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Full text of "Geology of the North American cordillera at the forty-ninth parallel [microform]"

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I— 11112.2 


^^ lb^! EgsI Mot. St'ee' 

^^S Rodesler, New rorii '•609 uSA 

'-as (7' 6) <.82 - 0300 - Phv- 

^= (7! 6) 288 - &989 -fa. 

t'jhjfe 4ir. •« •■*■ *v- 


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T.niHiKil lluuiiiliirv Mi.nuiiiMiit ».■: l.y tli- Hm;ilion:il ('..T.mji>sioii 
at the I'iiciHc Slmn-. 

2."a-K.l. ii. 



D E P A ]{ T M E N '1' () F M I N E S 


Hon. I'lUBERi l!ii(.n:s. MiM.<iKi; ; A. I'. I,ow. iv MiM.-<rtii: 

1.'. \V. lUuil K, I'lUKl HiK. 

MKMOIW No. ;{« 













Viiii \ 


Reginald Aldworth Daly. 

IN tiii;i:k |'.\kts 

!• A i: I I. 

< ' I I A \V A 

'^•'VKK.V.M K.NT !■ H I N T I N C lU'U!: VK 

N. . iL'ii:; 





Rs' ra 


Tlil--Uf.'h tlu .•,>;;rI,■^^ ■• W. K. KiriL'. C.M.C. M,.I).. \',..\.. D.T.-,. ( liirl 
A.-trii:."iriir. I iipiii-rijn ijt ■<; ilii liili'iii.r. •!;!■ < liiiliiiiii'jl Survey i- en.: ''IcI I" 
IHilili-h tlii- Ml 111. .-r. 'I'll,- liilii Wi'i'k \va> .If.m- iiii'li-r. aii'l at the ( xpi n-. i.l'. 
the 1 iilrrnati'iiial I liiiiihiary I iiinini--:.'ii. ai^l a|i|M>ar- a- an appcmlis 'k ilir 
report ■■! Mr. Kin:;, tla ('aiia'iiaii < ,,! r. A- tlir rcpnrt cuii-lil nfc - .1 
IIIII-- ::i:portan; r..!i;i il'iition !■' "Iir i;c'o!iiy\ c! \M-tcrn (aiiaila. ami a- in il- 
' Mliir ll'ink' torni ii \v..ulil n't li> availal'lc t(.r nian.v lilirarir.-; aiel inilivi'liial- 
tluil Wriial have u.-i- li.r it. Dr. I\iiiL: kimllv i',.n-cnteil to alhav tlic ( ii i.lii;;i.'al 
SurM\ i.i print it a- a ( M'.i'...L;i'M! >urvi\ M. imiir, ;nni tliii- scrnrc loi i' 

Tl', (;.,o.i;ir;,i .-1 rv, A i- ii|(a-.-i! -M l^e alili' In a. Id t., it- li-t of Memoir- 
tlii- \v..ik that itoai- with tin :;e.ilo:;'\ ..!' -n.-h a hm^' ai.i important -e.-lioii 
thrMiii;h the Wi-ierii (oriliiieia. It n ii-t he ret'errcd to fnn=tantly in t'nlnre 
Work il aliiifr with the i;iohiL:,\ .1! iJriti-h I'oiumhia. atid \V(?rc it not avai'ai.le 
ill the pnlilieatioi;- : tla- Sir\(> t:reat !o-- ami iiie,,!.venienee wotilii re.-ult, 

iSif-'M.d) R. W. Brock, 

Cioi , 1,11 \i. St i!\ I ^ . 

Mtta\v\. O.-oUt Jl. U'lL'. 





S^* J^.-;.'-. ,-*.■ 



A. 1012 


(i E O L () G V 








8361— B 

:.if""'- «'■-• •' mty:f. 




A, 1912 


Massaciiim ITS Tnstititk i,i- Tkciisoi.oov, 

Boston, Mass., April 30. 1910. 

W. F. Kixfi, Ea.|.. C.M.G., BA., rj,.r>., 

Commissioner for Canada, Intcmatioiuil Ijoiin.hiry Survevs. 

SiK,-I hnvo tlu. li.;nour to sul.nut th, :V.ll,.wi„;. n-i.urt on tlip (ieolopy of 
the mountains crossed by the intvrnatinn.l h.,;n,lary at tlie Forty-nlMtl> Parallol. 
The report is based on fiehlwork oarritnl ,,u .liirin»r tho .reasons of looi to 1006 
innlusive. To yourself, under whose (i;r.eti,.n the whole work has been d,.ne and 
from whom I have re.eived help in many „;,y=. I b.L' to tender my sineere 

I have the hcinour to bo. sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


«:»il H' 




A. 1»1t 


I'AIM- 1. 



IntroJuctiiiii 1 

Area covered 1 

roiiditions of work iu t'\c tiiM 1 

Acknowledjfiinnts -2 

Collections ;j 

I'rcvious pulilicufions by tho writer .u the I'ortv-iiiutli I'arnllel Keoloffy 3 

Earlier work on the geologry of the Forty-ninth Parallel 5 

rJontinuation of tho Forty-ninth Panilel section .^ 

fleneral aketeh of the gtihiect matter 5 


S.Mio|j!ti9 of 'Ire report 9 


Nomenclature of the mountain rr.i.pes . r --cd hv the Forty-ninth 

Parallel ' i: 

Introduction and outline 17 

DifTerent nomenclatures in use 18 

Divers.' nainiu); of the nt-^tern niountai;; n-^ion as a whole IS 

Diverse naming of rariRes crossed i^. the Forty-ninth Parallel 22 

Adopte<I principle of nonienclatnrr- f..r the P.-viiinInry mountiiina. ... 23 

Trenches and greater valleys 25 

Subdivision of Rocky Mountain syetcni 27 

Pnreell mountain system ami its «iihdivisioi 30 

Selkirk mountain system and its suhdivisiun 34 

Columbia mountain system and its "ihilivision 37 

Belt of Interior Plateaus 40 

Cascade mountain rvstem and it- - i..iivi.i.,n iO 

Summary 42 

Leading referen<es 43 


Stratigraphy and structu.e of the C'laike r.ingo 47 

Rocky Mountain geosyiiclinal prism 47 

Lewis series 49 


'C'r*-JMp»^--iftjaf.«,-«s?^ ^-:iS»;^.:iK?"3». 


/'//'twn/M/ ,„ nil iMi:i!,„!; 

3 GEORGE V. A. 1912 

W'Htorf ■!, r..riii:iti.i|i 

AllMl frifMKKioti 

'•I'lHT.ll (|.',iTipfi ,,; , 

l-"V"rr ilivisi,i||. . . 

Mi'Mi" iiiM :.ii.. .."..". ".■'..■'. 

I'r'I" !• >liv|.i(in 

f^-'ltiimrM..!, ,|,„1 . .M.-I ,..; .,',^.' ' _"_' _' 


Aii|>pk<ii,i,v f. rniiiti,,!, *_' 

(iriiiiirll Cnrin.ih'.ti ' '_ ' ' ' 

J^iyrli r.nii:itl..ti 

Sliop,,,.r.| f,,,„,„,;,.„^ _ _ '' "" 

(•(MliT.ll i|. - ■ 

IiiI.tI.cM. ,1 1;,,;,. . , ".'. 
K'iiithi t".Tni.ili..ii 

:^''7" f.Tri„-,i.. ,,,,.1 .I^irn-;'.' ^,r,;,;.lin„- ■' 

» rptai'cmu turiiiMti .n-. p,'" ili,. c, . in • . . 

Ki. hn f.-„u,i'.,l ";";''■"■"" -" "- I-r.v-,nn.|, l.„r.,l!..I. 

l'<"<t-.Min,v„.. (■..rn,;,i,,,„. ,.f ,;„ 

F'lliis mi'l t'iiu)!^ 

'•r. at f .uls ..Vrrtlii',Mt. 

■I'M' I'l.-ilti- at til.. K..rtv-rn,il|, \\ 
ii' 'ir-ai I'laiiiv . . . 










' ir\I'CFi; \- 

(inll„n.s,Ti,. -^'in-nahl a:,,! (ialfu,, ninses., 

Allyii fiiirjiati.ii 

Ili-ffy foniiati.ii, 

Jlii"l>wiial.l fnniiati. .„.','.'.' '/ / ' _ 

^ViKWi.iii l"..rin, 

Si.vrh t'.,niiati.iii 

flatinwiy f'..riiiati.,ii 

l'liil'i|is f.riJia'i,.ii 

Ifoosvil!,. f,,niiatiMii 

I'fvoiiiaii l"nni.ati..|; i 

Drecriptiou. . 



. . 101 
. . IK.'i 

• • 104 

. . h'- 
. . io> 


■ no 
. 11(1 

. 11! 
Fossils 1|.; 

^'rn,.un.,,f,i,,.,,n;,,;.:Ma,.i,,a;ai/,,;:,„;,,i,,^,,;,;,,:: n: 


n til,. (,;,] 

'"11 r.iuu 


.■ozoic ),„„.-,..„,., of tt„. Ma.-l»,,„aM 



u: I'liur III' nil I nil I iw/.-'ivoup/,- 


fllAIMIi; VI 

8truti«r,ipl./ un<i slrii.iurf if tl.i- I'ur. .11 ni.niiii.iiii -yat.-iii 

I'liri'i'll K.-ric* 

f'ro'ftoii fciriiiiiii.'ii 

(iftiiTiil ili'^i-rii'iii'ii 

WcstiTIl |ill:l-f , . . 

I'!il*l('rn ph;i-ic 

Ivit.'lic-iii'r I'Ml-Miali-ii 

Wi-atcrii pliiini' 

KiftiTn i>li;i-i' 

Nfrnii- fnriiiiilioii 

OntinMiv fi.riiiiiticii in tlir M.l iilli\ |-.,y r i . 
>trii.'fnn' ..I' tlm I'nr.'rl' timnmaiii i^v^trin 




'iiAi'iii; VII. 

Striltij.'rii|ili.v ,.|' iLr Srlkiil. iii..:iht;iiii «,v.i. m i in pn 

^'nnilllit -ryU'-i 

Il''l oiiL'li iMi TMli |., 

Iri'ih' Vol.arii.' i..ti 

^f(>nk f(ii;iiiili.iii 

Wolf fi.riiKiti..M 

l>,-'Wilncv ruriiiiili'iu 

Iii|i|ili' fiiViMiiliiiii 

Hi'diivc roriiiiitii'ii 

I, I. Ill' St;ir fi.riiiati.iii 




1 1: 

1 -, 



Corri-liitii.n nf ilir r..riiKili.iiis mi ih,. \l,,.ky Mmii, 
C'orrrliiti..ii aLmu tin- ri.rty-iiinlh Piinillil.. 

Sys'ciiiiitic Viii'iatiiin in flio r'uk-cliirM.Mcr 
Forly-niiitli Pjini'li'l 

Motiiiiiorpliisiii if :..,' j;(' |.ri-iii 

S|ioc'ifii' gravity nf l|]i> ^'(.'u-yiii'lirial prism 

rorrolation of flic fnur liiuiiuiiiry scries witli tlic Ca-iS ' 

Tvivcr (( 'iimhriati) (rronp. Suinniary 

Correlation with the Hclt tcrranc 

Farlicr vicnvs un tlic I!( It tcrranc 

Tlvirlonco of fn>si]ji 

lielativo indnrati''!! iiii.l ini'iaincrplii-ni "f the Hclt tcn:f .> a; 
Flathonil forinnfion 

Evidence of iiiieonfonnity 

^nmiiiary of coneliisicns 

rorrflation with Dawson's S<'!kirl; and AdaJii- Lake series 







2 oconac v, a. mt 

tMtern (;fo.,„,.Ji„„i H,.|, „f „,„ (.„r.lill..rn . ***??: 

Aaii of till, liiwky Nfuuntiiin if.-.«vii.lirul [Z 

• f.p«r F«I,,./oi,. ,,.,rfi.... o' ,l,o |{„..k,v «.;o«.vn;.ii,;ui;; .■." .' .' uJJ 


Jntrodiirfion -W 

Purocii J4iv,i of fh,/MV(iniivVay ;;nif,.;. ' .' .^?! 

DikMiin,! h.IIh i„ tiM. MHiillivniv ••,!.., .. i?' 

Purtcll I.ava ir. tl... <i.,It..n innRv. .... f ^ 

Pufcell luvn in tlH> ( lurkn nu ,?.. *" 

Dike, ami .im i,, ,|„, ( lark,. nw.Kr.V , Jw 

luwil r.ava «,.(] u.H.s.M.i,Ur,| intriHiN... i„ fho fowl. ,««« l\« 

RWafon of .ill. and .liko, to th- Pun.!, ., Uve "^ ! J 

•*'iii»iiii.Trv. ... 218 


<'ifAi'vi:i{ .\. 

Intrwme.nUo.,!,. |.ur,,ll„ ,„;„,,,„„, 

Intrmluctioti 221 

J'iunl .•Mt,.,,o9ition of Iho inirlisivr. ^21 

.ati.iin from the usuhI (.•oiii,H«itioM ^^2 

Moyio sills 226 

Abnormal biofito Kraiiite. . -^^ 

Abnormal hornblondr-bioti'i, ffriinit,' -^^ 

Interm.cliate ro.K-fyito 232 

AbnorniMl Iiorni.loii.Ic p,ilil,r,,, . .. .. ' ^32 

Rfeiiino of til,. |)r*rii(rraiili,y 2'''' 

EMnitinl f«.H',„r,..s of tl,o .I'itf.T.Vi, silK ^Sr. 

•>ri(riii of tlin iK'i.l i.lir.flps 236 

Preferred ex[)Ianation . . -3" 

Flat po.,itio„ of ^„.,r„i,o at um. of 'intrusion.'. . .' .' o^ 

^iiporfusinn of sill niiitfiiia ^^^ 

Evidence of xenolitlig. . . "^ 243 

Hybrid rock 243 

AMiraiiation at deeper levels ^^ 

Agfiimilation throuKh m-.Tniafi.; vapours f^ 

Summary of the arpumentH f„r ..s.-imiktion **^ 

Oravitative differentiation. . . ''""'•'""' 247 

Similar and analogous eaoes 247 

"tneral ooTK-liision nml ,';pT)li<.fltion 249 


HrpiiHT Of run rntrr AnTHnsuvr.n 


<'TKn xf. 

Stratigraphy a.,.| .iru. t„r« of th« Hdltirk mount«in ^vMoin (rr-um.^O 

Kitcbeimr fornmtion 

Vt'xm Hivrr tprruiii* 

Kx|iiiKuic» iiml coiiiliiiiiii- ..' -tiKlv 

IV troKrupliv of llrlt A ' 

-f n.'if n ■ ■. ■ ■ 

i.f llrlt r ■ ■ ■ 

^i Hrit M 

• f \Mi V 

if n.-ii. !•• 

>i Holf (1 !.......'.' 

ofrip'fiir.' ill tIi.' I'li. -t H 







Thirknco'i'ii iinil 

r'orrcliitidti. . . . 
I'.iirl D'Or-ill.. KToiip 

Ooni^riil ih'<iTi|.li. I! o»i 

Ar<>ii t'liHt of SiiliuoM riviT 273 

Arort wtMt i<i Siiliiiori rivi !• 

rorroliitioii a-, 

Siimiiinry on fhp «triffup' of il,,. \ " 

r 11 rr-jiii' 







< nAPTKI! \\\. 

Intrusive roi'kg of till. Si Ikirk 111., iiiitiiiu system .)m 

.Mt'taiiiorphogod hnxir iniriisivcs in tho Pri..-t Rivrr 
Abnormal granite intru«i\e int.i tho Klt.-l 
Rykort granite batholith 

iiTii. 2S2 

leni'r qimrtzite 2S3 

nnyonne batholitl: ami \\f sntollit. - . . . ogg 

Petrography of the l.nthnlith ........ .'. o()0 

Contn<'t mctamorp'tisin .^,,., 

Sfltellitie Btocks on the "livide o^i) 

Petrography ' .\ ......... .. oofi 

•^oiitact melaiiiorplii-ni o^- 

Qiiartz-diorifo opopliyseg JJ^^ 

Relation of the ..<f.>|.k-' t,, il.' Hi. \..iuii. !.:itl...litli r?oi 

Lost Creek grnnite body ^(^ 

Bunker Tlill stock " " 3^3 

Salmon River monzonit■^ ... 

1-amprophyrie <like.s ami silj.. 
Porphyritie mioa minette. 

Augito minctte 

Hornblende-aiiyite niinetfc 
Olivine-anffite niinetto. . . 

Comparison of the minette^ witli the worM- 




average 31 1 

i>Ki'Ajtnii:\r <,r riii: istkrior 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 


Cnmiitoiui,.. . . 

Odii:if,. " ' 

Apliri.: an, I »,.i,| ap.,,',|,'vsal '.iik,.!. 

'HAI'TCi; \T!I. 







I ii/eo.'^.i.' f,.rmali,,iis •"•1!' 

CarlioiiilVron.-; \w]< ii, \\,',\.'<\, ' ',', "-'' 

Sn,i,.,!a,„l ^-M-t.,.,. ,.,',■;;],'!;; "' '"■'"'"^'•^n":- '^■n 

Suriimarv. . 

i^x:; :::;::'''''':;:;;•;"■• ■^'■- ,, 

<''-i"'i'al .!, n>t|,.„ .V.'! 

T'-tm^ra,,i,v „r ,!„, ],,,: ;,;„i ,.Jn„.i,;.;u •'^■• 

Amlmi.. lalilo "i\ 

A'.'i.'it,-l,i,,iit,. l„,ii,.. . V. •''2t 

Aiiui(|.-,,lii;„,, I.I,;,,, ^ '.VIC 

"•■nil,l..|i,l,. ,i:,M.;; > i.|,j,^, :V2=^ 

ff-inl:l.'ii.l,..l,i, ,!,•(,-> I;,,;,,, .^1^0 

'i!' tile latii.. ?,:',n 

l''i-tii!'' .■iiim',,. );,,;(, .'Kl 

<"nm,.aii<,.,, „ii!, si,.,.i.'| \,.v.'„,V )■':.■ ' ' ,' ' :; -"' 

7.,ni(.. ■' ■' ' " •••" ' ""'' ^iv,.,-a-. „„„,- 

Auijitn niiil,.<;tp ;',;!1 

l.ii^alt-: V_ ■ ■ ^\o^ 

_F!.,«- ,,f liharin'r <,!,mM';;',„'' •'!-'?3 

IniT- a,„| a^'-LiiiK^rat,.- ••!"" 

'"nir... ,.,,fi„^ ,!„> T?o..i„:,i ,,,,,.;„;,;,^ nn» 

I'""" : M.'Ha,. ,.r,.,.k.. . ^34 

''•"■I'liyriti,. l,;„vl..,rLM-f,. (,„•,.',■,•'.,'.''> ■'!-'^r, 

iiaKUvsa,,,) p„H,i,„i„, ,„,^ ,,,;_,;;;._-,-, -,! 

Udsslaiiil monzniiitc. . . .'5.'',7 

i^'^!'- jn.,„z.,nitP a,^i'i,oniiii,.M;ii't;. i,;, ■,.„',;, ; ,;. ■,: ^^r 

Sl>onl<,n:ti,M.v,,r at lliitor ■■m.k ■•!44 

'.ratiifo ?t(,fk .M^t ..!' ra<,-a,l,. "lr> 

Trail batiiollrli ' ' .-j-ln 

T^f'finifini, ■ n^,. 

Potn^Tapliy ' ;i4(j 

nitW'iitiaii,,., i,, |,1„.,, 347 

Sliatti^'-holt ,'?4S 


hi.rouT OF Tin: riirKr ASTi;o\,nn:i,' 



CoiigloiiKTuto foniiiitiHiH I'aok. 

(;;onglonierato «t l,Ao inou'ntain' ''''" 

<;^>Wo„„.rat,, „f S„,,1„V „„„„„, |„ ;ir.o 

onffoinerato area at Afonimiont 17' ■'•'^" 

• onirlr.mcrate nron at Af..nin„ont M'- •'''' 

t crrclafion an.l nri-iii. . . •"■''- 

lioav.T .\r.,initain -roup. . .,'.' •'i.V2 

C^t'IKTal ilcsrTiption. ... ■''•"'l' 

Sf<liiii,-jf< ■ ■ ;!r,2 

Vcilcani.-- .".,".'! 

Shpjiparfl f;raiii!.- -"..".I 

Porpliyritir nliviiio sy,-niK..V .. ■• ■''"'• 

('■■rvoll syoiiitf liatli..]it!i . .......". •'•''" 

l>i>minatif iilia^f •"."i-i 

Ba.«ie plias(> ar CMiiiai-j, ... •'■"''' 

Apnpliy;(,q ■ ■ ;;,;(-) 

Coiitaot iiiofamorphisni •• •'''- 

'' rSn^H;!,"^';"^^::'*^^^ "^'^"'''' *- '''^' ^'"■^^" ''^">-"ti.:.- ; ; nS 

T)ikos ,'!ii:', 

.Mi.'isourite (like '\ 'Mr, 

Variousi r.tlier dik.-. . ^M 

snmn.„^y of ,,r.;,, :,.,i;H;ui:,;,; ;,/,,; -i;;,;^!;;-;;..^ n.!o 

lime relations ■ ■ '-""i .ii"ui,taii,.> ;;-„ 

O!. served fact? 'm2 

IV..l,ali!e relatiniis. ........' ^''2 

(Correlation -fT') 



General (Ie.=eript inn ' • ■■ ■'iT7 

Grand Forks seliist.s ' 377 

Caseado ffnoissi,' batholith.'.' .' 37S 

General ileseription ', ■'570 

Nature and ori.iri,, ,,f landhi"' ^'^ 

f^melt.T srranito stook ' ."iSO 

Attu-nod series •''^1 

Glilorite and I-.TnldLnde'seliisls! •''*^ 

I IM-Illx V,.],.:,,,;,. n-,-,-,,,p_ _ ,3S.1 

^•^rpontine ' .'?'?3 

Granodioritn .'iSS 

♦Correlation .^sr. 

" • 3«7 



2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

mountains ami Anarchist moimtflin-plateau).. .. ' o«n 
Introduction '*"•' 

Anarchist series •''^^ 

CJeneral description [[ ^^^ 

Nature of the nietainorphi=in. .". ^?^ 

Rock Creek pliitonic bodip-- "^^ 

Diorite '.."..".. ^^^ 

Oranodiorite "^^^ 

Dunite ^^^ 

Kettle River formation . on'' 

Oeneral description . 

Oeolnpical ajre ■* 

Midway volcanic proup (in part). ^nl 

Oeneral description 

Petrography of the subalkaline lavas. ^H 

Rock Creek r' uolith '^'"' 

Structura; . jlations \ ■**'^ 

Dominant rock type ^^ 

fi«noraI description. . '*^^ 

Rhomb-feldspar !'..".."..'! ^°^ 

Other con.stituent8 ^^ 

Chemical composition and classificnfioi, \f the' ro',1- mt 

Contact ,,ha8e of the chonolith. . I^f 

Other intrusions nf rhomh-ponihyrv.. . Ir^ 

Extrusive phase of the rliomb-porphyrj- *,!? 

Analcitic rhomb-porphyry (.shackanite^ . T,? 

North of Rock creek ....'. 

Other occurrences ^^^ 

Intrusive rocks cutting Kettle Rivei- VtraJa f}^ 

Porphyrites. ■*l° 

Pulaskite porphyry ^^^ 

Order of eruption of the Midway lavas '^'^ 

Rtr,ujur.l relation, .f the Columbia moun;ainsy;tem west„fn.risHna '"" 

Correlation. . . -tSO 



Roof-pendante ^"^ 

Unity of the composite batholitli. *^^ 

-.■dimentary rocks and associated ba-j,' volcanic* f^I 




n, • , Faoe. 

lertiary ( !) rocks ut Osoyoos lake 433 

Petrography of the composite Imtholith 43'- 

Richter Mountain hornbloiidito 433 

Chopaka basic intrusives 433 

Ashnola gabbro ^gg 

Basic Complex 43g 

Nodulo-beariiig ixridttito dik- 437 

Vesicular andosito dikes. . . 439 

Osoyoos batholith 439 

Original granodioritic type 439 

Dynamic and liydrotliermal metamorphi=ni of the granodiorite 441 

Remniol batholith 443 

Western phase 443 

Eastern phase 445 

Interpretations of tif I'.v,. ii|ia-i<^.-; 447 

Kruger alkaline body 44g 

General description 443 

Augite-biotite maliatiitu 4_r,9 

Femic ncphelito sy'iiirc ^51 

Nepliclitc syenite ^tjo 

Summary jrl 

ifetamorphism 451- 

Siniilkameen batholith 455 

General character 451; 

l^asic phase at contact 457 

Comparison witli Kruger alkaliii. l„Mly 453 

Dikes cutting the Siniilkanifcn Lafbolirli 459 

Cathedral batholith ^k^c^ 

Older phase ' ' ^r,^ 

Younger phase ^c^■^ 

Relation to SiniilkaTuej^n latholitli 4(5] 

Dikes cutting the Cathedra' Lathnlitli 4et 

Park granite stock 4^4 

Oeological r<>]ati'iiis and general Ptr;i'tiirc ^CiC, 

Resume of the geological history 47^ 

Se(iuenco of the eruptive rock> 47j 

Method of intrusion 47g 

General summary 47 ^ 


Formations of the Hozomoen rai:ge 479 

General description 4'.9 

Pasayten series ,-,n 

Intro<luctioii ^^9 

Stratigraphy 4gg 

Fossils collected 400 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

rasiijion v.,I(niiic formation. . . . '*'^«i-- 

LiKiitniiiR CrcH'k diorite. . '"!• 

So IS ::Sr :: rr:"^/^^ -;-^.t.v .,;,;,•,■:„;;. : •. : ■ ;; ;; : ; ^;; 

Its siiec'ul iriiporfnijre '''3 

I'oiiiiiuint [iliasi' 402 

Bnsi,' coiitiii't (.iinsc. 'S'- 

^triictiinil rcliitioiii. . .. .. , *^^ 

IiitruMMii of .swnifo ,„,r,,l,vn' "^t 

IVfroL' ^ ' lO'.l 

Com-!atioii .'. .. ^•^'^ 

Ilozoincoi] series '"'I'l 

ficiii-ral (!cs,.ri|iti ,1!. . .. •"CO 

Correlation " ."00 

Stn.etural re!:if;„„s ;„ ih,. raii'.-e '•"- 

Correlation "'04 

Siiiiiniary of _r,.,.!,,L.;,,,,| |,,-..,',',.v -"On 


CJr.AI'TFi; xvin. 

Formations of »!,,. .si,-,..;, ,, ,,, , • 

(■eneral .slatoriii 'If SOT 

Sf-atitied formations. . . . ,\ '.'. S07 

IWomeeii .series , SOS 

riiijiiuack series 50S 

Oeneral eharneter an.i .iiltrihuHoi, ^^^ 

T)oUuM .e..tion. an.i ,l,e fossil if,;,,;: h:.vb...- -?' 

'•eneral eolnmnar .seetion. ''^O 

Ooolotrieal aw .if tl;e -or'. - '"'''■♦ 

Cultuii formation •"11 

Stratiirrai.i,,v;nM striMniv'!. '"l'' 

Fossils .'i(! 

Tamiliy .srrics. ... ."17 

iruntimrilon formation 51S 

Jffneo,is-r..ok f,,rtMati.,ns. . . "'!!> 

Chillinaek voleanio f,:r,>,',t,:',,',, ''-^ 

Voilder greenstone •''>-l 

f'n.ster frranitO'irneisv. .' .'. -'Se 

Original roel<.ty,,o. " ' .^L'.■; 

Bamlerl striietiiro ■"-I 

S-.ima.-. fxranlte nn.I .lioiif,., , ^>-l 

Crnnito 52C, 

Diorite ."il'i; 

Ska-it voleani,. M,; [] r)2: 

Skac-.'f IiarzliiirKife. . •"'2-^ 

."i.T I 

REVORT OF Tin: (■iiif:F A.'-ri{ii.\i>ui:ii xvii 



Sl.'sse dioriti' f,;ij 

I'ltrograpliy .-3^ 

('()iiti)''t nietiiiiiui|ilil-i.i 534 

('hilliwark Kraiii)'lir>ri'.- iML.-liti' XH 

I'ctrdjjrapliy 535 

Contact iiKtaiiiiirplii-iii 510 

Intriisivi's cutting the SlcuL'i. vi.l'-.iiii.-v ,',jO 

Moiizoiiifo -tcii'k 54] 

Dikes '.'.....'.'..'. ':,\l 

Dikes ciifliii;;' till- rliiiliuiick lialli.ililli 54J 

A<'i(i liikcs cuttiiifr the I'liilliwack sorios 54;; 

Basic ilikc^ and t:ri'cii-l"iii . in tin- Cliiliiwac); scfics 54;) 

Structural rclati"ii< 5tl 

(^1r^l•lafil1I; 5t.'". 


(ilAl'TKi: XIX. 

Corrulaticn iji llic Wcstirii 1 Ico-yn.' belt 547 

Principles iised in correlation 547 

aiiioTiK formations at tiio F.irty-iiiiitli i'arallcl 550 

.,<-,.. . fion within tlie Wasterii < Ii'.. synclinal holt 555 

Oener, . features of tlie Western ( licit 505 

criAI'TKIl \X. 

Summary uf Kcloj^iciil history and note ,,n ..r(i;:ciuc tiii'.,]-v 567 

Ocological history nf the Cordilli'ra af tho Forty-ninth I'arallcl 507 

Ohscn-atioiis liearinir on the th.-.iry i.f inoiintain-lmiMiiiir .'■7:.' 


(llaciatioii of the ( '..rdillera ;it the For'v-iiiiii!i |iafallcl 577 

Jntro<liii-tiipn r-- 

o ^ i 

<'!arke raiifre- 579 

.Vatiire and extent ■■( yha-ial croi^.ii 5SO 

< ialtiai-^raid)onald ni'.uiitali! !.r<i .i- 5S4 

I'urceli niciunfain .sy^iriii 5si; 

Selkirk nin.intain systi-in 5«s 

('(duml)ia niMimtai.i ~\-t,iii ;ii,,i ih, liit.rl'ii- r'al..i.;, 5sf» 

Okanafiaii raiive r,r)] 

lIozinneiMi rairj" 51)3 

Sknfrit ranpe r,i,4 

Sniiiinary 597 


2 QEORQE V, A. 19t2 

I'liysioKruplii.- -luti., m, tl„. Fori.v-niutl. V:\tA\A sction 699 

Origin of tiio ninHtor vallcvs kqo 

inaividunl inouiituin niiiKPs ii.^ i'li,v-i."ra|ilii.< proviiii'ps 60] 

Front rdrige syncliiie ' ' ' ' g^j 

Oalton-MacDoimld }i(.rHt 604 

Qi'MtioM of a Tertiiir.v pen, ,>hu„ i„ t|„ K,„.l,v U '..iMtiihi ,Wt.'.in.' 605 

I iirtell coinpoiiiid liorst gjQ 

Nelson ranpe nionocliiif 0.0 

BoniiiiiKfon-Kosslanil mountain proui ]. .' 613 

Cliristinii range and lioiindnry ('ipek di-tiiif ][ \ 614 

Midway volcanic disf rift atr. 

Interior I'latcaiis -.„ 

Okauagan rnnpo g-o 

Hozoniecn range goQ 

Skagit range 621 

QuMtion of a general Tertiary pencidaii, i„ tlie <xsca1c' mountains" 621 

i)evelopment ot accordance of summit in alpine mountains. ... 631 

Explanations liy inheritance ' "_ " g^o 

Spontaneous development (f summit-level acordance. . e'jS 

Summary j,^j 

(ieneral conclusions on tlic i.iiysiograpliic history ..f the Cord iilc'r'i at 

the Forty-nintli Parallel ' ' p.. 


First calcareous fossils and the origin of the pre-Siluri;ui lin.estones 643 

Introductory; ahstrnct of chapter g^o 

Explanations of tlie unfossiliferous cliMrMcr of' the |irc-('amhriuH'<edi- 

I'lnits g^g 

Ilypotiicsis of the nieliinioi-pliic dc.-lruetion of l'..ssil rcnuiins.'.' ." 045 

brooks hypothesis p' 

Sugcr. -ted hypothesis '^ 

Precipitation of lime salts through tl,.. de,,',,',,,; '-i'tinn', Vdi.^d orginiisms CIO 

Duration of the nearly Hmeless sea gig 

Effeets of the Iliirouinn oi'oLivMic ri'v.ihiti.iii g.g 

Analyses of the Ottawa river gro 

Comparison ,,f the ()ttaw:i and nth<'r riv.r-. . .'.' .'. g5j 

f'licmieal contrast ..f i.rc-Caiohn.iii and later liver -v-t. MIS g'^j 

Variations in the cah' . s„p,,]y ,l„ri„^, and after fl,, pre-( ■amhrian.' .' 050 

r irst cah'ereous tossii.s 

Tests of the suggested hypothesis. ! . . .'.'..' . .' .'.' .'.' [[ .' ,;^g 

Torrohorative experiinonts JL^, 

Ol.scrvations on the Rlack Sen .....'..' .'.' .'.' .'.' .' ' \] [' ggg 

Pre-Camhvian sedimentary deposits /, gg^ 

Origin of dolomite and of other niagnesian so,]i,„p„f;i'. "_ '\ ][ gg\ 

Rri'iiirr or iiii: vun.t \stiiuso\ikk xix 



AviTiitfo ratio of i-iil«'iiiiii ti. inntriic^iiiin in 'lir linn-i|nni'« of tlic 

Hitfcront periods f<M 

Ori(fiii of cfTliiin iron oros. ilicrt.-j. ami jas|if>rH fKUt 

f)rifriii of the pi'troliiini niid rialnral :.'as cmatuitiiie from prc- 

Catnlirian siiliiTicnt- 0(;0 

Dirert oviilcin f tlw ihcmical oro<ipitation of fho rarl.oimte ro.ko 

in tile Priest river an. I Holl-Camliriaii t< .raiip" iITO 

Summary C-o 

Promises (',72 

Conclusions f,-^ 


Introduction to tlie theory of ifjneoiis rocks gpj 

Classiticati'in of the i-rneous rocks (jy^ 

Avcrape compositions of leadinjr tyjies ^70 

Avoraffp sjiecifie pravities of certain types t;06 

Source of innftmatie heat (\c^^ 

('(nn;osition of the siilistratui the general earth-inaKnui n99 

Primary acid shell of the eart! 702 

Ahyssal injection of ma^'mn 705 

Orijrin of volcanic action 70- 


dassilicafioii of i^^neoiis intrusive hodies ^ 71_H 

Introduction -1,. 

Principles of elassitication 755 

Injected liodies -jj. 

'^'■^•^ "....'.'.'..'.'.'. 716 

Intrusive slieet 717 

I.accilith 717 

Phacolitli 710 

Bysmalith --^^^ 

Volcaiiic neck -.^r^ 

riionolith ; 7]f) 

Kthmolith -Of, 

Siihjacent hodies 700 

^^"s-^ 720 

Sto< k 701 

Batholith [[ " ' ' ' ' 701 

Proposed classificatinTi 720 





2 QEORQE V, A. 1912 

Me.-li,,nl«,n of l,„f!,„Ii,|,i,. i„trNsi„„ Paob. 

f K'lil rcliitioiw 72S 

Tiirio rr'Infion-i 725 

Clirnii.Ml ri'liiri,,riH, . .. 721) 

Tlieorio^ ,.f bnflm ithi.^ "intrusi.,,, 7L>!» 

LiiccnU'hio ' li.vr.otlic«i.s. 7:50 

'AfnrL'iM:,! „,.;,„i|„,i„n. ,,^.|;;j,;;^.; 7r5n 

ir.vp..ti.,Ni. „f • ,„,,ff„„„i,. ,f„,,i„^. 7.11 

Alutrmatic rtliiKtcrinir In- .liff,;,',l .'i" " ' i '^* 

K';>-iv..<i...i,i..:?,j:f::;ri •;-;'■-' -p- m 

TMflii,.n.v of |,I,„„„|,. ,,n..,„rp, ,,„ „ ,. , •.. 740 

N;n.kin»rof,|„.,,,,,J,,H,,'::k, '^''"'"'^- 74.. 

KiM,. of niii;.'!,];, tlirouirfi stooinr 74S 

r«'.-<titiioii,v of liii-colitli^. . 747 

IVoliictn ,,f tiip pn,,^ 747 

■"^I'PI'l.v of til,. uo(vs«:,rv h.nt- mn'tr'niV.; i' 74<? 

rnpM.if.v of .„„..ri,o,.t,.;,. I /,:,J r ' ;,T''"''';':- "'"^ ■■*' ""'""-^ "•■" 

iMff xnnolitiis . -'"" ^"' '"•■"'"•r nn.l 'lisRolv- 

sorvo,l wnll-rooks.. . ''^ "i-n.P, of nss.milnlion nt ob- 
Abyssnl nssimilatioii. , 7r>A 

n.ffonntiatio,, of , ho s.v„fp,.t,v „,„,,„„ 7.17 

Or.t.'in of Knuuto: »|,o pntro-r,,;,. pvol,. '•'>» 

l.riiptivp sciiuoiici. , 760 

Oiiffin of m,i;.ni.itio wator iin.l'paM'. 762 

flonor.I n.n.,rks on tl„. sropi,,,, hvpo'thr;,'- "•'•' 



Maffmafie tliffcrcntiation 

Pri'liminarv note 7(30 

Rplation to (.r,vstalli;:nti.,ii. 76!) 

I.imitp,! Miisclliility. ... 700 

^iriivitativo (liffprrnfiatio,,'.'. 770 

Orijrm of basi,. conta.n-shells 771 

l^Vnilmon of ro.hhux] matruia. ' "' '^^""'^«' '^T'^ 774 

K.f-'-'t of .solution of foroiV,,;.. 776 


(UAPTV.n xxviu 

"S::-.;-:;: jr:;;-/;i- """ „, 


RKPOKT Of Tilt: riiii:r AsrRn\(nif:u ,,1 



Oenetif clnsHificHtidii of miitrinns ;-^ 

Appliiatidn ..f tli,. tl ry lo tlin Furf.v-iiJntli IVinillrl r.>,ks. . .. .. ,', 77!i 

IntrodiK tiiiri --,j 

Kviileiicc iif a |iriiiiary ncicl ciirtli ihi'll ->in 

Fviili'Pi'c of a basaltic siilistratutn 7s() 

Rviitoi'tiiM -,,., 

T, ., '^•> 

1 (IP (rranitcs jiji 

The (jranodioritoH -m 

The iliiiritf'H and ni'i<l iitidcsitcs jur, 

Tlic conipl.jiii'ntiiry .likes and ><lu'if J, ;iiid tlir |ici.nii.ititps ■;h,\ 

Tlic aliiKirniid palihros -^- 

Tlio alkaline nicks -sj^ 

APf'l'MUX 'A.' 

Table of clieinical analvacs -nn 

t :'■» 


Report on fossil jdants, by Pmfessor T). P. Peiiliallow. D.Sc. F.O.S.A... SOO 


1. FroniUpirrc-^TcrmhuA JJuundary nionu.ncnt Kt bv tlie first International 

Coinniission at tbo J'ucilie shore. 

2. Profile sections showing; n^lative reliefs ,,f the Alpine eliain. tlie Hinialavan 

cbam. and the part of the Cnnlillera of Xortb America between the (iulf 
of (iwirpia and the (ireat Plains. 

3. Map illustrating; proposed of the Cordillera in tlio vicinity of 

the Forty-ninth Paralbl. 

4. Boundary slash across the IJocky .Mounlain at (iatcway. 

5. Lookin- east across the Purcell Trench. fr,,ni W'stern edjie'of Kontenay 

river delta near Corn creek, 
(i. IWt of the Interior Plateaus: hMikin? nortli from near Park mountain. 

(Ikanaaan ran^e. over Ashnola river valley. 
T. L(.okinjj down Kintla Lakes valley. 

8. Cameron Falls on Oil CrtK'k at low-water season. 

9. Mount Thomiison. seen across I'piier Kintla ].n,ii: 
10. A.--Slieared pba-^e of Siyeh limestone. Clarke ranfre. 

B.— Sheared phase of dolomitie Icnse (weathered) in Kitchener formation, 
at Tahk river. 


itnr{i/rui \r ny nn: i\THuinR 




,, ,, 2 QEORQE V, A. 10ia 

I ^u.U ot «„J'-.T,v,tal. ... K,„tl,. aruillil.. 

n.\^i^y;iX7:.2li; '■ " ""■■'■ - 

'• - < 'iiirrc'tiiiti ill i|.i|.,M|i(,. ■ |,,u,,,~ ,.,,, t ft t e 

A. -Li.noi,i,i,.,.,.,,,v':,;, ';:;:;::: ;^j;r-'^;;;;-^ ..n..-. 

".al.on ,,. sM.nmif .,f .\f..(ii||ivr„v ninuo """""•" '°'- 

ir S.nnlnr pvn,.. ■t,vt..„N in .,M.,„r..ill„i,. „„.,ri.. 

ii A"^KS:L;;;Lri;- ,:;:■;;;:;;*:";:::;;,:.' '■-" ■' "--' ■■ ■ 

18. u.|rntiv..8 of rippu-rnarks in .imirt/if.. Si.nimif „f \tf ' 1*;. i 
9. Mount Itipp,., ,.„,, „.„„.„ ,,i,., ,, „., -- ' „^ ;,^'^-,^ 

Forty-ninth pHrnllrl '' M'nn.a.n (...,., n,!,,,,,! „t th- 

A.--IVrpl„nti,. pha f „. ,.„....„ ,;,,,. ^ ,,,„„ ^„„,„,, ,,^ ^,_,^j.,,.^ ^__^ 

R.- Quart;: arn.vK-.iul,. in tl... Pur.rll Lava 
9fl rl V- r ■* "'"•■ "''♦"•'""•n-^ OM.-)mlf „a„iral M/e 

"'■ '"t;^rr;.r;t:ni:-''^ - "^' -'- '----^ -^r tn. m^t 

'' ' m;.;r::;i±;'::;;;tzr;;:,::;:: ■;! f " ^--•"""."-■•^ - --'• 

.rain...!, ,mt..rin^ .Z^Z ^l •:;'';i: ' '^^'""- ^ '^^ " ' —'^'';^. If^SS %::r- ^''"^^""' — -tlon of „.o f.n.i,. 
%;^ mSJ:'"'^ "^^ ""■ ''^^'^- ^^""'^''- ^'"•-"'^ '-- .''-->-y^t. of alka. 

'' '"=S;^r*u.Ti:;:;;'"r:;:; '■"-''''- ^' > -' ■- --^ ^-^ 

'' "tfrja-r""^' '' ^^'^^'^""' -''•™'-'- «--" ^'' tail rid.o, .o.t 

30. F,«m! plantK i„ the Kettle River sand.stone 

''in river. 

uri'oKr i>r Tin: iini.f \sinn\i>\ini 



;i:. S|,o.'ii,i.ii» of h.Mlul.. I„..,rir,« i,.Til..t,l.. I'ln,,, f,,ri.v.r,,.„ ,1,1,, ,.„(ii„i, ,..|,M. 

timi' tnrk* ii| lliisii' ( 'ii|M|i|fX. 
;!■!. Wt'Ht.Tii slop,, of Aimrliist in..iiniinn (.l^i...,,,, » i, .«•..! froi,, w,,t si, I.. „f 

Oxoyoo* liikt'. 
!il». 'Iypf» frniii till' Krui,',T iilkiilitir Im-Iv : 
A. — I'orpli.vrili.' iilliiiiiiii> .-.Niiiitc. 
H.— Nfplicliti' -yfiiilo (.jlii. viirirfy). 
r.— Mjili(;iiitt". 

t't. Vi,'W lookilll.' -ollftlMCSt frnlll xlopr of Mt. (^Ilopnl.-,!. 

•H Typical view iti lii^lKi- [uirt of tlir nlintiimiin nitiir.-. 

^'' «"~"X'''"' "' ''■''''"" '"■■"'"■•'" '■■■iiil'os.'.l of i,ii,.-iv.. ( ii(li,.,lral irninilP. 

H --rVlscntiiccr on Sinnlkpriici.n Iritho'ifh. 
t^t. I.onkiiit' soiitlirii-t iiloiitf «iiiiiriiit ..f Sk;,irit riiii-o from ri.L'o north o' |),.p„t 

^ A.— Ciirl)of,ifiToiN liiiii-itoiic.. MiiniiMit ..f \I,(;iiir(. tiioiitituiii. 

R -Riitftfc.l f..poirn,pl,y „t tli.' Ii..uiicl;iry. cHf of Cliillivviiok lako. ini.l north 

of (iliii'iiT I'cak. 
r,- FTorn top(.L'rii[iliy l>ctwi.i'ii Tumiliy !in<l St.w<,. ..r.'ok-". 
IV Horn topoL-niiiliy o„ ri.luo l.ot«(vii Sh-s-^o :iiic| Mi,l,||,. ircckti. 
■».'.. Wostcrn .mIi;.' of Sknuit nntro. viowo.l iillnvinl phn,, of th.- Fri-.'r 

\ iillcy lit ('liiiliua.k. 
4fl. Siiniiiiit of the Skiijfit iMiiiri'. 

47. Typical view of frriinitic nioimtaiti- r('!iilli\v:ick hallioluli'). 
4''. ^foll?lt Hakcr, taken from pniiri,- at SuniaH lake, Frascr \.illcy 
4ft. Profile .-ross-soctio,, of the fonliUcra nt th,. Forfy-iinth raral!..], showinn 

v.Tti •al limits of Ploisi,„rnc t'laciation. otc 
r.i>. (51aciatc.l \ alley of Starvstion creek, Clarke raiiL'e. 
51. Ilea.l-wall nf (flai'lal cirque, summit of Darke raii^'e. 

r.2. \Vii,;rc,|.o„t moraine nt m.mth of Starvation creek canvon. in Flathea.l 

6.?. A.— iranuinsr valley of Phillip, creek. -•a^.'a.IIn- into Koot.'nnv river vullev 

nour fiateway. 
B.—nnimloiflal deposit an.l wafer-fillo,! t-lacial kettle in thick .Irift of tlie 

ICocky Mountain Trench (Tohacco Plains). 
r>\. Tandem cirnnehikes ne;.r sinnmit of Nelson ranjre. seven miles north of 

n.inndar.v line. 
5.^. Looking' Piist the rohimhia river to Ronndary Town. Ivins in the old 

pravel-floorod hed of the Pend d'Oreille river. 
5fi. Ahandone<l channel of tli.> IVikI d'OreiHe river at Roiin.Iary Town 
57. Winier-tnlus rid-e on southern wall of dacial cinpi... Okana-an r.'in«e. 
."iS. Woo,l(vd honlder-nioraine formitiL' darn at low.-r end of Thilliwack lake. 
50. T.ookini: \\\> niilliwack lake from lioint near its ontlet. 
fiO. I.ookincr np Ohilliwaek lake over foreste.) morainal dam i>f the lake. 
01. A.— View of the t'l-avel |.lateau repre.sentimr the hiti' I'leistocene d. 

the Fraser river. 
B.— Detaile-l section i„ the sands and travels of the Pleistocene deposit 
represented in A. 


iit:riHiMfM I't iiir i\it:uioH 





2 OEORQE V, A 19ta 

A - l'l,..i,.«r.|.l. -h..»Mm r-l..t.^.lv n.pi.l - tT...., nf ,,l„ri..rl.-t. will, 
very «ti;iill ii>'iMiiii"lnl>'r< ( >.riMWti<-M. 1. 

I!.- S'nmll «lu.l.T .I..'it.„;n^' .iMi-. "1-Ht ..^-n il -;.n.l h rt ..l".v,. «.■;.. 

I,.,wir OUaruii:nii vull.'.v himI (U.,y..„* Ink.'. 

I kiiiK HM.iili.M.t a.TiM* Sliirviitinii ■■<■ -.-k .••iii.v..ii. 

(•(.!ii|M,uii.l ulltiviiil ■•■.iM' 111 Mlclwriy. 
Vr,-nr.liint ■.iiriiinit Ii'M'1,^ in tli.' Selkirk ri'i'ii-. 

i'liitriiH-lik.- .iirf: >f lintlinliln. , , ,. , 

,.|,,.,u,-!ik.. M.rla... ..f unn.of,..! Similk,...,.,.,, l.,.!,,, ,. , 

M.M.l ,n.t lurk lM..r .n-.l,.,,- .l-ut -,x .h..M,:,n,l t.H al "»-l.■^•l. 

liniiiiiimt.iii niiitfo. 
V C.Mr-.. UUumrrr i,. .nM-iv- «rit nf tl„. WMf f,.n,„.t,nM. 
l; . C.Mr... U'U,-uwrrr in .|Hi.r./ilr ..f ,1,,. Hiwl.' t,.n,w.tinn. 
A, -|.„!,kin.^ ...u,l, ..!„...' ri.t... l-tu,..,, Mi.Ml,. .n,l SL'^.- .r.-.k,. Sk«u-H 

riiiii-'c. . 

n-S..utl»-ni -l-pr ..f Mn'int Uippl'-. Srlkirk r.mi.'... 
(Sli.'..t No. HV in I'art IIT (with miips). 
A — '! vpiral in <'l:irk.' riiii>.'i'. 

n._S„mni; ilw S,U.n ranr.- (Selkirk Hyst..m). 

('._N.,U,„ rat,^'... l....kin>r w...t fr..,., s.unm.t ri.k'.' n,.rtl. ..f I), u,ln.'> trail 
iShi.'f \(i 1"!", in I'art III (with map-'. . 

.V ('olmnl.ia Uiv.r t-rra,... a,.! ,(,. P.-M .I'Or.iH- ni.nin.aiM. (S.lkirk 

lV_Typiral viru in tlif Ml'lway inoimtH'iis. 
(\._Typi>Ml view in ttic Skat-'it riiiii.'c. 


,. I)ia»;ra.nn,a.i.- .imp -l.owi,,.- s„!.,|ivisi.m of tla- K...-ky Mountain sy.t..,-. n. 

tl,.. forty-nintli I'arall, • „.„„ „„.,„„„i„ ,y„,n, 

>. DuiKraniliiati.' map xliouiou' ■ '.ii'in r-ion or iin 

at till' Forty iiintli Paralk-l 
DiaU.nma.i,. map showin.^ sul„„ of ,1„. S.lkirk mountain s.vM-u, 

at the Kortv-ninth Parallck , , • ■ . . 

|);:,..rammati; map .Lowing .il.livi.ion -f ,l,o Columbia .nountam .y^.om 

at the Forty-ninth Paralkl. 
Piairrammati,. map .h.min« position ot tl.o -t ruotun-sortion ..a-t of thn 

Uorkv Mountain Mirnmif. , . r rvi t 

S,ru,.t,iro s,-,.,i„n a.To.. tlir -triko, alo,,.- tlio rulu-o soutlioa-t of Oil rnok. 

onstcrn slopn of the Harkc ramrc 
niairrammali- ilnuvini: from thin .e.-tion of Wntorton .lo omito. 
P^aL-ramnuiti,. .IrawiiiL' from thin sootion of typ.oal .lolomito of th. 

Altvn formation. . . , 

So.'tion 4io«in^' i-nitnou ..l.:w,. of tlio molar-too.h .trn,-,u,v ,n thp Si>ol, 

Oil^ramm'uio .Irawinir to -..alo, from thin sortio,, of amv^.laloi,lal ha.alt 
in till" Shoppar.l formation. Clarko raiu-o. 

Nrrmti I't inf. iiiiii \si ui>si>\ii tt 



11. |)riiwiiitf imui lliiti -rrli.ii r,| iniiaiih.rphii'fil uri-'illari ..ih ..iinUtiiiK', WhK 


12. IliuKruiiiliiiitii' iiiu|i itliiiuiitu ii|i|>r<>Miiiiit< |Mi'<itiuri i<l' tlii< U'lky Mimiiiuin 

K(u«.viiiliiiiil |>ri»iii ill itn (ildiT |ihi\-n'. 
l''l. l.iM'ulit.v iiiup III' till' Mi'.vii' Mil!^. 
II. Si-ctioii ciC Mii.vio iMoiiiitaiii niKJ tlic .Nlovic -ilU. iilnntf llii' liilcrnali'iuil 

buiiinliiry liiH". 
I.'i. |)lii(/riiiii slhpwiiiir llic |.i'triit.'iii| liii' iialuri' of cinli of tin' Mo\ic silU iiml 

ilH ftratiitriipliio |io«itioii in tlii- iiiiart/iti-*. 
HI. niaurain illii»lr,itiiii{ tin' li,v|ioilM<i« tli.ii ilir iiariiall.v iJitT. n iiliali'<l -.nm- 

toitii- iiiH(/iii.i of I ihii'k --ill may lin-jik tliroimh tin' ronf ami form, at 

Htratijrrapliirally liinticr horizon", ■frvcral ttiiiirnT -ill- ilitTiTiiit' in i'..iii- 

po<itioii iitlloii); tliciiii'i'KcH, 
17, Kail west Hirlioii on rirjjji' imrtli of I/nt Cri'ik. NrUoii raii;r>'. 
IH. Uiiiirrani showing utairt- of ilovrlopnicnt ..f tlio tliriist illu^lratfil in Kiifiiri' 

lit. Norflisoiitli xi'oljoii il!ii''liatinif proliul'lo explanation i,f tlio nrviU intiiMi'y 

aii'l t'XtiMit of till' I'oiitai't ini' at Sniniiiit iTcrk. 
'20. IHatrratntnati'' map of .Jiimmit uraiiltc stoiki with vviijc aim'olc of crptituit 

•21. Si'ctioii alofi).' linr .\-F! of Fi(fiiri' ■_'<>. 

22. DiuKTaiiiinatic wM'tion sliowiiik.' rcliilion nf tlic Miminit 'tocKn ,,( N'i-!^mii 

rantrc to tin- Hayonnc liatholitli. 

23. Map nhowiiiir rolations of Piml d'On illo artfilliti'. aplitio irraiiilp. ami l«r. 

(iike8 of iiiinette. 

24. Sertion of syi-nltc porphyry chipnrililli riatollitic to Coryil] l.atholiili. 

25. Section northeast of liriilire over Kettle river, -iix niile- al'ove Midway. 
20. Partly diaiframniatie drawinir from tliin seetiiiii of (froiiiid-mass of • -ihaeka- 


27. Section of the (IkanaKan coinpo-^ite hatlmlith. 

28. Map .sliowin;: rclatioii-i of the ()<,.\.in<. Siniilkanieen. and KruL'er ifrneou.* 

hodies and the invadeil Paho/Tiic formation^. 
2!>. PlniKrintr contact surface hi'twiH'ii th.' Similkamrcn hafholith and the 

Chopaka roof-pendant. 
.SO. Oiitcroji of the mime intrii-«ive contio'f Miu-faci; uhown in Fii-'ure '.'!'. 
■Tl. Map of the Similkanieon an.l Cathedral hatlii'litlN and tin' Clmpiika intru- 
sive liod.v, a* shown in the Poinidary hclt. 
32. Mat) showiiiL' relations of the ratlic(lr:d and I'cniniel h.itliMlitlw :ind the 

Ashnida trahhro. 
!?.".. Mail showing relations of flie U. nuuil l.ath-iiitl'. Park i.'r:iiiifi'. and liiisii- 

34. Columnar si'ctioii of tlie Pasayt. n series. i';.IiiiliiiL' the Pa-a\ten Vol.'anic 

formation (memher .\.1 
3.''i. Map slMwiiiL' relations of the Ca-lle Pialc -tuck t.. the d.f..nncd Pas-iyteii 

30. Contact surface^ hefwecii the C .i!c Peak t;rancdiorite and tilt(d Creta- 

reous sandstones ami arpilllt' -. 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

.'iT. I'lunf,'iii;r ri,iii:ict Mirfai'c hctwccii iiitrusivo (rrnixidimito of Castlo Peak 

sloi'k and ('rcti.ioolis arKilliti's and Siindstoncs of I'usa.vti-n series. 
:i>. I'liinninfT contact surface lietwcen in' ■, i'o Kraiiodiorite anil Pasoyten for- 

no. I'luiifrin;,' contact .-nrt'acc. Castle 1 c;il^ .-toil, .oii ,i ?ide. 
4". Intrusive contact l.ctween crai •!:•>; i!e and nciy vertical T'asayten nr- 

41. Diajrrartwnatic scctldii sliowinjr <> ' o i i ' rid;;c.' 
4'-'. Ilhistratinj; two nicllrods liy wiiidi iiasic contai .-shells in a stoi'k or a dike 

might b(> formed. 



f. Correlation of the Rocky .Mountain (Jeosyiiclinal rocks.. .. Kil 
11. Showinp peiieral litho'opical chp'acter of the four standard 

sections in the Rocky .Mount: n fJeosynielinal 107 

III. Showinf; composition of eciiiivalent formations (Kitcliener- 

Si.veh) I(!9 

IV. ShowinfT coini)osition of e(iuivalent formations (Cresfon- 

Altyn) IfiO 

V.-VII. Densities of fornuiti iS in llie Roi-ky Mountain (i<>osynclinaI 173 

Vlir. Correlations in the Rocky Mountain (ieosynclinal 17S 

IX. Walidtt's (■orrelations in the Relt terrane 182 

X. Correlation with Canadian Pacltii' Railway section 104 

XI. Weight iiercentafrcs of minerals in rocks of Moyie sills. , . . ilVt 

XII. Chemical analyses of phases of the Moyie sills 2:!(! 

.XIII. Coluniiuir section thron}.'li thi> Moyie sills '2;i7 

XIV. r,f sill firanite atid invaded sediments, .Moyie silN . 241 
XV. XVI. (Annulled in press.) 

X\'ir. Analyses of Rykert trranite and related rix'k 2.s7 

XVIII. of niine'tcs .T]2 

XIX. of auu:itc latites ;!y5 

XX. .Analyses of aus-ite-Iiiofite lal lies ;?27 

XXI. of hornhlende-aiif^ite latltes ,^29 

XXII. Comparisons amonir latitcs and nionzonitc ^^2 

XXIII. Chemical relations of Rossland monzonite 344 

XXTV. Comparison 01' basic syenite and avcratrc niineltc ^^,~ 

XXV. Aiuilyses of missonrite ;)(!S 

XXVI. Analyses of rhomh-porpliyries and related rocks 4nt! 

XXVll. Analyses of puhiskite porphyry and related rock 410 

XXVITI. Analyses of maii^'nitcs and nephelite syenites 4.i-,4 

XXIX. Showlm.' I'hemical vlatiou of Similkanieen and Cathedral 

liatllolitllS ,],;;{ 

XXX. Analyses of memliers ol Okaiiairan coTuiioslte hatholitli. . .. 472 

XXXI. Correlations anioiitr members of ()kanaj;an composite batholith 474 


\^\^xm!1' •)""!■'■■"•■" "f ^«»fle Peak and Similkaineen trrunodiuritw. . . . l!.:i 

-^.■\-V"; •'"iil.vses of jrrunodiorites r,;;,, 

VVYV *'""■'''■'"*'"" ■" t''e Forty-ninth Pnriillel. . .... .. .. [[ .. f,52 

,?^,\r:,, \'"'"n-lation.s within the Western (Jcosyiiclinal Belt fiST 

.\A.\\ I, (.,.,,1 ,i.n,.„| evcnt.s in provinces <.f the Western C.eosvn.linal 

I'' It ' J,., 

XXXVIl. IV M-ipal events recorded in the Western Ceoaynelinal Belt as 

a hole r,- 4 

''^^"X^.'^l' f'"''''"'" and majfnositim in Fiohemian rivers ['. (150 

.\.\.\l.\. Analyses of Ottawa river (jj;; 

\'^^' ^"'''''"" •■""' inafftiwiiini in various rivers . .[ r.54 

Xl.l. XI.II. Kxporiniental results with ainnioniuni carbonate .. r,iV2 

XLIII. Calcium and niajrnesiuin in limestones of the peolo-ical 

I«ri(Kls ^ ^,., 

Y I ■ , . . . . Ooo 

.\l.l \ . .\M.raKc compositions cah-ulated for the principal ipneous-rock 

V r \' r* ' ' e H80 

Ai.v. L-oniparis..n of average analyses of granite, l.asult, diorite 

and aiidesite ' -., , 

XLVI. Comparison of average analyses of frranites and V' 'und-ma'=s 

of aufTite andesite -.^r 

Xr.yil. Showiuf.' rates of thermal diffusivity in rock. . ...... v.-js 

Xl.yill, Specific gravities of rocks and phisses 740 

XI.IX. Spe<-itic Kravitiea of crystals and dasses. . . . . . . . ,', ' [] 740 

I-. Decrease in density, rock to jilass at 20 (' 74.^ 

T.T. Spe<'itic gravities of rocks and melts 74'j 

MI. ('hanjre of density of rocks with cha.ipc of temperature ' " 744 

l.lir Showmtr (piantities of volatile nuitter in se<)iment3 7(14 

LTV. Water in ipneous rocks -/., 

r.V. Comparison of plutonic and etTusive rocks.. .. .. '.[ ',' " 775 


Tahle of chemical analyses made for the report 7(,3 

T.Viri' III 

Cnntaini,,^ -eveuteen freoloffical maps, with stru.'tnre sections ulicets 1 to 17) 
and two slicet-^ of photopraphi.' panoramas (sheets 18 and 19). 

s;!(;i li 



mmmm&.'^z^^^t^i^^.:tM. iJkL:. 



A. 1912 



Arc't r„r,'n;!.—],) l!»(il tli.- utIiit ua. miiiinissinneil bv the Canadian 
Minister nf tl.r Intorinr to un.lertakL" tlir st.ol.,K.Val ..xaniinntiun of tlie monntaim 
crn^si'd by the r,„nndar.v Line iK-twcen Canada and the I'nifw' States, at the 
Forty-ninth Parallel. Field work was bept.n in July of that yrar and oontiiiurd 
through the diff.roiit simime.- s.a^ons to and iiieludiii;; that of VMY,. Duriiiir 
tic suminir of I'.iOl rrc.imai-sano,. ^urvrys on the Amoriean ^id,. of the '^auie 
l)n,- were led by M, -r-. Bailey Willis F. I>^sli.. ■RaM.onio, and Ce-.r^ro Oti. 
Smith, mei.ih, rs of thi- Tiiited Statos C.eoloRi<'al Survey. \o further peoloph-al 
work in coiuuctiou with the Boun.lary survey was carried on by the I'liited 
States C.overninent, and the map .-beets prepare,! by the United States fop,.- 
Kinphers were placed at the disposal of the writer as ncolo-ist (for Caiia<la) to 
the International Boundary Commi-sion. The present report represents the 
principal results of the study made during the six field seasons. 

'I'he peolopical examination covered a belt along the Fortv-ninth Parallel 
Irom the Strait of (ieorpia to the Croat Plains. The belt is 400 miles long and 
Viirics from 5 to 10 miles in wi.ltli. with a total area of about 2.500 square miles 
Its width was controlled. i„ part, by that of the map sheets prepared bv the topo- 
graphers of the C<,mmi.-io,i parties; in part, by the necessity of depending on the 
trails which those parties built into the Boundary belt. As a rule, this nioun- 
tuuous belt is heavily w,mded and. with .ut trails, is almost inaccessible to 
r'ack-animals. During the first three seasons accurate topographic maps on the 
re.iuired -cal- were not available, and in li)02 and 100.3 the writer used as 
I o|>ographi.> iMse. an enlarged copy of the West Kootenay .sheet of the Canadian 
(.eologieal Survey. Tn that relatively aceeSMblc part of the Bouildarv IhI; 
(from Grand Forks to Porthill, eighty miles to the eastward^ it was found 
|)ossil>ie ti> cover a zone ten mi'es in \n idtb. 

(■omlil-.o,,. of WuH.- in tl„. Fvhl.-S., geologically trained was 
employed ,n any part of the field. The work was. therefore, slow. Each 
travers,. generally nn^ant a more or less taxing mountain climb through brush 
or brule. Phe geology could not be worked out in the detail which this moun- 
tain belt deserves. For long stretches the rock exposures were foun.l to be 
poor. Such was the ease for the heavily drift-covered mountains between 
Osoyoos lake and Christina lake, and, again, for nearlv all of the i!()-mile sc- 
tion between the two crossings of the Kootr-nay river, at Cat.'wav and P.,rthill 
Nome contidence is felt in • .e maps aud structure sections of the Rocky 
Mountains proper (from Waterton hike to Gateway), of part of the Selkirk 
i-'iia — \ ol. ij — 1 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
lr,( .iiiin:i! -y~r,.:K ifroi'. li,,' Mii.i:,iit t,, il„. C.hnnl.iM riven, iuici of the ()l;ni-i- 
mm ,in.i II. ,;.,,„,. ,M;.- . t tli, Ct-c,,,!,. i„.M,nt:,i„ sy^tcn. KI-vwIuto, tl'ir 
ma].-, ati.l -(.•f,..!,-, i„ tlicir rif-i.l lith.-j-'mpliy. su^'trost moro certainty as tn the -I .-..nt:!' t- an. I ;:~ (,, inHlertrr-nihl sfruetmv. tliiiii tlie wiitep actiinlly fceU 
.V- M nh,,l,., tl,.. n-Milt. lie hall'-w.iy between these of ,, ree.„„nu-nnee 'sHrvey 
ill, lliii.-(. ot a lieraileil survey. 

<',„. ,,1 ,1,1. l,;i.|i,|jr ,iill;.-n!lie!. felt l.y M uorkers in t!n-^ pnrt ..f the Cor.' i- 
hrn ■:< the .■eniarkahl,. l;,e|; ..( io-<\h in the s..,lii,„ ntarv reek., ■{'lie writer hn^ 
teen able to ,li-..over hut. lew r,.v-.ilil-er..u< h.irI/,.Mis n.Mitloiial ;■, the -mall 
mimlier alr,a,ly known t., Cana.iian an.! V u\ud Stales p'ole-ist^. Many of the 
correlation, off, re. 1 in th.- fullowinf.- roport are to he repir.le.l as strietly tpiita- 
Ine an.l >houhl not he .inote,! without ref, renee to the many qnalifieai i.,,,.^ notr.l 
m 'he ninninu- 1e.\t. 

Son.e larKO proiH.rtion of the inac'enraey in ma],- an.l .e,.tions i. ,ln.. to the 
taet that for half of the ti..l,l seasons the writer was provide,] ,.ither with no 
topographic nnip or merely with the fonr-,nile^-to-onc-inch West Kootenav 
letonnaissanc.. sheet of the (-ana.iian (leolo^Mcal Snrvey. This sheet is cvcllen't 
tor Its purpose, hut wa- manifestly not intended for th, ns,. „f th,> '^triu'tural 
geologist, whoso topographic-map scale sho.dd be at least one mile to one inch 
in the Selkirk an,l Columbia mountain systems. First in 1904, the writer was 
r.hle to use copies ot the ma.uiseript Houn,lary Commissi. .n plane-tahle maps 
on the .s,.de of l:03,.')(;(l Sheets I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, an,l 14 were constru-ted 
on tha basis and are snperi,.r in aecnra.^v of H-<.olo-i,-al infonnathni t-> the 
ether sheets. Between tlie Onlf of (!eo,-ia and the we-tcrn limit of shct 17 
the Boundaiy line crosses a eontinnons tln,'k deposit of Pl.^l.tocene gravels ami 
sands._ No other tormation i, then- expoM.l in th,. liv.-mil.. I„.|t and the bro„l 
plain IS not represented in the maps, 

Acknoulod^ments.-Th(i writer was Pffi..iently aid.^d in the physical %vork rf 
c,-.rr,y,ng on tlie sur^-e.v, during five sea=on<, hy Mr. Fre,l. Xelmes of ChiUiwack. 
J5ri ish rolumhia, ITis faithfulness in many a tedious pla.'e was worthy of hi.s 
fterling wo-k as a mountaineer. During the season of 1003 the writer wis 
Finuhirly Rssist.-d m able manner by Jfr. A. fi. Lang, of Waiuta, British Col'- 
mnbi.r In the field many courtesies and much help were extemled hy Mr T 
... McArthnr. chief topographer for the Cana,Iian branch of the Boundarv 
Comm.-sion; hy Jfr. E. 0. Barnar,!, cliicf topographer for the Fniccl States 
branch, and by his ,'olleague-. 

In the offic. work the writer was ai,le<l hy many members of the Geological 

M^vf ,l"T "■!', ■"'' "]'"■'' '" ^^''^ ^'''■'"""' '^"'•'"■'•"f-'^ient of Honour- 
able Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Interior, during the progress of the survey 
In nun, ,erle-> ways the work was forwar,le,l by the able and most generous 
help of the ( anadian Commissioner, Dr. W. F. Ki.ig. to whom the writer owes 
the greatest ,lebt of acknowledgment. Professor D. P. Penhallow of McOill 
Lmver-itv h.ns ma.le thorough of the collections of fossil plants The 
collections of fossil animal remains were, with mmdi generositv, carefully 


J^ ^- 

::t.::.i;i ,,!■ nil. cni.r i.v/av,.v„ ,//./.-. 3 


vti.diid a;:.i ,i(,t.riui).e(! iv Ori^. r \V K,.nt „ r u ,•■ . , , 

of ,he T-nlt.d State. .W.^o.ica! Sun-' v 1 ! U- n, 'l M \- "'V ':■•''';'' 

■ . : •'■ I),.,,artM„.,:t ^.f Min, - ,.,rr, ,r,n,.,| v, ,,,.1 

n , u ot the are - ..t on tins part of ,l,e Ronn.l.ry 1,.]; l,v thi. alio i„v>< i-' 

^ Mn,,;;r- <.;;:„ '^" u 'r' """•■' "^ ^'-^ "■""-• •-- anot.:.i t ; 

.rfir.Mii"iJtanc jC'tion <.n ihe Boiim nrv Crrck .li.tri<-t \,.,.. r i;„™i .u 
..iter ,na,1. no nK,ro than a ,.o.,„,;. of i' ,i 1 ' m^ ' Si ' 't;^^;:' 
liistr.ct. .•orr..bor,,tin^'. -„ far, the arei-ranv of Afr Rr. '"•""'- ' "^"-^ f'"' 
tlo.larly ,lifficult terranc. ' •^'''■'' ' "'"f^'"' " "" « P"" 

Professor Pe,>halIo,vV pa,vr ou the -oll-.-tiou „f fossil ,,hu 
aprendix !o the pr. -i-iit n-port. ••- 'i piai „, att 

.a-lj ai,a,, -o.; \w ,,• taken, is noted ^,„ the map she.'ts with ■, .nnll nro=- • I 
tnc oolIer-t,„n tuimhe;. Some OHO tliii, --option^ of tl„. m. ? 

=f,„K,.,l ^;,.,,. „ ,, , , ; , "" "' "" '^'"^''^ ■'^"•0 prepared and 

T^ "i h'^..dnl1o '"''." °"" 't'^""' """'^-^'^ ""« •""''" f°^ the report. 
' niVd' ^^ the ^'""'";!''" 'f' '"/"'<"" ''.V the writer, besides whieh n.anv 

\Aef":.hTu ''''"""'•' -'^ "" "■'■'": "" "^ ^-'//-"'"'^ Parallel Oclo,,.- 
A. or r.,.!d ,-ea.on a onef aeeonnt of ,h,. ground eovcred wag pubh'she.l eithe.- 

„1 r, ■' ,' , ^ ^""^ A-tronomer of Canada. A- the work nro- 

P^-s,d :t was tho.^ht advisable to publish separate papers on eer p^ne al 

M r''"'f;'lt-'th r"' "'"■'■• '"' "r^" ''"""^ ^^•^ «> --^ -^ *>- ^0';;- 

vpy of Cnnadn, Vol. 15, l9fl2-3, Part 

* hi:i-\in\ii:\i nr niF. i\ih:i!ii,it 

2 GEORGE v., A ni2 
1. Th. (n.ol„,.,v ..i t!,.. I!..«i,,„ ,„lj,.i„in« th.. \V...t,.rM P„r. of ti„. 1,,..^- lor limi, ,„ Annunl R.port. vol. M, l.(..'. Part A, pp' .•'.(.--, 
P«r..lM,"' f "^ ti,. \V,.,r..-„ P,„-, of ,h. rnl..r„a,i„„„I \)„uu,\.y. .41.-1. 

PP ?oi^'"n.^''''''""'"^ "^ ■' " '""■"""" '^ '"' f-"''-'^ ''''''■•-:. 1.), l:«)i! 

^i.Ooolopy of „,, In.ornationn! Boulary: S„„una,-y Hop. G.„l S„rv.-v 

a! p^omU ^"""'' ""■ '"'"■ '" '""""' '''"-■•• -'■• '"• '>''-- '-n.7:r; 

6 Geology of the Iniornational PHoin^lary: Smn,„arv I{,.p. Ooo| ^orw 
I'partmpt of,!,, for lOOj. Otta«-a. llK.r.. pp oi-io,) ' 

aol ,tH S,^r,,.,.: .I„„r. (J.oi,,^,, vol. i;!. V.m, pp. 105-125. 

20. n^ltx^^i^l ''"^'" "^ '"'■^'«'" ' = --"- ^-- •»--. S,,,.,„.„. vol. 

I90.:*p;!':«-S''""'"" "' '" '- ^■"'•"-'- '""'"- J--- '--"•"^v. vol. ,:;. 

tl„. Tn.orr^/" "" !;'''''' '^'-■''•i""^ i" th. Ooolopy of tl.o Mountains oro^se,! •,, 
tl... Tntornatmna! no„n,)ary ( VMh Parallon : (\) i„ Roport of ri.Uf 7., 
nomer tor ( a.m la tor i!.o:,. 0„a«a. liM.G, pp. 27^" f^ i„ lin !f 'f 1 t' 
A-.r,nomo,. for Cana-Ia for 100,;. Ottawa. ^7. pp 'i:ii35 ' " ^''""' 

5''« '""""'" '■-^-"'■''•"1 •^~'- vol, .7, J„no. 1.0. ;„: 

Af ';\-^'^-'^.';' ^*f-"^""^ I.ijVofion a< a Causal Condition and a> an FtToor of 
ifo nt,nn Bu, l,n.: A„K;r. .To„r. Soior.oe. vol. 22. .^opt.. 1000. pp. lO.^.oi!! '^ 
I-.. IIio Differentiation of a Seeon.lary AFap-nm throufrh C.ravitalive Al 

14. The Okannpaii Compo-itc Batholit'i of tl.<. r„ .n I„ ■\r . • t. 
PiiII f:.a^l c * ■ , . ""'"""'' Cit the » aji'aile .\roiinfaiM Sv^t'm ■ 

J'lill. (.eol. So,.. Anieri.M, vol. 17. lOOii. pp •.\o().-^,-(S . - '" ■ 

^^-. m.^'foo?;';;;''^:;:,.^'^" -^ P-ra,n,„.ian'^ln,e; An,er. X.r. S.i,,,.. vol. 

s.-i,,!;:.';;! ^rJr';.s jr^^r/"^'""- ^'^'"^'' ''■'^■^'■- •^'"-- ^'-■ 

Oeo/U""'/ ^".'"-''"••^""•^Fos^il, and the Evolution of tho Lin.e.tnne. • Bull 
l"'oI. Soo, America, vol. 20. 1009. pp. 1,-:1-170. 

19. Averapre Chemical Compositiou of iirneous-rock Tw.-- P., ^ 
AHier. Acad. Arts and Sciences, vol. 45, TanuariOlO pp.'^|i:240 ' "^ 

"■n -« ■ . l-l 

6ESSI0\AL PAPER No. 25a 

'i>H,I. Sue. Ariifricii, v. 

2f». OnV;n „f fli.. Alkali.,.. |{.„k-- I!, I 

-M. IfMO. 

■^.■t)o„nl H.,„„,|„r.v rommissi,,,. .,li . , r .- , ' T ^'^"" ""' '"" ^- 
f.ralK.l a-ross ,he ror-iill.-n, Vh. ^ ], i r' ' ' '" ";"; "'- ^-'V.„i,„l, 

Societv. X,.„. York, 1,T.;-M Tl.e ,. I p Amerwm, f^ n^ruphi^nl 

'^.^ British .ov.r,u;,ont i. ICf^J^^^l wa. tl,. «.vK,gU, for 

"t .1.0 M,.jr,.fio„ of (i,.or,.o \f I.nv / -t P„l,h.^..,| „„til IsM. .1,..,, 

Pr<.,r,... „f tl,o «:..oln^ioal n, 1 V . ; '•, ;'"''%" *" "' '-' "^ "- '"P-rt of 
r«rf R. Otfnva, 1SS4 '■' ''""■'■^' "^ ^'^'"•'i''" ^^r 1>-'^3-;-4. 

-.n. His n,.,rt p,'l,lisl,el i ,^ -, '. „•'""' .■'""■^";"" .'V""''^'^>- ^'— - 

^•■olo,,- „,ui„r.TS of the r •■ m ,, ' '''''V'r """ ' '-'^rf „„ ,1,.. 

from th. Lake of the wl,,/: ,,.:;':;'''': "^ ^ "■ f-»-"-""' '-«"'l 
<-"itintK.,j his .neniorabl,. rerontni. n, U :^^." '"'l",'"- •'^'"^''^ U-'U Daw.on 

^Iry '"i;- ;- -.oo,„p„„i.:i .."'fo x, i; ^[: t,^; "mS ""M" '!"■/' - 

-!ci.d to „„r knowledge „f , . f, r, ' i ' Vi " *; "■;:''^"" ^''"- -'"'"-•'>■ 

pa.lioation. o„ Ri,i,h ,,,'■'■ ■' '"■'■• ;'^t-'-' «-k. Ff,.f,.r..,..,. ,o ,h„ 

^^oWy OHH ho r,.a.lil o „ ]; h H^ i;! ,''"";"'- '•'^"'- -"' ^^^,-hi„.ton 

Purvey of ( .pLhsiS i^T "k /"t;,.!;;,' iV"'-' \ "^'^ ?"'"^'-' 
i'><u,ui-,inn. >,n,„elv:_ .'ttnoh.d to the pro..,.„t Bonnd.ry 

ra.:;^W;^i:!"lI„r;^.:5:-';^!-'\„^-': --J I::^-^.. ra„.e. Montana: i. 

^ A ,ooio,ioni re..onnai..,n;.;' .,';■, ;;/;:■ ""-• ""• "••^■^^^■ 

i. .cw ..,np,oye,l ,,;,ho n n, ; n Ooii::f;, f ""■"--''^- '^''^'^''-^ "• ^-''"'P 

Vancouver island, and it is ho "d It r"'",;"' ' ''"'""'"^ ^""'^ -^^ 

-T^-innationoftl^FoHv^ ,, T J; ;,;;7'''-^ "'" -';"" '- '" ''-"' ^- a 

•'■'''' -'■'■""" •"■"^- t,' tho „,-.„ I'a,.it],. 

r,f,„r,,? .Sketch of Ih. V,,;,;,,,., V.;//,.r-Tl„. .no 'i 
pra-.n of ,ho Cordillera and ■o-oo,- IJ, ' , \ "*"-""'" ^"-t'"" P>-"s.e<, ,1„. 


i>i.f\i;i\ii\t 1,1 Tin: i\in;i<,i: 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
(•■■iM|.l..xiiy, l,ke slratib'iui.liic coiiii.loxit.v, \i near \u luaxiiujiu lor tho given 
ana .i such n straight fro.s-,.,.ti'.n. A pr.limituirv sk-tfJi of th- ditr.>roiif 
t'l'iJourul |.r„vitUT. tiuvrrse.l |..v fl,. li„im,hir,v Mt «ill „i.l r'a.. n>,: ii<r :- .nl^r 
^fpiiditig imd LT.Mipiiijf tlir^ iMu~- ..f ..liscrvafiniis to 1„. ,!.t(iil, ;. 

Ill t'l.. fir-f np|)rn„ph. xW ( '..r-lillnra nt th(.- Pdn':,-' m.iv t.e 
n'Knr.lcl as divisil,],. i„i,, great ^oii,,. These arc r.,1!.. ! th.- T.-;,.t.>- i ;..,. 
F.vnclinal (!.lt and the, <i.. .-vn. li„al M.-lt. Tl- f.v.. .■.^.rlap""i.i th.' 
vi.'inity nf ihc ColMiiibia From th,. siimniit nf tl,.. >,.Ikirk rans- -••!/♦ 
cast „1 that rivpr, to tl.o Oreat I'l... :-, - mI. ..entary formation, ar- doni'^'ant 
and aro Hi.n„.t entiroly i:ud>ul,-d in ..- ).„p. .trootur-. h..r..aft.>r namn.i ,ho 
J>iK-k-v .\I„iinlaiM (;,'„svM,dinnl IVi-ni (..r simply (M-osvn-linal) Th.. -ui^ii' 
extcml- in.m Alaska, throned, the Cruat Basin, to Arizona. The^e ••..<^'<, are 
F.. nearly nnfnssdif.Toiis tliat thi^ir .■orrelati.Mi with tli,. taudwrd =v-t, ,". ;- , 
l.^atter of ditli-idty. I!,.a-o„s will |„. ,l,ow„ for t'a- l.fll..: tii.r th..'wh'>'.. "n 
loniiaM,. proup ramros i„ ap.. th.. Mi^s^ssippian f., a an^at •:,„.,■., t..-nitv 
lit tho base of the Belt lerraur, or Boltian system, a-, rc-eiilk ram.' •.- Wa'- 
CO t. Near the western ero-sinL- of the Kn.,tenay river, tho pris,„ reVs''.,! an 
Oder grn.ip of metamorphie roeks. here ..ailed tia. Prie-t Hiver t.^rraii- Tli« 
basement on whi-d, the Hncky Monntain (ieosynclimd rests i, nowhere ehe 
exi)OHed on the Fopi.v-niath Parallel. -'-v.itre ene 

Youn^'er and much more loea! geo^vn^linal prisni>. of r>,nfl..e,,.,. .„ ] Xer 

n,''^.„''r"'' .^"T '"■'" ';',';' ''""■" '■" ""^ ^^"'^^ ll'nntain Ge.synelitui alon? 
m eastern border. ,n Alberta. Mot.tana, and farther soiah. Xone of the4 
younj.. r pnsm.s of preat thiekn.'S3 is represented in the soeti.,n at the I-n.- 
national Bonndar.v, l,„t it is eonve.dent to refer to the whole eomp.v„,d belt' o* 
heav.v sedinientatton nnder the ,.ne na:ne, the Eastern f;e.i^vn.^linal Belt " 
-Mtmlarly, the .lominant s-limentarie- west of the VnUmUi, riv^r o^ Prjassie, and ( 'retaeeons ape. have beeti aoeunnlated in -,,; 
to,cknesses. flje I'ennsylyanian strata have been reeo^ni^ed at many p,;^nts. 
fro n Ala-ka to Sonthern Ca hlonua. and it appears probable that late Paleozoie 
. dm „tn ,0,, on a geosytudinal seale to .^. plaee thro.^hv.. that Ion. strete k 
-More lneaMreso.,„e and Tert.ary pe ,sy,,. mals were i,.„po..d nnon the Pacific 
i'order of the pn ,„ developed in the Pennsylvanian ,K.riod. IJo.ks a'^frew' 
..■ tins older pronp of deports erop out at intervals al! the wav f o',: 
tl.e Columbia nver to the Gnlf of Oeorpia. A part of on.. ,-,.• o,..a,> M-v ^^ 
ms was found in an enormously thiek of Cretaeeou^ strata larpe'v 
eumpo-ntP he I'asayten monntain r«,u-^e betveen the l'asavtn„ and Skapil 
rivers. A tluek Tnassie series is known on Vancouver island nr.l forms n.rt 
o the western slo,. of the Skapit mountain ranpe, whi4 HeV be i^en 
• ■e Skapit nver and the .^trait of (ieorpia. The ed?e of the Ter^iirv 

i::Z:ti"T^ '':■'' ''"'''''■'' '^- aPP-entU-. represented irtn; 
J-ras.ivalle.v To the entire eompo-,t.. mass of post-Mi-sissippia:, sedinen-s 
oc'eurrinp jn the western half of the Conlillera, the nan,. Wes'er. r.e,;sv^o : ,i 
Jielt tnay he piven. >'-'■. nai 

1). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. .«, NV 5, 190*! p. 


•- ' _.„. i -• ....•i.. 

nr.fniiT nr i m: c/iii i i-i i;n\,,\ii:i; 7 


Tilt' KllM. Ill <;<n>yt|,.|il|„l ll.'il i.s clliinictl-li/Ocl |,x ,.p,.tl f,,l,|-, l;i,||f.l,i,:,.U,. 

M..I (.v.Tthni-t-. Willi Imh iii..,|,.riiti- rrKiothil in.'tuiii.M'pIii.,,, nii'.l .|iiif,- -X'- 

or.liiiaU' iKii,ni,> ii.'ii..,,. Til,. Wiwt.rn licit i-i oliurn.-trri^r.l l.v ,-l f..Miii- 

n.'asliin^r. >iro„K r.K'i..iiHl i; .hiiiioiiJii,,,,, „„,! i,v hoth l.nlli..litl,i,. i,.tru-l.,M mm.! 
V. ,i'iinu' jirtiuii ,,11 II tri-1111,1 -cal,.. |.'r,,i,i tlio w,'<i, m ■.r,.-<iii;' ,,t' ih,' K',.,,t,.ii ,. 
mor t„ t i(> Krtll,. vnrr M Immh,! Kork- il,.. sicti.m rm, .-^ tlic \V,.4t Kn,,t,nnv 
Biitholitl.i.' i.n.viiic. wlii.h i. partly ov.rlappo,! l.v tli.' Ros^an.l Vol,.,uii',' 
prnviiic,.. \\,-t ,,f ( ;,■,„„! F,„ks i- tlic Mi,hva.v V-lnmio provinr... Tl„. Ok irii- 
piui ( ,livis,,,ii ,,f t|„. CmscimK. tn,,i.ntaiii system u cmniwse.l of tli.' 
0.wu.up,m rnmi-n-it, l!i.ti,.,liil,, an,] the ..f tli.' Sknyit niiic.- i^ ma.].. „,, 
»f the Skagit CimijioMtc Uii'idifii. 

Thc-u -.nous ^'M,l,,Hi,al pr.vincv an- treafe.l in thr onlor of Mhv..-i,,n 
9S thoy arc (.nrountcr, ,| i:, pa-s'iiK from ea-t t- w.'st. NnmlMTlcs. proMciii. 
I.iuo nn-wi .liinnir tlio pm^.fss ,.f tJi.- work. S^.^iul studios have bmi inn.i- 
on tlic ivlati. n^ iin.l ..vlyln ..{ tl;.. itmoous rock., which oecnr in the secti.^n on 
il >calc iiiit ntt.ii siirp.i--c,| ill ,,tli,T nioiintain chains. 

.\ chapter .in tlic n n.-laliire <.f the Conlilleran rani;.- nt the ri,|,.rna- 

tiMiul Hoiiii.lary ill ■ nt, s tl„. nec.l of a sy>tei,iatic attack on tlic .JitTicih 

irohlom (,t nanies. The loiij; ,lis,'iisse,l l.nt ev.r lu'W .picstion as t,, tl riL'iii 

ot llMieston- anil dolomite, coiiph-d with that as t.. the cause of the raritv ,,f 
fn.ssils in pie-Silnrian so.limcnts has promptcl a theoretical diapter which 
like the chapter on nonien.'latni-o, lia< alreaily in lai-/c-l part 1 ,-en pnl.Ii-h.d' 
Other suhje.'ts. incIuiHnjr Kla.'iatioii and phy-ioLTiiphy. wer. m,.;-,. iienitahlv t,i 
he eon-idcred and nee 1 no special introda,'fi,iii a» tlii- plac. 






A 1013 



F. r the -•ciiviiiipMct (if tho rt'n<liT n liri<f ali-tiiirt ..f .:•■ d i,i ilu- f, ii, -.vlnir 
'•l.aptTS is hiro offi n il. Am ii riili', tlif p' tri)(rriii)}iv, wlii.'li f. rm- n !iirt'<- |.;irt 
of o.i''li -y^tciiuitic siftioii iliiiliiii.' wiiii till' r'xk fdriii.itii.n-. - ii,,t snmmur- 


( inncii III. Till- iii'«s-lty of r<\ ijiiijj tlii uc •. m n ,ii,in clinlii 

' ;' -North Aiiii>ri'-n into rcliitivoly ^iiiall orottr-ipliif unit- i- f. It 1 v liir tinturiili-t 
.vlir. .-i.vrr- niiy \nruc ■»('<'tion of tlwso nioiiiitiiiiis iin'l tlii ii ^iii. mpt- tn iIimtIU' 
i'lf rc-iilt- of his Mli«rrviition-i. Sn.'h -iiliilivi-iion ;i | Miil' 1 ctwciii tlio 
Ff>r?,\ -..■ ciitii jikI Kiftv-tliir'l piiniiloN of hiiitndo i- ^ntjn -tic!. 

For •ici.-iititif writing tlu' well reoodiii/ed mime •Cor.iill.Ta ol North 
A.fri'ii." with the iilternntivi', ■ I'a.-itio Moiinlnin Systi m of North .\irioiiiM,' 
i- prcffrrid f^r the ohiiiii ii~ u whol.'. Tho iMiiii,\ olln r .iitcriuii ivo iiaiiir- for 
t 11 i-hiiiti iin ii.-^t(<l. 

Thi- cxi-* iiL' roiiii iiilaturt' for iho ran-cs itos-( d l.y tin Forty-ninth;;!- 

\f] h iiinil' i|iiato ainl to -ionie i-xlflit in confiivii'ii. .\n ainilitioil i iirii'latiiro, 

"■isni a« far a- <ic\ I po-silil,. .hi prrvailiiiL' u-ajri . i- ofTi'if.l. Tho inaiii 

iK-iplo iidopte'l i- I' at of I'si-liiii: 'op,i(.n-aphic roLiiioii-. lar^oly irro-iK-otivo 
ol the jieiieli.' hi-tovy or rock ooiiip,.<iti.iii of tin. difTrrftit ranp <. Siiocifically 
!lu lim- of i!<'lin. alioii aro tlii' a\i-- o, th.' i.'r ator valhy- ;ni.| • tii^iiohc-. ' in 

til.' iiioiiiitaiii ii>l(>x. 'I'iic liocky .Moiintaiii '{■rfiich, the Purcill 'I'rfnch, the 

Selkirk N'alley, ami thi> Lower Okuiuiitaii N'niliy r(piy'*"iit partial liouinlaric- of 
the Koi-ky .Moiintiiiii '.ystcm, anil tho I'lircoll. Solkiik. ( 'oliinil ia, nnil f'a-ciic|o 
MoMiitain <:<loni- at tho F'oity-niiuh Farallol. Tho iii^'j.'o-toi) iiihilivision? of 
tlie-c -y-tenoi for tlio rofiioii ailjaooiit to t' Iiiti riiatioiial Hounilarv inoln.lo 
tho \a\\\>. fl<irk'\ MacHoMaM. (ialton. Flailipa.l, Mcdilliirdu. Valik. M. vio, 
( abinet, Xchnii, Slooaii, Hoiiniiiiihiii. Valhalla, Peii'l D'liirilh. I'l-iist. Kdni'-.m, 
ko>"<Uii,(!. ChiisliiKi. Midwaii. Colvillo. >'an.i I'vil. Okanat;aii. Ilozoinoon. and 
>kaf:it ranf;o~ or groups. 

.\ .■iiiiall aro.i I'f tho I'lll af liifriinr I'hili mix i- a'-- r. iin-cnted in tho 
n.iiinilary lino -ootioii. In llio pioi-iilini;- li-t tho naiiio- in italics aro rnopo-oil 
iy tin- pre-oiit writer. TIl- others date from the ox|.<ditioH- of Falli-ior. I)a\v- 
fori. Willis, Smith, Cnlkin^, and .MaeI),.iiaM. Tl e siihdivi-ii n :- illustrated with 
sketch map-. 

• .'ilAPTER IV. — The jfpoIoRioal ilovnription hoiriti-i with an a(00\Mit of (lie 
IJoi-ky Mountain ( loo-ynolinal I'rijini, of whioli nearly .ill tlie mountains 
I. tweon the- Gr'Ht riaiiis and thp -nniniit of the Selkir! - , ■■> lon |».-eil. Clniii- 


111. I- il.l ill \ I 1,1 I III I \ I l.ltliiU 

2 GEORGE V, A U12 
I'T IV, ,ii.,.,,.„. ti„. -tr itlKr.ip IV in. I -iriritir.' ot' fh,- r|;,rU,. cmmsv (liviiidi- 
■■..I. r.iii.-.' .t' Willi- 1, tli.. in..,r .M-r.Tl.^ ,,t' \\,r monnciiii- rnv. r,-.| l.v tl,.. Mirv..,v. 
W.llu' rroilM oi, (li,. -u. r,.,*!,,!! ,,f •"..riiiiitloiK were ronfirm.-d l.v .kttiiliMl study. 
'Ih.. .,j.i,-t f. final ii.iiH ill thin [..irt ■ l" tli.« If ..■!<>• M.niiiluin nvnti'iii aro tin- Altyn 
i'li.l iiiiiKiK'^iiiii liiie-tnri.'i iiml .|.,l..iiiiti-. Tli.' fornn r i-i'.l V. 
Ir <-..ii«iil.,!y tlii.'kt-,- iliiiti 'lin iiiiiimii!;! oslinuitr jfiv. n l.y Willi-, in wl,,,... 
tr.iviT-f tlu low.r i-art ..f t'lo AIi.mi f.)riiiiitii)ii wu-. im.i \, '|'|i,. Iia^e ,.•• 
;'. Wiit.Tt. n f,'..ii i. .-,.., .•■■hI.L At \V;it.ri..i. Ii.k,. n l.,,rii!K lui.« I..,-,,ti..| ti... 
I' ol til. l.iwi^ .,v.Ttiir.i-t iit M c|,.jpt'h ,,f iili..iit I.MH) fcrt Ik-Iow the lake-lovi'I. 
Ai ilii.i 1,.,.; tl„- I. it ,,f ih,- i,i,,.-!iiii,. ..iii,.!v.| SMft ,|i,ily nwk- nMsiBno.1 to th.- 
( 'r. tii.'i-.iii. 

'I'll.' f.i»-l li.liin, ./.DM. W.I- f.Miil ill th, Altyn f..rni.,ti,.n. N'.. mlior 
'l.'i.-riiiiiKii.:.. r...-il- w.-v ;,,,Mi i', ilii. r.iiiii.., ll„. M-liai.nt- of uvr. 
!. .-iKiir.I l.y Will,. t„ ,|„. I!,.l, t,-,n..;, ..f il„. Al^r„„k;an. Tl„ y nr.. h-T.' nlln.|...l 
t.. .1- |i|,.. l.owis s.Ti... At il„. Kliitli.M.l rivT, a 1,.chI|.u-|,tf-r. f.^^ilifor.MM 
(Icpo.sit .,t .l.iys an I -,,i, i-i ili,.- Kis!i.Mic)iii I'o'ination .^.'r-urs it U •HsiaiK-l 
'.. the Mi f II.'. 

Tlir CI,..)., ran-.' f..,iu- a li-s .'t..! l.Ma.l .syn<'Iin.-. wlii..|i is,loiU-.| 

w'tli a few ta,!!- aii-l -^ .n lurv «Mri.<. Tl.f valley of tlw \..rtli Fork of tli.- 

Hatii.'a.l rivor i^ an| ^rah,.|i or Imilt-troiifrli. TIa. rui.ffc lias Ik...ii movM 
iai.twar.1 at I,.;Ht iMglit mil.'s ul,,iifr tn.. ^.-rrat I,owi. thrust. Tla^ wrilrr fav.urs 
t!.o vi-w that thi.. as wll as n.arly nil th.. othfr .l.forniati..n rcpr.s,.nt.-.| 
in tla. ran;.',.. .Int. s f,o,„ th,. ,.l,,s,. of th.. I.arami... l.ut tl.l- has i,„t !»•. i. Hn-illv 
I.I, vo.l. ■ ' ■ 

CM.M'm, V, C.ntinuiiu wrstwar,.!, tho ,,M..r imtnln- ,,f tl:,. >f.-osvii,.lii,a' 
u 1 unf„ssil,f,.r,..,8, vvero foun.l t-. tiiak.. .,[, th,- ;,,T part .,f th.. .MarI)„naM 
ami (.alt..M rni,R.s. Th.. litl,„!„ay has. h„w.nvr. . •,at.«...l a.i.l in soin,- ..asos 

raw nam.., ar.' tfiv.i. t,) tl, .i8tit.i..|it f..rmnti,.ns. Thr whol,. ronforniahl.. 

m Ml,,. c.,rr...p„n l,n« t,, th,. I...wis ^ori^s. is call,-.! the Onlton snies. 

On th,- oast ami vv,.st .-i.i f tl,,- < ialt.m-Ma.|),.imh! mountain »,'roup ,1, v,,.,.,! l,l,H.!;s „t .,s,i!if,.n„,- lim,.sioM,.. upp^ r)..v„i,iaM t.. Mississippi,,,, i,; 
W-. make. Pont;M.t will, s,,„„. „r ,l,o !„«,., „.o,nh,.rs .,! ,h.- .....h ol.l,.r C'l.a, 

Tho .h.niinant -Irn.Mir.iI unit ..f th.. twin,..- is th,. fault-l,l..,.k. 

(•ii.MTia VI. W,.-t .,(■ ,1„. I!,„.kv .M„.,ntain InMich tlio posynclinal rapidlv 
a,.s.i,M,r.s ;, l,th..|..( ,.hara..t,.T inarko.lly .|itT,.rorit from that fonn.l in tlu- f....- 
ranges ja„ ,„onti.m,.l. Th.. Purcll sysf..,a i- lar.-rly ...nnp,...,! of „„,,;,; 
q;<.s an,l n,.tarjrdlit,.s. f.r.nin- tho l>„r,vll seri-.s. which is the mor,- 
s.lKMous ,..,;nv,,l,.,,t of ,1„. ,|..;ninantly ar,.illa,.,.oa. a,„l ,,.„„. or .i..!.Mniti.. 
s..di,n,.nts „f ,h,. b.;v,s a,„I (;„lt„„ s..rios. Th,- Pur,., il .orirs is of nn„.h mo. 
l.(.m,<t.n,.oii- ,.,,Mip..siti,.ii th.iii th,' oth.r tw., -ori,'- 

An int.^rU.,l.M v,.!,'.,ni,' formati,,,. of th.' IU-„re-,.ri..,i„n typo, has :,.^„ 
followed trotn th,. (.,•,., Phiins >„ th,.. sunnnit of ,h,' Jf," uilivrav ran<,',.. wher.. 
Iht lava .s thicu't. I, i- n,„„..,| ,he P,„.,','I1 |,«va. A .si.'.'ialfeatur. ..f the 

iinrmti ni nil. I inn i>//.'>(.\mi;/.;. ii 


IV rii'll "v-tiiu i- t!,' iirp^nii.'c of trii<>k oilU i.i ,i (i lijr 'i iru'i'.-:! I-' lm' ' - 

'I 'it"#f iTuptht foriuatiuti- .ire .li <iril>i'il in liit<r cluiph'.* 

Till Pur'Tli vvjtcin i* ai*'! .•hura<'t.ri/.i'il l'\ luimirn * .-v i n-.; •. 
friiltiiiy. tlii'Uiili ;li M'''ii!!ivrav riitiu'- ^liou- m l,r,,.i.i uiisi ■liii- .ml ••• ■I'u-?. 

( iiMiU; \'II. Af tl..- I'lir.i'll Tniiili Mm ntitiuitv "f tho Be—vn-Iii il 

liiat^ in < fTp.'fivi'ly lirukoii. Friiit ilir nllu intcl ll.">r of tli ■ trftw" :. 4 I;!;-" 
iil'out 'iNtii'ii rnilt- fnrtlii r wi »t llif r .>k- I'liii-ti^ lnKinj •. tli-- . i.' ■ I*ri--i': 
lilvpr t< rniiip. ■ :; wiiirli tlic jrpo.-yncliiiiil vv;is ilffiu-'fi •!. .\' tln> « :..iiiir .1: tL.j 

\i'liiiiii rnii».'P I.I 'iiMiI,\ (iifirc fliirkii. ^^ ..1' tli' v'i-"<.vii.-liii;i! '4 , kj J. *'.,. 

l-riiim hiiviiijr ],<iv I'tin iiptiirnp<l t" a'ul |iu,iMi>ii. In ^■ .iii, -sitary hi.'ni- 
b' i> nrp holproii'iiC'ti-. inolu'liMir riMipl,,.iifr.i!i'-, (frit-,*!' 01. i tiru- < tr, t- 
etMip fiiiinri/i'i-', uti'l tiKtiiruiilitfs. A vit.v tlii.-k voliMiiic •■.i':iiiiii.>ii. .Mt 
It. 111! tho I'liropll I, in. I, i- iiitirl i.lili I. A irri lit iiri'-'riiforiuity nt ll" '.ii«p af ■]:> 
j;i i,-yii.-liiiil! i- < .\p •-(■ !. Tlii iniiiii' Siiiiunir -.■i , i- j.'iv.-;i t.. tl.i' w', ..' •.!• 
!• rrrial'li' tii-"i;ii cf f. riii;it;"ii.-'. fr-iii lli. nn...iif..riiiity t ■ ti-'- liiri,!>ti 
p<.rrp«|".ii.liiii; r. tl.<- y uu-^r^r im ml it ..f lln' ri'i-.',l| -,-r'i.-*. U",..; ,,:' ';... arMt 
lilt lioi'lilli' tli>' .'^tiiiiii.i' •• li . iua!>("' iin .ii>|iurriitly i'..rif,ii!ii;r.l .■ .:• r-' -vi'Ii 
n y..ini(;cr iiu-tmn rtiL..- •! ii,n— .f - Ji nciit- nanp i| tin- I',i;! Ii'ii,. ■■;,. y. , ■-, 
\V. -t lif tliat <■••], f;,>-\ fill- n,,.-Ly Mountain ( ipo^ynrliin! i-.i.'k-. I ;, ■ rrMplw-a:" 
ill tli' II ;in'i.iry ••■■ti"ii. 

iilMil.i: X'lII In ilii- n'mptor tli,. il,.tnil.'.l (lsi'ri|iti.i:: "f ;i. • ^-'Iklrk 
KLMtiry i- iiiti ■ r ipi' I. .111. 1 tli>- rniTrlntjoii i.f tli<" T,cwi-i. rJal'..!!. Pur.-c'l. ivA 
Snmniit -^rii s '.- ili-'Mi--i'l Tin- -ysti'iiiatio variii'i'iii in tli'' li'lojiirv- '.;" tl.i' 
Kfosyiii'li; :1. 11- i' i- cr..---'! fi-,,iii i-ii-t tn \vi'>t. i- lioti''! in -.'Hh' .I.''ai;. an 1 »'••.•■• 
C'llcliiai'iii i- ilr..\vn thnt the -..iirft^ i.f tlip chHtic TiiatiTiai^ lav f . tli- 'V'^'war!. 
pri'liflW. not far ff ni 'in' p-i-'iit lo.-afii.n of tlio f 'oliunl.ia ri»'i-. X it.- ■•:. ''.if 
111' ' mil I'l'lii-ni •■{ iic |.ii>iii in. I on its .ivcrairc spix.itii' irim'tv ai.. n.% ri'I. 

The litliol"L'ii-al currr'ati'in of tlip yi-f^yiiflinal with tli.' riitiiliriai. f'r:!.i- 
til li.- il'soriliii! hy McC' hihI Wall'.. ft "ii tin' ('aiiiniiaii Pa.'iti' : lil'.vay ;< 
(lu'U ili-i-u-sci. 'I'll' ro-iilt is t. iHiiiit to tin' tlnr 'i;.- l'.-..-v,; ■''n il 
0: till Iiit^.rini! ; .:ial IJ.iiinil.i iy i.i laryr. ly Camlii'ian in ntrr. tlio!:^h if . 1- il 
niinil er? lull . t.. iirc-Olfiiellu.- horizons (licltiiin of Wnli-ntt). Siuiihir 
ci'in-lation witli -ii.ii'.u-t ili-'-rihc; in .Montana ami M.h - i-t;,'-'.; ;, -inr; ,r 
Conclii-i 11 n- !.: tlir- ;i(ie of tli.-' so'linnnr* in tlu' four Boiiii'larv =.'ri.>= in] it 
is hi'M that a "lu-i'icrablL' thickuL'ss of the 'Belt torrano ' i* p .--iii'.y. if !'...► 
prubnbly. of JliiMlc ainl Lr'Apr f 'aiiilirian ace. 

Till' rh.iptiT .!..#<■- with iin o'ltlino of lli. iiri;uin..|it t'l.. ,i-t- .. ii.!.. >'. 
the CorililU-ra. from .\l.-'.fl to .\ii/ona anil iiiflinling the CIroat Bas::. of tlji 
United States, has \c<-n the -pcin^ of sfK'oially homy ^'•diiiii'ii'at! r •] irinj th'- 
Beltian. Lower t ':inihriiui. an.l Miilillc CanihriaM pcrh-'is. Tli:- l.)W>.'r pirt of ;iio 
Ifei-ky i[ou:;laiu < ■r..<ynfliiu.i. a.< (icfineil, has an axial tT'-nd faitiifnliy jiarill''"! 
to the main (\>r. liih, ran axi- of tie presnn- day. This a.' ■-yindiim! -.itT.i-.H i 
loi^al deforinatioii 1! i-inj.' an early Mi'Mlo Canihrian :"rioi. at: i. .T the >l''li..' 
Ci'inhri. F! t'liol -^ ko. \ri\>- ■^'■neral'y depres-i'i! Th." ai . •' - ''•■:.• -[y.i 



/././ 1/,-/ 1//. \v (>!• -I III-: i\ii:i;i<ii! 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

WHS thus cii'argiil ;iiiil (iiiMi^itiuii was gpiicrall.v continuous tliroujfh.uit the Cur- 
ililloraii U'h until near the elose of the Mississippian. Upon the Paleozoic beds 
tniik ("retacioiis ami !"< rtiary prisms of seilinient were I'M'iilly laiil down. TIdsi 
looal peosynelinals and the master Rocky Mountain (leosynclinal compose the 
Eastern Gensyni'linal Belt of the Cordillera. 

(^iiAPTKR IX. — Returning to the systematic description of tin' rocks, the 
important rurcell Lava fiirination is here considered. Its c!inracters in the 
McGillivray. (Jalton, Clarke, and I-ewis ranges are outlined. Certain associated 
dikes and sills are described and the relatiou of this fissure-eruption to the thick 
sills of the Yahl: and Movie ranjres is discusseij. 

Chapter X. — The intrusive srahhro sills of the Purceli mountain system 
have already l.een ilcsirilied in preliminary paix?rs. The matter of thc-c puli- 
lliations, together with ^onie new material, is prcseiitcil in cli;iptcr X. It I- 
largely petrographic. A group of the most important intrusive hodies di-- 
envered has 1 cen <:ivcn the name. Movie sills. It illustrates the aliility of -„\uf 
very thick M'a^:inatic sheets to assimilate their country-rocks — ()uartzitcs in t';e 
case of tie Meyie sjlU. The proofs of this are discussed in detail, and siniiliH- 
ca:es are briefly compared. The principle of pravitative diffcri'iitiation ef 
magmas is evident in all the cases. 

CiiAi'TiR XT. — The sedimentary rocks of the Xelsun ranye. ..tiier than tho-i- 
of the Summit scries and some others intercalated in the Heaver Mountain 
volcanic formation, include: the Kitc!;ener quartzite, a smidl outlier of which 
seems to he repre-cnted alonjt the western dge of the Purceli Trench; ilic P.ic-t 
River terriiiu: iind the Pc nd ICOreille >;r..up. 

The iire-Caud>riau Priest Kiver terrane, the oldc-t nick-t-roup identified 
in the Boundary sccticin, is composed of micaceous schist.s, quartzites, (^uart;^ 
schists, dolouiiti -. and luctainoriiho-ed irreenstone-. arramred iii meridional 
hands, hot so cemiilcx in -trncturr a- t'l defy all attciuiits at dei-iph<'rinir thi'ir 
true relation to one another. The petrography of the ditfercnt bauds |- ,l,.s- 
cvihed. ami a nete is added ('n the correlation of the terrauc wlt'i others found 
in the Conlilicra r.irth and seiith of the Boundary line. 

The Penil D'Oreille iiroiip is diviilod into the Pond D'On ille linie-foue aiel 
the Pend D'Oreille schist. As exposed in the Boundary belt, llieac rocl.s occur 
in the hatholitiiic prevince of West Kootcnay. a fact which helps to explain thi' 
heavy inetanvrp'.iisu! of this grniip. The linie-toiie is locally unfo-siliferoi's 
and. with 'ome do\d)t. i- i ornlatc 1 with the similar marhh^ iif definitely Cav- 
bonifcrou:- age at Rossland. The s^.histose division includes pliyllitc. -beared 
qeiart/ite. amphihoiite. and iiassivc greenstone, whie'h are intiuia'idy .is-ociatcil 
with the lime-tone and are ii;cre!'orc ti ntatively referred to thi' lipjMM- Paleozoic. 

Then follows a hrief ;i!ialy-is of the structure of the Xels,,ii rai;_:' (•'Selkirk 
system). Tin' Piireel! Treneh i^ Incatcd at the Forty-ninth Parallel on a fault 
trough repre-f-ntiiig (.neat vertical displai'ctnent. ITcn-izontal shit'ts an^l a power- 
ful ovcrthrn-t. with rotation ef the tlirust-i>lnue. are among the ui.'re i' 
structural e'e:; . i i. n '.),' ~. : ;i a i f -I r.oig ilef. r ii;al inn. 

uM3»y.iJi iLiitgyB^^^syjiiBe "nxsn^m'wtm 

?wt. fxy^m^mt^ 

in.i-Dur III nil: ciiii!- .i>7/,'o\«,i//.a' 



<'llM'li:ii XII.— Till' Priest Uiv.r lorr.un. tli^- formati'in' if tin' Siiiimiit 
scries, and the Peiid D'Orcille group nre cut hy l>uthnlitli<. «tui-k-. ;incl iliki> nf 
igneous rock- of varied nature. Chajiter XII is largely devoted t'l tlio petru- 
grapliy of tliesc eruptive bodies as expo-ed in tlie Selkirk range. In ad<litiuii, 
e. I tain iniiicite dikes ef the Kos^land nieuiitaiiis. lieiug eloieiy ndated to otlier- 
oieiirring in the Selkirk-^, are deserilied in this lOi^inter. .\ thoroutihly ahnorinal 
' granit .' proliablv a hybrid rock. e\ils the Kitchener quartzite at the edge of 
tie Ivo' teuay rivi r alltiviuni. A tentative cuiTehitim of all the fornintions 
c inposin;: the ."Selkirk mountains within the Boundnrv belt i- jiiven in tabular 

("ini^TKR XIII. — Thnngli the TJos-land mountain grouji i- a small sub- 
division, the ten-mile belt crossing it sliows an extensive variety ..f fornuitions. 
chiefly IgnC'ii-. Fo-siliferous Carboniferous limestones, and rretaceous (?) 
shr.les eecur near TJossland; and conjjloinerate bearintr fos-il leave- (rretaceous 
or Tertiary in a>re) was found on Sophie mount.iin. The ar ally important 
fermatio'.is iueludi- the Kossland and Beaver Mountain croups, (latites. ande- 
fites. and bas.dts), the Trail bathiditli (granodiorite'), the Coryell batholith 
(syinitei. the Tio-slaud monzonite. and the stocks of Sheppard cranite. A 
peculiar '.livine syenite." occurring also in the Bonnington range, and a dike 
I f th'. rare petrojiraphic type, missourite, are described. T!ie structural and 
time relations of the fonnations are discussed. 

CiiAi'TKH XIV. — Bitween Christina lake and Midway the bed-rocks form a 
eoiuplex. which is very similar lo that in the Rossland mountains. The Chris- 
tina range j, chiefly composed of plutonic rocks, which include the gneissic 
irranite (sheared granocliorite) of the Cascade batholith ami the aplitic granite 
of the Smelter stock. The orij-'iii of the banding in the batholith is briefly dis- 
rupstd and a lateral-secretion hypothesis favoured. 

Acro-s the north fork of the Kettle river the formation- have been studied 
\'.' detail by Mr. 11. \V. Brock, from whose report liberal quotations are made. 
For puri-oscs of lonvenieiice in later com lation- the present writer gives special 
names to two of the formations descrilied by Mr. Brock. These new names are: 
Attwood series, and Phfrnix Volcanic group. The usual tentative correlation 
t.dde i- apiicndcd. 

('ii.xrnn XV. — .Tust <'ast of Midway the section enters the Midway volcanic 
provinee. lepresenting thick Tertiary lavas and pyroclastic dep.isits. West of 
the volcanic mass is a broad band of metamorphosed Paleozoic seiliments extend- 
ih^ to till 0-oyoo- batholith. This chapter describes the two proviiu'cs, the 
Midway province demanding the greater detail of statement. The Paleozoic 
j'diments. with included greeiistone and basic schists of ivneins origin, are 
i.iuued tlie Anarchist series. This series i- unfossiliferous. but on lithological 
grounds, i- correlated with the (^ache Cre<>k series md other upi)er Paleozoic 
j;roupf described north and south of the Boundary. Unconformable u\Min it is 
ibc fos-i!it'(reus (Oligoccne) Kettle Hiver formation. conipose<l o' ennglomerates, 
Si'iid-tone-, anil shales. These sediments are confiirmably overlain by thick 


I : I ; 1 - « ( ■ - 


2 GEORGE v., 

r -vrv "' J '";"'"•'' '■°''''^' '''honolith.) ,1,?'*" ■"^^--"^ include dikes 
r'. O arc the i„tru-iv<> types. A l"V'., ' ?, ■''"'^"T''-^''-" ^'"'^ P^''«*k''t'' I>or- 

J^' '•■■f.irv ntrus.vos are al-o descTilu-.I "■^fus.v., type.. Various 

;^^'- b..i. .'1;, ):i ;;rt;f js -—<•!.=;:;. d;;;.: ;" '^i;:: 

t'U.;dar,v br-h. The petro^m ph e 4^ ^ ^"^ "'"T "^ P^"''^"i'^ roek i„ t ^ 



''■•- -ay be q.-icklv Ob a e bv° an"-"^ ""•'^''"' '"> 
"'"IfT 'Chapter XVT • '^I' . ■\^° /"speetion of ,i 

'f ■■•'.t,.:„- u„,ler 'Chapter TVT'^'r '''' "° '"^P^-'ion of ,1., : ;, , "" 

■•' -^^ - ' ^^ .!>. 'i:;ZL^' ■ ^'^ -^''- - »'- directed t: u,:' jii;::;;; 


;-".i-i.i.^ Kreeoia for,," the b'T^e^beToTth '''''^: '''' '"'^'^'■^«"* '''»-" o 

^efo..ed „:::^h;:: :;:r^. :s'dips^tL:^-- ^ ^^-^ ^rx^^ 

Oinp creek canvon a preat f.,.If l • "'P^' ^eeremng toward the west \t T^^f 
^•ith the n„.eh^,der"iroLt tn^: whiT" T\^-^«r^"^ belsinfoUnS 
Ar.rch,st Attwrod. Pe„d D'OreiJIe and (^ ho r "'f '^'^' ^'^"^'"t<^'l ^itl, tho 
Intrusiv,^ bodies with tb„ /i !•' / ^° ^'"'^'^k ser os. 

;^7 "'. *^-- I'-'"'nr.v belt. The e , enei^Tf iti ° "^°^''" "^^^^^ '"'-^^o 

^^Hl™' °^ """' '^ ''^^^~ "^=^^"'S-;Vt:'^ 

--.j;r'"S ^I'S:::;;!^ ^i!!'if 21 "^^^- ^"^-^^ - '--•-l on another 

.'he Paeifio -dope of tl.e range , thtlTr"?' '" "" '" P^^^'''-- O, 

;^mest,.ne, with . heavy ,nass of nTer'be.lS , ' -^ "-^■■"'^•^- ^'^'^'i^t.ue, and 

arbon.ferou.) a„d nnder the Inrnfch H^ "l^""''''' '' ^"''-''iferons pper 

r.zo„,een ..eries. So far a, known he" 7,^ TlTl '' r"''^'' ^"^^'^ 

>n the Sk.g,t ranpe. Fos.iliferon. rTn.l *''^, '^'"^t "'"^^ locally developed 

format.on. ,va, fonnd near Cult," lake TtV'l^'"'*'^' '"''''"^•^' "' the Cultu, 

--tl.ward is ealkd the Tamibv r , " It i ''S "'/4 °^ ^"'"'^^^''"«- ^^c , to he 

0-o.u.a; ....,,. , .,,„,,^,^., ;.^^ - rU:r^^" !-- - rt. but on Hth- 

----H the creta=^:;- ::----- 




''^■''""'^'"'"''■'iiirr As,}:,,suii,:i; 


"vly t..->iiiu.r,,„s .a>,.l^t,„Hs „„,1 ,.,„,- 

"' l"n,i„ti,.n. which is prohnhl.v e<|iiival- 

A very thiuk v.],ni,ic pilo 

■ ■I'l.'rl fho SkML'it VnlcMMi,. 

On SiiiiuKs iiiounfniu coai-h.nriiit- .■! 
j-'Jomerat. 3 am included in th,. Hii.iti,, 
ent to the Koeeno P„get l^cls „f Wu-hinfrt.-n 

• orinatioii. ' 

R'>A< nssiir,,,,,! to the IW.oniern >o,ie. nrr ,-nf l,v >1, r . 
olith (.iH.nrd grano,Iiorito). ontcronr j, ' Vt T •. r , """' *-'""'^'"' ^""i' 

•s pos.iblv of Jura^si,. ... i^. , K ,' r"'"'"" "V"" ^'^■"'-"■' '•■''"'■"^- ^' 

sranodiorite, which i^ Rcut .aliv oo, nr ' "". V'";"-\ ^?"'""«'''< ■■•'tholith of diorito. Other fnt .-ivt „,~^r T /' '"'''" '"''" "'•■'- "aniod ,ho 

-th ,.0,.. on ...elation and ::. h;;-;^,::;:,^':;; t-t:;, ,:;^;: ■■"^m.o^ e,o.. 

and thrown into tab.dar form A c "' ,^»''^"""n >^ then hri.lly di<,.„ss..,l 

Cordillera closes the cimpter "■' '''^''''' '' '""^ '^-•"" «"!' "f the 

Cordillera of the^Fo ,v -^nth Paralle xr"' '^' ^'t^'""^ ^•^*°'->' "^ t^- 
followed by a note on the thtrfr'^^lnntrin-^, S;"'''^' '"^^ ^*"^--* ^ 

t-. ;ia:5:;:eS-;f]£ Jr^ ^- ;;;!;f >; ;;f the ohservatio„, n. „,. 
at the Forty-ninth ParalW «= V *'"' "'"'""* CnrdillorP.. io<,-cap 

.lonble rows^f :l^"ttrs d in^rtho K ?' ^''''''' ''''' ^''''- ^^^ t^ 
-y^tem during the PloLocene an de crltl S;: ' ""• '""^ ''f ^'^ '-'■■'•d- 
then considered, beRinnin- witi he Oh t ^''"^'^t'"" "f each ranpe i. 

the chapter is t'o he found at i'VcL^; 1:,"""' "" *'"^ '^"*- '''"' ^^^""'^ °^ 

a division of the Boundary zoIi^tophi;.'Sh-'""*'''- "^"",' "' '"""^'^'^ ''^ 
A running account nf the mrplo W ' f .f. '^'''' I'rovmc ■«, listed in a table, 
"ith the Front ran^e svnclir^l .f ^a^ /i^'" ''."Tr"' T"'"^'^^- beginning 
of the nuestion as 'to Terti y Z^r:LZ^7';l'V ?""^""'""" ''^'^"^■^-" 
'^a.,ad:. n.onntain.. The cn'-o L Tv . I *^%^'°"t '""ff''^ «"<1 "f the 
mountains (large extracts from a p o uiinrr"^ n"' """l'"'' '"^''^ '" ■■'''''"« 
^iMered, The chapter closes with Ts to , t ^^7"" "" !'^"' ^"'■''^*^'^ ''^ ^°"- 
rh.^..aphie development of J ^r^E' I' /i^ ^^;:li-h •t;:^!- ^"^ 

expC:rif^s:;7Saffi:;n!:ieiStrt""^ '^tc-^ -■^'^ '»'<' 

t;ons, and of the related fact that he ^ t J'«i v^f^I^ r't" '°™" 

•'iihareous like r. -,f the nost-rflnbrinff .? '^ .' "'*J, "^"^ ^'^»'^» a^ not 

tne post tan.brian fos? ,1 remains. The favoured explana- 


Ln.i'\inMt:sT or tuk isrumtiit 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

lii.u was jfiveti in tw> ppcliiiiiiiarv piijuTs iniil ttio iirKiiineMt ii-i ;i wlioU- is \u-v' 
piLSiiit"d for the first time. A sumimiry on this hifrhly coinplfx siit)jt'ct is giviti 
in tlie chapter. The origin of tlie thciisnnil^ of feet of limestone ami dohiniite 
found in the Rocky Mountain geosynelinal and in the Priest River terrane is 
r.ttributi'd to ilirect cht-miriil i)reci|iit;ition ,,n the floor of the open ("■.•iiii. .^tiUi>- 
tics show that til.' lime-touea of the earlier L'^eohi!.'i<'al were urininaliy 
more magnesian than thus,, of the later peri. .1^. This ivolntii.n of tiie lime-itone, 
IS paralleled with a eheuiical evolution of tn<' oc(au. 

CiiAi'TKR XXIV.— 1< an introduetiou tn a pMnral theory of the iirneou- 
rocks, the statement of which occupies the rest of the report. The Mode classifica- 
tion is prcfern^d and a table shewinp the nvcrape eheniieal eomiwsition of each 
reek type is insi-rteil. Ma^'matic heat in the earth !■; lielii'viil to he chiefly a 
primitive inheritance, though some of it is dne to radioactivity. The argument 
for a genera! basaltic magma (jKrhaps highly rigid at the depth of the snh- 
sfrntum) is presented, and is foli> >s''Ci by the argument for a primary ai'id shell 
at the earth's surface. All igneous action is preceded by abyssal injection, 
whereby the basalt of the sub-tratum mechanically displaces thc> lower part of 
the earth's crust ami rise? to an average level which is at moderate depth below 
the surface. A note ou the essential mci'hanism of central-erupticn volcanoes 
lis distinct from fi-*urc-. ruptinn volcanoes closes the chapter. 

Chapter XXV. — Di-cuses the classification of igneous intrusive boilic-. 
I'lie favoured primary division is into injected and subjacnt bodies, the former 
group being largely -atellitii; to the subjncent masses, -which are ini'omparably 
the more important as to volume. 

Chapter XXVI. — The genetic proldcm of the eruptive rocks is, at its heart, 
also the problem of the l)atholith. This chapter discusses the proce-ses by which 
batholiths are believed to have been formed. Their typical field and chemical 
relations are sketched. The older hypotheses as to the methods of intrusion 
are compared with the stoping-abyssal injection hypothesis. Abyssal a-siniiia- 
tion of sunken roof-blocks is a prominent eh'ment in the favoured cxplanatiiui 
cf batholjthic magma-. The chapter is largely a reprint of three prcliuiiuiiry 
pppers. the matter of which is here systematically assembled. 

Chapter XXVII. — Considers briefly certain points in the wide subject of 
magmatic differentiation. The dominating control of gravity is emphasized. 

Chapter XXVIII. — The principle-i stated in the last four chapters arc 
here api>lied to a genetic classification of magmas, and then to rocks actually 
found in the Forty-ninth Parallel section. The rock families specially discussed 
ore the granites, granodiorites, diorite-. andesitcs, gabbros. ba-alts, coniplc- 
nientary dikes, pegmatites, and the alkaline types, iticluding the syenites. 


iftrroj^ ftjAjTj 




■""■kl """it. 

1^1/ /fUl/ >^tJi. 












-""■"■".'J y" /""/' 

25a— vul. li - |.. Ki. 




jSm../ .,,-/',,,, ^ 

■"/ ' 




a , 



'■""/"■ '7 1 





5 r '/ V-l/ 



,///,v//'7 ^ 










.'V,'.<-/ ^ 





/'^.,/ w,^v 







,A ^ 










' '"' ' '^ 







"-V ^ 

1 r>'y7^}Uji// i-'At'^ 



/»>/'/"""// ' ■■■■'7 
v/'// yv"'V 




I > t:= 




A. 1912 



.MoiNr.ux i:A\(iKs cnossi-i* nv riri.- 


IMHiiDl ( T|i>\ AM, OITMNK. 

Although tlM. 8,...tio„ ,.„v..r..,l l,v ,1„. I!,„„„lar.v C ,i..i 1 

n t exon.l t,. \ an.-ouver, if i, „l„„.t as lon,^ as ,he luMRe.t 
"". " cro...M.,.tH.n of the entire Himalay..,, group of ran^e. from 
.K...,ns,. ar In, .a to the Til.otan platoa,,. If th. wl.ol,. of Van-onv..- i-lan,I «' 

'"7 '"'.f '"'''" '"'>■ ^"f"N-lui,. ,., iM>: ,1„. Ili,„>, at ri-lit 

pamfw t r'^l" T f' '''•''-'^' "l IIi"u,Iav.,s and M,. at their broa.lo.t a. co,,,- 

■ nduatcd by a -ompan-on of area.. Th.- ,•):.„ of the Iliiualava^, unn^r tlu,t 
tern, m >ts larp-r *eMse. eovers about :?0,'..0<X) s,,nare nnl.-s; the Alps of E„rope 

1.0iH»,(K)(i square m.les: ami the western ehain of North America, over 2..W OOO 
square miles, (.^ee ais,, Plate 3.) -.> -v.ui" 

Th,. vast mountain r.jrion erossed l.v the International Uoundarv betw,.., 
Canada and the 1 nited .States ha- always been very ,parsely inhabited. In the 
CMffraphie features ,t is Kenerally eompliea^ed. ofte.i to the utteniiost Its 
exploration ,s only well bepun. There are thus ,.„.ellent reas„„, whv the .noun- 
Ir^n units of this re^Mon are m. ina.le,,uately named and systematized in peo^ra- 
ph:.;d works whether .sstu'd is offieinl Ooverument reports, as edueatio.ud text- 
bfoks or athiMS, or as popular reeords of travel. Vet. whether he will or nut 
tU explorer responsible for a re,H)rf on any part of thi. retrion must eonfront the 
question of names. He returns from his rupRod field, and. to tell of his findings 
nn,^t use common n.,uns to indicate what of land-nlief he has f.uind and' 
M'oper names to aid in individualizing and locating' those reliefs i-, the hu-e 
linekbone of th. lontinent. 

This duty has fall.n to the writer in the ta-k of reporting on the jreolo-^v 
01 the mountains erossed hy the Forty-„i„th Parallel. Though the same trans- 
■ noutane section has been describe 1 by the ..MMlosi^t, attached tr> the l>i.-,7-*!1 
tommissioM. thoufrh it occurs aloug the most thickly settled part -,f British 
<_clumb,a. and thouph ,t is nowhere very far from the lin.>s of tw, transcon- 
tinental railroads a complete and systematic aroupinp of the mountains on the 
l^cundary has never been mad... The difficulty ..f supplvins the lack w,s f,.!f l,v 

JSa—Vol. ii— 2 17 



nn-AKTUKsr -I //// isu:i!ioit 

tl„. wr' I ■ • ■ ^ GEORGE V., A. 1912 

hut '^iuo^Zluyt^, 'n.^ (^i\Ur^,i'Tij':!^r *""''""? / "'" ''""ndttry. 
nlr^ady in vop„e U>,.,„„o flppnront onnfusmn of tho nomonoh.furo 

ranges ...v, fnr awav from £ F m- nin.l "p' ' n \^"';";""-l'">-- "f w-storn 
tl..' ciiff,.r,.r,..r. of u<affo are r^Jlr\\ f"""' "^ '""*'"'•'• E^tnpleg of 

^ehi.,no of no,„on.-l.ture. pos.iblv to [,™„ f '"";/""^ ''^'". ""^'1 "f n 
may somo ,Iny l,e o.tXisl,p!l *^^ * ''"'"' '^^'"""^^ "" ^'"''^h uniformity 

no.Sa;::r':,^r.:;„;^,;r";;;--7--' i*' ^ ""^^ —^ ^^ ^he 

Internatio,,.]^ .'PProprmfo for fl,„ rango« crossed by ,be 


an>o,S'\,2o7iHo/°;esiJ:;.ii:i;"''or:ho°' "°"\''"'-''r"''' '^-^ '"«'i« ^oth 

au.horitics influ.ntiall^ an.Jn", ,1" r""^ °^ '""'""^^ «"'» """"f^ 
.tl.o present p„rpose of .li^! he 1 k / 'T °"''^'""' ^°"''=^«- ^- 
into which the (Treat mass of thl, 1 '"'^ ^'V"'^"™'*>' ""'1 tJ>o oonfusio.i 
of roferenoe, it '! "ot .uffioj „ t to r"' I""' '' V '^ '^'^"^""'•"^ "-^'in^ -orks 
o^ onreful sei.ntiHc m<„o, "h Pe Inr "'"""• ^"""'' ""'■^- '" ^-v-nnu-nt map 
■•-^ the reeor.l ,0 be made rot IjnZTT ""T'"' "'"' "' ""^ -"'neetio' 
from standard influential S.-l?.k In "T; ^'■''\ ""'"""' '^^^"^-Pl"'-. an.I 
atlcn of but a very li.nit d ,1 er ' i -"i"'; " ''"■' '■•■'■"'^^^'' "''' •'■^"'"in- 

the n.oral. With few x,l, n th ' T '",'^ "^ ">"l'-itative w,..' 
Kr.^lish lanK„ape. '•'"f'"""^ f^,. only works co„s„lte,l were prin:-. ;„ the 

professional work. The wr tn 1 "1 ' i. ,'^^'T''''^''!*'' "f"^ °^ ■^■■' ^"'"tion in tJeir reah-.os the wi.Io lat tuki n , an n^ T '' '" ^^ *"''' ""^ ''« "°^ '^"'"P'e- 

■'«-.ling with Nortl, Am an ;; ZX"""^^^ i'.H-ntial publieations 

..ographioal soeieties and al^h.e e n 'ttt tl v'lin^lr ,'" ''T "'^'''' "' '^- 
ment of one traveller, that h^ fo, , ,1 „' 1 7 " ^''*'''r'' ''* '''"^f' tbe state- 
that his hotel a,.,.„mn,orti ^ a'htarL;," ^^t""""""'.'. °' ""°*'-'- 
fi'PgcstivP pap,.r of Prof. R„„,]i ,,' f. """' ba.l. and leave undiscussed the ...raphieal featt.refof xlnrAtr;;"^''^;:'':.':;;./^ ""'"7 "' ''' 

. 1 ^- IT- It - 

'-'■'■"iir or Tin: i iiir:i A.,iiuK,>\n n 


to !l.e K ,r. |.i.u:, j;. ..jfrapher- it tli,. \!„ , , , , 

^^'■""'.''•!- .ic,..n.!..,„ o„ ti,.. : .:, ,;:;"';;r ;•'''•!'"■; " ':"'■' ""--'^ 

iMiii.tiiii ... ' '''^'' ■ "' "I'livi.liiiil wrif.T. .,ti those 

i' ;.< W'!l k;.i..wi: thut (me of tl ,. Hr . i ■ 

K'.up .'vinp i,.,«-,...„ ,1,, Pa.ifi., ;„, .,':';':'?';'.',";'" ■" ""■ ""'^" ■ "t--^^ 

n:. r„r,ii:i,n>. „f ,i„ .\,Klc.,' .,r' I V , ""'"' ^'■" •'"•• '" l':,M,l.,.I,i. 

Pap«=s f.! l,:j.h.,.l.,., (Jovernnwnt r. n, r \- /* '"''"'"'^ "" '""■^'"tK- 

i-t<.r._nK.,.olr. an.l of ^u"!; 1^^ ^i^Ii^j^J:";^; 'V'^T'"' ^'"■' """'^^' 
>^at^ St..^^.ni^ • Co,„„„.,Ii„„. ,./.; S,:',;"^;""'"^""^ "^ ""■ ^'-'-1 

The tinie-ho!i„uro.l, ..m,,,..,,,,. si- il.,rK ' i • 
with vr.n«nt.. •]^.H<y Mo,,, 'i^s ...'>' ,"''''' """"'' R'-Kv M..,n,.un.' 
I--ev.., held the -ion^iMan p, .'^ ^"t' "', '^'^'' '^"""i"'" ^''■'^- *■"■■• i^-' 

-'aulv .vi.;e,.t. F,.r the Tnite,! St" .' f - '""' '""'f'-" ^^ "•""- 

a.o:-- '""" •^'"'"'- ' li.renco Kiiitr wrote m ::,n<>rafion 

' Tij- preiUest loogftie-s nrrvn'l- t'., _ i > 

tj^e general .iivi^ions nf the „S ^ , S' '^, '^>' . "— 'l^'f .v -f al! 

•ninf to lI^:."^; ir s o7 ""■ "; '"^"^ "'^' ""'- i^-^y „'.;: 

■^o,.h .h.n -tH;.ed\^r,e.S,.XX -^^t: f T"?^ ^ ^^^ 
^f tne system. h„t when snron,) „■ , "'-'""• tif' Od^tern iMirdiTjn- ,.ha ii 

;the'':Jf :;:^ti;''t::;:::r::,/':;i;;''^;r'''™''''"'^f -^'-^^ ^--^^ -^^^ 

i-iS'toncoi irt.-f=r TI.o ""'•'»"" --till uthor pfiiePiil naiiirs ii,,v.- . „:v ,f 

Ti.» ......--- - .""^ '^'■I" ■"•■ "Tlr. :,ro also rntoml in the table 

i"'- ■' .-.'- N Whitney's work on the Tnite.] 

V 1 tn-it3in-M lilt' 

i.'ie aiithciitv for some of the o 
-t ,tes, p. bli^hed ill Boston, ISso. 
Mountains of the Bripht ,«:tor-s 
>h-ninj|r Moiiiif.-.ins 


,,'■"'"'"', "^'"' "i<i of eigliteenth centiirv 
•Mor..e. I niversal (ifo-raphy. 1n,j. ' 

-v'l r^r"*'""- '"^^ ''"--^I'^I. Systematic (Jh.Io.v. ,878. p 


' '•■-.: 'lai 


Kii'Mii Mr\ I III nil i\ II umii 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

M. ii.y ..r S' hv M.Miiit.iiii- Arniw-inilh, ITl'S; l'rr»i>l<iil .litT. i- ii, 

(■■'hmil>i.iti <•>■ < M- Hit, Mil-<Mi, isjii. 

• lii'iM wii.v.iii M.. iiitiiiii, Ilii.tnii, l.'«3l. 

'ibe (' "I '111' Aii'li' I ill luirl I lliiiiil (i!ilt, !■'"•'. 

The Cinlir.T,! .•!' !!,.■ Ai'i.- (in pint i lliiiiilo'ilt, l-'ii''. 

'I'lii' C.r.lill.T, - 
The C.plin.r.i 

■ ■i North 

Tlir \V,-t.Th ( ..rlii! 


Tlie » 'T'li! r.i- mT N.ii'tli AniTlcii 
Tho Ct lir..iMi, It.'ji 'ii 

'I'hi- ( '"V 'i!!.'i 111 S>-t.-ni 

The ('..iilill.Ti Sy-Mu 
r:u- (■..r,!ill..r., B 1- 

"i'' e I'lii'iri.- ( '.•r'.iili': ;i 
■|'!'r C'dplillciun I'hiti"; 

Wliitncy. I'ti"""; iiiiniv nuili'ir- -im". 
<i. M. l)ii\v-..ii. H-'l; <i Hill. ti. 1>'.>'. 

Hiiiiil M<-\iilly. VMKk 
.1. I». Ilium, 1^71, l»-'>. 

I[iiy,l,.|i. l^^:!; I it.'. IStJ. 

Whitury. l-*!'."*; IIuyili>ii. l"*-*:'.; Shul.r, 

Wliitii.'>. l-'iv Kiiiii. !■«:«; I!ii'il>-k-r, 

lliiyilfi,. IHSli. 

C> M. Miiw-iMii. 1-T'.»: Uiiii !-M.Niili>. 

I!l -KCII, l«l".l. l'.M(». 

irnydcn, 18-*:!. 

riieCnr.lilltTiK.ftii. lt...!<,v Mouiitftini J D. Duna, IS'.T.. 

l.i'p. ntf. 1-n-.': Ilcilpriii. 1>«'.»'.': iii.iiy 


'iT'f R.n ky MMiiutiiiii Sviti'iii 
Tile Kocky Mniiiitiiin U.' 

' lie R.M'ky M..uiit;iiii Belt 

flic Ivorky Moniitaii'-* 

Tlio I'lU'ltii- M..iintiiiu- 

Tl,.- W.-t.rn liiiililirJ 

TIk- U.i'kv M,. ii,t ,ii.. !!i/n!:in.l 
Tho W,..', TM ri.r. ;. 1 

rcnvfll, 1ST.-; (;. .\l. h.iw— II. I-'""; 

Cannctt, HOn. 
ILind-M.-Nally, l!Mh'. 
[.•wis iiiid Chiikc: popular. 
Kusscll, I'^'.'t). \mi: I'ouoll. i-"'.!'.'.<l('ker, IS!*-!; K'citli .lolm-tnn At'n- 

iNOii; Diivi-i. r'!i".t. 
I'r.vo, IMt.'.. I'.tiil. 
Ki'tfli^li FiniHriiil Ail is l>iij. 

lu nio>t roi'liiiiciii w'liiiiK-. of liotli Koverniiifiitiil iiu.l priviit.- oriuiii. tlu' 
sii'-'gp-ti.iu of ^'.Tl^fIll■y Im- lii^i'ii followcil with varyiiijf fiilolify diirint,' tho last 
for'y-f,.iT yi'.ir-. It i- •li'iir tluit tlii' iiilicrciit <'oiiiiotiitinii of ' t'ordilltTa? ' i- 
(Jifforeiit from that "f • < 'ordilh^rn.' The oiio einpha-iz(>s tho fnnipoiuid iiatiin- 
of the I r. srniplih- unit; tin- itlier, the >in'.Mdnr form of tho word, cmpha.size^ the 
orcaiiio iiiii .11 ..f iiieiiibers. llaydeii iisod hoth forms < *" tho word. Tii rooc.nt 
yiar- th.-ro h;i- hi>oii ,i rath.T widespread ailoption of rh.' tonii in the siiiirular 
number. In 1-71, ■!. D. Dana proposed that tho great inountaiu systeiui of 
North .\iiiiri.'.i lie refi>rr.''i f.i as the 'Western f'ordillera ' and the ' Ea-tern 
ro.;dil!i>ra,' the lattof thus synonymous with is now oommonly eallod the 
Appalaohian -y.stem. Russell, in !''>'.•!>. pro])' -ed ' Pa.iRe. Cordillera ' and 
'Atl.mti" Cirdillera" wit'i re?pcetively tho same -ifjnitieanci'. l^fZtK has. 


('■'iiii ,\' ; 1 

•• ill iitl.i* nil. I 
t" 111 i. ..1 Uh'l 
t" I'l- Mo f;(ii>,| 

t il!l,l-. -^ Tl. 
!h-' ..r -.|,..h,r 
!•! kv In 

li.-r .T -r|;,,h,r 
'In- -!„. ,!,1 \,'. 

uni'uia fir nil > nur i>/av,\«/i;/ /,■ 


liow.v.r. ,|...|„r..l tl.Ht th.r. j. l,„t „i„. ( „,,lil|,.r,, iu N, I \,„..r . , | , 

- .int. The ( oniillcra .( North Ain-rioa.' • The ( onlilU-r*., .»„,.,.• • The T-r 

;''"''^"," "^^'■•; •• »'"' ""■ IT..p.r , t..vt. -inn.l.v Tl... f.r.ii:!,,,,- -,.,.. 

u t'-liiv til.' Lot M.rliiiitH on tlir rootwi.r.l. 

Tlir lih... .li^jriiti..,! ,|,;,.!it,v ,,f 111,- Won), ...iiv.hirnt !•. 
Ti'uu form, its iiii<,|iiivu.-i,| i.ifiiniiKf ,iii'l it- r-iilK » M. .pr. ^,,1 

"■■iii,«iii|ili tmikc 'Cor.lill.Ta' it inpiinihlv tli. , . -i i,..,.. ,'., 

«VfM lor th.' tnor,.,. ,,. p„li,r Wo,-k.. |i< (n.-,. tl„ ,.■ ,o„i- 
r.ns.,„ v,|,,v th. MHiM, ,|,o.|| „o| I.,. ..,„..:,, I i„ ,.|,.,M..tll.„V .,.|,o 
<a.j..i.„n t lat tlu. w,.nl i- jikol.v to |„. n.i.i.ronuum'. •! U t,.„ 
w u .1 ...lually ..x-'lml,. ■ lli,n,.|„yH ' anl ' Appala-liiai, ' Iroi,,-, 
t«.McliinB „r i.-ariiiinf what i< ,„. ant l.y • tli,- ( or.lill,.ni,' il„ |. ■ 
«<ml.| ini'iil.-iitaljv Irani .-... Spaiii^li. If, i„ ,!„. t„i, ,■. 

•Icti.UMl UM inf|..n.l.|,. nui^nn,-,.. spralo-r- in Km^M-I, ,•„ ,|,|.' {n li,-, , 1 

wa.v. throw ,h.. a,.,.n,t ha.k to th. ...,on,| s.vll:,!,],. a„.| av.i.l th- un-hoLWy 
.lai.K.-r. I ... >.,.,„u .,,j....„on ,|„„ a .onlilhra i, lar..!,,- ,„a.h. to i,,,].,,!. ,h',. 
txt..| plat.aiis .,f I tah a..,! Arizona or th.. vr, inLr ,.l.,>:. l-a-in- , 1 tl,.. 

I n,t..l Stal... IS ^ri,,,,.. It will. Imw.v.T. haril.v .li-pla.- ,lu. won! from 
. 8 present f.-hnir-al „.,■ a.s ih-si^natin^ a inwh. rarth-f. atur. r„KK-...||v nionn- 

ta.n,.,w a. a who!... h„i l„,,riM^. ., njinat.. 1 1 ,h.tai!« of fonn a,.,l Mnn-furo 

"•:' '^f ■ '■7'""': \ 'f "- ■•''i."-i-. la. r...„r.l...l n- invanVl v JZZ 

s,.,..„nh.. w.rk..r«. ,t w.ll have >,ill loss uvi^ht for popular ,.r . ,1 :,.„,:„„al „■-. 

Th.. ordinary ..„nnotati,m „f th.^ t,nn • hi^-hh.,,,1 • n,ak, - ;, „n-„i,al,h. a. 
I'hrt of th.. nam.. ii,.li,.atinK th,. worM's nioiintaii, up, ,, [ jk,, I>o„,.irs 

t.». Inion P«,.,n.. Railroa.l. ■ hi.^hlan.r i- • l„.|ittlin«,- T. . o- 1 r..,.|, s ; 
noi.hl -..vitaMv M„„.M S,.oth,n,l-, roliof. If ,1„. u-,.nl l,.- r„;-,.,i ,o ,h..' ,li,.„i,v 
p:-o,K.s,.,i ,n ■^^.,u■n, llidilan 1 ' ,.,. • Ho,.ky M..u„f.,l„ lli.!,!,,,.,!.' ,!„. w ' 
on the natural features .,f the rorcilll.Ta runs ,1... ri-k r,f nmh,>.itr in omplov- 

lloiiis ,,t polony, l;.■,.^.,nlphy, .,r natural hist,,ry. ' 

_ For popular u>.., the l, till,- nltcrnativ,. uith ' ( •..piilliTa ' i- in th. opuMon, ' Tl.- l-a.-iH. Mountain Svst..n,.- It ^ -,-^.. , - •,-,] 1 v R , -,. ' 
■Th,. l;a..iri,. Mouniains.' Th,. a.l.litio,, „f the «orl.! ' sy-t. ni • ;„< a,lv!--nl,l,^ 

" ^""""'' " "">• "f ""■ -h,.l,. nroup. Th.. prop.,.-,l of .1. I, It.n.t, ,,',,-' 

he ..onwno., n,.un -svMon,' to uH^an ,n,-r,.Iy th.. .r,..,,, ..( r„n., - ;-r-,-,,l in i 

II kIp Ken, has to f„ee overwhelming ohjeotion^. The u=n>.'e , ■.-,-„.,■.- 
t.ons ,s „^r,„n<t it: the ,liffi,.„lty of a,.|nally ,,pplvin. !• i;, n., r. ^ „':-rl,.,n 
.v.'t more sur.-Iy fifnl tu the i.l.^n. ' - • I " ''I ■• 

Ther,8tri<.fo-of M,e tiths • Pa,.iHe Hanp-s ' , Hn.v.lenV • Pa.-ifi,. Moun- 

whole Cordill.ra). and ' Taeitie Mountain Sy.|,.u, ' (A. C. Sponoer and A I! 
Brooks) to the rela-ively narrow mountain belt lying he.ween th- o.-ean an,l th,: 
.o-oalled Interior Ph.te.u ' of ,h,. Cordillera. ..eL par.i-.larlv uufo^t J 



i-i .'•{/.•i-.'i \ I ,,, in, nil i.-n.i. 

2 OEOaOi V ,4 •t's 

IL*;;'; „iXo t;."r::" pS.r''^'' 'r '""■'''^- -"' "- "''• --^^ 
.i.-> o: ,h.. r..„,,,...n. ,..,...,11, H.^, ",. :; .^«.S:: z^^: ^'- '"-^ 

'•nnnr.t allow in l„Ki,- thnt 'I'MMri,. \fn„, , ;< / «""^ for ;•. .,*n. an.! 
1. s- than tl.. ■ ■.,>,. .ro ,, U n,; , ai, •'; ^'«''"? °*"'" ""''"•' ""■""'""? 

»!,fr.-;i., „f South \r,„.rl,.., Tl / \ ' / '' "''""f ''"-' '"'""•>') i a ;•-' 

MMTRSK .NAM.No OF B.Nc,, , cnoS.KD BV TDK FOHTV-NIMH PvP.U.LRL 111, mpson river- ^- ^ n i. i. 

3. ''•eiKtrk mountains i 'orHinn ♦„ ,i:o ^ .i . . 

fn-i t;„ . /'i °'^'""8 to different authorities :— 

..:r-'„i;','s;r'- """■■ """"' ■- "■»■'"■ " »»j-» i~.. 




ini'nHT „r nir cnn r i^iuounii i; 



^C) h\tl ml nil |> ,lh ,i,|, „ l' Iv . II , 

■Jnmb.u rivor n,.r.h-w,..t..,ar.l (. Q,.,.,,, i |,,k, ;, .!."i " 
(Uroutili^.'s Mhp. ISIt:). ' " ■ ' -^ '"'• 

I" wt:/';;r:t" " " : ''''i '^" ■"•""^ •'-'-■'■ "-•"•■ '•■ -.b.a; 

\ o . , ■""•""^'"- '-•«■..... K„.,,..n„y luk- :,„,! ,h,. I! '.; 

Moiilani- ,,rn|ur. enfir.jy in Cunaiia; 

UnH,..i Sti.N... n, („r as ,h,. .-rrat 1..,.,. „f ,h.. K „«,. Hv. 

(«; III ll,. luwor ..uKc <.f most maps: or 

"rh.::": r.;;:;: ::"T -■'"• '• "'"•" '""- -■•■■^-"-^ ••- "^t,.r,.o.t 

«. Horku Mountains or , MoHnt.un s.^trm. „!„, ,.,1U.,| .,„ ,,, , , 

nr,d rar«m,.ic. rang,.; „,,.,. ,u. .ativo for ' ( •,irdili..;„.- ' ' ''"^'-"'' 

7. 6'oW ratifie of TSrlttaTi < ', ...v :„ ■. • 

by the main lino ,.f tl.e Cam.di,.,, V.u-ifu- railw, v ^ J ^Vr;': ^"7*:" 

:." tS^.^:• "i:;,ri:;:;:;r:" -"- ^^"•"' --- - "-"""^ ^^^^ - 

Th,. .onlusi.,,, of tin. nome.wlatur,- is awn.vat.Mi i,, t), , .f . • 

ua^., whii.l, in ,liff....,„ ,„ap.h.,.t, ^ivo .inLw , .' ' th ~'sa . o 1'2"" 
!u... on on., map of tho now Ka: I-M-Xallv Indexo.l A- m f th U "f • 

!^r jrrSa -a- ji - ^^^^^^^ 

--' tlu. hmor „,.,„o li„i.. fan.iliar ,o the ...Ip, '?,r S fti^h^roLmT; 
h. the ^noral map of .ho rnit,.,] Stato. publishe.l in tho „ „e 4 h. 

Seli<.rks ar,. ropiosentod as „ li.o ,iefin«l to the westward of "oot^.a ,ak/ 
ihe^ar^a^hus uioons.stently n.p^ has a width .p.a, to the a^:;:'^: w'.' hh 

aiwpt™ phincple of nomknclatube «>r the boundahy mountains 
el hai.t. Th'. '!'--;■■ oi tho whole into or„„aphio units i. ro.atfvolv cin p ,■ 

f tw Co dill r," ;..f '^"'*',v r' '^■•■'^'^^'"■^' -'•"■•'^ *•- •>•■"''"'« «-i -" 

Cordillor,, have rosnltcd .n a oorr,, atively olear-oi.t separation of rho 

t# *i«r>t ;. 


hii-Mti \n:\i or tin: isn:i;iiii; 


rniiipHiiciit I'.iiip - Iv lirciiil iiit< riiuiiitiiiii 
lillinii viisl ^^nll•turill lroii)jii> nr li;i~iiis 
sfi'ii iiiivwlicrf in the Ciiiiiiiliuii |)(irti"M 
of SiMikiiiH', till' wliiilc Miij-'lit.v jircn]) .if rniijic 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

pliiiii- itf iiioiiiitaiii waste, or of lava 
N'ot'iinjr ijiiito I'^miparalili' i;< to In' 
if till' ( 'ordillrra. X(>ar the latitii<lp 
i>i iiiarslialli'd into a solid pjiidaiix 
of clos^i'l.v H t iiiomitMiii- wiiiili ;?\vi«'p (ii in sulistanlial unity iioitli-wc .-tward 
tlirongli Yukon tcriitor.v into Ala-ka. The area of Hrilisii ('(diimbia aloiio 
\vonl<l onclo^P twiiitv fonr Switzirhmdji. For purposes of exposition lliis luouii- 
taiii ~ea mn-l lie divided ami sulidivided. How sliall 't Ke done ; 

rile reuiaikalili' in-iji'it iiii<l fieuerali/inir power of the pioneer in Hiilish 
(dlunilua ).'eolof.'.v, (i. M. Dawson, early -npplied what seem to he tile oliiy 
fruitful prineipli's. Hi- (da-^itii-atioii applies ehietly to Moithern Hrili-h dd- 
uinliia. hut it is prol il';' ihat its principle- inu-t he exP iid-d thront.diout the 
Cainidian ( '<irdilleia. In 1^7!' Ihnv^on aonoiiiieiMl the po~-ihility of a natural 
division of the inouiitaiiis between the Forty-ninth and Fifty-fifth iiarallels into 
thr e hina 1 helts pii rill lei ill*.' the coast. 

The middle Ixlt. the ' Jnlerior Plato in," afterwards deseriU'd in some detail, 
has tile sp cial style of tojiotrrapli.v eharactei 1-tic of chisely folded mountains 
.nee reduced hy deiiiidation to mere rolliii),' I 'ils or an imi>erfeet plain, sinee 
uplifted and I'lit to pie<es hy stri'ains. In otiMT words, the I' "rior Plateau is. 
hy Dawson's detinition, an iiiilifted, dissected peneplain, a _ioii of jilateans 
and hills reniiiant from the old -nrfaee of denuilalion. Yet Hawson himself 
eon. lulled tlial. while many of the-e taliuliir relief- may he eorrehited into the 
ancient fa.ct .if denudation, other -iinilar reliefs in the helt are striictiiral, 
and due. naineiy, to the erosi .n of wide, flat-lyiiij; lava Hows that flomleil the 
eountrj after the iKMieplanation. Another and siin]ilcr explanali.m of the topo- 
praphy makes t'le lava lloodinj; anterior to iiene|)laiiation. Still, a third history 
iiia.v, on further inve-tipation, turn out to he the true one. .\t the present time 
it i iinpossihle to decide hetwi'eii the rival view;. 

A safer detinition of the repiou is purely topopriiplii.' : it may thus he 
calKd the Helt of Interior Plateaus, or, hriefiy, tlie Interior Plateaus. (Plate .1.) 
This slipht ••hanpi' in Hawson's name lays stress upon the individual tiihiilar 
ndiefs so characteristic of the region. These reliefs are facts; the peneplain and 
till' iimdvel a-suniplioii that the myriad iiidiviilnid r.'lief> Ih-Ioup to a physio- 
pra|p|iic unit, a sinple uplifted peneplain, arc mutters of tlu^iry. The pliiralizing 
of tlie word ' plateau " in the title not only ehaiipes the emphasis, hnt. in so 
doinp, ii'-toies the term to ils more advisahle detinition of a tabular relief 
hoinile.l hy strom: ilownwar ! -slopes. The Interior Plateau as defined hy ' iw- 
-..n is li.iiinle.l .n all side- hy the -Iroiip upward slopes u{ the enveloping 
mountain ranges. 

The holt of Interior Plateaus liavinp thus heeii ditferentiattHl on special 
prouiids. we ma.v pass to the subdivision of the reniaininp two parts of the 
British Coiumhia complex. Those two helts separated by the plateau tielt are 
rupped, often alpine, and, as a rule, do not show tabular reliefs. Present 
knowledge of the vast field cannot jirovide a rational treatment of these moun- 
tains rigidly on the basis of either ro.'k comi)ositioii or structural axes or 

hi 'le.-j^ 


KEi-uur OF rin: miEy astuox, , 


'liH.-Mo iin.;,J/r:n ;;■■''■''■■■'■' r'T^ 

it; the, cTtninly include tie .e oek'T^ T ""' ' """"' ''■■""> "'"■ 

r"r 'I'-rv. Th,. only f-asiMo sH,,., r^.ln t Z';;'^' T "' ""' 

'"- bnscHl ,m to; only niHin,,,..,, ,„ ,|„, ,,„.„.„, ,,^.^. ^^^^^^^ 

«H.h::x!r!':H;:s :::'::i:;::,;t"r;;r rr '"' ^ '^ """""- ^^ -<• 

it b,.,.o,„es „,ore and u.ore .ertai.tht ,"':■,'"■' ^'-^ '•"/'■•'"'''' ''"'•""'-■ 

l.'cated „r .tn,.mu.„l !,reX n it^ vi,;; , ii 'rr;'" "'"'-^V"'" "■"'-' ''^y 
valley, is the ,„ore dire..t n.ult of fl ,v , it . , ' ' V'""''''^ "^ ""'^' ' ""* 
.-CMliarly -on.plicted rearran^L , V ,' 7 •' """:"'• '*""'*■' '" "'" 

adjustments, the vallev. of Rritl-l, <■ "' .""''"r' ""-e-. ,,r t,. ^pont; nu< river 

relation to their ,e. e -ti ve tZ^ 'f'""'" "'•'; '" ''"'■ '''■>■ "^t'" '-"it- '.u, of 
whole Cordillera ! o: ■ ^Ut ^..till'""";;''^' "- ''■"^"'^ "'•'"--'" - "■' 
Kootenay, rolnn.l.ia. K aser t, f".,';;";;' ^'"■""'^- "'- ''<""< of ,|,.. 
lower cour..., flows through narrn; e.nvon F "'T'"'' '" '^^ ^•'"•'■' f"' 

have, therefore, he.n seK'te U T) .u " V"",""""""'"'''' '■"♦•"■'• t''"" nvers 

lines of de,n„r,.a,ion bet ^ „, ,t of [he rf"" '"^'""■" "^ "'" -' ' 

in the-e latitudes. The prred Z i n t '""'7'""."'. '^"'^^ "^ the Cordillera 
whoh..,e appliea.iou -^ T t::,^." , "r; H^ ll 'IZr'^'' "' ''' '"^^ 
mor.. struetund treatment, not onlv no -n I \ . , '" '■"""■"^' *" the 
-onditions in the Cnited slato" ' ''"'"'■•■'•'' ^'' '''"' "^"^'niphie 

por,n!:uir;ii::r;,M,ai,r.,:;^,,;'r ^"'^t 't i""^" "■'--'•'• "^ "- 

Briti-h Co],„„I,ia u,ou t,in B it, , J-""^'^''"">- '"''1 ^"-"^ral view of ,l:e 

it to eover the Bound.; '';,.Jn'';;:ir^:rrn:.:"""T*^ ":-\ '•- 

left uunnmed l,y Dawson. The ta^l- of « / /• ■ ; '""■' '"'v'Mt.d. we, ■ 
tbe .tnteh fron. the C.reat Plain; oh kT' •''''''' " •'"■"'''■ ""'>■ •" 
a width of ,h.ut M.ventv-fi e . ,i "^ Til T" "''"' "' '^"^'"''"' ^'"i'"=- 

'lillora on the infernationa li,' \ / ''"•■";'"<''>-•• "■• five-.ixth.. of ,I,e Cor- 

all: or. where ., .rope ,,.,„;, T ' '"■""""' '■'"" '■'"■"''"■ """^ ''^ 

^•>>)vii,iiit IltdllCN ni tile 'Tdlll I ■ ot »^ . • . • It 

A point of departure i 
f'Tty-ninth F'.iia'Ie!. there 
serve a 

Tiii:\( iiKs \\i, (a!i.Mi:|. 

V M.I.KV>. 

'-"i".'- Witino ,i,e (.rdii.'e,. ,-,, the 




2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
(I'la... ;!.! Ti.,, u!;,_,le vulloy ,„v„|.i,.,l at theBoun.lury by the Kuotoiu.v 
nvor 1* the easfernnio^t and much the longest. It is a part of a single 
Cord.Ueian featuro easily the most useful in delimiting the Canadian 
langes. Hathead lake to the Liard river, a di-^tance of ahout 800 miles 
this feature has the form of a narrow, «-o»derfully !=traight depression lying 
between the Kooky Mountain system and all the rest of the Cordillera. Unique 
among all the mnnUain-features of the globe for its remarkable persistence 
this depression li in turn occupied by the headwaters of the Flathead. Kootenav 
Columbia, (anoe, Iraser, Parsnip. Finlay, and K.ehika rivers, and is tliorefore 
not fairly to bo called a valley. It may for present purposes be referred to as 
the Rocky Mountain Trench.' The term 'trench' throughout this report 
means a long, narrow, intermontane depression occupied by two or more streams 
(whether expanded into lakes or not) alternately draining the depression in 
opposite directions. An analogy is found in a military trench run through a 
lully country. (See Plate 4.) 

The first-rank valley next i,. order „n the west is also occupied at th^ 
Boundary by the Kootenay river, returning into Canada from its great bend 
at Jennings, Montana. This valley begins on the south near Bonner's Ferrv 
Idaho, and is continued north of Kootenay lake by the valley of the Duncan 
river. Kecently. Wheeler has shown that the singular 40-mile trough occupied 
by Beaver nver, which enters the Columbia river at the Canadian Pacific rail- 
way, IS precisely en a.r- with the Dunoon river valley.* The whole string of 
valleys from Bonner a Ferry to the mouth of the Beaver, a distance of apprcxi- 
mately 200 miles, t^rms a topographic unit that may be called the 'Purcell 
Ti-ench.' (Plate 5.) 

_ The third of the first-rank valleys is drained southward by the Columbia 
mer, expanded upstream to form the long Arrow lakes. At its northern extrem- 
ity near the Fifty-second Parallel of latitude, this valley is confluent with the 
Kocky Mountain Trench. The southern termination of the valley regarded as a 
primary limit for these mountain ranges occurs about sixty miles south of the 
J!orty-ninth ParaUel, where the Columbia enters the vast lava p air of Wash- 
ington. To distinguish this orographic part of the whole Columbia vallev 
between the points just defined, it may be called the ' Selkirk Valley ' 

<s n,- 1 ^^l^",? ^' *^^ ™°P "'" *''°'' *^*^ **»« *'"' primary trenches and the 
&eikirk Valley are in simple mnemonic relation to three principal mountain 
divisions of the Cordillera. They lie respectively to the westward of the Rockv 
Alountain system, the Purcell range, and the Selkirk system 

The fourth of the first-rank valleys carries the south-flowing Okanagan 
river, with its various upstream expansions, including Osoyoos and Okanagan 
lakes. The latter lies wholly within the belt of Interior Plateaus, a primarv 
Cordilleran division Important as Okanagan lake is, no one has yet suggested 
that the plateau belt itself be subdivided into named portions separated by the 
lake^ It appears, on the other hand, wi^ei^to^ecognize in the nomenclature 

2. 1*0^ ° '^'""''"' '^'•^ ^""^''k Kange, QoT'tPrintinrBuTean. Ottawa. in.^i7vd. 


2Sii -viil. ii^|i.'2t;. 



. 1 






lih.i'itKT Oh ruK (nu:r astrosouku a? 


the ...ontial unity of ,1„. l,el,. Tho .„„„ ,,„r.i,.,. of ,1... Oka„..,.,v valLv 
Co mba, Im,. however, a d.cIJed fuiu-tioM in soparnti„« ,1... C,.,,,!,. .„ J.. 
may be culled tl.o Lower Okaiiafrmi valli-v. 

S( l)IllMs|i,\ 


In n^ '■'"-'-•na'-nni co-operation this is l.oin« ncoo.npli-lu. 1 

The crests of the Livingstone range, as delimited by Daw«on are comnn.,) 

tmue m strength to and fK>,o„d the International Bonndarv. The r er/com- 
posmg these mountams south of the broad, transverse Cretaeeourbelt are 
however, not of Dovono-farboniferou, age but belong to a much older Cambrirn 
series underlain by conformable pre-Cambrian strafa. '-ambrmn 

** n"?i"','.^?P<J'*' ^^'O'- Snrvej of Canada 18R5 P«rt R n <ui 

tBuIl. Ueol. Soo. America. Vol 13. 19w' p. 312 " ^- "• **• 



KKI'MnMlAI i,r I UK i\u.iii,,k 

, . , 2 GEORGE v., A. 19:2 

H^'thH.,,1 ..,,.1 ,|„ l..,vi, ,„," '•"'II'""- n, Ca„«,h. „,„, ,„.„,,.,„ „„. 

■I', .uppi.v ,1... ,H,.. th..,r,i, '';'"'":" '"'^ r '"'''-' ■' -"-»■'-<.•' 

designation for l.e^to . .ta ;V J ""'"•"•'," ""'^''-V"^ *»"" -«" The n.w 

Stat.. ,;..„,,„i,..,, s:rv?;"i\s::"Vu;ri;-^ ''"■""' ■ "'■"^•""^'' '•■^- ••"■ ''""■' 
St...;;: vs';;;;;; -.s..;; '::;';T'T " ^'v"^- "• •"" ''--" 

;H-u.„oI.„nre a« you name li ,.,': ' th, "rTn'"" """'I' '!'" 
I..WS n.n»... from M,l)o„.,l,| |„k,. ro , W 1 , -l r '"'"I "^ "'" 

"aine of Clarke ranpe.' forthwawl to the Fsootenny Pa«. th. 

b<hin,l. to the v.. twnnl.^H /'"* ""'"' "^ ^'"^ Bo,„„l.rv l:„c it n,n- 

o-n,>i..d l,v Wa,er.;,n lak nn.l i, ffl f"r""'; ^ '"■""'' ""^ "''^« ^""'■v 

--. ,_,.,.,, • " '°"f''" ''^ "■''••'' •"^•^«"'I the Internntion.,1 

>*e (.liiff Mountain shept ,if ») ■. t«^ ■.• 

neet „f the Topographic Atlas, U.S. Geol. Survey. 

Htfitui nr lilt: I lint isi wimiui.i; 








;> ri— ^~; 







'•irtiiJuiM ,,r riir. i\it: 


2 GEORGE v., A. f»l2 

!;>. p.-mi" t,S:;;::,'t::';[::i;7 -^ -•- •--;-.• nvor, !,,.«..., .,,„„,. 

nnm.. ' Nfa.D.,,.,,!,! ran.-v ' ,l„. ,1,,./ •' i' '"' ""''"'■'•^ '•''"^- '-■•r. tim 

In th,- vi.w tie .\fnol)oM«M r«,io , li ;,T ["*'''" '^ ' Ma-DonfllJ ran^.,.' 
'■nnt ..{ ,l,e Qaltnn ranw sronw to hnv a '^r»«» ^ '""P tl.o Morthern 

Koott-nay I'ngs. •'*^ "^ ' " ', „,„ aroa aloni? th,' North 

;>r.n ot tl„> western half ox th,- Hn.rv n"» " "' " '■""^""■>nt ,„b,livl. 

n.-or.,,,. to the Jn. of oLt' ci'^ei" t^ "a' f r;,''^^'''';''''- f"^'" "^ -Hich. 

Til- -ketcli-map „f Fipuro 1 III,, . ' '''"'""^^^ ''"'f- 

- .. t. , ho „,o^,.,iX7:,p^„;;; ;:»;;;;;;•■• .'■I"s:,.„, reaoh«l by the 
-M..untn,u <v„e,„. U i, vorv po.«iMr 1 1 ;, j "^'^"^ '"'" "^ "'" '^"-•^v 
fhow ti:e n.ce.,ity „f mo.lifViL t . 'r'l ' T^'""' ''^ *'"' ^■■^'■••" '""V 

tT,U,l -h-.e n,o„.,tai,>s, ' '"""'^'' "'''""vr- who l,avc pene- 

^Ji.' second p' 

'f the ICoof 

pruip aro . 

f-ntli:int xvi.h t];p I 

ona.v river at .rcnnii 

uiilirokrn cont 

nte 4 aii<) Fiinire 2.1 Tl 


Pi to the anL'le w| 

"iinfy frni. tho widi 

.0 i-rests 

e southern Joop 

I? qv.jr. ev..|,Iy (livi.lf.,! hv ,}, 

Afonnfain Trfnch. Throndi 

f easterly and west 

' 1^ the Piireell Trench 
"lit this area the d 

••riy facing slopes of tl 


'e unit- 

^KPOUT nf Tin: i IllKt' isTHnxni', ..• 


''ff r.^ii', ?""" '""' ".''""r" '"""^ •">'• '■" ''^ ""^«'^«''-' ;"^<- '•«•'-'" genc- 
.al,> r,.Knrd,Hl a. part of ,ho Selkirk Mo„n,niu pr,.u,>. Th.. n.i,l,ll, an,I 
...u.hem parttho,,,.!, brc-I-r an.l^ ,nost of ,hc area. ha«. as ., -.vho 

2m,t Iv "^K * " 'r*"; ^-'""f™"" "f «ho uuif. nanioly. the Kro>,p of Ivn^ between Fin.llay orck a,„I St. Jfary river. Law..,,, exteLled 
!he name to cover all the niotintains 1 eH-oM. Knotenay lake and the Ko^ky 


I'l r\i!iMi:\i I, I iiir. i\it:ii 


M"iirit:iiii 'rrciirli. 

f<i n iiiicil. 


I'M- loniiiiijr ,|i,. ■ I'lincll 
'"'I' •' iiHrdi.rii ur m smifl 

2 GEORGE v., A. I9t2 
iliM'-i..ii ,,t' till' Selkirk 

ii'i'ii Iniiit to til, 


ll'.i*.'!' ilI)iPi;lr- 

'"nii« tl),. hi-i , „.,,„, 

"I 'II'' iii^M'- :iii I i,M, 

>lll<ll;in ( ;i',>|. 
■il'P^ir- ill i!h 


II. i ! r 


wa- clli,. 




■•"i''-iv.i II, ,,.,-t . r 111,. Ai 

.1 ^,,,1, 

'i.'1'Mi iiM|, ,,r III., II, 

'irv.v ill lsv( 'I- 

iniihiM ( ; 

f;i'";;ni|iliiT> pill,. 

•■i'l"|'l"l I'v th, 

'Vi-riniM'iii I 1->'.IT». 

iiinii,,ii. ,.,|ii,.,| 

,.v N, 

II',. ill,, H, 

I r. .i-..ii. II 

■n,-iiii iiii,| I- 

l<- llallll' w 

'oil ( l;iti| ) r,.. 

'11,1 ,.,liii 

iii"i«.iiii iiil 

111. ill 

'U|, ,.| -III 

"••-.nfs iI,o I',,r,vn 

" '•< 'i.<' ..m.-iiii uTi'i 

i-<'^ "I III.. \v,,r|,|. K, 

I- ai-i-»r,liiii;lv 

'- '•■ ii'titiitii 

*.'ii'l,i«i,-nl Mini) .,f ,1,,. I),, 

ij: iiUTcIv r 

Ml;l), ,.| 111,. I), 

-""- -i'l ti.i- iri,ii,i„„ i„. i,.,.,;f,.„„„..;, 

illisor- criniiKil 

"!"'-''. l:.di ..( 

iiiiii..'ii I,, 

■l:ll !•■ tillM 


'"■ r.iii-, 1,.| 


■"I '.^'IliT ll 

'.V Vu- (■ 
|irc\ Iiiii^ 

iiiii'linii (•.■|iiirtiii,.|it 

in til,' I 

M'VV KCll.Tiil 

i:ir t,, ll,,. 


|>''"|.i.- "f I 

'■ - 111 ipiiiiiu-. I 

^< - '"Mill, 'I will, lli 

"I'l-ili ("cliiinl 

'I r.'iilit.v. 111,, |',,|i 

'I' 111.' lilt, 
!■* '|iii(,' r, , 

!'■ lii'-k ,,(' ,|,.|iiiiti 

111 l';,ll 

■I'l-^'l- 1- 11"! il.til 

illi; It I. Mll,j,.,'| I,, ,||, 

i-.T ii-iiiri. i^ 

II, 't 

"'1'^ 'V.l, 1,' ,l,„,i.„,,, ,|„„ ,,^ 

I'^-'i''' <'X|'li,r.ii,,pv 

:i till' \V,-| ll 

■nli,-i-iii t||:,t 





l,r,'H(, r 

>*'-"ii tv.,llv l,r,,k,' tl„. 1, 

'•■il'i'iiiir I.- 



iw ,,( 

I'' lUIIIII' 1, 

IIW til.. I..ll,i ,,f I); 

"ii:;-o-liilil|.i„.,| ,r.„| 

|'r;l.'ll,';,lly ,|,,. 

,v ii.iltiriil limit*. 
^11. -ll tli:it it 
ill triviiiir 


IH-,,|, I 

n.\\n-i ll evil,.,!,',.,!! , 

""■" "•■ 'll" i.irtii.'litiiil iitl 

s- ll It 


''k' litl.' ill til,. I,r,„i.l,. 

!!'■ 'Ill' -ill, III n-i 

'l"i tlint tl 

:l r,.«iili ,,t' 

"I'l"- 11- f.' f'l.. II. .Mil, 

■iiipiliiiff nil tl 

'I ^"Htll.'ll 

liii.* I., 


«''i strikiiml 

11' Timtn- 1 

II' imiiliil I.' ii,f. 

