our (Iflsi'-es " lis soft D<.par^ure, which wa. ; scarce 
an Expirat^inn ; pnd his End not unlike his Beginning, 
when the salien) x''oInt »-carce aifords asensible motion, 
and hit Depai luie so like unto Sleep, that he scarce 
needed the civil Ceremony oi closing his Eyes ; con- 
trary imto the common wav wherein Death dra.v';. up, 
Sleep lets fall the Eye-lids. With what itnU. md 


ct if 
tivi: • 


pains we came into the World we know 
commonly no easie matter to get out of 
could be made out, that such who have e : - 
have commonly hard Deaths, and cc: \ 
Departure was so easie, that we might v 
his Birth was of another nature, and that 
sat cross-legg'd at his Nativity. 

Besides his soft Death, the incurable state cf i^ 
Disease might somewhat extenuate your Sorrow, who 
know that Monsters but seldom happen. Miracles 
more rarely, in physick,' Angelus Victoriota gives a 
serious Accoimt of a Consumptive, Hectical, Pthysical 
Woman, who was suddenly cured by the Intercession 
I of Ignatius.* We read not of any in Scripture who in 
this case applied unto our Saviour, though some may be 

BMoniiu d$ Avibut. 
' Monstra coatingnnt in medicina. Bippx. — 
rare eiicapes there happen «"metiine» in physick." 
' Axgili Vietorii Connil' •■-:. m. 

Strange and 


Letter to a Friend 

contained in that large Expression, That he went about 
Galileo healing all manner of Sickness, and all manner 
of Diseases.! Amulets, Spells, Sigils, and Incanta- 
tions, practised in other Diseases, are seldom pre- 
tended in this ; and we find no Sigil in the Archidoxis 
of Paracelsus to cure an extreme Consumption or 
marasmus, which, if other Diseases fail, will^ put a 
period unto long Livers, and at last make dust_ of 
all. And therefore the Stoicks could not but think 
that the firy Principle would wear out all the rest, and 
at last make an end of the World, which notwithstand- 
ing without such a lingring period the Creator may 
effect at his Pleasure: and to make an end of all 
things on Earth, and our Planetical System of the 
World, he need but put out the Sun. 

I was not so ,curious to entitle the unto any 
concern of his Death, yet could not but take notice 
that he died when the Moon was in motion from the 
Meridian ; at which time, an old Italian long ago would 
persuade me, that the greatest part of Men died ; but 
hi -CI I confess I could never satisfy my Curiosity; 
aii-ijugh from the time of Tides in Places upon or 
near the Sea, there may be considerable Deductions ; 
and Pliny' hath in odd and remarkable Passage con- 
cerning the Death of Men and Animals upon the 
Recess or Ebb of the Sea. However, certain it is he 
died in the dead and deep part of the Night, when 
Nox might be most apprehensibly said to be the 
Daughter of Chaos, the Mother of Sleep and Death, 
according to old Genealogy ; and so went out of this 
Worla about that hour when our blessed Saviour 
entered it, and about what time many conceive he will 
return again unto it. Cardan hath a peculiar and no 
hard Observation from a Man's Hand, to know whether 
he was born in the day or night, which I confess hold- 
eth in my own. And Scaliger to that purpose hath 

' Matt. iv. 25. 

• Aristoteles nulltim animal nisi aestu recedente expirare 
nffirmat ; observatum id multum in Gallico Oceano et duntaxat 
in bomine compertum, lib. 2, cap. loi. 

Letter to a Friend 153 

gotten in the night, most animals m the day; but 
whether more Persons have been born in the Night or 
-t-S^Xv"^"? ? Curiosity undecidable, tho more have 
perished by violent Deatlis in the Day ; yet in natur^ 
Dissolutions both Times may hold an l/diCncy!^ 

Se ™nr„'! ;°^"?i ^°!14^'y- The whole course of 
lime runs out m the Nativity and Death of Thines • 
which whether they happen "by Succession or Coin-' 
cidence. are best computed by the natural, not artificial 

of hU M^!'"!*'' -^i ^''^^^. ^** Crowned upon the Day 
of bs Nativity, It being in his own power so to order 
IL 1^ f °°, singular Animadversion; but that he 
should also take King Francis Prisoner upon that day! 
Z.^ «f ^Pf ted Coincidence, which made the same 
remarkable. Antipater who had an Anniversary Feast 
n^Z V" ?°1 ^'^ ^^t^-^y. needed no Astrological 
Wh^i^rfi*"^^"^ ^''^' '^"y t« should dye^o^ 
tY.^^- ?%^''^'^ I*"' ^^^"^ '^^ a Revolution unto 
aI^T t'^ r'^""."' ^^^y fi«t ^* O"'. some of the 
Anaents thought the World would have an end] 
which was a kind of dying upon the day of its Nativity 

ovr,^'^\!*'''n\P"^^''°g '^d sw^iftly advancnc 
aW the time of his Nativity, some were^of Opinl^^ 

nl inil "* ^^'\^e a !ingring Disease.^d creejv 
L3 1 'i^ T' ""'.'"f^ '="*''=^ was found or expected^ 
and he died not before fifteen days after. Nothing is 
more common with Infants than to dye on the day of 

heu: Nativity, to behold the worldly Hours and bat 
the Frac ions thereof; and even to perish before their 
Nativity m the hidden World of the Womb, and before 
the^ good Angel is conceived to undertake them. But 
in Persons who out-live many Years, and when there 
are no less than three hundred and sixty-five days to 
determine their Lives in every Year ; that the first day 

an'rih.l'."' P"" P?'"^»'» 'Ob'" dicil". non omnibus » pars est 
aunbus; non emm us qui noctu nati rent, sed qui iLterdS 
maxima ex parte.-Cm. m ArUtot. de AnimU lib i ">»"'«. 


Letter to a Friend 


should make the last, that the Tail of the Snake should 
return into its Mouth precisely at that time, andthey 
shouM wind up upon the day of their Natmty.i ,s 
S a^markabte Coincidence, which tho Astrology 
had taken witty pains to salve, yet hath it been very 
wary in making Predictions of it. 

In this consumptive Condition and remarkable 
Extenuation he came to be almost half ^^^f^'ff 
left a great part behind him which he earned not to 
the Grave. And tho that story of Duke John Emestas 
Mansfield" be not so easUy swallowed, that at his 
Death his Heart was found not to be so big as a Nut , 
yrttf the Bones of a good Sceleton weigh little more 
than twenty pounds, l5s Inwards and Flesh remammg 
couU mSe no Bouffage, but a light bit for the Grave 
I never more lively beheld the starved Chajac ^rs of 
Dante> in any living Face; an Aruspex might have 
read a Lecture upon him without Exenteration, his 
Flesh being so consumed that he might, m a manner, 
have discerned his Bowels without openmg of hun : so 
that to be carried stxtd cermce to the Grave, '""'but a 
civil unnecessity ; and the Complements of th i Coffin 
migh'. outweigh the Subject of it. 

OmnOxmus FerraHus< in mortal Dysenteries of 
ChUdren looks for a Spot behind the Ear; m con- 
sumptive Diseases some eye the Complexion of Mo^s 
Sn eagerly views the NaUs, some the Lmes of the 
H^dT the Thenar or Muscle of the Thumb ; some 
fre so curious as to observe the depth of the Throaty 
pit, how the proportion varieth of the Small of the 
Legs unto the CsJf, or the compass of the Neck unto 
the^ Circumference of the Head: but al these, with 
manv more, were so drowned in a mortal Visage and 
SsTL'e of Hippocrates that a weak Phygognomjst 
mieht say at first eye, This was a Face of Earth, and 
Aat K» had set' her Hard-Seal upon his Temples, 
1 According to the Egyptian hieroglyphic. 

• Turltish history. 

• In the poet Dante's description. 

• D« Morbis Putror»m. 

• Morte, the deity of death or fate. 

Letter to a Friend 


easily parceiving what atricaima} Draughts Death 
makes upon pined Faces, and u^o what an unknown 
degree a Man may live backward. 

Tho the beard be only made a distinction of Sex 
and sign of masculine Heat by Ulmus,' yet the Pre- 
cocity and early growth thereof in him, was not to be 
Jiked m reference unto long life. Lewis, that virtuous 
but unfortunate king of Hungary, who lost his Life at 
the Battle of Mohacz, was said to be bom without a 
S'fln, to have bearded at Fifteen, and to have shewn 
some gray Hairs about Twenty; from whence the 
Diviners conjectured that he would be spoiled of his 
Kingdom, and have but a short Life : but hairs make 
fallible Predictions, and many Temples early gray 
have out-Uved the Psalmist's Period.' Hairs which 
have most amused me have not been in the Face or 
Head but on the Back, and not in Men but Children, as 
I long ago observed in that Endemial Distemper of little 
children in Languedock, called the MvrgtlUm* wherein 
they critically break out with harsh Hairs on their 
Backs, which takes off the unquiet Symptoms of the 
Disease, and delivers them from Coughs and Convul- 

The Egyptian Mummies that I have seen, have had 
their Mouths open, and somewhat gaping, which 
affordeth a good opportunity to view and observe their 
Teeth, wherein 'tis not easie to find any wanting or 
decayed: and therefore in Egypt, where one Man 
practised but one Operation, or the Diseases but of 
single Parts, it must needs be a barren Profession to 
confine unto that of drawing of Teeth, and little better 
than to have been Tooth-drawer imto King Pyrrhus,' 
who had but two in his Head. How the Bannyans 
of India maintain the Integrity of those parts, I find 
not particularly observed ; who notwithstanding have 

' When men's faces are drawn with reaemblance to some 
other animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in earitatura. 
' Ulmus di usu barba humana. 

* The life of a man is three-score and ten. 

* See Picotus de Rhamatismo, 

' His upper and lower jaw being solid, and withoat distinct 
rows of teeth. 


Letter to a Friend 

an Advantage of their Preservation by abstaining from 
all Flesh, and employing their Teeth in such Food 
unto which they may seem at first framed, from their 
Figure and Conformation: but sharp and corroding 
Rheums had so early mouldred those Rocks and 
hardest part of his Fabrick, that a Man might well 
conceive that his Years were never like to double or 
twice tell over his Teeth.> Corruption had dealt more 
severely with them, than sepulchral Fires and smart 
Flames with those of burnt Bodies of old ; for in the 
burnt Fragments of Urns which I have enquired mto, 
although I seem to find few Incisors or Shearers, yet 
the Dog Teeth and Grinders do notably resist those 

> Twice tell over bU teeth, never live to threescore years. 
' In the MS. Sloan. 1862, occurs the following paragraph :— 
" Affection had so blinded some of his nearest relations, as to 
retain some hope of a postliminious life, and that he might come 
to Ufe again, and therefore would not have him coffined before 
the third day. Some such verbiasses [so in M.S.], I confer, wo 
find in story, and one or two I remember myself, but they hved 
not long after. Some contingent reanimations are to be hoped 
in diseases wherein the lamp of life is but puffed out and seem- 
ingly choaked. and not where the oil is quite spent and exhausted. 
Though Nonnus will have it a fever, yet of what diseases Laiarus 
first died, is uncertain from the text, as his second death from 
good authentic history ; but since some persons conwaved to be 
dead do sometimes return again unto evidence of hfe, that 
miracle was wisely managed by our Saviour ; for had he not 
been dead four days and under corruption, there had not wanted 
enough who would have cavilled [at] the same, which the scrip- 
ture now puts out of doubt : and tradition also confirmeth, that 
he lived thirty years after, and being pursued ty the Jews, came 
by sea into Provence, by Marseilles, with Mary Magd^en, 
Maximinus, and others ; where remarkable places carry their 
names unto this day. But to arise from the grave to return 
asain into it, is but an uncomfortable reviction. Few men 
would be content to cradle it once again ; except a man can 
lead his second life better than the first, a man may be doubly 
condemned for living evilly twice, which were but to make the 
second death in scripture the third, and to accumulate in the 
punishment of two bad Uvers at the last day. To have per- 
formed the duty of corruption in the grave, to live again as far 
from sin as death, and anse like our Saviour (or ever, are the 
only satisfactions of well-weighed expectations." 

Letter to a Friend 


In the Years of his Childhood he had languished 
under the Disease of his Country, the Rickets ; after 
which notwithstanding many have become strong and 
active Men ; but whether any have attained unto very 
great Years the Disease is scarce so old as to afford 
good Observation. Whether the Children of the 
English Plantations be subject unto the same In- 
firmity, may be worth the observing. Whether 
Lameness and Halting do still increase among the 
Inhabitants of Rovigno in Istria, I know not ; yet 
scarce twenty Years ago Monsieur du Loyr observed, 
that a third part of that People halted : but too certain 
it is, that the Rickets encreaseth among us; the 
Small-pox grows more pernicious than the Great: 
the King's Purse knows that the King's Evil grows 
more common. Quartan Agues are become no 
Strangers in Ireland ; more common and mortal in 
England : and though the Ancients gave that Disease' 
very good Words, yet now that Bell makes no strange 
sound which rings out for the Effects thereof.' 

Some think there were few Consumptions in the 
Old World, when Men lived much upon Milk ; and 
that the ancient Inhabitants of this Island were less 
troubled with Coughs when they went naked, and 
slept in Caves and Woods, than Men now in Chambers 
and Feather-beda Plato will tell us, that there was 
no such Disease as a catarrh in Homer's time, and 
that it was but new in Greece in his Age. Polydore 
Virgil delivereth that Pleurisies were rare in England, 
who lived but in the days of Henry the Eighth. Some 
will allow no Diseases to be new, others think that 
many old ones are ceased ; and that such which are 
esteemed new, will have but their time: However, 
the Mercy of God hath scattered the great heap of 
Diseases, and not loaded any one Country with all : 
some may be new in one Country which have been 
old in another. New discoveries of the Earth discover 
new Diseases : lor besides the common swarm, there 

' 'Aff^aXiirTaratnl^^Toi, securissimaetfacillima. Hittocrat. 

' Pro febre qnartana raro sonat campasa. 

Il "I 

! ;I; 

158 Letter to a Friend 

are endemial and Uxal Infirmities Pf°P«^ "«*" <=«?'l 
Regions, which in the whole Earth make no small 
number: and if Asia; Africa, and America should 
bring in their List, Pandora's Box would swell, and 
there must be a strange Pathology. 

Most Men expected to find a consumed kell, empty 
and bladder-like Guts, Uvid and marbled Lungs, and 
a withered Pericardium in this exuccous Corps : but 
Lme Memed too much to wonder that two Lobes of 
UrLi^gfadhered unto his side; for the like I have 
often found in Bodies of no suspected Consumptions 
or difficulty of Respiration. And the same more often 
happeneth in Men than other Animals: and some 
thin^ in Women than in Men : but the "ost "mark- 
able I have met with, was in a Mar, after a Cough rf 
almost fifty Years, in whom aU the L°b^. adhered 
unto the Pleuik,! and each Lobe unto another; who 
CngX beek much troubled with the Gout, brake 
thTRule of Cardan,' and died of the Stone inAe 
Bladder. Aristotle makes a query. Why some 
animals cough as Man, some not, as Oxen " «»gn- 
tog be taken as it consisteth of a natural and yolxmt^ry 

motion, including «P~t°"*'° V°L?S nL • 
mav be as proper unto Man as bleeding at »e Nc»e , 
"tS^isf we Ind that Vegetius and Rural Wnte« 
have not left so many Medicmes m vain against the 
Coughs of Cattel; and men who pensh by Coughs 
. dye the Death of Sheep, Cats, and Lyons: and thou^ 
Birds have no Midriff, yet we meet with divers 
Remedies in Arrianus against the Coughs of Hawks. 
And tho it might be thought, that all Animus who 
have Longs do cough; yet m cetaceous Fishes, 
who have large and strong Lungs, the sa,me is not 
observed; nor yet in oviparous Quadrupe^ : and in 
thrgreatest thereof, the Crocodile, although we read 
much of their Tears, we find nothmg of that motion. 

i ctrda^in hi. Enccmium Podagra «<*°"'L*'»hTi^?hSS 
P.»« pXr^, that they are delivered thereby from the phthiris 
and stoae m the bladder. 

Letter to a Friend 


From the Thoughts of Sleep, when the Soul was 
conceived nearest unto Divinity, the Ancients erected 
an Art of Divination, wherein while they too widely 
expatiated in loose and inconsequent Conjectures, 
Hippocrates' wisely considered Dreams as they pre- 
saged Alterations m the Body, and so afforded hints 
toward the preservation of Health, and prevention of 
Diseases; and therein was so serious as to advise 
Alteration of Diet, Exercise, Sweating, Bathincj, and 
Vomiting ; and also so religious, as to order I'rayers 
and Supplications unto respective Deities, in good 
dreams unto Sol, Jupiter coelestis, Jupiter opulentos, 
Minerva, Mercurius, and Apollo ; in bad onto Tellu* 
and the Heroes. 

And therefore I could not but take notice how his 
Female Friends were irrationally curious so strictly to 
examine his Dreams, and in this low state to hope for 
the Fantasms of Health. He was now past the 
healthful Dreams, of the Sun, Moon, and Stars in 
their Clarity and proper Courses. Twas too late to 
dream of Flying, of Limpid Fountains, smooth Waters, 
white Vestments, and fruitful green Trees, which are 
the Visions of healthful Sleeps, and at good distance 
from the Grave. 

And they were also too deeply dejected that he 
should dream of his dead Friends, inconsequently 
divining, that he would not be long from them ; for 
strange it was not that he should sometimes dream of 
the dead whose Thoughts run always upon Death ; 
beside, to dream of the dead, so they appear not in 
dark Habits, and take nothing away from us, in Hippo- 
crates his Sense was of good signification : for we live 
by the dead, and every thing is or must be so before it 
becomes our Nourishment. And Cardan, who dream'd 
that be discoursed with bis dead Father in the Moon, 
made thereof no mortal Interpretation : and even to 
dream that we are dead, was no condemnable Fantasm 
in old oneirocriticism, as having a signification of 
Liberty, vacuity from Cares, exemption and freedom 
from Troubles, unknown unto the dead. 
' Hippoc. de Insovmii. 


Letter to a Friend 

Some Dreams I coofcss may admit of easie and 
feminine Exposition : he who dreamed that he could 
not see his ri^ht Shoulder, might easily fear to lose 
the sight of his right Eye ; he that before a Journey 
dreamed th«t his Feet were cut off, had a plam warn- 
ing not to m^rtalce bis intended Journey. But why 
to dream of Lettuce should presage some ensuing 
(ttsease, why to eat figs should signify foolish Talk, 
why to eat Eggs great Trouble, and to dream of Blind- 
ness should be so highly commended, according to the 
oa*irocritical Verses of Astrampsychus and Nice- 
phorus, I shall leave unto your Divination. 

He was willing to quit the World alone and ;Jco- 
gether, leaving no Earnest behind him for Comiptiott 
or Aftergrave, having small content in that common 
latis&ction to survive or live in another, but amply 
satisfied that his Disease should dye with himself nor 
revive^in a Posterity to puzzle Physick, and make sad 
mementos of their Parent hereditary. Leprosy awakes 
not sometimes before Forty, the Gout ana Stone often 
later ; but consumptive and tabid' Roots sprout more 
early, and at the furest make seventeen Years of our 
Life doubtful before that Age. They that enter the 
World with original Diseases as well as Sin, have not 
only common Mortality but sick Traductions to 
destroy them, make commonly short Courses, and live 
not at length but in Figures ; so that a sound Caesarean 
Nativity' may outlast a natural Birth, and a Knife 
may sometimes make way for a more lasting fruit 
than a Midwife ; which makes so few Infants now 
able to endure the old Test of the River,' and many 
to have feeble Children who could scarce have been 
married at Sparta, and those provident States who 
studied strong and healthful Generations; which 
happen but contingently in mere pecuniary Matches, 

' Tabes maxime contingunt ab anno decimo octave ad trigesi- 
mum quintain. — Hipfoc. 

* A sound child cut out ot the body of the mother. 

' Natos ad flumina primum deferimus ssevoque gelu duramus 
et ondis. 

Letter to a Friend 



or Marriages made by the Candle, wherein notwith' 
standing there is little redress to be hoped from an 
Astrologer or a Lawyer, and a good discerning physi- 
cian were like to prove the most saccessftil ComiseUor. 

Julias Scaliger, who in a sleepless Fit of the Gont 
could make two hundred Verses in a Night, would 
have but five plain Words upon his Tomb.> And this 
serious Person, though no mmor Wit, left the Poetry 
of his Epitaph unto others ; either unwilling to com- 
mend himself, or to be judged by a Distich, and 
perhaps considering how unhappy great Poets have 
been in versifying their own Epitaphs; wherein 
Petrarca, Dante, and Ariosto, have so unhappily 
failed, that if their Tombs should out-last their Works, 
Posterity would find so little of Apollo on them, as to 
mistake them for Ciceronian Poets. 

In this deliberate and creeping progress unto the 
Grave, he was somewhat too ^oung, and of too noble 
a mind, to &1I upon that stupid Symptom observable 
in divers Persons near their Journey's end, and which 
maybe reckoned among the mortal Symptoms of their 
last Disease ; that is, to become more narrow-minded, 
miserable and tenacious, unready to part with anything 
when they are ready to part with all, and afraid to 
want when they have no time to spend ; meanwhile 
Physicians, who know that many are mad but in a 
single depraved Imagination, i.nd one prevalent De- 
cipiency; and that beside and out of such single 
Deliriums a Man may meet with sober Actions and 

food Sense in Bedlam ; cannot but smile to see the 
leirs and concerned Relations, gratulating themselv ^s 
on the sober departure of their Friends ; and though 
they behold such mad covetous Passages, content to 
think they dye in good Understanding, and in their 
sober Senses. 

_ Avarice, which is not only Infidelity but Idolatry, 
either from covetous Progeny or questuary Education, 
had no root in bis Breast, who made good Works the 

' Tulii Caesaris Scaligeii quod hit— Josepk. Scaligir in vitt 

1 62 

Letter to a Friend 


ExpreMion of hit Faith, and was big with daairea 
untODublic and lasting Charities; and surely where 
good Wishes and charitable Intentions exceed Abilities, 
Theorical Beneficencv may be more than a Dream. 
They build not Castles in the Air who would build 
Churches on Earth : and the tliev leave no such 
Structures here, may lay good Foundations in Heaven. 
In brief, his Life and Death were such, that I could 
not blame them who wished the like, and almost to 
have been himself ; almost, 1 say ; for tho we may 
wish the prosperous Appurtenances of others, or to be 
another id his happy Accidents, yet so intrinsical is 
every Man unto himself, that some doubt may be 
made, whether any would exchange his Being, or 
substantially become another Man. 

He had wiselyseen the World at home and abroad, 
and thereby observed under what variety Men are 
deluded in the pursuit of that which is not here to be 
found. And altho he had no Opinion of reputed 
Felicities below, and apprehended Men widely out in 
the estimate of such Happiness, yet his sober contempt 
of the World wrought no Democratism or Cynicism, 
no laughing or snarling at it, as well understanding 
there are not Felicities in this World to satisfy a 
serious' Mind ; and therefore to soften the stream of 
our Lives, we are fain to take in the reputed Conten- 
tations of this World, to unite with the Crowd in their 
Beatitudes, and to make ourselves happy by Consor- 
tion, Opinion, or Co-existimation : for strictly to 
separate from received and customary Felicities, and 
to confme unto the rigour of Realities;, were to contract 
the Consolation of our Beings unto too uncomfortable 

Not to fear Death,' nor desire it, was short of his 
Resolution : to be dissolved, and be with Christ, was 
his dying ditty. He conceived his Thred long, in no 
long course of Years, and when he had scarce out-lived 
the second Life of Lazarus ;' esteeming it enough to 

> Summam nee metuaa diem nee optes. 
' Who upon some accounts, and tradition, is said to have 
lived tliirty years after he was raised by oar Saviour. — Baroniut, 

Letter to a Friend 


■pprokch the Years of his Saviour, who so ordered 
bis own humane State, as not to be old upon Earth. 

But to be content with Death may be better than to 
desire it : a miserable Life may make us wish for 
Death, but a virtuous one to rest in it ; which is the 
Advantage of those resolved Christians, who looking 
on Death not only as the stini;, but the period and 
end of Sin, the Horizon and Isthmus between this 
Life and a better, and the Death of this World lut as 
a Nativity of smother, do contentedly submit unto the 
common Necessity, and envy not Enoch or Eltas. 

Not to be content with Life is ihe unsatis&ctory 
state of those who destroy themselves ;' who being 
afraid to live, run blindly upon their own Death, 
which no Man fears by Experience : and the Stoickt 
had a notable Doctrine to take away the fear thereof; 
that is. In such Extremities, to desire that which is 
not to be avoided, and wish what might be feared ; 
and so made I<~vils voluntary, and to suit with their 
own Desires, which took off the terror of them. 

But the ancient Martyrs were not encouraged hv 
such Fallacies; who, though they feared not DeatL, 
were afraid to be their own Executioners ; and there- 
fore thought it more Wisdom to crucify their Lusts 
than their Bodies, to circumcise than stab their 
Hearts, and to mortify than kill themselves. 

His willingness to leave this World about that Age 
when most Men think they may best enjoy it, though 
paradoxical unto worldly Ears, was not strange unto 
mine, who have so often observed, that many, though 
old, oft stick fast unto the World, and seem to be 
drawn like Cacus's Oxen, backward with great strug- 
gling and reluctancy unto the Grave. The long habit 
of Living makes meer Men more hardly to part with 
Life, and all to be nothing, but what is tc come. To 

' In the apeech of Vnlteius in Lucan, animating his loldiers 
in a jfreat struggle to Icill one another. — ■■ Decernite lethum, et 
metus omnis atiest, cupias quodcunque necesse est." "All 
fear is over, do but resolve to die, and make your desires meet 




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1 64 

Letter to a Friend 

live at the rate of the old World, when some could 
scarce remember themselves young, may afford no 
better digested Death than a more moderate period. 
Many would have thought it an Happiness to have 
had their lot of Life in some notable Conjunctures of 
Ages past ; but the uncertainty of future Times hath 
tempted few to make a part in Ages to come. And 
surely, he that hath talcen the true Altitude of Things, 
and rightly calculated the degenerate state of this Age, 
is not like to envy those that shall live in the next, 
much less three or four hvmdred Years hence, when 
no Man can comfortably imagine what Face this 
World will carry: and therefore since every Age 
makes a step unto the end of all things, and the 
scripture affords so hard a Character of the last 
Times; quiet Minds will be content with their Gene- 
rations, and rather bless Ages past than be ambitious 
of those to come. 

Tho Age had set no Seal upon his Face, yet a dim 
Eye might clearly discover Fifty in his Actions ; and 
therefore since Wisdom is the gray Hair, and an 
imspatted Life old Age ; altho his Years came short, 
he might have been said to have held up with longer 
Livers, and to have been Solomon's^ Old Man. And 
surely if we deduct all those days of our Life which 
we might wish unlived, and which abate the comfort 
of those we now live ; if we reckon up only those days 
which God hath accepted of our Lives, a Life of good 
Years will hardly be a span long : the Son in this 
sense may out-live the Father, and none be climateri- 
cally old. He that early arriveth unto the Parts and 
Prudence of Age, is happily old without the un- 
comfortable Attendants of it ; and 'tis superfluous to 
live unto gray Hairs, when in a precocious Temper 
we anticipate the Virtues of them. In brief, he cannot 
be accounted young who out-liveth the old Man. He 
that hath early arrived unto the measure of a perfect 
Stature in Christ, hath already fulfilled the prime and 
s;est Intention of his Being: and one day lived 


' Wisdom, cap. iv. 

Letter to a Friend 


after the perfect Rule of Piety, is to be preferred 
before sinning Immortality. 

Although he attained not unto the Years of his 
Predecessors, yet he wanted not those preserving 
Virtues which confirm the thread of weaker Constitu- 
tions. Cautelous Chastity and crafty sobriety were 
far from him; those Jewels were Paragon, without 
l-Iaw, Hair, Ice, or Cloud in him: which affords me 
a hint to proceed in these good Wishes and few Me- 
mentos unto you. 

.u''7^^ remainder of this letter was included, with few 
•Iterations, in •• Christian Morals." 






Had I not observed that Purblind" men have dis- 
coursed 'veil of Sight, and some without Issue,' 
excellently of Generation ; I that was never Master of 
any considerable Garden, had not attempted this 
Subject. But the Earth is the Garden of Nature, and 
each fruitful Country a Paradise. Dioscorides made 
most of his Observations in His march about with 
Antonius; and Theophrastus raised his Generalities 
chiefly from the Field. . ,, , 

Besides, we write no Herbal, nor can this Volume 
deceive you, who have handled the Massiest* thereof; 
who know that three' Folios are yet too little, and 
how New Herbals fly from America upon us, from 
persevering Enquirers, and old' in ihose singularities, 
we expect such Descriptions. Wherein England' is 
now so exact, that it yields not to other Countries. 

We pretend not to multiply Vegetable Divisions by 
Quincuncial and Reticulate Plants; or erect a New 

1 Nicholas Bacon, of GilUngham, Esq.l Created a baronet, 
Feb. 7, 1661. by Charles II. His father was the sixth son of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, who was created premier baronet of 
Enriand May ti, 1611, by James I., and was the eldest son of 
the lord keeper of Queen Elizabeth, and half-brother of Francis, 
Lord Bacon, the lord keeper's youngest son by a second 
marriage. .,>.•, „ 

' Plempius, Cabeus, &c. ' Dr. Harvey. 

• Besleri Hortus EysMemis. 

' Bauhini Theatrum Botanicum, &c. , , . 

• My worthy friend M. Godier, an ancient and learned 

' As in London and divers parts, whereof we mention none, 
lest we seem to omit any. 

The Epistle Dedicatory 169 

Phytology. The Field of Knowledge hath been so 
traced, it is hard to spring any Thing new. Of old 
Things we write something new, if Truth may receive 
addition, or Envy will allow any Thig new; since 
the Ancients knew the late Anatomical Discoveries, 
and Hippocrates the Circulation. 
• Y°u, have been so long out of trite Learning, that it 
IS hard to find a Subject proper for you ; and if you 
have met with a Sheet upon this, we have missed our 
Intention. In this Multiplicity of Writing, bye and 
barren Themes are best fitted for Invention ; Subjects 
so often discoursed confine the Imagination, and fix 
our Conceptions unto the Notions of Forewriters. 
Beside, such Discourses allow Excursions, and venially 
admit of collateral Truths, though at some distance 
firom their Principals. Wherein if we sometimes take 
wide liberty, we are not single, but err by great 

He that will illustrate the Excellency of this Order, 
may easily fail upon so spruce a Subject, wherein we 
have not affrighted the common reader with any other 
Diagrams, than of itself; and have industriously 
dechaed Illustrations from rare and unknown Plants. 

Ywir discerning Judgment, so well acquainted with 
that Study, will expect herein no Mathematical Truths, 
as well understanding how few Generalities and 
U Fmtas there are in Nature. How Scaliger hath 
found Exceptions in most Universals of Aristotle and 
Theophrastus. How botanical Maxims must have 
fair Allowance, and are tollerably Current, if not over- 
ballanced by Exceptions. 

You have wisely ordered your Vegetable Delights, 
beyond the Reach of Exception. The Turks who 
passed their Days in Gardens here, will have Gardens 
also hereafter; and delighting in Flowers on Earth, 
must have Lillies and Roses in Heaven. In Garden 
Delights it is not easy to hold a Mediocrity; that 
insinuating Pie isure is seldom without some Extremity. 
The Ancients venially delighted in flourishing Gardens: 
» HippecriUs it Sufirfcttalisne, it DmtULr.i. 

lyo The Epistle Dedicatory 

Many were Florists that knew not the true Use of a 
Flower : And in Plinys Days none had directly treated 
of that Subject. Some commendably affected Planta- 
tions of venomous Vegetables ; some confined their 
Delights unto single Plants ; and Cato seemed to doat 
upon Cabbage ; While the ingenious Delight of Tulip- 
ists, stands saluted with hard Language, even by their 
own Professors.^ 

That in this Garden Discourse, we range into ex- 
traneous Things, and many Parts of Art and Nature, 
we follow herein the Example of old and new I'lauta- 
tions, wherein noble Spirits ntented not themselves 
with Trees ; but by the Attt dance of Aviaries, Fish- 
ponds, and all Variety of Animals, they made their 
Gardens the Epitome of the Earth, and some re- 
semblance of the secular Shows of old. 

That we conjoin these Parts of different Subjects' 
your Judgment will admit without impute of Incon- 
gruity ; s'nce the delightful World comes after Death, 
and Paradise succeeds the Grave. Since the verdant 
State of Things is the Symbol of the Resurrection, 
and to flourish in the State of Glory, we roust first be 
sown in Corruption. Beside, the ancient Practice of 
Noble Persons, to conclude in Garden-Graves, and 
Urn themselves of old, to be wrapt up in Flowers 
and Garlands. 

NuUum suit venia placmssi thquium, is more sensibly 
understood by Writers, than by Readers; nor well 
apprehended by either, till Works have hanged out 
like Apelles his Pictures ; wherein even common Eyes 
will find something for Emendation. 

To wish all Readers of your Abilities, were un- 
reasonably to multiply the Number of Scholars beyond 
the Temper of these Times. But unto this ill-judging 
Age, we charitably desire a Portion of your Equity, 
Judgment, Candour, and Ingenuity ; wherein you are 
1 Tulipo-maHia, Narreiuruiid, Laurtnberg. Pit. H ndius in lib. 

" Alluding to his joining this Tract to his Hydriotaphia, with 
which it was originally published. 

The Epistle Dedicatory 171 

so rich, as not to lose by diffusion. And being a 
flourishing branch of that noble family,' unto which 
we owe so much Observance, you are not new set, but 
loiig rooted in such Perfection ; whereof having had 
so lasting confirmation in ,your worthy Conversation, 
constant Amity anil Expression ; and knowing you a 
serious Student in the highest arcattas of Nature, with 
much excuse we bring these low Delights, and poor 
Maniples to your Treasure. 

Your affectionate Friend and Servant, 

Thomas Browne. 
Norwich, May i, 1658. 

> Of the most worthy Sir Edmund Bacon, prims Barooet, my 
true and noble friend. 



That Vulcan gave arrows unto AfoUo and Diana the 
fourth day after their Nativities, according to Gentile 
Theology, may passe for no blinde apprehension of 
the Creation c' the Sunne and Moon, in the work of 
the fourth day ; when the diffused light contracted into 
Oibes, and shooting rayes, of those Luminaries. 
Plainer Descriptions there are from Pagan peis, of 
the creatures of the fourth day; while the divine 
Philosopher! unhappily omitteth the noblest part of 
the third; and Ovid (whom many conceive to have 
borrowed his description from Moses) coldly deserting 
the remarkablp account of the text, in three words' 
describeth this work of the thud day ; the vegetable 
creation, and first ornamentall scene of nature ; the 
primitive food of animals, and first story of Physick, 
in Dietetical conservation. 

For though Physick may pleade high, from that 
raedicall act of God, in casting so deep a sleep upon 
our first Parent ; and "hirurgery" finde its whole art, 
in that one passage concerning the Rib of Adam, yet 
is there m rivality with Garden contrivance and 
Herbery. Fcr if Paradise were planted the third 
day of the Creation, as wiser Divinity concludeth, the 
Nativity thereof was too early for Horoscopy ; Gardens 
were before Gardiners, and but some hours after the 

' Plato « Timao. ' •F""?? '««■' "'"'• .. 

• SuUpmt, in opening the fiesh ; Hatptnt, in t»kmg out the nb. 
tivBtm, in closing up the part igun. 

