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Full text of "A library of freemasonry [microform] : derived from official sources throughout the world, comprising its history, antiquities, symbols, constitutions, customs, and concordant orders, Royal Arch. Knights Templar, A.A.S. Rite, Mystic Shrine : with other important information from the earlier period to the present time"

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Addlttonal comme: ..i I 
Commentaires suppl6mentaires: 

Tins Hmii w fllnMd stths radudion ratio dMOkMl telow/ 

C» doetimwit Mt ffim* Ml tMix e* rMueten ifidlqiiA d-duMin. 

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Th« eo^ flbiMd hf hm bmn 
tottM e«fMro«ity of : 

rapfodttood thwiM 

Stmitfmr Library 

L'MAfnptoir* nim4 fut raproduH griM A to 
e«n4ro«it4 d«: 

Stauffbr Library 
^s IMwarsI^ 

Tlw ifiMflM appMrinfl htn ar* th* bMt quality 
po— Ibto eomMaring th« eondMon and togibiUty 
of tha original copy and in kaaping with tha 

Laa imagaa suivantaa ont #ti raproduitaa avae la 
plua grand aoin. eompta tanu da la condition at 
da to nattati da I'axampiaira film*, at an 
eonf ormM avac toa aonditiona du contrat da 

Original coplaa in printad popar covora ara fHmad 
baginning witfi ttia front eovar and anding on 
tho toat paga with a printad or iNuatratad impraa- 
alon. or tho book eovar whan appropriate. All 
othar originol copioa ara fUmod beginning on tho 
firat pego with a printed or INuatratad impraa- 
alon. and anding en the toot pego with e printed 
or ilhietretod improeaion. 

Lee OKomptoiroe originauK dent to eouvartura an 
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per to premier ptot et en terminent aoit par la 
damlAre pego qui eomporte une amprainte 
d'impraealon ou d'lHuatration. toit per to second 
ptot. aelon to eea. Teus toa autrea oMemplairaa 
origlneus sent fHmde en eommen^ent per to 
premiere pego qui eomporte une empreinte 
dimpreeaion ou dlHuetretion et en terminent per 
to domtoro pego qui eomporte une telto 

Tho toat recorded frame on eech microfiche 
•hell centein the symbol ^-^ (mooning "CON- 
TINUiD"). or the symbol ▼ (mooning "END"). 
whtehover eppliee. 

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beginning in the upper toft hend comer, left to 
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required. The following diagrama illustrate the 

Un doe symbolee suhrents apparaltra sur le 
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aymboto ▼ algnifto "PIN". 

Lea cartaa. ptonchaa. tabtoeux. etc.. peuvent *tre 
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Lorsque to document eat trop grand pour *tra 
reproduit en un soul clichd. il est film* i portir 
do I'angto supdrieur geuche. do geuche i droits. 
et do haut en boa. en prenent to nombre 
d'imeges nOcoeseire. Las dtogrsmmes suivants 
illustrent to mOthode. 




1 2 3 


^'/l^l^ ^^<p 

' ; < our Sii|.iviur ( oiuinl ,,| .■;;;'.l |),.i;iv,. Soiilhrni .linis,li<-ti,m ..f IV S 


This most emiient brother was bom in Boston, Mass., December 29, 1809, 
and died at the House of the Temple. A. A, S. Rite, Washington, D. C, April 2, 
1891, at the advanced age of over 81 years old. _ 

Brother Pil.e's steps towards the highc ' pinnacle in the Masonic Temple 
were sure and rapid— gifted by nature with a happy faculty of susceptibility to 
Masonic thought. Pos.sessing that rare faculty of dual virtues, administrative 
and executive ability, our brother's transition by gradation from the lower plane 
of his great moral nature to that elevation to which he aspire<l, and to whicli he 
attained, was but a natural seo-.cnce ; as we find tiiat in Masonry, as in all tlic 
economies of life, no gift is withheld from an honest motive, when it \ capacity, 
energy, and a virtuous resolve for its base. Hrother Pike's enlargement of his 
Masonic phylacteries, as well as the expansion of his other notable qualities— 
as poet, lawyer and journalist— h\9. knowledge of Oriental inattcis, as a linguist, 
and as a comprehensive student of the lore and traditions of the East, were 
truly characteristic. I le was an ethnologist, a litlcratetir. a soldier of no mean 
pretensions; as an organizer and leader, his life's setting was a golden picture 
in a perspective of pure metals. It is to his comprehensive brain and facile i^ n 
we are indebte<l for tho lieautiful rituals of the Scottish Rite. The spirituality 
of his Masonic thought in these charming rituals seems to soar above the com- 
monplace, yet with all tlie glamour that surrounded his Masonic existence, with 
the fascinations of 'is imagery, and word painting, his tastes were simple: he 
detested the gorgeous and vain, he was simplicity itself; he did away with super- 
fluous titles, he abolished such as were intended to glorify him. 

Brother Pike was made a Master Mason, August, 1850. in Western Star 
Lodge No I. Little R(K.k, Ark., a Royal Arch Mason, November 29, 1850, in 
Union Chapter, Little Rock. Ark., a Royal and Select Master. December 22, 1852. 
in Cohimbia Royal Arch Chapter, No. 2. Washington, D. C. I Fe was knighted 
in Encampment l>'o. i. Washington, D. C, February 9, 1853, received the IneflFable 
Grades, March 17. 1853, the .\iicient Traditional Dcgre< s, March 18, 1853, fol- 
lowed by a reception of' the Philosophical and Doctrinal Grades, March 18, 1853. 
supplemented by the Modern Historical and Chivalric Gri.des. March 20. 1853. 
at Charleston, S. C. He was created a Sovereign Grand Insiiector-General ( thirty- 
third degree), April 25, 1857. at New Orleans. La., and elected Sovereign Grand 
C H/HOHrffr (thirty-third degree) of the Supreme Council of the Southern Juris- 
diction of the United Stotes of America, January 2, 1859 ; Provincial Oand Ma.stcr 
of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotlan<l for the United 
States from May 4, 1878, until his decease. 

Brother Pike's literary labors were marvellous in research and execution; 
18 handsomely bound quarto volumes, on the shelves of the library of tlie Supreme 
Council, containing his translation of the Rig-\e(la— the Zend-Avesta, and the 
essence of Aryan literature— exhibit his wonderful capacity for work. They are 
in manuscript, and aach word written with a quill, and of all the wonders of 
this mass of wonders, in the number of pages, thousands wc may say, there is 
not an erasure. He was a comprehensive translator of Hebrew, and, had he 
lived would have embellished modern literature with the beauty of traditional 
Judaism. An eminent writer has truly said of Brother Pike. "He was the Homer 
of America, the Zoroaster of modern Asia, a profound philosopher, a great jurist, 
a ereat philologist, a profound ethnologist, a great statesman : and we will add 
that these cardinal virtues of man's economic life were incorporateil in a mag- 
nificent physique, of noble mien, gracious presence, and courtly beanng. 

••Ense petit placidam sub liberate quietum." 





Derived from Official Sources Tkroughoul the World 




Royal Arch. Knights Templar. A. A. S. Rite. Mystic Shrine. 




Paul Srnior Grand lienrun nnd HiKliinnn 11/ tin (irimil Linlyr 11/ Knglanil 

Fiiuniler unit I'nut Mimler nj (Juuliiiir Cniiiniili hulfii' hinrlim 

Firttt W . \t, ttj the l^tlyt' nf King Sittottttmx Tfni/tlf A*/*. S^64 

BRO. W.M. JAMES lll'CIIAN. 1". M. 

Ua»onic Hitluriun. Font Senior Grand Deacon of lliv Grand Lodge oj England 
Founder and Pa»t Matter 0/ QwUuor Coronati Lodge London 

( \N \I)I W I.DriDHS 
Han. WILUAM ROSS, (Smator) . . . f^l Oraod Uaettr Gramt Lodf at Nova Srotia 
Dr. THOMAS WALKER. a«°. . . . ft.1 Grand MalT Cranrf Lodgt of New BnittBwuk 
WILL H. WRYTE. if. . .P. Sufmu Orand Masltr Sov. Grtat Priory of Canada K. T. 

E. T. D. CHAMBERS, 32° Put Grand Matfr Grand lAidot nf Qutixe 

A. T. FREED, 33" Put Grand Mattrr Cmnd lA-dae of Canada in Ontario 

Wn.LIAM H. BALLARD, 33°, . Serrrlary-GenrralA.A.SfollinliHiliiifCanada 

GKORGR J. BENNETT Grand HerilX' K. Grand Ckaptrr af Canada 

JAMh^S A. nVAS, 3T' Pant Grand Maat^r Grand lA,dq,- nf Man iloha 

Dr. CKORCK MAriH)NALD, Paul Grand Matlrr Grand /...rfw of Allnrla 

HARRY H. CAMPKIN I\ul Grand Monltr Grand I jnlg' i,f Sa»l<nlrli,wnn 

Dr. W. A. UeWOLF SMITH. . Grand Srrrrlani Grand Ijniar of HrilinI, C.Jumltia 

Dr. DONALD DARRACH. 33°, . P. G. M. Grand hnlar nf Prinrr hUlnvrd Iflnnil 

ANGUS G. Mi'LKAN P l> V. Grand Manlrr Ditlrirl No. 9, Nora Srnlin 

CHARLES RAYNES, 33° POal Matirr St. PHufn Lodae. K. R. 37;. Munlrral 

Dt, O. D. HwTAOGART, 32°, . POat Matter SI. Paul'e Lodge, E. K. tTi, Montnal 

and other eminent uuthoritie:! 




Hs^osce-^ i<^iit,y/.3 

EoHred.t Suiioner.' Hill, London. Rnxland 
Copyrighted Wjshmgl..n, I>. C, L'. S. A. 

The John C. Vorsion Pibushini; Comcanv 











Eablt BBiTttH FunfAtoMiT, l<i88-179;3: Lopae MiNrm— Aur* 
WICK— SwAiwnx— Ymx— Thb Pnion or TuMunoN— Ma- 

■O.VBY IS Norm and SorTii Britain, | 

Hhtory of Till G»Ai,D LoDoi OF Emoland, 178;i.l7eo, . ] 91 

Friemasonry is York .161 

HnroRY OF Tin Sohuuaticii, or "AwCTnfn," . . *. ! i jse 


Hirtort of THl Unitid Grand I^doi of Enound, 1814-1005, [ tSS 
HwTORT OF Till Grand liOixiB of Ireland, • • . . ! tSt 


Cbrbmonibb — Chktaueb Rahbat, 83J 

800T8 Uamnby, . 348 

Thi Chaftii of Clirsiont, .'.'.* 348 

Thi Kniohtb OF THl East. ........* 349 

Thi Eupbbobb of thb East and W«t, ...'... sm 

Thi Stbict OBBnTANci, . ! 383 

Thi New ob Gold Rosi. -tcianb, ! .* 369 

Tub Scots PHaosoPHic Rite ! ! 371 

Thb Philalethbs and the Philadblphians, . * 374 

Thb iLmiiiNATi j 3„ 

Thi Ancient and Accepted ScorrisM Rjte, 33», . . , .377 

The Rite of Mizraim. .'387 

Thi Ritb of Memphis, r re .'.'.". 388 

ThiHibturyofFbbemahoaktin FkAHci, . ••.'.* 881 


Portrtit of Brother Albert Pike, 33<», Past Grand Comm -^rmae Coimcil, 

33' ; Southern JurisdiciSon of the United States, Fnntitpiift. 

Pac-Bimile of "The Entered Apprentice's Sonjr," b? Brother ^fthew Birkhead, 
copied from the original in "The Constitution of the i -emuoDs." nuhi 
lished 1783 '^ 

EngTtWng of Pine's "Engraved List of l^odges," with the portrs 
Steele, copied from the original plate in Bernard Picirf « "< 
Religioos Cnstomg of the Various Nations of ti.e Known We 
in 1737. 

