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Full text of "Geology of the North American cordillera at the forty-ninth parallel [microform]"

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14x 18x 













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Laa axamplairaa originaux dont la couvanura an 
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Tha last racordad frama on aach microficha 
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Un das symbolas suivants apparaitra sur la 
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antiraly includad in ona axpoaura ara filmad 
baginning in tha uppar laft hand cornar, laft to 
right and top to bottom, as many f ramus aa 
raquirad. Tha following diagrama illustrata tha 

Las cartaa, planchas. tablaaux, ate, pauvant atre 
filmAs i das taux da reduction diffirants. 
Lorsqua la documant ast trop grand pour atra 
raproduit an un saul ciich*, il ast filmA A panir 
da I'angla supiriaur gaucha, da gaucha A droita. 
at da haut an bas. an pranant la nombra 
d'imagas nAcassaira. Laa diagrammas suivants 
illuatrant la mtthoda. 












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== 1^13,2 __ 


3 6 

? 112.0 


^r. '6M fos! Mom Si.,,. 

V^ :''6) ♦e? - 0300- Fho„, -- 

^S ■'"6) !eB - 5989 - Fo, 

••'■■'W^s&^Mim^^ . 

.iKsM ki.'jfikj^«!*'Mfe*.<;.v£ar«lr 





Hon. Roa.„ Roo«. M..,a™H . a P. U., d.c„ m...«„.. 

«. W. liMKK, DlKFX-rOR. 

MEMOIR jfo. ;{8 


OK TllK 





Beginald Aldworth Daly. 





No laa 


Through the courtesy of W. F Kini/ f'Mr i r r. n . 
Astro„ Dopartn,e„t of the Interi t^ ;■; '''fl^''-^- DT-^- Chief 
publish this Memoir. The field worlw:- T '''"'' " """^'^ *° 

the Internationa,^-'rl: 1, ^ r^,); ^ :^' ^ ^^ --- ^f. 
report of Mr. Kinp the Cflnfl,i;„n c "" «PP«"*'"^ <<> the 

n.ost in.port.ant oon'.ri i.t^n tJ ' ''"';""^^"'""- ^^ the report constituteB a 
'Blue Book' firm wL ' ""'".f "' ^■'■^'"" ''"-'l''. -1 «« i" its 

that would JZ^r X K- '"■';:,' '"' """"' '"""'^^ "'"' '■"^-■•'-'-^ 

«urve. ,0 print it raOeoijTs:: T^*'"-*^' "^""^ ^''^ ^^'-'--' 
adenuat. distribution in ..olo^li^l t.,::;." '''"'""• ""'' ''^"^ ^^^ ^^ '» 

tHis^^:::r:;^,r:r ■Lt;::;:^::5r:7" "v^ •■^^ -^ ---^ 

through the Western Cordillera tt.,s h ' ? T' '""^'^'»" ^-»-" 

work dealing with the geo.o.v of Bri^ 1 Co., a" n "w""'^"'^ "" ^"^"- 
in the pul,lieatio,i. of the Survev ^ren. In '""'' "'"^ '"« '* "<>» available 

'■ "''^*" '°^^ ""J HK-ouvcnienee would r,«ult. 

Geological Survey, 

Ottawa, October 21, 1912. 

(Signed) R. w. Brock, 


6 .2j^: 



A. 1912 



G E () L (> (i Y 








RC' J 



A. 1912 



Boston, Mass., April no, 1910 
W. F. Km,. Emu C.M.O.. R.A U T) 

Con,n,issio„or for Canada, Internat'ionnl Boundary Surveys. 

Sir.— I have the honour to BuhmJf tli„ ^ • 
.he mountain, crossed by the inten ^i n f h 7"" T'' "" *''^ "^^"''^ "^ 
The report is based o„ U:2::Z]^::^';' ''" ^°"^"'"''' ^"'"■^'• 
inclusive. To yourself under v.hl y ? [^ ^^ "'"'""^ °^ ^»«^ t° 1906. 
from whom I have ;;; . 7ll „ :^^^^^ '''^ "J"'^ ^^"^'^ "^ ^" '^-e -d 
thanks, ^'^ '" """"^ ""y^- r beg to tender my sincere 

I have the lionour to be, sir. 

Vour obe<iient servant, 



fi' '.i'i 



A. 1012 

f"^\PTKF{ IV. 

St.ati,.raph.v n„,i .str,„.t„ro of ,1,. fl.rf,, ,.„ 

Rooky Mountain Roosyn.linal pri.m ^ 
i.eni.s series i • 


I'AH 1 I. 

'■h.\i'tf:i{ r. 

Introduction J«^,,|, 

Area fovorcd i 

<'o»<liti,ms of worl/lVfWii.Vl • 1 

.\(knnwl..(l;rni,.„(s ] 

'^'olloftions. . o 

crr.M'TKij ir. 

.\vno(isi< of tlio report 


•'TAI'TKi; III. 

Iiitrodiiction an,! ..Mtliii... IT 

Difforent nonic.nolature.s in use 17 

i;= ;;™;;s :; •;: ::'z"^T:r ¥-' " • •'■■*■ '■■■- " 

A.i»r.«i ,„i„, ;„fc .,, »;,„;„;;,„'•',, ';•,,"[ ::;;"ri' •■ '•■': .•.> 

Trenches arul preater vall..y l>'"niilary mountains.. . oo 

Subdivision of Rocky j'lount/.in sy.,'t;mV. 25 

1 . rcell mountau, .systcn. ,„„! i,s„ ' 27 

So k,rk „,o„ntain system and its s„l,di visf n "'^ 

Co uml-m mountain system and its su^H i^ „ ^< 

iw'it ot Interior Plateaus. V 

Ca^ado mountain system and 'i^s' '.uh^ui,; ""^ 

nummary -"^ I'-mu. ^^ 

IjeadiTig references ^2 



s;^«Va:-.wi _ 


hiniti \n:\i ut rut. i\it:nniK 

2 OEORQE V, A. 1912 













Wiilnrl.'ii fipriiuitiiiii 

.Mtyii forniJiti'dii . . . 

'iriiiTiil ilriiTiptioM 

I.iivvir iliviMidii 

Miilillo iliviriinii 

I'pInT iliv'iioii 

rompftrisKii iiikI cnticl i.sionn 


Appekuiiii.v fnriiiafion 

(iriniio]) foriiiiitidii . . . 

Siyeli formiitinti 

SJipppnril f<irnmtinti 

(ienpri-.l dc'iiTiptiori 

Iiit(>rli('(Mt'(l luva 

Kiiitla formal Ion 

Ahsfcc (if Triassic ami .liiriisxic fnrinatinns 

('rein<'('<iii.s forinatiiuis of tin" (Jrrm IMaiiis at the Forty-ninth Parallel 

Kiulipiici II foriiiation 

l*i>8t-Ali(ic,'iip formations of iIh' (iron! I'lnins 


Folds and faiiil?* 

'ircat Lewis ovcrtlinist 




(ir.M'TRR V. 

Stratiffrapliy ami structure of tlio MacDonald and Gallon ranges. ... 97 

Oa'ton scrie.s <yj 

Altyn formation ' 9g 

Ilcfty formation 99 

MacDonald formation 101 

Wiffwaia fomiation 103 

Siyeli formation IO4 

Gateway formation 107 

Phillii)s formation 108 

Roosvillo formation 109 

Devonian formation in the Galton ranpe 110 

Daacription HO 

Fossils Ill 

Paleozoic limestones of the MacDonald range 113 

Description 113 

Fossils 115 

Structure of tlie Oalton-MacDonald mountain system 117 

'•'"■'"'•' or 11,1 run I iw/,. ,Mt,i 


''KAI'TIf! VI 

fitrraphv ami s(i -i.turr ,.! il,,. p,,, n 


<*ro«fnii fi.rtiiari.iii '..'..' 

'■••iicriil il<'«.riplii,r. . 

\ycHf,.rii |iha-it- 

_ Kastorii liJuiM.. 

Kitclifiioi- fnrriialioti. . 

VVi'storii plump _ 

Knatcrii plia-ii' 

Mo.vii' r,.riiiati(iii 

fJatowa.v f..rii,»fi,,„ in tli.> M. i;ii| 
Strii.'fiir.. of fla. p„r....l 




ratiffraphy „f ,|,p s,.|kirK „ „t.u„ 

>ii';inilt scries 

Irci,.- .■..tiKl..iii,.raf.. Inrinatimi 
irt'ti,. V„I,.atii,- fdrmafior... 

Monk formation 

Wolf formation 

IVwiInc.v fornmti(.n. . '. . . .' '. 

Rippio formation '// 

npol;ivv formation ' 

T-ine Star formation. .'.'.'. 


Correlation of ||„. formation, in tl„ ..rkv \t 
Correction alon. the,.„'p,lS"" 
>:>'to-, .itio variation in the 

torf.v-nindi Parall.-I. . 
Metamorpliisni of thp 

Ki; \ n 

"■ky M 


o Koofyiiolinul ,,r; ,„ 


^nclinal at tlw 

^PC'-tif jrravity of f|,e Roo-vnolin,! ,,„■ 
Corr^ation of tJio four no,l,,ry l^Cs H 

( orrelatioi, w„|, ,]„, jj,,,, t^^rano. . . ' ' 

'i-tlo \\, tain linw 

Knrlier vi.nvs on tl,,. Tt.-lt torran.. 

I'.vntoncp of fossils 

"'IS j'K;;^„r:' '""—>*'■■"■ -' "'«* -.n.-.^^ 

Fviflomv of unfonforniifv 

^ Summary of oonrlusions. 

( orrf>lnti,,ii wltli Dawson'^ Sf 


iin<l Adams r.akp soriVs. 


. II!) 
. llt» 
. 12(» 
I '.'2 









8 QEORQE V, A. 1912 


FiiNiiTii (ioinyiii'liiiiil Hill mI' till' ('..rililliTii inr. 

Axil) lit' till' K<ii'k.> Miiiiiit;iiii crox.vrii'liiiiil lOfl 

I'lU'ir Piili(i/(iii' |ii>rli'iti ••( l!ii> Korkv M<niiit;iiii Bi'i«vh«liiiiil. , , . . . 2on 

«'IIAI'Ti:i{ IX. 

I'liri'ill \.n\a iirul u-HiKiiilcil inlrii'<ivt's 207 

Inlriiiliii-lion 207 

I'lirii'll I.11VU i>r til' Mi'liillivrnv raiiirr 207 

hikes mill »ill< in llir Mc( lillivrnv riiinic 212 

I'lirii'll I.iivft ill ihi' (iult'ii. riiiij;f 212 

I'linrll l.iivu in tin- ('lark<> nin^i' 2Ut 

|)iUi"< ami ^illi in tlic ClarKr rnntrr 214 

I'uriM'll I.avii iind nsHmialiil iiitrnsivrs in tin' l-iwiu ranRc 21t! 

Ui'latidii (if Hill.1 an<l ilikt'n to tin' I'un'oll f'.xtrn><ivo 21S 

Siirninary 210 


lutriisivc sills nf the I'urcill iii.niiiiain sv-iti'ni 221 

Introiliictioii 221 

i'Miiiil i'iiin|"isilii)ii 1)1 the iiitrnsivc^ 222 

Variations from tlii' nsiial <'oni|io8ition 225 

Moyii! silld 220 

Ahnorinal liioiiic Krmiitt' 22S 

Alinoriiial liornl'li'iidc-liiotiti' irraiiito 2:!2 

Intfiini'ilialc rock-typo 2!t2 

Abnormal liornlilonilc paMiro 2:!.T 

Krsami' of the iii'trotirapliy 2i^r> 

Kssoiitial fi'rttiiris of tlic <litliTciit sills 2'!0 

Oritrin of tlic> aciil phases ■>^H 

Prpfcrrod pxplaiiation 2!!H 

Flat i>ositiii!i of unartzitc at time of iiitrngion 230 

Siipcrfnsiiin of sill nninnia 240 

rh('i>iii'iil I'omiiarisnn t)f jirnniti- and intriidpd scdiinontfi. . . . 210 

rom|>;iris(m with other sills in the I'nrcell ranf^o 243 

Kvideneo .if xmnlillis 243 

llvlirid ro.'k 244 

Assi., illation nt deeper h'vels 24fi 

Assimilation thnpiiKh niapmatle vaponrs 247 

Siimnuiry of the arRument'i for assimilation 247 

rira\ itnti\e diflerentiation 247 

Siniilur and atial>^'oiis cases 249 

Geueral cotu'lusion aod npplieation. . 252 

'*^^ -^w 

HtfuHv nr rut; rmrf isTHnsuvnt ,, 


< II Al'l i;i{ \|. 

StrBtiKruj.ln ,ii„| .irn.fiirr ..( th,. si..|i ,,1 , . • l'^<->- 

Kit,.h..n,.r formation.. ..... ' '"""" '■"""" '^-'m,,h., -.7 

I'rii-t Ki»i'r ti'rrmi.' ". -•"'' 

Kx|-'.«ur... „M.l .oihli.i,,,,, '.,} MM.Iv -•^'* 

I'if.Kra(.|,,v nf l!,.|t .\ -•'•!• 

INlrnKaipliy (,f Kelt H. -•>'> 

I'-iruKnipliy „f |l,.|, (■ . '■ ■ 2(11 

• '■•iroirriif.liy „f 1». . .. '' ] -"I 

l*iir..i,'iii|,liy ,,l' H,.'f |.;_ ' [ -'II 

I'.'Ir. unipliy nC K. . . . -'>'> 

l'rtr..LTM|.|iv ,,Mt,.lt (;. ! -'<' 

^.1;;^::::.:"!'' ^'":""" '""''• ••--'«!-■/ ;..rr„M;;'.v .■.■ :: ^ 

I'.ikI ?>'|,. irr.i.ip. ..."'". _ '-'T<» 

<ii'Mi rill .|.„.|i|,,|,,|i. . -"' 

Arcj ,.,ist ..f liiilftinri rlv.r. , -"' 

Ar.M «(Mt ,,f Snliiinn rivrr. , . '-'■'' 

forriOiilioii l.';.'. 

Snmn.nry „„ ,1,.. .,r,'.'unr nf th,. v,i,;„; „;,;^,,: ' ' ' ' ' ' • • ' ^ 

f'fT.xPTKK vrr. 

IntruMv,. ro,.ks „f ,|„. s.lkirk , „t„l„ .vs,„„ 

A^norn,nl,.ranit,. in,rM..ivpinh, ,, K-i . :' '''^•■' ":"»•"■ LN-2 

Ull.Vnn.,,. l.,MthnIit|, ,„„1 i„ ,,„,,|',j;,.; 2St 

I"troKrM|.|.y of th,. b,if|,oIitli 2.'^» 

'■"'iiM.l (ii..tiiinnrplii-m. . 200 

SnMIifi,. slocks on th..,IivV|..'.'. ■-"■•I 

fVtn)i;rii|iliy :.'!!« 

<^>ll(ll,■t mctnMiorphi^in. . . . . -"•"' 

QiinrtTi-diorito ajxiplivm^s -f*T 

'..^.;'S^*'.2ttJ;" !'';'■■■''"-"- '-'"■"■'■■^ ■■::::: ::^ ™ 

Hiinkrr TTill sto.'k •!•'-' 

^^iliiion T{ivi r nHiiizoiiit,. .'!();! 

T.nni|iropliyri.' <lil;,s nn.l «i]N. . . -'i'U 

Porphyritic mica ininottc. . "'W 

Aiiiritc niinctto .^nfl 

iroriiMf.n.Ic-Miieitc niinrtto. . '.[ ■'•>" 

Olivino-nuKitf minrttc. -W^ 

ron.parison of tl,o tninett«, witi; the 'wo;M:„v;rn^o. ! '.V . . ..^ ;; JJ^ 


iii:i'\iir\ii \r of riir. isrt:niou 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 


luTsnntiti' ;^|._> 

("iiiiiptiiiiitc. . ;5I4 

Odinite ;5].} 

Aplitic am] ;i('i(l iipiiphyanl dikos Dlt 

T)ikt> jilinsfs of tlif Hiissliii.d niiil licavcr Moimtiiin volrniiiis HI.' 

Relative af-'es of tlic cniiitivi' bodice ^\(\ 

<'rr.\rTFi! xiif. 

Joriiiatioiis of ilu' llosslaiid iiMiiiitaiii i;roiii) ni9 

Paleozoic formations ^o(> 

Carlioiiiferous beds in Little Sheep creek valley 320 

Carlioiiiferoiis liincstoiK' ill the HoMslaiid iiiiniiii; camp 321 

Siitlicrland schistose complex ^o] 

Siiiiiinary ;jo^ 

Afesozoic sodiiiiciit-i ;if Little SI p rnck .".■22 

Rossland vidcanie !.'r(mp .-^o.'? 

(loiieral <Ie«criptioii 30;; 

I'etrofrraphy of (lie lavas and pyrocla^tics r!21 

AiiKile latito fj.31 

A\i!.'i(c-liiolite latile .'(.)(■, 

Aiiirilc-(di\ inc latile ^-jo^ 

llori.Mcnde aiiirite latite ^.)i> 

TTorMhlctide-iiiotife latite fj^O 

I>irtil(< latil(> '^•^j 

Feniie aiifrite latite ;^;5^ 

Oomjiarison with Sierra Xevnda latite and witli nverasre innn- 

zonite <5<5^ 

Aiiftito ainlesite •yx\ 

Basalts .j^o 

Flow of liparitii' obsidian? f;;>;> 

TiifTs and airfrlomerates ;;;3 I 

Dnnites ciittitifT tiie Uosslatid vobanics ^^\ 

Diinite oil ^IcTJae creek ;>;.r, 

Porpliyritie harzbnrtrite (picriteM ;5:5i; 

(Jaliliros and pcriclotitcs near Christina lake 3:17 

TJossland motizonito ^,^~ 

l?a-*ie iiioiizoiilte ami b.irnblcnrlitc on T'.car <irck :!|4 

Shoiikiiiitic t.vpc a- liitfcr cri>ck llfr, 

<;raiiitc stock ca-l of Ca-iradi' ' ' :.|'-, 

Trail bath..lilli '\ ' :;||; 

Tlefillition ;;|,; 

PetroL'raphy •. |- 

nifTcrenliatiou in j'lacc ;.(y; 

Shattcr-hidt ^(9 

'a:r„Hr or Tin: (///at ., >/,,,, \„„//, ^.^^ 


Conffloincnitd f,,iii,.ilii)tis. . .. l'"iK. 

roMKl„nierate ut l.ako'imta'in ■'•'''" 

^o>,;.'l„m,.rat.. Mt S„,,|,i,> ni,M,„iai„. •■•"■'> 

on;, ,„m.raf,. aroa at Af«n„.m-nt If' •^■'" 

< orii-'lunHTan- area at M,„„,„„.,,f l,;., ■'"'' 

I 'irnlatidii an,] origin.. .. •'•'»- 

15<^av(r Arouiitaiti ^rniup. . .. .. "•''•-' 

'uMiiral il.siription '_] '■'■■''•■i 

Soiliiiii'iits ;',-,■> 

V.ilcanic^ ;;:,.•{ 

Shcpp.-iiil ■-Taiiitc "_ "."I 

Porph.vriiic iiliviiic syenite. . . . . '. •■'■"'^ 

Cnryell .syenite Latin, litli. . •"••''" 

nniniiiaFit pliiise .'!.■•"' 

Tia-iie |i!,use at ceiitaet ' . '^'■' 

Aiio[i!i.v.-;es :;i;i) 

<'ontaet ini'taiiKirpliisni ■'''•' 

Sy.'njt,. an,l .n,„ite pnrphyri;.; .at,'lli,i;. ;;, H,,: i '/^rvell '',1 ,V, ' ' ' ' '"'' 

Hikes ;!,;;{ 

Mia.soiirite (lii<e "(I.l 

Varioiis (.tl'er dikes. . ;ii;(l 

Oliserveil faets .iT:' 

l*rivl.;i)ile relafidtis .'!;•_' 

('"ncl/itifui ;!7.'-) 

;; Ti' 

( <leseripti(iri ' .-JTr 

Grnnci Forks schists .'{77 

(Vseade irrieissie hatlmlith. . . .' .'. ;!7>- 

'"'iu>r;il (jeserifitidn .■;7li 

N'.itiin. ami eriirin of l,an(i'iiiV ■ • '!"!' 

^melfer fri-Miiite stock . .'iMl 

Affwooci series ;jsl 

<^|ilnri(,. an,i i.-rnhleiule Veiiisfs.' ■■^■2 

I liirriix v.ileaiiie fri-oiip ;!s.'( 

Snriieiitiiie ;;<;! 

Oranodiorite . ;is',') 

<^firreI.'ition ' r,ff\ 

ram iirt , ;w7 



2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

maui.tmiis ,in.l AnaMnst moiintninpliitoan). . . ' oen 

IlltpMllJiti,!!! _•>'-•' 

Aniiri'hi^t soric^. ... ''"^ 


lytirrnl i](s.Ti|ition ]'^' 

N'ltiir.' '.f tl:p mpfamorphi-iri. . . !,„', 

Mo.k Cvk pliitmii." l,o,Ho... . •„' 

MiTlt.> •^"- 

,, ,. . .lOO 

n„n,v •'^"•'' 


Ivottlc niv(^r fiirniatiiin '.' 

C'l'ii.'rnl (losiTiption '_, 

/t J .1 lift 

I ipol.iiriiMl ,ic'.-> „._ 

Mi.Iwnv \'ol,"i,ni.> irrMU,, fi„ p;,rt) -50^ 

fictior:!! iJcHcription '^' 

P(>troijr,ip!iy of the snhalkalinp lava? .'.' . jioS 

n^.^k Prfck fh.ninlifh ' '' '' 

.'-Jtr'ii-fiiral rplafinrs 

T' .riiiiiaTit rnok ,., 

,. , 1 . . mM 

iii'iipral ilcscTiptioti. ... ,„, 

nivmih-foH.par '..'!.'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'. jno 

"'h.^r cinstitiiont!) _' , " 

r!i,.Mii<'al rnnipn.ition •■in.) classifir'alion of thp ro'nk 40'-. 

^' -ntar't pha.SP (if Iho rhnnr.litil ,f^'^ 

O'Icr iiifviisiniis af rlinnib-porpli.vry '.'. '.'. ino 

Extnwivp plin>p of thp rliomb-p.irphvrv. . . ,,'f. 

Anal-ifi.. rlin,n!>-pnrpliyrv fsharkanifpl ,,, 

X-rfh nf Unrk crook y] 

OiliPp .irfiirri'iicp^ ^^l 

TMtrii--i',P ro.l-s puttiii- K'pttlp Kivpr strata V/r 

PcirpliyritPs ■*'. 

I'lilaskitP porphyry 4)7 

Orl.T of Priijnion of tho 'Midway lavas, . '.'. '.'. '.'. '. aIq 

Strn..tMr:,! rohitio,,. „f ti,p folumhia nio.mtain s.vstom wpst' of rhrisiina ' 

rorr'bM:,,;.'.'. ■'-" 


rrrAPTER xvt. of ,hp i)Uun^:vn ran^o an.l of Kr,„.pr \ro„nfain platoau 4->5 

f.cnPraldp.priptmnof thehntholithiparpa.. .. ,1'' 

Ronf-ppn(lant,9 ^" 

Hnity of th- oompositp hatholith. f,? 

Seilimpntary ropk=. and associated basic vol'canics .'.' .'.' .".' .'.' ■■ " ' 432 n,- Tilt: iinry Asrifoxoui:;! 


V(rof;n.,.l.v „r ,1„. ,.„„!, ,,,-i,,. l„l,'li,l, 

Iii'-liti-i- .\l,iiii;i;,ii, li,,niM,..,.|it,. 

flii'piili;! |.;i-i,- iiitniM-'.,- 

.\sliii..l;i f;.il.l.r.i ' 

^'■■■''i'- C.niiilt.x ' 

Xo,iiil.-i„.;,nn.i; p,i,|,,ti,,. ,1,'k,,.'." 

^ i-'l'-iil:!!' ;iii.l, -it, ,lili, . 

Oso.vons li.-ltll.ilitll 

'lriy-!i:i! Knit!(Mli,,rii;,. tvp,. 

r^J.pi'T:;,:;;;;l,,';':^'';':"-:>:'-;;-^''''-'^ ^^ 

WfSliTII pllilx' ■"•' 

T'^istcrii \,],:t<v i-i'-', 







rpn taliMiu ,,|- i),,. n,,, ,, !,.,.,„, 

lwi:'^,T :!lk,-,Iillc !„„ly. 

'"■ii.'imI (Ic-,ripti..n '. 

A^»tii,. l,i,,tl!,. „i;ili-iiifi.. . '. 

F<'iiii.- lus'liciif,. sM'iiil, 

V"l''i. Hi.' >y,-uhr. . .. ,.' 


-\fi-t.-iiiioii Ih'mh 

^iiiiill<;uiit'cn lMil;,,lii|i. . . , ' 

fJenoral cliiivii.tcr 

Hii^i.- ,,|:„>-r :■; ,-,,ni;„-(. [ 

ro,nvuv]s..u vi,l, Kr„:.,.r nll<;;iin^. 'l,o,iv' ' 

<>M'r I'liiiM. ■■_■■ 

VlJIllI!.,.,. pi,.,.,,. 

.,,,. _ '.■'■♦""^Vl"' '':al.,.,lr,-,l l.;,fl,nli,|, 
••irk pniriitc' -tm-h. . 


R-s„m.. of tl,.. ^^oolo«i,,,| l.i.torv, . 

Sp.iuonro nf fl„. oniptivo rork-' 

•"f>tlii>il of intnisimi 

*^fnoriil sniiiTiiarv. ... 

< fr.\i>TKR xvrr 

F-ormntiops „f tl,o ir„.on„vn ran-v 

t'Piicral (Irsfription 

Pnsa.vtcti .scries '. 



Fo.s^ils .•olJoptciJ _ 



. 117 

. 448 





4.'-) 4 







4 7<! 


in-.fAiivMKsr OF niK i\terior 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

I'aHuylon inlrani.' l'(irniiilii,ti 

Lighfniiifr Crcplt diorito 

Otliur liiisif intnisivos ciittinir the Pii^iiytcn furmation. 
Tasllo I'cak stock 

Its siit'c'ial iiiiixirtanco 

noininant iilinHt; 

Basif roiitact pliaHc 

Sfnictural roIatiiiii>! 

liitnisidii (if nyciiito p.iriitivry 



Tlozomcoii scric-i 

(ii-iu'ral rli»si'riiitioii 


Strni'tiiral rolntion-^ in tlio raiiu'o. 


Siimmar.v r,r :.',.o!oL!ii'al histnry 


. 4S9 

. 401 

, 402 






Forniatiou.s of the Skagit mountain ran^e ^. . 

Genera] .statement (jqY 

Stratified fonnation.s gQg 

Ilozonieeti series 50g 

Chilliwaek series r,^^ 

General eharaoter and distribution 50^ 

Detailed .sections and tlie fossiliferons horizons 510 

General eohimnar section 554 

Geoloprieal age of tlie series r^\\ 

Cultns formation 5jC, 

Stratiuraphy and strm-tnre 51(5 



Tamihy series 5-]g 

Huntingdon formation 519 

Igneous-rock formations 52-i 

Chiiliwa.k vohanic formation 501 

Vedder frre<mstone p^oo 

Custer pranite-cmeiss p^o.'j 

Oripinal rock-type 5.14 

Banded structure 534 

Sumas pranite and diorito _ _ 526 

Granite 526 



SkaRit volcanic forma' ion 52g 

Skaprit harzhnrarite 53I 


Slosse diorit'' Paok. 

I'ltrnfriaphy ••....!."..'. ■'^•'f 

<'onta'-t niefaiiiurpliisni ''"'^ t<raiiu,li,,rif.. I„itli„ii'tli.'. '.'. ^'}* 

Petrojrrnpliy ' ' ' ' •''•'^ 

r'oiita<'f niefaiMnrpliism. . . ^^^ 

Intnisivos ciittin/r tlio SI<a^'if'v„lVaMi',.s'. ^,1'! 

Aforizf.uifo stuck. . "^ 

Dikes '..'"..".. ;'*^ 

l>ikps nittiriK the fliilliwack l.alliolith! ! '. '. '''!' 

AfiM (iikps CMittititr tlie fliilliwack soripx ,'~ 

Pasi.. rlikos aiM (.-m-nst.,,,,.. in tl,„ rinlilwa.k'.srnos rt 

Slruotiiral relations ''' 

rorrolation •''*^ 



r w • , ,^ <"HAPTER XIX. 

t nrrelntioii in the Western (Jeosyiu-linal belt. 

Principles used in eorrelution. ^'^^ 

Correlatiun anion,- fornnttions at tlm'Foi-t^^unU; Parallel So 

(orrelation nLliin the Western Geosynelinal belt rr? 

(.eneral features of the Western Oeosyn-Iinal bolt. . '. '. . '. '. '. ][ [[ ges 


Suniniary ot ^-..cVieal history and note on orofrenie theorv ,.- 

Oeologieal his ory of the Cerdillera at the Forfv-ninth P .allel tt 

C.b,ena..oMs beann,. on the theory of nionntain-buildi,,;; V ;.■ [[ ^I 


Glaeuition of ,ho ( ■onliU,.,,, ,„ Hie Eor.v-nintl, parallel 

Introduction i ..■ni j^^ 

Clarke rar-ire 577 

N'a:iirc aii<l extent of dacial .■,, •''"'' 

(ialton-Marl)onald mountain proup. .". •^^'"* 

I'liri'cll 111, uiniain system ] ^^^ 

I^elkirk mountain svsteni ^'^^' 

;;y'7"''i^' '"'"">t^"M'^mi H„."iu,;.n;; ,.;,;,,;;„; f^;* 

"Kana^raii raiino ''^i* 

Ilozomeen raiiye •'•fl 

Skaprit ratipe. .......!....' ■'■^" 

Summary .'i!l4 



**'" in.r.iniiiKST or tiik i\ri:ii,np 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 
' ilAI'TI i; Wll 

iV,i,,«,-;„.iH, „.,„.. 1,.. i-',r>-,,;..:, !.;,,,,ii,.i „.,.,;„„.. ^'^\ 

Oriiiiii n| till- Mi:i.i.-r \;,ll. V- 1, ; 

rn,liyi,l,„l „„„„„,:„ ,.,„,;.« :-Vl,v-„;j,.;p|,i,. ,.n,'ii„V, 001 

iTcnt riiii:;(; .svii.-liiic. ' 

f!allnn-MMcl)„i,;,l,l 1,,,,., '.',','..'. .' J,'"' 

gi;.sti.,„ ,„■ , T,.,,:,,v ;,,„.,.i.:„ in \\u' M^-u \\\, ;;,,:,{,, ;;,:,;,„;; ;:;;.! 

I iiii'i-ll .■..iii;N.iiii(l In, I--; 

NolsiiM riiiiiji' iiinn..(!iii.' , 

J{oiiiiinf;l(in-i;.,->l,iii.l iiiMiii,i„i„ ^;-,.,, ..... , ,'■'!•" 

<:liristiiin imiilc ;iiic| iloun.hin Civ,.]; ,ii-iii.'.! ,'•',',' 

Midwii.v vnl,'i,i,|r ,li^tricr .' ' 

Iiitorior riatcnii- ' ' 

Okunafrnn rntip- ' 

HozoiiR'i'ii raiist' '; 

ci -^ ii2o 

SkafTit rnn:;(' .^„M „f M p-.i.rMl Trrti.n- |„.,u.,.iuiu hi 'ti;.; rMsi-M,i;.' .nounhun.' ' li^J 

"'^vH"I'"i™t .,) a,.,.„ of ..nmmir in :,1,,:,„. ,n„„ninln... 03, 

I'-Nplaiiiition, l.y iiiiipritan.-,. ' ' ^ 

S|.iiiilmn.(,;i> ,IovrL.|iMi,.nr ,,f Minmiillcvrl ,i,r.,r,l;,,'i,',.. . .' .' ,Jo^ 

Siiniiiiar.v ,'"■' 

(:o.,,.ral ..,.,u.|nsi,..„ ,.„ ,1,.. I>liy-i...,.,ph^-' hUi.'.^y ' ' f' tl„'. '( ■„r.l'iiv'r, ',1 ''*' 
tla- Fort.v-iiinfl, VmMA rui,, 1,, ,,t ^^^^ 

( IIAI'TKI; \\||[. 

First ..aloaroous f„ssi|s a,.! tl,o „ri;;i„ „r tho pr,.>-ll,„.ian !i„„st„iu.. «4;i 

iiitrcMlurtor.v; a!..>lra.'t ..r ,-|ia|itcr '' 1'.' 

Ex,>la^ation^ „r th,. .nlo-.iliiVro.,-' ,.f'th. pn-C •ami.ri.iu'sodi- ' " 

nyr.oth,.sis nf ,l,e nH.taM,,.n,ln.''.|r<.n,',.h;,n';,n-„;sil'ro;,;;,iM/' " lil"! 

Hiodks li,v|)()tlif.-*i< ''■_!- 

Hiigf,'i'.>tC(l li,vi>c,tli(>-i-. . , ,' ■' 

Du^S"'''/'' ''"'Vr^ 'l"'"""'' "'■■ ''—"-' i""'-'(M:-;.i or;.aMis,M: !;,;; 

iJuration 'Iwiiearly limeless sea ,.,^ 

EHWt.s (if tlic Uiin.iiian ..iM^.n!,. ,vv,,lini,„i. ,*,,, 

Analyses of tlio Ottawa river „?; 

Coini)ari.^(,M „f tlir Ottawa ami ..tlicr river- r-, contia.t .,1 |„v-( ■..■„l.riai 1 latrr ,i . ..r '.v.t,.nN (i^ 

\anafK.„s in th. ..alnuj. -„pply (Inrln. a,,,! afl.r tl„. pro-Cambria,,:: ^^::^^ 

Tfpts of the .'i„.f.'f;estn,l h.vpnthosi*. : . : .:.'.' .'.' .'.' . .' _ ^.fl 

Cnrrcihorativp oxporinioiit- ,''. , 

Ohservation.s 0,1 tho Klack Spa :/......'. (.'r'o 

Pre-Oamliria,! 'ipiliirii'iitary (iepo.sits p[q' 

Orifrin of doIoMiitp an<i of othor ina?i,p^iai, •ie-iimei'its'.'. '. '. :: :: fi'fi'l 


■^^"■'-" '•^'l'" ■'!' ■■^■i'.I.I I,, „,;,Mh-;,., 

"'7."' I'^""- ';;""' -,.1 „:„„.,:,,,. „, .„„,■,:„,;,„.•; '"•' 

< ;ntil.n,iii -..lirnniu. ' 

.,„ "■ ""•'■■"- •■-'■-■I i:. I' <,„Hi.rMn .,.,.■•,,„..-., " '^ ,-„ 

>>iinjniarv ''4" 



'•ir.M'TFR XXIV 

fntrodiiotioTi to til, iicnrv ,,f i-n,..„is r,.,.k 
<'ln.«ifi,.i,tioii .1,,. i:;,ip,,iis ro.-ks.. 
AviTa^re i-oinpo^itioiis (,f li.ndinjr fypcJ 

rompo.iti„n of tl„. s„l,„; ,|,.. .,,,0,,,, p„,,l,.„„„, 

Primary nci.I slioll ..I tlio .nrtli 

Al.y.asjil iiii,>f.tioii of ninj.'mii 

Oriirin of v,,l,.;iiiir jii'tioii 


Avoruffo srxvilic. gravities of corfiiin tv|'.,"..s *!"''' 

Soiirop of inaKTriiitic Iioat *''"' 


frrAPTEu XXV. 

nns.iti,.atio,i of i:„u.ons intrM^lvo l.odir-. 

IntrcT(]iictioii it!^ 

Prinoiplos of clnssitiiT.tion. . .. "'•'' 

Injcctod liodies. . . "'•'' 

Dike '.".'.'.'.'. "^"^ 

Intrusive slieot "''"' 

Laccolith "17 

Pliacolitli "17 

Bysmalith '. '.'. '/ '/ ' ' 71^ 

Volcanic nock. . "'^ 

Chonolith "II' 

Efliinolith ■ ■■ _■ ■ ■ 710 

Subjacent bodies. . "-" 

Boas 720 

Stock "-^f^ 

Batholith !.....".."'. P' 

Proposed classification. . . "'' 


rti 'k-'k- 



I'lI'MnMISl ,„ lilt: ISTLItlUll 

''ir.M'TKU XXVI. 


Ar<'''hiinisiii of l.iifli..i;tlii,. 

Field rt'liitiiiMs 

Tirrio pclaliori'^ 

<''Iirmii-iil rrlMtiiiiw 

Theorios of bathulithi,'. '.•..'fnici,,,",' 

^LlKV„|i|l,i,, ' l,.v,,„tl„.^i,. . 

' Mnr^^iiinl n<siniilati,,n ' hvi.ntlip'.i 

TT.V|iMili,.uis ,,f 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

. 725 
, 72fi 

' iiiiiffiiintic sfcpinu-'. . .. ^^^ 

ar;.;'^,::!':ir-n:i;x - ^-■■v^ 

n\*v of iiiiifrirra tliroii^'li st 

T«>stini..n.v of lai-ooliths. . 

Proi]|i>,u of tlip rover. . 

Supply of tlio iipc-ssarv licar • riiiKTmn.; i . 

Objwtion foundcl on rarilv of .vi,?,.,",,'..! ',''„! ■- ■•.',: 



74 S 


a-winiilatioii. , . 
Kxistonoo of l.asi,. sfofk; 
nilfcncntiatlon of flio 
'Visiii of Kraiiil..; tl 

I'.niptivo soiinonco 

Oi-iirin of inaLinati,- waf<.r anil'pa'^rs ' 
'■oiiiTMl rom-Atk^ on tli,. stoning liypof 

iiiid I'atliolitlis. 
yntii-tip inapiiia. , 
10 pctroirmic cyrlf.. 




^f:i2;iiiati(- <liffi'r(iitiatiuii. . 

''ri'liminary iioto 

Tielation to co-stallization. 

Limited iiiisoihility 

'Jravitativo diffrrentialif.i!. . 

Oriirin of b.isie eontaet-sliells ""1 






t of golutioM of foreign mcK-. ' ~~f> 

<ir.\rTi;i; xwifr. 

(■Olieral tin 

■ t ll 

'-'":""- '■"'■l^'^ .-nid its ap|,li,,,tio„ 

sfnieuKnt of a fr..M,..aI theory "" 

■ 777 



V''"J'"''' '•'"'"''"'••"•i.m of ninttttm- ^*"f-' 

KvMen.v of a ,,riumTy nri.l 'onrtli-sMi; '"0 

KM.ImK-e of a bnsaltiV .sMhsfrntiim ^^ 

^ynfoctics 780 

Tilt' (frHriitcH "S3 

Tlio KrmiiMlidritcs 7S4 

Tho <linrifoM an.l ....i.I nii,), s'ih.,' /«•» 

i," '"''''"ifiitary ,Iik,.s nri.UI ,] '„ \ ',, : 78.'5 

Tlw nlmormnl pnl,|,ro., . . ' '""' ""^ '^■-''"«f"to,. -s« 

Tlu> iilknline rooks " ' 7S7 


-\rPF\IU.V 'A- 

Tal.le of rli, ,„;,.,,I „„,,lysrs 


APPF.VniX 'R.' 


' ''S::^S::;;H:^'t;;: pjjr't:;'"^ •''■• ''^ ^'- ^-t i„tern„tio„ni 

- 1 rofile soctioiis showinjr rol itiv,. -,>Ii .f>, c i .i • 

•■l;ain, an,i the par, of tlu- (-or.'lill. ' \'( \ ',,, "{"^ 'I'"''"' "'« "iniala.van 
of (;..,.ana a.,.1 ,l„. Groat Pl.ins ■'^""^"■"■" '"■'"■'^''" «''>•• fi"lf 

rnor dolta „oar Con, orivk ''' ^'""' "•'"'"'"^ "^'^'^ "^ Koo.onav 

*>■ Bolt of tlio Interior PIk,..,,. ./ i i ■ , 

. ^ <>l,ana.,n ran..,.':.l ' ;•, -^■;:; •'-"■ f-"' ■— Park „,o„„tain. 

><. (-anioron Falls on Oil Pro..!- f ' ' 

B.-Shoaro1 ;, ■ r 1 r;'"'' '""'■'"•■"^. Harko rnn.o. 

nt xZ'rCr "' ''''^""■"" '•■"- '"-'■•-•^ i" Kit,..,onor formation. 


Ill r\/n Ml \ I III nil isii ituu; 

3 GEORGF. V, A. 1912 

II. (ii.r- .ri ...ilt-i'i \ .i.iU ill Kiiii'ii ,ii:^iilit('. 

\Jt. I,u..klll- c,l-t n. •!..-, I'lllliiM.I V.lir V r.llll Innljli !,, ( i.ilM- r.lllL'r. 

II lli'inl ..|' l,..«ir Kihtlii I.iik.'. 

II A <'!liT ill Sixiii liiiir-ti.iii'. »li, ,111- nN.I:ii tiM.ili ,tiiii|iirr. M r.i-. ,' in 
I'liillii... (>,■.■!<. CM-Iirii ...lur ,,|' ,, I'l.iiii-. 
n r..ii.Ti'tl.,ii ill .|,,| iinii, : |mu. r |Mi-| .,;■ (,i,t. w.i.v l..niLii imh. ( .;i|i.iii r.i\v'<\ 
^^> A. l.irii..iiiii/.-l, -iii,|i\ Mini t\\ii,i,..i ,i\,iiU '.f p;iiti'. fr.iii (iiiicw.iy for 
iiiatii.ii ill niMiiiii ..r M'<iilli\r;iy r;iiiL'i'. 
II. Siiiiihir I'M-itc ir\-i,i! in nici;ui. Illil !.■ iii-itri-c. 
\<'k V.\\n,*\\\,. ,.\ i!„. iihi--iM. Iiviii' .•..iit;I..iiiiTiilr in lii'inl u.ill ,.\ . iri|ni-. 
IT. A. IJipi'li-inarks in Iii|i|ilc i|iiart/:;' , |i...>iiiv,-.. 

H. — K:|i|plr iniirk« in !'i|p|il.' i|ii:irt/i,i ; ni'raliviN (i'iip^Ih i 
H. N'ciriilivcs of rippic-tnarlvH in (|irirl/ifi'. Sinnnit of ^'f. |{ip|il, , 
Ifl. Miiiiiit Hippie iinil sntninil rldi-'f ..I iIk' .•^ill.irk iiiniii.l.i:ii s.vsti m. 
L'O. Ciluiniiiir si.,'|i,,iH ,,f 111,. Snnmiit. I'm-u'll, <;:iltMi'. nti.l I,cwi-i *i-uv* 
■-'1. hiM-Tnninuili.' ,M-t w, M ^,:\':.\t ,,f t|i,. \l vVy Mount. lit! (!i'..syti.'!iniil -M tlir 

I'nrl.v-niiilli ranillcl. 
■^■Z. .\. .\li.!iir-t.p,.|li slni.'tmi' In .>^i,v,li m^ .Miiimij i , ClarKi' raiiu'c. 
I'.. -M..lar-ti».i;li «frpir't.!ro in r:,-tl,. M..nMi:i!i, .|..'.ini!lr i i-Mwciifli. rc.l ) ,,n 
main line ol' Cmailian I'arili.' railway. 
L'-. .\. I'p.i'pli.vrlli.' plia.-c> I'i liic I'liivll I.a\a: -uniniil uf McCillivray 
II. (.'narl/ an!yi..luli. in tlic I'iiptH La' a. 
J I. Sen, Hilary (.Tanito of a ^^()yip sill, fifty i\'\{ fniii upper <'untnct 
I'.'i. I'lia .- of till' Moyii' -ill: .^pcana n- om-lialf natural M/c. 
■2i'.. r.dnkitm- (<a-t\vanl tlic laavily \\.i,,,l,.(l iii,.iiiit;iiiw coniiio-cd of tlif I'rii'st 

river terraiie. Xel-.c.n raiiiie. 
•-'7. A.— C.pntia-I of la.iMial -eri.iip. ..Iii^i ,,f \I,aik |onii.ili..n Mi'l'tl aia! .■■iiitai't- 
inetainp.r|ili.i-i-pl I'.piiN ale ii' in a'lrep.l.' ..f -iiinniit Liranile ~toel<. a I'liar^'O- 
t;raine(l. !:litfi'rinL' iinisepp\ itp' <p-lii<f (riuliti. 
r.. -Spani;le,l. yartM't ifcroii- -■'ii<f .-liaiMpli-ri-l !■■ of r„.ll V. pf l'rie~l Klver 
ti Train'. 
i."^. Typi.'al view ..f I!oiiiiini.:1..n I'ei;.! d'Or.Mlle ni..Mj'lain.s ,,f the S,dkirl< ^yM. la. 
L'fl. rerp-ns-i,,n marks .m i|uartzit.. li.nilder in lie.l of I'en," d'Orriilp river, 
"0. A.— Stioare.l phase of the Kykert sjraiiite. sh.pwins; eoiieenlratiipii of the fi'tiie' 
elenu-nts of the rip.-k (niipldle /ppne'). 
I?. — ]\rassivo phase of tlip' IJykiM't yranite, shovNini.-- larL'e |pheiioin,>ts of alka- 
line fehlspar. 
;!1. Tournialinp ripsetles on J,,ii:t plaiip of (piari/ite: fripni .'ppntai't aiiie.ple of 

summit frrriiito stpiek, XelsiPii raiisro. 
32. Felsetimeor eompppsed ..f TJosslnial v(plean!.-s. Kei^nrd Mountain ridco, upst 

of Riisslatal. 
o.*?. Two views of shatter-l.idt iih.piit the Trail hatholith. Colnmhia river. 
•'?4. Sheared Casende pranodiorite. shouinj.' haiipled strnetnre. 
n.'. Park land on Anarcliist plateau east of lake. 
"<\. Fo.pjoil plants in the Kettle Tiivor sandstonp. 

in I',, I! I n, I in , in, I . ^ //,.,m „,///,. 


•'• ^|i- iliiiii^ C.I i,,.,l,,;,. i,. ,,;,,. I 

'■'"• r."l- .-I It,,-;,. (■,,,„, I,:. ' '• ■■ '■■' ''•' ""M.r ..;,i.. 

<).,,.,■„.„ |,.K,.^ I.M.I ;.„..•, -. vi..i.,| i,,„„ ,,,,, .;,,„ _, 

•■!■'• r.Vi..-. fr.,., ,|„. Kr.u.r Hll..,li,„. |....|v 

,: ;••■ ' ■■'H.,,| ,v,,„„„, 

Mr::;i':'::r,;:;,'l,::;',.'::::!'-,,; -•'--... 

I • \ \-; ,, , ' " ' "■ '"-'ii,,i.M,, r,iii;..... 

t:i '■■'-■ i'— u^^. ...... ,,. .„,..„„„„.„•,..,.,., 

v^.i'.'.^ .. . i,iiiiu!:;:i; ""■ "■■"'•' '■■ '"--' r'-n ...■.i„. i.,.,,.,., 

--•-',!, V ,,.;:'';■'"?'''''■'■■ ■'•'-''-'I' ■•-.II..I. -!,.,.;„.. 
Ill i;i,„,; ,1 11 . '"I'"" lie i.'l;i.-i,,ii,.||. ,.t,. 

v„i,;, " ' "' '■' >^'--'-n ..,.,.,.,< .,„,„„, i,. ,,„, , 

•'■'■■■'• -A. -irnML.i,,:,. v,,ll..y ,,f I'hilli,,. ,.r,-,.|< ,., ,.,„i:„ , • , ,- 

.,^:5^^::,:t!■T;;::;;^^r::^ii,t:r' '-■'•■ ^■'•■'— i.^. 

""Sir'';;;,:: ■ '^■■' -..■.... „,.„., 

«r,v,.|.n,.,,„i I ,., „,„ p,,„, '-- T,.„„. „,„,. ,„ „„ 

■>''. Ahari(I,,ii,.,I c lanii,- ..f th,. I*,.t, 1 An 'u ■ 

'■'^ ««-i..i t .i,.,-„„.,.,;,„. f ,,,,;;' f'r "-r- "'■ »» "»■. 

S Sir ;;;: ^;;s? ft' ''"" ■"^"' "•-""™-'' " "" '""■ 

... A vij, ;.r";;!t;V;t.:;::'„ r;:^„;:rrT,;'»;^"V"" *■■ 

thp lTa<!<T rivor. " ~ '''^' "loisfo.'ono doltn „f 

rpprosontP,! in A. " ' "^ """ Ploi^tooPno 


nt:i'AHrvK.\T ar rut: isrr.iiiuR 

2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

ti.'. A l'lioio«ru|ili -linwiii' ri'lnli\i'l,v rufiil iTiwivc I'tfn'U of Klm'iprlptfi with 
Very mnall •itiiinliilors (mniw-tU'lils). 
H.— Siiinll »{!iitifi <li'i' i.iiiiiir rir-i'ii-. nlidiit hcmh tlii>ii«itii<l fit» almvc nvn. 
tWt. I.owir OkarirtK'Hi xalli'.v tliiil OunVuuH liikc. 
t;i. Loi'kirnf siiiitlu' arritsii Sturvatioii crt'ck oaiiynfi. 
•!.">. ('iitiiiM.iiinl alliividl rutin lit Midttay. 

tl'!. A rclaiit siitnmif l-vrU in llic Silk irk raiim'. 

t)7. F'latcaii-likc diirfiu'O <>{ !{i>iiiiiiil iiatlmlitli. 

*!'<. I'liilcaii-liki' ciirfni'f of iiiirdofcil Siiiiilkani<«'ii li«tli<i)illi. 

i!!i, Ml ii.linv aijil park near tri'c-litii- al t six tiioiiaainl fi-it almvp «ca-li'vi>I. 

noiiiiintrtriii rainrc 
7". A. f^lrtr•l(" fti-critiK <T ill mii»-iivf tjrif nf tlw Wnlf furinatinn. 

Fl.— Cnarmi fiOKt'iiiiii'iT in i|iiart/,iti' nf flm Itipiili' fnrnii'tion. 
Tl. A. — I.ipokiiiK *Hiilli nlnni? riilitr iMf»<rn Middle and Slrssc crfokn, Skanil 
II. — Siiiitlicrn sli>i«' of Mount IJiiipIi-, Srlkirk ranifc. 
72. (ShPft No. IS), in Part HI fwifli maps). 
A. — Typirai \ ii'W in Darki" riiii».'r. 
B. — Siiinniit of tlic Nol«<in raiiri' (Selkirk syxteinV 

C. — Ni'lxon rani-'f, lookitiir west from suiiiniit ridtjo north of Diwdnoy trail. 
7.T (Sheet \o. IP), in Part III (with rnai«'. 

A— (^ohinihia Kiver terrnee and tlie rend d'Oreille inoimlaiin (Selkirk 

B. — Typieal view in the Midway mountains. 
C —>'''al view in the Skii^it rnntre. 

1. HiaKCamniatic map -Iiowins sutMJivi.sion of the Ho.'ky Mounlain sy>tem at 

the Forty-niiitli rarajlid. 

2. DiaKramniatie map showinfr j-iihilivi-iion of the I'nreell mountain syston. 

at the Forty-ninth Parallel. 

3. l)ius:ranim:itie maii .ihnwincr snliillvi-inn of the Selkirk mountain system 

at the Forty-ninth Parallel. 
1. HiiiKramniatii' map showing ^uhdivi^i..!! of the ("oininl.ia mountain ^y-tem 

at the Forty-ninth Parallel. 
5. DiaKriimniatie map ^houilllr r"'^ilioii of the slru.'tui-eseetioti eiist of the 

Ifoeky Moiintain summit. 
fl. Structure ?eeti..ii across the strike. alouL' the ridire .soiithenst of Oil enek, 

eastern slope of the Hi^rke rauL"-!'. 
7. ninprammatie drauini; from thin section of Waterton dolomite. 
S. DiaL'ranmiatie drawiiifj fn.iii thin section of typical sandy do'omitc of the 

Allyn formation. 
9. Section sliowiiii; cot.mion ph;isc of the mohir-|o,,th structure in the . 

30. Diau'ranitnatic drawinir to nealo. from thin section of iunyt'daloidnl hnsnlt 

in the Sheppard formatinn. Phirke ranjre. 

in i-i,iir i,t ii,i> I nil I i v /,,•., \-,i// /,■ 



"■ 'r;;:,;;:: '■'^'"" ■' -■■•■-•' ••-ma , ,w„„ 

U. I.i«*,ra.M.n..i,. .,...,, hI i,.^ a,.,,,,.,,,,,,,. ,„„;,, , ,,„, ,.„.,^^ 

K.-n..M,.'ln,„| ,,n,MM in it« nM,.r |,l,„.,. • ■^''"""■"" 

It. I.ucahty Mjiip „f il„. .\|„vl,. mI .. 

" ''■;::;;;;,,;::, "Jr '■ "•" ^'^^.^ -lu. ai.,„. „„. , , , 

1^. I Warn .!..«■„,., la. ,„.,r„...,.h,. ,„.,ur.. „f ,..,.|, ,„■ ,1.. M..M,. ,;||. ,,.,, 

M. Di™, iliu.„.,.tiM« ,1,.. ln,„,|„.-„ ,!,:„ ,!,: ,,„,.., Ilv ,l..r,.,.,„.,a....i ,v„. 
t.-f... ir.aftna -I a tlii.-k .ill iMa\ l.,,.,k Ihr. ■■!, ll,- r .( ,„ . . 

17. K.... w,..f ,,.,.,i„„ „„ H.|«.. Mnrtl, „f I,,,., rr,;U. \,.|.„n ran-.. 

IH. Dn.^r.un .h„w,„« ,taKo of .|..v..l„p,„..,H „f ,|„. ,Uru., ill,w.r'at'..,| in |.i,.,n. 

'"■ ""'n'l:::';.!;;'::'';!: ''i":;'-""'"' v^'M.i.,~.,a: i,„. „, „„, ,,.,^., , „,. ^ 

' ';r;;:r:;:i.;;;: '-'•""' ^ ' '^^ m. ....,,1., ,. 

21. S.u.|i,,ii iiluiii.' liii.. A-M (if Ki-iiri> '11 

2-.>. I>lau'ra.n,„a.i,- .s..,.fi„„ slmui,,;: nlatin,, ,.f t!„. .,„„mit ,,,.,.!.. „f 
raiiL'i. to th,. I!a.v,,ii!ir l.atliolitli 

''■''';i;ir;::ir''^'''''''''^^ • 

25' £Sn tT'': 'rV'T "'"""■""' ■'""•'""'■ '" ''->■"" '-"'•■•!"•• 

-«. larUv _,lK,.,-.„n,nar,.. ,lraw„„ fro,„ thin .....,i„„ „f ,ro„„.l-nu,s. of ' Iluu^ka- 

27. '^••'■tior, of f|„. Oknnnsrnn .•ouiposito l.atliolitli 

-S. Map HlM.wnK rolafioM.s of tl„. Os,,v„„s. .Sinnlka.nnon. a,„l K'r >r i.-nco,,. 

l.o.l,«, an,I tho inva.Io.1 I'al.o.oiP formation,. ^ " '""' 

''^z::x::^r '''^'^" ••"• ^'''">^'"-" -».••"'•. --.i t,„. 

30. Ontorop of tho ,,..„„. intrn-ivo .•onta.-t .s.rfa.o shown in "0 

• xr.i,^r:t';rr;;;:! ;r:r K""'- - - --- 

lil'^hSr"""^ "^ ""^ ^""'•''-' ""•' " "• ^-'"-li". nn,l th,. 

''■ ''ToSS"'^ ""'"^'""^ "' "" ''"■"""' '■"'"•'■"•• ''-'^ --'-'"• -'■' nasi,. 

';• 'trHo:";r„:;L;'ir"^"^^"" -"-■ ^"•"""- "-^ ^'^ ■ v.-.-i- 

S."'. Mnp showine relations of tho (',^ p,..,k .tn,.l- t f>,^ i f j t, 

formation. "^ ^" ''"' ''<'f'>'-"i'''1 r'sayt.-i, 

3fi. Contact snrfnoo hotwoon tho Oastl,. P..nk ,'rnno,iiorito an,l ti'„.rl Crot., 
PC-ou, ^nml.^tnno. unci arffillitos. nn.i ti ,, n Crota- 

""^ -^ 

in:rM:r\n:\T nr ,111: imeuioii 

.,- ,, 2 GEORGE V, A. 1912 

■" ■ I l^MI;li.- ■•.iiil;|.-| .-r ," 

-li" k ;iii'l ( 'n-i-. , .,, 

'■'•^- I'lilll^ill!.' '.ilH.-lr-l :, I. 

"'■*■ ''l'l""ill.' .-ilil.l.'t >■■... , .-,, iv,!. , I ,, ■ , 

■"'• l"-n.i. „,„, ,„.,„,„,, '■•'■^>>'.-L -.>...!, -„|„. 


iinu-lii l.r l'oriiic<l. 

";'iii-i^'' t;i:iiin,||,,,il,. ,,f Castle |',.,,1; 
■■'' -.111. IM. .,!,.> ,,(■ |':,<;,yl,.|, mtIi'm. 
" " ^nii-iv,. t;r;,„.„|i,,ri|,. ;|,„1 I'asnvl,.,, Ct- 

" "'■^"' '■'•'■ ^""l i"^'rlv v,.,.|i,.;,l ra,a>i,.M ., 

' V. iiii, i--t:i!ii~ ri.l^i, 

-ie r.,|il;n I -li,.|I, j,, ;, ,,, 


I. <■..., via. I,.n ,.,■ ,1,„ |;,„.,;,, \,„„„,i„ ,;,.,„,„„,i,^,, ,.,„.|^^ ' i';!,' 

^'--;';--;-' ;n,,,!,.,,.a,,.,,a,.,.,,.,. ,,,-,, ,..f,,,,.., a,,,ia,.,,- 

-••."■■.s ,n ,1,.. i;,„.I,y M.,unlain(;,.,,sy,:,.li„al.. .. „;- 
"■ ^s:;:;;^ ^■'-P.>Mli..n „,■ ....ival,.,,. r„nMan.,ns (K\U-hou:^r. 

''x-in; ,"::;;;,':;;,::! i::;:''^-- ;'' ';- '^-';>' ^^.n.;.ai;,■,i,:„:,•,;H„;,, ;?;; 

'V \\al,.„ s i„ ,|,.. I;,.), „.,.,.,„... .. ^a 

^. .nvlM,„.„ .vi,!, , 'a Mian Pa-i:!,. Rai W- s,.-, i.:,; . ^ ' ;; ! ' ,h 

xu\ . : ^'' -'"^''y- "n.iK,. -.i,.. M„vi,.siii-.: . oi; 

Am. (. ...,.(,,,„ .hr,,,,.!, ,!„• \l,.vl,. .ills. :;!. 

XV. xu:; w:;,:;;;;'lr ;•'''' ^'^'■'^''^^'■''■'^ ^^ 

Mir. Analy.,..,, n;,,,,, ,,,,,,, ;,,.,,,,,,,,, .,^_,,,,,^^ 

A\lll. Anal.vscs n< iriiuctfc. - ' 

MX'. Aiialv-c. ,if .■,u:.-i(,. lalit,.., '"- 

X\'. Anal.vs,.,. ,,|- a„»i„..i,j,,|i,, .,,,,;.,, ^ --'■'■> 

\X . Analv<,.s„n,„n,l,lon,|,.-a„.iu. latil...;.': iH,' 

^.\U. mnparison- a„,.,„^ la,i„., a,,,! n,„„.„„it,.,V .V .'. ^{d 

XXIII. l„.,„„-al„.„s .,f R,.s,.la,„l n,„„.„„ito. . ! ,' 7 

XM\ 'ornpans,,,, ofhasi,- sy,.„it„ a,„I av,.ra.,. „n„,..f,.;; W' '^ ''I 

A.\\ . Aiial.vHo..* of iiiis.soiiritc ' 

^Vr. Analys... „f rhn,„l,-,.on.i,yH..; an,! n^a;.,! n,;.!;.; \. ^ 

l;;;;i;:;';ti;:";';'!.':'''":''""^^ ''"•"''""^■"" -'<^^'*>-'-i 


XXXII. Allillvscs III" Cutl.. I',.., I 1 o- •,. 

XXXni. An.K..,s .,f .;:Zli!,;it;""' ^"■""^™' ^-nodiorito.. . . . „, 

[HTioiJs.. '".i.iiKs Of the poolofficai 
XI. \ I. <''"MIinrisnn „f avcrair.' ■iirilv<../,V" "• ""■* 

I ln;::,;'''T';'''v^''''-'"'^-''''''-'N.:. !''■ 

r.TV. \V,„,., i„ i^.„„„„^ ^^^^.^^ '•""'■ ■"••'t.T „, s,>,l.mont, -,;t 

lA. ('om,.ariso„ of,,;,- .m,l offusiy^ r-n^,,]] /, ][ 11^ 

Ai'i'K.VDix -a; 


^ 1" AIx" I III 

v/ontiuiiiii!,' ^cvcnli'cri "■(')! ' 1 

.M .w^. .!,», „, s:.;;:;„r::„,;;::i,:';2- -';- .*«- . .. ,7,. 

^" '' •.=^ctii:ifA 





o 25d 



^.■„„!i„l,.,i,„, .,."''"'• ""-""'-M -..un.i, ^;.^°'-'^'«f'on of the 


mat oris i„ ,|„. . ^ '"' -''"'''l ll/nf i„aiiv ,,f tl, " • "lai,..!,- „, j^,,. 

■ns- e.xplan.ui,,,,. ""' ^^'"^^"•">''' table „f,;,,,,. wS ,'' '" ^''""^"'- 


;""^ •'■" "1... to „r Ie.s dehate. ""'""•' ""'" commonly 

'^ ^r^Hre^-f „ J ;,^ ;;--;o'' ^n..atio„ al' .J^;:!:,,^'::::; ^-k va„ey 

'"•'-''"'to of I.ittlo Sloop f'.l "'"" '''""'^* ^■•^"•P^ t". Tl """"" 

., . . " '"'Mlilrroiis ail. I 

Selkirk-s'tlu'T'atnbrian !'T'^ ^/ountain acos„„rUn„l u t, 

ground, never r:;'^^""--'-'l^^ *'■;"'-* of the 

-a vol. ,„_.36 "'^t I'-i^ !"vn statcl i„ ,.,,,,„„„, ^j,;' '•'^ 





i>i:r\uiMi\r nr the isrFRtoH 

;,,.,, 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

IS clear t inf, if the zone of Caml,ri„n and • Belt terran« ' «), r 

in the vicinity of ti.e Colun.l.iu riv.r mxl a 1 J .'^^""«-'"J«« ^« situated 

not expe.t to fin,l Can^.n,, , "".I.S' f " i ' """"'" ^'"'^^y"-''""'. wo must 
f;«n.brian in tho rnonn.alns wL f ,l"" , r:;i""7- '•'""^-""'l>'« -th ,he 
the Cascn.Ies). ' " "''"''I'"! .V-stom and 

3. Litholuijical similfirlli, s.~ ThU i,rl„,.;,.I l i 
The f„s.ilife,..,us ir,.n,in.,lun. C.^n; , ' ' ^ Il''K:m V'''' T' '^*■''• 
have, respectively, only r,n., occurr.., co i, t , n > , , ''' f"'"'""""^ 

therefore, be u.ed extensively Tn, lir. 1 ^""■"'i'''^- '"■" = "'^■-V -•'m„of. 
wi,iely.sprea.l rocks. 'A , e n a . / T'T' '^^''-'-- "' ♦'■>' ".',,v 

n^nber of he,ero,eneo„.s s.r.'^fr.t^p:, '';•(';;.•'";• ''"'''''"'• ^'"'""'^ »" " 
to tho Chilliwaek series of he Sk uit r V 1 i '™''-^ ^ 
variable in itself, has very elo" reemM , T"' ^''f\ ''""'■ ''■"'"'"Ki-'^Uiy 
at nearly the extreme elst Ho .'^ ''''' -^^ ""• """■'•^- The series 

the .eries at ,he ex^r^.^ wl ( ; i .„; 1^ n' 'j^ /C'^r^ Carbon iferons fossils; 
ons fossils. The correlation of 1 vH.^ '; '^ ; "' el "'" """'■''" ^-l-''^- 
them it is merely nernu-s.ib'o uIhI ,,1 V "'''''*'•'' '"'^^ ^'''- ''" ^''' 

lithological evi.h.m-e "' "^'''■""•"'"^'-'l "vi'lceo is a,l,Ie,l fo the 

4. Cornla'ion of the Fori ii-nt nil, /'„,.„;; i r 

The general (■.irrebitinn ,.r ,1 i '°'"^'{"'>'<'' •'^'■'•''ons lo north and .^o„th.~ 

.ill L !h;: Us: ;?'^^, !;,n ;! ^rr " ,"" '""^•"'^ ^-osyndinai b^u 
C: Srt-t:;iif r|{-';^^^^^^^^^^^^^ :s;.^::^r;-i:;;- 

woMern Idaho, and^lirc.aa^.rls'seS::^ /^iS::-:'"' ^""' ^'^" ^^'^ ^^ 

"7".'o„s m/n/s/o».-a/TI,eperol oftv ''^„'^'^'' ■'"'""'"' "'efamorphi.n,, and 

Cambrian, Tj.per .Tiirassie, earlv Foeonp C, ,uf T „ ■ ^ ""'""■'• '"-e: the r)re- 
l; soen. already hl.bly p.i;:,:ir th t '"Ji;^" V""' '" ".'f " '''"'^"''• 
of oropen.c events in the mid-Pa. bonifero.« and nf n n '^ . ^•^'^«Ption 
Cambrian time, no other periods of s,,,.Ll f, r "'^'"'^^""■"n. Post- 
for the We.,ern OeosynclLd e 1, r^^ ?,:, '^f'"''""!'"" -"1 I- P-vod 
as concerns the post-t^an.brian for,n,.;'io," ' '''^"-■'■'•'-- '>' '--st so far 

i. Extreme regional nu-tamorphism in this belt u-l„.r„ , • 
the contact-metamorphisra of intrnsive bodL s n V^ ""^ -ncrensed by 




■ I. *"»■--.. 






,-/i- frJiJ' 


RKI'OIlT or I lir I'll,, I- . 

""■ I II I I.I .\sri,;,\,,Mi:if 


here relerred to the Paleozoic, show "" " ""' '■'"•'> '•'' I'.n,ll,.| ~,,.,ir 'i 

of " „;2r p'"" •' '^""■""'» ""i> ". r,. .„ ,:": ■■ r:;- i-- 

£.::;^.tiJ si' r""f- -■ "-™.";.: ^:; "v rf -:" 

thereforp ho.t ; , ^'^'of^'cal Survey 1906) TJ, • ! • "' ""'^ f^'i'kins. 

•j. Ijith(il(„iicnl rescinllr, 
obviously bo use,! «■;. I ' """"'•'' '■'/'/. o^/.v ,of/., _-ri,; • • 

Jiff. »,„ ° -cfc t ° ■■", ''"'■"' ■■•"»i~i'i™. „■" ■ '';,'"""''"•■■■" 'I" "'■«' 

' ""^•^'- ^'"''•♦^ etc., of the 



III I'i/ri \ih\r III- rill; /v/y. 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

n«.o„no..ano,ii,.H,,.,.,.,,:;;;;i;:':;j':ij^-5^^^ - 


IJossland anil MiMwmv iii.Mint 

!itir «t,.clis ,,r 

i/iiinli'; aiiil till' 
'lii.tlti' ;.'niniti> to till. 

..o.t U,r U. «..,.o..a, .,nv.ati,.„ . a ,1,.. ,ai,., ^o.nii;^^^^ Jt::;;;; 

Ui. «nttr hi^hin., t to be c' ^t>•onKl■r than vvouM ut Krst .wl.t s....,., 

iorty n.n h 1 ura U- . M,„.h of tlie rornlatio,, w.ntl.l l,e i.tipo.siblo without the 

. Hi 01 oar , or work .lot.e u. tl.o roKio,,. to nortl. ami .o,„h of tl,e Bot.n.lary i, ' ' 

.■ I- ■M,:iat,v.. ,.v„l..,u.o ot ..,..1, n.s„lt., ,o,.e,l,er with the mat.y faLt.s et i 'i 

u.^the preee,!,,,,. chapters. I,as protuptci the eo„str„etive .ehemo shown in ti'i ' 

Tn thi, a.„l the following, n -r.lntion tahles the formations in any compart- 

;::;M,e^':;:, ':;si,h:i,"'-''"^ ■■' ■■'"- -""•■^ ■"-'^'^- •'- ■- --• -.e.^hrr::{. 

account of their ..nantitaHve inH;o ■ ,.,^^^ 1^^^^^^^^ '"■' ■'''^"•'''">-."'™tio„ecl on 


"""'""""" "n>.^ i.,,.,u.u,H 


''^'■^■i'"l'l.v 1-„|| tl,.. I,„„|,,„ ,„ ,., , , 

»;f'nlog>sts ,, Krn.T.l .strati J„,l,i,. I ! ''■■■■' ' ■'''->>'<.|i,u,i H,.],. ,• ,r ,h. .! 

f'xt of t)„. ,-,.,r.-,,„„,lin», ,.lmpt,.r.. 




i'i:f\i;nii:\i ../■ ///,, imi:i{I(,u 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 


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.i-^ w-D— C'^i 


£ £ - 2 r ^ 

■I -i-s ['l.-s 


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M = 

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«•- t i ? = 

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5 V i a = .-'■:: t ^ 

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-i-.. s,"J -"^f 

w~ >^^rs^:m..^^iff-^.:f,-4::rwY^ 


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^ GEORGE v., A. 1912 

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""■'"••' •"III, ,,ur, (>r/,.,Mu,„/, 


•■^.n'::;::'x:rK...r''::;:i V" i^''-^ '"••■■■• ^•■■■•...^.. 

'I- |,.fl, I'„.,.;i., "'.'.'''"'• '''"'"'• ""•' "nli-l, C.,!,,,,.!,;,,. ,.. w.ll „ ,„ 

'L'I.mI <l..i..|,,,„Mriit I, a 
'■"■':'■'' "'r... tV.,M, n..r(l„.Ms,,.pr 
"""'■""">• ill (l„. h;m„r,v „r ,1„ 

'"■ l"rt.v-nintl. I'„rull..,, „„li,v, ,„ ,i„„, ,. ,, „ 

'iij,' ii.-iii riM 

ninth PnrMllcl torn! 
''"' ror.lillcrii, nil. I 

-.n,M,..,,, :,;;;;;-;:;;,;;;;/;;;; -^^ .,,1,1.. rxxxv) ,.. , „ 

^-'"i...t tl,. v„n-o„.s f„ii,„ pu,, , ,T,.,t. v'.'",^ ■'';"""-■■■ '-•--". - 

l-'Pors n ono l,,v I,i„,, ' s ;., ? ,' "'''^^'■"'"•/ '-""' """"'»-' "- ^..-i,., 

;'■''<• oorr.4:.tiou;;u.;Vr.X'oi;,''.^''''''''' "" "'" •'^'■•^^'-^'hiVo S.ri.s,? 

■— ■ '- Pnrll,. ,1!,; : ' .'''■"""■'■^- ^""-'- TlK. ..pp„n.„t 
l"if ti„,„ „n„ ., ., . ''"■'^> >nota.Morpl,is,„ ^vhiVl, 


'•-ity .nay, „r .^:u,^rur::nrll.'7- "''"' 'i' '''■•"""■'^- ^"'f-'- 

••I'-'ra-.orizes ,1„. ,„,„ „,,„„ „„„ 'J'l ;" ; - '--y >„o,a,„orpl,is,„ ,.hi..l, 

'tl<,.„Itra„s^'ro«.,„„dopo-i(s. Tl„. . ,„„. 

i'ri.!M-|i.'lf,an pen,,,! „t' 


"innii prrin.l ,1 

ri'iu \\lii,-|i ,.1 

"f iif w.'itor anil 
ini|".ii:iMl a n 
. '■» "Vfvpt. p,.rl,a|,., i„ tl,.'.'V„n,' 
".""- "lay tu a tnciM,,-,. !.,■ .,,,|,);,.. 

in tlic 

*0 "/p'""»' l«l'-r \n. I,-,, ,'.s o,.„l 

I'll.- ijiaf,i-|,.,|,, ,j, 

i]\ ( 


mori.a, V„l. 5. 1894, p. m. 

«^ d\ ^;i& .•3K> .^>iasB^' 


HI f\in\ii \i ui riii: i\n uinit 

., 2 GEORGE v., A. 19t2 

H:.' Uf.sf (...ff. 0„,|,.„ ,,1, art/it.. ,,|- K,,r|i,.,|, P II 1 

"' .1.. i.:„,,,„.,. If ,i.„ wj... „,„:'"'•' "'";;"■"'-'•" '-M .1. . 

ii.nost,,,!.. ,.,..i v„l,.u„„., wo I ' l" ''": ''■' '"l-t !l„-,f f..u l„.,|- „,l,..r ,l,,,„ 

«ii.Ha„. .. . ^. :::;;: i;i;:;;;:;;,:'''Tr '"::':' i""^ f- „f oH„vida„ 

.vrr..i„ that ,.r,-< 'arnhri.n m.k. |„, . |,.;, , -""•■"".'■■" :- n 

"'.-.rial, .hat , ar. :.('" """V"'''' ' '■^- '■""•'--'■. I.n.l,„.. 

really intru.ivo^;„;, ! .l ::;.;:,',; Ir'f './"■';'^'' ''"''■'"'•'"■ "'"^ '"• 

"•■"^f-' r/l'" '-"- i-roforrcl to t.,o woJks al 1 ! , ■ '' """" 

As an aul to tlm nn.Iorstan.liMff of thp ,-„rn.|.,tion f, L ,1 
v\-\-.r. . . [Txt-'dinK tal)lo lias „,f.ii rt'cast i. tl.n c ,... e 'v ,, 

^^^:. of ^rt;:^:- s;:t 2:;f ,;: ^^,!:^?t-''^" ^ 

en„n.ora,«i. A final s;K.„nar.v i. „,T..,..,| i. ,1 trn f T ,? vx4v 'r'', "' 


'•''•"/■''•' III, , un, , ///„\,.i//./, 
3PSSI0NA' PAPER ,No 25a 


5 Z it 






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2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 






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5 i_ 

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;i— vol. iii— 37 

. imr xeaiKSi-"^Mii^ ' 


... _.■>. j«IL-r 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I'll Itt'lfl HI 

I_<<)ChI viilcaiiixiii. 
.Local vulcaiiirtiii. 
KrHMliwafir ixdiiui-iitation. 

L',e-i> ■„■„,,,, I,,' mnvemeiil. /oe,i/ uiir,,n/nrmih,. 

I.iH,\l. KiKKNK (;K(is^\. 


K' ft III 


Jj'.f"' I'ath.ilithic intiii-iimi. 

\) 1 1 let |)i .111 I vuUaiiiHiii. 
!• rewh. water "wliiiientation. 
Ijical marine »«liiniiitatiim. „r.„,rn„- miinment ; loinl '■nnmfnnuili,. 

' r.i«al vulcaniKni. 

Kri'shwatir w(iMiiHntatiiiii 

\ i'-»li wat.-r »i-.liiiiiritati(in. 

i^'K'al viilcanistii. 

('i.a*tal marine sedimentation. 


( Upim- frrl'i 

• Till „n,.„ ,i,r Miimiuiih iiiid will, t^rrail uiiroiifnrmitii. 

IjfU-.W. (,'HKTA( KOI ., (;k(i. 

I/<«'al viileanisni. 
I.fii . ^'"•'^'■■»' "'"' "th'T marine »edinif.ntati..n 

" ■ ;;;'.:r' ,7"' """■■■ '"'•"' """"••• ■■'•■'ti"""tati.,n. 

t ijoeal vulcants.n. 

L'talLatlmlitliieintruHion {('nwr .r„ra»»ic?) 

II i</i.yireiiil Hnmiifiinnitii. 

■ hir,„: 

\Vri)K.-l'llE.Mi .ll {i\ TBI,. 


XVideHprea.l l.atholithie intrunion. 

I.iit'al vuleaniinj. 
I.«ical (widespread ?) marine sedimentiition. 
ilci,n;il or,,.,,,,,.- uinicunl, (l„tc Jue.iuic). 

"'"""' Widespread marin.^ nedin.entation (general ■' i 

iielatively wide»pre,ul * 

P.;M^,l.i „;,l„,„;„., tho,,.,k not crr^i.c cn,,M „.„.a„en„ 
iirirt (noil iincoiifnniiilii. 

I /'ri'ilmi'mni.,!, , . , . 

• ieneral marine »edimentatiiai. 
ery widespread vuleanism (general r). 

< iK.NKIlAL«,'.\llllO.SIKKHOlS ' 
(JkiwV.VI l.IXAI,. 

, irfi/it in its touthrrn thml. 

Mi.<>,«.iipi.i,i,i [-"cal marine sedimentation 

Local vuleanism. 

/,'«■.(/ ,;„/ movnuii.i.^ .iiul ii„m„f.,ni,il„. 
liKXKiuj. 1:k(jm,.s IX I "'""'"" f-of:!! niiirine sedimentation. 

Wk^TKIix liKLT, KlTulsi'ii,;,,,, jZ'iu "^''■"""'"\ 

I-"KM.\Tiox (iK RcM'KV ' '''"^'i Marine se.hmentatioii. 

-Moi xr.ux (JKOsvxri.i. ' (>r*„„.„„, , "" vnlcanism 

NU., Cii.hriaH ■' '"■"■"»■ "ttiimentation. 

.Biltian .". I I'Pneral erosion. 

'"■"•■ral erosion in later part. 





"K8TERN Geosv.vcliN;,,, pg^^ 


llu' area covered bv the Wesforr, T?,.W ,'■ / '^ "■"•'■. ni r.-.-iproci.l relations. 
.n the principal ^oo.,nclinau/ U p i'VBeh f^^ T* °' '''' '='««*- -^^---l 
- of .,0 c, materia, ^or.^^l^rj^i:^^:::-;,^l^-:^^^ 

H. rpiiilrSXc^^'T'T.r.S:' rr'-,^«'^ -- -ndoubte..., to be 
Pennsylvanian be<Is scf n ir, \^ v ' i V, '" ''"" ''^l-'''''- flu' .rimi-^ic T|„. 

|o Alaska and .o h^-^J^.J^.^ £ S:^ir';:ir^^'" --''- ^-^'^oriu 

'""■""• ll'<'.v ^.M,i ,1,. !,„■.. 1,,^ f,r\t ' • ■ " "'"'•' '■o'nplete sections 

compose tl,e broad. fun<lamental ,.ri m of I7- "'T'"' " '"" ''^ "'''"■• '"^''^ 
Jurassic „,ou„tai„. were „.adeT.Thol/odr^^^ "'Vl/^''^'' '"'^ •««'- 
tor c^onvenience. ,hc Carboniferous Goosvncfi ^""' "^ '"''^ '""'^ '^ «'«"«' 

nesses^s:;^^;-ss^£^r:^:r'^ --"'- -- tbic 

and have shared in the p.roxvsral 2 emljI^T'"' '''"'■'' ""'^ ""^ ""^'f^er 
■t they had all k-lonsed to one "onforZM '^'il'f '"^ ""'^ '«t«"- '""e. as 

jefor to th- Jura-TriL beds u.';drl"eTl: Tni T^ '''■';:' ""^t^^' ^^ "'"^ 
be conyon.ent to have a na,.,e tor the ent re eri.l of "ca h' ^r^'^"""'.' it will 
Tnassie. and Jurassic strata wl,i,.h hZZT.l ^""""^'■'•">'« ^"n.l older?), 
sedimentary complex of the Wo -, Bel ofThe r V' ""'^'"^ "' *'- '-«"• 
be called the 'Main Pacific Geoi-ndinal ' ^'"•'''""•^- The complex may 

are S,Xi::l^aS:i1 "r:!^-;'^;--'- '^ia i„ the (Cetaceous 
Trias-Carboniferous on the mie h,, 7 .•'=''^*« unconformities from Jura- 

All of these prisms n.ay be called cLl ' "'" formations on the other, 
five,, a ..eographical nlo ITl^llTnZlT'T^'''^'''''^ *""=^ "'«V be 
Queen Charlottr wosynelinal He ^ "''*^*''" Keosynchnal. Shasta geosynclinal, 

ArajrSS;,;;:,;'^^ ^--- ''-o^i^s may be called the geosy.. clival, 

eie.;!^r::"^;-;;-;;rt.:;;::;,!:r''^ "" v '•^'' - "-<■ -«^- 

25a-vol. iii_^71 »-"Sn..,np t,-.,,. Keo-,. n,.linal-, i.e., l,o,lies thick 

I., .L,.l|^ . ,1,., JM-" 


i>tr\unn:\i or riii /\/>; 


2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

'I '<- "ih.T iIniii K II,.. (>,,. 

'■"""-'' '" '•"Mlrol lllnMtllnil|-l„li|,|l|,,r ,1 

'"'■'""-■ ""■' <^irl...„if,., , ,is „„w ,l,.|iiu.,i 

5. ri,,. „v,i,.,„ iw, i. „.,.i„ii, ,ii„i„.„i,i„„| ,„„„ ,1 , 

:: :;' :.;';;x ;;:::;';:;,:,'!;;,;''■";'• ^ '■■■';■ -' [■ >■ ■"''->' '■' ;,,';„:,'.:, 

j^l^j^^.;::,;^;™-',;^,,:^ ;::;.;;rh;;i:i,r£;'i,;;it ;l"; 

ot till- loti!,' iiioiiiitjin-cia n. The lute Jm-.^^l,. ;.,,„•; r .i " 

;;..;.», y Li:l,^';::r';::,:i:;;;7;;i:;- Jil: j:s-l- ^- 
.■ii„J I 'i; .r/'i'"; V"""r","r '•''"'"' ""■•''"" "^ ""• ^'w;,, < 

, th li, V '•'^""''":■•^'"'^ "ff-'-'i l'->i"« of huge si.o, but po^t-Cambrian b. are .•oniparatnel.v rare in that belt. This contrast of th« *t.T\^U 

n.v- of ,be stronger ro,.k.. of tho Kas.-rn l{.lt. V,, ,b.. fa,.f hat thn^^^h 

'I'iic coiiipai-lsoii of tlio two .'roat I)("lt« info •> ' ' -' .i » 

' oniillora n,a. ,,„ ,,iW,U.,, ...„„. i,r„,.. .^Z.C:^. . ,„ ,.„-': , '^r- 

y.l wa,rm..s and of oro.eni,. f.,Mi„.s bavo remain. ,1 lar^^olv para lei fro , 
•' ^■p-f^';'"'"-""' '""O to tho pre^ont. Obvious as ninv be the'ron rn t of tie 
wo bells in thoT respeetive eo.nplex histories, the inti.r, -et ation Ttb-, / 






A. 1t>12 


"'"""'' "'■ '■'■^'"•"■■" ■^'•;]|-;«v .>M. sun: ,„ ,„„„,,„, 


'l"'M'M. lfl>J(i|!\ 

'I rill, ( "liiiiiii.iiA 


H I 

'■ .''''"^ "^iHi-.-r ..v-nt r..-„r,|,.,| i„ ,1,, ,,„.,,, 

■'III. I "i.^n \i\ III I 

MfMII I.. 

''''-■'■-'"to. thoHiioin. f ;. r^^ '" ""^ '"■■-- --- ,|,.riv,.,l. 

'le|...^.N on ,h.. .„..;„„ ,.,,„,'" '';'f '"• »■""■'- "■■■"''' »'iv just s.u.h 

;;;rrt:^;:;:;;:f -r ''dHi^i-'R 

•""■ ■"■"- i-«i'N.i.'. I i -,.l,'. t";,;,:'",;;:;:;;; ';;;::" •"■• - »■•■.■ 

wi."j.l''-';":ij;'r.:;;t;:::;;t;rt:;r:'';;'r'':ff''' "■■""• 

.■Mnf.'ln„„.r;,,,.. ' '''''''' ~ "'■•'^' >"-M.'.I t., th,. Ir,.,,,- 

i" .1.0 .urnKUh.,, „r ,h,. '1 \,' ,"'•'"" Innestono „..h.slvo. w;,. o<vupie<i 

less .'ontinuous downwari.iiiL' it k mVl ''. , . "'"^ '"'"^ '""■'"'' "<^ '""re or 

Bynclinai area mustTr^T^i ,^ ^ : S, J "'^;"''''- ^'•"-""e of the geo- 
that fur nio.t -.f the -'-rioj th, v w r . '"•">'"'"''t'es are. however, 

".eri,lio„al zo.h . Thl .J. ; ',,?,; '"r"""', '" ^ '•""'l-ratively narrow. 

the Colurnh' river 
of land str. •Inn.j f 

1. tc 

west of thi. .one there must have been a wi.le belt 
ti.e north an,l south of the rorty-nlnth Parallel, That 



hKI'MiTUKM nr 1,11 IMH 


land may J,„v.. l„„l , ,.; ,,, ^ QEORQE V.. A. I0t3 

'•y -loiinit.. ^imre.iiniTi;;;;,^;;;;:;;';;^;;;:; ."- ''-''■'I'- iinm..,i. „is „,.. „..„ 

z rt •' "'"-.;;,:n.:rH:;:„!;;,;r'' """"• '" ••■" '^••" —;;;:; 

gre.<.,„n.sof tl,os,.M,l„rin^,|„. Mi.l, r 7"- "'';■ ~'"'-^''"-^ i-M|H„.>;„„ ,,„,- 
I""" P.-io,|-. Af ,1„... ,•„.: '„'""'"■'"," "•"''"'''•^"D 1 tho AfUs. p 

""J -Mll,.«„,„|.„,„, ,„;, ' ■■( n K.'os,v,„.ii,„. „;,„ north-Morllnv,." 

In til.. iri'.,-.v,„.|i,|,,| .,^,,^ ^. 
"f cla..i. or cl...„.i..„I .o,|lm..„u u^Z^;!;', \!^-"''-"' i'-nuM-^ rl„. .l.,,,,.;,;,,,, 

"»-::i:.i';;:,:,,;:::;i;E;;:::;:r: ''"--'- 

^v-:-., ^^iili;;:: H..r.':::;':r,,::;T;:,r:::.';'. "r. ■■'• -r'^- -"^i- r.,- .-,o 

or„II,. ,W„« ,|„H„. „,i. I ' „ '"■•.";-";'. l-nl-.n. „,.,.,„,:,, 

"""""' -'i >'<"'-.v v.>,.,.or: 1 /„,;'■ '""r"-'"-^- -''•■"-^-,1 an,l r.^civo 1 . 

"" '-;■ '-•■"• <l'o K.r,,-„i,.„. I.„;.; " "" '"^•^' -'" ""l-"ntoIo..,Val ..Honcl 

" .'^ ''!*• Po>,sil,I.. Unu so,,,., ol i!,.. ,M , 
n ;-<..... s.s,e,u an.l of ,h. /nte,.io I^ ,e n J;,j;'?'""'"7 "'^ ^1'" <'"I-"Ma 
'•>"- '■■Pn..s..„t„„ v„l,.„„i,„ „„ „„, ,,,,,^: .:,*'7;''-''':f P--P.n,,s,lvnninn 

•>• At ,.r near |1„. ,.|,„,, „,• , ... . "f'-"' "' tUr W ,..„.,■„ Jolt 

«^>«e (he Kastorn a,„l \Ve,fo,-, Bell, I,. ^v I^^^'n-'-^-vlvania,, ,H.riod. Othor 



I ■■- 

Ill.i'nlii ,,f III,, f,,,, ,. , ... 

SESSIONAL PAPER No s-3a '" *** 

wh J'::,;:- :.r!;;;'';;;.,''i;;::::' t ;)^::,;i'?''- j^-^ -^ - ---.- „. ,,„. 

"'^' w "'-»>.■!.. r [„,,.. ,„,, „ .^„ ; V ' ■':•''-•'' "• ""'I iM-iu,ii„c 

"<'^v .•.,n»i„ont „„,| ,i,, ..,,1 .„„. „ , " "■•■^""- ■' l"-.;l-nr .,. Uhu-,.,, ,|,, 

'7'" •■; '"-I-".. „ii ,1,.. .lisi^ ::,:';;;• ;"" "t,"- i.nn„.,ii,.,.,,, 

"•"^ :Hv,.,„ul.,i,„^ i,s .-uonuoui- I; "r"' ";:'■'"•';"'<' ■•'-tern „ ,„ 

•'"rassi,. mat,.,.,-,,. "' ""•" -'■•' ^'^ *•.-' 

■^ • •• '" ' ill! 

riforiiinbli' spflimciits 

'III' -lllril-- i,- ;|Lr|._ (li,,,.,. 

H,o LirT,:::;;':;;:^^^^^^^^^^^^ , 

t'.o .lynnrnl,. ovenf. lon,li,„. ,„ , „ • , l; .'I'" '" ""\ -"^"o <'- -'h,w ,.l,.ar,v 
7-.';.. of ,ho ,„„„rMo.| strata I,..,. h' "^ ""; f^'>Hill.ra. f„ll.,„.,.,, ,,, 

the .s,;.rr„ .l.,wnuarp, I,. .«.,.,' . 1 l''"",': ""'"' ""^ »"--'""^ "f w,M this ,,.,n,..n,ry n-.n ,. h„ '■; v '^"'- "'^ '""-' ^"- '>"w 
cannot be . Ionian.!. I, i. k„.,,„, ," v,! ^r ,/ :'';'''1" '." "- '^'-''-" ^Wt 

of the belt. Ar.Mlli,,... s.nneV ,'.";'"' ^'■•'"'"•"♦"f-" <"■ the Paeiff,- , ' 
of ^sie v„!,.a„ie n.a,..;ial Vj:7;:'^,Z:;T r'^"'? -''' '^-^ Pi'- 
'n this rf.p:i„n. '''"' "'"'" "'<^ Prnnsvlvn,,;;,,, formntion, 

prcparauon for the late revolu ion „', ."".'"^'''''l '"""". - • ^'vl\ 

r--olu„o„ afr..,.ti„^ th.. U-,.t..rn T, n rni, ]V i\'" '^^^ «-;. ^""eral orogenie 
was |-olI„we.l bv thn In, • ""''' ""' '•■,.-( ' !, 

Jiorite an.l a.Iio.l r..,V 'i^an TZ^^ZIIIT!'''''''' "^ --- 

rr.n,.h an,| ,1,.. .,„., ,.„,,,„ „,;,^,,, j;- n , ''^ ;'''■'..'"*""'■"" ""■ I'-ooJl 

'"" ' at till- fitno. 



/'/'•./^rtf,X, OA,,„. /v/AAVoW 

2 OCORGE V„ *. 19)2 

'"■»••' M'-.^.M.'. T!.,. .I„n,-,;.. r..„i,,i, ■„ '' %"'^'""-'l' »!..■ wh„l, „f r.... 

»■'"';•' M..,.a ,. Vi^ „ '?:" --•■". ^*- «fT.v.,o,| by ,h.. force 

"• ""■ "'"" ••' »l- l'a!...,..„- \;' [''■'""•^''V'""' «•"■"'''.>■' into .harp f" , N 

111. .1-1, 




•'" ' •■ ■ n.. „, ^ 

""""""•»' «..H „„ ,...|,„ of ,1... .,ri»-.. ,.f f ,. , 

"• '••• r.pM .,r,„:,„. ,., /'■": 7'' ""."'•-■ ^''-"-' "... P„..ifir, 

"."'^•;'" ■■■■■•I' f'o,„ .i oun.a , i' : ' ■ ■;, ""r'">' »'— 1^ of ,.„bi,: 

■;' "■• '"^'w,,.. .r.nit... or „„ „i,i.,' ' ! ' '" '■'■■'' ^' ^■'"•'""■' f-' ■' 

■i.-i" - » ,„„„:„, ,„'■;,.. '•::;,. "■;:;;•■•,; «>-' ■■'■<•■- w., ,„.„.,,n,,. ,|.,,,,,,. .,,„,,,,,■■ 1. ■'■■ h.,..„, iw, „. ,;,„.,, 

'■;';■ •■> .'"'■ Kt:';;; ',"::;;;,,'::',; n,.;,'";,,^,,-"" ; "'■';"■■'»» "<■!. ...i .1,.. ,«„„ 

'" •*'•" 'I1-' In:,..Mf. ' " ' I'l '■•■ r.i,rrr,.| to i|„. .1,,,-.. ,. 

irii'-T"-'-''-^^^^^^^ -"'-•-' •■'--' depth. ,He 

"'";■';"-'! :-'" 1 in .iu. K..,o „ ;l,i :"";"' ?'"'"^' «^ -n-nse wu. .i I 

-;-. .o„,a) ,,oUs. „, ,narU? r . ':iir P '■'- '^'^-■•i'" sU 

'""' '■■ ""■ ^^'''''<' ''o-ii'i.'... . ti::' ';:■;;„£' ;;:">■ ,f •'•"' .-.•urr..,,,. of ,„.. 

"' ""■ l'f''-r'.inii„ian. iniKht I,.- 



ft? I 

U.n.n.lao- A,! ,„il.., ',;"'" """"■" '" "■' 'roa ,. ,1... 

•;"7"--- Tm- -.,, „, „ „'-.,'■";■•'■''•" ^"•■n.l .,.1 ,1,.. ,..lf 

,'"'"■''"!•■" i" •!"• i:.'i< ..1- lni..,i.,. I'l ,.. ,', ' T'r"' ■' ' '•••"■>" -I 

i.H ui.,,1.. „,M,i,, •'" ""• '•—'•""' i'--.ii..i.. ..,.,(.„, .,.,.„„„„. „,.„„;, 

"• •'"■'^'i'lC l.v i,„,.,i„tri,M n.i- ■,.t,t . .M 

'••'— ^' ->M.Iin.I „rn, was, „, ^\J ^ZTT '""■"' ^""' ''• ^'■- '•"^-' 

'" -'r.'..Kl,v ,1, N..„H.,|. "* "" ' "•■• '"■ f 1"T. "plif,,. i ,,, ,„pl, 

'!''"' '•''-•■■■•■I"; '-ntl, I ,, ,,,;,„ „, , 

IJiv.T fonn.h..„, -'n.Kt,.,.,., .,.»:,l),l,... „„,| .,.,,^'1,.,,.,.,.,,... , K„„l. 

^■-"^-'!'' ^■X^^^^^^^^^ 

"""'' '•■•-•all. I II ,1, .„, ,,r..r,l.- .1 "i " '■"" ""'"■ '" "■• '■■■•'■' 

':■ T..,>.ni ,1 1.,,., , ,,v 'T ,. 

-- K..„|. nu.r M.iiM,,.,,... I- . |,|. '",.' ''"■;•''''■■■ ^''■'"•^•> l--san,| 

Nmn.. „„„,,,„•„ ,,r ,„ ,|„. „-,. , u " ■; '"":; ■''-" "''• '■■•"■'■'"• M. „f 

"""•'■yiol,!,,,^. iIio,,.„p,,|.,>-..,n 

■'•■'■"•'■"■•l- I' i- il.l ,1,,. ,1,„ r . -i" '■'■"-.'.I' .. ,vv..ros„.,„:.|v 

"■'•I- iNrth,.. ,li,,urb,.|. rh„n..|. ^,, ,.„. , ''' V ''■, Z "' . "' I'.-^'.v •,, ,li„,|ct 

""• """•'' ■■""■" Pow.rCul ,.r..,.| .,| i ,,„.;!,' "'f 'l"'f'" "' ^' •"'"■■-"'"i'-' to 

Mtlu.lrai batholi,!,. ;„ ,!„ .>.,„„,,„',', ,, '''" -■j'""^ S„,„' .,„„,.„ ,„„,,v„ ran.,.; ,|,„ ,■„,,„„ ,„., -," '- • "- ' -'■'■ iN'ak -• ..-k ..f ,|, 

'TO pn.w^.onal „nly. an-l a ,lat,. .„ r..-,.,,- , r l ^ ""."''- '^ ' '•""■'■'■'«• ions 

I-ov,.,! f„r anv ,„„. ,„• ,„„„, Then. , :. i !"'^" ^'^'"[.'^l^ - f.n,i|, ;, „„f 


/>/7M/r/M//;v/ o/' 7v/a; isn.iaoR 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

-«'■ On.. ,.|- ti,e iMst i.,.,ior.m,""l"'''"""'"'l '''"''* "'" '"'"'Vno. 
mljoining tl.o ]5o,.n,l.,r.v .k-ll is IL^^^ZI "f 'm"; TT"'"'"''^" ^^ <'"■ '"'^^i"" 

"iii>t r„v,.,- a i,,,,,'!, wi,l,-r /,„„. „(• il„. ('.'nil ,T ''■7'''''' 'l"a'i»ilaliv,. mi.l 

'""■'■-ti I i:,.„„.,,,,. Tl,..,., „. I, '? '"'" """ ^'"•^•"■^■'"' ••>'-'^' <l'- 

•ii.ili, ;^ p.nfr(r,illy ii„.lorstoo.|. 

""'"; '"^'"^'"- -'•'■—.>-.• M.„v,.,u.T.,,,.n,.,:. 

I 111' i'(i:i(litioiis 1 Tc'-fin" (ii,> , pi..;„ t 
.■<v..;.MH/o.l ;w olleri,.^. 8„.n,.^,f ,|„. ,:' ,1! ,"""",'!-'"" ''''"'"'^ ''"^^ '<"'?? '"^n 

>"".^ .''.^ to tho ..i.r.hs ori«in„I t~r,ur 'I • ''"'"'^'•■"^"y- Ass,,,,,,,- 

'Tus, o,- i„ ,1,0 VMS, in...,-?„r ..,,;• "'"";'" '" " "'"' -"-f-'o ^I'oll or 

.•o<-k-,„i,f,..r w,-,s liiMn,,,,., ,e| ' '"^""'''^''^ "^ ""^^ly nil aoccssib],, 

.l-voI.,„..|l .„„|..ien,l,., .,. .lint,.':, ,1 '::,'"" ''■^""!'"-^'^- "■'"■<•'' '..•« not boon 

ti- -i-siT 1. A ; : ; n " .''u;::t-^f''° r',"" ?^"' ^•■^'"'^ ^^-'-'-'i-' 

'•■Ivi. als„ , .„i,,,,,, ..„.„„„,,;",„ ^^^^"^f.. ;"""'■"' ' '. "l-nnal ,n„.,io„ i„. 

it will IK. I„n^ beforo th.To . , l^Z iuZ^ ' ' " "f' ' •"''"''■ "'"^ 

■ - ' • • ■ nn.iniMii.Hs oi)ini„ii on tho valiiiity of the 

ii'i'iinK. Other cxphuiations nrc but frnir- 
".. '".r Inok of iMfornuilion „s to the rxa^t 

T"^"'>- ■■ <'.-•>■ likowiso .,<tT..r frirn, , 

'l""'.Ml .on.mion of (ho c.rth-s inforior 

- •■■'iiiit.'s:;;:;;:/:^';^;,. ::,rf"n"^ '^'t"""' '- ^-- A.„eH. 

-'li >.,n,io„. |.:,,..h ,f ,h,. n in. iMl n t;"''. "' "™ '"•'■'■"''■'' »'>' hoavy 

•linnl bolt. I'.'n.ipMl fol,l,.,| (n,,.,. „ lo,.at..,l wi,hi„ „ gpo>,vn. 




RrpoKT OF r„E ciuff .is^Titoynurn 


^^Jy ~;;;;::.:::;s^Sr^'''''" '- '"•• - •>- "-^ "^ n. .... 

or.;:;..s;S '^T;:;:;::r!j:;T.rS;::;r'i;'''T:'"''nr '^'^-v --"^ --""- 

worl.l. ,l„„ „... ,„a.v l,,.v., , mt • i l',, " i' •""'■'''" ""'' '^'^'■^^•'■'- i" "- 

•'• fin.nifl,. iM.rusi,,,, .f (iV.t- ■ ''''';'''' ''^''"■""' ">" ''"tl''« crust. 
A>! ,„.,;o,ls ,„■ ,1,.. M,r. „.','''"'•"■ '"•'''"•• '" "'■^-■'"' '•■-I''. Mlw.vs 

.Toatost „i,,vs.s„i i„i,„,i,.„. ,,■ hh :;;,';• '■'','.;■, ■;'■;"""-'• •'■'■••^ i-w.-..^ .i^t th.. 

'■■"lf>I witi, fl,.. |,„,i.„„r,l , u-ln ' '■ ',"'■""" '"■'■ '■''•'"■'i'.'ll.v "ssn- 

f'n-nno,- U,..,„ ,|,o wl,„I, ;.,„:! """" '" ■' ^'"""■'"■' '' '■■-''-'"■" -l,l,.|, i. ,n„,.|, 

r.. '111,. t(i|>,lf;r:l|i|ii,- ;l|l<l -lrilcliii-,1 . ff., I . 

'••Tt.v ninll, l'.,,,l!,.| ..„.,. .I,..,rl , , 1 h "/ ""^'-'<""'-^"M\n>, ,„ ,1„. 

'■-•=.-nor,,ln„„, ,„„l,.,.p.„. 1. „■ i- , K, "" '"r"'' "f 'i'l-i'-'' i-n (^CUi,- 

ti"" is -.'.. i„ ,i„. p,.,'.i,.,„ v ,,:.;;'; ""'"n'^-..-^ '-'i„^ in,,.,,,.. 

fa,.. ;,,J;':,^:;;j;! irr;;: r 

'■'"•'<'■■■ ("--an) .sid.,,f ,h.. rnrilili.,;.., '' "'"' '''"'''-' ""''-'■'•- "" <'- 

>'nJ:::7i :^L:'z.;1j:;tj::l "■; ';;" ^'"-'":i-^- -'"- ••■'' --■■• 

<'a-.s„l C„„,li,i,.„ :ura,,'',.t: ''•;;::" V^'>-;' l':— l".i-tion a. a 
in.:!'"' "^^ '"'""^ "" "'''■•'' ""■ ''>-•""■- >-o i,oon b:.o.i ar. ,.,o fol,„. 

'•f no strain in ,l„. ,,„m ,„.,.1.,1„V n ' , ;'-<'l':P."ont of a levol 

oarth's surfa.v, ' ""' '' "" '■" ''-'■ -'n i"il,-. |„|,,u ,:,., 

sin, j;i:t ;:::zst:: :i -:^:;:' .:;;..,^:" ^v' ;'' -^— "'■'• -" 
tensi..,. ..,.„H,. , i,. „...„,, „.:,i■:],;;::i^;■i:*;^-- -^ -^•■' 

of tiL f;l;M't,j::,i::r:r';L.'';h;p'''::i' /"/'"^ ^''«" -^^ ♦-'-" --Hin. 

l«.ver of .ho ..I,,.], ,.u a r, ,iv , 1 ' ""' '^ "'"■"'' ''^•'"' ""' -'■-"h 

<.iiin. or < riistal ilofonna- 
•1{. A. Daly, Anicr. ,l„ur. Sclint,., Vol, i;. 1900, ,, 195. 





,■ I , 2 GEORGE v., A 1912 

f^ :S r:;it:i';:;ueh'?;i:'r ''^/'r ,""•"- '^ *"« ^^-^^ 

I..V an enforco,! oroep of matter mvfrn' •;"^^':'""'" "<'-^<l tension is relieved 

Lo,ly remains tinid the n.:' \, He r.!;,".'?'"' '°''^- .''' '""^ ^ ^''^ 
eanl. is ac..on„.lished by ercep of n aUer ,1 T*'"-""' ''°°''"*^ "^ «''« 

ot. creep is at a maxina.n. Le tie .one of "'""^J'^«""°r• ^t'o amount 
""■"nu.n. .t eertnin -li„un,.es to ri J t .„, M f? "r""" ""'' decreases to a 
2. Tins lateral creep nXles a down i "^/''t ■"'''-"<' line of the zone, 
diately, ,i.e .one o condentuun Th ^^'.^"^'^ "'"''''"' •'^- 
.0 the seat of prolonged .e,li„,en "tr 7 o t .' "vXh T.r^-^^^^'""' """'^ 

little resistant itself, cause.' 'often inTol^rr' "^'\ "^''^''' -""Pa^atively 
i^otreotherrns.* When the Hllinr * basement through a rising of the 

-'.e shell of co„,So oS;^o i : f r"""''"''' 'r ^"'^'-■'«''*'^ tf'i'^keV.. 
-e intensified by inetaso nalic da",; ^ rt"" "7;","'"-"" °' ^*"^^''« ^^^^-'^ 
•ainous forms and structures resuh. ^' ^*'""' *° '^""'"P^- ^^""n- 

4. The complete shearing apart of tbo =1, ii c 
J.-nnp. „,e .ro^^nic revolutfon rrfeases L f • '''^1^'''"' ""'' ^«"«i°" 
""d.lving shell. Abyssal injection on /Lr-'*'^^^ unrelieved in the 
tyu.ed in the shell of tension The relefcoml' "■""" ""'''"*^ °^ ''°"- 
of the n.ountains Hrst oecsLs f hn n T,.'^ *''T'^ '^'^"'^^^ '" the act 
thus of the extensive ass.nHlaZ of g 1!^''^.^' "^^",*'° ^^^^'''^-'l 
rr.marj, basaltic magma. The differ,., .Vl' V , ' ""'^ ^"^'l-'ucnts i,y ,1„, 
assimilation may explain the bat holi I i ! ', *''? ™'"r""""I '""^^'mas of 

along with their satellitic st'ks ^ I"' 'T'T "' ~t-" ranges, 

'-. The regional warpings of he ear J; ::"'"'""" ""'"""- 

'" the varying strengths of 1°. alitnVions'f """' f ^^^^ "' '"-* '^^^"ed 

«■ The location and al :'„ men n • " """^ «"bstratum. 

elongation of gecsynclinals. the fi ] Iv.i'n" '1" r'"^'"' *''" '"*=«♦*"" and 
satellitic in.iec,i„ns, are al ilrdl. de,t an7 f. T""'" •'"*''°'''^« «nd 

power ul abyssal injections fro„/t&tr.,m it '"^ '" '""''^ ^""^ «^ 
located by cos.nical stresses atTecting the 1 tT . "'°*'' "■""• '" ^'^'^ '"^ge, • 

. , 7 Mountain building causef I „7! ' '''°'.'^' '"^'''^^ a-™"thal lines. 
;;.al shell. The surf...e .mttlow of e ,,„ , 'P.^'-''^^'^'*' ,^tresses in the superfl- 
from the substratum, mav theref 'r, ,e ' " u' ■-<— "'ar.v or direetly derived 
revolution. I„ general, ti.etu^ of vul!'''' •''"■'?"'''•'"' "^"^^ "" '"•'-'»■" 
by the doctrine of the 'she 1 of ,^.1 ' ^h.'ch'are' 7 fundamentally affected 
compressive extension of that shell ""' ^''*""''^-'' "^''^^^d by the 

•P.H.ap7„^ o, nie Heat „„.;,o;a,!, eo«ia.t^ . of ra,..„„..t,ve ori.ia. ^ 

M.M.p.t li.k.r, tak..„ f,„„, prairi.. at Su.m,- L,.k.., K.u>t.r Vall.y, 
2Ba- V(.I. iii ,,. -,74 




''■'''"'■■' "/■ nil: rill, r \>n:ns,n,,,,- 



Tlio .socmirl p:irt i,f | ,..tiil-,( / • i 

M.ev.. i„ al,,vs.,l i,,,V,,,i,„ ,, ,,,.'.;: "--•--■or .1,,. „,ny l,e. „,. ,„„st 

abyssal i,.ie,.ti„„. .iH,:„ :!:;' M '„; i/r: i T "7- "•"'"• ^i-^ "■"' -'^-"-' 

or al,„ost alwavs on,„o„.p„ra . ^ H L:''':"""?^*";" "^i!* v„l.a>,i.,„ i. always„^.tho,> that U.Iiof. I„ ..« .1 . , ' ' ''';'''"'l ''^''''''™*'''''"-'- «™'U o 
M.rfa<.e may bo h„t „ .s„,ali ai i : . ,,, I,."''''''';''' "^ ."^^'^-'^^i""^ of lava nt .ho 
"0 lin,its of tho ...osvnclinal it I '• """'""; "' "''^•^^■•>' ■■"ioetions within 

tbat the lofal vohun^ „f ,„a;:.„a .h'„ tr n«T i V'*'"'"'^'*^""* "■'^""«ptio„ to hold 
be <'o>,>pan.l,l,. ,., ,|,, vol..^ f ♦^l"^^""'"' '"to a,„l through the cr„st ,nav 

-l.ios. „„. n,oM >atisfac.,o . t;;„; ;^:'7;^';:f "--• '" ^Pit- of an tho ,yj. 

stresses. Jf „„. oo„oi„si!:/' ! p.^ ^ r";;:::'^,;'* -'"--^."a „n.lor cosmioal 
folvm,Mhoor,,,v,,ioproble,,,. f,,r,i./ri.,. f '''' '"'.■" f"" *'"^ '""•■"■''■^ 

;;.^-J;::nr::;;:r i:- • ;;;r;s;ri.;;::;i ;':^ ; '1'"^"- "■• -^ •'— ic 

tbo toliowinj,. ti„.oroti,,,l .•hantor o ' ^, *^'"'^ ■^■■tficirntly doar. J„ 

< - Miof that v,.ble bath .: , ™';^;^^^- ";''-- -ill bo f„„„,, C 

-ts on n.u..h ,„.,ro than .n^:;^ s^ , , " ^l^;:'';;' — '*-n. That boliof 
these large-.cale injeetions Lo CX'tZt"::; """" "^ '" ^^''^"'- 

s'lell ,,f tonsio,,. -J'be answer Riven i„ the ^n., • ," ''•'■"" """"'"■^aiieii ot tl,e 

-"' 'bo Po,tula,e.l ".ochaniern V ; r .r'tlTt" " ' "JT'"'''' ^""^'^"'"♦'^•^ 
namely, that at its closing,- .f,«e .,s veil I' .. r '"'■'"*'■"' """^'"'' '^ ^fons; 
t'oosynelinal, an coKonie' .novem.'.nt is eio\ K ' ^°""^"'^" "^ ♦be preliminary 
"'a.'ma into the earth's ornst T t w ^ """r"".'' ^'^'' '''" '"♦•■'--■-" "> 
a-oeiation is olo.e beeanse i, ^ „• .^i^ in 1 ""''"^'l. ♦" tbe view that this 
b'thorto Kiven too li„]e atten,?, r;' '".''"■'^^♦'■'^"♦''-•■^ i" orogeny have 
'• ,o n,o„ntai„-b ail 1 '"'"""" '^' ^"b-rn^tal. ,na,nnatie 


i ■ -z '. 


tne^wf) 4. ;i»^;r 

!•- .»*6, 


Tm^ . .*•' 


': iml^VSat 



A. 1<)12 





I\ Mf'Mil ( Tl()\. 

Wliil.' collect iiiL' f).,. ,l.,f, ,, 

HloM.' the trn„s,nont«no .ec iim will h " '".' '"'""'' n...„„„.i,.„„... 

-"ion. of the ^^^^XCJl^:y:vCu;l:^^ °^ ^-'"^ -^''^ - ""^ 

".In-Kh do^oe of s^„uu..rv \v\„ id j ,t fT ,^''' r,/'"'" ^*"^"'''" ^''""'^ 
width, was covered l.y a .on i, n,,! V ' •'"■'''""■■«. WO niile. in 

tl.e Kocky Arot.r»ai„'..,n'arr„ :::,;;'', 'V-"' '""' *'' "-^^^ ''' ""^ ""P 
"ovTodhy three sets of- valley Z,i!r" '""•'"" '■"^'^'" ^'•■^'' re-Poctively 

sheer'!;: r:w"K„::i*'?,-^^'"^" '""i ^'"" '•■'-"-'- - "- '-''--' 

trunk plamT in the FlathI d v- II V'' '"'"•' I ""' '"""'• -'"' H"" i>'^ 

wa. locate., on „. hi J:^;:^; iiS. 5,^:;;;^ ;::;:^^" -' ''^ --•-' ^-"- 

in till' 

lie.. gl,u,crs, ,„ ,i,e o.!,er h.nd. ,^h,cial erosion ha, neatly 

<u«TSs)iiQr»'^;^^i.«^cif^'vis»ewrai«P .'rj 

.•orr. ^^Buitenaumiiw 


""•"■•"" w <-/ nn iMiinni: 

"'-' "I- -.. > .,..„„i,„,. , n- '"^""°^^-* '^'^ 

'■■■''•'''''''■-'-'M.H,,,i,M.,M ;•';'',■""' '■'•:- I -■- ,:i„.„,, 

*'ir.n..- uvr. .1,...,,,.,.,, i„ „„. „,:;■;'.'"" '■•'-"-'' ^ -n i.<ii..w-..,, u,i„: 

■■!l"u.t,.. wa-t.,:,,. |„„| |.,.,,,„,,. , ' "" ""■"'' ■' »li..,.:„.i .,,,„. , 

•"*l"''lli illlcilli.,!, W.H l.'ll.l I , .1 

;•-,-"'■■' '-i-i:llr:: :;::;;;';: ''v '•:.'■•■:';- ' ■" ,- 

"'■■";■ ^i::;■ ;:::,;: i::r's:"";; ^", 

:; t;;l;:':' "-:::■:: ■-:-^•"'-::;:v^:"l^i::^•:;,,,^•':^ 

■<-'-". .1,,. ,lin.,.,i.,„ .,,• „ ,„„.,./,, „,:";"\"";''' -"""in„.s .|,„.i,|,. ,1,.. 

'""•.:■:■ '- 'yvv. ,.f Con,,, 'a r w''!,,'h7.!;'''"''''n''';'"''''''''''' '"" ■•■"■•■'V 

-'-"1^ ^i-i.,-- ,.i,i„.,. i,„,.:,„:„>. . ''."•■• 'v'^;' •."■'■-- -ui.n. 


"■• i'ili-,-it,.,| fr.,n,, ,|,o ,,,„,,,;, 

r""^"," -'-"^M. w.. not ,|i,v,.rlv ';„ I ,„, "k";'"' •^""''"':"" ^'"-'- t.. the 
'"• r.'M.I,.,. „ r,,f,.„,„, ,„ Daw-.,,,-;,-!,, • ,.„ "/ ■"["'"'""-" r-la.i,,;: 

;:;:,::?;;,,£:";r;;,^';'» ■•' *■ Ki;:r;,r^,::;:; - •-» -- 

"■■r- H" "■"^;i:;,T,^;,: ::,:': «'-'■- -..i.. .,,..,„, .„„ 

' '■'• '■I',,,,-:!! 1,., , ,|, I I j ■ •'"-"',■1. 

*'-'-'-- -a. ,,,,a,, ,,,,..,;,,, •,,,,, '',/?• :;.-'-- '''- ..., „m:,,„.,„ 
-- !r.-lu„.-. „ „,, I,;,, ,, '.^ ; ....K_.\ll ,,.,,. ,.,,,,Hf, „„| ,„„ 

'">J- '<»., (.uiiaila. V„l. ;i. 1S9I ,, ., 


HI 1 1. .), S. 



-'i-r .'A 






;:;■';'"■•'•■»'■-, .F.^■.: J; ■;,,,::,;:;■,,, ' 

" ••■'-'••rn -,f l,^„|,.,| j„ ., 
^'|<>r.. .,r Ions .-.mtiniioiM ntiow 
■.r,.„t Divi.Ip.- S„r„o .,/ the*,, 
"■''"' ' I'.v W.ii,.rf,.n Ink.. 

■'" ""• '•«.•« ranRc. ... fomi 
''■""■''' " •*'••! ■!'■*" ti... r\,,u,,. 

(fl»<M.-r. !„rm..,| ,,„„ ..f ,i„. ,.„,,', ' "'^ "".'' '"'•'•• "'i'*' th,. «■,.).. Wat..rt„„ 
Bi't.l.- vh||,.v« and nuTir,.,! i,,tn (h. » i • '" ''•'"''" '''"•'•"'I'-l fhoT l„«l,. 

'!;.• v.iw „n.„...i,4x:;s; Z::^\rnTr'''''''' i"^'- '--'^ «'^i 

n>.. wn...,. I.UH „,„j,. „„ i , - "" '•- M.lho,.,i ;r!.,..;,.r. 

;;;. .'---t .n.i .,.,.,„ „,.,,, J.,., ^,^ J '^ . ■ ar-.s ,..„p,.^ , „,., ^^^,^,,, 

■'- ". tl... nun,. ra„i.l facial .nS. , M m i, '"" r'^V"'"" "^"'"--i 

MHs„„r, r.ver t,. Yukon ,..rri,ory. T Z.n ,r 7 M ''" "''""" '■•'"" '^e 
Imvo been Kr..atiy .ie,.po„..,|. th,.ir w , " "^■^'"'"":■ t"-e.(i|.,cial valleys 

"'■nn.lant |,.p..,l ..,■,..-..; i,,,," T ...,:'"'';" 'l ""', "f ''••"""*'"" "^ 

n.«lified into typical or .,n.,.I,i , V '" ^""'•^-''-"■'•^ '^ -• -. 

«...all rock-ri,nn,e,l h^o.T Zr^^^'!"^:' 'T^ ^' --'■'— Aoo,^ wi,, 
exarapl,..s of th..,. «laoial eff-ct. n,.. rL m. ^ ,H ','""'"*""'- The finent 

are to i,e fo„n,l i„ th. Olark. and o ! rl^. "^f^ the Fort, „ .h Parallel 
Anierca have rirnn..^ n^^ i i ""*.''>. JVoLmMv n.ul,,. - i,, v,,rtl, 

ro,K,srapl„V Atlas. W.. „!vc this i ..e7t, fn , 'T"/"^ <"-l'-*.>,-,I Survey 

accuracy and ...e artistic ^m t^ Z^'Z\^::'''''\ '^^T """^-' 

:>.,„-_v,,|. II, ^_s lurirayod the topography of s.,nie 800 





nrrunuiM or rin: imkiuou 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

• 1 ^ vicwnvjt V, A 1912 

<":::ii:..'';:;:in.:i:!:i:'^;;':;f:;j;tr'r' "" " -♦'■ •- '"•' '----..h 

•","■ '"-I-l .•innn.s. about «ix,-n.M ,;;'.;" ""*-7 '''"-•''-'•'>• .nor. ,hnn 
'^"'U'cl^r,. n.lK..s wind, ,l„miM;,t.. ,1 „ ^• '" '"" '"•'"•'''"•"^- l'"".s. m.,.1 
-l-'-l ....iKiM. Th.. «,„.,,„.,: : ,■ ' r,.^ ' ;;"^, •'""- -■" he no .,„o.,ion as ,„ 

- K>-i.rsi;,::,n, ;:;:::;t''::' r'f " ';"'"""' "^^ "■« --■"> "f th« 

■ .1. w 1/1/1 r . " " "i"'ii II) til,, iiho ..t'ran I ,,f I'l.ih. m ti • • . 

,. ,„ .1... ,.1.... .... ""^' "' •'"' Hoiin.liir.v nioniiiiiont 


""-' "- •■' -Miall. i,„rlli-ll„u-;n„ .,1,...:.... V ' '" '"''I'"' ••"l'r--'<il- ll lairv 

■"V-' <>- ■' Mnall. „or.l.-tl„wi„R ^la,.i,.;-. F 

IxiK.mi (,l tl ir, 

i-. iliii 

>c>n. Il„. sutniiiit to (1,0 tarn nt'the 

'"-' "I 'I iniN,. i.. a .Iron of 1 -.o . f. i \ "" '" "'" ''"•" "f the 

■T.' illi.Mra,..,! i„ IMa.... 7 .-,o .'-.;"" ""','- •■'"im.ont of flonl-Iik.. profilo., 

""-•'^ I'y ^.la.' „„ i,.„i; >i„;„. .;;.,;;, I. k'T ' '"•'•'■'"■'^'' --i'l^- tr,.,vi op|M,rtN.,i(i,.. f„, ,,„„,, (if,-, \.. .,„ |- ~ '■"">"^'r.v Mirvy il,,. 

''"-■^ '1- ...axinn f ^'.i;' ..:;•"'■' "^ ?""^ "' ""• «1 -^ wl,i,.h. 

-'II'.-. I., .a,.!. ,.:,.. ,1„ uJa :";,:' r' ^'■'"■"""l' -"k a„.| Kin.ln .-rock 

l-rt. ,1,.. S,arva,i„„ ,lu-"^Z- Z i i:!! "^Z T t "" "'""^■- '" ""•» 
trunks of tl.,. »rla,.iers uero of ,1, ' ,' ',"' ■""■'^'"■" '■''■"'■'■'^"t-' for the 

"'^'>-l an i..., pa,-, i v' „ ^ , 't":''"' "'"'"•■;' ^' - "■-. hav. 

'--nalwiil, ^all,.v,.l,,W,. <„ 11 /"■^^-' '■"•"' "r mkh.oi- 

"'— "'-i'. ■^-i.Vi/ ,: , , ^,::r i;:'' ''7 ^"■•"••- '- «'•'• 

"■■■ '"-' 'avourahl,. i„ ,|„. ,1„,„| , , ' '•'^"""""■^ 'or plaoial 

i ''-'-in;, i„ ,1,„ ,.,.,.v..,.„.l„„ ,'.... 'r^'-':"'"->i.Ml. AlCrnato 



ill:, VI iirj 

.iri ii'.j 

IIWMV I,. i|„> i, 

Sillr-,. Ill, 

/vfn;,:.i:""^v; '^'"'i'^-'i'ii: - w. w. 

-Ill- til, 


•i< "Im.-Ii. M.„.k aflor M,„.k 
'■* 'l''v-l,,i„,| „„ ,1,„ ,1,1,., 

"^ "■""■"• ''-^■^--^'^-''^ 

L':.a x.,1. , 

'I. HI |>, ,tHU. 


fit^'Js ':■ 



""'"'■' "f"'f-'inf:y AS n,;.y..>n,: 



"Lr" r !''.' '"""'^^'^ « .Mount,, l„ 
1,^^'"" • '"""^ '•.•o-pn>til..s of ,h, 
f'Pe<-tacular ampl.itiieatres up-st-oam I ,tl,;'":"'', " ""T '" ""' >•*■♦ '""rr 

'" ""; ber,,„,.i. " *''"'- '•-■"'""o"-'l I- ,1... pro.v.^,..^ o,H-ratinp 

iiut if may !« ,i„ifo wr-.n^r ,„ .,,,hi„„. ,i 

f ow„ ,ha, ,,,,,;,, ^^j,,,,. ', ;^V: "'"," "'^ «•■"'• ir.'-. .nd othor, have 

;->|.c> a .Ha-io- ,ill..,| vail.; «i 1, '^j.^ "''""" "' ^"••''-"-•' - <.'"m,..font ,o ,^h„.,or ,o a„ annua W,V"^- '" ;'"' ^'""'"-^ '''"ini"K 
['f °^-.'h- .vl.ole k.! of that iol; :,;■':'" •"■••-'■^o,u-,l,s of an i,.eh of 
from various studies of ,l,o s:-..„l, 2^1 in h '"v" '■''"^'' ''"^*' ^" "^taine.! 
« "MH, that the coarse n.orainu , , n.s / I ^'\"T''" ^''"-^ 'f"^" ha, 
^''«--'u-.s of the Sierra Nevada Call on' ""' ,''•' '^'^ ''•"'Btoeeno valty 

»;;--' "itl; .he .n,o.nt of ro. .y ° m l', "h!/^f i"«i.'nifioa„t when com- 
"••">y I -shaped trouphs n.onthinir n M '"^" ^''"'"'''^ '" •"''.•'[«> the 

"'"onnt of ;ino n.aterial dep ;d i' V;"" " """■'' ''"■'''- •-"•'"" '^^ for he 

" ;:;"^;-'-' ti"«t thi. second v;..,v ;. :, '''"•""','""^ "^ '*'^*>of iwd an,i 

P..M,shed, s„p<.rb map of the C „. I'" T-' '""'' '" '""■• •''"■ --n" 

■ :""-".vi".' <ila,ial n,on..;ra, ■ ;;'^'"'- t'^*'-"- with Auwood's 

oros,ononar.vat,..aloin,hatr„«e .• T"'"': "'' '■'••i'^f'-.Me ,da,ial 

^-e s,nk.npiy similar to thoJe oWrved .n^'ch,:;! ^^T?'"""^ ---"» - 
••>l>.Mial!y plat.s 2, 7. a,,,) ^ ,,,• ,,, ' " "" '-'nrkc and f.. wis raiitre- is 

"' rook whieh l,„s .',..ari; Z'tZ^^'ZV'- ^'""" "' "'""•'■ '»- v , 
'•'.el,. „ „ , ,|,i,.rt, responsible fo the 1 Z'' l'"' "^'■•''""" '"•""'■^ »'"« >-n 

-'•^ -h a, the",:;:;::;;,;;:;:: 7:::::;:z:!, '7- ^r "- ^^" --» io^ 

!:::';::u;ed'-;::;;;,7j" -^ :-- - ''> i^:' "::'::::■:' ,;x-:r^:"^ 'r^ 

'h-on.'h ...nrrast letwe,., i-e-ea.s ""'':'*" T '-'" •''"'••'I <■„ one 

!''<• <-.M.Ie ex,.ava,fM.. p„uv,. of ,h,. la.^ .;,;''' ''r '" ''T''"'-'^ "''""""i--- 

"-• ...Id «en, rally miwl, tlneker sheet i.s 

t i^ H j^r-/i,i^r^rL";-^^^'''i!;^'^--'.. N 

Kf .-.I 

I. IKs:, ,,,;)|9. 


""■"■•""^' '" r,n: nnianw 

fc.- T«*nvei,v .m..ll eff.., I ,„ n....liiv ' , ' '"^1 " '-"•'■^" '^'-'r^'^- H,i,kn,..- 

to «,re a »,!{«, f^„„ ,,-, , '' ■ -nt tl,. .■ul,a,-,.„t n.ou„fain .,,„,■, .., ,.. 

'•;vH of fl„. ,oa.' W „„,,, i,.ii.H,. Mu. ,1 ■ ■" '"■""''"' ""■ I"--enr 

«".„I.r ,., ,1...,. ,,,„ ,„,,.,, „„ iri,. ( ?,; l"" '•"" '"'""'"'"^ ^^•"'« •'-•'■ --v 

- ;— .;..m .la,.i.,.„. „,. „„,,":,:r ;.;, ■; . -- "- '-l-nn,.! .,f o„nl„u 

'•■rcl.. i,|„M)T „„„.- ,1,,, i,, ..■ . ,. ' ' 't.P.iiL:li i!,i. u.,ii^h H-,„ ,!,.,, ,.,• ,, 

■'■■'' -■-'7".-..,.,.... T .,::„,;■, ; .;''„•:;■;•,:'';-;: -^ "'•- ".eoHured o„ 

f-abrn-lor i.-o-, ..,, :, tuax,„m,u J '" """''' '■"'"•<''itr.,l<..|. T!.,, 

=.. if u- -luuaUc ,..,:■..'„- uv . lu ""y""'' '■' '.'""■'^ "" "^'"•'>' "11 '■•"1'^ 
'•.'ntra-jon „,• ,.,. v,,,. -- -.| ,h„, .' ' """" "' ''"^^ '■i'^''"" M.I. fh,. .•„„- 

'^-— -- •,:;,.;■:■•"'■•" '"'^ '•^'''-■''■'- i ^'i. Tn.,,,,!,;': 

proportional ,., ■ .. ^,, ,.f ^, ; •;■--"■'• 't r .„, l„.,|-r,„.k is .lin-tiv 

— fustor ti,:,. a„. ,.,,„„,„;, ,'' ';::;:■ -^^^ --. ..,n,.i,.,i i,. „..„, „,„„„ ,,,i^,^ 

'-• ^he ,..w..rf„l „..,.r„t..„ ^la'^^ ' ' '" -■'^^^ '"'■l^- «.•.■:,„ readily n^n.- 

.^,.. „^,,., „, . . ^^ ,._;; ; ,,,„;';,:■■; ;;'-'- in<e at i.ak.. 

"•"-•'■"--<-.. ..f ,... f!..„ ,„ . , . '!'" '* ^''="-'^'' '■'•"^'"". Tl„. ,,,i,..i,,I.. ,.,. 
«rr;t,.r, *a., „„, ^,^,,^ ,, „, - t,,,.o^rap.,v l,^^ ,,,^„ ^,^,,„,, ,^^, ^^^^^^^^^ 

iiow-vpr. lh, prin.-i,,!. •, ,s > , ' ' '■''''■li'S be<-a,isp it j. „, „|,,|„„, 

'<>^-,-..inp „.,i.. i« :,, p,.,,. „,,. ' ""■ .''•"•l</rro,.nd. Tl„. par,.,,.,. „(■ ,|,o 

.<■ .. ui., ..,„i r.M.,: ll,„i,sa,|,is „f fpp, ■ , , , 

tF. T 

- "i^ s^.': vi^'^ ., '^^v'^' "• '*""'" "'"''■ 

2r.ii »„i. 

lii — I'. 5H'.'. 



<>t lilt. ( lint Asii:i,\<.\nn 


velocity of the looal i,.,. \,, :, 

'"• '-e-iin« i„.por„.„..:. ^\-^;^Zn /V'^'""" "' ''"'^ «'"-- ^'-w. 

- .■..,„.. of rod<.flour ..l«-,,v« ,.o. i ,« ;'' ',"' ".' ""'■•"■■'in^ 'I,., ^o„,|..rf„l 

'" --.,nt f,. <ion,.,......, J:, •■^;;,^ ,- h;i:T::^"^ "' " -""^ -^i^-f 

. The rm..l,Rio,H ,.ro.i„„ „,• ,|„. ,. '"' ' ^"''' ' 

rmt-e ol, if not .l,o,w ,„is "'."'"" V'^'^^'^y involve,! ,h „. 

;^-"":l. On ..,e ..„.,. th.. .IniV :, : r.','" "'""^ "f -•'-•'■■»-. .„ lower 

-" e all of tl„. v,.t loa,l o/V;: .^l , ' ';':;-/'-- was i„„„.,„t "o 

;'-'ar.lunt.„sio„.uvr.. fon„o,lfroLil,, 1 r, ■; , "' '" '"•'^''"- '»""- "f 
all of th.^s,. ,rr.,.,, .,...r. '."'"' '-oWniK ,-,v,.k. „,„th of ,!,„ ,,,„., f^.^,.,^',^. 


Al .„„ ,1,.. „.,,-,,.^ „,^,^ s,.,.„tu,.| 

in tin 

Kin(!,i I.;,k,., 


ii.' nia|.|i, 

'" '''^' -i",|.l,. ionramal ori^.i,, of th,.^. 