I'l lllltliv 

1011,'.. „f ,1„. J'i|p,.,.|| ,„„, I 

iii'l:irv I,, ll 

si':m r rivcr. Tl 



'I "f III,- K, 


""•k.v .Mi'iiiitiiiii tr..|i..|i,.-. Tl 

I ""III- "f 111'. Piin'..II 

niiiill'.ii. i|„, „.rit. r Iium 

I'' ""rrliwiinl. sli,.rt of 

1'.^ 'll.' il.'ljiil, 
11" iiiitiinil l„ 

I.' ,'.>ii,.lii< 

^tii'li.'- ..f \Vli,.,.|, 

y 'l.'tiiiit,' kn-'wli'.lM 

■t. II. ,v 

iiv. r ill M, 

iii'l.nry ,,ii th. 


f'lil..r- ,,r til,. (• 

■I 111.. l!,-l,l. til,. I; 


ittrr cdiii.] 

"'''\.'r Miiriii'lv 

IT llloiljf 

^"iitli. -.Ii'.rt ,)f 

'I' liiiil,..!,, 

■li.i .\ 

iiiiti'iiii.i ( .1 
■- lM;^''i-li I 

■'I'lii-^ l»i'li,iii,irv .\t]:i 

'1'- "f l!rili-li C'luinl.i.i. .\| 

ll-i"n ll:i. I>, 

(llllll> ..I' .\l, 


■'■II llllti,'i|»;|t,_.,| 

iiliiriiiV ,>f tin- 

•r- llni„lj|h, 

iil'.Tiiil .\ilii 

"M!i;i. ,111,1 Cinn,!;,), 


»' lu'itli .r„li,i„,„\ l!„y,,i xt\ 

ii'i'i'II r:ll|._.,. .-i, ,. 
1.1V riv..r. .S,, I" 


•iiTi"*.' Ill all ,,f tl 

'"!"«■ tl,\V;inl lilt,, ill,. \ 

II -'■ «,,rk> 

i^n..ilii,ii ♦. 

r III, ,1 

Th.. tl,.. 


11' ,1- kiiLwii (,, )• 
i"iililiiiii^ Iviiiir 1., 

iiif.-'l Stj 


writ. I-, t 

i.'i-.. I., I 

1- I:ir .-1.! 111.. 

111,. I II 

l«-,,,.|i tliiif 

1.1 |>.ipiil:ir 

in-iT III 

"■• '. ill 


' •['"'■"ll" "11 til,. ,,„rt ,,f tli. 

; ''•""- ii'- <'" s,,|,||, ,,f ,: 

• "fli.'ial 


1.' l\'iofcii,iy riv'.r. 

ll III,. (' 

Piil'li-li.'.l f,.ni,, th.. |.,ii„r;i 

,, . ■.■•....ii.n riv,.r. 

.""••■I M.i,,.- (;,.„i„^,i,.„, s„,v..v ,,. 

ili'l'vi-ioii- ,,f thi* ,.^1, 

'■-■;"»^ "i" 'i'l- •'■"".nl.ii.i.'iJ , F :^': 'f ""'■''^'"'' i" "■"' y-'r ami 

/.•//■-,/../ nr J,,,: ,„,,:i \st i;,,s<,\,,i; 33 


3:;!:i'':™';;;i.-i';;:r;;;.,;''i;ir',Tr \- ■-■ - 

^.Imwn n- „. „i,.,l |„. ,1,. ., ^ ' ' ."'^^ "'' •■^"-«i«.v a>„l l>„rtlnll i- 

«-s. ..f .1,,. m' rn/ ,„ :;;v;'':;"','";;- .'■''^" -•""--- '>-^ -• -i.. 

Irin^ 1H..U.V,, ,1,.. Movi. ,:7 1 V n"""""^^^ i'MI-M..,iivlM„„ 

--- ' --rn .livij ; i ; ', ':;';;„r:7,;: "^t--' - ^'^ -^'-'^ 

»- III'' •I'lH-.-.n niii«,./ "" ^"'''^ '■'*■'■'• '^ '""I I 


'""•"■■l-ltlirr I.. u-iv,.,i 1,1 M„cl),,,ui|.|^ 

"""• ^'- -'-^"-l-l t'l.M.^.I, not ,.„|-..r I i„ l.,,l| 

t" .'111 ill rrii'iil:ir-v r.-m: 
l-'T'- IMiip. it i- li;inllv p..--il,|,. 

•;" ■! " i" m'„:";.:.", I;:;;:::;:,;, '::,,''',:,:;:'■;;;,;,'■": ',"-,"r|-','™'-' 


;=;::;i,:;:;;'i!::t.i;t;:ir;«r f '■'"■"--- 

• iiiiinc ' I.ih.p 
l'"'i<ii'iil 1" (liiry >l M. 

"""'"Il"l- » lint ,lp,,ro,„i„l,.. I, i. ,.i,,r ,|,„ ,.„. „,;,;, 

"l-llv. Iiiiv.. n„ i„.lM.„.... i„ (ixiM^r tl... K,.,„.r.,l „■„„ . 4 "I ' ' ' I'"' 

n:;:--'"---^'- ^"-'^ i.^•-•.V:;r;:;;.;J'::;3:',;x 

K ', '^"".l'^' •^'""",""" '^■■■"•''- ""• ''"■•'■■'I Tn.,„.h. n.Ml .1,,. ,.,rfi,„ 


Hi.. ■I'lin.ll inoiintiiitw - ' """ ''"" "mitmiis" ,,r,. r.-n.iiii..,l 

25a— ;t 


nEr\ttrMf:sr OF rin: ixterior 

T I 2 GEORGE v., A 1912 

tl- -uti.. 1,, .he l<-..:l;;ro„"l.e':jrhrt1 ""^.'^l^v the Moyle river: on 

nver.* This ran.o is bounli I 'he e s b/ tt R "w ^°' ^'^ ''°'"-''>^ 
-" tbo >„„,h, i,.v tl,e I,,,,,, of the JC.o. .?!. ^ the Rocky Mountain Trench; 

a-Hl tl„. Afoyio lakos; o, t L nor, bv th T"' T "' ""*'' ''^ ^''^ ''"'"k rive 
f -------1 part of the C ll si !'' b'"' ''"'r- T"'""-^ '^'''^ 

tren.hes an.l l,v .leep ,.n.l wi.leTransvcrs nnf.h '%"'rh',' ""^ ^^ *"■« hn?« 
tTO tran-m„„tano tL r . n /' ^""''f"">- followed by tbe 
^Fijrnre.M --""^ «""■ the ( ana.han Pacific and tbe Great Northern 


^';}r^''£Sy1::^lr^^ forn. a ...e 

Selkirk ,vste„. .„ay l-e d-.Cd t 1 ,S "'T"' ^'^ ''"''''-"" "n.e. ,he 
- -1.0 nor,^ and „„rtheust by T U ^ ^'"h !Vt X'^" ''""^^" '^'--'^' 
"'■• w.8t 1,- Ju. Selkirk Valley on 1 > , ''•'' •^'""'^'''"' Treneh; on 

J'-Onille lake, and n slu/u-n^.r "I ''' "'^'l'^' ■'''•■"''''''' '^'-' "'-"• I'-d 
Pure.!] Tren.h at Bonner's I'v v, f "?'' ''^. ^'■•"" "'"' '"■<" '" ">« 

apparently ..,,n/l„enf with the < -.^n'r I)'\V, " "''■""■'' "'" ''''"^''•'' •''■'^^'™' is 
f"li'.wed l.y the t;reat Vo tl en r lh ,^ "'" tho„j,h a .hort treneh 

of rhe Selkirks aeros. the ■,,';" l""', ''7'""'".'' *'""'' ''"'''^ -'"->■' 
Ene>vl.,,vdi. An.erleana. St;,: S^r ?, r"^' T '"1^?'^'' °" "-P^ of the 

system, as jnst d.fine.l. n.av he vi,.we 1 , ''"'"^^ '•""■'"' «'"' ^""<irk 

thereby considered as part r'-f he S I J '" ' ""•'■■ ^'"- T'-rcell rnnpe is 

IjT;- ... the westward "^ 1,^,' eS'^.^ l"' ,?;' *'"■: '"^'^'"" '^^ "- -'" -^ 
The Selkivk svstem Wonld thus i c lie C ^ l"' " '" '■""'"' ""■ •^'"^-k ■"^'"Ko. 
- : aheady n.t.d. Dawson se^, ^ , , h ! a t!!^,";'"^' T'' "^ ^'"■•'■'" -"^• 
'■I'jeeti.n t.. it is the eh-m.-e f„. / . a'loptr.l this alternat ve view \„ 

-..Ponent ran... n:j';: ..^ .^l'^;;:;;" ;-';f^ ' Selkirk ' to „ „„,^ 

tl.e taet that in nek con,posi,i ;:,;;: ' , .^J^'T "', """-^""'^ ^•''- '■' 
:""nMta,ns lyin;. between the Ko.kv Afo nt ' T "'","' *=^^"'"'-'"""l '""^'"rv. the 
•'■nu p.rt of a natural unit. , he t " I' V'X'' o"," ''"' ^''"^'"'•'^ ^'"^''-^V 
-'■rally and lithnlo^ieallv , el Jl V 7 "l'^' ''"^' ^^"^'"'■'^ '•«"'?« i-=. nrne- 
P;;rcen ran.,, tbe P^:,,' „ ^ l h: o -cl K/"Vf ''" ^•-*- " ^^ '^o 
alhc.l to the i;„..!y Mountain sv,^e,n ^s to 1 1 n'"^" '"-'torieally. ^ closely 
..^".^^ .....Hcatio. ,.,„, Has.1 I;.:^" eS^ ^Ss. ^LS^^" 




re of til., ("'or- 

(iominaiit iiiiportanre of the Piir,..!! T, , i r. 

^iilera cleaves M.e.o„„lr-::' I', r:t,,,i7"^' , 

troup.i.g „n,st regard tl,e Purcell ruiJ 1 ' "'"^ " '"*-'''■"> 

J^elkirk range. "^ "^"^ •'' '^ "'^''''Lht <-or.linate wnh tho 

_ Fm the Mi,,,, the hiltrr .livision j. , ..lui ,(,., o,,' i 

includes s„b.,r.Jinate rmiire. If Vr f . "^ "■"''"'• '■'•♦•''^''<- i' 

b- called the 'Selkirk raf ' S /' V, "' t 'T '"•'■'''"•■•-' •■"•"'-r n.ay 
future, .uhdivi.led into t;\:r, J, h': ■'•,''•'" *'"' ^"^'■"'^ '"■ «^'- i^ ia fie 

s.vjtem; for example, mav h,. „r„ ,' ,i \. ',"'•, "'"" '■""*^'' ' ""'l '("oast 
In all these o. . •. \, a^nJlte^ ^ "'Im.!:;::''"^"' ^■'"' '^'" ^"'"" '"■•''— 

The value ni tin'-" di^tiiicti ,ti ;. 
^if-'nifiounee of the I'„r.-ell Tnn.-h' .,d ,1 '""'"'T. ";'"''•, "'" '■''•'■^" ornpraphie 
"^'.P>s have ,.a„.e.i the wri^t r • ' ■ i " "^"""■'' ""*'"'^"^- ■" f'^'^^''""^ 

-1.-J as eo-ordinau. ni^'^nd .^^ :" Trt^tl'T' "'"^ '" '•""• 

-Mo >J-teniati,. Euhdivi-ion -,f ;1,,. ,\.-,„,, u., . , 

disc,is.,n.K the Keolojfv of the ,v-t..,„ ,, .'.V p , '•"','■ '"■"" ^"t'-mpt.d. !•, 

to he n,u,.h advantage i„ -•eco.ui, ,' .rt.S^I'it: i:" ' •?■ I" '■" ^ ' 

v.n;e<:t M/,.. A tentati^e ..-hen.e ■ - ,h. e ,"^ "^ '"""' '■""- 

■I I'M .. 'ith ot the l-w;.v.„iuth I'avai;.! , .... ,,^, ,, , , ,. 
runs meridionally ah^nfr the middle part r • ,'he'-vV,tn, tV- ^"'"'^V "."">• '^'•'"■h 
by the ,nain Salmon river and hv ..o.. , " 1 ■'. """■'' '^ "'•'■'"'''■'' 

Arm ef Keotenay lake at \ei«o , F, r ' '"" ' '■''' ''^'^ '^^'''^t 

>.oth of uhieh are e„t ff o„ tie , rH - ' ""'"" '"'" '"" '"• ^"' -■'^-^. 

the name • \el>on vanue' i<< nr,m.. ■ ' '" '"■■■" "■■"'-"• '""■ "l''''' 

.ii^triet). is b„„nded .n^ rl^^ ^T^ ^./Zv T'' ^^ "r "''' "'"•" "^ "- 
tren.h oeeupied l,v l!o„ndarv , r, ^- f nk J "" ' ','"'' "" "" ^'■""' '■>• " 

Saim.n river. The .e.'.r^UZ .iJ-''^ 7f;,""''n'" •'''^•"'' '■"■"''^ "^ "'" 

t- w,„wM falls whi,.h h ^k t :;,;;';:' '?••; f^'-"-'"" -"- 

'outher,, lin,i, of this ran^e i. tt L IV l 1 'K^''^";"'^^ '-- 
the Selkirk Valley. ( Fi,n.n3 -T ) '"'r-'!e valley; the western 

111 the preliiirinarv i.aner rli.^ S'.,„.,, . 

■- -'-I off definitely ,!y ;: t.„, rn„r'wS '"'T "'^^ T' '" ''" 

s^K.n oe,-upied l.y Sjo. n riv, r SP , , , ' '' '""P't"<'"i^.l depr,-,- 

H- m,„„.tain .roup inei„des h^ ! ev ^ rU'""'^- '!" "'" '^""■''■' -" 
■, ration the writer «i-hes to e 11 h , « I "'T' "" "'""'"^^ 

name, • Slocan mnuntain.. ' f„r he .r ,n e. oftJ" '"• ""'^ "] ^^"^'^"' "'« 
Tl.- proup we.t of ,he Sloean J it."' ,"',;,, .a 7? "T^ =""' ^'-- '"l^- 
M-untaln..- whieh was entered hv' P „. 'n i^ o^ '^'J.h^-"- ' Valhalla 
■"np of a portion „f the We-t K.M.t, ,1 iV ? • . > ', " T?eeonr v^.ance 

.wi.^fortwoompKofhi.h'^,:a';:;::;^;;,;:r-w'-'' '■"'"""-'■ - ^"^ 




''/ /' I /.'/ Ml. \ I Of rut: I V7 l.'lol! 

1 GEORGE V, A. 1911 





KinBF- a.-liiagnunnatc n,;i 
Fiirtv r»mtli I' 

«itiij -i,f. ' - ,,i,„ 

•■Ikir- M.miittti.i My 11.111 it th^ 


ini'uiti or nil. , nn.i \>i i:..\,,\ii i: 37 


. ,'''"■ ""■'"■l^'i" *-'r""l' l.viM»r .Inv,-, „f tl„. P. ,„1 I .'( )r,.ill.. ,1.. ,■ wn- ,• ..| 

■M ti„. prW.nnnary ,...,,er, the I'oi.d I)-Oreill.- .m.imt.ins. Ft >„ ,v furtlier 
«; l'n.,.„-..,| ,lu,t th.. ,wo ,r„u,.. >.,,..ra..,l l,v I>ri...t Kiv.r vall.-v l„. ,,„ " 

a>nks„ ran... ,.,„ ,|„. « ,, , ,1,.. ,vi,.„ ran.. , „„ ,| ,.„,. -Is. ., ,' . 

"'''•I'll '"''-; nana. I„r Pras, la,<... Tla,„«l, .Ik-s,. nana-s ,„a.v „.., ,„■ .,■ tinallv 
»unsh.c,or.v. ,1a. wn.cT l.-lievs ,l,at ,ho nanmig ,.f ,|,.... Kr..,n,s in :,n an,l,„ri. 
'""7: "'"^ ^'^f tu., Manner w,„.l.l 1„. a K.-o,rapl,i,. ,.ain. ' In pa-',,,; . 

K.,w....n P,„.,t nv,.r. P,.n,| I)-<)n.ill.. h,k,.. an,l ,1,. IC,„„..n„v riv,,-. .- ,,„„ „7 
""• ' "I'.M.t ..„„„„„„ ran,.,.. Tla. I.ulk .,f x\u- Cain,,,.! ran;:,., a. n.w ... n,.r.,llv 
m.oK„,...,|. 1,,., ,0 th.._s„n,h,a-, „f tla- -,r„n,' .r.-n,.], running ,r,„n P.,.nn,.,--. 
t.;rr.y to S:,n,l,„.,nt. In tla writor it .,•„,. I,„,l, ,-,.y „n.| ,.xp..,li..n. ,., .-..n.i.l.r 

IntluT,,, unnana.l. „„ th,- >„u,la.aM. Tla. Ii,ni,~ nf ,1:, h,„..r ra...... an-- I!,„„;,i: 

»ir.v ,.r..,.k on ,i„. „,,r,|,, ['n.-st rivrr valNy ,,„ tl,. w.-.,. ,J:.. P,,,.,..-!!' Tr.-n,-!, 

"" ','" -'• ""•' '!"■ •'•••>i.i..r-- |.-,.rr,v-P..n,| iror.-il!, tnn,,. on tn- - .„tl, ,n,l 


I ol.l MIMA Mol MMN .SVSTIM A\|i I 

1^ .-I ll|.|\ J..Iii\. 

Tla. principal ran;;,, nnit a.lj..inin»; the Selkirk -x-t. in on ,|„ „, 
? , ,V'r '''■'"'"'''" '•■•'"■'"• <I''""' -> If is .lorinit.iy !in,i,..,l ,„, ,1 

the Selkirk Vallev ami l.v 

.■-I I- 
I,.- ea-t l.y 
•' I'i"'' "' 'he l!oeky -Mountain, ili,. iMtter 
rnnea ,n.^ the norther., en,| of the Colnnihia -y-ten, a. it ,h,es th,- >,.|kirk an.l 
uroell j.r.,up<. On the sonth the C.hnnhia >y,ten, i. linnt.^l hv ,1., C.jnnil.ia 
lava plain On t a. we.| the limit i, .le,ennine.l hy the h.wer Okana^.n. vaUev 
ami. to the northwanl. le>. well l,y the ea-tern p,|.v „f ,|,e |,elt „f !i„eri,',r 
1 lateaus. That ck',. may he loeatf.*! for ahout tliirtv mih.s in tla- li,,,- ..f tho 
mam Kettle rner valley. .V,„.,l, „f ,1a. main line „f the Camnlian Pae„ie rail- 
way the l,elt ot |n,erior s<.e„w to n-aeh, l.„t not .ros.. A.lam- lake ami 
Adams r.v.r. S|,l, fartla.r north, the western limit „f tla. Columl.,, -N-,en, is 
h.xe,l l.y a tnneh oeenpie.l hy the headwaters of tla- .\orth Thomp-n riur aial 
l.y an atHiieMt ot the Cam,.. riv..r. Northwest of this treia-h U.«,i.- ,|„. ;,r,.at 
.-ysteiii 111. Ill, linn th.. Caril,.,., iiioiintains. 

Appan.ntly tla- tir-t „tfieial ( ( ;ov..rMin..|,fal ) nan,,. f,,r ,h,. „„,;, „.,!„. 

'r iTl/'" '•» ':;;;'''""" '■"'"'• ^'"'"■•'>- 'i'"- "--' '■'■ 'l'- r„l,„„;.ia ri.,.r was 
t.ol.l Ka„o... Th.. ,.r,.np -o iian.e.l est..n,l> fn„n ,1,.. l,„in„l,. „f SIiumv.ip 
I.Ike to the narrows hetw...-,, H... Arrow h,k,-. Thi- n-a^.. ha- 1,.,.,, a.lher..,] 
,0 l,y the (o.v,.rnrneMt of Uritis'i rol„ml,ia.+ In l.,sT4. th.. Domini..,, I).,p„rt- 
inent .,f Railways ami Canals in,ro.hi..e,l the nam.. •Columhia ra.iu'.. ' f„r the 
imnh larger mountain ^roiip inelmlinfr the 'CoM ran,.,.' an.l ...xt.n.lin- from 

'Map of British r,,|„„,l,i„. ,.„„,,„.l,,| ,„„|„ the .Iiiftta.n cf th,- H,,!, I W Trm I 
n.,..f .,„„,,,.s,o„^,. „, I,„n,s „n.l W,„.ks and Surv, vor-Uw.Va V tori. ,h-| ' 

tMi,,, <,f the provin.e „f Hi,ti-1, foluail.ia. ..omnilp,! l,v .1 f Hro« ,1.'. I 1 


TtEPARTM yr or the i 




tlie he 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Thi. uaage was confirnied bv S^7:'l IT '"'"^'"':'^ '° ^^ower Arrow lake.J 

■;>."'J l.y the De,„.rt,neMt of ,|,e tV. '! ', n '^"'"'' ^"P °^ Canada 

'"old ra„«,.' ,0 this larger Vor"."t '\ '^'"'^ "'''^ t'"' ^"'"^ 

range is « dopartnre from the ?ffi..|«- '"■" f"^'""'/ «'"^ limits of tho Gold 

ra-.go' with a broad.-r .noanin^ ''^ "'"' "''''' »'"-' *'"'' ' f^olnml.ia 

F'lr the immense (^.rdill(•^.ln ,0 :, . » i.- 
VaHcv, and o„ I V ; tl ^ ('i'"\-'''"''"'' *« -^' "^ *'- ^"'^^k 
"■"t the naM,o '(-olmMbia ra, .^ i „ r/.J "^^'" /"'"; '^"'" '^ "" question 
. nnn'e • Gold ranTe.' Tho lut.r niv T ''^"""'«"; ""'' "Ppropriato than the 
note. Alth,n„.h D.wson il I , ■'• " ''""''"' 'li-"'iva,Uape worthv of 

'•" .-'^ original ^onse T^ "a "luli ""''"^%"'"' *^^ """"' ' ^■"''' ""^'e ' 
- .-"•■■■i -„...• ,„ in^hlr^r S 1 ,f range- 

Onnneea ranfr,-. This inoonsi.t.nt , nl i . ' .^"'""»'"^' ■ (^'"riboo. and 
f.;t nK,di,.,m, of val„e u" iol i 1 a/ "" '„t "•*'"; ''■"''' ""*^'" "^ — 
t.Me. A. alr,a,|y stated, th,- na, e'O I uni '"'""- ^'^- /'"^ """•'■ ^'>"'fi'^""' 
"'oa„in.^ has ,|„. priori,;, ^ ' '"M>bia range.' with its comprehensive 

''•■•l-'.i:t:^^:^.tJtrrlt:■'':;: ■*;«'"tr'«T' ^^^'^^ -■-' 

K^phB is, i, i, ,n,e, not aceordi L ,0 , ' V l'"""'*'' "' ""^ ^''^epoing para- 

syst.m, and I'ur....H ,a„„ X "Im! '?,"' ^"'' "* '" *•>« ^^^^^ "^ the .Selkirk 

of .lofinition as ,0 ,he -rue ,. 'i' to 'f ,7t ^ rf'T '^ ''"''"■' ''^ "'^ ''^^ 
use. and is ,.nf„r,.ed by the fact of C est on innif '"!"' 'T'' ''" ^'' "''^'^^-^^ 
bolt of the Cordill-.r..,. ^** '"ntinnity within a fairly well delimited 

tivel, l'-"lo,:[:i:;:'^,^'irrli"::mpo^i!r '^ ^-«<;t-zed by compara. 
part of ,;,.. sys.e,,. and to th,- .el.t Z\7 "''" ;' ""' '"'"' *" ""^ "'^^*>"'^" 

'""..ntai,,,- oomm.nly show M„ifor., i v n ?"?"^- TJ'^*^ «outhe.-n 

are ti > 

m"iint;iii:s .IS 


forming a err. 

nam, l,y th. 


It w. 




part of 

- d t'l. 

'^' ■•' them, a 
■ip distil, ,•! fr 

if IS 

th.. r 

■'"' "^''""l'- -''"Ivili,. mountains' 

advisable to regard th 
'iferior Plateaus. 

'"■^ "f th.' P;lli 

■IS, was given 

the two 

forks of the Kettle 

in .Jescript 
tains l)i.t 

ion 111 

-onih of the river. Fnrfl, 

li^ev exiH-dition. In the prol 
.-•roip shoMM ;,„.l:„i,, 
ver as well „s all the 





ve snioe 

Subdivision, a 

"■e.ti tho two forks 


er study and the test of 


'b.' monnt.iin; 
part of the Col- 

li" e\p,.,ii,.n,n- of 

actual Con 

thinn the nam,- ■ >f 



rii-er as fornii 
iiy niountai 

i'e.>,)gnizing the m 



"g an independent 
given. Further- 

RnilH-ny report, Ottawa, 187, , 

HKfnitr OF niK iinr.F astiwxoukr 



■ HE 4. I>iiii,';aiiiinati 

in!i|i »h,iwiii),' »iil»livisi()ii 
at tlif l'..rt.v rarallfl. 

f th.- ('..|llll;l,|.l \| it.iiu .S\-t.-i,i 

iT. * iii'li-w luki'. and 

m..rr. the iinrth-.-..,uth Irmch u.-.n.pii-a hy the Sans Puil river C 

( urknv crwk. divhks the >nou„ s..„ih „f the line into tv.„ ,listin,-t purt« 

' ,' f'':^„'?a-''«rn l"'rt, ^vhi<■h is that nearer the .i.e of -M Fort Ch ilh-. the .lam". 

tulville mountains may he restrh'ted; whih. the western ,livi<i.,n, b ele] 

by the K,.ttie river, the San. Poil-Crlew trench, the C.Inn.hia river, an-l Me 
Ukanugin river, may he ealied the • ,Sans Foil mmmtuins.' ( 4 ) 


'"'''"''''' "rr,n:,yr,„n,, 

Am.tlu.r iiiipo,i,.i,t tl,. „ I ,, ^ GEORGE v., A. 1912 

'■"'•r ^^■t(lo J ^^:'- ''''''-'•'•''' I'V tl,.. Selkirk VI "' ''"■ -•^■'' '" '- 

(F,V„n. 4., "' '^""" -'OT vv.ll l„. r,.|V,n,| ,„ , '"''"'"■' '-•" 

Tl, '"' ' lin-fi'M nil,-,. 

1- v:::j;'t';'''-'; '-•■'■•'■-■••..I .1., .v. 

»•""*; 'Iv tiil.iil,.r (■ "'-'•iirr lit ,|„. I- . '■ "".^ "I'l-roxiiiuii,.. 

'"■"""■'in. ' ' .""",""".- - M prlm.rr , rii,; ' I, i, "" '•!"'^-''-"|...s,„„,. 

---"' -'i'i'f. 7 LT'Tri;' ''^ "'" '''••--'!;: i:rr:\^;;;' r r ^-'- 

■I. II |r. 411. 



iin»,in „r nir ,nn:t \stk<,s„mh{ 


'"•""•'- '••'« -I,.., ..„„:^ •..;:';. ;''r'^ -....pi... ,i... r i 

■"• r,,n.,i.,i„„ U.,„.,I„H ■ I,. , ■ , ' "". ;"f-^' ■■• "nt.-l, C.l l.i.. ' 

'•"""•i.,n f ,1,.. (.\„„,i.., ,„„, „, ,1, ■';.'"'■ ' ' ■■■'-' ^""^■••- "- «'ll a« tl„ 

"■"'>'■'■ ' n .1... <'.n,::in.:;i;:i:'„,ir^'" • ""'■-•■•-■.■.-•.. 

h.J,t;,r'il::r;::.,;^,:::;, Tm " '^v ""'••- •■'• "■■• 

ni„| , ,.,,1, „ ,v ' "" ,'"■'■'" "■'■'"■I- I- I" .1.-..M „„ ,|,„ , ,„, 

Mi.c>,,ir\ i,,r III,. |,ri„iit r.|..ii. 
• III n.rtli.TM \V.„liint.t,,ii „!„.., ,1,,. r. , I 

fro... , « l„.,,.,k/ o.le'v ir" 'p' '"T •"' "■;■ *''-""''- '•^"■'■'1'- 

'".-..nil- i- .nv . f I. '",, ' "'"■•;■•' '''^"■' """ ""' f «l<m...jr,-.n 

•'-•11.1,.^,.. a,„I ,1,.. .v^k.ui.. wl,i..l, ,!„„., „„, /.' , ' ' •li-<..Iim.l... 

;!"• ■';-"■■' ■" --.^- •■'^■■11 f^.ii V ,:r :;;::., 'rT^''' r^'' 

l-'.r In. w, ,f,rii .lin'-i..i, tl, ■ . wi ■ ' ""' ' '"f>' 

riv.r „i,i,i, ,i"i,; ,;r,:; ::^ ■""•- ■■ >■■■■>—'■ <- 

::;'i::J:;.r';i::;:,:;:'7'''^ ''rf ■"'■"- 

MiImIhi-i,.i, I,,.^s;iry. m- « -.. il, t,, ,„„U,. 

. ■''"'"■ '"'""•'-'iiii '•ion.,t,i,,s f..r.., 111. .i;,i,|.. 1,,, „.,.,.„ ,|,„ ,, ,, 

, --'-•■— ^ -'■'-. --■-■^.i'::l;.::;.i;;:::::r::^:7S 

•'■ " ^'".ti. ■■.) r. r r„ui„. n..n ■,„. is ,i.,.,. s........ ,,„„, „ 7^" 




^ ^PPUEDjrv/yGE_ I 

^^ T, '^'J- t.:5t Mo.-- S'-ee' 

^^ ■'o-iester, New .;,, 14609 .jSA 

'^^ '6) 482 - 0300 - Pfione 

^SS ''6) 288 - 5989 - Fa. 


riF.i'AinvKXT Of Tin: i.\n:ia(iit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
tlio main divide of tlie Cjsra i.> in tlio vi.'init.v nf Bumm. The hiRhe-t 
IH'aks sMch as Cliop:i!;a. Cathedml. R,.niinol, iind T3iKliorn, have n nearlv 
mnfnrm elevation of SOoO to '<,50f) feet and eommonly are extremely 
riipsre.l. Over tlie Inrper p.,rtion of thi^ area thr l-,ei-lUs are above 7,000 
feet, and below this nre tbe dee-iiy iMit valleys.' 

The respeetive east and we-t li-nit^ of tlie tl ,ve ranpes are elearlv and 
delinitely fixed by the longitndina] valleys jf the Simllkanic. i, Pa-avten, and 
Skagit rivers, and by the pnrtiali.s filled depression of tlie Strait of Oeorjiia. 
Tht north, rn and southern liniifs eannot .it present be determined: that further 
step may be made when, in t!ie future, the eartography of the rupged sv-tem 
i- completi'il. (Plate .S.) 


The writer keenly feels the responsibility of suggesting many of the 
<'li:.nges au.l a<lditions in the cartography of this large section 
ot_ the Cordillera. The atte.upt to describe the geology of the Boundarv belt 
without some kind of systematic orography on which to hang the many facts of 
s;.at!al relation, is truly the makin,:; of bricks without straw. The scheme 
o ■timed abo-.e has thus develoiie<l out of a clear necessity. 

The oro-raphy of the International Poiiudary eannJt profitably bo treated 
Without re.erenee to longitudinal Cordilleran elements, often running many 
Inmdreds ot miles to northward and southward of the Boundary. For this 
reason the accompanying map is male to cover all of the Cordillera lyiu'r 
letwecn the forty-seventh and fifty-third parallels of latitude. (Plate 3.) ' " 
_ The term, 'range' and 'system' are used in their common elastic mean- 
iHgg, with system' more comprehendve than 'range.' The Cordilleran 
system or Cordillera, includes the Kocky Mountain system, the Selkirk svstem. 
etc. llie (ascade range inclu.l,.. the Dkanaffan range, Skagit ran-^e etc V 
system may include among it. s.bdivi ions a mountain group witho'i.t a d'ecid- 
elly elo.ieated ground-plan; thus the Columbia .s.ystem includes the Rossland 
mountains. But both ' range ' and 'system,' u^ed with their respective broader 
or narrower nuamngs. involve the elongation of ground-plan and a correspond- 
ing alignment of inountain crest^. The great weight of popular and official 
usage seems to render it inadvLsable to attempt any more systematic orgaiiiza- 
t.on of the common nouns in this ease. It has been found almost, if not quite 
as ditbcu.t tn ..roanize the proper names in an ideal manner. 

_ The of mountain groupin,.- is purely topogra,,hical, and is, in the 
main founded ,.u ..stahli^hed usa,e. A primary grouping recognizes within 
the Corddleran l,„dy two relatively low anas characterized bv talndar reliefs 
accompanied by rounded relief-, generally accordant in altitude with the 
plateaus. These two areas are the belt of Interior Plateaus in British 
rln rl'i < :''"l"'"^' ^■''^ Vl-un of the Fnited States. The remainder 

of the Cordillera--ridgcd, peaked, often al,>ine-is divide,! into svstems ranges 
and more .qniaxial groups, either by ' trenc'.es.' by master vallevs, or, excen' 
tu.ually, l.y structural ,lepressioii3. ' 






The Cascade range, the Olympic mountains, th- Vnnconvfr ran2»>, ami flic 
Coast range of British Columbia, with thrir contiiiuations north an^l ■i.' nth. 
compose what may Ir '^alled the Coa-tal systpm. All tho ramri's ca^t of tlio 
Rocky Mountain Trpn^'li, with th-ir .-ro-rniphic .'nntinuatioiis north and -imiit:, 
constitute the Kocky Mountain systfui. The Columhia lav;i i)lain aiul th. l..It 
of Interior Plateaus fnrm the third and fourth s\ibdivision8. A fifth more or 
less luUural provip. yet laekinft a name, in^dudc:* the Bittemot. Clearwater. 
Cu?ur D'Alene, Cabinet, Flathead. Mission, and Pureell ranges, tlv eompn^ite 
Selkirk >y-tein, and the composite Columbia system, with tho inuKimed ^y-tem 
including the Carihoo nKJuntain-". 

I.K \\n\i, FiKnaiENTF.-. 


r. n leker's C lide-Book to the I'nited States, l"^'-'-. 

l>u KRMAN, TT.— Beport on tho Ceol.i-v- of the Country near the 4.'th 
parallel of latitude. Geol. Survey of Canada. Koivirt of 1 ro-re-s. 
1882-3-4, section and page '^b. 
British Government Bluc-Books.— rap.'rs r.dativ.' to the o.\p!orations by 
Captain Palliser in British North America. l^.'O. 
Papers relative to the affairs of Britisli Columbia. 1S50. 
Further papers relative to the Palli'^or e.\ploratioii, 1*00. 
Further papers relative to tlu' affairs nf British Columbia, 1'^''0. 
Jfap to accompany ahove-mentioiied pajx^rs: Stanford. London, l*'"'!. 
Brooks, A. TT.— Professional Paper No. 1, Fnit.-d States Geolocrical Survey. 
1902, pp. 14. 1.''.. 
National Geographir Marjazin''. vol. 1,', 1004. pp. 217, 21'». 
Proo. Eis;hth International Ceoiiraphieal Congress. St. I/iuis. VMt-l, 
p. 204. 
Canadian Pacific Kaii.way.— Pamphlet-. 
Centurv Pietionary. arti<de 'Cordillera.' 
Dana, J. D.— Manual of Ceolupy. 2nd edit.. l«Tl. and r.rd edit.. 1?*0. pp. 

15, 10. in each edition; 4th edit.. l-^'.C. pp. n-0. :':<•>. 
D.wis. W. Af.— In Mill's Tntei-natiMnal Ceosraphy. 601-60*. OTl. 

London. litOO. 
Daw.son, G. "SI.— Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, Loxdoi). vol. _p4. 1>T7 

TS, part R. pp. S-?. 
pp. 2. 

Report of Proprross, Geol. Survey of Canada. 19 

Canadian yatiirnUnf, new series, vol. 9. 1*70. p. r?:;. 

Report of Progress, Geol. Survey of Cana<la. 1*70-90. part R. 

3. and map. _ ^ 

Eepo: . nriUxh .if.f^c. Ai}vanr''wpnf of .*■' / vc--'. v.d. ."0. 1*-0. v. ."•>•-. 
Geologirnl Mnijnzine, new serie-. vol. *. 1**1. pp. l.">7 and 2l'.'. 
Ann. Re 1 Geol. Survey of Canada, new series, vol. 1. ISS.^. part B, 

pp. 1.'). ir, 22; vol. ?., 1***, part B. p. V- mid map. and !)art P. I'p. 

7-11: vol.'. . r**9. part B. pi>. 0, 7; v.'. *. 1*04. part B, -ip. :'.. 4 

and map. 



Tna,s,, „o„s. H„„„l so.i. ,„,fr , ^ ''^°''°' "'• ^^ '"^ 


' ' ■ r..— ill Stan on < C,,.,,,.,, r i -." " ' '"O'ltrci . |nm) 

,,,,.-;-•--....„..,.,;:;. ' ^ -'■-....: xo., .„,.,;,, 

'-nps n,„l ,i;„„r,„,„ '""• '•'■'•■• "-"I I'lt.T ,.,lition.. various 

'■"ir-,:,,,:",'- '^--.*.- .,.■ .v.,.,„ , „,.., ,„„; 

^'\\\\:r. If — Tn «♦ t 1. '' 

j^ I'P. 2.iO, .w. ,.,. "'''"'"' ' •■ Anu'-ri,,,,,. Hor.-.alo, ' mu 

Pow,.Il). '""• nav,.. ])„„.„,„. Ileilpnn, „n,I 

-N'Tth Allien". -11 ni) (in II , , 

';;h,;j..aic;.:;,,:;;;:,;::;,,^;^j£:--~^^^^ skot,.,, of the 

•n .14., ]^.s4. "^ T^o'mnion of Canada, p,,. 

■f-* ^»^'. 

in.i'oin 1,1 Tin: < iiiri i.v7/.v>.\oi/a;« 46 


SMiTir, (;. O.. mul^. I'. C.~ll„ll. f.S. li,u,l. >,/n-.,/ \„ '.V |.,.,i 

pp. l-'-14. 

Sii.M.Kii, \. S.— X„tMn- iiiMl .Mmi ii, Aii.ri.M. pn. J.-.u--).-,i; .\,.u- V,,rlc 

Wmkim.kk a. O. -Th.. Selkirk,.. J v„|.. (;„v,.,.MM,..,>t l'ri„ti„. 

liiirtiui: Oftawn. l!to,"). 
\Vmk,:i.k„^G. M.-r.S. S„m-.v w.-t „f ,1„. 1,>0,1, M.n.lim,. <;, ,,.r:mln,. ,1 

Urport. 1><MI, i>. II. 
WidTNKV. J. |).-Tli,. I„it.'.i .^tutrv |.p. ■^■2-:V\. .;-.. 7;.. i-., ,„„| r,.r..r 

OUfC^. B.i-.t(Ml. 1'<SH. 

(General .\IIii.<i,k and E>iriirloi„r,H'ix - 

Atlas Cniv.M-olI..: Ha.-li, it,.: Pari-. IiimJ. Atla- Vi.lal-l.aMa.ho: Vu[< 
|'"l. <>"tury Atlas X.w V,„-k. Kuryrl,,,,,,.,]!. Ana.-i.ana. VM,{ 
Kn.-.v.l,,paMl,a l,ntai,iu-a At!a<. Kimli-h I,„p,.rlal Atla- liartliok.- 
lu.-w: LoimIom. ISIL'. Ho,,,,. Kn„ul,.,l^.,. Atlas; T„rn„to. 1^1.0 J„l„i- 
M.M. I nivorsal (■y.lopa.lia; ,.,li„.,i l,y r.„y„t. Hi.1. K,.itl, .lohn-,..,-. 
Ky.val Atla.; lvli„l,urd.. l-«s.-.. l;\|,.Xa;iv I„,l,.x,.,l Atla- ,,f il„> 

\..rM 1!)02. Ra,„l-.M,..\-ally I,„l,.x,„| Atla. of tl„. I ,i„i„„ „f 

( a.>a,la. ]!.0.-,. Sla.if,, I.„„.l,n Atla-.,, ,.,11,.. y,>M Sti,.l,.r-. 

iranlatla-. l^K. Ti,,,... Atla-: I.,„„l l,,,),,. r„iv,.,-al .\tla.- 

I a.sscll : London, 1 ■>;•.;. 

Offuial Maps — 

Map of tlR. Domi.iion of fana-la. po..l.,oi,,,lly oolouml from ..urv,n-. n.a.lo 

l.v tl,o (ieolopical Cotp... lM-'-l-2; two .^hnot., ..-alo 4.^ ,nil,.. to ono 

in.'h. (.eol. Snm.y I),.partn,onr. Is^l. (T,,poffrnpliv l.a-o.| ,. wall- 

inap^ i«,=iie(l i,y the Dcpartniiiit ,.f Hailwavs nml CanaN » 
G.'ologi.'al Map of I),.niii,io,i of «vstrrn sla.-f; .,alo. r.O n,i!... lo 

one >ni'li. CpoI. Siirviy Dcpartinoiit. I!101. 
Map of tAi' Dominion ,,f an.! X,-wfonn.llan,l. .lani,^. Whit., krc. 

peopraphor; s<>nl,-. n5 milos t,, o:„. in,h, l),.parttn..nt of tlio Inter!.)/ 

Ottawa, 1902. 
Map of Htitish C.,lnn,l,ia to tl». r,.itli par,,Il..l X. h.t.. e,.mpil,.,l nn.l .Iraw.i 

.inler the .lireotion of the Hon. T. W. Trnt.-h. fhi,.f ( •o,nn,i-slo„..r of 

J-an.l- an Works ami Surveyor-GoniTal. Victoria. I.-^TI. 
Map of the pr.ivime of Colnmhia. compile.) hv J. IF. Brownlee by 

rhr,...t,on .,f the lion. F. G. Vernon, Chief ('omn>issi..ner of,]. anrj 

Works. Victoria. lS!):i. 
Map of the west division of Kootenay District nn.l a portion of Lillooot 

i ale and East Kootenay, B.C. Compiled by .lirection of tiie Hon o' 

ti. JIartin, Chief Comnii-ion,.r of Lands ami Works. Vi.-t.,rla. B.C.,* 





25a v.,1, ij ,,, 47 





A. 1912 



Fock'v .vor.xTMX Gno.<!y.\'ruxAL prism. 

One of tlie least oxpcitcii roaultg of tin Bi'unilury survey consists in the 
•iisomoiy tlint iilmo-t nil of the inuiuituini travrr-dl bv tho Cnmniission ninp 
bptwei n tlie Oreut I'liiins iiinl the siiniinit of tlio Selkirk raiiK-c — an nir-llnc 
(li-tan( e 'f (no liiindrrd and fifty niilis — arc cuiiip-'-^od of a sinsflo proiip of 
fonfominMi' strata. Tin' c rnoks aro iim yet lar«r ly tlllfo^-i!if(■ro\ls bnt all of 
tliom art- believed to be of pre-l)evoniaii n;;e. Fcr the irmst part they are wnter- 
laid. well-be<l(l,d stdiments but eonlain o. • important sheet of e.\trii''ive lava 
which extends cpiite ncross the whole IJoil^y Mountain system nnil the eastern 
part of the Pureell system Though thi' M'diuientary jrronp is a unit, it hi.s' 
l'e<n found thiit notewcjrtb. lithob.^'ieal ditT< niiees appear in the roek- as tliey 
are followed alony I'le Boundary line from the Front ranpes we-twiird. These 
ditTerenees are ilue to uralual ehanijes of composition and no two <'onip!eto 
sections taken five miles apart on an rast-wpsf lini- would be identical, \ever- 
rhelcss it has been foiind possible to relate all the essential fenturi's nf these 
varying strata to four standard or type sectir.n-. 

Tlie most easterly type section was made in the darke range. It agrees very 
closely with the section already described by Willis from the Lewis range at 
localities lying on the tectonic strike from the localities specially stiidied in 
the Clarke ranjie i)y the present writ< r. The r.cks thus found to coniposo both 
the Lewis and f'larke ranges belong to what may be called the Lewis series. 
The type -cctinn constr\icted from traverses made in the Oalton and 'Mnc- 
Donald ranges include strata which are here gro\iped as the Oalton series. Tiie 
equivalents of the same series compose the entire Pureell mountain -ysteni at 
the Forty-ninth Parallel and belong to a sedimentary group which nay be called 
the Pureell series. The fourth type sectieu was constructed from magnificent 
exposures occurring in the eastern half cf the Selkirk mountain system. This 
assemblage of ieds will be referred to as the Summit series. The name is taken 
from Summit en ek along which a great part of the scries is expose<l; the creek 
was itself named from the fact that it heads on tho water-divide of the Selkirk?. 
Analogy- with the otlier three series names suggests ' Selkirk series ' for this 
fourth group of strata, but that designation lias already been nse<l by Dawson 
for the related but lithologieally distinct group described in his traverse on 
the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway. 




"t'r\ifTUf:\7 nr 7 

"' / \ rt:i{ii>i; 

.-■-■ I 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 191J 

"'" "■'iiitii.ii ,,f ,1.,..., , . ' vjcvjnut v.. A. 191-. 

-':;^.::;:,;t'r':: ^ --"••"" -."^::r,r; '- - : 

'" f'"''! type .,.<•(■ in-iiin-ir i. ,,,,, | 

®H.T, bi|fiiiniii„ ,. -.1 ','" ''•'"'lull,,,,, „.i, I 

in.,.,,,,,,,,,. ;„ ;, ' •; -h'"-" .'f .nan.v it,,,,. ,/ "„,!''•,'.", "";■'' ""'''• '"' 'n..,!.. 
•I^'"- 'l-ripti.m „f ,1, , f"n„nl,n„ 

p--. i.ut, fmvi,,;U;a7v''i'''''' ''■".'"^' whi.. .;,.•; ';■"- "• f-ii.-tv. 

f"" o....„rr,„« I tIZ,!', ":'."'• Th.. o„l,v otl..'r J. ;:' '",.""""••'•"■'"' will, 
Trench at IVt , ' "l". '•'"''^ I*'a'''«..t Vat "",,'"'"'""""'>• f"--"'-'- 

"n-i Hands (u; ':".,: ?./ ■■■•'^ ^ut ioo..j .lopLit o ii- " ;""' "'•' ^•■'■-'' 

'""'tion with tho ''" ,"^"''^'"' vall.,v. Thl LllJ'''''^ ^J''^-^''''''' ^^'^-^ 
T'- ^tr„ti.ra,; of tn ""s t^'"^""'"'"" "^ th C a^k; " ;""'' '" '•-■ 
«ny of ,h. o-Lti-rn J ,' ,;'.'t;r^ ^•^•^'.'■'" - '""-h .nS^t ,1 h' , '"'"'^ ^""-- 

''^■•^ an ai.J to oIearne« ,> •^'"""t'"" Oeosynolinal * *'"■' 

or. uicri. bripflr, as a 


HKi'niiT in Tin: , nil} \.-i m. sennit 49 

SESSIONAL PAPti! "lo. 2S« 

not f.,r lV,.m «:, r,,,,, , r,.,„I.ri,„ l„„i/,.„, ;,,.• th,. ,,i,|. ., ,.v,„ ,. . i , , 

wi;;,r;;;.'tr';h/:l;iit;.:::;i;'-^ -^ -"^- '-^ — -■« -L 

Si....... .lu. H... s:..::J;"::r:. :;;;:;::2 ':■:.,;;;.;;:: ,r';:'r.:::: 


Till' writer luis r.iir.fiilly st,i,li,.,l tlw L 

"f the Cliirke raiide. .•> 

to the pu-twanl of tho 



a fcT 

the ( 

\'-* oulv witliiii tl 

iiiiinii«<|,i|i nia|) i xt< 

nils hi.t a mill 

ir Iwii 

'rmiiticn^ Wtwo, „ that ...onunient a.„l \Vatort.,.. h.k 

'..It ...onun.cM.t. „ ,.l„s,. inM|.pi„p of tl.o .lifT.rrnt 

is >tre;i'h ..f (ifto. 

n mills the ficM work 

ecfiona. Those, however, oreurr.vl 

wa.< I'Diifiiin! tl) th' 

I- v.m not frnsihl.'. Ii 

riioiwiiromcnt of 

evp..-,irc ni!(l much liiflit on tl 

'.I fr. 

'in th 

p roiiipiHition of ilii. 1 

n areas of imusiialb- coniplcto rook- 

11 ir i-xniniiiati..n. In tlir r.i 

'■r oiii'-ihirii of th 

•pportiiMity for rlo^,. work ami h 

•.vi^ raiiKi- the writiT hinl 

travers. s fr 
11 ml 

■m >Vati>rtoM 


ift ( 

iirront Pa 

lake to Chief 

ii" ••xix'liiii.i' tl.cri' wa^ liini'..,! I, 

■■*■». to IMton. Afoiit 


Liniitril ng that opportunity wn 





icnep, l,y way of Alt\ 

y rpachoil after reail 

n« Will 

«, it »nffie4..l fo i..,rr.,l.orate the t , lief-. 

w . n the ( arke run^e. n.atehes well, memhor „r n„ = with IVilliV 

ooli.mnar 8. (leriveil alniost entirely from ol,*,.r>.„ ;, i 

Partly in oMer to en.pha.i. thi. identity n^' .:2:: ■ i. z ,.^71;.:::::: 

Solent,, to .v.vor the whole K.o..p of .,n,ta i,, ,!„• n.rke r,,,,.. .. ...„", Z 

to le (iesoriheii. (See I'lute 7.) ' ' 

n.pinnin^ at the i,e, the forn.ntions inel,,!,.! ia ,1, ,„,, 

\"fu li.t.-il .n tl,e onler of the following t.l.le- "^ 

t '»■.„„„„„_ r„icknes.infeet. n.:.,i,..., 

!.-■ ,, Top. erosion Mirfari*. 

sCarii:: :: :; :.• •■ •• |««+ ^i?'!''^% , . 

Purcell Lava ^ .Mlicious ,)i.|. m,tK 

Siyeh •• ■• .-.^ Altered bn>.,:t. 

Orinnell '• f'iXX Magnosiai, l,:„e,tn„e a.ui = i,li,r» 

Waferton ' ' •'•^. M ic.„u..- , |nl„n„te. 

or . ^'''*« toncealed. 


"^.f'.umn ST ,.rn,rnn:u,u,f 

P-xc-cptmg 111,. l»,,-„,.„ , , ' OEORQE V. a. 1912 

"■-" '■ " ' '^ '"'•"" .w-'m' :;,::/;;■";;: 

"MIIITOV (.>HM\T|nv 

^^: «"•";:? ™.:'i,;;:--'- - ■ v- 

fli.i liK \ 


-' "f ti„. k..k, Al^,!;;;;j;;'5,;;:,;;;-^'^"«".re.....,jo„ ,s^ ki^. „, 

^y^itcrton ,!, lomhi'. At tho ,.,. I ■ . 



'■'nf^i^:^mmm^'-^'r':3^':'^ >^ 

\'i\. U p. ,1". 



"'X^^:^ » 


'Y" / ,' "■'■■ \ 




!':::/,/ ^ 


//"",// ^ 

/ *» 


• Ol*J *■ ' 



••' # 


'"^' / i 


tjumil^ ^ 


O A 





// / 


1 1 1 



1 ^ 


^^ 1 


1 / C 1 


w "*■ 

\ >^ /I 


^ r 

\ ^ / « 

. "^ 


\ i- , 

1! o 

^ : ^ 



•OMf \ _ ' t 

, ^ 


■ 'c 



^J i 


f 1^ 



■^ A ; 


^3» A> 



i ^. 1 i i 3 


\^ 1 o 


/ 1 '? * 


/ / '> « 













/>^/'../.n/^.vr 0, r,n: nnum.n 

appears ,0 the ea,st.a.,i ^ '" 'j^/^''^ "" "^ '■-■"•-! -Lara.-ters it 

i iiroiijiiiout Its ivli.i „ , I. . . I ... 

The black :r-,'^"'K^'"n'""tic o„lv .nd in^rtll"""*^"' r''"»" i" 'he 


~:'t'2V'..«r«>%<>i4^;jiHaB^HnHW3«Ean9jt^<-sii~-'';:.'^ni^ ^ 

iiKi'uin iiF iiiE run i asti!<).\i,.mi:k 63 


sliow a tcniliiii-y t<i nssiiiiie the rlionibolu'drul t'Tiii. t]i<- habit charni'tcristio of 
till' f^raiiis in true ilolomite-. 

In mail}' of the hiiiiinac of tho roi-k (0-2 inni. t. 1 iiiiu. in thickness) tlie 
minute rhombohedra are cnil>ed(lej in a ooinpoiuuh i< li iirlet-s to pah'-tirownish 
ba>c. It is eomposed in part "i very iniiinte. an' grains of ^rlass-olear 
siibstaiiee. These range in iliainctir from 001 nitii. t" (ir. mm. .\ few of 
them are undoubtedly quartz; the great majority have the siiiph' luid double 
refraetion of orthoelase. Tn addition to the rhiiiiilH'hiMlra I'f carlionatc. the base 
is eharge<l witli abundant bla<k. opaque dust. Tin- jiartiih^ of the du-t average 
under 0-01 mm. in diameter. Sinee the rork deeolourizes before the hlow-pipe 
it seems clear that the dust i- largely earbon, tho igh liematite and prnliably 
magnetite are also represented in some amount. 

Some laminae of the roek are seen to be specially charged with roundish 
c'uinns and lenses of minute orthodase crystals. (Figure ".) These arc inter- 
locked and in all of three thin sections mndi' from two ditTerent hand-speci- 
mens, show no trace of a elastic oriiiin. They give the writer the impression 
of having been introduced and crystallized from solution, fir at lea-t -cgn gated 
in tin ir pre-ent p<isitions fmm the gitirral ma-s of the rock. The few quartz 
grains interlock with the ortlioelase and are just a» di nrly not of ela-t' origin. 

Professor if. Dittrich analyzed a typical >iieciiii(}i i.f the rock. (Xn. 1:!:!.S) 
with the result slmwii in Col. 1 of the following table. The extraordinary 
abundance of pofa-h pr.pmpted a second determinrti..n of tic alkalii- in the 
same rock-f r.iginent ; this time the potash showed iMJ vier ci nt and tlw soda, 
0-25 xx-T cent. A different fragment of t:ie sanii- Inrgi- hand-~ixcimcii gave 
Mr. M. F. Connor 5-54 (also 5-Tl) per cent of pota-h aid 0.24 (al^^o o.i'S) per 
cent of soda. Tlic average of all four determinatiin^ is entereil in Col. 2, the 
other oxides being given in the amounts -liown i:i Pro*'c--or nittri''li's total 
analysis. Col. .T shows the molecular proportifins eorresiiondiiig to Col. 2. 

A mihisi'' of thr Willi ! ton <]< hjuii'f . 

1. 2. 3. 


SiO, 30tr, 30-«! -VtS 

M-O, 6-Vi 6-86 -OOS 

Fe.Oj 4..V! ib:i -Ol'S 

Feb l-S'i 1-89 -Ki; 

MgO 1007 1007 -i^i 

CaO 16.(i2 1602 -^m; 

NajO •S7 -SP -OiKi 

K.0 5ol 5-77 •062 

H.O, at llO^C -n -11 

11,0, above nO'C 1-31 1-31 

CO. 2255 22-.W -SIS 

100-38 fl9-9.5 

Sp. gr 2-719 

IiUiol. in hydrochloric acid 42-30% 

Soluble in hj-drechloric acid: 

FeA 4-91 

AlA 2-03 

CaO 16-23 

MgO 9-69 



"f-''.unyf:M >.r nir is,,:, nun 

Tl„. a.ewge .n.iIvMsof (■„! -M , , 2 GEORGE V, a. 1912 

^i.'. all<.li..> „re relVrnl.l.. to .h e ^i; ^r',,:' •''jl'lr'' ^"/'- ~.'tion that 

"•niig the lu^tunl oompositioi, of 

th- n„-k. 


Albitv.. . 



■^'•'>'"*''*i"iu i.ari^,„a,;, 
^ ■il' luti carboiiiit ■.. 

Half of the n,ck 
to -AJg is 1.87:l,i,Klicat 
1" iioniKiI (Joloniitf. Tl 




is i-uiuposed of tl 


tie two carbonates, i 



a very slipl.t excess of oal 

nwliieh tlie ratio ofCa 

111- ri.iiiaiii.irr i.. eliiolly ji] 

showing ^i„.Ji Q ),; 
in the ortl 
80 nuioli of 


ii'ii'liio nni 


11- analyze,] fiol 

.eiuni over tliat found 
'Peeially feMspathio 

p n lu,h percentapo of potash TiU 2' ^^ """'" ^'■''""™^^ i" 

lio-' \v,i,.l, ;. .,„„,.,,' "• !"" ""^aii '3 without .In.^l.f „„„.„:_., 


'■* felil^par in a <] 

s probably somewhat sodiferouTr '^' '""""■"^* 

eoneentration of 

we nnght ..xpeet if it ha.l bL pene rate „ v'T' r ""'""•^' --"-'-Phn:., "s 

.-\tl„r,l J,yp„thosis, that, un.lor s ,." ^V'?'"''^"^ to the extent den.anJe.1 

;;■ ° »- ori.i.,al ..arb„nat,. 'n, ' " ..^t ^^ h' '^^^^^'^ ^^ '"'-"S 

■' -inn wh„.h .luring 'n.rial an.i ]i 1 f,' ' '1^' -luhlo ahnninate of 

' '''^■'.'-•d-watertoformorlhoel "i ' , ''°"' 'T^""^ ^^^''' ^''^olvel .ilio, 

H ' " '," {"'■'"^'^ ^'°"' t''^ POfa.sim, . i, "''" ''"■^"■■' ''>■ which the 

t.nn ,„a.v i,e d,,,,„ f^,„ fLt ,] . \" -^''-''^^^'-r- Another sufrfres- 

--tit..nt of !hn;t;;:rj:- ; y-^rr; "^'"■^ ^^--'^ tl:r ti;::t 

'Muci ailv-al, may possihiv be ,l„o to thn T • ■ , ' "• ." 'I'l-''!- th,. presence of 
'lie mud, i„ which the feldspar w^ f , f'""' I^'^^-'Pi'^^tion of plauconite n 

-n;Jition.. 1„ ,;e, ,.f iti obv, ^rdiffi"?:' K ''^^'••-"""-■■'t.Vn under pe,;; 
-ek n„,st be left unsolved. ''"^"'''"- '^'' '^^"'^'-'> ^'^ this e.traord l; 


iii:i">i:T ill- Tin: i ..ii.r .\si noMnEu 



Till' iMriion di"xiiIo sliows sonic (Ictiririi'-y if, a-; -I'liiis iHH-c.siiry. jir.i'fical- 
ly iill of tlie mannr-ia iiiul lime iirc t'> lie ffcrrcd tn flic iinnun! '•iiriiniati" 
foi'riis. From tli<' fiH-l tli:it n .ii>licirii.-\' \* f(niii(l in nil nf tlir- niinly/iM! 
i.irlioiiate rot-ks from tli(» nvcrlyinf; Altyn, Siyoli, nml Shoppard formation-, it 
1- ro;i-oiinl>lo to su|>po«f> that it i* not due to liu uci'i-i-aiy (iTor 'f nnalv-i;. 
Ii :.!1 the,-o cases llio deficioncy may lie i;y|iothet!''iiliy cxplaint'd Uy tlii> i-roicnec 
ot -mull aiMoiints of liydromugn isitc, ('My('0\ .\[<» fOIl), v ;", HO. Tlic Inrjro 
I oportion of water i'\|Kdled aliovo 110M'. niiplit also lio rofcrred in lareo part 
I" tlie basic I'urlionafc. Tt is thus p<j<siM(> to conceive that from five ! . -even 
per cent of thi^ ri ck is made up of that siil stance. 

Tho -pocitic frravities of three type speeiinms of tlio impiire dolienitc wtr.' 
found to he respectively, 2-740, 2-777, and 2-7'*2; the nvera^'o is 2-7il!>. Tliosc 
v.'dues show that magnesia must he hi;'h in nil three .specimen-. 

Though tho dolomite occurs in ninssive plates from six to c-iirht feel lldck. 
an.l thoufrli it is hip'ily honioLrencon-^ from top to bo'tom o' the s,i,-t:,,n -it 
CaiTioron Falls, yet a close in-^pection of the ledflres shows that the rock i-. made 
u;' of a vast numher of tliin, often jiaper-thin, hods. Scores or hiin-lred^ of 
s : li laminae can he counted in a -in.irle li:ind-?fx'cimen of the ma-^-ive iln] i- 
iiirr-. Their surfaces are p-nerally parall<-l, and cross-heddiny. ripiile-maiks, 
oi (iflicr evidences of shallow-water dep<.-ition arc ah-ent. The chara'-ter of the 
re. k. on the otlier li;i'id, indicates tlmt the carhonate was depo-ite.l fpiietiv. 
I' 1-tently. on a soa-lloor not agitated hy waves or stron? currents nor reeeiv- 
iny coarse detritus from tV.e lands. The minute hcddiiiL' and the e\c'e.ilim: 
fiii-'iiess of f-'rain, point to an orifrin in chemical precipitation. The presence of 
the earbouaeeous dust suirfro-ts tliat the precipitation took place in the presence 
of deeayin? animal matter and that the dolomite is thus annloLM-i- t- the 
ehemieally precipitated, powdery limestone now forming in the deeper parts 
of the Black Sea. The theoretical questions reirardinfr this and tlic <itli'r 
carbonate rocks of the pcesynclinal prism will he discussed in chapter XXTII. 

The Western foal and Oil Company have made a horinpr a few hundred 
■:irds from rameron Fall- atcl in tin' middli> of the Oil creek niiticli"" The 
lui» shows that the bore-hole penetrates 1..500 feet of Lard limostones inter- 
-tratified with subordinate beils of quartzite and silii-lou- arcrillite fmetari-'i'litei. 
All tli( se rocks are fine-prraiiied and. -o far as one may .iudpe from the drillioff-. 
many are similar to x; "^on phases of the Waterton formation. The beds all 
-"em to underlie- the .' Waterton dolomite conformably. We have, there- 

fore, in addition to r, xposed mcnil)crs of tlie Lewis serie;. a*" k :i-t L.'ioO 
feet of still older beds which should be considered as belonfrincr to the series. 
I'ntil these strata are actually studied at surface outcrops they cannot be 
'leseribed adequately and for the present report, the Len-is series is considered 
as e.xtendinp: downward only to the bottom bed of the Waterton formation 
where it i-rops out at the cascade. 

At tho depth of about 1,000 feet the bit of the borinp machine passed from 
the hard limestones into soft shales which persisted to the lower end of the bore- 
hole about 2,000 feet from the surface. These shales are referred to ths 


.. .^«" I 

^ . 





'■••''"•'■•"■. Ill ,,ti 


'^^ nil: /v/ //,./„,. 

'"ountaiiis at the F 

I'T \\, 

■'\.. ,I„. ,, 

f .,.,1 


'■'"■iiliirv i„,ls 

2 GEORGL V. A. 1912 

<l'*"ii3-el ill th, 

»i-ilili' in 


'■iii-ral I), 

llllTfuli ,|,, 



'"""" is pliiinh 

■lio one of the \ 

tl"- /! 

tu ll 

AI.'IVV fi 


T'M'di,.,. ,,|- ,1,,. (■] 

"■'"•I 111*.', wl 

■oiinppst fornm- 

!1I'-M will bf 



£''''liiin Hear t 

'"lite. Mil- 



"■ Ml 


-Tl,o A 
"•""'■'I I'.v Willi 





'vii. .M,,„( 

Tiie A . 
viTid l,,v tiie ( 

^illii, Ii!| 

"liii il.-*crilic,i it' f: 

'y ovcrlv 

ng till 

< II lllilr 

•■'"" a t.vpical 


not expos ,1 „.;tl 

""' "f til- ]{..„'i„I 



HI t.'l;;t 

piirt „f til,. CI 


« fi"0 s... i„ ;, ■'"'-'■" '"a;,. Tl,.. wii, .. >„„H, ,1 T" "•"^' "''''•'' '^ 

, ^»''' "™r;;:;™'^L:::';rr r- "• "■'''•';."';:: '■ '"■- '-- 

'rf..i«. 1.1,." '•S'™,""""'. »»<! P»r, .i„,J „: '7'."", ""'■'"■■-. 
<^"«-'M i.„.i, ,1, ;,,';"■', '" ': ■",,■■ "ill. III,. ,:.:,,;:.„:;■;;■'"■■■'' ''"■'■"*• 

■'"■ '■ •'■"--:'i.~N::;;;;i;:;;;M;:;::!"'™-'^''"^"::;w 

columnar scclinn nf Ihr I// / 

.•"P, fonfornni I I, ' "'" lil'l-x.i!,:^ 

" ■"" '■■■'- -" -i...M«i ," ^!i; r °' T '•■'"' >■ ' .',» ■ 

":B,KrtIHlf""""-"" ■--...-. 

».. r.* I... -i ■■:»'!• ,j;||- SS;L»;.~...,n ,,,,.„, ,„„,._ 

I 55(1 

'•' sn 

(■ 7.iO 
/ 050 
ff 2"i0 

3,300* fe, t. 

■ «"U t-iliciou.s coiiceiitiu. 

^-.-f...i.M.,.i„.MV.„<.,-to,i .,„„„,,„. 

^m ;^^'$:-iPimidi(^i^Hi^Hasi^r£i^»aBHinuis!a^^ 

/n nun at iiii: < itiEi .\si t;u\<,\ii:i! 57 


Th' tut.l t!ii'kii.'-s el' the ,,- J, ,wii i,i li,;- (til en-, k ..■.■ti.,ii ,< t'reiiter tliiin tliiit s.rn furth.-r -..ntli l..v Willi- ( l.tno f,.,.t i. Th,. ,|itT. n ii.v 
i> ii'-l to l,e (>xp!;ii„f.l l,v oVfrfnldiiiK (,r .iv. rlhni-llra'.\ 1„-.|- ,,,.,1 

trroi.p. of \K,h an: it i= trio. roiiMd mI.I.v .•ninipliMJ. ,.-, iallv i„ the !..w,.r 

p.'irt .if the fPtln,,: I, lit the nvoriw MOithuoleriy ilip ,■{ al...nt "n i^ pre^'rvr,! 
flirnir/lioiit. Til ,i!,.n.-,. ,,r ,,ri-iiK,l ,„,ifoniiil.v iV v\^ to l.uti.,m 

11- i-li-;i|-. 

Lit lologieiillv. tin. -eiliii„.iits i„r,. .lilT.T fnoii tl,.-,. ,i,-,Tilie,l l,v Willis 
111 iiuT.vnitr 11 n.itiil.le ,,r,.,i„rli,,n ,.f Mun.l.,! t-rniii- ,,f ,,n.irt7. hih! 'feM-,mr 
Jill- >n,i,|,v :in.l vritty stnita oeeur elii. ll^ i,, th.- mi. Ml.. ..\ tli.- M..-ti„„ tl,. re 

t.itiillnii.' nciirly l, f..,t in ll,i,.\, , I, i- ,|,„. ,.„:n,.;,i,.nl f., r. .•,.;:'ui/e .-, 

triimitito.hvisi..,, .,f ih,. Altvii „s .■v|„.s,.l „!,.„;: tl„, Inl.Tii;,! i..i,al l!„„,„!arv - 
All iip:ier nieraliei- (<j aii.l /,) ..f thin-!., .l.le.l, Mli,.i,„i- ,l,,I,„„ii,. 1.l'.-,.i ' f,.,.t 

tlu.k: 11 Mii.1,1!,. i,.,.i,i:„.r of tlii.-U-l.e l.i,..|, nia-iv,. ii!-..|, .lolomit.. lui.l 

ciil..nn-o-iiiiisnic#liiii ^aiiiNtone-^ (c,(/iin.l c). i.arid feot tliiek; nii-l n lo«T-t inetn- 
li.r ..t ..•LMcr.illy thin-l, ,i.|,.,l, -ili.'ious .l..l.e,iit,. (f :in 1 .,'i, ,n l..a-t IMin fVor 
tlii.-K-, .•onliiiiiiiifr l,..,!s towanl tlic l.n (.. Xowh. r- in tlie fonMali..,, w. rr 
then, fiiiu.l still. -riiik-^. rill-mark-, ri,,pl..-,uarK- ,.r i;mv . tiur iii.ll.Mtl,,.; |i,,t 
X'.'v se.liMi.Mit- ucr.' liii,! .lowi, in v,.y -l,:i|',.,v v;:t. r m- ■■:, ., l,,,ii,„„ l^ii,) 1.,,,-,. 
litwi-i 11 lilies. 

A visit wiis pai.l t.. Chief iiiountuiii iiii.l to the ori^'inal looalitv at Allvii 
-Montana, where the r. .l-.s foiin 1 f,, e.,rn -r.o,,,] \.. WIIIU' " ' ' 


e.x.' in hciiifr ,.!ten ,listin..tly aivna.-.-u-. Willie' hriei -"niniaiv of th.. fa.t> 
c'j cr\eil hy him r.a'ls a< follows :- 

•,-t..n. of whi.-h two miinl..:s aiv .li-'i.niMn-Ii .1 : an n|.!„ r n„in- 
I..1' of aryi'hi.'e.iii?. fiTrnHJ- ms lim. stone. .vell..w, terra-.-..!, a. ami 
?ariiet_ re.l. very thin l.,.fliie.l ; tlii.-kii. -s. alM.nt f.iio f...t: w.ll ex|..i.e,I in 
summit of Chief mountain; ami a 1..w.t m.-mher of nia.-.,ive liino,, Hue. heavy-!., ~. in. what sili.!,,,; .. uit!, „iai:y t1ali.-ne,| e.,M-' 
cn-tioiis. ,a ,.ly Init .l.-finitdy fo-iiil'.-r..ii- ; aho t soO feet; ty|M- 
loenlity. ha .-lilT-- .f Apii.-kniiny in. .nut-. in-. i:,.r-i of Altvn. Swift 
Cnrreiit va ■ '^' 

A.s th.. format;. .11 is f,,llowe,l s..utli. a-twar,l th.. nnp-rmo f nun,!., r > 
a (le-iile.l .lark, iiin- f tint— 1.. t..rra-.-..tla. r.-.l. ami hi-., vn of varions ,l,.ep 
f!iad..s, whieh then .loiuinat.. the lij;ht..r huff colnur charact. riftic of that inom- 
h-er at the Boiin.lary. It .«,ems elear that the wlioh ,,f rh,- ]..we<t memlH-r ami 
part of the iiildih. m.-mh. r of tin- Altvn at th. li.umh.rv ar.- not e.-cpose-l in 
the s.olioii* stu.lie.l l.y Willis. ()„ th.- whole th,- t!. M r<-latioiis in the Oil 
creek se.-tion are mor.. favonrahh- t.. tjivin- on.- an a.-.- ;rat. i.lea of the wh.ile 
Altyn f.rniation than ar.- th.. ti.-hl r.lations at e!tl..-r Cl.i.-f mountain ..r at 
Altvn its If. 

As already mtel thi.s p-r, at formati-n is ln-teron-eneous but ev.-rv hed of 
it seems to earry a notal.le i.,-r...-ntai.'i. of earhoiiat.-s. The eenieiit of even the 

• Bull. CJeol. Soc. America, Vol. 13, 1902, p. 317. 



'>f:/'trnvr:\r -,/ 



'"?-t -in.l.v .n,| jfH.,, l.vvrH i M ■ • ^ ^^^""^'^ ^^ * '912 

S:::xLtzr^; ■""'-■'= ^'•^^"':"-.. :;";::::'■;:■"- ---•'... the 

"■•■ ""••'»- '.'Z "'■;■ ■'J ■■"■ "ii .,' .i;;:; ."■"''"- ■ ». 

""v'l-' ■ « -.Tj i„:,„„";;,',„r''.°!" '""", "» ■<■■""<'-■< r-,.i, ,., „, , 

f' iMsi); 

7 bounded by iesi^, ':;:;;■■'■-"':•• ^ -'-• n. ,:;1":^:: '•-;.; V'^''. ■"• 

' n ^iX, „;:" ; z"- ■'■'"' '"''I"- '"'"•".. ° 1,;:;;",";' ■'■'■"■'' ""«■ 



"" ""■ '«> " < .;•■;:„ !;:;; ,;;;,:t;T',; '"■ >•"''•- 

'"' •'"."" format 0,1 

SiO... . 

A1,0 •. 


MgO.. .. V 
(-aO.. ■ '■■ 
N'a.0. . 

K,6.. .; 

HiO nt Il6°C.' ■■ 
HjO iibove nOX'.'. 

Sp. gr. 

13- <6 










Uhi'itur iif rill: < iin r \.^ri:ii\'i\:rif no 


A ^froml ;i!,;)l.V-i. y:i\o tl;i' pF' 'P' 'Tt i. itn il'' lli,. rllliTillUT int.> -.litiori 

in liyilro'lilori'- ." i I iiti.l a'»n th- [i.Tcntnur of insol rriiitf.r. m f "■■w-: - 

Ill»' lull!. II. Ii,,,lln(li!,,| II il. Ill lUli- 

>' lulilf 111 I.Mlri.c liloiir 11' 111 

*>'<-' 1:0 

AUl, ..j; 

l'!>t> .'. ..' '.' .'.' " ', ■>.-,, 1,'; 

■^'rC Kl.s.i 

In lh«. soluble portiun CaO: MgO-l'5.H!: IC-S! - 1 ■ lli.'i : 1, u r.iii.. (mly 
von ^h-iitly hicrher tlian the raiii for true dnl miifi', miMilv, 1 1:1. I'l,,. 
oarljiiii dioxiji- riquircil tn satisfy tlios.- buses i- 3s. iN p.r ,-, i.i, i< r\i,<(; 
t.i ibi' peri'i'iit.if-e iirtiiall.v foiunl. 

Con iderin- ' tlic iilkalicg bclutip t.. the I'.'^ .uid tlu' irn, 
to iiiUKnctitr. r'ui- iiniiortii ns i.f ilif various c-otistituonts have been calfu- 
l;ilod to I : 

<'u!cmiii < .11 ijrilillc .||.r( 

Miitriii-iiiiii i.i; liiiiinti' 'IV! 

•.'iii"!z '. .' '.'. ['. 's-0 

<)|thl"|.i-l UK'eillll' J.j; 

.VUntH II. I. I u!.' ■. '.', ■'. ■■ ■■ .1,^ 

MoKixlili- '.'. .. ■■ [[ f.j 

l'£'!i.i':iu!('i •} '2 

lOi) i> 

A.s ill tie c.-.-e >>{ th- \ViUfrto:i duluinit.' it i= ditUcnlt to uiidi-: Mii.i tiif 
l;ife'h propi'i'tio:; . f (■umliiiii d watir. It luiiy o'lnir with tin- >ili.'a a':..iir nr it 
may ociuir in a hydm.;- >ilic"ato "l' iiiagin-j-iii'ii. Ahout ■•O p.>r n-ut ..f tiic 
1 M'k i^ (■ nil. i.-r. I lit' oirliiiiuiti-s in tli. form of tr;ic dolnniti'. 

Mil,,! II! i4iu/,.- -A specinii u charaitrri-ti.' ..f tin- laidd'..' in tulivr ,;i\w 
c), thi.iigh not of its most sandy part, wa- .■..lloi'tod at t , !..\v .•!! 1^ i..Mr 
l.iindrid y.a-ds t a>' of tlio derrick at Oil Citv. 

Tiii- ro 1; ,,'.'. till- fre~h fracture lias the typical pale trray enLiiir 'if t!;e t"..rnia- 
tion and v,i.,:l;cr^ -vvhiti-h lo pale ImfT. On the weathered surface the Ldas-y winl- 
vorn or wafi i-worn. rounded to s'llian^'iihir i|iiart:'. and feldspar grains stand 
out like white ciinaiits in a lloiir pa-te. Tiie urains are of varyiic si/c up t" 
0■^^ niiii. ii. di mi' tor. a\i raj-'inff ahoiit O.J mni. The (jnart-: ur.iins nrc the 
more abundant. The feW.spar is chiefly a fresh and cLaracte.i-tie n.i.r, p,r- 
t'lite, with I'rt'ioelaso in more subordinate anioi.nt. No sodadinn' •'■'ld-[ .ould 
le demon-trat' d. In this uualyzed specimen as i;i the majoriiy oi" the thin 
.=eotions fi-o'n hII three incinbcrs .if the fornuition. round prain, of cliah'cdonic 
or cherty -i iea, with diameter- also averairinc; 0-2 mm., oecir in considerable 
tinmber. These small bodies are probably of elastic oripin. Oolite pi .in- with 
poorly develop d eoneontric and radial structure are rather abundant 
in Iioth the anal;./cd sp.ciinen- an.l others. Dr. II. ^L Ami has noted t'mt 
some of these praius !iave a ( crtain resemblance to radiolaria. but rctrard- their 
it'.organie, coucreti'nary oripin as more probable. 



n cm.,- 

I'l r\in\ii:\i ,./ uir i\rr 

>i tl, 

<'0 \iir:ii :, l..„ll,.. 

iir.' riiil,,. |,|,,,| 


2 GEORGE V . A. 1912 
!irl"Muif.. luis.- wl.!,.], i,i all 

/rem <M,| „„„. „r I,,, ,„ ,^„., n»-(rr. jriit,. „f nMhr.lnil pniin-. V4r%i- 

I'l" t.t.,1 ,«i. ,f ,1 " ■ ■l'^"""'.r. aw.r.,^ ..l,.,,,, or,!.-; „„ 


A Ml,.. . 

I.'(». . 


mk<'.. ..■; • 

NhU,. .. ' " ' 

K (I " ■■ 

Ho iit llM (','. 

11.0 iiIkh, III! (■ 

I 1 1 


"/"■ ../..-/„,.„. „,;,,,!,, ,,„,^„ f,.rnu,Uo„. 


not ill'). 




1 57 


100 t.1 
2 80l> 






■ •■'IS 

a ; - 

•^ Iiil.le lu liyJiii.hluric uci.l- 2M3 

W*. + Al.O, • . 

^•l^-'-V/;/;/;. ;;:;;; :;;■;•;:■;;■■■•■•••••:•■:. v.-..:: ^^ 

. f a'u.nina .,„,] ir.,„ 0x^1 f 'i^ ^ f"^' '""^ "^•. ■^'■■'">- 'I'-t-r-.,;,.,,!,., 

--:.FeO., 1.0, per ..„,. „,.:; ^^IJ) 0^,^:7'' """" '^"'^ -"'■•• ^•-- ^^ 

I lie rati J of CnO t-. M..() ■„ ,(„. ,j,,i 1 .,' t!,e ratio in .rno ilo , i, ' 1 '," "• '•' 'T' '' ^'"-'■•- «''''^ "'•- 

l:ro,.c,rtion. in the r.-k:- ^'l-nlnf„n the foliowin.- rnlu.-r,A 

Cull mm carbmiate. . .. 
>lai,'iie>ium carboiiutt- 
Quartz ami chert. . . 
Oithodasii .oolfculi'.. . 
-Albitp ii;t>li'cule.. 

.Mii({iicti((> " 

i'ein.iiiiilHr '.' 






-f th. ri.ltrr. .outh cf OilCi.v The L u . ''^'^J^'f '^""t""'- ■"' '!'< Imr-k 

iin'ititi (It nil I nil I i>;w<'\«(U/ K 


StSS^CNAL PAPtH No. 25« 

Mi ■:•.). .-..iii'Mlly tliU plinso i* UU^' im ■ ■■n.' ju»t .l.^ .tiI..-.! i. v,.' ir. ir^ 
•troniflv lurifil "itli wutrr-woril. uiiiiii'nil.v clusti.- itnum i.f ■|i. irt? ml ;•!■!• 
*pir. ■Ill' LittiT xtiiii.l ..nt rnri-pi'' ..II tlu- w. nlli. f .1 -urf;,.. ; tli v v.iry 
fr.)ni :'.'. mm. t.i 1 o imi'. in ilimm t. r ^ 

Ii. tlii- <i'.ti.m tlif f.l.UiMir" wrr.- .liiiTi'iin.'.t ii< iii!.T..i..Tllnt.., imi.t ..•.iti,'. 
ort'i..oli-.\ iili'l Vf'ry ran. |.|aKi».-hi-''. < >ii- L'riiin of tli-' l.itt.T. -li..\virot '"■•'; 
r^irl»'i>...| an.l nlMti> tvinniiitf \\n* (•■wA t. U- i-r.^lil'ty .iii.t.-ini', n. nr AU A". 
A f.-v ..olit.-liW' Ki.iin-. ..f .nrK-nftf.. M .-, i„;,i. ,.r \ - in .IhiMu.l.T. :i i.riiiil.-- 
of'i.I :;r.iill-* of clii-rf. iin.l ii viTv f.'U- -himII -p.. k- ..t iiKit'Ii.tit.' .■..iiii.i ■ ■ 
tlie Ii<t ..f tiiiitiTiaU otlicp tliaii tin- h.i.itiI ,Mrl..>iiiit.-_ 
-tru.'fir- til'.' ba-e i-« iiracli.ali.v i.l iiti'.il with tint ,f tlu' *]n''-\ 

a.'-iii, i. 

I'r :' --T IHtiri.'h li.i-' .m 1 t' p r '-L . -i" '■i""'" ^'"- '■'■'-"''' ^' '"' 

Oi I. N' ! "t .1 : 

.1 ii(i/i/»/'< .'/' './/"■ ,«; . w'/ii'V., )/;.;.;• ,l"'/» l,.r ihili"<i. 

Ill L'r rt; 

lll-T, . 

Al II 

I .■ I ( 


M, • 


K i") 

no at IIO'C. ., 
H i> ubiivo IID'C. 

■-!■ sr 

InMliibl' ill liyilriiihldiic acid. 
S.jluhle ill livilriichloric acid: 

let)... .". 





•.'1 ■>« 

• cr 




• .IM 




• :>.'* 


• |H- 




.in : 








■J'l J! \ 




T'l.' fart tliat s.iimM.v all tlu' liiiir is «..liil.l.' slii.\v> tliat l.a-ii- pla.Ti.n'la^o .'ari 
bo pie-ieM; ..iily in fxtrcnit'ly -inal! aiii..uiit. Tlio ratio of fnO t.. Mu'<'> in ^H.' 
8.'lubIo p.)rtion is T.VM:!, sliowiiic that Iwro too tho nil.-inni .•arl.onar,- i^ I.Kt 
fclightly in cx(r<« of thi> iiroportion roipiir-.l (or trui dol'Miitc. 

Tho approxiinatP niincrnl r..nipo-iti..ii ..f \\w r .'k lui-^ l.n ii cah-nhit.-i wi-li 
the f 'll'.wiiiir risiilt: — 

Cal. lum carlxmate.^ . 
MiiBnf>-.iuin cailx.nate. 
Quartz and chert.. . . 
Oithorlasi' molocule. . 

Albite niolwiile 






"'■'■"•""^' '" /'// /W/A/„A' 

2 CEORG-: v., A. I9I2 

'•ompari„in ,„./ r„,„./„,; . ,. ? CEORG^: v., A. I9I2 

;"!-^t' ,"",1 ..iH.,t. .,n,i fli,„„t 1,/;,; 1 ;""'■■ ;""'" "• >-' -•'. •< 

"'-''»;■' IM.r.. ,.„l,.i,„„ ..„rl,o„„. ,o„l h, ; , °"' 7">^>*>"H."' iilicate. Ko 
"■'^ l>..i^ ..f i.l..:,l!, p„r,. do: ,1 'k. in th''-"^ '"'■'" '" "'" '■^••'"•'- "- 
_.'^i'm„„ .1 u „..t«l,l.. ,, ri-,.,,.,,..,. , f ,.. . "'""' '•i"'P^<-' M"-imc.iM 

""iv.n...,.,iv 1,.. ,.f.,„,.,, ,„ ^^ ,,,v;;,;,;,''**' ""• ^^ ""■>•">" f-n.. ,„•„„. ,i„„ „,„, 

0.0O5 m,... ,.. oo:, „,„. ,. .li',,, '"1 ,;,;';[ "■ ;->•«..«.. ...n^. fr„.„ 

or .•Mspar. Che ,,n«r,. ur,^J'T' '"' ,"'"/'^- '^f "'• 'Iific quarts 

I'"'-'-' 'i'-'f th,.>o ,ili,.r,,,^^ J^^^^ ^■lativ.. amo„„t, an,] 

Prai.i and in ,,.mpnM,i„„ "" " "^ ''"'""'"" '^ r,.„unk ,l,|v uui(nr,u in 

'''lli„n i.m..s t-r,ntor in v„l,„no wl,;i 7^ -r 'in .,f ,|„1omu-.. t,, tlioso sovom! 

v«.y few silieions ,.,i„, .ivin,/ 1/ „ , ';;"';,:""'-.'" i""^' —• tl.T,. „ro 

n>o^' of the siIi,.o,. ,,„;„, ; ; en, 1 :' •"" '"■'; '" '" ' -' ''"^ «' " r„l., 
TJr; st,.a.I.v e.„tr„„ „f .;,.. ,.,.,,T T^^.-'' ''''•T'-,/'-'"'' '' --"nt. .rain.. 

•••Tl. .nat-. Ti,o f<'rn,.r„ .re ;,!.:!' ;'n ""^^,'7' ^'■"■" "'^" ■"■ "^ ' ■''>« "^ 
"^ -^d.r ««„r „n, woroi;rr; ;;>;'' ''"' ^"^"''' ' '■^' "-■'-'ion 
!>f 'pit.Ur-. 'KpoMt.Ml from wat..r.,.„,T..nt, ,, . m ..|,,>UMVal 

T!h. purity an.l Iionioif.noitv „f fl,„ u 
|.-na.. nn,| its po,..V,.ti, r,.^,,U^,/r,,n "■""'" '""' '''^ ""'"'^•''"^ «"« 

from ,n„.l, ,I„ ,Urv» f„rni.l,inr r, ...nd ' T;"""' .' """' ''^'"^^ '"^•'" ^^^« 
ront. of the tim... If fho ,-,rl„nn/ '" *" '" ''"'••-"v an 1 marine rnr- 

d-r.'aU..wn..f.,H,onat<.tnI.„, r/".^; ^rjtn ""7"'''-" "^'"^"^ '^'' 

'■"•p r. or at least m,i--li more r.,riab!e in 

//// ' '/// / I -I l;'>\i,\ii i{ 


/,•/ /•()/.'/ Ill 

• i/o thi.t, tho .miuhI |,nrt!.-|,.,. \'U.r -t Imv l„. „ ,-l,„nif.- ..f ,. ., W.I ,.r 

■f <l.'rfh i.f wnttr, i.r rhiiiiu. « in l.nih .luriii;,' ilm ii.-.'ii'?i.iKiti..n ,,t' tli.-». ;i,:,(H) 
fr.t of MHlitiiMif. It ia virtiiallv in<-..i,.piv.,l,l.- fKiit. tli-MiiflnMit. „i,.|. hanev-. 
ll... -i/.. .,f MulMmntr |mi (-.■!. ^,,.,, ,,.T fr .,, ..Itl-.-r A\r\U ..r l,...I.rr,.l; ,,u'\ 
iToinflit lii(i r l.y .•iirr.'iitv, ,li. ..,!,! ^,|,.n.v- iiv, riiv.' fr..iri n 0| (., ii n-.> ,„tn in 

Fc.riiK .X. l»[aKr,ii.ii.itttir c'nivMHi,- fr-ii, tl.iri ,,f tv|.nMl -,ii„lv 
• lulMiiiit.' iif the Altyn fiiriii.itii.ri. Ki.uml « iml l.!,,wn ;• i ^rniiiH .if 
i|iii«rt/. (cl.'ur whiti') mid imuh 1.-^, .il-uiiil.ii,! n.u rii|i.rtliitic f. M.iiar 
(tran-ivcrsc liii,..,)(Irii«ii t., -cal.'. Tli. l.i- r.-pr.-wiit, ,.n ll..' -am.' 
will.', till. I.1/.I' .,f tl,.. iiiitiMf.' larlx.nati. Kr'»"iil.'« cnii.- 
|«.^iiilf 111.' iiiutnx .if til. r.'ck. l>itij,. i, r i.f tir. !.• 4 ." njii. 

<i:ii!no:pr aii.l iicv.r rtMch .limnotcrs ulnvo f'-iV. iniii. .,r tli.nMl.out:). If the 
.•a:lMi;iat. l.OH- wore of <li'tritnl oritrin .,ii.. *.h..;il.l cxpc.-t tn fiin! v.-irinlimi- In 
It- .LTiin na he nppr.i.'ichod ..r rci-odrd fr.^iii the soun-c ..f .h>trit:>l -upply. Smh 
vuriaii..!, i< not to bo found at any . f th.' soctio:!- yot stiidir-d in tiio Altyn 
f. rm»ti..n. So far as tlio pro-Altyn r.cks ,ir. Un-.u-n tlicrc -ooms to have hren 
111 tho adjncont Cirdillrriin ro(.'i..n i:f. nmc-r). -.inn litnotniics of nnvthin^f like 
!ii.. vol.imo reqnired to fnrrii-h, froTu th. ir nio,h.ini.-;il .lisinf.-ffi',.ti.,n. tho 
!iinteri:il f..r tho thousands of .'uhio niilo^ nf oarhniitito ropro-onto.l in tho Altyn. 
T'li. ^arae niay be said of th.- pn -Al-y:; i..rniat:..ii-i iin.lcTJyinff the Great 




'l-rmsr Wlyu .i,,,.. '^^ '" '"'■'■" "^'-•""1 -y the .oa waves 

y'ch spheroid, is ,|is,.on,il.I,.. In .M „ , /"""" ''"""''■^ ""''^''"^' "P 

"' «!-•• with ,1.0. nu^kiu^ '\ , "['■'' \''^r''''[''^^^^^^ 

cw.l^..o ,har ,h,., aro fon;,,!' ii,^,;!:,""" :"'"''^"" "^ -^ -""-^ Th... is „,. 
.■t;;n,r..tatio„ s,.,,. O^.^o^Za^ZIT"-;; f-",— '^-- Th,. f,„.,„..r 

-;.h': ;;;!::. •;i::;:;r:;--;:;;:;;tj^;^ <"- - ^....w 

'''■l<'' tlio produ.^t „f ,.h,„,ir„I „r,. ; „•/ r ^"''^^'•'•'"^"o '^in.l.v l,e,ls aro 

^. Tho ca„.e of the ,.ro..i, ■'' "n \ " ''•^'"'"^';,- '"'"'V- .los,.ri.,...|. ' 

x>^ni. on ,h. ,h,.or. of n.n:: :;. ^K.r ;,;r./';":; '";r^^'"' "■ ■•'""•^- 

<•''' '•^'>'so n,ay 1„, fonn.l in th, . " . '^ ■^'"^"'■^ ^" ''"*"■ «'"" 

-■ !'- '•..1-un. an,! ,„.,„.„;,„ ^ , " ,^ r'! ' ™ -'•■■ 'i-y reaet. 

'■^•'■•"- e.'rh.,na.e an,! n,a^„esin,n eaH n T T'"""""' ""■""""'' ''""" 

pLases of ,he Al.yn fonna.ion. nj" pn^ttr'^'r' ''':"'"'''''^ '■'' '•'•'-''"■■' 
«l>o.ial note -honl.J I„, ,,k,.„ !,f 1,^ ' ♦>••■ reM,I,„. „f ,„,,„,,, ,.,,^, 

'''"■ay. remurkablv fresh and is no V " ' '^ ""^ ■•'■'^"'" '•'''^P^'-- It i 
^■' vi- of tho "nn.:.AiroT Sf I™r?^f -'•> ^-Pi-1 'nnractlr:^ 
.'ort of fossil i„ oorrelafin. ,h,. for ,„, , n O '•"■• " '"■" '"' "^"'' "-^ « 

'■""'■''"'<"J in t':e Hel,l t!uU the \lt n Z;^ ?' '"^^^^ -'•"'""'^ '' «-a^ 

♦'- rr ston fonnation in ,h Pnn ,- , '" ::7 ';,;''"':";';-"-' of a part of 

'-- -« of the ..ies in o S IKiH." '1 V '^ "''" ""'^ ''''^''''^^^-^ 
""•I f^r fr„m eonini-n feldspar is n \ ,^''- ' ^"' 'I'seov.Tv f!,a, this sp,,,.i,l 

'i- .■. a .i..,.oe oorr„ho.r t;:i:i::;;;:;;r ^""^""""^ '" -" ""- ^--- 
<'-»'-.-at;on. One natnr!:;;;"';^;;^'" i""^ ■;;:; '""'• ^" ■■"""■- "- <■'---' 

4. mf.-t^:"-'""- «--l"o der Naturfors^henHen^sellschaf!! rlh,.., ,« 

'npplvin? t!ie 

ULi'iiiir ill Tin: (Hii:i \si uit:.i)\ii:i! 


iici'cr-.Siir.v c'liiiilitioli ;itii| ri'iM 

il!- th. 

iti..n ..f M.-i; 

•rilic- iKirt-; 

i>( till- (liilf iif ('aliroriiiM m- liciui.' Hoorcil with i|iiiirt/ jiml t'^^•^ll tV'l(|.~p;ir ^;uil 
wiisht'il into till' <lulf. iliiriiiir tlii' clon.l-lHir-t -cmsmh^, I'l-om ih,- iiil.i:icriit nriil 

Ill no ca !■ i'- llirro ;niy cviilciicf n( primniiiic(>il inctaiiu'i-pliUni nl' tin' -I'^li 
iMciit. 'llio ti'iiilciK'.v nl' iric'taiii'ir|ilii~ni woiiM Ir rapiilly to iiK'na-c tlii' niMiii 
of llir rock and to olilitcrali' llic drlicato •^tniriiiii' of ln'ildinsr. 'I'lio ixT^i-lfm-i' 
of tlic c-xtrcincly line grain ami n( t liii linliliny: •'ooni~ to ^liow tliat «.■ liav.' 
till' >('iliM!c'nt si'ir'-cly ni'iro I'lianjicl from il-< original slat.' than wa- n".'('^-i- 
;afoil in the act of con-oliilation. 

/•'i.vm'/.v.- A'cry ahiindant cliitinoit> or cah-ai-co-chilinoii- plali'- or tilin- .f 
hiuhly irrcjridar forms were foniid at a liori/on ahonl '.iT.'i fed hclow the t..|, 
of the Allyn formation. These were - .c!! at only one locality, namely, on the 
bacli of the ridne south of Oil Cily. at a levi'l Iiaroinctrii-ally determined to he 
I'l."'*".') feci ahove -1 a. In the well expo-eil hdvres at that pwint thousands of the 
fraKmenIs can he readily laid hare hy -plitlinj; the thindiedded, silici.ois ilolo- 
mite ill whiili tiny occur. .\t li'a-t '.'no f ei't of the series i-, at interval-. 
<'haraeteri/ed hy the fra'.;nients. In spite of the fornile-s nature of the fratr- 
ments tlie.v were at oie-e -ii-|iecti'd to he of orfjanic oripin and to heloiiir to the 
|iro-('amhrian >;<'nus, Hilliim. iliscrihed hy Walcott as oeeurrin;r in tlw ( 
shali's of the IJelt mountains in Moiitana.+ A eollo<'tion of the fraRiuonU 
was sent to Dr. Walcott. who kindly deterinined them to have the es-c nlial 
features of licllina dniini. The resemihlanco of the material to that celleeted 
at Deep crei'k in the Iti'lt mountains exteiideil even to the chai-acter "i iim' 
rock. N'o other speides were di-covend ainonir the framneul- nor dirl the 
formation pn'Ve fn—ililVrous elsewhere. At several horizons hut particularly 
in the lowest membt^r of the Altyn, larjje eoneontrie eoneretion" 'Ufrfrestincr 
Cryptozooii were found hut no <>videiiee of their h.-inii- of ore'anic oriirin lia- 
beon forthcoming. 

The lUllinn horizon at Oil Cily niii-t he chise to that which had he.ii 
fouiiil hy Wi'ller at A|)pi'kunny iiinuntain. near .\llyn. I'eportinir on hi- e..l- 
leetion Dr. Wah-ott wrote: - 

' The mode of oecurrenet> of the material is -imilar to that f.iiind in the 
Oreyson shale.s of the Algonkian in the 15( It mountains, Montana. Hun- 
dreds of hroken fragments of the carapace of the crustaceans are distrileiti'd 
nneveidy through tlu' rock. Occasionally a segment or fraginent .if wliit 
appears to he one of the a|)p' ndai;cs is MilHcientlv well preserved to i.lentif>' 

The repealed occiirrcni'c of the Htlliiiii hed at thn'e widely se|iaratod locali- 
ties sliow3 their very coiisiderahle importance ns n horizon-marker in this little 
known [lart of the ConliUera- The fos-ils themselve- liave inlriiisie interest 
in repres(>nting one of the oldest species yet descrihed. 

• \V. .1. McCpo, Soiinoe. Vol t. 'SftC. p. <H\2. 

♦('. 1), W.i', Hull, (i.-.l. Soc. \iiieri..;i. Vol. Ill, ]<i>». pi.. l'iII ..lel ir.. 

t Hall, li-s.l. S..-. ViM.-.i. Vnl. l;i, 1!MVJ. m. :',i:. 
•_'.^>a - .-. 



i>i:i:iin»t:\r or iin: isrKitu,K 


2 GEORGE V„ A. 1912 


:s !: i^TJ-^ -' -' - »" " --»."" .x::; ir^ij^r. 

oliir, Zoll, m, ' I '•'■'"'■,'';" '"' """■ "^' " sv..erall, h.rcd i„ a,o 
br™S ™ i . ; J ■■""' '•"•';■»"«» tCl^leJ r.nBo. that the, m„ 

south of rx,wer Kintla lakp wr^^ . ? nionnta.n slope, north and 

of Oil City, and rin,: ' sid; the a o^ TZ T '"•'"' "" ^'''^ ''^^^ ^-^'^ 
thickness in the. seotion. wt ^.LTat^llot: 2';oo7;:r '""'^- "^'^ *"'"' 

weathoHnf S"; :::' ?,; tr;''rre;;" rhT ''-' ?7-"->-«.v "nd siliciou. 
• I' "ilhs, Hull. G..01. S.„. Amorioa, Vol. 13. Ifl02. p. 322. 

UEViiIlT III I III: •IIIKl Asl IlliMiilER 



quart/Jtic sandstone. All these roiks arc very hard, and were it not fur tlio 
tissility incident to thin he <l<ling, the forniiitiiin wcidd Ix' exceptionally rcsistiint 
to the forces of wcatliering. 

The alternation of the qnartzites and niore argillaceous beds 
Is so common and the pradiiation of the one rock-typo into the other 
is throughout so persistent that it has proved impossible to make a useful 
minute subdivision of the formation. In the section at King Edward peak th<' 
uppermost 200 feet are very thick-bedded and are cotnposeil chiefly of typical 
■ lU.irtzite. Tn the sections between Oil City and the north end of Waterton 
lake at least 100 feet of blackish, red, and reddish gray shaly beds are inter- 
bedded with the magnesian linie>t,iues and -andstonc s :it tli<' \K\<r of tdr idriua 
tion. None of these tyiK-s was noted in sections farther west, and. in its 
lower part at least, the formation -<'etns to become more dolomitic or more 
ferruginous as it is followed eastward. S\m-crack< and ripple-marks, especially 
the fonr-er, were seen at many horizon^ from top to bottom of the Appekunny. 
No fossils have yet been found in it. 

Collecting all the information derived from the Bo\indary belt, a composite 
columnar section of the formation as i xixised in the Clarke range, has been 
constructed and may be described in the form of the following table: — 

Colnmnar sertion of Appckiiiinii formation. 
Top, confoniiabli' b<>.-e of tho Grinndl formation 

2(10 feet.— Thick-bedded quartzite with subordinate interbeds of gray and rusty meti<r- 
2.02.') " Light gray to ratlier dark gray (dominant) silicious nietargillite and quart- 
zite, we<itheriiiK gray and iusty-gray, thin-bedded; many relatively inay- 
sive beds of whitish and rusty quartzite occur amon« the staple thin 
beds of the rapidly alternating nietargillite and quartzite; suu-cracks 
and ripple-marke cumnion. 
75 " Thin to medium-bedded, buff-weathering silioions dolomite. 

300 " Highly variegrted, gray, green, reddish, and black nietargillite and quart- 
zite, weathering in tone*; of brown, red, and gray; a few interbeds of 
bnB dolomitic sandstone and grit; sun-cracks and ripple-marks. 

2,600 feet. 

Base, conformable top of the Altyn formation 

Thin sections of typical phases have been examined microscopically. They 
revealed an even higher percentage of free tpiartz than was in the field sus- 
pected to characterize tho rock. This mineral occurs in very minute angular 
individuals from 000.') mm. or less to OOf! mm, in diameter, with an average 
diameter of about 001 mm. No certain trace of an originally elastic form was 
anywhere observed. The quartz is intimately intermixed and interlwked with a 
nearly colourless to pale-grecnisli mineral, wliicli. on account of the extremely 
small dimensions of its individuals, is diftic-ult to determine. The single refrac- 
tion IS notably liiplier than that of quartz; the birefringence is apparently low 
but, in reality, may be high, the common low polarization tints being due cither 
til the section's passing across tiie optic axes or to superposition of differently 

i'Sa— ."il , * 



Df:i:nin,f:xr or rut: nrruion 

thin scal,.s ,,f siinila 

"Pt'Val .■h.n„.t..ri-ti,-s „f ^.,i,.i„. „„ 

■'"MoMl ul.irh (or.ns tl,e,. of th,. 

2 GEORGE V,. A. igio 

"rioiitatrd cry-itiiis 

similar Mut..rinl with n,-,^li'^iiki. ,.r 

-.MM. iii^My pp,i,;,i,i;,',i;;;;"i, ')" t]Z 

A hIi„I,. thin s,rt,„„ ,„,,v. tlirn 
""tturo „f ,,naru m,,! >,;. „iih 
more the cis,.. th 


Ahiii.v tin.' -hn",l> im.l 
ti'Mi.. Iiav.. all thr 

"::i<l,. up ,,f a honin^rtifoiH. iiifiniMtr 
■'-TV -rains „f iron oxi.l,.; or as u 
oriKinal h.Ml.ling. In'tiu'.'i,;;',,,/"'.'''/ T'^'.' "'"-';«'";'" handing ropnvoniin^ 
"ation of nmro qnart^o',. , , "^^': ""' "'" '""I'li"*-' i^ ..n.rk..,i l,v .Itor- 

'"• nn.j.'n..tif,. sc-ni n.nvr t„ iail l,„t no ,1 '"""''■• ."^ ^''"^ "'■'"'^ "f iln.cnifo 
.''vera... t,p..s of .h,.so ..nart^^o ,. Ik T."""":' '^''^"" '" ''"'•'■'->^ f'"' 
This oomparativly hint, ,l,.„.:„. ,,„. . :,'•.,"'"' ;'.""■'" vain., of ■'740. 


k is (>\ iilcni'oil in 

,r„l, „. -n '" '""■■"'•'■'>'■■< mineral and in the 

;n>hons ■,r^,lla,..ons nnutor. Tho ..,„.,„. i- ,1,.,,,,,. \,Z 

Thi, oon.parativoly hiph .Ion-it; 'shows that ,ho s,.ri..i,.. ;"("',' 

-i:p'lL.,:S;-7^;-;;;;rl; -• 

'iitire absen.'.' of 

■'oyolopcl in tho ho.l.jini, plan.. thur..l's,.u.l,'''''',i 

^.ity ..f the r,H.k in tho,. plan. , „ a ""V ^T'^'''" "'•^'"- "'" "- 

•"■noral havo th.^ir lon...r .1 • , or. ';""•-• '.'^•■"1. many s,.,d,.s of thi« 

pianos. R,,„i, i, „„,,: . ,;'.':,'''''' '' '""'' ""-'"^ •" "'" '■'"'''■■•"-' 

""r has trno s<.hist.,sitv l'er^:li7''' "" ;"'-' "f "■" '"" " '''""' ^•"■~'- 

recrystalli.ation of tho tvpi'-al ;IT '";•'■'"/"," ^'•"' ^^ ' '' "n.,,s. Tho 

■earranffoniont inoi.l,.nt to am-Ionir'.h.on' i''' • i "• i"'" "*" "''"'' '""''^""hir 
"lorphisni. ^ "^ '""'' '"'"^'' "-'^''^''t trno .lynamio ntota- 

-V^'"'"-'' '■^■''hnt .inly aft.T ,nior.,soo„i,. -.t,„Iv ,' ;. i 
that it ig ...anvlv ...,rr...-t to s,«.,k , f ■""'•'• ''"^'■''"""" '^ -MTononnof,| 

'» »n ar^illito at all. It i n ,,t a l- ;'.„'•'"■'""' ,"'""• "' ''"' "^'^rHcuMny 

Wo shall soo that tho <,no d ill v V ,"" ''""'' T " '^ '■"•''"'■''"■'' '-'""i-- 

of many thonsands ,V ,ot ,. h 1 ' • ""r ''■•'';"";• '"'Il'or...s ,o tho d,.s..r;ption 
-rios. It is o..,nv n n , ,v. :'t"' 'T "^ "" ^"••'■^- '''"^'""- =""' ^~-t. 

^lat..s or sohi.sts ,.h,.. t.. ,lvn n i. , ' '^'""•" '. '""^"'.•'"n' nor trno ,ni..a 
"■leavago ..r sohistositv a '" ■t""'„rph,s,„ w„|, dov,.lopn>ont of n.,tal.Io 

ar.iiiaton/^!r::!o;^ n^!r ™:;r,r:r" ';'''''"'f r'^-^^^- ^- -"" — 

"•ill he nsod in the pr....,, roport. ' '"' "" """>«• "-targilh.o ' 

1 ho moaning of tho t.>rtii o.i,. i . i . 

the nnn,os now I P^^a 'w , i i "i'' J:"' l'"''^'"^'' =' ^r'--" -"' 

a "h.y or nnnl. If 1, , . ^• • ," "" '^"'"l"'-' I-lit- i^ 

-Kiiiito. Athind,od,h.,,.n;:;l :;, ii ;t::s:':::Hr^^^^ " '^ "" 

'Inig i.hin.s iH.oans,. th..s,- ,,,. ,>i.,„„, 7 • ' '' "^ '"'''•^ -''''f~ "l"njr th.. I„.d- 

taIIi.od .l„,.;ng .lyna io ,: a Sil'oidv't 7 ""'■ " 'l ''■'''■ '^ ''■'■'>■- 
f.'llowing ,h,. piano, of si„,il 1 , t ' ■ '" t''-\-xtont that c.y oh-avago 

..n aigillito h.....,nu.^ phanorooryslaniii.. and 'oliaf.-.I 

ni:i'ni;r ur nn: run.r .\>i iiii\<i\:i:r 



throu(.'li (Ivniiinio iiictanioi'ii'ii^in, it i- a <iiiiirt/.-niii'n -cliii-t or a ()iiartz-f('l(lspfir 
pcliist or piiii-s. If nil arRillitc \u\- hoi'ii iiK.ri- <r Ic-s ('(iniiilctcly rciTystalli/i il 
liy ihcriunl iiition dn iKiudiis coiitiict-* it 1= a Imrnfil*. If. finally, an ariiillitr 
rctaiiiinn the licil'liiip structure lin< lii'cn r-acMitially rriTy~talliz<^l tiv (lrf|> 
burial and witliniit lioinp nffoctod by iliroff niatitnatic infiupnco or by tho 
notable ilevoliipiiu lit <if cb avaLre or s.lii-io-iity, it may be ealled ini-tarKiHite. 
At no point witliin the Boundary bilt was tnio nrRillite fsliale or slate) 
f'Uiid in tbc Aiipekiiimv formation. Kverywlieic tlic oiiee-pelitic pba^o^ ludonp 
t" the metarjrillito type as .just defined. On tlie mountain slopes rnnnitiK up 
<.. tward from tbc Flathead valhy both mctarsillite and qimrtzite have been 
-lieiired iiikI eleaveil. tlie former (rivinp loeal phase~ of slaty metarjrillite. The 
cryftalliiiit\ never li-es ti> the dij-Tee of true mii'n sehis,,. 

(illlSNKI.I. FoHMMIoS. 

The (iiiiiiiell formation was named l)y Willis and described by him thus: — 

• A mess of red rocks of predoiiiiuantly slialy argillaceous cluracter 
is termed the Grinne'l aririllite from it,s charaiteristic o<-ciirreneo with h 
thickne-s of about 1,^'K .cunt (Jrinnell. These beds are frenerally 

ripple-marked, exhibit luud-t, '<a and the irrejfular surfaces of shallovp 
water deposits. They apixjar t^ vary eoii-iderably in tbickne.--s, the max- 
imum measurement bavinjr been obtained in the typical locality, while 
elsewhere to the north and northwest not more than 1.IX)0 feet were found. 
It is possible that more detailed st.ratifrrapliii- study may develo|i the fact 
t i;it the Ciriiinell and Apiiekunny arKillit< s are really phases of one ureal 
formation, and that the line of distinction betwiH'n thom is one diagonal 
t I the stratitieation. The physical charai'ters of the roeks closely resemble 
iho^e of the Cheinunjr and Catskill of New York, and it is desirable 
initially to recognize the jvissibility of their haviiijr similar interrclalions. 

"The (irinnell arsillite outcrops continuously aloiifr the eastern siile 
of Lewis range and its spurs, oceurrint;: above the Appekunny arpillitc and 
ilippini: under the crest of tlie range at the heads of the great ampiii- 
tlieatc rs tributary to Swift ("urreiit valley. About the sources of the 
Kennedy ere<>k- it forms the ridge which divides them from 15elly river. 
Mount is a characteristic pyramidal summit composed of these 
r<'d argillites. The foriuatioii occur- iu its pr<iper stratigraphic position 
betwei n the forks (.f Belly river and west of that stream in the Mount 

Wil range of the Canadian gcol<ii;i~ts. the northernmost extremity of 

llie Lewis range; and it dips westward under t!ie valley of I.i'tle Kootua 
(111!; and Waterton lake. On the western side of Livingston [f'larkej 
range the Orinnell argillite wa- rec.gnized a- a more silicious. less eon- 
-picuou-ly red or >haly division of the system, occurring about Upper 
Kintla lake.'* 

K. Willi-. Bull. fJenl. S.k-. Ani.-ric-a. Vol. 13, 190i 



/'^/•.AT7Avr or /v/Any /././„/, 



' 'ion ttl ( : , /,, ,), 7/ i , . 

i :: Sst;a -"'SSI,-- 

"""'■ ""'-•"" '- "' -i-l. r,„., 

twelve .nohes from creat ,o or^t^\^u"" """ ""^^•"•"'' ^-"^ f o ' t^ 
he ]>..avy tidal rips ocM.rrin^ in the n't' r""';'"^ "^ ''"'''' •'°«'". ""-I Z 

present d«y. If .,,ese rippV^wero "if .'""/" "'"' -'"«■•-« of tie 

«"s have been of very larr. dirnen^i;:: ' ''' """'■"•"- — >t. the .^ 

Under the niioroscotH! the «,.,„!,♦ 
es«en,ialiy of rounded q^rtzJ ■^*°''' ^'".'"""""^ "^« -en to he eo„,po*.d 
of the ^ains are seco„,Li t e d il anirf"" V' """■ '"" ''-"-ter Z 
the fracture and the strength of r.To ""''' "" "^''''"t that the roek \Z 

;^aren.y ar.illaeeo,. n^t^' I m''^; ^^i.e ^r T'"" f'-^y"^ "^ -"-i^: 
rest o the ..ernent. Xo feldspar wa. ., ' „ h; ,'"' """''^ «^ ■'•'>"• ^ornis the 

The metarKillites a«. nia.le up of ,1 '""'""• 

^Uorjte, and abundant iron oM, L„ ,';,'■"""'"■' "'"'^ "^ -"-*''• H-art. 
P^jle bro^^ish carbonate. probaby\,„tni e '^'''' ^'T '"'"""' -.-^f"'' of a 
The carbonate .eem also to be „, •/''' •''^*"''"tcd thron^h the mass 

'•honn^.ally precipitated alon^ with '1,;"^''';'' r"';f"'.ont and mat ha^VL n 
a"t or ,.inal component of thes) i^ ""'"'•""-^".v -'epo^ited m„d. the domi;" 
J lie specific ifravitv ,>f n f.-. ' ■ 

<"f"l "■■••'■ '">• P-"i.d..Mi,,rph. of 

HEfoUr <n nil (Hill \> I IHtSiiMI I! 



vellowish leiicoxeiip. Tho pores of the rock seem to be entirely tillol with <W\> 
Kreen chlorifo. The i- t^o ^miitl.v :i1iit.' 
it is ovidintly a comiiioii t.viip nf hii'^nltii' hivii. 

:itT"ri| a ii»i'tiil aM;il.v<i- 

SlYKII I''('ltM\l|i 


In Willie" orijjiniil description of the ' AluonUi^in ' n..l.- .ii 
ran({i\ the following concise account of llic Siycli fniMiation ncciir^: 

'Next above the Grinneli nrgillit<' is a conspicuous formntiou, rl.,' 
Siych limestone, which rests upon tho rcil siuilcs with a sliarp jilan.' ..i 
ilislinction. but apparently conforinahlv. The Siyeh is in peneral .mi 
exceedingly massive lini<Ptone. iieavily hedded in courses 2 to fi feet thicU 
lii<o masonry. ()cea.sionally it assumes slahhy forms and contains argillace- 
ous layers. It is dark blue or grayish, wcntherintr luifT, and is so joitit. d 
as to develop lar^e rectangular blocks and cliffs of oxtraordiiuiry lieifrlit 
and steepness. Its thickness, as determined in the nearly vertical cliff nl 
niount Siyeh, i» about 4,000 Teot. 

'This limestone offers certain phases of interna, .ructure which may 
be interpreted as results of conditions of sodinuntation or as ctTcts ol 
much later deformation. Some layers exhibit calcareous parts separated by 
thin argillaceous bands, which wind up and down across the p<neral beddint; 
and along it in a manner siiggestive of the an'hitectural onuiment known 
as a fret. It is conceived that thi- e.Tect inigbt be due to concretionary 
growths in tho limestone, either during or after deposition, or to horizontal 

eompression of the stratum iu whicli the forms nr. Other strata <'on- 

sist of fragments of calcareous rock from miinite bit.s up to a few indies 
in diameter, but always thin, conslituliuir a brecia in a cry-talline limy 
cement. Again, other strata consist of alternating flattish masses o! 
I'alcareous and fermginons composition, which rest one upon another like 
cards inclined at angles of ;!0 to 4.') degrees to the major bedding. At time- 
the lamination is so minute as to yiebl a kind of limestone schist. Thes.' 
internal struct\ires suggest much compression, but the apparent effects are 
limited by undisturbed bedding planes, and it is possible that the p.culiar- 
ities are due to development of concretions an<l to breaking up of a suixr 
fieial hard layer on the limestone ooze during <lepositiou of the beds. 
Walcott has described similar structure as intraformational consrlonieratos. 
'The Siyeh limestone forms the mass of Mount Siyeh. at tiie head of 
Canyon creek, a tributary which enters Swift Purrent at Altyn from the 
south. It constitutes the upjHT part of all the principal summits of Lewi- 
range north of Mount Siyeh. including Mounts Oould. Wilbur. Merritl. 
and Cleveland. Tt extends beyond Waterton lake westward into the 
Livingston [Clarke] range end forms the massive peaks between Watertou 
and North Pork drainage lines. Above Upper Kintla lake it is sculpture.! 
in the -splendid hei-ht.s of Kintla peak and the ■Ronn'lir- r-n..,!fiin-.'* 
•bTwUIU. Hull <i.Mil. Siic. AniPiioa, Vol. n. 10fl2. p. ?.l'^ 


I" I'M/ rut:. \ I (If I in 

IS It. II 1 1 HI 


2 GEORGE V. A. 1912 
rnnne^. Quito ,ip«rt f,„ni 

Th.' Si., eh is thp ^r.i.t (•liff-i„uk..r . { ,\ i- 

.A'>'-n« .1... „,„„, a,|.nin.l,|.. o ;, iL' ,, ' r;:'''V'^ "■':','" ''"''':"• C'lat.. ».) 
- t'.a..Ht .1.0 lK.„.l of S.nrva.L; ;.,r ;' r T' "'"'"' ""^ '^"""''-.v 1-lt 

n..' Inrmnti..!. i, ii,,tul,lv I, , ' "'i*-'''^- 

;';/';-.. ;« .ho -oi„.n„;;'t ;:"t";:";n 'n !"!'"'"■'' '' '-' ♦"-"'•■^ >•..,. 

'''■'■•'■■^•.■Hl .•hnra.....r. ' " ' '''^"''■'' """ «vr of r.o„tr,.s't,..| 

''"''""""'■ *'■'•''«" "/ >'/-A ^on„„//„„. 





4.100 ft>rt. 

.. . , ^'''*' '°P of "'«' Grinnell formation 

l<^aved «ith buif-woathering strata that to "'*■ "'■'' ^'^ '"'"""tol.v i„tor- 

- -UHJssiblo. It has thus^.p" ed bit to f.Tl'v w'.r'"""" "' ^'^'^ -' '^'^'^ 
'trat,, between the Crinnell and tt P ,r ,1 " . "," '" '""'^■Jinp all the 
"a"'". 1» i^ ^'" the whole, a sin^^le n a.rn 1, ' "l"'^^"" "'" °"^' f-rmation 

'-.stio is the n,as,ivones; of the b<l Th '^^ '^ ^'-""J '^'^"e'-ul ohanu- 

"■et of dolomite and limestone oon,po«-n«r th , .^.T'* P'"°'"i"^'nt in the 2,00.. 
^ The table and Willis" Iff > 1 "*"'' "' '^" formation, 

'ho ..rata in this seotion Xr" e w .v" '"*""■'* ^''""^«' 'loscription of 
"'agnesian limostone and the thiok ba;d f .r„: v""*"" '"""•^"'«« "' t'-e bnff 
"ot.ce. A, tho outcrop of the bnff rook the oberr'' ^^''-'^ '"^"'^ ^"'■'■■"' 
ropoated oolour variation in tho mok T. , °^'^'^r" ^ •'•^'^ '« «truek with a 
oflloaroous o„„o„t r,f tho r<,ol< i. ^een n K "" " ''^V^"'^ aPParont. The 

^.n to be .oprepa.P.l. somotimos irro^d- 

I'l »!► ■' 

Mount Thn,„|.>n„, s....„ am,.. rp|..r K.mlu I..k,. ■ -"-;;'' ^;;'"' '■-' ^''"■- ' ''^•■ 

.">a— \ul. ii p. 7-. 

infiiui III ' in iHin i>//;«>\(.i// /i <a 


iiilv, .omitiliic* »vi.t<ii.iiti.ull,v. Tlir Imflfliiitr'l ( w.iith.r<<l I «■ iimil «iirfn.r 
■ f the li'il(r»' ii* tinm vnricKnti'ii willi iiinriv muill liiii-i-c-* rif purr lijflil (rriiv t" 
I luixh (trny liiiies-ton- . Tlu-r imiik-i"< arc in thr fi-rni ..f rniimli^li iio.l\il.s mi. I 
pf'tK-ili, flat l<ii-<s, (ir iinn'iliir -iriiiKfro of no ilrtinif' -.Iihik'. Thfy iirr i— m- 
lially i'iiiiii><ps«-<1 i.f purr '•iil<itr: ihr.v .ffcrvi-i-r \ in!< iitl.v willi coliI .liliil.' u>i>l. 
As in M) iiiniiv (lolniiiitr* the ciilriiri".!!. wunt'iition i' often quit.' uii«,v«tini«i ir. 

« \^'' 

^ 'v 



'., > 

, \ 

' \ 

\' - 


- I- ^'^ 







FliiCKK 3. SectKiii i-hnwirii: r.imni.iii iiluuti-Mf tin- lu.ilar toith ^triictiiri tm tli.Siycli 
foniifttHiii. Tl)>' ialciti<- ».Kr.(f«tiiiii» an- li-ntimlar .\w\ -tiinil |i.ri»*n.liiiilar to 
thf lilaiif >ii »trutitii'»tii.ii. a,. i'l.(.»n liy iIm- iiiHtar^illitie iiittrUKlMMi. I Ii<- 
miilrtldaytr iif liiii>i.t..iii- I- tHi' fi'it tliirk. I^Kulity, luutli fork i)f tin- \ alik 

liut, on the avcrapi-. it is .UHnitt-ly rchit.Ml to tlir two nni-ti-r iilano- ..t' slnictiiro 
in the limestone. tli*- roek i^ nneleuved. tlie l>e<i.linc-i>lnn.- ha-! heen 
=elcete<l in tlie I'avoure.i lo.ii, nf trrowth of tlie -eLTetintioii. Tlie .^tratitieation 
may thii- !«-• marked Iv many :.mall. in(lc>pemleiit h-n-es of lime enrlionate ei,m- 
r-leitely surrounded hy the mutrnesian matrix. There i- triinsition lietwtH-n sneh 
i-olated h'nses ami entire. miinterriii-te<! hed« ,.f (iriiy limestone confonnahly 
intercalated in the buff maRiiesian rock. Siidi l>fd? may in many eases he due 
to original sedimentation. 

The eonclusion tlint the limeearhonate lense-, iNUieils. and irrefrular hodies. 
and ev«n -omr of tlu edntinunu- lad-like itia--e-. i-ie Aw to se.-ondary sevretja- 
tioii within the dolomite, is I'lfarly upheld hy the relation of ^inotli.T kind of 
Hme-earhonate partings. Thes<> were lonjr ajro ohs..rve<l l.y Bauernian and later 
bv Willis, [n localities where the dolomite ha= been fppoinlly nipped and 


tn I 

•unuiM n, nu iM, ,,;»,! 



l;>.r« ..r.. In„hl.v i„,.|i„..,| to ^^11".! ''"■"" '""«''^"»>onat«. Thc«o 

'•—..... „,..„,.. ,. «r.i,,i,;/ .:.:7, "7' '■'-'■'-'-■'i..f...n „.,r 

"'•"': H. mn.v b,. ,Tum,.|,.,|. rP|.„„ „) an 1 F 1", 'V;^'"""" «'"'• "'I- H— 

■"i,M,,h „„,! „,arl,|...Iik,.. ^"' '*'"'•' "'" I'n'.-.Brlmnut., parting, ar.. 

"""•"•'•»u, .|.>„.ril,,Hj this r...'. „,'„„• 

Th.. t,.rn. nil! nK„ be ,,-od f,.r fh v'' T " " ''"''•'"'"-''"^'-nato. 

-;rfa-o« ,|o not tho ,.han„. i,„i, i^, T'""" "'"^ T''"'" "'" ^'•''""■"'^ 
bost Hhown i„ the clcav...! pha^n J ' V a„ . ," T'" "•"'"•-'-"'= tho last i. 

»''nal. som..tir„o, int.T!ooki„ir irraL v.,! " ''■""t>«"t n^».'r.r„to of polv 

low ..0 rh,,,nbo',edn.l or othor orvri f, rm t f""' '^""'- ''" ♦'"- -^'rains 

"P of^praotirally p„ro r-arbonat... ' "" '""^•'' "'"' ''^nnpor. aro mn-I,. 

--nd..r H,/';f;;:;;:;i:;;::""j/';;;;;' ;x^^./''n ^^i' ''^'^'^ di«ti„^i«h„bi. 

--.I ,.o,„,lo„. Anb.,,ra and , n b 1,^ 'of T"*^-""'^" ''"'""■• ""'' •' 

I'l Ut 111. 

■<l,. ,i.-.| i.lij.. ..I >iv. I, hi.i. -I , CI Ilk.' IJ.iiii.'. l.ik'M \''<i' Im.'IiI*'i. 

riLlllV |.11MM.m|i I 1111 <Mll«,|l,l', . 'I'lll.. l.iUllll- II lll.l.ll -!/• 

I ; .l.ill. I'.M- 

Sl.. :,r,,l |il,ii-. if .I..1 iti.' !■ II-.- i». Mill. mil 111 Kit. Ill m r I.,mii;iI imh. :,I \ :il,k ll' tM"th -tiurtnr. ; -iinKni imit-, im! i-im r.u I :,t.-, mill |.i.'i.-' 'm- ii'" 

in;i;.'iii -liin liiiif^t. iii- 'l\\-< iliii'l- n.iliiial -i/- . 
2."u~ li |.. 71. 


I '-T*!' 1 

■'._ ,i'm.\. 

jp' 1^ 

I.T.I-lHiT III nil. I .'III I l>//,''/\'M//.7.' 



vnlumt". The rhoiiiUoliodral mi'l -ul]rli..Mil' 

li-al ,T.v-t.i!- av.r^i^'.' .iIh'uI '» 'M 

TIm'V hi.' ill ., l.n-<. wln<-l. i- lurtlv ronii" 1 "f 

i-iirbi'iiiitr Init of much >^i.',;i11it -i/i-. 
ir l.'ss to 0.(Mir. mm. -V fi'W miinit.- 
! A f.-w (hist-liko iwrti<'l'- "f <Mrt"'T> 
„nd rvrito arc n8M..-i;.t.Mj with lh.. ..rl.... •■■. Tl,- rrn.ain.I.T ..f tl,,. l.;.-.' i- m 
oolourifss, amorphous to si.l.cry-lalliiio on... .it whoso diajrnosi.* is oxtr.MM.h .l.m 

li.iil 1. nt'ra.-ti.ii, .ith.-r ml -r , xtniii.l.v 
1- lia-c of thu Altyii 

mm. ill (li.iiiiotcr 
niiiiicroiis aiihcdral >:raiiiili> of ihi' s.ui'.' 
with .liami'tcrs varyiiig from i)f>»U mm. - 
angular grains of (inartz ami fclilsi)ar ai. 

fchispar in the r.»l<. 

alumina, and it mu-^t carry the 

may ho iirp-cni. as 

thill ciulii 

The slxH-ific pravity of six ty]x- vanes 


I'ult. Its siller!.' nlrai'tioli is l.iw and it 

faint. These properties arc like those note<l for th. si!i,i,., 
dolomite. The analysis shows a eontent of silma an.l .dumum .■,.,, 
siderably in excess of the amounts required for the httle ehiM.e Muartz an. 
It thus apr«ars llie e.n.eiit e.irnes hotli 

eomhin.'.l waU-r. Trm> anrilhieeoMS matter 
well as amorphous au.l .• sili.'a. In none of the 

-.ri.'ite he .leteet.^d. _ . 

s from •-'•'i.''>T to -■ .t'lt, witli 

an average of 2.702. low values in.lieat,- the impurity of ^^^^^ •■-^^;;^'- 
The lighL-niiiK of the r.H-k must, in lairv^l am,.iint. he attrd.uted to the (em<nt 

of the nuiRne-ian part. . e ,u 

Owin^' to the extensive au.l hiu-ldy in^rn.lar r..arra.ipeimM,t of th. ,.^ 
honates in the molar-tooth r...-k it is n,.t .asy ,.. ^.vuiva s,M...,men whwdi shall 
faithfully vepres..,t its averap.. <....u,.oMtio„. .V spe.-.mon J"^"'"-"'""'; J'' 
this i.leal was taken from the clitTs of Sawtooth rulKe, 15 ni. lea east of I-owe 
Kintla lak.^ Alaterial fr..m this sp.-.-im..n wa. so s<.le..ted a. t.. . ..ut.iin 
mairm.sian hase and eah'ith- ..-frr-.UMtion in al>..,it their av..rajr,. pr,.p..rU..ns^ lu 
natur.'. and the pow.leri'.l mixture (sp<>.'im.'n X". V''"<. ' 
f,.s-or P;ttrieh. The result is as 

(if .■^/i/c/i iiiipifi-r ?n»rv/oN' 


.1 in/)/.<(v 







N:. () 


ll.O at llfl'^C.. 

ll.O lllKlV.' IIH"*". 


('I I 

1 .VI 










>!>■ Kl 

Portion insnlublp in liy.h-e.lili'ii- 
roitioi. ^>Iu1)1p 111'.< lil.ino 





Lir.d . 

M. ! 



■ :i.V.' 

■ IM)S 
•01 :i 


• id 

to (.!> 
2 17 





^- i: 


/'/ /M //y .)//.. \y„, /,,,,'tf.„ 


2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

-'"'-""it-: .1-0 alkali.,; t"h;:;^'::;r:r"ir '•:'"^ "^ »''^- -^ ""• -^'-n 

'"-, iHvn a,,.Iie.l heie. giving" 'non'" ^ ""•,'" "7*^ '"'^»'"^*' "* '•alcula.iou 
='-.frn.sii„o.l..„Iati,,j,tho'nom,s'o J ""•I-..lo. ,,u,t as ,),, alkali.s aro 

"' .1... f<,liow ... u,ll, wlnel low tt ;,''';■ '"r"'" '^^ -^^^"''^ ""• «i-.i 
b..n.t..s an. ..<,n.,.„u.,l. ,l,o o,l, ",,,,!,, r^'', *"■■ "" "•'^-'^ "^ f«>- "« tho -ar- 

"■M,~ntu,.„T« l,,.,,,^ „„,,.,. arl.itrarily trrat...!: 

•'alciuni carbnnatp 
Ji;',Knwiam carbonn'tp 

Orfhoclasp inoiwulo.' 
Albil© inoleculp 
Va(,'iietite. . .. " ' 
''.'niaiiKipr^ . . .* ' 



4I.L' ,„.,■ 


't iiiii'iunl 

proportions of the oarl>o,iat(... .•orr,..Mo,„l , 
'i'.lomit.. and 12. 9 ,Kr (.ent of fr ] . ''^"'' ' 

-d .iates from the time of the .io iion 3 " "'r ""'■" '"•■-'"''">• '" ••^-'•'■- 

11... In,.h iK^mntajro of water (ahovo lio'r • " 

•his metamorpiiio agent even at 1 ^'- "* '"^'''''^ 


The enntent of carbon, low as it i i , "'/'■""' '" t'' 
tint of the frosh rock. ' """■' ''-^■■u.\h], 

rieldSr?.* T *'" ■'''■^"■'' ■'"''^""'^' ""'-"^■" 
,. „ '', • ^'"^ t^" ♦•^•P0« "^e yet simih 

.■^liowinfr that 

'•'. .^0,1 in sufficient 

♦00th striictiiro. 

'"""ally (iark 

:"i'l the Ai,yii ,|,,l,,niite an. in 

tho cari.onatc ■>«;«■ h:; i;';':!:;:::;:^----' '"'.-'ant r,..p,.ct.. i„':.a:h 

-..cstion in cither case tha^ he :i,;;/;:l/'7'r-''- ''"'"• '''"' ^ 
... ,lolonutic ^Tains tenrl to assume he V '* ''f *''' r""'^""- ^" '"•■'' -•"^'^ is scn.iMy identical n w h t '; 1r' '"""• '''"''^ "-"''- 

comn..<,.„. .!._ ,_ .. «'"i tliat of t.b.. avera-.. cjilcite grains 

eomposin;, the lenses, pencils, and .tHmlr^V;^ "'" T""^' ^"''•'''' '^-"i- 
avoragc diameter is al=opract..nlKwr *'"' '"^''•■»'-t""fl' i'^x-k. This 

ujes which compose ear:^ ^ ij: r^S, "/'''''•'•''"'•'^'■♦'^"-''^ ^'- '^-n- 
of oohte in the Siyeh and neigld,onri ,' t^ J ^ ,:"' t^" '"■r"^'"""''' f^'" '-l-^ 
..n.oa, origin of the latter, nor can . " ^ ^, , ^ tho ^iS;:'"^ "^ ^'^ 


tions. It would seem 
diaraclerizo*! l,y the same 1 
liave in two 


itEfitur <>!■■ t:ii: ciin.i \si itdMnirn 7V 


oriKiii in \h,- ,1. in-iti,.!! . t' l.ui.i .l.trir..- ..u th ;i-l!o..r. A -f ,ill tl:.' 

availiiM.' fact^ Ims tlin~. t..r.-.Ml th.- writ.-r r<. tin- l..-lict' ih.- Uiil'.' Sivrh ,iii.l 
Altyn foriiiiiticn.-i ;irr ■•liirriy tlic |,r .In.'t ..f I..1;;,' rniitiiin''.i tlip.wiiiir .I'.wii ..| 
rali'iiim iiiirl iiinym-iinii .Mrl^init.' fmn -r.i-watrr, t'n.iii wWu-h \h<-v w:i- :i 
likowi^ie >ln\v .l(Mi..-iti'.ii •■!' -ili. •!..,,- THMtt.T lir.Hidit t> ill.' Imii.I-. 

Tho iiiolur-t.> -irr.i-tiiiv ..l' t'\>- Siv.-Ii i~ - .hu-.v ^111.! \v:i- .l.-\.l.,i..-.l nfr. r 


SlIll'I'MMl I-''ill\l Ml'iV. 

!;,■!'. ml Dr^,,,,. (■nnf..riiialil,v ovcrl.viiiir tli.' I'linTll l.ava in lh(^ 

Clarl.-<" ami L.'wi- raimr- i- a -r.Mi|. ..f .strata wlii.-h ha, 1 11 nam.'.! th.- 

' Shoiiuarcl (iiiartzitr ' l.y Willie. \\>- sp.-ak- of it a- h. h.iiiiiupr \>< a 

• di.-.tinctlv i.ha-o .)f .WpoMtioii a .luartzito \\,ii.l. i^ 

vcrv r..ii>;hlv rsliniat. .1 to have r, tlii.-kn.-s- ,.f T<>0 tV.-f. It t..rin-^ th.' .Tr-t 
of Lewis raimc in t!i.- vi.'inity .if M.mnt Clcv.laii.l aii.l Sh.|.i>ar.l (11a. 'i.T 
hctwfi'ii B:'lly riv.r an.i Matl..). nMuntalii [type l...'alityl. It lia- 11..I li.'.ii 
-tu.lii'il in .li'tail hut i^ r.-.'.mii/i"l a- a ili-tin.-t .ilvi-i..ii ..f the ~. I'l.-."^' 

Th.' lithol. lyrical ohara.'t. r ..f th.- h."!- nrrini;- in th.' l! ..,'.-t;.,ii< 

:,n.l .'.luivalt'iil to th,' strata at Willis' typ,. l.icality ilitTi-i-s .somewhat th.' 
.■hara.'tcr stated in liis hri. f ,le..^.'i'i|.t I..11. Tiiis la.-k of a.-c.r.lai..'.' may 
1-.. explained throiifrh a.'tnal .litf.r.ii.'-- in the h..N as th.y an- en.'onnter.'.l 
at ilitTerent p..int3 nUmir the axis of the Clarke raii^^e. U may 1.,- m.te.l. Imw- 
ev.'!-, that the pre-fint writ.-r. .lurinLT a rapi.l tr.iv.r-.' a.-r.i- tli.- l.iwis raiip' 
via the Swift Current Ta-s. f..un.l tiiat th.-n- the 1..-.1- "f th.- Sh.-ppanl forma- 
tion are extremely like tlmse in tli.' l!..un.lary Th,- staple n-'k 
..f the Sheppanl is ii,>t easy t.. .liafrno-^c in th.- ti.-M. ll wa> o.ily aft.-r mn-i-..- 

scopi.' -tudv that one .•..;i!.l he sur.- ..f th.- trii,' iiatuiv ..f the lit. It- 

.-olour, <'ompa.'tne-s, and general are th..-e .-f an impure, tlau-^iy .piarl/.it.-. 
The thin seeti..ii -liou- that the r.i.'k is lanr.'ly - ..n;p..s,'.l ..t <'arli..nat,' i.l..l..m- 
ite) and that quartz oe.-urs as minut • f-'rains rath, r evenly distnhut.'.l,'h 
the mass of eaHu.nate. Tli.' stai.le r--,'k .-f th.- Sheppanl i-^. thus, in th,' 
Boun.lary belt and pr.ibahly al-.. farth.-r >..utl!. a ,l,,lomite .,r .hiL-mit^i,- 
-piartzlt-. M.iro tvpieal .piartzite ..e.'ur- a- a -^uhor.linate e..iistitii.-nt ..1 tae 
formation, a- shown in the M-tion ..f th.' f..nnati..i, 
.•xp.>^cd just ii.Tth of th.' H.iun.lary ni..num.nt ..n th,- (ireat Divid.-: - 
CoJiliDii'ir ^rrlinii <)'' Sh'ppitr'l fiinml! inn. 

Tun i.,,' 1..!-^' ..f Kiiitl-. f..rinat 1..11. 
oSII f.M't Tl.ii.-l>..l.l.<l,' lisilit i;r..v, liiillily ^ili<■ .!ol..i.iit.-.. weatli.^nnj; liurt^a 
l,.>im)K,-ne..u- iiu'iab.-r ..c .>M.>ii.vlly .-.,iu rftioiiary ; -ni.. ,.i Ui.- ni.'.- 
■, hi'.ls i( iiroxnir.'.in ; iii;'.i;iH";iiui iiii i' t/i,.'. 
:.MI ■■ i;.-cbb-!i, mtcrli.tlil'tl .i.i-irt/itc and m'.hi.'IW arKilIit,-. 

600 fo*t 

Bait', .-.iiif.inii.ihl.' t.ii> .if I'.ii.i-ll l.av.i. 

IS. Willi-. li'iM. <-:-.. 1. ■■^'-- .\'"-ii ■'. V .1. 1:!. m-2. V. Kt. 


""'"•""" '^- nu: nn.uinu 

•■\' tht> lead ,,,• Starv„ti„„ 

'■itn,\oi] till. 

><'''iic'ii i^ si 

Top. conformable base of Kintia formation 

i GEORGE V, A. 1912 
i^'ifly (litTiTciit: • 

'rfW f^f TV. , """■""«<> 0' J^'MHa formation. 

•«'?-g;<^'^:-,i!:!-^;'«^'^/««-wea.her.„, sU.c.o.. dCon.ite. 
a« Medium to thin-bichlcl lediliKh ..„^ 

58S fpft. 

Base, conformable top of I>„r,.ell Lava. 

'ypic^fSti;:B;i;;;:;;r',r'''Titt'"';'7;i ": '"■ '■--"•■'■ - ""■ --.■ 
ioca. outiiow. .,ot f..-u,d'i„'ttil:%' rtr "■ ,:^ ■"?' '-t— » "."..■ 

"1 the Oalton ran^o "^ *" ""' '>"-f"i'nl. nop iinywhoro 

..ost':;:.t:':j i^e S:^:!;:^^-^:^? "^°,f ■'"'■ - ^'■— - ^> -- 

below the has., of the KintV Wnt " """"'"" '"' ^ '" "" ""'"■• ^^-'^ 

in the form „f pale i:row S^S: ^va "^rTo T-' "' ""'°"^'''- ^^ "--•" 
>n diametor and avora«ing al o t' (> "L t, ' """• "' '"^^ '" "''3 umu outlines Th^.:„*n!lir, «" '"'■^'" '^'•*'""^ "^^^^ «how 

-arbonate ^rain,, .,„art.. ^riciraTd nr n %^r'''-'»"l '"««' "f anhrdral 

-derable an,ount of .•ol,„e=n"1''^r'"" ''••!"■ '"""^ -'"•■•-« " '^o"- 
.dentical with the re.notit fo,„Vd T„ 1. s'v^r ""/''■'"'• "'""'' ^"^'"^ »" be 
the Altyn doloniito. As i„ th ., to, ro^l .'"""^'^"-^ "»<1 '-rtain phn.o« of 

Tl.e specific ^mvitv of tho i ■ '^'' '"'■"' "^ ^''^ ^''"''^ i-o<^l< 

speoiniens/rat^gos f;om"2l5 to trss'''"' ' ""■ '" ""'"^""'^'' '" '^'■••- ^-^1' 

A typp-spccimen (Xo. i:!(>i) ,.o|i,.;.f,,| .,t ,|„- 1, ,.i .• «. 
».en nnaWl by Profe... Dittrich. Jul tj;!u ^t^lJ: ■'''"'''''' '"''' 


.4 itali/six 

''I'l-nronl i,n,u,rr ,l„/o„nf,- 





N'1-.o.. .'■.;■ ■' 

n,() lit iiocc.'. 

Il,() iib(.v,. IliFC 













• iin 




in.i'iitii III iiii: iini I' a.^i loi.MinHi "^ 


Portion in'olubIi> in l.ydiochloi [.■ acitl 322.1"„ 

Portion soUible in liyilroililoric acid ^^ 

I'^^'i 2'21> 

;Vl''' " '.. ■' '.'. 18-86 


The .MrlM.nalcs .m.iiM U- nitli.T c-losoly .•nl.i.lnted if it w. ro known 
how iiuioh of the iVrrous in.n i^ I.r.'s,„t in tl.r -i.l.-riti. niol.vuh'. S.nro th- 
■ nrbon dioxi.lo is no n..,re than sufticiont to ^..ti-ty the li.n,- an.l ni;i(;n.-ia of 
the soluble- i-irtion. it is ,.rohahlo that iron .-arhonato i- pr-smt m l.nt very 
-mall ..nioiiMt. A (h-tiiiitc assifniincnt nf th.' alkalns is hrro .mpo-sihlo. 1 h.. 
-^oda is arbitrarily assipn,.! to tho albito niolo^-nh", althniiKh it is ,.osMbh. that 
paragnnito is pr.-ont. A partial ral.ulation yi.-l<ls th- fnllowinp r.-siilt: 

Cu'.cium carbonat« '.,.'i 

Matinesinm carHoniili' "." 

Alhite nioloculc- |.,f|^ 

tree sihca ■ ■ ■■ .,T.(, 

Scricit.'. |iotii-li f.'lcl...par. iron o\i<l>-, i-t- 

Thi- ratio of CaO to MfjO in tho -oluMo i«.rtion is 1 ir.n:l, a vaha- v. iv 
close to that in normal flolomitc ,, , , , , 

Dolomite forms about .51 per cent of thi.- ipenmen. I rohab y nowh.r. 
in the formation .bes it form more than To ikt <.nt of any be.l. he pereent- 
age in the more sillcious beds may run far below 40 per eetit. n= shown bv the 
specific gravity, i.'*-'.". <-f one fie^h >iHM'inieii. 

Inasnni.'h as the mineral .lolomite .lon.inat.-s over the tree .v.r.r /., tlw 
staple roc. of the formation may be .-las-iii.-.l as a hif^bly silicons .lolomit.. 
(^hemi.-allv 'his r.K-U notably r,-embb-s the Siy.-h nnmn.sian lum-stnne ami th.- 
\ltyn Also important are the similarities of strueture an.l size ot 
sra'in. implyin^c lik.- .-omlitions ..f ..riyin for th.- e-sential .-arbonat.-s. 

Interhedded Lava—Tho amygdaloidal lava IkkI near the ba>c- of the forma- 
tion is similar i.i eomposi.ion to th- I'un-.-ll Lava an.l .lonbtless represents a 
local, .somewhat later How from the same basalt..' ma«-ma. This lava .s voMCular 
throuiihout, .nueh .nore so than tl.e Purcell Lava, fhe yosuJes are. as u,nal, 
partieularly large and num.-rous near the np.x-r -urta.-,; of the H.,w. 1 he lar . r 
ones approach 1 c... in .Han.eter. In the highly vesicular the vesi e, 
average about 2 n.m. in .liameter a.i.l co...,>o-e ^^onx one-.p,a.-t.M- to one-th 
of the roe-.-'s whole volnnu'. The vehicles are g.-nerally .'omplete ly til bnl with 
well ervstalli/.ed ealeitc, less often with firamilar or radially erystallized .inartz. 
and a few are Hlled with both ,-al,-it.. an.l .quartz. Tlu r.- is n.,th.n^^ sp.-.-ially 
noteworthy .-..nCTning the .sill-ions amvgdnle^. but the large majority of th,^ 
pure-enlcite amyg.lul.s present n remarkable phenomenon wh„-h, ^o far as 
known t,> the writer has not been d.'seriK-,. in petr..grapl..e l.terature 

In the highly v.. ular p' .se of the lava th.- calct.^ of many -.w-,at.,l 
amvedubs is all ripMlv orl tate.l so that there is simultane.-us r. -t.-n .,f 
light from a elenvflge-snrf, in ea.-h e^posed amypdule. Careful e^amlnatlon 

um:w^i-^::?mi ^ 


i>r.:-M!,Mt:M nr iin: im ri.-K.j,- 

, , , . 2 GEORGt V. A iqt? 

;"t-rrnp,o,l l,„llvi,l„al is v.rv - ,„i|, , , ""■ ^"■l-.-nu,,.,. ,.f „„.,. ,„ 

I "•'" • "'■''^- tn.- ph,.,,,.,,,,.,,,.,, 1„.„,., .„„l..r~t,.,.| l,v ,1„. 


.,,, ^ ' " 111 I. p.irt-, .it liip ruck. ( I- ."■iin- ifl ■) 

offer. „„ ;„„„...„., ,„,;„,„;, J:\::':ttrtT:r:::. '"^ 'r^-'r' 

■ til 
li.v 'liKirtz 

i;i r 

<,i!i III I III. I nil I' \.-'i i!<>\i>\ii.i: 



no intcrromnn...ic.,i.n . i<l„ r ... tl,. n,.;u.l..l -,...,• ;""'•;''"■;"';■'■■;"■;';': 

wlli.l, tl,.' .ul-'il.- WM- ....•.•,,„t;.l.-,l „h.l..u\,t.-.|iV .■titrl.Ml ,.1. 

|.l;,y ..f f.r.'- 

!lli- ill 

Tho woti r in 'III 

ve-irle t'lruu,'.. o, in '1"' «.'ll- '"'t -'"•'' "l-mnj.- mp, 

Kcn.TiUv of ,nl..Mi'inrti-.v -i/.>. 1' i* 'iitli.'nl. t- itiuiuu,.' th.- 

the history of the .TyMallizntion Nvhi.-h nr<m,..-l th.- ni .■.!.• mi..I. .m 

amvSl. -. ^ t„ «iv; it. tilli,,. . .-.MM,o>, ,.r.v«..ll..«ra,.hi. ax,. w,.l, hun.hv.U 

Jn'Shonrin. anW-l'tl-. It h.-.k» :„ if th- f,.r f ..r>.t„H,. h.l .,-- 

iite<l .lireetly •hr.uiih ti o r-cU wall nt ni.-li v.-^irlr. 

...rii'-. tlK" Kititlii 

Im the tiiM th.' Kiii'la !-..n..ati..u i- a ,-..Ms|,i,.u..„. ,l.M,.-i,t ■>< \h 
series Stnitiizraphieally the lii^h.^st know,, nwmh.r ..f the -mt 
connn',mly ...-ur. o„ the hi.her Mun,ni., a,„l thu. ah„ve tr.e hue Fh.' hue 

ex,>o.ure. an.l a -triki,,,' .lee,, n-.l .•ol..„r. ,tr.,.tn^r «„h "'" ;^'*-'' ! '"*:^ " ' . 

of' the Sh,,.par,l. r,.,uh.r the ar.illi.e vi-ihle f..r tnany ,„,... '''"'""f ' ' " 
etT..c.. if the vn.'Koa Unvis a.,.l Clark., r.nue. an; ..ontrolle.l hy th.. r . h • 
of the arKilli... a. it li.« i.i I-la-.. .m, the „...unta,n-.Te>t- or, l.y >t. ,tr. a,nn,. 
talus leiuU l.road slush.-s of .• ... the h.wer M»-- 

lions in th.. Ho.uMary '.elt an' hot , north ..t th- 
.f K'intla .-i^-.'k canyon, th.- o.h.T at ih.- h.'a.l 
in th.. f..nn..r >.-..t;..n hav.- I n .l..<.-rih...l h' 

The h<-it stii.lie.! -'ceti 
B,)un.hirv iiin.; one at th.- h.-a. 

of Starvation .-r.-ek. Tl . r...-k- in th.. f..r.n..r >.-..te.n 
Willis, to we owe ihr nan... ..f .!■.•• f..rniati..n : 

'The hiuhoH of ,h lent m-iu,.-,.-,. ..f -.rata f..nn.l iu thi- pav- 

la..|'..iis ,i)nirt7;it..s an.l siln-e.n^ -hal.-. with 

loi<i> le.l arpil 

,nark.>.l whit.., an.l .,e.-a-ional -al.-a.-.- l"'l- I l'"> ">• •••^; 
th,. Kintla formation fr,.in their ....enrr..n.v ,n n-..,un.a,us on th • 
,,aral„l. northeast ,>f T',.,.,.r lak... 'l h,.y als ■ f...->n ..on-I-n ■ .- 
..ak, we-t of T.ittle Ko..tna .-n-.-k. Th.. Kintla 1..nnatt..n .-lo-.-lv re-... hi, - 
the Crinnell. ,o,,re-..nt..s a roenrnn-e ot ....n.hfons tavonrahl. t. 
, of exfvn.ely tnn.hly. f,.rrosrin..ns -..lnn,;nt, 1 h.^pn- ■,,.■.■ ■' 
.•ast. of salt erys.als is apparently si.Mnti.-an. ol arehty a- th,. r...l .ha, 
„..ter is of -nhai^rial oxi.lath.n. The forn.ntion has an o h-erv,..l th,.-kn.-- 
of 'iOO f.el. her no ..v.Tlyinff r.-.-k- wn- fonn,l. Its total th, ^s n... 
known, and th.' -I'ri,." n-niains ini'omi>l.te. * 

To Willis- aeeount the followi,>K -leta.l, nn.y he a.hh'J for '''': -;';•;''■ 
The htal e...ler i. sixtv thiek. .'on-isti...' of re.1. arfr.lh.e .„ter^ 
!tn.tifie, w th hin heds of bright .-ray silh-iouB lut.estone an. 
;S.etn ! !art.ite. eaeh type w.atherin, hntl The^e i.,terhe,ls -e 'denttea 
in !'haraot.. with the priu..ipal phas.. of the Sheppard. sl.ow.n. that 1 tw 
forn..iti..ns are d.n-..tail...l to.'.'ther. Ov.'rlym? th,.>.' re.l he.!- i- . fort.^ 
£;: ;i ;:;ic^-i,.nlar lava. li,h., sin.ilar to hoth tho r„r,.,.ll T.ava an.l 

•n. Willi- 

25a— 6 

liiill. <l..ol. >."'. Aiii,..i i, ., 

v,.i. r;. I'.Mt, 1, ifit 


ItKI-AHTUKM in Tin: ISU:i;i<,ll 

2 GEORGt v.. A. 19ir 

^.JU, 1,.«1 outflow ..f ,.,«„„., l«,.luM>, tlM. .in«„lnr ,„ r^i^t.,,,,.., „,■ „,., ,.,„,,„ 
mix,f/".'ri ''''/"•'• '" '!".■ '^'""■'" f"""'"i"". i^ n,.. „f M.m foot „f 

:;:^:h „^:'-.;;i::;;;;;:r;,' "ir ?'.^i j;:f f;;..^;';'T^""'^ r"'"^ ^" 

oniiR huff- aiid thin l,..,l. ,f '.' "-'^. «f-'.> ^'l">tl.^l (rluTly) ..nlllr. w..„lli- 

- « '- AL:;v';;'c':.i::;;;r,rz^';;r;:::' :;;;:::;;: -: 

.irnoi™, ,„ „„, oW„od in i|,o „„.,„,i„„ i,„„H,„i. " 

Th,. mlnmnnr >«.■««„ f„, tW t;,,. l„c„|it,. „„ k„ „.^.. _ 

Co\y,r»rv,r sfHion .-/ KinUa formaHi,n. 

Top T'roHum-siirfa*'**. 

;;;; '"'• '''^'^'^^=r::z^j:-'^:^:"^^^ -< -.-.^^. a.,.. ..„„i... .„„ 

■W •■ Airiyeilaloid. ^ '""' ""'""''""''■""»* ""d gray (.'.mcretionary liinisUui^. 

^^ • Tl,„,.'Uid,^ r«l argilliu., with thin inUTcalation. of .nagnesian n„art,.,t.. 
>«kp ffct. 

liase, c,nf„ri,ml,l,. t.,,,„f Sheppard f..nnation. 

ro ntn"^ ''^ Hawson and Willis. The onsts represent both eolplei 
. I.e> ,m,l th,. l.nppor shape of skeleton orystals. f Plate 11.) The e„l>os are of 

ol^inl . ^ ' "\^''^''^'«- ^-^n^ "iMindant. Thin-be<ldinp an,l minut^ 

,on,t,npave rendered the arpillites hi.hly fissile; the n^onntafn peak.T,^- 
po^ed . f this fmnat.on are usually eovered vrith a fine-textnred. er.Vpinjr feh- 
s nr ..r .h.,n oft,.,,, over lar.e areas, eo.npletely eovers the ^r oekt 


I'l Mh n 

(•;c>i- ..t -,ili ciy>i^il- 1" KnitU 


;,1„.U1 tU.I tllinl~ llalMl ll -!/-■■ 

25a ii'l. ii— p. H2. 


, 1 lliyi'li>lr.fJliat^' 

I ■*! 




Af# »^• z- 1 


Ht.rnin ill nil i nn.i a.'I i:i>m:\ih; 



Tin- sptwific Kravify of tlini> mirciiniiiii if the iirfillilf rnllKl•^ fr<>iii i'tllO ti. 
■-■•>'.»7, aMTii)jiii>f 2 •!.".'. Tlic nviTutJt" fi.r tin- «liiil«> li.niiiilioii < iTiclii^liiiK thr 
ilii'oiiiitli' iiiUTl-e<l» (l T-i;i) ami the (iin.VB.Inlnid (ca. 2imK>) in about 2H75. 

Thill KO'tion* frf>in <lilTrri iit spi'.inn ii> ..f tlu' iirvrillili> "Imw, iiinlrr t\:r 
iiiicroKcoiH', ilifff rt'iiron nf LTuiri l.iit, in .illicr n >|m>i(-. urc iiiiiiilMr. Atifriilnr. 

slieril.v uriiins i.f <li iir >\\i»n/. iiml cf imtiilily fr<-li iniiTM'liiK 1 miiTo[MTthitc. 

< loinly ■rlh'x'hii'o. niul ii lilti" iinli'tirtninaili' pLiKiocln-i' lii- rrnlMMlili'il in nii 
nbiiii(|niit ci'iiioiit of iii>i>ar»>titl,v true urpilliicc oii> niuttir. n-tlilcnc.i wiJli n\w-)\ 
I'tiintiti'. (;n\in> of imiviiitili' iiml iii>nlitc. imlMiLlv (.f cla-tic (irijriii. nrc 
I'li'-cnt. Itiijririil f"il-' iiimI «liri(i< of wricitc (Ic'VcIoikmI in llic iKHlilinKplmifs. 
Iiml M'.'nndnry knnlin n'priH, nt «i.:iic riHrytulli/iition, hut tin- T«<-k uui*i !,.• 
ipjrar(l<d ns n trim nru'illitc. In wmv of tho tliiii sections (l..c- it ^how tlic 
Jiiiioiiiit of rc»Ty-tulliziiti(.ii m-ph in ihi- hUot, twni- dccplv linrir.j in.tiia'itlit. • 
In oMi- section, miniitc, ii:il.' I. roan LTniiii ,.f curlHiiuti'. .|..loiiiiti. ,,r 
ffrriMJiiiiiiniti', iiri' ili-trilmtid ;is in tlii' (irliim-ll tm tiirtrillitf. 

'I'lie n-iMirrfiicc of tlic .'•iioc' il fildspnr, iiiiiToiirrtliitc. in tlic Kiiitlu !■> 'i- 

tit'*— u loiistilupiit \vlii(!'i i- fouiid in itmst ,,( tli.> i-lii^tic hiiU tliroii(fh tiif 

whole Lewi" >;< riw -mIiow- thnt probnhly i<ur irnat crv-tnllini' tcrrnnt' fiirninhi'il 
the "Icfritiia diirinfr the dciH.-itioM of tin- sirii-. Tiio itnnt frcslino-s ivf tin' 
feldspars in mo^t of tho beds suppostM tluit the ir.wii.n nf that torrnno and tin 
prooiHs of 9((litncntiiti"n v.-iTr rnpid. One mii.v woli sii-pcct aUo that tlic 
clitnafe in which di-iiitfirration overtook c'leniii'nl wcatluriiifr was an arid 
•■lininto. Thi- 8iisid<'ioii is strenprtlicned by the ilisicvcry of abiiiidaiit ciisfs of 

salt.-crvst.aN in the Kiiitla rocks. BiirrcU has shown i sons for Ix-licvinir that 

the Kiiithi rcpck.' were laid do* -i under rontiiiontal oo!i(liti<ins, a.s subivrial 
deposits.* For this one formation the writer can quite apre<> with the view, 
but he believe.") tlipt the Shoppard and all the undertyinp fonnations, exeeptinir. 
possibly, a limited kiies- of ruitiuejl and A[)|H'knnny be<|s. were laid d"wn 

iin the sea-flofir. 


No strata referable t,, the pre-('retace.uis Nh-ozoic occur within the 
Boundary belt either in the Chirke nui«e or in any of the other n.n/^es between 
the fireat Plains and tho (^llu^lbia river. Tti his reconnai ■anc4> of T"?."". 
Dawsen assipned the red beds of the Kintlu forniafion to the . ciassic, bn-inj.' 
his Correlation on the litholopical similarity (.f the arpillite-samlstoiie to the 
Trias.sic of the stjites farther sout'i, and on th" belief that the iindorlyinp 
Siych limestone is of Carboniferous at'e.+ Willis has ooncludtHl that the 
Kintla formation is much elder than the Triassb- and. as indicated, the pnsei.t 
writer ajrrees in assipniiifr a pre-I)ev<uiian n,7e to t!ie fermation.J 

M. B-'rell, Journal <.f Oeolouy, Vi'l. 14. 19W. i . ,W.3. 

+ 0. M. Dawson, RuU. Gt>ol. Sor .America. V.,j. 12. 1901, p. Tt. nlnr.' fiirtlwr rcfcr- 

IB. Willii, Bull. Gfol. Sue. Anicrim. Vol. 13 IWl'. p SJ.'i. 
L'.la— 6.; 


l>i:rii;nn \i ,,i nii i\iii:i>tif 

2 GrOBOt \ . A 191 •> 

lioiil Willin' papr:* 'ni'.ii rn lull i,iMi|.iti.,ii 

' < 'rctiu'Cimi itnitii ;.r. Init ih.,,i!v , v.. i i i 

Killing nr iiMiffc, ,,l ,11111 •itoiir :i nii r , h,,,,^ s;,, i . 

i:K':,;r:;:;^:.r;::™;^;:;;;/lrr:;r "■-"-'''•- 

11 ,, . iM'piir III!' iiio I il.,iii ■> ..III'- wi'.t ,,(■ >si;.,. M 

l"k.'.-. MP Sw.ft CurnMit v„!l,.v. ,.„ K,.nM..,|v ir Lk ,1 ,- , "'' 

■"-\ on Hi-lly riv,.,-. WlII,., i- ,||., ,. | "•' ^^■. "'""'t ( In-f -noi.nt.m,. 

i-.n.. M.k.., M , „'„ 7 ■-.""■"■"'•" '''•"■,■•""■"•■ '' 

tl.r„w„ l,v f,««iU on ,h ; il ,•"""":'■ ••'"•."'■•■-'' '1- li«lH 


^- ■.■':.r';r;i,r,ro'.u:;",;;!, ';,'t";:;;.„r ,:;r,r^-'--' " ' 

"f 111. Crowno.. Oo,m,.|,l,. ' ' "'"■ ' "' 

■ M/<-o<a.— Ar.Tia iiu ,1,1 I iri-iili,-, ■>., 11 1 

SoM.I, f„rk-, r., ,,,11,., ,.,Ht l,v .,,,,,,; 7''''^ "?"■ "^ """■' "■'"' 

„f .is,„) f,.„, .,-1, "■' '""""I'li'i, Ml :n: ,!,>;,, I,, I, 

^:..,t^.^;\--:v:;"r;;;;::;:',:;:;i:;,::;!:'t,; ,::„;;■;■ 

KZJiL!r:L::-/'^!l-';b:,,,;:!:Jvr7:r«, rrr" 

A-..-„™ „,„.,„>„.. ,!,„ ;-,;;;;:■ ,,;:,ri:: ^ ;""':'S: !■;■■,:■■ 

*p.v,os" sa.vs K.iowIr..n. " a,o „ll .•li.,r„f,.r; »; . n 1 . 1 

w :l''r,„'S:.''t;„;r''' ' ' "-■ ■ 

"' '^"•"""^"■^ ^' --^ "f ^-..^ M-v i.u,.: Win, ,1,;;,, :;::.:';:.;;„;:; 

•H Willi.. Stn,;,j,r.iph, ..„d stn; 

«,.ii. o.,i.s;,o, A^;;:;;!:rv^,:'y^ ?^";;:'"^n':::,:j ;v^ ^'^'■"f-- «-- 



Hma^-m$mkt imm 

in vol; 

Hi nil I 

nil 1 - ; i;n\i,\i I I; 


5.1SSICNAL f'AfLH No ^b« 

tl.iii bi-.U ol liiii«.-.t..m! iin.l l'iTruj(iii'"i« W. II.. - . ,,Ur.i.i.ii- li-ni 
,.ii,.r.,p I,.. rill ,,| I .«rr Sli.rl.uiii. I.ik. m '^«ill < uii.!' \ull.'.v. uii.l Iri.t.. -loiM. ..I Miiri 11... .11,11.111. ».!.. Miliiinn.,! t,, Mr Sinrd..,,. «!..■ 
i.l.ntitie* lnof<ramnn lahtalus ScUolhtiiii. I'rwnolroptii »p . Ottrea con- 
■ :>ita Coiirud (!), Campluii'Vlm h|., Scaphit,' unlruotun Mc-ck un<l Haj- 
,|, u. .1 m,a *i>.'T.lhi<'i -1,. AiM'ili^ tli'-i. 'hi' I •■"■•ntmu.s fnn^nh r"- 
.,11.1 S,;i,il,it,.^ iirc . lu-sr<l a- i-liur;..liri-'i. II. iil..n l.iriiic, 

I'll.. t..|-.Kru|.lii.' rrl.iti..ii' ..1 ll- l'ak..l>i ■ .1. r..|. ..i. K.' .t.. U 
,.iid 111.' Iiitflit-t H.'Mt.)!. .111.1. r < lu.i M,...iiiluiii an- sm-li tl.iit if 
Uir 1..-.K w.r.. lilri.tly h..ri/...i,':.l lli. r.i. kii. - .f i'r. Ih.'.'.mw r.K'ka woi. •! 
1„. i>,TtM( f..l. A.H ll«r.> in u -litfl.t 'li|' Ir-"" ''" t'.rin. r li.'ii.-Htti the liitt.r. 
tlin'tmiy I..-<l t.. ;!.r,iH. f.-.t ,.r M...r.. Il i-, h..«vv..r. ,h,«,I.1.. llmt 
th.' ..\orllinistt «lii.'li tr»v.-rH- tli.' Alji.mkian ar.' i.arnU.'UMl l.y .ifli.T- v. 

!!..•'.l «',vi n^ \„:\<. mi.i. if ►.■. <u. .■Mimut.. .,f tin. k 

I.'*-, .tin l.e lia-^cl on tli-- waMiff «lata iii>w iivailnl.].-. 

■•I .-t ii.irth. iial .f tin- ■tliiri. . ii'l "I I.""'! >ainf Mary laki' Well.. 

,,,l|.i-i.-.l I'ri.iii a urav an.! ui'i-.inlin>.' I.. Sliuiti.n'.-i .l.tcriiiiiiiili..|i 
..l.lain.d /„«,.. ,.im»v ,,, . ,>.,.-il,ly .v..n„u' ..I / lil'iafw'. Ma.lm en,mo„s, 
Mofk ( 0. Trllina mndr.sln M.ek, Donar cnneata Stanton, Corbula »\\. 
TtinUillii \\,.. am! I.niiiitin sp. Of tli.r-.- Slant, ,ii says: •' Allli..iii.'h tli.- 

,.vi,|eii f tla^.' fi.-sil-. i- ii..t al.-..tiit.l> .-h.-lu-ivc a> I., ill.' Ii..ri/-..i.. it 

i- | that tli.y ar,. tl.. I! 'Ht i at L.iM fp.iii •...m.- Ii.,ri/..ii 

within the Colora.i.i ;.'rinil)." 

• /..iromiV. 'I'.'n niil.-> .■a-t ,.l I...u. !■ >.,int Mars iak.'. ..n lla- niiil.ll.' 
f,.rk of Milk fiv.T. ,,..■ ir ....t.-r,.).- ..I thiii-l....l.l. .1 an. I .•r.i-*~-lrf'.i<l.-.! f-'ray 
-andst.,n.' and .fntt.vus -luij. S,,i„.. ,.t tlir^ .•..ntain ..•iitl.fd an. I 
frapm ntary plant Otli.-i- ar.' i.arr.'H of fos^iN. ('.Ttain ^..n. ■ 
ar.. I0M1IK....1 of ..xt.T sh.lU. I., . >,.'tioii ni.aBiirintf 7i» f.ot W.ll. r 
foiin.l tivo ..ystor l....l.<. fr.nn wlii. I. la ■ .U.-.t.-l nylr,-a iilihra M.'.k aii.l 
llayd. II. f'nrhlcii; ur.Ut-nlnli^ .M,,k .iii.l llay.l.i,. an.) -inall <iH'..iiii..n- ..f 

an "ui,d.'terniin...l Mda„in. wm.-li may 1..- tli.' y iir ..f M. irfi,.min,n'>"'i< 

Mick. The l"''-t"i of th.' hinh.'-t -tra-uni i- -ai.l l.y Stanton to appr. a.-l. 
ui..rL- nearly to O. mil'hi'i.iifitis Kvai.^ an.l Shiiinar.k Thf-c ar.' all— ,| 
as boLnuinor t... tic Larairii. faun,..' 

[n his siimniarv ..t t'li. li.oh.t'y ..f th. i;...-k% M. .i.nun i.rl'.n in I' 
1 ),,»«., n writes :- 

•Th.. aKKr.'f-'at. ihi.'kn.— l tla- l'pi>-r ( r.ta.. .„.- in tl..' s..iitli.T'i 
pirt of tiie Larani.l.. ran:;. Ti.tni r.n.p ( ir..-iu.iin»r th. k.w.-r i«.rti..ii ..t 
iho Laramie, whieh nay ho nuar.le.l a- ( r.'ta.'. .,„.) i> found t.. 1... ah..i.t 
lii.lNMt f,.et. It i? i.nm..i!<-ary. how. .er. to >).. iiior.- than allude t.> thi- 

ti..n hi^ . as it i> |.roperly i,. h.' nxar.le.l a- the we-t-Tii martriii 

.,.■ the Trctacx - .-f tli. i.lain- a- -hara.-f. ■ .-ti.- .'f the ( ■..nlill.Ta.. 

r.'L'ioii ■" 

'G M Dair-en. Bulk <i.«! S<.< Anif 

Vi.l. 12. IWtl. page T> 



p.,, ., , 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

P-il>Iy some confonnable .I„ra si,- i^^d ^ ^^ tl "i T"""' .^""■'^"- "'"' 

".terinont devolopmont „f the O.-t aonm.ri •"', "' *'"' "'""'•+ ''''"'^ 

of the Flnthou.l fauft- ". ow o C" TT' T"'' ''^""""*'' ''"' -^"~ 
i.elt the pre-Mos„^oie w ; Hh ,-> n' T,!''"'-- "^'-^T''-- ■"" ^1.- Ro„„.i.,v 

l'«s r,.«.„tly found th,. p. nforn Ih , , J'"l^'> •^''•'> <.w.,nka s..,..,o„. I>owlin^^ 
-p.... the Missi..ippia„ lin to,, < ^'t coons- r„rn<s,.. sori.. r..stin.- dirootl.y 

"Pimront confornutv upon the r«rhl f/-»"«'f;'>"^ n. l.v,,,^.. „!„,,>•« with 

wod a prentle, bread upwarp of the en.ton, part of tho (Jor.iinem. 

northern half of ho five Jil t^U TJ'""'' 'u'"*^""'' ""'' <'°n»i"'"''.V. I„ the 
The bed-rook thus expolod n nv^-^V T" ^"' ,''"* *'''°"'''' ''''' <i"f' «heet. 

for llHin. V„l. i:i, ()ttn«a. 



if - 

I. -=. 

- 1 

i»:ki \. 1. ii i». sr.. 





the Commission. The exposures are hero fairly good but are not extoiisivH 

enough to show the full thickness or relations of the formation. (Plate 12.) 

The rocks consist chiefly of light to rather dark bluifh-gray, often sandy, 
clays. In these there are numerous intcrbcds of hardened, light-gray sandstone, 
varying from two inches to a foot in thickness. The sandstone is very often 
characteristically nodular, with many concretions. A few seamlcls of lignite up 
to 2 mm. in thickness and a few small, woody stems were observed in the clays. 
The latter aually very horaogencou-i and have the look of lake deposits. 

At the riTer not more than 250 feet of different beds were actually seen, 
but it is probable that the total thickness rer-osented in this section exceeds 
500 feet. Ten miles down the Flathead valley, n.-ar the mouth of Kintla creek, 
the Kintla Lake Oil Company has drilled through TOO feet of soft ' shales ' and 
sandstones bearing at intervals thin seams of coal. It is likely that these 
rocks form the southern continuation of the sediments at the Boundary line. 
Otherwise there is at present no hint as txJ the full extension of the lake beds. 
Both clays and sandstones are at several horizons moderately fo-«iliferou8. 
The fossils consist of small and extremely fragile shells. These have been 
examined by Dr. T. W. Stanton, who reported the collection to 

'consist entirely of fresh-water shells belonging to the genera Sphae- 
rium, Valvata (?), Physa, Planorbis, and Limna;a. Similar forms occur 
as early as the Fort Union, now regarded as earliest Eocene, but there 
is nothing in the fossils themselves to prevent their reference to a much 
later horizon in the Tertiary, because they all belong to modem types 
that have persisted to the present day, though it si Id be stated that their 
nearest known relatives among the western fossil species are in the Eocene. 

Dr. Stanton lists the species as follows : — 

Sphaerium sp. Related to Sphaerium subellipticum, M. and H. 
Valvata (?) sp. Resembles Valvata suhumhilicata M. and 11. 

Physa sp. r j tt 

Planorbis sp. Related to Planorbis convolutus M. and H. 

Limnwa sp. 

For convenience this group of Tertiary beds may be called the Kishenehn 
formation, the name being taken from that of the neighbouring creek. The 
same formation had been discovered near the mouth of the Kishenehn by 
Dawson who, in 1886, wrote: — 

' Tertiary rocks resembling those assigned to the Miocene in the central 
plaU^au region of British Columbia, were met with in one or two small 
exposures in the bed and banks of the river, but poorly displayed and much 
disturbed by slides. They consist, so far as seen, of hard pale clays and 
sandy clays. It is probable that they underlie a considerable part of the 
width of this great flat-bottomed valley, though their extension to the north 

and south is quite indeterminate.'* 

• a. M. Dawson, Ann. Report, Geol. Snrv., Canada, 1885, Part B. p. 5S. 