Garden of Cyrus 


_ Of deeper doubt is its Topography, and local de- 
signation, yet being the primitive garden, aud without 
much controversies seated in the East ; it is more than 
probable the first curiosity, aid cultivation of plants, 
most flourished in those quarurs. And since the Ark 
of Noah first toucht upon some mountains of Armenia, 
the planting art arose again in the Ea;;t, and found its 
revolution not far from the place of its Nativity, aboul 
the Plains of those Regions. And if Zoroaster were 
either Cham, Chut, or Mitraim, they were early 
proficients therein, who left (as Pliny delivereth,) a 
work of Ajr'rulture. 

However the account of the Pensill or hanging 
gardens of Babylon, if made by Semiramis, the third or 
fourth from Nimro^, is of no slender antiquity ; which 
being not frimed upon ordinary levell of ground, but 
raised up in oi.'lars, admitting under-passages, we 
cannot accept as the first BiUiytouian Gardens ; but a 
more eminent progress and advancement in that art, 
than any that went before L : Somewhat answering 
or hinting the old Opinion concerning Paradise itself, 
with many conceptions elevated, above the plane of 
the Earth.> 

' For some tli'r^" is from the ambig .ity of the word liilieieiK, 
whether ab Orintt, or a principio. 

* In MS. Sloan. 1847, occurs the {ollowing passage, evidently 
intended for this worli :— " We are unwilling to diminish or loose 
the credit of Paradise, or only pass it over with [the Hebrew 
word for] dien, though the Greek be of a later name. In this 
ex~.epted, we know not whether the ancient gardens do equal 
thow of late times, or those at present in Europe. Of the 
ganlens of Hesperides, we know nothing singular, but some 

tolcen apples. Of Alcinous his garden, we re,i i nothing beyond 
ggs, apples, and olives: if we allow it to be any i?ore than a 
fiction 01 Homer, unhappily placed in Corfu, where the sterility 
of the soil makes men believe there was no such thing at all. 
The gardeus of Adonis were empty that they afforded pro- 
verbial expression, and the principal part thereof was empty 
spaces, with herbs and flowers in pots. I think we little under- 
stand the pensile gardens of Semiramis, which made one of the 
wonders of it [Babylon], wherein probably the structure ex- 
ceeded t plants contained in them. The excellency thereof 
was prot Ay in the trees, and if the descension r>i 'ha roots be 


Garden of Cyrus 

Uthuchodenator whom some will have to b« tho 
famous Symm King of Diodonu, beautifully repaired 
that City ; and so magnificently built hift hanging 
gardens,! i\^tx from succeeding Writers he had the 
honour of the first. From whence overlooking 
Babylon, and all the Region about it, he found no 
circumscription to the eye of his ambition, till over- 
delighted with the bravery of this Paradise; in his 
melancholy metamorphosis, he found the folly of that 
delight, and a proper punishment, in the contrary 
habitation, in wild plantations and wanderings of the 

The Persian Gallants who destroyed this Monarchy, 
maintained their Botanicall bravery. Unto whom we 
owe the very name of Paradise : wherewith we meet 
not in Scripture before the time of Solomon, and con- 
ceived originally Persian. The word for that disputed 
Garden, expressing in the Hebrew no more than a 
Field enclosed, which from the same Root is content 
to derive a garden and a Buckler. 

Cyrus the elder brought up in Woods and Moun- 
tains, when time and power enabled, pursued the 
dictate of his education, and brought the treasures of 
the field into rule and circumscri) 'on. So nobly 
beautifying the hanging Garde^^ O' Babylon, that be 
was also thought to be the authour thereof. 

Ahasuerus (whom many conceive to have been 
Artaxtrxes Longi-manus) in the Countrey and City of 
Flowers,' and in Bla open Garden, entertained his 
Princes and people, while Vashti more modestly treated 
the Ladies within the Palace thereof. 

But if (as some opinion)' King A-hasutms vieto Arta- 
xtrxes Mnemon, that found a life and reign answerable 
unto his great memory, our magnified Cyrus was his 
second Brother : who gave the occasion of that 

equal to the height of trees, it was not [absurd] of Strebseus to 
think the pillars were hollow that the roots might shoot into 

' Josephus. ' Suskan in Susiana, 

• Plutarch, in tte '.('/» of Ariaxirxes. 

Garden of Cyrus 

Y^!^^"^^" T'^' '^^ 'i'-'"'* iTTaculous retreat of 
XenofhoH. A person of high spirit and honour 

hS'' "^'"^^ '^"K'' f'^'^l'y prevented by the 
harmlesse chance of /ox^-geniture : Not only a Lord 

hL^r. "r'J'"i-'""''"!"'".P'^*«' "«'«°f-- disposing 
h.9 trees, lilce his armies in regular ordination. sS 
hat whie old £«^/« hath found a n.-, ,e in Home? 
for pruning hedget,, and clearing awuy thornsTnd 
bryars: while King Attalu, lives for his S"onous 
plan ations of AcontUs, Henbane, Hellebore, ind plams 
hardly admitted w thin the w^lls of Parad se ; WhUe 
many of the ancients do [ jily live in the sinlu 

LT" ° ""'jr'"^}"'- A" «ories^do look u'Xa 
as the splendid and regular planter. ^ 

According whereto Xenophon^ describeth his B.iIIant 

plantation at Scrdis, thus rendered bv sS"/ 

Arbom panintervallo siias, redo, ordine,, i omnia p"r- 

Pulchri ,n Qumcuncm directa. Which w ih^l tkke 

for 5ranted as being accordingly rendred J the mos? 

elegant of the ia/,„«,« and by no nade term buTfn 

use before by K«^.. That is the rows and "rder" so 

hundsomely disposea, or five trees so set together 

hat a regular angularity, and through prosS wi' 

eft on everv .ide. Owfng this name not o^ly'un?^ 

o7f^'ndirnta]^«Se:^ .he Emphatical &^^, 
Now though in some ancient and modern practice 
the area or decussated plot, might be a oerfect /nnnr? 
answerable to a 7-»5.«„ Pedestal!, a^d t'he SZ^l 
or Cinque point of a dye ; wherein by SnaU lines 
the mersection was regular; accommffl umo 
Plantations of large growing Trees ; and we must not 
deny ourselves the advantage of this order ; yet^h^l we 
chiefly msist upon that of C«rt,»i and P^rta" in thSr 
brief description hereof. Wherein the decmsis s r^ad« 
within a longilaterall sqv^re, with opS anX 

• Benedict. Curtiu, i. HortU. Baf,TZ i'l^^""' 


Garden of Cyrus 

acute and obtuse at the intersection ; and so upon 
progression making a Rhombus or Lozenge figuration, 
wliicli seemetii very agreeable unto the Original! 
figure; Answerable whereunto we observe the de- 
cussated characters in many consulary Coynes, and 
even in those of Constantitu and his Sons, which 
pretend their pattern in the Sky; the crucigerous 
Ensigne carried this figure, not transversely or rect- 
angular^ intersected, but in a decussation, after the 
form of an Andrean or Burgundian cross, which 
answereth this description. 

Where bv the way we shall decline the old Theme, 
so traced by antiquity, of crosses and crucifixion : 
\Vhereof some being right, and of one single peece 
without transversion or transome, do little advantage 
our subject. Nor shall we take in the mysticall Tau, 
or the Crosse of our blessed Saviour, which having in 
some descriptjions an Empedon or crossing footstay, 
made not one single transversion. And since the 
Learned Lipsius hath made some doubt even of the 
Crosse of St. Andrew, since some Martyrologicall 
Histories deliver his death by the general Name of a 
crosse, and Hippolytus will have him suffer by the 
sword ; we should have enough to make out the 
received Crosse of that Martyr. Nor shall we urge 
the labarum, and famous Standard of Constantine, or 
make further use thereof, then as the first Letters in 
the Name of our Saviour Christ, in use among 
Christians, before the dayes of Constantine, to be 
observed in Sepulchral Monuments' of Martyrs, in 
the reign of Adrian and Antoninus ; and to be found in 
the Antiquities of the Gentiles, before the advent of 
Christ, as in the Medall of King Ptolemy, signed with 
the same characters, and might be the beginning of 
some word or name, which Antiquaries have not 
hit on. 

We will not revive the mysterious crosses of Mgypt, 
with circles on their heads, in the breast of Strapis, 
and the hands of their Geniall spirits, not unlike the 
' Of Marius, Alexander. Roma Sotfnraiua. 

Garden of Cyrus 177 

character of Venus, and looked on by ancient Christians 
with relation unto Christ Since however they first 
began, the .Egyptians thereby expressed the processe 
and motion of the spint of the world, and the Effusion 
thereof upon the Celestiall and Elementall nature- 
implyed by a circle and right-lined intersection. A 
secret m their Telesmes and magicall Characters 
among them. Though he that considereth the plain 
cross" upon the head of the owl in the Lateran obelisk 
or the cross' erected upon a picher diflFusing streams 

Jh.r ^'°*n *7° ^^'^^' "^'^ sprinkling branches in 
them^and all described upon a two-footed Altar, as in 

■» ?'*^?^'?P'^^'=''= °^ ^^^ ^"■asen Table of Bembus ; 
will^hardly decline all thought of Christian signality 

We shall not call w the Hebrew Tenuiha, or cere- 
mony of their Oblations, waved by the Priest unto the 
four quarters of the world, after the form of a cross: 
as m the peace-oflferings. And if it were clearly made 
°?*u o^ul-^*'"^*^'''^ deUvered from the Traditions 
of the Rabbms, that as the Oyle was powred coronally 
or circularlly upon the head of Kings, so the High- 
Pnest was anointed decussatively or in the form of an 
A ; though It could not escape a typicall thought of 
«-linst, from mysticall considerators : yet being the 
conceit IS Hebrew, we should rather expect its verifi- 
cation from Analogy in that language, than to confine 
tne same unto the unconcerned Letters of Greece, or 
make it out by the characters of Cadmus or Palamedes. 

Of this Qumcuncial Ordination the Ancients 
practised much, discoursed little ; and the Moderns 
have nothing enlarged ; which he that more nearly 
considereth, m the form of its square Rhombus, and 
decussation, with the several commodities, mysteries, 
parallehsmes, and resemblances, both in Art and 
Nature, shall easily discern the elegancy of this order. 

fr/.^"!.'?'''"..'?''*'' P*^ " "oraewhat longer, as deBned by 
• Cattl. tb Rililm. Bosh iMa TtkmfiinU met. 


Garden of Cyrus 

That this was in some wayes of practice in diverse 
and distant Nations, hints or deliveries there are from 
no slender Antiquity. In the hanging Gardens of 
Babylon, from Abydmus, Eusebius, and others,^ Curtm 
describeth this Rule of decussation. In the memorable 
Garden of Alcinous anciently conceived an originall 
phancy, from Paradise, mention there is of vfell- 
contrived order ; For so hath Didymus and EusUKhiiu 
expounded the emphatical word. Diomedes describing 
the Rural possessions of his father, gives account in 
the same Language of Trees orderly planted. And 
Ulysses being a boy was promised by his Father fourty 
figge-trees, and fifty'' rows of Vines producing all kinde 
of grapes. 

That the Eastern Inhabitants of India, made use of 
such order, even in open Plantations, is deducible from 
Theophrastus ; who describing the trees whereof they 
made their garments, plainly delivercth that they were 
planted kot' opxo"s> ^od in such order that at a 
distance men would mistake them for Vineyards. 
The same seems confirmed in Greice from a singular 
expression in Aristotle' concerning the order of Vines, 
delivered by a military term representing the orders 
of Souldiers, which also confirmeth the antiquity of 
this form yet used in vineall plantations. 

That the same was used in Latine plantations is 
plainly confirmed from the commending penne of 
Vano Quintilian, and handsome Description of Virgil.* 
That the first Plantations not long after the Floud 
were disposed after this manner, the generality and 
antiquity of this order observed in Vineyards, and 
Wine plantations, affordeth some conjecture. And 
since firom judicious enquiry, Saturn, who divided the 
world between his three sonnes, who beareth a Sickle 

• Dccussatio ifsajvcundumac feramanumamspictumpralmit. Curt. 
Hortar. 1. vi. 

Pkmorixus. Philoxmns. 

• o-iwTiiJat i/nriXuv. PoUt. vii. 

• Indulge ordtmliua, nee sieiki omnis w migium 

Arboribus fositit, SKte via Umili qmdnt. Georg. U. 

Garden of Cyrus 


in bis hand, who taught the plantations of Vines, 
the setting, grafting of trees, and the best part of 
Agriculture, is discovered to be Noah, whether this 
early dispersed Husbandry in Vineyards had not its 
Originall in that Patriarch, is no such Paralogicall 

And if it were clear that this was used by Noah after 
the Floud, I could easily beleeve it was in use before 
it ; Not willing to fix to such ancient inventions no 
higher originall than Noah ; nor readily conceiving 
those aged Heroes, whose diet was vegetable, and 
only, or chiefly consisted in the fruits of the earth, 
were much deficient in their splendid cultivations ; or 
after the experience of fifteen hundred years, left much 
for future discovery in Botanicall Agriculture. Nor 
fully perswaded that Wine was the invention of Noah, 
that fermented Liquors, which often make themselves, 
so long escaped their Luxury or experience ; that the 
first sinne of the new world was no sin of the old. 
That Cain and A bel were the first that offered Sacrifice ; 
or because the Scripture is silent that Adam or Isaac 
offered none at all. 

Whether Abraham, brought up in the first planting 
Countrey, observed not some rule hereof, when he 
planted a grove at Bur-sheba ; or whether at least a 
like ordination were not in the Garden of Solomon, 
probability may contest. Answerably unto the wisedom 
of that eminent Botanologer, and orderly disposer of 
all his other works. Especially since this was one 
piece of Gallantry, wherein he pursued the specious 
part of felicity, according to his own description. " I 
made me Gardens and Orchards, and planted Trees 
in them of all kindes of fruits. I made me Pools of 
water, to water therewith the wood that bringeth forth 
Trees,"! which was no ordinary plantation, if accord- 
ing to the Targum, or Chaldee paraphrase, it contained 
all kinds of Plants, and some fetched as far as India ; 
and the extent thereof were from the wall of Jerusalem 
unto the water of Siloah. 

> Eccles. ii. 


Garden of Cyrus 

And if Jordan were but Jaar Edtn, that is, the River 
of Ede», Geiusar but Gansar or the Prince of Gardens ; 
and it could be made out, that the Plain of Jordan 
were watered not comparatively, but causally, and 
because it was the Paradise of God, as the Learned 
Abramas^ hiattth, he was not far from the Prototype 
and or'9(inall of Plantations. And since even in 
Paradise itself, the tree of knowledge was placed in the 
middle of the Garden, whatever was the ambient 
figure, there wanted not a centre and rule of decussa- 
tion. Whether the groves and sacred Plantations of 
Antiquity, were not thus orderly placed, either by jwa- 
Umios, or quintuple ordinations, may favourably be 
doubted. For since they were so methodicall in the 
constitutions of their temples, as to observe the due 
scituation, aspect, manner, form, and order in Archi- 
tectonicall relations, whether they were not as distinct 
in their groves and Plantations about them, in form 
and species respectively unto their Deities, is not with- 
out probability of conjecture. And in their groves of 
the Sunne this was a fit number, by multiplication to 
denote the dayes of the year; and might Hierogly- 
phically speak as much, as the mysticall statua of 
Janus* in the Language of his fingers. And since they 
were so criticall in the number of his horses, the strings 
of his Harp, and rayes about his head, denoting the 
orbes of heaven, the Seasons and Moneths of the Yeare; 
witty Idolatry would hardly be flat in other appro- 


Nor wasthis only a form of practise in Plantations, 
but found imitation from high Antiquity, in sundry 
artificiall contrivances and manuall operations. For 
to omit the position of squared stones, cuneatim or 
wedgwise, in the Walls of Roman and Gothkk buildings; 

* VH. TestammH r jrus. 

' Which king Numa set up with his fingers so disposed that 
thoj Dumerically denoted 36i.—PUny, 

Garden of Cyrus i8i 

and the lithostrata or figured pavements of the ancients 
which consisted not all of square stones, but were 
divided into tnquetrous segments, honeycombs, and 
sexangular %ures, according to Vitruvius ;The squared 
stones and bricks, m ancient fabricks, were placed after 
mM^f f • ^°^ two above or below, conjoyned by a 
middle stone or Pl,„fhus, observable in the mines of 
FMmNirva, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Pyramid 
of Cestms, and the sculpture draughts of the larger 
Pyramids of^gypt. And therefore in the draughts 
of eminent fabncks. Painters do commonly imitate 
this order in the lines of their description 

In the Laureat draughts of sculpture and picture, 
the leaves axid foliate works are commonly thus con- 
tnved, which is but m imitation of the Pulvinaria, and 
ancient piUow-work, observable in lonick peeces, about 
columns, temples and altars. To omit many other 
analogies, in Architectonicall draughts, which art itself 
IS founded upon' fives, as having its subject, and most 
gracefuU peeces divided by this number. 

The Triumphal Oval, and Civicall Crowns of Laurel. 
Oake, and Myrtle, when fully made, were pleated afte^ 
this order. And to omit the crossed Crowns of Christ- 
lan Jr-nnces; what figure that was which Anastatius 
described upon the head of Leo the third ; or who first 
brought m the Arched Crown; That of Charles the 
great (which seems the first remarkably closed Crown ) 
was framed after this' manner; with an intersection ii 
tue middle from the main crossing barres, and the 
interspaces, unto the fi-ontal circle, continued by hand- 
some net- work plates, much after this order. VV'hereon 
we shall not msist, because from greater Antiquity, 
and practice of consecration, we meet with the radiated 
and starry Crown, upon the h^ad of Augustus, and 
r ' Of a structure five parts, Fundamtntum, parietes, atertura 

?n?^™ '■ I?'"'=k. Connthian. Compound. Five diffe^nt inter 
VitZ ■ ^""'^'°'- *"*'»»• ■SJ'^J'fcJ, Armtyhs. Euityhs. 

{. 'sind^' t'tTgamna afui Ckiffltt. in B. R. BmxMi, it Icon. 


Garden of Cyrus 

many succeeding Emperors. Since the Armenians and 
Parthians had a peculiar royall Capp; and the Grecians 
from Alexander another kinde of diadem. And even 
Diadems themselves were but fasciations, and hand- 
some ligatures, about the heads of Princes; nor wholly 
omitted in the mitrall Crown, which common picture 
seems to set too upright and forward upon the head of 
Aaron: yfoTua^ sometimes singly, or doubly by Princes, 
recording to their Kingdomes; and no more to be 
expected from two Crowns at once upon the head of 
Ptlomy. And so easily made, out when historians tell 
us, some bound up wounds, some hanged themselves 
with diadems. 

The beds of the antients were corded somewhat after 
this fashion : That is not directly, as ours at present, 
but obliquely, from side to side, and after the manner 
of network ; whereby they strengthened the spondae or 
bedsides, and spent less cord in the work : as is demon- 
strated by Blancanus? 

And as they lay in crossed beds, so they sat upon 
seeming crosselegg'd seats : in which form the noblest 
thereof were framed: Observable in the triumphall 
seats, the sella curulis, or Mdyle Chayres ; in the coyns 
of Cesiius, Sylla, and JMus. That they sat also crosse- 
legg'd, many nobler draughts declare; and in this 
figure the sitting gods and goddes:3es are drawn in 
medalls and medallions. And, beside this kinde of 
work in Retiarie and hanging textures, in embroideries, 
and eminent needle-works ; the like is obvious unto 
every eye 11 glass- windows. Nor only ' ■ Glassie con- 
trivances, but also in Lattice and Stone work, con- 
ceived in the Temple of Solomon ; wherein the windows 
are termed fenestra reticulata, or lights framed like nets. 
And agreeable unto the Greek expression' concerning 
Christ in the Canticles,* looking through the nets, 
which ours hath rendered, " he looketh forth at the 
windows, shewing himself through the lattesse ;" that 
is, partly seen and unseen, -ccording to the visible and 

* Mace. i. xL 

• StKTVUTd. 

'' Aristoi. Mtehm. Quasi. 
* Cant. ii. 

Garden of Cyrus 183 

invisible sides of his nature Tn «-,•* 41. 

late worlf in th. ^i,»!;V^ /oo""* the noble ret cu- 

' to ft. .te 0/ biJiSJ ""e'' -'■■'"l" »»" Ml 

il/fl« andT««^ a„H J ^^''"' ^'"■'^^ inclosed 

Scuchions ^th mLc 1 fJ^^^ ^O" their 

they disposrtheSes of F Jm- ""^ ^^^'y^"' ^"'^ ""'« 
this'^QuiLunc^ method ' ^'^ ""^"^ "°*'^ '" 

cut^^he'rLm»f Wot by Lapidaries, while they 

" lextury, and may still nettle 

1 84 Garden of Cyrus 

Minerva,' the goddesse of that mystery. And he that 
shall hatch the little seeds, either found m snial webs, 
or white round Egges, carried under the bellies of 
some Spiders, and behold how at their first prod"ctiou 
in boxes, they will presently fill the same with their 
webbs, may observe the early, and untaught finger of 
nature, and how they are natively provided with a 
stock, sufficient for such Texture. 

The Rurall charm agam-t Dodder, Tetter, and 
stranelinc weeds, was contrived after this order, while 
they placed a chalked Tile at the four corners, aad 
one in the middle of their fields, which though ndi- 
culous in the intention, was rational in the contrivwice, 
and a good way to diffuse the magick through all 

^^Somewhtt after this manner they ordered the little 
stones in the old game of Pentalithismm, or casting up 
five stones tq catch them on the back of their hand. 
And with some resemblanre hereof, the ^''"^ °' 
Prodigall Paramours disposed their men, when they 
played at Penelop.' For being themselves an hundred 
knd eight, they set fifty-four stones on either sidM, 
and one in the middle, which they called Penelope, 
which he that hit was master of the game. 

In Chesse-boards and Tables we yet find Pyramids 
and Squares. I wish we had their true and Mcient 
description, farre different from ours, or the Chet mat 
of the Persians, which might continue some elegant 
remarkables, as being an invention as High as Merms 
the Secretary of OsyWs, figuring the whole world, the 
motion of the Planets, with Echpses of sunne and 


Physicians are not without the use of this decussa- 
tion in severall operations, in ligatures and union ot 
dissolved continuities. Mechanicks nake use hereof 
in forcipall Organs, and Instruments of Incision, 
wherein who can but magnifie the power of decussa- 
tion, inservient to contrary ends, solution and con- 

1 As in the contention between Minerva and Arachne. 

' In EustaehiHS. 

Garden of Cyrus 185 

Sf^^ft "»'°°' and division, iUustrabla from AHs- 
T.I".L ! ° r {!f"''>''fi^«'" T nutcraclcer, and the 
Instruments of Evulsion, compression or Incision • 
which consistmg of two V,,tes or armes. conS 
^wards each other, the Innitencv' and stress^ bSLg 
made upon the hypomocMkn.oT fufciment' in thedecuf 
sation, the greater compression is made by the union 
of two impulsors. ■' ""'"" 

The Roman batalia' was ordered after this manner 
whereof as sufficiently known Virgil hath left but ^ 
hmt, and obscure mtimation. For thus were the 
maniples and cohorts of the Hastati. printipj, ^l 
rmm placed in their bodies, wherein ionffl^e 
th«°?^M^ '??, ^""^ ''^"'*- By thisOrdinat^^n 
nr^L^K'^V'" '?'° '^^^ "^l^*': tl^o Hast'ti being 
g-essed, handsomely retired into the intervalls of thf 
Pnncp,,, these mto that of the Triarii, which Tiding 
as It were a new body, might joyntly renew the battle 
wherem consisted the secret of thefr successes. And 

^>^^thit V?*-'r'^"y* *'°«"1" ^ the tattle of 
„yil '4 ^"^J ^^""« * ™«' from the Elephants 
of the Enemy, left not the Principes in their alternate 

Si. k!*^ ■ '• "'I''* ""^''^ '■™ "P°° them, but drew 
his battle mto right order, and leaving the passajres 

nJ,f'Jt^^l'^ '^^ mischief intended by the EleSs! 
R=«i. !^^-5^"'*'^^^^"^'^« t'"' remarkable forms of 
Battle, the Cumus and Force/,,, or the sheare and wedge 
battles each made of hal/ a Rhombus, and but dS- 
ferenced by position. The wedge invented to break 
or work mto a body, the forceps to environ and def^u 
Ae power thereof, composed out of the selectest 
Souldiery, and disposed into the form of an V, wherein 
receivmg the wedge, it inclosed it on both sides. After 

' His own synonym for ■• stress." i i?„fc,„_ 

Fm 1< * *c^,'°° °f "" Legion into ten Cohorts by tL: 

' Polybius. Appianus. 

Garden of Cyrus 


this form the famous N«jm» ordered his battle against 
the Franks, and by this figure the Almans were 
enclosed, and cut in peeces. • -uu :„ .u. 

The Rhombus or Lozenge-figure so visible m this 
order, was also a remarkable form of battle m the 
Grecian Cavalry," observed by the Tlussahttn!, and 
Pkilip king of Mtcidon, and frequently by ;he Parthtaiu, 
As being most ready to turn every way, and best 
to be commanded, as having Us ductors, or Com- 
manders at each Angle. _ u» s • 

The Mactdonim Phalanx (a long time thought invin- 
cible), consisted of a long smiare. For though they 
might be sixteen in Rank an J file, yet when they shut 
close, so that the sixt pike advanced before the first, 
thoueh the number might be square, the figure was 
oblong, answerable unto the Quincuncial quadrate of 
CurtiM. According to this square, Tkucydides delivers, 
the Athmiai^ disposed their battle against the Lam- 
dmimians, brickwise,' and by the same word the 
Learned GneUius expoundeth the quadrate oi Vtrgtl,* 
after the form of a brick or tile. 

And as the first station and position of trees, so was 
thP iirst habitation of men, not iu round Cities, as of 
later foundation ; For the form of Babylon the first 
City was square, and so shall also be the last, accord- 
ing to the description of the holy City in the Apoca- 
Ivps. The famous pillars of Stth, before the floud, 
had also the like foundation, if they were ^t antt- 
dUuvian Obelisks, and such as Cham and his Egyptian 
race imitated after the Floud. 

But Ninevih which Authours acknowledge to nave 
exceeded Babylon, was of a longilaterall figure.^ ninety- 
five Furlongs broad, and an hundred and htty long, 
and so making about sixty miles in circuit, which is 
the measure of three dayes journey, according unto 
military marches, or castrensial mansions, oo that it 
Jma> entred at the narrower side, he found enough lor 

> Agatkius. Ammtanus. ' ^'«"- ^«'- 

» ivvXaurlu. „. ., . r.- j o.v 

* Suto via limiU juadrit. Comment, in Virgil. • Lwd. Su. 

Garden of Cyrus 187 

one dayes walk to attain thn heart of the City, to make 
his ProclamatJon. And if we imagine a City extend- 
mg from Wan to London, the expression will be 
moderate of six score thousand Infants, althoueh we 
allow vacuities, fields, and intervals of habitation, as 
there needs must be when the mo-iment of Ninut 
took up no lesse then ten furlongs. 

And, though none of the seven wonders, yet a coblft 
peece of Antiquity, and made by a Copy exceeding all 
tne rest, hn( its principall parts disposed after this 
manner, is, the Labyrinth of CrtU, built upon a 
long quadrate, containine five largo squares com- 
municating by right inflexions, terminating in the 
centre of the middle square, and lodging of the 
Minotaur, if we conform unto the description of the 
elegant medall thereof in Agostino} And though in 
many accounts we reckon grosly by the square, yet is 
that very often to be accepted as a long-sided quadrate, 
which was the figure of the Ark of the Covenant, tie 
table of the Shew-bread, and the stone wherein the 
names of the twelve Tribes were engraved, that is 
three in a row, naturally making a longilaterall Figure, 
the perfect quadrate being made by nine. 

What figure the stones themselves maintained, 
tradmon and Scripture are silent, yet Lapidaries in 
precious stones affect a Table or long square, and in 
such proportion, that the two laterall and also the 
three infenour Tables are equall unto the superiour • 
and the angles of the laterall Tables contain and con- 
stitute the hypothenusa, or broader sides subtending. 

That the Tables of the Law were of this figure, 
general imitation and tradition hath confirmed • yet 
are we unwilling to load the shoulders of Moses with 
such massie stones, as some pictures lay upon them, 
since 'tis plainly delivered that he came down with 
them in his hand ; since the word strictly taken implies 
no such massie hewing, but cutting, and fashioning of 
them into shape and surface; since some will have 
them Emeralds, and if they were made of the materials 
> AnUmio AgosHno Villi MtiagtU. 

,88 Garden of Cyrus 

El^ hundred. «d the Table., written on both .ide^ 
m^sure: And whatsoever were the brcJth, the lengtti 


G«.rmanner! b'ut in a middle d^enhon th. 
eluding lines will strictly make out that figure. 

Now although this elegant rrdination of veg^'^Wes, 

and th'^.ugh overlooked by all. was elegantly ob- 
-Sd^Ce^::STuS:ieL"rthe position of the 

Garden of Cyrus 


of Orion should ever maintain iti line, and tba two 
Starree in CharUs 1 Warn never leave pointing at the 
Pole-starrc we might abate the Pytkage/icall Maskk 
Of the Spheres, the sevenfold Pipe of Pan; and the 
strange Cryptography of Gafartl in his starrie Booke 
of Heaven. 

But not to look so high as Heaven or the single 
Quincunx of the Hyttdu upon the neck of Taun,,. tlie 
inanple, and remarkable Cnuro about the foot of the 
Omtaur; observable rudiments there are hereof in sub- 
terraneous concretions, and bodies in the Earth : in 
the GyJ,sum or TaUum Rkemboidt,, in the FavaL'inites 
or honey-comb-stono, in the Atimt and Aitroitit, and 
in the crucigerous stone of S. lago of Gallicia 

The same is observably effected in the lulus, catkins, 
or pwidulous excrescencies of severall Trees, of Wali- 
nuts. Alders, and Hazels, which hanging aU the 
Winter, and maintaining their Net-worke doM, by the 
expansion thereof are the early foretellers of the Sprint, 
discoverable also in long Pepper, and elegantly m the 
^«fa» of Calamus Aromatieus, so plentifully growing 
with us, in the first Palmes of WiUowea, and in tht 
Flowers of Sycamore, Pttasitu, Asphodtlus, and Blot- 
tana, before explication. After such order stand the 
Howery Branches in our best spread Virbascum, «nd 
the seeds about the s- cous head or torch of Tabsas 
Barbatus, in as fair p. regularity as the circular and 
WMthed order will admit, which advanceth one side 
ot the square, and makes the same Rhomboidail. 

In the scuamous heads of Scabious, Knaiuittd, and 
the elegant Jacta Pinea, and in the Scaly composure of 
the Oak-Rou,^ which some years most aboundeth 
After this order hath Nature planted the Leaves in 
the Head of the common and prickled Artichoak: 
wherem the black a^d shining Flies do shelter them- 
selves, when they retire from the purple Flower about 
it ; The same is also found in the pricks, sockets, and 
> Ci^^VK/a lemmata Qntrmm, Bmhinl, whereof though he 
jaith pirrarc r^,r«,nt»r Us tmtum imenimus. yet we finde them 
commonly with us and in great numbers. ^^ 


Garden of Cyrus 

impressions of the seeds, in the pulp or bottome 
thereof; wherein do elegantly stick the Fathers of 
their Mother.^ To omit the Quincunciall Specks on 
the top of the Miscle-berry, especially that which 
grows upon the Tilia, or Lime-Tree. And the remark- 
able disposure of those yellow fringes about the purple 
Pestill of Aaron, and elegant clusters of Dragons, so 
peculiarly secured by nature, with an umbrella or 
skreening Leaf about them. 

The Spongy leaves of some Sea-wracks, Fucus, 
Oaks, in their several kindes, found about the Shoar,' 
with ejsttments of the Sea, are over- wrought with Net- 
work elegantly containing this order, which plainly 
declareth the naturality of this texture ; And how the 
needle of nature delighteth to work, even in low and 
doubtful vegetations. 

The Arbustetum or Thicket on the head of the Teazell, 
may be observed in this order: And he that con- 
sidereth that fabrick so regularly palisadoed, and 
stemm'd with flowers of the royall colour; in the 
house of the solitary maggot, may finde the Seraglio 
of Solomon. And contemplating the calicular shafts, 
and uncous disposure of their extremities, so accommod- 
able unto the office of abstersion, not condemne as 
wholly improbable the conceit of those who accept it, 
for the herbe Borithfi Where by the way, we could 
with much inquiry never discover any transfiguration, 
in this abstemious insect, although we have kept them 
long in their proper houses, and boxes. Where some 
wrapt up in their webbs, have lived upon their own 
bowels, from September unto July. 

In such a grove doe walke tne little creepers about 
the head of the burre. And such an order is observed 
in the aculeous prickly plantation, upon the heads of 
several common thistles, remarkably in the notable 

' Antko. Grac. Inter Epigrammata, 
fir,rp6t ^w Traripa. 

» Especially the forus ceminus, 
w\aT6Kep<ai Bauhini. 

* Jer. ii. 22. 

ypitfuiSij iviitv ifiwv, Xaydfuv 
Imperati, Sporosa, or Alga 

Garden of Cyrus 


palisados about the flower of the milk Thistle : and 
he that inquu-eth into the little bottome of the globe- 
thistle, may finrfe that gallant bush arise from a 
scaipe of like disposure. 

The white umbrella or medicall bush of Elder, is an 
Epitome of this order: arising from five main stemms 
guincuncially disposed, and toUerably maintained in 
their subdivisions. To omit the lower observations in 
the seminal spike of Mercurie wild, and plantane. 

Thus hath nature ranged the flowers of Santfoyne, 
and French honeysuckle ; and somewhat after this 
manner hath ordered the bush in JubiUrs beard, or 
houseleek ; which old superstition set on the tops of 
houses, as a defensative against lightning, and thunder. 
1 he like in Fenny Seagreen, or the water Souldier> 
which, though a military name from Greece, makes 
out the Roman order. 

A like ordination there is in the favaginous Sockets, 
and Lozenge seeds of the noble flower of the Sunne. 
Wherein m Lozenge figured boxes nature shuts up 
the seeds, and balsame which is about them. 

But the firre and Pine tree from their fruits doe 
naturally dictate this position. The Rhomboidall pro- 
tuberances m Pine apples maintaining this Quincuncial 
order unto each other, and each Rhombus in it selfe 
Thus are also disposed the triangular foliations, in the 
conical fruit of the firre tree orderly shadowing and 
protecting the winged seeds below them. 

The like so often occurreth to the curiosity of ob- 
servers, especially in spicated seeds and flowers, that 
we shall not need to take in the single Quincunx of 
Fuchstus m the grouth of the male^ feam, the seedy 
disposure of Cramm hchemon, and the trunk or neat 
Keticulate work in the codde of the Sachell palme 

For even in very many round stalk plants, the leaves 
are set after a Quintuple ordination, the first leaf 
answering the fifth, in lateral disposition. Wherein 
the leaves successively rounding the stalke,in foure at 
the furthest the compass is absolved, and the fifth leafe 
> Stmiotu. t orig. masle. 



Garden of Cyrus 


or sprout, returns to the position of the other fifth 
before it ; as in accounting upward is often observable 
in furze, pellitorye. Ragweed, the sproutes of Oaks, 
and thorns, upon pollards, and very remarkably in the 
regular disposure of the nigged excrescencies in the 
yearly shoots of the Pine. 