';* ",. ,1,.,1. MVMus Jo l,,v,. |„.„„ i„ ,.„ , ' ;'' '■ ;"'*'•■ ;\ -»ni"-...l .>f .Irift. M...t 

'""'■;"-';'.■•'-"•' -M.s ,.f .1,.. cia^ , , ■ " ,'""■•" ^•-"•■"-"-'••vo 

la tla.„. !ow..r parts. Ki>l„.„..l , s, '" ".• "'P' "'"'"■''>'" in tho ,lrif, 

*la^',..s. Thpso trou-l,- .,,o • , '■'"•'vspon.liMi; Kla.-I,.,.. i„ ,|,„:, , ,, " 

;;f. .ie....;....,o.. .o,;;';.;;;,,,,:, •;:■;;. : ■•:■;:,•';;-■;' -- ..^ -.-i: ■.;:': 

aHu.nt .da.-i.Ts uitl, tho intorv..„i„ , • '"'"'"' ^""'•>- 'I'lafo .-.o. ) Th.. 
;■'"->■ by ,l„. .on,lnvar,|..„o;i": 'v:^.t n':r T"'; '''■"'■"'■•' ''-^■" »'"- -a 

111,. Xorth Flath,.a,| da...,-,. .,t i. ■ ' '•"^"'' ■""-''" -''.vt). 

•"■'- in wi.iti, „„i ,, /[,., F, ,;:.; :„';;";^;7"Y';'"" "'" '" "- ^" '-'- 

•rn.atest .Inpti, Th.. hi^,h,.,t „o ,t \ • i ' *■""'" l""""' '" 2..)(» fpot in 

- .IK. 5.100...ot ..onto^ on T'^^I^'J'T' "'f'^' -^ ^'-'1 -,.:: 
'•ver. that tho Kla..i,.r at one tin,., .-.n.rr ho r '■''•, '' '^^ •'^"''"^'''' '""v- 

"ontour and as hi;.!, as th. .Tm 'V """'" "'"f"' •■' "'" ''..VHKfoo, 

above sea at th.. JJ„u,„h,,t. ,,,•;;'" ''■'•^'" ^^"^ '•""• '. Th.. riv-.r i. .,,,<«, f,.,; 

On the western si.l.. .,f tho villnv .1, 

a.s thoso just .leserihe.1 o„ ,(,.. ."Jte , -.l'; "t,"" "'V^' ^■^^""-'"•'- --ain.. 

-- "'- - the ..hris fe.. to i. \, l^t.^lZ^ ^!::njZStZ 


""'^•^ I'Ik,,.. «h„.,..,, «,,„ „ , , ?Ct:ORGE v.. A. ,912 

"•'-'•"-'-'■. I- w„l,. ',„„,,,' "" ^'^••'•"- I I. a.t ,.,v..,„. „„;,,.. 


riiw,'.| i.,|„,^ 

"" ^'""-VH, \|,., s,„, ,.,,„ 

:r;' """■'■; '. .i. ,.'::; ,v "'-'■' •' ■''" 

:i:;":'7:-'' — • i- ^'^ ^ '■':,;■':;■■'' ''''••-.•.■ii .,,,.,. .,,,,1, 

"■;■; '•'''■ '■^'■•■' !'•■- ..r. I.. i ';.;:,,::;,;;''■',:••:'-••:' '-^■•■v 1...,,... 

I ■■ '"..-t ^iv.,.,r,,l,„. l,„,,lj,,. ,(• ,., ^. ; . ,■*"■""-'■ ■l^M.liiu; 1 .,■,,,,,,., 

^"''" ••;-"•■■■■' ■ ■■■i:"::^; ;'::,, ',;'"^^'/ -■ ".-1.,,.;,: 

— ;'•■, i.- --,.,„;.„;';:'; 1;:;,:,,,- ;•- > .1,,. s. .„> ,,, ,:::;, 

^'--;^ t;'\;;j!;: ::,;;:.,;'';;; J';'-; --I-- i-i.iu. ,, :,,., ,,.., „, „,„^, 
f-\-!r "'-' '''■• •"-■ r..:;;;. ::;;;;''' ^' :-•••■•• ■-'^•-^>..' .•..,,..,,:, 

'■*■ 'I... M.H-I.,,,,,;,, ,,,„„ 

' ^lll« ihr ,,,rih. , |;t, 

'• '"' I. '■ I'.Mi lu til,. (;. •- ■ '* 

'-''^•■.■''H,,,«Hu. \V-!;":,'' ""^ •■'-•— '1 'l.^.r.l.. i 

^"'■■" '■■"■■r-- in:,| w,..t,.r„ pan 

•;'P ^'■■i'< HmJici i,v ,!„ 

"■:i»..rH MVrr ,,,1 til.. ,..„f I- . ,. ■■'■■!. CI |,v ,!,^ 

''■■■:' ■:. :•■% I.,. ! , '• '■^'-"'' "1'^" ■•'^'^'.Ml,. ^.|n,.ia. 
"'■•■•' N...-th ri,„ii..i„| :,|,i,.;.,. .,.|„. , .; ;■'■ ".'"' -M ■ .!..,i,.i,,. ; li. . 

'■• ''^'v '-'-i-i iM.i„.r ,i,.„ ,i„. ,;,„„;„„ ';",";■ ^'••,"'-- ^'^ ^'^ 'N.xiM,,,,,, ,i,„ 

•■■>••'„!"■ ^"--ti. Fla.h....| .111,.;,.,. "'■'■->"-•"" "• .!... i .•:„ . ,i,.l,„„; ,:: 

111.. In,l,t,.h,,.f ,|„. ,,ilMV,.r -1 ■ 

•''■'•-'■■'" ''"■-VI.,,.,. I,.,.,,::.,-':;;;: "'■'■■■';';';■■'•'■-■ ■'! — ,;i,,,.„,, 

'"'", ,""■ '•;'">- .- M„w i,I,„„„ ,,,,'7„ • ,;''•■■''-''' '■"7- at ,1,0 Iio,„„li„, 

"•■""■'■- -"' ■•""•'■ .-I— , i,..i,;.; .,,:„■•;'. '■ ^'•-■•'-'•ly ^ ii,.,i win, 


~ <i 

■|'t' M. h . |-,,l,.,.r... i ]', 

^..tY-,!|,.,UU,,alK..,tl..i., ,1,,, k.l.J, ,,M|„. |;,„,,, 

M r:,„, 



in:f<,Ki nt rut: , mri i.v, '„v„,„,. 



divide ... Toi,....,:;: ;;;;:.:. J:!rz7r.:tr' ■';:■ vr ''■'-' \ "- 

vuiK.y un,i i„ ,1... Ku..k> ,,:,, r'n" ;.;:',:•'''''■*''''"'•:' "• "'■• ^^''«^^'"" 

only iwWve i>euii» i.n.j.rt,.,) ■„ n,.>,.,t..L- i "^''"'"•" , '•> ""• H.Min.lary belt. 

tl.e su.n>,.it of .h.. „Kh.-., :. ,. • f""" ";■■ """■•• "f ""• '■■••••■•'"■ -"I 

.nut.4,v .1,.. ■J.::m-[.„.t ...„„o„r it ui J- 1 ""■'*"""'"'>• b<'"'»r "' "PPn.vl- 

"on. .1,.. ..,.,. .a. h..n. .;i:::; 'i.;' :';';, .^ '; ;:':;^l';l"^'";Tv'T'"■ 
:'•:::!^:::';:;';:;/'::•;;;•,;■^:■'':,';:■r^•1• --'"'v^-'--''^ 

IHstiiicl latoral iiiorain.', Inirncl l>v il„. tr,.,,..|, „l ; 
.;f Toba,...,. Plains a, vario,. .I.van!. f ..^ ,. ' h^^-^' :''^'"""''' T''" 

.■i*i, ,.,■■ „; ';: ;-, »: ,.' ;m;..''"'-;?: :,:;': ,";."■, "■■; « ■■" "- •• '-' - 

iSr- ' '"- ■'".■■;--..'f:::'r':r:;r"::j:';:! ^^..!;;: 

-ire;''', :.'.,.!l:;;„:;";„,rs,«:„;' ,;;;;„','r,'. s:' ;;;': f;r 1, "» -r "■ - 






S^. ■6')^ E'^JSi MQ.n S"»«^ 

=*..£ ^oc^^estc- ^e* 'o'k '4609 . .'ji 

'■^S '16', 48^: - C300 - Pf-ofie 

^BS ; 7- 61 288 - ^989 - Fa« 


/'A7'./,-7 I/A.X7 or THE lyVERlOR 

'; pnu.„V.alI.v „ni„„e in tho whol. P „ I • "'• *■ '^''' 

'^-"■'-n.- riol,,,v illnstraV^y 1v,t n' rr^-". --"""'' " '^^V^ of morninal 

yenorro.1 witl. waslu.l ,.p,v,i;n ^ ' "',, Tp/'^7!;,'' «■■'• '"'"•■"•^ «^'"''.v till „fton 
'"'o,s „f ,,,„„,„,i,, f.,,„ ";„;^'^- ^-;_^ '.as boon s„h.,aeiall,v n,o„Me,I 

d.roofo,! clown ,h„ tron-h. , little e^t o- J. '"■Jr^r. ""'^^ "'■'" ''^'^"'"'•'y 
"ouM not l>e ,lotormine.I, but it must * 1" ^''" """'^"''^^ "^ ♦'"^ ^'r!ft 

-"' "..■»■ avor„,c 200 feot or Irro '^ "' '™"""* "^ ^'^^•-"' '■""''-1 foot 

-on.s so.™ to bo of ori,.-n,i^ :•;,/;: l"''' ■^'-'" '"'--• '''hoU .lepros- 

reasoftheeastornrnito.lStnto.arof ,.;;;''"':: "«'""■"'' "- "'«' -Imlnlin 

hollows once oocupio,| by bl.„.|<. J Ivm Z ^r" "l^'T '^ '"^''"^^^ *''« 

-li'e to tl,o inevitaWo ino.malitio f tl , f*""' '^■'^'♦''"^^' OH'^m wore 

Bosi.Ies the till ,lopos"t on ^/'''f^l'"'"'' 'loposition of drift 

wator-laid notorial we e',tn;;Lik^^'T^ ","' '""'' f''^'- "f" P'-'nlv 

'•liannols are incised in the drift r„ 0""i-^.on,dly (;ia,i;,l stroam- 

^r.e l.ot„o-l,olo. the noor^f';,,, ',::";,;;'::: ^'tT-' r'' ^'■''''™'^ '" « 
tlio channel. '"" """> ^^-^t't below the bottom level of 

yards ,n width. This ohannol is l" ,1 • th ' oUl "^ 1""""' l'"'"^^' "''-^ ^00 
t^io h\k rivor and, aeeordinjr to th , ' *" ''■^''"'' "^ ^^^ ""«], as 

The channel fa.les out on tl 1 u ^Umrr;.!: " ?"""" "i"' "^ ♦''^'^ ^*--- 
Lme Its onVin was not finally worko o,,' *«-""le.s south of tho Ronndary 
been out „„ tbe floor of ti„. ol mLl I, '' ^'""^^ "^^"''^^ ^'^"^ h«ve 

may have been excavated in late Glacial timt!"' '^^""'^'^'•'^ble an,i.,uity; it 


<■" <'^i"i'Srn,nn;n;'i;i;;, ;'/:::;; ;;:':';;^"r ''■';-"'^ -"-<i.>'ini,..K. ,ix,.,i 

coutonr. The highest eumml b r ng ac ual' Iv l''"""/"''"'- ''■ ""^ •'•^''«-^oot 
'■ evation. Tho direction of avoro.. . '"''' '^'■""' '' '-l'^" ^-''^ i. 

«tron,. deflections wore. hiCer^:b ^''^f .;'"''^%*'''' ^'"'''-'ops was S.S.W. 
topography controlle.l the .iirec on o ho i "' '"'"' '"'"''' ^^''"^''^ '"-'> 
'be x-e w.,s sinn-larly controlled .vbollk 0117'%":%,'" '''' ^''''"'' '•'^'"'^ 
*<.uthwar,l alouK the depression, for t I ^ -^^ °" """^^ '"'^ '1°" wa.s 

Trench, the Yahk river 'valC't),;",!, Xj';''', J"-' /he Kocky Mountain 

"'^ T,n;,r;ft,.?rtrrti- ^'^-r" - ^"-^" "• 

nr.i-dur of the rinrf ^sruoMnt-n 






^,..00 feet. I he avern^e -lepth for the wl,.,le P„re..|| .v.tem at the Fortv-ninth 

ranges, a few s,n,,ll „„„ataks ,,ro.ieete,l a feu- hn,„lre.l feet. Elsewhere the 
whole ,„ou„ta.n .,...„, „.,„ ,i,„ „i„.,,v-„i„e ,,er eent of the Bour.Iar be , 
Y>. eon pletely s,nothero.l nn-ler the i.v. Thi. fa.-t .loMh.les.s partiv explain 

dnrj b<-lt). he was not surt.e.ent to jrenerate va]h^v iee-sheets wl>ieh 
'•'M.l.l en.lnre l.,„,. er,o„,^, f„r ,he,,. „„t ot ,„a„v ..Mplu.heatre/ T!, 
jr eros.on of the Pureell. w.s ,h„.. ehi,.l!,v aeeo.nplishe.l nn,)er the all- 
inaiitlinf,' ice-eap and not at the hea.l-walls of h.eal ishcior^ 

I'lve or six of the ein,u,- oh~rrve,i i„ the li„u,.,|;„-,v helf have I.e,, onene,! 

.-. he hasset e,lKes ,,l„-,.e fa,-i,,.. ,)„■ .lir.-ti,,,, .,f ,!i,.) „f Ih,. .,rat,, 1 „e l' ,1 

wall ot eaeh eirqiie has hoen .Iriven i>,to fh,- H.ountaiu a.::.i,i>t those .sh^.c 

I he -lat.on ..,ows vivhily the .-nntrast in th,- e<s,.„iial i.r,,.e..,s of „„rm-,i 

M.l.i:. ^lal erosH,,, when ,-,,,upare,l with th,. pr,„-es. of ,-i,-,p„. ,h.vel.,,mi,-„t 

_ Jhroufrhont the T!o„n,hn-y belt .Irilt .leposit. may at interval, he fonn.l 

in the I nree.I.s Imt they are not so heavy as in the more westerlv ranges The 

.iepos.t.saiv naturally irregular and do not dcM-lare themselves readily a.s belonf- 

in^r to detuute or r-.ojrni.ed type^. It was noted that the slopes on raeh side 

<.t the \ah,i nver. i,p t„ a l.^vel alMr;t l'OO feet above it, have hew, washed verv 

J-Iean of travels and otlvr drift material. The explanation is .<=o„Kht in the 

hypothesis that toward th,. elose of the Glaeial period, thi. vallev was oeenpii.d 

by a very large and powerful river whieh was fed by the rush of waters from 

the melt.nsr ico-eap farther north. This temporary river must have been over 

a mile wide and at least I'OO feet deep in the middle part. Tts pojnf or points 

ot orifru. and its course outside the Jioun.lary belt wer.. not determined Wo 

have here a type of many sue], problems in the nature and effeets of 'ate- drainage of the Cordillera. Many seasons of special tield work aided bv 

extensive, aceurato mapping-, will \^ neee^^ary before this ehapter in mdoL'ical 

liistory ean bo written. 

Between Porthill and MeKim ClifT. a di-tanee of fo„r miles, the Pureell 

Ireneh is floored w,th a thiek mass of ob-enrely stratitled .dav. wl i,.h eoT ,ain 

n. few scattered dr ft bouMers. The clay is of varying, thieknes. and fi Is Xpr 

ions ,n he roek beneh whi.-h outcrops at intervals through the same width of 

lie trench. Some patches of true boulder-clay and of washe.l f^ravels in er vene 

between the stratified clay ami bed-rock. The gravel- and bouller-elav In ve he 

pro,K.rt,es o the u-nal Olaeial d, -i,. The n.a.^MVe stratified eh.v i.s ,;,;;! 

tex ured and ver,v homofreueous. I, exten<Is from Coat river six miles north 
ot the iJonndary to some imdetermine.l point south of rop,.land Idaho A^ 
^liown on the ma,., the surface of the heuch is not flat l,at varios from'-'..' 
feet or less to j,;)0(l f,.et in elevation. 

From the fart that the properties of the clay are sensibly like those of the 

ootenay nver del which is to-day .^rowing out into the lake below Crcston, 

the writer IS ineluied to the view that the stiatifie.l day of the PorthiH bench 

was laid down in a temporary lake. If this be true the western half of the 

trench between Crcston, Porthill, and points farther south, must have been 



r>r.i>AUTMh:\T i>f r/ir ixrntmn 

. „„ , 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

m part liavo l)o.>n derivpd In,,,, tl„. , -k • ''^ "'" "■ '"e I'orthill bench :na.v 

^"e topographic '.^:::L ^ ^^ S' ,1^^ Ch. " U ^ r ^7 •' '^'^^T' '"'^ 
most of th.. clnv tn th.. f,.r„.,,.,,,. I I .. ""*";■'"""' ^'oat river delivered 

western half , f t "r^cl T, ," ' ^'"r" T^""^' ''"'' *^™ '•^f««*«*' ^^ »''« 

Si:i.KlliK Aflll .\TAix SvsTK\r. 

Til., m; 


tin-* u.,p,.r li>n;i o,r>UT,.,i near the pr.-wit " ' 0, f , l\"''''r "^'-''^ ■"■■" 

■' "-,v. hiu'iu-r than the r,,m)-{uot e,„u.,, r U ''",'•',:" ."'^ *" 'each httle. 

I;;;;.;, .ow a^the ...„i:f,.,.t .:;.t,.:r"sin:!: t l:^:':;i^:v;T:n::; l;-:r 
;::,:;:': ri:rt"r "r "■" «^''.'"-v-i'- '.>.-o,-'!i ,.^nl:i;, : x. :;;;; 
'T,,:r;;;;::,;:^-,;;:,:- tnr.h:;:; ^ ""• ^''"^ -^ ^'''- -- -='-'^- 

ranire th! ,-7 , , ' """'*"" ''"I^"^' '''^ °«''- t^e Bonnin^rton 

range, the ice moved, on the average, about S. 10= F 

< irque.-i are coiunion alone- the holt of tlio ■• , , , 

rare to the vo.tward. where for "distance Iff -i^^n T"*"''' '^"* ""'' 

t-.-.ilo helt were covered if^ the tpltt' -.4 T'tI *''' T'^ "/ '^' 
' ir.iue-s has here as iwn.l in tt,» r i iT' ^'^'"♦^ /'f-) The generation of the 

.o show svstcinat c lopes Jhe it^T' '""""^ *^ '■'^"■'^""' '"^''''^^ ""'l ^'^'^^'^^ 

are. as a r.ile/ u-h S steS th n^^^^^ '"■"*'' ^"'^ ^°"*'^«°^* 

west. The reason 8 ol vio Hv , "/'T ^''"".*' northeast, north, and north- 

■ '" '" ''^ " 11^' I"':ik- w jrivi'n in Plate !:i. 



l'5a— vol. iii— p. 5S8. 


s- ■■ 

aria— vol. iii— p. f)K.S, 





feet ,H. over th. Columbi, rlu'; "'" "^'" '""' " ' •■-'"" 

Drift doposiu nro not .ibun.lant 1,1, tl.o eastorn Ani^ of the r«n,rp TI,„.. 
a'd 5«) eo„.v„,rat.on of gold-bearing gra.oU. (PJaL Sr. 

»1 J 1 . \! . *^' ^-^ ^'""" "♦*■" terraces occurrinB on the valler 

«nd do no," ■ "" / ' '"*'''"'■• '"'• •'"^^"^ "" "••"'"'W.v of quito lorul origin 





CoM-MB,A Mo, NTMN SysTKM AV,, TIIK [s,kh,„U V, VTK.V, v 

From th.. ('„l,„„l,i„ r\v.r to t!i ■ Sjmilk,,,, „ rivr -, ,!i., ,..„. , „h, 

nLntnf. '""!'"" •""*'"; '^'^ "" ''"-'•«"• The o.,.. L.-ai , f n 
mo.nt ,„ nd , and ,t.- north,.n, ..ntinuatio,. to>v,p,l o|,| ,.,,,.„, 

ward frnn, if Tl. i " ■^,"- ^'- ''"""•'■* ""id tlm ridge rui.i.iu.r 

«ar,( ironi it. The u.iial .TiLria lor 1 oti, ridir,. .l,o«,.d ,h«i .'„• ., , 
.l.d not .uiunorge any .lop.. |,i,|.,,. „„„ ,i,e ,r,.,JnmZ lZ^\ r ' 
vation. mudo „n Mt. Cbopaka j -t « of ,l,o Si 11 C.;, .'''.'" 

ai an aierage rat." of six fi>ot to tlio niili> 

i./?Lrs'i'n;z;' ~r'i:,T -r? -ir '","■; "■-; 
...... ;. .h. p,.,„„,„.. ,„„„„ .„j s;;f jLL.fL'r,U"Zi;; 


i>ir,iiiuf:sr ny rut: istimiok 

' ^teaus 

... „ , 'Il>|,icu,.l,- tllali iii i|„. 

' »<-M ••harm-ft.riz..,l ru,l,,.. numt.m- 
n w,-utl„.rf"l ni.T.. ,|....,.|y f|,„„ i- il,.. 

«...l .-r-.v.., ,|„.w..,l •!,„, !,. . , a -GEORGE v.. A. ,9,2 

jrlu.u. ,,lK.m.„H.,n. in ,ho „r..,. of T./.. •,"'^''* ■*''''; "''':'"« "'''''.V "f .h« 
"■ - of i,v (I„w ,„„v l,„ ,|,„„..,|. , , ;""V"^ '';" "•^""" nvanliMtf tl«, dir,K- 


't v.ri... from S. l. W.o S 41 "T "I: " "'"'^' "^ ""■ '""■'••IH-n-loui-o. 

-"■ --i-.. Ti.,. ..r,,-";':'::^; ;;.;:-- ;;; - .-«« <.f -... who,e . 

r.n,K.M f.rthoro..., or i,,,l,.,,^,.,,,,, :,,,;" '' '"' 

'"■p »ro .mt .•o„mi..,. Tl,.. I...,|.rn-.k i, „r,. 

n^'::Hi;;:;;„n[;: ;::.!!;'•;;;/;: ;;^; '.- t.,.. .,.. „..•; „;;;•,, , 

"..n..H.i .0,. f.r;Lr: i r S::';::^,:^''/!"'^'"':'" "-^ "'"-'""' "^'f 

of ti... foobl. Pro.ivo po«or ;,!„,, """ /^""'•; 'T'' '^'''^ ••^•'""«tio„ 
tlio icv-c-ap .Unin^ i./nuu„ ,m ' x,.. , /' ' 'i' "'" ^"'■' """ ""' '>""* of 

purdioi; .v.. .,i!, nu.n/:;, :'":Tir a t x.;'';; '" '^ "■ "r '■'"^'^•"'"»'' 

is l.iKl.l.v varial,!..; i, "l , .. „ . ? "•,""","■••■"• T"^" ••'■" of fhe drift 

in tla. erosive .HorL is voy ,1,^X1 '. ^r''. ""■'^- ^h. increase 

O.SO.V00S lake trnUKb. ■■"""^"I'l'-' as ,,,.0 ,lo,s..,.,„ls the 4.()0<1 foet into the 

"n,i |ii^o!:H;u;tt::,c:l cl;c'^,^ -^h jocai 

llie hiKl,..,t obsorvo.1 deposit of the ki ,1 u f , "'l''''' '•'■•'»"*''^^'' K'"^el. 

on the east «ide of O.oyoos lake O. e s aPa 1 "' "'" '■'""■^""' ''""''"- 
".'■c.r on both slope.. (For lo.aiiu- so I']!. ■.'^ t?'' °" "'f" '^'^''"'"' '^^'o'* 
tioii d..positsof r..k-drl.risu],i,.|,'„„,„ '•"'.' '■,'' "'■'•"l"i"-t vviihoiit .iiies- 

f- -I,..y wal, a,H the Ok ^ r^ ! "'''^^ru:^' •^'^■''r^' "'1 '" '^^'' '-''■"" 
literal terraces were for.,,,.,' nt\ZS i\ , "'"■^^'^■"t 'liminished these 

ronns are not, .'-.for^^t^^-eirL;:::: .^^^I ^rlinJah ^1"'""^ ^^'^"-''^ 
. ,, vr n , Iittle-aitered constructional 

«• W. nr«.k. Ana. ,..„,. Canadian Geo). Surve.. V.,,. ,5. ,««. pp. ^ „„, ^. 

in:ri)itT >>f iiir riinr a>j /.•i,\i,\ii k 



n-liVf- form.- 1 in hw Ol.i.'i,.! timo. ( !„...I,v aili.., t„ ||. .. .„„.., ,orra...let4 

vall,..M ,„... .1... ,r.muh m,.| ..KU.n.n .1... i,.,., ,|,o Kruv.l-.,,,,.: ,1.-,h.m' in ..«,•!, 
ca« .a. .,„^ „„ „.,., , , br.M.,.l, vdh.y. A .|„i,i f„r,„ v,a. ,1.,., pr,Mlucr<l 
with the b.m.. nt thf„ rnMrknitf (he ir..-«Ml| wlii-h r..lui,„..| tho .IWritin 

on fho .,.1.. of tl... „m,n ..nll.,v. Th..„. |,i,l..|,.,..| ,„„ „„. ,„., |„„ ..,„;,,■;;, 

tcrrar...! as if iho i.-ow,ilI ha.l lowr.-l l,v «ii.v.-s,iv.. stni;.-' 

ctluT ...U- wl,..r,. .lM.,r .nrf. r. „l„M,t J.«0 U-ot above .ho 1/ |..vp1 are 

«.-I,... M,v s ,>«ly ,„., «a ,i, 1, |,,H ,.f,..„ ■ 1,.„-1„.,| • „„t the tIn.T ,l,-|,ri- 

aid Iclt a thin .ovor .,l khu... ov.t u ^roul pan . f .rwl, b,.,H.|i. The .lotail^ 

fonn .„„;,.., ,h„t th.. wa.hit.fT wa, p,.rf„rnu..) I, ,h.. wav... „,.,1 ...Tront. 
of the n\u..\unuK it. OM-an.!.,,, u.r„s. tl... wi„.h. v.ll.v an-l ,l„rin« the Mow 
Hinkinvr „l ,i. I,..-..! I{,„h rliui,,,;,. ..hai,,,. „n,l thr .!,.«•„ r.„itin^' of tli.. niilh.f 
an. r.M,-o„«,bh. .„r th. fall „f ,1,,. wafr. Th- un>xiuuun ,i.,„h ,,f th- lak., 'vU 

''; <l<-'- '■"»t"M>P"ran...M. with tl lo,. .,f ,!„. I'lri-t „.• p. ri,.,l. Sin,.o th.M. 

t .0 roi.Hv Krn.i..d valh,v-l!o,.r Iuh U-.n kmIH.mI by the small .fr-ann ,.„l..ri„K' 
tl... lake fro.n ..ut a>„l vve.t. O-hor ,hann, l-Ili.,. .|.,,r.-i.„,. parall, , t„ ,ho vall.t 
axis „„,v n.p,v„.„t th.. .pil|.WM,v< „f Ih.. wat..-. .bwi^..,! fn.„i i... u",i,h in I-,... 

1 I.Mstooe,,,. tune, wn. nl.•ltin^r farther up th.- Okanaffan vallev 

Am intensliMK .•ff.-ct of Ha.-lation i. t„ b- fo„„,l in thopeeiiliar ,lrain«K.. 
ro.arranmno„ls ni the owor part of the Sin,ilka.Me..„ river. The river pas,e. 
the I.ou.elary a, M, (hopaka rek,.. following a bread T-shrpe,! tro.iKh 
ocntinue. soMthwanlly to an.l |...yo>„l l.o„mi.. Wa.h. Two mile, north of 
ia mer 'ake (m.. ( hopaka Qmnlr. nple of the T'nited States ('..■oh.^ciral Survev 
AtlaO. . riv,.r abruptly leave, the tr..iiL-h and ero^.e. Kruu-rr Mou„l,-,i„ 
piateai a d.ep canyo,. which nlw carrier the brnneh of the (Ireat Norther.i 
railway ,ts l,„v prrade np the river. The form, of the vallev. and the course 
of the -iver have been afT,.,.ted by tho aetivitie. of the late I'l..i,t.,eene loeal 
glaciers. An aeeount of tin., and other important diversion., of principal Cor- 
.iiHrrnn riv.r. by (;i„,.ial activities is given in a rcniarkablv .nKroliv,., all tr„, 
brief, paper by Willi.s.* 

Thron^huu! the whole hutidrcl-inile section, well -developed jfhK'ial cirque- 
are entirely WMUtin;.'. The ticl.l evidence i. clear that apart from the few larpe 
valley placiers already noted, there were very few local sheet., to survive the 
ice-eap as it rinally disapp«;ared from the mountain.. 

Oivw.vnN IIani,!.. 

_ The western ed-e of the ice-cap at tho Forty-ninth Parallel was situate.! 
in the Okanapan range, from twenty-ti\'e to thirty-five mile, west of the Simil- 
kameen river. .Many accor.lant ob-^ervnti.m.. .show,.] that on the slop,., of th.' 
ri.k'c hearinR Cathe.lral I'.'ak and Park mountain, the upper limit ..f the i.-.. 

nt./n?- ^i'!i«. Bn"lf<in «• "S. G.ol Survey, 1887. Cf, Vf. h. Dawson on ' Glacial 
luenomena in Okauagau County, WashmRton," American Oeoloijist, Vol. 22, 1898, p. 20n. 




nn-i/tniFXT of the nrrHioR 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Tiu. t..„-n.iie strip of ";, v M ;;;' u;'"'":;"'"/'"' "^"'■^"^" "^ ""• --■ 

a massive, continuous snowli,.!.! w • h ., 1 '"""" ^^"^ ^^''"'^ '" '"'v- l.oruo 

"i"ti. Paraiw e„;:i:;i '1 1,':^ i;::;;;"^;;;;;; ;'-; -^-'--la ;;.ii.> ,. n. f,,... 

'•""tour tho peaks an-l ruW. to < , » !■ ■"*> 'T, '•"■'"^^' '*"■ '-^^'-foot 

'1- sunwnit ri,l,.'s. At\l ,o ■ ' .'■''"''''r ''^"'■T "'"■'•'' '"■'"'•>'' -"""- 

"f tl,e iee-eap followo,! ij T^t^TTj' V^'" "'T'"^- *''" --^-" 
(^nl,e.Iral Peak tl„. MiW,,.,. „,■ Vl, """'^"■•- '■■•'™ <lu.t mountain to 

f.. the mile. ' '■ '■'"'^- "" ""' =iv..raKe, some tliirt.v feet 

-motimes seen to be deeplv wea here MWtl. i , ' '"■"'' * "^ ^'""'♦'^^ ''^^« 

of .secular .leca.v. Below the Sh ' ' t. • ^"'T*'"" °^ """"^ •'''"'^ers 

very strikiufr, often riv.lli, ,^ T • T'''"''' ^^^'^♦^ '^^ ♦''° i«''-''ap are 

Labrador i..;;,.^" T^:''zz;T:;;^ ^zt'T^ " ""^ '"' ^' !"^ 

ranjre is remarkable in view of the tl.^f, '"''' '"^''"* "» t'"'* 

li"I<> nmre than 1....K) feet while Vel, r'"'"'-^" '"■''*'^ "^ ^^^ ''^^ ^" 

was incapable of perfor ^ . much ero '"V^'V '"" *'''''^ *''""^« «« t^^i^^k 

Similka.neen. The dil enc'cTnto "" *^'>^^' mountains across the 

tl.o ..teeper ^urfaee bott :!;"|i"?"!,,'i°r'' " "^"'/^'^r '" ^' ^''P'«i"«' ^y 
"•■ "■'• '-- 'n-.tli„. .he^;^,n::I: ;!:;J"' '^•"""■"^ '"••"• •— tra.ion in flow 

de.ri,"%rri:ijrs;l:bie"£rt i:""""'-^" '^'^"' '-™<^ - hi«h 

Slaeiers, the erosive e feet! of wdeh,'!" ""' '"7'^'''"' ^-^ '"''"•^ •'i^'iue 
ice-cap. Care was therefore take, o Lie iT'"'""""' "" *''"^" "^ ""^ «'l''^'- 
on the higher divides wC ct ue Z fJ''?*?;*'''"^''"^^ furrowin^s engraved 
in?« were not numerous but thev "bowed lint tb " ^'7 ''°"'"'- «"'^'' "'^'J" 
for the iee-cap was about S 30^ E "'■""^•' *'""'''°" ''^ movement 

.•rosstfrtirES:^^^ iiiniinif ^''T ^^^-^ ■- ^^^ --- -'- 

the natural joint planes render phl.^ I n],,.i™ '""^ '." f""ifc rocks in which 
^mack of the ein.ue .laeiers L,f o / nt ^t fe n'd" ' ' ^'"^'- ""' "^•"" *'- 
steeper .slopes o„ the east, and no„h ' "^" ' "^•™«'--. with t!.. 

nest ot lark mountain and TVovf. I'.,,, .i 
often confluent, glaciers southw t«. , t.,wtl b'/v" T''''''^f ■^'"'' '°<^"'- 
proof that the .lireetion of movement w.^ vr ^ ":''^*'"' ^'""ey- r>efinite 

.^lope of the Okanagan range was "'•?,; I, ;"■'■"/ ^'"" *''"^ °" ♦he ea.stern 
■■onelusive evidences was foun T,/ h f ' it r","'"' "<'->•■-• One of the most 
of the 'Bash. Con.plex- on 1, p , ..".'''"M'':',''-'^'^"-'"''* ^■"'1''- southwest 

\illl liuulci 


if I lie r. 
en t<i In 

■ tlii~ 

I'ks iitM'ii|j;i|. ,,, ,1,1 
errati.- a- tii,-v l.-i 

intain divide, is abundantl 



.V sprinkled 


"fstwanl ill,. -1^1, iat 


ii'ii wa> Met 

'f tile i;, 

■ral : 

'i"ii from v.liieh great 


111. iii— p. :,!)?. 

KEPORT I IF rilK CHIEF A ST Hoy Oil Elf 593 


L'i..i..r, Mr,..n„..| away to u,rv^r «i,|, ,l,e still lu.avi.r tr„nk frlaWor, ,„„vi„.. 

aln.,^' the Skapif. a,„l other master vallev« 'r^^u.nuu 

In some of the cir.;ues of the range there occur ridgos of coarse roek- 

debrts such us that illustrate.! in Plate 57. These ridges are from Te to tW 

>outh nails of northerly faein^- crqnos. The axis of ea.h ridjre i. generallv 
son>ewhat curved ,n ground-plan. with the concavity facing the concavity of 

t fLeHrTes- t' H-T''^^ °'" ^'"' '"'''' "' ""^""" ^"'^^ frajn.ents ^ari^rt?, 
hvL feet or less to thirty feet or more. In each case most of the accumulation 
of debns evidently took place at sueh as the cirque wa.s occup^d by a 
heavy bank of snow. This was drifted to specially great depths (fifty feet or 
more) against the relatively sha.led sides of The cirque. Fron h "1 alLve 

Ki<il KK 41. Diagraninrntic >™ti.,n »h.,winK origin of ;i " wint.-r tali,« ; i.lf,. ■•. 

the SMO«;-bauk. frost rifted away masses of rock which fell „po„ the snowdrift 
to roll down its steep surface and lodge at its foot, and thns clear of the cirque' 
«all. Tins aeon has, in places, been continued long enough to form long and 
qmte remarkable piles ot rock-fragments on the floors of the cirques. Since 
these special accumulations of debris are dependent on the formation of heavy 
snow-banks and on specially rapid frost-action before the summer heat has 
melted the snow in large n easure. the wall-like piles may be called ' winter- 
..s ndges' (iMg 41). Other fine examples were observed in the glacial 
amphitheatres of the R. .ky .Afountnin ranges. 

The exten-iv.. rua-Ml' .iiliuin.iting in Castle Peak was one nf the 
centres ol u.e-,l,sper,nl ,1 riu.^ the heavy glaciatio,, of ,h,. Ilozomeen 
range. \ alley glaciers from 1.000 to 2..-.(K) feet d,.ep moved out from the 
central snowheld toward all four quarters of the compass. When the sheets 



2 GEORGE v., A. I912 

font contour on the nMges of the ^fnrH • ""'' "'""^ "''''^'•^'"' «* tho 6 .S^^O 

<l'e same souroo are sprinldo.l .,vor th. T ' ' "'"'• """■■ '■'•'•'"'- <>">■• 

oontou,-. showin.^ a.^ain doarlv th.t ,. Ik^;' ." 'I""" *" "^ '■:"■'* <'"> "•^"'^"foot 
IVak moved aer,,.. ,ho deep earn- , of it,; ''?"'" "^ '"' ^'•«'" f^a«He 

erosive work, inclu.lin^. the fonnntJnn ^ • ''"-^'I'^'-'i .n th,^ valleys, l,uf ,l„. 
>id«os by hea,l-wa]l re.v.s n .ZZZ U "'T' T'^ *'"' ^'-Pe-'i"*^ of the 
Pa-sse,I A., a result the H .0 nee " L e ^0" ' "■./""^•'■"""" ^'-•"ti- was 
eros.0,1 by the Fortyninth I'aralM ^ ' "^ "'" '""^^ ■•"*^f^<"' of thoso 

He hav" seen that th.. u|,i...r (;i-,r|.,l i;,,,;, e .. ■ 
01 the Okanagan range w,m nL „r I fl' "" "","'"'' ^"' ""' "'-» ^'<I-' 

oastorn half of that ran.-e !• i- ,,''.;'"' '■■ ''•'"' ""-^ "f^P'^'' J""it i-' the 
as well as the Skagit r.L^ :o^Z:r'Z^X ^T "'^''^''' ^''"' *''« "--"«^ 
were the ranges farther ca^t Y.T Z , I ^^ '"'^' eontinuous ice-raps as 
of .snow wa. any less in "the fo , r r:::; ," Tr'""'"'^ l''.'!^ *'''' P-'pitation 
favour of the view that the Ho" .7" d ^laS^.','"''''''''''"'^ ''' '^''^'^^ '" 
Ingher annual proportion of snow tl . u Z "^ ''''"''"^ "^ so,newhat 

";o..ntain sy.„.n,, or the Selkirk nut ."""■ ^^ "°'''"^- ^''^ ^^olnmhia 

tl'o f^lMciation in the Ifo.„„ ra,"o n ' t? ^ • ^'"' ^°'"' ^'^''^^-f'^^ "f 
to the fact that tho pre-Glacial <" ,v" , '^"^'"^ '""*^'^- ^^'^ ^""'er due 

eastern ranges, and the vaYlerg a I nt ' w "'"■', " '^'"P'^'" *'•"" *' ^ "f the 
"lacial period the -..ttio; t^et t '^r tl"";: ^r' ^^T '''^ ""^""'^ °^ *»- 
n.ust have been n.uch faster in to 11 "n/ toward the nnglaciated tracts 
rap.dly .l.H,.ening the oanv.n, ,nu In : , ,1. 'f^n '''""■ ^''"^ ^'««'"^- »'■- 
tl.o s„ow-fleIds and so lower the a e ag loud 1 ' 'T"' f''''' '" '''-" 
range, for ;!00 .nile.. the Cordillera wtsf^'',. \ ^'"^ °^ *''° "'^anagan 

-Inch was broken by a few nunatak if^, 'u f '■"' "'" ^"""'^ ^^'^'^ ^"^^"-^e of 
range a general flood was i'poSe ^f^^l''' A '"1 '''"• ^^''^^ ^^'^''^ 
many deep channels along whicL the icB Ij :t"'1 ^^Po^'-^P'-.v oflered 
drained away. ' *'"' '""'^ •^«»' -'th relatively high speed, 

Of these eliluent channels tlie Skagit vallev ,. , 
Ho.omeeu range and for the eastern slot^ of the ^f T '''" "'^'''' ^°' <he and deep trough an enormous str^m o ice n' TT "^''^""^''^ *''«» 
piedmont .sht>et in Admiralty Inlet. °''^'' ''°"'"' to swell the 

Skagit Ra.nt.k. 

I'loi.toce,;' p^^i.:r'^;l ""'SJ'"',,/'"',,,!!:''.,;; "oMtinuous ice-cap in the 
wherever the range has been explored W'Vl . ^'"'^'"*'™' ^^'^ manifest 

25a -vol. iii -p. ."il)4. 





rival tlif Skimit riiiiKt" fi,p riiirijiMliic 

, ''"''i-' Iir";'"rt,v. csiHM'iiillv ,is r.'hili- t., 

the steepn.... of .lope., the prevalonco of knife«lK.>«, riHRc. nn.l sharp Imrnii 
IS in purt th« result of proLn^e.! erosion by Pleistoc-ii^ local Blacieri. The 
descemlants of those glaciers are represenle-l by nuinerou, small sheets occupy- 
ing the northerly slopcH of the highor masdfs from Olacier Peak to Tamihv 
mountiun. In fjln.mj time.s the incon.puruM.v vaster river, of iee mii«t 1,,^. 

,'wi'! °* " ""■ '"""■ ''"'■'''* '" *'"' '■"'^•'"X Klaei.rjet-. that is ahove the 

7 000-foot contour. From those to the soalevel the avornKe descent on 
the west .lope «•«« from L'<K) to im to the ,„il... At the maximum 
Klacat.on the master glaciers of that slope had depths from 4,000 to 5 000 
Teet. Ihese colossal bo.lie. moving on Kra.lients of over liKl foot to the mile 
were plainly .■..mpctent to perform rapid ffeological work. There is little 
wonder that the longest o. the sheets occurring in the Boundary belt-the 
Mliiwack glacier-has produced a long, continuous TT-shaM TouKh fiord-like 

ho» r ^T^t'T .'?"'''l /' "i^ character of the Chiiliw.ek valley from tha 
head of the lako to the deUueJnire thirty miles belovv. The inten^ty of the 
CJlacial erosion is shown by the f.wt thi.t the mountain spurs which in rhvthmi- 
cal alter- ution overlooked the pr.-Gh.ciul valley to right and left, have teen 
truncate, on a large scale (Plato r.'J). I„ evident fashion, though in less 
degree, the effluent glaciers occupying the valleys of Depot. Silver Middle 
blesse, and Tamihy creeks. h„ve similarly .Iriven back the lateral spui^s, greatlv 
steepened the valley walls, and rcluced intervening ri.lges to razor-back profiles 
ror miles to?et!ier. Above the ri,l«es the pi';iia..|,.s like Sires,. ,no,i„taii, 
ramihy mountain, Olacier Peak, and many others which lend their grandeur to 
the panoramas visible from elevated stations, ,Iust below the summits glacial 
aniphithe.itres lend not inferior variety of relief to the rugge<l range Tandem 
cirques, sometimes holding picturesque lakelets in eaeh, are hero, as in the 
Selkirk ami Clarke ranges, not uncommon. 

Chilliwack lake, one of the most beautiful in the Cordillera is held at its 
level of about 2,000 feet above sea by a strong boulder moraine, which in a 
smooth, graceful curve of L',0<l0 yards loops a.ross the valley bottom. (PIntes 
58 and (50). As shown by soundings in the l.nkc (205 f(>et deep. nW) vnrds off 
shore from the middle of the moraine), the moraine seems to be at least .150 
feet high. Owing to lack of sounding-line the maximum depth of the lake 
was not determined. Two thousand yar.Is below the delta at the upper end of 
the lake, the depth in the middle was measured at 108 feet. The boulder 
deposit is continuous for more than a mile down the valle.v, descending by two 
remarkably regular steps about 150 feet in that distance. The boulders are of 
all sizes up to those thirty feet long and fifteen feet thick, growing generally 
sn.aller down the valley. Almost all of them are composed uf the same grani: 
which surrounds and underlies the lake. The moraine was evidently form3d 
during a long halt in the reces.sion of the Chilliwack glacier. At the outlet a 
75-foot notch has been cut through the moraine. Thence the Chilliwack -.iver, 
on a gradient of nearly 100 feet to the mile, rushes on its toiTtiitial way to the 
Fraser flats. 

a.'ia— vol. iii-39 


I'H'iRiM/ \i ,,f rut: i.Mf: 


J . 2 QEORQE v., A. 191? 

Ill till' lower 1,,.., , ,1 (1 pi- , 

M.-. ore..k to ,ij ■;::,.. ;,; ' x:tni:z "'\r '•■"" " """"••'•'' ^^ 

""•""•"!»-. .. tiu.'k ,i,,,„M, ..,■,, r '"' *'",■"'"■• '"""'■»""' f'""' 'h" 

"i.i.-of,h,.n.ll.,v. ■ni....|i„-..,,,r , ' ;"" " "^''' '■""■'' '■" ""• "-"' 

;r';- :r ^"■■' • ^^ -- - ;- ':> '-:it c^^^';::'?.:;;f z: 

.outhw...,««r.lLv .Iowa ,l.e (.n.s.'r , 'h^'"^ r'T "'"''""• '^'''■^'""ovod 

.io.i'iir'^'r;::;:: a';j:Vir v" "^ t"^- " ^ '^'^ -■- ""■ 

fr,...r„, «v..ra«e (!oo.l-lev;.l. ' "^'"" ^'•^"•"■-'^vc. f,v, above the 

iJuiiiiK the uiuxiiiiuiii Kliii'iaiiuii tii.. "l,;ii;,. i . . 
-nlluenr a, s.,,.). eleva,io„^h« v 1; r ^f 1^ ^T'" '--'">«'« worn 

'!.'> l'.V-ln>ont .law. Over ,h. ' .. "l 7" ''"■ ''^^ -"'■""•''^•'■'' '^^■ 

"•"OO fo.f thiok :„ui i, .M.,v ,vn ""'.l^'n,,- MM,,, h,v.. Ireu at N-a-t 

-'-■knos, ,lo„b,l.l. ,.e ... ,<"•?■ " ,""*^ ""'^'- -«■• '-"OO foot thi.k. Tho 

■"^-' '^o 1 Pi-liuont a, ,1a 8 ; oP 'u. .'^l''"/ '' '"'^r^'' »" i--" «!- 

;w „,...o.H,„ „ wiHi-. , . ...:^i"i"::'i.:'^;;i-:k,a?':.^;r/-::! 

■'-^ '•■ '"• -.■.!. in Mat.a„.,.onnK,nis Zt^tut '"■'"" '■'' '^"■^'' ^'"' "''-I' - 
'' '^""-i-^'s of a .l,..ef of J 1 , " ^^•■■;'!"'"^io^ ^m,! Point Roo..rt... 

-m.stin. tha, the s>n.a,n. "l!,. ',> „ ho' fI ,- rl''"- '""'""''' ""■•'••■"*- 
'/'""I -"r the pro..„t hoa.l of ,l,e r e Tloh Ti "'"' " "' ^''"''' '"'"^ 
'I'l'Pi.ij-', typical h..a,-h->;rav,.is uithl,, .1, ocpiin-en.v of stoeply 

' " "'illi.s Tn.oma Folio. f.S. 


•■urvcy. Isft!), 



HI rtiin ui un I imr isii;n\,nii It 597 

i>ie.l fU FrH„.r ir,m„l,. On tl.o .li.„,,,«.„rHn f fl„. ;,,. ,1,^ r\u'T has out 

»urfHM.. „n.| ,. ..,-.l„,v „ ,„.„ ,i|,v ,!,.|r„ 1 ,|„. u«\f. TIh> ,1,1 ,|..i, , 

u ,,„, r....r,.-,..,r...| (,v H,„.,„..,„.,| r, ,nn,.ut. rLin-r l-h* f,,, „r „„„.. „, 

;n«;:S;/' ' ■" "- •• '■ • ^' ^^"">- - i- -., ,i,.,'i-,,„- ,. 

•iMf tlHir I„M.,r> 1„H U...„, „. ,„,„, r,..,K...ts .litT,.,...„f : ,|„. ,,r„Me.M is worthv 

Si MM Mi\. 

,,./,; ''■",": •'"•\ ''■;• " l.-rv.,iw,. „.„|,. ,|„,.,„ir , is -.,„.„„. 

t tuj.l «..rk .1.. n.,t ,>n,,lv ,M„rP thm. „„,. ,».rio.| of ,fla.-iati.,„. If ,lr^, „ot 

. ..I.irv 1,.,1, ,„ I ,.,.„„..,... tUM,.; .:,.. ..v„l..n,.,. „„ ,hU ,.„i,„ j, ,, „„ „„,,,„;^„ 
U. .,,..1 Iho in..!, .„,„lM.„u .,f l,otl, n„.k h:\uv. :,n,l ,lrif, ,l..,,o.i„ U h.. 

:^- .rnltir'"' • '■'■^■''"" "^ ' "-' - "'"* '--» >*- 

T!i.. F„r»y-„inth Parallel H,.,.|ion i. >p,..iall,v in-tnu'tivo as showinR the 

Hi of,r"r ? 7"-l ■"-?>•■ ■^''"' ''•'-♦""•■'"<.«« of ,l,e Kooky Mountains 
il. . ', 1 "T"'." ^T ;;•"•"■'' Kroa, ,.luM,K..s i„ thn for.ns of the nm,mtain«. 

Mile n,u.-l, „l th,. ( onl,ll..n„> mtorior. tl,o„^'l, mniultanoously covorod br 
'■;• ot >rr... .■ tl.„0<n,-<. !,;,> .Mff,T,.,l r,.|ntiv,.|y li„|.. ,.|„„;r.- 'n, ll... „r. 

'""■'"' ••■'l'">^f"l'I',v. Tho .litronn, I- n-,>lt i~ ,xpIaino,l partly by tlu muoh 

creator preyaio,.,-.. ,„ ^K.r^--..l,n„„i in ,1... n,.,...s aff.-...,! by l„ Rla-iation; 

rare,l that ot th. .o.-.a,,. Ti,.. „pa,i.,n i. spoolally illun.inatinK sin-.e 

both i.v...,|, a.v;. a!,.i l,„.,,| ^.h,.,,- ar,M- uv,v .■hMra..t..rl.o,| bv ewntiallv 
I'lmar ..Innat,,- con. ht,o„s I„ |„„h , as,., ,„„..v-f.,ll «n,l of abh.lion wern 
niiidi tii,> same in th,.^. diircn.ut iiitiiintair. bolt-. Th... r, laliv l.-bb.,,, ,-i ,,| 
the Curdilh.ran i,.,-oap in orosive ,.«..,( i. fairly ni:it,.ho,i bv iho roialive feeblo- 
nc-s. 01 the Labrador i-t-ap .,n tho ph.l.Muliko .urfa..e „( eastorn North 
Aineri.'a In contrast to botli .stan.l the I' Khu-i.-rs whi.'h lav in the 

« iullnva.-k ami Chohiu valloys, „r th„«,. v- h o,.,.„,.i,.d tb.. l!,„kv M..uM"tain aiui 

''".' " ";t"'l'^'* ill lnt(>-(i|a.Mal tiin... All ,.f th.'^.. tr..uirb ^-la-l.Ts eroded tho 

liMi]'.' rock on a spoitai-Mlar wal,.. 

The details piveu r.'trardiiiir the thiokn,.>s „f phoior-. .iiio.tb.n of (!>.w. 
chara-tor of drift ,l,.[ToMt*. ,.t,... ar,- siibsfaiiiially Ki,,;ibir in .p.Mlity t., tb,,>,. ..:,' 
wiii,.h Daw.son base,! hi- ,-,'eM,rali/Htion rogal•dil)^' th'. PlciMoeene glaciation 
S.'ia— vol. Ill — 1f)\ 




nr.i'iUTMKM' OF Tin: iXTERroR 

2 GPORGE v., A. 1912 

::../£"l:/;;:::";;:;;;:;;:.;:;'"::;i,:';;i.— -ew .... «. ..„. 

tivol.v .small part of .he lei ' .° s,i "1 ^"f '* '■°'''"' °"''" " '•^'«- 

t" .Lis subject. A further ..n v ^ ^ ; tL TinT'i onT" 7"!"'^"^-" 
re..n.i... ........ f,. „,..,;,,„;„ „^ ,„eS"^^ ^ '^ "^^ ^,;^ .^'^ — 


icwof till' (?riiv. 1 |)l;it.Mii r.-|)n>,ntiii^' the Lit.- I'l.>i>t..c.iii- d.ltii ..f tin- 1- 

^■^t iif l,atliii r'> I,aiiililif, I- 

aU.v,. tli.-l.-viluf tin 


ra-i-r timt : t wu ii 

IT lin-r. Th,. tnp ,,| tlic iiliiti-iiu i> ..vir tlm-r IiiuhIp'cI f. 

U.-taili-^d s.rti..ii Ml III.- saiiils iiii.l irravi-ls ,if the I'l.-i^tocftic (l.-|«,,it rrpn-.s.-iili'il ali..v,. S,.„., Ijff 
at 1 .Mill U,,i„.,i>. Tiif iii),'liiy incliiU'il grav.l Ix'ds may rl•|.rl■^.■nt a licai'li nr ^pii .l,-p..M(. 
25a — nil. ill— |i. fi'JH. 


* vw^ 



■"*, i-i 

* .f^Smi 


I'l \1K IV. 


Small Klaci.r d..,.p..„i,,K e,,.,,,,., ..«,ut sewn tl^usa„d f,.et ahov.. sea. . .„ li„„„.la,. 

•■h-, lifith ..f (.lacicT I'i„k, S'k.ikiI l.'allKi-. 



A. 1912 


PiivsrooRAPiirr notes on the fortv-nintii 



in the traverse acros. the u'ZZ cha, '" '""'■'"""'' -"-""t^^^ 


OniQiN OP THE Master Vallivh. 

subJwJSn o5The"roS"'' "'''' "'" ''?'^"°'^'^ «^°'°^ "« ^'-« «**« that the 
suppor erby tl,l str?/. r" "," "^ ^.""'^ topographic basis is to some extent 
supporte.1 by the structural geology determined along the Forty-ninth Parallel 

■"tI„ . 1 l" ",'«"■• ^l» '»■« '•«!•■ •" .«p.r.t«l by this ,.£, " 

t re' \tr'Zrth r '^ '" '" '"1""' ^" ^"'•^' ^'°'=''- - Pro-MLcene 

ae-.frtp trt^=.^j^irs - 1- s^ 

rouKh has taken place in late Miocene or still later time. This latter fLt ha! 
led Wilhs to Bagge ^t^^Mioecne or possibly^cene date for le principal 

•B. Willis, Bull. Geol. Soc, Amorica, Vol. 1.3. 1902. page 347 an.l Platrssr 




in:rM{ruf:\r nf rtir imkhior 

f«ulti„..t „i. view however .Ive , • ' °'°"^' "' '' '"' 

a"tor of the Mio....,,;. l"lV T| o,,:;" T T f '"'"' "^ "^ "fn'^tly local 

i" this iM.itu.Ie. '•"' '"■'""'■•" "'''■•'> •''ff'-t''J the C.,r,lillera 

I'.-o b<.e„ M.ose of ^^ „£';'".,.? .?'! * '\''''"«'""^fonaI profile, niay 
»i.e Dead Sea. The d th^ of Me I J "u "'"* °^ *,'"' '''''^^^^ ^'"""e "^ that of 
the resemhianee of t ^p 1, fl " ^•-"'ot !«. n>ado with a«M,nmee but 
retreating e.earp,ne,t.ttiren ";'";«■■«"'>■" /"^H.ons „f f„„lr-,.hn„.~ ;,m,I 

three inilaneefth ^ , 1: w no ^ r" '" *'"" ^^'"*''""' ""^'^-'■^ "'"^ '" «1> 
tronehes there is no evidence ^ ';,'"/'- ■'"•."""•■ and pre-Miocene. I„ ti,e two 
■nont.. The ab.e "> o s^b » . "'"'' ^"™ '^°'^'-'^'' ^'''' T-rtiary .edi- 

over since their forL ion f^ero^' r"'""''" ^^'^ ""'''''•'''one erosion 

1..V erosion; con.i.leX the h ,r 7" "" ^T """■'' ^^■'''™'^'l ""^ '^'^'^P^^'d 

-.■ late Mio..". " 'po I o :;r:i,: I'r^' ■' " ""i •"'^■••^'^"^'^ ♦•-^ "" 

OAoavation '"' '^" o'-f^^opied with that task of 

On the other hand, several of the master valleys in the =».f . 
•l.reet explanation i„ the visible strucM.res of e ferr ««'-^"^" /.'a^''' "'^ 

respective rivers tlow. The Cohunbia ri" , , tS X^ " ""^'V*'"' 
•superposed.' tliroiiKh a eoniplev of v,,l..,„; i ^'-"^ f> / "''ey has been 

Trail batholith or 'po,, -lu- L '^ie IV D-Oreill vf ' •""'^- """" ""* 
nbly iK^neath the lavas and vonn^^er ^di ne^? o 1 ! p'*'/";^ "nconform, 
part of the Columbia vallev e..n witl „, T J. Ro'sland group. This 

Lara„,ie and pre-(!laeial dite . ," iws e""' r "'""f '" ' '"'''■ 

within that Ions Period >for is ifJi -m '"'^♦^ •'^"" a closer dating 

• "i- '■'"' >'. '....;."';.»«-.',' r ,r;Sre "ntHZi^s Tr'r 

erogenic revolution, and the hvpothesis that it has W„ l ♦ /. 
nuent adjustment to a .oft belt in the "of o tt T aH bathdith' a' ,iW ""u "^ 
and a like uncertaintv prevail ir the caso ^f tl,» „ . Vv ^ '''^® problem 

which separates the Ok'^^.L" n -.n^eTrom tJe rTu ? t'?^"' '^I'^'"' ' '^^'^ "' 
lower Fraser river valle.v, as well fthe ller CH , jL" 7 """'" '^'"' 
on the axes of east-west folds which bor; I ""'l'^«''k valley may be located 

Cordiller-; the poor ro V-e p ^ ,r d ' not Z d«^ "";'"""'" '■''"""°" ■"" ^^- 

view finallv. The npper Chi 1 wick ri, t , '"'"'''^"^ *^ ^'♦"^ish this 

waek batholith throng; 'eltTllTed^PaTj:-:;.^"^^'''^^ °" ^'^ ^''■"^- 

tB. Willis, ibid., p. 344. — 

2.">a -V..', ;ii -p. DiMi. 


■?*r4->'; '■ .•'■■v. •.-- 

■H ;., 'r^T- 









IVUIVUMA,. MoUNTAlN-I{»V„K. ,, I'.H M.H.HAPH,. l'„-.»,vrM. 

rorrc.p-'n.linK to tluse Konetie ex|.lan«ti,„m of the m.i.t.T vallov. .„ f.r „, 

;:;ii;:\r,;':.;;;;;t.;t.;;;:T::z - "'■■■'"'" '- '■ "•■°™" - 


Mo..k wlu.-h ,n r..|i..f fK...„„. i, i. u,.„.,,., ,., ,,,.„„, .^J,,;,' >,.';,,;;""■'' 

unit. wLY-l^ilMl"; r "l"""' "" ""■■" "".*""" "'•' ^""""'■"•'^raphi,. 
VM ■ "" '""" ■'• "'" •■"""""^" "' "'",,,!, 

I I'ruliiict. 

Ui» ky Moinitaiii S)„t>iri ( 1 lif h'liirit Kan^c dvncliiu' 

„ „ ,, '■""••'■»ll-i .M»<^^l)uni.Mlii.r,t. 

I tir-vll M.M,„i„ir. .Sy.t.-m .... Th.. |"ur.-,ll li,.i,t 
.Vlkuk M,.„„tai„ SyHMu TIh S.lkirk ii»,n.*liii-. 

''i.luiiiliia .Mountain Sv»t.'iii.. 'X'"' li.""'""'! I'liotiiix •..•l(u„ic i,,,,. 

I riif .Miilwiiy vi.lcaiiii'iai.. 
IMr „f Inter.,.r I'lat.-au, .Th. A„a„-I,i,. ..1,1 ,„„„„tu,n ,.1«...,.„. 
<>k,.M.rf»n Kanir.. The ()kan.^,.„ co„„.„,t.. l»,tl„.li,l,. 

II . ... II f The I'jwavtiii imiiKiiliiie. 

" ""■•" '""'"■ I ■'■';;,:";:>''"'■•• '"■"""'■•■•' -'v ti,. ,„i... ..r m „ 

j Tlic Skaifit v.ilcnriii- ciii.. 

\ aiioouwi- KanK.' 'IV Vancmv-r .„„„,|,.x. ' 

Fron/ 7;,„3, Sin,c!ine.-Th, ri.rk. nn.l L^wi. ranR... furnish the mo.t 
mteresfnK scc.„er.v on the whole C.r.iilk.ran soHlon; i„ ,hi, respect their onTv 
posaib^ compeftor ,s the Cascade rnn^e in the extreme we.t. Kuna'ely we 
have U>e ..uahty oi the eastern range, a.lmirahfy portrayed in the ' P ief Mo.m 
tarn Quadrangle' .i,eet of the Ignited State, (ieolojeal Survey Co.raX 
by F E. Matthes an.l I?. II. Sargent, l.,W.-l!m2). A part of eaeh oTthe Two 
Front ranges ..s .napped within the ..nadrangle; the „,«„ ,nny be profitnWv 
consulted by one wh,. wish,. „, appreciate the full individualitv of he e moui! 
tains as compared with the rangos west of the Flathead ' 

The rehef i.. considerable. Waterton lake is given as 4,1'^6 feet above sea 

fC rl*"''^' °' ^''^,^'7* r'"'"^ '" '''' '•^"""''■- The Flathead is Jut 
4,0(H> feet abo.e .sea. Cleveland mountain in the Lewis range and six mile, 
south of the I„„.r„ati,.n«l line, is given as I..,4.,s feet in hejht Within Ik 
Boundary belt .tself two of the highest s„ i,s are Mt. Thon.pson (Oo's e^ 

S ;:tl; TeS' ''''''■ ''' '""""""' ^'""^^ ^--"•^' -" ^--n ^.o*^ - 



i*t'ruiTSir\r ny thh t\rt:itinR 

,, , . 2 GEOnoe v.. A 1912 

Mljrli o( til,. iiil,.r,wi ,.r .1. 

"»T.-N. whi..|. i„ turn .11 ,„ ,.) | C2"] m '" ""' "-''"-'•'-"I 

an,l ti,I,H Tl iiwof tlu. 8»n,. „, , f-nM,l,.r h.,«.(,f,„„ „f „ ,,r,, 

.Ir-<ls of |„,,„(if„| ,,1,7; ""• l-^";^' i^m«, .. TI,...l,.u.|„,.„H.Mt „f ,1„. )„„. 

-•ava„.,i. I, .p . ,:i ' z';i .'" 7'"' ; '■"' "'"' '"'■'" '-- '-'-,, „, fl. ^^.J , Iff "' '"■"•"'" "^^"-i'-". witl, ,.o„Ho,„u.„t 

'l-'nd, ,l„. M. n, i, !;„;" '■", 7' '"■•' '-" ^"-•i'"y l.a.sto,u.-l 

:^::.^:7tlr^-:;::Vs;i::r'--''' ' ^"';'-;^^i-:''r:. :::'.::; %^' nt 

nM,nm;:!::;i::;;;:'|;;:;.,;'";:''''""'^vf ;='---' -.i„„ ;,. ,„., .ink.-!....;. 

-•7';'^',^;n. n:'^'ui;.r".:::r;t;:;:.,r„,er„.„ Hive ^ J' ^'X.: , ''"^'T" tV''''*^^^- ''''"^ "''-"' 

crcH-k. which i. followe.1 ; o S ..i i" "' ""u"' ""■ ^■^"'■'''""' -^'^'""'»" 
!■""•"-■ ''f a „.iM.,r swH. i, I p , ' ' ^'^5";*;'"«y J'n."^ ♦rail, i, U,cato,l in the 
ul... .... of .linn. ,.onso , ,H , it " "'^' '"'I"' '^"'■"""- "'"' "^^ 

nn the enst,.,„ sh^p,. „f ,1,,. FiaH,,,,,, a,„i, " ' ''''f"^" '" '"'^^ l^-^n formed 

-■nM„,.. Ma,,v o'he,. r ,., v ) ."'r'''''- ,'" •^""-'"■™-o of that ^rnben- 

K-intln crock is loeate.l ,„. „ . is,i . , f ' If ul ' 1 '' i"""""""" i" "^'^'■"' 
Mn .Metiial depression in . > ""-."" 'f"nlt ulueh may have been the line of 

exdude the possibilitv tl"",i;! ;,'!:r"..'""L'''"i^"""™^ Yet we ean hardly 

veni'iit and normal 

t: iintnin >,'ro'ip-- 
ranges — sii>fi;(>!,ts a 

lit the fault-zone has functinne.1 


'^n^^vnr\^i"T''<'J^pt.}'y vv.w. A 

as a iintural weak 

"Uiitain'i. I'ldt. 1 

i>. CI. U.S."(?,.<^I. Si 

«<xi(l on the Tint 

a and Wasatih 

rv,.y. 1909; rs,,eci.-,lly Pl,„es 4 an<i 8 



'" "'<• Ix-rf uf a .in.ilar. „arrm- „„.i.ll„.l r„ll •," ' I r 1 ''.""^'•^,''"•"'7' 

lor a hrn.f n-,.oi,„t of tho rolatio,, „f fop„pr,.,.|,v nn.| «trN.-tnr.. !n ,1, 

f'.MN o„t fl,af. as in ,1. Clark, ran..., tl„. n„nn Jvn,.|in' is a.': , .n,:.! 
ni I.--- on,, nirmw «nti-li„ai f„I,|. H., hn. f„II„w,.,l thi^ f„|,| fr.„n Mr ,"i,.,.. 

'.i-l;.:-::^;-;' :r";::::';r™ ;^ ;;:;r':::i ^;;'', ;:.;;;:!;:;:;":: -r; 

yun.„rl,v n;,rr..w „n.. af .1:,. M.nunh n,..nn„, in tl,.. . larU r.-n,.,., .r„ ,„ .;..|v 
. ■. r„lH,n ,h,. ,I,„„ t H„. nn,-,..r ,,vn,.|in,.. -„ ,l,.,f w,- n.,v aN„ h ,M r! 1 . 

^nva or i„.,d.f. are rolate.l to a t'onnral ^v.nlinnl nyi. 

I..k.. (I,.,. ,,n.s,.nf writ.T. Willi. „„. „„„l,|,. ,„ ,in,i nninv ,.v.„,pl,.. „f ,,„.-il,lo 

- r,.,n, a,ln.Mn,..n, ,n , i,|„.r ..f tl„. ,u„ ran.,.. an,l ,la.r,.-,...„,. , ho n lit 
;;; .'"r* " ^'r ^'--"-^ - «.'- -^-i" .ve roan, o„n,.,nont oon^J Th 

1 ,.-. :^ '•"'-"l"..Mo .l.lT,.rono,.. i„ sfronRtl,. Sn..), hotor.,^onoitv wonl. 
.,t -orta.n l.v .nvolvo ,nn,.l, nu,n. of fl,o sfroams to soft ho t, 

han wo ao uallv .l.oorn, if ,l„. ,..,!„„ ha,l ovor hoon n-lnoo. to Z n lit n 
of a ,.on,.pla,„ 'i ol tins :. ,|.o .L.tinit,. vi,.w roaoho,! hv Willis n. ., ros, tof 

(losoriptiiin is fr,\., 
mountain (jroiii) ' 
sanio orosion ovi 

.1' lli^ 

pl'.v-ii,.f.'rai.ln'c foatnroM of tho f! 
that that crronp wa.s iienc;" 

i- hoi, 

incd (lurinjf ll 

•B. Willie. Bull. a.„I. Soc. Am-rica. Vol. 13, p. 3i«. 


in:i'Mn\if:\T or riir i\ union 

'lnir„i,M,„l>„„„!,f Ih.r^l. |{,.nv,v 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1i,!2 

prab..ns w have the comLound homMr^:'^^::''^ '--..w., -K„„„.„.. 

the Kootonay a. about ■>:!()() f....t T, W ' -t-><-' t'vt: on tho w.. . „v 

• in .he Houn.h.rv belt i"s' f '4 Lt 'J ' Tl TT' "^ *''" ^f"''I^°"«M ■'.- 

iiu>Mib.>r which niv.,.rvp- tl.„ r.V • '''''^" '^ "'"'O''* ♦'le O" ^' 

nmuntains .,f eaeh ra.r-.mke n •, H '"' "1' '*' "IT''"""'"'^ ^''^«^- The 
bv o,.casionaI hnv i.orn' ^11, V "^"'"^ '•'5«<:'' "-— 'bhipre of nM^cs erowno.l 
th;. ;. ,11 T ; * ' *'''"' P'-'^'-'IMoo is sehlom seen. Tlie re.^on fo, 

this IS .louWe; partly ,i„e to the softeninir cff.'ets of the r, .Jl ^ 

topography is, il-eveW at'L 7,:'^,;?'' :!''?;V, J^'^' -I''«"atio„ of the 

arrive at final ..on.lusions a. o' he ort n oT If "T'^' -'^ '"' ^°" 

Af,'ain we are balilod in reaehing at de r.W . f"' """^ '^''' ^'""^y-^' 

subject to doubt until mue "L 1 er fi d t l'"! ' "".'^ '""'' ^"^^^'^'^^''''''^ "f'^ 
would, however seen, pro" ble ^\ZT '^'■'''■^'':^' '^"f ^eeu aecomplished. It 

sample of tiietopo^ p^ tt th who e T"": ""''"■•" ''f "'^^^ °" -«'«^« 
not without value We b.e r """'»'""' P-'O'iP «nd its indications are 

respectively ^l^, ^^ ll^U-^^ ::!; ^ [^ tS^r't "f '^r^''""^ "" 
quent rivers; as they run parallel to h.r' 1'?"^°'*-' *!« ^'««^<'«' "^ conse- 
deseribe them as lonl^l-ud^n H^ „ ^..^ " I'le n" ""^"^ ""^ ^-*''- 
located on a master dt tbnn ,1, ^ il'e Wigwam river seems to be 

> ^^. II Dack n;to the now well .lissecte.l fault-blocks. The lack of 




i!i:i'(,i!i or Tin: i-iiirr isri;n\,nn:i!: 



nuimj;.. ,„n,v l,o ,„r,ly ex|,l„iMr,| l,v tho vp 
ot stronpfl, n. tlw l,o,I.l..,| r-ok.. 1,„. „„,.' 

'lively stlMll .litTeiVIHV^ 
!>.■<•( that it is also ,hw to the 


tu,.t th.t tin,,, onon.^i, I, no k . '"?'"'' '""' '» '^ "'''^'^ ''"'^ ''^ •!" 

bolt- by hoa,i.wa„::i:. ,r V ; o^honi; . ;'"?"'"'' ^"^'""""^ ^^ -f- 

tinoti. .oft.- than „„. nei.),,. J-^ ^H ' ^ '7 1:::^;;;'';: "^'-^ '^'^ 

'l''PiV"io„s aro 1,....,,,, in il„. linmsto,,,.. •'""" ''^'■"''* ^"" 

<ii i>i|, ,\ 

^ iKiiTiMn l"KMi'(.\i\ i\ 

\\'illi-"> iiiaii.v- 
virw lliat tile wliiil, 

I in: IK., K ■, \,,,| \ I vi\ .^ . 

n{ |i„. 

I'.'Ke .. 

"i"n ina.s 
II. .ti"- ..I 




it'^l'v'u'"!''" '"'"■'■ 'V'"^" llMI' -...•„„.,„ .. „. „., 

t;„.;:i;:;:;;^:;;;i;;:;-;;;;-:;'';/;;;;^ .^n„ •,>.,..,, ,„ 

'lesoriptioii of tlu-s,. ruiiL'os ,l,onl,l I ■ ''"'"'• ''"'^ s''iontifip 

de,onptio,. of .1.0 apX i=n „ ::,j'itr '■' """'"^ 1 "-^ ^-^- ^-* - 

evo„t of pntnary in.portan.,. ' i ! ,tt It t^^ ""•""*""' '■'"'" "' "" 

Harilie. l,oth tl,.. „o ,l,.«i,..,l lii ,1. ., '•'"■•■opnoi, ,s kvo-m. f„r it 

' iit„rt„„at,.lv. ,1,.. pr,..,.nt vvrifr has I,,.,,, „„al,I,. ,„ ■ ,,„ „, 

'•■•■«ns,. „t ,.,>rtan, ^.rav,. ,!ifli,.„)ti,.. wliirl, .,r,. n..f f , ' 
ypotlie^is of p,.n,,,lanatio„ i„ „,„ Appala 'U;',^:. "a .^ !. Ij;,,, " 

i''::tXT:r/" r'' ""'■'■'■ -^ "^>n.Uu;u 

' "■ ' -'^•'l"l> "I 'lil' 1 l:i 11 ^v-ti'lii 

ie.,j:*rxi;:^,::,n:::;:lt''ti,''''^^ Y" '- """ '- •-'•• ^^ ^ 

ti.." ^vho,.. of ti.o a..i:;:;:' zz^: ;^::::::i^ ::zj:-'- - -•-'- 

• Re,.OKnitio.i of ti„> tilfo,] attitmlo of rrotaoooiis str.f., ... f .i 
ov..„ siirfac. oxtenilo,! noross tlioir edses is sXiom to 1 '" 

-•liaractcr of tlie Croat Tl.ins „t 1 ;• ''*"""/"' <o .loinonstrato tli,. 

dusoss.on of aute,.o,l..,„s of the Lewis thn.s/ ' I ^o J ' , '"•"""; '"f 
an, q„.,i,ite> ,.„„id no, !,„» ,„„i„,„i„o,l ,aoh iel,,i,„T,r, . ''""»'""" 

.«i.,„i i„ .1,1,.,, ,h.i, .„a .„„,u,o„. ,,.l;;,,jo^ '.r." ,"* ;,i,r;« ° 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
tl.e tors of pe.k. Tn tl>e lattor on.e the .sn,-faco may appear clo«elv to 
valley"" '^''^'^^'''' ^"'""''*^ -^ the erests and to lie ahove the struchT,,! 

a,li.,Zt", ^T T'"' "° .'I'^'in'^xi^l'o.l from phy.iograr.hic d!.f riots 
c he. ,„ the preec-.i.n.^ paragraph.. In strong co,.trnst. the Great Plains 
vifl ,'"■'' "^ ^'^"fo" entirely indepen.lent of structure. Galton 
...n.'-,tliouH, ns a „u,..l.„„nHod hy .trm'tural, is within itself ap par 
onfly a M,nple uplifted hlock. Whatever minor flexures or faults may 

thel.nir ";. " '■"""■•' "^" '■'" ""* "'«^^'"'*'-^ Pronnuneo.1 to interrTpt 
he .m, .s ot he n,ou,>ta,n mass. While the general altitude of 7.500 feet 
is due to uphlt, details of heights e.xpress effects of earlier or late 
eros.on only. In tins respect Galton range is like the Plains and unlike 
tue r rent ranges. 

()„ ih!" ^f^ ^''/""^ "u*^ ,".:'.' *^"'"°" '■""^''^ ■■' l'«"^M.h.ii. was developed. 
(Jn (he .oft rucks of the Plains it was planed flat. On the har.ler roeks 
ol tlie (.a ton mass it was prohahly not >„ completely smoothed. Observa- 
.ons ol 1 HU w-ere neither so .-xtensive nor so precise as to <listinguish mon- 
adnocks from features ot later carving, but the general relation of height 
o an o d ow an, ,s as distinct as it is on the Schooley ,,lain. in the High- 
lands of the Hudson. .New York. The peneplain on the Great Plains, fhe 
iihickfoot plain, ,s neither incidental nor local. It is the res.ilt of a long 
cycle of erosion which affected a wide territory, and its representative 
must occur in the nearb.v mountains among the oldest features, if not as 
tlie rd.lost. unless ,t has been obliteratcl by later activities, .i ,,"! 

correlation of the Blarkfoot plain with the peneplain over (Jalt- 
a reasonable inference from facts. Nevertheless, in the ir 
I-ron, ranges the observer seeks in vain for that general unifo, ., , of 
alnUides or that brea.lth of contour which might represent the Blackfoot 

' The peculiarly bold sculpture of the Front ranges is explicable off- 
hand as an effect of great elevation, from which there resulted special 
c^nulitions of glaeiation and erosion. It resembles the sculpture of the 
rrT-l-'Tv-n •■""^;\ ^\"^!,""»-''/^"- "* nearly as is consistent with diversity of 
ro k-t.vpes. But unlike the rascades, whose summits inherit common alti- 
tude^ from a broad peneplain, the Front ranges exhibit no general upper 
limit of heights common to many widely distributed peaks. Instead they 
present an e.xtreme case of localized deformation, aecentuated b^v intense 
eorra.MoiK Kcalinng thi. one may still recognize the position of the oldest 
topographic surface of the provin-e near the summits of the ranges It 
is notable that each r-eak approaches in height those of its neighbours 
which stand in similar structural positions-that is, along the strike A 

!ent tl,T*r "'7-*^ ^T^'' °'' °'"' ^^'^'' '''''"^ shoulders, should repre- 
■-ent that from which they are carved, plus or minus the efl^ects of 
warping and minus the effects of later erosion. Detailed observations of 

in:i-oitT i>F Tilt: run:r Asr/.;,.yo\n:h' 



struoturo will ,lel,.rinine tl,o former; stiulios of s,r,ti.^r„V, ■ , • 
sculpturo will ovMhiato fh.- n„,„M„f I,v ^ i '"/'"'f f''I'Kv in relnfion to 
relatively on .he .ever r "k vn ^'"': '.:■■■'"?" ''«* '•-^'""-1 «'«itu.le, 

"'~'Gi?r "'=■'»---'«' -- "^ ""'■ 

-. Kurinfr |.;,kota .„,! liontr,,. tj,,,,. tUrrr wns a v.rv „,.Mtlp ■,.„! I„. .,.1 
IM.,-- Cm.,ce.„ UJ,, ,„„,„„„ .,„ „„,v„,„„„i,. ,,|,| ,,i,|, ,„.„,„, ,1"; ","„ 

i"a -111 I lie l.dltun-.MaoDoiial.i -ronp were uplifted 

L-r o'.n'^ur', ! 'T' "^™^''/''"l"''>^. till- Mihsequent liisforv of (l.o reHon 

La., e, M ist...l in steady erosion, leading to mature mountain topo^rrapliv 
In passing, :t may !,e noted that the evidence of the earlier Afe-n^ iV. 
ran. Ill, whieh the Dakota and later CretaceouAeJ: ^^ ' .p Xr "Z; 
n ade -lear. It wc.hl .een. probahlo that .luring the Mesozoie. ,hls pa t of ul 
f ordillera .-as never far above sealevel Afo^ of the Afi .ic^.I 1 V 

fonnation is still preserve! in the Crowsn °t di < 'LT fZ mil T n"' 
nr^thward on the strike of the ran.e. To the sontheLr s 'X^^^^t 
-iB,^^ery^J>,^,,,U,\u^Cretnc^,,, beds^,f the Belt n,..un.ain«. We have 
•B. Willis, Hull. Geol. Soc.. America, Vol. 13, 1902, pp. .^H-319. 



ith:i-MiiMt:\r oy nn: isitiuoR 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

n "l."'" f ".r'T, "n'"'*;? "^ "'" ^'■■-'-il'Pi"" li.nestone persists in the fault- 
blocks ot tlie M|.cl)o>,al,l rnnRo just acTos. tl.o Flathead. Nowhere in the 
eastern part of the Conh-llera north of Colorado is there evidence of notahle 
'l.'torniation ot the it,„-l<.v .\l,.iiMtaiu (i..„svn,-linal U■x^^■v^■u Mis^i-ippim, ,,,,,1 
J-araniie tunes. It seems ]il<el.y, therefore, that a Rreot thiokness of the Mi.-i.- Innestone wa. pre.,.nt in th<. :\IaeI)onal.l ranp. area hefore the Larnmi.Ie 
or PO.S -Lannnn. fauhin,^ dropped the larpe masses of the lin,est„ne into lateral 
ontaet the A lorn.ntion of the MaeDonald ranj^e. If ,his he pranted. 
U loHow- that little er„s,o„ had been l,v erosio,, i„ this lafit.d.: 
dm'.nK the Meso.o,,.. The .Me-o.oie ...-osion-eyele .-onM not have verv -^re.t 
sifrnitiean-';' m the refrion. ' ^ 

IMuri.iti^' to th.. main thrme. we may note tliat Willis-. ,.viden.v< f„r the 
m.d-l.rtiary pene|.Ianation are: («) the truncation of the crumpled Cretaceous- 
■) t he presence ot accordant levels amons the summits, of the Calton-Mac- 
1 onad mountain (.rnip.„inf. the first point, it is not made certain 
tiiat the truncation ot the Cretaceous was observed out<i,Ie the area which mav 
leasonablv be suppo.s,., ,„ have been overrhldcn by the overthrust block of th; 
Front ranges. his tir „st, as shown at Chief mountain very clearlv, has not 
only cnnnplcl the Cn-taccons beds but has sheared then, otf sharply at the 
plane ,4 the Lewis thrust. In >.m,e measure the observed truncation elsewhere 
lua.y ,.. attribute! to thi. <-onstructional pro.-ess. for there is dear evi<lence 
that the on.uinal east,.rn edffc of th.. ovcrthrust block lay several miles to the 
eastuanl of the exi^tiuH- frontal escarpments of the Lewis and Clarke ranges 
Ul course, erosion has modifi-d the Mirfaee of scission thus exposed by the 
retreat ot the esc-arpnicnts, Ux\ its cfr,.et must iTere hav, 1.. ,„ 
vastly inferior to that which was demanded on the hard qnartzites and siHcJous 
(lolonutcs ,,| I he I^nvis series. 

Tlie arguinent from ihe accordance of summit levels eann. t, in the writer'^ 
opinion, be safely applied in any om- of the four ranges now ir discussion 
In no one of them is tlie... any notable remnant plateau which can fairlv be 
sani to prove jr.ncral l,:,s,.l:.vellin^' in a l.nncr . ro>i„„ .v,-!,.. T].. wril,a' In- 
aln-ady published the grounds of his protest against using llie accordance of 
peaks and ridges as an evidence of two erosion cycles; a full abstract of that 
publication will bo given at the close of this chapter, to which the reader mav 
turn. In brief, the point is ni..dc that sub-e<iuality of heights is to be expert.',! 
froni the early stage in tlie history of every alpine mountain range 

J he evidenc..s again-t the liypoflicsis of a mid-Tcrtlary peneplain on tlie 
J^ rent ranges seem i„ oc powerful. First, the time allowe.l is not sufficient for 
peneplanation or e\cn past-mature .level.,pment. followe.i by uplift and mature 
• lisseetion in a .-("cond c.vclo. .Ml post-Cr.naccous time has not been enough 
to destroy the large moua.lnocks on the we!l-establisli,.d Cretaceous peneplain 
ot the Appala. hians, though their rocks are not sensibly stronger than tliose 
ot tlie ran.t;.-s „f ,h,, ( •..r.lill.ra. Jn nmst of the A).pala.-hian belt a verv 
.argo perreatagc ..t all Tertiary time has sufficed to .lo no mure than for:'. 
mature or submatur,. t..i„.grapliy thmugh tlie disse-tion of the generally well 
.■l.vat,.,l ( retaceous i.,mi,. plain. Vet the eliniatie and other erosion eou.'liti,,.,. 



"!•'■ II"' ii"» vrn .liftVrrni. ;,i„| |,r,,l,.,|,|v I, ,, , . ^ 

'"■0 ni.H.ntiiin-rluii.,. tl,rw,..i„,Mf ,)„.' T, J ""'" '"■' ''"^"'•'■'i'- '" '1" 

■^•ii.;vo tiuu tho,....,,n,„.,iK j(:„ ;? :p;,, ';. — "-■'■'-•••. i-i ... 

>'inth Parnllel J,.v,. I,..,.,, i„.,,..„|.,u .,1 ,, ■'"' '■•""■"" ^" "'" '•''■'••^• 

Mn,.o ,he ,w .,,■ ,h.. i.:,n,':,;;:';;;;;:,i '" ^'^ '"^"^'■•'■'•^ ''^ "■' ^""--1,1- 

H. '^:^tnf;:TL"S;;;.;;T;;;'r•:;7,;H" '- -r -^"- ^-"• 
;::"?\;n;::-'::,. '::r'r ' '^'^'•:• -•■■-■' '•:^■''.;;;^^■sr.£^ 

tliat of the mi,!.ll,. Apn.-.i.rhi.,',!-' 'Ji''''"' "7"'"' ' "1"""' "'"' ''''- •-H'liti,.,. 

'*'-■.. time enoiipl, f,,r 1um,1.w,J,.,x' ,.' i . T'"" "' '"" ' "''■' *'"■••" 1'^- 

into the sou h..,t. r,„. ..ven ,::;::,, if '7:; ;;; -•-7.l'>- -i-in. h.-k 

iiiiiiiv Piirt3 of the Ao.v.l, I- I ' ■-" ■'■'!"■ Ill urMijKiiri' i- fl„. r I- in 

-..-.•. '>iou.i/S.,^r ; ;■ :N."r,:,:;vr'' '•■•'■ "" ''■-"' ■" "■■ -^-■"^'^ 

'■-^- ..I- II:,. Cni^".,., , ' ' ' ' '" ''''-''' ^'■"^''"■^- Tn "'o Front 

-Ill ' that thi. well re<. „./,.,l .-nt, .; , •""■" "■''"-■ " ""•^' '"■ 

•I'o Front ranges. "'"' ''^ " >«"1-Tprtiar>- [".neplain in 

Finally, the one-evd,. livnoth(.M. wl„„. i i 

^lef<,rn.ation (the Larann.l,., and o e en. ^ "vfl "^ Tr '"'■'"' ""'^'^'J*' "'' 
'■"le, are po.tuh.te.l, seen,. ..on, uTen, tcTH, I '''"''"*' "" "'' '''""'''"••^■ 

-lie .^po.itc hypothec. ,,;..„.,.,, , I,:';;;,!; : X;': - -'■'-"'■'■■ - 

>t- '- ".o soft ro..,<r:f ;i. ' i::rnX: ;:;:f •7'^- — ^' --'-p-i 1.0,.- 

provinces l.u^ hrea ..j,; .il,. .., • , , ■ '•"'-•-■ '>"' ' i'' ~i t 1,,,!!, 

--"-- Til the >!:;..; .,1 '-'x::' . ^j;..:;;:-7 ^""' r---^^ i^-n. fron. the 

volume; outsi-ie the n,o„n,.,;„ ' •""^ '^'v. ln.h ;.,.a,li,.,„s hut small 

volume, h s..n.. u..ZTul ■'::T, "'"I ""/""♦^ '""' '""'^'' ^^^a'er 
tl..-..u.h lateral -orraslon le o , ',' °" Z*"' "'^""^ "'^^'^' •^»--''--^ ^voul,]. 

In the motu.tnin. the th ■,. 1 '' '' '"^P'^-f ' ■■^"Hi'-o with relative rapi.litv 

like .ho.e of th! l!;;.; '':,:•': tw """' ''?"'^'" ""■'' " ^'"-^-^ from roeks 

it is unlikely that the ,„.n.->,l ,';„ / . Hon- >• 'Avii,-.. \\ .Ih^V arf-'r-nent that 
«ot adjoin a n,.le J ' , ^'^l';;;' ;" •'"' f-<™^ of the plains should 

^=een.. to be a verv do„h 1 ' --'"f '/'f /onten.poraneous development 

relation i. seen in Ihe e 'th ! l^J.^^X'"''' '''"' ^''^ P^'-'^- --'- 

the Ter.iary lowhmd of \ew Yor , I o ! ^'^"''•', ^■^•'«'-P""'nt overlookinp 

- --look, the l°t,t: , ' / " ;'7i:.,"'""'f ^- »''^^'"^'<iil e^earr!^ 

terranes on each side of the Tonn r "'■-'" ;'^'"-.^- h'lI t:- cry.,alli,:,. 

the fonneeticut valley dominate the penoplained 


iiKi'MtTMrsT (ir Tin: isrriiKnt 

2 GEORGE V„ A. 1912 
Tria.,if sandstone of that vull.-y. In those Appalachian rasos w,. -•annot douht 
that the np,,.T lacots arf of duto. 'ho lower p..n,.plains of re'lativoly 
late lert.ary date; that is. tl,o,v have u .'ontrast of af;o. and one whid. is 
s;«n,t,cantl,y like that suukosI.mI 1,v th- writer for the flat erosion-surfaee of the 
<.reat I'luins and the adjaeent hlo.'ks of ,he Front rantroa. Furthermore the 
eastern slope of each Front run^-e is Ket.erally u retreatinp e^cari.nient and. r., noted, the retreat is to be measured by mihs, perhaps bv manv miles 
in some places. The structure of the repion, with soft un.h-rlvin;; hard' at the 
i-ewis thrust, necessardy involves a steep retreatin;; mountain-front so lonp 
aa the thrust-plane remains above baM.level. The case is apain nnaloRovis to 
the Catskill or Niagara escarpment except that in those cases the erosional 
imderminni- is .•ontn.lled ly he.ldiiic and imt by a flat plane of ovrlhru-t. 

Apain, the dissection of the Front laiiKc blocks is just of the order of 
magnitude expected fr,)m the analo«y of litholoRi-'aliy somewhat similar Appa- 
lachian terranes. whi,-h have been maturely dissected in a well date.! enwion 
cycle occuiiyinf; the larger part (.f Tertiary time. 

Sine.- the character of the draiiiace is apparently that t.. !.c exjieclcd ..n the 
one cycle hypothesis for tlie repion, it seems that all the essential topo>rrnphic 
loalures are explaine.l by that hypothesis. The writer believes that no proved 
structural relation m the bed-rocks needs (be two-e.ycle hvimthesis for its 
explanation. In eoii.liisiun. therefore, he woidd state his belief that the Front 
ranges, as well as the -«;alton-MacI)onal.l proup, were uplifted in the one of the Laramide erogenic revolulicn and have umbTpone steadv erosion 
ever since, this erosion reaching maturity ami no later stage. It is possible 
that a liori/oiital thrust has deformed, the unconsnlhlated Miocene clays of the 
Ihithead trou-h. but ih.Te is no clear evidence that this niovem,.nt aflecte,! the 
great blo<'ks to east i;ud west in any es.seiitial way. 

_ The argument has been dwelt ujion imt only because the pbvsicgr.iphic 
history i, also the geological hist.>ry of the Rocky ^^lountains proper, but also 
because a similar history- may be credited to the broa.l Piircell mountain system, 
to ti;e brict discu.-sion ef which we may turn. 

I'lirrrU ('„m,mnn.l /A>/>7.— The ivlirf -f i',,. I*;,,-,.,.]] -y<tem is indi Mtcd Lv 
the el.nations of the local haselevcls as compared -vith the highest summits. 
The Kooten.iy river at (iat.nvay is abmit 2,300 feet above sea. and at Porthili, 
about l.rr.i) re..t above sea. The highest ppidi in the Boundary belt between the 
two ci-ossinps of the river is map|ied as '.TA^ feet in height. 

This br..a<l, compound hoi-^t is througlmut e„mpnsod of cvceedinglr strong 
rocks, chiefly quartzites, though the thick sills of gabbro are perhaps somewhat 
stronger than tlie .|uarl/,ites, and the Purcell I.ava is ccrtainlv stromrer than 
the associated metarciliites. The lava makes strong scarps on the limbs of the 
oroad syncline of the Jli^Cillivray ran-., and forms a strong ridge on the eastern 
limb ol the aiiti<dinal fold .iust where the stratified series plunge? under the 
surface depo-^its of tlie Kocky ifountain Trench. Another hint at .lifTcrential 
har.lness is found in the develo])mpnt of the steep escarpi.uent facing the Afoyie 
•^'.IN. :'n(l it is ,H,.sil,!ethat thes pn,-. of the McKini cliff is partlvduc to the 




01 1 

the uniformity of th;;;:;;";;; 'z:zi"' 't °' ""■ ^"''- -^^ ^ -'•■• '-^ever. 

of relief whchor in pro e o ^ LI :''^." ';:''■ -"^ "^""'- """/^ ""■ -«'" 
mountain .ysfon, a,.,to c ' ,'•" '■""°"'' ♦"-^'■<^f"'-^ thi. 

of tl.e -nuci/more lH:,erlc. Vein roc f 7 '"• ^'■'"'* '"'■'"'-'"^ "'•• """"'o^-' 

<l.u.rtziu.8. "«-"-' leou- rocK.s e,,n,vnlent „, nge to tl,o I'ur.ell syston, 

The structun. is e-sontially tlu.t of a of,,,,,, ,,, \, ,..„. 

the Larami.le revo utkm I i« "',,,' '"f "'"'' ' '"f*'-^ '''' ^'^^-^"'''1 ♦" 
are reprcente, "n t "' . - '^ ""''"''■' *''"* ""^ ""«'""' fault-scarp. 

form of the constructional surface of tt. ^ } " ^ <l.-ovonnfr tho 

difficult to describe the T-ai of nrnV ^^''''t ^^nrnpound hor.t makes it 

-osion-cycle; bu, 1 e de^ ee of re IkriLZT;."*:''. ''^ *,'^ '"^""' '^"^ "^ ^h^ 
plateaus or other plr. siotrauh c ' "i^ ' ^ '""*"'"'•' '''"''""^^^'^ 

structed. \Vith the ouSt on • : 7 '^' '"^""■' ^"™ ^"^ f>« 'econ- 
oro.ion, li,e that i! Z'S:r"raiS.":r'maT,:re"'^'-^ ""'^'^"•^- '^^'^ "^ *"'^ 

uvo 'Iit:::;^^";^,^;.^;^ z^-[; ■/rt'^'"-- ^'r"-ii;-- ^'-'''- ^'>« 


valleys occurring west of the West Fori .'n v., J^"""'!"--?; *wo meridional 

.■"..-diately .eft of tC' M^vie Tilelt tt'Tl™*: :,•;; Tin''*^ ^^'7^ '''''' 
ranges these valleys seem to be ln,.„t»,I '"'^ """"'''"7 i- no. As n. the eastern 
tl'e time of fauhin-' bui cannot \ "" ,""' "' <lopression instituted at 

I'cen developed bv^bt heac'w r5 .V'w.V, 'f ''"" ''"^" ""' "' ■^"'^ '"-^^"-^ 
readily along the\ettv 1 S Tel Jt lo-'^ ,"''"'' '"'^"'"'"^•' '"^^ 
origin is, however, not probable for e rS ':^'''Z ^'"'^ %'''-^"-* 
brecciation along the faults is almost Z/i ^'"^ ^°"^' °^ possible 

i-aults in the mo^m.ain ",.te n g efali f not" "^ '""■'> """T "''"'^' '""^^ "^ *'■« 


iiy.i'MiTMi \r iir thk nrnnitit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

^o,l,mpntar> ork.s. S„W<,uont stremns of the InltPP elas. nro -triUndv rire 
throughout the montitain systoni. tririneiy rare 

Tho .Irninn^.. on the oaatorn slope of the MoOillivrflv ra.,pe has the look 

hmb ot th.. bro,..l anticline in that part of tho section. Sin.ilnrlv , ^—^r 
or>^,n H mos, p an,ihl.v attrib-.tcl to the north-flowin^ creek ' IraS hi 
north-p.telnn^ .x,s of th. .yndine just weM of the Mefiitiivrav «nm i, The 
nm.n fork of th- 'i ahk river i. loc.te.i in an antielinnl 1,.], „„,! i, m vre,"^ 
.ent a sul,se,|>ie„t stream in thi. part of its <.o..r.e ' 

liie .,l,,tM.,M nl a set ot .loni.nant c.ons...,„cnt stream, an.i that iher.. is little 
evi.lence of stream adjustment in this mountain svslem 

Kach of the three ennstituent ranges shows the nr-eorciance of summit levels 
m a very notnhle way. In no ease, however, is there any known remnant plateau 
of an ol.l. ,,pl,f,o,i peneplain. The problem of explaining the aeeoniance o 
summ; le,-els ,s tho same as in the Gulton range and. in ^aet. throughout the 
majority of the ranges crossed by the Forty-ninth Parallel, we have the same 
Phenon,enon. The problem's solutio., in terms of one erosion-eyele ha already 
been partly indicated and will be discussed more fully on later pages. 

Sdson nan„r Mnnorll,,,. -Tl:,. ,„• ,),, Solki.k. at the Fortv-uinth 

5^lf f /'ifTn'f "", ^°"°^i"« fi?'"-<'^- The local baselevels are the Kooteaav 
river fat Porth.ll) with an altitude above .sea of about 1.750 feet ■ and the 

elevations generally well under 7.800 feet, with Mt. Kipple (7,flSl feet) as the 
highest m the Boundary belt. ' 

Again the <iuality of the topography is that of ' mature ' dissection in a 
s rongly mountain-built region. The structure is chiefly that of a huge rnono 
cline of conformable strata, steeply upturned, with the exposure of a krge area 
of Its foun, nt.on._ the Prie-t Uiver t.rraue. Th- !„ .d „u,.„v,.riu. 7hZl 
batholiths of granitic rock adds an element new to our plivsio^rraphic section 
but hcneeforth to be considered at intervals all the nay to the Pacific C 
eenerally very high d,ps together with the great thickness of tho mono, '.e 
nilJ "'0;'ntuipafon of deeded .lifferenccs of strength in the different 
members; .nil ot these may contrast in 'hardness' with the batholithic rocks 
and with the Pnost I iver terrane which is itself heterogeneous. Field work 
just.hes this view. All the rocks are strong in absolute measure, but there is 

tm.t'ion ""'; "T'"'""' '^='^?^'^"^'^^ "f ^^'''"Sth »"'ong the many rock- 
^rmnfon,. .\mon? the more resistant members are the Ripple quartzite the 
Uo^t gnt. and the Ba.yonne granodiorite. The weaker rocks inclu.le the Fend 
D Oreille schists, the Irene . onglomerate, and the many .ones of metargillite 
in the Summit scries. ^""". 

The bold and fretted ridges and peaks of the range afford the finest 
.scenery to be found in the Pound.ary .^.Ption 1 etween the Clarice ran-^o and the 
Jl,.zomeen range. The explanation of its impressiveness lies partly in the 

in riiiii III I in i im / , 


I I.I. \ I, Ml /,' 



I. lit 

I 'lie 


I nil, 



structure of the rock, and tl,c natu,.. „, -ho 

""■ -"|-'i-'<-'i"M thnt it limy ,,|„, 1 ,„i,ti..,„.| ,. ,, 

..rog.^uc uplift in ,l.i« ,,..r, of the. tr......(„r.lilleran M, 

one S;::;::r's:;:^:ti:[-^-i,-:^^;-r; ■-;•'« 'r-- 

Summit. Monk, l.o.t ,,,,.1 s|,.,.„ ,.,,,ol-. ,1 '"'',"'■• ' '""'■'"'■.v. ('or... 

'.0 attribu... to .r..a„::'w,!;;;^;,i;S;.' ;:j;:7;r";; '■;'' --.— "-^ 

I'ppor Priost river, rtow .<, ^, ,;, ^ :;;,''" 7;;''''>- -».'.' n'^.o.l iln.iun^,.. 

terrano. may represent h short .M:bseMue,it valL T I • V" '"" '' 

!.s not oa..iIy explicable but miv be tem' I ]tl . P"" '•"''\'^' "' ''"• Salm.i, 
^v the break of .lore al breiMcrnoo, ,■''.' r' T ''"""^' •'""•^'■'i"-' 
Mountain. The .u erpo.e,! dn ' .^ '^ ^ ";:,;f I'^^T >"'r "^ ""-- 
Biiyonno batliolith is (,•„>„- n,„ „. 1 '•'^■'.'"■'-' "•'■'n'l'iit' lb.- extoiiHu. 

^odin,entarycovern,n"T. ■'''!'"■■'';''•" '"' "'" '""■-' I"""' "" ■>- 

M-rios of rocks ■ -tr'i.pcl of the overlyin;; .'^•itiiinii 

The evidcm.for more thai o" i ,,','::;;;''' ,^7'" "•'''^"^•^*"'"■ 

Laramie upturning is prnctieallv ,.ii rl i , Iw 7, ' ^'f '"'"■'' "" f"^**; 

erosive vork repiescutcd in ti.e' a.., al .li e cn^f /"' r T'"'"* "^ 

"oud .>ieem that all Tpfti-,rv tJ, , ' ''^ monoclinal mass, it 

orosiou-cycie caL^i li di:- .,:::;:/'!;:.!r':,-:" •"°^': "-- -«=-•■' ^or .he o„e 

Bu,niinulon-Rn^.s;„n,l \lo,inl'i„ ,,•■„., 
deformed volcanic- rocks and of batiiolithi 
tieutel a^ n phy..iiosrapliic uuif. It, J,,,..,] 

"i.i. the .-nui,,;ti' -u?,,?' i,^,srSji^:lr^ ':r '•^^■' ^'-'••'"i- 

>n plnoe., considerable depo.itlou o, a drif e eer T 1 ice n\""T'" ""' 
done lutle to affect ,be pre-filaciai, l..o-n,n,ur;;":;acJ " 'th" .'ri^^K:!"' 
The .summits are reh.tivel.v low here not onlv beo.,,-^ ,1 1 , """'^'-'"'', 

-'-.•h.n^ n,ore rapidl.v than it, ,i.o n Ire V t. v r" ■■ b t' ;% "" ""n'" 
-.,.. the rocVs of ,hc Kos-,.,„, ,n.,,.., ...,„. J ,^::[\:,X l^^UVtHl 

' maturity. 

•/''''•'■*, li'-M "f ivhitivcl.s .,1.1, 

luiru-ivis may i„. convenientlv 

i!-elcvcl i< tlie Columbia at aboiii 


of the Xelson r,uige at least 

The drainage history i.s hirjoly 
ment of the stream., sncg.-sts. however. ,„u „v, 
ot .he thick Rossland volcr,nic pile conTrollod it 

J.'i!- v.:|. iii— 4n.;( 

i.|-le:'i;>iic,-„l,l,.. 'iLe reneral arranpc- 

tne hypothesis that the oripinal form 

in jome mea=urc, though con- 




III I- u: I \n \i i,r riii: iMruiitu 

2 GEORGE V , A I9I2 

n.u,t Imv. al,o k..... .lo>elo,>...! Too lit.)., i, known a. to ,ho ....l-rock struc- 
ture iM I,., rKion t„ Kue crtun .■Iu,» on the.- .nn-sfion.. Western Sheen 
creek an,l the ( hr,.s,,na lake v.lle, are appnrcntl.v lo-.t-l on mori.lion,,! fault', 

ZrrtTulTTl '''"'^^^\"''f "'^ f""" I'l-no,. The western two-tlunl. of 

he ImthulHh.e n„..s ,w .-...Mparr,! with il;e ,„„nlr.vr.„.k.. Thnt k in thi. n^.i„n 
the .lra,nn«o unee e.i,stin« on the bnth..lithi,- eov.r ha. been Ineallv replaced 
bv -Iramat- wl„e , ... oentr.fui::.! fro-n the batlH.lith beeauso erosion In,, lowereJ 
the -ofter ,0(..s all about, huch streams are not e..nse,p,Pnt on the initial relief 
01 u.„hthic eover but are e„„M.Muent on the intrusion of the balholith, a, 
«eli as .ub»e,,uent to the besinnin;, of the ero3i„n eyelo „fTe<tinK the cover, 
lo n.,i.eate the eon,p„s„,. ehnr.eter of ,hi. kin.l „f ,lra>„a.'e tiu- «rit,r ha. 
propose,! he aaject.vo. • -ubeo.s.,,uent.-> The Coryell area .Kk-. not furnish a 

/„ *■•"• '';'•'■ '.'"^.^"j '■'■''"'■"' "'""'"■• '" ""■ "•'-■ '""< i' '" «"" -i<H''ult 

to prove for them; yet there can be little douU that the batholithie 
>.;enite .. hanler the -UUu ,u.\ vol,.un,es r.,Mn,l aKout, Tl,e ,.o,rs,. of the 
< oluuibiarncr at the Forty-ninth Parallel is an open problen.. Tt i. locnllv 
.operpose,! on ,l,e rra:l .r Ii,„i,e 1„„ ahuo.t nothing is k,„.un which »Jhe. a 

eta. e,l notion a. to the origin of the valley in the batholithie roof 

An.oiig the n.any physir-^raphle detail, of the^e mountains onlv one will 
be here .Men„o,.e.l-the well ...ow,. .y,te.n of terrace, of the Columbia vallev. 
. MH pie a., tho-e jtruNel benches a.e in appearance, their complete history cannot 
ye be wr.tten. Much fiel,. work ne.,1. to be .lone on each side of the Boundary 
and for hundre, . of n„k.s „,, „„,1 down the river, before the fact.. , suffioientlv 
accumulated, l-or the pn'sent the writer will attempt to do .,o more than 
1 I", rate the mo.t conspicuous terrace of and Rrnvel where it occur, at 
t!ie lioiin.lai-y lifie ( i'lai.' T.!, rii;iire ,\ i, 

Chn.tina Ran,,<- ami lioundary Creek Distrirt.-Vioin Chri.stina lake to the 
Kettle river valley at Jlidway, the relief and other physiographic feature, are 
n.ue 1 l,ke those of the n.ountains, and apain the systematic portraval 
ol these features, founde.I on genesis, has so far provc.l largely impracticable 
he writer ha. made comparatively little personal study of this region in the 
.0 1. Ihc facts of rehof are a ready well expressed for an unusual distance on 
.oth sides of the Boundary line. The ditticult topography of the Boundary 
( reek uistric has b-en contoured with great fidelity hv W. II. Bovd of the 
« ■ (...o oLMeal Snrvey. this map servi.-.g as the ha^i. for Brock's geologi- 
cal map of the di.trict.f On the Tr,.ited States side wo have the likewise 
ex.'clent .hoe!,, of the Tiepuhlic and Oso.voos o.uadiangles of the T^nite,! States 
•.clog.eal Survey (liiOt). The topographic materials are. therefore, in hand for 
^_^^^'Geol0K.T of Ascutuey Mountain. Vermont. Bull. U.S. a«,l. Survey. No. 209, 190.3. 
t i'ubiicution No. 828 of ths surv-y, VM:,. 

/.'/ rill,' I III I in: i mi i 


I W/,o\«il//,/.' 


uii timKui.ll.v tli.iriiUKli ir.alin,. 


''"'•'" ,^'"':^">- 'l'*"-'t i« a .n>„.,i,i„„al pron-,„-n 

rnnfre was ro.MpleM.v rvvero,| |,v ll». ,c,-c,,, of tL C • **V '"^'"" 

S.0 h el::.";;' :''^ r"^ ;": ""•' ■'■'^^ ■■-« '"-- > -"v 

,rio.i! '■ "'"" ""*■"■""■ "'^"l""-"" t" tl'n ,i.u-„ of ,!„> .;l„.;,,i 

the problem is essentiallv as .liffioult ' ' "''"" 

^ t ™':Er:*— ^ - -I- -^ - "- ";i "-;=;; 

• Se.. |{. W. Brock, Ann. Rep. Oeol. Survey „f CanaHa. V„l. 15. 19(t'. „. 93A. 


^JA\;L A71 



hifun Ml \ I ,,i nit: i\ ikkidH 

2 GEORGE V . A. I'M; 
•tro.m 1... I„vn .-omp,.!!...! to ,■,. i„t.. th.- thick ,n;.p, .,f w,h|,..,1 ,U.,ritu. 
.fflu..n o th,. Kc tk. rner. ,;... Su,v ,„r JJakcr, cnvk. I,.,v,. ..n,r,.n..l,...l ,h,.,„. 
Tr , rl r "','''■" ''7"^"" , •^" '^ •" '■- "^■•'■'"•"'' •-■ "-"- -l"!-'l 

ar. iii.l, nior.- *tn,i;irl,v ,l,.uv. .,,..,■ ,I,,.„ t;,,,^. ,.f it. ,„vn i,riii,.-l,r. 

-\.'> .-,«I.,mI -,r,.:.„.<- Ih.. ,„.„.,.. ,„a,v b. ....i.kl.v uP.l,.r,t.,„ I fm,,, „ m,,,!-. 
o !>.,„. ,.,„,, r. .... ,1,.. .,„.,- ,. 1„ ,|,i. pl„,.. |,.t i, .„,Fi,,. ,„ ,,v ,!,.„ ta.. 

.ief.n,!,,,^ r„.k.,,Hr. «-|,i-h ,1, ^r.^^\n^ ,i,.,,.l, ......n.I ,•',.•.. ..r^.am 

ni.'oi,,r,.r,s ,,t ,m..rv..k „, i, ,,o,„nn,t,. tl,.. loo-i- ,>,„.. .rial „f tl,.. l«t, ■( ;i„..,l 

rluvuti .n riie ,ni„bir the i.,..,,n,|ori,^y of tl„. stream; the wi,|,h ■■.• 

til.',- |.f!( ,. tla.rcii.v liiiiitt.i ^,.1,! (.' 

-ii'e Irotii il 

tro.Vfxl a- tin* ri'siilt »i iniicli u. 

ti'iii> has yi't ullowoil, 

S,..eM! r„... ,„• ,r ,u„.i ,..,! , „„,„,,„, ,,„„^,; , ,.,,^,^^ _^,^^ 

Il: ' [ioii.„l,ir.v I e!t. Oti.. of tlw*,. is illunnii. .1 L, !'] ,tc .iS 

I., tl.i, r.vion f..r tho first tin-e uv ti„,l tw., „oe li„08. n» Rms.o,.)! an.i u-hor 

.i ..i.Kl.! |.n,„ar,l.v. lb,. fore«t ,. horo, fb,..rrf,>rr, .ii.fril ulcl n„tv „„ i„„.,.,„...!iat;, 

lu ,w a tuu.ln- o! inoM of tl,e „un.i,tai„., howovor. the Inwr tre.-llnn onlv 

u generally v,-,l.l. u> the .Mi,i...,v ,ii,,..i,... Th. h.-i^ht of this Ii„. i. .I'l, 

.ore vnriahh. than oven the norma! upper tr,e-Iin,>. The exposure of the slop- 

rer, r. , ■ ";' t"'' '■^^"^.'"■■"•"'h ->'l yet other e.uM.tio,., ,„„.st ohviou iv 
alleet the position ot thin tree-line at anv loealit.v 

InUnor l'l„t.„.u<.^-'nu. Anar-hi.. obi-u.'o.nlaiM 

'• fi.erebv Iwiiitt.l „.„i ti.i hiyh-Lvih- *aiM, an I ^ravl, ,,r, 

rnvr. altaok until tb-_nH,..b touRher r„ek-^piir* have l-wn >'.,:- 

V proi,.ML'eil lai..ral .-o-rasion than po-t-(rlari i' 


'igh its Kenoral -iurfa. 

plateau luorit- 


<■ s!iou.-= .liffereiees of elevation of ai much as 

name ultii 

l.WO feet. As a .listinot unit u,th a ,-uhninatinfr point of noarlV5..V ■I'Vm" ft 
.,.>n,N ^.,v,. th.. ()k.,;,„^.„. .:,'l..y wnirl, j. „l.o:,t 0:!0 feet nhove sea at the 
e.]... of O.s.,voo. b,ke. I ra.t„-alb- the whole of ,1„. plateau is eompo.ed of ^reativ 
crump,e,i 1 a!, oo,o „o.hmenl8 and !nterb,..|,b..l pree„.tone«, except wliere these 
rocks are replaoe,] by a part of the Osoyoos batholitl,. 

A.'io-. ,1„. h,k,.. an.i -..: .'r;,t l,.-,.. ;„ ,l,i,„b, :, ,,,„ Knnrer-ni .untVu 

P« eau. eompo.e.l ot the sam. Pal..o.oir roeks together with various bodies' o 
puton,.. ,n ru.,.ve. „.prH«e,l „- date all tho wa.v fron, the late .Tur tssi!^^ o ,hl 
oZm,u iXf"' "'' "'" ^'"'"^<^'"-" -P^'r«'-« "'« Pl'"eau from the 

the ''^?,!"''-r/'"'u"''' '''''''■"? ^"''- ""■'■'■ '^ '"' '^•«^'"' '" "'i"k tl'«' f-itl'er of 
tht.. n,a,,.f. ba- b^en eo-ere.l bv se-lime,,.. other than huM-wa.h an.! Cla-ia! 

•W, M. I)„V!?, An.prican -I. urn;,i ,.f .Si-n. r. V(,l M. 1002 ,, " 


VW M'~'-' ~ 

l« *#■ 

"!■ lii !•■ 'ili;. 

"Jd& a'WCClt^'.^i 

i;i:i;,in nr riii: riin:i \sii,;.\,n!i:i! 



drift, since the upturning of the Infe Juris I,. Tl,.,. • 

explanation of the plateau form of the iru,Jf^ V ■ , . " "^''"O"^ 

was at the same perio.l only sliirhtl.v lower than at present «nH ihZ 11 

to the belt are not credited with affecti.ig the inteiitv ,^i ,! 1 '" "?"" 
We may (|uote further:— 



i>i:i'ARryf:\T of the isrr.ition 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

'In the later Plioceno a vt-r.v niaikc.l rei^lovation of the Pordillerun 

region evdently occurred, leading to the renewed activity of river eosion 

the cutting out of deep valleys and canyons, and the shaping of the surface' 

to a form much like that held by it at the present day. This e eva on in 

mmu°rr°?'' ''"'rt"f "1 ^"■"' ""'' ^'^ '""'•^ <'«t«"''J «c<^o"»ts in the govern- 
ZL "^ fl .? *'",^'" ''i*^ ''"■*° *^'^"'^ *•"»» tJ^^ accordance of levels amo"' 
the mar.v flat-toppe.i massifs of the bolt cannot be directlv connected winH; 
Eocene peneplanat.on The same fact is at once apparent f rl r hs "• i „ 

hnJr "f!'-""*^ ^'V^'^"^ '^'^'' °^ '^^ ^""'"'"^'•^ Geological Sunev I, 
those maps i >s seen that a very largo proportion of these tvpical areas of the 

^ .. .nd,>r].„n .y tl.e „r .,Mt.. h,.ri;:oMt:d, .vne u-lenni!-! ," , ' 

flafrfe ;f ,/*,,"" f ''J.'' "^ '" '""^'"'■'' "'^ 'i^e that explninins the 
flatne,. of the Colmnbu, of the Fnite.l States. Daw.con's ma„s and 
reports show that the E.,ce„e eroded surface mus, now, over lar^e are s 'be/ r 

LtlletT, i t P T '''■'' ''"^" ■•'''''' '''' *'"' <ienuda.ion-,wface trun " 
ng the ina»Mc and Paleo/o.c terranes of the belt is more than 6,000 feet ,■. .e 

in ih ' T) '^r''"''- ■'""■^■'•^' ^"^'"''^ '^' ^-'^'^ 'l"»t the pres;nt acTorl.uco 
in the .evels of the many plateaus in the belt is to be explained bv preTio cene 
baseleyelhng. J here are, however, plenty of local areas in the beUas at 

-o llat as iairb to be called peneplains or extremely old mountains. For the 
enormous denu.latiou there represented we have pre-Eo..ene tin.e at our , 
posal in making explanation. 

„,,/!/2"V''T[i '^'?^°''' *''■;"■ «™'^'i«-lly «P«»l<ing. we cannot call this 
part ot the ( ord, lera, between the Coast range and the Cnlun.bia mo nt in 


^=d zx i^?x=r i-s:' r hS^;i"^;7thLrnnS 

states geologies sliould, however, be considered in the light o the act, a 
topography of the Okanagan, Hozomeen, and Skagit ranges The fur her 
di^HHs.on ot tin. matter of Ter.iar.v peneplanotion will, therefore, i'e ;,:,",,. 

Bomid:; tl ""'"^ ^ '^"' ^'"'^ '' ''' '■^"^'^'"'"^ -»^- ---'• b; the 
3,«00 .bo>. ,.». The, „,e.m. om,„j the ,»11,,„ ,l*h „^,i,,Iy d,,,";, 

*0, M. Dawson, ibid. 

p. 90. 



REi'OKT OF Tin: ciny.F asii!,,\,,mki! 



the range on the cast and west si.lpa Ti... v,;,i ... 

The diversity of the relief ia, however all '„.rn«. ,l ^ , 

It i3 in the Selkirk runee on the eM^ r i' u ' "'''^''' ^"'' ''^^^ ">^'" 

on the west. Large . of 1 e L- ' "o«"'Hvt, and SKadt ran..v. 

-trongly rolling, wiH. fre,Jent d 'me i'"f" T "'"' '" ^'"■*' P'"'''"'-'"-. 
M.rface !y l.Ou,', f,,>, .,rSotaTlv^ooV ?''"«'? ^""■I-"""'"^' ♦'•<- Son..:-.,l 

;jser^ in the iieidhoth view! ..: ;na::;tl^^::e;^^'A;:J:;'*^;,.,,S,,:!:• 
he Okanagan range .s ecnposed of ...eeedingly strong, graniti.- , , ' ho i 

ion, tne lew sinnll. schistose roof-pon<lanta represent the onlv '.oft' rn,-I - 
>n the range as sampled in the Bon.ulary helt. On the other hmd ?) Tr 
•neen range ,s heterogeneous in eon.po^ition ; sedi, ^t, r ehu "i 1 k''"" 

bang a spontaneous and neeesTaTS'^^ftoSn i th'atl^t.^ 'tZ 




2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

hTJr^''\\ "'^"^••'''"«t/°" "'^"'' '" ''''^^'"'•'^•'•' i^ ''^eluded by the second 
hypothesKs. Messrs. S.nuh and Calki,,.. who ,„ade a reconnafs.ance urvev 
of the range ■„ connection the work of the International Boundary Com 
m . .on. have pre errc.i the first of the... two hypotho-c. while the present 
^nter u pracfca ly forced to favour the second. To avoid repetition th. 
liscuss.„n of the altenuUive will b. pos.poncl until the two western ranKes'hiv^ 
been con.s.dere.1, tor Snuth and Calkins have extended the two-cycio hvpotheZ 
to the entire Cascade systen. and it will be well briefly to review he facts 
before entering further into the iield of iheor.v. 
with'^tlT'" Z^ ?•';•"?■ "''"o^l'''y■■*i"f-"•"l•hi'• subjects of interest in ,„nneetion 

To daJ^'io^'l . '"";"-"r "' ""■ ^'"'"■^'■'"" '•""«'■• Tl.e Iand-forn,s due 

to g^at.ation have been bnelly treated in the last chapter. Certain physio- 
graphic procmes unusually well illustrated in this range will be considered K- 
In lowing Kenera discussion of the erosion-cycles represented in the Cordillera. 
As reguns the drainajio it may here simply be said tliat.inthis range, it is 
nearly al superposed throui-d, the roofs of batholiths. On a previous png^ it 
was noted that the Pasayten v«lley may be locally of subsequent nature, but 
there is doubt even ot that one en^e. while elsewhere I- the Boundary belt, 
there is practically no hint of adjustment. This feature. .:: . terrane so wonder- 
fully homogeneous m rock-strength, is, of course, no argument against the 
two-cycle hypothesis. It is mentioned here, specially to show that the evidence 
as to Uie causes of the present stream-courses is extremely small. Beyond 
recognizing the tact of superposition through the batholithie cover, we can 
get almost no hint, within the Boundary belt, of this drainage history. 

Ilozomee,, Ra,r<,c.-T\u' main part of thi< ranpe i< c.:,u;.osed of th,. .^reat 
monocline of Cretaceous sediments, west of which is the narrow horst of the 
Hozomeen ridge. The local baselevels are found at the Pasayten with altitude 
of abou 3.1 00 feet above sea and the Skagit at about 1,700 feet above the same 
datum level. The higher summits like Castle Peak at 8,340 feet, and Mt 
Hozomeen at S,020 feet above sealevel, are simply the culminating points on 
unusually ugh. steep-sided ridges. The canyons of this maturely dissected 
mountain-block range in depth from 2,000 feet to 3,500 feet or more Glacial 
erosion has done something to sharpen the topography which locally bears true 
alpine liorns, but the general cross-sections of the canyons are for the most 
part rather typical of water-stream and waste-stream erosion. 

A glance at the geological map shows the fact, already recorded in earlier 
pages, that Lightning creek and the Skagit river locally follow the outcrops 
o. master-faults. Ihe same is true of the main fork of Chuchuwanten creek, 
and the parallel valleys immediately to the eastward seem to be located on 
another strike-fault. A few short, lonc-itudinal branch- vallevs draining into 
J.ightning creek have the look of adjusted streams which have followed specially 
weak zones in the upturned Pas.iyten argillites. Most of the valleys in the 
boundary belt are. liowever, transverse to the strike of the stratified formations 
ihese valleys seem to represent the somewhat diminished successors of the 
consequent streams which originally draineil the wide monocline and the 



i;i.i'i,in- (,F rut: vuiF.r astiiusomki: q^^ 


8uper,m=e,i rclalion/ A7.!!-iV l'^'^''rp.lKl,; Castle creok locally into 

snrro,u,din.. l" vill be rr7''''^^>'"T" '' ^ P'«"'i'-al!.v oortain that the 

Near tt; Sn^ll L , i -'r V '"''"'■'' "^ co.nparativoly recent date, 
cultv r-' nvl^ .K^ ^ '■'"'P*'"' *> -^"Pgestion is offcrcl as to the diffi- 

deal in .ore „, fashion with the Casela:-;;:;;]!;!-: ^^ t^^^' 

gf..T,ON OK A Ge..«,„, T.HTUHV PkXKPM.X ,K TtlK C.SC.UK J[„rVTMVS. 

In the year 1900 Kussell published an iceoimt nf , . ... 

northern Washington, in which 'he an.tonn ed The coLlusion h^^Th "r"' f 


i>h.i-.\in\ii:\T III riir: imkuior 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
height of abnut 7,50(J fei't. If (he pivsciK valloys couM ho \\\V'.\ to the 
level of the orpsts of the intervening ridges, the now exoossivelv niggp.l 
niomitiiin range would be trnnifornic<l into a broad plateau, fhc striu-ture 
of the ro(.-ks composing this plateau would find littlo, if any, expression in 
the surfr.ce topography. Jinny of the stratified beds would expose their 
edges iiiul reveal the fact that they are tlie truncated bases of folds, and 
in ninny instances would ^tand vortiral. In other words, if we acccfit 
the • peneplain iiiea," us elaborated by Duvis and others, the surface of the 
pluleau would he a plain such as is produced by bise-level erosion. Briefly 
slated, the Cascade mountains as we now know (hem seem to have l)een 
carved from an upraised peneplain. I'his plain wo term the Cascndo 
peneplain, and the plateau may be conveniently designated the Cascade 

■'''-'."- ■" ''"' ^vne.'ui lev,.) ,,r thf Ca,,..,,!,. I'laleau tli, re uiv (-■■ 

classes ol p.aks. First, volcanic mountains, of which (ilacier Peak (near 
the 4^th I'arallel of latitude) is the only known representative in the 

region considiM-fd in this paper; and, see 1, Kraiiitie mountains, sui-li in 

till- W.tiael.c Mi.unM.iius nnd the lofty peaks about Lake Chelan. T:,,- 
\^lcanie mountains stand on the Cascade Plateau and were formerl after 
the p«^riod of base-leveling referred to above, and need not claim further 
attention at this time. Some of the granite peaks have nn elevation of 
over !i,()00 feet, and hence rise some I'.i (X) leet aliove the general level of 
the tasca.le Plateau. These are the iMouutnins whi-h. in my opiui.ui. eeuld 
not have beCn in existence as toi)ogn,phir elevations at the time the main 
drainage lines were established. 

' Possibly the gmnitio mountains referied to are of the nature of 
monadnocks or remnants left standing on the Cascade peneplain. If tliis 
IS true, the river courses which cross them may bo explained as an inheri- 
tance fmm an earlier time of erosion which precr-dcl the general base- 
level in;;. 

It may also he suggested in this same L-niiiiection that the Casi'mie 
peneplain was developed above the present general summit elevation of the 
large majority of peaks and ridges now remnining, and has been lowered 
by erosion, leaving the more resistant r-icks in the boldest relief. Under 
this supposition the Cascade Plateau would now have a general surface 
level of abo\:t 10,000 feet, having been raised from near sea level. In 
fa' our of this hypothesis it is to be note.l that the peaks and ridges of the 
Cascade mountains are nearly all sharp. No recognizable flat-topped 
remnants of the original plateau remain in the more elevated portion of 
the region under review. As soon as a region has been so deeply dissected 
h> streams that the ridges are sl'.arp-crested, any further erosion wilj tend 
to a general lowering of their summits, and for a time they will continue 
to maintain this knife-edge characteristic. For this reason the Cascade 
Plateau, since being sculptured into a plexus-of sharp-crested ridges, may 
have sutfered a general diminution in height, owing to the wasting away 

Rf.i'onr or rut: rinii \.^ri.i,\ij3n:ii 



ltS^:j:.^:l5 -:;^-); ;;;:j-'r :.~'i^ -t : -i 

T',, „ •, ■. .UMiii. th,. tr,.,„ni| lev,-: ,,t th,. Civ,-;,.!,. 

i, , : ' '"f."' ^"'''''' '■..rrcspou.l., approximatolv. will, tlm timber 

I .; a. , C.rm.ned bv exHting climatic co.ulitio,,.. A, w^.tl-orinri. moL 

posiH::"!:^ i,^ ;lr th?:::- r::f "' ^^ ^^^ r^""";'- ^^ - 

how that the H.rface of the Cascade Platea,, was f ormorl^ liJ,. 1 , ," 

.a, •;^;;l;:.,sr i::;sr:-hu: J'v^^^ -r:x .r „!!:; 

upheavals su.ce the Cascade peneplain was raised into n platen, and , ,b 
e,ue„t ,„ the .n.t.ation of the present n a.ter drai„a,e^i u- Tilt i' 
f we assume that the granitic core, of the tnonntain, have bee,, p" 1 'h 

about .,..00 fee. all ol the observed facts bearing on the .,„e-t^ „ „, d. ■ 
d.s<.u.s,on fall ,„ line and find a explanation.' 

on.. ^Xf!!^l "T '"'.'r"^ -^ ™"''^" *'■" '"'*" ''J-IX'thesis as the mor,. p.- ble 
h!' proce::;:.'"""" '" "■'"■"■^ ^^•''''•'' ^-^ -'<--'e<l.ed not to be .-onVinci.;: 

structure, «-as reduced by erosion to a condition^: •or/.,,dT" 

= Z' s^^£^r-^.r-i£ ~' V -^ 

■novements in the rocks which as a pa of their i '/"^ ''^^'^ ll"^ 
certain of the ^ area.s abo;e':he%^nlne; "o^ U^"' L T """' 
fact ,Jat%oh:d° et Tf"' °' '"''"''*'"" '^ ^'"'^" appro^", l". h, 

ituSt ttst t e"lac\:ri:f™;r'r^^ r^''' '^°"'' "°"«•""■•" 

Tertiar. tin.e, probabl. Ixtttin'j •nr^.r^VSren:' "^'^"'"" '"" '"''' 
After the time of long-continued erosion referred to alK)ve when th« 
Cascade region in northern Washington was reduced to „ !> , ■ ^ 

came a time of elevation, when the pen Jp it ' ,1" r"''""''- *''"'-' 
it, was bodil^v raised some 7,500 feet at leaT'and thusL'"^" ^"^V"" "^ 
In a broad view of the regi;n this CatirP,:?!;''!.'' ^cl^id'I^^X 


nhi'MtTMiAr or Tin: imekiok 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Reasoning on this basii, Kusseil conclude* that most of the larger streams of 
the Ca8ca<le«. like the Skagit, Mcthow. Ciiplan, Yajsimn, etc, aro i.f coii:Jr.,iiciii 
origin. ' Their eovirsea were determine.l, in the main at least, by the surface 
slopes of the Cascade peneplain.'* 

Two years before Russell hpp-an his reconnai^i-an^e, Willis had come to very 
similar conception* of the later geological history of the Cascades. Thc^c 
views were Htrcnptheiicd duriiiir several visits to the field between IfiW an'i 
1000. inclusive. In colli.boration with O. 0. Smith, Willis published 'Contri- 
butions to the Geology of Washington.' in which the hypothesis of late Tertiary 
peneplanafion was considerably amplified. + ,\gain somewhat lilicral q\u)tnti..ti- 
will be made, as thi* paper, like RufspH's bears directly on the gcnlntry and 
physiography of the Forty-ninth Parallel in the Cascade system:— 

'AmoT-g tbo MTvL^es ren.lcred tlio writer [Willis] by George Oli" 
Smith was that of well maintained seepticisin in regard to recognition of 
an ancient plain over the Cascades. He asked for demonstration, wliicb 
was difficult, since the suggestions of panoramic views failed to convince, 
but during his field work of 1900 he himself supplied the evidence of an 
oil! base-level plain on the hills of Yakima valley, as stated in the first part 
of this paper.' 

After giving an analysis of the topography in a large, typical area of the 
Cascades, Willis writes: — 

' Enough has been said in the descriptions to indicate that several 
stages of topographic development have been recognized. They are clearly 
evident in such a profile as No. 1. PI. XIX.. from the Entiat mountains 
across Columbia canyon to Badger mountain. Beginning with the highest, 
the peaks i.S.TOO to 5,800 feet) and the flat adjacent to them are considered 
to be representatives of the oldest stage of whi"h definite evidence remains. 
They are correlated with Badger mountain, the Waterville plateau, surfaces 
in the Chelan and possibly the Mcthow mountains, and the level from 
which the high Cascades are sculptured. This oldest stage is therefore 
that of the Cascade plateau, as named by Russell, but now called the 
Methow stage. It is also identified by O. O. Smith. The characteristic 
topographic t.vpe of the Methow stage was a plain, upon which residual 
hills survived. Following Davis, it may he .lesignated a peneplain, with 

' Within this plain were carved valleys which appear to have attained 
nearly mattiro development. That of the Columbia in profil,. Xo. 1. PI, 
XIX., appears to have boon 2.^^00 or 2,500 feet deep and seven or eij,'lit 
miles wide. The smaller stieams certainly developed shallower and narrower 
valleys, but remnants of the Methow plain west of the Columbia were few 
and limilod. On account of its preservation in the Imsin of the Entiat, 
this stage Is named from that river. The characteristic topographic form 

• t. C. IJux^-pH, Twentieth Antiual Report, U. S. GcoIoRical Survey, Part 2 

t I). Wiili^. I'inf. T'.-pcr Vo. 1!). T".S. <noI. .«iirvcy, pp. (S ■.u^■^ L.'i-TO. 