UEVAin.\it:\T OF rut: i\ri:uiun 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

.1.. .•.i.MnT'f'l."'"'"'^" °^ I"'"" ''''"'^ " ""^'■"•■' »''" *''"•■"»«'"•■ ^hi.l. ho 

Ui-i-iitip(| in the following words; — 

'On the North fork of the Flathead tlu-r,- are, ,,s alrendv stute.1. hluff. 
of clay with .nterbe.lded sm.dstones and li^rutes. in wl,ieh no fossils were Details of constitution are s.innnarize.l i„ the tabular statement 

d ti n""''f r I" ""'"'"'t ^'*"" °^ ""l-"tiou. and the li^nitie eon- 
d.tmn of the carbonaeeous deposits serve to in.iieate that thev mav be 
of Mioeene or Pliocene age as are In.ds near .\ri.soula. whieh thev resemble 
The.e de,K,8, s are called lake beeause thev are verv ,li. i,„.tlv an.l 
.•ven,- stratified. Tl.,v insist of fine .e,liment sueh as would lele f" 
<iu,et water only and tl^y occur in a valley of su.-h n.od..rate width between 
mountains of such height that no simple ..ondition of alluvial neeumnlatll 
seems appropriate It is possible that the lake was at tim.-s .hallow ike 
a flooded river. It is probable .t'.at it wa- son... titu,. reduced to the pro- 
portions of a river. It is certain that .luring eo-.siderable iufrvals some 
area, wre marshes; but, a.hnitting th t a lake n>ay pass through various 
phases of depth and extent, the term 'ake beds best describes these .l.'p!!- 

attiti* '?"%^7"''''^>- ''"'".'>'« 'lip i' 1^° t" the eastwanl. Farther north th,. 
<l.p. 40-4.3 east, lue formation has ,.• id.Mitly b.^eu -listurbed hv a strong 

v".tr'Lr'\K "i"-' "^ 't'* P"*'*="'" f^""^ °f mountain-huihiing eanno' 
K K-,^ with ..ertainty. It is pre-Olacial an.l po^t-Larauue. With some 
.robabihty ,t may be referred to a mid-Tertiary stag.^ during whi...,. aeeordin.' 
t.. Will.s and Peah-. crustal defonuatiou took plac i„ Montana 

It wo.dd be a matter „f ...uisi.leraUle interest to know th.. nature of th,. 
., rrane underlying the lake beds. The fact that the .Iriil at the K n In r^ek 
.u_pro8pect struck continuous limestone at the depth of 1,290 feet uggests 
-ther that the lake beds lie din.tly on the Carboniferous 'or pre^aXat 
..- else tha only a very small thickness of Mesozoic strata (prlmabrCr": 

elalh th^l^r^f tt"",'; ^'^tI"''" "^^ '""' *^*' P-M--ie form'attn. 
,m , .K^ \" '"•''• ^^'' P"'"* ^''l ''« '•"n^i'ler.'.l again in connec- 

Pa allel '"'"""■ ' "^ *'"" ^""^^ ^f"'-f«-« «♦ the Fortv-n"nth 


For the sake of completeness Willis' brief statement of the occurrence 
.;in<l nature of the youngest g<.ologieal formations found on the plains in the 
•)Tf m'T?-'^ «f the Bounda.7 belt, may be given in summary. On pages 
.! S to .!,to of his paper he gives some details eon,.erning a Pliocene or earl v 
I h.istoeene gravel fan to which the na.ue ' Kennedy " bus b.v„ giv..u'. 

• B. Willie, Bull. Geol. See. America, Vol. IS, 1902, 

p. 327 

iti.fDin Of Till: i !iii:r i. s //.-(< \ <. 1/ //.• 



Vallfy nli'<:i''i 'ln't. 

Ki-uiif'iy liigli 1' 


For the pi.rpo-r <.f tl.i. r.'p-rt. l...w.-v.r. it will 1..- .•x,, to r..lmr tW Miin- 

mary of his findiiit-'. t- tli.- ta\.l- -f lorniations Riven „n im^o 315. 

, 1 ("liiir»it.Tiif<l !■>• I">iil<lir« of granitic, tf'wi'"'''!- and Dtlier 

KttKttiii Cdiitiiiiiitiil I I^jiircntidp riK.k« : fiprtiiwuiuiraiiif ncnws Saint Miiry ami 

<lrift. I IWIly ^»ll<■v»an'l Ix-yxnd. , , , 

1 l)i»tinKiii»li>d iiv alwenue uf I,aiinnti(lf r<«k- : loniixiwl "I 

.' AlKiinkian »«lini>>nt:iiy and inneoiw riK-k.. in hi'terc-^eneiiup 

I tt««K iatiiin iw till and «traliliiil drift. 

1 TyiK' Ideality a k™^*' nitw, flfvatiun .'i,!*"! I'-it, .) niilci- 
.■aatofC'ln.-f niduniiiin, r.irtli "f K.nn.-,ly ciwk, and 90«J 
fM-talxivi' it ; cliaraiitfiizMi l>y w»t»T wnrn nintfrialof Icical 
nriKin, .Mnonkiiui nick» up Hi tw()f»*t inilianicttr ; averaKf 
Loanw utiitf under om- foot, nimli of it •-' t" li incheii ; dint^ 
inKiiiihKl liy alwence of Rlacial Ktriae, liy strut iticatii.n. and 
I 1>V altitr.df ilium' |in«eiit i-trfiini ilianmU. 

Tlie rea.ler i- referred t.. the fulU'r a.-.'oinit of the Keniietly p-avels, which 
the presetit writer has not siK_-cially studied exrcpt on the line of a single tra- 
verse Tlw view of Salisbury, quote.! by Willis, that the lush-level quartzite 
travel* on the plains east of the mountains are Wlieved to be deposits made 
by streams at the close of the first epoch of baselcveliiiK recorded in the pre- 
sent topoffrai)hv.' seems to be s.'arrely supported by the evidence of the pravcls 
themselves, unless it is meant that uplift occurred at the close of the epoch 
U is highly in.i.robable that wid.-spread .■lastic material ot su.'li .•onrsen. - eoul.l 
b,. formed" during the elosinp stisr.^ of an ,>rosion-<.yrl.'. 



On referring to map sheet No. 1. and es|.ecially to the general sec- 
tion it will be seen that the Clarke range forms a great synchne which 
i, kccidented with a few faults and secondary warps. The eastern 
limb of the master fol.l shows the entire succession of rocks from the 
Waterton dolomite to the Kintia argillite. Every member of the I^wis series 
is thus exposed, in its regular order, in the huge monocline stretching from the 
(Ibow of Oil creek (Cameron Falls brook) to the summit lake at the head of 
the creek The dip slowlv flattens from an angle of :5u° in the Altyn formation 
to approximate horizontality at the water-.livi.le of the range. The western 
limb of the svncline displays the .omplete series from the Kintbi formation 
down nearly to the base of the Apivkunny formation. The dips in the lower 
members tliere avenige about 20= to the northeast; those of the higher ">; 
between upper Kintia lake and the Croat Divide range from .. to ., with 

variable strike. ^i i i a i 

At both sides of the master svncline the strata are rather sharply flext^l 
down. There results, on the east, the narrow Cameron Falls (Oil creek) anti- 
cline, which plunges toward the northwest at a low angle. On the western 
fide the down-warped strata ;ire very poorly oxp<.se.l but ,t i- probubb thnt tl,,. 

• B. Willis, Bull. Oeol. Soc, Ameiira, Vol. IS, Iflft!. 



hi'.PM{r\ti:\r or 77/ a; /\ />./.■/ 


> , , , 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

itirtiir^f r;;:„r„;i;;,.::';';::;;'""- ^" ^•^^^"" -"'^ * ' •■ 

with tl.ose of WiliH. wL .It , t r " "'"''^ '-l.-.Tv,„i„„. ,„,r..,. 

-ul downthrow on' hv.Fr ;;:;';; '. '"•■•'-"/-■' "•• .--..t ,li-,.Ia....,„,.,u. normal U..U is i:f:;^i , : .u 1 XT:' vt^'r- ""■ '^-'""" -^ 

inc iixis of tlu. Akiiiniiia creok vill, v ; I , i ' 
""' iixiul trend pnr;illrl to thoso of .1,' • ' ,' "" " "■" ^>'"-'i'"'. "'ith 

"orti>. Tho movo„„.„t ^^■^. , fd h. ^ ^'"V""'.v. with ,lownthr„w o,. ,|„. 

channel of whi.h tl,. ".!..„',.' i'"";;;''" ' 7"'""',' '" '"'•""■ "'" -'-•"" 

-con.l. f^u^lt Zs b ! ih' t t r'rGHn:'; 'H' 'I"^ "'^"'^- '^ 

•act wtli fho lower l,..,I.s of ,1,0 \,„k.|-, , „v in I V '"i'^' ''°^'"" '"•» '•""- 

'•a-t of ,he fault. -MMkUum„>. u„l„.a„„f, ,, „„„|.,,,,„, „„,,^^. ,„_ ,|^^, 


u.rurv'":i.,:"';i:n:Le;n ''',:;«'' o'tr*' °^ "-^ ,™- ^^ ^ -- 

the Jit. Wilson (Lc-wis ranLel h I. . , """" '■""■'""^' «"'''«"'«' ^^ith 
.astwar,loverti:^^!:: .Jr^rn. ij"!*";^^ -^"^ -^'^-^ - north- 
"f this thrust are .,mte ^ m W ? ' .'"f ; '"^ ""*'""'' ""*' ''''''^f'""^ 

Kiver ,,ass and )e lak " O t l'"^' -f"'''''^' "^-^ M.Connell at the How 
those worluHl out bvVil, at a?i.fl"'%""'^^^ *P !*■« north-northwest, and to 
proof that the thn.t I! eeM 1 ""Sr^!::;^ ft"''"" '" ''?'""''•+ '^'^« 

westerly nm^o tiie natural rook ur s ' p" r'"'^? , ^" ''"' ""^■'•^ 

themselves sufficient to show the f 'ot TI „ . ^'•""■dar.v belt are not . ' 

the eastern part of ,!„ ( Tu-k r- ! ," , 1 , " ^"■: ''^^'"^^•'>'' that at leas, 

strata is foun.l iu the Ic tl.: To k" '^ ".*"""" "''''''"^'"^ ''>,• plain. 

Coal Co„.„a„,v at dine ^, Fal otihe we^'t^'s'T^ 'xv ''" '''^^^^'" ^il and 
point the drill p<.netrat<.,l 1 %no f e^t f r f \\ aterton lake. At that 

<pa... ..,.,. for,u the!!:,!, ;; rVox e,fsio^;;r;i''t'"^ "■.'"'-•''• '^^ ="-•'■ -t<"l 

the drill Hiddenlv entered soft .ill '"l • 1 ^:'^^"'^ ■''^^'■'^^- At that depth 

IO.I ^oft shale eontmued for another 400 feet. 

* "■ Willi,, liiill (;,,,,! v.^^^,, . 

WilltsI'l^iK^lSSiX; '^]^-^'^Qi^^'^'!p^i^^ for^m. Part D „ 3. ■ B 
Amenca. Vol. 17. 1906. pSs.'" '' "' "^- P' ^^' ■ »• »■ Dowlin^. B,,1I Geol SoJ^.' 

-mmrnsm . 


I'r Mf. i:t 

Hi'ad (if Lower Kiiitl:i Liiki. Clitf CDiiiixisnl of ApiK'kiinny ami nvcrlviiiK (Jrimull fmniii 
tp.ii-. T!..- -Tii;,!l cU U.-4 ]■„!,■!, aor"^-^ <h- I ,k-. ••ii tfw -xfr-i,,- !.-f>, i- th- -it.- -.f 
lietrolrtiiii prosiM-ct with slinwinj^s of oil ami with steady Mow of mitural gas. 
2Ja— vol. ii— p. 'M. 



;: t 

o'* ■■■ r u ;■ 1 1 ', » -I ■, 


:iS¥»ri;. .■*im?w^TSM%F::^:.iiV:^s^ 




wlien tin- work wuh ^topix'd, aii.i t'l.- lor.-liol.'. fnr tlu- fiiiii- iit U-a*t. iibandnncil. 
These sliuks hiiv.' l»<"n examiii.,1 l.y Mr. T. D.nis of tlu- Cn.m.linn U.imrtmi-nt 
of Minos, iin.l l.y tho writer; lli.« inntfriai provi-d to liav the of t.vpical 
Crctao.0118. i.rohiibly ncnton. s, nU. Tlicir .•.,ln,ir. -oltm^-, and carl.nMii- 
ofMus <•hiirfl.-t.-r nre quit,. ditTereiit from thn*<. chnrartrri/iiin any phas-' nf \]w 
l..wii ». rio; on the other liaiul ihi- ihul.-i aro ^.-nsildy idt ntii-al witli fi.*-i i- 
f-ro.ts Crrtac-ous 'ocds oC'iirrinff hclow tho thrust-plaim at Chi^f moimtam. 
How ttiifli farther west tlio thrust has i-aiis^-l the superiM.s'.tion of tiie 
Belt terraiK. on the ( 'retaevous .■an only he conj-vturr,!. It is not i.up..«^ibl.> 
that the .•ntire Clarke raii(re in this r.tfi.m r.'pr.'sents a cip.ntie hlo.'k Ioos.mI 
froui its nn.i.nt foundations, like the Mt. Wilson or (l.i.f nu.untaii. tnass.fs 
and hodllv foretd over the (^r.'ta.-eous or Carboniferous fonuntmus. In that 
ease the thrust w..uld have .Iriven the b!...'k nt least forty inil.s aeros, .•ouiitry. 
Sueh a speculation is of s.imc in ffivin^' one explanation of tb.- enmna- 
tina of ^-as an.l p<'trnleiim in the Flathea.l valley and in the heart of lb.. H.'ll- 
(•an.brinn rocks at lower Kintla lake. (Plate 13.) These hydrocarbons wouM 
thus be considered as oriKinatinfr in the h.nenone .,r in the 
Creta.eous se.liments nn.lerlyiuK the thnist-plane. Since the rarbonifero.H 
limestone is hiyhly bituminous, that formation woul.I naturally ..tier an oriRinal 
source for the oil and Ras. 

On the other hand, a s.-cnd hyi.nth.^is may be fratne.l. wlu-r.'by tb._. s.cp- 
ages in the Flathead valley are thouRht to oriffinato in the Carboniferous 
limestone which was fanlted down .lurintr the fomiation of the Tertiary fault- 
trough, while the seepnKcs at Kintla lake are int.rpnte.l as emanations from 
Carboniferous limeBtene locally und.rthrust on the west si.le of the main 
synoline of the Clarke ranpe. On this yi.'W the Waterton lake thrust tie..*) not 
extend much farther west than the lake its.'lf. 

Or thirdly, one might conceive that the hydrocarbons oripinat.'d directly 
in the Beltian rocks themselves (see pane .V?). so that the exisfnee of th.. seepages 
would have no direct bearing on, or afford no proof of, any large-scale tbnist- 
plane beneath thfe western slope of the ranpe. There ,s as yet no 
evidence forcing a choice among these three hypotheses The known extent of 
the bodily movement represented in the Watx^rton lake thrust ,s at a muutnum. 
about eight miles, as measured on the perpendieular to the tangent to 
Chief mountain and the outpos' mountains of the Clarke ranfre. The mme- 
ment has probablv been ten miles or more and may be as much as forty miles. 
The thrust proved at Waterton lake is doubtless a n.^rthem _eo,n.nuation 

tions. the relation of the Lewis and Livingston [Clarkel ranges, en echelon at 
the 49th parallel, is an effct of -tep-like though -vry ^ntle flexure in the 


I'liwursitM ,.r nil: i\ii i.-n „■ 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

iu:'r:::^!:vitirr t:'Z:"' '" •"-' ' •"' ' -'■ • -- 

Mr«u on Thief ,n i„ L L., , "'""" "7' '^« ■" <1 «- of tl.e Alt.v,. 

;;n... ... .,^.„.,i„ „f .. .„„ ,:-,;•, :^: •'•:; ---^ *.. 

-""wment. A summary „ft i'. ",'"'"'«'"'.•" •»" '"'^t,n.t .Mrio.!, „f ,„„pp„i,. 

"'•r l..,er than e.rlv T, ,ia v If ' ',"," ^""'""^ "*''" ^"'"'"'" "'-• 

Laramie d.,,o.itl: It 'a o .llhl'T'V'"/ '^'"r """ "" ''"""*■' 

thesis. Fl.xure in it. .llv ''''"""^'"" '^^ ""» ""portant to the prese.H 
«'tn.H«. „8 the nearly flat L If'' "T T "^'"^ '""''^'"'^ ^-'""-'•V *''-' 

i^ probable that fJJtUoTd iU"'\:":; 7r''"^'^ -"'•^^"t- " 

and was suecvd.-.I l,v ..,.,.,J TV l-ar»nne .e„ was shallow 

of . .JJToI^T'tZ : '""'''^"'\ """ '■o.npn.sMv,. stress was one 
BInekfoo, ,u.„eplai T he a . ] '.'Tf 1' °^ ?'''-— --'- to ,he 

graphic eyeie Ln., !:\,;r:LS i^iT ;:?''^h u^r'-'ihr 1^;^ t: 

-•.vol, eaiinot be iiecuratelv d.iteH 1>, -i '^ "laekfoot 

,>o.t.Laramie and p Xbly e rt tha":' 'Z! """ '"" "'-'''"'''■ '' ""^ 
in. Montana^ve rise to Jn:^':^, It bl^ nrX;;;r;r:: .^ji""; 
.\lioeeiie vertebrates, the moveinrnf .. „. i i , • . , ""viiir yielded 

it was preceded ^^y i: Z^:\:Z ^ t^Z::^^''- ''''\ 
observations of „n extensive ,.„e„,ain ove:" hetZ-tl'-^f'^r ZS 
• B. Willi,. i,a„. u«,l. Soc. America. Vol. 19, ,902. p. 333. 





i!ir<ii.'i'>iiiii I nil I \~i!i>\i,\iti! 



of wcti rn M.ititana iiml Mnli... ..l.-ir\Mti..ti-> whi.-li t.iv.' u > .lonlit in tin' 
writer'.^ min<l of tUo cxistenco of such u iH'iioplaiii, but whii-h Jo not -iiifTi'.- 
po-.iti\fly to i.l.ntily it iih iIk- Uliu-kt.M.t pliiiii. On the iirolmliility of iIkH'i.titioiition flu- Mliwkfont .ylo mav I..- iilai»<l in rurly Trrtiiiry tiiinv 

•At till- ilosH of tlw Ulnckf.M.t oy.'lf th.' fo[N)Kni|ilii'- fi'iitun-i ..f lli. 
region under ilim'ii->i"n w< f tli<' |Hiic-pit»in "ii CrotiiiTmi- -oik* iiti<l low 
hilly, piist iniitiirc rclirf on Aljfiikian ro.k-^, mn'li ■.\' i-" M"W |ir, ^oiihij l.v 
the Biimmit hilU of eiistern Flattop 

' AriionK tlio i-flfi-ct't oi folilintf ami ero-ioii. nt tlic dose of llio Hla>'k- 
foot cyil.> \v<i« tho I'xpoanrr "f tlif i iIkm of sninr Aliionkian -Irata a^ out- 
crop?*; brintf Kcntly ini'liiie<l wi'-»twaril, tln'so ticiU had probably wiilo cxtoiif 
iindi'rKrnurid. 'riicy wtro relatively -tiff and lny with Mnr edire fric. T'nd'T 
th<'se eonditioiM, •iiipposinif that a emnpre^sive stre'x airain became efTe< ■ 
live, a part at ba-t of the Aldonkian bciU witc so pi 'ed that tliev met biif 
~li«ht rcsi^tanee in thi-ir teiideney to yield by moving f.^rward. So far a< 

tlipy Were iinopiiosi il, kt not -iurticipiitly op|io«ed to el k and f'lld tlii-m. 

they did ride forward. That part wa-i 'Im-i "v.rtlini-*t -oparated 
fmin tbnt whi'di wa» not in m iieral mIoiik bcldiiiur pinner n. ar tli<- ba-e of a 
portienlarly riyid stratum. <nrh as the .Mtyn limestone. The Siyoh lime- 
stone, the Carbon if erou.^ limestone, or other ^liff formation may el-it» 
wliere be found to have determined tho thrust surface within the old i k^."* 

Willis then concludes this postulateil history by imtinjf the t'lHilottii'al date 
de<lueed fur the Lewis thrust and dire<'tly associated movements. lie also 
briefly states the alternative view that tbc foldiiiu' and ibnistinir were produet- 
<■! a sinirle period of deformation. Ife wriU-i : 

'On tbi' hypothesis of a sinfrlc epismle of conipressioii. from which 
reaidtf'd all the phenomena of foldiiiK and thrustinir i" Cretaeeoiis and 
Aluoiikiiin rooks in the district, the I.ewi- thrust and the associated struc- 
ture; niu»t bo assij.fned to a date cloudy follnwiiiir the f-aramie dcixmifion. 
The growth of the Front raii«i>s an I t'le development of the Rlackfoot 
plain niu-t be placed later, and the expres-ion of the Levis thrust must be 
consiilered -Mb.irdiuati' at the -iirface to (lies,, later efTeets of orogeny 
and cru-iiiii. 

'On the nth' r band, on tbc liypotln-is nf two cpiso(b s of ii.iiiprc«sion. 
Separated by the Bbickfoot cyidc, the fA-wis thru-t must result from the 
second episode, and falls probably in niid-Tcrtiary. Its orosrenic efTccfs 
ure then domiiiaiit in the F'ront ranp s. and the physi(.);rap)iic history is 
to be read in term.s of stnnture as well as of erosion. 

'It is eonelui""d that the date .f the fxnvis thi, .f may be placed in 
either late Cretaceous or mid-Tertiaiy time, and the jvrincipal criteria for 
determining wlii'll date is correct ;ire to be fooml in tb.' relations .-.f struc- 
ture to ph.v8iography.'+ 

• B. Willis. Jiiill 
t Il)id, p. .■»•■). 

' i**o\. 

Anvvuj. Vel. Ui. VMi2. p. :«'.». 

m* ^jla 

J K " , 



»• i>n:4krut:\r itt- rut isTttiioit 

2 QEORQE v., A, t»l2 

to \2!'."T '"":'"■'' '" ''"?.r ""■ '* •■'""'" ''yi-'i'-^i'^ * ar..f,.i 

P r,.H ltr"'Nf "/■•"' ' '"" ^"'""'"''' (r«n-Mi.ei«iippi.„) ,t,U the whole 

-r. J. I. the pn*<.nt vvritor tho vi-w that th.- po.t-rr.-tn.voM. ,...,v,.m,.nt^ all 
■ Ke.l .o a »n,frh- .,.,^.„i.. .,,;«,„|. i... the n«.rit n ,i,„,,i..u, „.,,Tll „ ! 

Tl>i8 partial evi.ien... iH iMu8trnt,.,l in th,- nnnrturv Ho<.tion of Fiinire ^! 
a .1 ,nn,. .hoet No. K ], will 1... ol... r^o.i that n h.av.v we,l^ of Hivo . 1- 
1 ,7 rurl^r ir-^^ --t'V'^ «'""»>• « nrarly horizontal thn.sfplan,, wli h 
ovorly,n>r Ap,.,k :,nny ho-JH. crumpluiff. mashing. an,| fofinp th.-.n asi.k- lik. 
.. .•normo,. plowshare. An in„..tion of tho wholo H-o.ion ..n., t, warr , 
the .•oncluamn that thn thr.igt whirh for-o-l th,. y,.„MR,.r Sivoh lirnrstonointo 

he ^iovoopment of U,e rnmoron Falls antiHino i„ it. prcont .tn,..t„ral fern, 

«. tunlly ow,.r levol. A mnro rea«onahi. view is that th- Alty,.-App,.k„n.,v 
hed. on the ..astorn ,i,le r,f tho prosont fo!.. .ore formorlv fa'-MfVi^r " 
IZ h\lV:J::i' *''' thr,,,t of tl. tin fl„t-,yin. Siyoh linK^toL ^n 1 ' 
*est. After the wp,lpe was intruded and hy tho oonfi.umnoo of U>e .an.o .on,- 

stnipture On the probahl.- 9i.p,H>.,ti,m that thi. thnmt and tho I>^i, thn.n 
wero oontemporaneous. it folhnvB thar th. lat.or wa. also cmt.nJran' 
With an early «ta^e in tho n.ain folding of ,ho (larko ran^.. '"»"-''"'— 

rnount'un L,m°.K '" ''"■ ^r'^'^ '"T '' "^" " '" '^'^ ""lfor.-Maodonald 
nm,nt.un ^oi,p tho poosynchnal rook. „n.,orwon. a poworfnl .ompro..-,-.,,, 
ho oro thoy wero fol,lo.l at all. At thos,. l„oalitio. ,ho dip of tho ho.llU i 

hara.^or.- ,cally ,«rpon,lio„lar ,o the r..ddir,g-p!ano. It soon,- n,o.t .rob h' 

n, , tZ7' "T *'" ^^"'''"* "^ " oon,pr..-ivo foroo whioh was directo 1 
■don,, the,.hn,e. and had ,loveloped tho oleav.^. before .ig ifioa 
"Ptnnunp oeo„rrod. This ph„.o of tan«on,ial oonioro^^,,, „,„v ho .f 
wh,, , tbe prroat Ri.veh wod.e wa. thn,-, into „,o App..k„n„y n4nr. lit ^n 
. V -h tho rnuoh creator r.^w,s thn.t wa. forn.od. Mo.t of tho folding. n,:,v 
. ';.;<>.. prodMO,.d as a .l,<rhtly Inter oxpros-ion of tho snmo bnt son., what 

rnvlpi or "" '"^ "'■"'•"' ''""'' "'"' '"-'^ '"■'""« <" '>- 


€mmMmk^^ -i^vA^^, 

nnniir nt nil I iiir.f Asiiii'Mivi 1/ 



Ni'ithcr of tho two liiitotheseji .an iis .vet bi' provinl. It rt<nitiui« for fiitur* 

»tU<Unt« of tin" Fp)i!l raiiKi- to lii! 1 Ihv Unv col itioii i' itw i|>. ii;iiiii. Miih 

The qiiv^tioii i* irn|Mirtiitit miut it dcM't'ly aflvcU our iiti.icri-tnniliiilf of tlm lator 
ffeoloRical hi-tiry of ttip I'lirkr. b w i . iiml -i-i' ru! j.l.i.i' I'lit riiiir- - •■( i'w 
K<.,k\ MmiiitBin i>»ti'iil. 

2 GEO='GE V. 


A. 1 9 12 


STKATl<.l{\l'in' AM" sri;r( I liJF. Ol lili; MArDOXAI.I* ANI< 

c.Ai.rox i{A\<ii;s. 
(i.M.'idN si:i;ii;s. 

FiMiii ill,. I'hitliiud 1-iMi- !•■ llu' K...,|iii,n riviT ;il (lali-WM.v tlic iii(iinil:ii!i- 
are |iriiH'i|.iillv i-.>nii>i'>.''l ..I' tlir llall"ii -rrii-, tli-- Wi'sUvnril onI.'ii-;.)ii uf tli,' 

same ^tiiiiitiocl scries tliat lonii the peak and mast^ifs of the Clnrko nnil I^wis 
raiiL'o-. Tu-'i 111' tlie foriii;iiiiiii^ ii< ••ril'ij a- ioiislif\ tln' I.cwi- -rrii- ■ 
tlu- AIi.Mi aial Si.voh — arc vi i-v cli'arly rcprc-cMln! ni (lie west -i'lc o( the Fhit- 
lioa'l aii'l. in tlic fuilowini;- ai-innnt uf t!ic (!alt"ii *('rlc=, will 1m ar llic orifrinal 
name- liiv. II liy Willi-. Tlic niln i- -tratilicil iin-inlicr- uf the (laltcii >cric- arc 
rclatc'l (■■ I'l.c ccrrcsiionilin^: iiiciiil" rs uf the l.cui- -cries hut arc -taiiiiic<l with 
(iistiiietl.v iii'liviiliial i-haiacler-. aid merit -pceial naiiics which will he cmplcy- 

ed ill oriler to elii|)lia<i/e the ceiilra-l-- lictwein the twe -erie-. 'I'll tiiiimar 

sec'tieii f"r llie -traia aeiimlly \ in the ( raiitre ha- hccii -npple 
liieiiteil jt its hase hy tie ailililieii of fermiitional unit- whii'li c-iup cut enl\ 

in the Mac|)ciiialil ran(;c. 

The two Kio\ip3 cf -trala are s.. -Imilar litlicil.iL'ically that, the (lcscrii>tien 
of the (ialtoli ^orio- M-arccly mciU ^rrt at iletail. Many feature-^ arc -imply 

repetitions of those alreaily ilcserihcil fur the l.e«i- -i ii<-. 

The fialtiin -crii s inelmlcs the I'.irmatiMii-| in the roll..winLr t;il.I,. 
h iirtnulvt^i. 'i liickvvas in jvcl. hiniiittiint rocks. 

Top, prosion surf.ii c. 

Koosville fiOOt- MetargiUite. 

I'hillips 550 MetargiUite. 

(iate«av 2,0'-'5 \Iit.ii gillile and ipiaitzitc 

I'uroeU'Lova :tl« l)a-alt. 

Siyeh ♦,(KM( Mnt;iio-ian limestone and ni(targillite. 

Wigwam.. l.L'flft .'Jand.-lone and nietargilli'.i'. 

MacUonald 2.:iM MetargiUite. 

Heftv '~'> Sandstiuio and (|Uart/.ite. 

.\ltyn tiJO i .Silciiiiis dill. .mite. 

Base concealed. 

At the -niiiiiiit cif the Nfel lillivray raiiiiv heavy hlm-U- of M i-i--ippiaii 
limestcne have l)ecn fanltcil into cenlael with the ehlia' niemher- >>< ih.' (lalteii 
serii"i. Xeither top nor hottom ef the linie-t.aic i- exposed in the Boimdarv 
lK?lt. It i- ccrtaiidy than the iij.per:ne-t hr.l ..f the (lalton scric-. hut 
it is not knewn whethci the rdalien wa- that et' .irisinal conformity. The 
niaximuin thickiic-s ..f the expe-ed limc-lem. -ci-iii- le he alniut -.'.^tiO feet. 

S.'.a— vol. ii— 7 

^. W 


hi:i'M;i ]ii:\T ni iiir i\iei;i<ii; 

2 GFORGE V , A. 1912 

On tho ,11-1, Th ,.L,' ,.\ 'I'mIm,,-,, I'hjiii- ;i -ni:ill. r; ,,f I l,v. .in,ii. liuii- 
stono mill dolomitii' ijuartzitc, estimated to show a thickness of 1,600 feet, has 
hcpii fiiult,(l ilown iiitn i-..iitii,t wjili tlii> ("".ateway fiTniatii.ii. It-! rolatinn to 
till" Gnltun series ooiil,] ii,,t \<c ,!':,o|ly oli-ei-vrd. A* .Isi^wluro in tlii> part of 
the Cordillera the )im<»tniK- di.iilitlo'-t passed ^rrailiinlly npwariU into the 
Mississii'pian lline-tnne l.iit no Mck of that aire \vn* di'tf-rmin-'d "ii tin- wc*t 
side of the ransre. 

Ai.TYN Formation-. 

Tiie oldest e.\po>i'.| in the ^rac-Ponald iaii^;r uh. n- ,T,isse,l by 
the Boundary 1 elt consists of strata essiiitinlly siniihir in strntitiraplii,^ roLntions 
and in enminisition to the npprTnio<t membiT of the Altyn formation of the 
Lewis sfrics. 1"he idrntity is so ci.mpleto that the sanu- name may well he 
used for thcso rooks uf tiio ^radlonald rang<\ Tlionph not expo-cd in the 
Onlt'in rnnpe at tlie Boundary, the oqnlvnlpnts of the samr =trata nnqno-tion- 
ably underlie the surface mck^ of tliat rani-'o as well. 

West of tlie Flathead the Altyn crops out at only two looalitio-; within 
the Boundary belt. On the ridjie overlooking the Flathea,! from the west and 
culminating in Jft. Hefty, the trianpulation peak, this formation forms part 
of a block faulted into contact with Carboniferous limestone. .Tust south of 
the Boundary monument on the ridgi'. a thickness of i^i.")*! feet was measured 
for the Altyn but the base was not seen, the lower lieds hnvinp- been faulted 
away, out of sifjht. The ■^ei'ond locality is that at a box-canyon six miles due 
west of the Hefty ridge; '.here, only 120 feet of the uppermost beds are exposed. 

The Altyn formation in the MafT>' nald ranffe consists of a succession of 
fairly homogeneous but ver.v thin-bedded, silicious dolomites. The rock is 
always compact and relatively hard, yet very fissile on ai'comit of the thin 
beddinjr. The layers vary from 1 cm. to ID cm. in thickn;>ss. When fresh it 
is slifrbtl.v pray or prcenish gray: it weatliers buff and bripht brownish yellow. 
Quite subordinate are more massive beds (three to five feet thick "i of pray, 
calcareous quartzite. Towards the top, thin intercalations of red calcareous 
sandstone and arpillit*' indicate tran>ition to the Hefty formation above. Cer- 
tain of the mapniesian limestone beds are somewhat arpillaceous and then 
commonly boar sun-cracks. 

Microscopic ami chemical analysis of th," dominant rock, the silicious 
dolomite, shows that it is similar to the principal phase of the njiiKT -Mtyn in 
the Lewis and Clarke ranpes. The main mass of the rock is a very compact 
carbonate, ocurrinp in prains from 0.00.5 mm. to 003 mm. Anpnlar particles 
of quartz, averaping 002 mm. in diameter, are nccess<iry constituents which, 
in certain layers, may become quite abun,!ant. Tiiis quartz was probabl.v in 
part of clastic origin ' ut some of it may have been due to the re./rystallization 
of colloidal silica. \Vnen the carbonate is in contact with quartz, the former 
often shows clean-cut, rhombohedral outlines. 




RKP'iirr ')/■ //// I )int .\si i!''Mi\iHf 9© 


ilinuto angular particles of urthuclase or niicrocliiit ami ol' n'croiiorthite other, pribaMv oriyiii:il, r-la-tii- iii.'c<--"rii-. A f'U -.iimI! -hr. iMy Toils of 
.-t-rioitio mica are rare imtaiiii'ipliii' <-r]ii>titiiiiit-. 

The high specific jtravify of the ilHiiiiiiaiit p'l.i-. 'J Tlii -' ■■I'D iii^iitHii- 
iitely sufigests that it is liiuhlv wiau'iic-ian. An aiuily-i- of a ty;«' -|ic.-iiiien 
'Xn. ll'TO) fr.^iii the h"X-iaiiy.iii :il.(pve im nti.n.-l ],.■•• 1<-. i, i;;a''i. Ky I'r.'te--..:- 
l»iltrich: - 

A li'lh/.^l'i 'i! lljipir M'liii ///(/•.. ,-. li' l'f:n>'\ 


SiO, 2G07 .»3o 

.Mil .i-K -ftiS 

]■',(> 20h -013 

I'l'l) 2.68 .0:i7 

M),'(» 12-99 -32,1 

'■.lO 19-58 -:U9 

Na.O MM Ui: 

K 1-40 -015 

HjO at 110 (■ M 

II 11 mIh.m- nil I i-r)2 -OM 

ro, .Hi u Mi^ 

Sp. gi- 2-81« 

Insoluble in hydrochloric iw id 30 SO'o 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid: 

Fe.O, t-2.-i 

Ai;03 8.17 

Ca(» 19-38 

.Mk(I 12-69 

III this case, tiio relative ipiatititii - ••{ th.- ilifferi nt coiiiiM,iieiit- may he 
rcighly caleiilatcil. The i)roiiorti'in^ are ai'ju-Mximafely ;is follow-: — 

Calcium carbonntc H-6 

Magnesium carbonate 26-7 

Free silica 15-0 

Albite molecule 90 ' 

Sciuit* and potash feldspar, about 9.7 

Remainder (pyrite, limonite, etc.) about • 5-0 


It is, however, pos-il)le thai the iiiiea hears some of the soila and that 
paragonite itself may be present. If so. the foregoing cah-iilation would be 
manifestly iiieorrici. In any ease the carlionates compose ratiicr more than 
t'>0 per cent of the rock. The ratio CaO : .Mg() is l-.'i27:l and thus not far from 
the theoretical ratio in pure dolomite. In all essential res^K-, ts this sediment 
i- like that of the tyiH- of I'PK'r Altyii in the (larke range except in the higher 
proportion of quartz and silicate niati rial in the CJalton series type. In each 
■ ase the rock is a silicic. ns dolomite. 

Hefty Formation. 

In the MacDonald range the Altyn formation is conformably overlain by 
a group of strata whicli are expo-ed at the same two localities where the Altyn 
L'.")a — vol. ii — "5 

i fi 


t 7- 






III r ii;i \ii\ I III I iir i\ 1 1 mm.- 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Wii- '•:■■) ifi til, I'.i) :iM,|,trv li.h, l-'roi'i li irr.h'. :ii \|..;iiii llcl'lv. liii- 

IISsi'MlI. I. ,;.'.■ .i|' l>(.i|, luis l"i!i Il.illl.'l till' ll.ll.x l'..|-tll; T!ir hill thlcklir--. 

estiiiiatf.l :it ::.'> I'. (-1, «M- iii.M,iir.-.l :ii 1m, di l...Mliii. -. Ii, |„,tli ,;,-,.;! tj,,. 
cxixiMin- ;in- -M.i.l. O'; tiir \\]\..],- tli,' r..riii:iii-i, i- |...iii.,i;. n. • u- ;.ii.|, a^ willi 
thf iis-,ii';.il''i| Altvii. n-rliil -nl"li\ i-ii.ii diij i|.,i -,,.ni |.,.--il,l, ii tltr li. M. 

Tlir -t.ipl.- rM,-U ..|' til., toniiali-ii i- a JH.i.liy l...!.!.-!. n ,i .., nMi-li f;r.i.v. 
finp-praiih-.l -aihUlnn,.. ,\-i a nil,-, il i- ii..| in. lam. r|. i.,-. .1 1, i!,. ,■. ,ii.lil i..M ■■( 
true qiiaii/it,'. |i- ma-- i- intrmi|iii,l hv ihia l.f.|- ,.; ,..-l -hal. . al l.,\ rar.T. 
liplil i.'11'i-iii-li i;ra,'. , lp|'i.\vii-\\call;, i-iiii;- (|nail/il. -. ( I,-, ., . a ia,|i\ tln' -aial-|..ii.' 
is soiiawliat .'aliMrrMiii. While ih,. ui-oai. ■■{ l.,.i- i- -. •■. rall\ r.-.l. liii- .•nlmr. 
being nii\.Mi wiili i;ra,v. i- n^t -.i ^^triLine a- in tii- .;!-■ . T -h. n .i-lyirii; 

WiRWani t'oriiiation. Saii-rra.'k- aivl ripp'.' mark- .r. ■■ni ,,' v aiinii- la.rl- 

zon>. A fiirtliiT -i-niTal .liarai-liTJ-ti.' .if Ir lir - :.'i.| liaiai- i i .■iiiicii i- tla^ 
relutn.'ly aluiialaiil .Irvil'.iiinriii ..I' inci nn-Tplii.' -..ra-iri, lai,-,, •, ili,. !•, ,|,lli,u 

Till' : nilali'M; pa--r.^ ii|i.'aril witli -.laa- al-'' ,pi a, --. ia!., il,,- \I a.'l (..iiaj.) 
saniist.iii.'. A- ainaily la.te.l. tliiT<' i- .;.■; ii.: ^ :; a- «'iii t'n iin^li I'ly iiii: 

I lalor tllC llliiaosr..pi- tla ileliiinanl -alal-lMii. :. ...a ), 1.. ,-, ,|ii p. .-i .1 ,.( 
rouiali'il iiraiii-i irf ipiarl/ and li --; alaiudaiil lV!.|.pa!\ vi'ii; .i iiaiip.ainl i-ina lit 
of an/jriilar cpiarP' aial tiM-pav IraLiii. ni-. raili<aia!' pi'-iaillv .1. Imiiii. nr 
maglic^ian firr.irnlcil' i. and a -mall am.ainr ..I' lr.,i, ..rr. A- a raN the ipiart/. 

is Klas--rlrar auij nneni-lied ; a-iiiiiali\ tlie -vaM:- . i,la r-. iii,.|il Kv llie 

familiar adlilioli ni ^ili.-a. ,Ty-iallnLTaplii.' i'l\ ,,!■:, i, ■.,!., a Tla- t',ld-|iar- are 
atrain niie!-,.|urilii(e. nnereeline. ortla'ehi-. . and iil.ii;ieeia-e i (.rcaaldy andesimi 
nnniocl apjiroxiniatoly in tlio order of their r(ilati\e ahundani'o. As a rulo 
the spetiiui-i -iliew thp oecurreneo of well-reiinded urain- cf olicrty silioa. 
The cla^tie irrain- vary Mem n l ,,i\n. le >>->'■ nnn. ia .liam.i.r. .,\ erii,i;ia«' aheiil 
0-2 mm. 'I'he i- ek i- \\v.i< a lypiea! tine-uraia. il fi 1 i-patle ■ -aad-teia-. <,,ni. ■ 
time- ealeareiai- and aiway- naue er le-- I'ernieiiae;,. 

Tile -iiliei-diaate. arLiill.ieeeiis inti rlie 1- ef jhi, |..rhi,,I, a ave u-nally in a 
more visildy meiaiiH,rphe-i d eenditien. and reed: il,, up pha-e- ef the 
Appoknnny feraiati-n. 'Idie aheritien laL'.iia Lx de. •. i.aia,,'. n.a hy nnain- 
tain-bniidii;:.' tlira-t i appreaehe< the deL^-ice ef trae e,,.e,|.. j|| ji, |,;ii |i ,..,,.,,,,■ 
be said tliat amei|ihea- nialler i- entir, 1,\ rep'.iee.], i.r.nn- .a ei,i-l.eaate (pre. 
bahly dea.mitiei are praetieally <'enstai!t aeee— eri,-. a- tlie'. are in the mere 
sariiiy plia-e- 

Frein it- |m<ili..n and it- petrerraj.hie naiire U: m.i-. e. la-ludi that the 
Hefty fa-niatieii i. the cear-er-n-rained (iiaixalea! ..' the 1. \i,r .Vppekaiinv in 
the Lwi- -eri' - eiiiecially .,f it< variei;ated l.a-al h. d- ,:- , \pe-, d ai the la-tern 
end nf S.aitli Ivi.iemiy I'a--. 

Th.. ax- rau;e -peeifi,. gravity ef -even liand--p. eiaa a- ef the ,-and-teae i- 
2-fi4ll, an i el' three han l--peeimen- ef the m. v. avadlaeeea. pha-e i- ;}.7):;. 
The av. ra-!> -peca'tie erav'ry f. r the whele fermatie' i- a!" rl l' c.ii.,. 

F^^r-T.*:iL^. -■■■5 '3™*5^i 


4 e- -^_ rZiL- 

in rni;r "I ii'i I Hi! i i>//."\i,i'/./.- lOi 


AI)uVi i'i. ll.-l:y i •rinal i..ii III I'l.- i'..|it'. iiiiuM. (;:'it..i. -. , i. - ,- .. liiirk 
ili'.i>ioii "f liiil- uliirli !,. •■.|;iti \hf loiii;- I'liiitinu.ii '!i-|H,.ii :i,!i ,.l' i:itln r ..liit'drni 
-oiliini'ii(. Siiii'- till'-. r'"k- .iiili rli' :iii ixsii-iv^- -irt.iri' in tin M.hI ).iiialil 
raiijri', till y ii.iv.- i I'l !i ur.iMin-.l iiii.!i r tlir ikhih- ■ i' tli. Ma.'l '.■i,,iM !. i niaili)ii. 
(Joiiil cspM-un^ :ii. ;'' .h'l an!..ii;r tl.^ ri>li.< - 'Mil.'kinL' the \Vi::"(v,i;ii rivi-r. 
'riu' wliirli" ihiikhi -- \v,i-. ii'iWi'Vi r. lii't iili-crvi'il ii; ::ii\ -I'ti-ii lv:ivir-i'l witliiii 
the ]iouiiil:iry b'-lt. Tin- i .--tiniatril total, 2,:i.'iO fci't, i- ilo'ibllo-s not quito aociirate 
l.ut till- i-ri'.a- :- \,<-\i- \y-\ ii..t t'. I'f ;;riat. 

'I'lii' f.'nnit iii!i i- Hi Mills' lioiii.iiji'iiciiii-. -'I t'.ir a- t.lii ii.ain i ilini'i"j-'ii'al 

fi-atlll'i- ,i|-. . II.. I- I. Il \>,a- l"iiliil ill tlic liiM liial a - ill" ! i \ i - i. 'ii iiili. tliri'i' 

iiifinlirrs c-.t.,l,i II- L.-viuhi,...! uiili a'lwiiitairr. 'I'iii-\ i-ion i- l,.i-..l largely 
oil ililt'i loii.'i- ill till' r.ij.ur-; ,j|' wrallirriliL;-. IMliiM- than on any 1 nnilaiiii'iitul 
ilitlciTiH'' - ••! ioni|H.-it:-ii .)|- •■riu'iii. 'The l<i\vi-t iiioinl.i r, ■"..Mi I. . t thick, 
ucatiiiT- r'liarac I'l'i-t i' ally lii-lil lirowii or hrowni-li L;ra> ; tin iii.iiihcr. 
l,liM( 1'. ol thirk. w.alkd- lii;lit i;riiy. illlil tlio t..|. iiu inl.i r. '>»< l'.. ! t'li.-k, 
Weather- lijjlil l.r..\>ti ..r l.iitT. ilio;it;li a low l".l- wo.ith. r i;r.i\. 

Til.' |>riiieii<al r..ok tyiio ihruiighont the foiiiiaii..ii i^ a iiii;! Is -ilioium 
arfrillile or inetari;iliil". i|nilo -iiiiiliir to llie -taii'lani |.lia-o ..f tii' Ajii" knniiy. 
The eol..iir ..t the tns'i i...k i- a lijilit firaj', or in. .re .■.■iiiiii..i!ly, lii;lit L;iiiiii-h- 
jjray. The I (.Mini; i- n-nally thin hut. lioe,..iiii-, iii..ri. tiia--iv.. in tii.. lowe>-t 
uietuhiT ot' the I..1 ina(i..ii. Snn-.rai-k-i anil riiiph -ni.irk-. i-|.ioialIy tho l'..riiic.r. 
iiro abundant m many liori/..ii< raimiiig from summit t.. ha-i . I li. t. |. im mher 
earrieo .--ome thin inlei-.-alatioiis of red, sandy, or artiillaee.iu- -Irat.i. indioatiiitr 
a tran-ltion t.. ih.' .sorlsing \Vi;:\vani fornuilion. .\! \v,.u iIm-i tin ;■(■ ..i-i'ur 
II few doloniitii- h 11-1-. rarely over -ix inolie- thirk. wliic-li Lear a n.imlH r ot' 
tlattoned e..iirreti.iii-. The (■(>niveti..n- rLiiif.'e np t.. ,i font in ;;ii-ati -t .liaiiH'ter. 
They af (■..iii|>..-ed .if alterniitiiiir i-. iieonlri.- laser- of diff. ri nt earli.natp!*. 
Tile hulk ..f oaoh .-..u.-i-i.tion a|ip<'ar- t.i 1> ■ a f.-ii i;;iiio!i-'iiiiio foriiiin); 
layer- from l.. ono-'|uarter imdi in llii.kiio--. Tho-i an- -e|iarated 
hy mueli thinner laminae of m arly jiure eak-ito u'lii.-li. mi tin- \v> athiriuir of the 
roek, i- <li--ol\, .1 a«.i\ at a more rapi'l rate than the d'.l'.mit. . .\t tir-t -iglit 
the weatherid se. •' ui of ..m. of the coiierotion- suyuest- Cryptozoon or other 
pus-ibly oruaiii." in. but the writer believii t'lat the organic appc-aranci is 
deceptive ami ; the -tructnre i- due to a ph.v-i.-al and oliomical rearraiipe- 

nieiit in maum-i, '', amdooniis to that can-intr tho molar-tontli r-triie- 
ture of tb(. ."^iseli liii 

About ."ilHi ifit ah.'U. the ha»i' of the middle meml" r .i thin m\v.. incli) 
but reimirkalily pcr-i-t.nt layer of gray i lir..wn-'.\eaihiTinL'i -om.what. nuig- 
nesian oolite «a- -i "n in several travei>r< -eparatcd by di-lai.-e- f from two 
to ciirht iiiik-. The -^plierical i;rain~ liave t'li- u-ual c,.nc..iitric and radial 
structtiri. and average about 1 nitn. in diaineter. They aro ecnieiiti d by caloito 
and iuliltrated ipiart/. Some f the ipiartz pre-' i.t i- probaldy of .-la-tic oripin 
•A-' it is as-oi-iat(.,l with trains ■ ' micr.iclinc. .V ', ari.iblc lu'.. portion '" „ LTain 

*°2 I'F.i'.mrsirxr a r i // /, i\ii:i;ii> i; 

2 GFORGE v., A. 19-3 

is .'omM.only -cvn. u..,l,.,- ,i... „,i.., „,„., ,„ 1„, ,,rh,.-.l l^ .ir.n-u. in lin.. ,,,..-,,1. 

A loss .■..mnion r,..ult. of „,. t „u .n>lii-)i, i- ih,. g-n.r^„l.u ..( m,u11 1,u( I,,.,.,,'- 
fully CO stullizcd.„.Mori.liic i.luKio..l;.sc feldspars. rMu.lI.v not more than 
one ,.f th,-,. nrw rrystals is .].-vi.l..po.l in on.' of tlio '.-«..■ Opii,.,,] t,wt< ..v,, 
to sh,.w th.t ll„. iVM.-par i- not il,,. ,.x,,..,.|,.,l p„r,. li,„o f.Msp.r l,ut tl>,. sodif,.,-; 
oua l,,br;„lor,t... with pos-iMy ti,o M„,re l.nsio l.vtownit,. .oniotim... ,l,.v..l.,p.>,I 

Al.out l.X) f.vt nhovo .1,,. ,„.litir 1„.| :, ,in,ilarly p,.r-i.tenr ,.,uo of r.\ 
shnlo .l,„„t fiO fct tl,i-k u;,- .,l.-,.n..,l ,.„ tl„. ri,l.v of M,. irH'.v ,„„1 n. ,1,.. 
lioun.lMi-y lino ..„ tlio l,i;rl, ,-i,ip. ,,L-t of Wly^v.ini riv.r. 

Mneh tliu greater voliinie of the forniatioii. prnetionHv all of it ONoept 
the r..|amv!y .n>i;:niti..nnt n,t,.,VMlnlioHs just ,i..|,.,l. i. nni,!,. „p of th- <ili.-i,.n. 
mefar^Mlhte. wliieli merits ,, tV«- u,„il- of <l,.tnil,.,! .l,s,.,ipt ion 

Tlu- inierusrope ^hows tl,.-,t tl..- ro,.|< wn- ..rii^inally n tvpi-nl ,u-f.'ilh,o,o,:s 
se.lun..nt._ N or,, fn.,. In.lf of it w.-,s ,.layey ,,-. in wl.'ioh >n,all, .nfrular 
Srains „l ,.],.tu' .,na-t/. n,;,ro,.|ln,,,.. nn,] plaL-iooh^o Woro 
embe,l.I.,l. ]„ ,ts p.vM-nt .o„,liti..„ .ho rook o:nri,.. a varial.lo anwon,, 
of sonoito. ohloruo. ,„„) o,yptoorj-t«lli,„. silio,,. TI>ore are. th„,=. all tra.isi- 
t.ons ii-oMi partially ro,Ty-talliz.-l arprillito to truo motarKillito. The «pooiti,. 
(fravity .•onvspon.lmuly vari.-. from v.-.lnos „s low ns :.' (Vs? to tho^o as hiph -i- 
2-.r.4. tho laitor praofioally oomploto orysfallinitv with almmlai'.t 
•^'.■-oo ''"^■'■'"l""'- ''"'"^ ^''"'-^■'- ^I"'"!'!'- ^--avity of -.^von s,)ooi„,..ns 

In -oy, ral ..f tho thin -,■<■! ions :;rain- of ,.;,rl,onat,.. oansint,- lihoral offorv- 

eenoo w„h ,.old ,lii„t i,l. ,ro f, ho soon .li-t,ihnto,l throngh tho silioi,,,,, 

inatr.N. I- ron. tho f.ot that a half .lozo,, or n,oro of thoso trains ronloito 
s.dento. or aP.korito'l oxiinuni-^h to^othor on rotation hotwoon .-ro-so.l ni..,!-' 
It may ho ,-onoln,I<.,l that they are of .eoon.lary orii^in. ati,], like the seriojto 
.Tystall>/o,I nttor hurial of the so.limont. At the -an,o rina thon- is no reason' 
to . onht that tho matori:,! of lh. oarho,n,to wa- a o.^nponont of tho ori-inil 
mini.,r Diitiioh ha- -h. niio.,llv analy/o,I ono of tho I,,,-l r, orv^talli/o.! 
pJinsr-. The -po.'imon ( Xo.^ was oolloofo,! at tho f.p of tho 7i1O-f,„,r 
«um>n,. ;,hont -.:;on yanis .,,„,',wo.t ,,f tho Bonn.larv n.onnmont at, 
river. I ho analy-is yioMo.l tla^ foli,,wini;- j^rMpovt i;.,,- : 

.\ii/i!,is!s- of l<ip. <iu-.i,ti,-n. MncDnnn'l f..n„.t!:,n, 

^^&: ::::::-::::::;:::;:••■■•-•••■■ ■■■•■:•■ B 
S^;/:/:.:.:.-;.;. •■•■..■•..■••■■•••■•■•••••■- "^ 

CaO ^■*I 

Na.6:. •;.:.■:. ■;.■.■. a-^i: 

rr/S ■?. 

nio'nt'iio'c. '.'. ''Ji 

H.O above llO'C ,"r? 

■ 1.91 

Sp ftr '"^ 

• i f-^ j.CS; 

■ i-^mni ■ '^-- ■- -:*, iv:.. 7f j.:s£-r rf ■ 'u ' .^' ■■■ :r;,l^, . '^ . • ^ i ^m^^ 

l!i:i-iH!i<niiii •nil I x- 1 i;'>\n\n i; 103 


ln-.oluble in hvdi(uhl<iiic nrid 71 n« 

S<ilul)le io hvclrochloric ncid: 

Fe-O i;';j 

Al'Oj .Vii 

faO J :i> 

MgO --Itlt 

■|'hr -H-Mlll.' • i|.-' .-it ■ in > :i ■ M . . i si '.• . ! l' i ■; . • , I t.^l ;;■; .■ . ;" .-. .'lllii !:.-.l 
•.vutrr \i;\t\- one to -ii»i"" t thiif tlir ni.ii;ni-i iiin iii:i,\ \<f \»-f iiit in tl»' t'nriii ..f 
lh<- Im-Ic I ;l|-li"llHli- 111- ill iif inrill ■ I' :l ll>4riiU« lnii:;llr-inlli -iliiMtr. •■V ]i.i--ilil> 
in liMlh I'l.l-lll-. Til.' nll^ilv i- r\ i,|. Iltly ,|,.r- l|.,t lill'l .--lit' t.. Il-.l'lll r:ll.Mll- 

nli'iii. Tlio iH'k liii- till- cliiiiiii'iil cniiiiMi-itioM (if ;i iOMii'wIiat iloloinitio nrsillit.-, 
whiili i- liiiili in sili'';> lUi.l ir..n nxiili-, iiiiil low in iil\iniin:i. 

WlliUAM Foini ATIllN. 

Th" Miii-I >"!iulil foniuitiiii; is viicrivil.'il ulmvc l.y tlic \Vi:;\v:nii I'lTiiinlinii. 
nuineJ from the river which receive* part of the ilriiiniiKO of these monntiiin-. 
On rcfi-ri i:i •■ !■■ the iii.i|i siicct, it will he seen that a liaud of rm-ks r-fcrrcil tn 
till- >iili livi-iiiii|M\v- a 1. lilt-', hii;h ri'lfie riniiiinir -milh frnni t!ie I!..uiuiar.v lin<- 
nt a I'diht h.iltway hrtwi'cn tlio Kouteiiay anil I'lal'n'a'i riviT-. A -ii-m;'! 
e.\tiri-i\i'. thiiiiiih ](-.- 1)1 rfei't i'X|Mi.-!iii-e of tlic Wiywani m-i-ur- almnt -i\ inili- 
to the ra-tuai'.l. j'M-ewhere ill the U'll tin m im-k- lunc citlic r l.n n i|.m1,i1 -.way 
or lie liniieil iicneath tiie Siyeh forniatinii. 'i'ln' l.ital thiekiie-s \va- im a-i:ri.l 
in the more westerly hand and was fnuiul to he al out 1.200 feet. 

Till- Wijiwain furniatinn con-i-t^ of a ma^s nf fairly liMniii^iiii mi- ini 'T 
browni-h-V'l -anil-.tniio-, interruiitnl hv partinu-- .if ml. -ilirin ;- imtai-il' !'■ 

Th.HlKh t!io I ni iiii- i- u.'iiiTally thin, llic -an l-li .u-.- nfti ii mit.-l ini'. I'laiy 

agyreyati-- ■ ii.' t,. thne nr mure fi-.t in thic-kin— . A fi-w yr.i,\ ..r lir..u n-i '.-ty 
nietari;illitr li il- :ii.l -"nu' icd i;riliy lay< r* furni -nhonlinatr inti i-.a!:iti.,n-. the l.irmation -iiu-i-rai k.' ] aiiil riiriji-niarkcil, sometimes .r 

bedded. Imri/'ins ..cciii'. A fow mark ■-. int. r|iret •■! a- nniieli'le Imn -ws. 
^verc se. n. l.ut ii.i m.'re )i-ef\il t'ossils were (lis.-..v.'ii-.l. Th..-;.- n-.l heil- ai.- ratlur 
sharply il'thie.! au-ain^t tlio irray or li^iht lir..wnisl, strata .>f th. .iverlyimr Siyeh, 
which is, ii..wi.\er. iierfei-lly .•.niformahh', .\s'.l, tho Wi^ 
and ■MaeDonalil rm-ks are .h.\rtaile.l t.M^vtli. r tlir.ii-li inli rln'iLlinir. 

Th.' prim-ipal pha-o of the f.rmation is a tine-j.Taiiie.1 sand-tone, diar^re.l 
with a variable amount of ferruginous and onee-argillaeeous cement. Its 
essential (•(•n-litner,t- are <piart/, in r..iind d and ant'idar frraiiis; aliundaiit 

subantrnlar iiTains of iirt.hoi-la-<', miornperlhiti', - e. and plairioolaso 

Cnear an.lesine Ah .Vn.i : and j.;en. rally-roundcd 21 .s ,,. frrrniiinoiis chort. 
The iron ore, prohahly hematite, is relatively ahiindi. 1:, it tlnely divided ami 
arenerally opaqnc. Ivaidin and serioito an' eKtensr.l, d.volopi'.l. .\ fow 
clastic zircon- TVi-re ohserve.l tin.ler the miiTii.-cope. The S"ri<'it.' is e-peeially 
develoiied in thi> non-arsillace.His l,<',ls ami in tlio hcMiiiL' |ilan. s. l^iroly the 
grains ,,f (pnutz -how .iilarti-ement with new silica. On thi w'l.d.- tin rm-k 
preserve- the emiiU'ntiy ••lastie stvnetnri' of true sand-t"ni' and it rann.'t fairly 
be ca^!.-l a iv;art/i'.\ On thi- nther h m 1. tin n.'\-. r-failiiii;- u-cinrat nf 




hh:r\in\n \i ,,r int; i\ii:itiui: 


2 GEORGE \, A. 1912 

srri..iti.- niMM o-i tl„. 1. ,1,|,„l' pi.,,,,.. tl„,„„h -tnli.' >„.,,„ -phi-,,,, -l,,,,.- ,|,at 

tho r.»-k ha. -„ff..n.,l « ,.1,„„„, J, „„,, r,„. , „„v,.„i,„,.... I,e ,•.,11,,! „., t.v 

s.u„.,.,n-. FroM, tl.„t t.v,M. nil ln.:,Mti„„- t„ .,■,„■ „„.,„,..'lllit.. „r,- r. ,.r. ...„t. ,] 

Th,, ^p,vili,• i:ravil.v ,.f I',.. .i„li.-m„l-l.„,.. v„,i,., i,..,,,, .,;,,, ,,, .,,;-,.. 

nvrn„h,^ni,.,„t ,.«n,: ,),. ., i,i, ,,„,, ,„• , ,,,,;„,,, ,, :„„.,; , , _-;^';; 

Ullito IS 2 ,11. ijio nvenipo for the f,.nn,iti,.M as n wlinlo i-- about '>.(',-, 

II..- WiK'wam l„n„ati„r, i- ..v M.ntly ,i„. u,.|,.n, ..,|„iv al,.,,! ,/iIm. (.riMMfll 

f,.r.n„t,„„ „f ,1„. Clari.. aM,| I.-u-i- ,,,„.■.-. 1, ,li,r,,., ,> „„. .;,.i„„..l| i,. ,)„. 

pos-,^s„.„ „f ,.naf.or P,.ai„. i„ tl,„ .rat.,' |.r ,I,„„i„a„ f ,;„„K, | i„ 

II- -iiialliT ihii'kMc--,. 

Sni.ii I'.iiiM \n,,\. 

Tlio p,,„.|-;,l o,|„ivi,l,.,. r ,1„. (iai,,, an,l 1., wi- -.H.- i-. Ii,l„.l„.i,.:,llv 

;'."•' '■;;"'■" "■ V'^ '.'''"'^ f'T,nati„„- ,v<p.,., „■,■,, lvi„;r .1,,. Wi.w an,l 

(.r.„unll,..,l-. Tl... si,„ii,,n,l,., ,„• a... , p, -Hi,,,, „,,„.„„,. , „,;,;„ „,„ 

so ;"an.l.^^; 11. .Im .,,.1,1 ,l,a, ,]„. -a„„. „a„„. i- „..,.„ a,I,.p.,,l f.,,- .1,,. l„,.„„.„io„ 

MS ,n tlio ( la,ko-l..u„ -,.,.,i„n.. Tl„. p,.i,„.ipal p, tro.r.phi- ,litr..,-,.,„.,. i- f „1 

'" ""• ";"*'■'■ l''-'""i'"'" r „.-kI1I..,-,o-,s ,„;,tu.r i!, tl„. Siv,-1, ,.r ti.,. (lalt,,,, 

r,,i,_K,.. I 1,0 total thickn,-,. i. ,..tii„at,.,|. ^^\x\, l„w limit- of ,,rn„-. at U«m f..,,t 
llii. pono-p,,M<ls w.-Ij with tl;,. thi,'k„(-.. „)• 4.11,0 f,,.t v,.| M„.iv ,-l, ,l.-.t, r- 
niin,Mi niiionir the lHtt,r expo. „,•,■. ,,f fl„. ,.a-l,r,i ran-',. 

h.!t. „M t,o o,Hl,.rn -lop,, „f ,h,. I!,_„.ky .M,„„„ai„ rr,„,.h. O,!,,.,-- „,,-,. .,„.li,.il 
nlonjr tho l,..a,l-wat..-s of Phillip- ,.,.,, -k a„ I „f Wi.wa,,. riv,,.. A .^n.p,,-!,.' 

<-lu,„n..,- soot,,,,, ua- „on-tr,„.t,.,l. >h„wi„.- ,,.. i,„-„n„a.l .riv,,l u /-oven 

rnv,.r-,..s -pa,.,.,i -..vora! ,„il,.. ap,„f. 1, „a. r,„„„l ,l,a,. „„lwi,h-,an,li„^. tho 
K...„t tl,.,-knr.-. of .1,,. t„r„,„t„,n. th-ro a,',- f,.w !i,ho'ofri, l„,rl/o„-,na,-kor.. 
■'' •'•-,,lv,.,I ,(-,.!f in,,, ,1„, f„;i,,wi,ip r,lallv..!y -:„,plo 

The ,olninniir 
M-li,'iii,' : — 

Cohimvor .srr,'/o„ o/ siii.h Furiration. 
T,,|,. (,i!ifi,r-i,„lil(> l,a.p of Piircpll f,.iva. 
1.200 foet.- ri.i,.fly_j,r,,y «,,^j;,,.,ni.l, Rray, „„.,i„„„ to thin-b.-.M,.!, mUcou- 


. ^'r.iy jru'llarious laaunrsinn limost,,ne or ,lolomit,., in nia-sive 

wi h t.vpionl mob.r-tooth >trii<tur,-. Occasional inl,rcali,t, n-- of 

, r^iUitp Ihv lowpr par, „f |h,. n„.„,l,or i. r„oro Mli. i,,.is t h; n the 

■, IKIi'n"- -n*^-* " ^'r '"•''^ "'■"'»"'>■ i'-wn or buff, a f^,- J': ),„! 

,.,(.: n.d,h>h ihe ,i„liv„l„ai bods vary in tbickncs^ fron, a fr.,ct,o., 

of an inch to two fpct <,r more, liiit Ri'iicrallv tlipv ar („io,.,l nr 

cemenwd togcth.-r in m.,-ivo ph,„.s (hr,.e to .fn f.ct in tr.i'kViUi. " 



i'LAtll It. 

f'liff in Siyt'li liiiifstiiii.. 
L'rfik. mistiTii •■■lui 

»lici«iiit' iiinhir tcKiih itnictun-: :il ia-<:iili- In ri]illi|i- 
if T<»Uircn riaiiis. Haniiiit'r fMiirt't-ii incln-, lonir. 

» 'umrtti.iii in duloinitf ; lower part of (iatpway fiirniatinn, (ialtim Kanp'. ( )nl.v part 
uf concrctuin slidwn. One-half natural size. 
25a-V(.l. ii-p. 104. 

in min lu i }ii inn r \>i i;i)\, miu io5 

StsSIONAL f'APtR No. 23* 

«iHi i...t, r.Mki liki- 111. -4. ..f ihr nil..! ilui-ioii 1 it Hill t I.. I Ih.I- ..i- uLivlni,!-- 

■-(•iip, >liii-lly II.. .Ic;iiii-liiililic| to tliiu ln'ilil' il un.ii .mil hi . > i.'-li «r.i.y, 

liii;hly >ilu:i.ii-, f<..iii.-!iiiii^ iIi'IhiiiiIk' im i iiIkiIIiI. , »i iitliiM nut liuht 

iirr-»ii .iiiil, li-SK ..Iii'ii, nr.ij. Muny ^UIl.ll.nk^ .unl «uiik' ripliU iiuirks 
I 1' cir .it ViinniH li"i liuns. 

♦,W»0 fiet. 

H i^p, (onfcrniiililf ton of I In. \Vik« an furiiiiilinii 

i ill •li-.iiijf ■•111 iiiiimI iDiiliii.^l liftvM'i'ii tin- iniililli' im lulu r aiiil oitliiT of 
tho ntlu- ■ IWii nil iiil'>'r-i liiit:lil .iit!>fi -t tin- iiiiiilvi.iili'lity i.t' tir.Hi|iiiiL' nil tiM«i' 
riK'ks ill I'lii- Inriniil; i. Tin- yrmiiiiiik' Im-' ln'i'ii tiiihi.' piirtlv in t'li- iiitn'" -I- i.f 

rorrclati.ili. I'.irtly im ilu' ;;i-.iiiiii| llmt llir.iuyl t tin' \\!i.ilr l.i»"i \'>\ nl' ilii.'k- 

lie.;* till- strati -Imw iifiirly uiiifniiu riiiii|iiii'tMi— < iiml i-'iiirin-li'i- nt' l.iililiiiir uinl 
t'uiri.v ("III; tiiiit, iM.liiiir ill liilli lif^li 111. I Mintlii r.'ij |.liii.i-. -o iImi, in ilii. ^i.M, 
it is not 1 iisy In ili-liiiMiii-li tin- iml .irL.iliit.- I'ri.iii llic i.fliii iiiu'li'v niviila- ins 

■{'h. M' i- iintliiiiir -|.i'iil!y iii.x.l ill til.. i|. i-li:irii.|i r- ..i' ilii. iiiiprr 
mill low r Miiiiilii'is liul iril.iiii Iml. wi.rliiy i-mii'lii i..ii- l'..lii.u ir..iii the f.ii'i-s 
il<Tivi"l Iriim I'li- iiiirrii-: ii| j.. nnil rv niiiinitiim ..f ili. iiiiii.~l iiir in 
till' iniililie iiicmlicr. V • l..-|. ^' lum in en ni.i.l.' ..l' tv|..- -ii-.-iim-n- .■..lliit.-il 
oil tlio -plir just wi'-t ■•! tlir iM-'iiili' ..ii l'liilli|i- rr. rk, ii,.ir i;....-\ ill.. \u.-.\ 
ijlfii-i". In i-iiluiir. rlianiclfr ot' ! ril-liiiL'. nii.l i.tinr niii.|'ii-i...|.ii. .■Imrii.t* r. ili.-ii- 
roi'k.- iir" ri-. iitliill.i «iini!;ir t.i tli|. Si\ili .1 ilir ( l.irkr .iml 
l/iwi- raiij: -. Tli. y sli'.w tli.' iMihir-tn .th -tni.'liir.. in nntal.ii. ].. rlV.-tion. 
I I'lill" 1 I. A I, N..| .inly the ciili'i! 11- liii-c- nn.l piliril^ l.ilt :il-i. tlu' Lntf-wi'iitlliT- 
iinr iiiiiiini-iiiiii p.irli i-tTiTvt wiiii injil ililiili' m-iil. 

'I'iic rali'itii' part'ns- liiivi' iiii<T.i>i'iipii. .Iiaracl. r- iijinl ii-a! willi tlii.M- i.f 
tlio partiiiiri< in tin' in.u ,r-li».tli r..rk nt" tlic Clai-Ui. raiii;i.: lai-li i- niailr \ip nf 
a:.'>.Ti.tjati-<l Ki'ii'm'"'- "f I'alciiini rariifiiati- avir Inir iiul; nun. in .lianntiT. 
Scari'dy a jfiaiii ot' alii.tlirr -I'li-taln-i- i^ \i< \iv -. . n in lln-i' part- nl' tli. tliiii 

'I'li.- iiiagin -iaii pait- arc. ..n tin i.tlar han.l, ipiiir liiijliiv .■i.inpi.-ii, . 'riic 
pale !/-i.\vnisli. ..t'tpn rli(inil"ihiilritl rry-tal- • l' ..r inamp-ian I'ali-ito 
arc flistriliuted through an alniiidaiit matrix of ipiartz, feliUpnr, "orii/itp, chlorite, 
nnii a thin i-lniid nf blark iliist-partirlo-. jiarily iiinniiptit.. :in.l jiarlly r'nrl.nii. 
The rhi.nil olicilral (.'ruins avprapi' alioiil O-tiJ inni. in ilianirli r : tin nnlnilral 
I arbonafe jrraius may lie I'linsiiliTaMy -mallrr. Tin- frrain ..i' tin- matrix i- vrry 
liiip. till' (piartz partii'lt'S not -iirpa-.^iiifr tlio iMrli..iiati- L'rain- in au-raL'<' -i/i'. 
Till' frlilspais arc t. o <nnill l'..r -prritic ilctcriniiiatinn ainl ari- ri-i-..i;ni/i il as 

>urh hy their polarizati' u tii I-. I'lw'cktd l.y tin cln-niical analy-i- i.t' tlir i k. 

Sericiti- (\\\o parau'oniri. ;) relatively aliuiidant. Orij-'inal arjrilla iis 

materia' innot l.c ilemeii*trii. il in the thin -ieii..n; it- reery-tallizntimi in 
the fi.riii ■■!' siricite. ehhiritc. ipiart/. ir.n and i)i.--ilily fehUpar -eein- to 
be nearly pcrl'eet. 

A lame, eharaeteri-tie -ii-.-iineii ; N'... I.'.'l ) of the in. .I.t ■ ,,tli mi-k. whieh 
was eoUfi-te.l ,iii-t \ve<t of the I'hillip- i-rei k ea-eade near l;....-iville po-t olliee, 
was sell cteil •' T I'hetniea! .iiialv-i-. Tlie ilit!l,.nlty ..f -inMriii"- material ..ari^-- 



/'/ /■!/.•/ ui \i >,i nil i\, I ninii 



2 GEOROr V A, l';>12 
inff an a.or.,Bo ,.>„,.,. ,,i„,.f ,(... , .IWh.. 1..,,^.. «■„ „K.,i„ Mt i,,,., i, „^ 
in 50kv,„K Mu.t ,u.l l„r ,1,.. .MM.K.i. „(• ,!,., Si>,.l, r,„.k of ,1,. r,A-„ « ri... 

It w., lo.n.l nmt >,, ,,m.. .,f .,11 -nr. ,|iM, r, „t ,.,..v,l..r. i,.. 1,1 ,„ nnr.-nt 

t^e nv,.r,,«.. «„v,. .liiT..,. n, n.u.lvli,.,.! h-uit* |«-„ l„t„l „„„Iv... .t' m„.|, 

pow<l..r. , A ,u„l n. «,.,■,., „.,!.. l.v I'n.r r Littri..!,. «1„ .,1-,. .I.t.r, -I ,i,.. 

port..,,- „t A ., ,,„I,. .,,.1 l.,M„ |„ ,„.i,i. n,,. „,.,,„ „,• s ..,,,1 n. .l„.w„ i„ 

the f..lloH,m; „ ,1 ,,|. ., ,h,, ,„,.r,i.'r> .•l„ ,.,„„n,,.li,„„ „r ,)„. ,,„x 

mnro iM ;iri,\ tli m .ill,,.!- A ..r I!. 

.1 )|. (//,»■. V ..I 1 1 i„ 


AlO,. .... 



CaO.. ., 

Xa.O. . ., 


ll,0 at 11(1 ('. 
JJ.O ab .VH iw-c. 

CO,.'.' .'.'.■' .'.' V 


p. Kr. 




t :IM 






Jl 31 





I r.' 








,\ .ir, I II 



II ai 

2 l» 


\I'iI>'< . prnp. 

Ill Illl'.tll. 



• i.'f.t 


1'.'. i.,n „f '.A- ,„l,,l.lo ,u hj-a. chloric acid" *■ ** " 

I-V < I. 


I .ri 

-*'»•.> J 


'1 Hl.l\ i,f 

iiii.iriii -Im 

l'.ii-tici.!l,v :,11 i|„. ;,,„.. i- -, 1,,!,!,, i„ .„,i,; 
the ,..rl,.n.,t... It^, ,,r,.l,al,|.. ,l„t tl». s.,1,,1,1,. „„.:.,.,.., .f „„, ,„,„,. ,,„., 

o«.,„- n, n,..,r!,v flu. sa.„.. pr rtion as i.. A. ..„ that of the fi.:W ,,..r''c..„t of 

the mean .•r,.,I,to.I ,o u^^^^^.A^ ahnnt .l^.", ...t ....nt .f 1,| 1,.. r..^,,,,,.,,! a- -.-Mcn- 

ablo '., masn...„H,> .■aiLoMato. Arhitrarilv a.,is„i„;. ,|„. so.I,, :,. tl.o albite 
moh..,, .. ti,,. p..tash t„ II,.. or. -la.. „.„,.,..„,.. , „„. i„„ ,.,„,,. ,; ,Z^. 

the Sn,.h rock of the I...wis siri.s. The r.-ulr. ;;iv,.- ,.„■ ■ '^ • •-'''"' 
tnhlo : - 

'"alolma farbonnte.. . 
MaKiii>,ium rnrlxjnate. 


Orthoclase in..l.TulH. . 

.AHiitp i!i,>li»cu!o 



nt t 

■■• | 






11 1; 















A7^.?:7f.f.y"-'vtjfssv vafi!: 


l:l i-<il:i il 1 in III I I- I /.•■>\"ill I- 


StS^tONAL PAPf.R So. 25a 

TlM.--f litf in- •■•'!■ "t, ■■! ■.• r-r, M-|'i.-i.,f il.. :t.i!.il ii|H.-it--.h .r • iii M-- ' 

VI !h- r"i-k rX.'l-lll".:^ a- IVL'lirl- l ^. . ,ill...i,al. - 'I'l' .Ml'illMt |..t, ll,l 1. 

filiu'. Il .wi VI r, in r.i.'ilit.itiiiB '111 .-li^ iiii'.l !• Miiiarl-m ..f ili.' - .i.ifi....T. 
rock in tlif (;..llun -.■n. - ttilli lfi:ii in tin' \>\\i- -. ri.-. A n Im i- ■■ ' ■ tin '-'''i- 
e«]. ■ -liiwi.;; till- • ;i..riii ' oT ti Inn. r i...4;,<- m"W ii..itK .-.rii* -i'' i ' 
th. -a.. r...'k arr ^li .I-.' i.-,il - up -il i-!.. In I...' .a-i «.■ :><■■ i.-:.lini-' ^^.'i 
a iil'.'i.iii-, -t .itip-N .j..], MMtli' 111:.. -1.111. ..(■ I iliiir lii-l.irv ami -li' i. tur.-. 

Il: .iiiili.N-i- l: .11. i).|.iv.ial.!.- .1111.. uiii ..f .■arlii.ii wa- .Ift. riiii!i."l . li-i- 
•gain 'h.. i-arl'iiiiiii- 'ii- iKnlt.-r l.ii-.'.i.v •■-.nlr. ' f\-- .larl. tint ..t' il..- fr.'-li m. •■!..' 
tooth !■ -k. wlii.-li .!,.. •..!., Mri/.'< l.( tli- M.-- i-;.-. 

I'll" -i.iTili- uT■■^i:^ . r tin..- -i>i ••iiu. :. ..l la- i.i..l:.r-li...'li r...h \ iri.'- I>..ii 
2.07(1 '., J.7I»: ilia' . t' • • ir -|.i iiinii- ..l' ili. •ii.laruiilil.-- in tla t'-o-lnat ' ■• , 
from .' •'-'> t.i ■•'"'". 'I'll. awi.iL'.' .•!' ill ■"■^■•ii -ii.iMiii.ii- i- -J '•"'. 

i • \\].\\ \^ I'lilIM M I'lV. 

.\ -frikiiip .lil».r. II... Il tli.' !illi..l..L'i.-iil .liar.i.'i.r ..f l'»- I.. •■ i- n-l 'iah-i 
(tr. - i- t.. li. t'..!!!..! in 'i.' iiai iri. ..f lii.- Lrl- .■.ai'' ..wrlyiiiL' t!f 
P;ir...-ll lava ii, tin- v-p .! ii.- niiif;.- We 'iiv. -<,u tliat. i. tl... Cl.irk.' al. i 

I>-Hi- iili.i:!'-. til.' Slu-; l'..r iiati..i.. Mpviiiir tlii p.. iM..ii. i- .i li..|ii 'l;.'!:- • 

011^ -ilii'i.-iH .|..l,.iiii!. ,.h.l iliat it i- i.virlain l.v tin- r .1 1..-1- .l' tii" Knitla. 
1,. til,. Call. .11 tilll«. till- I',, I- lilt, rv.liiiiy l.'lw. .11 tli. I'uf.vli |..iv.i aial :'i- 
re-i 1...1-. dlMival.'lit I., tli.- I\liitla. liaw a in ■.•!. i:;! tlil.'kii.-- tli,. I 

th-' Stapinipl :iiii| .1 'liii ''■ r lit (•,.iiini.-ill..i.. 'I'!..-.- -Irata ai, w\\ . .| 1 

on tin., liciulii- 1 a-t ..t (i...- ir aii.l ..v.rl...,kiiiL- I'..'. I'laiii-: th. ,v iiiav !.■ 

gr.;i|».l ulnliT t|:.- 1 n ■. ( •.• fi.riiiatiiii |i- '.'tal tliirkti.-- wa- fa;:'! t 

,1 ■ ,, I . rii tnli.r- ..f '.n.-nial -trfii^-'li, 

: nii-.liat. l.v np-n 'li. I'liri'i'll l.ava .■■■iita'.i.- 

.l.ntitv ,.f .i-lii 'aIiIi tlw Sl.i.pai'l. Thi- 

-.|» .-ial'v .l.tai'.'.l - li..!. -f t^.' 

... ., . a, ll'. i.a-i ..r ll.M - •■!■ ai- al..':;: li" ■ ! 

bt' .iL'.iit J.ifJ.". iV 
Tin- 1..W.T ':i 
be'is wliioli ill 1 
corrrlaii'.ii i- 
nrniil.. '■ i- 111 Ti' 
cxi'..-iii'. -1 ii.irl'n : 



flufi'i- ;..!:' 1. 

, ; , .- . t^ i.?vV)-f(.L.t iiiomh'T, 

5 -Mn--iv('. !ii;lit i;v..y .lOi'iii.ti'. woutlnring luifl and l>i..»i.. 

I " Ma--ive. lu'lit Rniy (Hinrt/it>. 

rt " Li^'lit ifrav niatfiiosian nnci ^■rrl.t:inn|.^ lirii.-<^tcinc. wiatti.-rii.j in n i|..w - 
10 ■■ Til..: t)rii.l.Ml, n^lit grny .lU.-irlzit... 

^ ■' Hiulilv ^iliciiHi-, Ki»/ iiiPtarKill.t... 

t " riiin-l>p<'l. gr.'V ilolnmilp'iprin;; biift. ^ 

2.> •' T! ick-Ix'ililf.l. li.i'rd. 'ntrtit iirnv. cift.-ii rns'-bcddi'il and Ml.p •-;ii3r,.-l 
iiiTnrlziti' -:.ii(l-t '111' . 1 o 1 

;» ' ■riiin-b.Mld.d. ...1,1 rcti..niiry, Ii|,ht (.tev doloniite. wpattn'i .ii;; biiH '.i. 

50 " Mn-sivo. ilmk .\-->y. r....r^<>, ftldrpathio <iaiulitoii.-, lionriMg l.^- a'.'.y !..ti.o- f 

grit .111.1 Till" "ii.MuluUiirate cue to (wo fort thick. 

VXS •■— 

Ba^ie, confn.-nialile top of P'lrroll I.uva 


i :i 


hi:r \inMi.M or i in: iMi.ianu 


I ^ 


' r 

I ■ 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
Ap.irt froiii ill.' .-. iic-rcti-ii.- l'..ini.l in ..i-miii hi.MT-. lii. liriic^lniir- ;iiv in 

iiiiiiiy le-p ct- -iiiiiliir to llic st^ipl,- |ili:i f i\„- Sliri,|,ar.i f,,nn:il i.ui. Tli(> 

iiiph !.iM'fitic KiMvily of >..nir ^|.fc-iiii.'r!-i. J-^i'i; i,, J -71, -Imw- lluit llicy nrc 

MTV lij^'h ill iii:if,'ii,,M„ ,„■ ii-,„i nn.l |> ;i|.|,r,.Ni,„al,. I.I.mI. f -h -,.ii„.. 

•vliiit iVTriiRiiioiiB , I, , I, .11, it,.. In any , a-,. ;,|| i!,.. .•■irl...„:,ir I, an. I. aiv ri,-li in 

riic cnncTotionaiy Hiin-tiiiv n..|,.,| i,, ,|„. il,i,.K,.,, ,l,,l.,n,|i ir -iralniii i- a 

■■-nstaiit fralurr Imt i.-i not always ty|,i,Mlly ,l,v,i,,|., .1. 'riiouMh th i- 

ivtioiiary Mia--,- -In.nrly iv-,-imii|,. iy|„. -|„., ini.-i- ..f ( n pi../..i..ii. il„iv -,-,miis 

'" '''■ "" n^i-"!! I" rirani iIm'Iii a- ol' .,ili,i' tjian iii-ii;aiii.'. iani^i-iilii -ia-in. 

Tlh'.v ar.- ■pii-T,.i,|- ,>f ,.|li|,..,i,|- .-..iT, I ..f ,l,|.iiHi!,' in .-oiavnt lir lavi-^ 

- paral,'.| Ky tliin lamina,' <,( i-lnrly -ili.a. Tli.- ijiaiii, ha- o| ||„' l.,..ii,- \aii.- 
•raii a 1','w in. ■!!,'-. L. a lo,,| ..r i,,..P'. I I lal,' 1 I. I;, i Siniiiar. I li..iiuli mall. |-.-..ii- 
■ iv!i..n- uviv :.,iiii.I in 111.- I.a-al I... I- ..'■ th,. Sli.i.panl l'..n,iaiion ,n ili,- Cai-k,. 

'I'lic up|i. r inianL.T was,.! i.. 1..- l-.",ii f, , t ||ii,-k. li i- a lairly 
' om..«', ll,>,,ii- ina-< of lliin-l,, ,|,lc,l. -ill,< n .lar- illli,-. ii;l, i-l rat itici 
■A'tli sul)or,linatc, niorp ,11- loss M-ri.-iti' iii,-la-aM.lst,.M,'. On a fi-.-li iVa.-t or.' lioth 
i",-li typ,'- ai-,' Kciicrnlly li^rlii -n,v ..r tri-,',Miisli ;:ray. tli,' in.'tar::illit.' naturally 
'"i"^ oT -..i.i.uliaf .lark.a- tint. 'I'll.- u.aili.iv.l -nrla,-,- may 1-,. •:r:.\. l,i..wnisii 
j;ray. r.-.r.'ly r,il ..r ri.'lli-'i l,i-..wn. Tin in. nil., r i- ni r !'. iti;.: :n.-.i- t..\\ar.l 
■'"■ t"l'- i;ipp''-!ii.irk<. ri!! nia:li-. -nn-.i-.i.-k-. :,n.| .-..-i ..f -all . i\-i,il- up i,, 

- .an. ..r iii..r.' in .liatii,'t,r, ar,' all ••\,'.','.linuly .•Minin..n llinm-li.,! i li.i- m. iiiImt. 
I'll,' ^alt-.i'>si.,l .-a-is u.n- not loan. I in ili,- i..u, |- ni,-iiil.M'. 

l'n.1,-1- th,- iiiir..,-.-..p,' ill,.-.. |,„-k, .||,,w ._,.,.at -iniihirily I., lli.. ..lii. I' |.lias,-.s 
.1 th<- Ma.'l). naM I.Tinai In all lli.- -II. I.-, ihov^'li ,■ |h ,iall,\ in ili,. more 

.|nart/ili,- ^^p, -, I'.-l.j-par i- -.■,■!! t.. i..- pr,-. nl. OrtI L-,.. ini,a-..p. IM li i','. an-l 

pl.ii;i.i.-la-.' .pi..|ially :i n.l,' in,' ) lol-in a ,•■ in-i.!. rai.l,' p. |-. .■nl.i;'.- ..1' lli,- ,-lastii- 

.rains. A I'cw / an.l |..iirimiliii. .ly-tal- \\,rr .•I.-.H..1. S.-i-i,'ilc, 

■i!,>ril.', an. •..■.m.lary ,|iia|-l/ liav. npl.i,-, .1 i| i-itiinal ai-^'illa.-. mm- niall,T. 

F he -piM'ili,' m-avily ,,f' -,.v,.|i typ.. -|,. .■iai.n- varh- i' i', I ; i,, J'lil, with 
.11 av. rajji' ..I' I'-'lTi'.. 'I'll,' ,.iv,Ta:^i- \\~r ili,. lonnation a-. ... uli..l. i- :il,,.iil l».iNCI. 

I'll., stiatipiaphi,- p,. itiou. ,-h(.iin.',il ...inp-ili .in. I . i.-.m-Lmo. 1 .-oiaTr- 

tioiiary strn.'tni f lli,- h.uir. ,|,il..inil i,- in, mi , i- an- Iraliir-s ,lir. ,i|y -nliit- 

:njr inciiil , T ullli ilic Sh, ppai-,1 loin.ali.n ..I' tl... .a-l in rani;.-; the 
^li,'Pt>ar.l iliiis thin- i:.ili. r iMpi.jly t,. ih, w. -ixvar,l. ']' \,- ihi.K iipp.i' in.iiihcr 
. t' th.. ciati-uay lairryinii alum. hint -a't .-ly-lal .m-i-. i- a!ii...-i .■.rlainly ..f 

"'■''■'111""' II- "litriii with th.. i.n, I- pait ot ill,. Kiiilla an.l. lik.- lli.' Kiiilla. 

>a- .l.iihtl..-- ,1. p..-il,..l a- ,, ...inlin. iilal .1. p.-il m an arl.l .-I li.i.i i... 

I'lm I in- l-'.iKM M i.i\. 

II" <,:l..\\.i\ l.'l. ar.. -p..,M.iliy l',rnii.'in. .ns fv^.ir.l lli.' I.ip. wIhi.' tlii'V 
■■■11^ P i~- iilo a -till iin.r.' l',.rrii^'iii.iiis ina-s ..f -. .lliiii'iit-. |-"riiin its 
I'l'' ii'-' "11 uvo -.iniinii- .il.,,ni lu,. mil,. n..ilh ..I I'hillip- .t,. 1<, ihi- a-scin- 

h'l i'ni;r (>/ mi: rmi r \>i i;<>.\iiMi:i; 



blutrc i'( slnilM inu.v \<i' imII. ,1 rh,. l''ulli|.- foniial'iMii. I'h,. r\|....iir. - :u.- u.-' 
extensive iiml llic l'..rMiati.'U <r,,\,~ ..nt ii^wlu n- ■■I-- in tli.' l!\ I" 1'. 

Two (iilTclTlll trilVITM'- CdVIT.'.! IM' I'nMll 111 ii i| 1 ; '.ll l'"lll . >' ' M- i i .11 -, I .111-.' 

of liihl wcMtlicr. till writ: r u:i- not :r'li- In lii:iUr ;i I liiir..iii;li i\:iiniii;il i..n ,,( ili, -■ 
bciU. 'I'lic .-s-riitiiil I'ii.i- (,f ill- Hl'i-I-i;.\' vv.ii' ..lilniiu-.l I'lit it i-; wt lsi:,.«i. 
wlirtlicr till-' -trill, I I'l- ilm-.' ..f |li.' ..vrrl.v ini; K.'.'-v illr f'Tinji i-n :iri- r'--i!! 


Til, l'iiilli|, ii-i-l-. r..r llh iiin-l pari, nl' almMi .".."ill !'.. I •■{ .lark. |Mir|.li-!; 

(ir\VMi-!i tine ^'raincl I inpa.'l iii.tari..illil.' aii.l iiu la-.iii.l-t.iiu' '' 

alt^^niiitiiiir lliiii li'd-. .\t iIk' l.a.^.- thrpi- iiiiis«iv(^ Ix-.N nf iiray iiniirtzitio 'aii'l- 
.xldiii-, !■. ~i |...|i.,ly I'.. HI-. I. 11. an. I Iwiiilv |V, | Ihi. k. an int. r. m!.i!. .!. Si:ii .Ta.!,- 
find ripplr-iiiarU- arc au'ain |il<'iilit'iil. N'.. -alt .-ry-lal .-a-l- w.r. i'.nin.l. tli.MiL'h 
they iiiJL'lil. .11 iii..r.' pr.>l..ii .■d -rar.-'i. In- f.inii.l. rii.lcr iln iiii.-r.-.-..pi.. -pi.':- 
Iiion- of tlii> nil r.i'k- pr.^vr.l P. I..' aluas- iiiirlily -ilii-ii.ii-. Small -iiliaiiu" 
to niifriilar ^rrain- ..f .piarl/. ..rtli.'i'la-<-. ini.r..pi'rlliit. . p!aL;i..cla-i'. aiil 
cliorty -ill. -a 11. ■ . tnl.r M.'.l in i \arial.l.' Iia- ■ <•( -ori.i!!.' nii.-,i an.l tin.' uiain- 
nf inniiiiPlili' aii.l Ininalilo. 'I'lio mi. 'a i-. n-i n-ual in lh.> .-.a-if-. aliiiinlanllv 
d('V<'li.p. .1 in the plaiif- ..f I i.,l.|lii^. .V.-.-i .lii - t,. th.' akuii.iaii. .■ •.! lli.' ■•"■■■^ 
nrnillni'o.'n- iiiatoriiil. tlio r.n'k in.ay 1..' das-i'.l as a liiclar!.'illito or iiicla-:aii' 
Tlic t.'lal lliiokiii-- ..r till- fonnati"ii ■- ali"-|i i .piallv .l;\i.l. .1 1.. |m..,ii i!i. ., 
two r...-Ul> p.-. 

Till' -p.Tili.- f.'ra\ ilii-i ..I tlir.'.. -p.'.-ini. ii- worr t..iiii.| l.> I..- :.' <'.."._'. -t'.Tt. aivl 
2-TlM. rill ir awra^i.. ■_'i'.-:;. i- ali..iit tin a\caai;i' l'..r tli.' t.^nnaii' n .i- a uli..'., 

'rill- t;vii.-ral .■..ii:p.i-il i-ii. .■ aii.l lid. I r.-lali-i.- .-l' lla- I'liiilip- an' -■ 

similar I., ill . o ..f llio iippir put "I tin' K'inlla f..rniat iliat - an liar. IN 

(lotilit lliiit tlio two .iro in tlio main. >l ratii!ra|iliio oipii\ al.-nts. 'I'lio ..liiif litli.- iliff. n nil' i^ -liaf tli.. IMiilllp- appoar- I.. !.•■ -li::Ktlv i!i, iia-,' -ill. .i- 
Rn.l o.iarscr (rrairio.l of tiio t\v... It may lio ii..ti'.l tlial noitlnr in tlio I'lat.-w.iy in I'liilliiw Wii- any .•oiilcmp..ran.<'iis lava ili-.'.' 

i;....-\ IIJ I. 1-"..|;m \iIi.n. 

Tlio IMiilliiV- f.irinata.n i nf' ov,rlaiii l.v ili. i;....-\illo. lla' iii^:!!. -' 

ro.aiirni/.'.l niomlur of tli. (ialt.n -ori.-. Tin- nanio i- .1. riM.I iV.'iii In.' p"t 
ctlioo ro.'.iilly oii.'ii.'il ..II I'liiilip- oro.-k. 'I'lio K... .-villi- ..iil,T..p- at ..iily ..ii.- 
point williin tlio ar.a •■"Voro.l l.y i!i.' ( '..mnii--l'in map I' tlaf' l..rni- tii.' 
siiniiiPt .'f a p aU lyin^' tlir.'o milo- . a-t ii..rlli.a-l ..) IMiillip- .-r.. k .a-.'.ol.' 
lit ill.' jiin.'ti.'ii ..f tlio I'n .>k .'aii\..n wiili lli.' ^n at K'."lina\ ir.inL'li. |-'r..-i..t: 

ha- roin..'...| till' iippor part ..f I'l.' I'.rniat i"ii. •<( wlii.-li\ al t >'•<»< fi. t 

iif l.o'l- II '\v roinaln. Il'.w niio'li'r tli.' t'.tal lliL-kii. -- nax l..- i- 

'I'll.' f..rniali..ii a- .'vp..-,"! at tin- "ii.' l...-,ilitv i- , --.nt i^'iv ma. I.' i:p 'if 
tliiii-lii'.kli'.l. liylil irroi'ii. liLilit t;rav. aii'l ijr.-.iii-li l'imv -ili. i..'i- ni.tarj.liit.. 
lioariii;; lliin, iiLT.' .piarl/il i.'. inl.'rli''.l- 'ri.. ...I 'iir- ..t' w. .ilk. rin'j- a . liulit 
prtiy ir l.r..\vnisli uray. Snii . ra.-k- aial rippl.-mark- an- .'..i n. In li. !•! 

.V. :Jf-.. . ■ •.J!.''.„ "^Y ••.'J'l.i ."( vii.i'tV'V 

j.-..'r,u.': :<.. '-' . ai VA.a3ri^^ -•*,; Jii'v>_ 


hi:i'\in\ii:\ r ni iin: isiiitioR 

2 3E0RGE v., A. :912 

Liibi; .iiA !u. :-i Iit!hilo>;iiMl iletiiils the linnii'iaiit \,.n\~i: c-i the Koosville i.= very 
-iiiiihir tu that .li'iiiiiiuiit. |ihaso of tlir (intowiiy I'nninitii'ii. It ?o<Mn?. h..\vc-ver, 
that casts ff -alt-<'r.\>uil- iiio wanting in tin- .voiiiii;' r f^rnuitioii. The intiDr- 
tillitc i- (■■rn|i(*i(l of anguliir (pinrtz ami tVlii-par ;.Taiii- i avcraglnp only 002 
!uni. in <liani( ter) in an nlninilunt matrix "i -irii-iti . ililoriti', iron or.-, and 
l'0«-ibly, in some be(l<, a little of the ■iri^iiial ai'^jillaii-.,ii- matter. The hM-pars 
again ini-lmle •.rtho<-lase, inieniperthife, aiirl iihi,;;i(.rla<e. ji.vlilin!,'- planed are 
Wi-ll Diarkt'! hy jrlintimr serii'itc in the f<'rin of' minute fnijc and 

Tliil^. at the top of t le Cialtoii ^crie:- a- at tia- IliUmiii. stillii' lia-t^im^r- 
I'hijni has efFii'tually chaii^ied the oriiiinal eiayi'v -eillment- into nearly nr ipiite 
huloerysitalliiie rock-. The miea foil- (lev(>lopiil in the liefly or Mai-D.inald 
strata are, at many horizons, larger than the micas clmracteristic of the Roos- 
ville, J'hillip-, fir (iatfway. and the t'lp ni 'mher^ nf tla -erie- njay havr r.t. lined 
.. fiTeati r "piantity of original argillaerous matter. In thc-e two re-pe.-t- the 
older foniiali"ri< have, through deeper hurial. sutl'iTcd a -liiihtly more advanre.I 
metaniorphisin than the 1kc1< lying seven to ton tii'msand feet higher in the 
terie-. !Nevertli<-le--. the evidence i- eh^ir that tin- Ko.,.ville f>irinati.'ii. likp 
the Kintia of tlie Lewis series, has hevii hiiriecl l.eiie.ith many tlioiisand- irf 
feet of still xounger strata, doubtless inc^nling the heavy Kevonian and Car- 
i'oi.iferc'iis limestone-; to that ancient burial the dr\c!..)inaiit of the m^taruilli- 
ii' faeies ..f thi> Tti'o-ville beds is di-:'. 

Th'- -|)ecitie gravit.v of .i type -pei-imen from the inetargillite i- -73'"*. 
.\ -oniewhat weiithered ha .1— pi iimeii uave ■JiiT.". Th.' aM-rage fi.r the forma- 
tion is pri.baldy about 2Tl't. 

The Rof«ville ha.s yielded no f..s-il-. ["he f.irm.ition appears to lie yninger 
•'laii any I e.l- l.ilonging to th.> I.iwi- si-rie- a- above .les--ribi'.l. It may pr^vc 
to be eipiivalent to an upper division of the Kintia which is not exposes! in the 
n<'t; d.iry l.< It. .m" may repr. -eiit th.- w.-tuari! .• nf a .li-tin.'f f'-rin.i- 



.\t th.- ea-tern e.lge of the drift-eovere.l Toha.'eo Plain- ill.".' 
•V \V. Long.;, a block of f<>ssiliferons Devonian limestone has been fanlted 
.lown into contact with tiie (iateway formation. On the west and south the 
limestone is covered by drift ami alluvium. The main fault whi.'h limits the 
block on the east can be rather sharply located. thi> strikis of the lime-tone 
and Gat-ewa.v metargillite being nearly at right angles to each other. This fault 
is marked on the map sheet, where it will bd seen to run roughly parallel to 
■^ther faults that are responsible for the local graben character of the Rocky 
Mountain Trench. The limestone is itself affected by numerous minor slips, 
go that it is impossible to be certain of the thickness. In general, the block 

Kt.i'dur III ii.'i: 'iiiir .i.-/a'"M/',// /,■ 



is irii.iiiii'liiiiil. uitli ;iii iUciMm' ii-Ttli' a-tcrly (li|i ■'!' .liv-. ;' 1". .l.'irri . -. Tin' 
appiiruiit tl]ii-ki(.- i.f nil tin' ^tr.ilii is :i!>|)r<ixi!ii;iti ly l.ilnn I'li. tlf I'li- ti'Ml 
nOO foot n|irc<i iin iliildiiiitir (iMiirt/ii.-. incurring' at tli'' Im-'' '-i \\\-- ti'"i. 

Tlic qu:irt/iti' i- wliiir t" rn ;uii-"i.!iiiire'l mi tin lic-h I'rai-liin. wialli' ' 
>elliiwisli or l.iiff. Its Ml-. :;( i.i rally thick a:iil iiia--:\c. It 1" ai- iin ,,!, i 

f(.3sil> utluT than a I'l w inarkiiiL'- like aiiiii'li'lr li^riiiy-. 

Cotifiirnialily nvorl.\ inpr t C iiuart/itr i- tlu' \< ry ma'^siM' l!ii]i-t..iii', ui.i.'h 
rarely sli"\vs lioijiliiiy plaiies. Tlii- r.^'k i< ii«iiall'. tV':'! ^r liini:niii..,i. .ii, ilio 
frisli frni'tnrp. It ncailirr- t'rcin tliM Hernial dark i;r i- tint t<> a iiiiicK li;.'!iti'r 
one. Cliirly iimliilo- up i.. tlini- mi- f..iii' iiu'lii- in li.uu' iiT. ai-- i'..iniii n ii; 
(■(■rtaiii li'iri'oiis. 


Just aliovi' till- cM.Ma'i "iili tlh' Mij ■ r'yi:.-- .|! art/ite i .■..r:,..'ti.,i\ 
of fos~iN, hi-ariiiL' llir -!;■'■" iiuiiil>rr I-JIT un it- kJ.,-1 . wa- iii.uii', Tln'sp 
Wcri' ili't'Tiiiiiiiil l>y l>v. II. .>'. .\iiii. wlm <■ n'.ti's ;i.! k, v. . lit. ri 1 in t'i'll:— • 

' :<lali'iii .\o. 7,'/r.— li'iiiiiilary iiiniunmait at < a-ttTii ■'!;.•.■ ..t' the 'i '.1 arfi I'laias. 
In a dark gray, impure crinoi'lal and at tinii- i^tnn crystalline liiiu'stone. 
A(je: I'ppiT lUni'niin. 
Forma'ioii ■ .loffcr-iai Una >tMni'. 
Genera ami fiicie/i: 

1. Criniii'lal cohinin-. 

2. Producl('"a siihu' ulvtln. 
;?. S(hiz<iphoria slri'idihi. 
4. MhijrU vitt'ila. 

.". A/hiiriy viltiiid, a narn.uir ami in.-r. : v i.l ('(•nil. 

tl. Aflniiis viilnla. liniliriate I'lirin. 

V. Atl'i/rin iKirnil'i, Wliiteavcs. i.r al'i'ii -)«--i.... 

8. Ailiyris nff. riilnriiilnei'si^^, pn'lpaW. .i n- a -|H,i'-., 

9. Aflnirix. 

10. Trcmatospirt. (;) sp. Xo species of tlii- genus lu.-. as yet beca 

oblained from these linie-toia s in Xfni.tana. 

11. I'li'inas ixii/iiiis, a ^niall iliiniiuitiye fovm. 

12. /^'pin'fcr V'hitni'ili, (Miinparo Hall's S/mifir 'rhitnrin (Spirift'r 

1'i. ■'^piiifiT (Iisjtinclti.1. var. a-iima-si 'ii"!^. A speeinien with hiffh 
area and fine plieatioii on the eo-tae. hij-'h and twisted beak. 
R<*:embles a form from S. W. folorado. 

•Both the writer and Dr. Ami arc undpr sp(>oiat (bli^'atinr to Pr. G. H. <iirfy and 
to I>r. K. M. Kinille of the Unitfd St«tps QwUmical Survpv for valuable a-d in deteir- 
iiiiuinil the of tlipse collpctions; also for exopIl>-nt opportunities for Dr. Ami 
to ixinip^ire tlip ('.median forms with -pwimens from v.irious lnraliti(>s ^'".ith of the 
Intprn.itional Bpiindary, 




112 hf I- \i;i Ml \ I 1,1 I in: i\ 1 1 itmi; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

II. >fu,>.r .■i.ilf i,^,.. Sl,..«- :i pliciiti..ji ill ihi I., v.. Html vnlvr 

wiili twi-i.'i! iiriik. Tlii-! m the i)ii?T <:pe<'ini< ii f.iiiinl nf Sjiirifcr 

iiliiliciisi- ill |ir. l';,l> .-..H.-ctiDns. Tlii,^ is . iiiiTK-titly clmriii'tiT- 

istio iiiiii iiiMiiiilaut 111 !• , .lctf.-i-i>.ii hinosto! f the riiitcil St:itcs. 

!.". ) 'iniiiii ii'fi'i ii 1,1 |i 

!<;. I'l'iirnlomarl,,. probuhfj- i ( u il-fl or :iHiwl '^-rnO. llatvalvpd. 

17. (,n^'.r,i:.o(l. 

'■"• A* ' il'i'i tM -tii'il. (- . iiiip^rfci't for nl. iilitii-:ii ii.n 
!!i. 1 1, 1, .!,(■, r,n, ~y. I'i ri Ml "f ilicM r.'iiN'-ciit iny -'.iiif tu.niy -. ptri 
■•t a i.-t iMpiiilv iiM'i-r:i*itiir Icrwanl tlif aix rt'in ' 

A. ■..Ill -'"I lilt li,-li. I lip ill t'l. afpanat aiMim, i:i„. ,,thi-. iii~~ 
sluTi.'ii Ni'. liM*. .ifi. tia li 1..V I'r \ini a- foJ^-w<: 

t,-ii;iii lit 

ii>i. rti I (lii-f i.f til.. 

' >inhon \ IJ!'^. l.M' vanli iinril, ,.f ];...iti.larv li 
T..l.a.-..,. r „-. 

A .i. rs iii-M' •■ rallihc lliiii^tniii. ; \ i r,\ -iiinlar t.i •he i-Iiiirii.-liTi<t j.' rm-U . l' 
ti;,- .1. tf, r-..n ' •! -t..;i.- ■■( M. iitaiia. I'li.' i.ii'iitii-Ml ---.ii-ial i..ii ..f;> -11!. I 
til'. :;. !i-r:il |t iiiop. r- 1, s ,.i' tlir lim •^toii.- I!rili-li l .liiitil ia ati'l 

M-'iita-.i an- r« - an. I 1. avr ii.. i|..ii . a~ t. ":. l.lriilii". -l' Mii' li.iV .ii-. 

• -■ .• r|.|..r l)i \ iiiiaii. 

Furmalio* .Iclffrscii limestoii.'. 

1. ^ '■^)iiuifi>i'(iif ■ .■,.iii.i iiln i miiia i. imloiait. arut. 

an. I sniall -^.a-o-. 
■J. l-irriM/.v. -; . A :..flii . . I'.v rl..-.- i... i!" ^.. i.ji.iil i.-al uli:;, /■ 

llllllhl.-,' KiiDlitHfi.V. 
:;. f "riisili ^. -j.. A f -111 . ..|i-i-'iiii.' ..f tiii"4i U-^c. r i'f..ti'!- aipl -mallrr 

iMiraiiiP- tluiii tli..^.- ..t" !a-r -(H-.-u'r.. ' \|.\v -["■■ii-'i 
4. FovDxilrx, ^. Cf. F. 'imitdi--^. l{i.Jiuiiif<'i-. 
.".. /Iifii Ifiiiuui rililiixl . .<> itaiM-rfi.'-t tor i.i'iiliH<-a' i.m. 
il. .\l/i',,f -1. Cf. I 1' r - -i V . r% ..'■» •If. i\aiii|.l. :.!' uitai i:-| 

t.. -. tiii~ ~|i(H^ ^ 
7. Athuri- Small -^t»^h»~ ?«-^ .ahlitii.' i po^r^iln \V 
"i. .*>';>, ••('• ■■Hi 'iKth, Tht- -mil.' fi.rii: .m'h'iip-i al-. li Miwiiana 
!>. .^'/'.,. • I f. < I. ."<■ -aTi" i/or^,'- 'I'lii- rixiiaiiiic- Hii.-. which arr i r..- 

mini-iit (111 fs* frtl.l i'..i --itnt.' !i TTitbcr «1i-M!i«-t. <> ''. itiir-' in 

t!,;- -pr.-i,-; 

rill' iiuartzil.. i- t. • ■ ,; ivt'lv I'^siffu- -i t-i "!it l^v.mijr.. ^};--i--i|)|.iaii 
h'Tii/..!!- art' '...s-ihlv r. !»■ - "<•! -i fhf fanlt-li). ■•!{. for 'he <»- ■•■'••■n •' t'.i--il- 
ha- hi'."i I'V 111. tmaii- r\\, -Mv.; The ^r>-i-t. " imrt ' fh' ':ijK»-»->n. I" '■. 

I'.Trolat.'.l •■.llii till .IctTir^... litti ' tii' "l" M"li*:ilui 

infill: I in I a; rmir \si ihimimi.u 113 


|'\ij:(iz(M(: i.imi.stmms oi rm; \\v\h,\\[.\, \\\\i\\„ 

III. -I KIlMl.iN. 

Willi P frniH-.' to til,- fjiilt ti-,.i|o|„ f,.-|„.cti\,.l> I,,,;,.] l,y th.' K,M,trii;i.v 

'■'*'■'■ '■" <;at.'ua.v) .,,,,1 til,. KNitli..;i.| river. tl„. (^ilt .n-.\liicl loiiMl.l 
IiH.iiiit;iiii >,v.Mri,i i- „ .•,„,i|...,nMl l,nr>t. W,- \v.isv -,,n tli;if tlii' I »,.v,,iiiMii 
lime-tono ;it 'I'liliii-io I'lalii- i,(,u- -taii.i- i,i ,, r, .n,,,,,,,, l.v, i with strata a< ■•M 
a- til.' ba-^- of th,. .Si,\i..|,. Ml,,., ^.|.,,;,,,.|. ,|i-|,|,,,.,.|,„,,,,. ,,, ,|„. „.,-i,rii -.i.l,' cf 

ihr Flalli,a-I trniini, luu,- .|i-.,,,|..l |l,-v..„;ai, .m.| .M i-.--i|,|, lii,„ m - ,i,,u-ii 

mt,. .uMta.'t with til,. ,-i.i,-t ,11. ii,l„.,-. ,.t- tiir (ialloH -,., ■!,.-, iiH',,- lli,. .\1imi 
l'.niiati..ii. Til,, ,,-ilt ..f tiii- t.iuiiii,- i, iM.iili.,,. -Ii,..,. a -lal.-!ii-, |.1„..1< 
'1 II,.tt.v, aii,l .Ma,-h,,„al,| i,,,!- i^ l,..„,i,|, ,, „ l„,,i, ,i,i, , |„ M i-i~-i|.piaii 
l.lilr~t..i|. . Til- v..iii|.j,.r. l..--ilil', |-,,ii- li„„.M.:||.- I.. nil \\\.. in.i-,- -..,,arai,-,| l.y 
til,' -tall ami may i... r,'l', it, ,| t., a- lii.. \\',-i,.rii aii.i j-ai-t. ni 1.1, .rk-. 

Til" u- ^tirii lil.M-k I- u,-ll ,N|,.,-,.,| ,,ijy at ,-,.,„,,arallwly i,w |„,::.!-; , I-,- 
wIkt,- n i- ,..v, liy li. av^ I. 'I :,. I„.,i,i.iilll.- t:,:;lt- a,,.. 111,.,-, |',„v. ,i,„|,|„.,l 
"iil.v .■i|ipr,.\ii,iat,-ly. Tlii- lim, -Imiic i- ,larls l-iui-li-iay. \v,-alii,-riiii; liiiht LM-ay 
'" "liili-li- ll i- liia--iv,. iMi-.-ly -li-.wiim- -t;atl|i,-.,ii,,n ,,!;,„.-; f,.,,,! „„,|',.r 
th,- haiiiiii. r: s,-iiii-,Ty-t.,lliM,-, witi, tin- laitr.r it.- ,Ty<ta:- l-l.i,-];, ii,-,l l,y 
iiliM- ,.|" i.ilniirii- u- matt,-,-. |,- ,.,„. -|„.,u--.',,ii,- tii,- i„,n,ial ,■-.]. -in- i- ,-liai,:_.,.,'| 
V" .^■il""'-li -lay ,.r i,r,.nii. .\| ...l,,.,- ,„,,,.,- .,,- ,!„ i,,-!, lii,i,-t,.ii,- i- ,-,-\-nil- 
'""■ -"■'! Wit-; til.- iiiait,,- I,,. ,1„.|-,. |.,.,.,, ,|i,i;!l,.,l ,,,,,, 

llir i-anl.v ,,1' visijji,. bi'ii'liiiy-piaiii'S iiiai;,.n it iiiipo-.-ihlo to iiialio portaiii 
li- t,, til,, atlitiiil,-- asMiiii,-,! l.y lli,. linicstiiiio llin.iiKlioiit tlio block. The I., -t 
f\|.. -in,- aj, iitf tin. (■,.Min;l--i,.|i trail, wh. r.- i' tliroa,N tli,' ,Miiyon at lii.- 
l'...ini,lary lii,,-. .l,,,u- a li,.ri/,.iital p..-iti,.ii. l.ut I'artlar t.i th,- ii,..tliuv-t prohaLl.- 
(Iip> of aln.ut :;(j t., tlic .■;,,iitln\v-t w.-ro obscrvod. It is likoly tliat tho western 

''■'"■'^ '- '""'i' Ill im.l l.<ars nuiiieniii.s l...-;i! I'aiilt- aii-l ~li,-ar-/oiii-. 

.\ !• w t'.--ils u,Tc I'.iiiiifl lit a ,-a-,M,I,- jii-t -...i-li ,,f the (■,.niini--i,iti trail 
M 111 ■;-• W. !.,.ii:,. a, 1,1 -lull y.inis -.aitii of ili,- l!.„ni-iary >la-li iStati.m X,.. 
l-':~). Dr. .\ii,i i,l,.i,ti)i,.l tla-s,. a- i,„-l,|.li,- a -p,..-i,.- ,,f .\I,.,„,phvlliiin ami 
I'll Atl,y,-,,i,| I, ,,-111. Th,. r,„.k . 1-, uh, I-, I,,.,,,-- ,-,i,i,.i,| -i,.„i-. The liori/oii .-..iiM 
i:"t 1„. .|,-t,-riii:ii,..| hut it i- ■ pr, -iiii.ahly iippir Mi-,;-,;,, ,,;„,,.• 

'■''"■ '.'-''ni 1.1- .-k i. .-.,:,ip,,-, ,1 ,,r 1,,,. , D.-v.-nl.-u, aii.i M i^-i-ip|,i.,n i;,,.,- 
-I--1I.S uhj,-h a|.,. L-r. i.tly l,r,.|;, ,i l,y -I,-;, fault -. In lli.- ii,-l,| „,. Ilil,,,!,,-.!.. ,1 
'''■'""'''•" ■"iil'i !■'■ 'ii:"i" b t\v,-.i, th,- tu-. iim.-i,...!.^. \Vi„.r.-v,.r f. — ils 
,_--■ iirr ■! ih,- i,„.k ua- ma-iv,. ,-r ! I;, .h I.. !. i-ii ,,niiii- -.; -. a,i,l ■jr:,y. ,-, ,n-,-p,,i„n,;ir 
IM all r,'-i-,-,-I- t,, -lapl,. ph.-i-,- ..f 111,. w,..|,.rn 1,1,, -k an, I of th,- 1 iiM,-t,,ii.- ,i~ 
'''■■'■"<■■■ I'l-'ili-- Til,- pn-;,,l li,-v-, iii.-ii, h,-,U. h..w,-x,i-, an- -p.-,-ialIv ri,-h in 
cii- rtv- !i...kil,-s ni.,1 ai,. ..ft.-o m,,iil,..| uith irr, i.;a]ar maii-m-iaii an, I .k.h.mi'ie 

-^' '!"■ •■'''.;' ■•*' 'll'- l-'I.ith, a,| val],-v ,ii-;t"l ,- -v,-.-. .-.iHHi.f..,,; ,.,,ni ,,-, ,-, -,,,,1 

'• '■■'^'^~ '""■'!' "'■ *'•"■ ll"M.-larv li,,,-. -,,,,„. :, ■,., ,.f i,„f,,.-;i;|-,.r,„,,. pinki-h- 

i-'r.iv, -ati.iy !-,-,)< u-,.,-,. ,;.,,,,k Tii,-,- a,-,- u.n, rally -m-ian an.] i,a-li|,l,- thin 

'"'■ "- ■' "'■'• '■' ii'.iinii''--', i.|a..k |« l,M,-, ..f ;,i-:;i!!it,-. ( 'v,, --!.,-.!, lii,- «,,= 

I'-'-. I v,-i. ii » 



i'i:i'Mn\ir\i •'■ i in: i\ 1 1 iW'i; 

2 GEORGE v., t. 1912 

socri ill the nuiro quart/.>-e l;iy. r*. As u ,i,l.' th. - I.i-.l-. lik.' flic uuiii. liii,. - 
stone, were fi li.l hii.Iit iIi. ii.m.'n. r. . ir. n- .■', > •_, ,.ilwi. •!,,ii,, vv ith 
strike N. 12° W. and dip, 75— >0' K. , it suggesH lo'Mil faiiltinj; [uiiull.-l tu the 
trt-nd nf till' l'l;itlic;id vallo.v. 

On till' slripc iniinodii.tcly mI.h,. tl.c rr.Misli /.iii.' tin- imriiinl i:i:i,v. in;i--i\i> 
liiiKsiiinp 1 eyins iind I'nntinucs u. -f.viiru !■• .In- trnMt I'inli wl,. \;- ilif iiiii.-iono 
mill the ilai'l)iiii:dd ni(.'t:ir;;illit. iiiiiIm' .-..hi;!,.!. [n t r.u ,.|-.- tlii^ di]! 

gradually stcpiion- t-i a iiiiiximmii ■f ill tin . r iihii^ . ti. tlif -uuiii-KM-^twiird. 

At till- (;,."i()()-foot I'.iiitniir iiml cncdiidt' mile ihii-i,, ..t' thf I;.,'inil.iry liii.'. ih.' .lip 
abruptly el^aiifres to :<:<'' SAV., with ctrlke V. .'.:. W. Tlic iIimiil'.' .-t' .lip Hike? 
pluei at 11 nieiididiinl hi'lt id' jiit.i'ii-e -Iieariittr. wli. r. . titty I'li f a.-r..-- tlin 
I'cl'. the linic-tniie i-i a wliitr, hri .-rhit. .1 inarhl.'. {"n-f ,.i llii- -liiaid.iii il„. 
fi>--il- enlleeti'd ill<> M i-isi?-ippiaii III a;.'e; «i-t nl' j: iIi,- ('■--il- are I »i'V..!iiah. 
Thi' -h'ardelt -eeiii=i. tiiiis, tn mark t'lr miti-tv.p ..t' a -In.iiir t'ault al.nii: ulii.-h 
'he \li--i-~'pl)iaii llii;e--ti>i<e \\:.- 1 i. ii dnvpid dcuii, !i]ali\.iy I-. ihr !>. ^.a,!;,!, 
■ II llir \vr-l. 

That traverse is prnlmhly tyideal uf a iiamlKr uhi.-h iiiij.'ht he iniido aeross 
thr Oil-tern hh'ck. The rehitioiis are lli..-.i' ,,|' -i, p-l'a dt.'.l l.h..-k. with d^un- 

thriiw p. thi' I'ii-i. I''iirtliir nanark- mad I'ii^i' 117 a- t.. •In I...-,,! .tria-tari-- 

-h'lild Im' added tn this hriif ii tint. Siii.'.' ihi' d i -1 rili i' h'li and i umu- ,,t' tla 

various faults are unknown, it i-i imt pcssihle to st:ite thf trai- l!iiekiiiT.-i- ..f 
the t'.--i!it'iTi.iis liine-littn--. jvithir tin- I Irvaiiiiii ..r the M i--i--ippiaii liiii.- 
-toiie i- eiTtiitily iiiiiiiy liMialii-d- ■ f tV. t in thiikiie--; tlaar .■omldled tlii''kiii'-s 
niu-t 1« w, !1 over l.OiHI ('..'t. 

Xeith.r '•■]> lae- I,.. It. an ,.| ih,- -, rir- ha- h.'i-ti d^->'v.rid in thi' liouii.lary 

helt. h, till' Y.ikiiiik:.;; valhv. al I tiM- ndli^ -oath nt' tin. ILiiindiirv liiir. in 

thi- --aiii. m.anitain raiR'.-. Willis t'.'ind a -mall ina-- ..f line -ton.' oarryiia.' 
inimer..n- I'.'-sil- ot' 'lie Saint l.-'iii- li.ii'i/..|i ..I' th.' M i--i--ip|.iiin. ilr ;\rif.- 
'liat till' lliiie-it.iie - 

•I- wilhi.nt 'ipp. 1 -tratiur .phi.- limit, hat r. -i- i'..i.l'..rmalily ..n a 
iinaitzite. whieh is ane.inl',.riiiahl, ..n Alir.'iiki an -triitii. Tin- Muart/iti' 
i- »I out :.'.5 t'l-et fid.'k. ami it ami th.- lim,' li. in a lOiirly h'.ri/.'ntal 
p..-itiiin. Th.' name ^'akinikak i- lien- a|.pli..l l.. tln' lime-tone, exehl.ive 
■'f the quarl/it,-, whi. li ni.y i-l-'ula-r. .l.\.h.p iial. piialcnt iiiiportaiiee. . . 
I:- ftlie litiK -turn ■ ! ...I'lirreni .■ ..ii ^■akinikil]i 'i.-.k i- apiiareiitly .liir to 
ih'Wti-fanllim>-. a- i; ii.'- at a e.inpiiraiiv. 1\ !...\ '.m.] iimotiL' moiiiifains 
.•omi>o-e.l ..f the AliT'iikiaii arf.'il!il.'-, ll- pr. -.u. . in thi- I..i'a!itv. taken 
III i'..iiiLi cti..!! with ■•till r < .'I'urrili.'i - ii..rlh an. I -..ath. miiv 1.. .■.ai-iili r. .1 

i.\ id. ti.'.' ,f tl». foniKT ■ \ti ii-i..ii ..t' th. i!|.pi r M i--i--ippiaii lim. -t ■ oM-r 

ih> rntire n'UiOii. The ah-. !..'o ..i .arli.r M i--i--! p|.ian itra'a i- -iuniti. ant 
. f ill! niin-nal ..virlap.'* 

It' thi- ^':lkinikak lln i-t.m- .v . r. .1. i ..-il.-.l inn'' i.i' np.a. llir ( i.-iitmi 
" .-Mi-'oiikian M series, there niiist havi h.-i-n ^tronir def.irinntion and extensive 

•11 \Vi!|;,, Hall, (i,.,.i <..,■ \nicri.,i. V.K I'l. I!.i>J, p, Kt 

nii'i'in ',! iii< ( iin.i i> //,•'«■ ..://./,■ us 

lE-'-lONAL PAPtR No 2oa 

C'U. fri.-i"li i-i'!Mi-i !i:ii '1. ■■•I' :ii. I li'i ,, 1,1.111 Ii 1 i- !■• I'T. -.!.!.. I Ml ;;ri;it 

•t,i.'Mli-< ..Illy tin • '■■:iv :iii!. - I . tli.' !i rtll. Mauv ni -rrMil i..ii- iinlii'iilf 

•Mth ^omo certiiiuty tliiu s.x'ii ..ruffcui.- iiioveiiicnts in tliis part nf tho ('..nlillf-run 
.■^:':mi hiiv :iul int. rvm. ■! !•• !».,:: il,.. .|..|.,.-|! i,,ii ,,f tl„. .I.tF. i -.ii lini.-tnn.' Jlir upper Missi-.-ippiim linio^tuii.-. Some otluT than Willis' iiitcrprutafion 

: till. V'lliiiiikak t^i.-i -. iiii< Icjitiniatc, it' ii'^t iicrp-^nry. 'I'lu- uiitiT lamwM 

: II.. I'ai't- uliirli ii,\.ilvt> any iMtaMo i'r,i-i..ii uiiionfurniity lulwiru tin- 
I''\.iiiiaii ..r ('arl...|iitiv(.iii -("liiiimt- ami tlic ( ■aiiil.riaii-i!i-lt iau >.Tir> nf 
-. ifhia-it.Mi Hriti-li .,r ..f ^fdiitiiua n-.riiiwt-t •f flu- li.-li n ntaiii- 

!..! ill. l[ cli-trj.'t. 

111.' I'l'.'.niiiii : — :'- v ■ i • .lil f'.iiii.i iili.iii;- lli. u. «!. rii ..L'.' ..f thr ca.-tcrii 
iil..-iv, 'riu' cxa'-t l...-alitiis aii.i llii' t'aunal lists priparnl liy Dr. II. M. Ami, 
arc here given. 

<liillun Xo. UUi. -\' 1!4" :'.V W. Lontr.; .-.even mile? w.-.t of tin- I''lathiMi.i 
liver, iin.l twn miles ami a 1 :<If iioitli ..f Boiimlary irt,400-f.ii,t eenti-iiir) ; elnse 
t.. great t'aiilt mappe.l. 

Ill a ilark srin.N', iiii|M.-. .iisleeiitc! !iiiie<t..ii. , m atiierih- iii|>i"r,v-i.'ray. 
.■■ell..wi.-h-!.'ray, . r imV; •;•,!.■'• i-.-.l im.l n-i'eiiieiiti.l. in. .re or 1.-- altereil t>y 
I re--sure. Snit'a. e inaik.'l ly piit. .! -nu.tiire in Miiiforinly -lialli.w roiiinieil 
■U'pre3-ii n-, ..r .asitir-. in u ilrli a laver .<\ .■aliMreoii- ' '.' maiter aiUM'ars, 
.1.- a tliin liiiiiiLj 111 till ihii, 1' Willi. 
Aiip: Divoiiiaii. 

/■'o;//, <;/»'., I, ■ .lelT.r .11 :ini.-t. n.' in tlie ii|.i..r p.irt .f \\u- D.v.inian -y>tein. 
<i' nern nnJ .s/.. . .. .. . 

I. r/,, ,//,',■> . '1 .|, ,\. imp. li'i .ilv |.r. -iTVi .1 vprciinen not reeoyniz- 

alile, Irii-la-.l v.ilve ..linwiiiir piinetnte xtnietiire. 
-• !■''•"/"' .'v"i.'. <lii.. -iH'.'iin.n ami t\v.. -mall !'rai;ineiit-i .if this 

-p.-.i,.- .'liaia.-f. ri/.' 'Ii.>e liiiiiritoiie-. 
:!. .<ii!rifpr r „.il.-iniini. l-Af..liat. il ~pe,.iim n in a I.L.'k of liiiieitone. 
Aiiolliei- ;!\ i.liial. partially evt'eliateil, repre-ent< ..lie of thp typ..- ■.( Si,;,if> r /•iKihrnnni with a liiiili liinu'e area. 
iiii.l i-.-i...|ilii. .. \riy .-lii-ely the >'i'ii'il, r ■•niih'iintni from the 
.Ti-lT.-r-..ii ; ol' J'tali. Montaii.i. aiel N' -a- rejire- 
•ent.-.l in i|,e .•. .lie.-t ion- ..f tlie I'. < I ;,..]. .pi, Siirv. •. ..I.taiiie.l 
l.y Dr. v.. \r. K'in.llo, 

yiatifii X-K /.'::. --I'iv.- yanl- io.ifli.a-t ..f -tatioii X... Il'TC. end 
.Ic^e to ureat fa elf. 

Till' t"o.«-il- ii.'riir in :i iark. fraet'ire.l .iiiil rercmciit, .] linio-ton. . w.ather- 
ir.t' peppory-sray ; ealeite \oins jirevaleiit. 

Aiie: I'piHT i>e\..ii!aii. 

F'lriiiii'ioii : .(c.tTor-.'i; linu-tMm. 

I'.-.a V..!. ii -m; 


Dhi' I /;/ ui \ /• nr I III- i\i I mill! 


2 GEORGE V . A. tgia 

1. Sp.m;;i-lik,. Ij.riL'. -I. M'Iit . \ iiml. i. ,•! -iMji-lil;. f'Ai .■!■ 

spiculi's (() II iinlontiliii [(), 

2. hiiiiiftlis .[), ( ■.iiii|Kirt' /•'(ii'-.silfs liiiiiliir' lIciiiiiiL'" r, 
:I. ('hl'loiioni, iMir -piTiiiii n 

4. Atiiiim <;>7j, ni. S.-lilotliiinii. 

Stali,,i, y,t. tJ'.iii.- X.Mf m.'r-i.|i:iii nf lU ;',:;' \V 1.,,,,l'.; l'..iir mil.- «r-t 
• f the KLiiIp Mil rivi-r. ■.tu>\ 'ii'' li.ill' mil.- norih ..f ili.,\- liiH'; li.r.ilo f.M.t 

A lilii.'-t.lir Ur.itlliMiliL' IM-ly .r l.ri'rt ni-ll-v,ll. h ; -|.. .■iimh- nf f..--il- 


A;li': I'liin'r Ki'vcinhii:. 
FanihiUni, : .I,.ir.r-Mti ::Mi,-tnn.. 

(If II, III ftliil •.fin /. ,» ■ 

1. /ijiilifi iili< ( ; i ,|,. 

•J. .\h-iijiii i-ilii iiliii 1^, l.iiiiKi'U-. 

H, Mriipii ■i^i„r,i, Srlil,,t!iiinii. 

Till" Mis-i-sippiiiii l"..«-ii- ,.f fl„' c.i-tcrn M-k r.r. li-tnl. \\\\h 1-alify 
indiculii'ii-. liy Dr. Auii. :i- t'.illi)vv-: 

>7.(//,», Xn, I's.;. -At lie ' ■■'.»" \V. I,.. 111.'.; nv. ,,ih1 ;i li;ill" imu.- \v(--t nf 

Fiatlieiul riviT. muI i,Uf-h.\\i uiiii- uiulli ..f tin. I!.Hniilar: lii:. ; ,"...'oii-|'..i.t i tcmr. 

A'ji': T'ppiT Mi3:«is-ipiii;iii. 
Fnniiiil mil : M:iili-iiii liiii.-t' in'. 
ill- iipi-ii 'ttiif .till I (I's : 

I. I.'iliiislrol'iiiii , -p. 

i'. >'//»•/'//'/"/""■". -p. 

:), /iiplirriii:^, .p. 

I, .1/. iii.iihiillinii, -•, 

."., ■^Irl.iill'llil, 

I'l \h<fi\\in\]n]>nr"lil. 

~. ■ ■,.//.'■>!/. I, -I . ill, r,,,il;,.,M7'I hilnhhn. 

- • ■• l!.i;,i,}„,;„, ,p. 
;'. t'~riiliiria rora. 

In. /',,./»r'»s, -p.. ,•,,,, .pMfr /'. il'i iiniilillfi. L.M, ^i.j- - -rllptiiic -ililil;ir 

M in lM:'jii-li >p.'.i'ii. ti-. 

! 1. ' iiiiuir ''.I ■ II III . -p. 

IJ. •^plrll'ir. -p.: .■111'. .^^ A •«/,■,//.■. 

1:;. <,,/;■//■.,■ /,•,■./•/;. Ml- :, \,.ry c'l. .-(>!> :illii.l >p...:. ., ..-riciiifr ^^•ith X..r-- 
wooil mill i'r.itton"s 'li'sciiption in noarly .ver.v dotnil. Middle 
rill .aid -inn- .|.n-< n.,t ii'wuy, .ai. ml !•• iu.ik. Srfmrtinii - tlin-.' 
rill- iif -iii'i- .-.pial: at ..tlicr tlin- .; . Vir;;. ;■ :iii.l i\v.. -lunlli-r. 

i;i r<ii:i ,,i ii;i iiiiir i-/ "i.' .,:///,• ii7 


\i. ri,,,ii,i,,,.i;,„i ,u'/M//,i. S|.r,-iiM. II- iflvt'' rii.l l.i'.i, ;i..-, , i;,, ;;-.■.! 

"l^-'r (it ;aiiii-ll;i' lik: -piiii'- iii |,r<vip.-;v ilt-.'rii.cJ -|.. .iiinti-. 
•<.. ;ll-o l''..,/-;s liirsHl-l. I|i,!l. U'j. r- .'1 iS|., -.u llilll, :iM.l 
I'l •:. \'"l. 1. n.ll. \,., :;. \ n. !• \| ,-. |- \.,i,,r..l ll,-i..r>. 

■^'""'"" ^ ■■ /."<• riiP.- ',,nl. u- l' -tati-ii \... 1.'-:.; .-..-ih;. 

iiidt n.|it..;ir. 

-I'/.; rr.l.ilH. |.|„.r \!, 
(irnt III iinil ./I. . I. > • 

I. J.,ll.„^tn.'ii,i. .|,. 

i'. > v (iiiio/inia, bj). 


•I !••' ' I I i;i "I I III. ti M.TliN \1 \i [">\ \l.l- \i 

"I N IMS M -1 I \| 

Til.' «.'„■> f„-liiial r..,-ks brt\v....n tli,. I'h.tli.M.l ;ui.| ti.r l;,„-Uy M,,i,„fain 
'"■'■'"■'' ■" ''" '■■■I'.v-iiihlli l'iii;ill,.| iirv s.r\ 1 ...|r ,|, l,.rin. .1 tl..,i, ,,,v t|,,,^. 
•'( tl..' Clark., niiif.',. ,„ ;l„. |,,.wl- ran-.. Tli. , s. , , .IIm^Iv intl. \il.l, n.ifinv nl t|„. 
rock- ha.s invented tlio .li'Vclopiricnt ui sv.|, n.nti.. folds; tlio striictun> .il! across 
llic (Jalt.iii-MiH-hoiKil.i -v-tciii i- ahnn-t ,iilinl\ .1. i. rinin..! !.v faiilm^j. .\t twelve inujui- fanlt-l.l.M-ks urc rcprfMiild i,, tlic riia|. -Iicds as nc'irrinj? 
Ill tlh- ti\c mil,. l„|r ivIi.Tc h rr..",- tl.. tu.. -. W itl,!,, ,|„. |„,|| ,|,,, ,||,,^ 
ruii^'- \inu\ (I I.. !H> . ;,\,.r:iyiiiL' al..iut :'.n 

The 111. -I ..,-.[. -r'.y an.l the ino-t w,~t. rl,^ I.I...K- r,,i,t.i i,,, r. -|„.,-| ivrlv. Car- 
bonifcron- aii<l l>cv..iiiaii liiiicstdiic-. wlii,.li. .x.-.-ptiiiir th.. Ki,li.niliii lake' Im-,!.) 
arc Ih,. >..,mL.c.t I,,.. I rock f„rMi!iti..ns in ,]„■ |;,„.u .Mmmt.iin -v-l.n, at tlii-i 
Intiludc Thcs,. particular Min-ks arc of -ix-ci;,! i,,i,.iv-t -in,-,, tin ,-|, ^rly 
Miow the inauiiitiidc of til,. >lisplac,.rMcnt- t,, wliid, th.. I-'hitl,. a.i tn.,i;.di ami 
the |{o,-ky Mountain Trcnc'li ..w origin. Tno t a.l. .nit'croii- liin,.:oii,' 
"1 the uct -idc of tho Klath(.a.l i- on the -anio I,ao| with -trata on the ,.a-t 
-hie, lHloi,j.iM!r to the l,.«vr Appckiiiitiy. ()„.■ may falrU estimate that a net 
• ii^plncment of at ha-i la.iidO f, et. or p..-il,|., l'<i.(mh( feet i- Ilto 
The w,.-torn part of the (la,-. -, ■•^o, , , 1„,,„ i,o,.,\ nearly or ipiiie thr.-.^ 
miles hiphcr than the nc ■; .a e.iv i „ici.- . . t'le .\la.-l »oi,aM raiiL-e. The latter 
Mock i- .lownthrown hy .„. , ui: :.•■, ite.- ;,;i; .iint, with re,|„.et to the hloek m..\f 
en the we.f. Tl„. (•arh..nifero;,~ ;,n,. ;■..,■ at the {•■lath..a.l vall..y is. in f;„'.t. 
the visihl,. upper i.orti..n ..f a hroa.! hlo < ,,r -erie- . f parallel Moek- uliieli have 
boeii dropped a iniriiiniim of al .....t 'hree miles !...,,,,■ .|„. ,i, hloeks of tlie 
Clarke ui.l MacKoiiald raiisr.- : ' ■• " .,|ii. ad t -one i i-tioi. -tnictiirally ■, 
typical fault troii^di or -j-rahen.- ! ■' ■ ai... i ifl.i .,..hahl,. liiat the depre-M-on 
has always been a prabi'M in a toponrraphic sens. . it ha- U eu partially filled 
with lake lieds and has been d.d'orme,! I.y il, fol.liuL- of th. ,■ 'e is hut there is 
no evidence that the initial trnu^h for' ■,• a ..■;■ ipiif^. de-!reved. 

It will be oliservel from thi. map shoii ih, -, th . Ci,r)if.iiiferoa- liTni.-ioiii. of 
the MacDoiiald raiiire ....ciirs in two differ,. nt f .clt-bloeks aepio-ated l>v a 

;i \\m\ IK- ^^jofat. 




iii.r I/,'/ 1// \ /■ "/ //// /\ // /.•/'./.' 


2 GEORCf V, A. -i'Z 

narrmv. ■il.ih-'ik' lili'-k nl -fiatii r.iriuiiiii: in au 'i.-iii \\\i- Allvn |u fli- \|,i ■ 
I>niialii iiii-lu-iM- !■ i- ii"t r Hv t.. iiii.l' r<t.iiiM ti ••.piiditiuti-i iiiidrr wlit.'i; 
tliin nurr'iw si 'i. r(iin|M.-('(l .,1' the mM, -t -•■In, '- in tlw riititJt'. en!. 
ma'tf c'diitiict • : riidi -i'lo wiili ill. N-iiiiL''-' t'linii.iii li i.f ilir r:iii;.'i'. 'V\y- 
li\ IH'ilii-i > ,n ■■;i.-i'iv;il'li-. Ar'i-.Tiliiil.' t" li^i' lir-' tin iiui- wiTf (-t.iMi«lit>,i 
tiy »iini ■' ii'Tiinil fai.itiiiir \xlHrl.\ ih. 1 .nl' uilVr'ni- l.|..,K- \\,rr ilrM|i|i.Hl 
ilowii, A'-'Dnliiii.' Ill ilii- - I-.. ml ii> |Hiilii .; . , i,f iiiii\' |. ..' ,:,iii ;i |i.. ;il rtlirn-; 
of llif I 'Ii r riK'lv- u|>Mii III, ( '.iti,. iiilViiii . IuMlhi.! I.. ii..niiii! fiiiiliiuk' "hi'', 
(lrcjp|M-il ill.' Altyii-MiifK 'linl.! liL.i'k A^-wi, i\,v.- Uf 1 iU'lMiiiil'. i-mi-, linn. i. ,•;,■. 

'I'liii * ii'l viiu wmiiil iiiitiii'.illy .i.iTi i .ii will, till ■ l,iili,ii iliiit till u'lii!'- 

( iiirki- r.iii:ii' li:n lnn n tlciu^t. nvir ( ^irli.'iu ii r i- ■ f ( ■rfi.i.-cuiis ri,riu:ii iuii., 
Kxiri'ii!!' .1-1 till- iiiiM iii.iy 1« . the kiiii»ii I'.iri- ,li, iini • M'lmli- it ii'i.i tin uv . 
hyjiiitlii ' ii i itltcriKitivi- ii:i' -iiH i,pt lu li i m' !,■ ■ ti li iK.ii tin .,iiiiii,|,- ,,t' 

the limit ,1.1111- III lllr I'il-I -ill. .,|' till AIlM -M,! jli.),. Ill -l.ll. Ii;ivi. U...11 Ifiiul. 

with ■■ ii i liTllMc iii|l!iiii.||ii . I ill 'i ill 111 til U.-ti.rii -iilr Wii- ll.'t - 

rOUllily |i1i.' i <:\ till 111 111. llllt il 1- IiTmiiI li ■• 1U.:|.|.. il ,illl .l|i|if,,\l!li;lt. 


Ill fnur or !■ '11' liMilin>.' i">-0- 'In' f.ii'. Ii, i- Im'.. 'i i ii •Ih.ui, j- l'i,l!.,\r liiir 
strvui i.iiiii-.i.- {itiiiiiii: ilii-i' iii..iiiit;iiii-. I III 1 ..III \;\i'\ 1.1 \\'ii;\v ,1111 ri*!! 'm- 
b«>OTl lii tmiiilii •! ill |ii.-iliiiii I'V ;i liicii, \'.|i!i! ''■..- -ti' : ;:!> ;itTii'lii| llir 'lih- ,i|' 
tlic M!ii-I>'i I'lriiMii "I ■: I'illii 1- -iili- .,!' till' livir. 

'i'lii' livi' iiii.-t vvi-'i rl> !,'.,.'k- I l' ilii I -iihi !i l'i,iii;« •'., .i i.tniir. -i\i li ,.\ • ■ 
(iroppiii;:' III' lil'K'k- t'ln u r.i-t |.. ui--', uil -I'., :'i-iitl ' i.i- liii' \I;|i'l >, .|i;iM. 
Siyoh. i'lii'i'i'U, '■ ,1 jy, jiiil I 11 V "iii.iii liijii :' ■riii.'tii'ii- hH' ~iiit. --ivi-ly 

in lutlT;li I'l'lll;!' ' Till- I'lpiiv .ill III !• ,,|' I, II .rwil' tin I>l.Mi|li.lll liiu..',. , 

at Tolia.'.'O I'l ii,- .Hill rill. |.,Mir \l,i.| l.'i., , L. i- ..'.■:,: -III. \Vi^nv;iii, -i,,>. 
♦ hat thi' iii'l i'il:iini. •r-i.i.ii'i.'iii'hi , • ilii t.' . I'li.k- li.i- ill 111 lit li 1 ' lip.iMii> 
foot .'Hill limy li;ivi' I'lih -I'vrriil tli(i,-ai:il '< • i.'ii.iiii. \\ • ,ii'i. tin I'l ! ii'i. pr..- 
pared tn timl tlint fli.' Um'ky \Ii 'iiilain 'I'iiih'Ii ,it tin F..riy-iiiiitli l'Mr:ill"l iii- 
been Inrjitcii <iii a ziiiir "f -Iii'Iil' :' ii:1' in::. I'l:- i'.ii,.'li'.-ii i, will ln' iii'tril ,i.'.i!' . 
io thfi noxt clinpter, on the Purccll mount ui sys'Pni. 

Till- ri'liitinii lit' till Piniitiiiiii mill (.III ill I'll 1- f. i'in,iii,.ti- til fh, ,,M." 
geosyiu'lina! ITi-ilii iia- liiii 'l-rM--^'il 'n i'..i,i.' i li' ii uiili lln' -I raliu'rapl,' ' 

the yiiiitisr 
tion '11 'li 



'I'll.' l;,. imlai-x i'l'lt 1,1- !' riii-lii'.l v.'i-v litlli' in 

G£ j'TGt '. 

i£?SIOSA. PAPER \> 2Vi 

A, ')■} 


^liniKiltVI'II^ AM' Slicrt Tl-ltK t)F Tin-: ITIJCK!.!, MorNTAIN- 


I'l i;i i.i.i, .-.i.ijil.s 

A- ■III! ira.l'- til' 1,'n 1 , .Mdlllltaill ->-t<tM lllhl I'M),,,-- ||l,- Wh!.> lll..-li-;- 

tpii'-li ii. -t'.ii.v tlie '■..|ii|"i-ili .11 .■(' the I'lircfll -.v-t.:i, ,i|,nii; lli.- I'nny jitli 
I'.inill. ;. lir ciil.i.* a 11111. 'li lij' re ■lillii-lilt lirlil. Hitucili (i:iti-\\.i> iiii'l l''i-lliill 
tin- II luilaiii!) iicliloiii rise ubove treo-liiio anj the forest cap is, thnniKhout 

l! • -li.ii'ii. ..t' uMii-iial ilii.-iits :>iii| .■miliiiiiilv. Nu'wiili-t.inilini.' tin- -t.'r|i!ii>s 
if tli<. ni'>iiiiliiin slii|>' ■ lih- tiiiilHr ti tiiT;il|\ -(.niii- thi'l: u|i..ii tfi-ai. llriiratii 
til. til-.- a iii-.i\> j;i-..\vt!i i.t' liru-li mni if n. rally. ,i ill-i-duraL-inirly lhi. i> lavi'i- 

"f Ml..-- :i!i I liuMiii-. t'. i!ii nil iinpiii. .-..vii- ..VI r iiiii-l I'f I'lr I'l'il-i k III 

the l!.iiiiil;try !.• Ir. I>iii n'_ iiiai \ Irnv. r-c- inii.l.- ilnriiiLT tin- -i a.- .n .if l!"t| 
OUfi roil- ;il.-.i|utrl> faili.l j inili'. nr •mi, fur -I'M-r-.i iiiili -. at i llnii. 
Fifl-I work w.i-i tiir'li r ri'inj. lUi-ati fai'> i|i;in_' thai I'Mra.n- liii.irlK 

ilry -ia-"ii ..ii uiii ..i lln' iliirk' uliidi hiinv . mv iIh' iii.iirilaii,-. I^.n- 

Clio |«'ri.i(l i.f - v.ii w. ik- til. -iiioki w.i- .|i II-:. ■ ciiir t,'li t" iiiti-rfi-r" -iTimi-ly 
witli tlir w.irk I'l .11-1 ..V, riiiir , iit.Tnp-. 

Ill till' r i.'ill- ill. -tratiiiraplii.' loin'liisinii- \v. r. ri'iulcn-.l iil! ir iii.irr 
ili'iiciitc I"',. -•■ of till' rcMiiirk.ik!' iiiiif..riiiity nf tin- si'iIImk hiary nnatinii . 
It wa- f 'iniil ilial iii>i-li tlir -r. alii part ..f lli.- lull i- iiii.liri.i ;ii liy ilir -trali- 
jrrai'lii.- 1 Miii val'i't ..f lli. liilt.ii aii'l l.i wi- -trio-. Tlii- . .jui^ .ili-nt lia- l.i .n 
liaiiio.l till' I'ln-iil! -rii'- \'. v -ill]..... i- iki re rr|.ri-i ntnl :iiii.ii:.- it- in. luki-r- 
llliyiliiiir lik.. III.- li'.ly . II', -I- .\i-liiiLi-. i Miiiipli'. i,. t\vi.. ii t!.' Kiiitl.i 
an. I .*^li.ppar,i f,.i ■na'i' ti-. I.ivo ii ili.- Siy. k in.j <lrimi'H, l..t\v...; li,, Ap),,- 
kuni.\ aii'l Alt\i:. .r k.lui.n tin r.- p..-t;M. pair- ,,:' f.i' -iiati'ili- in t'lo (iall..i, 
».'ri.-i. I'", r tii'.ii-aiiil- "t :.i t t.'L'. tli.r tlio -iral.i ..f tli.' I'nn'iH -. i -.■■; |,\'nil.ii 
a h.iiii.,u'i-!,.it\ lliat I- IioiiimI t.i .-x.-ili- woii.l. r in tli.' miii.l iif tli ii.- .;, .!.'i-l . 
Ill tilt- .Mo,\ii! and Yahk rangos i.i.t a siiiglo stratum of marked iii.liv'diiality 
lia- l.c.'ii .Ii- ■.iv,-i'.',l \'. !ii-h i- |ir..i.,, I,, p. r-i-l llii.'UL'lii.nt llii' raii:;i li, ii,.i,. 

of til.' tlir.... rally.- a- my fiiriiiai imi \ii|.|. ,! l',,--ii.. Tlii- fa'iiir.- ..f w.'ll 
ilftii.."! Ii,iri/..ii-iiiark.'r- ni a r.iri.m of i-..ii-iil. r iii.. -Irn.-t nr il .•..nipl.xity i-. 
f.orh.ips. ill., yr. at.--t if ill.' ,!itlii-uli, iliat .-..nfi nt lli.' L'i'.ilin.'i-t in li,, 
I'aro.ll-. tti.ii- mason- tli.- v.rit.r In - ii.l f. it in-tiii.-.j in ati.inpt intr ' , .i. -■ 
'tI ,e the I'lirrell s.^ri.- In the ,1. la.l uiii.-h i- warranto,] in tli.' .-a-- ..f 
f,)iTTiati,,n- i',,ui|".-iiie t!,e (ialtoii or l.-wi- -, ri. -. It !ia- -.•.■iJi,,| -af. v i., 
oxpi, -- ' o -ti atiL'vno'. ,'" til.' I'lir". II iiit.iin- in t.-r'n-: ..f tiin-., vor,\ ;t,i,-k. 





S^^ fioc'^esle-. Ne* 'ort. i4t;-;y ,1-54 

"-^ ■ '16) «82 - 0300 - Phonff 

S^= ;?16) 288 - 5989 - Fq. 


/'/./' \ri \ii:\r nr mi: isiumm 

2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

ooufurinabl,- M..liin.„tar,v fornm linns, eu.'li of wl.iWi, ,.„ Mfcuiit of its ho>no- 
>^..-itj. .s v., |,.H... „n.,i,M,l.. -y,„.,„;„i,. .,:,,lv-i, int., snl.liviMo,,. of n,o,v 

usual thickness. Evn tlus.. (inu,,! ,livisio„s of the tl.ick s..ri,.9. callod the 
-reston, Jvitchj-ner. an,l .Mo.vio fonnations, are not always with ease separable 

rem ono auothor .n tho ti.M. All a,v l,if..hl.v sili.ious in eliaraoter; nil ar. 
hne-^nu,„.,l to oomiMct in fxturo; all show pliasrs win.!, ar. in.listincM!,l,al,!o 
m tho Inunl sjic-nn,., n,- in tl.o I.mIj,,.. Tho thr... f„rnn,ti..M. avo. in fnet 

Sfeparatoil on the ground of comparatively subordinate lithol. _ical differences' 
sucli as colouis ot frusl, f.Mctnro an.l wrathcro,! snrfacv. 

Mi,Toscopi,-alIy an.l .■h..nii.-ally tho innn.Mis.-ly t k (' an.l Kiflirnor 

lorM,atn,„s an. ,^..,v..,l ,,, 1„. ,hn.,-, i,l..n.i...| in ...n-titntion. A pr,.vailintr and 
dearly n>n,..r .l.tToron.v h, tw. on .h,.,n. ....nnMin,, in tho faot fiat tho Kitohoner 
18 the more forrufjinous of the two formations, has been use.l as a prin<.ipal moans 
of;. th.s,. ,„.„ ,,a,t- .,f th.. ...ri,- in th.. li,.].!. In a.l.lition, the 
Jutohonor .s tlnnn,T-l.,..l.i,.i ,h.n tho Cnst..,. Witli ,n,-I, ,.rit,.,ia n-.rolv it i, 
clear that iho niappin,.- of tlie-o for,nati..ns in ti,e fanlt-rivon nionntain masses 
13 a delicate matter. The geological boundaries as shown on the man sheets 
are thus to be considered as dra • n, in many instances, with more ,loubt than 
IS tho ,-ase with the -liei^ts l.„-;it, ,, ,.,|,t of Cateway. 

Tu.. of the -edinn.Mtary f.,r.nali..ns have ho,., nanie.l after stations on 
the ( anadian Pacific railway: tho third, the Movie formation i, so called 
after the nv,.r of tinit nan,,.. Ti„.ir ,.-tin,ated tl,i..k„,.-s an.l f.oneraI c.,mpo=i- 
tn.!, an. , ii, the f..llowini;' table: 

*'<"■"""'■<"'• rhickmss in Uet. Dominant rocks. 

Top, erosion surface. 

Kitchener : y. i: V. r.ldS n larTzlte''""- 

20,765 + 
Base concealed. 

Creston Forjiatio.v. 

General desrription.-Tho lowest member of the Pnr<.ell series and the old- 
est formation sren in tho Boundary belt within the entire Pureell mountain 
system has been named the f >, ston formation. Its best exposures Include the 
one in and east of the lofty M,.Kin, cliff fonr miles from Porthill; a loss com- 
plete one on the slope immc.liatcly east of the Movie river- an.l fin^ilb- tho 
most favourable one of all. on the two sides of the wi,", valley occl.pio.'l bv the 
cast fork of the \ ahk river. In each of these exposures the formation pre- 
serves nearly constant char.aeters to the lowest bed visible: it is thus hiirhlv 
probable that this gigantic sedimentary formati.,n is, a~ a whole, vt thicker 
than the total mass actually nioas,,re.l in the fiel.l. 

In , sections among the faidt-hlocks cl,ara..toristic „f the P,ireell 
mountain system, estimates of from C.OOO to 9,900 feet were obtained for the 

■. -^'im 

uri'ouT (,r I III. viiiEf Asi.\;,\i>\n:i! 



:^';t,;''''''rr" ''';'''■• ';':-'■"■■'• ■'■'^^' '-■■•■'' ^--.v ,.,.,•,.,.,„„.„ ,.,.„„,,.,i,!v 

'St.u.n. ,.nt,-n,p „t ,1,,. ( ,v,|..„ r.-k- ., ,i,.. V„l,, ,;,,,, n|,|, ,. „,.. ,.-,i,n.„.. 

npprnrs a unuunn^n thu-k of :..:,.„, (r., i- ,..-^„..,| ,„ „„. ,„r,n:,ti„M. Tl,„ 

-t,,,,at...,l,o,.....„„, ,., U'Nt^ .n:v,.,-,.. n n. ,.,-..-. ,1„. .,■,.„„„„ lin„ 

.It 'his l.jralM./. 

i .-anMot 1... ,l,.„i,.,i ,lu,t tlu.,v ,n.,,v 1,.. -,„ l„,,li,,„i„n iu tin- ,KnTi,-uh,r 

-rt,o„. I,ut „u t„. „t|„., |,,,„1. tl„. wri,,.,, alt..,- ..n-ful .,,„lv in th. li.M 
'■■m.-l H,.t tl„. l.„-t hu.t nf ,l,„,lir;,ti..n. Si,„iL,ri.v. i„ „„.|, „,• , l,;,lf.,l„„,, 

'. hrr .,vt„,n. ■„ M. „Kaiv .iitr,.,-,..,! r.nlt-M.H.N.. ,s ,nurl, ;,- :,. „, 70(10 tV.-t 

..f the nptnrn,.! Cn -1..,, -lUMrt/il.. w,.„. ,H,.aMi.v,l uitl,.,nt ;n,v ,- ,„ n'n.liti,,,. 

'■f -he l,e.l.. In -..v,.-,,! .•a„h-l,l.„.l.s ,I„. Mfnt.-, .,.,,,1 nvavlv v,,-, i,.,-,! :,„'l 'n',r; 
nt nio.L-i,rati„n w,t,- iv-hi,.,.,! t„ a miniinuni. At M,-Ki.„ .litF. l,„„i .3fr,o 
loot ol Moarly Imrizontal. typical (n.^tn,, aiv ,Np,,.,.,i ,,. ,„„. -w,, ,, .f the ,'.v,. 
with n..,l,..r llu;. .nnunit ..r l,a.,. .,f tl„. r,„-,MatinM t.. 1.. f.,„„.I at ,h.-,t l.,,.,!,-,,.' 

-V ftirth.-r .,Mli..atin„ that f,o I'unell -ori.-s. of whi,.h th,. (■.■.■.to„ „,ak,'.s 
MP nearly one-half, is onorniously thirk. i. ,l,.rival,h. f,-,,,,, .\I,.|.:vov-. ro.0.1- 

nn^san..,. n.ap ot ,h. Ea^t Kootwuy l.i,,,-!,.,.^- Th.. p sh„u> that a, least 

3 00O srp.are .,ule. ot tho l'„r,...ll untai,, -y-t,.,n n.r.h of ,h,. Iio,„„larv is 

almost eont.nuously ..mlerhun hy a ^iiieio,,. seri,-. ,.vi,|,.„tlv ,..|nivah-„t to that 
cropping out at the Forty-ninth Parallel. The oontinnity of the colour repre- 
^ontmjr tho s.-ries on the n,ap is hrokw. only hy pat.-h.., of .ahhr.,i,! i„t,.„-io„s 

doubtless similar to t!io intni-ioiis -o 

When it i< roniemhered that the roeks ^ „ 

much faulted and othenvise di^tnrled so as to pnseiit'a' 

plentifully f..und in the I!o indary l>elt. 
of the larjre aiva in Ka-t Kooteiiav 

..f dip 

to vertirahty. we see certain pro,,f that theM. eonf..rn,ahl,. .Tita must have 
very sr'at total thiekn^.s. Tiiis .-.^nelusion may he eorrohorate.l l,v infonnation 
won from even tho fleeting tilance one can piv,. to the ro.-ks that are visible 
trom the railway train on the str.toh from f'ratd.rook to Kootenav Landin- 
In minor de;:ree the rstin,at..l of t'.e formation uiav var^ ae^-ordiir^ 
to the smnewhat arbitrary poition a^si^-ned at eaeh expo^ur,- to the upper limi"; 
of the Cnston. Tn every ease t!,e formation ^.Ta.lnally boeomes tnore ferrusi- 
r.ous and thus passes slowlv into the overlying Kitcliener. The doubtful inter- 
mediate band of strata often totals -..vera! hundred feet in thiekness The 
top ot the Creston has i,een generally fix,,! within th,. band where the thinner 
bedding as well as the rusty character of the K'iteh.ner iK^eomes pronouneed 
in the quartzitie >trata. 

.«.• ^".°"";''ol°o '/*"":. the writer b-lieves it to he U-t to trust the minimum 
estimate of 9..';00 feet for the Creston as embo.lying the net balanee of ■> 0- 
babihties denve.1 from the field study. It may be ad<lM that, in the opinion 
of the writer, t us vast thiekness for a single formation i. not to be explained 
as only the apparent thiekness of l,..ds neposit^.l in fore-set bed.ling as a sub- 
marmo delta. The recent emphasis of L.eolc-r-ts on this .-,,nr.-e of error in 
tneasuru...' the actual thiekness of a euistie fonnutbm i~ certainly justified. 

• Accompanyinu Part A. Ann. Rep. Oeol, Surv.. Canada. Vol. 12, 1899. 


hi.r \i:i MiM i,r itlh. isii.uioi: 

■ 'i 
- 'f 

t \ 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Fii till- pre- lit rase. Imu^'v. r, ilir rritiTi;! of inclihoil furc-sct i>i-c|<liiij,', in ooii- 
t"a-l to |ii-|. -liiMllv hoi-i/oiiMl l.c'liliiiir on a -iiliriiiliu!.', flat sen-floor, do 
not -ceiM tfj \iv mat' hill l.v ilir lacN. 'I'lie pnvaK m-c of sini-crark^. rippli - 
marks ami . tlni- ^!lall.■^^ uatrr marking:- in the iicrroctly conl'orMialilc Kitc'i. m-r 
and .M..yii" foriiiation-. n- w.-ll a- in ilir Cri'-lun foniialion in Irs^ (Icgreo. 
apiioars |m -iio\v tliat tin- -la loiton ami lli- liciMinL' plam- of tlic -ami- ami 
liiinU w IT nearly lovol tliroii-liont tla' il. |)o-il ion of tlio I'nrrrll -I'lii -. 

'Ilir ('r(-i,.ii toniiati'in i> i.o iimr,' i\lraonllna|-y for iinmcn-c tliirknoss 
tlian ii i- lor its «oii!rrfiil hoino;icMioity in any ono -t-rtion. 'riuTc i- a sijinal 
absiiiiT o! well-inarki d lilhological lioii/iin-niarki-r-. Tio mari-l |)arallcl 
to tlii< lioniom-nrity ainonj;- the Donndary fonnations is that nfforded by the 
basal arl-o>o nioinhcr of the Crolarcon- -cotion at ihr Ta-ayt' n rivrr. 'I'lic '■ rk 
of *tvoiiy hori/on-iini;Ucr- is not to ho i xplaiiiod hy tin hn-k of :5iifllrlcnt ont- 
Prop- ; til lioqnoni rci-urri'iii-o of ilic ('nstun fork- anioiiL' flic fanltdilock-. 
coupk-d with iho rxoi llcncr of oxpo-iiro for portion^ of the formation in each 
larfie oiiicio)!, rcmk r it iiiiprohahlc that important hands of rock ot'iur than 
the .-taplc (|iiartzit<' have hi en ovcilonkrd in the Pionmlary holt. The forest 
cap interfere- mueh more with determination of total thickness and nf the 
larjrer ^trnctnral leat\ires -iicli as faults and folds, than with the study of the 
details ol e,,iiip.isit ion. X'-ither in -lidi- rock imr'in fjravels of the eatiyon- 
streains of the areas mapped, as underlain by the Creston, was any other rock 
discovered in lar;ie anionnt than t'lo-e which arc the dominant component- of 
the Cre-ton (luartzite a- hereafter dc-erihrsi. 

While relative hoinofreneity characterize- the formation from top to bottoni 
at any one exposure, noteworthy changes in its constitution were observed as the 
Boundary hell was travirsul from wi-i lo e.i-l. The rre-lon as outeroppinp 
in the Ifoyie range and western lialf of the Vahk raniro thus stands in a certain 
litholojiieal eoiitra-t to the -umic ronnal imi 'vher, it crop- ojil farther ea-t. 
For the nnclerstandiny of this important fact if i- convenient to r<coj;iu;'.e two 
different phases of the formation in the I'nr ell mountain sy-tem -a wc-tern 
and an eastern jihase. 

Western I'liasr. — At ^IcKini cliff and in the onterops immediately east of 
tlie crest the material was larfrely L'athered for the following description of 
the Cre-ton lormaiioii in a typical -eetion ri pi'e-eiil inu the we-iern plia-e. 

In the elitf if-clf the stajjle rock i- a very hard and loiif;h ipiari/iie. Ineal^- 
ing with a sonoron-, alino-t metallic rint;'. The individual hed^ va;'. from a 
few inche- to twenty-five feet or more in thiekne-s. averaein^ )ierhaps three 
feet. Very often the more massive plates are seamed with thin dark-pray 
laminae of onee-arsillaceons quartzite or mctarsillite, but true shale or slate was 
never seen in this part of the section. For 2.riOn feet measuri'd vertically np 
the cliff the quartzite. which dips 3^-10" ea-tward. is sjiecially ina-sive. pivinL' 
the effect of -nperb ivelopean masonry, broken horizontally by widdy spaced 
beddingr-plane- and hroken vertically onl.v by master .joint-. Toward the top 
of the cliff the rock is -omewhat thinner-bedded, but i- still a -troiiL', ty|iical 

in.f'iHI ill I'll I III! i \.- , i;i>\,,:il i; 123 

Si;i;;0\AL PAPER No. 25a 

Ihr ilMmiiiiiiit I'ciliiur nii fresh t'riicluii'- is throughout };ra.v r.r ^^roeuish- 
i;ri-. '^ .^ilirr-iii- i., n -. .iii,a\ li ■! lii;liiiT Uiii .>: M.-,.rh pun :ir,i>. A i.-,' w,,;;,. 
lu- ,r,i> 1-h » hiir l.r.l- ,.,-.-Mf iiT. ruhirl^ tlimuiih tli.' i'mimiuiI iiUi ;iii.l. ;ii-.i\ 
K!'tviii-h-Kr:i.v hfils wo.ithi'i-p.l lijrlit rusiv-hmwii or yv(V 
rpsfiiilili- t>|iii-iil ICiti-hi'ih r iiuiii'tzili 
I[.;.vi.r 1,. Is 

ih-lu-o\vii. po as to 

i-iuirivl.ri/r the I'.u-uiiil i^n wli.r.- ii- 

ii'.<\i'i 1 1- i.- '-lull ;i"H[-izr inr i.u-uiiuU'ii wii.r'- i!- n|i|'rr |i,irt i-rMp- 'Ut 
ju^t i-a-l lit' thf .•lilf. That sn Ml- I., lo the ruh- t'(.r ihc (iuaM/i:i- .L;.n( rally as 
it i- .'NiKi-i-d in the I'ui.-i'll i':in;;c: [\u- I-cMIul:- i- lhi.-k an.l iiia--i\i' iu ih. i,,|i 
nii'l h.ittfuii .liw-ions ani t 'liiiiicr-lT.Mr,! in lla^ luiiLllc .li\i-iMi, ,,l' ih. -liata. 

■fl 1 .... . ...1 .: 1 . 11 .■ .. . 

i-vi-v, ari' iiiiwhrrr i-'MititiU'Ui- ciH.uuh I ■ alh'\\ ol' a tr--t 
wi.itliy <-Mu at. of t! f iriatiM' -In-nylh of ili,.., 

-liouv i-i'o---hoi|ilinL'. 

i'\|P"-UI'o-. I|. u 

IV <-Mu at. .if t! f iciatiM' -In-nylh of ilii.., thn.' .l;\I-i.u 
Thi- si'.lim.ail soiiii't iiiii'-;. tlmuLrh quit.- ranlv. -li. 

I III- M-'mn.-m mimhm illif-.. inoui.'^ii .|Ullt' IMlia\. *n"\v-^ fl o^^-iK'i 1.1 iUL^. 

Sim-i.Ta. •!■;-, 1 il'-iuark-. ripi)h'-ina!'k-. an.l ami. li.h' liui-r..u- w.t. niu i.l. nlili..! in 
a siiiL'k' case airioriL tlio strata cxpo-cii ..n M.-Kini rlitl'. l\l-i\v hi r.- within tin- 
BfiUli.larv li It th(>-i- niiirhillfrs wi'iv fciin;.); lanlv in ih. .I.n.ina!!: .|aai'!/il, . 
but 111. .re partii-uhirly in the inrtar^illii i.- h. ri/..ii-. 

111. .IT partii-uhirly in the inrtar^illil i.- h. ri/..ii-. 

Ali'i'aily in tho han.l-s|K'.-iuuii~ iiuii\(>rir.i< urliut- ..f I't'lit fi-oui n.iii i 

cenus partii'h'* suff-ust tliat the nx-k i- hiiihly I'l-hlspalii;.-. At ih<- saiiir tiin.' n. 

is Si I'll t'int tho i;oii('i'aI i;fi'i ni-li tint ,.\ ti,i. i|uart/.it. i- .in- t., ili--i-.niinaiiil 

ininiit. phlti > aial -hii.My t'.il- ..f iiiii-a. Thi - ,,l.-i i\ mI i.n- ai-. i-iU!!irni. 1 hy 

niici-iisiTipii' i\aininatiiui. Inl< rlnokiiii; i|iuir!/. fi, an.l mi. a an. mmu t.i 
v^ ♦!. .-,...*:.. I *:. ^: i, i- .i. . • .. a ■ i i . ■ ^i i- i 

be till' oim-titu. lit-. I'au-li .f tlir-o mini ral- i- j;la — '.-h ar i 
spi'i'iniiii,-. ()rthiii-l 

n t. 

- . .... , .. ,,, .1; t'lL' rn> 

ii'i'ini.ii,-. ( )rthiii-hiM . iiiiiUMrlin. , iiiirrupirlhiti-. uliii'i.'-l.i-.'. ami jirnhaMy 
albitc luakf up tin' li-' af fihi-pnr-. Of tln-i ...■ihnrhi-i ai .1 m ;.a npirthiti- arc 
tho ;iin-t ahuiihint, thouiili it i- 11..1 n I'taiii tliat, in anv -pii-iuun. tlir nthor 

fold-pars i.f thp li-t arc ah-«i.i. '\' ■.{■ miiM iiu-luih - hiiihly j.h hinii' 

biotiti' and iiiii?f'oviti', the lattia- hiln? either Wrii ili' in plat.- oi- in 
tho typirnl shro<is of soriritc. In sonu' -jiorim. 11- tla. l.i..liir i- thr niiirr alnuid- 
ant of the two riiioas but in nthrr- it 1 opoiik's suhr riliiuit. ,.. nni-i'o\ it*, ainl 
may disapfx ar alfofietbor. 

Otlier I'on-titnonts are \ ■ ry -uhordinati- ; tlay' rar.' anlu'dra ..f 
titaiiito, titaiiifcrous inauiietitc, pyrito, ipidotp and znisitr. 

Tlio quartz and feldspar grain- vary from Oci? iiini. t.. n l' mm. in iliaimter, 
avoraaing' ix'rhap.s O-Ofi or O.tK mm. The 1< iii;th- ..f the miea -.-ah- aii- ';<a 'iy 
n. ac'll ureater. Thousrll few direet tr^iees of ela-tie form are left aiieni; 

t .nerali', it is probable that tli(-o diinen-ioiis repr.-enl appro.ximal.Iy t!io 

size of tlio original frrnins. The texture of tin- quari/ite i- ihu<. quite llni in 
the typo s|>oeiinen- a-, iiidoi'd. throufrhoiit all the expo-me-: i: all the th..r.Mn.|s 
of feet of tlilokm-?- no ponsrlomeratie. pritly. or e\en vi i-y enai-'^e ^aiely hed 
was =e< II. 