But in square stalked plants, the leaves stand re- 
spectively unto each other, either in crosse or decussa- 
tion to those above or below them, arising at crosse 
positions ; whereby they shadow not each other, and 
better resist the force of winds, which in a parallel 
situation, and upon square stalkes would more forcibly 
bear upon them. 

And to omit, how leaves and sprouts which com- 
passe not the stalk, ^-le often set in a Rhomboides, 
and making long and short Diagonals, doe stand like 
the leggs of Quadrupeds when they goe : Nor to urge 
the thwart enclosure and fiirdling of flowers, aud 
blossomes, before explications, as in the multiplyed 
leaves of pionie; and the Chiasmus in five-leaved 
flowers, while one lies wrapt about the staminous 
beards, the other foure obliquely shutting and closing 
upon each other ; and how even flowers which consist 
of foure leaves, stand not ordinarily in three and one, 
but two, and two crossewise, unto the Stylus ; even 
the Autumnal budds, which awaite the retume of 
the sun, doe after the winter solstice multiply their 
calicular leaves, making Uttle Rhombuses, and net- 
work figures, as in the Sycamore and lilac. 

The like is discoverable in the original production of 
plants, which first putting forth two leaves, those which 
succeed, bear not over each other, but shoot obliquely 
or crossewise, untill the stalke appeareth ; which 
sendeth not forth its first leaves without all order unto 
them ; and he that from hence can discover in what n 
position the two first leaves did arise, is no ordinary I 
observator. | 

Where by the way, he that observeth the rudimental 
spring of seeds, shall finde strict rule, although not] 
after this order. How little is required unto effectual I 

Garden of Cyrus 193 

generation and in what diminutives the plastick 
pnnciple lodgeth^, ts exemplified in seeds, wherein the 
greater mass affords so little comproduction. In 
Beanes the leaf and root sprout from the Germen. the 
Zr°fh'» f? sP''t. and lye by, and in some puU'd up 
near the time of bloommg, we have found the polpous 

Hil? ' r.?' u''"i° ^^^^^^- 1° Acorns the ^bb 
ilatmgsphtteth the twc sides, which sometimes lye 
-Thole, when the Oak is sprouted two handfuls. In 
Lupins these pulpy sides do sometimes arise with the 
sta^k in the resemblance of two fat leaves. Wheat 
t?nH.^^R ':'",f°*,up,if after they have shot some 
Zl ^°?,'^' ^^^ '^^^^^S pulp be taken from them. 
Beanes will prosper though a part be cut away, and 
so much set is sufficeth to contain and keep the 
Germen close. From this superfluous pulp in un- 
kmdel^, and wet years, may arise that multiplicity of 
II : msects, which infest the Roots and Sprouts of 
tt-der Graines and pulses. 

In the little nebbe or fructifying principle, the 
motion IS regular and not transvertible, as to make 
that ever the leaf, which nature intended the root • 
observable from their conversion, until they attain 
their nght position, if seeds be set inversedly 

In vain we expect the production of plants from 
different parts of the seed, from the same corculum or 
httle original proceed both germinations ; and in the 
power of this slender particle lye many Roots, that 
though the same be puU'd away, the generative 
particle will renew them again, and proct d to a 
perfect plant; And malt may be observed to grow, 
though the Cummes be fallen from it. 

The seminall nebbe hath a defined and single place, 
and not extended unto both extremes. And therefore 
many too vulgarly conceive that Barley and Oats 
gro* at both ends ; For they arise from one iunctUio 
or generative nebbe, and the speare sliding under the 
flusk, first appeareth nigh the toppe. But in Wheat 
and Kye being bare the sprouts are seen together. 
If Barley unhulled would grow, both would appear at 




Garden of Cyrus 

once. But in this and Oat-meal the nebbe is broken 
away, which makes thorn the milder food, and less apt 
to raise fermentation in Decoctions. 

Men taking notice of what is outwardly visible, 
conceive a sensible priority in the Root. But as they 
begin from one part, so they seem to start and set out 
upon one signall of nature. In Beanes yet soft, in 
Pease while they adhere unto the Cod, the rudimentall 
Leafe and Root are discoverable. In the seeds of 
Rocket and Mustard, sprouting in Glasses of water, 
when the one is manifest the other is also perceptible. 
In muddy waters apt to breed Duckweed, and Peri- 
winkles, if the first and rudimentall stroaks of Duck- 
weed be observed, the Leaves and Roc^ anticipate 
not each other. But in the Date-stone the first sprout 
is neither root nor leaf distinctly, but both together ; 
For the Germinatioii being to passe through the 
narrow Navell and hole about the midst of the stone, 
the generative germ is faine to enlengthen itself, and 
shooting out about an inch, at that distance divideth 
into the ascending and descending pordou. 

And though it be generally thought that Seeds will 
root at the end, where they adhere to their Originals, 
and observable it is that the nebbe sets most often 
next the stalk, as in Grains, Pulses, and most small 
Seeds, yet is it hardly made out in many greater 
plants. For in Acornes, Almonds, Pistachios, Wall- 
nuts, and accuminated shells, the germ puts forth at 
the remotest part of the pulp. And therefore to set 
Seeds in that posture, wherein ihe Leaf and Roots 
may shoot right without contortion, or forced circum- 
volution, which might render them strongly rooted, 
and straighter, were a Criticisme in Agriculture. And 
nature seems to have made some provision hereof in 
many from their figure, that as they fall from the tree 
they may lye in Positions agreeable to such advantages. 

Besides the open and visible Testicles of plants, the 
seminall powers lie in great part invisible, while the 
Sun fimdes polypody in stone-wals, the little stinging 
Nettle, and night-shade in barren sandy High-wayes, 

Garden of Cyrus 195 

Seurw-grasst in Greauland, and unknown plants in 
earth brought from remote Countries. Beside the 
known longevity of some Trees, what is the most 
lasting herb, or seed, seems not easily determinable. 
Mandrakes upon known account have lived near an 
hundred yeares. Seeds found in Wilde-Fowls Gizards 
have sprouted m the earth. The Seeds of Marjorane 
and stranKmum carelessly kept, have grown after seven 
years Even m Garden-plots long fallow, and digged 
up, the seeds of Bhtiana and yellow henbane, Ifter 
twelve yews burial have produced themselves again. 
That bodies are first spirits Paro»/i«j could Tffirm 
which in the maturation of Seeds and fruits, seem 
obscurely implied by AristotU,^ when he delivereth, that 
the spirituous parts are converted into water, and the 
water into earth, and attested by observation in the 
maturative progresse of Seeds, wherein at first may be 
discerned a flatuous distension of the husk, afterwards 
a thin hquor, which longer time digesteth into a pulp 
or kemell obsyrvable in Almonds and large Nuts 
And some w?.v answered in the progressionall perfec- 
tion of animil semination, in its spermaticall matura- 
tion, trom crude pubescency unto perfection. And 
even that seeds themselves in their rudimentall dis 
covenes, appear in foliaceous surcles, or sprouts within 
their covenngs, m a diaphanous gellie, before deeper 
Phim?**'°"' '^ ^'^"'^''''y ^^"''^'^ '° Cherries, Acorns, 
From seminall considerations, either in reference 
unto one mother, or distinction from animall produc- 
tion, the holy Scripture describeth the vegetable crea- 
hon; and while it divideth plants but into Herb and 
iree, though it seemeth to make but an accidental 
division, from magnitude, it tacitely containeth the 
natulan distinction of vegetables, observed by Her- 
balists, and comprehending the four kinds. For since 
the most naturall distinction is made from the produc- 
tion of leaf or stalk, and plants after the two first 
semmall leaves, do either proceed to send forth more 
' In Mtt. cum Cuba. 


Garden of Cyrus 

leaves, or a stalk, and the foHous and stalky emission 
distinguishetii herbs and trees ; in a large acception 
it compriseth all vegetables : for the fntUx and suffruUx 
are under the progression of trees, and stand Authen- 
tically difiFerenced, but from the accidents of the 

The jEquivocall production of thmgs under undis- 
cerned principles, makes a large part of generation, 
though they seem to hold a v.ide univocacy in their 
set and certain Originals, while almost every plant 
breeds its peculiar insect, most a Butterfly, moth or 
fly, wherein the Oak seems to contain the largest 
seminality, while Tulus, Oak, Apple, dill, woolly tuft, 
foraminous roundles upon the leaf, and grapes under- 
ground make a Fly with some difierence. The great 
variety of Flyes lyes in the variety of their originals, in 
the seeds of Caterpillars or Cankers their lyeth not 
only a Butterfly or Moth, but if they be sterill or 
untimely cast, their production is often a Fly, which 
we have also observed from corrupted and mouldred 
F-^ges both of Hens and Fishes ; to omit the genera- 
tion of Bees out of the bodies of dead Heifers, or what 
is strange yet well attested, the production of Eeles 
in the backs of living Cods and Perches.* 

The exiguity and smallnesse of some seed extending 
to large productions is one of the magnalities of nature, 
somewhat illustrating the work of the Creation, and 
vast production from nothing. The true'-^ seeds of 
Cypresse and Rampions are indistinguishable by old 
eyes. Of the seeds of Tobacco a thousand make not 
one grain. The disputed seeds of Hartstongue and 
Maidenhair, require a great number. From such 
undiscernable seminalities arise spontaneous produc- 
tions. He that would discern the rudimentall stroak 
of a plant, may behold it in the originall of Duckweed, 
at the bignesse of a pins point, from convenient water 
in glasses, wherein a watchful! eye may also discover 
the puncticular Originals of Periwincles and Gnats. 
That seeds of some Plants are lesse than any animals, 
» Schoncvildus di Pue. ' Doctissim. Lmrmburg. Hoti. ^ 

Garden of Cyrus 197 

seems of no clear decision ; That the biggest of Veeet- 

^d braf-B^ett'' " ""'^'^ ^ ^=''"' ■" *'■'' Tulip.^^; 
Now whether seminall nebbes hold any sure nro- 
Z^T^'^T '!'"'°^" «"='°S"«-S ^vhy the form of^the 
wlTthfn^ffff' ■ "'^'''' '^ '^^^ °^ t^" enclosing pulp! 
Thn^n M •^^''^ '/ f^*'*'' "P°° tJ'e solid, and not the 
channeld side of the seed as in grains, why since we 
often meet with two yolks in one Shell, ^dsometfrn^s 
one egge wi h.n another, we do not of ener m"et Zh 
two nebbes m one distinct seed : why since t"e eS^ 

the 1^H° ^1? " °°' ~"^^«' ^° commonly oufS 
the bird, and some moths coming out of their cSfs 

to outweigh their bodies, trees rarely bear thefr fruft 
minnr' «'T^y? proportion: Whether in the g^r 
mination of seeds according to the HiHocrlu, fh^ 
lighter part ascendeth, and maketh KpTou ' the 
heaviest tenmng downward frameth the root -Since 

^nk nr'Tl^'^^i '^' ^"' '^°°' °f ^«ds in water: wm 
smk or bow down at the upper and leafing end 

UW!Z1 H- r' """'' ^^'■°°^' Epicurisme fo col: 
trive whole dishes out of the nebbes and spirited 

fiiif'^ of plants, then from the Gallatures ^d 
treddles of Egges ; since that part is foun^to hdd 
no semmal share Oval Generation, are quS whfch 
""! n*.?J"n^"* °?"^* <=°°'=J"de this digression 
lirttel in"fhic°°' V^'' °'^''' y« °°w nature de- 
orH^nof- 1'^ pumber, and what consent and co- 
prdmation there is in the leaves and parts of flow-r^ 

ot plants. For the calicular or supporting and closing 


Garden of Cyrus 

leaves, do answer the number of the flowers, especially 
in such as exceed not the number of Swallows Egges ; 
as in Violets, Stichwort, Blossomes, and flowers of 
one leaf have often five divisions, answered by a like 
number of calicular leaves; as Gmtiantlla, Convol- 
vuhu, Bell-flowers. In many the flowers, blades, or 
staminous shootes and leaves are all equally five, as 
in cockle, mullein and Blattaria ; wherein the flowers 
before explication are pentagonally wrapped up, with 
some resemblance of the hkUta or moth from whence 
it hath its name : But the contrivance of nature is 
singular in the opening and shutting of Bindeweeds, 
performed by five inflexures, distinguishable by pyra- 
midall figures, and also different colours. 

The rose at first is thought to have been of five 
leaves, as it yet groweth wilde among us ; but in the 
most luxuriant, the calicular leaves do still maintain 
that number. ' But nothing is more admired than the 
five Brethren of the Rose,' and the strange (Usposure 
of the Appendices or Beards, in the calicular leaves 
thereof, which in despair of resolution is tolerably 
salved from this contrivance, best ordered and suited 
for the free closure of them before explication. For 
those two which are smooth, and of no beard are con- 
trived to lye undermost, as without prominent parts, 
and fit to be smoothly covered ; the other two which 
are beset with Beards on either side, stand outward 
and uncovered, but the fifth or half-bearded leaf is 
covered on the bare side but on the open side stands 
firee, and bearded like the other. 

Besides a large number of leaves have five divisions, 
and may be circumscribed by a pentagon or figure of 
five Angles, made by right lines from the extremity of 
their leaves, as in Maple, Vine, Figge-tree : But five- 
leaved flowers are commonly disposed circularly about 

' Alluding to a rustic rliyme : — 

On a summer's day, in sultry weather, 
Five brethren were born together, 
Two had beards, and two had none, 
And the other had but half a one.— Jeff. 

Garden of Cyrus 199 

^^Jt„f.^!?'L-^"'^^^ *«> ">• •>%•>« Geometry of 

rirJUr.*!" ?"°'^5 °i fi^o » remarkable in every 
m^uTof^H'^'^l first spherical number. bu'?S 
measure of sphajncal motion. For sphsrici bodies 

rZ^^n^r- '^^ r^y. «'°^»'" figure SdSSrn 
a plane, m direct voluution. returns to the first ookt 

1m o ■^h^'n-" *I" *ft*Lt°"ch. accounting by'^he 
Hwuiurs inereot. And before it arriveth unto th« 
UsSf r« h"*"^' '* '"l^*''' fi^« circles eqSaTunto 
^^uSSr*^*^ """^ '""^ quarterslbsolving 

of ^hi'^SiT^f '"""'^^ ^^ °»*"" <'ivide the circle 

tne neatMt Retiary Spider, which concludinK in fourtv- 
Se^tt^^"" '^' Semidiameters begi^neth t'St 

the^drctj^'h™ r°°"/ ^'^.'"y *« foundation of 
ine circular branches of the Oak, which beinir fiv 
«.rner^ in the tender annual sp^Std mfiiS: 
mg upon mcision the signature of a Starre is Xr 
made cucular and swel'd'into a round Sdy WWch 
fLT^ Sf °''"''? '" '^°'°« « point of art, iid makes 

2Ld, 7^it"''u '" ^"•="'^"-' B"t the BrW which 
sends forth shoots and prickles from iu awles 

agnature of a handsome porch within it. To omit 
*e^ LXf ^fi""°1^ '^"'"^^S the Circle of the 1^1 
tb^-W^ <.^ ^''^ characters in the Winter stalk of 
the Walnut, with many other Observables which 

toowlKo tn°^ i^ discenTers ; Su'ht 
' Elm. Ub. 4. 

200 Garden of Cyrus 

Quiocundal forms and ordinations are also ob- 
servable in animal figurations. For to omit the luoijii 
or throat-bone of animals, the furcula or m$rry-tkougkt 
in birds, which supporteth the scapula, affording a 
passage for the winde-pipe and the gullet, the wings of 
Flyes, and disposure of their legges in their first forma- 
tion from maggots, and the position of their horns, 
wings and legges, in their Aunlian cases and swadling 
clouts : The back of the Cimtx Arloreus, found often 
upon Trees and lesser plants, doth elegantly discover 
the Burgundian decussation ; And the like is observable 
in the belly of the Notomcton, or water- Beetle, which 
swimmeth on its back, and the handsome Rhombtaus 
of the Sea-poult or weazel on either side the Spine. 

The sexangular Cels in the Honeycombs of Bees, 
are disposed after this order, much there is not of 
wonder in the confused Houses of Pismires, though 
much in their bu^e life and actions, more in the edifiaal 
Palaces of Bees and Monarchical spirits ; who make 
their combs six-comer'd, declining a circle, whereof 
many stand not close together, and compleatly fill the 
area of the place ; But rather affecting a six-sided 
figure, whereby every cell affords a common side unto 
six more, and also a fit receptacle for the Bee itself, 
which gathering into a Cylindrical Figure, aptly enters 
its sexangular house, more nearly approaching a 
circular Figure, then either doth the Square or 
Triangle. And the Combes themselves so regularly 
contrived, that their mutual intersections make three 
Lozenges at the bottome of every Cell ; which 
severally regarded make three Rows of neat Rhom- 
boidall Figures, connected at the angles, and so 
continue three several chains throughout the whole 

As for the Favago, found commonly on the Sea 
shoar, though named from an honey comb, it but 
rudely makes out the resemblance, and better agrees 
with the round r>ls of humble Bees. He that would 
exactl}r discern ti..; shape of a Bees mouth, needs 
observing eyes, and good augmenting glasses ; wherein 

Garden of Cyrus 201 

anrf'te"!'!'' °"' °^ ""• '>'*«••« PW-^M in nature, 
and he mu.t have a morepierdng eyV than mine who 
finds out the shape of tfuls bLd, in th"eutro^ 
Drones Dressed out behinde. accorSL to tl!^ Ix^rf- 

s^eSLth .?'"~T/ Y^l"^ notwithstanding there 
seemeth somewhat which might a pliant iincv to 
creduhty of similitude. ^ ^ '° 

A resemblance hereof there is in the orderlv >nH 
rarely disposed Cels made by Flyes Ld Insects whkh 

l't^°^'i? '°""' ^'-^d "^"^ smalTspgsT^I 
m those cottonary and woolly pillows, which some 
times we meet with fastene/unto Lwves thwrL 
Included an elegant Net-work Texturerout of which 
con,e many small Flies. And some resembla^ce^Jere 

mofh. it fh''"' ."J*" ^8,5''^ °^ «""" Butterflies s^d 
moths, as they stick upon leaves, and other substan«t • 
which bemg dropped^^from behinde, nor dSdb^ 
the eye, doth neatly declare how natire GeomStY 
and observeth order in all things "ctnzetn, 

and ou^l«rH f **"'''"'y '? ''S"" ^ '°"nd in the skins 
and outward teguments of animals, whereof a recaS 
able part .ue beautiful by this texture. As the C 
of several Snakes and Serpents, elegantly remarSf 
m the Aspi,, and the Dart-Mak^, in^the cCmiL and 
krger decussations upon the back of the RatX-^n^e 
and m the close and finer texture of the ^Xw' 

rnalanx on their backs, and handsomely contrive, 
themselves into all kindes of flexures ; Wher^ the^r 
belhesare commonly covered with smooth semicfrculw 
gI.~r,io^' accommodable unto their quick^"aL^ 
This way is followed by nature in the oeculiar =.n^ 
re^kable tayl of the sJver. wheTek the st^^ p^^ 
cles are disposed, somewhat after this ord<^wWch 
wW?« h^*'°?K '^«?°l"tion of the wonder of S S 
frr A°u^'^ '^"'' 'ncredible Artifice hath NtatuTe 
framed the tayl or Oar of the Bever: where by the way 
' GoM. ie Salt. 

202 Garden of Cyrus 

we cannot but wish a model of their houtes, «o much 
extolled by eoine Describert : wherein eince they are 
to bold at to venture upon three ttaget, we might 
examine their Artifice in the contignations, the rule 
and order in the compartitions ; or whether that mag- 
nified ttructure be any more than a rude rectangular 
pyle or meer hovell-building. 

Thus works the hand of nature in the feathery 
plantation about birds. Observable in the skios of the 
breast,' lees, and Pinions of Turkies, Geese, and 
Ducks, and the Oars or finny feet of Water- Fowl: and 
such a naturall Net is the scaly covering of Fishes, of 
Mullets, Carps, Tenches, &c., even in such as are 
excoriable and consist of smaller scales, as Bretts, 
soals, and Flounders. The like Reticulate grain is 
observable in some Russia leather. To omit the ruder 
Figures of thetostracion, the triangular or cunny-fitb, 
or the pricks of the Sea- Porcupine. 

The same is also observable in some part of the skin 
of man, in habits of neat texture, and therefore not 
unaptly compared unto a Net: We shall not affirm 
that from such grounds, the ^Egyptian F-rbalmer? 
imitated this texture, yet in their Imnen folds :ne same 
is still observable among their neatest Mummies, in 
the figures of Isis and Osyris, and the Tutelary spirits 
in the Bembine Table. Nor is it to be overlooked how 
Orus, the Hieroglyphick of the world, is described in 
a Net-work covering, from the shoulder to the foot. 
And (not to enlarge upon the cruciated character of 
Trismigisius, or handed crosses, so often occurring in 
the Needles of Pharoah, and Obelisks of Antiquity) 
the Statute hiacte, Teraphims, and little Idols, found 
about the Mummies, do make a decussation of Jacob's 
Grosse, with their armes, like that on the head of 
Ephraim and Manasses, and this duussis is also graphic- 
ally described betv/een them. 

This Reticulate or Net-work was also considerable 
in the inward parts of man, not only from the first 

^ Elegantly conspicuous on the inside of the stripped skins of 
the Dive-Fowl, of Cormorant, Goshonder, Weasell, jLoon, &c 

Garden of Cyrus 203 

nht$gm4not wwp of bis formation, but in the netty 
fibru of the veins and vessels of life ; wherein accordine 
to common Anatomy the right and transverse fibrn 
are decussated, by the oblique fibru; and to must 
^me a Reticulate and Quincuncial Figure by their 
OWiquations, Emphatically extending that Eleeant 
expression of Scripture "Thou hast curiously em- 
broydered me," thou hast wrought me up after the 
finest way of Texture, and as it were with a Needle. 

JNor 18 the same observable only in some parts, but 
m the whole body of man, which upon the extension 
pi arms and legges, doth make out a square, whose 
intersection is at the genitals. To omit the fantastical 
Quincunx m PUUo of the first hermaphrodite or 
divid^""'"' "°*" " "" ^°y°**> which >/»V«r after 
A rudimental resemblance hereof there is in the 
cnicwted. and rugged folds of the Rttkulum, or Net- 
like Ventricle of ruminating horned animals, which is 
the second m order, and culinarily called the Honey- 
comb. For many divisions there are in the stomack 
of severall animals : what number they maintain in 
the Scarus and ruminating Fish, common descriofon 
or our own experiment hath made no discovery. * But 
m the Ventricle olPorpuus there are three divisions. 
In many Birds a crop. Gizzard, and little receptacle 
before it ; but m Comigerous animals, which chew the 
cudd, there are no less than four of distinct position 
and office. 

The Rtticulum by these crossed eels, makes a further 
digtstion, in the dry and exuccous part of the Aliment 
received from the iirst Ventricle. For at the bottom 
of the gullet there is a double Orifice ; What is first 
received at the mouth descendeth into the first and 
greater stomack, from whence it is returned into the 
mouth again; and after a fuller mastication, and 
salivous mixture, what part thereof descendeth again 
in a moist and succulent body, it slides down the 
softer and more permeable Orifice, into the Omasus 
or third stomack ; and from thence conveyed into the 

204 Garden of Cyrus 

fourth, receives its last digestion. The other dry and 
exuccous part after ruminating by the larger and 
stronger orifice beareth into the first stomack, from 
thence into the Reticulum, and so progressively into 
the other divisions. And therefore in Calves newly 
calved, there is little or no use of the two first Ven- 
tricles, for the milk and liquid aliment slippeth down 
the softer Orifice, into the third stomach; where 
making little or no stay, it passeth into the fourth, 
the seat of the Coagulum, or Runnet, or that division 
of stomack which seems to bear the name of the 
whole, in the Greek translation of the Priests Fee, in 
the Sacrifice of Peace-offerings. 

As for those Rhomboidal Figures made by the 
cartilagineous part of the Wezon, in the Lungs of 
great Fishes, and other animals, as Randeletius dis- 
covered, we hkve not found them so to answer our 
figure as to be drawn into illustration; Something 
we expected in the more discernable texture of the 
lungs of frogs, which notwithstanding being but two 
curious bladders not weighing above a grain, we found 
interwoven with veins, not observing any just order. 
More orderly situated are those cretaceous and chalky 
concretions found sometimes in the bignesse of a small 
vetchi on either side their spine; which being not 
agreeable unto our order, nor yet observed by any, 
we shall not here discourse on. 

But had we found a better account and tolerable 
Anatomy of that prominent jowle of the Sperma Ceti 
Whale then questuary operation,^ or the stench of the 
last cast upon our shoar, permitted, we might have 
perhaps discovered some handsome order in those 
Net-like seases and sockets, made like honey combs, 
containing that medicall matter. 

Lastly, The Incession or locall motion of animals 

is_ made with analogy unto this figure, by decussative 

diametrals, Quincuncial Lines and angles. For to 

omit the enquiry how Butterflies and breezes move 

> Orig. fech. 

* 1653, described in onr Punio, Epidtm, Edit. 3. 

Garden of Cyrus 205 

their four wings, how birds and fishes in ayre and 

Ffnn«"°!,\''yj°y?-' '''""•- °^ opposite wi^gs ^d 
Fmnes, and how sahent „iimais in j,u iping forw^d 
seem to anse and fall ipor, a squa. . ba^f ; As ?he 
station of most Quadruj e.h is mad . upon a loni 
square so m their motiou -L.j- :r,^, a rhomboides! 
«lTv 5°^™°° progression being performed Diamet' 

wZ'c^ ^-T'*""" ^^ "°^^ advancement of their 
legges, which not observed, begot that remarkable 

L'x's^ ^fT i ^•'i?^^- of cxrK: 

m,l«KP ° The Snajjg ^hi^lj ^^^^^^ circularly 
makes his spires m like order, the convex and concave 
spirals answenng each other at alternate distances • 
In the motion of man the armes and legges observe 
^is thwarting position, but the legges alone do move 
Qiuncuncially by single angles with some resembW 
-! I i measured by successive advancement from 
each foot, and the angle of indenture greater or les« 
accordipg to the extent or brevity of the stride 
in th» „°,!i* Observators may discover more analogies 

Pl!™„ iy^°''.°^°^'"'^«>^°'' <^°ot escape the 
Elegancy of her hand m other correspondencies.' 

I^Z^^ °^ "^•'^ ^? crucifying appurtenances, 

flower of Chnsts passion : And we despair to behold 
m these parts that handsome draught of crucifixion 
in the fruit of the Barbado Pine. The semin^ S 
of Phalans, or great shaking grasse, more n^ly 

> In MSS. Slom. 1847, occurs the following passace — « Con 

resembling sometimes orderly shapes and figures -thoi.^ 

Th/h l ^^^^^ ahmental juce and stablishing fibre asand 
rovll^a^m?-''? ^ I'andsome figure of a tree ; the o^mund 
royall a semicircle or raynebowe ; the sedge a neate orint • th. 

figure of the twigge ; the stalk of the figge a triangle • carroti 
.^™,^f ? ""'"■ ' ?°^°^ fif "« : the first rulSen^" ae 
TTl^ P5'0'"f give starres o? an handsome posie , the buddt 
afhte w'b arge leaves and many flowerrcutt. show thi 
artifioaU complications in a woudeifuU manner •■ 

Garden of Cyrus 



answers the tayl of a Rattle-Snake, then many re- 
semblances in Porta: And if the man Orchis'- of 
Columna be well made out, it excelleth all analogies. 
In young Wallnuts cut athwart, it is not hard to 
apprehend strange characters ; and in those of some- 
what elder growth, handsome ornamental draughts 
about a plain crosse. In the root of Osmond 01 Water- 
fern, every eye may discern the form of a Half Moon, 
Rain-bow, or half the character of Pisces. Some find 
Hebrew, Arabick, Greek, and Latine Characters in 
Plants ; In a common one among us we seem to read 
Acaia, Viviu, Lilil. 

Right lines and circles make out the bulk of plants; 
In the parts theresf we iinde heliacal or spiral roundles, 
volutas, conicall Sections, circular Pyramids, and 
frustums of Archimedes; And cannot overlook the 
orderly hand of nature, in the alternate succession 
of the flat and narrower sides in the tender shoots of 
the Ashe, or the regular inequality of bignesse in the 
five-leaved flowers of Henbane, and something like in 
the calicular leaves of Tutson. How the spots of 
Persicaria do manifest themselves between the sixt 
and tenth ribbe. How the triangular capp in the 
stemme or stylus of Tuleps doth constantly point at 
three outward leaves. That spicated flowers do open 
first at the stalk. That white flowers have yellow 
thrums or knops. That the nebbe of Beans and 
Pease do all look downward, and so presse not upon 
each other ; And how the seeds of many pappous or 
downy flowers lock-up in sockets after a gomphosis or 
mot^is-articulation, diffuse themselves circularly into 
branches of rare order, observable in Tragopogon or 
Goats-beard, conformable to the Spider's web, and 
the Radii in like manner telarely inter-woven. 

And how in animall natures, even colours hold cor- 
respondencies, and mutual correlations. That the 
colour of the Caterpillar will shew again in the 
Butterfly, with some latitude is allowable. Though 
the regular spots in their wings seem but a meaiie 
> Orchis Anthnpopkora, Fabii Columna. 

Garden of Cyrus 207 

adhesion, and such as may be wiped away, yet since 
they come in this variety, out of their cases, there 
must be regular pores in those parts and membrances. 
definmg such Exudations. 

That Augustus^ had native notes on his body and 
belly after the order and number in the Starres of 
Charles waynt, will not seem strange unto astral 
Physiognomy, which accordingly considereth moles 
in the body of man, or Physicall Observators, who 
trom the position of moles in the face, reduce them to 
rule and correspondency in other parts. Whether 
after the like method medicall conjecture may not be 
raised, upon parts inwardly affected ; since parts about 
the lips are the critical seats of Pustules discharged in 
^ues ; and scrofulous tumours about the neck do so 
often speak the like about the Mesentery, may also be 
considered. ' ' 

The russet neck in young Lambs seems but ad- 
ventitious, and may owe its tincture to some contrac- 
tion in the womb; But that if sheep have any black 
or deep russet m theu: faces, they want not the same 
about their legges and .. . that black Hounds have 
mealy mouths and feet : • black Cows which have 
any white m their tayls, > „ald not misse of some in 
their bellies; and if all white in their bodies, yet if 
black-mouth'd, their ears and feet maintain the same 
colour, are correspondent tinctures not ordinarily fell- 
ing in nature, which easily unites the accidents of 
extremities, since in some generations she transmutes 
the parts themselves, while in the Aunlian Metamor- 
msis the head of the canker becomes the Tayl of the 
Butterfly. Which is in some way not beyond the 
contrivance of Art, in submersions and Inlays, invert- 
mg the extremes of the plant, and fetching the root 
trom the top, and also imitated in handsome columnary 
work, in the inversion of the extremes; wherein the 
>-apitel, and the Base, hold such near correspondency. 
In the motive parts of animals may be discovered 
mutual proportions ; not only in those of Quadrupeds, 
• Suet, in vit. Aug. 



Garden of Cyrus 

but in the thigh-bone, legge, foot-bone, and claws of 
Birds. The legs of spiders are made after a sesqui- 
tertian proportion, and the long legs of some locusts, 
double unto some others. But the intemodial parts 
of Vegetables, or spaces between the joints, are con- 
trived with more uncertainty ; though the joints them- 
selves, in many plants, maintain a regular numbei. 

In veg'^table composure, t'.e unition of prominent 
parts seems most to answer the Apophysis or processes 
of Animall bones, whereof they are the produced parts 
or prominent explantations. .\nd though in the parts 
of plants which are not ordained for motion, we do not 
expect correspondent Articulation : yet in the setting 
on of some flowers and seeds in their sockets, and the 
lineal commissure of the pulpe of severall seeds, na-' 
be observed some shadow of the Harmony ; some 
show of the Gomphosis or f/wrtis-articulation. 

As for the Diarthrosis or motive Articulation, there 
is expected little Analogy, though long-stalked leaves 
doe move by long lines, and have observable motions, 
yet are they made by outward impulsion, like the 
motion of pendulous bodies, v/hile the parts themselves 
are united by some kinde of symphysis unto the stock. 

But standing vegetables, void of motive-Articula- 
tions, are not without many motions. For beside the 
motion of vegetation upward, and of radiation unto all 
quarters, that of contraction, dilatation, inclination, 
and contortion, is discoverable in many plants. To 
omit the rose of Jericho, the ear of Rye, which moves 
with change of weather, and the Magical spit, made 
of no rare plants, which windes before the fire, and 
rosts ihe bird without turning. 

Even Animals near the Classis of plants, seem to 
have the most restless motions. The Summer-worm 
of Ponds and plashes, makes a long waving motion, 
the hair-worm seldome lies still. He that would 
behold a very anomalous motion, may observe it in 
the Tortile and tiring stroaks of Gnat-worms.' 

1 Found often in some form of red maggot in the stan ting 
waters of cisterns in the summer. 

Garden of Cyrus 



As for the delights, commodities, mysteries with 
other concernments of this order, we'are unw«l n^ o 
fly them over, in the short deliveries of Virgil Varro 
amSoC''''" *'"'"'°" enlarge with a^'LS 

Eart^h *?^^P°^i*'°° '^^y had a just proportion of 
Earth, to supply an equality of nourishment The 
distance bemg ordered, thick or thin, according to the 
magnitude or vigorous attraction of the phfnt thl 
goodnesse, leannesse or propriety of the soyle and 
therefore t..e rule of Sofo«. concerning the territor^ 0I 
Athn, not extendible unto all; allowing the dSce 
and Oh^e ° =°'"'°°" Trees, and nineir the F^gge 

both sides, whereby they maintained some proportion 
o their height, m Trees of large radication. For tha^ 

theTr 'S "'''" S°°^ '^'" ^'"f'"^"'' or dejth unfo 
their height, according to common conceit, and that 
expression of K .^i though confirmable from the 
plane Tree inP/,«^ and some few examples, is not to 

anv S^-T ^^ ^?."="''°" °f Trees k^ost in 
any k pde. either of side-spreading, or tap roots 
Except we measure them by lateral and Vpc° ite 
diffusions: nor com-.iionly to 'be found in So? 
hearby plants; If we except Sea-holly, LiquoricrLa 
rush, and some others. ' ^"l"°"<=«- »ea- 

,^^^l '""* ^ commodious radiation in their growth • 
fr tf^^^^^Pao^'on °^ their branches, for shidow ot 
delight. For trees thickly planted, do runne ud °m 
height and branch with no expansion. sSng^un" 

s?d" ''Andfh°"^'f"°''^"™^ "P°" "=« neighboUg 
sid'i. And therefore Trees are inwardly bare and 

ttlK^h'ef ^"-^ *•"= °"*^^^'* -'^ Su^nn^sVof 

J^^^tum vfrtia ad aura, ^<A»,«. u,ntum nUc ad Ta,ta,a 

2IO Garden of Cyrus 

Whereby they also avoided the peril of (nvoXtdpuriibt 
or one tree perishing with another, as it happeneth 
ofttimes from the sick effluviums or entanglements of 
the roots, falling foul with each other. Observable in 
ehnes set in hedges, where if one dieth, the neighbour- 
ing Tree prospereth not' long after. 