Hf.PouT or rin: nin.r A.;i,;mn,iif 



of tlic Kiitiiit stiijre is ni'itnro ii 

residual, of .ho Me ! ^ 1. ^ b' T' ) *'"" '" t''^" *"^''''' '^'""■>on.\ 
'Within ,he reliefofUo E "it Hill H '" "^ '"'" ^♦"««'- 

ravines. They constitute the most n Xl T '""'''-^ monntain 

aoteriatio feature, of tl^ to,™, v P .."' "':'''''^^^'''^ "'" "">«' ..-har- 

var,ou. decrees better than the TwiJj' whi .'i 1 ■' I"'"' /^'^^'^ <* '" 

Methow to iu source in th« fn.. „il r '" '*' J'^x^-'^'n with the 

few hun,lre.i to 4.0(>Vf'^^e ;„ , "S^J''" '"/ '•""•-" "';" --ies from a 
graph!,, „,l„s «he,.t This I U „ i '" *'"" "" "'" ^''"'""- ''^f">- 


On the evidence of fossil nlnnts fmn, .1, l-ii i , '" «^<^^"e'° time, 
plain in the Vakima d . il , ^A :\,^^''V\"'^^"'" ""' ^'"'''O'' 

by ^i. O. Smith and the ,■;/!/ T'""'""' "'' f'-H.v presented 
range is discussed i^y tt^wi,^ of the feature throu;,hout the Cascade 

appears reasonably to oceuDv most of .L P ' , ""''"•'" '"^'I'";? 

of the next stage ;,eaMVXoTthlth'"''^ ""' " '^"'"'^ "^ ''"'*' 
ine following tabulation expre-'sps ihn n,^-.',' n 

correlation for the several stage, il"";;^!;:,;^!-"""""'''^ '^^''"""'^ "' 
rnrsioGRAP.iK- r>nK,.orMKNT of ti.k cnscAn.: RAvr;^. 

Hhynio- i 

era|>hic ' Tv|.f |,,.;,litv Xaturi' .pf cliai- I >•'»(.•, if ,in.. |) if t« 

»tag-f. 'ut.Ti>iic activ'tv. ii"int.rii.|,t,.,| Tum-.- (;|..„ I', ri „i 

'■lami .-l-c).. ,.,,«.|„. """ 


... . "f tiicl'..liinil i.i. 

I ■> l>. .MetlK.H ati,m<.i,„,r.->~ion 

'•■■■t'»' !a>in,f,h,.Kmi.„.:l...v,.l„|.,„.,., „ f ,■,-, UU-i.l 
j liiatiiip f-tj-(.^'ra 
I I'll.V K'nclall'. 
tlMulinliiiUt tl,', 

^^.t.,,,...-..„..,,,v. ,,,.p,l:-^ 

' in tl„. I.r,ia<l si.,11 to .-i ),,« 
iii-' ,li,^ I.Iain with „„„,- 
■"<^'- a,i„...i<-. 

1 1.. l;.-ci„t. 

' '■l."N,l |'!,.i,t.„,.,;,. 


Karli.r ':h„,,,l I'li,,,. ^ 

'■I""-*' IM.iM... 

■•■IK' I.Sil-l- 

1 in An. ■.; 
IV.-<i!ucial. I'li.K.. 



i>f:i'\HT\iK\t i>y THt: i\rt:moit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

The for<>Koiiitt table, though soniewhit abri<lired, i« fuller than it need b« 
to show Willie's cciiii-i'pliiiii of till- <>vciit-< which are of iiriportiinrn in the |)r<>-eiit 
connection. It will he observed thut ihe relatively ihort period of time repre- 
•ented in the I'iiocene and I'leistooene combined, i« crovded with events to a 
degree seldom if ever matched in a modem geologicat study of • complex 
niuuntain system. No definite Htiiti'inent is given a t.i the strength of the 
initial relief which wan hrouglit low in the Metnow penoplnnotion, hut the 
implication from the paper is thht the relief nt tho middle or later part of the 
Pliocene was considerable. Further, we may believe that Willis shari* the view 
stated hy Smith in ilw! companion paper of the same volume, which reads as 
follows : — 

'The evidence of the re-iuciion of n large area of folded Tertiary 
rocks to form the Cascade (Methiw stage) lowlan<l appears conclusive, 
ihe date of tho development of this lowliind is fairly wull determined, 
since folds involving late Miocene strata are truncHte<l, while on the other 
hand the 8ub»c<|uent history of a large part of tho region has Loen so event- 
ful that the production of the lowland surface could not reasonably have 
been later than Pliocene. Previous to this Pliocene reduction, erosion does 
not appear to have ever proiluecd anything like a peneplain in the northern 
Cascades, as far as its history has been determined. In view of the eventful 
characler of the whole of the Tertiary, it is plain tliat the period of reduc- 
tion to buse-Ievel can not be considered as including any large part of 
Tertiary time, as hus been suggested by Russell. Uplifts or subsi^lenoes of 
the fixtent that are known to have occurred during Eocene and Miocene 
time in this area must be considered as inaugurating new topographic 
cycles. Furthermore, tlie land surface that was flooded by the basalt flo'vs 
at the beginning of the Miocene possessed considerable relief. This pre- 
Mioccne toi»ography has been preserved in a lurge mensure from later 
erosion by the basalt, and where the capping is partially eroded away and 
stream canyons are t down into the underlying formations the contact 
shows very conclus- tho character of the old surface. Such a locality 

is the valley of T( ,m creek, where it is at once seen that the prebasalt 
surface was such to deserve to he termed rugged topography. It seems 
necessary, then-fori-, to re-trict the iM^riod of the development of the Cascade 
lowland to the Pliocene.'* 

Both Willis frid Smith agree that the deformation of the Pliocene pene- 
plain was n)t a sin-pie uparching but a mor» complex uplift of the Cascade 
range through the assoeiation of local upwarps and downwarps. In the down- 
warps mw river courses were est;iblislied, which are typified by those of the 
Methow, Wenatchee, upsx-r Skagit, and the Pasayien rivers. These and other 
streams are thus supposed to be consequent on the late Pliocene warping of the 
peneplain developed in earlier Pliocene time. The lower course of the Skagit 
where it crosses the Skagit range, and the lower course of the Fraser where it 

•O. 0. Smith, Prof. Paoer. No. 19, U.S. Oeol.. Survey. 1908. p. 


I: I /•! 

'/ /,// 

II I I t X / 

•i\ii\ll l; 


Tosses 111.. C, 

tlf to 

'111.. ( 



'St riiiijf,. ,,(• ririti-h (' 

\\\>- \' 

iff '.f tllM ( 

nrrn.iM, nr- nMMi.l,.,-,.,! I,y Siuit 

i'"W Iliat flnMc' 



||imfiifi.iti. fr. 

■t (lie I 


IfiT Kv 

iiiitliors arc it, -ubstiiiiti 

Ml i; 

■ f 


1 ^i'' miti'- 


r.'fers iniich f.f tli, 

:-it..rv *.. fur 

'• lit litM.' 

mm! Siiiitli 



locciip, uhjl,. il,,. ,,||,,.r I 

work of ,|..v..|oi.i„tf fh.- (• 

I t!„,i K 


fliiiraitori/iil t 

iiiitlifir-< I'oti-iii 

''" [■■•M'l'ia.M l..«l.,n,| to the 

u.towst for the pi 
iiiiporhini-p, if in,.', i'.,r lis fill ,1 

10 rev nil lit tlio 

T that a truly m 



1"i' tl 


'Ivdninii' nn 

<)p<'niiiff ,,f tlip !Mi 


lin'H tnpo- 

f llii-< skilfully pr..<ont..,| 

'■•^fi''.^ if. 

I tl 

'imti' tli,,r.ri...i| 

fi I'lit tlio prc'-piit 


11 Pi'oIll'.'Hl 

lkV|'..tli.'«i* ! 


writor M iiiipcll,.,] to 

I'll' riioiint;iii, ivifriii. 
In til., (ir-t phicc, fli,. 

li'.'H;r'...|ii,.|it ujtli tiii^ livn,,!),, 

LIS (rrnit 
'^^ tifit tlip 
slo'f.-h fli.> 

-ft .. (■.- 

OUT tllf. ( 

Ilk. M 

UM-atii's lit iiiiv I 

• I'iciicis for t'l. 

on. triiniMt 

line m tlip lii^i 

tcr iiioiintniii folih 
tir-it Prosion-cy 


•f inVU hn. 

i^tnry u\ tlio sy^ti^'ii 

no p'-iitivi 

■II' Till p. n.'i.I.iiii 
sci-iii .■Ntrpiiiilv 

f.. \ 

rp .•iTp.fiinlly tnin,.ntP.l wlieii 

iniiwtan..,. ,„ th,. proMr 


)p i.\pp.t(.,| 

IK' MIITC" llr'curilall 

CP ri 


"ill lo ,||, 

;it nintiirity of 

'iinniit I(.vp1s 

maturity is rpai-h...! 

ili--.'f|i..:i 1,1 

iini.'iDf the ppnk- 

'II in II 
stri'iiiii a. 



'pp'lini.' -!•■ ti,,|i , f tl 

pin.' .•,.,,1 


nioiintaino:,. n „io,r;vi;i;:h7 ;'"^? .' "^^' '■?"'^''""' ""■^' *"" •^^'"■'•"^'1 '•■ 

-•^w>or.,pio,e,i/T:,r ,,,;■: :v;;r*''"" ""■""':"• '" "">■ -^ •'- "'- 

-".'1.V in nn,l „oar ti o Ca c l. , ^ ,"• "^ ',' ^""." "^ "^"'>- ""■-'■ --son.' 

f7:^z:: S.'{™; :r :;- -,^f--^^'^<^..^ 

l.ra.ticalb- fail-f:,i| a-,^ ni , , W • ''^""'"''^ "' ''''"^'^■"•' I-'-l'laiuui,,,, 

rsT =;;r;:;,., -™ ■ r :: SJ = - =", ■;.£ -- - 


'iirtrc mill D 
lin;: ' (iv.T 1 


iirjri- iiMi-fy 

"II of the wIk.Io raiifro. T 

prove th, 

"I nri.l iiio, i!,ii,i-!„,|,|. 

l'"<Ml.i!ity of •I..v,.|ii 

lio rpppiit stii.lipj of 

t the bolt east of the present hish V. 


I iiid 

wind-erosion fo 

ijili Casfailes 

'K "ithoiif 1, 

I'Tc I- ri'a-'.in i, 

111 an 


r n coinpara.iv.'ly lor,j t 

iriil ili>trii't 

newly I 

liavo hrf.,1 dry and siibj 
li tui.e. I'nder the control of 


<"i r.,ll;-fn|,|s 

Wo, I 




:il suff, 

,^,,-G. a Sn,ifh .,„. n. W,„i,, op.Ht., „„., «.0. S,,„ H,,,, 035, U.S. C^i Surv,.v 




i>t:i'\RrMf.sT Of lilt: isrt.moR 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

»p«'<-,ii||.v ia|ii.i iiilHik.* Or. Bjfiuri, it \» <\\\iic (oiifoivulilo that a l.i.-al Plioceno 
Irwlanil of ilfMiH'latinti wii§ prmiticej in this bolt of weak folilinir iindor moro 
norniul cliiimti.- oi(iiiliti<iii-i. It \n a« e«*,v to credit siioh an rxplaiiation for 
thoae fi'w trunrutinl, iiliilpiiu-liko fol<l« in the Imnalf as it i:* •lit?i<'ult to orodit 
a K<'ncrn| iM.Mu'i)hinati()n of tin- wlmlf Caio'udo iynteni and its lutpr mature 
di»*offi(iii- ail within tho liniif-, of tiie nioi'«>nft. 

VVilli^i atil Smith hoth sh.nv that rcnitiantg of tlip Methnw peneplain are 
extrenii'l.v ran' an<l ulwavs verj- sinall within the main rascado ranffo wht»re 
tiinv hflvi- .xomincHl it. Thi'y -pfak mI 'broad crests' on a fuw .summits which 
are taken '.i bo residual*. Tlio pn nt writer believes that practically all of 
'hesi' eaa be explained as either in ■ic-o organic relation to structural plane* 
like the liat roofa of batholiths, or tlmt they ejin Ih- explained by the t>riiieiple 
<"' .ie treodine, as dotailn<l in a followinjr \y.\K' It may be note)l that nearly 
uf Willia's profile aecti. ni which .sootM to (five »iich u striking idea of a 
'linhdevel plateau are drawn JoniritiidiiPiily throujrh the ridfres. Traii*\>rse 
ctions would more clearly illustrnte the generally deep dissection of the -iime 
gion. The longitudinal profile .Iocs show gympathy with the profile of the 
canyoncuttinK stream nlongsMe the ridKc, it cannot f itself prove two erosion- 
pyclea. A get of transvenw- profiles woiiiii proro th<- general ali-eneo of iiifh- 
levcl features wlueli can with any certainty be laased aa remnants of the old 
.■supposed peneplain. In oilier words, these ' uter profile* would not show 
' topoRr^iphic shoulders,' to use anotlier of Da' is's expressive terms to indicate 
the l.reak in slufie ii!>. hIvciI in iin.\ ueli iwo-cyclo lopojrraphio systems ,i- tinit 
here postulated by Willis, Smith, and I\!i««oll. 

The inoBC convincing iniiuinent ajniin*t the hypothe^^ as stated by the two 
first mentioned authors, who ascribe the Methow ppnetdanatiori and the Entiat 
mature dissection entirely to the Pliocene, has already been sriven in principle 
in connection with Willis's hyjiothesis of £ late Tertiary petieplanation of the 
Front ranges. If the extremely tough rocks of the Cascade range have been 
ha^.tlevelleil sinep th. .\fiocene, shoidd \m not expect the well deteniiine*! 
Cretaoe<^iug peneplain of the Appalachian chain to have been destroyed since 
the early (or at least middle) Tertiary upwarping f that peneplain '. Or 
should we not expect all local and even regional monadnocks like the sngnr- 
loaf i-e-iduals of New England or like the White Mountains ma»sif of New 
Hampshire tn been long since destro.vetl ? No reason is apparent why 
the Cordillernn elimat.. has ever favoured eros in in .'nch colossal degree more 
than erosion lias been favourt*! by th'' Appalachian > .imate. In raan,v things 
the American West claims to be raor^_> speedy and powerful than the Kast. Imt 
such difference in the power t>f erosion n.s this cannni be conceded. And it is 
also true that the staple rocks of -iif Ca^-ades ar< sensibly a- resistant to the 
weather as those in the ea.«'.'m highlands. It is true that in ihe states from 
Maryland to Alabaiiui wide belts of the Appalachian ct \in have been peneplaincl 
in the Tertiary, but there ihe conditions were much metre favourable to complete 
reduction than they were in the v ordillera at the close of the Laramide revolu- 

:Cf. \V. At. Davis, Journal of Q«oIopT, Vo! iS. 1905 p. *<" 


HH'oin ../ /,,, run t i. 

/ u'lSuiln; 


f-nepliiiii in th« 

• ii'ruM\ l>>A.4 ili'in 

We iiiii«t l)ptii>v« 



lion Luring tho Koc..,a. d..lo,m..tio« of ,Ik. < reta.eou. 
•..luhi.rn Ar.imlB.l.iaii», tlio uplift -ni ..• t! ,. ,. /" 

up the »i<le slop<n, of tho,e .lownwarps .'^ i «n«,,r|.. 

.p J::ji-t:r"!:;:ll;z«;i:;;,:,'r;™-;;:: l,-.;;r* •'"■ 

ver,- .l..,>„ d,^a.v fl„,i pr„,Iy ut ,|,.. ,Ao.e of fh^ ( >• .«....o.h" .'^i^le were 
throuKhout the wl,„l,. of ,h.. pi.., „ " 5 ' > '.iL' ' ''•"•"'"''I 

On necnunt of the nn.oh greater an.oiint o- nplif, i: ,he -v ■ ,..„, 
no- .T0.1„ « ..nul„r exph.nati,,,. f,„. Tertiary I.Ja..,AUuJI::^^Z:,L'"' 
Moreover, IIay« an,] r.n.pbell have .Mn,.l„.le.l that the prin,ipal -pwar,,- 

^iri^rr . r^:-i„s.':: :i;a;ts= ::;ctM[;'^- 

;j^ne time ha, i ..,.n ■,.„_-,.<) ;„ the exeavatio,, „f „arrnw . .1 . vs i; h V 
Ter.:nvy penepia.n, AIl„o.t-Fne,.,.,. hn, heen v-rv far fn.n I i ., , 

e tit TiHi'T '""'■■■" "' '^'- •^"'•^^'-'"- "Plif'. initially lou- r. :■ v. , 
t'er the mi(1-Ter'i,iTv ,,«-irp. 

. „J" """''r'n'V*''""^":- "" '""'' '"'''• "''^' ""- Appalachian chain ^ive. ,„ 
« measure .f all Tertn^- time in tern... „f ero.ion. nn,! thnt. hv this ,r„„^ar 
n .ee,n« .mpos.hle to :„■ ept the v^ew ,f Smith .nd Willis \.s o Plioeeo 
peneplannt.on followed bv the later Pliooene mnt„re dissection of ,}Jc,ZZ 

r, S6.^' ^ ""'"• ""^ ^ ^ fampboll. National Geographic M»ga£ine. Vol, «. 1894. 
tW. M DaTi?, Bull. Qpol. S„c 

-" —v..!. iii--.4n 

.America, V„l. 2. U9\. p 578. 


ini'MtTMiM III riir i\n Him; 

2 GEORGE V,. A. 1912 

Tho pri'S.-iit wiii,.r,.v,.s tliiit tli,. ,;„. ,>„.Iusi,>i, „vut 1„. ,lr;uvn nftor 

an altontiv.. comiuri-on oi il,o Cms,.,-,,!,' tn,.„n:n,,,l,y with .l..-,T|h,.,| i„ t!i.. 
Khiinath iiiouiiliniH of Onv.m ;in.| .lortlicrii ( 'alilViriiin. Kiil,.,- .l,...TiU>.s 'i 
peacplmi, there lorally .l.-vol,,,,..,! ,,„ ti.e ■vhitiv-ly w.mU n.-k. ..f ,1„. „,,tiirno.'l 
Slia3ta-( Inc) series m the inun,-.|iate virinity of the se,, ,„■ „l th,. S lerainento 

river has h.n^- heeii near >eah.v, 1. Ii i> |„,..-iMe. a. l»i ■ 1,„1,1.. that 

tins proveil iienephiiii ,,n.v exl.^n.h'.l over Ww liard..,- n.rk, ,,f ilio ran^e as well 
n-- over the Si,.rra .\,hi, althon^-h I,iii,I.-ren >liou, tliat the Si, .,-,•,, was „„t a 
peMeplaiii at the opening' of tho Aiinfia-nus Cravol peiio.l. We may .piote 
J hiier- siiiiiniary: - 

'The ero-ion ,i,T,.-.-ar> U. .lovlop the l,a-e!e\,.: : , ,•„ .pl;Mi, In th,. 
sense meant iri tl:r pn-ont .vport | out o!' th,. t .|i,.-,-aphv r.-ullin^ lr,.n, 
the uplitt at th.- elose of the Slia:*ta-Chi.-o ivrio,! must have oeeupie.l a Ions 
interval ,)t time. p,,s.sihly beillnninfi i-. the hiter part of the ( -retaeeoiis and 
continiimtr thr,.u-h th,. Koivne an,l earlhT portion of tlie Mi,.,'ene, l)iit aa 
tlie phiin appears to have attaiiicl its inaximiim extent (hiring the Mioeene 
It may he p'rcrrcl to as t!i,' Mi,.,-, in- l,a- 'i' v, '.'' 

llnis. in a Conlilleran roi;i,)n whieli pr,>hahly nn.K'i-wvnt erosion at ah,)iit 
as fast a rate as tliat ehara.'terizinir Tertiary erosi,,n at the Forl.v-i.intli 
r|irallel, we liave a Mioeoii,. p,.noplaiii still preserve,! on ro.'ks (rretae<.oiis i 

wlu,.h are iniieh weaker than the stai^h- i ks of the Caseades. All tia' more 

ren.lily eaii we .■x.-lu,!,. the po-sil,ility ,,f a \\A\ i),.rfeete,l l>li,>,.ene iMeplain 
in tlie i.ortherii runj;e. 

1 h,- fore;;oiii^' ar^,iiiaiit appli,- al-,.. tvilh iiiMrly ^il ir- t'.. !■.•,•. a'iaiist the 
hvpothesis of l{iLss,.ll that th,. (■a,ea,i,.s i.,.i„.plain,.,l i„ post-K,.,.ene time 
trom a eoiidition ,.f slnm- mountain, ,ii> reliif in the hit,. |.:,„.eno peri,„l. It 
il'ic- not seem neies-ary to re-tat,, th,' arf.'nm,'nt lor this ea-i.. 

As an alt,.rnative liypolli,.>i>. ih,.n.|,,r,.. the pr,-,nt writ,r olTers the view 
tli:,: all post-I.araiiiie tim.- has h,-(.ri o,.,iipie.l in th,. pr,i(liieti,in of njature 
"t,.n.tain topoffrai.hy in th,. (■as,.a(h..^. I'h,. initial stai;,. is taken to be that of 
the new relief left as a r,.sii!t of the l>araini,h. or,,. revolution. Ixieal. 
.!!,:. -ever,' ,li'l'oi'Mi;'; i..ii- h:\,'. ai ;, |,.',, inhTva!- -in,-,, i ,-p,.,i ,11 , ni ih,' lal,' 
.Mi,.<.eiie). ,'onipli('.i(e,l tla' hi-lory of th,' raiifre which was h,.isle,l ep in that 
revolution. There is, further, koo,1 n^ason l,. think tluit n.'ar the beKiniiiug of 
the l'li,H.ene there was .-.uiue. rather f;'<.neral uplift ,,f th(. sy>|,>ni. atill further 
a.hii'ii; to tlie task of proilu,-iiig tli.' ,h>,.p ,.au,v,ins ami wider valhys of these 
mountains. Sneh erustal inoV(.ments have lorme.i episo,|,'s in a sin^h- j.eriod of 
erosion in a distriet wliii.h has always |i,.,.n mountainous sin,-" the l.aramiiie 
revolution. Before the later, i.r,,hahl,v I'lioeene, massive uplitt t,. wliieli nian.v 
of the iic.ep, narrow eaiiy,)ns ar,' ,hii.. the relief may have ai,pi'..ximate,l late 
maturity of form ,.r locally even ol,l ajie -a m.mtitain tors., !,in,lseape— but 
tru,- I'i'iieplanath.ii ,.ii a hirRc scale within Tertiary ,im,. i- ,'\|.r,s -iy exclu,h.,l 
by this alternative hypollu'sis. !.ar;;<. -ea!,. pen,.planatl.,n ,.f la-'Lie parts of the 

•.I. .<:. l),l!,r, IKIi .\iiii. Iti'ii. I'S. (mmI ..s„|v,.y, P.iit -J, ls;i|. p. fjii. 



'■l.r.H.'l nl nil. < nil I !>//,■,, \,,i// /,• ,j3j 


f"v«- .1.,; „. ,.iJ: ,i!;:,:j' : n, '■::/::i;::';;r:'-,. vv^"'"; •''?• ""^"• 

that till. l,v,,„.|„.Ms „f |.,t, TcTti.r- ''".:," ^""■'■•' •'""! I"^"--.-: iHit liP t,.„rs 

'■i-S -r -■■':." ;;^';i::'r,,:.;;::!""::i™. '■»■ 

»,, l:'ri:!r;r';:!,:!;;;;;;.r;";;;;;U-:';:;:i:- :''■;;■■-"'•'- ^'«''"v' ■■ 
;;K:,:;':-i::'r;„J'::v- " r"--'"- -■ ;:.:■«:'=:: ~l S 
'■■■ --'-"' ■'";";:-":.-:rJ;!;r:';^i::;;:;:--,r.-:;- 

-i,.. !,"!:'.»,!,'"i'„""';:i""'',''"''"'," '""""■•: ""- -"'•'•■" '••'■ ' ■■■ '« ■ 

.i,«.i „,,.':. ,,.,"";;"',;, ,"■'""' "'-""'• • ■' > ■- 

liinin:u-v iMin.r will li,,,v I,.. ..;,• , . ,i .•' '. '^ '''■-'■'' "' <■'« Vrc- 

11.0 Wor,i-uc...or,l.,uv-i. ,...,! a.lviso.ily. -Ivinality' „f hwph,, i. „,., 

f.r .„,t..,l ar,.., ;s,,l,..,,ual,.,v' of ,h,. sunnui,. i. a faH, l,„t ovr wi.l.r 

;',,?• "'■' ;-^' '^' ^- "^V '!'"■ "'-'■• •■'■ -^ ~i'-''- ran.,.. ,.,.„ .,,,.,.„,ali,v f / 

>" .1 lla. ac...„nlam,. ,a<os ,h,. f,.rm of s,v,n,.atl,y a,.,o„f, ,1,. poaks w „,<.. t,„- „ 

roiii()\e.l li„Hi th,. ^|.hor<,l,la ciirv.. of tli.> nartli Ti, ,r„„.^.,l .1 • ' 

:':;;^- -■';;'' ^\ •:"'^- ". hi.i.o. u:Z± ^Tnt^ v:;:^;::: 

but UMalan,! >,.,,.„,.,,,... ,-o,up]u-Mu,u. i„ ,1,.. f„nn of this imadnarv -nrfar,. 

uf":;,,:;'; '■"'"'"'• ••'••■"f"-- - '> ^>i'>---'y 'i.'pr... a,,,!.,! : 

r ( aM. „l ,1„... „..,„. v,.,.-,. ,!..,,n..,„Ms an- ofl,.„ >u~;,i,-in;,.lv ,..,i,„.i.l,,,t with 
cxistiiifr iiraiiuif.v coiir>i'<. 

TluMv i., ,!,,,,. al !,.a.t urn. or,l,.rIy clnm..,,, i„ ,h. '.hao^ • or ' tomhlin 
soa ol niouMtam. xi-ihl,. f,.,,,, a .lo„r„ali„K point 

aiiy one of a 


l;. A. li 

.'>Miii, ;i ,.f (;,...!„^.v, v.. I. in. i-m.-. 

PP, in:. !.' 


/.; /■ !/,•/ u/ \ y '(/ ////. /\ // /,■/'</.• 

2 GEORGE \ . 


n .ini.i' ••{ aliiiih- niiip-. The a nlaii'-i' oi' -raiiiuit nltituili's luls beoii notoii 

in the Alp-, in parts ol' tlio ('iincii-u-. in tlio I'yrcni/i'-. in tlio Siorra o! 
<'alifornia, in \\\>' Alaskan ranp'-, in tlio ("anailian Sclkirks nn^l Coasr ranw. 
unil in the Anicrioiin ("ascade rangi'. \Vp havn sen that Willis roL'arl- '!.•■ 
acrordanco of .summit levels in the (ii!lton-Mael)o" mountain system u? :in 
indiiMti'iii of an iiiiliftcl mid Tertiary pm. plain. A,, ilhistratioii of tlie j.h ■•i-in- 
i-i (III - -iv.-ii in I 'la'. - ."•_'. I'l'i. |''~. aii'i T^'. I '. \'\> ' - 'ii m!1i.t vaULii'- tra.. ■ -- 
the Uo'indary holt are ^ivcn in i'aiti- Jt',. J», an^ 
Tlie faet of ac-ordanee is e-tahli-hed. while tl 
very various. That tlu'y need eritieal exatninath.n 
t'or till' ^ake of the iniporlnnt faet of aeeordanee 

1 1-. 

if theories of eNidanat i^n are 
and siftinjr is clear, not onl^v 
|;-i If. lait also for the reason 

thai t!ii-e thiories in>ol\e widely di\eipinf.' views on i;reat phy-'oj-rapliie 
re.oi .iions. (ieolof;ical liislory in Ion- (duipters i- tliereby as espressiy implied 
as it w.iuld be by tlie interpretatiijii of pnrely stratiprapliie evidenees, illustrat- 
infT over and over again the truth Loth diisses of evidenee.? are required 
in buildintr up a romph'ti. history of the earth. .Not only do these theories 
involve prcinisi-s re^'ardin;.' great denu<lations., as well, a nniltitude of iletail.- 
coneerning river histoi'y and tl.e evolution of in.liviilnal mountain ma.ssifa. 
There are likewise invnKed e.irrelati\e view- of the physiograiiliie developmen* 
of the neitrhboiriug regions, both on the large sea'e and in details. Oeographie 
description an I noinenelatnre should he eontrolkd by reference to the eorreet 
theory or theorie- uf land-form origins, Fimdly. large conclusions con.'erning 
the origin of the force of mountain \iplift nnist follow in the wake of certain 
of the hypotheses already announced to exidain tb.' phenomenon of accordance 
in summit level,-. The attempt has even been m.ile to connect the origin of 
fractures and of mineral veins wi'h the 5pi>ciali/ed kind of cnistal movement 
imaL'ined for on,- e\planatl.iii ..f tlii- aee,,rdan-e,- There are tin:- abend if 
reasons for coming to a wi-e decision as t.i the be^t exi-'anation of the fact. 

The liypotheses dealing with this sympathetic attitude of alpine siimmit,s 
may be elas-itied on thi" basis of the logical explanation of an organism 
(a) IIow far is the feature in question due to inheritancf? (b) How far is it 
due to srontan'OHS di'viojiuu id in the present environment? A review of the 
hypotheses shows, everywhere and iianirally. emiiha-i- plai-cd ..n erosi.ei. but 
tile writer believes that the possibilitie- of iidieritani-e are only partially w..rked 
out, and. again, that the methods of spontaneous development are not yet 
brought into the proper balance t'or final discussion or decision on t!ie ouestum. 

I, K\l'l W Mlo\- in IMII.MI \Nei:, 

1. Among the various explanations by inheritance we have, tirst. tha 
peneplain theory, which need not further be discussed in this place. 

•2. llypolhenia of oriijinal rouijh accordance of suminit Icvrl':. Jne to isosta- 
tic ndiustmeul.' -\rA>.i\ to all of the alternative h,\potiie-e> i- tlie ii..pury as to 

* \ <■ Si'-'iver. Transpctioiif of t' .\iiipr. Institute of Mining V. 
1901. ': ''-"' 

25a— vol. iii |,. ti;i-.>. 



r* «. ^-iHB/ilk'J! 


/.•/ /''./,•/ .,/• //// ,/////. l>//;,,\,,!.; 



the on^,„:,I torn, of the rant:e at tlir poMopinnl ,„nmpnf ^y]u■u p.mxv.mal f.M- 
.nK of >N_rr..-ks w„s ,>n,..ti.nlly ,M,„pIrt...I. It i. sclf-ovi,|,.nt tlnU tl,o term 
one.nal h I>er.. „*.,1 uri.itrorily. l..,t tl.e strain o„ Innirua^-o ,nuv l,c- p.nnitto,! 
in llu,. conycn„.,„I,v na-.iinp ai„l o.i.pliasi^^inff a principal opoH, i„ tho oarlv 
nistory oi ii„. riiiijro. 

At lirst siKl.t o,>o may l,o sui-prisrd |o fln.l tin. nr,.„r,la,>oe of suin.nit lovel. 
amonff hifrh moMntains of romplox S„rpri.o shoi.M bo tompore.) 
however, by the consulerati,,,, that the orit'inal relief was tu.t even approximately 
deten.une.l by constructional profile, .ledneiblo from existing ^trnoture^ 

It IS. for example, hiirhly improbable tiiat the ' ' of a «reat 
alpine annehno through a of its ,ienu.le<l roots can represent the ori^rinal 
height or ,ts crest above sea-level. Nor is it legitin.ate to conclude from the 
Kreat shorten.n.v „f the transve,.,. axi. of the rnnffo by tho e.u.rmous tangential 
pres-uns that or,.L'e„i,. l,l,„.ks ,,f in,I,.(i„ilo heiirhl couhl hav,. b,.,.n pro.l,,,-,..!', upthrusting, folding, mashing, and igneous intrusion have often 
occurn,! on such a scale, that were it not for other and inhibiting causes, 
differential elevations perhaps forty or fifty thousand or more feet in relative 
height might have resulted. Xo geologist believes that local blocks of such 
height have entered into the .•■ n^truetion of any terrestrial range Frosjon the absolutely hIow, tbou..h relatively rapid, growth of the ran-e has 
often been appealed to as sufliruent to explain the lark of su, i, heights in even 
the youngest a^is of the world. l!ut not sufficient emphasis has been placed 
on the quite diffi-nnt control .,f isostatie adjustnient accmpanving and follow- 
ing the paroxysmal uplift of orogenic blocks. Single steep slopes of possibly 
thi.-t^v tliousand teet m.ght. iudee.l. then exist if they were underlain bv the 
strongest granite, which likewise formed the underpinning of the whole adjoi,- 
lug district, tliat granite being throughout at the temperatures of ordinary rocK- 
crushmg e.xperiments. But such towering masses are highlv improbable for 
weaker rocks winch woul.l crush down under the supposed' conditions, and 
whol y impossible lor mountain blocks overlying material as plastic as that 
which compo-es the .riginal ba.sement of an alpine range. The strength of the 
main mass ol the range is diminished by the inevitable rise of subsurface 
emperatures with crumpling and mashing. It is the rule with alpine ranges 
hat in rusions ot hot magma on a huge scale oither accompany o very soon 
lollow the chief paroxysms of folding. I„ either ease, and not only o^er the 
areas where denudation has exp. the intrusives, but also over m'ueh wider 

■ireas about the .lownwardly expa ng bases of the batholiths. the heat of the 
"itrusions still further increases ■ plasticity of the basement on which he 
mountains are growing. The weakness of tl.e underpinning is further manifest 
in the case of such ranges as the Cascades or the Coast range of British 
Cohimbia so largely formc.l of granitic ma^xma inj.vted in a fluid state durin- 
or just after the last great period of pli<'atioii in those rang.s. 

The conclijsion seems unavoidable that the tendency of tangential force to 
erect .imgciic blocks projecting muol, higher into the air than Mount Everest 
itselt Is op,.,.„tn,. only up to a certain criti.'ol point. B,-yond that p'.int the 



/■/ I'M;, Ml \ I .,/■ I in i\ 1 1 ,.!,,/. 

2 GEOn&E v., A. 1912 

'...• or ,1„ ,1, V \ : ."Ov..„u.,„ ,1,.,. ,o ,1,.. u'rMvi,ativo ,W,kt,h!.. 

.-r-M:,! ul ;.. n : n ■ '"■ '" f'-^"-',"""'^ -'-•■^"'^■1 f'-o'M .•.•..•!, cIut 1,v 

-I. 'ti-;:;:'];, £■;.:! „r:;'.;;:":v'i-'"-"r"; '■■' ""■''"■■' ■■' " 

' " I"" -'- I'U'l'i.^' t(.vv:,r.| MHiniiil l,.\,.l ,„•,•,. i-.ln 


"•"""""■-■• '■*' til- l.:„Min;.l,. iTv.ilinio. 

t.,1 ii,lii;-i, cnl. !',.l|,,v,-ii;fr tlip sever 

<ri((-t ot till' >|«<.'eiiil cro-ivc ;ilt:ick on i-),-!i rMn.r 1,1, ,.i. f,. .i 

bfiii^ t,i .1,11, tin.,. ■. 1- riM.i'_' t.|,„-K Jr., ,11 flic MioiMcnf it nni'c 

:^i'l;:^;u:::;r;;-::;:;:;-|;::::;:;;;:-;;;:^ .,„-,„„ I,us,.l„,c.ks ,1i,. „|,„,iri ..ounli „.■ ,l,c. ri.:,:.. Min-i^,' .;,.,,„ 

... u. . -.n nn.-M.. .,.,...r.l„,„.,. .Invly ,„ ,,;„•, ,..,.;,IM„. i ,. ;,.,.,„i,. „,„„„„„;; 
Ml.' i|owiicrii,liinir of iiL' an- lie u icr Mr,,.!- ■ ,v;.l, .I • i. ' . 

;;;;;!' ;-'•,'-';"■ " r ■"•■'" -- ' '!''''^"'»- -i.:;:; ";:;:r;,:s,;; 

":;i,lT,;^x^:;;;:;;-.:; S:r!':r ■;"»';;;';:,-;;:,',:;:;r™'' -'™ ■ "- 

lurt. o( her iilpi,,.- tempi,.. Xntine .leenes 

• iitri the i.Milp- \u urw (lomf.< ;iii<l iiuiiiiret^ slmll 

, - 1 ■ 1 ,. . , ^ ' "." " •. iH \\ duller i IiM Ii'in-irr-t^ .^linif 

not be in.leliintev v^.r e.l In beidit Sr..l, ■, .,. ,. I i . " '".in t^ sUnll 

„Iv,.- ,i-;il I „ ■ <■ ' ■ '.t'l-'it. -^i.'l! ."•(■'■nl.'inre MS they have .niiiorii,' them- 

^■, Ul, will |„. presiTve.l lun iii.eeiitiiale.i ■!< 1 er ,1 ; ,.]• f , ).■ i , , 

. ...■•roil, what ,„ „,i. ,„.,., ,,as h..en eall,.J , Uin.I ' To „, Vh" 

'■.".^■. I lie on. nal l„r,n meant a first apnroxiniaf ion to the r.s M ■ ,he liter 
-po,i-:,n,..,ns n,o,hM.a,i.,n ot ,|., form means a see,„el npno.i.miti,:;; to'; J;;;:;; 

•Tt, ,n,.,.,„e, iila>t,at,nK Ine o-mnlalive loree of l.uth tl.,. 1 .v,.o.i„.s,.s s„ far 

k .^^ . .tfi.jiavw ^: 




;/.' /•(,/;, ../ / /,; , III! . 


-/'••"\" ;// /.• 


o 25a 

diVous-el a, li'trn.i! ; ,, .vi,|. ,,,„i , . , 

«J|.i«o ran.,.. |i. ,h, ,„„ . |,In H V f":-'' "'•' '""-k'-m !.vp,„l„.,| , f,„ ,,„,, 

;-o.- th..„,„:.,: b..,';;r,;:r;:;:;^:::'':;:.''^'';^-'-'- !-''■•• ".'"-p 

••• .lostroy som.t'.i,,^.. „t ,h„ ;„, ,, „. V '''--■;^"i<m oi fho runu^,. t.w„U 

■'■ "ly f.,l.|,.,| r«,.p. i, r...„. , T • • "^^ "^ '"""^" 'li— '•"•"" -f tl... 

'"'"•"•'.■.I ooM, ,1,. r,.r„; „ ,,,i ■ "";t""" "; "' "■'"'"■^ ""• ••" -i-- 

"'"t ,,li,.a,i„„. a, „. „,,„ tVo nV I'l'vs,o,.r,„,lu.. .-y,.!.. i„i,;,.,,.l ,,, 

CM'-tiii^' ran;;,.. "' '"■'•'"'''"'"•'■ .wtiially ,.1,., rvo^l i„ il,n 

■i;i)\\r K, 

^•.•".np;r::;';;;;:;;:,:n;;;-7" '•" 7""- -/>-' '■■.•„,. ,.. .,..„ .,, 

>=--.--ul an,l:..„ 1,,,. -„J^: , , | , ^ 7 ''""T"' '" "'" """«>•""-■ ^-■ 

'•■"^'l^- '" (I- -a; l,u, ,|,,t .K ZylrT ^T " "'" '" ""' ''''"'' '^- "'■ 

.^«,..,, .0 i,;.;L M^nTC':;:;:; Ti?;' V''" '~ '" '"^^" 
'•a .se.. .lonn-ia,i„„ si«„ific-a„tlv lowers •. I <. Zo.l " f ' "■ ' ""'' '"""' "' 

>l>no.n„li.,^ rp"ion i., s^.l- "'"""'"• "" ^^--m.^r anv. will tend to ri.o tho 

.KO. • ''-^^ "'"^'" "'"" "'" -'"'■■• snrfacv of tla- ori,-i„a! 


w ,.,,►. :.. ■_, ,■ \V'"y '" '.L-lik,. ,on,i with hr.Ki.l. ilMftiJ _. ,.• 






/'/ /■ I/.'/ Ml \ I 1,1 I III i\ 1 1 /,•,•,,/,■ 

2 OEORGt V,. A -yz 

liiii.l, I'l ■nip.i nit i' I'll I111111..K' IHM.ii. ,..ii' <oii'icl with n !...m('wl.H» .r "l-.l. i;iirm'inii,..rt.lH>,...| r....k. 11 ,,r.- i^ t., l„, ,oi,r,.ivp,| 

u- liMvirnr ui. iipprr, 1 iiiiliritf mitUw.: uiil, tl... |-„rii, „f ,i ],„.■_;, (!„t „r.l, iM.irinc 
..,b*..liur., luw. l.roa.l, l,ov- I,',, ;.r,.|.,M un.l .1.. h The .r.Mion of tl,.- unM,.-f,imor- 

I '"'■'■■' '■■■^"" "'" '•'•' ■■■■• -I''"'- 'I'l <■■-!■« <■! >i.. .'I.- tl,.- ,n;,l- „l.l-- ..f 111, 

r..iiKo. will pr.wroHs mu.'i, m,.r.' «Iow.y. Kro>ioii im.y jhii* gwcci) nway wi-lo 
IIP, IS (.f th,. cciv^r I. 'for.' tin- jti(livi<lii,il niMUtitum- l..i«,ii .^iiv.-r. -inik ,u tin 



SMttiTcl •iit'liitirrtiit lii.s ,,|' lii.ii!lil l>v .|.ii:i.|.it;..i. h, -11,1, ,,n ,. 
iM-.„r.l:iii.'e „f stiriimif IfV.l-. wi.lil.l hrtKvforlli he >\|«.-l,..l h-inr.i^r of tli.> Mritfina: 
(Iiiltisli tops of ttiH poTi\ iin.l lucMiis.. of thf. coiMriar.iiivr lioiiiotrnicity of tlio i-oro- 
rotl,? 1-or tl:,- ,;uri ■ n-ii-oii-. ii<-c,ir.liiii.'.- .,iH,.iiir tli,. ,iimiiiiis of iMountiiiin cur 
out ..1 I ■-•!-. iiiitf iMtliolith woiiM 1(0 ••xiH.l.,l. WhiTi'. ii,,A,-\..|-. di, frrnnit.- i* 
aistiiioily 1.111,1m- tli.iii ill, :inrroui,iliiiK iiioliiiirjrplucr,, tli.-r.' wouM not bci .-imul- 
t^.m-Ois ;-c.oi,l.iti.v Witii llii. sutuiriit Icm-U ,,:' iIk^ inrLiiiiorplil.' iilouiifiiilis. .-xivpt 

for .-an..-- otliiT tliiii, til- two jii-t (Icicrilii'.l As tl oti.|-.Hito pxpiunation of 

■.tr,„nlM,ri; U further outliii.'.l. it will in- ^,-, n ihsit -i.-h other (-msis iii:iy olH-rat.. 
(•IT.rlnoly ill -oiiic .ms.-,. Yot the comtiioii, .six-ciiii .loiiiiiiaiice of Kninito p.-nlis 
iti a truly alpino r,m;,'o ayrc-es ns Well with the (■..iiipositr explaiuitioti m it ,!,„., 
with their refoivm-e to the c-lass of iiiona.lnorks on the pfiu-pl.iiii theory. 

:;. ■/'/,, i,ii!„.i,r. ,.f l„.„l ii!o. ;,il',u„ „., siiiiintil allilii,},^. -Ilith, rt-, n.i 

cietaile,! ilistini'li,>n has I lu s,:iry am .ii-,' tin- v,irii'il pluses of ero-i, i,. It 

iniiy i„,w {}>■ noto,! tha' th,- worl; of liitfli level da.-iers, if Ioii« eoi.tinue.l, 
on th.. wliolo to produce siiriiinit-levei aeoordance. In eueli >.'hieier tliere are two 
loci ,1 i:ia\iiiiiiiH .-ro-ion; otR. at the h<.n,I of thi- ^'lie-ior ul,,r,- the LT,\it 
bernselir. 111,1 separates the iee from the -,-i;d i,,.-:, ,.{ tiie heail---val!; ti..- ■ 'l..-r 
btneath the /one ol the placier itself -oiiie distiinee upstream fr,i:ii the 
foot of the (flaeier. Oiu' result, iioti worthy in the firesent eoiineetioi., is to drive 
the heaihvall of the growing' oirpio farlh.r and farther into the mountain. In 
the nature of tin- eaie, it will be the hinlier pea';s whieh nre most viu'orouslv 
Httnekod. From every side, it may be. e,.,nes the attack on the massif which 
lor any eau-e, sp-cially pioieets above tiio wneral level of the ninp-. Owinr 
to the rapidity of the iee-,Tosioti, that si,i;.mit must tend to fall and reach some 
thin;; like ao ordaiiee witii iis formerly lower, unfjlaciated or but lightly trlaciiited 

We have -Oen tliat all across the ( ordillcra the highest peaks ami ridges lonp 
suffered a|K>(-ially powerful attack, as they alone stood high enonph to wear the 

fatal 1-,-!'- ,.f l-i-ri:-.,-lir,iii.!. |l;nii-- the ii ,- iN-ri-!. tl,,-. ^-,-rc inniat,,!;- .- |.-l !, -- 
substance like nunatflks; the loftiest peaks lo-iiif- mo-t. the lower ones with le? 
liih-ar . ■^t,-llt ,,!' !.:-^-,-hi- 11, i. h.-ii,- |,i-,,i ,.rti..ii.-i!,-S 1,-.. I',-,, I,. „;,,| ri.i-.,-- i,..i 
penctratimr the eencral surface of the Cordilleraii plueier lost nothing by special 

s.-hruii,|-liii.- :,iim,-1v.' 

•Compare the vifwi, of W. ]>. Jobusoii and U. K. Uill„-il, as ,.i,i„,uii' od ia il,e 
Jour,,,,t ., (o-,.c(,w. li.H. im Tbc stM3<-ial glacial atta.-k on th.. Inchest Miiimut of 
u "»• ?.i!''"'°.r'"'",''*'.*'"'"H'' '*'''''. '^ fNvllontIv iilustraieil in th- w^-ll-k-onvn p.OH-i 
\XIU T<n;>ly-),rst An.,,,,,! «,-,,.o-(, U.S. G.'o!. Survey, Part II. Is9;t i</rto I'l'.te 



/.•/ /•'./,■/ 

nil < II 1 1 

■ n.-.\<,\,i • 

5E'. , AAl PAt'tR \o ^^, 

'• '■ ' > 1 1. nil ih.i: ■■ 
!''■ 1-^ ■111' |.,M.i.! ill , , ^ 
!"'<ll -llfrMlBii,!. I'l.M.f r . 

raiu'p of ||„. H„,.|,,V4 i„t,, 
'lliCK , ,.M.. , re. -on ( , 
ohuruflcn/,' .ii|| cirllcr jtl 



'ii 1-. 

'i"ul ., ,, , . , , 

„ , i ' ''■I"- "'* 

'-' ' "''• '•'■ "■ • .> I 1 

1 . . . ■ ' ""'' • i-iii.i; liic imr 1 |'ri>rit 

. '•■•'■"■r "'!.'' •'■'■"•• rr;.n.n a,..! P..,...,,,, J 


Ill colli 



'ri,;'';:i •::■,' ,;"; ■"'•■^'■' ■■■•'<■■' 

;;- ^^ ■^"-•■'-""i.x;,:,:,:'::;:';;'::;,;;:;;;' 

- ■■■ or 1..-. .., ll.,I,.,i,„ ,, Z'C TI ,";■'" '""'"'■ " '""■'"""•^- '''" a 

«r... .1..,,. ,1,. ,1,,,..,- i,...ii., ' ' ;. ," ••''^ '"';:■ '.- "'«->. „ 

- ■'-.1...... na.«,. „ ....:.,..d ,o .11.' ,.: ■ ni:':;r^'"' : ■""""'' ''■^•"'' 

'He-Iu.... Tl... a.:yy i» .,. ,,,,; known a .e ■ ' ••■•"^"' -''• ^ -'' ''"I-v 



' f. -i.T:!!. irliii'lul 

In -••■n.Til. I.n'ul 

i'^iit the lli«|„Mt 
IMI.' I \v Ktntff of 

io-(> i'\i,>rnivo in 
i- "I'icii riof far 
r-^ It is lo-i.-al 

■• ■■':'T"'rr -£■'?!■-?■ ■--=;•- 


' 'Jii''l 1 !i Irmii |i,,i| (■;,,., 

ii. l> 'integration of rorv.— r!,,f|, ..^ 

''•'■'-line tli.iii |„.1,,»-. , , ,| 
i' U 

w. anil oi,c. 

.'■life of iiu.onip;,.-,,h|v „„,r,. r„pi,| 

'- -I •■•n.iition f.r morr .■ffi-rfiv.. 


i' ciirniliiMsif 
■mK- in t!,,- Ho'.iihinry Uylt 

'rost attiii'k iiiiov. 

attack Uv UKfiiN i.i-.rr th,,,, ir...t t 

of ilii.-* chuii, „, ,_.|,.,..„.,eri-t'- ',■ 

•'"' ■'<• *' <■ n, i'hil,- .:j. i:' j;. ;,. ^., 

b. /Removal of roil. -iicKlr.-r -). 
inatcriul <l„wn tlu- ,,|,,|„., j., , 
more r.ipi.i i„ the lro,.l,.s3 ;,,!,„> 
'1' Tin. ,|i,.,,,., 1,,. ,„,, ,, 
0,1 waMc-reinoMiI below tr.o lit,,. i" 
zone either in tlioi!..riv,.,l form of rli'. „ 
who ha, oxporicc^il a p„o,l ,iiow,.r alio; : . 

' ';.-::'■;;;:: i:i;;:,nr:'":.:-3.,'':'- --/- ^- th. Hr. ,i„,„ booomo 

for s„e...!y transit t„ tl„. v..!l„>.. ' ... l,! """I"""'!."' A'^-Parii.^r f ..<,.,■,,.:.„ „., 

o slroaiiiinc of n->Mih(.re(l 
i. proLably sovoral linio-- 


■■' ■■• -i-i'lim..! V,.,,, 

wa-!unir the treeless 
• riianif.Mt to anyone 


moles, niariiiots, bears, omi of! 
ta! work. I'lif 

In tl 

le we-t.-rn Conliilora ficl.l 

re can be no 

tnn, o\cr hnndroils of tl 
rock in eith.>r tli.> C 

other *p,-cios ar,. na.-h year .h)i 
.'xatrfr.' in .^.lyinjf that tl 

nii'v. L'ophors. 

is of r.lati.ely litt 

', if II, ,t mil 

nf to 

np an ituinon-io (-"olofri- 

le-e biirr..wor. anmially 

>ns of «o;i or -lisintejfrateil 

u!JT" "[ •'"' '"'■.'^''■^ '^"•«"' "^ nriti.h'rohiM.b 

are protected by tree- 

"iip^r'anc.. wlicn 

ovcrho.iil. Ii 

very or tillinfr- of 



ive tree-lii 

-now funnels 
, whiTc even 



''/ /■ I/.'.' ;// \ / 

'" "'/ l\ I 1. 1! I III! 

2 GEORGE V„ A. 1912 

■ -•lii'.l iri,\u liiKli-lsin- n|i*,.rv:ilMri,., 

i'i:i.v hrliry.. Hint dust. SiMid. nil.) ti,,,. 

?!■"■ ^■•^^,t.•,| p,-,rt ..t' |1„. f„r,.<t,.,l ar.M. 

■'•.'"•■ '.'""■'■ ''■■■"l.v t„ (in.l :ui,| .«,.,.,, ,|,.w,i !,„,<,. r „,,- 

Iir llicir 

I'l' liiurr 


vl..,v 11 .,r', «^\"'':"'l> "nnini-rly ,nor,- ,m,,„! i,, il„. \n-,-\.« y„no linn 

^1.. ,, li,. Mr,,,,;. v.^'Wal,.,,, ,r,;,t lu„.U 1,„„„h. ,„1! a,„i I,.,, 1,1,,,. , ,1 , ^ , 

'i;-;H, ,t 1,,, vvi,i„,„t ,„.,-i-,.,-t. ui,i,„:„„ ., ,, Tiu lir ' '" • 

" V'' """■" "-^^'l'-' l",'i- i.. II... I!,„„„la,v 1,„1, w,.,v ,,M, 
•'■'li'.- \<'r,v -msjI,! |,rTs.„,v, >,|,.|, a- that ..C a 

v.i.riv ih, sir,,,,- v,i;,,,,|,i,,„ ,„.„ I, III,,. ,1 

lliii,ati' sih'i-.s- 'rii., i; „ : i ,• i 

,, , , • ' '" ' -;;r.'iii,,.| !i,!sc,,|,i,,,.r.-! 

•"■'"i.lai.v 1,„1, uvr,. ,,!•,,,„ i-,,,,,,,, ,,, |„, ,,|,,,^j,^, 

-•■ ..n,a„„„:.., „i„. „.,.ra,.,.l,.u .^^ ulr^rir:!^;^ 'rT ,"i"'^' "'' ""7' '"^ 

■''''•'" many .,,,,:,,,. va,-, ,r,v I ,.,■,„,.,. I ,, '.""' •"•"!':■ '•:"■'' '•"\<'ni,fr 

-n..-, , .i,,,,,M,!<a,,a.a,, ,.,,..:-•: all :;;::,^ :.;:;: i,;:^ 

ly v,!,|,. an I Hat cnsts ,,,, ih, 

vill'l i^ lint 
I, ill 
I I 

II ll'Ilt t,, |1I-,„|||,T t,,l,,, 

" "'■■"Mta,r, ,„L.„s. ,1,„„^|, i, i, „„, ,.;,,,,, ,,,,„ „,„ 


r-li:„. I'll,. UMN.,- , , ,1 , , " '"'"' 'i'*''l')P<^'l llliovo 

.. .-,„n-;,i,,s„;. ';■;,"':' ""■;".""-• ""■•■■ i i... i„ ra... 

' '' ^' '" "' "■' 'I'llclilaili irliniaTiU ■ ,„, ,.,>...! 1... W:il:. _ . 

niapiicl |,y Willis ami 

2,')a vol. lii— |.. ij;i,s. 



T^y'w v ri.imn:J.r-': r?n »f 

\^'-z :\zy-trr~r'.: 



I'l M 

I i.;ll-. f. Ni'iiiLi-.r in iii:ia,ni. j,,.j( ,,f ,1 11- I, , ,,, „. , 

I ,,,.., ,„„.,i,,f I. I " , , "Till. 111. .11 : v.iiiiinit ,if , .,. ,s, i;,i 
I'll,., riMiii, ,,f |l,.»,|,„.y ,rH,l ; ,,l„.ut -.wi, il .„,„| I,.., al.,,w ,,... 

I'l u> 71 

l.-kn,« -..uth;,l.,i,K'ri.lK'.' l..tH. .n Mi,|.ll.-,,n.| SI,-,. , 
Hlu«triiti'« nl.n'i;il aiic: fi..>t .■ilt.i, I. , .n ]. .Ij, 

'!>«. SI, ,^-,. |;,„,i„, \-,,_,,. 

l»ri„itsra|.i,i -tn-;iniint-M| ,,K..|,.„.„„. ' ~ "" •'' <"i"i"""U> t..i,.i ,.;,,, 

2.l:l \,,\. li, |,, ,i:i^ 

in rni;i 1,1 I III I nil i 

■>f S5I0NAL PAPER No 25d 

■ .' i-ii\n Mi /; 


(ti) Tl.n .ii'bri-i from llie trfclcss .'on ■ liiiinnill.v hrlp. •,, pr.i.Mt ti„. |,,.,1-im.>|; 

i' 111.,' fon-tr.l /,ii,,': rli,' f:i-t.T i\\,- \. i-n.!..' :,I , r!,,. .],..,,.. ;. ,■ ,, i„,i ,■.„'' 

■I striiclion |,oi,,w. 'I'liis exfoeiliiisrly iin(.„r<;int !irk'iitM..nt ium-.I- u.x<-\\rjn-'>yn 
(7l Tl:c -A, „,,,„/ v„/„/;, „,,)• ,,„.|. i.. t,, Ir - ,iv, ,.r..l::.i.;> l,i. T. ■ r r . ' ] 1 . 1 ,, ,|! 1 . 

t'.c forest (M|) tluiii it is alh.No in',, ll,,,. wli,.|v th,' iii i,i ,,f v.L-.'tul.I,. ■.i,^^.\ 

'■■ lit n iniiiiiMiiiii, Thi, c.u-.. riiiiv. liouuvrr. U- l...|i,-v.-.l t.. .1 ■ Hm!,- t..'.vMr.| 
- ■uiitprbuliiiM'in^' tit,. r|T,..'i ot' tl;o romlMi cl <v,u-o^ j,;.. riii;„;,.r il,..|. Fn.-iot, 
•■:■ aliMtii. im.uiitnii - taU-s \A.:co priiiuiril.v l)y tli.> r. tnoval nf i,„;.-o*: i,, ,■,„„- 
|..n«. II. irinliMMiIiir • r;iii.f,i' . ;' w-k l,, i!;,. |,iw :•••., mi.^I- ! (- Lit ., 
ih;li(ir fniitrol. 

Vonrh,-„,„.—\ ro.ifu- o: tlh' oon.iii i..,,^ ot" L'.iioral .if;:ni.l.i( i .n <ii.>..v, 
■■■-irlv It- .ii'i.-i'' iiiial .1, ,ra.-UT al..>\r ai,.| l,!,.u tp, -lltav >!i-i,ii'it- aln-,.lv 
r-iliKv.l to til.- tiv,. -);,:,. „r,. hound h.-iiPt-rortli to bo ^!iibl.oni iipaiii-t fartiior 
'!o,i,,n. Siiiiuiiit^ b Ilia; „ tru'V^.; zoni? are in rloarly boiiii,| i., <-oiitiiiu.' 
wiistiii- rapi.jiy -o ns i,, i, i^i t.. a|.proacli aonor.lanr-o of xtitnnut li-voii with 
tlieir trecivnerod rioif;hboii, s. Si, if,, tlii' plafiiif.-.l /oi,,. of aliaiio tno aifaiin 
I-, 111 priipral, «-oll witliiii il„. Inrlos^ zone, the *]H',-v.\\ ilojjru.iai loi, ,l;o !,, |,„.,,1 
ir'Moi.T-. bnnoolii/.s '.vjih L'.ia I..I ,T.-<ioi, in ibo ilov,.|,,piH.iit .a- a.r.a-.iaii.v 

Tbo i!ilT-'i-.ii( iiioaiitain raiii.'M of the Forty-ninili I'arai;,.! ^o.-tloii all slav.v 

•'"""''■''•"■' :i""i-iai ami. in raoh la-c, at an ol. vail. .11 ol.--.;y -innlar I . liia- 

•I tlio .■ir,.,.|iv,. tnr-linr. Tlio l'ni;o\>iii;: tablo siiou- ll !.,.',vr.i ! of 

till- liiu- in ill,' liiL'liir i-.f'j<-~. 

-\»> I.IL''- l.llliJ" Ml 

|Mi-iti..n ..,* 1 J. .■ Ill,, , 
Kli V.1I1..1I- III U- • .ll-.,. 

A will-.- .I.'v,,. 

•f to.- lllir. Ul,,u 

•••i.-i ,it..iii, 

tio.liii;.' ,.,, -II 
iiMi' 11 ..,, 

> ol.. r;,„u- 
' i-tlt'iii rmip 
l'.iiv.H rioii.-. 
-■Ikak ri.ii^.-, 
* ■-Miiliil'ia -\ -niii 
I iL.thiikraii r.iriL'* 

I f ■ '/iiliifrli I ait''-, 
-■,..t'a l;ili^'.- 

".'."11 r.L'iio 
r.M ti 7..«ni 

7. I'll tl.siMi 
7. lit I ll.MI*l 

7,iit«i i,a».ii 
7,LiHt t; ."urn 
7. -HIM ii,.".im 

• '..MM! .'...'•IH' 



!).*>* tl 



i'''a-iona:iv r. 

1 .1 h •' I 

In all .-a-.- liir • tiiH' 'ill' ' i- lii'^l,,!-. 

ni.To a!..'^o tl.- ,.(f,.,.,|. ,. .,•-. lim. An 11,., (.a, , f ,!„' n.a,.- -I„,u- tl •• 

sympathy brtwv.'ii .'tTrcii'.r troe-liiir ami -aniiiii' lo,-..! a.'.'oi.lan.'o i..,l .,„,v,.-- 
tiilly siiw'sls tliat Daw-,. a was ri-lit in cxplainin-.- ii a- Lir-olv '.I'a- 'to tl'- 
trpe-line's inllnei.'i-. 

On the oth.'r liaial. Willi- ojip,,-,- Daw-ou'- oxi.l,, 
at'L'iiinpnt ; — 

uiatioti v.Ifli the follo-.vitiii 


.'•I ru:i Ml \ / ■./ //;/; i\ 1 1 i.iui: 

:' GEOF<C.l 


IIm' iii'liMtir- "i (■i'ii.i..ii .1,. not .iiii.fiir '. ti-i.,1 tortiiril inon' miil'ini 

fffiri, «iiii ^rf.iti-r ..liiiu.l.'. Mh tl iilr.ii , i-'i', iilioii ciniilin-i/c- t'li'ir 

li'C.illy ,;iin'i|r,;i| iiitcii-it !<•<. < '(irr.^in!! :iii.| t riiii-p'irtnl iiiti nrr pfToctcil Uv 
I'airii.' u.ilir. i\li(i-.- rii. r>.'> lui- ;i riwti \,i:\>* '<- •\\r<-r\]\- ^^^ tl,,' fall, ,!,■{ 
"■oriso'iwiitly in, TIMS.', witli In-iKlii ,,(' l.,ii.|. Cnrra-ifiM aii'l tniiHimrtn* ion 
iiri' MTV iimr.iwl.v l ciilizfil in activity, aial la.M llw amc rclatimi i.i 
(.'I.' II IT a I (ii'urailnti'ii tliiif a I'irciilar s.iw ']•'<■- to a {■laiiiT, Tla'ir int'ii-o 
aiiplioiit'iii. rc'iilt- ill deep ciiii>on:i, tlio i\trfiiii' of lirit'Iif aii'l ilfplli. 
I'isintp-jratiii:: wlidlirr cliciiiiral dr nic-lanicil, nia,v ai't (>.|:ially 
with i'.|!'nl oppnrlmiily. b'lt tiny arc coi'ti-ollcil l,v i'i,ii,liii,,iH of oxpos irc 
Fp.iii nil mil' 1-11 ■Jiirl'apo lln-n- avo wiiirl ati'l tiny tn''-i.ini' loorc an! i; •i-r" 
iliM-r-i- :« !ia''|ii.ilitio-> of roiii'f iKnili)|i, 'riu' .■" tliat fr.,-t .iial 
lliaw l«iT,v with olpvntinn i-'aiii in i tTcftivr<nc»s inori' rapi'lly than > ..Ta-^i'ii 
anil so may tli.- h.'iuht tn which pea!;-; may .Tttain in a trrowitiL' rnii;:<'. 
iippoar- i.of t , he ■iii-taiiiPil hy -tndy of iTaiiiTitain-i noa-h tiitrhiT than th,. 
t'aica'h-, lior h\ thcorr'ticai rca-nninL' in rinarl t.. iho w..rl( of fri-o/iii;.-', I!,!. J ,ifi,.r cart fnl con-idcratioti tho writer lia- felt ohlii:o.l "> 
nbaiMloii t!io li\p.iihr-i. of ih-vi'Iopnicnt •■( a c..niiiioii hitrli hn-cl ninooL' 
inoni]tiiin jifak^.''' 

' oi. i-,.ply to thi- arL'uin.iit i^ iniolic^l in iii.ich that ha- \\ ■ 'cilo.! in tho 
prc-oni chiipli-r. A chi.f ohjcclion to it i'on«i-t^ i'l the fact that iimlcr tlip 
aril] cnrditicn- ahov. tree lino \vi' liavc in fallinir water only ono, ninl porhiips 
net tiio n o.«l important, ciiiise of croj^ion. Wa-tc-stn-aininir, windiK'fion. rinou-- 

Tc'p. and uvalanrlai nm-t also In nriidcrfil. It <ocni-! clear, thcrpfnri^, that 

\Vi!lis's ar>riini( la i- ino..nohi-ivo : it .|,„., !|.,i ,',|,|i,,ri tho muovol,. hypof!ip>.ij 
of tlip Ciiscade rni.po topofrrnpiiy, 

Arroi-lnii' ■ 'I'f, i in-nli Uin r-siO' iii'i <i„,i Utii'iii', n nf .>7o,;i >. \ lifio 
method for tli.- spontaneous developnaiit of ■.ninniit-levi'l acoord»ncp roiimins 
U, hi i.otiMl. riie recent annoiinccniont and cjisciission of this exphination 
iiiaki :i -iip.-rthi.ii;- '.. pi'.-etit here tL^r.. rh.n 'he 1 riefe^t of the im lorl'. iji.' 
ideas. + 

TrolVs-or Shaler in .Xniivii'a aial I'fof <r Uieliti'i- in Kurope liav,' indc- 

peiidciill.v -iio'VL til, It. as mature dis-ei'tion of a ntfioii under norma! elimatic 
coiiriitioii-4 i- reaclied, rivers of the saniii ehi-s tend tn Ijecoiue nearly O'lually 
-paced. In perfeet ma'turity the slojies of the inferstreani rldx'o- are crudeil 
from top I,, l.otloni. This prndation of the slopes draiiiiiiir itit,, two ailjacenf, 
nearly l>nr.dlel streams flowii:u i: the s.une liirection, prodm-es a eomparativcly 
■ ven 'on-itiidiiial pi-..ille . ' il.. .co'rveninpr ri<l(.'e. The even 'Te-t of tiie riiiire 
must he ni(.n- or Ir-s syii,,>atti. : ;e with the jn-oliles of the streams below, and. 

• B. Willif. I'rcf. Pappr .No. IH. IT.S C-^A. Survpv. IWIl. p. 71. 

tCf. Its larr, .Aitiprioan flpnlojrist, Viil, 21, I89X. "p. a'll : N.S. Slialor, Bull. Geol. 
So.-. .ViriPrirn, Vu!. ]0. 1899. p. iiS: \V. S. T. Smitli. lUill. Di'iiartiaciit Opohv'v. Uni- 
versity vf California, Vol. 2. I^rKi. p. I.V.. K. Hictiier, Zi-^tsi hrift ilcs (lpiits,t,pn and 
(isterrpiihi-chrn .Alppnv rfin^, Vol. 3n. IgOS, p. IS; W. M. l>avi^. .American OioIoKist, 

Vol. i-), iR"'i. p, :«:. 



i;ir<.i;i nr nil > hih \./ i.-,,\nui ;: ^^^^ 

5E'.SIO\AL PAPER No 2", 
'l..\ni -n.MiM. .|.,«|, „.|;un , i,,«,r .,11 ! 1 nv.r ', . ' I 

iK> nm...,i „. ,1... ,-i.b,.. 1,., ,.11 „,.. , „;i,. „,:,., ,„. „: .;:i:': :,!:;;,■;;,'•; ■ "x 

;t::i-%;::;:;;;;:-::;;:;::-i,:::::'';:;:T -:::::■;:: ■-'""•7 

«l M.MMIV. 

TUi' f.,r„i .,(■ tl„. ,T.<„tr ,|i„.,,,,i,„| I, i„. ,„,i,,,. < X , ., 

M :n ,,„ ,• ,„c,. „> ■ ,„.,^;„„llv • (..u:r.l I.a...r .liir,.,v„ti;,l ,.,■.,-!„„ ;,„.i , L- 

Ii- -ulp.ur.. .1,,,. ,„ |„^H..|,.^el Klm-iu-i,,,,. t)„. norm.! ,.xis, „-• , l,id.-l.n,.i 

tree-l,n... nM,|. ..„..,llv, ,h. ,..,m„,...„„1 ,„ f n^r .,,.„ in. a,.,l -i:. , . ! ': 

--n 1 th..... nK,v ,.,„„l.i,.,. tl, off...-.- ..,„,1 ,v„.l,.,- ,„„ro ,^rU:l .1... , ..;,!,; ,,• 

'""'; "'"■'•"'■'I "■'"" " ^"-ly. un.uint' p,.rio.| ,.f ,l„. rantr- 

lln- c,.i,ip,„if,. ..xplanmi,,,, Min>t, tl„.,vfor... I... ronsi.l.T.Ml ..,-rv ,-,r,. <•.-'■ 

.n .ii-..,s,M:. .1,,. o,i^:i„ „f ,i„. p,. „, ,,.ii,,' i„ ,„ ,,,,i„„ ,,„„. ,^,,,„,:„ I .; ■ 

no n.,nn.„M.l:,„.;,u. .h,,.,-tl,v n.f,.n,!)l,. ,„ , ..„„„ ,. ,„,,;„.„, ,„i ,,i ...^ ;';, 

I ">H. S....I, ...•.•„r,la,„-.. M,:,v ,Mvo „ ..,>„p,.rutiv..!,v -v..,. .l,v-!i„,. ;„ vi.'.«s V. ,, 
■ ''■^■/'"""'-'"'V' I :t. In,. .1,,. ,•„!! ,■„, „f ,1,0 ...mpn^i. .Inn.ti,,,, i. ,1 n ' • : 

r'<>neiil;iiii,'.l ■-iiriacf. ' " 

(;.VKR.u (■.,s,MM,.s.„v,nrl>nvM..„,M,.n., IFn,,,,:, ,„ -,„ ,„,.„,.,,.. ,, r,., 

l''>i:n-\iMii I'.Mni.t.rr,. 

Mill! ili'!'oi'iii;itii II I,'' I'lwi iiri nr.r . ., , •. \f 

";.,-.■„„. .Iciornuui,,,, of Tppo.. rr..,:,ooo.,. „„.l oMor form , „, nt m .v 

po,n, ,„ ,1,. „„.l. ].. .n.l „nv,hon, par,, .f ,|,. , onlillo,.. P>pro..l a ,„hi "^ 

t.on o la,.,, wluoh .•lear'v ,1a,.. ,1... h,-t pM.oral oro...„i,. r,.v .l.H,. , a" I . t 

,li.(ote.l :-p,...ial attoiitioii to tho... monii,ain^. 

Tlio t„po:;rapl,y r,.s„I.i„;r fro,,, ,1,.. F.arauii.l ,., , ■• „ „no f ... , 

The ,i,,mi,.an,.o of ,|ua,.t/ii..., hani ..•l,i,,., ,. ,..:.■, : ,...,„,, .„„i ,, . ;. 

..n pmu.. i„ „.,. K„Hv.,,i,.„, p„,..i,.,, ,„„ „„„„„ „„ " ,„t: V -" ;:, 

ti:r;!;i::.:;:.:,:zL:\,^::s:''^^' ■"-'^^■''■''^ - ■^nm- . .m.;:; 



hi '• I /,•;!/,' \ r •■! I ! I \ I ! rin!^ 

2 OfORGr. V \ 19: ■' 

'I'l.i' .• "lu ..I !■• 'in. 1. ; til.' ..ri'.'ii! 1 •■! w' ■! ■ r' . I- • ■ I r iii.iin- t'l th'' 
(.rcsi-ii' • f.ri' «iil)'lu.'il M' i.'l' i- of tlii- «ii nr'liT ii- tli.i' i". •.iiiji1i*lip.| li.v tl i> 

iT'i'i"!! \ hirii «,i^ ;i li'i' ilip'iiL'li ilii' ii'i'i Tir'iriry i"ri'' i in t'u' I'.jiiiH'- 
r(«i«liiiit t'Tniiii- 111" til,' Ai't'iili'-lii.ri' niwl of hiIht 'h.p inlaiiL-i-luiiii*. Ti;'- 
o;ii'iiiiii; "I Witi^Tl"!! Ill ■ Mi'li'v. ilii- llnc'.y M.r ii'-iiii iit,.| I' -I'll trt>n<''"'i', tli'> 

Si-:kn 1> \'.u, ■ . I • I llw h^ ■. ill! M.l'ix II - .1 -irir- i l' t.i - .•• 'im ■ r l' ■!.• ' 

til -!■ ■! p"!!!!!.' ill-' ili-.M' V.ill. V. ,.r 111" Ilii'-ii. ( '..p.i!'--' ■ •. ' r r. r '' i 
vsllc - if till' I'n-t. riii> iii'iiy ii.irrowi'r V!il!cv< n( llio f'niilillcrM nn- iiii I'liirii"" 

of t' f viniiii.' t(i II II' 'I'lrli nv < illi'' * r'lt 111 till' f 'ri't; !• | i' ''I'l U\ ni tin' 

App I.K-liiaiK. 

Sniiic iiicll', ii il I'.iiMiti- I'l 'I' i'l'uli liTii :iri' ilui' III !•• iri'iii)'.'. iit-i !•:' 

rlralllML'r lliri' It!; iillri.ll .,. ti 1' tllT'illLll fn . r ''llir'. till'. ■'|lir-P 

'■X'.-pliiilnil p:iii-.-r.; liut tliirc - htilr ilmilif that tlnTi' Iki-s Ik' i. :i t'Micrnl iiplif* 
"f the < '.trilill' r.i in tlii< l:iti;iMl<' ilnriirr ttu' lat-' 'I'lTtiary. I'Iim,.f 1,;h cmi- 

-i"|in>iitl,N Ik'pii iiicroa-fcil iicrluip- ly i.< iiini-li ii'i thai cl.iii 1 I" ItaM»"ti. ■I.'X)** 

f'Ot, f"r tlii> IhU "f fntorinr rialcail".* Sii'-li uiilift !■* nii iiiip.ntaiil iiii-|.li'ut 
■ ■ 'itil'lii-aiiiiL' ■' !i lint rali'.ill. i-li. tiLriiii,' ''"■ i-i'"-ii>!i <''iihlii iniH wliii'li niroailv 
• Ai-ti'l i>.'foi'i' till c'l'Viiiii.)!. Il.-l-ii'i' ii I'.mI, pi 11', ■. wi' may 1h''i.- '■ tliiif i'"' immii- 
l.iilH all llu' ^' IN I iiin llic (iiilf lif <ii-"rijia tn tin' (ir.'it I'iain-. vaiii,'.''! Ml ln'iL'ht 
:i- III :1,(MM) to .iimi fi'i'l or niorc. 'i'lii- lati- TiTtiary uplift iiiviLT'.rati'il tlii» rivcr^; 
:■■ 'ii i 11"! li'jiii a la'W iii-ioti c,' c'li' at til.' I'l.i-i' of -i i'"Mnil''t>>'l t'oriiiiT I'Vi'liv 
Till' \ ii'iv that the I'll til. po<t- 1,11 I'll mi • l:l-i"rv irliiii'.'- 1. ..n. .■.aii|' ia cro-iuii- 

i-w'lo L'\plaiii- till' u[)parriil prrilotiilii ii- f r ii^'- iucut 'li iiiaK'' iti all tliP 

r. itfci li'Ti- •••■ii-itittitiiif; tl,.' ( 'ordill' r.i. It al>o I'li !■ to ospl.iin tin' alHoiWi-' 
of wi'll-'!":iiu'il adjii^toil iliiiii. .:■•' wliifli i- -" iioticial'li' ill tin' ir.-.ii- < 'onlilliTaii 
l.r't. (If coiii-r. \w >hoiilil iioi ■■\i.i'i'i I'l. II a sfcoii.l oro-i'iii .-v.lp f.i pro'liu'o 
ill llii* moiiiilaiii-chain tl xtraii'liiiary aninit.t of ■iiib-fi|iiriii ilraiiia -o whii'li 

ii.ira' Il ri/i'- till- vi'i-y .Iitol:! i :- li riam- ".' Vii- iiiia aii'l I' i.-vKa'.ia. I li.- 

I' ( ' rililli'i-aii roi'k^ arc t-o !:■ .irly ihiform in ' h irilii''-- ' .r iliat. 

'I'll'- out ill. '.1 history ha-t the a.i .iiit ifj. of not ovorlo I'liiiir tlio I'.i-iiary 

\'.-:lli W;iat -iriii 1.. I.c iiiip..—I!.!i' I'mU '.;■ i i.i^l .11, r!i.. \ a-i •' ii 'al.i; i-.n ■ .-.l 
ill the -oft rm-U- of tho Iliyli I'la' ■ of tlio Stat.-; : . .piii,- ijilTinnr 
plii'iioliii'iHii from that iio-itiilato.: .>■ tin- aiv oc.ito- of Tcri. pcncplanation 

n tho oxpoi'iliiijfly stronf.' rooks ol iln- ranj:<>s oro-soij hy the K. v-niiith I'arallcl. 

rile Tortiary poriml was Ioiilj-; ilio .jin'Sfioii i-. how ionui-; 'riio attcntivo study 
..f oro-ioii will I flp in aiisworin^ that . no-tioii. hut thiTo iin ' h.- a litlio!o;.'ipal 

...ntrol ovi'.- -ji'i'iilatioii and, ahoio all. ii I'ar.'ful ooiiipari-oii ..f r irds from 

all iiarts oi the world. 'I'lio hypoiln-is of I .tr 'rortiary i>.'n.plaiiatioii nt tin? 

lorty-iiiuth Tarallol s.oiiou of thr ( "oi- iillora < ;.■ i or !..■ ■ ■ ii'iloil with t!i.-> 
facts showing; tho spi-od of pi o. ion in oasti-rn Aniorii-a or ii. : "i'.-, nor with th" 
pli; sioKiaphii' hi-tori.s wliioli -i-.'iu -o Hiiuly I'.-tabli-^hcd in li •' lart,'i' area? if 
til.- . ai'lh's siirfaci'. 

' li. M i 

111). <;.<il. .«iK'. .\ii!"iioa. Vol. 12, 1IH)1, p '."I 


SESSIONAL r«Pf R \y ^r^, 

A, 1912 


MliH ..\I..M;,,,| s |,,.sf|> AM, ,,,,. ,„;,,,, V ,,y ,„,.- ^,^^y 

sihki.w iimkstums ' 

M .... , |.,n,|,.r..„. l..nvs„„. MHlv-.v „n,| ...h.-r, ul,,, h.,vo «■ .kr.1 , ,, ,1..... o M 
K . Wl...,. ., „.M,vv ^,.„I,,-,-,H „n,| ..■,,.,.rt ,.al..„„...In,Ms.- i,.v,. ,„„ .,..,|..,| 

■ 'I.UTO.. wl,,.., w,.nl,| „n„lv,. ,1,., .vl,„I.„al.. .|..s,r,„..i,„. „f .1„.||. „r «!,.,, 

I- .il.l..n.lns,„ .xr,,„i„. ...,„.. ,i,„i,.„, ,„,, .,, „,., „„„„,.,^^, ,„,,, ' ;- 
.xp,.s„r.. are ......n. ly lar„. an,l fav al,l.. „. , li.,.„v..rv' „f f.s.i . f 1, ^ 

•MtMi. (a-tl,. Munnfan,. a,„l I!,.u- riiv.r f„r.., ,ll„„.. a- :,:„,„., „„,ir..Iv 'l.- 'J 

■l.-o -n,.. th..r,. „,a,v h,. i„ ,1„. ,,„,,r,, ;, ;, ,,,,,,„, „ „ ..,,,,.,„.,„„,^ . 
?.•'";"-'";■ -■■ l--ly -Ml- I. .i.. ra,„l„ian an.| IVl,; -, 'U „ " 1 

' "" : -'■•'"'""•^"•v „.:,-- „, ,1.- I'ri..-. Iliu-r .,.rr. i„ »l,„l, ,|... urifT ua- 

iil''<' t., 111.. I II,, I a -iiirl.' Ira.'.- . f ..vL-mil-in... 

This unlMSsilif,.rou3 ..hara,....r ..f tl... .litT, . ..f trrrmr. i. all th.. „„.r.. „ f,. 

'•In ..„s ,a.., ,lu., ,1.. ,•„„.-.„„.. |,av.. ,,.., ,l„. ..l,an,.., of ,l,U- 1 , •„ ; 

a-; i.MMl. ...n of sliolls .,r ,., -oral .rowth an.l tl.,„ ,o pro..,...o. J,. -ill .p, ; ^^ 

-. h ,1a. ,„..,„anon ,.f „.ari,„. l„„o-,.„..,. ,,l.. a s,.',,.' -.n.l.l^, ..;::; ' 

... -!.._ tir>. I 1„. wr,.,.r i.,- „,r,.,v,| a hy,„„!„., ..-al ..x,.la.,ati f , , , ul ) 

■■t .-aL-aroous t„sMl- i„ ,|,...,. [•■„r, w„;,,ll, I'aiMil.-l (,,,,-. a.,.i , ■' ■ ',1..'. 
P-.i-ra failuiv of ^,„ils i„ ,1„ ,... ■a,„..rla., ,i,.,l ., ,,,.„I,ri..n f„n . 

L'.a \..|. Ill )_• ,; j'l '""* 






ji^^esle-, Ne» York i 
''6) ^Si - 0300 - P':Ofi. 
''6) 238 - 5989 - Fa. 


nE['.\RTMf:sT OF THi: i\ri:iii()i{ 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

tiolis tluoiinliout llic M-ni'M. Till- Kvpiitlic-i;- :il>c) ;i< rnimts for file dovplopuiPIlt nf 
the dolomites ami liiiu'stoiies of i)re-Siliiriiiii iiffp. The explanation is noopssarily 
to some extent founded on speeuliilion. The ditlieulty and iinportaiioe of the 
problem.^ deniund tluit even such siKMuliilive exphiniifions should be retained 
and elaliorated Ix-foi'e the linal theory is aiiopteil. Kor this reason the present 
1 hapter contains a statement of the liy|)i)thesis in some detail. 

The secretion of caleareous hard parts by marine organisms i> supposed to 
have been first made possible as a result of the increase of the land areas during 
the late-IIuroniau orofjeiMc revojutinn. i Se • two preliminary paiiers.)'' Tiiat 
enlargement of the contir.ents -aused a ^'reat increase in the annual supply of 
river-borne "alts to the ocean. The supul.N \v;i^ specially in<T(>aed 'ly the upturn- 
ing and erosion of tlie thick limestones which had been deposited on the sea tloor 
of earlier pre-Cambrian time. limestones are regarded, on the hypothesis, 
as precipitates of calciiun and }nanne-ian carlifiiKitc-, thrown down 'vlicn the 
river-borne salts ditlus«>d to the ancient sea bottom. The chief reagent for the 
precipitation i- considered to be the annnoniuni carbonate generated by the 
decay of animal matter. It is further postidatc<l that in pre-Cambrian time 
the active seaveiiKini; system had not yet been evolved; that therefore the amount 
of decaying animal matter on the pre-Cambrian sea tloor was vastly greater than 
the amount now allowed to decay on the bottom of the ocean. The sniallness of 
the aimual supiily <if river-borne cab iuTU salt-, coupled with this specially rapid 
precipitation of calcium carbonate, is supposed to have kept the pre-lluronian 
ocean nearly limeloss: only the minute traces of calcimn salts contained in the 
river waters as they ilitfnseil to the sea l)ottom would \m foimd in the ocean of 
that tinii'. At the bottoni the water W(udd be practically limeless. 

The nearly limeless condition of the surface water was changed by the 
extensiv(> omgenie and e|K-irogeiiic movements of bite-IIuronian time. In the 
Cambrian jjcriod the animal siiccies had begtni to armour themselves with the 
new material, henceforth present in the sea-water in sufficient amount. T'he 
primitive chitinous shell now became strengthened with phosphate and carbonate 
of cab-iuni. aiul in the Ordovieian many species ha<l adopted the armour or 
skeleton of pure calcium carbonate. The Ordovieian and Silurian rocks were 
therefore the Hrsi to be charged with calcium carbomite shells and skeletons in 
;:reat numbers. 

The Kvpothesis further stati's that not only a large part, if not all, of the 
pre-Cambriau limestones and ibiloinites. but, as well, the limestones and dolo- 
mites of tlu' early Paleozoic formations, are chemical precipitates thrown down 
by anmionium carbonate. This precipitation grew slower in proportion to the 
ilevelopmcnt of the tishes and other efficient bottom scavengers. When the 
scavenging syslem U'l-anie well!ished, calcium salts could, for tbr first time, 
accunudatci in the oi-can water in exee-s of the net'ds of lime-secreting organisms. 
Thereafter the mariiu' limestones have been largely formed from the debris of 
the bard parts of animals and plants. 

•1«. ti>n; 

A. iMh. .\in> r. .lour. .siil. 
1.. ir,:^. 


1'.'":, i>. 

liull, i:e..l. 

.\inrrii';i. \'''!. 

itrriiirr nr i in: cim j- t.-:ii{ti\o\iri{ 




Tho pn-si'iit chapter contaiM- n (lisiu-inn ,,r virl,,,, u. , c .1 

■no. ^ „.„.,..o.. Hn,..i,y. .h. .vi,,o... ^..^t^! ^:x:^ :^Tr:z 
;::;tr;i;;;;;,;:ss;Ht::r;l ^■^'■•'^" ' ""■ '"■-'"- ••--'^ -'-'■ 

Ihi. chaptor i. ■, ,.,.„„,„..i„. r,.pnnt of tho proli,ni„Mrv „.„km-. Th 
moro pro.,.„t«ti„M „f th.. l,,vpo,h,..i. ,„ay h. .t .0,,,. o thn .. w 

aye to do w,th to p.]..o„,„loj,y .,r ..hotnioal ^oolo^y of the K^ h H :. ^ 
t.oMs. tor Ininselt tho writor ha. foun.l ,noro sati.faotion „ th ' , v ., , 

:: .; : s;;" iv^"^ ""'• t ^'-^ ""-'""■' •--'••--" j;:- l;: o :r ;;;;: 

111 an: "t tho oldor vio\v< <,ii tho^o i>roMoni-. 

KxO,,SVVnONs „K TM. I ' S , ,„M,.,K,.:H, „ s Cu.nOTKR OK .M.K-. AMBR, vv SK„nn:sT.. 
that 'lJn"""'"r'"; ':'' "'" ""■'""""■"'"■" ''<-'>;ulion of fo..iI rrn,aln..-TUo Mow 

were all present. So far as chonucal ooiupo.ition. .lotrital oo.npo^ition rwi.litv 
of de,.usu.n„ ot.- aro ,.„M,-orrK.,l, tl.. .o,lin,on,. „f ,ho ( :.vlill ora , r'vi"^ i 
of other forn.ations, are ideal for porf^-t fo.sili.otion 

inhabited iust boforo Cambrian H^ ^o;;:!;;:::'-;' i irj^ l]^ 

fnndamen a types ot f.on, protozoon to n.ollnso and arthrZ b t H 
s ye so t-bod.od. had beon evolved in the surfaoo waters of the o ' 'J ff 
from land. At tho close of tinio tho noliai,. f-n,n., fir f r 

t:of7'7 U ''' "'""^^""^^ ""•' '•'" ^P-'-i'" ''I'^^^.-TlS-'o '^hX' 
om of he shallow coast-wators. Owin^^ ,0 the intense str,„.Kle for existen o 
witlm, he shore ^one, there was. in early f'an.brian tin,o. a rapid nccele i, , 
o developniont wh.oh tended towanU the n.latively suddi., ov'l.tion of . 
Icareous and eh.fnous struct.rc. wldd, f„n,.tio„e,l a. n.oan. of ro"eo io 
OJ offence, or of otherwise perfoetin, tho animal, for „ ,..f„, oon 1 a T ! 


III !■ \in Ml \ / ()/■ ////: i\ I i.i{i(ii; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I'ossiliziitii.n of luiiilii.' animal t.vp,s. tli.rptoro, tiist Ikthiiic possible in ruiiiliiian 
timo siitipl.v l).MMiis|. lianl parts liail tluri tir>t i>ec(iiiip cvolvfxl. 

A principal and iHTliap- hila! ulijcction Id l!rii,iki"> iil.a is tlial tlicrr i, ii.. 
apparcni reasnii fnr tlio Umn p(.sl|i(>nenicnt of the 'discovpry of tlip sea-bottom.' 
\\\- can liardly doiil.t that, throiitdioiit tlip liistory of niarini! life, tlip sho-p zone 
uii- a- ar.-,- iM,. I,, p,.|auic laivac cti-., as it i- now and tlial tin- ~li..ri' zuik 
afforded an advanta roons habitat to niariiip o'->ranisins in pre-Cnndirian time as 
at the proent. 1' ofessor Brooks af-'ncs with most other authorities that the 
time occupied in I'le evolution of the soft-hodied hut highly diversified pelapic 
-[lecies must have be<Mi enormous. It is scarcely eouceivable that, in the time 
taken to evolve such liiKh lyjies as i-ei)halopods and trilohites, the slna-e znnc 
should not have hccn Iouk successfully C(donizcd. Skidetal and shell structures 
sh'iuld. therefore, have been developed several Reolo^ical ajres before the epoch 
of hi>;li specific differentiation illustrated in the Cambrian. The conclusion seems 
unav(u'dable that the sudden ni>peara!ice ofabundant fossils in certain Cambrian 
lieds is not due to a relativel.v late colonization of the shore zone. Kveryone must 
ie<'iipnize the value of the shore zoiu- as stiiiudatinff the evolutionary process, 
but the Brooks hypothesis breaks down because it praiits an inexplicable post- 
nonenient of the shore-line's influence. 

■■'.. Su'jf/csto! hypollic>ii.-.--.\ third hypothesis may be based on most of the 
fiiii<lamcnt;d iioslulates of liinh^-y involved in Brooks's conception. AmoUf.' these 
may be specially recalled: (n) the very slow evolution of hifther animal types 
from primordial, soft-bodied, simple types; (h) the supposition that the bidk of 
uuirine animals and plants «ere. in pre-Cand)rian time as now. pelapic and free- 
swimminjj; (r) the further lea-onable supiiosition that tlu; prc-Cambrian sea was 
ihorouf-dily tcn.intcd with animals. Thp jioint of departure of this third hypothe- 
sis lies in tlie premise that, accepfintr these three iiosttihlt<-«J, it was impossible 
duriuK miudi of lif(^"s molnlionary period for animals to secrete limey striu-tures 
at all; for I'raclicnl plnisiolafilrnl ,)i( lime salts were non-existent in the 
sea water for most of the pre-Cambrian life-period. 

So far as known to the writer, this h.\potliesis as a whole has not been 
stated in Keolof;ical or hiolofrical literature. Aracallinii has suRKested that 
calcium salts were hut spariufily pic-cut in the •earlier Areh»..Ti seas,' and notes 
the possibility that pre-Cambriau orj^anisms coidd therefore not hav3 acipiired 
the 'liine-halut '; but he gives no I'xplanation of the supposed small content of 
lime in the sea-water.* Such explanation is tlie kernel of the hypothesis. 

The writer's sii:ccre thanks are due to ^Ir. K. A. A. Johnston of the Cana- 
dian (ieologieal Survey f,,r much hell, in di.scussing the hasal chemical reactions. 

l'i:i:( iiTiATioN OF I 'Ml- Salts Tiiiioicii thi; Dito.mposition of T)r.\n Organisms. 

ft follows fr. .e main hi(.lo(ricaI po=tnlafi's nf the hypothesis that, in the 

earliest sea, the liigher animal types, including the active hunters and scavengers, 
were not yet evolved. An important corollary is that the carcasses of countless 

* Tninsiu tMiiis, Canadian Institutt-, Vol. 7, 1903, ji. 5;)G. 

"///' >>r I III: Clin / 

I - / /,''<\ Ml// /,' 



animals living; 
HCc'iimuInli! nil 
the teiiii)er;itii 

♦'"■ ^'"•'' "•■•"I'l. ^if'-r .l.'..l,, f;,' ... ,|„. .,,, ,1„„, ,,„,.„ 

relutuel> iMgl,. An.nml careass.v. f,,llon .., ,l„. .,,, il„„r ,, ,, ,|,„,,,-,.n. ,„„ 1... 

• ti ,(i ill,' 

in-. ■Ill 

.\L'ii--i/' nil 

I'.W tl'UlI'i l\i 

1- yi'.rli ofF ill i,il-i;r volnriK-:. 

Ily I'oin.rliiit' tin,- cliioridi. ;ni,l 
't' •■ulcinm. Tlic USUI'' .••iMiitioii- 

111 <-oM ston.-,. Iillf w„uhl VU.lrr^n pillri-lil.'P,,, 

.\lurra.v+ li,,l,| tlml |,'itr,'lii,'!i,,ii inK,., ,,|;„,,. ,. 

tun-s (if the sea l^.ltoiii. 

During imtrcfactimi iiiiiiiiniiiii,,, (mvI,,,,,..,!, 

This powerful alkali has tlu- prnporty „i ,npi 
sulphate of calcium into procipitatiMl carl.onatf 
for the relictions may he notcil: 

CaSO.+ fMI.) rO,=Ca(() :-rXir 1 SO 

Caci +(xir.)co,:.=(a(o . I'Nir.Vi ' 

'•'.'th of ihese reaeti.uH are reversihh..- s„ that new .'aleium earl.,„Mte i„ln„l | 

cSe. " ^" .'"^'■''-^-l '°;'>? ^"'.'l.ate or ehlori.lo an.l then finallv pre- 
a«' : • ^'Tr '^'"'■'■"■^■•^'•^■""'- ""'1 \Voo,lhea,l the tir.t rea..tinn is hat to wlneh a marnio seerotes eal.-iuni earhonate shell or -kele, , 
irom sea water; ni th,, ease the am.uoniutn earh„„:,„. i- ..'uerate,! in the le , 
postfon of effete products withiu the hoily „f ,he ani,nal.§ Tl e eho i 1 
'"'"■'■■^^ is thii- t„n,lani"n.,,lly .he -.,.,„. W".|,..,' ,!„, ,,,|,.i /.nulT",,, 

Vn'!^"iZ ''"' ""'"""" ''"^'' """""^ ="•" ''""^•"■- """-'-'^ ^" the 

water though It wouM al,„ proce,.,l .lurin, ,he slow suhsi.lenee of .loeavi," 
arcasses ,,f low density. I,i,tu-ioi, ,i„d the ,.,,|e,il i„tc,ehi,n«'e .,f w'.ter n im 
end, .n a lon^ pertod. to remove all the cale, .m .ilts f.-on, the oeean A e tl 
here would rem ,:„ m solution otily a minute ,,nan,i,y of ealeium salts iJm^ 

K^om't::;;:::..''^ "" '"'" ^'— "'^-^ ^^-^^ -•! - .et diffused to'£ 

calci^^'S'lnJll'T ""r "" 'T '""«■"-""' -"- "f -- -.'- f.'oru uhieli 
bona^ -h 1 '"':^'^r" •^'■""""""l "■••■ ""avaih.hle for ,1„. elahomtion of ,,i,- 
bonate .hells and skeletons l,y organisu.s. although the organisnts live ami thrh ■ 

n , e Camhr'"- T^"'"f ''"' "'"' ''"""''" '-topl^-smie n irements we e. 

in pre-Camhnan tnue. the same as now. e.x,,erinie„ts thus show the eomplel, 

• iV' <onimiinica*ion 

t 'tT'I a"" '111' '•''^''' '!"'' ""P"^it- Chall,.n,...r K>,p,.,liti„„, IWl n •.-,« 

d, J/'i^.^^^s^f;Ss;'^'l'„a;;?!c^l?Sf.,^^ ^'T'^% ^z'^'f/^' '^^--'"-' - 

Hall, New York, p. Wit, 1906 '-ne"'>-to. by 1. P. Ireadwell, tiiins. by W T 

i I'roc. Knv. S<><.. Kv'linburBh. Vol. 16, im, p. »24. .-ind Vu!. 17, „. 79. 


in:rMn\ih:\ I m iiii: i\ri:itiun 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

|"."ihilit,v III almmliiiit |>re-(iinil.i-iaii iiuiiine life in the form of softhfulii'd. 
lufihlv ilivcisiHcil iiiiiiiiiil types.* 

Tlip Kozoii' ivori wns, tlifii. into two purts, a loiiK \tor\ni\ durinir 
nliicli the eiilriu.n siilt> inlierite.l fmni the Azoii- *i!i were beinp precipitated. 
iiMil :i Tiiiii-li loimer period during' whiiii ilir stiMily ivoliitinii i.|' animal tvp, - took 

I'liHT ill Mil ilhllO,-t lilllell-. -r;|. 

1)1 HMlns OK IMi: XkNUIV I.IMKI.lSs Sf:\. 

liiiie-seiTotinf,' or^iniii-iii-; 

The loiiditioiis suitable tor the developiiieiit 
iiiif;lit have been established in three differeii' , 

Tutrefaetioii on the sea li.ior lias, aiiionir its other etTeets, the seiieration of 
imieh sulphuretted iiydrofteii b.v the deeomposition of s ilphates. The bottom of 
tho Eozoie ocean may have thus been poisoned t,v the jras in n manner similar to 
that observed in tlio world's largest perfect desert, the basin of the Black" Sea. 
Ihe evolution of b<ittnm .scaventrers or at least the colonization of the jreiieral 
!<ea bottom, may have been long dela.vcd. Nevertheless, it is possible that the 
^manatlon of sulphuretted h,vdro>fen from sea water in which caleinm sulphate 
was almost entirely removed (leaving magnesium Milphi.te and other sulphates 
acted on by decaying animal matter as one source of tlie gas) grew less as time 

went on. ami that the sea-hottom water llierelv l.eaine g..i.|iiallv -weeti 1 and 

lit for colonization. The scavenging s.vstem once established, it would now he 
possible for river-borne calcium salts to accumulate in the sea. 

Secondly, it is that the ancient animal types could elaborate 
hmey structures from even the minute .|uantity of calcium carbonate which 
sea water can hold in solution, and that these animals did not then need tlie 
sulphate or chloride of calcium for the secretion of eah-areous structures. Cal- 
cium carbonate could not reenter the essential composition of the ocean until the 
acid radicals freed from the sulphate and chloride (inherited from the Azoic 
sea) were either destro.ved as such or were satisfied by yet stronger bases than 
lime. The sulphuric acid of the existing seas is being constantly converted into 
insoluble iron sulphide and free sulphur. This reaction takes place best where 
ferruginous muds are siisiieuded in tlii> water. It would have luit limited efftn'ts 
on the floor of the deep sea far from the pre-Cambriaii land. Nevertheless, the 
whole water-body would, through diffusion and marine currents, ho in time 
iifTected by the reaction and the sulphuric acid radical of the Kozoic sea would 

•At many puiiits in this chapter thiTo is npid for a sliurt loriii desiKiuitiiiK the 
onfire pre-I'aleczmc (eon of life-history on tiip earth. We have no generally aiceptwl 
word with this meaninR. The writer will. moerduiBlv. revert to thi' term • Iviaoic " 
invented nearly forty years afo by Sir J. W. Dawson and later usid by him lira, ti- 
oally to cover the period in nn.-tioii. The term ik liere employ.'d, however n..t m a 
stratiRraphic sonse, unplyint.' divi-ion of genlogiiMl lime of the same order as the 
laleozoie, Mesozoie etc. It eomeivable that in the future this term may he finallv 
.lUiipteil, alouR with I'loteronoic ' and perhaps other names, to represent one ..'t' 
several 'zoic' divisions of pre-Cainbrian time. With this understanding it is hoi..,! 
that the propojirf temporary use of the term 'Bizoie' will cK^asion no misapprehei.- 
"lon. Ihe pre-Eanic won of earth-history will be referred to as the ' A/oic " 

Ill fiiirr 1,1 I III run I \>n;i>\<,\ii i: 




he ■■\'■^y]y -K'stroyo.!. How .•Nt-„Mv..l.v il„ n„l,.Ml u.,> r.-,.la.-..,| hv tlu- vul.'.nio 
en.ana,,,,,, „t ^.,„., fr„n. ,1k. ..arth'. i.a.riur .Mnn-.t b..',l.nno„.,rat.-.l 
Yet inor,- ol.somv ar.. tlio rrartion. wl,i..|, ,„!«!„ dav,. 1,M to the i-orc 
l" bin. >,.« „l ,1„. -ulpluTi.- ari,l an-l .-hloriM.. uls to ,naKiio-,„>n 
MnrodMOt..! to tl.e >,a !• tl.c forn. of tl,.. -arb-MK.,.. h.v tb.- riwrs. Tho ohlorii*. 

'''"'"•"' ''■'■'■'• "■"■" '"il''i'nn rbl,„i,|,. „nVI,t Imv,. 1„., „■ ui part rra.luall. b,.un,l 

fi) -odium. 

Th.. ut.Mo-t .•tr,,rts ..I cbi'miM. Mia.v br iin^iblr t.. ,|,.t..n,P,u. fiillv tli.. oxa.^t 
■vaedons that t.ik,. placv in so .■nMM.I..x a ..,,i,„i.,n as ..-a ^al.T. I„it if socmn fair 

t'l uraiit t!ir, ilily nf .-..m,. Mich rcan'aii;jrMi 

■lit- aiiinii- the idiiJ nf the Ko; 

-eu wator .So.hii.ii and niaKncsinni ,alts are tbr .loniinaiit ^*alu in the sou to-dav 
itnd It IS to suppo,.. that tli.y bav,. b.<M,n.,. s„ b.H.ans,. of a slow evolution 
"t an ,...pan lendin^r towards a tnaxinnim ionic stnbilitv. Tho .mdpbates ar.- 
t..-,la.v rolatnvlj^ subordinate b.ean-e of the very exteti^ive preripitation of 
insnlnl,!,. sulphides and earbo.wites. dir.^etly or indireetly thronph the .heniieal 
liitluenees ot livinjr or piitrefyinf.' aiiiina]-. 

It. filially, the aeid bi^eanu^ eiflicr destroyed ., i .sueh or pernianei'tly 
b..niid to bases more pow.Tful than lime, the <'one,.Titration in the sea water of 
ealeinni earbunatc' introduee.l by rivers first bee.mie pos^iWe. Then and fla^n 
oidy mi-lit have been initiated the , poeli in whieh an indefinitely eontinnmis 
-erie- ,,( lime-seereiin;,' aniimd- e.,iild b.. evolved, Tlw b.-inninjr of this epoel, 
mifrh; have been near the opening of the Candirian p«Tiod. 

Or. thirdly, w may snppos,- an<l this seems to be the more probable 
altei-native-that a r.dat.vel.v sudden inllux of river-borne culeium salf^ mi>rht 
prodiie,. an exeess of them in tin- sea-water scdution over that amount 
hitherto was keiit continuously pre<Mpitated by organic dt-eu.y on the sea bottom 
In tins case it is simplest to postulate that a.-id radieals were .-fill free in some 
measure to convert the river b,, rue earboiiates int.. sulphates or eblnridc**. liv 
sieh reactions tiic calcium would npix^ar in those salts whieh are now normally 
used by lime-sccrctinfr animals; fh,. animals would then have a mu.h more 
abundant s(,iirce of cabium i'nr the elaboration of liprd parts than if the mueh 
les- soluble carbonate only were presi'ul.* 


III Hi^MW <»Hnl,|:M, I!k\oI,I l|,,s. 

Toward the close of Eo/oi 

. , .,, time there occurred one of the world's ftreatesf 

mountain-biuMinfr revolution-. V,.ry extc^nsive nh.untain-raiiK'es were fluii 
tat the lieRiniiinK of the • Kparchean Interval') ere<-ted. and the 
prrew to larpc size. In a monojrraph summarizing some of Walcot.fs researches 
on the Cambrian fiumations of North America, that author writes; 

' The continent was well outlined at the beginninn of Cambrian time- 
iind I .sfronfily suspect, from the distribution of the Cambrian faunas upon" 
the Atlantic coast, that ridfjes and barriers of the Al^'onkian continent rose 
above the sea. within the boundary of the continental plateau, that are now 

' Cf . ,1. Murray and K. Irvine. I'roc. Hoy. Soc, lOilinlmiKli. Vu). 

Ih>i9, I). W. 


"/ r\i{iMi:\r <>r mi i\ii:i/ii,u 

2 CtORGE V , A. 1912 
l.iiri,.,l l„.M..nll, tl„. wat-r^ of tl... All.uii... <)„ ,hp ,. „. „,„, „.„ , f „ 

i^:;:'"o;:;r- v\S:r::;.r::;;;:!, 'ir : ;;';:T:r":r r^- - " •"^" "^^"- 

"Ml.v by inur,. or less ,.| tlicr truix-nfcl base-.. Th,. Interior Cntino,,?, 
foundations wore l„„lt i„ AlKonkiun ,i,„e on tl.o An-hoan I .-o , ont' „n,l 

favour a ,..., . ,.H,,.,,u t.:.e "iJn:" ;'::;i;;^i:: 1':; :zrz:: 

asins. will, ,.„ ,,,.ir ass™.b,:..o of;.oa,la.rin;^K:,X:;: , i t rl;:l J^S 
Ki-oaly u„.roa<..,| over thnir i.K,R,n|„,|,.s in forni.T tin,,.. ' "'^^'' P'-^babl.v 

fw„ .!,n.lil!-T'''''n'" "'""'" •"""" '''"" "' "'" '1-iantitativo influence of tbo fi,-.f 
!!^' ' ' ' ;, """•""""" ^ '•"'•••'■"1 i.n-..>«tion of the Bohemian rivers h, 
«n :t'?;" ♦"','"";'"•''"". -'r'i"" '■•■'--" the li,l,..I,„ nature "f o rt 
i-nd tl„. cnt.nt ol cale.un. in tl.e waters issuing f.o.n the terrane * His res?) 

re sunnnarue,' in the folh,wi„« table iu wh^.h ,he ti,. r ^e " t™ 

represent avenip.N of s-^veral analyses:-- U'irano 

'I' \BI.E X >' ■ 

"■•Jriuni ,ni,l i„;,i,ir,i,i ,„ ;„ H,,h,;<:i,,n rivi,:i 




Mitvi m-liist 


f'rctaci-ous (lari.'1'i.v liiii.-«t.m.-| 

'lltt HI i^nrts 

• I'l r iiiithi,,,. 



!l M 

fW S4 

;t3 lis 

fHirt;' I tr 


3 71) 
I'.i 7i. 

:: 32:1 

-' 37 : 1 
2 J.s : 1 
.1 4I':I 

:K«/*'ifi''''\v'ri'''L-^"y; !'"''• ''••"■ "™'- S""-"^-- '89'- p. •«■• 

i % 

/.■//■"/,■/ „/ //// ,/,//■, I. s//,.,,\ „,/,/,. 



^•aMuM> and >,u,-„„m. is n.Mnif,-, '""""^ "' •''--''••' 

Alter a ,l,.tail,-.| study of thr nii.-ii,,,, It|,|, ; ,,:, , , 

'1.^;. ovon this tnK.,io„ is ..l.nos, ^ . ', ' S, "^w h'^'T' T'"' '■■'"^"■'- 

orilv ..n.-thirtietli of tl,o ,.„?,.; i A., on I in j; t., Ins,,,,.,!,- 

furriosg '" ''" "'i-' <"i'Hliiii,' nvcr-sy^ti'in 

«ft,-.Miu.n.oi„,io„..srr.M.,:,/:Hv :,;,::'■■,:' ',;'■,"";' "■"":■. 

I li'> revolution must hnve liii.l iinotluT iriinorto.t rir . • . 

.|ii..f,,.,:,:,::rl:;L::;i':™;,:;:^t:,";:i'i':,:rT ■■";■■ 

::;s::;;;":™;;f;::;:;™;:i:i:tr;l'^::;r" ^'f r""''"r '""^ 

■^Muuie miles aiu)«er imiii.v.u re-ions, a total area of about 3.-,,(1(m».,h.,, 

V'.i.MM.!;;!';;;; ''/;;r,2j''"*'"" «' ^•"■■"'-- j--- Ak..i, v,,„ w..t.„^h: 

l>l"ll. AllKt,Tr|:illl, 



III f\i!i \ii\i III nil i\ 1 1 mill/ 

■ lllil«-. Hlli.'ll i^ riMlKlll.V ill.. 

Hii wiis, on tli.-.i- 

? GEORGE v., A. 1912 
lion inrn.a-t'.l \\.,' Innil iircii t,. ,"..■, (»iMi,(itii< «.|,i,,r 
|iii-iiit iiri'ii ot' llii' liiMil-.' 

'I'll.' .inniiHl rut,. ,,f i|„. supply .if .Ml.-iinn t.. tli. , 

asMni.pti.M... i,„T,.,.-..,l lr„M. (^r; J«.J , ^,;, ,., 1^:, ..,.., , u'/Vini.^'W'H^r 

';"'■'.'";■'■ ': ■•'"-•■'' '"■■^-'i.M.- u,, ,i,.. -,., i„.ir n. t uhi.-i. m. 

-■l«ni...Ml pr....„,,t,.t,..„ „f .■al..i„n, ..;,rl„,n„,.. v. ...,n.p. IUmI was hnlvo.! hv tl„..o 
m,.v,.n,.nN 11,,,- tl„. p,,.l ll„r,>ni,.n .nn.iili nn , no„rinK the p<.s.ibiliiv ,i„„ 
^. pnrt ot_ th,. nv.T iM.rn.. .•nl,.i„ni ..ft„l.| r.Mnain in s„l„iio„ in th.- n.v,.n w.t.. 
from (.'.- ^' • 11 to (H.J> ,K or n,„r,. tin,.-, n,„n. ..ff..,.,iv.. ,»w.m th.. p,... 

AJ.h.M.Kh .tr 1„. L,i,l „n ,„, p«r.i.M,lar tiK„r.. ..nlMnli..,! i„ ,|,., 

»'T,.K,„nK ..„,„.,., thi. r„„Ki, „„nl.v,si. mtvvs k. ill„>tr..t.. th.^ .tr...,Klh ,.f ,1,.. 
nrnl.,,h,l,ty lh,,t tl,.. prn,iii.i„„- ,.n,-l„| n„.v,.„„.„t- „f M,.. l,-,t,- 1 1 „r.i„ia„ ;„„l 
l-H't anilri,,,, ,nl..rval nin.l,. ,, .•.„i,p,ir„ti;..|y nipi.l .i,„| ,,„it,. ,lr„s(i, 
Ihf .■li.'iiH.-,il .Mn.iilinii of th. iin. 

<'liun|j:.' Ill 

.\\ M \ »l - nf III. t »l I \\V \ K'lv I I,. 

Tl,,. vi,.w thii. ll,.. Mipply ,.f .■„!,•!,„„ I., th.. ,„•.•„„ ,-..u,.|,...l „ mnxi.nmi, r 

'"";'"' '' '■'- "' l"''-<'.u„l.rimi ,i„„. I. |,„„.,| ,,„ .„„„. -|„.,.„h,ti„i,. Appiir 

flit y i,i,„v .•.•rliiiii aiv lli.. trr.Min.U f..r,.viii- that th.. hitr i.r,.-< •.iinhriaii ,,.■,.;,„ havo r. iv...l in, anninil ralriuiii supply whi.'li was onlv n siiiiiU fr.i.lioi, 

"f th.' pr«.se.,f annual supply. Tho l„.li,.f may U- foun-lcl ..„ a ....mpariv,,,, 
Lotwo,.,, th.. anaiys,..* .,f riivrs ii.,w .Irainiiifr larRo pr..(amhrian aron-i with ih.. 
m,alys..s ol riv,.,.,, ,lra,i,i„;r averafr.. f.rran... ,f the i.ros,.pr o.,ntim.|its. 

I'ew mors ar,. m„re typical „f the form r rlass than the Ottawa ah.,v.. 
Uttawa .'ity. Its ..f miles of trunk ami bra.i.-h .' are siinl; 
in t.i.. laip.sf pr.-Caii,l,r,ai, area ..f th,. worl.l. aiul it happi'iis that most ..r all 
.,t th,. r..,'..Ki,ue,l ro..k t.vpes of th.. pre-Cninhrinn format are liherally retire- 
se„t,.,l ,n Its .Iraina^e bn>in. Only very small and praet .ally nepli^nHe' n,ass,.s 
ot ..•oimfr.T r.ieks oeeur in the basin alniv.. the eifv of Ottawa 

At the re,,uest ,,f th.. writer. Mr. F. T. Shutt. to the Dominion 

M-erimeiital arms, has v..ry km.llv ma.le two analyses of the Ottawa wat..r. 

taken at the ( handle.... falls, wlih-h face the eit.v. The first sample was eoll..,|..,l 

on .Mar..|, 12 1!K)7, at a tin,,, when th,. river was still i..,.-..overe,l an.l reporte.l 

'•" ■'"'■^' ^"^ " '^'--'''R ""' *"""'"■■• I'if-'l'- -rio.l. Its analysis is more 

. VV'*'". "'■'!. '*"♦'»" •"'•'"'■••■' of the aue ot th.- iH.«-aii ns about 90.0(10 000 vwir.. s*....,,.. 

i'',"o..e.?;: brt.rr-v'j;"T"'' "^ •'■« r ''"'■'^•^- '/'^ '■"•*■ •'"^' th.. •s.iaZ bri,. i ': 

li(. ...eaii by tlie rtvers diirinK pi«,t tiinp is iiparly all r<.prf-..nti.,l in fhp i,r..Mi,t v,., 
, . T ," ?PP"'"''»',v "'"> of the soundest in ,lvna,nic RPology. Tl " .hfef so, .,.,•,' 
loul.t as to the validi y of his mPthod of calculation ronsisfs in th . ohv ous t , th 
t ,s not yet possible to spoiire ..voi, an approxiniat.. i.h.a as to the "..'.""r v , at .m 

':^':.:i^'^;J(i^'^^'"^' *- -^ ^"'- ■• ^•--^*- '^a,'th;^:;yy,;r,iia^',j::^ 


'■"'"''''•'•• •'"'" ''"It "f ll,.- ti,-i -, ,1, I |„. ... 

I .'M.I .' ..t T„l.l,. X.\.\|.\: ' ■ <>' '»., 


*Mil X.WI.X. l„„/„,„, „, ,,,, , ^;^^^, 

I .,..,. 

Ilnrli ujtt.T. H..l„l« at !.M i.Mi ,,.,i,,^.,.;„|, 

'■<»•« (fntt;..|i. 

■"<|'Im|« lift. 1 ij/tiiii..ri 

.\I,U . 

C'«( I 



.Ml. 11. 




II'. t 1. 1. 
II ■• .1.1 
;i 7i' 
ii.t ,t,i, 
I1..I .l.t. 
ii.,t .1,.,. 

:«> :u 
7 (h; 

' iK 

•-' u 

■J :.i 


""I'ly- ...v.. r...„....,iu.i: ,.;;„r:,i;,i J -vr ^;"" ; V"^"'"- "•"'• ■'''"■^" 

■"'ll'o... m.l s„li,l, atW iKniti.. . I.,. .',.„,i.;., ■...'.■"■ ,':.-"• ^Z "- '. '7'~ I"' 

"-' -I- v,.rin,i,.„ i„'",.i,':,; .;:,'.';; -'•^■. 'T' """'•"'■ ^' ^^"' '"• -■'■ 

s.-a.*on t„ 8, ,,*,:„ ;s r.-l-itivelv „ ,1' i '" ''''■"■ '" •'"''"■ "'"' ''■•'"" 
Hualy^^s f.irl.v ro,iros..nt ,l,e^,^,.^.. , ...X' '"'" ' ''"'' "'"' "^^ '"■" ''*"' 


„ . '•''' '"'•"• "'■ '•''-•i'"„ an.l ,„.,;.„*-«„ 

tl.eir inean bc^,, c„l<.uh,t,.,| t„ „.,.-- ,„ 
l^iM.. M... „i,i,.|, :,l>„j;iv, .. f..r „„rr..-, 
■ithor rivers as well as of fl„. ,)(,;,«•, r: 
b.'ork of ]'i,l,«,zoi<- lim..>toi.. , lvi„>; ,„ 
'•ii'vs f„r the ori^'iiiMl rnblirnii,,,,. „f il,,. 
Wo\ RulK.tin niimbrr :;.;o of the ri.i-u 

Hi" Ott.iwii riv,r wntor in mode 

■f tl.r nv. -till,,,, of (1». riv..r, ami 
""""■" -.'I tl». rosults ontpr...! in 

'"■'•"■'^ '' ■alrilitll (■(illli.iil I.I 

\' .■ below the .<ulid 
mil Monlr.-iil. Tlie refor- 
,^-i's I'lny 1).. foiiiiii ,,„ p:,g,. 
•loj-'ieal Survey - 


'" i-\i;i\ii \i ,,i nil i\ii i;ii,ii 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
Tuir... XL. r,,/, ,.M„ a,.. I ,„<vn„u,i,„ ,„ ,„,■„,„, ,i,-,,,. 


" I. n» Ullti 1 

'• lli^'ti »,ir. r . 

' . \\<.\\\ i.l ,1 :itii| 


I..1'' I'lv <■ .11,1, 

I.1'' i.r. I ■.ihilirj.iii .1 

S;.ii,i l.:i«-,.n... al l)if.|..„.lM„^ I.;,f|„,. I',,„| „,, 

..■"""(.'••"I 'i Iltlllv an,.U.. , 

■'. U \lmi,...i|..,l,. ;,v..n.n. .,r I,, I, |.rrr„,„l,i,„„ 
, -J ""■•K ••■••. I',.l,.„„„.., 

• ;'","l''"' "'•''> ' i: I,,.'. |.,,.|'. ,.,,„ „. 

V'" «>,.,.„, ,>„,.„.. „, .-,^,x,,„,|,, ,,,.,,.„^„ , ^ 

I, ";' "'- ..( I'nMMf Hi,„ , 

'"1 !n.-niL'. ..I ■.,'.; ,i,,,U-, , 

Uli.ill.' .IV.TJL'' .p( .'i :ili,.U., . 
S. Ml,. . 

Jtk \ ..1,11.'' ..f Id rii. ,. iNliniin r 

^ \>.l....'. ..tJllis..,. 

' S„ .r„|i„ M,,i,,,> , .Se..,tti.|, .;...«,.,,, I, „,,l M.,^.a,„.,, \,.|. ;(, |ss 


l.t.l , 

• littn 



liiltM. ,,i 

<-,i r., M„ 




:. HI 
- II 

11 '• ' 

1 •i7 

■J ill 

•► 1,-J 

:i Ml 1 
:i ^.' 1 
.1 i.'i . 1 
1 '11 1 

1, . - 

1 :>•: 

1 .'■_■ : 1 

:i:' iC. 

7 L'l 

1 tl 1 

11 l> 

1 . .11 

•-' '.'.1 . 1 

.t( .'l* 

\\ 7; 

-' Ml . 1 

.■U 'HI 

^ 1',:, 

.; ••-' : 1 

c; VI 

<i <)| 

II :)| 

iM !l!l 

ill x;, 

1 1,0 

1 IJ 1 
7 •-'•-' : 1 
Mi L'l 1 

1 t? 1 

'7 77 

:i 11:1 

1 .»( I 
1 IN : 1 

('iiMI'MilH,)\ (IF illi: Oil u\ V 

\^l' "I III.K Kl' I lis. 

IH-T.^..,,! i,s mu.l. cili.iu.n i),.r v.ilin.u. •!. fl.o \ >":"-'"'.'•»?. '""I <-- than I'o 

^•: *"' ;■' -':■■• I.'":..:;: i;:'.";:';;:::;;;.:;'™';,::";, ':'i:rt 

wludi urea |.r..l„ibl.v vi-ry little soli.ti,,,, of .mI,-;,,,,, s.,1 - i ■ , il,- , 'f •'■'• '" 

h '■ o.nTt' -; r..l,„nvly nir... Tl„. .on...„t of this river is tl, r:fo M S 
tian 1, «.,> 1,1 be It the rnvr bu-i,, were all .,..,.,i,,iod bv the iivoraL'.. rock . f 1 
who.. ...,,, „H.ntal luva of the earth. The e„„. ,ari.o„ of^tl^ L^: H.: s : 
»|Mei . l.v instnietive, s.nee tlie.y a.v all worki:,« un.ler e-,.nti,llv .uJL V , 
••-lir.on. with nearly the .an.e ratio of rai„?;.ll tj nl^.'-'Er ";:;;: I'' 

r",' ";■'"; "'■'^■''''"' -"'f • ''' ""^ """""^""^ --" "■! -f .heir . ". .„ r ' ; 

:;:!e.;';::^x:';:Si:;r ™:!f ;;;:: z:\:;z ""•-'"■•" - - " -^'-'" - ^^ 

p.. J'::;ri':ir''r;;:::';:rM:SM:'^,"''^'" '"" ""-^" -- '^ •-'- 

In f_lnrke's a.iinn-ahi ,„„,ilatio„ ,if river ;„.a!^-.- |],os,. referrinL^ t,i 

-er. wh,eh .Ira.n pre-t an.bri.n terra ,l,r„..i,„„. their respe^[rba,i;: 

'■'' ■'"/,■/ 1,1 

' """ IWA'..\,,,/ 

/ /,■ 


>'"f .1,,. pn,p..r,i,„. .,,■ ,,.,,.i„„. , .'^;, ' '""•;' '""'<• '"I'l-. n u-i ,.,..: 

y-:' t:::::?:s;t?Sf- !:-^^ :■■- 

•'^"' -i-' .Murray', ,.-„■„ „. ' ""'"■'" '" '"'-'•"" '" ""'• ^--rM 

"vonll:;:;;:;;;,::,':;;;,;';;;;;^-';;;- ;-•-..■ ^^^ ,.iw.,.. .„H,;„, , 

i;o--.'.;.m ,„ .ii-„iv..,, ,..,,. ,1 ;'::'" ;.'■; 1 ' ""■ -n- 

' i:<\.'nsUur ,„„i ,|„. Mi„i.,i i „;„ . "''";'■ "''.'•'• '■— ■• Sainf l.;uv,v „ 

'^' 'i;7 ^-p--'i- Hr,.! ov..,. ♦i;:';!::,,;;;!'!; '';!'''■'■•■' ••''— — •--iin.,,.., 

-iH^:;.il'::;:^?:!i:.:;::;i.:;:::;:!;:!:r'-/:;V''^^ .> 

=-.':r;:;;:::';:;:i:':::;,.;:;/:::;:, ::-:; - -'^''-^^ 

;«ti,:i:'-r - -■ •-- - '';:i:r:::::,;i::i:,:'t:,;;:" 


.- ii: :;:';;:;l:!';:;':;;:;,:;;: •"; "■'"■'•' --m,. ,. 

rl.v '...ricliiilc 

,, "" '•"<• rii' < iiiiil.nnti I ill,. III,. i.,,,,| , ' '•"•^'■^ '■ 

'>' 'I'O -mn,. onler n.uM |,,v,. ,.xi.n.,i l„''w ! , ,".'"■•-"'" '■'■^■'^'•-- -^ '.■■Mtra,t 

Tf til.' Lit,. p.,.-(;i,i,|„.i,,„ 

'■'ii'l- li.'i'l ;i total Ml 

"". l".'..^..Mt total 1;„„1 ;,r,,, ,|,„ ,.,■„.,. ,,„■', '"■■' ." on. -half as ^rcat n.^ 

rivers. '"" "' ' ^'"■""" """' '.-Ti.-I to ,|„. ....„ ,„. ,h.. „.", ,-s 



i>i:i'\itT\n:\r or mi: i\ii:i!i<tit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

r«f. If ';:J:!!-'"l^ .-bvioM^l.v involves .1... ..sMM.pti,.,, that tl...,.,, 
rate of chemical was no more nipi.! tlian the prcsi'iit rain Si,,.-,. 
Iho rate .s <.ontrollo,l ,apar( from the influo.,ce of the terraue) prin-ipallv l,v th. 
nb,m,h.n..e of the or;.«,„,. aei.l. attaekinjr the hedrook. we rnn.v well suppose' that 
the well vepetate-lOttawa river is witnessing, solution at as rapi-l a rate 

11'", •" ^'■:;"^ ""''!:',"" /'■.""■ " ■"'«•" ^e <'onsi,iere.l that a tropical tempera- 
ture .iurins the pro-( a.nhrn.M wonl.l have <.a„se,l specially rapi.l solution of the 
rocss uf that t,ine. This view is. however, har.ily su,,porte.l by an inspection 
of tl,e .lata relat.uR to ex.stinfr tropical an,l extra-tropical rivers. Furthermore 
the recent ^-lacation of the Ottawa basin has cause.! the removal of secularly 
w,,i rock, so that the formati..ns n.,w cxpose.l to erosion contain n.-arlv 
their oriRinal anionnt of solubl.. matt..r. For this reason th.> calcium contend 

raitifall""""*' '""''''" '""■' '"^ ""'"■ '*' '""'"''" "'"''"""• f'"" " '''■f'''"'^" "^ "vera^e 

\Vitl..M,t furth..r entering' upon this conf..sse.lly obscure subject, we mav 

triThe we. I'T'r, '""'";"" f •'"'''■'■""■"''■' "'" ''''^''' "^ ".'.(^i.i.u.le in the cou'- 
ra,t het«een the late pre-( auibna- - present suppl.v of calcium to the ocean 
tlirouffb weathering: nn.l river intlo\ 

\'\mATI.)\s IN Tin; CaMU M SICIM.V 1)1 H|\. 


lieforc til,' 11 

urniiiaii revolution tUv Mipply of river-b..rnc 

■an was almost ecrtainlv less 

.•aU'iuru tl 

1 , , ■ '" '""'-f'''"' ''-^ rn]m\ as it is to-day, an.l it 

a. h.ue h..en hss than one-tw..„tieth as rapi.l, while the amount of animal 
matter compl,.t,.ly .Ic-ayiup on th.. s.-a floor, ami therewith the likelihoo.l of the 
pre,-i,)>tat,on ot ..alciuni salts, may have respectively, of times 
greater than they are now. 

rmmcliately after the Iluroniau nn-olution and during the immcnselv 
long period of l,as,.|evellinfr which followe.l it. the annual supplv • - cal,.iutn t'.. 
the oceau niay have approach,.! rivalry with the present annual >,.pplv. Th.. 
>upply .lonbtless .hinimshed somewhat as more an,! ,m,re of the IFu .Inian an,! 
K..-lIuioinan hm,.s,oue ai„l basalti,. areas w.-re l,.ssen,.,l by erosion an.l as I'e gram... batholi.hs w.-re un..,v,.re,! an.l ..xp.,s..d to solution; hut this 
wm^^e must have !,..,.„ vry slow, an.l it ,li,! not annul the criti-'a! offe.-t of ..„„- 
|'; ,^nlar,^..meut. ! '.rinK the Iouk ..rosion cy..].. ,hc ocan was. for the first 
ill river-b.iriic I'al.'ium salts 



'.1 as k 

FMi>i ( ' \i..m:i:oi s I-'hsmi- 
This special inllux of .■al.ium salts nuiv be con... 
livers .,f the s,.a water sutli,.i,.nlly supplio.l with cal..ium for tli^ nee.l7of"iimc' 
^.■.•ivlMiK .,rj.aius„,-. whil,. |lu< bolton, layers lost th,.ir .•aL^ium conL-nt by 

.Sucli contrast of surfa.'e and bottom wat.i- 

eepiiiff the siirfa... 

l.ifation .)f the carl)..iiat.' ,if calcii 

woubl b,Ylu.. to tlie sl,.wn,.ss of .litTusi,.,, throuKl, a of l;,,ui,l s., ^r.^at as |l„. 
..cean. Hn.b.r the cone..|v,.,l ..ou.litions the mo,t favourable pla.-es for the 
invent.ou „( ,.ab-ar.-ou> bai.l parts wo„M l,c, p„s,iM.v. localize,! area, .u- h ,. 


"""""'"■ ^'": <iin:r A. riiosnun^ 


tlio open sea opposite tUo urt-tU;- ilv i i 

n'ore or less isolate,! <\unn^' th, ~'t:- "\ V'"'' '" ""• ^"i''"»"-"-MtaI 

-'!"f"n. """ '■''■■""" '•o-M remain in the ooeanic 

^in.'e Lower CuMl.rian ,i„„. .1,,. , ..,„i,„,„ , 
-"Kv an.l emer^^enoe, but thev have .ioMht . ' '" '" ""■' ""'''■•'-"■"- -'i'-Mr- 
area eharaeteristi,. of the pre:iIur,M'i n . t, I ".'■■ "■'""""■'' ""^^'^ ^"'»" t''>W 
P'-oolH that the oeean ha... the ,, , '''^: /" "'i'^ "-'■ '^^ ''-« ohvion. 

;:r:t?,:;^r--^ ----■ -'---;;:•:-"'::;:.:::;;!; 'Sit-,- 

;n.-lnopo,l shells are often r • V ,i ! '"n'r^ff'"'"''";""*''- ''''- ' '-"b-inn 
.f '"•^-■-' f'-e two principal or^-eZh 1 t[ ''''''':' '""^-"•'"-■f the 
' ".- .n the oeeani.. composition mie Si, „I V'""""^ "'"' """"'"<-•■" 
I'nan ,„o||„ms. hra.-hiopo.js. ..f mmI ? , , T <l"'ninanee of post-Cam- 

'""..tless fos;iis " "' '"'-^''''" "'" Pn-rva,i„„ ,,• 

^oIlo^vinp onr main hvpothe^i. the ,.!,; ,f • w 
r- .are in.pressions of soft-hl h , '.; tw "i';;;:;"'' f"-''^ -i-'-i in Ko.oie 
-I' ti.,o„s tests. The last will |„. .'. .,'e ? T "/.^'''™""* orpanisn>s. an.l 

'">-' "^ 'I'l owe their preserv.tio,, f r '"' '"-'"■• ''-'i"^ "f tli- -r J 

i"|'^">i<i..K tlio late Eo^r: " W. 'S Ttv*^ "T""' ^^^ ""^ -"' 
.ah-areous shell, or skeletons also ovohed e te f /.'"''r ^"'"''^ '"'" '^ '' '-v 
<;• ""■ ^ea in river-borne lin.e salt. Ha e' i" '"^ '■''''•'''• -■•■■'■'-'-'' 

■ -overe,! in the pre-Can-brian ro-ks Iv W^l ^ n "^ '"''' '!;" "^''"'^ "f ^-'1^ 
•or ohv.ous reasons fossils of all four eh, se fu'T ^'"'"'^ •■""' """■-■^• 

'l.--over in the roeks. The verv pr. enee t^ h •""* """. ^"^ "'' "'- '""i'-lt to 
- -.1, as the Lower ('n„,|,rian' >'r •, "he," t ? ""'""^^'^"'^ "'' '-d'- i'. .oeks 
'■.vpothes.s cannot explain the absenee ,' e , ,., ^"TT "''" "'" •""■f^'-""n.hi- 
i; '-any thousamis of f,..t of eq mil I ; |, r';^ '''''^"r "\"f f''-'' "'■r-re.sions 
"'7';'Pression of a shell is assu eZ ml ,';'"";'■"—'' '••'^"- -''--"-ts. 
^an.l than ,s the impression of a navh so ': ' . " '"■'■"■"'•'' '" """• "r 

cortan. th,,t the pre-Camhrian roek , h \ ,. V'""'^- "" ' "" '' '-"' 

:•' '"•»• ti-ne eonfaine,! any .onsi^^ahl, „ b.^'V i ""■""" '''"'''"-■' "— 

i-r;;,:i::~u,£-,t: — '^■■';""--r-,::,,*'-'i: 

«.^fi::"'zlz '.:; ;i:t;:::,;:'r',7::,t ■;;:::;:" ;:'■■«;■' ;"- '-" ■ 

""ts^i; r:;:/;:;;;:-::--s;; r,:^^;l-;-,;^-,:;;; 

"■ -":'■''■ '■■'""■ " --"™'-'rn,!^;:.-:;;;;t,i:: 

'■'■ L>. Dana. M; 

"""•'' "' <i''<)losy. p. I'-u. ISM. 


i)i:i'Mrnih:\r or nii: isteuioh 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
••laburiition of sliclla. may be correlated willi flic special eTiricliinf; of the ocean 
ill calciiiiii salts during the Periiiiaii and followiiifr jire-Triassic time. In that 
loiiK period the himl areas were of extraordinary size and were Inrjrely covered 
with thick Paleozoic limestones exposed for the first time. Tlie impoverishment 
and final extinction of the iimmonites may have been laifrel,v caiiscil by the 
partial exhaustion of th.- calcium content of the ocean diirintf the lonu and 
remarkably extensive siibiiierKcnce of tlie continental plateaus during the Cre- 
taceous. To such geopraphical and chemical chanpes. the ammonites, most of 
winch were possibly pelagic species (all of them needed abundant siipfdies of 
calcium salts), must have been peculiarly sensitive, while the coastal species, 
beinf; nearer the sources of calcium-supply (the river-mouths), would be living 
under more ec|uable e(]n<litions. 