It is an o]Hai qtievtion. perliap-. whetlier tai- roi-k sh.uil.l he eajl. .1 a 
qii;irfziti- if by that torm we mean an indniate.l -ai.!<totie The a\er.iLO 
quai't/: L'rain is mii.-li t^o <:niall t.. have f..riiiod oriiiiually a tree -and. In fa.-t 
the iveriifre i:rain i.f the r..ek i- n..t m.ire tliaii on..^-aiidth a- laiL;- 
.1- rl'.- averaii-e iiraiii ..f typi.all bea.-h .sail'l. Th,. naim ' .|i;a! ' -it.'. , .1 

■» i 


III I-MIIMLM 1,1 lin: IMi Uli'lt 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

t^'.V JIoKvn\-. l)i'\V-ll|] ■,11,1 ,,ll,,.i- I.. .1 I , 

t'^;:::; :;:i'r:;;::";.:^i:^:™;,u;':;;,r; -;;;■:;: ::7'' '■-•'-" 

"<■•■:'"■«'"-" •■( ' »■■.. ,j.i„:„ I. iJ ,.,:'' ":,' '" 

feet ut i!„. ( ivstoi, f,,rnuui,,n. Th,. <|,K-ti,,n n-i-,.- ., t ,1 , ■["'<- >t 

-hi.-!. ,.,M.I,„I ,.|.,y h.s l....„ ,1„„ -,, „ ,-,, ^h " ""■,'"':'■''-"■'" ''y 


the ,,...p-.a ,l.,„,-,u a„ a,vo,n,. ..f a,„ „„„1 „,,i,.|. ,.|„.,„i,..]i; • ,, "[ |i.ii,i,li|- .111., ,\,'t ^liow vital <-nii(r:Nts. Thi< nn.l,I,.iii ,-,f 

""■li::";;: '■;■ "„■", ';; ""■ ""* '"""""■■ "'■■■ ■■' ■'- '"'■■'' -." '• 

' ./-;,,:ir::;i;;;:V':;:,;;:i»";:'':v'::i; ;:* ''':j;s:;!: t yt"'"-"- 

l^\\l> H(I w lldll -fTU'Q -till ■». - AT x.« 1 11^ 

.•on.e.n,,.„ti„,.,..„.eX;;o;;,,.:;:,M;;r:,,:r''"'' '■'"" ''""" '"-'■' -■''" 

^•noous q.nrtzi,.. from ^r.Ki,„ Hiff .^avo the following, r.^ult-' ' '"""" 

^tud; J';"Vu'wa;\?rVT„:;Tro^„r.'^,*.^ 'f- l^-' opportani.y to 

and other formations oon.posinK tl.rifoVkv \rnnnt-.i^ <•„ '^'■' V- *'l'^ C^>'^*'^n. Kitohon.-r. 
thKknessPs of phjIUfos. ,h\or\tr%hX\-r"on ^M^^ «r,.a 

mica schists «ere found in this prric tian te?rane .s '„ '• r"f "rr.' "'i',' ^"•^-^■•^""•xt 
In Kcneral these rocks are abmidantlv h ,rlp 1 »f*h '^"'"'f'' "' f''»' Shuswap lakes, 
niinuto individual crystals (aniedra I), rin^T f^I '^•'^"'I'iar.v <,„art;! developed in 
the more soluble micas, chlorite talc ,.ratB?fn^'^Vl''l'" ?•""''"'"« "f ^'"'1 •'".•k" 
resistant quarts „nd alkaline feldspir wo hi be Vashl'j ^ 'T^'""'' ""V""' ♦'"> '""f" 
inclined to credit ihis exi.lanntinn nf tl,„ r • ^'"''"™ 9"^ ♦" «'a. The writer is 
to form the thick, ver/dre ^rrt" tes r^f'hrcTmbH n "^ 'T" <'"-' 'i'lat^d 

rich content ot microcline and microperthite re^enteH Beltian formations. The 

tions of the liitter can be explaine .Td ,e tn fV.» -" -' '''""'"'■^'T' '" •'"' descri,,- 

^:ni;^t-'-^r ,^i^3££|^^T"^t ^ 

Beltian granite: its d.b4 is'^^;::;?!:i\:^ fe^'^li^^lllis;'^^^;^;^ Ijre- 

liirr,i!i 'ii liii ,111,1 s.^i i;,,\,,\i, i; WT 


. I „'(/,/>/., „'■ r,, ,/„„ ,,,„„■/■,;/,, l^.■^^,•H /•/,„,.. 

t1^:; ;; s^"' i'*w 

Al.(i •'" ••Xl' 

i-pa.. .. ■ :: ; ^-f' •'i'^' 

Mno:.: ■.■...•;.■, 't "'^ 

(•.I() -^ •"' 

Na.O.. .. . .,-J,- ■'»'» 

K.O 2' .,,10 

ii:(j at iio'c. . ■. -■'! •''-" 

Mi; .w HOC. ;.■:.•■..■■,;■.;•.;■.:■.:•.: .■.:;.■: ;; :!!i: :^.; 
'•■'• .1)1 

' ' *•' 2-681 

Assigning :ill „i' tljo s,„Ja i,, tlie iill.ito moUrule, on.' half of tli,' liiu,- m rii. 
anorilul.-, tl,f olhc,- l,:,lf „f i, ,„ tit.iiiit,, ::,,., til,-. . |.i,l„i,.. :,,,i /.-i-i..-. •!, ' 
woi-ht Mrniit;,g,.s ,,f il,c ,-,,ii.ii-ii,ti. mil,, nil- luiv, l,,.,-,, r-wliN ,•;,!, -il ,.,.,' 
as f,,!i,.w-: - 

• Quartz 

All, III. IlKlltKuli... .. '.'. '.'. ".". '. V. 

OrtluMJase iii,,li'tn|p '. -,* 

Aiioitliilc tiioliRulp 

.Miia..,, ca _ ; 

Accessorit'^ \ ;, 


It is ,|i,it,. i.o>.>il,l,- tlini :, ,-,,i,M,|,.rai,l, lr.„ti,,i, ,,r i!„. .,„|,, -i„,.,i,i ■, ■ 
assigned to tlio suricite ;in,l ,.v,.u tluit piiriii.^,nit,' its,.lf i.. |,r,.s,.„t JL.uvv.^r 
fmni lm,■r,,^,■„,M,. ,.vi,l,.n,v it i, pr,,!,,,!.!,. that th,. -,,.la-!VI,i~|,ar in,.i,.,-,ii,. i- tl,. ^umvv <,f this alkali. 'I'h... minrral jmiv, iiiair,., ,nv. th,.r,-|-.,r.' Im-H.-v.-i 
to b,. ii,.arly , muiuh ao.'.ir.ito ti, .uiv,. a fair i,l,.:i ,if th,> ,.,>inpM.i, i,,,, ,,.• .|. ■ 
avorasr,. cpiai-t^it,. it i. cl,.ai-Iv a ,p,it,. hii:hlv iVM-paihi,. -, ,!ii,„.ni. 

Th,. ,,iily ii,-tal.l,. variation from tin- -.nrra-.. ,.,,nip,i-iti,.n .,1 ih- typi.-T 
<iuarl/iM. 1. I„„.„l ;„ t|„. thin, ,larU.r. i,„,r,. mi-a,-, ,,ns an,l l,v,-;,L;i„..„- l.„m,. i.^ 
whi,.|i ottcii i,it,.rnipt th,. ,l..miiiaMt li^ht «Ta.v .piartzit,-. TI,,..;,. lamina-, v.irv- 
iiiff from a conthMotrc or less to several roiitiin.-tro.? in thiciaicss oft,-, hav- 
the liabit of na-iaiyillit , l.nt n-ually th, y aiv -., a,-i,l a- t,. rank an.-o.. ;l-.i 
impure i]nartzit(-s. 

Th,. sp,..ili,. :j|.avily ..f th<. anaiy/e,l -|v ,-iiin.|i. l'-IM i- .„-,,. ,1, . . ,. „ 
for th,. -tapl,.. li.h, „.ay ,-,.-k. Tla- av,.n.^,. t..r 1,-n .pe.-iiu.-n- tv,,i-a ",/^". 
whole wi-st, rn plia e is l'-HIK. 

Th- .,! otony of t'„. w,.-t.rn pin,., i- -,-l,k.m l,r,,k,-n \.v tin apn, ,, ■.,.-. 
of any litl:ol,,';i,.al in,velti,s. . , - ■ . 

At a few h,.rizoiis the nii,-ae,-..iis iiiat,.rial of the roi'k i- „...r it,.,i •■,,-- 

flitl,i,e,l -i'-er,.i.lal or m. r,. irregularly -ha|,e,l. ,-,-„, -n.tionarv ',-*!., , ,,•■■,,■■ 
size. .,p to a r„-,t ,,r na.n- i„ ^vltk. -H,, .,.„at.-t ,liam,-t,.,- ,,1 ,j„. o..u.rr,C. 


hi I'.ttn Ml \ r I, I I III i\ I 




2 GtORGE V,, A ^■2 
. :'""■' ^''Wiii.ri.iy 1^ . ,„ tl.,. |,L,l:.. ,,i l.J.lin... Ti,. 1,. .-. ,.• , 1,1, .,.,,, , .• „ 

'■ •••;"■ ;^'">- '■''■!: ;" '-'i" ..m.i .,n,.i,i,. ,„u«.■..^iN.. n,,;, ,„,,;„ ,„,,.. ;;■„;,„. 

Io-,..| nf „ ._, ,M.l, wl,i,,.. ur !,„• I.:,.. „f int.rl„.kMr.. ,r.nn. .,f .,,..,■./ .,,,.1 

■uK,,,-.l,,.„,. ,,M.,,;,,, |„ ,,|,i,.|, ,,,. ,.,„l,„,|,|,„, ,K.,,„|„„, ,..„„,,i,,,„„. ,■„;;. „f 

'''"'■ """".'•; ■■• """■ '■'■ '■■ ", .li;,i,.,., ,-. .,n.l n..,„^ l,:.l,lv |,..,kil..:. ,,.,1 

*■'';■■'"■'"■ "■"'' '"■•*■"• ^n,l„,lr, f li i,,.. 'n,,. ,„;„.ri;,l ,,f tl„. .l.rk-.,|...r.-.l 

"'";"■•''■ -.l'l^""'v ,„i. ,■:,., ,i inuar.l f,„m , .■ .,.n Il„. r.. !; ,„:,- f,,,. 

.•i.'ll M.M,v;;„N.„ i. ,„. |..-..,| ii, „ ul.lh. ,!,r,,|,.i,rl..v,l -|;Mi ,,| ,|;,:,n/;I,. ,- 'j.,- 

...-' ..fM,.,,rly ,.„,,. ,,.,„r(/ ,n,l f,.|,l.|.„'. [„ ,.,.1, „f ,1,., hn^.^.r ., .,', t-.r ,.„. 
tl.r. in,,,, .,,,,1 ,,,,,,,, ,r.. ,Ht r.KM|.,.l.v ,ii-iMi.,;|,.i ui,l, rHV,-,.;,,-,. •,, ,h,> 

!"''''"''\'"" '"• '" ">"n.T.n. - 11 ,.li„„|,v :,.,„,,,„. ,vl,l,i„ ,1,„ ,,.,„ 

""'■■ "' ";■ ^-■•'■^^"'•■•;- I" >^"n„. ,,f ,1,„ -„.,1|.,,. -,.,,.,..., i,.„- tl„. ,„|,.,. :,n. 
I'""";' '^■•"'" 'i'-lni.Ml,.,!, in u ,„„„,„,,. .i,„il,,, ,,, ,|,^„ ,,u„,.,,„| ;, ,„.-,.,„ 

Ill lllr l\i|.|„.||,.,- (llurf/itM. ■ 

At _„ f,.w othrr li,.n/..n. ,|„ |Vl,N,,;iil,i,. .piurt li,- 1- -|,,,ii:,l,.,| «,,1, ],, 

l-i.-.nt,. t.„ls ■,,, to I ,•„,. i„ , „„„, Th.- .■!,, .,.,,„. ,i„, |„„|,li„„ |,i,,, "„ 

nil illi'-'N-._ llio rvnis,. „f ll,.ir i;r„« ti, ,,,„! ..f ,l„.i,. ,.,.-t,iH i,,,, t.. m v,.,■^ inni..',! 
iHin-.-^;t -l,-.,ta in tl„. ,,v.f. n,■Plllv.ltl^ 1„,„h.o, ,„ ,„i- „,■:,,. i, ,„„ ,„,,.,. 

",'"."'■ •^'•".1"'- -I i^il .l.Mi;' i,„.|:„„r,rphi-„, ,„„■ t|„. tl„.,,„,,l Mict^ii,.., ,.i,i„„ 

..I ,.„,.,,,, ,n.n,<.vos «v,v lV„.ii,l.. ,.vi.l„„a,i,„K f,,,. ,1„. ,, ,|,„, ,|,„r,,;„. „, 

til. I....,l„;,.. wl,,.,-,. ,t w„. ,„.,„„ll.v ,li-,.„v..r,.,l. A- . ,.„!, ,l„. (>.,„„ .„,,i,e 

H I... I..v,,l. lM,t in th,. f„„h.i,|,„.k M t„. M„yi,. riv,.,' tl„.,v i- . ,|;-,ir,..t 
'■liiivii-,. .■.•,,-.ii,p- tlio l.,.,l,liu!.' plan.- at ,v!ativ,.|v 1 ,xv ai-l,- h, fi,;, ,■■, ,. 
ftrifif,. IS (],l i„ ||„. sr.w„„l,„-.v |.lan,-~ a. «>11 a< :ilr,ni; tl„. l.rd.lh.t'. 

/;(7.s7tn, /'/,„>■,., Tlie «vstcn. just, ,l..s,.ril„-,| ,-l,arart,.,-i/,.. tl,.., ,- 
ti(.n a- ,f .n.p- ^, tla- O.Min.lary I ..Jt Lrtuv,.,, I'.,i-rl,,ll a,„l tn.- M.m,. .^,.,- 

Ka-tua,-.l 01 tlu. ri ,.,• th.. ( 'r-.s!..,, i^fH.lnally a-.,„ tli.. iVatinv. ul,i,.l," „.,', 

ii.Tnu.l ... tl.o .».>.,„ pl,a„.. Ylu. iatl,.r i. t>pi..a]!y .|..v,.|.,,„.,l at fl,o Va],k 
I1V.I-. u-hvr.. th.. f. inati..ii liiially .l!,.ai < l.,.|„.atl, x,,Mny..r f....k- 

l-he inipoi'tant ]ith..l..^.i,.al ._-„ntra.ts with tl..- uo-i. r.i phas,. ..,.n-ist 
ni.--t,i-t a .i.,.„l<..| ,I....,.,.aM. in th.. av,.raf.-..,.- ,,f th,. h,.,].. „ft,.n h.a.linc 
»'^ I' tin,- h.nnnati,.,, at tnany hf.rizon.-: s...-..n.lly. a p.„n...,.„.,.,| in,.,...a-,-. in tlio 
'im„„nt ..t ari.illa.....,.,, n,att..r which h..n. f..n„- ,„a„y .li-tin..f l,...U a.,.'. -.No 
"C'-m- a* a notahh. in,pn,.,ty i,, tho .till .l-aninanf .p,art/il,. ; an.l fhir.llv t Ho 
appr-afan..,. ..1 ..h1,.,„„, an.l mapn.^.inn, ,.a.'h„nat... a~ s„I,o,..linaf,. ..h.m..nt- in 
Mh the .martz.te and the in.,ro afpilha.,.,.,,. -trata. Th.. i,„.n.a^o „f the 
<-arb,.,,atr. tnanifcn- it9, If in the ro.-k-h, !«..-, whi.h. ,,n a.-.-ount ..f th.- -.K.-i-,] 
^..lubihty „f ,1,0 ,.arhn„at.... i„.,.-ent. t.. si^rht a.,.1 t..n,.h. a .-hat-a.-t. fi-t !.• r,,,..h- 

nes^ on weath,_.r,..l s„rfa.^,.s. I„ ......Tal. th.-,.i„,„ ,.a,l,„„ar ,.,„. „ i ,.'{„ 

-onif. exff>.s -ver the nia;.ii..<ian ..arh,.i,af,.. a- -h..wh l,v a ..,.,.tai„ .,„,.,., .-,f 
fff.rv.?,',-!!,.,. wit'i ....1(1 .lilnfo acid. 

Tn ..ivh.r ,o .,l,fain a .h-rtnit,. i,l,.a a^ t., th,. .■,.:„p„.i, I„„ „f ,1,.. ,,.,,,.„ 
Pha-.. typ,. sp-enncn^ w. r.- ..olh^.-t.-.j at the Yahk viw,- -,.,■, i.,, .,„,| 1,,,, ■„,.,.„ 
.tiri;... rni..r.,>,f.plnally. 0,„. „f th.-^e >i.,.,.inifn-, tak. ., t>..n, a hir...- • -rop 


i:ir<<i:i ni 111/ : <i : , , \.^i i;i,\,.\n 1: ia7 


■" ll"' < ■■■inlMi--l..ii ti;ill. .liuil . !„■ ill, .11-1111.1 Viii-'l- w. -t ..f til.' iiiiili, t'..ik .if 
liic ii\i'r. hii* i.. ,11 rliriii|.'iilj\ iih.ily/.-.l |u ,1, ..-i-lpii. I. ui!| .,,,,. t., -I|,.w 
tiic t'.'M.iMl' ..f llii. t,\| i,al .al' iiiv.-ii- |.iirl .-f ili. !'..irii;,i i.,i^ 

On til,, fr.^li fnii'iiin. til.' r.M^li i> jii-ht ■jr.iy. c.,,ii,|.:irt, mihI tiim-l..-.i.l. ,1. tli..wL-h 
I'l.ily ''!■ :iu-, ..|' th.- .■■■111. lit a^.ll ,.!' Miaiiv laiii'ii,,.- ,.|' ^.irviir..' .■..tii|. .-ii L.r 
Tile u,athir,.i -urla.-. i- ■iiarallA ..I' a -till pal. r i^i ,v . .■|.,,ir, l.iit I'.t a .1. i.tii 
of one or Iw.. iniljiiiii'lf- bi-l.iw the <iirl'aci' tli.Tf i-i usually a slicll nf iiltiTe>I 
rock ..I' a l.r.iuii ..r Imtf ..■ Tli.^ •[•■.•n|,,iiri/.at i.iii at 'lir -iirra.^, i- ,1mii1i,1,..^ 
nil vtiV.I ,,'■ l.a.liiii- l.\ \ci:,.|ai.K^ a. ■!.!-. 

''ii'l'i' 'li ■ iiii.T.i-.-'.p.^ \\v T'f\< i- s.cii t.. 1.1 !ii|i,i-ivl nt' .•arlii.MaU .i. 

quart/, f.|.l-|,iii, -.■riciti.' ini.^a. a littl.' n^-.-n l.i..'i'.'. an. I -mall L'raiii- ..f 
lim.initi/.il ir.,ii 'I'h.-i. .•..n-tiHi- nt- arc naiiicl in th.^ .ir.i. i •■< .1. .t. a^iiij; 
aliilii.laii.c. The .•ari.ciintc trniiiK vary rr..m O.dl niin. .r 1.-^- i,, n n:; nun. iti 
iliniiiet.r an.l a^cniiif iiLmit O.liJ iiun. Tliey iicvor ainiiai- t.. li.ivc rlifiiii- 
liulio.lral iicvc|..piii.^iir. The quartz ati.l fcl(l*par jrraiii- which ar.'. dniihtlc-:?, 
ill lar;,'c-t part. ..f cla-tic ..riiiin, vary I'r.'iii ll.ii2 miii. t" n-l nmi. ..r uu.r.' in 

(liaiiictcr. avi raf:iii(; al t (1.0)! inin. Tlic (loiiiiiiaiit mica. -. ri.^it.-. i- ii.,t iji-- 

tributccl niiilVirinly hut is iiio-t .■ilinn.laiit in rather sharply .Ictin.'.l laiiiitur of 
specially tine Liraiii. Stieli lainiiac won' evi.leinly purcK aririllaceoiK 

tlinii I'le reinainilcr nf the rocl;. .Vo true ar^'illa iii- material I'an I.e .lis- 

eern.'il in tliiu -tvli.n; the seiliinent has he.^n v.-ry lary ly re.^rv-tiilli^c.l and 
its itisejiilili' l.a-o is a nietarL'illite. 

The per.-eiitai:^ s in Prot' Dittri.'h'- .•hiiiii.-al aiialy-is . -p. clna^ii X.i. 
117!') are, vci^y .HtFerpnt from r in^rhly .ii-ln.'o.l fr..iii ini.-ri.-.'opie 

Aiiiiliisi^ ../' Iiipi sj,, r'uiiin . ('r,^l„ii fiii-mnliiin. Eashrii I'lci.^r 


"''■' 5r«5 .so: 

^. 7-8.1 •1)77 

1-71 .nil 

-98 (111 

■ '• ;t-«7 .(192 

1.1-02 -2»is 

..•^vl' 2-»;9 -nu 

K5O. . 1.3,S ./n.^ 

iijo at im- . .. .. .. ,. ;; :: '.0,, ^^^ 

H.^O aliiive 11(1 0. ].81 .km) 

^'O: 13.0,-, ..i])7 

S^P- «r 0.654 

Insoluble in liydrochloric ac id fiC-2r'„ 

Soluble in livilrdchloiio a. id: 

F<'-:0-,.. .'. 1.92 

A 1.0. 0.02 

^"iiO ; 12-88 

Ms-"» 2-11 

As-iRninir the s.iluble lime ami inap-i e-ia to lie- .arl... nates, i],,- remain, ier 
of the lime to the am.rthite mole nil.-, the so, la t- tl;e alhite m.,;c,-iil,,. the 




i>i i-\i;iMi M ,,i nil iMi iii,,i! 

2 GtOKGL V . A 1912 

:H::■:^::^;::;.,:J:'::'■;::,;;;::::;':;,l-,:;:r''-■■ - -- 


A Hull' riKiIrr lilii.'. 

niil„„.|,,„. „i„|,.,.|,|',,' 

AiH.rlhit,. tii,,|,., ,,!,. , 


• 'ukiuin .ill liiiniil,., . 
MiiKrir-uiiii (iirlj..iii,t...' 
I'l'iiiiMliilcr. . ,. 

ri . .ili'ii|,i|,.,| |,,|. ,1 






j (1 

fli K' II l;ll !■ 
k'u-.\[ .nrnihi.iii, 
rai-i'- tlh 


■ I till- V..-K. ■■■■ 

■lllill lllill,|-;il..- 

I, , . . , '"■ "IH\|,r,.|r.| nl.llli.l; , , . | ,|„. „„|, ,,„ ,:,, 


<-'li,-ml,.;ill.v ;,i„i iinii,.r,il,)i!ir:,||v i;„. v..A- I,, , • ,• 

r":::'::::';::;-.::i::,::;;;;:,;-H: ■•'"- 

"■■'■■"■'"I "I""- 'I- Ai I A,,. :.,„„, ,■:;.,, ;,;'"'■■ 

Km HI \i.i: I'niM 

'litr,.,-,.,,.... i„.,..„.„ „,o ,u-., :, r „, ,,/ , ; ; , r'' "';' ": '"'"■'•;-'- 

,. ^' ■"■ '"ii^'iiiciit Mil, I iii-trihiiv,. I ,.,,,,,, ,1,,, ,•„.,, , , 

Wn ,iin„„.,| ui,h ,1... ..X,,,.,.-. r,.,- „i ;,v ,, ^''l''''^^;- ■•^'"-:". Lav, 

3 ,.nd -1.) 

l-llll HIM-- .,(■ iIn- ICit.'llPii, 

r. I S,-.. iiiai. -li,>,.t- X,,^. 

»flLuMlN«; « ." 

'^|Pr'jf77:'iipr.1W!SL .^^.-''-r'-:!?''^;--. 

'•■'•'■'"■'' '" ''" '/'/■/ (>//,'o\„ !;//,• 




l—r.A ■.. i ,|,„,. ,,.„,,„„„ ,1 "'■ '"-I' ■■"■■• '•■ 

' ".tio... i,i ,„ .,f ,„,,1,„' , ', *■"""'""■ """ ' '"' '' 

""i.i..f|..r.I,l,i,i, T,i ■ " '"; ' ' '"• "" ■'■"" 

:i?;u;r'^;;:i,:;;::,;:;;:r;::::::::; >:-'V'':':^^ 

mu..h ,„or.. ihna s,h.o ,■..,, ,|,i, 1 K '" ' ""■ '^ "^ 

'- .h,.y „ro n.;. ;;.: 1' „':;'• :;■';; "•:-;-' "i -'7 h..,., 

y I- ^-.p,,! i,„„ ,„,„,: v,"^"'""' 'ri" "',""■ •'''""- ^— ^■ 

■•-^ruhirl.v Krav or ..,,.,.,,,.1,.: , , , / '"■ ""'"' '"" ' '"'- '""^ ^•-k ''^ 

'lark,.P ,h,u. .:i^ n'^^ < v!, ' ii, J,^'' "^r"'-"' f^ 'I'" '".'- ' ^'Hr 

rust,v.brow„. i„ ,.l,anu.t..n-.,i,. •. ,, t ,„. 'i "'■■"'":".'' ^'"•''"•" ''^ ^"•'-' 

and i„t..r.,...M,..l,... ,! ^ "..";; ^TrTr '" '"■"' " '!'^^'"^ 

overlying M,.yie for„,„ti„n " ' '" '■'""""■" "' '" ''"' 

••olour of tlie i. dno "a,i., ,,r,. n.n.or o„„st,t„Pnt<. Tlw r„-tv 

r:";;',;'T,,;rr:' ::;;;',''"■. H ''""•-"-m™. i".;::™;' ;;;;;; 

''"*" hi run III \i ,,i I Id i\ii i;i,,i! 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

irnm our. „„„. ,., „:; „„„., ^i.l. ,„ ,-.., ,„ ..,.,„ ,„ „„ ^„ „, 

"I iiiiii. 

Mr .\L \.\ Connor m..l.- tl„. i„||„„inu u.mI.v-,. ..f ., ,,,, ,,,| , i„,..„ (s„ 

ll.i,.) ..f tl,. .„ t:.k.u „...r ll,. Il,„n„l.,r, ,„o,nMn..n, „„ ,|„. )'„„,,„, 
moiinliiiii iiiiMifclialcly w. .it ot' i],,- .\|,,\i,. i\y,., : 

.t//-i///M» .,/■ I\,l,l.,„, ,■ ./,,„,■/:,■/,, 


8.(1 '• '•• *• 

Tuc "'■"" '>•; ■'■M 

A «i:;. ■.,•;.■; v. n'."--' '"" 

M.i(» ., • ■• ' ! ■"'-• ••■»* 

i^' .:::.;::::; ;•:;::; ,:i :,,, ;•„. 

&::::/:::.-:.:::/:.-r:, ,,;!:: •;;)•; .■:» 

K l\ '-^ 111 I J- l7 

iWv«. n..r ., '■:!•; <"• i '« 

I'll . .. -. 1 .'II .(Mi, |.s; 

V.Ti •'■■ ...J 

'■"• -IJ .tmi 

"• • •' .'tiWI 

Tl"' "Ni.i.- pn.|.,,tli..,„ .■„nv,p„:.,l ,., al.,,,., :,j ,,.,. ,..,,t „, ,,,,■ ,|n.rl.. 1, 

.> .lithMill I,, .-al.-iilaU. lor tlL,. ,,||„.r r..n-!itM,„i ,. larirolv 1 ,iu-r tlu. ..xa.'t 

.ll-tril„ai„n ..I tl,.. alkiili,..s U „„t. kiumn. If all thr M.-la l,,- a«-iKiH-.| t„ tlw 
nllut.. Mu.l.vnlo. lIuM tVMspar un„l,l ,„ak.. n|> n.^nrly Js ,,,., ,vmi „f tli,. nx'k 
irom til,, wivat -xr..-^ of uliirniiiii. ..v, r n.|iiir.-.| to form tlio normiil f.l.l- 
-I'ur MM.!,.,i,l,., lro.„ all of tlio pofu.l.. .o.ja. anM liv ■• |.r.s<nf, it appoarn 

ainio.-t (■.■rtiin.l.v i,...„.sary to l.rli.'v,. that tli,. parau . mio1,.,-,iI.- \* 

-witnl ,n r.lativ.l.v lartr.. Tin. .■x.v-.. ot alumina, a MotaM,. fra.' 
of tho very lnj,'li ami a fraction of tlic lilu'li .■omlon. .1 water can nil !"• 
-atisfuctonly as-ijtm.J „„ tl.ut supposition. tli,. parav'onit.> .-xisfs in 
'lie fno -tatc ..r i. in isomorphic niixtiir.^ with the aiiaiotroiK potash molecule 
ol .cri.itc. cannot he readily -h'tcrminiMl. The excess of sodii over potash U 
also char.H^ten.ti.' of the two type analyses ,,f tli.. Cresfon formation: all thr.-e 
anulys-es are thu- in contra-t to tlic av..rni^e analysis of samlstone- or armi|i,i,, 
rock:* t-ci, orally, in whid, p,,tasli is ,•-•» inly tlu- nioiv al.nn.hmt oxi.le of the 

two. The micros ic evi(icn-> is at' -f the view that the ilominan.'c of the 

soda !>. <ine to a corre-.|..n,lin.' aleo, ...ace of alhifc or oth<T phw-^hi., It 
may I.,- a.hl. ,1 thnt the analy-is was mo-t caii-fnlly made, a second i-.,niplet.. 
< of ihe nlkalio- acr.ein>r very closely with the tir-t. 

_ The 'lypotlieis that mneh ,,f the mi.-a is imrlijronit.. or a hichlv paraK<.n- 
itic miis,.„vil,.. icn.lers the aiialysia more clearly iin.lersfood. hut it complicates 
the enl.'nlatioii. .\-siirninp ten molecules of ;v,ta-h to five mol.' 
eule.s to -ericite. ten molrcnle^^ ..f |in,e to anorthite iiii,l six to ..pidet^-prnpor 

' 'J 

>t^MONAL PAMtH No. 2a., 
'■li' whi.-li 111.- |,iMl,,,l,|y „„, yr..-,!' 


'■■•' 11 I'.iiulily .iil.Miliit.-,) a- f,,||..w< 

'.Mliil li 



iiidio. I,, ., 

S. Ill II,., 

^Ill'l (lui.. 


MiindBlitt., tifaiul.., ..|, 

''.V ;.-l|,u tl„ i. „,|,,,i.' ,•.,„. 

Iiliitlil- I, 


7 •! 


:i II 


) I 

oil ,„„s|.V ,||.-,. ,M„|„„,„„,, ,,f, ;, ,,,,.„ ,.,,„„, , , ,, 

L'lVi' ,1 l^.tt.T i'i.||,.,.„(i,,., ,,,■ ,1 . r i .1 . 'Ni.iii. I,,, I I „.y ^^,|| ^,,|.^^ 

- ...I.- In iJiiCuli ri'zi ^urri ;• - vr'';" "■■""■■^ 

"( Vrinuny i,.i,„„.m,i, .. „„,| ;, wil . . '","' ^^ """ """'y^'^ '" 

';i-actcn.,i.. of the Ki,:.:.. . r i , :'ir'r'r';;"'n^""%^: -"•■-' 

^; --"^^^^^^^^^ '— - '" 

the wr t.r'.t papor on ' Th.. «5 „ ,n^ A • /''"'"'• *-'''" <'" \<'>H<< I-"'.!-!"! m 

7 »"• A„l,.,l^^^L,li^/s:■r'^^^^':: 'p.-I-'-'I? ^'""''-' '?'"'"^'"-' 

lliut pIllKT II. 1 (•liciiilciil .,,,,,1,. : !• .1 ' ,' ~ ''■ "' '"'I'' "I "Tititii- 

.H.mii-r'.,f thin "le '1. 'Vhm;; :r'' ""^ "^r'"'''" "-^ ^"^ "" '"''"-- 

-' n-ral la. k of twinning' anion^f ,|„. f..|,|.p,., _,;„, , , ,, "" '* ' '" 

I'oli.'f that n,tli..,.his..wai til- priviiliiiL^ C.m' t \ '*'" '" "" 

""■tti.I the .■orr,..-tio„ o ,1 . '"^ ' ";\"* ^^' <'"""'"•■- "-'>'^. P"'- 

-""; • i'' ...,. Ko,:.;:,.;::;! u:;.;^;;;;;:;'' '-::,-'-- -^ *"- --...... 

■f ~iH..^:::r';::Sri:ru:i;^r 'rr'"- '^- ■"'""«•""' *■-'•■■..<... 

lo a jvt stronger brown than l.ol, n^^, . . > fraWmv „„,| vv...„l„.r 

iMtnrlo,.kin,^ grains o llTj , <"^ ;v,.atli,T..i .,i,art/it... muni,-, oft.n 

I'iotl.o and, 'lor pa 'n T. ' T'T ''■"'' ,"''""''""' """-• •"'"' 

■•U.S.£ Zrt T *''^"■^'■'^-'""7» «-f'i"h now forms ,li.. „,i.,,..... 


il't tlmt tl 

iniplpti^ fry^ti 

'.1 Kit 



llll/lltloll of til, 

<'r<- ajrain tin 
iiiK'io/it shalcp has hm 

BnyU'y. Bull. !50, VS. (lool. Si 

-vol. II— !M 

rvpy. 189S, p. g7. 


Di.i'AKnu'.sr or riii: imi innu 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

i-i)nsi'(|iiciH'c III' (I 

lirmiirlif ;ilioiit riicri'ly : 

"f Inniicntiiil prc-^iiro (ir (inliimi-y ■ 

I'xi-t ill th.' Iclu'i' nr I'vcii in :i -^in-lc Ikiiii|--|h' 

:mil tlie fi'ldspnthic- (iiuu-tzit.-. For liii- rin-i.n 


•'■|) liiiriul mill with. Mil i|i, li,.l|, 

iMr>t;iiiior|)!il-iiii. All I niii^it i.iii- 

iiii'ii liilw.-i 11 tlir iiii't:ii-i;illiti. 

ll'lll' it WollM 1,1' llillii'lllt 1.> 

form an a.-eunik> coiKvptini, ,,f ||,,. riv.ra.irf .■oiiiiM,>iti.iii .if iliis wi^tiTii plinM. 
of the Kitchener. It is certainly less silicioiis and inorr. niioaceoua than the Crcs- 
ton. Possibly one-tiiird of the thickness is made up of silicioiis metarsiDite: the 
remainder, of the <piart/ite with it^; own Mihnrdinatc adiiiixturc of o'ihv- 
arKiliacious and fclil-patliic iiinliTia] with the i-sciif in] ipiartz. 

The nverase spe<itic gravity of throe type specimens of the qiiartzife is 
2-705; that of three type ^pc-iiiiens ,,f the siH.-i,,||v nutarijillite i^ l'-7:N. Tli,. 
ayerapre for the whole western plia^e. o-timatel ..n ilie ah..v,-iueiiil,,ii..d Mnaii- 
titative ratio of tlie two tyes in tlie formation, is nboiit 2Tl<i. 

VariatiotLs on this relatively simple seheii f eniiip,,Mlioii are extremely 

rare thmnghout the thmisands „f fe, t of hed- e,,i,ip,,Mmr tiie uv.teni plias.'. 
In a very few thin strata th,. .piartzile i. -pan-led uith lar;;c plale- nf l,i,,tii,.. 
each about \ rm. in .liaiiieti'r. A- in l.,d- of tlie (^-...^ton tiiese foils 
run at all anodes throiif;li the mek; they appear t., I.e -implv irreatly , nlar^ed 
equivalents of the >taple hiotile individuals of the ,'nniial fork. 

At a few otlier horizons, espei-ially toward the t..p of t!ie formation, the ipiart- 
zite contains conspicuous round, blackish concretions somewhat flattened in 
the planes of heddiiifr. 'I'hey measure from two to three iiiehes or more in 
preatest diaiiu'ter. With tlie miero^coiK^ tlii> eoii,.,vlioiis ar n to h im- 
posed of (piartz and feld-jiar grains eenietited by almudaiit hiotite and limonite 
with a small amount of serieitic mii'a. Tlie feld-par- are iisu.illy frl,,„.cy and 
belong to the usual species, orthoelase. microperthite, and s\ well-twinned 
plagioclase. probably andesine, Th<'>e minerals and llie iiiiarlz oe,>iir in f^raiiis 
from 004 mm. to O-,*? mm. in diameter and thus of the averaRo size character- 
istic of the int<"rlock(Hl essential minerals of the enelo-im: ipiartzite. 'rhe most 
noteworthy feature is the plainly cla.stic form of all tliesi' grains of ,piarlz and 
feldspar. Most of them are anirular but the larg.^t (piartzi>- an. often dis- 
tinctly rounded. There i< no siijii of secondary eiilarf.fement. We a)i)Mar to 
have, then, in the heart of these concretions the only surviving relics of the 
orijiinal idastic form. The destnu'tion of the elastic outline- tbroiiirh static 
metamoriihi^m has Icon arretted through the secri'lioii of the mica and iron 
ore in which the cpiartz and feld-par- now lie. Tbeo clastic irrains are 
separated from the metamoriihosed sub-tanee of the i nelosiiiir sandstone, and. 
flc- a rule, are separated from each other. 

Eastern Plinse.-^ln th,. heart of the Vahk ranfje, for a distance of twelve 
milM, m<.asured along the Hoiimlary line, the Kitchener formation appears to 
have been completely eroded away, the mountains there beiinr composed of the 
underlying Treston and of heavy nias-es of intrusive pabbro. To the westward 
of this area the Kitchener steadily preserves th.' litbolo^rieal habit which has 
jiMt been described. The fir^t outcrops of the Kitchener on the ea-^t.ern side of 

Uhl'uNl u/ nil. nil! I l.-y/.V/Aol///,. 



i1h> iiri'ii nlnailv -li(iw-< ~i'ni- ,,f ^• ir.... ,■ 

\ ,1, , ,• ■• , f ' '>-"''"'«i'- vnrKiMuM 11, ll„. .st;i|il.- r..rU-tv,H.< 

;::t,:;S-!n::t:"t;-^r:;H f:fr""v--r 

.-lose to 0,000 f,.ot at tiM. Yahk riv.r. "'"""^ " '"■'""''^' ♦'^ '"■ 

Along the wost fork of the river sroat thi.-k,,,.?.,.. of the .trnta as.itr,,,.,! 
to th,. phase of the Kitchen.r are still so similar to the rook, f t,!> T T 

.'umW T;:l:'h^h. ;7,'"';r" "'" 'y'^-- -"l -^-n. Phase, are ,wo in 

mor-a-e in in.portan.-e as .1,.. s< ,.,io„s 1,.,„ ■• tw r, \, , »-"-a,l„n y 

M.;w in^re-lient or pair of ingredient ;,^,r\H;''f^,^;'r''';? " ""'^ 

tv':;r:;r!" k"' '^^"i ^'"■"' -V"- '■'>- -^^-^iii' ^^^I'^trav';;:;^, ::: 

erj amount of cnloiiini earhoiiate whu-h (.jiisos /.ff.>„ .i 

.;; ^;.ia^i...te „ei,. to ,he s,.ei,ne„s. 'iuZ:-::^^:^: Z ^^ 'C': 
.n the C eston forn.afon. ,s not so nh„n,iant as the ealeium carbonate 

lnnISltZtl:k!:fryZ ^'•"'' '""'" "'V ^"""''^'^^ '■"'• "'""- the 
IK oi_ \u, ^u t torlv o( tlie "S ahk river, Mron- interlu-ds of somewhat sili,.i„„„ 

=;L'':^'ii™,r.x"- !"■' ^^' -™ F -'" "• ™'- 

|n,.™„„. ,, .„,„ ™' 1 .. t,l";, ■ ;;:";;;r"":i;::;i;:r.;"i::r 

111 the amount of more purelv -"..rioiis -.,-ita » < n ase 


;^..P9 e„t a*.a,n at the line, ha^ atfonled ,1,.. s,x.eime„ illMStrnted in Ph te 10 

west sioj. of the .reoiiiivVa, r::::::zj'iz,;:::, \:r7z r :;: ,;"*■ 

impure limestone are well expos,.! at s.-v,.,-.! points 

Finally the eharaeter of the Ki|,.J„.,H.r >,rata' still further easfwnrd h.s 
heeome so far n,.,dulod that the mol„.-,ooth !in,es,o„e and l>iidrrahi ' 
metarfrillites must total 1.000 f,.<., ,„ ,„,,,,. ■,. ,I„ K . , '■"KarMus 

(Jatewav. K-oteiiay river opposite 



hrp\i!r\ii:\r n/- rin: i\ii:i;i<n; 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 
hi fact if. licc.iiiii- -ifoiiiily ,ii^|i.-<'t.-.| tnwuni llic f\i,<r ,,(' tile -iM-.,ii ..T I'.MU. 
that a lai-ffe part <.f tlir Kit.-liciHi- ,|iiurtzitc i- tli.' -^ti-.-tipnipliir cMnivrtlpiit nf 
liiu Sivoh formation cf the Mcmntiiiii-i iin.p. r. This -^ii>]ii<'i,)ii \v;i- raised 
I'l .1 praofii-al certainty wlieii. in the foilnwinH- year, llie ^ueee-ion and eharae- 
ters of tlie (ialtun series were marUeij ,,ut. So elear \veri> the ti<'l(l evii!eiie<'s of 
the wiiiivah'nee that that part of the iCitchencr t'(.rniali.ih whieh eovers the 

ea-lern twelve iiiiies of ihe lioiindary Icll in the riii-e.Il i-mi; ,M |„. 

I'ohiured in the map siieot as heluntfinK to tlio more closely defined Siyeli 
toriuation. rather tiian to the rnor.' eNten^iv< divi-ion. the Kiteheiier cpiartzite. 
It was fiirtiier (h'diieed tioni a review oT all the -eeiini,, in the I'nreell raiiL'.', 
that the top of the Kitehener ff.ruintion eoinei.lcs, in stratiKrapliic position. 
ahiiost precistly with the hase of th.' I'lii.-ell lava forniatinn. 

Since the eastern i)hasi> .-lands aUout midway. lil'i..]oijically. ln'iweeu tlie 
alread.v described western phase and the Siyeli formal ion of the (ialtcjii raiifre, 
there is no siMK'.ial need of de-crihinfr the ea-terii phase in ili^tail. .V tldn' 
section of the mohir-tooth limestone at the West Fork locality was specially 

studied for pnrposes of i-nmpari with th.- Siy, h limolorie. ' Th,.,,iic 

IS here a light to niedinni .-ray m- hvownish u-ray. .ompaet rock, weat'ierina 
linflF and interrupted by the usmd irrcfMilar partin^is. lenses, striiif-vrs, or roniifF. 
eye-like ma.sses of much less ma>;nesian. light-jrray, eompaet limestone, weather- 
inar jrra.v or, rarely. i)ale hutf-finiv . 

The hufF-weatheriiii.'- main i).irt .if the ie,k etTeivi -ee-, i,, Mune extent hut 
is clearly mafinesian and -ilielons; the -ray parlinirs ethrve-e,. violently and 
seem to h<' nearly pure ealrit. 'I'll,- diameter- of the earhniiate grains in the 
mapnesian part vary from OdJ to 1 mm. with an averape of perhaps 0.06 or 
0-07 mm. They (ladese a notable amount of i-la-tie ,pi,-irt/. ortlioela-e. iniero- 
perthite. and an indot< |ila- inela-e. in yrains averaf.-iny- less than 0-1 
•turn, in diameter. The i-arhc.nate LTain- have the ehiiraeteii-t ie rhoinbohe<lrnl 
development seen in the Siyeli and .\ltyn lirnest.oies :iii,l ,,ften -ho'.v eloan-cnt 
crystal outlines. 

The pray calc.ite iKirtint:- are ixl riMiii'ly iiiiifi.fH in character and lack 
any significant admixture d -ilicioii- parli<-le-. 'I'li.^ diameter of the .-alcite 
urains steadily averapes ii.ii:; mm: they are ii-iially allotriom.irplii,-. Ileiv apain 
the evidence of the thin section corrohorate- thi> lii'ld evhlence that the calcitic 
partings are aeprepations or secretions, formed after the limestone was well 
buried. The systematic lamination of the siiecinien illustrated in I'late 10. H, is 
clearly due to segregation of the calcium carbonate along shearing planes. In 

the average case, the seiTction -eeins to havi' aceenipanied : ntraclioii of the 

niagno-ian portioi of the lo.'k. pos-il,ly ,„'casi,,Hed l.y the .lehy.lralion of the 
original sediment. 

It should be noted. fni-ther, that the i-rnin of this vih-k i- very -iniilar to 
that found for the niagnesian linirstones of the (Jalton and Lewis -erii's. an 
important point to which attention will be direct ed in the s<»,'tion on the origin 
of these limi'stones. 

Thi' average s|>,M'itic i;iavily ,.f thiilreu sp, .■iniiMi- ..f the liiiie-t.,ne ( rain-e 



I!i:l-Ul;r nl llir i lin-.F \sl!;<,M,\li:i; 136 


o.,i^s_i> 77:,) i, 0.71,, -I-,,;, ,,|„„ i,„,i,,„„^ ,,„. ,„|,„i,,„,.„ ,,, ,,_,, , _ 
'""''■"• "":' ^'"''!^l"'r '" ""■ '!""-<■""■■ Tl„. av, v..,.,. -, ill,. „,,,i,v ,„• tl,.. ul,„l,. 

^I'lMi: [•'dim Mil. V. 

The y„„ M„.,Ml.,T of ,1,0 !-„,v,.!l s,.,-!.. i, „„„.,.,| „„ „„■ w.M.n, 
-ln|H^ nf ilu. Mnym nv.T valli'v. «h.-r,. it ,-n,sso. ,]„■ nmnuh.rv lin,.. aii.l ,v-;nn 
-n a .,trunff nuTi,llo„al ri.l^o inun, .lialoly ,,,-t of tl.o Yalik Hvrr al tl,.. -"uno 
hrie In both ,.a.s,.» ,1,,. ,.x„o„.,l to,> of tl.,. f„r,n;Uio,> i< a.i ero.ion surfa... 
At tl,<. lalik r.ver .o..ti..n tho l.a.o i, ,-„( off W a major fanlt. Thn ,l,i,.!<n... 
of tho fnrniut.on as a who],. ,,,nnot, th.-roforo. 1„. .tato,!. At tl.o Movio rivor a 
max.niun. thickness of ■l.m foot was observe.!; at the Yahk rivor tho ..sti.uates 
varu.l h-om .'i 1,K) U.n .o .■•..TuO f,..,. Th,. .af.-t of ,h.. lar^or .^s,i,„a„.s „,av 
1.0 pla,.c.l at ab.n.t ■\¥\(\ f.vt. uhi.-h i^^ a niinliMi,,,; tlii,.k,i,.:<s. 

The f.n-iMatioM is hor,. .■..r.^ilor..,! as iu,.|ii,li,,-, at tho -iiiMmit tho V'lhk 
quartzit... whioh vas propo-o-l as a f.u-iMatio.ial nam., in tl„- s„n„narv r.p..rt 
for 1!>01. ()n Iat..r ..f ,1„. ....-tions it ha. apiM.atv.l a.lvi-ablo to wilh.lraw 
the luunc • \ahk .|iiarlzil,. ' f-o,,, ,ho Ij.t „f !!oun,larv loianat i..„s Tho rn,.ks 
to whioli It. fot,.r- .Top o„t only at o„o plaoo in tlio holt: in -onipo-ition ih.v 
aro ralh.T oln-oly allio.l to tho ovoriyinpr b...l.: thir.lly. th.^v ar,. not s—ially 
well ,.xp,,s,.|, ai-o and bn.k.-n. and arv lin,il,..l ab.,v,. I.v an .To-ion 
surfa.'o. so that, .'karly, the whol,. thh-ktu-s .-annot 1... toun.I in tho,.la,-^. 

Th,. ,ipp,.r f(i:i f. et ..f tho Moyi,. f,.nnalion as r,-,l,.tin.-,l aiv ..hh-llv ..,^mpn-,..l 
of whitish and ^i-ay <|uurtzite.s, with metargillitic intercalations. The lower 
o.OdO leot Innii a >..inouhat hetero,-. ii.oiis assonihlafjo ,.f arj-'illitos. motariril- 
htos, and impure (inart/.iti.- or ..horty p,..-k in raiM.lly alt, rnatlnii' ImmI.-. fh,. 
strata are, on the avorafre, iinK'h tliinn. r than tii,,-,. ,,f th,- nmlorlvinir forin..,- 
Iions. ninninf: from a small fraction ,.i an inch to a couple of feet in tliick- 
iio<s. Thou.di many of the thinner lamina' ar.. oft(.ii a-!rro<.'ato,l in plat,., -ix 
inches thick or nwre. those rocks are of a dceido.lly fissile habit. 

The arfrillites are often true shales, but probably most of tiie beds mu,t 
be ref,.rre,l to true motairillit,.. Th,.ir cilom- varies fr.un lidit wray t,. vory 
dark gray .ir black; tho .-.d..!,,-. ,,f w.^itiioriiu,' ar.. brown an,l irray. .\t tho 
Moyi.. river locality s.'vofal huiidr,..! iVot ,.f tho ..hales ...T.urriiur -M the ba-.. 
of the formation aro an,l hav.> a ,Iark purpli-h-rcl <.ol,,ur. owinff to a 
special <.ont,.nt of oxi.lo ,.f ii-oii. .\ l',.w. v..ry thin tl to -J mm. thi.^0 layers 
of rwl hematit,. were ,>bs, rv,d in tli. m> purplish strata. Tho latter m,.r(,'e 
kfradually into the nn,l,T!yin<i' ,'oiil',.,niahl,. K'il,. honor formati,m. The inler- 
l>edded iiiuirtzites are always v,.ry tiiii.-y i-n;n(.,l or c.mipact, of a liiilit ^'ray 
,'ok.ur on fresh fra-'turos ami j;i-ay. brown, ami li-ht buff on woathorod surfaces. 

Many of the (piartzitos aro ai^illa u-. S,.,,,,. ,,f the beds ar.. ..harL'e.l with a 

variable anuumt of cah^iiim and inafrnosiiiiu ,-arbonaf,.s, wlii,.h wore also found. 
by tests in the laUratory, to ,-l,aract(.riz.. ^i>,< of the sray shales, '['he 


itFi'MiruKM or riif: isifrihk 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
.ll>tril,,,tion .,f tlie carlxmato-bearintf striUa i. rather Ronoral but thoy arp 
l.rol.a My most numerous in the lower part of the formation. Pur., lim/'-stono 
or dulomito was nowhere fouiid. 

Sun-eraeks are extremely abun.lant throughout the formation and ripple- 
marks arc not uaenmmon. Xo easts „f ,alt-,Tystnls were ohsorv.Ml in anv 
section The very different looking cuboidal casts of weathered-out pyrites 
oeeur at several horizons. ^^ 

The specific pravity of eijrht tvpi.-al sp,ciine.w, ranpe,l from 2.r,r.7 for thn 
•liales to 2..3r. ior the dolomitie quart/ifs. Th,- averapo of all is 2 fi7.i. whieh 
IS not far from the average for the whole formation. 

The stratipraphic relation of this fonnati.,n .to the Kiteli.ner si-Rest^ at 
once that it may he the e.piivalent of the Gateway, Philli,>., and Konsville 
formations of the (iult.m ranpe. The writer believes su,h to be the faet 
Ihere ,s a close litholopical similarity. esp<.eially between the (latewav and 
Alo.vie formations, not only in eompo>itioM an.l s-.»eral habit, ineludinp thin- 
bedding and eoloui^s but as well in the p,r-istenee of shallow-water feature^ 
through the iHds. The appareet absence of salt-erystal, so charaeteristi.- 
ot the (.ateway and Kintla formations, does not appear to be of vita! signifi- 
cation m the correlation. ... obviously the conditions for the development of 
a supersaturated brine not extend over an unlimited area of contempor- 
aneous sedimentation. The deposition of the Moyie sediments may well have 
taken place in open-sea water. Some of the calcareo-magnesian quartzites 
and argiU.tes have close ,-es..n,bl,M,..e l„ ,h,. iuM-ur,. Sheppard dolomite, the 
equivalent in the Clarke and Lewis range-, of the lowvr Gatewav formation 
With longer study of the known out.Tops of the Jloyie formation an.l 
above all. with the discovery of more favourable e.'cposures. it may be p.>«sibl,- 
in the future to subdivide this group of beds at present, it seems best t.. 
rec-iuze only the one inclusive formation name for the sediments overlying 
the Kitchener in the M.iyie and Ynhk ranges. 

Gateway Fohmation in the IfcGiLLivuAY R.\\.;e. 

In the McGilUvray range the conditions for immediate correlation with 
the Galton series are more favourable. The peaks of the highest ridges in the 
Boundary belt are almost all composed of the Pureell Lava formation, which 
as we shall see, is the most perfect horizon-marker in the Eocky Mountain 
sections. At the summit of the .^[cGillivray range this lava formation has 
been warped into a broken, north-pitching syneline. Considerably more than -i 
thousand feet of thin-k^ded, sun-erackcl an.l much ripple-marked strata 
'onformably overlie the lava. 

The base of this group is formed of beds unqiiestionablv equivalent to thos.- 
in the lowest Gateway, while the main mass is lithologicallv transitional 
between the upper ],8,'i() feet of the Gateway strata and the more heterogeneous 
Movie strata. The closer affinities of these strata at the summit of the range 
are .listmctly with the ;.aleway fornuition and its cr.lour ha.s accordingly been 

I'lATK l.\ 

.11 ^uniiHitci MH.iiluniv r.-iTiK-. T«.,.tl,ir,|s „at,iial ■ i/r. 

Si,„ilar pynf crystals i„ n,eta,KilIit,. nuitiix. Sa,„.. locality. T»„.tl,ir.N n-.tural .{,,-. 

ii p. 1*!. 





I! in HIT (II 'III ciiiiir .\.-<ri{i>M,\if u 



iiifd in mapping Ulc rorks overlying the I'linvll Invf. in tlw MiKiillivrav ranpc 

Kn^i.,n has there, within the JJ.uimiary hcit, fi,unv,l th iiivnlcnri „f fho 

Ph. Hips and Ki.osvilh- formations. 

Those (Jateway hods are s,, -iniiUir in <^<.niiM.M.i.M. and hnhit to thos.. a<Tos« 
tlio Kootenny and ulr.-ady d<s,rilM.d that a s|K'.iui ncroimt of fho forniiT is not They ar,. marked hy an imusMal w.ulth of ripph-mark.* an,l anne- 
lido trails and hor.nps. Several h. ,1s „f frrn.ninous an,! motartrillitic qiinrt/ite 
occurnng some :)00 feet above the Purcell Lava, carry remnrkabl^v large and 
perfect cubes of more or less limonitiz.d pyriU\ 'I'lie^ ranj;.' trmn 1 ••m. to 
4 cm. or more in dium.tcr and form mo^t ,oiisiii.„ous eli-rnpnt.: .,1 the rock. 
(Plato 15.) They often form simph- intei-p.n.'trati..M tv.-in-i. Tii.t orv>itals 
-eem to have frrown in the original mn.l either before or durintr the period of 
Its consolidation. On any other .supposition it would be difTienlt t.. under- 
stand how space was made for their gr-iwth; the jnmiiit.tion „f the roek imnu 
diately surrounding each .'rystal is u.^uully r,uite uiursturbed and not crinkled 
or bowed around the crystal. 

Ti^ .specific gravity of eight hand-specimens, representing types for the 
whole Gateway formation in the M<<;illivray rantre, varies from i-DW to 2-747 
averaging '2fi'S7. 


xVs remar«.e<l there are siiccial physical difficulties in the wav of 
discovering the structure of the P ircell system at the Fortv-ninth Parallel; 
hence the details of structure are not as well understooil as i.rc the structures 
m the eastern ranges. Enough fa.t., are in han.l. however, to show that the 
Purcell syst.>m is, like the Calt.m-MacDonald mountain group, chieflv com- 
posed of great monoelinnl fault-bloek-. Of these twelv,. have been det,.rmine.l 
without much residual deubt. Most of them are found in the Yahk an. I :\[oyic 
ranges. The Jlc(iilli\ray raiif-e shows a tendetiey fowanls the strneturo'of 
terraiics characterized by open folds. 

Betwwn Catoway and tlie .siinunit thi' Ki;,bi'ner iSiyeb) an.l Purcell 
Lava beds are warped into a broad, unsymmetrical anticline. The dips average 
35° N.E. on the eastern limb, a »-teemiess of dip wliirh would rapidlv carry the 
top of l'<e entire Purcell ~( rics of redimcnts far bi-lnw the lev<^l of the Devonian at Tobacco Plains. The iHstance betwe^'n the limestone and the 
most easterly of the outcrops (Purcell Lava) across the drift-covered Purcell 
Trench is eight miles. We can .mly conjecture the structures beneath the drift 
cover. Those actually visible indicate that the Rock-y Mountain Trench is, at 
the Boundary line, located on a zone of combined faulting and down-flexnrc. 
In all pMbabillty the faulting has had the dominant control in loeatin- tbo 

The western limb of the broad anticline -bows nortliwosferly dip- ..f ir,' 
to 20^ The convergence of strike lines on the two limbs shows that the fold 
pitches gently to the north. 



iti:i-\in \n:\r t>i- iin imfuiow 

■ ^1- 

2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

'I llr liMlii-linC i^ >l|ri-i I'.lcil oil till' ur-l \,\ tlii' -Iltlllllit •iyiiclillr wliicli iiImi 
J)itc'lli- linl'th :it :l liW ;llllflr. Like llir alltlrliiii' till- TmLI -ll..w-i MlllIllT'ilw 

lociil unriw mill, nw tlip ^outli. it ;< Inniiiilcil l^y m -tri'Htr fii^f-wc-t fmilt "lidWii 
"II tlio map ftuH't. Till' wo-tcni IIiiiIp of tlic H.viiclinc show- u si'cfion tliroiiph 
noarl.v llir iiiliri' I'iiiti'II -ivIi - Two loiliw r\\n\ of llio iiiiiln I'orU of llio \i\\\V 
rivor tlio Croriton bcil^ lia\o ii nliiirp nvor^at of dip-i. indiVnl iiiff an untielino 
lirolfii l,y a loiijjitiKliiial, in rtli-soiifli fault. Tlio ^ lil< rlvir \* lociitoil in tin' 
licurl of tliia antii'liiic. It may liavo liocii .■rii;iiiiill> |.lai'iii on (he lino of fault, 
fiorii wliicli position tlio rivor lias siiioo -lippoij down tro dip an avcnijro 
distiiiii'P of two iiiil<«. To the wc-t of tln' main f<n'k of the river tlio dip- 
wrndiially fliantre from an avcro^'c of 1.'" \V. to liorizonfnlify. and in tlio infor- 
vnl, a !;r«'at part of tlio Crcstoii formation, tlio vvlioli- of tlio Kifolirmr ■ .d sonio 
11,000 foot of tlii> ^loyio formation aro oxpo-od in -iiooo--i.iii 

On tl.o ridse <ivorli«ikinir the wost fork of llio rivor on llio oa-1. tho dip- 
in tlio Moyio liods ai^nin liooomo co'^torly. pliowiny ii niirrnw nynrdino wliicli i- 
licre only vi^'Vio in tlii- I'ormalion. K\aotly on tlio lino of liio wost fork tlio 
Moyio -trata arc dropped i!,,wii into ooiilaot with a iralilno sill wlii'di is intni<ivo 
into tlio Kit'dionor formation. Tliis wo>i f,.rk faull i- romarkaldy straiirht in 
the -i^ nn'los ilirniifrh wliioli. with miM-nal orrlaiiity. ilio oiitorop of tlio fault 
oonld ho Inllowod. Tlio dMwnthrow i-. of cmir-r. on tho i !wt iiikI may mrasiiro 
inoro than 2.000 1V, t. 

From till' wi «t fork of tho Vahk to I'orlhill nearly all MiirKi'stioii of folding 
1 wanting ati-l tlio lolations are t lo-,- of many faiilt-hloi-k-;. Tho diiw are 
hiffhly variald". valno- from ."i lo "•!• or iiioro h;any rooordoil. Tho dips are 
j-'onorally iiiiioh iho liiLdier in ihe narrrWer hlork-. Iforo as in the (laltnie 
MiirDoiiald sy-iem tli' fanlt-planos usually trend toward-; tho norfh-imrthwi -t 
and t'loir dip- seem iinariahly to approach vorticalit.v. 

The faults niappod liotwpen tho west fork of tlw ^"alik and the Moyio 
river aro anouL' the mo-t r,h?onroly e.\po-ed id' all. Other- not shown nn tho 
map Aw •\ may ho respon-ihlo for the iltiplication of rlio K^'at gnbbro sills in 
tlii- part ^'f tlio Tioiiiidary hell. Much additional time and lahniir must he 
expended the full -tructnn- of thi.- jiart of tin holt will 1 e ileidared. The 
two lilock< iniiiiedialely east of the Mo.\ io river are -hown as <e|iaraled hy a 
reversed fault aleno- \vlii<di tho Ci -ton iniart/ite Iuh heeu driven nji on the 
hack of the likewise ■-toeiily dipi^intr and apparently underlying Kitehener 
<]nartzito. A -ii-oud iiiti'rpretatiou is tipon, wherehy the two foniiafion> are 
regarded a; in normal ooutaet hut hoth overturned to the we-t. 

The plane of the main fault at tho Moyio river "s nowhere exposed hnt the 
'olations of dip and strike are -ueh as to Ic ve no douht a^ to the nature of the 
disjilaeeiuent. The downthrow is to the we-t and is very jireat. iirohahly 
iipproaohiiifr ^.000. if not lO.Ono f,>ot. 

The fanlt running alonjr the western ha-e of tlie Isol.itod nuuintaiu hearinsr 
tho Moyio sills i-i also hilioved to le mapjied eorroetly. Tho downthrow is aprain 
to the we-t hnt llie displa^'einent i- prolmhly no no. re tiiaii a e.oiple of theu-and 

i;if<>i;i ni I'll 'Hill l.N//;i.\f. !///,• 130 


Fr,,iM ll.iil |i..nit t,, .|„. N, „:,,„;,.. ni, . .1,,. i.nill- .|„.u,, .-,, il,, „,.,,. ,,,,1 
-PCti..,l ;in „nl >u .-, ,1.1 mI> ,,!;„■,. I. 'I,,. ,„;,.t.,-t;mlt f.. 11. .«■;„... tl„. I,,, t 

.McKlIn .litf I,;,, ,,,„ 1.,. li,v.ll\ ,,|, ,r^,,| i,,,, ,. ,i,,.,,|i.,I,,l !„■,■., ,!-.■ .,1 ll,r 

fiict fhiit tli,> ;:i,.at •-ill „( ■sn\,[>r.. ..,, ,l„.. «,...f is im.l.Tliiifi l..v riHtv .|'inrtzil,. 

Wlucll H l:,.l!..v...l K, l,!..,,u I,, ||„. IviT.llM.rr Inril. lit L .11. If tins I... till ,r...| 

int..rr.r.tMii.j! il„. |'„n..ll Tn t„.h i- l,„„i,.,| i,|,„,u' :i .li i.h,..,.im.nt hv »i,„.l, 
til.' KitclioiK.! iMniiatini, I.;,-, l„,.n ilr..|.,.r.| ,I,,vmi Im,, l;it, rid .-..ntii.'t with -ii.iia 

liciir the l.ii f tlic (■r.-l..ii i|u:irt/lli. „, .irliiici iii llil- n |.(.rf. Th,. l,,|..|l 

<lis|.l,i,-,.r,„.|it ,,l 111,, fiiiilt nr f.iiilt- ,.;i-l „f l',,rthill an. I «,.-! ,,f ih.. Miniinlt ..I 
McKiiii cjitr \v,,ii!il iliii> nii| lii.iMMi t'.Tt. Tl;.' (,'.•., L.try ol' tin- Selkirk 
ruture «hows. Ii..u..v..r, tlmt tlw /<.ii,. in uliicli il.c iiriich iir-i li;i. l,, m tlir w,.,.,,.. 
of still ini.r.. |.i..|'.inii,l faiillin..': lli.. ni.lin..,. i< s||,i„||ari/,.,| i,, ||„. |„.xt 

'I hi- rock? ..f tli(.' i*iir.Tll iM..iiiit:iiii -v-inn luiv.. tran-inir t.-.j tSr.Kt- ..f 
fiuiriiious pLWcT and liuv.. Iucm viy..ur..n-l.v ii|i| m-ncl at nianv i.,.iiiN, ^'.t 
Ihose roPkx hour ('.'W trii'-(.« nf -lioarin- .■l.nviiiL.. ..r .JMianil.. .ii..|ani..r|iliiMn. 
Only in Hiii-n.w /..iic at tiir M...v:, Hmt 1- .-I, avaL'c .I.a ,l,i|io,l an. I 
that >trii..tnri> i> .■..ii-| icii..ii.s ..n th,. «•,■ itii.T,-.| |..,lir.-,. Tjii- ,r. mTal 
fuijiirt' (if inotiimoiplii.. .slructuros in rofk.s wliicji hav,' iindorpnnr at loa^t ,.ii...- 
the scvoro pro-.iin-s ,,l' iaIcIisIv.. nioiintain LniMin-. i> aniplv a.-.-i.unt.d r.,i- I .^ 
tlio <\\,.(.(.<linR -tri'iicfh of tin. -(..liHii'iii-. Tiiat -ir.hutli i- in part ,\plain.d 
I..V the lioiii..!;-, lu'lty ..f tli<- f..r,.iiit;..ii- an.l in pan l.y lli. ir!i woMinL' 
1..V deep Imrial iiti.l :,tatii' mctaniorplii-ni .luriii- th.- inin.m,. iin.ival li.twi.ii 
tlirir drp.isiti..ii and .Icfi.nnatinn. Td tlic inln.n'nt -.tri-imtli of the •.. .liiiK'ntarv 
prism liaa bi'i'ii a.i.lod the reinforcement b.v the thiek sills which formed mt many 

new, relatively infl.xilile riln in the wh..l,. ma-. Where iiia--iv.- i„,in..eei in 

(piartziti- and eahLr., pr. .l,,iiii,iali •! ■ Val;k an. I M..yi. vaiiij,--1, feMimr i^ entireVv absent nnd tlie oroffcnic tiresaures prodiieed monoelinal bl.vks. 
Farther ea-t, ulier.' n.Ial iv,.|y thin-! e.lde.| ar;rillit..< eiit. n.l the formation in 
irreatiT an.l ulierp the mK; nvr.. n .: iiitni.l...| f \fe(;ili;vray 
vnn-o). the ni..nnlniii-l,iii!diiip hr...!.! !'..!. N rather than upturned 
fuiltd.l,...k-^. Neverlhel. -s. tlie ro.'k- ..f th,. I'ur.-. II -..ri, -■ -.■em l.i 
!uiv'> mueh pr, ater av,-ra-v -tiviiL'th than hav,. :_■.■.. ~yn.-linal -,-.|im.nt< i:,ii, rally. 

V,.(,' ,,././,.,/ ,(„,,„;/ rci„linq ol ,„■„„!. M,-. s. J. Schotiel,! ha- r.^cntlv -lanvi, II, at 
.1 tl'ieli, t,.rniKuio,is (|iiartzit,.-n„-l,ir>,'il!iti. s.Ti,.-, naii„.<l tli,. .\1.;, l..ri,i,Lt i..ii. 
uiiiii.rlii-s til, <'r.-,t[)n ipiartzit,.. It ap|.,.,ir- pruliul.l, tliat tli,- Al,iri.lK.. i- r.|.r.-,.i,t..,l 
in -mm, ,.f tlin Loilt-hlocks inapp,',! w,-t i>f t|i,. Yalik river. Tli.' «rit,.| new iPMi;) 
-ii-|...,t.i that II, f -ii(,i.-sioii in th,. -,.iliiii,.iits iiiiiiii'iliatelv i.a-t i,t th..,. riv..r is 
Hernial and tliat tlu> ri.verso,! fault th.-ri niapp,.<l ilii.'s net ,.M-t If „; th.- ".n.-r- 
thnisf l,l(i<-k- of rnsty qiiartzito r.-ally h.-l,,,,-, t.i th.- .M.lri.l-.- f,.i iiiatien' ar..| ii..t t.i 
tile 1 Idselv -iniilur Kitdien.'r fornialuin. 






Kx|K)Kurf of thf iiiit^.^ivi- In-iif con^'IniiHTatr in h.-a.i w ■ 
lit RtniiHa y line :tiitl two milM^ u.^t <'f Vrie^t 

f'^t itt 'ift;,nt. 

25a vol. ii — p, 1 ;n. 

■injui' ; (iiif mil** north 
dm is elfvi-Ti hill 





2 GEOnOf V 

»ES5IO\*L PAPIM No 25a 



STHATI.iUArilYM,.- 1 i;,.; ^k.k I UK ^U>r^^M^ ^Vsikm , , y i-ak ,-, 

^ii w\iiT sr:itii:s 

Ex..I„,li„^ tl,o i,„.., „, ro,.U. ,1,., ,,ri,„.l,,..l f.,nna,i,„H ., ,.,r. ,| ;„ ,„. 

• it I K' vvli.i (. I'iir....ll ,; 'II . ' W'">li n tho pqiuvn Pht 

Top. iT(>»ion Mirfaii. ■■' 
Lon» Star '»nfln+ iii.,.ii » . 

Wolf.. .. .. ,V2S yV't^itB.<onKlo.n..rat*. 

^'""^■•■. ". :: :; ^.'^m r;i':r7"t.?V.hvn,'}^*''"r'''''^,'°''«'"'"''f»'''- 

Iroti" Vdlciuiii-,.. , ,i,y,ft '<"»"'i"'- I'lijllite. uiidcoiiKlciin.rMt... 

lr..,„.r„,. .. ;, IS,, '•■ nJl'^n.^U,";' "'**• 

12.050 I 
Ha-i.'. iiii.nnfoririitv with I'l i,.-t Kiv.T firiaii... 

Ihknk ('i>ni;i.<)mhiatk FuiniATiox, 

T1.0 b:,-al ,,..r of the>it sori,« i. a con^rlomorato. n„tprop„inir 

he W Conplcm.rat.. formation. Ex.p1!o,„ p.po.„ros nro n umrron. ; on,^ 

distant. (Ih>te 10.) The most uxtrM.tiv,- -o.tior. ...a. fonn.l on tho lo.w. 



i>i:r\irnit:\ I <>i i in: iMnnim; 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I .il>;<' iiiiihinK ill :iii I'U^t-crl.v dircclii.ii Uina tin- tvi:iii;;iihili,)ii ^tiilH'U south ..I 
Monk cnik on tlio t'aiiiuliaii siilc to the slc<'|) sloi>c iniinc-ili;itcl.v oM'rl.iokin^' 
I'ric t river (■.•niyoii. 

Tliroiii:!! iiitcrbiildincr tli<' (•..ii;;loinrr;ih' i~ tnnsitioiiiil into llir oviTl,vin)j' 
lrcn<' Voli'iiiii<- foniiatioii; tlio l.iiso of tl,,. con^rloininiio iinirk- a iiroluiind 
lUieoiit'oi-Miil.v witli tlip iMueh older I'riest Kiver terniiii'. 'I'lie widlli of the eon- 
Kiiiiiierute belt, measured on the map, is ahoiit IS miles. Everywlioro the rock 
•■how> evideiiee ,.f ex<-eedin.u]y inteii-e eni-liiii- and >h(arin«. The true heddin^ 

IS tlilis miv-ked h.v sehistnsit.v. esixeiaily in the eom-xr and nim-e hoinoficm s 

phases of thi- aiiideiit frravel. The two ^trni'l iires wer, soitielimes found in 
the .-anil' lediu" and then usnall.v had the same strike hut ditTen d in di|) from 
len to thiiiy deirrees. The nverajre strike of the heddinir. lo \]\,- southward 
ef the Dewchiey trail is alioul X. 5' !•'..; it> averajje dip is at least <!il . In 
spite of the oh\ioiis dillieullie- of ineii-ural i,,n the niiiiiinuiii thiekin-.s of the 
tormation must he phwed at a very hi^di limire. '{'he apparent lliiciiness ha^ed 
en the avera-o .h'p is marly 8,imh) feel. Sinee the U;\- ,,r eon;;h>inerati' wer.' 
im.hahly noi hiid .lowii hori.'.oiitally hut were huilt out ju imhrieate fashion 
on a sIoi>ii- - ><a-bottoni. this estimate niii-t lie eorreeted by sonie. as yet 
unknown. ;inioniit. To what exti'iil the hchiin^^ was ori^'inally itielineil is a 
problem whieh. on aeeoiint of the lieavy -uhsei|uvnt metaitiorphi-m cd' the forma- 
tion, it is donbtlcAs imiMi-sihle to >olve in the ari'a so far studii-d. .\l!owin« 

lor a -troinily inclined <leposition : isi-rvalive mininniin e-timate of the 

tiital thiekiievs. ;ui e-timate l.a-i'd on thrc- i-..iiipl, te -eetions. is ",, I feet; it 

sliould. perhaps, lie many lini]dr<>d- id' feet Kfaler. 

< o,-irsc .■oiiulorneral( is the hif;hly ilomiii.ant I'onstituent of tli,' t'ormation. 
It ..e.eurs in w. Il-knil. \ eiy ma-^sive beds of -qiiee/ed pebbles, whieh. as a ml, . 
wore Well water-worn when they tiiially eaine to rest in tin ir respective beds. 
The pebbles ranjro in size from coarse sand-grains to boiildery masses a foot or 
men- in di.iini'ter. More than one-half of them are conipe>ed of iiray \itreou- 
or iTuc.i,-,-. - .piarlzit^e or of white sufrary .piart/. Next to them in ahund.-mi'e 
ar(> pale giay or white eompaet |)ebl)les ,if dolomite-mnrble (specific pravity 
-'■s:;:; Lis:.-,), often siliciou- to some extent. A iVw pebble- of phyllitie 
•^late and. yet more ran ly, pelihh- .d' a hiotlic i;ranit.e may also be .seen. Thi' hv<\< hear ^-niall angular fra,:;niciit- of altered porphyrite and ilird.a-e 
"Inch -ecni to ha\c Keen directly ddlved frotn the eoiitemitoraniyius. 
locally iiiterlndded lavas and tulis ,d' the Irene V.deanie formation. Some id' 
the larger. b.,iddery mas-es of the ,i"ait/ite- and e-peeially of the dolomite-. 
are siiban;:ular and apparently were not loiifr rolled on a bench. 

The m.a.jorily of the ikIiMc- have hi-eii did'ormed iti the crush of motintain- 
imiMiii:;. Thi'V aiv commoidy llatteni'd into len-e- much |oni;er than the 
oriirinal p<>bbles. The iiiashinp is wonderfully illu-tral.d in the ease of sma'I 
pebhhs .xaniiiied microscopically in lldn -ction. A iiotaliic hiprodm^f of this 
mefrmorphism of tiie d.lomitic pebbles is the common generation of many 
tr!a-s-char. twinned crystals of ba-ic i,lai;i.H-hi-c (probably acid bytewnit.-') 
amoiiLr the L'lains ,.f carbonate. 

'ti .4.'-:^ 

in.i'ilin 1)1 I III 

I II 1 1 4' l.v / ,V(i,\ :tM I I; 



I In- .rnu.nt „| ,1„. ron^^l,,,.,,,-.,,.. ,- „M,alK In l,,,-.,. .,„„.„„ :,,nl r„l„,- 
'.nuluriu tlirouHiout ll„. f„nM;,tin,.. ( t, i^iiKilly it „, .-, h.w 1.,.,, ,„• ,|„. .ntuiv 
■■1 M Kra.vvvuck,. or v.n i.nuM.v -an.l. |„ i,- |,,,.-,.,„ ,-„„.iiti..n it i. . .,.|,i~l„... 
<ystt,il„„. ,,>.!>. „f vat-i.Mw >l,a,l..< i„ ^n,v ..ui .,-, ,.t,i-i,-^,..v. Chi.-li,- ..,-ai„- 
-1 .|"ar.z of all .s./es up t,. one or two millinietros in .lia.t.eter. and very much 
rarer .nuns „t or,l,„,.la-,. !„■ ,„,|,dU.,l „. au ..x„v„, aL„u,ia„t .i,.,4ra,„',l 
..uitnx „f Mn.-,tu. .tn.MCAil,., Liolil... and .-hloritr. Tl,.. f„ils of mi... arr 
^pecaliy ,|,nel„,x.,l ,„ ,,:„. ,,la„... „f s,.l,i.t„sitv. .irait,, „f n,„^'n..ti.,., l,.„rox-,.,„. 

d.omof,,h„. ,.f.v-,aN „t titat.i... an- „f,o„ ^,.,v al,„„,ia„t i„ tltit, ..vlio,,-. 

rnKuar or n,,,^:!,!, rl,<„„l„. It-al. ,„l,ry ,.,.y.taU „f .alH,,,,, .arl.ouat.. 

• probably sotttowhat maKno.iau ). a millin„.tr,- or lo-. i„ diameter, seldom fail 

'" :"7'^"' '" ''' """-■ I'l'-v -■....•liiM,.-. , :,!, ,„,, ,,!„,,,. ,„„|,,_,. ,,„.,,,^, 

;""' "■■■ ""■'": l<iii'i''ally. Quit t.,, tl„.,- ,,..arl/ jrrait.s ^liow th- 

itiiii r proclrf ol secondary enlarfjeiiiciit. 

•'"■ "'■"'> "'■ tlie ifflomrral,. tnay I,.. „„riru|,l,.,| by 1, n-,.~ .,f „u.|a„i.,r 

Pbosr,! sandstones and pelite- a few ineb,-s to several f,..f. in tbiekn.^s^. Tl.e^e 
rocks have been meta,„orphos<.d to pl,ylli,ie M.hi-ts „f eontpoMlin,, pra^'tieallv 
Klentieid with that of the conglomerate cement. 

^ The sp<.rilie -ravily of live type -peeim,.,,. of the ,.o„i;io,„erate ran-,- from 
^■..N) to li.75:; Their average. J. 7:;-, i, I„,li„v,.,i to b, noarly the avrai^e for 
tlie whole, lairly lioniofreneou.. rorniation. 

After field and laboratory -fnly of ,b,..,. ro,-k. there ean U li,,],. ,!oubt 

a~ to the oriffin of some of th,- -la^tir material. T lour, eomposifion. 

:.nd f,reneral fb Id habit of tho, . pbylliie, ami dolo,„ite p,.bbles elearlv 
sliow th,.ir derivation from the nnderlyinir I'riest Kiver ferratie. Nevertheb'-. 
the wnter has not found a Mn^le p.-bbl.. of the span-le,l .p,artz-i„iea sehiMs «o 
abundant ,n that terrane and, in -moral, the larf.'er .luart/.it,. ,K.bblrs .i,ow a 
mas<iv,.ne<s or lack of s.-histo^ity. wliieh w more m.orked than that expected 
If they were .ienv,-,! frot.i the I'riost River terrane in U< preM-tit litlioloifical 
eondition. It M'ems neees-ary to eoiu-lu.b. tliat a lar;re proportion of the meta- 
morphi^m MifTored by tbe ,,id,-r t.rraii. . i„.-]udiii- the irrowth of the blotiio 

-pan-les and -on f the inte,,>o -boariuL. and -erioiti/ali,.t, of lb,. ,,,, art/it, - 

has affected the terrane simv the Irene eoiiHloiiierate was rolle<I on the ancient 
I'Oaebes. One i„ay naturally hol.i il,at tlio 1,1, tamorpbi-m of th.- I"rio-t Uiv.r 
t.-rr.'ine o,.eiirr..d -in,uilatuou-h uitli tho ina-hin- and ,,ariia! ivorN -talli/al ion 
of the Irene eonM|on„,rale a< yo„n^o, and ..hlr fonnation- w, tv .,plnrn.,| 
topetiier. Even in the .Mnrlomerate tlaro i- sirikin- proof of ininien-^e tanfien 
tial pro'^snre aii,l crii-binu <ii.-li a- i- in.wbor,. ^ivm in the I'ur.'oll. (lalloi,, ,,r 
f.ewis siTies of forinatioii^. 

Sine,, most of t'l,- mat, -rial l..r ii„. -I..n„a-nl,. ua- won Iron, ilf ..!,i,.r 

t.Ti-ane, which in this r,".,i,,n i. „ot. known to .-ot.tain ,nv-lr,-,n. a.-id 
I'bitoiiic ma-ses on any^,. -.-al,.. ,1 i- „,,! -nrprisinc' iliat iH.itlar tli,. .■,in,.nl 
ol the eonpIom<Tate imr ilie pbvlliti,' interb.d- ar,. lii-bly f,'l,l-i>atiii,'. It i. 
■lear. ,.n the other hand, ibai lli.- hOd-patlii,- -rn^ an.l .ami-ton,- of th,. ov,-r 


in:i:\inMi:\T of the imkiuou 

— . .1 , - 

rdrrnl'OViltioil nf tlii- view 
str:itii;rapliv. us will I.p „n!o'l in tlic s.Mtin,, on cnnvlat i-ii. 

IlilAi: Vi'.'.c wir 



11a- li, ,> .■oiigloni, rate i.s cnnror ...My nvrlain l,v a ^r. at ma- nf lava 
dows \viu.-l], lor a tliicUiicss „f a liu.i.lrcvl fc't or iiioro, are int. ,-lM.(l,k.(l with the 
oonglomeratf. Thf>e lavas crop cut aloiifr tlip ^votcni slupcs ,,f Ircn.' nionii- 
tain, and th,y may he fin.uiK'd uiuhr the name of the Vdlcanie formation. 
^Vs with all the ..tluT memlpis of the Summit -pries the hand of lavas nun- 
he f.-llowetl irom the Boundary line northward acro-s m-arlv tlie wh(,l,- widtli 
of the ten-mile helt. The northern extremity of the ban.l oeeurs at the er..-.- 
eutting coiitaet of the liayonne };ranite hatholith. ('..mplete sections were 
measured on the Dowduey trail, on Irene mountain, and en the rid^'e =outh 
of Monk creek. The best exposures of the formation as a whole were found 
in the last mentioned >ection. 

The formation chiefly con^i^ts of a lar^e luimher of thick hasic lava tlow« 
in which a few subordinate layers of basic tuff, a thick band of conglomerate- 
bre<-cia, and a stroufj hed of dolomite are inti'rcalate<l. 

Like the conplouierato and the overlying' Monk schist^ the whole ina>-. has 
been gn atly altere.l by dynamic metamorphism. with a freneral devi-lopmetit of 
marked s.-histo.-ity. 'i'he massivenes. ,.f the Hows an.l the prevalence of this 
secondary s^trueture ren.ler it often impos-ible to detennim" true dip at even 
extensive outcrops. Nevertheless, tiie attitude of the original layering has 
been discovered at so many horizons that an important generalization can he 
made.— the dip of Ivilding is always steep, varying from 70° E. to 70° 
AV., with strikes varyin-_- from N. 7° E. to X. .30° E. Bedding and schistosity 
planes are in most ca nearly or .piite coin.-idunf. The nut.-rop of the forma- 
tion averages nearly i:, miles in width. Assuming an average dip of only 70= 
and considering the structure of tlie hand as monoclinal throughout, the thick- 
ness of the formation is at least O.WHI feet. High as this figure is. it must be 
regarded as the small, st allowable estimate. Extensive duplication of the beds 
by folding or faulting within the area is highly improbable. The bed of con- 
glomerate-breccia was followed for at least eight miles, through wliich distance 
It preserved its thickness, high dip. and proper horizon below the base of the 
Monk formation. The breccic and the associated dolomite are conspicuous 


''■'''""■'"' ■/■''/■ '■/////■ i>//,V,S,M,//, ,^g 

'ii.-Mibcrs iiiiil ,,,nl,i -,..,,■,•,1, I 

ilio rocks coniposiiiff tljo IroTi.. \m »■ 

('"hniiniir snli 

''""' I ■"'•"/!/. hllllUlli,,),. 






'1''>||. mnt'nrrriiil,!,. h;i 

I- of Monk fotrii.ilii.n. 

■ '"'li'^l'^nci „n.atlv al,,.n..i b..,Ui,. .n,, „,„,,.,„„. ,„,,„ .,„,„.,,,.,, 


K,(I00^_ fwt. 

lias... conforninl,!,. t,,,, of li..,i,. V„l 
Tlu- Knat hulk of the formatinn is ,.,„„po-,.,l , 

liiV;l, now ty|M<M| 

-— f,i. .41, ouiK. 01 rne u. 
"i highly altcivd mul.-itic hi 

for iii.iti 

uniform ivp,- 
or {froenish -rny. ..o,„pM,-t -.'hisVo "r: ';:'''"" f"!'';""-'"""- '' i- ^> 'I^M'k ^r.,.,, 
" trace of the minerals originally crvsJ i.vlV /'V' '"''• ""■'" '- -^"■■•'•'' 

portion of the .non^tone ^^^mS^J"' °^*''f ""'^"'''- ^ large pro- 
'•r, tnu.h more rarelv, of „uart"' h in^ ' ','" /""•^•^:'"'"-^ (-onipo..,! of .alci,,. 
the pronouncd s.histositv W ;, .\\ ^ ' f '"' ""V"? """ '^"-'^ """"'•' '" 
"■o.n surface lava flows, 'it is s ., ^ hi'l'^ '",'""' '"-^'•"''''"^ '''--'' 

->• on.. ,,,. The difficulty ,!f ^^;' :t :.'; '':;""7"^' '*"■ '""''^ "■■ 

'.-tense „a.hing and mefan.'orphisn, 'f 1 e ]. ,. ; "''r';"-^- ''"' "' '-" '" "'- 
while the gr,.at ma<s was accumuhu..,! l,v ft appears prohahl,. that, 

"f consi.lerablc thi,..kness. ' '""'" ■^'""•'-^'v H ■■ - ca.h (!o„- wa- 

Fr..m the study of over twontv-tiv.. thin .. ..• , 
"t.d relatively nnwcathere.l lrZ^\%"''''T '' '""">■ •>■'"'-'' 
entire thicknos.s. the rock has •! "rv h' , """' '''•" "'^""-''""t tlw 

<elt.d n.ass of nralif, chloHto^: o Xri!:,: ^ r""- . " '^ ^! 'r"^"'>-l 
s'tnte. and often biotite with which nvr.'f lunon.t... s.-ri,.!,,.. ,„._ 

i^ I'la^ioclase, which with Z^iZ^' Z^I^'^TT' "TT^'" '■""^''^"-• 
'^'■ctn.ns only by a fe^^; hj-hlv nltcrc^ Zl'^' '^ "'Prc-.-nt.-.I ,„ „,ost of ,1„. 
"f tlwse ..rystals .how tl ^ h^v J^^ .^^7 "'"• T''? ' ''^ ^-> '^"'J ^chtW^n. 

ava, whi,.h had an .hnn.lL l^^J „; ^i.!:'""" 'l'^''''^''^-'^ - " H^inal 

hol^..rys,a^in,^ ophiti,.. flne-.rai .cd "::""^"'''->-^;''"";" I"'-- An .xcptional 

formation „„ ,he rid.c iust ;,-, f 't% '''"] ^"T^ '-"• "'<' '>^<- <>f th„ 

"( ti- Phase the ,,.,l! ^' , ."";^"';::'r '7' T" tu-o thin s^.^on. 

I'.-ia ~v.,l. ii_u) 'H.rp„-rv..d Mnd u'.iv. in tt. .one of 



i>i:r\i;T\ii:sT of nit: imijuhu 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 

,, t'l \'v ;ni iicid 


-^vriiiufti V A iiuiNiiiiiim cxlinctinii i,i Jo ; it ;\p|i(Mr- tlni-. to \'v ;ni iiciil hilini- 
iluritc. The plii-iKHTVats of tlio porpli.vritic pliiwc's. tlmmih siiif,'iihirl.v lianl to 
diaRnose, seem to be of nearly the same species of feldspar. In not a single slide 
was there found the slif-'htcst tnice of (ithcr i)heiioe.r.vsts. Kveii pseiidoniorph- 
nf ?uch possllle orij;iiial phenoerystH as pvr.xeiie or amphibnle eiitinly f;iil. 
.hidging from tlie iialure of the s<eondary iiiiiioviils, the orifriiinl lava wa- in all 
probability a rather iiasic aii'le-ite or arnie-itii- ba-alt. 

Sonic of tlie tine-brained, nen-ainvpdaloidal j.'re<iistono nmy, at certain 
IXiint? in the tield seetion. belonn to dik.-i or sliei ts of the lava enttinfr jliwhtly 
(dder tlows. Larjroly on aociiunt of the pi-ofound nietainorpbi-in it lias proved 
as yot imiiractiealile to di^tinKui-ll such po^^-ible intrn-ive-; in the field. They 
fan, however, in any ease, form bnt a snuill part of the whole ina--.J. 

The microscopic character of the lonR list of secondary minerals shows 
thorout:h banality and needs no special description. 

The specific gravity of eleven type specimens ranged from 2-791 to 3-09G. 
with an averape of li 1)1'.', which eaniiot. be far from tlii> avera«->' for all the 

About 2,000 feet below the top of the formation the (greenstone is inter- 
rupted by a forty-foot interbed of compact. >oniewliat sheared, -rray linicstom 
weathering light yellowish or buff. Under the microscope the rock is seen 
tr be a remarkably homogcnecJS granular aggregate of carbonate grains 
without other visible impurity than a. V\U.c granular (|uarlz oeeiipying narrow, 
microscopic veinlets. cutting the rock proper. The carlionate grains are anbeil 
ral, ro^lndi^h, and of nearly uniform -^ize. averaging f).01.' mm. in diameti r. 
The rock effervesa'S very slightly with cold dilute acid. The spe<'ific gravity 
is 2-'S5o, indicating a nearly pure dolomite. The purity of this carbonate mas-. 
coupled with its fineness and uniformity of grain, strongly suggests a chemical 
origin for the rock. It should U- xuAcA tkat the aviTage -i/e ..f the carbonatr 
grains is very similar to the average si/e of the grain In the Altyii, Siveli. 
Sheppard, and other magncsian I'ormations of the ea-tern series. 

The 200-foot breccia-conglomerate occurring m ar the top of this formation 
is of special value as a horizon-marker, liccause of its high angle of dip ami 
because of its power of resi-tancc to the jiroces-e- of general erosion, the con- 
glomerate often projects in strong peaks or ridws above the surrounding green 
stfpne. I'ine exposures were f<iund on the- -mnniits north (.f ^Tonk cre<k and on 
the long northern slope of Summit creek valley. (Plate 72, B and C.) From 
the IJoundary line to Summit creel: this consiiicuous rock-bed is always practUMlly 
vertical and runs in a remarkably straight line, bearing a few degrees ea-t oi 
north. Throunhoiit that strrt.-h tlier«» seems to be no pos-ibility of any imi>or 
tant amount of dip-faulting in the Summit mtIiS as a whole. Tlie perM-lei:'-e 
of this elastic bed. both In -trike and dip. and its steady parallelism to the 
boundaries of the other nearly vertical membiTs of the Summit serie- out- 
cropping in tills area, testify to the ci>nformity of the whole Irene vo], -11110 
formation with the Irene conglomerate, and with ibe 'Monk aid young, r fornm- 
tlons. Had it not boon for the .lisrovery ..f tbi< baud of i-onglomerate. ti<- 


ifKi-oirr or r,,,, vinrt- astuusumeu 



writer «„u!d ,.ot have ,l„. actual, stn.n-^ l„.li..f tl,.,f .i , • • 

Of one enormous, ponfonii' l.,ii i " vi.lcaiiii'> t..rm a part 

Not only tlu^tnlot'TvllT''''' ""n"T'"' ''" " '■''^"""- --"-li-- 
illustrat-s tl„. |,ro,,ri,.,v „f n-r' ','| ',',;, ''• "''"; *' ""P^^i"'"" of tho hromin 

and of diamot,r. W l^n J ' TI^ ThV; 'r''*; Tl "'•"""*^'" ^'^"^"■'^' 
was quit,. un.nh,r an,l n,ea-ur. 1 «.,• i, J " ■"'"''I- '''""'"!'' ^'"*-""""t ^-en 

of dol.-mito also anpoar in {1^ ;,r T V,"^^"""' '^"'"" ^'"""''■'' f-'^'!n< 
Phyllito. d,.riv,.d from a ] V o ' md' X' .^'" "'f''^, "'^ " -arl.onato-l.oarin, 
hand-spooin.en or in thin ? J \-r ^'"'''' "^ ^°''«"!'- n^' was «op„ i„ 

I'ud, thons'h not well «ortod .m.n.ln, ' ""'^f^''' '''''" ' ■•■' •' wator- 

dr..,b,k..s oripinatrd fron, 1 o j'"r'" ",..''""«^"""-'-"*'- I'^ ^'^trital materials 
=' 1^'r „pe specimen;^ ,1!;:^:;; l;";^;;"^""^- '"■•■ ^P-*'- ^-vity of 

Except f,,r the relativolv tircat nl)und.,n'^. .' f i i ■ • 
tho matrix and bouldorv fra^Mnontfof , iT ' '"';".'" '""""'■^'' ''""' ">' 
similar to ooarsor pi, „e. o 7, re T' ''" "''"'" ""'^ '^ '•^"•'•'•'^■Iv 

di*f~o i. that the latter ha J;: 1 ;""^'-"-'?'- The chi.f essential 
20.^foot hand, whi.h, hefore t^e n t ^ n^ , M- ooo" r'," ''"'''"' *''"" ^•-^' 
earth's snrfaee than the hnsnl eo ndomor;;. Tl " "^ '"'"■" "•■'"■"'■ *'''' 

rnetamorphi.m in the iW-foot hand is,, r" ,.""■, """>""f ^^ sl"'nrinfr and 
basal eon^domerate an' that in L smh > '"""" "''''^ ^'"'^"' "' ^'- 

formation overl^vin.. the vol a^ics T ™ a'eaT t"""''*^ '?^' °' ^'''^ ^'^-^ 
reerystalli.ation in similar rock, of he Terl?^ ""'"" *'"'' ^'"^"'"'^ «nd 
progressed i„ direct proportion to the depth orthell';:.:: '"'^'^* '^ ^^'^'^' 

"\rO\N FoItMAT.oN. 

sections, furnishing: <-ven toleral, 

poorly expose,!, o,,]^,. ,,,,, ,,^,,,^^^,^_^^ 

One of ihe-e w;s c.;;d ^^x s;!.;-!: tr" ^^^ J" ^'"' «-nda;; , 


i>i i'\/;i \ii:\i nr iin: i\ii:i!ii>i> 

2 GEORGE v.. A. ^912 

is liOiivily timlMi|i>il till I. null mo-t nf it- rNtriit. Blank- of lluvc huiiMriil 
feet iir iiunrfi oocMir at -i-vrral |iuint- within llic ^ci'tinii. Tlic foiiiprwitidM an. I 
other ^iilii'iit fciitiiri's of tli(> foniiatioii arc. thcrcfoic, not kiviwn >vi'li lui.vthiiiv 
]ik(» thp I'crtaintv that attaches to the other inciiilici'-i of the Sniiniiit sfrics. 

This proiip of ^ediiiiciits iiinlerlyin;,' the W^ilf trrit anil resting' on the 
Irene volcanics, niny bo oallcd tiio Monk forinutinn, after the naini' of tlic creek 
which cuts ncro-s its outcrop. The total thickness i.; \fry (jrcat: a niiniiniini 
of 5,500 feet is i r.tinintoil. 'I'lu'rc is iil-o consiilcrablo hcfcropcnoity in the ma-- 
Xevcrtholcss, it is oonsidereil ailvi-.-ihle to "roup all thoc U'lls nmlcr the one 
tormation name. The detinitc naniin^r of the litholojjical suhilivisions i- not 
warranted until ln-ttcr cxjio-ureri are found than tho.-^' so far -tudi<d. 

The subdivision shown in the following- eoluniiinr section is to lie om- 
-idered as diH-idediy cruile. The thickness of some of the memlK'rs could only 
be conje<'turcd. since the outcrops in such cases were discontintinu? ami quite 
insutfici<'nt to jrive av<nn'd conclu-ions as t.o the compositioi) of the covered 
beds. The CJ^tiniates then given were i)artly lia-ed du the c'larncter of the 
■ ' and even that was often thornujrhly buried under the dense forest 
cap. When, in the future, this iiniss <if -trata i- stratifiranhieally will workcl 
out, it will doubtless be nrofitalile to recofrni/e by di^tiuetive name- certain ..! 
the subdivisions: the name " ^fonk fornnition ' may then he restricted to the 
most important member recognized in the re-e.xamination. The coluttmar section 
for the formation may be leutativcly dt'<erilied a- follow-; 

Columnar i^ertiott of Monk formation. 

Top, ciinfunn:il>li' lia,-r of Wolf furtinitiuii. 

n I'JO feet. - .Spricite-ipiarr/ sclil-t. 

'. 5<l .. (Quartz );rit. little slieareil. 

'■ *i.W ■• .^eric-ite-i)UHrtz -ehist. 

'i '."o .. , 'lit. little sheared. 

'' loOtt + ii Senciteiiunrt/. scliist. sMiiietiiiies cMinitic. 

f 6(H)±,, Dark K'ray slate anil I, hylliti'. 

;/ l;i<K)+' Ohietty serieite-()uartz schist witli iiiterlieils itl slieai-.-.j (jrit ami 

Clin^rlelllerate ; [mkH' exposure. 

k 'tttti " Sheared (pi.irtz cniiKionierate, 

/ 7'tO + " ChieHy seiicite quartz schist and -heare.i ipiaitzite : iHiere\(Mt- 


/ tit)+.. .Schistose eiin^rliiTnerate. 

i- i!"Kt .. I'hyllite. 

/ JllO-t-,, Phvllitie-late, 

.VidOt ■ 

r>ase. coiifuriiial'le top of Irene V. .Icanie ft niiatinil. 

As a rule it is very difficult to ijeteniiiue tlie atti.ude of the brddiny:. .se 
etTectually is that strui'ture nia-kcd by the never-failiiifr schistosity. The most 
of the readinRs of true dip were obtained at tlie contacts of the srits and 
conKlomerat^s with the s<.liists. .\t -uch pf)ints the average strike was .alxiut 
N. 10° E. and the dip from 7.")^ W. to I'l'"^. The c. irrespondiiifr readings for 
schistosity pave, on the average. n< ariy the -ame strike, with ilip ransj-inp frotu 
"9° W. to 55° K., averasinjr nearly vertical. nowcver. at one locality the 
bedding and schistosity of a slate-phyllite phase, though holding the regional 


j,v ■<- ><r_.ji( 


i;t:r<>iii ,n n:i: run. a.j ,,:,\,.iti./{ 

StSSIO\AL PAPtR No. 25a 


""■ !i'*;- ;'"i' * '- -'mJ: ;::-v;::,;:,:'t;;;;:r ' "-' 

Ilif nntnral >us,,HM.m tl,;„ ^, ^,,..,i , ,i- ,.„ .. "''!'■ , 
■•In^to^e ro,.ks .nij-ht 1,,., i„ ,,,,, ,,„,l, ,, I u , • '•'' ''"'""K'''"-'"^- 

■H-.. of ,l,e exposure. ....k,. ,, „ ," "-■';'';■•'■ •!■.. .....,.;,„, t1„. p„or- 

■■'■•nsem.s its width »s ,t i* foll„«v,l .v ""■'^^ '"'"">-'"'"• t.. fliis fnn„„ti„n 

V"i'-.un,. .■,„.,„ati.n ,1, -l,„w ,LT, . , i'""'^".'"'""";'" -^^'"'"^ «^"' ""-l Iron.. 

"" - Mt,arv. .l...-,.unct-li, :,• '.'"'•" ^"'" *'''' ^'''''"""' ■-'^"<''- 

f'.r tin. wl,„l,. six Miil,.- a -o \ t'-nnat,nns run remarknld.v struifflu 

;v'::!;:;:;';:;;';7; :'>' -^^^ 

^-oni>,lvfi,sil,.';i,i X', '^ ''''fr ''"'«^'-"at<>« with darker 

ai„n„inn,i,. i.iotit.v -c, , ^ 1 ? ^ :,:;r""r'""'"'- ""™ ^-'-♦•^ "'"i. "-..1, 

'1..- linn,. th.rc is .r at f,,^, ,i ' ""'•"■*' '" '*"'"""^- ^i'^in 

Pyrit... chlorito. etc., are but l '' ''''-''''"'''''' .nnfrnotito. 

F.ld^par l.a, „;» l^o^n ol'r' ,T ,, , ' ^"^? ;'"-.titaUvely unimportant. 
--•.V in .!■,. ,,„artziti,. „l,a.. t in T '"•"'"":'':• .'^ -^ --^in.^'l.v acces- 

""■ ..Mn,,.al,,M<.al .■ot„,o.-,io;,f ;,„,,";!" ^'■'•';"-''; ■n.o monotony in 
■">l.v in xon,. ,.. when. w,.l| ,- v .,1 i. . '" '" ,'' '"'"^'"" '" '"' ''^"l^''" 

in ^,..„. al,m,d.-,n..o. ' ■'■^^t-'ll'^'"! '■>••"..,,. ,„ sum,,]., twins, has doveloM 

/on,. / i. , „,,„tlv nia ..1 .,v 7 '" ''■"""'"^"'■'^" *t'""^-'h not in prain 

Pol,bie. „f dolomite were not o f , t ; hi '' I ''"■ "^ '"" '""'"' '" '''"^**'- 
.;lu.s,. of ,„o Irene c.on.lomer!uo V . „ k o th'.: nTn """" •'" ?""""" 
/•.no A is a ronglomorato of ,ho =,,,„.. ■ . th ,,M ^ " ""T" ""^'"'^^ '"'"■■ 

Phases which are strong],- feldspathi ■ ' bin e on'fZ' I ' '""' ''"'' 




in:i'M!r\ii..\ i <>i i in: i\ i iinni; 


2 GEORGE v.. A. 1BI2 

riiucli liinonitn (lis.^ciiiiiuilid tliruiiKli tl"' ci'tiiriit. nr.' tli.- u-ii:il siili..riliii:il.- 
iiiiiivnils. Tlic I'lnstic yniiii-. V.Win- ..r «iiiiill, nrc i'liiir:i''l' ri-i ii'.illy mi;rMl:ir nii'l 
the rork iih a wlmli'. mny bi' i-lii-aid a- w iiiftiMk.'-i'. Many ..f tlie i|i!art/ ;;raiii-. 
tlioiiKh severul rnillimctrps in diaiiiftor, iiro frntrmoiits of siii}?l(! crystuls, hIiow- 
iiiK llial their sniiri'c was (loiil.tloss u \riy ciinrio (rraiillc. 

/ijiiis h niid (/ arc in ctimposition simply tincr-jfriiincd, jrrilty ciiuiviiliiit-' 
nf m\\\n h and ;. 'I'ln- t'l.iiicr /nwvi -, ( mi m lir nioi-r MiH"i\,> than lli.' laKrr 

and less ^lu-ari'd ><\- n.a^'a d. X.vrrI la li --. tln' lliin -iM>ii,.ii, ar iilih' with 

evidences of the grent strcssfs which have operated on ail these rocks. 'V\\.- 
iliiiirtz j.Ti\in- and pchLh.-i ah\a>s Aum iiridiihildry , \l inrt inn ,,r ^'mnihitlni;. 
Owiiiff tl) this niiniit<' li-suriny and tiii> ii'-ultiiiir pailial d< r..rii|v,,-iii..|i of li-ht 
rclicclcd from the interiors of ilic «la— y j:rains. the i|\iailz i~ ciniiainly i.palc -- 
cent in l>lni>li tones wliich are -nriictirnes ipiitc deep and pure. 

Tiic avcrajro -p'cilie j;ravily ..!' iwn -pieinan- ef the e,.ii..l,,iiierale -aiid- 
stone zones is J-t^lH. The avera'je nf four -p-cinii-iis of the sclii-ts is 1 717. 
Allowin).' lor tlio relative ihiekucs- ..|' th.-e roi'k-i\peJ. the average -pciljc 
gravity of the whole fr.rMiatiiiii may lie pi 1 at .il.oiit -■7ii."i. 

W'oI.K I'dllM AllDN. 

y.tnu- a of the Monk rormalion js confornialily overlain hy a mas-^ of very 
heavily bedded sandstones, prits, and tine-brained eonfilomerates, which in all 
essential respects arc identical in character witli the I'oarser-.i.'-rained iiha-is el' 
the Monk formation. On aecnnt of its thickness and conspicnoas nature this 
mass has hcen di,stinj;ui-hed hy a special name, the Wolf forniaiion. 

Its exiiosuros are nnosually pcrlV.-i in the broad band eros-inir tin' ten-niilo 
belt from Mt. Hippie northward to the headwaters ..f Wolf creek. The out- 
crops are especially e.xteiisive abinjf the Ucwdney trail at the ~iniiniil of the 
range and, again, <in the snnth-castern llaidi of .Mt. Kippie. At the last nanu'd 
locality the beds stainl vertical or m-arly vertical and there the formation can 
bo best studied. Some nncertainty mnst attai-h tci ;iiea~iircnii'Mts <if thii-kness. 
for this formation passes very f;Tadnally into the overlyiufr Di-wlney cpiartzite 
and in non«' of the sections is the actual base expose,]. .\t the .Mt. Ripple 
section the total thickness was measured at 2,900 feet and this seems to bo 
steadily held throughout the li(Minda.»y belt. 

The formation is tnurc massive than anv other sediincutary lueinber of the 
Summit series; wlu're most nnis-ivo it cousi-fs chielly ..f a fehlsp.Tthic ipiartz 
grit or conglomerate which, for fifty or more feet of thickness at a time, shows 
no conspicuous plane of bedding. Tn the lower two-thirds of the formation and 
much oftener in the up|K'r one-third, the grit or eonfrloniorate is interrupted 
by thin beds of metamorphosed, more or less argillac(>ous sandstone. Practi- 
cally without exception the beds arc of a medium pray or. less eonimonly, 
greenish-pray enloni on fresh fractu'-es aiul weather a pure gray or brownish 

The larger pebbles of the cotmlonieratc are composed of vitreous quart?; 
sugar,', rray or white ^uartzite: mnch more rarely, dark gray to blackish 

ui.i'iiui nr iiii: I I'll I \>j uuMiuri: i5i 

■sessional paper No. 25d 

slat.'. Tli.vv MKiy 1... :i- iTiurli .1- f,,iir m- llvr .•nil im. Ir^, in ,|i,irn.|rr imi th.> 
avrrap' .lianiffcr i- iitnliT i.i intiinctri'. M;iiiy ;,t,- « .1 l.i.i i,„„t 

WcT.. Ml!>:inLMlI,ir ;lt til,' iIm,.- i.f .\r\- -it;..|i. (•,■,■;!-;. .11.. I |,1, 

'fllilit.' .'f I II' |)i lil.'i - l,y ..■..-. Ill, 


ir. . I! 

li ill.' .1, -T. .■ ..r -li,- ir 

hl.iiiiK 11. hruwi.n; fr..rii thin s,.fti,,ii i,f rn.i;ihi..rphc,>.,H| anfill.ipc..n> 
Miilii|.,.< \\,.lf t..rniati.iii. l,:iig> nrjiiii.. .,..■ .|.i;i.t>- . \i-,.,.t tli.- 
partly shailM) ..m- m ...nithw.-st .pia Iraiit (.iiirn.i..rtlnl.'l. '^lartz 
sh,.w.< i-at.iclastic structiiri' ami s,,i,„. „,.,■. .11. larv cnlaixiiiiviit. 
'.r.iuii.l iiiasa.if ipiartz anij ^.iTic-itiL' iiii.a. S, ,. t,\i. Uiaiii.t.-i ..f 
'■ircle. .'" mill 

iiiashing never, oven distantly, approaclics t' -..t represented in tho Irene con- 

jrlumirato or in the 1..\v,t zoiu's of tl.e Mo. ,i f,,niuili.m. nffaiii, many 
of the iichlilt-B (some a< larire as :, mm. oi- iiion in (liaincterl nro made up of 
fragments of _sin^d<" c|uartz opystals. apparently in.Ji.Mtimr the prent ooar.sencss 
of tile granitic< wlihOi furnished this immense li..dy (,f .silioious dotritus. 
The single-crystal |)ol.hI.s. as ucll ns others of .^-^^...1111.! and irranular texture. 
arc greatly straiiie.l. with the result that they are often of the peculiarly rich 
l.lue or gray-Miie ,,|.,de-.-ent .■.■L.iir n.,t,d in the Monk eondomeratc .s. 


III !■ \l!l Ml \ I 1,1 I III l\ I i liini; 

2 GtORGE V A. '912 

, ,''', "'' """■''',""■• ^ '" """'I'"'- "'■'" 'I" TMrt. |„|.M..,. „n.„l,,r tr,,«„„,„, 

M l.l.Ui.iii- are «.l.lum n,,i,tiri*.' iVu.,, tli- .•..i,i:|,„r„ ml,- ami .-uMrMT -rit, 1„ ,|- 

II,.. Mi,...-.,>,-„,,o ..liMws tlwiM lo I,.. „rtl;.».ln.,. („i- ,„i,r,M-liM,. ). ii,i.T„,..Tri>iu.. u.wi 
l.i.M.. :ui.lp-i.„-. „atM,..l in tiM-ir ;,|,,.,n-. m; ,.,•,!, t .^i i,„|M.rtnn,., , WImto tin- fVl,|- 
-I'lirs arr >|h>.-i,iII.v nl.iin.hiMf. tl,.- yril lia- th.- |,„,k nf ,, mi. i ,i-k,,... Tl,,. f, 1,| 
'\»v H UM..1I.V ,„„n. ..,■ I,.-, k.„!nn....| ,„• .,v\.-nw.A. Siaf Ir,.,,,,,,!- ,„■,■ 
awu.vs rt..!at.,v- y nr- an,| ,,n,l,al,l,v i,.n.r ,„ak,. m,. ,„„p iI,:,„ tU,. |„.r ,.,,„ ..f 
tile wlinl,. nunilicr- in aiiv ..n,. |„-.k 

Tl.n .•.■■■..■Mt of ,|„. ,,,,.,.1 eral,. au.| liiit i, a vaiial.l.. ,na- ..f „.ri.-itP 

inul liiu-ftraniihir ciuari/. uith win, h iiMimt,. t'-il- ..f Kintii,. „ia.v I,, i-,.,-i ,f.l ' 
n.iii;ti,tite forms a nev.r failing th„iiKl. n.t alMiiidaiif »-•,•. s-ory cbl,.rite 
/uiMt... t..„n,iahi„. an,! .illiinaiiil,. ar,. ...l,,,- ,.,,„.,ii ,„.„)-. ■^\^y■^^. i„ sniall 

'■"■■'"" '■'•■ -l"iM,-,Ml„. ,,;,,i-,- t!„.n. aiv all traiiMliun- I., tl Iv I,,- 

IHiporiarit iliterl..d,|<..| -an.Ut.ii. - ami im tain.n.l,,,-,-! ,ar,.l> ir^illih-' 'I'l,,. 

■■""'""""■ '"•'>■• '" '•"••• '" n^^^ir.l,-,! a- l.ut I r^,an.,.,| ,,|„ual,„i, ,.1 ,|„. ,.,„p 

vluMwrat,. whi!,. .1,.. ah. n.,| ar^ilht,- a,v „„.,•,. lutflilv ,„i,.a, ,- ,.,„„,,,,., 

aLul..«u... ,,. ,1,,. ,.,.„„,,,, „r ,1 „-|,„n,.ra.,. K,.l,l-„a,. grains „„,„,„. „, 1.,. 

v.T.v ran. ,,,,„-.. ,„„., -.rai,„..l ,,1..-,-. Tl,.. »..|| ua^.r-won. ^ oft..,, 
;itTor.l boaut.lul exainpl,.. ot s..-on,lar.v ,.Mh,r»f,..n,.nt whereby these rock- 
Muv,. l„..-,„„e very str,.n^' an.l ,...-i.,a,it l.,.tl, ,,, ,1„. lu,>„„>er ,„„l 'ij,.. „.,.„tl„.r 

\\h,.re tl,e n.,.k „ fr:„.t„n..l. ,l,e -..rla..,. .,f t,a..tMr,., a, \u a trn,. .,„art/it,. 
|.i.»<.., i„.liff,.nnMv tl,r..„.h ,|„art./ ;..rai„ an,| ,.,„„.„,, Tl,.. M.hint,. ini.a 

■'"'' •^''^'^''^ ■•" ^^y "•'"• "■ I- •l"V..I..|M..I ... i.k,,,,.- .,r -,.l,i,,,,-i,v. Tl„ .,. „1.„„.- 

liH^s ..lear tl.rmeh .1,.. .•la-ti,. ,.rai,„ „f ,|„art/ ,., -„,.l, a wav tl.'at a larj.',. ^^riio 
i~ llai,k...| i.y tw,. >wa|.,.,- uf >|„iilari,v .,ri,.,.tat,..| „,i,.a-f,.iN. a^ >1„,wm In tl„- 
...•oomrnn.y.if. Fi^ur,. 11. Thus, the mi,-as ns a rule ,Io not wr, p ar.„m,l th,. 
.• .,st,e u-raiiis but an- grouped in strniKht lin.'s or zones which an- cut off 
- .arply by the yrau.-. It is ,.|,.ar that i„ ll,i. .-as.. ,1,,. ,.,.l,i,,,„i,v pr.„i,„.,.,l 
l>y the ..ommon ori.ntati,,,, ,.l ll„. ,„H.a> i, M..t .l„o either t,, -!„.arinf.' of tl,.. 
roek or t,. the rotati..t. ,,f ,,r,.-..xi^tin;r -eri. it- at..l hiofite hut; is .hu- to th.. 
.Tystalli.ation of ih.-s.. ,„inerals with their .-leavatr.-s Ivin- perpen,li,-„lar t., 
Ml,. (1, recti.. n of a i-oinprp-sivo f,)rt:-e. 

Th.. s,.hist,isity is almost always parall..! t,. the b.-thlii,- Part of th.. 
.....tatuorphistu „,ay hav.. tak, >i plac aft.'r th,. o|,l s,.,li,„ent.s w..r,. t„r.....l „„ 
..., ei^r...^ n,.w,n-er, the fa,-t that the flat-lyinp san.lstones an.l arpillites of tl,.. 
l-.'W.s. (,alt..n, and Pur.M.ll .eri.'s show sitnilar fissilitv an.l reervstnlli/ati..n 
seems t.. indicate that most of the reerystallization of the Wolf and orerlvinr 
f..rn,at,„ns waR eomplete.l before the u,.tur„i„tr. 1„ M... pre-..„t .-a-,. ta.,.M.,',ti.,I s,„,ply ,.mnpl,.t,..t a pro...-, wbi.-h l,a,l b....„ n.arly fi„i~h,..l „„,],; ,..„',. 
..iti..ns ,.f siati.. melaiiior|.lii-i,,. 

■n... mi..ros,...p,. .1,,,.,, thai th,- t-,.MM...,r ..1 (1„. ..oars.-r >a,„lst<,n,.s j. ehar- 

^■""''■'-''p'".'' ' '•"P'-rthit,. or n.i..,.,„.li,„.. ( )r,i,..,.|a-.,. an.l ..lapior-las,- are v..rv 

rare an.l ffe„..rally .,..„. t,, fail altoir-.ther. The ini,.n.perti,ite. like th.. ...i.^a^ 
'"■■■"■'"' •""' '■''■''"•^ ^"" "•'i -^f the .pnirtz. show,,l..„,... of havi,,..- ,|..- 

in r.,1,-, ,„ nil , ini ! ^ -i ,!>.\..,it i.- ,^ 


>'l'1'.,| .liiniii; til. r.-.-r.\,iiilli/iiiiMi, .,1 tl,, ,, ,L \ ,, , , 

t::.n:S;l:1-::,*::;r::;::;;: --■'■' '-^^^ 

, , "';"'""•■'' •■'■ 'Im' ......r„,K.rt.„.. ,. „, „„,.,„„„-,.ln.- ..,,..i„ , , , 

-i:'J^^:;:i~r:;;:::i::: :;:;;:;■:::, ''^^^ 

;;; ';";,-'-•>; <!'•) i- or ,„.. ,....r, lur'i:::tZ-:tC'iZ:t;^ 

'li- trI.Npar IS ,,t ,„rtaiiinip|,l,. oii. in "ini... 

.;.;.,;•'- ■■','' •■ : •'"'- -1.1 .itmi, „,,„..., t>,„„ 

l)l:«liNKY FulOfMins, 

H,V in-m-ihlr fc'radaiion- ili,. \\",,lf fnrn.,t; „, .. • . .^ D<.«.d„oy f„n„a,io„. Tl.o , ' "' i ^ I;.;,''- '',/' "'T'"'''^ 

■me In it. tvi,;.,! I^- 1 . >^ par.iniuir tli.'in i, tliu- an arl.itiarx 

l'"l,niiiinr <irl!,,ii n' llrirr?,, 

•'I >On>irif!ori. 

I'"l'. i.'i,i,.ni,iil,l,- has., of Kippl,. f„inii.ti 

'•' <'Oars(" (Oiinlonierato. ' "^"*- 

',:" .'. .iianil.-d <iuaitzit... 
-:■* < iialsi- t'Olii;l<]|ii,.iatp. 

1.-'" ■ Thick-bediUd, l,ji,,l,a iiua-tz.tu. 



O'llt, ni,;ibli tcit, ,.t \V,,lf t, 

I iiiatio. 

. j;^ ^r;^, "^ -^ -r r: s;::;,,rL;;;r-L:-T™;; 

.x^'.. Ihcso rorks Ko.irrally ^vatlier -ra.v aii.l „„lv rarclv brown Tin, i 
V ■" th>okn,.s>. Ihoy are <-<,mpos,.,i ,,itlier of sinpl,. strata of,. or 

;; .:* i,rT"T "t^^ •' "'^'''^ ''"'"■•""^' ^-<i-ton, <:j::i1;;.;„ : 

UK larLnllifH in altiTnatmu lavfro. 

2 GLORGE v., A. tgtj 
Till' -ii'n'lv iiniii- ■ ill.' .!,irk-i'>.|, i.m* •.ir','ill.i..uij4 l.r(|. in iIh' 

•lirMlsl..I|c 'U;;i'i»t.i| llic llillllr "LilUrr I!mI|.|i'i1 (^lUllt/ltf ' u^ Mi I'lirl.V (li-lmiil- 

i;..ii till" r.iriii.itii.n in ili.- lirld ti..|i-. Tli. ;".ii- num.' • I'pimt l!iiii<lr.| 
t^iiirt/it. ■ wii* »iiiiiliir|,v ii-iil |.,r ilic l'...|iiw ciiiiirl/ilf vvlii.Oi llk.wi-;r rhow. 
iii.irki'd iilt.riijilinn "f iliirl> i\ih| liylii »iliii..ii. 1., .|w. 

Til.' (inart/ilr i- -iiiiilMr iii .-. iii| um t,. tin' lin.' irnuiicl iiIkhi- ..f tli.- 
WmIi' r.riniiti.iii mill ini'iU n.. .I.'tiiiliil .lr-<cTl|.ii"ii. T i,. liifht-lititnl. .iftrii 
ripi 1' iri.irUi I I cil.s me iiliii..-<t cnlii-.K m.i.l,- u|> ..f tlior.niL'lily iiitirin.'kcil 
larl/ triiins. Im twirii a f. w -rfii'ili' lniU iii.i.v lir -ii ii. Tin -f lniU :iri . 
.!• i\ rule, iippiirciitlv \cr.v p. or in I'. |.|-p,il liic injli'i-iil, lliMUfii if inii-l li' -jid 
lliiil tile hiK'cjinciiH i'ullicli-.| arc t.„. frw to affor.l complete liiii'rnscnpic 
^•\ iilrriri' iMi thii point. Tlir ilniUiT I. and-, u-hii'li v:ir,\ t'r.ini a t'iiii-l!"ii i.f an 
iiii'li Id si'V. ral ini'lic- in tiii'knc-'-'. arc iliartrrd with .nnic l.i.itit<' in Wfj! a- 
uil'i till' .ji.niiininl vcii.'itc. wliilr lln' :irri--..ry nj. mm till- (jrain- ari- al.Mn.lant. 

'I'lii- '■. ii(.'lii|iii'rati- miirli'iU p' r-it. uiih iirarlv .nn-innt tliii'tvU.-- ami^^ 
ilii' iiiiir.- Pnuiili' 'rinr.ii-h.Hit iIliI lonj.' di-lancf tiny -land aliim-t 
.■xaitly \ and iiarali. 1 to tin liaialinL' .■!' tlir ipiartziti'. 'I'Ih' i\po>iir<'< 
arc ct'trn very liiu- ( I'lalr l:il. Ir.ini llii' lii^dnr iicak^ tiic dark liandi uf the 
•(iiijrininivatr rati III' fiiliiiwid with tin. r\i- I'.ir niik-, 'I'lii' virtii'al dij) cNidaiii- 
thc rxtraiiniiniiry -trai;jMttif~* nf tin- niapprd iiiit.-r"p nl' tlir I'Mrinati'iii as it 
travrrsci tiini.ntain and di I'l' i i.ii.V"n alike. .\i -iMral Ini'nlitirJ tlic pclildi'- 
■ if tlif L'L'r>fMit liarid ari' airaii;.'('il in l.iMr- makinir anulc- nf frum .'>' tn 1l' 
"itli tlip rnntai't i lanes nf \\w I. and, <dfarly sliuwinw' tin' itnlirii-atid. fiir('--ct 
liidilinif nf llu' iilil licai'li. 

The pt'lildiM art" WMtrr-wnri; : tin. dianiricr- arc nf all kiiutlw up tn mic 
fiKit, avcrauinir llircr ini'ln-. 'I'licy cmi-iit nf nla.--y ipiart/, n'^y •'' Kri"iii-li 
ipiartz schist and, rarely, iiliick slate. The sehistnsp (iu'k ven-Krny 
cement is iiiuldy varialdc in ci ii-titiitinn. (Quartz irrain- and a few irrain-i nf 
altered fi'Idspar am snlinrdinalc da -tic inirrcdiciit-i : inn-t nf the cctucnt i- 
cnnipfiWfl (if i-ericite, Idntite, clilnrite, aiul acci --ory niiipiiplitp. Om- dccp- 
L'recti. ciitnpuct -iKidiiicn, willioiit vi-ildc [M-lildes nf any kind, prnvcd on inicrn- 
sciipio exnniitiatinii to U' made up alnin-t entirely nf felted iddnriti' in wliidi 
minute, aiijrnlar, aeees-ory p-riiiiis nf ipiart/ ennid lie seen. 

On the sniitheast slope nf Mt. Ripple th. nluniiuo-maKnesian cement has 
1)1 pii rather lli..rnn»rldy n'cry-tallized so as tinw tn he a iiia-s of intiteatelv 
interlookinR' aniiedra of cnrdierito, 2 to 0-4 mm. in diameter. This mineral 
t nelnsps swnrm-i nf minute Mricitp foils and niatrtictite trriiin-. Small lenticular 
areas nf prannlar ipiartz hero and there ncenr in the thin section. The deyilop- 
nient of cnrdierite at this point, thrfo miles frnm tlio nearest intnisiyp praiiite. 
would hardly haye hi en anticipated. Tt is the result of thermal ineta- 
iiinrphlsin hy the underlyimr hatholithic iiinHiiia. nf which the pranite stuck at 
the newdn?y trail was n constituent part. 

The I'nmiinsitinn of thp-o c'lnplnmerates is, nn the whole, like that nf moot 
of the cniiglnmerntes in the Wolf. Monk, and Tniie fnrmations; the youiiccr 
hells are. howeyer. iimcli less sheared niiil schi.stose than the older ones. 

I'MTt i: 

Ki|.l.i.',„H.k.,„l!,|,|,|, ,|„,p„„...,.„i„„, s,„„„„t..fMu„„. I! |„ 

iir.lulii.ii-. H1111111..T 1. tw.. (.■♦■! 1 ,iiK. 

I>.iik |.,,iil„ 

Rippl.-mark- in Hi|.|.|.- .|ii;irtzit.. : mrativci (casts' 
25a-Kil. ii ]i. 151. 

><.iir.i' l..i'ality ami ^lalr. 







'VT ^?I ' v*,t:"»^.*'. ■'<#,!;■■■ ■ 


.-^M^i^.-«»ite«^'.. -'^-.^ ^'M»l»- 


I 'I MK l,>^ 


liEI'itltl 1,1 lin: rilii.i AslUdSiniii; 

I tlio riih- |,,ni.MMl( 

riri;ltil.|l ;ll.,,i|I 

Tl.o specific Kravity ,„ ,,,0 r,,,,.!,,,,,,.,.,,,. ;n, r.,^v. al.o,,, - -„m ,1,,, 
quartzite aii.l rnotargillu,, ■>xr.,^, ;,n,l that ,,1 il„. ul,„I,. f.. ' ' 


.1' thi' 



Wheriver flic Dfw.lncy furination 
it is cvni' (ivcrlniii l,v a If 
form- til,, ^umiiiii ,,( Mi. i>i,,,,|, 
JonrKUi..!,. Tl,r,N-,.l..t,. s,.,-ti...,.s w, r.. „!,.;,<,„■,.. 
lying b,t\v.,.i, Wnh' rrvik ■^y^\ tl„. l;,,uiiJarv li,.,.. ' 

I!niiiiilary Lrlt. 
i|iiarl/itr ulii.-h 
th.. i;f|,pl,. 

It. wilhin til. 
iiavily ii,'.|.!i-.l 111.1-- (if uliiir 
aii'l ha, ili.rclnn. I,,.,. 11 iiaiii.^1 

1 1111 as many riili:i--uiiiiiiil^ 
,, . -. I ill' whf.h' iiia>-iv<' fniinil lull 

Jh/in^iiSi^rsin':: '"- ^•'■^'"^^ -'' '- -^''-' -"- -""'- -- of 

Tile tliickiio- 

ir rifrion; Mi,-h niitrmiis arc V4Ty favoiu-ahir tu stmly 

th.. .IV r,„'"V,T'"" "* "■'"'"'" ''"'r'y "■""■*""' ^'t all iiu- i,„.,iii,i,.. ,.xa,„i>u.:i. 

Jor ihU Si:;!. " ■■'-^•"■'■'"•■'"^ -'""^ l-Mat. f„.t as ,110 „„.t ,„„l,aI,lo valuo 

Tin. Uipplo forniati..ii .-..ii-i-t- ..t' a r.iiiai-kahly 1 
I>lat,.,l .iiiart/itu. hroakiiifr will, a -..ii,,n,,is m.-iaili, 
Ilion. ai'o i.rac.tically ,10 inU'rhoiK ..t' ,,lh, r mat. rial 
the roek i- w'lite. Imt ll.>4i-iunk an-l lithi y 
general .'olnur ..f the wcatliercl -urt'ac.s ' 
yellow wliioh is characteristically <icci.l..urizi-,l t 
of lichens and nfli,.r plants. Tlic .■tT,.|.ts ..f the.-. 


. nam, \.ry iii.,i\ily 
'ii.h.p th.. Iiaiiim. r. 
Icmiiiant .-..hinr .if 
an- ciimiiiiiii. 'j"hi. 
. i- a hriu'lu hnfT- 

l\Vl-ll t'llli'S 

nliiiir .joiiii- 

sno\v-\vliiti> thr.iiijrh the a-'eiii.y 
f, , , - -....,.,-. ...iloiirs anion- tli(> cxtcn-iv.. 

tejsenmcers above the forest-cap are as beautiful as thev 

IT, 1-^ an.l, 71 B.) 

A principal feat- 
proscrvcfl ripple-ni, 
ings n.-e exposed in 
ness I if several Imndn 

are strikinj.'. (Plates 

f th,. qiiartzit,. is th,. o,.,.,irr,.nc... of extn>melv \v,.ll- 
■irioiis li..rizons. On .Mt. Rii)plo itself these mark- 
-IHjctiicnhir fashion. I,, bed after b,.,l for a tlii,.k- 

. ^ ■ , . , . ,.-\f"Pf<l»''-thesnrfa..,.s of the ,i!.l san.l w.r.. m.nihled 

Mito typical npples ot highly varied orientati.m (Plato 1-i). .Vs exposoil on 
be,ld,ng-planes these marks are to-day apparently as sharpK marked as thev 
were when each bed was just eov,r,.d by the next wash of sand Whole cliff's 
are ornamented with the strong ridg. s and troughs of the ripples t'lemselv, s 
or with their negative impressions. Occasionally a slab of the frost-riven rock 
shows the crimponnd ripple pattern of pits ami na.nnds the s,i„„, ..„„i 
layer was sub.iect to two succ^niin.,' .-nrrents sotting from different directions 
Sometimes the ,|uart/ite is fissile along the plan.s of such rippled beds onlv ■[ 
centimetre or so thick, but as a rule, the rock breaks out in large massively 
constructed slabs a half metre to a metre or more in thickness. In the task of 
reducing the i^-ak., formed of this stnlil>.,rn the frost uses joint-planes 
rather than bedding-planes. (Plates TO, B and Tl, B.) 

The (juartzite is extremely simple in composition. T'mler th,. mierosi-ope it 
IS seen to lie essentially made up of subangular. or much more rarelv. round,^,i 
grains of glassy q„artz from 0] to 0-4 mm. in diameter. These are ..emente.l 
by yet more granular quartz and some accessory shreds of sericlto. The quar'z 
grams are usually straine.1, if not actually fracture.l. Probably more than 00 


I'llwUI MhM <il I III. l\li inni; 


2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

por cent, by wei^'ht, of tlio iiveninc mi'k i- ■|uait/. N..t .i frrain of foMspiir was 
-(•I'll ill tliiii >(<'li(iii .111(1 tlicrc i- :i >iiiyiilMr luck c.f ilic iii-ccs-nric- runii.i in tlic 
-urri.iiiidiiiy l'..iiiiuti(.in>. 'I'lii- (piiirt/ili- i~ .-1. iir!y t h. nu.-i lii^lily -ilin.Mis 
hiciiiImt .■!' the Siitiiirit .-t-iio. 

■|'hi' -pcciti(> uravitifs df two t,v|«' ,).. ciini ii> u, r( t'..iiii.l in Ix- iv-|H'c-ii\cl.v. 
:.'i;.'..". ;iiii| L'.fifi': tlu-ir .'iveriiLjf. -i i;,".>. i- \iv\ <■]: — ■ i,, tin ;ivcniu.- i'mi- tlic wlmlc 

tdi'Mi'lt iltll. 

Hi.I.IIIM; l-ilKM \Tl(i\. 

Till- Kipplf .iiiartzitc iia--cs witli x.iiic ;il.i-u|.th(<-~ int.. tin I'.irinnhlv 

.ivcrl.viiif; Bceliive iVrniation, >o named aftci' il.< tyi.ical ...•(•iin-(^iic<. .ui lii.<.liivc 

iiioiintiiin north of Lost creek. Ot' this f.iriiiatii.n i\v,. .■ |il,-ii. ^,M-ti..iw anil 

lorn- (.ther partial sections were travcrsecl. 'I'll.- host cxpi.-ni-cs williin the heh 
were I'eund on E(_'ehive mountain ami on the ridge ovcrlookinp. from the north, 
the smith f.irk ..f the Salmon river. 

'i'ho fiirmation is heteropenei.n-, yei tlie recurrence of a ni--iy-wc:ithcrinf,', 
(luart/.itic rock-tyiK! is so constant tlir..iiirhoui the uh.'le mass that it has -ecmed 
expedient to include many thousands ,.f fci t ,.( tlie-(^ hcds under one f..r'na- 
tional name. 'J"he total is only roii<rhly estiinat<Ml hut it is helieved 
to In. 7,000 feet at a ininiimini. .\t l?(>ehive inonntain it.-( If there are over !l,(fli(i 
feet (d" these strata well expos,.,!. \,„i i,t that sei'tion. then- i- |hi>-ihly .some 
relieiition of lieds by overtiiriis, ;:. .\~ wiili the majority nt' the ineinh.^r.s of 
tile Summit series, .suitable h.. zoii-mrrkers a d<. finite and workable s;,l,. 
.iivisi.iii of the liujre -Oilimentary mass, are very rare. (In the western -lopi. 
of U. (hive mountain a r,(l-t'oot l»>d of liiia-l.,,ne is iie'lnde.! in the tieM se,.ti,,n 
and will li.' tioteil in the coliininar section of the t'..i-niali..n. Init it was not 
~cen .mtcropiiinir at other localities so as t.. hi' a really -crvh-eahh- hori/on- 

.V further ditlienlty in yiviiig ., pri'idse litliolo;;ical d< -cript i..ii of the forma- 
tion oonsi-ts in the r<latively liiph dynamic nielamorphi-in wliicli has affected 
the m.ass, especially in the iip|ier part. The only tolerably <rood exposure of 
that part, within the belt, occurs on the western slope of Beehive mountain. 
This section was studied in bad weather and but :i very limitcl tiinc cmild 
he devoted to it. although it is tlie l.icality nio-t favourable to the discovery 
o!' the iirincipal facts eoneerninfr tlu- upi)er one-third of the formation. At 
this locality there is apparent conformity with the Lone Star schists, but there 
■s a chance that the ap|varance is ,i,:,. i., the intense mashinpr which ehnrae- 
terizes this local area, a dynamic eifect wheieby tlie conformity of the schistose 
-tructures in the two formation- sinmkitos conformity in the dips and strikes 
of the true iK'ddinKplanfs. This (pnstion of conformity or non-conformity 
l)etween the Star and f^eebive f .rniations cannot be solved with infortua- 
tion now at hand. 

.\ c..iTi|)ilation of the facts derived from the six field-aections led to the 
l"ollowinfr cflimmnr section. Tt will be understood that if cannot ju-etend to a 
hiijrb defrree of necuracv. 

in:, •our nr mi > mi r i^inn\<,\ii:if 


rni,,„ii,„, ,,., /;„„ ,.,■ ll.,.l,;ro (..rmnlinu. 


2, MO left 



7,000 feet. 

lop. lj.i~.. ,,i r.nri,. MhiM I<iriniUi..n. 

''■'''"imllu^,,,?;","'''';,'';'* '-"■?■"• '■''■"•^■' '"•""■"• ■•"■' -"J »h>t.-i.> i-hvuh.. 

marks. '""'"'K'""" ''"J 'l»"rtz,le: WMtherinR rn.ty-l>r..«-„ ■ rippK- 
■rhin-bo.1,1,.,1. iiKlif srny lii,„..t,„„., watli.-i ,i,j; Kr,,v 

Mt.iliu !iii(f brown ; ri|ipl(^iiiiirks 

lli'd Ot lM,ls-iV» Bhitl' fiuiutzitf 

.■u:'ty'';;''own':''' «^*^'"'-''-«'-'y- -'*'■■- ^n.U.r^mx.. w,.„tl„.r.n,. I,,i„ 

Tint'?,'' I'"'r' '''V'"K«r-'>;.'l»'»'"-'»<'. weutl.erinK Ij.own. 

brown r>'H"'''r,'' ''f''* *'"'■""'''' ^-'--''J- 'l"^'>t>^>t'-. we„tl„.r,ng >a,Tv 
.m°!. u.H , «,'':;. f'.l"*'''' ,"'""''■;<"•- int,.,be,K of dark t:re..n,-l, thn n.^ 
■ "iiai>,iiiit,.. »,.atli.-n ,(,' dark brimii ,:r browii-L-rav, lliunle-niarks 

n^e te,.t Hon, th« top ;, b,.d „t iMas.o..t,t,- nux.-d with l-nM-s of maKiPt',- 
tiferous uuartzite; th.^ U.i from two in, hi'S to ei^ht fe..t thuk. 

Bnsp. conformabl,. to,, of Ripple formation. 

^ Kipplo-an.l nll-„iark>. .-.„,-,-,Ta,-k,, mioI. k-v- oftPn. annoliMe trail, an.! hor- 
iriff.s are iit iiiaiiy liori/.on!i. 

Th.. 1,0.1 of inasrnotitc, noto.l in tho l,,wcst memlHr , a.s found in the , r-, 

ot three different traverses, two of which were seven miles apart- tlie b. - N 
..otably persistwit. hut a., .vet ,lo,-. n„t pr,„„i<e a ,.o,nuu.n-inl ,,uantitv „f ir,.u 
■■n: he inaxunuta thi,;ku,.«. ,,f tho in.ignctite wa. f.uni,! „n fh.- summit ,>t 
Ih,, ndffe o.fWyard.^ n„rtheas. of fho Boundary u.„numeut .at the -„uth f^rk 
<>i the Salmon river. 

Apparently at U.e same h,,ri/„n a -in.ilar thouch much thinioT (lvvo-in,-h, 
/uno of cry3tall.z,-d, ^'ranular majrnetite uas f„mid on the ri,lc.- north of 1,,.. 
■ •reekjiml ,,n tlie line ,,f striiie from the former loeah'tv. 

Lnder the mieroseope tlw ,,uart/ite. are 3.H>n to he e,.in,«^,-,.,l „f the u^„ ,1 
■•la.tie prrains of .|uartz, ,,ften -e.-on.hirily enlarire,! an,| n-ularlv ,v,n.„t..d U 
.nhltrated sdiea and l,y .suhor,li„ate .Ticite. no s,>,.,.i,n<.n wa'^ 
eollected from the feldspathic phases, so that the species of feldspars have rot 
l.;-en ,U>termmcd. The .-histie .,uartz „rains aver.i^^e al>out O.:! „,m. in dianu-t.T 
1 lie metargilhtes of the lower nu'n.hers an- yet more e.unpaet ma-es of quart/ 
.■hl,,rite aiid s<.ri,ute. with aeee.^.ory l,iotit.' an,l mauTietite: th,^ mira,v,,u- 
miiMjrals, though all of metamorphie, orip-in. lie with tlieir ha^al i^lan, -; ,,arMl, I 
to the bedding, so that the metarKillitie character is typically represented. 

±l.Rher up in the >e,'tious. where true ,lynamie metamorphi^m ha. ioeallv 
atteeted the beds, the metai-illil,.- ar,^ largely replaced bv phvllit.- On ih', 
ndwe running eastward from L,.-t mountain, the phvllites (pr„l,al,lv be,-,„~, 
ot the infiuenee ol the Lo>t Creek granite iragma) are charged with numerou- 
ory.stals of andahnite and with much metaniorphic biotite. S.nitheast of B, , - 
hive mountain similar, undoubtedly thermal, melamorphism has ,level.,p,^,l 
much ••yanife in small .'rystals ,lisseminated through the phvllitic beds 



iiEiwursir.ST or iiii: i\ii:i<i<ii; 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 
111 j:-i iieral. tin- i.iir,. aryilhir.ous Mi.iti'i'iiil. ti..u- cr.vstuiliznl n> scricili-, 

ilil'Tiii, i.iolili-, iiiMKiii-liic. I'lc. ;; iiioiv abiiiiclant toward the top of the 

liiliiw format ion. \vlii,-li i^ tlicrr mIso soin.-wluit thiiiii.T-licMcl tliiin in tli.. 

!"»< r. iiioro <iii:irtzitif nunnlicf-;. 

'riu' iivcrnirc spfcitic yTiivity of ten ^-locU.! -|i.>.'itneiis '.'.TIT. i^ l.rlicvc.l 

tu Im- mar the :iv< nifrc I'or tlio wliole fortnatioii. 


F-HM: StM! I'ciUM iTinv. 

The Bifhive f.'rmalion at its upper limit iiiergi-s (.'raihially iiit^i a rlivi-i,>n 
of sedimentary rooks wliich, everywhere in tlie ten-mile liouiidary belt, have 
Wen so much disordered ami metamorphosed that it has i>roved <piite 'inpossi- 
ble to d.clare their exaet thickness or their relation to the yoimt'or Taleozoir 
I'ormations in contact with them. There is apparent conformity not only with 
tile Beehive formation below but also with the Tend D'Oreillo sehi-tos. -edi- 
moiits and limestones, strata which are believed to be mainly of T'pper Pale- 
ozoic age. All of these formations have, however, suffered complete; metamor- 
Iihism. eriirnplini.'-, faulting, :ind mashiiifr, in eonsecpienee of which the apparent 
eonfoi-mity may not <'xi-t. For the present, the schistose sediments immediately 
eor.tactiiip with the lieehive quart/ites are regarded as the youngest roel<s in 
the Selkirk ran-e which can, with any safet.v, be considered to ho p.irt of the 
eonforinable Summit s(>ries. This upixTinost member is very roughly estimated 
as 2.0<Hi feet in thickness ami is given the name. Lone Star formation, so 
calleil from its exposure on the eastern slopt; of Ixmo Star mountain. 

The formation consists principally of dark-gray or greenish-gray, oftiMi 
carbonaceous pliyllite, along wiMi some lighter tinted, greeni-h serieite-quartz 
schist and thin interbcds of light-gray .'iiart/.ite. The dominant pliyllite some- 
times, though rarely, passes into true slat.^ in which the well <lev<loped cleavaire 
cuts across the Ledding-pl.anes. As a lule, the bedding is very obseure and the 
schistose struetiir<> is the dominant one. In nearly all the sections these s<'liists. 
like the eonfonnable Beehive quartzites, dip to the eastward at high angles, 
showing that the great iiKmocline in which the Summit s/ries has b?eii studied, 
is overturned to the westward. 

The extreme metamorpliism of the Lone Star formation is due partly to 
the original nature of the sediments, which were si>ecially liable to alteration 
in erogenic crush, and largely, also, to the vicinity of intrusive granites and 
other igneous mas=es. It is unfortunate for the study of this upi)er part of the 
Summit series at the Forty-nintli Parallel that it is thus exp.>sed only at the 
eastern edge of one of the greatest fields of intrusive rocks in the Cordillera. 
One must look to the other s.cti"ns. particularly to those farther south, for a 
more satisfactory diagnosis of the Summit series in its relation t^ younger 
formations. Four miles east of the Salmon river tlie Lone Star schists dip 
under the Pend D'Oreillo schists and therewith the entire series disapp<^ars 
from sight, .so that v.c rocks referable to the great Rocky Mountain Geosynclinal 
pri^m are to be found in any part of the Boumlary belt \« t'le westward. 


•I. u ,.. I 


LAii'a^ y 


REroitr Of Tilt: ciiihr AsTiti,su»nR 



Tho Star -olii^ts wvro triivrr*.,! .luring l.nd \v< iitlirr ut tlv.. clos,. of 
the «.ngou ..f m.i. wlirt,, n^ y.t. tlu- exislciu-o of tli.' Summit s.Ti..* mono.'Iiii.- 
just iKscriliod was m,-*ii«|,.vt4 d. Xo hxU-r opi)..rtMriit.v was afFnnl.Ml fnr rrvisif- 
iMK tlu' few sections in wliirh tlu^ scliisU ur.- .•X|)om..1 in Uic UAi. For tlivs" 
renson!! the polloction .,f »pc<Mmins niui ,if fi.-M .lata i- os[)o.Mall.v mrairr.' for 
tho formation. The forr-ninir brief and very emoral a.<'ount is all that i* 
warrnntod from the writer's llipited ktiowlp.Ijrc of tlics«- ro.'ks. 



!■' '■■1 

3 G£ORG£ V. 


A. \'i'i 


'■I "'^VNCI.IXAI I N I \l 


'" l"I.M \IM|I I'Mnilll 

"'•' -''"'ii-T^ipiii,. ,>.|iiiv,il..„,.,. ,,f r „.,;, ,,,,,,,,,. .,.,,i,„„ n :' '" '■'''''• '■ ■•""! '■" 'I- I'l.. .• 1...-:...^ 

'■ "■. ' ^""'"".' ^■'■'"^ '■ i'HlH-u....l in T.,1,I,. I ,„| 

l''ir ••i.lilrillllll' -I'rll.ilH Tlii I ■ 

•■'■ -'-I'n.i n„,„i„.p.: r„;,;;;T ,"" '- '•''•'■' ■•" li-i^i'^^^.-..! -iuuhui,;,:. 

'"■'■"-ll'■M..II.^ <li-(-„.r ,1,;.M|„. ii,|,„i„..„.,| ;, '■"■'".'■•'I. '•■"r.'In.i.m i, ,„,„,v 

""'■' ''' ' -'■•'•i"i ■:::::::::;::;:,,•;,::,;:,:■::;;::' 

I'miii. L~Cor,rl„/,„ii „i II,, /'„ ;, 1/ 

■"" 'Mil I ,( |;|K., 

'''|iif..iniiiv Hitli ri.|p.t 
I a ici/(iif ■ 

'■' I'' H I -Khlt^ 

«> -1H!\ l'H.\.K '•AI.Ji.S -KHIK-. 

KlM.j.,,, ,ii|-f.„.,. 

^:^•-l..r, ,ii,fi„ 

I. Ml l> -KI1U« 

Kiu,i,.ii .liii'.if.,. 

"'''''^^•'■-^"' -..■ "M.';a;:;n;,... '":ir^:^h::'" , K„„ia,s. 

'|"arl/lf. H„.| zi,,. in |, alt A ru'llllt. .,ari. I-I. ,|,. ., . , 

-1. ill'. 'li'I'iPlllTic liiiii -t..|i. 

.M.-.Hr.nlI,t..«„h,,„ar, S,lL,.m„l„l.„„i„, „ ,„, 

iii-.-llui. 7llOO' 

'iat -ttiiv, L'iC"i 


. 'It*- ami i|,,|,„„itf. 

- ''"'"" >-"">;J'^V l-urc.irf.a7;i, ;j|^ 
Kitrlii-mr, TVH) |sjy,.)i. )i„ 

•I'lalt/lt.. ami aii;i| 

rurr.ll I.uva, ISW 

fe'.Il...- ami iiliyllit... '.arKlMltV """ ' ';;;';;"'„, '""•■""■"',■ ""'"--t" 1 Xnm. 

,' '"'"■'' """"Vil >vitl, i,„„;l, m.taiv.l' 
' l'_';^ .....I -,„„e ,|„a,-, l,..amlal,t,|..,;,.fr; 

Krpiil... la-,<i 


-••" — Vol, ii 11 

W-^wa,,., I2.«i " "- "(;nm,:ri, I,;,,, ~' 
M"l'"nal,l, „|,|..r ,«„. 




l>l IWUTMI \l n! lilt: IMlllIDH 

2 CEORGE v., A. '9i2 
IMiri I. ion-' lalion of the lioeky Moinilnin (lfO»ynclin>il ruek$—i\>n. 

SlMMIl -(CMIK-. 

I'l Hi hi. HKHIKn. 

i U rirS ■<KI<l»:i. 

I.KHi- -miK^. 


I >..w.lmv. •-■<»»' Crr.tiin, iTiini 

iiif-riitc. titiyillitt'. 

' int, with i-i.iiK'l""!' r!it«- 
ali'l ■..iliililiMH 
M.iiiU, ii|.|i.r isiii. .•■jO'> 

"^ll.lil/ltlr -lll'l-tnll. . 

Hith iii< t.irtrillili' 'Ui'l 

M.iiik. I..«.rpart.;(l»m 
i;n,iit/ .( Iii-t iiliil pli.ll 
ltd , \s itli > < n^I'Mitt' 
r:it. . 
Inn.' V .Ir.ini,-,. (UKK) J 
< ir'-fiittMiM ^iiiil (fnt'H 
-tun.- ^1 iiitf, wifli ii 
htlli' |iliv!lit>'itii>l"ii*- 
I1..I ol iiiKMl^ir "in 
iriiii- iniiif 111 in i-r.iti- . 
( 'iiar'*i' c iinrli'iniT.iti-. 
with -ati't-i'iii- iui'l 
(•III aii'l I liTili- iiiti r 
l.f.lili.l ifii. ni't..iii-. 

Miu l)i<<l, l.fuii |>itit. Ai'iK Immiiiv. 'Jiiix 

|i>,'ji .Ml t.iiniliitf.uitni) 

Ml i.iiifilliti . "111. »|l'l|M|,,|Ul|l 

ll.ftv. 7:1 

Sali»Ul..hi'. « till ')M,iit 
/III ami a llttli' liii' 
Allyn. iiiiiiir part, •'•'*< ■ 

.S'lllCi'i'W ili'li'llllti 

\I.1K kUllllV. ■.1.111 

.Ml tainiliiti'.uitli. 
>"li ami > lilfli 
\llvii. ;t.'n«i 
Silii I. .11. it..l.iiiiiti . 
il.'l..iiitti.- Ki'i^ 
-a|.i|»l III 
Watfrti.ii. '.Hi"! 
.Hilu'tiitm (liitiiiiiiti . 



Iia^.i! uinolif'-riittts . 
Ti.tal, :i'.'.ll.'i'i fiHt. 

I'la*.- cni I alf.i 
'I'l.tal. -I',:''-.'. Ifit. 

11.1*1- I . .11. t'.ili d. 
T.ital, I'J.ttiii I 

Da nii.ali'.i 

■r..lal, la.TLti (.It. 

Tliu iisi'l'iil li.iri/on is tiuU of tin- I'urcrll I.ina t'l.niial i..ii. I'r.''iy 
110 other ^eoloMrii'iil huriznii l.<>tokiiii< ri.nti'ni|).)niiic..\i- rwnt^ in di-lnnt I.hmU- 
tiea more -urely tliiiu smh 11 liivii tloml. A sniul-timc UmI or i>r."!n.l ••( 
fediini'iitiitii.i' nil the floor of a tran-»ju'--i!ii.' -1 a nia.v U'!..i'l' 1.. ni.r.' iluii. 
one gcoloirit'nl period. A lava floml imt riion' than a few .| IV.I in tliii'k- 
nest at any point i-, on the other liainl. ilrvfl'>| wllii .niniiarai i\ !• i-.i|iiilit,\ . 
Even a ^r. at eoni] oiiuii tlo..(l frciicrally r..\ir-' it- \vh"lo tirM in l.nt a -nni'l 
frniMii.n of a goolngical iitial cintemtxiralieity thn- i-haia.-l.'ri/i-^ 
the surfai'o of the ■^■diment-i ov< rrun hy tin' I'lip'oU Lava. Sin...' fho ..MrlyinL' 
'^(nita are apimrently in iibsolute confonnity to tho lava aii.l t.i tli'' -trat.i 
underlying the inva, it is probaWo that several hnndreil-* of f. it .'f ho. I- almvi 
and lielnw tli<' Pnrcell Lava arc likewi^^o pra.'lieally ('i>nteinr)oran<'nii>'. 
th<' lava firniation has l)een traced fiom -outhea-t ot" .\ltyn. ^fontana. and 
from tho hi ii-'hts overlonkinK Waterton liiko at the Oreat Plains, all tho way 
to the en-tern Miniinits of the Piirc"'] ranprc on the Boundary, tho value ..f this 


' Jt . '^v ^wL **.li' JKr! 

particular li-ri/on-miirkor n ..M.ln.t I'l 

*;■■„:' :■■"■"■ ■■;■' -. »■';:',-..'',.::::::::■•;;,.:■■;::■"::■ ;■:;-■ •'■'- 

w.:''y,;;''i:::;':z,":;;;;'-;:;,t,r»''"v^ '^.l. ;.,„;:: 

tin,,.. iur.-,,| „.„,., ,„ ,1,,,,. r,..,„,.,;„, ,,,,,„,^ j,,_^ 

rii»< concliifii.n of (h,. thn.- .. i t..i- • • , 

iibout tlui gain,. iliiekiiMM ,w ;, .1 1 .'""^^" "> ""' '■alton s.ii, . („ ,, 

'te. The ,x...,„r..,'.,. „f . " , :,;::■ -''";■"'— .a ,1„. K„..|„.„.., ,„,.,„ 
arc ,.Mp,,o.| l,v ,.,„,(•, „.,„„|,l.. .„;i '"■'■""•" "• '1.' «.alto„ „,..! I.,.„i. ,.,„^,, 

"'>p.;r- ,>:.r, ,.f ,1,. thi,.k Ki,:h,:,,'. ;,;,,!;;•';;:''■" "'"■' ' -'■'^"•■'i - ^ -i- 

Tho ,q.iival<>,i,.e <,f m,„t ..(• ih,. |,„.,,,|,,„ ,• ,1 , • 

-. H..Tw:-.. ..,., ,„..,„,„, ;„ ,1,0,:;:; ';, :.j,;;:.r'':'.'^'''''T,--''-^ 

■■ the upp,.,- AltvM on Oil rrcvk U w-11 ,„ ,„.| . , "■'"'": ''■'■""<" 

■!--t.r- .. W..I1 ... i,. s,r.ui.,;;,,i/i •';:',:; "^''-''^ 'i'l-oio^i-Hi 

'■' '"• ••al'.- rn,,,.... Ti,,. n..l,l!'|..|,„„,, .,„ ' , ' ^l ' ""'"• '"■""^ 


^to„.s ..„n.e.p,„„| ,„ ,„e 1,200 {,,,.( r ', il h? ' " i'7'"'"- ^^"'' -"' '• 

-'-i-t„n.. a„d „r.iiiiu.s of ,ho kniip-. ;,,;„„ ; ',;";.' t';, 7' 


^."-... an,ure a.:.\,: l:r';^:;„;r;L ^r :;: :„i:,:r;::- 1^ 

iortnath.n. In the Lewis nn.l Pl.,„i.„ ., •'"■[\'">'J»'i^<'f thr M„.ppaH 

ionnation. In the Lewis nn,l ri;,rke nn.'..- .,, t', . n i 

'lem,...^ ,i,e e„uin,i.„t of .h. K,,,,. ■„:",:■;„. ..'f";:;:^;, t--' 

evor !n,.l ,^..^vn in the region ea.t of tl,. Flat!,, „1 riv- IIh f ,i' '"'"'' 
A tvn l,.d.. the whole of ,he ,nid,i|,. a,„l l„w,.,. A v, . 1 ," V ", "'7 

lite are not repn>.s,.nte,l in the Call.,, .r.-ti ■ > t ^^ atrr-nn ..rfr,!- 

^rosion hn. expos ,1 the.o „,,W ..k^: .i::,:,^':Z^''''' ^"■"^" '" "^ 
-•'a \..|. li— 11', " ■ 



iii:i'\i;i \ii \ I III I III i\ 1 1 mm: 

2 GEORGE v.. A. !9!2 

Till' m-i'iil lic.iiiuy:i'iicit.v of tlh' ihrii- liiii;i- r..riii,iil,,ii. in \hf I'nrci'll riiiiii',' 
lia- ninlvivcl il :i- \it iiii|H,,l,. tn .■.ir.hilr in .j.t.iil ih. l'ujkki fiil ol' -tvilt,! 
thcrt' i'.\|)<iscil \vitl> the wi'll-niarkcil ininilirr- ■•)' .ithi r tin (iiilton nr I^-wis scrio-!. 
As :ili' Mil.v tii'Icd. llic fnrttUKili cxii. -nir . f ib, I'l. ,1' l.jv.i f..nt'onn:ilily 
ovcrlviny tlio Kili-licinT '|ii;irtzito in it- t.vpi.':i]. i-.;-ti rn pi;,.-.-, iifTi.fcl- nii iiivnlu- 
nble iliituni-iihiiic. 

Tlic \|oyic' iii'>;illil(--iiilil-t(iiic Inrinj' i..ii i- iii::ir.|.i :,- tli, . .|iii\ :il. iit ..t' 
tlip uiiirl,' ( ati-Wiiv-I'liilIi|i--I!iM.. villi' yr..ii|i ;i- will .,- •' tIm Slir|.|iiii-cl- K inil;i 
group. tlinii};li it is pniljiible that thr Moyiv l',.i-niati. -i i- -'ratiirriipliifally a 
larKtT unit llmii the Shc|>parJ ainl Kiiiila loiiiliiiuil. 

Apart t'rniu tlic occiirnMii'4' nf Icii-r- r t.iML'ii.- .f ni..iar-'' 'ili linn-inni' in 
the nppiT IvitcliciiiT, tlicrc i- iin inili-pni liil.l . irlmi' .i- to tin' rxa^'t 

relation of the Kiti-hciicr \n tlio varirL^atnl i k- ..; ili. tv... i ,i-ii rn -t'l-ii -. 

A pnilinlilc liiit tciitatiw cdrn'latinii max !■< la-i .1 i.n tin la^i that tin' l\ ilchi'inT 
qiiartziti' i-s tvpically fcrriiyinoii-.. 'I'lir -ti-ata i.f ili,- (ialii.n •,\)i~ m-.- ilniiiin- 
niitly fi'rni!;iii(iiis ilowu to tlip hn'^r of t !<■ upp: r Ma^l •■'l : tin- -trata of iln' 
Lewis -i-rij'S are doiiiiiniiitly fcrnif;iiii'i;- il.iwn ir tin oa-.- ct tla- (iriiiin'll. 
-\« ilhi-iratcd by 'I'alilo I. and I'iati' I'n. the Im-i ol iIm- K t. im ni-r i- aocordiiifily 
correlated with tlnse two liori/oii-, wliilo ilio t^]' i- .iiiinitily tiwd at tin 
Puro.ll I.ava. 

The <,'ro-toii ipiart/iti' wa-. in tiio tioM. di iTi n nliali d t' rlii- Kilchfiicr 
quartzitc by the iKMi-ferruyiiious .baraoin' ;iiid lowir -Tal iuraphio position 
of tlic older formation. The yiay ipiarlzit.- and aruilliti - ..f th< .\i>pckniiny 
and ^lacUonald < orre»|iotid. even in detail- • l' o(!..iir. .■..nipd-ition, ripple- 
iiiarkiiiKs. etc. to the top be<ls of llii> (re-ton ipuirt/ip . iln' reddi-b beds of tbi' 
Ilisft.v and lowermost Apiiekuniiy are loii paralleled. -■ I'.ir a- kii"\vn. by reddi-li 
beds ill tbo Crivston, bnt may be e<|naled witli tin -.iiM\\i!at ni-tydirown strata 
which oerasionally occur in the Crouton at b^ri/on- l,.".ii(i f i , t ,,|- more Ik'Iow 
its summit. Similarly, tiieic 1- no eviileni lilbolo;:ieal eipiivalent of the Altyt 
anywhere witliin liie Crt^-tou as exiMi-ed in tbe lli.undary bel'. 

'ril4! jierfect I'oiifornuty within eacb ,.f ibe tliree t:reai -< rie- i-, however. 
a stroUK arjrument for considerin^r <'ven ilw -Ironfjly e,,ntra-tinfr Altyn dolomite 
and C!re-ton ipiartzitv as stratiirraphii' eiiuivalent-. Tbc ma-sive Waterton 
dolomiti' is similar in lielddiabit to certain |iiiri- ,.f the ea-tern phase of the 
Cpestou in tile I'uri-ell ranf;e. Tiie vi;;oron- upinrniiiL;- •■!' the fault-block- 
in that raiiKC lias occasioned the expo-nre of a -pieiidlv yi-eat ibickiie>s of 
beds tillintr the antdent neosynclimd: the lowir ouedndf ••( the Creston forma- 
tion as exposed in the Boundary belt -eein- t.. 1m- ,.M, i- tiian the iddest ImmI- 
exposed in the (ialton, Clarke, or Lewis ranyes in the -ann bi it. 

The litholofrical contrast- between tbe ilitTerent inenduT- ..f tlii' Summit 
series when compared with tlie members ..f the I'lii-e. 1: -erii-. is almo-i a- 
great as the contrasts existinvr between ihe l.iwi- and I'ore 11 fornnition-. 
Moreover, in the correlation .d" the wi^-tern -eiie- «!■ lum no c'alum-plane 
of ab-olnte conteinporain'ity sncii a- •In- I'nrc II I.ava afford- in the ca-teri; 
l>!irt "1 the uiilc LieM-yni'linal. 

if ' 'I 









^ > ■ 








1—1 — ~t — , 




h/tmjo/n o>u J /Dfi/fj 




' 1 



: .':t ■ 

■;. ; 


■'.''' \ ■, 

J ::.:..i .' 

-VI)!. ii- p. 1(;4. 

/.•"■'",■/ n, nil. . iiii.r .>//.., vol//;/, leg 

■ ^'^^■';';^''-'--. ■■'■ 'i.,. -. ri. , ,|„.,v :. , ,-. rv ,l,i ' 

, : ' •/"/■■"•'^''■'>- -^'l-I.Mn... . y., ,|,i,.K., ,,„„, „f ..PK 

u;,l, ,!,;„ •■ : : ,' 'V- "'^'"^'-^ tln„-l„.,|,|..,|. n|,|,l,-,M:,rk..,l. .,,,1 .-lu,.,,,,! 

-U.cioi.s -,.r|,,n.-,.r- ,.,r i,ii,^ ,,.,.,.,,,. 

''"•"■fZ"'- '■•' !-.r rhi.'k,. 1-, l-,in,.lv 

"ill, tiiin ini.Ti,. ,- ,,. ,i.,rk -v.y , l' "'""•',','■"• '■'I'l'" •'"^"'l- 'i- ^"',1 .-lu,.,,,, 

Kit-h.n,-,- ,„.„•.. i„. .Mnn ,:; ,1, ",:'"" 'V"''; '~ '"'-""^'1^ >i'"il;„- ,„ ,1„ 

.111,1 l'l,-,r,. •.,, |.!,,, ■.,, ,., I " '~ • ■""I •'■■' li-",, ill ti„. .-..nvlalinu Ml' 

; ■ ':'■'■-, n-,.l.,ti„:j- ll„. l),.u,l,„.v will, t.. 

""• "'•'"■'• ^ '■^'■•)>- vi.w. .I.,,„ln,„.,| -i,„.,. ,l,i, ,li,. 

•■-i-n.!al,..l will, (1,.. ,\r,„j, 


I !i,'" ,.|T. ii 
iii'i': il,',- i'.-|,r. 
ill'i,!,, ua- .li-aUh. 

Til.- J... 11.. St:,,, -.-iii-t. u. I 

.l.i.H.i,,.. '"■•"• '"' '•-"••'^"•^l-I from »h,. ,l,„„i„,„, rV...ton 

i:r;;;;';!::';n?'::,','':7^''i^ ov,.ira,„n,,.:,,: ,■■,:,.„„„ 

l^lllV lilixi .i. Ii 

'I'; ' '■■ -l.„, ,|nart/it,. with ll„.„. ...rni.ili,,,,.. rs-'nu]- 

-' 'i^ni tn..l...u-.|,„.y.\V„l|-a,Hl\|,..,k I..,-,,.,, i„„- 

'"' 'l-'niDMi.r ,|Mai-|.. ni,l, whi,.], , |, ,.,„,„i,, 

ninnii, -,.,„., .,:,„,,,,. , ;^. ■;":"• '"- IliKiMa.i,,., „„,,,.„.„„,„„, 

...i-p.niur,., lii' :c,,:i,, ;■,;;;:::;■':■ 'I'l- f-M-p.,- i- .,.,..- „„„,, 

within ,l„. S, i.r -,.,.■. ''■.'■■ri"!''''/''-'-'^-'''' "• '" "■■ 'i"M tl-t 

IS a kin.l ..t' :'(.--! 

;- '■■nna,,,,,, 1,,.1„„. ,1,.. Ili,.,,'.. ,,„art.i„.. 'I h,. f.-hl-,,,,- 
to vi,.v in rl,.. I!n,;:.ia;;. u";. " " '""'^' ^^''""'""' ^•^">"'- ''<'<->• tl.nHt „p 

ir t),.. 

,■• !.-.|'..i;-,,ii;.. .-..nvlaiiMii i. ,.,,nv.-t. ,1, 

ni..i,,),.lin,. ,,(• rh,. S'.-lki.k 


iplit't.^ uhi.l, ha\.. 

,,,,. I ;, ,. , . . ' *'" "■I'<"ili',l ..i-Miivni,. 

""■'' "■'"''' ' .iinl'nMi, tun.. In th. '<,.lk;i-l- ■ tl, „i i 
pnsni may If. ivpv,... .,,,,„! 1,,,, ,i„. ,..,,. „, , ,. , >' n.iiK- tli,. wh,,],. 

1 '■ ""t III.' .M„„a. ma-hniL- un,l ..tai„n,.,,hiM,i ..( the 

■I'v^iiiitli I'arall._.l 

upiXT hc.K \. 
very olwoure. 

nir 1,1 
;l,.'ir -ifatiL.rai.hi.. man. n- ai Ihr 


inii'MriMUM i>r mi: i\Th:inoi( 


2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 


A of tlie .■orrelatiun plato (Plate 20) pnd tht- foregoing descrip- 
tions show that all four of tin^ se<iiineiitary series fit into a single scheme 
of rock-Kcnesis. Distance from tlie ancient shore-line, oflF which the many beds 
were deposited, is the main key to the sclieine. It is ahout 120 miles from the 
thick nionoclinal section of the Sinninit scries in the Selkirks to the spectacular 
monoclinal section of the Lewis series on Oil creek in the Clarke range. The 
east and west line jnining the two monoclines is not only transverse to the 
existing mountnjn ranges but is also the line of cross-section through what 
seems to be the thickest part of the great stratified prism. In the western mono- 
cline the sediments arc largely littoral deposits.— coarse and fine conglomerates, 
coarse grits and coarse and fine sandstones. In the eastern monocline the sedi- 
ments are those characteristic not so much i.f very dc«p water as of mere 
distance from the inimediati- s-iiore-liiie. th<- home of turbulent waves, strong 
wave-erosion, and powerful transi'ortation of coarse detritus. The members 
of the Galton and Pnrcell series represent the expected transitional formations 
Ketween the two extremes. 

In general the prism is litliologically homogeneous in its middle part and 
harhly hpt< rogeneoiis in the zone of shore-deposits, and also highly hetero- 
gtneous in tlie eastern end of the section, far from the old shore-line. 

An estimate has l>een made <>f the relntive proportions of conglonierate, 
grit, sandstone, argillite (metargillite), and limestones occurring in each 
memb»;T of the four series. The results of the estimate have been tabulated as 
follows : — 







Table U.—Show 

'*"''in7r^n'Y''T^ cAarac^er of the four standard sections 
in. the Rockii Moiintfiin (leoaunrUnal. 

L' trin Srrieit - 


Siy.-li . 
IJriiiiii-ll. , . 
Altyii . .: . 

Total, 13,4(10 fct. 



rrrr ' 

— . — . _ 
























1,71 Ml 











<iillti'n Herin . 
Kcwvill,. . 
I'liilli,« .. 
• iiitfvviiy. 


^^ iK^< am 



















Total 12,iriOfi-pt. 

Pun-fll SfTiei : - 











I), 1 100 


Total 211,300 feet. 

Summit Strita .— 
Lone Star 


Dewdiiey, . 
Wolf ... . 


Irene eonRlomfratt-. 






Oik I 










Total 26.050 fwt. 

'l'k?i^;?i'!'' '"'■'.' ^""^ ''"^''"'••■■' "'.e '(•""■tzitrs, which„ an,l Kitclu-M-r ty.K.; Z m; stricilr" sS "''"••"''' '*'""""'''■•' '" ""• ^"^ "' "- 


i If 

f y 

-i i ( 


108 III l'\irnii \T «</■ •////. i\ii i;i(>U 

2 GEORGE V„ A, 1912 

E.xpr. 3-e.l in i>,iviiiliii;c- \\\,- |iiY,i>,,riinii> nf llir ditTi'ivnt kin.l- of ?fili- 
nieiit-. .iitrrl acci.riliiiu'- 1" tliirkuc-^. aro: — 


Siiniiii't I'uirtll (iiilt..ri 

Srllt-w. S»tlf:*. S»'rM -. 

• ',111^1,. Hi, rati' . . 



Ar^illiti- 1. 

Carl^tji.-a*- pick" 


II It 


!l ■-' 


II (1 

Ml 1 

7 s H 

111 s 

|(. IM 

-'II 7 

re' I 

II n:; 

II ;■) 

•n 1 



101) II 

II n 

II :; 
10 :. 

liai u 

Tlie i-onc^poiiilin}.' iHTiTiitaL'o.s for tlw n^iin-tivo ]n\r\< of fiii'li <(<rir'- wlii.-li 
arc s-tuitiyraphic .■iiiiival. iits of tlio wliol,. Caltoii soric^ (tin. leiwt I'oiiii.l.t.' 
Si'Ction of tl:c four) tire apiiroxiniatoly as follows: — 

'"mckf" -^'Vll"-- San,l»to„,.. (irit. f'""!;^!;;"'-'- 

Ijtui-* Si'i'ifs , , ... .'lit ",.", ].•, 

< lalton Sciii's "jii :^'> -js 

I'liro'll S.rii - iwr-tirn |ilia>il. . S) 7.') 

Suiiiiiiit S.rii'* . .. .. uiiil.r 1 is (II li !) 

A- tho f..rinatioii9 aro followed rastwanl from tlio siinimif nf the Selkirk-, 
the coiig-loiiierat.s and grits of the iiiiinodiate sliore-zoiie are ri'piaciil liy -and- 
i-toiies. Tho saiidston.'S aro lai-fol.v roplaccd by ar^jillito^. Finally, still fartlii r 
east. ai-f;illit<'S aro larfrcly repined by more or le-- impnro doloniito. Tln-o 
lelati'.n- aro illu<tratod iu tho synfhotio diafrrani of I'lat(> 2\. 

Iho sy^-tomatic elmrac!-.r of tho oUoiiiical variations encoimtorcd aloiijr 
the oa-t-wost section of llio pri-ni is woll shown in tlio analyses of ;Mos<r-. 
Dittrirh and Crniior. Those aiialy>cs wliic-h coiro.-poi.d to typos of oontoiii- 
poramous strata in the l'\ir>'oll and Kooky .Mountain >ystonis have hooii ontond 
in tho two followin.^- tahlos I 111. and IV.). Xoiio of tlies<' soleoted analy-os 
o.xart'y rei.ros,n!s tlin avoia>;o composition of a formation hnt eaoh ditTi-rs 
from tho ( orris) findiiifr avorajie in ooinparativoly minor deproo. 

Table III. illnslrates the ohoniioal oontrast^; between the Kitchener quartzite 
and it- oa-torn i fpiivalont. tho .^iyoh maLiiio-ian limostone of tho <!alton an.l 
Clarko Col-. 1 and •". lot'or to -i ooinifiis oollortod at points abo;it 
ciylity live miles ai>art. 

l'm. '■'liltiVti 



•1 h - I' !■ 


1 r : ■ 



- ^^A.----- 

''• ^ :. 

- T-. ~i - 



' I: 





/.'/ roin III I III I nil I I -//.•ii\..;;/ /,■ 

I Mill III. .\l,l,,ri„,, .„,iii,„^;i;„,i ,,f ,,p,,iillr,it l'„, ■„,„//,,„, 


V I ,< i, 

I :■;•'. 





K i> 

11,1 > - 





■>l'. ill- 


Kili'li. II. r ; 
"i»t. Ill 

;i "I 

I i>'\ 

1 :ii; 

I •.'" 


■IM I, ..I 1., lit. Ml .Sn, U 1 I., ,,,. 

■• !!• - ; iiiMM .,| .. II,.. : II,. ,,,| ,f 
t«. ,111. il\-. . t«ii ,111, lU-. . 

UK) :ft 
•_' IIHii 

1 10 


■J :4s 

! 17 


]iMt m, 

■-' 7i; 

'rnlil.' IV. -I'im-i tlii^ -iniiliir •■nutrii-t- Ictun-n ih,. v,,-lriii aii.l . n-i.rii 
Iiluiji - of ilir Cn sliiM t'l.niiiili.ii wh. 11 r iiiip^ircl with i%irii utliir ainl \\'j\ rip 
>.viii'lii'..ii,iii< Altvii f..i-iiiiiti..n iif il„. (;.ilt..ii :in.| Clurk.' r .iiy.-, C,.]-, I .:.,■! 4 
-ct'iT 1.1 MiM-iiiii II, rnllr.'tnl nt |i.iiiit- 111.'. lit HHI nillt- ;\!.art. 

I .Mil.i: l\'. Slitiiriii'i ' iiiniKisilioii iif ,iiiiliiil,,il i'',nii(iliiiiix. 

r.-t..ii. u. -t.rii ('iis|..M. .a~t.iii l'i.|i, 

l'lia>.-. |.li;l-... (;„ 


Ti< )'. 



KiO . 

.\lnO . 






H,( I 



\llVll ,.1 1.. .M- 
-11.-; .,...,1, .,f 

tin. ♦■ .ilui'v-f--. 