In this situation divided into many intervals and 
open unto six passages, they had the advantage of a 
fair perflation from windes, brushing and cleansing 
their surfaces, relaxing and closing their pores unto 
due perspiration. For that they afford large effluviums 
perceptible from odours, diffused at great distances, is 
observable from Onyons out of the earth; which 
though dry, and kept until the spring, as they shoot 
forth large and many leaves, do notably abate of 
their weight. And mmt growing in glasses of water, 
until it arriveth unto the weight of an ounce, in 
a shady place, will sometimes exhaust a pound of 

And as they send much forth, so may they receive 
somewhat in : For beside the common way and road 
of reception by the root, there may be a refection and 
imbibition from without ; For gentle showrs refresh 
plants, though they enter not their roots ; And the 
good and bad effluviums of Vegetables, promote or 
debilitate each other. So Epithymum and Dodder, 
rootlesse and out of the ground, maintain themselves, 
upon Thyme, Savory, and plants whereon they hang. 
And Ivy divided from the root, we have observed to 
live some years, by the cirrous parts commonly con- 
ceived but as tenacles and holdfasts unto it. The 
stalks of mint cropt from the root stripped from the 
leaves, and set in glasses with the root end upward, 
and out of the water, we have observed *.o send forth 
sprouts and leaves without the aid of roots, and 
scordium to grow in like manner, the leaves set down- 
ward in water. To omit severall Sea plants, which 
grow on single roots firom stones, although in very 
many there are side shoots and fibres, beside the 
fastening root. 

Garden of Cyrus 

whprpi^ oil!. 1 J *=?°*«°t to grow m obscure Wells • 

twining towards theS^^t"bf fhTl. fi?i conversion, 
Hops. Woodbine, ^d 21^^ k1nd« nf^ ^"^"""l' 

IS scarce expectable in ^y Climate anrlTi.?'"^"'' 
uon of .h. motion of ,h. sun.-^wlTrTi;: A»t°^^^^.£: 


Garden of Cyrus 

tionially from the left hand to the ri^ht, according to 
the daily revolution ; The st^k twineth ecliptically 
from the rigbt to the left, according to the annual 

Some commend the exposure of these orders unto 
the Western gales, as the most generative and fructi- 
fying breath of heaven. But we applaud the Husbandry 
of Solomon, whereto agreeth the doctrine of Tkeopkrasius. 
Arise O north winde, and blow thou South upon my 
garden, that the spices thereof may flow out ; For the 
north-winde closing the pores, and shutting up the 
effluviums, when the South doth after open and relax 
them; the Aromaticall gummes do drop, and sweet 
odours fly actively from them. And if his garden had 
the same situation, which mapps, and charts afford it, 
on the East side of Jerusalem, and having the wall on 
the west ; these were the windes unto which it was well 

By this way of plantation they increased the number 
of their trees, which they lost in Quatemio's, and squarft 
orders, which is a commodity insisted on by Varro, and 
one great intent of nature, in this position of flowers 
and seeds in the elegant formation of plants, and the 
former Rules observed in naturall and artificial 

Whether in this order and one Tree in some measure 
breaking the cold, and pinching gusts of windes from 
the other, trees will not better maintain their inward 
circles, and either escape or moderate their eccen- 
tricities, may also be considered. For the circles in 
Trees are naturally concentricall parallel! unto the 
bark, and unto each other, till frost and piercing windes 
contract and close them on the weather side, the 
opposite semicircle widely enlarging, and at a comely 
distance, which hindreth ofttimes the beauty and 
roundnesse of Trees, and makes the Timber lesse ser- 
viceable; whiles the ascending juyce, not readily 
passing, settles in knots and inequalities. And there- 
fore it is no new course of Agriculture, to observe the 

Garden of Cynis 213 

The same is also observable under around in th« 
C)^anatmns and spherical rounds of Onyon^ wLerl 
the circles o the orbes arc eft times larger Tnd th" 

otaer. And where the largenesse will make ud tha 
number of planetical Orbes, that of ^r* and th! 
ower planets exceed the dimensions of Sa^T and 
the higher; ^yhether the like be not verified I'i the 
Circles of the large roots of Briony and Mandrakes or 
why in the knotts of Deale or F^rre the rirrl.! »? 
often eccentricall, although not in a plkne! but v^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Wh!?H P°f"'°°V d«=«rves a furthe^enqiir^ 
Whether there be not some irregularity of round 
nesse m most plants according t? the ? posh"on 
cTntMe inTT^l'.'rP"""'^'"" °f P"«« be not per- 

7owTd th„ cf '• ^"J'^shes, and other vegetables 
=nl^ . streaming quarter, may also be observed 

contrivJd rto"f "' '!f '°°« ^"/ ^'^''' »^= <=°~'y 

contrived into a roundnesse of figure, wherebv th^ 
water presseth lesse. and slippeth m^ore smoothlyCm 
them, and even m flags . flat-figured leaves the 

fn dfcLr °'"'" *'""'"P" ^'-^^ -'° 'l^^^^^^^^^^^ 

But whether plants which float upon the surface of 
tW ^^^'^^ t' ^^1^0^^ part of cooling qualities 
those which shoot above it of heating virtues, S 

tall, were made lone and JrSt.^i Trees being to grow up 



Garden of Cyrus 

why ? whether Sargauo for many miles floating upon 
the Western Ocean, or Sea-Lettuce and Pkasganium 
U the bottome of our Seas, make good the like quali- 
ties? Why Fenny waters afford the hottest and 
sweetest plants, as Calavms, Cyfirus, and Crow-foot, 
and mudd cast out of ditches most naturally produceth 
Arsmart ? Why plants so greedy of water so little 
regard oyl? Why since many seeds contain much 
oyle within them, they endure it not well without, 
either in their growth or production? Why since 
Seeds shoot commonly under ground, and out of the 
ayre, those which are let fall in shallow glasses, upon 
the surface of the water, will sooner sprout than those 
at the bottom? And if the water be covered with 
oyle, those at the bottome vill hardly sprout at all, 
we have n: . room to conjecture. 

Wheluc <.vy would not lesse offend the Trees n 
this clean ordination, and well-kept paths, might per- 
haps deserve the question. But this were a quaery 
only unto some habitations, and little concerning Cyrus 
or the Babylonian territory ; wherein by no industry 
Harpalus could make Ivy grow; And Alexander hardly 
found it about those parts to imitate the pomp of 
Bacchus. And though in these Northern Regions we 
are too much acquainted with one Ivy, we know too 
little of another, whereby we apprehend not the ex- 
pressions of Antiquity, the Splenetick medicine^ of 
Galen, and the Emphasis of the Poet, in the beauty of 
the white Ivy.' 

The like concerning the growth of Misseltoe, which 
dependeth not only of the specks, or kinde of Tree, but 
much also of the Soil. And therefore common in 
some places, not readily found in others, frequent in 
France, not so common in Spam, and scarce at all in 
the Territory of Ferrara ; Nor easily to be found where 
it is most required, upon Oaks, less en Trees con- 
tinually verdant. Although in some places the Olive 
escapeth it not, requiting its detrimeut, in the deligbt- 
full view of its red Berries; as Clusim observed in 

> Calm, dt Mid. Sttmdmn toe. 

' Hedird fcrmosior albd. 

Garden of Cyrus 215 

Spain, ndBilloHius about Hinusalm. But tms Para- 
siticall plant suffers nothing to grow upon it, by anv 
way of ait; nor could we ever make it griw whTrS 

?n^r j^ '"'^"K,'' *''«" *"«'"* lo'b'ng improbable 
^«ln."*f " '"'^'^ °°' succeeded by ^tion in any 
manner of ground, wherein we had no reason to 
dMpair, since we reade of vegetable horns, and how 
Rams horns will root about Goa.> 

But besides these rurall commodities, it cannot ba 
meanly delectable in the variety of Figures, which 
these orders, open and closed, do make. Whiles" 

l.r^ ,-^''°""^i'^*^' ^^^ intervals bounded with 
parallell Imes, and each intersection built upon a 
square, affordinp; two Triangles or Pyramids vertically 
conjoyned; m the strict Quincunciall order doe 
oppositely make acute and blunt Angles 

And though therein we meet not with right angles, 
fwori^?J^.°"^"'n'°"''^"'"8f°"' Angles iquall Snto 
^o nght, It virtually contains two right in every one. 

Imes of Trees, and parts disposed in them. For 
neither in the root doth nature aifect this angle, which 
b^^ Xf r*"*" ^°l thestability of the p!St. doth 
best effect the same by Figures of Inclination; Nor 
m the Branches and stalky leaves, which grow most 
at acute angles; as declining from their head the root, 
and diminishing their Angles with their altitude 
Venfied also in lesser Plants, whereby they better 

!riJS°% !i"f '"'u?,' ^°^ ^^' °°' ^° ''easily upon the 
lnt\ ' ( *' '''"'* "^^"^ ^^^ '■°°' "^«y often make an 
Angle of seventy parts, the sprouts near the top will 
often come short of thirty. Even in the nerves and 
master vems of the leaves the acute angle ruleth ; the 
obtuse but seldome found, and in the backward part 

But whl'^L'^ ^^*'"" ^I"^ ^'^^'''S about the stllk. 
iJut why ofttunes one side of thp leaf is unequall unto 

' LiHSckoltn. 

Garden of Cyrus 


the other, as in Hazell and Oaks, why on either side 
the master vein the lesser and derivative channels 
stand not directly opposite, nor at equall angles, 
respectively unto the adverse side, but those of one 
part do often exceed the other, as the Wallnut and 
many more, deserves another enquiry. 

Now if for this order we affect coniferous and taper- 
ing Trees, particularly the Cypresse, which grows in 
a conicall figure; we have found a Tree not only of 
great Ornament, but, in its Essentials, of affinity unto 
this order. A solid Rhombus being made by the con- 
version of two Equicrural Cones, as Archimtdes hath 
defined. And these were the common Trees about 
Babylon, and the East, whereof the Ark was made ; 
and Alexander found no Trees so accommodable to 
build his Navy ; and this we rather think to be the 
Tree mentioned in the Canticles, which stricter 
Botanology will hardly allow to be Camphire. 

And if delight or ornamentall view invite a comely 
disposure by circular amputations, as is elegantly per- 
formed in Hawthorns; then will they answer the 
figures made by the conversion of a Rhombus, which 
maketh two concentricall Circles; the greater Circum- 
ference being made by the lesser angles, the lesser by 
the greater. . 

The Cylindrical figure of Trees is virtually contamed 
and latent in this order. A Cylinder or long round 
being made by the conversion or turning of a Paral- 
lelogram, and most handsomely by a long square, 
which makes an equall, strong, and lasting figure in 
Trees, agieeable unto the body and motive parts of 
animals, the greatest number of Plants, and almost all 
roots, though their stalks be angular, and of many 
comers, which seem not to follow the figure of their 
Seeds ; Since many angular Seeds send forth round 
stalks, and sphaericall seeus arise from angular spindles, 
and many rather conform unto their Roots, as the 
round stalks of bulbous Roots ; and in tuberous Roots 
stemmes of like figure. But why since the largest 
number of Plants maintain a circular Figure, there 

Garden of Cyrus 217 

are so few with teretoua or long round leaves; why 
coniferous Trees are tenuifolious or narrow-leaved ; 
whv Plants of few or no joyntt have commonly round 
ctalks, whv the greatest number of hollow stalks are 
round stalks ; or why in this variety of angular stalks 
the quadrangular most exceedeth, were too long a 
speculation ; Meanwhile obvious experience may finde, 
that in Plants of divided leaves above, nature often 
be^inneth circularly in the two first leaves below, 
while in the singular plant of Ivy she exerciseth a 
contrary Geometry, and beginning with angular leaves 
below, rounds them in the upper branches. 

Nor c?n the rows in this order want delight, as 
carrying an aspect answerable unto the diptnos 
hypathros, or double order of columns open above ; the 
opposite ranks of Trees standing lika pillars in the 
Cavtiia of the Courts of famous buildings, and the 
^ortico'i of the Templa subdialia of old; Somewhat 
imitating the Ptristylia or Cloyster buildings, and 
the Exedra of the Ancients, wherein men discoursed, 
walked and exercised ; For that they derived the rule 
of Columnes from Trees, especially in their propor- 
tional! diminutions, is illustrated by Vitruvius from 
the shafts of Fiire and Pine. And though the inter- 
arboratic;. dj ii.^itate the Artostylos, or thm order, not 
strictly answering the proportion of inter-columnia- 
tions; yet in many Trees they will not exceed the 
intermission of the Columnes in the Court of the 
Tabernacle ; which being an hundred cubits long, and 
made up by twenty pillars, will afford no lesse than 
intervals of five cubits. 

Beside, in this kinde of aspect the sight being not 
diffused but circumscribed between long parallels and 
the hruTKuuriiiK and adumbration from the branches, 
it frameth a penthouse over the eye, 'and maketh a 
quiet vision : And therefore in diffused and open 
aspects, men hollow their hand above their eye, and 
make an artificial! brow, whereby they diiect the dis- 
persed rayes of sight, and by this shade preserve a 
moderate light in the chamber of the eye ; keeping the 

2i8 Garden of Cyrus 

pupilla plump and feir, and not contracted or shrunk 
as in light Eind vagrant vision. 

And therefore providence hath arched and paved 
the 'great house of the world, with colours of medi- 
ocrity, that is, blew and green, above and below the 
sight, moderately terminating the acUs of the eye. 
For most plants, though green above-ground, maintain 
their Originall white below it, according to the candour 
of their seminall pulp, and the rudimental leaves do 
first appear in that colour ; observable in Seeds sprout- 
ing in water upon their first foliation. Green seeming 
to be the first supervenient, or above-ground com- 
plexion of Vegetables, separable in many upon ligature 
or inhumation, as Succory, Endive, Artichoaks, and 
which is also lost upon fading in the Autumn. 

And this is also agreeable unto water itself, the 
alimental vehicle of plants, which first altereth into 
this colour; And containing many vegetable semin- 
alities, revealeth their Seeds by greennesse ; and there- 
fore soonest expectsd in rain or standing water, not 
easily found in distilled or water strongly boiled; 
wherein the Seeds are extinguished by fire and decoc- 
tion, and therefore last long and pure without such 
alteration, affording neither uliginous coats, gnat- 
worms, Acari, hair-worms, like crude and common 
water ; And therefore most fit for wholesome beverage, 
and with malt makes Ale and Beer without boyling. 
What large water-drinkers some Plants are, the 
Canary-Tree and Birches in some Northern Countries, 
drenching the Fields about them, do sufficiently demon- 
strate. How water itself is able to maintain the 
growth of Vegetables, and without extinction of their 
generative or medicall vertues ; Beside the experiment 
of Helmonts tree, we have found in some which have 
lived six years in glasses. The seeds of Scurvy-grasse 
growing in water-pots, have been fruitful in the Land; 
and Asarum after a years space, and once casting its 
leaves in water, in the second leaves, hath handsomely 
performed its vomiting operation. 

Nor are only dark and green colours, but shades 

Garden of Cyrus 219 

and shadows contrived through the great Volume of 
nature, and trees ordained not only to protect and 
shadow others, but by their shades and shadowing 
parts, to preserve and cherish themselves. The whole 
rswliation or branchings shadowing the stock and the 
root, the leaves, the branches and fiuit, too much 
exposed to the windes and scorching Sunne. The 
calicular leaves inclose the tender flowers, and the 
flowers themselves lye wrapt about the seeds, in their 
rudiment and first formations, which being advanced 
the flowers fall away ; and are therefore contrived in 
vanety of figures, best satisfying the intention ; Hand- 
somely observable in hooded and gaping flowers, and 
the Butterfly bloomes of legummous plants, the lower 
leaf closely involving the rudimental Cod, and the 
alMy or wingy divisions embracing or hanging over it. 

But Seeds themselves do lie in perpetual shades, 
either under the leaf, or shut up in coverings ; and 
such as lye barest, have their husks, skins, and pulps 
about them, wherein the nebbe and generative particle 
lyeth moist and secured from the injury of ayre and 
Sunne. Darknesse and light hold interchangeable 
dommions, and alternately rule the seminal state of 
things. Light unto Pluio'^ is darkness unto Jupiter. 
Legions of seminall Ideas lye in their second Chaos 
and Orcus of HipocraUs; till putting on the habits of 
their forms, they shew themselves upon the stage of 
the v.orld, and open domin-.on of Jove. They that 
held the Stars of heaven were but rayes and flashing 
glimpses of the Empyreall light, through holes and 
perforations of the upper heaven, took of the natural 
shadows of stars, while according to better discovery 
the poor Inhabitants of the Moone have but a polary 
We,' and must passe half their dayes in the shadow of 
that Luminary. 

Light that makes things seen, makes some things 
invisible, were it not for darknesse and the shadow 
of the earth, the noblest part of the Creation had re- 

' Lux area, lembrajom: Umbra era, luxJovi. Hippocr. d> Ditla 
' S. Htmlii Stlimgnphia. 

220 Garden of Cyrus 

mained unseen, and the Stars in heaven as invisible as 
on the fourth day, when they were created above the 
Horizon, with the Sun, or there was not an eye to 
behold them. The greatest mystery of Religion is ex- 
pressed by adumbration, and in the noblest part of 
Jewish Types, we find the Cherubims shadowing the 
Mercy-seat : Life itself is but the shadow_ of death, 
and Eculs departed but the shadows of the living : All 
things fall under this name. The Sunne itself is but 
the dark simulachrum, and light but the shadow of 

Lastly, it is no wonder that this Quincunciall order 
was first and is still affected as gratefuU unto the eye : 
For all things are seen Quincuncially ; for at the eye 
the Pyramidal rayes, from the object, receive a decus 
sation, and so strike a second base upon the Retina or 
hinder coat, the proper organ of Vision ; wherein the 
pictures from objects are represented, answerable to 
the paper, or wall in the dark chamber ; after the 
decussation of the rayes at the hole of the horny-coat, 
and their refraction upon the Christalline humour, 
answering the /oyaHKw of the window, and the convex 
or burning-glasses, which refract the rayes that enter 
it. And if ancient Anatomy would hold, a like dispo- 
sure there was of the optick or visual nerves in the 
brain, wherein Antiquity conceived a concurrence by 
decussation. And this not only observable in the 
Laws of direct Vision, but in some part also verified 
in the reflected rayes of sight. For making the angle 
of incidence equjil to that of reflection, the vi.suall 
raye returneth Quincuncially, and after the form of a 
V, and the line of reflection being continued unto the 
place of vision, there ariseth a semi - decussation, 
which makes the object seen m a perpendicular unto 
itself, and as farre below the reflectent, as it is from it 
above ; observable in the Sun and Moon beheld in 

And this is also the law of reflection in moved 
bodies and sounds, which though not made by decus- 
sation, observe the rule of equality between incidence 

Garden of Cyrus 


b^'^FIHnH-J'li' "'"^«'>y*Wspermg places are framed 
by EUipticall arches laid sidewisef where the voice 
bemg delivered at the focus of one extremity! observT^ 
an equality unto the angle of incidence, it^vill reflecf 

ot the standers in the middle. 

A Uke rule is observed in the reflection of the vocall 
b2 h^Ti^r ;° E<=<=''°?. ^tich cannot there^e 
^i„T^ u^' stations. But happening in woody 

itehTh' ^y^^ ^""^ ^"« *° return i,me3 
If reacht by a pleasant and well-dividing voice therl 
may be heard the softest notes in nature ' 

, And this not only verified in the way of sence but 
m animall and intellectuall receptions, ^hngs Marina 

commnn H ^ " TT^ by another from within, the 
common decussahon being in the understanding m is 

ttZZf-^^,?'^'^" "^^^'^'^ t'"' intellectuS^nd 
phant^tical hnes be not thus rightly disoosed but 

Mathematicks of some brains, whereby thev have 
irregular apprehensions of things, pervert^ notions 
conceptions, and incurable haSticmations were nn 
unpleasant speculation. "«™anons, were no 

And if Egyptian Philosophy may obtain, the scale 
of 'nfluences was thus disposed! and the g^ all spWts 
of both worlds do trace their way in aicending Sd 
descending Pyramids, mystically apprehenTed"! tte 
letter X, and the open Bill and stradling Legges of a 
nh:'^'^ "^ '^'***'^ ^y that Chafacter!^^ 
Of this Figure Plato jnade choice to illustrate the 
mofaon of the soul, both of the world and m^ • thUe 
he ddivereth that God divided the whole conjunction 
length-wise, accordwg to the figure of a Greek X 
^d hen turn ng it about.reflecte^d it intoacMeT % 

anH K .r^ y^u^ V " ™'^°™ ™°''°° °f the first Orb, 
mori ^ ^^l ."eht Ifes, the planetical and varioS 
motions withm it. And this also with , pplication unto. 
■he soul of man, which hath a double aspect, one right.. 
» Car. BoviUus if Intelkctu. 

222 Garden of Cyrus 

whereby it beholdeth the body, and objects without ; 
another circular and reciprocal, whereby it beholdeth 
itself. The circle declaring the motion of the indi- 
visible soul, simple, accordmg to the divinity of its 
nature, and returning into itself ; the right Imes re- 
specting the motion pertaining unto sense, and vegeta- 
tion, and the central decussation, the wondrous 
connexion of the severall faculties conjointly in one 
substance. And so conjoyned the unity and duality 
of the soul, and made out the three substances so much 
considered by him ; That is, the indivisible or divine, 
the divisible or corporeal, and that third, which was 
the Systasis or harmony of those two, in the mystical 

And if chat were clearly made out which Juttin 
Martyr took for granted, this figure hath had the 
honour to characterize and notifieour blessed Saviour, 
as he delivereth in that borrowed expression from 
Plato ; Decussavit eum in universo, the hint whereof he 
would have Plato derive firom the figure of the brazen 
Serpent, and to have mistaken the Letter X for T, 
whereas it is not improbable, he learned these and 
other mystical expressions in his Learned Observa- 
tions of ./Egypt, where he might obviously behold the 
Mercurial characters, the handed crosses, and other 
mysteries not thoroughly understood in the sacred 
Letter X ; which being derivative from the Stork, one 
of the ten sacred animals, might be originally ^Egyp- 
tian, and brought into Gruce by Cadmus of that 


To enlarge this contemplation unto all the mysteries 
and secrets, accommodable vmto this number, were 
inexcusable Pythagorisme, yet cannot omit the ancient 
conceit of five sumamed the number of justice;' as 
justly dividing between the digits, and hanging in tte 
centre of Nine, described by square numeration, which 
* Onh 

Garden of Cyrus 

-J — 223 

Nor can we omit how aCTeeable nn^ ♦!,;= 
an handsome &-xAor, U ^5 ■ ^i?°''' *"'^ number 
since i'/S.lnd the Andent^^'h?""" ^"^ Plants, 
Divisive Num'ber.UVdSg "Z'iZ^, % Jj! 

XteTnt^^T prer^'-STH^^^^^ 
and therein doth rest thl ct'fif^"^^^ °^,^^* '^^^es; 
that in those which excP J i " " ?^ °''*^'^«: So 

224 Garden of Cyrus 

and the optick doctrine ; wherdn the learned may con- 
sider the Crystalline humour of the eye in the cuttle- 
fish and Loligo. j . . u 

He that forgets not how Antiquity named this the 
Conjugall or wedding number, and made_ it the 
Embleme of the most remarkable conjunction, will 
conceive it duely appliable unto this handsome Eco- 
nomy, and vegetable combination ; May hence appre- 
hend the allegoricall sence of that obscure expression 
of Htsiod,^ and afford no improbable reason why Plato 
admitted his Nuptiall guests by fives, in the kindred 
of the married couple.' 

And though a sharper mystery might be implied in 
the Number of the five wise and foolish Virgins, which 
were to meet the Bridegroom, yet was the same agree- 
able unto the Conjugal Number, which ancient Nu- 
merists made out by two and three, the first parity 
and imparity, the active and passive digits, the 
materiall and formall principles in generative So- 
cieties. And not discordant even from the customs ol 
the Romans, who admitted but five Torches in their 
Nuptiall solemnities.' Whether there were any mys- 
tery or not implied, the most generative animals were 
created on this day, and had accordingly the largest 
benediction: And under a Quintuple consideration, 
wanton Antiquity considered the Circumstances of 
generation, while by this number of five they naturally 
divided the Nectar of the fifth Planet* 

The same number in the Hebrew mysteries and 
Cabalistical accounts was the character of generation ;' 
declared by the Letter Hi, the fifth in their Alphabet ; 
According to that Cabalistical Dogma: liAhram had 
not had this Letter added unto his Name, he had 
remained fruitlesse, and without the power of genera- 
tion : Not only because hereby the number of his 

' riiirrat, id at, tmptias, multas. Rhodin. 

= Plato di Leg. 6. ' Ptutanh. Problat. Rom. i. 

* osada qua Vtniu 

Quinti f carte sut neetaris mbuit. — Hor. lib. i. od. 13. 
' Ardumg. Dog. Cabal. 

Garden of Cyrus 225 

tein of souls in Cabalisticall Technology U cM^ 
Btnah; whose seal and character was^ \^ir, 
bemg steriU before, he received the poww of ™ 
t.on from that measure and mansion CThe Archetyoe ■ 
and was made conformable unto BfJ* AnH „^^„' 
such involved considerations the tlT^f c P"" 
exchanged into five.. H ryVaUlcSk u^^f Zs T, 
stable number, and fitly appropriable unto TreL as 
Bodies of Rest and StationT he hath herein a g;<^t 
Foundation m nature, who observing much variefvti 
legges and motive Organs of Animals as 3. f 

very few ^ th?'pf ? ^-"^"""^ *•""» ""'° "O'-e.^r 
K^-msH et jac. de LatU Cur. Poster. Amerien Desm6i\ 
If perfectly described. And for the stabtlitvTf ht 
Number, he.shall not want the sphericity of its nature 
which multiplied in itself, will^eturn^i^ olts o^' 
denon,mat.on. and bring up the reare^f The accou^ 

Sail N!:'J'°%°r^' ^r^"^ '^''f makes up the 
mysticall Name of God, which consisting of Letters 

denoting all the sphaericall Numbers, Tel fivllnd 

SIX ; Emphatically sets forth the Notion of rks«S.-rf« 

^d that intelligible Sphere, which is ?he ffifo'f 

Many Expressions by this Number occurre in Holy 
Scnpture, perhaps unjustly laden with mysticall E^' 
positions, and little concerimg our orde7 That th« 
Israelites were forbidden to eat the fruit nf tK»- 
pUnted Trees, before the fifth^ea^ef wLte^t 
able unto the naturall Rules of H^andry • Suite 
being unwholsome and lash, before the Zurth o1 

fi^e l^r^- ^° ^1 r""*^ ^y °' Feminine part of 

tM?H nf '^,!^^'^ "° approbation. For in the 

third or mascuhne day, the same is twice repeated^ 

' Joi into He. 

226 Garden of Cyrus 

and a double benediction inclosed both Creations, 
whereof the one, in some part was but an accomplish- 
ment of the other. That the Trespasser' was to pay 
a fifth part above the head or prindpall, makes no 
secret in this Number, and implied no more than one 
part above the principall ; which being considered in 
four parts, the additional forfeit must t)C.Tr the Name 
of a fift. The five golden mice had plainly their 
determination from the number of the Princes ; That 
five should put to flight an hundred might have 
nothing mystically implyed; considering a rank of 
Souldiers could scarce consist of a lesser number. 
Saint Paul had rather speak five words in a knowtj 
than ten thousand in an unknowne tongue : '''hat is 
as little as could well be spoken. A simple y oposi- 
tion consisting of three words and a complexed one 
not ordinarily short of five. 

More considerable there are in this mysticall 
account, which we must not insist on. And therefore 
why the radicall Letters in the Pentateuch, should 
equall the number of the Souldiery of the Tribes ; 
Why our Saviour in the wilderness fed five thousand 
persons with five Barley Loaves, and again, but four 
thousand with no lesse than seven of Wheat ? Why 
Joseph designed five changes of Rayment unto Btnja- 
min and David took just five pibbles' out of the Brook 
against the Pagan Champion? We leave it unto 
Arithmeticall Divinity, and Theologicall explanation. 
Yet if any delight in new Problemes, or think it 
worth the enquiry, whether the Critical! Physician 
hath rightly hit the nominall notation of Quingue; 
Why the Ancients mixed five or three but not four 
parts of water unto their Wine: And Hippocrates 
observed a fifth proportion in the mixture of water 
with milk, as in Dysenteries and bloudy fluxes ? Under 
what abstruse foundation Astrologers do Figure the 
good or bad fate from our Children, in good Fortime ;' 

» Lev. vt 

» rissapn tm foar and one, or five.— Sa/if. 

• 'Ar/oS^ Tvx)\ boaa fortuna, the name of the fifth boiue. 

Garden of Cyrus 227 

or the fifth house of their Celestiall Schemes. Whether 
the iEgyptians described a Starre by a Figure of five 
points, with reference unto the five Capitall aspects .« 
whereby they transmit their Influences, or abstruser 
Considerations ? Why the Cabalisticall Doctors, who 
conceive the whole Stphiroth, or divine emanations to 
have guided the ten-stringed Harp of David, whereby 
he pacified the evil spirit of Saul, in strict numeration 
doe begin with the PerihypaU Mtson, or si fa ut, and so 
place the T,pher$th answering C sol fa ut, upon the 
hfth string : Or whether this number be oftner applied 
unto bad things and ends, then good in holy Scripture, 
and why ? He may meet with abstrusities of no 
ready resolution. 

If any shall question the rationality of that Maeick 
m the cure of the blind man by Serapis, commanded 
to place five fingers on his Altar, and then his hand 
on his Eyes? Why since the whole Comcedy is 
primarily and naturally comprised in four parts = and 
Antiquity permitted not so many persons to speak in 
one Scene, yet would not comprehend the same in 
more or lesse then five acts? Why amongst Sea- 
starres nature chiefly delighteth in five points ? And 
smce there are found some of no fewer than twelve, 
and some of seven, and nine, there are few or none 
discovered of six or eight ? If any shall enquire why 
the Flowers of Rue properiy consist of four Leaves, 
Ihe first and third Flower have five? Why since 
many Flowers have one leaf or none,' as ScaUger will 
nave it, diverse three, and the greatest number consist 
ot hve divided from their bottoms ; there are yet so 
few of two: or why nature generally beginning or 
setting out with two opposite leaves at the Root, doth 
so sddome conclude with that order and number at 
the Flower? he shall not pass his hours in vulgar 
speculations. ° 

If any shall further quaery why magaeticall Philo- 

) ^°"J"'"='> opposite, sextile, trigonal, tetragonal. 
' Viu/oliim, maiifoUim. '^^ ' 


Garden of Cyrus 

Bophy excludeth decuMAtions, and needles transversely 
placed do naturally distract their verticities ? Why 
eomancers do imitate the Quintuple Figure, in their 
Mother Characters of Acquisition and Amission, &c., 
somewhat answering the Figures in the Lady or 
speckled Beetle ? With what Equity, Chiromantical 
conjecturers decry these decussations in the Lines and 
Mounts of the hand ? What that decussated Figure 
mtendeth in the medall of AUxaudtr the Great 7 Why 
the goddesses sit commoui^ crosse-legged in ancient 
draughts, Since Juno is described in the same as a ven» 
fidal posture to hinder the birth of HtrcuUs } If any 
shall doubt why at the Amphidromicall Feasts, on the 
fifth day after the Childe was born, presents were sent 
from friends, of Polipusus and Cuttle-fishes? Why 
five must be only left in that Symbolicall mutiny 
among the men of Cadmus f Why Pnhus in Homtr 
the Symbole of the first matter, before he setled him- 
self in the midst of his Sea-monsters, doth place them 
out by fives ? Why the fifth years Oxe was acceptable 
Sacrifice unto Jupiter ? Or why the Noble AntonitMt 
in some sence doth call the soul itself a Rh ibus ? 
He shall not fall on trite or triviall disquisitic And 
these we invent and propose unto acuter .i4uirers, 
nauseating crambe verities and questions ovei -queried. 
Flat and flexible truths are beat out by every hammer; 
but Vulcam and bis whole for^e sweat to work out A chilUs 
his armour. A large field is yet left imto sharper dis- 
cerners to enlarge upon this order, to search out the 
guatirnios and figured draughts of this nature, and 
moderating the study of names, and meer nomencla- 
ture of pla 's, to erect generalities, disclose unobserved 
proprieties, jot only in the vegetable shop, but the 
whole volume of nature ; afibrding delightful Truths, 
confirmable by sense and ocular Observation, which 
seems to me the surest path, to trace the Labyrinth of 
Truth. For though discursive enquiry and rational! 
conjecture, may leave handsome gashes and flesh- 
wounds; yet without conjunction of this expect no 
mortal or dispatching blows unto errour. 

Garden of Cyrus 229 

_ But the Quincunx' of Heaven runs low, and 'tii 
ttme to close the five ports of knowledge; VVa are 
unwilliag to (pin out our awaking thoughts Into the 
pbantasmes of sleep, which often continueth prsecogi- 
tations ; making Cables of Cobwebbes, and Wilder- 
ncsse? of handsome Groves. Beside Hippocrates^ hath 
Sfwke so little, and the Oneirocriticall* Masters, have 
left such frigid Interpretations from plants, that there 
XT ""'"""couragement to dream of Paradise itself. 
Nor Will the sweetest delight of Gardens afford much 
comfort m sleep ; wherein the dulnesse of that sense 
shakes hands with delectable odours ; and though in 
the Bed of CUotatra* can hardly with any delisht raise 
up the ghost of a Rose. 

Night which Pagan Theology could make the 
daughter of Chaos, affords no advantage to the de- 
scription of order: Although no lower then that Masse 
can we derive its Genealogy. All things began in 
order, so shall they end, and so shall they liegin again ; 
according to the ordainer of order and mystical Mathe- 
maticks of the City of Heaven. 

Though Somnus in Homer be sent to rowse up Aga- 
mmnon, I finde no such effects in these drowsy ap- 
proaches of sleep. To keep our eyes open longer were 
but to act our Antipodes. The Huntsmen are up in 
Amenco, and they are already past their first sleep in 
Fersui. But who can be drowsie at that howr which 
treed us from everlasting sleep ? or have slumbering 
thoughts at that time, when sleep itself must end, and 
as some conjecture all shall awake again. 

' Hyi^s, near the Horizon about midnight, at that time 
• D, Insomnii, • Arlmidonu it Apcmazcr. 

' StrewcJ with roses. 


T jAHMor omU to advwtiie, th«t a Boek wm pob- 
K«hed not long dmce, Entituled, Hatmn CAmik Un- 
iteU, bauinglM nam* of thi* Antboor : If any man 
have bwnbmefited therAy thia Authonr ia not lo 
ambitkras ai to ehallenga tht honour tbenoL aa having 
no hand in that Work. To diftiDnuah ol true and 
tpuriou* Paecas waa the OriginalT Critidnna, utd 
■ome were so handsomely counterfeited, that the En- 
titled Authoun needed not to disdaime them. But 
since it is so, that either he must write himself, or 
Others will write for him, I know no better Priventton 
then to act his own part with lesse intermission of hit 


>t w 
I ana 


)lf, or 
>f hit 



scRirr OF THB author; 




My Lord,— The Honour you have done our Family 
Obligeth us to make all just Acknowledgments of it. 
^d Lre U no Form of Acknowledgment m our po^^r 
more worthy of Your Lordship's Accept^ce, than ftis 
Sedtcation of the Last Work of o"' ""^Kn^ 
Learned Father. Encouraged hereunto by the Know- 
ledge we have of Your Lordship's Judicious Relish of 
u^versal Learning, and sublime Virtue; we beg the 
Favou^f Your Acceptance of it. which wUl very much 
SbU^e our Family 'm general, and Her in particular, 

^'"'''' My Lord, 

Your Lordship's most humble Servant, 

Elizabeth Littleton, 


Ip anj? One, after he has read Relieio Medici and 
the ensuing Discourse, can make Doubt, whether the 
same Person was the Author of them both, he may be 
Assured by the Testimony of Mrs. Littieton, Sir 
Thomas Browne's Daughter, who Lived with her 
Father, when it was composed by Him ; and who, at 
the time, read it writtei, by his own hand ; and also by 
the Testimony of Others, (of whom I am One) who read 
the MS. of the Author, immediai. iy after his Death, 
and who have since Read the Same ; from which it 
hath been faithfully and exactly Transcribed for the 
Press. The Reason why it was not Printed sooner is, 
because it was unhappily Lost, by being Mislay'd 
among Other MSS., for which Search was lately made 
in the Presence of the Lord Arch Bishop of Canterbury, 
of which his Grace, by Letter, informed Mrs. Littleton, 
when he sent the MS. to her. There is nothing printed 
in the Discou se, or in the short notes, but what is 
found in the Original MS. of the Author, except only 
where an Oversight had made the Addition or Trans- 
position of some words necessary. 