Tksts of Tin; Sn;(ii;sri.i) IIvi-otiiksis. 

The rearrangement in the chemical constituents of pre-Car.,brian ocean 
water throiigli the decay of animal matter is the fundamental riremise of the 
h.vpothesis and it deserves special exaniination and illustration. The tests of 
tlie premise are at least threefold: laboratory ex.)eriment, observations on exist- 
ing seas, and the witness of pre-(^ambrian deposits, particularly of the carbonates. 

c '•iinoHomia i: i:\ri:iiiMi.\Ts. 

Murray, \Voodlic»(l, and ]rviiie have iiiacl( 
•hcmical nioditic 

a iiiiniler nf vidiialilc .il>-, rv;i- ..n the .•hcmji'al nioditicatioii nf scii water expc-ed to tin. cmanalioiN of 
putrefying animal nmttcr and to the etTete siib-i,incos derived froi, 

'Ill Inin^; 

Jn one experiment four small crabs weighing i)0-T2 grama were placed in 
sea water absolutely free from carbonate of lime, .\fter twelve months they 
produced an alkalinity in the water CMual to the production of 4.').nti grams of 
calcium carbonate. This effect was due to the decomposition of calcium sul- 
phate by the uric acid, urea, and other effete matter. 

In a second experiment it was found that in seventeen days and at tempera- 
tures ranging trom sixty to eighty degrees Fahrenheit, the decomposition of 
urine mixed witli sea water ha<l i)recii)itatcd practically all the sulphate of lime 
liresent. A similarly complete precii>itation of all the sulphate in a solution of 
pure water and calcium sulphate pre?<'nt in the proportion of average sea water 
was effected in eleven da,ys by the decomposition of urine added to the solution.' 
Jn a fourth experiment, nine small crabs were place.! in two liters of water 
where they died, (\implcte iiutn>factioii set in and continued at teiuTKTatures 
varying from seventy to eighty deg>ve. Fidir. Anal.vsis showed that all the 
lime salts were precipitated in the form of the carbonate. 

I'loo. Royal Society Kiliiilnirgh, Vol. 17, 1SS9, 

I<. TO. 


Hi:i',,l{l nl Till: ,1111.1 \sll!,,\,,M,l; 
Steiiiiiiaim Ims 


-. of tho ,...r::.:':r^ir.;-;;;r;;;:;;:,,;;:;;;',' ••■';'• '■■ ^-.-i-.,.. 

albumen to s.,liiti(Mi^ of ,.al,.|„>„ ,.l i 'i i '"i '.miK-. ,(,. j,.l,|,.(l (l.vj.vinf.r 

the forn. of r.nn^ Jn:^^Z^^:trv ^'''''' ""^' '"'■""" '-»-nate. in 
-i.e. the ..nery wl.chor n.^^:; i!;: .:::;• r;,:;;:;^:-;"''^"-^- . ^'-:« 7'"t 
>.'a se.lim..nts i,ro „„t direct wif, ...... <'-'nl>Ml ,is o..onrnnt; in (lo<.p- 

-'^'ir.- ;- - ■> 1-.;:^ ::i:- :;; ;:,::;: .:7r ;'■;;:;:::■ ---'-^"" ^^^ 

. JnrJ;;;^:;.-!:;ri•.;^;tt:;:.:•:St'''^ "r* "'"''- -'-'^- -- 

.iK. proportion- of .v • i^.!' v-^r n''.l' ' 'v "r'' '"""^ ""*"' '" "^ont 
I'ut were never rebu 1 bv t . ^ air^Yet'lT"" ' '^ •'■^-^''■'•■'•;- -- ^'-1 

♦I.eir exoskel...on<. Ti'is n. w strno t.r ; tho -.rab. livod an-l rebuilt 

Phosphato of li,,,.. an obit ,!,.,, t, '"'"'''''"'' "* "''^ '■'"■bonate an.i 

■shells. Otbor . n,b „. ir L •'■ '" , '•" /'^''""■•'-- P--"t in 

...S^r^ '^e:;;;' ,;'^"= tir r -:r " " 

....Sjf.*o"," l,"E;;';;;r -"•' ","''"" •.'» '»'»»*.':; 

I'HSKinATloNS ON THE IlI.Al K ska. 

.1.. MnSapb!:"':::i rr;^!'^'^. ^^y'-n.^': ^"^~ „„., otbe. „„ 

111 a la 

rograpny and .ioposits of tlu- Bla,.k Sea «how that we have 
r.o^ basin a stron. analo.. ,„ tb,. in.^ll.r Ko" " 


^ tR. Irvme and G. S. \Voo,il,..a,|, l.,.„., Kny..l S„. i,.tv, t ,„r,,l,, V„l. 

i',>a -V..I. 111- 

16. lK>s9. p. 


liHI'UlTMr.M- l)F THF. ISTF.Iilon 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

tI.o surface fau^ alw's b^In ^'^f '" '"n °^J'' "'"''"• ^" '^' °»'""- '■«"''. 
'!«.• fallen carea^rof Z s.^fl ", ' ", ''°"""' ^"^ *^"«^'"''' ^^'^'^^^^ 

'" .i.o re,auve..r*;:i.:i; tt;ra^^;e?;'t;:t:r.;:r'"Tr^^^^ ""t^'^'^ 

ammonium curbo.mto an.l .„lnh„«.f I i ,' ' '"'^"''''' Products, 

-non„ons,,„autiU,ru low' -n ''•^''^^^^V''"^- »«-'^'' generated in 

surface Below thVl(Xf„ ' ^T} "^ "'""" ^^"^ ^"""""^ '><■■" ♦!'« 

ana;=ro.i/l.rrir,,r , whi", T I'" '''^'^ %^'-^^- except that of a few 

Rs r j( o, + ir,o"= I r,s + ru -o co 
Ks + iux),( 'o, + ir.o := :.'R( r . II s 

VoS\ + ;! I r,s = 2F(.S + S + ;!li^() ' 

states annthe,. oau.' ..f tl^.o o u- / ir ^"'P'''"-""'"l '.-l-.-r,. I,„: ,.1 , 
in Pnrt .lu. ,o the lack of n'o I v nic ; ""tsTn the'^/T' .''■^■^"'■';- '' '' 
.nM.o.ibfe heoanae of the peculiar den£ ^I^^S^^. '^f ^ -f ,5^= ^'^^ "- 

part of the ,.!,a„po. pro uo h v , ,nf ^"'''r;""^ --r-'tion. also apply to a ' 

Sea, therefore, pL, /Tl ,S I'^^-j-'-on T he auaIo..,„. en.e of the Black- 
iron pvrites i. M",r „, 111 t ^ '"'"•'"""-' ^'"^^^^ '"^ to the formation of 
to the ^rradu ■ t ,i' Z '"i , '• *'^". r""""""-^' "*' "'"• f^.vpothesis as 

.i:^r.°~ ,t;;t,™t '!r " "'"-vt "■■■ ^ -""''•• ■»""" ■»■■-"- 

>i^, til CoiiKi,.- GcoIoKKjuc Intprnationnle, Nn. 20, I8<)7. 


't i^ ii ta!, 


- '''■'■'""■'"' Tin: r„„:r ix/avmo,,,/^ 

Ihe analojor breaks down: uv .l,,ii ..„ ,i . , 
I nesium salt.. This fact -annot uTh^l. ' """"' '" ""^'"'^ ""■ '"^"-'■ 


A third of tl... l..v„otl„..i. ,.„„„■„, :„ , 

I Oc/'/l'/i o/ />,.l„mi/r „„,/ ,.f (HI .,. u 

"^•"••' ^- "- ''■■1.^. i^>: ti.;;;::::::"'"'''','''^- " 

nre wry <.o,n„,„M in |,n.-(V,„l„-i.,u n ■' -nLl-t..,,..,. .., | 

I conM not ...prete ni,wi,.si„ni .■■,rhnn.,.'l "i'T' '"','"""-"'•"\ ..;,„;,„„ 

I n,a.nosia„ ..ntent of^h..o l:^:::i:it:\ ,t t^' ■; ^""■'- "^ "- 

i Th,. niiifrnosiuni carboiiat.. w.« „ . n • """H"'! onu-ni. 

I -lublo .alt. as it was in X. T VZl^ 'T ''"''' ' ^"''" "^ ''"I" 

I wator. Then a. n„w calcium ,-arbo„ to /l , "■'"" ,'"'■'"• -"'"•'"'•'' ""' -'■> 

f r'orsistont pr.M.ipita(ion of .•,1,. nn . 1", ""'"' ■"'"'" '''^ ^'■' f' i^ H... 

I tho I.ornuuu.ntsol.,i; 1 '™;'-^'^''''^'> "■"'■'•'• ''-i.-P Eo.„io „„,„, „,,.,, 

W-" are thus naturally l,.,i to L \| V " ''/ V'''''''^'-^' ''''^'''"'■' '^■''•'-''•'•••• 

nw.^nosiun,oarbona,ealJ,lv ,0 M, r "" ,"' "" ""^"'''" P-il'i'.'-i f 

animals. '' ''"^ •'"""^""u.u oarbonato onianatintr from ,|,.,.,,vi„.^ 

-<.s -.:;r:;:::rtbr:;;;,r;^;::;;- ■"' r '-''■ ---- '-'^ 

ara^onite is pre,-ipitate,l but n , ~ "^ "'"''<"' "■ -- wa,,.-, 

r..-c-o,pi,ato.»- On the othor band I'f ff ,:: '""^".7:'^, ^"'""' '■>■ ''-> "' "- 

-"■'Po-ition ,„ avora^o soa uar-r' , f^ ^b! " '! ^"■'""•■■'' .-- ^vator sin,i!ar i„ 

Partof tbemn,^no.iun. in tbo „.,!,: u- , i u i u'' " "'■;''^"' '.'"^•"•■''' "*' """' ■' 

neonrds with the ponoral oxponV,,,-,. ..C n',', l",' ,"", '''r'"""" ■' '"''^'il'- n-ul. 
oarbonat,. ull] bo pn..-ip,t^ ., "' l.^- .-1 obom,.sts: b.ydrons ma^nosinn, 

allowed. ' '■ "" ""<al,no oarl.onato if fin.r . unu.,1, )„. 

foil. ■"' ^ Wl'"' "'^"""'""' ^'""'■•"- "■"' '•''''-'''■ '■ onK- ass 

-'•■a— vol. m— 4.'!* "ipr.iioj^iP, on., ij,.,) jj,, ^,,1. ix. p. .1114. js^, 

i lii 



i>i:i'Mn\n:\r or rni: ixrtiaoi,- 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

b^tf„,„ stratum tl,r„ufc'h most of Eozoic time 

Aga.n we may turn to tl.e noteworthy experiment, ol Murrav n>,.l Irvin.. 
for a sMP«os,.,„ „f ,1„. tr,al, of ,1,,. for,...,i„« stat-,,,,.,,.. "l VZ i , 

l^P^o^hu-e,} (^o. XLI,. u shows ,1„ „ .i,i,.„ „f ,|k. ,,rJ„ t JZ 

out of a nnxtun. of .o. ....or a„,l nrino after stan.Iin,. seven -h v l,e . 

meanwhile .ieeompoMnfr mul f„r>,ishinfr the alkaline earl.onate- ' " 

Tabi.k XLI. 

Water and or; 

c?;4'nat., "fir; ','::''*:■'• '"^"^"--^ »-"-m.^ <7-^v.r.y. 

F'liosphato of maxm-^in 


Phosphate of lime .. . 51-10 




Water and orp.inic mattfi 

Carbonate of lime ... 20-25 

Carbonate of maRnesin "5-35 

I'hosphate of niaraesia lOS 




in rnin ,,i mi ,-iiin i >//,•., \ o 1/ //.• 





Siuliuni ( li|<u nl(. 

MiiKtip-iium ilili rill.'. . 
MuKiie^iuiii liiiiniiil,... 
MaKfie-iuiii -iilnliatc . 
I'ot.iMsiuin siiljihati'. . 
Arniiionium Mil|ili,it.>! . 
MiittiK'^iuin I iuUniiif.. 

f^lll' illlii ('. . 

Ciil( liiMl ^lllpliatc. . 




ll<l ;\ .itiT 









■J ■!<;.■, 







iilpliiit.' is (lotici,.nf 

Tin. raiio „f .^!^^2^:^z:^: T ::^:^r T''''' '' ■''''^'■''''''' '''^''- 

dear water fJltero.l from tho ,n w boil f "'■' "T"" '• ' ^' ^'■'"■" ""' 
precipitate wa. thrown ,low„ ,.;: 1," : .'T?^ '. :!; ;!..,: '-^, l""-- " ,-ystaIlin,. 

a.^ci- bed bv \Iiirrav and r,> ;„n . .1 • '"'"'''""" "♦ '"»tli <Mrb<,natn< , 

on the sulpha r'.,r,,::i •:,'";rr;''''.^"'/'T'" '■"^'"■■''''" '••''•^">- 

-t ..;.rse, d.-rned fr,„. ani.nal „.,„..;:! ! ' „, """"• "■^'^- 
Ihi'sc ditfiieiit exper niwits t.-ach that bvd>vM, i 

.■«. I.. pr,,.i,,i,:„„, k, ..,;„,: ,M,:,° ;"-„::'■, "' "»--i""; 

"-r;:"; -.[r ti;;: ^trr;i.r;';T r ?' ^ - -" ™"' -• 

wate^ll^lnlritd'V'''^'"'''''" 1 "''^'^■■^'""' ^"•■" '^'^„ 

-own on or n.-a,- ,i„. .„,. , „„. „,„.,,„„,,,„„ „ i! , „':'.,' ;::J':;r 

nnw^row.n,. ,„ ,h,. |,unVd .,„.,.„„., ,.„ral ,,„.k of ,ho a,„ll ^ "" 

^ay how lar tli...,. and thn other «alt. iTou-l.t h 1 v , ''' 

•The Aloll of ruiiiifuti, miblislicd 

till. Koval S™ ii'ty, Lnndoii, p|i. 

■I9l'. (1.1. i-ti 



ni: i:\itr\i I \i „/ ///,; niuann 

'n flip [irnpnr- 
■lioniitcs. V.molr 

, . , 2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I'.r n,„.t of tho |.:,./oic „.„n. intro.lmv.l to fiJ . -'■"'>..I,„„m,„„.. was, 

tun... ,.„„,. , Tf , C ; " f '"""^ '•"■'""•""■ "• "^'"""^ """P-^^"- 

«l...n coM„.,,r,.,| wi,l, tl^/ n i nt m'"'' T '" "■'■•^' '"'■''' "'•""-""" 

•"■ " l-Ke river w ■ ^ , .: " t, J'T '"•.■'";i'^'^"''- ""'"-"• th. ,„o,„h 

!-.■ fn,„. .horos ,1. .^;: . 1, : ;,„:i:;"' "-"'^ '^'"•"' -■'-- <-'-"'o. 

'l'"'^.- in tl... riv,.,-., in ,|„. „ ;. .„ 7 •"■■"■''"•^'^"'- <'r>u\na] 

'■■■^.^l-liM,. wo,.l.l CMS. al,. „ i , ,. r "■■•'•' ♦'"V"""'^"'^^'""" "f ♦•'«• 

.n--'M.-i,„„ ,„„„..,„ nt ri ,J ' 11 " ''"■l-s,,,,.,, of ,1,,. „r,.oi„i,.,.. ,),.. 

;-"v. T,. ..,u .„,„„ fiirM;:;;::';:,;;;;;!:;;:;?;::: ;;;;■■■'''•■'•• - "■ 


pwj;:!;:;;; 'ir'i::''::;^:;:'";';:'': ':^'-"- "; '•-":- -- -■'• * 

I--- ■•^- li. :^h. i„ „..!,;/:• - ■ ::" 'i' !''■■ '~' ■•- ti,. pn- 

f^nvucvt rivprs tho wor',1 h. L„ /' ••^'-"'^■-' nu.,- ^r- ...m-ly fl„. 

.1 I' /-I/;/!' Ji'lltlll of ('llhiilill In \l,l,,, ..■,, • ■; . ■ 

/'o/.,/.s.-^T|.o wri.,.,. I, , , •''"■""■■^'"" '" '^"' /.'".'■Wc;-!. V of Ih,- Dni. ,, „ ■ 

United Stat..; fro,,/,:;.;-: m; sr' f1^:r:d; ''"'i^ °'tV'"""" ""' ^'-^ 

roports of Arkansas I,„liana. Iowa. l^^t^U'^ ':o:ot^"oh^"T^"*' T'""^ 
.•>t V.rg.n.a. an.l; frn,„ ,ho ri^po ,f tS: Ont v'' '""'°- 

■ ^ ""■ -na,i„„ of ,ho ratio ,hro.„h ."v^^,::. ^Th^^S/^'J^J^i 
•A. lirket: Annal.s So.i^t^ Go„|„„i<„,, ,,, „„,^i,„„, ,,, „_ ^^^., ^ .^,_ 

in fuh'i ni nil , nil I ^^i n<,\,nn h 



briiiM aij.l Cariihrii.n liiM...toii..H nv.s, I ;, ,„ i, ,i , , . 

on.., ,li,| not seen, n-,vssarv mIm,-, i, i i l "' -"^'""f-' f'T a,l.|.t,oMal 

-: --11.V v.-ry 1... in n.^;.! • , L. ! ','7:,':,. l',' "' 'f '" l"':7 

>'Ti.- of analyses (■>::«, wl,i,.l, wh int.,,. I ff , . '■""'"' " ^"'""^l^"'''" 

'>-'-■'-- lin.,.,: ■ l^;,:■iv'''T ;:'':•■; '''jiv'?^: ?''" ^"^ 'i'- 

^"l.'lv us,.,i, i„a.nai..h as tl„. wl, ,1.. -,.rl,. r , " '"•«"'^'^'-' l^" 


Mni: Xl.ll 

1. <■,.■:„,„ „„, ,„„,„„,; ;,, ,;„„./„„, ,, ^,, ,„,„,„,;,„, ,„.,.;„^^^ 




"f :Uhll.Vs.., 
aw-iat. .1. 

of <',iC4l,, 
to Mi;C().. 



<•.! to \L 

IVt -('.iiiii.iiiiii 

'■• Froii, OiitniioiMill.r) 
'•. Ai.niif.. of,, ail. I ', 

'jimnrKiiiua,'l.i,liii-I7,,ftl„sl,..,i',',„|,,,|, . 

< M'lo\ tci.m 


All prv I), voinaT. 

I>'V,„|i,Ml,. . 

farUinifi rou- 

;;i-(.io i« 


'^MtiTii.iiy Miiil K'.r. lit 

Toiil. s .-,. 




< I 

1 W 

4 II-.' : 

:! ii;t : 

:; IMi : 

U' .'til : 

X Ml : 1 
4' I I'll : I 
I'T 'I-.' : 1 

;; Ho , 1 













H'J : 


(HI : 

t J. p. I...I.,v: |.„,,,l |,v„„, „f l...„„.vl,,,„i, Surv. ■. V„ 

1- I. IMtL', p. .'li;. 


"irunuiM o/ ,„, iM,itii,i; 

It will b,. „l„..,.v,.,| ,1,,., ,!,., ,,.„•„ „,. 
f..r..Il.»,.. ,W, ,„...|,,.,„, ,„^,,^,^,^ 

2 GEORGE V , A 1912 

'iil<-iiiiii t, 

:t:;::!;s:'r,:i;':ri;;7,dE:F™-'"- " 

Tl... rn,i„ forth,. „r..-c,„.,,ri.„"lim!",,„„.. 


lliiit ii Itirifir 
vnriiirc r;itic,s 

f"M. ...»..». 1). ||„, ,.,,m,,nri.,,n of itsrir 

. , , •■^•" tn niiKnicHiiirn 

'••tpifai (low water 8tap.. ; ]; 

^i.Rir.^ts that, ,|,„.i tl...'pre-I)ov„nl,„, ■,-■ '■ • '" '"'"I'nn-on of itsrlf 

!;:;'l'"|.s. iK. r.f..rr..,| t.f ,h .1 " 1. " • J; «^''"^"."' .'" *!'•' '-•"■"•- .,u,v. 

'-inr Hu. ^arI,o,Mf,.ro„^ ' ^ .:'^^;;:;,;'^'V'- .■Pi<-r,.i„..„tal ..... 

'■"-■•«.■.>.■,. .;,..,..s w..r.. ,|riv.. ,■ ' , «''"1- 'I-' r-nn,»„ a„.I 

'■""•■•«'■>'■" 'I'- w..r.. ,|riv,.„'o„t , ,1 . ■'"!""" ?'"' ''<'^'-''"r"'ian 

»-7''"-' '"I -.tion of ,h.. o,,,.,:^. ,,"';'■ ?""■• "■ '■^■; '"■>■ ■■'"""'>-' tl- 

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'^mZ^'^^L^l '^:. ;±;:r;^^;;":;y',r";!;;"f »""-•-,,„, „ beo..,.„ni.a .„ 

■Low that then. Iu,s hU . ;:.ll,,\''"'''' i''''"''/"''*' ^""'-^ -en's In ''? ' ii 
-tniie. of till. oth.T .nalnents i "r i','" ^' 'I'""'!''"! typos a., ,„ ., Vli, i,,„ 

» loiiclios a n.iixiniiim (Ki^i.... . .'i VJ.'i V"' • "tilH'l-^tr.Kini srrifs „f tlio Tnin- 



. IWI. ,, s«|, .,Miri,„inl:,..linan.| 

S..l.-l.ur,, G„.I,.Ky. Vol. ,. .W pi^. ^ 4Im. 

render the h.v,H,the-is soCn» I \„ ,",,,';', '" «"«-^. >»t it ,,- -tatf.! pa tlv "o 
Meai-ro as are the rplfvant f. , „ "miote and thprofnro more iitnli;iii 

zoic a,ul Mosozoi, hi'r ;'\J''Vho iMthX'? '^'\^'^''- ">»- boarinron tho 1? ;: 


T" nit almiKJanllv{ thi» subject ,I,hs ii„t, h 
iinnMrss oiiMii 11, pi-,--t',ii,,|,,- 

— lorod „. ^^...|.M■uu,':.nd^.r"c';nh[ia'n^i;:i:'/ '""'' '^'■"•- »' 


Ht I'li/fl nr Till I nil I 1 , ,, . 


r..t... i, ^.„ .V „pl..,.. ,,r .1,1,. „.v..n,| „,i,|,„„ ^ . 

'■li-MnMry ,,t th.. pr,.„M,t „, v ■■ in, .., „l..„i ti ,|... 

"••" 'I'-iv.'.! ... .1. ..n ,i,rV.T;;ri,'' ,^':"''-'"-". '■■' ^ > 

• l'»U Hr WiirL- 111 r ' ■ .1 . -,,, 

>•■•«' ..ilul.l. 

'I'l fllfi., 

•I" tl. vvr- 

•111' u .fj„^, 

'■ii'i.i /-•r •', 

- tirn- i- y; j 

rhori-f. .• h;,.KT4. 


"""■ "' w-rk ill fl '.,.„ 

iir.,1,,,1,1,. ,h,,t ti„. ,i f ..,i,.|,„„ , '■'•/■ " "I-"' 

i.m.„l„,c,l I.V ,l„.ri '„ ,. ,, """ "'"' ".'"f— i'"" ii -:. .. 

!".«. n,,., 1, "i, ,1 .'Vl'.'T'r''"' "■','"''•' "" '" 

,"';;r ■"'■ ■■■'-■ ii"M;;',;:";r;:';: 

.•'.—w:;;;;:;:;il:::!':,-:/'-;^;:r;;;;;; ;';'■: • 

•- ■■''i"-n~':;:;::r;;;:;::;:; i;":r?,,::":;r,""' 

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iiiiriii lii. 
ly ;l II, 
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hi r\i;i Ml \ I III nil i\i I i/ioif 

2 QEOHQE V , A. 1912 
'•'■ -aiHl; if ,1.1. ,„„„..„( „, .,|k„lin,. .•..rUmnt.. .„(nr..,. ,|,.. ,„„„„., Inn, ,„lt ,„„» 
U iiil.lcl fo III.' (li'|>o-if in hirK'- iiiiPMint.i. 

\VI,.h.v,.r uu^y h,. ,|,., „s,„., .,|„,„ ,,, .,,■ ,|„. ,., ,„ , ,,„,.|, ,, . ,,^^^__ ^^^.,.^^^ ,^^ 

;■■'""■""'"'"""•"'"'"" "' '■■ '"!> 'i'l-il..! ,.l,-„r.„u- „,..l,r ,|... - ,.,',. „1,.. 

l.n.iMl.fh,. «,..■, Iln„r. Til,. .I,..„i!...| ..,Mli.., „f,h,.|,„rin..' .!,.■ |- l,m „.nll Imv 

^^.^..,i tliat (,.,( Im.v,,,,-!|».nliirp.» Fr.„„ ,h,. » ,. ,,| ,1,,. ,|itr. r.„i 

wntors of th,. tiiiu.futi rrix,,! 0110 iim^. ,•.,,,.•1,1,1,. ,lml ,1, t,.n-iv,. ,|„I,„„i,ir,- 

>i,.H ■„ "■J' '•""■ [k,« 1....... fa,.ili„„..,! Iv .;,., ,.,„„„ „„„n. .,,• ,|„ ,.„r„| ,r„;i|, 

;m,l .-orul-she 1 .lobr,.; the p«rosi,.v |H.r„.il,l„K "f fli- .•ir,.„latlo,> of ,H..a wal.r 
I 1.. i,M|,,,l,,al,l,., .„„a-i„,i,. <,.,Ur,.„i,- „„,.l. „f ,1„. ,,r,.-Ca,„l,rian w„„M 
"•■t I.,, vron*. I, ,i.rnm, ,|„.r,.r.,rr, prcbal.!.- fliat ,1,.. cl„l„M,i,i/ati„„ t„„l< pl„.,. 
;it ilH. ,ii,.fa..„ ,.| ,!,(. |,r,.-Cm„bria„ .•al,nr..o,ii i„i,.l. il,,, .•,„„|i,i,„„ ,|„.r,. i„v„„r. 

ir... tl.., lor,na,io„ of ,1... .|„„|,|,. sal, h, „r vry ...•ar tl... ,.,„„.,.■, .,f ,| ,„„1 

Ml,, 1,1 wal.-r ho.|,v. ,!„. nanu. ..|„.„,i,al .■omliti.,,14 i-....,., lo l«. fo,in,| !,, ,(,.• 

",""■ :"■;••'" ""'.V "t """"• 'I'Ptli Mow ,l„. ,,„fai.u of ..oral r-vf or of,.:,r, 

-an,U ot ■iiii'i't nryaiiic orlffiu. 

Tlier,. «r,. >w o,her wav. ii, wliich „,:,«„... , ,.:,rl„,„at.. ,nav w ..lahora,.'.! 

" -:■""•"'"• ''"■'" U'U ,.,.rtai„ alLM. a,..| ., T, w ani,, aN k.ii.w,. ,,, .,.-r,u- 

<nAuur*u,m n.,.! „al.. alo,iK with iho .l,„„iriant .■al..i,„„,,. of ,1,,-ir har.l 
-n,„.| .,•..-. ,„■. iinall.v. tl,n„wl. ,!,.• lo.-al ovaporaf ioi, of <o.x (Io^ scr 

;l- •ii._.M,„.„,v,. vaK.o of all tla.s,. so,,, s juM ,.i..„tio„tM „,av w.l! i,.. s„.p..p,...i 

.0 l„. I„i, sul,M(liary to a mor,. neural ,.ai,«. of ,lol„mi,,. fonnati-.,,. M,,-, „f 
111.' U'.rM,, „,aK,i...,a„ Ii,,,,..,,,,,,.. a.i.l .l„l,m,it..H >.,.,„ to ow,. i!„.ir ori,,Mn „,.i,|„.r 
I., ,li(. s....,vti.„iH ol >,„^.,al or^;;„,i-,„s i,or ,„ ..vap„ration. Tl,.. .sp,.,.ial orRanis,,,.. 
."■• loo ran- ,„ 0,10 .us..;|„„.;.ti„„ ,„„., (,.■ too lo.-al for the other rn«,. 

Ih,. .cop,, ol ,l„. pn,se„t r..p.,rt .lo,..s „ot ponai, of a ..riti.'al ,lis..,:ssion of 

a' .mmy p„l,l,-l„., ,„„,.,.. ,.„„..,.r„i„,. ,|,.. ,l„|„,„it,.,. It nuw only Ik, Btat-.i 

tiat If w„ a,.,.,.pt t I,. l,.a..l„„K l.ypoth-sis or tla- hyputlu-si, ,l,„t .lolon .0 is tho 

r...s,il, ot >.,..ta,„orpl,„. pro,-o«s.., by whi.-h ..mK..osiu,„ ,.o„a.s to n^pla,..,,,,,. 

'" .'"■■''"'"••^- I" """■• "•'■ "•■'■• '.viti, v.„.y ^^rav.. ,mii,.„l,i..s. |„n\r a.'. <7"\ 

m,.l „ever ovor.-o,,,,.. The rai.i.i alter,u.tio,. of o]ea,..c.,.t b.M. of p„r.. or noarlv 
l|un. .•alcu.n ..arbo„a,e with ..thor .■l..a„.,.„t bo-i. of .aa-^n-Ma,, li.a.Mton. „/ 
.lo!o„„t.. ,s a ln,.t ha.-.lly to be iv..on..i|,.,i with the^o n„.ta,„orphi,. tbeori... The 
m..U,i„„rpl.,s„, ,s. by theor..... r.o..„„„,|l-lHMl ,l,ro„Kh ,1,.. a..,ivi,i.,s of cir- 
.•i,la,.„K ,<i,.l..rfrrou„.l watc-s; .v.., it s..,.,„- i,„possibi.. that s,,..], wholes,.,;., ,„eta- 
"iorph.s,,, ..o„l,i l,.,.,v.. ti.e ori«i„al !M.,Mi,u so w,.ll ,„;.rk,.,!. Th,. alt.r.iati,.., of 
.l.-an-cut he,ls as ,l,.seribe.l is n pro:,,:,,,.,., fan, ill„s;rut-.|. for ..xaaipb^ in the 
pr,.-( ar„br,a>, lorinations of Montana an.l Itritish Colnnibia The faets of the 
tit.|,l .peak r:,th..r t„r an ori;:ir,al .lep„siti.,n of the two -nrbonates arrange,! in 
\.'ry iiinrly t).. ,r present lelations. 

It is scarcely ne.'essary to .luvll on the efle,., of bnrial on the eh..,„iea! pre- 
.ipitute ,,t b,,s„. niaKnes,,.,,, ,.arl., nal... l'r..s-„,.e an,| a lu.ij,!,,,-,,..,! t,.,„p,.rat„re 
have grndna ly driven out the w.ter of erystalli.uti.m. The si.nnltaneons fortn.,- 
tion ,,t tl.,- .loublc carbonate. .lo|,„„i„.. n,i»;lit be ,.xp,.,.„.,l where both carbonate. 

•Tl... A,„ll „f I-„„„futi. 1',;I,1,>1,„1 |,v ,|„. l;,„„, y„,.„,,,. 

1)1 l,..I.,l 



'•■iruin -./ ,,/, ,„„, ,s/7,-„v„i/,/,. 


iin- |ir.-ii,t in liir».'r .iriioiint 1 1„. i,,;. i 

inilo, '" ' -tn,..,.,,,. „!,,.„ „ j„ ., 



In .•,.„..|,nion. ,t n,,,„,„s ,|,,,t tl„. l,>,,„il,..-,. I,,,,, 

1 l"-ir-. il^ tliir'l 

'' '"-'v.'^ .1... „r,...ipi„.„ : ..,,";': :"' ""-"r - "-■ < 

• "•' '■"!•■ - '-i M ..;,:':„!r !,;;„;";;■' '':'^" ' " ' ■"••■' 

nb.vH-,-. „f il„. ,,e..,in I,,,., 

"■. illnl li.i, r.:lr|i,.,| if. 

line t.niiiit,..i wiili •..■.u,.|,;,',.r 

iiiniiiMiiii Mititv il,, 

■•' ''I'l'l Mill. IM..,,! Wil, l..iv,., „, ,,, ,1,., , -I I ' '" '•'' I" I'liPll.irV |,;,,„ 

ore., ..hprt«, „.,i i,..n..r L ,j ' " '" '":'"'" "' ""■ '''- •"^'"-nor i ,„ 

_-'• -lil.J.-.-t, .,,,. ,,, , ,1; ,1^ ,, 1^.^,^^ 

'"• ""''■■' I'. I' I- iv:.M,|;ir ,, i,,„, 

tcihk I, 

'Ii-m; ..imi.. iI„. |, 


Ill in il„. |,|v„.|ii 

"i'»"I. NVv..Hli..|,M.. it „|„v 

, , , ■ •"■'■' ■■■ I'll 'I r.-, i.iM.rr- . t.' 

I"-"I' - ■' I'M. III. -i- r..r ,l„. ,|,,|,.,,n- l"^' "■■■ 

:^.:;i;:;:; ■J:''';;;::::rr;r;:rr:''''\''"'^'""'''- 

l'-,,.,„...l l.v ,1,..;, |,,,.„„i„, ' -"IM"| ani-„„ls ,.. ,t \. ,n„, ,,,r,)v 

-a,,v .„l:; ,!'::: ;■';;::,: •, "''•-'■"- -< < 'n .^ 

- " '1- -li-v i-, i.. i;..,, -",,;' :;';"" ''^' --•-'^-- M-rMy has 

":'■'•'•";-• V •'— -of,- li,.,, ;l : T, i '■,• :r;'"',;,"H- - """^''''7''"' 

Mil.... then, i, ,vi,|,.iHv tlin tl„. I„ ft , , , •'" ""' '""'■<' ■■'fnknm 

liW...... ,1 „,„.,,| „.„, '""'"'- '"'"^ '".., •!:;„,.■ ;,M.| .„■,,,„!,. ,„.n.r ,,,.,..1,,., 

>' ii-M '^^;i i:;r;,:;,::,r'.r,; ■'"'-— ■■■■! i-.- 

'j ■"■' .-.....■i i::n!J!^/,z";''', '''"'■:'■•''■'''■■■ "■'•■ 

tluit -nfli,-ir.,r „r;:Mi,i.- ( -,.(f-l„„li..,l , , ,. ^' "'■'""■ "' ^"n<ns,- fr.,M, ,1,,.,. .1,1 „,;., 'V ^ ^';""- " ''.""■' ''"' -'"^'"> -'■'. 

.■N|-.-t...l ..!•.,.,• ,1,.. -Ml,.;,,,. .•,,;i,,, ,';/'■'' •■"" " "' ';'"-'.lM,..„t u„„!,l 1,.. 

.1... s...v,.,.ri„. ..-„.,„ uj "v,.n " V'l''- '";"■'■"' '■"'"'■ "'"' •■•"'"■■- 
M:.t„ral,M.. N\.v,.r.l,,.!..-Jj ' ri M ■-'""^••■^ -■ ",■(, in ,..,r..lp„n, ami 
(^a,n.,rin„ C.nnaM ■■ ^'-1"'<'"— -1- a- n„l,w-,Ii,-... ., ., „,,,„ ,,„.. 



i>i:i'\/rr\ii:\r or iin: i\ii:i!iiii; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

'^WI.KN.K „K Tin. . llKMI.Ar, IM<K( MMl AT1„N OK H||: .AHHoNMK ,„„ Ks ,N TIIK 


^ I-ni.ll.v, w,. n„v tun, In ,„„r,> ,|ir,.,.t ..v,M..,h.,.s tl.nt tlu> va>t i,n-Sil„rl;,n 
M-n.Mn,,.. ,:,„l ,l„lo,M„.. .l,.|,..Mt. ..n..,m,t..r..,l in tl... I!o„„,h,rv bolt, wore ..ri^-in- 
mIIv ,-h..M.i..„l ,.r,.,ip,tMt..s „n flu. soa floor. Tins ,.on,l„.ion 1,,,. .tat..,l .,t 
-rv,.ni| poinm in tho ,l,>t;ul...l (l,.>,Tipti..>i of tlu- Watorto,,. Alfvn Sivol, s|„.„ 
I'Mi-.l. and (Voslon (Ka-t,.,.,, p|,.,„.) formal io,H. aii.l it i, „nlv no.vssarv to v,„„. 
Niari/c the fnot-i. 

<»IR' o!' tlio loa(llM^' arfrumrnt. i. (]„■ arfjiiin.Ml l,.v oxoIiHioii. Som,o lourtoon 
'!..„ >,..-t„.„s ,,| typioal pha.,- of fho^r forniations liavn b....,, sporiallv ^tiali,.,! 
I'.'.""'',"'" ■"-•'•'^^-■'■I';- ■!"'';; ^ '""'"^ ^v,.r.. tak-„ at lo.-aliti... ranuiM^- fr.m, 

.•a,,f.n,K through l.'.cno ,e,t of ll,,. I...wi. sori,. an.l through about as ^reat a 
tluokn,.s. ,„ ,1,,, I.,„voll sonos. I„ spi,„ „( „„.l, l,;^,,,,, ,,h,,, ,,„,;, ;„„, ;„ j,„. 
^■i,.n..„tar.y pn.,n. tho ^^rai,, of tb,. ,-arbo,.ato ro.k.. as .,bown i„ the tl.iu 
-•.vhoi, aii.l as iinplHMl „, the „ov,„K eoinpao„ of tbo rook i„ tb,- 
f o|.|, IS most oxiraoriliiiarilv uniform. 

Tbo oonstitnout grain.s aro oitbor i,liom, an.l rli(,mbobo,lral or aniiodral 
■>yi l;nnlly i>it,.rlnoki,i^'. Tbo formor aiv ovorywlwro of noarlv constant avora-o 
■li.n.iolor. raiif^inp from ...111 to Oo;! mm., witb an axvraso of 0.0-2 mm Tbo 
■.N io,lral frrain- rao^o from u.,M,-. mm. ,„■ !o-s ,o 0.(^:5 „,„,,. avorafrin- about 
"I'l.p mm. 

Tbis tmonos- a,,,| uniformity of ^^rain porsists not only i„ , ,„„paot 

M.Nob a.... .Sboppar.1 bo,ls bnt also ,bron«bout tbo many l,..,ls of tbo Altvn. wboro 
coar.,0 an,l lol, -par samls p..bblos aro .li-tribnt'od in the 
■■Hrbonato baso. \o„bor bor./.ou nor .listanoo from tbo oM shoro-line .«onsib!v 
■■ ibHts tbo sinsrubirLv mon,.tonuus frrain. I„ viow of tboso facts n-anlins th'o 
.bo .ran, in vow of tbo rbombolu.lral forms of tbo ono olass of f,ran„lo.s, nn,l 
n. v,ow ot tbo laot tbat tlu^e is no known pro-I{,.lt oarbonato formation at all 
^"I'-'inato to tnrni-l, tbo matornils for tboso tons of tbonsands of oiibio inile^ of 
nni^nosian iimostono,, it sooms impossiblo to cr,.,lit tbon. witb a olastio oripin.' 
On tbo o.bor ban.l, all tbo abovo-montion..,! faots an,l tbo obaraotor of tbo 
'-Mni.'. wlnol, ,s ot.on papor-tbin an,l oloan-oiit as befits a prooipitato, point 
'liioi-llN to a oliomioal oriijin. 

Tb.. ai-Kumont is fiu-.bor Mr..„Ktbono,| by ,bo faot tbat tbo mnob oMor Prio,t 

V '■;'"'■""" V^'!"','" ''^'■■" I-' '"-•■'■^ 'I- - ^-iu ami o,|„., J., .:, 

'''^"■"■''■■■'-"■- ■■' 'I'o 1 .,,,„., i„ ,i„. „,.rlv.„. i.riMU 

/; '""■'• ': ,'- "" ■'■"" '" """■ '1'^" 'i'" ^noia^o ,li.„ ,.„,,, „,■ ,|„. ,.,,1 „,,. 

.rartu OS are ot tlio samo ..nlor as ibo avor.jro ,li„i„.,ors of oaloito ami .lolomito 
...vstal. whiob aro un.,m.s„onablv ,luo to ..b.-mioal pn.oi,,itation fron. soa wator 
■■■■ -almo -oliilions at ordinary t..mporalnros. c.Hi, l„„ ,i,„„.„ ,,,^,j „,^. ^,_^,^,.,^_ 
.raiiulo., dopoMt..! iron, s,.a water in tbo oavitios of tbo Funafuti oorals bavo 
. e.a,v. d.ametors ol from O-O.' mm. to O-O;! mm.: also tbat tbo dolomite orvstals 
-ln,.b navo .raduall.v roplaood tbo arajronito and caloito of the ooral doi;osi,s 

HFI'iiUl or nil I nil I \sii;i,\,,ui:i; 



..rbouat,. react a or.ln.ary t..rn,„>ra.„r..s. .-rystal. .,f .al,.;,,,,. ,.arl,o„at.. ar. 

the CKP. of I,.. lMt-C.,„l„-i.„ ,„.li„„ iil„.„.i.,. ,,v,.,.a,v O-OI „„„ f, 0.0- ,' 
". .im,„...or: tl,o .^<r, ,,,. ,.„.,,,.,>■ ,.l...,ni,.„l, i,„„.,.,„i,. .m-ow,1w ' 

n -U. ...V „la,.., ul„... ,1,,. ,;,,M-. „.. „rl ,„. ,„.ks a. th.. I-„,-,v. 

mnth I aral ,.] w,.,-,. ol,s,.,■^...| ,o l,,.,v,. 1,..,.,, ,ly„au,i,.all.v n,..(a„,or,,I,,l tho u,-,i„ 

''•iw. tlie ..n^'inal Rraiii immiv .„■ I,..-, ,„.rr,.,-ilv prr^rrve,! 

(.n.nnn. a ,.l,..,,,i,..| ,„,^i„ for ,1,,.,. ,.a,l„.„a„. n.ks. ,h,. .enoti,. pn,!.l..,„ 

Hi ' ^ if ?-'■ -'^^ 

'wm,S. -"P'"-""0" cl-I-^its. lik,. ,.,..k..,l,. ;,.s,„.ia,,.,| wi,l, ,ho 

.l'l„. l.ypotla.sU ,l,at ,|„. pn.ipita, i„n Iut.. or..,„-,v,l ,i„ou^'h o,Ka,„,. d.vav 

",""' "''•'"-'■^' """• ':^ ^"1' ■«■'■ l'>- »!"■ •li^<'..v..ry of appro-ial,!,. a,n„„nt. ..V 

<arl.o,,a..,.ous .na.trr ^till r.-i,!,.,,! i„ ,1„. Siy,-!, an.l o,),,.,- „!,! li,,,...,,,,,,. in ,1„. 

liut t!,o .■t,„i..,. l„.,w....„ tlu. vario,,, ,.l,,.,Mi.-al l,yp,,ll„-,.., for ll„. Helt- 

•" t a- Imm> ,.| la.;N w ,„lly .l.riv..,! !,■,,„■ th.-ir Ih,I ratli.-r l,y tlu- .■„nvla.i,.„ 
cW tlios,. laots uuh tlu. ,.f KcoloKioal prin.Mpl.w. Tho ,,,0,0 ,ho-,. 
nnncplos aro ,levelopo,l ,|,.. .noro cloar i, it beeotninR that stri,., „nif„rn,i- 
t;u-,,M may err a> vtally a. the older .lo.-trine of c-atastropluMM. The pn- 
Ml..r,an earhonale ro.-k- at the Forty-ninth I'arall,.! are entirelv ,litferent 

Ihysieal and eheinieal tvp.., f,- ,1,0 „aple modern liMi.Ntone ' It .r m,- 

th,.relore. wronfr to e..nline explanation only to lin>...l fonninp processes ■ w 

Mt work. I.arfre-seale fjeoloiiieal .ondiii,,,,. and processes Inuv Im.l their evnluin,,, 
'" ■^'""' '""*-'-* »■< >""-''l.v as iilants and animals have been evolved, 

I'mJ^'f!^' ^'"""' ''''"' •■^*"" "'' '■'"""""'• ''<""'-'"• l!*"'. 1' ••»:;; s..,. text. H,u,,.. .,n,l " 

til. li. .'^liK'ks, (Jaart. .I.iur. (icol. .■<.).•.. Vol. .Vs. i<Kf> ,, j.1 

^^■^s\\ruu'^,T / "*' ^l""'-""'" '"aiblos. VuRt Inus t,„„„l' that the ,mk of Hn.-t «,,„„ 
WHS II .idp up iif i,'iaauli»i avcraKiric' to Od:) inni m iliinw.ti.r 'I'l,., , 

;b-n..u!;:;itri=s: --;-:.-;!;■;- ,'■: - 

l.tcrjaur.. until tl.,« vha .i.r v .s n ., a a f . , m M, i'''''i.."r H''i ■VVT'.'", ""' 
tnr I'l.iktisrl.e (J.^logie. ,ian. nail l-.-l, . ls|« ' '■ "''■ ^'»='- ''■""-'li. ''• 


in:i'.MiTMF.\r hf riii: i\Ti:itini; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

SIMM. Mi V. 

cKiiclnsions oiiiphasizril in thi^ 

chiiptiT aro billed on tlm 

Premises. — Tlio 
t'ollnwiiiir premi-es:- 

1. Tlio tnttli of till' pvoliitionnry li.vpothosis. espeoiiilly as rejranls tho pco- 
locicaUv latp ilcvolopniont of active liiintcrs an.l .soavoMgprs on tho cpnoral 

-I -it tlcpor; 

2. TIio liiolnirically ,lc,|i ,1 fact tliat tlm pv.iintinii of tli.' iri:iin :iiiiiii:i1 

typos, iii.-Iii.liii;r tlio-c s<.(Tctiiiir hanl parts, was aci-niiiplislir.l in tl ■.-iiii; 

n. TIip fact that animal typos wore alroady liiiilily ilivorsitleil in Cambrian 

4. Tlu' oxporiini'ntally prove.! fai't tint roprosontativcs of 'lie main animal 
types can live and I'lrivo in sea water .|nite deprived of caleiinM salts; 

ii. I he po-tnl ; tliat bacterial deeomposition of animal remains oernrreil in 
Kozoic time and i. - oeenrred in all sidi-(>inient time; 

t). The experimentaiiy proved fact that bacterial decomposition of animal 
MIS cansi's the emanation of aninioninm carbonate amonfr other products; 

I. The experimentally proved fact that snch ammoninm carbonate can 
preiipitat." from sea water all of its calcium salts in the form of the carbonate 
and some of the magncsinm salts a> basic magnesium <'arbonate. ("This pre- 
cipitation is proveil to be actually profiressintr on the floor of the Black Sea"); 

i^. The experinicntally proved fact that the precipitatir.n of mau'nesi\ini 
'•ail).,nale is facilitated by the absence or low eontciit of calcium salts dissolved 
in sea water; 

'.'. The pn.liaide ta.-i tliat. in post-Middle llur..iiian ( piv-Animikie I limi-. 
;lie Ian. I anas an.l th.'refore the river systems were ixreatly increased in size 
as a icsidt ..f an or..yenic revolution throuHhont the (Mrtli; mncli limRstono then 
first <>xposed to weathcriiifi; 

111. The fact that a pro'..ii,!:..! r.eri...i of i.n,.,ia] ..|- .■ „n,,l,.tc hiw.l,- . -^'m," 
iollow.'.l the monntain-biiildiiif: period, implying a -pecially a<l.iil . •. of 
.lissohe.i. ri\er-l)orii.' calcium and iiia>inesium salts to the c.-ean water. This 
_ad<liti.iii of calcium salts is assiiiue.l to have made a fun.lanicntal chanirc in th... 
cuidilions of marine life; the ex.vss ..f .•al.-ium salts beins so .sircat as to permit 
..t til.' -.'. r.lioi! i:{ eiil.'ai- IS shel'^ an.l skel.'t..ijs tor the lir^l; 

II. The fact that the lanil areas have ever since retained siiffi.dent si/e anW 
abundance of limcstoiii' t.. furnish the sea witii lime salts in excess of tho 
amount of those salts beinv pr.M-i|)itati d by ammonium carbonate ami bein'.' 
dep.isiie.l in th.- form of orfranic shells and on the sea floor. 

1:'. Th.' po-tulate that the chemical nature of the Ottawa. St, Lawrence. 
M' '.ssippi. Danube. Rhone, Seine, and other rivers can pive a tolerable idea of 
th.> necessary an.l dra-ti.' chaiiffcs in calcium-content which nuist have 
ebaracteriz.-.l tlie river-system as it .■xiste.l in piv-Caiiibrian. Paleozoic 
Mcsozoic, and Tertiary tiin.s; a comparison of rivers also the 
relative constancy of th.' ratio, ra:Mp, in thi" av.raire river-waters from the pre- 
*'jinlirian to the present time. 


in i-i,i;i or I lit: ri/irr i.-z/.-ovoi// /.• ^73 


nonch,sio„s.-^. The li,,,,. ..I,, of tl.e o.oan. inh.-rit,.,! frn,n A oi,. tin,,., 
wore precT,tat...l a. .•al..i,nn <.;,rl.„„ato .•orMparativlv .,.„„ aftor tl,o inlr..,!,,,.- 
tioii (,| aiiiiiial Iilc into the sea. 

-•• Dnrin- ,nost of Ko/oio tin,., i.o., p'o-Ca>ni.riai, timo in wliioh animal 
I. to e.v.3te,l. the „<van was so nearly liMirless that .■,.m,s soontions hv animals 
woro iiTipossilili'. 

:!. T,.sts ami skeletons of purr •■hitin woro possihle in Eozoin time. l)Mf wore 
not abnn.lantly presorvci tintil so.,,,, oarbonate or phosphate of lime was l,„ilt 
into those struetures. The oal.-nreo-<.l,i,i„o„s tests of f'ambrian ami Onlovi-'ian 
tnlob.tes ami sl„.lls „f br,.,.hiopo,ls repres,.nt a tiansition stap. between the 
Kozoi,; a'on of doniinantly soft-l„„lie,l animaU an,l the i.ost-Cambrian aoi, of 
(lomM,antl.v hmo-.seeretin>r animals. The notable fossili^atioT, of braehiopo.l. 
tnlol„te,s. m..lh,-.,-s. vU:. wa- impesMhl,. until n- ar th,. beijinoin- of Cambria,, 
time. Indeed, the conditions for trnly abundant fossiiii^ation of ealeare* ,is forms 
wen. not established ui,til after the Cambrian period. The ^trikin? raritv .,r 
''"'"■'■ '•"■'•: "' "iranie rc.m,-,ins in thh-k Cambrian s,.dime„ts ,,f Kriii-' 
Columbia. Alb,>rta. Maho, and .Montana, an,l in n,anv other parts o-" the world 
may be thus explain,.,!. 

4. Eozoie limestones, ,l,,lomit,.s, ma-nesian limesiones. ami ealeai-iM.os and 
mapnesian deposits p.nei-ally \vere ehemi,-ally dei sited throi.t'h th,. m,.,li„n, of 
orsanie ammonium ,-arbonate. This alkali aot,.,l on the prim,-val .•ah' an,l 
ma-,ie-i„n, -a!t- ,..f ih,- ,„•,.,,,, and .„, ,!„. ,.al,-i,,,„ ;,n.l ,„a-„..H„,„ salt-) i,ii,-,.- 
■'"'''■;' '" ''■'■ '"■'■■'II ''V pr,-Cai,,briaii riviT^. A nriiiii, i- ^ny,^,,,,,] |-.,r 
tl„. iron earl.onate o.-nirrinc- in l-:../,,i,. sediiia'iitary \v]<. It :. :,l-,i ^:r^.',-\r.\ 

''';" !'•>■ ;li" -ili'^^i "!' th,- and .ia-ii,.rs .-Iiarar'tiTi-ti-allv a-...ia-,-,l 

W!'h the-. .•ar!..i,at,-. w,ri. lik,Avi-r tlii.,.«ii ,,,!, ..i' -,,ii;tl..ii by aiiiii!..iili,ni .■,n- 
i'oiiat.- ..f nr^'aiii.. ..ri-in. Th,. n,.f ,-..'e,:i„ .,ii.l n:,,,,,-.,! r,.. , manalinn- lr..n, 
I'..»-..i,. s,.,|iiiu.|i'ary ro.ks i',.,,-ive .■\|!,iii;,t i.-ii it' ilir fMii'lai, „■,:,:,! i-.-l r.e... .,i 
abundant Kozoi,' m.ariii,- lif,. bi. acecif. -I, 

6.^ The liypoth,-sis .seems t,, explain th,. pnMt,.r ,lev,-Ioi,in,a,t of m^i-n.'-ian 
rocks in the earli,.r peolo-ioal formations. esi>eeially tnose b,.Jon?iM(r to the K.,',.ie 
,,■■•11. Th,. hyiintlii-i- tiii^..«- Hidit ,,11 tb,. f,,riiK,,;-.ii ,f d-l..iiiit;- i.,.l-, ,,r .ill 

tl. The ratio of i-ali'lum to macnesiun, is nearlv ,'.instant in the avi.r^,..-e 
hmjston,.,,! the i.i^i.-Cand.rlni,. Canibrian. ()rd.,vi,-i:,,., ari.l .'^ibirian t,.rrai,.-<. T!,,- 
ratio inereases abruptly in tli,> l),.v,.idan liiiie-.1on,-s. possiblv beeanse of the ripid 
,levelopment of the fisla^s. whi,'l, tla-n b,--an the mo,-,, thoroo^.b s,-avemrinL' ..f the 
sea floor. 

T. Til,. ,.,.!, .iii^ali ,f I'l,. .,., ||,„„.. ,,t I,,,-: 1., .1,,. ,i,,,„i,. ,,i„,,,, ,,,!,. i,,n, 

Mrbonat,' is n.>t redis.s,dve,l by press,,,-,.. w,h p,-,,l,a!.!v fairly (Y,mp!ete in the 
< reti!e,'oiis period. 

^. Mapnesiiim salts tlrst be>?aii t-. b,. ae,.,imnlat,',' in i!i,. ,„.ean wat.-r 
probably diiriiifr th,- early Devonian p.rioil. 

'.». It is su!j(r,>st,.,l from tt-.e faets not.',! in thi^ ehapler that the mapncsium 
now ,.ontaine,l n, th," s,.a in amount f?r<>ater than a mei-e t.-aee beiran to ae,>um,i- 


i>i:rM!i\ih:\i of nih: isiiiinnit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
lilt.- not ...,rli.., tluin tl... Devnnin,, ,.e,iu.l. The clcium .lid not bepin to 
..•cM.mwlato 1,1 s.nnlar excss until ti... g. neral s-avengin^- .,v.«.om was«blisl.o,l 

" * ','■ '""''>'"^'' ."'"f •■'l'.v>-l'l .-.^-'in,,. „f ,1 .,,,„ H„„r ,„.rlu„w as late a. 

til." ( retuwous period. When we also bear in mind that the sodium and potassium 
salts have been slowly accumulating from the pre-Cambrian to the present time 
we are prepared to rea-h ti,,. rather i.rohablo eon.dusion that the pre-Canibrian 
oeean really approximated a f,Txh;rnl,r (thonph faintly aei.l) romlUion Th.> 
only ■-,ap.. from that .Miirhision to be offered in the view that a larp- 
part ot the existing .,eean is inado of neirly pure 'juvenile' water emitte.l from 
voleaiiie vents or from i-iimary igneous rocks since the pre-Cambrian 

10. J he l.yiKithcMs suggests that, in general, secular variations in the 
or,.i,nic .•ompositioii may be found t,, explain some features of biological hi-torv 
including certain accelerations and retardations in life development, cpecialiv 
as regards the elaboration of the liar.l parts of animals and the rise an.l fall 
ol lime->ecretiiig organisms. 

11. .Vc.ording to the l.y,,olh..Hs the outlines of development^ inav be tabula- 
' as follows: — 


* lo*;i)iiL- 


Kivf-r inflni'nce on 




/'. ri„.l. 

K*<rhl K"-.Oir Ptrnul, 

plluirs """"■"" ■•'"' ""nof!„,i,..s;,lt-^. sinj.ll;..,nii,„„.„are. l..«,-,l l,y iniv.<l .1,.- 


tiriiciiial ■snlutioii of K,,l|,,«,.,| |,y 
IiikIiit ty|i.-^of aiiiiii!il», n.vulv lim.l.s, 
:ill s..ft-l«Kl»Ml. 

I 'hirf J-',is>ih — Siliciuiis ; 
illlpn'ssions of siifl 
ttodi.-d .^inimals ; |i. ssi- 

I'ly t.stt) of pill,, (liitiii; 

pliuits ■• 

f lillH-rttOIlH l>\|lll>t ,) lHl>it>. (if 

i ". Mthi-nnj.' 

cirlMinjUe anil ni.ajf- 
ii'Miniii rai'Uiiiatt' ; 
JMii cailHinatc. 

ImI, t:„ 

I P':M-Miilil-. }himi,i„n) l\rt<Kl. 

.iiiHn.u.. ,„lt l-i,li,.,l. .1,1 im-,v,iM. iif ,,v,.,- lan.l ar...H» ™lari:i .1 : caleiiun c.ri«,nat.. • 

ii :,i L- I 1 ■ , 'Kirni iailiiiiiMt>'snf,-;i|. H|Miial iiioirase of i!.-ii,wii ..f 

tt^::;o:i : • K.!" ';;: ■■"""""i—- -- "f weath..n„« n,:;;;:"^;;';;^;^:;! 

i.aps.' .; ;..i™|.,„',: "w;"';'""'-^''^'"'-' ™-"™">-. 

iiaps. .-(iiiH' 






Kivcr inritit-riri- t.n 


TiMK I'LACK UK IIIK (il.KAl 1 NV, ,S K, ,„„ , ] V. 

''itiii'mr, /'</•/.:./. 

'"*'"'■ 1:1 t'L'n I 11 i> I .1 . . • ., .. . . 

t-'hitinons ami i-alran- 

1 . , I .*..... <i Mini utifi-iiy 

I.UMMniil^.lMteim-a ■■ttoiim' ,-.iUii,ti, ojir 
'■""■■ l«Miiit.-; liilit;ii-Miiin 

ciu1kiii:i'i. ill diiiilii 
i«li«l |.ri>|»i'tii.|i. 

Ffniil <\i ml, rill II In A' 

'/fill I, nf Cii/nnniitiiin „f );. i„ nil s,i, (/„,„•. 

I.iiii.v striictmi-» of an Si,ii„. .,., Ia~i i.ii.K 
iiiials fully d.-v.l,,|».,|. ' 


< V.I'-ar.- 

I-ii.kI. Und areas, anil aim, Sam., a, la,f r..ii..i 

"f wcath.-riim' liiri'- 
itoiif, »l,,x>|j- thciiKh 
iKit sttailjlv iiicTfa,- 

J'inudfu/liiaiii:, < oloiir.iltion iifd-iHcral Sm Himr. 

Same as last in-rii-Kl. 


< n.. .iiprMt. ,11 s...„ iim'ii.axii,.ui,i.At,.|,t. .hii,, rarl-.mif .I,,,,. 

Kiirr^ (iiaiii iiiaxi. iiiant ; i„.,i:i„.„,„., 

nn.iii ana ,if Iin,,.. ,an»„iat,. at it, „,,„ 

''^* '"'■ iiiniin. 

.we..„ cani.iriun a„d ,,|.,..C, i,a„ ,.„..k,,, . :x,.,;,.,i',,:r„,::,:lii;;:;;;^ ^i;;:';;^"""''' -'^"''- 

in -Vol. 111—11 


' -v, ■ 




A. 1912 


iXTUoi.cTK.N n, T,„.: THR.nv n|. i.;n-ko.s kooks. 

<'i.ASMH( \Ti,,\ ut nn: Icskoi.s Rik^ks. 

larK.. igneous areas has prove Ithei^t .'*"'.'. i*^"'"/ Pro'onpod .t.nly of 
principal classes: the plut: t ".^ L .Lut dlk^ ,"' T'^S" ^"'^ ^'^'^ 
is obviously fundamental to t ,<• ge L s, for h, ml .t "■. ">«.''['"■"'•♦'<"' 

'act that the structural relations S/uT k^liTrindirr "".ut' "' ^^" 
truly as ..o the series of strati«ed ^.sZ;:'u^fZ:::^lS' ''^'"^ " 
Likewise the pctroloRu.t, who ,< pri.nnrily! in the origin „t r„..k 







2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
bocomM to the t.nin.^1 Ki^.logi.-t h, .•luiraoteristi.- ad thu featurea of Caucasian 
or MoiiKnliaii arc to tlir .■ili,i..«niplHr. I!,"l<. like ninit. Iim- ii '' of it- 
own and thiH is of first ai.l to the Kiolofrist who is ninppinjr an ifrneoiis region. 
A McmIo i'lnHsifi,;iii.)ii iiU,, vital to tin. iiiv.'stisrator in [..•froK.tiv. If 
ro.-k niiw.'nin.s Imi »nl.v ni...lcrafrl.v siipcrhcatrvl— tlic usual (on,liti,,M it, nafur.' - 

tlf (liss,_..-iati..l| „|- thr Ill.,l,.rll|(.,. «t||,.|l ,,1 jil,;; will )',,r,n linllmir,-! |s 

•■rystalu, is probably very 'ilit.'ht. Tli.. a.liial iiiiii.TaU •■(•.•ii in n cr>wta!!iiio rnck 
are. tlierpfore, so many diri'ot iiidi-Mtions of tlip nature of the magma before it 
. r.\ -talli T,!. Sini-o it u be.otniiip uiorc ati.l more crtain that the laws of solution 
povern the phenomena of roek erystallizatioii. it is leiritimate, with proper safe- 
guards, to reason from a ro.k'a aetiml minerulotieal constitution or 'mode.' to 
the condition of the pro-existinR ma(,mia. The orijrin and history of niafrma is 
renllv tho core of petroReny. The professed petropenist, no less than the field 
-.•oloiiisl, should r.'iranl the Moil,. cliis-ifioMtion ;i^ fundauicutal and, in a -ci,-,. 

.\ further reason for its retention is found in the fact that a souml petroceny 
niu-t be ba.sed on an inductive study of the actual ifrneous terranrs of the world. 
This study is now only po-siMc thioutdi the maps and nainoir- which, with a 
very few exceptions, have been composed in terms of the prevnilinp classification. 
Inasmu<'h as the field fjcologist must map areas nceordinir to the visible, niinera- 
logiral character of the rocks, the raw material for the comparative petrolosist 
must retain essentially the same character as it has now. It is of the In'phest 
importance that the (piantitieg (species) dealt with by peologist and petrogenist 
should have a common denominator. Where the two part company there is new 
opportunity for unsound hypotheses coiicerninK the oripin of the rocks in 

Th(*<' are some of tlic reasons why tlie N',.rin classification ot i^.;!!, .; 

rocks seems boimd to be a failure for iwtrofrenist and peolopist alike. Ilarker's 
destructive criticism in the l.-ist chapter of his 'Natural TTistorv of Ipnecus 
Rocks • (litOD) is hardly to be refuted. The nature of the hiffhiv 
system is doubtless familiar to the reader of tlie present report and need not be 
described. Wliilc realizing the ineflleacy of the s.vstem as a direct aid in the 
|)roblenis of roek penesis. it has this residual advantape that the norm calcidated 
from a rock analys-'s may be used as a puide to the nearest chemical eipiivalents 
of tliat rock anionp modern types. For tlie purp,..e Washinpton's larpe compila- 
tion o| a'.alyse-. for flu- ii,,i,,,.. -iiluMii--. otc. luive been delermined. is,,f 
jn-eat service.* Larpely for thi< reason the norms of he analv;i:ed tvpes 
occurrinp in the Boundary belt have been calculated. 

There is no appaiont reason wlvv the .Mode classification of the holocrystalline 
rocks should not be nnide rather .trielly quantitative, somewhat after the manner 
of calculation by which the jiosition of a rock is found in the Norm 8ys(em. 
Thanl>> to Kosiwal's well-known nietlio,] ijie modes can be caleiilated f,,r ni.,^t of 
these rocks. In a measure the same is true for porphyritio rocks with aphanitic 

.nnfl'1; ^f ^y«--'''nKt'n. ' CWnical Analyses of Uncm^ Bocks i.ul.lisli,,! fioai 1-st to 
inOO. PM>fi>s..^ioniil riir«-v, No. 11. IT.S. Ooel. Survey. 19(13. 

in.ruKT 1)1 Tin: 


■iiiry \siiii,s,,\it:n 


wnter-s opinion, woul.i be strenXn.L/;^^ ^"MuantitatJvo and. in ,he 
de.ino<l in ,er„>. of lim t i . I. ,a ^ hi: ^f ? '''""'"'': V'*'^ «"" »- "'•'^""y 

AVKRA.iE ( „M..OSrT,„.Ns of r.EAOI.M) TVPES 

de.S'ir™;^'-^-!-'-',!^ •'.-,,. TT'""' *" '^^ "-^-• 
«vorat'..s n.a.v 1„. put.* M;,r, «,r. I • ,'""'" °^ """ "^ «« "''i'-h the 

The indivi ,„, „„,, ^4:^ ivc ?.h , nn/'f""';'""^ o„..ou„,.re<l in tho fiold. 

the mincraloKici c„mno,iHo . f 1 '''<- 'v.^m ar.> a. well shown a, in 

I'ero e„tere.l i„ ,he s! c^e ,^ bl Xnvr' ''l "'■'^: '"'" "^""^^ -« 
with the „.an.v analvsos made fro ,! \h> U " '""^'' '" """"""' comparison 

In Hummary. U.ewrif, r mlv ,t ' . f^"""'^'"^;'^'"-"'? collection, 

tion. not only that tl h .^evai w' ol'" ""°'" ^7 T'"* ^''^ Mode ela..,ifica. 
the available cysten.s for leS j IZ' i:; 7"">^b-«» is the be«t of 
mation to th. natural .•h,.,Stbn f^r . ? i""^ '' '■" " '«"' "PP'"''" 

aoconnt of the .ctual n I ..r, • '^' "''^';'*'< '""' PctroRenist. It takes 

eaehof whi..h i;rar IrlTr" f"'"' "' *'" "'"""''•"' -"'Po.sition. 

The Mode classitica fo, nlr^ tn , ? °i ""'^™" "'"^ "^ mapnatie historv. 
application of entS . pr ; pt rj.!' l^f '1 '" 'T ''^"'^'^ *^*^ ^"'"-,. wilf ^Ji:'t'l!tZ T^Z'. '""^"" '"''' "^ ""^ 

P. «! "• *• "'"^' '''— '-"^^ A,„.nc.n A,.a.len,y of Arts and S-ience,. Vol. «. ...lO, 



:; 1 


nur.lHTMKST Of Tilt: istkhior 

2 QEORQE v., A. 1912 

Tabi-k XLIV. —'ihowing thf average comnoiilion^ calculated for the Principal 

hjni'inuiroi I,- 'I'liiun. 

N... of 


Ti()j . 
Kr,t)j , 
K.O. . 
CaO. . 
NmO . . 
H,(), . 



71 IH> 


U 10 

I t)i 

I <i3 



1 !I7' 



I'l.t TiiNlf li. 





s a 

i 5 

« « i. 

li!l HI ' 

i;» 7:t 

•M i 


13 71! ; 

14 !1H 

a 17 j 

I tia 

1 H7 

1 Mi 

■i>i ! 


M ; 


2 2it 1 

L' 21) 

3 17 i 

:t 2s 

4 ;»H i 

:t !t:. 

'» ! 


■»; ! 


1 • 



1 a 












A -^ 

« jtf 

^ z 



t u 

i ^ 

3 = 

3 ^ 

L. * 





(ill !C.> 

72 1*^ 



14 TH 

i:t 8M 

1 li'J 

1 43 

1 Ii7 






■-• ir>' 

1 :t2 

;t 28 

:i r.4 

4 (17 

4 (Ci 


1 :.2 

' 2» 

U(i ! 


T 2 

1 n 
5 § 


72 'M\ ■ ' 

72 (12 

72 :!(i 




14 18 

13 77 

14 17 

1 (.-, 

1 211 

I f>.-. 



1 (11 






. r ■ 

1 13 

1 13 

1 3H 

3 -A 

3 .-«-, 

2 .Sf) 

3 1P4 

4 W 

1 •« 

1 3.1 

1 -.3 

1 U<l 




<'\((t f.ATKII .\?< WaTK(; HlKK. 


SiOi, ... 

71 m 

71) :w 

7'>2.'< ! 

70 17 

73 72 

73 H!) 

73 75 

73 Ifi 




34 , 






Al,(»i . . 

14 20 

13 H.i 

1.-. 10 

14 IHI 

11 10 

II 37 

..i !)!) 

1 1 ;w 

Fe,Oj . . 

I 17 

2 III 

1 Ii3 

1 (^'f 

I (."> 

1 t;7 

1 31 

1 ."'7 

FeO ... 

1 (ift 

1 Hll 

1 117 ; 

I i;,s 




1 02 

MiiO. . 







12 ' 





1 oil ■■ 







1 !I8' 

2 22- 


1 .34 

1 14 

1 45 

1 ;«) 


3 2li 

3 111 

3 31 1 

3 31 

3 5!) 

S 51) 

3 1)0 

2 88 


« M 

4 41 

3 i»K ' 

4 10 

4 ()!) 

3 W 

4 1(> 

4 )il 

PiO,. , . 



■27 i 



■01 : 




„ _„ 


Each Hiini = KW (10. ' Iricl.iilHH 08'; IJaO and OV SKI. 
IncUiri.-s oe>% llaO .mil 02', SrO 

■■• Iiiiliidis iKi ItaOand 02" Srfl. 

KKPDRT OF THE rlliry .\sTHu\i,Mr.H 


• iKiiri' II. 

I'll |..M, , 



Nil. <if Aiiitlyu'H. 7 

^''V iii:<.i 

[.•••'•' 1 1« 

MnO ,, ;.. !J 

Mtf<» ..;:;: fa 

c«( ) I ; r 

K.o ■ ■• ? ,'; 

'v.. .;;. ;,:; 

;V"'*' iii 11.1 

\^\'' v:.\ 

MnO... - '•.' 

Mffo I;; 

N..() .. \-^, 

K,o.... •- ;„. 

•^i*^ Oil 


Ill 117 
:; (1.% 

1 -l!! 

I 17 

<i 4.'i 

(Mil I vn 

liL' 1.-. 

i!i ii; 

L' W, 

I -rfl 


I 'iH 


.'i 7h 




• r ^ 

> ^ • 

S i. 

i;i <M\ 

17 ii7 

L' ,t,-| 

.1 .17 


I ;i.s 
:< 11 

I lo 

."t "Ml 

111 "tl 

17 it:i 

•f O.J 

■.' Ll^ 



2 ."i.'i 

:> -.4 

I iis 



l.ll I'l 


Hi I'M 

I' n 
.'I ■_■> 
1 1 
■-' )i 
t :«i 
:\ !is 
I I'l 
I 111 


I I 


il'J .Vi 

1 l«l 
17 L':i 

2 :(7 
.'I In 

I ;i!i 
:i It 
4 i;<i 
:t ,s| 

H 07 
•-' 24 

2 .11 


111 47 

.( ,';•! 


•» -,•( 

4 ;i."r 
I II.; 

I -M 

A 2 

141 (IK 

17 74 
2 1.4 

I 12 

:( i.!i 

I 4.< 

"' 71 

1 2(1 


(11 Id 

17 !i7 

2 117 

2 (1(1 


I i;< 

.< l;i 


r, SI 


111 M 


17 :i7 

I 1(2 

:i X, 


1 21. 


.". 2:1 

.*' 2^1 

2 I.-. 


(1:1 (HI 


17 si 
1 '17 
:i 1:1 
I 2!i 

.". ;«) 

". 42 

i;i II 
I 11 


2! I 


."1 .ss 

I 2(1 



.. <.IH 


.1 20 
I 1:. 




1 »mji UKi u(). 





• ilinti' iir 

2 aEORGE v., A. 1913 


N'l. ■■( \tl«ly»i< 

Si()i . 




KV< ) 




N»i( > 



I'l.t I'lMll . 




f>; *:• 

Ti< 1, 


i\ II 



2 :t!i 



1 <)t. 

CiO ...... .. 

4 Ki 


.', w. 


3 H7 



IW, .... 


Kmi -h*:. 


!• |«.i|ili,vrv 

I'll Tumi. 



*'.M,< rnim A- W 

21 -M 

2 !)l 

•-• 41 

r 07 

t in 

.^ it;) 

3 !I0 


.-, 1.1 

...1 ■.'.•> 


I'l .M 

Hi :k( 

.147 1 


1 'JK 

4 »l 

:i II 

7 1^' 

It Xi 

:i iH 


4 II 

I :ci 





■■H -.'4 

V. «•.' 


l;i 7!" 

Hi t>4 

t! :a ' 

3 Oft 


4 40 



1 :m 

1 2:t 

:t I.". 

7 24 

•i 41 

3 M 




.xtitc iKanoiiiK 
iin<l liulvl. 


j7 ft". 

1 III 

III tiM 

2 2» 
4 07 


3 22 

:< 74' 

3 .Vt 

4 :w 


1 ni 

Hi HI 

2 31 
4 11 


3 2."i 
."> 7!t' 

3 tl2 

4 43 

KmIi suni-HIO 00. ' Incluili i lli lUO :iii.| 07 .SrO. Iniliid.^ 1 4° CO,. 

RKI'itiil nt nil illlir t.s/7,-., \. .»;/,• 

'.l!"l !• IV, 


N... •■( .\ 

Hi( ), 








IV), , 


S .' 


Mi II 

•J\ :i,l 
I n; 
I i: 

I 7J 

H (S 

« 4<! 


I'll InM. .. 

«i «i i:t ii 

V< til 


1 r.t 

Iti •.';•, 

I ;tii 

l!t 'i;i 

-' 711 

•S M 


I :■.' 

•J (W 



l:i Mil 
;i .'tr 

•J Lit 


■: :.i 

M a; 

:. Hi 

I :c. 





'.'<) till 

'.' :c. 
I i>;i 


I .Ml 
,S Ml 

.'« 2;i 

■J >M 


Km -u !•< 


r.i Mil 

■-M I'M 

.1 "I 

1 III 



•J ;ii 

."> liL> 

M ;):i 
:.' .11 



•!i ><;( 


III Oil 

:« 17 

;i Ml 

I 7'.* 
"1 lilt 
7 1:1 
« I.-i 

1 !(;t 

<'ll.' I I MHi 


.Si()| . 


PfO, , 


l.'l t)5 


1 til 



I 7.-. 
S til 

II "iii 

I.". Mil 

•.'7 SM 

.'I 6M 



1 71 

Hi 32 
;< 74 


■M 4M 

I ^111 

ill ii:t 

1; Mil 

•.' !I7 

,. 'ai 

4 U'l 


,Vi ;w 


111 111 

.1 42 

•; 2;t 

•-' .■.4 

M ;tM 
.-1 r.i 



21 ii.t 

2 4<i 

I ii.-i 

1. 1 


I :.;) 
(1 112 

.'1 .•(4 

M! l!l 

21 7H 

.1 II 

1 .■..! 



."■1) M2 

r.i :is 

.■1 2.'t 

.1 till 

I K\ 

S Nil 

7 ;« 



111" 110 



nri'AKTiirsT of rut: isikniok 

<;i(()ii V 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

if AnalvM- 





Na.l ) 





Ky. I'l.IT-.N 

- H 

: •;:. Id 1 

.-.4 1 

.... 1.V,S2| 

I l'.4 

L' lit; 

■i ii^^ 

. i ;t H2 

1 *>'>Mf 

.1 1 ll'.l 


lit) HI 

It; i;l' 

L' It 

1 :!S 

I L-J 

.'I i'7 
4 i;t 

:; .vi 

1 IS 



Hi .M' 
2 i;;> 
4 11 


i; L'4 

2 MS 

I '.« 

I :.:i 


."is :ts 


It; -js 

L' !)S 
4 11 

:i ss 
(J :;s 
n ;m 

2 H'.l 

21 ; 


M 5!) 



21 ; 



17 Xt 

3 7S 

2 St; 
:> M 

3 n;) 
2 :!t; 

1 .S.S 


■. • as .'IB 31 

< 1 


:,'.! AX 

1 7 ■.■is 
2 :it; 
:t i;7 
:; 2s 
t; 111 
:! II 
I i;t 









: 2(» 


: m 

■ .").') 



('AI.iI I.ATKli 

n' Ml- 

Al,(>, . 

V,;l h . 
K.( ) 

M«() . 

( •;,( ) 
\lll( ). 

KjO. .. 

»'»o,. . 


■ S'_> 












i;7 117 

2 47 

I .Ti 


I 23 

:i ;ti 


■J r<t 


('ill :!i 


It; 7". 
2 i;7 

I 17 


.■| Sll 

II :« 
:t 112 
I '.1(1 











."iS ll."i 


17 '17 

;t S.5 
:t t;!i 

• ^^ 
2 Tll'l 
."i ',12 

;i cii 

2 411 


.">',• 112 



2 lis 

:t 7" 


:i :!l 

t; (k; 

:! 44 










(::> 2(1 

1 (;7 

1 (;;{,'. 
:t (;; 

2 23 


4 11 

3 (;i 

2 48 

Kai-h >uii 

lIHI Oil. 

#:v:r 7L-- 


UKVituT (ir TiiF. riin.r \yTnii\<,\n:i! 


CKDII' \ I. 


N... ,,f 

Sin. . 
Ti( >.. 

Mk< >. 

KjO. . 


I'l ' IciMi ~. 

3N :i» 

r><i Hi 
I i;i 

IH -,l 

1 ss 

!l L'.l 


IS L'l 

17 KS 

r M 
1(1 :i:i 

1 I.-. 

tc i { s 


\'.\ or, 
1 m; 

I'. 711 

i; :i7 

li 17 
s *Xi 
if II 
1 .".2 
I li-' 


- c -: 


is 7s 

rxi lu' 

:.ii 111 

.'>ii lilt 

4'.i .'•II 

1 .ill 

1 II 

1 -j:. 


1 4 J 

:■ »;, 

l,"i lis 

1 1 i:i 

17 111 

1 1 :i7 

."» .'17 

1 .".."l 

ft IMi 

1 "i7 

11 .1.1 

ti -M 

11 7;» 

1, :(i 

i; Lii 

."l SI 






li ii.i 

.*) S.'i 

7 ;f 

1 s:i 

s !l| 


11 :,;< 

s mi 

11 llli 

.i is 

L* 11") 

1' 7.') 1 

.1 ■-'.•1 

•_' ."ill 

1 liH 

1 :is 

7.'t 1 

I m 


1 7ii 

1 ii.i 

•J Ml , 

1 s;i 







I '.M.c I I.AI K|. .\s W MKK HIKK. 


."-1 .■)! 

IS 11.". 

111 ,S7 

411 1 ,") 


' 1 li."» 


1 :is 

1 11 


IS ti.", 

IS I.-, 

l."i nil 

Hi l.i 

K.'ji h. 

1 llll 

.1 n 

■"' 47 

.", 17 


II :>ii 

(i III 

li 47 

li !."> 


1 1 





r, IK' 

7 li- 

li 1 1 


7 I'li 

11 1.-. 

li (111 

11 117 

Niiil ) 

1 a 71 

■J .",!! 

:< Hi 

.'1 L'l 




1 lili 


! ■-■3 




ii n 

.M \l 

.M .'il 

411 Sll 


1 L'7 



."• nil 

11 7n ■ 

17 7.f 

11 47 

1 lil 

."1 l(i i 

4 (Ui 

ti .'ill 

li Ni 

1114 1 

li 41 

,", ss 


*";"> 1 



.', llli 

7 47 

4 "111 

7 SM 

s 117 

11 7:t 

s U'l 

1" 112 

.'1 III 

•-• SI 

n Lil 

■> -,., 

1 II 


1 7S 


its , 




KiM-h ^iiin iMt 1)0. 


hrrARTMKST or riiF. iMr.nioii 

<;R()ri' VII. 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 





: i 




N". uf .\ll;ily>,. 

SiO, . 

FeO . 
HjO .. 




F.'.C »j 

KM) . 






P.O. . 

Oliv int' 
( tahhi'o 


4i» ."i<» 



2 .S(l 

5 «) 


(i B2 

in «4 

2 82 


1 61) 



4t> 49 

1 17 
17 73 

;t «« 

ti 17 

8 8t« 
11 48 

2 Iti 

1 (M 

<'|. AS W.vrKH-KUKK. 


1« 81 

2 8(i 



4»i i)7 
1 IS 

17 !)2 

a 7<P 

•i 24 


8 'le 

11 GO 

2- 18 



Norit,. ■ 
* xcliirlin^ 
i< )-anii 



..II (18 

1 44 
18 (12 

2 3". 



(! 22 

7 8!l 

2 r)3 


1 (11 

."HI (iO 

1 4.^ 

18 81 

2 37 

8 in; 

« 28 

7 ;t7 

2 .Vi 



.W 38 

2 (M 

18 27 


111 35 


.") .'(2 

7 91 


1 02 

."Kl .M 

2 ii,"i 
18 3" 

1" 38 


.'. 3;< 

: 93 

3 19 
1 ()2 



: Washing- 


.V) 40 


28 30 

1 ih; 



1 25 

12 4« 

3 (17 



.W 78 


28 51 

1 07 

1 13 



12 .-)5 

3 70 



Kacli sum -- 100 00. 


<ii;<>ic VIII 


N'". ..f A,,,.: v.. 



(•■.•( ) 



< '.ii ). 





■'t .-,1 


^ n K. 


IS i:; 


i:; sr. 

III I'll 

V.< fj 

II :(!! 

111 -M 

t s:( 

1 m; 

i; ."Ki 

1 111 


1 :k 

1 !HI 


L' 111 

II 7;; 


•-> .-.4 

11 :;ii 

- I'll 

■ ' ii; 

1 .-" 

7 11 

■■ 11 

11 7ii 

1.'. Ill 

.S l,J 

7 .s|i 

;i sii 

• ■ .17 
1 ic' 


1' 17 
1 i:. 

•2 7" 

II. ly 

111 .V. 

l:< iHi 

■-".I 17 
'1 .11 

111 7.S 







* s,". 

1 i;-> 









1 111 


1 .SII 

1 'Jl 

''M' 1 i.vru. 1- \\ jif 



i'.i 7^ 

•M II 

1^ i»;i 






5 ii'_» 

1 117 

1. 1,1 

Ki( ). 

.". IS 

1 HL' 

■J 114 


1 77 

:. 1" 

11 HI' 






.'>.'» 1 IS 

-J 7'' 

:'! .ill 


1. 1.^* 

i:: )!t 

ii J7 


1 ml 


1 17 


11' 1 

• *7 



41 111 

,".11 ;.'il 

1.-. I'O 

. \ 

1 1> 



■' 1 7 

"i •'•") 

•J (11 

~ .'1 . 

I s., 

■' .,- 

11 411 

7 ",] 

.1 . .1 


' '- 

1, >:> 

7 !'* 

i7 II-' 

17 Mi 




i.t n 


1.1 '- Mn iL'inTi-.i,. 




ilKori' IX. 

No. nf AnalvwoH. 



F(( ) 


CaO . 
NiVit » 

i ruTo.M'-. 



* ^ 


■ -JS 

. 1 

c = 


;. r 



W ' 




iH W 

,")4 Ml 

1 71 


' 10 r.7 

20 01 


3 !W 

li o:i 

1 !)3 


4 4H 

2 ;<2 

!• 05 

5 mt 

4 45 


2 i;t 

3 13 


1 41-, 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 




41 i;i) 

















42 25 

16 2ti 
« 43 


il 75 

4 45 

1 ii2 

2 4,1 
1 04 

C.VI.crL.\TKll AS Watkhkrek. 



Ki4 ) 








; S3 

1 (Kt 


I 15 

55 02 


211 31 

4 04 

1 »i; 


5 CH 
5 l>4 
3 IH 


42 tilt 

15 IH 

15 43 



12 27 

3 -.58 

1 ■ I'.l 






16 H7 

8 ti4 














100 (Xi. 

i{r:i;,itr i,i iiir. nnr.r i^TRn\„\iF.h 



N". of Aiialvscs. 



C»(J. . 

I'M TOM, .,. 

1 ' I 
J — 



4r, til 

I 'm; 
II .(." 

tl 17 

4 <i:t 


i> or, 

II 4!) 
"> 12 

:< nil 

L' IKl 











'■■l-H M\K.^. 
"•• •♦? BN lifl 

20 4 

41 II 

\-> -1 
4 i;(; 

."i So 


N 2ii 

10 12 

.-f SI 

2 ;c 

2 42 


1 SI 

1.". 2:1 

7 70 
4 («1 

1 n 

2 II.") 
II ;<o 
4 2.-. 
2 i;;i 

2 .M 
1 14 



I' ot 

14 2(1 

1 Ii4 
I.-. Ill 

I :(.■> 
Ii 14 


s Sll 

II 71 
I 11.! 

1 .s;( 

2 1(7 


4-1 ;i4 

1 .% 

ii; .M) 

fi S.1 


.") 4.) 
II 114 

2 ii;t 

4 ,■..-, 

1 12 


''.M.I 1 l.MKII A.> \V.VIKI|.HiKK. 

TiO, . 




CaO. . 




4fi HI! 4!l .W 

II 7.1 

1; :u 

4 14 
fi 22 
i» 7.-) 
•") 27 
3 7!t 

• i 12 

;S 72 

T) in 

1; S2 



s 21 

4 m; 



2 7.') 

2 ((2 

5 I'i 

3 4P 

1 fW 


Kmh s,i,„ 100 ,1,1. ' riKhidis 40% |{,,(l an.l 





4S 12 

I .si; 

I;-) K, 
7 Sit 
I Hi 

1 47 
li 112 
II iMi 

4 ;«; 

2 70 

1 17 

.'ill 711 


17 21 

3 (;7 
7 2M 


4 :iii 
m 22 

2 2S 

3 i;3 




I i;s 
11; 07 

4 17 

1; 31 

II 13 
10 1)1 

4 14 

1 ss 


' ><r(). ■■ liieli..l..< 41 -. liaOiii 

4.") si; 
I 31 

It; 7H 
r> nil 

4 SI 


•") 411 

11 77 

2 w; 

4 60 

Si( ) 




iiKi:\n-nif:\r nr rm: istkhiok 


71 Ti 

73 71 

N... ..f Aiwlv> 

Sid: . 

Till; . 

K.:( ), 
F,( I 
MkI > 

Na:l ) 
!■:( I, . 

SlO; . 

Til), . 


K.,( I, 





2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Km siVKs. 
7« 77 

M ;m 


4ii 47 

47 72 


1 :i7 

1 Xi 


1 .-.(1 

in 7:t 

1:1 ;t7 

IH 111 

r, 07 


:. '.17 

t 71 

3 .-.s 

"1 >7 

4 -'7 

:{ !iii 





1 re, 

i;t iCi 

't ^7 

;t i."i 

T 1(1' 

1 1 411 

1" "il 

2 !»;t 1 

1 i'7 

1 r.!i 

1 :.I 

7 (ill 

4 i;) 

4 ,s:i 

7 m; 





























11 17 

x> -: 

1 :;:. 

1 Vl 

11; s:i 

in :m 

7 111 

>' 71 

(. tu 

11 i.< 

:i 72 


HP 12 

12 :;i; 

li 1:. 

.-t n;, 

2 »'.' 

1 S7 

2 12 

- *Jl* 

1 III 


• 'aim i.mki> as Watku h:kk. 

.2 ^'.1 

4"i 7-'i 

17 :.s 

4S l:"i 

i:i s:i 

12 10 

in 77 


I 11 

1 :tii 


1 OS 

1 .is 

1 .">:! 

1 Si 

11 iri 

HI x> 

IS 17 

10 71 

17 2.-. 

i:i ss 

.■| 1« 

A 7:> 

1. 11 


;) .Ml 

7 " 70 

(1 S'i 


(1 "7 

4 .•i7 

.'( '.Ill 

;i ol 

1; s| 

II .'.7 








1 11.-, 

i:t lii 

11 111 

;; ,')ii 

■; SI 

10 7;i 

7 ■ ;,* 1 


10 70 

7 :.s 

!l !ls 

M :i7 ' 

12 115 

:t iMi 

1 ID 

1 ::; 

1 .-.s 

10 117 

Il 1,1 

:t 01 

7 7:' 

4 ."i7 

1 \ii 

7 7s 

2 2s 

1 on 



' ' 


1 ."..". 

1 07 


K;uli >uni Inn nii. • liirliiiii > :l" 
- Ilnlilil.'s ■ IS |',,il) 1,1. 1 |s Srll. 
' lni-li|cl..~ :ii ll.ill •niil 07 S|(). 

I', ill .111.1 iC .'srll, 

■ Inrlu.l.- 20 ( 11. 

■ llirlu.l. - .''n I'.,, 1 1 , 

,.| I '.I 

i:i:i'„ui ,„• Til,: nnn t>/7,vMMi/,v 


19 1 

|.i;"i !■ \|| 

N"- "I Ai,.,iv-, 

Ihn, t.. ,,, 

' *-''fii ' I'' -J^ 1;.,^. II '' '^.iliri .III 
I I,, I'aN-- 

Pi.:< ), 
F.( » 

Mfi ) 






711 ir 

I:: H.; 

1 i>l 



t N| 


I.. I-, 

- ,■..( 

•J L'l 



1 1 

: 1 








TI.MKhA- WatkI 

SiO, .. 
TiO, . . 
AIi(», , . 

MnO . . 


K,0 . 

Kiich I 

1 1) >7 

'■■J 71 

fHi !i;i 

l;i 11. 
' 1 ,1- 1 

n; .-.M 

1) .i.i 

1 1 II.. , 

2 :i2 

2 7s 


"t IMI 

1 2S 

III ;V> 

t Kt 

:! HI 
\: L'Jt 

:. 3;i 

"1 -.'T 



1 "1 

■m=I'-0.. ' frnli,,!.. or M..,. Mm l,,,!,- 0. ,■,..,„„; 





i>ri:ihT\ii:sr of tiii: isiLitutu 

2 GEORGE v., A. 19l2 

iii;iii I' Mil 

Kkki -n Ks. 

N'». "f Atiiilv^fH. 

•Sit I,.. 

TiOi. . 




MdO. . 


c»o. . 

H>() . 
I'tO,. . 


i Mil 1 



1 M4 





! i 

i -:^ 








I M* 







c - 

1 ii 






' c 



.- c 







11 ■ 

4H a; 

l.-i 411 


.■>2 04 


17 (w 


xi :.<; 

17 NS 






i;! i!» 

.W 11 

i:t m 

17 tr. 

U 43 

:ui i<i 
7 11 

10 ,VJ 

1 3o 

l> 4S 

4 m 

4 .M 

4 TiS 

■; •>•» 

8 .|Kl 

1 111 

10 07 

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Hirni:i ,,, nil < nil I \^n;i>\,,Mn: 



|U:irl/i ill. .rill 
in'iri/ .1 ii 


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Atll|jllllu>li' Iini|ir.llr 

\niiriliii-ii,' . 

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Mii.-iilt iilh . 

Itii-.ili u- iiiiiiii.l l,v iiiiiliiir 

ll:i-.ill of ||;,« ;,„.,„ M,„|,|. 
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(ininiir of all ii,i„„l 

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i*' '^ %jtm 


i>n',i/rrn\i .,, ,,ir nninnif 

A VI 11 

<'■! ,>n . II I, 

2 OEOnr.' v., A. iqt? 

■I III; 

TI... «v...,«o -,....i,i,. «..,ui,i.. .„ I.„|,„..,.,«„|„.. ,„„„ ,„.,, j^.^„ ,^,,.,, ,^ 

::': izli^f;:;:;: oi:;- 1:!!;:':^'' - -- -'''•■ ^'-'" -^ •'■« .i-r.ina,i... 




N'M'lll'lll. H\.||,t,. 

III.. til. ' 


< MivMM- I JUMhrii 







f ^(M'tiin 

.,. '^' 

. r.iifM ., 



k'lTl. .'> 


- 7 1' * 


- 77.) 


■J S(lf. 



:; tiiio 

'J Ml 

a KM 


:i IM 

•> xiy 

•J H<| 

Snt III K OF ilviVVTH Hkm 
«a>. Its full dlSCIlH-lIOIl IH impo-!-, IP in tlli<. ronnrt !„,» -■<<fUll-! to 

«lK- ... „„.lers,.,..,| 1, he wnt ,X I'l L fho'TlT" •''"'""'""• "^ 

Tl... -„..,! 11 II Mi.iKi 1 ifarer flio lollowinif i- mnfor^ 

hotter than th.. hottest knov , iL ll .;„' ' '■", '"'"■''^' ""■ """■'' 

such a .ph..r.i., „,„st ,ive Uoth ' : , J ..^ "^ ^^^ /r";""-' " ^""'^ "^ 
surface. On tl,i. li,vpothesi. th- -iopth wli. r ^ "l ' "' '" "' °'"' 

Aceordin,r to ClinnilH rlin'a statcinont 
earth hns l>een a .lark hoil.v. cool i-nnneJi t.> 

't' till' I'lillh-tij 

i-.'ir a \( :it(.r-n.'('.T?i atu! ' 

iiiial hvTiothosis, the 

ivincr crf'a- 

SESSIONAL f'APEfi No .?5.i 

"l"'-^'' ;;'""■""" "l-"'i-r'.m,-,,i;.,,,.„.,„.. .„.,i.i..,,,,. . ^,, , 

» n.Hr (h,. Karth'. - .rf«.v. ■ i H,.. ,l,.,.rv,.,| ,|„.,.,n.,| 

'^■'! •'-'» '"^'.v i- ..,- 1 ,„ !,„ „,;,„;„,, ■ ,, ^••" "-> -I-"'. Ih; ;-u- 


.■n„r ,i,.M-,f.v, f,.,- „i,ii,. ,1,,,,. „,,„|., ,,,,,.,,.,,. 1^, 

lii'aii.T iiiiittiT til, 

f.ii::r,;:;n;::::r;;::;r:i'.,-j;r:-- ;::;:;- v;,,,-; 

,'■",■'■■■;■■,;'''■■.■ I''"'.). i..r.. , ,,„„„ ,,„..„.„..'■,' 

!■'■■'"'-'"!"■ "I ■ -11 iv ■:,.. :,.:,-. .,„.!::_:' I ; 

r , ""•■'"" N" ■■'"■• --'Vi,v :„ ,... I „„. .,„,;,;„ |,„„ .,, 

..rK. .noun., of .,v„ w.r.. ...rri..! l,v v„l,.n,n „■„,. fr„„, .1..,,,,.,, ,„„;,„'„■ 

'.. Injrli.T one- m..l to fh,. snrn,r-... „n.I tlt.f fl :, .till ■■ontin,,.., „ . I • 

of the .nn.r..r ,„:,„..r al.„vo it. fuMnK-poit.t un-l.-r ,l,„ I,„..I pr, J ^ " 

i:^:S;r*';/ ; 'i^i;:';:"/ :i,;,::'^:" • ""■"^"- '-' '^" -—'^^'•-^''^ 

wore Ii„u..,ie.i «... an! th i^ = '„ v ,1 ::,;"i'?i '"""''" ""^V""' 

mto higher hori.,,. an.l „„„„.an!. ..h,.,;,„. ^Ci^Z^Z'^^::^ 
intense stn-s..-. i„ ,he ' .„..r ho,,, „„.. Th„v thus .Tve.l t, kv, L ' 
pera n.. there below ,i,.. n.ion.poi,,, ,, ,he re.naini,,. „..!;^' ';.! a. V ^ 
ub an.-... M,.anwh,l.. tlu. evru.h.,! p„,H uvn- ruM,,,- the .en,per turel 

tLy :. 'et^e'Tlr-l"'" ''''-' '"^^ — '"'^-'^J - "-"i. which 
^r. C, n,a,nb.rl,a .n,l I;. D. S«l,>.,„ry, ■■Oeolo^v," N..« York, i9fl6, Vol. I. pp 





iii-rArrrursT or tiik lyrEHtoii 

i Willi ill,- 

■\'li'. If .Jiircn.iiliMl 
■•I l:r,-::\ .Icpll, iilll-t 
■•■ilc~ ill ii.iiin-,.. 


fii-'il>i]ity ' i-iinlrols 
-"inriliiim .liiV,.,-- 

.. . „, ^ ,. 2 GEORGE v., A. 19)2 

On llio I linnibiT ill l;viMitli,.^i.i ti,., ; ,i i r 

r..n,^lil,v panill..] ,o it. own .,.,'. '",-"""•■'";'' -'■•^-•- "ithin fl,o onHh „ro 

(sny. llixr (M ';,.''''"■' '"■'' "^ '""'"'" '"^•" ^'^ ••'""o^Pl'oric 

"■"ll.v not ^reat, tb- • r„-io„ IJJ- T , '' '""" '' '^'"''""« '•™''^« "'e 

< • ^""1 I'-. . ■ W ' ."■."'■•^' ""'"^ gonor.ll.v I.vinj. botwoon 1000" 

""■ '■'■i'I"i"ii ..r in;,^iiu, ,|„. ,„;,i, .,■:,! 

.•Mt from ll„. k,i,.w,i iiilxMir,.. „f .||i,,,„.. ,„ „,,,„.„ 

i..-:^l;:,r;i::n;i,;:::;l::^j;n;i:::;,;" !'- 'j---i-" ..• ,. it 

si.o ihrouKli .KcrHion. VI,.' / Z , 1 " "'P," "'"--■'-I its presont 
Po.siblo tb.t .b..c.o„,n.l le 1,/ 1, ; , k'' "■'',"■'',"' ''"" '''' "■* ■■« ''"♦i--"'.v 
^■il i-ow„ snb,,anoos. T " v ,1 "fur o "'T' ""V"'"^'' t.-iporatiiros of 

Pr.-s„n..s; (:■) ,!„. ,lifr..,v„,i..,i .n , " ."."^'■,""':''"V " ' '"'"•""•"s .m.-ohs 
=. sy.ton, of tlin-.i. wbi.-b v ib b, ,1 "7'"";'' ""^'^'•"^"— '"^'lerials i„,o 
inovi.nbl,. ,ra„sf, ,. „f 1k>, ,,"''": ""''',T "'" ""■"• -"li'i'-s: with 0^) a„ 

::^;'S-;:tUi!;:sr-H, E 

'•>"•' p'-...t,„,i,i-„..i,,ii;i ,,:;:,:;i„':::" ""'"' ''''^"'•"""" '"■•--" ♦''« ^'■-".■h..ia 
the earth .as o,„:„ j:,;!;:;,:;- i'i ^ 'J ^ „ I s:^,:^ ; :,;--;;'i --- *»- 

..tap. in lb. rartb-s bistorv ' ■'"'' ''•^'""""^^i^ ""'"•'h «I™ios a .similar 

...a^miirl;::::, '::j;'t"\;;L;;rr?.,-::;i' '■"^•"-r"- "-^^ '■"'•"- "^'-'-"• 

•-n.liti.- of , .rtb^vboiwTs'i ,;:,'''' ■"'""•^""'- '-" a primitive 

wa. form.,1 .br„.,«b lo.. of b e „ bv r V """/."^f'"'''- T" oidior case a must 

is to bo foiin,l a, a ro i vol .S I "' """,""' ^^'Pf "fro of any volcano 

inmur nr ru 

I' ' III! I \- ri:n\inil i; 



!JI\.W I, I,., I, 


IhlM ill-f .,)' li'IMl ( ■ 

■oiLliictiviiy an, I .liiTi 

rl I'm. ,|,.,,i! 

I'lil -I I" Kll. 

U'inivr;,.„r,.. i, is ,|„il,. ,„„s,l,l,. ,1,,. ,, , """''^ '""■'■^'■'' ''>• ""T".'.^.' -f 
omT;ryi.„„..,-Mus.> of .„>,.,„.., I,. 1 ' ',','"';"."''■'• ^""' '''" ''i- -"!■: "i' 

'"■■■'I "•',! or that ,1,,,. ,„ ,„.li„.,..,iv; V l' , ""I-u-l.,, , ,!„. pWnn.iv,. 

7''i.- is full of ,lim,.„„i,: , ^ , „ ; ^' '■7-^. '"i^'- --„ . ^,„.... Tho 

• oMP.wniMV ,„,■ .„|^: SiiisTinn 

^1 I III: CiAiini.;ai,. 

I'iiii"li thai tin 

""."••- "I l-sal.i.. or ,..i,l„-„i,| ,..',„„„„;,;,' 


<'fivp.l as th,. I 

ii'i ■iKor iiijcvtion i-i roally 
l>:i-.ili;c- sulwtrafum is con- 


'••■'<-'i as III,. iK-al-hi- ii;.,.r i„ ..II i.r,„. ,, ,• •.■ ,' ^"""'raium is con- 

from a sliii oariior pori,„i h '^'V«""' f-'i-oo„s,oM,.s „,.,•,. ovtrn,!,.,). if „.,t 

""'er -oa^nias an- c. hv ; o b •/l"'"";';^ """•"" '"- '""■" "'- '--"-• AI 

:'i-. P-0...-U ,.r ...o :::;!,: i ;.;:':;;:•;::::;:;.'::■:-;;'' ^ ;- -".. 

ir..n.„(ia,i.,n. ' ' ■'l'"'""'''"" 'I"' iMi|.orla.„v of ,uaf.',„ati,- 

"H.:!::,,::;:: ■;:;:;;. :;'';::;,j;- ...„.,..,-. 

liKTalu,-,.. i,l, lotli,. r„||„,,,' ... ,. , .• , '"."' "' "■," """■'' "'"''"" fc'<v.Iofri,.al 

'■-''"•i 1 1. >i..iM 1,: 1,;;;:^: ,.,":„l:;r" '"""■"''' """"^' ^""■'' '• ■- 


'■li^'raotor TI,o-,. ll,„„i. w,.,v'on„„,.,| , l,' i :'"'^"-'^'-''''> •">"""'■ in ,.!KMMi,.al 

O''""- 'lows. ^■,„ i„ ,„ ,!, :;,:s ' ;■, ";;• *''■'"' r^' '••"•-'"• '•>• -» <>,« 

-•"I ^Tust won. aluavs narrow an I , , ,''" ' ''^"'""■'■^ "■'""" tho .^.norally 
i- llM, or,l,o,iox viow. TI,o ., ' a '" 'rT^'"."'- '■^"•■"i-^ rapi,lly. Snol, 

I'ows IS an 'i /' 

III' snporlioat i 

'""■I Ki-iiiiii,l f,.r l,ol 

"■viiit: flat tli,-:o l.asalt 

I'xtnision and form of (1,, 


' Kyiitpctic " is I, 

not tlio pro(lii<-t 

'ii'«in5.on-I,i s 

r inciting together, thus f, 

sitiK .s iisi'ful niinii. for (1 

vniiinu' a niutiial s,,lut 

!'■ iinvtiin. of roiks ,iii,. to 



riKi'.iiri \ti:\T or tiik isieihoh 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

of |iost-Arelie:iii i!itrerpiiti.i!i 

II ilillerpiiti.i!i,,ii. Mil,-,. iiiiiKiiiMtic (lilTcTciiliafion i^ vory probably 
:in incident of eooliiifr nt'iirly to tbo -..lidifiontion point. 

VW Trior.' trllii.i;- is tli<' iir-iirnnit lli^r. if t!i.- ba-nlr of tlir lirniior b,v;i 

flood-! is the prodiiot of a ditlprpnfinf i.,n nearly '•ontp.npornncoiis witli extnision 

wp pxpppf fo tind the othpr p,d,. of (hp dUrprpiitintion in immediato 

a^sopiafion. This |,(dp imist bp morp acid than basalt, for no known earth-ma-rma 

can bp fairly sufrgested which would, by splittinsr. sivc basalt as the acid pole 

The pomnionpr pprid.ititps arc nrobaldv dillVnnliati's of basaltic nia-ma and, in 

any casp, cannot bp rpsrardcd -is the parent of basalts, Tf. thpn. basalt~is the basi-' 

polp of ma}:niatii- ditfcr.'ntiation \vp should PNp.-.-t to tind larirc pflFiisions of tin 

ponteniporaneous, more acid diffcrontiatp in the ),'rpatpr lava lipids of the plobe. 

The more acid differpntiate -l.ould normally overlip the basalt in the niajrma 

phamber, and must in most pasps be ernpti^l throuKh thp oppning fissures l>efore 

the basalt could reach the surface The only escape from that conclusion is 

to be found in the postulate that tlie acid differpntiate had completely solidified 

before the basalt was poured out. This postulate is plainly inconsistent with 

ireological experience in thp smaller volcani.' terranes, where both poles of map- 

rnatic differentiation are so regularly found in the extruded lavas. Yet in the 

Columbia and Snake River lava fields of America, in thp similarly vast field of 

the Deccan, as in the ancient field povpi-pd by the Purcell Lava, there is no 

acid differentiate to match thp basi,. diffprentiate. basalt, of any of "le fissure 

eruptions. The simple and probabl. conclusion is that the basalt of all the vast 

lava fields is pure, undifTprentiate,! material from thp earth'.s interior. 

If so, it seems to follow that no ditTerent kind of fluid rock-matter overlies 
the basalt of thp substratum. If. f,,r pxample, a iirimary liparitic mairma overlies 
It, the method of eruption of tlu^ pure basalt tlirouirh tlie liparitp to the earth"-. 
surface would be, to say the least, inconceivable. 

•2. The a.ssoeiation ,.f chemical ty|.,- at • central eru|rtions " (vlcanic eotips 
and .raters), is p.-nerally nnid, more .■oniplex than that i-hara.teristic of the 
fjreater lava piat.'aus. Two of th.. principal rea-...ns f..r this are apiiarcnt. As 
compared with thp fepdin? sla-ets of lava in tissiire eruptions, th,' lava e.ilumn- el 
cones .stand lon^.T in th.'ir vents. Tli,. vents of .•entral eruiitions an- k..|.t open 
l.e.Mu.spol the emanation of -as.^s from ih,. feedinLMnairnia chamber. At th,- actual 
■i_peninfr the lava is s..metiin,'s -, ,■„ to be sup,M-h,'at,'d (.Mr., at Hawaii. 
Savaii, pt,'.) A modprate assimilation ,,i' th,- walls of the v.'iit is to b,^ 
expcptpd in the parli,'r staj^v -f a volcano^ history. Svntpctics may b,- 
formed; the ).rimar>- mafrnia may be snbjct to spp.'iaily markpd diffprpntia- 
tion throush fluxing, or bcpausc of ino,'idation : and thp synt,vti<' n:ay he ,liff,M-- 
entiate,!. Amiuig so many p,.ssibiliti,.s it is little w,,n,ler that the scpienee of 
eruptive t.vpes is a variabi,' ,.n,\ Aft. r a vent ha- l,.ng afT.,rde,l passage to lava, 
so as to buihl up a first-class ,'on,', the voh^ano appr,,a<di,- it- liiuital h,'ight ami 
.Mso the stage of extinction. Assimilation is .•heckcl, the f,)rmerly pnlargpd 
vent is narrowo,! by gra.lual freezing, an.l the final extrusions are ,-,.nipose<i ,if 
primary magn:a or of its own ,litTerentiales. This appears |,. be the best explana- 
tion of the generiil fact that the latest lavas ..f tb,' larg.-t volean,. -. like Ktiia 
or rhimbornzo. are ba-alt- or p.vro\,'ne anil.'sit,'<. As iioi.'d \v 




i;i i-tiin nr riii inn.y \.s/,-' 



';:;'■"■'" ''"• l"li.-, in- il,,, ,, 
1 III' fTi'cMtcr 


!m>:ik a- t 

■iili'.-il-('rii].ii,,||-. liL. i|,,| 

r-niiar,. .,f I,:,-., It 

II' ]'lMiiar\- 

'an li:!-r. 

" all rial iiial, 

■rrl..ri', t, 


I' ran, al 

A tiiiiTalily ui,l,. ,,,,,1 

"iiii-'iiia 1- Il t 

lit' tilt' wnrhl. 'ri 
irnliliro. ii,M.-a.i 
ii:iiKiiiii ill 

Vm| u, 

.11 llll- iilai;i 

-■I'-a! liiai- ainl I 
<'■'■'■■'■ ill a.'l til,, hi 

It, rat 

'111' ,i|' ill, 

- i',.pri 

i-. .,1' .., 

i!i!iii-i\.. .lial..- 

a |..alli-r 


ra..|i ■■,iiili,i,.rit 

'"■- lliat l.a-aili,. 
I'ai'lii'- |ir,.\ ill..,., 
■ri'liyriti'. or 


■^'"•ii a- Mailai^,, I!:,,,,.,-, 

"" '"'"'-^ '" "^I'-li "I' llll. alkajinn 

l^i-iiiiiiiiii. Clii'i-li,.,!., i;„,..i„„ ,.„. ■■'■■•■" ^""^1 lOi.lan,.!, M.„,,a„a 
'•■">': intn,.i„i, of In, I, -i: i, . ' ,^ '"';"■'>■ ''" l^"'- -■.min- .irniia. i- ,>,., 
■■-'«".|. "it', ri..,„.,., ,.„ , ,i., • '"""• " " "'> ■' il'l-' nval tol.asMiti, 

'•'-"■•-'I '- ,i„. ,i,ai.;i.i ;u '"''•■'":'■/ ■ 7 '" "'•■ ''■'" "•■ "'•• '■-"'■- -u.-f...v 

'inknown. On their fhou..m. nil """"" Tfi"'' "?"'''" "'' "''■■'"•''■ '""•'^^ »^'^ 
-.•l.i,ii'la.„. i„.Kh,!rr'": .;:: i:"r . wTT '''V'--- "^ th. Hawaiint, 

i'^'^Mlti- mati'rial. Cr,..,-. • Ti,,, „ , ., " '''■ '"'W ' " '""" "I' <'( -^-.•iitialiv 

"•"'""'i'" -'I. iii<.' ..,1,,.,. li ;''::; "^ ";-" ->■ '- .■■r.nii'ii .. a,, a,.i;i 
-I'l- 1 a. a .ii.r,.,.,.„tia,,., ,;:,,:;; '■;;■■:" ■" !';■■ i;'-''- -.y i.- 

^•i'-'ii"-.-'i<^iiv,',M.i.Jon,. .;t :;■;:::''' v"'-'' "• •■••'-'''■- <-""':'■> -ni 

may her., nolo that th,. -.•.iiar'imif,:;;;;;';;:';;;';,;;";^,.,,,, 

Its assncintioii with thc^,. V , " " 

'i'l'i'~l'""l. lint w.' 
!'■ iiiairina. irri.~pi.cti...,. i,t" 

■"f-""i"ti,., I, thr,:;.,: ;;,;.,; ^rn..';;;,';;,;: ; ■■'■'';•-' •■: '~- 

^'>>"<i">'^- '"^ .' it i. al-.. i„„,ri,l,all,. ,1 ,r "" '""" "* ""'^"""i- 

;'ni<..owM. „.. an. i,.r, w„i, i„„ ,1.1 ai,,.n,a,iv,:: ,,;,,,,:, ;:;'':;;;■• ' "■" ■:'• 

lininary at„l ,.t ,:;,.,„.ral ili-tril,,,,,,,,, |,„,„.,,i, .,„ ,, • •■" "' ''■'^■'' '- '"^'f-''»a is 

-111'.- . la- K,.,.wa,i,,,ava,w,.|.,, ,.,,,, ,.,.,, „„, ,,„;^:,:;J:" ' '^ -'" 

». .Must (,l III,. ,,tli,,r ,„,.,.„|.|,;,. ,^„ , ■ 

'" tl'« -'"'i f a ,i-i,Ma,'y a,.i,l ,'a th.,| 1 .l^ , '" i'^' '"'^"•>- ^'"■' ■'"" 

primarv l,a<alt th,' -v,,,,.,., ,. ,, ,„ 1 i -■.liMi,.nlary r.„.k, i„ ,1,,, 

of the following ,i„:,n'- .!;:!:., ,;^;,:;::;;:„,;' ';-."-;■ •-, ■ '-- -art 

to point .!>.. fai.t that th,- ,i„„.l.a,alti „ ' 'f ': ^'T '".'"•'■" "'"•'•'^ 

amoiiif the vnh-atii,. Uuo< ,„. t,, i, . I"-" '.iM^ ..nly ,-,.,',„i,| to ha.alt 

r.'lativc vohimi's. i. M— I ' 'i' i im-I ln,ii, an f.,timate of 

-. IS stnni{ftli(.ii,j 



iiEi'.MiVMKsr iiF rut: isthuiuk 

2 GEORC:; v., A. 1912 

I'liiMMn Aim Siir.M. itr tuk Kmmh. 

Tlir ii:itiiiMl sui.jMi-iti.ii (hat :\ iinltcii lailli wouM li;nc I iiif sti-ali- 

ticl fhrou>rli di-ti-ity Im- Ihcu mad.' |'r..l)at.l(' l.y the iiorc -Imlic-! of 
silicate melts and of natural magmaa. Irrespective of pressure, the primitive 
ditlVrentiatidii of carth-iiiiiKiiia wi.idd jrivi' liciiiid la.V(>r< (.!' al.<olutc dciiRify 
iiicriMsiiij.' with depth. 'I'he ii;cri'a-o iiiipli; he piailual m- it ini^lit uccur in 
relatively sharp ehaiise-i I'rorii layer ti> layer, eaiii .if wliieh \va- iiiiii;ir-eihlo with 
it-i neighhniir at the ndint: leirperature. Aeiv.rdint; to the .-ceind view each 
layer wouM ho expeete.l to ha\e a fairly iiiii:'orMi eoiii|ir,siti.iii. If one of the layers 
wa- hasallie. a^ iiiinlii'il in the precediiitr .■;( etioii, the fiverlyiu-r layer-; v ere lighter 
and prcsiunahly iihuc a^'id than ha-all. We may now hriolly e.xanjine the view 
that the nppernio~t primary layer, or ear!li-he!l. wa, ^iranili' in eon jiosition. 
l'"very WurhiT in the pre-Candirian ?edinients i> >triiek with the i)re- 
doM.inance of (pn.riz frafjnients. (iranites or fjneis-es are certainly the principal 
.-ourees of such .-ilieiuiis niateiial. Wlien we relleet that thi' earliest known 
sediment- are tinis <iiiarl/.o>e; that the total tliiekne-;> of th.' pre-Cand)rian 
ipiarl/ sediment-, a- ineasuri'.l in ea-lern Canada, I!rili-h Colmnhia, Finland, 
and elsewhere, nr:- .nio tens of tiioii-ands ..f feet, we nay he Mire that the lands 
preiailinir throughout most or all of reeordi'd pro-Cainhrian time wiw of frrani- 
tic (>rneis3ic) coinpo-ition. Such terranos are exposed on an enormous scale in 

a few parts of tl arth and are fairly to ho under-tood as foiai insr tiu; jfreater 

part of thi' present continental pialeaiis. ■j'lie tilrn of seil-mentary roeks on these 
plalcaus averairos so thin that no e--enlial donl.i can remain as to the general 
eliaraetcr of the -nrra-e -hell lliroi,f;h whieh I'aleoxoie and later ipneous 
eruptions have taken iilaei'. A rondi i|uantital ive sliidy of availahle maps shows 
that this shell is. on ihe aveiaL:i'. e\erywhere of firanilie eoni|)osition. Two lines 
of evidence tlips eonvert;e to ihc helief that from the earliest tln.c reeorded in 
the pre-Candirian sediments to the time ,<i the ;;i(at Candirian overlap, the 
surface roelis of the Rlohe were dominantly ,;;ranilie lor irneissic). Can wo po 
further and hoM that the lir-t stahle -hell torn ed on tlie co.diu!.' -loho was of 
similar firanitie . .inii.o-ition ; The -| ,■, iilali\e attempt to aii-uer the iiue-ti.'ii 
has some value. 

Dutton su«-ficsteil that the visihl,. f.Taniles. frneisses, syenites, etc., were 
produced hy the rcmeltin- of s,"din:enls derived from a -eneral and primordial 
hasahic shell, implyinir that the hueU of mo-l of iro-Camhrian time wore 
hasaltic. He writes:- ^' Chen:ical consi,l,.|ations ,,f a eou-ont character lead up to 
the inference that [iriniordial niairma ..ii-hl to |,o-:e- a con-litution similar to 

rocks of the hasaltic LToup, thoiifih i.erh.iiK s,, what les^ ferrnirinous ( ;), and 

that it should be nearly homogeneous.' And ajrain :—' We know of no natural 
processes capable of separalin- the nore acid parts of -uch a mapma cx.'cpt the 
chemistry ot the atmos|,l,cre acllni;- at temperatures far helow the n eltin"- 
points of the silicates. \V,- have the iv-ulls of that pro.'css i„ fho quartzitc" 
Kranites, gneisses, and syenites amon- the sillciou^ , ks; and the limestones and 

'vwn^j^-a ]B'^v.$f.,u' 'jtKf^titmsw', 

i.'rmi/r (ii Tiiinm r \s!i:n\,i\ni: 703 

SFSSIONAL PAPrn \'o 2'ij 

Joloinitt'3 ainoua t'lo Im-i.' roi-k<; uiil, ;,r:;ill: i- rork^ ,h tin' rc^iiliniiii ,,f th,. 


T'i!> idea tli;il iM-iili, i,s II • iipivli, ii-i\,. ,,|- ,yi!ih,-ii,-' r."'k. iiii'^hl li:i\,> 

givpii the \v,.rl.|'^ t;r.inii.'- thr,.,'-!, w. .nlicr! :,,'I.M,ir ,,,,,1 y..,., ..\:\,..^ „( ,1,,. I,..,,.),,.,]. 

r,iit pni.lii."- r,,u !..• Ir-|,.l .|M:inii'.;ri'.r]v «i-|| a ;,;,■ .\,.._r,, f ,,,,,tMri in lli,. 

ri-Jiilt. 'Ihi' rati.. ..|' t.. )...ia-!i, in I'l.' a-.i..,' l.a-;ilt. i- al...nt .Mi;-, i:.:.. 
Tli(> rati., ill av.rau,- -i-aii'i.' i- al... •• :;:;l: M.i: -rrA in the aw, -a-.. |.rc- 
Caiiil.riari traiiil.-. ai-iit :; J';: I :..;. . <.■, C-inimi- I an.l I .■( 'I'aM,. \l.i\'. 

Kvcn if all tin. rciiiain.-! a ij.j- ilir i-.'-Llaal |.r...iii.'i- ..f tlir waailicrintr 

of ba.salt. it Wdiild take la^ai-ly llii... u.-i-!.l u^it- ,4' la-ah •.. iiia!;.' a \v..;l'IiI iiiiil 

of praiiilo. iifciinliiip to Dutli.n'- |.riii. 


All ll...-, . 

1' -a> I ,;r.'.. piT .'.111 

two Wfij:lit n]iit-< ..f l,a-a!t, -..(•- in <..liiti..'i 1., ili,> -, a. Many tiranil,. l.atl:..|iil!- 
are known to lie at Ica-t tu, mil.- .I,..'!, an.l aiv in-i.l.aMy nii'.li iIcii..t It i- -al'.. 
to postulate that 40,000,000 square miles of the earth's surfa<'e is iin'l.-rluiii h.v 
granite or by the average pre-Cambrian torrane, itself a pranito in oc.aiKisition. 
]f we hold that their combined mass is of the minimum average depth of two miles, 
it follows that al least 200,000,000 cubic miles of basalt, or enough to cover the 
planet one mile . I. •.■!.. mu-l have l.i.,.n rv.ail,iT...l 1.. pr...! :. .. llii. wli..!. uranili.- 
mass. AiK.iit tw.. pi-i- .-rnt, by weii.'lil, ..T tlu. !.a-all i- -...liam carri.'.l in -..lnti..n 
to the ocean. Thi.^ ad.lili.m ak.n.' u..nlil .liar;..- lli.' .■.•can with ihi-cr lim. - a- 
mneh s.idinin as it ai'taally .-..nlain-;. .<in.-e n. a-ly all iln- ^...liani wlii.-h !ia- .^.r 

enti'red tin an i- -till ihia-.' in -..lnii..n, rli.. v:i-i .a..-.- .ahailat."! -li.iw-. 

without allowing for other sources of oceanic sodium, that the main assumption 
cannot bi^ tru(<. 

The only remainin;; int.'i'pretati.iii r.j' the a.a.l l.a-c nt .-omplex of tli.' .-..n- 

tiiiental ))lateans rc.i'..i;ni/es ii! it the malerial of the earth'- primary siirfa.-e -hell. 
'Ihis shell has been ilenmled, inelamorplio-ed. ami larutly renielte.l in the Ihikc 
batliolithic invasions ..f the I.aurentian t.vpe. Little or of the visible pn - 

Cambrian terrane direi-tly renre-cnt> the un litieil, (.rifiirml ern-t. but. in spite 

of all its vicissitudes, tb.' terrane scen;s to have retaiiie.l the avi-rat'e .-hi'mieal 
composition of the primary aebl shell. 

Our speculation lea.N, tluis. to the (•om.cpti.,n ..f an early -eparalioii of the 
earth's outer matimatic layer int.. two shells; the nnderlyinjr one ba-altic in com- 
position, the o\erlyinjr one ftranitie in ipositb.n. If these are the poles of .1 

gigantic process of maL'inatic .litferentiati.m, the i.rifilnal mafjnui must have 
been of some ira'dio^ilici.- tyiie. If it be arbitrarily a-<ume.l that the tw.i poles 
of this differentiation were forna'd in e.|n;d nias:-(>s. the oii;;inal mafrina must 
have had a composition mneh like th" .av.'ra^'e anjrite an.lesile ..r the average 
diorite. The following table (.XFA') >hows the comparis.m of the mean of the 
average pro-Cambrian granite and average ba-all, with the averape di.irite and 
average aiigite andesite; each averap<- l.eini: .■..mpnt.'.l a large number of 
analyses, an<i reealeulated as water-free. 

•('. 1:. Dutton, IJeiioi-t on the (iiH.Uigv of I he lli(;h rhiti.,.ii- i.f Utah. WasliiriKt.m 
ls-0, |i|). I:;i-li">. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
Table XLV. -Comparison of average anah/ses; granile, basalt, diorite. and 



NiiiiiWof An:ih> 





■)' I and . 

A f rni/f 
'/it'irtz itto- 

A It ruijf 



•?*•■• 71-5.1 

I'Oj I -48 

■^''11' ! 1430 

Mild IP 

Mko .... .^ 

• ■'• . I !W* 

?■'; .• aai 

^2" 4r>3 

'V). -t 

100 00 

4!t (*7 

IW 71 

.")!• 1!) 

Tjs (;■) 

1 38 




l.'i !)6 
."i 47 

l,"i <iK 
3 47 

Itl M 
3 (12 

17 (!7 

3 sri 

l> 47 

4 mi 

4 17 

3 till 





« 27 

3 43 

3 ■);{ 


'.) ilU 

5 .')4 

t! 47 

5 !»2 

3 in 

3 L'l 

3 3<,» 

3 fio 

1 a."! 

3 04 

2 12 

2 '40 






lIlO (Ml 

100 0(1 

100 110 

nHiil.. e -08" BaOaii.l Ii2' SrO. 

It 18 further significant that the average composition of the grouncj-mass 
ot four typical augite andesites is nearly identical with the average pre-Cam- 
bnan granites, as it is with the average granite of all ages; these averages being 
calculate as water-free. A second step in this far-flung guess as to the origin 
<.f the a.-hl shell ,s pr,imi>te,l hv th,. fact^s illiistratod in Taiile XIA'T Siioh m 
f-'lan.-,. at a h,vp„tli,>i.. af ..ri^nns cannot vitally aff.vt th,. (pirstion as U \\i 
e.n.^(,;,re „f th<^ acul enrth-shcll-h.^ro tho ,.s.sf.ntial jioint in the g.^ni-ral th,„rv 
of the Igneous rooks. 


Table XLVI. — Comparisnu of iivrriiijr analusts; granHr.i atul ground-masn of 

auijite amlieile. 

Ii,„.n„l „...,, A,,,:,;. I.,.. 

n„ili^ili. il, ,,< III, ir..rl'l. 

A It r<t'i, 
n I '.i)„/,ri.iir, 
„< S„;,lr„. 

All rti'ji 
,ir,ln'ti "' lilt 

NiiiiiUr iif Alml}«!-. 


l'l,l <HI 

10(1 (W 

KNI liO 



«!l 31 


711 :u 

7<t 47 





A 1,0, . . . 

!7 11 

U 2"> 

1:! Nil 

11 tMI 

K.-,( ), 

•-' 1:1 

1 47 

■• lit 


K<-( ) 



1 Mil 



M(f< >. 





2 M 

1 !l^• 

*' 17 


A 21) 

;i 2(1 

3 I'.i 

3 31 


4 ;«» 

4 .VI 

4 41 

4 111 





2 17t 


" Iii(luil<.« IIS H.-i()uiiil III .Sri). hi; r,;ii).,n,l "•_' Sri I 

Till' two cciiiiiarisoii-'Miir^ji-t iIm- ~|Mf hninu ili;it lli.' i.riiiiiiiv,. a.-i,l -hrll 
was (lorivoil from nii iiinlo-ilic iiiaLriua. fr..iii tlio iip|..i- |p.iri of wliirh iii.i~t ,,|' 
tlif I'cmic iiiiitoriiil scttlcil iiml ciirii-lir.l 'h.- l,.\M.r purt in tlio -.iino oxiilo-, i In- 
comjilctc iiiixiijf: of tlicst- fcmi!' .■..ii-titiniiu in tlir r .nKlcsiti^ lul.w is 
coni-eivi'il to prodiico tlii> li:i~:iltic sinll. 

As far back as Keewiitiii 'ime at lea^t tlio acid slicll seema to have been 
larpi'ly or wholly soljiiiticil so as to I'c oapaMo of ti>-iirini.'. tlms luTinitlitiL' the 
basaltic Kwwatin lavas to be extruiicd. With rpsi>ect to all Kccwatin and post- 
Keewatin i^eoiis action tlio ba'alt of the substratum has been hitherto called 
'primary.' but it is cvidoiitly possill,. tliat it wa- iliri\i^l from a ^^rin-ral pn- 
Keewatin magma. The substratum basalt will still be referred to as jirimary, for 
it boars the primeval heat and has ^uffirod no appreciable chemical change of 
composition since the oldest of the recofrnizcd pre-Canibrian basalts were erupted. 

Abyssal In.ihtion ok Maum.a. 

Proceeding on the assumptions: tlrst. that the magmntic heat is chiefly 
an inheritance from primitive times; secondly, that rock eruptible because hot 


iii.i-MtiMhs I 1)1 Tin: i\ii:iniii; 

2 GEOnCE v., A. 1912 

• ^\ 

-''■lit i.t luoiI.TMf,. ilopths liclow 
iii'iirly iiMjiiiiiiioin o|>iiiion of 

iiioiidi („ (1 ,v lit ]..«• pr.'i-iiii,., is ..vrr.vwlifTv pi 
«lic ciirtli'.s sitrlnr,., «,? nro in witli tlw 

Kc.ol,«i.t.. I,- tl,.. ol..c.m.l t,.inp.T..tMn.,„t is spo.ially st.op bornuso of 
t ... conr-,.ntn,t>.,M nt ru.l,n,utivv ,na(t,>r i„ ,, ,l,i„ surfno,. sl>oll, tl,o thic-knosB 
< t ,. ,„,v L.. as nnu.l, a „il,.s ,„■ „.„>•.■. In a,,;, ,.w... tl,o ,!..p,l, of 

ixpo<c.i mtruMv,. ,.„„ta.-t at tl... tin,,- of ll,,. i„,r„sio„ of ihat Tl„. niairnm 
.n.Kt pouwra,,. a, loa-, l:, o,- ,. ,„il,.- „r on,., b,.for.. i, s,,.!. 1, voN 
fls tlios.. roKi~t,.r,.,l Ml tlu. Mi..wn, a.^tually s.-,.. i^'iu.ous ho.lio. 

J ow tins ,„.n,.|,atio„ of tho Iow.t a.„! tl,i,k,.r part of tl,,. rrMst fal;os place 

.as a,„,,v, ,,.,.,, .|,„|, „ „,„,,,,„„ .,,,,„ . ,,.^, „,^^, ^,_^. p_..^__^^^^ ro,.k.„,a^,„a 

..e t> ,ts way 1,. ,1.,; surfa.v. „r .v,.,, to ,1... l-n-ls of „ow vi-iblo intrnsivo ..on- 

(^i-ls, „M.v 1„. ,|,-„,i-,..|. Il„. u;-^ ...v., -M, „., ■!:,■, t ,r.,„:n„l,.| .an -.• 1,,. 

aJmut.Mi lor an so .-los.. to tl,.. s^rfa,•.^ Tho only nltornnfive seon.s 

to be t ... ..sual .• that tl.o always travers,., tl,.. Invor an,l thi-kor 

part ot tl,.. eurtl,, oust alo„f: n....-ha„i,.;,l!y opono.l fiss„n.s. To this process 

t'o .lan... abyssal n,.|,.,.tio.. ' n,ay bo u-iven.* It is to bo ncani...! as tbp prolndo 

Ic.,, or to intru-ion, wbeth.-r .,1 lacoolitl,.. Hik.s, or batholiths 

tor the 8hell ol en.ptible mek-niattor we bav.- the ol.l, appropriate name 
suhstratnn,. as ..n.ploy, ,| l,v Fisher, j.owrbian (in-n, an.l mhor' I,' n.llt "rl 
..■n.,s_ol i-nrous ir,.„!,,-y it i. i,.,r n,.,Ts.ary to ,l..,-i.|e ,.m the ,|u,.sti,,„ as t.. th.' 
r.Kioity of the sohstrat,,,,, with .e-^p.-et to s,ir|, .-o^niie f.,r,vs as the earlh li,!,- 
b.nce, however, the latent heat of crystalline ailioate ro^ks is about one-fifth 
of their total melting heat wh... just niolton. the simplest supposition is that 
the substratum is not crystalliml. The transformation of a crystalline sub- 
stra um tluid ma;fma at the lower openings of abyssal fissures is evidently 
mueh more difhcult than the chanRe of an isotropic, hiRhly rigid liquid into a 
road, y eruptible, distinctly fluid magma. The n.any.attacks on the hypothesis 
of a liquid substratum have failed to disprove it, because tliere has been general 
nogloct o the view that, under great pressures, liquid rook, though very hot 
may rival crystalline rock in rigidity. . e, j .. 