V.' l'l 

.M I,,-, 



1^* J- 


S Mi 

7 >.*» 



I 4 . 



us ' 


1 :<.s 







-.i i;7 



!•; 4', 


15 II'.' 


. !.*> 

■_'. 1 'h'^ 

- til' 




■J 41 

T n.-i 








1 >1 


1 "7 


l;{ (i.'i 



:;."' H7 


... ._ 


imi 112 

'.r.i !i:i 



I'Hi 2:1 

2 t!8l 

•J 1.44 

■2 • 


2 7;''J 





l"o iii:i'Mn\ii:\i ni nil iMiitiou 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1012 
In l...tli -rri.w of iimiljs- tli.. „i)-.lul. ,,ti...iii. ,,f .■ii.'li ..xj,|,.. ..x.^pf CiiO, 
AlgO, uiiil CO., viiriiM nlmosf in Miiiplo iiiviTsc prop.irtion to tlio (iimntity of 
(cal.-min utid iMiiKiiir.iiitii) ciirlmnatf wliicli vuWr- inf.) tlm .liffprciit rooks. It is to 
be iiotf.1. liowov.T, timt in tlif non-cnrl.oniifc |K)rtion of ea<'li rock, tlie iron oxides 
incr.M-e us tin. .,,nl<iit .f . iirl".iii,i.. in.T.a-.-. Tlir im.i, ,.;,rl..,i,i.t.' p.,rli..ii< 

liavc Ip n .HJ.nhit.Hl |„ Iiki. -Il,,, „<•«• icT.<'i,tm t" \h.- \r.,u ■■xi.j... in (!»■ 

reapi'Ptive m.'k, arc ii.,Nd in lli.. fi.llMwinK lull. : 

hitilierifT, wc-tiTii |iliii>f .gg 3.01 

Niyih. Ualfon MTied n-^ i.g; 

^ivdi, Lpwiit t'erii j .. ,. \ 3.30 280 

♦'ronton, wphtern phnM- .49 ].3g 

f'rp'.ton, fastcrn nliiif* n,tt, |.»- 

Ul-p.r AUyn. Oulton s.-ri.*.. .'. .. ':."..".:'.:.:.:':. 5.44 7 00 

.Mtyii. Lewis xenos 3.20 j.70 

I'll lat ..xpr..s,i in 111,, ml.!.. >r,..-, i^r f. .'xplaiu tii,. iniM-li -tn.nir.T 
rust.v or huff tint of tli. w,.iith..rc,| n.ok l'ii..Mrl.i.nt ili,. Cilton iin.l l,,wi« ...rii-i 
a^ .oinpiind with tliat nf il„. ,.,|„ivalont >(rata in ih,. I'unvli „r Simnnit ^crios 
I nilrr w,.alli..rinn .on.iition. liie rnrLonalo ,,f tl„. ..n^l.Tn n.rk, i> .ji^milvrii 
out. J.Mvmi,' tlie more, iVrrufjinoii- ii.atoriai in tlio wontiaro.) .•ru-t. 
TJi,. lot'nitnlati.u ..f llio loiffwi atlicriop .Moniil.- i-. in part. al... prol.aMv 
iluo In II,.. prc^onoo nf a Miiall aiiinnnt .,f il„. -i,l..rit.. .iinl,.,.|il,. in the ,.a.'l.onat.'.. 

\\ niaiiy li„ri/,,n, th,. nnn-.!,.lnniiti.. ^n.lini.nt- lik. ■«!-,. toiol In Uh ». 

moro lerriiginous in diroci piop.rtion tn tlu'ir respjctive dlstunces from 
the ol.l ,lior...lin.. in tlio «, st. Thus, llio ,l,.op-r<.,| nntarnillilo- and ipiartzitos 
of tho Kintla and (irinnell fonnations aro < oiin,.,.!.. 1, ihrnnirli »li.. tnmsitionnl 
Phillip- and Wijfwain forniiitioiis. with tho rii-tv -hrnwn Mnvi.. natar^rillifo 
and Kit.. il.. nor .piartzito, both nf wliioli arc 11. .'1 I,.-, .liaiw.rwitli ir 
pounds. In thrir r..spP(.tivo >orics T.r.O f,.,.t nf I'iiiliip- ivd ((ialto' .-ios^ 
oorrcspnnd to the 8(iO feet of Kintla red hcU- il..ui- Mri,.s1 ; sirnila. l.-^OO 
feet ..f Wifrwam red hods (r.alt..n mtL's) ,■ -nv-i^ui.! m nv.T I..-.1 f,.,.t .,f 
(^.rinnell n .1 l.,.,N ( U.wis s..ri..s). The Kiiilla an.l IMiilliiw together f..rm a siih- 
pri~m . f r..l Mcks whi.'h f.'atlier< mit t . ii..tliiiiir -..iii.'uli.T.- alx.iit the nie.linl 
line of tiie Pun'oll ranjre. Tli.. (iriiin. 11 an.l Wi-waia form a s....,..,.! s,ih pri^in 
of red rooks whioli al^o runs to a f.>ath..i-,-.l-.. in t],,. Pur. .''Is. T|,;. uppormost 
l> of th,. Siy,.h n-l.|.Mi -tmiiylv a- th.. -..,.ti,,iis an- 

caslvvar.l fr.,in th.. Yahk riwr. Ki.ially, th piival.Miis of the crav t.. 

rusty.frray ;ipp,.r strata ,.f th<. (■r,..toi- aiv dark r .Mi-h-hr,.«-i, in th." Ifoftv 
sandstniie of the OalPm'e an.l an- oitlu.i- ,h.,.p r,..l shales nu.l^s 
or InitT-w.ntliprinp. impii '. limestones in the !n'.v,.rii,.wt Appekiiiiny. 

_ It IS elear that the « t yeopynelinal prisni i- a very hotrropenerois hody. 
If is .•oinp.ts .1 ,.f a larjre number of formerly lioriz.iiital suh-i.risius of stratifi..d 
rock. Th..-e are iiitiniat.,ly .hive-tail. d toi;etht.r an.l -onie of the siih-prism.s 
hav." .-oniplicated iniilfipic ...l;.'-..:'. As a nil,' thes.- , du'.^s ;,r.. n,.t sharp, sineo 
th;. ri..-k of nne prism morpes pra.luallv int- tli.. .■onle!np,,ran.>nns nint..rial 
of a «iib-nrism of a different rock type. 


Uf.ruin in i in: i iiir.r \srH<>sn\iKR 



Tho liM,en.,.c in , lit ;;; ■' ;"■■ '■""-"'-■:"'-- with ,h,. li,„..,„„., 
proa 1, HO- "'■;:"^'""'-'' •'•^- ''"• -n..m,,ornn..„„. Crost..,, ,,,„,,;,, .p^ 

^^i£;;;./yr';t';:zt;;-;;;^rt,.,S!n™ ::;:;:;-:•:,,::: 

,,1., ,.,„„,.„„„,, „. ,„,„„„,, „„„„, , ,, ,.,.i,i„„'i. .:„:„;„' ; 

r;...j;:;;:::rr';:^:'::;;!;1r'',™;;:::r,;::;; -";,-■ - ■•' 

w.,,.,„. «... !.."wlrn::l„:!..-;^zl..t:';i;;..f;::; ;S-';i, -^:;;::t 

;~.!:;™;'"""- * "»" ■' '■"■ ' ■"«•'■"■ I""'' '"•" *3 


,„i **"'>;/ ""\,'"''-'" "o'«''le ,.f ,1,. Monk formation fSur,,- 
nouncod „„-r.aso of m-tmnorphio otTeot. ovor tho.,. witn...,od Tn the 
scMistositj are inconspicuous structure.* i„ the Volf Rir,.,l.. .,,,1 Pi- 

'Z'.h, «;;;;,";','"''" '■"'" "»■-/»"»•'»"•• ti„ ,k,,.i,„.„„ „, „ .. 




Ifl lUI, • I/' / 1,1 I I.I l\ I i i.luf 

:• GEORGE v.. A 1912 

-I li vi'iinilir r"'l,« Win piliil 111'. .11 till- 

I'l-i -1 III iiiiiiiKil li iii|icf;ihiri' Kiiulii'iu ..(■ 

I' M'.rik iifhi Ii-i '1.. fiiriiMlioii- iii'Kl !inv 

111 I.Mi t.i '■<"! ..r II, r.. ( 'nil'i'mili 

hI llii riii'iii..t'iui III' h. «■, du'lMtiKirpIn'.- 

li -lrr--l- ..!' Ill..'ilil,lil| lillil liiii.', "•, I-,. 

■.'1 .|i^i,.i< ..f lii.iiiii:.... Dill- ,,111 Iinr.llv 

('•■riiiii ..'I ,111.1 .1! 11., -I ,Mr\ I'l.i.t ,,f til'' 

In •'■■,<■ Miiiil. f. r,. ;iiiii ih., iii,.f, u-,, ,,f 

"I ii •-' ; 1 . . iinl.iiiiiT:i!ii- l.iiii.U. 

I- nil niii'iil ill ii|i|K'iiriiii''e 

. I. IuHmIv iiii-hiMiiMl I »c\m|ii,",- 

I (il.i-f* /' iiiiil I -ll«l\^• '-fionff 

ll'lU'li'li/illt' Illi' li;l«;i! Iri'll.' 

1 il !• tl nt «. V. i':,.ii.aiii| f, ... • 

I.I ii • .'^l.ii- )(inri,il i 1 .\-«ii 111,, 
i.lii'iil I < '. IHT |IH> I'l i-t ..(' , 
luiil Mfi; i-i,il lclii|i. nitn « I 

Ii .■ I'viilii.i tliiit 1 imIi r till' ti-i nil 
jjrciitlv liii'ilitiitiil l.\ ill.-, 
■v.iiiili-i' iliiit iM rv ■ii(.|iiliir I ., I 
Iri'iic t'. riiKii i..M -, li..\v -,.|ii. 

'Iw'lirillR U illl ill pill ..(' iiri;; 

h, </. ii :iM.| J. Tllr .•..nuliili,. 

»^iIll til. .i.irjl..liii nil., li, 

li.'riiKii i. 11. < hi ill- i.ilu !■ , 

|iro-«iiri'-lliiltiiiiii;r • r -lii 1 luir. , 
' iiiivl'imi nito. 

.\imli.-..ii- r.'lii'!..iH ^^..l .1- - ; ill- riir.Tll -nii.. \V|,;i.. il,,. M.-yi, . 

Kiii-'ii'in I. mill iipi.i-i- put . Ii... Cn-tni .. lart/It.. -.I.I..111 -|ii.uv,| ..-lii-inlliy 
. vi 11 will. II -Iniiu'l.v .|i.|.,ii,,, ,' ill,. !iiui ■, I,.;- ,,!' til,, r r,,i,,i, ..I'l,.,, ,i;,pl;n,.,| 
II tl ll.l.-lii.y tuWiir! tll(> .Icvi.l piM, 1,1 ,.|' .iTM-ili.. ,.|ii-(- «!ii IV ,1, |',,|.,,„.,| |,i nil.. Ill 
the ■'aiiir '! hi-, ! \,-U:<\ 1.. ■!• ..'■ ill.. .-iiiiiiMilt ,111,1 I'ur.ill - i-;, , i,ii,l,,r 

i-iniiliii' .1. i,i.iiiii- >tn." t':iviiiii-. ill. .null iii ,,,,iir>i. in. I iipi 'liu^r. il iri-l,!- 

liiii: .,l lilt iwi) -iTics ,1- p.iri it' nil,. l^iiK.' ii'iliiiiciitMi-.v prism. 

i', icmriil. it iiiiiv hv .t:it«'i| ij.iit. 111. Ill ill,, ^iiiiiiiiii ,,!• tl„. .^ilkir!;- (,. tli,' 
<ir,.i., I'liiiiH nil till. K..rt.viii.!lli I'iirilli.|. ll,, nliin. |, .,\ |„ |;,,i.|<y Mmiiit.U!) 
<,.liri:il tl. n ili'|itli uf ii..iui l'ii,i"iii iVi't l.i'lmv tin. i,,p ■ f ih,. ( 'Mrlii.iiilVr.ius 
liiiip-toiio, -liiiw r. «• iiii.i^ lit' i- i.liiLiiily iiilliil ,Im, ,1,,;,, ,11, .1,11 •pIii^iM. 

Illi- ,l,ii< 11, it niinii tliiit tlir -tr;it,i lii\. .|.,i li,.:,| ,Il■,llllr|^ ,i|,|,iiii,,.|, (,,,■ .,a 

many (mint- tlii'y iippinm li .,i- n m. Ii \iit iliiv. W'iiliii ilim _'ii.i -f,.,,| /,,„,. 

till' -riliimnts Imvi' Ihh'II thnrininlily iinluralnl ami vi r,\ larcilv riiT.\ 'liillizcil. 

l,it iiliiUKt I'litircly llui.ii-li -ti.tii' 1 iiin.rplil-iii < Iti'la-lnnv-iii, liiiiinrplii-iniis) ; 

Till' iv. i-y-talH/iitinii -ii'iii^ 1,1 liaM. I.,,i iilially ,.,.ii ,1, t, .1 I,. !',,|.,, th,, pvi^ii 

Wiii liililiil iiiul laiiltcil. Ililiiu il,. jii.iiiic.f, ,,( /, ,1, ill,, ,,,,,],, „,,,r,. .,, ,|„,], 
tcmpi-iMliin < ami |in.>;.iiii -^ that, ulun r,.niiaii,,n 1, lmu, -|.,.,iniii: ami li-.i,' 
•lyiiaii •,• tiirlaiiinrplilsiii u itii tin' .-ivai; I ^.-lii-f,,-,. -friK'tn iv- wra, tlic riiK'. 

>rKi nil i.iiw II \ 

1 III; m;i.-\ \, i.i\ u, ri:i-.\i. 

I'liriiii; till. lal„.rai,.i-> ..f tin. r,.,'k rnllr, 11,111-, -p,.,-;li.. :;r: ity ilct.-r- 
tj.inatiiiii-. ,.t' ihi. -iratiliiil n., i-- wn-.. ..t'tiii I'.iiiinl In 1" ilr-iraMi'. Thi' pur- 
pn-i- lit till- ililiTiiiimitiiin- wi r.. -,. variiii'> ah'l tln' iiiimlK.r nf spii-iiiicn.s 
!ii.ii<lli'.l <.. I' I'alilii that it inviilvi-,! Imf litti.- i\fiM tiim. an.l lalKiiir to iimkL- 
n fairly .niiiiili-l.. -ot ,,( .Irli-rmiiial imi-; f'.,r flir tytii.'al. t'n-li -pcrii-iPin ,.,■]- 
'i- till l.itw.'iii Watrrt,,!! lai;,' .iml tli,. <iiiiiinil ..f tlii' Si-lkirk raii^.-. Tlio re-iilt 
!uis l.ia, I., iiiv,. a ti.l, iilia ..f llii. aM rati. -|».iilli- gravity i.f th.' .litfereiit 
.". riiia'i.ii- ,:.iiip.i<iii:: i-aili liiTii-s. 

^'i'f S '^m^^.a^f^vp: 

UilUhlUI ,,,,, ,111,1 I.v //,-,, \. . U/ ;,• J7;, 

SESS(0\Ai. PAPLH N., 25a 

W.I.'Min, ,.„.), ..„1„. ,.. ,!j„^ ,.. „,.. ,|,j,.|^, , 

•"•""";'•,"",-■-"" -I'-it- ..:.>i.v ..f ..:„..,„. ,„ ,,„„■ ,„„, J;., l," 
'7;;'' /';"■•', ■""■""''; '•-" "'"I-" t,„r,-,i„„... „r,l ,„„l ,(.., M 

."" ",""• '••■ ;'" il-'- "^'li i .lur.ii..,, ;,n,| ,.,.,„|.n,.,,„-, „f „,,,rlv .11 ,1.. 

r.r, <"l..,- ...uivrs ..f.,|,.,.,,.„i„,„| ,r,, „.,,,,, |,,,„i. ..I„.,„,l I,. ,|„ , 

■"■'."■''■ "■'"■" '"""'■' '"""■ ' ■•" •■' '•'""• -"•'in- in V, i,l„, „'„r,.|,v , ,,I„., 

rohiilil, :i\.nii;i- for tli.. I.^riiini,..,,- w. r. . .■,,r,..\. 

Til. lM||,,«i,,fr t:,M,^ ,i,,lH.,ly (lif ■iril .;,,,,! I,., It-; 

Tmhi V SI,,,,.,,,.,,/.. ,„/,„/„/,,/„,,,„,/. ,/,„M^,w „/■//,, f „,,., ;„,;„„„. 

//..■ i„lrrh,l,l,,l l.,r,l^. 

NnniU. .,1 .|.. ■ri..,kn.-- ,1 A».n.^. 

'■""•n- -li.. „ .,, ^1 .,, 

"" ''-"f"! l<-it, „ ,|, 

i;»it.>ii~ii..« f; '■■'•'■" -' r:i: 

S,„..,„.i.. -i... ' .V •-'"-'"" -Till 

Tamik \]. Shn.ri,,., //,, cnknUil,:! „,:,„,„■ r/,.,.s,V/rv 0/ ^;„ .•„,„• V, n. s ,v/„ ;,„„ 

II,, n,l-,h,',ld<;l lam-:. 

Nnn.U, ,,1.,.. Thi,ki,.-,| AS.T..J...- 
'I'li.ii- «>-.|nii.'rit. ,,. ur 
.^ ^ " '"■•2'- _ '"f-t „(.,,! i,. 

I., i, .. rJPM ... ,„ . 

• ;;iiu.n ..ri.-, , ;!i ]•]■*''' -'"H 

i'nmll -eri.-, «^,t,..iri phji,,., ^! '-'•.'f'l' ' .■■' 

>iminiit •.•rif» ■„. - ••'"' - inl 

■ ' ■ *' ■!. ,11.111 ■' ;|,| 


Tmu, VII. ,V/,..,./,i„ //,. ,„/,,,/„/,.,/ „,„,„„„ ,/ ;,,•„. „, ,;„„ ^,„ , ,,, ^.^ 

':ros,„„hn,il ,rh„h ,„,;,. I,,,,. Is In II,, i.,!! //,/,t,„,,, „. 

si'iliiil-llls .„ I,.. CiJliiii s,r,.-, 

T ... Aii'iaBe -p. -: 

l.i-ui. M-rips , . 

Oalt,,,, «prip^. . .. Vl?' 

I'lnv.l! ..Hri..., , -lO^ 

-11 t -,.,,... -,i'^- 



ht:i:\inMt:\r ur tiik imkh/ou 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 'fllZ 

Till,!,. V. gives aotuiil .l.nsiti.a in a part of th.- (\,rdi]liTan popion and 

may le ..f sdiip \a\uc in discussions of [K^ndiiliini obs.rvntions or of 

other Ki'opiiysical i.roMrms as Uioy may be .ona'rnod witli tliis repion in tlio 


The avoraK<8 of Table VI. .xprcss the range of densities in a tvpical. 
thoronRhly consolidated (statically ni<tamorphos.-d) Rcosynclinal prism. 

Table VII. indicates the approximate density relations of the Galton scries, 
the least completely exposed series from the prism, to those of the equivalent 
strata ot the other three series. The av.rago dcusitios of the two wi-^Uru 
equivalents are sensibly liie same as that of the (ialton scries. On account (.f 
the extensive development of dolomite in the Lewis scries, its nvern(,-u density 
is, as was to le expeeted, .'oiisidcrably higher than thnt of an,v other of the 

CoRn'^M.mox ok tiik Foiit Boindauv Sehiks with the Castii; Moimmn-Bow 
River (Cumbrian) r.RoiP. 

During the course of the field worU in li»n,'i I't gradually he.ani. susp,ete(l 
that the as yet nnfossiliferous Siy.^h liuie-touc is the stratigraphic e.inivalent 
of the (^iml.rian Castle Mountain liuu^stone of McConneirs well-known section 
on the main line of the rmmdian Pacific railway. This sn.«picion was 
strengtlu n.'d in the course <>( a brief examination of the rocks at and east, of 
Mt. Stephen iu the autumn of that year. The importance of the eorrelati.oi 
pronipte.! a second and longer tield-study WMidi might, to som<' .xtent. supple- 
ment McConnell's all-too-l.riof report on fiu> great section. Toward the close 
of the season of 190l! the writer aecordinj.dy speni five days in working ,.ver 
the type sections on the northeast and s .utiiwest sides of the Bow river valley. 
The time available was loo limited to secure a detailed columnar scetion of 
the group; yet the field evidence was ci.'arly in tavour of the correlation of th.' 
Siy<h and (\istlc Mounta;n formations. 

The principal information was nbtaimd from two parlir.l -eetiouv. the uiie 
running northeastward from KIdon station to the 0,SOO-foot, unnanie.I sumioir 
northwest of Castle mountain; the second, rnnning westward from T.jike r.oui-e 
chalet to the ba'e of Popes Peak. Combining the results of the two traverses., 
the following succession was established: 

Top, erosion surface. 

^A^ f«'.';f-I"ipure raagnesian limestone with thin interbods of shalv aut-irKillitp 
1.5J0 l^uartzite in thin to thick beds. 

1,200+ " I'ine-gralned conglomerate, grit und quartiitic sandstone. 

Sase concealed. 

Kefercncc to the published report and, aflenvards, p,r-..nal .•..n-nliaiinu 
with Mr. M<-C<innell, gave assurance that the limestone typi.-ally represented 
the Custle Mountain formation in its lower i>art, while the <iuartzit. -. conglom- 
erate, and grit us typically represented the Bow River formation in it' upper 



!■"'"' »m|, i, ,,. 17,, 

iiiii Im. ill C.^il,. \|, 

t |miis,|.,l, 

niilaiii iluli 


""""■; '1-"^ l'.nuialrii,lniall 

II II aiii Irih iif I'aiia.l 

rl.iliali. •;■■„,, il.iiiK 

.■itiinil : 

Mil I'.lilMl 


I'l \IK IH. 

M..lur tMoth >timtii,.-inHiy.-l, lin.r»t.,n.-(watli.mli CI-,,!,-,. U < i 

"^rs; tSJiStif ;:;«sr;t;:l;i:; "s;xi 




h'f:i'niti III iiii: 'iiii.i AsiUDSoMi.u 



In the section aortlicnst of Eldou the I5ow Uivcr ru>'lis ;iii' not uc !I i.x|i".iil 
but the limt-stdiic 3!iow- abmit :l,r.00 fcrt of \\-^ tliii'kiiiv>-i. Tin- .iip aviiii^. - 
25° northeast. At its ba-e the liniegtoiie is rather massive iiml i- .■.hiim-i .1 .f 
firmly knit, thin Uiis "i nltirnatinp, grn.v weathcrint,' am! litrlit hi..uu t.. l.utT 
woatluTinf. impure carloniite. The pray layers carry liltli- nuiiiin-.iiirii .ar- 
bonati', but the brown-lmtT hiyi rs are lioloiriitic. 'Iln- thicknes< of the-e hiyi rs 
runs from a fraetion "f an inch to two inches. .\lMiiit l.tlOO fct above th<' Im-c 
a band. 10<) feet or mere in thii-knes-. is exceptional in beinp tiiiii-bcibb'il and 
easily cleaved but it preserves the bntT weather-tint and a (lol..mitic composi- 
tion. Similar thin zones oceur both aliov.; and lielow this band. In ci neral. 
however, the limestone is not only thiek-piaty in ^truetnre a- in tin' cour-inj: 
of heavy masonry, but, like the Siyeh limestone, shows a ratiicr iinifonri. Imtf 
to brown weathering tint atid hich conti'nt of inapnesiiini carbonate. Ilolh 
phases of the fresh linn-tone are imrmally rather <l;\rk-frray or hlni-h-yray. 
The rock is often areiiaci ons or ar;;illaoeous: the weathered surface is r.iuirli- 
ened very often. tlirouj.'h the projection of the sand-grains. 'I'lu' uiMMual di-- 
tribution of carboiiiite and impurity renders the siirfae>' characteristically 

In a s|Hcially ariiillaei ons hod at the top of the lOO-foot, tliin-l.edded lime- 
Stone band, fossils, ehierty irilohite fraLnnents ol' ap|>ar.'ntly Middh- Cambrian 
age were diseovere.l. Middle Candiriaii fo--iIs wc re al-o foumi at the has,. ..f 
the whole linn stone formation. 

The likewise excellent secti.ui above !.ai;;ian. tiiirteen miles to th, north- 
westward and aeross Bow river valley, di>elosei! praetii'ally identical I'eatur. s 
in the limestone. The lower beds, whiih were founrl to crop out at Lake \\i\v i 
afforded fragments of ii:di terminable trih liite.s and crustaeean track-. 

Perhaps the most siunitieant fact di-rivcd from the section i- that the lime- 
stone very often poss: sscs the typii'al molar-tooth -truc-ture -o characliri-tic ,,f 
the Siyeh limestone. (Plate ii). 

This structure is not well developed in any jiart of tin KhLm -ecti..i! but 
it was again seen in the linasi,,ne at Mt. Stephen and at se\(U'al other point- 
along the railroad, where the litie cuts aeross outcrops of the f'astle Mountain 

formation. As in the Siy 

limestone the molar-tooth 

structure -eiins to 1 
ir crack.'d by orep li 

best dev(lop:Ml where the rock has !)een locally eleav 

The thick qnart/ite utulerlyin^' the liuie-tone .- well exp..-ed at lh<' T.a^re-an 
section. It is a tbiek-bedde.l formation, heavy plates ,,f qnart/ite allernatinpr 
with sul ordinate, thin, fis-ile intercalations of silicioiis metarL'illite. Tin- 
general colour of the iinnrtzite on n fresh fracture is jiah' rcddi-h to r.ihli-h- 
gray; the colours of the weathered rock are in i^eneral, ru-ty-hrown an' 
but' vary throutrh white, I'.tle irray, pale r.d, i>itik. brown. pur;ile. 
toward the top of the formation, deep maroon-red. The argillaceous inti 

re. I 



or greenish, weathering griMuush or grayisli-lirowu 



bedding, ripple-marks, annelide trails, ami borings a-e all 

logical similarity of the lighter tinted and thicker U'ds to the Uipi.le quartzit. 



i>i:i'm;i mi \i ,,r i,ii: i\ii:i;it,i: 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

• iiiiiiiii 

I'lir- wa'-i iM.rrI; 

i|.S t( 

son.- ;,i].l th,^ (iriniH-ll f. 

.-tJii.hir.i |>li 

'1 iVlll Ml. ill 
.1' llic Wii; 

~liiliiny w: 


■i—l 111 f 
■|"li.. I!,,' 

I'lllali'ill nt' till' I, 

"•Nil t'..ririalioii of the tialti 

\., f. 

'■<-iil-i won 

■ li-- 

>C'-tl. l! 



I'liuli'imiMd' aihl trrif 

l,vt nt tl 

!■■ ■,■!<- 

K>TV lllsD lust si'cn ill lllO I. 


l-onoaiii til., (ilac-iiil gruvcls of tlu- IJe 

r<pn -. uir.l i„ twcvi, tl 

M'pi'.ir. till 

iii'iiii.'' Iii-i 

low vall<>.v. All stages of transition are 

an.l li. 

Il:llll( liT, t. 

' j;l'iiiiri-at.. with will-i ii,l,.,i ,„.|,|,|,„ 


itary ty|io: 
mlniii, rate 

a ■iiiiirlzitii 

nt i(|iiT-iiit tlic vcck of 
■'■III- in alternation tl 


inil>tiiii(. of iiie.liiiiii frrain. Tlio ubuiidant 



loM-OS -I'llli lllo-t 

Il-Ollyll t'lo wlioli. I.JIKI t'cct. til 


'IK' yroat litl 

"oiiiiM.iii towanl t 

I'oii-taiit oli,.|iii 
"T lilllj-ll. ofl, 

JtiMin- ..f I'l'l.l- 
U'tAi t',i.l-|,atliir I, 
l>lia-c-, of til, 

loloui.'al iii.livi.liial of i„.|, 



-I'al.-ircht (|iiarl/ |cl,l.l,.- 

'iijfloiiioi-alo i- ii.ailc lip of yli 



W Itl 


1'- lo|i. All the strata 
uniiii liiit rather 


lli-'e fraj..:iiieiit> are all eeiiielifeil 

larye roiiiide. 

■me eNteiit. 

'I' I 

• writ-: am 

•allle -ihelolls 

pray .,,,,1 ;;r,-,.„ish eo|o,irs of f.vs'i ami 

ami writ ean 

M'.linieiitary niatcri 

Ill a silieioiw niatrix. 
i(l-toiie~ are hut finer frraiiieil 
il. Ill eoiii|iosition and the 

athvrii Sclkiiks. Th. 

listiiiKiii^hed f 


es. tl 

le eoiiH-loiiierati 

'rem staple phases of the Wolf .rrit 



de tints of ih, 

lllllarity (Veil extelirls t. 


within tlii 
milion 1' 
Ir u 

111 till, divi-ion of the 1! 

iipale-eeiit ciiiartz jM-hhle- an 

detail as th. 

\o t'< 

iilidiviM,,], ilijit Dau-oii found I 

">w River formation. thoii;.di il was 

iU Wen 


'"■er ('aml.rian fossils at V. 



oiiirlomerate-iirit men 

heds helow th. 

Mountain formation, but snfBc 



tdily desirahle to have studied in tli<. field the B< 


ason. '^'et it is heli 

lent lime 

for till 

-poeimens were siilmiitted. 

oved and Mr. Wi-V lell 

the ii|i|»r part of the Castle 
uld not W. spared out of the 
to whom the tiijd dati 

iij-'ie.s in th,. helief-that siiffieient evide 

),., .,1, . ,,. , , ' ' '■■ "" "eiiei — mat siimelent evulene 

M.:,: : n ::■•■" ^'"•'"•'^'' '■• -'f-'^:'-^ the stratl^^raphie n.lation of tlie Cast] 


'Uiitain-I5ow Kiver (.'roup to the ol,l se 1 
orty-iiiiith Taralle 

inieiitary prism traver.sed at th. 


le -u^ifTested I'orrelatioii is a- f.dh 

Ca-tle ^Fountain linu'stono is strat 

The lower 4.(M)0 f,.ef or 

id thu- t.. the larger part of the Kitel 

itrraphieally c<iuivalent to the Siych format 

f th( 

part ..f the 15. eh 

Iving the Castle Mountain 1 

liiart^ife. The l,.'0!l-f 

K'lier ipiartzite, an<i, ajrain, to the larger 

>'it <iuartzit|. imine<liatelv iiiidr 

Wiuwam forn 




imestone is the ciuivalent of the Orinnell and 

ions, of the lowest l)eds of the Kiteht 

e c|uartzite. The How H 

pan >eetinn is i-<|iiivaleiit to the Dewd 

iver eoiiH:lonierale-(rrit niemher at th 

•ner (|uartzite. and of the 

\V,df i^rit f 

orniati.>ii in the southern Selkirks. 

ni'y ipiartzitc 


11 hase of till 
iijiper [i.irt of th, 

the f. 

stu.jy of the Ca-tle ifoiint 
stratisrraphy ami -\\ 

n-uoiiip |>araf,n'aphs w,.r,. written, \Vale,,tt 

am f;r,>iip 


made a delaili.l 

N rr..ult, e,,rro 

,vet ni.ire pn 

■i»i'ly tile r.iii 

■ f the I'p 



111, I 


HI. I'll!: I 1,1 / II I I I ■ I I I 

' '" 'ill! I ^ , i:ii V (, v/ /.• 


■""' a'-M,.h,,.,,. I,, .!,.,„ ,,,,,, ,,„. j ■ ,• '' — '- "■■'■■' -l.i:iin,-,i ii, ,at!i 

^'-.'■'-''- -rnn„„„. ,i,. \IMII.. ,•.;,•,:':„:.,:;'■;■"■ 'I'l'--- in,,..,., :. 


II |,,i|,,U> ll;;: 

II .u- llM,.- .,„„,,, "■ ■" •' ' ■ ^''"■"' ■■■ •'■•■' I'-l-u- ll... lop .,f ,1„. 

•""'"""""•."•— The ini.i.n,-, I' , f I i • 

n ^ iiiiiiiurv 

Kiv. r .ill. I ll„K,„I:,.,. 1; : . ," ■•' l."-"';'l ■■■ '"■■>r t, ,;.,., I;,.,- ;,. ,1,,.-,. |;,„^. 

r :iii.l ll..iiii,I;iry lii,, -, ,t 

"'""■ 'I'll- ,li-..,v. ,y ..( |-,,--ilil', 

<'l"iicrit at \.va,-k '-i.-.k. ,,,,1\ f 

ivn,l.,|-- il,i- i„i(.r., ,,11 il 

:'.","■' .""I >'t I r ui,i,.|y ,iiir,-r, 

'■■"I- <^i-il.- .M,. Ill, tain !ii.„.-i,,„,. 

11 "I- lilt, 

111 'lat.- ,.!' I'.., ana 

11,- in lal-;;.- 

Ir,.!,, Siv, 

'I'lii- .Sivi, I 

ni,.r.- i-,,i,\ni< 

ll tii,,ii;lain it-, ■It'. 

I'li'-t ■ in til,- (i,,| 

'i'liii'i^ili,. -aii,lM ul,i,-| 

'■■II. <'l.-irk.,. at,, I r. 

|ii,irt/il,- at ill,. t,.|i ,,!' ih,. I! 

■rr, M"ii,l 

bui- ill tlii- 
surics. a I', ,r 
llie W'ig-waiii aial ( 

'w Kiv.r l,.riuali,,n. C 

■"I- I'ai,^;'. ^ i^ j, 

--,,ntial iVatiir,-^ I, 

1- < •■i-laiii wliiti-l, ami 

|ii.iil/ii,. al-,. -tr,.'|,,|\ n.,.,II ,1, I'- i 


illv. tl„. |;,,„. II 

iiiiiii'll I,, rill, 111 

Ji-it .,| ll,,. .S, 

ivcr .., n.,i,.n 

,, i:ii.. 1- 


,1, iii,l,.i„.n.l,.ni 

'l.<' la-t!,. \1, 

1-^U >i 

11,1- ll,. W.,|(' o,.;, I,, I, I 

iii'iiii, Tna .t,.n.. i, I 

lilai- t,, 111,. M, 

I- nli,. th. Si 

Kuiiny ;inaivit,..„„.,a,..illi,,. wlii,!, „n,l,.rli,.. ,1 
n .*tratif:ra|,l,l,. li,,|.;/,,,, |„,i,.„. ,| 

IT,. lat.., I u'itl, ,!„. ,\i 

1111,1 KM,,, 


I "Illy ar,. ih, 

li'Ttli,.,,, an, I „„|,|„.,.,, ,.,„.|^-.„ 

1,- I...'Mi-|,„,r 

,■ -iiMiJaril 1, 

1'' •iniiii,.]! an, I ili,i< |„,] 

.«■ I! 

"riir- t,i 

IV, 'i- ,|,ti> at I. a; 


t,i t: 

PrPIKv< I, .tw,.,.,, tl„. S!,,, 

If |..\iiorlr.j ,liir, 

CI',. 1, ,-,.;; -I 

"IV,' III, 
il.-i-lini:' 1 

""'■■-.;i.M! .l.-.i'l l.,t^v,.,.„ ,!„ 
i"ii "I t..niiali,,iN i, alik,.. T|;, 

111 '!■- ,,1 th,, tw., -,.,,ti 

liii^ <imt,Iy 

'";" '" 'll" "ll" -"ii-Ka-iii. Tl„. Ca-tl,. 

1-. Ill a -,,n~ 


",,|it,.|iip,.vaii,,,.„. <,.,li,||,.„,, ;,,;,] 

I ,.,,iii|,..Ml,. ,,t' t 

itai,i-I!,,u- I 

It th,, Forty-iiinili T'.-ii-all,.], Ti 

I'' 'iitif.. |,r,.-Sil, 


11. '■■,',.ni in t! 

<'ii-tl,, .\[, 
,.-\tr,.n,,. ,.a-t,.r 

iiviT yronp „( strata 
-yin-llnal a- oxpo-..,) 

iiiiliiiii l,.riiiatinii ],a^ it- 

n. U'.,lr,,tt, .Smith,, 

I .ill,! \,, 1H12, I'Kis 

V. ifir 

Mail >fi,-,.,.!laiip.,|,.; roll.. 

< I. C. I>. \V,,I,.„t(. Miiii 
i.'.-,a--v,,l. ii-1- 

i.'-W]- -,.,.,,.- at tl 
lif'ii-, V,,l. i.1, \, 


I,, r.. ,. 1,1.1:, |. s- 

1^01. lO.i^ 

I'i.'ol. Sii. .. A 

n,..|i,.i. Vi.i. 17 

1""|'. p. 1.1. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

lte:?ihr(-r::::r "' '"^ "■''""^ """ "'^*""'^ ^^■- -'"'■ 

Th.. s.vstomatie position of the Sh,.,,,,.,,,! a,„l lui.tla f.,ri,u,ti..„- ,. „f 
tho.r respoctu-.. equ.vfllent,. tho Oat.way, Phillips „n.l l{„„svi]lo formations 
of tho Oalton aenes the Moy.e formation of tho Purcell series, and the Lone formation of the Summit series, is not apparent from their litholoSl 
eonipuri-on with rhe rocks of McConni'll's scM'ti,,!,. "'"oioKieai 

onn 1^' °^ *i'T ^'°'"*y-»|"".' J'''^«""l formations are unfo.siliferous and their 
condU.onH of d.po..„on (ch.etly subuorial or in shallow wator) nvre mTrkX 
differon frmu those under which the upper beds of the CaMle Mountain seriw 
(dolomitic limestones) were laid down. ■«ou"i«"i aeries 

B^l/l^"""?'" '''"">*" ^^1 wrrclation has been found in tho fact that, in the 
Belt moun ains and to the westward, the equivalent of tho Siyeli formation 

ilVroo itnr r ! "' °n I'-T '"'T' -"^-'""''b- overlain V the f^ l" 

tTo,,,. MmMI.. (amhnan H:,il„..„l s:,n.l>t„n... Tliis saN.lst,m.> is oftm ,-„„rM. 

little metamorphosed and clearly shows its origin as a sandy deposit on the 

floor of a trans^ressinpr sea.§ This gonetic feature seems to bo well matched 

n the character ot the massn-e. coars. sandstone beds occurring at the ba.e of 

the (.ateway formation immediately above the (Purcell) lava-cap of the Siveh 

The l.thological resemblance, cour.led with the similar stratigraphic relations 

o the common (S.yeh, Marsh-IIole, ) hori.on. suggests that the lower bed o 

the Lone Star Moyi... Gateway and Shcppanl formations are, respectively 

equivalents of the I-lathead sandstone and are thus of Middle Cambrian aje 

S,„ce the Flathead horizon is well Ik^Iou- the recognized top of the Middle 
t ami.nan. since the succeeding Mi.ldle Cambrian time was long enough for the 
deposition of at least J.-IOO feet of limestone in the area of the Canadian 
I act,,, section, an.l sine .here is p,.rfect conformity in all four of the Fort*" 
t"hr„i^n''-t ' 'T'^ f*^-^ *'"^ ''^i*'?'' "' '*' «-I"ivalent, it seems probable that 

irl7„n' fVfll p"'":*'' °^'"^'^''"'' ""^ ^''"^ "' ''« equivalent are all or 
nearly all of .Muldle Cambrian ape. 

A ?o*'^/^'"T^''lfrTT""**'''^ correlations are expressed in Cols. 1. o, ; g jn 
and 12 of lable VIII. . ■, o, iv 

§C D. Walcott. Bull Geol. Soc., America. Vol. 10, IPTP, p. 



''r:>rua-i sM^i,Mnmt^ '>A iwrr, ■ 


IM'I.K VIII .',., i;,;,,vi,..N. ,v ,-, 

I .-^i MHIi Xkhik». S».rkiiih r Sm(1>- I'llllHr 

('..nfurmily rtilli ii|.i»r I'rt Ki.».i.,i, ,ii,fa 

1*1 1X4 Hi' * , 

Ski.iif . I'l 

;il(ir« IN ClI'lNt I SuHIt- IN I'm 

Itvs. t CI l>i«ri.i. i 

Kill' IN \l|.,,.,> 

^;^. .1.(1.11 ..iirfiu't 

(,'i>iif'*imtv wild .;, , , 1. 
I • i 1 I • 


A.W.I. Mitiir«illil.-, 
(iliyllilH, iiikI i|iiait/.iif ; 
iliirk tiiit»..( jrray, km. ii. 
>tc. I'.iWtl fi, t. 

.•/"'(!.. Miliirifillil.-, .Iiuli', , 
•'ii'l '|iiiirl/.iif : \ari.Mi> 
lint. 1,1 i.|...|.i|.'i,iv. I.-.I. ,■(,•.; ,|iall,.vv wa 
tir f. atui.^. .(, Iim f,.. t. 

■Ifl Pr„k. Sli.,1... i4H,l ,Ny„p,,/ /.,„! .m,„| 

*in.|»t.,n,.,. r. ,1 an. I .imlv ,:.ii,l,t..n.... i.ii 
••'■•■•"■ '■'"»' f"'. lailmnK ilaiki...! ; r.| 

I'll' III irk-, .tf. l/.mn 


.11(1 Mi-aiihrr. I,iiiaiit..i„. ;f,,| 
ty;Ki;»\ ,.i|i,iir«. tuOi,., . 

W(tl/i>t. Mhttl.-, rail 4f.. , ,. 
ill iii.|i.r I'lirt ; i^t. . II • 

l.lal'k. IIM) imi I, ,1. 

/V/,'/.<,i,(. I/I, art/11.. ; „i,i, 
ti) le.Jdlali, .Vi .Hill •. . , 

■"■•t /. S . 

1 1.1.1,1..-, •• 
.,„,. «>,,t. ■ 
•li .-. airl 
ll.7'"i I'; fi. 


Huhnt. '^iiait/ltf'an.f lii.- 

taiyillili ; uray an. I |«tli', « I'al li . r i ii if 

liriiuii iif liitf.riiit tin!/. 

, T.IKKI fi'ft. 

h'l.h. ,1,,; ii|i|mr tuirt. 
V'liir.zit.i ami iiLiar^il 
lit.' : );r..i'ni»[i an. I »fr ly. 
wtatliirilitf til lir.mii-. 


'Willhiif. .Shalw.. ti 
liM»t I iilcaii'iiu-., 
tliiil liii.i'.ti.ii.- 
lalf'ari'tiiM Mhali-i 
thiT liiitf, l.lKd 

SI liiy,,. Slinl..* anil 
Han I-.I..I1. .. |iiir|ili' ami 
gti-vn. l.fJIlii ftM't. 

ri' iir Hl.iekiiml lcnl|..,| Siirl.imAl'n 
liy ''alkiii»). (,iiiii. 
'tniUH. tliili lifil.l...,. al 
lliuiil" ami f.rrii^ilK.iis, 
intiTl..-.M.-.' with II,. .n 
irlenn raicaiiiHiH *li»I«', 

■1 It ml 

Hi a 


■.il<«l + f.-..t. 

m/, I'rrek. \U'\ ,|ia| 
• tc. .'j.INK) fni.t 

Hl;rkl.^,t, ChU,,,,..,.,. .„ 

Killiti'n .mil iin|,<iri' I 

it.mfB; .lark ;i:n t,. 
Kr**iii«li >{ray «lii n fr. -i , in,,,.' 
»toni.»)(fuj. 4,iiiK)f,,it. 

ll„U..,i T|,„, |„,|,|.., 
ll|.»t.>ii. mil, |a\,r. 
iH.''ilIit. ; l.iitf a 
"I'llIU-. l.tH.'i I, -i. 


pink ami 

very inawwixr. |,G6ii feet 

whitr. h'lfrh' iif r, I „ vv IT (i ;i r t . 

y.ll.,w ; t^iuirtzitc, r«.|a I , i |.| v 

lhuil,i,;i liuarlzit... uith: aii.l «|„i,., wiaili. mi;,- 

interiHHlnofciiiKl latf lifjlit i.rmni. I,4i)in-fw.t 

iiml iiiitarifiltiti- ; Hiatirm^-a, upiur jrart. 

ziti', in tliii'k anil 

lii-riiitf tfriiy ami pa It- 
liniwii. •J.IKX) fitt. 
W<Jf, upjicr |«rt. (Jnt,! 
HHiulHUjm', anil tim- cm i 
gloniirati- ; (fray, fr^uli 
and weathen'd. 1,ikio± 


ttiiii IkhU: Ki'iy iiml 
Kri—iUBli, wcatli c r i ii k 
griiy. .t,00l(±fi«t. 

Kir, II. l/iiartiit.' ; «liite. 
niasHiM-. l,J(io f e,t . 

Hiirki. .Siliiii.iis metal 
k'llllt., with ipiarlzit, , 
priiailinulv ^■ r ay ■ 
Ifii-iii. L'.imo f.i t. 

I'riihtinl. ii|.|„r part . 
Mi'taiifiliit- and .jiurt 
zitic xainl^tiiiics, with 
nhallim watiT fratini's ; 
(fray t.. l.laik, l,aoo±! 
fwt. I iipjH'r parl.l«<i.-nH(. (/iiart/,,l,. 
i.'iiartziti-aiiihi.ttarxi! ) (iip»,;ril»l liit , |, 
l,'rr..iiihh,| ami (fri-.iu»li (iru> 
piiipll«h ' 

li"-; wriv, 
ivjiiti', anil 


Hiifilli, l,,»-i i|, 
liif^y an aliuvi'. 

it llithi, 

If. 2,(l<i<i flit. 
/*rifh'iftf, II p pf r 

MitarKiiliti'H. i|ii.. 
ami »aml"i..ii.- ; 
liliii.,h, u'l-atli.riii.' 
2.11(10 + f„.t. 

irp!. ' I, 




■ i.irk 


I..n il/i, 

/III ; 
CI. IV. 

'i|.|«.r |i.iri. i/iin 
>navi,-li pi.i'plia 
I.-'khi fwt. 

Wijlf, lowir part. (Irit, cun 

Kli'imratc, and "and>t .iir ; 

Kray. l.! 
.VuiU. l/iiartzitf. nictar 

giUite and cunglotm'ratt- ; 

gray tones. !i,'yl»l feet. 
Irene Vulennic formation. 

ti.llOO + fiet. 
Irene Conijlotiunitt. o.lKK) ( 


Total -32,ieO + ftt.t. 

'■55.,;,:;:^;^.^;^:^; ---;][;-:;--- --- „-.a|^l-,;/':-w. u. . p.^,^ ,...;.,,.,.„ ..,,„. „„ 

- . ■- . V . . '<< OOF II, |1|t«(-| 11,-^1-1, ,|, 

i;iiartzit,..withiiit.-rl».il> tarKillit.-aml .piartzit. 

-It mitarifillitc : (;ray co- ^ray t.i Mack. (i,.-iOO 

lours. f<,-m±{»t. f„.t. 

hIL i """"'• ^■•'l'""" wiiH..- .1, . Ill /111.; ^tr.,.n;. 

thiik-l>.,l(l..d t.islialy ; .Viifcur,', Uiiart/it, ,.,,,. 

Kiay. li..liOiJ + f.*t. I w\unxn' l,(JO(»+ii,- 

Ua»t' concealtd. 

Ba.^e coiiOHahni 

Bane concf,iU.d. 

T..tal-20,300 . f,.K. T.ital-17,LHJ.If,Ht. Total -27,r«0 + fwt. 

Uaa«) concfaUd. 
Total 12,.V,<i l.-i,i 

I'. I'M' conrealed. 

T.jtal L'.M),->D f,.,-l. 


Prieil River Terraiu. 

!.j! £• '/',• K"!'"'"''' """• •'■'**• ^'■•~^- ""''• ■'^"i"-y. Vm, p. 411 

{') \. C. CalkiiiH. lJull». Mi and 31.-.. U.S. (ieol. Survey, Pj(« (,,. 40) and 1!)07 (p 33) 
2ia— vol. ii— p. 178 

(■') (\ |.. Wali'ott, Bull. (;i„l. S., 
(*) C. I). Waluott, Bull. (ieol. S.k 


^ IN riir i; 

:" KV M'.IM'MN ..r,M,VN. ,.,N\,. 

i\ Mi«'.ii.\ 

1. "t- ■<! , 

AM' It > t, 

li.vxi ■'►lilt" . 

"*KUIK»> » ( l>IAi fc«MI I II 

T'lik, r i (II {'■) 


■ti ("rmi> »'''■ ''M" '■' •'•• ■< il ii|.|-'rl'j I 'diil ■iiiiitj vtitli M|.|ifr 
t'lHMMtf- If.t-.iir fuliimnt:. 

VA/r'.».rt,jl. I<ll|i*-<t on I* ; «/. I'/titWr;*. l.imt'wVtII*- I 

ilfiv. I.H7'f"'t. Hit)i MixUtoiK' lav. i< : 

i'i'itf. ilr»\ litiii-ntitiii-. rfrav.''»'t 

it'll"' '>th. tlrn\ litiifotiiiii' 
,ihl ..liulu. I.^.■>.■l • (lit. 

I ITKIl rA\,l'.KI \N 

>• • I. 'I -tllTl. 


■• .1 





' t. 

■ "1 


.•■....ii//.. M.i.ii^iihti- A'.n'.'.i 

ini'l '|ilHll/'l.. ; ^-r.ll ,.,t»- „r,-l .( 
ai! lifr.Ni„.|i. ii.«, I,,,, t.-rU.,l. ■ ,, 


■ IMI i|lhllt/i'.- 

^Ii t.irifilh I . 


I'liih 1.1 

.l.'ll I; 

1. - 1,1 

■<ii:i I, 

,ll{.'llll , 

l\,T. ,.| 

tt .n,. 

";'"'"."■ I'M' r |iirt. 

.^I-f.IVlllilr Willi. liUlll 

'.'•■: ^T ,v whet, Iri-nl, 
vi;iv unit l.r.ivsti I. .il, 

'fill I.Nlllf,., t 

I, I 



,ltlll -,lllll,<t.l 

»ir ',,1 ,1 . \h I,,,.,, I, . 
Viii4tl/tl.i-, I, . . c ,,f „. !,,„ , 

"■ '•■•iti'l i.,| l.-h 
', '-■>fii'. .1. .«,... Ii,i,„, , 

""""lilt"' li Vi'/.i. I>..l.,i„i,, 

"lilt iiiii' I I ir ..I., Ml iMili I,, ■ I 


k'llli'i' ; trriiy ,u,i| nu-t 
ft', viiiilMTiif,,- liiitr 

I, 'Hill f. It. 

Mil. I' 

I. It. 

i;ri);iii. i^iiarf 
i>lt iit.rpli' ;in, i 
II fivt. 



""". .■*;iiii|-t.,iii',..iiii| 
tiTt'llnt." ;Ti.ilc.,i,,|. 
iilli.iiit. l.L'IKI I'., ! 

.U,l /<„!, //,/. ('hl.'f'V 

nil t.iiKillit, ; krr.iy iiii,| 
i;ri.fii:«h. wealii .r i ii ^ 
uriiy :vii(i linmn -J Xiii 

tfl/lll. .S!llllUtl,lll,>. i\ iti, 

^.ini' Mltaly li'il^, «,iii,. 

tllll, s C.llr in, ,11, ; ,.,„| 

anil r.-.|ili»li jjiay. 77.", 

■ ' IJII. 

/'. ,M 





ri 1. 

1 t 




III!' : 


• ■1 


. il,i 


iw ll;-i 


;,(/.■*»/*«. I«ilr.'«l,ili.- 

fhithtnd. '^iiii t / 1 1 1 1 j 


,V "'iiin. Urav liii,' ^t'liif 

,,(t.n -an iy." I. nil (lit 

ll/"H" ' tf'm. Iil,iy (ktiil 

Kn. i,i"h Hum .itoni' anil 
A/./i.ii. l.ii.i.-^liin.-; ifny, ,|,„|,.. i.a'.1ifi...|. 

mathiliiiif I'tilf .iUi\ ll/.,ri,,„„il,. <;r»y liiii'- 
k-ray. •.•.,i;si.„i „,,„,, ,"711 (wt. 

.Slr/'li.,,. I.iiii.-.iiit.. ami J//,, (iray liiii.«t.mfwitti 
► hill. : tfray. ill(i|..t ,l,aly lav,,-, T'.li f,.,.t, 

(■'l.:,.. l>.,1,,niitH' ,>p,,„,. t"i|-,..-ni»ll »llal.-. 

i/.i-.y. Ki'il-lialf, >--ifi.'t, liini-l' ; tfiay, Mi.itl, 3«if,...t, 

«./.i.<. I.iui.-.lim. mil, riiiK (.nil mill >[iay. l,"i!t"i /.,i„„i»„„. dray liini. 

iMiiii*- -hall : Kray. «.■.» '''*'■ Ht ,nf, 4;iM ft^'t. 

»ti»-rin*r '"iH. '.*.HMI C.t, Hnihuhi iiruyainlKri'*'!! 

h"n"r'. .Vrk'tlliti-; ^,'1''. ii iili (ttiurt/.tt«-, wi'iAthi-r 

i-li tfi i\ . 'imi li'-t. Ill/ linmn ; upjier piirt. 

' \Mlili 

I A.\ 

M I II l> I. 


K < ,\ M 

v, (."I'. ArKillit.- : ili.-|. J/.,„,.( !»■*„/, 
ml. I..'i<i<i fi-i-r Ktiinian.liili 

inimm. .\ rjf I ' i i t f ami St. l*ir't'>. I.ri 
i|Uarl/itH ; ({I., , '.',I«KI± Kiay -amintiinr 
fu<;t. A.'A' I.'"*"". 

(iniy. lirt fii 1 
f'iiiriiiif. (iiay i|imrt/,ili', 
uiailnriiiK liriiwni^li. 
Wm ■ (let. 


. :t!Klfi...t, 

mill and 



:-nifi'ii'i. KiiwiT liiirt. 
T.ilal tliiikl».»«, i.Xf.' 




riail. i^uiu III" . Silir;,rti.,ii,,|i,i,,,,,., I 

ii-li >.'iay. tl.m U.,l,|,.,l ; ^ri'.y .mi -. i„lv ,| ,I,,i„|,. , . 

Brr,.i-ni.,li t;,.:vy, u, ;,rli,.i. krtav, «i ,,: h. riiiu' .' 

iiiKli'iff. h."iiifi.i: :i,,"Mit)+f,-ii, 

u;,'ri„.,. I), ,1,, Mill 


.''iS fi-et. 

i;,„h„„„t".„ „f Hw Hi 
Itr arxtlliti's. . tc. 

I'mi colli laliil, 

Ti.tal -ILMOI) fi-i-t. 

-. ,,tt, i,Ur'f/guit. lowtT |iiirt. .Vi'k'ii 
lit..; uray. l.ilii|i + f.-..t. 

fit illiliul .Sil|(ii,i|» litii. 

i-tulii- ; k'rav, WiatlliTt..rfl 
I'Mtf. 2,2lllif.-K. 
»(••»■•■ »Kt fill ./..'«/., r/,i.ii, .Vrtrillite ;' 

dark ({ray toUack, l,5<)lii 

.'*■•■'■ I 

Stihtrt. iJruy and jrrt'eu-' 

iih <)iuirt/iti', 7*11 fi-i't. BaHf cunceiilfil. 

UaM-, -}, 


Total -14,00<J±fivt. 

Tutal r.'.:t. 

HaiH* cimi'i .led. 

Tutal— «,(H7 1 lift. 

Uiironforviitii . 

Cherry Creek Btiit. 

** Arihean ". 

1-. .\i,,.-iua, \'i,l, 17, llKNi, |>. L'. 

-■. AiiiiTiLa, V,,|. 10, lum, p. 2(11, ;in,l t, 


' nr.'H tlnTt'in, to IVale :iii'l Wtttl. 

{^) C, U. VVuK:utt, Sm th..' liiin Mite. Collection^ Vol. 53, No. 1812, IlKiW. 





'"""" ^'i"-- >wp: nil |;m , Tiiiii»Nk - 

thiif .-urvfv, (1) tin- nt tl. f I. \f • ■ • ,. '" '■" ^' 

oi.n,.n.., .,.,.,,, u,,n^.,n,,;.:'r\:,,;,;^;; ,;;■■::;: :■:;.,::- 

^rt'.'" -^ "■"'■■ '"'—'•• "■ "-...n..! ';:,„;: 

A l.n.t- IrtoiN ,,f tin. .\-|.l,.nill..,i. ..V ■.v|,|.-, i;,.., ,.,„„.I ,, I 1 

Ill 1-,.. I»iiw-,,n lia.l II ri.-llv r, !.•',, I r . >. ' f , , 

<;urboMifoi'..u., I,ut la-.r \c ,tat..,l ,|„, .....ihiij,, ,!,.t I,. Siv'l".'"' .'" •'■ 

m>Jt.rl.v,n« f., ,- f.,r ,.. .1.,. M.^.r \!,wi ,, ,^ r , . ' "" 

::•,::::„;' ^"^ ■ -'-''> - "•■ '-it.,,,,..,. .,.,.. ./:;„:„^;,r;! i. ,„> ,l.,ul„ ,.,„. ;,f,..r ,).. l;,.h f„rM,..„i,„. „,,. ,1,. i,„.| ,,..,, 

. .^^1- ■.. .n.„^,.„|,i,„. ,„nv,,„,.„t I,v „|,i,.|, ,|,„ Arl,,.,,,, ,,,,., .,f H.irlv til 

__nM.-.. r,..,,,n r..,,n.-..,i,..,| ,.„ .„„ , ,|i of tli,. .iaihitin ati.'l Tl,r,.^ u - , ,l,t.u.rp., .P.t ,,rM„. , , ,|„. |,.,,i„„l„,. „f ,l„. C:,,,,!,,.:,,, |,„f,„.. 
tl.o F,„l,..:„l n„nrtz,t,. w„- .1 „..-i,.,,. w,,..,,,,,, ,|,i- ,„„v,.,n,.,„ „:.,,„, 


^v.t , the ,r- a,r.uTr.„l:,.i,.„ ,., ,),. .,.,|i„„„„ „int fortn..! ,1,.. I„„...r ,.„rt'.,p 
■f M.,o lo,l. nn.l^v-a^,.u,H^,i, ^vi,l, thoir ,l,„.,-i,inr ,l,roi,pl,o„r tl... 

ifvtinns. VV.l. M, IWiS |. I*,9, "nDiiratioii)., (CO., .Smith^^nnran Mi<c. r„t 
.^^__ I.av,,, lonth (^n^n, report. Vol. 15 en Min-nR InduMrie,. IgM pp 6,7 

*;^,-£vo^rir-i'2j'^""' "'""'*• ^'-^^ "'■'"• ■''""•■ "**• ^ »• 


i>i:!'\!rrvi \r itr mr i\ii.i:nii: 

2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

ilil'r |>.'|-ii"l. Tt 111. y li. 

'■II 'll'Cr 

.I...I 1. 

ir. ^1 (''ir :t liri. I' |.cnM,|. l,ni tin- |ii,.lMl,ii;i 

iltL l!lHI'l:t III 

.1 tl 

.luVVIIUill-'l Ill.iVrlllcMt. it' it iMTUnc.l. «;.- -liiilll. N'.xl. ll 

Cniiibriiin siil>siileiiiv procodi 

V I- t|,,it till' m!ii'ni|ili..u t.i tin 

i-piv;l.l ), 

procodin;,' tlic Cniiiinlii.ii ,.t' tlu' Flatlipud .|ii:irtzit.' 
tool< place. 1111,1 111,. Ciniiliri.iii sim .•,,v,rcd \:nv iiri'ii-; tliiit lin,| liitlicrtn 
1" ell illi.'V,' ill,, -i-ii 1. ■ , I. 

I" re 1- ;i iiKirUi .1 ,1111, r, 

■ ■t' the Ih',1- ,,t' til,' tH.. -mill 

I-'hillicinl l'..nii:iti..ii, uliil,. ill,' llili |„.,1, :iv,, -,, ;i|i,.r,.,l 

I', -I mill,' ill,. > iit.iiiir.r 

ill; .'..\VII I I W lir-ll ll;, 

III III' cliiirMii, 

iiiiy. 111. Ill III i.,ii I- >, ,.|i III til, 

ilii,. riii-k> «liii-li iiii.l, 

III ll|.:-t ,.;l-,^ ;l- ll 

ih' III, III. Ill 

.1, riv,..|. N'otu iil,~i:iii,| 

'1 I'l-i'iii ill. l.ri'iik 

I'lT i-i no iiii>tiikiii^r tli,'ir .-(..liiMnt.irv I'lii 

lillii;;- III Iiilii,ir|ili:-ii 


In l«ll(l I' 

III,. -iniii"iiri/,..| 111- h, I ,.|i|;. 

-ii.ii n ..jjr.liii 

iWiiiK- ui.r.j- : 


|.,.— ilil,. iliiit ImiiIht ii" i-li;!Mli..ii niiy i,.|i!i in ili,i |.|.f,.i- 

■ it' llii- f.iriinitiiiii |.. till- l,,.,v,|. |,;i,t ,,f til,. Ciiinl, 
it i- |in.xi-iiiiiiilly f.. tin. .\l;j.i!i|;i,in." 

liiiM. .\l I'M'-, lit. li.,u-,.vi.r. 

Wo,.,l. 1,1,1 

ii.frs niiil r 

1«:H :iI,.I l^it',1. ,.,,|', 

s-oii ill si.v,.riil |iulilii.;iiiiiMs issucil between the v. 

r til,, t, n-iiii,- I., ill,. .\l;;.,iikiiin. tli.ui-li \V,4-,I nml I' 

nf'er .-l..-,. -tinly ,( ili,. Cn-ll,. Miiiiitiiin i M, 

nliiiiii I iniiiinu- .ii-tri.-i 

ri.i. wvU 

• P..t'i tlie cliaiint, I- .,f tl,,. „.,| 
li,..i- ,if Mii|.lli. ( 'mill. rim ,ii;,. in 
licU el' till. ( '111111,1 
l'..Mii,I. It I 

niH'iii- mill III 

I llh 

iii-iit,' tl 

leir -iiniiii 

ir ii..-ilii.ii l,(ii,.Mfli 
rity 1,1 the r„,\v i; 

mil (;<'iil".iri-H. in \vlii,-li ] .,vv,i- C 

III-. iinwi'M.r. 

ll.'.l tn .-111-- ll„. 1.1 

In l->!)-> Will. ..It 11111,1, 

Bi- B,.lt ,111,1 i.iiil,. ]!,.lt 
• 'I'he iv^ults of 

II .l^eli, rii, -tiiily ,,1 ill,. I, i-i-.m, 

iiniiriim lo.^.-iil-, are 

■.\|".-, •! in ill. 

iiiiiimtiiins III., I in ili,. Ij,l,.i;. ,!i.^tri,-i. H,. writ, 
lu.v invi'-titrniiiiii wer,' the ,li,-.. 

frriijihi.. i:ii. .iiil'i.riiiiiy 1 |.t\ 

IVlTV ,lt !l ;ri-,.l|t ,^11-Iltl- 

till' (■miiiinmi 

tliiit the l,.rraiii. wm ,li\i-il,le int.i M'venil t',.niiiiti 

I' li.riiiiit lull 

(111-. 1111,1 tllHt f,lS:<ii 

■ iTf.l 111 t|i(. ( ir, ,\ -nil 

- lille- 111 ■,]l 

..I III,. I!,l! 

Tiil.l,- \'lll. 

ll.v r.lMHI I',,! |„ ,., ,illi ,!:, IhmIi,.-! 1.,.,1, 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 r -I . 

ti.iii •■( ill,' I 

1,' liriMlle I- iImI 

ll ll'ou' Willi- -tm,. 1 ill ill,. Cilj, 

u iim wo 

1- hi- .-..ii-, h, 

r.ii. !•. 

.1 Ih,. I,, 

i'i,- ,1- i\i.o.,il ill ill,. Cl.-irk,. mill !., wis rmiiie-: 

•The oM, -I f.iriiimi,.:, ,,!' Ill,, -i-ri..-. ih,. .MtM, ji,,,,., , j- ;,_i^ i 

l.i th,. .\li-,.iikiiiii ]i..ri...l .11 ih, l,i-i. ,,|' t',w-il- ,|i-,-i.\,.i-,,l l.y W,l!,.r ill ii- 

.•lnir;i,-leri<ll iinviie,. m llie f,i,,t ,.t' .Viipiknnny i inin n,.;i|. .Vltvn. 

Mi.nlmiii. ■|'|.,-;e i.,--il. ,,,,■ rrii-ihi.iil - .,( v.iy lini, ,]„ lU ,.f ,.ni-iii,.,.mi- 
[.-hii'llv ll.Uh,,, ,!,i„ii:\ 'I'l,,. i'M„ilit,..-,,ii- -ti-ma ,,r ill,. Hell 

f A. C. IViiI(>. I! ill. r.S. (J.Kil. Siirv,.y. No. 110. l^!l,1. p. 1''. 

•'riir,.,> I'Virk- Kelio, r.S. tlml. Siirv!. ISIK!. p. 2, 

5 Hull. I'.S. (l,.|i|. Siirr., \o. l.'W. 18%. p. ];«(. 

t<'. I>. Wiiliott, Hull. <i..,>l, Sni'. .Am, .11, 11. Vul. 10. 1>-:i!i. p. 201 




mi'iinr III I in: rim 

l>//,'o\,,|// /.• 


fi'nimtioii ill tlii- licit 
feet of yt'dinicnt^ tinii 

tlie I J 

vlr> lll.TlHI IV,. t nf 

IMlifTl' jrr M-|.;ir;llr.| l"r,,|,; -li, ( ^ 

1111 cxlnisivo iiiK'diil'i.riiiity. In tli,. Vvcnt 


71 M1 

tVroiH li. ,1. iiinl it 
kiaii mill < iiinbr 

l|'l'i'>'''lll.N ' lMrili;il.l. 


ll.. I.. -ill 

It I- |r..,iil,|f |h:it Ihr |.hiii.- ..( .liM-i,!, I„lu, ,11 III.- A!:.., 

Ill tlil-i L;riMl 

lioii.l iif M 

lii'tii-iiiiiu.'il l.y |ijIi-i.iit..!oi;ii- cvi 
i|'|"i' IMI-I ..t' til. 

loiH',' will 1m> fmind 

ilKMMJ (Tuck, \\',.1!,.|- fiillllll 

•h li 

iii''-t..ii,- II, ,ir 

MilfT- IIS p.,->iM\ I,, I,. 
vifW. ~;iyiii:; ; 

■•■ Mr. \V,11 

oiiii' iiiilisiiiHt I'oriiis which hi> 

p^irl^ ..t i-i-i 



•'i^i;c-.t iluit till lrai;iii. II!- 

caii rciiiiiiMv iipjiiMi-- i„ |„. th,. ,|„,^. ,,h„i-il.I,.. If fr,.,,, ;, T). 

they W..11I.I -iiiiuc, 

whcri- iiKirc mat. rial i- ihcIciI 

fjiiiii- /.('{( 

l'.i--il.|y rcprc-i'iit cni-tii- 

cvcnian liorizon 

111 .r.lci- 1. 

I't ii- -iili^',11,' 
ini\, at aiiv 

. It 


I- a ca- 

ll xic,. ( 'ity ill 
'I' Molilalia ail. I 

IIM"',; the lai-.' 
iilalh. r, pre. ,1,1- 

I ri 'M 


In his paper 011 • Al^onkiai, r„riiiati„n- of .V„rtli«cMcri, .Montana ' Wal- r..,.rs the fntiro Lewis seriw ami its ciuivah.nt- t,, the pro-f 'amlirian 
AUMukia,.) systc.n.t In this conHiisio,, he has hi.,, f„Il„we,l hv falkins 
.a.,son.e. .MacDonal.l, a,„l I.i,,,!^,-,.,,. all w..,.ki,.. .,„ the Western pha^c of the 
f>olt torra.ic „. Mah,,.^ The >an,e view ha- ,Mv,.rneil the cun.pilin.' of the 
WeoloKK^al .nap „t ^„rlll America which was prcpan.,! for tho srssin,, ,>i the 
Intoriiatintial (;e..l,,f.neal (■..n-n— i„-l,l at .M 
lit ' Xeii-AIt'iiiikiaii ■ -li.iui, ill iji,. ^t-i 
Ik-lt t. Trill, e. 

As -me of \Vah.„n-s la>t iliM).;) pape,- .„, tiii.- -uhject shows the tren.I of 
.■p.nio,, a.n„n« the I niteil States fro„lo^n-t-, the n,ore important parts of his 
tablo ot eiiiinal.'iit- ha- i.,-,ii re|,r.,.|ii...l i„ -ral.l,. IX. ,,|- ,1,. pr,.-,.,,, r,.,„,,, 

' }}■ .^'''i"' """■ *■'■"'• Soo. .\merica. Vol. 13, 1902, p 317 

,1- ■■'""•.!'""• *^''"'- *^''<=- Airiprica. Vol. 17. liHW, p 17 
? \\. laiiiluTiii, h.a. <J, Siirv., I'rnf. I'api.r. \.,. 27. 1!H»'( i, 16 

i'; ,.■ lV"';V""\ ^ ■.^•- ^''"''- ^"■•v., Hull. No. aio, low, p.'a::. 

if- .V.^ ,;!'""''.'''• " -^^ '"'"'• ^»"- Hull- -M. 1906. p. 43 
t. C. tiilkiris. U.S. <Jeol. Surv. Bull. 381, 19()9 p 27 


/'i'/'.4A'7J/A.\T OF TUE IMEUIOR 

Tahlk W.—Sko,ciiiij Walroir. 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

roirdalioiiH in the ' Belt I 


Hilt Mts 

iKlutli.,i-l »s) 

1/.;r,«/(. MMi 

Lkwis ani> 



Cami- Chkek, 

Ir.ssloN KAN'.K. 

f'<HH I.AI.KNK J'1K(KI.I. KAXIif- 



\,i ,, 




lii, an 

\'Uiirt/iti-<, Limp 

/rav, I.7'i-.' 

'Ja. caIi-arf"U-< aiiti 
arena* fniis, 


•' 'I IVIllIA 

Hiliiui, calfarrnii-. ■'<""/i. 


MIM«t>ilii, |,()(HI 

Klitfnr*^ 1HI»> 
^f'tikittir, I.TrtNi' 

'■n.iMiu, ;(,0(m' 

:ia. t..:v. 

inotlv n-(|.|i,|i. 

N'" ■tiipcTjiicfnt I 

A>..nac.-.,u., .\ '.>,„,„//, •^^,;„:^, _,^ _._^| 

Aliiukiiiiini, .|„,| , ■( ^- 

I Silici,„i,w, 3,H0ii , i;i,s ,,f' • I'l ■ ;„..,', Slni.r,l />, „<, ;>,,iO(i 

— __ I si.iniiiit. I 

Alliln. ■ ' ' 

Nudiind, I CalciiiooiiK and' I i 

^ilii.iMU.«, 7uo' I 


Silicicus. l.atKC 

H!i„U„„i, u-„v„ y, j 

<'al(;areoi.-. and </al.-ar.'..Ms an.l 

.Wihiirl. 7(10 

-4 ''''biiin. 
T.ital, I'.'.IHKl- 

N'l »u|iiTjac»'iit 


mIkm.mi, /(,,rA,. --.S7. /f,,„.,, .W„„„ 

""' .■"^'■"•" "~- ^ilici.M.sandar.- .MetarLnllii, .,,,,1 

and K,av l»-,l., Kr-nnisl, aid l"'"'"" • •'.■'"<* 

h 'Tv I . I < 

lia> no'aliil. 

Total, ■J),77il 

t'rav Ix-ds, K,{\i»: 



Hand. d. dark 
l)luf i;ray. hint- ' V,,,^,,,, 
IJiu'k and irrav. i^uarlzit.- 
Hihciun.- s*-rif.s 


Haw o.m.ealPd. |Ha».-^al.Ml 

l"tal, '.',)' ,T„tal, :.'(l,4.Ni ' 


in:i>()iir ur iiir: rinrr .\sTii(>\o\n:i! 


A .;ore recent tuble of correlation ha. been publijl,,,! by ( 


has similarly (quated the Kite! 

W allure and Blnckfoot with X./wlaiid and Al 

chencr with the Ravalli and l;„rke 



o to agree with these 

for 1;m)-,, the Kitchener quart/ 
limestone; and part of t'le (' 

inetaririllitc. In l!»i)7 the 


itc pa>ses into, 

reston (luartzili 

A- stated 

The p 


iresciit writer has not 
ill hi- siiiiiinary re|]..rt 
eii livalent of tin- Siveli 

is tl 

writer came ti 

lie ei|uivai. tit of tl,f Siyeh li 


and tl 

■<Unvaleiit, to the App<kiuin> 
"It limestoiK 

sii-pi'cl tliat th.' Hlackf. 

le ni'Xt. 

ir W; 

.his .„ U- ,1„. ,.as,..t It ..em. „ece.ary. therefore, ■io-inak:.;;, •H^li.t'T:;' 

La.,„,t Kan.e if the e.|u,valenl ,.f U,,. Blaekfoot lime- on,- h hv 
"r 7: ;^ '"■''■"*^ ♦« "•"• ^i>-'' horizon. The other n.etnhers Ih' s ra - 

^f r^St=e^^Stf^"!;- :-f ;^^ --„-. -r;:^-^ 

:rM:i':ri:iX'-''''-'-""-''^«''''' •.„„. s,rati.,.a,,ie .;'„:;• :„; 

reeo.n,ii'/l"^.' f"' ^:''*-*'';-T*"> vr-nn.pal diffienlty in the correlation with 
re o.nn.ed systems ,s of eour-e. th,- rarity of fossils which can ie. any sense 
detertmne l,or,.o„s. Ihe o,dy well ..haracteri.ed fossil horizons yet found in 
e H,l er.ane as dehne,) l,y Walctt oc-nr it. the lower part of\he .ireyson 
s ah- ..t the I.elt .notn.ta.tis a.ul ,n ,l«. ,„,,„.,. pan of the ALyn fortnation in 

he .cw.s ,.a„.... II,.. so two h„ri.o„s n,ay well l,c practicaliv tcmporan s 

a, th.y ,,.,.,,, ,„ ,„„1,, .,r,,„j,r,|,hi, r.-lations a,el hoth canv the abundant 
spece-. /.,//„,„ . ,„.„ Xeither that s.eei..- „or a„y of the as^^iated oh c re 
organ,M„s ,..„ d.rectly date the horl.,,,, which ha- ncvc- been found i,> 

( a..n.r,a„. S„ tar as p„r,.Iy paleontol„^ncal evidce,- is ,.„ncern,.l. it is ,„,i,e,n the bounds of ...ssihility that f,e llelti.a h,.rl.,u i- reallv a lower pi al 
of the Lower Cnmbrtan. Olenell,,. „,„.,, „, ;, ,,„t ,,i,,,,„,, „,,,„/„,,,,„ „,^/;;';;^, 

-N. orpatttc remntn. .ivinf, deei-ive iudication- of a^-e have been found in 
the overly„„r s,.,|.,„.., ,.,,„„,,, TJ,.,,„^, ,^,„, ^,_^^^,^ f,„„,,i„,„ „f „,^ i^^,j 

monnta.ns or ,n the equivalents „f ,hes.. either at the Fortv-niuth Parallel or 
in the thick dc,K>s,ts of Idaho and we-t, rn Mo„«,Mia 

Walcett tic rambrian-OMovician eq„ivalent, of Met -ontteir, 
( ast e Mountain srroup as eocurriuf. „oar Belton. Montani. and at Xvnek creek 
Montann.§ At tbe^e localities, massive bluish and greenish limestones bearing.' 
a spe<Mes of Kaphistoma and a Strotuatoporoid fonn. were found in preat 
developmetU. As al.own by I'late .1 of Walcotf.s ,,a,,er. the fiehi-hahit of these 
limestones is extremely si milar to tlmt of the Siyeh lituestono at Mt. Siveh. 

SurvJy. fsf/nidm^""- ^"^ '** «"d ProfessionaTp^p^r Ico.^rul n,.IoK,.aI 
t Information supplic) br letter 
5 Bull. Oeol. So€. America, Vol 17. 1906 pp. 12. 19. 22. 



hffxKi \n \ I „i 

I'll I M mini; :- Io-> 

2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

(litfir :,\ I. 


liir -u-|, 


;i. i'li'llticill IS itii t'l,. Sn-,.|| I 

■ii-'.iiir irnii 

"II ili.ii till— • 

I t'lO .\\vii. 

<';i-!',. 'm, 


ik I...Mli 


il« iiuiy ;it 

•1 *iit.- iliffpr. ni , ir\v. n. 

ilii'.- lih I 1 ,. ,|j 

lll"-t. II, it, Mlll,.h. th.'IVt'nf.'. Mi, Ml,. C;,,,,! 


nil-It 111!-, !, 

|,nc- :iri-, n. 



■ f 

ilo >;. ;!!■,. ,,f Catiil 

ill til,' ii.M.I 

il' l.,>-iU thiit I f.,!ni,l 
i„' ci.rn intf.rl will 

iitii!,ri:iii ..!■ ()i,|,,vi, 


•r<vl;. illiiMnit,.! I, 

ill il, 

I ,|, 

iiiM 1UP-, 11- iii,lii-,-i',.,l 1 

■t ti.ihi; tk- Si 

•y Iriiirin.nt^ 

t ,1- 


I-- Il liin,-~l.ini' i^ t. 
'Ill ". till liiii,--h,n,'- 

■tl - Iiil, -I 

' .iriifirii rncr, w n,-l, 
--ilif,r,,i.- r,ii-lc-, :ir, 

lTi-iilll,.|: |,il,„.i- for tl>i- 

iirri,- i,.tl, \li,|,ll,- 

■l: ••lll.illi- 

"\v, : < 'iiiu! 

I'll,. 11 ,.11 til 

tliiv ar, 


'iir.':iimli|(. a 

iiiiiiiriau |',,-<il-.f+ -pi,, 

•111' lly iii.i-.-;v, -,,• thi!!-i„.,|.|,.,l 1 


II,-- ,,| L'.l''I." 

Ill," r..,'k 

I., i.iiir 
i- (.r 


Illll'-t-,||,- l.l,-,-,Til„ 

lit -oil,,' i :riz,,n-i. with iiit,.r),.',|,|, ,i i!,a!,-, 
-airio ,|ii-ility i- il?;,r wl,;,-li 

i:i!i..n. (»i 

^iinihir i.i,!-. wifli 

ly .1 tiw mil. 

iiway .iii'it!'''i- si.'fi 

;in,i ill,' wl 
jtiitiiiinii. jii ''\\ 

'•iiniiiiil a rL' I II 11,^. 

i('t,Ti-,-.| Im i|„. A! 

.1 1. 


- 'iili'VviMiT 

'111, mil a- ),.irl ,.|' 

'■11 IIP :l-!|iv,l (.v U'al( 
111' ■ I!. Il I, iraii..'"- 


(HVllILT l|i:if;-|" 

-'<»,■? ,.t III,' 1 

■ Hi'iicath ill,. ( 
I'lrraii,- ,.t' tin. Al-ui 

|>i'-,-i-,- i-,'l.iii..|i 
'"> ptiiH-r I : 

|iiil'nin, -an.i-ti.m. tl„. Kmpiiv .hal,s ot' the IWt 

1- with a|.|,ar,'iitly the miiii,. -tril 

lis the l.iise ui tho .va..,|-t,Mi.>. Tra.v,! ,.„ th,. strike h 
he uni'itiitormahly hcncith tlie saiiilst,.iie 

iit5<l ,ii 

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tV !;■ *^i: "■ ^ •-••-;»■. M,-., f.,II..H^,n-. V„l. ■.,. X,, ,s,o, IMS. p. 208 ^ 
'"-'"■ .i.-^kMrt. ,,. Mi^ ...lit., ?,,■!,-, V.,i 5.1. x,, isot, IM'^, p. 2. 


I't.i'MnuiM or iiih i\u:i!ii>i; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 h,,„., ,,,,.1 Mv,.l, i,,r,n:,„nn> „,mI. will, t h.^.. „k(1<,- , ,„■,-. ,.f ,■ „.;, 
Has, .., „,1,T ..r„u,„i.. ,.,„TeL,lr.,| with th.- UMlhoa,! .-,.n,I-iun,. I„ .,11, 

c^s .1,0 n ,,uv.. ,a,.k ,„' ,„,....„,.,,,.„ i. „, ,„ „„ri,.„„ v,,,:;: ,., ,. ., ; 

nat.n. ,,i tr,. san,i-t„„o iluiri l„ iu,v LMvat ,|itf..r,.|M I |„.,uv, „ , I, 

8ton,> l-Ms a.,., tho ,m„u.diat..l.v un,l..rlvinff \.;U """' 

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wi:: li;.!::^;:;.''*- ^""''^ '""^ "'^^ f-- ""■ '-'"='■ '■«■-"--,.,.,.!; 

In ..r,o ..f his later pnllicatioMs Walcott Matfs thaf:- 

■ n,„> l,„n,lp,.,l ,„ilo, farther .urth the s,.,-tion a,,|.ears .„ |,.. ,„mMl>l,. 
__Cambna>, „f the Row River ..i... arul not to reaeh ,low„ ,„ ,he A^U'-klaJ 

•r. I) \ Bull. O^ol. Soc. Americs, Vol. 10. 1899. p. an. 

KKi-oRT „i I lit: r:iit:r i.^rh'n\,.in:i{ 



Ill iu;r,t..or p:;i.e lir writ.-,:— 

iow,r <aiiil.ri,iii finh'.'t -"rfa.-o <li,rniK 

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level pl.nv. h. Fl.„lu.a,l ti„„. ,l„n. L a -ul ■..,.,,• '' ' "•' '^ 

.■ V 1 IV ; Ab^nroka Miuulrniifrl." (s.o f,, ,>); i„ the I!lirl< IlilU 

"■■"iw:";i;,^^t:r : ;:'™;K!-,,;" •:: r';-;,-: • r -^^-'S 

m part -appl ,.,i „y ,l,o r-rosi, „ ,,t a lar^. laii.l ar. a ....v.ri <„.,.!, Il ,1 ., 

^Vy„m,ntf. an.l ..a-trrn Montana. In part th.-v uv,.- .,„„ II "r,.' ' 

;^ea, .. H,.;vi::':i,^;,::,'--7::.:i;;tr:-- 

in thp .liflFpront -, .|,,„cr,tar.v Irns.s ,,f tli,. "v.-vra-Iinal Tl, 1 , ha.^r.wn „,. in,,, -.. or lak,-; tl, im^n inH ^ :. „;'J Jk. ; i":; 

.rononn..«l tnar ,ho -h.„<.. Tl,o failnr,. ..f in.livi.iual ,n. ,>i,..r- „f . U 

' II,"!! '/.'"l- ^•'- America, Vol. 17. 1906, p. Ifi ' 

.' r =' ,^*?' -*" America. Vol. in. 1R99 p. 2,n 

"- N n. l>arton's O.s.logv of ,he HiRh..rn Mounta, n- IVof. I-;;, -, No-Tl! im'" 


.UKili !•' nil 

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t .1 I M.iili, 

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nliiiu' I.. W. 

2 GEORGE V, A, 1912 

111 Mr..riintv o|' ill,. 


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UN ,.. tlir -iMti.i..,M|.lni- ,M|KivMl.iit i.f \\u' I'latlu-a.i 

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■ ill the 


fJi. s,n,ti>rrapl,it. ...|i,iv;,I..nt . I " '" 

"iin<l, Wf Imvi- ^Ol■Il f 

i.ll. li. I 

til. P 


h> li.,,IV!,f 

.i I' I.irii.ii.s 

lit''' .iiiH^nt' 
, , , i-H.,ti.t. :. i., ;,.v,,,I ,„ |,p 

T'Ti 'if 111.' (•r,..t..ii .|u.iv,nt.. M,, .1,, 

!r : -.;::;i' ,::i;:r';;;,,,;-r:;;r "*■ ^■''' 

!;;;..:;;;;^i;:,;:tts;s,-s;:;;-:;r:t■^•;;"■■■ ,-- 

^anibrifl,,. Tlio r,.it«l S,Mt..8 ,.o^..^^X' ' n '. ' 

tl..' ui,f,.,ili,Vrous '' Matiirnllv r.f 

tin ilic l'..riiiiiti..iis ..f I't: 

illl.'i.i./ :,. i'l,,.. 
III.' iiiii.., ill!', r,,i,, ,-,.,.|^. , ,1 ,. 
I>..WS„M. \|,.(.:,„v .,u.| ..tliCT- 'tP.l'i; 


II- I'l-. Lai. ly 

natiirnily rff:,sf.! t.. i 'a.-e 

t' rraiic in tli<^ -anii- purl ..f tin • . , ], ,.■ . , , 

••"rn.I.„i„„ a,„l l,i. ,..n, / , K,:''*'''^^''','''''';''?'^''-' ■■'">••■"•"- - auikinp 
Pre-Camhrian a^,. „^- th,. I \ '■.^"'■'•"">- " '^ '-i-t"in. !. u. v. r. that th. 

^^^o.,an.a.:hh\;::x:Mrrir:;:i,;^^^ -- 

l-y fliv unl,.,-', M.i:_,. -,,■,! vi,.w rl„. I.' , 1- • '•'^'■' '"^- 'Nan,;,,,,!. 

for.,. ..„„.. .. ,, ,-:;;;;■„ i;;-'- -. '^ -;^^;.^ wa, ,.„,.,, h. 

-:inn..,itarl... ev.-IiKli,,^ ...e'l h„^o soHo a U ^ .iLr'', '• r''; •'■''' 
I'l^vr I, Trail.-, t i.- ( h.rrv Cn;.]- )„,U f . i> '^' P"^' ■^^' ♦"! :'■ fh.- Vrifsf 

lire thii- 

IT. •.lit, 

Miiart/it.. „r ,ho t ,„(a .„.,■„.„,;„. 
fei't of maximum thifkn.'ss 



•Ri.ll. Qool. Soc. Am.rlca. Vol. 17, 1906. p. is. 

Vnzona. v,,., 




PH.rrull.v uninl..,ri,|.t.,| -. .lini.-i.tnli,,, lhr..„ul, r,,„.l.rii., i,,,,. W ,'■■, t,\ 
corrol..l,on „_K.,lv.s il,. ,.,.,„.l„.i,v. •!.„ , ,, r, l.,r;,. m,.., „.. ; ..„ 1 ■.n-hin 

snuthiTi. nr.ti.l. C luN.l.i,, „n,i AM. ri„ ,„u,l, „f |,|.| | .,,• „, --. ,■ \I, „. .„a 

repr..« nt. m.^ ,>r , ,„„i,.„.„H l«n,l . M, , ,. rr -,,,.,r.„M,. U,. . .„„,„; 

biiMii of the (iirimh.,,, C, kli'n f r ,.n tli.- C.iMl.rin, I,, -i,, ,,.■ It,!, n-i S.v „l, 
The.. f.M,|„nK.M.alK ,!.. ...t ...,,„•. ,i :..., :,„. „„,.„,„„ ,.,„ ,„. r. ;v .u ^ir.ii- 

gropln: il..,v -h,.„l,| L. ,„ ,1,.. ,„i,„i „f ,, ,,,|,„ „,„„„„. ,, ,,,,., |„.^ ,,,,. 

.■omlm,,,,^ uh.i.r v',i,.l, ,„.„,,,.• f.T, . 1,:m|! ■„, r.....,- ..i ,i,. ..„.. l;,-.„ 
"'"' I'l'' IT' '1' Ml u.^ ,.f \! nr;,,,;, .,,,,i All.rri.i, 

< ..III! I MliiN uiiil |)^^^„,.\ Si.l.Mkiv • M. A'aM- I.vki -ii:.iv 

Sl„,ri4> iH-fnr,- lii, ,l.;,tli (;,„r>r.- M It,, .v.,,:, p- , 1 1 ,.|' ,,•.■ tii,- ' ,,1 

Su.-irty ,.f Aiiicri.-u a |,.ii.. r -uinnuiriMi . I,j. x|,.„, ,: ■,,r'\t„- •!„■ l- ■.'.■•"■'..{• 

tlif CHia.lia.i' Ii i- C.rt „:,,,( ■ l.r il„ -,•;. ,i ■,• |i,,t , .' ,",|.'. .1 

t.. n.mplrl.. l\us ;,|.|,. ,vv i.w ..f l,i- ,| i.,.,.w ri,- ,|„rln-.- ;. ,,;..«.: ,.: ,nrv 

"' '"'""'^ ..■iitiiM s ,,x|.! ■rati,.,, 1,, il„. „„,,,„,.,;,,. [„ ,, ,i,.i:.., ,, ,,, ,] 

prin..,p.l ,M,,tUi-_..r „r„.|ali..n n„ ,. ■, „, |,| |,„., .. .,„fl„'„.'i, „iv'..Iv 

dlKP8U'«l I)aws„Ms „.„„.r.. = ,- iv,,.,rt- al,,„u «,ti, fl,.. „tl,..,., ,,„l,:i.|a..| i„.(..r.. tt„. 
yenr I'MK). Ww rr„l,.r ,f \,\< -, „.,r- «il! n-lr li,.iv |i;,u-,, ,.. ,| ,,,. „,,.„ . 

t nu'il srii.iiiitic caiiii,.!, in iiiakin- ,-,,rr.| 

rr. I;iii<,ii- ail,,.,,. 

' r r ..-ix- ..f 

liriti-l, C.hiM,!.;. In ... 1„i,f „ nn„.w „f ,, v;,-, ■,,.,:, ": '^^■,. i,.\ ;-,,i,I, '",i,'i, 

all .,( l,i> ,lonl.t< an.l .i,ialiti.;,i i. n- ,,. ;M ,„,, 1„ ,.,,,.,, | s.iH „ .„, i,. l,m 

/'f'""! ^-y.'^'""''' '--r. r- 1- -1 l„,u ...1,.., ;M,,,,,r. ,.„„„,- „„.l„ 1... 

.lr.lM.-.-,I as w,rk ]. !•.,>;,. !. S„„„ w|,.,l ,litr,-r-..,,i ,..,r,,.l.,t i.., - ,■•, ■, )„•., 
M,Kp-i.-,l l,v tl- •.,.],! ,l„ia ;• il,. |-,„-r> ,-,:ti, IVril',.!. T.,. ,.r.-,,'. '.M-itiT 
l.«li..v,.-i lliat III. th.iy^- ,,f ,|,„... -,..ti,,,i- , .|,.-.,r;i..|. i- .,,.iV„,. > .;,„i|.,r 
t.. tluit of tho ,rt,v-niiitl, l'a,al!,-! f. rina ... - ,, u.,,--,,,.! ...r.;:. i.,,f,iiv,. 

■■(.rrclatii,s «i!.l,i„ l)ir S.Uirk i, niaii, -y-i,-,,,. W |„ r.- al! ;- -■ ,i|!;..,|'it in 

th.' -imi.v ,.f tl„- „nf..-iiif,,,-,,„, .,r,-,,:,. .( .,,r.,ia. i- i. v..;' ... , i, •■,•.,,:,', all 
?'osm1)Ic view.. ,,f •li,. nlati,.!,- until ;,.-.i,i,,„lai ,„:. Tan- -Kali ;,.,n- w ,|..u',, t'l,.. 

'''"•^■■" ' ■! '"'""I i" tl... <,lki,K ralii;,. ar..l ti„ -I,..],! r.,,..-,-' , 'h.^ 
r..liMubia s.v-i.ii! „f ,1„. ,,r.-, „t np.ili tl,r,... ll.i.'k i;r,.i,|.- ..■ r.-K- wl,i.-l, 
lio nainr,] thn • .\ i.<o,.n1itl. -.-ri. <.' tl„. • S,.lki,.k ^^.Ti.'S.- a.„l tl,. • A.|..!„. |..,k.. 
siTi.-,' .\l| thr. e wi'U- n-frrrcl I,, tli,. Canil.rian ai„l i..i,.|, „.;,. •■ ,,. ,. irar.!...! 

l.,v l>au-,,M a- a -'lalitrraphi.' i-.pii^ .-,1. nt ..f -., p,,r' .,t' lli. (a-- . \r,;u,taiii- 

Bow Kivrr of fho Il..ok,v Mountain ranjro. F-.r tlw pnrpo*,.« oi thp 
rinr,.m ,1,-, ii-.i,,„ M.. l,rirt".T. in..r,- a.-.-ura', v.av ,.( pn-, i.llui: Davv-..!,'. -ali,.nt 

'■'"<■'"''""- '■ niiinr fl,<-. ..-ri. .Ml, 1... ,1, v..,.,l ,1,,,,, ,,, ,|...... ,;, ,,,,„ 

suniniar.v in full lie wr.l.. : - 

■ I'a-siiip now to the next n.,r,ntaiii -y<(,ni. t.. tlir -..,,ti,\v,-- ,,? ihc 
l.nranii.lo ranpr ,,n,i parallel wilji it ... (;,,],| rauL'. - w, t'..,; ■.•. ih,. 

•O. M. DBwsoti, Hull. <j(MiI. Sw Amoriin. Vol. 12, I'M)!, pp. :,:.92 







^^ '6^5! Ens* M^.n ^t-ee; 

■^^ I'^'S) •82 - 030C - Pho'^e 

^= i7!6) 288- ^989 - Fa. 


/'/./• I '■/:// v/o/ //„,, ivrii.'ini 

v;,.|L.;, , 2- GEORGE V., A. 1912 

■"'.V I'Sslls, but „|,|„,,,. ,.. ,,.,„.,.\.i,r , '■'"■'^- '!'^'» I'^'V,- ,„,( yrt yi,.',],.! 

'■"■•"' -■ ^""' ''■"■'■•■I tin. l,a-.. with 

..f ,r;,y ,|.f,,v ,,„„,„i„„ ■•,.''■ l'"";'-''/H,.i ., .H,l,.r.,l,I.. ,l,i,.k,„.„ 

!"""-<".i.'. In „ll„.,. ,,.,.,:,„; •, ■!•• In.-K.,.- „| l,la,-kM, ,1;,,,,., 

K..„.nay ,li,„.i.., a, ,i in 'l : : '" "-—'-■" P-'t of ,l„. W,., 
lin.ish C.linnl.ia. '" '""""" "' "'" '"'•'•'•..,• ..I.:,,.,,, „f 

I III' .\i-,-,,i,|it|| ,|.,.j,,, : I I- 1 ,■ • 

ir-;:. "^ - 'i"">i.^.i-^n ' inJ:, ;• " ;;;.::,;;r;r"''"'''" "t"' ■ 

^' '■^■n<OM ,, ,|n->ik that it/,,,.,.! I,,-, l-arn,„„i,. ,„„.,, l„,t ,l„.,v 

- "'i-'"-'^.' - i-^i:'n.;J';;;:',,;;:;'''''"''^'' '■'■'•--'"- -^--'.i 

=•^.^.ii.r;:■;:t':;t':h:i,:::,',':,7' n.., i„ ,h,. s,,,.,,. „„.,,, 

.. ■ . _. , _.>.'iinr Itct con;;!.! iii.r ■.!... 

y I '•,.<-,„•,., .r „,,, „„, .,.,.,. „i-h-„.ay .,.1,;:,: 


. . ill, 

,'■:",'"-""-■ :-^:i"'-.. ,„,t rr„,i,.r,.,i 

I'lil i|iiai-fziii'- 

■ ■•v,..,.,^ "nil ('"I'ii; 11,11, vit,., .,.,1 • 1 . i".ii i/iM'-;, 

"lii'ii I'lnnjilciit (,, ,1,,. (•., ,1, M . • '" ■'" '•^■"I'^Mtly 11, th,, 

.- uHVi-tMl hv t!u. f.,,-,],.;. ' I "" ;"" "■'■'";"■ '■'"'■—"'in,' that .,■„„,, 

' Ti, il • • . , " iaMi',1, ilrK- (,1)1,11 I, t 

"1 lla,' Vlr,l,|tv ,,1 Sh,,.,, M, I., I >. 1 

'i- I'l^H-.. „f ,1,, s,1ki,L- -,.,.;. ,'" ^'-■•"l>tl, a.,,] vl„.iv ,„.,.„, .vii„. 

■ ;•■*■'•■ ''■h,<o,o,.k:"ha; ,:„";,;;;;;,",: '7;" ^--ip. ,.1.,,,,. th.,,. 

'in.e^ „a.T,o,:3 srhi-t- ..f ■■ h ''■l'l~!'n.l,t... .,.r„.iti,., a,„l .,„„„. 

.n,y ;„ ,h. ,„,,,, ,,a,:,:„, Hu. J-iir "i;:;';:':;'';;'-^'"-- /" "- i--.. a„.i 

"'■'•ly >'. a. at,.] . n fnll,.wii,n. .],,. „ ,,; , ' ' ' ""; '-"^'I'Wrat... ar,. l,„t 

-.--. it i. iv,„,„i to 1 ;,:,:.''■•;'""'• "" *^r'"""^ "^ "■" "'"""•-" 

-''1. ■lial.a.os ai„l „th.>r •«„,;, a """'" "-'^'''"•^'•"'- «''■! "^I'-1">'I^. 
^--I '.• .■n^y .,a,!::,i7/ T '' t^' ': "■'""'' ""^ "■>^^''^- '"^'^- •- 

n.i,. n,o,an,o,,,M-,„ I , , "'"^'^''^ '"''■"''I «-"l .n„..|, alt.av.l hv .Iv,,-,- 
a'....t 2;;.000 f„.!t ^"■P--"xnnat,. thh-k,,,.. of tin. ...-i,. U!. 

ni.fnur or im: i mii .\.-i i!n\,,\it:i; 


SEiilONAL PAPER No. 25a 

■ The upiiL-r |..,rt ■,< tiic ( 
Xi-('..iilith M,Tii><. may tliiw hr 
in the cmsUtii [Mi-t of tin- 

;iii]liriaii -y-irm. 

aiil to he rf'|ii-i'- 

raiiL'c. ,-aI,' 




ali,.Vr tlh- li.vv 

•ntcd I'hlcllv l,y ! 

-ilii^ts in tlio \V('-li rn part 

'l"art/ir.>. :n-aywa.'k,-,. ,,ihI CMn-iunH-ratc* in thi- 

'""' '■>■ ^"I'aiir nialcriaK >iil! rurtli.T f. the wost. 

^i-a<I\ial i.a^.ayv (xi-i- li',,ni ,.nr t.. an..i|„.r ,,r th.'-o 

fiiMT a-hy nf v..l,,,,,i,. nn>in liiiv,. .■Ntrndo,! 

"f th'' sanii' niiif;' 

Scikirk nioiintaii;s 

It i^ ImHi-vcJ tliat. 

■/.•'\\<-~. and t!iat th. 

in a,.p>-M iahl,. qnai.tity ,.a-l«a,,l to wliat 1- now tho oontinonfal wat,.,-h(v! 

in t|,o lai-amnl,. ran^-,.. No ,-,,„to,n,.o,an. o„. voloani.^ ntatnrials have 

n..wovf, l.oon oh.orvrd in the undorlyinL- R.w \\\v,r ,.r Xl-ooMlith -ori,.. ■* 

Thf writivr has .-tiidi, d I)aw-..n'< ori>.niial to]., 
'ho jri'iniids Mf the <-orrohiti.iii- inoiitioni..l in th. 
tuiiafcly the ai.hious and rapid natiiro of hi> ic 
Dawson coiibtniotiiip coluinnar scplions in : 

oris witli a view to liiiiiir-taiiii 

I'oi-oiioiii;;- i|ii,,tatioii. t'nfor- 

oiiiiai-- n.T ~Mrviy^ pn-vcTitrd 

,.,,., .- — - ■■■ "I'tail ~ :]iciont to iiiako inton- 

Mvo hth.dojncal oompati-ons pos-ihlo. Xcv, rth.lcs-. iho nior,. ,!otailo,l faH. 
oortainly soen, to warrant the helicf that the S.-lkirk .erics U. in the main 
.■luiyalent to the Summit series of the Forty-ninth Parallel seetion and f^ 
til.- ( asflo .Mountain-li..w IJivor jjronp ,,f MePonnell's section 

C)„ the oth,^r, a>,y -atisfaetory ..on-l„sion as fn th.- n.Jati.n. of the Lake terrane to the formations mapped at the International 
boundary could not be reached without further field-work. Since the forward- 
ing- ot th.. onpinal n.ann-cript of this r,.port f,,r puhli<.ation. th.. writer lii.s 
s[>.-nt a s..a-on m the principal ar,.a. alon- the main lin., of the Canadian 
Pacific rnihvay, w],ere Dawson studied these old rocks. At tf.e time of the 
pn^sent wr.fnp (Xove.nlH.r, V.>\\). the results of that season's work are not 
tully ..ompiLd, l,ut certain of them, I.earinjr on the question of correlation are 
already in -liape for definite statement. 

The «rit.^r has l,een forced t.> .liffer from Dawson in s.^vral in,|v,rtant 
conclusions. J he evidcnrrs in each ease are necessarily too detailed to he 
stated 111 the pn-sent report, w'lerein the writer's rel..vant cnm.lnsi.,ns onlv will 
I"! briefly iiote.l. as follows: 

1. Th,. •Xi>,.onlitir s,,ri..s of th,. S,.lkirks. as se,.tione.l hy Daws„n 

.^"'■n ';"•'"";« ',*'"" ""' ^'^'"''''' """■'^' '-eP''^^™** 'he northern ..ontinuation 
of th.. Beltiau ( ..^It torrune) ro.-ks at the Forty-ninth Parallel, and .-onfoniiahlv 
undevhes tie th.ek quart/.ifes of the Selkirk series, whh^h are prohahlv of 
t ami.nan ape. The writer helieves that these ' Xis-onlith ' rocks of the Selkirk 
mountains should l..frically l)e includ. d in the Selkirk series. 

2. The 'Xisconlith* series of th.- Shuswap lak.^ area is an entin-lv 
different, pr,-Caml, an.l pre-P.-ltian. proup of sediments, .^Mnh underlie 
the •Xiseonhtir ..f tho Solkirks uiu-onformahlv. 

Ibid. pp. C6-7. In the second voliin... 

iuiu.iip.uo-, in rne second voUin t th,. -iini.. IjiilK.tins (l^M|, ,, u,; |in( 

^y'* /'/ /■!/,■/ i// \/ o/ ////, iMi:i!i<,i: 

:' GEORGE v.. A. 19i; 
.;. ;nK. A,h,m> I..k, v„l..„,,i.. ,.n.., ,.„„f.,nn:,l,K- ,.,,.1,,.. ,i„. ,„„.k ll,,,,- 

•1. Th. -Shu-w.p -,,.;,.,• ,,,• ,]„. si„„vv,„. Ink... ,v«ioM U not n .ll<ti„-r 
...n-M,. .r,,.p ,,n..o,,^,^,,.l,^ ,,,.,l,.rlv:,,. ,1„. ' Xi-,.„nli,l, ' -ri,.. l,„t .,„v- 

'!'"■ "■ l'nth,.l,tl,„. ,„tv„-i.,n, Tl,.. l,;„l,.,|i,i,. .n. ,.,v.I!,.l,in„ „, ...,. 

The r.orn.lati..n. -n«t,.-f,.,l l,y ,1,,. „,.„• f;,..ts nn- =n,Mn,:„-iz..,l i„ T.l.;,. X. 
Tm.m: \,--ro,T. /„/;„„ „.;//, r'„„„./m„ /'„,;/,■,. y/,,,,,,,,,, >•,.,./;„„. 

WksTKIIN PAliT ^. 

SkI.KIHK liAX(;E, -IIINI OFroi.lMHH ^Kl.KIKK RAN(;K .\T H<M K V ^r. H \r MN 

I'.MlU.fKl.. llANliEllNTKIIIliK J'""'',;'^'''- ' '^ KAN<;K: I!o» Kn Kll V'.K 

I'l.Al'KAl >. y.\S. 1 A( . Kv. -Kl lIiiN. 

V™h,^!". ! *'*,'''* •'■"•"■■'' "''''"• '\"'' -W" " " ' ■" " Mifl.lU- C\,i.i- 

_::_::__ __ '""^'- Senm. /,iin I- fiart. l.rian. 

iil.w;i'„.;v: : : : \ *'/,''^' *"•"»■ '""''"^ «->«■" a~~^~; L,:;;^7'a ~ 

W„lf, upiHT part'.; : : .'.'.'.'.'....".','.. \ ' "'''" '■ '■■"■'• ''■■!:.«. 

ir..n..v„u.,j„ic». .. .::::::::::: ::IZ1J::;^:'"'"'' ""''"'"■'"■ , ■— i'-i-i 

Jrtni' Coii(,'!i))iicrati> I ' '" pi't-sfiit re 

■ :_:_: I !»'«. 

I'licunf ormity I'ncmfnrtinty . . l-iiL-..iifnrniity ; ' " 

}-ri(,tR„;r Tcrram A d a m > I.„k, UraTuv l,atlu,T[t'h/^ '■ i^TTT ,":, 

S,r„»:N,srwi- i-Mtting sthists i]f ,ir.-ii. iti.iii. 

Iith S-rim (of Dawscin's "Nhciiii- 
I)awscin);.S7(.-s- Iith (jf Shu'^wap 
"■'/;) Sin,!, (nf I,ak.-s art-a •■ 
l>a« ! 



urmirr m i iii < ini i i- i i:ii\inii /.■ 



K\>\ (i 

Kii-;v\i i.i\ M j;i.i 1 i.y 

I 111. < "Khll.l I i,\. 

Ill lliv litiiil frciiiMiil 
it- origin, it is ot tir-l in 

i/.itinii iruiii'di 

;i I iM.Mii- 

-viiclnuil -iiiuiii^M 

cli;iiri liav 

IXirtailCr t., illrlurli' :l llcfillit 

ny pri^iii ,.i- |,ri-rii- .mt ..t which ih. 

1- I" I'll nun 


I' coni'ipii..ii ( f..I,K ,,1 

f tli^ 

'^'- '''T liif .a-t.rn hall ,.t ihc N,,i-th Ai -i-Mn (■..nlilhi;, 

•I... c.miplox Mi-cgcni.- liistnn- mu<\ U- ,li-r,;-,.,| in trnn> ,,f ;,i I,.H-t thr..- p, n,„l- 

-t -pt'Oiiilly iinpnrtiint '^.n.ywUual -. ,|li,,cnt:iti,.n. A. l),„ui I p.-int, ,1 

',"• '•"■ l"-ii"-'l>iil l--ri,M| j, ihM ,,| r|„. ,|,|„„i.i„n of th,' -tr.itilir.l -,.ri... Ir..,n ih.. 
< ..mhvnin hn„l rnnf.^rnuihl,. p,v-()l,.n,.l|„o -y<t.n, f. th. M :-i~Mppip, -v-i, ,n 

iii-lusiv... I-„r thi. hiir.- :„-.-u,Mnl;,li f ..l,,.,!,- ;„„l rh.-nn,-.,! ,|, p,,-iN thr 

pr,.>wit wnt.i- ha.- p,,.pn>,.,l tin- na ■ ItH.-Uy .M,.,n,tain ( ;r,:-M„l,n,,r th, 

■|<.^vn-^val•p,.,l .Miriacc „f th.- pn-Can,l.rian m, wliiH, th.- pri-n, n-t- n.;v !,.■ 
^al(|. Un .liMiiirtiun. t„ form tlio • K,„-i<y M.mntaiii ( M-n-viirli,,,' ' 

In nortluTn Ahiska. nr,rtliea>t,Tn Ala-ka. ra-t, n. \uk.,u. , a-t. rn l;,iti-h 
" •■liinihia. AllHTla. Montana and .-onlral I'tah. tho l;,.,.kv .Mountain- iu th, 

"'"" ' '""'I narrower ,on-o „f thr tmn, aro I'hii'tly or hii-vlv c-oinpo.o,l ,,t' ro.k- 

tornmife' part of this So far tlio nam, i- appropriate, in Colorado 
flio Ko-'ky Mountain, arr prin.-ipally .■,,inpo.s,.d of other t.rrane-, s,, that th.- 
toded and faulted roek- of the p.-i-n, -on-titnte the ralit-es of the ( Ba-ln 
1.11 ot whiel, he uvll l,a,-k ,.f the front nun.-e of ih,- Uo,.kie- proj^.r. V,t thi- 
part ,.t the Coi-dillera the p,-op„-ed name is not tittinfr. oxeep, a- the pri-,n 
IS by Its nam,., loeaP-.l ahui^.-hl,. th,- lo,-al ranp-,. of the true l;o,.kv Mountain- 
However, th,- la,M that l,y far th,- i;n-at,-t part of the Ko.-kv Mountain ..hail, 
-in-o,>er) ,s a,.,ua]ly nu„le .,f the r..,.ks of this prism, ha- imp,.ll,.,l ,l,e writ,-r 
f. suggest the mime eliosen. Dana Inis offered tlio name • Rookv Arot.ntain 
^:e,,-,vn,.l„,e. t„r ,1,,. ,.,-t-( 't-.-ta,-, ..•- .I,.wn-warp- afh-.-liuL' a h.-al'iiavt „f the 
' oniilh-ra. iiain,.'y. that in th,. \Va-at.-h-( ;,■,-,■„ riv,-r r,-L;i,.n. '^ l--,,r th, -tu,!,-, t 
ol .•,,ntinental u,-.l,,^y tin- name -,-, ,us harlly appropriat,- ; th,- lar.,,- part of 
1 he Kooky irountaie jrn.iip ha- not been affeeted by .lown-warp=i of this date 
at I,.ast to th,. ,-M,.ht ,l.-nian,|in- th,- formation of thl,-k prisms of se,liment" 

In any ,.ase the .oan, uplift of th,. IJo,-ki,.s proper ha- not 1 „ du,- to th.- 

generation of 1,-rtiai-y -.-o-ym-linal- but ha- ratla-r h.-,-., otu- of th,- ,-aus,.s of 
their stibsi-.pieni formation. 

Piirinu' the oth,-r tw,. p,-rio,ls of heavy -,.,liin,.ntation, the r,.-nltin ,.,,-vi- 

dinals were ineomparahly -mailer ami all of mon- lo.-al natur,- "tlnn ' fh,- 
.-nonnoiis mass of -trata upon tlw haek of vhieh. ami f,-,.m „• .,d^st.„„.e „'■ 
whu-h. th<se^;,-r pri-ii.s wert- mad.-. The latter in,.!u.l.- th,- Cn-t-n-eon 
g."Osy,K.],nal of the Crowsnest district in Canada as w,-ll as that in Colorado- 
ajso the Eo.vne r.-yiH-nnnk ,,f the yr.-at ,|,.wu-warp- north ami -outh of (h.- 
I inta mountains. 

With the Creta.-eon.s ami Ko.-ene M-.-o-ynelinals we are not now en'.-m,.,l 
but they arc mentiom-,1 in this pla-e in onler to imli,.at,- onee more the '^nki-- 
abihty .,f having- a convenient nam.. f,,r th," ea-tern half ,.f the r'ordilI,.rn whi,-h 

•.f. n. Dana, Manual of GeeloKv. Ith e.Iition. 189.i, p. .IK 
J.',a — Vol. 11 — l:!i 

mr^^r^>^( f''iJM.mmmam^^' 


Ill r\l!, Ml, \ I (,i I III i\ I i.ninl; 

2 GEORGE V . A. ;9': 
ha:* i... a !„.ilt -o liii-ficK :■ tl... ,■,„■].. \M .1,,um in tl,,- ■ thiv, |,..ri..l- V.r 
use in fhf. |,r..-..nt r.^port r',1. ,„,■( ,.f ii„. < '..nlill, r.i ;,,!! I„. ,.,,il,.,| ;1,.. ■ l-'n-t, rri 
Oe,->.,y,.-!nu,l I!,.],.- I,. „ ..hapt^- .1. nil! 1,. i,iv,.„ uhi.l, t.n.i t- 
oorrol.r.rM,. tl,,. ,,n^aili.,^ v i.w that tl„. «•.-,,.,■,: ,.,,■, ,,,' ,1„. ( .nlillfTa. fron. 
Alaska •.. -.,„tl„,-„ (■;,Iii..n,in at l.-a-t. i- a .,.,■,. n.l ;:,-, unif ,l,.,.|,lv cuntra^fo.i 
in coiMpv.-Minn an,| l,i-t..r.v uitl, il„. Ka-i. rn II, It. (.,„• ,-. :iult of'tlio c.nvla- 
tion,^ -., far ii.a.l,. Is p, oiv,. s.a,„. l,i,lira!i,„i ,>f tii, ap,.r..Ni.,iat<. li„o w)iirl, 
may .... raKo,, a^ -paratini. tho Ka^l..,-,, 1.,!. f,,.>n M,, • W.m.t-, f 


"I' iiii; K'.i iv\ MniMuv tii;i.>v\i i.pNAi.. 

It t „■^i:.„„f. cMnvla.i.Mis ..f tlir l„n„ati..iis i,. t lo Kortv-niiah Punill,.; 
sectto,, 1... ,p,.t,t,c.l, H -,...,„. ,>,-sil,l,. ,„ ,i,.„.n,mu.. in a v.-ry potu.ral wnv. th- 
thick.. .-s and oxpiit ,,f the l:,.,.^v„c•linal xvhi,-h na- a..p-n.nuh,tr,l .luritip tU- 

time .lap, uiK hrtw,..,, th,. ,h.p..sitinn ..f tl M.., !„.,>, of tho li.-lt f-nni.. a.i.l 

th3 ,,.,„ .,f tho Tpp,.,. Canihrian ;,.nHati..n^. Siur.- tho.o ohW rook^ 
whern ..owL.^d „, the h,a,t ..f th, ., o-y„.-li,„.. vi^al or -urpnss in thirknes. 

he waole „f later 1 al,w.oi<. f„rn,a,i..n- i„ ,h,. - area, the rleliM,itath,n of 

the pre-I pper f -...iin.ent.,-tiv,.ly l,„a..- t),e main axi. of thn 
Kocky .Mountain jioosyiii'liiio. ( Fitrun. !_', pa^c l'Ou'. ' 

NeHh... to -ay. th,- tiehl .vidrn,-,. 1- far t„„ i„..„„„.|, „• to permit of anv- 
thmff hke an aeeuratc piniuv of the aiH^h-nt ,h.u-„-ua,p ,„• of it. ,e,)imentarv 
trlhnp. Nevertheh.-., tl,e material, are L, hand to warrant a =uh- 
stantm! oorrobonitio.. of the vievv of J. I). Dana. (!. M. Pnwson, and others, 
that the l...,.ky, -y.t.m ha- h. ,n huilt np throupl, the npturnii,.' of 
a vast srosyneiinal l..n- wh,,,.. main axi- lay to tlie ea-tward of an Arehea.- 
protaxi- in the ( ■..rdlllora : ami. secndl.v. ;hat th. L-ee-ynelinal axi. lav paralNd 
to the uei irnl axi- of t)ie pre-ent Cordilh-ru. 

In th,. e.u.t..rn ,.art of the Selkirk r.-,u,. at tl>,. Forty-ninth Parallel the 
TcZT' "1, tl>e confonnahl.. pr.-rpp.r Camhri.m l,ed<. exclndinff th- 
6,000 le.t of Inne voh-an,,.* i- ahont I'ti.n.Mi f,., f. Th,- ,-hara,.|er of the«e sedi- 
ments-how that their nuiteripl vn., in iai-^, st ,.ari d,.riv...l from the rapidiv 
eroded mnds lyin^ to the «e.tvvar,l. Th,- ,.1,1 -le.r.dine. o' rather z,me .> 
shore-lines, was proKnhly lo,-ated not far fr,.m th, ,.ro.-in,. ,,■ tlie roltinibii 
river at the International Boundary. A- xet tl.e only otlu-r .-ohunnar .eetion 
of the-.- ro.-k. uhieh in ■l,ale< their ba-,.. ha- biv„ con^truete.'. 
from outcrop- observ,,) in the Belt mountain^ :r,0 miU- t,. the .^a^tward. wher,. 
the whole thiekm.s. i, U'.OW. Xo, far ,„ th,. ,.a.twar,! of this section 
^".1 "V.-,".',' '''"",'^.f'"' 'I"P'-iti..u. ,>f the Belt. l...w,.r Cambrian, and .»om.^ 
of the .Mubd,.,. 1„.,1-: ,l„rint;' the MhMI.. Cambrian much of thi- 
eastern lan.l area wa- it-lf f.„ns5fre.^se,l by a wbh- -hallow ^,a. Between th.- 
Belt M.nntam,- section and the S,.lkirk (B,.nn,iary. .e,.ti,,n. a preat thi.'k- 
ness ..* Bc!t-f'ambrian,l,.r, |.x,.,.llin:j L'O.fMW wa? huM .b.'.v 
in api):i--<!!tly perfc't .•.uifinnity . 


/.•/ /•'//,•/ I,/ //// I iiirr 1 w/ 

■ '•ni; 






T'lf- lii'liof tluit tli( 

.1 tl 

(' i;c — S\ llrll! 

I.,. tl 

hole leriKtli ot IJriti^li t oluiiibiii to tli.' Sixtiofh VniMllfl nf latitmlo. Tl.e .-tii.iy 


1- 1 nil with 'ii'i'ii-i. ii 

■ 1 Untisii ( 

-ccutinf.' til 

i'«(l- ..t til,- 

•Jl- liiiv.- liicii;!. ,.,1 |,y l.atli..litli 

1- liiiiiilr. c|- 

lii.w. MT. with thi- .lit!li-'i!t: 
-i|ii:iri liiili-- t.^L'i'l 

■-.vii'luiiil :irr 

iti.T I. 


■v ,v..iiiiuir 

"luri', 111 iiu'ii.x |i 

iiitni-mii- ,,ii ;i iriL'niith 

till' H(It-Ciiriil.i 


nil laiii(.r|il 

'I ''> ■•ni-iiiiiL; aiiil Iv tin 

<r..-..|. iliiy li. 

relatli'ii ol' ihr Im.I-i i- \i rv ,,!,. 

i.-t.-n tliat thf tl- 

111' ii.itiiri- iuiii 

II ( arh iin 

TO, thf lM,T,ti.,ii ,,!' til,, liin ,,f tli(. ffio-.vjirliiial 

il' th.' \..\\., 

tiiik'S ill 


1^. \.. 

iitiii,- iiiM-tiiiiil !"ii limy show that 

" I oii<i,ii Tr.l ii- only 

■rr.'i-^ a- ;rriMt a- til't\ 

II iiiaili' in 

th.-o ], 

I'-at h'li.-. 

tioii and i--.\t'iit mi' tl,i- Im-o il 

:riiit that tlio ninii 

-t tilr 


1 loiirlu-iuii^ ii-carilitii;- ilir icsi- 
■wn-warp anil ot' i'- >r-.iiim'iit;.r,\ tilling; an I'uii- 

13 iipptoxiiiiatfly ("..riYi't. 

At t!io ('aiia.liaii Paciti.'. raiUva.v sei'tii.ii Daw^.n hini-rlf plaor.l tl 
rim i.f the ::co*yii.-liiinl «irhin tin 

11 \Vi -tlTIl 


aroa orpuiilo 1 l.y tin- pri-imt ('..hmihiii 

II the I'arliei- -i-riis of licpositJ a^^ifrncil to tho Can 

lOver evidence of a more or le-s conti 

iPnaii. \vr ijis- 

position i.f till' (I. ill] 

■; land area oecupvuig 


laiifro- and tlii ir niTtliern rcprc.'cntat 

iw - Mini a 


fan nil K-^ win- here 

in a general nortlnve.-terly direction. Tin- Anh. 

uiiilergoiiifj iloiniilatioii. and it is along this axis that tliry an- -till rhiitly 
exposed, for althciinh they may at nion- than om- time 1 

entirely liiiri<-l hi-matl 

the surf; 

•iiiniilatin^' -trata. thev h: 

lave lieen 

•e a-jaiii Ij; 

lave t'ceti iToutrlit t 

y -lie dinp nplifts and renewi^d iliniidation. W, 

tiiiil heie, in ■■tTr-o!. m .\i-.>lieaii axi- or ^Taiiliidine that eon<titute.s I 
briieve. the k. y t.. ih.' strui'ture of this 

To the east 

entire reirimi of the Cordillera. 

>f it lie- t!ie I.araniide treosym-Hne fwitli the eon 


whicii Dana ha- familiarized ns), on the wv-i aiiodier and wider ;.' 
eliiie, to whieh more detailed allusion will be made later. 


■ Conjil 

njilomerate- in the Eo\\ liiver s, 

east .side uf tlii> ,,ld land, hut tl 

rie- iinlii-ati' sia niar;;i! 

far b 

le.-e are ii^t a iiiaikid feature 

I, .11- ruri-u-pnniliiifr -ems on it- \\< -icr 

ji'i-n ili-i-civi 

rnl only 

Fi,-il- Inr 

the prevalrn.- 
the Ni-eu:ilitl 

m the upper part .-f tl 

if ■arhoiiai-eous and eah 

MlU- tilVrr -iTl 


II appiars fu indieate the al.'indanf iiri--et! 

an Tills iii-iiT.iI ( p.irli'-:i'arly in 

some kind at this time. 

■ Allhouiih no evidence has been foniid of anv 

Co ol (irLrani-ni 

the eonditioiis indieated by the 

ireat piiy.-n 

ippcr h i!f of tlie Canibr 

ifferent from those of the lower. Voleanic- material-, d 

lie to loij 

tions. wi-re ai'eiumilated in sreat 

.\rehiaii axi- to the west, while on the ea-t 

mass 111 til" rif-'ion borderinir 

mat. -rial- o 

itii rho i>ri-pond 

erant ^liorr 

f tills ki 

•f that =; 

lan are very 


11 the 

nd appear 

•!. i the 


i>i.i-\t;nii.\i i,r nil i\i 

I mm.' 

2 GEORGE V A. 9 . 

.W,nl.,,,i .,,,!.,, ,.,,.,.,•-, i,.,U i,„„, ,„„i,i f,|„. ...,„n,IK 

II.. » ;i|.i«Mr, III ilir ,M.r,-ri, pan ..f tin " niii. iir- nuiri Iri,,, 

ir;i:iii.|.- r inir.' tlii-v nrr diii'llv 

:iny liiiiil 

'I'"-"!"" •!' ii-i.l.raM.- .li-taiMv Ir...,, 

nil ' 

Mi-Fv.iy lijH ,|,.-rrilM-,| tfic l{,,w Ulv..i- .,.; 

: t- r; ,,.::';• 'ir •'' ""'•,''-^: "■■ -i-"^' si, a„ ,Ar,.i,:: 

r :,i„ .i:;: ,: ;,::"tr' • ;'":'"^ ■ t"'^'' '•''^'"■■" •"•-'■" 

. r.-,,i,.,,,n,.a .o,i-u, ,„,, „,„,„, „,.. ,,.^^„.. ,,.„::;;:,':„•-; 

'■1 III' lii'.'k.v Mouiiiuin liTiiri.+ Amiin tli.wni ( ..]\ i, ,. i- .r •, 

: :;; : -'^f '"-"f -"■ >- -- .i. >!;;;.r ;,." t' ; ;; ;: "';:,.;;^^'^v 

I .rtl, .atin,,!,. ,„ ,W „.,,t,,„d „,• ,|„. ,,.,.,,..1,. II.uv far .„ ,l„. u - v i H , f 'l . 
arsni,. rn-r ,t .iiouM l„. „la,v,l i, i, ,„.. I,,,,.,,.,;,,,,, ,„ .„„. ,;'',,.,; 

not. Ml, ,1V than titty mile-. ' "^ '"' 

Ui-(ViiiH.|| f,.,;,„l til,. Row Riv..|-Cas-I,. M ,„;„ , k-, „„ ,1„. „.,.t -i,|,. 

;, ''-'"^ '■',;■' '■•■.^; '^''I'li" .-.K'ks rrtVrr,.,! t„ .1,,. Aivjaan „„ tlir w.-t -iM,- 


fp;n:'n -;:,-?':tr:l, -:;l.t- :;,,»:;'«:: !;:!;';*,,,,S^ 

I- .'• nm of tlio ..•..,.y,„.||,„. I,,.,. ,,, ,,„„ ,„. „„. ,.^,,.|,i,^^, ^.^.^ ^^ nii|.n,l,al„. 
111., enorniou- I,.|,.th a,i,l -ii,.„|a,. .„-aid,„u..s of tho l{„,'.kv AfoMnfiir 

""... ■■.■k-':.l;':!:,i:::, ::: ;;::"r:':: ;^:: ™;,:-',';;: ;f-f.«i' 

«r:„i";;:r'„;':; "'"--' '•-", .N.---i..::v;ir;„:s 

"lift , .'i '; " '"'"■"■"' '' ■•' .".'"■ <■■"'•' -II iii'i. 

:.::^:::;:i::t- i;;^'J-j;:;i,-:;; "•t:;::l::r ;'r::7-;" :::;:r-;^ 

;fi M l)a»-„,,, Itull (;«,!. S,„.. Ainw,,,,. Vol. U'. 19„I „ s^ 

♦Rr\rr ";','".'■ •-"''.'• • '"•• "f Can.. ISTO-SO. Part Up ins 

Jk , -^l,'/, '-;""•■' v^'"'- '^V"'* *^""'- «""■• Canada. V.V T.' Wl Pt C 


AT /'■-/,■/ 

'' ' /// ' II 1 1 t \-~ 1 1.'. I \ I, III I; 


til'- |.i. -lit li 

<'■ ' r ■•■■! t.i.'t Im-hv. . 11 th,. Ai 

il-.'ll rh.' ,1,1 ,|„.r, li 

''■iii-''l th. \( I itir I., 1m 

'•'> >'■■' iii"i-<- tJMii tu,. ..|- tliri' 


nn .iM.l til. I, It 

A .Ml-.Tul ..I th, 

I' 1,11. r t.Tr.iii.- 1- II, if 

i-.'P ri- .'It. 

■»' thill. Ill :;,,| 

I'IMl. II,. /,,1,|, ,,|' ,|,,.l 

ii,i-. li,,«.,v.-r. 
ill'- i,r..h.ililv 

'!■'' "' ll'i''-- I" th., -,,:ltllW, -lUlll-.l .,t' 

■ r,,iii It 1, ■!,(. i;.i 

'i-tli hitilii.l., t,, III,, 

run ,,| th 
M.i.i.t.iiii Ir, 1 

II U. Il.'l i.- .-,,1111, 

liii.- .,f ,|i.i, 
I i-tv.v.-ii ill,, -n 

■-> ii'-hiii' r.,11 i..:ith:.\ |,.iriil 
"•!'• I' I- II i|ii.-ti..u u-,,itli\ ,.1' 

I" ■"'-''th l,llil;l,|, th,, u,-|. 

■ f ih, 

|.n -.111 i; 

, h.ll l,.,l \\,,|ii 

th.- ir, 11. 'h nil, I tl 

ll'l' tl . -t.lhli-hlll wl 

■■iii;.,ii.,ii \..h,,ili.,|- ih. 
II- ,' t' -'i.,r. -liii, -. W; 

II r., it i, I 

I- l,r.Mll-|. ,,t tl 

At th. I' 

't' the |iriv|ii.j(iiii, ,|,„| ,1,,. u,.,,|^,.,. y,„.\i^ ,,(■ tl 

litra-t ..t riL'|,|it\ 

1|, Kl''>-Vll- 

/,,ii. .,| 

''■"■"''"'' I'.M.lll'l 'hi- tl- h i- .11 jIHI ,|,i|,„ |',,,„, il 


l'"i' -i;!",-: It i- |„ ..ihl,. thill till 

l.'ll.l' .|H|ll't/ll.,, I iiii,,| 

-i"'''i.inv thi.-k iiii.i ,-ii,i.| 

( I'l'-t.,!! 

II Mil: till- II 

"\ III, 
th.' inii.-l 

I' ■■ ..r .li-h 

i"i"'l 111 '111' -iiiiK' ".IV II- till- |.ri.-I!..l|iini r.i.k- 

iti.ill III ih., VM,-1. 

I II. ■Ill- till- ;;r. 

nil-.. Mi.-- th.- .li 

lll.i .-t' th. < , ll,l,,l 

Mi':;i,|i.-.- .,| 

III ri \ I-I-. 

f i-.„-k 

'I liir ti..i-tli .,f tin- SiMiith I'liiMll..] Ih,. CiiMl,- .\|, 
!i-iip|'i-iirs uii.l,-r iii.-u-.i- t',.riiiiiti.,|i- nn.l. n- mi, i| 

irii.-.-.| iiii-ii 

r ii.-rth\i, .luiinl. 

-ii'.ii- liii.. /. 

iiiitiiiii-ll,,u- i;i\i,r .'r.iii 

.;.-•■•> II, nil, ,;ll|l|.,t 

wU. r t M- ( 

111 V, I-,- I 

■iitl.x- III 

I iili.viiii:- iiiii|, I |-"i:.,||.,, ij I ,) 

:iiiii.|iiiii hi.- tl 
• 1 VvV>r I'l.h,,/.,; 

-''■ni i-,iii .,| ih. ^.■,,.\ii.|i,i,. 1,1 

'1'- l-,riiiiil i,.ii- u 1 

"■'■^- '"'■';"' "~ 'li '■■•^'■O 111 All.Tti iin.l I.,,, I,,., ,„,,,(,. |„ ,1, 

I :ii.|.,il-- 

i;...-ky .\!, 

iiiarh'-'i iihii.,-t u|i,.ll 

"■ I :i-,'i-ii riiM .,t' ih,- |i,,!t-( ■.iiiih. 

nil |i,,rti.,ii ..t th, 

"litiill, ;;,-u-y,i,-li,„. ,, ,-k,.|,.l„.,i i,, i,v,i. .ih,-, i.-al ly. |,, ,„„;,; 

\- ..11 11. -iil,|i..-ili.,|, thiit tl 

wi.iih ..I' till 

•vmai,.- fi.ii-ly i-,,|,-M,„ t,..,,,, ,l„. |--.,,,y.„i,„|, l',,,-|,n,.| ,„„-il,ui„-,| fl 
c.ii-tiiii.-y 111 th.- Iliii..l.,i;i,.iil ,-hi,rii,-t, r mid the jrrciit t..t;,l il: 

11- ii..t,ii,, 

iiiii:il i'.-.l- whn-i- -tii.lii-,1 ill tl 

ni'ss of tlii'K(-osyi 

t.,ry. l.-ii.l- 

u- !ii..iiiitiiiii l.,-lt li-,.|i, .\!,,iit;nia t., Viiliiiii '1 

■ ill- I,, till- -ii|i|i..-iti. 

1 t,. >;l'- :;ii' n,,rth Iniitii,!,, i^ 

11. I lint th.- u.-.-yiii-linal h.,M..^ it^ 

■v.-ry .,(■ ( a-tli- M.,iiiiiiiiii ,|.,l,,||ilr,., ami 1 

n-iiiloroil iiliii.,-t ,-,-i-iain hy .M.-( ",,iiii,-ir^ ,\\,. 

ity mill-- h,.',,u I-' 

.|-i >iiii|,-, II 

llll,-~t,,|l,„ ,,|, tin- .\lll,-li 

ii/ii- rivi-r. 

III horinys iiuiilu hv J! 

ui-r. .-ii,-,,i 

ITliy. iJT.ililtl.- nil 

"■"II v.iii ilaiiiiiiii-ti-iii at th,. Athahn-k 

iMl'-iv.l nt th.- ,l,,|,th ,,1' 1. 

:iiii--i.- i-,„-K-. |,i-,,|,.,|,h\- |-,.i-,,,al, 

1 vui'i- iiiMr 

Inn. -t, .11.-. 'rii,, |!,.lt.( ■ami. 

Mill t.- 1. tl 

-\.:-|y!i,-j I-, 

rk- -.1-111 th 

t.. th.- .\i- 
h.-iiii.- It,, 

ulii-i-.- t I, -II- nh-i-ii 

-<■ I- |i, iliii- I, 

iiiiu at fhi- |.,.iiit. 


iitlnvar,| l'i-,,iii ihi, Iiit,,|-|,i,r i,,i,i,l |i,,,ii,.l|,,,v t|,,. :,:. ,,-vn.-l 

'.th ^i-i-ati-r i-.iiitiil.ii, .-. I. 

I'll- ,-nii 1,1 

(■ 1- ,rA!. 

nil. I tl 

111- -<l-l,--, 

Ik.- till- >Miiiiiiii -irii- .,f th.- ,., nth. 1-11 S.-lkii-k-. the 

.1. -.-rii,,,! hv > 

111. I tl ,- , .jMivali-iit 1...!, 

--I-. ( iiikii,-. I! 

-tll.lil-.l h\- |.i|,.|n 

111-, ,11;.-. an 


■ti'ili- fnrth.-i- -,,-iih 

h". i< ^t-(;,, 111,1-11, \, 


l,'.,l,.,|t u 

I .111.1,1.1. \',ji. I, i->-..;i, I'l. I 

', \>. •'•I .111, 1 


hrr\i.iMi \i ,,i nil ,^i, ,.;,,/, 

. , , , 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

-" tl„. Forti.Ml, l'„r|i,| ,., ' "•'■'" r-:" "''m i' ^ I -l,wv-liM,-. l,.,.,u,>,l 

ir:;!,,!:;;;™,- [;::',;':;::;; •""^'" ■;■ »'-";" --iL: ::.:;, r^s;: 

notrw.T'i.v t int ^1.,.. t- ,,f ,.,„ , " ■''■"■■' '""^ ' ■< 

oo.n,r in ,1,,. ,mL UhI:^ '"'■""'' '"^'^' ''••-- " ">'■ <^'-" T..v„. 

Ill :ill of tlifce stiili.lpid s,.,-ti,,ns ,.( tl,. i-, . d • 

tioM- now nn, tl,ro...|, ,1 , < '< '^'-VtuU uM ^u>'■, tlu,f „f tl„ ,„:,„y ,oc- 

pnrt. „f ,i„. ,.„,.; .; '/ i, '';;''';r;-' ---''■■•n, -,.,■„•,.,. h„.i,„i,. ,i„r,.„„t 

p. III. 

:<'p- <it. p. 13. 

-I. II, \\.,k~. UnU. (,,.„!, >,„ . Ani.Tita. V,,l. IS, i-ifi:, p ,n, ' 


HI ruin ,,i nil. i mi t .i.-ii; 

'I i: 

A'i\ fill' fri .\ IH llli 


I!"" I h i';irlli' r ■' :A'u\\ 

• li'clari', fvi-u ill iKd, vi- vv.iy lirM niKi- 

'•lini- lis jii^l i,iitliiic>l. Till ri' in ftliiiiK I' 

< 'hilur -<>ri.- ..f An/niiu u tli th.' !..«, r \>Mt ..( tin- 11. !; < .mu.ri.iii ur. 
iliiit M)utlnTii ivui .ii |!ii. iii-ii.rv i.t' fl 


•> t- 

. I,...l 

i \'l-ht • i tin- (iin.vll- 

■ ril liltl"!! 

.1 the 

■ It in 

111- «io-vii. Inn- >v,i« I'Miiii'ii'Ht*'!! l,v lu'i..'. hie 
• iptiiriiiny, M-.^i-.i, .mI -i,1 .l.i,.|ir,., ,,11 ..f th.-r ,,ir.'.-tihw il-r -tniiu ..l.|. r tlian 
ilio Mi. Idle Caiiiliiiini !'..|il.i -1111. Ut. .11.'. Jiisf lM.f..n. !'..• l.i tiiiir, tli.r. |..r... 
'tie ne...s,viicliiinl .-f.liiii. iilai:..ii <. run t.. Imv.. i.,-.n. i'..r a .-. vIumi |.ri. .1. l,.i-. ly 

or wilolly iiitrrnipt.d in til.. l:i(i'ii,|,. ,.(■ ii..rt!i.M-n Ariz t H;iriiiv tl .rln r 

pcrioil we iiiu-t,.\,., ,,ii t,!ii. Ii>i.ui|i,.-i- til,' rh.. ( -. ri. - .>ii.| H. 't 
tirruii(>» iiri', nf li>n'<t in purt, !-triilii.'riiplii<' ciiiivMl.iits t'mt tli.',..liiuil 
.xt.'n.|...l -till I'iii-ihrr -..i.tliu,ii-.l. p. limp. I., \|,M,.,, 

Ill -.iitliui-i.i-i C..!..™.!... Cr..., ,111. 1 hi- ,-,.|l, .luir- .,> ill., rnii..! Mjt. - 
fi«'(il..)ti(Ml Siirvrv liinr ,l|.,,,v,T.'<l 11 r. iiii\rk,ili|,. -.rir- ■■( -,-i\..'i- in ■ Alt'-i.- 
•iiun ' rni'ls. ni'.-.tifnniiiil.i'. iin.liTl.vint; \\u- .i|.p:,i-.iii|> Mi, Ml, ( ' 

Iiriiaci., ,piiirt/ii.. ,,f th,. ri.;;i..n. A- ii.'W iiii.l, i-.i I, ili,- ,,i.|, ,■ r...'K -.ri,- i- 

siistf* of 111 l.'iist S,(i<H) tVft .,f i.\,-,pli..|ninv iii,i.-i\, .|U.iit/ii,. u nil iii-tiillitl.. int, r- 
M* itli.. « nillcl the I'lic.iiipiiliui-r l'..MM.,ti..ii 1. (■..i,l,.rnial.l.v^in;; llii- 

^'"II*-"''' iKl..|ii,.|Mtr, 1,(WH) fri'l ilii , \vlii,-li In Imn i.-(- ,.ii ili, lr\ii.- ;:r.-.-i;- 

.-toiii', l,i.|i,"v,.,| I., Ik- uvor lil.iKHl iVct tliirk. Tli.. r.i.ii..n ..T ih,- ijiv,i,-t,.ii.. iinil 
loiitrl' arc oli-ciir.' hut an uiicoiifonnity i-i ii,,stiiliit<>i| l,y n,,. authors uf tho 
rcp..r;. ,,n :lii. .V, ell,- M.ii.iitnins .li-iii.-I. 'I'll,. ,\i.l,nr,. l'.,r tlii- iin.',.n)'..nnity 
lnr«v!y .-. .1,-1-1, ill iho f.ii-t thai tlw tMMul.iMirratx' i-,.-,..! ,,f |,.•l,l,l.•^ 
<l«Tiv.-,I ;r..m the t'rc.nstoiip. \i-itlior tliat fai-l ii,ir nny ''hit ..;' tli..-<. in f.ivi.iir 
ot till' nn.oiifi.rii ity's oxistc-nrc ran ho vi'i.'aril, ,1 a- -i,,,, niir ii iin .\t p,ri...| ,,f 
lime 11, flap.<inur hclwix-u tlic ctTu-icii ,,f' tlit' lavas ti..\v n|.n -. inr.l in tin- Irv-nu' 
-rrcM-toiic. imr ilo tho aut'ior-f of tho Noo.jl,. .M..iintai;i- -lat,. that iho-o 
ha^ lio,n any (•(iii-iiiorahic tiin.-pap ni tlii- li. ri/on. 

'I'lip iiiip..rlanci' of tho .-orios in tho prc-ont ,-..niir.'f i..n i- th.ii ii -o. m- • . 
eorri'spond woll with tho ba-.ilt nionihor-i of tho torraiio ai ropresentod 

in the SiiHiniit -.tIos ,,f tho Solkii-k i.,i..nniaiii-. I'li.. Irvlrrj- ^non-t ■ j, 

oortalnly lithol., vory -iiniiar t.i tli.' Iron., v.iloaiii.-- of t!i.. IJ.i ir iary 
>ocfi,in, and it hi ars tho samo i-,.hili..n |., tho I'rio-t Uiv. r torraii.' a- tn.- .'rvinu' 
Kr(-on-l..iio loar-i to t'lo Aivlioaii -.hi-ls of < '..lora.h.. •■ pi that tho , ,|iiiv a'.nt 
"f the Iroiio ooii^l.iinorato i- not iliro.-tly app.iroiit in ih.- ( ■..i..ra.lo -..■tj,.M, 

Tho Vallo.-ito o,,ncr!o- ., rato an.l I' inpahirro r..riiial i..ii w.ll ,■ ith th.- 

^^ollk f,.riiiati..ii, I a< with tho L.wor i.,,rt of ih.- ma — i\o ('r.-t..n quart- 
^it<' of tho I'linoll ....if;<>. Tho iino-tioii ari- - a- t.. o.-tli, r wo hav,- in rhl- 
Tolnia.!.. -loti.ii, tho s.intlioni part of th. ltiiI H,-lt i< rrano ir.o-\nolinal ,,n,!, 
in faot. tho ha-o of it iioar it- tiii-ko-t -o.'tioii. TIi, r.laii.n .■! tli,. rn.-,.n;- 
palipro f,.riiiati..n t., tho Alidljo Cainh-iaii fi;na,-!.. ,|Mar(/iio i- lik,. tliat •■( rho 
Chunr-rnk-ir -. rio-" t.. th- Middh- Canihrian -a of tli,- Craiol 
Cany.iu -ool!.. - T!io o,irro!,ition ..f all ..f tli.-o with tl. nf. rn al.j.. -.ri,- .t 

• W, Cr» '. t). Ilanc. .1 n. It 

t Ik , IM.^iL ami VT. i; 

l: Hi 

and W, ir. Faiiriirr' :ii tl;,. Np.dl., M 

111 r. r. I! 


>ti,. -:.l>ertiai f'^l ■■, '' 




'" '••'■' I" w •'/ ;/// n n l.-i,.i; 

2 GEORGF. V. A. '912 







U; 1 

i / 

^. .AW 







f ■ ''- 

I >.. 



~ --a 



V_./...\ /-!^^EV^. JTAH 

r C/it..^ 

^f< ^°^ 

■\f5- A R 1 2 ; 

N M 

< .il,)l.|i.,i, |..en.,tl,.-.,.l,, „„.,., """■"■ '■""••I < ..Inl.riMl,, ,,,„l l.,„..,. .Mi,|,|i.. 

«r. ^^'J^A! 

/,•/ /■/./,■/ ,,t I III 

' II n I 1 -I i,-i,\i,\ii r 



ffif I'M;. Jilnlli I'liuill. I 

pn luii^i.j,, ,|,,i .riii,iri..|, ,,ifr 

llln k\ M.MIIllilltl t 

llh .III-. II, ih' 

"-• '" '!'■ "fit, i'. n, v(, il,;|i ,||, |.,, 1 ,,,,. „.J 
■I ■! Hi. iiirifi r [..ii-t .il ill.' ..,iii|„.r,, ..I,. I .1' .1.. 

tillv .itr..I,.,| I.,, ilii, |.i 

'"'"" '""-'I' .il "lull- III.' ff. .,l,r. n.rtli.Tii |. • «,. ,,.., .-..,,, 

Iv i li;: ' 

I'li'- -I .l> (•■nii.ili 

•ll"W llulf ill Mill ( .iliil 

"""- ■""I ilt'Xl ill till' ' .11,, ill |'Mr,ill 

.\ lll.irilil. .Il;,ll,,\v , III ii 

mil i:i'"«\ ii.lii, »,,, l...iiii'l< .1 .il 

iirM \ I, | rl. .iri.v 

1 till- i;l-t l.\ j ill.l .,r 

ill'- I'hi.i nil; 

V li'lllll V ..)■ ill, 

wii- ,|..ii:,i 

li»-iuil|. I : 

"ii-i iM' I ii.ii-tii i.r I 


III' ri.laii ,1 I IM «, .( l,,i,:;jtii.|.. jf 
riii, nil, ,,i il,.- i;,,-\ii.-liii.,I -,.iii, • 1„. t|„ 

«v-M. ,„ .,1.., .( ,., „M,„.,v,. |,,„| ,„,.. .,,,.,,.i|i„. ,-, , ,,„ ,, ,, ,„„,„,,,„. 

•'ilitl .v,ir.l. iH .ilr. HJv .1, .„Tiii.,|, 

'■ ;.'"• '""•■"'•• •■•■ ""■ ^""'' • — ..„, I,. ,'„ „i, „■ ,|,„ li,., , .,„il„\ 

"l"-^'"'"'" ";- •'' ' •■•"■■• ""'■'-• "I III' l.i-iti,,!,. ,,, Hi,. |:,1, , ,,i„. ,, 

""■'" ■■'"' '"■'••■ '■ ■ •-•• -i'l'li m -II, r„i...,| Si, .,.,„. ,., 1,;,,,. u. 

"'"'" ■■■■ ■ '" ■ ''•'" l''-ii-!i « ..I 1,1,1,,, ,1,1.1 All.. ,1,, III, ui.l-:, ,,,■ ,•„, 

'■."'"'"'■;' '""■' "' ""■ -'-.^ii' i- .1 r. Il, Ml ,Mi|. ,; „, ,|i.. M„k..„/i,. 

"''■'' ''"■ ';''"•■'■" ■ '- ^'1'"' --■• "-!•- "i'l'. •\' l-lll . :.U ..t .1,'.« „|,|.|i.,,. 

'""•'"" '•• ""■ "'■■-^'■.■llllill ,|„.| ,„ „|| ,1„ .,,.,.,,.1, l,..,,v,.,.„, ,1... :„.,:,,] ,,i,|,|, 

-- .M.nwli.r,. .,^..,• .'iMi ,„i|... .,,|,|. .,. „,,„.| ,,i„„„^ j. ,„,,,,,.i,,„,,|i, 

iMiiiriiitu,!,. ,ii„il,,r 1,, tliiit .,1,.,, r,,,! i,, il,,, rnif.,! Si,-,i. .. Tl,., 

,. . , , viii'Iiiii. i^ I, .-,11" ,,,il,.,, ;,,,.! ,1,,,,.,, ,,., ,.,,,„,.,, 1,,^ 

'•li'Wi,:: Hint l|,i- I,,,.., -,,li,„/,„,in ,.ii.,i, u:„ w.r |,, „.„.,. ,.„..,„|,„. „ ,|„. 

';'"■'''• "" ■ ^"l*"" T'.rrif.iy ;,„.l ,1 il,. -,„iHi. i,,,,, Arl/ Tl,.. iii i,. i,.. I- 

.lln-i,-,,t..- tho t,...t, iiii,,„rt„„t i„ til" tl,.,.rv ..( „ ,ii,i„-l,„i|,|i,„, ,|,„ ,1^,: 

■■'"•'" ' ""' "''■ i-v.,,..|ii„. run fi.illiliilK |.,,|..,||,| i,, tl,.. •.i,..,-,! .,>;, ,,,• ,|„ 
iu-i.-,iii ( ■..r.!il!,.i-ii, 

111"«-..ii,«- sii,i,ii,„n ,,f ii,;niy r,i..t. ,■,■.■,. i.tly ,|, i.-rmi,,, ,| j,, M, ,,„;,„,, 

■'"'' ■, •""' "' '■'"■ l'"">->iMlinnal l: I„n. ,|,„. ..n.- t.. .•,,„li,.„i tl„ ^ ;,.„■ ,,, 

l'^"..i. lMu-.,„. Kin... ,1,1,1 „,|i,.r, ,.,.n....nii„. ,|„. ,.,;.„ ( ,|,|,.k -. ,li,i,. nt.rv 

'"■'"'• ■■' "'"'■Il '1" iJ'"-i^v M iiiiih- ,,r ( .,,,;i,i., „ i„. r,:i,,,| St,,,.. ,', 

wll ,1- th,. rai,^',., „f tl|.. (iri'iit l!,i,iii, .ir,. hiv^vly ,•.„„. ,1. Tl„. ,„...,.,„t ,■,„„. 
|.ilati.,i, I- ii,l,.i..l,.,| |,riii..i|,„lly t,. ,.iilor.-i. li„. urit,.,.-, ,.,|, f ,|,,,, ,|„. ( ,,,,,1,,,, 
ir....-.Mi..|iiia! aiMl the ri.Ni,.tli i'aralM u....-.M„.|nia! aiv |,„t ,,a,t- ..( tl„ '-am.' 
tliii.j.'. Til.. :; • IMt i.-rraii..' ,,|- \Val,.,,„ j, ,•, ,.ai.l-,l 1..,- tli,- wri.,.,- a- ,i. 
iiit-.ffral part ,,1' In- iiiilii.i,-,. -,..|iiii,.„|a ry ,,„l|. I„.|,|- ||„. -i iMt lu-ia|.lii.. ..,,ii,\ ,!. 
'"• "^' ''"■ '■'"■ l!iv. r-Ca-il,. M ,1,,,,, .,,,,,„ j,, ,i, . ,,,,,.,1, ^,^.| ,,,• ,|_^ ^,^_ 

f.,r,ll;'l.|.. -.Ti,. '„|,.\v th.. I'l |. Ca,,,!,,.;,,,, ,„ ,1„. W:,,;,,,.l|. |. ,,.,,1^,1 n„] , ,i^,'|. 

'li-lri.'t- ,.f III,. Ma-ii, 

TiTii: I'M,../,. I. |'..iMi..\ ..i 1,11 l;,„,,, M,.IM^,^ ,,,,,.., ^, ,,,>, 

^^' ''•'^'- -'■'■" '''■'' f-niKitii.ii- yuu-ry i|,aii th. M;,MI.. ( .,„,l.,.i,,, ,.,,,„. 
I'"-.. l.;it all ii,-i:ji,|li,.aiil Ira.'! ;..|i ,.f tl,.- in. an, la in- ..i-..-. .1 l.v il,.. I i,t..ri,..ii..I, ,; 
n,,iii,.larv l.,.t«,.,i, tl,.. (i;, at j'Mii- „,,.! ll„ -,i,„n,it ..!' tl„. S.-lklrk ri.,',. 

(ii^'^iv. i;"^!;;;''""' ^"'■'iy'".'i '...t i --("m ).,<!„(; p. i- ,„ k 



"/' ////■ /\ 1 1 Hlnn 

! I., rv 

"'1 !■•• liitl.- .loiil.t. I 

2 GEORGE v.. 


•v rid tlie i';\n 

lilillilllUlM thirkl 

!■■»•' UT. l!l;it ||„, |), 

liTiaii n„-k~ llirMii^h :ill 

'•h tii;it v:(^ 

limy w. II Irl 

o-< fiivcn to thr 

(TOMS cnllliiillid 


•tint (i. toi 

•X["'-iire-<. f;ivii,^. a ,,,,.,1 ,| 
lir.nujh nil I?rfti^li ( 

iivf tliiit ih, 

*■* "iiKiii iiiiil ( 'ail,,, J, 

f>r marly nil. of tl 

i'>ns -2,()()0 

ilwn.v ( 

».i-, ,i| tlic 
'iilirll f,,|- il 

vniiuir.'r f..rirint 
'"•if:inal tliickiKss ,,f III,, I) 
'"y-iiiiilli i'nrallrl. ,,f tl 

1^ iVf-t — is 
in-ntiian and 

ilinii, liii,.'! > 

IC ll.lltll 

!<■ saiiif order 

■t'l'l loll. 

iilioraiKoiis -(rata 011 tlio C 
'" ""■ vicinity of liaiitf !„. foiin.i , 


""lid. i-fiilly ]„ 

' ' o|ii|i,l,ia and Viil 

if i:.i;()(i f,,,.t. |. 

Iho oiitciops Ihroii-ii tlio 1 

^ii'oiip ,,f |,„.|<, 

l^oii, and on t. 

'■"Ill tliaf MM-tioii iiortl 


liat these later I' 
i.v to An-t 

'lIK- tl;n( 

may |jc f, 
'V-e are iioul 

"Wi'.l: vueh l.reak 

'"I'lliern Ala-ka. this 

III tho I. 

If Water- 

'!'■ -'i-iita retain mii("i of tl 

i"i''ii'iif. t.. make 
11 il' LTi-eat thiekne- 


ill thi; 




^hy \V. FT. Weed). A 

r'.Oon (Vet of Carli 

■ell lllonnl; 


.IJ.-. feet 

.f hed^ relVrre,! 

11 the t<\t of the r.ittle B, 

<o tile 1 1 

t Mt. IVarhoni, M 

't eolltl'l 

'lliltM-oU- lilll.-ti 

iitana. Waleott foiinil 

'It .\rountaii]- I'ollc 

rizoiia. 1 


II of tl 

"Ptweeii tlu> I)r 

1' loraiieoiM n.ek., larjivlv 1 

I'-ureka d 

nioro than 

iniostoiio.^ Il 

i-li'iet afforils ll.eiMi f(.,.t 

III a 

Jniisome found about Ifim feet of suei 

1 the I!isl.o,> d 

le -(ction? al.ov 



rand C 

'man and (\irhonif, 

Il roek.i.f 
t'-iiiontinned there -eeni.-^ t.i I., 

istriet of 

iii.v..n i.Vii, 

.■<'Pt Ilo.-ihl 

I'erl'e. 1 eonf. 


-i-ipiiian ai,> repre-ented. will 


y 111 pan- r,f ALi-k 

'lie -aiiie re;;ion 
1'ormafion am] tl 

••' ' '■■ at 

-Mow- iinconferiiiity h, t 

'lit 1.(11)0 f,,,,. , r 1 1 ., , ■ 1 

" ' ' ' I I '"» "111 111 and 
1^ 'III iin.onlMrniiiy hetwe, i, th. 

".•en the Mi.Idle ('anil, 

le nnderlyiinr Cliuar ?rri,.s. hoth ,>f wl 


'■' '1"' 1:! -k Mill- , f |);,k 

ii'l (he .\[i 


ithont yo 

an. I ill \Vv 
l>pian i- very thin, ihonirli it- 

ii''li are ooneoivahly 
le Ilexonian i- 

Ani. ri.-aii -ido of 
■•"■'- "f Conlill, 

"K into the details of tl 

I'.Hin.iary line. th,. writ 

oceiirrenee there 
IP mi iiy other nieaannvj 

to tVirni 

L'V si 

low t 

'I- will state his l.elief that tl 

.in orf.-aiiie part of the I 

'' v.iiinin and .\| 

.'t to the other, tl 

osviielinnl H- It. The i; 

Aoeky .Mountain ( 

is-i--ip|,ia,i for 

"V.'nnir praetieallv tl 

I 'x'osynelinal f 

"".iiil iiifj 
i-^ -ii-'iiiti.'aiif. 
•oetions on the 

roni one end of 

'iriiifr the D 

;oeky M 

iTian an.l the lielt 
L'-ressi.,!! of the 

'("V.iiiian th.-ni In the |, 

ountain ( 

!'■ enlire anvi of th. 






("osynelinal was 

r. pi'.-eli 


lei hy ih.. F. 

lat wider 


■y..ii.l ih 

•-i--ippiaii I 

iw.r r 


:>.'iiifer.iu- trans- 

rli.M- 1 

cpl'i -elll 

nulls of the d. 

^nithea.l tini. 1. T;!,. f,,,,, ^vas aiiah.-veis p. tl 

■t inip.:s-ihl(>, I 

'riiier was -o e.Mi.M-i\i 

iiif of ih.- MM. I! 

I' trans- 

Ill- .-a 


o draw .veii a r.iiiyh 

ir oropenie tli(i 

iry this 1 1 

map of th 

inak.' it 

' 'ami. rial 

iirtial an.l 


n.| irreffi 

i.'iilt. if 
iir.-a f,r tho 

^. n. Walcdtt, SMiitl 

liar (Ir.iwnine- of tl 


A. IT 

IKII.', (-;.'..l,.^y of th.. I 

'isnnian Mi-c. (^,1|, 

■ r. L. 1; 

■ ii-eiiie, liish.-e fc^h 

iir.'kn Di-ti. t, '\t 
r.s. r,', 

11-. No. isti'. ums 

■IKlLT.lpI, L>0, f 


uiii'iinv or I in: ( iiii.r 

SESilO\AL PAPER No. 25a 

laii'ij \i> la-t iiiid west iluriiiu- lli< 
primary iiii].iirhiiicf. 'I'iii. f;ii-t -c 

.\.-i iiuSiiMi.i; 




|.(.'] t().,k plu.'p in tl 

'M.iii .-r \ii.--i-si|ii,ijii p.ii. 
■ri.iiii liial the luMvicsl 

Inni' I'T. 

Th." hite I';il(. 

r a\l:ll rt'^Mi 

ivc l.i'rTi, thus t' tl'lcl t. 

i pr. -J' 

i'iin-.\ Ivaiiian > 


I'UMtaiii- and tli.' (irral 

ipl'ti- tl 

I till' an. •lent (■aiiil>rian .]..\vii' 
'lc-|iiKiii..n. ii-rrirular a.J it ii,a^ 

>iir m.K~ivi> pri-iii out of wliic 


:a-iii VAWiir^ were later to hv formed. Tli. 

ni part i.f the :;eo-.y]M'Iiiial. tliat -.■.■lioiM.l at the Fortirtli I'arali..'. 

latitude, for exampl 

pic, tlmt the dowii-warpinir )ier5i:ito.l into P. 

^ a (liiriiis- till, 
.i-nro to oh>cur. 

vauiaii time, hut for the i>art tiie Ka>toni ( ico-ynclinal I!,;i of the Cor.lil- 
lera seems t(. have heeii out of water duriiiL: the l'( ni'i-vh aiiian. 
Till- records of the and west tr.iii-.urr--i..ii, ,.r th, 
Devonian and Carl ion iforons perh.d- tend, tii.rolnn-. in a m, 
the real .-itnath.n of the s(>,lim,,„tary pri-m whi.-h w,,. the r-rniial antee.-drnt 
to the biuldinp of the Koeky Mountains of Alaska. Panada, and Montana, as 
well as the randies of the (ii-eat liasin. Tlio w.-t, rn limit ,.| th,. pre-l )evonian 
memhers of that pri^in is nppmxinnitely the .>f ^hon lino- whieh has l„-,.n 
traced fr-ni southern Califoniia to t!ic Yukon l...undai-y. Thr /one may !..■ 
considered as inchidinp the rath.'r indofinile line ,.r limit ini;- the Ka-irrn 
Geosynr-linal Belt of the Cordillera fr..m tli,. \V,.-t, rn ( M...-yn.-lina] lielt. 'Iliaf 
line was, .f eotir-e, neither -traij;hl noi- sm...,tlilv .Mrv..,I. liav- ..f the Cam- 
brian -e. auist liave reached well into the wo-^torn lan.l ..n the wo-t an.! wo 
have r, dy -een that that Ian. I was exten-ivdy tran.L'iv-<.d in the titno 
wlien the Rocky .Muuntain (i.'osynelitial, the essential sedimentary inemhor of 
the Eastern Belt, was heinpr completed.* On the other hand, when the cndi- 
tions were reversed and the Eastern Belt, after nplaaval. furnished detritus 
out of which the peosynelinals of the Western Belt wcr,. cnstnicted there wcp- 
deep hays rnnninp: eastward into the land, and on th.- Fortieth Parallel, tho 
Eastern Belt was entirely covered hy the sea. In ^y\Xr of all tacs,^ complica- 
tions the divi-ion of the Cordillera into the two preat h.lts fends to aid one in 
the attempt to understand the true history of the Corlillci-.v north of tic- 
Mexican hmmdary. The divi>ion is made at the hchcM of dyniimic -eojosv, 
not at that of |)aleo<reoKraphy nor paleontology; in tho-e irroup- of ,-tudie- tic- 
supe-t<d divi^^ion and nomenclature would prohahly have little value and 
miphi even had t<i .'onfu-ion. Tn a word, the divisi,,;, i- warranted only for 
the poL.Mi-t wh,, is hi.nt on I..catin«: peosynclinaK, not -liorcdine-. Th.' full 
conception of tlie profound contrast-^ otherwis.- exi-tinj;- hctw.^.n the tw.. hdr^ 
- not po.sildi, until a revi,-w i- made ..f the dia-ti-ophi,-. i^neou-, .'ind or 
histiry of tiie Wiste-:. .lelt. 

I he .liscovpry of Silurian and Devonian sp.linicnt.. in tli,. ■l\,vl,u-vill,. ,|i,tii, i .,f 
V,"',' "'•'; "",'' »*-'»"" nf ""*" ''"'"^ '» sontliwpstorn .Maskii sin;K,.',t< that th,- l.tU 
Pale.mur Ian,! mass of the \Ve,t,Tii Conlilloran Kelt niav liav,. Imen I,m allv iiit..n not.-.i 
hy straits connprtinR the ninriiie aro.i of thp T'" kv Monntniii G.Misvnelin.. « itl, tl,.- .c-.-, 
I .\Plflc. 



'^ ryfi^iSRKV' -rtl/J^HiirA' 

..jr^-TCWMiKt:^"^*. • -■v,.-?cw;jm::' 



A. 1912 


rURCKIJ, i.AVA roiIAfATloy 

AXIi A- 

-'" lATKi, iVTiM-sivKS. 



liny of tlic liijiliii- pciik 

s.vstuin. as well 

to til 

e stririfrth of the I' 



of w. iitheriiifr tljau t.l 

iir.-cli L 

this 1 

p iMiissivo Siveli f 

the fuiir raiig.s i.f th.' R.ick.v "^r 

rant'.-. ,,«•,■ tlu-ii <,i(..cial hri«-hts 
(von iiiurc ro^istant to tho forcojj 

.iva, ulm-h i:. 

f'ighty iiiihs of the tr 

>riiiatiuii i, th.> faithful frieu.l 

orination uiulfi-lvii 

As al 

)OVe ii.itcil 

Njvpi-y in the .Nfctiiijiv 

iiii.siiK.ntanc scctinn at the l'',,it\ 

prcsi lice ai 


I'ny ratme i~ 

eh f. 

i(J relati.itis have rptiioveil th 

a tact of t! 

't thr ~trati;,'ra|>]irr thro.iuhniit 
■iiiiitli Parallel. It- ,lis- 

'ii- tirst iiiip,.rtarie 

?ll|f|- it-! 

niiatioii with tl 

mam link in tin 

'le mam 

a-t (li,iil>t a- tc. the eqiiivaleuee of th. 

eastern third ( ir.d mil 

<-orrelati(.n of th 


jroat I'lain 

'es) of tl 

Tiie 1 


"f tin- Kite! 
aple sedinientar,' 

riiei'iiii We li 

tion. For 
Jin'serit >eet 
Pureell fnniiat 

ava torniatioii thus de 

s ocr'iirrinK m the 



cei'taiii a- 

iite.l di 

'11 from the Paeifie j, 
iMiewhat detailed <le>. 

ion. whieh is to deal 

Ion proper. 

with the stratiirniphy aii.l |Mt 

le treatei 



I'l UfKf.I. I. v\ 

\ OK THi: M' (.ir.i.iM: 


The f, 

ill tlu 

>riiiatioii is displayed with iiiiii>ual perf( 


iillivray raiifjc 

■elioii In three different 

meridional rid<ri> situated 

at the Jioundary li 

varying from 4J' to ".(i. It al.- 

le nio-t We-terlv i,( tl 


al.ouf -ix milcx 

.■a-t ,,{ ti 

'■III'- at thi> stronpT 

The {ireat sheet there 

stward, \vl 
syiu'liiie at tl 

ai- tl 

^ ahk river valley 
<!ip- ea-t-iiorthi-a<t at aiiirles 

:ie ridfre. three to five miles fartl 

lere it reapp.'ar- in the ea-tern limh of the l.r..l 

westerly. The third 

lie Slllllinit of till 

■dpe of t 

rea of the lava 

:ie drift-eovere.l flat of the Root 


as mapped i< 


11 ami pitehmff 

li|i 1- li-om liO t. 



le liorthea-l ai 

id repre^i'ii 

t- tlr 

the hroad anticline tiiat forms tl 


tenay river valley. wher<' tl 

-itiiateil at the 

tie dip 1- 

Ic appropriate to th,- .ast.'rn limh of 

^<lope of the .McCill 
Tli(>se localitie- 
division of tl 
* Piireell Li 

ivray raiiKe. 

le main structural element in th 


were tlio-e at wh 


■'iiiee It has its I 

writer first eiirouiiter >(1 tiie 

aiaxmium known thiekn.-- in t'le McCill 

mountain -y-tem. the f..rniat 

IV ray 

ion ha- lieen called thr 

One or more of th 



>m the western line of 

11' important vent- mu-t have heen -itiiated 


rop- in thi- rant;-. 


not many 
lava si'eins iiever 


i'i-r\i;i\ii.\i ,,r i ,i/: i.\ii:';/n/.- 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
........ »l.o Kit.-iH.n,./.;,;. ,';:'■':;'"''''''' "•""•••^'"•-O) r..M. <)i,v,.,iv 

'■....• prr.(iv H.mHv ,|,.a th r , M''<-.l vniy ranff,.. s,.,,„s tr, 

;r/:r:i:',-.^; ir^-'ir- 
"f Ion, ,l,n.nti.,n. Tl. 1, , ,n ! ! ^ ^ ;;'" V'"'^ '"~'^"1 "'"^ "■'•^" ""^ 
l".tl. a'i„v,. aiHl l,..l„u- ,1„. l,v., , . , ''"'""""■'' ..'." i..Hnrs..iilit,.. 

^..nni,. „f .,,.., .;,;:,.,',:■;, ::;; ; ;;, -;;^:. ';::-;•■;; ;;■■;• ^"e .-f,...t con- 

pl«.e<.n the soa-flonr. ^^ ^^' ''"" ^' .•"I"."'- to„k 

One of the Ix-t ..vtions of ,!„■ f„miati„„ ,,- ,.m„.,„i :„ .,„. \I r-ll- 

breooiat.d lava (/,„„e a) lies .lirooftv on tl„. Ki >^ ' , '' "^ '"""'"'■ 

ever, that tl.e apparently fra-nient-il n,.,^ ■ '"" .•"- "P'^ I'.'— l^-wn. how 

part l.v an altore, ol-, 'l " , ' ' l-rph.vnl,. are cement..,! in 

some ..f the m„d in its pr,f.r,... <!' < repitate.l. incorporatinff 

The zone of oveni,i(l<.n hi. ck lava is ..uerel l,v , „.„ ( , ^ < i 

of nompact. .li.htl. ve-i..ular lava of .innl nX.i i n ,1 "r., T"; 
like that of or,linary l.a.ah. Thi. .one aho l„.lon... o ' e .hi 1 1 T > '" 

(zone a. * nia.Tosroi.i,. ).)i<.no,.ryct. 

g;/i;s ;viu;;;,;n:,;:;;;: :j:4h^;l;^ 

These are n.nally l,..f„-, en o.," „nn. and 0.^ „nn. i„ length O. .,V ,- f 
n.agnet,te represent ,!„. „„!, other primnrv .^..n.itnen; nl-ZJi^!:: or'.;;! 


l''it|.l,VriCM- [.ha... ,,t ||„. Pi 

ill l.a\.i : tr.irn -i 
I' I f..Nith- iiatui.i 

It "1 th.- M.-Cill, 

inilc- L.Trtr, i» 
2ria - V. il. ii 1 1, Li(i,s. 

II tl,c 

I'lnwll ].:n 
y ueMtliiifil 
'liirjiiu' rhi' \\ 

I. I hi' al 

.ut i.f it- 
atlii Mill.' 

iivt'iliili', till. I, I, 
I'l.-kv iiialnx. 
ftliilaia. Al 

ill liiriii and 

A I .art (.1 II. 
lilt. ,11.- half- 

it lillkll. .\1 11 
.ililtal -IZ... 


/.•//■',/,■, ,,r Tin , ,1,1 r i. v //.■., \„i//. a- 



bv n. li ,11 n^ .1 1 -■ I Hill.* j-ntii rn.niir. It IS co |^|lH■lll)U- 

(I'll: ; . t;:: ''''"'""■'^: »■"""' '"■" *'f '» "'"""i">t ^.i^par ,^j,.r..u 

wo nilThnVfr "■"".'■;' "r ;"'" '" ♦'"■"'^ •^"■ in length l,v o„,. „', 

.ec.n,i.,.. f,iu of ..iciti,. ,.^, ..:t"i,:,..,;;„- i" :,.™;ih; "'^;;::: 
t.;"i ; I'TmrrtL:::.;' ;'"i "■•■'? t- ^-'-^ -^''- -^ '""-^i. 

same ,oln„vln c f'Tuntin,, „f „„,,.h ,.l,l„rito. nm.-h lonoox,.,,,.. „n.l th- 

same ,olo Ho> ,n ..aloKncu.h ,Mi..a,-,.,.„., „,i„„r„; f„,„„, ,•„ „„. ,„,,„., , ,, ,. 

.l"'j///.v!i, 0/ PnrreU Liva rZow r.i 

SiO.. .. 
T-^ . . . ■ ' ■ ' 
Ai,0,.. .. 
I'pO,.. . 
IVO.. .. 
MnO.. .. 

Mko v.. . 

<'aO.. .. 
N'.iO.. . 
K.6.. .. 
II.O !,t 110%'.. 
H-U ,il)ovp no°c 

CO " .. 





Uf ni . 



sp.t. „r ,ho v..n- .,vnt .,r,..„r..,. h„u-,.v,.,.. rlu- , k is pretty ,.|early a ij;' it 

wuh MsO 12o7 per cen<-. 
:.'."m -v.. I. ii — 14 

ptT r..nt; a thira gave 1-01 p^i rent. 



/" /■ I/.'/ I/A, \ / f;/ 

//'.' /\ // ::iui; 

I'll., n.rk .,t- /..,.e ,/ ,i,-.0 f,.,.t thi.-k 

■i \uU-a'\ 

I -li 

■rite, l.iit liSMully it ij a l)lackig| 

•L'untiK imnieroiis iiiii^vpdnlos of nil 

2 GEORGE v., A. '912 

*'■ "" ' .i-i"iinl l.wiSf ph.iMMT.v.-l 

Mi'0\i; inns-. 

li irrwii. p pact, Imrii'.).'. 

iim%x.|iil,s, oft 

ari> (■'•m|iujo,| ,,( ii,t 

■II Mri,-iii;ifi.,| ^,|IL■•1 

size-i lip 

rIiI.v luiriill.-l t.. fl 

re|)l:ir. - sotiio (.f tlie fhl 

iltiiit<il (piiirt/ or diloriti 

art' ipit^ihedrn of ii'ojri; 

la t) 

frntiiiii'trps in loiigth. Tho 

!•■ -iirfiMv of ||„. lavu tlcw. 

i; ""iiifliiiic-i ;frten liioilt. 

iHK fnnii ()•,") 11 

■r I'll- 


111). (IP \i'-KA to J 

till' ami 11 |ilii>; 

nil >(.cn,,u iliv only Mrit-iniil ronstitUMifs 

Til,- I 

iiiiii. in 1( iivtli. I 

illi r ill iinlivi'liiiils rniijr- 

1111(1 socnis to !,(■ i„i,| laliri.i Till 

111- II iiiiixiiimiii extinction nf lie 
, , ''■ •" '" '•"" iiiidcrl.viiitr rocks. TIk; chnr- 

"":'"«' •■"•'""V" "'">■""•"♦"■ "i""^' "iti, 1,., ,.,„, ,j, litti.'] „ J 


ii.:i.....tit's ;,;:,;;.',!" """""■""■' '■""■ '""" '"■•^''"^''■■" '••' 

. xtn.Mon (>I.,>el.v lollowinu' tlip foriiur uw ' 

In yi-«-_of nil tho facts it .owns ,...rtai„ ,1,.,, ,1,„ ,vliolo in,-, feet of lava 
r.-|.ros..nt.Ml m the section rr^prp.pnt ii >-ind,. (.li(>n,i,..,l ,,., „ Tf ; I ^^ 

... „t .on(. (/, ho ,^onsp„.„ou<I,v povplivritic character „f .one ,, .n.l X 
folio!!" '"''"'"""■ ""■""" "^ ""■ '■'"•">"*''■'■ '" "- •-" -■ therof,,,.... i,s 

I "■ I" ' i'iii|iat't lava. 

"■ I" '■ Incicialcd 'ii.i ' h,,a. 

Tulal l.iva 4(;5 f,.,., 

Ha>e, C(.nf(,rnu,l,l,. .,„. „f Ki.d,,.,,,., ,s,v,.I,, f.,nna,io,i*;;:/w■i;S;h;^■;:;':,::.;,^'''-'^'''•-^ 

tho siiinniit twelve 'nis;.- .ii!. o' i: ..::':,j'";,.n- ,"'^ '^ r*"- ■■'";'■ *'■ 

.itno. entirely replace, ,,, „.. a-iiy^daioi^'./t,:'';',;';^:;::':;,,' '-;,;; 

■■, ; ■ Vh: ' 

A7 i'liHi 1,1 

'II! I .III 


/ I >/ /,•' ' \ 1 . 1/ / /,• 

VJl 1 

iiiclinl. - M,,,.; , ,, 

'• '>V'-Ill> l|., t tl 

II. I> 11, Ml- il 

llvin •! 


^1- II -111- . 