^ Sir Siehud 
-«moBie« and 


»i IU.V8TB.\TI0Na 


PMtwit of nrotlwr Anthony Sajw. Flnt Orand Matter of tho Gnwl IMft of 
Engliiml in i:ir. and 8ani«w Grand Wanlra in 1719; rajrr«vr<l from llie 
oriipnal painting by I. Ili«:.inora, b th« Grand IMjti of Kn^tun), 3t 

FacHtimile of the titlo.pag« and,-aii<m of X\» "New Book of ConMiJutionn." hj 

Jamen Anller^on, I >. D.,(opi<d fmm tlic original, publifhedin IT:M, . 44 

Portrait of Brotlifr ( harle* Itooiiw, XA", Pa.t M. K. Grand Mooter of the (' .i»f 

Encaiiipnient of Knight* Templtir of the United State*. 74 

FacHiiniilc of the DwJitation and Fimt Pajfn of Pine'i "Eninvved Utt of Lo.ln,... ' 

• opicl from the original. puhli«>h«<d in 1TS:> 94 

Plate of (»iir (Jrand Manter IFIram .\l)lf. After the original painting by the cra- 
inoiit arti4, J. .1. Ti«M»t, nho H|i«nt ycorr« in the Hoi I^ind in iMearch 
and rtmly %» to itn people, typet, cuatonw, mannerx, (IrwM, etc., of the Bib' 

lual fxrinil. upon which he is a recogniied authority ill 

Portrait of Brother .John Tli.-ophihw Deaagulierx, LLP.. P. R. H.; an pijjI.t.Hmth 
century Frwmn-on nnl Phlloiiopher; Grand Master of the Grand I^lge of 
England, 1710; .lo*ril>ed an the "Father of Modem 8^ec^llativp Mn-nnry ' 1S0 
Engraring of "The Go<mo nnd (Irirliron Tavern," London, a l^andmnrk in Piwnn 
•onry, where the (Irnnd Ix>dge of England wai organized Juno 24, 1717, 
and to which all the (Jrnnd [iOdgaa of the world trace their chnrtem, . .1.14 
Fac-aimile of the ConcIu»ion of the York MS., No. 4, A. D., IfOM, copied from the 

originnl j.^ 

Plato of Seal* of the Grand I/nlge and Grand Chapter of England, and York, 

copied from the original*, and higheat anthoritie», 184 

Colored Plate, Arm* of Freemaaoni, Maaonn, Carpentem, etc loo 

Colored Plate, Arm* of Frecmaiona, Btoner..n*onii. Bricklayora, etc 190 

Portrait of Brother Robert T. Crucifix, of England, bom 1797 ; dif-d 18Mt, . . ,;73 
Portrait of Right Honorable TJiomaa Dunda*, Earl of Zetland, Grand Muster of 

the Grand Lodge of Kngland, 184.t-69, 27^ 

Portrait of King Edward VII. Part Grand Mnnter of the Grand liodjre of Kns- 
land ; from the original painting prei«nted to the Grand Lodge of Pennayl- 
rania by Brother John Wnmininkcr, of Philadelphia, . . . . . 378 
Portrait of Brother Sir Edward Letchworth, F. S. A., Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of England ; hia connection with Freemasonry commenced in 
1865, when he wa» initiated in Jcruaalem Lodge, T»ndon, . . 880 
Portrait of H. R. II. The Duke of Connanght, HIor.t Worshipful Grand Master of 
the Grand Ixidge of England; Initiated into Frceninsonry Manh 84, 1374; 
inatalled an Sf. \V. Onind Master July 17, 1901, . " . .888 
Portrait of the flon. Mrs. Elizabeth Aldworth; received the first two de-jreeg of 
Proemaaonry in Lodge No. 44, Donornile, Ireland, in HH.'i. This female 
bitiation took place in consequence of her having concealed herself and wit- 
nessed the fir-t two defrrees when she was di»nvercd by the bretliren, who 
reassembled and decided what should be done, and submitted the proposi- 
tion to her of being initiated, which she accepted 296 

Portrait of Brother Sir Walter Scott, Bart., the illustrious author of the Waverley 
Novels, from the original painting by Sir Thomas I.aiwrence; initiated into 
Freemasonry in St. Darid'g Lodge, Edinburgh. March 2. 1301, , . 38£ 


Pbtoof Alitgorical Frontigpieep to CUrtl'* Piclurwf|ii* ll.itJry r' Prtnch Mt> 
•onry. From the CoilcctioB of Dr..'. CiMtirodelv.,v|,y, CruulTmiiurer 
GruMi Lodga of Irvlanil 

PUte of a French Lodge of KrecnuMnM for ttie I. 'i.i,i o' n Afp cntkf. 
Copied from the very nre origiiul print publiibeo in IT > :. Onnd Mat- 
tfr. «. The Honior Wardrn. 3. The .lur .r Wanlen. 4. Th'. Condidate. 
5. The Orator. (!. The fe^crotary. r. Tlie TrM»ur«r. 8. Tlio Tyler, 

EngraTing of a Frtnch \Mftp of Frcemaaoni for the Reception of an Apprentice, 
copied from the very ran orixinal print published in 1745. 1. The Grand 
Maater. «. The Orator. .1. T»ie Caa.liJate. 4. The Secretary. 8. The 
Senior Warden. 0. The .Tuni - ^irden. 7. The Treuurer, . . 

Engraving of a Burlenque of a ^ laion'a Lodge in France, copied from the 
original publivhed in Pi . i . ?. 1. Grand Master. 8. The Wardena. 
3. The Camlidiite. 4. '\ nitor .'.. The Secretary 6. The TreMurar. 
7. The Architect. 8. The Tyler. 9. Tlie Ijiwyer. 10. The Doctor. II. 
The Financier. 1?. The Prieit 

Portrait of Brother Jolin Paul Jone*. Admiral and Father of the United Statea 
Nary; initiated into Freentaaonry in St. Bemard'a I/xlgc Kilwinning No. 
l%%, Kirkcudbright, Scotland, NoTenibcr 87, 1770, 410 

*, * 









IT ii certain that the aame degree of oonfldence which is dne to an historian who narratei 
events in which he was personally concerned, cannot be claimed by one who compiles 
the history of remote times from such materials as he is able to collect In the 
former case, if the writer's Teracity and competency are above suspicion, there remains no 
room for reasonable doubt, at least in reference to those principal facts of the story, for 
the truth of which his character is pledged. Whilst in the latter case, though the veracity 
of the writer, as well as his judgrment, may be open to no censure, still the confidence af- 
forded must necessarily be conditional, and will be measured by the opinion which is 
formed of the validity of his authorities.' 

Hence, it has been laid down that since a modem author, who writes the history of 
ancient times, can have no personal knowledge of the events of which he writes; conse- 
quently he can have no title to the credit and confidence of the public, merely on his own 
authority. If he does not write romance instead of history, he must have received his in- 
formation from tradition — from authentic monuments, original records, or the memoirs of 
more ancient writers — and therefore it is but just to acquaint his readers from whence he 
aduallif received it' 

In regard, however, to the character and probable value of their authorities, each his- 
torian, and, indeed, almost every separate portion of the words of each, must be estimated 
apart, and a failure to observe this precaution, will expose the reader, who, in his sim- 
plicity, peruses a Masonic work throughout with an equal faith, to the imminent risk " of 
having his indiscriminate confidence suddenly converted into undistinguishing scepticism, 
by discovering the slight authority upon which some few portions of it are founded.'" 
But it unfortunately happens that the evidence on questions of antiquity possesses few at- 
tractions for ordinary readers, so that on this subject, as well as upon some others, there 
often exists at the same time too much faith and too little. " From a want of acquaintance 
with the details on which a rational conviction of the genuineness and validity of ancient 
records may be founded, many persons, even though otherwise well informed, feel that 

■ See Isaac Taylor, History of the Traasmiasion of Aacient Books to Modem Times, 1837, p. 118 , 
and Lewis, Inquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History, vol. L, p. 878. 

* Dr. R. Henry, History of Great Britain. ' Taylor, op. ctt., p. 110. 

VOr.. III.— 1, 

i ; 

1 ; 


U»ey hare bardly an •ItenwtiTe between » nmple aooeptonce of the entira mtm of ancient 
hurtory, or an equally indiacriminate nupicion of the whole. And when it happens that 
a particular &ot ia quertioned, or the genuinenoM of wme ancient book ii aijcued, auch 
penwn., conadons that they are little fam'liar with the particular* of which the evidence 
on thew Bubject» conaiata, and perceiving that the controveny involvea a multiplicity of 
recondite and uninteresting reaearchea; or that it turn, upon the validity of minute criti- 
cumiB, either recoil altogether from the argument or accept an opinion without inquiry, 
from that party on whose judgment they think they may most safely rely." " 

It thus foUowB, aa a general rule, that such controverues are left entii»ly in the hands 
of cntios and antiquaries, whose peculiar tastes and acquirements qualify them for investi- 
gations which are utterly uninteresting to the mass of readers.' Comparing smal] things 
with greater ones, this usage, which has penetrated into Masonry, is productive of great 
inconvenience, and by narrowing the base of Masonic research, tends to render the early 
history of the craft naught but " the traditions of experts, to be teken by the outside world 
on faith." 

The few students of our antiquities address themselves, not so much to the craft at 
largo, as to each other. They are sure of a select and appreciative audience, and they 
make no real effort to popularize truths not yet patent to the world, and which are at once 
foreign to the intellectual habits and tastes of ordinary persons, and very far removed from 
the mental range of a not inconsiderable section of our fraternity. 

In the preceding remarks, I must, however, be more especiaUy understood, as having 
.n my mmd the Freemasons of these islands, for whilst, as a rule-to which, however, 
there are several brilliant exceptions-the research of Masonic writers of Germany and 
An., rica has not kept pace with that of historians in the mother country of Freemasonry 
It must be freely conceded, that both in the United States and among German-speaking 
people, there exists a familiarity with the Wstory and principles of the ciaft-that is to 
Bay, up to a certain point— for which a paraUel will be vainly sought in Britain. 

These introductory observations, I am aware, may be deemed of a somewhat desultory 
character, but a few words have yet to be said, before resuming and concluding the section 
of this history which brings us to a point where surmise and conjecture, so largely inciden- 
tal to the mj-thico-historical period of our annals, wiU be tempered, if not altogether super- 
wUed, by the evidence derivable from accredited documents and the archives of Grand 
odges. The passage which I shall next quote will serve as the text for a short digression. 

However much," says a high authority, "of falsification and of error there mav be 
in the worid, there is yet so great a predominance of truth, that he who believes indis- 
criminately will be in the right a thousand times to one oftener than he who doubts in- 

Now, without questioning the literal accuracy of this general proposition, the sense in 
which ite amplication is sometimes understood, must be respectfully demurred to. 

If, indeed, no choice is allowed to exist between blindlv accepting the fabler that have 
descended to us, or commencing a new history of Masonry on a blank page, the progress 
of honest scepticism may weU be arrested, and the fabuliste be left in poasession of th. 
field. '^ 

But is there no middle course? Let us hear Lord Bacon :- 

• Taylor. History of the Traumi«ioii of Ancient Books to Modern Timw. 1837. pp. 1. 1 
'Sec Chap. I., p. 8. note 4. .m , .. ..... 

r I p. ■, BOW % 'Taylor, op. «/., p. 180. 

f I 


" Although the potition be good, oportet dineentttn crtdere [a num who is learning iniut 
tie content to believe what he is told], yet it must be conpled with thia, oporM edoetwn 
judieian [when he haa learned it, he must exorciae hia judgment and tee whether it be 
worthy of belief], for diaciplea do owe unto maatera only a temporary beliof and a auBpen- 
aion of their own judgment until they be fully inatructed, and not an absolute resignation 
or perpetual captivity. " ' 

" Thoae who have read of eveiything," aaya Locke, " are thought to understand every- 
thing too; but it is not always so. Beading furnishes the mind only with materials of 
kuowledge; il is thinking maket what we read ours. We are of the ruminating kind, and 
it is not enough to cnun ourselves with a great load of collections; unleu we chew them 
over again, they will not give us strength and nourishment The memory may be stored, 
but the judgment ia little better, and the stock of knowledge not increased, by being able 
to repeat what others have said, or produce the arguments we have found in them.'" 