The i.lea of a flui.l substraf.m has often been dismissed by authors because 
of the observed indep..ndoneo of the vents during the simultaneous activity of 
K lauou and Mokuaweow.-o (Mauna Loa\ i„ Hawaii. It is hold that, if the two 
hna ..olumns rise from a .•,, suhMratum. th,. level o' • l,|,,h..r 
loweT" 'nT' ^/ f "I''«.';y:''-"^':''if "'^tion- bo kept at the gone... . .ve. oi the 
ZTf^ fi ! '^•lu.l.biuim IS kept with one column some 9.0t0 Wt taller 
flian the other. Attempts have been ma.le to explain this contrast n levels by 
facl^r,?^ >■' density ol the fw-o columns; b>it there is nothing in Me know,, 
favlu t t 1 7 !'"-''-7^"°"- ^" "'^' '»>"'■• I'anJ, th,. field evidence ii. Hawaii 
favours the belief in the present indepen.lenco of the two vents. T.ere is to be said for the that the lava pit at Kilauea is the o^n 
....'... the roof „ a lar.^e la,.,.,>li,h. whi,.h has b,.,.,, in.i....te 1 into the obH^" 
of .Manna l.oa. 1 he f,-,.,..i,>j, of ,i,„ ,|ii„. f i„„ „f „„. ].,,,,,,;,,, „.„„|,| j^,,,.^,,. 

' l.V A. Halv, Aim 

iHirniil of .'v-ir 

V-I. :;.>. UHX;. 

p. 19.". 

RKi'nRT Of rut: viiikf \.<trososikr 



of caution i,. drawing conclNsion rp.^.rr ""'"*:'' '" ""'"""•'^ '*"' "<^' 

Mratum beneath the ilt^J o [ a" S II """-'r^^"^" "f n fluid nub- 

in. th. independent K-veU :l ll::^:\,^::X7 :^tL^ '"•'^" ^" ^'-"- 

of the •level of no'st'afn ' ill a ,i, ^ ' rt': li:::';"'""""'^ "^ "'" '^•^^'"■- 

of its prc.n,iL are prove ,?, " ' "^'"^ T'"' '''^" •■>""»''<•.!., several 

iJea ia in the wrhc'r' ' ° i;. 'I'v '.T T "' """ ""'" "^ P"f'l'-<^''tion, the 

of sueh speculation is tlia it fc' "f *"■ "^ "■'"" ^"'"•"'"ti"". The a.lvantage 
These are the sub^, of lb e"t :''-•' ""'"'"" " ''"'.''•^■'""'"••■■''«' '--'"-' 
i"ve.ti^^Uion. Meanw ilo Vxn nnt nt i" ""^ '"■'" '" '"''"' ''"''i"'-' "" 

se„eS:';^^S Kas,7:rtrv;.:d!;rT'"' tt^-^-'-' ^" 

-ith the s„l,s,rat,nn a"i' ""i, al e "fT" o SlT"'"' ."['•-'-''.-"■-tion 

proximate sources of the e"ri.<iiv,. „„ I • ♦ , ''' '"'""' '" ''<^ '•'•' 

peolo^i.t has to deri! "'"' '""■"""'' '<''•''* '^''^ which the field 

Origin of Volcanic Action. 

temperature of incandescence ThT,n«0 n " • 7 J'^'' ,'^"'' '"'"«"y «« the 
in., and shapin. of the"v:nt : Tit 'pTrt" 'J^'tnt 'aV"""^^"'°\°'^"- 
during, davs. years or millcr,;„m .1 r.- ?' "" ^P*^" channel 

gas and vapour ou;fl;w. and r ™ " ";;! n o^f^^^ "^ '" '"? °""'°'^' ^°' 

leading '0 chemical variation „i\>n,r'," '" '^u'''''*' ''"''' "'^ '''"«•■ 

to sketch in very brief f o , a tluot of 't; ^"'^■"^ J^'' ''''''"' '« '"'^"''-l 

c..ilrs i-^di^^nr::^ -- c^t,ri;?.^t£^ - ^^ ;!:: 

•American Journal of Scioncp, Vol 22 1906 d 19s 

a.d^it;;f^{:^-[5^'- 'He^nu,errpJ^tL'«p„rt. in Proc. A.„„ Art. 
.<!5a — vol. iii — 46 


i)h:i'AHTyy\r of rut: istkhioh 


2 GEORGE v., A, 1912 

furui of tisdure eruptions or in tln' furiii nl' central i riiptic.ns. The writer believe* 
■' t a third rriclliml kIjoiiM Im- rnti rl;iiiii'c| ;i^ » |r.w;il)iliiy. niiriirly. l.y the partiiil 
of complete fuumlering of biitliulitliio roof*. The relation of eneh of these three 
phnaes of volcBni<' action to abyiisnl injection may now bo outlined. 

Fisxure Kru\r innx.- The rc«i'iiiiil liiv.i ll I-, kiinwii tu li.uc Ir .in 

simple li8«ure-< in their un<lerI,vinK terranos, ranfje in date from the pre-Cambriun 
10 the prcjfnt. .Vs we Imvc -een. they nre, witlioiit exception, of basaltic com- 
position. Hiieli miiKnia mint be exotic, that is. it ciinnot be explained as due 
to the refusion of material from the earth's acid or 8edimentar,v sheila. It is 
llic only hiva (extrusive muKuia) to which a .sccmdnry oriirin cannot theoretically 
be ascribed. But tlie \cr.v low original slopes of the llow.^ (very often inclined 
at much less than one degree from the horizontal plane) and their great lengths 
rliow that the Ini.salt of fis.^ure eruptions i.s notabl.v superheated. Such tempera- 
ture is appropriate to a^.iimilation of foreiRti rock. That the solution of pre- 
(ambriiin n'lei-fses or of other rocks has not taken place in sensible amount 
must have either of two meanings. It may mean that the various abyssal injec- 
tions underlying the lava field are narrow, with wiillli-^ to li' nua-mcl in fii' 
or tens of feet, hut not in many thoiisniids of ivv\. Or laiiiir.' to as^iniilaii- 
may be due to special rapidity of injcclioii, with simultaneous extrusion; for 
solution of foreign rock must lake considerable time. The observed average 
size of the feeding channels (dlki's) in the great 1 iva fields of the woetorn 
I'nited States, of northwestern Kurcpe, of India, and other regions corresponds 
with the former concliisioi;. The vast Icelniidie flow of 1T^3 and the nature of 
the indiviilual (lows in evcr.v prehistoric lava field show or at least suggest that 
each extrusion has been rapid. The coiitrollin}; condition for the lack of assimi- 
lation is probably the narrowness of the abyssal inject ions, at least in the part 
traversing the sedimentary and acid shell;-, of the earth. 

The fissures need not bo plane* of strong, or even discernible faultuig. 
For example, the Piircell Lava, covering many thousands of square milei, issued 
iiuietly from many cracks in the Siyeh-Kitchener sea-bottom, and covered the 
nmds and sands with a continuous sheet of basalt, which evidently flowed on a 
Hat, practically unbroken surface. This eruption illustrates, in fact, the very 
common association of fissure eruption with downwarps of the broad, gentle, 
geosynclinal order. Whether the down-warping is the effect of abyssal injection, 
as suggested by the writer in a published paper,* or whether the abyssal injection 
and surface outflow arc tlic effect of dowii-warpiiif.'. arc important iiU''<(ions 
which will i3t be discussed in this place. 

Tho effusion of a basaltic flood is generally ascribed to the mere sciueeziug 
out of tho magma from beneath a cracked and sinking Earth-crust. Yet some 
force may also be available from the expansion of the substratum material as it 
rises to levels of grentl.v lessened pressure. This expansion is of two kinils — 
that of the lava regarded as gas-free, and that of the gases separated from it 
in bubble form. If the expansional energy of tho liquid proper is not all used 
up in driving asunder the walls of the injected body, .=ome of that great force 

R. A. Daly. ADi<>rir»n .louriml of Scienri , Vol 

inOfi, p. 19-1. 


iV(V;,x^^ jt ^r»r5i«a^B^ 

in.i-oHT i>i rin < nin \srnu\uuf:i{ 


tlu' -fpuriitidii ,.}■ thu 

IcIkI to CElMf I utflow 

iiilifintK for .Atpiiilon 


M ovailub'.^ f„r cx.ri.sion. A. r„a«,„„ , r, thr w,.rf .,• 

.lHsolvo.1 Ka. mu.t .fill furth.r inoroa^e th,- vo]»m,. in 
at he surf...... The rola.iv,. i,„,v,r,a,„v of ,h..., 'l,,-,. 

18 liy iiii iiiciins iippiirenf 

ro.a,II''f:r\;;r,.i'::r2't;!rt;:'vr'^''n ;f '^ --'-• '-' ♦'••• 
.xt..ndcd ,o ,hc ..rf.,c... -....^t s H,."^ ,;;:., "/'.''f r;v ;:',•,•:'''■-'->•-- 

boon piinpanitivclv difR.-nlt r.( ,>«,. . .• ■ , '^"'^"' ' '''"""'' ''«3 Icmik 

hoi-Hha, !. ..•^Mi,:S.i!::;;!\;:Lr:iir;::;;,.';:.;S;;l;:r!i.,,!' r?^ ^•"' »' 

.n .h., ..u.ormon .holl of ,1,., rrn.,. Th.! .o.Mpr-li .. m . ,' I .' '7" 

orogf-ni.. paroxysm. After p..,'!. i,arnvv.„> . • i f'li'no.l Vy «„ 

.•'-•<-on.pan,i„,/tablc":-- »f-lnKi-..l hnforv. n. ,h.,w,, in tl,» 



■ f Ti 

I", -iml 

l^k. Sin..; I,, I Id.triit 
lt.«.k\ Mi^, at (;ttli 1': 
Itiiti-li h!.„i,|, 
\|ii">l'iliiali Ml,, 
('i-Ci.,.!!, Iiirli.i 
'if. at K'llt. Afii.,i . 

^V;|.hini;ti,li Slut.. 

N. W. .s.,,fl,„„| 

I.<l.llpl ., 

W:i-.|inj(ft.pii .-^tat.- 
';r.-:»t liiir. \fri,,i. 
< I'.S \ 
Suak.- Kiv.r. Mali., 
Iljur.iii, .Sviiii 

■ Kf'Wc* (l.iVVUTi 

11.1 Mi.|,|l,-('.a,„|,r,.„i ■ 

*';irlM.rti't r. .ii.. 

<]r..Ui,.,.ii., ,,„ K.iilv T. iii,,r\ 
< r..tac..)_u> (K,.|.|i;,n h, n. -. 
r.iN-.ii.. (T..oii.i«.iv LjiKiilf I 
<)li»f.K..ii.. (|,,,«.r Mi.K-.n.) 

Mi.K.n-.(Val(iiiia l.a.sdhi. 

Mum. ii*< ■' 



•■>'•• ;ui,l l(. 

'.;i-. ,''1.. \i.i,„i.i.. 

Kail; Mi.litl. c,,,,!.,!,,. 

'■|..-.-..f I'al.-,,/.,, 

'■■"• 'I'l I. ^.1-. 1.,.., ■, 

'!■.>. ..( I.;ll,,l,,:. 

<■! .1 \ , 

l.'H, HA (.Ah,.. \, 

l-.-u.. .Mi,«,.,',. 

in,K'('tioii N iriorca-ol h..v,,„ I . ,-,■ i i "' ''■ ■'!'**^ 

Tho r.,..,l, is a l.ntho i,h TU ^1 '.v .„,„,,, „^, ,,„„. ^__,, ^^.,,, ^^ ,^^ 

s.vntectio. '•'''•""'''■■'-'•''-"-'< 'iiff..nnfiat,.„C t!,. ..v.-^rw.' 

I ho intfirritv of th.^ li'itlmiwl.' ■ f • ■ i . . 

.■.;.--v„I. iii_-4V,i .^..'l.>..l. 'T px^ fonnderii... .v.vjM. 





nKi'.tKrHt:\i or iiit: isn.HioH 

2 GEORGE V , A 1912 

not fairly Ih- imIIwI ii--iirii eruptioti, tlmiiKh it tiiitfht U' u<<otiiimnir(l liy lavu 
floO'U 1 iniltuil fri>in fniotuitM in tin- rnofrock ■.iirroiiiiilitiff tlio fniiiplcriMl nreii. 
Til'' Irvi'l 1)1' till' liivi ill till' iiroa of foiiniliriiitf w..uli|, in fMrin, ro*>rnbIo a 
plMtiv;iii (tiit-iint) II Ul'tioii, hut tln> liiva would Ihti- U^ gniprally liparitic ratliiT 
than l.asaltic ns in tho iiiajurily >>i |iliil<>;\ii enipliiiii-'. Monovi r. the llparito 
woiilil form a continiiinis iim-w, nuTKiiu: ilc^wnwaril^ iiitii irriuiil>'. atnl thus 
not a McriiiH of ■'iiiH'rpo-M'd ili^itiiict flow-. .\i',',,r(liiiir fn tln' lolioKiMpliy. tho 
lava I'f till- f()iiii'l"'ri''l una iniirlit AhikI valli'V- (Uitsiclc ana. If (hi- 
hydrostatic ailjii-tm.'nt won- ni'<'oinplihhi><i in -tiiKW, ^iici-pssivo --npcrpo^ed flows 
iniitht hn ( aii-.oii in the vnllpy?i. 

Thdiiirli llic ficM cviili-nccs do ncil wcin t" favour thi* ronccptioii for most 
cxpo-'t'd hatholitlM. it sho.dd !>.■ retain 'd sx* ii pi.^sihiiitv In ^i.nio im^ox. In 
(f»'nerd the pruhliMji li.i^ a ilitHi uity. 'I'lic evidcucf for local found<>rin(J 
IP ill iiiwia] ilantfcr of boing ohlitoratcd. Tlic fflas^y or scorimt'ttus pha-c of tho 
' h.tthidilli ■ will ncoi-jsiirily b( ciddcd awa> buforf the jcraiatic phiHc can bo 
pxposid. 'Phf lip.iritii' plla.^c ih-imI pxloiid to a d. pth of no more than u fow 
hiisidi'i'l I- I, V I'on \i \ioiiM rapidly iin itri- ii.'>. tli. liol<' vy-lallinc flM-x 
Thcrclori'. comparatively little tiini' would bf rtviuin^l to rpinovo flic original 
surface Piia-e. I ho Keoloyist, .iliidvim; the ero-ionv-<iirfaci>, mijjiif have no 
inklinsr that tin- ' butholilh ' had not hri'ii eoinplclcly covivl by a loof of 
voun'ryrock. Tbc forinor exi^tciico of a roof cannot be aagunicd -iiuplv because 
ii 'bHtholith' ha-i a holocrystalliiie structure, 

rh»? application of thi-i deductive scheme of thought to a'tna! example'* 
cannot I"' deJcrilwl in this chapter; it will bt> made in the special paper to be 
pnblishi'd. The possibility that the unrivalled liparite plateau of the Yello"- 
stone I'ark u . formed in eonseipienee ..f local founderini- will there be iliscusscd 
in some dct.i: O^'ier eaM's, in Massachusetts and ' Isewhere, will lie used ns 

I'iiih-ii! /v'mi/i/'oii.v.-^ 1,1 iiiiiiiy alA--;i| i ' ■ ■ 

directly rca'h (piite :o tlie Karth's surface, tli 
volcanic aelicii in the form of 'eential erufitions.' 

Mere hydrostatic outflow of iiuigma will not explain the P'r-istence of 
activity al ■ central vent . at Kilauea there is no overflowing, tiiooudi its lava 
lake is proliably the most iK'isisli'iitly lo'tive on the fc'lobi IJecnrreut explosion 
ollowinij an intermittent rise of new, hot mnK'na in the vent is clearly uiuiob- 
to supply heat fa«! enoupli; Kilauea is not explosive. .Xctiial cab ilation of the 
eoi ective u-adieiit shows how i)oworles< thermal convection is t i supply the 
ncTSsary uent at thi' surface. Vet eoiitinued activity means victory of the 
lava column in a ^tniKRlo with cold. 

More promisiii^j is the conception that the heat of the unilerlyuiK maffina 
cliamlxi- is traiisfeneil to the crater by another kind of convection, that due 
to ho ffenerutioii of Ras bubb'es in tho lava column. At tlie depth of a few 
hundred !'it, bubbles of individual ma.s.s corre-jKiudinj; to normal lava vesii'e- 
must have very small volume. For that reason, as well as through the consider- 
able increase of masnuitic vi-cosiiy with prt -sure, such bubbles must rise vcrv 

itl'.U- till 

li it miiy I 




in ruHT iif Tin innr \^rnii\n\ii 



■t llm 



..owly. A «,«.<■,«( »«Kr.Ku».. or ,war.^ of thrn, *.,„1,| ,hr,-f„r.. ...n ,ir..nff 
t.u..v«n. ..ff,., t „.. tl„. ,„„H, „,■ ,„„^,„„ i„ ^,,1,.,^ ,f,,,y ^^^,. ..„';,n*:I,.,l Tli*. prin- ol Hui.l |Jvn«mii-, .how that th.> „,a,« of ^p-mmhIIv vo^fnlatcl magma 
would r.i,|, M,, fh.. .on.lint at ■■ .mpurut,v,.|y hiKh mh-W. Arr v.hI at li.,- surfaro 
.t part, witl, >„„ch of it. .lilatinK „»*. Rrows h,.,.vi,.r, .uui -ink.. It, p).,v ■• 
uk.n by a l.,t,r upru,l„„« ,„.,..; tho rh.vthnu- a.-t,oi. „ „,on. ,.r 1, .. . o,ai>:i.o,i«. 
Mil.-.- a >;aH |>|iu«c an,l a li.pii.l pha-p an- .-".^iitial to th.. nr,,, ,.,< il,,- ,..,w,.rf„! 
"i.tho.1 „l ,ir,uiali..,i may U- .■al|,.,| -tao-pha*- couv.rti.,,,.- 

Agaii, th.- writ.T mu-r h..v otnit .Iwail.'.l urK„i„.T,f, ot. a subj.r! whii-h 

Mvm» to hnii .f .„„»MkTalM. iniporta Softi,.,. it p,,i i„ r-niark, ;ir.r that 

two-phas.. .0M^<■.■tlon u \iM,\,. thr..,igho„t th,. a.-tivi'v of ii„. |„v,, lak.M of 
Hawaii .,11,1 a.i.l U.i. U,-,, ..|,.. rv,.l ni th.. |.,va •; tl„. ..rafr. ..t W-oiviut^ 
ari.l hti,,,, S,.,„„.lly. tho hyp,ith.^.-ii m.iiu to b.- w.-ll M,p,w,.t,..l Iv a. m.,! ,.;,],.„ 
lation of It, f.fti,.„(K.y, as will I,<'uf.,.(l in tho .^p... ial p por. 

Hint papor will al*.. sk,.|.-h the ar^riinwnl. for tho vi..w •' .• mu-h 

ht'at oinaiia'uiK at a cpiilral vi.nt is not priiiiarv but i- tho pr,..i o! ..),. 

. pactions. ,-l,,..|Iy anin,,- th.- gix*.-*, in th« lava e.jluiio llorpwith u, 
partial exphiiialioii tor tho lontr livv^ of many vol.-ano.-i. Thoir vont-i ,i, 
-pen, partly bt-caugo of tho manufaotur,. of boat iii th.- o.,n<luit bv ..xothf-rmic 
Kast-MH roactions; an. I partly throuRh th.. ....nv-.-'iv,. tran^for of' h,-:.t by the 

formation of .. ira- pha.o in tho lava column. Sin.. <n both r.-p... t- i!., prp'sonw 
..f maK'iiali.. t: - is vital t,, tli.- ....ntinunn. .■ of a..tivity, thin viow ,,f it.o o^sicn- 

tial natiin- ol ivity at pontial v..n|.. may U- callcl the ' i.-H-tluxi-.i; Ilvi«- 


^ (Jns-lluMn^. . .iaifis ll„. io..alizat.o„ „f tlw vo„t. 1„ ,.;,r,.,, ,(,,.,^1 

injpofon th.. K.-o- ris.. :„„l ....ll..,-, alx^ut pon.t. i„ ,1,.. roof of tho ,„a;,'mu 
chamber. I ho highost point in th.- roof will, in the on.l. attract tho rising m* 
most olTcctivcly As the k^s t-n.ion :-.<.r,.a,-«>9, the ^tronfith of the roof at the 
point of sp,..,al L-a,, mav bo ov-r.-oni,. aii-i an -xplo^ion o,K>n.s a 
vent (a .liatrcino, to the Karth". sorfa.-. Or, J a fissure i. op-no.] above th<. 
point of BUS a.-cninulHtion, it miv bo onlarfrcl -., vent -!.... )ir-t by o„f,.„-hine 
liot tfas ami th.»n by two-phaso conv,.etio i. 

In th.. of f Tiie .n-.ry central v,.,,! n. t b..coino n, ■.o or h-ss j-.rf.H-tly 
.ylin<lrical a - lufion torm. In this resin-ct, a- *ell a^ in tl„. ,inall -i^c ..f those 
vents, ..ven in f-.r ni|..-litior(t .-..n.-s th.. LMs-il-xinfr hvp^.tl,,.,!- ,. supr-.rf. 1 by 
the facts of nature. 

(lu.s-fhixinir also explains the periodieit.v ; the ^.-tivitv at centr 1 vent.^ 
A lonK i>ono,l of activity- tomis to .-Nhan- the >„pply of pas :„ the cor (nit and 
inime<liately bolow it, that is. in tho upp,.rm, st part of the mnpr-:a hamtef- 
llence two-pha-o convection t.-nds to s|,,w ,l„w; . The p.,worfiil ra.i- -l 
crater finally can^.-s the lava to freeze at the snrfac.. an.l a soli. I ph 
or less .iepfh i.^ ! tnne.i. Tliis [.liie must be bef. n- aei vif. 

The removal of the plup is n..f .hie primarily t.. v^pU-ln,:. \ volcano 
may be dormant for scores of years, so that not even mil.l solfataric i,oti,in 
persists in the crater. In such a rase the plnp m>Ht bo thick. On tli.> .iv- «» 

; in the 
can bp 




ni:rMaMHM of tiif. istekiou 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
it \i in.ich struiiKor than the muss of tuflfs surrounding it. Without a prelinii- 
■*ry thinning of the plug we should expect explosion to open a vent on the side 
•t the cone ruthor than at tho old crater. In point of fact, the svn.nietry of 
great, rn.u.s like Elna, Fuji .vaiiia, „r May.ui. toKithor with the l<n,.wn liislui-v 
•f_ many cones, shows that tho greater activity i^ normally r,.nevvod at the 
onjcinal vent. 

■J'his behaviour ia intelligible if it bo grante.l tiiat ni.igniatic gases continue 
to rise irom tlie depths and collect under the plug. The temperature of the 
tav.1 oolim.n slowly because of tho exctheriuic chemical reactions and 
tacause of the compression of tho accumulating gas, which steadily increases 
m tcnsi.ui until it reaches a certain maximum value. Tho plug' is thereby 
atowly melted at tho bottom. After sufficient melting has occurred, the magma 
with Its newly aciuired tension, bocop-es capable of bursting the plug with one 
•r more major explosions. A new period of activity is initialed; it will last 
■ntil the special accumulation of gas at the top of the general magma chamber 
u largely exhausted. 

-a; rhythmic acthm U. of .■oiir.s... .ubj.vt t.. tli iiplicMlim,. iM!l,i,.i„.,. „f 

tbe .,o;.it:on of foreign matter by the magma, in the conduit or in the feeding 
chamber, or in both. The material absorbed may be volatile, e.g.. va.iose or 
»e«urgent water, and will therefore increase the gas-tension in tlie vent Whole- 
■•le evisceration of the volcanic pile may occur, so that a Somma cone becomes 
a culdera floor, later to be si'nnounted by a Vesuvius cone. 

•. w *'''-''^''«'v <^''«^'' '■'^n«''«l ^-^^nt increases in cxploaiveness toward the end of 
ita life. Whether juvenile or resurgent, - ,. gases have increasing difficulty 
m escaping into tlio air. This means, „• •ourse, increase in tho magmatic 
¥Mcosity, which 13 conditioned on several factors, the chief of which are tem- 
RWature uiid chemical constitution. As the temperature of tl main magma 
^mber falls (for several obvious reasons), the body passes through a stage 
•Here diflereiitiation of the magma is specially liable to take place. That magma 
—•y be either the primary basalt or a syntcctic. In either case gravity causes 
tlie more acid, an.l generally more alkaline, lighter ix.lo of the differentiation 
to rise t-o the surface, where already radiation of heat specially heightens the 
•wcosity. With increase of silica and alkalies at the top of the lava column and 
*crease of the iron oxides, magnesia, and lime, the viscosity must there rise 
J'lnally, even in this brief se<;tion, some reference should be made to the 
•dvi-abilily of dislinguishing two chief classes of central eruptions. So far, the 
feeding niagiiia chamber has been assiimetl to be a jnain abyssal injection. Yet 
It 18 to bo expected that vents may occasionally be opened in the roofs of lac- 
coliths, thick sheets, and other satellitic injections, which have lost thermal 
end liydrostatic connection with their own parent abyssal injections. For con- 
»«aiience, central vents which are fed directly from the main injections, may be 
ceUed •principal'; those fed from satellitic chambers r y be called ' subordi- 

Living and e.xtinct vents, probably belonging to the ' subordinate ' class will 
ki described in the forthcoming publication on the nature of volcanic action 
That paper will present grounds for the belief that Kilauea in Hawaii is a 

in.i'din or riii: ciiiff x^trosdvf.i} 



gaa-fluxed liolo in tlie roof of a still-lliiid luccolilli, wliilo 

its neigiibour, Mokun- 

weoweo (ilui main vent of Maunu Lon) i< n 'principal' volcano. B.a.u,. ..a., 
concluded that the l.'T volcanic ' embryos ' of Suabia were vents from a lar(?e 
laccoluiiic niiias of late Tertiary aw. Similarly, many of the Scottish neck.i, 

represent late-Paleozoic out- 

a\v:iy iis soi.n 
Icarly made. 

I- 111!' (Il-tllir- 

It helps us to 

made famou.s by Oeikie's munograplis. seem 

bursts iif fras fmin tliic'k ^*l ts (-Ills and lliit l.i 

Siinie (if the dilMciilliis df volcanic tlicury fa 
tioti between the two kinds of central vents is 

iinderstanil: the short lives of many volcanoes; th(> lack of lava flows at many 
of them; f!ie independent activity ,,f nel).;hboiirin(i vents; the chemienl .lissimi- 
larity of the lavas from ncighbonrinp vents (each satellilic chamber pursuiuR 
Its independent chemical evolution along the lines of assimilation and difTer- 
cntiation); the (piite common elnstcring of many small vents in a region which 
shows no trace or but few traces of alignment amont; its volcanoes; and \\w 
fre(iueiit ovideiiee of surface def<irmati<m in such rcgiens. Tjic evidences from 
the existence of • ^ulpordinate ' volcanoes arc largely indirect but the*- are 
numerous, and, taken together, they form a combination of no mean strength. 
• iatlierioi,' all llic llin a.N ef ilic arjrMuiciit just presented in -kclcte,, outline, 
we lind them converging to one leading conclusion. The principle of abyssal 
injection— intrusion of the substratum basalt along mechanically opened liasures 
in the Earth's acid shell— seems to explain the essential facts of vnlcani-sm. 
The writer believes, in fact, that this fundamental postulate is as necessary to 
sound theory in vidcanology as it is in purely plutonic geology. 



A, 19 ^ 




In 1905 the writer i-ublishoil a paper OM th.. rlK.ltl,..,, , .• , • 

especiflliv h.- iro, L i ? " discussion ot the sul,jcct has taken place 


(a) The nietliod of intrusion 
ioJXn''" "'''"" °' '''' •'"'^ *" Pre-intrusi,„. str,„.,..e- i. -i.<i 
(f) The form of the body. 
{d) The size c." the body, 
(c) The attitude of the body with reference to the horiz.-r." pi,n, 

!si;t;*,;: ;:£ "- ' ^=.." .;,..•;,.? t-i"r,i;^ 

^^ s- ,-;r ;!„S!;;s!„r ; -„:^;, i ^-;:-i,-r 

agma IS tnjecfer/. jVn n^ected bod^v is thus one wMch is r-uirely inclosed 

•Journal of Geology, Vol. M, 1905 p 4&'i 







2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
withi,, tl>o inva.l,..! formations, except alon^ the relatively narrow openings to 
the ch.„„l,er whore flie latter h.s been in communication with the fee<ling 

On tlio other hnnd. ,>tock:<,, an.l batholiths never show a true floor 
Uiey nppear to .-ommunict.. .lireclly with their respective magma reservoirs. 
l!.acli ot these bodies show, tieM r.lations suggesting that it is a rarl of its 
magma reservoir. Th- communi.-aticu with the magmatic interior of the earth 
IS not rstablislie.l by narrow openiufrs. but by a huge, downwardlv enlarging 
opening throngh th,- countr.v-rock. In relation to the invaded formations a stock 
boss or bathohth is intru-ive. but i- snhjacenl rather than injected 

Ifow a magma reservoir is .ularged by the volume represented in the 
amount ot intrusion signaluod on the .•ontaets of stock or batholith is a matter 
peruntfiig as vet of no abs„Iuto certainly. In .separating intrusive bodies into 
two primary divisions, une including' all injected bodies, the other including 
suKiaccnt bodies, a chissiticafio,, will ,1,. good Service in emphasizing the need 
of liirther investigation into tlic mocluinics of intrusion. 

S„ far .as the method of intrusion is concerned, therefore, stocks, bosses. 
iMi.l Inilholiths b.loug to a primary .livision of intrusive bodies which may be 
dehnci as n..t d,>mon-trabl,v .lue to injection. The principle is negative- it 
leaves the luetho.l ot intrusion unstated, but it briiifrs into clear relief a principal 
contrast gubsistiug between the greatest of intrusions, on the one hand and 
dikes -heet-. lac,-,,hths etc.. ..n the other. 

Tnc .,th,.r principles ,,! Wassitication-viz., (/-). (c). (d). and (c)--are 
applied in the classification now to be presented in a manner sufficiently obvious 
to ner.,1 no .liscssion. Priiici|)le (e) is le^s fiindamcial than tii<. others, except- 
ing (d<. and is recognized as appearing only occa-ionallv in tiie scheme- the 
major diameters of true iac,-o!itI,,- tcu.l to horizonlality : the principal axis' of a 
b.vsmahth, neck, stock, boss, or batholith is charactcri-tically 

It is obvious that transitional forms are to be cxpecte<l among the related 
types oi the classification. Those forms are not mentioned in the table which 
would tlius become overburdened. Matrmatic differentiation within dikes sills 
and stocks has often produo,.,! varl.-tal tvpes of these bodies, but the i,roce'-s has 
occurred too irregularly t . pcriin' oi' it- fiirnisliing a couveni.'iit criterion for 
tlio tiTiit-ral ^■I,i'-<iricatio!i. 

In. II 1 ii;ii lioiiii>, 

Dike.— Most geologists are agreed that dikes in .st.^nticd formations are 
bodies always cross-cutting the bedding planes. Many geologists agree that the 
angle ol dip 1, immaterial. All agree as to the criterion of form, namely, that 
of a lissure-Hliing narrow in proportion to its length and bounded by parallel or 
nearly i)a;-allfi \-alis of c untry-rock. 

When -tratiticatiuu and cleavage or .schistosity are not coincident, such an 
intrusive bo<ly is generally called a dike, even though it follows the planes of 
<'leavage or -clii3to=ity. This usage will be adopted in the classification to be 


inj'ORT OF THE nilKh- I.v/A-oAoVA.A- VJ7 


alron,!, well „.noa t,I ";;IS:L| ""'""""■ ''"^ '""' '--'itl.s-.y,... 

illustitS seTBiirti^a 't't^ Tl te f ^- 1"""~'-^ "'i-'-'. For 
Plate 7. ' ^^- ^- O^'oloK'cal Survey. 1903, section on 

Professors R.^V^ Brook SZephM^ T'"' ^"■''"''^' '"'^'''^"larly 

terms from the adoptcVcllSio? \ n "° ""■""■ "^ "<•'"''" t^'^^' 

'^°":4=^^°^"r^ their ;;;i;t^i,;;:,e'; •;,■;::-' '■'"•••-" --■"-' 

supply. '° ''''^" intrusive bodies as the source of magmatic 

tar/'els^U'ts^sSSrr^' :t'\J^;'^'^" '"^'^'"^' 'T ' -"''"- 

the4J!;;t^s;:ei3rt;rrrV"' ^^'"" r' '''-"-• =>-' '^ 

in a straliHed fonn..ti„„ '"' "^ '""'"'^ "'""'? " ''^''''inP Plane 

M.h,,^. ,,!„,„. i„ „ ,,„„i,i,j r,.„„,„i„„. ,s„"",, ,.."';,;,'"»"'» «'»™ " 

';;;:-;™;"w";:;:'":,:;:;:„;r:'-j;;i;"i -:'"■;'"- ■■:■■' 

— _• '"' "" "'"' "'•' "riifinal m.'aiiiiiir ot (iill„.rt'- 

'Geikie. Text-book of GeoloBy~Vol FVlw^ iv717i~r~r • 





2 GEORGE v., A. 1912' 

broader definitimi, uro iiiin-cd oii tlu' fiilliiwinjr cliiinictpiistics : (a) Whatever 
the orif;-'i of tiie force involved, a lac<'olith is always inji-cted. (.b) A laccolith 
is always in sill relation to the invaded, stratified, formation; that is, the injec- 
tion has, in the main, followed a lieddins: plane; but, like sills, laccoliths often 
locally lireak across the lle(idillL^ (<) A laccdlith has tlie ^hape of a plano-convex 
lens ilatteneil in the plaiU' of lieddini.'- of the invaded fonnaticm. The l<'ns may 
he synmictrii' or asytnniciric in profile; circular, oval, or irrc^rular in irroiind 
plan, ((f) There are all transitions hetweeii sills and laccxiliths. 

For many ilhistrations of simple symmetric and asymmetric laccoliths, see 
the writinji's of fiillxirt. f'ross, \V,.|'d jmd Pirsson. and .Japjrar. 

A multiple laccolith may be conceived, the name being formed on the 
analoKy of 'multiple dike' and 'multiple sill." It would differ from a com- 
pound laccolith only in the fact that the deformation of the strata, while again 
similar in character to that produee<l during the intrusion of a simple laccolith, 
has been due to distinctly successive injections of the same kind of magma. 
This case has not yet been described as actually occurring in nature. 

Harker" has noted the occiirrenc<' of ' (•om/)0.eiVi' lircolitlin ' in the ishuiil of 
Skye. Through the chemical contrasts of their s\iccessively injected parts, they 
arc <iisliiiguishe<l from multiple laccoliths. 

Weed and I'irssont have descrilu^l as a laccolith a great, lentii r.Iar mass of 
porphyry injected along a surface of unconformity, namely, that between pre- 
C'cmbrian crystalline schists and a sedimentary Cambrian formation. Such 
a type is again aberrant from Gilbert's types, but should certainly be classed 
among the laccoliths; the writer proposes the not altogether satisfactory name 
' inter formational laccolith ' for this case. (Compare a similar section of an 
occurrence in the Black Hills of South Dakota, published in the Annals of the 
New York Academy of ftcievce, Vol 12, 189it, p. 212.) 

I'liAcoMTll. — Ilarker ha^; recently proposed ' phacolite ' as a new name fi !■ a 
type among the 'concordant intrusions.' He writes: — 

' In the ideal case of a system of undulatory folds there is increased 
pressure and compression in the middle limbs of the folds, but in the crests 
and 'roughs a relief of pressure and a certain tendency to opening of the 
bedding-surfaces. A concurrent influx of molten magma will therefore 
find its way along the crests and troughs of the wave-like folds. Intrusive 
bodies corresponding more or less closely with this ideal case are common 
in folded districts. Since some distinctive name sccms to be needed, we 
m;i." call them pharolitif The name hi<'colith has often been extended to 
include such bodies, but this is to confuse together two things radically 
different. The intrusions now eonsidered are not, like true laccoliths, the 
cause of the attendant folding, but rather a consequence of it. The situa- 
tion, habit, magnitude, and form of the phacolite are all determined by the 
circumstances of the folding itself. In cross-section it has not the plano- 

• A. Harker, Tertiary Igneous Rocks of Skyo, 1904. p. 209. 
t Journal of Geolopy, Vol. ♦, 1896, p. 402. 

■-jBO-''-jnia-UT^'--:^''i m^^vmi .a^ •T.^ixtr t: 

m.roin- or Tin: miKF .\sTit<>\n\n:n 



convex shape of tl.e lac'clith, l,„t pnMents tvnirullv •< ,,..■.,;■,.„ , 
t.mos „ .loubly convex for,... Kxc'pt ^^^or> ^^M^u^'C ^; Z^^Zr 

ull :i .1 '" ''l'""'''" ■" ""' <lir.'.-.ion of th.. av.s ,, fol,li„e 

As reganls the mechanical condition, of its injection the , wll f 
resemble, rather the .null s„h,i.ii.r,v intrusions wE s ..c ..o c t.: 

P^a^'inSi.-"'' "^ '—^"'— "•• ^•-' «•'-- -'■'-' ~ 

wh.h con. directly fro.n the an-^. nn.l^ho ' ,he o^: ;;.h;: ■ I h ' 

othe?^Li;l:^s;^v•£;s:^' -'• '^--'-^ "^ -- ■^--^. "-■ 

BVSMAMTII. — Allied to ' nlimc ' I., If II- 

Iddinp. described as in. inJe^Slor ti I! ^ ^ ,:r .J^^'" .r ^T'^'"'''' ' " 
cylmder of strata, havin^r the form ,f n pL w h i • Z!u i 7 """" '"" 
the surface of the earth, or inipht ter.nin^t n' T ''"'"' ""'* »» 

dome over •, laccolith T ,, **^"""'i"' ."' '' '1«""p of .trata r,.so,„l,li„jr the 

tihyry of cho bys.nalith re.ts S,,,-!. •. , v n v 1 . "" T'''"'' ""' '"'^■ 

mere tlcxin^ of its strata.t ' ' ' ' '''"' '''' ""^ 

VWax.c XKCK.-The soli.i-Iava liili,,^. „f a vol,,,,,!,. v...„ I ,.,; i , „ ■ . reference to the formations traver.,.l I, ." , . ' ;,,':,' "T" 
mations are .imposed of nonvol.a.iic ro.ks or f T '"'''• ""'^"- l <'"'-»- for- 
been pierce., v thoroughly r^^^.^Z^t i^ tjy'tZZZ!:' ""'"" ""^ 

bo,liS■S"r:;JJ'^cl::^taIi;^fM '"'';''" " ^''"^^ "' '"^'■""■'' '«-- 

dislocation of ro<.^V:mS!. "s^S^ t t^rTlu' T"*^""^^- '" ^'"° 
huildinp, actnal or potential ..avitie. are foZ u ""'"' ;,".°""'»>"- 

These are commonly fillcl wi.l, i^ne„„. ma^CL , i, ' u""-' ]■ 'T\- 
eav.ty from below, from the .i,le, or, it n.ay'l,.. fro „ v ' , t "'i I" a','" of fonn fth ,'. not strictlv of ,be la,.co ithi, , ' ■' , 
sion. as desiRnafcl by r,:, .. ,,,.,,. .,,„: . . ••"<"'}"" '""d,. ,.i ,„trM- 

shape of the intruded mas . ^^.Z^Zu'urZl l" -""^ "?" ""^ 
mation, so compIi,.ated. th.. ,l,c o;!;.:;,: ', !^ ^^ ^ i ; ^ 7^' -';-- 
s.on^ so far named. A^ain, ..-ep.lar i„,ie,.,e,l b,>,lies 7( , „' Hv i i T / •;■ 
v«,>et.y or lorm are ,l„e to the active crow.iin^-aside „,„i .n. '" 

try-rook i. forced asunder by tl. nn.ler r '= ? oJ ' M 

;i^'^'1^;^rMo^o;.^I^t*?^t1/|}y^-;:^s«-!?;: i^;^ vo.. -. 

p. 77. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 191? 

HU(.'!i liodiis in.i.v Ih' iluc to ii (•iiiiiliiiialion of the iw. j riitiiiry caiiKS — oroKenic 
-tri-- 'MK'niiii; i-avitics, :in<l li,! or other iins-uro oiij.iiiaf ing from the 
iiuiL-nia it.-«'lf 1111(1 widening the cnvities. 

Xi, (Tonerally aceepteil name has yet bi'eti propose.! for such irreffiilar 
intrusions. ' I.nrcolith ' enniiot he used, since that trrin denotes a definite form, 
and (dso implies a Bi)eeial mo le of intrusion different froiri that here conceived. 
The writer has not been alile to find a simple English word for the purpose, 
uiid .suKRests n name formed from the (ireik on the unaloRy of 'laccolith,' 
• l..v-malith." and • hathidith.' It is • i-h.iiiolith ' .lirive,| fr. ill y,.,io,-. a numld 
used in the eastin^^ of metal, and A(0o<, a stone. The mntrma .f a ' ehipnolitii ' 
fills its ehamler after the manner of a metul ca^tin;;- tiliiiii.' ih. ni..uM. LiU.- 
a eastim;, the "ehonnlith" may have any shai)e. 

A ' chonolith ' may he lh;:s dellned : an i^'iieii,- i.-.i^ uiinjithd itit.s 
dislocated roik of any kind, stratified <ir not; (/.) d' .shape and re'atioiis irre- 
gular, in the -ei. ■ 'hat they are not those uf a true dike, vein, sheet, laccolith, 
bysinalith, or neck; ainl (c) composed of magma eitlier passively squeezed into 
a subterranean oroRenie eiiamher or actively forcin:: apart tin- eoiintrv-roek-'. 

The chamber of » ' chonolith ' may be enlarged to a subordinate degree 
by contact fu-ion on tliu walls, or by magmntie 'stoning.' 

Examples of 'chonoliths' are ileseribed on pawes ■W'^. H'l. \\^, i,nd 400, 
and nniny bodies of this class have lieen mapiied and ^e'li.n.'d in \»(rks dealinsf 
with the western Cc^rdillera of tiic I'nitcd States. 

It may le specially noted tliat this new term may i,e u-ttiil in sui.'i;cstinn 
the prol>ahle nature of an iujei-ted IumIv in the ea-e wliere it- whole fnrni i- 
not certainl.v kiiown. The eonle.xt .-honM tiien, of rotirse, indicate that the 
author usiuit the trnn lu.s in niind only a iirohahiiity aiul is making, as it 
Were, simply a report i.f progress in the description of lliat particular body. 

ErnMOLlTii. — The fthmoUlh (funnel-shaped stone) of S. lumon is one of the 
many conceivable species of chonoliths. He considers that tiie tonalite mass 
of Adnmello is an e.^iimple. At the present erosion-surface the surrounding strata 
dip towards the tonaiifo on every side and he f.,nelud.s that they converire, 
uiider?rom.d, so as *' cut off the ifrneous body e.xeeht i'..r tlie narrow dike, or sill 
fpiMler of the injection. ():i the otluT hand the body is .i-uppi.sed to have 
enlarged to its rather tlat rcof, the whole form slmuialinir a funnel. If the 
field diagnosis be eorroct. t!.e tonalite is to be regarded as an injected mass, 
partly cross-cuttiuir th.> str.;fa and tluis has ehonolitliic relations.* 

Si'B.ncKXT Bodies. 
!{os^.-- .\. < leikie )• defines bosses as: 

' Musses o"' intrusive rock which form at the surface rounded, craggy, 
or variously shape.l eminenoes. having a circular, elliptical or irregular 
^iround pla:;. and dcscendins into the earth with vertical or steeply inclined 

• Cf . W. Saloiiion, Sitzungsberichte Jer koiiigli(h<>n prcu>»i>^; h*a Akadeinip der 
Wissonschaifn, Phys.-Moth. Classe. Vol. U. 190.1, p. .110. 
t Ancient Volcanors of Great Britain, Vol. I, 1897, p. S8. 

HFi-nnr i)h- Tilt: viinr \siii,,s,.\,, /.■ 




t. «ny bo,fo„. on which th. ..n.^.i^ri;:,^;!:- ;i:"'"'" "■'■ ■'" "'" "*■' 

Ho inuko. 'Slock ' and 'bos..' sv,u.n.v,noi„. 
^ In l'.n;.'li>;|, Mn<l C. m,,-,,, -.„.;iki:,... .■.,,ii,tri.-, -1... ' ,,, I ■ . ■ • , 

:Xiii:: =x:--\rSr'o.--'=vs^£T -- -i 

«a..,.v „r.. ■.,,„,,/,.• ,1,..,, ..„„„.„..,i „f ,„„„,„, ;,„,„.,,.,| ;,, , ^ 

two or moro distinct ^..-iod. of irruption. Tho\!iMfnHi,;t ''•;,; 

ST,,CK.-Prcvailinfr usajfo ha.s fixed th.. „M^,„in:' „f • -t,, ■!; • ,. .-s^ei.ti.nv 
2u.vale„t to Qeiyos definition of 'bo,..' A stock is a. i„tr .iv' 1,;,; , ' 

inoro or less con.spicuously cuts ncros.. the struct,,,,.. „f the invaded form.ti. nV- 
. .^contacts are >n general, either vertical or highly i,„.!i„ed: i hi; i, i-' 

ti:^:zt:T:i^; '''■'■''''--■' — •■^>-: ''•"::• 

tSiT^f/c/'i?'"''""' 1 ■-'-'•■•'."; — '^-J i" one period of irruption. 
A multiple atock ,s eompo.?cd ot »iaten,,l d.nionstrablv intruded in two or 

or mo J"'""-'","" r'"'^' '^ '^o">l^o^^"' "^ '""torh.I- Uemonsfnhly intruded in two 

t;oTr;^tnd; 't^z:^' ""''''-'' '"-''"' '- -'^■■"-"•^ '-^-'^^^^ 

Magmatic differentiation or other influences .r,;,v render hetero-vncous the 

zziT^r' " ''-''' '''-'■ - -•■' -'"'- '' ••='"- * -''.'pr^o;': 

liAinnuiH ^ S . ha, f.,ally Ma„.,| ,he d..,i„it...n .I' •|,.,li.Mth- in term, ol -, 

"e Ssih'of f^,i'"'''f '^." a stock-shaped or shield-.hapcd intruded 
On th«rZ^ of fusion of older formations (ori^. Durd.schmehnngsmasse) 
)?oM /T ' °^ '*' '■^'^''■^o^" and on continue! -lenudation. Ihi. mass either 

/ei'/''. llienaui,. was invent..! t- deserihe tl.„.e 1 ,rce.t .,; all intr,,.!,,,'- 

friS^?h'!,'r'.'' 'f'l"^'^""'''''?'''^''''^^' ^^""•"' '" ^^'•^"' "«>">"'"■" range;,;' 
including, thus, 'central granites.' 'intrusive tnountain-eores.' and ' Fuss' 

• Sitzongsbericht* der Wiener Akademie, Vol. :ot, m;. 

l>. a 



2 GEORGE v., A, 1012 
ttranit.'.' J\w unw liii.-< siiicT Ihk-h iuinm"n!>- us<m1 for h<xV\e» of iiitrimive rook 
with tlio ;r<-'ii»>r,il . ImructfriotitH n!" rtrx-Un, hut of much lurRpr size than i-i gcnor- 
..lly iitifil.iito'l I- M...U> or 1,(,...-. Tlii, hilt.r um- i-, iiiort'ovcr, rnrcl.v assoi-i- 
.iI.kI (liri.tlv with i.ti.v piirtiiMiliir ihcwry nf iiitriisiini. Thrrr i" prt'^HinK nw><l 
tor suih i terin .-i;.'iiilVin(f th.-.- liirnr h<Klii». nnd niif that will not ronimit 
tin- fii'lil w./rk.T t.> liny ihci.ry ,,f nriijiui. Tho later iiso of the term ' hatholith ' 
i.-t thorfori' to W .•oiuMnn<lr.l. as it that tortn safe in actual ficM dos- 
criptioii- wliiri" th'-c niiiiiol lic in'conipiiuicd with certain ijrcM.f* that the 
Durrlsrhmh.' 'Ill the,.r.\ is thir.^ iiiM'li.'iiMc. In th,' |.i :n>-i,.,1 chiisiticuti'm <'( 
intruslvci the teriii ' linthi^lilh ' will luive the ineaiiiiifr ju-it noted. 

\ simp''- ' tlhoU'h i< (,n,. c ..nipn.-o.l ,.f lualerlnl iiitru<leil in one period of 

A mi/.V;/*/.' hafkohlh j^ ,,iie conipijscl ol material .Iciuunstrably intruded 
in tw,. or ini<re periods of irruptii.n. the maferiid havinif U-en derived from the 
*ame kind of luajtma. 

A cnmposif latholiUi u <.ii.- ci.nip.-e.l ,f matoriaii deiuon-tiahly intruded 
iM two or more periods of irrupt :on. tho lUiiteriaU hoinj; originally derived from 
TWO or uiure kinds ot' magma. 

.\ multiple nr composite hatholith may thus Ipe in part made up of stoeks. 

^fnnmatic ditlerentiation or other inllucnces nuiy render heteroRonoous the 
material composing n simple hatholith ; nr each mer.iber of a multiple or a 
or.inposite bifholith. 

No author has attempted t) fix a lower limit to the arcal dimensions of a 
hatholith. Since there is no certain di^tiTicliou either in form or relations 
hotweeu St. rks and hatleiliths, an arl.itrary limit may he set I'twi'en thn two on 
the scvro of areal extent. In tho VM)r, paper it was propo>cd that the upper 
limit in the siz>' et" ^to.■k- lie jilaced at -'(H) scpiare kilmnetrr^. A furtlier study 
of the literature ha- made it Beeni advisnl.le, in order to conform to actual 
tigage, t.. make t',- limit nn higher tlian li»0 si|iiare kihunctr, .-. Any innsM with 
the stoek relation,,, 
ingly. a hath'di'h. 

It of Kreat<T area that. 100 srpiure kilometres, !=, acr"ord- 

Pboposed Classificatiok. 

The following tahle pivcs the i.r-^poscd classification, as slightly enlarged 
f'om that in the 11'0.5 — 

A .— -Inj.-rl.Ki »l./.v,s-,',s. 

r. '.'I'n'm.liiif. injections (injt-cii-d aloiiij heddiii,) planei). 
'. Ir.'ru-ive sheet.;, homocroiioons i.nd differentiated. 
"1) Sills, 

(1) Simple. 

(2) Multiple. 
(Z) Composite, 

.b) Interformational sheets. 

HhfoH; nf Tilt: riiu:r .istroxuukk 


-■ ''"' '^'''-- li"nioK.n.-.Hi- ill.. I 

(I) Simple. 


(■J) Miiltipl... 

Ci) ('..ln|.ri^it,.. 

(i) Iiif.TfMriiiaticiiiiil 
•1. PhncoIitJis. 

II. Pismnia,,! i„;,rt!or„ i inject,:/ ,., rn.. hrdJin., ,.;,!,,,,). 

1. Hikes. Ii.mioircri.nii* iin.l (litTcrfntiiito.1 

(I) Simp],.. 

f2) ^^.|||ipIp. 

(•'!) Compd^iff. 
-• ApopUv>e8 or t'Tij-'n.'s, 
■'!• Uyjiiiiilith.s. 
4. Noek>'. 
•'■'. CliiiuiliilK. 



1. Stocks iiti.l !„,->, 

(I) Siinpl... 

(i) Multiple. 

(■!) Composite 
■i. liiiilidlilh^, |,,,„„ 

(1) Simple. 

(:.') Multiii.-. 

(3) Corniwsite. 

li"Mi(.freiieoiis ami ilitTereiiliaU-<l. 

iretleoll- ;lM.i .Jiirer.Tll i;,!,-. 

bathohth.c form and relations is, therefore, the .liffieult prelude to the "omple o 

understand.nff of the injecto.l bodies whether considered with re neot to ^ rl 

geny or to the dynamics of their injection. If the hatholithic prXm h !^lZ 

ve shall have essential facts regarduig the origin of magmas. For th.'s reason 

ont c.pate the of magmatic .lifferentiatiun. The di,,cussion will bo bS 
on the idea ot a pnmary aei.l eiirth-helj n,„l „ l.n-al.j.- -,1, tr-itun. It will? 
.aen that a multitude of field and lah.ratory obserition.s ngr :' su ^rt i" 
th conception as well as the hypo^'icis of abyssal injection. Tlfe conSion 
wdl be reached that batholiths «re the more or less chen.ically mod.fiod"op" 
-■'a Vol. jii — A 1 



i>t:i'MiTUt:.\T nr rut: i\Th:h'i(>ii 

. i 


A. 1912 

of «bjr»««lly injected bo<lio« >i( li«8all. Tho mih illor injnli'il iiniHitrB m' (Irimp A 
ill tho cUsitification nro explained us, either direct offuhoota from tho ubyasel 
basaltic injections, er as hatcll!te!» Ircini tl'O seeondary iiiBt(ii>;i dev'lopotl in 
batholltliio chanib<<r8. In brief, batliulith.'* app<>a: to repreaoiit ab.fMally injected 
bodies of such size aud original tcinpvraturu an to be capable of aMiniilating 
largo volumefi of tho primary aci 1 olipll and, on m>caiiion. notable aiiiouiit« of 
the overlying aediraenti. 

>f II IIIIIIIWII I I I nil 11 

' ± JgJjtJjiMiagOT^ariJM imfc-^ J- 

2 GEOHGL \, 


A t9-.-' 


TJ... f«,ts to ho explaim.l l.y a ( .,1 ,.l...liih. fal! int.. 
hre« <.Ias.o- ficl.. r.i..-:,,M. ,i„,.. r,.l«ti.mH. nn,l .I...,,,!,. rMafiona. Ar th» 

may well aufn.-at. the th,.,.n.,i,.,| .li..„.Hi,.„, |, „,,! I Lm!..,,! .h'".,,! " 

Bii-l lK)Ss.M aro rejfarde.! an only Hiiiall halholilh- or ;,s ,,.,i-. .f I JHh. ,nr 

Ml Minny ras,.s will not b<! 8[K>ciaIly naiiii'.l. 

viyA.u ui:r,ATi()\s 

Thore is genera! agr,.,..m.„t that ba.l,„!iths aro ,o b.- fo:n,,i ,mlv in or 
on ,1,0 .■nmc.liato ho .lor. of, moun.ain-bmit rojfion,. This r.l.. ,. „, „cnera 
tha >t n.ay bo oallenl a law. Almost if not .|ui,.. a. Kenornl .« the rule , ha 
ba,hol„hu. ,„,r„sio„ to obsorvcl lovel. in a .nountain-ran.o. Mh.w .ho Hi l" 
of an oroKomc paroxy.,,,; ,h„u^h flow .Irnoturo, and gnoiss-. «,ru..,„ro ,„nv ^ 
.ndnocl .M the bathoh.h in tho olosing. weakor sta,.- of tho crustal , u. enLt 
r ' <,>e.«.o «,r..cturo nu.y bo dimcult to .lifting,.!-!. fr„n. ,l,„t duo „. . liter 
r^e n.lent ,,er.o,l of crush.og. Abundant „f tho tuo rules are otli 

!:',': :p'Tl «;'•;'««"•"' ".'^'"."«^ ?' '^^ «"lkirl<. Columhia, and r-a. ade 
- -.v . i . Kykort hathohil, ,« the only ono on tho K.rtv-uiMtli l'.n:>\U\ „|,,-h 
M-jr,, t, . vo a woll (lovoh.po.l i>riniary fl.iw-Htru.-(uro. 

:•; has ever seen tho JH.tton. of stook .,r hatholith. Owin»f .o th. 

' " ■'" ", "' "' I""-"''"'' uphoaval of il arth's oruM .,U,^,. l,as,h.>.|. 

■ vor b.-.ii ahlo to innotrat^. nioro than six lullo. iiii,> tl..-, i„ i-^o 
■■■'•'I. pen. lrafo« h^^s than thnv niilo-, I„ ^,„.h ,.„„.. .|,..r.l. n> tii, 
... a surfaoo near the t..p ,.f th,- l«„ly. Soniotinio- or.-sion hat 
- .1 >u,-h ^anitic inasacs, whos<> presence is detecte.l by the heavj 
. -inufplusin so charaotoristi.' ,.f batholiths. More often th- roof is 
troyed, leavmg broad of m.ta.norpho9e<! roof rook .bout the 
oupola-hko intrusive, an.l ro,.f-,..n,l«nfs within it. A tino ...x.-nph. „f ;, ,mrh,!K 
uncovered «fook h that at the Dew.ln.y trail on tho sununit of the .'Jelkirks 
(s,-.. page 20!.). IVrhaps the n.aj..n,,v .,f ..xp..s..| batholiths hav,- lo^t tlx^r roof, 
so far that only small areas of the p.-ndant» r.nmi.., while the mofamorphic 
aureol.« has the narrowness appropriate to the wall of a bath..lith Not oyer. 
one roof-p,.„dant is known in ,ho Coryell batholith of the Columbia r,.n«' 
<>eo (>a>r.' :!".»< and mf p shcn.) 

With deep erosion an.l destruction of the roof the molar (main) o-. act t.vp.oall.v an eniptioal ground plan, though it is often irregular. Disregard- 
I'.'a -v.. I. iii -^471 7or, 






2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

iuK the a|>opliy8«>«, tlio molar-coiitnct lino is usually ii llowinR one nnd does not 
t^how sharp Hiijrlos. Wlicthcr .•Ilipliciil i.r irn-ifiihir in (fn.niKl plini. the lonpt'r 
axes of hatholiths clmractcristii'aily run with the aviTafrc looal tr.'iuh of the 
respective niountain-axcs developed in the erogenic period immodiati'ly prooodinK 
the intrusions. The butliolithic axes may have indefinite relations to axes of 
earlier and later '-nistal doforinalion. In the Cordillera the ali-rninent of the 
Mo9ozoi<' and Tertiary hatholiths parallel to the main axis of the ehain is 
evident in the geolo^ieal maps of both Canada and the I'nited States. 

The downward enlargement of stooks and hatholiths to the niaxiniiiin depths 
ixpo.sed by erosion has already been suffieiently emphasized and illustrated in 
the description of the Cascade mountains (pa^es Il'S an<l 101). .Maii.v additional 
<>xaniples are tigured in Upsius' '(i.ologic von Deutschland,' nnd in other works. 

The lover limit for the area of exi>osed hatholiths has been arbitrarily fixed 
at KK) Hcpiiirc kilometres, but in very many I'ases, stocks or bosses are with 
considerable certainty to be rcjrardcd a^ merely •'upoiii offshoots of large batho- 
litlnc ,u;isse-, which by continued erosion might b<' exposed. Indeed, it may be 
true that c'ery stock and boss is but part of a batholith. The maximum size 
of pre-Ca'ubrian bntholitlis may U; greater than that of any later one. The 
L.;tholi'ii of the British Cohimbia-Ala-ka Coast range is probably the most 
nxten-^ive of the known post-Cambrian intrusive masses. It is mapped as about 
l,-J(Hl iriilrs lonir aihl ov.T 7."> miles in average width. One mu-l susihmI that 
this innuensc terrane is a compositi^ of several, piThaps many, hatholiths of 
different ages. 

That the molar contact of the average sto.k or batholith cuts across pro- 
intrusion structures in the eountry-roek is another obvious fact. This cross- 
cutting relation is foiuid not only where .-trong (,'neisses, schists, and massive 
rocks compose the country-rock, as at Mount Ascutney, Vermont;* it is as clearly 
Rhown where the Castle Teak sfo.'k truncates the soft shales of the ]rozome<>n 
range (('a^e l!C..) A multitude of su.'b parall.U piov.s that the shapes of stock-^ 
and hatholiths are not controlleil essentially by variations in the strength of 
the invaded formations; we have swn that laccoliths are just as regularly 
located in zones of shales or other rocks more easily split that) tlwir rcspe-tive 

Tlu! cross-cutting relation of hatholiths is sometimes masked, though never 
annu'led, liy the development of peripbiral schistosity or cleavage parall.'l to the 
molar (main) contacts. The best illustration in tlie lioundary belt is found in 
the souther i contact of ib,. lia.voune batholith, Selkirk ninse (Sim- map sheet an. I 
page 2!t>J>. Other well known examples occur iu the Sierra Xcvada.f the Klack 
llills.j: nnd the Rainy Lake region of Ontario.^ 

As a rule, hatholiths lio not develop iK-ripheral cleavage or schistosity in 
mark.'il deforce iior cause important eh"nges in the regioiud strike of the invailed 
formations. The large scale, detail(><l maps of the Kuroiiean surveys are erowdo<l 

• K. A. Dniy, ni.Il.tiii aw. U.S. <lcnl. Survey, ma. 

t II. W. Turnpr. 17th Ann. Rop. U.S. Qeol. ^urvpv, Pt. I, 1H9,5.«, p .-..W 

I<.. If. \iin lliso. Kit), Ann. K.'|> . II. S (icol. Siirvov, I't 1, IsiH .'. p,. Kl? nnd Sl.S 

S A. C. I.awson, Ann. Kop., Upol. iinil Nut, lli-it. Siirv<<v. Caniula, isH?. I'art K niap 

:.4lt- -li: ^v-a: -. 


*jf=:j^ '■r'.^t^i?-*' TBBPSJBBrwriK-- •>ai 

nt.ruRT OF rut: cnn:h .i.s/w-/.\..i/a7,- 



■'"-I""" - .• II tl„. ..„...s. N,„„..r.„„ ..,:„„„|.,, „„, ,„. ,.„„„, i,, „ ,,„„ ,.,,,^^ 

"""' '^'"•'■'^- (■ "l^" I'aK-'S L'!.L'. J!.!., :!„.!. IJ,; ;,,, „;- ^,__,, ,,,.,,„ ^ 

It i. >, tr„ .„, ,|,a, lm,h.,litl,. ponrrally have w„l,.r ,.„rool..« of o„nt«of 
■"-tM.norplMMn ha., lacvoli.l.s. or tha„ other inj-.M-t.-l h,„li,.. 1„ „„p„r"nUv 
"II cases as we have not..i. .he i,„..„si,.v of ,he ..,..,a„.orplMs„, is g ea T, ,ho 

n. > In... ,1 ,M the l...>,|,.n,.,v ot ,1,.. .„la.,l.. ,..,n.(it,„„.s „|- ,|„. .„ , „lle,| 
..t the roof S.nce stocks are ^-....erall.v ..upola lik,. masses at l.a.holithie roofs 


iiatnolit ]S. Hilt it ri'iniliiu im . il, . >i i .■ ' 

.I.Kos «..,! sheets, tf account he taken of tin- ro/,n«,.v of ,u,„ma invoh.-^ 

,"": *•"■' '"■-■""»- ,n„l..r-t I l,x ;,-,:, „i,-^ tl,,,, ,1,,.,. i„i.. i, I 1 I 

■'t the tiHie of ...tri.sion, holler tliaii the ■u..i-.Lr.. l,.,.i, i-.i • - • ■• 

who., its vM.I,. n,oh.r eo„taet was estahl 1 T , „ : 7 "h T"^r ""; 

^_ho.t ,., eouh, pe.,etra,.. onh. ah„„ .:^:lCtZ:\ZJ::,t:. "v 
eriist speaks for some amount of s,.,vrheaf I'h.. nr,*.,,,- f , • ." ^ 

.t .ri.l....ite (i..versio„ p„i„t ah.,... .\^r C ) i„ „ H^n I,! ,:';'" l^^tf 

.'-yes a very low ......peratur,. for tt.eir „..,.„.. a- ,h," !^ ,. L 'l ^^ ^ 

u. ,h. ..ontaets. The low te.npera.i.r.. a. tha, s,a... i. 111..: ," . " 

'li:.ii the mn^'n.a that .•r.vstalli/e.l, Th.. ra,-N „f .)„. ii.,i,| ,.,„ I , l ,i k 

■i.-ti. to ,,,.estio,. ,he s,a,e...e„t ,i,.„ „ x,s, I,,;;;,!,;! M, t'''!, r,,!; T:!: 

^ a l.,l,e, a, the ol ..ntlal i,.tr..M-oM. If ,li., |,,,„oli,|,. ..„.. ,|„„ .; ,,,,/[, 
HJ.v, o,. , .kes. sheets, a,.,| la.voli.hs, wh, .|,.,„1,1 ,hev h,. ., ,mv., por 

■•..ole,l. while the „,„oh s.naller h..lle~ are a~ „r„.„ .univ ,|,.,P Tl ' , 

|, Wear if i, ,.,• a.-,....e.l th.t th- i„i,i.,, ;::,:... . ' ' , ^^^ 
i. h was as h.Kh as that of ils |,o„..., s„,..lli,... :„„| „,„ .,„'„„, „,.. h i,! ^ , 
..1 he .,.ag,..a of ihe „iai„ chamher i„..orp,„a,e,i oiass,:, „, ,he ' , , 

In tl 

with a rcUitircl 

'•"IKJitioil of tl 

lis way »'•!/■ eontacts were .„>.l 

1.1 suei-e<siiiii, 111 

II .lari-ow eoiilaet niireole, wa-,,hlish,..l i„ the f.ebl 

s| on 

...atriiia just l„.fore solid 

itl'-ati,.ii. This lh,urc!iral .1...1 

" I""''"l ll^.t it is rank...! al,.nf.-si,l,. of tho • fart. ' „f |-,.;,1 ,,,| 

[(', SUpiTC >o 

net i 

>l .J 


Aiiioiiif the ••■nnn...ii.-t 



.us .■.i,-k l.oiiicsl |„ 

|llill.<.lll..|l.| .l-s, 

shaldriiifr ni..! (lian.ption of 

lio-t .if ... 


I.h>.l f, 

il wi.ii III,. .■,,l,i.,,.l ...,, 

i.iii.'iitiisi i, ii.jt ,,r ,,si, 

.•liioirs on e\olie granite, syenite, diorile, >..^ahl 

>r.i.afi.,i.s al.,i.^,' ih, 


Its i.leal 

masses eontain references to this parlienl 

TO. and .ilhir il.',! 

Vili.pmciii, o 

f tl 

le appeara.iee of tw( 

ar ! lenoiil.'iio.i 


.nqsts, in 

■ifv^iirrinu:,-,.n tl,,. h..m<.rene,.u- main horlv ,,i 
• iinrelinur .■o"ntry-rock iinafTeclr.l hy any Mri.,u- n 

'■iitrie hrlls of mixed roek 







* i 


2 GEORGE V„ A. 1912 

to the intrusion. Both belts li,- parallel t<. the average lino of contact between 
tiie intrusive and the country-rock. 

Tlie bi'It more remote from the intrusive body id peiierally niucli the broader 
of the two and consists of country-rock intersected by more or less numerous 
apoptiyscs from tln> main iLrncfioH mass. 

The second belt is composed of igneous rock enclosing blocks of the country- 
rock. As the apophyses, brciking tin: continuity of the invadcl formation, 
vary enormously iii numlier within the outer belt, so the l)]oeUs' 
bro:ikinjr the continuity of the iKiicous body, show the (jreatcst variation in 
i!)un(bui''e. This belt of inclusions varies in width from a few feet to 
two mile, or more. The blocks, unless very close toppther and jios.ce.isin'r 
thorouiriily massive structure them.selves, usually show dear evidence of having 
been shifted out of their former relative positions in the invaded formation, so 
lliat tli( ir i>r-ipinal orientation is completely lost. There are transition to the 
outer belt through the gradual iiiercaso in the number of blocks left undisturbed 
from their original orientation; and there is, of, no e.isily fixed boundary 
between the belt of inclusions and the main intrusive body in which eountry- 
roek iiiehisions are noiinally absent or very rare. The inner boundary of the 
belt of inclusions is often dillleult to determine in the case of stock or batholith 
so exposed to view by denudation as to furnish a land surface close to the former 
roof of the magma chamber. 

Whi.tever be the causes of the disruption of blocks now found in the belt 
o' inclusions those causes are directly connected with the intrusive bodv itself 
rind are thus not external. The belt is, for example, not due in the normal 
•aso to the injection of magma into rock coarsely brecciated by regional dynamic 
movements ip the earth's crust. Movements of that sort tend generally to brec- 
riate rock along straight or open-curve lines an<l would not necessarily follow 
the -..uiplex. sinuous, ejosed-eurve line of contact such as lieloiii;s to a Vlul"nie 
body. There is certainly, on the other hand, a genetic relation between the belt 
cf inclusions and tiie re|)lacement of the country-rock by great bodies of intruded 
magma almost or (luite free of foreign fragments. Many authors speak of the 
inclusions as having been 'torn off' or 'carried up' by the ascending magma, 
without, however, showing the po^^ildllty of such a process when correlated with 
the apparently deninn-itrated li'iuidily of plutoiiie magmas. 

Some of the bloeks wiihin the belt of inclusions have uncjucstionably been 
tiiKittMl out or •^unli frnni the molar iMiitaeJ, after those peiliuus of tlie eo'^iintry- 
rock have been completely surrounded by magma of the main body and of anas- 
tomosing apophyses. But there arc reasons for cjncludlng that apophyses of 
;.n aliuudancc inateljing the "ountless iiudiisicms of many internal (■(jutael-ljelts. 
were not formed simply by reason of hydrostatic pressure forcing magma into cr.acks or fissures in the country-rock. The comlitions reigning at the 
'ontact imply the exhibition of a difTerent source of energ>- — one which many 
geologists have incidentally credited with the shattering effect.* 

• These and many following paragraphs are adapted from the writer's papers ou 
The Mechanics ef litneoufs Iiitru-iioii,' American Jour. Science, Vols. 15 and It; l<io:| 
snd Vol. 36, 1908. ' 

D^,ariigBnfU|ri»^ I'-I^WIHSSQiiSirV'KsJffi^'W 




McConncll lopfr ngo noted the remarkaMt" sluitter-lwH bounding the Trail 
batholitli in the C'oliinihin HIvit vnllcy. ( S...» Shr-it Hi. \,.^i cnspiciou-i ca^.- 
occur in many other parts of tho Hniiiiihiry -n In o.istcrii .Ma->a(hiiSftt- 

these lielts sonictinus cover su many square iiii' .-ether that we must believe 

that main hathoiithic mus-cs lie heneatli. at mo.l.rate ^lepthn. The lust 

published example of a small ^'ranite b,itho!ith uaiiped with tii.i distinct pur- 
pose of illiistratinjr a sliatter-zoiie is doubtless that due to the labnur.s of f'osti- 
an.l White in the Madoe-Marmora .Minirur Di-triet of Outario.+ A reduc^l 
copy of this map \va> pii! lisla-d in Voluiu.- I'l ,:{ Ma- American .I.Mirnal ^f 
Science (llioa, jiaKo ilR). 


The rule that batlioi'tliie and st..,'k intriision- t.i .il,.rrv,d b^veU 
always follow the c'' aax o! orofrenic movements is recoeni/ed by all j-'coloKists 
»i.n have had wide cxikTieuco in tho study of granites. This sysfennitic time 
■i.-'i.on seems to hohl, with some possible exceptio'is, from tho latest Tertiary 
back to the da.e of tho yenngist pre-Cambrian jrranitea cuttinR bedded rockn. 
Tho rule may not apply to many of the pro-Cambrian batholiths, which seem 
to have been under seven erogenic pressure during their actual intrusion. 
Moreover, the greater n>imber of mapped pie-f'ambrian ba»hoiith3 do not show 
the same rigour of alignment parallel to distinct omgcnic axes i.s that character- 
izing the later batholiths. The early jire-Cambrian conditions of ititriision 
may, tlierefore, have ditTered in certain essential ways from the ruling post- 
Cambrian condition?. 


Most batholiihs are granitic in composit',..; Some of the largest arc com- 
posed of trranodiorite or ipiart/ diorilr \ tew ^m.i'i batholitli,- ar.- .-yi iiitie. 
The iiuge anorthosite masses of eastern Canada, New York State, and Scandin- 
avia may have true batholilhic form and flcM relations, but this is not certain. 
Xo large body of iiii,,r\lio-iti' of date later than the Silurian is while 
the majority are of pre-Cantbrian dates. Stock- have much greater range of 
composition, including the series from true diorite to aplitic granite, various 

types of S.veuite, nelilalit,. -Vrllite. nioll/ollite. et,-. 

It is noteworthy that no undoubted batholiths, which are chemically e i.iiva- 
lent to normal basalt, seem ever to have been mapped. Timt effusive magma 
which occurs in the largest (luantity, and with such wonderful uniformity of 
cheuiiea! constitution, is iio( direetis- npre-ented :,uion- the lartrer sul'ja'cent 
bodies. Kveii small gabbro stocks are e.xtreniely rare, if, inili'<i|, litiy e\i-t. 

V/ithin the writer's knowledge, no large batholith is known in a pctrogra- 
phic province which does not carry dikes or other injected niass.\-i of basaltic 
composition (diabase, porphyrite, gabbro, or basalt >. 

t Oeol. and Nat. Hist. .Surv. of Canada, i-'-i-pial aheet ; t mile to 1 inch pnb'ishod 
without text, 1»B6. 



i>f:i-.\,nMf:\T of thk imkhioh 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

f 3",''°'"°"''i?''^ "'■ ''"" "'"^^^ batholith i„ its visible portion is worth r 
of note. The .tr^s. contii, being laid o„ evidences of differenda on 
1«W : ^1"'"" -'^«'t«- ■.^-.■.-....ation. ot..,) i. i,. danger of obscuring this pS 
pal fact. The borno,..,..,,. .4 one ,., those b.rp- m„ss..,, when viowed if, true 
«cale. ,. ,..>»parablP „. ,hat i„ .queous .,aIt-soI„ti„„,, i„ laboratorv vessels The 

r^"a r"-^^ ";r" '"f ""V^" "^ ^^^^^^ ""■•^^ •"^J^-'' -«^t periods of titne 
ami -ast ^t^^- ,.t W„; to keej, th.- . .g,„a tluid for the distribution 

ehe»»;r:::;^ion"'""" - -^^'^'^'"^ •'^^'^'^"^ ^^- -'^ countr^-rocks in 

ihPor^ '"T !!'M""'"' '^''""'''■"' '■■'«"'-"'- '^'"■'•1' need to be explained by any 
heory o!,.. intrusion. n,i»h- here be drawn up. but. to save repetition 
he^d.scuss„-.n W.11 be tr-n-lerred to the followinj^ theoretical seotions on 

niafrmatie iis^imilnhon .:i,d ditTerentiation, 


in „mHll''fl^''"''^ n.^iewed tne tunip facts to he e-M-h-incd, we tnay now proceed 
t" outline the ^,• tlioon,.* whieli have l)een proposed. 


II M'. 


m«„^« ^'' • . ^r''"^'-'; ^""''1 -^^enci the laeeolithie idea to nianv, if not 
^ grantuc .ntrus.on- Accordinglv. the chambers filled with suei/ g^eous 
»*s«es are interpreted as the product, of -^r^.tn displacetuent. The pla^e!" 
«^e groat faults may .„ tht wav, k-oom,. ... locus of the subterranean 
^i°r/ '"^^f. ^-c'l^-ng way alon^ by hydrostatic or other pressure 
lite well-known ta.lure to m.>c. ' of the heaved and thrown sides permit of 
BO ex^stenc^-f potent...; e.. nlied with tnarnn d.ring the strong d^oca- 
otto the ,'"■ H r"''^ """'" • '^' ^^""•^'^■•i"*^' of larK-e blocks of fhe crust. 
Strushn* o' f 1,"" • ■ ■;,"■■ ^' "'■ '-■•"""'^■•"' «' ^«^°'-'^'"*^ f°«^=Wo modes o 
oTthThri ?•„;"•"• '^ ^""•^^'•"^^' '" 'l^e well-known conclusions of Brogger 
on th.. (hn,t,ana re^,.. ,,., ,n: ,. „f .,:„n:e h.nv, been es,.!ninecl .s 
true c«p.seated la^rcolitn.. partm. ,envy st,..„a .'ter the m.mner of the traehvte 
of tre Heatry mouuta.ns.-f »<".»«; 

V-^ i- .- from . surrey of ^....iMKurui liter.,... re. ihat the lield evidence 
for s*- » .»c.* .s but f.^g.tivB in the great majority of .tneks and b.-thcliths 
^'J . ' "' ""^ T""* bccoliths. since tho.v -haracteristicallv oeeur ".„ 
r^^m of gn-« structural complexitv, w^„-,re ipnootn contacts have none hut the 
m.K. wroote i^^pathy with the sjruc.ural r.lanes of any one bedded series 
M«y ar* much toe lar^e ar ! irre^L.r a form to be explained t,, xL result 

o "A:^' r^.""^'' ^"^~ ■*■ '"'^'"^ '^^ '^'^ '-''"^'-'3 intersect ,'g f a ,!u 
L^«t i!l ? r "' "•'" ^'^^«^^ *«ib«.-block have been generally sought 
fw :s v«» about tLo«. ^eat«-' of all critic assifs. For the latter no other 

J T\dii>2^lf^^i^^ Erupta«e«.«, dw KristiaDiagebiptes.^K V 1R95 n lis" 
^ ^. C. Fr^K«.r. p. -.t., ? 152 ' 

Kt:i'()RT Of rut: ciiirr .{sii;n\i,\it:ii 

1 31 


nWrl r" r""" "**'""' ^r ''"■ ""•"'■■^' ""•""-'• •^" "'- o""T I'n..,]. every 
observer who Im, even a small ac„„ai„.,,n..o with orystallino ,.rra„e. of he 
sort, >s now and again sfnu-k with th,. -vid-ncs tha' the pranitie! 
"S'^t!^ "l^'^'' °' ^^"''r r«'"^ '-'"' '"■'"' --"->■ - '••• I'-nd- "f h 
nivad,..l format,,.,,., the ..■rv^,,!:,,- Rr„„„d-,.Ia,... a„d th. lu .-,. ' i,„„ r.|i„ ,,,, 
TrllTl '"" '"'" /H <^".'':'fy->ocks. whieh ar^ „ndi,,„rb.d cithe'r in dip or 
strike, are among the fam.har phenoM.nna indi-ating that su.l, n.apma.s aetively 
aggressnely -mad., tho.r w,,^- in the world' hy the L-reguIar re.noval o '£ 
invaded formations, 'i he latter look a. if they had W.,, a. it wre '„" oS 
on a huge eeale. iu'weii 

The 'laccolithic' l,ypothe~:- tinds no support ,-. the laets ai.eady h- „„ed 
concerning the greater intrnsive bodies of the I5oi,nd„ry belt. It is. for exa.nple 
v.rtnally .neonceivabie that the Okanajran e.m.posit,. hath,.!i,h e„„!d have been 
<levelo,.ed in its present size and relations by ,>,er,. injeotio,,. It the older ro 'k 

parte.! s„,.,.,.-., t ■ .In,,: ,h,. I,,,.,. ,„., ,' ,u,. , ,., , v;„„,|,,„„ ,,„';* 

(athedral masses, the traces of these .--issions must be hft. yet none has been 
diseovere,! How any one of then. co.h!. like a laccolith or l,lfe some eh u,l t, 
ent r Us e!,aml,or by l,ft,n^ its mof wi,l,o„, somewher,- l,n>aK^,s through to th^ 

earth- Sl,,-):„v. ,- :! |,:v/l.. ,,, -,,v ||„. 1,,,,.,. '^ ""° 

Those Who SO lightly apply this hypothesis have uM,aliy ned.vted to prove 
or even discuss the nature of the structure whid,. for i,athoiiths is the e'piiv, -' 
lent of n weak zone i„ the Hc.ry Mo„„tai„s. The ,v,,icat lacnlith w, s 
intruded „, strat,t5ed ro.-k and i„ „,. ea-iiy-plit „„■' „t ,l„]e What 
>s the analogous (suLd,oriz,,ntal) cr,:,tal structure whirl,. ,„. this hvoothesis 
imist be antecedent to ti,c in,i..etion of the tr..atcr bodies- Tl.c ^^rauite.s .'haracter- 
ist.cftlly appear i„ ,1,,, ,..,mpl. dy folded tcr,anos whici, are cx-eptionallv stron- 
-Many lanre pranitic masses, lik,. the Cathedral batholith. ,s.-e paye m and map)' 
lia-e broke,, through moi-e or less massive i.l„to:,i,.s. Tla lac,.,,litl,i,. hvM,,tbes;s 
implies the abundant recurrence of a relatively lla, pl,„„. „f weakness •, frac|i„n 
of a mile, or a few miles, below the surfarc of the nioi,m„i„ v.av,' Wbv i, 
slioul.l occur there, or how d<, -eloped, has „f,ver been suppcsfe'l. 

This hypothesis is powerless to explain the field relations of the Castle Peik 
sock, the stocks of the Selkirk rang., in the Boundary bch, o,- manv others of 
(he smaller grai„t,.- bo, ,n the b,.]-. These are s,,,,]] ,.„o„sh t; admit of 
rather complete d,a,.:nos,.s, y.t in ,.o ca.e is there any ground for the explana- 
tion by pure injection. LarR. or .mall, batholiths or stocks, th. prnnitic bodies 
along the I-orty-ninth Parallel must be oth.^rwise imdei-stood. 

'XfAIitilNAL A.SS|\III.\TI<)\ ' ffvPOTIIKSIS. 

Tlie ii,-i,fHcie,n,.y of (ho piirc-inj.-.-i o.,, liN|,ut!a-is i,;,- , ■■,:■.,.,! ., ,,. „ | 
^ohool of geologist, to empbasi/e a h.vpothesis of slow caustic action bv magmas 
that have advanced into the overiying earth-crust by their own energetic solvent 
action on the walls an.i roofs. Additional evid.nce for the truth of this con- 


/<A.7M/iTl/A.'\T OF Tllh: ISTKRIOH 

2 GEORGE V„ A. 1912 

tentiou is sought in the facts of tho internal contacta, at which inaRinns arc 
aometitnes sccii to he modified by the incorponilion of the countryrooi,. This 
second view doubtless appeals the innn- strongly to the majority of tho-c 
(;oolosiol3 who ln\e nciiially to do with >rrunitic bodies in the field. In fact, the 
impre-^sion has previiilcil among some ol them that the ' laccolithic theory' is as 
widely hehi as it is because of its apparent necessity in tlie prevailing theory of 
rock diffcnntiatiin. .ct it must be considered as conclusively proved for the 
grout majority of stocks and batholitl^ investigated, that analysis has not yet 
shown that the second or ' assiniihition ' theory really meets its own crucial test, 
tha chemical and iiiineralogical blood-relationship between the average intrusi-e 
rook an(i its country-rock alon;; their mutual contact. Currents within the 
magma would, of course, tend to remove and diffuse products of assimilation 
from molar eoutacts; but it is extremely doubtful that they co\i]d so completely 
mask the expc'ted rcstdts of the process as is over and over again illustrated in 
r.nturo. No sinsk fact concerning granite, for example, is more striking than 
Its astonisliiiig homogeneity in contact with argiUite, limestone, crystalline 
schist, or basic i;:neous formarion — a homogeneity that persists, too, from contact 
to center of the eruptive. In the very common case where the assimilated 
product is more iicid than tlie original magma, it would tend to rise through 
the latter, slowly diffusing in the journey. The iipper part of the magma basin 
slioul'l, for that rea-^on, I'ecome tilled with mixed magma more silicious than 
the original, ireterogencity, even stronger vertically than horizontally, would 
bo exp.'ctcl in a diorite or gabbro nuignia cutting crystalline schists, or in a 
granite niagmn cutting heavy beds of sandstone or qtiartzite. True thermal 
c. f.\c';i"n currents niu-t, under these conditions, bo greatly weakened by the 
jtron)^ differences in dctisity of the original magma and the niiigina diluted, so 
to <p -ak, by more -ilicioii< ii}atorial. In ih.- ali-^ru.M', tlieii. of tlio .aily kiu'i 
ef current likely to be sot up in the process of cooling and mere caustic solution 
■n molar contacts, t!ie diffusion of the diluted magma woidd take place onV with 
extreme .slowne>-i.+ Yet, up to the present time, this con=e(iuence of con- 
siderable vertical beterogot-eity under the stated conditions has not been demon- 
strated in nature. Tiic recorded field di3<'overies point, on the contrary, to a 
distinct failure of the known facts to match the deduction from the thcor.v. The 
few proved in-tances of endomorphic changes of magmas by as.similalion (e.g., 
ill.' i;;aiiit,' ;if tli,- I'yrrnr.', .jcsiril'-d l.y l.aeroix) serve, l.y iboir r..:i-iucuou- 
and exreptienal nature, to siiow that granitic if they have 'made their 
own way' at all. liave u-uaily .lone so in some manner different from merely 
assimil.iting the invaded fornuitions on molar contacts. 

.\ uiaiii l.'alMi-i- wf ihr o\], Ligation by niar;rina! a-^>iiiidal ion i- ijir inuMonsi 
-upi-riii .It. ilemaii !oil in tin- iiiaL'nia. If the solution af invaded fornnitiona is 
dincilv perfornii ! by the liiiuid rock, the available superheat must be speedily 
oxhuu.^led in supplying the latent heat repre.-ented in the solution, to say noth- 
ing ..!' the losij by conduction through the earth's crust. The latent heat, accord- 
ing ! 1 Vogt mid others, is at least 20 per cent of iho total melting heat in 

tCi. tl 1 lii.kiM-, \u.rr. .Iiair. Sci., Vol. 3. p. .TO, 1897. 

iiii'inn f,r Tin: nntr i.^ri,-iiM,\tn; 



fluid lava. There is no reason t,. bfliovo tliaf o)t..tlurinic rvactiou^ an- .,( unv 
inorat.nt under the conditions. Since, ns wo have seen, vortical oiirr.nt. are 
^oon ii.hiliitid. the confiniianoe of solution at the roof waits on oondii.tion. 
Unless we postulate a degree of superheat utterly without parallel in the hotto.f 
\oleanoPt*, sticii a- at Kihiuea. at Mauna Loa. and at Matavanu, Savaii, Mie 
extensive solution implied by tiiis h.vpotho-iis i< inipossiblo. 

The fav<,rite coiieeption of the Fron.h proIoBisIs, that the ne.vssarv ..solution 
of the roof rock^^ has b-en due to tlio influimc- of jiv,nile g ,».■» (aonitx 
mni-rnUsdl.ur^i. rathor than to diroot •^..luli..,, i,, li,,„i,| xuiy^invA. U lik'owi-r 
diffirnlt to a.'.',.,,!. l!oo„u-,. tho s;..,.iti,. boat of a ^Ms at hnv i,rrs,urr. i- oxtr. 
-mad as coniparod with that of rock-inattor, we perceive that a (niite in.Trdiblo 
amount of jjas is neoessary to li(|uofy thousands of feet of roof r,.ck by blow- 
pipinfc', or V its mutual solution witii the Ra-;, There i^ no jf, n-ral physical 
cause for a return of gas t,, tho .Jepths after it has done its solvent work. It 
must colicct at the batholitbic ro„f cither free or di38<.lvod in the syntooti,- 
magma. In either ease its tension must inenase and when the acoumulation 
approaches the limit implied in the hypothoM., tlio gas pressure mn.t rise far 
beyond that which the earth's crust could endure. The fact is that vol.'anio 
action is not always, nor oven L-onerally, the result of batholithjo intrusion. 
We know that tho inii'iiod or'i.^t.i! .Mtasf n.phos, ind.'llniloly -roal-r thmi Kraka- 
t(.an oxplo-i,,n-. Inivo ih.I ..•ourro I in jn-t-t ■:irn'.ri,ni Ijin.' :it 1 i-i. .1 i.v.iiil,. 
gases may bore the holes at volcanic vents and they have doubt loss aidod -oine- 
wliat in the underground solution of ro<-k : Init it seems impossible to boliove 
that Ihoy arc tlie leading agents in fashioning batholithie ohambers, evon f,,r the 
moderate depths oxposed by erosion. 

Tho old idea that balholiths aro simidy goosynolinal siMJimojits which 
have boon fused by tho of the isogootlionns, ha, boon roo,nt|v revived by 
llaiK.'.* Spa.-o i,- laokin- for tlii' full dis,.|,s-i.>ii ,.f tlii- -p, .■ulatiuu, n-r at tlii- 
'\a^ is it necessary to lay the ghost again. A few roniarks will -u!!:.-,. to sliow its 
inapplicability to the batholiths on tho Forty-ninth I'aiallol. 

The Rocky Mountain geosynclinal is one of the thickest on roc.rd. Oustal 
movements hav(> expo ed its low.r beds at many jioints; yet they arc not fusod. 
The same i- true of the basal beds of tho Cretaceous gcosynoljnal of the 
IIo7onicen range an^l California, each nearly "O.oOD feel thiok. On the othor 
hand, many batholith- have appeared in deformed geosyn.linaU of nnioh h^ss 
thickness. Kxainplo- av soon in the Coryoll batholith and tint wliloh hu.s so 
many satellites in the IJoundary Creek di,trio! of the Cohunbia ranro. 

Again, the spooul.ition may be ili-missed because of its maniiVst failure to 
piovido tho noccs-^ary heat supply. Tho lowering of the 'fusion-point' of 
average sediments liy admixture of the 'agents minor.ilisatour- ' <mii l.ardly bo 
supposed to give a magmatio tcmporafuro bolow .'•.OOO for a balhcliih. Yot no 
known geosynclinal is thiok enough to have assumed this temporal ore in its 
lower beds through the rise of the i-o^'eothorms. Ilaug does not. therefore. 
osjrntially improve the speculation by an appeal to 'he rather mystical •agents 

• E. HauR, Traits de G^oIokip, tonio 1. r..ris. IW:, p, 188. 




2 GEORGE v.. A. -912 
niiniTjli»uteur3.' Moreover, every batliolitli occurring in tho Forty-ninth 
Parallel socticin is clearly exotic wiiii rflp-rt t. the stirronndinR f.)r^int^o^?. 
Thii cxotrc relation applies not »iily to sutellitio off-hnots but al-o to the main 
hoilios e\p.-.o.I. In this resp-.-ct, as in many others not hero mentioned, the 
comliineil intliience of miiuralizin^.' aR.rits an.l of the basal warniinc of per- 
•ynclinnls cannot neeount for the ;^ranifie masses i.f (lio noun<iiiry belt. 

f^ II III 

Hvi'dTIIKSIS i.K MAr.MMI,- SldlMSi;. 

M-ir(-7/.- The pener;il statf.iient of tliis hy|.othesis Mi:iy he e.,nvcniently 
<liiotea from the thinl of the uriter"-^ papers .,ii the ' Me.himies i.f iK'Heuus 

1. Each aci<l, batholithic mafrma has reached its present position in the 
earth's crust laigel^v tlirouRli the siiceessive engulfimnt of suites of bloeks broker 
out of the roof anil walls i ' the batholith. 

2. Till! blocks (xenolitiis) are eompletcly iiutnei-ed in the magma, partly 
through th" euntluenco of apophyses which have been injected on joints and 
olher planes of weakness in the country-roek; more often the bloeks represent 
thr eflfeet of shattering, due to the obviou-^ly uneqial iieating of the solid rock at 
ningmatic contacts. 

3. The "'inken blocks must be dissolved in 'he depth- of tiic riginal fluid, 
ni.ifc'nialie !■ 'v, with ll.e fiiri)i:ili f a -ynlc tie. se.'..;iiliiiy nint;nia. 

•t- The visible ro^'k of each pranite batholith or stock ha.s resnltel from the 
differentiation of a syntectie magma. 

In applyin;,' tho hypothi'sis to the explanation of ai'tual field oceurrence= 
oilier ueu. ral considerations seem iieee^-ary. Stoo;!!;.' and ahyssal assimilation 
tn the bilholithic sealc are bcRun by the primary basaltic niapina. This nungmf. 
enrries the heat re.inired for tlie double action.f The source of the magma is tc 
be found in the Kcneral basaltic substratum bene.ith tlie r-arlli's so'id crust. 

These subsidiary element- of the problem here to bo discus-ed have beer 
<lescribed in the tlrst infru.-i 'i; paper and, more fully, in the later conimunieatioT. 
on 'Abyssal Igneoits Injection.'* Xo one of these additional conceptions is 
essential to the idea of sloping H'r Si . .Ml of them may prove incorrect witho;;- 
invalidating the stoping hypothesis in its main feature. Combining them and 
tlie idea of stoping. the writer has constructed a general working hypothesis for 
the origin of the igneous rocks. It seems, therefore, expedient in the present 
(Lapter to discuss the problem in Its larger aspect. 

Believing that as-imil-if ion by m e.:inatie aelion of some kind is re,ponsibU 
fjr praetically all the chambers occupied by those intrusive-i with which h^- . 
luo'v or less intimately aequninted, the writer has sought for field evidence as to 

• American .'ournal of Scionop, Vol. a6, 1908, p. 19. 

* Ak'ain it may be noted that the qreftion whether ,:ie suhstraturn is actually c.r 
only potentially fluid is not in this coniipctic n. The ohservcd riijiilitv of " tht 
planet niny be due, not to its beinK a true snliil, but to the direct ir.flii'>n{, of (fravitv 
whirh binds the earth-shells so effectively that bodily tides are almost wln.Uy prevpntp'i 
In an? case rigidity and solidity are not sTnonvmons terms, 

JAmer. Jour. Science, Vel. 22. 1!106, p. 195." 

KF.I'ORT (If THK rtllFF \s IK>i\,,\iy.K 


3£i3lONAL PAPER No 25a 

•>1 Other nny other sort of assimilation ii i.,wMblc than that bv oauatic or sulvciif 
action of a i.iaKina on its roof anJ walN. Such information is foun-l in •!:.. 
ame internal contact-belt where the general failure to prove solutional absorp- 
Mon of the roimtry-rock has been so often rcportml. Within that belt it is the 
rule to fin.l oft.n very numerous blocks of the inva.le.l rocks. Those have us.iallv 
the following c'laracteriatica: varying <w, angular or subangul - outline's 
against the eruptive rock, which is essentially unmo<lifie.l even close to the con- 
tact with each Mock; sharp contacts with the eruptivo. in which the blo.ks ar.- 
■-•orapletet- immersed; a normally high rTystallinity and inereased density «. ■, 
result of contact metnmorphism. Very often they -how that thev huve mov. 
.)Ut short .liataiiees from the niches they once occupied in wall ..r r.,of The 
molar contact i. similarly sharp. It may preserve, with exceeding .I,.finit,.,,e8s 
the sharp corners left when the blocks were ritted otT. I'assinK inwards, i, i, an 
e-iuallv normal thin« to find the foreign inclusion, to b.^com.- rapidlv rarer 
until, in the heart of the eruptive area, one may go ,.f vards or even 
•everal miles without discovering any such inelMsi,,ns. If there arr l,i:,„lr,.|s of 
•hem in a given part of the contact helt at the present surfac evidentlv a 
• hance section exposed by erosion), the natural inferenee that there are 
OT millions of o' en.-lo-cl in the eruptive b"low the levl of the vi<ihl,. 
oontact,_ IS charly permissible. Another legion of them has b<H n destrnye.1 
ilong with their matrix in that part of the igneous removed l.v .leiiudation 
Jt IS manifest, further, that the rifting of the blocks has so far enlarged tho 
chamber occupied by the eru|,tivp. That is. the walls are. on the av.rag... farther 

apart because of the rifting. The ((uestion arises as to whether thr. ch bcr 

may owe a large part of jt, i n-.-nt m/.- t,. a h;r' e.,Mtii,,i,.liu.i uf fh, - If- 
same process, with a simultaneous removal from the visible chamber of the 
blocks formerly ritted off. The affirmative answer to this .piestion i- lh< kernel 
J[ the hypothesis to be pro|)osed. 

Strangely enough, the ejiplanalioii of the pre-enee of foreign hlncks within 
Igneous bodies along the molar and the e.pially conspicuous raritv of 
= uch fragments toward the>- of the hodie-. has onlv quite rec-utlv I 

■.ndertaken. l(,.;v hloeks still .-Iom. t„ th.-ir f„rmer homes in tlu untrv r..,-k 

■ouM be sii>peii(led m the magma until rry-talll/atinti ..f the latter was r,,Mipl.l. 
jnd wheth,-r th.e normal etfeef of their .-on, pi,. to inim.-r-ion w.oiid he t- ,. rout 
i; tb' .- ;, . ,l-.-,- pwai-ds nr -inkinj.- d, wnward- in th,- ma-ma, are .in.-t. .11-. of 

-run, ;nir. ; :.•!,.. . to tl iisuing hypoth,-i-. The attempt h.H l,e,-a niade to 

.^.-. er li'or,: |.y e .■■relating experimental and oih.r dal.i : uir.'d f..r potrologiral 

•CiT. .•■•<_ V".i!.;ii lecent. .vear 
aoooptcd licpiirl.fy of nori'ia 

We m.av. f,,r 
luioiiic maziria 

the i'fe-i-ul. a>-unie the •reiierallv 

'I l'<i IHU'crenlial The.mnI h'jfimn.sion.- 
-uig has 1" en given by Crosby in his 

.\ clear state- 
nil >notr-uj,'; on 

ment of ,.;,.•.;!. ,tic .i.^ 
*he Blue i'lJs Coniplc; 

It is mnn.fctly imp. -..-ibie to de ermine the exact rise of temperatu. ■ which 
x;ll occur in a foiinat-oii at the cm; n t with an invadinu in.igma. Both cle- 

•OccasiMia! l-i>pi.,- fio-ti.ii S-ir. N 

,it il-t.. Vol. », 19(10, p. ;ii.-,. 




lih.l'.iHVMKSI Oh- lilt: ISTKItlOU 

2 GEORGE v., A. 191i 

imiil^, Uir |irt-i'riipli.jii r. iii|.4' o{ the rniintr.vro.-k iiixl tlic U'tiiporutiir.' ..t 
tin. niiiL'riia it.sflf, ar.' juifllv iii.lct. riiiiiiatt!. If the foriiur U- rc;fuliit.Ni l.y ilir 
noriiiul law of till' veriionl (li«tribution of tlio isoK''K>thcrius, that tempcratiirn 
will bo about 200' (J. at .i (Icjitli of four miles IkjIow the earth's surface— 
a riitli.i- Iil.oiiill,v c-tiniiitiMl .iv.TiiKt- .l.ptli fur ihi- upper litiiit of a uranili, 
iiiaKiiia . liimiLcr. If \vi. ii-- >,„. that tlic Icinpcrulur.' cf au iiitruilin>r 
mag^mu is approximatWv that at uhicli tlu- ro.'k r.'^iultiiiK frmii its cry-^fallization 
becomes tliiiiiy moitcn umlir plutoiiic pressure-, (an ansutnption apparently 
jusiilii.bic' IroMi the kiiowir pr..pLTtie9 of lavas and notwiliigtanding the preaenco 
of mineralizing agents), tiierc ^houhl occur by conduction at the molar contact, 
a rims of temperatuu. in the invnihvl formation, of doin. liing like VXW C. 
That would mean u cubic expansion in the solid rock of Utweon 2 5 per cent 
nnil :!•() per cent. corri'-|M,ndint,' !■. ii linear expau'-ioh of about per cent. 
.The force reciuired to prevent that dcKrec of expansion is equal to the amount 
of pressure recpiirccl to compress the roik by the same amount The coefficient 
of compressibility for ordinary crystalline and well-cemented sedimentary rock 
is not far from that of (;la--. vi/.: about 0.(HHKKh.'r. |st alnn.sphere of pressure. 
Thi. pres.iire of niore than lo.iXMt atniosplicres, or about ".' tons to the square 
inch, would b. require. I to prevent the expansion of rock raise<l 1(K10' 0. in 
lemiNTature." However nr.jt the < xpan.-ion trans\erse t.i the plane ..f the molar 
contact ma^v l<c, a large proportion of the force of expansion must pass into the 
form ol • ..nipre.-sivc strain, dev. ..pint; lines .,f f,,re.. in ibe plaiw of the eontai't. 
The intern iiv of tile r ik muM ie ile>troyeil, fm- ii- ernshinir strength would 
hardly averatie as mu.b as •><) \'<\\~ to the sipnire ini.!i The action Would b.. 
complicated and intensified by ll . variable values of hcat-condiiction in the 
invaded formation which is always re or less heterogeneous. 

It has been objccte that rocks aic good conductors of heat and that, there- 
fore, strong temperatu! differen<es with resulting rending strains are not to 
bo expected in the shel of country-rock inmiediately surroun.liug a batholithic 
mni.'m;i Tin f.dlowim,' fable of .■o.fli.'ients of thermal - ondnctivity sccmus, 
however, to show, on the contrary, that rock-m.itter is far from lx>ing rankeil 
as a cniluctor. 1 ho table has bi'cn made by compiling the values note<l 
in the r..''s I'hyMkalis.h-cheiuisrbe Tabel'. n i 100.', edition) and 
in Winkcimann's ILnoibuch der Physik. The values for the rooks are of the 
order expected in vn.w of the familiar proofs of the extremely slow cooling of 
lava flows.+ 

•Tliroijirh a mistako in plaeins: a decimal point the pressure was Rriut'v ovcr- 
stuted in the second piip.r on the ' Mechanics of Ignpoiis Intrusion.' 

tThe steepness .f the possible temperHture gr»ilioiit in the wall rock i« shown 
liv the act that, a few ,!ays after lava ceases flow,,,..:, one can walk on its crust. 
although the lava ji:st below is at red heat fT00°-9M"C.) oris yet hotter lor many 
hours or for several d.iyg the Rradiont at t!,> surface may equal or surpass 500° C 
per i.vjt. 

In the manufai tare uf ral< ium-rarbide a mixture of limestone and coke is sub- 
niitt'd to the action of a powerful electric arc. At the end of a furnace run (about 
fourteen hours in the plant at Ottawa, Canada) the flow . f heat is n'-ai ly steady and the 
temperature gradient in the finiKne is ahotit .tOOO'C. p,r f'mt 

HKi'inir iiF rut: rim r isih-ii\i,\n i: 


Silvor. .boat , ,^„^, 

lopprr, aboat.. . i,,^ 

}f<"*, .. -flH,* 

5i°"',' OISH 

M«r»>l'' .,„)M7 

H"""** •ootj: --owts 

Jf "' ',** noairs -00817 

yanutonc .my^m . oofni 

'**«". -00673 

Sy»nit» .,^^2 

''.'"?"• •• (tOlOS -•002r 

yV«t»T. about .0013,) 

j.*!^'-: 0OO31 

J',"'""'' -oofls-i 

?.""/ wioaa 

V<°»';, ■0001,) 

'■••«''"•' .0000574 

VVcber ims I'oiimJ iliat /.• fc.r (rm'iss at <i « '. ; 0(100578 uml at UK)- C. 
OOOOIMI. sli..«iiiK ii MTV [.•riiit l'.w<riiii; witli iiicrcasc nf tiiii| iTatiin-.* In fa<'t, 
Ihrougli thf intorval 0° - 100" ('.. k- soctn? to vary about inver«clor ns the absolute 
tem|K<ratiin> It is not iinp.>^<il.l, that iIk. .■..n.liirtivit.v of M.k at I.IC" ( . 
apiiroai.hcs i<( w.tUr, faiiiuo jis a p.",r .•..ii.|iirt..r 'I'lioruiijiti r\|Krliii. tita- 
tiiin oil tliis suliji 1 t i-i iirjrcntl.v Hfiibvl. 

In the prcseul coiiiioctiuii tho thermal (litfu:,ivit.v u if ro^ U. rather than 
its conductivity, ia of firat importance. It s= ri[K;citic heut uml rf = dcn-^ity, we 


ioT rock ut room tcni{)erafure(20' V.) Kelvin a.^-mned 400 as the value ot k when 
tho unit of length is a foot, the unit of time a y. ir, and the miit nf temperature 
one degree Fahrenheit, This value is close tn ! lat whitli represents the aMnpe 
of the ileterii inatious made for different roek.s at rof.m temiK-raturer, cJutiiii; the 
years since Kelvin wrote his famou.s I'ssay.j; 

If » be assumed as 400 at all t<' upiTalun-s up to 1:!00' ('.. it is possible 
to cahuluto the temperature gradient in the wallnwk of a niolt.'n balhelith at 
file end of Bpe^-itied periods of time. !''or practical i)urposes the surface o^ eo tact 
may bo reganled as infinite; let it further be considered as plane. I'nder these 
conditions the foi'ivving Fourier e<iuation furiiislies the datum for cnKulating 
the temperature at a ixiiiit .r 1'c.t from the C(»ntact at the end of t years, if the 
magma is kc[it stirred by currents.^ In the oiuali .ii I, -- the tempi ratiir. of the 

• Forljes and Hall have proved analoKOUs relations for iron and for uiak'n<-.iiin 
oxide; if. J U. Korbes, Trans Roy, .Soo. Kiliiiburgli. Vol. 21. lN»i7, [, )(): and K ll' 
Hall and otliprs, I'l-ic. .AnnT. .A. ad. Arls and Sch'Ikp-. Vol. 42, 1907, p 5117. 

t Cf . IV G. Tait. Kerent Advaihcs in I'livsii al .Sti.-nd-. 2nd pd London. ]Kf \> «70 

t Trans. Roy. S<ic. Kdinburifh, 11*3. 

J Cf . W. E. HyiTly's r.l.-mcntary Treatise on I'uurii-r's S.rir ,. I'.a-t,, i, I893. ,, k. 






^^ '6^3 f3S» Mo^r- Slreet 

Z^S Sorriest*', Ne« vork 'a6C'9 uSA 

'-SS ■, ■ 16} 482 - 0300 - Ptorc 

^S '^''^i ?88 - 5969 - ra« 



2 GEORGE v., A. 191? 

magma; c = the temperature of tlie wall-rock assumed as initially uniform; and 
u = the reciuired temi>eratiire. We have: 



e da 


For values of ^ ^^ whi.-li are les^ than 2 6 the value of the integral can be 

readily found from the table of the probability integral which appears in 
standard text-books on the Method of Least Squares. For the higher values of 


2^/k~ ^^^ ^^'""^ °^ ^^'^ integral can, in many cases, be computed by developing 
it into a series. Kelvin's value for k is peculiarly favourable for such computa- 
tion and the corresponding units have been used by the writer in the calculations 
Let 6 = 2200° F. (about 1200" C.) ; c = 400° F. (about 200° C); < = 1, 4, 16, 
and 100 years; and let x have the different values shown in the left-hand column 
t\ the following table (XL VII). The corresponding temperatures are shown in 
the other columns. 

Table XL VII.— Showing values of u when « = 400 and 


* = 1 ypar. 

t = 4 years. 

t = 16 years. 

i = 100 years. 


2200° F. 

2200° F. 

2200° F. 

2200° F. 








































The table shows that, at the end of the first year, the temperature of the 
rock 13 but slightly affected by the magmatic heat at a point 80 feet from the 
contact, and that the temperature gradient for the 80-foot shell then averages 
nearly 23° F. per foot. At the end of four years the temperature is but slightly 
ufectod at a point ICO feet from the contact and the temperature-gradient is 
about 11° F. per foot. 

But K cannot be nearly so great as 400 in the case before us. We have seen 
that k decreases rapidly with rbe of temperature in rock. The experiments of 
Weber, Bartoli, Eoberts-Austen and Riicker, and Barus show that the specific 
beat of rock averages about -180 at 20° C. and increases regularly with rise of 
temperature, so that at 1100° C. the specific heat averages about •280.* Tt 

• For references see J. H. L. Vogt, Christiania Videnskabs-Selskabets Skrifter, I. 
math, nuturv. Klasse, No. 1, 1904, p. 40. 

iiLfiiUT III- nil: iiiiir \.sii;i,\,,\n.i; 



Sn,;:r,;^':;;;:;l,;»»;:;E.;;:,:- itr- ,:;:i'.r™s.:;Trsr ; 

may not l,c inor. tluiii loK ;„ tli.. K.Kin sy^ti'iii ..f niiif^ 

It s..oms sat, to as-un,,., tir^t, thnt t'l,- .lltTn-ivity ' ..f th,. l„..,..l 

table will servo it / i>. r.-,„-..tiv,.K , l'. s. ::l'. ,„hI l'<mi y,.„,- 

the henti'^rfwlTT.''"' T''""'""' c^'l-^'^lation. thon. it app.-ars cortnin that 
tnt neatinjr ..f uall ro.-|< hy ,,l:,t,.„i,. maviim must proL^n-s uj.b n^ai .l,,w„.... 

n;in>r,nu't ;^"'';''"-" '.'""P--"'- ^----x'-nt In th. shoU a.lioin,,,. the molten 

iMirth.r (.,.,.- 1,;,- p,.,v..,l that i k- hav hi.hK variaM ,'„.:,,„. „, 

'Z e^ + " h' '"°1 '"^"'ff P"'^*^^^'",^ coefficients twice as high as those of other 
spo.,e.s.+ It ,. mNo well known that h,.,M..,i „r s, n.-k. ,-on,lurt hca' 
a OM,^ an,| ao.o-s th..,r -tn„-nr,..,,hu„.- at ,p:i.o .litFcvnt nn,-. Wher,.. thon- 
fore. the wall rocks about a bathobthi,. mass arc helcro^cneons. the heat con^hic- 
tioii i> variable ami cxi^an^ional ~trc"r- mii-t cii-mc. 

Part of the stress-enerpy set free niieht be a.lded to that of injection and 
oxpetuled >n the nnnute crntnplinj, of relatively plastic bed.lcd eo, ,n try ro" 
■\no her port.on is conceivably expended in irrept.lar and perhaps verv eornnletc 
shattertn^ ot the rook, which by that action is relieved fro,' the st 7ns t 
MKlden rend..,., and fracttarins rath..r than by any forn, of rock flew Still . 
n Inln"" r'' "^ '^' energy mijrht becotno ,,otentiali.ed as in Rnperfs drops 
Bolosi^a glasses, or certan, slickcn^idcd rock snrfaces.t and only tinaL exprc^^.j 
a.; a shatter-force after sn.Mcn fanltin^- or other <hock in the .■ountrv-rock had 
Keri-rdrop ''^•^'""■'•""- ''-^'^''^^^ "" ^ '-^- -''^ ^hc dcstrnction of a 
Experiment- and crtaii, ohMrvath-n- nun!.. I,, rock ,,uarrie- th^,.- 
I.ght on one of the more important and simpler by which di^rnption of 
the co„„try-roek may take pla.v. A short staten.ent of the fa,!, derivcl from 
each kind ..f < will he tonnd in ihc writer'- -cr,,.,.| ,,,iper o„ the • \Iec(;ain- 
of Ifrneous liitrn-ion ' (Amer. .lom-. ,,|' Science V,,L in, ]!io:), ,, ni.) 

Every city eonfla.L'ration leaves manifold evidence of thc'.hatterin.' effects 
of the one-sided heating ,.p of a ro.-k mas- -in columns, sills, and cornices of 
granite and sandstone. T..lling illustrations have recently been publishd by 

•liy u.-i-.K the Fame Fourier m,M;ilion it i- not .lilli,-,ilt t„ shew the h)^s „f 

hermal er r^y which a masma suflers by rondaction into the oo,mtrv-rock ,J rel' 

tivel.y small, even after the lapse of two or three huniirerl thousand rears The ^o , 

duration of the MiaKmatie period in a slightly superheated plutoaie ,m.,-s of larL-e size 

becomes easily ii dertitoed. ■"■'■■ ^ ui "oifce size 

t H. Lees, I'liil. Trans., Vol. IS3A, 1S92. p. 4S1. 

JA. A. Julien, .Tour. Franklin Inst., Vol. It7, 1899, p. 3S2 

2.''.a~vol. iii-^8 


iii:i-.\UT\ii:\ I or riii: istF.uioif 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Jt'iUiil'lu'cy.'' He >uli.jc'-tri| I'aiMl- .•..iii|io>ii| ..f ililVirciit dri'ssiii stoiics tu rii|ii<ll.v 
riid steadily incrpasinp fiini:i<i-lir:it. After periciU of hut ten to forty ininutea 
nuiiiy (if the stones spnllnl t.. ileplhs of niie t.i two inelifs. ami all the blocks 
were hiiilly erin-ked. C^iiein-liinL: w i ii i-<i|.| w;iier ur uilh dr;' vrlit- of cold air 
liiiiurally increased Ijoth tlie sjial iii<: and oraekins.'. The oxpcriinents show 
that cnieiiehin« hy water or cold ai.' is not the neees-ary eondition for tlie yet 
nmre reniaikahle -palliny' id' slone in city tires. 

It may lie n.pted that llie siiatlcrinjir of ery-tals anil rock-fratrn/eiits, when 
iniir]cr~cd in silica(r nulls, has often heen ols. rve I.+ The strains an', in such 
eases, necessarily of a lower order than those developed on the wall of a batho- 

ill lel'Hll' 

ml. I 

;itivc iiower 
loatiina. -ho 

if Volatile luaitcr 
Id U- -idcle:!. 

Tl,i> p. 

n tlie wall-rock 
■]• may he very 

litii where. Ihcroloi'c, 

Plato ;i;i,. 

I'inally. the di-n 
Ilea;, d hy failiolithi.- 

In view of all the facts tlier(> sceuis to be a sluer noeessity for believinpr in 
contaot-shattoiinLr throiifrh ditfcreiitial beatiiitr and expansion in the thin shell 
of a eountr.y-rock whioh encloses a larpe bod.v of molten magma. The evidence 
for the shattering is often eNcecilinirly full and clear in the field. The broad 
ri narrow belts of .\enoliths so often found just inside the main eonfi\cts of 
hatholitlis are ver.v hard to explain if those batholiths are due to laecolithie 
i'jection. The hlucks are character! ~ticall,v an;rular: the.v are jii^nerall.v not 
iiirangred with their lontrer axe> parallel, as if they had been pulle<l off from the 
vails b.v the friction of tlu! movinir mafrma. On the laecolithie theory one 
would expect nian.v of the .xenoliths to form elongated smears in the granite 
rock. This is indeed occasionally seen but most excentionally; as a rule the 
xenoliths have just that irrej-ularit.y of form and arrangement which the.v should 
hi ve if they had been shattered off b.y the hot magma just before its final con- 
solidation. Throughiiut its huig. earlier hi.-tory the magma must, in every case, 
have had a nuich more etfeetive shattering power. 

Udatiic Diii.iili'c.f of Mnnma und Xrnalilli. — lu his first intrnsion-paper. 
ilie writer published the results of his attempt to calculate the possible specific 
gravities of the chief types of molten magmas under plntonic conditions. The 
calcrlations were based on Barus's well-known fusion experiments on diabase. 
The specimen investigated had n specific gravity of "•OIT'"; when fused to a 
pl.iss and cooled to -0^ ('., a specific gravity of 2-717. He further states that 
till' glass^ showi'd an expansion ''.■'.• '.ler cent in 'melting' and. as glass. 

expanded OHODOlT) m volume fo'- .iperature rise of 1° C. through the interval 

(I'-liKH)" ('. and l>.(ilMMi47 in \olnnic for 1° C. through the interval llW - 
i."00°. The 'melting' expansion (solidification-ontrai-tion) and the varying 
rate of expansion (or contraction) above and below IfllH)'' ('. seem to show that 

• R. L. numphrev, ' The I'irp-resistivi- I'mncrtips nf various Bnildiii); Materials,' 
Bull. 370, U.S. Geol. Survey. 1909. Sw ospeciiilly iKiue 69 and plate .•}]. 

tCf. C. Doiltcr and K. Ifussak. Npups .lalirh. fiir Mill, .'tc, ISSI, p. 18; A. Becker, 
Ziit^rlir. d. d. Reol. Cies., Vol. 33, 18fl, p. <>>. 

X ' Tlirousiliout this paper the iiiiiltpii loik sididifies into an nhsidian.' C. Barus in 
Bull. 103, U.S. Geel. Survey, 1893, p. 26. 

i.-ii'iiirr III Till ruin .{.■^ri.-ii\<,iii:i: 



-' iiir .■r>M:iili/.iti.Mi Ml' tli ■ iii.''i I ..;, ■;,,-,. l-n il 

cry.t;,lli.ation was inevitable un.Ier ,1,..,,,,: ., ' ,1,.. 'i.^'H^nTi,, w ' 

o ro..Uu, last..,! s,.v..,-:,l 1:,,,,,-. lian.V ,.„n... ,1„ ,„„. yU,-r.(„u: si.'w ,l,n.,.,lv 

h.- volume clmn^^es .ufferod l.y pure .liaba-. pl:,ss i„ pas-in.- fro.n tlu- „,.,l,en 

i-tr.,,,,. .,_at.- tu tl„. n,:,.i ; .,,i,-,,,,|,. Mat- .,r r a',.. KnH.mH,,.' ,1„. 

paii' ':'7;r ,'"""r*"'»- "■" »-'•-« >-- •"" -> ,«. ...„( of i^ v.,i„„;> i„ 

M M,,^^ hH.,n 1„. .M„],o,i state at 1100° C. to r„om t..,np,.rat,.r..: the loss „f 
soIu.Mo l,roUKii tia. sam,.,. i„t..nal was i„ tho fir. tpap^r 
.s about s per cv„t. liarus lo,,,,,! that tl... no. .lo.rea.e in spo^ifi,. v in,r iron, ro-k at -'ir C. ,„ ,|,,.. „ ,„ ^■_ ,,,, ,„ ,„.^ ,.,^,„ ' ,., ,. ,;.^ ^^^^ ^ 
spe.',,u.„. t „.r,.|-„r,.. ,1„. .j.-roas,. of s,...,.i,|,. .ravity i„ passing- ,ro,„ i^O " ( ■.',,. 
molt..,. ..on-hfon at l,m r. is po„il,l.v only aho,„ Hi ,H^r o.M.t. ins„.a,i of about 
II' I"'!' c-iit. as uol".l 1,1 llir tir^t I :i; , I-. 

C^ntL rt.-,.ntly .1. A. iJoufflas bas nia.l,. a .iMinlK>r of very rareful .neas„re- 
"K'nt, ot the .b.ns.ties of typhal ifrn...,us ro.-ks an.l of tboir respi'i'tive f-ln^-e^ 

."'" ^•■';'-iti'- :;i-aviti,.-. l.oiu- laUou at r „ f; iiu.Tatuiv.. Dnu-his'. lurth,,,! 

'■ '■■■!;•'''■;• "I'l 1;- '-'-Mlt. ,• rlnnt. K,.i- :,:,l,;.ro I„. r,,ui„l tho ,l,.,.r..a ' ~,:.-r\nr 

s:ravity. ni passing trom loc!.: to prbiss, to be S-O" per cent. Delesse had found 
tl,.. to bo 11.4fi p..,- ,.ont. as tho avorafro of ,n..nsnr..M.ents of two speei- 
iiiou- from ditr,.n.nt localilh-s. Harus's .l,.t..rniination. 10 p,.r .-..nt. i- int. nu.- 
iliaic b.tween the two. 

It s..e.,.s probahle, tho.vfo,-,.. that a ,l,-,-n.a.s,^ of .; p,..- ....„, ,n spocifie grnvity 
(look to ^^lass at L'O' ('.» ,s .-io-,. to tho niininnnn for th.. avorape pabbroi.I 
.■oo,<, an.l , I I- p.,-il,|,. that jiaT'is's In ,„., ,,,,t ,!,.,. ,.,.a.,. is t.H, bi^h for avor ..o 
fi.Mbbr... J'or presL.nt purpos,.s it is -af,.,- to ns.> ,h.. n.i„i,„uni vabu- of tj n..r 
cent. ' 

Ainoufr the n.o-t .•,liabl.> of tho oMov ,l,.len»inations are thos.- duo to 
J'f-loss,. and Cossa. Th.^s,. are iiot.d as follows (Table : A'lII.) 

For pi.rpos.'s of ooniparis,,,, th,- analoL-ous n^snlt.-i of the Camepie Cniphy- 
'^•Tl\ 1 *"'"'"'"''' ''•"''"■'■'"""''' ''■'"' '"'""'■•''- ="■«• R'^<''i in tabular form (Table 

25a— vol. iii — 48 J 




2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 



K<»tk l.v|». 

of nnk. nf ahvHH. iiMleuj-ity. 





Quart: itiori*f 

Jhitritf [ 

tiafjfjrns ' 


•J 7:i'i 

2 4Mi 

111 2.1 

•J ti'j;) 

2 :«iii 

IIP oa 


2 42;< 

!i 72 

*J (1.SM 

2 r*7 

!• 44 

■J 7.-.1 

2 l!Hi 

'.» 27 

I' TtW 

2 4)7 

;i 37 

J MiO 

2 42:. 

S M4 

•-' t!4« 

2 47» 

>; 24 

•J 710 

2 4»i 

111 H3 

•J (Hn 

2 4ii:< 

II i.H) 

2 'i-JI 

2 (ITU 

M 2!» 

•-• 7im 


r. S2 

•J Si-.') 

2 r.H4 

11 Oit 


2 w;4 

14 ml 

2 WIS 

2 till 

s <7 

2 S21 

2 (125 

6 !»■) 


T\llhK XLI\. 

Artificial anorthiU' 


PiiriHt'd natural quartz 

Artitioiul Drthorhuiuhic iiin))iii!Mil*» 
.. iiyro\HHf 

.. ir "nocliiu • ityTiiM-nt' . . 

.. iiii<|wiilt^ 

Axfiup* (tf all si'Vfn 

■^I«'c. prav. Siw'c. ^'rav. I >eiri-a>e 
i-f crystal. ut (flas*;. iii leUMty. 

2 7<;:. 

2 700 

2 4 

2 iiiiri 

2 ;fK2 

,S 5 

2 (iri4 

2 2i:i 

111 11 

2 f<."i7 1 



:t 175 

2 74:i 

in 11 

:< l!i2l 


14 1 

;; 27.'i 

2 X,VI 

111 il 
HI 11 

invnnr <>/ iiii iiun- .\srt!n\n}irh- 743 


Siinini:iri/injr ii'I the n-ults we liax..-— 

Tabik L. 
Dernasr in denxiln iriuk to </la.iy at SO' ('.). 

Diabase fif Baru< in.nno 

Gnl.bro of ricUKlas T22 " 

AviMiigo Kiibhro of I)i.:,.«<p ,, „ 

AveniRe (lioritc of I)el^s^p -'»i 

Avprauc .liiirite <if DouKlas IV. 

yuaitz dioritp of Co* a ,„n 

S,TTiite..f C.s«M -''Jj 

SypMitp >f liouRlas TS 

TonMitp of iKiuglns *•?* 

Aveiaup crnnitc of Doucia*.. .. g-a 

AverauP Krnnit.- cf IIiIh,.;,.. . . J';" 

Gneiss of I fpl, .-..,. »■'? 

Avpraitp of all nhove [ o'^,? 

AveroKP of spvoii nun. rals (CarnoKiP Uc,ii,1,Vm' al' r.abnratory) '.'. 10(1 

Wo inny conclud,. that tlio acid rocks certainly expan.i more thnn the basic 
ones 111 passiii!.' to the ghissy state at room temperature. It is probable though 
not certain, that tlie expansion of the more acid glasses with heating is not 
nuich more rapid that that of the basic frlasscs. In any case, we shall, in the 
ollowing arsuniont, make n,. mistake in principle if we assume that all the 
IcaduiK types ot crystalline rocks expand at least as nuich ...= fjahbro (or diahnso) 
wli(>ii iiH'ltcii at the hi;;ii teni|icralurc r,f I;|IM) ( '. 

Hoadc in a lav-c nniiilM-r <<( ■Ictrniiiiiatinn- f..iiii.l ihaf m.-k expand-- on tlie 
avoraKc. at sensibly the same rate as that found by Rams for diabase namely 
about 0.00(MJ:.'5 volume per depree Cenliirrade* T'sinR this fipure, allowi.ip for 
the various rates of decrease in density for ,he different rocks in passing into 
the glassy coiiditiMi,. :i,i.l ..-uiMintr that i-a.-i, gkis- expands, with licatirur. at th,. 
-ame rate as liarus's diahasc wc lia\c th,. data of Tahlc LI.;— 

TAI'.l.i: 1.1 


V 'it iTx -tallii 

■I, at 

'I-. It.,- 

vily iif -•mil riH.k ul.'i, 
iiiultiri .It 


Khio (■ 

lliid (' 

■> SO 

L' 7:i 

L' 71 

•_> .-,7 

■J r>t» 

•J .">! 

., -.. 

J til) 

■_' >:( 

•' HO 

~i .*'* 


anil ilinr itp 

;{ IHI 

■1 <(■> 

" ''ii 

-' 74 

."► -■( 

."( (HI 

■> S ( 

•J H:t 

2 SI 

•2 sii 

.■! IL' 

;i 10 


L' '.I" 

■> If] 


lionti- arirl 


li-. . 

1' SO 

•J i;i 

■J 7 J 

•J ii; 

•1 4:. 

■-' 4t 

•2 r.i 
•2 :,i 


L' i;o 


■J .".1 
2 i;.i 

■; r.i 

■J !•_> 

■J 11 

■J M 
•^ 10 

-2 -M 
■• lo 

L" so 

•-' l.i 

■-■ 71 

L' .i-J 

■1 .M 

:.' ."lO 

•J .M 

-' :>•! 

■2 ;<i 

2 .Ml 

2 '".1 ' 

•» -III 


aliil ^'lti'i». 

!■ lil! 

•1 M 

L' 40 

2 ;t;i 

L' :iti ■ 

•-• so 

■J 73 

•-' 71 

■1 w 

'J IS 

■2 17 : 

•2 47 

• T 

"^T U 1_ in 

•T. JI. Rpadp, Origin of Mountain KanRcs, IssO. p. lid 



i>i:r\i;r\n:\ I in iiii: iMr.itnn; 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

IliM.ll.'-- .■,H'lli.-i,.I,t- rfl;ll.!.' M- tn f .llc-l I h|| . ■ lili' :U .ITA i 111 II tc clliilitlo ill -|i,rili.- 

Hiiivity uiulerKono l.y blocks of -trutilicl and si^hisio.'.. locks fcommon i-ouiitry- 

rocl.- ;i;,oiH i.iiilioliiii-). M~ ill,-.. i....;, I :i rl.; tiM ' i l.v rrLM nl.^l n- -'i!! .^'i'li 
aH-lliiii. the tctiifcnitii.i' .,f v.T.v innirniii (nt l.-.lMr ( '. l i,, wliirh thry ire 
iriiMur-..! ('I';,!.!,. | 1 1 i :- 

I XI'.I.K 1,11 

liaii^'i. .if -|., Ki H.uiL'i- ..f -|.. u'r. 
ill •Jiir. :,t i:;.KM' (...|i,l'. 


Siiii.l« . 
Art'illit.s . 
Iiinii'..'l. .11.' 

l> (;ii_-_' HH 

VJ-2 71 

•-' :.")-:t in 

i;7-:i Ml 

L' "Jll — J 7-'i 

1.1 -■> i;7 

•J 111-2 Ml 

'"-' — 2 71 

•_' 11.". -'.' 1*0 


"■r-2 71 

i!<iii. :>■ 


liii'lih-urr ,,l I'lii.lonii i'n.^->i,r.- ,,,i ii<„i. ,i..,.i;„. !i,.|,,|-,. ,lr.i.v,ii- 
.•,.|i..i!i~i,,ii. .■..'irrniili- till' |..--i|.ililv .i| llic' |lol:ili...i oT t'o!.iz:i M. ■.•!■- ..l' - li.l 
iwk ill ;i I liitoiiii' iinij;Mi;i, it i-i < tliiit ,-i |irrliiiiiii:iry stiw:,' of ,,iir 
imiiiiry must ho imsscd. Wliat inilufiicc Im- pros-^mo at dn|ith-i on the 
Illative ilen-itica of solid hlo(il<3 and of the liiiiiid iiiamiia In whii-h thoy nro 
iniinerscd? One c;in hardly doubt that wati-r and niiiieralizors in diplh would 
iiKMcase siil-Ii diffcrenfcs as tho-,. calwilatpd for one atmosphere of pressure 
and 141)0° (".; .-o that Gilbert's coni'iision as to the ditfi-ulty of determining 
tlie densities of kvdrothermally molten p. iftmas need not affect the present 
arL'iiiiii'iit exeeol in a fii\diira'.le \v■^\* Since lli- tciiirrnilnn s ,,f .-i l,!,,ik ;iiil 
its eiidoain? matrma are liractically identie-l, the final st.'p in dccidinn on their 
relative densities in depth is taken, if i ->\vn what is the n'lative com- 

pression suffered by the .solid and li.|U 

Afjaiii we must have recmse to t xperiiiients of Barns as those. 

of any known to the writer, most nea o the prolilcin at issue. (le 

concludes, a.s a net result of his iiivestiy. nat 'the relation of the iiieltinfT- 

l.oint to pressure in ease of the norin.l type of fusion is nearly constant irre- 
spective of the suhstanci' o)>crate I on. . . Anil in the measure in which this 
is neiirly true on iia.-siiiff from the carlion cotupouiids to the thoroufrhly different 
silicon c.impoiinds, is it more iiroliahlv tnii' lor the same -uhslaur-e cliaiiL'c.l only 
rs to temperature and pressure. In other w.irds, the relation of lueltiufr-point 
to pressure is pre.s;imab!,v lincar.'f Acceptiiij; his inferciic.s as sound, the fart 
remains that his expeiiment.s on thymol, naphthalene, and other carbon com- 
pounds can tl-.row linlit on the liehaviour of silicate mafrmas in other respects 
than that cited in the forcfjoiici ipiotatiou. This important deduction is cor- 

•O. K. Gillieit. Iicp. on the (Icoh of tho Henry Mts.. 1S77, ii 7(i 
+ Phil. Mag., Vol. 35. 1893, p. .306, and tI..S. <Ji>'oI. Survey. Bull 103 1S03 o 
Amer. lour. Soionc*. Vol. 38, 1889, !>. 407, ami Vol. IC, lS!t3. p. Itl 

V, ■ -f . 

in ruitr III nii run i i>//,v<\i.i/; v 745 


rol,oriit..i liv 111,,, provcl ,iii,il.nli> .,i -ili, ■;,!.- :in.| .•,,,l,..n ■ ,.,n|...ii,i.|-. ,,i lai 
ti^r lMio;ir ivlati.iii ol' rxpini-ioii !,i ni.r. m. nt .,|' ; iji tli.',| t'.rm 
"I .'.K-li Mil)-i.iiici-. in I A) th,. Ii,i,,,r ivh.iiM,, ,.r ,.\|..iii-i..„ I,, iiHT.-i.,. i,f ni I,. in 
pfralurc ill tlio li.|iii.l torn, ,,i , „cli >ul.-!ai,.-,.. .,,1.1 in i-. th.. -ihi I, ii l,,,,' in 
N-liiMirli'!.' ;iii-rc-iii.'nl in \\i, ,- : ..| i. 'jul.' ,i n ,. t', r. ; m- turtliiT ihilii'.iti- tliMt n..|.liili.J, hi- i- in .-..nii.iv-. 
sil'JIilV ...ill 111., li.jui.l f-llli ... ll... -jn.,- .,:l -!:,l,. .. ||:. !■ -,, ti .;:lv. -I . u 

tliat, l.,r th,. ..aiiu. iii.-v,.;i-,. of pr, ,-ni... i, .ni.l n ■ ■I'lnih-n.- j;nin> in ,p,.,-ili,. 
gravity about Iwi,.,. as I'a-i ;m „,!i,l naplilhahn.'. Th.. .•.,ni|ir.-.-il,i|;iy ,,i ,, 
t'iisi..| -ilh-al.. r.M'k i- p.-rhap-. ih.n. mi... ih;,! ,,i i|„. -.mi,. .-..•■k uh.'n 
I'ut his (liaba.-i. Iumou ,-iin,. ' iii.,n-tral,- ih,- th.-riii'l rNpi.ti-ihilltv ,.| 
tlif li<pii,l rock i. ahout lil liiia- as jrr.'al a- that ..l' th,. y.,]i\ r..rk. ■jhiis a 
bl<.(.k(.f <-i.lil, ,,j|i,l ffabhri. iiiiiiu-rM>.| in a .l|.,.p-,-,.al,.,l innlti'ii marina ..T th,. sam,- 
clK.mical roiMp,.!<iti..ii, woiihi bo ],.-, i-nn.l, n~..| hy th,. pn --ar,. than tlif 111..I1.11 

i-ni k, but the i.tficl (III rclativi. .Ii n-ith- u..h|.| U- partly np>-ii-at,.,l by aii.\ 

-il|.(.rhi.atinH ,,t' th,. ina».'iiia. Mrir, o\ ,a'. lli, .■umpii — il.i liiv ol' ^jlass an. I of 
frytitalline silicates is known 1.1 h.' v , ry !..». I h.' .-..nipiv-si..!, MitTc.r,..| Uv m-Li-. 
t'i.r CNuinple. i., aboul imhoii.'i; ..|' j,, N,,lnn.i. r,.r 1 atin. 'I'h,. w..ij,'!it of ,.vi.n 
lO.OiMl nielros uf rock with an a\(.rii:.',. .lonsiiy ,,f j.;:, w..ui.| ,.au-(. a ilni-ity 
iiicrea*,. 01 niu,.|i l.-s tliaii on,. p.T cent in t;la--. It i- ihrrcf..r<. pn.h.hl,. that 
th,. (litVcn'n,.,. ,,( ,lcn>ily betwcin mafri. an. I iniin.rM-.l hi....k u,,iil.| ji.,| !,.■ 
air,.|.ti-l thnni:-,, pr,.,-iir,.. at t!i.. un-at .l-plii ol 111 kil..|nctr.-.. hy a- inn.-h a- 
1 per i',.nt of lh<. <lc.|i~iiy ..f .iihir ,iii(.. 