!•: -I:. |l .,„| 

III. I hi. , II 

I'' -linhiiit II 

(..•I ■ ( I. 


||' ■'!' Ilip .1, 

'III. u. r,- 
^.1. Al ll 

niiin.-i,!. /.,;h' ,1 
l.i-iiit l-rii iiij.j 

ii~ -.•,•11,, I 

" !i. n III. \ 

I. M ilh t 

l.'rniiii i,,ii, 

A.'. |>ll..ii .,t' ill, 

". r.' ovi r 

•III r lii, 

<ii, ill, 

|. i;r i\ -i;r, , n 

It-'. 111! innrl 


^ ' I..I tiii. :>. i. 

I iri'livnt!.- ill 

-I \\,-.t r 

IIK'lll. 111. 

it i- ii,.t. 



II llii' Urll-r\|„ 

n t.T ll 

"•■ ' ll.. r,..||,|„.;,,.. ,|, 

■iitniiiiiv ,,| tl,,. I I 

i|ii. I,-,. II,, II, \, 

11' mil.. 

It- !ip..|.. r |.|:i 

[ ». ..|i,,ii j. I 
-•iitli «,,i||||, 


i^iii.v r.iiiv 
tlnv,. n 

iii"-l .-ii-i.-rlv 

1 iirL'iliii;,. 1,,,|, 

.1 .It III,- j. 

■\|,.-iir,. ,.r ll,, 

\..,,t. 1, 

:- "iiii .■i|i|.i.,,\iiii,-,i,. till,. I; 

i.v i;i\i r 


ll.lN. Tl 

r..ii..ivsi - 


' "( iIk' iimini 
• fhoiij.'!, 

ii.T. l.r..jil< fl„. 
'11 l.n;i ill fli.. 
I'Vf fill .<|.fi;,,n 

.■I'Ht, I,.,. I 1,1,1, k 

I'. '-I.,., ,11, 




I'.iipliiiiti, I 

I. ..11 ..imu.laloiil. 


.it..,| I, 

Tilt 11 1, . i.i 

«ltll i.lli;,. I 
■li'll. t ?.,li 

.li..ii.i..rv,K .,1 I. ,1,1, ,,!,,, ,,,, 

A I 

'11'.. I 111.. S,y, ll l,,,.| 


■ll'lilj. tillN I, 


Iiropfi-. It ,1 

" 'I'liii. !...-:i! :!,,, 

" --'" I. I...1..U- ll.,. 1,;,.,. 


-Ill'" t .,r hiuiii 

1- '•.'lil'..rin.i|,ly iiit.rc\'iliii,,| 

y rill.-.. 

Ill .111 !■, .i,,.,|. 

ilh tl 

ill till, Siv.h 

- :mi.VB- 

-iMt.i. Thi^ 

'I" "• •■I- in th,. IJoiiinl 

"■ iil'l'iriu,,- iM,.|,il,o|. ,,f ,||„ |',ir,.e]i ], 

l|.,V -..,■11,, I 

i^i nil. I iiiii-i h:ivi. bpri 

ihii..lilv li 
i'liii III.., Ill lilt 

li'.l'fli :,i„| .. 

mil ,,| ill, 

■H.. I.I..I uiili ,|„ 


■' .ll.. 

■ill h 

\.l 1- .;|ii,i> 

I..I> ,,(• tl.,. jl 

iillllllll Ill..|llllll|.nt It twr 
".I.v 111. i.iryillii,... It. 1. 

i'.v-t'....t llow of 

111 ilii. i-.iii- 

ili-i-i'll :illiv>!-ihil..i.l. 'I'll 

I- lit a h< 

'11' fliirki' run;;.-.. [ 

nuiiii (■..iiiiin.,,,.,, ,,,;i. ^, i„if.,„;,;, ,,;;;;;( 

I. '■nil 

iiii.l lia- II, 
ly -lii,li,.,| at tl 


■l-.iv. -Ii-liil 

If, ,111 I 

1 ..r ti 

ii"Wii iiiinill.i in til,. Caltoi 

'f .•.,nto.i|. nil 111, 

H' tl.lOO-f,, 

mill t'. LNpai-, 

mil. •r..-.v.|ii, -ally \ i-ji. 

-ii-'ihir ,':u.i, 1 

!'■ III. .1111111. 111. 'I'll,. ,.,„.|^ 

I. ,111. in ll 

''iini:{r al.iiii.hiMl pi 

I)liPnii.^rya|j of 

iiiiiifli.r: 11.. .hirk.,.,,l,,,ii.,.,l 

l-S H 


iiiiiicral I- 

Tli.. tl 

nil -.•.•ti.ii .-li,,w. that ll„. ,,! 

pli, ii.,..i.y .tj.. C.l.l. 


11 iiit.-r.,,., ■,],,, i,. :„ I,,,,]., J,,,,, ^^,.;_, „[|„„;.,.^^ 
nil. .!. .p yi ll,,u- ,.nsta|< ,,f 

par in. ■Ill, I,., ..i-ili,,,.].. 

.iki. tl 

'<■ Miiart/ fhi...;o arr 

da-- I, 

piir- II IV -r, all 

iillanii.. ar.. a. 

lit I- 11, 

ii|. ui'.iiiii.l-iiia- 


iiiii'i'ria! 111. -I, 

'I'M'l't.l.v .l.'Vitriti,..|. It 

1- wa- 

i> It very pale jrreciii-h 


.li.(. riinstU 

' iipatit,. at;. I all,.,.,.,] [\ 

ill th." alti.raii 

,r til. 

iicr iiiituit,. f.l,l,|, 

iiioiiit. i|.,„.,,x,.n,.|, Itiitil,, „,.,.,„ 

ir ..nttaN a 

II. I roiiiHl, 

ica-it taintly. .\i,,^f .,f 

"■'"•"" ''^'!-t"'''l"-?^>'"iin.l-i„a--ahvay-p„I of 


f ilf'vrloptyl 

jpocitic pr.Tiity ,,|' t|„ 
■imrtz ami ,.al,.|f,.. 

•-'."a— v,,|. il--i (I, 

It .•,,n<i-tj ,,f 

ito. \vh,.j,. iil,ii,„l. 

ipnirtz aii.l ,i 

ii"-''' -i-m- t,, ,\|,lalii i|„. ,.,.1. 

Hilary. mi.M.'ooii- 


Mlv hlfrf, 

ii-i- lill.'.l with 

*IWi«»ri'*-.'««£aMr~ flTc- 



rn:r'{ttiur\r m int. i\ii innit 

At tlif. I,,„er .•ontH.t tl,i. 1,,.. fl„„, Iil<.. , r.-„ 1,„ 

.hmd...^ p.l h„l,..w ,,,, u,,. ,„,,|..H,vi^ 

2 oEORGE v., A. 1912 

I Hi- . l.-i.rlv iirii'.iM-.,! 

MM, 4M, ,,I,M IN TMK M..,.l|.,.n ,n^ MAV,,,. 

The tifty.foot diko nlr.„,ii uo.e.l u» cuiHum U... Iw,.i.. ,., . |„ ,1 „ „ 

'' "r ' '^^;i ':...::/'•;;;;;, J';y!t,;;:;r "" """■' ^"^ '■ 

pria.a:vt-:^; :,'',:;:::::; "■:;:: '"''7"-"- —• - i- 'liai n ,i ,.. 

chlorite, cue o vo Wonl T "l'^ " '"■" ''"'" "'"' " '""f"-' "'"- "f 

i-rge.^UCw;^tr,Z^u''\^"'^''\'''TT'' ^"'« '»•' occasionally i„ 

thi, S.,ui:;:'::t!:n:;:., r'''- :i^''';^;' '•:•■'";'-•■-• - '•■ ■> .H-n.,;,.,,. 

call. yc,.,i.,, .iH. ,h.. .iia....'c:,ni' 'pL;:Vr:::;"""^ ' ' """•''-■ 

I lu^ main U)ilv <•( tli.' iliki> U ,.,,r.,„.a.i f ■•' 

rook whi..h i. si.nilar t,. ,l„. i i./lp , '',;'^ " '•"•:'"""-^''-"''l '-'al.I,roiJ 

The Mu.i„ i,.i, „f „,i. ,,ik,. ,,„, ths:s,,'n, ;.;':'■;:;'"■" •";"^:"""""- 

of one ^pooinitMi is 2.>iS:!. -1" 'ific^ trrnvify 

... ...t „t tl,e .likn f,„,„ „.|,u.h thoy „r,. pr,,iy nff,l,r,ot. 

At tlir lioa.j of thn liiv.nd L-ulch, n mil,, fartlior w,~f ,h ( ' ■ ■ 
«> a ,e,.on,i. tl,irty-f„or, vertical ,iil<e, s. S "v ^^ i w '■)""•"" ''"" 
l.a8 p..rr..I,orat..d the won from 1. .,,7 Thr nnrro.oop,. 
this ,Iik.. i- of e.-ontialh 'O,. .imo^mn^'mo / r'n;:;'':; T? ''"r "'"' 

I'l !:■ I I r, t.w V IV Tin: ,:m,t,.\ iiwi.i, 
t »H. t,,t. T'.. -,.w,„„ n,o.r f;,vnnr,n,I,M'..r ,I„. ,„,,,..:, of the for- 

itirmn m i in. 

I ii/i r isihi-M.Mi H 


lll.llKill Uil- 

II, ills ,ili<i\i 

■ I'Ti.-- till- hi. I'll 


■'• CO feet— |{r.>«uul»-l)l,i. k 

111' tirlil .tiiijv 
T>'1'. ' ' llltil iiiiiIjIc L.i.,. (if ( 

.1 I'l 


'■ k Mill.'.v, 1,!., 
• mir n oiilt : -- 




'■ an 



Uri- iii-h-lil.ii k 

[lorphv mil 

il"l IIh, 


.llii\>'.l ilniil 

i.ili-».iv 1* 11.., I I,, II. 

I I M-Il'luil 


I'l'"-^ I'll, mill iiljiii,i|,,|,t 

■f lubr 

^fiO fi«t. 

iiijf I if tl 
11 true o.pli 
soctioiH it i-i n iihiiN-.i I 
•luloiil. Till 

■ iif' I iii.iiil.' I. 

I '■( Sij.u 1, 


i-lii'iiiii-nll.v t'K.ii' r<irii 

!'• I'il-llMli'll ill till' .\|,-( 


-niiihir til tliu 

■ia but IS j|iiiiireiill«, ..f 

• illivru.v laiiL'i 


',v iiii u|ipro\iriinfil.v ii|uiil liij.k 

quiH' IuimI ixlriit. I 

iililHars til be 

n tl 

-■l.ii'ii.iiis pi.rpliyritii- plui-w 

111 .st^verul "-oi-tioii-. iiimio mi tin' Ko-.t. 


iiei'k. 1 1 

(jreiicoii-i liii'l iiuis-ivi 

I'f till -f luttor ■lilt 


■f thr 1,1. 


■il l.v ih 

■ I'tlior 


!<• llIII.\U^.|,l|iliil 

ly vnlli-,v A"\»: imrtli ami 

■ mil <if 


■ riiicil of 11 single nrv;,( t|, 

i"iH the fMrriiMtliiii is viTV ln^n. 

iucenii., rork ill /nm- ■■ >f..iii, tn -Imw that /,. 




b,.two..i z.„ii. „ aiiii /,. «h,..b iiierK.. „a,\ l.v i„,„ . a.l, „tli,T. W,,^ , , . J 

|tiu-c9 ot one irii|ii.. | muh-. ' ^ 

At till, sunui.ii of til. lialion ran.... tl,,. formalin,!, i, ,■„, i.ff 1,,. .. „,.,^,, 

fault, lo thi. oast of tli. fault tl.o lava bn, b....,, ,„,,,..,,|M' 'i' 

It does not aprear .„ tlio map i,f ,1,.. |,..||, „..,,.,;„._, „.,. .,a,,.,p„ |„|,- ;,• ," 
Galtoi. ranui. an.l .!»■ wbi.l,. i,f tbo Mui'DouaM ran.... 

II III III. l.KW IX TlIK (.I..\I1KK RWl.r. 

head ot Sfarvatiiin ..n.^k, twenty-.^ven m\\., east of tli... .s.iniiiiit fault of the 
«.«lton raiiK... iron, that point to the lake at the ea.-tem extremi.v of the Con. - 
nuss.on map the tori.mtion fonns a eon.spieuou.s featur.. of the cliffs F,,.,, a 
eo.nmandmK point it .an !.■ .s...„ ..ontourin,. tho mountains through several 
...1 ien of eontin:,ii„s exposure. In all. the Honmlai.v map ha. twent.v-five n.ilo. 
"i bis outerop. I, n.Milly ,,reserv..s it. lonfoniiable pi-i,i„„ heuveon the Siyeh 
and Shoppard ionnatn.ns and steadily holds a thi.^kne.. of about 260 f^-t 
As .n the western rauRe. ,t is. ,.„ aeeount of its har.lness. a strong cliff-maker' 
ott.^n tornmiy- pri.i.ipi,.,.s at .■irque or eanvon 'n maKer, 

Wherever examined the whole formation is a homogeneous, dark greoiish- 
gray to blaekish a.n.v.ilaloi.l, .ooriaeeous and of typieal n.p.v stnieture i 1.. 
upper oontact. ^\ hue ani.vgdul.s of quart, and ealcite are there abumlant 
and often read, srreat size, even to six or ei,.ht imlw-s in length. (IMate '.n 
Tho porphynt... pha-e and bre-.-ia of the west.rn ranp.-. not assoeiatnl with'the 

• •-- » 

■ri!i» ~T,'. 


''/ /■ I/.-/ ;// \ / ,,/ / 

"' i\ni:iul! 


A- in t|„. ,,,|„.,. ,.„,^,^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^1^^^^ ^ 
-|N"'iriicii. Ihii |,.|.,- ill.,, 

-' OtORGt v., A. I9!2 
I- i"ll>'liii l.,\i,.,-f,,.t |',,i-iii- 

■'•"l'-.i- nrrun,..,,,..,.,, Al,„n,l,„„ ,•"„.,, 'V/ ,M " """'l' 

liiUKMrlll,. II, I,,, I,. ;,,„| ,„., ,|„„|,„, ,„ I , • ■ ' '"'■ '""' ll'IKMl,!.-, with 

'w rv,.i„« „n. ; J:::;ir'tnT "^•'•'■■" -■'■'• • ^^ ■-'!..■ 

-' t„r... Till. ..nii,;: ::;,:■;:: ^rf\ ""■■'■■■' '^^ 'i.^'-^' 

.n.,...i s,i,,,,,,,.,,, .„, Ki ■,..„.,„„.. i. :;,„.; :,;;'■;,:•:■;::'; ;■'•:■ 


I.. .11 |,.,.„|| 

hIM . Wli 

. , 11 <oi,rui,i, (lie .\i»kii,,iis .,,,,! (,, ,,, II II 

twrnty (, ., „,,l... I.itl,„l„.i,.al|v. ..,,. , „,„...„,,, ; , ■■■' '' '''I- . '^ .'1-"' 

I., north. „„„h. ,.„.| ,,., ,.,■ ,• . |.„,,, I ,„,..„„,, . 

avoruK.M^f forty tV.t i„ thi.-kn,.-. ,•„, ,h,. Siv-l, to,-,,,, , , ,'" " "'"• 

on^iriHl ji 

"..K.Miti M,'c,.-m,ri,.* „ro iiu.-fo|n.„i„„lif,. i,.r ,,,,.,,.,, , ""' 

:-"'•- " ' 1-. 1...I-. i.M,i "k..!,.,,,, o .,,:';■'■'':'■'■•■' ^ '"":■•' ■>"••'■ 

"'^^" r' ■'- ■'■^'''.''' t,.:,!,;;!:,:^v ;^^ 

■■■ nmui Miioi orii III' |>lls,,,, iiti ) II ,■ 1 I .'-iioii/;!-! 

prism .v,.n,».v iihi.ut ()..' ,i„„. i,i h.,,,,!, m- i,.,- .„,„.,,' '""•"'''•-""' 

grail, nii^j 

ii-. iiucri 

l»twpon th.t of ,1 ihMhii-,. „n<l 

(KVlniititc, aii.l i|iiai-i/. T] 


S|»'"ih. LTilvity of a typr s| 

I f;iil)hr(i wii 

-Ir irtll,. 

I .1 -ll'o,ii:ir li 

Til <) 

XM'lll,,.,, ,, 

i- t. i||-lf,i 

'■• til.- i.'ahh,', 

ill 'he fl 

"•11,1. al i'oiii|.osition, ill th, 

liiriii't. r III ni'co,<ori|.s. 

'inniaii.'c i,f tl» hi,i|i,ali -. 

inu in Mi.,||„. niavitv. tiii-i 

i-'reater -111- in th,. \li 
'■lice ron-i-t- in tli, ; 

roi-k clo.- 

IIK-Ill.llny ihr I, 

'.VIC ami Yahk 

I'ly iv-,.,i,hi,., ill, 

"•ro|,r;;|,,a( ,ti 

-l..,l,ll. ,,1 

111 -li'i,i't,iri-. 

I'll- I'liii 

'I 1^ 



-'rrii ~ilU. ft 

'■t that. 

■■■TIN to hi 

lii'l-c till' lii>i|i 

|iniiri)ial II 

iloijii-al liltTi- 

•■iiHivly aiMphihoI, ,,r ,||, 

I- iiio.t|\- aiii;ito. wiii 
-iilMi iiahit 


/.'/ /■'(/,■/ III nil I nil 

I I - / /,■'< SiiMi i; 


btSSIONAl. t'ACLH \o, ^jj 

Al ll 

KliiiLi til .1 

f -Him- I mil' 111. r,. i,ro 

iiiiiiiy |r,,inl, ,,| luli..l..„i..,,| r, ., ,nl.|..i..v i„.tv 

' •■uny.m .,11 an.l tii- u.i.,Vi:.|ui..i,i „r il„. I'ur,.!! |. 

■ Icriv.,! 

lie . Xtr. ;ll.Ulli|i)'.| ,1 


whil. tl, li.i .,|- 

iiiiiii 11 i|..i„ii,„iit ..rifiiiiil |nrci\i 

.viii« Mil T|„. (V.M,,,,.,., ,,f .ill ,„„| I 

ii:.iiii..hi „i ii„. l'ur,.,.il |..rm;iti .ii. |i 

ll'Til.' ,.f tlx' HII,.VU.|lll..i,| , 1,1 i,„v,. |„, 

lili' with lliiil ill thr 

I.. 1., ,,|- 

'1111,1 ,11 I,, l,nl||. 'I'll,. 

\;l(lU t! 

'■' I I'-'. ' N'-' I'llh),' lll< 

!'• SilllH' -|M-.'li-<, 

iiiii-|..|«'(iiiiiititi. iiiul ipiiirt/. 

'" '""" '"•■■ ''■ I N .1 l.y til Ml 

vinliiijf iliff.TiMic.'i ill iiiiii.riiluLri,.[,i ,„„| ,.1 

U-l W.'ll II- I 

iiitii II 

iinnili ' 

laii'it''. ,\i ill I 

piirull. ,■ will 

it iiiii> giilli.-,. ti> .ill. 

-IIl'Iii .i,i,iii{, 

■■f Mlir 

»..ll|.l I.'imI I,, ll 

<li-li .•! th,. sill I 

'll'lltlMllS (,| 


ii"i<"l ill tlip ll 

'.u-tfilliir-; ;i r.-liilivcly >l 
!'• K« ll. Illtil.ll ,,t' illLT-tiliill i|ll 



liter w.,-, tlirii«t 
..■r|itii.ii ,,l' ill,. 

>|"' iiii.l ..tli.r ,pf till' w,-t,Tii -ilU, Tl,, 

MMtrt/ mill iiii.-r.ipi'K- 

t'l'v.- that th,- Kiiiil 

i-riH«ioii ,.!' th,. l.itt.T iiitru-i 



.t til. -• 


>mii.' . riijiiiN,. |H riu.l n. ih,, |'iir,.,.i| |. 

II I'llll.M.ll -.ll 

fill- t,^ l..|,.|IU' tu till 

illl,,.ll. »|t|| III,. BT|,,|, ,i]| 

Ull IIIhI tlllll l..,tll 111-,. |,r,,|,„|,|y 

All.. til, r -ill, liltv f. 

W'.l ,,| t'l,. Viilik riv. 


■r til.. ( 

■t tiii.'k, ,iit> tl 

(• Si\. ll |..riiml 

til,. |,i 

ii|.-lr. am iruin i| 
■ili' ion- nil liipyiilii.. 

■11 i\|pi,-..,l ,.1, l,.,i|, ,|,|,.s „f Oil 

ion ,.n th,' ia>t,iii -|.,|i. 

■ri-ii'U- at Oil (' 

I'k, iilMiiit tw. 
rill' iiitrii-iiv,. Iia- -|.|it, a /,,|i. 

.t t 
Til.. r,.,.k 

ic Sivi 

linn/,. II r.iiiiL'lil.v 1 -tiiiiat.MJ f,, 1,^. l.tHMl f 

f-riili:ill,v a tiiii-Kiaiiip.l ,|iii li.-at,' ..f t 
io,-k l.iit tli,T|. i- li,.iv ; ii,i,l,.ruMv irr.'iit 


a- iMIitla raii.v..|i 

lll.T'.il-. Ill 

llllj Im 

'■"■"I'-'illi" rlliiiclai.', whii'li r.i.l 

i-r aiii'iiint ,,f fr,.,.ly ,Tvstiilliz,., 

■I'Miiii- a iiiaj,,r ,'. ii-tiliii'iit. M: 


V'lilllll.- Ill t 

Th,. r,..k i- liaill\ alt..r, ,| witj 

pill,,- ...III,. ,,t' till- liilirail.iritp 
riiixKiiiiilit,' i- an al)iiii,Iaiit iiitir-titi.i! 

1 thr iri ii.ratii.ii ,,f ,.|,i,|,,t,. ,.|,1,, 
H.. -.n,-,!,.. -a.M.iiiii,.. ,i„i l,|„.,„i,.., |„„ I, j, „,.^,„j„ ,,,^^, ^^, ,^^^^_^ i^^^ij. 


til.. >ill tl 

"a- iiiiKiiiallv 

if l.i-ili. 

ill tl.c Iviiit 

II- -aiiii' uriH-ii, nil, ,111, 

at..-. T 

ii-'iiiU'li iii,,.t iif 

iNtlii .-alivoii -ill. 


riil.i.all- ,|,.v,l,,|,,.,i li,,riil.l,.|i,l.- ujii.-l, wa- r,,mi.| 
■ ■H-<' -iloiigr with till- (•oloiirlcs" 

I- an al.urii 

A >ii, ciiiK'ii taken at a |v,i 

ii|ii-o-riitiii«- the i-iiiitact 
!Ui«-it<'. (Tv-tiilli/,.,!. 

lit tlVl 

zoiii -, licar- 111 

i-r fr. 

Ill I... iippi.p coiita.'t iiM.l til 

ll'irilliirll.ji-, I, lit tl 

iiiTf, a- in 

tlio i.tlwr -ill, ] 

i-i'iii- t.i ha 

I. ill a|.|ian-iitly tw.. ^' 
ii\j i-vi-ry i-viiloii,-,> ,if | 

I.- I.i-il 

ll'lltl- i< illtil-rlv 

i'in'raii,.ii-i. Th,. 


heeii ahl.. \„ .-ry.-tallizi- only in tlio int 

M'liitr a Jiriiiiary ('..ii-tili 

Willie aiipit,- 111 .[Kilizeil th,- (-,iiitH<-t 

iTiiir part i.f th,- -ill. 

Iininljlen.lic, phases of th,. sill nro horii..lnpn,is to tl 

zi-ni-s. Ihi-o i-oiitra< 

anuitii- a 

II. I 


ililM' n.-ar tli,. -Minnnt ..f tin- Mi.( 

a< iiio-t proliiihl 

IP .sitnilnr phaso.<) found in th. 

iiilivi'ay rant;,.. Thi, ,lik,. 1,:,, I,,., , 

;ia\ iiy of tlir aiiwiti.' pi 

.V o„i. t,.,.,|,., ,,(■ till. l'iii-,.,.|l r.ava thi,„l, Tl 

pliii-... :i.04s 

Kiiiila -ill Up, m-. 

plia-f :- :!.i 
lio=r valu<.= fiirtlii-r -Ih 

fiat ..(■ til,. iLTiiuii li..niiil. ii.l.-l 
nilarity i.t' ilii- 

le -t Ill' 



i>i.r\i;i Ml \i i,r I II, iMi:i:i<>;; 

ri Hi i:i.r rw \ 

\Ml A- 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 


Tliu most rastcrl.N 
the Ivcwis ranf.'o h.v 
shows the flnsf par 

'^ ^> IN Till. I.KWI, It 


i-XiHisiiris ,.r ilir lav 


1(1 Fii.h 

II. v.-t 


tliose foil ml 

nils niid liiiia\ , 

1 . , ', . ■'••"J- ,1 ,,, iin. iiirniatKin 

.i™- J »,rr;;,;;:t i,;:;v''" - — ^^ »- 


™1 f .-v;r^,;;;,-i'u,:l;:':j;:,,-^i;::;:- 1 ;-;;; ;* 

» i"..r,.„i.,„i ,u.,. ,.„„„,; „;.! !:, " .:■ ,; "■■vr:;",,,":'","";."' 
(..r m. f,,,, „„„„ ,,„. ,„„„ „„ ,|,„„„ ,.,„;,;;;;:,"■ ■*■ ■■ ■'•^- ■> *'p» 

ol ,. „',': " "";,""'""''"l'<' 'I" 'li"'ili- » f"m..l 10 ,;.M-m „ N„„ „l„,.i„. 

.11. J Cir ,l„„| U„ ,„ ,1,,. ,,„„„ ,i,„, ,,„„,., |„, „|,^,„.,„| ^ ,,,,",,,,, '° 

'/>m^«...-T„ the ri.1,1 ,l,i- ,.o,.k i. always unn-h wPathere.l pr...ontin:r 
a (lull snrn colour hy na.oii of th<' M-on.lirv chlorit > ".7'-. I''^' •-*^"t'"f^ 
It is a typi..l alter..., .liabase. Kxposu.: nl^ou J , e" o^ :itZt 
Onunel , where the thhkuos. of the sheet i. 4> feet in.l „, SI, J 

n^ountan. oppo.ite Mount Flattop. Iloro the J:S/lZt^7t 
fl( V » w,,l ,,,,„. ^,„. „, ,,|,j^.^ ^^^^^^^^^ .^ with ,n r 

(laloidal eavities e„nfaining ealeite. Its nlice is .t tU . ' ' ," " ■"■'';- 
fon„ati.„. 000 feet above^he sheet oJ .t;;. ^S/ a T,: , [ S:' 

•O. I. Finlay. Bull. Ge<,l. S<>c. Anienca. Vol 13,"l<W.', p. 349. 

nrroiri m iiii: i i/n:i .i>y/,-..\«,i;/ /.• 

ri-si>o<>ti\eIy. Tim argilliie 1 

->( tlio (liati, 


ua tillud ill the irrcKularities cf 

it, were obsorvcd ..n Kl,iit, 

.lik.> of il 



tlio upper surface 







ii'.v contain in.-lu:Jinrn ,,f th,. ari;il 


uiliT the mil 

1 ill! 11,,'il to <ix u.ot i„ wi.lili, 'I'licv 

Id-C.ilH. tl 

I', aiTauL'i 

ausitc an. I phif^iorhi. 
(li:iba-ic structure 
It lia<; the liuMt of lahnu'l 
<inta f. 

i<- rock I 

-cell f., 1„. 1,111.1, 

iu such 11 luiiiinci- us t, 

nearly vi-rticul 
M|i priucipiilly o 



"•lii-c 1^ i.iiouiorphii 



tii(> iioriiial 

-lell,ler IlltllS. 

■r Its iici'unil. 

•rite, hut n.i uiutcriiil wn- slii,li,.,| Nvhi,'h offcrcil 



auRif,. is much more ahuii,lant than the feld 

:ie cxf iii,-ti..n hul'I, 


mineral, red-hrnw-n when fre-li. hut ft 






le small 

amount of olivine 

iiucntly (-iitirely n-,,,,,. ,,vi r P. clil 

t.1 .seriientine ami .•hh.ri 

■rliiinally pres.'ut in tlr 

n iilhilnomorphic 


k i~ II,. \v altered 

tion pr,,duct, r.-ulling from the plapiocl 

U'. 15, sides tile .■hlorite, wlihl, is the .•hi.f al 

auii olivine, much .-e.i 



11 -e as u, 


e is found and titanit 

mdary calcit,' has 1 ,, .l.-rivcj from th.' t'.I.K 


s. is aliinilant. Ti 
Till through.. lit the ll..w 

erous iiiafnictiti 

.m tlii> autrite 


ic mcdiuni textur.' ..f th.- .liul, 

pram- am 

II -e ]. 




present wriii _._ _ 

Wtnnive types as tll,^v occur iieaVthe'suinmi; on^h.'-'swifM 'nrrent l>a^s trail 
A the upper edj.e of Miianite Park.' on the «e-t, rn ^de of the ,liv Lie n„ 

nue, Mountain Qua.lninKlc sheet. V. S. ,ieoh.,i,..l Sn^i:": ' r„ ;:^ 

tonmit.on ,s n prc-en,e,i hy two conti,M,o„s ,l„us .e-,i,„. ,,„ „.„ sivh m tar 
gdlite nnd overhun hy typi.-al Sheopaid heds. Tlie l„u..r t'.. isf,,,v f et 

hick Its upper surface, as uef,! hy Finlay. i, ,.„pv. Thi- .ructur, p., e 
heneata int., a ,.ronounc,.,l pillowy stru..turc, whi-h. i„ ,,]„. . ,.!,■ ra.-tc i.e 
most ot the thickness of the lava -he.t. The pillow- „v ..,,,. ii '''■'"' ♦'■"^'' 
and of spheroi,lal form. They ran.e from a S^rl/ S\ ^ ' ''T 1 . 
in greatest diaim.t. r. Xo -i^,, ..f the virioliti • V 

pillow-lavas could be detected. The interstices belweerthrpilllu'raiv 'Idled with chert or more c.„n,„.nly. with an oI,-..,„v. h,.., ,.ia-lik,. ivhs of 
aphamtic material wh.iso micr.,scopi.. ..hnracte,-. a,-,. , ,„-„ „f ,,,1 „.' ,it, Thl hears a few minute crystals of feMspar ,„„ ;, ,.hi' tlJ ".on. ...e, o 
tinely d,v,dc.l clilon.e. ,,i„rt., calcit.. an,! ahun.lan, y.-llowi-h-hrown L t ,' ,i, 
.ul^a..ce .i.lerom,.lane. The s,.ems to form ,, .reatly alter.,! hil::it;" 

The piMows tl.em^elves an,l the n,,n-pillo„y ,,i,rt- ,.f ,1,,. ,l„w aiv e.,m„„se.| 
of the same type of vesicular microporphyritic. occi,>i.,„allv diahi.sic 1 „alt 
that makes .,p the upper flow. This i, eighteen feet thick an, li..s i „ ,', , H el y 
upon the ropy surface of the forty-foot flow. Th,. latter is with „ I't. ^ 
.tn,,.tur.. lut is ive like ,l,e normal rurcel, Ln .da ! '^.toJ^S 

evidence .-h.,w, that ,'-e rock is of the el.emi..i,l ,v,>e r, ,ui..,l in alT the 

o.vnrren.vs of il„. iu the w,.st.-rn rany.s. ^ 

The write,-s eyamination .,f the -ill (.SO-TO f„,., Hii.-k) and .like (r,n feet 
thick) no.e,l hy }in!ay as o„tcr..ppin^' t„ the ea-t .,f tl,.. Swift Current Pass, 





/'/ /' \i;i \ii \i or 

'III l\ I I.Hhil; 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

,tl„., „.„„,,.„,■ 1,, , T ".■tl,..,-L,s,.. ,,,„l,„|,lv i,.,,ri„^. ,o,h,. Tl 

"" 'IP lilt "f tho -trikii. 

r in'cloiiiiniuico of til,- l,i<ili,.at,.< eo 

tl.. lVl.U„.r, ,l,i. ,.ook ...a ; .. U T "'/'"■ '- — '••; -> f. 

t'"iiri.I lor tl„_- Kliitin cnnvou a 

i:i,i.viio\ ,.| iiii: 

ll'l Oil (Trl'l; silU. 

^"■'•^ '"" I'll^l- I" Tin: I'lll.TM. l:Mli,s|M:, 

ot I 

n- ;:;!::;■.::";,;::'''::.: ''•;;:^' ^■-7-' ''^r '•"•'^'i'^- -^ "•'-•'^ -'-^ '-^^^ 

v.- l^-.v a ,-o„.fiMt .. , ■■ ;■ " ".' ''"■"' ""''■'■^' '"i^-'nlmt..! lo,.ali,ii,.. 

Si.... i.,.,, it:;:;:';;:^:;;;:;,^:;;/:-;-- [i;;;^^;;'-;';^ .i.n^ i-^ .-e 
;;-;'■. u- <....n.i..nt on,...„ ,,, ,>ia,iv..,, „„:.;::'■;:;: s ; ■^''lii-e or 4;; 

... 'li:::.;^.; ■:!::,;::;: r':r':,::,':,tr''.sr ""■ r^""" ^-^ r-- '^ 

t><»at-.l l,v M.i.Tos ,i,. .„„i,. J; 1 . ""^'•"'"•lll■-l"" '-^ amply corro- 

tl.o ro,.k.: «,o/to .ov ' • ,' ;■;■""•"' '""'• "' *'"^ ^'■•^'''' ^\^<^vM\on of all 

t^vi, o..,,;.it^;:;:,;:;--;-;^,;^;:;;->- "' '"'• .H„.i„a. ..,i.,.„.a„ .,.,.. 

n... ,„a.i. diffon.n.-e of ..l.en.i,.al .■ompo.itlo,, ,.o,.M-t ■ i,, tl„ r , 

s.l,..a a,.,l ,„„ash rop,-o.e,.t,.,l i„ ,1,. pH,,,,,' ,■ , '"''"'""." "^ ""' 

qi.artz wl.i,!, are ^o ■il„.n.l-int in tl ''.'^ '"■">"" li"'lii-<'. im.-.-o,,„„tito, aii.l 
flow-. The „.arkod i" } " o , "' "''"'" ""'T''^- ^''->' '" t''<^ ^-fa.. 

<>i. tlio ofl.or the a,„.vn,l,l„i,l „,„ ,„_,, „. ,,.;,,•.,, , . , 

"'^'^^^'-' ^"^'■'' -'"' -'■'•■'' • —- "1- .-. ;::!;::' ':,'■:;::::„:!, :!: 



I" "- rapi,! ,„..„„ti„;,- ,|„,v w 

i'l'-|'l-> ,|.i ll I- ,,■■ 1 ,v , 

'~ '"" """■ '•"■'■-1' (■•'■ tl." iM-i,. I,,.,:.-,,,., »,' 

Tl... I'„r,.„;; 



• til,. tV,.,li,m- ,ii|,,.. ,r.. 

-un,:,;,, .,-M„ ., ,,, ,,„,..„.„,, ,.;,i:,; •■' si^,,,^ ;;;:";;:■■;. -••'-■ 

fdiniio^i'i ot t I,. ,.niiii. nvit....;„I 1 • 11 ., ''■•■'Iiiiir .lik,- ,;r.- 

.ills, .re n.a,Io of , ,, « S,i ;T:"f' ^' —'';-;'•. while other, like .l. 

slight hn, „,„„.,, .i:,,,i„ nj,:;." : ' h,'':', ;.,:rr'''''' "■.^''"•^' r^ p-^'-i' >- 

I;""" ■•;' 'I- Mrdillivniy 

Mratii.*' 'I'll, 

<!i«tiiii,,.,.,.,! th,. Swift Cinr.Mt l'-,.< .,,,1 

'--••'■•■■"■^- ""• >''n,,i,vi,,;';ji;, :;;::r^;;;,:::^^''■;^■l'.'-■---■■• 
'l'-over,■,l ,„ l„ Ch,,!.. :,nl !.,.n;- ,Mnp.-. '"",)-,v,^ 1„„|„.. ^h.Mvv.M- 

riif tiirlliiT i-MiT|.|.ji i,,ii ..I' tl, -I? i-i . , 

^1 M-MAKV. 


VMriiiti.,„< i„ tl,i,-l<,„.-<. H,.I,l.|,nl,ir .i„| ..-,„.i,, i,„„ „, ,, 
■""^""""'-'^- -'"■"• 'l- (•■<■«, .,r,l„. ,-„l|.,„i,„. ,„|,|,.: 

I'lii"'!! K.irnr.- 

I."iiil 2ii f.i..t tl.,« ,,f ,>,y 
"ll'-- .ilK.iit ."ill f,.',.t 
;Un»v,' t', 

'■ 'i"i, iiinvKihiloiil. 

•■ 4' iiixillitf. 

ll. I."iir, alnyi;f|Kl..ii|, 

' '■!"», |«ir'|iliyiy. 

''■ I"', coniiiuct jin;i 

"■ 40', "a;! " lava 

Total lava. 411.-,, 

Iiik.'s ami -i||^ ciitniitf 

Kitcli..mi (.siv,.||i j,„ 

■ iiciliattiv U-IiiV. 
I,..,, L'L'ir iH.j.nv „ a 

"'i>-f.«.t ri.iM ,,f aiiivpija- 


'ialti.n Kal,.'. 

•'■ 'ill, ariiVKdahii,!. 
r. U*'. vimrM- lirt'coi.t. 
''• iWi'.ainyKilal.ii.lH'itli 

II. 'XI', iii.n-vi.s j f,i la p 


Tnfal lava, XHt . 

'•lark. l;.„„., 

211". ainytr.lal. 

'I'.ital ...v.,. i>ii(i. 

I.' "I- liaiip I Shi 
•'ill rent l'a>-i. 

•*^i "I »ni\L'.laIni.i I 
f^li' |.|.arcl and In . 
.;iinynilal.,i(l in Kmtla 

I.'.'. Ilia»su... aiiiwila 

iiidal tl..w. 
4"'. ropy tti.u |.a-.-iii 
l» Imv int.. 111!. « lava 

T..t,,l laia. 

l>lk,..a„.lsilK ■utti„>,-|.,k.., ami -ill e,„,,, 

^.f'' """-ii.>t..iy s,v,.ii ,„ i.Vt,';;' 

riir I..1V.I- :ir, (-vcrywhin- 

Miiilerlyinfi- sciiiincnt^. 


tiiiii-(.t]-lil>- .•.,iit' 1, 


ll:< ■•V, r\\ il;- 


loi'iil rhynjiti tl,,, |;,v.,. 


"'"•■*' -iM.. iiii'iv orti,;^,;!;;!;.:;^ inliima'""""'"" ""■ ■'■"'■'—..m 

iwt . f I'l 


r>ici-Mn\iHM or inriMtuiun 

' •'^'■'■'•"'-'-' '■-•'■'--■••^••i >n,,,:,. r;:;,,;H;:. r;;L:;; ;.::.. 


2 GtO^lE V. 





-"- the area of ,1„. Bonndar. UH .l..o i, ,.0... tl,o V:,„k ..n i M..i.. 

™v,,l„5 i„ ,11 „,.,„, ,„.J" ,"'•„,'; ""■ "'"I- ""■' lo™ Wciy.f,,.,, 1„„,1, 

^r"-'" ' •■"■ ~i" wk ° e "?;;,, '''"'o;;/'% ''r'-"' "■■■' ■'• 

b....' :,"cr,,'' ;;,;;r,:r'';-,^'''r,''"- '■■ ''""'" - -'■■■ 

IS V onlv ii„n,rp„t If tl,„ "'■t'"tiir, >,.,ti,,M. 1 li,- r,-inty ..f ,lik..^ 
tho.e -lik' ', ? i ;, ,^. J ^--'-'-l'- * ---'--P w.n. p„„ovo,| fp.:u 

'liffick. field ,.oM,li, ':„„■, "'^;\'l— -•<-! "voM „„,i..r ,h. ,...„Ii.„|. 

referr.d to as th,. Moyio ,i]l.. S-ver 1 or fl r ?'' '" ^'"'-'■-■"'f^- 

i.. thickne-s. The dip v.He. fr : W , v' ':';o'"" '""! '"' ''^ ^'"' ^'- 

£^.t.S-:i;,^;:r -;/^,,:^:!' -/'- --^-/tirl;;:r 

R..n„dar. beU, but, f.o„, ,,e faet that the l..-:,ie:lJdne;;j:',:,;f ;.::";;;:,: [^ 

221 "" 


11/ /■}/,/ Ml 

\ I i>l ,11!. 

i\ n i;it,i! 

- tl„. l„| 

■i tl" l.i.-..,,li,| 

': 'I I- ij"iii'v,.,i ,i,;,t ti 

2 GlORGE v., «. I9I2 

!• :- 'liiira.-t, 

I'- U- ill I', 

H' liii.l; 

n li. 

!"■ ':ir;.r i,-r,M 

lll;ir II.. I, 

'l-ll.' Mt ;||; ,||, 

'II- lii;li. \v| 

I'"'- 'iitliir r I ill,. ,,,,), 

'""■I'-'-ll-^ Wllirh t'..|I,,u- l„.,|,I 

!■. --■••illtilljr I.... I 
II. 1 M-'..ll|. (, 

l""lii -rv, 11 mil,. 

ii.-.. «(.-tri' 

> : IN II, Mil 
III, C, 

1-1 "f til,. .M, 


mil iiri 

^ II' river. 

I'- .ir.' HI -ill ,-,.i 

I'm ..f 

U'l' (liki 

'■'■iii'i-'ii. wliil,. tl 

'-• 111 iMrt, 

I'- ' il-l-W|.^t 

-!• \l. 

'Wi'. isri'iiiy 

111-.. null. .Ml |,, ,1 

'I' riiK i\ri;r 


lil II .. 111,1; 

'ill' ii; ,,|- 
'1 llli- ll;lli 

■I 11 h..hlli 

111 r.ii ,.- I 

i: mill. .nil I 

\|'<- III 

'!'■ IIIJIIII Illli.-- ,,)■ ,,.|,.i 

,1 .1.11 K Uri l'l|l-|l.j;r| 

■I'l '•iin. 11 il ,-;il| I,,, 


ly liiinil,l,.|,.i,. „..||,| 

yiil'iiri) ,,| I 

"ii-'i»"| iits .in. I ,|.,,, ,1 

■! Iiylil In 
||. iii;;if,.,! 

11' l..nni.|. 

" '''I" Imriil)!, ,1,1,. „,|,| ivi.j. 

I lIltni-iM. l.,„!y H 

Mn'i'illlv. till. typ,. li,H 
""lliini -iMiii. Aiiv.mlr 

111 111-, ,.- 

I'fisill- l|-.,l|i 1 


|. l:li' lll:iv 

'ii"iiiit'.-i in .|ii,iiiniv. ( ;iri. fl 

ii"l^ III'' ii-iiully liiuh 1 

liiin. t.i ., 1! 

■ !', 

Jii-iii-. Till 

-I'^ii'- mill 111. 

'■ I'liiii i|i;,! viiii^ii 

>'-fi' ' til.. 

'II. i.r iiiuri 

I'l. I 111. Ii,,n 
ill lumfh. T 

^|-i'ii,il iriiiif. 


lilrtiil,. f. 

'<T yniirriillv 

'I'll- t..;;(.lli,.,. I' 

';''''""-"|^' III i.lm.'iii,- rni.k-. Th.. 

/I) i-..;li'-|.iiiii^. ,,|- 

lull- 111 II, 

■■III. l-i.-il ,l,.w.I.. 

''ili|~pm- tlimi ill, 

;i'^iin. .1- ... , 

■lllCllt ..f ;| p 

iii'iii 11 !<iii.! 1,1' 
'I'll- i-lim-;i.(, 

If fof fh,. 

■Ill'' I'itlicr fa 


'I'l'- Tn il ,. I, 

'11:111, .Illy 

'-'■ i-ii-li.'.- ill li„n,l,l,.,„|,, ,„„| 

itii r .M-o tiic ri.ok I 


K'l-i'iiir- nlii rm p,.ri,l,,f 

pi.. .Ill- 111 


.l;ii-L..|i| I, 


\ I'll' ;|.!,1 

i-k :,, >i 

Itl. lipatltr. I 
-"I'.v. illlrl-til 

iii'ii ■■( li'.Miii,.. il 

nil .-i.i-ti..ii- ill,, i 

Kf ,,|- 

ii-i' /ill-, ,11 ipi:il-t/. Ai 

111, I l|,.v,-|-| 

Il I'llltO ,,,- tlt;inif, 

iii*liliiPi)(-< i. 

iiliii!-'-. liioiii'li v.-M-LiI,!,. 

l-llll- lll,-|;.rllf.f|(,, 


-Il i-iiiK-n- 

Ty ii.'iiti- :m,l ,,rfl„„.|; 

iiii'iiiif- ,,f 

1*1- w.Ti' roiiiu! 

riiu inuplill,,,!. 

•riy Willi 

"II- I'.. nil, I 1 , Iniv,. ,.] 

■lr.ii!.-lv pi 

flic fi-,--|ino-< .,(■ ,|„, ,,„.|, [|| J, 

'lll;-l'-("l-- U-llii-ll l-ll,|l|y,.,| ,,1,1 

I'll iii-liii'i,. 1 

irnlN-l tn 


"""■nil "llil ill,. I',, II, 

If tVos;|ic-t 

a--Ii:;ht vcl 


-In^i-iMicn> it, 
Iit'iiio of nlis. 

ii-r rnpii- 



- ^'trl.ll,!<- nil 

C-ill'l-l' M 

vn frropii. 

■-• -illl 

Ill •;pi.,iini M- whi.-l 

iiiriii't l.iii tl ,1 

't' i'l liii..iii,.. .\ 

' iil'l'i'iir I" iiav,. I.ivii sli-hti 

iiii-i- I.r til,, iimpliil.i,], 

i^ur* aie i-i'ii>i,l,.,-nl,iy p.,], 
tiirtlipr -t.qijo of nit 

y lilt. 

piiior, sn as tl 

I''"''- till' li"nil.lf.nii>3 

f-i-.-tfiori i 


f iiiiniM';:! 

T li- lil 

'II- miipliil„,l 

!l..' It iii!i;li! I„ 

'■. -iiA;«v-tmH- iii-alifp i„ .-olour niul 

■iiiiiiin in ilio -|i,lo^ that if 

« rppri.cp,it<-,l in a ill 

other essenti 

il respects. 


irx- all. 


■tmii- lia-. 1 

i"»'|-vi'r, I, .1 r,, il 

■• -I I'.vrn.vciie. .V 

■^c -tiiil.v ,,r 11 1, 

•II- at ::--i I„.lipv,-.,i 

li'im-y ati,.,. th, 

II' ii'iii-lii-ion that th. 

11. .i 1.1 uv,.,-ii i! 

nil! Ill,, til, 

•Ml -ra-r 

|-"ll- lyp.. I|,|, ,1 


i-i' niiiiiher 
-^ aiiiphihnl,-' 
lraii-iti,,n ,>aii h,. 
V yr..\vii ,,f (],,, 

= '-' ' fj:\ 



'■• Wllirll 1,,,^ I,,,,,, 

X|1.I,„- ,,1' ,1,,, ,,,| 
"' •'"■^ ltfl-'.\ili(. i,|. ,,t r,„ ii,l ,., I . '"" ^'^ •■;(•.• 

I -iinil, .,,„.. .,.Iy .|,vf,lM,i,ii..,l. \, 

"1 -■n.,„lll/Mti,„ lV.,„ i|,„ ,„,„„ '■ "'•";'■•""■" ot- ,1.,. r.„.k ., ,i„, , ,„„ 

•«"! P^.•■.^..M,.. throupl, ,|„ i,„|,„ ,, ,,' ^""■- M.r,.,.;,i„„|ly,.n..,. 

'"'"'','" '•'■'li'.^irv «-,;,tli. nn:... ,,,„,..,, I„. v ' 1 ■ • 

„.,,,„„„„,,,,,■: ■ '-M.'^..;;,:- -■ 

tar. liuwivcM. ||„. |„,s iv,. , 
view. Sii,i;i,i,- ,.;i 

'■■■'«> thrr.llal, ,„.l;u,„Mnti,. ,i,, , 

'•"" ""f int.. r,.,-n.„- tv„k,,l .l.„|. T ':"'.''"'''''^-'^''-'l''"---^n-ti,.„!;v 
abundant „....o-.„,. ,1, „„ „ ,: /''.''''^'V ?; ""^ --< "!„. ,,,,„ ;. ,„ 

..n,v liM.vl„„ki„. .,„„;,„„„' 7 '■' "•'V-'l" '" I'-.„ ,. .r,.|,.,;.,nv. .„ „ ,. 

•;:'-'--''-''--'^'i.v::"n:!n;!::,, ::;:';; ;;:;•;- .■;!.;■ ,....<„.■,. 

liom 111,. ,.i„.,,,;,.,,i , , . , '' "•'■ ""' -^i "fNl. 

I,rr„,,,..t;..,, . '"IMlMi-itlMli ,,f ih,. I:,,,,, , , ,,,1, .„,., ., ,„ .-" 

1'c ( ) 


'"'"'■'•"'l' !-';n.. t!„.'f,'!l,,,v;'," 


IJ 1 



111 iiiiiiiiiiij. 

.1-111 ... ]abn,d„rito. Ab, An s 1 " H "r" •'^'' "'"' ""^''- ■-'"■ 

I-.- i.t.,w„it,.: :, ver/ivw o,,:, r„ rv ,' '::r:"\r^"' r"'"'" 
'" ti- .loniia, r„ck i. .,o.,. u.t of tb^ ::-:M:r:z:::z 'vr '"'-■■ 

^,te. .itnnit,.. pvrH,„ti,e. an,i .patir,- n,.,. .„',:.„:.• . 

uig.y iMn> ill ,iio<t .,f 

thr >li.: 

■'• '''■'^■''' '■"i-iii> :ni'l r.l;iii..,i- .,!■.■ 1 
•r. ZirtW. I.p|,,-i„„|, ,1,., ivt,.,j:,;,,,l,„.. V 

ipafit.- an- all pr..i,.,it i,,,, .,,., 
i"!i- av III,,.,. 

I. IV.:;. J,, ^y, 



. ■• '.;■ js. A - . ■■ J 'V, -' ' •_. ■:/ <:■ :- Ji, s , > 


i>ii'inr\n:\T or rin: isterioh 

to II .,, 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I'i'.fe8-,,r Dittr' I 1 .'<"-oiMl:ir.v niiii.rnls. , 

1 ;(«/// 

V-* of ./o,ni,.,nt nal.hroid l,,pr ,„ //,, /.„,„,„ ,.,,^ 

SiO,.. .. 
TiO,.. .. 


Fe,0, " 

VcO.. .. 
MnO.. . ' '■ 
MkO.. . 
f^uO.. .. 
N«,0.. .. '■ 
K.O.. .. 
11,0 al U0-('.. 
H,() nliuve U0°^^ 






(currected value) 





II- 1.1 

• irt: 









11 53 













•V fairly acnirat.' o),!!,.;,! ,|, 

l<t. rniiiiatiMii ,,f (1 

e Prin.ipa, ,„inera, ....Utuen.s (R„.i.«, ....holi) i:^';,:™ 

" "fiRlit rx'^'fiitat'c- ainoiiff 


I-uliradorite.. ..'.. 


Titanite nud magiiftit,'. 
J'lotite.. .. 
■■\piititp.. . 







abnve. In soi„ero../,eet. tl,e.M.ri • ?•'"?'' '"'* ^«"" •^■"f-natcl a. 

an.1 lime, as well a, he „mor of ^e.nic i^nl "" 1' •"''T '"' ''""' '»'^ "^^'-'^ 
that Ola.. It s,e,„.s k>s,. I'o ,, pS'n^^f nl^ ''l/-'''/'''^'^' "'•*' *°° '"'^'^ ^''^ 
cla-. re^ as an ahnonnal vavicty ii, that 

I'll.- -ta,Mlai-.l ,„ine,al o„m,-o-itio„ ,„- •„,„-,„• ,. ,, . .- , .. 

w:i> falciilnt.-.I tn 1,p:_ '" "* "" -^"nii rhi^Mfication 

-,-. V 





Aiiorthit*. , .. 
I>iii|isi<le. . . . . 
Ily|ii.r>tl)enc . 


Majjn.tite.. . 
IlfO and CO... 


Ai-c,.r<liii;f|y. in this met 
SOilic ^iilirnii- of ihe KTCiilc 
class. Tl„. rui., of Q to F in tho 
the rork in tlie onier, pnllnro. 

n9 62 

'■""-• '" ""■ '■■•■''•'•• ^ "»'"■•'•■ of th.. ,alf,..nnn.. 

I" tiiiit vviii.-;, woiii.i |,ij„, 

■rni Is vi'iy cjoic 

V.,.,IATlnvs „„,„ ^„^ N,.„„.,^ • "»TrO.<m..V 


«c.,„- to pu.servo ,ts „s„al d.ara.t.Ts. l,„t tl,.. 


pl..;:i.-Ia^, shows „ strong t,nd.ncv t.,wflnr:,r "• '"',"" '^""'•'"•'••'^. '^"t tl,.. 



-III,, rionp Ab, Ati Wt'oi tl, "•■«• 

e.sp.^c;all.v «l.un.lant, .1,,. pl,^i„,,a'-,- -n'or.,''!'" ,^.; J" , '"."■""•"^»-"-""!t.. boron,. 

In sovcral t 

iin s,,.ti,,„s (}„, 

clasf iin.j i|iiart/, whicl 
fubstaiice i.f the rock. 

1. with fh, 

I'la(ri...-lii.p is sp, n ,„ |„, 

t!.v n,].] 

^'ill 'ln,„|„„nt liornM..,i.|,.'s. fori',, tlit 

I' n 1 1 ffor hi jp 

icpd hy ortho- 



more nclil, are nl 

luinHO- in i-n, 


uppiT rotitai-t?. A 

w:iy« nio«t notalil, 

iii'li'-itin- th;i| th, 


poo. I i 

■nrs III a w.'ll 

th.. B..iin.hirv 1 

0X110^0(1 sill 

Mi;- til. 
.f th. 

'■Niacts ;,,„! ..-|„,pi,|lly „1 

lin- hcco 






I'lO at a point 

ntcn.ppiiijr in ,)„, i,,,„,j ,,^ 


onir the 
10 upper eon- 

t ,-00 t-ppt thi.-k. A 

nine niij 

ei.rita.-t i- 

iinii-iiallv rii'l 


"let, rXn. 1 ) t 

•i-t of the Ar, 

It niiii >soi|fh f 


yif rivcr. 

al..ii^- with ih< 


'1 in h..rrih!en,lp hut 

microp(s-ii,atit,. |„it ortl 




l« .ars tunc 

twenty feet fro 

111' sll 



» 'imiri,: unri 

111 the lowc 

2, tak 


■II seveiity-tive feet t 

'^'' 'loniinalps ov, r th.. pla-i,>.la 



'lotifp n,,f 

plagioclasp i 
'la^p ill am. .lint. 



i.s easpiiflalh 

an inizon.d lal 
■^IK'cinipn N'n. 

lower C(.ntai-t. is 

■^pe.'itn.n N'l 

ok, tl 

loiijrh li:;!: 

ira.lioitc ■'oinpwlint s,,!,. 
Ken fift.f.ii feet fr 

II very similar rock 

in which 

T.linate t.. the orth. 

nam. d 


le .rder 

■"'Pos,..| of hnriihlend 

or in than eith. r N* 

'on, th(> u 

pper cont.iet. 


of .le 

.|iiarf/. ..rtho.^lnsc 

Pesniialite and much hiotite 

essentials are all 


'erea-iiip al.uii.lanc.-. Tl 
t!ie latt.T in Miial! 




.iripi; iiiclii.l 

le inicro- 

stnicture i.s quite eonfn^ed 

i'' with mutual 


ii~-eniinafe<I foil,^. Th. 
•n* aiul enelo-iiro.-. Th.^ 

ii— 1.' 

M« i>if\i!i\ii\i 1,1 I III. i\rniii>n 

2 GEORGE V . A. 1912 

All tiMv.. ,,H..-i,n.>.,. ,„., ,.,., ,>...l, „„, ,|„.|,. .|.,„.i,|... „,, 1^. . ,j 

.-.,hh,..U,„„ „io„K .1,.. „„,..r , Mt...... 11,.. n„,„,.,iv,. .,H...i,i,. ,.:,.vi,i,. .„•,.: 

\o. 3. n fret bolrw iipjier "onfiut , .,, 

\.>. I. 480 •• «••»> 

, ,1072 

l.iui.'i r.iitnit. ,•,()() f,.,,t b. Irw upiw, loiitact. 

M<l\ II, N||,|,s 

rw„:,rk;,M,. n,nat„„K ,„ . ,.,„,,„-iii„M. . Fi«ur... I:! ,.,.1 It- I'l.,,- '", ) 
Son,.. .v,.„r. ,.u'o tlh. uri-r |,„l.|:-l„.,| ,„■„ p„,H.,-. ,l,.,.ili,„ ,|„. '^,1 

(fraphy „t ll,,- mlt,. „ „„„ |,|„..„ .,(■ „„.„, .m, , .,., 

«- ...-^ ..n .i,.M u,„.N ,•„,.„,. on), „ A,w ,,.,. i„ „;;. ^ Z 
'■";, ''"■,?,"""•'" ■•' ""- I'-rti-Mlnr «....(!„„ ,v,,, „.., f„l|v .p.^r- 

...dho ,.„I|„.. ,m] new p...rn,n,,,ln,. MK.t. rial at point, al.,„.^ ,l„. I;„„„.la,.v ,11," 

as .I.>,.nnto,n,y tho writ,,-. Tlu. ..l.a,-,.... of , , ; ,„ „„„ 'J^^ 

ho n,ntrm m ham «.,„...I to ,.nrro|,ora,.. tl,o „ n.rai ,.o,„.l„.io„ f tho 
wrn,Tan,!thotwop„l,li,.,,tio,K al.ov.. ,.„.„tion,.,l won. i^-u,,! 
_ Thu.^ m 190,-. an.i P.m.;. ,1,o writ..,- Loliov...! tl,at tho i„t,„-lvo ,„ok. .Mour- 
nn^on th. _ ,vos,..,.„ -lope of Mo,io ,no„„tai„ f^.-thor fon„ a .in.lo -il. aho t 
-^CfX) f«.t ,n fhtcknos.. S,,.], wa. hi. b..liof at tho timo when tho present 
roport was .ent m for publi-atfoM. I„ 1010. Mr. St„arf J. So .fioM was 
'•..n„,l by xho. l)i,e..tor of tho Do.ninion CeoloRioal Sunov o nX 
M K...l...,-a .tu.Iy of tho P.uvoll ,an.o. A, ,l,o witor"- ,v„„o-t -7 S , .M 

ox..,„,no,l tho seofon of Moyio , ,„.i„ „ „„ Ho„„,la,v sh.i,. Ho , , 

hat the ,.n .ous rook, ot tho wo-torn ^lopo roally oo.npo-o throo ^ilN. -opara 
h.v ,tel,o„or .,nartz,to. Ho al.o fo,„„| two thinnor sill, on tbo ..a:,on , 
of the inountam ami ,n tbn I?o,-.„.lary-lino .ootinn „., arou 

nntor «a- not ahlo to travor-o ,n I!.(>4. In I'.UI Mr. SolmtioM ^n,i.|o,l 


to hi 

profilo of tl) 

various cniitiicts, all of whicl 

o tnoiintaiii. 1! 

-moo li(04 aiKJ t 

which woro «'(.n to )i< 
It foro<t tin.- hail oli.aro.I t 


the writer 
■at(.(l in his 


iiTo oan now 

?oril.o,l. Tl 


llolllit a: 

10 writor"- -inocro thank- 

oan.ful. otiiciont fiold-woik on thi- .irob 

10 ixp.isiiro> M.mowhat 
to thi^ -IrMotiiral r<lation- horo- 
iro .liio to .\rr, SohoHoM for his 


Tho rolations 



'"■'■•.''"■"■'''"■'■• """• "'M'lox tlian ua- forniorly holiov,,! I, 

owovor. It may 


in aihanco that tho t 


•American Journal of Scioncp. Vol. 20 190.1 r, iw. r„ * 1 t^ 
GeburfstagP .on Harry R«-Pnb„ll S? »,„.;. f.-iw?' '^A,/'^-*^'^'"-'ft 

lospiibusch. StuttKiut, IMl^'p. 26.'i. 

zum sit'hzig-ten 

ftl.ruif, .„ nil ,1,11.1 i>n!>.s..Mi^- 

•ai-iutu |.iil)li<lMMl in ;iH).-, ,|,,,| i;,,,, 


•""■■: "-^—>.., .•.iH.n,,,,:;,;i'',,'''im;:: :,;'''■•• :'"- "-- 

■"TV ,m|».rtm,t ,,f ,|„. ,„., .||'. „„ ,1, , ' '' '"'"■''' " " "i- 

th- part, b.-t •..","-. The '7 ll'"*""f ■■'-'"I l.luck 

interval i- .--K. f,.,.t .-S...!.. I • ili,,;.,'""" ""•""""'■ '■".i-h;. 
I'T Convi-Ilit>Ili-c. ihc- live m'll< , (■ \I • 

\>y th,> lett-rs. A. B. (.. „ ;,„," K '',•;•■ ";'""!'-'' -ill 1- .li-.inK.nM,.,l 

tn-ghe-t. E the l„we.t in tlu^, /^s v ' ^';:'"^"-""''" "-••1-. wi.i. A tl- 

C. D^^and K ..o.r..,...,, ,„ .li; ivh.,. ' ..'.t' -in 'Vd. "T ,^ '' /" ""■^" ^'"^• 
Of the five .ill.. R i, th^ „nlv on „i , '■'•"■/!"'•■ ■'"'I HW pnp,.,^. 

iii-vul. n — 1-,,1 

present p!,a,nl vnriafi..,,. of notal,' ohn 



I'fi'uttUKyr nf nif: istkrior 

2 QEORQE v., A. 1912 

With the fldition of one tvo,. .I,,. I, t ,• ^i. 

MOril MOUNiaiN 

"I,,,,:,,. "7;;;;." ^:iu';r:,i;;i"i:i:;: t.,;!i;; ,;!•;:;•-'";■ ;'•■•""•'•■ •-.«. .„„,„„.. 

llnii'- -Ih HM "" "•.hlliitf |.|«ii,., ,,f ,1... ,|i.artzil.- ,i,„| r, 

beifi'iiiiiiir with the nm^f i.^;,! „ 

.n.l f.Tr,„n„K..osi.n ..„.■ m M„.t L.ll ""' I "' ",'"1"'*' "'■"' "'" '"" » »>«'!' 

'«"""!„. „,., nt of ,.,■ r^. . •:^ r ,;'^''''"''.'ir;' ''^nM.,,,!. ^ahhr... Th, 

J" silK A. C. an.i I) th. intm-iw P„.k f,., 

chief .•o„.stit„e.,t is . l.iotite ^ranit..' 

than thr dpt^p jfc, 
meiliiim. Very of 
eoiitiniiify of the n,ck 


nil.- .!i-tiii.'tlv 

.■i'mI /oil, 


H 1.^ a ifru.v HH-k, ,i„„.h lidit.T in tint 

''" ^f'l^hro ri'latr •>() Tho ,„. .• 
mcliuMi. Very oft.,, r,„„i, ^rai.^ of l,l„ I. 1 " ' "'"" ■'"'■•■ '"'"'' '" 

Hoet. to ^ra.luat., i„ .i,., ,„ , Ij " ''"?'' '" ^' "^ '^'"■""' '^"V" a*' tluy were 
from th.^ .ill-..o„ta,'L. •"' '''""'^^ "' ''"^"•'^'"' (x.tiolith,) .hnttero,! 

ii"u.?""/l^i,to;;;::i''e;.H:;-!;r ';;:;, "^ '!'- --r^ --^ the appn.i.„ate 

point, in the -e.tion foil™ L '^ t^i'^i^^'I'^/'^'T';/- -" '' .'t thr.v 
d.scriho,!. They wre .■.,II..,.f.V ,t r In r 7l "^ ""' ">"•"""'... will 1,.. 

"Pp.r ,.o,ita,.t uitli the ,„iu;,;i,„ '^' ^'"•'•"^"'•^ ''• *'■ «•"! .'O f.,., f,„„, „,.. 

what',:;:;r:z/it"etL':;r ,11.::^^-"' " •■-'- -• ---^i.^^ 

Sra.v .ratiit... I„ „ii„ .oci! it Tn T ^ :;''''''"''"'" -^ " '""^' '■'^^"'"'- 
morphie granular stnmtur.. .po ali-.a Iv lev 1„?«^ "•■''"'"'"""""■ "'"' ^' ''>'"'''' - 
Th.. or.vstalli.atlon is ronf„..d , ' f- "1 """'■' '"'" "^ *''" ^'•''•'"'"■ 

ortho,.lase, uIi.,,Hus. - ,1 „ . ^ ' : •- "'"■ ""'■^"'"-"'-'i'^'- "nVn,H«rthi,.. 
magnetite, a litth- ti aai e „', 1 it" " '^ • '^' '"'■'''"T ""•''"'" 'i'-'if-on- 

.ircons. Tt. -ha-a,.,. :•;,':■;::;;: tT*"'^ "' "'""^ '^"-^ ^^^'-^ 

normally |...l,.n-h! 

iL' t' 

I'l Mt '.'I 

<:;i?.i:^ic:'-^.l»»^.'^i:i.t^ e;^:; 

^^«Q^*lg:'^ .^r^Jl,; 


^^.'. w j; 

iirroRi or thk r„iy.F AsTmsmiER 


Tlio aiiiilysi- „f tlir r, 

A Stl. , Ijr jpiitMT 

ii'ivaneo.l i,,., ,,;. „ , 
iii-'ffrpgatp. ,r ,,ia,,,,. 
due to Dl:i, ; '■,;;, .^■ 

how- till. 


mi.'ii to be 



•f th,- 

■' ■. a~ oi th,. ,,tli. 

iol.KlM,? whirl, ar.- UMKlil 

■ ao. i ami ,„us,.„vi„.. Thi, ,.l,oratio„ i. hHirv.-. 

--'ri''"--" -'i^-'-tn::';:^^^^ -"-^ ' 

;.; ..^ ::i::i;:::,;^l:; ,r-;;'t;jrrr';:.r:'-;f-' ,■- 

pari. .,, ,»„„„„ „ii ,i„ „,,;!: ',;' ''r "':',■"'"■' ■'"■ '»'■* -' »"- 

« w,i ,„„; ,i„ ,»,„,;,,',,,■;"■ '''^■"" 'r"'-" <^- »»i.w„ „,i 

•i''i'l ru,-k. i^ thf- 

I Willi .l.wt-likc 

to he 

■xi.uUi,.ii ,,f v;ii...iir. 


riir<-i iind 
the I'll, niii':)l 

^Pf'iilii II No. 

Anahi.^is nf (Irani/,- /Pha<r I) ,.f M,„, 


T:() ' ■■ 

Ai.d,.. .. ■ " 

FeO,.. . 
Feb.. .. 
MnO.. .. .' " ■ 

Mko v. 


NaO.. .. ■ ■■ 

K.O ■. ■■ 

n.O at 110° c. ' 
• 1,0 above IIO°(' 
I'O,.. . 

CO,. ■ ■■ 

'■" .'^;7/.v. 















1 19.^. 



most pviilont 

Sp. gr. . . , , 

TL- 1 . ', ", (corrected value). 2^7.33 

Th. rock .3 clenrl.v an unusual t.vpe of l,io,i,o pran t- T , o „, ~, 
pecul.ant.v ,s the low total for the alkalies • it aprorrh w ,' ,1 , ^^ ," „ 
proportion of fpKlspar pre.put \otwltl T,' V i u "^ relatively .small 

the sili..a pen.pntagP isTppt ow h • T p ^ ' «^■-'n.lanPe of frep ,„art.. 

po..t,on pav,. the following re-ult in, pl-r" ,1..; - """-•■''"«■'•"' -m- 

Quartz • i~ ■ 

Sodiferous orthoclase ■♦1-6 

Biotite S2^5 

Mucoovit© '.' 15^2 

Microperthite.. .'.'.' 4-6 

Oligoclase S^9 

Magnetite 10 

Apatite 1^0 





i>Fi'\fiiMi:\T or Tin: imihiui; 



-i^.^.- K' 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 19- :) 


Orthoclase. . 

Albito ■.." '■ 

Anorthite.. .. 

Corundum.. .. .... 

Hypersthene.. ....".." 

MaRnetite '. .'. 

Ilmenite. . .. 

HO and CO, .".." " 



..nail isolat<.,l an., f , i, ,;::';™"'":' "'^'l'"—„larV witl. 

The dieinical aualv^i^ l,v iv,*' niff,.;,.l, „f t>i > • 

as follows:- ' "" '' "^ ^ ''^'*'^ - l^-Pe<MM,en N'o. 11:1*, ;, 

AHulmi. of (,nn,;ir , p/,„,, >, of Mo,,:- .^■ill... 




ye.0,.. .. " " 




CaC. .. 

Na.O.. . 


H,0 at no°C.. . 
H.O above 110^0. . 



Sp. gr. 













The corrf.3,„,n(;ii,p- mineral (■o,„j>,„iti,-,„ in w.-iuht „.. -„,.,.. 

detenuined by „p,i,.a] ,ne„n^. th„.:- ^ 1" n ..„laK,.s wa^ r.-.ui;!uy 


iti I'oin nr nil , mii i.-n.;.\,,\ii:it 





*>lij;<ieInso.. .. 
^^nBlll■tite.. ., 
Apiititc. . 
<'al'-ite.. .. 


29. 1 







f til, iilkali,-. 
t ^iluiiiiiiii iiidiiMr.' ili^it 

Tl,- hli^U ,,r..|,„ni,,„ ,,t ,|,K,n/. tl„. v,.,, ! ... ,„,•,,.„., 
yet lowor tlun. iu I'l,ns,. I. ,„■,! ,h,. I,.u- ,.,.,•..,.„, „.'. „,■ ' 


ImviU;; !;. 11-111 : - 

Qllaltz.. .. 
<li thoclase. . 


''"ninduin. . 


Ilmcnitp.. .. 
Apatite.. .. 









2 l.ut 


■ nin, ,.„• -,,l,i-a,,r lu,~ ,.., ,,-,-, iv,.,i . .li-,,,,,-, ik„„.- i„ ,)„- -,-„ 
'■""'■'"■'' ^" th- p„i,it :,i> tV..-t ir.m, tim ,„,iK..r .sill- ,a.-t. 



';i> ii.-:irl.v tao -nm,. (|ii:i|itiitiv,- ,-(.inp...-lti,.„ a. I>1,.,„ 
'■■'..•tn,-.- ,- ,,„„-,. liko tlpit ..f I'hi,,,. ,. I,,.,-,.,. ,„-,.,„i,Ilv till,, „,'■ . 

w...... .■..v::,^:::7;,;:n;i:;:;;r;:;,,;;:;:;; • ' -- -- --^.. 


><„lit',-i,,ii. (iitlioi la- 





'Migoclaw .. 

I, i- I'Ifiir tl: 

.17- 1 



lar th, 1-,. i, „„ti,i,l,. viiriari,,,, f,, ,i„. ,.,„„|.,-i,i,.n ,,f ,1,,- l,i.„it, 
granite zone a.s represente<l in Pha-e^ 1 o „,,,, o J,, „^ '" '"'" ' 

inerea- in acidi-y i,. the .„n.- fi-oi,. ah,,;; Z'ULL i '^'^""''''^' ''^"'"'" 

1? Ill r,-ality irroffiihirly -tn nki 


Pon„.„ ., the tninend and oxide cot.tituen.. ' Whal^ '^hV e::;:; 'I 








2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
magma was not homoponcni. nt tlio t;,„„ .f •. ,■ ,-. . 

doubtless to ho rolat;,! th" c nf, , ' *"'"^'fi'^-''<"'"- To tlmt fact Js 

. . tiau>,i th, confi.siMi, rapid rr.vstalUzntioi, of tho 

mineral oonstitueiits. 



The hiotite pranite of sill P i . i 
babit, with hornblendo a.Mod to tlir lilt V ""•'?' '"'" ''' '''''^ °^ '''""" 
Th.. amphibole resembles hat f , '\ ''"T"""' '•-"■'''"'^"•ts rPhase 4). 

The structure of In , on lo-l it''"f " ■?' 'T"""" "^ '^"^ ^-urcvll sills. irregularlv from tho ;;:,t',rH;; 1 /•'?""" T?'''"'^ ■""' "''^"- 
top zone of sill I) ,3 comp.wod < f ^ho, . '>''"'''™>orpl„c-pran„lar. The 

has been made of it. Th^ specific Lav vf" "^""- "^'^ '^'"^'"'■'■^'' ''""'■-''« 
I'einp slightly greater than Tt'J'Zt " ^^^r""" /.'■"™ ^■" ^ '^ 2.766, 

».r.ij.c i..r the overlvmp biotite cranifp. 


oonibines features of .ranito n , ^ .l" (Ph^rr.T"';;"'' *•' "/'""^ ^■'-'' 
directly transitional into the domin.nt 1, 1 1 ;,;, ^* "' '" ^'"'t- ^ rock 
illustrating this intorn,edl,;r rock w l*^:', '",;f ' " P"^.'"" -"- ^ specimen 
^:pper contact of sill C, and has Wen 'InaWl " '"'"' -"' ^^"^ '-I^-- 'hn 

. a &-""i^;?^;n:r r-kif ti^t,r^ir^^- °^ ^'- -'^- ^^ 
'^:^ S- i-lnT^S. ^'^^^^ ~"-^^^^^^^ 

and epidote. The structure of the rock i inrn ' " I ), V ,• "' '"''''"' '^''°'>" 
but local areas of micropegmatite at c:ro: KTi'o ""'''^''^"■^•^^""'-• 
the flfi::?;? ^utl" ^"^^ "'«- ^^^-'•-" ^'^- "4^ brProf. ninrich gave 

Analysis of Intermediate Rod- (Phase 5) of Moyie S:JU 


TiO, ■ ■■ 


F*,o, : ;;.; 


MnO.. .. ■■ ■■ 

M(tO •• • 


Na,0 ■;.••.. 


H,0 at nO«C.. '.' 
H,0 above IIO'^C. 



Sp. gr. 

.(corrected value). 














W.VOATO///// <7//,,- ,>//,„Vo./A7,- 233 


Tlie qimiititalive mineni] .•„iiinn fti „ i ■ . 

mined (ortliclaH" m, f '-^■" ' ""I'"- """ I'.v ".-,^1,1 ,,..,v,.„ia_', . „:„ ,1,,,,.^. 

Biolite.. .. 
Ande^ine. . 
Quartz.. .. 
■Apatite.. .. " 
MnBn.tit(.. .. 

19- ( 




il'iiiidniit liiotiti' Mnii .iniit, „ 1- . I • , 

.\ot tlie Ion f(>Id.<iiar cutont torbid- ,,„,• „I-i,.;„,r ,l,;. , i • ' 

Like l.otii the,, -.n,! tl, • ' '■'""" ""* rock van.iy „, tli.i 

IM the .Norm .■lassitirntio.i the ii.trrme.liit.. rm-l- ,„ 
"rder. austrare, n-ith ,},. f.'.ll„win;j i,„nn : -^ 

' a|i[)ears 
' f:i!iiiiy. 

' a- yit 


Orthoclasf.. '.' 


Anortliite.. .. 
Corundum.. . 
Hyp«rsthenc . . 


Magnetite. . . 
.\patite.. .. 
H,0 and CO, 

At tlie I'eip.udic-.ilar (iKstaiirf ,.t j^n u., t ir,„„ tiu 
another speeinten of the i„ter,„o,liat,. .o.-k ua. ,. 

weight perce^tape. (mode):— 



Andesinp. . 

Biotite '.'. ■'. ■; 

Sodiferous orthoclase. 







■wer , ,,ufacl of -ill K, 
It ujivc 111. f..Il,,i\viiip 



in une>:.iontial 



234 f>ni-iiti\ir\i nr rut: iXTEffiun 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
<Ietails Th,. ,-„n..,.::,,. ,io-,.ri,,ti„n .,( ,|,.. ,,-Mal ^al,|,r,. will .,,111,.,.. „No, f,„. of llip funic- r.K-k ni lli, „• M,,.vi,. mIU. 

Yc-t .Mi,.r,.s,.„pi,. .n,l ,.i„.,ni,..l ,tn,|,v „f ,1,.. l,„v,,- i„l,.n,al .„„.■ „( ,.„„„„., 

, fa.e of ..ontnot. In ,M,u.r„.,.o,.;<- .,.p-an,n-. ,„„1 i,.,on, 1 s,r,u.,„r.. i, i 
o nu,rko, l.v , h,lo,.„t fro,„ ,1,., ,.„„, ,,,,,„„. t1,.. os..„n.l , ,.,,1. „ .. In - 

n.t.tP. /oiMt... kn„ln„ ,„„1 niu.h .hlorit,. are tlio -.roM.Inn .tlt,„.„t- 

.b/a^/.v/.v of ( (flauo 7) of Moi/ic SUh. 

SiQ, '^'•'• 

TiO','.". '.'. ■ 5294 .882 

A1,0,-. .. ■'■'' •*»(• 

Fo,d... .. l»-22 -I.TO 

FeO.. 2 08 .OKI 

MiiO.. Hll .11.) 

MrO.. •3i -OO:) 

CaO.. . 6'9« •ir,-) 

Na.O.. lO-fli .19.1 

K,0 l-'O •021 

ITjO at llO^C. •''' •'"'■> 

n,0 al«)ve UO'^C . ,'!-! 

I'.a, i-^ 

08 .001 

•^ '' 2.980 

I> lOll'iWS ! 


Labradorite "** 

Chlorite 2.i.« 

l.liuirtz '1-0 

Titanite '.'.'.■.'.'..'.■. ^'^ 

Magnetite . .. ^''' 


On aerouiit nf .-:unio alt' 
fiiisruisli with ceitaiiitv th.> 

aci'ordiiigly. liccn entered 

ration in the rorU. i 

t wa> t'oun.i .litti<'i,lt t. 

"i^'ll am.Mint of alkalin,. foM^par; whirli 1,, 

in th.- total t..r lahrad 

• — r- ^ U- 

.''ii \'>\. II (.. -J.'Jl. 



/.•//'../,'/ nl- nil run I l>//,-..\ol///,' ^3.- 


III" Oiiloiiliiti'.I norm 1-: 


Orthoclase.. .. *••»" 

Aibit.. •.••:» 

MiMlhitP I2W 

IlviKTMllicnp. 3*m. 

l>i<>psiai>. SM-* 

M.-iKiipt to. . 18-44* 

Ilnii-nito .''•(KJ 

A|pntite.. l'3ti 

\Vi -er.. ..■ ', 31 

i t« 


r„.."''",h'r'^.,'rl"""~ '■■/"• '"■':'"'' "■"" •■'■ "'■ '- >" --an^7^.,..,l..i,. 

r.iiu . , nil. -alli-iiiiiii.' ■■riU-r. v.inliin'. 


i!K~r.MK OK l'l.i:'iii;|iM.iiY. 
<liff.T.-nr |.lu,-t- Ikiv,. U,.„ a-«.nil.|,,| i„ JM,- X I ;„„1 X||. 

I i 



Liil»i';i(l('rit»'. . , 

Aiiiltsiniv . 

SiK)al»ariiitt ..rtliiicia-.-. 


Miison it'- 



MiiKDi'titf or iliiii'iiilc 



-■- i § ■ : ■■ i r i' -, ■ ii - 

~ 1 ^ i S ' fc^ ' 

15* rJ:i 

.">N : -llH 41(4 l-J ■.! Hi,. 

:ii .s 2:,(i 

1 4 


n; "1 IS 5 

■ . ; l'^' \ :< I II 

■' ■' -' ■< 24 !l aiM x^ :, 

" ' — " •ii a ■ .1, I 11; II )i 1; 

•3 i 

.'f •' 

I « 


. . . 


1 •.' 

I !1 

' 2'r." 



Si^citio i?rii\ ity , 

The total is Km n in ,..^.1, ^.;,^_ 
2 '.cm oj,,s,j 2 '.I.-.4 2 H4-.> 

2 7.-1 » a 72^ L> :3;< 


s^.viiI-l'V Vmf 


hi r\in\n\r -a /•/// i\ii lani; 

2 GEORGE v., A. I9t2 


.\l 1) 
Kf ( » 
( '.i( I 


II, (» at lill (■ 
H.jO litMivi- Il'i"C 



f = 




^ 31 

4 ' 

j; - 

5 ~ 




2 * = 

C t 

!^~ " 

■■1 !C' 

'■■J 111 

."i^ it.\ 




u -.i; 

111 7i. 

1' U~ 

•J (IK 

■J ■*•< 

'■' !»■_» 

« 11 

1" 7 1 




It :l!l 

1 ;i;i 

11 ■<.. 


1. 17 

1 :i,s 

1 III 

1 II 




- L^l 

1 ii7 

1 -,i; 


1 17 






•Ml IW 

^•11 ill 



^ Z 

- i 

, -I 

1 i 

^ ^ 

^ j s 

^7 a 



7-' i:' 

71 illi 



III 17 

I.I L"t 



.'• Trfi 

1 ■j:i 




1 w 

■_' ."i,'i 

1 IKi 

1 ;i:i 

•J <H 

■J ill 

:' :i7 



1 11 

1 ;ti 





'.111 ; 

100 It; 

to i^dioite Zt U UK. ; "' " '° ^","'"^ "''"'''■ ^' "''"■ '■'""''!"^ 

each .,f fou o o • "i' H r.,7";r"""' '•''"'"■V"^"' '»>'' --'^-— -^ in 


Bo,n„lao Ish. '" "'^"^ "'"'•'' "^""°^' '''^''''•'•^ i" '^^ ""^ "f the 



Tab,.. Xrn.-.s7,.„„„ ,,,, ,, ^,.,,,,^,^ ^,^^^^^^^ ^^_^ ^^_^^_^ ^^^^^^ 


."^lll.. Itllrk- K.»k / .,. 

uinui-i III tliii'klii S.I . 
'•••■I- .11 Utt. 

''hurilrt. r ..f r,, 


kfr!»>i!i>-« .i| 


.\. i;r, 

I), ;u) 

('. .VKt 




I). In.Vl 

K. a»( 


■>IikIi'Iv .i.mIi»,..|,,,, 


l"«wlKi.l.l,r.,,.| r,„c.lU,|i. 

Ji'.'t.i. u-i .,„n. ,-,.|,.,.,„„.|„. , ^, o -.._., .r; 

i.K. ,„.„.. . k •^: . ; ;'"■' ""•"-■■n. ..'r. -j n •.. h, 

i;.,i,i„.. • - ■i""i""". -!■ v.'i 1' '.I. ,,n.i ;t ,», 

[''"■"'•l-'"l''""'it. K'lKliit. 

'"I" 'Ii^.t. ,..k 



'- i'.'uart/it.- 

Ini>-iiiiri|i.iti- r,«.k 

'i.ll'ljl-., Umtu.hI,;,! in., Ill, .,,,(, 

\''wrt/il,. .iKr,,,t tl,R'kn,"-7 

:; :i;i 

L' '.» ■ 

■J r:i 

- ''7 

This . the ,.K. ,.;,:, „::"";,;:-.;:,, : ::;;^ ,:;.r ,"'--" »;•;-" ^i". 
of ,.,^. .hi,.h „„. .,p:.,K. ,;m;.:S :.:'';:,:,' r" ;■'■'■'■' -'■'': ^' '^'^- 

lower part of ihf. nn«! h„,l „ I . , . "' '^""'^ "f o-iart/itc Tli.- 


/</ iMtl til \ / ,,/ ///, M ,/ /.•/«/.• 

2 GEORGE V . A qi? 

,., ['•^•;;: "" " ■- •' •■•■"•-• i i ■''■ .i-Mrf.h. ui,i. .,,ii,.. v, j:. w ^ ,i„. 

:>- J^n!:u!"Z'': ?,"' : '• '^ ^V '"^ ' '" ""' " '■">"- -'i- 

. " "'"' "" ""■ "''K-ii f I i,..rtliri,.nl,».-t ..f ih.- .i„„,„,t ,f fl„ 

:; """"• ",":'■• '1'^' "f "..■ ..n.,l,v-.l M.-m,..,.. «,.,.. ,„l|...,..,i -IK 



fiO-t,,,, .„,.. .t ,n„n„..l,al.. r..l. ..v.rlvi,,. ,1„. ,,.,.,,„„ „,„„ ,..■ „ ,,, 

VUV.;,}\ lmI.I,,-., .,, ,1,.. |,..,,.„„ ,,|- ti„ -,ll. ■ ' 

>iii' 'ill i:.\.K. 

S,ll I) i, ,,.,.,|y ,.,,,„, 

I M'lii't/iti u ill, -frik.- \ 

.1 i> iH,,.K, ^,,,,.., ,,| ,,.t, r„„.,||.,,,. rn.k ail, „. rill. 1.11.1, 
I.. ■■ .nun.,. I I.. „„„.„„ I ,.„„,.„,_,,.„ „„ ,,„.,, , .' 

,' " ■'■'■"■.7''""^^ n- .l.-.u- I,. ,!„. ,i,M ,1m, Hi, „„.,| ,i,i„, . „., 

n\.. iih.r. :i,.|,| /on,., w.,-- hill.. iii..r.' (ii..ii |(Ni i',, , 

• ."■■;"'"• -i'l^ "-""i !■: -^> i-n.i^i,.. ,..,i,„:i„..i:,. „i„„„ :.„ ,„,., 

Ill ihl.Ull,.--; IN ,,,||„. i, .\, ;;,) ^ ,,,„| ,j.|_ ,.„ ,, ^. ,,, 

' """ '■■"'■"'■' ''^ "'■ "'•■•■■' '• '1'-" ■ — i M,,.-, |,r,.l,,,l.!.. till, ,1,.. 
-•''''■"•" - ;M"-.-.i HI .1,, ..,, an.l I, ,„.,„ ,„■ tl.,. ,r..i.t ,.hi. -1,.,.,. n. I 

hi, ,,. ,,,u.,.nu. latj. ....K. ,1... „ , ,.,• .,,;,., ,,... „„ ,,,„, ,,;,,.,^,.^^,., ^ 

lu.i /.ill,.. -Ii.u a uni.liiiil iniiiMtMii int.. .a,-ii ..til, r. 

ii,v|.,,tli, sc- a- ,.. ,| 

I'lllia-, oi- I III \, 1,1 ,.,! (^,,,i 

/''■. /,,■,<-•,/ h:.,;l,„i„i;o„. .\iii..iijr „11 ,|„. ,,,„,., j^, 
•^.riKin ,i| tlw uciil zones, tli.- wiiirr lia> Imvii f,,r,-..l t ..„.• , , " 

-if-' !^ •■••r'i-> 'I- '■-.- .- -i': ti:'M,:i::' .:'%:::":„: ::;,t:: 

^.ll. rliN !„,,.,.,osi< l,.,„.r ,l,a,i any ., ,1,., „„,.,.. ,,,,„,. ^ i„, „ ' 

Mils, mui M.iiiia,- .,1,,.. i,i Mi,i,„.,,, „„, .„„„,„ , „.,.,^, .i,i„ii: , ;, 

.-cneral Tl„. view :„l,.p,...l i,„.|,„,,., ,,,,„ ,„, ,„..„ ^.^,„,,,| „,;„,„,,' 

.lifT,.r..,i ,an„„ ,h..,,,v; Tlio n,,',! .,.,.,. U ,1a r..l,,v .iv.,1 a- ,|,io , , i 1 ' 

t.on „n,I as,si,n,!i,t,o„ ,.f ,1,.. a-i-l ..,li,„,.„„. „.^,, .-itl, ,1,. .o^^ oof 
nio-f of the as,irinL.t<-, ii,:,ti.r .,1 ..l..„„ .i,. , kkkhiioh ,,i 

tcria! alon^- tlic iipiirr c,.ntii,>f. 


K.- V7 VNSl ' f 1. 


/■/ II, in ,,i nil riiiri t^ii.;.\„\iii- 


/'V.-/ /•„,,.',„„ „/• 0„,,W;,>, „/ I-,,,,/, ,■ f . 

«r»nit.. .„„.. ,.f -ill r ,. i,,,,,,,, ,„ , Z , ''/'""" ""■'• "'" «f"""l'»'vro- 

:-t ... .xi...... „, .„ i::..r,i: .I';:,i - i!; /,;• '?• "'^"V"-: " "•'- 

"7'^- '"t;-"''' ...i. ...nil, ,:;:„;;:"■ ,^ ;- 

■ ;■■ '■:■<■■: I .i». ii... .:,l.;:;„,;.':i:;,r",;;:,;',; " '"'■ '•■ •<■ !• 


llKHixaii-N (,t- (,-,., ], ,]■ ,, ■ ,. , '^ •" '" 'ii'li'-.'i.- il,r..u. ..( 

-ii'"->-.. i,i, , j:i V ::,'':;•";' •''';''•''•'•■- "f ""■ i"tr,„ui 

l-l'ifV. .\-. lll.lMr 

■f la.-f. 

*'""i'yi-i.M,.,„-„„„i,i>i,„u :„ ,i,i, ,„.,.,,•, I 

111.. <-|..-,V,,u. ,,f,,„ f,,n^ ,!,>,. I, I ; I - 

'-"iw— in n..;!,ii, ;:;;::;;:;;';;,:''■ ':,■■'"••' "-"' ■■'•■a-.... 

•• i-.i l.v ti,.. 

I.l.l-.l,,.„l if 

If l.(. I, 

r.>!ntivrly l.itc r|i 
••l.-;u...| !■, 
iTTf.i'i-r irn l'i 

1 tJKlt ill. ,1 

1!'^ Il:) 


■P.- III,. JM'n 

-'|-.<til 111.! I„ 

'<■' II L.I-.:illy 
n. II I'aii 

hii-ily ,.1' f,,rrii ||, 

111 li 

ih ill 

r'-lalMii .,(' ,liK, 


■Wllm t'.iiilN |||„1 ,,ll, 

■r .'Ih 

iii.i'.'.ti- I l>. ,1' 
.■lirijiv -li.av 

tilt.'.l. ;in. 

I mil . 

ion 111' mIU full, 

i.iiiliirv III 

■■I l,.,.li.., of 

:M -I, 
I I I 


■f til- Vnl 


"•in;: lu-Miiitr-ii 

I'l.iM. - ..f wraki 

ir (■ 

r^i'li.r iliiin in li,, 

l|. L'lllllll'n. 

!ik nn.i M, 

'Tiv. i| Ir.. 

.ilif'r;il..ui,.;,l|y :,ii.| . h 

t':i-I tlliil lib 

■,vii. riiti^ 

ii'llll'.llllv s..i-\ „j.,| 


iini.n ,,( lin. M(.(iill 

iiiinipdialcl.v b(.|nw the P 


That tiio-r 

.or- ,.r i.fT-h. lif^ ,,f 

.'!! I. 

■If til,. Kit,- 

i^r:n-. Chirkr. 

:ir t.i th.-v sillH 
■ii.r lurini. ,,„ ,,n.| ...luivnhnf 

.111.1 T 

:i\ii, nnil. iilmo-t witlii.iit 

■''«1- r;iiip'- ,it hr 

'ivc fiK-ics nf till' 1 


•■ii."!. rn ilikr, .iiul sill 

iiini;ii .1 i-( pi-, -, , i j 

question, represent 


the I 


IVa !S <\l)iiri<U-,\. :i^ ;|I„ 

ctnsanKiiinif.v. hut nl.<o by tii,. faet tl 

ins M-|,i,-i lit til, 

11 '111 wiilispn-ail lav.i |I,,i„|. 


eons iiitrn- 

'iireill J.ava horizon 

r .M, 

.vie, is )i 

th.. S 

've iviiiar!,.-,!. ,„,| ,,ii!y l,y tho Jith, 
at of the format overl 



poraneity ,if all f| 

I'lwn 1(1 )i 

i"PI>aril, Kiiitla, tiatewav, I'hillips, Roog 

tlie oMer he,l< ,,f tli, |- 

iiv(. !., . II ,.||t l,v ilik 

k'illlla t' 

riiiaiiMii. ( 

liriiinr) I' 


Iiese Piireell i 

■r -ill, 

I MltillL'. flll-tl 

1 are yDiirp* r 
iiT, the coiitem- 

iiii'iits It l.illows that tl 


iiva, .sliich i 

the iiitni-i 

" 'intani -ysteiii mIN with the ( MUlWc ( 

niinlly ,-,,iif,,n, ,|,1,. ,,, ,i„ 



II.. I'iKtirn r 

inyes. wi r. 

preal tl. 

w. ,,f tl 

at til, ,111 

I''" hen rli, strata i.iy flat ami 

i«. extru-n 


e. pi.^it-.Siv. 

|. lNi\, I) ri,, 

!i lavi 

hv thi 


in:i:\HTMt:\T of rm: istkrior 


Evidently iieitlier of tl 


■ f 

prolialiilitifs is 

lie-c l«(i aiKiiments 

by the Puicell sills I 


'II till 

view r.f the perfect eoiil'i.rinit 
laid <l 

iiy nearly li„riz.,i]tul iis the thick hodi 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

i- c|iiite cuiicliisive, but the 
f the iM'lief tliiit, the strata cut 

own in 

shallow water) it ■.\\ , 
ener formation wag not elevatc.l tl 
total tliiekiiess of the Movie sill.- 

i)f the M. 

ie> were injected. In 

lyie and Kitehen.-r formations (both 

\xar< prr.hahle that the stirfa ,f the Kitch- 

r represented in the 

r'>ugh the full 2.0(iO f 
it -leiiis more lik-ly that the 1 


to make room 

,1 Ml u • , ' ""'■■■ iiuui; iih.iy rii 

the siil-horizon were .lown-warped nearly ,,r quite 1(100 feet 
tor the sill magma. 

^^.J,T''tt"■f '''" -^^"•"""■-'r''« l'.vpothe.i.s carries the se,^md assmuption 
hat the frabbro.d n.a.Mua w.s. at the tinu. of iutruH„„. ho, euouH, and flu 
enough to permit of the s..l,iti„n of a consich.,- ,1,1,. I , K. ,• , J"U nuid 

diffusion of the dissolved material to ' p, i . ^t tI:' a" uu.:; '■ 
supported by the discovery of the .reat ho.Llu.tal ™t an u ,if rm t'J.ick' 
ness of the mtrusive bodies; if ih,. maj:matie vis.-ositv h!, IK l ," 

body would have p,obal,,y assuu.ed th^rue ...Isi •:;? - 1^7 tJ;" tV^J 
lacohtl,. Ihe extren,e lluidi.y of the Pureell Lava i. pried bv the g e^ 

wore (lut the e„i, mtruMve faei,.-; „f (|,.. ..,„„> l.„... .t, • » • 
magma must have U^n highly „uid. Its ten,;;!:,.-,: ^a'" ' S:/': 3S 
b.gher than that oi the extrusive and therefore so„u.what el le va d 

I'omlly, whatever theory of the acid zones be adopted-wheti«er that of 
pure d.tTeren ,at>on. of as-imilatiou. or of l„.,h- -the f,rc, i, ele f,-,,,' H^ 

fore^on,,. htholo.c.eal -le^eription. ,hat, t li,V„-i f ,i|i., , , ' . t,; ^ 

through the izabhro acluallv oe.-um.d on a lar... ,.,l , i ,i • -t . 

could n.. have taken plaee t,u^;U:.:l'';;,;;;:^,:V,:^:L:,r J ■!-;;;; 
degree of llmdity. ' "' or ,i nign 

rh,-u,;rnl Coniparison of (Invnir and Infruih-.l S'',.! - -\ third e--o» 

more clearly indis^vn.,!.! n,i„n of ,he l„po,he-i- r.-l .,:s ,,;\^' !: ' "^ 

tion of the invaded sediments. One of the most „o,,.w,v,l,v ( l ""''"' 
huge series of .onformnble strata in the (V^,;, ^ l.^^, '^ ^^rin'thr 

£ r .he^;;:;ror.,:^^ 

here repeated. Single beds typical of the Creston occur intorleaS In tlie 

•A. C. Lr<n.>. J,,ur. Cnnndinn Mininp Institute, Vol. 9. I»6. 

-rsssas-:. •'"■■?'5 


Kitchenor and orcagionallv ni^tv I, 1- 

In both series tl.e aver.^' r 2 '""' ."'.••■"■••"'"•'■'' '" "- froM,.,, series 

a ooraposition essentially \-de',!.rv, '."T "T' ''*''"" ""^ ''">''" «'"^ '"'-^ 
Hence the che„„-e„I ana vsis o i, ' ' V 'T'f ''''■''"'' ""^'^"•!"•• 
ofthese.limentaopro„,, ,•,,;„,,,,,"',;''.'' Vk 'li"'"'' ■"''""'^ "'" ^""-"'itu.i,,,, 

., Professor iJittrich Ls an ed . 1'''! ^ " "'" !'" '^''''••'"■"■'■ 
i".l08 to ,1„ westward of t"'' aIv " ;" '•'^n'^"''"'"" ■'"""''^""1 ^-'^'al 
fine-f:ra,„ed to eo„,pne(. ami l,reai<, with ■ . l' .„, , '-.TT '"'"''• '"■'-''" *^''''>- 
o.» nnj? under the hammer The Inn n ■'"'"' ^'"■""'"' "'"' '"''<'^- 
from the eleavage-faees of mlnu^ fj^r? h""? '^u'''^ "^ ''■'^''* -fl-'«^ 
;."artz. A faint ureeni.l, hue " .Ive ,' , ./? T' l*""";'-^''' "" ''"'"■"'">' 
rh.s ro.k ,.,.<.,n-s i„ c,,,,a, tl,icl<-Ml,t ' , ) '■' "'" ''i-'^'"inalr,l ,„!<... 

from a n.otre to thrc^ n tr ir "or^'' ";;-^i "'" '"''"''"^'"^ '"''^ ^"""''": 
~; in dark nUea and inrn^o.e ° .■ ^ M""", ?--''-"^- " notable 
t'ons „f s-ilioi„„. metarjriiHte. "' ''"'•l«'r-'''>l"iirrd intereahi- 

In thill section thi. characteri^H,. Pr,.* 
^•<>mpo.ed of niiart.. felj.par and , , .-, 11 /''r','-'' " ^'"""' '" '"^ ^I'-lv such old sandstones Th! 1 ;.'/' "";"' '••'^■■'^' '" t>.e manner tisual 
largely lost through static metflmorphsmTLf '" """'^''' ^™''"' '''■'•'' f'""" 
-Ime. .n.croporthite. oh>, ch,.e, TndZMr'", /?''""? "' '"•thodase, micro- 
museovite (possibly paragonite) „ T x "'" """" ''^ ^'''"''•^ --""l 

occurring with sh;'edd.y. te ; ;i^t'"Th: h ^^r" ^r''"^^ '" "'"'- »' 
'ho two miea.. Siibordi.iat. 'o,, tit ents nr , / ^- " '''^ '"°'« "^-^^ant of 
-"n-ia.Uti,a„ifero,,sii:a.,io,i,o 1 f"l "'': t'tanue in anhedra. with less 
. The eluinieal analvsi. T ble xiv pT^i^ 1 '''"^°'' ""'^ ^°'^'"'- 
tion of alkalies, and ther..«itl *L f ^ ''""^' " "•■'"'''^- i"'-'li pronor- 

.^fPecially of „. alMtl :r , '.h-r^ ^ ,:/ '^'^'''^'"'^''''^ ™-'''"Ss. 
sihca m oombination. '" ''"'''« •''"'"' !•"' Kr rent of the 

B-: :::::::: ;: ^^ ^^ 4 -^ "- 
#:•::::::::::: ;| - "| ,„| „| 

MnO.. ., .. •. '•« 3W 265 2.21 /« 

Mgo ;: «3 .02 .07 *:\i 

p-atno^c.: .:■■••■•• -i ^f ^^ S Sj 
P'O- :■:.■:.•:.•;.■:. .oi ^ •«« •.:. 'is 

^^ 1^ __; 09 .09 

J^" "»-^ >««>6 "^3 ^:^ 

op. «r. (corrected) , . o.^c, „ ,.„. -— 

2r.a -vol. ii_ic '*" -'^ 2.722 2-680 j.yso 

■ L'>K'*^ms^^-'*ww;..i 




hii-Mn \ir\i nr nii: i\ii lai.i; 

2 GEORGE V,. A, 1912 
1. T.v,M- .|,rri,n,-M ..( Cv-r..,, .|M..n/iir. Ahal.v-t: l',.,,|\ Iiittrirl, 

■-■ l.VIM' -porlMHM ,,f Kit.lHlHT >|U:U-t/.if,.. AlialvM: \t|- (',,M,l..v 

-. Npp.-iin,.,, of Kit,-l„.,K-r .ii„..-tHt.- fp.M, r.w.u-, /,„„. M,,vi,. -ill C 

Aiialy-t: I'lut'. I» ' 

t. AviTMiiv iif .•iiiiil.vsp- 1 iiinl -2. 

5. Averngo of two annly^es uf biotlto prmiito in the AI,,vie »ill- 

'ii"ui.r V „■„„, ,i„. „,,..,• ,.„„..,., „f ,i„. M„,vi,. .ill c. ,„„i ,1,1. -,„„.i„j ,;; . 

SOM.s wln.t :,pp,.u. ,„ 1. ,|„. .v,.n,. ,n.i,. .l„.v,.. 1„.1„„, „ | ,„„„,.,,,„. 

^;"- ",r, '";'"■'■ "'■"- ''''■''• ""■ ""■" ""ii-,1,.,1 -t.„:. i,..i„.. ,.,.,„.„;.;, 

Th.. t!,in s,.,-tio„ ,]!.,.!.-,.. . fi,„..o,,,i,„.,l i„,,.H,„.kii,L. ,,i;-r. ..ntr ,,| „,,,■(/ 
.-nnn, ..o„,o„t,M w,tl, .l,„,„hnu .nnn- „f f..!,K,„, „„, ,„;,,, ^n,„ ,.,.,: 

'; -" •^"- ;''";■■•"' '". I<^":''" ^""' """■'• - 1^">- l.r...ln,.,, ,lK,t 1, i- ,„„M ,ll,li,„l, 

.» _.c,.un,t.> , tmnuu,,,,,,,. Only ,„„. ,„• ,„•„ ,,,,,,11 .,■„!„- ..xl,il,i, ,, ,lv-v,„l,.,|,. 
twH,m„. „„,! ,l,e p,Tl,mi„„ry .„„lv .vf,.,-,-,.,! p,,.,.,i,..|,, ,„ „„. f,. Up,,,. ,, , ,. 

irl.l.pnr .s ro.lly .lo,n,M,„„. Th,. „„„1vm, „„. „,„-, ,,,,,,-„,lv ,„.,,„,,.„.l ,],:. 
>e,-on.l ,.,„„pMe dotorn,„„„i„„ of tl„. „lk„li,.. ,,.,,...;„, v,.,.-',. ..-Iv with ,1„. 

.rs. S„pp ,.n„.„t,.ry op,!,.,] .t.uiv of ,i„. , U l,n. p„i,„o,l ,„ ,ho p,.„l i i ■ 

thn p,,,.,. ,,ll„to, „. wol! n. highly =o,lifo,.o„. orth,„.!a,n. i. p,.,.,.,,! Q Z 
makes i>p by weight, 50 to 00 per rent of the rock, and fel.l.par fro,„ 05 to 
■10 per o..„t. bo, I. fro.l, an.l chloritize.l i. the chief mica- .er cfte , 

t.t. apatite ,, o«- .trc,,,- „nd pyr>to .-rystnl. arc ,l,o vcn.aininjr co„.Tit„e„ts 
The nnalvs.s ,s «,vcn in Table XIV. Col. 2. Col,,,,,,, 4 of ^he .an ' nbt 
>how. tbo av..ra,o of C„U. 1 a,„I 2 a,„l n.ny be take,, a. nearly represcti,,! tt 
a erape chenucal composition of the .p.artzite invaded by the Movie .ill« 
Th.,„vera^e ,s ,0 be eontpa,'..,! witi, th:,t „f the t«-„ analyse, of bi bi.; ,e 
grantte of the sills, represented in Col. ,. The peneral .in ilaritv o tlt^ wo 
•■n-eraKes .. ,,,a„,fe.t._ Tbo.-e i. el,.,,,.„,i,.al p.-o.f ,1,., ,!,<. ",',„?.. ro," 

on ot t'v el..n,e„ts ,n ,1,,. .ranit „1,1 bav.. b..,.„ ,l..,.;v,.d .lir^.-tlv l.v'.Vo, 

in till' <i,iartzit<\ ' . ■ ' " " 

The eonvietion a^ to .,„•!, n -,.,.,.„dary ori.i,, f,.,- ,1„. ^,,„i,,. ]„. ,,..^,, 
enforee, by an exanunati,,,, „f ,l,e ex ,.p|,i,. ,.o,„.,.,..o„e nt the npper Ihnh 

"L( I f J '" •"'■'"■•"''•■!'''"- '''■-"•>"•'• "f ^'f 1-i-t <■'<> foet f.on> the upper 
>nrfaee of ,.ontaet the <p,a,.t..,te has l,een i„t..nMly „„.ta„,orph,...d, The ,', Ik 
i._here v.treou. l,^ht,.ne,l i„ ,.olo,„.-ti„t, and -x,., ,.di,„.lv bard. Tnde,. he 
n,,eroM.ope the ,.la.„c «t,.,„.t„,.e i. ,e,.n ,0 have totally di.appe„,vd. lllZ 
talMzafon ,s the rnle. It ,ak<.s the for,,, „f poikilitie or n.rer„„.ap.,i.. inter- 
ZTZ:1 '";".,• -'h. virions fel.lspar.. al„„g with ,l,e .b.v,.lop,n;„t' of a ,,2 
nt_well er,v.ta],.ed b.ot.te and (less) n.nseovite. The feldspar is ehieflv mie o- 
pertb,te and orthoeL,=e. ,1... |a,ter of,..,,. „„H,aps alway-. .,.,lifero„ ZZT^,, 

/•■//■"/.■/ '</ ///,. ,////,. 1,.//,.,,^,,,//^. 


iii,|..p,.,„I,.„t, tuiiiii,.,! .| .in- ,1 ,,,,11 ■ 
■I'l-t cIoM.liim-tl,,. I,. 1,1,,,,,,. ,,,•.,, ,, , -'.•"■'- ■■' '"■iMt.- ,,,,m! ..,,,,1,,,, ,„,.„,, .,, 

s..ut,.,.e,i .n.i„.,i,.. of,;;;,:,;::;.';: ':'"''';■■ '''••'r-"'i- -'■'•-- ,i,.. „„,„.,., 

I ill.' I' ;lli:lK.i, . r 'In i,,- 1,1 
i" <■■•'• ■: T.I.I,. XIV ,. ,h. ,' ' """«""'n.l:o-,.,I „,„,,.iu. i- ,,noro,l 

-'"•■■'-'■••-- w„. :,,.;, : ;: ;:":;'-^'^""V""';v"'"^^^'-' ''"-'i 

'•-'"•'•■-"•" ■■" f,,-,t |„,i„r Tl... ,„',K I 1 ■ '■"■ '"" ■'">■ '■'^'•'""1 

""■^'•ll.n,|,i„.„n,,l,Mvl,,,. r '"l" -"•:'■ '■••"■... rl„. .,,,„it,. „f 

■■nnta.-t l„.tv„.,.n .1 rn l„ ■ .""'■■• ^"' '"'•''""^ -''^'H' lino „f 

.=tr,„.t„.v. ""'"'■ '"-"■"• ""' '^"•^■•' ■•-'< -'ill !'.-.-rv... i,. M,l«l 

^.«o.J^:,:::;;:;:i,:;,.;;';;:.:;:r;r;,;;'i;;;-^^ ,.,,... 

^'ue.,.,i„.,-„-i,.,;„f ,:'.;;,>::';;,, ■■-"«--.- ,1.,,, -i„. i.,„..„ .„.,, ,, 

'''-/(/.'/ .v(,„ »',7/, (I//,,., .s///^, ;,^ //,,,/-„,.,.,,// /., .... 

r.s-iime< -,uii,-i,.nt li. Mt t .,r,,nn tl„. «■ ..L- V ■ ''/"""■-' I"' ^•-iirnlMil.,n tlu-ory 

-•^-'v t,..,....^:^.::;:,,•t.::,;t:, ::::;':■,;;. '-•'''''. ---''i'-i'-- 

zones m iill .,f fiffht (lirt\.r.>i,f ill „f„ ■ , " -l'"-nv,. i,,,,,,. ,■.,., ,,,(,,,.4 

--.> .ns . 1,,,.:,, !,:;.;;:;;;;:; ■;,:;";;:;::;,.: :;;:':' -^^^ " '-^ - ""■ ^'-- 

tSiore nM.ol, tl,o l.r.o-r. A- . ,„.,if,,. „V ' , , T''^' "■',', '■"'"^''■'-^"■""'■■" was 
.l.rongi,..„t i. „f u I .„i I, " ;;;--«-^-.l-v.., „,.,.,-, ,„„ ,„. rook 

^In.- rook. Ti„. ,.,.., ., 'Tiu^il'T r '" "'" '"■'■•"■''-''-..Ingio. 

'•.•hitiv<.ly >Ii-l,( I,,.,.,,,,,,. ,]„,.,, ..ill. 1, ' •" "'"■■ T'f ••'■I'lihPiition is 

l.s- positivolv i, fa-,.,, Vr ,,•■:'."" 'l-l"t't>ve rcnsoninR but it is no 

'•''-^■•'"' '.-i-.> ^-•:::,,'';;,;r;r:;::\„:^-: :::z.::: ^-" - -^ 

^abb^''i;;:;.;,::„;':;::;tr:'::;::':r7i •'""-.•'--;«•■'-' -•'••<•...- that the 

t!- quami.o an- „: I,;, f,,; .^l T I ^ ",""" "'^"- "^ *'"' '"'• ^'•"^-""nt. of 

I'.-.r- vol. ii !,;.( "•'^' ■•'■■■' I "l"- -iNirp r-o„tnPt= with 

ifc«:-- -.^W. "oiW»i.-r* «'<f =#'*t--''i«'1f ".»-.■. yjr.. ■^. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
the gabhro. but none tl,e less, they have the ap,*arance of l.avinp suffered 
loss of volume throu^'h the solvent aetion of the inafrma 
fhJ"/'""' '^ <h'=;f er -ills the bIo..ks are yet n.ore numerous an.l n>.„,y of 

S i ? JtT'"' . f ' "■"? " "■'■""' '""'^"■'' ^"^■'' - --''1 --'It from the 
Bolutiun of the quartzuo .„ Hk^ basic maKuu,, Since tl>e blc'k. were suspended 

diffLTf" l'^"'."^^"f ''-;''y -d sinne ,he pro.luot of solution was not 
d.ffuge.l away, the v.scos.ty of the ma.^nn. must boon hifrh. T'nder these 
Bp.> c,r,.um-tan,.^3. it is not .urprisiug that a limited amount of solution 
w s poss.ble ..v..n though the viscosity of the pure .abbr- was .vlativelv hi^l" 
On th,. one hana, the very ,-trong contrast in the ionic con.position of '.solveut 
and uhstance dissolved, unphcs a specially great lowering of the melting point. 
On the other hand th.. original .vater of the sedimentary rook would fti^ato 
solut,..u e^cn at the eon.paratlvely low teu,p,.n„„r.. of 100')^ C. or les I 
wh.eli the nearly anhydrous gahbro to:,ghly viscous in cooling 
_ ffyhrijf Iioch--A special i.istance was studied, opticallv and chemically 

Comm,s , on tra.I winch is si. n.iles up stream from the Roundarv slasl, on he 

"n'ri ; '^'^''^'^r-^: -'• two mil... north of the Boundarv l,nc it 

.11 rock tncre forms low knobs on ca,.h side of the trail. f^coVe- of graT 

an^^lar nnar.nte blocks. ..rrounded !,v the can be seen on the dacfa";i 

One of these, measuring perhaps ](W cubic fcvt in volun,c. is enclosed in a 
shell a f..ot or two tnick, composed of the .solutional mixture. The quartzite 
has bee.> completely recrystallized. with the develop.nent of large, poikilit c 
of'th ;i " ■"„*'" "^^V^ the quart.ite metamorphosed on the main'conta 
of the X oy.o sdl C (analysis in Col. H, Table XIV.). Abundant, minute granules 
1J vLri- '^ developed. Recrystallized orthoclase (probably sodiferous) 
and a little oligoclaae are accessory constituents; no biotite could be found 
The original sed.ment must have been compo-ed of nearlv pure .,uartz and 
seems to have been far less feldspathic than the strata cut bv the Movie siHs 
A certain amount of osmotic action has taken place, for the qua'rtzite is 
sho through vvith narrow, greenish-black prisms of hornblende. 10 to oo mm 
m length. This exotic hornblende has the optical properties of that in the 
normal gabbro. It is specially abundant near the surface ,.f the block which 
IS, however, sharply markc<l off from the shell of mixed material. Titan ite and 
apatit.; m notable amount^ have also been introduced into the bodv of the 

bornKI^n,'^-" °^. ""^<^'; '"'''''"' '''''''''' "^ " ""'''^ aggregate of deep green 
hornblende in prisms 10 to 40 mm. long, and poikilitic quartz, which encloses 
much granular ti),dote. titanite. apatite, a little ilmenite. and abun.Iant 

«Sn! ''"'°'' " "°''''"^^'- ^' ^'^^'•^'P" ^'""^^^^^ •' ^PP"«"t i" thin 

DittfichThfSlowing'Ldtl'"""'^' ^^'^'"^^'' ^°- ''''' ""'' ^'°^-- 















Analysis of hyhrhl rorl- in gahhro sill. 

t iio°c .' ■■ 

b<ive nO*C.. 

Sp. gr. 







the 2:,- l^f .^^ 1^'S ^;J'^ - |n lar.^t p... .o H,c ho.,.!; 
has all the appearance Wa pil.rv tin?; f' I^' ^""""-'l-, Th- opi.lote 
derived thr..u,h _or,li„,.. woatLi:;:\o:'r ,.J' ;T.-,r,v' fr '^h '" ''^*'" 
double effect. On tl,e one "dc to I V^^' •'"""'^''"'^ "'"1 repn.-cnt^ 
alkaline rorst^tuent Tn h. h M ',"''""' '""""'^ •^"'' P''''^'"'''.- ■^^"'t .f tl 

cent^ around which the am" " ./:; ;7;,,f;-, jj-' .*"'- block f„nn,:d a 

to crystallize, scffrewitcd \< thl T^ -i ''*' ,*'"'"^*^* minerals in the „u,ir,„a 
ferred into tie quS?U^d;\^k o "the ! "'V'""'' ""^ --""•".••lly .rans- 

into the nu>^na The Vh ha- H 'f ""^'V"'"'""''' ^'■^ '''■^"^-' -"-«^'l 
the mere sol^fon of tl^c q ,• "it "' ,h' T T '-""^-i'-" -M-ted through 
.rolled l,y the concentrat on le J.a';: 1 'I ^.'J'^'-'^'-. |- ■'''-> '--n co„. 
I'ody. The latter n,ay l,a^e ac 1 Vf t- r , "' '" ""?'?"' ""'^'■'' ^^ ^•■^'•'-» 
l.y the chemist into a Ltur^t;] u ion ■ n T'""'^ ° """ "^■"^'"' J'^tn.i.ccd 
• inoculation.' ' °" ~" "' *" "^"'J'"''' ^-Tv.talli.ntiwi through 

tratiTifS id°S; IT*;;:::':;; r?' •'"" ""' 'i-f-'^'-i- -^ !,..h in... 

It is. nevertheless.^, tait.ate in"" """"'"' "u"'" "^'' ^""'-''^^ '■'-'k- 
-lution of this bo.k rd tii n?or l"'T" J r "'^" " "'■'■^ •■"•''''''"■' ''>• "'« 
because com,dctcly di.soKed. ' '"'"""" "^ "^''^'''^ '>^"^- -'--ibh- 

The phenomenon of the nirtiTl ,i;,.. ..• r ,. , 


I'l i'\in\ii:\r ,,/■ mi: i\ii laoi; 

niagmu. 'Wv jiivd 



ervstnllizcil fralilir. 

lift ..i ilii-i ,! 

ii:i'>li(in i- 

y illllltir;ll i 

Ullli-il. fxci-pt 

ii"l \i"\\ I A I hi 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
y ili--c'iiiiria!cMl lliriMial 

ill the (li-in'ft. X 
the (Ji, 

II '•'■iii|i..-ili..i, wiili ill 

IlC'ill-lt- Ul.|„.|- |il„| 1, ,„,..,■ rnllt 

•lill.'.l ilji.l, 

'■Iliill-l.Ml -( 

hll'tS. |\ M.p 

'■riMirriiijr i'Im-\v1i. 

^<<ilv. ,i 


rill- Ml,.,,. |.,,,I,„1,I.. ,1,,,,, ,1,,,, ,,„, ,„,„,,,.;.,, ,,,• 

upper (•(.iiiiiri. I' 
materiul (li--i.l\ 

II""' l"i' th.- iiin-t p.irt r,-i,l 

N- -Mill. \i,.u- li,,l,|^ |',,r tl 

l.y il, 

iiiiitiiiii lit til 

111.1111 .■olit.lrt- f||, 

•II' 111 tliM ai-icl /(iTio at th^ 

'I'C VlillltlllllMli^ 


il I" rliiip- iiiih'li 11 


of a,.i,i ,i,at,.i.,ai i.ti,.. i"..7":;,,;,a;t" w^i:,:;'';;;';::: ir;;;:':,: ,,'''': "'T- 

of tlu. i.KWiia in it- liual lin... .,,,.,. r.i I , . '' ^'-•■-"^ 

matmai ti,,.,. ha- 1,.,.,, , .,:,;:' ,., 1 ' '"■""' "\"' ""■ '''"■'-'•■' 

.■i.--.i... iif ..,.. r..,.i.., ,,:a;,';i;r?;.. .::;;,::;',;::.;;'^;::^ "i- - 

.{■'^llllll'll iini III l),'i„r /,/■,.;. \, .1 . ., , 

I ' '''III''. .\i|..tli(r .'aii-c ..I I,- , t r-ii ,.ii ;• 1 t 

SOIlpIlt 111 til.. ,,f - ll-inlcctii.n I, ,■ I> n 

tt;::;v::;::;:-,;;;:;;;:':i'fr --■■^'^'''^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

:uX i;';':;::,::;:;, ,:,''::;-; -^ -u,. ,.1.1.. .,.,,,, „a.^,l.,„.ll 

wiin (,1, at, 1 ,„ I,-, rliviiiical rnntra-t t,. tli.' ..ri-lnai. 

Such a ca-c mav h,. rrnrc-i'iit,-,! in il, ,, n • x- 

;;,„„ .;.„„„, „, „;„„ ,;;u' ,;;::;:„;;■:;„;:" 'l^ri,;:;-;;;:;'; 

t, rook 1. .•!iu,ily a Muartz ,Iial,as<..* Sin,.., ,),, ,i|l.,.„,.|, ,,„,„. ,.,,,, 
n> ,.n,l,al.i,. that it- ,„a. ,f,.... .,..,,, Jw -111-! nl ' i' r: • 

of the. \..u- I,.; ,.v ;il ""-''^' '•. '"'■ -l"''ial .■..,i,p,.-,ti„„ a,i,l stn„.tnf.. 

^a-a,.l^:;•;:l:;wli:i;^'■::,,;:^:t;;;ii^::pt:,:•:,,^:■'::i;^^^ ■ 

ston^s an. ptv., anihi-ian ,.,.y-talliii,.-) ..nii'ii J „., ^ilU ,! i: . -'li^; ::'■ 

niug.. p,,ni,t „t tl,.. tvniarkal,]., ;,vav,tativ,. ,|i t), nntiati,,,, ,l,.M.,.il„.,l 1,, 
S-m,. a,.i,liti,-ati..n ,,f tli,. Pumll ;;a..l,|. av tlm- Inv • • • 

1 until s,. 1..-. A,.v.., tiR. ,, .•luMni,.al -imilai-itv l„.twcon th. liiotit.^ 
^ an, . .11,1,1 tlio avot... .„iart.i,o -,r,.„^I, -,„..,.-„ „.at tli,. a-i,. il t . 

M^MO--ll ii,a„,ia -in-tiy „..,.„„..,] in tl lart.i,,. f„r,nati,„i. a,„l trnt ' ,. 

underly,,,.. p,„.,- |„.,aii f„n,ia,i„n. „f ,lit1Vri„K .-i,„i>„-iti„n 

•J. V. Lpwis, AriMia! Report, St.ite li..„l,.Kl-t ,.t' N,.«- .I,.,s,.v. 

1907. p. 99. 



in rniii 

•'I I HI I Hill 

■ / i;ii\ii\i I /,' 

btSilO:\AL PAPtR 

No. 25d 




inutl.' u;ii,r i,,„| ,,,| 

■■//. .1/ 



■ir .IIV lh,( clllil-i-lv .|l 

r \.i|..,iii- II 

time ulu.,! the intrusions 

.■...■ks. T 

kIviii ,1 

he Illlllirll 

II.- w.mlr 

'"•> nuKt ll;u,. |„,.„ „,,,i., 


"I' lll.U 


liii.l ir,,ii, ,.,|,.|, I, ,,,,,,,, I 

I'L'iirrwl. From heated 

i-t' I' in Ih:, 

int.. t' 

N'-ll'.litil, Uilt 

-111 Miiiiiiua. 'I'! 

"iii-t -iiiiiliirly r-iiicr ili 


r vapour must ii;ivc l.cen 

r»o( and floor of each sill 


inj.-.'t,.(l and lonvd 

iho i-..,.C, 

'nu-r 11, ,t unlv 1, 

a^'iiia. A h 

'•'■ntainrd in a-Minilntrd ~,di 

"'"' tl:. IV iifd in lli,_. -,,|ii| 

iiiii-t al- 


'«'ei' the sohiti 

inll ,,f tl 

r;ic part ..|' >i 

"• 'Piai't/itr, Siicli r 

'>' vaj r woiiM i-j,,. ,, 

Slll-'ll-lll V;||„ 

' 1- a t'art tiiat tl 

l""-lall,s lii,.taiii,iri,li..s,. tl'e ^.mJ 

'•I'"iut (o( te.npcrat.ire) for the roof-roek ■ 

<-n-l:illi/,,l ll 

le ipiart/ilr iil.ov, 

IIH'llt .il||,i,|,. ,,|' ,1 

'inartdl,. l,|.l,,w ||„. .in. 

rh -ill - 

"' ntayina cliatiiii 

'■'■'"■ '" '»■ ' V tll..r,.i|i;llK 

>iiiiiiiiiirii i,f 11,,. 1 
benrliiir ..u ih,. siil,je,.t 

r'iKiiiriils for ,l» 



a 111 111 hriof -tatcnniii. Tl 

rp -II iiuincr.nis that it 

—The facts and ded 



a partial explanali..,, |',„. ,| 

10 writ.-r'i bdiif i„ th 

l>e oiiveiiiont f 


I I'l'Viow 

iiiif.-- r-(,iNiilp,.;|(j 

the a. 

Ill zones 111 fj 

(>nMcipl,. nf 

!<■ .Movie -i 



fonndcd ,,11 th 

1. Til,, -t 

Sfi-aiiii,- iiu,| the invad, 

I'.'iiir iiiin,.|.;,I..iii,.;,l an 

ennui, .;il .sliuihirii v |,,.,, 

10 existcnee of >,,] 




iitii'ii aiMV,,l,.s Mhoiit the visihie x 

■I. 'I'ho nlation hit 

,f .« 

iil'erfiision|lis ,,f 


"■iill sill-thi,.ki„ 

in tlio sill pahl 

'Iieat Mipplyl mid .h.irr.e „f 

II.. till 




lie n(.(.,„nrv iv. 

at r,..,f ami fl. 

ill-. i{ 

'1'. at xn 

hast,. II -i.liiti. 

i!. Th,. f 

7. Tl 

•nrirint and jiivcnil 

Lillitioll of VI 

ndith i..,iitai-t> 

""' '.'"•' ,'■'' -"'iitii'ii in the sill, nariieh 
"I'l 111 the f,,.,liii^. ,.|,i„„i,,I, |^.,„„. „; 

■II ill that pla.-,. s,„.,.i.|]| 
ii't that difhiviiiinf 

le vap,,nr-. (.,.ll,.,.t,.,l at tl 

.. iniul tend t. 

I'M; lii:i\ 

I'^il-tialK ii,;„k the ,|ii...,.t ,.vi,l,.,„.,. „f 

10 exis||.iii.c ,,(■ 

or iinah.Hoiis relati 
will he li^trd after tl 

iiany oth<.r sills ,,,„i ,ii|.]j| 

s iif ^ 
K' nat 'i.«. ,,f 

niapiiia ti 
lie ,litf,.ri 

ke intrnsi,,iis -h..\vin^' Minihi 

ha- hi.t.ii sketi-hod. 

"• ili:i'le.|na,.y .,f ,|„. |,yp,„|„.,i, ,|,,„ ,, 

I'diinents. .S,,|ik. of tin 
iitiatiiis: process i,t tii.. .M, 



lie ..Illy I,, tl 

pure and simple ditt' 

"■ van., lis |,1,,,.,.. ,,,■ ,]„, ,;|,_ 

point is inipli,.,! i,, the f, 

rt<-r<iifiati,.ii ,.f M pi-i 

;lie wntfi- ~ liMiri 


,i-ef;i.iijj!- ar^uiiifiit ; it 

pniiiary earth-iiKn., 

"■as hrietl 

y ili-.-ii",.,! in 

raril,iliir />i7/V/e/i.//a/i'.y/i.— I 

will lead t., the eonv 

nspeetion of Tahle XII F. and of Figure l." 

tied. In i-iieh ,if th 

i'-tii.n that, in sills ('. ]). n,,,! j.;_ ,] 

"f the .*ill. The 

ic.«e instances the sixeitie pravit 

lie ifriiciii, r.K'k i> sirnti- 

lii-oni r.iek next th 

same is true of sill A. 

.V increases from top t.i h 

10 r...,t and 

till- cx,epti,,iial arrangement uf 



with the exception of th 


le sh.-ll of (rail- 

■Iff the biotite pranite. An explanation f 

zones ha- I 

;!iveii in the preeedinc- .U 


^j^mjw*9„jiii^^m>: ^jm^^wm^msssmk^^w^^ 



2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

133' A'< 
30' B 





J30 ' C <, 


I0SO \ 


RiMl,' i/rrmile 
MiThu-iiia/e n<tJi 


f'igiirB 15, Diajfrain »l„mi 


uf «»ch sill i, indicatLl^i, f^r ' '^* ''PI"-'"'miat.. thick- 

i» indicated, in feet! 



i^.^BS'jm^mis^'^^' 1 

nEPOHT Of THF. ,„tKF Asr/in.SoilKK 



ti-onof.illA. Tho ,o„„l ,lu,raoter of ,1 
CTavitHtivo a(ijiistmfiit. 

Tl,o g«me principle lias prolmblv ..ontn.!!...! ,i, 
ucoess.on of uv-ra^.. ro,.k-,i,.nsi,i, s of -ills ) • 
followiiiff table:— ' 




D.. .. 


"ir indivi.ltinl sill 

S 1, c. 


.V .liic to 

'■""Kh s.vstom iinpli,.,! in the 
•I'l'l A, as illii.stratr.l i„ the 

Approxlmat<> mean ilent'ilii^, 

2 8,1 



The layer of qiiarUito scimrntinir <iill r ... i i» • , - 
» entirely possible that this aver s '.L v . " "."'^ *•"' ^•^''^ ""'•''• ft 
one or ,noro connecting likes L„T""n'- "'. "'■^'^ "^"^ FH-netrated by 
ma^atic co„,n,u„ie«tL We r^^v i 1 "''"" " ""•''. ^ ""'^'■' ''"- '-"n in 
this larger ehumber. wherebv liUC uT^'"' " """•",' '^"''''^^""■"ti'm within 
«ill D Continue,! -■ t^^ :^;"'::;;, .:'': °" ""■";'--• "- 
masses C a».l D, hd to the ol ,. rv.l.'l.. [rffi , '^ partuilly soparnte.i 

--ible that all fo„r sills «ere st il r t , , 1 i °'' "^ """''■ ^' '^ ""' ''"'P- 
chamber. from which each vi bis fl wa ! iT J" i' """"""" "'"-''■'^"* ■"-■'- 

On the otl„ r hand theg,. s 111 n!l! ;, 'f "^ '^•'''*- "«» apophyais. 
intrn.i„n. A lar^e p rt of tie ^ ' '"'" '"" " "^ ^'•^"'■•'y -"">'"Porfl,„.ous 

^^ ha.;^^:[;d1n^i":=,r::f':;;7'^-'^!;" r --V' ^'" ' 

chfferenfat-o„, that part of the m.ot,,, Tmv b ■ . ^""■^"'^'"' «f'">- P^tinl 
chamber B to the new h..rizon now C ^1 b . 11 V wl ""•"'"'•'.""' ^""' "^ 
entiation pro. uecl the r.-tn„I , , i ''"" °> ^'1' A. where eontinued dim r- 

may have len >^rlZ:r^Z\:TT^'o^'"''''^ ''^'^ ''' « «"<' « 
injections may bo found in the ..normrms 'n ' '""'"" ^"' ""■'' ^'"-^■^■'ive 

lation of n,oist,.-a t,^ "" .Zu Tr'- '"'' '"'r^'""' ''■^- "'^ "'^'"^- 
to fi-.„re the n.of of the liglul 'l Ir I "'f '■'""*•,""''- '-^'^h- -nditics, 

-.n.a ^-^.•..iK..erho,;;i^?,,;^t4 rwe:'s ,?'':V^,;^. ^'-^^^ ^"« 

In sp.te of the relative complexity of tl,> i -'"■"-' ^"-^ 

that gravitative difTere.uiatior is , Shv f'"-° '''''""• ""'"^ '"^y ''onclude 

tlio zonal structures of the Moy.'o h'II Kr< """'""t prore-s in devrlopins 

It is hardly necessary to dwell f>T, tl, i • . •, 
It was .robably foundeZc^ ^ iZe ', tdbilit^'t " u'" '""''■-"'■"-"■ 
magma at the low temperature im od ., i ' ,°^ ^'''''"■" =""• secondary 

rnagma was not quite the ch mL " , nt .Tth ' rr""'i-'i-- The 

of the two granite tvpes contains „orf *" '"''"'^^^ sediments. Each 

quartzite. The hornblend" e .'.T:, 'i";'::,, ^'i ""'1 '"- '''- -l"' average 
calcic than the sediment. However the to/;! T^ '"7", forro„,a,^,>esinn and 
system is so great that its avenS ori«^! • " ''"^ ^"''"'^'^ '" *''« ^''I' 

affected through the transferif he ex tr im'T '", ""^ T ^"'""■■""^ 
the granite zones. '""- '"'" "''■''^■^^ a'"I;uc-ia to 

■'•Vmi/ar ««(/ .l„a/o„o.,j.. /■ rp, . , 


hi run Ml \ I nr nil iMinmii 






^ . , ■'"" '-"tli'it- •■■'■.■|,Hi- -,.,li„„.ritv „on. , , , , , 

offcnil 111 ■tiliiii ,.„«;,• «.|, 1 .... ' "^ "■rr..i..irii!i..ii i- 

....... -,,:::;,:;;r,:;;!r,,t:-;;.':;:;i:"':-;::;:j--l"7»«.ii«.~.».i 

I'M-lcli l,|h||i |||||i.j|ii|||i 

■ P|ili<.n 


i" tlio I'„n.ell ran^o t„ ,|i.. ...^t „f ,1„. A 'v • " s n j"' V "'7"'''"" 


itave Urn des,rii.o,| ,„ l;,t,. vear< l„,t it ; i -^'i"iy otlior oxamp],- 


'"■' 1-'^' H„„ :M,.l..,p„n, .|,,r,.r. „tinri.,„ 

SfSblO\AL PAPER No. 25a 

l,ik..«i-,. .,V„ifi,,„„ i, ,|„. ^,„,,,, , 

> II II. n.' ,i,t il,,,.k liiMO-f,,,,, . ,,|„| I,,,,,, ,1, ,. 1 

Tlu' "vll kM..„n h.,.„l,fl,. .,f s,, ...,,, |.,,, , ^, , . 

I'"v.- I„.,.n nl.l.v .Irsfnl,,.,! U W.,,] ,, |' |- - ", '"'"'^'" ^"^- n. M.„t.„: , 

.■Hti.,1.. I'ir..„n l,„s ,|„,| ,i,., ,i,;i,,, ,'',;:;■' ' '" ,■ '"•'■• i'" ,,„I,|f. 

"^".h.., .,,,1 |,„ ,.,,„„„t ,i,„, „,,, '" '' :•' '"'|iH;.M,„nl, in -,,,.1. 
I,,..!,. >,1, .■ ., . ""■"■"• ' .,( til,. J 1 ;,,;, , ., 

-'- - ^^"■^^:"':;:;;:m;;;;,:!: t'--'--^' ■■'- 

l.lisi.' |,l,il-. - of tl„ 

"f^l kins., ur J Tl^^^^^^^^ 

;u.;ckiy .hin...i n...a on.;.;/;, : ;r: ii;; ;:J''r'''^^ ■"■"- 

»io.h„„knui.. ,„■ ,1„. ,„,, ,„,,., „,. ■ '."" ',' 'l'^,,!,,,, I|„. „,„;,„ , 

'•••-';-'■■'-" -'— v'.N-i h, t„'i :::;;' ' •"' i-— ,;„;,.. 

'•Xpl.Ullcl H- ilM.lf n ,l;tr .•... .■ , ." ■ ""• ''•N.||.-l„|„||, ,..,„ .,. 

Hint If I 


Tyrrell |,„ ,|,„„ri|„„| ,„„,„_^,^. 
•VnflMu,!. wl„T.. tl,o „lk„|i,„. ,H,|,> ;. ,,, ,, 

..ot.>w.,Hl,y .„:,' .^y i„ ,|„. J,,^,., ,,„ ^^ 

verse. I il. 

;:;;'""'"' '■^■•■■ivinL- u,,. r,.,„;,. ,,.,1.. 

-^on,ially,h....,,,,,,,,,,J, ,,,,,,,, .'f--'''''^ ' .1,,. |.,„,„ ,i,| ;„ 

Sni; l,„-,.„litli.| """' '■' ''" I'-'-'"' "nt.r |,.,- tl,,- Sl„,„hi„ 

■'^''•""llias nceiitly (U..,Til„.,| ., 1,,,.,, I. i;,; , , , 

■" wl,i,.h „„„n^ .yenite ^^v ritu- .r:^lu .:'!■'• Z'' ''' \r''' "-'-^ S,.„H.,„I. 

Ifo makes „„ statemon, ■., t„ ,1, .".'"" ■'■l'«"r'M.,Mt, ,„|,,. .,,„;,,.; 

poet ,N ,Wiv„,io„ f.o,„ a l..>^t.uZX^JZ^Z:T """'"" " ""''"'■' '" ^ 
I'liially. the tliiek m11 ,I,.s,.,ilM.,| l,v \,',|| ,' , ■ 



i'H\i;iMi M r III- i\iniii,K 

■iiaiii iiia-^ < 
tlial>R!ii' n|ipi 
Kyeiiite. The 
>'t the .,'11. Tl 
nni»! }i»vi' ' 
I'nknr cru 
lot a Kt •• 

ill <li;lliii 

tlie (liff. re 1 
liKhtir (litTe 
-cerrn to 1 p 
In the . 

|«Ositin[| i,f ••) 
inj? tllf SCCiila' 

in ciioli iiMtii' 
theory of ut; 

1. I' , 

.in ,■ 

'. ilio 
nf ii 

2 GEORRE v., a. 1912 

rnul.. „,„. ., p.,k ro,.k. whi.l. prov..i ,„ \l „ 1, ""..„« 
.' .n.k.. a o„„,„ct w,th tho .r«i,li,e, .t .I,:," 

he . :riv:." "h" ":• ^'" ^'""''■"•' ^•'"'""'^' °' "''«"■"•'* 

U. n , 1 f' '""^'""""' "•'■" i-'^P-- "f tMo lower 

fort lot .iHr,,.. ,he ^-en, -i- .,f ,|,.. .yenite. Is ,1,;, rook 

at.- Ir^ni a .>„UH-tie ,,f ,I,e vHrio.n s,,|i,nenfH .li.^.lv.-l 

""< the ai. i.i.te* ar- rIomii,u!,t, oi„. nmst . v,„.,.t for 

.•.II « rch hfl. a«^,„„|„te,l ,„mrt/ito. ,„kI th«t of the 
« -II ' i.I.'h ..»„„;!, fe,i li„„.«tone. Thi, exmrfatinn 

ohffht Lm ■•it,..i, the ohei„i-aI r-oMipo,,. m,„ 
' '-Tuntiated -ilU varin with tl,,. ,.hernie,,I ,- ,„. 
Herein rests a poHerfiil arff.mi, .,t f,n„„r. 
"•tive -ah.- or alkali.- inaKina-. As i'Hlie„t.-,I 
.'"f^ n -fralili...! |„ the wav ,1, -na,!.!, ,i l,v ,l„. 
■' I'l' M in a -viit. ftiiv 

CK.NKRAL i.NCILSIOV xvp aI'P! I( rrlOV. 

Mf„iio.,i ,.i,l, ,]„, „|,„„,, ,,„,, , ,■ ; '" ""'■ Tl» fl.r..„,»,„ i, .|„„.„ 

" "^otr /t- '-'■ -''•'"' -:;;:r;r ;,;- ;- >- --. ^- 

from tho n eo;,.iti.,n „f t u o ne -o t "nir'";'' ""■ T '' ■"■ " '""^ ^'"^ 
rocks „s a..t„al!y f„„„,, i„ , , ; .th-; ;, t' T h'''' "• "",^'T" "' '*""""-' 
■hief i.r.hh.m. have l.,vn -oIvp.I ""''•^"-I '^'"^ •■'■al.ze.I. .vhon certain 

.'o namely. ..e.ern.ine. „n,,er thJ V,; l!:!^; t, ittl :';,;,;: ;-:y^;, ^ t '" 
nature and >.vn,sis of rork.. Tie tirvf i,wUte„. ,„ • • • ' ' ' ""'"^ 

wa, the nia^nati.. nii.tnr,. ,. niatn.' CJ: . 'S'::,j;;,^:,':,''r~- • K " 

question is. how far ,lid tli, .litT.rentialin,^ Proee-. o,7er r ^ t .h' ."• '■'""'' 
nnestion is. what was the pro.vs. of .iiffereXtion 't'lf ?' '"' """' '"^"^*''"* 

.«.ioi^' 'n;:.':^n;::ti;:,,::':r:!rr'u ""''"^"'^^ - '"""^ - ^'~' 

tion to 1.0 .lerive.l fron -i, ' , , ' ' ' "■'"'""'« -^^ven tlie f.,l!...t infornia- 
ir.n, ,m„c ^u.ui,dp].n contact lines. On ti. other hand 

w^ -^^^ 


it t« 116' CNSarv tlmf iior.. nr I ... i •!v .,nn .urr.-c ..r no ..,.,i^, f ,t^ .J .^ , ;":;"''7; '-"""■;"■• ''^ 

.•omr>l.<x hi.iory nf „ „„„„„,, „l„„„s,. .,,,,, . 

Too!- prtirx » tl.n .i.|, „ .,„ ,- i ,,■ , '"^ fnltill.d 1. 

uiiBoIv,..). "r. h(i.,f,,„; r ,„,,,„, ,^,,„|,^^. 

'tniilirit' 1,1 iiiirav. 


"• ml -Vipr 
IT.. 1. 1.. II, ,,f 

"• in |.;irf 

TI.P KPolopi.t k-MoiM ,ow |,„r.l tl...... 

w„.,,,, ;iMi;:j:;trJ-; :;;.;:;:: ::;:;''■■: ,' ■;■■' \ '- ''■■'■■ ■< -'• 

It ii, not to be wond.T,.,l », ,h , , "'"' '" ""■''' ''"' •'^""'"litlH 

un,l..r.t.„o.i or flMt .1,.. ,,;,,;, 'l"/' I'""""". H'" I'lM-nmi..,,,,,, i,„.ir j, .„ |„,|, 

"f iinffle ca-c, „h.>ro il,«. i,.,,Mi<i., "''■ 

liill '•niiilitii'r , Mn 

III.- .],.r.,ury 
U:],T,t\.l\ »,.|1 fullill,.,!. 

I'i'OM .l.'JcrilH-il 
clinniliori. tlip 

Ft'lltlv (liafisc,.,j 

.0 servo f,. t,,:,,i..:!::;/:v;;;':,; :::'--;;,;;;,.-"^-;-i.^^ «..h ,...,.. n,.ino. 

The compound maKma, wlro t, , ■'^'' .-h'-H.-al rolati.>n. h, „nrli , 

tl.. d,>e-tion or !"'^" of Tei ■ rf r, ""1' "^""^ *'"''' composition to 

Finally, t^e fact, .om in, i , , 1 "■' '""'^' '" ■"^'-''"" '"'^'^"'^ "-".^'"^'■^. 

the differentiation VJ^ HT'^'n:;:.:;',,';'^ T:'/ ""■ '""•'■"' ''^ ^^'-'h 
•'Ppeara to Lave been diroof.vl hr DTo,,:,.. ' ':"-'ti"'i " ' ■■ «iil. imifrnia-t 
.•l.amb< rs. I„ . a,h 1 t ,p 1 .LT ' " I "" ''""f' ^^'' "■'«''''''"" '" 'he 

.^f th^ :':;::nr7:::,!:!:t;r ":'";;[ '7 '""""'■''"" "^-- -- ---'i 

oi field facts Im. Jon r-l , , H in\ ' '; '' ""'""• '■"■'• ^"''^'■protation 

rocks are oL^U h, .^IZ t "'"' '"'"'■'"• '"'"■"^'^'' "^"" "■•■"' "-h 
Panied and folInlJ I.J^Snt ht ,.''"11:'''',' '-T* "' "-"'"■'«'■-" ~- 

wve roe. at . .-ontaet ,. ..:;;:::rUi:^:.;i';r;ri:''r r;,^.;:;; r:;:; 


I'li'MiniiM I.I I in: i\ii umit 



2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

ililcil fi.|-MI;lti,,]i. Still 

'KlliMii ill :i iii:ij.|,,,| I,,.,,), 
ulii.'li is it-i'll' ;;. iiciiilly I 
'111' il.'Vil(l|iIMrlit 1-1' ,| 
■■'ni\ physi 
iriiiinlcil ,i.i 

lilcii-c rtTii't 

111 rOfji lU'OiK l.v ill,. .,1 

IVr IIKIV |„. ,1,,, l,,„.s ,,(' .JilVc 

I'li-ity >lriilifi,Mt 

Til,, f, 

'Ml r.-,)i-tiii- oT iniit,.,-i;il, ill fl 

ioM. iiii! ,,|| 

!lli-'>r|iliiiii ,,f Ion 

■nillllinll ,i|' rnlcrli,. i,,iv|, 

r< M- 

iull MMlrriill 

i''i' 'Mii-r< r,,r tl 1„ 

A -CC, 111,1 I 

'I' ixiwi'rfiil otr.'i^t ill t 

!,■ n,-U- lll;li;l 

"■I "ii^lil ,', rl:iiiil\- 1, 

l(> >;llll,. -I'li^, 

lisi^ussioiLs ,,n iiiiifrimit 

iiii'l:ini,.nt.iil prill, -iiil,. h-is 

;iuih:iiim liiis tali, 

■M |il:i, 

c iis.-^iiiiiliitioii. It' (lifT, 

IK ,1 ml,. 1, 

i-nriii-,l. ,1 

■>' >-,i lis I, 

ri'iili;ifi,iii of 

'•1' miipiiin (.f ,lifl'<.,,.|,t ,l,,„itv. il,, 

|ii-ii,|iiic within ill. 

III 111, 
111' iNiiiipound 

I'l'ttiini, till' 11, I 

"iil ,l,-|.oiiil ,liiv(.tl 

lUll clhllli.Ml 

lij:lit,-t lit 

Mlllirillll cllMlllh,!' ill 

i'lMp,>Sll|011 ,'f til,' IVvlillii, 

tlic 1,'p. ill,. lii'iivi,>t lit till. 

■f fl 

II' liiUiii'i'iit, 
III till' t 

I'll till' iiiiiniiiiiti,' >inil 

Mill IMlll,.|' ll 

il< 111 liny .■,.iit;i,'t 

IIIM ,,|l til,' ,',.l||p,,-itl,. ■. 

I'l-iii ,li'iliii', ,1 f 

ll.V 11,) Illl'illlS 

Tlio widir 1111,1 

iir,.piiiiu. iji^. 

ll-si,iii fh 


10111 till. -Hilly ,,(• iiitniMM. sil 

-C'omlnry ..ri-in „f 

■:ll.V f lilt ill,' i).r| 

1,1- -li,.,'t.: 1 

III, ,10 ill 

||<rliiiit <|iit'-ti.,ii i- 

I«'"IIS r,..-k lM«ly ..1 1,1 I 

iiniiii,>> lias 

>;riiiiiti'-, ,.r ,t, 

.1 ii'iiiiiili,.)! til 

l»S lllill l.lllllolilhs 

"■"O- iipi'ly t,, fnily iiliv,- 

iiiiiii,',liiit,'ly lit Im,,, 

III It i- 

li'iv,' 111,' sill I'onii 


'Hi'iis to lliiit just ,i|illi 

-miirtiiiio-i ,11-iniiiiii,' in ; |||. 

iloi'S till- 

ll <-iiiitiift<? Do tho 

'■eiiiTuI i'ons,.iis iiiroiiline i:'l 

U'li for tlic h'IIs 

ill diiiptiT XXVI. 
(iiil'Ur,, 1111,1 

'iriii;iii\p iiii-w, r.s 

iiiiiii'i' or 

1(1 ill, -(■ i|ii,'.|i,>iis iir,. iMi, 


'I'lllllll'S il 

;;i;iii"pli\ I'o 

tiijii, iiro llii'r 

til,' Urlli-ii Miiiiil 

IIV' , ill, '11 ,'| 


y ii^sociiit. 

lint othenviso tl 

•i' ii,i| >,i sil 

ii~ 111 iitliiT purls of t' 

ill Mirioiis 

ip'i' in ill till 

w,M-M.+ Till' lii'M rrln- 

"■^SIH'liltlolls Mlf;^.,.„ts ll 

tioii tlioory tii nil tl 

ic riciiri'iiii'c ,,f tiiiiiiv 

•il-^,' iif 111,' Moyi,. sills, f. 

It' pi.SMl.ihty ,.f ,'xt,ii,I 

llllll>ll f,'llllir,'S lllllolly- Jill I 

)r I'xanipic, 


llr m'ini 



MiK' till' iissiiiiilation-.liHforoiiti 

Sraiuipliyr,. of tlu. CarnK-kfi'll Di 

imriilli'ls lictwoc-ii lii> 

At ( 

'arro,'k Kill tl 

liriiiiopliyrc til Ir 

iiii'i',.lit,. ' roc 
li,ri' is iifjaiii 

iiiiil t! 

I'Xi'i Hint iiii'i 
Irii't. Kiifrlaiul, 

tii"ir ,,ii til,, iralil 

if .Mi 

iws rt'iiiarkiihle 

iiii-^iMa 1111,1 Ontario^ 

-till 1; 

irfTi'r liiiili 

110 i^niiiii,'. mill atraiii tl 

I'omnionly ,M','iirriii;r tniii~iti,,ii from tin 

tluiii ill t 

■f >;iiM,i-,i, ,1 

1,' uriiiioiil 


ll' III 

Kraiuilar a,'i,l r,„l 

li-ii-iv,' sli.'ois. an, I at still 

pliyr,' 1- a p.'ri|ili,.riil phase. 
'<',liiii,iit- ,\.'t 111,,!',' cii.'rfroti.'allv 

:!•* tlio ),r(Hlii,'t ,if til 

ii'ii- ili'plli. \v,,iil,l viiM 


''•|'li,'ii with tl 

a llion.iifihly 
1,' niii-i'qiK'iit 

't a, 

Tlio ililHi'iilty ,,f ilis 

iiwir i-mitncts in tl 

■fii^'-iiif;' t'li'-o ,|ii,'-ti,iiis is lai-j. 

I'ly ,'Ulii;; to t 

'll' inoi'iiR,' yraiiitc 


1,- lllis|.||,'. 

llii' iiMii'i' valiiali 

tSee -A. Geikip. Ancient V 

iloanoefi of Great Britain, ISiir. 

:Q..a.t. .rournal OiiO,'/ l' v;""^.'^.^:-^!^;:^ \T^;,. ,S«, 

p. Vlh. 




'"."-' '"■ ll"' iMf..ri,iMii I. ,.;>,,! 

"1 -11. -li ni.'k-i-i'hiii. II 

'i"iii iiilni-iM. -Ijl 
~ ■"■'' '"■■■•lil'.. I in Ilii- ,.li,|. 


'Mi|i,ir;il n !• r.iriiv 

'!"■ '"N.vpli, „,„„r,. ,,,■ ,|,„ „ ; ■ . '" '"" ■■"■'I'" '■ 'I "- "■■' -t ..II in.ji,..,,. 

-'i"-—..ah..„ ,. iv ,.!., „,,, ' ; ;' "';" ■-;— •-Mn:ii„i , 

-"""■■i.i,,: ,i,i.,, „.,„;,";;"' '" ;:ii---. -in.k.u.iii,.,,,.,. 

On. I!...rl,.n'l. ,:;,,;• .7'; "'-7' ■;-l--n,.K ,■ 

^nui so,.„„,||,' ,,„, „ ..""•"':'■> ":"•'• '—-1 ■■'II ^n^ I ,|„ ,.;„,1,; 

III'' iiriiiiin,.,,! n,,-,<,;,rilv ,.vi,.,„l ,;ii r ',i ' """ "" ■'-iiiiil.t i,,„. 
eon .MMulnrly air.v,..,! by ,!„. |,„.,1 ...;...:,.,.;.,, '' l^' " V'"'";'- '"- ''-" 

S.'o ,!,.,,,(,.,. XXVIII. 

"■■■'i a.-<,similnli,„. „f s,.,M.ii.l n.,|<-l-„n..atio„s 

tl'-or.v Is,|..„,lv .,, ,„,pl 'm. ,' • , ""■ -;"";l^"""-'litl-r.-uinli.M, 

iir iikkIi Til. 

lllc i.r \.l!,-;||I.M - 

«' i..;-*. >:::::;'.',:,:;::::■■" ■'■"""■- '- <■ ■ ' --t 

«.,,i;;';::,;!:::j:;,n.:r:r™'::': -.■"-" ■ - 

ilh.-r aiicli'iit 

IK' lllll' ,-1- IIIIK'h I. 

■ vMniihili,.,, ;,- ,,, ,lill,n Mlijil 





A. 19!2 


Uetv.i\ni till- f'i r. .11 'I' I 1 

l.osefonni„,Ml,oS>n„mit..ri.... ( M. 1 v"'"*-' i'' f'-r Kro,,,,. ;,. ,„,,,i,.,„ ,„ 
havo |.c.„ ,„H„..,| ,1,„ ,.,,„,, Hiv. ;;:,"■"•.;•"';;'•''• n.o-.. ,„l,c.r .r,.„p. 

loneil til 

jro ii.tiii„it,.|,v nss„oiat,.,| 
til tl„. Hns<la,„i v,,I, 

are (li-ciis.<<«(|. 

'■I':>\>Ut XUT. 

Ml \vlli,.|, tl 

uitli I, a,;.- V. 

"II.' ut:.uv. Til. 


Mill., roc] 

aver At. 


iiritain xvli- 

Ir il( 

IT'll Hi t!ll-| 

Ml- r,„.k- ,,f 


till. 1{ 

K I,,., I 


illHl llln.ilitfl 






IfHKMl, I--,,liMvi-,, 

11^- t ll. 

-h Til ,il-, 

"|i|"'>it|. I'nitl 

>t tlir I 


iiiiil lilt, rlclil,.,! 

nil. ilic" t,,„t-liilU 

'.V vhrr all 

iiviuiii aii,i ,„„•(], „,■ ,],, 

.V 'ilic tlio Kit 

-f'taigiilite, wliich l„ ]i,l 

ire i'..iiipos(.l ,,(■ uiif.w.ilif,. 

ii'iicr i|iiart 

rntl.v i„,t iii.tMiiorplio*,,! 
unf.,l,| ,1 Kit,.] 

tlleill tl O Pvilli.,;, 

evi(l,.ii,.o* (if lik 
''rie-t Riv.T 

cluMicr St rat 

a aci-..-;: tl 


111 any -,.„-,. ,|itr,.,.,.„t f 
'ill' ..!' ll;,. I' 

le nver. Tin 

'(TK-al ciiarart 

'"•■- ar,. 

I'll! (,l.„.|.v,.,j 

^rcur ,|v 

"''■I'h lllOlllit 

roiii tliat \v!ii,,.l 

'laii'lr liii'tniDfi 

»u-<: that 

ari' atipar- 
1 1- lrii.> ot" 111.. 

Ill ti 

P«is<^ int. ii> 


rpliisiii. iiitiii. 


■f ,i 

ynaini.. in. lai 

ill tlio l.atliojitl, 

.i:la.t iiipt, 

iiif I'riojt i; 

'!■ iiia-liiiii... 

iivcr tt>rraii. 

iiiii'i-pliiMii wh:,.], ],a. 

•1 ih, 

wntpr 1,; 


-s >■ parali'il tin -,^ 

'1*111 1- iiiiit.. -tii!^ 

I' - tarflii 

liiilstfr laiill .,f ^;,.,.af 

r.cki f 

my' an, I lai-fr,.] 

i''.iii ll 

is 1 1 


111-' i-"iii'iil..ri.|l a- 1, 

t 1|-..\V .,11 ll 

•li.-t n 

"• «(.-t -i.l.. ,,( t\.„ 

f-'i'ly "II tiiat 
iv. r t.riMi;,.. ,, 

1.1- atr,...|,..i ll,,, 

I ll.. r..,'ati 

a. •...,11111 I 


'ilaliii..- a 

ivi.;- (I na 

the K 

K' ( ImIi (; 

iiiii^iiiy nitfi I-,,!,) 

be|ior f. 

iii.l tl'. 

as niiipli 


'^i-liiafi,,!!, Til.. ,1, 
as .'iO.Oik) f,.ot. 


"11 tl 

net a v< 

ivii.-li. Tl 

I'l lll.llll,.-!- ,,|' th,. J 

IVi.W 1- 

t. -111, nil. ! 
'II tlK- (.asf (~.. 

ll- I'ault 


^ '■■■rn !at,.,l 

il'>. an.l i,ii ,,f tl 

lii'.iMiiit i,f ll 




11' .i^i'i at .-trii,.t 


Ill' 111 t »■ liclil til 

'""■"t* «•■-! of th.' alluvial 

irical ('..inpar 
'•"•a- vol. ii— i; 

I' wnt.i- wa- 

i-i'.ii, :'„r at tl 

iiral ;iiip.ii.fai;. 

II. ,1 iiitir.I, 
'ii't tiiiii' th 

.' -I ll 
.1' th.. ] 


y fi.iis..]. 

IK ..( t! 


<■ •■xist. nco ,,(■ 111,. Ki,,.|„ 

"■'•• -itj.'i: a .l..|ail(..I 

i- ii!i[if rativc. 
'■ i'llp.'I-ta.,..,. ,,f tJif, 

■iiir fiTitia- 


i>F.i'Mnvh:\r or rin: i\ti:rior 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

n'nn was „„kM,.w„ nn,l w„- ,u,t ,l..„.r,Mn„..l until ti,.- ■• i,.,! 1 „ 

""■^•""' ; 'T ."'''•■: '" "''' ••'-•"•"■•■I. Si.,,-,. tl,..„ no f„v..Mn,l,i.. o,,,.,;,.,„„itv i,.. 

;.nHon l.y wh,<-h tl,r stMcl.v of tl,i. .„ .-„>I,I l.» .^„ti,n,o,l in tlw H,.!,| 1, 
IS now nnl.v known tln,t. tl,ro„jrl,oMf n,nst of t^in n.ori.lionni iM-lf of the Ki,,!,- 
on.r .,Mnrt.,to a. n,n,.,K^.l on the wost >i,k. of tlu- Kootonny. tl,.. ro.k- nro iiMi^- 
tmRu.sln.l,Io from ty,... of tl.o Kit-lu.n.r strata roll,..!,.,! at tl,o ilovio rivnr 
II..- stnpl,. rock ,s a Kn.,M,isl, j^ray .„. .rt/itr. woatlarin;: l.rowni^l,. I'n.L.r tl,.'.,-o,,c tl„. ,|o„,,nant .,nnrt/. i. .e. n to 1,.. rruMilarly a. iaf.l with Mnal! 

fjrain. ot nM,ro,HTth,lo ati.l ortlmWn*.., with ponfrally a litth- pln^'iorlaM. a 
1.W .,no,H. and ,,yr,to ..rystaN. Thorc i. always nu.-a proJnt, .^..n.Ta'llv 
...lou.l,.s, and s,.r„.,h... thon^li ,„innt.. hiotito- an- s,.,.„,in^Wy novor ah.-nt 
Uhoro tho qtiart/.ito ,s ,.l,.avo,l. as it is at oeriain points north of Com .T.-.-k' 
ho ,n,..a, aro spoojally .lovdoped in tho rl.ava..^ „lan.s. Th,- .Motar^illiti.: 
intt.rh..,ls hav.. not Wn n.i.Tos,.o,,i,.ally ...xanmiod thov ai-^-ar to be .-on,- 
po.«od of tho san,c .natorials as tho n.otarKillitos of tho Ki'tohonor for>nati,>n. 

Jt ,> trno that tins lo.'al .iMartzito-nu-tarRiilit,. serio> j, litJ.oloKioallv 
s|nnlar to tho noohive forntation as dcvolopo.l on tho snmniit of tho ra.iiro 
Ih.s >s„f oourso , atnral if tho writor i. oorroct in -on-olatin^^ tho Kit.honor 
niid Hcrhivo qnartzuo-:. 

At Summit .-reek and north of it for a half-.nilo tho qnart/it,. Is ..xtroniclv 
n.nsstve and of a ^ray .'olonr whon frosh. an.l vory ofton grayish to liu-ht hrown- 
jsh-gray when woathero,!: it is ,,ossihlo that hero s.o have a lar^^o ont^Top of tho 
Proston fonnatton nndorlyinsr the Kitohonor. Thoro is .o littl,. oovtahifv of 
this, however that the eolonr represenfinp: the Kitohe.ior on tho ,nap has been 
extended northward across Summit creek. 

North of Summit oreek the strike avera^res about X. ID' K aiul tho dii. i. 
:d.„ut verttoal The san.e strike (dip observed at .iO^ K.) is prosonod fairlv 
welHoraeouploofrn.lossouthoftheoreekwhenitabrttptlyohanKe, to X. 22= W 
tun to .\ ..() K. beoorn.n;. h,,hly variable in a hH-ality of stntotural ttirntoil.' 
A half-tntlo farther south tho -.ike is X. 4.5" F.. and the average dip about '-.C 
S_ E. Th,.s penera] attitude of the beds was observed at several points south 
of Corn .-reek. On the whole it n.ust V .aid that tho strike of ,ho -luartWto 
'■■ (listiMotly traiisvor-e to the trend ,.f tho Pur.-oll Tntieh 

'1 1.0 wo^orn limit of the quartzite i, shown o,. the map only approxi.natelv 

•ot- the r.ason al,e;uy noted, the an.ount of structural and atoal work done 

n the field was ,n>uff,e,ont to show that liuut and tlu-rowith tho oxaet pla.-o of 

n,o ,..<tu ated tnastor fanlt. Few ,„.iuts in tho strneturo .ootion alln^r the 

Fort>^n.nth T arallol are n,oro important that, this one and it i- e>, iailv here 

that further an.l nmr,. detaih-d w,.rk i» m-odod. 

TuiKsT RrvKR Tkrrwk. 

Tt has already boon noted that the basal eonfrlomerato of the Summit sorie- 
rost^ uueonforntab y on older rooks outeroppi„K at. and to tho oastwanl of. the 
head-waters o, Prto^t r.ver. The nan.e ' Priest River terr. ' mav be appro- 




I'l •, 1 

^ *. -(5«. 



ut:i'„in „r ■, ,n , niir Asii,'i,s„,\it.i: 


'""'li l'^ir.l!..|. TI„.Kn.m ""'^ ^'n.vwl,..,.,. ,.x,k,s,.,1 „„ tlic F,„,v. 

'-"pro-c .rian :uKi pr:i:i;;;;;; !;;\t:'''' '''"'■''■ '^^^^^^^ •- 

K.,,'o.s„trs a,„l Co,„/l/lu„s of Sl,i,hi W\,\ , ,i ,,. ■, . 
"li'T.. it ..,„s.,.s ,hp Selkirk r.„... , :i| , ''"""'" """"''"> '-I' 

-I'-ar." .nil,.s. Su.-h .,, ,„■,' « rii' "'',.":■•'■''"•• -v.t. ul„n,t on.. h,u,.l,v,l 

"■'■ - >iti.." .n.i ^t;:::,:: ::!',,:':;;: ""^i'/" "•^-'' ''-n... .i... ,. „. 

i" "'""-t ..v.Tv part .,,,,1 i, , ; '"■"""'"•• ""•'•■'""■rphism ..f th ri... 

-i'Hioa,,fH,e;„r^;:^i ;,::;;;;:;- '•;:;;!-''';;i'>- -.m .,i,„.,. ,,„„,.,. „,., 

"■"""■■s for...t ,.a„ n.l.l M .i.h. ,•,'',''''•. '''•■'^■'' ""• ""■ ''-"vy Mn,l ..„„- 
•■"■"t"l troMl.l.. i , i„ on ./i ';''",' "•'■"•''f .'" ." hVl.l wJu.n. ,l,o K-oIosi,,-. 

-'t'"'" -'■-■'■' - 'r'' ' -: m'' rS,;: .I'T '■::V'"'"'',- ^'''"*" '"■' ^^ '"■ 

tojrotlior tin- so,.tion. wor.- „ft,.M I. ff , , l 'V' "'"■• '''"■ " ""''<" "■• '"- 

v.>«etati„„ tl.a, ,.v..m ri,.. m- Li f , ^ '"T ^" r"""''''"' "■''^ 'l"-^ -^r ..f 
l.-'iR .tr,.t,l,<... • ^"■^'■"'"" "•"'"'•"■ l'"lt-'.H. w,H invisil,!.. C.r 

'•n.'^'1;^.;i:;h;:;;i!:::;:i:;;j;:,-'-'' '■"• '-■ - ^-^ „,.. ,.,., ,,... 

it^ rook. „ro al„„!^t en . ; " li^ "T"'" '" ^ '''''-kI, 

.■<'rtain infli<.,ition ,.f rolativo ii^r,... .„ , „ i- . i^''',"'''" '"P ""r hutt,,,,,, i,or 

•lotormi,,,.,!. Four nio o o 1 t .'' ""•■v>'l""l ..„.,„l„.r. hn, ,., |„,,„ 

''nho.orieswasob,ai„..iTi;.ll ';■'■'' • "''••' ••',""• 'i"><'' natun- 
-riptiou of tlu. s..ri..s. i „i i,..,' t ," tL 1 '" Z"" ".' ?'" "^ *'"' ^"""^•-■"'' <'- 



■^•■n.'s on a [Mirfly litlu.l 


■f tho 

•'"Mipilitifr tlio .Ij 

ita Willi ('i-( 


in<> inav 

forth nfcrrod to 1 

'0 proiipcd ,,i|, 

"1 the -(■vrral trairr^i'^ it 

ii(>l»';ii'.-! tiiaf. tl 


<>«■, mo 

'.V tho Iottor< .1 to (I. 7 

>ov..M irnwilar l.olts wliioh will 1m 

ro or less faithfully, tl 

isiially to lie parallol t 
liren most fully 


'■overed hy holts /' and (I h 
very .^..ant. Along- tho north, 
-h.nv --pooially loniplioato.l f 
I'.'ia- Vol. ii — 171 

invostipatp.1. Tl 

",-;;"•■'•■'' }\\"y niM in.ri.lionally aii.i 

1 apptar 
/'. and A' 

><■ >trik.. of th,. 1„.,1,| 

>nn i)larios. wliid 

u- plaiK's of s.hi^tosity. Holts .1, /;. f 


as canscil th,. infi.rii 
^rn odj;.- of thi. Bonn, la 
catiirc- a« a r.-Mdf of 

mai'.'jssihility nf tl 

inilioii c 

lo aroa 

onooniina- th.rii to hi 

ry holt all tho h.dt 
th.' iijtni.-iioii ,,f till 


,'i-oa r 




in:fM{i\ii \i ,,i Hit. i\iiii 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1012 

Buyumie,. IVri,,l„..r,,l ..■],!,,. .,iiv .,n,l .1 

H,..„ „„rl„:;„:;i;;,;t' ;;:ti;;;t /:::,;:!;':r',i;; t "17- ■■' 

limit „(• l<.|t a „,...urs ,.t ii nm-t.r f..„l, ,i , "■ ""* '""''''■'i 



brinii schist-. 

l'elr„,/n,,,l,„ „f /l, If \ s^,,, 

Itn r(,|,tj,-t ultl, III,. J)r.-(\ltll- 

"" "f S,:,„M,if .-nrk ,|„. 1,,, i>«l„„„.rut,. 

']irv..tly „vr.rlio, Ivlt .1 Tl,i ' T '■"■'^' ""' '''■' ""'""-rat.. 

'i.M most ..iMUHhmf il„. ,|,,I,„„|, , ' ; -'■'■"■""• 'IMiirt/li... nr,. 

till' ii:it,iri' 
i>r i-hlcirito. Till 

lii-ts viiry 
itiiii iiliiiiiiiiiii 

111 c. li.iir fioiii li^hr I,, ,|;,|.|^ 

■'• "i till' r,--iiilial 


;h-.'..r.|iiit; t' 


If ':i tlio "Clii-tosity pi 

.V lire rificij iiit.rfii|.t..,| I 

ill iiiiliviil 
timiMl l.ctv 

111! .-'. Ill (prtniii iili 

iiiM'ncc.Mis niiiii'iMl. -iri.-iti'. I,i,,ii 
'I'l'ii't/ .111.1 .,( ii,.I,,i 

y V. iiili't- ,,t 


IP (.Toiiiw ill, -riiii, lilt, ■.! 

ii'ii till' tr 

ili'-^l- Hnil 

?i;loi.t tlio tniil „t Ci.i.iHr Ci,,,,, tl„. ,1 


r!ii-iini!i tl 

ilPipill-r ,|,,|m| 

iTV-tilU ..t' 


-t. i; 


V/lth >iiif;l,. ci-.v^lnlti „ii,I mnmII 
wlu.'li is priilniMy iiiik, 
ritii! npparuiico. 

mil' :ir<- |', 

il. O 

irk I'liyllitii- -rlii-i 


CllllllllS ,.( ;l liir|,, 

If riii-li li;l-. ill r, 

i- .il'uii.liiiitl 

■I"- tl-Mll-I- 

II till! WPSI 

y I'liiirjri'il 
i-Mii.'iiiou> ciirliuiiatc 

•ll>''Mlll'Ili'f. 11 l,-,.|i,!o.l,,-,r|,hy- 

■I'.'WM f, 



P Miinrtzitic 

III, is 

le nlwiiys wjtl 

niiiotiiiifs r„i, ,,v,.,. ;| |,iin,lr,.,| f, 

riiiK iilimes. At 

nia«ii<'si:iii tu sii 

I an iilniiiilaiit .lovcli.p 
several localitios the ,|iiartzil,.s. lik 

f in tliicli 

IP liahit ,,f eoiiipact 




arc voiy poor l.nt it a 

o cxtPiU. Thoy tl 

It ,,f -, 
-■ til,. 

iiiH |)iiss ov<r ml,, tl 

ri"ii,. ill til,, 
^''lii-ts, ari> 

nioro or lo-^ sil 

111'- •Miiye in |.o|„ur from wliit,. t 

iVIlt .lloilfrh ilcciilpyl l,„ff ,i,|t, -pi, 

iciotN. iiiarl)lis. On I'l 

a -l-.n.-at, 


iiiiiii^s \\hi,.h liiivi' 
rp-li fructnros th,i 

I>I'Pnrs that n,, ,,iu. bed 

1'. I'xposiins ot th.. (1,,1, 

i"un. Ucail 
niiti'^ in hi'lf ,! 


iiioasiins nin. 

1 ■'v,r tiftv f, 

cpt jn 


avcraiT's a few ,|. y 

iKhiiut ,,f t!i,. I, I, ,1 

irniity wit], the S 

rp's w,->t ,,f 

1" -trik 

ii,,rf!i an 

>( i„.t; 

1 iM.'Miiii;- ai 

gpnurally nearly 

1. >iininii( s,.i.|,.s ;,( ,ii,i..|,. 

uncommon. Al.ont on,, mil.. 
a stroiiH- transvi rse fault 

vertical hut anui..s ,.f 7;, 

^(Miii^ t,, ,.iit th.. plan., nf 
'/•'■'"-''■■; '•>■ to :.'.V. The ,|ip i. 

I'i Si'lustositv 

iineori- ..' the I),.w,j 

t,, sir to tl 

1.' ea-twar 

11 lire iifi] 

ith h.i 

!U,,ntr wliieli. 

n<y trail tli,' lult is hrokeii 1,..- 


leii ili-pla,..,l \ve,t\var,| 

as :s i,,wn 111 th,. map. tli,- l,I,„.k 


in 'he ii,.rth,rn hlo.-k tli,. Ixlt rapi,ll 

1 eut away ilurinp: tl 

glomerate. 1 
the (I 

n this s 

ip ill, 'I* 

Li ire 

hort t 

uith r.sp..,.t t,) th.. l,], 

y narrows i|,,wii .> 

po-ition I 

'o th, 

e en.sion pr.-,.(-,linfr tl,,. ,1, 

iiA-nie ,)f h,.it .1 th,. ,( 


riki" av.'rai 

'11 tiif iinrtli. 
•liiT,. it ha, I 
' Tren.. cin- 

rgo .piartz veina. nMiallv 1 

in th.. schist-. One of 

tll..M> V 

yiiij.' in til,, plain's ,,f -.-hist,,. 

111!-', tr m 1.". t,i •2ii f, 

I't in tlii,.kn 

itv are comnu 

ess, and well 

ini'tiin I,/ I III , III, I- , , ,, . 

'"' •nil I \\ 1 i;i,\ii\i I i; 

pxp"- I in ,, hiyi, Hitr ,,.■„,- .,! , ■ 

'"•" '— -IMi;,.. „,i,.,.,i,„.. ,„■ ;J . ";;;,"■ ""■ •.•"••'J-^'r.l of ,hi. are 

n-ulf, u,H u.-e.nW.. ' ' ' ' "■''"'- '" •!"■ I'n-i..n. ,„Hnl- T ,. 