It unfortunately happens, that those who are firmly convinced of the accuracy of their 
opinions, wiU never take the pains of examining the basis on which they are built. They 
who do not feel the darkness will never look for the light." ' " If in any point we have 
attained to certainty," says a profound thinker of our own time, who has gone to his rest^ 
" we make no further inquiry on that point, because inquiry Tould he useless, or perhaps 
dangerous. Tlte doubt must intervene before the investigation can begin. Here then," he 
continues, " we have the act of doubting as the originator, or, at all events, the necessary 
antecedent of all progress. Here we have that scepticism, the very name of which is an 
abomination to the ignorant, because it disturbs their lazy and complacent minds; because 
it troubles their cherished superstitions; because it imposes on them the fatigue of inquiry; 
and because it rouses even sluggish understandings to ask if things are as they are com- 
monly supposed, and if all is really true which they, from their childhood, have been taught 
to believe."' 

" Evidence," says Locke, " is that by which alone every man is (and should be) taught 
to regulate his assent, who is then and then only in the right way when he follows it" * 

But there exists a class of men whose understandings are, so to speak, cast into a mould, 
and fashioned just to the size of a received hypothesis. They are not affected by proofs, 
which might convince them that events have not happened quite in the same manner that 
they have decreed within themselves that they have. To such persons, indeed, may be 
commended the fine observation of Fontenelle, that the number of those who believe in a 
system already established in the world does not, in the lean*, add to its credibility, but 
that the number of those who doubt it has a tendency to diminish it* 

To the want of re"'irence for antiquity — or, in other words, tradition — with which I 
have been freely chf rged,' I shall reply in a few words. " Until it is recognized," says one 

■ Bacon, Works (Advancement of LeamiDK), edit Spedding, 1857, vol. iii., p. 300. 

'Conduct of the Understanding, § 30 (Locke's Works, edit 1838, vol. iii., p. HI). 

'Buckle, History of Civilisation in England, edit 1868, vol. i., p. 885. 

*B>id. Locke observes, "There is nothing more ordinary than children receiving into their 
minds propositions from their parents, nurses, or those about them, which, being fastened by de- 
grees, are at last (equally whether true or false) riveted there by long custom and education, beyond 
all possibility of being pulled out again " (Essay on the Human Understanding, chap, xx , § tX 

'Conduct of the Understanding, g 84 

* Cited approvingly by Dugald Stewart in his " Philosophy of <he Mind," vol. ii., p. 8S'<. 

' The Bev. A. F. A. Woodford in the Freenuuon, painm. 




£^\ ^'^"':^,~«!P«*'«»' -Woh are employed in oourU oi .urtice. «.d in the 
iSt oC^l ; ^7 """' ""^'^ "P*" ** *«• well.gronnd;i ^.picion. under 
» one of the gn»t obrt^le. to the «lT«,cen«,nt of knowledge. The hitton«, will do well 

!!.!^"""!^?' "^ '***' '^^' ' ^•^'^ •■" ""«' /^•«'«'<'«"- «««ter ,» o/io.- and if, in 
putting togetter hu matenaU. he make, addition, from hi. imagination, he incnn the 

^^S."^""""" ''""'"^* ^" ^ '"'^'''' "«'»•' "' judgment-, .eh 
Tho« of n., indeed, who» mi«on it i. (in the opinion of our critic.) only to destroy ' 
™jd^ye con«lat.on from «me remark, of Buckle, which occur in hi. encomium upon 
De^arte.. Of the pioneer of Modern Philo«phy, he -yi^" He deeerv« the gmtitudfof 
port»nty not «. much on account of what he buUt up, as on account of what he pulled 
*»». Hu hfe wa. one great and .ucce«ful warfare againrt the prejudice, and tradition. 
01 men. .• . .• . To prefer, therefore, eyen the most rocce«ful diwioverer. of phyacal 
Uw. to thi. great mnovator and dirturber of tradition, i. jurt a. if we should prefer knowl- 
edge to freedom and beliere that «,ience u better than liberty. We murt, itd.ed, aJway. 
be gratefu to .he« eminent thinker., to who* labor, we are indebted for that vart body 
of physical .-utha which we now po«e«. But let u. i^rve the full m««ure of ow 
homage for those far greater men, who haye not heatated to attack and destioy the most 
inyeterato pr. ,udice.-men who, by removint, the pressure of tradition, haye purified 
the yery sourco and fountain of our knowledge, and «cured its future progress, by casting 
off obstacles m the prewnce of wUohprogKw was impossible.'" *'"»••' S 

Until quite recently-and it murt be frankly confe«ed that the p«ctice i. not yet 
ITT ^ historian, of the craft haye treated their .ubject in a free and discretionary 
style, by interpolations, not deriyed from extrinac eridence, but fmmed according to their 
own notions of internal probability. ' They haye suppUed from conjectiire what they think 

I et in ceteris partibiu fal- 

' "Testimonium testis, quando in unA parte fabum, prasuir, tur « 
sum" (MenochiiB, de Praasumptionibus, Ub. v., praf. 88). 
^L^^ °° the Methods of Obseryation and Reasoning in Politics, yol. i.. p. 848. The same 
writer ob«>rves: "It is of paramount importance that truth, and not error, shouldle e^^ 
U-tmen. whenthey are led, should be led by safe guides; and they shoild thus p^^bTlh^ 
b^Z^. 1 "*. m"'""'"^"'"""'"'""'''^ been carried on in acco«iance with logi Jruir 

Sltp. Jr ■" '"^ "" """°"''"" ^°" ""^ '"""'""=' •" ^"""'"'^ ^-ro^iZot 

wJdt,^" T^ "iconoclast" ha. been frequently applied to me by my friend, the Rev. A F A 
Woodford, who, moreover, suggesta that my hisu^rical studies evince a policy of "dynamHe "the 
attenuon of my reverend critic is especially invited to the following ol^rvLos oi Tah-oS 

irle^r "^ " "" "' "^'"'""' '^•^ *"* P^y" "° "»P-* *^ -""^ -« venemte, .^"ther 
movant, or » a mere confusion. The fact, so far as it i, true. >. no «,p«>ach, but a^ h;norTbI 

«««te™verenceaUpe«onsandaUthing,isab«,lutely wrong. ... ... If it be meant that ^t 

wanting m proper reverence, not respecting what is really to be respected. Uiat is assuming th^ 
whole question at »sue, becau«, what we call divine, he calls an idol ; and as, supposing w^l in 

t J^ Z T. u "" *" ""' """^ ■""• """"'P- »"• '"PP«""^ h™ to be in Uie rigTt. Te is no iZ 
bound to pull It to the ground and destroy it " (Lectures on Modem History). 

♦History of CivUisation in England, vol. ii., p. 83. As Tui^ot finely says : " Ce n'est pas I'erreur 

qu. »'°PP7, '««P~6^0e la v6rite. Ce sont la moUe«», .'ont^tement, Lprit de ZtZ ZZ 

qu. porta 4 1-in^^tion " (P«»6„, (Euvre. d, Turgot. voL ii., p. 848). .gee Chap. XH, p. 1* 


might kav9 Utn the contenta of the record, if any record of the fa.t were extant, in the i,aine 
manner that an antiqoary attempts to reitore an inioription which ia part defaced or 

" If, indeed," ae it has been well obw<rred, " the retalte of hirtorians lead to an imme- 
diate practical remit; if the concluion of the writer deprived a man of hia life, liberty, or 
goods, the necewity of guiding hia discretion by rules, such as those followeU in courts of 
justice, would long ago have been recognised."* 

It is, moreover, but imperfectly graqwd by Masonic writers, that as a count-.y advances, 
the influence of tradition diminishes, and traditions themselves become leas tTustworthy.' 
Where there is no written record, tr:.JJi;-i alone mast be received, and there alone it has 
a chance of being accurate. But where events have been recorded in books, tradition soon 
becomes a faint and erroneous echo of their pages; ' and the Freemasons, like the Scottish 
Highlanders, are apt to take their ancient traditions from very modem books, as the readers 
of this work,* in the one instance, and those of Burton's " History of Scotland"* in the 
other, can readily testify. Yet if an attempt is made to trace such traditions retrogrutively 
up to the age to which they are usually attributed, we are presented with no evidence, but 
are merely given the alleged facte, a mode of elucidating ancient history, not unlike that 
pursued by Dr, Hickes, who, in order to explain the Northern Antiquities, always went 
farther north— a metho^ of procedure which might serve to illustrate, but could never 
explain, and has been compared to going down the stream to seek the fountain-head, or 
in tracing the progress of learning, to begin with the Goths.' 

Although it is impossible to speak positively to a n^ptive proposition, nevertheless the 
writer who qnestions the accuracy of his predecessors can hardly, by reason of his scepti- 
cism, be considered bound to demonstrate what they have failed to prove.' It has been 
' Vf. Lewis, On the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics, pp. 847, 248, 391. 
» Ibid., pp. ItM, 187. The author of the :ieraoir of Sebastian Cabot" (bit. i., chap. I), thus 
oommenta on a hearsay statemem respecting the discoveries of that navigator: " It U obvious that, 
if the present were an inquiry in a court of justice, the evidence which limits Cabot to W would be 
at once rejected as incompetent The alleged communication from him is exposed in its transmis- 
sion, not only to all the chances of misconception on the part of the Pope's Legate, but admitting 
that perscxiage to have truly understood, accurately remembered, and faithfully reported what he 
heard, we are again exposed to a aimUar series of errors on the part of our informant, who furnished 
It to us at second-hand. But the dead have not the benefit of the rule* of evidence." The preceding 
extract will merit the attention of those person* who attach any historical weight to the newspaper 
evidence of 1783, which makes Wren a Freemason, or to the hearsay statement of John Aubrey. 

» "Although," says Buckle, '• without letters, there can be no knowledge of much importaoce, 
it is nevertheless true that their introduction is injurious to historical traditions in two distinct 
ways : first by weakening the traditions, and secondly by weakening the class of men whose occupa- 
tion it ia to preserve them" (F" ;ory of Civilisation, vol. i., p. 297). 

*J.H. Burton, Hist aryo' \nd from 1689 to 1748, vol. i., p. 185. ' See Chap. Xn.,pa»»<»n. 

• A parallel might be dra\ tween the influence upon the popular imagination of such works 
of fancy as Scott's " Lady of the i^ake " and Preston's " Ulustrations of Masonry." In his notice of 
the Highland Costume. Burton obf;rves : " Here, unfortunately, we stumble on the rankest comer 
of what may be termed the claenc toU of fabrication and fable. The assertions f abundant unto 
afBuence ; the facta few and meagre" (Historj- of ScoUand, vol. ii., p. 874X 

' Nichols, Literary Acecdcles, vol. iv,, p. 457, 

• This is precisely and c-Mctly what my reviewers (in the Masonic press) seem to require of me, 
and I respectfully commend to their notice the following remarks on the intolerance of the " Camer- 
onjans," as being capable of a tar wider application : " The ruling priocipls among tbaas men was 



weU obwrrod-" To ewry intelligent mind it U o1«m:, that aMertion without proof can no 
more be received to invaUdate hirtory, than to confirm and rapport it; and when objec- 
tiona founded on fbcta are advanced, it wiU then be for conuderation whether they apply, 
and to what extent But till aMertion is converted into proof, and that proof found to 
dertroy Jie authenticity of the inataoces produced, those instancea must, by every rule of 
good arnae and right reaaon, and iufalUbly will, be regarded aa adequate evidence by every 
competent judge. " ' 

Taylor rightly laya down that, " when historical facte, which in their natnie are fairi y 
open to direct proof, are called in question, there is no species of trifling more irksome (to 
those who have no dishonest ends to serve) that the halting upon twenty indirect argu- 
ments, while the etntre proof-ih».i wWch clear and upright minda fasten upon intuitivelv 
-remains undisposed of.'" Now, it must be freely conceded, that however strongly the 
balance of probability may appea- :o incline against the neeption of Sir Christopher Wren, 
at any time of his life, into the Masonic fraternity, the question after all must remain au 
open one, as even his dying declaration to the contrary, were such extant, might be held 
insufficient to clearly establish this negative proposition.' Though until "assertion « 
converted into proof, and that proof found to destroy the authenticity of the objections" 
wised by me to the current belief, I shall rest content that the latter " must, by every 
rule of good sense and right reason, and infallibly wiU, be regarded as adequate evidence 
by every competent judge." 