Si,il.-i,Hi ,,f III. SIuiUt.J l!i,r .. Ii "nan TaM,. I, I. ami I. II. thai 
nearly all Nonolitbs niu-t -ink in any inoii..!! jjranilc or -y.-nit,': mo-t \,-iioliilis 
must sink ill niolliii .|iiMrt'-,lioritc. t..nalii.' ..r a. a. I tMohro. Many x,ii.,liili, 
inipht lloal on ba>i,. >;ahhr„ but the h. ;niir - •lii-t- and ^;n,.is-|.s niiist sink in 
even very .li'iia,- j;Mi)bro niajrinas at l-'!i'(i ('. 

<iivin-. then, th,. hif.'li,-» pi^rini — ihl,. valines p, the spt.i-itic {.'ravitios of maf,'- 
liias. ii 1- -till trii,. tiiat h|...-k-. -n..|i as ar,' -li itl..r,..l the wall .^r Mof of 
ii hatholitb. must -sink when inmarMil in in..-t inauiiias at atin..sph,rie pr.--uri'. 

It lias h.'eu t.i the -h.piiif; hypolhi'sis that thi' vi-eo-ity ,if ;;ran!li.- 
miiKinas is loo yrcat to allow of lli.. -inkiufj: of hlo.-ks ,.m.!i inneh ,l<.ns|.r than 
th..-e nia-nia-. Tlii- .if'.-, ihn I:-. iie\>vv.r, ..■'.. a- I . . 1. -u-;ain'.! i'V ,i,.|a,ii,. 
experimeiital ,ir tii'lil pri..f-. Tin. x,n..!ilhs vi-ihl,. nhmu hallioliihii- i..,iiti..ts 
liav,. assure.ll.v n,,t -unk far from llaar formi'r positi.ais in wall ..r roof aii.l tli,' 
reason for this must U' -c^.uuht in fiie iiijrh vi-eosity of the mnirnia. Ili^'li 
visco-ity is an essintial attrihut,. .,f a n<.arly fi-oziu niagrna. The phenomena of 
fracfi..iial ery.stallizafi..n ami of niagniati,. ilitfi-rentiation iiiKiuestionably sliow 
that each plut.'iii<r niairina niii-t pass tlir.uifih a l..iifr peri.vl of mobility. The 
ino-i vise.. us of j-nauitic niaj;ina-. the rhyoliii,'. is-u.-- at th.. canh'- -urfac,. 
with such tliii.lity that the rhyolite oft,.|i (.overs many S'liiar,' miles with a siiurle 
thill -beet. Tli.. ah-olut,. vi-e..sity of the VelloWst..iie I'ark rhyolit(.s have 

• .AnuT. .tour. Science, V.,1. 12, 1»*91, p. 140. 


iiKi'MtTMrsT i)f Tin: iwr.tiinii 

2 GEORGE v., A. 19t2 


■ if a Idw or.lor wlirti inMny ,,1 flics,. jHTsUlrnt riuws were i.n,ptf-.|. N-.thinif 
r.m MMMii more pr.,h,il,|,. tlnm that th,- rt'laiivrly hmuiIi full in tonipormiire. 
nprc-cnir,! in thn passnuo .,f ., tiiinly molt.'n iniipnia tr. a to.i'rhl,v vi-r,,iw pon- 
ihth.ii, li,H iK'tually tukori pliicv in plutnnir b.xlii-i. Di.tlt.T lia- sh..wn pxppri- 
in.'iitiilly that that ilirlinc in tonilKralurr iinil.T aurfatv con' io.' ■ may be 
troni UMO' V. i„ H.-.d- c. f,,r ^'ranit... from KCo' t,) 1010^ V. for t,h(inolitp 
and from lOiiO to imj' C. for basalt. T'lo presencu of wafer an.l other mineral- 
i/,T- 111 _T:'niii.- MKiiriiM- ii.ii-i .1 |.| (,, il„.ir ni" ilii\. ;i- li,.|.| \.^ ^„nu'. ^^r■^rr- 
mmIilImi^' lir.ii-'L'i'r. v, lin>,. LcmTal arinini.'iit for liMiiilily ^ccm- irrcfufaWr.* 

Even pranfinjr that the kinetic viscosity of a plutunic matrnia U thousands 
ot umca that of water, it could not support xenolith.s more dense than itself. 
In a lew .!ays or v.x-eks stones will sink throiiKh. and corks will rise throuirh, 
a niiiss ,,f pitch, the viscisity of which is more than a million of millions of 
timed that of water.t l-adcnbiirjr hii> lately >l .wn that small sted spheres will, 
in a few minutes, sink timuKJi t\M iil.\ c, ntinictrcs nf Venetian liirpcntinc, a sul.-' 
stancc 1(MV'*X' limes as,, us us watcr.^ I.:i<leiilnir(r"s experiments have veri- 
fied the (ieneraily accepfe,! ,-,|iiati.>n cxpr,s8ini.' the rate of sinking of a sphere 
in a strongly viscous fluid: 

•J y' (,/-</' I 

w_..erf .1- - the v.l.M'ity ,,f tji,. spi,.n> «!i,.ii th,. iimii,,!, i.-t,.a,ly; r; the ae,',|.ra- 
ti,pn of jrra-ity. rf-the ,lcnsity of the -phere; d' = \h,- density <,f the fluid; ;• 
-the ra.lius of the splier,-: an,l r = fh,> viscosity of thi. fluid §. The ecpuition 
shows that the velocity of sinking variiM ,liroctly a- the sijuaro of flic radius of 
III,- spheiv. This lact may he correlated wifii the observation so often to ho 
maile on MTiinifc cont.icia, that huRe xcnoliths are rare. This apparently means 
tiiat at the end of the shatter-perio.l, the viscosity is truly so high as to allow of 
(he smallir bloeks heii.g trapped at hish levels in the freezinu mapnia, wi.ile 
the large block h\\ t,'reater velocity, >ha!l have sunk into the depths. 

Doeller e-finii.tcs that the pressure of 7,500 to 11,000 metres of rocks 
iner,^iiscs maLTuati,' vis,.,.slfy n,, m..r,> than l'i> to '.'M \,>-T .-, nf.** If the in,r, iiienf 
he au,vwher,. near this value we may be cirtain tliat the visosity of suiierheafed, 
phitoni,. masnia is r.^lativi'ly low. G. F. Bceker has ealcuhifed that the viscosity 
of a Hawaiian hasalti,' flow, not one of the most fluid, was. at "- I'on, about 
lifty fillies that of water. The more liuiil rhy.dite flows may ; iseosity a 

thousand times i-'rcater than that of water. The corresponding .iscosities of 
the same ma>rma- wlu'ii ti^ii kiiom tr.- umlertirouml may, fii,'!,, he pos=il,ly no 

inor,' fiiaii a fi-w thou-aud li 

t!ial ot' water at \\\o lartli',- siirl'a. 

( )iie 111 ;-t 

• W. C. Brogger, T>ie KniptivKCstcine ,!•■? Kristiann^'pliiptps, V„l. 3. ] 

SW. p. 3.1fi. 

,. * ■;V"'.n ft ,R"''<v. Cnars <\c PlivMciue, tori.p I. 2e fn-ciiulp. Pari,, 1S,s.S i, l;<5. ;.f 
Danipll s Ip.xt-book of thp I'nn.ipl.s ,,f I'liy-ics. 2J. ed.. I.Kin,Ion 'S8i, n 211 

I.^tinalen lipr Vliysik, Vol. 22, IflOT, p. 2H7. 
^QiJ ''"^w'"" ""'^ Thomson. Text-book of Physics, Prop<>rtip- of Mattor. Lon-lon, 

1902. p. 222. 

**C. Doelter, Physikalisch-chpmische .Min-^ralojip, T.-'ipzig, 190.">. p. 


HI i-iiiir III' rill I inn- \^ii!i,\u\ii h 



..,,.h,i.. ,1,.,, „ x,..^l„M. ,^.„ ,,.,. -i.,l„!v ,l,„-.r .',:,„ „.,.(, . ,,|„t..„:,. nu^m.,. 
"Ill Muk in „ :• .s,„.v -,„.|, n.M.tiM. m..v^.iri|,v ,■.„,) with ..xtroin- ,l„wt,.... 
I'.rr- I- ..VM ,.nif. /..o.| Kr...,n.l lor |„.|i..v„>ir tlu, „., ..,.ttm..,m Mumiint .,f s„!i,I 
I'.-'k .■..1,1,1 1„ ,.„khI!.'.1 I,..i..iv prM.Mi,.,! riui.lily i- .m.,!.!!-!,,..!. TIip nvrij.-.^ 

'^'■"': "' ""■' -'.':'; ".' " '"•■ '''^ - ""'■'■'■' "i'l' 'I'" ^i-- 'V i.r pit.'h v..f i,.,«- 

li""-- iMon. l-apLJIy ,„ „„,.■, n„ |..,,-..„„v il,,- l.uv ^i -hv ...hi,.), i. p.^-tnlaf. .| 

I" ""^ "' '•'■ r.ihn::- il:,.,,r;,. , \ |,|,ii,„,i,. r,„.|- ,.,.,.,,;,; 

/.•;., ,.l .l/,„;„,„ /„,■„„,,■ ,V/„,,/„., w, ,„,^ 1, ::,,,,„,,., h i,„a:; t!„,i ,, 

:'",' ;:',■, '"'^ ^""'- "'"- '"" i'-- 'i'^-^. ■■- tim. M:,p,..i „„ ,.f ,i,.. r... .f ,. 

'■^"'":'''';"; ■■''^""'"•'•- '"'i- '-'■- ••' 'i- "■» i.n- •,„•. „..,>i „„^i..r^,. , .,.,i„r 

"';';:"'"' '.■■^':''-' -'•\y -^- u- .,„.,.. ;. ,.,„„!„„.!. i; ,h„ .„„„ ,,1,.,, 

.1 li.-.. r..I„nv,l^ -N.iiil ..|r,., t, tl„. „pp.r |,.v,.l „| ,|„. „mi:.m:i W,..|M I,.. n,i...,l 
-.. I..111. :,. tl„. „n^,„;,l -iipply ,,f 1,,.,. h.^i,| „ ,t. u„l, ,- tl,.. r,..i|- w.t- th, 'Iv 

l"""""'"l •"'•I • iiKiillV^I. If til.. l,...,t -iippi, ,li.| „.,i -:,•>;,.,. I,, pr,„| ,,„.|, ;, 

■■iit.,-l.,.pl.... tlu- l„nM ..r th.. l,ill,„liil,i,. ,.|,„M,1., r w„.,l.| 1„. ,|,,,t .,t „ .|,,w,uv„r.llv 

';''■"■-■"« ' 'Parttn.nt »itluri ilu, iiua,!.-! f..ri„utioii, tli„„(?li n niiw>-lik,. 

■li:,,i,i . r , .■iiM .,1- , l„. pi-,„|,|,.,.:l, 

M..|,in- uill \ji. in iM| i.lit\ \. ill, i!,, ^\,.. ,., ,|„. I,',,,.].. ,.jn,.,| I |„. 

;'''■'■■'-" '■'"'■'•^ '"■•''■ ^'"'''l- '"liM-l- i- in. -I i.f.ihi'K -,n.,:l,.r ll,^,, lI... :ii,.ri... 
M.,k nil..! ,l,M-in;r .1,,^ ,„ ,•!, I,, „■.',■!■ | ..i-i.,,! ,,f 1,1^', i!„l,liiv ;„ ,|„ ,„,,.,„,, 

lint the .l.-ve|..| m, i,t ,■{ tlir niiiKn.Mlic .•l.iinih.^r i-, aft, r Ml n.f -,, iii,p..rtai,t 
\»r rK'trogcni.. th,-.)iy ;,s i- ih,. lat,. ,.f th,^ .Mt'ulC.l bt... l.s. N.^arlv all of tho^e 

'::V ".'■'^'■•'1; I- -i;-^! ,■■! :i- i.i^. :,■ i;, .,•,,,, „,,,- „f m,:;.,,,., r-,,),,;,,- 

l.ui.l. .s,ich ah,vs-al a..Mmi:r.ti,.ii im-aii- ih,. wh..|. >alc f.,ni.ati(,ti ..t ii.w «,.,•,, i, 
.l^ir.v i.i.i-iiia. This i,,pii. will l,e troativj in a f,.ll,.wiiii,' s,.,.ti,,ii. 

'','"''■'"""■" "' /•"' "''-^ III ^i'.v ..f ti... .M,.,,„ i,npr.|,;,l,ilitv |l,,t ..,,.. 
'•Ml ofh-n. It ..ver. ...xpe.'t f,. tin,! th.. pr,,-..!i.!. .,r ,.: ! .•rwi... d.-tf-rir tr"'! fl.,„r 
,.f ., .I,.,.;.-,.;,,,,,! n,-i-n,:, |.,-ii,, i, :- ,,|' i,..,.,., , ,.,„,,:,,, ,!„■ i^■^y kn..»,, 
i. :,•,.,. hth- With VI,., 1,1,. i!,„,rs f,„- inf,.rm:,'i,.., :„ • . th.. fi..i,., v of -topin- Of 
<',>m-.s,.. the ,-o->.liti..u.. for rifti.,y ,.n,l f.i- tl„. - ,l>in ..„. .,.v \AovU from the 
root, nr.. inii,.li !,..,. fav,,nrnhl<. in th,. rapi,llv i,. . AM ,-. .^.,„., of a tyi.ioiil 
lujfolith than they wonlil !,.■ in a <l..o|,..r-<..att>,l n... „i-, ii, 
witii the -.wiy,. 'IViif,..' Siioe ii,.t ,hU' ,!..ffi(... ..t 

i.iMiiii.. I a- ..hi,i.a,-t<.ri>ti,. ,,f la lilli nia:,.iiias. Tl,- 

-••lali an, I arc siirroiiiule.l on -iij,., ,\,-, pf a' th- ,,,. 
,,j k-. -., that ..Jiillint,' imi>t !),■ inii.-h more rapi'i than ■ ; 
X,.s,.rth, •!,.>■.. tlm attcinjif ha> l„'..n mail.' t,, ! n.l. in th, 
ol lyfio l,i,.,-,,liths, any stat,iii,.nl f,ir or ii!.'ain-i th,. pr. 
i'liiount ,,f riflinn ami st.pintr. In -ii,.h ^niall icn, 
nn:ikcly that total <iip,.sti.)n woiij.l ,l..^tr,.y bl.,<.k. fall,,, ir. 
iniitlit., I.l- look.,! for on th,- t!o..i->. So far. the wr 
110 ovi.lence on the point ii. any of tlie nioiioprap' j. Tl>.. r 
to s.'eU. Very fi-w tloor, (.f la, 'eolith,- are actually ,•xpo^ 

that in many iu.-tances an obaurvei- wouM have .litheiilty in .lis; 

• eon,; mnieation 

'•OUM neressfirily 

"•..'ilith? arc nil 

■' liiit. ■ V , j 


, liin'te.l 

would be 

•..f. They 

a.-j (Ii -Covered 

an- not far 

,|)a!.!<.. too, 

^nn jj'''"k^ 



hi l-Mll Ml \ I III- I III IS 1 1 niul! 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

ti.rii out nf ill.. ||„,r I-,. Ill til..-,. Miiili iliitli.-r I'r lli,. i,„.t. IlillMTt." .r,iir«!ir.+ 

•'I'' "'l"'i' 'I lii'i' IniniM.iif-. Ill Nvi'l-i iilxivc ill.- il.inr, .!,, ,iut .lin-ctlv nii^c 

ilu- iiiit-tiHii in I.. tlu-.v won. licM Mi-p.n>I.Ml > iiliin ilm itiiurtim. ,..i lh.< 
I.H-iolitlis ..r till' ll.iiry iMiiiiiiliiiti., ill.' iiiiii,iiiil|v Imv .{.'ii^iii..^ .,1' till' iiivmli"! 
^.ifiNl..iii'- ami -li;i!,", .ir.- -iirl n- i,, warratil lli.' I,.'li,'i' iliai iraviiii'iiN .'I' lli.'<.. 
r."l<'< r.'iilly ll'iai..| In lli,' iiiajina. 

•Iiiutrar li.i- .lt-.'riln-.| lar;.- I1I...1. - nf ( ■ainliriaii ^tr.ita a- iiiiiii.'r-<r.| in tin- 

l:ii'.-.ilillli.' IM.ipll.vri.-s 111 ill.' Kl.i.'iv llilU ail. I .Apluiiw lll.lll H- .111.' I,, •.■x.'.'.-^iv.. 

.|..Miilr.'." \i-\ It 

ll'!.' llh 

' may "«• th. ir pr -• ni i".-iti..ii- I. 

Ii'hIi Miat'iiialii' \i .ily. til.' Miai:iiia iVc'/inir -.u lI'V wiTr in tli.' lu-l i.l' -l.iwly 

tliialinp ii|i\vai.U lr..iii ih,' il,..,i ..r -iiiUiii!.' Ir.'in ili.' r,.,,!' ,,|' ili.. |; ..litli. 

■"""I:"'. I ' I' 11. I" li'h- 'lt. ■ .'n ''11 .ili. I', 11' t-'i''' ' \ I'ai.'.' in till' I. -I .. (!i.' 

^lopiiiu livpotli.-^i, pliilinii.' iiiat'iiiii-. iiml. pcrluips in tli.' natiirr- ..f tli.' .am, 
ll"> 'III n. .ii' 1 .■ .'!' I' vain in .1 l.rMinim; tin' irutli "! !li. Iiy|„,i|i, -i- ; 

I'n.l.l.m „f //., I,,i,r. 'rill' -l.ipinu' li\ pi.tli.-is pn-i'iil- iii, prin- 
cipal .liiliriiliy ; it r.'t.r- t.. ill.' a|ipariiil .laiii-.T .•!' llic f..uii'l.'riiii.' ..f th,' i-,,.,ts 
.'iiMTiii;.' til.' Iiiririr lialli..liiii-. IimI.t pliit..iiji' .'..iiilili.iii- lal .l.'ptli- ..I Ir.iiii' I I live ..r -ix niil.-^l lli.. av.'i'a'.'i' in-'itcii -raiii' • wi.iM liav.' a -i ili.' irraviu 

in> lij.jlii'r tluiii L'-|t>. Til,- avi-rar.' r'..-k ..I il- r....!' Iia- a -!H"'iii,' uravily ..f 
al.out •-'■7l». If. tlicii.|i i.rnp'iiii. Tiii.M'in.'iit. a lari:,. iiia-i ..f tlic f....f-r...-k 
liri'iiiM.. OIK',, wli.ill.v imiii.'rso.l ill ttu- urutiiti', ll not ..nly f..iin.l.p it*..If 
lint tlirounh .iiilHi.ipi..iit ImcklinR tin. rm.f might rnllrtp'*.. ami f.iiiinU'r 
in .i'.ti..ti^. ll,,iilil,-, -'i.-li a i'ai,i-tr..plii' ha- -.hli'iM liMpp.'iic.l in tli.' .'a-.' ..f 
any I'al,'. ./..!.• .,i' I I'.'r iia'lh.jil'in- intni-i .n. 'I'iii- .litli. •iilly lui* li.'.'ii I'liipha-i/.i <i 
liy iiarri'll. wh., Jn-iN n-.wi- it a iti'.imim ni pla.-.- in hi- iii'.m.m'apli.' 

'I'll. I'rcM'iil wrilcr paiiii..t I'laiiii 1.. liavr miIv.mI tlii- |iri.|.l.'m. Init he doc^ 
rot Iiml it to f..riii a fatal ..ajccti..!! to th.' hyp..thc--i-<. In the first iilncc, it 
>iH'lii< I'l.'ar lliat all tlu' ..tli.'r liyi'-.'-i ..f uraniti.' inlni-i.iii ari' I'a.-iiiL' thf 
Millie .liloiiiiiia. All of lll.lll I Nprc^sly or tiicitly iiostiilal.' s.m.. .L.^rt't' of tliii.lity 

in .-a. h L'r.mili.' in,;-- :- il lill.i' r ..r .li-pl , il- .'..uiil|-y-r..i-k-. W.' 

liav). -..'11 that. llii'iij;li ihi' \i>i'..-iiy of siii'li a maxilla may be sovoral hiinilroil 
lini.'- -hat ol xviitiT. ilii' r..i.f->.'.'i irns. om-.. imincrspil. must sink in the miipiiia. 
All p.'tro!o;;i-ts wli.. Uli.'Vi' in iiiaL;niiti.' ..r olhor ilitTiTcnlialioii a-" oporativo 
in halliolitli- imist fa.'i' th. inni..ii .lilti.'ulty. 

S.'.'omlU, ill.- vo'il.-i' liii- sh.iwn r.-.i-oii- lor that thi> oartli'- mist 
a! pfi-iiil n'-t. .'11 a i-oiilinm.iis cuifi,,' ,,f l.asaltic (Rahbr..!.!) matrnia. i-itbiT 
.piilf llui.l or roaily to l.(-i'..m.- Iliii.l wh.-ii inicct.-.l into the crust. If the iivorairn 
s|K'<-ili.' uravily .if tli,. .lu-t is :.'.:.-. (n probahl,- vain,'), it woiiM as n wholo bo 
Miiil'' :il'l'- 1" H'.at .,11 IM ■ ; a-alii.- - .o». ': . . ■,■, hi.-h. 111, , I, -r ih.- -r.-il l.r. — iir.-. h,,uM 
l.n.l'ahly I >,- a -i.,'.iti. iira'il;. .i\.i- ■J-'-'i. linp.rl'.'.'i a- lli,- iniiniTiual lata 

•li. K. liill.erl, GpuIukv ..f lli.' Il.'iirv M'aiiilaiiis. 1S77, p. Wl. 
t T. A. .lajr-ar, U.S. Il.-dl. .Survey, 21st Aiiinnil Ki'iioit. I'art -■). irKII. p. 211. 
: I>o ♦!!.> ■'11111-, ova. lo" 1, lucks on tlip ll.iiir nf tli,. fliilntli Kahl.rii "hK.dlilli" nf 
.Minnesota in part reprospnt Minki'ii fraitni.'nis of its riKit - 

5.1. Harroll, Prof. I'ap.-r, No. :>7. I'.S. il.'ol. Siii\.v. IIKIT, |> 172. 


'W. ;1- 1 wl|..|i 

' ritiii ../ / /// ( ///, / ,>//.'f,\t.i;.' '.' 


:T.-. w.. s.rm jii.titi.J Ml ,-,,Mrlii.lii,,'; ll,,! i' ir.h'- ,.-,,. , 

ii; iliilp'.- tliiliili .11.' 

"''•" ''"• -"I'-T'i-ial. aci.l ,,„„/ ■ ,1,.. ,,n,„;i,\,..,,ri|, t ,-.,„ t,. .,,l|,lit\ Tli.M 

'"'"''"■'"« '"■'> I"'" ''''-■" I'l^"". .1- K,Im„ iin.^l n„,| ,|„. ,,„.!v i„ri.,...| 

'■'■'"'•" • '•' !'■' ■ - "• '•'!' •! ••-r' '■!' nil''- ,.r i,,..r. .i„iil t'.\ i,;. r •!,, ,|, i,., ,• 

'';■ '■'■'"* l''--il''v, ,,| ,.„.!.•., ,v ... ,1 „,l,,;,,„ ,■.,„„„;,,„ 

* '•■ rv|, ..•,,!,; .,, ,1,:. . , ,,,|,|, ,.,„„i,,, ,- ,.„ ,,,, ,,^.,,_, v,,,,,|, ,„ 

'^•■""■'"" •' ■ 'i"' ii'-i'l -ll'"' "• - ,M,.| w,,- i|,..i, ,.,„,irif,.,l 1,.. I,,,,li;.. 

'""■■"""- "'''■•'' ' '"••' -iirfnc... f-rniir,:.- tl„. |,..,,vv in, ,,f tfrr,.|,M..„r, 

'"■'""-'"« '" "' '• I'-ri" ' - •■ lli-ii til.. .Mi.t Ikh n.iM.,lii...| ,.- ,,ii;,llv ,.,.|„.r,.„t 
i.n.l ih,,.i,...|, ,t ,|„. ,.rii • ,,,.,1, |,,„. „, ,., .„y !,.,„., ,„„l ,,i,„.,.., |,.„ „ ,.,.„,,,, .,| 

! I-. ll-iWrUT, .,ir!.. 1 11,1,. l!,;lt ih,. l.P-k .,t ,V-1.'1I1 ..I, u' ill- :1V,., .,f III,. 

""I" "'liMi l,.nl,.,l,.l,. „i„l til.- ni.uii.h.i,,-,. „r 111,..,. |„„l.nliil„ Mr.. l,.,th .■xpluin...! 
''■■ ''" '' "■" •""! ^^viikn.-^.. ,,r 111,. ,Tii-l ih !,.,-■ K' ..Wilt III ^.M,l i,r,-l ;,,„|iri;n, 

; iiii.. 

Vnr I'.ii, .„/.,!,. .,,,,1 h,i,.r l,alli„litlH iIht,- i^ .■, u,ll .|..ti,„.,| )„«■ i),,,, ,||,.v 
hav.. p..n,>tnil..| tl„- ,T,„t „„l,v ,„i til,. Mt,- ,,, f,,l,|,.,| tr,.,. .,i,.|i„„l,. „n,l tl,.,t th',. 
Ii >.'.T l>:ltli,,litlii,- :i\,.. m;. ii-ii.i1Iv iirrMii;;,-! i.:inill,.| |., T 
ciimil 1111,1 1 Ill iiii-iiilii.r.. :i\..-. 

Ill i.tlu'i- \v,,i-(|-. i!„. iiitrii-i..|i lii.i,„y .,1 III,. ir|,,|„. ,„,,, )„. ,.,„„.,.|^,,,| ,|^ 
.livi-il)l,. int.. ll,,,.,. ,.|„„.!,-: ,1,.. lir.t \y-hvj: tl,:it in wlii,.|, ti..- „ut.-r |,n„i:,rv 
■''"■'I "■■'- '••'■■'niliL' M,.l.|.. I',, .,.,,. I, -.„.,.,.,.j,,, ...'i.hii.'Mi .!,- ,■:•..! f.,i,„.l..rl.,i..., 
til,' -■.•,.11,1 l„.iiiu- 111,. |„„t-K.,\v;itiii I l.iiur,.iiliiiii) ,.|,...-li ,.|- vcTv Hviiir:,! iiit.^r- 
.i.ti..ii l.,lw,.,.ii tl„. (|iii,| l,.,si;iii- Mil.-lr,|iiiii Mil, I M,.hl ,rii-i, uitli,.,it ,M,.„.iv., 

fnuiiili.riiiu- l.iil uitli .l,.v,.t..|iHi,.iii ,,i' iiiMiiv Inri.'.'. 'rrirulMrlv ,„ rri-ii: 1,mi1i,,- 

'"'"; ''"■ '''''•'!■ :' I" -i'-l "1 ll"- l...':i!i/Mli,... ..|- l,iilli,,llt!i- ill .•,ri,iiii iii,,iiMtMiii- 
li ImIn. wh.T,. ill, .lie tli,.r" -,..|iH, ill tlii< tliinl (...r''..,!. I,, li,,v.. ,„.,-iiri-,.,l ili,. 

il '"" ■■'' III..I1,-, I..'I-1IIM ill 11, ;l ■ - .,r I m!':..|;i| 1,- .| ■,. ,■!,■, jv, if ,a, ,■. m. ■.■-,• 

\K I li.v \vli..',.-ii!,. I',.iiii,|,'riiii.'.' 

.\Raii,. unmtiiiL' the liy|,iitli.-i.< lliat n vi-IM>. |.,,.t-.\iv!i,.Mii liMtli,,litli i- tli,. 
iioi.liti.-,!, upper p..rli,.ii ,.f a I.M-alli.- i„,.|.v ..ri-iiiMiiy iiij,.,.|,.,| t.. a I..V..1 l,.ss tli:in 

:i!"iil -i-< "!• .■iulit mil.'- ll ll irt,:'. -..-r,- . .„.,.|::|..- '',. I,.,.! ,,|- ,,,, 

^trMinl. it i^ 11, >t ,li:li,.ult t,, -.V lllMt ..M.ll-iv,. r,,llll,l,TlllL' IIIMV 1„. i.„t..,--i|,l,.. 

Only afl.T >,,iii,> .lilT,TiMili iti,.ii ,,i- a.'i,liti.Mti.,ii ,.!' tin- primnrv nia-iiia w,,iil.| 

■■">' I'^Tf "f it I ill,- !,.-> ,|,.ii-,. than til,. MVi.nt.',' nvif-r.K'k. X'cn.ililli, ,,r i!i,. 

li.Mvi.'r -ii..i.,,... an.! s,.) i-u w.,iil,l. li„w.-v,.r. .ink. \V|i,.„ ,li-.f,lv..,l in ll„- pri- 
iiuiry iiKi-iiiM tlii'ir mat, .rial m.|,1,.,! f. tli.n .li-^,,lv,-,l :,I.,|,- tli,. ni.iiii ,Miita,-f - 
u-,.iil,| l.,\viT the .i,ii-ity aii,i in lumiiat,. lli.. ..tatr,' .,t t:,ii,TMl ^t..].in..^ Only 

r,..jpi.,.t i\ ,. tr.'.'^yn- 


•I''..r a fuilh.T ih luxion ,,{ tlii', [..liat -,-,• Am,!. ,I<,ur 

V,-!. i.', PKKi, p. 

t Is it cprtain that tin. ihyolite iilatpaii of tlip V,.|low«t.ii!c I'.irk i- not tl,f. ,lt.. i,f 
p.irlial fDundenng? Tlio va-'tn.'ss of tli,' formation Mi>;K,.st~, in anv .m^p that thi- 
yoiiiiKi'st of thi> .-Vrnprirftii hatli„liths li..- hat littl.. h,.!,i« tl,,. ^infa,,. in th,. i'ark Thp 
Ki-J-MT la',.t IS iirohaiily il.-iiv,.,! Inmi t' , .-till .iMiiuit; hatliolilli. Sm,-.. tin- -i.port 

nas M.nt to (>tta«a u,v ti,,. u i it.r has i-mip,! a liilhr stat,..n,.,il ,.f this 

sajr^Pstion (I'roi-. .\mfr. Acaii. Arts an, I .<,i,.ii,.- V,.l. C llHI ). Wn 


iHU-AuniKsr OF Tin: isTKiaoit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
will. 11 tlic lo^^ultiiiK syiitpolir iiiiipriii:i !ins been forinod in large aniount is there 
tm.v iliinyror (if But it i- evidtnt tluif, in the proopsa of dissolv- 

illLT thr CUlJ-llllr,! Mn.-k^. th,. IlKI-lIM i^ l.-illlT llCMl. Ill ill,- II. .nil.-l 1 | ,„-l -C, ml T i ^, 1 1 

lialliolilli ilio iiiaHiiiii. beciuiso of exhaustion of the liont supply, seems to hnve 

lifi'ii urn -tril in il> iipunnl CHiir-c nt iivniirr ,li-nin.-i-i ..f ;i few th.ius;iii(l t', vt 

f'"'" '' ■"■'l'"s surl'iu-e. The syntoclii- luim-iiiii. less d, n-^e thiin the roof-rock, 

IS thus n.-c.-s-arily of limito,! depth. Tliiil doptli rciin.scnts tlio thickness of the 
roiirhi- which ciuhiiipcrs the stability of the roof. If. now, wo im.ipino the 
liu(.klin^' i.t the roof with the coiiiplc((> immersion mid slnkinfi of certiiin parts 
'if it. tiu^ foundering must he limited by the width of the injected body (seldom 
..ver lliirly tnile-) iind hv lb,, lliickiii-- ,.f i|.,. ;„.i,| riiii.lir (i„.i-|,;i,,- rvAil loil,- 
or le-s). J'lxtensivo tloods of rh.volite ami alli.'d rocks may have issued at the 
.-uriaee in eonsequenee of partial foundering (faulting), but' great crustal 
eatastri. plies involving hirgo areas would not be expected. 

Finally, it sl„,u!d be noted that post-Arcliean granitic intrusions have 
regiila.'l... followed periods of proloiige.l orogenic crushing, during which 
accnniulat(>d tangential stres.,.s are effectually relieved. .\s the niairinas work 
their way up into the foldcl terranes ther.> i< r.lativ,.lv 1 ,e chance for the 
buckling of the roof, I'ntil it is biu^kled and iiiiinerse.l ii ,ie niagniii if cannot 
sink. Now the heat of the iiiai;iiiM, though it shatters the roof-rock at the 

""'"i"'i'"' ii'iii'' of solid and lluid, niusi tend to cNpand the roof, tighten it. 

rrcvent i;.u-iii^' '.lulting and so strengthen the roof. The cover of tile batho- 
hth i~ tlh reby kept in an excepii.,nall,v rigid con.litiin. Its strength is. initially, 
that .,1 a domed shell ^panning diameters not V(.ry many time-. tli,> thii.kiicss of 
the -li,.||, Tbo strength is inci-ease.l. a- with the groined roofs and andics of 
(iothic architect are, by the pr,.senco of roof-pendants: an-1 by tla.nnal expansion, 
the whole is strongly knit together. Iiumersieii ami foundering of roof-sections 

may. i l.rreluio, lia\e I ecu .-oidniu !:e--ii I,- 111 ll :,-,. ,,|' |.,.-l -.\i-cli,.;,ii i.ail,..:i,!i 

or stock. 

In spite of the highly tlie.,rctical nature of some of the foregoing argument. 
It iippears to the writer to carry weiglii enough to warrant our regarding the 
difficulty in iiueslion as not dc.-tructive of the .-toping hypotheses. The problem 
need- furiher study in connection with tlii- and all otiu.r conceptions of granitic 

Il,,<l: M.i 

M.!ii.|ir .aIiI, 
.1 Ir. Ill an . 
r planefi.sinial nebiil.-O. or whether 

(l»7 il.l t ',/;,,,, v.— 

'i- .Mrlli"- .-rn-l i< I. 

e!ii..ii in tli. .levi.l- 

\'i ii.'lh.T the ..l.-,.rvr.| a\er:i..^-,. i..iiip..r,ii m 
1". I'splaiueil a- due to .iri-inal ( inii. 
opniciit nf 111,, oartii either from a i;,-isc,.i 

the gradient is due to the evolution .if heat with the break-up of radium and 
other radio-active substances, are general ipiestions not immediately atTerting 
the sloping hypothesis. We need go no further back in the thermal problem 
than to secure an estimate of the minimum temperature of the primary innpma 
when ubyssally iiijecte.l aial thus prepared f..r sloping ami as-imilatbiii. This 
estimate is evidently not to make. .\ rough idea of the probable tempera- 
ture may be obtained by deductively considering the temperature gradient or, 

in.roin nr riii ciiiir \<i i.-iimimii; 



M'...,Ml,v, l,v ,,s.ui,n„:, tluit tlu. Initial t,.Mi|H.rMt„r,. .,| ,1,.. ,,l.vs.allv iMi,.,.t,.,i 
I'iisal M n„t far fr,„„ that of tl.r hott.-t l-asali',. lava kiunn, in,,.,.. 

11.0 lir-t i.ioih,,,! i. ai.i'H.'abl- ..., .vnain a.-um,..:.,„s a- to thothormal 
.m,| malonal ,-.,„stitnt i..,, „f ti„. l,a-altir M,l,.tratuM,. It i. ti.wt of all •i-iirm^i 

'!':" /'"■ ■^"'-"■'•"1". ti...„.J, M t,-;„. l.„:,l, |,„. ,„,,„v ,„||,, ,,|- ,!,,!, ,, 

^uMtl.v stratiti.Ml a.rordin^' t., .i,.„M-.y ,!itr..n. s. Tlio ,-l„.,ni,.al .•ontr.^t 

hruvcon >mv,.,s,vo -liolls of tho sul.Mratum may 1„. oxtn.inrlv slight and vot 
Ml ...■uMit to lirev.iit .■onvo.lion .•i.rn.nN. wm ihou-1, tlio l,ollom shell of tho 

.snhstratnni is s.nvral hiin.lnMJs of ({ li,,,t,.r than the np|HT st shell \ 

riHo in f.nporatnrc of fonr Inin.i.v.l de-nvs invoKos an oxpansion of onlv ahont 
one per cent in volume. An tinderlylnu' rourhr ,,f hasalt at liifxi (•' would 
thorclore. if its spe.alie gravity at VJiM^ C. were iMtn, not .■onv,..tively displace 
an overlyinfr coiuhr „f mapma at liMHI^ C. and with a sp,.eilie uravitV of -^-'tO 
Sueh faint_ density stratiti,Mtion. if ass,„„ed. jroes far to explain tlie -oneral 
.-lability ot the earths crust and so far is in aeeord witii tho fa.-ts of po-t- 
.Archean ;; This conception also involves the po-ihility that the ohscrved 
temperatnie gradient continues without imiKirtaiit change, deep into the sub- 
stratum. It i~ h,.rc als,, a->umed that the (.iradieiit. ;!' ( '. C.r Hki metre- ,,f 
dcMViil. applies to the cru-t and to the upper part of the suhstratum at least 
It must 1h. noted, however, that the -radhait may vcrv e,,usi,|erahlv stern, ii n, 
the depths, b.'cause of the fact that tiie thermal conductivity ami diffusivitv of 
rock hoth decrease in large ratio with increase of temperature. The amount of 

-lee|.enim; of the irradient is unknown, hut our ignorane, this p.diit is 

unessential to the principle of the following argument, in which the normal 
gradient is assmnecj througlmut. 

Thirdly, it is assume,! that. un,l..r normal con.iitions, the Mihslratum sh.'ll 
imnicliatcly l.elow the .„!i,l is n„t superheate.I but is at th.- melting p,,int 
ot ba.salt at that d.>pth. The accepte,! temperature gradient gives, at th,. ,h.pth 
ol .-".s kiloni,liv-. a t,'m|.,ratnn. „{ lllo ( '. V.-ut l,.-,s ,-a|.-n'at,.l th.,' il,e 
pressure at thi> level raises the melting point about .50° ('. Since basalt at 

atmospheric p,,>~>ur.- is all m,.|t,.|, at al t Uld' ('.. w,. mav ,.,.n,-l,i,l,' thit 

th,' holtom ..I toe .•rusl. in a,v,,r,l e will, th,. assnmpti..ii-. averages ahout 10 

kilometres below th.- |.ivs..nt surfa.'c. If th.. earth is ,-,.„linL' down, tli,- crust 
was ..yi,l,.i,ily -,.,nc,l„.i ,l,;„,„.r duiiiiu' ■j'erliary and pr,-Terli,irv h.ii l„,;it'„i,- 

If. nov*-, a hr.>a,l gcsyiicHnal prism of s,.,lim,i,fs. 10,000 ni,rre- thick in the 
1111. Idle, u laid <l.,wn on th,. -ite of a fuluiv nc.aut .-lin rang,., tli.. is.,i:v,, therm, 
must ri^.. 'riie „pi.,aiu..s| layer <if llie suhstr.i: nm. wher,. mo>l ,l,.eplv huri.M. 
will II, us t.aul to assume a i.auiierat oiv „l nearly :;iHi C. above n..rmai. If the 
>,-.liiu,.iilary prism !>,■ f<ihh.,| and overlhrust as in th,. largi-scal,. ..rog,.i,i,- 
disturban,.,., the substratum below th.. mountain rang,, may !.,• silM n,,,,.,. (.ffei't- 
ively blanktted, with a further rise of the isogcotherms. Qiiiik, ii, ,1 ,.r,,si,„i 
may., larg,.Iy ulT-et this thi.'k.-ning by th,. mountaln-huihling pro..(s.-, 
:iM.l It wouhi he uiiMile to postulate a total lis,, of temperature of more than 
:'■<"•' «'. in the suh.stratiini of the area. I'art of this supcrli.-at is lost bv con- 



ni:i:\itTMK\r <if tiih istkuior 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

iliK'tioii into the cni-t. the lower Imsii' piirt of wliicli iiuiy 1)(> tliii^ iiifltcd. An 
uiikiiowii Ipiit possilily cuii-iilerablt! fraction of the totnl Mipirlicat may rciniiin 
iu tlie oriKiniil nuhstratun), and this amount of -upurhcat wouM charactprize 
tlie basalt wlu-n rai)i(liy in,ie(?tf(l into tlie iTU>t. 

If, as f^i'iierally bulioveil, the earth's aeid shell is s|)ec-ially radioaetive, its 
<volvinn iieat must tend to be rotainpil beneath a pcosynelimd blanket and loeal 
sujicrheat in the substratum developed. Perhaps this is the prinei|>al cause for 
the enorraoM8 excess of thermal eiierfry in batlioiithic niajrnias. 

Another suun-e ol' siipcriuMt l< iound in th inversi..M into heat of the 

meehanieal I'ner^-y necessary for injecting a viscous melt into an opening 

These sources of superheat wcjuld alone furnish enough thermal energy to 
raise the injected basaltic magma from lltO' C. to some temperature short of 
1500^ C. or ItiOO' (,'. 

The piliMij up of lo.lHM) metres of lava over a larye area would liav<' an 
analogous superheating effect on the sidistratnm. This conclii-ioii enables us to 
give some explanation of the fact that the uivas of Kilauea and ^fauna Loa 
seem to be the luittest known in any volcanic vent. Thi> vast Hawaiian lava 
plateau has, apparently, been built up by the comparatively rapid effusion of 
basaltic ilou-s from I'a.-iric depth- a\erai;iii:.' C.iMiO jm-tre- to In i^lu- above sim of 
aliiint 1,IM") mtiris. The uni'iiU' la\a fount lins (.f .MokiiaiMtiv,.' .. v.hi'e sli.'wini; 
obvious evidence of considerable superfusion, are described as glowing with 
'white heat.'* If a correct de.-eription, this implies a temperature of 1;!00° ('. 
or iiO'sibly IJOO' ('.+ Such temperature must be a minimum for the sub- 
-ti'Mtuni which 'ei'ii- llic-c veul-. where thi're !■; continunii- !o>- of heat in ihe 
convectively >tirrod lava. 

Speculative argument and limited observations in nature agree, then, in 
fixing some such temperature as ]:'0<)° C. as a minimum for the basaltic mass 
injectofl into the crust-rock below a great mountain range. A bathi Htb.ic body 
of this magma is thrust into rock- which ha\e ahcad\ been a! ni n. .I'ly heated 
in the ern-h of mountain iKiillin'j. 

Capti'lfii nf SiijirrlK'nfrii. l'!ii!oiiif Mnmiw far }f"!ll':.i nii'l Ih^xulfiii'i 
.\"c.')o^7//.«.- -p>asalt m 'si ba-.c a tliiTmal caiiacilv nr.ich like that ..f dialiase at tii'' 
same temperature. Barus's experiments show that the average specific heat of 
diabase for the interval I:i00-n40° C. is -oSO.I The heat energy containefl in 
the substratum, if it be -up-rheatcrl 1i!o° ('. above it- nieltinir imint (11 H)° C). is 
in excess of that contained in the substratum just above its melting point by 
(Itiflx .r.50=) ,'),') + gram-calories. 

•J. I). Dnna, Char.Tctpristir(= of Vnlcinops ; Xpw YorV. 1891, p. 200. 

t LeCliatelier and B^ndouard's Hiph Tcnippratuie Mcasuiemonts; NVw York, 19flt. 
p. 246. 

:<". Barns, B.ilb 10:1, T^S. Gnnl. Survey. 18.1.3, p. 53. For tlip interval 100-20=C.. 
the mean 8pcri8c tieat is about 'IW. Tliere is, in fact, a ste.\dy increa-ip in the mean 
value as the teiiiri«ratiirp of any silicate or silicate mixtuip rises. This fact Roes far 
to e\|i|ain the prolcnpeil iKiiiidity of ns-iaiilatint; inaKina*;. ft. ,1. H. L Vojjt in 
Christiania Videnskabs-Selskabets Skrifter, math, naturv. Klassp, 1904, No. 1, p. 40. 

ni.i-our ur i in: i inn \sri;n\,,vn; 


..untr>-m,4,. 1 |„,, .^o ,on,l ,■,.■,.„,■ „,• l,,,.^ ,i,.t ,1,.. av.r.fro wall-rofk 

01 ,n,„U0 b.,l,olul^ l.„ ,,, , .i,i„„ ,,„, ,,,.,„„;„;,, ,„. ^^ ^^^„;:,,^ ^^^ 

..r ,,u>p..e- of ,..l,.„la„„n will 1,.. ..,.,,,,.1 ,„ ,,. „,„ ,■„, .,.,„. ^ 
t-npo,-a,wr.. .„ ,„. w.Il-r.K.k bofo.v an :.l, i„nn-i„n ,„av 1„. ..„„-or"„ Vl 
i^^tiMiatcl In.Mi tlK> m.rinal t,.iMi>..raturc frra<li,„t to I,,. ■'„„ ' (■ |„ ,,^,1,.^ ,„ yn'-o 
the ;.ne,s.s to the to„„.eratun. of 12()0^ vWuto it i. just tnol,,.,,.' about -110 .alono. 
0,=s,nn,„K laton heat at IM, oalorie,-. val,:o .-ntnatcl l,y Vo^t f,„. tho .Uic-^uZ 
V.T yram t.nist ho s„p,.lio,] iVo,,. au out>i,lo -o,,,.-... |f „n ,1„, ,„p, rhoat of tho 

ha-alt won. available for n, .....t .ii.-olW,,., ,n,.i.-. -j; „r ,na-s „Mit of 
.'.„.i-s wo„l,l bo mehnl by ma-s-fnit of th^. .snp.rhoato.l basalt; or ahout 7-5 
..■..i.^-tnuts „f tho basalt would molt a n,a...-„nit of wall-rook 

;-'R-h 9„nple moltiiiK woul.l. lu.wovor. n„t oc.Mir. Thc-o aro ,,l,,,tv of fioM 
•■•"•I l.-.-oratory p.oofs that n.olton basalt, ovon ^liRhtl.v .npcrhon.o.l. will ,li,.olvo 
■- — .-,., ...o:>. a,„l allicl ro-k. Tho ,„utual .oluti,,,, of two oontraJo:i 
^ . -a .: un.xtm-os taU..^ phu.v at a o,.,iain tonipoi-atiav whioh i- louvr that, tho 
■n.I iii^- pouit ot oither one. The sin>pi(. contaot of two s„oh tnatoHals .uffiors 
'" oau-othe.r mutual M,lutio„ at that louvr tomporatufo.- This ! , M.laniental 
law ot phys„-al (■h.^mistfy has boon cxpfriMiontally .lomon-trato.l for .ilioates bv 
\o^n and by Do.hor and hi- pupils, although tho last tnontionod authors bavo 
-rhap.. n.t sufho.oMt y ro.anled tho fact that it tak..s cnnsidorablo timo for th^ 
iiiiiiual -ointion to take plaoo.f 

I'.Mnisoh has osperiM.outally shown that, whon two part- of li,„hurt'ito and 
one part ..t }.|'an.te are iiiixod and heated, thoy melt to-othor at iK.O^ C and 
'.I:.' -olution .vnuuns Hui.l down to s,-,„ (-.^ Pn-daz/o praiiito soften, at ir.W'C 
■'"" the iHuhur^tte at !>!•.- Cs I„ this .-aso. thoro is' a lowering of L>n() -,W= 
'"•■■■; 'I- inolnn. ,„i„t ..( uraoito and I.", 1 I.', ( '. |,„|,„, ,|,„ ,.( li,„burKito. 

it MVins highly probable, thus, that f^iai-xonolith and basalt woid.l form 
a >M|ution or -ynl,M-ii,. film wl.irii i- at a Pajiporalure •/' h-asl l()(>^ C 
-■■»■ ' "• tM-,w,-,,„i,„ „,• l,,.,1t at th,. avora... depth of ton kilometres or less 

'"■'""' '■"■ '■^"■'''- ^ii'-l' ■ At th,.-o doptlw ia-alf loolt- :,i a'MUit H.Kt' C ■ the 

syote-li.- w.udd he molten at or below ](}:,<)■' c. ]f the -ynteotic film were 'eon - 
timi„us;y .-euioved durinfr the sinking ..{ tho hloek or by the current, inevitably 
MM up ,iunn..; .t^pn,;;, neaily all of tho ^uperla-at of tiie basalt mifrht be used 
in dissolving' the t;noi-s. The total meliiii-dioat of j;iioi.s. if i,„,lfon at Kl.-O" ('., 

'''f- '"'• I;',li"l'""J; "i'lf'-inann'- .Ami.ilon di-r Phv-ik, Vol. 21, 188.5, p. 17 

t S..(v .1. H. 1. \n-t. (Jiri-ii.iiiia Vi,lpnskal)-S..lskal).t-< Skrift.o- m itl, n-.t..rv 

Kl..;-e._ vm X„ 1. p. i;M: nn,rr-,l„.n„. M,„ u. I'.tro.r.' M,ttl, ."vl,! 2. IM,; "p*' rV 
+ K. 1 olr.i-ch. .N.iit's .laliil,. liir Mill,. Pti-.. lioil. 1!,| |7, in ,> :,IK I',. ri-,li 

nu.xpjl tlie ,,f „,ip part of vraiiit.. (-often, at ai.nat li:." <'.)' «it|| two i.ait- ,f 

f L" r k • '•;■""" T'm' •'"' '"'I"^'-»'^"' l-'»';n.,i; of tl„. .n,.lt,M,.-,Hant below that 
•f cithei r.K-k l.i-,r r.K'k tliu- act- a- a fluv {or sirarut.. (or kh.:-, („ „„ ..yf-nt 
.omparaM.. w,th tliat pr.-vcd bv IN-tia-cl, ami other- fnr lithiam ohloiide, oak un 
lluoriile, ^iiiinioimim elilnnde, and .odium tuiiRstate. 

Iff. Doeiter, Tselierra. Mill. u. IMrour. Mitth., Vol. 20, lHOt, p, 210. 

I' -[ 


itf:i'AKTMh:sr or Tin; istiikiou 

of pntisa would, tlion. bo di^^^olved 

4r! frrams or iiiii^is-units of 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

wniild lie iibout 400 Ciilories. The hpiit energ>' rec|uired for tlie solution of one 
fraiu of the >:iifis8 wliioh hiis an orifrinal temperature of 200^ C. is (10O-4O=> 

:!(lii calorics. The licat cm'rL'.v uivni oil' \t\ oin' i;r;iiii of li;i-:ilf in ciidliii'^ frmn 
i:!00' to lO.'O" V. is about (250 x -340=) 85 calories. One gram or nia8--unit 

Ihe primary basalt, provided all the thermal energy were used for solution. 

The!»e various calculations are obviouslv very crude. They take no account 
of Conduction of heat away from the batholithic mas:», nor any afcour.t of 
possible e.Notlieriiiic or endothcrinic chemical reactions between basalt and wall 
rock; nor any a<'Couiit of the inlliicuiM' of water, chlori !( -. etc.. ilcrix r I frn:ii an.v 
gco~ynclinal rocks wliich are assimilated.* Tliese substances held in the mag- 
matie solution tend to lower the solidification point of the syntectie. The result 
of the calculation would also be affected if we assume that the heavier xenoliths 
woi.ld sink to levels where the temperatures arc above 1.30i1' C. Finally, the 
result would be dltf. rent if we [instuiate tliat the invade.l formations, thronnh the 
crushing; incident to orogenic movement before the intrusion, had been heated 
above 200° C. Without here entering on the discussion of these further com- 
plications, we may conclude that probabl.v froia four to six voltmies of the 
superheated primar.y basalt would furnish the hcat-encrgy necessar.v for the 
snlntion of one volnine of wall-rock. 

If this rough estimate is even approximately correct, we have some idea of 
the actual assimilating power of plutnnic magma which has been superheated 
a couple of hiindreil degrees. We also see a definite reason for the fact that jiost- 
.\icliiMii 'jranite- have seldum, it ever, >tupe I their .ay to l!ie eartli'- 
surface. The crust has been too thick, the expenditure of heat energy in form- tile syntcctic nuiL'tna too ^rreat, that tiie pro"css could oiicrate to its extreme 
and so emlanprcr the staMlil.v of the roofs of .newt of the-e liatlioliths. 

Oljii lion Fo'itiili'il on Uni-ilji of Eii!' iitv.< of As^linilnlioii nl OfsrrriJ Wnll- 
rocks. — One of the most commonly expressed objections to any theory of the 
replacement of invaded formations by batholithic magmas consists in emphasiz- 
ing the obvious fact that the average xenolilh and average wall-rock of batholiths 
do not show direct evidence of melting or of solution in the granitic magma. 
This objection has lie(>n answered liy the writer in several iuililications+ and 
also by Andrews in most vivid fashion.}: The jioinf has, liovcver. \iir\\ restate.! 
by several authorities without any adequate discussion of the stthject. No one 
can deny that, when the magma is all but frozen, it is incapable of assimilating 

•AccordiiiK to thp stopiiiR hypoth(*is almost all of the boat conducted into the 
shells of CDUntry-rock successively stopnl away durinR tlie maRmatie peiind. is not 
lost, but is available for the abyssal assimilation of the enRulfed blocks. In vi.w of 
tlin sluwness with which the tnixtures of pnwdered siliiutes melt, it is probable tluit 
notable exothermic reactions do not take place. The possibility of endotlierniic re- 
action» seems to be a more open question. 

t Amer. Jour. Science, Vol. 15, 1903, p. 281 ; Hull. fJeol. Sof. Anierifa, Vol. 17. 19C6. 
J). 372. 

t E. C. Andrews, Records, Geol. Sarv. of X. S. Wales, Vol. 8. Pt. 1, IWi, p. 126. 

hi: I'll in- I IF r:n: cinrr i>/v,v/\(,i///,' 



I rile 



XHioIith „r wall-rock o„ .,nv hu^, „,,-., i-,,,, „,,„,■,,, . ^ 

tlat be.-n,Men cntonarmns did unf buil.l ,,ynn,n.. „f i-U.-oui i, .|,„. 

folI..u- that 111,1, (li,l Mot liiiiM it I . u M 

S.H,' r * i;",;;":'^',""' '!"■ """? '". ^'^'""" ''^-^ -^-«"i-i ^.- i- 

„, il •.' 1 , , ■■"'"^''•■'■' '■■'^"1": ^- ■■ t .-..IJM,..,| in a ....,•, nit. 1 „-! .li-l 

utitil it lias end 0(1 to lit li'MKt sill' r " 1 1 ,„ . i . t 

,f „. , ,. \' 7 ■" "-'Sf ^'J' < • l»"wii to ahoat thai t. lup.ratur.. limit 

(of utiderooohnp). therelor., ,naj.tnati<. stopi,,,. i- „ii| „„„i|.|„' •,-,,, ,,^^^.„' 

limit ol activo as • •' • - - ' ""^ io\m -t 

lilation .•aiinot well t,p iinich hrl.w liHi.i ( .. „l,il,. tho'to'tii 

iMTntiiro rr.|„irc.l t.. tiwlt thr av, rat;,, vihlith i. ai...', , l-.,„i ( ■ \, ,|„. v i ■ it^ 
of grimttic iiiagfias inerea-e. greatly l„.!nw 1:^0.)' ('.. ,liflF„-i„„ :,„,! ,.„„v...'.,ion 
nu.t b..,.o,„o ratmlly ,na,l..,,„at,. to roiiiov. sy„„,,i,. ,il„„ ,, ,„aiti ,.„„tn,.t- .„ 
hat ">e ■"^ir h.werl.ip of the fii-i.,„-,,„i,„ will h. ,-onti,i..,l. with!,, 'tli.. 
mtorval l.'ttO-Oo^ (■., chiwly to the Muikot. blocks. It follow., Hrst. that iti th,. 

o >nO ( , here will bo littl,- or no .nrltini. or solution of wall ro.k; serotnllv 
that many shells of roof-rock, perhaps aggr.ratiuK thousand- ol f.t in 
■iiay be stoped away ,luring that same perio.l of time. In other wonls. because 
the shatterp.rtod is loti^.er than the pericl of a<Miv,. a- i,i,ilati„i, ..t th,- roof it 
.s an ess,.ntia] feature of the ^toping h,v,,othesi. tliat neither visible xenolith t'tor 
mam wall ol a f^TanUe hatholith shoul.l iioniialiy show a -ollar of assiiiiilatiot, 
>o tar troni l„M,ig a ditli.ailty. the fact that thi, is fronernllv tnie i. a di-tin.t 
argument in favour of the sloping iiypothesis. 

l'.Vxv«/ .l.W,„;/„//,...--I„ tl:,. tlr-t r;,.,.r ,a. th,. >,^ l,v„„.h,.<i. tl.. 
writer stated grounds on which one must helh^v,. in the complet,'- >ol,itioM of 
cng,ilt..d x,Miol,t lis. (),„. ha, oMl.v to inia.i,ic a block of gneiss, sav ten tnctres 
.1. diameter sinking through a column of superheated h.xsalt twcntv or thirty 
k.louictr.., d,,.,.. to beroMi,. ,.o,ivi,„...d of the uhiniat,. fate of that' hl,>ck If 
tW -m-what c,.,lc,I lavas dcs-nl:,..] l,v l,a,a-„ix.f von .lohtL^ I )a.>n,.,ibenr.* 
Sandherger** an,] others ,.oul,l ,h^<.,]u- f..,-k-i,i,.|„si,„„ i„ the notal,],- wav ,1,..- 
criboil by those authors, wc must ,.r,.,iit a vast solutional efTu-icncv to plutoni.' 
magma when it attack.^ similar blocks io great d.Ttli. Th,. lava has . few 
hours or days in which to <lo its work; th,> aby-sal magma has centuries if not 
a large part of a geological pcrio,lI 

It iiuisl 1,0 remembercl that g,.osyncli„al s, ,iitnciits ar.> rocks unusually 


wat,.r, ,.hloridc-. -ulphiir trioxLlc. ,.t,.. : all Mih-ian, 

iiig ~.i!iii i 

the primary magma and in the secondary (s^vntcctic i niagin.i itself It is 
probably also owing to these fluids in la-gc part that granitic mairmas have 
crystallized at compar.. v low tcmperatans. 

The ..onception o' ing with ab.vs-al assimilation has many more points 

•Cf. A L. Day and K. S. Shepherd, .Tour. Amor. Chfin. S,,c.. V,,!. lN I'lflf; n low 
t Leg Kntlaves dcs Roches Volcaniques Macon, 1K9,-}. ' ' '■ '"'•'• 

+ m* • '^- ''• **■ "cic'isanstalt. Vienna. V,,], :,2 i9,|..> p m 
STscherm, Min. ii. PetroRr. Mittli.. Vol. 14, 1S9.5 p 17 ' 
*• Sitzungsber. K. Bair. .\kad. Wiss.. 1S72, p. 172. 
25a — vol. iii — 19 



nr.i'MtniEM nr rut: isiritiuK 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

111 il-i faioiir lluiii iMii bi- citeil for pure maiKinal iis-iiiiilalinn. A few of the 
^lieoi^il Kioim(l> for prcforrinK the newer to the older hypothesis may be noted. 

Kiist, niargi:ial assimilation is hirirel.v etTeelive only in the earliest part of 
the ma^Mua's history, when it i-- ab-ihitely and relatively very h.)t. There 13 
tlius au e.irlo.' time-limit fixed for the fiigantie work of liissolvintr the thousands 
of cubic kilometres aetually replai-ed in the intnisiini nf ii liiri.'e hatholith. 

Secondly, the assimilation, on the older view, takes place primarily on 
xiiain contaets and along a relatively limited amount of surface. For example, 
a cube ipf «ali-ri"-k ow kWi'iwrU-r in iliaaietcr ean offer only ill out I.ihmi.imki 
square metres of «\irlace at a time lo the di-solviiiK miiiiiia. If that saiii.' 
cube were shattereij inl' Mihes 10 mi tri< oil the siile and tiien enirulfcl.* tiie 
mafrma wonM carry on the work of solution on CdO.lKMt.dOK sqnarc inefros of 
surf nee. 

Thirdly, the averajre crust-rock beinp allied chemically to, is more 
solulile in basic niapma than in aeid. On the stopin>r hypothesis, solution of the 
seiiolith generally occurs in the lower, basic part of the mapmatic chamber; 
(in the older view, it is Rianitie magma which must do most of the work of 
solution. For even if the nri}.'inally itijieted maj-'ina is a basalt, the products nf 
its assimilating activity, being more acid and liss dense than itself, must 
remain at the bafholithic roof ami rapidly assume the chemieal composition of 
mean monniain-rock. It follows that the primary magma must be enormously 
more superlieatr 1 than is rr.|iiired on tho stoping h,v|.othesis or than seems easy 
of explanation, in view of the dilliciilty of understanding how pl-.itonic magma, 
which is cai)ahle of intrusi.m, can boeome siiiierhcafed more than two or three 
hundred drgrces ("entigraile. 

FiMirtlily. the sloping hypothesis has tiie special advantage of providing a 
nieclianisiii of thorougli agitation within a balliolith. Strong stirring of the mass 
i.s induced by the sinking of xenolitiis and by the necessary rising of the 
magma locally acidified by their srlulion. This agitation can explain the 
Kiarvelous hoiuogemity in each large bafholith. It helps greatly to explain 
the niaiiifost evidences of magmatic (iitI(>rentiation within batholiths — splittings 
and segregations that cannot be due to the slow ))roces> of molecular diflFiision 
or to me:e thermal convection. The whole process of stoping and the rising of 
syntectic niagiiia tends to equalize the temperatures in the batholithic chamber 
anil thereby we cmi uniiersiaud the even grain and rapid, nearly simultaneous 
crystallization of a hatliolith throughout its visible depth. 

Fiftlily, the engulfmont of blocks of geosynclinal sediments enriches all 
|i:irf ~ of the iijflieli;!.. with wnler. eli" i^i' -. i ■.,-.. \\\ ieh -.. i;)'e::tlv aid - .liti^ ii ; 
while, on the older view, these aL-ents ,-ie confined to the uppermost part of the 

Sixthly, as already n iicil, the eleaii~ing of syntectic films from contact of 
Solid and liquid is much tli" more rapid and jierfect according to the stoping 
hypothesis, thus pro\idiiig and renewing condition?; for molecular lowering of 
the fusion-point along cmtacts. 

In short, the newer view has the advantage of not only better explaining 


in I'oiiv i,r rill nm r ^s/ i;,,\,nn'k -.- 


Kriyl.;,,;. nf / SI,,,!,. „„,/ liaHn.HH... -Finally, fi,,. fa.t that -,.„.,■ I.r.... 
Hlea ot . lh„ a.t early .mpres.,.,1 ifsolf .,n tho present writer an.l Ie,i 

Cana,,l"fl^/l !;■>"";" ^"*-'-"-fi"" «as ma.le ,)m tho anorthosites of 

m.Heq latc and a m..u. ^-eneral CNplaiiation must be sought 

Adam. ,le.onbes the u^reat anorthn.ife mass of Jforin. Q„ebpe, aa genetieallv 


:iM.>i(i'>iateil wit 

1 .■111 a.l.ia.-eiit hn.iy ..f l,;if'i,,lit! 

si/e.i Tl: 

a ditrerratiate fron, the other or both a^o expression, of a 'o.rnrr^^ ^.^Ini^^^ 
The latter .,..„>< tl,e ,.,„r, ,,r.,|,. nl:..i„„. I„ r,„.t. !,„fl, b^die. a-,„. n^ u, 
reproBent the etr^tallized prod.tet. of a .ttafona allicl to. if not idontioal with 

ireZn Th !•: '•'" ■'"""■' "■''''■■ '"■ '""■' ''"• ^'""■•■'- "f *'^'' •"^«' i" P'-f- 
^Arelieaii batholiflne intrusions. 

The condition, of i„tr„-ion for th,,e Mipper l.anrentian ' nmsses .eem to 
have d,trere,l from tho.e t.vpieally repre^-nted in the po.t-Oamhrian ba.holith 

he „tter have been developed under heavy freo.vnelinal covcTS which have enta ed 
ConMderabl,. superheat ,n the basaltic sub>.ratu,n. It is not in.po-sible tla 
notntZ. ■'■?";"' "V" "u *■""■'." "'""''^' '■""'^"^ "^"'•^- *" '^^ solhlification- 

eru>t.d ..,<tnrl,ai.,-e. I.;,..l.-,:,:r ~m i,.:,t the^e nuiLln.^ I „-ls.. 1 ..<;•„!!. ti,.. 

power and. e,,lis,yui,-llt!y. ,lid not 1 ..ue .aeiditied 

_ In f.ivour of tl,,. .nn.-eptl,.,, f!,,, ,,,„.,. „„.„„,, ,,^,„ „„^„. ,j,,, .olidifieatio..- 
po.nt at the t,me ot tho.r intru-ion. is the fact that the anor.hosifes often show 
primary bandir- an.l are most extr.M.rdinaril.v Rrnnulate,], a. if bv dvnamic force 
which acted o- '.e eoi .ealinR mass near the close of the intrusion-period Con- 
cerning the p: dlution Adams writes:— 

' There are no lines of shoarincr with a,-ron,panyirK chemical changes 
but a breaking up of the constitt.ents throuRhotif the whole mass, though 
in some places t::i3 has projrress.d much further tlian in others, imaccom- 
panied by any alteration of aufrite or h: persthene to hornbIen,le, or of pla^io- 
Clase to saussurite: these mineral- th..nd, pr„„e t„ M.el, alteration un.ler 

•W. Cress in Sri, ■!,((>. V..|. i'i. 1907. p. C2(>. 
*t.D. Ad.inis. Canadian Kecoid of S.ion.e IMlt-.l 
-■•..— \ol, iii— lit'. 


in:r\UT]in\T Of Tin: istkiiihi; 

2 GEORGE v., A, 1912 

pri'HSiiro rcmuiniiipr (iiiitc iinaltoroil, siiffcriiii.' merely a granulation with 
tlic urrantroinerit of ttie Kramilnti-d iimtcrial in piinillol strii.^s. This pro- 
ci'ss run he iibsorvod in nil ilx otiifrcs, and there is reason to beliov* that it 
has been hroiijfl't abniit li.v iiro-siire uctiiiK on ro<'l<s when they wern deeply 
buried and very hot. The iiiiortho.'fite area-', of which thnre are .iboiit a 
dozen of jtri'iit extent with many •>( smaller si/,., htl- dintributod aiontf tlip 
soulh and sinillieantern edpe of the i"ain Arelieaii prula-xis frnm Labrador 
ti) Lake ( hainiilrtin, oceiii)ying in th.s way a position similar In that of 
volcanoe.s alonir the edye I'f our lire I'lit eunti'ii-nt."* 

CushinR and Kemp have published somewhat detailed aoroiints of the formiim a p"sl-(ireii\ ille and pre-Canil'rian In.ily a. id ii.s satellites 
in New Viii'k Stafe.-f The mass elvers ahuiit :;.mii(i -.|uare U ilnriirln s 
in area. (*UhliinL'''s petriii;raiilncal deseriptinns ^Iimvv many |><iints uf ayree- 
nii'Ut with Adam's deseriptinn (if the still lartrer Canadian bodies. The 
a ;orthosito Konerally cry.stallized with exeeptifmally eonrse ^Tain and a porphy- 
ritic strii«tii'e. Intenso tfranulaticin is hero avrain tlie riik', and *'rcm CushinK's 
pnbli.shed data, ; seems probal)lr» that the irraiinlati'.n fnllnweij hard after the 
ai't of intrusion. The charaeteristies and field relatinns of the anorthosite are 
such as to mipgest that they have residted from ahys?al injeetiona of mafrma 
which was not su|>erhoatod. A limited amount of stopintr is possible in avich 
a magma b\it extensive aHsimilation of country-roek is not possible for that 

Kemp has 3u).'gested that the New York anorthosite has, thronph fractional 
(rystallization and the settlement of the basic minerals of early peneration, 
lH>en derived from a normal ;;al>!i:-o.| This idea may possilily ( xrilain the exist- 
ence of the more jiyroxeiiic phasi- ri'^iilarly n.'eiirriii;.' inside the body. 
The contact rock is either jtahhro or aiiorthosite-Kahhro. It may re|iresent the 
original magma but little affected by the settlement of the crystals of iron-ore, 
pyroxene and olivin '. In the more slowly cooled interior of the mass their 
settlement eoidd take place on a lar^'e scale. § In the Canadian bodies this 
ditlerentiation by fn.ctional cr.vstallization may have occiirre("i just before the 
hiipe masses were i;iji'cted into the crust. 

Finally, the masses of anorthosite may repiesent enormous laccoliths, like 
(he l>\iluth gahliro as interpreted ! y \'an llise and I.eitli; therewith hekiuL' 
nio,-| of tin' assimilative po»ver ,,l the Imtinniless hatlioliths. It is al-o n^it 

• F. n. Adams, .Tonr. of Oenl., Vol. I. p. ,'Wt. ISM. 

t H. P. Cushiin;, ISth Koport of thp State fii'olojjist. AIliuiiv. liion, p. 101: New 
York St;ite Museum Biilletiri No. il.i, 1905, p. 30). and Bull. 115. 1907, p. t71. .1 F 
Kenin. 19th Ann. Report, U.S. GpoI. Surv. Pt 3, 1899, p. 409 

:0p. cit., p. 417. 

5 As noted in a later section (od^re 772V ttie same conception is adorniate to 
explain many internal basic contact-phases o<currinK in acid stnoks and batholiths. 
This explanation is evidently opposed in principle to the prcvailinR view that the 
basic contact-shells are due either to diffusion of basic molecul.s toward coelinR sur- 
faces, or to the combined inflaence of fractional crystallizatinn and convection cur- 
rents in the nianma. Neither of these hypothft-es 5eems acceptable in the ca-c if the 
anorthositc-nabbro tutholiths, and the writer has come to question their validity as 
final explanations for Kome other types of intrusive bedies. 

HI mirr m iiii run i \Mi.'n\,r'n; 

inip-ssibl.. that th(v.. mi..rthn.itr l,,,,]!.. nr. tii, -iti-n ..f ,-r,i,v.>\ f.. 

i.ociirreil hefnro niiii'li ii-»iniiliitii.ii Ii;i,! 


iti ll'-'-'ll!fil-ll.- !, 




Ihe i-robl.-ni of the Mi,orth.,.itt":t i. .loarly a^ y.t .,ii, for sproiilatlon rather 
Ih.m one capi.hlf <,f soliiti,,n. It s, [,r„p.T t., Mtr^v. liowcvr,, 
Mii.v all ,.r iif.arl.v all ..f tho kn.wn aiinrlho-it.. aihl ^'iihl,r„i,l hatholit' are of 

J.t-r-Cainl.nan npc. th,y „w,. tlifir oriRin L. s[ ia! pr--( 'anibria.i .•on.litioi,-. 

Ihe MujnuK hypoth.-m a^ a whole expro.sly relat... only t i„litioiii wl.i.'h 

have chiiacierizcil«(iiic hclt- in iw.stAr.'h. an linir 

Tho cabbros nl Paloo/oii- or Int.^r a*.'." reprrvenf bodies either too small or 
<.) too low t, niperature to onrry on .■xt.n>ivo sfnpini.' brfn-,-e th.'ir mnfrmas 
hecaiM,. riKi,!. Uiorito r-foek* nn.l batholith., a.vonlint' to the hvpothrsig. r.-pre- 
sent iindifffr..ntiate.l or but piirlialiy .litTtTrntiaff.! synte.'ti.- nuitrma-of com- 
iiosition nitcrin dialo bctwcn rhyolit,. or Kr^nifo and basiilt. 

The-^c various (•on.-iderati..n> ini'linc the writ.r to the view that the exist- 
'■urr ut a tew larK,. basi.- intru-ions. c-nltinir acid rock^ ii not neeessarily a 
l.i.t tatal to the ^topinn hypolli.-is. Ka. 1, of the easrs needs Hpeeial stiid,v for 
lliey may .died inurh litilit ou the dithcult pliitoni.- problem. 

_ IHth;:„ii„i:nn nf ll.r Sniihrllr M„,,ma. In .,r,l,.r to traee fnrth.r the 
liHtory of tlieenjrultVd xenoliths several principal conditions must be rceojrnized 
It th.' iMva.linfr nia-ma is ■.iipcrlicated, so as to have the temperature of 13()0" 
V M block of heavy pneiss (sp. gr. at 20° <'., 2.8r.) will speedily be heated to aiid 
above Its own meltinj^ \V!iil,. of it is dissol-ed. much of it i« 
converted into a niojten globule o'" .■ssrntially pure pneiss. pVom Table LI 
•.ve sie that the specific gravity ot the globule would be alout 2-40, while 
thai of the -iirroiindiim- pi-iinai-y nia«-nia umiM av.ra!.'c about 2-7-?! Tin's 
<Iifference of deinity means that th.. plobu'e must rise through the primary 
mapnia witli a speed even preat.T than that with which the solid rock (specific 
iiravity about I'-Tn) formerly sank.' As it rises the ^.-lobule woidd wholly or 
partly niix with the primary nuifrnia. If wholly mixed the primary magma 
rapidly becomes a syntectic ma-ma. approaching a diorite in composition. 
Ihe molecular, syntectic (ilm which is formed by solution ah .•.' the surfaces 
of the blork niiisf. tlieereijeally. eentain •■il.out i qual parti of primary inairma ;ind 
xeuolith material. If the fonner be basalt and the latter a granitoid gneiss, the 
film must have a diorilic eomp.isjtion. All three kinds of secondary magtiia— 
molten globule's, of gneiss, glnladc material dissolved in primary magma as the 
globule risis. and the material formed in the molecular, syntectic film— must 
be considerably le-s dense than the primary basalt and ri'^e toward the top of 
the batholith chamber. A net result ot' ab.v-^sal assimilation is a compound, 
secondary magma either diorilie or more acid than diorite. 

This reasoning is deductive l,-,,t it can in some mtasiire be chc( Ked by ac»ual ions. I.acroix de-eribcs blocks of gneiss up to a cubic metre in size, 
which have been immerseil in molten basalt. B,v the heat of the lava the block.s 

•Tlio samp roasnninp: applies to \cnolitlis of normal giipiss laiircT'^eil in n( i.litiiHl 
Kabbro or diorite marina. 


t>f:rtitrui:\r i>r riii: isiFuiitit 

2 GEORGE v., A. 191? 
Iiiivf lit'i'ii ■ fiilircl.v tiflii.sfiiriiKMl ' into potoiu uhm^.* Vnii .'nliri lins i)("<i'rilioi| 
'■thcr i'\imi|>lm of tlip sainn tramfunnilinii. In clii'ptor X. the prosont writor 
has corrclitfoil a mnsidcrablc nuinlH'r nf iinliiii.i'n wliirc the irravit:if ive Mfriiti- 
I'eution hiiH <'<'rtiiiul.v Iwin proiliiri'd in liick iiitni'ivc slicot'*. 

A inimhcr of obsorvt'H have (•dine tn fhi' fonclii-ioii lliat tlio very net (if 
•li(> ansimilation nf acid irialcrial h,v Imsalt pr(Mli-ii)i)S(>s the ni.iRnm to mnm 
plitlinn. Tlic fnllcsl Ktatnui-tit oi tliis vifw is jrivcn li,- I,o<'winson-I^>«sinjr. in 
his remarkable ' Stii'Iien ii! it di'c l'!riiptivLri-teine.'+ Tlierr appear- in '.e. n- ii 
were, a sfen(ly ' anfaKoiiisin ' l.itwcfii tlie frrrnMi.i-rTii-i.iii aii'l aiiil-alknllne 
eleinentH in magmas. Tlii-i primordial tendency towanl ininii^cibility may well 
explain the dnininant acidity and alkalinity of the pre-Cambrian terriinw in 
■\ery ciMitineiit. I'Vniii llir . irlii-l liirir- tlm !,'r!iiiitM.r|iv.,li)i. iiiii'Miia li:i- ti riled 
to separate from ihp bfl-'.i!tic wherever the visi-osity has been sufficiently low 
for siicli splittiiii;. Fi r -imilar reasons it appears that the -vvntectie mairnin 
of poat-Archean batluditlis only reaches a stable conclitioti when it nssnmes the 
aiieient relation. In the avprap;e ease fh(> fluidity, has been hi;.'li enoiiirh for the 
splittiiijr. In some cases, however, it wa- so low that .the nndifferentiatod 
s.vntpctic has crystallized as diorite and alued rocks. 

When the syntcctic lia^ difTei-entiatcd, the nrocess must be primarily con- 
trolled by (!ensit,y, so that (he a dd, irciieriilly cratiit"", iinnhict rises to the top 
nf the chamber. There it ma\ hoeomc locally further difTcrentiat<>d thronRh 
Iraetional cry.stallization nr other relatively sulmrdinatc prne(»o^. 

Without diseu3sinK the cau-e.s of ditTcrintiation in more detail it Miffices 
ti' point nnt, in summary, niapmatic >toi)in}; itivolves the plaeinff nf (frnvit^y 
:it the head of the list of f invs which i rr, '.iici' the actual diycrsitv amoii)r ifrnemis 
rock-. In this the -.toping hypntlie-is i believeil to match the facts ohservcd 
ill experimental, industrial and peolny:ical studies of silicate melts. 

Orifiin of (Initiili.- Ihc I'lirihieni'- (';/< le.---'\'\\<- stnpinir liypnihi>i> invnivcs 
a niore or 1c-s dctinile •■niMllarv rclatiiiL' ti, tiic ireiie-:^ of yrinite a- liic >l:i'ilc 
visible material of po8t-.\rchean batholiths. Erosion has nowlK^re penetrated 
more than a few th')ii>ani| fr'et in any nt' the-n latlnHlli-. ( Vm-i ji-riir.: ilm 
-icale of opcations, it follows that practically all post-Archean hatholithic rock 
is of -econdary origin. 'I'he Held relations sliow that the prranito often replaces 
much KCOKyticlinal sediment. 'I'hiik as many neo-,vnelinal prisms are, however, 
it seems rli r tliai aimliirr i,ai-t;e, prnlialilv t'lie '.irt;er, ;irt nf tlir replac^il iMi-k 
is the iire-<.'amliri:in ir.v.-.t:i!line terraiic i iivc au:iiiLi- ULiiiitnil 'jiii-:-- In eli' ini- 
ral composition') whiili undcvlie- eens.vni rna! ar-as. as if apnarently nndrrlies 
ill the eontinontal areas. The similarity of ffranites thronphout the world mn.v. 
indeed, be partly explained by the unifnrniity nf the earth's primordial, acid 
shell and b,v the relative uniforniil^v in average cln mical ooinposition of the 
greater Rensynidinal prisms. 

A sneculalion as to the arid shell is nnted on pau'i - T"2 tn Tl>.". It views the 
shell as posjibl.y an anchi-evitoetic derivative of an interm(>diate (andesitic) 

• Ijes I'nclnvcs des Kochcs V()lcani(|m>«, p. ■')lv3-5; Mamn, 1K!I2, 

tCompte Ilfiidii. Conyres (i^el, ivtein^it, Vlli' -p^^mti, St. IN'ti'i>burt;, 1899, p. 375. 

Ill fiiHr lit iiii: riuit i.siiniMiuri; 



"'"«""' «■''''■•' '•■n<'l"l""l tl„. i...t;illi V of til,. ,ar(l, l,.-r,,i-.. .. rru.' .'nmf vroA 

!■ rmi.|. It iiKMlcrti M-^it,. an'l.->it.. i* ,i .litTrr.-iitinlr ti.iii bn-iilt wo rati -Winliirly 
i.ffiir.l Ih.. iHH,il,iUtA tlml. u.i.l. ' ..Tl.,:,, .M,„Iii;..i,v l..,.|ip, ,,f lipariti.' ,,'r 
franili.- tn, -ma nrr tlm .Mrnn.. .iilT.Tciilial.-i (,..,„ t!..' Im alt „( tho ^iih-trn- 
lum. Thf a^-..ciiitiu|i „|',; with |.itr|mt,„i.- iii-l .|iiall/ tVliiti- nf fli,. c,m- 

l.M»it.' (Ilk. -i <,l Arrati i- .,„■ ol' tiiativ o .rnnc,-; M-iiillralit in tlii-^ ciriiirction * 

111., fifld r.'latin,,. ,,( i\u- i.v.rar.- l,ath..lith ;ir. ' -url,. I„,w,....r. i... t.. .-..MitM.! 

I'li.'f in ii-^siinilati,.!, ,,n a iarnf -.mI.v \V.. -.■.., I f„. | f., |,..|i,.v,. that fli.' 

'htTiTontiation ..f ,M,t, ■,•!!, -. ralh.T tiiaii ih,. .liir..Mitlai...n ,,f priniarv hanalt. 

ma pr.)du.y,| th" «r.-iit.r t.,a-.- ,,f po-t Anh.ati t'ranit... Tl hpiiii.vii TOM■n^ 

1 hiiic- of file av..riii;<> a.'i.i p..l.. ,,t' thi-i -pliltinu »<> thp priiiiarv a.^iil parth -holU 
1- iMi<l.-r-'t(H)ii if, in hotii .MM-*, 111., anchi-cuti'.'ti.'. (.'ranil.', M'pnrah- hy, 
ti"n iiii'l ri-i's. Wh-rc -.'.linwhU ..nly are as,iniihi;>.l, ih,. ^.•.■oii.|ar,\ wranil 
I'lay he of uhnorin il cdnipo-itidii ; ihi- i> the c-.tnv with the pninit." .if ih" .\f..yi, 

The h.n-.T an ^,by-a... ,;. i.cti'.j an. I a-iniil:,tin>; hodv its thin!!'- 
Ih.. iiinre p,.ik.(t -h..i,M h.- the uravitativo .litr.T.iitiata.n. DiirinK tlii< a.| 

'lag., h.ternl tis-iures .,r hi. lithic spae..^ may b.. fili,.,l with ofr.ho..t< of tl,. 

'i..w!y ..hatik'HiK inaKlna. In y.iLTal ih..-. .iit..llitif> injci'tion- -i.i.iihl mi.'.-... i 
eneh .,fh. r in the onJ.T ..f incr.a- iiijr ,;, i.jiiy. In .i fnlly M.r.-.'nt.-.l p,.|r..i;.nii 
<'.v.'!. at a t.ath.ilitlii.. area. ,h.ti. thi. ol.i..«t intru.sion shoiil.l ho a rmk of K»b- 
hr.ii.l (basaltic. euinpo< an.i th.' younL'.-'t on n.'i.l sratiil.- (.■li..nil.'ally .: 
rhy„j.,o .,r i|ua.t/ p.iiphyryi. I!otw,..-n thi'se two nn in.l.-finiie nuinh..r of inter 
in...lia;,. io..l;-typt« varyitijr acor.linj.' t,> th.^ir .lev'iee an.i hin.l ,.f .11 iT.r.nliariom 
from the >ynte..fie- -it-.'If .•..ntinuou-Iy varyinsf in (•..rnpositi..ii niiirht h.- nii—- 
.'■(nt.'.l in dikes or other satelliti.- f.,nn-.. Thi^ fnrlher .l,-.hi.tion fr.)m '. . r 

hyp.ithcsirt .« t., 1,.. fairly nia..'li..l l.y ih,. ,,l „.rv,-.| ..•.•■I.t ..t i.;i i- i:i>. - 

uhoiit the wi.rld's halholifh..*. 

Apilii. -iie.-e-^-i\e l..itli.ilithi.. intrn.-ion- in lii' am.' an-i -honld sh-.w • • 
same law of inereasin}; a. i.Jity with ih-ereasinL' aiz... If. f..r .sampl... a . 
lized Kvan.'.Iiorito bath..lith I... it.-.'lf atta.-k.'.l by a lat.T aK%-s,al int'riwl 
ill hir>;e part stoped away and ivmilt.-.i, the s.c-on.lary nuiL-nia eollc-tin;.' 
roof of the later hatholith shoul.l I... ni..r,. a. 'ill Oian the prann.Iior:!. 
would be expected hceau-e tlie men. .i.'t of r. in. 
diiTerentiation. Ka.'li tin..- that a -ilicatc ina- 





.■nl ills further t;r.u itiifiv(. 

iia"c:i lhr..njh the iiptirnniM 

tr'inp.irature for niaprniati.- spMlliiiK |.n.h:d)ly an int.ival ..l on.' .>r tw.) hiin.lre.. 
■icf-'i-e. s ahov.. its ni.ltiim p.ini; t!„. s.i.aral i...-, .i' it- .i.i.l-alli.iiiii.. .iiid f.^rr- 
inaKnesian elements hy -lavity i- furtli.-r p.Tf.-'i..l. .M.iriiz..\vi../ has jriven a 
teliin«- exiHTimeiital ilcmon-l.ration of tlie II,. two poiin.l.s .,f 
irrunite and l.'ft I'.e siiperlu'Mied melt in a hot part i.f an a.-tiv.. Khiss-fiirnaee 
I'.T five .lays. It was then ......k..! t.) a ^rla-s. At the en.l of '.hv time he found 

•.T. W. .Tndd. Qii.irl. -1. ur. Cit..>l. *><•.. Vol. 49 ISO.'i, p. r,:K. 

t S,.,. Cols. 1, 2, anil .1. in Tabl,. XLIV. 

IF. Loewinson-Lpssmc, .'^tuilipn iib.T .lio i:nii''iv({..stpino, ii. :iM). 


nmh-rursr ur rut: i\rf:ninK 

■ ti-iir.>'l iiriil iiiji-. I, ,; H III, J, siiia'l 

urn ill'.- n|' 

■ r |...r|p|ivrit(' ilil<>-< irr 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
_.!.,.. I,.. Inwor ,,„r, ..f tl„. ,„..l, ..„rri,.,| «!..,-(» ..t .■..,.. of .ili... ,hr, ..pp^r part 
.••••■.> JMT cent; til, •.iiitiiiiil friiiiitr -linvid tl-ii i„.r ...nt » 

It i.. liowpvvf. to bo oxp, „„ ,1... doping h.vpoil.,.M,. thnt th« primary 

11 Imtlmlitli. iifi.T rr.\M,illi/iti;r. iiiiiy k »■« u» 

oT ill.- ,1'liMlMlniil. 'I'll,. (•,,iiilii,.M , 
priiriit.' tiiity l„. flnm (.xpliiin, .|. 

Knirhr, >•,,„„■„,,.- Tl,.. ,;,ri.,M- ,.r,„tiv.. .,..|u..,„t- ,.l..,.rv..| i„ >!,.. 

it">i",'oV""""v;" r" '" """:"■'' "'"' '^'^ •"•"•""' ''-••■'■•"■" '""" »»'" ''t-p- 

"I.en tho ..r,k.r „f ..rnpfo,, f„r th,. hiUhoiichs i. ol.arlv that of Hocroa,in^ 

'".ni«,l't '" "" '"* ''"' '■""'"'•■' '"■•' •"»"'••'' '" "••''•''■- l«-«finninff with tho 
Skagit Hang,. 

(ii) Sinn. IS jinmito. , 

Surnus (liiirite. 
(b) ('hilliwaik jfriini.,Iioriti>. 

Slec u diorilf. 
(<•) A .,| t' Ill/unit,', 

Skagit voioiiiiifN, (■hicfly biisio iindeaite. 
('otumh'ta l!aitt)i\ 

(ii) Rock .'reck (fninodiorite. 

Kock t'ri'ck Kiibliro ami diurite. 
(I<) .Siiifltor ^'i-unifp. 

Cu-st'iidi' frriitiiidioiite. 
M Sy..nii,-p..n'l.yi-.v oiio.iniith and dikes, cutting more basic rorvell 

Ro-.^liind iiion/niiito and latites. 

Filo and liaker ^rabbros. 
(<l) Sliopp.inl jrraiiitc. 

Trail >fraii(idii)ritc. 

Basil' intrii-ivi's and ol,!,.,- Kd-^sland (basic) lavas. 
Tl„. di.scissl.n of th,. meaning of au.v ...uptive .ciuimcc miut bo based on 
more ..r less ,i..„n,to „ lea as to what .onstitutos a petro^enic,.. Certain 
.' IS that mu,h contusion has res„l,..,l from the common reference of all Z 
erupt, ves ,n a gneii region to one cycle. This view is one pro.lnct of th.. pure- 
d.fferenti.tion theory which e.<cludes any essential a.iount of assimilation in 

hasaltie nn,.lv... ,|„. ;,.,.,il,iii, v „,• „.,,.,,,, ,„ „,„„^. ,„.,,„,,,„;, ,.,,!|^,^ ,.„ 
prnv,„..c. l-.a..h ,.vle ,,„.,„ .i,h a. al.vs-al .nj.v.i,,,, „f „u,v I.^alt. A.vordhiff 

r n!"'rf"°p';''"''"- TsrWrmak's Min. nnil IVtroff. Milt. Vol. IS IKfts t, "I- rt 
C. ttvlter, PelroRPnt'sis, Hr.uinschwoiK, IWXi. p. 79. >oi. m. i ;w, p. .,i.. (,f. 

u— .>7.aja« 

nrrnitr ,,i riu: mirr \^ ir,,s,,uri; 7^3 

In llii M/e >,n<\ -iirn-rh,.,,? of flii, l,„,|v it uill ,).,v.l,.,. ,v,.„ .• 

.■«.o r..,„- ., i„ ;,.;."'i':,^'.!'i,";„;;;:;:;,:;;,;- « •> > '>• .i„.i, „ ,,i,. 

;r,,.,f ;;:!;,.„:;7;;;:,l;;iJ;;: r, ^;;::i:- ■I'l:,:;:-;,:^ '■::■■ rr ■ 

'''■''■•■'■■"!■"!■•" vr h.,t. ,,n,| ,.I.,r,| „ . ,. I'" r-«^iM,..| ,w piir,. 

M"< ^■'ivi. .litTrrrnfiiition iti .l,.,.tli Tl, . . 1'-' t-n,. nil!y |,i-,.v.w omI.v » 

<«ruv,,ativ.. di.r..,v„ti..,i.,„ of >yn,.oti..„ !„,., h ^^ I ,1 H,; i''"'. V' "" ■" 
-.n.,1 s,, „..„.•, ,s „I1 ..,„.r„l,.,ra„. ,1... l.vpo,l„.iJ ' , , ' ' \ t" "■' """ 

■• .v-unm b.,llN,Iilh nr -took nVl,,,.. .,„ . 1,1 V l .i , ' '",'"' ^"'■' ^^l"'--'' 

rui i III II,. v.iiiM',.r 1. .1,. ...1 1-1 , ' ii'iriiinllv fn pnii urp n 

''"."'. Inr the. „ri«.n ot mnpnias a,„l of iK'Hemis rook.. " 

-|..(,iii- liy|i,.i|i. 

ih-iiin „/• .U,„,„i„/;, n„'.,- „„,/ ,;„„, k; ,.,i|v ,1 
HI iM-thnt. >iu.-.. ,„.,,-Ar,.h,.;,ii„lifli< h,,v,. ..,.,„., ;,n.. ',1, | l.,,, i 


.;.no,,i„ of .vat.T Wow „0-' C. .H.M ). wat./aU. ,,70 7f O Tbo; 
■-. u... carb.n (and ..irbonaooous mat-.r). .::,! B„lpi„„ ,;„ so) T," 

.TMlI.t.. fro,,, a. .naiiy lo.aht..,. 'l li, .vcr.go, for an'l wJLZ 
•Bull. 209, r.S. (moI, Purvey, vm 
*!•. W. (larliP, Hull. No. 2-JS, U.S. (ir,,l. Snrv., I'tiii, p ^'o. 

r i 

764 i>F.i'.\nT\n:sT of Tin: imf.uiok 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Ikivc licin taken directly frum Cliiike's work mid nil thrpo 8i>ts are notod in th(» 
folldwin}; tablt;: 

All inspeotiun of the table makes it clear that the total of the ' comhinod 
water," carbon dioxide, carbon and carbonaceous matter, siilpluir and chlorine in 
the stratified ro<l>s exi>osed in any (.'cosyncliiial prism must represent at least six 

Taiili; LIII. lo/d/i/i' mnilrr in aediirnnls. 

813 C2t 11« 

liini'sti'iiP'i ^a1l(l^t<l1l(>•^ iirRilliti- 

H.O- •2<1''. •■-'"'t l-S^"'-' 

nO+ TS* Ml ;t7i 

CO. .'WO.'I 2tl1 i-lS 

C (includiiiR <arboiiiicpiius iiiattii) V ■' '^l 

Ci.. ............ ■• .- •"' trai« iract" 

Total :i911 1-37 8-17 

* Iiioliiiic'S OFRaiiic iiiattor. 

per coot (if the whole mass. It is hiRhly probable that this minimum amount 
ol vol.itile matter lias similarly cbaraeterized such a series ever since the perio<l 
ill whiih the series was dcpo-^iled. 

No i)etro;,'rapher needs to be reminded that none of the commoner types of 
igneous rock <(intains iinythiiif; like six pi'r cent of original volatile matter. 
Nevcrllulcss il is instructive to survey the facts actually visible in iiuantifativo 
anal.vse~ of the igneous rocks. Water is the only volatile substance <leterMiined 
in i.miO' !i^ rock analysis often enoufih to afford nearly reliable world averaiics. 
Fruni «)r-:iiinV i'i.iii| i-n tiic urili r lia~ drdincd tin- aver txi- "f II O and 
11,0 + for each of the following groups: 4S granites, 47 diorites, 12 grabbroa, 24 
basalt-, ."i auirite aiide-ites and 11 rhyolitcs (Table I.IV). 

T.Mii.i; LIV. — W'aler in itnuoiifi ro<k-s. 

U,0- n,o + 

Oraniti> -tT^a ■i'A",. 

Du.rite -19 1-2" 

C.hbro -a*! If'' 

basalt ■-■■i 1-«1 

A UKi''' ando-itc 'tO t*l8 

K'l.M.hte •») l'2:i 

Clarke's averages for Ibo vidatile substances occurring in igneous rocks 
which lia\e been analy/eil accordin.t: tn apprnved irctliods are: 

H.O - lit",, 

II.O+ 111'. 

IX\ -M 

S 11 

CI -07 

F -f^ 

Mucii of the CMiiibined water, prob.alily all of the h.vgroscopic water, and 

-.■•111' "f llir i-ar!iiai dioxide nf |ln'>c :iioi1\/im! iLiiu-cnw idcks arc clui> to alli-ration 

in four or riii: ciiirr \^ ,un\,,\:nt 



'■T to .l„<,rpl,o„ at tl,o .Mrfli's surfnoo. Allowing tor tin.t fnot. it soo„w prol,al,l,. 
timt no,,,. „, th,. „,oro «i,l,.ly ,li,tribMt,..l iirn.-o,,. rock, <.,rri... ,nurh ...orr thau 
<'ne i),M- ,-,„t ol ,t. own vvvitrlit in volatil,. matl.T .linvlv ,i,.rivo,I from tl„. 
<artli -i interior. 

It follow. ,l,at an cioniioiw amount of wal,.r. oarhon (lioxido nn.l .•a,-l„,n 
jm.l -nlplnir coinpo„n,ls may bo Kivon olF ..arl. tin,,- that K,.oHyn,.li„al s..,lin„>nf. 

Imy,. b,M>n asM„„lalo,l by i„olt,.n I tl,..,, .Ty-tallizo,! „,azn,a. Frnn, ea,>l, .-nhi,. 

nnl,> ol a~-in„ialr,l >o,|:,non,. al..,,,, mx p.-r ,,.„, l.v uvi-h, „f li,pi,|. ,,„| 

i^a-o. !„■ ,ii,-,,lv ,.,| ,„ ,|,,. ,yi,|.,.ri,. ,.,arii.a a,i,l. -., . -rv ,, ,l|i -.l i. .., or ,i 

1 Iai-.t;v part of thi, tlni^l must bi' ,\p,'ll,.,l. 

In Ifs. in.porlant .l.-^nro w,. may oxp,M.t tliat tl„- .vnu.ltin^r or solntion of an 
iwnoo,,. i-ock by a,, n.trnsiv,. ,na-n,a .l,„„M .-ansr tbo ..v,.I„tion of somo ,.f tbr 
.liiiji mattor wl,M'h ba,I b,^n. as it w.-,-, frozen inl,. ll„. soli,| r..o|< J.i,,,.,,],, |,.„ 
aptly .•allo.I surl, ',! .„,anations.'» (lanti-.r's an,l nrnn'. ..Miori- 
inonN sbow 1 bat many an.l pn.bably all ij,noo,i. rook, ^iv.^ olT ffa^,-. on l.,.i„,. 

luK bly l„.,t,.,l.t Kcbcatins aft,T , lin^' <-n„s,>3 tb,^ rom-w,.,l emanation of .m...< 

\olal,lo n.atlor lrap|.o,l in cystallizcl s,.<.on.lary fj,-anit,. may tbn^ bo .Irivn off 
It that (.n-,in,t,- br dissolve,! in a youn^w niolton mafrma with -„Vw,.o,„n,t 
crysta!li/atio,i ,,f the synti'i'tic. 

The stopinj.- liypolbe.-^ii in its \.r.KuhM^nt ,b'ma,„ls. tb.Toforo that 
post-A,-cl„.an batholithi,. .granites, ^v.'nites. an,l ,liorites sboul.l bo a,.oo„,pani,^,l 
by spo-ial I'VKleni'os ol l!,,iil on,analioiis. 

Tiir,e llui,Is w,.,-o dopositol ami burie,! in tbe strata. Th.-v l,a;v be,.,, 
iv.Mirr,.,.te.i ,n t!,eir activity. Tbey have • ri-;en np-nin,' b<.tb lil,.,-allv an,l 

t:^M,-aliyoly: lh.■yn,.>^ :,• oaU,..! ■,..,„•././,/ ' o,.,a„al i, .,-. r^:.. ■,:■■■',:■ \ 

einanat.on.s of ..ooonilary if;n,.oiis roek. may similarly be liberat,..l bv the ,|i-ti!l- 
iny: action ol yniinser mapna; as tbes.. Ilni,ls iH.eome reviviii,.,l in tb,.ir -..olo-i- 
eal aet,vit„.s tl,;y may be ,vffar.l..,l as formini; a s.-cond kind of ' rps„r,v,u • 
•■nianations. .\|1 ■ iv.M.rKont ' ..manations ai-e of s.-eonda.-.v ori,;in a„.l, tluTofor,. 
stand in oontfast to ' ,ii!\ei,ik. ' eiiianations. nanirly. those which for the tirsf 
time, have is>ii,,.l f,-o,„ tbe ,.arth's interior and b,.eomr p.oloirieallv anivr ,.„ ,„■ 
near iho surta.',.. .Ma-mati,. emanations a,-e, appar.'iitly, divisible inl,, t«-,, 
f^reat,, of uhieh should he ic.N.gni/,^,! in eo,.,p!,.|,. diM-i,,~-i,,„s „f 
oi'c-dc posits. 

'i'iial^lhe ^lopiI,^ by|.,,thiMs this f„rtliei- tost -.,.,.,„. p, tlio wi-ii,.,- rioar. 'l'l,e pi-evalenee of ,,iiart/ veins ;,„d i>.f:„iatit, s in iho walls ,ni.l 
roofs ,if aotnal ^-ranitie. sy,.nitic. .and .Ib.rilie sf,,ek- a.ei hath,.iitl,-. ai,.l the 
intensity of the eontaet metamorphisni pr,>d,i,-,.,l hy ih,. iiiti-ii.-i,,n- ,.l\ an, I 
-peeially the emanations fi-om. tiiose r,.eks are facts as familiar as iho'c,,,,,- 
paralive rarity ,.f ,|„a,'t/ v,jns and peirmatites aliont trahbroi,! ma-s,s an,i the 
eomparalive foehlene.^s of the i"i,la<'t metaniorphi^m pr,..lni.<.,l by f;.,bhr,,s. Th,' 

• F. C. I.iiicolii, Kcaoinic <;• oliij;v. Vol. 2, 1!H):, i, atls 

tA. Hrnn, Arehivi.s Hes .Sco.n, ps" I'liys. ,.t nat. 0,.n,.v;i M.iv an.l ,Ti,n,. 1%-, ,„,,, 
NovcnW I1W6: A. UautiiT, AnnaU^ d«- Minos (C), V„l. H. p. 31B. 190«. a,,',! y„,„[ 
'f^^l., \ 01. I, IwOo, p, B8h. 




2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

iibiimlant water found in obsidian and rliyolite is, in this view, largely or 
vliolly of secondary origin. Volcanic gase- may similarly bo largely ' resurgent ' 
nitlier than 'juvenile.' In no case, however, would one class of emanations be 
leprcsented to tiie exclusion ot the other. For post-Archean granites the emana- 
tions are doniinaiitly 'resurgent'; for gubbros the emanations are largely or 
t'oininantly ' juvenile.' 

(,flni;il Hilll'lll.x (}, 

oil V liirli the forogoina 
li.v magma in the iiilni-i 

III,' .<li,i,iiHi ll„i:„ll,,sis.- Th, prii!<'i|i:il ti('l.|-ivlati,,ii 
li-i-u>-i"n liaug- is thu ■ rcphicoiin'iit ' . f country-rock 
'II ol -iMok If l.atlmlith. Slow c|iiro-i i..ii and -olutiouou 
main contacts has caused the replacement to a limited degree, but the facts of 
nature seem to enforce belief in the more rapid and more important mechanical 
leplacement through magmatic sloping. 

The suggestion that batholithic magmas work their way up by stoping is 
liy no means new, and it is significant at, without any known exception, all 
tlie authors advancing it have dune so (lUite independently and as the result of 
con^derable field experience. Part of the idea was p\it forward by Kjerulf in 
loltor llioiigli ill <ir, - o^irl.v a- \-<\K'' In l^;i 1. I ;..„!. -iiil.l « rote : --Oi,,-,. 
tl;o forks Ithr (locpi.r- cd r..c-k-| aiv ivduro i t.. iho nailton c.inlliiuH tlicv 
tend to eat their way upward and in any direction of least resistance— the 
place of the material llowing upwards being at first taken chiefly by the colder 
loasses of rock, which sink within the magma as fast as they are quarried from 
the -idis of the veiit.'t In IMKi, Lawson mentioned the idea of the sinking of 
blocks as a partial dxplanation of replacement. The statement was made in a 
review and has been (luoted in full in the present writer's first paper on the 
mechanics of igneous intrusion (p. i^'A). 

A iletailed study of the phenomenon as exhibited in tlie Elkhorn district 
Montana, was made by Barrell during the year 1900. Ilis paper was withheld 
Irom publication. From the manuscript he later published the following 
suiiiiiiary : — 

' The contact [of the P:ikliorn granite] is in its larger proportion a 
broken and irregular surface .-laiitiiig beneath a .sclimcntary cover, and it 
is iirobable tiiat ai no great depth the granite iiii<lerlies the greater jiart of 
the district. If the granite merely hrokc through and involved the original 
rocks of till' area it now occiiiiie.B, their entire absence from it as inclusions 
is remarkalile; if they liad been carried away by frosli aecc-sions from below 
they shoiild be found as iuclu-ions in certain localities preserved from 
erosion. On the supiiositioii that tli(\v have sunk as fast as freed, the ab- 
sence of inclusions may be readily explained. If, on the other hand, the 
batholitli were an intni^ivo ni;w- of limited lliickiic-s. its bottom sliould 
somewhere be exposei, aith the hc.ips of roof blocks resting ujion it. A 
matter of fai't. no iiirlicatioiis of a bottom have been observed 
within this batholithic area. ;uid. altlioiigh tht 

evidence is 

3 a 

crved anywhere 

negative in cliar- 

r ?• -?'''-!;"'^ F^';'''^"\''''J''* sydliK'o .Norses Goologi, Cli'i i»tiaiiu., 1879. 
tJ. G. Goodohild, Geol. Masazine, 1891, p. 22. 

i^^^ i 


liiroin III- I III I nil r \.-i i;ii\n\ii i; 




lli. il> |l..lll,--i-i tiiul 

■.v\vT. it iiiii~t I.I' taki h a- ■'Miiiiiiniri- t 
I'lMftically tlicrc i~ un ln.ttoni. 

' Arcdniiiiir |.. llic^u virus, thr iVu .ma:' iiu'li .iM.|- ..l,,-.- to tlu' tiiar-in 
ar.' t!i/.-r la-t (l.'ta.-lir.l aipi pivi,i,t.'.i fnun -inkit.- ly thr iri.-na-inir vis- 
cosity ,,r thr .■nnlilir- li.|Urk A hh rk Mjirr V.r'l .-..AaV i f. V\ il- ..rilJMIjl [...M- 

ti-n v.-..nU n,it \v \u-U\ siali,.nai-y. -iir-r thr LTr,,t,.,- h, ,,! mihI Iir,.,i,lity at 
-li'irt .li-taiirrj fnun tlir h.,r.|riv \v..uM [.rriiiit a frrrr fall'"' 
Barren was finally alLmr,! to iMiblisl, his masterl.v iiionograph rii tti.. 
Mary~vilh> sioi-k. in which papor \\o shows, witli iinrival(>.l conipleteticss, the 
PfTtin.Tit actual tiehl ivlalions wliidi can he sorn in a small ho.Iy of this kind.f 
He (h-ru-ses tlir alternative hvpntheses of hatholithic intrusion an<l arrives at 
result- n-hii'h are i.ractically identical with tlie virws of tlic jircscnt writer. Tie 
<lul not _ conahirr the nrcessaiy con-e lumcc of stopi„L'. nairidv, ahv.sal 

The present writer's statement of th,> hypothesis was ).uhlishp.! in the 
Am rican .rournal .if Scienc.. for 1!hi3 and in IJnlletin JO:t of the Tnit...! States 
Geohigicil Survey tlic same year. A Siiivplenieiitary i>aper was pnhli-he.! in the 
American .louriial .,f Scien.'o in l!)0-<. Since 10<i:;. An.lrews in An-tralin. 
Barlow and Col. .man in Ontario, l!all in CoL.rado (lieoruet.iwn Qinvlranfrle). 
('alkins in Idaho, (Coeur d'Ah'tie District'), am! others workin- in Caicla an i 
the Unite.! States have foiuel the stopin- hyp .thesis liplpl'ul in ex, aininff 

But the^-.-yntectic bpothesis cannot account for the rise of maiiina 
throiisrh the wh..le of the tw.-nty miles of earth-crust, which is the minlmmn 
vertical distan.'e between the snh-tr,itum ami the visibh^ ba'holithic ro.ifs. 
GrmitiiiLr that llie .mter shell of the earth. ..n.^ • r tw,, liMn.ln-.l mile- m 
thickness, is in appro.ximate thermal e.piilihriuin. the heat sujiply of the sub- 
stratum is incompetent f(.r such a i)roilii:ions work. T!).. i^r. ai hasalli.' th.ods 
which have flowed out from fissures evi<lently <lid not n>a.-h the surface hy 
aasimilatinpr the acid shell overhead. That, notwithstandinfr th. ir patent super- 
heat, they assimilate.l but minimal amounts ,.f tlii.-, shell shows that they issued 
rapidl.v, through narrow tissurrs in the acid -hell. This old principle of ah.vssal 
injection has heen recosnised. but has seldom been phrased in terms of a 
primary hasaltie -ub-tratum. If, now. we imagine ah.v.ssal injections of the 
same nature as tlio-e undorlyiuL' l.asaltic lava fiehls hut much larger fwi.ler), 
the piien..niena of st..i)ing ami assimilation necessarily ensue. Some molar- 
contact must also take place, but for the reasons above detailed, 
should not rival abys-al a-similation in the preparation of secomlarv magma. 

The eoinhin.-d pmrr— r- of al>y--al injecti.n .ml .•i--iniilal i(.n nm-t nro.l .-e 
bottomless magma chambers. This deduction is abundantly supported by all the 
kimwn facts al...ut Liranilie r..-k-, an I 'he i..n ..f Mii^ja.'. iii l....iiev in th.' 
cinssitication of intrusive formations -eenis to be genetic and, therefore, 

•.I. Birr...ll. I'rrfi.^sinnal I'.ii.rr N... .'jr. I'.S. (i..i.lo;;ii a! .-^ur^.v. 1307, y. 170. 
t.l. Birrell. I'rdf. I'aper, No. .'i7, T.S. Giv)l. Siirvcv, i:H)7. 




A. 1912 



I',n„„r,- .\,.l,. \y,. |, ;,,,,. , ,, ;,,,r....l ;.| tli.. .-, .|„-,--l i.,i, tliat |l -■- 

Keewatin magma- liave Iipcn i.f Iwo kiiuU; tlie iirimary b:isiiltic and the 
i^econJjiry syntrctif. Tliis idea ri^st> on a niiifli firmer h^<U tlian floos tlio 
speculation that tlio primary acid and ba-dtio slioll, won> th.- product-! of tlic 
differentiation of an intoniicijiate (ando-itio) niML'iua early in tlic earth's 
l-.istory. 'I'lie -pceulation i~ not impuriant for tlie tlioury of tli.' visilvlc igneour! 
rock bodies, which are almn-t oniircly of po^t-Kccwatin aRc. There remains 
the enqniry as to the extent t., which ditf.ri' has been responsible for 
the cliemi<'al diversity of eruptive reck^ other than tliosc solidified dirr'ctly 
from primary basalt or frem the synteetie maynias 

The subject of differentiation has promjited many papev- and h^i. ks frem 
hnndrcds of -eele.u-i-ts, .. ablished the reality of the proc,.ss beyond 

peradventiirc. Tlwy liave .... . \ed it< couiplexity. Fortnnately there have 
appeared, the prej^aratio of the present chapter, two conveniiTit 
n-uni.'- of tl:e -iiij: ■■.. ,.,,,. I,v ll.nkei-. th.i. other i.y l.ldinL^s." 

iiy the time padres are jirinted hoth of these works will be iheroupldy 
familiar to every > worker in the letrolepy and neolejjy of eruptive 
masses. In each ea-e rh • <v,,ik i- s,, e..t>i;.lete on thi- si.!,, of ])etr .,-, leM- 
tl'.at there is „„ need a ,lisc!i--i..., ,,;' dilferenl i i' i .n in tlie presep.t renort. 
It may he noted in passing that iieither anfhor jjives an adi"|nafe treatment of 
the synteetie theory which, in -ome rc\n:-,-, \in- been l>est outlined by Loewin- 
soa-Lessing in his ' Studien iiher die Kruptivgestcine.'f 

In view of the accessibility of these and other discussions of differentiation, 
the main LCnerally accepted princ>iples will here be .stated without detail. 

1. Hklaiiun to CiiVSTAil.iZATUiN. — The I'our-e ,if dilferentiatioii is, in i-'eii- 
eral. |>arallel to tin- or.ier of cry-taili/.itiou in i!ie |>irent maenia. Tlii- law 
been (H-cerned in-liiclivi'ly and lia-^ Lee, me ! Undaineiiial in petrol..-;., -in.'e it 
aarec- v ith the recently elah.. rated pruicip!, . ,.( p;,. -ieal cli,.irii-try. .\s a rule 
the h rromagnesian and eafemie i .-alcii in-ir..i,-nia!.;iiesiuiH ) c.ii-tifa nis M'parate 
out as crystals before the sali.' eon-iii ueat-. which reiii.iin for .a time as ni,)thi r- 
liquor, fn fact. th(> formation i f i-ver,. r..p ,,f ni.i-:iet iie, tilanite, aui;ite. ..r 
olivine crystals means a new maLaua. chomically dilferenr from t!ie on. prcc(.<iin_'. 

,,*^ ^'^rVer, The Natunil Tl.-I„ry of ti.e Ifjupous^, .\,.«- V..ik, IWYy J I' 
Mditu;-, ]i;nooiis Rocks, Now York. lf)n;i. 

tConipte Krndu Congres Gen]. Intcniat. VIIp Si'ssion, St IVter-bar" l.s'i'i ,. 375 

769 .,.,.. 


IW^TO??— ST- 


iii:i-.\i!T\n.\ I nr riii: iMunitit 

2 GF.ORGE v.. A. 1912 

F.iMiri.ii Mi~i Hill m . ( i-twal.l 

■ 111 

Mt ilir iMiiii' I r ■'I' ! 


misL'iblu Hilly within definite limits is miicli groafer than U tnc number of 
tho3t> whic-h mix in :ill |iro|.nrtion3.* Since niiigmii'; nrc solution* it id a priori 
wi-^e to >on8itler their possible ditTercntiation through tho principle of limited 

nii-rihilily ;il c-,i-t.iiii I, III) , laiiiiv-. Tl -h Vo-t hn- h. M linil i!ii^ priii.'io!,. 

i!oe- not. in t;ener;il. apply fu >ilicat(' mixtures, one of his ]ato8t piiblieat.ons 
contains llio statement tliat. while separiiiion of minerals follows the euteetio 
law. the 'niiiHTal i.i ,-\>'.--' „ irat.- ..'.w whil,. >rill in i!i.. li.,iii,l .,:■ „..^ He 
furthnr holds that majnnatic differentiation is chiefly the result , just this 
kind of sepiiralion. I'nloss tlie writer mi-apprehends his meaning, Vogt has 
eoine to ree.'(,'nise limitiil niiscibility us a general law for silicate solutions "o 
soon as these a|iproacli the consolidation point of temperature. Ostwald and 
Kich.irds believe ihat er.-. Mais di'velop fmm a transitory liquid pliasp in the case 
of sub-ianees which melt at temi eratures not far from the temperature of 
crystallization X 

Vrinn Duro-her'- time to the present many investigators have apreed in 
fav iur of limited miseihility of comimtients in molten magmas. In view of the 
great ditfi.ulties nnroundinK- experiments with molten silicates, including the 
granting 01' -ufficient duration to an experiment, he is a bold pKvsical chemist 
who denies the pos-ibility of the separation of li(iuid components through the 
entrance of immiscibility at certain temperatures (and pressures). Without 
P'lr-uiug lliis theme in ehcmii-aj d,\naniics it s itices to jioint out that the actual 
rod;- in nature -how niMMpiivocallv that ~eoaralion by limited mi-cihilit.v. a 
triic ii;ai;iiiatic -I'litiiiiL;. ha- t.iken pla.v. ,.ft,n on a ureat -cale. Thi> is true ol' 
silicate map-mas splitting from silicate magmas as it is true of sulphidic or 
metallic melts separating from silicate magmas. 

Most basic segrec-ations and probably all orbicular granites, diorites, and 
gnbbros are diro<:t evideni-es of ilie emulsion stage, which precedes the separation 
of inimi-eible ii.iuids with fall of temperature. The common banding of 
nepheliie syenite-, thc> banding ..f certain gabbros. the phenomena of some 
differentiated dikes (Entmisehtt 'iiinge), are other illustrations of this splitting 

i" li'jui'l niauiiia-, 'I'll ii^iitiiii. II i.t tl:.' M..\ie -ill- ,,r ol tin' Sii ihury slu'ct i- 

inixHicahle I'x.cpt en the a-suniption ni inunisciliility of granitic fmicropeg- 
inatitici and basaltic (gabbroid or noritic) magma under certain conditions. 
( >ce ci,.!otcr \ .. l;aclv-lr''in'- i'oii,i that tiiere i- a hii-k of intermedial.' 
roclis in the liparite basalt tield of Iceland hps oreat significance in this con- 
nec-tioii.! finally, (he .-v i.lence hT sili.'aie ine!ts m u]a>s facovirs is conclusive 
a-^ to the i!i:''!i priiiciiiN'. 

No one viil, of course, deny that silicate melts are misciblo in all proportions 
at high enough temperaturea. The iiuestion is as to whether the average 
niairma tends to as-unie the emulsion state within, say, one or two hundred 

• \V. Ostwald, Scliitini!s, ISPl. j,, TO. 

tJ. H, L. Vogt, Viilpnskabs-.Selskubets Skriftir. I, Matli.-Xaturv. 
Cl.r,-lMni;i. IIHIS. |,|,. t;. p;, ,,ii,l Kt>. 

IT. \V. Uicharils. I'hiliisophical Magaziiip. 1901. p. ,^(M). 
5 H. liaekstrom. Jour. Geol., Vol. 1, l^M. p. 77.1. 

Kla-c. Xi). 10, 

in four i,r mi 'mi r \^ri;,,\,,\n /,■ 


legrers of its ' -oILlifioatio,, poim/ [[..rker'- ohi,.,.,;..., ,h , 


"• (Jhamiuui. Iiiiki:i!I:miaii(,\.- (Iravitv i^ ,,n,. „l ll ■ ■ i,.r W 
separating cry.tal, from their mothor-linuor.. TllnBtrntion; of 't U^rut.Ta^e 

Jer»o} cliab,.,o, bs Lwi-^.f xhe siiikinir of crystals oxnoctcl to Irnrfi it. 
zna.,nun. , „ro,.on.ia,i,„ effect within voleanio .L., the Jt tion o t 

S h';: '^:n' r'"''-'!^"''''"- -!;■ "^ >~'- cry.tallizJin„ whil: t 
unw ' V'^ 'f "^^b-.low ywco.,ty. The-o condition. a,c chiefly duo to ,he 

3; -e r, ^T^ '" ^^'"'"":,.r'"- ^^ '''"'' "■ "- -P-t are contrasted 
« dd.e,, ,he,.,.. and laooo ,r„.. I he Meady or Intonaiuout Work,,,., of tuv,- 
Pl.:..-c co„v,-ot,„„ witlnu llh. laxa at - Tla, o ;, .iN i.. :k uo !,avo -,.,.„ , o e'e "1 I 
competent to Ke<.p the column long within the temperature interval of "crystal- 

cry,,o„ „„d,.r the control of gravity, i. a permanent ae;,„|. ti' ; t Z 
petrology (,i ctiu-ivo rock;;. 

It is fjenei-ally agreed, howcr, ,-, that .iilh.v,„,latio„ i-, a- a rulo. „ splitting 
nh,h,,n,d traction. lo,- example, it i. impossible to believe that the drast c 
diffcrent,at,o:, ,„ n,e M,,y,e sdl. ,„■ ;„ tl,„ S.dhnry sheC , .ee eliaotor \ '. oan 
bo due to the >ettling of solid orvstah. 

In volcanic ^onf or i„.rn-;ve L.dy ^.avity n>n-t o.,.! to -eparafe ti,e 
h.p.ated fract,.,,. 1 he h.hter aUvays ri^in. to the top of the n>ag,n; chamber, 
^e geolog,,, v.-,Il .arely be perndttd ,„ .e.. the rock representing the ba-i., 
heawe, ditlcnnt.aie .n ^ub|a.-ent bodic. He may find it in the forn> of dike, 
cutting the overlying, more rapidly .-oliditiod differentiate. 

The relative importance of fractional ory..talli.ntion and lionati,,, oan b 
nated only att.r the nhv>ical cheioiatr,- ,.{ „ i,„, ... i ,. 

.............,,„,,,„., „:,o, o, iractionai ory.stallizntion and lionaii^i, ran be 

estimated only att.-r the physical chemistry of n.agtnas be.,,,,,,- be„,.r ,.nder- 
etood. Meanwluo. wo ,„.ny use the expression 'gravitative differentiation,' 
us a name for th. , b.ef pro-.- in m.,^,,:,,,!,. -,.pa,-ati.M.. without thcewith 
implying whether :ractional crystallization or lionatl.a, ;. .I,„ ,„„.„ „ „ 

bettor under- 

...■■■ .o. ,u.,-. ,.,,.,.o-. HI m.iLini,,,,,- -par.iti.ui. without thccwith 
wlK'ther :raotional cryMallizatio,, or liquation i. the more aotive in a 

•Jour. Geology. V.I. lii, ]9(I8, p. til. 

tJ._V. Lew. _s Aim. Hep. State Gool"gi-t of N- w .Icr-pv f,,r i:'0: (190^) n p-v 
-ea vol. 11, — ,"i) ,1.1... 


urivell oa-e. 


2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Origin of liaslr Conlact-xhells. — Tlip writer Ix'lipvM thnt tlic principli? of 
jrravitativo diffprrntiution is destined to liupplniit inoro and more the principle "f 
ditTusion in I'ctrojri'Mlc tlirnry. Tliiit. f'T I'Miniplc, I'ii^ir fdiitiict-slu'll:* in intni- 
sivf liodios lire line to 'lio difTi-ioii of forro-Miaifiic^inn nnd nif.'inii' con-ititinMits 
toward tlic rontnct Burface (Lndwij^-Porot prinripli-), i^" penenilly not the Imat 
explanation, is illu-trated in the often i|iiotcd case of Siiiiiiro Butte. Muntniin.* 
Pirsson now explains tlio alkaline (Hodallte)'nite of tlie eoro of tliis laecolith 
as derived from a basic rnaKina by a combination of crystallization, convection 
currents, and settlinK-ouf. Cidciilation shows that the oriprinal mafftna a 
composition like that of the leucite ba-alt wiiicli occur* as lava flows in the 
ippion. Shonkinite forming the lower, thicker part of the laccolith is the com- 
plementary product of tiie diflfercntintion. Tlie present writer is rather incline<i 
to the view that, in this case, the two complementary masses separated in the 
liquid phase, rather than that the shoiikinilo represents sunken phenocrystic 
material. Ready calculation shows that, within a still liquid laccolithie mass, 
the possible difPerences of density induced by contact cooling are extremely 
minute. The true convection-currents must therefore be Tery feeble; and the 
period of their activity must be short. 

The view that this differentiation has been due to a kind of liquation, 
accompanied by a pravitative separation of the heavier and lighter fractions, 
does not involve such an unfavourable condition. The process may be summar- 
ized aa follows: A leucite-basalt magma was injected in a liquid state. On all 
fides of the laccolith it froze quickly, giving a basic contact-shell. The interior 
part, much longer fluid, was cooled until it reached the temperature of liquation 
(just above the point of solidification), and the splitting took place. This 
liypothesis implies that the basic rock at the roof had the composition of a 
leucite basalt. But the roof and this upper basic layer have both been com- 
pletely eroded away so that it is not possible to test the truth of the inference. 

The Shonkin Sag laccolith shows the same kind of differentintion.f In this 
case the roof and iippor basic shell are still preserved. Pirsson describes the 
vertical section at the middle of the laccolith as follows : — 

ThicknMs in feet. 

n. Leucite-ba#alt porphyry 5 

b. Dense shonkinite .5 

r. Shnnkinite 5-6 

d. Tranfiition ruck 3 

e. Syenite 25-30 

/. Transition rock 15 

p. Slionkinite 60-75 

h. Lcucite-busalt vxirpliyiy 15 

Total 140 

The syenite forms only about one-nineteenth of the laccolith. The small 
difference chemically between shonkinite and leucite basalt ■v7ould make it 

•L. V. Pirsson, Bull. 237, U.S. Geol. Survey, 1905, pp. 53 and 189. 
t L. V. Pirsson, ibid., p. 47 B, 


in nntr m- : m i mri \-n;i.\(,hi n 

difficiil; ro prove thnt the ' shonkinito • ,-1:p11. nf ;, m,! <■ is nnt , 11 
continun^on of th.. porph.ri.ic .l.ol, a. All tl.::' :;.: iH, "' ' pi:!:"' i: 
cng,n.| ..,,„, ,hi,.l, in tlK. ..ontor I.h .liff,.,.,.,!..,.!. ,i.|,.- :,,„, 'T; at 
f, rh. aMily^ea „1 /. a,„l c have not b..,.„ p„bli.!„..|. 

.:..,;;^[:*:;;;f;;:,i'i^^,;:, ■:i;-r;^:;::;,.v;:;v!;;;:;. :;-,-!^^^ - - - '-■--.••... .>.^a ^ 


f-i.n. ,„.!,,,,., I,. „,i,i ,.„i-t ..f tl„. iiinss ' '"■'•■ I iT,t,..:il„.„„l 

Wl;atoycr be the exact method 01 ,1„. JitTerentiation. the i,ijrh p- h^ibilitv 
M pr.vuatn-e control is showr, by Pirsson", ably a.scmbk..! fact/ Fu 'a 
In. mon,^raph shows, this conception gives the key to the origin of many other 
'gneous bodies in the Ilighwood mountains. 


hi r \in\ii:\ I ur i in: i\ 1 1 nini; 

2 OeORGE ^.. A. 1912 

IMiiK ilio cxpiriiiipnts of <;oii.v iind ( liap'Ton a<t a Ija-i.-*. Walkor L.i^ od.T.'il 
:i 8iinil:ir oxplnnatiori of li.islc .•..iLiint-liollH in iiitriisive inusie".* SuUtiuituiK 
for till' (iuiiv iiikI (hnpcron'- pritii-iplc llio ).riiic'iplo of li^i'iMt;. i, t liiiiit.ol 
miscibility williin ii rcrtaiii rinipc of nuiKniatio tfnipcratur(>\ th.- jm-.— n' writ.jr 
finds \V;;il<i«r's expliinaiioii ppli'-ilili' to the vast majority ot ba^ic cuut.H.tslielU 

in tlir l^uiriT illici-lc-l ;il;il -•iKiM'TIlt l>o.|ii>-i. 

Eni-h of these *hdU may, ih.n, bf rcKardo.! n^ tluit pT- ■! »h.- lunffinn 
in which Mi;.rKinnl looling el.clcd travitalivo .litTi'ii'nliatioi!. whil-- 'hp more 
siowl.v loolcd mairiiia o.ciipvinir tlip pr^at confr il |>url of tlio iiiajina cliiimhor 
underwent a more thoroii>rti -oparation of the mVu' und I'onii- p.Mi-lituunts. 

Kxi .!.- Iiav... I..H.n n.,lo.l m ih,- ( (,., ;,ntl,..|i,h i pau- HI'. ''- S,niilknmo.-ii 

lathnliili (pnsf ir.Tl.ati-ltl.oCastl.' IVi.l-- -fork (papo W). < 'onta.t •!.,<•:. •iitioii 
has often hron nl,...rve.l in Inrp.' vcrli.'al dikes, where tho f^mbine.! mfluenca 
>f contact chillinp iiml pravltiifivr. ditTfrcntiation may npain be the explanation. 
The ihcn,!..!'. conlia-t botweon wall phase and niid<ilp p!m-e and the 
^ructinv of dik<'« supp.-f. Iiow.'v.m-, that the .litTor.'utlarioii h.u been 
lacilitatod bv ^pi-.'ia! .-oniontrati.n of ^uiis in the intorior part ^'f ••a'-h dike. 
In ,uch casi's the volatile matt, r doubtloss increa.^.>d th.> fluidity and liaMoned 
the magmatio -p'iltiiiK. 

Tiir arcompanyinp diagram- I l-'ipiir.. -12) will make th.' .■■.u.opti..!i ■•learer. 

Chimkal Coiitra.'^t nf I'hifoinr ,niil Cornsixiwliii'i Klfiifiir- 7'.i/;" .— 'I'o sravi- 
tativ(' ditTcivntiatinn wo may ascribe the steady rhomipal ditT.-n'n.'.vi botwvoii 
Plutonic rooks aiid tlio corrospondinp effusive:*. The latter nrnt oomo from the 
liiphest leveh of oingma column*. They are, aeeordingly, somewiiai rielicr in 

silica and alkalies, ami 1 nr in in xide-). lime, and nia-n.-ia than tiieir 

re'speelive dccp-seated c iui\ .ileuti. Thi. important fact i- illii-t rated in Table 
LV. The ehemb'.d contrast l.etween the resi-eetive pair- oi mek- can han'.ly 
I'o explained ".. the result of ir.ere dilTusIon on tli.' S,,i-et priieii.!.- -r atiy ot'.er. 
diffusion undoubtedly <ontroN lli.> ^roulli of .'ry-tals hot only r.irelv .'an it be 
■ ivdited wit': .he i-n of -peeial imi^Miias .^n the .mm). f iu'no.''- I'oek 

T. L. Walker, .\irii r. .!> 

V..1. i:, IS 



i< I I'll in I, I nil I nil I i>//,'«,\,,i / /.• 


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i J 



itKrAKrutsT fit' Tin: istekioh 

2 GEORGE V. ». ')l2 

ErpuUion of Ilesidual Mn'imn. — Ihtrki'P hiix tinrBi'stcil n thirl \v;iv ic vhi.-li 
({ravity may afffft (lilTiTentiHtiun* II«> writer: — 

■ An,v 'lilli'reiitintion wliich ilppcnil-' nii the •'nkiiij; of crynta!* un li!r 
ttruwt,\ boloiiK-i iiLH'('^«urily to n ■ioniiwhiit r.iri.> fnt-'.- of iTvutallizatiori, 
when till! hulk (if till! iiiiigruii was ^.till in a linuiil con'lili u. At a later Jtagf, 
when the ory^taU fi)rnie(l arc do niitiiorous or no hir^B as to touch anil nupport 
ono iiniither, the eonilitinti iiiii.v hi' iikeueil tn tliat of a KimnKe full of water: 
anil it ii easy to iiiotuff a paiTi^iI reparation beintf etTeeteil hy the Htruiiiiinj 
off or squeezing out of the ri;<iilnai fluid iiiaRina from the portion already 
erystuUi/eJ. That such a proeess di«>> in f.ict tnko place i-i amply prove*! 
by the phcnouiuna of ixjuinatifc-i, which rppre.-eiit the fiiuil rc-idu.i' nusfnii 
of plutiuie intrutionH.' 