Tl,.. .1. 1 . • 

Ti"'' (I-1..1.1I1,.- ,,r ii„, |„ 

'■'■'|'-i-.-.n,i.,i,.,J^\. ',;-;;■ I; ;ii;'.^ ■.■■! „.. 

P:'.-l<..t^..f .„I.,u, ,„nu ,1,.. ,„.i ':,!.'■ ',,'" ''''■ '""■" ■'-•-^■^l. Tl„. 
„ ,„„- ,„„., ,,.,, ,„ I,,. ,,:;„,;,';:;;;' .'■■^^'"'; -Ir n f..w inches in,or 

I 'H' ill t rn-i\-t. V, ,.I . 

■""■^i^ ^z:::'^ r;::-r^::: '' '-i",,,,, ;,„,,,,.„ ^„„, 

J'' Iroiiioii/iii of lull I: -i-i , , 

""'I !• r-Ht,.„t |,a,„i- ,,r ,|,,.,,,„, , ';'"" ",""■ '"''- I5-1' /' 1-nr. tl,i,.k 

■—V .Mi,.. -,.|,i-,, Ti, 1„ ■ ^'"■'■"^"'"^' "•"', ,„„| „,,,,ii,i,. „„, 
I'>-i-t riv,.,-nn,l„if ,■,..,.., ,„" n'"" I'" M "'"'"'' ^"i" "" "" '''■^i''" '"-n^ow 

-l^::i^.;;;:-;;;'"''' r-^^ ^ 

'^ ^;,r '- 'I- ■lip i- ,.n,:;i!:,ii:';:';ii:.';r"'"" ""•""^'' "- -'<• ti,.. .twu 

'"■•■•;■""•"' ;-"' '•'= "-e .lip. .1'; . ,-. . Tl,,-.' "■'"", T''- ■'■'"■ ^^"■'^" '^ 

'•" *ho s„ntl„.„-t l.y M i,-;(> ,v,„t |,an,l „f 1 .V "" ^'^^' ""^'""«tono is .ncccedDd 
''"'■"""'1 I'v !'•- fV..t ofwl, ""' '"""' "'"' '"l*Pi"»-' TO I-:, r, 

■onwai.i,. ..,i„;,l:^'-n;:' „::;:;•;': ■'-■•''■'-, '-.^„ y..„,.„,.,o .i,;; 

■-^',il" ,■ iv.,'v>Ai* •.•^(li 



nn-nnvr\r i>f riir i\rrifinir 

y iniHlli.T h,.n,l of ,|„l,..Mit... wlii 'li i 

2 GEORGE V„ A. 1312 

■. v..,y M.Mili.r to i|„. tir^t .|„I,m,i(,. ,„...„, 


111.' s|>r.'iincn of ihu -loloiiiM,. { \„ s,ri : , • i 

"'"'I'- 1—1 1-t „i.„ ,.f „„. ^. ,, J,^ ,. ■' ':, '-■■>• ^1''"' ly ■<■ .1. 

IViVst Hiv.T »..rn.„.. ft I . i ■ ""^'"■■""" '•^'"■'- '""HniMir i,, tl„ 

wcatli.'rs nitlirr Miiiforinly l.nnvnM. 

IP from wliit. 1., |,„1,, |,||,„ '.„,,| 

IH V.'illlotH ,,f vvllil 

WH(> f|„. rn( 

I' 'lllKI'tZ ilMcl liv ll 


!■* II viry 

1 ill tl'o I., Iff. wli 

"'"I'Ui'Mi ■>. Iiiii--«i-aii,i--| 

l'"W or lutr. [i i, iriin„,(,,| |,y 
1' IS of vci-y .• nipnrl ,|o|ot„it,.. Ot),, 

iiiiiMi r 

'■" l"> :i|i|>rr.i: 

liliirlM. -likr I 

--• '•"i-n xitnn.linK to normal ,|,,|, 

I'll' liiipnrily. 

:iniily-i^ I>v Pr.i 

"nil- IHTlly rlo-l-lv 

1 -hki' im:i«'< (ll I'Hrlioiiiito, 
'IMii' <|'(N-iii(. urjuiiv i- 

"f liidii,!,, ;,ffor.|,.,! f 

ii' folio", lus I'o-iill : 

. I iiiihi 

■I 'l»htl,iilr. I'l 

1 1' si liir'i- h'lniiK 

A! <)., 

• ao. 





Mo iit iiu (• 

11,11 111 


iilxivc 11»'<' 




• {¥»'. 





Sp. K-r 

Piiitiiin iiisoIuIiIp in hvil 



(I I iM'iili 

1. 111. :,<M'~^ 


I'l- iIh- iiii.'r...-co|i.' ill,. ,Mrl..>iiatr i. 

uraniilar afrjrii"i;at<', tin 
aliout Oils nun. 
loiniiion ill till, ilolonii 

!•< n |( 

' I'l'i-nr 111 i!io form of 

10 urn 11, liiiiinr of ratlu' 

nmi'Irr. Tliry nrvr sl,o«- i|„. ■■lionil.oli,.,lr",ii'"o,",'l' 

r iiiiitonii «j/, 

avc raijiiiu 


»' easily fxnia 

Ics of ilio l.iwi^ am! (iai 

lliopouKhly re ly-tallizri! and 

!'.V lli»' fact that all of 

vounjicr ilnloiiiitc.s 

now liuvc tl 

loll -fr\{ 
till- I'rii'-t Ui 

TLis ijitr. 


ri'Iii-c iiiav 

niitcs liavt 

•r |i-s lorfccily. 'r 
niple.l liy a fi w .sinail kim 

I'i'iii lo liavo pri-crviij tlh 

11' -Minliiiv of trill' inarli 

If. wliilc til,. 

w praiiiilar 

:i.'-|iial siiliiiii ritary striicti 

'iuaiitity n 

f ll 

.f irl 

■mile of tlie thill s,.ct 

>rlii*s.,.|ear .|iiarlz ami felilspar. Tl 

Mil IS l|lt(. 

le visii 

il'le ill livilioehl 

'-• ...ipiintns niat.^i,.. «..ll ,li„ ,,„r,i.,„ of ,|,.. roek fnnml to 

imiile II)) of ill,, earlionate. rlii,|.. , 
almost iileal dolomite. 

It happriis that, a small v,.ii,l, 

orie ,i,'i,I. .\|„,„t !.4 per ,-,.nt of the roek 

liV tin 

li.v weiifl 

ratio. f'aO: \l«() (Mi!:n 

ht i. 

'f the reek, a 

t el 

ppear.s in tli,. .) 

'■ross-eiittinjf the i 

nam ma — 

in diameter ThrouRhont 

•in .-eeiioi, -i,„li,.d. This veinlet i. :,l,o„t I „; 
extent it< trraiiis arerasre ah.iiit i>i 

lis visihl 

II trim I m niiiiint s^i n,,\-mi it j^s 


M. .li,.m..t. r ..,. ..,,,,..1 ,„ „„. .u..,.k.- .I,a ,• ., ,l„. ,r,nu. „. ,1„. 

\\ut.Tl,„., Sa.U. .,,..1 SI,,.,,,.,,,! .I„|,.,„it,... 11.-,,. „. .1,. „• w.. lu.v.. . 
^-toaJy i*r-.-t, M.- in ll... .,/, ,„• ^,,.,1,, „|,i,.|, ,-h.r.,rt, ri .. !!„■ ,.'m h,i,. ,llv ,,r, 
' i|<l ( jrlioiiiii... 

'''"■ ■"■•'•^'' •■'"' 'I ' 'I" i.-.i»-r....i i.n.i ,,(■ ,i,.i,„„,.. A,,-. ,„ ;„. , r ,1,. 

mu,Mven... ,-t .1,.. rock, n..t r. Mily ,l..,..n,n.u..l In.t. .,- u-u:.l i,, ll,- /„n.. ll... 

tor.m.r w„- a (.»• ,l.-:,,v... ..„-: ,,f „„r,l,. whil.- tl„. ,1 ,.„„-,| ,., |„. ,„.;.r!v' 


KilM ..f lli, .ii,alv/i.l .l.,|.,iinl,..,n.|.h w.t.- few f„i ,,!,.,'it HKt (-,^.1 ..f 

.•r....-..vti„„ l„.t that -.r,|,.|, „,„„ ,„ I.,. ,a„l,-,.|.,iu l.v ,|,.|,.,„,i |,l,,ri|,. .,■!,;. f 

|.n.l phyihii.. ,„„.. ,.-,,M. Ii,u„.-, !., ll,.. .-a-iwar.l an,! .-t al |.|„. vv.-i,.,-., 
l-u-.- ..I .\..i-|l. S-„- |,..,k, a .'.X. r,..,l, ,„a 1,^ v.Tti.-al. l>an.l „t -l„ar.-,| ,|irl.v 
Wlut.- .l,-l„i„r.-. .alla'.ll.y v. II, an. U •„. t|.,. „„,-t .a-l..rU |,,,,t ,,f l„ It /.• 
Iho .-tr|l«. „( the laiMl aii.l ,.t its .,-lii-i. -il.v \^■.,^n■. ,, al„,iit N. .", !■;. ; i|„. ,|,,, 
avi'ruirt- "-It I-,. 

A review of tlie tM'ld-m.ti-s «>iiK>t<'»ts tliat Ih^Ii I: i, a\ , ■n-i ,i ,ii. a .L.^.-U 
tt|,:)r..,s,,l I',, I, I. 11,,. . r,,.i.,|i ,,1 wlu-li I, a, |,r,,.|ii, ,.,| ,i .jupli. .,i i,,„ „t il„. ||,,v, .|.,|,,. 

"'"''■ ''■'■' ' "■ '■••" -' I' - •■' '!- I" It. Il,,«. •.. r. tl„. wn .-..ii-nUTal,!,. ,Mr...- 

.'n,'0»ol tlii,kr,..>s l„.tw,.,„ il„. ,,.., ,iv.. I,,,„.|, ,1,„. .„p,,„,.,,,l ,,, |„. ,l„,,li,.„i,., 

»<> Kr.-al ll,at ..i,,- . ani„,i !„■ -ur,' ,,| tli, |.,.-iulai,-.l i. |. liti,,, h, aiiv ,.a-.. il„ r- 
1^ ii,>,vi,lon,i. Ill lln. ..,.tl,„, as |., wIhIIut iI„. C,,!,! i- an Mnt;,'!i,„. ,.r a -M„li,... 

Ill n., ,,llu.r part ,.| I., it /; , ,:„M tin-; [, I itl,.,|. In t',,- i.,.n, ra! Mi„.'tan' 

"■'■"""• l!i''<l' >•'•■ 11" atl,-in|,l i, i,ia !. I., -li,,u ila- tni,' ri'lali,,,,. , , tli,' ..n'al 

m,,M,„-hii,'. It Im- -..,.,n,.,| l, t.. ill,.strat,. .imply tl „,,ifi,-al f.. :. ,.{ 

h.'l.l ,.l,..rxata,.n rat'i.T than t, alL-inpt tl,.. pr,,.!,-,'! n-n ..( f,,l,i, w|,i,.|, „n,l, . ,|„. 

.■ir.Miiii-tan,,v ,-,ail,I I thimr ,.u,. ,1,.,,, fan,. if,. |, /; i^, iha-. ,-„mp„.o,l ,-f l.aih mi, .a ,,.1,,,,^ ami ,I..I.,i,,it,-. |„ t'lat 
Ml Ilio -■ar'aonal,. r,„-ks ar,. r,'lativ,.|,v n„)n. al.umianf than a anv ,,i1i,t l„.!t in 

thv ]>„.-t l!iv,r i,mim.. Th,. p.-r-ist. „f ti..- ,I„lu,i.,-' tl„. s,rik,- 

tli,.ir n.aHy v,rti,-al -lip. tl,.. n„tal,|.. -tPaii:l,tn. -, ..f ,.a,-l, lv,i an,l ,.f ll,.- .a,tir.' 
bfit a,'io..s .\",,rtli Star in-.u„tain, ami tli,. ticia-ral piran..|ls„, ,.f l.-U, .| .,n,| /; 

t.j tli<>,| ..f [,■,■ a.nirhamrat-. \v,,nl,|. a', tirsi -i-l,t. -,,f;i:.-t tliat ,| l,..|-f 

the upiHT pan „f tl,.. I'm St. Uiv.T -,.ri.- U ,„nr. ,r.„al,l,. t., ih- ,,^,.,-|s i'„.' 
,>„L HTi.s It is l,..Ii,.v,,|, l,„wc.v,r. a. „„t,-l ,! ,-wl,.r,.. that rhi. ;r,.n..ral 

paralel,-tn of l, .1 „,i.l I! U, ^U■ h ,m| „f Jr..,, n;..h.,m,rat.. is pattiv an 

in,M.I..|,ta' n-siilt , t il„. stn.ML' npnifnit,..- an,l inasliin^r whi.-h liav,. f.-r-,..! 
th,^ tw„ Kn.'nnl,,n„ahl,. .,.ri,-s i„t., ,„,.;, i.n. „r appar.-tit ,-.,„r„rt„it v Sis ...-,.« 
norti, ot the Honn.lary, bolt /.' has h,v„ hn,k,.„ l,y tl,.. sai,;,. fanlt whi.-h o«-..t 
belt . I a mil.. ,>r more ..aitl, .,f Summit ,.,.,, .k. At th,-.r, .1; U' th,. .|,.l,.mi-,- 

..n.^ s.hist,s of l,..|t li aiv cntir,.|y nit „tT l,v a s,.,.„„.i ,,, ,-^p,. „„,„/,„ 
that th.-so ,-ucks arc ri>pIa,o,|. north of ih,. |l,.\v.ln,.v trail, hx fla ,|„.ap,.,| ,,',,.,rt. 
ziles i-hara,'t<'risti,- of h,-lt ''. 

Th,. d„l„initi,- bamU „f l.,-lt /.'. ilk,- tl,,,,.- „r h..], .1. ,.arrv -,.,all I,,,,,,.',,., 
of and ofca^ional .rystals of eopiK-r ,)yrit,.s. \oithor f tl,,-... ,i,-,- 
«-her,. ihoy have hinn a.Mnally pr.,-iM.,.t,.,l. as at tho .-laiins ,,f ' f,,|,,„.r Camp' 


^lA-i' im^m 


i>n-\i!i\ii M >,i nil i\iinii,h- 

' fPi.r- ill rihn,, ■< ,,t «,,iU;,l,!|. 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

■I." .mu.ri,,! ...,| ,...1 ,>, ^ ly:T^ ^•""":- "f ""■ -M'i.l..-. 1.1,1 

-.. :.--r,.,.;:;;!:;;:ir;:;r ' -'.•'... ^...i.s. ■ 

:'t;:'" •■■v^.:'.,;:;J:;.:i,:;:;::::^rn::.;;'7'- -•"'-■"••" 

"•i' ' "... i„.^l.. ,,, t ,111, i„ , ,,• V ,.,.<, '"'■'' '■""■" '"•'•"- 

•'».'. inlly ,!,., „;, „„. ;,,j, ., , '• r;'- "-''-I" 'I'ar th. I«„„,lary lines 

irr.., .■oU,u,.. Wi.lii,, , :,, . , 'V'" •""'""•' "■"■""! " ''--l^ ^-..iii.l, 

I I- "i'"iii'. '11--, Miiniit«.,| I,, I, ,iiio« ,,( ,,.|iUf, ;.,. -i-i 

•£■".1 Till., .,.l,„n,.,..,.,„i. „,„ ,. i 1 , ""'"'''^ '•'"•';■"■ "■ i-'rnplii.i,. or otli.r 

'" "-"^"'''' ^'" ^-'" ^''' """"'" ■■'"-•'i:: :-:::.,::; tnir:,; ' 

.no. ,.;i,. ,.,,;,: L;;:j\;i,:i'—X^r- i^ ^:- ;■;;■- /;; t ,, 

^'I'out rr.' K. Ai l.Tiilitv ., tl.„ • /\, "•• '''o <1'P avera(?e« 

lip of the ..iii-,o.,v I ;•;. "v'^rT'r r ^r*' •''""• '"""•""'"■ ••^" 

•P..r..i,.. i. „.,r,i,iil|v ,„ 1,1 ' , ; '^ ' 't\'\ .■'— '..itl.v ,„inrt.i,i... Tho 

"•iUiiii ,],.. „„„„,;,„ 1,. ,. ;'^,„r;^M'' 'I- ;-'--.rpl,,.o,l .o,li„K.„.i,ry. 
nn.l .hloriti,. ..,,„. i,l,,„. wit; ,'\t''''" '■''"-''•!-- ^^^ -ioiti,. 

whi(,. or buff. Tlirv nr., oftnn A • ' «>•""" i^h-Rn.y. wnthcrin^r 

\ "^^ 

'^■m vdUHteJR;'ll 

/;/ /''</.•/ (,/ , // 

I ' in I I 1 / i:,,\iiMi H 


A I S 

I'o'iikIIv IIK'Ii 

liiuiiit .ri'i-k ;'ii'l 

im...l)|i..g,.i| l.j- til,. J!, 

ir, i',«- r' 

.(■ tllr 1.. 1 

irp most iiotiiM* ill tKo —I 

i^oi.hf ►iiiiiivii.ipjf,. i„||. 

ii«ioii. Tl 



iTi.itc, ('lil,,rit.' iiihI 1 

'■i ».-..• I.iiu.k \,: t'l.ti. fl„. mmmII .l,r..| 



itr cniiirMMt t(, tl 

ll llir ^.■|,\^l,,lli/rti. t 

i"iil. tin- r. . 
I'- r «'iit!Mt' 

I..V tMl...| 

.nil! f.ul. 


■f liirj."' I .lit- 

'.ir-, -ur:! iiiiMi Hill 

i>- ifii.n idiylHti.- <chi*t-i t'.ir 1 

•i-lii«r Im 

iithliiar or Ir 


■■!,•,;. t-il.-t;, I: 

IIU' I- (IS ):i]iv 

rijiii thn h ili„liil 



-'■«lilM.'rI;ir;,.. Tl,, f,!,, |,,„„|, 

• I- ill the .t,i|ili- |,|i.: 

111,. .■! 

i-'io-Miu «|".''''ii. "111. ll. ll,. oil it 1 

■lii-l iir.'ilv 111, 1 

'i< "riu'iunl 
..f .1,,..,. .,1,1 
l<'-'i ff fr im 

I,. ,,|- 
iiiiinitc. ll, ,.i K 

11 l.ihv, Iv I. 

It I .liir-i ,li,.<, Miiiint) ,| 

111;"' -i/,., I* ^lill 1, t 

|..:it..- . 

f ll 

11 In 

liiir,| niiiir'/il, 


li^lril.uti'il ll 

J. ll 

(■ qi..:|t/. 

'-■■lit. i.T :l» 

I'll!, ^ II r> 

HUif li\ 


-'•I'll nil, I, r till 



the ! 

•-'• '11'' il '• ll -M 111. .1,1,. Ill i) 

~\<-\T- IIP' 

phiuioi'l.i-c nil 

1, n .riiiiil -i-liisi nil 

•lii-t- (111,1 i|i:irt/ii. 

I,. 1, .-..fii/nl I. 

I- imt p 


111. t 





"llil. III 

l.v 1 1 

t,' .iCi-il, 

II" ;;i-i.n;ii,' iiiiii;ii 

' t "I, i|.|.!|, -i'.l t.:irl ,,f (|„. |„ ]t. It 

'1 ■ "-Itll ,',.rt:|lt,lv t., t,.l,|,|,:||,l,;,,,,i,„, 

' t' tlu' IVI, 


I HlV .|.| ||. U 

••^iT'itllL' I'll lit 

iir'ii;:- |, 
I'-t-llii t:il 

til,' t;,.l,l r<] 

111, ,11- 


i;rnnifi' I'ontaot. The ^reat wiilil 

I Its l>. /■; ,111,1 ( 

Ml'. , lit. nil I 

1, .1-' tW.i ll 

Ihm'v p1, 

iii'liriitc tlic piiiliiiluliiv til ,1 

pliif I'olliir lu illiiMriitod it 

phiiiL't's .iii,I,.r llie ri.i'ks nt iiiiil -„,i||i ,,f .S 

I '11 ••(iiitii,-l-.iirt'. 

I.1I1P4- lictWi'l'II 

iiiiiiiiif '-r'.. 

St thf 


(.'iiiniti. mill il„, , 1,^ , x|>,,>„l ill , 


i^f pP,,l,ill>ly l.'K, iliiiii t 

in- ,||.l''ll- 


1' l,l'-t. |..v[)(,-.i;ri'-l ,,f 

(.'^i,- Fi^ii 

ih.'.il ,11 

1'. It'V 

I'.. I" ) 

rmn \ortli St 


tl ii.-iiiilK 

ii; iimiinlniii, Tl 

ilir Ih It «■• r,. f.11111,1 ,,ii ll 

11' iI'Il', hum 


v.. Tl, 

-and— S.. the ilin v 

illi tl 

1' !■•■ t^i,. ^triki 

If -..lll-ll.-llv 


p varion fni 
.V vcitii'iil ilip mill 


-.1 t 

nil... -i.ii 


K. til ;ii \v. 

■'x miles iifirtli of tlic |i,,ii!.,l 
-wiiiifr .II,, mill. 

ml -Inki. |., i-i-i f, 

r"iii V J.'. 1 
witli the uvunijte nboii 

r il ili-liiii,i. ,,)• 

mil, ,,!i til 
irriuliiiill.v iipp|.,,ii,,inn>f N. tl.", \'„ 

ur.v liii,.; 1,1,1 ,i|,.|i^r .>>,,i„„|jt ,.r,,,.k tlio ,tril., 

II' in 1 i;iL'< . 



•Wiliii'v triiil Is uppinii,.li, <1. 

If .v. Ill K 

ll-llTU li'llil l,f 

ir.iii,jli,,.il i! 

till' I! 

Ii0.\ M.iil tl:.. >tri';,. t 


Il'iir lirll (' 

qiuii't/ili.-i I. II 

Ills f. 

Ill, i.f 


ll.voni,'. yliiliil. 

ll'- r,Iiiti,.ii iill',,,.,! 

l.v till' i:i iiiTii! <.,.iitii,.i lii f .if pcriphern) oloavuir.' 

p!- nil 1 \,',.||,.|ii illiKf 

(bwliliiifr) in the -i-l 

tiist-ip.iirtziti. iilimt' tl 

.ii...iii 11 liiitlh.lith. The (lip of ,l,e Imml 

It iiMrii;;, 

i-'encnilly with tl.|. ,1),, „i the ...(ij,,, 

Wilt, l.iit i, liijililv variiil,],.. ,,s cxiM.,-t.',l ill ,, I,..), ,,f 

]'lai>i'ii mi,l iiin-liil ,liiriiifr bntholitl';- : ■- - 

I'litiii-t cillnr ioi'iii- f, 

iMti',11 i,f thf 


• iiK'l'le 
I'lii'rL'-i'ti. jillv ,li-- 

iili-.iit i!ii t,, tl 

lie iiilni-ii.ii 


tf/ni/'lui ,,/■ /,',// /.;._lj,,], /.■ 

1- ,"lllp, 

.1 I.f 


v:m more intensely nietumorplinse,! ,],;„. ,h„«,. of belt I> The il 


Klily sirii'iti. 

S'lllst 11, wl 

lominant typ« 
iirL'c l,i,,titi' fiiiK have bi'en cxti'iiuiviOv 


/>i:i:ii,-rMi:\i nr rut: /.v/f. 



:li<>MU' (lie |i| 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

.ardiitKl-iMiiss ,,r the rock 

lllllllCS ,.| 

1-. 11^ I i-iil 

■'"-'"•'ity. (I' JT, Viii, I! 

tVIt ;ir.> tl 

HiUennK Mt . f .|u.,ri/ ,„i.l :,l.„„,| 

it;iif til 1 

) 'I' 

ii- (rt'iuTiil 

iii'ilniiii-t iri||.i 

«ri^'lll-li ;;nn 

"■ ■■"",".'' '"• !"NM«'>iu.l liiiitit,. plal.-. ^y] 

Hit -criiito. Sprinkl.'il thr.,ut!h fli, 

in (li^iiiiiU'V. riio liiiiiit 
folour. stiirida nut 

ifflily lii-t 

"•'III-*, ;ll|,|. 

1 iMii-i' riiiiii 1 iiiiii. t, 

1 hciiocry>tic ,1 

pr..m.n,.,itly on thu .surfaco of the rock. Tl. 

I'Vi liipitl, lit i.f I 


lOtll.' i< ,.) 

t iiiiy I it Ik r || 

"I'll III I, 

•It /•;. i-, 

air.iw ,if in It I) 

"■ ''"'- '■'■'-'" i' I'lil.V 1 i,l|,,l ,1„, |„.i 

'>" •> int. of il^ .lark, r 

is siH'cial itsoiiil.i 
I an.!. 

i.iiM.-t,.ri^ii,. ,,t- tl„. wlioj,. |„.| 

'■^ an .•^.■iiii;,] ('.•ai. 

AI.Kif,.- witli till' li 

HariK ts uNo 

I. ■.'Ill' -|iaii>;li < tl 


'Pffl ill til. 

r!> arc otir 

|il:'iirs .i| < 


cliara.'tirl/i<| m 


t. of ' -|iaii«)c.| 
M many pal -n.,l,li,l, aiilw.lra! 


<-^ .111 till' 

-l/f of the 1 

■vito ,,t t 

K' MTi.-iti' IS .•oinriioiiU 

"• .il-illiiary typr. tli.,iijf|i i(. 

^■'"■'"•1- til,, small >liiv.i, of . 
Mli.To-.-i.Ji,. to 1 ,. arraii;;. ,1 

'•no to I |,<,,,.\ 

/ir<-oi|s ami n 

'■ I;"''";- >l>:iM^:l,-. Ai nil ,,|,e 1;,,.^,,, 1 

rii-lio an. I 

Pf limtit 

n.Tiiiric I, 

qiiai < -rams arc ..ficii 

c< ami til. 


II 111 fjaiii. I il.r. 


>l ri;til.. (. 

nil 111., a. 

I. re ar. 

i.\cr~; tin, 

^ s.-lii-t-. A 

--.irirs of tl 

'^I'cii tli. 

niatioii I, III,. C, 
iill'c ma;;ii,i ii,.. 

I III I liar 

iali,-i!i.iii |,|.|\\, 

n til.' f 

-l..':u-c.l'. ulii.-h i- always s,.ri.'iti.. '," "''l "' ''7;-;'" "■"'^' " 

■l"t~ .,f ,lark l.i.,tit.' Tl, . r •""''■""""""'>■ M'<"-Mc.l uitl, mil, ,11, 
Mhl.,.lt/.tiii;i,ii;-/.-. "•"""^ ■■"-'■ -""''-• •■• " -l-rai-cri^ti,' .„ 

.1'- ^ZM:!'^-:::!::rT!';7fr''''' "-' "-^ ■""•"' ^-^ -^ '•- -''^ 

I'l.ovsl 1. i,. i..„ s , k ,,Tu "7 ""'■ '■■ ^''""■"'' ^""' '''"'''>■ """^" • 

intr„-i , ,1 Hc „ , ; " " :' '" '""":'"' "•''"''"■ -^ " '"' ^'"-'il- 

an c^ ,..! u,, „";■'";■ T" ^' '"-'•'■-"''-'•''l-it,. si'liis... uiti: 


tofin i<»-i 'in't 111, I. . 1- I' ■ I f ' -» 1 (MMin> iM'i /. ^ lair V 

n..., n.oK l.o.K ol „,,). s,.|i„„.|itary r„.'k wliollv nulamorpl 1 

'I'" M'liisios.i.v planes iisiinllv .trik,' ,,..,.,||,.| ,,; ,„„ ■"""7""; "'• 

-.•' Ti„. '::;ial^:.. ;;;'■ -':'^ ••'--''-'' -i.i. tin. ..f ti„. 

'">'- at a„.l,s ..f from ,o\ ^^ . •,';' " "';"" '"'""• '" '•'" '"'■'' 

••"!.v km.un „,„ ,1,.!./ ,^;''' ;■'''''■'- 't -^ *'•' ^''""" ""■ •"■"• It l~ 

:-' '■••"•^•'■^ "■• •.^:<. :;::;:;.':;.;:';: ,^:: •,:;:;:;:;;:■'"■',. "r ,"■■ '■)' 

"it.ii-,. mclaiiiorpliism, ,|,„ |„.,|,|i„;, |'. „. ,, '7""7-. ' ""^"l-niifr ll,.. 

,-:. /y,. u la>,>r~ <■ rmli ii, ai-L'illa.' .material. fPlat. 

Tiir ^Pan^l,',! s.-hi-ts veiv ,..]|.,u...i IV,,,,, ,1,„ I;,„„„|,,, 

llll.- In th,. |.i,|„, 


■\ .^^iS'M&'^'mWi 

;^fK'%' >4A1KEE0*>^ 



i:i rnirr nr i in i mil i.^/h'i>\uMi-:it 



JM.t .out. ,.t Sumnnt .-r,..!.. Tl„.,v |„ 1, /.; |,„ „,,,,,,, ,, , „„„ „„. „„|,^,^ 

..f -a act m.ta,„„rplns„, l„.l„„^rintr .., tl... l!.,v..,„„. l,.tl,„li,l,. ( ,„ ,|,., i,,.„,,,„., 
o nl '?•?' "7'!"' ^''■•"■^''"'1 -I'iM i^ l.,~. an.l .1,,. r.K-Us wind, appear 

.-h.., alt.natins «,tU m„-;K-o,.u. .p.arlziu.. So ..„„„.l..t,. i. ,l„. r, -rvMalli/., 

";7 '",'. ',' '"'^ r"-"\''' i'"l'---il'I" - -l'M.a„. M ,:,.,.t-„„.ta,M„rpl,.:..,l p.,,-. 

yt iH-lt A lr.,„. ,h,. surnlarly al,, n.,| ...l.i.u „f ' 1, r;. ,.■ „ ,|,i, r.L.n l„.|, /■■ 
1^. .n t,.. ,„ap. npr.„MU..| m.- , ,:,li„. in ,„ :,rl,i,nn-,v ll,„. ,l,aw„ U. Uu\i:.U- 

,t ."■■„ ■" -• ""• '--"-.V ns,.,- im ,., ., p„„„ ,• ,,,11.., „p S,n,u,nt 

cr,,.U, II,.. ..„:„-„ ^1, „,.,,,„. „,i,.., .,.!,;,,, „i,|, ,1,,,;,, ,,„„„,;,. „„„r,.,|a,l„„- 
■vpn.'-nt tl,.: .Ty-talli,,,,, a„.| a ■.,,■.•.• -,ril<i,.^- parail..] to ,vpi,.al „,i,-a 
-1,1.1. ,u ,1.,. «, p,vCa„.l„.i„„ ,i..;,| „,■ ,,„,.„, ,.,„^„|^,^ Tl,i/..p..,.,arula;' 
;?""""■'"'"■ '■""•"■ '- """■'■ 'l'^'" '" il- "i.l- a. M„a.,nivl .,„|wa,.| fr..|„ t!„. 

tl.o >t iKe ol ,o,l, .,.|„M.,M,y a,..l l,..,|.li,.K l.a, b...., r,.nv.l ar,„.n.l <„ as t.. 1.,- 
■Z! -- '"""■' "" "r. ""■'■'!■'"' "'■ ""■ '->■■■•""■ — "■■ -''I'- 'lip --a;:..! 

■■H «,vo,mt „l tl„. heavy l„r,.s. ,,.,.,•. ,h,. i,.,„n„a,i,.„ wa. 1„„ „.„„.,,, -,,,.; 
net r,-.,l, ,,| ,1,,.-,. M-av,-,-.^ u,.„t ,,, .!„,w ,|,al ih,. z,„„. is. like 1., It 1). r.,„.- 
l",l ,,1 .-l„a,v,| .|„art/.if,. will, M,,„ate i„,..r!...,U ,:f „,i,,, „.l,i,, '|-|,„ 
•liiart/.it- 1, here i, anally i,i,„.h mmv s.-l,,e than ilial it, l> aii.l i- .-hiellv 
a tn,e Muurtz M-hisl. S,.riei„. „v uvll ,|,.v..|„p..,| ,n„M.„vite. l.i,„i„.. „,„| ..hL.ri,.'. 
^'1 "• "n„„n. t.„U ^.ivin.' by n.He.i,,,, ,.„i,„.|ik.. „,i,„l,. „,• H^^la f,,,,,, ,he pla,.,.: 
M ^■■l";;t"''t.v. are the n,i,.ae,o„s ,„i„..raU l',,n,.e,l l,y rhe dy„ai,ue „„.ta,.„„-pl, 
r-.:.i. Ih.- i„t, >•,■., latol ..rhi-,. „r„ „„„.|, j;,^,. ,|,_,. ,,f ,,,,,, ^ , ,^^ ^^ ,'^^^^ 
a!,-.--t teve,- -h,.w the l,i„t;,,. -p,,„J,.- ..( ,1,,. ,,,,.1,, ,,,■ |„|\ /.; 
In hylh the ,,na,t. ..hi.t- a.,.l .... „,iea -hi-t. the,v ].. ,.1„-,. ,„ ,|„. |.,,„,', 

... re.M„l ,„,.„e.-. II,..-..„re- ar,. r,,.,r,h.,l as .lue to s.K.eial eo.tact- 

""■'^ :,"'";";; -.^ ''^'■"' •" ^.'r-.-heari,.. a,„phiholit,.. Ijr. iVct whle. a„.l 

:.pi;a-e„t]y f,.l]„w,nfr the ho.l.lia.-ph,n, . of ,1,.. s,.hiM :„„;,.. ,„.,;. „!.. 

KvKert ,n,n,t._ ,. anoth..,. ..,n,„p!,. of .natlv „...ta„„„,,l,„..,| ha-i,. i,„n,-iv..- 
1.1 the 1'rie.^t Kiver terraiie. 

lVrlph,^ral >ehi-tosity wa- .|,.v,.l,,,>,^.| i„ ,!„. h.-lt hv th,. Uv-k.Tt .M-,.,it, 

-„-.,.,,,„. .)„ ,i«, „.,nh -1.,, f no,,,,,,,,, ,.,.„, „.,, „„. „„„,;,.,_ ■;•,,;--;;, 

..I .....hof; a,,. I <,•!,, St. .<,ty wa, .ihs,.rv,.,| t,, ran fro,,, X. jr, K ,„ y .,v K 
w'ih <lip-; \aryiiifr fn,,,, :',,, t.. i:. V. \V 

•.bo„t V ,.. X\ . a„,l th.. ,l,p varies fn.,,, T.", K, X. K. t,. ::, ' W. s W F.„.,l„... 
w.-t tho ,l,p is northerly an.i tlattens ,„ jt, ■ ,., 1,.,.. T-.^anl the w,M,.rn lin i't 
■•t belt /•.,,„ the -ame ri.l^re. tMe Mriko is aho„t X. ,'V K. a,„l the ,|ip n.^arlv 
urt,eal. I„ all th.-o ,.n.o. ,h,. -trike an,l ,lip r,.f,.,. ,,. „„. La,,,;;,,! „,• ,,,;. 



ht l'\l;i VI \ I 

'I I III: i\ mm, It 

■I Jrtj - 


■• fli it 


tin- I. 

■In-ti,- u 

•■r tl 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

v I . I 

II' Hi.'-r 

I |Mi'-. riT 

I'i'H ii|.piirfiitl.v ,■, iii.' 

i""k~ M- it il 

■ nil an 


-<ii 1111(1 

->•<■.■:> .■.)|ifi(|,.ii,.o 

l<< "I" this in. It |\i||y ,. ,1, 

-T-atly .■niiiipl. ,1 ^yii..|i,„. 

•r II 

'VKcrl -'riiiiit. 


'iin Ire. 1,1, 


'II'. ill Vil-W lif tlio .-<> 


'■'■'n;ii,/,,, „i Ifi.ji ,, 

lilt. r'|.r.|:il; 


ire us |.. it. .1,-tailoil 


l>nnilP ;i||.| R 


-Ill liC!.' 


■'riicfiirt. I 

iii'-t . a-U'rh ,.| ih 

■«a.v lilt 

I'.v rh, ,Ti!-|| 

mil Hie ..fill. I- 1„ 


1- I'Vrll 11 

vKi,-!, 1 

■It '/ lil- l;(.tU, 

i^ive I . ii-|,irp.| I, 

""I "ii' tw,. I.alhoiiil, 


iliff "I tin 

pei'iijiar 1 

tli-ll n(" tl 

II ~lr,,|iL 

'■'iifwaril pi-,.--, I,., 

"' -'■'liiiieiitariL's ill th 

iiiil "roiii 

i.iii- ha- h. 

'■•"(-••.•iiii' presto, in- mjiii-h 1, 

'"•'I'l' iii'iiihtaiii-hiili,!; 

Inlcr t.. li\-, ;,,,, 

I- '■'■iifai't-hnniti i- 
■ " hr..ii;:ht ahi.iit 

'IllrillJ-' tiir 

-trii.-iural prol.hi,, ,.f ,|,, i,.), ;, ,^ 
h(-(l-riii.|i ■ \po-iiri'-. 

It i-; ossuiitinllv ,.,,iiif.. 
'» .-^e Viiiv ill 



'•'■■■I all th,. I„! 

■t: .i|' th. 

' rori.rt thi- 

'•- pri'-siircs. 

Irmii fitlier. 



!•> 11 i-(imlui 

till- r. ii,|,T,.,l ,|i'fi..,,|, i, 

t.<. ami i.i' 
rarirv ,,t' <j 


■i> .'■■hi-ts. Tl 
'V Lrowii. Tl 

ir I. 

■hi-t- of 

'•Il iiftor tl 

ic avira 
'f 1 1 

■■I i.'litti.|-ij,^ 
■1" li-jhl II, ,1^ 

ij-'i- plia- 

ik i:ri..t 

iii'.v "t iho i.thi-r -ix hli 

ll^llllrlly I,,,, I-,. iVil-ii 

'ii -iraii.i.,! 
iiiil ilark 

:or tlif t'i 


illlnll of tl 

a Til 


rhi- -I, 

It is l):lievo(l that tl 


Iiiiioiits wtr 

•o (Idlll.tlcss 

-ubordiiiatc thin iiiterhrd 

If h.iinl- 
clii. Ilv 

-I- ii-i- ..| 


I'-pri-. i:t till trill l..,.:,|i 

liriiilliti- 1 

'■"■ "iiyiii.. 

icnts lire Mi 


Is lif -aiiilsti 

Minuinits of red (.'ariiet, 
fimo< .-rrifitr hut jjiporally 
'nr)7f slico. 

As alronily noted, tl., 
-i-hists which form the prol 

ii-rth of 


'"■ |.|ililot. 

!■■'■<• "i' 'i— rii-l 
hi'ir I \i-i iji^ iiii-h 

1 1' -ilii 


i-arryiiiy \arial.l. 


d t. 



"3 iinpiirlaa- 


hf form ..|" th 

,iml .i|> 

h« Ili!l~..>-.vit6 i> in 

■iia! C.iS- of rohiij. 

IP nort 

prohaM,. (.xl, 

lii'iii P^irt of ih.. I„.|| ,il, 

lyoiiiio hiitholitli. All 

Piist and thus 
possihlo that simil 

-t ii, 

Hykii-t pranite hut tl 
he li Hot ted to tl 

riiuphly pan 
>r por'.iiicral 

ion of hill a; 
"•It '/. at till. 
h-l to tin 

int.. th. 



1 Ti.iMorphi,. .,,.;,|. 
'>>' -n-iki. i- a h'-Ttl.. 

fVi-l..p,.,i ,„ 1,,.], 

ittg var 

ii-i from X. 

le ::rea. 

'1',"" '"'' '"" '■■ dolormimil i„ ,|„. , 

liserv.-d r,mffinp f: 



n.KS.f! rtjf,; ,<f/,-,j.,./, 


:»»w K-lativelx nniri^ort 
r KTiaij*- i- cMnpoftt,! .,f 
I'i*- aryillii,^. arsfiJik.-. 

. X. I.- 

!i '/ th 


at" tha 

rill. ,1 

a\it'ap"o -fri 

ip- ari. ('Xi-ei.(lir,!rh. 

.1 .. I ri 1. alitv. (,, ."ill 

<l I 

'ill,!' Tl I Klin 


illl'.'- i.f amphiliiijit,., th,. wh,,!, 

i tin- PXOl-I't 

■ ^idimi,llt-s^ 

r^i .rfPlJ 

iind ur^lhfiM. 

^m\ moiiiiii 

i.ji.inl,.],, . 



lihlv s 

rii.. I 

.1' th,. I 
l~t I.f 


illi'ioii- -aii.|-(, 

All tho>o ro 
-inirli' Irilfi-.. ,,!,-, 


.ll'i tl-|<lllcl|.l,.||.llv 

"'"■ ■' -''"-'I" nil.. „f „l.oiu ,„„ 

.l..>r|.l..n. „i,h,.„t „|„„„i,„„ 

'.""''■••■'. -!'-ii... I,.. ,„or,- rU.^.u- 


-tii,li.',| iij tl,,. 

" *"" «• Jm ,1u. ...,i„„ ..r,.,i J ,••,'•, ,' ■ '"" :'■■•: '•'-">• .•..n,..M,n-a„..i 

'•'I'"'-'-'- ■■»■ tl. ,|,r.... |,„ ' " '."' ""■ "'-"■■•" ^i f ti.o l.,.h a.v l„ r 

■■■- -■ .1 . .u-k,.,. : t;: 1 ::""'r "" ""•/■"^"■^" ^''''•' -"'• "■ > •• ■ 

♦■xp. ^i4 iv. •(,, ,,, ;, ,,t' 

^' -' ••!' l«-ii^ .[ ;ui.| r ;.„.| :, |;,r..,. ,,,n ,,f /• , 

'''■ >"l"""l„„ ,,,,,,1 ,l,i,.|,,„„, ,,,• ,;^,, . .,! •' ^""l|'tl..|. 

■•"rr<»-p„r„liny ,.. ,|„.,, 


..(HHI (,.,., 


■.■•.IK -1|-,|!,| 

- ..v,r .;..i,i,| ,-, ,., ^11,^1 

111* rliirkn, .,,,,, ,.t" il 1 ■ 

..„t ri.; • . 'll'tlTi llf I,. , , ,,,„,, |„. 
f,„., i . , ' -!'''i'-l". I'li'-I ;. ,,v,.r „, ,,,., 

^ci.i,'. iwt <. ...:L:::: """•"" ■ r.""^"- •- "■■■ < 

' '" '■-'iiii;,t, 1,1,1 i, ,, |„.!:,.^,„| 

'■'■'•■■•-'•"''•■I- Tl;,. (...;,! „|.p,, 

HI I ,,r ;; nn, 

l^.h„:t:'.,::^:r''■:'':;•'■"'':'"■^•■•^''-■^' '"'"—•■■ 

'•'^^llNpl'' '■! I v.-ii;.;n' 

' 'iiM--- ..r ill, -|,.,M-:, ,| 

■■'•-{"■'■'- .ir.^ \,i-\ 

ii.iv,- i„.,„ ,,,„„;| 

' '' » ill, I!|,.„. ,,f 

•il-f .'I.nnil j',.(.f ,,f 
'-^(11.1:11,., I :i|„,v,> 

U. r.flu- -«.„.- nk,.K li, . t|,i. , ..,, . ■■ ■ n.-.n n, ,„.• „,■,.;,. 

.un- ,.„.„..i„ ,„„,;,„„., „„^,,^ .,..,'',?""■: """.' "' "'"IMr..| will, ,1„ 

. ■^'•■'•••-- i-i,.i..,H. .:,■/::;.:::;::''';• ^ - .n.i ,.,„.,...„ ...,;,„ 

I n,t,.ri ;.,tiii- til.. I. 

-cnt-s. 1„ 

^, , _., '"•••'", i'/VlK ],n.Ml,h„..,l tliat 


'-' ^lirhv th. ,:..« ^'Z'^Z ''"'"^^".■"■/"■"""1-TJyk.r, an.lllv,,, 

^:--^^ -- -::i.r^ i: :: ' M:;:::,::;;:^i;:'^7'-:iV''''' ■' ^- ''"•■"'>■■ 


in.i'MiTMhM in Tin: iMhumit 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

mcniti- <i( the S 

it rji,'i\ \f iiotcil. 


i\ i.lciin-. tliji ill,. I, 



-<I1IS coiitiiiii^ 


'liiiti' siiiiilnr in 




liiiiliili-^tl.v ilcriviil 

iii.c tli<> sfrik.w aii-l (li|K „f tho In 

inir"»ili..n t,. tli.i«. ,,(• i„-lt. ,1. /;, r. /;, /••. ,„|,I 

liiinillvl to tliosc ill l«It .1 ,,f i|„. ,,1,1 


(iincriitn arc nearly or quite 

• f tile liiicontV.rinit.v at tl 

the similarity ,.f tlio .Idlniiiiti 
liaiids ill fli(. I'ricst Kivcr s( 
Is asc.rilioil to all llio s.'lii~t 

li'r ti-rraii,', <.ii,. niiyht doiil.t i 
11' coiiffliiimTatc, Hero it imt 

i>f tl 

pclililrs ill till' <M.ii>.|i, 111,. rate ti 

»• cxisti'iir 


■rics. Larscly for t 



lly for 


IJoiiiidary licit, ix't 

I'k- ( 

H'twccn tlic Irene eoncj 

not intni-iivcl 

ns rciHnii a prc-]!cltiaii at.'< 


uitlnii till. 

Iiiiirlzitc at the wcsicrii ciUre of the Root 

ylmncrate ami tla' (ln\vii-f,iii!t,.,l Kitdi 

uvi r proiip piiis.iiis a ^truclural 

ciiay Kivcr alliiv 



prolilcni ii* yet iiiiite iiii.<,,lvcil. 

trreat Priest 



is, of 

Piic-t River tcrrane with the oti 
lint it is not without iiitcrct li 

coiirs.., too early to att.'iiipt a tixeil eorrel 

lation of the 
icr i.rc( aiiihriaii teiraiic^ of the Conlillcia' 


'■^e> of ancient -ediiiicntarii s which 

live that ill v 

iirioiis ri<.'ions there are thick 

unit ill .-tiatirraphic rolatioiis to the 1'rie-t TJ 

ajilKMr to lorrcvpnml hoth litholofrical 

I>oini(laiy lii 
ol Motil: 

A fe' 

w refeieneos to typi 

iver tirraiic 

iX|H-, ,1 all 

the lii.,,'!; Mill< ..f South Dakot 

cal .-(ciionv in il,,, ]j,. 



t rnoiiiitains 

iif-'ioii. ani 

il the 


hip. the Fortieth raralld 

llie main line of tie Canairaii ]' 

pla.cs where pf.ssilile eipiivalentv .,f the I'ricHt I{ivcr torrai 

11 anil ailjoiniinr portions of W 


railway. mav h 

In tlie Thne Fork-=. ^[ 

oiitana. f. 

I li^ltfi) Pealc (lesrriles the ' ( 1 
anil inarlili 

.f the r 




y iiH 

, fllK'i- 

lerry Creek iicil< 

niti-1 Stall- ('.r,A 

out hy T)aw~oii oi 
■ful a> showiiiir till 
may he sonjfht. 

:ip|>'-irentlv cnllfofiuah 


osical Siirve; 

«curitv of the foliliiifr, are k 

me a, the 

■ ifuitl 

(nt least T.iH'O (o,-i si 

ii"Wii f., tftal th. 

town Hi 

oil fori 

• i (,.\ 

lal'ly upon 


till- M.'lt tcrr, 
< ieosyncliiial pr 


eoluimiar -crti,.ii >. 


lean tineis 


in tliii-kno" 

liy e-imvalenf-. of the low 

prism as 

Tn the ITartville, W 

just lie 


in this re 

is un. ..uformalily iinclerlaiii |,y 

the Kockv Mountain 

■er iiieinl.,!-. 



liuili r the iiaiiie i 

yoiiiinir. foli,, iPM):'.). \V. S. [\ Smith 



li \. n. Dn 

aiiii 1 me-tones, wh 

a ^i-rii 

rix'ks of ihc niack Hills. Tl 

.tpixar to r.v^rml,!,. al-o the pre-( •■imhri 

leh are said to rc^eiiili!, 

.f -eh 
Iv th, 






foli I 


limii or e\eii \i rtical 




lUlii •!. 

'f liie area .•..\ered |.\- th 

' '"■'■ 1 "iiformalily overlain l.v the Mid, II, 


ve ii.'t 


h<-iii adii|uately de.-i riU.,! l.nt imludi 

l,f ill: 



hists. praphitic schist, fcrrupin 


orian oM'rlap|>in 

i'ock>. with hitrh ,li|,-, 1 




!.>; qnartzite and 

i'' ''I iforii .-iMy Lematli tli,' Mi. Ml,. C 


*T. .A. .Ia«Kar, jr.. Prof. Pi 
!5t>e also \i-«tnn and Jrii 

f Dakota. Wa»il.inptoii, IRRfl, p. so 

per \o. 36. U.S. Cv 
>•'■< Keport on tlic fi 

'K\ ,111,1 I;,.s,iurro~ .,r 111.. fU-i 

in,'„i:i ,„ iin, mil i ./,,„,„,///.. 


Vm.l.,„aM „„,„!,.„- „„ ;„„„,,„„„ ^,.. 

•r»|„)I.M,. «,,!,, .:,.„(>.. ,„.u -,.l,i„ 


."!■ "'■ '"..,.„n.„-,,l„,„.,| „„| |,j^.|_|, 
";il'_>'f|.n,^' „!,„,,. ,1,.. „,,, ,|„,^„ ,_. ,. 


'I'AI'-nr h,k,.s ii,; I I, ; """■'■'!■ I"";-' ill..,,,- til.- v,,.t ,||.,r.. ,.,■ c,,, 

>wi^v..;,j:::: :::-;;:':';;,,---'; ^....;.,,.f.i„.:j,v;,i: 

•'''^';r"~''*^ 'i,.:,',i„n,vl;;.,':;;,::"''^"-'- "^'■"-' ''■'■'■- 

''"'""""■-■ ml.., ,„.|,i,„ ,,„| i,„,„|| , V ' ".- "'. -1^",-. ,|,,,r,.,,.-, I,,,,..,, , 

;l -- -■•! .M,. „. M ,i J " ' I, vi ',' ^"""^■■+ .'"^'"•"■■- -'""• 

'^"'>"" 'i„n ,,,,l ,,,|„.r nn.r '"" '■''"""I' '" 'I'" 'in,,,,! 

^'m' .|„„„ rlu. .Mn.. , ,-, . V''r;'""'' •■''""•"'- "''''•'' ''^ -'"f-'l- 

'•'"•r-f.Ti.i„. ,;„. ,.,,•,., i^-;; ;,;;,,;;;,'''■'■''•''' '•'••' ■•'■"! -'-n„rp!,i-„. ,„ ,i,„.„ 

■■'^ i>> <!.« -MS,.. „1,..,„U. ,„.„„ ' " , '■•'"".' o- 1-lf. If i^ fMlly :,. , 11,11,,,;, 

■-r.,„.. is ,1,., >ri ,j„:",l '";;'• '"'-'"-mN ,.. ,i„. ,.,.„., ,;,„ , 

f-rmity. VI,.. s.-rias a,,,... , s ' ,' ,. '""'^V ' ''"^"•""'- '" ^'Pl-r, ,„ ,.„„. 

(oroits aii.i (I„. ,,r,s,.„t urii.-r „„', .'i •*",""■'''■ ^'■'""■^ '"•'• 'niit.. i,i,f.r.-i!i- 

'PI... t.. . . . 

Tile foroiroinc l„i,.|- -tMt,.,„P„t „f ,h, 

vnri.,u, frroMps in,ii..,„... iin.„ „f ,i,o„:,i„ i',;;;:';- 1 ;;''■;" ^';">/,.i,„i.,,,- ,, ,i,„ 

formations „f tlio ( ■,.r,lill,.M r,ll,..r ,1? '•"rnlMt,.,,, „f ,1„. „„.;„„, 

I'.tnl tl.ioknos.,. „f ,!„,„,':,,,' '''• ." ,"'"; ""'•'"''• -■•■■'1>I- tl,„f ,l„. 

- <wo „f ,„e v„-t f..nn.ti,.,;:^:;K;;;,,i;r''''' " "■ '"'"■■' "''"*■- ^'- "■■" 

ri:M) n'Oliiiiii: Cii.., !■. 
Gen,;;,! fhsrniil In,,. --]i,-two,'n <)„. „, . , |- ■ 

-o-..ii„.. „.,, „„. s,,,,,,,.,,.,,.;;:':,,,,:' ,. ; ;"; ; i ' ■■- "-, ■-, r ..,.i,. 

-Ton „f ;,l„„„_|^.,,. . : ' "" -r.-.i .■,.„n-al v„|.-aMi.. tl,.I,|. „„ 

" 'i'i"*',i -.'hitioiiis. A i-iiiiii,li ,-.|i,i,, 
f p. F. Mil' Dniialil Hull •>»<.■; r t; r' i .- 

JK^i^t v„,. ,. ^M:^.^a!±,^:il:>tT^ "^'- ''• ■'=^- 

; ( 


i>f:r\ni\it \i 1,1 nil i\n:itn 


part i.f ill,, -oa-'ifi ,,t' I!mi2 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

many c-scniii,! ,,.< 

WHS .|i,.iit in tli.'ir ^tml.v imt tl 

iTiili /ones 1.1 

I •"■I", vci.v iiicii«ii, T 

u- ri'siilu wiTt', 


II iiMiiiiiiii omjf.iii,. >li.Mri 

I.-.. r..i'lv- cc.Mir ill ,,i„. of till' ("i.rclil 



ii;j- II 

M'i niiisl 

iiii»:. with roiiipli't. 

iriimpliim-. ov.TliiriiiiiK^ uinl fault 

.•hurH,....n... II,.. |.,pi,„, ,vl,i..|,. .- „lr.,.,ly ,,.....1. I.a- l,....|, ,u. ..w"',.f 

"" "' 'III'"-, -ill-, -l.-k-. an. I l.allh.litti.. A 

lun.i.ii- iiijci't - ill till' f 

iijfain ih.. U'lrii.ii lia.4 I,,,,, |,i,ri,.,| ,[ 

pro!..!.;;. .1 (.fLsi. II ij 
ooMi'..iil Miiiiiy i|,.ii„| fuels 
<•ip.ll ■li/lir.iilt 

iply III \, 

• •^o vi.l.unic* -till i. iijiiir ill. 

•aiiii- .■Jii-taiii. 111:1. I 

iiiiilr.MU of 

Kaiii uii.l 
II -pi'"' "I' 

'pirtif niiltw an. I 

li|pi.'!itai-y ii.i-U.. '!', 

iu'li prill 

'■ I Hi r tl 

H - III ..iinly/iii^r tl„. I ,„„,,|..x ,H...i„|,l.if,i. ..f ,tr.ifa alonp tl,.. I 

thr F 


■ii^-iiiiill. I'.irall, 1. t|„. ,|,. 


II liiiil»r. ( I'lnt.^ 

. mill. .11 ili-mlvaiitai;,' ..f ih, 
iM.ri;r..iii f..ri-t will 

Al till- tiiii.. i.f tli(. writ 


Ic ut 


INiiil li'(ti..;ii. 

IT - .■.\).!..|i,ll, !, lli,. (■ 

livi'i-. I. ,1.1 I .1 1 ..,1, 

ilaiijr. uMi- nv,.; 
i.t known ..f t||, 
part i.f til,, iiil 

II "Vi- \\,-ll|l-l|l U-il- i-it,. li.l 

I. ..I||.-I.,,|l, iif l.|.,|; 

<-'oiii..'iitrati'il I. II ill, Mrip .( ult.r. 

-Mil. -I, in ^ 1,1, III,. I,.)', 1,. 

:M-r rrlallM.|\ tl". 

1 In i|i...p mat III' 

i--ioii tiail 1,11 ill,, -null, 

ul. 'I'll,. |.r,i->iiii.' ,.|' thi- 
ll'. in'.' lltti,. 

.f tl 

I'' l-iv.M'. Ill tli: 

Alt. Ill 

III I'. 11 «:!■; tliori'for 

-.'.111! I'lil- 


'.nil.- ti-naiic in i| 
iin.'iihi I'l'ir-i |;iv,i' I 

stni.'lmal niuily-i- iln 

n'Or, il',.. Tl, 


■V- 111. 

-< i).i;.'ii y..iniy..r 

\y iiiL' l.i'lw.'..ii till, i-i 

■- al'i' scai-i-i'ly im 

il tl 



iiniliati..ii ..)■ llii..]; 
i.s p,..-, 

ir el. aii-i'iit iiiap '111-, Hi, 

ii('-.< .oiild III t b ih 

-ult iif tl: 

hi-l- aliiiij.' tlio I'm, I 
"i-'li-r I.f -ii|>.i'|„,-i|.i.,|, .,,,,1 ||„ 
r.'iiv'lily w.irk.'.l Xcm-lv nil 

<> llM ..|ll!;il,-,ii|..,. II, IjlOl', 

<iualitativo .j.-siriptioii of the n,<>taiiioi'|,Ii, .,.•.! ^e,! 


thf V 

rr.'.l to 111 il 

pri"^..tit rcpnrt. iin.Ii.p tli 

linii'iit.*. Tlii'v ai 

!•* I" HIV.' a H.'n. 

'I 'aiiyon nf the 1". lu] |C()r. 

'• naiiK', IVn.l D'Or.'illo (i 

has I,. 




'^'■•"ali'il ill 111,. I',,,.];, ,,|- ,1, 

iilic in.. I- ill till. I, 

t' (•onv.nicnllv 


.\vi.r tw.'iity iiil|,.< ,,f 

■•""p. 'I'lii-ir .li-ti'il. 

r It H t'.\tri.iiii.Iy .lit): 

I- sIli.WIl .111 til,. ||l,i|, lh.„,M|| „„t with 

in -.v.'i-al iir.'.u. tl,.. ,.,„.i^^ ,,,- ,],. 
''^iiiniiill -.'i-i • |i,,,u ihi- ,.1,|, -i-h 

Itli'Uit II 111. I illl|,.,,.il.l.. ..vitl, , xi-t 

iti'iii 111 il 
entire aeoura-' 

i;r..:i|i tr..|ii tho y 

iiiL' ...sivi.-iin.s, t.i scparap 


tiri'ip II a, \ 

s.'hLst-' (in.'lii.liiiu' -1',.,. 11,1.. I,.. .,1, 
Miiartzile), aii.l tli,' I'.n.l I)'( )r.'illi. 

"-,' ph,i-. . .,»■ t'l,. |{„., 
int.. lu,, |.ai't-, tli.> I' 

oiiuyir iii..|iilH.r< I.f fh, 


1 »'()!' 

aiMphilMiliit'. IIS \\.\^ 


Iiliio suliilivir-iiiiH -. 

li.'al.l,. t.. us., th.. Iiiii..,t 



I'-y arc [ir I! 

Illlli'll as pill..|y lltll..l,.-ii'iil 1,11.... I, 

pl..'.llit(' an. 
•- not str.iii 

I.. \; 

iri" I.f t|i, 

iiii's as ilofinit.. li..r 

was f., 1111,1 

a.->,i( lat,-. 
is,.l:if,.,l |v, 

Hive iifres i,f th,- !i 

^,\i'n,l ,.l tl 
wl|i('li i.avi- 

i/,,ii-ni.irls,'rs aii.l o,i,ialI, 
thi'ir 11 
-,.,111 tl, f. 


y iinpiissil 

I .'I'll -,|i;,','/|. 

Ill-Is, tl, :ii |.|iiiiiihk|,,. l,.,.:i||y ,,11, 1 uiih 

'1 lll.ii'-t, 
ilii' a tnil.s pla-iic -i.|,-t 

On I 

I'Xa^.'!.'. r.'i 

t.',l tl 

nis view the liiiif stone 

rm LM!.':iiilii- 

lllcs.. yi..;,! 

nin-ipii(...iis liitnisiv,.< — wit 

I"",s ai'.'. Ill i-art, .'x ,ti,' ihi,,. ,„i„l,( |„ 

it has 

ipi<-ar,,l uusnlV t, 

nil 1'. I, I'i'ii,,- to Ml,- 


l-C till' f.-W i.'L'ih 

I- I.f 








Zl— - 


»nv .!. tnil. A ...l.ii r -...ti,,,, ;. „. , , i > ■.-, , 

'■'"---■ -i'-.^^::;v;:;™,,:::J::::;'r;::r 

I ] I H-.i-i.?! t..r 111,- ini.-.'it.iiiiH ii. f.. r|„. I,-,, , I .■ 

'"","' '," " ^'■••■'■•- ■•'■ H,.. «„i,. i.r. .,k i„ ,1 „,,„ ,' , ,"' ■ '';'^'""" '• 

I''|-"lli lilc Ik, I foil, , 

'' '' I !"!>>.■.., i;. ,i,,v, „,„| 

:;;i't:'.,,.,:;,;:,;;,';,:":^-:;r":';-i; --.^ --r'-;;;;;:; 

bo.u. , .„mrt/,t. M,.,l, I ,1 -'■""•I"-,. „l„-,,.-., |,i„„,... ,,,,. 

r::;'z:;:;;;~ : 

" ■■' „..,, :,:'.' ;."„;,,;;,;:;:;„, :;■; '' ■ ■■■'"■— 

On III,. 1..,, ..r- I «, M. Ml.,i,..,| ,1, |„.,„^ |.,,|„,, 

oi- ,,1..,| ..,„ ? J ■• l-Ml...- .,,„.,. Tl,.. liii,,.- ,. ,., „.^, 

l! ri,!.,. I, ,,„ I , ,, ' '• '''"^'^ '■'•■'> •""' l'lni-!i-«liii,. „iarl.|.- ,t 

,ir»).''Mii,. slu'sriiif;. In tjii. ^iiu ih. 

:!i;r*,;-^::i,':;lr" '■■■■•■"'■"•• -:■"< 

lliitiii..,! ,>r tliickr-!,,.,! I.v 
'■li'l,-.* Ilin-t l„- ill l,..|sf -J.iKHl -v,!, (■,,,. 

I ■■( 111.' 

Ilu, i.ii,.-,,,,.,, liK,, „,| ,(,,.,,,1,,,. ,,„„„, i„ ,,„, ,„„, ,1,,^.,.,,,. , . 

V" '■'''^•- "■"• «-"."i -..I .•...u„M,.i,v ,■,..■,-,.11,.,, I. N.,i,.. , ,■ : '; '; '' 

..!.■ ..f Snlm,,,, ny..r, ,-,.ii,.r,.,i„ii- „,• ,i„,.l.v .n„.„!a, arl, „f ,1,,. .,. 

l:ir>r<. po;i-, ur,. ,.|i: „.,|,|,.,1 i,, . ,|,.|,,. |. .,.,,,;,„ ,i, -i , 

;..-„ ,,,| -[^[ "-"•^'■> ■■ I". -.-I ..I n..t.,l,|y |,„r.- •■;• HI,,, ,■.,,•!. „„,,,,, 





■,^gS (^'6) 482 - G300 - Phone 
^S (^'6) 288 - 5989 - Fo. 


in:rAHT\ii:\T or rin: lyrnmor 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

'»TV(>I to 111' a cciiiTnl 

tiiii' strutipraplii(! j)(.>iti,,ii< 
r>f thoir i^orrilntion niiinriK 
llii' I'ommnn namp, • IVtid 

toatur.' of the iiiarl)l(\ 

It is ini,.<.,.>il,le rff,vtiv«.ly to <!i>lin>riii>l, ,l„ 
"t all tlie inarbl.. I,„„ds in tl„- ,:r to 1„. -,„• 

"^:^:^.:::Lr- -^- - > .->.•.• 


:!:'t J:::;s:;::i.^;:-;'!;;;;:r «{ ;■''■' ''f ^f ''"-"-- ^ 

were ol.sen-. ,1 on o-t e - i ' ''': ""."'"'"'""^ "■"' '-rnMondo ....hist 

;evc.,. .. ^he .„„„;;„;: i.:;;. t* ni r5,i5r xLf 'T'^'-' f'r 

hiiu-stono^ and their pi,,, s ,,f ,«„,„ f -.i .i ;'."'-^"- "'«' han.lin^.' o( thi- 

h.. taken as dim.,i; indi...,, nj Vl. ' '"''''' "'--I'l^'n<>-^ ^-.Tmot 

.cdi,n«,tary n. k i, . h ' i " ^"V,", ■■-'\'^'''- to youn^v^r i„ thi. 


rive s„„aro nnlos and dips from lo" 3, ' ^„t|, I '"';':' """.-von at 1..., 
conclnsion on tlie point. "arrant n detinite 


ifiruirr or nit i imi Ayi m.MnifH 



;j}i;,::::r': :j -:7,: ;:;lt-:;;;;;t,;:::; r ^j^t^ 

Mi<v«ltol,e,-i:,()Of,.r ' ' '"*■ ^'' """""'<>" thick,,... i. 

' ^ ii> ine outiienst ot the Hoiiiidao- H-.'tioii ;it tho Pfnil D'On.Jll.. T ;„ I 
has f,.„„^ olosely allied rocks at sovo al. rntl.e,- wiSv 'Lf^lwV; '''"''; 

Purv'ef of^CanaKgT"- E-^P'"""*"^- "ot.« to Trail she.t iss.uKl by th. 0..„Io, 


i>i r\i!nii:\i m nii. i\ii itiuu 

2 GEORGE V, A 1912 
of .ho Wo„,I Riv,.r sori,- in hi, ri-port will l„. fo„„.| ,„ „,m„.|, f.,irlv uvll «l,l 
the account of (he Pond D'Cvilk- «ro,„, in-t "ivoi, 

Ab..„t one luHuIre,! mil,, to tl,o n<,rth«i,r,ran.l n,.rth-n„rtl.w,.-,w.,„l of .l> 

detail l,y Dmv.nn. Il.s .„„„ -y -tn.-M.-n. of ,|,..i,. suc-ossi,,,, i- „1 f„||' .vl- ' 

chcrly qMarU.te. or l,orn,ton..s. vol..;,,,!,- ,nat..ria|. with H.n.,.„,ino and 
nt-rstrat.he. hnu.s,.ne. Ti>o voVani- n,a,«,ials are n,o-t al,„ ,1a „ t 

TZ T: 'h ■'".'•""■• '"'-"■'^' '"-"""'n^' it- The n.inin.uu, v" „ ^ 
-f tho strata of h:. d,v,-ion i, about (;..-i(N) f...... The ,„>,„.• ,liviM„n or 

MarWo a„,on ]nne.„,.a. ..on.i-ts almost entin.K ot ,„a-'iv,. wJXJl. 

Mt w„h o,,oMaI <nt..n.ala.,ons of rocks sin.iiar to thos,. ,l,ara-„,.i,in 
the lowvr part. Its voinn... is about :!,000 feet 

•about '^.''?oot\*'"'"V'T '• "■' "T"" '■" ^'"^ '"^''•'" "■""''' ""■'■'•f-'- ^- 
about . ...00 feet, an.l this ,3 rep.nhvl as a Munin.inn. Tb,. arfrillit.^s .,r,. 

generall.v ,lark. often blaek. and the so-.alled eJu.rt.v nuart.i,,., an l.ab 

often ..l,e,fie<i arg.htes. The voleanie nwMnbers are usuallv nn,.! ,le. ,n - 

posed diabase, or .halase-i-Tphyrites. |,oth e.T„sive an.l frae,n,.nta • I 

have frequently been ren,ler,.,l n.ore or le-s s,.histose by pn.^lure!- 

fero.n Tpnn '1'^ ^.■^"•''■' < '^''^'^ ^«"^'^ '^ fo.siliferous an,l ,l..Huit,.|v Tarboni- 
ferou, but Dawson points out that the low.r bed- nu.y i^ 'l i,. 
formations somewl.nt older tha.. the (^arbonif,.rous. H.. enu h, ; s af e 
many y,ars o exp,.:en..o. the .reat oon-tan,,v ,.f th.. s.^rie. ..-y, 

bounda.^ of Coh.mbia southward throu.hou. the of BHU^h 

that these proatly n,etamorpho-e,l n-ks of the Pen,i n'Oreil!,. n-,;, p ', 1,, , 
correspond to the ('aehe Creek soHes and that they are in b r,; m o C r- 
bouiferous age. The low^r sehist. n.ay sedin.ents of a,u- a^e fn. n f ■ 
C rbon,ferons t,. the Siluri^an inclusive. There is no evi,h.n,.e of n ,. tn 
wuh tl,e Summit ;er.e>; the Pend D'Oreille schists seem, on tb,. otlu-r n| 
to pass p:raduall.v ,„to tbn underlying Lone Star schists. Becau-c of e sp^ i i 
ocal .ntcns.ty o tbcr n.l dynamic n.etan.orpbisn, it must be b>n^ iSo re 

the correiat.on of the . ...1 D'Oreille .^roup is anytldn^ other than h^ 1 is 
^ ot. as ,n so numy eases, the tentative correlation "seemMo be be i u^no , 

IoKic\fsuT;ero"'caf.:dt'!«.r "'*" '" '''"* Ko,,tena7 sh^.t, i..,,.,, ,.. »,„ 
•G. M. Daw-on. Bull. Cieol Soc. .Am,.,k,,. Vol. 12. 1901. p. m. 


25u I,, I, 




Ipl J ' 

iw ' 1 





'm 11 



HKronr ,>f rut: riiirr astkoxouek 



for wii ill its iipm.ttinjf. tlir fut 
•ifsontifll flirt-. 

nro .,l,...rvorV ...v.- will 1^. s),ar|H.t>, ,1 for the 

S.MMARV ..N T.M; Srl„ VTI RK „y T„K XKr.sov Ranoe. 

ponding r..„' Z the fie t R /r ! ""' !"'"' ."^ "'^' ''^"'"•^' <■-"-- 
and ,h. .aie ..odies^ftthXtir;:,":""'^' ''^ '""''' "^ '^^ ^""""'» -"-• 
terra1l;'l,;*";::''V^ rolntion. „n.,.n, the old,„..„ts of the Prie.t River 

highly i„eli„ed^v;;Li;^S;iLt:7 ?■• ^"r °j. j*'"-""-^ "•» 

Bayonne hntl.olith « i ^^ ^rr.iirar: I TT''^' !'• *»",V"*--" -^f the 
average .o^^t. 'rl^'ni! L It v^dT ro^'l^'lt "»'";?'""• ^- ""l 

the we",erf Lfof the'l'^f '""' "' ^i'^'™"'- •^"''^*-"" '^ ''»'""" «'-'^ 
me wesiern eage at the Kootenav r ver delta Ketn-, nn (U„ tj i » . 

^ Lir Vz /t =■:.:- ^;^j^-^ :-„£ 

further fiel,I-work ,s imperative hefore greater preeision trav be attaine7 Til; 

r vTr- '"'"T'"; "'"' ^'"■'' ''"'"•^^''^- -^"'•^ '-«« th'- l.oen..o delated w^ h 
he Kttehener and the equivalent Beehive quartzite, has been dowiowt. 

le^rthe" b' .'•"' "■^"'"''' "'"'f' '" *'" ^^''"'-^ ♦'-•'^"-^ "f theSutrt ,er7e 
te ra ,e T^ '.'" l""'"''"" '^''" "" ""'^"""■" ^^i-^knes- of the Priest River 
ferrane. The downthrow >nny measure 20,000 to :?0.000 f,.et. 




nf:PAnruf:\T or rut: /vta- 


2 GEORQE V. A t912 


iIorir.untal und Vertical .Scale*. 
Ki(fiir« 17. -K«t.we.t««mti<«iridK..northof L..«t riwk V. I „ p 

'fH^^'' ^r^' 




>?^ 1^ 

'""'" '"-''Is:.:!] ■rK*^,;^i::" '<-•>■•.-- of t,„.t 


- '."vv:-;^!^ 

1 w r<^ «T : 

Krrnifi »./ rut: niuj isTintsnuKh' 



Oi. bufh Ki.l... nf t!„. I'„r,vll r,,„.h. tlur.-r,,,-. 
•liHpliicc.n.'Mta winch hav.> ^ivrti this i^rf ..f tho K. 
of u fault-tmuKh. Tho ,l,,«ii-fi,ullr.| l,l,„.k nr hU-| 
^iil.-taii.'O thruii^h ..rosinti hut it mvhw ii,„-I ,„•. 
Io.'ut„l in a .•..n.trMc'tiunul ,h.,,n.-i..„ ,|„.. to faultitiR. 

Annth.r of the r-ritnury -tnwtnral fenti.r... of the \..K„,. r«>,«.. is 

."..•on nr.n.y „t the has.- „f th,- Fr..,,.. ,„„^h,„u.rat... Th. .-.Uu-u.- 

u.K.„nlorr.,>t,v M nut ..o„s,,i..„o„.iy -h.-wt, hy rontrasts „f attit,,.!.. hHw,., 
lon^lorncrat.. »,ul thr nM.T s, ,lin..-.,t.. I„ t„rf. a. ahovo >,.,t,,| ,h.. .tril . 

wi' hini' i-\ lAi'uro nf hiicc 
')t('?iay valh>y th.> .•hiira.tiT 

liavc. of loiir-i-. h.»f rriti.-h 
'iil'li' tliat tln' tr.iii'h «;i- 



l.p of tho ,„„.l nurnt.. «,„! ot .o,,.. .1 „n. „ft..„ ..lo.-ly >i,„ihT. Tl vi,h.„.v 

.. .nor., fully .lor>v..,l fr„m (1) th. nnu.h ,tr„n«,.r rn..tM,u,.r,,hi-M> „f ,h, |.,i„., 

K.v.T t.-rran.. :(•.') tho al iant pohhh. of I'ri.M River r„-k. in th.. ....nKlo. 

nuTaf; an. CI) tho tr.,n,.:„iou „f ..,„os .1. li an.l C hy th,. lowr-.-out.,.. ,,lan.. 

holt whoro tho I{.„.ky M..uutam (iooMyn..linul is souiulo-l t., its full .lopth 

W.thin tho float .SuMi.uit -orios uiono.-.iino its,.lf om<. of tho i,u,M ,:,n^,,\ 
.•MO..S struotural ooni,,lu.ati..n> i. tho horizontal shift ,„ap,.o,l as orossinR the 
d.v.,lo hetwoon Monk or..,.k an.l tho ...nth fork of tho Salmon rivor. In tho 
ttel.l tho offo..ts of tho shift an- M>o<-taonlarly Tho alm,.st vorth-al for.n-o 
t.ons have hoon <lislo,.at ■■= hy a M>ovon.,.nt .,f al.out a mil., tho vorti,-,! 
wost-northuost ,.lane of ^hiftin«. Tho n-lntiv,. ,Iis„la,.on,ont is that whi.O, 
wouhl havo h.^^n produoo,! if the s.mthorn hlo..k ha.l mov.-.i «-.-iuar.l thnuiph 

that (hstan.-... The out<r..p of tho ^hiftplan .u! 1 ho r.u.lilv followt.l f,,,- 

t..ur mih.s: its o.,ntinuation wostwar.l arrows tho so,.th,.rn sh.po of J.ost moun- 
tain ,s ''■■"^ -v"I';m i" tho fiohl hut „..„„ .•omiMt.ut ro oxplain tho r..|ations of 

tho lon.l l.Oreillo an.l s,.hi>|s j., ,h, arUit.s „n Lost m.uintain 

.\ sooond horizontal shift, not so ..vidont. is mapped just -outh ,.f Summit .•r..ok' 

Ahout thrt.e miles west of the main .livi.le of the ran^e tho upiM.r h.,!- 

of tho .Sum..:it series are duplioat.'d for a thi.-kness by a powerful tlirnsf 

Ihia thrust is among the most remarkahl.- elomoi.ts in tho anat.miy ,.f th, 

ranpe. (FiRures IT an.l IM.) The plane of tlio thrust is stratifrraphiealiv l.„.at...l 

in or very near tho i'i.vfoot han.l of ..ondomorat.. in th.. Dew.lnov formation 

Ihc eon>;]on)erate lias ai)par.nt]y a.'te.l as a plane of »-..akn,.~. 

that plane the entire (.v,.rlying part of the Summit s,.ri,.s has l».,.u .Iriv.n 

eastward and has then ho.n pn.~ho.i up on tho lia..k of th.. Lone St ir s.-hisfs 

Either durins the thni>tiiip:. ..r. 1. ss pr..hahly. aft.rwar,ls, the ovorri.l,l,.n ■m.i 

overriding Idooka together with tho thiust-plaii.. have h,vii rotat.-.! so as i„nv to 

stand almost porf.K-tly verti.'al ..r M show a sli>rht ..v.rturninp t.: tho 

As a rt.sult the observer travcr>iiip tiie ri.U;os ..n .ith.T si.lo ,,f Summit ,.|-o,.k 

will, on fjoing westward, pass over the f),.w.ln,.y l„ ds. th.'u tho Kinpl... I{,s.|,iv.- 

ami Lone Star in rojrular onlor. an,l will then, after ..rosfiing ti thrust-piano 

pass over the upper Dowdney, the KippV. IJi-ohiv... and T.ono Star f.rirati,.ns 

once more. These relations are illustrat,.d in Map T an.l in Fit;iiro 17. They are 

speoially oloar on the liiph. nearly ir.vlo,ss ri.lpes north and south of Summit 

.-reek. Tho oxtren:e nortliorn an.l soutliorn of the thrust-plane are s.i well exposed ind the mapping is there somewhat tentative. 

V.-v-liK» ^'•^-■?- V.^-?i«^i9^B^«llX£;-alS£t^^7'i 



'"/••/,■/ 1// \/ „/ //„ nil in. ,11 

it i-* WfJlI-C, -Iv II 

rV. lliai til, 

2 GEORGE V, A 1912 

'•roi.. „l ,||., ,iiff.,,,,„ ,, ^''f- !'-.l..;- •!,. •.„■>„„. :,r,.. ,ii.. ,„„, 

'''-H'-i'il.J';!:-;n::7:;:;::;;,;,t ;::•;;;:. ^'-^ •■-■^ 

" ^"J',. „..,v. Ti... ,.„„., .,.',' ' "- '-^' '-1.1 he r.,,„t...i o„|v in 
"»'- v.-k- ,„.,.,„. ,„.. S.I „',,,,,. ' '■ "'•'■"'-'"•^- '•"• 'I' iH,n„„i„n „,• 

'■Mlllilv. i„ ||„. \,.|„,„ ^.,,|„_. ^' . 

"';f ;';;;■ "' ""• > ^'-' -.11..,..,,,-. ■, !^. ■ ''•■••'— -^ 'i- im,..,-,.,., 

l'iitlic.|itlp>. ;,ii, ,„.,,l,„i.i, ..1 . , .""■'" ' tlio iiitnr^oii „f 

!>• :iii(| |.n,|,.. 

''■•"I t t 

"' intnr^ioi, „f ,„„„>• 


^•■■r<-vs u, |Ih. uv-„.r„ l,i,lf „,■ ,|,.. (-..nlill,,., ,7, ' ,"" "' "' ""■ ■"■■■^'■nl 

■"^•■"-"■n'li- .1 lln.n .1,,,-,. „,• „ 1,1,.^ ,'■,", "■'' '"- ■■"■'■ «''"Tnllv ,, 

"""■'■I'- ^"'1 'lu. Mill ,,,„„.,.r IJ,.-,„1 ,•"■'"'■ '•" •■ -'-• 

I':ir|liir u,..( 

'" i'.i|>|'i'.-n- iii III,, 

i Me \olson riil}i;p is tlip i] 

"l'""'m,;r ..„ the Forty-nnth INmII/i. I '"'I'l 'T.'"''"'' "'' """ '"i"!"'-' 'tmm.I 

<'onlillrn,. ^ ' "' '''■'•1-^' ~tn,w„r,i| ,Iep,v-M,.„. „f ,|, 

:, ,'^ifiij##v 


StSSIONAL PAPtR \o 20., 

A 1912 


IVTKlsiVK |;(.( Ks o|.- n,, s| j kii;k \ \i> vst 


l-'roiii ih,. iJrrnl I'liiiri- |.. tl.r I'm-.-. II 

'■ iuiM..u--r..i-U ,,i ill,, 

"' ''':;■""' " "" '•"-•'■•■'I i.-M .-..n,,,,.!,,,, .,„! ,1,.. I,,,-;,. -,il .,,,1 ,1 L ,• 

:s\.:[!:, ;ii::;;:,/:;,::;:,,,r:r::r -;;'.; ;; ^ -- 1---.,,,:;,.:; 

i"";' fy •■■■"• ^ •^^•-^''--^-'■-ttt;::';,;:;::^ 

;:;::;n::;:;;^i:::;j"::;:::;::^:;:,l:': ::;;:;;;•-- •- 

,---u,. ...„....„.,.,, ,„ ,„. ,.,„:',:,;.";;; :::::7:: n, r,;:.,,::-;::;: 

I.'hIi.-. ;.r.. .Tos.o.l l,y tl„. ,„;i-t..,- v.,||,.v- „!,i,.|, l,,v,l„...„ I , ,1 

lin... „f ,o,un„io„ K,.,„.,..„ ,|,.. ,.,„.„-. " , ' r f t'^ l..yoMvon,..>„ 
ro<.i< unit. «l,i..l,, in „„. „„L„ „, s,.|l I - ., ., , V ■ 'i' 'f"",""- 

- occur ill tlio uiljiir.-nt 

.ro.,v^T.iM,.,,,,n,,,.-.s,,,.;:;:;;,;:; :;:,-t;^.!:i:;:-,^'::;;;::;;;.T;;'::;;r 

III (i 

1" prc.-ciit clui|,t,.|- tli.'iv vmII i„ 

iMiied the Kvkort iiii.l I! 


ic t.> ll 


IVMlir l.atli, 

ivciiii,. |,.ii!i,,litli: 

firaiiilo uhicli cuts tj;,. Kitdi 


ciicr .|i!iirl/il( 

Inch npp<'iii- I., ho 
'riiiiil lioriil.l' 

in-ic iiitni-ivc- 

rk: -!U 


inipro|,ii>ric ,|ikcs and sills nn.l nil,, , h: 

tcrr I 

If 'ir.iilfTMiH 

I's anrl silN ciittin>>- the 

uver tprraiic'; aiul a ho>< of 
.Vn .tttciiipt will 1,0 made to d 

voiinuer -, d;iii. ntii.v 

fT'^opraphieal arrai 
order from east u 
-ion in cpolopii nl t' 

nionz..iilh' hear th, 
ilie ll„ ;e l„„r 

UclHCIlt. tiloll-h ih,. ,|,,|.|| |,|,, 

tin V 

ni,,ji r:v, I-. 

the >al 

■ir order of 
%ini.' then lip ill ,. 

rii -t 

will 1.1 


rciie \ 


iffi'-n]. _,«»1,1p,„ ,,)• flicir ,, 

as a ,,f the S 

ill tho jft'iK'rnl -iiiiiniarv on 

olcaiiic loriiiiition ha~ air. l» 

unii'iit "crie-. 
tlic i"ii 

■ iirlli. r retenie-.- 
11- rock- ..f the - 




nti-iHTMiM n, nit: i\n:moH 

U.» ^ QEOROE V, A 19t2 

, ''"7':'" ■'"-'-.. .., ..n.H,u:a •,•.„«.. 

•"■.■.•l.tinnH ,1„..., „,.. ^^. ..,,,.. ,,,'r I '''.''••'''■'•-•'• I'-Wr.i/o. With f..« 

^- •" ""• •;'•' r->n.i f ...V.':; .. ,:.:.::':;;;•'■';'";: •" "'•' '•;•- ^ -"-• 

niwiim. who.i.v t|„.v |,„v,. I„.,„ .l.riv,.,! "■""""' """"^' "»" " ^• 

'I'lif liirj;.»t .,(■ th,. hiMli.s oul.rMi.J f r r . 
■•" »li" tniil riinnii.^f |„„„ |!.„„„1 ,, '■ ... , ^' '"■'^""•" "t -vmil hiM,.lr...l .vnr.l- 

•VH. fVH hrn„|. Wh,.,h..r : „ ..^ I "n '""."• ''■' '"'>■ " "' '--t 

r.MMnMm,K ntt.T th.. prnf.Ma,,! i.u.t„„„r ,1, ''""""> " "'> r' M.imTiil 

of it is ,.,,w „ ,„..., .If ..hh::;;,. , ri;:, "' ""t-' '"" '""•• ^-'"■- ^'•- 

l-ynt... Th.. „ri«inui .tr,.,.,„r.. „ . t .U ,^"1' "T"' ^'T"""' '""' 

iiy'it::;:!;:;;:;"' « - '-."-:':£:;;l:r;;a:;S:;:: 

...i;Ttl:!;'t!:^;..::;n:^,- ,,;•,:;;':::;:;- -■■"- ^-^ «..- .,.„.,, i „ 

belt i":i S'p,!;:; ui:;;r:;;: ;'.!;:;•, '^'"'' ?t\ ""• "" ^- ^ ■•-'>. 

•iu..rtz. ami „ li„ie ,..,rh,.nat.. arc ..,.„„.|. rv "" , "7"'^^"' '"■'■'■^^'^f"'^- «'lil"rit.. 
Fork an,l „.a.. f„rk of Sun, ,. , r.. ^ Thi I . " •"".'"""" "^ *'"' •'*''""' 

.f.ero i. little din::r;v!!;::..'r,X'r: '■^!,,:/';i ''--l ^-er ..........tari... 

."ota,„orphis,„ i„,|i,„„., „ pr,.-T..r l''^,: '/V';';"",'.*''";"^ "^ ""■''• ''>"a„,i,. 

the Rnhhroi.l,.s ,„ ,h. «,! , t h.'. Z'rAlU " ''""''"«''■"' «i""'"ritv „f 
the former ,„a,v also Ih.. u.s oI,1 .. f e Mi, ,1 , C ' ,'' • "T^\' .'^^ r^"''"t.v tl-t 
have boon t,.ntativplv refernvl So , V ,f ^'.'" ''"'!"• *" «•"<•'> f'o I'u.<'.'ll >ill. 
spate,! phase of theyot o , o r In^n v, .aio^' "t " '""' r''''^"' *'"^ '''->- 

in the field wa. that the ohlorit'unJi "hi 't th" ""■' IT.^^'' ""Vr...i„u «on 
..ornh,e„.,e .ahhro are o, eh ohh^l^^i^i.r fi^^-;- -/J-- 

Ill l'<>h\ 


'"■'■iirriiitr in tin- imrl .it 'h. 
may lie „i ihu -niiii- uijnTiil . 
Ill' viiiintfi r. 

"' I III •mil i^ 1 1.-' 


l.ili. II. 

•iiii ti 

>\"UI I! 

J" riili.titi.' 



tTivativ.M ,,t t|„. K,,|,i,r,, 


'liMXI (ill will I 

N nil -u I i\ 1, 

iiu lui, III Ml, (^1 Aiir/rt 

\t llir .h1«.. ,,f i|„. K,„,|,.|,„.v riMT Mn\\n\ tlit 

ick. tlid .1 

■WM lniiltt.,| Kit,. I 

mill l'.imxi 

util 1. 1 


ill ilui fiirm i.t 



to till 

mi th. 

il ilii' irilriiiivf ImhIv 

11 III r i|iuiit/il.' 

•lit I. 


II l-iiml alMiiit i;'i.' f,. I will,, .iml ■ l<.| 

|""'tilinr Kriiiiiiliii' 



ti'<l ill III. 

"■III. to Im> ill .jl 


II "ill il« thiik 


<'ili:.o iiTliiiitv 

ii<;''iit .>iiiirl/it.- i.^ till' |„ tlu' soiitli,,iHiw,ir.|- 

"iitiirifs. iiltl,,,iiifl, tin. (..\|„„iiri., an- nut .ii!ti:.-i,.ii( t 
"^' 'If ili|i 1. 1 till* uiljiii'i'tit ivii.ii>t ^;t.. :^ *!oj .. .1 

!'• 1"' iiH r..i-k i. liark 1.1 

iiiHit !■< iH'iirly .'iiHl iiv\. 

nf fl i\nuTX,>. iliorili- fii tlio In 

■HT.'y. iii<-<liiiiii->fniiii,.,|, 

'.f horiilil(iiil<. 

s|)fiiiiii n iiji .iiiorpli 

iikI lia. till 



'*' "I i""i- III IfliKtii ,irc v<>r.v iiKiiii.JHiil; th,.*,. 

n riiiiuli tliiiiliil al 


<'on..titii. ?it; fclil- 
I'lidiT I lie 11 
s-traiiiiHi. with |Hi..ili|y 



lai-K |.n.iii 
■II iiiTaiit;r. 

par i-i a. iloarlv .iil.. 

i-i I'li^il.v nv. .(f'HZi.. 


IpC till 


111* iirainilat 

>riiialiiiTi 1, not 

t.. I 
lull in plai' 

"■ vtr\ fr 


Pri 81118, w 

>n I 

f til 

iithiii-nt t.i .•xpiaiii tl». r.iiKli panilMi-ni nf t!,.. |„,rnl 

li. iIiimibIi .Jii-litly 
aiiiiiiiiit .if 

the RiiRiwHl iiK'thoil 

H appHniitly a priiinirv f.ntiir.- .■^<talili»lu.(l il 


in till 

10 tiiatrnia. 


ii'ir orilcr nt ipiaiititati\ 

iirinif till' iTy.tal- 
aiT.-«iiry .•..n.titin tit-i ari. Ii.ti- 
impi.rtaii... (liy'litl im il(.t.Tiiiini.(l I.t 

f 1 -i-pntinl aiiit 



• iariii't. 

Kpitlote. . . 
Aputiti',. . 

41 :i 



Thf hiiriibleiide i- liijfiilv pli ml 

iri.ii^. u ith iiiin-iialU 

a — Li^lit ycllowi. 

■aiilitiil fiiit- 


11 t'ri'rii. 

<-'ry iloi'p olivf urocii 

C— Bottle ^n-<-n with prunuiiii.'. d hlni^h t 



isiirption verj- .strung: b">C >a. 


o extinitiuii on (010) 

rtveniKe of eijflit iiicii.snri'inoiit 

is ahout 11 1.-.'; that mi (Uoi. alimit i:: 

that c lies in tl htiisi. aii*;lo fi in '\'»r\ 

A on oleavafre pifcp.-j. Etch- tiff ures 

111 (110) show 

also that t 



niiak s orientation of anipliiholo. and 

il' in till 

o i. rii-li ill aluniiiui. The hnrnllende is ipiite id 

Prystal faces. They lia 

pri-i'iatii; zmie hut the prisms are i^eldmii. if 

.osta>i-s ot quartz and felds 

ever, tenniiiatcd h 
il 1 

par ninl have -iiff. 


I'h.i'.iinMKM „/■ Tin: imliuou 



2 GEORGE V, A, 1912 
i),v ro.-or|)|]i)n ciirrioil mi l.v tl,; -i • . 


i-< .'itlior a .,„lif..,.o„. o tl,ocl s, '^ °^'"r'^ :'"1 ^^'''«'>"--- '^"''o feldspar 

ffxrnot is, in ,hi„ -v:-X\uu"7 Tyory Z/'Zl'^^l''"- "'T^''' ^'-'■^^'"-- Tl„ 

■ '''"^ I'l'l'^ colnilr illKJ I, )il-ol,;il.l,v n 

iron-lime variety 

J^^!\ " '''i'^'-phi.' n,«i„.t ,1,0 l,„n,bI..„,,o. Th, 

n ('iimiiifiii 

mliT of .•rv>tiil- 

1. .. ■■.■^'..■■-i|»iiM- iif-n 

Uzation feoms to lier xireon,. i • " v.. ,,.,>, iu- 

no.,Sir,t',';v„'rr,,:;";,:.'':,'T' ■. ;'"■ « «« .- ■•-. 


"f «ilil-;|. 

l>or ciiit 

thi. l-nrk 



illff Moili. el; 

iiifr tin's rook 


"itliin it. l)iit 



of tl 



lln ..llv 

ivorwciylitiiip: tlio 

mily. It 




K- Mi'.irtzito. Thoro aro 


and cortMiii p! 

tiiat till, ni 

>■="■■! of tho \ 

in an oris-inal li..riil>l<.ii,l 

aiiiioniial sranito 

I'iiij^e is otTorod to it in the prevail- 
wifioii may he duo to some n 
piM'iit« of -imilarity houvoon 
s aoros^ till 

t eld spathic 

lo <rabhi 

'lllToll sill 

i- tli<> nsiilt of flio soliit 


and mioacoii 

•o niaK-Mia. Ti 


1 i s 

rivor and it is (juito 

'10 (|iiartzifo 

ion ot tl 


1 IS so universal a con. 

ahnornial li 

■onstitiionts; I 
titui'iit in the 

inai-lzito is hor-o very poor 

i|.ii...'. p,,=iil,]y, the ahs 

■oiico of liiotiii 


possildo to crp. 

Thonph little 


noidifiod phases of the Purcell sills 
■* tontalivoly oorrelated with th, 

Priest TJivor tori 
at a iloptl 

It a oorri.latioi 

'•riishod tl 

1 with tllr si 

'laii tl 



"f the dofo 

loarod 1 

t a iloptli -I'voral 

inch yoiinuor Kitrlienor f 

rinatioii ,if tho hitt 

lasio iiitni«iv( 

It may al 

in t'.ir 

'"■I's iivvMrr ihaii that at whioh 

St ressos. 


ifi In't'lier tem 

"■Illation l.ofjan to fo.-l ,l,o post-P 

or must have taken j,] 
the iiitnisives oiittinp- tho 


massive r.ieks at the ti 

p, ratlin 

ime .,f ,lof 

X|il.-iin sue 

ifforenfial m,.|ain,.i.p| 

ot,,niiatioii w,iiil 
lio rffe<.t 

iiNii/oio f.rofienio 
Pie-siins ,,f ,i,p „„.,.,, ,,p^|,]^. ,^^^^.^ J 

s vin f.) 

a 111)1 

lfvi<i:i!T (;i;\\iTi: I! vni,.irrii. 

oftheBoiindarvbeltnot f ol ". ;/7" T^ ''''''" ^""^"••' "'■'' ^ 

■in nnknown dis,nn,.o into W , , ," . 'l'"; '" l 'T"' '"'"' ^°"*''"'"--^ ^^^ 

1.-^. of hatholithio si.e 1, I 1 :,; • ' ""^ *'" "'■■"''• '"''■^' '■--■ ''o"bt- 

'"ureole ahont Iho urani.e On .1,' V '^'"Mw^^nt ot a m.-tainorphic 

""""'^ H'l.ition-. l,u, ,I„. „,,iiite i.- pn.hahly there 

I'l Ml :■■!> 

Sl,,l |,l,a.,. „f ,l„. Kvk..,t «ra,m.. sLowin,- ..„„...■„.,■,.„„„ „f ,h. f,,, 
"t tl.r nick (mill. II.. zciifi. XntiM-al »iz,.. 

II'' •■!' nit Ills 

t.:,!:.!l. !„...(..),,.,,, 


i Ar<S ■^'' ' fcr-*y 'lHHHi*i' 4^^JB 

Ri i-f,i;i „r iiir i iiiir t>//,'„v „,„•/. 



•"- "r-^ }•■■ "i-Ti., .-,. ,.::.', '.:. 1;,;:;„'::;;,:'"'" '- '- ■< 

;:™.;:',:-::;;:;„":;;;„;::iZ~S:„l?.;:: ■■:;;; ^- >■"-> "■'""-::.•' 

lid>t pinld.i.-ornv. I,, ,U, U:C .,,11,1 '""' " ^' ''^'" '"'•'■ '" '' 

i.l:;r;; i... ■;:,;;■;:■ :i:^" ,;:;..';,;:■; -; « :■'; - v-";" < 

11. tn an,l ■...„.,. .1,1.. ,.l..av.if,... ,1,,. oi.t.-r -|„.ll „f ,) „..,„,_ f,,^ ,, ,, '^ , ;. 

oe ,,, ,w„ ,„,ll„„..f,.,.<. i- .,„, ,,|,i„ „„, l„-„-..l,.-.'„wi„. , 1.' , 

piienil rfniiinh,ti.,n ..t t he i,li,.|,.wrv-t- \ tl,l,-,l .,,, i , ■'_,,, m. |.,, 

tlu-e have Leen ..o,„,.|,.„.ly ,„..,-.v,l with ,h..i,. .r,,,,,,!-,,., '-. thr ,.| '^ . , 

u:r;ri:,:::r ■■'■ '''^'^ '-"-• "^ H,,.,.,.,h,,..,^,;;;i,:;;;:,:'v 

:.=.E^ The av4„e atnn,,,,. i^,,!;:,^: ' i, 'z X." .'''^r'^!:' 1'?^ '■':^";^ '',■;■■ 

Ihe apophyses of th,. I,ath.,lith nn- ..ft,- ,.-,.|v , ,„.,til|.- Th, v .„.n , f, . 

Jo,>„trv-ro,.k :,bo,„ the intru-ive lu,. .l„„v,l i,. ,l„. e„. r.eli,- .l..f„n h,„ 
hatholulne I, ,s possible that tiu. .lelurn.inp Mr,..<es were ..t r I,', 
.1^0 Kranue had thoroughly .,li,liHe,l, thu, ..xph.lnh,, tlu^a ,par , Ijw't . i ; 
a c.rta.u pha-es o the hntholith; but n,„-t „f the ,lef',, „u 1 ' , 
!ollowe,l ,he ery,talh.atio„ of ti,e an,nM, ,1„. „:i,„.raU of w] , .,n . 
greatly strained or granulated. 

I'liiler the iniero<eop(> the phenocrv-i- ,-,. ,.,>, t i i ■ .i , , 

~l.,e. n,ore rarely aeid oli i- ..a./'n^ar Ab, A,. "Vl:: ':::Z::T:ZZ 

«;;.:"::: h' T\ut'^- ''■""'■''^'- "''-'-' • "-•-"■"'"te, bioti,e, a;;;i 

Zl ■ ' "'•"'■^■"'■>- ■'■"^'..etite. apatite an,| tita.ute. Ml „f 

these nnneral. are tnore or le.. bent „r fraetured. The eru^hin.. ha L., 
^ .n^n^ that ,t is „..w in,p.,-.;i,|„ ,o -tate ti,,- original dian.e^^r ■ of t 
ground-,na-. e-,nr,aK, th..„.h ,1... av,.ra.,. t^,r th.. ,p,art. an, febtp 



in:)'\ni»f:\r oy rtn: iXTiHiait 

liiii.-t hiivf 
Pxact iiiitii 

■11 Mviral nilliniptr.s. It is likrwiso ,1 

..f tl 

If ori).'iniil 



vit<. iir.. all more alniinlaiit in tlio iilia>e of 


If iiiniii o 

f met 

riihii; orisriii. Soiiif i)iirt of their 

10 iirodiift of ilianpf^ uroii^'lit in tl 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

lifticnh to iio corlaiii of tlif 

icroflin.., microperthito. and miisfo- 

B-reatfst (TiishiMji. an<l am prolialily in 

vohinif may thus rppresont 


>oda-i>(itash int 

r«rowt!(s of tlie microportliito 1 






i>f form <'haraftfri-.ti<' of this fchl 

!invf not, as a rnlo, th(> r«>friilarit\ 


In tl 

If prosont ca^r' t 

^I>ar whin fr.vstallizcil dircctlv fr. 

rnticiilps and strinpors which 

11' alhitii 

material has luen Mfrrfirntrd 

■ni an alkaline 


•o. A littlf of the 

sfom to ripr(S(>nt fraftures in th 


then occMirs in jiaralld int 

^fovito may he a |iriniary 



may hf noted that 

■rfiruwth- with the nndoiil.tedl 

the ai 

If original ortho- 
*ory of the rock, for it 
y primary hiotile. 

tier entirely ali-ent or exeec'diiiir 

'TICS, apatite, mamietite, and titanitc. 

inK and cr 



lifir removal 

y rare in the zones of 

to 1 

le one o 

f the 

•pecially intense 

•'lide. a little fluorit 

n ^^everal thin sections prisms of allanite were 

results of the mcti 

,, . ■ , - noted and. in one 

Ihe-e minera,. should, pn.hahly. he added to ihe list of 

primary accessories. 

.\11 pha-es are KCierally very fn-h and the se,.on,Iarv product, kiolin 

;!' M e r:t 'TT- "" "f "•'-'""^- TI- ohservatio,, was i 't ..t i 
that he „ck ot the zones .,t maximntn shcarinjr and crnshinp is verv consider 
^ihl.v to„,.her nnd.T the hammei- tlian th.. coarser porphvritic fV^nii e i ,,d uln ah,n,.side. In the hed of Honndary creek the fornier rock ta " it n 

S;!;in'';;":t:rf ;T' ''-7-.;;'!'"'' »•- -f^- .ranite has heen eSIl CZ 
sl.iK ins water of the creek. I his contrast of stren^nh .hows that tlio hatl olith 
kv .leep y hurled at the time of its shearing o that the crn.h-zone^, nXwlnt 

rrili ■'''';,'■ '7'''" "•"' "'"'""^- ^"•""^•^'- ''"'" "'•■ ---k more eWl 
i-e-emlilin^' the onprinal jrranite. 'luti.* 

TlH, spe_..ific ,^ravitie.s of typical s.^cimens fro.n the batholith van- fr„n, 
-M') to 2-bi ,, with an averaiie for five specimens of 2.C.5S 
r.nAu^!'^ ^peeinan. collectcl at a point on the Ronndarv creek wcn- 

.line. J^:.J!: ^;':;; -nni^ on':^^iir;s ::;hi,Xra:r: • rr 

elase near Ah.An, The ess^-ntids „f tlu. ■'"" """"^ ''V^^- ^re ncnl olipfo- 
■aicrodine. orti.oclkse (.^..etZ' JLi^" ,,! i:;^;;;^:;'''--"-^ r '"-'- 
;ng appa.>ntly AK An,, muscovite and hioti" 1^ ;t ^i; 'f I rttr""^- 
a. those not..d in the fon^oin. deseription of the ave a;e . ""v^'r^; "^ 

secondary .•ah^.te wa. oh.crved in the thin >ection 

The analysis „f this spe,.i,„en (Xo. <m,) resulted a. fellow. rTable XVH 

UK. ,■ -^KWiasi 

in:ruur o/ rut: < 

lllhh isritnSDMEK 


7'"'.'r xni. .1 

"'""«- of l:,ik,rf 

■'iiili- '111,1 rchitril rcrl-. 



TiO,.. . T0-7R 

AI/>,.. .. 2n 

Fp.O,.. I.V72 

FpO. . . *i 

MnO. . . l-fil 

MgO., ai 

TnO.. « 

SrO.. 1-S2 

BaO.. .. tr. 

\aO.. ,. -01 

K.O .I^S 

H,0 at HOT ■^'I 

H,f» ab'ivp nb°c •'" 

I'.O. 25 



SP. Kr.. 


TIip ciilcnliitcl iinrrri l~: - 



Aibitp ;■ ;; 



















4 00 






25. 1R 











Orthiclase and mirVnoVino' . f ' phVnorrV.ts'. ' 

Ohgoclasp of phenocrv.stK. . 
piigoolase of ground-mafs. . 
•Muscovite.. .. 

Biotite .■ .■; ;; 


Apatite .. , . 

Zircon, '\_ 

Kaoliu, ^ 


17 5 









Aceordinp to the Xonn clnsMri.'nti.m tli- r.,..k 
^ubranpr, tosrano.,. „f tl„. Wonii.lkali. 


i-iit«T- ttic sodipota?^!.' 
ran-r. t..i,.ana=<\ in th,. t'or=alniio -iHer 



^ ;. . -■t.«^'iii«&'»>^i'<si^Hi=i£e!i?('«i 


i>i:i-\iriui:\T i,r iiii: iMi.inni: 


ut 2iMt miles t,, III,, -oiifh -oiitl 

2 GEOHGE V, A 1912 

Siciilnr yr«nit4. I„.9 i.c.n ,l.-,Til,,l l.y l,i,„l(.„.„. Tl 

ii'.i-t«Mr,l M liny,. h„tho|i||, ,,f 

II -Aiiii'\vli:it 


I'lv ifin'i^l.ilt 

l.y (I 

on |iftn.jfrii|.lii.iil 1 

!<■ |iri wrii.T. '|'|i 


ikt iic-w- : it i> tl 

li two lintliol 

ith- ll;| 

i'ln is iui-cl I'lifir.-K- 

pi'illl'ipal filets illirl c.iiel 

ii« iniiciiiiiit t.. review in n.-.timl 

i-e'ii- reaciiei 



iiiiluicii :- 

''•"■•'"'•i'' ' k^ pi-evnil ii, III,, liitt 

i:iitaiii-. 1,11,1 tariii ^i ,-,.|,tial m,:i>- ,, 

I'l'i'..,,! riiiiKi- iiihl ill i|„. (I 

•oiner- ,,{■ ihe regie:, , „vore,i l,v || 

II, a>- ..| i 


ii-t ,..\t,'i,f, l„,iiii,|,.,| ii, t|„, (• 


iiiiientiirv -,.ii,-, '1'^ ,| 

ill- n',',piiMiii-i«iiii 


.'r;,iiil,. IS not "ell 

'I'Aline s<>,t 



o ihe iH.rth ,,!' tlii 

• iiir 
y .'iiiiilipr areiis .,t' 

lit a- tl 

■< rem,. II the ,..\tent nf t 

mirth of I...]., riiljr. 

"■" it i- |.rol.i,M,. tleit ih,. , 

tie Kraiiite i 

^ al)-eiil m 

til,- ( 

eOIltinil, S lllrelijih nil ,,f 

ex, •,•[)! »~ ,!,.( 

iiiiiii iir,.,i ,|,,e< not ,ont 


iii'l:<|| Ilia.-.:,,! 

inn,' lar 

I>oars I.eli.w tlii 
river ill i,iiv 

eeiitial Mall 

-eiliiiieiit, ,,t' Siiiik,. I 

a lin-ail licit 

■^,iiitli\viir,| tlii< Kraiiilt 



>iv, r va 



\V,..;|, <.e|i~tit||| i 

"■,■,11 lliiiiiiiiuinii anil I 

'■"III llertll f. 

mill tiniilly ,lisii|e 
Mill reneli Siiak, 

whole uii eloiiuateil aroa :;(io mil,.^ t 
triiii; eii>t I, 
this eoiifiiient. 

nt ll 

■I'wi-^tuii. It luriiis on tli: 
' -"ipih an, I .-.n t,, loo mij,. 

Iar>r,»st j,'raiiiti,> haiholitl 

Im ,.t 

On th 

III its 

llii- e.\l,.||-i\i 

lietrnfiriifih hariieter. (i 


'"■- fri-i'iit 

roughly [lOi'i livriti,- hv the ,1 

cm. Ill liianieter. Th, 

(level. .|>iii,. Pit ,,f 

a ii,,riiial xruniilar rock 


!ioi.|as,. erv-tiil 




le .-oloiir is aliii,.<t aUva.v.s liRlit jrray, tlu' out 



iailt "-liite or liu'lit-i 

ray f.iiie 

'CI 111 


(rlaeiat<>,l ,Iist 

riots ,.lifi 


up In 


iiiul over lar^e ar,' 

'lite i- 

nges t. 

as iiHiseiivito ill 

iiiiilaut ill inediuni-size praiiH. 

loth ortlioclas 


^e aiul olipiiela-e, the latter iis 

I enters iiii,. the 
ill- th,> fel.Npars a 

always present in sii 

freiiiii'iilly ei 


inposition; quart/ 
are repre»eiite,i Iiv 

III lar^e (|iuiiititit-. 

eonfain- far t, o nmeh oJi>., c-lase | 

i<'oiinl,r,Hl. 1111,1 n ore rarely ii.ieroel 


should le rati 
elosdy allied 

ler ehariir-terizeil 
tl, fjniiuiiliiirit 

o I e ela>., ,1 


c. do.nt, 


iraiiiie - 

normal Kninit, 
I'i'eiir in -ul 







^raiiiii- i- tyiii, 

lerroot ranw. wl 



toils of bietit,. and 
reach uiie-lialf inch 
quartz, a litth> n,iriiiiil ortl 


Ik re il i~ 

11 itlle nill-|.,ivitf 

head of Mi 

iiy. iiiediiiin-uriiiiie-l roek 
.\ f 



elifjth. I'll, ler t 

i-w laryer i-rvstii 

of ortlio,.];! 

le II, I,. I 

An aeiili,. olif-oclase witi 

loi'la-,.. iind iiiaiiy larpe pra 

•oseop,. the roek sliows mi 

ami inii-,.,ivii 

> very narrow -trint 


lo ,ici_Mir in 

ions is very ahunfTaiit. Tiio 

zircon and apatite w,>r,. iioteil. though tita 

eonereticiiis in t' 


seattere,! .straight foils. Few aocessori' 

lie sniiie gTiinit, 


lie stnii'tur,' 

iiite occurs ahuii,laiitlv 

OS except 

part idiom, .rphi,. an,] sometime^ 

i-- tyiii,M!ly sriMiiiti,.; tli 


• W. timlKien. Prof. Paper Xo. 27. f.S, Geol. Survey. 1904, p. 17. 

Ill the ix-rthil. 

■ HHF-»:jL2t*^. 

li^JBjrn 'isep-'^v inf-jKA 



til.' I{itlfrr().it 
ri'scnihliiiico to 

in.i'OHi OF rut: rnn:F Asrnn.\<,\in! 


' T'"\"?e -uunot b.- detormi,,..,! with crtainty cm n.-ount of tho al.^once 
atfrihut,..! to thosmit irrHniticI,nth(,Iith' " rt.iint.N, I,,. 

"■■"■••■' • ■'.•""•"!"■; ""i."i;:cr;:;:o';™''^^^^^ 

vi.s ini.hT i,>. ix.Tpthuiall.v inick onv.r. This ..ov.t ■ilmn r ,,, • . 

mile, or „.oro h.^n- it. tS'ki;:;. ,. , 1 a'Sr: '"^.l! S'"' "' f 

The thomiM or .•nnta.'t nictainorphis,,, |,ro,l,i<v,l l,v the Rvkcrt I.itholi,!. 
wa. .t,„l„.,l „„.,. ,,„ „s west side. Thore the effects are noti - 'tblc f , 

hun, re. s of Uvt ,n,m tho oontaot. They oo.Hi.t ehietlv in tL.evolo ,-,,(■; 
gom,h,l garnets a,„l ,„■ .....oh ......ovito a„,l hiotit. i„ tho seh^t'" f ZSj 

Rner errane. he ,n„.as lor.n JoiN than are ,,.,,.,1 in t e i, i^t 
far ron he contaet. '1 he nietaniorphio etlVets tiu,., con>i-t i,. reerv-tallir io 
w ut th. formation ot rare minerals. 'l. rv i.uii/.uion 

Havuxnk Batiioliti! am. its Satv.i.litks. 
Xorth of Smnnut ereei< an area of son.e ten square ..ih. in the teu-„,iio 
belt .3 < overed by intrusive ba-ic granodi .rite. This mass belongs t o 

southern e.xtremity of a lar.e batiiolith which extends nor.hJa ffar lowti 
W tenay lake, and covers a total ar..a of a, least .'iSO s,„iare n.iles. T batW 
hth las the fonn of a r.ide elli,>so about 20 ...He, lonjr fron. north to t th 

t^o^ru-t": "■'■;'"■;• ""'"'; ''"^ ''"^'■"■"' *^"''' '"""■ - 'o--'l -II wi, n 
iathohth. " ""'• ""'^•'•""-■■'"■. ^^' Ji>tin,.iished a. the P.ayonno 

i-'r.a -vol. ii— i;i 



III i-\nnih:\i or rut: isirKion 

2 GEORGE V, A 1912 

CI rill i.iu'iiv iiK im: hmikimtii 

NNitlni, .1,.. |,„ri „l tlir, v.t.mI 1,v th.. l..„-..,il.. l!„„M,l.rv mkm, ( tl.o 

Mily part iin..,f,^at.Hl). ,1:.. «n,no,|i,.rilo i. „ „nt„l.l.v l>n„„ ....pomh rork of „ 
liKht-Kniv In ,,iMk,sli-«n.,v ,.„|,.,ir nipl n m..,liimi to fnirlv .o^ir^o urain Tt i- 
—entiallv ..,,,np„sc.l of ,,uart/. M,i,ro,,..,-thit... ortlioHa-o. ini.TnHin,.. l,onil.l..n,lr 
aMff,t... a„.l iMotit... rrv.ta^ ai.a »»:«,VK„t... of „,;,„„Hit... well ,Tv.t..llizo.l ti.a- 
.i.te an.1 apatit... a t.nv -...all /in'o,,-. an.l rar,- i.jiotnorphi.. -rv-tnl. of allanito 
.ire arce==.orv .•o„siitM,.nt^. .\|,..rtl.ite is tho ,loi„ina„t tVI.l.par; it often has 
the doubl,. lanipllat.on „f mI.■ro.■li^o■.ni,•ro,«.rtl,it,^ Tho orthoHasr i. pmhaMv 
sod. Ihp f.-l.Npar i^ of somewhat variahlo ..omposilion. Some 
aT » <"' «»rlsha,l-alh]tP twinO Iiav.. fhr exii.wtio,, niiRles of flii,l...ine 
Ab An,; othoiN are a.'ul lal.r«.l..rite. Many of them are zoned, with .ore- 
of labradoritP, AbAn,. and outer rinn of oligoela^e. Ab An,. The averaee 
plaRioelnse has about the ronipositiou of ha-ic andcsine. Ab. An . 

.'ext to tho feldspars and quartz, hornldoude is f - most important eonsti- 
tuenl It forma idiomorphio crystaN, l,ounded by plan.- at the extremities as 
well ns in the prismafie zone. The eolonr ~cheme is:-- 

Parallel to a~Stron>f xllowish f;reeii. 
b — Peep olive yreen. 
C— Deep sea-j;reeii with liliiish tinjie. 

The absorption is stronjr: b^Oa. In seetions parallel to (010) the extinc- 
tion IS Iti'IiO': i„ se.'tions parallel t,. (110). iiVM.V. These values sho-.v that 
the optical angle is unnsually small and near ^.0^» The hornblen.le hu- proper- 
ties son:< what similar to those of the variety ' philipstndite.'t 

The biotite is deep brown with powerful pleoeliroiMu ; it is sensibly uniaxial 
The diopsidie augite is colourless to .lale greenish in thin section and is not 
noticeably ploochroic. It is quantitatively subordinate to the biotite but in all 
tho specimens collected must be ranked among the essentials. 

The ot'ier constituents need no special note. Tlnush the rock is unusually 
strong ano tresh. a little secondary kaolin and yellow eiiiilote may oecasionallv 
be ieen. 

The specific gravity of ,!„, rock varies from i'.T4.T to i-isB; the average for 
nve Iresh specimens is J -757. 

Mr. Connor has aiial.vzed a typical specimen (,N'o. from the vicinity cf 
the Bayonne mine, with the following result:— 

•Cf R. .A. Daly, J'roc. Amer. Academy of Arts and Science. Vol. 34 \b99 v 311 
t l'r..c Aniei . Aciuiemy of Arts ind Science. Vol. »t, 18.99, p. 433. ' ' ''■ ^"- 

nm-oh-i Of iHt: riiitf Asii;n\oiif:if 


.<"«'v,s/, nf l.„.,r .,n„m!ionlr, Ha,.,,,,,. Inlhnhth. 





FfO.. .. * 

MnO.. ., 

M(,o :: :; 

CuO.. . 



Na,U. ... 


H..O M liO'C 

■ /) atmrp IIOH' 

I',0 .. 



The iMil.'irhiKil ij..iiii i-: 

rthcclasr.. . . " 

Albite ■ ■■ 

Anorthite ' 

Hvpersthenr. . .. 






■|'l"' "i-le (J^osivval nwMhoil) is Approximately: 


Micropeithite.. .. .. 

Orthoila-e \\ '.'. 7. 


Hornblende.. .. 


Augite '■. 

Titanite '.' ."" 


Apatite '. 

Epidote ^tnd kanlni.. 






17 17 











• ii« 



















19 5 








111 the Norm elassitication tl 

2."n — v.,1. ii — ifd " ■ 

rcyioii ii,,rtii .,t' 



2 GEORGE V, A. Ht2 
Ba-ic legrr^ation.. i,, ,ho form of ,lerp , -o..,. ,„ bla.-k .Mi i,U from fiw 

Tl!" '""'""» ;". " '" '"" '"■ *"'"'" '^'•"'i"»-"«"'» i" ■lian..-ter. ar.- .luito common. 
rhP.e .mall i.od.o. are of ,wo .la.-o.. In tho one rl.M fho ^.,..,„m.I oomponrnt- 

•re hon.blfndc. lahra.loritf (Al.. An.), l.iotite, .n.I auKit... „.„ I i„ tlx- or,l. , 

of .lorroa.inff al.mi.laiice. A little quart/, and orthodase. with .uu.'!, ,Tv.t„lli/,.,l 
titanite. maKi,etii.>. im.l npatif arc acessory. Mieropt-rtli dt.,1 tui-ro,.]!,,, 
«eem to be entirolv «l,*ent. The «|,c<-iHc rfravity of a typi.'al spo,.imoM i^ 2.!»-'l 
In the otl.<.r ola»* of -ei^r.-Rations tho colour U yot a.i.l is oxplainc.l U 
n romplote lack of fcldnpar. Tho os^'ntiaU are hornblonde, bioti-c, an.l auRit. 
also namo,l in the ordrr of ,ierreasi„K importanoo. Qunrt.^ u accessory but i-' 
fl.m8Kl,.rably mo^. abu.ulai.t than in the Hrst-raontionrd ola^s of seffreftation- 
Ilio other a.vessories are titanito, apatie, and specially abundant magnetite ii. 
crystals and rounded srains. The sp.H-ifie Rravity of a typical .ample is .1.21 1 
There ran he little doubt that all tlie-e bodies are indigcti.m. and that tl,. 
fegrregiition of the material, if not its actual crystallizatio:,. |..ok pi: ce in lb.. 
early ^ta^ro of the magma's prlidification. 

The pranodiorile is -. .lorally massive ami uncni,!,,.!. Straining an.l 
granulation through pressure we.-e not obscrve<l in ai-v of m-vi, thin section- 
cut trom the ^pt>rimen» colle.te<i. So-netimes, though r.^r.-lv. thin partings i, 
the «rano.liorite carry nmch biotito, which is arranged with itn lustrous foil- 
lying in the planes of parting, ih if there deveh,,H.d as a tvmiU of sliearing in 
the .•ry-tallued hatholith. At the Rayonn,- mine the rock i . sheot^vl and loeallv 
-■beared. On ♦ho whole, however, the hatholith is notably fr..e from evidence- 
ot ilynanuc disturbances ; :d appears never to have suffered the stresses incid- 
ental to an important on.genie movement in the region. 

As rejiards its intluenee on the intruded formniion* the Huvonno gran..- 
diorit.. has typical batholithio relations. A glance at the map silffiees to con- 
vince one that this huge mass is a cross-cutting body. Four of the thickest 
nieinbers of tho Summit aeries are sharply trunente,! by tho main southerp 
contact. For distances ranging from one to two miles from that contact tli. 
ro..ka of tho Wolf, Jlonk, Irene Volcanic, and Irene Conglomerate formation^ 
are greatly crushed, fractured, and metamorphosed by the .nergetic i ,trusion 
Farther to the eattvard. for n di-tanee (,f ten miles" down tlic Dewdney trail 
the schists ai.d intrrltJdtd (lu.irtzites of the Priest River terrane, Vnougli 
likewise truncated, have been almost completely driven out of their regional 
strike and a well developed schistosity peripheral to the batholith has been 
found in these rccrystallized rocks. For the lower twelve mil.;s the east-wr-t 
Summit creek canyon bus been excavat.-d along the strike of the schists, whirl 
have been forced out of their originally meridional trends by the force' of th. 
intrusion. Abundant apoph.vses of the hatholith sometimes .WO or 400 yar.l-- 
in width, cut these various invaded formatiotw. Tho main contact is sinuoii.. 
but clean-cut. Inclusions of tho invado<l rocks are not common in the bath- 
olithic mass as studied in the ten-mile belt. 



• "NTAlT .MKTAMoHllllhM. 

«s it .i-.* from -1,. .■.(.NM-....t l" ul , .. 1 1, K , ^ '" 7""'' '•""•^■"" 

'--'. "I .HM ,„|1..- fnrrl .r S :',. .tk ;-l ""'• '" ""■ '''''V'"'' 

I un.iiiit (Tfrk. Ill,, iiiiiiii cniitapt nf the 


)ea level 



Vertical arxi^ Horizontal 5cqIc 

two to }.r.e n/it V o tL "'V"-'"*: "f '•"■""'-•t .nctmnon.his,,. i. L.-r,- 
w uir.e nine, wi,le. fhe mitarnorphi,. ctfcrts sotn aloiu? flio tr.>;i ,r 

»l<...e tho ., i The eM,,,,J„,„y i,„5,„i,, „,. ,1^ ,„„,.„„,phi,„ 



hHf\HIUh\r tit lin IMtHtnll 


2 QEORCe V. A 1912 

In flu»e Priest Hivori.M-kKlhBllicrm«lii,..tiiMu.r|.liHm lm-> ii..t ,l..v..|.,|p«.l lu » 
t.vpc. r,f m.neraU t„ any n„t.,l,|.. ..xt.-nt. Tho .-hnnK... i„ the .,uart/it.n be,N con- 
• i«t ■■hu-fly in tluMr Im.,-,,,,,!,,^ ...irB.v„u,, with the liberal g.-iuTalion of both 
..m,...v.,n «„.l b.ot.t... TlK. phyllite.. n.e, .rgillite.. and .,n«rf/-.ori.i„. ..-hi.,,. 

infM.e.l.lo.1 with t m.rl/.te-. i.avo Ih.m ,-,.i.vorled into curs.., glitLTinif mi-a 

•ohut.. in «hich tho indivi.lunl .ni-nphitrs avernge ».or.-* o tin.r* th<> mzo of 
^L-^'fi'" "'"•'"•'";'"' pl'-'-'-'ti in tho ,..,„ival«nt band, farcer ,outh and not 
thennally nictan.orphcod. Then,. n.etH.norph <,,d .chi,t« ,.r.- rwu'arlv .ornpo-ci 
"t .loM:M>«nt .,u..rf/. n.,....ovite. and bioti.. i„ v.riublo proportion, Kiv.nB mu,- 
c-ov.... quart. ^ohM. mu,oovil,.-bio,i,..„„„rt/ ...hi,t. and biotito ^.-hUt. Urai, - 

of plagiochMe and o.-hooh.-o „r.. .•.■.o.son in variable a unt. H.r,. ,.nd thrr. 

prism* of tourn.ahne arc d,v..|o|H.d in abnnd.inoe. In ^.tu-ral. thr ,n..t«innrphi.- 
eff...t. alonK tlu; tnul are of „ nature loading to a higher .ry.stallinuv an-i 
coarser granularity in the annent n-diments rather than to tho Kenoration of new 

minenilg. Thn effect .* nianifeKt for .jintanoes as great u» thr nil,.* from tl„ 

main conta-t of the gmiite. Since the exomorphie. collar wn. not thorooKhiv 
studied in the part lying .orth of tho Dewdney trail, it i* ,H>*.iMp that inan. 
variations on the describe.! simple scheme of inetamorphism would be .li-covfred 
by one explonntr the inner edge of the collar. 

Un the other hap ', the minernloKical channes in the Sunmiif «erip=. of rock< 

are often very marked. This \* the cn^e even nt long -li-tnnee. fr the irran.- 

oiorite coil act. 

One of the most rc-markable instances is shown in the bun-l of basHi Ir 

eouKloinerate. At the Dewdney trail, nearly two miles south of ll e batholithi. 

contact, this rock is expose<l on a Inrgc scale. .\s usual it is intenselv sheare.1 

with its quartzite. carbonate, and slat.- pebbles roll...! out into flat lenses and" 

ribbons. The thermal metamorphic effects arc most pronounce,| in tho eemei • 

whi.h 1^ often abundant. In Itdge and hand-specimen the cement is. of » dark 

green nolour and of silky lustre, evidently due to abundant biotite end ■ i- 

coyite crystalhied in minute individuals. In the less metamorpho-od th, 

microscope shows that grains of quartz an.l carbonate are the other e«»ciitiul 

constituents. There is effervescence with cold dilute aci-l showini? 

that the disseminate.! grains of carbonate are. in part, enl.'itic. The numerous 

pebbles of carbonate are true dolomite. Through their mashing tl... .fment ha- 

become mechnnically impregnate.! with grains and small, granular aggregates of 

dolomite. The calcite may be, in part at least, of secondary origin an.l. in : nv 

case, 18 subordinate to the magne^ian carbonate. On the whole, the er.m,H,Mtioi, 

of these few, relatively unaffected bands of tlie conglomerate i^ like that .!e«- 

cnbed for the standard sections of the j'reno formation. 

For hundreds of feet of thi.^kness the cement has been verv altered 
throug!, contact action. The chief effect consists in the j.xtrenielv abundant 
generation of dark green, actinolitic amphibole, forming long straight or curved 
prisms. These often shoot irregularly through the quartz-mi.'a groun.l-ma«s or 
form beautifully developed slieaves an.l ro-^ettes. which are speeiallv well exhil.i- 
ted on fractures parallel to the schistosity. The individual prisms ru-i fr.,m I 

cm. or lees to 3 or 4 cm. iu length, with widths usually under 1 i. T!i. 

amphibole has the opticc.l properties of actinolite. 

:y;^yft^ro¥«P?c5!aLV^ V 

jrii^ ir:rj-1^:t, immMit 

HI Itiin nl nil I mil {sllin\n\ll It 


Ih. .I,„I,v „| ,..»,.r„ tin,. ...h..,,. |.„. ,..„.vi,..v,| ih. „ril.r llu.r an,,.!.,. 

ml.. I,.,. U.,, u.,„..n.,...| „, ,1 ,,„. ,. „„. .,.,|.,„.„i,. ^,„i„, .|i.-...m.,'...,| 

.«rl,.,Mat..l,..unn« ,„.k.. W I,..,, .1,.. .ari,,,,.,,,.. „,.. nim.,.! ,„t in ,|,., ..,.„..,,. .1... 
... m,.l,t.. n.nv Ion.., ,., „n.,l. ..- „ ,|.ir.| „r „ h..lf ..f ... n-k. < •o.„i,|..Ml.l. 
^ mluto «n.l La.,.- plj,K.o.ltt-,, wtTc „l.., U„uu-,\ i,. -,„..o 1,..,|.. S„..h nun. r,.l,i.. 

.« I ol,. ,„■ ..o„t,...,. ab,.,.t 3,mm ,ar.k A ,...r1i..! .xplanati,,,, „f ,|,.. „....,.„„., 
h.. .nfrusity ., „«„... 1,. bt, f..,...,l i„ ,1... ,,r.,l,„|.|,. f„,., th,.t ,1... «r.,„o,li„r,... 

lu-i l..n..«th tb..e .M.trr..,,, ,.,„l at a .li-fu f .•,M,.i.l,.raMv l.«. tl.,.„ :;.»h. 

yoMs iliiwiiwanl. 

„, '''**■" " '"""^ "^ »J"' ''••"^' l"^"" «..r. 11...^...! at tl,.. |>..w,|„.x trail 

The.c t.. 1... t>,, .,f ,|,.. |„va. ,.f th.. . x r,.hi,. .,.,„. wlur... a- a r„l.. 

they l.avo 1,, .n „,i..t,.|y ,.hanK..,| ,„ tin, -.^rai I .„■ „...,li„„. »,rai....,|, l,i«hlv 

H.H.Ie l,or,.l,l..,.,l.. «..|,„„ (;„,,„ hornl,l..,„ „.| .,„art/ arc th. ,,rM,.i,.al oo.,.- 

ponontH: «r..iMN „f ..a.-lH.naf... a, ,|„|,.,„,„.. a„.| a littl- l,a-i. ..lairi,. 
olav are piv«.iit in l.otli tliin w'ctii.iiv 

Tlio phylliti.. ..J.Ut, „f th,. \f.,„k f„n,.ati„M |,av,. I,....„ ,i„„a]lv 
ph.HP.| |,v the luthohth... intrusion. F.,r a .li,ia.„v „i ,, half,- or n.-r. 
outwar.1 fr-.m tlw ,.rn„it... th,*,- ro.'k. have he,.ri entiverte,! i„tn a ..-hLto,,- 
hornfel. .•.,„i,.,m..1 of q„„rt/. l,i.,tit,.. ^illi,„at,it... a„,| r.,1 K..rn..t 
alot.^' with ,„uc|> uiitwiniied fel.Npar. a|.pan ntly all ..rllaH.|,.-,.. The ln„*r„vil.' 
foiN ..,th..r lie in the plane „f ..hi^t.wity „r ov.ur with ran.lum orientati,,,- 
thn.ut'h the ruek. In the !att.-r ..a-e th.v a.v ,|,ai.tfl.-. ,„rintf f-o:,, (| :. 
mm. t„ j.n ,„ni. in .liameter an<l are in ph..r„„T.v,ti,- relation to other eon-ti- 
ti.cnt... Ihe -illinianite has th.^ n-iial development in ne,.,ll,.s whjeh are oft,,, 
aggregated in tuft- or >l.eave8 very ,ons,,i,.nons ,.nder the miero^.-ope. Th, 
orthoela^^e Bfams show a ttmh-n.-y t" a^gnvate along with -o,n.. grain, ,.f 
quarto „, len,.>, ! ,ntn. to :.' ,nm. l,u-.g. the... len.e. lv,„g i,, ,h., plan,. „f 

gehiMosily. Ihe ahiin.lan.-e of the orthoela^e in ,onie „f the h, imen* sngg..,|- 

that Its !,ubston.e has 1 e. n intro.ln.v.l from the inagm... hi.t thin is not eerlain 
The garnet is pale red,li*h to nearly eolonrIe-« in thin s.^,.n nn.l ha? the 
habit of the mineral in I'dilaet-zone'-. 

On th,. top of the t;,(IO<)-f„ot ri.lge whi,-h overlook* S„n„„it ereek on th- 
north and runs -astwar,! dlreetly f,,„n the p,.aks at the welter., h.'ad of ,|,. 
creek, a thick sene. of ferrnginons s,.hi-<ts are expose.] for a di-tanee of a 
aieasnre,! along the ridge. These sehists ,lip i.n.ler the \V,,lf ^rit an,l .pv.rli, 
the 200-loot bed ,,f hreecia-eonglomerat.. ..t t.he top of the Iren.. voh-nni,. form.- 
tion. There is little ,Io„bt that th.-M. f,.riiigino„s s..hi-t- an- the niii..h nieti- 
mondlosed e.inivul,.nt.i of the r....k- of the Monk fonnation. K,„ir tvin. s,m.,m- 
mens were eolleeted at p<,int.s nhont l..--. milt^s from the ..onta.t of the Uavonno 
granite. All of them have Icen mi<.roscnpipally ..xamine.l and prov,. i. h,.|, in- 
to the one six^eies of stflnrolite-sdii,!. The sta.irolitcs f„rni s.,hi.lio,„..rphl.. 
crystal, and anh.>,lra of all size- np to 1.". nun. i,, |..n«th. In tran.o.itt- I li..|,t 
they are iiMially of a strong v.-llow .olour. As „snal. .piarf/ in,.|„-i,.„- are 

li-'i Vi."t-^^*^.*^.'jpt«3'' 



Tn:i'\ur\if:\T or viii: imkhior 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

vcr.v mnnoro,,.. m, ,1,.,, l,„n,lr..,l. „f ,„i,n,f,. .-Lnr l-n-,.. or ,lr,.pl..N of fl,at 

tion of tl,e inWns,,,,,, ,pp,,,,, ,„ i,,,,,,,,,,. ,|„„ „ ' 

.rams ..,,,„po.H„- ,ho s.^lns, l.of.n. it was thonnally n,o,anK,rpl,o,o,l , o J , 
te crv.tals prow ,p, i„ ,l,o ,.,„.,, witl,„„t oansiufr .noollani-al .lis ..r a ". 
of the pro-ex.s „,. „.|,i,„.,, -„,„.,„r<.. SoriHti,- ,„„.,.ovi,o.,i,e an L t/ 
form , ,e >„at,-,x „, .l,i.l, ,'„. al.„n,]a.„ -.aurolito lio. Tl ... n'kt ' 

^taurol,,,. „. ,1,0 pr„m,.l „:as. Hn.l full analogy i„ ,he rooks ill ,. r-Uo I , 
hpuros ,ss a,ul SO of ]{osc„I,„s..l,-. Klo.nonto .lor OoMoinslohro. llos p ,." 
.\bun,la„t tw,nno.l ..rystals of ,li.s,l„.no. whioh .lo not show inolnsions of ,he 
Kromid-mass oft.-n a<'oomp.-M.- ,1„. ,,aurnli„.s. 

Evon from ,1 

10 lorofTiiii 

• n< 


I'atholitli, it i< .-Icar that t,l 

lotion was for.-. -^pondinply pnw.rfu'l. 'I'o tlio fu't 

10 <..\otn(irpliii. 

It of tlio 0. 

iitaci action of tli.' Bii 

iir i- uniisna 

Ily 1 

'i-'-'nil and Ihal tli. 



The (lifforont hcN wli 

iMlj;li Mndy of til 

Pl.olopirt whn p 


I1-. mtcr.stinnr r.?siilt< may ho pn,ini.-,l. 

loli have l:o«.|i ait.-i..,! should ho id 

> as to dotomiino tho ^^■\u,l■ yaimit ,.f ..haiif.- 

if oaol 

oh, and tn Hiid I'lo n-l 

dioritc. Th 

llinll nf til 

I's involvod i 
haiific- to di~ti 

ntitiod and foll,,«od. 

wcrk would oiitail flio oxprnditiirc of 

lo iiiitaii 
from tl 

lo ^raiio- 

.■nuld 1).. dovotol to tho stiiilv d 

aro Very rou 

-di: tl 

niuc-li inon. tin 


l.ut tl 

ic r..-ult Would 

10 work must, in any oa-o, bo I 

holt s 




lo inountaius 

II ply 

ropay tho < 





SVIKI.r.lll.. STOCKS o\ Tin: ipimdk. 
On ,1,0 mail. wa„.r-paitii.p of tho raiifro aiul just south of tho l),.wdnov 
tr.,;l a Mian, o sto,.k outtiuK tho middh. nionihoi-s of tho „pturi.,.d Suuni'it 
>..nos. iswoll ..x,..od. I,. ,r ul-plan t'lis body is an .dlipL with a Z I 

I oa.*ilj studied '''' '""""■"-'"■'"■'' •'"^■•°^« <•'« Howdncy trail, whonj tho rook 

/V/n-</.«„/,,,.- This „,.a„i,„ i, mo.linm-Krain,.d. of a li^lit pinkish-Krav (int 

id," :tH""" '" ,:'^"-'^-"'?"-' --titnonts. (JuarL miorop-.thi ' 
orthmlasc. a httle m,o,-oclino, and oon^idorable oliRoelaso. Ah An with a 
Z it ^"'"'r'':"^*^' '""-"">^ "f ^-'tito aro tho ossontials: titani o. .i a^ t and z,r..o„ aro present. Prin.ary musoovito is aooossorv a „ 
s often reprnlarly nite,-;.rown with the hiotit.. Alo„;r th,. wo-ton, oon,a..t a{ 
the larger stock the mn-oovite beoonies so important that tho ro,.k ,m,v ho 
■ ailed a two-m,oa graiMt.": if.s structure in this oonta,.t zone tends to tho pauidio- 
morpln. The avo.a.o s,..oifie gravity of four fresh spe-in,..,,- of the";.!'!,; 

nri'oin nr iin: « ////,/ \si iiosumi:, 



A ivpical 

I', tlic I{i..ii\vji] iiictl 

spcriiiii.n fr..iii \\n< -ti.-k 

ic.l iiiiii t!u' fell 

VVM- <tililli-.l .iU.llllit;llivflv .i.-.-,,i-,i;,,: 

'ii-litiioiit< \v. Ti' I'ninid : 

owih^- uciiilit |..T.riitii:ri~ of 111,- .litr, 




OcllflT,,!!- ol tl.d.l.iM. ....... ■')!'i! 





Apiititp ,111(1 zin 


^1'- K'-. 


Thp 1 

ii-ii iiiii-l fnnri jImiiii 7."i |ii r n nt :<\ 

the pi 

arti'-r -toi-k 1- -iirruuiidiil l.v .\u Iricfiiihir frinj;.- ..f ~l 

'1110 of which foll.Av the tninl 

i-Tits. A tliiely c.Niiisd -"d-f 

•t iiiii-tor j..iiit- 

rom.' iipophv 

itittiiiji: the Wolf j;iif on tl 
trail, is prohnhly nn otT-lmot 

•t ilikc (ijiiip|Hi|i of 

ill the iiiv;ii|o.| ipiiirtziti'- uii.i 

jwrphyrilir lliolit(-^■l■:lllit. 

ir .■^uiuniif :ilMMit l.;;o() ya-.N north of tho ]»,-u-,l 

p=t with roiiMi-kiihl 

■I Illr -n 

-traifrlitiii'S-. anj .• 

two inih's oviT tlu' inoiintaiii >li 

nil' iiiat.'iiia. 
ai. 1m- f,,ll, 

Thi. ,1 


iki' r\u\< ca-f anW 

We'll «it'i nil' I'vc for III 

-troiiff viTlical tiirii^l-fault wli 

ii'h i.-i iiiarki'ii mi tl 

s('i'iii-< to lie in til,' prol, 

iiliahoii III 

It' map. 

Ml' 111 an uinnuallv 

l.l-oa.l -h. 

A Mriat iiiiiiilior of otluT dik^ 
iirring on Hie ,.a-teni iiiiil -outhorn Mil.- of tli.. larger stock, wli,'.-,' tin 

orniaiioii- aro Iri'inciidoii-ly shatlori'il for ili 

'f the .Monk ami Wolf f 

tam-os varyiiifr troin 0.(; mile to 1-,') 

torni and relations of ~tock and shat 

lilcs. ! ijriirc L'H illiistrat<'s 

hroador tiiaii tho .~tock it-olf. It 


I'll on tho soiitl 

nil' f-'oiicrnl 

loasl i-i a 

tlio various invaded f 

i~ aiiparint in ih,' tijriire that llie 1,; 


eU of 

-triko. 'jhe si 

orinalioii- are not -erion-ly disturhed from tin 

lath'rinjj- has liieall.\ hr. 

ip eaeli tormatii 

ir I'emoiial 
n mlo a \ a-l 

iininhor of fragments, hut iieithi r llie .Monk M-'iist hand, tli.' Wolf ^r,it 1, 

i>r tho Dew 

if th. 

ney i|iiart/.ito 1 

1- h, 


Ml ilriveii on 

I of al 

erod portions lyinjr to north and -onih of tl 

alijriinient with tho 


main stoek has evidontly replaced 

c inlru-ion- 


le i;i'aniti 

lero is no hint in tho tield-relatioii- ihat tl 

qnal voliiine of lli,- -,.,|i 

ir • chonolithie ' order and tims d 

mittod of the • hydrostal 

till' inlrn-iiiM i< of lie 
lie to ,1 n:ere parting; ..f the str;ila which pi 

that tho >>rai 

le, injection iiiio tl 

ute was not intruded after il 

le i>|M'lilli, 

le maiiiier 

demonstrated hy the execod 

r -o |irini 

if ,1 laceol 

h'd. The i,. 

inyly -tl'olji; colli: 

iiiel;ini,,r|ilii-ni in iln 

II I i~ tiirtlier 


Cimiarl Mi'tiiiii.orii!nsm. ~Tiu< 

throughout tlio shatter-zone to tl 

inior|ihic acii.,n is sif,'iially illii>li'ate 

-M.) F. 

'r sijiiare niilo~ together the .Monk j.hylliii's 1 

lo sonlli,a-t o| the -t^.ck. ( I-'ijrures l'O ami 

ia\e. Ill that zi'iii 


itF.i'.\itiMh:\i or riir. imlriou 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

converjod into greeni.l. pn,y,,un.«n.i,„.,|. l,.,r„Msy r.-.ks „f ,„ite diFcr- 

ciit habit and oorapogition. (IMate •>: \ ) 

(P 2 .T ar^Lco".^' ""'""• '"■"■""^' «"^"'-''-^ «■>•" tourmalin., 
types ot rock: mu-xovito ,,van tc-onirty <,.!■;► i- •. k i'uim i|jiii 

auart7 ^I'liit n^wr .'''■;''"" ''"•'"'^ ■^••'"-t. ''ordiento-mn^^'oviti-l, otit.- 
r ordi rit ' ''"^■7"';'""';''"'^"'-'^"'""='l'>"^-"'"^''Ovito-l,iotitc-o,nrt^ schi.t 

t^on Tho r'"r" '•■ "' ■""''^"' '""^ ■'^''''"" ''"''^ f'O'" «">• oi 'the thin se.- 
L':. J'^'^ "I"-''"l l'rorer,K.s of all thc.o n.inorals aro of them .s d, .■ 
^S' not" 1 ". ''";:'"'' •"'•'""''' '•*■ '^'^-^-Pl'v; their' dotail.o..i;,,„ 
n«ed not l,„rden hi. report and i. o„,itto,|. An exceptional, non-n.ieneeon 
ho ntes, '•om,„,sed o «rc.n horn..le,.do, ,„ar,., epidote. and zoi.ite wi, , 
imie n ar. pn.bably repro-ont. , g.vatly n,otan,o,piK.ed dolon.itie .p,ar,- 

The gritty roek. of the Monk and Wolf formations have been l,n, 
httle altered, thonph the onee-arj^illaeeons eement of the oonslomerates n 
Dewdnej- onnat.on ha. l.en .v,n,pletely reerystalliml. with the ineration of 
nnnh ,.onl,er,te, .dinnanito. nuis-ovite. and hiotito. Mieroperthite is pre en t i. 

m',«;n.r'''Thi'''''"- "'" "r"'"" " ''"^" '""■" '" >'""■ ■''-<'•-> ™ > 

magma. Ih.s nnnoral also oeenr. i„ the mek. of th.. Bavonne hatholitl, 
wi:;:;^'- a ;^-l'>l-.'nt in ,1. phymte. at A.u.tney monntai^. ^^ 
«here a«an ,t has l,een transferre.l from an alkaline m.,gma is anoti ; 
example ot f.e sp-eial ea.e with which this particular feld^tuc l„b t 
migrate. „,t. contact aureole.* Two .pe,.imen. of the Dew.lnev ,,, 
taken Iron, a pomt about .TOO feet from the granite are very rich in ic L 
perth.te soda-orthoclase, and a fel-ispar which is almost certainly anortlo- 

so^^c,rta,n. >,n..e ^ra.ns of m>croperth,te occnr in the unmetamorphosf.l quart- 

On the other hand, the composition of the intrusive ha. iH^cn affected bv 
he .ncorporat.on of material fron. tlie walls. The granite of the larger o'k 
IS abundantly charge-! with fragment, of quartzite. schi.t. and conXmer. 
In many cases these .how „o direct evldenn.^ of having lo^t substance b.": 

rof""„ T '""''"" 'T "" '"'■'"'•''^ ""^"^^ "^ conglomerate afford con hi • 

roof, that even m the nuigmatic period in.mediately preceding ^olidifica i , 

tlie n:agma v.-a. able to absorb such material "'xHt,. atio„. 

•R. A. Daly. Bull, 209. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1903, p. 34. 

Tm veil. ii-|,. ifts. 


RKfoin ,,r THE can.,' ASTftnsoMi:/} 



' •. \» • • • . ■ A A A A A A . - _ -T' , J . . . . 

■;• • • • 
• • • 
> • •• 


. .-^. •■••••••iWir 

■ • • 1 •^' »»wV ••••••• •^ 

.tr. .-t*^* ••••••«, 

• .X" • . . ••••••• • y > • 


'. Uj 


a . 
a. ; 



i , ■ 

Uj : 

O ■ 

Statute Miles 

tin- sti>cka is illustrated. "' i "'.iJier d.itM. I he iToss-cnttinsr Haticm .,f 






• V.V.V-V • • • • • •••••••»» •• »-vv .- 

■ '. ?. • • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••««■•' 


iiKiwRTMUM or Tin: iMiition 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 
On tho n,aiM ri, nu.sso, of .'o.mloin.TMt,. wo,.. foun 1 in ■, wi,Io 

.MO the ro,.k , hsBolvcl out ti.o .oment in l.r... .,„,.„„,». „m,1 1.,, thus n.,r 
■ Ml.v thnrouphly .■npr.v.nato.l ,l,e ....ndom.rato wi,l, ,rani,i,- nu..,.-,.! b,„ .„ 

...... .-™u.l ,n„ny o the Ur„, .r.zi.o ,.,,,,,.. .In.-,. Mill n!;: , U ,• 

■« ■ M.It.l,v ,.no]o.ccl n, .rani.o. Tho ,„ w„. ..i.l.n.Iv „,.r. soi„l,l.. 

"I .1„. M,;;rn,M ,l„u, ,ver.. the q,u.rtnt,. p..M.l... ., ..„„,.1„m„„ ,„ I,.. .,,p,,,,.,| 
'n.liT ,:.;";. ;^'"V'"^!'- '-tero^encou. .v.n.nt Iuh a l.wor fusion;;.- 

nor. I'r "'"' P^"""^' « "«<"- -lntion-,.oi„t of ton>,H.n-.lur.Mhan 

'l,t mon. In. hlv m h,.,„us This partial absorption of tho oonplon.orate 

. u „ .,11,.„ ,.f ,1„. s„.p..„s,o„ of tho l,to..k, au,l pohhlo.. At an oarlior .orio,]. 

« . '1- .^.";ln..' ua. 1..S. „lvau-o<l. tho ,p,ar,.i,o p.,!,!,].. thou.solvo, liko tho 

'•'"„"";'""■ -'1 -l-.,-,. fonna,;,., 1,1 ,,„vo !...,.„ ,li...lvo,]. K,„. 

au hi ; hi "■;,'■ 'T ■" '■'"'""" ^^'''- ''" "''^^''^''"" "f ^--^'■ 

.ln..,lK ,iou,ou-tral,l,. ,.u , „■ uuuu .outao,.. |,nt i, is „t loa-t po^.ihlo that 

. ua.rat.- no In.,, tho .oriri,!,- an.l fohlspathi,. o.untvy-rook <\\. 
-K.-l U Xhv uiain l„„|.v .,f ,„airuu, i„ a lato -la-o „f it. hi-tory. 

"wM dt ivT H ' 1 r ~'""'""^ "' ""^ '""^"^ motan,orpho.o,1 .chi<„ 

Its ..•.n„.rnlogi,.al .onvpn.i.i,,,, .lifTers wirloly from that nf tho .took urauito 
I Me .Innnnant o-..ntial is aujosiuo foWspar. near Ah An ooonrrir in 
rnnarkahly uhou.orphi,.. twiuuo.l crystals avora.iup 1 „,n,. i , dianuto Zrt" 

mm. t„ 4 nuu. ,n is an abundant ossontial. Tho aooossorics inol ,]o nia.not,t.>. npati.o. ^iroon. and nu.scovito. Tho n.ioa/ are , , I 
r pularly n,„n. nith comn,on ba.,1 piano. They show -on,o to don v to 
lustor u, tl^ rook and o.specially .. .-. ■ ^ tho nu.soovito is v: ,Jk 

.;,n, e fro-h. .Not a trace of alkaline feldspar was f„und, though' ho le tc 
tion of any sii.di w„uld not be diftiouh in this ease. 

A MMantitative estimate of the composition was nuide bv the TJosiwd 
.nchod A h,gh degree of accuracy was i„.pos-ible on accou, t o tl W 
.hape. the m.cas. Rough as it is. the ostin.ate servr« to - " v tw witlv 

tzTM^.^r'' '' ''""' ''■ ''-''■ -"• ^ *'- -^^- Tho pr;.:;-:;- 

h-i:i'i,i;i ,,i nil > inn \.^i un\,.u,,i; 




Andp-iiiii'. . 

Biotite '. 

Mn«co\iti>.. .. . 


Otlicr jucc^Mti !*• 



. to.u 



"':;"''"'^"'"' 'i"'>'n''iii.-..„ ,i,i„„ ,i,j,,,i„. .,,„„„^,,, , , 


M,0 .. .. 
Feb.. .. 
MgO,. .. 
CaO.. .. 
\a,0.. .. 

\\ ..!,., , ,1, 


4 1' 


-|>ri-llllill- |, 


i- :> iii!i-.'..vih'-l,i\ir- 

I'lio spocitlc >>r;ivil,v of 
iiig qunrtz ilioritc. 

tion to tlie visible =izo of thr- hZ T T , ""^"^'""^ '-^ ""' of ..11 ,,ro„or- 

n.i,.rai,„i.. ,,an... o. i„ ::;,;;vi:.!:;:i:;;i:i T> i::::ui::rtzf T' 

satellite, of tho IJayonnc l,.Khnli,l,. ,Fi. oT . , . or ,' /? l''''"^' 

quite un.r,.sl,...i a„,l out tl.o „pt,.n,e.l Sun.n.irU ^ of , i2 t' H o" ""'; 


to de,ermi„e tl.,. ,io„«itv of t . a rcrv , ; ' ,"■''"' ""■' '" ^ •^"^'"'i"" 
Mow the roof of this part oi Z haLimr' ' li ZSl^rr'' 1/'"' 
detonnine the .lensi' / of th.. -rn.ito orv.f.Hi.. 1 „ ^tock wo al.lo to 

from the hatholith Ti; . ■ r-..r , ■•'"'" "'" ""'^ "^ "'' °'^^''«°' Ill, a\,r...-,. -)„■,■,(..• -ravitie^ arp, respectivfly, O-Tr.? 


in:i'Mn\n.\r nr nn: nihRioR 

^ 2 GEORGE V. A. 1912 





■ i i Miiej 

Horizontal ond Vtff.col Scale* 

Kmihk 22.-1) 

'."t.n'-.ialSrS.lfih!**''"" ^'"■"'■"^ -'"'- "' "- - - -«-K-.f N.l.,„ Kan... 

hinrtStfalW tV""'"" "'"""!: .^"^■■'"''^■•^ "•^i"''"'-"- «^" the other 


in mm ,,i nii: , nnr \^i i.;,s„Mi.ii 



'"••"N of ,,„„.,.i,..' I ..h :,,:;''',;:;:' v'l r- ''"■'- ■""• -•"••••'■'^ "- 

-^..■.■i..iiy ,1,.. ..,,i,„. ,,„,„ ,„„,..,,i:' ,;',;;' '"■ -— •. ti,.... x..„„ii,h.. 

"• "'"■'"l""t an.lalM.if.. i,, .„„„ ',," , " " '' "'■•^"•" rphMn, „,. ,.,.M..r.t,„„ 

a«jrreg:«t*, uhi..), ,„oi,l,. ,|„, r,„i i„ '.Hkl,'; 1 '"."■' "' 'l"-""^''"- ^""1 I'i'-i'" in 

;;:::=;:::"' -""'^ - ■-'"-:•- -'"no,.^-';/-;, •;;;;::-;,;;; 

'l'".'l.-iMo„ „s ,o wl„.tl.,.p „r „.., ,' n I'r i? "'"''•;'"•'" ''" »•" '-"^-.r 

-"^to.i,.v. Tho o.lH... an,l larK- n , T;;./^'""", "'"/"■^ "^ ''*'''"'>'^ - 

relut,o,w. Tl,e wi.ltl. „f ,l,i. |„„,., ;, ,. I. ,1 ': "'r'""'-^' "•"-".■'tine 

I.OM of th.. ,|....p .nn.v,,,, „f I.,wt - . .k V" ';'"'";'■ '''''■"""' "^ "'^ '••""''va- 

''^'-t r.. „f ,l„. ...,li„,.,,.arv ,.„v..r U tl . i, l""!- : ""'''' *■:'""■'■« " f""' ""'"'""'i 

;'";1 ;'-;. •■- -"■^' w,;,„,, iLilLnl'' :^:i7t;'''*''-''^'''^'-''^'-'^ 

liiitliolitlu.' riiiH-i, I'liiiiii I,, t,,rm ,,ric r,,|,tliiii.n,, 

A rilliull iiitriisinji ,,f t|„. 1,^, I I. 

1.">H with «l,i..h thi. whole Rn,„„ „f .rM,it. , "V''' l^'V '"''''"'•'' *■"^"'^'- 

^.".1 iU ,„t.Hit.>. is known to ,„L .,;,•>•' !'' '■ "^'- "■ "^'"'"'i"' 

1.0 .■,u,h,.r ,ii„.„-...i i„ , f„„„,,,^ -„;;;;;;:;;,,' '"'■• ■" "'••- --—^ -n 

"I MvMI Mill. .■.T,,, K. 

.>-H.S;;; ;';Vh:i;::;;;;;;;;i;;,;~ p.... .„ ,„. ,h,. ..".1 lyin*, nl>,:o., whollv o,, tho ^oM.TiiTT'jr'-T '■'■'^''"^<-— |.'"re 
-took is c^„.p<„e.i or a n,..,li,„„ ,„ , „• • ^^ , u I " -"''"'^" "^■"- '^''i" 

'••■nnin. tho .,„ali .,„•„„•, l.^Zllj^Tr'^l'^rt'^ ""'■ "'"' ''-"•■"' scnorally morn woa.ho''. ,i ' T '" ■"'"""•' ^'"'■^•' 

'lie Lo.,t oroek an,l ni ! "'.:,«'^" "'" ''.^ « ^<> ro.Lli.h tin, than 

..nrtly ,h,o to ,ho fa,.t .h L-R l' ,, '"" '""-""r "•-""-n.^ otf,.,-, may l,o 
•■."d -ru-hod ,han ,ho ,,,!.;,."',? '''■''"''';'■ l^. '"■'■"—•'>'..- -fain..,! 
'1-.^ produoe-l at many poin-: i„ tho ': ;;.k ■ n'''^""'.'' -''-'■-'v ha. h,,.,, 

prononnord noar the -nthoanoi-n o . .,, Z „ T''^"" ""■""""•'" '^ ' ' 

Salmon rivor. For a di.tan.^ n V)^ fol ' , " 7""."-.-- "f I.-, orook and 

'labradonto Ah. An, ,o la:in£ol ::"!:";„ ^^ j;;:^- ''^ -';,. r-i-io...... 

a,o. and ahnndant mn.oovit. foil. Tin pla o ', • tl T^' -^''T °^""^- 
. ane, of sohistosity and are of niotamor h ^ ",. ' Tl 'n-r^t '"■ '" t 
t .e mn,oov,to-hoarin.. „„art. .liorifo whioh f„rn,: ho n , ' "" """'""^ 

>hattpr-zone abont the snmmit stock.. 

'ny apophy*o.= in tl 



IttfiHIMtSl III rut: IMI.UInh- 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1012 
Tliis^nmir- <,l„. 1,,,. tl,.r,„.,ll.v ,M.|,.r|, .1 i,. ,,„.„„v r.«k n tin 

I MM .,t„.„* ,.f two M"-.l...t.s o..II..<.t...|. ,.,... at tl... ..>,„|,w,-t..,„ -onta-t ll„ 

'^ "'• "': " •";."" ';';"" '•'"^ f-' ^r..„, , .,„.„., ,„,„. ,,,„„,.,, ,,; , ;,, , 

Bunk..r 11,1 mm.. ,l,o nn,l„l,Mit.. -..hist U .„.m,..,„|y ..n„M,,l,.,l nn.l i. ..,„ I. 
sunk l"ir tK'c-tiiillnijr (.rr. I{hii( Mmn/.imi,:. 
m. . th.. I ,.n.I IM)n.,ll,. ...|„-t h ..„t l,.v „ .„,„I1 „.„.k „f ,.!„,„„!,■ r.H-k. ,vlu, I 

i« :;;";;;; «^;' !-"<■"! ;»f-"V"""-''i-. - -i -.„;,. ,i,.. k..,,.; i, ;,; 

rook • ! """ "r"""" ^°'''' "■'•"^"'i»» ■•'<' .V'«M. in .lia.notor. T)>. 

rook H M.|at,v..|v ,,r„„o ,„ ,|,sintoirratio„ ..,,,,1 if l,a. wratLr...! fn-lv int„ 1, ,■•, 
».o„.k.r,v ,.,„.-..., ...... f,„nw hav.. l...., ,.,.,.,i,„..,l l.v ,.xf„lia,i„n a ,1 ' J 

con r... or,:,. „n .i,.i„r hl.ok. Hy „,.■ ..„..r„,.,i.. i,.,n,-i„., ,1,.. .^i: . ^ , 

rock. Ih,. ..o„t,u-t annol. ,. a t.w,.,; f...... i„ wi,l,l,; i, 1„„ „.„ ,,..,, 

sti)ilii>(| iiiiornsiopicali.v. 

The iKMootis ro,.k i. ,iark K>o...,i.|,.>rra.v an.l ratla-r .■oar^.-KnuM..! It i 
n.os„ve and ,|n,t.. lUHr,,. 1. vv iti. tl.o ,n,«i,l.,l ov... a„^it... Motito an.l M.\ 

- i. .?V ' :;."■'■;"/>•'""• '•■"" "--- "f varvin^ Ln^rh, „„ to tha, 

^. . n.,u or « nun. I l,o l>,ot,t.> ,Hv„r. in hntrou. Mark, ofto,, i,ii„„,orni,i^ 

o,s wlu,.h .nay ho 2 n.„,. or in .liam.... h,.t av,.ra„. aho„t Ofl 

n.t«.vn tW fon.u. ...s..nt,al. th.. f..!.i.„a, fo„,„ „ kin.i of nun,.,- 

o, n<l,v,.l„nl., „npr .". n.n,. in .lianKt.T. Many ..f ,h.. larger or .tal- 

ifiis" '" "" ' ""'"'" "'""'' '"■'■ """■'""•" '"•'■"'"'" "'"•" t'"' ■•'"•'> 

IJmlor th.. nu,.ros.„,H> the an^ito show, tho ,h.avnff„s tho very palo pn. ,. 
ol.m«t ooIo„r.*< ,„,t. .louhlo r..fra,.tion. an.l oxtin,.,ion an^lo, of a HotJih' 
One oryMal ,n a tl,in ^tion „ narrow int.>rn,pt,.,l tnantlo oir ,' 

f ah.orpt,on. Iho f.Mspar helo,^.. to th,. alkalin.- an,! su,la-limo iro,,,,- 
«ln,l are ropre,se„t<M ,n n.-arly eqnal vmportion.. The larper, sohilleri/i ,.. 
n> tvnlnals l,ave tie optieal pro.x.rti... of ,o,hvo,.tho,.lase a,'l mio;!: '; t," 
Ihe .ame erystal nften has the l,o,noffenrous strueture of i,. 
one part an.l the familiar mu-ro,K.rthitic interprowth irn-Tularly ,l..vehi,„.| 


i:.r':.Lr'v,:':;:;::;,,:'::;:r.:;;i:'-. !:■'■■'-'-' - ^ 

«-" -f rt.'^ ■---■• '"n.l;T :;:;';• ';';!:::,; ;;•";; ' ■ ; 

f„u c ■> "Ki'H. Ill , •,,111, „„, lion, nliid- III . f,.l,l,n,,r t il, i . • 

av..r„„i ',,,,,,:,/;,.:;;/';;••'''■; '''-.v« m r..|,.,iv..|.v .,i.„ ,.,,.,,.. 

to rh.. <„rl-l„i,| ,.i„I iill.i, , 'J I ;■■ '"■.' """""'■ '"'• "■■-■nlin.' 

p'n^ I..-.- i- 1,:!;: : : :;" 'z: ^'i 7'T'''"-' ' '■/•■'' '•'■- 

found. The -tni,.|,i,... iV , r ^"^"; ."""'-"""1 ffniin. .f ,„i„„, .,„. „,.„ 

-" ^- .-.,1!;:;;;:!,;:;',;;:;^'""" "'"""^ '•'""•■= "'-'-'"-- "• 

Afr.C„ni,or-.niuily,i-,.f,if,..,i., i„„ „ , x,, ,;, , ^^ ,.,^,,^^ ^ 

•'""'"*"'« »'■ S„l,„„n /.';,.,.,■ M, ,„:,,„;>,■ 
£i.''t \|,,| 

TiO) .-,fl(i« .<^^^ 

*"'•». I«!>I Wii! 

f/;: . •. in oil 

M"><} ti i: IIS*, 

M«9 '.. "' "rt-" 

CaO .V.'Kt .|:tN 

SrO «-2« .1(7 

B»0 ;; OS ^Hl| 

Nai<> -'■•! .iNii 

K,(t 289 .1117 

H,0 at I10°C.. It:. .(u: 

HO nbovo IIO'^C H 

P:0 ;■_' in<i 

91 .IKIfi 

IW 15 
SP- tJ>- 


I'll '•ll^-lllill,.,l ll,,l„l j,. 


Albite ". , 26-l.'l 

Nephelitc '.. in" 

Anorthite t.-jr, 

Diopside ". 3<) I'l-j 

Olivinp ] i;i..i;.> 

Ilmenite lIlTt 

Magnetit.' ," . .' I'i;; 

Apiititp 2.,V, 

Water l-Sii 

' ■ • h:n 

2.'i;i— vol. ii— 2(1 


hf:vMiiMy\i nt inr i\rf:RioK 

2 QEORQE V, A 191? 
Th*- iiitxlf iltiKiwnl mctli.iH) i* A\,\>r iniiit, 'v: 

AlkiihiK- fi'liiapar i»mi|» irtlH^ I«-«-i . i.i a 

l.abriulorit.. i, 

ni.'.t.- :...■■..■. ^i 

Mdirt,..t,t, 7!| 

Alialil* '■; 

'/iidiin ■ .'. ,■■ .V .7 _'' .■_' " ■■ _■■ ■■ ■; ■■ ■■ '^ 


(Sp«MHc «,,.v,tv ,h|. .i!„.,.,l |,„M, „„.U. .'MO. ,1 h ,,g,,>.,„K »ith „I,„,|V.<1 

A(v„riliiiK tn III.. X..riii i|„«.it!.i,ii,,ii th.. cnleis tl,,- s..,li,„,tii.sic »iib- 
.•m.K, k.nlall..,,...,.. .,f ih.. alkuli.ul, i,. n.iifr, .■ in th« salfemaiie 
■Tdor, (.'alliir.-; l.uf -• ,> nix, v.r\ i1„m. i,, the vHli|K.fH->i,. snl.nm,' «h,„li,mn^.. 
-t tho dkiilM'..!,! ,ir, n..,ln.... in tl.r .lo-alunc „nl<r. ( A<v.,nlinj^ 

To the. ..Idor (•liisMiMiiti..n the ro, k i, .Ai.lfntly a lv|.ir„l (ha,i,.; aimit.-l.ii.titf 


In the S.lkirk n, -y-ion, ninny of tlic fonnatinns oMrr than th.- 
h.-.iand v..I..unic8 are .ut hy lamprophyri.' dik.'s and thin mIIs whi.O. an- 
-otn.timM V. ry abundant. Hoth sill, ai.d dikes are p.-n.rallv hiKhlv inHined 
api.ron.'h.nK th,. vertical, and ar,. h-nlios „f .piite m.-leraU- ,i/..; wi.JthH <.f ..ith.r 
'Ilk.., ,.r «ill8 are xldoni as inin-h a- l'O fct an.l avrrntre onlv a few feet 'Ih.- 
larMcr number ..f the-e ditT.n i!t inn produets are .ninette^ ! ;t there are aKo 
representatives ,rf the keisantit.-*. .■mnpt..nit.-.. „,„, ,„linit..,, Th- dike, arr 
specially .mn.-.roi.s i„ the IVn.l D'Oreille s..hi,t,. .puirt.ite., and 

where these rooks erop „iit in th.. ,any..n of th,. I'.n.l ICOreiMe riv,.r ] .,n 

the west si.le of the C.lnn.bia. Oth.-rs ,.nt the large inasM., „f I'.-n.l D'Orrill.- 
marl.le. the \\olf grit. Ir. n.. .•on^..|..>n.rat<.. an.l ,h,ubtl..*.s other member* „f tl... 
^unimil .„.n..s. StlM „th..r, the .liffer,.nt belt. „f ro,.k in the Prie-t 
Ttiver terrane. 

The minett,-. a- the nwst abun.iant la,npr..phyr,.s in the r,.Kion hav.- 
mentt^ most fttf-mion. ()„ a<«nii,t ,.f their tin,- grain and d,.gre,. .,f alt..r- 
atiou their diag>,o,is .ner,.ly through ,ni,.ro,c.,pie ,tn.|y was not to be entir,.lv 
trust^^i. lor that r.a-on us w.-ll a* on aeeount of their i.itrinsie int-T.-st a 
number of .luinnal analyses have be,.n made of th. niiii,.Ites. With the help 
ot th,. analysos an.l rath.T numerous thin seelioiw the eoneluMon was reached 
that four 'liff,r,.nt ty,,.i< of minett,. oe.-ur more or less almndantlv in the 
Uoun.tary b,]t. The tyiH^s ar.> angite miii,.tte, mi,-a minett.. tbiotite'the onlv 
lemie es^ontial). aumte-olivine,., an<l hornbl,.nd,-nugit». minett.-. 

Por,,)njnlir Min, Min.lfr.-T\w type whi,.}. for .li.tin..tion mav be eall..! 
miM nuiiette was toun.l in the form of a three dik,.s .-ntting th,. I'end D'Oreill.- 
series near the bridge over the Pen.l I)-Or,.ill,. riv..r. The ,lik,.s run 

'<! I'tii/l lit nil I Hill i>; 

Hum, Ml K 



'rum three ti 

ix lift ill ui.lth ,in<l 

'>[^\ ihoiinh tjiiv ,irp II 
iiiiiK-ite i» II .lurk 

|.licii<,cr>>m ,,f |,i,,ti(, 

► «<MlHtl'i| uifl 

Bruy, tiiiciiriiiii.-.l. hit'lilv 

''^'."" '" '"• '■ I— «'i thr...ii,l„„it ,.l' il,i. 

lHI(?lll' lllllKltl'. 



on)Ni..ii li.v|ii.ti'mniri)li 

.il.rinlfirilc; tin 


r 'jrr>uiit> 

iiiicwooiM r.M-k imitillv f\ 


♦ r-titiiil i|iinrfz which 

.f 1 
<irii'« nro iipiititc. tit..iiili 

'!• iiiiTf ill iliuiiift»r. Thi 




nuiy hi 





,11111' n- Ml th,, 

nii'iiiry. The nit. rut 

in.iifiiititc, wi 



IV 111 tho tii.-t that 

Hiigito minott.., frotii uhi.h tl 

I'ni t.rii.lM,.t» ur> til,. 


in 111! ..f tho .•.,ll...t 

the p.vrdx.'iii' 

ll'Ti- lll»-lM|t 

11' r.i.'k ilitT.r- miiiiTiiIo)fi,Ml!v 


liM^.iirHjf" thi' iihii ,,f ,.) 

■-iMriiii, „-. i, nilli.r hinh.v iilt.n.i- 

ic iiiii'ii niiii.ttp ri pn 



<• <|iif-ti..n ihiit \m 

ii'iiiH 111 iMiiiiv'.is III ih( 

»'• tniici 

• riifiiiii 

'ii'lition: ill ni 

h iiiiKit.' .iinl ,,liv 

ir i-RM^ hut there %r 

niiy rii«i' fl 

iu> w.-r.. (il.^iit frntii t! 

.1 t).. 
fm^ to 

M>"«iti.. tTiivitv ,.i ii tvpi,.al 

KV Wcl-i- p|. 

'.-.•lit 111 hii 


■•I'l.llii. II «»< f,.,i,|,| tl, |„. ./TlM) 

IH fyii-k 111 it-i 
ii.'cissnry niiioiiiit-. 

<<lih Miii.lh 



.\ hi 


p*-.'!.--.. ilUkiitl. IllilK.ttl 

pr.ipi.rti. Ill ..f th.. laiiiprnplijri.' inf 


pif.iip lis .xpi^.,] „n |„,th .i.h 


ruMvi's U'l 


I". int. iiloiiR tl,.. ,v.ilU „f ,j„. j.p,,,! ,,., 


"lis, hi.w.vrr. tnk. tl fr 

s of th.. (■ 


III .lik.'s ill til,. |',.,i,l 

ill riv. r II 

tui lit 

111 :l lill-l'.M.t .lik 

n'iy..n. Th.. f"r.-li.-f vp, 

iMrii.-tit.rous iiiicii ...Jii^t ill U,.|t h ,,(• ,1,,. I 

.f tl 

<\gp t 

111 iirl 

K.V.K. fr 

't I{ 

.•iittiiit' l.i..tit.->piiiml„| iiiiil 

iMT t.-rriiii.. (Ill t'ii. 


1.. r..,k 

,v v.rtuiil nil, I -trik. 

till- iM'iik of Nnrtli Siiir 



lii«triiii« phi 

Kr....iii-li t.i shit..(fr 


III th 



111 tlull. iili 

rny aii.l i< purphyriti 
r.i\VM hi.iiit.. iiicuaiiriiiR :, |„",„. , 



iiMjiite iirp -II II t,i 1 

Tpliii- prisiiw i)f 

|in-iii« nuiKc t>i 

•c y.'t iiiiirc iih 



li: II. 

li:iil. to 1. 


iliiMTysts thiiii t! 

• otisiueii- 
icrox tli«' 
iiirlfss, diopKi.lio 

If inii'ii. 

prniiu,! hMiiili.iiii.irph 

■r more in length. The Kroiin.l- 

I'l.tit.. .•rv<ti,K with iil„i,„h,„t ortho..hi-, 

io-t.'riiinihir :i(rjrre«ate of 


iMiinit.. niitriti> am) 

ineriiK ["'ikilitii-al 
f'rtnl lictwecn the t'cld 

vhat k 

I loped, hut. f 

aoIiiii/e<l. while i-lijori 

Apiitit... iiiapii.tili 
pnrsi, are the i.riniary 

■e. Th.- last ..ftni cn.l.iM.^ the fenii 

little .(uartz. whi.'li 

1 H int.r- 

lope<l. liiit. rt Iiiiii.tte, th 
Nfr. (■.iiin..r"-! iiniily-.i- ni the *; 


aiTcsiiries. Th.. ..rtho.-las.. 




\* rock must ho rcpnrde.l as .iMiHu.iIIy frcsl: 

-p. .■nil. 'II 


fiom rcsult...| na follows: 

.1 nnl 

nJiistx of nii'iilc minrit, 

.SiO.. , 


A1,0 . 





CaO. . 

SrO. . 












i>h:r\i;/Mi:\T of iin: istekior 

2 GEORGE V. A 19ir' 
AiKilii^in of aitfiil, ,1 ;ii/', - '■. i-tir, : '.1. 



HO at 110°C.. . 
IT.O above 110°C 

Sp. gr 

Tlic PHliMiliited iiiirni 





Anorthitc. , 
DiopafSe.. . 
Olivine.. .. 
llmenite.. .. 








7- 18 



■!<• siibriiim-. II •■'. 
'nlrr. niTiiiiin;!!'. 