Among these objections, however, is one, which no lapse of time can remove, and it is 
the contention that Wren could not have held in the seventeenth century a title which did 
not then exist This point I shall not re-argue, but mav be permitted to aUudo to, as bv 
the removal of the pressure of tradition "' in this instance, it is confidently hope<l that 
the simplest aiid the broadest of aU human princi,, whicl, l», more or 1«« guided maukrid 
m all ag«i and all conditions of society-in despotism^ oligarchies, and democmuies-among P. ' - 
the.8te, Mohammedans, Jews, and Christians. It was the simple doctrine, that I am right and j ,u 
*"* «7"»"'^t'"'t whatever opinion different from mine is entertained by you. must be forthwith 
uprooted " (Burton, HUtory of Scotland, vol. i., p. 88). 

'J. a. Hawkins. History of the Origin and Establishment of Gothic Architecture. 1813, p 89 
History of tlie Ti-ansmiasion of Ancient Books to Modem Times, p 334. 
initil^Ti^"^ f thi. posiUon, the case of tl., late Duke of Wellington may be cted. who was 
UnUated at the ch»e of the last century in Lodge No. 4Mon the Registry of I^land(F. Q. Rev., 1836, 

iSiL ?r!'?™r""r "« '''*•"' " ''^- ""^ "' "•'°'° "^"^ Combermere said at Ma^cle^ 
field m 1«»-;' Often when m Spam, where Ma«,nry was prohibited, he [W.Umgton] regretted 

<Fo rIv iSs ■" «^ ."ur "t" r'""*^ '"" *^"*^ '"^ """^^ •»'' "» '-""«» di^"'*" •• 

^™ r^Lt 1 u '^'^♦*'>''""P »' «'• ^"""^ Carleton (1838^X declining to allow the 
^!^.^M ' t ; "^'"'«=*' •" "« °«v«'-^'«' """de any lodge since the day he wa, 

made (Ma«>n.c Magazine, loc. tit.), the foUowing communication attests that sh rtiv ^fore Z 

«S-? MTeTk^'fw' M '"i!"""" *'"' ""'^ "^ ""' °' *>'' '""•<' = "^'<" Oct^hlrm 
, V. » .f , f ^ Z ^""""f^" P"»«''te his complimente to Mr. Walsh. He has received hi 
letter of the 7th ult The Duke has no recoUection of having been admitted a FreemasoT ^ his 
no knowledge of that association" (F. y. Rev., 1854 p 88) ■^'mason. «e na.s 

. J.rTr"^ the anc.-.„f tradition of Wren's Omnd Maste«hip was first published to the world in 
tw I "'^""'•--^-^'y "-^ ^-*- (Anden«>n-s Constitutions, 1738). it must not be fo.«otten thlt 
fabler. »Vnlt.n,r. says, begin to be current in one genenition, are establi a in the seco^ te^me 

mento sur 1 Histoire, art. i., (Euvres, tome xxvii., pp. 158, l,W). ^^^ 

■■ I 


" tht future progre* of our knowledge " hai beea eunrad, " by c;<«tiiig off obitaolet in the 
preMnce ot which progreei waa impoaeible. " 

It ia immaterial whether Wren waa or waa not a mere metnbtr of the Society. To my 
mind, and upon the »videnc» btfort us- to which our attention must be atrictly confined — 
it aeema impoMible that ho could have been, but even if he waa, we ahould only hare onu 
Kpeculative or geomatic brother the more, a circumstance of no real moment, and nnleim 
supported by new eridence of such a character aa to utterly destroy the authenticity of 
tiiftt already produced, not in any way oalculatt i to modify the judgment I have ventured 
to pass upon hia alleged connection with Frcemaaonry. But the conaequencea arising from 
the deeply rooted belief in hia being— under wh«t title ui immaterial— the Onnd Master or 
virtual head of the Society, have already borne much evil fruit, by leading thoae who have 
sucoeaaively founded achoola of Masonic thought, to pursue their reaearchea on erroneous 
data, and aa a natural result, to reduce to a minimum the value of even the moat diligent 
inquiry into the past history of the craft Indeed, a moment's reflection will convince the 
candid reader that any generalization of Masonic facts, based on an assumption, that the er» 
of "OranJ Lodges" can be carried back to 1663*— when the 'amous regulations are alloge<l 
to have been made, which I have handled with aome freed . .u the last chapter*— must bo 
devoid of any practical ntOity, or in other words, that in all such cases the want of judg- 
ment in tlxe writer can only ^ supplied by the discrimination of his readers. 

By ;ray of illustration, let us take Kloaa. It ia certain that this author collected his 
materials with equal diligence and Judgment; but yet, we perceive that in much relating 
to a country not his own, he waa often egregiously miainformed. 

I am not here considering hia miainterpretation of the English statutes,* an error of 
judgment arising, not unnaturally, from the inherent defecta of the printed oopy to which 
alone he had acceaa, but the inaccuraciea which are to be found in hia rritinga, owing to 
the confidence he placed in Anderson aa the witneaa of truth. 

The writings of Sir James Hall may also be referred to, aa affording equally cogent 
evidence of the wide diffusion of error, owing to a similar dependence upon statements for 
which the compiler of the first two editions of the " Constitutions " ia the original au- 
thority. In the latter instance, we find, as I have already mentioned, that the fact of 
Wren's Grand Mastership, is actually relied upon, by a non-masonic writer of eminence, 
aa stamping the opinion of the great architect, with regard to the origin of Gothic archi- 
tecture, as the very highest that the subject will admit of.' 

How, indeed— when we have marshalled all the authorities, considered their arguments, 
examined their proofs, and estimated the probability or improbability of what they advance 
by the evidence they present to us— any lingering belief in the existence of Gntnd Lodgea 
during the seventeenth century can remain in the mind, is a mystery which I can only 
attempt to solve by making nse of a comparison. 

Writing in 1633, Sir Thomas Browne infcrms us, that the more improbable any prop- 
osition is, the greater is his willingneaa to assent to it; but that where a thing ia actually 
impoaaible he ia, on that account, prepared to behttva it 1* 

'See p. 4 ; and BucUv, op. eit., vol. u., p. 83. 

Chape, n., p. 107 ; XU., p. 135 ; and XV.. p. 8S5. » Vol. II.. p. 823, et teq. 

' Chap. Va, pp. SSe-3S9, 381-3, 365 «. • Chap. VI., p. 260. 

• " Hethinks there be not impossibilities enough in religion for an active faith. I love to lose 
myaeU in a mystery, to punue my reasOQ to an Altitudo. 1 can answer all the objavUona of Satan 

I !'» 


By prindplM raoh ■■ thcM, it ii rery •rident that wme liTing writen an MonnutdM 
to r«gnl»t« tlMir HMmt, uid in thii way • beli«f in Wren'i mtmbtnhip o/tkt SeeMy wiU 
n»tur»lly ariw out of ite eitrame improUbility,' whilst • Ann conTiotion in hit hsring been 
Orand Mdtler, will m raidily follow from the cinranurtanoe of its ntter impoaibility I * 

The object of thia digre don will ban been bnt imperfectly attained, if any lengthened 
obaeirationa are required vu make it clear. 

Upon the confidence hitherto extended to me by my readen, I thall again hare 00- 
oanon to draw yery largely a* we proceed. We are aboot to paaa from one period of dark- 
neei and n. -wrtainty to another of almoit equal obecurity, and which preiento eren greater 
difficultiee Jian we hare yet encountered. In writing the hirtory of the craft, aa far aa we 
hare proceeded, the material! hare been few and icanty, and I have had to feel my way 
Tery mnch in the dark. 

If, under then conditioM, I hare iometimea itrayed from the right path, it will not 
■nrpriM me, and I ihall be erer ready to accept with gratitude the help of any friendly 
hand that can act me right All I can aniwer for is a lincere endearor to search impar. 
tially after truth. Throughout my Ubon, to nw the worda of Locke, " I hare not made 
it my bniineai, either to quit or follow any authority. Truth has been my only aim, and 
wherever that haa appeared to lead, my thought! have impartially followed, without mind- 
ing whether the footateps of any other lay that way or no. Not that I want a due reepect 
to other men'a opinion!, but after all, the greatert rererence is due to truth." ' 

It miy ot> obaerred that i.i my attempt to demonatrate the only aafe principles on 
whioL Maaonic inquiry ?«n be pv sued, whUat making a free uae of eloMical quotationa in 
Bupport of the aeveral poaitiona for which I contend, the literature of the craft haa not 
been laid under requisition for any addition to the general atore. For thia reason, and aa 
an ezcnae for all the others, I ahall introdu .3 one quotation more, and thia I ahall borrow 
and my rebellious reason with that odd resolution I learned of TeHulUan, eertum at quia impoui- 
Mte at. I desire to exercise my faith in the difflcultest point, for, to credit ordinary and visible 
objecU is not faith but persuasion " (Sir T. Browne, Works, edit by 8. Wilkin— Bohn's Antiq. Lib.— 
vol. ii, Eeligio Medici, sect ix., p. 888). After this expression of his opinions, it is singular to And 
that only twelve years later anqujries into Vulgar Errors), the same writer lays down, that one 
main cause of error is adherenee to authority ; another, neglect of inquiry ; and a third, eredMty. 

> The remarks on which the biographer of Sebastian Cabot founded his conclusion. " that the 
Jead have not the benefit of the rules of evidence" (ante, p. 5). may be usefully perused by those 
who accept the paragraphs }n the Pottboy (Chap. Xn. p. 188>-the only potitive evidence ou the 
subject prior to 173»-as detennining the fact of Wren's membership of the Society. If the aigu- 
ment in respect of Cabot is deemed to be of any force, it follows, a fortiori, t.^t we should place no 
conUdenoe whatever in a mere newspaper entry of the year 1788. 

It has been forcibly observed : " .Anonymous tettimony to a matter of fact U teluaiy devoid of 
u-etgkt, unless, indeed, there be circumstances which render it probable that a trustworthy witness 
has adequate motives for concealment, or extraneous circumstances may support and accredit a 
statement. u,hich, left to itulf. would faU to the ground" (Lewis, On the Influence of Authority in 
Matters of Opinion, p. 88). 

• TertuUian's apophthegm, " credo quia impossibile est "-7 believe because {( U impoaible-onoo 
quoted by the Duke of Argyle as "the ancient religious maxim" (Pari. Hist, vol xi., p 808) 
" might" Locke considers, " in a good man pass for a sally of seal, but would prove a very ill rule 
for men to choose their opinions or religion by " (Essay on the Human trndcrstanding. bk. iv., chap 
XIX., g 11). According to Neander, it was the spirit embodied in this sentence which supplied Celsus 
with some formidable argumenU against the Fathers (General Hist of the Christian Religion and 
Church, vol I. p. 887). • Essay on the Human Understanding, bk. i., chap. iv. sec. 88. 


from aa addiwi noently deliTered by onr Imperikl brotkir, the heir to tlw Gannui Crown, 
who atja: " Bat while earlier agee contented themwWee with the anthority of tnditioni, 
in onr da^ tlM inreetigations of hiitorioal criticiam hare become a power. Hia- 

torical tmths . ■ . oan only be aecnred by hiatorical inTeatigationi; therefore inoh itndiat 
are in onr time a lerioas obligation toward the Order, from which we cannot withdraw, 
hating the confident conviction, that whaterer the reeult may be, they oan in the end b« 
only beneficial. If they are conflrmatoiy of the tradition, then in the remit donbta wiU 
dimppear; ihonld they prore anything to be nntenable, the loTe of truth will give oa the 
manly courage to Mcrifice what ia untenable, but we ihall then with the grcuter energy 
uphold that which ia undoubted." ' 

We left off at that part of onr inqniry,* where the OTidenoe of wreral writen would aeem 
to point Tery clearly to the widely-ipread exiatence of Kaaonio lodges in aouthem Britain, 
at a period of time oloaely approaching the lait decade of the seTenteenth century.' Bnt 
howeTer naturally thia inference may ariw from a pemial of the evidence referred to, it 
may be at once atatcJ that it acquires very little support from the scattered facts relating 
to the subject, which are to be met with between the publication of Dr. Plot'* account of 
the Freemasons (1686), and the formation of the Grand Lodge of England (1717). 