John Jeffery, 

Arehitaem of Norwich. 


Sect. i. — Tread softly and circumspectly in this 
funambulatory Track and narrow Path of Goodness : 
Pursue Virtue virtuously: Leven not good Actions nor 
render Virtues disputable. Stain not fair Acts with 
foul Intentions: Maim not Uprightness by halting 
Concomitances, nor circumstantially deprave substan- 
tial Goodness. , 

Consider whereabout thou art in Cebes's table, or that 
old Philosophical Pinax* of the Life of Man : whether 
thou are yet in the Road of uncertainties; whether 
thou hast yet entred the narrow Gate, got up the Hill 
and asperous way, which leadeth unto the House of 
Sanity, or taken that purifying Potion from the hand 
of sincere Erudition, which may send Thee clear and 
pure away unto a virtuous and happy Life. 

In this virtuous Voyage of thy Life hull not about 
like the Ark, without the use of Rudder, Mast, or Sail, 
and bound for no Port. Let not Disappointment cause 
Despondency, nor difficulty despair. Think not that 
you are Saihng from Lima to Manillia, when you may 
fasten up the Rudder, and sleep before the Wind ; but 
expect rough Seas, Flaws, and contrary Blasts: acd 
'tis well, if by many cross Tacks and Veerings, you 
arrive at the Port; for we sleep in lyons Skins in 
our Progress unto Virtue, and we slide not, but chmb 
unto it. 

Sit not down in the popular Forms and common 
Level of Virtues. Offer not only Peace-Offerings but 
Holocausts unto God: where all is due make no 
reserve, and cut not a Cummin-seed with the Almighty : 

' Pixax. Picture.— Dr. 7. 

Christian Morals 


to serve Him singly to serve ourselves were too partial 
E^s^of 0^;^"!°' ^""^ *° P'-" - - *^« ^-'rio^ 

Sect, n.— Rest not in an Ovation* but a Triumoh 
h«S ^J ^ m'T'- H^.* A°?er walk hanging down the 
?w ' R I ^?^'^J° Manicred, and Envy fetter'd after 
thee. Behold within thee the long train of thy Trophies 
not without thee. Make the qLrrelling Lap' thy es 
sleep and Centaurs within lye quiet. Chain up the 
unruly Legion of thy breast. Le^^d thine own captivity 
captive, and be C<jsar within thyself ^ 

imnff^'v^'T^Ll'^* is Chast and Continent not to 
^r^ 5 strength or honest for fear of Contagion. 
wUl hardly be Heroically virtuous. Adjourn nrt this 
virtue unull that temper when Cato could lend out his 
Wife, and impotent Satyrs write Satyrs upon Lust; 
but be chast m thy flaming Days, wheaAu/amUr dar'd 
not trust his eyes upon the fair Sisters of Darius and 
when so iiu^ny thmk there is no other way but Onsen's » 

Sect, iv.— Show thy Art in Honesty, and loo^ not 

^d^t n%'^' '^'^ Managery of it^BeTemplrate 
and bober not to preserve your body in an ability for 
wanton ends, not to avoid the infamy of common teans- 
gressors that way, and thereby to hope to expiate or 
palliate obscure and closer vices, not to spare your 

fw V^K^^P'y '° ^°J°y ^^^^ ' but in ^e word 
that thereby you may truly serve God, which every 

health. The sick Man's Saci. jce is but a lame Obla- 
tion Pious Treasures, lay'd up in healthful days, 
plead for sick non-performances: without which we 
must needs look back with anxiety upon the lost 
opportunities of health, and may have ca.Sse rather to 
envy than pity the ends of penitent publick SufiFerers 
who go with healthfull prayers unto the last Scene of 
their lives and m the Integrity of their faculties return 
their Spint unto God that gave it. 
Sect, v.— Be Charitable before wealth make thee 

1 Ovation, a petty and minor Kind of Triumoh 
Bid to liave Castrated himself. 



Christian Morals 

covetous, and. loose not the glory of the Mite. If 
Riches encrease, let thy mind hold pace with them, 
and think it not enough to be Liberal, but Muniiicent. 
Though a Cup of cold water from some hand may not 
be without it's reward, yet stick net thou for Wine and 
Oyl for the Wounds of the Distressed ; and treat the 
poor, as our Saviour did the Midtitude, to the reliques 
of some baskets. Diffuse thy beneficence early, and 
while thy Treasures call thee Master: there may be 
an Atropos of thy Fortunes before that of thy Life, 
and thy wealth cut off before that hour, when all Men 
shall be poor ; for the Justice of Death looks equally 
upon the dead, and Charon expects no more from 
AUxander than from Jnu. 

Sect. vi. — Give not only unto seven, but also unto 
eight, that is unto more than many.' Though to ^ve 
unto every one that asketh may seem severe advice,' 
yet give thou also before asking, that is, where want is 
silently clamorous, and mens Necessities not their 
Tongues do loudly call for thy Mercies. For though 
sometimes necessitousness be dumb, or misery speak 
not out, yet true Charity is sagacious, and will find out 
hints for beneficence. Acquaint thyself with the 
Physiognomy of Want, and let the Dead colours and 
first lines of necessity suffise to tell thee there is an 
object for thy bounty. Spare not where thou canst 
not easily be prodigal, and fear not to be undone by 
mercy. For smce he who hath pity on the poor lendeth 
unto the Almighty Rewarder, who observes no Ides 
but every day for his payments; Charity becomes 
pious Usury, Christian Liberality the most thriving 
industry, and what we adventure in a Cockboat may 
return m a Carmdc unto us. He who thus casts his 
bread upon the Water shall surely find it again ; for 
though it falleth to the bottom, it sinks but like tne Ax 
of the Prophet, to arise again unto him. 

Sbct. VII. — If Avarice be thy Vice, yet make it -not 
thy Punishment. Miserable men commiserate not 
themselves, bowelless unto others, and merciless unto 
• Ecclraiasticos. • Loke, 

Christian Morals 


ai^ownbowds. Let the fruition of things bless the 
possesion of them, and think it more M&fac^ t« 

not thy goods, will follow thee; since w^h fa a^ 
appertmance of life, and no deLi M^iTrRtl,. T 
famish in Plenty, and live poorl^o dy^RLh were a 

0-5""" '^'"— Trust not to the Omnipotencv of Gold 
makes their own death sweet luito otheS^i^t^L; 


mvert the Poles of thy Honesty That Vk:e^v^ 
T^l ^1 "^'° '"2°^''°"^ "«°««'«. let iteratS^oSS 
^4^r^nr°a^e^c°^rn:L^^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

dive mto thy mclinations, and early discover what 
natoe bids thee to be, or tells thee thof^yVbe 
They who thus timely descend into themsSves^d 
cultivate the good seeds which nature haS^i^ 
prove not shrubs but Cedars in their eenMation a^h 

o1^r^'°^^*'^'''^'°^ theX'o,^Sb°;w^st 
of the Good, will be no satisfaction unto tiiem 

SECT. x.-Make not tiie consequence of Virtue tiie 

» Optrai malornm pessimi bonomm. 


Christian Morals 

ends thereof. Be not beneficent for a name or Cymbal 
of applause, nor exact and just in Commerce for the 
advantages of Trust and Credit, which attend the 
reputation of true and punctual dealing. For these 
Rewards, though unsought for, plain Virtue will bring 
with her. To have other by-ends in good actions 
sowers Laudable performances, which must have 
deeper roots, motives, and instigations, to give them 
the stamp of Virtues. 

Sect. x:. — Let not the Law of thy Country be the 
non ultra of thy Honesty ; nor think that always good 
enough which the Law will make good. Narrow not 
the Law of Charity, Equity, Mercy. Joyn Gospel 
Righteousness with Legal Right. Be not a mere 
Gamaliel in the Faith, but let the Sermon in the 
Mount be thy Targum unto the Law of Sinah. 

Sect. xii. — Live by old Ethicks and the classical 
Rules of Honesty. Put no new names or notions 
upon Authentic Virtues and Vices. Think not that 
Morality is Ambulatory ; that Vices in one age are not 
Vices in another ; or that Virtues, which are under the 
everlasting Seal of right Reason, may be Stamped by 
Opinion. And therefore, though vicious times invert 
the opinions of things, and set up new Ethicks against 
Virtue, yet hold thou unto old Morality; and rather 
than follow a multitude to do evil, stand like Pompey's 
Pillar conspicuous by thyself, and single in Integrity. 
And since the worst of times afford imitable Examples 
of Virtue ; since no Deluge of Vice is like to be so 
general, but more than eight will escape ; Eye well 
those Heroes who have held their Heads above Water, 
who have touched Pitch, and not been defiled, and in 
the common Contagion have remained uncorrupted. 

Sect. xiii. — Let Age not Envy draw wrinkles on thy 
cheeks, be content to be envy'd, but envy not Emu- 
lation may be plausible and Indignation allowable, but 
admit no treaty with that passion which no circumstance 
can make good. A displacency at the good of others 
because they enjoy it, though not unworthy of it, is an 
absurd depravity, sticking fast unto corrupted nature, 

Christian Morals 


strangled but bv ^^L&, hit if ^ '^^ '^9° "°t *° •» 
of our minds Zd^Atam^f'll' f" *^» '^'^''^^t ^'^ess 

from'a<iver'^i^°bTt1^t''i "r"!,*^ "°*° humiliation 

when otheTlteU^r^ u"Aee"°T!?- ^* ^'l'« 
own shadow lonirpr tl,»« »K-f^^ u*' ^^"^ "ot thy 

take trXlTituTof ttf" Be°*r'.°?' I.^''^'^' '» 
Pride, when M«n l,v- k u ® ^"^°* '° the age of 

Towe""^ 0°bS'.rd ST/^t"* *T "P ^^" 
had not been TvTf • *1™ ''^ ^ though thev 


De^vll^be n;\7u^,!:'of Sll,!? ''"''^ f^"^"^* the 
name 'with hit IceS^'T- ^^ °°u'.'°'° °°= 
whom thou so mS^h^hoS; ?hlt is%^A°.**"" 

narro^-minTed^^^^Tnot^^Xrow ^ffife,^ 
I Even when the days are shortest. 

Persians: whoever was out th-rf/^ '°P".«"»nent among thi 
and it was death foT^^f'^Z:.'^^. " "'» ""'"J ^-e! 

240 Christian Morals 

Christian hut AristoMs true Gentieman.' Trust not 
^T^e that the EpisUe of St Jam, ^l,^V?«TP^ 
Md so read with less fear than Stabbu.? Trutti, that m 
company with this vice thy Rel.pon is ">J«?- J^'" 
broke the Tables without breakmg of the Law, but 
whee Charity is broke, the Law itself « shattered 
which cannot be whole without Love, which is the 
T^uTol it. Look.humbly uix,n thy Virtuf • ^"^^ 
though thou art Rich in some, yet thmfc thyself Poor 
Td^aked without that Crownmg Gra^'.^^^^ 
thinketh no evil, which envieth not, which beareth, 
hopeth. beUeveth, endureth all tl'^Kl- .„^»* ^«^ 
sure Graces, whUe busy Tongues are cmng out for a 
SJ^p of cold Water, mutes may be in happiness, and 
sine the Tnsflgion' in Heaven. 

Sect xvn.— However thy understanding may 
waver in the Theories of True and False, yet fasten 
S Rudder of thy WiU, steer strait unto good and f sOl 
not foul on evU. Imagination is apt to rove, ajid con- 
"^ture to keep no bounds. So«ie We run out ^ far 
as to fancy the Stars might be but the light of the 
Crystalline Heaven shot through perforaUons on the 
bShM of the Orbs. Others more Ingeniously doubt 
Ser there hath not been a vast tract of Land in 
TeAticuUich Ocean, which Earthquakes and violent 
S.usesTve long ago devoured. Speculative Misap- 
Sehensions may U innocuous, but immorality per- 
£s The^^ical mistakes and Phy^cal Deviations. 
S^y condemn our Judgments, not lead us into Judg- 
S^nt But perversity of WIU, immoral and sinfull 
Siormities walk y/iti AdrasU and Nmests at their 
BSpursrus into Judgment. and leave us 

°^E?T^^ivui.-Bid early defiance unto those \ . 
which are of thine inward Family, and haying a lo.t 
T&y Temper plead a right and Propne^ m ttiee 
Raise timely batteries against those strongholds b>j!t 
SSn the R^k of Nature, and make this a great part 

1 See Aristotle's Ethics, chapter of Magnanimity. 

» Holy, holy, holy. 

Christian Morals 241 

of the Militia of thy life. Delude not thyself into 
imqmties from participation or community, which 
abate the sense but not the obliquity of them. To 
conceive sins less, or less of sins, because others also 
Transgress, were Morally to commit that natural 
fallacy of Man, to take comfort from Society, and 
ttuink adversities less, because others also suffer them 
The politick nature of Vice must be opposed by Policy 
And therefore, wiser Honesties project and plot against 
It. Wherein, notwithstanding, we are not to rest in 
generals, or the trite Stratagems of Art. That may 
succeed with one which may prove successless with 
another : There is no community or commonweal ol 
Virtue: Every man must study his own ceconomy. 
and adapt such rules unto the figure of himself. 

Sect, xix.— Be substantially great in thyself, and 
more than thou appearest unto others ; and let the 
World be deceived m thee, as they are in the Lights 
of Heaven. Hang early plummets upon the heels of 
Fnde, and let Ambition have but an Epicycle and 
narrow circuit in thee. Measure not thyself by thy 
mornmg shadow, but by the extent of thy grave, and 
Reckon thyself above the Earth by the line thou must 
be contented with under it. Spread not into boundless 
txpansions either of designs or desires. Think not 
that mankind liveth but for a few, and that the rest 
are born but to serve those Ambitions, which make 
but flies of Men and wildernesses of whole Nations. 
bweU not into vehement actions which imbroil and 
confound the Earth; but be one of those violent ones 
which force the kingdom of heaven." If thou must 
needs rule, be Zeno's king, and enjoy that Empire 
which every Man gives himself. He who is thus his 
own Monarch contentedly sways the Sceptre of him- 
self not envying the Glory of Crown^ Heads and 
Elohims of the Earth. Could the World unite in the 
practice of that despised train of Virtues, which the 
Divine Ethicksof our Saviour hath so ivvtulcated upon 
us, the funous face of things must disappear, Eden 
> Matthew xl. 


Christian Morals 

would bo yet to bo found, and the AngeU nught look 
down, not with pity, but Joy upon U8. 

Sect, xx— Though the Quickness of thine Ear were 
able to reach the noise of the Moon, which some 
think it maketh in it's rapid revolution ; though the 
number of thy ears should equal Argta his Eyes ; yet 
stop them all with the wise man's wax, and be deal 
unto the suggestions of Tale-bearers, Calumniators, 
Pickthank or Malevolent Delators, who whUe quiet 
Men sleep, sowing the Tares of discord and ^viMO". 
distract the tranquillity of Chanty and all fnend y 
Society. These are the Tongues that set the world 
on fire, cankers of reputation, and like that of Joms his 
Gourd, wither a good name in a night. EvU bpints 
may sit still, while these Spirits walk about and per- 
form the business of Hea To speak more stnctly. 
our corrupted hearts are the Factories of the Devil, 
which may be at work without his presence, bor 
when that circumventing Spirit hath drawn Malice, 
Envy, and all unrighteousness unto well rooted habits 
in his disciples, iniquity then goes on upon its own 
lees, and if the gate of Hell were shut up for a time. 
Vice would still bo fertile and produce the fruits of 
Hell Thus when God forsakes us, Satan also leaves 
us For such offenders he looks upon as sure and 
sealed up, and his temptations then needless unto 

Sect, xxi.— Annihilate not the Mercies of God by 
the Oblivion of Ingratitude. For Oblivion is a kind 
of Annihilation, and for things to be as though they 
had not been is like unto never being. Make not thy 
Head a Grave, but a Repository of God's mercies. 
Thoueh thou hadst the Memory of Seneca.oc StmomUes, 
and Conscience, the punctual Memorist within us, yet 
trust not to thy Remembrance in things which need 
Phylacteries. Register not only strange but merciful 
occurrences: Let Etlumcrides not Ol^im^ads give &ee 
account of his mercies. Let thy Dianes stand thick 
with dutiful Mementos and Asterisks of acknowledg- 
ment And to be complete and forget nothmg, date 

Christian Morals 243 

. J„l"; «"— P«nt not the sepulcher of thyself, and 
stnve not to beautify thy corruption. Be not an 
Advocate for thy Vices, nor call for many HoJ^ 
Glasses to justify thy imperfections. Think not that 
always good whfch thou thinkest thou canst a)«-ays 
hLkJ.l/°^^T that concealed which the Sun doth not 
beho d. That which the Sun doth not now see will be 

f'r^m H '° '""'x?"" '* ""*• '^^ *»" Stars are fallen 
from Heaven. Meanwhile there is no darkness unto 

Hi~'f°''f ''•"''' *=.*" see without Light, and in the 
deepest olMcunty give a clear Draught of thintrs 
which the Cloud of dissimulation hath conceal" from 
au eyes. There is a natural standing Court within us, 
examining, acquitting, and condemning at the Tribunal 
of oureelves, wherein iniquities have their natural 
Wnfifff *°A "o ?o<:ent« is absolved by the verdict of 
dSltl"*,^". *"ef°« although our transgressions 
sh^l be tiyed at the last bar, the process need not be 

™mF" Z^m" V^^" °*. ^^ ^°^'^ all. and every Man 
wdf nakedly know himself. And when so few are 
like to plead not Guilty, the Assize must soon have 
an end. 

«.u^^*^^u'?'"'~^°'"P'y ^''^ ^""e humors, bear with 
others, but serve jione. Civil complacency consists 
with decent honesty : Flattery is a Juggler, and no Kin 
unto Smcenty. But while thou maintainest the plain 
path, and scomest to flatter others, fall not into self 
Adulation, and b> come not thine own Parasite Be 
deaf unto thjr self, and be not betrayed at home. ' Self- 
creduhty, pnde, and levity lead unto self-Idolatry. 
Ihtre is no DamocUs like unto self opinion, nor any 
itren to our own fawning Conceptions. To magnify 
our minor thmgs or hug ourselves in our apparftionsi 
to afford a credulous Ear unto the clawing suggestions 

mark for death c ■ capital condemnation —Dr I 
a Se 
Judice nemo nocens absolvitur.— J nv.— Dr. /. 


Christian Morals 

of fancy ; to pass our days in painted mistakes of our- 
selves ; and though we behold our own blood, to think 
ourselves sons of Jupittr ; ' are blandishments of self- 
love, worse than outward delusion. By this Imposture 
Wise Men sometimes are Mistaken in their Elevation, 
and look above themselves. And Fools, which are 
Antipodes unto the Wise, conceive themselves to 
be but their Ptriaci, and in the same parallel with 

Sect. xxiv. — Be not a HtrcuUs furnu abroad, and a 
Poltroon within thyself. To chase our Enemies out of 
the Field, and be led captive by our Vices ; to beat 
down our Foes, and fall down to our Concupiscences ; 
are Solecisms in Moral Schools, and no Laurel attends 
them. To well manage our Affections, and wild 
Horses of Plato, are the highest Circenses: and the 
noblest Digladiation' is in the Theater of ourselv«8 ; 
for therein our inward Antagonists, not only like 
common Gladiators, with ordinary Weapons and down 
right Blows make at us, but also like Retiary and 
L^ueary' Combatants, with Nets, Frauds, and En- 
tanglements fall upon us. Weapons for such combats 
ae not to be forged at Lipara: VuUan's Art doth 
nothing in this internal Militia; wherein not the 
armour of AchilUs, but the Armature of St. Paul, gives 
the Glorious day, and Triumphs not Leading up into 
Capitols, but up into the highest Heavens. And 
therefore while so many think it the only valour to 
command and master others, study thou the Dominion 
of thyself, and quiet thine own Commotions. Let 
Right reason be thy Lycurgus, and lift up thy hand 
unto the Law of it : move by the Intelligences of the 
superior Faculties, not by the Rapt of Passion, nor 
merely by that of Temper and Constitution. They who 
are merely carried on by the Wheel of such inclinations, 

' As Alexander the Great dkt. 
' Digladiation. Fencing match. — Dr. J. 

* Reiiary and Uqueary, The ntiarius or laqurarius was a prize- 
. fighter, who entangled his opponent in a net, which b]r soma 
dextrous management he threw upon him, — Dr. J. 

Christian Morals 245 

without tl.e Hand and Guidance of Sovereiim Reai . 
are but th. Automaton, part of manlcind, rf^hrrX^i 
thui hv>ng, or at iMst underliving themselves. 
HKT. XXV.— Let not Fortune, which hath jrn name in 

h^^l/Jfl' the Uour of thy acknowled,n,ents, and 
be thy CErfi/«j m Contingencies. Mark well the Paths 
and wmding Ways therwf ; but be not too\v ise m the 
Construction, or sudden in the Application. The Hand 
of Providence writes often by'Abbrev.a^ur.s, Hiero- 
f^hrw7''°'^ Characters, which. Kke the l/.c^s" 
on the Wal are not to be made out but by a ; f,n or 
Key from that Spirit which indicted tiien,. (.e^v^ 
!^i.^u °<='="''''«'":e* to th«r uncertainties. th,„'. tb-ii' 
f^ri^Il" ??T"' "jy "*"= and since 'tis .a.ier to 

& o?1,>h1'P|'' "/""l^"' ^?y "' «""« distance" 
Umk for little ReguJar below. Attend with patipnce 

Je uncertamty of things, and what lieth yet unexerte" 
^chf rr °^^''^'y- Th« uncertain'^ and igao,. 
ance of Things to come makes the World new unto us 
by unexpected Emer«;ences, whereby we pas7no om 

fc^fh'" '^M'^^" "^^ °^ "^"'^ affordingTNovi^" 
for the noyelhzmg Spirit of Man lives by varietv^d 
the new Faces ofThings. ' variety, and 

Sect xxvi.— Though a contented Mind enlargeth the 
dimension of little things, and unto some 'tis^eaJth 

rvt°KV''p^u^°°'' *"'' °'^''' "<= well conienftf 
^!L m''"',?"=5 ''°°"8'' *° ^ H°°««t. and to give 
IffZ,^"* ^X^""''- y' '^ ""t «to that obsolete 
AflFectaHon of Bravery to throw away thy Money, and 
to reject all Honours or Honourable stations ^ Ss 
^n^^? T'^ f'"^'^ ^"''•- Old Generosity isTup^r 
No Man is now like to refuse the favour of great ones 
or be content to say unto Princes, stand out of my °4 
And if any there be of such antiquated Resolutions 
they are not like to be tempted out of them by ct^ ' 

SnnL'"t *^'/^'' V^'J ^^^P^ '^' name of I^^. 
diondnacks from the denius of latter times, i£to 
whom contempt of the World is the most contemptiblS 


Christian Morals 

opinion, and to be able, like Bias, to cany all they have 
about them were to be the eighth wise-man. However, 
the old tetrick Philosophers look'd always with Indigna- 
tion upon such a Face of Things, and observing the 
unnatural current of Riches, Power, and Honour in the 
World, and withal the imperfection and demerit of 
persons often advanced »mto them, were tempted unto 
angry Opinions, that Affairs were ordered more by 
Stars than Reason, and that things went on rather by 
Lottery, than Election. 

Sect, xxvii. — If thy Vessel be but small in the Ocean 
of this World, if Meanness of Possessions be thy 
allotment upon Earth, forget not those Virtues which 
the great disposer of ail bids thee to entertain from thy 
Qudity and Condition ; that is. Submission, Humility, 
Content of mind, and Industry. Content may dwell m 
all Stations. To be low, but above contempt, may be 
high enough to be Kappy. But many of low Degree 
may be higher than computed, an" -ime Cubits above 
the common Commensuration ; fu,. .ii all States Virtue 
gives Qualifications, and Allowances, which make out 
defects. Rough Diamonds are sometimes mistaken 
for Pebbles, and Meanness may be Rich in Accom- 
plishments, which Riches in vain desire. If our merits 
be above our Stations, if our intrinsical Value be 
greater than what we go for, or our Value than our 
Valuation, and if we stand higher in God's than in the 
Censor's book ; it may make some equitable balance 
in the inequalities of this World, and there may be no 
such vast Chasm or Gulf between disparities as 
common Measures determine. The Divine Eye looks 
upon high and low differently from that of Man. They 
who seem to stand upon Olympus, and high mounted 
unto our eyes, may be but In the Valleys, and low 
Ground luito his ; for he looks upon those as highest 
who nearest approach his Divinity, and upon those as 
lowest, who are farthest from it. 

Sect, xxviii. — When thou lookest upon the Imper- 
fections of others, allow one Eye for what is Laudable 
in them, and the balance they have from some ex- 

Christian Morals 


w« 1^' huh "^y ^^°^" *'"■" considerable. WhUe 
we lcx)k with fear or hatred upon the Teeth of the 
Viper, we may behold his Eye with love. In venomous 
Natures somethmg may be amiable: Poys^? afford 
b^^C^hi "v?'^ '" '°^y' °' altogether usekss? 
n^rinnc v^ ^"?-" "^ sometimes dashed with 
notonous Vices, and m some vicious tempers have been 

ob^iSr'^^'TK^'*' °^ ^'^""i whic^^kes sucS 

kinH ^'/°1 V **»'r ^ "^ °°* *° ^ fo'^dln the same 
Jandm Ar,sUdcs, Numa, or Z)at-<rf. Constancy. Gene 
rosity Clemency, and Liberality have been hiehlv 
co"^«s fo' ^f «« P«^°s n/marked oufinT^ 
concerns fo. Example or Imitation. But since Good- 
ness IS exemplary in all. if others have not our vSSS 

&eiV ^rt«r "T^ •'^'' "* ^'^' ^ condemned by 
tneir Virtues, wherein we are deficient. There is 
Dross, AUov, and Embasement m all human TemLr • 
^i™ M r k'*°"* ^^"es. who thinks to find Op^y; 
Z^Z^^^^ "" ^^i 1°' perfection is not like Light 
S« o^tT^ ^"k> ^°dy' *>"* like the dispersed SeSii. 
t^ wif ? ^*^'**'i'*l^* ** CTi^^aa scattwed through 
toe whole Mass of the Earth, no place producinglll 
and almost all some. So that 'tis well, if a perfec 

Srfecr^v^nfTt,""' °''"^°y M» and.Ke 
perlect Eye of God, even out of Mankind. Time 

rn.',u P"-^^'" ""r '^^^^' ^perfects also others.' 
Could we intimately apprehend the Ideated Man, ^d 

exertion by Creation, we might more narrowly compre- 
tntfr P'!r°* Degeneration, and how widely we are 
f =?/T- ^t P"" Exemplar and Idea of our nature : 
Zi^nlcl^^ corruptive Elongation from a primitive 
^H 5 / wu °°' ''^ ^^ *'™°** 'ost in Degeneration ; 
and^rfaw hath not only fallen from his Creator, bu 

Sect. 3aix.-Quarrel not rashly with Adversities 
not yet understood ; and overlook not the Mercies often 


Christian Morals 

bound up in them : for we consider not sufficientiy the 
good of Evils, nor fairly compute the Mercies of Pro- 
vidence in things afflictive aX first hand. The famous 
Andreas Doria being invited to a Feast by Aloysto 
Fieschi, with design to Kill him, just the night before, 
fell mercifully into a fit of the Gout and so escaped that 
mischief. When Cato intended to Kill himself, from 
a blow which he gave his servant, who would not reach 
his Sword unto him, his Hand so swell'd that he had 
much ado to Effect his design. Hereby any one but a 
resolved Stoick might have taken a fair hint of con- 
sideration, and that some mercifull Genius would have 
contrived his preservation. To be sagacious m such 
intercurrences U not Superstition, but wary and pious 
Discretion, and to contemn such hints were to be deaf 
unto the speaking hand of God, wherein Socrates and 
CardaH would hardly have been mistaken. 

Sbct XXX. Break not open the gate of Destruction, 

and mike no haste or bustle unto Ruin. Post not 
heedlessly on unto the twit ultra of FoUy, or precipice 
of Perdition. Let vicious ways have their Tropicks 
and' Deflections, and swim in the Waters of Sin but as 
in the A^haUick Lake, though smeared and defiled, 
not to sink to the bottom. If thou hast dipt thy foot 
in the Brink, yet venture not over Rvbtcon. Run not 
into Extremities from whence there is no regression. 
In the vicious ways of the World it mercifully falietii 
out that we become not extempore wicked, but it 
taketh some time and pains to undo our selves. We 
fall not from Virtue, like Vulcan from Heaven, in a 
day Bad Dispositions require some time to grow 
into bad Habits, bad Habits must undermine good, and 
often-repeated acts make us habitually evil : so that by 
eradual depravations, and while we are but stagger- 
ingly evil, we are not left without Parentheses of con- 
siderations, thoughtful rebukes, and tnerciful mterven- 
tions, to recaU us unto our selves. For the Wisdom 
of God hath methodiz'd the course of things unto the 
be^t advantage of goodness, and thinking Considerators 
overlook not the uact thereof. 



Christian Morals 


Sect. XXXI.— Since Men and Women have their 
proper Virtues and Vices ; and even TwLs of different 
sexes have not only distinct coverings in the Womb 
but diffenng qualities and Virtuous HaWts ait«- 
transplace not their Proprieties and confo^d notlTei; 

m^^'^cv""- • ^i¥a^'=">'"«a°df«minineaccomphsh 
ments shme in their proper Orbs, and adorn thrir 
Respective subjects However uuite not the Vices of 
both Sexes m one; be not Monstrous in Iniquity! nor 
Hermaphroditically Vitious. '4""y. nor 

Sect, xxxii.— If generous Honesty, Valour, and 
pku, Dealmg be the Cognisance of thy Fa^^ly^r 
Charactenstick of thy Country, hold fastLchtecLa- 

the r™if. "" ^\^^ ^''' ^'^'^- ^d which k7ta 
detp£?,f* W'tl^^.thee. Fall not into transfoming 

nlf ?. . ?°* ^^^^^ ■" '''•lie own Nation ; brine 
not Orontes into Tiber; learn the Virtues not ^! 

tion'rH-'^'r'^- Neighbours, and mSc? hy Lto 
S.vl.l?;^^'^''°M ''^* contagion. Feel somrthing of 
thyself m the noble Acts of thy Ancestors, and find to 

unZ°frK'""V'^' ?^ ^r Predecessor;. Rest n« 
under the Expired merits of others, shine by those of 
thy own. Flame not like the central fire which 
Sh*^„tV° Ey'^^.^Wch no Man seeth, and most 
R^v ,^n^ S*'*" °° ^""^ "^'"^ *° »'« seen. Add one 

^Lh^rV\%u°T°'' J'"""^^; '"^'^ °°' only to the 
Number, but the Note of thy Generation ; and prove 
not a Cloud but an Asterisk in thy region 
Sect, xxxii, -Since thou hast an Alarum in thy 

,k1 1^7'"'='' **".^ *''** t*>°" l^t a Living Spirit ii 
thee above two thousand times in an hour; dull nS 
ne^tU'^X ?^^' '".^loathful supinity and th^ Ted o^! 
ness of doing nothing. To strenuous Minds there is 
MI mquietude m over quietness, and no laboriousness 

a bnail, or the heavy measures of the Lazy of Brazilia 
were a most tiring Pennance, and worse Aan a Race 
some furlongs at the Olympicks. The rapid coui^I 
of the heavenly bodies are rather imitable by our 


Christian Morals 

Thoughts than our corporeal Motions ; yet the solemn 
motions of our lives amount unto a greater measure 
than is commonly apprehended. Some few men have 
surrounded the Globe of the Earth ; yet many in the 
set Locomotions and movements of their days have 
measured the circuit of it, and twenty thousand miles 
have been exceeded by them. Move circumspectly 
not meticulouslv, and rather carefully soUicitous than 
anxiously solUcitudinous. Think not there is a Lyon 
in the way, nor walk with Leaden Sandals in the 
paths of Goodness; but in all Virtuous motions let 
Prudence determine thy measures. Strive not to run 
like Hercules a furlong m a breath : Festination may 
prove Precipitation ; Deliberating delay may be wise 
cunctation, and slowness no sloathfulness. 

Sect, xxxiv. — Since Virtuous Actions have their 
own Trumpets, and without any noise from thy self 
will have their resound abroad; busy not thy best 
Member in the Encomium of thy self. Praise is a 
debt we owe unto the Virtues of others, and due unto 
our own from all, whom Malice hath not made Mutes, 
or Envy struck Dumb. Fall not however into the 
common prevaricating way of self -commendation and 
boasting, by denoting the imperfections of others. He 
who djsconunendeth others obliquely commendeth 
himself. He who whispers their infirmities proclaims 
his own Exemptions from them, and consequently says, 
I am not as this Publican, or Hie Ni^er,'^ whom I talk 
of. Open ostentation and loud vain-glory is more 
tolerable than this obliquity, as but contaming some 
Froath, no Ink, as but consisting of a personal piece 
of folly, nor complicated with uncharitableness. Super- 
fluously we seek a precarious applause abroad : every 
good Man hath his plaudite within himself ; and though 
his Tongue be silent, is not without loud Cymbals in 
his Breast. Conscience will become his Panegyrist, 
and never forget to crown and extol him unto himself. 
Sect, xxxv.— Bless not thyself only that thou wert 

' Hie niger est, husc tu Romane caveto.— Hor. 

Christian Morals 

ma^st thou more /atv^l^l^fcont^n^oT^^" 

mf.u,^ J r ''^^y ?°^«'^s, so Modesty preventeth a 
Td hri'.n k""".-. ^'^holding from n^n <Ly V ces 

SECT. XXXVI.— The Heroical vein of Mankind n,nc 

w'J.rin"' the Souldiery, and courag^us p^ of^he 

Sin 'Hkfn™ .^^t ["r.^" °^t«"^* find Men above 
Men. History is full of the gallantry of that THhl . 

whi':^"°ff^" '"^u^" notalle aS we easiS find 
what a difference there is between a Life iTpLarch 

bIZ^T'-'": ^"* *™» Fortitude dweUs, S£ 
Bounty. Friendship, and Fidelity may be fou^d A 
man may confidem persons constituted for nobS endf 
who dare do and suffer, and who have a Hami !„! ' 
or their CounttyandthiirFn^SdSmllKcLp^'^ 
things are the product of petty Souls. K 4e to bf 

Fti^"n-r7)-:^^'^ 't°''''°' ^ covetous Mt or : 
Friend, or relieth upon the Reed of narrow and^ltrnn 

DeXc nTt^c?1?d1ii^ai ""'T'*^' = ^^^ 
Honesty are the Gems ofnobt^l'dsTthl^r to 
SnTrJrpre?."' *"* '"^^ "^^-"^ EngUsh C^e'Sul! 