Ill till' .\..riii ilHssiHcatii.M tin- rook oiiter.-i tlio soili|„)tii 
zonoso, of tlie ilnnialknlic rany. inoiizoiia-<. in tlio dosiilan,. 

ifonthlendr-a,„jilc Min,'lb:—\ allio.1 tvpo of ii inott,' ,1,- 

tinginsl.ed, however, b.v a notable ami essential proportion of iiombleiHle an, 

the phenoer.vsts, oc.nirs as a tea-foot .like oul.Toppinfr on the western bank , • 
the ( olumbia river, a few hundred feet south of the Boimdarv lin,' Tbo,,..: 
oecurring just beyond tlie limit of the Selkirk system this dike mav iK>-i 1 
dfticnbed here. Itb relations are shown in Figure 2.'!. Huge dike-like mas-e. . 
nn uncrushed, ,fresh J)iotite-liornl,lende trranite porphvrv eiit tlio 
crumple,! Peml IVOreille ph.vllites ami one of the porphyry masses i- itself .•iit i.v 
the dike in question, whi.-h is ten feet wide and strikes N. 10' F uith •! dip . • 
about T.V^ to the eastward. It truneates a ^even iii.-h dike of aiiyilo "nnnet!. 
cutting the phyllite. as sluiHn in the tiKiiri'. 

The dike of hornblonde-auirite miiiette shows a very marked cbillinfr al 

both walls. Its main mass is composed of a dark greenish-grav to dark i-l 
Ki-ay, hne-grained rock, maeroscopioally showing occasional pbeno.rvsij,. u,\h ■ 
biotite np to -2 mm. in diameter and many minute prisms of aiiKitc and ur., • 
hornblende varying from 0.5 mm. or le^s to 1 mm. in length. Tlic-e tin, 
Icnuc minerals arc embed.le.l in a v.rv tine -grained paste of doubtless sodifer.-:- 
orthoclase and oligochise (in about e.|ual proportions) aeeompanied bv abundai.t 

titanite, apatite, interstitial quartz, and a small amount of ihnenite as tlie i - 

eories. The rock is somewhat weathered, with ealcit.., .pi.irtz. kaolin, 
and epidote as the secondary proibiets. The hornblend,. and aiigite are pres.,,, 
m nearly equal amounts and each rivals the biotite in abundance. The -peciH,. 
jrravity of this phase is 2 740. 

HI four or nil. i mi y \si i;,,\omi:r 



..n. t«.. Iik,.s,,l „„,„.|,,., „,st „,„il, ..I l!,„„„|,,rv lin.. ..,, tl,P .Tiur- ..f 
' "luniliKi limi. iM I I 



.■JMk_-i^ *- 



310 nFPM{r.\tr\T or rni: istkhior 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

propoSo,^ -!. ■'"'• ^'^ ''"■'"'"" """'■^■^'^ '^•''-■''•-l -^'r. CoMn.T ,l,o follow,,,. 

Anahjsis of hornhlende-au^Ue minelt.'. 

SiO,.. . M-!- 

Tio; 53-68 .895 

AI,0.. .. -90 -Oil 

Fp,0,.. .. 16S.'> .166 

FeO.. .. IviS .008 

MiiO 5o.3 -076 

M({(l -11 .001 

CaO.. .. ^TO -m-i 

SrO 6.|)H .109 

BaO -19 -001 

Na,0 38 .003 

K,0 40:{ .065 

HjO Ht ilO=C.. •■32 -0*6 

H,0 above IIO-C. . •"* 

PjO .... 1-8.-. 

Ift) -lio: 


'^ 2-72.3 

The calculate*! norm is:— 


Albite 2.J-58 

Nephelite '. ". ".. .32-49 

Anorthite '..".. •S>5 

I'iopside "..".. I''20 

Olivine , x-17 

llmenite 9-2!t 

Magnetite 1-67 

Apatite 1-86 

Water 2-17 


According to the Norm cla^sitication the r.,ok e,itor. .1,, - i- ^ *"'• 
rang, n^onzonoso, of the domalkalic rang ,Lnzo„a e i ' '.'^ =.Hjipota,s.,o su.,- 
germanare. The analysis doubtless re, re «ur. knlT; *^'.^ ^^^^^ ""« ord.-r. 

unchilled part of the dike, in which hrbSetror: "ZIZT " ''*' '"^"'' 

kirks, and one mile north of the DewdLv r.i, % "'*'° '"^'"'?i' "^ *^« S^'" 
by the long east-west grani f S tow. on tf '''^"' '''"^^ '° ^ '="' °*^ 


RKPOliT or Till. VlllKF Af<TRUSO.\lElf 



The phenocrysts are pale ffreen au^'ito (up to 15 mm. in length), a tVu- 
biotito foils, up to 1 mm. in diameter, and abundant round masses of serpentine, 
almost certainly derived from olivine. The latter nu a.^ure 1 to 2 mm. in 
diameter. The ground-mass i< composed of a multitude of idiomorphic deei. 
brown biotites and a few microlites of orthoelase embedded in colourles- irla--. 
The rock (specimen Xo. S.'iii) is relatively fresh but chlorite and calci.. nr.- 
secomlary constituents, like th<- serpentine. It has the co nposition of an 
olivine-aufiite irinctte. as shown by Mr. Connor'- analv-is:- 

MnO. . 

BaO. . 

Anali/sis of oUv-inc-aiijUe vuin'fli\ 

H,() at IIO-C, .. 
H,0 above UO^l'. 



Sp. gr. 








■ m 



The I'alriilated 

nurni i-: — 

Drthoclas.... .. 







Magnetite.. ,. 


Water and COj. 









Accordin)? to the Norm classification the rock enter, the dup(ita>sie subrang, 
prowersose, of the dunialka! ,• ranp, kilauase, in the salfemane onbT, gallaro; 
it is, however, near the fodipota?sii^ .-^uliraufr, lamaro-e, ..f th(> same rang. 

Comparison of the Mincltes with the ^ orld Areratie. — In Table XVIII. 
the three niinette analyses are entered and. as well, their mean and the average 
of ten analyses recorded for the world in Osann's compilation. 




/'a;/m/.'/i//.\/ ,„ uii: iMiitnm 

Tabi.k XVIII. 

2 GEORGE V. A. 1912 

1 2. 

Aiitfite iijiM HoriiW.nclH 
fttp (No. •Nxi) "'K'ti' nun. itf 
(Nm. 4!t3). 


Klhiii.' iiii(fii,. ! 
iiiin<'ttf< 1 


SiO.. .. 

Tio; . 

Ke/J . 
hWl . 


K.,() . . 

II () 
I' () 

CO, ' 



H ii; 

2 15 
.'i tw 

7 \m 
7 12 

2 3H 
4 80 

1 24 


ii» 2:. 

•Vt tw 

ii; K!i 

I 2x 


3 7« 


4 113 
4 .12 

I S5 
1 0.-. 

HIO 110 

4N :•;) 


12 56 


5 2i! 

!l 07 
K !t4 



1 81 
« 67 


2 63 

2 64 

100 76 

Mran iif 
1, 2 anil 3. 




U 54 

1 77 

.". 2!( 


6 8tl 

7 .(5 

2 74 

t tiO 

44 I 

1 111 I 



Iim ;(•_> 


'•riiK • nun 





















2 43 

I 12 

Inn no 

"-...rnl„«i,.nlly transitional to tin, ^r: „ 'r Th 'T Tr",^* """ =^'-^' 

^'...i^. ..,i.,..,t,. (xo. 40.) ^.^e...:,r;:;'::ij:;:::i:;;o:i;';;:"'"-''- 
L..t'::^;'si;;S':rS^':l^L^:;;i ■'■"'•""'■ i'--'-- --- ^^ 

rot \vi<j( 

'•'■op ■•lit ui, tli(< .;u 

P.'iid D'O 

I'l'trofrraphically, they 

iiimit ,,f the tu\jh> ,|i 



e. each ahont fd 

ivfT. All of thorn 

are similar to other liik 

vuliiisr tJif waters of th. 

le two 

iMleroseopic liiaHiio-is of these 1; 

lire altered in varv 


'iir feet wide) ,.f t 

se eiu'ouiitered 

le two dike 


res is .iiffieidt. For th 

occurring alonff tl 
inp depree. so tliat tl 

in til. 


s ciittiii<r the 1 

iii*t(>reiu travers<. 

lis reason, one 
iiiiestoi c, the freshest of all 


cte.d for ehemii 

The ro.k is a dark. ffnvriish-L'r 

I idently hi"! 


ly mica, ■eons. I'lider tl 

panidioirorphic apyrefrate of 1 

ile iiiicro-i 

■trained, non-porphyriti 


platj-ioda-e. A little orthodas 

rown hiotite an.l a 

pe It is >(<■!! to he essentiallv 

o is almost certainly present. :^ra 

imperfectly twinned 

ffnetite an. 


i.'i i-oiri i,r nil nin r t.^i i.;,\,,\ii if 


.•.patiteareac.v..,„..v. (^u,ri,/. k,,..!!,,. ,|,l,„ i,.. .,,.1 ..,„.,.;, IK .,1 ■, • , 


™a,es of,.. pia.i,„.,. ,...,., „,,.„ ,;...,,' ^h: ;;,:':; .:S,:'':-: 

:S :° •„ ''z ih^ts ""'T'' ' r-' ""• "'■■•' ^'' '■■■•■■' 

'.'-out «i,l, inl, f, i n , h ':""'""■'■•". •"•, '>^-« "■ 'l-"""T, aro wn ..| 

^.f- .,i.,,.:i !..:;^x:i:;,^ - 1;!:;;:-':;2;7:;:- :. ':;;;;:'":;!^""- "- 

-oopi,' ('vii eiico i< II, if ,l,„ ; ;. • .i '.M" ~ '" rci. k... i j,,, nii.i-.,. 

..» M.,„.» .* :.;,:';;.;:;;i :;:,;:;yr-'.::;;M^:L:'::r„;:: ;i'"" , 

Pkv.i,«r;,„l,i, tr.r vt' ■ "';■•,".""' ':'": Il.,.,,,l„„.l,-, Mik„„k ,,„ 

..r.„;B::,;";;:,.„:';; r. ; yzz '7:;,f;r;.'-, ■"':-, >""■•".'" ■ ■■ 

i"i;;;;:r:r::n~;;-^t;r' :i : if)vf ::i: ;;^ 

.hinhiyis of l-pr.'i.iN /:>,'. 


Tio: " • 

■MA •; •■ 

I 'c„0 . . 

Feb.. .. 

MnO.. ■■ ■ 

mko-. .. ;: ;■ : 

<-'*.0.. . 

■■^i«».. .. 

NaO.. .. ■; 

K..6 '■ 

11,1) at UOH'.'. 
fl O al)OM. no r 











♦ ■10 





■ 0t2 




SP^ Ki 


•Cf. L V I'll-,:.,,,,. 20th Annual K.port, F.S. (_i..„!. Survv ,,.,.•( 3, Inw,,,. 




iii:rMinih:\i ui riii: imkihuu 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

I lii> iMli-iil:itc(l iiKi'ii; is: — 

Ort.'ioclasp „ 

Albite 24.W 

Neph..i,te :, ■.: :: :: ;: .•; ; ^\f. 

Anorfhite ,fS» 

M«Kii«-tit.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. I,; 

■'patitp \l\ 

Wiitci- i.iid cu ■ ■ ■■ ■• ;; •• ^'"l 


A.|„nlinK I., il„. Norm (•lassiti.ati..n the rock enters the soaipotussie sub- 
rang, slio^lu.iinse, of the iilkiili(>alfi<! raiip-, andaso. iti tlie dosalaiie onior. t'cr- 
manarc. Cheniically it is nearer iniiiptto tliaii a t,vpi''al ker-antite, but, bv 
the older ela:*-itieiitioM, llic eliaraetor of the fehksiwir [ihiees the roek in the 

Camiilouih: A)u\y one (.eeurrence nf eamptonlte i- known as a roi5ii]t 
of field study in tiie Houiichiry belt across tho Solkirks. This rock, 
miorc-copic study sliows to confonn well witli tlie typ.- naniptonite, fomi.s n 
wide but v.Ty poorly exposiHl dike cutllnsr the Pond D'Orcille phvllitc on the 
south side of the IVn.l D'Orcille river about 1.1MK1 yards ,,i>t of WanetJi. 

0,li„if.-.-~\ linlf mile farther up the river and on the -a bank, tho phyl- 

hte 1- .■nt by a six-incli dike of a rock whb-h appears to ropresent another 
occnn.n.c ot tyj.ical odii.ite as d. scrib. d by K<,scnbn.sch in bis bst e.lition 
of Uie Mikroskopis,die Physloffraphie <ler :Ma^iuPn Gestcine. This iamprophyro 
IS a dark frreinish-gray, compact rock witii conspicuous thonfrii small phenoorysts 
of augite and others of labradorito. The microscope shows those to be embedded 
in a mic.rocrystalliiie Rround-mass composed (vssontially of very manv minut, 

prisnns of hombh'mli'. feldspar niicrolites, and less abundant granules of 
A detailed description of this one (bin dike, t'loufrh composed of a ■•el 
rare species of himpn 

■|>liyrc. Is -cai'eely wnrran 


autrit. , 

in the 

pri'sent report. 

.\i't.iTic AM) Acid .\i'opiiys,\i, Dikk.s. 

Practi.-ally all of the Hranith- l»,dies in the Selkirks where crossed by t.b. 
Boundary lelt have -cnt tongn.s or aiiophyscs into their respective conntrv- 
rocks. Those .likes show the familiar variation from quartz-feldspar aplitis 
to the a.schistic pon>li.vries coriesp-nidiuK to the different tvpes of pliitonics 
Otlier sills and dikes occur at distances too great to Ih^ rcgnrded as necessarily 
npophyscji from any visible .stock or batholith. and in some it is ii,,t 
possible to determine whether these detached acid eruptives represent distinct 
periods of eruption. Xonc of the bodies seems to demand speci;il doccription 
One of the ..ikes is cnt by augite minette an<l by the analvzcd hornblen.le- 
ang.te minette which o.vur on the western bank of the roluinl)ia river about 


in I'tnti III nil I nil I {.-ii;i,\nMi n 



t,v|.ii'iil l,i,,fiti> 

.too vard^ .outi, „f xhc n.und.ry ~h„l,. . „.. :.,.M ,„k.. ,- ;. ,v,.,..,l 

grmt , ,k..s of smnlar matcnal o„tor.>ppi„. ,.t ]„,, ,^,„„ ;„ „,, i,,^,^^-,,^ , ' 
nv..r ..ham,... I l.oy „u,v l,e aoi,! apopl.y-.- f, ,1,.. ..x„.„.,i..> Trail l,n,l ,] , 

owanl wluoi, they .fiko; thoy an, Innv,..-,-, ,„.,..,1 1,..,... 1,.., H„Mr 

to the yoMn«..r .,.in,.ft... i. v.-ry , ( S.v Ki«-u.v 'J^^ ) 

A whit.- aplifi,. ,ill cutting' th,> I'.Mi.l I >•(),■.. ill,, plivliiti,. ,,.1,; , „„ .1,,. ,; ,1 , 

ank . ,po ^f ,h. South Fork „f ,1. Saln,o„. ,„ ." o! S ,v"w ,' £ 

ure of the rx-k Tt h -l,;rhtly porphyriti. with phon.H-rv.sU of q„art? in.I,H or,h,„.las... T ,. pn„„„l-n,a.. i, partly ,ho ,.,„„,no,. pani 1 on orpl ' 
ngRn-Kato of ,nart.: an,I .lUalin.. tVM.par („n„.h s,.ri,.i,ix..,i . I,„l ..on," . 
qu..e n„n,oro,,s, .,„all sph.T,„i,.. „f .Ikali,,,. hiUpar whi-h 1- do l ,, i, 
rosette. A tew «ain. „f ,„a.„.Mifo n,.nMe,.t tho o,dv oth.r o ,„ , . „ 
Iho rolat.on. „f ,h,. .,11 ,o ,he ,,,1,.. .ranin.. .-...k. „f tho ran.,- an- u, k . wn 

Dim. i*ii\-ks .h- tiii: U 

-AM) Ukuki! MoI MVIv Voi.rAVIr*. 

The , 
natii rally. 

..r,-a ...n oldor than M„. 1!,„-Iand ami IVav.r Mo„„tai,. lava, aro. 
'■"' ''•'; '''^f ^^■''"■'' "i'li'-iit- v..„t. for tho lava, or th,. filli.Hrs „f 
fi^uros eonn„te,l th„... vont. A f..v of tho.o dike, have he,.,. , ,, 
(x^ah ,0., where ero.,o„ ha. -trippe.l away ti,o vnl,.,,,;,. p„v.r and .o,„o o ,.. 
have heen „„ero,.c.opioally .xa.nin.l. A,no„,. these. f„„r ..p," „,a 1 ■ 1 o 
b nt ,t .houhl he „„der.t,.o,l that tho li.t ,loe. „„t exhaust the difT,...;,, var ,t 
■of the <likes pei.etieally^tod with the volea.ii,'. 

^yai"u *""' ''^'''"' 1'"^° ^'"' °'' •'^''^PI'^J granite inapp<.l on the Pen,! 

0,^1. .■kr"7' ""\^''-.'^ "■•- ♦-•«— 1 ''.V a tifty.foot. nearly vertical, .orth 

'Z . I>"rpl'.vr.t.e rnonzontte. The phenoeryst., are stont pri.n.s of 

ai.g.te up to s „„„. ,n ..„,th. The e.^ential. of tho hypidi,>,n„rphi, ." " dar 

Rroi,ml-n,a.s are orthoela.e. miero, erthite. lnl,rad,.ri,e (Ah An) angite t" 

SLsIi;:.!:!"""^'"" ""'^'^ -'■' '■'— --"'^ -I'-m m t.. ortho. 

Ahont three-iuarter. of a mile nortii of 01,1 F ,rt Sheppar.l, where tlie 
Tnounta,n-.pur projects thronph the terra.-o and «ravel., to the Columhi.. 
Taver, here are larpe ont.rops of slaty ami -martzitio rook whhd, have heei 
mappe,l as part of the Pend D'Oreille ^roup. The er„n„>le.] an,l ,na<he,I 'la to 
IS here out by a .'.5-foot vertical dike of .lark-gray hornhl.nde-l.iMito n,onzonite N HO E. (y,.,ble at low water). S,„no :!oo yard, .outh of the P„nn,larv 
sla.h on the .=ame of the nver and at th,. water's edffe. thro., .like, fr.un 
en to th.rty-hve feet wtde ami of n,aero.,-opi,. app<.aran,x. sotm.what shnilar 
to the monzonite were found to eon.i.t of l,ond,iend..-auf;ite eahhro In thi ■ 
t.vpe the feldspar is hasie lahra.lorito f Ah, An,), and alkaline is entirely 
absent; a few foil, of hiotite are a..oe^.ory. ^ 



KlI'MriMt-M nt' IfU: IMt:Ulul{ 

FiHBlly. „ thr.e f.-.t. north ^.M,tl,. v.rti,., 
l«salt. .MittinK tf>€ IV.i.l IVOn.illo ,,!,vli;i.. „|,„ 
"f Twt'lvp-iiiilf .recli, may 1* n, ,(.■,!. 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

I liike of lii^Hily,liil,,i,l,il 
It riltv Minis w,.-t .,|- ,1,,, ,|,o„tli 


IMK Kpi ini; M..|)||;s. 

The <ntir. lack <,f pal. ontologic.,1 evi-lenc,. .vithin the fn-niil.. 1 h , 1 

Ku. .^. ,.„.t.ite „n,i Is t,.nt«,ivoK. ...1!;.., .Wrh'tll^^lUH ' i;'' T t 
^e .nn.. «..,u.,..l .,e „. n.any of ,ho Ko.sland hn-a flow,. The p^c 5l por 


f' ■^^"^"•'^ ^'l^-* ^-'".ho postpoMod to the chapter dealing with the peoloJ 
^. ti. Rossk.d mounta.ns. At tin's point it will |,e sufficient to ntiw' 
la H s^„..on l,y tal.„l,,tin« the Sell<i,.k fo^.tions in their prol.S S 



Itifin/r ni III! t Hill i>///(>\(.i// /,' 



Saliiiiin Kutr iiiiinxoiiiti' niiick 

Hivoiiii" Iwtholitli mill ii» ut«-llitii' !tiiick«. . 

.Sli>-|i|*nl granite !.l(jck« anil tliki- 

Ii«in|.i(i|ili\Tv», miiiettcK, k< rwinlit.-, mliiiit. »miI c^iin|,!,,i,|i,. 

Ai'litic iliki.. 

Tr .111 (fninmlii. lilt- latliiilitli. ............ 

IV.iVHr MiMihtHtii Kiim|< 

ki>»»IaiMl vilruiiic Kiimi,, witli .•.•illiniiitV (in iiiiit) 

M..iiz..iiit. , K. l.lii... iiMilliniviltic (l:ki-(iifiihi: l",ii,| ,ro..i!l.- Kriiii). 

/'■•M t.u..„. ( M, .,..., 

I nit /.,(,■„„.„ f fjir,,,. 

Mt^it.lin I I'rfhmuiifi ' ,. 

I M <»NH)H\M n. 

Kykfii (fruniti- l«ili..litli. 
I'l 11(1 d'Orcillf |ri<Hi|,. 

■ ■ /Mtr Jiiritiitf 
... ''■irl^,,nfrr„i,» < ,i„il „l,li-,- ■ ,. 

Almorirtal li(.rnl.l.Mi.l. Krsi'it"- -ill tuitinK Kitclnni-r (in.iit/.i.- at i 

Cum crefk '*»„;;/ <..i 

ftaiiKirplKnwil Hiililin.Billxiinililik. « (iittinn I'lif-t Kun tirr.ini' I 

Kitch.n.-rf,.ni.ati..n. »/,./,//. i „„./„■,„„ ,. 

Sm„n,it.mi- ,.„,„,„., ,./,,,,, , 


lVif»t Kivtr 'I'.i i;ini- 

Vrr i'-imKrt'i'> .»,.•/ /,>■' Jlrlfi.i 


\'.W\: ^^ 





A '912 


HHtMAI l(»\S UV IIIK UdSSI.AMi \H H .\ I A I N liljori' 

It will U' 
r.'ii(f>-. till' ]{i 

'I III; 



III ilii 


.f tl 

II' Illolllllillll 

I iiii'iintiiin ur.iii|, wlim' iti--*'!! h.v lli.. icii-iiiili' Hiiiiii^liirv 

Helt. is b..iiii.l.(l on tlic Pii»t h.v th.' S.-lkiik Viillcv (I'uhiinl 

ust l).v till' iiiericlii'iiiil 

iiii'.liia rivrr> uiiil 


iivi-r. Oil till' 

I'lipinl li\ ( liri-tiii 

'I III! 

I MT Uritio 

I'ii-t till Innimtiiin- nt tl 

Kii'^-'hiiiil iiiiiiiiiliiiii Kr'iiip ill ^I'MT^il 

I"-''" - •xt.-iiil iivir into the Srlkirk -v -li'ii.. Of tin-.' tln' I'cinl D'Oreilli- 

-I nes liHs Hlrciidy lieoii ili-siTilicil. ii- will u- n Imv cf tlir ilikr-. .'iiltiiiur that -. rii's 
ng till' wc-lcrii liiiiik of tin- Coliiiiil.ia riviT. Tlu' Tmil l.ntlioliili. Shrppiiril 





lllltlllll VI 

I'c'iilmr poipiiM'itii 


•iiiiii' tji-uiip-. mill 

lioilii- of a 

u' •ivt'iiiti' nri- ri'pri'-iiitiil on |,otli -iili-s of thf Colini 1. 


l.c ile-cril.iil ill till' pre-iiit ilniptrr. Tl 

tiTii topoirnipliii' limit of 

11- IJo-limil iiioiiiitiiiii Kroiip i- iil-o. «itliin tlir liinit-" ol tlio Moiin.liirv lu'lt. a 
eiin-i'ut mill ii.iiMiiifii* liiic of ilivi^inii ln't«(M'ii llu- polo 


oHiriil fi.riiiiuioii 


08>liini| mill .Mii1huJ-( liristina >iioimtiiin Knnipi. ( Stv .Miip< N'o. "^ iiml!'.) 
From till- ('ohinil)iii to «'liri>liiia laki- iuiipoii»-roi'k f 

very greii .'>i'fiiinciiliii\ loi'k? appmr miU 

Kvays inui. . deformcil iiiiil inetainorpl 


1.1 licviiit; tliat tlit-o rocks arc i-liii'th if iioi altoj .'tin r lute I 
I''.l('o/.oio ill ajre, fiwiiU aro aliiio-t a- 

oniiatioii- iluiiiitiatf 
ill fiiiall pati-lii'i. .mil un- nearly 
i'lioiipli tlurc arc pooil roa-o|i- I'or 
oil' or p"-l- 

rare a- tlii'\ arc in 

Kocky .Mountain < ;f<isynclinal. Tlir writer lias licn alil 

the f. 


if till 

tratiKTiipliii' infi.riiiatioii Mciircil l.y McC ' 

I'll. 1! 


il<I lint little to tW 
ml nllicr- will) liavt 

lie stnilies in the region. However, the iiiti rpretat imi (liveii the few -^eattprcil 

tacts in hanil ditTcrs somewhat froiii that ailoptiil hy tin 

1 he ,|,-.Til 

The olilor «eilinicntary forinatioii'. 
Iic-iile- the .'.nnill area of the I'einl D'Or 



lev iiii'liifle 

-latv'-'. phvllites. (piartzite, ami liiiie- 

-tone near the Coliiinhia, a Miiall patch of oh^ciirely fws-iliferous liu:cstn 

linc»toiie ocenrring 

I lated with chert in Little Sheep cre^-k valley: fo'-iliferoiN 1 

with tlie older traps north of Uos^laml: an intiii-ely deformed sericc of ji 

-tones, quartzite.s. and schists sectioned li,\ the railwjy line east of Cliristii 

lake and named, for loiivenieiiee, the Sntin 
-mall outcrops of old-lookinp quart/ 
with the Kossland volcanics. 

.1 -I'hi-t,, 

omplc.x; ami 

ir!.'illitii' roi'ks iiitimateK 




if M 

\ very limited e.vposure of fo.s>iliferon- ( plaiit-liearln^') arpillito. pruhably 

esozoic aRC, will then he descrihed. Tl 

•onjilomerati - and s.ind-toiicn w 

this part of the lioundary holt are 

from very imperfect fossil evidence. >i em to he of early T 

atfe; these beiN form four small i)atclii- at or near the I 

le voii;iKO>t .sidiiijcntaries ohservei 


ertiary or mid-Teriiary 
'"iiiidary line. 




i>ii-\in\ii\i „i nil iMiiaui,- 

\Ui iifi,,..,ii, r,,riniiii,.ri- t,. I,., ir, ,„,., 

iitm uroiip ,t «„. uiider-i I iIkh i1„. (;^,.i .: Z H""-!..!!.! rn,.Mi, 

. d..,.,l...| „...|,v of ,1... K.,-,1, .. ' " 1 1 "" : [ '""t' ""- '''""■"■"^■ 

-r^ • I..M.. iM ,1.,. r...,„M ,.,!,:; ,"": -^ ""*'•>■ -'> I'-i' 

'ion. com ; 1,...,.. i,i . i hi :;:;;;■ '•■"";••-•'"" - ^ .,t ,i,.. h..i,i r-i. 

lo tliis i„iri ..I t|„. |l,„i,,.|i,rv Im-Ii 
lilhcl in 111.' I'liiil .<|„.,.i HIT,. f,,|| 

'"'"-"""> ■•'■iii|,-,l ln...Mit.iin 


-•- «•'-" '■■ n. ,....,;:; ;:';:::,;;::!:;;.. ''"^ •'"• -^ "'■• .— 

*•''':'' ''■•;<>• I .niu,,,!,!,. U,,{vy,.ir 

t M<>('..iinrir. i-,,nhi.'N. as |iii|, 

M lllH (irolnirv ,,(■ till 

I'MtoZiill ji.tlM , ||(1N«. 

^'arl'iiiiifiious Hills 

I.-.- SLeop .... va,,..;;i;::\i';::;::,;:';7- ,,/■-•'•• '--;. H. „: 

on III,. ,vpst si.U. of the .^,.1. tl,..r. ; , , i , li,.iin.lur.v I,,,,.,,,,. 

-i.l- l.,v „li„vin,n. -n,.. n.; ,n, i '') 7 '"" "' ' " -"•r..„n,lo.| on „: 

bre.,.;,.,,.,, ,.,„i ,,i„,,, . ; ,1 " : :i^z'7 ': "'';'" "''^'"^ "■"' '* '■-■'• 

quart. v,.ins. Th,. altit,',,! h "'"-"■'*' ""' '"""''^ '^'"'«« •*"'! 'n.' 

from N. r..V K. to \ K iv 1 '' " "'''"""■■ "'"""'••' ^"•"^'- '""-"■"^ 

Tho lln,^^to,le .■, ,.,..ii,V ,„ "", ''"^''"■'" "'"^'"'■'^ 'Hp "f al.ont (W 

grentl.v ,i..form,.,l. with av, n.^o .trik. y"';,.?";'^""- l'^ ;.•''"'■'>■ ;i"".>'^"" «!>■ 
unc,nf„ o .r IK ' ' ""', '""""■'■" '''"- "^ ^'"- -'"">■. «(.. r.. i, ;. 
and Hu-it as that ju- X il , 1 T , '" ""'""''^ fossiliferou. li.negton.. 
•■o."P<.:ition of th.> l,re....ia and frotn .ho ;. aH^^U :' t^^^. \i ^:^^\ 

spread. ♦-iind.itiMn .m whirl, tl„. v..l.ani.' ,na- » 

Durinir his niappinir of iht- Tnil l,.«.. \t ^' n / i • 

bi i»-. wiu.eaves ,„ ,h.,..,,,.. „ ,„„h, ,,„„ .;„„,,,.„ .,,■,;;.;;;';:• 

nt.voiii itf I in iinn \si ,,\uvn: ggi 


.■orn.lHt,. tUr ln,...t,.,... i„ ,,|,„ , „„h .;. |„„. .,,.,„ ,u.^„„.„t. ,. ,i„. I.,..,.,, 
•■" '"'li -1.1.' ..i tl,.. u,ll,A, .,„i .1,.. < r>,H.ti„.,. i,„.|,„||Mu. tl„. :„„..., , ,„„| 

.|..'ll. !«. lllltlllH. ly |.||lr,,| ii, tl', I ,lH ,.riif. !,,|,, .,..,, 

''"'■'"""■'■'■'"'; /."". W ,„ fi. i:...,l.„ul M,n „„ ran,, In 1-.U-. Itr.,.-.. 

.Im..,,v, ,-.l ,„ a i,, ,,..-,,„., |„,,„l i„l, rl.,.|,i,,| wi,;, .,,„l,.l,,.- ;:„.,„-„,. ,, ,\. 

».K. IMM,,.. f.Mir mil,-. „.,rtl, . f ,1,.. !;,,, ,„. „,i,,, ,.1 ,„,,|i, ,.,.r,;,i„ |,.-,1- . „.|. 

haw l„-,.r, r.'f.rr...! i,, (•,nl....,if.T..:i. ^i i,.v 

Sullnrhml .Vr/M.,/0,, '■„„,,/,. r. -A uru„v ,■( n,..t.M,..r,.hi,- rr„-k.. .m....,! 

.1. Ill,- nnlvvii.v .■iitlmf, I ,.|w.., „ C,,-,..,,!,. „..,l < ..,n,!1 .tniP'i,- w. ,,■ -, , , 

''"'""« '•"• ■■" "'■ I""-' Althon,!, ,„.,„.U , ,w.l. u.„ ,,„.,„■ „. ,1„ ,.,,„„ 

the r,-.,lt. . f ||„. .tn,..t,iri,l -tiniv -.v. r. ,n,-:.«r, Tl !.!,.,, n„.k- ..f ,1,.. .,..,,;, ,, 

rcas.s, „r |,i,l,l, ,.,v-t:,il;m- .,l,i-t- ..f -.., „,:,rv „rl.,n With tl,.-. ■,,.' 

a..o,.,„„.,| M„n,,v ,rr,..„l„r l„„„l. ,,• .n.i-i,.. ;,,,l.l.r,.i.| r.„.K. .„„! .„„,|„|.„li„ - ^li.nml 1,,.!.. |.,.r,.lu rlt, v ;,ll „f wl,i,.l, r.-|>r. -nt .m-.mIv .,h,.r,..l |..,-l.: 

'ninisn,-. 'Il„. „„.tan,ori,h,-«Ml ...,|i „tnr.v n.-k- ,,r. n,.u ,, ,„. -.„t. .l' U 

UMrnctilrr.,,,- ...|,i-i, .,Ti,-it h'-,t ,.,■ plivllit,., I,p,f , i, .,,|.1,|,,,, „.|,,,, ,,.,,„,i,,, 

I'M.titr -.-hi-t .111.1 iin,|.ili,-iii,-l,i,,tit,. .,.),!.. M„„iv,. ..,,.„ („.,,, ,j,,,',| j,^, ,,, ■ I, 
.lii..rt.,t,- ,m,| „, |,M,t fun lurv |....l- •■( ulnl,. ,„ ji,-!,, ,.,,,> „„h,1,. 'r.. ,.a, r 

I'V.I.U ,1 Willi tllC -rlli^l,.,„ll> 111, ,,,m|,|, s ,. ,l,:,r:„.f,-r;/. '1 l.v ntr,.,- ,-,,i,fa-|,, 
I'imI.Iiiiil' piir ,-, ru.r iJaiu- , f -, liio,,. ty 
til. Ill II f 

i-i.r,' .,r iiiiiiilri' 

V, .tl,. I 
:i atlil,|.),. f,,,- ,„,,,■, 

n( f.-.-l l..^',.tll.T. Th,' v,.,.ti,„, i. 1,„..,,,.,1 i„ I, „„„, 

of max , 11,11 .ii.i.Mti..,,. a /..,„■ i,.,« |,,l|,,w..| ]., tl.. .1,.,, tr,,:,i..|, ,,f d,,! ,, 

Ink... iln. in„„..iK,. „li.,ali„„ .,( tli, «, f,.niiati,„, . ,- r„rtl„.r ,|.,. ,,, ,1„ ;„,,,. 

^...M ..f ,n„m.r...w hnu. l,...Ii,. , { m.-M „.,] I,a-|. :. ,„ ,.„.u. i„.,|,„|,„. ,:„;,.„. 

~"'''"r "'"' '' '■'■'"'^•''- - «' '1 ^"< 'i- :-■!■. .1 • ^..y, !1 .^,„it.■ = „,li,l, 

\.. tra ,,r a f,.-,l wa. f, „.a| ,„ ,h, -. ,|;„„ ,„a,„ - ami it i- Mill im,,o- 
«.l.lo t.. flan, ui,l, 1,„,,„ l,.,i...... Tl„. ,, :a,-t,i,.- a,i,l ln...-t'„., 

.i«*M.,af,i with -l,,. ..■111-.- ,r,-. It, r. i.-rai. -inula, ,., t!,. „„aif/it,. a,..i ,.,■,„. .,.| ,1 
,tM..t..,„. ,,f lalll.. Sli.,,, ..,.,.,!< ,.!!,.. ,,1|,I . -,a,,],. ,,l,a-,.. ..f ,|,.. l',,,,! 

nOr,.,ll,. ir-aip. All |- llama,'. ,., ..• C.,,-! j,',,.,,,,, ,.., Tl |.1„-,,„| 

:,11.I ,,..rl.l..T:ti,' l„a-., - ,:;,,i,,, ,] .l,i.,. ,,„. ,.,„|,„.Iv ,.f „„„.. r-.aa^ ,!:,,,. 

-oriic ,.f tl,i-iM ,,,n- II, itii, ,■ ,iii-lii,,L' • f .-,,!, ;,|.r,' ial''. 
iiiicK-i-, |.<-. 'Iliii',. ,.f t!.-, la-i.- ii.I.ii-iw |,,,|i,- will I. 

Mi„|, ■■ ,1 


'\v: a 1, 11, Mi -( 

.,.i.- ,1, 

'■lli-t- tla-ii-. h 

1 ll.^ .1. -.lil.. .1 

y any -p..'ial |.. tr -r. 


1,1 .'.111. !,i-i,,n. 

lookiiiir initai.a,r|,l,.i<, ,|,,., ^i. 

'l''l ' '•!' - .1' 1. i-t .T ili.-f. ,,|,| 

Otii.^r-^ iiuiy l,p (ill 

I'rii'i'iir 111! i,t' til, -. f, 

I.T lir.'-Cal'l 

uiil'ir.,!!- ..r ,l-.- T 

i'.'-,iit ilic u r; 

•■.!l,.u-. i! 

.-.■i-laii ' ,,f ( 'aril. 
ri,i--i,-. it in.t a- la 

'tiii.Tiiii- :\isi- 



II' tra'lih.,,] 


•n,-||t:J, solUf (,1 t 

at.'V, r t' 

,>:v .if tlip -.-.ii 


1 ni.-t 

UMll -,','11 I,, I', 


I -,',1 a-li-l„ 


ill, tl. 

ii,.i--n-f irr.'.'ii^t' 

.1--V0I. .i_i>l 

iii'l !l i- liiuliU tli, 


iiir \i:i\ii:\ I nr iiir iMrninw 

GfcoHGE V, A, 1912 

ri-lll-l'Hl^: 111 llli- 

Culiiiiiliiii ri\i-r) 

ll-.' nl tl 

D'dnill,. -n 

I.- -.y-ir. TIm 

-MnU|, (,.,|„u-l:| 

llv th. 

lip 'ii'i' iilii.n-i il II. .1 i|uil,. iu.lUiiiimii-hiililf l)(it|i i 

:incl ill (|if.ric ,,t' iiii'|.lii-iii lr..iii ll 
ill.' Hrf'cii-*l..iirs .>r llh' lln-Lin.l iiMiiinl, 

MHMi-l/ilc- nil. I -l;ity nii'lis .,f tlu' I'.'ii.l 
11 ciiiiniiisiliiiii 

'.l.l.'.l will] 

II' i|il;il'l/lli 

ll.'H.. i 

Tlu- I" 


illl till-\ r..--.ilif, 


A-i '1|,, Im -t uiii-Kiii^- li.\|..illi..-i-. ill. r,l..r.', iln 
till- ui-liTii -Lipc ,.r til.- Selkirk niii 

ri.ii- liiMi'-l..iii- J11-.I ili'-icriliiil 

M villi' 1- ill.'lill.'.l 1,1 lii-l 

.1 iIm 

lev.' tillll 

-v-l.'iii :ii'c iiii.l.'rlji 

111 li;ill' .i|' the ('.iliiiiil. 

.'f tlif liiiiiii.! 

"" ''.^ 1v-i.|iimU ..1 A ^,^v^ iki.k u i' l'al,-../.„i,'. |,|-,,l,:,l,l> 

I'll'- I'l'pr. -fill- ilii' ,.l,|i -t -,.,! 

ii-y l.clt. It »ill 1„ 

iiii('iil:ir\ I'l 

ll \i 

-.■III lllill till' -;ni 

il - |ii'..l,:il,l 


Illll.lMlll.'lltlll l-cklli..!!- in ih,. Mi,|u;l,V ;l||,| l,|,,,v U.-I,.|'i\ IM.IlllllM 

v Illl- -iirihiv 

111 ;;ri)iiii- 

.\Ii.-iiz..i( Si hi MINI- w 1. 11 1 1 

I Sill I I' ( 'hi. IK 

At .Mi.iiuiii,.|it IT."> ill i.iitli' SI 

il.riil.l.' tlii.'kiu^- .It' ritriitili.'d ro.'k'^ wlii.'li iir.. t-, i,| 

iii'li I'l'.-.'k \iilli'\. .■r.,-i,,ii 1i;k hii.l li.iri' ii 



1111.1 i|ll:mziti'- rill'lll.l' llh ll 

■iiu'i' III.'.-.' vi.iihy.r I'.ii'k 

III- M. fiir llKl.l,. IIKI.V ll.' ill l;|i|..,|. At ill.' i;..iiii.| 

ellll.v IlllH'li ,\.illll;,'('V lliiii 

I 111' I'Xjih-lll'i- Ml-C Mill ^;,.i),] 

I-.. il.M'lll'olv lii-ilir.Ti.U-. the lirl.j i.liMTVa 

p 111.' VUll.'.X. 

'I Mlllill' I Ill 

ll'> lll.illllllll'll 

nil 1- -I'lii til III' kil'i;i'l> iiiiilci'liuii liy li|:i 

t till' -l.',.n -I. 

I.'U nil. I rill ill';;l 

'■'"''"-'"- ''''" '"■''- "'■ -■••'>• >iiii'l-t iiii.l ..f iin^ruliir .'i.iiKliiiii.'rMt.'. us w.'ll 




'I' I.I l;l>.'l's .ll' 


ilii'-li is (li'-iTil 

iliuirlzilr. Til,. ijiKirt/il.' i- -iilplii,l.-|i,.|,riiii;. 'I'll, 

Mil 111 till' tii'lil null- lis hi 

.li'l'iiniu'il. till' iiriiilliti' s|ii'i'iiilly -li'wim; fr,'.|ii.'iit 
i-liiirt liistiini'i'- l.otli up ill,, -l.ip,. niiil nil. 11^- its ('.,,,1. •} 

i'liiiii;:is I 

.' I..' 
■t' -ir 

iir.' uri'iill\ 
nil. I ilip il, 

lipils ten.! Ill 


tnirly -i.'m.Iv -Irik.' ..t' N. ii' -111 |'', 

K. to iK) . riu' serii'-, I'liidly ni'^illitic 

III' iii.ii'i' ri,i;iil -niiil-l.iiii 
" illl an nviTii^'i' ilip i.t 

'lilt IllHI feet nliove Little Si 

(•niitiiuir!! enstwiini to ii I'liiil. 

vnli'iillie lireecin- of Mnlil 

K'i'P iriek, nil. I there it np|M'nr> to .lip iiii.jer tl 

(' iiioiiiilniii 


ueiiirnl enslwnnl ilip nppenr- li 

. . . ^ ['ii('i'itii- 

luini.'tenzc tin- seriei; through. iiit il- exii'iit of tidO up the vnlloy from t 

.-Insh. I 

ll tl 

lie exposlir 

1th of tl 

I' hill' iliil nut pr.iiiiisc ii-pfiil nsiilts 

!.• Ik'iI- wen,. 11, If f.ill.iueil in tlint ilii ti.m. The expi.-nres are liki 

very jioor on th, ues| ,i,k. ,,f the .riek. hiil the -hnle-niiilsl 
I'xteiiii on the Sophie iiiiniiitniii slope at lea-t niK) f,.,.i y|„,, 
arfiillite i.- ther,' j;rently eninipleil. hut pmlmlily -trike- in tin 

V. lin" V. 


lilh ilip hi^rh to tl 

1.' iiortli\v.'-t. 

iiie MTies si'i'iiis I, 

•.' the creek. Th. 

nvernue direetion 

ll' seri.'s seems thii- to l„ 

of a hrok.n ainl nia-he.l aiiti. lin,. pi 
lielieath the MaMe 

'11-1 liiill ten thiek an. I In have the at 


IiIuiii;iiil; te the n.irtli. cnrr 

I'.viiifr the seilimeiit- 


lolls are. however. 

inoiiiilain and Sophie mountain hre.eias and hiva.s. The tieh 
'"''■ lliiil '111- I niii-f !,.■ ri'iinrdeil n- oiih 


-iitvi>stive and hv no means to I 

At th. 



:il.i|lii 111.' railuay Ir 

i.'K an. I .11 .'a.' 

I. a niimlier ot v.-ry punrly p 

h -id.' of the I! 

-hales. Tliiv-i' fos-ils 
titled th." 

wi re -uliinilt.'.l t. 

i--erv.-.l reieaiii- of plant- u.Te found in tin 

111 n- till' rnehi- 

.t n f 

.Til. Ill n 

'roli-,,r 1). !'. IVnhallo 

11 pi'olinliilitv of '.■//'/,•// 

w, wlio nleii 

nnin iinlhrr 

<s^mmfii M 

■mfm.\\^m.m^i msmr 

•-'."'a ->..l. li |.. ,■):; 


iirrnur ,11 nil tiitii \:^ii;,,\,,\n n 333 


lho,n,soni^: ami t..„t;„iv,l. ,.,„,...|.„ - ,1,. I„.,|- u„l, ,1„ |„u.,- Cn.tao,,,,. 

haml on „,., .,w,m,„„ „, ..,. „ „u„ l,a..,| „„ „ ,:„„„„,• ,1„. Mn ,i W oH ' 

pii>t-Koci'iii> piTiml 
iiw to wurraiit (nir 

. "11 til,, ntli.r liai„|, the ilci'r.M' of im'tainornln,.,, i^ t 

. ■ 1 ^ ' I fiiii'M Jill IMli js ItMi low lit U;irP!iiit i.iio 

ri'tiTrnic- 111,. MTic- to til.- I'iiKo/cl,- Kit), ,. , \i i- i" warrant ,.iir 

pr..foral,lo „. ..i,l,..r ,„■ tl ', 1 \|;"/''T'''' ''r''""'^'''' "''''''' '" 

lil)>sr,A\|i Vlll., \\|, (Jhoi !• 

M:Nt;uM. DKst riii'iids. 

Ft-,,.., the Sal.uoi. rivr to tli." Koltl,. riv.-r at CaM-n.l,.. a ,listaii,v ol f„rtv 
mdos. th,. on.„„Io Bo,„„|a,..v ....iitaiii, an inv^ular thoii.h ,.on n .u 
bad ot basK- vol.-ann- ro,.ks. Thi. l,an,l ..„v-rs al,„„. la.. s„„ar'. mil,.. , .. 
Wt .ru\ ,« part o, „ vok-ani,. an., i,i tl.,. W,..t K„o„.nav ,L,ri,., „f I H, 
Columbia a..^ro.Mt,ii,. n.K» .,„are mil... W...t „r ih,. C.lnmlii,, h;, "' h ' 
.0 can...s aiv ,l,.v,.]„pe.l „n ,1,. T-ni,...I Stat.- .id., of the R,„„i,la,-v l„it h nv 
.'\t(.ii.aiv<'l.v IS not known. ( S,.,- Thit.. Hi;.) i lu no« 

Tl... entire voI,.ani,. aiva i. hid.k • i ' .,it..,| l,v I.aM,- and a.-id pintoni.- 

ma.- «h„.h. in ^vnoral. ar,. .vo„,i,..r than tli.- vol-ani... and ..„t ,l„.ii . l 

-on UHiod ,.rosion ha.,.d many of ,1... ,lik.... ...x-k-. an,l batholitl.. Z 

hat .he mapped eoiita-tdin, s of ,h.. ..ffuHve , k. ar.. .' ■ ,„. 

Ow.n^ to severe or..«eni,- str,.s>es the lava flow.. aslid,..,ls an.l lr..,-..i . „ „.,llv 
have high , and .•o,<..l strn.tnre.. Most „f tl,..s.. ro.-k. ar.. alt..-ed • 
.•ru.h.nn.ta,n.,r, ami eontae,-n,..,a«iH.rpl,isn.. Th...v ar,. of,..,, involved 
nost obBa, the l.aleoz„i.. -edim,-,,,. jiM .l..s..,rib...l an.l also w i 1 
omiger strata whud. are genei-all.v nnfnssilifer.M.s. Tlu- .litfer..ntia,ion of 

lavas o„ the gronn, of g..olo,ieal ag.. ..annot as y..t I arri,..I out syst..,,,;,,- .u: 

I ... eortai., that ,1... vol..a„i,-s w..n. erupte.l i„ at l.-asr two .li,f,.ron, 
ponods Ihe ,d.U..t lava,s. asl,d, an.l a,-,don,..rat..s seem „. hav.. he. 
extruded .•onte,np.,ra,.e.,nsly with tl,.- (\„,is lim,.ston,.s. -herts .,n,l 
slaty rocks, and have sim-e. through r,.^i,.,ial m,.tai„on.his,n. h..e,i ....nv-en.-d 
.nto „ and sehisto-.. gnenston.. wlii..-i „f,..„ k,..,. their ,K,rphvri(i,. 
s ructnre more .,r h-ss plainly pre-erv...l. .X„ ,.l„.„ii„,, ,,„,,, ,,,, ,„.,'„ IJJl 
these old,.r v-,dean„>, a.,,1 „:i.-r.,se..pie analysis is generally helpl.^ss ia the 
attempt to n.fer th. m to .l.tinit.. types of lava. From their g..ii..rd habit ami 
irom the nature o, the alt,.,.atio„ an.l metauiorphi,. pr.i.luets i, aprH-ars pr. h 1 1 ! 
that the whole sern>s of (•„s ..xtrnnv.- shouM he .-lasse.l wit|, | ' 
'onimon augito andesites an.l basalts. I„ his r.vonnaissanee of the n>gion 
dunng the preparation of material f.,r th. Trail d„...t. .M..(V,n„,.l| r..,.ogni„.,| 
th e ( arhonifew us age of the^. , ks and ..alled th.. moiv masMv... porr.liyriti,- 

•n. p. Peril 
..lid 329, 1908. 

'1 *. Transact ions. Royal S.-cioty of rann.l.i. sor. iii, Vol 1, 

pp. 290 

:-'.".a— vol. ii— 211 








KKi'MtruEsr or the isrr.KinH 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

phas.. -uuKito ()„.■ .,f tl„. ,-l,i,.f ,litli,-nlti.., i„ „,;,|,pi.,R thr- m.^k^ 

liP9 in the fact that tli.. di-tiii.t iiii.l i 1, Mui.mcr illicit,. hitir..< nro .xtmniflv 

difficult to .hstiiKiuiMi in the fi,.].! Iinni tli.- ..l.lci- luiL'it.- iiiMlr.<if^. There nrr 
moreov.T. tnio aiiRif iiikIimics iitiil hnsnlts h. l„ii;riiit' t.. ilir .v,,un|.',.r M-ri. - 
of laviis nnd the prohlciii nf ditfrrrntiiitiiif.' tliviii from the ( iirhoiiif, n.iis hiva- 
is in iniiny can's not to he Milvod. 

Since, theretiire, of the vohMinic holt has doried dear-cut division 
on the map, the writer lius followed McC.niiell and Hrocl< in colourinir .iimI.i- 
one lejiend, the ' Volcanic (Iroup,- nio-t ot the v<d<anic lorniation- 
occurring in the B..imdarv Kelt 1,< tween tiie Saliimn river and Ciiri-tina JaKi . 
Between the Colunil.ia river and Cliri-tina lake the lar;;c.i- part of the volcanic 
masses liave heen f(.tinil to l)(<lonfr to the fainil.v ,,f latiiev. althouKh there are 
some flows of true liasalt and nuffite anch-site asr-dciatcd with them. In the 
BeaYer Mountain region fh<:r- i- a e..nsideral.!e area of rcdatively nnaltere.l 
iavns and tuffs which nowhere seem to have any latitie phnse. Chiefly because 
of their relatively fresh and riM-ent api)earance, Prock has already separated 
this series of volcanics. and he has jriven the series the name, 'Reaver Moun- 
tain (Jronp." The pelnifiraphic distinction just noted further justitie- our fol- 
lowing T?rock in his mapping, and this part of the whol,. volcanic area will he 
separately descrihed. a>; well as separately iuaii|)ed in the accempanyiii}: 
Tf. in the future, the l{osslan<l vol.'anic jrroup can Ix' analvz.Ml witji 'sufficient 
accuracy to permit ..f its Md'division on the nuip. it would W approjiriate to 
reserve the name ■ Rossland Volcanic Ciroup ' for the latitie lavas and a!=so- 
ciated pyroclastics. for the<e seem to he the .lorniuant extrusives of the area. 

rKTiioouAi'iiv or Tin: i,\x as ano fvnoc i.astks. 

The writer has collected ahout (uie h Ired sp(viniei,- of th.. fre^h.-t .in 

most typical neks of the volcanic helt and from tliem al.ouf eichty-five thi 
sections were cut. It was not until tliese ha<l Incn uiiero-co|,icallv' eNaniin.. 
that the litholopicnl diversity of the lavas hecani,' fullv apparent. S,. 
varieties of latite. , divine ha-alt. olivine-fre.- ha'^alt. aupite' an.le^ite, 
po9>;i!ily picrite (coi rospondine to liar/.hur;;lte ainon- t.'ii' pli:tonic vo 
descrihed auionpr the latter) hav<' heen r( co,.riiz,.,l anmn- the ],." alten 
The most abundant types are probably the auRite latite an.l biotit 
latite. These are respectively transitional into olivine-aufrito latite and biotit. 
latit.'. nornblen.le-bi,,lite latite an.l h..rnblen.l,. (-aufjite) latite and a sju'ciallv 
fomlc aupite latite are of more lo<'al ...•cnrren.'c. The true basalts are far 1.-- 
comtnon than one would <iisp( ct in the fi. 1,1, .inc.. mi many of th,' latit.-- liav. 
basaltic habit. True aupite and. site is pn.bably ' abundant than the 

v. 11 


I- and 



.l»./(7c Afj^Vc— Massivi. lava Udonyiny to this variety was f..un.l at wi.l,.l\ 
spaced localities, amoncr wlii.di ar.. -p..cially note.l the area between Castle monn- 

lih.i'iiiti III rni: iiin:i \.'-i nii\ii\n:it 335 


""";r""'"":r' '■' ' ""' '*'■'■'"■'' ""'""■"" 'i.iu,.. th. ,i,v,i.. i,..,u,.,„ \i.,M.. 

luM Lull,. Sh,..>p .TO-.k-. n,„l tl„. l,l,.tf. n„ tl„. w,.-t M.l,. of tl,.. C.lmiil.iM riv.T 
ahoMt toiT m.l,..s m.rti, „f tl,.. Ii>„.. Tl,.. I„ll„ui„,,- l„.i,.f ,1,.,,., i|„i„„ „f „ ,v„i...,| 

relativ.-l.y wm\u-rvd ,,l,;,s,. r.-l„t,.s f .., f tl,,- .v,,„„t;..,. tinw. ,.:nvv\uK n„ th." 

"Miianie.! .ym,-A ,„.;,!< uv-t ,.t th,- M„r|,hv ,t,...|<-( ;h„U,..,K. tnul ,,,.,1 al,<.„f ,«,, 
.u.I,.s north ot S„„,v ,.r,.,.k. Tl,.. v,,!,-;,,,!,- n.-k^ a,-,, tl,..,-. ,.x,...p.i„n.lK w..]! 
.•x|,o,s..,! .l,„v.. tn;e-lH„., ul,,.,-. ihl.-k -i,,.,.,- „r |,id,l> ,,..r,,hv rili,- |..,tllo all.TMat.- 
w.ti. .M„i-.. I,;,.„lt..- >h....ts „,„! uiti .,-,. ,,.,1, .,,,„., .■,„„|M,-,.,| .,|- ,1,,.,. h^vn^ 

V" , "" "■' "■'■■-'' '-^ •' ''"■'' «n...n,Mi-f.'ra.v .., alM,,..t l.h..-k ro,.k l..„rinc 

"l'^;"*I;>»f Pl|.-...,..r.v,t. „,■ ,,.,|,„k,, ,,h„i.,..,,,.. ,„, ,„ :; „„„ i„ ^.,.„^„„^, ,|i„,.,,.,/: 
■I'ul „t MMiillcT, vtniit priMu- ot' t;n.(.Mi-|i-l,l:„.k pvn.x. ii. .„.„|,i,. ..xmiiinati,,,, ,|,.,ws th„l tli,. i-o.-k i- urMTM-lnM. il„. ,.i„.|io..rv..ts 
l..'.n^y.nstnuM,.,l .mT ,om p,.H..,.,|v Mnalt..,.,.,!. IT,, ph.,!,,,.].,-.. i, ,|,„ „;„r,. 

tano,u.s ( „rWnul-.ll„l,. ,u,m. UHlivi,l„„l ..ry-taN .iv,. ,.^ti,„.tioM nnelo. appn,- 
rriato t,. tli(.s,Ti.>sfr,)ni lal,ra,l„rit.", Ab,An,.t„ Lytownit... Al, Ai. (),...aMon.illv 
ono ot tl,..>o l.a.,,; n>,livi,l„al> is sum„n„l.v| with a >,arrou rii nrtho.-la^,'. 

vr.""''"'"^'; ' '*-' "" I'l""""'-.^--' 1'^'- "I""" til" .■..iMpnMlio,, of lal,ra,l„rit,.' 

Ab.An, 11.,. pvrox,.,,,. i- a , „. , -p|„o,.|„.oi,., p,l.. .r,...„i,l, aiiirit,^ of 

dlopsKlic hahit. 

_ Th,. !,^rn,,„,l.,ua>s ha, I,.,.,, -ona-ulia. alt..,v.l. uilh tl„. ^rt.M..ratio>, of uralif 
m .small n....,lh.s. /oi„t.. in rath,..- ran- yraiiuh-s ,.|ilorit,.. .,lmn,lant hiotif. ami 
mor.- >c.r>,->t„. inx-a n, „m,.,,t,. foil- aM,| -Inv.U. ( )rtho..h.s,. was not ...Ttainlv 
.IPteotod in the Rromul-ma-. whi,.l, wa- ori:.inall,- h.valopiliti,.. with pla^'i,.,.|a«',. 
m.crol.tes ,■„■. «>,M,..i i„ „],... M„j,,„.,i,,. „„, ^„,,„i,,, „..,,^,^ j,, „,,, ,^^^^^^, 
form,.,! crystals. 

A spo,-inion ,.„ll,.,.t,.,l at tiii> lo,.ali(y (No, .-,(:!) ^n.l an-wrinw to th,. for.- 

KOinK ,los,.ripti,.n has Ixvn analy/,.,i hy Mr. C ,or, with ns.ilt a, f,.ll,.w« 

(Table aIX.. f'ol. I.) : - 

Tahh XIX. Av„l,,srs ot ,n,,,:i. Inlit.s. l!o..-sUuu/ </;Mnrt ami SIrrm Xnada. 

1. la 2. 


if? 96 .012 .69 

ifn '■'* ■'>0' •■'o.^ 

w",^ 10 -001 -10 

Pi^? *■.% -IH 3.79 

S"^ -21 .001 .19 

iio-atiio^. :■..-.. ■■..;.•.•. '■.\', "^ ^-^ 

H,0 above llO^C .50 [^ 

^''^^ .46 (m 55 

100-12 100.02 

•''p. B"- 2-7*5 







hi i'\i!i \ii:\i or /III. i\ rruioit 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 
Tlic ciilciilalcd iioriii i^: 

Orthoclasp.. .. 

Albito.. .. ■W'^i 

NephelitP.. . -«•-« 

Aiiorthitp .. I'i'- 

Diopside.. .. I7-7!' 

Olivine.. .. • «»7 

Iliiipnit.'.. ."..'.■,■' 10I8 

Magnptite l**^' 

Apatite '■*>- 

Watpr l-'J-» 



A.TonlinK ,„ ,|„. X„,,„ ,.h„-i,i...,.„n ,1,.. ,.,„1< .Mt.r- tl„.,,,.,..,!.. s,,!,- 

un^. rn.,n.o„oso. of ,1... ,|,„„alk„li.. n.njr. i.omus... i„ ,|,.. .i„ al >,.. or ' 

.'orrnanaro. Tl... „„„,.raIo, .„,| ..,„.,„l..,, .„„„.,„i,i„„ ,„„| .trm..ur. . i 

p.Tfo,-t.y nu.t<.h tho ,v,.i,.a| au^i.o latit. of Tal,!.. „„tain. Call on i 

«nK,„a!I.v ,k.s,.r,lH.,l l,v Ka„..,„...* Tl... analy.i. ,.f ,1... nu-r- l.ui,. ,.l,a" „,• ,1,.. 
lahle nioimtuin Hon- ,s otiforod it, Col. :.' of tho for..^^,!,,^. t„l,|,. 

iToni th.. trrsh rook ji.^t .lo-ril,..,! all tra„-itio„< to proto,„„llv allrrrd 
Phases are r.,.n...„,..,l i„ ,),.. aroa. TI,o lalito 1.. of,..,, U..,', .ra,-.!,, , 

a .lark ,.n...„„,..s,ve n.-.k. .,,11 .houi,,. i,, porphyri,;,. ..|,ara..,..r l.v tl,.. ..r...-, ... 
of hroko,, a„.l al„.r...l el.Npar pl,..„o,.r,vMs or of .,rali,i,. p-..,„lo„„ rpl,s affr , . 
M,.g.t,.. Lor tl,.. re>t ,l,o ...„„pl.., ..l,a„,..,l r„rk i.. i„ il,i„ ..,.ti„!,. ,.",„. 

n„ . ♦ho„,^h „o, ot,..„. a,. a,.,.v..|aloi,lnl ~,n,..„„... is pr..srrv...l. This is „ot so 
,ni,ch b....a„s.. ,1 has l,,.,.,, ol.l„.,ra,..,l l,,v „„.ta,>,.,rpl,i-„, a. l„va„-.. ,1...... lavn. 

wro larpf^v no„-ve>i<.|,lar ul„.„ tir-t <o„.oli.lati.<l. 

A>n,ife-hiotU. Lalile.--ThU ,y .f ,„.ssiv.. lava is a, l.-as, as i„,por,a„t i„ 

the area as tl„. a„,u„.. latit... A.- al,.,v.. „o,..,l. tl,.. ,wo varie,i,.s ^ra.lo i,„„ „.,. , 
other. a„.l the o„ly „otew.,rtl,y p..rsi,st..„t„.... i. ,1,.. al,s..„,..'or pres . „, . o 
h.ot.e an.oj.p the or„n„al ph,.„o..rysts. i?i„tit.. „ls., of,,.,, ,„.,,„.. „ „ „ „;' 

7h r\- .'•"■""'■.'•■^■f ^- '",""."■ - "f " '"'-p. ri.'h brow,, ,.olo„r a„„ has po«..rf„l 

..b.orpt,o„; ,ts opt,..ul a„frl.. ,> probably „„.l..r .'^ Tl„. otb.r phc.„ocryst>. tl. 

No p,.rfL.<.,ly fr..-h sp..,.i„„.„ „f ,l,„ ,,„j,i,e-|,i,„i,e latite was s..,.„n..l One ol" 
the leu-st altered .,„.>s, ..oll,...t,...l „„ ,he ri.l^.. .ioi,,!,,^, Keeonl a,„l Sopbi,. ,„„„„- 
tains, a a p,u„t two „„|..s „orth of the Dew.lney trail (Xo. 456), has been 
amtbve. by .Mr. ( ..,,n..r. It is a e.„„pa..t. .l.-ep ^M.....,.isl,.«ray roek .vi,l, ,„„„. 
TzS 'ii,""' T, '"'"••"''"■'!'■ <='-n.^inff abo,„ Ab, A,,,,, biotite, an.l „rali. 

,' , -IT '!T, '"""•'■•''^ '"•« "■'"'"■'I I I" a„ ab,„„la,„. ori^W„allv 

hyalop^tj^W..,„sl, base. Tl„. latter is ,.bi..tly ,levi,ri«,..l Kb,--. J,s a,lvan....l 

•1.'. L. liansoiiip. .\iiicripa„ .foiirnal of .Scionop. Spr. iv. Vol. 5,18987 p. 359. 

. * /,'. 


in.i'iiitr III nil imir i>/ /;o\(«u/ /; 3^7 


altt'rntioii Iki- I,-,I i., th,. t,.i-Miai;.,ii ,,| k,,,,!,,,. ur^ilii,. -, ri.-.i,-. ..|,i.|..|, . /..|,itr. 
■ ■liKiritr. .Mrlinniilr. .,u.\ ;, litil,- .pi^i-i/, Urlli...-l;|.,. u:i- a|,|,.ir.inl\ ri.\.i- 
\ i(hiiill/t'il. 

Mr. (■,.iiii,,r'- jii;il\-i- n-til!,-,| ,,- |m||,,u. i'I":,!.!, W,, c.I, |); 

/"'''■ \ A . .1 ;i<(/'/VC. ,(' illl'l'llr-l.'itilil, Utlih', 

1. 1" 2. 

.p'V? ■>!'•'••■ "M tiitl 

J V; '■"*' •"!* 'f»-"' 

i*,':''" iB-.'i i::i-, 

i^iV" -W •00.1 L'% 

f,*'";- •• • JHK (His IKI 

J}"*J ■■.'0 00:1 OS 

*'k" ;i--.i DSH 10:. 

',"" .iO(t ;i.i! 

".»l^ -11 OOl .jl 

•J»?," i-M -(IM. 4;;i 

•^jU ;|.!)j .ftf) 4.1(1 

H,Oat iioh; ..| I, 

JI,() iiliovp 1I0°C .]<> , ;;■ .7-, 

J!-'' •-■I -ooi -iii 

xyA '» 

!',''''= m 

^ -11 

99:)-i ioo-;i:) 

*>!'• K'' 2-796 

III tlie Xcinii rlas-itir;iiic.ii the mrk .■nicr* .lie -n,li|Mit;i.,i.- MiKniiii;. -I 

lioni>-c. of tlif iilkiiliciilfii- iMim. jtidii-r, in tln' .lo-aljiM -.■rin::iiar. . 'I'll,- 
norm i.s as fi)ll(i\vs: 

H"Y*^ R-Bt 

Ortnoclase ■ITi 

Albite '.' ■ ;: iTl-io 

Anoithite 19.71 

Hypeistheiii- ' '. yi.-^ 

H'*>I>*'Jf .. 6-40 

Ilmenite .).]3 

MaRnptite ".70 

Apatite .31 

lljO and to . . i,,f, 


la the older i-liis>itic:itioii this varirt.v i- .■Icarly m liiotiti-avi;.'iti' l.itit. 
In Col. -1 of Table XX, llic- aiiai.ssi- ,,f one dI" Kiiii-oiiii'- l.vpe-. that I'rc 111 mar 
<"lover .Meadow, ("alit'ornia, i- .•iil.Trd. Tlie alkalies are a little low.- in tie- 
British Coliinihia r.H'k, but tin- re^lle.■live ditlVreiiee- are to,. Muall lo .'aiise 
doubt as to the elassitieari.m. 



' ^ f 



t i 


i>ri'\niur\T OF rin: istf.rior 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1S12 

... the I oun<i..r.v l.,.l O., K,...or,| ,„„„„„„■„ n,|,.. i, i- i„,..,.m.,|,|..,l wit', ,1,.. 

Ho..n.lMr.v In.,.. I he .pe-unen. ,.„1|,.,,..,| „ , ,,|„.,., ,, „p„,„iv.|v 

frrsh mill i.rc iiiicriishod. ini.nnn.iN,.o,,i,...l|,v. th,.r,. i- |,„|,. ,„ ,|i-,,„«„i<h tl,,-.. n.-k. In,,,, th. ,. 

.-m,.,„n a„K„,. l„„t,.. The ..ol,,,,,, «r„i„. „„,| Kene>-.,I h„bit i. th- -„ T.,.. 

|.hr.„o,.ry... „re uu^.tr. ,>livi„., ,„d l„hr,„I„rite („v..rM«i„;r \h A,, ) ' Th- 

Tt::z "7i rv ■^■^"''""'■- '''-•■•'«"•■''■->■. -• ...i.r„..o-.aiih;;.. 

~tr; . L'i *' ;l«'v^-l"t'"''»t o. ,.,i,r.,li,i,. a„^i,.. a,„l,.,h.,i„.. Th- 

exoopt that a I.ttl.. phoi,„-rv,ti.. Mutit.- is ,l,.v,.I,„„.,l i„ ,u / 

Reenrd m„n.,tairi ri.lKc. ''<^'Iup,.| ,„ th,- ,,«.,.„„,.„ f,.„,„ 

That spe..i,„,.„ ,X,, .„i.,^ ,„„ ,,.,,„ ^,„„,^^,.,, ,,^, ^,_. ^, ___^^^_ ^ 

s.ope slw.we, that th,. a„Rite i, hore s.„„..what „rali,i.,.,l a,„l ,h.. „livi,„. p„r,lv 

KO..orat.„n of srr.,.it,. ,n>..u a,,,! otI,or s,.,.,„.,i.„..v pr,„l„c.,s. Tl,.. -,H.,.i,i.. ,ravi.v,e >, the more reliable since it, .• to the fre.h.-.t sp^-einien 

Fro,,, the ..hemi.-al „, i, is ,d„„r that thi. latit,. v..,^.,m „„ aM.^it,- 

AnalnsU of avgile-olhine latite. 

SiO. .,„. '^o' 

Al,d.V. ■.■ I'OO 013 

FfcO ^^^ -l.^ 

F«0 2-85 .018 

MnO 3-28 .046 

MirO 11 -OOl 

CaO ■■'•'* "^^ 

SrO 5-33 .095 

BaO. ■'» 001 

Na,0.. ..■■..■■..■•.;■., /ll 001 

K,6 j-n •o^' 

H.OatnO-C. .. 3-«6 .033 

H,0 above llO^C "Vf 

' -16 .001 


^p-«' 1:^1 

f the domalkahc rang. ,„onzot,as.., i„ the ,l.,.alane ord.T. «, nnanar... Th.. 
nomi IS as loilows: — 

HI foil I in Tin: i-iin:i \siitiisi,\ni{ 



Albite .",■.; 

Anorthitp \ 


llypiTsthenp . 


Ilmenitp .. . . 


ii.o ;; ;. 









I'miii I 
. Th.'v 





llo,nhk-,ut.-au,nt,' Ul,h:-\ i„ur.l, ty,,.. «,.s ,„l|,.,.t,.,l m, ,I„. :!.l(Hi,,„..t 
■uMtour .,„ the >lM,,e .liic n.-t ,.f S.,vwar.| n.ilwnv >t„ti.,n. It i, , ,| ,,-| ..nv 

rack wul, ..n„spi,.,,on., InXnnis, M.n-k priMn.- n( ph-no-rv-l i,- uM-n,!,. ?n';, 

Kray-t lilted ^rrouIld-nlll!^^. Tlu- ik i,iih,r linrTiMrii,!,., 
mm. ill IciiKtli mill iiri- iirnaiw.-d in rnii>;lily tl 

pani,.,l l,y n siilor.linnt,. n,iinl,..r „f i,li,.n'inr, „,„ , .„ „„„., 

.•r5-Ht„. „it t,r-t ,|„..,,ver..| in thin s.-.-tion. Tl,,. tM.,n,nl-inMv, i. „ rath..,- 
•■onfu.s,.l. t.MonH.n>talliii,. aff^TeRato „f tiu- sani.. I.i.ili.-at... an,| f,.!,Up.|,. [„ 

this raso tln-n- .-UM Im- iu stinn that „,,! las,. f..rn,- a !ar«,. prop„r, i,',,, ,.r 

the Kn.nn.l-nin.. t.-hlspar .ni.-rolit.«, whiHi for tin- n -t aiv pr..l, lal,ra,l„ril,. 
M«Kn..tit,.. pynto. p.vrrhotite. an.! a little titanito uro m'.-.Nsnrv ,nin..r,>l- .-aL-it,. 

'•hiorito. ipidnte. kaolin, and ^c 

I No. Ci^u) is coniparafivfly fn->h. It 

fnrm shown in Tal.le XXL, Cnl. 1. 

par inicrolitt's, which I'nr tin 

ite urn acci'ssory inim-rals 

ricitc aro -<r'iin.;ary prodm-t*. 'I'lii- - 

analy-is. l,y .Mr. Cmnni-. n-iiK.. 

IX riincn 
I in till- 

Tahl,' XXI'-Aiifilusis of lioinhlri,,!,- 



SiO, ., ,, 

il8 -80 

Fe!o »«•*» 

Feo ^^ 

Mnd:. :.■■.. °°* '''■♦• 

MgO •" 

CaO l^l 

SrO *-2* 

BaO . ?* 

Na,0 •" 

K.d f" 

H,0 at 110°C i^ 

11,0 above 110°C , ,, 

c^:- ••'.:•.•.•.•.• .v.: .v.; .•.•,•.■;.•.. •.;...•■ - 

FeS, and io'A'.'. ',', ',', \\ ;. '"'^ 

*"■«' T^2 

<»a a,/,-„nnt of tin- pr.Nrm-.. ot' py-h..tilr tl.. iVitmu.s „xid,- 
l"ro.-tly dotonniiu-.l. The propurti,,!, > fi., „.x..',. ua- ,.,tii.n.t,.,| 





















■66 i 



I n.^t 


.* ■ ■'- 

"«a» V 

330 "I i-uinii\i III rill nrimm: 

2 GEORGE V, A. 191? 

••"I. 1'. Kii-t. .„, ;.n,.„n,l „| ItO n.|,r,.,..|,tinir sulHri.nt I'.. t„ Mitisfv tl.r -„l,,|.„, 
•rr...»t. w;., n,.,...rh,.,M..I. ll„. -„l|.|,i.l, - „f in.n «vn. Mrl,i,rar)lv .•,„wi,|..r. ,1 a- 

..•nt tlu. F..O ;,n,l |...(. „|- ,1.,- ,.,„.U 1„ ;,.-,„„i„. ,|,Mi .1,,-,. ,.xi,|... „r in tlu 

av,.n.^.. prni.nrt...... uiu.i, ili.v |,„v.. i„ „,l,.r .f,nl.v.r,| |{,„-I,m,.| lavns ( X.,s. -i:,„ 

i.n. ,.l..t. fl... ,n,„l,v-,-. ,„ nr„|,.„lnt...l, i- .■uur'-\ in C.I. -J: tl,,- ■■orn-, lir 

MKilfciilnr |ir..|M.rliciM> nn- sIi.iWti in Col. l'-i 

Tlio norm w;,, ■■,,|,.„lat.Ml from tlir vHlu....ifivon in CoIh. 'J an.l Ja. with r..s,.l, 
lis toiiuu «i : 

Orthiiclasf „. . 

*lbit.- 23.(»i 

Ncplu'litp.. .. *•*' 

AiKirthitc. .. *'^ 

Ui<.l*id.>.. . >*8* 

tllivin.. 19'<1 

llmeiiiti- ' 'J'rJ 

Mugnetitw .. '.; 

Apatite •''" 

I'yrite aud pyrrhdtitc. „„! 

H,0 and CO, f2i 


A.'.onlin:; to ,1,.. .\„nM ,• i,i,,„,„„ „,.. ,,„.|^ „,„,,,.. ,|„. ,.„,| „,:„7i,, ,„i, 

';"*''• ""■'" ^'•- "' " '"""11 '• •■^--'. "" i„ ,|„. ,|o-,laM..„r,| 


.Wnlin, ,o tl,.. oM,.,. .•Ias-i,i,,„i„„ i|,„ ,„,u U l.otl. ,nin..raloKi,.a!lv an.l 

.lu,m.o.ll> a hornl.|..n,|;r,t.. iat.t... It wa. nowluT.. mmm, t ■„lar hn, 

-"' "'■'--mt o! ,U ,H.,.M-„.nt H,,.. .rain, i, i, |..|i,.v,.,| ,„ ,„,,..,. t.. a ,na.- i .' 1 

ratlKT than t.. an intrn-iv.. I, ' 

A >oim.«hat similar ,,.,rph.vriti.- ro.k. inrha,., intn-iv.-. ..r.,,,s ,„„ „„ ,,„ 
.■w.h,-.v tra.i whon. ,t .-ro.-,. ,h.. I.,w ri.l^.- l...,«..-..n Sophi.- tnonntuin .n.l 

Jill^' nX" '"■"■'■ "'" '—•'->"'-''-' i„'th,..r f:::i: :' 

//on,hlrn,/.-l.i..>.lr l.„lilr.-^\ tifth t.v|H. of lutit.. was .•,.II,...t...| on fh.. m..,n, 

am srM.r rnnn.u^: ,„, tr.,m liitt.r .t....!. so„,h, astwar.l at a point four tnih-s .In. 

..a.t ,.1 th.. ra,lr..a.l sfatn.n at Cas..,.!,.. The ro.-k .•rnps oat at the :i :!(H1-fo.,t 

■■.m ..ur a.s a nn.s^n.. ^rra.v t., ^'r..,.ni.h pray, „on.hyritir. non-v.^icular trap, an.l 

M>on.s to ..xt..,,.! nn,,..lly ah.n^f ti,,- ri,l«.. to tlu- l.:!(M)-f„.., .•„nt.,ur. wia-r. 

t .s infTl,.., ,...,1 with n.r.I ..f lin.^ hasi,- ash. (' i„„in^. s..„thoastuar.l 

. h.. I o-.n.lary l„n.. tl... sam. lava is -....n in,orl...,l,h..l with ..oars.. ..uart.. ..o„ 
t.lom..rat... Ilus typ,. „t lava was not i.lontiH,.! at anv oth..r lo..alitv 

I ho ph..n,K-ry-ts ar.. hro« n hiotito an.l ^.r,..., hornl.l.Mal.., th«. fomu.r pr- 
•lonuna .n^^ I h.. .leLrminahl,- f.-hlsp.r. av.ra^rin- lal.ra.L.rit... Al. \n >- 
-.mfm..,| t.. th.. pronn.I-mass wh,.r.. it fonns „,innt, . tal.nlar. twinne.l .ry.tals ii; 
preat num ».r. A «r..,.n l,i„tit.. of h.w absorptive power and evi.Ientlv 
..1 d.ff.y..nt lr.,m th.. pheno..rystie >r.i..a. i. ext,^nsively .lev..l.,p...| 
|.moj th.. phwo.. as.. nn.r.,lit..s. This ^n-n i.iotite aKo fonns eomph.te p.s.u.l., 

morphs al ..r th.. h.,r en.I.. ph.n.KryMs, - , -hat it i, .lonhtful that 'mv .,f th. 

nuea of the gronn.l-mass js orinin.l. ( •.rt!,o,.|aH. was nn, olKerv...l an.l it i- 

I!ll'nl;ii,llin I nil I i>l l;i,\,,Ml If 


|ir;i«'tiiMll\ iiii) i|,|, I,, ,1,.,, r.,,iii. i|„- 

kTiMt llii^ lii'cll till' :l|l. r.iti,,!, ,i| III, ,.,„ 

ir.i.t. r ,.| i|„ t;r,,iu, 

.I-* the uii 


ii'l II ,1.1. 

""I''"" - '"I.irv |.n.,|iirt-. .1, Hell 

liornl.|,-ii,|,.-l,„,t,,,. hitii.. ,„,,., I |„,„„ ,11, .,„,,,, 


Hu.l,l.. I,,l,l.. A ,,M I, ,v,„. r, ,,iv-, „„ ,, hn.i ul,i,.|i ,. ., „.r „ ,,||v lik,. 

.. nil,... un,l..„f... ,i.t „„,|..r ,|,.. ,„i,.r..„..,|„. ,|,„vv, f.,„,ir. - nLitniK it r„ ,1,. I.,,,.., 

iu-ril'-nl,.., . I„ It, |,r..,.„t .■,.,„lit,..„ i, „ ,. ^.r.-.n,.|,.^:r.,v n.-k „|- ,|..,.i.|..,IN 

.^rh.T ttti. .Inn, ,l„. «,v.t ,„:,,„.rit> „t III.. K„-,h„„| l,v,-, |Ji,„i„. „,„, I,,,,,,. 

-lont,. <,.v..r.i;rM,u nb„„t Al., Ati . .„.,. ,|,. ,.|„.,.,.,.r> -t- Tli.. I,...,. «., 

'■,•""'''■; ";"■'■ "^T'':' "'"r "; "'""'' ' ^' '"•- ••• ' ■'■^-l"-"' ^"" r.. irr..«„i.,r 

'T ,"' /■•••'•''^'I'l^ ..rtl,.„-la-.. u,,.,. ,.,„I„.,M,,| n,,. ,r..,i,„l-„...-, i, „„«. 

•''"',"' """V''T' "■',"' "' '•''•^' -'■"■''''■ '""■" "•■■ -- "f" vvl.i,.!, i* 

(IdiihtlcsM iil-o ,,t (.riuiii. 

Tl.i- r.«-k liiH i„.t l„...„ .•lu.|iiii.|,lh «iKiK/.,| i,„, il,.. ;„.i,U.|, ,.f .. ir,-l, ....■-•I. 
""■■' "..i.M .M.m-pHii.l ... >„,,i,v 1,1,,.,, ,„i,l,.„t..- wl,i..|i .P,.ri.-li in ,,.,..wl,, I„ 
v,..w ,.t til,, i.itiiniit,. :.-.„. i.ti.m ..f tin- tv|„. with tl„. ,ii,.l..,il,l, ,|. .i,;.h/..,| L.tii,- 
,t .,....m. iM.-t t.. n.K„r,| .1... m.-k ., ;, ,,|i,. 1,,;,,. ,,,„|.„, ,|i:ni ., tni.- .,„.l,.,it,.' 

!h,.imli It ii:ii-t 1... ..II til.. I...r.l.rllii.. I.. iu....|, tl,.. ih.. - i,.-. 

F..,ur 1,,.,,/,. /,„/,/,. |.i,„|K. „„ ^,1,.,,.,,,, ,,,^^, „|,j,,|, _^._.__^^ ,^^ r.|,r.-.i,. .,„ 

..pi"w,t.. ,,.,!.. ,„ , „. ,|„r,.r,.ntiati I ,1... i,„i,i,. „„„„,. „.„, ,.„„„| ,„ ,,,.. 

castt-rn sl..,H. „i ,1,., l,„K-|.;„.k ,i.l«- i„ ,,1... w..,,..rr,) SI,....,. ,.r....k v,.ll,.v \ 

st.c.on,l l,„t ,>,,.,..• ,l..n.,tf,il .„rr...„.,. u .„ „.„o,| ..n ,1,.. ri.l^r.. I...,w....„ |l„„„;i„r\ 

mom,t,„.nt N... l.O ..„.| ,|,„ ,„ry.|| l,ath.,litl,. Tl,.. ..|,i..|- „,i„..r„l.,^n,.„| ,|i,T.„:. 
eiuv l,,.M tin, ..V,.,. ,,.,.1 ,1,.. „„„lv/,..l „„;;i,.. h.-i... ..„M-i,., in , ,,r.. „ 

iiierca>f in tin- ii,mil.i.r .if 


>t'<'tiiiii), mill a|ipari.|,tl,v 

iiii>;it.. jili. i,..,Ty>t- 

ilici" .]f hil,ni.i.,rit.. |,l,(.ii,„.rv-t- i\vl,i(.|; 


arvessory ajiH ...ei.fiii(larv 

a ili...r.a-i- in tii.. n-lativ 

'i'r..,|i(iii,|ii,i.r ,|. .-r..;,-.. ill i| 
1 tii:,,v ..iitinly tail in tlii. lli 

miKit^ latiti-; i,rtli,...l»M. was not .,1.-, n..! in t 

•<. am..,,nt .,| tl,.- (rr(i,,i,i!-nii,-- 
iiiiiH.rii!. ar.. tli<. :,iin,.. a- tl,..-.. ii,,t...l f,,r tl,. 




ipe.'iniiiis luH lar;;(.l,\ 

»• Hr.iiin.l- 

iia— . wliii.|i 111 al 

.vi r I.. yrt.<.ii l.ii.tii.. an. I 

•r,.-if,i. nil, 

omimrison irllli .v„ ,-,.„ A'-r.;./,! /.,i(ilr 
iKitiiij,' 111.- ..tlwr t,v|i...- of lava in tli. I{ 

illut Willi .\i,lll,lc Mu 


tive to ri>vi(.\v tin ir 
oriffiiiiil latit.'s 


11 111 t.Tliis ol' tli<. el 

ill,. I >.'r..i,i. it will l,i. ii,-trii 

ii.|,, ...>i,<tit,ition .if till 

the KiKslan.i la. 
from Calif.iriiia. 
avcrnfri' .if til,, t 

''tiii<..i liy Hai,«iin... In Talil.> XXII., Col. 1, tl 

iti-- ,-; t'iviMi. ai,il in C 

I ..1. 

tllf ilV, tl 

i(. av.raui' ..f all t.'n k 

UK"' ol iix typi. 

ic avfrm-'ii ot 

al lalit.- 

itit.., ami (■ 

wi.|v(' nioti/i)nit«.> ri i 

I. tl,. 

analyses tliro.iiihoiit tl 


.. Wnrl. 


-t thrt'c iivi ras..- hav.. I,. 

iiiipilati .11 ..f i.l„ii,i,.al 

m per rt^nt. In making tli.. av-.i-ay.. of tli.' I!ii.-lai,il latit.-, t 
and aiiffite-liiotit.. latit,. wi.r.. ....n-iil 

•I, r...lii..|..i tl 

.i.» w<.ightefl as four 

iiiij,'it(. latitc an. I 

ajrainst i!i|. 

n-.l a- ..f <..pial u.iul,! ainl tl 

if tl 

II' aoyit.. lata. a v.. raj.'.. 

This wcifrhtinj; 

oli. in(-aiiffit<' latit.. wl,i..|i t.)f,'('tl,..r 

If analv,-.- ,,f tlw h.irtil.l..ii.l.. 

tiini-.. of the (liff,.rciit t 

.•orr.^ponils np]>r.i\iii,al<-ly 

to tl,.- ri'l 

p<.s in ti,f III — lauil .list 

u.Ti' wcijflitfd as 
;iti\i. \ .iliiMi..tri 



i'H-\in)irsT nr riif istkhiuu 

Tahlr Wll. V(, 

2 GEORQt V. A 'J 

« a a 

H"»«liin'l laiiti 

Mill I » NViMil.i 

lyi" l«ti,i-. 


Al O, 










.■l»l .'l'.' 

« ;ii 

1 (» 

1 <Ni 

111 »i 

111 7."i 

1 ID 

:i im 

4 "il 

:* iM 



t '>l 

:! .■■<» 

r. !« 

1 i« 





•1 .'tii 

.1 .M 

1 i,i 

1 .-.K 









Xv^rnift .,f 


1 Hll.l 2 


•i: k: 

1 ly 


III rii 

III .-i;! 

1! 44 

:i m 

:t W 

1 37 



t in* 

1 ;.'ll 

■. T« 

7 !!• 

1 ■ 

:i (11 

.■1 »s 

• I'.' 

1 II 



1 '-' 



OB 7:. 


100 oo 

llNI 110 

Tli'> ohwo corifi.spon<I<mi'e ,,f the U.whIii,,,! ,„ i «•».., 

ne UMBO*' lava tliaii y, tli.- c.rrpsp.mfrnp Dlutniii.' T,, .,11 
m.rf«.f «,I,„„ "iiltiii.ilK litfiTi rifiatKiTi t.-iii i li, |„. 

::;r^,'■Z1.-■z::;:,,,;'r■;;:■,;':',:■";i^ ,-';;; •-■■■-. ""- ,- 



„',-■ "«." 5/?'<* 







KH-niri nr nil < ,nri iv,v..,n„,„y 


■ tii'lili' liuitml, -Ai iw,, I I,, 


that tlii, ,yp.. ,„ „..|, „.„„. , '• .-^^ •''^••^'■'^ "■""I. '1- wrif.T :-l,..v.., 

•••■»'i -r,.,! .,, ,„.. ,,;:;;„,::: '•;:^;:r ,;:;;'"■- '•■ '■' ^■^^■- > .i- 

M"'''!""''!! l'<'loli)»i,|jf I,, 1.1, ,,, ., 

n...r .1.0 r„r,,.|I .v..„i... o„ ,.„, , : ■,' -.""—■ <!■- -..- ,.„l!,..,..,, 

""■""■'• 't «ni ,:,;,:;:; ,i;;,,;i;:t;:'-'''''^ "'-^'^''^ ^•••■■•' 

•Mlntit.-Mlivin,. r...-k «l,i,-|, ,. „ 


I- .1"-! Wi.l ,,f ,||., 

,, ,.j . . jTMl:, I. |,r. 

tlui» ihtf.r f^-xiitiiilK fr.„„ . .,„. „.;, 
The .'viilpii,-,' is .|iiitc cNiir ili 
Tn;!- iiiiBiU' iiiiil.-sii. u;,^ 

'■•'I -'■ - .•liar.i.'l,-ri,|i.. ,,f r.t.. |.,'i(,., 
iiih! t' 

III i...t.,.|i 
'"•-t -r tI,.. 1,1, .rl. 

very cdur,,. iwyloniorat- . ,r.i,ii,:; • l',L "i '"""''"■' ""-''■• 'In- I.I.tI,. ,„ ;, 

Mocks .... „..,.,. ,.„,., r,,;:,,,'*;,: :;, . '";,;--- ' ^- ■■-. .•;.^ :. T,,.. ,„...,. 

l'i-Htt.-.,„„rtz imriihvrv '"■ ' " "'' '-ii-l"-" ,,„. ;, 

'iii-irii''. llii- 

l'i"titt'-(|iiiirtz |)i>riifiyr.v 

._r,..,.| ,|,v„|,. |,.„w,..,„ M,,],!.. ,.„..,, ,.,„, ,„,,„ ^ 

flxTi- a v,.ry tl.irk :i,„l „.a.«iv,. .1,.,, inurl...!.!..,! „ . II ' ■' ''"■" 

-- - .1,.- u.iK,l ),ol.„.rys,a:.n.. ,.^n.^.„. ,„■ ...Ji,..'" i..| I , J ' 'n 

I'I'hMr.- iM-n- n.,M-|, .nor,. .ilt.T.-i ih.„, tl.o iVmic nin. r U- '' '■'^■■•'^; "" 

'm II. a, IT,..' :,- ,!„. „„^,,,., ),.,r„|,|..,„|,., „r „li,i„:. ■'"■'■" '"•• "'• 

/" ''"■ '"' ■'" 'lif triil .n„ll,«..<i ,,r I :,K, „ „,,,i 
' vin.-jrcc l,i„,ilt forms .u Ica^t tw tl, ,-,■!, i|,.u. „,.„,,.,,.'. 
■I I'.i' tilth 11,,. .•ontH.'t-plniM 

||ii. !l,v r\i.!,n 

Ml ,. f...,r |;,X,.|- 

li"u- li.-r,. :i -trii,,. , '■ X ],, I.- . 1 ,; 

to ,lu. w,.-..„nl; tho ,..n,. -,a. ,.vi,l,.n,lv 1 „ ^,.,.,.,K .l,.,,,.,.. V ,' '''^ 

l"''l I llir .listiln Moi, „f ,l|j^ l,.,.,,i, c^., • ^ ""• ' ■" 

iial.;,-i.- A \ 
■•"1!<-I-I at th,. ,.lij ,,'■ ,1„, 

/■/'."• o/ /./,.,„•;/„ 0/.w,/M,.;' Tliron^I ,1„. u i„ i,. :,r,. , 

Iv.i.iid.ry l„.]t i>, tlio R,„.-lan,! ,M..„„t,u„,. .,,■.. I ],-„ .,r,. .-xin.,, 
"uniU ,,r l„otii,.-q„ar'z ,>orplivr>. i.,ol.;,l,lv a II, ' " 


ii- >ir 


I I 

i ) 


ini'\unn:M nr nii: iwhiatut 

2 GEORGE V, A. 191 

IK.ssil.l.. „....„m„,v „f :„.i,| l„v, „|,„.,,,.,i |„ ,|,„ „.,.i,, ^ ^^^^ ,,^^,^ , ^^_ ^ ,,^^ 
...te..alai,„„ ,„ tlu- Cn.tM.vniK (M :u-iilit<. ■,, ,1„. ,.r„.M„.- „f ,1,.. |!„„n.l,, 

n lan-l.v ,1,- m,t I,,,, ^r ,vl,i,.h i„ ,1„. ti,.l,| „,,. ,;,1<,„ f„r l„.,|,li„.^ Tl,.. , 

7::^:r ' T"; '" T"- '■'"'*•'• "'•■ "•"■'- '"• " "-■ -■■•i' ,:,.,: 

iron, tlM^ ro,.k slnrnv. ..-rtai,, pn,„r „,■ ,1„. „,i«i„ „,• ,i,.. ,,„.k l,ut .1, ■„, , .^ 

ap,„.»r,i>HM. w„.s 11,.,, „,• „,i.,|. ,„„,i;,llv ,„l,..r„li,i,. „l„i,li,„ Tl",. wr 

sM.all ,„lu.n, 0, M. „, ,„> ,.„„Hv .l.-v,.!.,,-,! ....Ilal :,.^Kn..'a.,.- ,„-„,„„-,x :,„„ 

W.I>,mr an.l ,l,o,r nuunx „ a very tin.. .rai,„ ,| ,,• pl,v,i,. i„„.r.r„ vll, „r ,1„ 

softion. I he huinlinj.' may l.i. a How-slnictiir. 

Si>,«, ils .•hara.' ar,. „l,s..ur,. a,„l hn-^^.ly nv^rativr .1,,. wrifr „,„-. 
regard his rofor...,.-,. „t ,|,is ru.-k t„ ,j,,. i„i,l ,.l,,„s a. t.ntativ.. 

/V/rv n,H ..|,/,,/'„m,„/,..v.--.M„-, „,• ,1,.. ,r.,, ,„„,,„i.„| ;„ „,.. ,j,„„ularv 1.,'. 
I.y tl... lu,.-.„, ,,l v„l..a,iw Kroup is Mn.l.rlaiM l,y mas.siv,. tlows „f th.- latit... 
an.l.-s.t.... an.l l-asalt-. A .-nnsicloraM,. traW, os, i,nat.-,l a~ .-..vTin.- n I. ■, '• 
f.ft..o.i s.|„ar,- is. l,„wov,-r. un.l..rlai„ l,y a tlu.k. „,„■•.. ,„■ 1,... ,^,„,i,n„',„- 
muss <.f ...,ars.. v,,l,.ani.. a,'Rl„m, rat... Tin- pyr,„.la~ti,. ..„n,p„..s ,1„. ■nai,„-i,. 

of th.. ..Mt.Tnps l,ot.w....n Lak. M.,.„rtain „n tl ,-, an.l tl... tnp of s'„pl,;,. 

mountain „n the wost, l.osides ,.xt...ul„ .• |.,r -..vral ,„il.^s alo,... I{. ,.„r,| niniw' 
tain n.lfc'p. i..irtliwar(l. from the Hoiimlary lin.^ 

Tl... .•nnstit,,,.,,, tra^.-n.<.nfs ar.. an^lalar P. - M;:„lar. r.,u^\u^^ i„ .,/, 
Irnm ,l„.st-parti..l... to l,l„..ks four f.,., in ,lian„,.,-. Tl... ,l,.p,.i, i- ,„„ ,|k 
without hut ...msist.s .,f a lumultnous. ,uas-iv,. awn^t: .„ ,i 
fraKments whu-h w.-r.- ,.vi.l...,tly ....v.r sort..,l l.y waLr-a.'! i.u.. \I„., ,,, ,1,„,„ 
ur,. <.„M>p.,so.l „t au^nt.. latit... bi..tit,.-auRite latif. or. to a loss oxtont. „f has,!. 
ami augito an<l..s.t... H,^i,!os th.s... ahun.lanf a.,trular l,l,„.ks „f f.wMlifrn„i- 

whit.. <T.v.stani,„. ,^t,.no .....ur in tho l.n...,.ia th>-n„j:h„„t tl... wh,.],. ,.a~t, r. 

slor.i> of Soph,,, mountain, and ar.. iik.'wi .u.spi.-uous i„ ,1„. |,n.....ia „„ ,h,' 

|.ast..rn sid.' of I.ittl.. Shi.i.p cri^.k vall<.v. 

A hasi.. aK'jrIoi.K.rat.. .iiaf,-os(.opi<.al 

lit lackinj; tl,.. limcstoni' hlork 

tlip Houn.larv I 

y ^miliar to ih.. Si 
lit tl 

'ph,(. ii,oi,i,faiii i> p 

ini- an.l Santa I{ 

Tops out thr..|. milt.s to the \v(.stwnrd. 1 

.o<a ........I;. 

..xaniii.atioii of tl... frn;ru...nts sliow.d tl...n. to h,. i-\ 
otnl " 

i\s alrcaily not(.il. 


li.tly .-iiifjit.. aiid.'siti', will 

a notnhl,. proporti.m of hlo.ks of ,lark ,.o!o,„.,.,l hiotit..',niart7: p.,n'l,.vry 

Th.s.. 1 


>|.(....i'ias licar iiuui..roi,s iT.ti.rcalatii 

n hasic ash-lii'.ls an 

f.nv lo.'aliti<'s th.. .1 

id a f..\v. tl 

IMS of till, inassiv.. lava tl. 

70° to 'MY-. Oi 

ip (.oi,|i 

il 1... tak 

'li.i 1.C.I-. of Idiii-k. rarlioiiac..,Hi~ sliali-. li 

OH-iii^.- that til., whole firoiip ha- I 

.'I.: ,11 yfi'iicral it is hijrh aiu] rar.i,'r- fi 

|.|i III avil.\ ii.oiinli i-lniiji 

DiMTis (•[ riiNi: riii; Kos- 

r.wii V 

Ml AM. 


various [mints th.. and(.sit. 

tho ten-mile helt are out l.y diki-s and iiToyiil 

in.lin^;- th,. (\,i-v,.|l hath.ilith 

seriK'ntiniz...). The Inr^est hodv 

iKtciir^ on K.coril 

iiia-.-cs of ilimiti'. now pan' 

niniinlain viiL.^... on 


i!i:i-<,i;r ni nil , im , i >//,•,, \,,i// /.■ 335 


1 "" '■■'■^■'■■^^••'^'••:^::^^^^ 

allil lM.lf;llcllt, . ^ ![" 'I'll., ., . 

l--sl.,,|. A h,,-.. ,1,!... ,, ,,„„,,■ ,l„.r„u. ,1,. „,-,H.,„i„,.,.,i .i,„.i„: ,.,„- ,1,' 

7V'""'^"'"'"-: - h'l.'.'-h ,:,i„ ,, .„„| , ,i,,H,„ ,1 

llLx"" ■"" '"'"■ '"'- '-•"""■ ^ '^ -'''•■ 

Sin,.,, this r„..k i. ^,.,^ ;„,, ,„ „.,,,,„. ,|,,,,.,,,„„ ,„„„„^ ,, ,, ^^ , .^^^^ 

a .> tM.r .„ >.,,.p..M. tl,.„ „„lv . ,,„rt,„„ „,• ,|,„ „.|,„l,. „u,MlM.r ,,1 „, •,.,„•,■,.„,,'- I,,: 

:;:;; ir?;'- ""••;•-.- '--v''"""^''- — . .'n,.K „;;„„.,.! l 

.truMon. „f ,1,„ v,.r.y 1,.-,,. ,yp,.. |.>,„„ ,'„, ,,„■„„, |„„^,| ,.„,^„; 

l.;'<n.:,n.,„.„r I..,.„.,ry..!u.Mi. ,.,„,l„.l,n i:. .„„| „•.,.! ,„ l;,,.,,., „ 

lain nilL'i'. ,, 

ItiMii; o\ M, IIm (.|,ii k. 
On Mri:.,. ..,-,...1< ,,I,„„, ,i,,..,. ,„iV, ,|,„„. i,. ,„.,„| , . 

^n «lu,l ,,r,n,..l „„ n,„r„-,.„.,„. ..xami,K,.i„n. tn 1„. . ,|„nit,.. h mU hu,Uu- 

:rLz :;,;"-''-."'''-''-^-'- --'r-'i- '- - Ti... i.,„i, ,, ,„: . 

t" -' "un. ,M ,,-,. ,li.,„..,.T. Tl„. .l„.nui„n pr..,!,,,-!- nr,. „1,. ,,■,.,„„ 

™m..1 ,„ ,h,„ ,.„, .v., analv.i- ., . .,,.,iv,.lv ,V,.-,, ,, ; " v 

• ■-'M «:iv,. Mr. (•,.,,,„„• ,1,.. |-,,ll,,wi„^ ivMih: 

. I /;././ ,;.v/.v „l M, /;,i, fn,;/.- ilinnh 

TiO <i-se 

.\l.(), "i>n« 

i.v:.()" I-2I 

Feb.. 91t* 

MnO.. .. iitit det. 

MrO.. .. -in 

CaO fSM 

SrO >-" 

KaO """«• 

Nu.O.. .. ""'"'' 

K.o : •<>» 

llrO at llO^C. •«♦ 

HiU above I '.n°<:.. 'r 

lyj, 1-M 

CO, -oi 

(■r,(),.. .. 'to 

NiO.. .. ■>■'■' 

s ; -IS 



^P- Rl'. ... - — - 

i ill 


i>h:rMtiMh:\r < r the istekiok 


M^ prescMK't' (if siilpl 

2 GEORGE V, A. 191? 

,. , . "'"■ i'i''''-l<'i«- uitl. til.. .lrf..nni.mti,Mi ,,f tliv ivlativ, 

prnportions „t ik- m-om oxi.l.-s in this rn,-l<. Tli,- .i.ialysi, 
tlio .viiU'i tliiit »•.• licic I 

»i- clciirlv cnrriiliiiniti 
>iiiMi<in t,v|.f (if (liiiiiti-. 

IVHII'MVHITIC MaH/.HI li.JITK ( I'lillt I K ;). 

At the- Dewdnoy trnil s„„t!. „f tho lua.l-wnt^r. ,.f Snnf, Kc. ..„...k .1,. 

, . r 'l ""•''''7«""-- " >^" ">"-ive. (loop KmM> rock. l„.ari„^ ,„ 

.s s„rta.-.. a ..l,.aya.^...1aees of i.lio.norphic on.statito. wLich i. ..„,I>,^1,1. , 

m a compn-t l.a«c of olivi„o an.l it. ,l,.,.ivativ,.. .orp.M.ti,,... ^lanv „„t.. . 

n. ..l,nra..ter,..,l I,v sphoroidal woatlu-rifK. an.l ,)„> rock has a.s..,„..e,l a tro , 

hr(,w, ..oIo„r. II,.re and thero it is shear..! an.l th„s locallv ..onvort... I i, ' 

nearly pnre serpentine. 

Th,. enstatite pJMM.o.Ty.t- n,„r,. 1 .•,.,. „r n.,>r.. i„ lenct . hv 1 to •' nu„ 
... ^l.anK-ter KeM.I.s olivine the only otlwr oonstitnents am ..hro.nit: 1; the latter n.ay he ^...v.n.lary fron, tl„. altered cl v n e T .. generally fros). hut has yi.dde.l son,o secondary talco.e neater! 1 
The ol.vme oeenrs ,n nnnsually small prait.s. which vary from 0.02 nnn t., 

than 0.1 ,n,n. Th,s f„,.. t,.xt„r<. .,f th.. olivine ^^ronnd-nass s,,,,,,,... ,1,„ ,1 
mass d.d no, erysta li.e nnder a heavy .-over. In the fiel.l ,h.. nn.s was tak,,. 
for a th.ek flew and it ,s qnitr pos.ihl.. that it d.^es represent the lava c,irr.~ 
po.,*np to a ,..r.dotue. .V s,..ond visi, to the locality mifrht solve this inter- 
est.n^ prohl,^, .,f relatims; n,..a.nvhil,. the rock n.ay he ..alle.l a l,ar.h„r..,. 
and ,s descnh.d anio.,;; ihe intrnsiv..s. lar/, ,,r„,,. . 

resnlfasSlZ's--"" """'•"'■'' ""' ^''"^' «P''<m....".. (N'o .^fl2) collected, with 

Aiinhi.Kis of i,„rplivnt;r li>irzhiir;iile rcffMsivr' ^ 

SiO,.. ,. 



Fp.O,.. . 


Mnfl.. .. 

MrO . 

<"aO.. .. 



Na.O ■' 


H,0 at llCC. . 
H.O above 110°r. 



Sp. flT 




















• 13 










'^him'- *■'-■ 

urn, in- nr rin: rmi r \.^ri;n\n\ii:i,- 


The calculated nnnn j,: 

Orthoclas©.. . 

Albite ' 

Anorthite '.' 



Hj-persthene.. .....'. 

MaRDetite.. . 


Af.-.mliiiK I,, tile A'(,r 






rang in ,he unname.. secri,.,. „f th!- ,>orf;„„::':;i ^ .r^ ' '—''' 

-Word.„g to the .,l.ler <.h,..M,ie..tion ,l,e r.rk i. ■, ,„,;,;,. ),.„. , 

<l ol intrusive .-nK.n-an cnstatite; or an cJt n ''.•"""•:■'■■ 
a trne lava which has ,-,,-talli.,.a „„ „„. ZtJ^n.^'lT ' ' " '" 

(i.ABBiios .VM. I'i:Mii».nii:s nk\„ ( „„i-.iinv I.m,,. 

The Sutherland .'^chist-coinplex i.s ,i,t hv tur, l.,r„ . 
chonoliths) of gahbroid rocks, U ., ^v,;iel^ l' ,' !^ ,,:;rf..:^'-^V:"' 
po,^...oM au.I extern of thee bodies is rou;.hly indicatJl on , lo , ' ~ ' 

The one mass, covering about 1..^ s„uare miles, o.^uv- a F f.. rulw .v 
>tatum and ,s n:ai,,.ed under the name. Fife w.bbro It i. n / 
greenish-black, medium grained iKirnbleud. -■ l^i! .. u ,. " *^T" "''■'''''' 

of bytownite and the two bisilieate. k Zni^ i ui "h:;; ,' """"i' '^ 
Kran.ilar.On „ne of i,s margin, ;he .abbro r::^ /^ ! S':"::!! Uh' 
black iiendotito eomposed of .lomwr.iit , li, .>.<;. i; . . r n • • '' '' -f"''"'*'' 

j.™. i».b!™.„., .;,„„„ ,J ;;;::;;:;;!;r:!:;.,;;;,;' ::::;;:?■-,:;:!„';"■ 

IS often sneissic through cru^hinu'. 

Two miles farther n.,rth on ~the railwav t;,, tioi, .■■•o~-, ,1, ,i 

edge of the se,.,nd of the ,wo ,abbro ma-s;.. whieh ^-uV,. ,!' .,::'';;;: 
?ame area; >t >s -napped nu.ier .he name. Haker .,.,bl,r,. I, . "'""" ''" 

biotite. diallage. and basi,- iabnidorito ^\b An) w^th u,„-,l rX^in 7, 
ferous magnetite and apatite are •uv.«..orv T hi In .L ":''";":• ''"" 

Wady crushe<l and gnoi.sic ' ^''" '"'^ " '"'"" '"''^' """•^'• 

The Baker fjabbro is cut by an irrepular intru^io., „f v,rv ,„ar.. bi„ti„.. 
-lalla^e-olu-tne ,.r„lo„te. with aeee^^.r,- tui^j-Mctite. apatite, a,el a v. r' 1 ,■ 
bas c plagioclasj-a combination of miueraU wl.ieh shows a elo.- ,. ,e e 
nect.on the «abbro. The peridotite is fr,.sh. with a \,.:£ Z-^' 
measure.! at .riirs. and show.. li„l,. .videncc of ..rushin.^ The „bu d . 

STi^^.rtr' '■'"■ '" "'""^ ''" '"""•"•*^^^ "- ''^""- -' -livi::';;::;; 

Rossl.AMl ^loNZOMTh!. 
For the reason already noted the eomplex intrusive mass on whi.h the cuv 

w^'jk} -L\.- 'A i(H'M'sr*.>i%vnv:.^ 



i>i:r\iiT\ih:\T of tiik isiT.Rinn 

Buuiuiiiiy siin-.v. 'I'lip following dcs(n|.ti,,i 
inanixript wn'tu^n hy Pr. (i. A. Yoiiti;;, ,,m 
coining r»>i>.rt on tlic mining troolofry ot i|„ 
very greatly imlelitoil to Dr. Young for tli< 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

of tin- nH.n/oniti' is takiMi from n 
"f t'lf joint anthors in the forfli- 
l!o.s?l;iinl (ii-trii't. i'ln; writer i- 
fiivonr of using this niateriiil iu 

advam.e of ,.uMie,„i„„. „, well ;,s to Mr. ij. W. Hro.-k, who In.s genen.u-lv 
supplied the Intlierto nnptiMi-hMl rouli. of ^^Ir. C.nnor-s analvsis of th, 
mo.m.„.te. (^u.tation marks the part of the pres..„,. „.xt 'supplie.l U 

■The monzonit.. ho.l.v underlies ahout ,.ne-half of the total area o- 
the map shoot (aceompanying the s,,..eial report I and iis alreidv stated 
ropresentH only the western ,H,rtion of a mughly oval ahout the mil. - 
long m ail east and w,,st direetion ami having a maximum width of ahout 

""","""' ""■ ""'"••'■'■ "■''<"'• 'I'lw.t part of tho monzonite mass King insido 

ot tho area m the .nap ha, a very irregular 1 n.lary whi.-h. e,',, o„,.;„. 

on the of Doer Park Ridge, first trends northeasterly and tl.n 
north, passing along the western Mde of Center Star guh'!,. The houndar^ 
-swings aeross this valley a >hort distunee hoyond tho northern houndarv 
of the aroa and iMirsuing a very irregular eonrs*.. follows along the t.u' "'■ 
Monte (risto mountain an.l tlwiwe diag.mally ,lown th,. -outhern fa,-e ot 
n "' . , "'°"""""- "Pndi"?,' a tongue aeross the -ummit of the latter 
Jioyond the eastern limits of tho map the houndarv of the inon/onite 
eun-es around tlie east faeo of ( '. an,l K. mountain 'towards the -^reat 
l.ody of Nelson graiiodiorito on tho north, then turning hack on i'tsoll 
exf-nds ea.stward a.-ross tho valley of Trail creek to the slopes of Lookout' 
mountain. 1 he ,outhorn houndary of the monzonito from the greatest 
oastorn extensh.n of tho ho.l.v. tak.», a general westerly oonrse. enterin- 
the area under diseussion, along the side of Cherry ri.lge near the south- 
eastern eornor of tho ma,, sheet and with a how to fho north, strikes w<.,t 
warl to tlio top of Deer Park mountain near tho .southwestern oorner of 
the 8'oa. 

-AVithin tho mass thus outlined a.--' several intrusive hodies of por 
phyritic inonzonite and pulaskito as well as a few areas of the l,o,lded 
.-series and of the augite porphyrite. The greater part of tho monzonitie 
hodyi.s surrounded hy th<. Carhonifoi-ous sodimonts and assoeiat.d augit. 
porphyrite.. the igneous mass euttinu- sharply aeross the gei .tiI -trike .-■ 
these formations. Towards its western end tho monzonito is limite.l U 
ttie eonsid<>rahlo area of \elson grano.iiorito foun.l in the valley of Shoe',, 
ereok. ' ' 

'The largo area of mo„z„nite with it- very irregular houndarv i~ 
not occupied by a simple l.ody hut hy a numWr ,.f varieties ,.f nx-k havin;: 
eertain ohara.Meristie.s in common hut still pr..s<.utinif mueh diversity i,.- 
general apixaraneo and eomi)osition. In colour thev vary from neirh 
hinek to light gray; in grain from very fine to .oars..; an.l in struetur. 
from granular to somi-porphyritiV. DitTcront ty|H>s at times out on- 
another and al-uig the oontnets, the younger varietio-^ iu-,t infrequently m- 


'" Uli: riiim l.>77,''.Sui/^W 



ITlW.lf.Hl Wltll illilu-i,,!! 

qiiitc liivor^c uiipcuraii. 
differ-nt viirii-ti,., i„ , 
"tlicr typty, wliili. in 
irreffiilur hixlii's witliin 

' It \vn3 not thoiijrlit protil.ililc t 
rnt vaiioti.s of ini.n/oiiit... .sp.ciiill 
rt'liitcil in oriRiii niid 
"US. As ri'nanKs tlic rrliilivi 
tlmt. in p-ir-rrtil. tin. ,.,,„r«.r t.vp.s an 
tcl(l.sputlii.- 1111,1 liHitcr coli.iin " 

■'■I'l- "11.-. \,( I,, ,,,.„.,, 
'" I'ii" j.T.Hlnally int.. 

' "I'.v larn.- area- t,, ili,. ,. 

^'I'Piiii- a< iliko-lik. 


iii-taucr-. lypc- ..f 

'111' aiictlii-r. 'I'll,. 

M'liwi.,11 i.f 

' or (piitc 

"I' 111.. 


111,' la.^. - 
tliir plilci 

itfciiipt t.. map -, |' lli, 

!■< tlii.v aiv all U'li-.v,.,] t,, i,r 

•'"iipf>-iti,.n iiM'l r.. liav,' l',.fi, ,i,.Mrl 

!!»;<'> "f tin- ,litT, rnit vai-i<'li,.< if «• 
iiim-i- than tin- tincr 

■ litT, r- 



il'l s<,'ni 

ami tlic iii.r'' 

variiti,'-* iir<' viMiiiL-'.'r tliaii.lli,. ,|ark,r. 

in the hold tron. tlio ..tlior vurirtics '.'•.•up,',.. „ |.,r,. 
the shaft of the (ircat Wistcr 
Smaller nroa.s ..f a >imi!ii 

Till- tyi f iiioii/,,ii 

•' "I iii/"ii.v, ..,.,, ,,„. ,,„., „„„, r,.a,iiiy -,parat, 

area strcti-liiiiy f|-,,,,, 
ru nun,. i„ n,-M- t^i.- Ii,.a,l.«,.rks ,,f tliv F.,.|{,.i. 
.. • '"" ''^l"-' •"■'' I'oniiiioii .ill the sdi.tli f.,,.,, ,,(• \t .. 

n-,s,o nioimtain an.l a,., alon. tho s,„i„nv..,.,^ '.J^d:: .'f . """"■ Thi:^ <.oarso typ.. is iisiiallv of a ,lark 
dark, luarly hlai-k prisms 


"iir ami cmsi^ts iawjv ,,(' 
K;„,;t„ 1 ,• , ■ , "' ''■^'■"•^<''"' '"• s..,-,,n,lary h'Tiihlpn,!,. ||,, !<,,'. ,,f 
hiotitc, and a Iieht .-o h.ui-,-,! foM-ivir th-if ..;,-,.- . 

as tlu. . thor dark .i u>s, i^ abundant ami f„r„is laa.. irr,.,MiIar l.k 

Tlio feldspars are usually whito or >Ii«litlv pr ' 
to lie betwpon tin. jiri 

in <'ol,)iir ami apixar 

... .. ,, -. '■""' "t '"'ff'tf »U'l li')iiil)l.n,l... thoiitdi when ,*..,.n in 

h,„ scnons thvy otton hay. sharply r,., tan..,Iar ..utlino.; th.y a .■ .1, o 1 ' 

labrador.U. .nfrstitial ,,r.ho,.la-,. in nioro s„hor,lina,e am."m,. ' 

whnr fu '"""""""■ f^'-iu.ntly -h.,^vs |,„.al variations alone bands 

^rt I'uh . i.'""^ "'""'""" "'■""■*' •'"■"' •'• •'■« '-'* then assume a 

^reen.h back colour ami is ..ompo-..,l nearly alfwther of .-oarsolv 
crystaUme hornblende and pyroxene with mueh biotit.. Sometim..s th is 
type seema to end abruptly „p:ainst the .urroundin.^ varieties of „ ore 

wh r^T"' "'"''■ "' ""■'"■ '"""^ " "■•'-"^ transitiomil f„nns in 

whle. he feldspars .neroas,. in amount whil.. ,he .lark eol„ii,.e.| eons,!, - 

.^f pjroxe,,.. or hornbendo niay the., ^nve a porphyriti,. asp,..t to the ro.-k 
Alonff he southern b„rder of the ,n,.nz„nite this t!pe or a relat.'l 
o^e no Id.s ,ar.e , liti.- biotite ,lak,.s „.eas„rin. a .piarter of a,i in oh o 

Tr etv o^ "" •"'"^ "'""^ '""^ ""' ''"'''^ '""•'"-'-- '^f ■-' fi"- -^--^in.-i 
variety of monzonite. 

'The remaining vari-'ties of monzonit,. pr.vsent ehara.'ters that often 

.1iffe«L T^rr'"'""* '"'"' ■■""^'''"^"'■'^' '"•^"- ">-l -''ile exampKs from 
different I.^alifes 'ay appear quite ,)is-in,ilar. y.t thev poises, ,...,-t„in 
featnres .n ..ommon and it w,u,l,i he ,„ii,,. p,..i,,,., „ .,.,..,, „ ^^-^.^ „^ 


iiji-Mii \ii:\i or Till: imi.iuo); 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 
H,^,nu.n. -howiuK . ^n.,l..,inM „.,„„ „„. „„„ ,,,„. ,„ „„,„,, 

.hffen.nt, aro, ,,„ ,|„. whol... ,i„ „! „,.„. ,,,i„.„, ,,^,,,.,,,.t.,, „, 

uh.t.. 1,1, spars and -lark, n.-arly l,la-k pyrox-n... l,.,n,l,lo,„lo-. .,„! l,i„ti„. 

Hakes. Ihe vnnoiN, mH- u-nally an- ,li.t,il„„..,| unir„n„lv -„ tln- 

..n mocloratoly tresh -nr.a,.,-. ,l„. r,.,.k- pr...oMt .1,,. app..a,-a, „f I,,.;,;,, 

'r'"i;r\'f " 'l'"'^' ",V'"'"'r"' "■''•"■ "'"""■• "•' -' "i"' 'i"v '1-^ 

■-Tains ami larpcr Lut still -mall. priMuati.. in,livi,luals „f tlw ,laHs ,:,l„„r..i 

..•onstituonts l„ l.„tli t „• tin..r a.i-l ,.„arM.r k-'. I wiiioti,-. ,|„. 

amounts .,f , he ,iark a„.l li,l„ ..„I.„m.,l <...„,p.„„.,„, varv fr la,t .„ 

pla.-... an.l uIuto tl,,. a„;.it.. „r l„,n.M,.n,l.. Is ..x,..v,iiMKly at,u„,la>„ ,1„ 
ro<^k assninos a very .lark jrruyi^l,. ahm.s, |,ia,.k ,.o|„ur. ..sp..,.iallv ,„„|,,l. 
;n the .•ase of iIk- h.HT .i.Mah„>,l vari,.ti,.s. (),, ,1„. ,,,1,,.^ han,l. with in,-r,..,- 

injr proportions of td.lspars. th,. j..,.„..n l,a,r l,,..,,,,.., a li^hfr ixrJ , 

.• more ofU..i show,, l,y the ..oar-or than tlw tinvr «,ai,„.,l ' ' 
vnt ./"""^'V"' ""■'": '"•'■ l>'-'>'l""""">,tly of a thu. nn.l .-von prain,.,! tvp... 

jet It oft,n liappoMsthat the ,la,-k pymx..,,.. „, |„„,,l.l,.„,h „r p.^K i, 

larger pnsmat,,- iM,l,vi,h,als s,.a,t,.ro,l tl.ron^rh ,h,. .i„..r. „nif„n at.Ti.., 

of the hulk of the r„o^. V.-ry s„,all „f ,lark ,„!,., a,v „s„allv pn.,.,. 
but 83 a rule i„ small prop„rti,.ns. S„m..ti„„.s ,1,,. „,i„„r,, .hiniuj: ijak,- 

of this miu,.ral !,e<.om,. ,p,it,. al ,la-nt au,I in .omc i„.tau,.,., la,vor ra..«..,l 

individuals ^>■lth dia„„ „p to o,,.. half nf an iu.-h aro ,„vs..„t t,.,l fhp other <-onstitueuts as i„ a ni,-.l,woi-k. 

• When thin seetions of th.. .n„„zoni,e an- vi,.u,.,l ,„„l..r th.- ,„i,.,v 
9C0,x>, the pyrox.-.,.. i.s -e.-u to he a pale frre.Mi a„«il.. ofte,, fon,,!,,^ pri- 
uiatie imhvHluals seMun: luensurint' more than an eighth of an in.'h in 
Jeiiffth. Ih.- auKit.' with s.-.-omlary hornhl.>u,l,. is always the .hicf an.l 
in s,inie eases, virtually th.. only ,.olour...l .■oi,slitu..nt. At times it forni- 
a larpe proportion of the whol,. ro.-k wliil,. in „th..r eas,.s. it is ..o.upletel; 
overshadowe,] hy the f.^hlspars. Brown hiotite is usuallv pr..s..i,t iu th. 
form of small seales or larger, ii-r.-jrular poikilifi,- flakes. The f..l,Kpars „■, 
prcdominantl.v, sometimes altoROther, of plaKi,...lase varieti.-. Tli.> i,„|ivi,l 
uals are jrenerally luth-shap,.,I and in many iustanc.s apiK>ar t,. I,., of tl„ 
composition of aeid lal.ra,lorite. An alkali fehlspar is often pr,.sent ami 
eometimes is quite ahundant. either in irr..>f„lar praiii- or in lar>r..r plat, 
like bodie.., enelosinp: the plapio.-lase laths. Some ,>f the varieti.^s of men 
ic.nito eontnin iiiu.-h ma«ia.tite. ., any. while small apatite 
crystals are almost iiiiiv..rsal. 

'The monzonite is oMer than. ai„l is eut hy. the ,K,rp!,yriti.. m,a.z„„i„ 
the .\elson Kran..dionte. th.. pulaskite, and hy a largo series of dvkes It 
apparently also is invadi>,l hy the .liorite porphyrite. The monzonite 
though having a sinuous outline, seldom seems to send offsho,.ts of aii< 
sue into the older rarbonif..rous sedim,Mits an.l associated porphvrit..^ 
which so larpply surround it. At three l,„.alities onlv. po^sihle eN<...pti„„- 
to this general rule were ohserved. Within the augite porphvrite th. 
southern Iwundary of the ar.-a and just t„ the ..a-t ..f the westerly haii.l ,-: 




umnti III nil 

'iiii I 

I ^ I h'ii\ii\U It 



'If «<li..M.nt^. Ih..>v ,. ., -,„.,i| ,„„1 .,,,,,,v,.,„K i.„i,„.,, 
innnzorut,. hk,- il,„t ,,f f|„. ,„.iKlilM„i>ii,.,- main 
1-1 fiirllv -1111 iiiicl l,v 

■HiMiiiiiply i^uliitcd 111,1. .*,.- j,| 

<>''<.-nr wit:,!,, tlie pily limit- aiKi :il,„ii,' tlic lili- 

romi th- l„,nl,.r nf th,. luiv. ,„.M,/..nit, 

•'Xl.-n-IOn (>{ th,. ,nOII/n„it,. ,.; slloU,, ,11 t|„ in 

stiinmit uf ('. iiti'l I\. II 
«'itli the innin :iriM. 

• TIh' honirr of til,. ,.,-i,iim1 iM,.i,/,,iiit,. m,, 
th.' >lo|H!s .,f C. ai.,1 K. n„,uiilaiii Imt t.>war 

iiiit.-r..|. ,.t urlifi 
x'll.v. 'I\v.> Miiall 
nifc'iti' [Mirplivrit, . 
■( till (ir.'af .Vcirflicrii rail 
TtM. Als,i. a t.iiiKii.-lik,' 
I' a~ <\tfiiilinir iictm.^ the 

nitaiii; thi- l„.|v ,. ,„-,,lmM,v .lirrctlv , „niH-,.t.Ml 

I- roiii'iiil,.,| tiy drill aii.ii^- 

.,. . , till' ea.-ifiTii iiiaiviii i.t' tin- 

map .t may l.o s,.en to lie Mo... ,„ th,. ,..,„,a.t of tl,.- a„^rit..^«r,.l vri. ■ 

and the area of per,, liyriti,. ,no„.,„ii,., ,horo .x,. , Kro,,' thi po- io 

P V. «,hng ..a>,wanl „.y „,1 th.. li„.i,.. .,f tl... hIi,...,. th,- li„.. of^on .„ 
•it Mo n,on.,„at.> w„h the „M..r for,nati...i-. swin..< an- ,„| f, ll„. , .'rth 
o>. tl.r so,K>s of C. an,| K. „u,„„. whi,.h .In.p rapi.lly ,., th,- ..a-t. (),. 

inhvWt"" ^"'"■."''°"' ""■ '-'"-' "'• t''^' .n..n.o„it<. with tl,.- a,i,nt.. 
porph>,it,. ,„-r„p.v„,p th,. >„»,nnt ,.f th,. hill, ar- a niw.ber of tuiinol. 
.•omn,.^no,„K M> the porphyri,,. hut who-e .iinnp. an ,„„ipo...,| laru.-l " , , 
.nonzon.t,. h „.ni,I,| s^„,„ ,h,t the porphyriti,. voi-ani,' of C ,,„i ]< 
mon„,a„, U .. ......iparatively .hallow l„„lv o,...„pyin.. th.. upper porlioi, 

allj- o..t..rop, a, ,„e,.,.-sively lii,l...r \.,,.U aloiiK the -„n,h fa.-., of ,1„ ri,k, 
and hnaly ocv„rs „i w!,af as a , e.h.UMoi, ,„ p.- the to,, 

'>f tl.o h.ll. That ,.<, ,1,.. top of ,h.. ho,ly a,„l a ,vMtio„ of ,1 veri,,.^ of 

iu- nionzon.f,- r„ass seems ,till to he preserve,! at. this poitif. This i,le.. 

urmshes a reasonahle ..xph„,:,tion f,.r .', ,„-r, n f tlu- ..ompara 

lively lar,.. ar.-a oft he l,..,l,l, -eri,., ..„.„..,, ;„ ,„.. ,i.,r,her„ p.,-, of th,- 
nty of Ro.s=lail.l within th.> nionzonir,. an,l wlii.h pr,.hal,Iv ivpns,.,,,- a 
ro,.t-p,.ii,lant. The sum,, ni,,,!,. „f orj^rin may 1... tni.. of the nei«hh,Mirint' 
Mnaller, ,l..tache,l ar. a of similar ro-k. an.l al.o of the two small onfrop, 
ot aiipite pon^hyrite o,i th,. lou.r ,lop,.s of Mont,. Cristo. or thev niav 
represent trapments t..n, fn.iii the foniui-io,,- o,„.,. overlvini.' or <uTr.,mu\- 
injr til,, moiuonite. 

'The larger pari of the monzonlte ma- li, - i,, ,1„. vail, v of Trail 
eiv,.k while its yreate.t eNt.iision ii, a no' ■,. •. !ir,.,.ti,.„ are ivs,„.,.(iv,.lv 
lip the Center ."^tar triih'h iiikI ,,ver the ' •• ■•,,r r\- ,a-t ,.f th, sl,,,,,.^ of 

r. ami K. mountain. Thl- jKi-sihle ,.,„„ •..'.tween th.. .listrihutioi. 

of the mon/onito and th,. low.r lyinu' p.o-:. ■ . of th utrv, may l„. 

purely fortuitoiLS hut when ,-,.iiM.I,.re,l in relation with the ai.parent eappint' 
of th,. body on (\ and K. iii..untaiu ,Tn,l th,. po-sihl,. oe..„rn.|i,",' ..f n.of- 
p<>ndants. it points to th,. eoiu-hision that, within at least the area niappe,). 
tlie ext>ognres of mon7..niie 1 ..lonp to a ^cetio,, n.-ar the upw.nrd limits of 
the body. It 1.1, nrverthi'le-. i).>ssihle that .it >,,m,. point or p..!nts, tii,. 
mmzonite ..xtended on .ipwar,,^ tliroiiph th,- ,,v.rlyii;fr (■arl>..iiif,rous .on,| 
prohably later rook- ami may have :ip|),.ar,>,l nt the ..irf,-,,-.. a- a v..l,:ii,o. 

'r?m--: Jk'fr--"'--j^?'33?^'~'^?iwf 


nt:PAKTMf:\r of thu istkrioii 

2 GEORGE V, A, 1912 
'The „roa ,.f tl„ „u,„...nit.. thu, .,,,„.„■. to nrn.-nt tl». upprr ,..r 
tion of an .p.eoM.H \yAy m pla.vH .till<l l,.v it. oW rock roof or holJi,.,. 
detached portion. .,f ,t. TI,o ,„«.. i^ not Uum„^cuvnu^ hnt U <-,.,..po-,..l „- 
many varieties „f what s.-ein to ho .■losoly rolutwl ty,.e8. tho earliest of 
whu-h are Koneraliy th,. finest in ^rain an.l .h,rk<.«l of ,.olo„r. whil.. ll,. 
later are .-oarsor. as if they had ..oole.1 n>or.. .lowly ,,.,.1 are more felU- 
pathie p,.rhap^ as the result of .liff.rentintion pr<,.vsse.. In phi.-c^ ti« 
intmhng have eut portions that apparently had «o!i.litie.l 
sin<.e the l.oundane. are di.tin.l ,„id w-ll .letine,!; in other ease. th.v 
seem to have inva.hMl mnss.-s still partly flni.l. sinee no ahrupt .•hanire then 
separates tJie different kind-. Perhaps «,me of the finer n.a-se. represent 
portions that had early solidifi. d nlonjr the upp<.r honndin^ snrfa.vs of 
the ipneons mass an, .'terwards m.nk into the loner, more eentral, «ti!l 
fluid portions. 

' No direct evidvuee se.ined (<. he .,ffer.'d in th- field ms to th- ,netli..d- 
by which the older sediment ^nd aupite porphyrite were removed to mak. 
place for the monzonit.. ma*; neither .li,l tliere apK'ar 'o he a.iv in<lie.- 
tmns of the nhsori.tion (if material l.y the iiionz.mite. INi-sihly t"h.> -onJ 
what abrupt ehanjre in the -trike of the strata resp,vtively north and -oiit'i 
of tho axis of tho ipneous body may indicate some more profound 
ttructurnl break pursuinjr a j;eneral en^t and wot .lire<'tion and whi-i, 
Kuided the upwar.l. i«.netratin;r maprma and {rave ri-e tn it« e|oi,;:Bte.l cr.— 

'The mouzonite is im.hmht.Mlly yuunt'er tlian the C'arhoniforous Neili- 
nients and assoeint.d aujrif i^orplivrite. The Mruetnral relations a« -hown 
on the aceompanyin>r Keolopical map. indicate that the iffnenus r.x'k wav 
intrudc<l after the major .■p<,<di of di.turhan.T- wherehv tii.. -.iirroundiii" 
rocks were tilted and fold, .1. The ,late of th...,. prominent earth mov.' 
ments has already Ih-oii dis.'u-rd an.l the conclusion va.-hed that th,.v 
probably took place in .lui-.i-i.- time-. .\s a r.siilt of tho liii.. ,,f r<.asoi,lti" 
ad.ipted, it follows tl'.at the nion/. niie was intruded in th,. .[uras-ie ,,r " 
later iK.ri,)d. Tlmt th,- iiitru-i,.ti t, .k pliu-e not lat.T than .Turassi.- tim,- 
18 indi(.ated i>y the fa,T tluit tli.. monzonit.. i- ..ut hv tii,. .\,.ls,,n -M-aii.. 
diontn. It-self of Jurassic ,,r . arly fr-taceous aK.\ The dedu..tion tlmt th.- 
monzonite h..,|y wa- f„rm..d in .1 .rassi,. times is stn..,^'tlu-ue,l sonuwha- 
by the fa.'t 'hat witlni, th,- yreat trraiiit.. area t.,, th,. north, the X,.]-,,,, 
pranodiorite at tim.., lavs-nts a inonzonitie facies. Possibly the Rosslan.l 

monzonite was ..lonely . onneetf 
appeared as a for.. runner ,.t it." 

Mr. Connor's analysis of a sp<,.ti 
LeRoi mine, residted as follows :- 

in orif-'in with tlie u'ramMlioriti- 

of tlie Kraiiular i.-ionzonit... tak. 




Hf.voKT OF Tilt rint:r isrni,\i,Mh:R 


.[linlllSI.I of I! :hhIiIIiJ I'll, Ii;.. III'/,'. 


f '3 TO oil. 

pi'V!' 18-Sl .is; 

t-tn «•'» •«>« 

i/yA ■'•20 .0:2 

J{"2 -in .001 

Jjtn ■•<« iw 

g"^" .TW OM 

H',okt"iwc:. :. :. v. *'2S ■'"' 

U,n above 110°C ,Ti 

p o ' • ■ 

k"' -10 

Sub:: ;. .;.: •=" -^ 

" noiiK 


Tlic I'alenliitiMl imnn ia: - 

Orthiiclase .,u,., 

Albite ^J; 

Amirthite fTS 

Diopnide '?;*? 

H,n)ersthpn» ,?; 

^'i^i"^.; ■.■.:: :::: :: :: :: :: :: i.<^ 

J'"K"<:t'tp ^,s 

Ilmenite 1 .u: 

I'yrite •;.•; ;; ;; ;; ■ ■ '.* 

Apatite 01 

Water and CO, '..'.'.'.'..'.'.'. !' ix, 


AciuriliiiK to tlio Sunn clii.-siti.-atiori tile rork int.Ts lli.' suilipotiissii' Mil), 
lang, inoii/.oiio.s*', o{ the iloTiiiilkiilii- niiii.'. iii..iiz(.iiM..r, i,, t!i.' d. -Mlam ••i-.l. r. 

Koriiiiiiiiirf. Ac-iir-liiiK' li, tl M.-r. M ,,1,.. .•las-iti.Mtiini it i> ;, t,v|,i,-al mim- 


The rluniical reliitiniii ,it' ihi- rni'k t.. thr KM.^lati-l hiiil.- au.l I . ihr 

calcuhilod wurlil-iivcnit,',. i,.r iiii.iiz,.iiito ( r.'(ln,-f.| f,, loit ,„., ,,t > .,,.,. shown 

in Tabic XXIII. 




i>h:i'\nr\if:\r in- uu. i\ii mm; 

I ill 


Tabik XXIH. 

GEORGt V, A 191? 





• 'ii« ). 

ll.o- . 


K.-M, :»,iil F.-.S 

— - _ 

. - -— — 

liir.i./f Ml' 


1 . n,.,. .,/ / 
t*iptn »f 

■'"■ .VJ 

1 mi 

Hi !IK 

.V. 2.'. 


111 \H 

■l •-11 

1 IIP 

1 M 


.'< (Kl 
1 37 

.t Vi 

V ■■(> 

1 "I 

'. VA 

4 20 

7 l!i 

;i sii 


1 IS 

:i ;«i 

1 li. 



1 It 





- ■■■ 


Km (H 

!•!• -ri 

100 IIO 



=r?z,sr"- '" -!-;--i*?.-r-;' 

Dr. bourns hfl3 Mifi^ifstoil II n.x-sil,l,. Juni-Mf. ,iir„ f„, ,i.- 

Trail Nel.on) pranoiiiorir... «hi,.|, i.,Ior,.,l l.v l,i„, „,. , it J T , 
.arly Ore;a.eo„s „. ,la,.. of intrusion; he „lsn p.>int „t tt fCv ''' 

■'" »' ""■ "■'■■""•■ -». -; «l::.v,'i;, ;:::";:;:„:•, ™r:r " 

BVS„- MoNZ.AIlK ,M, 1[„HN,„.1A,„,K „v BkM, CkkKK. 

At thp oniifliMHie (.f Hiar i-rrck wlili tl,« (•„! i ■ 
nrol,at,ly iv,l..ozoi,. .ohi,t« is e~l 7'' *''%'/''•'''''*>'' nv,,- a .,„all pall, „■ 

Trail I.atholith Part of ,I,r ; """*""' ^^ ""^' f-'"-"""' "'agmn of thr 

ehet^oa.iv id t:",;^ jH;;::':: ^Ti;;;,;- "i;;:;;' --i/'T'-irr'^; ' 

hornbendo. hi.tito, ..rthoolaso. a.ul an,i..>i,„. .V U ^ ^'^ 'll "'"" 

MtSSIONAL fAPfR So. 26* 


'■'""•t ^T.-,, l,.„nM.,„l,, M,l„.n|,„„.. .,.,'"■ ',"■"'"'" 
nl,..,..i:. • I iiniM (m,i». . I |„, ,,H.,-,|, ,,,,,.:,. 


liornl'lcii.litr v:irit- 


I III tW.l ■.|i,-,-|tM.'l 

■ix-'ili. JfP.lvitv 

At till- en )>».-. i I 

■'"' •■•'■'II •"•111 I., ::.:;.jo 


I !■ If •.(• 

■'Ill Hi.. .;,„„ 

'• '111, 1. 1, .fir,.. 

lavas I 
who roll 

- -^"i.i':::J:;::::\:::r'r' '-7- -r "•' -• 

-";--^r,nj.,.,l. Mawkish ,r,..„ i„ ,„ , '„';'; ";." '<'■"'"'"' - '-"i- h i. 
fnablo mulor t.l,.. l,nm,„.T. it i. ury ' ', l"'"l'"it.- Tl,.,,,^,!, 

T^^'^ '•"'•k «•« iio..t,.,i i,v •■ ,.,i"; •'; ^"""'•;'"">- ■'"" --i,...i 

•--V„f ,n„„pi„^thol,.„|. „r );.•;"""" 'I' " -'I »■- .i.„ 

'y t!.c> wntcr ..„„ld vi,i, ,),.. I„" r' " "''"'"'' ''' '"'-'■■'"■' i'-If 

t .IS «(T„r,|i„p „ ,v„. ,n,„. „'l I ,'''^"»^,^""'"-^'llv tl,.. r,...k I,,,. 

^•-'k-bo,|.v „,oro fullv -".I'Ui-l «,11 v>.,. ,|,.. |,„,,|;,, ,,„, ^,,,,,^. ,, ._ 

U:t-£:::z^^^^^^^^ .•..■ „,„„„ 

r'""*^ -;,.,.„,„„,;„„,.. I,,;;:" ;•,:,::: -, •- .-f-iv i.ii..,„„r,.hi,. 

!•"«.<■ f.n.|,.sim.. Al., An. Apafit.. tifu i ? '•>• Ii""Im^. mm, n,,„.r-|,it,.. ..„„i 

i^ the l,.vpi,ii, ,.,rphi...»rr„,n,l„r. ' ' '"'""'" '' ■ ""' ' ■'''"■ -"■■.W„r, 

By tlw Rnsiwal ,„Ptli, >| fh.. i„:ri,.r,l 

Hornbleide.. .. 
DiallnKti.. .. 

Riotite " ..'..■■,■ 




MaRHPtite.. . 


riif prcson. (' 

of iillialiii,. (, l.|<i,!i. ;,, r 

■•"'^^'"'-^ ^'■■-'-.liirt::,::;,,;,;;;;::;'^''-^ 

'■■.K;iNj„st,..,t,.fth.. K,„U. riv.r.t C.™ V " i' •" 

:i;;;; '-■';; ■.•f..!r';:;„'„':rr:;,::;::vi:r'-' 

.vn.t. .,r (1,0 .v,.i,„LTr Imvm< ..f tl,. l;,,.J„„i 









'- lll"-l,,ll (•l„>l,,i 

., -r,.:,,. 

ii.ill an^i, .-i ,|„. 
ii"t "••11 < .\[i,,„ ,! 

:",'l ,ii I -1,(1 yar.l- 

i,.i. I- III,. ,...!.,.,,• 
■'• ih.iii th,. Cmi-vi'II 
"','■ Lrr:,,;ll,. [^ s,, 



UKI'AKTUfKT lit nth'. IS'TfltlOK 

2 QEOROK V. A. 1t*2 

thiiri'iinhly cru-U'il un.l nliiriil tliut !»•■ I'juirt oi-iirinnl i!;itiiri' I'linnot U- ili- 
i.'ovorfil from tin oxiiiiiiihitli>ri i-iliiiT >>l' ilio liilv<>- Hhnlicti iti tin- lixM or <>< tli> 
Hve <*|Mciniiti<( inlUclcd lu rcfinHilil l^.■ >to.'k. 'Hn' (nicr.wiiipi- shows tdat tin 
roi'lt w.m |>i'<>l>iil>ly n toiniiioii, MniliiiiiiKiMiiic(| |)iatiti' Kriiiiil' . In il- pr>>s»>rii 
KMiiiuliittHl and iilliTcil riiiiilitidii it ntfiTi little ..I |^trtii;rii|iliii' liovrlty or 

'I'h.' rook iB I oiirH'-jiTiiii'i (I mill now t!iif'i>.-iii'. Tli.' i.rii'iiiiil •»fiitiii 
inituTiiU MMMii to liuvf I'd II nrtlioriii-c I now injcrinlim), |)lii|,'ii"'lii«i ' nr'.|,rilil\ 
olijfoi'lu-«'). .iiiil lioliic. 'riic nl>iiiiil;iHi -«'<oiii|iir.v luiiHTiiN iin- ni ^ irint. 
niiiiM-iivitc, I'l idott', iiti'l kiioliii. 

It is iNH^ililf tjirtt llii* »tofk i« II -.ilollilo iif tl'i- |.'n<"i-''*ii' biitlx li'li at 
west of CiHciiili'. 

'I'liMt. M\1 lioi.irii. 

Ihtinilioii. -'Vhvrr Kiv Imt feu- rciioii. of tin- worM > hrn p..! Vrclicu 
Kranitcs iirc cxpoMi'tl on siu'li a (:rnni| -oalc as in thi> Went lv".i.>ii.i;,' (li-tri-'t ol 
Kritisli ('ohiiiil)ia. I'art ot tlio ili>trii t i- iii"hi<li'<l in liu' \\'<'^^ i.'uoti'rp 
rt'Coiiiiiiis-atK'i' ..lint of tlif ('niiiuliim < >i'. logical Siirviv. a liuip •ovi rii.L' :■'•■• i< 
((..lOO sniiarc iiiili'S. Mon- ilinii twi.-thinls .if tliis area i< iin licliio I 'ilf 
civc" yraliifi?* prol)ali!,v ;ill i'( po-t-i 'nrl'fitufori.iM itur. Tin- wlnil' v' i' ii. ..rin 
a (•oni|ioi.itr liatliolitli, in<liiiliiip varioiiH t.\|>t'i« niiii bo'liis callcil by Mr iirti. k. 
VolHon ffraniti', Viilhalla jriMiiito. IJoH^Iaiol alkali jjranitv, a'kiili-».v<iii'>\ «'■. 

Tlio (li'liniitaliiMi •>( tin :^c ditTinMil liodic-. h:\~ l«cii aociiMplilicil m pari 
but, from tho n.ilnrt' '•( tlio -iirvcy- mi far i'iirr;i>il of, \imi •'>. worl; si i'l ninaiii 
to bo (|i'in> licifuii* tin" i'iaiipo«itc liatlmlidi i» fully inrpiuvl nml it^ aimtoinv 
undtTst'M.d. A Icndiiifr diflii'iilty in drawiiiK' boiindary lino* about tl.i' i-.ji-til' 
• •nt intrusive bo<lii>-, is fmiiid in llir ocenrrein'o nf miiii.v ineludeil ma' 't>s it 
erystnlliiie sdiisls .tnii yiieis-es wliicli nia.\ be in part I'f pre-f ■aiiiiiriaii ii;:> 
but to >onip ixti nt ; <'ertaiiily nielaniorplidMd po-t-< ambrioi ^ediniciil* ..r 
else sheared [iliases of tbe intni^ive uranite. tbeiiwelve-. Many larp' area- "I' 
schistose roi'ks nro thus imt e.i^y lo riassif.--. .\nioiiir tlu-ii i- a u'r.oii. ..| 
(rneissf's ami seliists (lecnrniiiB' aloii^: the ( '.iiiiiiilii:! rivi r t'ripiii Sullivan erii K 
nortlnvard. They liavo been eoloiirei! as .Vrelaae ilie WiMt Kootenay 'Im i. 

altliouifh McCiiinell, vh.i e rriid on the n-('"iiiial-.s;;iiee i.f ibi.. part of tin 
(listriet, states that tiies' foliated ri.rks an' larp'ly ' .•onteinp..rary in a«e k':\\, 
the main jrranite area of the d'-liiet ' ir. i|ie >it ison ;:ranite.*'' The 
bility if>, therefere. that tbe ^.-reat urar.ite b"dy snrroundinf tbe ti.vvii of 'IV:,;; 
is a direct (•ffsboot of the va-; batholilh f..riMiii(; the central part of tbe \V't>s; 
Kootenay ilistriet ami that, in tbe area Im nlcriiiL' tli<' < 'nLnMbia befAveen I!.il.-..i 
and Sullivan •leek, it bas I'cen '■ni--lnil to t'.ii irtiei-sic cchdition Tf tbai 
portion of tbe i-oni|o..ite bulhidilli ul.ieli ii.mi- a e'lilimious nia-s with ih- 
granite about Trail and bil.'iu;-^ tn tbe .late of iiitnisicui. tbe nam.' ' Trail 
batholitli ' inny be piven. 

• Smi W<».st Kootenay sheet. 

•• Marninal note on map of part of Tri.ii Crwk Mining Division. Q««ib Surv. of 
Cannd^i. Proliniinary n'.ition. 1897. 


fiyi'oKr ny Tin: r,|,^^ isri.nsnvn! ^47 


Of tlio liiiiulr«'(|, f .,1 „,., ,„ll.. ,, 1,; 1 

-.11 ^( .....I- ;.. .1.; .. -; ■ . "I""" " "'■■ Iriil »fr„„i(. 

. „ . ,, . y >""i-ii' tliroiiL'h i.r.--iiiv 
' ":'" ""■ "'-.•r..^.op,, ,h., „ .,„r,. ,„ ^ . 

r"' (n<T(i l.y itnVi-i.<.lJi„.; ,1,,. 

'■''•'■""-• T! rfl 

, • . l>ln>!i.H-|;l-.' i< nft.ll /,,.,, ,1 .., I 

...l.,,n... At, A„ . T »u.r, „f ,„.. ,„L „: ", , 

;ir- tl.,.„. ,.„„.,„on ..,„rit.- ai„i ,l„ „ot ,,....,1 -„..,,.. .LI .■ 

" " -" -etn,n„r,.hic pn-.l,,,. i„ ,1... ..;:,,;:; Xi "'.''Z'Cl'n.t'""'''** 

I r.. -, ,, 


:■■ ...livii- 


t.- fl,.- 1 
111!-, ill (ft" 

- -.f 
• .,1 

' 1- flir 

-II il 

"lil-f i> 

■(>• r, 




^ ..,.i.-.i fro.!. ,;..i„;.;„ ■•;y,r- Z,JT " , '""'•"""' 

.1'/.»/vm\- of ■„:i„c.i!.,>r;/r. Tniil l.„H,ol,';, 



AI.O. ,. 

Fr.'), .. , 

Mn.- , 



K,0.. .. 

n,o a )•,••■ 

iliO Aio'fc ii; -I' 

Sp. Rr 

Ciili iilutcl .i,,r:n; 


OrthocIaM'.. .. 














• iti.'t 






























iih:i-\ni\if:\i nt nif: isthridk 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 
rii<> mode (Itosiwal iiii'thcid) i. uppnixiiimtoly : 

Quarti o:;,0 

Andenine og.] 

Orthoclase and niicrocline 19,0 

Biotitc ...!...... . 13.4 

Hornblende ' y,,^ 

Magnftite '^ 

Apatite ., 

Titanite j 

Z'>^° ■ '." trace 


In the Norm olassiKcatioii tlic rock fiifi>r> the ^oiii|K)tii*ic siihrnii«, 
harzose, of tho alkaHcalciu rang, toiialusc, in the ddMilatif onlor. aiHtriir. ; 
nithoiigh the ratio of potasl. niolcoulcs U soda inolocuh-i is very (•h)*.^ to the 

limit separating harzo--e fro.ii lonaloao. Aox-ordintr to tl hh'r .hissificntion 

the rock h a basic granodiorite. 

rhc average epecitie Vi-avity of four fresli .spocinums of the ruck is -JUU. 
Tlie dominant granodioritic fypt^ often passr.s pr.idiinlly into a inoro iici.i 
biotite granite or hornblende granite in which the fehlspur i> .•hictty orthochi-r 
sonietimi'3 niicroperthitic. Tiioso types sonictiniea form stroiiks in tlio main 
body l)ut arc chiefly dovGlop(>(l in the numerous aixiphv-.s. They furnish a 
transition to tiie very abundant aplitic dikes, also niHinhysnl from the hiitholitli. 
Many of the larger apophyses illustrate the differentiHtion of two quite difTeront 
rocks in the same fissure. T\„- middle part of ea.di of th.s,. dike> is .•,„npos,.,| 
of granodiorite or hornhlenilc-hiotitc granite, whih> along ™cli wall, u /.one ot 
splite. KHidually passing into the more basic rock of the middle zoiu-, is devel 
oped. The feldspars of the aplite an- orthoelasc and niicropcrthitc, with acces 
-■ory oligodasc-albitc. Quartz and a little biotite are the rcnmining essential- 
"'he aplite zones make up oiu'-quarter tt) one-half of these apophyses. Other 
dikes are ciimpose<l entlwly of ihe aplite. Tts eompo-ition and s|«'eitie gravity 
(•2-592 for one fresh speeimeu) closely reseiidije those of llie yeurig( r Sliep|i;inl 
irranite fsiwc. grav. 2-60() — 2 fil7). 

Differentiation in Place.— \t the Imtholilhie .•„ntaet where it crosses the 
railway hn-.neh between Trail and Hos-liwid. there is a large body nf relativeh 
aei<l granite which is regarded as genetically eonneeted with the granodiorite 
The body measures about ^0() yards in width. The confi-cts are hidden and li 
is uncertain whether this more acid rock repres.'uts a c.iutaetphas,. ,,f tl,, 
batholith or a slightly later intrusion. The giru-lure of the smaller l.odv I-. 
so far as known, lhr>u«hout porphyritic and the balance of probability is in 
favour nf its a late difTerentiate of the hatholilh and intruded into th, 
/one of contact of the granodiorite an<l the voh-anies. The microscope >how- 
tluit the por,diyritic ro<-k i> an alkaline l.iotiU' liornblen.le gninite. The pheno 
erysls are ort.hoclaso (sometimes mieroperthitic), o|igo,lase. biotite. and horn 
I'letKh'. The ground-mass i- typical urauopliyr.v \ Httl,' !iia(.'iiet!t.- -.wl 
apatite are aecessory. 

•2-ia. \.,l 

/i': ■ 'A' 

HI I'lii.T or I II 

I I nil / I v/ 

/.ON II \lllt 





i'- 1-ImcI lilt, 

I- Wlli.'h 

Lilly 111 

111 llu- Km I lh,it I, 1„ 

mUglllU flOlll whirli til. 

(.lie I'.L.i 

round, uhimi 
<'ompii>.iti<iii. 'I'lifv 
and ill the lirld l.av 
tion i-liiso !)v. Tl 

i|'l'.:ir !■• I,.- till 

III'-- l>T|'liyiv iy-l:illl 

III iiiMxiiiniiii .li,,ii,,.i,.,., ;ui.| 

II--- ..)■ a .link - 


'■'■' in-li-^'rii 


i'< dltfi'r.-iiiiaii 
'.•.1. 'I'!,.. „.^., 
■''.iiiiiitriy i|L'ii 
ir. till. -..■rjin. .: 

'•I.iso oy. I Ills WHS, iii,l,.,.,l. 

a|.pi-:iri,iir,. ,,f !i-;i;j-,,i,.|,|. 

t-n, .,ir ii„ 

Tmih til. 

■iii|i i.-i 

it WHS tliirp r.' 

lasic M'trri-jrntioiis. M 

of I 

'•ryst« of .iithi 

•offiK.'.t.,! tliiii til. 

til'' tc-itjti,,. li,.],! 

im.' l.iin 

-Mlall n::l- 

lia.j al-.. all 

int.-r|irotaii..ri. iihliou-l. 

-■oriT.'i one. 

Ii.' i..,-k 

i<T..-.'.,|,i,. >|ii,lv ,1i..w.mI thai tl 

1- -"Ill.'Hilal 

liara.-i. n-ii. - 
ion is ;iro|iulih 

be -eon. T 

lo m-i.iiii.j-iii 

I" ni.ynti.-, ui 
:;'-'..M-. .\„ f, 

»■ liittor 

'li iiia.'li alt.Ti.i 1,1 

prisms inilicilded i 
fi'W .s.idiidiiiio fold- 
abundant iijinlit. ii 


1- a Mill-- Mf 

Illl.'llli'T> -t 

M >iiia 
par.; 11111 

mil r, I Ilia! .•i-\ .i.U ,,t ,,ri||, 


y I.. 

.\ ::l 

Willi \v 



lii' tii.iiiili 

■ nd kiioli 


II nio ihi 

Miiiiut,- pri-iiis ail- till 

U' ■•i.iMi>ositi.,ii and ir,„t ..f 

roiiTiiit'd iind 
to rpprc-ont 


a lanipro|ihyrir 

H' (JTMinito p.irpliy 

.•oiic|,iM\ iiiiiiiTal . Til. 
-iruiiiifal ti-iliiri.. 

'Ollilios Ml-^i -I .iUl-TlIt 

dorivativ.- ,,f ih,. y, 

• f. 

I't'r. i;ali..i,, 1, 

d' lyi.ioal 

. -in. I.. I., 
n- . tini-. 



to the other 

'•asc but it 

I'oio of tlio ilitfc 

perhaps fruitful 

IS Worth vvhil 

ry 111 wliicli t! 


loy ill- \..,u|. 

>• to piiint out th 

in<- wi.cro iii.i-iiiMtic ditVciciit- 

!'• ros,.r[.ti,,ti. Tli,.y s,,.i.| 

■■III 'di.irit.' aii.l the illii.,,-! 

. i-Mi-r. -p. ill, I 
;ivi-ii t.i tln- 
■'■---il.j,. :,,i.| 

'II that \\ 

■lo -'mly ini.l, (,, I., 
alily a, an ia>i!\ 

Sliatlcr-hell -T'ln 

i'i"ii in pla 

lal clisturbi 

rruil i.atln.lith ill 


le intnisimi ,,1 st. 

It IS tllK 

lice- which arc .s^, i-liaiact. 

ii-ti'ii'os i.n 

a >:ri ai 

broad but 
Anierloan .1 


and bathoji 

li-play.-.l a|. 

'111; ih. 


I) ^hoet X,,. >.| 'l-lil.; I 

n-ti.-ally |irodii.-.d in 
Till- -haltor-bclt i- M 
<a-iiTii si. If .,r 

lii.' (■ 

oiiiJial ol S.' 

to in the fiilhiM inj.- tl 

]«;. l!Mi' 

oh lias h.iMi brirllv d.--.rib.-<| 

lilt ir.-i'haiii 
' • ry r. .I'ks In 
.'■' iiiisnnlly 
lull , ia 'iVif 

S.i r 

ii'orcli.'aj i-hapti'i- 

p. !-'•'!), and will b, 

XVI. 1 

'ii llio ni(i'liiiiiii> of 

111 '111' 
ai-'aiii r<l'iTri-.l 


ar a> .'b-cr,ed within tl 

th.- Trail batholith i 

i'- ti-n-iiiili- licit 

tioii tiian in tl 


lo way of ri 

more ,s|rikin!;l.\ . vi.l, 

xoiii,.i|,l,n. iiii;.,,,,, 

'•ry^tiilli/iiii.' t 

It IS praotioally im[«,s<ihl 

10 inva.i.'il r, 

till- loriii ol 111. •.•haul. Ml .li-r'i|. 


intrusi.'ii from tlio.-e pro.linvd bv li 

ii-tinmii-h the thiTiual ,-\\.- 

ii- roa-"ii i,.r i| 

prpviuii-ly atfei'te.! the tr 

and the present oitiii 

up-- Vet 

II- lioiuy ioL'.iui,al 

a 1- j.r.'l.abl,- thai tl 

nM-laiii..rplu,iii w\,.\,-\^ h, 

losilion iif the li..riiblin.le-|. 

I.- -ir.'ii;.' -,■ 


part, inlieritai 

lloiniiiK t'l." irran.'dlnri 

if tl 

iho w.-t ,,f 

ami -.-li 

Near the (Viliunb 

le "■"nta.'t-iiietaiiu,rplii-ii 

'a.vw.'ril are. 

m liirL'i t 

I'i- dikes nf 
Trail it i- 

la river lontaoi north 

niiinziiiine jnirphyry .,f 
lit by .like- ..f la. ruble 

■I Sayuarl. th,- l,a!ii..litli 

•ainptiinit.-. ()i, th. 
>i'"'tite frabbr.. 



i'Ki'\in \if:\T OF rut: /.vrp«/o/.' 


2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

< '<)M;uiMKii ^ii; VnHM \ rmss 


BecM.,s,. ot th,. extni„«.l.v rar.- ,rr..,a , „f wat.r-lai.l ,l,.p„siis i„ ,|„ 

r{o8s .,n.i m..u„,a.nv ,1„ d.^.ovory nf ..,-MHf.,..„„ l„.ri/o„.,nnrl< i., thro,,..;.- 
out the inounta.n «n,up. a tiel.l ,>r,.l,!..m ..f ,|H.,.i.l .liHirnlty. Inr ti,at r.J„„ 
certain small pat.hes • f .•o„p!.«prat.. will, -an.l.v an.l simlv iMt.rl,..,!- wl,i,l, 
rnay y,el,I useful f,*MK i»T* ri. parti, ,:ar .- u-u -, of ,1„. „.„|,.t,Ut ,,1,,, 
attempN to unrf.,^tan.' "h, -r^^-,...^aI ,and. ot :l,i. r...i.,n. Four M„all an! 
quit.- d.tache. „r.^ ,1,^ ..ouKl.MM.rat.. ap,» .,r uirinu tl,. l!o„n.)arv l„.lr 
those will ho dcacril-*-.- m ..^.W tr..ii, ,.,,-1 f., «■ -t. 

Uo„>itomerate at LaW Mountmn.-On,- mil, ihwest <,f I.ak.. Mountain 

sinnrnit. a j-afh ot tlu ni:l,.m* r,t,. , , ,,np uWmt a fhir.l of a .qnaro in,!,- 

has been niapM by M<'('...uu.ll ..n.i r- trav.-r^.J l,v th.. writ.-r Th.- rock is tlipr,- 

-hiefly a .-oar-.s niassiv nK'ion.frut.-. .lin-ing a! „i av.ratr.. an^rl.. of Ml t,, 

'tie tiorthea-t a.i.l showing' an apparent th: Kne>« of ab.,/ .MX) f..,,t I'l,,. nu,- 
■.i tran.^tc.i hy an -rosion-SLrfa-... >„ that 'm f,,, j. a nuninMin.^- at 
the Wality At no p.,int was the .■ond..n.,.rat,. f„„„.i i„ a,twal .unta.'t uiti, 
the K.,88lan<i v..I.-;,nics which surround it Th.r.. are t«„ ,.o-il,ili| i.^s as to th,- 

reI,«non hefvv.v,, the two forn.ation^; m ml,„n,rat- nu.v „v.rli.. tlie v,.i 

eam».-9, a^ iK.stuiati-,! by McConi».ll. or ^-^.ndiy, it niav nprp-t.. a pn-vol. nii. 
eom^ora-rate fonninp a knob whi.'h u,,- tir^t bun.'-i un.l.r ^\^.■ lava^ aii.l «'inr, 
o»«>vere.l by their .Imudation. Tl,.. .-hoi,-,, between th.«. alternativ,..s is 
B«« ensured by any known fact. The .•..mpunitiv..,v .,« ii,,. -.ifrB,.st that flu 
test VR.w IS Tij*. correct one. At the -amc -irac. an- „. lava-fra«Micn!- 
•oiong the p««,le.s of the (•..nKJonMr.-,:, . w^:,.h arv com)...s...| „f .rr.,v in.i 
Swenisli-jfraj qnart/ite. silicioiis ?r.t. v,.i, ..uartz. phvllit. . :n„i -lat." '\ i,.,v 
kadly alterwi pebbles of a roek like jrranii. -». also prex-nt. 

Pra.;Li»ily al! of the n.ut..rial ,.b««-v. i„ the p,-W>l.- cnl.l liav.. 1m., n 
derive Irtmi the Pako/.oic and pre-l'ami.nan t. rranes n.c.v ..xp..s-.l i„ th.- 

Selkirk r»a*e. twentr-five miles to the ea>fwar.i: in .!„. ahseii. f ;,,.v i- 

known s-arpe, that niace ..f orj^iu *p,H.»r- probubl-. The ,i,"bhl..s ar. ,.f ,l| 
si!«s, up to the di^ai..t.^r .f f,ne They ,,re ,.f r,..m,!.,i. an.l 

angular ^apes. !n pla,*,-^ r.hf de|«.s,! approximates a tr^. br- ia in »pix-ir 

ance. Th.- itnp«^«t ^ ut 4inK. am,, in ad.liti..«, tn- p,.nerailv tuniultu.iu- 
aKjrresratmn t th.- fw44,l^ sugrRcst n,p,..; ,}..,«..ifiou. a., if by a rapi.l mountain 

stream. Sm«l! irr^Krular ie-.=.e!. of ,rt- sand-tor^- an.} L-nr i,.nn th.. „uK 

breaks m the i**3.1y mas* simitar aren«-...Mi- uiab-ial •n,mK..,.s ,hc , iit 
of tke conKlom.-r.,.,-. whi-h i> al-o <p,no 1 ^.-hly ft m^ •!...,,,. (»„,. dik.- ..f b-.-i.' 
andesit.. or iaf u- icharncter n, - . a.«i :. =«r.. . M,ap,H.d) aiw.pbv-;- 
of the Sheppar.! «rani*e cut the .oiKJ.wtiente. 

Co„gl(m«r^ *t >.*.»*i« .»/o*.»t/tt-„.--A ,e,.,M v,^ „f ,...„rse .-onKlomerat.. 
.30veni« a ^uar- mil ,r mop-, ^^n.s rfct >m^., ,.f S.,phie mountain at tl„ 
Internationai hr- I,, struetiwe. «ize f pehbles. a.i.j .-..miHwition this r...>k 
resembles the «. nglomen,^. at 'Mik. ni- •:»f.i.. r.T> , :..m I-, t,,it h. r.- ll„ ;,■ an 

than at L..ko nunrnta,,,. Tl,.. ,...„,<.,„ i, „...,.„■..,.,„. 'l 1„. -,„„K V'^.' ;;;;!: 

trom MX mrb.s to tuo f. , t in .l,i,kiu-. ai„l an- u,^^,v 
irroat ,|,,ian..o on tl«. o„t.r,.,,. O,,., ;,„..,lr...| vanls n,„tlM. 
!iionMm..nt a he<] of -„n.l.v .I,,.!,-. .■..„tal,.i>,^' ' p„orIv „■■, 
.-avos, was found. Tl,,.,. .,l,-,.„r.. i..,\U „. r, .A.nn,,,,! I, 
who rt'fu.rtecl as folNuvs: 

•Tlu. impivsvion ,.f ., |,,.,f i ,,.,i„lv ., V, rv I 

opinion ni^.n, and tli.- ditli,-nllv i. • Mi,.|>li>Mt,-.i l,y t',. 

of suporimp..s,.l l,av.-. All I r-.n^ ,1„ ,, to „,:,k,.'a ^..,v wi, 

very .-un'tnl .■xannnati..n juid o,n>id«T:ifi..,,, | ,,,„ ,,„.,,„ 


iT\r.| I 


,..!■ ..I,,. 

IT. .--in 

f th, 

leave-; are thosi' of I'lnui.s siie( insn. Si\\\,, 1 


1.' 1 1 mi: 

^ iiiipi. --ion- 
-■M. --. Al'l. I 
|.. 'liink III. 

rreet, th. n the ii>fe is Tertiary and i il,|.v Mi,„.,.|h 

ihi- delir^siiiKii i,,n i- :if mH 

Mr I.. 

!h- -;iim. 

'I.I n..t lliMik 
lin.l till ..p,.,-i 
l»- ■•idleeti,,,, 
lid ill. ?nalri\ 


it eaii he Cretaeeoiis. A-s iniin«- iliis fjiie-s i., i„. 
men to be qnite in liarniony uith -peeiin.-n- ii 

from t'oal prully, ^ine,. m l.nth ei,>.- the -j irs i. 

has be<.n similarly nietain.irpln.'.id; 

At the Honndury n,„nnn,. nt ilie ,.,.,„!„„„.rMi,. dip- i,„,|,u,.„ „ ,,, , 
angle of ;;i Seven hundre.l ,v;,rd. to the imrtliw, >t of tlie inoniinient . 
vyas agum detonnin«d on »nndy interealation, as sn^ ,„ ,i„. s„„,l„.,., \i„„,, 
the \elvet mine wagon-road the avrage dip i- alioiit ::, S j.) Tl,.- „i,,„d.- 

Iffi ,. i'"* '': °"/ ""* "^ '*'" """^ of tM nglonoTati. v.r. 

difficult to detemuno. but these reading's -uffi.-e to .h.,w that the e,„,..r..t. 
has oe<.n greatly disturbed. The ex,Hi.ure. .,n- not .utKeientlv .-oiitn.noMs ,„ 

warrant u stateimnt as to the thiekness of th ingliMneiate; j, i.. ..rtninU 

a heavy deposit. |Hissil,ly ,, thousand or mire feet thu-k. .hut -o,,,!, ,.f tl,.. 
monument it is >.*n. at one i.dnf, to I,., apparently resting on the older IJos.],,,,,! 

volenn.eH and 111 spite of tl„. g..neral la.k of -:„i,f.etorv taets ,i,i. p.|.„i„„ 

^ai. s,.aroel,v U> ,io,il,ted. At one horizon a iM^-foot am.vgdaloidal 
How of angite-biotite latite is interl)...|.led will, the ....nglom.i-,,!.. 

At monimn.nt 174 th.- .-..nglomerute i- ,.„t hv s.'veral dik,-^ 
Inotite monzonite porphyry in e.niipoMtion -in.ilar t,. the th.u i„.t 
and t.. latite oocurring on l;..,ord iii,.untaiii ridge to tl... i,..rll,war.i 

(•on„lomrra'r Ar-,, „t Mo„u,n.;,f IIJ.-VW ,|,inl o.-iirr, i,,-. .i ,..,„ul,.- 
merate wa.s found on the IJoun.Jary lin.. at monun,. nl IT.', a ,li,,an,... of tiv.- 
miles west of the Sophie mountain ironuni.Tit. Th.- -.tratiti.-.l de,>o.sit forms 

part ot the roof of an irregnlur intrusion ..f synite pbvrv which will 1,.. 

d..^,e.l on a later rag.'. Kn.sion has gr..atly l.rok..,, that r,.,it s., ,(,„t the 
■•onglomerate ..rops out now in the f,,rin of a i„in,h..r of ,|,.ta..he,| Mo.-ks whi,-l, 
arejippurently in the porphyry. The largest hlo-k measures -.M) iV-ol 
.y ...0 fw.t in gr..un,i-plan. l'<n. f,.,., of,-,. i. r..pres,.nt..,l in this 
heaviest n.a-.s of the ,.,i,g|o,n..rat,.. The Mrike of the b,.,ldi„g i, N. ;50^ \V.; the 
Jil>, -s N.|... I he ....nglom.rat.. ;- .....rh hr iat,.,l in .,.|-«vst „,ne I0() 

-ill ' '.) or 

.'! .lUglt.- 


in:riinvi.\r m iiii i\ri:itn>n 

2 GEORGE V. A. igi2 

'■'|.>vi;„;u...l »iil, M,„,il ,|n,-,rt/ vins. This frnrfnrint' 

ci-ii '■"mi'rii|i..r;nh 

with till- iiitni>ion of thi> 

l'<M't wide, and ili,. /,„u- i- 
iif tlic i-iiiikIoii:ci'.iIi- iiin.v 

'I'lu- <-(.Mi;i,,nicnil.' i~ i„,| „, .,,„,.„, ,, ,1 , . ^ ■ • 
.»•» .1.1 ...rri... , ,. ,„„.,,- , , . '•,"■:' ;'' '"V;'"" '" '."" .", ■.•1" 

'-.;.;...: :l:".;::, ■;;:';';: ::;,,;:-,:::r;;':;;il::;;';,-:i;:,,'' - 

""-""■M..n, 101. ,I„. U „larv " ,^ X: Xl, V' " '"^""■', "-'' •" 

.•ov..ri„t. nl„„„ „„,.-,„„„,..,• „!• „ .,, nil,. • ' ', , "T"", '•■■"^'"•"-'•'" ■ 

'■•on, tia. Ko.-laiu! l-,v. ii, V ,'• ""'';-"••'■ "'"--f probably ,|,.riv..,| 

Bl.WKH MOI NTMV (iu,.|;i'. 

. e ,,K.,...ta„. .n,at.d«.n li^-avr ..,.,.,.|., and Sal, , h't n . a 

■■t .1... ^..^„n and h„rt Sh.ppard railway. A. a result „f his work ho hL 
tnapp,,d a portion nf rhe vol.ani,. r.,cks of tho df 
'livisinn. the 'Boavor >fountain Voh-ani<- (hour 
tho rr"ii|» 

" " "" ' i\i'(i|(.na> 

district as bclonjrinj.'- f. a ^ptvia. 
ip-' A very brief dj-M-ription ot 
!'i.'r(tinal Kxpiaiiator.- .V.,t.., on the W. st 

Kf:''oin- ',y rll^: , ,m:t r.ri!u\.n,n{ 



Sh-et of tho Cann.Ii,.,, ( ;....l,.„i,,,I Snn.v l,„>, , 
The»e rocks .-onsmt ..f „f .„ i,,... ,„,f, .,,„, 

^urrouniliny R.saliiii,! 

iiptx'ar to ho r.iinpnnitivclv n; 

volenti li'H. 




niiiutitiiiii-; niiiv 

of till 





liiKrrI from th.' U 

rucks are oi-ciiHunnlly iiiln.TnliziMl 

tinri ,.f 

>"<■ 'It.''-, il t'h fii. 

iissix-iiitpil sidinipiifiirv 


til »nri|i 


Til- I! 

■ if i;,r. 

■ I,., I I, 

rli" till' 
^ill.iwii. tiny 
inl nil. I (»1,| 

111 ill 

1 r M 

'Xfi'iil.' Mr. [ir.M'k 

I'liiilniii \i.l. 

Ill !!)f»l', tl 

lie pn-'t'iit wrld'r. 

verscij tlifse mmintaiiis, mukI, 
lie Wii- struck with llw rplat 

lillli.lll tll.. I<lli,wl,..|t;,. ll,. 
1111 illilc|.lll(l,.l,t cXillllilinli 

It Mr. l; 




i.oiit n- 

ivcly rcrctit 

yiiiin),',T t iiin 

■liver iiioniitniii iiml li 

iipp<:iriiiii-c of tl 

I.iIm- Mr. lir.M.l. 


iiiiiny 1) 
rccofrnitioti of 

'll I'v i\uiu- jii.stiti,.,!. 

if ih 

11 r>"' 

"'■•I' onviiii (•(! tliiil ill 



i'iM'|>->iii!? till- t. 


r.port. To flit 

:iiii| Mt. liM.'k" 

lliillvisji.Il ,,f tJK 


It I 


lire w.irkcr-; 

• Briivpr \fiinntnin vul. 
if iho coiiiplcx which 
in the vicinity df 15, 

in th< 


'ii|>. Tlii- 

li-trict it 

111 Ill|>lcx 1.. 

iilopfcil i„ th 

iinic -riiiip" 1.,. (xtcinh.,! 

pr.ip,-,.,| f. 

i(< present 

IJosslaml viil' 

lire ciiiiti-iiipor; 
'I'iiver iiiiiiiiitiiiM 

the I 


with tli.isi 

1)0 .1 

!itiic ijriiiip. 

iminislied as tl 

"illiin the ten-niile helt. 

le urea n-i-rilieij t.. th. 

lilt th 
iva- mill |n r, 
i-vii typienlly 

separated. It will fak. 
factory deliniitntion of tl 

lie viirii.iis patche.i „f the T 

'iilij tliii- in tl,, I',,),