The period, indeed, interreuing between the date of Handle Holme'8 Iwenrations in 
the " Academie of Armory. < which attention has been directed,' and the establishment 
of a governing body for lue English craft, affords rather materials for dissertation than 
consecutive facts for such a work as the present It may be outlined in a few words, though 
by no means the least important portion of thia chapter, which the sti ly and inclination 
of the reader will enable him to till up. 

It is believed that changes of an essential nature were in operation during the years 
hnmediately preceding what I shall venture to term the eontolidalion of the Grand Lodge 
of England, or, in other words, the publication of the first " Book of Constitutions " (1733). 
The circumstances which conduced to these changes are at once complicated and obscure, 
and aa they have not yet been studied in connection with each other, I shall presently ex- 
amine them at some length. 

That the Masonry which flonrished under the sanction of the Grand Lodge of England 
in 1723, differed in some respects from that known at Warrington in 1646, may be readily 
admitted, but the more serious point, as to whether the changed made were ot/orm only, 
and not of tubstance, is not so easily disposed of. In the first place, the time at which any 
cliange occurred, is not only uncertain, bnt by its nature will never admit of complete precision. 

" Criticism," as it has been happily observed, " may do somewhat toward the rectification 
of historical difficulties, but let her refrain from promising more than she can perform. A 
spurious instrument may be detected; if two dates are absolutely incongruous, you may 
accept that which reason shows you to be most probable. Amongst irreconcilable state- 
ments you may elect those most coherent with the series which you have formed. But an 

' From an address delivered by the then Crown Prince of Prussia, in the double capacity of Dep- 
uty Protector o( the Three Prussian Grand Lodfjes, and M. I. Master of the Order of the Ck>untries of 
Germany (Grand) Lodge, on June 34, 1870 (cited by Dr. E. E. Wendt, in a lecture printed in the 
Hintory of St Mary's Lodge No. 63, 1883, pp. 90-98). 'Chap. XV., pp. 889-871. 

* Ashmole, \«Si ; Plot and Aubrey, 1686 ; Handle Holme, 1688 ; and Aubrey, 1691. Ante, ToL 
ii., pp. 180, 367, 388, SOS. For the dates dependent on tlie testimony of John Aubrey, see, however. 
Vol. n., pi>. S, 386. * A.D. 1688. Antt, VoL IL, pp. 806, 806. 



ffnsimai'wH U truth, eiwpt wa bxtm oonotrna dngla voA iiiMiUttod fiwti, u fk$ uimoti 
•M MM Main. W« haT« •bMlnto otrtainty that Um IwtUa of TmfkUgsr wu fought, but 
thm ia M mnoh wiety in the •ooonnti of th« Logi, that we oMoot iMertain with pn- 
cuion the hour whni the biUtle oommenoed, nor the exMt pontion or dirtuoe of the fleet 
from the iLora." ' 

In the Hme way we hare rauonable certainty that an altention in the method of ooa- 

manjoating the Maeonic wcreU took place in the eighteenth century, but there i« no eri. 
dence that wiU enable n* to fix the date at the alte;ation itaelt " An approximation to 
the truth ia the utmoet we can obtain," ami in order that our inquiry may hare thi» reiult, 
•ome poinU ooonr to me, wUoh in my jndKmeut we shall do weU to carefully bear in mind 
during the progreae of our research, a* upon their right determination at iU cloee, tho ao- 
curacy of our final conolunone with regard to many rexed quesUona in MaKtnic history, 
can alono be ensured. 

In the flnt place. let os ask onrselree— were the Masonio systems prerailing in England 
and Scotland respectiTely, before the era of Grand Lodges, identical* 

They either were, or were not, and far more than would at first sight appear ia inrolred 
in the reply to which we are led by the evidence. 

If they were, the general character of our early Brituh Freemasonry, would be suffl- 
oiwitly disclosed by the Masonic records of the Northern Kingdom. A difficulty, howerer, 
preeents itself at the outset, and it is— the minutee of aU Soottish Lodges of the seventeenth 
century, which are extant, show the eesentially op$rativi character of these bodies— whilst 
the scanty evidence that has come down to us— minutes there are none— of the existence of 
English Lodgee at the same period, prove the latter to have been as etsentially tpeculative.' 
I am not here forgetting either the Haughfoot records in the one case, or those of Alnwick 
in the other, which might be cited as invalidating theee two propositions, but it wiU be 
seen that I limit tho application of my remarks to the tev»ntMnlh century. Not that I 
undervalue the importance of either of the seU of documents hut referred to, but their 
dates *re material, and in both instances the minutes might tend to mislead us, since if 
the customs of the Scottish and English masons wen dissimUar, the old Lodge at Haugli- 
foot and Galashiels may possibly afford the only example there is. before Desaguliers' tinu., 
of the method of working in the south of Britain, having crossed the Border; whilst the 
very name of the Alnwick Lodge arouses a suspicion of ito Scottish derivation. 

Leaving undecided for the present the question, whether the two systems were te mb- 
stance the same, or whether Enghrnd borrowed hers from Scotland, and repaid the obliga- 
tion (with interest) at the Bovival, let us see what alternative suppositions wo can find. 

If the Freemasonry of England was aui generit, are we to conclude, that like the civiU- 
zation of Egypt, it culminated before the dawn of its recorded history? Or, instead of a 
^dual process of deterioration, is there ground for supposing that there was a progressive 
improvement, of which we see the great result, in the movement of 1717? 

By some persons the speculative character of the Warrington Lodge, so far back as 164G, 
may be held to point to an antecedent system, or body of knowledge, of which the extent 

. J ^''»™^*' ^'»*°'y »' Normandy and England, vol. i.. pp. U«. UT. The »m. writer remarks : 

• We can do no more than we are enabled ; the crooked cannot be made straight, nor U.e wantm,r 

numbered. The preservation or destruction of hutorical materials is as proviilential as the midanfl 

o(event8"(J(H'd., p. Ul). »<«««««» 

•Zs., In the one case the lodgeii existed for trade purpoies, and in the other not. 



«l tiiMt is, without further erldenoe, limply ino«loul»bl«, whilM others, without inquiry 
«f any liind, will shelter themiolves under the MtLority of piaX nwnes, snU adopt a oon- 
duuou. in which our later historians are practioaJly unanimous, that Freemasonry, as it 
emerged from the crucible in \'ii, was the produit of many erolutioiary changos, con- 
summated for the most part in the six yean during which the uraft bad Injou ruled by tt 
central authority. 

It will be seen, that in tracing the historical derelopment of Freemasonry, from the 
point of Tiew of those who «« in the early Scottinh system something ?ery distinct from 
our own, we must derive what light we can from tin. meagre ailu»ionj4 to Englith lodges tliut 
can be produced in eridence, aided by the dim aa.i fliclioring torch wliich is supplied by 


It may be freely confu«se<l, that in our present state of knowledge, much of the early 
history of the Society munt remain under a veil of olxnurity, an<l whilst there is no portimi 
of our annali which possesse* greater interest for the student than that interrtniii!? 
between the latter end of the seventeenth century ami the year 1793 — the date of t 
earliest entries in the existinfr minutes of Orand Lotlge, and of the first " Woolc of Coni*' 
tious"— it must bo as frankly admitted, that the rvidinee forthcoming, upon which iii 
any determinate conclusion can be based, is of too v^^e and uncertain a characU- 
afford « sure foot-hold to the historical inquirer. 

By keeping steadily in view, howeTer, the main point on which our attention »^ 
be directed, many of the diffioulties that confront us may be overcome, and without gii 
too loose a rein to the imagination, some speculations nukv be safely hazarded, with i*kww 
to the period of transition, connecting the old Society with the new, which will be st k ^ 
consistept with the evidence, and may )» allowed to stand as a iiossible solution of a » -Sf 
oomplioiited problem, until greater diligence and higher ability shall fliwUy resolve it 

Au antiquary of the lost century has observed: " In Subjects of such diHtant agon, 
where History will so often withdraw her tiiiKT, Conjecture may gometimeti strike « new 
light, and the troths of Antiquity be more effectually pursued, tlum where people wi not 
venture to guess at all. One Conjecture may move the Veil, another partly reon «. 
and a third happier still, borrowing light and strength from what went before, may nrholly 
disclose what we want to know. " 

Now, I must carefully guard myself from being under8too<i to go the lengtl laying. 
I'.own, that wherever there is a deficiency of evidence, we mu»t fall back ujion ijecture. 
Such a contention would utterly conflict with all the principles of criticism which, both in 
this and earlier chapters, I have sought to uphold. 

But an historical epoch will never admit of that chronological exactitude familiar to 
•atiqnaries and genealogists, and the chief objection, therefore, to a generalization respect- 
ing the changes introduced during the period of transition will be, not so much that it 
wants certainty, as that it lacks precision. For example, there is a great deal of evidence, 
direct, collateral, and presumptive, to support the belief that but a single form of reception 
was in voguo in the seventeenth century, and thuro are no known facts whicli are incon- 
sistent with it In 1723, as accredited writings prove, the ceremonies at the admission of 
Fellow Crafts and Apprentices were distinct from one anothci. Here is the old story of 
the Battle of Trafalgar and the confusion in the Ijogs,^ ovor ii-raiii. We are certain that 
alterations took place, but the dates cannot be established with precision and exactitude. 
■ W. BorlaM. Antiquitiaa of Cornwall, 1T64. Pivfa. 4. p viL • Ant*, p. 10k 



W. «a point rat tb« ymr in wUoh » olMiflontion of th# *irty wm imblidiMl br orto 
of tht Omad Lodg«: but who onn pobt o«t tJw tmt la t iloh tho id« of th«t oImbB*.. 
tion WM lint bnaobMiP o««w»- 

Upon tbo gronmb tat^l. it wUl bo .lloinible to .p«ml.te •omewh.t frMlv npon tko 
po«ibte«ii«»#-l««iingtc,«f«tt,, which MO potent to our iWMift 

Tho ranoining oTiUenoo, thnt wUl bring «• np to the ^.r 1717, or to tho oIom of what 
M •ooMtimM deKnb«l .. Anciont UMonrjr, \m, m Bin^j ^.tad. of » rery tTMgmntuj 
cimnc^. Itting op the th>««l of our n.r»tiTo from 1688. w. find that DrTdorlon 
■p«b of .London Lodge hnring met, .t tho in«tuoe of Sir Bobort CUyton. in 1693. and 
on tho outhority of " «>me brother., liring in 1730," ho nome. the Io<«Iitie. ir whioh dz 
other metropoLton lodge, held their UMmbUo.,> . rtof mont fumidiing. ot loMt « Ikr « 
I am owBra. the only hietoricol dala in lupport of the Mwrtion m " Multa HndM." that tho 
formotUm of the Onind Lodge of EngUnd wm due to the oomWued efforU of m priT^o 
lodge.. Meeting, of protinokl lodges in 1693 and 1708 /..pectiTeW, an commenwrated 
b,««moro«faontwoofthe"01dChanf«.,''N. 35 and 2«.' but the «gniflcM«ofZo 
entrie. will more fitly claim our attention a little later, in connection with tho mbjeot of 
Maaonry in York. ""r^* w» 