Christian Morals 


Sect, i.— Punish not thyself with Pleasure ; Glut not 
thy sense with palative Delights; nor revenge the 
contempt of Temperance by the penalty of Satiety. 
Were there an Age of delight or any pleasure durable, 
who would not honour Volupiaf but the Race of 
Delight is short, and Pleasures have mutable faces. 
The pleasures of one age are not pleasures in another, 
and their Lives fall short of our own. Even in our 
sensual days the strength of delight is in its seldom- 
ness or rarity, and stmg in its satiety: Mediocrity 
is its Life, and immoderacy its Confusion. The 
Luxurious Emperors of old inconsiderately satiated 
themselves with the Dainties of Sea and Land, till, 
wearied through all varieties, their refections became 
a study unto them, and they were fain to feed by 
Invention. Novices in true Epicurism! which, by 
mediocrity, paucity, quick and healthful Appetite, 
makes delights smartly acceptable ; whereby Eptcunu 
himself found Jupiter's brain in a piece of Cytheridian 
Cheese,! and the Tongues of Nightingals in a dish of 
Onyons. Hereby healthful and temperate poverty 
hath the start of nauseating Luxury ; unto whose clear 
and naked appetite every meal is a feast, and in one 
single dish the first course of Metellus;' who are 
cheaply hungry, and never loose their hunger, or 
advantage of a craving appetite, because tAvious food 
contents it ; while Niro,' half famish'd, could not feed 
upon a piece of Bread, and ling'ring after his snowed 
water, hardly got down an ordinary cup of Calda.* 
By such circumscriptions of pleasure the contemned 
Philosophers reserved unto themselves the secret of 
Delight, which the Helluos^ of those days lost in their 

» Ctrebrum Jovis, for a delicious bit. 

■' Metellus hie riotou: Pontiacal Supper, the great vanety 
whereat is to be seen in aliunbna (see note). ,,. . . 

» Nero in his flight.— Swto*. * Caldse gelidseque Minister. 
• HiUuos. Oluttona.— Dr./. 

Christian Morals 253 

exorbitances. In vain we study Delight • It is at the 
command of every sober Mind, and in every sense 
born wjth us: but Nature, who teacheth us the rule 
ofpleasure, instructeth also in the bounds thereof, and 
where its hne expireth. And therefore Temperate 
Mmds, not pressing their pleasures until the stine 
appeareth, enjoy their contentations contentedly, and 
without regret, and so escape the folly of excess, o be 
pleased unto displacency. 

Sect, ii.— Bring candid Eyes unto the perusal of 
mens works, and let not Zoilism or Detraction blast 
well-mtended labours. He that endureth no fciults in 
mens wntmgs must only read his own, wherein for 
the most part all appeareth White. Quotation mis- 
takes, inadvertency, expedition, and human Lapses 
may make not only Moles but Warts in Learned 
-Authors, who notwithstanding being judeed bv the 
capital matter admit not of disparagement? I should 
unwillingly affirm that Cicero was but slightly versed in 
Homtr, because in his work Dt Gloria he ascribed those 
W^t-^T f^'**' T"'^*' ''"" delivered by H«:tor. 
X- ^."^ f '""''"■ "■ *''« account ol Htrada, mistaketh 
Mtivity for conception? Who would have mean 
houghts of Apolhnar,! Sidemus, who seems to mistake 
fte river T.^m for EuphnUa ; and, though a good 
Histonan and learned Bishop of Auvtrgne had the 
misfortune to be out in the Story of Divid, making 
mention of him when the Ark was sent back bv thi 
PfeWm upon a Cart; which was before his time. 
X hough I have no great opinion of Machiavcl's Learn- 
mg, yet I shall not presently say, that he was but a 
Novice in Roman History, because he was mistaken 
m placmg Commodus after the Emperor Severus. Capital 
Iruths are to be narrowly eyed, collateral Lapses and 
circumstantial deliveries not to be too strictly sifted 
And if the substantial subject be well forged out we 
need not examine the sparks, which irregularly fly 

Sect. III. — Let well weighed Considerations, not 
stitt and peremptory Assumptions, guide thy dis- 


Christian Morals 

courses, Pen, and Actions. To begin or contmu* our 

works like Trismgisius of old, v*niM tnH tmim atjiu 

vefissimnm tst,^ would sound arrogantljf (iM» present 

Ears in this strict enquiring Age, wh«rMi,«»r the most 

part, Probably, and Perhaps, will W^ .fiy* /° 

mollify the Spirit of captious Contradictors, If CardoH 

saith that Parrot is a beautiful Bird, Scahger^ will 

set his Wits o' work to prove it a deformed Animal. 

The Coi Tiage of all Physical Truths is not so closely 

jointed, but opposition may find intrusion, nor ^ways 

80 closely maintained, as not to sufler attrition. Many 

Positions seem quodlibetically constituted, and like a 

Delphian Blade, will cut on both sides. Some Truths 

seem aln.ost Falsehoods and some Falsehoods almost 

Truths ; wherein Falsehood and Truth seem almost 

aEquilibriously stated, and but a few grains of distmc- 

tion to bear down the ballance. Some have digged 

deep, yet glanced by the Royal Vein, and a Mm may 

come unto the Ptrkardium, but not the Heart of Truth. 

Besides, many things are known, as some are seen, 

that is by Parallaxis, or at some distance from their 

true and proper beings, the superficial regard of things 

having a different aspect from their true and central 

Natures. And this moves sober Pens unto suspensory 

and timorous assertions, nor presently to obtrude therri 

as Sybils leaves, which after considerations may fina 

to be but folious appearances, and not the central and 

vital interiours of Truth. 

Sect. iv. Value the Judicious, and let not mere 

acquests in minor parts of Learning gain thy pre- 
existimation. "Tis an unjust way of compute to 
magnify a weak Head for some Latm abilities, and to 
undervalue a soUd Judgment, because he knows not 
the genealogy of Hector. When that notable king of 
France^ would have his Son to know but one sentence 
in Latin, had it been a good one, perhaps it had been 
enough. Natural parts and good Judgments rule the 

» In Tabula Smaragdina. 

• I^wis the Eleventh. Qui nescit dissmuliiri ntsctt Rtgium. 

Christian Morals 


K'^RuW* W.T °°*K°^"'?«d by Ergoti.n».i Many 
nave Kulod well who could not perhans definlT; 

GiorTts'i'kfst ""'^ "''''. ""^-'-'' - "h: 

utooe 01 the Earth, command a sreat Dnr» nf ,> 

^^l, ^^"^^ ^**"" ''"» 'he Sails, the Vessel «roM 
Kr«„^ °"'J?'' ^^u"" >''8«ent is the Rio ,^h1 
mZ K.? ""** "°* *" '"S''- When Industry bui ds 
foTH»^**""' ''•' "?*y "P<^' Pyramids: where tha? 

%oLt b7^:^s.tho"^^-^orh ^itS 

anf rn;7"~^!- "^y I*"'"'* ^ fr"" " Ay Thoughts 
and Contemplations : but fly not only upon the Xm 

injths, and Verities yet in their Chaos. There is 
nothmg more acceptable unto the Ineenious WorM 

han this noble Elurtation- of Truth wE! Sst 
the tenaaty of Prejudice and PrescS^ his 
Century now prevaileth. What LibrSes of new 
Volumes after times will behold, and in what a new 
World of Knowledge the eyes of our Posterity ma^bt 

cK ' It ^^'^ ^^y J°y^"»y declaie ; Ss bm a 
cold thought unto those, who cannot hope to behold 
this Exantlation of Truth, or that obsrar^ Virgin 
ha^f out of the Pit. Which'might mX somTcontS 
with a commutation of the time of their li^s and to 

ther tL^'^oTf !l°P' {° *"J°y '"^ hapless b 
P.fA Of fourth selves, and behold that in 

Pythagoras which thev now but foresee in Euth^iJl 

take SIX thousand to make out : meanwhile old Truths 

U^'J.lDr'j: <=''°'^'"''°" I'd-ced according to the form, of 
« EluctaiioH. Forcible tmption— Dr / 

Panthoides Kuphorbns eram.— Ovio. 


Christian Morals 

voted down begin to resume their placei, and new 
ones arise upon us; wherein there is no comfort in 
the happiness of TiMy't Elysium,* or any satisfaction 
from the Ghosts of the Ancients, who knew so little 
of what is now well known. Men disparage not 
antiquity, who prudently exalt new Enquiries, and 
make them the Judees of Truth, who were but fellow 
Enquirers of it. Who can but magni^r the Endeavors 
of AriitotU, and the noble start which Learning had 
under him ; or less than pity the slender progression 
made upon such advantages ? while many Centuries 
were lost in repetitions and transcriptions sealing up 
the Book' of Knowledge. And therefore rather than 
to swell the leaves of Learning by fruitless Repetitions, 
to sing the same Song in all Ages, nor adventure at 
Essays beyond the attempt of others, many would be 
content that some would write like Htlmont or Para- 
eeUus ; and be willing to endure the monstrosity^ of 
some opinions, for diverei singular notions requiting 
such alwrrations. 

Sect. vi. — Despise not the obliauities of younger 
ways, nor despair of better thin^ whereof there is yet 
no prospect. Who would imag|ine that Diogeius, who 
in his younger days was a &lsifier of Money, should 
in the after course of his Life be so great a contemner 
of Metal? Some Negros, who believe the Resur- 
rection, think that they shall rise white.' Even in 
this life Regeneration may imitate Resurrection, our 
black and \ntious tinctures may wear of, and goodness 
cloath us with candour. Good Admonitions Knock 
not always iu vain. There will be signal Examples of 
God's mercy, and the Angels must not want their 
charitable Rejoyces for the conversion of lost Sinners. 
Figures of most Angles do nearest approach unto 
Circles which have no Angles at alL Some may be 
near unto goodness, who are conceived far from it, 
and many things happen, not likely to ensne from any 

1 Who comforted himself that he should there converse with 
the old philosophers. 
' Mandelslo's travels. 

Christian Morals 

piou. retractati^n,^^ DeTeZbl^s^fn *'?°"'' '°'"'^ 
extinplary Converts on F«rth i ""^ ^^'"' P™^*** 

make in some well* tem,SfS •°^'' ^.^ ^°'^'^ "mercies 

the Day ^ °' ''"'"'' •"" '""'"'y conclude 

there i' sal^A^MerS^"^^^^^^^^ '° ^ ^""?P = 
of fulfilling half his WUl e^th^^in p ""^ Presumption 
they who excel in «^^' ,r-/'° P,=''?°°s°'' Nations: 

fectie in others • few""-' ^'°« '° "^^^ '^^- 
amplitude of G^ne« h?. ^""""S.^t the extent and 
theirbestW^ Md^Lrc K°fv.P^*"'« ''"=">selves by 
to rest in tCv^rtues whVh Ith" ''°"'' "" ~°t»°t 
Which «ak« th rSled ptJ* "f '?r'"°"'y ^^*- 

Pnmuique dies dedlt eitremum. 









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u ^ 



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Christian Morals 

Soul cannot be White. Vice may be had at all pnces . 
expensive and costly iniquities, which make the noise, 
cannot be every Man's sins : but tne soul jnay be 
foully inquinated' at a very low rate, and a Man may 
be cheaply vitious, to the perdition of bimself. 

Sect viii.— Opinion rides upon the neck of Reason, 
and Men are Happy, Wise, or Learned, according as 
that Empress shall set them down in the Roister of 
Reputation. However weigh not thyself m the ^es 
of thy own opinion, but let the Judgment of the 
JudiciU be the Staiidard of thy Merit. Self-estima- 
tion is a flatterer too readily entithng us unto Know- 
ledge and AbUities, whica others soUicitously labour 
after, and doubtfiilly think thejr attain. Surely such 
confident tempers do pass theur days in best tran- 
quillity, who, resting in the opinion of t»ieir own 
2SlitS, are happily gulVd by such contentet on ; 
wherein Pride, Self-conceit, Confidence and Opima- 
trity will hardly suffer any to complam of ™Pf necfaon. 
To think themselves in the nght, or all that ngh*. 
or only that, which they do or thmk, is a fal acy of 
high content; though others laugh in their sleev^, 
and look upon them as in a deluded state of Judg- 
ment. Wherein, notwithstandmg 'twere but a civil 
piece of complacency to suffer them to sleep who 
would not wake, to let them rest m their securities, 
nor by dissent or opposition to stagger their content- 

""^ECT. :x.-Since the Brow speaks often true, since 
Eyes and Noses have Tongues, and the co^^ten^c* 
proclaims the Heart and inclinations ; let observaUon 
io far instruct thee in Physiognomical Imes, as to be 
some Rule for thy distinction, and Guide for thy 
affection unto such as look most hke Men. Mankind 
methinks, is comprehended m a few Faj:"?' «, ''• 
exclude all Visages, which any way participate of 
Symmetries and Schemes of took common unto 
other Animals. For as though Man were the extract 
of the World, in whom all were w coagulato, which m 
« IntuiiuUi. De61ed.-Dr./. 

Christian Morals 


their forms were in soluto and at Extension ; we often 
observe that Men do most act those Creatures, whose 
constitution, parts, and complexion do most pre- 
dominate in their mixtures. This is a comer-stone in 
i'hysiognomy, and holds some Truth not only in 
particular Persons, but also in whole Nations. There 
are therefore Provincial Faces, National Lips and 
Noses, which testify not only the Natures of those 
Countnes, but of those which have them elsewhere 
Thus we may make England the whole Earth, dividing 
It not only into Ewobt, Asia, Africa, but the particular 
Kegions thereof, and may in some latitude affirm, that 
there are Egyptians, Scythians, Indians among us: 
who though bom in England, yet carry the Faces 
and Air of those Countries, and are also agreeable 
and correspondent unto their Natures. Faces look 
uniformljr unto our Eyes: how they appear unto 
some Animals of a more piercing or differing sight, 
who are able to discover the inequalities, rubbs, and 
hairmess of the Skin, is not without good doubt. 
And, therefore in reference unto man Cupid is said to 
be blind. Affection should not be too sharp-Eyed, 
and Love is not to be made by magnifying Glasses. 
If things were seen as they truly are, the beauty of 
bodies would be much abridged. And therefore the 
wse Contriver hath drawn the pictures and outsides 
of things softly and amiably unto the natural Edge of 
our Eyes, not leaving them able to discover those 
micomely asperities, which make Oyster-shells in good 
Faces, and Hedghoggs even in Venus's moles. 

Sect, x.— Court not Felicity too far, and weary not 
the favourable hand of Fortune. Glorious actions have 
their times, extent, and non ultras. To put no end unto 
Attempts were to make prescription of Successes, and 
to bespeak unhappiness at the last. For the Line of 
our Lives is drawn with white and black vicissitudes, 
wherein the extremes hold seldom one complexion. 
That Pompey should obtain the siraame of Great at 
twenty five years, that Men in their young and active 
days should be fortunate and perform notable things, 


Christian Morals 

is no observation of deep wonder, they having the 
strength of their fates before them, nor yet acted 
their parts in the World, for which they were brought 
into it : whereas Men of years, matured for counsels 
and designs, seem to be beyond the vigour of their 
active fortunes, and high exploits of life, providentially 
ordained unto Ages best agreeable unto them. And 
therefore many brave men finding their fortune grow 
faint, and feeling its declination, have timely with- 
drawn themselves from great attempts, and so escaped 
the ends of mighty Men, disproportionable to their 
beginnings. But magnanimous Thoughts have so 
dimmed the eyes of many, that forgetting the very 
essence of Fortune, and the vicissitude of good and 
evil, they apprehend no bottom in felicity; and so 
have been still tempted on unto mighty Actions, 
reserved for their destructions. For Fortune lays the 
Plot of our Adversities in the foundation of our 
Felicities, blessing us in the first quadrate, to blast us 
more sharply in the last. And since in the highest 
felicities there lieth a capacity of the lowest miseries, 
she hath this advantage from our happiness to make 
us truly miserable. For to be become acutely miser- 
able we are to be first happy. Affliction smarts most 
in the most happy state, as having somewhat in it of 
Bellisaritts at Beggers bush, or Bajazit in the grate. 
And this the fallen Angels severely understand, who 
having acted their first part in Heaven, are made 
sharply miserable by transition, and more afflictively 
feel the contrary state of Hell. 

Sect. xi. — Carry no careless Eye upon the unex- 
pected scenes of things ; but ponder the acts of Provi- 
dence in the publick ends of great and notable Men, 
set out unto the view of all for no common memoran- 
dums. The Tragical Exits and unexpected periods of 
some eminent Persons cannot but amuse considerate 
Observators; wherein notwithstanding most Men 
seem to see by extramission, without reception or 
self-refiexion, and conceive themselves unconcerned by 
the fallacy of their Exemption : Whereas the Mercy 

Christian Morals 261 

of God hath singled out but few to be the signals of 
his Justice, leaving the generality of Mankind°to the 
&r^E.°/ ^.f"?'": But the inadvertency of our 
iTZTr °?* '^''''.^PP^hending this favourable method 
and merciful decimation, and that he sheweth in some 
Ws'LndT ^^° -Jf^"^': they entertain no sen e of 
,,nL *f u^?°u *•"* ^^'°^ °f themselves. Where- 
contra^ed'' Hl'nn'T"^ necessarily punished, and the 
Tnrilmlrc.^ •* °u ^°^ ^''tended unto universal 
Judgments: from whence nevertheless the stupidity 
th« ^ tempers receives but faint impressions, and n 
ir^H *-^'^"'l' ^*?** °^ *™«s ''oWs but starts of 
good motions. So that to continue us in goodness 
there must be iterated returns of misery, and fcS- 

brj«f'''°°'-"' "'"?^^^^^- And sice we cannot 
be wise by wammgs, since plagues are insignificant 

be'o^nUV^ personally plaguel since also w^e canToi 
be punish d unto Amendment by proxy or con-muta- 
tion nor by vicinity, but contraction ; there Tan un- 
happv necessity that we must smart in our own Skhis, 
and the provoked arm of the Almighty must fall uuon 
our selves. The capital sufferings of others are rXr 
our monitions than acquitments. There is but one 
n«fh ^vl'i'"'^u^^/y ?' "*' »°'J ^We to say un?o 
™!^ni- ^^'*?.^l'' *??" eo snd no farther; only 
one enhvenmg Death, which maJ Gardens of Graves^ 

flounshm Glory; when Death it self shall dye ^d 

^:^V^^l ^r °? ^c^^°^' ^^«° '^^ damned sSl 
TJl V^ ^^'4 °f ^«a*' ^hcn Life not Death 
^h^ Z ^^^^^'t^ of sm, when the second Death shall 
courted ^ ™^«rable Life, and destruction shall be 

Sect. xii.-Although thuir Thoughts may seem too 
severe, who think that few ill natur'd men go to 

nltnl'Ti ^^^ '* "l'' 4 acknowledged that |ood- 
natur d Persons are best founded fo. that place -who 
enter the World with good Dispositions C„ktura° 

from±r°"' ^rty.*"? ^ "^"^''^ by impressions 
from above, and christianized unto pieties ; who carry 


Christian Morals 

about them plain and downright dealing Minds, 
Humility, Mercy, Charity, and Virtues acceptable 
unto God and Man. But whatever success they may 
have as to Heaven, they are the acceptable Men on 
Earth, and happy is he who hath his quiver full of 
them for his Friends. Thes- re not the Dens 
wherein Falshood lurks, and Hypocrisy hides its 
Head, wherein Frowardness makes its Nest, or where 
Malice, Hard-heartedness, and Oppression love to 
dwell ; nor those by whom the Poor get little, and the 
Fich sometimes loose all ; Men not of retracted Looks, 
but who carry their Hearts in their Faces, and need 
not to be look'd upon with perspectives ; not sordidly 
or mischievously ingrateful ; who cannot learn to ride 
upon the neck of the afflicted, nor load the heavy 
laden, but who keep the Temple of Janus shut by 
peaceable and quiet tempers ; who make not only the 
best Friends, but the best Enemies, as easier to forgive 
than offend, and ready to pass by the second offence, 
before they avenge the first ; who make natural Royal- 
ists, obedient Subjects, kind and merciful Princes, 
verified in our own, one of the best natur'd kings of 
this Throne. Of the old Roman Emperours the best 
were the best-natur'd ; though they made but a small 
number, and might be writ in a Ring. Many of the 
rest were as had Men as Princes ; Humorists rather 
than of good humors ; and of good natural parts, 
rather than of good natures ; which did but arm their 
bad inclinations, and make them wittily wicked. 

Sect. xiii. — With what shift and pains we come 
into the World, we remember not ; but 'tis commonly 
found no easy matter to get out of it. Many have 
studied to exasperate the ways of Death, but fewer 
hours have been spent to soften that necessity. That 
the smoothest way unto the grave is made by bleed- 
ing, as common opinion presumeth, beside the sick 
and fainting Languors, which accompany that effusion, 
the experiment in Lucan and Seneca^ will make us 
doubt ■ under which the noble Stoick so deeply 
laboured, that to conceal his affliction, he was feiin to 

Christian Morals 263 

his misery there n Ow^ ? th^ n^H ^S"*" '" '''^°^''" 
Stoiclts, who were » afraiH n?!i ""°''' ^"'l ^^e 

thereby\he°ex';rctb„1rttfr i°u7whVh%h""'"« 
ceived to be a Fire stnnH tlt^K uT ' , "^° "^y <=°n- 

way of D^^thf w1;erer„^^wL\';;^':f;^^^^^ 

sessions of Air. makes a t;,„J^ ; ' ^°'"°K 'he pos- 

WUs as it were whhout a & I ""focatioa. and 

3elf with Dovniards • ^n^u^ -r, ^^S^ed him- 
pummel of his sword." ^' *^° P°'°^' ^"' '^e 

wrnhTK'*"' ^^-^^ '°*° *''« house of ttess^'^S! 

at^h^rl^r ^/r^ttJ^-i'^. ^r^9 ""^ 
already dead by metaphor! Spkss^^" ffo'" "" 
sleep unto another, wanting herein Th. •™'° °°« 
of severity, to feel thra^^Kef fn^i *'".'°*°* P^^ 

J Demito naufraginm, mors mihi mnniis eiii • di . u 


Christian Morals 

to unty or cut the most Gordian Knots of Life, and 
rmke men's miseries as mortal as themselves : 
whereas evil Spirits, as undying Substances, are un- 
separable from Lbeir calamities ; and therefore they 
everlastingly struggle under their Angustias, and bound 
up with immortality can never get out of themselves. 


Sect. 1. — 'Tis hard to find a whole ;e to imitate, 
or what Century to propose for Examp. Some have 
been tai more approveable than others; but Virtue 
and Vice, Panegyricks and Satyrs, scatteringly to be 
found in all. History sets down not only things 
laudable, but abominable ; things which should never 
have been or never have been known : So that noble 
patterns must be fetched here and there from single 
Persons, rather than whole Nations, and from all 
Nations, rather than anyone. The World was early 
bad, and the first sin the most deplcrable of any. The 
younger World afforded the oldest Men, and perhaps 
the Best and the Worst, when length of days made 
virtuous habits Heroical and immoveable, vitious, in- 
veterate and irreclaimable. And since 'tis said that 
the imaginations of their hearts were evil, only evil, 
and continually evil ; it may be feared that their sins 
held pace with their lives ; and their Longevity 
swelling their Impieties, the Longanimity of God 
would no longer endure such vivacious abominations. 
Their Impieties were surely of a deep dye, which re- 
quired the whole Element of Water to wash them 
away, and overwhelmed their memor-'es with them- 
selves ; and so shut up the first Windows of Time, 
leaving no Histories of those longevous generations, 
when Men might have been properly Historians, when 
Adam might have read long Lectures unto Mtthuselak, 
and Methuselah unto Noah. For had we been happy 
in just Historical accounts of that unparallel'd World, 
we might have been acqnmnted with Wonders, and 

Christian Morals 265 

have understood not a little of the Acts and under- 
takings olMom his mighty Men. and Men of reno^ 
of old ; which might have enlarged our Thouchta anS 
made the World older unto uf. For the untao^ 
part of ime shortens the estimation, if not the c^r 
pute of It. What hath escaped our Know edge. Ms 
not under our Consideration, and what is and will to 
latent is httle better than non-existent. 
CM f^" "-"Some things are dictated for our In- 
siruction. some acted for our Imitation, where" 'tis 
h^n'^ ° ^T°t "°i° *''•' "^'K^^*^' conformi y. and to the 
,W,7 °l """ f ""P'a"^- He honours God who 
imitates him. For what we virtuously imitate ™ 
approve aiid Admire; and since we delight not to 
imi a e Inferiors we aggrandize and magnify those w^ 
mitate; since also we are most apt to imftate those 

?lll°rf,,'"' *S?*'fy?"' ^ff^^t'"" « °«r imitation of the 
Inimitable To affect to be like may be no imha ion 
To act, and not to be what we pretend to imitate °s 
but a m,m,«a conformation. and'«»rrieth no V^tue in 
t rt .^'"i^'^^"^ °°' G°d' '"'hen he said he would 
be hke tte Highest and he imitated not /«*.Cwho 

far^S^f U 'Ih'^-"''?'^- '^••"« Imitatio/ckL go no 
ind fn'i! Admiration step on, whereof there is no 
end in the wisest form of Men. Even Angels and 
Spirits have enough to admire in theriublimer 
Natures, Admiration being the act of the CrMt"re 
and not of God, who doth not Admire himself CreatS 
Natures allow of swelling Hyperboles; no htag^ 
be saad HyperboUcally of Go3^ nor will his Su?e^ 
admit of expressions above their own Exuperance? 
lr>smg,stus his Circle, whose center is eve?™here 
and circumfc-rence nowhere, was no Hy^rtole' 
Words cannot exceed, where they cannot exnret 
enough. Even the most winged Thoughts faltaUbl 
setting out. and reach not the portal of Divinity 

Sect. m.-In Bivious Theorems, and /aJs'-fkced 
Doctrines, let Virtuous considerations state^ the deter 
mmation. Look upon Opinions as thou dost uS 
the Moon, and chuse not the dark hemisphere for ?hy 


Christian Morals 

contemplation. Embrace not the opacous and blind 
side of Opinions, but that wh.^h looks most Lucifer- 
ously or mfluentially unto Goodness. Jis better to 
think that there arc Guardian Spirits, than that there 
are no Spirits to Guard us ; that vicious Persons are 
Slaves, than that there is any servitude m Virtue ; that 
times past have been better than tim^s present than 
that tunes were always bad, and that to be Men it 
sufficeth to be no better than Men in all Ages, and so 
promiscuously to swim down the turbid stream, ana 
make up the grand confusion. Sow not thy under- 
standing with Opinior-, whicn make nothing of 
Iniquities, ana fallaciously extenuate Transgressions. 
Look upon Vices and vicious Objects with Hyper- 
boUcal Eyes, ai.d rather enlarge their dimensions, t-at 
• ^isir unseen Deformities may not escape thy sense, 
and their Poysonous parts and stings may appear 
massy and monstrous unto thee; for the undiscemed 
Particles and Atoms of Evil deceive us, and we are 
undone by the Invisible-, of seeming Goodness. We 
are only deceived in what is not disceiaed, and to 
Err is but to be Blind or Dim-sighted as to some 

SECT.'°nr*— To be Honest in a right Line,' and 
Virtuous by Epitome, be firm unto such Principles of 
Goodness, as carry in them Volumes of instruction 
and may abridge thy Labour. And since •°stru"ions 
are many, hold close unto those, whereon the rest 
depend. So may wc have all in a few, and the Law 
and the Prophets in a I ule, the Sacred Writ m Steno- 
«aphy. and the Scripture in a Nut-Shell. To Pursue 
the osseous and solid part o Goodr,ess, ^^h^ch f .v« 
Stability and Rectitude to all the rest ; To settle on 
fundamental Virtues, and bid early defiance unto 
Mother-Vices, which carry m theu: Bowels the semmals 
of other Iniquities, makes a short cut m Goodness, 
Md strikes Sot off an Head but the whole Neck of 
Hvdra For we are are earned into the dark l-aKe, 
like the /Egyptian River into the Sea, by seven pr n- 
« Linea recta brevissima. 

Christian Morals 267 

thf n^*^'"- ■ The mother-iins of that number are 
the Deadly enpns of Evil SpJnts that undo u \md 
cZnT .^P'"'." .themselves, and he who b SnderThe 
Chami thereof w not without a possessioi AuZ 
MagdaUn had more than seven De^UsT these w?tt 
theu- Imps were in her. and he who is hus i^7,^ 
may hterally be named Ugion. Where suffll^ 

foM^f"TKP'°''Pr' '°°'' ^°' °° Champaia or rS 
an I pi J^?™'/ l"* productions like tte tree of iZ 
and torrests of abomination. ' 

.u I"' ^— Guide not the Hand of God, nor order 
the Finger of the Almighty unto thy VU and pWe- 
but sit Quiet in the soft showers if Pro^denw wd 

fhyreiri"ottl^'"'n '? '*■« WorW '^"0 
myseii or others. And smce not only Iud<nnent« 

^ave their Errands, but Mercies their dommiS- 
snatch not at every Favour, nor think thy^W^ssed 
\lliti^^^ f'^' "P°° '^y Neighbour, ff nrt uj 
Eih."''^n-'^ ^* '*V°?^ succeosful unto othe«! 
which the wise Disposer of all ttlnks not fit for thy^ 
Reconcile the events of things unto both bSn« tW 
is. of this -nrld and the nelt : =o vdU the« Sf ?'s^m 
somany Ria. .esin Providence, nor viJrious LeqJ^^e^ 
InnW '^ ^P""^^"" °f tW"«» below. If thou dc^t no? 
anpin thy Face, yet put not on sackclothTt the 
felicities of others, Repining at the G^ draws on 
rejoicmg a the evils of others, and so falls im'tl^t 
inhumane v!ce,« for w.iich so few Languages Sive a 
nam,^ The blessed Sjirits above rejoice «^happ^ 

"='k ^^71 "'"' f? ''? ^^'^ ^' "^^ «^ls of oiSlinother 
.s beyond the malignity of Hdl, and falls not on eWl 
Spirits, who, though they rejoice at our unhr-.Diness 
takes no pleasure at the afflictions of their own i^^i 

l?l '^ -^^r. ^"r '^ Degenerous H^s ! whj 
must be fem to Irarn from such Examples, and to b^ 
Taught from the School of Hell. f . ""o ro oe 

268 Christian Morals 

Sbct VI.— Grain not thy vicious stains, nor deepen 

those swart Tinctures, which Temper, Infirmity, or 

ill habits have set upon thee ; and fix not, by iterated 

depravations what time might Efface, or Virtuous 

wubes expunge. He, who thus still advanceth in 

Iniquity, diepneth deformed hue, tut.;<s a Shadow 

into Night, wd makes himself a Neero m the black 

Jaundice; and so becomes one of those i-ost ones, 

the disproportionate pores of whose Brains afford no 

entrance unto good Motions, but reflect and frustrate 

all Counsels, Deaf unto the Thunder of the Laws, and 

Rocks unto the Cries of charitable Commiseratore. 

He who hath had the Patience of Dttgtius, to make 

Orations unto Statues, may more sensibly apprehend 

how all Words faU to the Ground, spent upon such a 

surd and Earless Generation- of Men, stupid unto all 

Instruction, and rather requiring an Exorcist, than an 

Orator for their ConverMon. 

Sect vit —Burden not the back of Ants, Leo, or 
Tfl«r»J,"with thy faults, nor make Saturn, Mars, ot 
vJZ, guilty of thy Follies. Think not to fas en thy 
imperfections on the Stars, and so desi>ainnglv c -■■ 
ceive thy self under a fatality of bemg evil. C..lcu.«e 
thyself within, seek not thyself in the Moon, but m 
thme own Orb or Microcosmical Circumference. Let 
celestial aspects admonish and advertise, not conclude 
and determine thy ways. • For since good and bad 
Stars moralize not our Actions, and neither excuse or 
commend, acquit or condemn our Good or Bad Dwds 
at the present or last Bar, since some are Astro- 
loKically well disposed who are morally highly vicious; 
not Celestial Figures, but Virtuous Schemes, miKt 
denominate and state our Actions. " w" "ght'y 
understood the Names whereby God caUeth the Stars, 
if we knew his Name for the Dog-Star, or by wha 
appellation JupiUr, Mars, and Sa<«r» obey his Will, it 
meht be a welcome accession unto Astrology, which 
sp^s great things, and is b-n to make u« of appe - 
Es from Greek and Barbarick Systems. V^That- 
ever Influences, Impulsions, or Inclinations vhers be 

Christian Mornls 269 

mX!?n.H'??" ^^y'' " """ ■ P*«'« °^ wisdom to 
make one of those Wise men who overrule their Stars ' 
and with their own Militia contend with the H^t 
of Heaven. Unto which attempt there want not 
Aux. haries from the whole strength of Morality 
.upphes from Christian Ethicks, influences Xwd 

Srof°Heavr "'^'"'' """' ^""'"^ "^ '^' 
T .f""-.V'"-— Confound not the distinctions rf thy 
Life which Nature hath divided: that is, outh 

divfir/p ";^^'"u'''^' ""'• "'-J Age, nor in °hese 
divided Periods, wherein thou art in a manner Four 
conceive thyself but One. Let every Son be 
happy in its proper Virtues, nor one Vi<i run through 
r- J ^* T*" i^'s'^ct'on have its salutary transition, 
and critically deliver thee from the imperfections of 

Ke m"I;,'h °'^t^'^ *''• ^l"'"' ">*' Prudence and 
Virtue may have the largest Section. Do as a Child 
but when thou art a Chifd. and ride not on a Reed at 
rf hU^Vn,!?.? "^^ ^^t- °°' "*«" '*»^« °^ the follies 
of that division, disproportionatily divideth his Days, 
crowds up the Utter part of his Life, and leaves u» 
narrow a corner for the Age of Wisdom, and so hath 

Wh R Jl^^^l..''^*'?' ^°°r ""'^ •>" •>ath been a 
rit^l\ ^^^^ "■*? .'° "^^ ">" confusion, anti- 
cipate the Virtues of Age, and live long without the of it. So maprst thou count up thy days as 
some do Adam.^ that is, by anticipation; m 4yst 
thou be coetaneous unto thy Elders, and a Father 
unto thy contemporaries. " » x-amer 

Sect, ix.— While others are curious in the choice of 
good Air, and chiefly soUicitous for healthful habita- 
hons, Study thou Conversation, and be critical in thy 
Lonsortion. The aspects, conjunctions, and configura- 
tions of the Stars, which mutually diversify, .ntend. or 
qualify their influences, are but the varieties of their 

' Sapiens dominabitur astris. 
y^.^Sd.*""*'" «° '«'=«»'«i i» the State of Man about thirty 


Christian Morals 

nearer or farther conversation witb one another, and 
like the Consortion of Men, whereby they become 
better or worse, and even Exchange their Natures. 
Since Men live by Examples, and will be imitating 
something ; order thy imitation to thy Improvement, 
not thv Ruin. Look not for Roses m Attalus his 
garden",' or wholsome Flowers in a venomous Planta- 
tion And since there is scarce any one bad, but some 
ot.. jfs are the worse for him ; tempt not Contagion by 
proximity, and hazard not thy self in the shadow of 
Corruption. He who hath not early suffered this 
Shipwrack, and in his Younger Days escaped this 
Charybdis, may make a happy Voyage, and not come 
in with black SaUs into the port. Self conversation, or 
to be alone, is better than such Consortion. Some 
School-men tell us, that he is properly alone, with 
whom in the same place there is no other of the same 
Species. Nahuchodonozor was alone, though among 
the Beasts of the Field; and a Wise Man may be 
tolerably said to be alone though with a Rabble ot 
People, little better than Beasts about him. Un- 
thinking Heads, who have not learn'd to be alone, are 
in a Prison to themselves, if they be not also with 
others : Whereas on the codtrary, they whose thoughts 
are in a fair, and hurry within, are sometimes fain to 
retire into Company, to be out of the crowd of them- 
selves. He who must needs have Company, must 
needs have sometimes bad Company. Be able to be 
alone. Loose not the adN-antage of Solitude, and the 
Society of thy self, nor be only content, but dehght to 
be alone and single with Omnipresency. He who is 
thus prepared, the Day is not uneasy nor the Night 
bUck unto him. Darkness may bound bif Eyes, not 
his Imagination. In his Bed he may ly, hke Pompey 
and his Sons,' in all quarters ot the Earth, may specu- 
late the Universe, and enjoy the whole World m the 
1 Attalus made a Garden which contained only venomous 

> Pompeios Jnvenes Asia atque Europa, sed ipsum Terra tegit 
' Libyea. 