The 9i|ueo7.iiit? out ia rPffardid as -peeially notewortio' if the freezing iuatfini 
(■I Bubjict t(, prci-uif fruni uiuvenieiit.s ot the earth's crust. 

4. Kffkct ok Soi.! riON c: ukiun Ki" li.-— The fourth of the iiriniary la'w 
affectinKilitfirentiatioM has 1 latcd with unu-ual force by Loewiu-u!i-Le«i'in»? 1 

lie holds that in many iii.'-tancos m.iiMnati'' ditTerenti.itioii is induced liy the absorp- 
tion of foreitrn rock. This exotic ni.itorial may brini; about liiiuatiou in t!ij 
original ina^ma which, as a whole, may have suffered littlo chemical chautfo hy 
the assimilution. Here, us in many ot' points, Loewinson-Ix'ssiiiff's 8\immarv 
of petroRenio theory shows keennciis, profundity, and breadth of fiew, wbich 
are sehlom rivalled in other general works on igneous rocks. 

•A. TTarkar, Natural Ili-tiiiy of Ihp Ikiioous Rocks, 
t F. Lo*winson-Lessin(j, Compte KcniJn. Sovpiith Susion 
t89t. p. 38n, etc. 

1909. pp 


on({r?s g*')' 

iut.>raat , 



A. 1912 



('oNOKNMii Stmkuknt -r A (Jkm.rai. Tiiiumv. 

It n ronveui.-Mt fo Hunimarize tlio loading coneliigioni of the {oTegwug 
chayien. as to tli,. ,,ri«in of the rock,. ..rupled .lurin« an.l .inc.. tlio K.H-watii, 
ujvisiou of pro-Cuiiilirian liiiu'. 

Itfuooiis biidiiM are itilnulod in two .liff.T.iit wu.vh: hv .li-iplaivm,.tit of tl.. 
country-rock; and l\v in niildroiiuiit. 

DiapliU'cni.Mit taiius place with two kiwU of injection: nb.v.-<sal and Mitollitic 
Abygsal mjectiuu is the prelude of all igneoua action of Keewatin and later 
date. Diluw. sheets. I.ieenliti,,. ,-!,oi,„lii:,s, ,.(,•.. are sateliiti,' iMie.-ti...M fr.n, 
abysmally injected hodiea. 

Rcplaeenieiit takes place in two ways: Kv marginal assimilation and by stop- 
mg with abyssal asHiniilution. In both cases tho amount of replacement of 
country-rock is conditioned hy the size of tho body an.l is at a maximum for the 
greater ahy>sa! injections which prcserre direct thermal communication with tho 
basalti.' subsliatiim. .Marginal assimilation is almost entirely coiifine.1 t(, the 
early, more or less superheated stage of the invading body. Sloping with ahvKsal 
assimilation, both in notable degree, must eon!in\io much longer, or until the 
•x'agma at the molar contact is very highly viscous. For this and other reasons it 
seems that sloping is a much more effective agent in replacement than is marginal 
assimilation. If the magma be superlieate<l the two kinds of replacement must 
co-operat.-. Batholiths and stocks generally represent the upiKjr parts of abyssally 
injected bodies where their niagnius have assimilate.! tho invaded formations. 
The pre-Devonian (generally pre-Cambrian) anorthosites may possibly represient 
abyssal injections, which were initially too cool to assimilate any considerable 
amount of the intruded crrnnites. triieisses. etc. Reiilareineiit in moderate .l.srr.. 
has been carrie<l on by thick hheets of magma, but, in general, bodies satellitic 
from the abyssal injections are too small to have assimilated largo volumes of 

Vulcanisiu is initiated in two ways: by the mechanical opening of fissures, 
or by gaseous perforations of the roofs of intruded K.dies. Tho largest lava 
fields have been formed ai'ove abyssal inje.-tions whi h reached from the level 
of the primary substratum to the earth's surfac.v in these the fissures 
per abyssal injection were continuous with fissures opening at the sur- 

face, 1, le lava is generally basaltic. Smaller fissure-eruptions may occur 

where ti.e roofs of satellitic intrusions are cracked and tho lava mav be of many 


^,. l^Tlr '•!'>:!tL \ 



2 GEORGE v., A, 1912 

liifferent chemii'al mmpositiciis. If tli.' loof of a batholith i- fissiureil some 
lime after its abyssal injection ha-^ taken place, floods ot' li;v:, !.• ('•hyolitic) 
lava result. The possibility is recognized that certain ar< in ti.t. i-trtri r>».y 
I'Bve bix-n llip scenes of the foundering of batholithic roo'-. Siu-h fo'Uidei .r-, j 
must have lieen more likely to occur in the earlier pre-Cs bvi/i-'. time. It 'las 
not often oi-ciirre<l in post-Ar'^lican time, iir-iliaUy |,(>, . ,-, tin ,vai il !<' 
heat in abyssal injections of this period has been too sniau ,o i..:. ;:nd thus 
weaken, batholithic roofs sufficiently. 

Lavas which reacli the surface throuKh the perforation of roofs by blow- 
pipinjr Kasos (either juvenile or resurpent) are again of freat variety of com- 
position. Because of the conditions special (o these 'central eruptions' at the 
earth's >urfacc, the pctroffraphic variety of rock typos is here greater than it is 
in fissure eruptions or in intruded bodies. The cause of this contrast is chiefly 
found in ilie larger ohancc for niaginatic differentiation in the main vents of 
central erMptions. 

(jcNi:iic Ci..\»nn ATioN ok Macm.vs. 

Till' nia;;iiia- from wliiili the iuncous rocks have crvstallizi'd may br t;iiio- 
tically cla.ssilicd as in the followinpr li-t. wliii-li pivcs i; Aor i-ai-li ben! a niuu- 
ber of exampbs or rocks corrcspondinff to the inn^ina tyi).\s. 

1. Primary hnxallic iiunjina (primary in the sense that it ha- iiorsistcd in the 

nioltoi. or potentially molten state since tlie time of tlu^ oldest pro- 
( 'ambrian {;reenstoncs). 

Jif.liri s:ciiluliic tjc/.s: basaltic- lava, ijalrbro. iliaba-i . .-.iiii' Im-Io porpliv- 
ritcs. olc. 

2. I'riiiKirii :irii.)i\!ir iiiO'iuiii i^f Ih, ii,illi'.< if ii! ' n/\,'. 

Ji'epresenlalicc rocks: I'erliaps none crystallized dircily fnan tliis pre- 
K'l'valiii nia;;ina; imliri'i'lly ri>|iri-soiiloil in I'li- ^ i'l u r.ii:iti'- nf the 
pre-( 'ambrian batholiths. 
n Dinri magmatir iJifJi rr/ilialrx of ha^nll. 

/.'• j^r. >, .,/,(',',■<■ /■.,,7,-v: :!ili;-i!i- all'Ir-i Ic. oi'itail! pii'ir !■ ■! it<s. liiLo-thnsi t,.. 
4. Su'ili 'lir magma!;. 

.v. Sviitec;ics cliicllv criniposed lU' prinuir\ basalt and ]o-iniarv acid earth- 
Hi l>ri ^1 iilal'nr ruily. 'Iiia'i|i'>i. i-iTi:iii! :"i'pl.\ riii >^. ct''. 
\'>. Synti'Ctics chiefly composed of jirimary basalt and s,>,liiii|. i|<j. 

L'riirifiviitalivc rof/,-,<: -ome hybrid type-. 
< '. Syntectics composed of primary basalt and l•-^.llIial amounts of both 
acid shell an<l se<liment?. 
llepre.senialive rorks: some hybrid t.vpe-. 
•*>. Mmnnaiic diffrrentiairs of ffinirrlini of Claxs A. 

lUpresfvtntirc rocks: most tranite-; many aplites aiid laniprophyres. 

ULi'tiiir nr lilt: < iinr \si i;,,\i,vi n 



>■■ Maginatic dlffnaitml.s of s>n,l,,ti,_, of Class B. 

A'./.'V..r»//„/nv ,-o,/,.v: ,,Ui„rxuA ^^ninit.s i^\.,^■u■ .ill- Su.Umiiv .li.vt 

otc): ,no=t_ m.piu.lito .....! l,.,„.i,P n,.-k.; ,,„„ n.tMuni-l.oaring 

• ypr- ; oscxitc, rtc. 

7. Magmntic differentiates of syiUccluii of Class C. 

i:>,,ii,,ntati,;- v„rl,s: -nuiu.liorit,.. Harjtr. .,,„„. -.\,.hil.'^. pt,' 
S. ;/.'/l<'/,/ magmas formed by n,i.rtur,: of l,ro or more of the aiovc-rnenlioned 
vine types. ( t) 
Hi liresenlative rocks: (?) 
:t Transition magmas marking incomphtt differrnliation. 

Ucpresentative rocks: ' iiitorni.^.lial,. • i k. ..( M,,vh. .IIU. |',i;,.,,„ I',,i„t 

mtnisiv,., Si„il,nry -Ii.ti, ,.,,; ,n,n-iriu,, ,v,„., iu ,ll!r. r..,,. i,,t,.,i 

'IlKr-. I;|.'.',,litli-. ,.t,-. 

Appi.i, Minx ,,i ini: riiKi.iiv in nil, KoHTv-siMii I'Mni.i.i:L K.x k~. 

/'-/<w/»Wa,n -Tl.o nssrmblinp of ol.J n,„l now iVnfur.s in tlu- p.n.ral lluvrv 
luus beon the product of tl.o years of nctive fiel.l work on the seotion 
It^ r,']..vs,.nts an alK^niiit to lin.l .xplanati,.,, f,.r a ninllitn.le ,1 iiru-'fan- ,,!,-,! di.nn- fen (lol.i s,^asnns. At many ,.„ints tl.e ivader l,a. ^,-en that tliis 

batholith the I'urc.ll s.lls, the Bayonne ball.,.lith. an,i the steaks M' .h,- S.lki.-k 
■^;nffo Needless to >ay. the theory has n„t b<..n br.M.^^ht t.. ihe pivs.-nt shape 
v.-ithont abi.n.hmt ref.Teneo to if^ncoiis elsewhere. X.Milur thr pergonal 
■ liservations i„ the tiel.i, nor tlmse .l,-,Til„-,I b> ntlu-r wrii, ,- l,ave ,li-ove,v,l 
laet- which are iiT,.<'oneilabl.. with this renerai lh,.,.ry. Its s.niiuil, i. obviously 
'lie to Its bom- ,, synthesis of many i.leas from the loa.lers of p.'trolopical 
;ho„ght tor ,he la.-t two fr..norations. Tho writei-'s prinoipa! .ontril,,,, i,m I., 
it hoen the iio^alivo one of sh„win^' a -tm,ih!inK-MooK wliioi, 1,,- stood in 
'he way ,1 advan.-o in timory. The load,T< ,n n,o,|,.rn p.n-.Joirv. f,„. the most 
pnrt. have .lenied the effiei.-ney oi mai;niati<' a-imilat ion ir,,<„,. /,, , l,av,' 
lienera'h, fail.d to find I,:,hrl,l ro.ks at moln and x. nnl.lh ...n'.n-l. The 
oxplanation .,f this patent fact is lo„nd in the siopin- 1,v|,,,i1h .1. That' hvpo 
thesis demands that hybrid ro.-ks or direct .nid,..,oe ..( .i-iinilalio,, -i,;,ll normallv 

tail at viMl.le batholithi, nta.-ls. In niakiii- thi. failu.v an eLj,.. :lon to the 

Mopiiip hypothecs several writers have .-l,..>vn that ihry did not iiiolor^tand it 
'ally, it slopiiifj- be a.-eeptcl, abyssal asMi.iilal ion ,,n tho k.rL', s.mIo most he 
jcoepted, an. I mere ditTerentiation of oriuinal mafiinas shonl,! „o lont'or hold its 
entirely doininalin^j |.laoe in pelrfitivni.- llioo.y. 

The .'xplaliation of i;\y\< whicli aiv inloiidod lo )..■ eo\, nd |,v a ih.vry do 
tiot^sulliee In prove liial theory. It should ,i,, i),,,. ;is a iiialioi- of .N.ur-o. ' To 
on final it shoulij take ..-are of all n.'w fai't^ ;,- .li,.y a,,. , and it .shoid.l 
bo preph.'tic of new tindin;;i in iialin-e. Ik,. wriPr doo- not koM that ili.- 
■ utlined the^.i-y has be.-n siiflk-iently te-tod to 1„. lejrard.d a^ jimd. On the 
other hand, iis alulity to oxpLdii the Iniiidnd-. of i;jneoiis h,di<'- wkioh o.vur 


in.rMrrMKsr or rut: /- f.kior 

2 GEORGE V,, A. 1912 

in the Boun'lary x ction. as well as the thmiaands nf other ifrneous bodies which 
he has studioii clspwhero, either in dio fiehl or in the liternfure, gives the theory 
eufih cumulative s.i action that it has been called a theory rather than a working 
hypothesis. The writer is emboldened to do this because the whole combination 
of princip' -j !■, an eclectic summ;\ry of what appear to be the soundest views 
of petrologists in general. 

Hence, in apjilyins the theory to the Forty-ninth Parallel rociis. only a 
rclativoly small I'art of tlie proof ,if it- vahMity i< .stated. The following para- 
graphs are thus meant for illub^tration and review rather than for demonstration. 
A multitu<le of field relations retnain to be discovered before this, or any other 
eruptive area can prove the thoiry. Its exact application to many of the 
Boundary formations uiust await the results of future researches. 

Eviihnrn of a I'rimar;/ Ari,! Eirrlh-^ilicU.—TlK' iiostulatc of n primnrti acid 
shell i.s .-ui)i)orted by tlie pctrographic analysis of the Priest lliver terrane and 
of the Rocky .Mountain geosynclinal, tiie one pre-Cambrian entirely, the other 
partly pre-Cambrian. The Priest River terrane is. on the average, highly sili- 
cious and it is probable that a minimum thickness of 0,000 feet of jiure quartz 
is representee! in the portion exposed within the Bound, iry belt. It will be 
remembered that neither bottom nor top of the Priest River scries is exposed. 
The ihistic beds of the Rocky ]\Ioimtain geosynclinal represent from 10,000 
to 20,OiiO feet of (luartzose material, in which probably lO.OM feet of pure quartz 
are locally represented. Evidently a pre-Cambrian granitic or g!icis=ic ]an<i 
of great extent must have furnished these sediments. Perhaps the Shuswap 
fceries of Dawson represents the now exposed efiuivalent of that ancient terrane. 

The larp-e areas of the pro-(Jambrian demonst n tlie Cordillera, in 

eastern Cana<ia, and elsowliere, are just such terran ' batholithic, which 

would furnish debris like that in the Priest River tei the Rocky Moun- 

tain geosynclinal elastics. Lawson and others hiiTe ..iiown that visible pre- 
Cambrian batholiths were intruded and do not directly represent the original 
earth's crust, but calculation .shows that (lie umlefial of the>c batholiths was 
primary in the sense that it was not derived from quartzless rock through the 
leaching action of weathering (see page 702 I. 

We conclude, therefore, that the lands whence the old quartzose sediments 
of the Boundary section were derived must have been either part of the original 
granitic crust or, more probably, the more or less remelted and recrystallized 
equivalent of that crust. The argument is enormously strengthened by the facts 
which are known concerning the pre-Cambrian sediments of eastern Canada, 
southern Appalnehian-, Sweden, l-'iuland, China, .Vustrali.T, etc. 

Erirlcnri' of a BnnnlHr Siih.ifratiim. — .\mong the evidences for the existence 
of a primary lasallic substratum we have noted: first, the fact that almost all 
the greater fissure-eruptions of the world are basaltic in composition; secondly, 
that basalt is the magma most persistently represented in igneous rock provinces; 
thirdly, the recurrence of eruptions of basaltic magma from the Keewatin time 
to the present, and; fourtidy, that there is ovidonee of the direct derivation of 

i!i:i-i,i;r i)i' nil riiiir [stroxumi:!: 



nil '.."""' '■■'"" ^'''' ^' 'Jiff"^"'"iati.,„ with,,. vol,...„ic vo,.t., tl.u. 

increasing the k„own area whore basalt,- rnuKma has been erupted. 

1. U„y o,a- large field of tissure c-rupti,,,, is certainly represented in the 
Boundary belt, na„,ely, that of the probably-Cambrian Pnrcell I.ava. Though 
this rock IS everywhere profoundly altered, its .•on,positi..n, throughout thou-satuls 
of s-iuare miles >s ba.altte, with a ten.lency in plaees to the (augito) andesiti-. 
A very th,n and ..uite local How r,f liparitir lava i. do.selv a..sociated with the 
basaltic type at one point in the Pr.rc.l! range. It is posaiblv the result of 
assin.ilatio.! of acid rocks by the l,asalt. but its existen.'o in no wi.^e afTe-ts the 
statement tliat this lissurc-eruption i.- essentially uniform and ba.saltic . com- 
position. Xearly all of Palczoic all of tim,., and mu.-h of Ter- 
tiary tune elap.ed befnre the vast Columbia lava-lield was completed a short 
distance south of the lloundary Line. In that later ami greater flood the lava 
vanes iron, common olivine basalt to the m.,r.. andesitic fades rer.resented in 
the porph.vrit,,, olivine-fn... pha- „! th,- Pureoll Lava.* Calkins has pointed 
out t he le-semblauce betwe. n 'l.i- a„.i,„t porphyritic lava and an equally 
lemarkab.e Miocene lava in Washingtn,,. The constancy of the type through 
so long a period is thus shown iy. detaik ..i structure as well a., in the manner 
01 its extrusion. 

-2. Basaltic magma is th.. wily one k..owu to h.ive crystallized as visible 
todi.-s m each ot the ranges between the Great Plains and the Pacitic With 
two exceptions, either the Purc.ll I.ava ,.r its nppro.ximate chemical equivalent 
gabbro irareLv passing mtu diorite), form the only igneous musses seen where 
the Boundary belt crosses the Unvis, Clarke, Galton, AlacDonald, ilcGillivray, 
\ahk and ilo^i- ranges. The lir^t e.xception referred to is the liparite How just 

mentione-l. Tho nil:,.,- ;- ,1. ..L,:^ ^r.nli- .,i ,1„. M„vi.. .ii|,. vv^t „f ,he 

Puree 1 Trench great aVssal injections (batholiths -.nd stocks) first appear in the 
boundary section, and it is west of the Purcell Trench that stmng petrographi.- 
variety appears. The iTimary basalt never failed to be erupted in anv of the 
ranges west of tlie trench, but many of its abyssal injections were <o large as to 
furni:,h heat sufficient for mu.-h a.ssimilation with consequent differentiation of 
non-basaltic ruck bodies. 

_ 3. The man^v reappearances of basaltic magma as lavas or as injected masses 
IS illustrated iii the following chronological table, which embodies a partial 
list of the basic volcanic formations recognized by Dawson, O. O. Smith, and 
others, in regions clo-^e to the Forty-ninth Parallel. 

•See F. C. Calkins, Hui:. a>4, V.?. O.,,], Survey, 11109. p. ^,l. 

■ J .-.-I-. 


umwuTMist ni mh is'ii.innt: 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 

/*< riOfl. 

fi'i*<ill'*. ifiiO-o.-on or ;/'ihhrti.<. 

A ii-i/ft { iiiiro.ri tit ) ttiuf' .-ifta. 

I'lt-i^toct-ne Mt. liaker lava ? Mt. Hakt-r lava. 

PoHt- Miocene Hasalt dikt-H of Okana^an Kang* 

Mi'-Ct-nt' Vakitna tia-ialt of NVa^^liingtMU. 'Andi'Hiti- of W.-Tiatrhf l)i>trict 


Oli^'tKtm* I Uawsoii'M I'ppfr Volcanic f;tiiU)>,I'urpliyritf uf I'piH'V \'->lcanu 

of Interior rii(tt'aii-i yroiip ( I >aw-.oTi i 

-Hatsalt of Miduny M'lraTiif >froiip. Ai:'ie«i»<- nf MiiKvuy \oIcanic 

■ ^,'ruii).. 
Aii'If-tir.' of Ska^rit \ol<'anic sfroiip 

K'>'Mi»- .. Ti'unaway basalt of \Va<liinK'to)i. 

M. -io/oir , Hasalts of Kosslanii, Ht-a\cr Aii'lt-^it*- of ^i-oup-' nainnfl in 

Mountain, ami IMiocnix trn-nps. op|< 'olunm. 

Sonu- ^'a^^l>ros of f'oliin.l'ia rani/f. 

.Imi,i -hi .... Ki>ck Crt**k [raljlifit <ak!t '.') 

Tria'sif . . ... hiabasi's of Nicola u'n*'!)' i hau ■ I'orphyrit*^^ of Nii-ola v'roii).. 

Uiabasf's of \'ain.'oinfr i^rouf' I'orplivritf- of Vani-oiiv»r pniup 
; fI)awM)n). 

C-triMrniliTuu- IJa-*alts of Chilliwatk fonnatmn.. Andf-siif of ('liilliwack formation. 

liasaltic tra)p>' of llo/onii-«ii..\nar And'-sitir trap-* of ll'i/oni«-Hn. 
<'lii-t. anil ('ai'li*- Cr^.k -i.-ri--. Anarchist an-l Cach*- ('r^ek 
(a^f'.'} - ri'-i 'ap'','! 

r'ainb-ian ( "' ! J'nrctll Lava 

}>ltian illa^alt^ of Inn.- \'Mlcani- f«»rni AM«l—it»-> .'f h.-n.- Voloanif 

ation. forniati-'n. 

Pr- }>' liian I >ial>a^i' of 1 law -on- A'laiii* I^ak*' 


4. The table also sliow.s iiuiiioroiis examples of tlie coniinon field-association 
■ ■I I'yroxene andeaite, or porpliyrite, with basaltic rooks. The writer has 
i■-^eml•^ed some of the facts wliicli ho ri'j^aril- ii> ^nlli'ioiir ]'i-.ioi"- <-\ tlio derivji- 
liuu (■! this andesite from ba^^alt, and has recently puhlisluMl ;i Mininiary state- 
:uent of tlie case.* in that paper emphasis was jilaced on a difiFerentiation 
:hr'jitirl; liie settliii;; oiil of furronuigiirsiaii and cafvnii*' rry^^tals of early i:ouera- 
tioii. lint it wa- }ioiiilo.I oi.l that a )MraIl<'l * iT. n. niiyhl I.e I'rodilfc t hy tli.' 
settling-oiit of the same constituents in tlie li(iui<l phase, that i:^. by a kind of 
liquation. Both actions comprise what has Itcen called jrravitative diiTer- 
entiation. Without, then, attempting' to decide which ].ro<'css Ims been dominant 
';; :'"^- ca-e. we tind in thi- jrencral association of auaite andesite with;dt 
:::ongr the Boundary Line, a s'il'--tantiati<'n of the liypotliC'^is that the au'le-Itos 
Lave been derivt d from the nii^re basic ma^rma by cravitative differentiation. 
The complementary diUVrcntiate-. the periilotitC'. are also found in close 
a-sociation with rock- fif Isi-altie f-oinpo-itlon but. ;h to le expected. U'-t so 
often nor in such vohnne a- the nnde^ites. 

'P. A. r>aly. -lour. <:"ol . Vol. Kk 190R. p. 101. 

i;i I'liin ill I III iiiiii \^inn\>\iri: 


1 \-; 



Sn :.'rrii i< ill,. |.r..l.aiHif. ,.i' i 
the recurrences nf augite nn.le.ite a^ -<• miuiy iv.-uri- .i.ees -f nri-- ■■ll' hn^.il'-.- 

mafrniii. Tl rrespmi.];!,- '-,^^0 M.l.liii.,,, t.. i!„. „:,,;, i„.r .i-M -i-, .{ tl .. 1,,.,];, . 

whiel, represent eruptions of basaltic n,;,?niM. !.,tli in the Fortv-ninU, P, -,•'.. ' 
rof::..n ami fhront'liout ihe worM. {;,eatl,v limit, tile total vulumo of eruptcl 
)Maunm_ ulu.l, ha- n..t, I,.,.,, .-itlaT l>a-.,lti.. ..r uT.nit ir ..„•,. ran.. ilorit :,■ ]• 
coi.iposition. Perhaps less than one per rent of (ho worl^l's eruptive nin-rn.Ti- 
bu.he-. reckone.l as to their p.x.l,able ;..loo,..,, havo had ehemieal eompositimi- 
ditferont tmm -raniii.-, uran.Klioritie. „r ha-^alti,. nia-mas. In anv ■■a-o it i. ,., h 
a ve:-v small proportional v..lnin.^ of !-„,.,,„. n„.ks whirh ne,..i explanation h 
.ther than ••rv-talli/cl pritn..t,v basalt. ,iir,., t .litler. ntiate, ...f priniarv ba-al: or 
granitio diflf.Tentiate;. 

.\iliilc(lirs.^-V.\ru->' th,. nriniarv a.-i.i J„.|l j, ,,,,, ,.xi,..-ed. the thror^ .!.ar..:' i- 
that besides primary basalt an.l its nwn differentiates all the other iffneous r...^:;- 

O! the,iary il,,n nr,- -..lldllied s>/,ilrri;r< „r soli'llfir,! J.,!r,< o' 

^linlvrl,r.<, 'Ihis most diflienit -id.- ..f ihe the.,ry^ applit.atioii h-'s been approivhe.'. 
at many points in the fore,:^oin.i,' r!iapi,.r<. In tli.- pi-.--,.nf Munmarv ..nlv the 
more notew,.rtliy need afiaiii he nienti..n.-d. 

There is an obvious [.reiimiuary step to be taken before a full .iiseussiuu 
ol assimilation is po-^-^ihl... i'',,r eadi nia-mati.. h..,tv u.. .h...,1,I ido-div !;p.,- 
the eomno-ith.n ,,f ii- c..iintiy-,-,„.|; „„ ;,il ,„nir.|., loof, walls, and bottom^:* 
there i- ■^ bottom. Fur sto-k- ;.],.! batholith. we liave little or no dire,-t informa- 
tion .•o.,e,>rninK tlie o! tl,,. walls tor miles below th,- .bep,..t vall,-v whiol: 
ero-i.,u has carv,-,! in ih.. intr;,-iv... If th,. m.^' i< still lars.d.v pre„M-ve,l. th.> 
walls are effectively ,-on.-ea!,..|. If , 1 is remov,-,! the roof entirelv. it raav 
be impossible to know exaetlx ..f «hat rocks it consisted. .^In.'e stoping t ,ke'- 
place on both walls an,l mof. th- knowl,.,ko. of the petrographi,- natnr,.. ..f boti, 
IS es.sential to an nn.lersfan.linir of the product i.f abyssal a^.-imiiation. In ea.-h 

case, the Keoloi;i-t .-an s nly the uppernio-t part of a batholith anl !• 

t;eneral, h,. is eoniielh-.l •.. re^anl his tiehl oh-^,Tvation3 as confined m-ar'-- t-- 
one l,'v,.l in that luirt. Only iu,,v, therefor,'. ,.ati he set i,leas a- !•) the 
form and si.^e of the aiel a- to the character ,,f the iotil contact-snrfa.'- 
on which stopin;,' an,l inart^inal a-,-imihiti,.n have hebl sway. 

One ,,f ii,c i.rin.-ipa! data f.,.- the p,.-in.trenic di.scnssion is thu^ often 
impo-sible of full attainni.-n:. ft , only be found. ,.'ven <pialitativ,.!y. after a 
thorough tiehl ,,| tl„. inva.l,-d formation. Largoly for lack' of such 
observations a niiiltitu.le of petrographic papers are almost useless to thestud.-ii' 
of petr..gen,v. Yet more serious is the error of many petrogenists who have 
decidcl ,ai the in;., tic happening-^ in batholiths an, I stocks sim| • from the 
chemi,-al relathms at visible contact^. This fun.lamcntal mi-,f' ',a= beer. 
made in the name of •' the -cientitic metho,!,' ■which forbids ' speculation ' and 
leav,!., th>. ,-arlli"s interior ■ t,. the poets," liut it is beginning t.i show its tru.> 
character as a tra.lition wliich has ,lone much t.) retanl the advam-e of petrog.mj 
lor a generation. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

('■rnntiiij.' iit .nco wo nnii si-ciii-c .iiily pnrtial itiforiiiiitiou a- to lli(> 
cheiiiii'al iiittiire cf a bafliolifli's 'ounfry-roi-k-J. it ia -till iiossililc to bolirvo that 
tlie known fa.'tj siiflici- to show oxtrnsivo ns-^irnilntion. Tlio same 'dii-iiili'ralioii- 
i'pply to tlinso satollilic iiijcction-i which nri> larpn enough and initially hot 
inou;,'li to '••■ <'apab!o of sonic a •siinihitinn. Tn ^ome oaso-i tlic contacts of 
the-c injections are so cxposetl a< to sliow all the important conntry-roi-k-:; hut 
llion the iiincoiis bodies must ahvay? he small aflairs .vhen eoniparcd to a first- 
o'as- balh.,lith. 

-Only two 1 athnliih- r.f tro'- irr.mitc occur in the I'liiiiii^ii ". 
f the Selkirk rancro and the Cathedral of iho Okanapan 

'/'/"■ (Ir'ifiii'-i 
leli the Kykort 
laiiLN . 

Tile Jiykerl iialiiolith makes visible intrusive contact only with the rocka of 
the Priest Uiver terrane. From the field relations it seems probable that the 
contact at the roof was made with the same terrane. Beneath the terrane, wliich 
is the oiliest expo-ed in the Boundary belt, is probably the usual acid pre- 
Cambrian conii)lex. The assimilation of either the average Priest River rock 
or the po-tulntcd underlyiuf: furjuatiou by a jrreat abyssal injeeiinn'l. after 
cravitative differentiation, give an acid, granitic mass at the roof. 

The Cathedral granite has replaced the Similkaraeen and Reramel 
Kranodiorites. Tlie remeltiiig of these might, by the theory, permit of a new 
differentiation whereby the salic elements collect at and near the batholithic 
roof in greater purity than was the case with the older magmatic chambers, 
'j he consanguinity of the Cathedral and Similkameen can only be explained on 
the view that such separation of the alwaya 'antagonistic' salic and femic con- 
stituents did take place in the Cathedral magma chamber. This is, of course, 
no proof of the assimilation theory in the case. The theory is forced on us by 
the field evidence of replacement, and the generation of a younger, acid-alkalino 
granite is an incident of a very ,Tdvaiie(>d differiMitiation o*^ the syniectic. 

The other true granites — the Sheppard granite in the Rossland and Benning- 
ton mountain groups, the Bunker Hill granite, the Lost Creek granite and 
summit stocks of the Selkirks, the stock just east of Cascade, the Smelter granite 
at Ciraiid Forks, and the Sumas granite at the Fraser river — are all cupola-like 
stocks probably satellitic to granodiorite batholiths. The more salic character 
of the stocks is again the result of more advanced differentiation, which was, 
perhaps, facilitated specially by the concentration of juvenile and resurgent 
gases in the cupolas. Nevertheless, the fact of replacement by these stocks is 
as indubitable as the replacement by the main batholiths. 

The abnormal granites of the Jfoyie and Com Creek sills have already boon 
explained at length as due to assimilation of quartzose sediments h" hornblende 
gabbro. (See pages 238 and 283). 

The Granodiorites. — The granodiorite bodies are both larger and more 
numerous than those composed of true granites. The list includes the Bayonne, 
Trail, Cascade, Osoyoos, Similkameen, Remmel, and Chilliwack batholiths; 
many stocks in the Columbia mountain system, and the Castle Peak stock of 

I!i:rnni 1,1 I III I III! I |>//..,,\, ,]//_/,. 


SESSION/ PAPER No 25a to tl,o ,.„... offers a pe,r..eni,. 'rZ^. of l^U;"^:'^:''' "'""''"' 
eyntoctics may be conoeive,! as difforont in tl,c two r,,,,!' \ " ' "''^^"^•'"'''' 

-.v..„. iT';z:,",f, :,;!,?:„ ■■;.-;:;■;' ,—;;:* '.'/'Sir •-" 't 

find the pre-Cnmbrinn pranit- frrrano but nl-o f, a M r'niar> ImsuU 

.ciimcnt.s chioMy .rKillaceous. ' "" '"""*"'' ''"^''""♦- "^ 

have „,entod special ..a.nos; the K..k C^eirii;;;-;' ^^ J'' ';;;;: ^ i^'; 
Sunia.* „o,lio3 (pa;,'e^ 302, 41M» .5;j-' and V'T) Ml f.l, i, -, "' 

.iiorito. oftetj pas, into' nua.. di:rH;^ blitl/'l 'i.^'Xnv:,;;:; S^ 
U.rou.hout tbe CordilK.ra. The Boundary soHion ilh.t^nte . t ' ! \ o d 

riioritw Rocks. 

Qunrtz (linrito oontact phase of Trail 

Rock Crock (Horitp. 
Quartz dioritc contact plia-c of O-o- 

yoos batliolifh. 
Liglitnirig Creek iliorite. 
tilcsse iliorite. 
Sumaa dioritc. 

U^'(int,'<l aniiiil,,, „,ul CrniimiinrHfs. 

Trail Rranodioi itc. Kr.uiitic f,u ics ■ 
^heppard alk 'line granite. 

Kofk Crock Krarin.liiiritc. 

"iranodioritc and granite (orisinal 
|iha-i..-) nf IKoviMW liatholitli. 

(_a-.tle leak ^'raiiodiorilc. 

Cliiiliwack >,'ranodioriic ^T.inite 

Siimas granite. 

.v./^^ T . ^ "'"'^ '■'^'"■•'' ^'""^'^ ''■■''"'''• r'»'!< "-^ >'"■• topical .rv.tallizod 
Jjntocfc formed l.y tl,o a,^>in,ilation of srani,. ..^.norallv pn'-Caml, i „ c 

m primary basalt. That syntecti. has ponorallv b,vn difTcnnt' atcd s a aff^^ 
Z'eZT^ T^.^TT "'rvJ"^^ th. original material assinnlated. are ' anch 
eutecfcs. Ihe failure of differentiation in the case of the diorites may be 


/(/ /' i/,'/i// \ / '(/ ///;, /\ / i.iniii; 

2 GEORGE V , A. 1912 

(■.\|ii lihi-l III .11 liM-t iwi \va,i.s, 'I'lii- iliiirilic peripheral pli.nos of many .■fiili- 
jnri'iii 1.1. ili.- -.nil I.. ').■ li.'st iii'i.>i,iiiiti"l for on tlio view that niohii'-i-.intui-t 
cliilliiii; ii'iiclj to iiicre. o visi.'3it.v bcynml tlie p<iiiil wlicro iiiaciiialio wplittiim 
(■an lakr phur i.'^ir pa^v 1'-'.\ ili..iii, l....|h ..'n -li^liiiv i.|.|.r tlini. 

a--iH'i.i(i',l ^riinitr-, :ii iiMilv satillilii- iiijrL'tiolis, y.u<\t a- iliUi -. >lii'il^, clioii'i- 

lith-. . (■■, Sinn' iln'-i' ai-i' all icIatiM l,\ -mall niiij ipiickly ('^l li.nlio-. it i- 
t*'a<lily midi-rsfiOfl that they will proaorve the syntpriic poiiip'i-iiini. 

'I'lio Jioriti'-i a-30ciateil with ^'ninoiliorito^ arc -nliici't t" iIip ■;aiiii' rcaiioiiincr 
r.Ncept tlial P'l-s-ilily tlwy sliari' with ;jraiioiliorilr- .I'l-lam rliinilral fratiin-. ilnc 
til thr a--iiiiilal lull c.r iia>ii' M^iiiiifiii-. nr iia-ii- x.kaii.- i.'a;. in aiMitini, 
to firanilic rock. Tlip known variability in the dioritc ininily snfficos to cover 
the-P i-'.nipli'X -yiilo'-iics a-i well a-s tlinsi. fnrmi'<l of primav lia^alt aii'l tliP 
t-nrth- ai'iil -hell. 

In the thiril place, the pns-ihilit.'. i- re' oiriii.-cil that sunie rueks. fairly eallnl 
iiiurite-i, may theiesdves In' (iilFcri'iitiate- frnin sjireial syntectii'.*. or frmn the 
primary ha-ahh- iiiayma. Surli type- serin |e hi rare. 

.Mo-t iif the acid nndesites are etTii'ive eipiivaleiits of diorite-: iind, on the 
theory, are to he iv-jjarded a< -iiiiilai synteetie.;, wliieh, howevia. are ueiierally 
somewhat ilitlerentiat(>d. Thai the -ynti'i'l ie-i are hiTe more ditTereiilialiil i- 
e.xpl.iined hy the efieii favourahle eonditions for splittiiifi in voleanii' vents 
( T("i and 71'.' i. The ,|i.iritie ma'.: ma sives L'ranitie ma.irnia thr'tiirh splitting : 
aii'ie-ltie nia:;iiia frivt's lip.ii'itii' (rhynlitie) niairma tluMii'/ii splittiiiL'. We ean 
tlnis nnder-taiid the nuiimon a-sneiation of lipnrite and aiides'te^ i-i v..lianio 
regions. TIk' the.iry holds that soiiio liparites may ho oxtremt- ilitTerentiatos of 
the more harie auj-'ite-andesite nuigma, hut typical post-Archean aiiKile aiide»ito 
1- tn If eun-iilere.l net a- a -yuteelje liiil a> a pular .lilVei'eiil iale ..f ha-altu; 

TTii-, in brief, is the writer's interpretation of the andesiies oeeurrintr in 
ih^ Ifipe. Hoa\er Aloiuitain, Rosslatul, I'ho nix, Midway. Pasayfen. Skajrit, aii'I 
Chilliwae;, volcanic proups. 

Tlif <'vm[)lemeiitur;i Jlil,'.< aiui Shn-h. iiiui li.i' I'r'iinolih'.t.'- Thf -'-iieral 
tlii-..ry include- the pre". ailitiL' crn'oiitien that thi'-c- Im.! irc directly due tn 
dilTerentiatioii. They fall into groups accordiucr to their derivation from 
primary basaltic maRma, from syntcctics, or from differentiates of the basalt or 
the s\nIccti(^s. The exact processes of the splitting are still largely mysterious. 
It seem.s prid)ahle that the ditTerenliation is gravitalivc; the aplilic poles rising, 
the lampinpli\ r; • i"'le- -iukini;- in p..ilieiis of maLrmn. Siicc nunc "f 
the-i> 1 dies is c\cr larije when eompareil to the parent hatholiths, stocks, etc., 
and since the dikes regularly close hathidithie periods, it is fair to conceive 
that the splittiiifr mae-ma was irreatly ri'd eed in volume from the size indicated 
in the bnihelith. 

The necessary concentration of jnvenile and resurpcnt fluids in the liquid 
tnaprina remaining after most of a batholith has crystallized, ma.v bo the con- 
trolliiiir condition. These volatile materials must lower the viscosity of the 
magma thus left in pockets or sheets within the frozen rock. In the special^v 

//// / I « I l;i,\,,'ii i: 



/.'/ i-'iin I, I Tin 

o'l.. r, as tl.e late,' ph ..,„"" i'. H 1t \"' • '"= "'A" '^"'''- '"'"^■'« '" 'b" 

on,.. rSop ;, :- ^ ^^T ,•"■ "P='"-\"'-'^ "'"—1 -t i. a valuable 

plon.entarv dike. ^~ ""''""• ""' f'"«'-prai..o.l ,.om.- 

^ , no 1 "^T " '"",""■ '""^'"''' ^•''''•'' '"'* "ystnlli.0,1 with special 
<...u-,.ne.-. locauso of the unu.ual .Wo of tl,o inj,..ti„ns (see „;,.-,> ;;> , ' 

Ihe more ac.d complementary dikes are common and of the charac 
t.r ,1 the Boundary section that they have eNev.h,.,-,. \t .ever.l h ,1iti ?t dike, are associate,! with stocks an,l other l^r,; i n iont of 
c-^entially sun.lar con,positiu„. Exun.ples are seen „. the b,.dief of tl eXp ,ar, 
g.anue, winch js chemically like the true aplite. emanating f ,. d. "C 
granod,or,te. flus .u,.,.e.s,s that the ,iitferentiati„n in l.a.holi'hi. ,.„.,, u' 
the same pruicple a. that postulated for complementarv ,likes. 

The Ahnormal Ga'.'^ro^.-Thi, division of the Foptv-ninth I'.,r,H,.l ro,.l-s 

Ihe argument ..f Chapter X. has Leon nn,de without a„v necessarv roferen,-e 
the origin o tlie ve.y peculiar gabbro of tlie Puroell injections' Its com 
posi ion before it reaehcl the visible chamber in the sedimentary series offerTa 
pr..ble:n mud. more , hllieult than that of the ^^ra-.ite iay.r n. a Movi. ,11 , |, . 
chom.eal and m.neralo.ieal a.ialyses ,hown ,,.. page 224 are typical' of the m , v 
ooc.rrences of the rock except wh,.re it ha. heen plainly n,.i,li,!,.,i l>v .olut ,^ 
ot ,,uartz,te The chemical analysis is sfatod i„ th^ followi.^ table whi h 
I'oa — vol. Ill — 51 



/)f.7MA'7l//..Vr or THE l\1l l.liill 

fll-n thnv." the iivorflge la^alt, incluiliiiR Jial> ''o. 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 
, cMlctiliitp.l from I!>a 


8in, ■•^f 

^::- ::::::■:.:::::::■:::■::■ :■.:■::::■: ^ 
K ••::•:■■'::■•■••:.•.•.•;•.•,;.:•.•.■.•.::;: ;:]? 

HO 'il 

c?"::; .■■;■.. .".■.•.:; ;: :; :.: _•«? 





Tho gablno is mneli tlio poorer in each of tho alkalio:<. Thn inicroscope 
shows that nearly fid per cont of tho intrusive i;" cnniposod of hornbh-n'Uv The 
specific Kravily of the fro-hfst rncU ir* :!•*> or over. There has cvi.Kntly hoon a 
special concotitration of -afeniic material in tho preparation of tho niaKtna. The 
result i-= a iraLhro of pcrid-titic t..n.lri..'v Ain'arrntly it^ oriL'in r.inii-' ie 
Mated in other than very doubtful tenn^. Th.- relatively low total of tho iron 
oxides and the hiph alumina do not favour tho view that tho gabhro is a direct 
basic differentiate of primary basalt. On the other hand, it is exi)lioablo a-~ a 
."vntcctic composed of argiiliiccous and dolomitio sediments with primary basalt; 
or as a diu -rentiato of such a syntectic. Needless to sov, we have no data for 
testing this or any allied hypothesis. Tl.:- only nseful conclusion is that the 
nbuormni gabbro does not Ho outside tho domain of the gonoral theory. 

The same statonu-nt may bo inado regarding tho gabbroid complex of tho 
Okanagan mountains. The petrogonic probl' in is there eoMiplionte<l by the 
intense dynamic (and perhaps thermal) nietamorphisui which has affecteil the 

The AlhiJino /fo^A-s.— The re remains for brief discussion that group of 
igneous typos which has long claimed the particular attention of pctrograpliers,— 
tho rucks rich in soda or potash, or in both alkalies. This richness is relative. 
Nephelite syenites usually carry more alkali than either granite or basalt. Monzo- 
nite is placed among tlie alkaline types because it contains a higher percentage 
of potash than rocks of the basaltic, gabbroid, or dioritic families, with which 
tho moiizonites may be compared as to =iliea pereeutage; all fo,:r type^ have 
nearlv the same average content of soda. 

Many, perhaps most petrolopists have been of opinion that tho alkaline r.jcks 
are products of primary reservoirs of alkaline magma. Rosenbusch's great 
system of classificatiun has been soundly built on the basis of objective facts 
regarding the composition of igneous rocks; but ho has coupled with his .sys- 
tematic statement a theoretical conception of roek origins which is at variance 


KEPORT of //// (//// ; , V //,.,, vol//;/.' 



K^nt^H '"'•'"'*'"' 'I'^'^y-.T''" ''"^"^y - <vi,l,.„l, o,,po,.n t., |{<,..o„bu„.h-. 

other than th« h.r, Uc Tho writ.-r i. o!..wh..r,. pr.....„n,m the,l..,„.e for 
'he UI.ef hut the alkaline rock* are nil n.or,. or le« .;ifT.TOMtia.,..l .vntoctici • 
iheir alkahes are regardcl a* having h, .-n i.-rivtHl from primary ha-alt • 1.... 
'f e.i irn. ma.-e. of th« .-arth'. «ei,l aheli. which ha. Wvn n.«i>„ih,t,.',l h, 
pr mu'j- b.galt. or. m Bfll loss .h.^ree. from ,.-iMr!a.e.l .climent.. Tho prin.-i- 
raJ oau.e for the 8pecial conrentraiioi. of aK al,,-. i- in th,- H8sin,ih,ti,.n of 
iioicstnnes and dolon.iteg, or other .aloarroiH se.linients. The solution of n few 
otiit-r tvi,es of rock may pri.dueo the same etT.-t Or, Hnall.v. it i. eon.'eivalle 
tliat the i,.<d,ti.,n of forciKn jfasrs t„ th,. .nairmufie ^oiuti„n nni.v five the proper 
con.ljtioiis for the con.vntratiun of alkai.e^ in liinite.l mn.«es of roek. 

Th.!. e. n,]u,ion was tir-^t reaehed after an in.luetive «tu<lv of the field, a of nephe ite syenite. It wa* found that, witi, v..r.v few exeeption.. 
Dcphelire ..enite ..n.l ,ts elTu.ive equivalent, phon.dito. „nlj o,.o„rred where ...h- 
.■Jkaline n.aKina had eut important limestone or dolomite fornu.tion^ In 
geudral, the oiiKinal subalkaline n.aKin . wu^ of l.a,altie e.,mpo^iti..n Thi i. 
...n.'eived to have b.en tluxed hy the 8oiufi.,n of th.. .arhonate. The new lime 
■ r wu(ni.-;„ n.ust hx siliea to the extent of several times the wei^'i.t .,f eitl-r 
tase, ILe molecule thus forme.l is normally a pyroxene, which, with the like- 
■'Viso early-tormed maunetit... olivine, et.. . ".ir ♦. „,! »,. _,-,,t>l,. ,,a; ..f f),,. m nr„, , 
It is not e=^cntiul to determine whether gravitjr acts before or after the actual 

■ r-. -tii'lizii'irn (if ferric, f 

■i'r"ni;iL'nc.-inn. .'in.! 

(• Tlir;. 

■ " ' ^'111. 'Ml. Ill 7^. 1 III- ri'«iii i:,n 

magma is necessarily higher in alkalies th.ui the primary basalt. The fixing of 
-ilieu by the new lime an.l maKnesii meun^ u desilioation of tho rest of the 
magma, ;md nephelite or leucil,. forms ins%.„,l ,f f,.l,|sp.,r. Sin-,, '.ittle nli.mina 
■nters int,> the sunken eompone; s. this i.x' !„ .,,,,• !,.. ;„ ,..^,,„,, .„„. ,,,r.,,„|„,„ 
mil ultimately crystallize in the residual ma-ma. .Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide 
-'■t free from tho -olved carhonafe • , ri- through the magma. It mav 
I_o8Sibi.y , iirry with .oda and potash in eonihination as the alk.dine carbonates 
Ihese lai:,.lnir tlu.xos could rapidly enri.'li t!.. upper part of a lava column with 
either tr b-th alkaliea and thus furnish a leucite basa.t. a leucitite, or a 
nepbelinite, from whi.-h the ferromawiif,i,iii 
mul ba.sah have not had time to settle on; 
a phonolite or Icucoeratic neidielite syenii" i 
f.'rii! the feniic poles. 

-p.,- hypothesis cann..t b- fully pre-ent.-.l „ , .,„„„^„ 

t.a? b.en stated to show its nature. It exp'uins th- remarkably common nsso- 
ciaton of a kaline rocks with calcareous a„ 1 magie'sian sediments; the desilica- 
tion el primary magma, us indicate.l hy thi> presen -e of ncphelifo and leucite 
.n many alkaline types; the common sup-rsaruration of alkaline mau'nuH with 
alumina, r. suiting in tho crystallization ut corundum ; the common occurrence 
' ! prni.arv •ah ite, cancrinit.'. meianite. niolili'. . --capolite, wollast-nit.' atiii 

lU'i 'afemic constituents of n-r- 

1; tiie .sejiaration hcrnrtie^ perlV • 

tii'> s.ali.- pole, uhili- limburgit.s 

in this r.-purt hut -Imps enough 

■-■t&!. !-oi. -AnuT., Vol. I'l, 1910, i-p. n: 


i>i r\i(r\ii\T lit Till i\Ti:moi{ 

Ki-ncritl laiiff on thin subji-ct 
may liave great .tiVit in t!i>' 
'ilif inu:it easterly <i!' tli" 
:iiOIl/ulliti' intrusion- ut iili' 

2 GEORGE v.. A. I'JIJ 

<iiop«i<ii<' (Aroxcnf in alkiiline rorki; iiml ihi- roKiilur a-tso^'iation of alkalino 
lype-i with rockst of bu«alfii' coiniiosition. Tho Ronoriil oondmion i* that all 
ttlkulinc rocks aru ol ai'Coiiihiry origin; their exigU'nco gocw to «tri'n({then boli<-f 
III a primurv I'asulti'- •iiili-lriiiiirn 

Ft til.' n.iuKliiry bi'lt tli.-rc iiw ipccml iliiriciilti.M in llio wiiv of upplyins 
l.«nt< In tlif li.vpolhesii, 'I he chii'f dittifiiltv is tho l«''k of mifficipnt prpo^tiire of 
lh« lorniations cut Kv the vurinus ulkaliin- lio'licw. Thin i«, of fourac, no anti- 
oeileiil iibjeition to tho imnii prini'i|ili'. which rl■lnnin^^ ii» a iioni\ workinii hypo- 
thesis even it the licl.l cviilcn. c at tlic Forts -nintli Parallel were nil. The fo'lov.- 
intf ■.Ih.rl rev- w ,.! tichi rclaiions rdcrs -pocially to the roln playcl by linu's'oif 
;ibiM)rplion in !<iibiilkaline niaKina, Iml it i' i" l«i untierstoo'l that other '•ciliment-i, 
..r oven iiasic ci.\?taliiiic rock-, may p:.iy a similar p.irl. As pniiitcij out in tho 

relatively small proportimi of dis^olveil carbonate 
rr'ii'<lriii ilioii of eiieniieal elements in u magma 
alUul mc terraiips is the assemblage of latileH aici 
near Kossland. These are intimately ussociatod 
vith basaltr-, uugile undifliteu, and -iabbro-. I'lio country-rock- include pliyllite. 
^recii-.ti>nc-, and .-.rpeiitincs. be-i<l,- larL'c ImmH,- ,,f ( 'arl..>iiifcr..a- liiih-t..i„ 
refencl i- the I'end D'OrciHe gi.>up. That the limestone contacted with fhe 
luaKoia a" liie llu-hmd uait or \cnts i^ shown !•> its al.undan.o in tl..- w..i 
ments .f tlir aKKl"merate» en nioui'lain and Sheep Creek valley. The 
Salmon Uiver monzonite stock in partially surrounded by tho very thiok Pend 
U'Orcille limestone, thoui^h fln' t»' re. k^ .In not sli..- contact-. 

There arc few known bodies of typical syenite as largo as the Coryell batho- 
lith, which is more than 100 s.pnire mih - i alioul :J:i.-| npiarc kilomcir. -> in are.i. 
The pcncra' theory assumes that this balliolithic mass is a differentiate from i 
largo-sca'i' syntoctic. It must have lower silica than the averu^o batholith— a 
Uranitfr— because of the enormous volume uf laisie volcanics. -erpt-nt itic-'. argi'- 
lite, and litia'stone-, whidi the niiiuma ha- so evidently rephe-ed. ('■•iiii^vd i 
pranite the Cor.vell ma-s i- -onicwluit desilicated. This dc-ilication and the 
high alkalies are explained on the hypothesis now considered. The satellitic 
-'.•nite porphyry is clcurlv a late -alic ditfercritialc from tlie mail iMiri\, 

The rhomb porphyries and the shnckanitc of tho Midway di-tri.t are ditTor- 
I ntiates from one or more mafrmalic chanihcrs not exposed. The r countr.'^-roeks 
are very .seldom visible but in part at least have the same lithologlcal eliaractcr 
as those it the llossland district. Heavy masses of limestone crop n ' at tl.'- 
tew places where the Midway volcatiics have been eroded otT the I'aleozoi 

Tlie country-rocks of the Kruper alkaline body are also poorly e.xposed. 
On the west aide they have been assimilated by the i'ounser Similkatneen batho- 
lith. On the east a sni.ill area rcnuiins, between the Krugffr body and the 

Osoy.H.s granodioritc, S.,iith of the Hnundary line t!ic < itry-r...k are.. 

broadens out. there showine an average litholorJcal character identical with tha* 
..f the Anar.-hisl scries.* This series, eo.apr.sed of argillite (phylliteV quartzi*'-. 

•Cf. r, 
Plate I. 

O. Smith ami I. i\ ralkir,-. null. m. VS. n."ol. Surv.. Vm. p. 2J .mi 


nn-uHi •:! 1,1/ • -in i>//.'„\'.;// (,■ 7QJ 


ami thick ]ii„e,l.,n..-. w«. naa.lo.i l.y ,h.. KTu^.t (,„.|v \V,.,,|„,r or ,h,. 

m.l ^,Ml,I> ...ntac.nK will. th,. ..Ikuli,,,- l,.,.|y, w.-r- .,!.„ s.p.iti.ant fu.tors i„ 

;;::;..^"''" -'«* •"• ""■ '<-«- i-iv .- -v.huno,, „ .. ,,!,J:..,:;;:;" ,"„ 

...nth i;ar..lh.l »..ctu,n all „ri.nn,.t..,l l„,n, .( -t.|i,„o,„a;;.., . ,i 

th.f ti,r4. ,.„„.,,,„ , „. „,. -,,.,„;,, I .,,,, :, ,; ,,., ,„„,„„. i,;„j,;- 

All the.o a.^oPuU,..,. an. „.■«■ i]lu-.r,ri f , vrv ,..,„, ,,| ,.,|. a,.,,Ivi„. ,,. 

'h- .■«..«•„ ofounenccH ol alluilin,. r... k- TI... r,,!,. .- ,.„„. ,,,.1. ,„ „.!, u,' „, ,„. 

r.«.tr..«.iu,. th.-..r,y. It, .■M,|a„a,i.,n tl,r„ui..|, il,.. ,v, ti.wlitT, nnliatin,, th.-n 

^rluTobi- a tretutic connect!.,,, i^ foun.l bc'tweeu the r.-lativ-Oy ran- alkalino rark- 

aud tlif vastly m r.- ahutiilanf .■.•:l.iilK:ilii,i. r 

rtin ,,f . 





A. 1912 



The caption of each cliiinu bears the colloction number of the apeoimon 

Numbers 29r., ;554, r,9>, 400, 4.'6, -ICr., 49.'?, 500. r.Oi), 517 52.S 541 54n 557 
666, 071, 836, WS, i»00. !i6l>, WMi, 1355. i;!S8, l;!!)S, 1403, 1405 'l441 nnd the 
fe'.dspar were analyze.! l.y .Mr. M. F. Connor, of tlie Canadian Department of 
Mines. He analyzed also No. 34, a specimen collecte<l duriuR the survey of 
the Rossland mining euinp l,y Messrs. It. W. lirock and (i. A. YounR. 

Numbers 7. "", .54, L'Ol, l'8L', ns(5, lOlO. 1(».53. li>54, 10<;4 1100 1107 UO'l 
1110, llL'5. 1134, 1137, 113.S, 1140, 1143, 1153, 1104, U7l>, 1202,' 1221 ' 125o' 
1270, 1301, 1306, 1320. 1322. 1326, and 1338 were analyzed by I'rofessor m' 
Dittrich of Heidelberg, Germany. 

'1 111 Kl.l. 

M"l M-.M\ SlslKM. 







j: ~ 



7 > 






J, ^ 

- -5 

3 n 






^ "w 

"7 .1 

" 3 

* -^ 

7 ^ 


i- [' 

"t -'■ 


« ^ 


'/ -4 







f X 

y >. 

-.- . .- -.- 






1 l.-i:i 





41 .-xi 

71 lilt 

72 4' 

'i'l ti.'l 

:VJ 111 

.M '.i-J 

.^4 02 

70 7s 

*'" L*7 

Tit >5 

:t Xi 






1 :i.T 




1 7 (111 

1:1 Ltl 

M 17 

ir, 7ti 

11 2-J 

11 l:i 

12 IIS 

ir> 7*j 

17 1? 

l''i« h 

n :ti 



•-' Nti 

L* O.S 

2 '.17 

It .S5 


1 ( 1 1 


lU OS 

1 '.'.1 

.'. .'Kl 

10 71 


r. !»!,' 

.') Ill 

1 *>\ 

'i n~ 


' tr. 










i li; 71 

1 L'S 


1 :i:) 

r, ^1:) 

■* 22 

2 M2 

1 :i-.' 


. . - . 1 ■:'7 

1 i;i; 

■1 .Ml 

11 17 

III !c' 

11 .-.:; 

II 1;:; 




HuO . .. 

; " 1 

1 ::;■■ 

t r. 



. . . : 'J M 



' 1 41 

' 1 ' III 

1 :is 



'.i IS 


K]( > . ... 


•J ;t7 

L' I'l 

L' ■ ** ♦ 


- ■•_ 

11,0 .. . 

"/.'.[ -jT 



" VI 



ft "J.i 



1 :!1 

I 11 

1 17 

1 .'ill 

1 117 



1 IW 






L' ( 


. . 1 llullr 







1 KM) ,'tr. 

]w 11; 

;w 7ii 

!m HI 

li;i !ni 

\Ki 7X 

W n7 

ifHi n 

IiN) nl 

.S|., kT. .. . 

....; -7M 

•J 7;j:t 

'J 7L'.S 

li ji.M 

2 :i.-<ii 

J \i\Hi 

.'i HI 

*j ';5t 

- 7 s." 




— - 



_ ._ 


j J,,'l 






■• -f ' 







2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

KiWMIAMi MnCMAlN^ f'lllKfl.V. 

= 3 

.9 1 12 











Sit): 77 Oit 

Tid: 0.-, 

AliOj 13 (M 

KeO. . 









H,0 4 


.S . . . . 


Sp. gr. . . . 











2 600 


62 (IS 
16 111 

1 ■>;! 
:i 72 


2 44 

5 2U 


3 29 

1 IX) 




tW 51 


IC 71 


3 34 

2 53 

3' 1)2 



4 ■64 


52 96 



2 57 

5 55 



H 93 



2 73 

5 09 




5» ■ 66 

I 32 

It! 91 

1 71 
G 17 



2 H9 
4 45 


1 tl6 


54 49 
16 51 
2 79 
5 20 




100 47 ! 100 1 14 
2-754 1 2 847 

99 65 


99-r)0 100-45 100-04 
2 872 ; 2-843 I ? 




59 06 

1 08 
16 24 


4 88 


3 51 

5 59 

2 84 


70 ■ 

9;) 32 

2 796 

' Analysis furnished by Mr. R. W. Brmk. 



li"-- .1 \Mi .M..I M M\> C iiiKu 1. 

- '''■ 

KeO .. 
.Mnl I. . 
CaO . 
BaO, . 
K..6.. . 


H Of. 
PjO, . 
S. .. . 

Sp. nr 

*~ t. 

1 im 
1". Ii7 

2 Nf) 
,1 2« 


3 «« 
."> 33 


4 77 
3 OH 




."i4 :a 


in 1(1 

1 u 

4 113 



,") ■ K". 

3 38 

5 44 



I 37 


52 17 


1« Wi 

S 32 

not (let. 


3 X7 




3 !tl 

4 Oil 

I 17 













28 '■ 




41'3 Km; Hjii; IKK I 

."fci ex 


111 Si) 


5 53 


3 70 
ti 08 


4 03 
4 32 



1 05 

47 42 
15 ti;-, 
2 DO 
4 05 
4 IMI 

8 51 ; 


2 WJ 
4 10 

2 00 


6 24 

48 33 


12 :*\ 

I s7 

5 2H 


!l (17 

s 'J4 



1 81 , 
4 K7 


2 03 

2 04 




SO i 

12 mi 


I 11 

1 87 

5 1(1 


43 14 







4 00 



Pagt . 

9fl 54 

100 12 

101 »iO 

10"! 13 

IIXI oo 

100 00 , 

1(10 7« 

100 25 

;0o 29 

2 751 

2 745 


2 817 

2 723 

2 740 

2 77l' 


3 075 

j 3^S 

31^ 1 






.ii)7 i 



inci'AKrMEsr OF rut: imehiou 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 


MiinvAV Mm N1AIN> Ciiikki.v. 


SiO, -11 ■ 

Ti(», ""I"' 

AVIi 1 

Ke,Ui '•' 

FeO lint (If 


Mk<) ^'- 

CaO 1 

SrO ""'i'- 

BaO "■ '11'- 




H.O- I '• 



CO, 1 


S ! 

m"iw ! liiO'l 
Sp.tgr i!' 

/'...'• 1 -^'^ 

• Includes ZrO,. 




H' 5 





— r 



1. 7 



-^■^ • 

3 v.^ 

5 i 


4 ■-"?' 








:nr.3 i 




1109 1 




411 2.j 

«2 04 

.-.2 43 ! 

.31 83 

.32 2 1 

.311 49 

55 11 

.32 .33 










1 10 

17 113 

10 IS 

18 25 

19 28 

15 83 

21 28 

19 05 


4 i;i 


:'. r.' 1 

4 20 

4 ;<4 


2 i;i 

4 77 


:t 04 

1 •')7 

2 08 

1 4li 

1 13 


I 2".< 

2 in 











37 91 


2 111 

3 28 

1 83 

. 3 38 


1 99 




3 71 

4 08 

4 43 


7 9!t 

2 82 

5 75 




4 73 

4 8r) 

4 68 


3 12 

6 24 

4 03 



6 74 

5 93 

5 75 

2 40 

6 S6 

8 3i; 

T 30 











'.I 08 

1 18 

3 19 

3 15 

4 63 

1 20 


1 49 












1 '.»3 





1 07 




100 :i2 

99 S2 

99 83 

99 70 

<)9 89 

1 !(9 83 

99 9i; 

1011 17 


2 Hli^ 

: 2-4!17 


2 ■621 

2.328, 2 84! 

2 'lOl 

2 719 








Ok \\ \(;,\N KANtiK 


I SKAiill 

~ i - 




.=;•»■ = 

iJ ^ = 

■f r 


7 t r 




— ' 




i ChS 4;t 



... 1 -.'O 



■ i."i «( 



1 0« 



1 8."> 

1 (111 





. 146 


f 'aO 


2 !t2 







3 47 

1 ■ :« 








.. . (17 




1 -.-.s 


1 2;< 


1 ■.-,(; 



.i4 ml 


18 ,-.■> 

4 «4 



4 HO 






If. 21 

I n« 

1 HO 


3 .'<li 


4 07 


I3.V1 14 41 I3XH 1(03 

Oil .V. 


3 OK 





71 21 









4 2S 


I '.I 



rs '.HI 


IH 17 

I -23 

."1 • »<N 


t 30 




1 .^7 



.•^1.. fir. 

Olf72 1IO-44 ;io^.-2 lfl«r22 •«)■.■)!) j !l<).^>6 . 110 !i.5 09^.-)l lOO-K, 
2^70^ 2 i;:.4 2^721 2^Sl:i 2 Ii!l3 : 2^t)7H ' 2021 2-:i:i7 2-7:13 








2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Skv.ii Kam.k. 

Kim K^ M'll NTAIV "'l-TKM. 






~< >- -ci: S = = ^ 

; i^ X X ■/. r. 

i:bh i;») i:f2-j iiw. 1270 i.ioti 

■Si<t; .. 

TiO, . 
K.O .. 
MnO. . 
.MffO. . 
CaO ,. 
HaO . 
HiO^ . 
PtO, . 
C. . . . 

>'*t 3« 

17 a:< 

1'93 I 

3 74 ' 

14 i 

3 6fi 
ti 07 

71 41 


H :w 

1 :« 

1 17 

• •4 

1 13 

2 Til 

71 -M 


14 11 

1 7:> 



3<l 4ii 

4 .Vt 

1 m I 
10 07 

16 02 

I(S 8!t 13 4(i 2."i f)(i 2('iii7 :V> > 


Hi 7!t 
23 Ht, 

1 .■^1 

1 (15 


17 Ml 
25 IW 


14 77 
21 ti5 

3 112 

2 IW 

2 H8 

12 iVj' 

111 58 

3 40 
1 S6 

io 61V 

lit 72 

Sp. gr 


3 58 
1 74 



4 12 

2 97 

2 37 
3- 97 


5 71 


1 31 



28 ' 22'55' 

99 95 

2 767 





1 57 


1 ((8 


1 2:i 

3fi 89 38 08 32 ci3 


1 04 



1 40 

1 21 





1 52 

2 93 

29 14 


23 80 

100 07 100 27 100 38 100 43 100 15 99 87 100 40 
2 653^ 2^651i 2 749! 2^802| 2^805^ 2 768 2 816 








99 87 
2 741 


itF.i'iih'T or iHt: fuir.r xstkumimfi: 



M I, Sl^l I M 

!■■ !.■ KM ^I.•I 

N 1 Al^ >^ -1 KM 

■^Kl>' ^ I!an,.k 

r.'L'l* I. (Ml 

li::i \vs, 11.;;. liiu 

Sl( 1; 

:*; Ml 

■J4 i<'. 

lis :;7 

.M i;.-. 


7l» !li' 

71 2.; 


;, 1 t,,, 






Alil 1, . . . . 

5 '.'i2 

I\ S( 

7 ii2 

7 >■"> 

s si; 

11 :•■ 

i:i 2:: 


22 17 


1 4(1 


4 41 

I 74 




2 1 M I 

Vv( > 


•J "1 

It !l'.* 


1 Us 

;< i'( 

•■ »J."» 


11. ."i .l.'t 





i; as 

l:; iil 

1 II 

H (17 


! ■ : 

1 <rj 



1 30 

Cii( ) 

SrO . 

... Jl 113 

!'.< It 

.'i S'.t 

(.'. rfj 



1 l;i 


2 s 


4 1;2 



1 tl'l 

Xai< 1 




2 till 


:t 2s 

2 7.S 


4 4i> 

K,< 1 . . . 

. riw 

2 117 

1 :il 

1 -lis 

2 II 

1 :ii; 

2 '■li 



. . 2;i 






113 1 

H,t » 

.. 2 4!t 

1 7'i 

:i ("ill 



I 20 


1:3 1 

2 :"lOt 







•JJ 71 

is ,s;'i 

1 :<\ 

13 ir. 





' tl. 


— ^— — 

> — _ 

10(1 33 

llNI HI 


!1!1 !i;t 

IIMI li'J 

liKi :w 

li«j H. 



:i'.i 72 


. . . I -':•■< 

2 77:1 

2 HS7 

2 1.54 

2 i;si 

2 'ISO 






•Mean of twn aii.-ily»c>. -(.Xtlki'c 17' water t;tM'ii Mtf. 


iiEi'ARTiit:sr • y ihh isrt.mou 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 



HOrXDARV srRVFV FOR 1!to-2-(»r>. 

DR. R. A. DALY* 


By I). P. PENH\i,r.o\v, n.Sr . 

In the spring of 1903 I received from Dr. R. A. Daly, of the Department of 
the Interior, a smull collection of plants from the region of the Internntional 
HoiiiKhiry in British ('(ilimiliin, im ilerived from a r:\\i\A n'.'"nnaisi'aiico (in 1902). 
This material was reported upon tentatively in May of the same year, and 
though much of it was of sueli an imperfect nature as to render final conclu- 
sions impossible, it wa.s nevertheless of a very suppestive chnrnrtcr, and it not 
only yielded some new species, but it permitted of provisional conclusions as 
to the ages of the several deposits represented. 

In the autumn of litO.'i. Dr. Daly forwarde<l to me a larorer cnllection, embrac- 
ing material of a much more definite character, and derived not only from the 
same, but from other localities in the same general region. This material was 
found t(j confirm many of the provisional conclusions derived from the previous 
collection ; to add several now species to our knowledge of the flora of that 
section, and to afford very definite information as to the age of the deposits. 
It is thus found to be desirable to combine these two collections in the present 
report. As all the specimens were designated !.y numbers representative of 
special localities, these numbers may be used in the present instance for con- 
venience of reference; but the individual sjiecimens of each group will also be 
further designated by the use of subordinate letters or numbers which will be 
found upon the label of each specimen described, and in this way the identity 
may be fully established, and reference to the type facilitated. 


Gknf;r.\i. Dkscrii'tion of the Matliilm, and its SoiiirK. 

No. 250 of lOO.'i and lOOS.f — The two colli-'-tioiis under this number veiiresent 
identical localities. Dr. Daly states that ttu\v were obtained from a shallow 
gulch east of a bridpe over Kettle river, si.x miles up the .stream from the town 
of Midway. 'The formation is a series of gray sandstone la.vers; this is one 
of the isolated patches of so-called Tertiary noted by Dawson in his description 
cf the interior of British Columbia,' and on the map of the Geological Survey 

•Read bffore the Hoval Society of Canada, Mav 1.1. 1907, and printnd in its Trans- 
actions, Section IV, 1907', pp. 287-33*. 

t The collection made in 1902 was forwarded to Profes-or rpiiliallow in 1903 and is 
here referred to as the "1903" collection 

in.i'oRT <ii nil. • lurr i.s/a'o.voi// /; 



it is marked us of Jlioccne agp. • It !■> cut by baaallic aii'l andi-sitic dikes, and 
is overlain by flows and tuffs of the -nni.' eniptivr tiiatiTiid. The pencrni dip 
is i!5 degrees to tlic southeast, but in the lower [liirt u ' tlie fruleh it rises to "5 
degrees in tlie giuue ilirection. Tiie wli..!,. ^'roup nf s,ind;tniios and hivas ha* 
been faulted and I'uMed.' 

The specimens I'rwin llie llr^t C(dlecti,.n embraeed various fr.nnnents of leaves 
in a very imperfect state of preservation, from wliieh no very definite eoneluaiona 
eould be drawn. There were also two speeiinens of calcified wood which were 
found to bo new. In VJuri, the collections were found to include frujrtnenls of 
fruit, leaves and stems of limited value; but tluy were chielly roniarkabio for 
the larfte number of calcified fragments of wood, most of which showe<l a fine 
state of preservation. Two of thesfi proved to be identical with previously 
lecogni/.ed species, while two were entirely new. 

Numbers HXll and 1(H»" of the VM>r> collection are reported l^v Dr. Daly 
as haviuff been c'olleeied oji the Ketth^ river, u few miles north of the Inter- 
national Boundary, tmd from a locality near to Xo. 2.")0. In all three of these 

eases the general f 'rniution un,! tin' cliaracirr uf the s| iuicns >how clearly 

that they are of the same age. 

Number 271 of the 100.". collection reprc-ents the north side of the canon 
wall of Kock Creek, an affluent of the K'ettle river, ab^ut si.x miles west of 
No. 250, and, therifore, within nn area nsually dcsipTiated as Miocene; and 
according to Dr. Daly, the rocks are undoubte<lly of the same a^'e as those of 
No. 2.50. They consist of gray sand-tones, freestones aiid light and dark gray, 
papcy shales. The dip is ^0 degrees due north. These beds overlie a coarse 
conglomerate whi'h is associated with coarse arkoso overlying its p.irent rock, 
a coarse granite. They arc cut by basic dikes and by a laccolith-like mass of 
porphyry. The very few specimens obtained from this locality are all undoubt- 
edly of rather recent age, ami in their general character they tend to confirm 
the relations otherwise indicated as existing' Ii^Iwccm them and .Vos. 2."0, 1001 
and 1007. The state of preservation is nevertheless very poor, and they give 
very little reliable information as to the precise nature of the species. 

Previous lollections from British Columbia have shown the existence there 
of Tertiary plan's, and in inirticular, .Sir William Dawson described a number 
of specimens from the Similkauiecn valley which he assignoil to the Fprier 
Kocenc (10). As the locality i- in -mnowhat do-e pro"imity (aliout sixty n^iies 
vest) to the one under discussion, it is possible that they are of the same horizon, 
and they must therefore be considered together in future discussions. 

Number 1133 of the I'.'OS collections embraces a number of fratrmcnts of 
leaves and stems of an undeterminable character, and while they fall within the 
same general regiim as 1430 l-l:5ii, and are presumably of the same age. they 
'-ffer no reliable evidence to this effect. 

Number 1430 of the 1!(0."> collection is by far the 'i:isf important numerically, 
as well as with respect to the number of recogr '.able ; ifcies. These specimens 
not tidy include previously described species, hi.t they ""iso present several new 


iirr[itr\n:\i <»/ ////. ixiritnm 

wlfAf. tliiv pon-'fittit'' tho kcvnot. 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
fur tho four relat<>'l 


tdics. mill nil the 

Numbers 142S, 1480, 14^3 ninl Uin of tlio lOOB collections were taken from 
a JiirKe iiroa of what has nlwavs hoen rejfardod as liowor ("rotupeoiis, occurrinff 
at the Hoiu:,lary (4!)t!i pnriillt'l) Liiii', nt n point botwoon tho Pasayten ati'l 
Skagit rivers, within an area whicli is indicatrd on the ricoloffii'al map as Cre- 
tncoous. ' There seem to be lit least 2H,()i)0 feet of ihi-* sericn iiltocether, ami 
ii ap|.'»ar8 to correlate with the Shaatu-Chico Series.' An important aspect of 
Nos. 14L"^ ami H''0 is to I'O fiuinil in tlirir rohitivo nt'c-i iw well ns to uhi'tlior 
they arc n^ally CretuceoU'*. In this connection Or, Daly ol)sorvos that 'the 
bc'ls boiiiidinK thcni dip imkIit iininioTiitc-bcnrinfr l>ods of Oitiiccous aRC. but it 
is possible that they uro younger imd hiive been fiuilted down into attitude' 

142S is a locality of exccptiiinal interest, since it has yielded some of the 
most perfectly preserved specimens of tiie entire collection, and it embraces iit 
least one new species of fern which has great value as an index of (tcolofiical 
flse. Tiiere are also a number of poorly preserved forms which, by comparison 
with determinable ones, may be correlated with curtain doubtfid forms observed 
in tlie colli'iaion of l!«i:i. with respect to wliieh the provisional conclusion- for- 
merly reaehcii are now fully confirniei}. 

14:!ti also represents fragments of stems or leaves of a very doubtful charac- 
ter, liut ajrain, by <omparison. it is pos--itilo to correlate them with recognized 

Number 471 of tlie llttto collection ■ ciiie- Iimhi a -ieries of liiaek. ajialy 
beds, associated with sandy strata, dipping :)5 degrees duo east on the eastern 
slope of Sheep Creek valley just southeast of Rossland. The fossils camo out of 
bands immediately above the Red Mountain railroad track. Tho whole series 
beems ' be made up of assorted (water-laid) ash bods and tuffaceous deposits. 
These overlain by coarse agglomerates, which compose much of the great 

voice group of rocks surrounding Rosslnnd, and in which the copper-gold 
ores • largely found.' 

...oculity 471 is about one hundred and twenty miles oast of 14i!8 and 1438, 
being near Rossland, while tho latter are on the summit ot tli'e Cascade moun- 
tain>. The specimens from 471 c(nsist entirely of a number of pyritized frag- 
.1 on*5 of leaves which show little evidence that can be utilized for purposes 
ot identitication. The locali'y is an entirely isolated one, but by close compari- 
son of the specimens with those from the more western localities, it is possible 
to draw the ciuchisifin that there is es^ential identity with specimens from 
1428, and that 1428, 1430, 1433, 1436 and 471 are all of the same age, questiras 
of the precise horizon within these limits to be determincl in the followinit 

A review of all tiio material embraced in the two collections, shows that it 
fi.lls into two well defined periods— Cretaceous and Tertiaiy, and it is most 
gratifying to find in this connection that the tenta*ive eonvlusions based upon 
the very imperfect material of the 190:! collection lur. e boon fully sustained 
by our later studies. 

ifU'uKv itt : iir iiinr i\7Kov(<fc>.A' 


DmcHIPTIcV .,F 1111 Sl'FriMKNH 


-.' & 111. 

Tho I 

Iiiiii ) 

I 1:1; I I I//) 

Vt' I A ( 111 I Mini \s|^ 
vi'i'i'x-iili'il ''\ t« , |..irN 
i* rcpro-pnioil l>y a sinelc 

1, -p. 

t'niL'iiH'iit^ .it' -,!( Ill- I .■..ii.>. 

huf beautifully prc-ifiv.-.I i-iiif 

(^Plate I), from wliioli tho fnllowitiur clianicftri iiia.v U' drawn: 

Conn nBrrowlT ovBte or .•■ 23 x S .m ; th,. ^.-al-M Ou \ II mii tl...;;iM, 

The fniriiu'iitu nt" -itt-in nn- obviou-ly I'mm tlio I.Tininiil iiiii-ti.iiis ..f hramh.": 
■ if sdiiio Cdiiifcroua fr.-..», iin.l from the ilmractor of the loaf Hears, thoy aro lo b.' 
ref.?rrc.l to the koihh I' While the e brnnelio:< are not oonnooto'.! with the 
<'oiip-i in nii.v way, nor do they even ...enr in the saiiio blocks* of matrix, never- 
thelesa they are from the same iied.J, and in the abseiiee of any oilier represonta 
live of the neiiiis, it i- probably justifiable tn eoneliide that thev are of the -aiiie 
speeiea and will be so eetisidered. 

The plant hero represented has n.. living relative with which it may be 

eompared. but the uenend asj t and -truetiire ..f tho .■..iie would seem to pluee 

It without doubt, union- the reil spruees t„ the .' of which it hears „ siromr 
r. -rmblance with respei't to treiieral form and the ( haraet,.p ,,f the -cabs, though 
the dentate inar^'iiis ef the latter at first *\ii:i:,.-At atTinity witli P. nipra. 

Amony the fos^il representatives of this (reiuis, all tho r ■ontrnized spceies 
pre of Tertiary a^ro and very iVw in Miiii,!,-r The in ij.. pity are kimwii tlirmiirl, 

their wood and have been deri\e.| IrMin ti',. l'|.:-l ne. !. it l\ni,wlt.,n (33) ha- 

dcscribed a species from KiiKak Bay. Alaska, under the name of P. harriinani. 
This i3 the only N'orth Aineriean species which has >,, far been ne,,i;ni"/ed 

throufrh its cones only, and an ins| tieii of tlie tiirnre- iriveu sIiowj it to be 

of a totally ditlereiit typo, appr.iximafiiiu'. aceordinir to Dr. K'nowlton. to the 

existing Alaska spruci — P, siteliensi-. The afje of itii- tree is jrive 




2.')i 1 

lb. .t ;ii., 


I. '111. 

Ot l'.Ml."i 



Tiiis species is one of rhoso problematical forms, cnc-rniif; which it -eems 
o.\trcinoly difficult to obf.iu sufficimtly eoiii[ii-ehen'^ive data T.. ailinit of a fully 
reliable diagnosis which will its character beyond doubt. All the 
specimens so far tigured. represent frajfments only, and so poorly proi-eneJ as 
to make ade.|Uate description iiiipossiblc. So far as may be judged from the 
figures given at various times, as well as the material which has passed through 
my hands, the leaf seems to have been a somewhat delicate one. in conseiiuence 
of which the essential charn- tors have been but I'oorly preserved. That it was a 
monocotyledon of some sort is <iuite evident, but it will not k- possible to place 
it more exactly until more perfect material is found, and the name commonly 

-.'la \'-\. iii .".-J 

!■; -t-»- 


i>Kr\tn\n \i m rni i\ii ninn 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
.lil.TMiinnlii II iiuisl !ifi v'u'«-,?(l a* 

ii=.-iKtH'il "M '!"' I'l '- "f lAMi|nprcii\V oririiiil 
v\licillv iprovi-ioniil. 

A, V'vs,..,t,.,l 1. n, i>. th.. ,..•,-.!,. .-..II,. ■.!..„-. .1.- ,,l.,.,t aP,-n- lr,m t« 
,litT,Tent luc.liti.*. MthnUKh repro^mitin^' tlu. .aiu.. (folo^ical l,onzon-2..0 

.in.l lO'C Tlu. >r-"i>nP"- "'"'W tlu, Hunt n. so.niwhiU .1 tT.Tri i..l.t,..n» of 

I'.reRTvatio.,. but v h a vrH.m cnn^tanry of .•l..ractpr.s whu-h p.nnit of r..or.lm;.- 
,i, n Tl.ftv «re al.vaya or i-^s .iistii.ctl.v n.Ko^ , so.n-.ii,.... .'-o w.-h tra.u- 
v.T^o wiiukl.s. Ih-.s son..ti..i.., :„.i.far witli-.t any ..vM-mv ol vnation. wli.l« 

i„ „,l.,r insta,.-... tl...y .).." ^ W-uouu 1 ati,.n nf „ -ro,..', .-ontr,,! „orvo 

or Thoy are :umoo, >1u. lonn. whi.-h .,v ••ntinly n.w to 0,o ro^r.on 
und.T .ci.lrrati.m. I .t, liu-y are ro-op„i .,1 .■,.„,,..,. i,t- .•! tl,,. (.root, liivPr 
(Jroii|> of Kaii.l" ouiitx. Col -ra-l . 42 

iini ■-'■ 

'111,. ^MTiMi. 'I- ivn in luir-l .i^' tia.Mo. ! !■ 
u,uch altp'..,l l,y .k-oay, 1,„. slu,w.. .. itup-rf,, . r^tluT hno. ,uuallo1 vonat.on 
and ...ark...l evi.l.... • ^ of :, stn,,,.'. oontral n>i.,r, , wh,,-!, howovor. .no 
i„fr.-.|U.-ntlv wa.itin^r in th. Marrower .,>. .inHi,.. IL'To is aUo. tr.-,„u..,tl>. a 
^ tran-vorso wriukliiu' ,r : • l'.i-itn,lini,t .l,-ola.. luri.t. 

Our%H..-l.n..„. ,....., , =o,n,.what -.ronp ro-.n.Wanr.. t- the scnovv hat 
r«.-entlv .losorii, 1 Ano,„alo,,hyllhos brhi^.toncnsi, of HoUi.k. from t ,o \ollow 
r.rnvol of Mi..nn. ,.- a. Tin.lp.tno. X..T. (32> Tin, ,. a prohlen.n.,.fll form 
,.1 .1, I'r, llolHck ha- ref.Trod to .\v .alopKvllitos a, prolml v rcpro^en .t,^' it. 
noare.. a.linity. hut it i. .l.tliclt f..r , ... to -..ko at.y pn ,iHfn<-Km betwec, 
it an.! Cyi^racitiN .,co..r.lini,^ to the nc.-pt,d dotuntion of that ffoni... A- a refor.^..™, perhaps it is of little co>.=.eMuon<-e whi-h genus ,. pven 
H 1 .reiWenoc. Oar .Material -.em. to .lif^.r fro.n Holli-V- A. br„k...onen... 
,„ bein.^ tnoeh narrower, ami in having a n.ueh .hort.-r and moro ^'""'^'^ ■;; ;• 
differencs wl.hh are ^oecific rather than gener.e. while they may nUo. possibly, 
represent aeci-iental difference. U inperfeetly preserved n.ateruil. 

., - , , - . : 19'i.i 

"■" V number of poorly preserv.d frannents of le.ves. the .-.eecdinffly frnff^ 

. ,.„tar ouditiou and i: pcrf ::ru.-.ural markings of which make spec^ 

reference of do b^ ful value. But provisionally, at least, it would seem that 
they uiu • he a.-=ig!ied to Cyperacites. 


of 19W, 

The specimens included tm -r this number are exe.ediugly problematical. 
1h..v epre'^ut fr..:n„ents .f end-genous leaves which are not complete either as 
to he r u.-th or hreadth, base or apex. It is. th.refor... impos.=ble to reach 
filal conclusions res,.ee.:ng th.m. The.v show, however, a parallel venation a 
riar Picati,.,, () or series of nnded ridges distant at rather regular 
[mcrv s of 4 mm. No other structural d. • dls are recugnuable. Precisely the 

same plan- appeared in the eoUeetiou of 1003 under tl.e number 




in fill! I '1/ //// I nil I \ si I.-,, M.I i; 80& 


iXt.riiiil iij'lwariilK-p of th.-«o I'Miiaiin nf .iicp ^iga.-itx tlvXrii.-i iir „< ( iilaiiiitiw 
rndiutiia m' H.>er. l)iit il.orr' iir<' iwo m-tv sutHf.intiul • !.;e.'fi..iit t.. ror,.i.l,.rii,^.' 
the r^xi-tenc" of such « rohit ion-hip. kvaus, i.l) it Um ii,,t boon p,.*-iibh- i.. 
(Iftoriiiliic il„ |,rusencn oi tho vharu.-ti'rinl i- julnliii r,{ thnt rihmmw, nlthnualv 

rrrtllili lilM- .i Ir.l'turi' .! ,■ |,, ' ■.,-,■ .'i. | ,• ni) r. - :, h:!'.- - !:■ -'-A f. 

•MOiilf iihstrvors to wh'.KO attciitiuh th.y (liri.-.'.l, - l.titity witli »iir»i 
"'iiit-'. aiul i:.') rnliUiiitiw la^liatii- is n t arhonif-r-u, r>(„.. witii whii-h it wonlil 
b" iiiipo-»ih!o to ciirrohito our pr <piii | ..-in,. ii, whh'h iro u:i.|ii.>-.f ioiiahly of 
iiMTu recent oripin. Thor.^ !-, Hkcwl-,.. tin i.iint of i',,)iipiiriM. n with ir.'r-r'- 
t'uiiliiiitr-'. whioli i- ,.\ \l,-,,/,.i. a,:,.. ,,. r with any ..f il„- \,,r'..,i. «|,.-.-:i-^ ■.!' 
Sabal. wiiicli liavo been dooribe.! as . .rvirrini? in tin- ri(tarf><iiH ami Tortinrv. 
I'ipl.r thi-r ■ifUMi-laiii.'-i, it ,.,\,n .:>,„,;.j\..-r pr..l.all. that thr vari.iH ri.L'< ^ 
aro not orii-'inal l.-atiirrn .,!' tho or^'an, hut lliat thi'> \ia\" been pro'linv,! bv 
ciTtaiii ciin.litioiid of pnicrv,.! ,n. aii.l ilial rpn'ilir ,-'',. at 'it,..! 
intcrval-i is only an c\prc»*iMn ,.f tho l,M-afinn oi' ^hc iTlnripal ihtvi-h i.r \.:rw 
On the bu-i- of thi^ in''Tpr<'tati.iti v.— mu-- .'orichid,- that thrao f racn. ut^ 
I'unnot ho "h'tinitely M'pariitril from t -i- rcprcs..!,' ■.- ("vp.'rar'itr-s hav.loi.ii, 
vith \vliii_-h tia.y must th,>r.'f.irc ho r.'tr.. a.-f i.h'nli.Ml. T!ii< .■..ti.'luM.n a!.-.' 
pains -troiipth f ■ m thi' ■iron,,, i,,, ,. fl,.,, „ ;„„ us '\ .pn -, nf inton tin'. 

fcrnw .,1 .\i.■]^ a I'har.i. 'o;- as to rondiiy fh.iw iiow -ho ono pa«nN int.i tho il. r 
hy arying ooiiditiun- n( pr< -orvati'iH. 

I. I'l 

uf i:'<i ; an 

of the pro- i.iiis n firi liio.,rn-oi!' rivon' 


C\ I'lltM Hi-. 8p. 

\ arious fragments of an oiulos-onons loaf, vhioh i' )ins boon oustoi 
rofor to tho ponus Cypoinoitcs wii!;.. r any si^ci'ic do-ipnaiion. hoi- 

■ 3' 

Itored a< to mako idon" 

vr.:::i.ri ma. 

ry t'. 
■ tho 
no no 

di tails of form and -tnioturo aro \i-uall 

::■ .■■-■':. X... -I, I ,-,,-,■■,„■•.-,, -i,, ,-: ,. ,i, : ,'. ,,; , 

perfooli.v than is commonly tiie case. The wliolc frapmont is 15 oiis hroad 

and ^.:.' ■. m. long. Tho very prominent and paraHol vonafh-, i^j fr.iind to .<how 

about :■ iim to tho cm., hut this is onl.v appr-ixiniato, siuou it is foisnd that 

cwi-!"- to a '■, 'lapse of th.' gonora! sinicturt', some veins arc much ncan-r tlian 

others. Tho'r iiorinn! interval would soom to bo about 1 mm. In spooimotis 

•;a V ''■ ' '''ft^'sely '''f ''■'"■<■ forms rec;iir, and they must bo liehi to fall under 

1 le ."luie generic designation. 

iteniains of this character are of very common c?currence througfioi.t the 

Ti-r'iary. and llav,s,,]i (51 ', , . ,■,,.; r... 'I.-I ;i:idei- il::- tuiu;.'. a -p. mi.-o 
which he describes as 'A lender, gras-like stem with linear, finely stnato 
leaves, alternaioiy dispo.sed and not proceeding tram enlarged joints.' I;i bis 
account of the Flora of the John Day liasin in Oregon, the horizon of which ia 

ronnnlod .i- I pper .\I i. '•.•lie. Kiiowl'.^ii 34' p'-'r.:'-- tl;. •■ourrenoe of a -tea. 
L'".a- \ "I. lii ."cM 


/»/■'/• I /rn/Avv Of riii: isiiitiint 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 
showing imr;,ll..l vonation. llw whol.. sixMiinri. .•orro.i.on.lii.K in «11 iU .l.'taiU to 
that whirli lias bcH^n .los-Til...! from tl..- V.m coll.vtin,, i.ii<lor numbor '., . 

of imW (^ "!,' as provioualy reportfd undor wroiiK' niiinbor). 


^ Th.«e spocimous o.nbrace, in a.l.iition to fraRnu-nta of Typoracilea haydenii, 
as already .liscnssed. ono fraKn.....t of a Cypcraritos of unknown apcmcs, wind, 1)0 rcforrod provisionally to the group embraced i"^'^',,, '•'■■■ 1" "''li""" 
tl.ore are a lar>;e nun>l.,-r of fraRments of an.l leaves of :-n nndetern.inable 
eliaracter, but wliii'li may lielond here. 


.f I'.'o:;. 

r'-l'III.UMIN Wll I. 

Two fraRn,.-nt. o1 small stenus or leaves, a few en. lonR by ft few n.n. wide^ 
There is no evide..eo whatever of slnK-ture. and it i. .n.po.s.hle to 
correlate ihein with any known forms. 

V: i; 

A single s.KJciM.en, reprcsculiu.- a p,..-tion ol a hranch.nR «'«'" «-'"'»' 
exhibits n^ detailed structural features, hut has all the P'-»^ <> " 
nor h. of a fen stipe bearing the l.asal por.iou of the raeh.s o. one of the 
', -"ir As sucl the spcei,..e,. has no stra.igraphical value, s.neo the or 

,..uus cannot he dc.cru.i 1; ho, it is highly probable that it is identical with , 

of the same coUcelio... which represents of aten.s only two or U.ree 
,..,„, i„„.| res Inn... with fra^'iocit. of Icvs. 

> I' 1 : M 1." 

lit II I \. >!• 

;liv;,::':,,:;j;::;;,:;u,r:;;.;':.;'-;;- 1; « i». - -". ^^ >■ -i- 

sioiially referred. 

a. 1. 

of V.m. 

I'lM s coll MIIIVN \. II. S|' 

rca.lth .md 2.8 e,... in thickness. The stru<-t,>re was w.-l preserved and ahn.tted 
inlrujination wi.W., m,.ch d..^ 

;::':;;;^,!n;: l.;;; !;; nini'i- l^'-- ^''•■' - ^.rresentative of « h„rd pine, but 



in nmr m riii < nii r \siK<>\ii\iri! 



if wiiB iiiip(w^il)lc I') iilciitify it with luiy pn vioii>l,v i(>r,,({i,i/iil f.issil typi', i.r 
with any oxistinjl siiecjcs. althnu^rl, it \^ „( ii,|,.n"st to fiml flint it i'J ;i hiir/l i>ino 
i.t' thi' >r<'ii(MMl !,viM- ,,r 1'. lil.ilirM, |.i whi.'i li ^,.|iii>« .-l,.-! I> .i|iprnxiiiiatr-<. ImiI 
from which it <lifr,rs iiiiilr riiill.v in tin' >lnicliiri' of the iiifhilliirv my. In the 
I'olh'i'lidiis uf UMI,". rroiM thi' sjMiic hic'iilitv, ini^'iscly tlu> siiiiif wuod was oncp 

1 111" ri'. .iL'iii/c I 111'. I.r 111, ■!( .<itrii:itiiiii 

■y iii\ IP i| ii 


This more nccnt iimliMial. liowovor. lias Ih'ch f>>iiii<l tc In' in ;i tiiiK-h Ix'tfcr state 
,it presiTvaliun, londil inns of (h'cny not having; prORriM^iii so far as in tho previous 
ease, and it thiTi'fori' served to eiiiiipli'le the diafinosij with respect to wiveral 
linpi rt:iiit cliaraiii rs uliii I: w . rr iMJii r vli.ili waMiin:: m tlir prcvionn iiialeriiil. 
or iiiiperftH'tly pnwonted. 

'riierc is ihi i-r.unl mT ill, \i ! ,,: I'i.iu- li.i.m:; l,...n !,.,.iii| in tlw -aine 

horizon in North America, fhouRh Knowiton h'ls (h'seribcd two species from the 
T.nraniii' (,f the \'e1l,,ws|,.ne Nali,, I'arli, midrr tic iiaims of I'ityoxyh.ii 
aldersnni an, I I', annthy-f iiiiini (35 i. Hclucrii lli,-,' ami tlie |iris,.|it -.|iei'lnirn-. 
however, there arc no points of rcsrinWnnee. Tlie diapnoi=is for the pregpnf 
species is as fidlowa:-- 

I'lM s , 111 1 Miu\\,\, n. -p. 

I'laK- III and IV. 

Titifisriisi <irciwlli liii-s vaiinljlt. tliii\n;li i;fiii riilly \ • i v liU'.nl in ttir lai^f -tfii,-. 
SpiiiiK HiiocI usually ipri'ilmuinant. Ilie ti'.ui-il ion t" tlif siimiiimt wiiml 
Krailiial, liul in tin' iiarrmv riiit;s uku,' nr li's^ .ibriipt ami ^oint'tiiiu- 
conspMiniii.-lv mi: llu' tiaihiiils lirij,', thi, k-walli i| and nftt'ii niii 
HpiciKiusIv VII, li.liniti'lr riuimliMl. nftiMi lailinlly rliiHIv niiifiirm. 
iiiuro iir li'vs r,|Uiil, ill ri':;iilar r.idial niws. SiiininiT bihmI ion, delist, ami oft, n llnu. Tli," >ti iicliir.- a- a ii liiil,, i. that i.f 
a ratliiT di>nsi> woiid of iikhIiiiiii hartliu'^-;. M, iliiitary rays proinim'tit, 
nut virv iiUTiu'iiius, n-nuai.- and di-tanf ii|i»<ii,ls of it i,i niiUK larolv 
15 i<>«-~ of tr.iilu'iiU. h'iMu |;i's conspiruiiii-. r.ithi'r l.irf.' an, I 
viatterint tliroiii;li,uit tlu' kmiwIIi rinj,', tin' pai in, liyni.i ,-, lU laii;,, 
fliin-walii'd and in two rows, or lonuin^ lai^,>. irr,'j;nlar tin, t^ up 
wartis of <;-It tracln'ids wi,!,,; rf^iiious; i|iylo><4v not ohvioti*,. 

Rndial. Medullary rays r,>inoii^; llu' t ra, hi'iils lalher nuTmrnus. niMi; ,iiiil'rspiT^ed. not idjviou^ly pri'doniiniinf . very \ari.ittli« ,ind oftt>n as 
liidh as I r hialici- lon>;. -parni;;lv doutat,-*, th,' pan-m livm.i nllv 
all of one l^inil ;iml r:ith, r tlnn-vv.ilhil. -tiaiu'tit aiut oipial t,i aliout t 
wood t lailloids, 111,' uppii- ami lo«„r wall- s|ion(;lv, th, t,'iininal 
Willis stiaiKlit oi- iliatjonal .md .iiim irntly not pitliil. tlu' latiTal w.ilj.. 
with simple, rounil m I, nlHuhir pit^ i,|' nndiuio -r/,, H. chirlh 2 p.T 
traihcid. Uuderod pilf. on th,' LnipMil inl w.ilU of the ^inuniiT 
traehi'ids small aTid not niiun'ious. ttioso on th.- r.iilial walls lalh, i 
lavK'', round, or o\al in oiir 'oiiip.u't r<vw, a-id ^;, -a, rally nunii'rous. 

ruHV/ciitial, Fusiforin rays rath«>r nnuK'i'ou-. --hoil, th,' liroad nritral 1 1 a< I with 
tliin-walli'd parrnrhynia (In, fly liroki n out: th,' tiruiinaU com 
l>«,s('d of liroad, oval colls ,ln,'Hy in ono row, iii,lin.ii> rays low t*, 
ini'dium, iinisi'iinli', not mitrn.illy , out rait,, I l,v tho intii ,-p,'rsi ,| 
Irachc'ids; the parrnrliyma , ,'lls soinowhat uii,',|iial .hhI vaiiatil,' fi,,ni 
obloUK (ill Iha sutninvr woikD to liroad and ov ,1 , i rounil iiu 'tho 
sprinR wood). 

• I'oraibly du« to condif-iorti of do, ar. 


HI r\iir\ii:\r nr Tin: imfukhi 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

In tlie Collections nf I'JOi) 


under number '".'' there were two impre-^ions 

of lones which obviously represent a species of pine (PI. II.). They are entirely 
free from associnted foliapre or other portions of the tree by means of which they 
might l>c more fully determined and correlated with known species. Although 
somewhat distorted by dLsplacement of their matrix, their essential characters 
arc fairl^v well i)re^eived and may be described as follows: — 

Cones narrowly ovate or oliloiiR ovate; the scales upwards of 11 cm. bioml uiid 
3 mm. thick at the upper ends, stionRly ond transvov^lv keeUd and tcrmin:itinK in 
depressed, round or transverM?I.v elonnatod umbos without (') prickle-. 

From the above description it is quite clear that the cones represent a 
hard pine, and upon careful comparison with the e.xcellent figurei and descrip- 
ti.,11- fiivcii liy S.irKcnt (55». it Iccuii.c- a|.|.nn'nt tliiit tlic,-- ;uv mr-I ain-i-tlv 
comparable with P. glabra among existing species. 

Although the two localities for the stem and cones are not identical, they 
represent the same horizon, and probably the same deposits, so that in view of 
the essential relationship established above, it is probably justifiable to consider 
that both cones and wood represent the same species. This view is strengthened 
i)y the fai't tinit in.leiirii.l.Mit .Ict.TiMiiiatioiis l.roudif the two to substantially tlu- 
the same species. 

Cil'iu>?o-\Yi,o.\ MAH;oc\RPOiiiES, Penh. 

a, b, c, d, 
m, of inori. 

In 1904 I described a new wood, found among the undescribed .speoiinens in 
the Peter U.dpath Museum, under the name of Cuprcssoxylon raacrocarpoides 

(47). litH'ause of it- -iriUing n-eniMauro to il Ni-liiii.' Cin're-s;- niarr..Mr|ia. 

with which it is po-sible it shovdd be fully identified imder the same name, but 
of which it is to be regarded as the ancestral form in any event. These woods 
were all recorded as from the Cretaceous formation near Medicine Hat, .lUberta, 
the i>reeise locality being Twenty-Mile creek. 

In the l!it>.5 from the Kettle river, large nmnbers of specimens 
representative of this tree "vere again met with, and in the main, they are much 
better preserved. 'I'bat this genus has already been recognized as an eleinent 
of botii the Cretaeeous and Tertiary Horas. has been shown on fornier oeensions, 
and especially by the occurrence of C. dawsoni, Penh., in the Eocene of the 
Great Valley and Porcupine Creek groups, as well as in the Cretaeeous of the 
South Saskatehewa- near Melirinc Hal (47i. This extended geojouiea! 1.111-. 
is quite in harmony with the idea that the genus as a whole is an old one, and 
th* the present species is ancestral to. if not in all respects identical with the 
existing <'. inaeroeai-pa. 


i;i:r<iitr or iin. < iiii i i - /■/,•'» Md///,' 



Ulmi's I'ROTOUAi i:mosa, n. 
Plates IV-VI. 

This plnnt is reprosontoil by n -inplc spcciinpn of calcifipd wood, tlic stnioture 
of which is fairly well prcsoryed. chietly witli re-ipeot tr, the trnnsverse seofinn. 
Tn the longitudinal sections the structure is so altered that many of the essential 
details cannot be determined, and the tini-.l diagnosis must be deferred until 
such time as more ample and more perfectly preserved nuiterial renders it pv-sible 
to draw it accurately. The provisional diagnosis nevertheless shows this wood 
to be that of an elm. While the wood of tiiis genus is not known in liorizons 
earlier than the Pleistocene, in which forii;ation both V. amerieana and U. 
racemosa are well recognized types, the present material affords the first definite 
knowledge of the woody structure of a genus in formations where its leaves 
have been known for some time. Among existing species this wood is probabl.v 
most nearly comparable with U. racemosa — a species which exhioits great struc- 
tural variation along lines essentially parallel with those shown in the present 
case. From the details of structure available, it is perhans not unsafe to assert 
that the resemblance is so close as to ju-tify regarding the fossil as the jirototype 
of that species, and it is therefore named with reference to this fact. The diag- 
nosis so far as obtained is as follows: — 

I'l.MI V I'l 

'ioi!\.i:\iii-\, n. 'p. 

Transverse. — Growth rings very variable iind with nn obvious lii-tinctinn of >print; 
and summer wood; in stems of lapid siiuvth very broad and -howin;; 
a Rradation of vetstls and wood jifrindiynKi ; in >tfms of -low (■rcmili 
very uarni'\' ami nioi© vaii.ilili'. Slruttim' mtlior di'riM' lu tin' 
greater portion of the rinp;; \\if wood celN ineduim, mtlicr tlii'-k- 
walled. Vessels of the spring wo^id nit'diuni, not vi-ry laigi', r.idiaHy 
oval or oblong and often i^o di<|M)^fd as to be radially 2 seriato but 
without thyloses; ti>rniinK about J-i the thicknost; of the rin;; and 
•xbruptly replaced by small vo^-els and wood parmchynia foi-minj; 
Binall to medium tract's which are more oi li'^s rli^tant and Iv 
diminishing in >ize outwardly, M)nietiioe-' toiiriiiii;;onal or -v.'ii 
tanKential .siTie.-f, the contained ver^M-ls uft.'U lyuij! in radial .-irii'^ of 
2-4. Medullary r.iy-> poorly iK'liiied but rallier numerous and >'V.' 
cells wide. 

Badia/.— .'leujUary ray celU all of one kind, straight, rather thin-walled with rm 
recognizable ni.iikincs. Ves.'^ls short and broad, the radial v..i!I- 
with multiserinte and ehielly heNajjoual, b<irdered pits. 

rartfleMtiu/.— Hays numerous, low and broad, upward.-^ of 4 cells wide and u-^-r 
aniseriate. VesseLs as in the radial section. 


of 1005. 

LMIS l'K0T0AMi:HIC4N.V, U. sp. 

Plate VII. 

The specimens designated as' , represent another species of Ulmus in 


very perfect state of preservation which permits of drawing a diagnosis with 
completeness. Whatever doubts may attaoli to the preceding species with respect 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

to its relation to cxistinK forms, there seems to be little or iio room for denying 
the relation of the present material to the existing American elm, of which it 
is undoubtedly the ancestral form. The most prominent reapect in which it 
differs appears tu be in the ratlier broad zone of vessels in the spring wood, 
and the t^oniewhat different form presented by the distribution of the wood 
parenchyma in the summer wood. Both of these featiires are of a variable 
character in the wliite elm and quite conformable to what is found in the fossil. 
That both V. americana and T'. raceuiosa should be represented in ilie same 
formation by equivalent forms, is in no way surprising when we rec.ill their 
constant association in the Pleistocene and also in existing floras. There is 
therefore no reason why the prototypes of these familiar species should not be 
similarly associated in the early 'L'ortiary. Tlie diagnosis of this species is as 


TraH«f«iMC.— Growth rings variable, often very narrow, with no obvious distiiit- 
tion between sprinR and suninier wood except tlirouRh the location of 
the large vess4>ls. Wood cells at first rather lavRp and rather thin 
walled, soon reduced and pa^sinR somewhat Kraduaily into small, thick- 
walled cells at the outer limits of the growth ring, very variable and 
unequal throughout, rarely di?po«ed iu radial rowy, the structure dense. 
Vessels at first Uugr and pioniinent, often with round or oval, trans- 
vei^iely or more generally radially 2-3 seriate: forming a zone S to J 
the thickness of the growth ring and abruptly followed by smaller vessels 
with wood parenchyma which form tracts of variable extent, railially or 
transversely extended, or more or less coalescent so as to form diagonal 
tracts or tangential zones of indefinite extent; the parenchyma elements 
within such tract* often cunsiiicuously risiiiou>. Medullary rays pro- 
minent, nunierou,-', upwards of 4 cells wide, sparingly resinous. 

Raiiial. — Ray cells all of one kind, low and more or less contracted at the ends; 
the upper and lower walis thin and not pitted; the terminal walls 
sometimes thick and strongly pitted; the lateral walls without obviou-; 
pits. Ves.-iels of the spring wood broad and short, IJ to 2 times longer 
than broid ihe radial walls with multiwriate, hexagonal pits with 
large, transversely oblong pores; the smaller vessels fibrous, but with 
similar construction, the pits often reduced to a single row; thyloses 
of the large vessels often strongly developed, but more or less strictly 

Tan gent ill I. — liaya numerous, medium, upwards of 4 o<lls wide; the siuall, rounded- 
hexagonal cells forming a dense structure. Ve>-iU as in the ratiirl 


of 1903. 

I'l.Ml S ( on -\1UI\NA, U. sp. 

Plate VIII. 

Among the woods represented in the collections of 190;!, was a specimen 
believed to be a new species of Khamnacinium, and provisionally referred to that 

k'enus under the number " . A more critical exairination proves it to be an 

elm of a type not readily assignable to anv known species. Its diagnosis is as 
follows :— 

RKIHtUr l>r rilF < HIKF ASTItnXnMrK 

81 1 


Trnn»rfr«c— Growth riin<'< rather lin.i'.cl iinil vA\ cieBiiMl. Traih.Mil, not v.iv 
thick-walled. Rmduallv iia>siii;> into a thin iind pnnilT ('chnid hmitiiif 
zone upwards of 8 traihcids tlixk M.diillai v ray- iiiini<Ti>u-, I-l n'IU 
wide, rcsinou-^, distant diifdv imi' Imt -otnit'im^" tlirc' niw.- iif v^-v..].. 
Vessels oval or mund. inort- or less in radial rows, radially 1-5 -.•rial. 
or sonietiiufs tanBeiitially li -. ri.ite thf larger m— -ilti (it< uiiyiii,- a z.iio 
of variable width in llie -iirini; wood and often preceilrd by a sei;.- of 
smaller ve«->els, more or !r-s .ilinijilly dinniiislniiK and biM-oiiiinn iiioi.- 
scatterinK toward the sumniir w. od whire tiny fiirni morn i.r 1.-^ s. nt 

terinK Rroups or tinaily b.Tnnie ni. vi;e<l with th." » I parenchyma. Wnod 

parenchyma very variable and iift.-n ainia.enllv waiilinu. but when pin- 
minent surrounding groups of vi--el-. nr fornni.;; i-olat.d and c nimnilv 
tanKi'nIially dispo^'d trad- of variable -ize n. ..i the out.-r hniit- ..f tl. 
growth ring. 

fliidial— Vetwels short and commonly bioad. the he\.iK<in,iI. iinilti-cnate pits «;'li 
transversely slit-like pores. Medullary lays nuiiierous and mtslium to 
rather high, the lells all of one kind thiiuj;h oft.'n iiimh sh<irt. ii.'.l ; h.- 
upper and lower walls rather thin, or in thi. -Iiort eells (hi.-k ai..l 
much pitted; tiie lateral walls multiporous uh.ii <'ontiKUou- to m»— . 1-. 
Ve»8els of the medullary -liealh spiral and s. .ilariform. the adjae.-iu 
parenchyma filled with -l.inh. Wood parein liynia cells ubout eight 
times longer than broad. 

'jTh H (;c II ( in /.^ Rays of two kinds; tlie unisoriato rays low . mcon-pi. unu-. not ininierous; 
the multiseriate rays nunierou-, resinous. It-ntii up»aid- of 5 cell- 
wide, the terminals not proloiiijed, the cells all of one kiiol an. I chi-'U 



K\.";i:\i>i s uiKin. I 

smrrKii.MiN mii.k. 


liniiil .r r. i.r. -riit- ih.. Ira: nun;- ..I w 1 a |. u .-.■iil iimtr. - -iiMr.'. 

One is a sepiirato rrngiiieut, ciirbmiizeil throughout ami evidontly a picci^ of 
p.xogenous wood. 'I'lic othor fragiiieut, .-till udheront to tho r-,f:inal matrix, is 
iihoiit i'-:! mm. thiiU, fully carboni/cil. and showiufr both growth rings and 
niodullary rays. Thi' mat. 'rial i< too friable and too nilly oarbonizpd to iiniko 
sect ions possiblo. 

It 107 
.'!), .1 

of Hi05. 

Phraomites, sp. 

Two fragmentary spooimoiis ol' vory inqurfoct 
referred to anytliin;' more definite tlian Phragmitos. 


1 (Mimot 


of l'J05. 

PoTAM(H'.KTON, sp. 

Amiing the small fragments onibcdded in the general matrix of specimens 
from locality l(i07, there wire noticed several small, oval bodii^s, evidently of ■ 
composite character and ver.v suggestive of the fruit of a Carex or one of the 
Xaiadacca'. Fpon critical exnmiinition the conclusion was reached that tliey 
belonged to the latter family, of which Pofamogeton was found to be the genus 
I>resenting the most favourable basis for comparison. From that point of view 
they were fotmd to compare clt ""ly with s, 'h species as P. mysticu.^, P. confer- 
voides, P. oblusifoHns, P. vaseyi, * P. diversifolius. being most directly related 
in point of size, form and variations with P. obtusifolius. 'L'he entire absence 


in:i'MirMK\T of iiii: imijiior 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

of Icliaae makes it impossible to '•orrelate il iniy nmre .Ictliiit.'ly wiili .'xi^tiiiL' 
species, and it is therefore unwise at present to assign any specific name. 

A review of the American history of this genus siiuws that on the whole. 
it has heretofore been recognized chiefly with respect to the Pleistocene forraa- 
liuii, iii uliirh I>.nhiill..w (48, 49'. aii.l i)aw-,.n (6.75) lidM' ivconlo.! a ii.(ml..i- 
,,f s|.(>cios n.i)rcscnl<Ml l.v th.'ir fnlini;.'. Knuwlt..M i25) I'c- Miuihirlv r.'.-nnb-l 
the genus as occurring in the glacial deposits of West Virginia, but m all of 
these cases the plants found may be directly correlated with existing species. 
Le8(|uereiix (42, Ul, I'l. xxiii., f. o- (1) has rcnr.l.Ml the (•xi.t,.n,'e of rotaiiiog.- 
ton in the Oreen River group at Florissant. Colorado, where two species are 
recognize<l: the one, P. verticillatus, Lesii.. being known by its leaves only; the 
other. P. gcniculatus, Al. Hr., hoiup known throii!:li both fruit and leaves. There 
is, therefore, no substantial reason for questioning the character of the fruits 
as described in the present instance. 

^*^'^' of 1905. Ulmus, sp. 


An \indeterminable species of elm, represented by a fragment of a leaf, 
showing nothing but venation, and probably referable to one of the woods of 
the same penus described. 


of 1005. 

Betll.v, sp. 

This specimen embraces three fruit bodies, two of which are but imperfectly 
represented, while the third shows a perfect, oval form, 4x3 mm., with well 
defined scales. It is a small cone, representing the fruit of Betula, possibly 

the same as" ' . On the same slab are various fragments of stems, more or 


less carbonized. These are several centimetres long and upwards of more than a 
centimetre in width. Their character cannot be determined, but they apparently 
roprosfiit -iiinll I'lMiu-lic-^ ..f >..iiic w, .,..!> rN,..jrrn. |.— nf IVtdhi itself, 

of 1905. Taxodium distichum. 

Tlie only representative of this genus is to be found in a portion of the 
male inflorescence, about 4-7 cm. long. The central axis is rather stout and it 
hears .'several well-defined inflorescences, together with one or two which are 
detached. These latter show the characteristic features of the male flowers of 

Taxodium. a- alriMily .v.-ui/cd l.y Kiiuvvltoii i34i, in ■^l imo"- 'l^'civci tr,,m 

tho .Mascall IhmU .if tic -luhn 1 >ny Hmmi, (T. Mi.r,.iH.i nf Orcim,,. 

Leaves of Endogens. 
The only specimen under number 143:{ showed on one side, two small frag- 
ments of leaves which, from their obviously parallel venation, are to be regarded 


i;i I'liiir III nil. < iiu.r asi i;i,\i)\in; 



as belonging to >oiiie iiiJogcnnus iilaut, liio iiaMin> of which rnuld not be detor- 

I'lNLS, sp. 

On the oii|io-it 

-i'l.' (jf 1 1 ;.'! i- ;; -iii;;Ii- 1. ;it' nt' :i piij.-. The ■iiiiiii' !('nv.-i 

142^ , 142S 
again apiiear m specimen . In tli"iv is it seed ( Fiif. 1) whicli appears 

K:> I. r.m;- -|., 

■.1. i.r..i...i,l> ,.1 ;, |„ 

to be that of a pine, tnouali tho impression is not a very good one. and it ni.iy 
l/elonii to the same specie.^ as the leave- jnst referred ti>. 

1 ■ 

(Jiiii nr,\i\ cii.uiKi-i ii'iMi'scM. Font. 
I'late IX. 

Among the eolloetiuns of lOOr) there ^re a larfje number of fragments ui 
various sizes, from locality 142^, reprrseuting the bipinnate fronil of a fern. 
In a few instance- the-e were srp larpre and complete as t.. permit of a ready 
recognition of all the isseutial eharaeteristies. The description obtaine^l from 
these latter is as follows: — 

Frond t>vic« pinnate; thi> rr.cliis upwarils cf 7 mm. hro.ul; pinnir I'll mi. ili^taiil 
and widely spreading at anRlcs of 7B°-!)fl°, the hntter app.irently the n-sull of dUpIacf- 
ment, upwards of more than 10 cm. in length; thp raohi- 0-5 nun. broad ami lery 
slender, linear, 11 mm. broad at the base and above tlie middle (gradually tapirinR 

toward the apex which is not shown; in the loii(Zc>t, 6 i 
cm. from the base. Pinnules crowded Init not strictly f 
by the full width of the broad base; not liicnrrent ; .5 l 
oblong, abruptly rounded at the broad ape.x or more rare 
the result of dryin? Ijefore burial; at Br-t horiziint;il or at 
ascending and toward the apex bxominK 6.")°; terminal pinna! 

at a di-fa?Ke of Irt 
= ((».-•. - di-^tin't, attached 
ion.! . ml 2 .") mm. w icie; 
triaii' ilar and o'ltuse as 
•■ ,1 ,1,. of 89°, gradually 
net repret^ented in any 
Fori not 

of the specimens; venation simple with free and subuiarginal t?rminations 

This plant belongs to tho genus Pccopteris, which Brongniart established 
in 1828. To it he assigned a large number of related species ranging from tho 




2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

I'arbonit'erous to the Permian, while more recently it ha- come to include sitecies 
t'rom the Mesozoic and even from the early Tertiary. It is therefore found 
that through a well defined series of related speoific tyjies, the genus, which is 
recoffniiU'l us a very old one, is directly connected with existinf; types to be 
found ill the (ileiihiiiiai-ete, and particularly in the genus Gleichenia, as already 
slioivii \<y I'otniiir, whii iii'virthetoss retains HrcitifniiartV oripinul iiariie 
i54. 63). 'I'lii' I'liniHT iinirtii-c of iii|(i|iliiiv' "lie naiiir tor l'o--i!s uinl aiintln-r 
for recent forma when the two are recognized to have penerie identity does not 
rest upon a sound basis, nor is it cnndtieive to that noinenclatural simplification 
wliicb U a great de-ideratum at the present time. It rather tends to perpetuate 
and emphasize the ancient idea of the radical difference between extinct and 
existing types, instead of directins attention toward a progressive development 
of rehite<l forms. There is. therefore, no real reason why the genus Peeopteris 
shfiuid not be known in the future as G'oichenia, to which the various species 
111 reality belong, and our future practice • i' conform to this view, in accordance 
with tliat a!read.v iiiMitut.',! l,y Hct in l^T."). (35: HI-. 1'. H. I'l- iv- v.. vi.. vii.l. 
who relegates to that genus all species of the type represented by the present 

In endeavoring to institute comparison with other specimens from nearly 
related horizons, it aiijiears that no representative of this plant is to be found 
ill the eolleetions of the Peter Keilpath Museum, where the most recent horizon 
in which any Pei-opteri-s appears is the Upper Cretaceous. A specimen to which 
no specitic name has been assigned, was collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson, from 
the I'pper Cretaceous of Baynes Sound. B.C. This may possibly be the same 

.1- ;l -peril- wllicll Sir WilliMll haU-Mli ivr,.l!lli/,,il (8) in tlle licllrriill rnlliTtr;! 

by -Mr. James Richardson, from Hornby I-land, B.C., in ISTi'. and which he 
regarded us cluseb' approaching P. phillipsi .'' the Knglish Oolite, but to which 
he gave no name on account of the absence of venation. 

I)aw.sun (5) has slic.uii liiat Pc-optfiis l,r..wni:iiia. Duiikcr, occurs in the 
Kootanie Series, and, es oritrinally noted ly N'ewherry (44), it also oeenrs at 
Great Falls. .Mont ma; hut ^il^■■c this -jieiics has now been definitely transferred 
to the genus Cyathites, it is txeliided from further consideration. Of the thirteen 
speeies of Peeopteris eniimerateil liy l\ii..wlton (STV all except one ni:i.v Ic 
readily excluded from the t^vesent case by reason of their marked differences 
:n the character of the foliag". 

I poll coiiipari>nii with t''c luiropciui I'.irin- rronliNl i.y l!roiii.'niait (4i. 
a very striking resemblance is observed 1.> exist between our present specimens 
and P. arborescens. This latter is characterized by having 'Pinna;, 7 cm. long 
and 6 mm. broad at the base, at liiienr hut then gradually and uniformly 
tapering toward the apex from above the middle; pinnules, ,*? mm. x \f> mm.' 
While a ca ^d comparison of the two specimens shows a remarkable resem- 
blance, it i be noted that the one now under special consideration is much 
the larger, ature which constitutes the chief and most essential difference. 
Furthermore. '. arborescens is a Carboniferous type from St. Etienne, and 
1 am not aware that it has been definitely observed in any later formation. 

HF.i'oHr (tr riii: itiirr \sii;,,\<imi n 



Whih-, tWefor... i, i, ,.„, „l,„« possible to ...tabli.l, ,,„vi,l,. i,l..,„itv b-tween 
he two , hero ,s l„tl. r..„s.,„ ,„ ,l„„bt ,h.t <;, .ilb^rf-tho,,,,.-,,,,! i. tU, ,„o,l..n. 
ropresint.itivf ol 1'. nrborosivns. 

I)ir.rti.,n ,.,„„,,„ri..„K to Trrlinry !,,n„-. ir i. f,„u.,l iliMf rU. :;,■„,;, ,. 1„„ 

Smr.ngly representcl i„ that ago, I>. p,..ri, ,or..lIii of II.,..r. i. :,„ ,.l..,n..Mt of 

th- Ko..o,>,. lion, of I'MtTM i-|,,,l r42i. "hil.. it i- al-o ,•,.„„„..„ ,, ,|„. \i, „. 

of th.. island of Sn.hMl,,.., (21). l,ul a- h.i- plan' an „o lo„...r I.- r.-.-ar,!,.,] a, of the (.h..rh.„ia.-,T. hut rath,,-, a^ laMpR-reMx point- o„l. a tnio O-nnnwIa. 
It be e.-icludod from further .lisoussion in this connctiun. 

IVrhaps the la'aivst ropr,-.,.nlativo „f this typo i. i,, 1„. f„.in.i in < Hoi,-|„.„irt 
-^|.p-i. Il.vr. Iron, i!,o K,,,,,,. I„,|- ..( < ,,o,.„!:,n.| ,35: p. II, ,.!. iv. ;.. vi wi • 
Willie tliore i. a K..„oral n.,oniblan.-,. whioh iinpi.-tionahlv bring., tho two 
into K.Mono i-rlaMo,,, ili.n- aiv imp. rtaiif .li!r,.r rv, , i,, tl ,, i.,,,.,!, ,,,„| ,|, ,, 
ol tlie piMMIllos wlii.-'i ,i, 'iliiply .1 -p, .,tio .|:;T,IV! 

Wo are thu, hroutrht to a ••oniparison with tho K.'oIoni.Mllv n,.-t ro.-rnt 
. I all known .spo.'ies- P. sopnltu, Xowh, Tlii^ plant wa^ (le^fril....! hv .\,.whnrry 

'. 'T- '^5^ '" '■■iviny l.on ol.faino.l iv,„„ thr K , f (Iroon ri'vv NVvoioiii.'' 

.No t.-iiie IS -ivon. but tho description show? tho pinnule^ to bo oonfln.nt united 
ly oiii-thir.j of tlioir I,.|,irth, -!i,l,iK oMrv. I ni.war.l aii.l llahoUito ,,„ tl„. ■,•.„.;■ 

It is thus oloai- tliat I', sopulla is not oven r.iuofoly nlat.'d 1,, tho ono under 
.iiscu>si,,n. and trom tho evidon.^o .-olleotod. the latter must bo re^ardod as 
1 toKoth.r u now one, for which a di>llniti. name is demanded. But sinoe the 
i.bovo was written, a oop.v of Ward's lat.-t .-..ntrihution to our know!odt;o of tlio 

Atosoz,,ic flora ha> <-onio to hand i57:iil':i. at. i in il.i- was mv atio-iti ., 

once drawn to a desci-iplion and tiirun- of (d.ichenia f.-ilbort-l!iouip-oMi a- 
originally dos.Tibod by Fonlaiiu'. as h.inir at l.'ast ol,,soly similar to il,,. Sl.afrit 
river sperimon. rnlortunat.'ly. Ward nlw^ no detail. -d d.'s,-ripti,,n of ihi, -p'ooj- 
nien. a fault whi.-li e.pially ap'.lio- to m..-t of the other sp.vini.ii- ,|oalt will, 
and one ia ..bli^ed to rely wh.dly upon th,- .'igiire which, fortiinatolv, is ,„om 
cxcollenf an.l apparently of normal seuie. Careful measuriaiients of t'|,,, )i^„,.,. 
pivc the followiiifT diagnosis: - 

Frond twice pinimto: pii,na' I--1.l' em. -iisiant and insi-rt,',! at ai,;:les ,.f 
.'..')=— (>0°, more than (i," cm. l,.n- an, I liio^ar within that limit, 11 mm.'br,,ad. 
Pinnules er,,w,led. more or less contisuc u- but wholly distinct, attached bv the 
full wi.llh ,.f the broa.l base; not ilecurrent; mm. lonj? ami :!..-. mm. wide: 
oblon>;-!in,ar ami alpru|itl\ nauid.'d at th.' Lroad apo\ ; in>,rto,| ai an^'l,-, raniiiim 

from 67"— !tO , with int.rm..liate variations r, suiting fi i di-pla.'ement ; only 

tho central ini.lrib shown. 

A comparison of this ,iial:no^i., with that for the I'a-ayton river ; .■.■inien 
will at once show that th.' ,uily .■^-.■ntial ditrereii,'.- IhTwocu tho two |i.., ,„ tli.- 
<izo of tho pinnnl,"- a dithr.Mi-c which mav widi U'lont; to ditfcront part- ..t 

the same frond. It i- th::- po-.-ihi,- t uo-l .j,. that ■ iir -p.-.ii,i,.i, i- id.'iiti.'al 

with Fontaine's -ixvics. 


i>i:i'Aiavh.\r ni iiii: i\ri nmi: 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 


In the collection of lOOS, luinibor ,' .on.priso.s a number of linear frap- 

„.i.nts devoid of stnirture or Burfuro nnirkinRS, tliouKh lonictin:,* (fivinK evidence 
o. the presonoe of vas.'ular hnn-lliM in the intoriur. and rarely «howiiiK n soine- 
wliiit oarbonized surface. 'I'hry are alwny^ n:^?ociated with frond* of (.leiehenin 
Kilbertthompaoni, and there i^ avrry reason for rcKardinK' them a» fraprnicnta 
of th.. stipea of that specica. It is also found upon comparison, that I ic.y are 
identical with similar fraitmonts contained in the collections ot l!M):i and demR- 
■171 In the preliminary report upon that material, these speeimens 

nated a!« 


were referred to as • representinp portions from the raehis of a fern,' but owinft 
•o lack of sufTicient evidence, rotrarded as 'essentially of no value for . strut igra- 
phical pnrpo>e..' Clo-e conipari.on with the remnius of V. pilbert-rl;ompson,, 
not only eontirins this con.-lusioii, but enal>les us to dri^w the furtlu r mferenee 
that thejy are probably parts of the same plant. 

Specimens 14:;C of tho 11MI5 collections, show a jingle instance of short 
iragments whi.h are also to be referred in a Mniilar way t.. some fern of which 
thty are parts of the rachis, and the conelu.ion is justified that th.y are identical 

with 471 of 1!)03, 


and of the I'.iOr. collections. 



(iLr.uiiENn, sp. 

A single specimen, under number M:5(). shows a fragment of a bipinnate 
fern frond, which is unquestionably- a Gleieheiiiu. confornunt.' to the followintr 
description: — 

Pinnr nlt.rnatP, 5 mm. bro«-l. linenr i.ial h mm. ftml arproximat. or 
MiKhtiT overL.pping more thnn 4 .'. rm. lonR. thf ftpsx unknown. un,forn,lv in^.T ■■, 
n,m, the raVl, . „t an .nglo of 82- ; pinnules aHornate. nv.;t.. unoj.ual and cr.nv, .1 
w th the marmns .on,.,hHt , verbppinK, th. apox rou.ul-obtaM-, the brna.l ba-e .1,. 
Unctly round^S. the midrib usually at an of 5.',° with the rachis of the p;nn... 

The very imperfectly proserved form of this specimen, and the fact that only 
one fragment is nvail.-.b'e. ninkes tlu- present determination open to some (lues- 
tion and under these eircuinstanees it .loes not seem expedient to suiiolv a 
specific name. So far as it is possible to reach a final e.iiiehision, this plant 
appears to ni.prnximate closely to tho Euroi,ean Teeopteris sulzianu of BroiiK- 
niart (4- pi l"-'"' I' ^^- "I'i''' dillV;-^ fr-m it in the >!:orier and more rorud d 
pinnules' attached throughout the full extent of tho very broad base, their equal 
form and nn angle of 75°. They resemble one anoM-.-r with respect to the 
intervals between the pinntc (5 mm.) and in thr proximate, sliRhtly overlapping 
pinnules. It is therefore possible that P. sulziana is the ancestral form of the 
one now under coii?i<leration. 

ini'itiu '•/ I III. • nil I I ^n;n\ 

'■ ' :.i: 



rill:* »lK.fie« i. reprcsont, .1 l.y ., vornl fi.i^.mont- of fron.ln. 
tlie Inrtfwt of whioh is f..:, rni. lor,- M'\ 1,'. .•m. broa.l in it>t 

■ u.nrilpto Ht:it.', but iimie of the fra;.' x,i-> nr.- Hlto^'-.tlicr srt(Uf,ctor.v 

for pur|io>o^ of .|.-pripiinn. The followi,,;,' dcsi-ription lins b^^ii 
obtuini'd: — 

Pinilulwt (llHtilKt.,-, G . tn, ,lt '!■.■ li;l.' ni.l 
7 mm. lonir. iiiMTtnl m, n ru. Iih 13 jnm. 1ii„;k;, Hi., i.p. x .imtp. 

Duriiit; the i)a<t yc;ir I have had occasion to rccoRnize sevprnl 

*\«-<-U'- ,.<: {■]:u\..\'a\v\,\~ I, ,,., ll.,. Km..!;,!.!.- ,,< tin- C n iv. .,» -• ( . ll 

Fluids at Miohel Station, nn.l from tho I^wcr Crptacooiis of tii.> 

Xord. ii-!;i..l.i riv. i-, I., it 'li.' pn-cin .-p. .•itin-ii i- ii..t I'oiupiiriildo 
"i''i ^'i'^- >•< ''i''n '1 \.i \^:<'. >'!• \V;!ii:,:,i |),... -,.,, iv. nl.-.j . 