The record, of the Alnwick Lodge oome next befoie n»,' and are of eqwcial ralne in 
ou.- examination, a. they coiutitnte the only eridence of the actual proceeding, of an 
Enghsh lodge e-entuUly. if not. indeed, excludrely operatire. during the entire pTrtion of 
our ewly hirtory which precede, the era of Grand Lodge.. That i. to «t, withVnt thcM 
record., whatev.i wc might infer, it would be impowble to prore, from other extant docu- 
ment% or contemporanr evidence of any wrt or kind, that in anngle lodge the operatiTo 
predommated over the .pe. .latire element.. The rule, of the Lo,lgo are dated September 
29. 1,01, and ihc earlicrt minute October 3. 1703. It would overtook my .pace were I 
here to m^e^fnll .ummary of the*, n-.'onU, which, however, wUl be found iu the ap- 
pendix, w I .hall merely notice their leading feature., and rertrict mywlf to inch aaannelr 
to be of importance in thin inquiry. ^^^ 

It diould be rtated. tlmt the quertion of degree* receive, no additiomJ light from thece 
minute., indeed, if the Alnwick document. .to«l alone, a. the «>le reprewntative of the 
cla» of evidence we have been hitherto considering, there would be notUng whatever from 
which we might even plau.ibly infer, that anything beyond tmde «cret. were poMcsBed by 
he member.. To -onie extent however, a .ide-light i. thrown upon the*, record, by ^me 
bite docnmenu of a kindred character, and the minute, of the Lodge of Indurtry, Gate.- 
h««l, which date from 1725. ten year, prior to its acceptance of a warrant from th^ G«nd 
IxHlge of England, .upply much valuable information relative to the curtom. of early open*. 

f^' ^ ' *'*" " '' •^'^ "°* «'"« "• • '^'^"'^ P'"*"'* 0' th« Ma«,nry of : ; OM. 
coMidered by wme exceUent authoritie.. to hold up a mirn>r in which i. reflected ihe 

i^" ^' ^J^ **' • ^'■'♦""«°°»- 1^ P IM i 17M and 1767, p. 176 ; «,d J784 p 1.8. ' 
Chap. Xn.. p. 161. note 1. See alw "The Four Old Lodge,." p. 88 Tod Wo^o^l % . 
of Mawnic Hiatory (JWnic Magazine. voL 1.. p. 858> ^^ P- »» • a-d Woodford, A Point 
'Chap. IL, pp. 68,70. 

l^" ^^"^ "' ""^ '"" '^"''° ^y ""«*"'» '" *•" Freenumm. Januaij 21. 1871 which wa. «,. 
rnnted .„ .he Ma^i. »a,a.i„e. F.^n^ry; ,874. and I l^ve ulso before ml J^^^JtmZZ 
made from theongma. documenU by Mr. F. Hockley, to whom I here offer my b^7^ T 
ante, Chap., tt, p. 70, and XIV., p. aSL ^■oaauu. i/. 


i«< • pwiM^ anUdMiac bjr at ImmI wTmi jmn, Um ooomIob of tittir Mug ooa- 
■itttd to writing. 

Ahhoogh tho dnonilHH* <rf no kw thu thiM Chadiin todgM iMriof bMn "couti- 
tntwl "—<.«., winwtod— by the Onnd Lodgo in 1724, tho flnt an in wUoh chartan, 
oraathaywara than tarmad. " dapntationa," wara gnuited to othar than London lodgea, 
may ba hald to prara that tha old ayitani, ao to apaak, orerlappad the new, and to Jnatify 
the oonolnaion, that tha llaaonry of Sandlo Holma'a time ■anriTed the epoch of tnnaitioa 
— thia aridenoa ia nnfortnnataly too maagra, to do more than aatiafy tha mind of tha atrong 
probability, to pnt it no higher, that aach waa really the oaae. All thne lodgaa died oat 
befim 17M, and their reoorda perished with them. Bat here the minntee of Grand Lodge 
oome to onr aaiatanoe, and ai will be leen in the next chapter, a petitioner for relief in 
1739 claimed to hare been made a Maion ty th* Dukt of Richmond at Ckiehultr in 16M. 

Tha l4)dga of Indoitry aflordi au example of an operative lodge — with extant minataa 
—which, althongh origiaally independent of the Grand Lodge, altimataly became merged 

The original home of thia lodge waa at the Tillage of Swalwell, in the county of Darham, 
about four miles from Gateshead; and a tradition exists, for it is nothing more, that it waa 
founded by operative masons brought from the south by Sir Ambroee Crowley, when he 
esUbliahed hia celebrated foundry at Winlaton about a.d. 1690. Ite records date from 
1725, and on June 24, 1735,* the lodge acceptud a " depuUtion " from the Giand Lodge. 
The meetings otmtinued to be held at Swalwell until 1844, and from 1845 till tho proseul 
time hare taken place at Gateshead. In the records thero appear " Orders of Antiquity, 
Apprentice Orders, General Orders, and Penal Orders," all written in the old Minute Book 
by the same clear hand, ciren 1730. These I shall shortly have occasion to cite, but in the 
first instance it becomes necessary to resume our examination of the Alnwick documents. 

The records of the Alnwick Lodge comprise a good copy of the " Masons' Constitutions " 
or "Old Charges,"* certain rules of the lodge, enacted in 1701, and the ordinary minutes, 
which terminate .June 24, 1757, though the lodge was still in exiiitence, and nreserved its 
op>'rative character until at least the year 1763.* The rules or r^ations are headed:— 

' V ^horities ooBsulted— By-Laws of the I. Ige of Industry, No. 48. 1870; Abntmct of the Minutes 
of the Lodge by the Bev. A. F. A. Woodford (Masonic Magazine, vol. iii., 1873-76, pp. W, 88, 185, 
«48); and Letters of Mr. Robert WhitBeld (Freemanon, October 38 and December 11, 1880). 

• Although no previous lodge was charted in or near Newciwtle, the folIowinK extracts show that 
there were several independent or non- warranted lodges In the neighborhood about this period. 
" Newca«tle-on-Tyne. May 8».— On Wednesday last was held at Mr. Bartholomew Pratt's in the 
Flesh-Market, a Lodge of the Honourable Society of Free and Aci ted Masons at which abundance 
of Gentlemen assisted, wearing white Leathern Aprons and Olo. . .s. N.a— Never such an Appear- 
ance of Ladies . m' entlemen wereever seen togetherat this place " (Weekly Journal, No. 873. June 
6, 1730). [Newcas ] " December 88. 1784.— Yesterday, being St. John's Day, was held the urnal 
anniversary of the Most Honourable and Ancient Fraternity of Free and Accepted MaM}ns. at Widow 
Grey's on the Quay, where there was the greatest appearance tJiat has been known on that occasion, 
the Society consisting of the principal inhabitants of the town and country. In the evening they 
unanimously nominated Dr. Askew their Master, Mr. Thoresby their Deputy Master, Mr. Blenkinsop 
and Mr. Skal their Wardens for the ensuing year " (St James Evening VoA), 

•Chap, n., p. eoi 

•Rules and Orders of the Lodge of Free Masons in the Town of Alnwick, NewoasUe, Printed by 
T. Slack, ITSS. 


! ;■ 

! i 

"Obdim to bi OBsnmiD bt thb Compakt akd Fbllowsbip or FBBBHASom att 



< A A 
" \tt. — Fint it is ordered by the said Fellowship thatt there shill be yearly 

Two Wardens chosen upon the said Twenty-ninth of Septr., being the Feast of 

St Michaell the Arohangell, which Wardens shall be elected and appoynted by 

the most consent of the Fellowship. ' 

" ind. — Item, Thatt the said Wardens receiTe, commence, and sue all snch 
penaltyes and ffo/foitnres and fines as shall in any wise be amongst the said 
Fellowdiip, and shall render and yield np a just accoant att the year's end of all 
sach fines and forfeitures as shall come to their hands, or of tener if need require, 
or if the Master or Fellows list to call for them, for every such offence to pay '.068 

" Zrd. — Item, That noe masou shall take any worke by task or by Day, other 
then the King's work, butt, thatt att the least he shall make Three or Four of his 
Fellows acquainted therewith, for to take his part, paying for every snch offence. 3 6 6' 

" 4<A. — Item, Thatt noe mason slukll take any work thatt any of his Fellows 
is in hand with all — to pay for every snch offence the sume off.* . . .268* 

" bth. — Item, Thatt noe mason shall take any Apprentice [but he must] 
enter him and give him his charge within one whole year after. Xott soe 
doing, the master shall |iay for every such offence 3 4 

"6M. — Item, Thatt every master for entering his apprentice shall pay ' .006 

" Ith. — Item, Thatt every mason when he is warned by the Wardens or other 
of the Company, and shall nott come to the place appoynted, except he have a 
reasonable cause to shew the Master and Wardens to the contrary; nott soe doing 
ehallpuy' 068 

" 8/A. Item, Thatt noe Mason shall shon [shun] his Fellow or give him the 
lye, or any ways contend with him or give him any other name in the place of 

' " That there shall on St. John Baptist's day, June 34, yearly by the Majority of Votes in thp 
aKsembly be chosen a Master and Warden for tlie year ensuing, uud a Deputy to act in [the] Master's 
absence as Master" (Swalwell Lodge, Oeneral Orders, No. 1). " Tliat the Chief Meeting Day be 
June 34th each year, the 39th of September, the 37th of December, and the 3Sth of March, Quarterly 
meeting days" (Ibid., No. 2). See the rules of the Gateshead Cor|)oration, ante, p. 37S. 

' " That the MASTER shall receive all fflnes, Penaltys, and moneys collected amongst the ffel- 
lowship; And keep the moneys in the public fund-Box of the company. And from time to time 
render a just account of the State thereof when required on |)enalty of £01—00 — 00" (1 hid.. Penal 
Orders, No. 8). 'The Hockley MS, has, query £1. 6s. 8d. 

'The "Old Charges" are very precise in forbidding one mason "to supplant another of his 
work." See the Buchanan MS.(15), Chap. IT., p. 101; also the Orders of Antiquity (8th) and the Penal 
Orders (30th) of the Swalwell Lodge (Masonic Magazine, vol. iii., 1875-76, pp. 83, 8S). 

'Mr. Hockley wntes, query £1. 6s. 8d., which is the amount deciphered by Hughan. 

* "When any Mason shall take an Apprentice, he shall enter him in the Company's Records 
within 40 days, and pay 6d. for Registering on Penalty of 00 — 08 — (M " (Swalwell Lodge, Penal Orders, 
No. 4). 

< " Whatever Mason when warned by a Summons from Master &Warden [the last two words 
erased], shall not thereon attend at the place and time appointed, or within an hour after, without 
a reasonable Cause hindering. Satisfactory to the fTellowship; he shall pay for his Disobedience the 
sum of 00 — 00 — 06, whether on a Quarterly Meeting or any oUier occasion " {ibid., Na 1). 



£ A d 
BMeting then Brother or Fellow, or hold any diwhedient argument, against any 

of the Oompany reproaohfnlly, for every mich offence ihall pay ' . .006 

" 9M. Item, There ihall nr« apprentice after he have eerred seaven yean 
be admitted or accepted bat i pen the Feast of St Michael the Archangell, 
paying to the Master and Wardens* 6 8 

" \Qih. Item, if any Mason, either in the place of meeting or att work among 
his Fellows swear or take Ood's name in vain, thatt he or they soe offending 
shall pay for every time " [0 5 4]' 

" IIM. Item, That! if any Fellow or Fellows shall att any time or times 
discover his master's secretts, or his owne, be it nott ooely spoken in the Lodge or 
without, or the secreets or oonncell of his Fellows, thatt may extend to the 
Damage of any of his Fellows, or to any of their good names, whereby the 
Science may be ill spoken of, ffor every such offence shall pay ' . . .16 8 

" 12M. Item, Thatt noe Fellow or Fellows within this Lodge shall att any 
time or times call or hold Assemblys to make any mason or masons free: Nott 
acquainting the Master* or Wardens therewith. For every time so offending shall 
pty' 3 6 8 

" 13M. Item, Thatt noe rough Layers or any others thatt has nott served 
their time, or [been] admitted masons, shall work within the Lodge any work 
of masonry whatsoever (except under a Master), for every such offence shall 
pay' 3 13 4 

" XMh. Item, That all Fellows being younger shall give his Elder fellows the 
honor due to their degree and standing. Alsoe thatt the Master,* Wardens, and 
ill! the Fellows of this Lodge doe promise severally and respectively to performe 
all and every the orders above named, and to stand bye each other (but more 
(larticularly to the Wardens and their successors) " in sueing for all and every 
the forfeitures of our said Brethren, contrary to any of the said orders, demand 
thereof being first made." " 

' " That no Mason shall huff his ffclow, giue him the lie, swear or take Ood's name in vain within 
the accustomed place of raeetinp, on pain of 00— 01— (X), on the yearly or Quarterly meeting days" 
(Swalwell Lodge, Penal Orders, No. 3). 