Christian Morals 

tod, «po. mM,^ ob,«t, S SoToStS 

oespigiit of the Revulsions and Pul-backs nf =,,^i! 

2^ °n our Hands hav?no influence upon our 
Heads, and fleshless Cadavers abate nnt n,. u" 

suppress not their bad CommotionsT aSd Ss ImaS 
lH%r^'°"i'J*'? ^°''"'' withholds not from S 
and Murder; Phylacteries prove but formJSef^ 
their despised hints sharpen our condemnS ' ^ 

or ex^ct'';rp^f°^ T ^" f*"^ " 'l"* £««■«' Sea. 
or expect great matters where they are not to be 

Quid fuerim quid simque vide. 

272 Christian Morals 

fc«n,1 Seek not for Profundity in Shallowness, or 
^^itv i^ Wilderness. Place not the expectations 
K^^Happlnessherebelow, or think to find H^v« 
™^K^h- wherein we must be content with Embryon- 
?5iS'a:dSons of ^do-^bt&l ,f„rXrch« the 
ITi^t^rsK^and D^kness walkabojuus. Our 
r JSitentments stand upon the tops of Pyramids reaay 
to ^ X^d The ^security of their enjoym« te 
Iwteth o« TranquUUties What we magn^ « 
mI^ ficent. but like to the Col^sus "oWe withwrt, 

S^%^rbp^t!sf L?^u?^ to 

^d tf aSng ?o old Dictates, no Man can be said 
to be ha^ before Death, the happiness of tto, L^ 
l^ for^thing before it be over, and while we thtt* 
n^WeThaopy we do but usurp that Nane. Cer- 
S'^e Bid. groweth not on Earth n^ ha* 
SS World in it the expectations we have of it. He 
Swims to Oil. and can hardly a'™^ smkmg, who, ^A 
such Ught Foundations to support him. Tis therefore 
Wmv that we have two Worlds to hold on. To 
^f^tm^haTpiness we must travel -to a ver^ far 
Countrey, and even out of ourselves; for the Pwrl 
weTSr is not to be found in the Indu», but m the 

^t^cTx^^nswer not the Spur of Fuiy, and be 
not prodigal or prodigious in Revenge. Mate not one 
Tth^HistoriaHoJbUis:' Flay not thy Servant for 

Kr^v^ ftksslnor pound him in a Mortar who 
SffSh tS su^re?^gate not in tbe--tX-; 
Ld overdo not the necessities of evil ; humour not tne 
Justice of Revenge. Be not Stoically mistaken m 
Se S^f4 orsininor commutatively iniquitous in 

1 A bock so intituled wherdn are sundry horrid mcoonnti. 

Christian Morals 


S^l^'S^?? of transgressions; but weigh them in the 

S r'ST- ^""^ ^'"•'': °^ ^"^'^ minds holds nl^r^e 
TooKd th1f'«;,y:'^"''^« '°° °ft«° » Head fofa 

S mT^eem wY "'^'^ '^° "°^* <»«'i«^ inXtgJ 
n may seem but femmme manhood to be vindirri„. 

f short C««S^" "^^^^ wayT^evenJ^ ^d 
^hatously inclined to g?ate^ R^aCo^""thC^ 

to make rHtiVoi \, * ? "'""'ate upon evils, 

acute in fh. °°'u^ ".Po° « uries, and to be t«^ 
acute m their apprehensions, is to add unto our oto 

' v^i ** u" «clamas ut Stentora vincere possis 

A K>.t Tongue breaketh the bone».-P,ov. x4v 13. 


Christian Morals 

Tortures, to feather the Arrows of our Enemies, to 
lash our selves with the Scorpionsof our Foes, and 
to resolve to sleep no more. For injuries long dreamt 
on take away at last all -est ; and he sleeps but like 
Rfgulus who busieth his Head about them. 

Sect, xiii.— Amuse not -thyself about the Riddles 
of future things. Study Prophecies when they are 
become Histories, and past hovering in their causes. 
Eye well things past and present, and let conjectmral 
sagacity suffise for things to come. There is a sober 
Latitude for prescience in contingences of discoverable 
Tempers, whereby discerning Heads see sometimes 
beyond their Eyes, and Wise Men become Prophetical. 
Leave Cloudy predictions to their Periods, and let 
appointed Seasons have the lot of their accomplish- 
ments. 'Tis too early to study such Prophecies before 
they have been long made, before some train of their 
causes have already taken Fire, laying open in part 
what lay obscure and before buryed unto us. For the 
voice of Prophecies is like that of Whispering-places: 
They who are near or at a little distance hear nothing, 
those at the farthest extremitjr will understand all. 
But a Retrograde cognition of times past, and things 
which have ahready been, is more satisfactory than a 
suspended Knowledge of what is yet unexistent. And 
the greatest part of Time being already wrapt up in 
things behind us ; it's now somewhat late to bait after 
things before us ; for futurity still shortens, and time 
present sucks in time to come. What b Prophetical 
m one Age proves Historical in another, and so must 
hold on unto the last of time ; when there will be no 
room for Prediction, when Jams shall loose one Face, 
and the long beard of time shall look like those of 
David's Servants, shorn away ■ ^on one side, and 
when, if the expected Elias sh( aid appear, he might 
say much of what is past, not much of what's to 

Si.cT. XIV.— Live unto the Dignity of thy Nature, 
and leave it not disputable at la-st, whether thou hast 
been a Man or since thou art a composition of Man 

Christian Morals 


sentations. Think not Ser' ^t fT"t"?. "P''*' 
conceit, what Beast thou m^st b^ ^L ^^'it^'^'^' 

and. the Circle of R^n tht^^ ^^l^s^" ^Z:?'"'^ 

fc ^fher^s^^^S^rt o*'"/^^" "^^-^ 
with thy HeaSo t^H«I« f .^^'°y*'^'«^'^^ "^^ 
not th/title to a DfvSr^^i*^^^"^^- ^"^ert 

&nS?ectr''^Ues^:i t^^^'"? '^^"f °^- 
which visive Orgies refch not Hf!f '' r^ "''°^^' 

of Religion, and thvLiff ^"tS JI^*''® "lagnalities 
SKI. .,._B.bold th^ b, inwM Opflck. «d 


Christian Morals 

the Crystalline of thy Soul. Strange it is, that in the 
most perfect sense there should be so many fallacies, 
that we are fain to make a doctrine, and often to see 
by Art. But the greatest imperfection is in our inward 
sight, that is, to be Ghosts unto our own Eyes, and 
^hile *e are so sharp-sighted as to. look thorough 
others, to be invisible unto ourselves ; for the inward 
Eyes are more fallacious than the outward. The 
Vices we scoff at in others laugh at us within our- 
selves. Avarice, Pride, Falsehood lye undiscemed 
and blindly in us, even to the Age of blindness : and, 
therefore, to see ourselves interiourly, we are fain to 
borrow other Mens Eyes ; wherein true Friends are 
good Informers, and Censurers no bad Friends. Con- 
science only, that can see without Light, sits in the 
Artopaey and dark Tribunal of our Hearts, surveying 
oui- "flioughts and condemning their obliquities. 
Happy is that state of vision that can see without 
Light, though all should look as before the Creation, 
when there was not an Eye to see, or Light to actuate 
a Vision : wherdn notwithstanding obscurity is only 
imaginable respectively unto Eyes; for unto God 
there was none, Eternal Light was ever, created Light 
was for the creation, not himself, and as he saw before 
the Sun may still also see without it. In the City of 
the new Jerusalm there i? neither Sun nor Moon ; 
where glorifyed Eyes must ses by the Archetypal Sun, 
or the Light of God, able to illuminate intellectual 
Eyes, and make unknown Visions. Intuitive percep- 
tions in Spiritual beings may perhaps hold some 
Analogy unto Vision : but yet how they see us, or one 
another, what Eye, what Light, or what perception is 
required unto their intuition, is yet dark unto our ap- 
prehension ; and even how they see God, or how unto 
our gloriiied Eyes the Beatifical Vision v/ill be cele- 
brated, another World must tell us, when perceptions 
will be new, and we may hope to behold invisibles. 

Sect, xvi.— When all looks fair about, and thou 
seest not a cloud so big as a Hand to threaten thee, 
forget not the Wheel of things : Think of sullen 

Christian Morals 277 

sion than foJe-knowlXe i^LXll^J by submis- 
evils mortifies prt^tUM^L^°7^lt^' °? ^"^u" 

N^Tot Ti;i' 'ISii!? Sv"™' " "»>"• f 


Christian Morals 

expectation of new Favours, have thankful minds foi 
ever ; for they write not their obligations in sandv bnt 
marble memories, which wear not out but with them- 

SccT. xviii. — Think not Silence the wisd m of 
Fools, but, if richtly timed, the honour of Wise Men, 
who have not the Infirmity, but the Virtue of Taci- 
turnity, and speak not out of the abundance, but the 
well-weighed thoughts of their Hearts; Such Silence 
may be Eloquence, and speak thy worth above the 
power of Words. Make such a one thy friend, in 
whom Princes .nay be happy, and great Counsels 
successful. Let him have the Key of thy Heart, who 
hath the Lock of his own, which no Temptation can 
open; where thy Secrets may lastingly ly, like the 
Lamp in Olybius his Urn,' alive, and light, bui close 
and invisible. 

Sect. ::ix. — Let thy Oaths be sacred and Promises 
be made upon the Altar of thy Heart. Call not Jove> 
to witness with a Stone in one Hand, and a Straw in 
another, and so make Chaff and Stubble of thy Vows. 
Worldly Spirits, whose interest is thei" belief, make 
Coliwebs of Obligations, and, if they cau l^nd ways to 
elude the Urn of the Prater, will trust the Thunder- 
bolt oi Jupiter : and therefore if they should as deeply 
swear as Oitnan to Bethltm Gabor/' yet whether they 
would be bound by those chains, and not find ways to 
cut such Gordian Knots, we coiild have no just assur- 
ance. But Honest Men's words are Stygian Oaths, 
and Promises inviolable. These are not the Men for 
whom the fetters of Law were first forged: they 
needed not the solemness of Oaths ; by keeping their 
Faith they swear, and evacuate such confirmations.* 

Sect. xx. — Though the World be Histrionical, and 

' Which after many hundred years was found burning under 
ground, and went out ^ soon as the air came to it. 

* Jovem lapiitmiurart. 

' See the Oath of Sultan Osman in his life, in the addition tn 
Knolls bis Turkish history. 

' Cattndc <Uns jsnin<.— Curtius. 

Christian Morals 279 

most Men live Ironically, yet be thou what thou sinei/ 
iiypocntes. Simulation must be short • Mm dn nS 

A^in."*^"!'^.^!''^' '^'^° "« sinistrous unto S 
^ous^ft^s"^';^!*''^'^"^ V"*" bad, and F«fc^°?^ 
vinuous i-aths, i4eA./&j« m vitious motions. 

«f ^u D?? — ^*** ''°* ■" f^e 'ligh strain'd Paradoxes 
of old Philosophy, supported by naked R^SumI 
'hicwihh T^fl'Felidty.Sut lateur S ^e 

Look beyond AnUninus. and terminate not thy mS 
m S««.« or Ej>icUfus. Let not the twelv7but the 

Remembrancer, not thy textuaty and finll Instructor^ 
and learn the Vanity of the WnrM roVJ, ? ' 

,t^.«>-^^>U. SleS nS'th/DolmiTf 
the Pm^a<,„ Ac^emy. or Porticus. Be a Sist 

^'SjveTrJp" G^r^tSe ». K th^tl? 


Christian Morals 

is, whmt it can afford, and wliat 'tii to have been a 
Man. Such a latitude of years may hold a consider- 
able comer in the general Map of Time; and a Man 
may have a curt Epitome of the whole course thereof 
U> the days of his own Life, may clearly see he hath 
but acted over his Fore-iathors, what it was to live in 
Ages past, and what living will be in all ages to 

He is like to be the best judge of Time whj hath 
Uved to see about the sixtieth part thereof. Persons 
of short times may Know what 'tis to live, but not the 
ufe of Man, who, having little behind them, are but 
jantuit of one Face, and Know not singularities 
enough to raise Axioms of :his World : but such a 
compass of Years will show new Examples of old 
Things, Parallelisms of occurrences through the 
whole course of Time, and nothing be monstrous 
unto him ; who may in that time understand not only 
the varieties of men, but the variation of himself, and 
how many Men he t- th been in that extent of time. 

He may have a close apprehension what is to be 
forgotten, while ha hath lived to find none who could 
remember his Father, or scarce the friends of his 
Touth, and may sensibly see with what a face in no 
long time oblivion will look upon himself. His 
Progeny may never be his Po^tenty; he may go out 
of the World less related than he came into it, and 
Mnsidering the frequent mortality in Friends and 
Relations, in such a Term of Time, he may pass 
away divers years in sorrow and black habits, and 
leave none to mourn for himself ; Orbity may be his 
mheritance, and Riches his Repentance. 

In such a thred of Time, and long observation of 
Men, he may acquire a Phys%ognomic(Umt\i\\{we Know- 
ledge, Judge the interiors by the outside, and raise 
conjectures at first sight; and knowing what Men 
have been, what they are, what Children probably 
wiU be, may in the present Age behold a good part, 
and the temper of the next ; and since so many live 
by the Rules of Constitution, and so few overcome 

Christian Morals 281 

SSffl!'*™""' ^'«^««»' «•". no 

the PrindptaTof ft.: ri'':id';h^^^^^^^ 

of no high ^JT hI: ISf^ **°'^' """^ *'""°"t it 

I^tnH P V"*?'"""^'^' Relaxation, not ^Dianl 
harH -„»^'^^ P^V* *•"*" *o wveat pleasure Our 


Christian Morals 

!d it) do clAinorouily tell ui we come not into the 
World to run a Race of Delight, but to perform the 
sober Act* and lerioui purpoiet of Man ; which to 
omit were foully to miscarry in the advantage of 
humanity, to play away an uniterable Life, and to 
have lived in vain. Forget not the capital end, ar-* 
frustrate not the opportunity of once Living. Dre 
not of ny kind of Mttimpsychosi$ ot transanimatiun, 
but ini hine own bodv, and that after a long time, 
and then also unto waif or bliss, according to thy first 
and fundamental Life. Upon a Curricle in this World 
depends a long course of the next, and upon a narrow 
Scene here an endless expansion hereafter. In vain 
some think to have an end of their Beings with their 
Lives. Things cannot get out of their natures, or be 
or not be in despite of their constitutions. Rational 
existences in Heaven perish not at all, and but 
partially on Earth : That which is thus once wL'l in 
some way be always : the first Living human Soul 
is still alive, and all Adam hath found no Period. 

Sect, xxiv- — Since the Stars of Heaven do differ in 
glory ; since it hath pleased the Almighty hand to 
h'.nour the Nurth Pole with Lights above the South ; 
since there are some Stars, so bright that they can 
liardly be looked on, some so dim that they can scarce 
be seen, and vast numbers not to be seen at all ven 
by Artif. •ja\ Eyes ; Read thou thi Earth in Hea 3n, 
and things below from above. Look contentedly 
upon the scattered difference of things, and expect 
not equality in lustre, dignity, or perfection, in Regions 
or Persons below ; where numerous numbers must be 
content to stand like LaeUous or Ntbulous Stars, little 
taken notice of, or dim in their generations. AU which 
may be contentedly allowable in the affairs and ends 
of this World, and in suspension unto what will be in 
the o.der of things hereafter, and the new Syste ne of 
Mankind which will be in the World to come ; when 
the last may be the first and the first the last ; when 
Lazarus may sit atx>ve Casar, and the just obscure on 
Earth shall shine like the Sun in Heaven ; when per- 

Christian Morals 


•onaHont shall cease, and Histrioniim of happinesa be 

T^t •k!'?'° ^"^''y '''•" '"'•- «<» •» •h'Jl bi aaVhe^ 
snau be for ever. ' 

Bnf liT: *^l~;^J'?" ''■• ^if** wid tb" We would 
not be accepted, if it were offered unto such as knew 

li'.^.tk*'*^" '?° ?'^'3' "' »•"" •*«"> of being which 
pl«:eth us in the form of Men. It more depTeciates 

again; for although tbev would still live on, yet few 
or none can endure to think of being twice the same 

aZ t"h^°»^'"''.5 "*• •?'^« ■""* '»">•' "over U?2 
lived than to tread over their days once more. Cieno 
in a prosperous state had not the patience to think of 
twginnmg in a cradle afwn. Job would not only curse 
the day of his Vativity. but also of bis Renascency, 
ntXI'V \^?' °l"^ ^" J^'^ters, and the miseri^a 
fhii^ff. •""*'■•"'• J ^"f *• «"•»'"' underweening of 
this life , undervalue that, unto which this is but 
txordi .a Passage leadii,g unto it The great 
advanta^ of this mean life is thereby to stand in a 
Mpacityi abetter; for the Colonies' Heaven must 
be drawn am Earth, and the Sons of the first AJam 

mto this World with the power also of another; not 
only to replenish the Earth, but the everlaktinc 

foundations of the Earth were layd, when the momine 
Stare SMg together, and ail the Sons of God shouted 
tor Joy,' He must answer who asked it; who under- 
stands Entities of preordination, and beings yet un- 
bemg; who hath m his Intellect the Ideal Existences 
of thmgs, and Entities before their Extances. Thomth 
it looks but like an imaginary kind of existency to be 
before we are; yet since we are under the decree or 
prescience of k sure and Omnipotent Power, it may be 
somewhat m<wii than a non-entity to be in that mind, 
unto which all things are present. 
Sect. xxvi.-If the end of the World shaU have the 

• Vittm nmo aaiperit si duritur sdentHmi.—Stima. 
" Job zxzviu. 


Christian Morals 

same foregoing Signs, as the period of Empires, States, 
and Dominions m it, that is, Corruptipn of Manners! 
inhuman degenerations, and deluge of iniquities; it 
may be doubted whether that final time be so far o«F. 
of whose day and hour there can be no prescience 
But wnile all men doubt and none can determine how 
long the World shall last, some may wonder that it 
hath spun out so long and unto our days. For if the 
Almighty had not determined a fixed duration unto it 
according to his mighty and merciful designments iii 
It, If he had not said unto it, as he did unto a part of 
it, hitherto shalt thou ^o and no farther; if we consider 
the mcessant and cutting provocations from the Earth 
It is not without amazement how his patience hath 
permitted so long a continuance unto it, how he. who 
cursed the Earth in the first days of the first Mail, and 
drowned it m the tenth Generation after, should thus 
testmgly contend with Flesh and yet defer the last 
flames. For since he is sharply provoked every 
moment, yet punisheth to pardon, and forgives to for- 
give a^ain,; what patience could be content to act over 
j.ich vicissitudes, or accept of repentances which must 
fiave after penitences, his goodness can only tell us. 
And surely if the Patience of Heaven were not pro- 
porfaonable unto the provocations from Earth ; there 
needed an Intercessor not only for the sins, but the 
duration of this World, and to lead it up unto the 
present computation. Without such a merciful Long- 
animity, the Heavens would never be so aged as to 
grow old like a Garment ; it were in vain to infer ft^om 
the Doctrine of the Sphere, that the time might come, 
when CafeUa, a noble Northern Star, would have its 
motion m the Mquator, that the northern Zodiacal 
bigns would at length be the Southern, the Southern 
the Northern, and Capricorn become our Cancer. How- 
ever therefore the Wisdom of the Creator hath ordered 
the duration of the World, yet since the end thereof 
bnngs the accomplishment of our happiness, since 
some would be content that it should have no end, 
smce Evil Men and Spirits do fear it may be too short, 

Christian Morals 285 


prayer „j 

, ^ — under 
of the Righteous 

the Altar will be the 


the accomp&hment offl Sf ,frf P°f *''*'°'' '^^ ^"^^ 

Sect. «v,i._Thoueh gJ^^^ '*''*'' *° ^°'"«- 
away from the EvS fo ^^ fuT T °^'^ ^'^ 
days have been irkd tLf^ ' *'"'"«''' *°'ne w evil 
bphold the intaSitfe^ of a iittZ «/',S''^' ""^ 1°°& to 
threatened bvlhem yet is^t n^sm^f^'.-V "^^'"«°*'' 
honest min<fc to lekve the WnrM • "** •''^^''°° "°'o 
temper'd times, mider I nrosn^? f '° ^"""""^ '^e"- 
continuation erf worSy^?aysTc ".IS^'J '° '=°'"^' ''"^ 
Man. Men who dye in Xnln™M**5^^ "°'° God and 
regretfiiUy behold hav^„„f ?i ™ o* ''^y^' ''hich they 
like content ; whUe thev ° n„ T ^5' "^'^ ^^^ *« 
proceeding or ero Jn^'^ °°. ?''°''^ t*"* thoughts of 
that Spii ZtTXi T^ZTtl^^^'^ ^^ 
honour they desire in aU tL« '^^n gomg, whose 
generations: II LuciL^JrZ f^^ i^'°^ebont aU 
place, he would liWe^e tto^^^^ from his dismal 
behind. Too many th^ml °^''/?f «st were left 
if their own turn were i^^ ^ °, j^"* * °^^' who, 
became of o^T'^df'^J^;,';"^^ not regard'what 
care not if all perish. But /cLi^ ?^' .""emselves, 
beyond their li^^or the hf,^ r ^^^^ "tend 
^ never to be fao4S"S^S:^°^ *?««;» «?«'• 
while so manv auesHnt, ^ , "™ therefore 

charitably3;?f2"'l„°^^^"' ^"^ ""« «»«al. they 
are not m eTvionslv «^^?- "^ °°* y*' *''^= tbey 
themselveliTh^y io^ttT '°k,^° *° heaven by 
little Flock mig^tK^t^^thr*''^ ^'^' ^^'^ '»>» 
and that, as mlny are^cX' J^ nT"? ^^'^ ^^er, 
chosen. ^ cauea, so not a few might be 

reSdkH'^e^Vh^Sf/^ °-"'"^«' "^ Angels 
will teU us; thSSfofTe^iH'*! School-len 


or Century hath sent^S^^ru^fo^JTeavYn^ l^' 


Christian Morals 

tell who vouchsafeth that honour unto them. Though 
the Number of the blessed must be compleat before 
the World can pass away, yet since the World it self 
seems in the wane, and we have no such comfortable 
prognosticks of Latter times, since a greater part of 
time is spun than is to come, and the blessed Roll 
already much replenished; happy are those pieties, 
which solicitously look about, and hasten to make one 
of that already much filled and abbreviated List to 

Sect. xxix. — Think not thy time short in this 
World since the World itself is not long. The created 
World is but a small parenthesis in Eternity, and a 
short interposition for a time between such a state of 
duration as was before it and may be after it. And if 
we should allow of the old Tradition, that the World 
should last Six Thousand years, it could scarce have 
the name of old, since the nrst man lived near a sixth 
part thereof, and seven Methuselas would exceed its 
whole duration. However to palliate the shortness of 
our Lives, and somewhat to compensate our brief 
term in this World, it's good to know as much as we 
can of it, and also so far as possibly in us lieth to hold 
such a Theory of times past, as though we had seen 
the same. He who hath thus considered the World, 
as also how therein things long past have been answered 
by things present, how matters in one Age have been 
acted over in another, and how there is nothing new 
under the Sun may conceive himself in some manner 
to have lived from the beginning, and be as old as the 
world ; and if he should still live on, 'twould be but 
the same thing. 

Sect. xxx. — Lastly, if length of Days be thy Portion, 
make it not thy Expectation. Reckon not upon long 
Life : think every day the last, and live always beyond 
thy account. He that so often surviveth his Expecta- 
tion lives many Lives, and will scarce complain of 
the shortness of his days. Time past is gone like a 
Shadow ; make time to come present. Approximate 
thy latter times by present apprehensions of them : be 

Christian Morals 287 

butlt«1!'f "^^ "°*? *?* Grave, and think there is 

we have elsewhere declined, any have been 1«»,i' 

Ex^r f""^. *.? -derstr'dThn-stL'"rnnihi& 
Extasy, Exolution, Trans.ormation, the Kiss of the 
Spouse, and Ingression into the Divine ShSow 1. 

Sd an^hi^d''"^"^.- T^^^'-'W'. theThrv'^t"^" 
is i - ^ ' Antiapation of Heaven ; the WrartS 
SeS. °" '^^'- "^^ '^^ E"^"* i" Ashes \^to 



k B. D.-New "rinfUdi IHetkiiury oa HUtocical FiriBdplet " (Umtr, 

Webstflr>lntmuitlooal Dlctlaaary. 

GreeahlU-GUMiary to tditkn at " HydrioUphU aod Gadn ol Cyraa" 

AitRcn. to break <^. 

Amtxbiion, cleansing. 

AMUHmoir, oouumptleo. 

AccBFnoKt, acceptauoat. 

AccuHi:f ATSDt iharp-poiatod. 

AcnvBS, tub., acthra [inadplaa. 

AcDLxoua, neodlfrUke. 

Adah, goto rscum ? Adam, what 
bati tbou dooe ? 1 Eadrat viL 

Adra«tk and NsHsaia, tka powcca of 
vengeanoe (J.)> 

ADaiANus (''the nxiUa ol"). "A 
aUtelv maiuoleom or aqnuchral 
pU», boilt by Adriaana in R<»at^ 
wbm DOW atandeth the oasUe of 
SL Angdo." (Note by Sir T. B.] 

ADUMaaxTioK, faint naemblanoa^ at 
of a ihadar to the object it xepr^ 

ADVIS0E8, admooititms. 

^QUicxURAt, of equal length of leg. 

£soN*s BATu. Soo of CKthws aod 
Tyro, and father ot Jaioa ; accord 
Ing to Ovid, he survived the return 
of the Areoonuts, and waa made 
young agam by Medea. 

ArrECnoN, tnfluoioe. 

ArrECTiONS, qualities, paiaioni, fed- 
ings. men of aQectioo. 

Alcmsna's aights, " one night ai long 
as three." [Note by Sir T. B.] 

Amazed, confounded. 

Ambidbxtk>ov8» able to nse both 
hands alike. 

AuBinoH*. ambltkma men. This use 
of the abstract for the ooocrete ip 
the plural occm frequently in Sir 
Thomas Browne, as "oesires," 
**afiectiaas," "devotioiu," "seals," 

Amission, loss. 

AzdFBisoLOGY, a*". dmVgaavt phrase. 

AMraiERoiacAL PBAan, held at tb* 

naming of a diOd. 
AjiAXAOoaAa. Several aditm have 

wron^y printed " Anaxarchni," 
irtM actoaily held the t^inkms at- 
tributed by mowne to Anazagocaa. 

AHonnAS, agooiea (J.). 

AjfiHA sn Dn, " the aoal Is the aiigd 
of man, the body ol God." 

AMiMoaiTy, oonrage. 

ANncBUST (" shmld be bom of the 
tribe of Dan "1. A beUef held by 
the Atwient Church, based partly 
on the omissioo of toe name A Can 
from the list of tribea in flia 
Apocalypse, and partly 00 the men- 
tioD ol him as ** adder " ami " ter^ 
pent " in Jacob's last Mtwing of his 
sons. [Condensed from GreeohiU.] 

AHTiciPATivxbY, prematurely. 

Anticxs, downs. 

Antikohiu, oootradictiaoa to taw. 

Antifodbs, oppodtes (J.). 

ArooBOH, to the utmost pobt of dis- 
tance trom earth and earthly things 

Apparitioni. appearances witboat 
realities (J.). 

AmtEHBNo, to dread, to oooodve, 

Apprkhbhsion, reason, coocmtloo ; 
passed apprehension, former 
opinion ; orossbr apprehensions, 
meo of grosser app- liension. 

Arcana, mysteries. 

Archiooxil a woric erf Paracdsns, 
tranila ted into En^ish in i66a. 

Archimimb, chief jester. 

AREpAcnoN, drying. 

Arbopaoy, the great cou-t, like tba 
Areopagus at Athens (J.t. 

Abustxx, soothsaysTf dtviMr. 

* dITi""" i • ; «"" (U, onu 
"*•)■ A planet ta the aionW 

•oiler m 11,1^,1 ^ Hk n.).^^' 
AlgcMT, Mk,-: ,, 
AieAinitE, vb 'unafautK 


Amuctactioh, haUtnitloa. 
AiTcuiK, tmaU Iter. 
AniNDAXCE, •eeooiMniiiKnt 
ArriTOAii* lieMe todtaUootloo. 
ArteiTioK, Motion. "-"""'»• 
ADDAcmn, bold pemu. 
ADDiraun, TectTOroS. 
AoiEjiA, dimali.^ •■ aureUoQ." 
^f^Z, ''^i^"A ehii.ben 



B«ATACiim (French), bouts Tb. 
"r<|>»™»-- "Thereby hiaei; I bJ2SJ°^2'^ ^<<*™a. 

tatojil. ..V. to .™id ,miui^ 
Caioa, waim mtec (1.1. 

rowrf Irooi the .aetfailre^SS 
«rt^ iilei were held, at which Si 
Si^ w«t 00 a, long a. a muU 

"teS,"""" •< • -hleld ta 

>ude bv the 
bySirt. B.] 

•hiw ' '"°"' " "» hearlne 


'-""»""», cocnere or a al 

Ca«iou. "That part of the 

? ■i<P"_'''!C!> made 

B»ui»a, brlieveii. 

B.Tf^ ' "'•'' 'K*!" "re falao " (I 1 
BlNSPLAciT, mod plauore. " '' 

UBHEvoboDS, favourable. 
BTO., a famous fiant-idller of South- 

^.hSd."""'*"'"'^ •■*•«< 
Btmof ("the miseratda"! vh^ 

glhth century, Mid to fikv, beeu 

/hi'j!l;?|&S£,.'— "7.0.,! 
_ we wounded 0.1. ^^ *"" "" 

-- - uwaa wmca n n 

haunch-bouea." [Note 
CAMoua, dediy. 
CAaucx, tarfa merchantman. 
cJ™ """• f °»«ln« V> " camp. 
Caihoucok, univenal mSditSfc 

(Stia).'" • -^ ^»- 

Jfnjfc That la, the ■'efideut " 

CAomoin, oantloni. 
^.J^"*! •? •"'Sortcil repre- 
' JSSS°° °: "■• «h«rMt«a^d 
oonditlooa of mankind (1 l 

""S'Scri^."' '™»'^ — 

""!"* "T auiA mroasnu, "it ii 

«i J^'h^"" " '' "mp-irible" 

f'&O^TSS^c'', "^^^ 
Ckiasmds, deeuaaation (GreenbHI) 

Crikomahcv, palmistrv 
Chokaoium, dance ifX 

'^idt^'^i"*^''^ X I-bee. 
CHvm- T^,,. 

CucmuTANiui, accUtntal 
CmniWi, bearing tendriU. 
Cmuiv, state o< ctrS aodety. 



Clauatioh, iboatkiK. 
CuwiNO, tickling, uittcrliif . 
CuKACTUi tha poiat In a man's Ut« 

(mppoHa to be Ui ilxty-thlrd 

yew) wh«o hfi pomrt twcfn to fail. 
CooRQt, the last King d Athaoa. 
CoHHiMtntc, Junetura* Joining. 
CoMicoDiTUU. advantago. 
CoHTAOB, frameworit or lyitcm of 

oaoJoiDcd parts (H. B. D.). 
CoHVLEUifT, Qonpletofteu. 
CoHPLKHENTAi, lUght and lubildlaiy* 

mardy nuUng up wei^t. 
CoMPUxioNAXXY, Vf tcmpenuDOit 
COMroHTfOM, oon^oondlngt but In 

the ncoit line (by a play it words) 

CoHraoDVcnoK, J<^t prodtiotlon. 

CoMRoroaTioira, pn^ortkoa to- 

CoHrun, oompatatlon. 

CoMCKiT, canocptioo, Idea, jest. 

Conceit, to lmagbi«k 

CoHCLAiUTiow, noise made by several 
people shoatmg together. 

CoxcOHTtAifciBa, accMnpanlu^mta. 

CoirconntB, hdp. 

CONUDBiUTioir VNTO, valuB when 
compared with. 

CoHnoBiUTiONs, cooslderers. 

CoHSORTioir, the cooscrtinff with 

CoiraTBLU.TBD OMTO, by the oonstd- 

latiou oi my Urth adaptive tou 
Cotmufraaxo, diluted. 
CoimaifATioii, framing together ot 

CoHTiNGBMcy (anglee of), the smaDest 

CoNTRAcnoir, "we cannot be van- 
ished ... bat ecntracUoa,''^ by 

having punishment brought to bear 

upon oursdves. 
CoKvuUATioir, bdiaviour. 
CoirvKasioir, revohitiou, ** annual 

CoHviNciBLE, demonstrable. 
CoRNiGKROus, homcd. 
CoRPuutKcy, solid character (rf 

Ceahbx, tiresome repetitions ; 

Ckambk aspEnTiA (Juvenal). 
Ckany, cranium, slcull. 
Crasis, lit. mixture; here, mixture 

of bodily humours. 
Crociatxd, c r ossed. 
Crucifrrous, marked with a cross. 
Crvsrro, Soathem Cross ((^eenhUl). 
Crystalunx, dluding to the crystal- 

line humour ol the eye (J.). 
CuMCTAnoN, dday. 
Cupels, reming passes used in the 

mdtiog down ot gold and silver 


DAUOCtJts,a flatterer ci Dioayiios {J.}, 

Dastard, vb., to make craven. 

DBCiMAnoir, ssleotkn of every teott 
man for poslshment (J.). 

DECinEMCY, state of being deceived, 
haUudnadoa (Webaterl. 

Dbcdssatiox, crossing of lines In the 
form of the figure X. 

Delator, informer. 

Dehokstratiohs, truths capable of 

Drfravk, to malign, to spoil ; db> 
rRAVBDLY, in a corrupt form. 

Derived, secondary in source (U., 
£rom the sun ?) 

DssiRxs, deslrers. 

Dsvonom, devout men. 

DUHBTBR wm (to stand la), to be 
diametrloallT opposed to. 

DiGHOTomr, dlvlsiaa into two. 

DimRXMCS, vb., to show the differ- 
ence between, todefbie. 

DioLAoiATioM, fendng match (J.). 

DiOGxma (testament of). "Who 
wHled his friend not to bnry him, 
bat to hang lUm up, with a staffe in 
his hand, to frii^tea away the 
orowee." [Note by Sir T. B.] 

DtscRDCUTDto, excruciating. 

DissBWTAHXOUS unto, oootrary ta 

Drrry, ^eech. 

DitrruRHiTV, long duration. 