I'Tii Ir.'iii th^' I'piMT (>.•!. i.-(M..iJ ,,f Vmii.'iimmt i-I.iiid. iiii.I.t tiio 
I l.i.l .|,!,r. lu, """"" °^ f! idophlebi.^ coliinibintin, but tlmro i- no k'"""'! for oom- 
-k,icit.t,— . pari~on liorc, for thu reason tli:it tlu; pl.tnf so naiiiod fati hardly 
'' '■ bo ruRardod ad a Clmloplilcbis at all. and upon this point Sir Wil- 

lliiln llaw-un liiin-i If ix]. !,--.-! •{■■■■],\ - 12 . A \,-vv ,:,,-,• i.-.,.!iil ! m.-. |, |,, l,p 
n.Mrd l.i.|v.-.-,.M thi- phiiit .-iiid F..'i :n,'- i '. \ ii-ini.^HM^ (19i. Tlic I'liiof. and 

|..Thii;w Ih." .IltTcr.- .t. ;- ll :i,. ,.t" --i/r. .,n.l it ni;i.v 1... tiat tli.'v .-Iin-ild 

l,c regarded as idmti.'a' but f.,r tlir priscnt it si oni..- bittiT t. adopt a pr.)vi.= ionnl 
nniiit; lur the liritjsh ( . inibia sppciinoii, which i-", theruforc, t-alleil ('. skajji- 


K|.,. - 

I l.Kl 
7. .>< ' 

.\>i'!ii!i M i i.i in.jii, K^u' i:,;i \M , I.',,nt. 



embrace- n'iuieroiis frnprnents of a bi-pinnatc frond, showiiifj 

■ idy a i><)rti(.n of tho tonnliiation ..f tlio piiina in each ea>.-. The f.iriti ..f ti,< 
I'ii iiuj.-i varii-i -■■iiH'vhai ;ji-i:itl\ an. I pi'i-.-iit- I'l a.|:i! ii.'i- l.i|a(.cii 
tlio tw.v extremes prccisl.y as in Fontaine's Ajpidiuni fre<lerieksbiirKenso, which 
thi- plant undoubtedly is. This s[)eeie-, originally described by Fontaine from 

ill. I'.it.iiiiae Funuai i.^i ' 1 r. i.T^'^. \'irj.'.i:ia il9l, lias -ii th.ii i,.-.-ii 

r. •.■LMii/i.l iv Ii.iw„.ii (5 111 ,,ily ( r. la.-, u- .it Antlira. ile. l!.l'. It will 

be readil; 'Ognizetl that so str. ..t?ly defined a Lower Cretaceous t.vpe as this is, 
tnust ha c, ccial valiK" in det'Tinininfr the horizon in which it may be found. 

.1 ■ 

i>t i'\Hi\n SI III lilt: isii.iaim 

Sfi »'iM\ l•^^^^ 1 1 ^-i~- 11 

2 OEORGE v., A. 1912 




SuniU'T -4-' en-bra.v» two xinall spccinu-tis, oa.'h of which i..|)rc?f lit. :i 

iinKlo pinn. lo of u .omponnd leaf, uttnched to a strong rnohiH. li.H.ul,- 
ia approximutely triunRular in outlino, with a broa-l base ami n aomc-whut niirrow 
thuuKh obfu.e apex. The margiu is entire ami the whole organ is tr^uHversoiJ 
bv prominc-nl and parallel nerve, about 1.5-2 per mm., oxt-nd 
trr.Mi the ba-e to tlie npt-x. Thi. species i^ nuito disti.ul from u.iythtiig huiuTt-. 

,l,.-,.rii.-il 1>..." CiM.-liiui l„.-.,li.i.-. i.l.l...H^li !•.. " '9' I.ulili,l> n .U'w.ik.- ■ 

,>,„„ ,!„. .-n-r Cvt.ii.. of |;.,..,,„- ^o.Mi.l Vi vor ■sliu.l. Lu. tnm. th,. 

published tinures which .how a larger plant with a vc-y different form of pmnule. 
tlu-e uouhl 3eeiii t.) bo no <-()niieetioii h.'tweeii the two. , .- , 

lu Wanr. iMo-t recent contribution to th'- Meso/oio flora of .North 
\ineriea he publishes a de.scription and figures of u species of Xilsonin Ir m> 
Thonn.o'n rreek. Do.::!.,. County. ()r.-:.ou. This he i,|.nfi!i,.s u >th V n.p- 
ronensi- which \ o!<oyir.ta had previo.i-ly .lesi-ri!.ed trom J .pan. and wlneli 
Wi.rd thinks -nav Lo iil-o .-oinparaM.- with Miri..,,. .lurn-Mr s|,e.-,es Iron, ^J,•^l,. 
whi.Oi ba- ,i,.s,ril..,l nn-I.-r the names of IVt.roph.vllnni and Anomo/.amites 
(57- n '.,1 |.I. xvii. I'. .-I'^V On .-miiarlni.- onr Hi,-in„-r, «i'h th,.-,- j"-";"-'; I'V 
Ward a verv striking resemblance is to be noled with r,>speet to indiviilunl 
r.inriules. but it is to be observed that within the limits of the same loaf the 
pinnules show a somewhat wi.le variation of such a nature th ; tak.i. imiivi- 
,lually -everid =.peci, s might be made from the parts of one leaf. It is, there- 
fore " ,iuite possible that our specimens are really representative of N. nip- 
ponensis. but as such a concln.sion is not wholly justified by the nature of the 
material now i,i hand, it is thought that a separate name to bo employed 
tentatively, would be altogether more api.ropriate. an-1 it has. therefore, been 
nam.-,l ^-i"th resp,vl to th,- lo.ality lr,.m vv!ii-'i it w.s ,l,Tiv.d. 

' '•'*' t'v, Mini s I N.n,.\. 1 >n. 


Under number '^■'"' arc includ.d several frasmcnti. of pinnate leaves with 
strong and rigid, linear and conspicuously nerved pinn« given off from the main 


ruehi.; ,,t un>fl.... ,«f .i;. ,.. To J'l,.. „„,.i. • •!,... i„ I. ui.-l .|;.i ,n..^Ur fr,,,,, 

" >"''■" '" ^'■■"' 9> M, ;.,- ,1 ..r,|„ , , ^,,„|,„.. :,„j,^„, i„„ „. ,i.,. 

,|„,„ - M- iM ( ..,i|, rl.i.. M,irr. h, m tl... .K,n.-.i- ..'• |„,|i„, it i* ,,i.-.i,,u» thai 
the nnKl.-s ,.f the pl,„.„. .,„,not b.. n-fi,..! .,|..n {,.,■ .|i,.t'nu-ti.- ,.ur|m,.- 1,.mm„-,. 
of Ih,- poMti, ns „.-,in...l iH tl,.. r.-s„it „f .|i-pl:,.vM„ „t. \ .■„r..ful , n,H,,„ri-..„ 

V.llll tllO Ontilllill !.-Xt ~ho.V, thill if \hr MVjh: ..n- •- l„. ,vli,..l up,.,,, th.- .1.. 
iTiptivv text - I., |«. t.,k. r. ui ..rr.iM.-.ii, i,,,.! -Iionl.l U- r.T.,.1, II.. ih Diuv-.i,'. 
i.lHriii!.ns 1111. 1 th.,.(> II, ,u iMi.lcr . .ii,ia.-i;ili..„. ;,n. . l,,„.|v .•..i.ipiir.ihl.' with f 
pntitr.'ii-. I.,.s.| 43' 11-.... Ill h ..!,, Cr,,;, .,'!.- it .-, •! .-r ;.r..l.,.l.l. i!,..i 

lutin,- .■oiupiir.-.ns ..pon rh.. h.^i, ,,| i„.,r,. , ..,,.;,. ,,.ri„l. ajll -h.,w rl,..„, t,. 

1k' iilcrilK ,il. 

Tnll,,. I!M>:!,.,.||,.,.|,,,,,- -...,■ ! -p,..iii,.Mi> i,-> ,.■.. „...l l.\ fli. hiumI. i- '' ' 

I II.. i;.,i, l>. 
show p.vriti,0(l it-airiiifnts .,1' l.-av. o.-.'HioiialLv with ;. stMiiir mhliih, w.t,. 
.-riKiiiiillv il.terni ii.-il us reprc-i-ntiiiK the pinii:.' .•[ a ( yca.l. Ilil- ih.y i,„ ,l,,„ht 

ru, and it iiiuy now bo i>8uiiie(l tliiit tli.y r. pr. -.nii th.. -aino >[ i.- a- ' '''"..f tli.. 

ll">i' (•()lh".ti,,ii- 


<il.Vi|i-.||liim ^ tl li..l' 1.1 , ; . !>, 

Oil.. Hfii..iiiii.ii ..iilv. 

'.'ij; :i niiKill ' i',i(.'m..iii 

l.'iit'v liniii.-li. 



A nillffli! sptt .<■ . 

Ill- i.!i;ii ir:i| uilli 
(•(.injiari^^on !.■* to I .■ '. 
.•"all I'.imI.s (if the l..',i 
Mioiviie ajr.'. lioiiik' !; ..^■ 
bt- taken with leservati.., 

■ ^ V. I\l|.." I. . ' .. 

h.wi'i- il.rc.-t ..irih^ . f a iiMl. appiMfs In 

■ ••l.\:. '3.1 1. I h. . ht.j' .!ii!:. mIi\ in ihi- 

' ■ .III fill- -lu'i-ic- w:i- ih.ri\i-.l l'i..iii till' Mil,- 

■ 1 . . Ili.l-- . - It;' :.. h. .ili.i il !- I l,.T'l..r. . I 

1. '..II I'll!- i-..f|.icin-.- inii-i tiicri't'or,' 


I'.llTI IS I M l..P|MIVI.I.\. Ill' 

One h'uf ..iil.v. lepr nlo.l h.v a v.-r.v iinp.rtV.'i .in. I ha.ll.v . ruiiipl.'i I'rafi- 

ment. whioii makes ili tiniti' iilciitnicatioii vory iliilii-iilt, [;' cdrr.'.-'l.v 'li'tcrmineil. 
the |ircsoiit -peciiiien fitnj. its reprcseniativc in the lljk.itn On. up o!" Xehraskn. 

rlr.. (46). 

.11- -v.. I. Ill- .>•! 


1 t.;(i 
11 ■ 

hi i'.\in\ii \! Ill I III. iMrinoi; 

Ki... I, 



n »|.. 1, I. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

\| u:h \ >i lii!\ 1 \. li -I' 

Tliis genus is ropro'seiitpd by two frnKiucnts of leaves of the 

l:. Ilcl;.ll/iil IMM' |MV-.lllr I l.,\ M. li'lTryi. I.c-M- '56: I'l- xl- (■ •'. 

liut much gmnller. more sliiirply niid repulnrly dentate, and thus 
more iieiirly iipproacliinK il. scottii of Ixwcpiereux, as liftured by 
Knowlton, from the Laramie of the Yellowstone National Park 

(34: I'l. IxNxiv. I'. i;i. tKnii-h il .':in liiinllv !"• -:nil In ilnnii ;i- 

well to' oripinid description and tiRure based upon 
-pi'.-iiiirii- ri-..iii till' <iri(ii Kivcr (inmi' iit Morissiint, Colonulii 
.12: 1'. IIT. |.l. xxxii. r. 17 1^). It iui^ llni^ .-..ii-id.T.'.l .Ir^ir 

llil,. t,. .lr>i,-lKlt:' it 1..V :l .'r.lilirli.r lliini.-. 

Ql KU( I S Kl.l M ii> A. Xewr. i '.). 

Several poorly preserved frnj-'nuiit- of leaves, appear to be identical with 

Newberry's tinn-c'i:- l!i'xii,.s:i ';46: \: 71. xix. (. \-><). iV-ni the ('ret:i.' i- ■'( 

the Piiget Sound jrrotip at Cliuekanutz, Washington. 


(^1 i:inM s 1 .nil M i:\. !7e«l 

This iiiiniber eniliraics sevend small leaves nearly entire; frapnients show- 
ing the entire niargiii. form and charai-teri.stie venation of Querciia coriaeea: 
also one specimen with three nearly complete leaves in sihi. These all agree 
lully with Ncul..Tr,v'. liurn- an. I il.-.ii|.i i,.n- (46: I'. 7:'.. pi. .\ix, f, 1 :'.) ..f the 
-pocies which are originally obtained from the Puget S.)\ind (iroup at Chii- 
I <aniit/. W, -liington. 

\>- W \t \-~ I l;l I \. I I M . New!.. 

1 i:lO 

I. 10 ■ 

Tliis spe.'ic s is rcprcseiitecl by two fragments of leaves, the one showing the 
.■hariiet.ristic venation, the other showing: the ilivergenee of the principal veins 

at the base of the Tliis s| ie- \.: ^ been drseribe.! \,y \, ■wherry (46* a- 

a reciifrnizod element of the flora of the I'akota tlroiip. 

171 ,. 

71 ;!•-•■ 

Pyiiti/.ed leave- ..f various widths upwanls of ]r> imii., apparently represent- 
ing' motile mdegenous planl. 

/••• /■'//;/ ../ //, / I nil I I - 1 i.'i,\,,\ii I: 


I I. til 

lil u ..| X s 

'■.■ - '■ ■•■.. 

I1..1 .!. 


NuiuIkm- i^ ivi.rosciils ;i Kint-lc ■.p.'cinicii of iiiir. .•<.Kiii/:il)lp clmriictcr, Imt 

:ij)piiriMill,v a l.niiid I'niit wliidi nii-wrr- to llii' I'oIIuh iiic ili-rtl|iti,,ii : ^ 

I'l'ilnni Ip 1 niui. broiul and 8 mm. Ion;;, Iiimihik at it^ wpp.r .ml a linmd foiir-sidwl 
iliNC 12 mm. nt the liaso, « iiiiii. »idi> at llir summit and H mm. Iintli, .ullmiit ^tr ctiiral 
niurkitik'S of any kind cNccpt r Imt-ly urariiilatpd siufai,. sIk.hkIv -iit;i;.».t.v.. nf tin- 
prtiM.ncn of Hniiill sp,.,K ,,r akem's. Wjiil.- tin- .ilivwrv.'d Idrni n.av lia\.- \>,-,;, d.Tiv..! 
from rru-.liinir, (hi- .i.tiri- asi.«t of tli.> -lammn, l<it;,.th,.r willrtli,. irianulat.d Mir- 
fiwse, »tron({ly «U|{Ke»t« s Iruit of the typ.. ,if Kor^tfiiui. 

II tlu' stiKKo-tioii tliu.s iiiclioatt'.l iiiiiy Ix! rulif«l upon, it woiil.l hnriiioiiize 
Willi llic \«'|-.\ ^rniriMl iinvii,-,. ,,!' n pn -rnlnlix. - ,.( tli. T ri i.'ii.-nr in Crrla 

C-|'..11S r.iriMllli.ill.. II, li ,|. rhill:-. I 1.;-.., il.-. T' , >;.. ..,111. !i IMl^'I'l !,.■ r, N^iT.'.! 

|'r..visi.iii.ill> t.. I>(.i--li'iii:i. 


Si'viTal -periiiii'ii-* iiihIi 

iMil.n.ii.\ii\ Mill' 
i I-. 


-IimU ria;;liiciil< i.|' .jiclintoiiioiisly 

liraii.'liiiiK rciiiaiiix wliirh faiiiinl lie .-ai i-fii.turilv .•nrrclatcil willi aii.v i<iiowii 
>poiMt'.s. I'licv -irniiKLv !<u).'p-l a \aiiii.v i,f wcMkimwii funii^, iiiclinliiig 
Ilvuiitioplerifi. C/okiiiiowskia.". ri)taiiiiinft<iii ami Niiiiis, witli none of 
"liicli n aatisl'aclor.v ri-Iation rati ln' istiilili-jircl ; atnl upon i-iin'fiil coiisiiicri.'ion 
26a— vol. iii— 631 



iirr\inMi:\r <»/■ riii: ixTritinh' 

2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

and compariiW)!!, iho ooiu'liision lias been n^aohi'd tliat thoy represent tiie lartrer 
veins of exogenous leaves, possibly of tbe typ" of Pliitaniis, which have become 
jkelelonizeil and broken >ip. tlius leaving the p«K'uliiir I'ragineiits observed. Thi* 
(fiK'hisioti will satisfactorily meet all rei]iiirements. 

Si MM\BV AM) (!i;Ni;ltAI. ("dm I.I SION. 

In sunlma^izin^' the forepoinj? results it is Imped to answer more or less 
completely, several questions which have Ih'cii raisiil ;is t.> th<> ;i;rc of the ili'iiu-it- 
in which the fossils occur. The precise nature of these problems may be best 
understood by iumtiuir from the oripinal letters of transmittal and informa'ion, 
to the etTect that ' Nos. ll^S 1 t:!<l, 14:'.:! and 143i; were <-ollected from a larcre 
area ot has always been known as Lower ('retac<'Mus, oecurriiis at the 
Hounilary (4'.llh I'aialleH Line hi tween the Pasayt.'U ami Skagit rivers. 'I'bere 
seems to be at lea>t :.N,(X)i» feet of this series altojrethor. and it appears to 
correlate with the Sli:i~ta-( 'liico S.-ric-. I jui purl i'-iilarh .luxi.iu- t.. kn..w 
whether \i2^ is older than 1430 in its fades, and -till more to know whether 
bnth are really ('retaeeo\i.s.' .\iul later, in answer to .|ue-tioiis as to th<' relative 
positions of 14l'>< — 14:'.t> of the llHin collec-tion. and 471 of the i;M):i colleclion. 
the reply was that •The locality of No. 471 is abo\it one hundred an<i twenty 
miles east of that of Hi'S—UnO; the former mar to Rosshmd, the latter on the 

siimmit ot' the Cascnde u ntain~. 'I'la !■-:.■ ■■'{ tin i;M-~!anil volraiiic- and ot 

the ash be<ls or sediment:, in which t! obscure 171 >pixiniens ocur. is not at 
all understood, and I was ho|,i.i(r for some iiulication as 'o whether these ro.k- 
are even later than Paheo die. The two occurreiiees are completely separate in 
peoloi;ical and p^ifrraphical relations, but there is no pood reason why both 
should not b(> Cietaceous,' 

In discu.ssiiif.' the repioiud di-tiibution of the varicuis eolle'''ious, tliey may 
be divided conveniently for peolopical p\irposes, into two jrroup-. Within the 
Hrsi ire embraced Xo-. -'.''•0, 1(M)I, 1(107. and i!71. Spcciiueus were taken from 

Incaliiy '-'."n on |-.\o -.paralt .-a-ioii-. i.... in I'.i'iJ, :ui 1 a-aiu in ]•■<'>:<. In lim.". 

also, collection- were made from localities 1001 ami 10<i7. both of which are on 
the Kettle river and near to No. l'.IO; while locality 371 of the lO.Ti collection 
was on an atihient of the Kettle river. The proximity of these v:irious collections 
enable- u.s to I'on-ider them esscMli^illv idc<nlical. and the jdants derived from 
till lu will be treated as of one flora. 

In tin- conneelion it will Ix- worth wliil.' to ncall |He\ ion- det.iiiiiii;ii ion- 

of nlaiit- from the Red 1 >eer rivc r. t ii llio Siuiilkaiii..;i vailcy, from (Juil.inna 

and from Coutlee. All of these Horas will have to be compared with one another 
and with that of tho .'^sau'' rivi r | l'a-ayl|.n river-: in >■ 'U-r.^w.vf ii -lioiihl 1m- 
k.-pt in mind that, with tli.- eseei,li,,P. of tli. tir-l. all of ihe-e I.T^lilie-^ fal! v.ithin 
the limits of the Kamloops sheet, within which area Dr. (ieorjie Dawson has 
shown that the Tertiary formatimi show- • two well marked horizons of stratitied 
depo-it-.' aud uitli n-i"--t I-. tlie r-aii-e- Liivin- ri-e t., th.-in. ' il is probable that 
the Similkaineen licds ni\v <'orrespond in time with one or other of iliese 

ithrmtr or rut > iin.y xsiRoM'Mtu eaa 


liorizoii-. and ihoir app<Mr:iiic c .m.l uuolr i,f nrtarr.-ii. .■ ,i.r,,rrls b.:st v.ith tli^ 
ljyi«.tii<-i- thill ..|' till-' iMi t!]. < V [T.-.^ht ill.- I.A., r ..r C,,!,!.. ,r.T InTi/.m, Imt 
for thf iMesciit lliU ii.ri-eliiti<in -taiids ii:cieiy ii'- ii pruliriblf fonjcfture. ' 

16: |.. :.-.n..i 

An (■iiumeriilidii ot' liic Viiii.,ii« ty|i.-i of plaiii> foiin.l hi tlir lcM-alitif« iiulii 
ted l.v till- ubovi! iiiiinbors. i,'ivi'~ tlic I'ollov. iiit'; 

Taxodiiiui diNiiclumi I.ciify lir.iiuli. 

( 'lll>fi>»o\ V lull lii;ii-loiMr|'oi,|o- Wood. 

I'ii'.-.i i-oliniii.ii ii-i- AVo.d. 

( 'yfx'rupiles liaydiiiii 

( "ypcriifitc?. >p 

Phrn^'miics. sp 

Mi'IiiIm. -p !• riiit. 

I'Iniiis protornciiiiosa Wood. 

nniu- prdtonniiTicaiui Wood. 

ITIinii-i coluiiibiaiia Wood. 

rimiis. 3p I,<af. 

I'otaliioiri'toii, .-p I'Vuit and l.'a\fS. 

tVni >tiiH'- 

Kx' jronou-i wood 

rudi-tcnniiuiblo IraaiiK'nt- of Ica.t'S. . . . 

I'inu- t'olmiibiuiia W. od. 

Tlii-i tilira npi-o-onls a roniarkabl.' pfopoiido. aiu'i- ot wood-, -tncral of wliii'li 
ail iiitircly now, and in >ticli cajr-i provioi-i kiiowioiltro rantiot bo iitill/od as* 
an iiHJioation of the horizon they ripro--ont. 'I'lioro ar.-. Tii'\-(rtboli-s.-<, rortaiii 
woll ilotlnoil form- of known valiio. and thoo will ^frvi- .;> a moans of doiorniin- 
iiijr the hori/on in c'onnocti<in with the frotioral facios of tl;o I'ntiro llnra. h' in 
the list, we may lll'verthole^!- excliido tlK> forn -tip,'-:, ih,. o.xoL'onoiiH woid r ' 
the iind.'tcrminahlo lo.nos a- throwin:^ no lijilit wlia'iv. r Mp'ti tho iiri'iilein • 
before lis. 

Till' i;ciHH I'i'ia, alllioiii;li -..inowliat .-parini.'. kii.wii in tlio fo,-il stalo, 
i= no\ortliok'sj", found to |.i- di-triii^itid throiifh a i.diii'i wi.lo r,ui>.'o of liori/oiH 
1' i- n Will roi .luiii/.od and r.itlnf aliniidant oU'intn< of ih' l'lii-to.i>iio tloia. 

!i; \\\:'v\i ~-\.-\-\\ . n: mil: -lir.-i.'- ;,iv rriif. -■nti .| '.,. !,o<li w I .111.1 j.'avc- (48'. 

.■^iinilarlv .d-o 1\ i:. . .. llo;, i 38 : !•• -' I .'. > Iki- -h-.a i-ai .-■i-tiiiL' -JM-io- .in- still 
nndcTfjoin.i;' dcpfi-ition wherever looal tdaoiatioii i-s in proLTos^^. I'ii'ea 'iiiilohcii 

en-iis, I'enli., lia- been roooi;Tii/od -r.iiiowliat roi'rntly iii tli- OWg no of the 

1^,;:, !,,!'. l:i-n:.!,-- I . !';ii i.i;' ■] .'•■ < - :''■ ;ii'.' • i-, ■r.-.-nti-.l 
hv it- loavo-, it i- iiop' --ililo to drteriiiino it- prooisc rclaliou to oilier fosrJil 
form-, iltlioiiLdi ll o i-liarac'lor of ilio !oliaL:c "tfcr- a -iii;L'r-> ion that if iiiav U' 
related to tlio o\i-tinj.' 1'. iaowi'ri i la or 1". -ite!; ti-is. Mori' noontlv, ilerry 
i3i ha- diti-riiiini d tin- o\i. ii-ion of i!u- i;. no- int.. tli" r|ii,..r ( 'ro; a.-oo.i- f..!-iiia- 
tion (d' New Jersey. In the Clitfwood ola,vs iio lia< .^...iid lie:in'ifnlly p'o-erved 
iilie-, wliieli ho roL'-ard- a- reiirc-onl in;-' .i -porn-'i u sfh Ih. .•\i-:itif' 
r. exeolsa 


"/ /'i/.'/t// \ ' "/ nih / \ / 1 itr-i! 

Ill I'.'Ol I\'iu>w!l'iii ifi-or'loci till- 
ili'|i.wii, ;ii Kiik.ik liiiv Alii-kii. 1 33 
liarririiiiiii. i- itprcsiMii'''! i'.v it-i I'mt' 


r'u- I. hill 

irtily. hilt 

nf ■. !■ 



2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 
.1 !': Ill' I'i'pcr Eocene 

!.-i'_'ii;iii- II- r. 

Ill ;i tine state of 
reseinliles P. 

sfllle to 

Tti.wt n.-.irlv 


ime if 

may iiiiir'" 

|iro:iervalii'ii ami periii t . ' the inlfTfnef 
sitcliensis iiiiii>ii»r exi-itiii); -peoies. 

'I'lie iiroM'til eviileiiei' shi-w-^ our -ninvW-We nt' Pi. mm m the 
he haseil upon the woo.l ehie'^ 'h.;. !« -.tent -..thm: f' • iie« a-i ivpre- 

-entinu' three ^|»^ie- within "•• 'i*c i w^t^^ Htatp« mil Ahi-ikii. hut 

ill thesKj hitter ar.' iii no way r-iat"- -pe- •=^. they t'nrnish no verv pre.isie hnsi-> 
l'..r eon<'hi-i.'. n'spe'iinif the ;,'»H»ii.»iea: ape i-' the horiz"ri from whicli P. 
e..luiiibien-is h«i h<ei lieriie.!. Wliiie .^ur pr.-«nt liniit.Hl knowh.lKe of the 
jjeiius leuils ll^ to b<'lieve tliat it -hi.iinl !«■ Iook.--i for in il ,• ea.'iv Cretaceou-i at 
h a^t, its pre««>nt iinpeet is <lotlni!el,v lertiurv ar.'' • hhily Koe«>nf>. 

Oiipre— xyloii was tirst re.-i.-n;/.- . \,\ !V-ni.aiii.u 47' ni i"- •'■' • " 

tiTUiation t Me<li'-ine Hit. wliere the w.m..1 was foiinil 'i nhuii'i.nee lis tnoro 
r.-viil api» ^ in.'. . th. .i.'|...sii- if th. K-!ti. rr-ef. wh.- •• it i- i^-' i i iii ill'- 

torin of »-->»d. tri«^ somewhat eonelii»ive evi.lete-e of tit.- wiiler runse ot ilistri- 

t.ution «rt some of our existing -peeies. Tiiis i« whclly i- hi nl with the irenerii! 

u-eolo»rk»l hist, rv of the L'-n i-. sine.- il i- fonnil tha' imier whatever -iix'itie 
name .t may !•• r<H'onhil, it ranges from th.- Lower t retai-eoii- t,. the I'.'.r i-.e. 
1 cli^Jwiutioii «feieli ..^ II.. t e—entialiy affen, ,i hy -'i.. faet that a' hasf 
iho -«*fies no« asMKneil to the i.rovi^ional iieii.: ( apresHinoxyl 
[iroji^rly Mobc to Sequoi*. At tin- same time, -iiiee (', iiiacri..arpoi.tes o.eiir- 
lii i well retiicnizi-.i <-ret».-.«oiis .hposit. a.« well a« ,u tluise ot the Kettle river, 
it s elear tkil it i-aiiii.«- -- hehi to be repn>s<'niative !5 any exclusive st^nse, 
,f any purti^^Iar n«e, athi aP. we ean say nf ii at the !w«>sent time is. that it 
rangea from the rppet" * retae<'.)us upward 

Tlie genus TaX'"liii=ti i» a ^'erj- .■osumpolitai .in 
in geolofrit-al time Iiuif<-<1, it nay !«■ suui to exivitHi 
tiniiily ,.• - enrr. • .■• in t li. K ...lanie ami !'■'',, ui.i, 

('retiiee..a~ to tin- Mt.i.-,iie 'I'er- »ry. anil ev.-u i.. iii..r. 
eonncels .lire<;tly with the e\ -«ing species ,,f Balil Cypress. The history of 
Taxoiliuiii liistiehiini mioeenu :. a- =T:«inaUy <letin.<! by Heer. hut as t,..w eotn- 
inonly ilesignateo y the iiai.- T .v di ™ ilistii-h itii. sinpl- ai instrne- 
tive ilhistrntioii • ; ttie r-lati..;- -i -:"-:■.! types 1 partteiilar horizons, a relation 
made all the !i«*ro iii>tnieiu.- W^:&,'-~^■ "f ihe jeju-rally a>»Ofiate<l Taxodium 

...•.•iiiciitale aii.l liSvptn-trohr- eur-nw — I'- o.-.a.i,.iit-,i.- I- a -r<-i '' tti'''-!' 

more rostricteii di>trihutiou mit it is a -«-el! .ietii»e.i Tertiary tyj* - 

Lesquereux 42; p. -■-■■ \.-vvUirv «: I --' ^lel l>i.«- 10: ' Tin. 

have all shown raxodiiim .ii-tioh- « to b. a e'.a«tjiit«»t of both the .Mioeene 
anilK.'.'eiie l-loiM-; v^lol. - ai. ., r. .■ciil •lel.'niil-.iii a- ..f *'' ■&*<*.." 'l:pi' 
7 antl ■>) have proved it t* *e « <«^mpotieiH ..f ihe OlisroeeBe at Qail< < lui and 
Poutlee, British Coliimhia. ..-r.d -t- -e ,.| i^t„.*lt,.i. sJ4 - : ■ 'hai it i- ;. 

feature of the Upjier Mio<*f»- of ts* John r>ay Ba.sH.. Oreip.i) It is neverthe- 
less true, as shown 1-^ r.-.:.-all.i». shat th- ^^•••\~ \- aK. a w.-l! feeosrni^ed 

lie .1 very wide range 
almost nnbrokei-, eon- 

iirnia: t.ii-. tlir."ii;h the 
■■■■eiit .|< ; -it-, uiiere it 

in fiiirr '«/ iiii: iiwi- i ^ //.-ilxoi/a /,■ 



liMl'.ni' . '■ ihi' l':i-L:i! . i. -ii i. I I , . I;. . 
n> Will :is iif tlic I.iijiiili' Trrtiar^ .' tl 
l^r'';]. in tln' ui-t.Tri i" rti-ii- .I' ('.,: .i^Li 
iIh uriiiTiili/iitii.ii .,r Sir \Viii;;iiM ■ 

; I'. ■ r |-;.-r 1 |.: . :i ;i','l 51. i. '• I . 

.■ I' .riMi'iiiii- ( 'r.M iv niiil I In. It Vidl.v 

i52: ;■ •'•'■• . I.'.-.'. ui,i/;ii._' the f,,r.-.- ..:' 

II 14 : iv.. ::; I t., til., t'trcct thiit tl,,- 

\s;\. ii- fiiriiii'ilv ri't'iinlr'i hv Ilccr. 

rf the I'tiit.-.l Slalf-. ii vimv iimrc 

:..i, '38: !■. Jl'" AvA <l^,•^ •.■.•:\\,v-a\\v 

rei'fi^iii/e 'lie (:vA tliiit thn numoroii:< 

ill S|pit;'|.rri:. II '22: p .'T'. (iriiiiif!! 

li.n I 13: !■. ■-'-'■. .\l;i-!v;i i 39 : 1'. :'.:- 

■I Al; 


Miocpne nf (iropiilari'l, Siiit/lirrt'cii ii 
i< in reality identical witli tlii> Fort 
ri'ceiitly stati- I ;iii.| .i.i..;.!i-.! l.\ K'n . 
ailniitted. it now becoiiifs I'o-i.sible t 

in-taiM-i- nf th iirn'ih'.- .i|' ilii- i 

I. an. I (24: l>. J:!). Siinri , i 25 : ■-. :;:;.. Sn.;!, li. ii (13: !■. -'-' '. .\la-!va i 39 
and 61: p. LM4i. a-i will n^ in! iNilf (23: p. <',ii; 26: p. !> ; 28: 

and 29 : |i. ""I' *. uim' nni|iH'.-ti"nal I" pr'"i!' ..l' ll- v. ! -nn'ad aiJ a' ! iidaiit iir- 

retiee throiiKlKint tlio Koi-cnc nf Aini-riiM a- wrll as of Kiiropi". Wliilo. tlicroforp. 
it is a form I'^scntially typical of Imt!. the Rorciic and Miocene, its urcater 
abundance in llie former implies a vi;.'Mr of d.'Veloptneni vvliiib it appear- to 
iiavo lost in more recent times, altlioiijrli this does not of necessity permit 
u? to conclndp that its proence in a given liori/cm is more itidieativt; of the 
one ago than the other, a relation whirli inu-t he linall.v e-tahli-hed by eoihateral 

I'itius Columbiana does not. in itself, atford decisive evid.'nce as to the 
nature of the hori/on from which it comes, but a review of the distribution 
of the penus I'inus as now known may -;. rvo to sujj-pest a re.isonablo conclusion. 

The i;eiiii- I'iliil-, ;i- -ivni !s !\ii."a11mii (37'. ' iiiPi .e.- iiiiiile.-n -|M.,-ii-, 
most of wbieh arc defined speciticall.v, ranyinir from the Daknia Rroup tliroiii.'h 
the Cretaceous ntnl Tertinr,v to the I'leistocene. where thev berome 
with existing .specii's, lint to the-e we mav add six spe.-ir- oT Pit vo.xyloii. -^iiin' 
of which arc of I'pper Cretaceous age. but ino^t of which are Tertiary forms 
most largely represented in the Kucene. More recently. Knowlton (35) has 
also recoirnized the oreiirri'iiee of t!ie v ood of |'ity>.\ylon alders.. ni and V. anie 
thystiitiiin in the I'pper Miocene of the Yellowstone National Park, while on 
the oilier haml a recent publication bv Ward has brought to light Pinus leei, 
F"ont. (57: p. ."i7i»l, from li.e ..Mir l'..t..nia.' Formation ..f VirLMiiia. a ea-.' 
which parallels that recorded by Ileer of P. craiueri. IFeer. from the Koine beds 
if (ireenland. While some of the species of Pinus thus referred to are recog- 
nizable through their wood structure, nian.v others are known onl.v through their 
foliage, and, although these latter arc designated by distinctive names, it is ii.t 
iliogother certain that they are specitically .listinct or that they are diflferent from 
>peeies represented by other niuains with which it is at present impossible to 
identity tbeni, A very large number ..f known species are represented wholly 
by seeds, ami this is particularly true of the numerous species whi<'li Ileer 

.|i-eril>i'- from thi' K ne of (Ir.oii! i and ..iher I'olar ri'L'inn- (22' V-.I-. 

I. VII.). Inasmuch aa such .seeds are representative of the fruit, ih.y may 
lie directly connected with the cuiies. which are the chief means of re<ognizinp 
-everal species. Fontaine".-. Pinii!. Kci from the Older Potomac of Virginia, a< 
de-i'ribed liv Ward (67: |>. ."Ti". i- 'ii'i- di-t iiigoi-hed. but it i* to lie observed 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

llmt -iich roiiiiiiiis lici'ofne liir rii..iv ;il)iiii(li.Mt -I cliiinictiTistir in tlio Tortiary, 
wlipri' tlic.v lire not inl'ri'qiiciill.v prcscrv-'il in a very piTfect niiinnor. This \f 
(niincntly trnc of I',, (iMnl.. and I', pliitnnis, Oanl., as recordpH by 
Starki(> (ianlncr troni the Tahnly bfiU ..f Truhii;il; or P. maohiri, riecr, aa 
ri'corvhil hy ilcir (22: p. vii.). from fho Koci- c of ( Iri'onland. The sumo is 
M<fwi-ic true i.t' sovera) i<i«'cic-i wliieh Ivnowllon records from the Laramie of the 
^'.IliiW-lilic N'Mtiniial I'ark l35i. and of I". tl'i|l--:ilil i, l.r-i|.. wliii'ii l.c-(Hicn'ii\ 
d( «ci'iliid fr..iii till' (Ir-cii liiv.r jt^uii i 42 : p. 1''''' nf lii.'so loni- -Imw 
decided reli'tions to existini; specie?-, wliich is als.> true of 1*. eohimbianfl, but 
liie latter ''aiiniit 1m- c(j-Mparei| with any of the other fossil cones now known, and 
it therefore stands '.vhnlly by itself. 

The (reiieral wei>rlit of evidence bronjrht forward hy the above analysis, 
would seem to indicate that while the ^eniis I'iiuis nniy extend into the Oreta- 
• eoiis. it i~ essi ntially a TtrlJary t,\pr. the i-liicf a«pecl. i,\' uliich are Foecnr. 
: ml it is to this horizon that 1'. ef,liinibiann probably belongs. 

The jiemis rimu.- possesses peculiar sit-'iiificanfc in the present instance, 
ih4 (inl,v bei'nuse there are three well detined new species rcpresonted by their 
.' ood and one undefined speci<'s represented by a frafrmetit of n leaf, but also 
localise the ;:cinis as at present known, hears a detinite r 'lation to Kcuiofrical 
:'jre. riniopliylhini i~ a well recof^nized Cretaceous tyi>e which is chiefly found 
•I ill'- rotiiiiia(- Foriiiatii'ii. although it is also known to the Upper Cretaceous 
• I \'iiiiroi;\.-r i-l;iiid (5l; ' i:' I lli:ih- ;iiii I iiiiu- ;!ri- (-uutini- I t.. tli( Ti-rt-!ir,\ 
where tlay ranye from the Kocene to the Pleistocene, and become identified 
with .-xisiinjr ^pecii-s. An inspection of present records shows that out of niiie- 
' 1-11 Tertiary species, twelve are of Kocene age, while only seven are of Eocene 
.ii::{ Miii-iiii- .1^1-. :ii -I ii:;i; m,m if il'i-c l:illi-r niily live an- -Irii-tly Mioi-cne. 
Fnin thi- »i- may ilra\'. tlh iiil'i-rchc-i- that the ui'ini- I'liuiis is e-^-entia!ly an 
IvM-ene lyi"'. and our four <|><-'ii'- from the Kettle river iii.iy also lie iiiferpreled 
in i!i;it S'-nsi . 

The po'irly dcliiu-d sjecii > i,f Hi-tula from the Kettle river alTord very little, 
il' auytlii.iL;-. in the way of a n-liahh- liasis for ace delerniinalions. While the 
iieinw n.tuliti'-, i- I well detiiic-d ( 'ref.-n-eiius our. heim/ espe<'ially charai-teristic 
of the Ihikota ^'^roup. wi- n. . i-: tln-l. -- al-o find Hetula beatriciana, Le9<|., in the 
same horizon (42: • "pii' v.liiio I;. p.i antiiiua, I'li.. fii-mrs in the I'pner Cre- 
tact-ou- of I'ayno^ s.iuimI (9', inn! >o- .niorher not -p(-iitio;,lly detinod is nii-t wiili 
in (111- rpper ( '!ol:i. I ., - ■.', \':mr-ii;M-r i-!::nd i8'. l\n.iult,,M i-ir iuicral.-- i 37 i 
tint ie — than iiiiii-ii-i-ii. whijo \\'.:!-.i i56'' i;iM- -'■\cn T.iiiiiry ^pcoii-- out of a 
lolal of tifteeu. A-, f iirtlierniori-. i-i«-htci-n out of theso tweuly-six species are 
I'istincily Koceiie, il may hi- o. m-hided tiiat in the ahscm-e of definite evidence 
to the contrarv, :niy lari.'i- loprc-i-nf itioo of tin- ^roiiii^ WimiM ;;ivt- to the irora. 
!acies of a <listini-ll,v Eoceii- character. 

Cyperaeites haydenii. I.i>s,|., uliieh m-i-nrs in the 1-u'ltle River flora, and 
wiiii-li wa- orii.'-inajly dr-oi o^i-il ir. in ll.- i.i-.-.--^ Kim r L-roiip (42: p. 1 l<M, s(-rve- 
1.; definilelv indicate lln' prohahli- ace of the ilora now under discussion. This 

HI i-iiin III nil iiiii I \!<ri;n\i,\in: ear 


ioiiclu>iciii i, .•iiipli.i«i/,Ml l,y ilir 1,1. I thai llir .uiiii'«lui! i,iri;i. i,iiiiil„r ,,l' ,] i,., 

oriffiMiillv ,|,s.Tili-.| 1,> II.. r .26: I''.. .■•-•■. •r.iiii ( . r. ;,l;i- .1 ;,ii,| >|.ii/lMT..'..,i. 

arc III! iif K.iccnt' iiKc Of rli,...- hili.T. < '.vi.,'. .i.'it.- \<. in. rvU. IfnT,, i^ aUc 

r.'iiliil in Jlic K.MVM.- ..r Van., •• ^A■.\M'\ \Z \\ . ll|i In ili.- . iiiiin.iMi i..ii 
of tlif f..>-il !l..i-a ..f :li,. V,.||,.u-i. i„- \:,n,,,i;.l {'.,,■■■■. Ki,,, . li,.ii 1 35 • p. 77;., 
shows that of the four -|K'.-i,-, known \\\yr>: tin-..- jr.' ii.linit..!y rcf.ralil.. i,. ih,. 
Fort I' j:roii|). wliilr ..niy on.' i- rcf.-rn-.l I., ili.- Mi.,.-,.ni'. Kinally. Wani 
'56: 1.. I'Hi ni.|i.-.ii. . ..inilor r.l.-fi-i,- mIi.h in lii- -\r,M|,M- "t' lii.' 
irrou;.. h.. .■niinicrat.- f.nir ^|i,ci,-. all ..f wlii.-li h, -li..\v~ t.. l.,- .•v.' .if 
Koooii.' iik'i'. Fr.iin this -iiiiiinary it 1,.m-.,iii,- ,,,,ii- that « y^ i, .'-..n 
lially an. I typi-villy ,ui K...-.'ii,. t;vnu-, th,. .'hi. .' a-p.-.-l ..f ulii.'li i- |.,,uvr K.>.viip. 
'riu' ..Illy .-M'.'i.i i.iii I,, ilii, ulii.'li ha- ...nii- iui.I.t iii,\ n.iii..,.. , ihi- .'a-.. .<< an'rih.'il s|h .'ie- r.''.| l.y Sir Williaiii Dau in h . .|,-,-ri|.| i..ii ,.f 

-|M'.-iiii.'n-i tli.' I\....laiii. .r..!!!. at,, |;.C., i5 |.. :i\\. \,-,\ tlii- 
i<-f.T("iii-.> i- a .|,,ul)lful ,.ii.'. a- lli.' -[..■•■i,-, ,1,„- n..t .•..rr.-i...ii.| uiili ih.- ii-iially 
,i.-i-i'|.t.M| chara.'t.T- ..f tli.' t."iiii-, ..r with lli..-.' ..f ih.' .•\i-tiiiL' L'. iin> Cyp.Tii.). 
Ml. I I ih.MVL.r.' .'X.-lnili' it fr..iii I'lirlli.'r .•.■ii-i.liTati..ii in ihi nn. .ti..!!. 

'I'll.' r.'fcrcn.-.. to r,,taiii..>;.-t..n in ih.. pn-.-nl in-lamv i- l.a-..| a!t..t:..t}if.r 
i;p..ii ill.' fruit, hut there iilll.' ri-,,-,.n t.. .ri.--li..n ih.> . ,irr..liii-- .,f thi.s 

'•"ii''':'-i"ii- Kn.iv.ll.ii r, -. r.l- -.■\.ii ■:.,■.!.- .f I', i- -,;,,n . 37 . i, w ..f ,i hi,.), 

.:iv' fr.'iii ih.' lal.T ■['.■rllar-. l-il t».. ar.- tr.-ii l!i|. |-:....ii.-, W ir,| .561 -li,,,. . 

that there arc tifi.oti -p. .■ie- of l'oiain.,«..t..n in ili.- }•: i.,- Kl,.ra. tw ..f whi.-h 

,irc al-.i ••.iinin.m to the S.iupiiiaii ; whih' 11. '.r ililin.- n-. I.— iiin.' -pc.-ics 
fr,.ni th.' r,-rtiar\ .,f |-:!,r^.[.i- (31: \. y-. loj; ||.. 1. --: III,. ... 1701, an. I li\,- 
I'r' rn l!i.' I: .■. n.^ . t' ( ii. .■iil.:ii.l 29: I, . n.| 33, \' 1 1 1. ~«!.ii/:! , rj. n > 27 : !'i a., I 
-'-''■ :'ii'l >■ i . ria i24'. li'.ni \'l;:.i, il ,. ],! .ii.nnr ih/l a- v.- i,..u ^ii.n-. ii. 
thi- 1:. tin- i- .--.■nli.illy .li-t in.-l iv.' of tln' !•!.>.■,. n., a^'.'. 

I'iira^inil.- i- a f..rin ,.f phini r.-ninin- -.vhi.ji i- ii..wh.T.' .■I.-ar'v .l,.|iii,..| 
!li..UL;h ill ,1 -.-n.-rai u ay il iii,i.n I," '. v.,iriii/i .1 uillii.Mt nei.-h ili.iii.t. I'r...'i-elv 
uiiat it .■iiihra.-.'- with r,-p.'.-i !,, .-il'.ier t:eiii.- .,r -|.,-.-i,.,. it \v,,iiM |„. ini|.,„-i|,l',. 
;.. -ay at pr.-.iit, tii..iii..!i in a ^'.ai. ral wa\ il niav I,, -.a.j i.. ..nil.ia.',. if .i-ni.'nt- 
.if hroa.l I.Mvi--, in. .re fraum.ii!- ..f -l.tii- ..r I'V.^n ..f rhi/..ii.,., ..f Mon,,- 
.•otyl.' pi ml-, 'rih' frai;in.|it< .iT ar.' ii'.i ,ilw.r,-- -.-parali!.. wit|, 
.•.rtainly fr.nii ..lli.-r .M..ii..i'.ity!.'.|..!i.ei- haw- wilh -iiuilar ehara.'i. ri-'i.'-. 
uiiih' ih.' -I.Mii fr.iirin.'iit- ar.' el.arlv iliil.T.Milial.'.i fr .111 I 'y p.a-a.'it.-- Tin- 
rhi/iiiii.- aii. ii-nally -uili.'i-'itiv w.a! .li ir,i.liTizc.| t.. !.• n .■, .1:111/, ■,! uiiK ,',.r- 
I.'iiit>. 'rii.Ti' i- 11.. .■.iir.lali..n th..-.- v,.il..ii- t'.irni- r.'l.'irai.'.l t. a 

.■..nun. Ill '^.'iiu-. I.u' uli.n 1. Jiii/ahi.' th.^ir chara.^t. r- ar.^ -iil'i.-i.'ntly .lofinit,' 

'" Ii.'rniit .if u-iiijr th. 111 for -rrai iKrai.liie,il piiip,.-es. An cxainination 
..I' the Xortii Ani.-ri.^an .li-tril.ntii,n of the t'cmis -h..w- a .somewhat wide 
raiiL'.'. 'I'liii-, I'. . Tela., n-. 1.. ..1,, r.-pr.'-.'iil.-.l hy l...:li |i.a\. - an.l 
rlii.'.im.-. i- a .-.•n-t itii.'iit ..t l!:.- l!.,r,i ..:' i!.- I'.ik.l.i L'r..':i. 1 42 : p ;, ,:ii.| 
43: p. "Tt, llaM-i.n iia- r.p..r;.',i llu- l.^af .f I', . ..r.hiilMrini-. Pii., :r..iii tli.' 
rpp.r Cr.'t.ii 11:- ..f \' i-l,inl i9: p. l'i;i, X. wh,rry riin-rl- fr,iL;ni.-iii - 


i>i:i:\t!r\th:\r or iin: isiriinm 

,^'; ^'. 

2 GEORGE v.. A. t912 

of l.'iiv(>s of im un.l.4iii.'.l ^prric- fr.iii llir ( 'ivIiIi'it.ih (48; |>. -'■ \<l x'iii-. f. ■•'• 
iiiiil Waril, ill his Synopsis of tlic Laramie Flora PiiutnpraUM four specie* as*' to tlic l,:iriiriiif proiKT, with two from lli.> Sciioiii;in (56: pi xxxii ' 
On the i.tiiiT IkiiiiI. Li'-ipirri'iix report- -prri,''- frnm tlio TiTti;irv 1 42 ; I'- 
nil. ;iiiii Koowlloii I 35: p. 77:') n-iM.ri^ I'. l;il i<^iiii,i li' in I'n- Ki.rt I'ni.m ur-np. 
R<f(T(<niT to ir.'ci'.- w.'li kii..wii wnrlis (29. 26. 24, 23, :iii.l 31: i'. I'Hi slinw^ four 
sppcioa confined to the Eocene of Europe and Greenland, of which P. oeningensis, 
A. T?T., is liv far the iriust frrrpiciitl.v rcpn-i.iiti 'i. Thi- suiniiniry >liiiws nine 
Cretaceous ioculities against six Tertiary, and a« these latter arc all Eocene, 
it is clear tiiat while ThruKmites i.^ coninion to the Upper Cretaceous and Tx)wer 
Koceiie, it is more typical of the former than the latter. 

UeviewinK the facts thus dealt with, we can oiil.v conclude that the flora 
of the Kettle river is certainly not Cretaceous, and that in its general faiics 
it is Eocene rather than Miocene. This conelu.sion, however, necessarily raises 
an important question as to the particular ago of r. iras i)rcviousl.v det-rmined 

;ni.! prnvi-i dl.v relerre.l t.. the Mi.N'eiie 151: iv.. f,N and 52: _iv.. ■■>•. et.\), .mi 

esiieciidly with reference to a critical comparison with the Siniilkamcen flora as 

already deterniineil l..v Sir William Hawson (10: 

This author ajpears 

aireaoy 'it'ii'iniiii'vi i'.\ .-ii »» n, nim , ■.,.. .— m . *w . . ■ • • > 

not to have been able to determine the age of the Siniilkameen bed? to hi« .,wn 
satisfaction, since, although he freiiuently makes comparisons with the Lower 
Miocene, to which his conclusions \ >8t strongly point, he nevertheless ::fers 
to .some species as having distinct at...iity with the Upper Laramie or Eocene, 
and to the Oligocene in particular, ami in his concluding paragraph he aays 
that ' It may be further affirmed that the Siniilkameen flora is closely allied 
to those .leacribed by Le.siiuereu.x as the Green River and Florissant floras, and 
which he regards as Oligocene or Upper Eocene. It is to be hoped that ere 
long the discovery of manunalian remains may throw further light on the precise 
ape of the Tertiary lake l.a-iii> of Urilish C.luinl.ia ' i 1. •. iv.. Do-im. 

In order to clearly bring out the questions at issue, and establish the correla- 
tion of the various Eocene floras, I have reduced to tabular form all such floras 
as have been studied by me, and have shown the oci-urrence of the same species 
as determined 1. .ther ol)servrr>. While, tin reforc. this tatple aims primarily 
ti> establish tin ..lations of the Eocene floras, it will also show their contact 
with the .\!iocer; jnd extension into the Cretaceous, including, however, only 
such siiecles as are actual components of the various Eocene floras now under 

The particular floras, the age of which is at present a matter of discussion, 
are Coal (ndly at Coutlee, B.C., the Horse-Fly river at Cariboo, the Kettle 
river deposits at ilidway. the Quilchena beds which are closely associated with 
those at t 'out'ee. and the Similkamecn beds in the valley of the same name. 
As a basi- of reference and comparison, the age of certain floras is well known 
or at least accepted. They are the Red Deer of the Paskapoo Series and ec..en- 
tially Fort Union group, the Union group of the Yellowstone National Park 
and elsewhere in the United States and Canada, and the Lignite Tertiary of the 

in i-iinr of :iii: i m. i \- innMnii i; 



I'urcMpiiio creek uii'l <; I'lt ■.;il!.'>. ;ill ..; wiiich ar.' 1...w,t Iv (.ii.". I'., thin wi- 
Miiiy 11(1(1 tho Iviccno nf tlio N'l.rlli Polar rcKii/n-'. tlic Hoi.i- of which aro Forf 
rnidti. -A, a\u\\<\\ -h-wii. Oh ihc i.thcr hand, the r.rccii irrni]) funil-ihc- 
a lorii'it index il ihp ((.(pr I-aciinc .r ( MindciMc ll(ira» From these tixe^l 

(hita il may l>e i iblc !u e t ih'i^h the pr^ticr ■•..iti-1.iU..ii o!' the niikiii''.vii 



nf:i'\KTStf:.\T of rnr. istchior 

2 GEORGE v.. A. 1912 


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2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

'I'llr Miurcllr ;li;i- "l' llli' Silliilkalll 1 lir.l- lia- l.i'iMl il.!opti'i| l.A Alili l2: 

Iv.. 220), wild iiicluiles tlu-m in the Cordillcran RcRion. hasiiiK liis opinion upon 
till' (leteriiiinatioii^ of planta by Sir Willinm Dawson, nnJ of inseofa by Sciulder 

il: p. 7l. Oil ||„' ..ih.r haiMl. I»r. <i. M. l>;m-..ii. in ;:ilM|iiiii- \\\i' virw tliai 
tlic Siiiiilkainci'li Ic'J- an- ( )lii;...iiH- ■<!■ laliT l'....rin- (16: I'p. T.".-7t' 1! i. l.a-.- 
Ins opininn upon th.> ifsuits obtaiiipii liy Scudder, accdrdinfr to which sixteen 
out of uiiiotepii >pp<'i(". ..I Tertiary iriiniptcra witc from tho Siiuilkanioen beds 
—all liut one being new— and in their general faeies of the Olignpene type, 
altliongh tile general fauna showed definite relations witli the Middle Miocene; 
while Cope rccngnizcd the remains of Amyzon in the Siniilkainecn beds which 
were, ihireforc, reirardcd by him as cipiivalent fci tlie Am.vzon beds of Oregon, 
and iiciicc of Oligncene age. Dr. Dawson further <il)serves that ' It is probable 
ibat the SiiiiilUaiiieen l)i'ds may . . . represent the Coldwater horizon, but 
1mI- till' |)iT-ciit thi- .■..inlalii M -laii'l- incii'l\ a- a pr.i'al'li- .•..njcci m-.' ' (l..-.i. 
.Vciorditig to this hypothesis, tlie Coldwater horizon is within the Oligocene 
rormatioii, and this conclusion is in exact accord;incc with the result.s of our 
prcsiiit studies. Kelercnce to the accoinpanyiii- table will show that out of 
thirt.v specie- from the Similkamcen beds, only ten. or :'.:! per cent, are Lower 
Ko<'eno. thus leaving two-thinls as distinctly Tpper Eocene and with Miocene 
aHinities. From tliese con-iderations it would seem altogether pri^bable that 
we must Lcreafter regard the Similkamcen beds as 01igo<'ene. and to the same 
category must no donbt be referred the various deposits at Midway on the Kettle 
river, wlierc, out of >evcn identii'al sjieeies, three are distinctly allied to the 
Siniilkameen. and one to the (ireeii Kiver group, thus giving :>' iicr cent of 
I'piier Eocene types. With rospec to the pl-nts from the HorseFIy river at 
( ariboo. it should be pointed out that the ntimber of species is small, and that 
they do not atTord a fair opportunity for final judgment, but within the limits 

of twelve; species four are definitely I'pper Ivici ^ix arc as dctinitt'ly I.ower 

KiM-eiie and two are common to both horizons, wliile four species establish a 
strong e. intact with tiie Cretaceous; but as Taxodiiim distichum is a very eosino- 
jjolitan -peeie^ of wide range, it .Mimot b' said t.i have leading weight in a 
.|uesti..ii of this kind, more especially as its chief aspect i- Eocene. Alnites 
graiidifolium is eoinmon to the entire Eocene, being found in the Red Deer River 
group as well a- in the Similkamcen. so that it afTords no conclusive evidence 
as to the relative age of the beds in which it occurs. Whether Alnites and 
J'axodium be excluded or not. the general facies of the IIorse-Fly river plants 
incline- miieh more t.. the Siniilkameen group than to the F^rt I'nion or the 
WfA Deer river, and niir opinion is that they (lis,.nctly belong to the Oligocene. 
The s[)eeiniens Coutlec, B.C.. are but three in nutnber. and they are 
altogether too iiiadcMuate to base an opinion upon. One species — Taxodiur- 
distichum — may indieate anything from F.ower l''ocene to .' ioceno. Fie 
lepresented liy an undeMTibed s) ei ies. may al-o indicate any horizon witliin 
the Isoceiie. The only genus of value in thi- respect is riinus. which suggests 
I'pper rather than Lower Eocene, and it is thus ,|uite possible that the Coal 
'.liilly depo-il- nia> In- ..t ()iii;,ieeiie aue. a- -,i-i;e.ted by Dr. Ami (1: Ji. >V 

RBFORT Of Tnn rniF.F iSTKi>\(t\IF.K 



With respect to the Quilchena flora, thore iro mx s^-c'm-i. in (he Siniilkameen, 
one in the Green River (?roiip and one in the Kotilo river, nnil if wo afropt tho 
Horse-Fly River and Coal Gully beds as OIlKoccno, then five ninr.' epei'li^a must 
be added, thus making a representation of tliirte«-n specie? in the Tpix^r Eoeene. 
Against this we have three species in t!ie Fort rnion, one in tlie\ipine 
creek and six in the Red Deer river, makiiit; ten species of Lower Eocene tyjie, 
while there is a rery strong Miocene contact through Ulnms and Planern 
oblonglfolia. From these fncts the argument wouM seem to be tliat the fucies 
are decidedly Oligocene rather than Middle or Lower Eocene. 

The second group of localities embraces the numbers 142S, 1430, \^^.',^^ and 
1486 of the 1906 collections, and 471 of the 1903 collections. The plants foun<i 
to be represented are as follows : — 

Piniu ep. 

Qlcichenia Kilbert-thompsoni. 

GUieheuia sp. 

Cladophlebig skajcitansis. 

Aspidinm fredericksburgens*. 

Nilsonia brevipinna. 

Cycsditei anjiita. 

OV(uo«trobu« (>urop»u8. 

Saiiz psrpIexaP 

PopaloB CTOlophylla. 

Uyrica serrata. 

Quercna flexoosa. 

Qaercas coriacea. 

Sesaafras cretac^nm. 

Leaves of exogens. 

IjoaTes of enducena. 

Frait of ExoRen (Dorstonia?). 


Of this list, if we eliminate the doubtful reference to Salix perplexa, we 
find only thirteen species which may be depended upon, but among these are 
some which aSord a very definite indication of age. Ina.smuch, however, as 
locality 471 is somewhat widely separated from the others, and as a special 
question arises in connection with 1428, it will be necessary to deal with three 
Bub-groupe, i.e., ill, 1428 and localities 1430, 1433, 143ti. A consideration of 
previously described floras which may bear some relation to the present, is also 
essential. They are represented by the Crowsnes* rna! hasin at Michel station, 
B.C., the Nordenskiold river in the Yukon territory; the Vancouver and Queen 
Charlotte islands. Reducing the various floras which may be so compared, to 
a tabular form, it will be found that the specimens with which we are at present 
most directly concerned, establish contact with other floras at only nine points, 
and with respect to only six special groups. Nom jf them can be directly 
correlated with the Cretaceous at Michel station, tho Xordensiu'pld river, Van- 
couver or the Queen Charlotte islands. This arises from the fact that in all 
of these floras the species presented are to a very large extent new, so that there 
is no overlapping, and they are in the majority of cases extensions of the pre- 
viously known floras. This is pre-eminently trae of Vancouver island. 

25a — voL i?i — 54 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 














Paget Sound. 

Aipidium fiedBrickhburgeuw 

ClMophlebia HkagitenHiii { .. . 

Cycftditfn unjigA i ■ ■ ■ 


1 I 

I * 


... . 

.. . 


Domtenia •|i.— ?. . . 



■1 gillK'rt-thoiiipfloni. x 


iilyptostmbuB »p— 

M^rrica ' ^rr»t» 

Nilsonia prMyt«njiii 

Pinus up.— 

Populus cyclophylU 

(juerciifi coriacM . 

l" X 






i ' ' ■ ' ' 


; .. . 

! ^ 



SMMifrai cratACetim. 




Myrica serrata has no precise equivalent in any of the groups with which 
comparison has been made. The general distribution of the genus has been 
fairly well reprcseiitod in tlw li^t (;ivoii liy Knowltoii (37), which show.s that 
out of the fifty-three species, less than half are Cretaceous, although they range 
as far down as the Potomac formation. From this it is apparent that while 
specif forms may be definitely associated with particular horizons, the general 
facies of the genus as a whole is such as to indicate an Upper Cretaceous or even 
Tertiary contact, rrther than a Ijower Cretaceous. 

Populus <'yc-liii>),yll», Iiocr. iiml Siissiit'rus iTetarciiin, Xcwb. (46: p. !";), arc 
both well defined elemerts of the Dakota flora, and they thereby give a some- 
what definite indication of a specific horizon, which is certainly Upper Creta- 
ceous. Again, both Quercus flexuosa, Newb., and Q. coriacea, Newb., are known 
so far only in the Pujret Sound jrruup of Chuckanutz, Washington (46. pp. 73, 
74), once more giving a definitely Upper Cretaceous horizon. Similarly also. 
Cycadites unjiga, Dn., from the Upper Cretaceous of the Peace river, compared 
by DawMiu (9: p. -''•) "ith ('. (lii'k^niii. llttT, iruni the I'ppcr Cretaceous of 
Greenland, confirms the deductions to be drawn from the foregoing facts in a 
very striking manner, < -pccially as Dawson has already shown the Peace River 
formation to be Senonian, and thus within the limits of the Chico. Cladophlebis 
is a very strongly pronounced Cretaceous type, which is largely found in the 
Potomac formation, thoujrh it is also cummon to the Upper ('retaceous of 
Vancouver island, from which locality Dawson has described C. Columbiana 
(12: iv., 55). i\ type, however, whicli is quite distinct from those generally 
associated with the Cretaceous, and which affords no direct point of eomoarigon 
with the present species. 

REPORT or THi: t Hir.t AslROSUVtR 837 


Xilsonia pasa.vtensi» stand, by its.lf a, a speca-s. but reference to the general 
Uistnbution of the genus .hows that althouKh it may be recognized in the Upper 
r..a.vou.. a, r..o„rd.d b 1^--.. (9: iv., .•,,, „. ,,„., ,. ,„„,er thr„u«!, ,1,.. 
l-out-r Mo.uzo;o Thus \\ar.l (57: !■. IM. W .„ ,. , ..„ .....Tat.-, .„ .r (■r.ta..,.o,„ 
species, of which one is frun. th.- Kootani.. an.l thnv from the ShaHta serios. 
and SIX speciee of Jurassic age, a distribution in exact accurd with the limit. 

a^.Kiied lj>- /..,l|,.r (69: p. Si^K «l, ak~ ,.f i,, „.|..ral,|,. al.mMa.K.. i„ ,|,.. 

Klwtic, whence It pas.s^.. through thv Jura.ssic t., the Lowc-r CrHaci.ui^ Tl,,- 
t-eneral evidence of distribution, theretore, is toward greater abundance in the 
M.ddJe Mesozoic rather than toward its close, and in this sense the present 
species would afford very Mrong evidence of a Lower Cretac.^u, horizon 
furthermore, in comparing this species with those previously described bv 
l-ontame an , others, there is seen to be a somewhat remarkable corrcsponden.v 
with ^. iiipix-nensis. Yokoyama. as figured by Wanl (87: pi xvii ( .s-Km 
which tends to strengthen the idea that this is at least an early Cretaceous type' 

Aspidiuni fredericksburgcni-r, Font., i, an exceedingly well charactcriz(Mj 
plant, and thcro can be littl.^ duubt that the same siwcics occurs in the tlora of the 
fHsa.vteii river district. It wa^ ..ri>,'inally d.Mribv.i l.y F-nilaine (19: ,, !.| ,,1 
XI and xii.), from the Potomac formation at Fredericksburg. Virginia, where 
It 18 said to be one of the most common ferns. 

Reviewing this evidence, we observe that there are eleven species of nlanta 
irom locality 1«0. Of these Dorstenia ( '), which i, of .(uestionable character, 
and Pinus, which is chiefb" represented by seeds and may indicate any one of 
several horizons, need to be eliminated because not specifically defined This 
leaves nine weU-defined species, of which three are definitely Lower Cretaceou-^ 
and SIX as definitely Upper Cretaceous. These differences, however, are fully in 
accord with the correlations alreatlv e-tablished l.v Dawsi.n (9- iv li>) .,,,,1 l.v 
Diller and Stanton (17: ).. 47f.: and 18: p. 4.!.-, .-t.-.l. and we niav .ou-l'iid.- tl,;,t 
at least that portion of the flora from the Skagit river which is embraced in 
locality 1430, is of Shasta-Chico age. and that it shows two well defined horizons 
within that series. 

Directing attention to lo.'ality ]4:.\S, about which a specific question wa.s 
raised with respect to its age relatively to that of U:jfl, it is possible to give a 
very definite answer. Thi- locality has furnished fi.ur specimens of plant, 
only. Of these one species of Salix presents nothing in the nature of reliable 
evidence, and it shows no contact with the other localities. Pinus is represented 
by fragments of leaves and seeds which also appear in localitot- 14:53, which i.« 
presumably of tlu' same a«e. (ilyptostrobih., iM^rinu :i lertaiu re«enil.'lHii<e to C. 
europteus, appears only in this locality, ana k may or may not be comparablB 
with G. gracillimus, Lesq., which Dawson has described from the Niobrara 
horizon of British Columbia (9: iv. 21). But it may be recalled that Dawson 
f9: iv., 25) directs attention to a species of (ilyi.tustrobus from tlie rpi»>r 
Cretaceous of Vancouver island, which he refers to as comparable with G. 
europaus in form and size, but too obscure for certain determination. Further 
more, Knowlton (37) enumerates nine speeies of ( uf which five are 
Cretaceous, chiefly from the Kootanie and Potomac scries, while one of these, O. 



2 GEORGE v., A. 1912 

Kreer.Ia«dic.,«. TIerr. \. also found in the Kon.e M^ of Or.onlaml (21= PJ«^^ 
Out present specimen, therefore, is of Rener.e va ue only. m'\ .ts Vr^^^ 
might .npport any Cr-fKooon. horizon. Under thorn-. our ^nnwledK« 
of th^ actual age of 1428 must be based wholly upon the evidence afforded by 
Gleichenia gilbert-thompsoni. This plant was originally obtained from the 
Lower Cretaceous of the Shasta series, at Pettyjohn's Ranch. Tehama l^oun^. 
California, in 1882, by the one after whom it was subsequently named by 
Fontaine. Heretofore it ha. not been correlated with any particular horiMn. 
for as Ward observes, ' all that can be said of it is that its age might be either 
Lower or Hpper Cretarous' (67 : P. 2M). Novertholr^s. it., present occurrence 
in the Skagit river district definitely confirms its character as a Lower Cretace- 
cuH type, and at the same time it enables us to definitely correlate the deposits 
in which it was found, with those to whicr. Aspidium frederioksburgense belongs. 
Tt may thus be confidently asserted tuat locality 1428 is of the Shasta series. 
This conclusion gains somewhat in force through the circum.ta.ices that locality 
1486 shows the remains of fern stipes which have been found to be those ol 
Oleichenia, presiiinably of O. gilbert-thompsoni. _ , . , v 

Locality 471 is wholly represented by highly altered si^cimens which hare 
been identified as the rachises of a fern, in all probability of ^l^'jj^";". " /T 
deduction, which is based upon very scanty and poorly preserved material, in 
which specific characters are not at all recognizable, should ultima^ly prove 
correct, we have once more a means of establishing a general correlation between 
Ibe somewhat isolated Cretaceous areas of British Columbia. A tentative con- 
clusion with respect to 471 wo-ild be that it represents an isolated Cretaceous 
island which, in the general elevation of the central ridge, was cut off from Uie 
lateral areas and subjected to more or less profound alteration a. the character 
of the rock and plant remains suggests. ... *i. 

WLile writing these conclusions, a very interesting fact bearing upon the 
general correlation of the Cretaceous beds has been brought to my notice by Dr. 
\ W G Wilson of l^IcGill University, who asked me to determine a specir . 
o*- fern collected during the past summer. The specimen was a portion < 
large slab, which it was impossible to transport from its original location t 
was obtained from the Crowsnest Coal Basin, about thirty miles nortt .. 
Michel Station, B.C., and it therefore belongs to the same deposits as Previou 
reported uixin by me. It. however, adds in most imi.ortant ways toour know edge 
of the very scanty flora hitherto obtained from these beds, since it proved to be 
a specimen of Aspidium d.mkeri. Schimp.. which has hitherto been known as an 
element of the Potomac flora, in which series it constitutes one of the best 
known and most widelv distributed fonns a9 : p. 101)^ On this basis it is no« 
Sssible to correlate the Crowsnest Coal Basin with the Shasta series, and the 
Le may also be said of the deposits on the Norden-k-old r.,-er, from which a 
limited flora hiis been, obtained and studied. 

ntfiiiti I, I nil I I'll! \' I ii<>\n\it i: 

^FSSIONAl PAcf 1' r.,, pr.j 








iJTi i;ati 1,1 
Ml \«t, n. M \,..,.. „„ .1... .;..„i,„.,,,i ir.„„.„- ,„.|.,.at.,i i„ ,t„. k.,..,i I'l,,,,-- 

rw. ,>»!v .l-|.r,n „.,1 l.y I'rM I', „I,:.1I.,«- 1,.„„ tl,.. v,,r,mi, l.K'ahl,.-. i,, 
lint. si, r„liitiibia ^ind (I,.. \..mIiw. t T. rr.t.., ,,-, ,.f r;,„;,.|a Sum. II.TI 
Oi'ol, Siirv. Ciin., I lOl, pp i; |i> 

<2) Synopsis of thp (ji- jiit'v I, )• CritiiKlii. Tr iti~ I;S<' VI laoO 

■■I' I'Muv, i:. \V.-T|„. I l„r-, „f tl„. ChfiMco,! cImts, <;,.„1 H'.rv \ J 190.-, 

<\) Hi:ON'iNniir. A. Ili-toin. d.-. V,V.-t;nix iVsil.«s, I'urio 1H'> 

.5> I)A»sov. S,R .1. WiiMu,.- On tl». (,„r..|aH,.n of K.rly rrMacous Kloras i„ Ona.l., 

.■Ui.i thp i;iijti'ii st.'h--. 'ri:iti-. i.'s.c, X. inyj. 

Tlie (ieoIoRiral ilistory i.f I' Inf. S< . .^.r., X Y., IWiH. 

l'.'st-riiio<f.n» riant^. Cm. Niit.. III. isr.s. 

-VotM on thp Fossil Plant, fr,,m Hiiti^h Columbia. «,llM-t«Hl by Mr. .Iaii.,>- 

Richardson In IS:2. Gi<d. Surv. Can . lS:2-7;!. Ap|). i. p 7(1, 4,- 
Thi. Crptar..ous and T.riiarv 1 l,,ia: of Hntish Cohunl„'a uMd'th« \orth«...t 

Trans. Ff.S.C. 1. ISSJ. iv, 20, A< 
On Fos-,1 I'lanfs froo, fh.. Snnili ani.+n Valley and otl,..r pla. -s „, tli^- 

Soutliirn Interior of lirili-ti Cliiuibia. Trans. H.S.C.. VIII. \mi. iv. 75 
On the Fu-sil J'lants of the Larami,. Inimation of Canada Trans KSC 

VI. 188«, iv, 19,1t. 
Oi, nf«r si.cii..; of Crct. n< I'laiit- fn^ni V.u.rouTir Mand Trans RSC 

XI, I&93. iv, .Vi. 
'liitiarv i'lant- of tlio C;iv of VaDoiiv^r. B.C. Trans. KSC. I. IS35 
los,.il IMants from llio M,,. kinzio and lioiv Kivc r~. Trans. U.S.C, VII IS89 

IV. 7.1. 
,1.-,. l'^»-o^, r,. M. l;,rt on Kxploralion, in the Southorn portion of British 

(oluml.i.i. l;, 'i!. (;,.<,!. .'^urv. Can.. 1S77-IK7S. B. iv. lfl.V-133. 
I.Vpoit .■ i!„. Ar.a of th,. Kaniloop- Map-She-t of British Columbia. O*ol 

>urv. (.an.. Ml, ISM, li, 7.')-76. 
iK.' R.j.ort on th- A,,.,, „f th- Kamloot,- .\I.,,HShP..t of British Cdumbia Geo! 

hurv. Can., VII, \w.i\. B., 7.i-7t). 
'17) ImiFP.. J. s.-.Not,. on the Creta(.<H,us Rocks of .\.,.^th..rn Cal.fornia. Am.r 

Journ. Sc. M,, i:.i;u. |i. 47(i. 

(1^) I'.uu. J. .s and Smnton. F. u-.-Th. Shast..-Chico Sories. Bull. Gool So,- 

AnuT.. \ , i,s9(. p, \:;:,. ac 
■lit) 1-0NT„N.. W. .M, The I'otoma, Flora. VS. (J-ol. Surv., Mon. XV. 
,2(). (anns^F... J S;v;, Tho A,o of the Ba-alts „f the Northeast Atlant,,-, B,df.,.-t 

■\'' I l>'ld ( . ... \.. d,.'.. pp. I-tf 
1211 IIFIB. Osw,« Flora d.s |ns,.| Sa. I,,ilir,. \. 

"'•'•■■iii.'e zur Fos^,i|,n Flora Spitzhcr;;.'!. . IV. 

Die Tirtiilre Flora von (^ronland. VII. 

Die Mioc'ono Flora divs Grinnell-Land.-. V. 

Beitra-e zur Fossilon Flora .Sil,..,,,,. „„,i d... Aoi.ii landes. 

Naihir.ine zur Mio'encr, I'lora < li ..i;l,;iid-. III. 

Mora F'os-ilis Alaskana. II. 

Contributions to the Fossil Flora of N'orth (ir<'pnland II 

Miocene Flora kui I. 

I'M' i'.-> ! ■ I <.r., .1- i l'..!.nl,,Ti.|. . Vll. 

Flora Tcitiaria II.!ve!ia- I. IU2 II, >8- III. im 
a - v.pI. iii - ."..", 

1 27) 


III I' Mil I/.' \ /■ "'■ ■/'.'//■ i\ii luui; 

? r.- v., A. 101: 




(:::) llniiKi:. Ai.' Ar-.l., il Mm tvl. !i,n fr.'., lli \ ^ !'■ u (i ■ .!• 1 u^ I'.n.t...- 

K.r-, N I. I!(i'l, r.-:r 1;..' ' 'mI,, WIV. l^'iT. p. M."'. :i.l. jd .-111 Ifi. 
Cn* KS(.«i.('n. Timsk M.-I()--il l'l:int« ftdtii Kiikak li.iv. I'lrnn-ui \,ii !'.v li.-li- 
ti-ii, l!HH. IV. 
Kr>,,il 1 ■■ r,, nf f..' .l-ln, ll.,v I'.'-iM •"•'i.'nn r S, (;,■.,! -.(fv.. H'.M, .>lil. IW-' 
I,, ! 1 j, , , , •■ th- >' >■■' •' I r.ik, l\S. <1m,L S.iiv . M.n WXII. 

I'.rt II. ivfl. in., :'.;:•■. 

i;.'I.i.rt "II H •', ll.Ttni, (.t I ! ri'>.l> fi'.m M..i,v.i,t.i»ii. W •■ t \ 11 ■„-.(. ;.i 

Ai.i.T <i-.i. will, iv«; 1,, ■■\:n. 

riiiui..i;UH (f tl... Ci.l.M 1. and T.TtMry rh.nt-^ cf N"i'h Nni.i^ i TS 

(i.M.I. Suiv.. iv.iv l!>i!i l-'il>. 
F.x-il rii.rii of Ahi.ka. I .S M(!- , XVII. loOt. p. -Jl^ 
l',it..o)«iiiiiiv (..f Alu-l..i. in !;• p.Tt ..,1 C,,;,! tti„| l,i«Ml. •■ M.i-kn; I'S 

i.i-<,\ S(irv., .\\ II, I'-!' "•'. 
I'..^s,l IMiiBt-, (f the l^(^. il- 1 .inr.ite 11 \ '.ii. Knpt '' -^ f;.'1 Siir> Will 

A KtpoK ..II tl." r.-il li^'Til- A- „.i,.t.,l -h.- Lava, nf the (';• -r.„l. l.' .ic.-v 

Ann. l;.-pl 1' S.. <i''l. Sci''-. .NX. l-.s-!--!.!! 
(i;) I.t^..l^.ln^. 1". ' 1 ,: ai-.-..iis aii.l '1'. ! f ■ • y l;r.ia>, VS (l-,.l. Sun.. T. 11 , \lll. 

1.. Hft. 
,0. l;..ia "t '!■<■ ■'.•k.'ta (-."■p. '■■■■^. <i"''- ^■"■>' • '^'"'- >;\ !'■ '^''- _ 
(It), .1. S. riant- Ciil.- t".l Iv Im. \,.,il,.i.v lit Cr-.i' 1' >'l-. M..iit. ,•,... 

Aincr. .1. (111. S, ., IM.I, ].. i;>l 
,\:,} H.-ri tioni of l'""il I'l.'nt^, cl.'.'nv l.rtiary, froin W. '••n. N' '•!. \ii..t,.a 

I'l.i,. U.S. -■> it. M.I-,. V, I'-J. 
(401 Later lAtin.t \U>t.'>. f.S. <i..'', S,!,■^. M,.i,. XNXV. iv.v p ■is 
(17) I'rsiuL'.m. 11. 1'. N.,t,- nn T.:', M IT'^'-. Ti ,1-. I:.S C. X. i:"'!. i-, . W 
(48) Th.. I'lei-t(...To I l.ira .'!■ (■ai...ii... !• -i, (l.'i.l. S..r. Atn.-r. 1, 1V">. pp. ItM-r.'ll 

(4'l; Coiiir.l.ati..ii-- to t'.- r:.-..t 1. ,iu- Mr;, of C.uii..l,i. Ti.t 1: .-' <^. 11. I-'.m;. p.. 

(aOI Osu.m:.lil..s ski,!.^;at..nM,. 'l , an-, K.^.l'-, V! U . !'ti>2-l!'.i : iv. •- "> 

(51) Octa (HIS iin.j T.Ttiary liaiit.- .^f fa.iada. ' 

.52) Nntc, ..II Tfitiary ri.mtv. Tra.,,. I!.S f.. IX, iW.:). u . .. 

(5;!) I'rtr.iMV. II. I'.i'sliT an'l I'ratitl. I'llanz.-nfainili'^n, Liff. I'M. p :!". 
(.54) Lf.'irlai.l. ilcr I'llan;!. iipal,.(!nt.ilo!,M.-. li-ilin. \*'V>. 

(5.-,) S\i:aiNr. V S -TIk< Silva .f N.iitli .\ 1 a. XI. 

(5<)) Ward, Lfstku 1". Synoi.-i-i ..t tl..- 11. ra iit tlif !.ar..ii.u- (! 

Ann. Mcp.. lS*-5. VI. 
,57i SUtu» ..f the Me.-oz, II.. .- ..f I h" fnit.d Stat.-. I.' S. d-I S.iiv . Mcikil r 


(j>) zti i.K 1; i:;.'in.-ni- .1 r !. ■ s ..> :-■■ i'"'-. i''™ I'i' -■■^-■■> 

(".. ''111. I'.irJ IV, '.I 


t:,s (;..)!. Sti' ■ 

MiM^:-mf- =: 

I'lat.- I. 

.'r>ii -veil, iii -p. H40 

'ti-^ :j? 

• vr-«iHf»^aK - t-^rniB^ 

B3?^^^T^fiT<^^^5IR^^^^^^5^^^n, III. Ki;.'. 1. III. Km 

■Sl^^f^'^Er^r • ' .I#<^-!«"~"T&"- 

riat.- IV. Kijf. 1. 

I'hite IV. Kit!. 2. 


• ♦ 

' . • \ » 

I'liUi- \". Kiir. 2. 


I'hite VI. KiK. •-'. 


ik'.«yj' ML- 

''}&jm!M.'^?.'T -^ 


»1 »».»<*-»--»-■ •c.:nt., -'.^^ 

.•■•.mr. i. 

:yU- VIM. I- 1 

. '.■* T '^jy MV , - JV^B J--" ■I 1 M^ . -.-■ 

|i= „ 


25ii — Mil. iii p. HJI). 

ri.t.- IX. 


I'litf IX. 


SESilCAL PAPER \o 25.i 


\b-ar(,l,. H- 

\liys-a! i«i;r(ius iiiifctiun. . 
Vfconlai c (.f siimu.i' levels. 
-\oicl fin ii-^liel!. , 

\i:iu,,s, r. 1) ■ 


. .. .it>s 

705, 7I:l, 777 
. ..00^. ail:' 

. . . 7»j, 7S!' 

\ilani.-> I akf 

\l.:imiii:i Creek jviu lin, . 

.\keio-i- ; . 


Alkaline iijneous roel .-, liri^m cf.. 
Alps, coiiipaiison of CorJUleia with 
Altyu ferniatluii, Clarke raii','e.. .. 

. r;~'" ■ '""''l^'i;!! «eel!ori «f . 

— . AiacDoiial.l range 

Altvii, Moniana, .<ectioii a( . 

191. IPt 


:ii^. u, 




'■'': i^. iM. BO 



)"''■ ". ^^^ ■■ '■■ ■■...y.'.y.y.y. y. ".'.'.'..'.'.'.' .'.x'^9y\u. lu, ikj. i^ 

Miiiri..|inim carlKJiure as a (jeoleniial ag. lit UK,, 

Vniyxilules. calcitic, et Shepiiaril lava,. .. <n 


Viialcilii ri.oiiib-poriilij-ry (.~liackai:itei .. . 

\i:archi>t Miuititain, fomiatirtis (if ". ' 

\r:arclii^t serii.s 

Vrrycloceras reiiieiiidi ' ' ]' '] 

Viije<, cuiiiparii-dii of Cordillera ivih 

.\t!ile-ite '' ' 

' — . origin of 


111. 415 


.\iiih.«>. K. C. 
Wiiii ii.-.-mv, .A . . 




.'M9, ton, 4.i:i. ,->:;i, .iJ9 

7i>:. 7S^li 

45S, .Wl 


Aiiorllnivites, origin of. 
•Appekunny fiiriiuition. 




.Vrago geo.syiiclinal. 

.\rkuiiP, Cretaceous basal.. .. 

.\-liiiola gabbro 

A^pi^lillIn f reil.ricksburt,eii^e 

.A^>iuiilatioii, abyssal 

— , magmatic. .. 






431, 4.'!.) 

4h7, 817 

\>siniilation-i.liffereiit!atio!i ; Ik i>i,i 

Asyinnietry of [leaks 

.Athyris parvula 

— vittata .. 

Atrypa a>|)i ra 

el Iglli 

.. ..2W. 2(7. 253. 300. 731, 


2.J3. 477. 

T.Vi, 777 
7,56, 777 
::>'J, 77s 

— - reticularis 
.Altw 0*1(1 group. . . 
Atwood. \V. W.. . 

\ \ i'il!oji- ell 11 . . . . 

Ill, 112 


115, 116 


.378, 3,'-2 
511, 512 


•-'■"rt — vol. iii-- 

842 i>h:i'Ain\n:\r nr rin: iMV.uioit 

2 GEORGE v.. A, 1912 



lOti, "« 

H«( k-lii)Mi. )i 7tl7 

Hall. S. II ■ ■ •■ •■ ■■ ■■ •■ . .,;mi. itl, -i^^ 

H;iiwliii^' Ml -luaii-il hntlinlitli. onuiii il -Jail, 7G7 

HaiN.«. \. i; .', .. :; 

HariKiril. V.. <■' .,s:t. 717, 7t^ 

liiirnll. .1 I.ll. tM7, 727 

Hiirn.i-. •' . . .' 71ft. 7)J 

Hanis. r -',' -,', {,^' ij|i, -iici' it:!:). :i!ts, \M. .■)01 

Hasall ■ • ... 7!> 

Hawaii, till" in Slit-ppai'l loimation j.,1 ,.,|;^ -^- 

HaM( I ..inph-x (Okaii.inari laiiiji) ,--' |,„^ ,<,j 

iiinlact "-lielN in intrn-ivc? ,;r, 77.) 

. cr'K'i' "' ' rilu 

Ha->iii-. 1;. S j.,^ :i:i. 7Jt; 

Balhciilli-, irii~^-(Uttini,' r.laU..ns r>l ■.,^.^ j-- ,,,-, ,9^^ y^r, 

-. (luttnwanl ciil: ruenii nt i.l -' • ' ' 73,, 

. Iioinojjeni'it.v (if ^.y, .■)7|.. 7J.")ii 

-. (iri(«i'i "t :iiir i:t7. 72<;. 71'> 

- , riHils i.f • •• • • .■ -,,;, 7-2.-,ft_ 7-1!, 

- , r.-lali(in to innintain-builUiiii! .■•,••..,•-,■ ,„; ,7(, -,oh r,it; 11 '• '• •./;. ■ 2.-.O 

Havii.v. \V. S .js9 571, 7:;i; 

Baynnnr liatliolitli 2.>-!) 

- gold ininp 'M\.Xil 

BiavcT Mountain Uroiii Ijj) 

. . - — -, sod i nil 11 1^ ot .J- ^ 

. - -, volcaniis of -jll 

Btrkcr. (.!. 1'. l.'>tJ 

HcoliivK fornialioii I.i7 

. - . . .(iluiiinar section "I ,_-^ 

Bii'iiicrdM' 4S8 

Bcloniniti's iinpn — us j, '.>j j,, .-,7i,(ii(i 

Belt of Interior Plateau- ' .^o;) 

Belt terraiie 17<( 

- - - - , , iir.hition uith ■.(!.■ nV-l'Jl, 18» 

Beltiau system _ . tWi. IHH 

Beltina ilanni isii 

Helton, Miinlaiia, -eitioii ^t, 91 

Benlon fornialioii S()6, hlJ 

Betula . 112, 60."> 

Hlaekfoot peneiilam ^ ' 9, ;i,-, 

Bonnin^ton vaiisje " 55, ,S7 

Borings for oil '..1117,109.451,452 

Borolandse , ' 3 377 

Boundarv I're.k .Miniii),' Di-nin ,.j^ 

Boyd, \V. 11 713 

Branco, \V . . .^ ■.; , ' ^;, ' ^y '^^ ' ■^(,. ,' x^l. 359; atio. ■:17;(,' :i:i.' 377-388, '391. 394,39s 
Brook, 1>. V\ ...i. -.0, .1.", ■>-!, .»-'. ^2i, 590, C14, 717 

,,. ,, tot), 107. 746 

Bro^Rpr. W . < 21 , 43, .")55 

BriKiks, -V. II 615 

Brooks, \V. K 7(j5 

Bruii, \- ■ . .. 303, 7SI 

Blinker Hill silhiii.- 


L'76. 5»'2, .)ftl 

cliifr'i^- "';"■■ -v .■: ::5;:«; 41, k,: is.; ,m, ■^^< m:\^. 17.; ..;..■ 5,1.. 555,- 62«, | 

" 'iiniapplioria 

/\ hi:\ 


~E5j.lO\A_ PAPER No 25a 

< •iiiuin ^»t III, I 

I.'. Il> 

• 'iinnriii l.ill- :iiiti< line - , 

I ;,iiii'li> II, M. I; I,."' 

' aini"'I'l"> lliiiri 'iKi, .Ml 

('Ulll|itiilli( '.- S", 

<';iiii|.tc.iiiic .ill. ,;i!>. ,|j. :-: 

< .,11,-1!. < 

"'iiiiiiiliiiii I',,, ill, M,ti,,ii, ,,,1 : .l.r i,,ii Mi'li 171. rti 

* 'ai 1muiii*'Miii* lOf k' :*:!h. ;_'| . 'iH^ 

'■.i-,a,!, l.,itlM,l,il, 17^ :;:• 

rnnnntaiii -y-t,'ni .'.'.In 

', .i-t', 1'. ,ik ,^i,iri,,i|innt,, IT''. I''.'. 

', ;,li ilx -1- , t I''-, 

. nni'ii'.ii t . . . , - 1"'-' 

- -- -i,„k T'l. I'l.', ,:i. :.,, ::> 

t',itl,,,ii,,l l„i'li,.litli IJ7, l.Vi. ",7I, 7M 

. |-vlaii,,ii ',, tl., Siiiiilkaii,,-,-!! I)alli.,li!li |i',l. ■,)■' 

'"*liT!,ii ti,i]aiuii- 7!"l 

<'li,,liilii-i lih. T, (' '.'«, 

('Ii,riikal .iiialv-,- ,"i.!, ,>. ',a. i,l. :,. 7^. 'I'K lirj, |ii,,. |j ,. |J7. l:ai, -a'l. .'Jl. J."', Ji;. 

I'.'ll. 'JU, 2i'i. -'»;.', is7, Jill. .to",. :;ii7. :)l(i. ill. .i|:!. :,::,. ,IJ7. :i>. :L'li, 1,',, .i:<,, ;il:i. .117, 

i.'i.^. :i.",7., :ii;i, :tt;i. ;(«h. :is:. .'iii|. no. ti,",. la'', in. n'l. i !',. iiu. in. iii.. r,». r,l. 

4,>l. *:>>:. I,'i7. WK in-l, ■"i.'7, .VC). XVi. V17, liv;. 

I liM-l Ml ill 111 a 111. .Moll I. HI, I, -II ii, a ,,t ,7 

I'hil iua(k jjlaiiii- ,. ', a , 

■ - — f;raiio(iioriti' I'.itliulitli .'ilC .j:!i 

- - -, a,iaU f •■■ j:t" 

- , a«., . 1 . . . 
''1, .iiiii- ti.i iii.itiiiii. 



<'lai|,aKa ml i ii-i\, - 

<*hTi^!iiiti lakf \,il!'>, i,ii>.'iit , I. 


• 'ir(|Ui -, glacial. 

. ..MC, .-,1 
, 1 1 .'i 


.:«►!, :i:i, la|, til". It:,, li^, VK a""!, 7ia 
I-."!, 1,1,. 


;•, til 

,.J7S. .■,-11. .",>.|. ■|n7, >■>, all.'. '<'H 

Clailoplil, 1,1- -ka-iii ii-i.- th7. >l 

<lailo|i,,ra |i<, 

(lapp. ( . Ii 

I'lark,-, I U i;,-il, 7i,:: 

I'laik,- KiiiKt '. !»,•>. 17 

. -tl IKtlili, ,1 Ml 

f"ii(>tli\ I l^^iI!a. hir.'-uta 117 

|"i linif, 1 ,1 ,'ilj 

(■li-;,,|,ii> lluiii .511 

Coal Ij, ti :iri: 

Coas-t vaiiiifr _".', la 

Coastal '-.v-tfiii I 1 iiatuiii.uii- Ui 

CiPiir <I*.\U nc -I'll , IM"'. i!i:t 

rolciiiaii. ,\. r ■>:,{>, 717. 71.7 

C<,11'< ii'iii-^ i'i,i*l»' 'laiiii^' -iirv , V ■; 

Cohiiiil.ia iiHuintaiii -.v-liiii ,'17 

-- — - raiifip 37 

Coh ilU- iiM.iiiiiaiiip .. .. ;l^. :i:i 

C<iiiipl( iiiiiiiai \ iliW-, ,.rii:iii nt' 7m; 

Cdiiilio.-il.i ,, Ip; 

(Vinrr. -I..!,- lai. Ifl-i, U.", 

Conilii, Ir il\ . i!i,'i iiial. of in, k 7.%fl. 

Ocniflaiii, : tl'- ol liu->laii<l MoMiUaiii- llVl-lia.' 

- - -•, origin ,,!' . 'I.',:' 

.:... v,,I, iii-afii 

e.j.j /,/ /M/// \ii M "I 'III- I'^ii i:i"i' 

2 GEORGE v., A • Z 

H4. M.V IVi. W>, I'J-'i; .v.. Ji:' 

i\ ii-.iiixiiiiiity, iii^iaii'"'"'. »rit;ii "'•,•.■■.,;,:, .;,;^ :„,-■ ■m| itiiV i'.;:. )", INi. 5il. il'i. T2' 

Ciiit.i.t iM''aiiinc|ili:-iii -'"■ -J-*--"^- - '• ■ >., 

lorbiciil.i iiccideiil;ilis l"* 

C.r.lil' i;i a- n wl"'!'-. "■"'■••'' STl. 

_. - —, i;!.niiitiiii iif ■>"" 

, hifliii-y .1 _■ r> 

, 11>1- of tlTTII •• ■ 'i"*" 

i'„rr. Uilii'ii. <'l'i'is'i'i" '•"'>' '^' ^'"'"■'> ■■"" 

,i, II()/'.i:m-.-ii laiim; I.j 

". Midway iniiiiiitaiti- '■ ' i7i 

- ()l;aiia;:aTi laTi^'O _ T]. '!Ti'i 

- l!.;,<-! nuiuiitiiiiis ■■ "_ " _ :ii: 

^- - — Si'lKirk rniiKi> ." 'j*.') 

.— SVn.'if liiiiw.'.. ■■ •• •• ■ " ■; 517. V,:. 53" 

_ _ _ \\"(>i,ii. (.i,-uy>iiv! lii it 'I,!';., 'Jfl:'.!!. 

,.f Ki.tky M.Hiiiti'iii forjiiaiUiH.-^ ■■ ';j.^H/-i:i." 7'.'5, T:*" 

Corvf'.l sviiiite b;\lhi'::l!i '.' '.. .. 729 

i-o.-f.'. r..' Sit-' 

Cot..,, K ;; .. :; if 

Ores.^, i!^:^"'";-e-„,iK>nM;.; of iu. Vhn^es Vf ■. :. .. .. .• .• ■■ •■ ■; ■; ,^^ \^ 

Crtlncwms furiiiation'^ 7:;' 

Crnsbv. U'. O -'I'l. Tl-. 7:. 

rr,K>; \\ , ;■' 

rrfi»-i.''^l ginisynchiKil .■ • ^^-^^ ,,jl^ j^ijh •■ • ,'.'.'''.'.'. II! 

Crystalliziitioii, iriK'iiiiiiil 6., 

CuUis C. CJ .■.;■ •''<>■. 516 

Ciiltus forinatuin i2h 

Cunnlas, ia"^'Oll' .■, ^'''' 

Cuprr.swixvlni. miicr.'tnrimiaos 758 

c,i<hinK. il. I'-- ••. .' .'.■ 5»"- ■'-•' 

Cu>K-r j;riiniti^miei^- 187, sl-i 

CyciiJitca iinjiga ....■•■■••■• "l"^ 

('ViHTaciteii ^'' 

' haydenu j!I 




Dako'a fi'riiintioii ..ift',-21, 13. 13'). IW, Dtl 

Dana, .V. D ..'..'■..' :I" 

Dartoii. N. H ',■!, 

Darwin. C i:l. l-». tJ-'. ^-^ 

Davis, W. M : ••■■.,:■,,„• V, •W\',' u) u'i:. N2. ■ i. <>, *>"• l''^ '"''• l'^''- '^'- 

^'^".^•i^i; :^7;2o3.-27i,1;o:'^r5n:^^.^«^:'.-^''^- ^^7. ... .u. 7m. ^^^^ 

Dawson, J. W on 

Dawson, \V. I.. • .• •. 1^' 

Dearborn riviT section.. , yl 

D.',T.. .. ; ;■ ;; ;; '--i 

Desilication ot niainia.. .. ■■ ■■ -■; W 

Drtonian forn:ation> m l.alton ""= •■„p Wi.Uh 

. Mai Donald raiig<= 15;, 

D*«dney formation.. .. .■ ••,•••,;■;■•■,. ',', ' '. ' '. 1*' 

: . loluninar M'ltion ol ,]-2. 216. »12 

Diabase -.1- 

Dielasnia : 7);>, .0911. 

DiBfrentiati-n, iiiagniatic 


I\IU \ 


f "PER \o 25a 

i'Jl! .- I\ ;1V, Mi.'l Iii.i'. (,f t„ik . 

iii;.. f, .1. s 

hiiT i'e . 

— , iiri^iii i^f .. .. . 

u."i. I-"'-. I'iM. .vi: 

-. f|ii.ii '.- • ■••" 

i'ii)-i \ i-iit, iiiiiiiii .^) 

I'lsjtliu .. t. iiiai,'niatir 

Ditlricli. M. (r..ok :inalv-,-i .1, 53. SS. ',». ii\ . "■. 78, :r. 1»J, UMi, 121. 1.::. -<'■'. -'2'. 

22!», i'lO. .>:!J, £H. eij. -Jtt. 2'-J. :rit. ;b7. .TOt. (n.j. tos. ill, II~, I'lH, I'll. 1..:. I : .■):''. 

-Vt^J. j.'Jis .^17. 

«• 7H: 



2(;j, .'CI 

in-!i]niit('. . 


., .Vv li'i, r.l, tiJ. I,'. 

>, :«. Kil, 11'.. 107, IM, im. 17!. I7V ■.■tli'. 


v., 11.', i!l, 7'1.,^ 

ih7 s:i 

I jjla-. .1. A '11 

Do-.vln.H, 1>. H ^«. *"' 

Dl-iiiiint;.-, . iii;iii cif '.Wff. 

:..-arriWij;i'iii( nt- ,Vn,59v 

Drl^ll!iI.^ - •'*'■*• 

l»iil„.i>, i; 

Iici'iith ijaMin., inij,'in 


l«.|it.-ti, >\ E 

CI. Utl7 

.ill, .ir,. xn. 1.1 1. 


V.I.r It-rri 'ii'n-i\ It( ll?l.l] Hi I 

i;(.z..ic- «..■!,.. ■ 


Krcision, gliieiiii 

■ — , ill Clu'liui val'.ev. 

— -, ill MiiiKi lall'V.. 

Krii|.'iiir;~, uiiliT cf 



!*;\' rii-i\i. !..< k-, oi . — 

If-.tuiini^ioii rai'.gr. 

t larke raiij;.'". . . . 

1 ialt(.n ran;;.'. . . . 

HozdiM'.ii ran..'.*.. 

.Midway iiioiiiitaiii' 

Purcfll s.vMeiii. . . . 
r.(w>laiul mountains 
Si-Ikirk .system. . . . 
jkajrit ran},'!' 

..'lie. :i7ti. :;■-> (-". 1-'-". 171. 




;i>:;. :m. .;;i- 






Picas prot.'oules 
i inlay O. I.. . 

irkit. A. 


Fissure enii'tion.s 


Klatl.ea.l saiuUtoDe 

; la'i.ea.l valley, origin of. 






uri'Mtnir.M <n iiii: imkhioi; 

lii'ltian ( Vli\ II liiiiiiKiiiiii' 

Helton, MlllltlllM 

I 'retaci'iiii- 

I I'n-UHl'M >H|IIM. 

Diiirlxirii imr. \l<nt«iiii 

l>i voiiiaii 

\lf*.(>«(.ic, i;ii->liiinl ini.iiriliiiii! 



Mis'oula. Mdiiluiii 
Mount llo>w<Mili. 
Mount Siipluii. 

Nyaik Cn 

ih, M,.ni,i 

( >ii^iK'4'nf < i\f 

Kt'ti If Itiw'i t'oriiiaiiijii I . 

Sivfli ioi niatior 

'I'l-rliaiy (II mil iiiijiluii lurmulioii). 
— (Kislifncjin loi inatioii).. 


It'ultlls tolllUltlliU' 

Wiuwani formal ion 

I i.~mI>, lii>t raUarw>us 

I'liumii riiiit 

i.t liatliolitliii iiiot- 

I'la.-.T ilflta. I'li'i^tiKeiii' 
I'roiit liansti- -vm liio 
liinal'iiti atoll 

2 GEORGE V. A 912 




1 n , I r. 



t iahbl'o. 



(laltiiii-MaiDoiial^l lioi-l. 

21 1, 21'>, •►IT, i:il, W'l 


<ia!loii raiim- 

:c, u: 

, stratigiapliv unil >t rucliiio oi ^. j,. 

iliiiiiiiar st'ition ol . 

lias, naiural, and |«trolfUin . 

Oateway formal um. 

mar M-ttion "t . 


liiikii", A. 

Tl:!. :-ii> 

itH)^^ nc 



I1-, (it Icr 
iirijiiij of. 


(iilbcrt, Ci. 

.:i, 111, 510, MJ 



lilacial stria 

.5W, >!'. J9;> 






li. «J7, f,n 

^l|l•l■ll-IllOIMll^olll fs7, Sl'J 

(iolil raiigp 

UiHiUcliilJ, ,1. < 


::i, S7 


Iji'aiii ^1 

f ilololiilte and lilni'-loiic. 

.Xl. W, tiO, lil, «:', 71. 

7>. 9S, 127, l:il, IPi. 2ii2, 'J70 


7n. 123, 127, 12fl. l"i 

(Iraiid I'orks fjroiM' 

1")7, 167 



, abnui inal. 

— -, o-isiii of. 

ite porplivry. 

■I'^i. 29li, :i»2. :)0:!, 

ui.V ath, 301, :t.»0.' 41,^, lltl. t">t;, l''9, «1, -Kij, 17-), VV 

2iS. 232. 2».>. 


3nt. .*,: 

3!l-2. M9. tt.3. IV;, 

, orijjiu ot. 

if for 


DiiipoMtion ol . 

(iiMvil>, aiirit'iour 



(il iivlliilivi. 


2*1, 3(r2, p;2. I. 





• In lit Ua-iii X' i'«» i;( liiii 
I i 1. 4*11. \V. I 



liriTiTii'! foirniitiMri 

.391. riiii, •)it 



t tM.h iM. 

Ilatu... S 


HaiimiiT>t(iii, H.unii villi. 

Huiii{iiij; vall>'\~ 

Haik.T, A 



JINI. .'Ok 



'}?>. :><! 

:i>. Tii'j, T71. :7ii. >: 
3.111. m. vii 

."M. nth 

irutiii. V. II 




lluv.-. f. W 
Kit' V t'ormii'iiiii. 
Hi". It 




Hiiiiala)-«>. i iiiiiii.iri-oii i.! I 'm .lill. ra «itli 


Hi.ine, .1 

HliZOTIllfli Mlliai- 

. iiii niati'iii- lit 

, ^,i,li,;.i(.,l 1mm ry ..i.. . 
— - , ^! lili lull- of 

[111. II if. 

lllii|ilil i\ 

It. 1. 


Hiihi. T. S. 

Huiitiii^'iliiii toriiiatiiiii 

Hlll-nlllall llVi.llltinll. ^thlt- ol . 



:til. l-.l 






. IT'i. 'lOO. 1(17. 'lOi 



HvllM.I 1." k. 

"iil7. "li't 


M.'. Ml 
■J 11 


.|,. (■iir.lill.iaii 

Iil<linK>. .1 '' 
Interior !' 
Internal ill 
I ntrusion. 
Intrn^ivi s 

.'>N,s, :>9ii. V.IJ. ."iIH 
7i;i. 7i.:» 

1-. lalilat ll> 


nal Umimlaiv 1 ■..infiiis'-ii'ii. hr- 
liatllollthic'lMnlli- 111' 

C'lirii-tina ransji' 

. < larki' rangH 

Ho/,on..|.n raiiK- 

. Lewi> ranK'' 
, Ml (iiiiivrav i j.-. . 
, Midtta.v nuiiuii.iin-. 
. i.lkanajjan laiitic . 
. I'rip.'.t K'ivi r liiraii 
. Purct^Ii ntiiuntain-^ 

1711. 7'.' I 

37»n . 





3".'i 3^1). 31(1. 3;>-.'. I«l. Il'l 




. Kos^-lanirViiiiiintaiii- :i:iiff., 3:>IU. 

. Svlkirk nidurilaiii^ 2^1 l^iliui. '--ff- 




1 t:i 




t;»7. tl.> 

— — - . ciirrrlatiii witli l'uii>»ll I.ava 

Iri'iic (Hhjtlnmi'raii 

- - - - ■ , rii'-tariiui |ilii-ni 'f 

■ -- - --, origin of 

\olianii torniation 

_ _.. _„ . lolitiuiiar !«clion oi . 

_- -, nictaniorpliism of. . 

Irxinp. li 


hi IWHI \ll.\ I "I I III l\ 1 1 i:i'<l! 

2 GEORGE V. A 'Bli 


.lc,lni."P. \V. |). 

\vV. .) 

.1.1. .1, \V. 


A . .\ . 

.i nr.l-^ic■ (iroti'iiiL U'.'jIu 
.liirii-Triivs Kciivvnclmnl. 





KiiliikMj riifiK''- 
KMuii, I.nnl.. 


.1. 1 

Keiiiit'iiv Hravcif*.. 
Kitit.illciu,„<. .. . 


Kettli' Uiver tormatidii. 



I tint! nt. 

culumnnr fictinn uf. 

' I'lii <it . 


Kinille. K. M 

King, Clart'nc( 

KiiiK. \V, 1' 

Kill;; lidwarJ piak, -i 

Kiiitlii turuitttion 

, columnar section ii 

KislKuelin formation 

Kitchener formation 

. . ■, I oiiipart'ii to Mjtli loiniaiiou.. 

, ciinipariNon n{ two pliaseji of. 

KjiruU, T 






xt\. j:i. -iin;i. 





.l!t, II, -Wi. t»'-\. -71. '><■'■< 


KiiiiH itoii. r. 11 

Ki lintr alkaline biiil> ■ ■ ■ ■ 
— • mountain, fonnntici 



. l.'li. II- 







l.aiii nburjf, 1!. . . . 

I.uke, late-glacial. 
Ijanipriipliyns. . . 


Uug. .\. Ci • .. 

IjxramiiK' orogcnic reToliiiioii. 
I.aramic formation 



Uach, \V. \\ 
l.ees. n . . . . 
I.eith, V. K.. 


Lesley. .1. P 

Level of no strain. 


.1. V, 


Lewi? overtlirtist. . . 
ranee, naniefl. 


-3.32, 351 

.429. :20 



49t, 535 



.90,92. 93 











^EiSIC'.AL PAPER N ■) 25a 

!..«:- -Ml.- 

-. r"tnninnr n c'f n > t 
l,r«liiniiiit 'ri'-k ilioritp. . . . , . 

I.inif^tciii », f-rit^tr of,. ., ,. . .. .. 

I itiiiiiin, ... 

I !IH k, <;.. 

I II.. :i.. I . 

I.ifi.l^r.T . U 


I ,I.|llil' |..!l - , .. 

I i.|.i..l li.i ii.iP);i I- . . - 

nb;.!' '.■ . 

I illii.»ti()M(.li 

I.iviiii,'".'!'!! raiin' ■ 

I n rii'j-tiiTu' ruiiK' 

1,11. h lii. . iililli, .lifliTMitiatinti .11 

I ... VMMM.ll-iy«'v«.ni«, I 

I,. !.. - i-i..> 

l.T.i. Star f.irni.i' 1. II 


I...4ii» iti'.iinliuii 

!,..». I- I 'kaiKiK.'ii Villi. ■\ 

I.u. Ilia 

Ijiiliai- -ill, ii..-Kiimli( liiHiTPntialiou in. 


I, nil. ml lurron^ ... 

I.\ to'. ra« liatcM ■■ ■ 

II in, l"-!. JT 

. i: 

. -V> 


























Ma.lMiaal, I). 1 ''-• '''• ■'^- -'' 

Mai l>,. li '"■ 

,ai,..,- - ■■ •• ;"» 

._„ . t-ti«li;'ru|ihv aii.l .slriK-iiir.- ..| '.11. 

McAiiliiir. .1. J , ,,- 

.\lcf..iiiiill, l{. V, .V 90, 171. 174. 177. 17'-. IS!. I!I7, I'l-. IM, 2i'l. 2.,. .'iJa. ,IJ!. .ij.i. 

:i21, M>. •I.jO. :i7l. (ill, 7l'S. 

McLnhv, .1 '. ■'' I'"'. '''•• l'*^ 

NUii..; U. .1 ■ , '^^ 

Mciiillnrav laiij;. ■ ■'■ 'i' 

McKiiii (111! ■ . u: 1^1, i:w 

Macira 1 iiiin. ii-i .^'' 

.Marinas, jji'ii.'i ie I la-Mluulir.ii <•! • "** 

Mak'Hiatic 318, 7tl!l i.^.f -lavitaliu- .lii!i'riiin..-i..ii.) 

\l,.),'iiflil.. !.l.^. r 

.Maniii.'.ia l...ii!ayaiia 

^faiii r.iiil:.' t;i>i.-> 11. I 111 al 



>Iarirf (raiiSi;r.-.--iiiiir 


Ma-vncliiivi'tt- InstitutP i.f Tecljiir.lo 


1'. 1: 


M. ll.>pll.^lll"ll 'v; voilimclits nf Rossland mountain? "— 

Mptam. r!.lii.-iii, ifficitiicv of dynamic 

- . .,f iKiieuiK riirks »2. "'V,, 1.17. 411, 41.. 4l'l. 

. -tatic C8,83, 100, 102, '. 110. 131,1.15, 1,).', l.Vl, 

Mptai'LIillitp, (li'liiutu.i: .1 

Mjr i-,.i.,.rtiiit(' in I\<ick\ Mnuniaiii geosynclinal, 
110. Ii3. 12!1. n.', 114, 149, 153, 1G.5, eS.'. 

.5H. t,1, Ut, M. 'J"*. Ii.n, 103, 10«, 


. . V.O. .ji.9 

. . !!■<. 4J0 





4 "1,5 

I DO. 


ltlP»Kr\ll\l <tt lilt IMKRlnlt 

2 GEORGE V A 912 

9, ;!■> 

Miilvt.iv moun'iiiit to., 

-, Inrimilliilli" I't ',j,,|^ 

vol( uiiii Krciiip • ^ 

voliiiliK |iniii ,.„' 

«*ii"'-- w. <i :;.;. .m.:.ij. :i:.. 

Mlluttr 14^1, 

.MIiHHiie l)alli<ili'li -,-1 

— -ilcfDriii'iiiiiic Ii:i ill 

Mi^»i^^i|lpillIl lllrt- -l.'ll*' ' lltiti 

Mi«soiiriti' i;-- 

MihIi- <ln>.Mtiiiiii(.ii I.I iijirtCU!. rocks 

Miiliii-tiHilli viniclun- n.r linn'Moiio 


-, I nliiiiiiiiir -iitidii i.t 

Mi.hiM liin> i.t Hi./.i.mfcii ranti>' ,^.| , 

- (il >i'lkM k iiint,"' ■■ vi'-.i •#. V 

- "" "'I ■""•^ iC..m..nm K..1U l.„„,ki -in ;ti:.;,M;11u:^.r:»0 

:M9, 351, M9.:)7n 

.'.I'lOs. 310, :«u. :l:iii. :ttt, ^ii". "H. :'«' 


.. ..73, "t, lt>:l. 1", WW 



— — iioipli.viy. 


Mi.iniiii' Itiki' 


Ml. mil Uukn 

■.>;t j-.'ii, :iii 

- WiUiiti . . . 
Mnyip fnriiialii.n . 

- '- - tfliiii"'! • ■ • 

- . — rivvr \M>-, 
— 8ilU 

, Kiltllil 

- , Kiiiiiiii' oi 

— — , iiiiii iiiiiliati- ruck of. 

. _, iirinii: "t i><^''' I'h;i>'i"s 

., MHlioii tlitnllgll 

)!"'••''"• ". .'.■ ^'hit. i;-.! 

iiriKiii III. 



.Mvrica MTriiin 





IW. «.ll 





, xjll 

is. :;i-' 


.Nuliculihi:. mo. ."ill. 

Nick, vdlcani' j 

Ni'liiii-s, V ■ • • '1 i,-, 

Ni'ls<iii rangf >-• 

• -""''t'"''' "f .' ..Vl-, t.")l, t'l-' 

Nopln-litf symili- 4f>7 M-i 

NilM.iiia I.n^a,v|..■llM«.. .... .. .19i,'i9.;.' 191.' J:i 

NiMDiilltli -en. -. wuli • ..^i 

Nobli-, I.. !■■ 'J.''.'^.'J. 'm> 

Nonliiiarkiii' I!'t, 'IT'' 

Norm da-sitic.i; 11.11. \aliie of :,:i\ :,s:i 

Nortli Hatliciiil ijliuiHr ]] ]] 


Nvaik ciiik, M..11 a. Mitioii 



< iii'aii, HKi' 1.1 I 111-, 


:tii, :■*: 

IMil \ 



< 'kuliiiK.iii I ii|ii|K.-ji.' Iiiitholi'l 


I (tit^f, hii rttiitiiiii^ lit . . 

. ){***'1"K'^'>I lii^fi'iv 'I 
- - . »ti 111 ' '111- <il . 

( )lt^i'i «ii»« \ iiU'H!ii-iii 

I liilii" 

*)|'«>KiFili IlliiXf lli< tit ^. 11 I liiiin I't 

''rii|iiii> ifl.i'i-.' •. Ii.iiliiliiliic iiiti ii-iiiii 

1 !• IhiM 1-tii-. . . 

I tsUllfl. \ 

().SO>tHIS hiitlioiltll . 

' tsti ' .1 ( uiitfi -ta 

- t(!alii <i . . . , , . . . . . 

I iBtwalil, \\ . .. 

< tttana riM I . iiliait-i - I't 

1 Ivi itliru!'! 

. II. tall. I . . 


: . I i.'ft 




vt, I.I, ii:. ti7i 
:i:j. ji'» 

II.' il I. M.- 

i.'i !..•' ::i 

I'iu-lht nil ulilalli -> -tiiii 

I'alliMT .1,ii 

I'ai k Ki'O'i'i' 

ra>aytfu ii'"'} i" liiiui. 

- IIIUIIIIl IllM'. . . . 

Ul. Ilil 

'iti'l. irii 



- . I I.I u lima I -.1 Ml. II ..I k»l 

, •■! 'ill. -"im 

\alli>. .. lu-iii of "."" 

liiiiu.ih lMltnall..ii .. . tT:'. IM, l«'' 

IVali'. \, <'.. »». ir-i, ]vi. I»i. !>>■■•. .'7ii 

r^trh li|IITCUlll'i.rilll» *'*^ 

IVlnl U'llrt-llli- t; |. J7: 

- -- - . iniiilaliiili lit J7 ■ 

-. - lliallill- 27: 

■ II. I. nil' '• 

■ -. iii-t- .:7: 

I'l 111 ;i|.iii.iiiiiii, III li'i.ikv Ml I'll! nil- 'ill-". 

., in li.ll III liitiriiii I'ldifaii- iil7 

-, 111 I .1-1 .111.' Ml nil tain- iiJl 

l'.-iilialli.«. li, r -■ 1. 'I--'. ''1. '''". '-". I-". -i"i MM 



-. iiiiilnl.ii tilik>i. 

- - - , i.ri«iii I.I 

l'..(i', K 

I'ltroui tin 111 l«- 

i'tn«. r. u 


I'liillip- foriii.ilii.ii 

riiii'iiiK villi .11111- ^i I'lii. . 


riivllit.- fli..iiil).iiili II-. .. 

I'lci a I i.lntlllil. ti'l- 


rieUmoiit ghuiii - 

I'illow lava 

l'lllliati.].i.i ,1 


1. 1. 177, 7ii'i 

III- 1 



;7-. :ii 1 


.17-, 'I'.ttl 
J 1 7, .Ml 

.•,11, M ; 




2 GEORGu v.. A, 1912 


I-:, hlH 

I'iLU- MlU 

,- - "•: '•'''':•"•' ."..2i.l'':u;i.':;i.:l tiiT. n-. "i 

l'ii--i.;i. \,. \ li'.H; 

riaiu'ti-iitial |j.v|M.llif.-i>. ,i-^.■•,ls^l.lIl ul ' ..- 

V\iU\v\-\>.> ^\ lii',1 

riiil.iin, iiriijii. cf (il;:iiiiig"ii ■ " " " ■,i;) 

riit:vcnnus .... 1>^ 

i'liuriiiiiyu |pMi'vi ati .'I .. .- 'U 

ri('ur<.pliui K- " ■■ '\ _ 11^ 

I'liMUut'iiiKii 1.1 jl;! 

rril> l-ia 4^7, M» 

I'uimliis cvcliM>l'> 11" .:ii,l». Ilii, iv.i, ( 'J. ■>ll 

r.Ti>ii.\ lit' ' ' .. >n 

r(i'aiiiiiK>'Uiii . :,:> 

I're-Walirloii 1 ' i- ' ;i, :!: 

I'rii'M rang' . .(,. iV--JTl, .'iiiT 

-- l;i-. IT tcTiaiic j.V.) 

__ - . — - , cdiTi'latun lit ■)(;», 

^^ . !i.:ci;ii*sM... ,■, ..::;:;;;: '.vi 

I'liiRipal MiUaiiiii- Yj 

rricuu'tropi^ llli 

I'r.i.liicia (lira HI 

l'r<.iiiKlfll:i Mibacul. .iia .. llii.'>n 

l'rmliic!ii.>- .'ilKSri 

tclrliritll.'.la' U- ■ ;jl| 

rliMi^lii^^iis by aiiil.i r. ■itia.;v.'ic,'g...,|..i!v of , !,■. b.nni,!ar> ■■ ;;.,,..,--.', 

l'[i-,.t -r.i'-ylH Illiii! 52fl 

tiro'ip .. ,-,12 

I'ligiiax ... Ill 

I'linii '- ... :t(;n 

I'u'a^kitf .. li:.:)Tl 

purpliviy Hit 

l'.ila-k<-i' . ,. coi.lUd 

!'iM<i;i ii'i-i iv.\ 

l.ava, I'lai kr i ..ii-i' Jill. 219 

-- -, I i.lii!in..ii M'liii'ii- <'t 2rj 

- - - -, lialiciii laiigo ■■ ■■ ii;2 

- . , lirrizni;-ii!;i I ki r .jlD 

- . \.n\i> lallge .jj; 

.. MMlilIiviay rang- ."..'. .\i(b, --!'. 'hi 

-. -. vtiits I'l' ■ ;l(l-33 

. , -lra'it;r,M'l..^ u'nl Mructim- ot '';j ;ii ii 

— - — raiine ' ' ~_ 'i:,'li!) 

MTies ■ . 120 

, I iilnniiiar ettiiMi ol .2>i 

— ---.lis.,,.. ■■ ..••.;■.;■.■■.■.■ V ::222,757 

- , (i-]iuiiian: rock ni 225 

, variation- in .jo 

Trrn.l:.. ■::■■■ ; y.l3y.' 2-.7', 277',' i^l*. COO 

■ — , nrigin "1 . ^ 5S8 

Tri'ii'b t-'lacifr ........ 137 

r\ 1 it« (.1 y^'a!- 


150, 151, 176 

gnart/. j.ebbl's. i j-alfFCPnt \n 

Quartzitf. "rigiii of .. .-,65, ,570 

Queen rharl'^H" t;i'<'-yii' iKial 1,S7, R20 

Qu«-rcti.- corinca '] '' 4-17,820 





SE';^'; ■'>■ '"-'AfLR ".0 2; 

1 \u< . 

i. i;i, 1-:. -"1 ■".Jii. .'i.'i'i 

>i. •'-. 

.. . >-'' "■ 

.... 1 1 r 

1 ri 

1 .,< . ■„,. 11,. .... 

i; ' ; c !■■ 

i;,-.i..i..-; ;.„.'. iii 

-, iLU'i |,ri '.ilir.n .■: :..- nin i 

1,'i-placfiiiiiil I'i ci'iiijiy iMth^ l>:- l:.:i l.'.li! ii- 

l.'iMil^'"lll CIlKil.llli"!:.- 

1,'rliriilMiiu hill at:i 

l.'lUpillolll' 111 

I.Mu.Mil; f. l(iM'ai 

l;i...!.:l,ni.,.ra.. .'...■, 

l.'hc inb-iMiTli|iyi> . 11. 1 ni-i\. ... 
~ - - , t \1 1 u t v.. , . 


Hiclit.r. 1 

!. mill. .11: !uiMi.i!riiiii'i 


I.'iplili* fciriiialiiiii 

IJipiiU-niark- >•'■ . 7", :.', '■' 

lt;:t. IC.J. 170 


1,'a. k Crei'k clioiiiiliili, . . 

KcK-ky Miuii.taiii ^;'ni^yiii!iiiii! 

. _ . Utlnili_'iial MiM.iiii.ii in. 

, iiK'taiii<ii-|ilii-iu ol 

-, r.nt;ill I'l -iiiilnilil,-, ut . . 

— . hpecitic xi'i^i'V "t 

, ^Ul>pl 1^1II- in I.ll. l.i 

- - . "I'l"!' l';.l>-^"i' '.■■•■'■:ti "f ..,-''■ 

—'- -;;■',:";, ,■■..■■.■:.■,,■.■.:. :: :: j^''i> 

117, \\\ r.:. COM 

1.19, 477 

li'ii. lul. i'l:;. KM, in-', HKi. 12:1, !--.' II' . ■ 



.ii. 1:. l"i^. '.'•', 



., .'. 111. 

". .. 171 

.iji. iy<;, i:».- 

.. .. 17.' 

iri'.;in ■ 1 . 



.:ii:i, lilt, 11"'.. 

i;i>M--, ill.' fi.riiiation • •■ 

H.iM'iibiiscli, II 

Ho-slaiid iiic'tiziMiitc 


, foniiatii 11- . : 

. , striictiiri- ' t 

volcaiiir group 

-- v,,l.a„n' iinuii.'.- ■ ■• ■■ ; V V; ; .„. It. Vll, V.!. 'iJlff 

■,l ; . 7'Ni 
;i, (11 



rvkPi-i gramlc 

-I. 7i-i. :s^ 


SalTiKiii liivor iiuiii/."iiU' 

Sail -crystal ca-'~ 


Sans I'nil nuimitrtiii- . . 


It, ]{. 11. 


Sassafras en taccuni 

Satellitic inji'K'tioii 

Scapliiti'K niitrK'i'^ii^ 
ScavpnyitiK systoni nf lln' >'(■'■ 

ml. 819 

:m, 790 

ios, iti:; 


9. ;w 

.•)79, ««1 
WT, SJn 

, "il t tl7 






nri'Annih.w nr the isTERich' 

2 GEORG^" 

A. 1912 

... I.'i^ 

<. Iil-tn-ll> . lillKlIi (it .,g- .„,,, 

■ i"'i'i'ii";ai , " 'in 

>c hiziiplii'iia rtiiatiila ii<) -'.Ui -^W 'IM„Hfl<l, S. .1 ■ _ ■ ■ ' ' ■ " 'I-:, 

•■^""'•''"'■.>' ""-'" "' f-T'"'"*' ..;im, );)?, M'j 

M-nii'KalKiiis in niasriiia g^l 

Silkirk iiKpiKuliiii J:.', .it 

tllOMllt.ti'.l -y^ttiM 

. .llM."i;i. :i57--Jsii 

V^illcv.. . 

,7 ■ -"""K^M'y <■■ .•; .■.■.■i9i,m 

rclarinn wiin ,^ j-^d 


32, U 





.■^liark.lhiti' lill 

ShaU'i, N. S.. 
Sliaiul, S. .1.. 

1. 11 II rliniiili-piji iiiix IN 

.III. ii.-i. .^>7i, :!•«' 

Mui.-la );.M,>^yii<niKii.. 
.■^lia-ta-Cliicii seiii -. . 
Sli^itti'i-liflt, maKiiiiv' 
Sli.'Piinid forniati.ii. 



ci'luiii'iar 'I rtimi if. 

.X>1, :M. 797 

shifts, lionziiutal 

■^lioiikiii Saj;. Monti>ii.i. iii.-iiii.'u .litl. i • miaUuii ai . 

, 570 


. .. :!l."i 

.siKHikmitic i.vpt- .196ff. 5t;7 

Sluire-liiip?, ziinp i.f ' 31^,;).;: 

Shoslioiiosc ' j")! 

<lni-«ap >t'rifs ■ ^y. 

-li'itt. 1' 

<ill, ri.lll|K|.Mli 

, rlinmli-iHiriiliv ly 

Sills a>sociat(ii with Purcell Un 

--", llii/.iinipi II raiiKP 

. Ki'tllc ri\fr 

— -, Movie 

-. 1"' 


^igiiiticaiK 1- of thifk 

, Skagit 

SimilkamiM-ii l.atliolitli •■ _.• ■■ •■ •• ■■ ■■,■•,•■ ' 

. coiripurwl Willi Kniger alkalni.' uuily . . 

Siveli foriiiatioti, f'larkp and Lewis ranges.. ■ ■■ •■ 

__. . - — - -. coliiniiuir .'••ictinii "t . 


. .. till 

.. 2Uff. 

. .. V.r- 


.•J21ff., 761, 7711, 781 

,427. +.W, 571. 

- formation, Galtoii •-(•rips. 

(■(iluiniiiir s^.<ti<iii 'it . 

- - - limpstone, idpnti< al -.miIi Hlii'kt'oot. 

Skasit valley, origin of 

.. I (iiiipositp liatliolitii 




— laiigp 

rorrplation iii. . 

.. , formations nt.. 

, structure of.. .. 

.- voleaiiic form-ition. . .. 


Slpi-tp iliorilp ; 

— , aiialy-is of 

locan mountains " " "375 

■ ■■ v. 1. 5, 4li 13:i, 409, 479, .502, 519, 5Jo, 620, 624ff. 

Smelti r granite 
Smith. <i. O 












i\ nr.y 



Smith. \\ . S. ■{■. 


. . J7't, t,Hl 

>p;<iiKl"l -chiM- 


S|M ( ihc Kii'^ ill' '. ■'^♦■t .t^'*' 



Spt IK > I . A. < ■. . . M 

Spliiit n urfi 

s ' 



i it; 

ihmIh h-i- i!-J 

\\ i 1 1 M H \ 1 . . . , , 


. .."ill. 'i\2. ■'>\.i 

>iM.k;irit. HilU -(!i..ii 


^<iii.ili- liii'lf, MmIii,!!;.!. iiiajfiiici' 
stiiiiu.i,. r, W 

' lil'fi ■ ttti.i 

lull 111 

. . J.'il. TT'J 


'^r, i<. 

1?^. Is'.t. JIT, .Vi.'i 

St< in in.i Ii l! ' i . . . . 

. , . . tit. II.VI 

-»Shi"jMii ii 

.... lit. 

St,M !.;>. H. li 

. .. t::i 

"lopni;;. iM,t-iii.i' M 

>* I 1 .nil .nhu-Miii III 

. .::u!i . ::: 


>t Ml. t It; .- Ml , 

t hii I- i.tii^.' . , . . 

17. •''.) 

t ;;ilinii-M.ii I)nii;il'! ri'.iin'.mi > 

v-t. II 


f'kiiiiiiujin liihm' 


. . 1.17 



. .nliiiiiu. Ml..,, 

' ' .'-.. 

Siu—. 1 


. Jtl7 .')^7 


.-,117 :,2(i vst 


-. 1. -'t 1 1'p 

Sui'-i ru. k- t;.. ,1'. .J. .^, ^. 


. '•-, imi. mi 

. Ktl. lot. lu^. 

l"!i. Iii, 

ILI). |:iii. l.-)7. lt,:j 


..'i5fi :i.',h ils 7h7 

Il(lll,ll\ t \' 

/.nil, :iiii. vi'.i. :t2H 

v*^ynt^'tli'.■ ti .ii:iriii- 

.CIW. 7.)t, 77s, 7h:i 
Il«, ]I7 


j((7, 31s 

Tarr 1! S 



Tt*;ill .1 .i 11 .... 

I.") 1 


■|',.|li,i ( 



'r,'rmii r. P 


2 GEORGE \\. A. '912 

:iv„'. :m. >Ai. 613 

T.MaL.« .. M 

'r.iiaten riiiiiir, [ 5:): 

'I'nil.lln.-.- (jiW 

'I'oi -ii. iinMiiiiani , -'^T. 4G: 

'I'li.'-i:!!, .>.■>• ..KMI. ,>!«. 5T1 

TiMcliyti- . ..3(ti. 7;'9, Ts" 

Ti-iul batholitl GIO, (j.'ir 

Tici -line, i!i-cu>sic'ii- I'f " '[ m 

'i' . .. ' '' '\ Zti 

Ti-iiicli, ilefiiii'iiin I'l . .' .'jiiT, ">!'• 

T^la^^io in Skas;ii raii^"'' ' ' |^, 

'I'liK-iinia . ... .')H2 

Ti Milton, 1'. T i;li; 

Ti initatiil alliiviul ciM'- . . j:!l, oj.i. rl'i 

Turiii-r, II. \V .... k:, 

Turi-itilUi 711 

Twii-iilia.-f convicliMii , u'.'il 

•|Mr<'ll. O. \\ 



I Inius c.^liiiiibiana _ m,,, 

- TTotoanipricana ' i.ii:i 

_ p oraccmovn ,. "'i' 

- . .- ciosa. 

rncoiifo niities in:--;i. i8'l, otU 

ll<.z(iin.<Mi rangi> t:!! 

Midway mountains " ' 371 

IJosslaml uioui\taiu? " ' It-. iT'J 

Si'lkirk range -i"' 

SkaKil range ■,■■,■,'.■■. .. I'll'' 

rnconfmmity ,K,Btulate,l above *''<> W-^-l •f,"'''';,,,;, ij„,,;,„ lU 

betwren .Missisujipian ana ui.iiao 

Valhalla nionntain>. . . 

V'alvata. . 

VancouTi'r range 

Van Hisi', CR 

Vtdder gre^■n^tone.. . 

Vesicular <l'kes 


Vot;., .T. II. I ■ ■ 

Vukanism, theor.v of.. 


3fi6, 72H 

.... 507. 522 

.. «9, 41; I 

.... 343, 787 

..671, 7,i.T, 77" 

..571, 707, 777 


Waicott, C. D 3, 65. 171, 176. 177. 179, ISO, IM. 1S3, IS., 1S.5, 186. m 189. i;m, 20... 

203, 20t, fr49, 657. 77) 

Walker, T. I. '..'.'.'.'. 51 

Warren, C. H . . .-,n 

Waterton formation " 579 

glaeier '_\ '' ^^ 

..- , » -' ' i*"* .■.'.'.■'.■"..■■.."..86, 187, 201, 251, 71s 

Weed, «. il jdii 

Wwks, F. ^ •,•;.■,■. : 

West Kootfnay batl'"I;t\i>'^ province --j- -^ ... ..,, 

Western giosynclinal belt 

^±^^.t^^^-^^sf^^ m?^^.,i^^ ' 




Wh.Hl,,-, \. u.. .. 
Whit in. -. .1. ]•.. . 
\\ iutii. V, .1. |i.. , , 

V\ i,'U ril 1. l'!.!,ll '..l: 

Wiiii.. i; '..I, ;,, j:, ... 

I'J. I'l. ;i|, T, 111. Kl, l-v 

Wil-i'ii i.iPi;>' 

\\ II ;. r-t.tlii- I 111);. 

\\ 111! li.rin.r K ii.. . . . 
VVotui. II 

\\lM<illf.lli, (J. >. 

Xi'ii.iIiUi. ill I'liic 1 

ya;il\ rnii;;f 

V.ilik in. r Mil!.--. . 1 Tivni "f . 

- - ''. LllPf 'A ll l|.|l 

Ynl.iiiil.iil, lini' -ImIi.- 

Yi'lnu--../:.. |.|.:'. i-., .1; ■:, , 

v.-i:i,tt'i,,i.,i-. . 

V..1II..,-, (.. A. 

Zupliniiii- .. 

Ziik. I. 1' 


. . I:;.. «l I 

1 1 1 
. I' 

_,';i \'.jl. Ill 




^^ 'fe53 East Mo'" SI'eet 

'•^S ■ 7i6i 482 - 0.100 - Phone 

^■^ I 716) 288 - 5989 - Fo»