' " That no apprentice when having served 7 years, be admitted or accepted into the ffellowship, 
but either on the chief meeting day, or on a Quarterly meeting day ' (Ihid., Oeneial Orders, No. 3). 

•Sec note above to the tighth order of the Alnwick Lodge. 

*A blank here according to Mr. Hockley. 

• " If any be found not faithfully to keep and maintain the 8 fTratemal signs, and all points of 
ffelowship, and principal matters relating to the secret craft, each offence, penalty 10—10—00" (Swal- 
well Lodge, Penal Orders, Na 8). • Ma^er* (Hockley MS. \ 

' "That no master or ffelow take any allowance or ffee of any, for their being made a Mason 
without ye knowledge and consent of Scaven of the Society at least " (Swalwell Lodge, Orders of 
Antiquity, No. 10). Cf. Buchanan MS. (16), Special Charges, § 8: Sehaw Statutes No. 1, § 12; Rules 
of the Gateshead " ffelowshipp ; " and Plot's Account of the Freemasons, ariit. Chaps. H, p. 101; 
Vra., p. 6; XrV., pp. 878, 388. 

•See Chaps. H., p. 103 (Buchanan MS, § 16); and Vm, pp. (J, 10 (Schaw Statutes, No 1, § 16, and 
No. a, 8 18). . jfosf er» (Hockley MS. ). 

" The absence to any allusion of the iVosfer, in view of the observations that follow in the text, 
sliould be carefully noted. 

" " That you reverence your elders according to their degree, and especially those of the Mason'i< 

:!; Iii' 


i' : 



i I!" 

■ I" 


The regnlatioM of the Alnwick Lodge, though duly eMcting the mmner in whioh die 
uinnal election of Wwden. ahaU be conducted, nuJce no proriBon, m will be seen, for 
that of Marter; nor among the aignaturea attached to the code, although thoae of two 
member* hare the de«riptiTe titie of " Warden" affixed, ia there one which we might 
deem more likely than another to be the autograph of the actual head of the fraternity. 
This ia the more remarkable, from the fact that in aereral placea tho Mart»r ia referred to; 
«id although we learn from the minute-book that Jamee Milla (or Mille.) waa choeen 
and elected Maater" in 1704-there being butaaingle entry of earlier date (Octobers, 
1703), from thia period till the records come to an end— both Jiaater and Wardena wwe 
annually elected. Some alteration in the procedure, however dight, must have occurred, 
as instead of the election taking place on the " Feast of St. Michael," from 1774 onwarda, 
the principal officers were invariably chosen on December 27. the Feast of St John the 
Evangelist The latter evidently became the " general head-meeting day " from at least 
1704 and the words "made Free Deer. 87th," which are of frequent occurrence, show 
that the apprentices who had served their time in accordance with the nmth regulabon, 
were no longer " admitted or accepted " on the date therein prescribed. 

The fifth and sixth regulations, which relate to the "entering" of apprentices, are 
worthy of our most careful attention, since they • ot only cast some rays of light upon our 
immediate subject-the customs of those early English Lodges whioh were in existence 
before the second decade of the eighteenth oentury-but also tend to illuminate some 
obscure passages in the Masonic records of the sister kingdom, upon which many erroneous 
statements have been founded.' 

We have seen that a mason who took an apprentice was required to enter him and gxve 
kirn his charge within a year, and in estimating the meaning of these words it ^11 be es- 
sential to recollect that a copy of the " Old Charges" formed part of the records of the 
lodge • This was doubtless read to the apprentice at his entry, and may be easily referred 
to;* but the actual procedure in cases of admission into the lodge, is so vividly presented 
tons by a passage in the Swalwell njcords, that I shall venture to transcribe it. 

" Forasmuch as you are contr,«ted and Bound to one of our Brethren: We are here 
assembled together with one Accord, to declare unto you the Laudable Dutys appertaining 
unto those yt are Apprentices, to those who are of the Lodge of Masonry, which if you 
take good heed unto and keep, will find the same worthy your regard for a Worthy Science: 
flor at the building of the Tower of Babylon and Citys of the East, King Nimrod the Son 
of Gush, the Son of Ham, the Son of Noah, etc., u' .v.. Charges and Orders to Masons, as 
also did Abraham in Egypt King David and his Son, King SOLOMAN at the building 
of the Temple of Jerusalem, and many more Kings and Princes of worthy memory from 
time to time, and did not only promote the flame of the 7 Liberal Sciences but flormed 
Lodges, and give and granted their Commissions and Charters to those of or belonging to 

Craft" ,:,walweULodKe,'ApprenUoeOnler8.No. 8); and see further. Chaps, n.. pp. 100. 101;and Vm, 
j ' §§ 8> ''• •• !*• '*• 

'• E.g.. that apprentices were not member, of the lodge, and that they possessed but a fragmentary 

knowledge of the Masonic secrets. The Scottish praoUoe with regard to the entering of apprentaoe. 

will be presently examined. 

•See, however, Johnson's Dictionary, «.». Charge. ,aiM.« 

« Hughan. The Old Charges of British Freemasons, p. 6»; and Masonic Magaane, voL i., 1878.74, 

pp. 398, 205. 



the ScienoM of MHonrj, to keep and hold their AMemblTS, for correcting of fflmlte, or 
mitking Mmom within their DominioM, when and where they pleaaed, " ' 

The mannwaipt lart quoted is of valne in more wayi than one, aa whil* indicating 
with greater preoiaion than any other document of its class, that apprentice* under inden- 
tnree were received into the lodge, and that a ceremony embodying at least the recital of 
our legendary history took place, the extract giren tends to enhance the authority of the 
Swalwell records, as elucidatory of usages Aaiing much farther back, by showing that the 
lodge was still essentially an opemtivo one, and, so far as this eridenoe extends, that ito 
simple routine was as yet uninfluenced by the speculatiye system into which it was subse- 
quently absorbed. 

Whether, indeed, the customs of the Swalwell Lodge receired, at any period prior to 
its acceptance of a warrant, some tinge or coloring from the essentially speculatiye usages 
which are iupposed to hare sprung up during what I have already termed the epoch of 
transition— 1717-23— cannot be determined; but even leaving this point, as we are fain to 
do. undecided, the eighth Penal Order of the Swalwell fraternity, which I have given in » 
note to regulation eleven of the Alnwick Lodge, possesses a significance that we can hardlf 


Reading the latter by the light of the former, we might well conjecture, that though 
to the Alnwick brethren degrees, as we now have them, were unknown, still, with the es- 
sentials out of which these degrees were compounded, they may have been familiar. This 
point, in connection with the evidence of Dr. Plot and Handle Holme, will again come 
before us, but it will be convenient to state, that throughout the entire series of the 
Alnwick records there is no entry, if we except the regulation under examination, from 
which, by the greatest latitude of construction, it might be inferred that secrets of any 
kind were communicated to the brethren of this lodge. 

The silence of the Alnwick records with respect to degrees, which is continuous and 
unbroken from 1701 to 1757, suggesto, however, a line of argument, which, by confirming 
the idea that the Swalwell Lodge preserved its operative customs intact until 1730 or later, 
may have the effect of convincing some minds, that for an explanation of Alnwick regula- 
tion No. 11, we shall rightly consult Penal Order No. 8 of the junior sodality, to wlaoh 
attention has already been directed. 

it, then, the silence of the Alnwick minutes with regard to " degrees " is held to prove 
- -as it will be by most persons— that the independent character of the lodge was wholly un- 
affected by the marvellous success of the speculative system; or, in other words, that the 
Alnwick Lodge and the lodges under the Grand Lodge of England, existed side by side 
from 1717 to 1757— a period of forty years— without the operative giving way, even in 
part, to the specuktive usages— it follows, a fortiori, that " must admit, if we do no more, 
the strong probability of the Swalwell customs having pttserved their vitality unimpaired 
from the date we first hear of them (1725) until at any rate the year 1730, which is about 
the period when the Penal and other Orders, to whic- such frequent reference has been 
made, were committed to writing.* 

The notes appended to the Akiwick regulations constitute a running comment on 

■Swalwell Lodge, Apprentice Orders, Na 1 (Masonic Magazine, .ol. ui., 1-75-7(1, pp. 88, 88). 
These orders are eight in number, and may be termed an abbreviated form of the ordinary proM 
" O ostitations ," or " Old Charges." See ante, Chap. DL, p. 71 (8Q). 

'Ante, p. 18; and Chap. IL (80), p. 7L 
TOL. ni.— 8. 





the text, and indicate the leading point* on which, in my opinion, onr attention shoald \» 
fixed while acratinizing theae kwi. 

According to Hnghan, sixty-nine ngnatnree are attached to the code, but Mr Hockley's 
MS. only gives fifty-eight, forty-two of which were subscribed before December 27, 1T09, 
four on that date, and the remainder between 1710 and 1722. In seTcral instances, marks, 
thoogh almost entirely of a monogrammatic character, are affixed. Many names occnr in 
the list, which, if not actually those of persons who have cnMsed the border, are certainly 
of Scottish derivation, e.g., there is a Boswell and a Pringell, whilst of the extensive family 
of the Andersons there are no leas than four representatives, two bearing the name of 
"John," and the younger of whom— "made free" July 17, 1713 — is probably the same 
John Anderson who vas Master of the Lodge in 1749, and a member so late as 1753. The 
protracted membership of certain of the subscribers is a noteworthy circumstance, from 
which may be drawn the same inference as in the paraUel case of the brethren who founded 
the Grand Lodge of England, some of whom wo know to have been active members of that 
organization many years subsequently, viz., that no evolutionary changes of a violent 
character can be supposed to have taken place, since it is improbable — not to say impossi- 
ble — that either the Alnwick Masons of 1701, or the London brethren of 1717, would have 
looked calmly on, had the forms and ceremonies to which they were accustomed been as 
suddenly metamorphosed, as it has beiome, in some degree, the fashion to believe.' 

Four members of the .N wick Lodge, Thomas Davidson,' William Balmbrough, Robert 
Hudson, and Patrick Millta ' — the last named having been " made free " December 27, 
1706, the others earlier — are named in its later records. Hudson was a warden in 1749, 
and the remaining three, or brethren of the same names, were present at the lodf% on St. 
John's Day, 1753. 

The minutes of the Alnwick and of the Swalwell Lodges exhibit a general uniformity. 
The entries in both, record for the most part the " InroUments of Apprentices," together 
with the imposition of fines, and the resolutions passed from time to time for the assistance 
of indigent brethren. 

The head or chief meeting day, in the case of the Alnwick brethren, the festiva' of St. 
John the Evangelist, and in that of the Swalwell fraternity, the corresponding feast of St. 
John the Baptist, was commemorated with much solemnity. Thus, under date of January 
id, 1708, we find: " At a true and perfect Lodge kept at Alnwick, at the house of Mr. 
Thomas Davidson, one of the Wardens of the same Lodge, it was ordered that for the 
future noe member of the said lodge. Master, Wardens, or Fellows, should appear at any 
lodge to be kept on St John's day (in church '), with his apron and common Square fixed 
in the belt thereof; ' upon pain of forfeiting two shillings and 6 pence, each person offend- 
ing, and that care be taken by the Master and Wardens for the time being, that a sermon 

' The name» of members of the Swalwell lod^, especially in the earlier portion of it8 history, 
are very sparingly given, in the excerpts to which alone I have had access, but there is at least a 
sufficiency of evidence, to warrant the conclusion, that the essentially operative character of the 
lodge remained unchanged for many years q^ter 1735, the date of its coming under the rule of Grand 

'Warden apparently from 1701 to 1709, and Master 17ia 

'Warden 170B-10, and again (or a namesake) in 17S2, 

' ChrutvMu, according to Hughao, but givu a* above, within parsnthcais, by Mr. Hockley. 