DOHATITSS, fifta. 

Dorado, a fish, probably either the 
gilt-header dorado or the gold-fish. 
loHORAirr DORADOES src rich mui 
of no education. [Ccodeosed from 

DoRMATiTE, keeping draught. 

Drauoht, drawing. 

EcuracALLV, in the directioa of the 

sun's apparait motJoo. 
Edified, formed. 
Epprokt, to embolden. 
Elatbr, '* spring." " elasticity " 

(H. B. D.). 
Elrxmosyharies, beggar*. 
Elsmxmtal coHPOSiTioif . " composl- 

tkn of dements " (Grecohill). 
Euas (propbecv of), ** That the world 

may last but six thousand years.' 

[Note by Sir T. B.} 
Empbatical, "designated emthatlo 

aDy, or par mcmUmm " (H. E. D.). 
Empyreal, in old astrooomy, all 

beyond the tenth heaven. 
Emocr's pillars. "Josmhus does 

not meotioo Enoch, trat says the 

desoendants of Seth erected two 

pillars, on irtiidi were eogravea all 

the dfacoveries then known to 

manldn 1 [Coodeotsd ^om Greeo- 



"ES??!!"' '","«U«4 " dtollnct 
ta»tt. m«l7 po«lil. bdo, o. 

'^'S!,'!""'£?'' '," Ot™n»D., par. 
Mntar JoiiniaU of every day, not 
aoslraoti comprehendlnt Mveral 
year» under ooe noutkn 7j.). 

EnauniozL tchediilei ihoiHiif the 
^tion al the heavadT Adta 

Encrcu, « email revolution made 
Dy one planet In the wider orbit of 
„ another planet a.). 
EffUABLB, Juet 
EaoAi, imptttlal J eqnItMe. 
Equivocal, doubtful; 
EnooTiun, coadnaiona deduced as- 

oecdinf to the forma o( lodo (JJ. 

ETHmcx, fentle. ^^ " ' 

BvoLaiox, eilnetioo by force 

EZAITATIOK, ratefaf . 
ivTS? »»« Sing), lairittian 
IV_ Kiiif of Oenmari, who becan 
to rel|n in 15M, and waa etm on the 
throne when the book waa written. 

ExcinioK, Direction or reaervatioa. 

EznrmuTloii, diaemhowenini 

Bngum, funaral ritea. 

BXIUTY, Tn«n.m a 

ExianiuTioii, eetimatlai. 

ExoLono!t, In Dedidne, gnat phyw 
ijcal malmeae; in^yKioal th^ 
doty, dreamy oaltatlan of mind. 

ExpAxasD, expanded. -mni, 

ExPATi ATS, to roam about 

EwitAlona, pHlaien. 

ExruCAnoir, unfoldinc. 



ExraunoNt, Durki. 
ExtDCCOut^ dry. 
ExTANCu, existences. 
ExnMPDjusY, faituitiww 
ExnirDATiojr, eoutcUtioii. 

from the eye to the dbject a.h 
BxvPBitANCB*, exaggeratioiu: 

^*?*^*"*" P^y imperial"), an 
«"";^«i, probably to K coUwtiS 
01 coma. 

jAcmrv, authority, powtr. 

Faith, believar, abatract for concnte. 

Fawlibt, a member of the " fanSS 
'°^ » "ligioua aect which ap- 
peared about 1575. "^ 

Faacunorfa, bandagea. 

FAVAGiHooa, cellular, like a hooev- 
oomb. ' 

Ferity, ferocity, aavagensee. 
' F^anH ATiOK, haate. 
FUT wx, let there be light. 

Fietiu, moulded. 

FiUB, placed in ordw. 

Fimu ("oneUtUe"). __ 

V <!>• •Mint arithaetlck of 'the 
hend, wherein the little <n«r c< the 
right hand ecntracted, aUnUad an 
hunAwL" [Note bTsirT Bl 


Flux, flow. 


FouuKoua, fnU of holea. 
ISL^X "T*. "• "rthing apart 

FooaAot, ^ a amall mine fir blowini 
up walla ■■(GreohiU). "" "°™* 
JJS'JSIl?'' F^ ««*I'« "le vstei 

FuicmuT, fulmm. "™"'- 

^'ii;!S""*''u ■'"™'' ■*• the 
F»L^h«ldio term, dcn^i,., 

Gallatuxi, germ in an W( 
GALLuaoiai, marimenty 

°'^™^'«. "• "1» divinee by the 

<5»»,»»ir ("defectioo of the Held 
of"). Nothing U knowTof^ 

SL*J^ I» default of anyTSK 

Mon ' la not dear; "detectton" 

Glou, a clue of yam.^^' 

Egyptian, defaced by iJcinta the 
Emperor." CNote by SirT^ Bl 
GnArn, grafts. ! <^ i. a.i 

C«Ai» dye in grain. " Not grain'd." 
not deeply tinged (T.). •'"«"'. 
OxAnncAL, compoKd of leltaa. 
CuaTATioK, tasting. 

"ISS^."*"^ "'™* ■ ««» ta 
HAmuxorLAysoniroxxTiixii. "A 



. , «i oat It iriMo tb* 

itODt wu rdtod nny; wbirtfai tt 
they lallwl thcrr Int th* Uv«, to 
Uw UogbUr ol tlMk tpwutaf*." 

HsuACAL, iplnL 

Hxux, a icnw or sphal Um : to nm 
upon ■ hoUi, to ba oootkiaatty 
novtag Kilraay. 

Hblloo*, ^nttou (J.). 

HsLMOirr or Pakcbuo*. aathmiastk 
axttbcn ol romaatlo otaamlttry 

Hsuos* BOO. wfaldipnoiind ilaop by 
• touch (J.)* ^^ 

Hninncu. PmtoMmM, foOowwa 
ol HonoM liteBglttiH, addktad 
to OMntotry asd aUbiiiw. 

Hippocunt Pathmti. tn aonw of 
tba traatlMa ol tha Hfppoentlo 
eooaetkia rou^ aotta ol oaiet an 
foond ftving tha naoMa and ad- 
dnaMa ol tbe paticoti. Um point 
ol the oonipariiaB ll«a hi Ita ibowlng 
how th« dead Uve ooly hi th^ 
namea; nothinf nwre ii knoira ol 

HianioMiflM (ol happia«ii), theatrical 
repreMntatioo, mere ibow. 

Hout COHBuaTiS. the time wheo the 
mooa ia in 000 jnnotks and obecured 
by the tun. 

Hout-aLAtSBa, " can for many hour- 
flassea." Anctaot pleaden talkad 
' a clepsydra, or measanr of 

H a di 

Bimoumoin, the mult ol 

humour or Indhiduat trait 

HvoaoncAii, drapelcuL 

HYKMTAiia, diatbct 1 

Idkatu, pictured in idea, hi fancy. 

lOBt, time when money laid out at 
intenat was conunonly remid. 

, 0.). 

Ihmoktautv, eKeiiq>tloo from death. 

iMPASSiBLs, hnpregnaUe to nflcring 
and decay. 

iMKMTOKs (the three). The Emperor 
Ferdinand II. wot aocused by Pope 
Gregory I. of maintaiiiinf that the 
world bad been deoojved by three 
impostors— Jesus Christ, Moses, and 
Mahomet. A book with this UUe 
was said to have existed, but no 
trace of it remafau (Greeobill). 

IicraaPBKATioNa, Inaulting Liuguage. 

Incsssion, pro^Msioo. 

Incikerablb, reducible to ashes ; !»• 
ciNBRATSD, reduced to ashes, 

lacKASSATioH. tltickeotng. 

Incrimablk, moombustible. 

Iwct'RTArs, to m^e crook^ 

iMOurrxBKNCY, impartiality ; (pi.) In 

*l|Dlicaol matters ; ol wgnmsatiL 
•BBct babmoa. ^ 

InimftBHT, ImpartlaL 

Ir-vtumus, bends cr fdds (GresD- 

ItfOBMrnTiBi, peopto ol tngHiaoai dia> 

Ihobusiom, •ntarunee. 
iMmmATHm. burytng. 
iMnTSHey, leaning presaiDg, or r«t- 
, loff vpon i om rtW ng (H. B. D.). 
iMOMAmcAL, without ornu. 
iKQtnMATBD, diOlad fl.).^ 
luSBiftiBU, too nalTto be fait 
ImBmsMT TO, eoodndva to. 
InTAMCBS, Instants. 
IifTuxiOBitcu, unbodied an(dlc 

iKTBimoifi, mrsoas who tetond. 

UomcALLY (^Uve irooloally "), with 
disBbnulatlan or persooatlaa 
{H. E, D.). "^ 

ITM, earnest, spedmao. 

InjuTBLV, repeatedly. 

JuDQiuini, rasD ol Jodfmcat 


KmoDOMS, "fatal periods ol." Ao> 
flordinf to Plato about 500 yean. 

Lacohism. short aantence writtan 00 

wan of Bdschaasar (J.). 
LACiiVMATOitiKa, tear-bottles. 
Lauom (F^esch), thief. The tiiano- 

taristio Gasooo. 
Lami, aoft and watery, but without 

ttavoor JPorby's vocabuluy ol 

LAUkXAT DaAPOBT, a picture wttfa 

Uurd (Greenhlll). 
Lasy ov Bbahl, sloth (J.). 
LiOATiON, binding. 
LiOH (" we sle^^ Uons' sldns "), la 

armour, in a state of m&itary 

vigilance (J.). 
LiFAMA, the UpsTBan Islands, near 

Italy, being volcanoes, were fabled 

to caitain the forgea of the 

Cydops a.). 
LigvATiOM, melting. 
Lively, vividly. 
UvstY ("without a"), without 

reccHnpense or fee. 
Lixrvious, Impregnated with alkaline 

LvKK, bait, a term used In falomry. 
Lux EST UMBRA Dei, "light Is the 

shadow of God." 

WiJOMm . . . viTTA, " Great virtues, and 

:»o srualler vices." 
MxcKALiTtss, grcst works from uuaQ 

beghmings (Greenhlll}. 

MunnuuT (" tut muudnlT 

g^2t "ij to i» i(>;^ to 

ItATmATioH, mtwtaf, ripaliis, 
MwioouTY, Bodmiai. 

( ■ntnotial ehaiutai"). 
HucnuMi, ~— — -ilftHnni. 
"Mm, dwto (hi . b3iSt). 

Mnunocsoni, tniiuil(nlka a< 



■fnucouimT, umidlT U I 
Hwoun, dtauiut ' " ' 
JjMTAi. dndir, toUO. 
Honvn, aoUn Ima. 
HimLATi, i>.p. malikted. 

SI™ .'t"!'*l' •tabbon. Th. 
chartcteriilk fiarilihnun. 
HYSTur, Inds, <T>ft 

nothing in vnto." ^^ 

Nahi«autv, nitunlnm. 

^S;«.A "•""""• ■"""="" 

NsBDcnoroiioM,, so ipdt to tlw 

most trmtworthy MSS. 
NiQci SHW . . , mti. "Foe wben 

tS. .tndy or the couch calU ^" 

:"* (S«t, I. 4, I3J) who 1^ 

NiRo, thoBmiwirTibwiiiK 
NocMT, erimtaal (Wslnter). 
NoM AcciDM, " thon shaU not km " 
Nuiramcu,, individual. 
NuBSfAK . . . Mtos, "novtt 1-. 
olono than when aloui." 

OenRTAToa, observv. 

OiLios, Uielio. in the " OijvKy •• iv 

3", refarlns to the d..^u. of AiS 

Oneni ia pceaibi; ipurioue. 

OiVMna, Oljpmpie 
Ounirr, the AUT 

dJSSJ?"""''*^ taHrjnUtloQ o( 

Onnoif jTb.), toeonsidv. 

bSI±i? >»""■-<*«*-. 

OtDMATiOM, eiruKiuat. 
<talS."!vL.T"!'."' "•" Tlb«tai 


OmiAine, pUon for h^ 

the diArence betwen iu^tS 

PlHooum, hai^tafr^ 
PnwiAtion, blowinf throuik o< the 
PiuuoD, term, md. 

PiiuaciA», jjiti, Uiadowa all round 
Si„^,'^*^ «»'»« withta Ih? 
£2? ^^ "»• aunmove roiid 
S2^v■?'' "oaeiiueo'ly imiect 
tbdr ahadom to all dlrecOonilTl 

"aaMcun, teleicope. 
PBILOPtmiic, ohiel of the Achnu 

""^I^wt""- "AMu'ling eith<r to 
i^ufS 7 Aristippui, for the 
pheti" (Greenhill). ' 

";?"'="«'■.« "rttto. bound upon 

toDekeptcooitanUj'inmind. 123 
"^,?,P™a«d by the'je^ doctSS 

PHVtoLooy, sdoice of planta. 
gAi raAuoia, pioua frauds 
ncmHAMt aattHtr. 
PlJM^tabfct, register ; hiaca tiat » 

Kbeme macribed txk > ♦«« . 

(WebeUcjT^ '^''•' 



PiraoA. " PiBtdft, io Us * MoamUa 

Sk T. B.] 


Mt ntkan." (NoU bjr 

oMia Oatmai ymn, «ka ta 
tUagi ilMiM ntm mIo thitr 
hrmv MUM, and In b> frtiliii 
•fOD In hU Mhool, M Kha hi 

-_- In hU _»«, , 

d«Uver«d this opUm.* 

Sir T. B.l "*-""• 
Plaudit, fltudlu was Iha iKm by 

wbidi tU andant tbaalrisal par- 

forman soUdtad a clap {].}. 
Pmwim, pralaaniM lliy. 
Poliaoit (PHneb), o<- 

PoNDiBAiioir, mtehku. 

POTOJ" «oor •■). Lao XI, Paal v., 

Grap»7 XV^ aMi Urban VIII. 

Botuo XI. dad aaartr six aonths 


(Nats by 


PanuwTT, popalnanaas. 

PmiT, pcctaL 

Poan, motto on a rki. 

PoToai, tba fiefa nwontafci el 

PucnaxD, pnetleat 
Pucsnnt, ri(na. 
PaioiiAiR, faalnetin. 
PuiuncAn, temad wllbaat knoir- 

laota ol tba facts. 
Puuns, "Ptasbyttcs" ta tba 
Pusdon, (ocaknoarfcia. 

PusuniY, bmnadlalalT. 
Pnooaa or m Tixi, coBtaxt 
PwromD, to latbom, 
PaooHoancn, loro-tokana. 
PnoKasx, Indinad to; momiaioii 

uoto, bieUnatloo towards. 
Paonuii'ii, yrobably in the asisa ol 

" ocanmon,^' wUdi tba bst aditioa 

PftOPaniABiH, proprietors. 
Paonuxnis, proptrtias. 
Ptoiahv, tbs Klac ol Eljtpt who had 

the Hebrew acripturaa traoilatad 

sod put in bia library. 
PooBUAOB, vfrgbity. 
PuatiUAi, esact ; Purctoauy 

PoircncuLAS, oontained in, sixe of. 

a point 

PYXKHua H» TOK, " wfaich oootd not 

babnnit." [Sir T. B.] 
PvnAoaxAS (" escapes in tba fabn- 

loos HeD d Dante "I, eaoapea tno' 

demnatian, or, parhapa, 

nolica aIlo(elher. 


QsAMATx, aywr, vk. a^ aah. 

ahaoiad ten blsa." 
OnarvAxr, stadiooa d prott H.). 
Onxctno, a n a ta uMM t e« tUnfi by 

Im ana al aaoh oonar,^3 eaa 

Onwgimno, aat ol trs (Graa- 

OoinAiu, tntold. 
OooDuaaneAur, dstanidabia oo 

Haoicai unns, " aaeardtaf to old 
ttadidon Moaaa, by unmsnd ol 
God, took tba M iattaca ol the 
namaa of tba Mbaa, and fooid 
tbau aqod to tba nuibK ol tba 
I"Mllw.,.dadnctint tboaa who wan 
■lata hiiha aaak ol Kcrab, ato." 
(aitract from Graanbm'a note). 

RAOicAnox, pnoiaa ol talAi( raoL 

RAMnxxa, raaparts, 

RXACnON, rotaUatlon. 

RxAaon, raasonabi 

Rxnu, raleelica. 

Rinis, abh, 

RMio-ltoniAMns. lobn VflOer ol 
■SSft^ (I4J*75). "who coo- 
Mrncial an koo fly and a wooden 
•NIK botb ol wblcb wn able to 

_ fly- [Coodanaad ton GraanbUI.] 

RxumaiiT, dkadnUon. 

Rxim or, to taata d. 

RuamsonniAi, ralatlat Io tamtai^ 

RxHOXAS, obatadaaL 

RxHon, atap. 

RxrxoxATiD, ocodanmad to alanud 

Risotonox, Hlotion ; RxaoLonon, 

man ol raaotutlca. 
luspxcnra, partial. 

''".??^'" L"P°?' " "". top«i<d 

by tbs raafrfctions of Uma. 
RxTUxiur . priae-flfbtar who en- 

tanflad bta oppcoent hi a net, which 

by acme daxteroua manafament be 

threw upon him (J.). 
RxTtAKV, xxncnLATK, In farm of nct- 

RXTv -x mm, to rcatcre. 
RxT.Kiai, noH, repayment. 
RxTxxBsxATxD >Y riKx, " foscd aa 

tax revcrbecatory fomace " (Green 

RXYinncATiow, recalling to life. 
KHAraODixa, " axtraTaxanC nonaenal- 

cai booka'* (GroEobflU. 
RiTAUTV, equality. 
RouxsLxs, stq« d s laddv. 
KOAT ^. . IBA, ■"The Iky may falL 

thy wig bo dooai." 








■•JJIJJJWi Wool. . kM <X u. 



•ojjneiAiiT, at iht hMIoi (Oi«k 
|wn«, • Hrto at alUpllo irlioi^g. 


.Caidloar u 
To Mm J-.-4irti»-, ^^ 

5Si S'vM ! " Olh« (hptl, SlhS 

iw^ Ue-okifcoiMaaJ; 

Stnnv <:<niatlaa of) "ts. 


Sicorain, tttK-bktb: 

|™»u>. P«n»ptihl. br the WMi 

AT •««,, to fliht ln^«r '"» 

«■ ■ iP'SCiP'" «?" I -f- 
S^!5 J?"!™ tomUiec wtien 
tnni«t ioto l«i«,'^ibnB„,7i|^ 

^J^HfJ ■ ■ ■ I>«''OCIUTUi. " If De. 


SIMM, vb., to botonlie. 
fnraraoM, teft-hmdiid! 
|oa«". oo-op^atioo. 

«6»«liowUi.7ihouldMtU^ " 

PWHU, ilwUr ttalki. 
I SwHiwui, obio«» 

with • urtow amolni " (J 1 ^^ 

flAiioil, iiltjr. 
STATOn, polltiii^ 

^22*S?*"' •• *> noc tSf I, 
fvmTAnoM, rackooinx 

Tn-uuy, iB mblike muoer 
TOHUAUOn, tvli. 

Romm. on« tahAbltsd tiaET 

TlrroA.v, tait-leaniet 

Thkiaj j, . thtu ln«iib«l aixn th. 

ioc^ death or capital ooodm,^ 


heoi mitUD about tSij 
Thwaat, nwAanxc, triisvena. 
Tixcivaa, touch, coliw ^^^ 
Toanti, twisted. 

^"x.c":,^..'" '""^ -to 

TkAjftviRTiBi. , iuvertible 

TaaAioai, troaiury. 

T^oiu, albanioM cotdi I, „ 


TMnnM Miwli kmkf Mm 

TMno, lh;M^¥S poM 1 
_ »• •» mOMk UJ. 
TMfKU, ' -— " 


Tir«Mt k* 


■^■x Uwt iHkii, «t to «u 
OMIah wUkii klnSi n« ai 


nnru, rata wlihni niiiiilnii 
uuoiMom, lUay. 
Utnoii, nvaatt. 
Vlieoot, kodkad. 

"wSrr"^ •»«M>«I, « Im ki 
UMuraThnlag twody. 

"".IS !f» 'V™^ ■"• "I** »• 
tkkal o( aoadaauUaa ec uqaltkd 
WM <wt (J.). 

VtMum, msdtrlac. 

VAMouMin^ nki.|lorio<a men. 
mln")^ "'"'^ ("wind 

VWia (Um Daka oQ, an aaalant atra- 
mmj fmMrif parioraMd br tha 
Dofa jmttr to annboUsa Ika 
•<>»«tatr al tka (uw om tba 

Vkmnr (vaaa*), tka knga ki Iw 

VimuiMK, l i Mkn, UaaMa. 
Vianemn, lattMaML 

Vnunwtua, fadaaUoa a< a kadr 

Vatmnon, a nuini, aa al a a. 

Wu r Ika wka Bas'i wax "), aOg*. 
tatts Oa atarr al UtA wko 
atorpad Ua oaaapailana'aan oHb 
m aa Ikar paaaad bf Iha SInu 



ZSAUi I ^i^b 

*■££!. »*'J!?' ".I" Ktaf ol Iha 
•Mta^lAoM tawta waa Zao, 

atawkad i*'_* *i '^ w<Hau 

ZmoH, aSSa la 'Sii'a^'.i 





- I 

Mtt I 

Hodioo-i Hoi. H^-.*7 <?">'• I«Tr3t« 

««» Th?lSe"ot L^°'iS "• SoibohS, ^^•'"' Swbohm. {riti, . 


161 Viisil'l ^neld. Translated by E. Fairfax Tarlor 

2S2 „ BdoffUM and Qeonrlos. TraniUated T. F. Royds, M.A. 
871 Esrlpldes' Plays. Vol. II. Trans, by SbeUey, Dean Mllman, et& 
344 Ariatopbanee — Tbe Aohamlans, Tbe Enitrhts* and The Birda 

Frere'a Tranglation. Intro, by John P. Maine 
34A Cicero's Essays and Select Letters. Intro. Note by De Qnicoey 
,404 Epictetus. Moral Discourses, etc. Klizabcth Carter's Transla- 
tion. Edited by W. H. D. Rouse. M.A. 
405-400 Bawlinson's Herodotus. Edited, with, by E. H. Blakeney, 
H.A.. omitting Trans. Ori^al Essays, ana Appendices. 2 vols. 
407409 Plutarch's Lives of Noble tiroeks and Romans. Dryden-s Trans. 
Revlaed, with Intro., by the late Arthur Bosh Cloueh. 3 vols. 
493 Homer's Iliad. Lord Derby's Translation 
464 „ Odyssey. William Cowper's Trans. Intro. Miss F. M. 
455 Tbncydldes' Peloponnesian War. Crawley's Trans. IStawell 
4Se-4S7 Plato. Intro, by A. D. Lindsay 

515 The Complete Poetical Works of Horace 

516 The Comedies of Aristophanes 

565 Plutarch's Moralla. 20 Essays translated by Philemon Holland 

581 The Muses' Paceant. Vol. I. By W. M. L. Hutchinson 

603 Llyy's History of Rome. Vol. I. Trans, by Rot. Canon Roberta 

605 Aristotle's Politics. Intro, by A. D. Lindsay 

606 The Muses' Pageant. VoL II. — The Myths of the Heroes. By 

W. M. L. Hutchinson 
069-670 LlTT's History of Rome. Vols. II. and III. Trans, by Canon 
W. L. Roberta 

671 The Muses' Pageant. Vol. III. 

672 Xenophon's CyropsBdla. Trans, revised by Miss F. M. Stawell 
702 Csear's The OalUc War and Other Commentaries. Translated 

by W. A. McDevltte 


10 Bacon's Essays. Intro, by Ollphant Smeaton 

11 Coleridge's Blographia Literaria. Intro, by Arthor Symons 

12 Emerson's Essays. First and Second Series 

13 Fronde's Short Studies. Vol. I. 

14 Lamb's Essays ot EUa. IntrodnctlOD by Augustine Blrrell 

65 Hazlitt's ShsJcespeare's Characters 

66 Holmes* Autocrat of the Breakfast Table 

67 „ Professor at the BreaJifast Table 

68 ,. Poet at the Breakfast Table 

69 Lady Montagu's Letters. Intro, by R. Brimley Johnson 

70 Walton's Compleat Angler. Intro, by Andrew Lang 

115 Matthew Arnold's Essays. Intro, by O. K. Chesterton 

116 Brown's Rah and his Friends, etc. 

117 Irrlng's Sketch Book of Geoftrey Crayon 

118 Reynolds' Discourses. Intro, by L. Maroh Phillipps 

162 Coleridge's Essays and Lectures on Shakeflpearc\ etc. 
164-167 The Spectator, 4 vols. Intro, by G. Gregory Smith 

168 Tytler*B Essay on the Principles of Translation 
207 Rusldn'a Seven Lamps of Architecture. Intro. Selwyn Image 
20S-212 „ Modem PainterB. 5 vols. Intro, by Lionel Oust 

213-215 „ Stones of Venice. 3 vols. Intro, by L. March Philllppi 

216 „ Unto This Last, The Political Economy of Art 

217 „ Elemento of Drawing and Perspeotlre 

218 „ Pre-Raphaelltlsm. Lectures on Architecture aod 
PointinET, Academy Notes, 1855-1859, and Notes on tb. 
Turner Gallery. Intro, by Laurence BInyon 

219 Kiiskin's Sesame and Lllle.s, The Two Paths, and Tbe Elng ot 

the Golden River. Intro, by Sir Oliver Lodge 

223 Dc Qnincey's Opium Eater. Intro, by Sir G. Douglas 

224 Mazzinl's Duties of Man, etc. Intro, by Thos. Jones, M.A. 
225-226 Maciulay's Essays. 2 vols. Intro, by A. J. Grieve, M.A. 

227 Eiyot's Qouemour. Intro, and Glossary by Prof. Foster Watsos 

228 Ulrio the Farm Servant. Edited with Notes by John Ruskin 

278 Carlyle's Sartor Resartns and Heroes and Hero Worship 

279 Emerson's Representative Men. Intm. by Ernest Rhys 

280 Maehiavelli'smnoe. Special Trans, and Intro, by W. K. Marriott 

281 Thoreau's Walden. Intro, by Walter Raymond 



I, M.A. 

in, etc 



2 vola. 

3 vols. 

1 F. M, 

e. Br 



e aod 
ra tb: 

Zing o( 



566 Tie IiiTtalWs PtarmaS w v 
_ W. V. Bt Wuiam Canton ' 


-—"•*•. -o* wimam uanton 
. 1 nSS?*? V?*'"''*'y ""> SoUtude and other Eaaava 

MitInon«o-(>»iSc5 yolk-Songa. By the Countess 

70S Froude'a Short stnae.? Vol II '^'^ ''■ ^"^^ J"*"*" 

7!3 J.ewman'8 On the Scope and Nature of Unlvonlfir ir^»».t. 

'" '^'S'^r^'^t^"'' ■" ^'»- some Fruit, or Solitude. «.d 

'*"?! Carlyle'i Frenoh ReTolution. 

,. ?? ™i«y'" Byzantine Empire " " 

nil If S°rSJ?.' 5'?'?^^.°' SH" Own Times 

«i MSSSCf »"'«'' R^niMo. 3 vols. 

lis |i»?leT V™""'»'8 »f Canterbury 

,,, "J SS."? 'tS?'" ™d" "le Romans 

lilt Slamondl-s Italian HepibUoe "' "'^ ^- ^ *^'''*' ^-A. 

"» Ohgnige. ol^thj^c™^« (De JoU^viSi^i. Tr«,^ ..u, j^^^ 

Intro, by H. Belloa a roll. 

HISTORY— «()n(inu«if 

ST8-374 Fronde'i Henry ym. Intro, by LleweUrn WUlluu, U.P. 8 yob. 

376 Edward VI. Intro. LleweUyn WUUams, M.P., B.aL. 

376 MachlavoUl'B History of Florence 
377-378 Milman'8 History ol the Jews. 3 vols. 
397-398 Prcsoott'9 Conquest of Mexloo. Wltb Intro, by Thomas Seooomba 

iZ'i Ltttzow's History of Bohemia [2 vola, 

433 Mertvale's History of Rome. (An Introdnotory vol, to Gibbon.) 
Edited with Intro, and Notes by Oliptaant Smeaton. M. A. 
431-436. 474-476 Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 6 Tola 
Edited with Intro, and Notes by Olinhant Smeaton, M.A. 

477 Fronde's Mary Tudor. With Intro. IJewellyn Wililams, M.P, 

478 Washineton Irring's Conquest of Qranada. [B.C.I» 

479 Bede's Ecclesiastical History, etc. Intro, by Vlda D. Scudder 

480 The Pilgrim Fatliers. Intro, by John Masefleld 

C4S-045 Momnuen's The History cf Rome. Translated by W. P. Dick- 
son. LL.D. 4 vols. Withareviewof the work by E. A. Freeman 

.S83-S87 Fronde's History of Queen Eliiiabeth's Reign, t vols. Com- 
pletmg Fronde's " History of England," in 10 vols. 

621-623 Constitutional History of England. 3 vols. By Henry HaUam 
624 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Trans, by James Ingram 

712 Josophus' Wars of the Jews. Intro, by Dr. Jacob Hart 

713 The French Revolution. By F. A. M. Mignet. 
727-728 Green's Short History of the English People. Edited and R«Tl>e<l 

by L. Cecil Jane, with an Appendix by R. P. Farley, E.A. 
734 Ancient Law. By Sir Henrv Maine. With a lengthy lutrodno. 
tion by Proferaor Morgan cf London Umverslty. 
7S7-7SS A History of France. By Jean Victor Duruy. Translated by 
L. Cecil Jane and Lucy Menzles. Introduction by Richard 
Wilson, D.Litt. 


37-39 F. W. Robertson's Sermons on Religion and Lite, Chrlstlaii 

Doctrine, and Bible Subjects. Each Volume with Intro, 

by Canon Burnett 

40 Latimer's Sermons. Intro, by Canon Beeohing 

»0 Butler's Analogy of Religion. Intro, by Rev. Ronald Bayna 

91 Law's Serious Call to a Devout and Holy LHo 

92 Browne's Rellgio Medici, etc. Intro, by Prof. O. H. Eerford 

93 The New Testament. Arranged in the order in which the booki 

came to the Christiana of the First Century. By Principal 

146-147 Maurice's Kingdom of Clirist. 2 vols. [Lindsa; 

200 S. Augustine's Confessions. Dr. Pusey's Translation and Intro. 

301-203 Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. 2 vols. Intro, by Rev. R. Bayoe 

363-256 Ancient Hebrew Literature. Being the Old Testament and 

Apocrypha. 4 vols. Arranged by the Rev. R. B. Taylor 

306 Seeley's Ecce Homo. Intro, by Sir Oliver Lodge 

379 Swedenborg's Heaven and Hell 

380 The Koran. RodwcU's Translation 
403 The Ramayana and The Mahabharata. Translated by the latl 

Romesh Dutt, CLE. 
44S King Edward VI. Flret and Second Prayer Books. Intro, to 
the Right Rev. Bishop of Gloucester 

481 Spinoza's Ethics, etc. Translated by Andrew J. Boyle. WiU 

Intro, by Prof. Santayana 

482 John Stuart Mill's UtUitarianlsm, Liberty, Representatln 

Government. With Intro, by A. D. Lindsay 

483 Bishop Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge, Now Theon 

of Vision. With Intro, by A. D. Lhidaay 

484 A Kempis' Imitation of Christ 

4SS The Little Flowers, and The Life of St. Francis 

647 The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle. Translated by D. P. 

Chase, Intro, by Professor J. A. Smith 
648-i49 Hume's Treatise o( Human Nature, and other Philosonhiol 

Works. Intro, by A. D. Lindsay. 2 vols. 

669 Boehme, Jacob. The Signature of Ail Things, with Otho 

Wrltmgfl. Introduction bv Clifford Bax 

670 A Discourse on Method. By Rcn6 Descartes. Translated tl 

Professor John Veitch. Introduction by A. D. Lindsay 
635 The Divine Love and Wisdom. By Emanuel 8wedenbor( 

— Sarolea 
By Wade 

til Tb? PhSi;?S?'"*if f!° »"» Sua. Intro, b 

J39 Selected Paper, on Phlloeophy^B^vrailam James 

41 Bnmnl^H. p<«^. 183|-1|«. Intro, by Arthur Wanjh 

,„ iSl K&'?;iS"'™ ''"~^- I-""- "7 Edward Hntton 

183 Shakespeare^ Comediea 

"» :: S^SSlS'^"''''*™""* Sonnet. 

307 ChauMr-.^teTbOT ■fees Srtlf.H°>*"iJ2'^J^- "• Kossol 

308 Dante's Dl^rS,^y*{^?'%^Sy P^-iolpal BurreU, M.A. 
./>- „ ^y Mmund Garner ^^^ ^"' ' • SpedaUy edited 
llO hSJSS.? ^25"!?^ I""™- by Edward 

fjl f?3S^;J£?l?^,*1.*^r''SE|.- ■»>y lamest Rhy. 

" &"Edi??d\/ll S.Sriu?^C^^-4h1-'fiSS5B 

i iSiH"^^i-Ss.-»^^irw^,,_ 

«,41J 8^2Si?MjSe"WSiJ?l™t.n Dobson 

.„ -Intro, by Prof. Thomdlte. VoLII^SS^J; Selected, with 
tU S3Siln?^\Se°"^™|'tt?-I!»^f ™q»ha^^ ^'"''P 

«0-«, !4i^'ro(H'S;a^5S'^fv' ■»* ^"'<='"'- l-'i^- by Pror. 

f 5? J^V""" " """BMP ■ 

fi71 Piers Plowman. 

... . Wlthirffii4?oTb?'H'o°r^'^-|Sube^'''^*''^''»«- 

OSS Bjfimson, ThreTamSdlM ?>;.,,i ^"•J'yt?''"™"' Oomo 
6|« Tenny«,n-'.pS°m£°°Vbl°'h..fe,^fo^- ^'"■■>"1''«™ Sharp 
" ^1?y°l:d'Slm?r{?a"rer =^ ''""^ «"*««• Ro.»ttl. Intro. 

..„ „ProI. W. H. Kyder '^n™*- By EaUdAsa. Trans, by 

"BarerSfSSJaS^S'^f,' ^ F.etcherr iStS.. by Pror. 

i ^"•■GKSd^^i'g'pU^''"^- '■'<£?• by^AndrewL««. 
; ?lM>Plo™an. BTwiPllS"lJSSSj''''^*^"''"^"''-'S5iarp 

Itl Klo5>MiB?rtis?3r-''<^'*-'*'' 

POETRY AND DftAUA-conlin^d 


495 Si^th^. |m^»ja«.lc«I DloUoSS?:" SeTtaad „d Edited ij 

... , ,p- H. Blakener, jiX' 

--&d".Sdlp'a^?£, ^»d„MS!l^; 

JMADlcUpnarroJD^te. *"• "• ■^«"«'- 

IIj TSS?i^'.F"''.'!;r™ Sf ^aiOA Words afS PhruM. 2 toK 
«t? ?'S*'''°"'^ of Non-aMaloal Mythologv '^'"~°"- ' "■»• 
mi «t5 iv^Jf^SL?"* HirtorloU Atli^ of Air« 

aei A Literary and Htatohcal AtUa of Africa and AiutraUa 

.«. B'1^ '^^' ^SSHy ^"K-S^lfe^ 
■— By Wiuiam MorrlB 

SSf iP° Story of Bnmt Nlal. Tn 

577 H'"!S«-^th,£ii-;,-Brttaln7 SyTSlSS^f Monmonth 
■«s Arthurian Romanoe, translated by Bnrone "-" 


«3« 'o'iKS^fS?- ?'S''^""tio'S^'SyZl5?S»' *"""^ 




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