» Cf. Chap, vm, p. 48. 



bo prorided and preached that day at the pariBh Church of Alnwick by 80ir« clergyman at 
their appointment; when the Lodge ihall all appear •m^.h their aproni on and common 
Squares as aforenid, and that the Master and Wardens neglecting their duty in providing 
a deigyman to preach as aforer id, diall forfeit the sum of ten shillings." 

A minute of the Swalwell lodge, dated the year before it ceased to be an independent 
Masonic body, reads: " Dec 27, 1 <-34.— It is agreed by the Master and Wardens, and the 
rest of the Society, that if any brother shall appear in the Assembly ' without gloves and 
aprons at any time wlien summoned by [the] Master and Wardens, [he] shall for each 
offence pay one shilling en demand." 

Between the years 1710 and 1748 the Alnwick records, if not wholly wanting, contain at 
best very trivial entries. A few notes, however, may be usefully extracted from the later 
minutes, which, though relating to a period of time somewhat in advance of the particular 
epoch we are considering, will fit in here better than at any later stage, and it must not 
escape our recollection, that the Alnwick Lodge never surrendered its independence, and 
moreover, from first to last, was an operative rather than a speculative fraternity. Indeed, 
that it was speculative at all, in the sense either of possessing members who were not opera- 
tive masons, or of discarding its ancient formulary for the ceremonial of Grand Lodge, is 
very problematical. If it became so, the influx of speculative FreeraasovM on the one hand, 
or its assimilation of modem customs on the other hand, must alike have occurred at a 
comparatively late period. 

The minutes of the lodge, towards ine close of its existence, admit, it must be confessed, 
of a varied interpretation, and in order that my readers may judge of this for themselves, 
I subjoin the few entries which appear to me at all material in this inquiry — 

December 27, 1748. — Three persons subscribe their names as having been " made free 
Brothers" of the lodge, and their signatures are carefully distinguished from those of the 
Master, Wardens, and the twelve other members present, by the memorandum.—" Bro*. to 
the assistance of the said lodge." 

By a resolution of the same date— December 2, 1748— though entered on a separate page 
— " It was ordered, that a Meeting of the Society shall be held at the house of M' Thos. 
Woodhouse, on Saf . evening nexc, at 6 o'clock [for the propose of making] proper Orders 
and Rules tor the better regulating the free masonry." 

.Among a variety of resolutions, passed December 31, 1748, are the following: 
" It is ordered that all apprentices that shall offer to be admitted into the s" lodge after 
rerving due apprenticeship, shall pay for such admittance — 10s." 

" Also that all other persons and strangers not serving a dw apprenticeship, shall pay 
for such admit*»ace the sum of 17s. 6d."* 

" Ordered that none shall be admitted into the said lodge under the ^e of 21 or above 

■ June 34. See Oeneral Ordets ot the Swalwell Lodge, Xos. 1 and 3 (Hastonic Ma^aane, vol. iii. , 
p. 88). 

» " June 14, 1788.— It it> agreed by the Society, that any brother of the lodge that hath an appi en- 
tice that serves his time equally aud lawfully as he ought to do, shall be made free for the sum of 
8g. And for any working mason, not of the lodge, the sum of 10s. And to any gentlemen nr other 
Oiat is not a working mason, [an amount fixed] according to the majority of the company '' (Records 
of the Swalwell Lodge). 

' A similar regukktion was enacted by the Swalwell Lodge circa 1754, and was not ud 1:0 us>:r I 
one in the refuiar lodges, e.g. :—" Feb. 5, 1740, a debate arising concerning the entrance of B» Peek 


i ' 

i III 

^ ! I .'I 




" AIM, that in aim wiy of the **. memben of «*. Society ihall fail in the worid, it is 
ordered that there ihall be p«d weekly out of the «*. Lodge, 4«." ' 

The striking raaamblance of theee old regulation* of the Alnwiok and Swalwell fra- 
temiMei, to thoee of the Oatediead Incorporation,' wiU be apparent to the mart caraal 


Apprentice^ in erery ca», were only admitted to full membership at Uie expiration of 
seren years from the dates of their indentures. Whether, indeed, any process analogous 
that of " entering " prevailed in the Incorporation, cannot be positively affirmed, but it 
M almost certain that it did, though the term " entered apprentice " does not occur, at 
jeiat so far as I am aware, in any English book or manuscript, Masonic or otherwise, of 
earlier date than 1723. From the fifth of the Alnwick "Orders" we can gather with 
sufficient clearness what an " Entered Apprentice " must have been, but the particular ex- 
pression first appears in 1785, in the actual minutes of any English lodge, of which I have 
seen either the originals or copies. 

The earliest entry in the minute book of Swalwell Lodge runs as follows?— 

" September 29, 1725.— Then Matthew Armstrong and Arthur Douglas, Masons, ap. 
peared in ye lodge of Freemasons, and agreed to have their names registered as ' Enter- 
prentices,' to be accepted next quarterly meeting, paying one shilling for entrance, and 7s. 
6d. when they take their freedom-'" 

As the question will arise, whether the terms Master Mason, Fellow Craft, and Entered 
Apprentice— all well known in Scotland, in the seventeenth century— were introdiicf4 
into England, and popularized by the author of the first book of Constitutions (17','3); 
the earliest allusion to any grade of the Masonic hierarchy, which is met with in the recor<ls 
of an English lodge — one, moreover, working by inherent right, and independently of the 
Grand Lodge- - lay well claim our patient examination. 

It may be urged that the entry of 1735 comes two years later than Dr. Anderson's 
"Constitutions," where all the titles are repeatfldly mentioned, and the lowest of all, 
" Entered Prentice," acquires a prestige from the song at the end of the book, " to be sung 
when M grave business is over,"' which may have greatly aided in bringing the term 
within the popular comprehension.' 

Yet to this may be replied, that the Swalwell minutes, not only during the ten years 
of independency— 1725-35— but for a generation or two after the lodge had accepted a 
charter from the Grand Lodge, teem with resolutions of an exclusively operative charac- 
ter, for example:—" 25th March 1754.— That B'". W". Burton liaving taken John Cloy'd 
as an apprentice for 7 years, made his appearance and had the apprentice charge read ovtT, 
and p"". for registering, 6d."* 

Here, at a period nearly forty years after the formation of a Grand Lodge, we find one 

the ensuing lodge nigLi. But he confessing himself to be above 40 years of age, and he was rejected " 
(Minutes of Na 168, afterwards the " Vacation Lodge." and numbered 78 at the Union, now extinct). 

> See the " Fund Laws" of the Swalwell Lodge (Masonic Magazine, vol ia, p. 13S). 

•Chap. XIV., p. 875 

•Masonic Magazine, vol. UL, p. 74 

4 <• The Eiitei'd Prentice's Song, by our late Brother Mr. Matthew Birkhead, deceased " (Consti- 
tutions. 1738). 

» As will presently appear, "Apprentices " are not alluded to in the York minutes of 1713-85. 

• Masonic Magazine, vol. iii, p. 74 

, I 

h ' 

:i 'I 



:f ■ 

. i 




By our late BROTHER 

Mr. MatthewBi rkh e aj>, deceased. 

ro be fung when all grave Bujtnefs is over, and with the 

M A s T E r's Leave. 


COME let us prepare, 
We Brotbtrt that are 
fembled on merry Occafion ; 
Let's drink, laugh, and fing i 
Our tVine has a Spring : 
fere's a Health to an Accepted Mason. 


The fforlJ is in pain 

Our Secrets to gain, 
^nd ftill let them wonder and gaze on : 

They ne'er can divine 

The Word or the Sign 
)f a Firt and an Accepted Mason. 


'Tis this, and 'tis Tfciif, 

They cannot tell IVbat, 
^hy (o many G k e a t M e n of the Nation 

Should Afrm put on. 

To make themfelves one 
i^itb a Free and an Accepted Mason. 

Great Kings, Dukes, and LoM>s, 
Have laid by their Swords. 

Out M)ft'ry to put a good Grace on. 
And ne'er been afliam'd 
To hear themfelves nam'd 

With a pyee and an Accepted Mason. 


Antiquity's Pride 

We have on our fide. 
And it makcth Men juft in their Station : 

There's nought but what's good 

To be underllood 
By a Fee and an Accepted Mason- 


Then join Hand in Htuid, 

T'cach other firm fland. 
Let's be merry, and put a bright Face on : 

What Mortal can boaft 

So Noble a Toast, 
I As a Free and an Accepted Mason? 

bac-jim.fc of '"5ft* &u^ete^ apptcuticc, Km..j." Gij 3Jtotf.ct 9Ka«f«c«o S^Jitfifwai 
(.opied from the original in "The Constitutions of the Kreemasons." published 1723- 


' : h 

i % 

• It;: 










ct tha lodni aadw Uatway, •ntwring ui apprratioa in Uw tiae-honoNd fMhion hradad 
down by tha oldMt of onr muiiucript CoiutitntioM. 

Th« Swalwvll TMOids imwnt other noteworthy tmixm, to which attnitiMi will bo 
bMMiftar dinetod. Yet, though thoy hate but a ilight oonnaotion with tha ima a di a t a 
nbjaot of our inquiry, it would ba unfair to paai them orar without notioa, aa tha antriaa 
relating to tha Ordert of the " Highrodiama » and tha " Donuukiut," which begin in 1746, 
•nd aia peculiar to tbia lodge, may be held by aome to atteet the praaenoe of »peculatiTa 
norritiea, thct detract from the might which ito later docnmentary aridence would other- 
wife poanai aa coming from the archirca of an operative lodality. A reference to theee 
entriea ia the: jfore giren below,' whilat iuch readera ai are content with the information 
contained in thia hiatory, may conault a Uter chapter, where the cnrioai allnaiona aboTa 
cited, and aome othera, will bo carefully enunined in oonneotion with the origin of tha 

Boyal Arch degree. 

Before lea»ing theae old minutea. howerer, there ia a aingnlar law. which, aa it throwa 
•ome light upon the doubtful point of how far femalei were permitted, in thoae early daya^ 
to take part in the proceedings of lodgea. I ihall venture to tranacribe:— 

" No woman, if [ahe] comea to apeak to her husband, or any other peraon, ahall be ad- 
mitted, into the room, but speak at the door, nor any woman be admitted to serve [thoae 
within] w** drink, etc.'" 

The next evidence in point of time, aa we paaa from the operative records, which have 
their commencement in ITOl, is contained in the following reply from Governor Jonathan 
Belcher to a congratulatory addreaa, delivered September 25, 1741, by a depuUtion from 
the " First Lodge in Boston." 

" Worthy Bbothgbs: I take very kindly this mark of your reapect It is now thirty- 
seven years since I was admitted into the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and 
Accepted Masons, to whom I have been a faithful Brother & a well-wisher to the Art of 
Freemasonry. I shall ever maintain a strict friendship for the whole l^aternity, & always 
be glad when it may fall in my power to do them any Services." ' 

Governor Belcher was bom in Boston in 1681, graduated at Harvard in 16»9, and im- 
mediately afterwards went abroad, and was absent six years.' It was at this time that he 
was presented to the Princess Sophia and her son, afterwards George II.. and made a 
Mason, as his language would imply, about the year 1704. His next visit to England oc- 
curred in 1729, and in the following year he returned to America, on receiving the ap- 
pointment of Governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire.' 

Although Governor Belcher does not name the place of his initiation, it is probable that 
it took place in London, and the words he uses to describe his "admission" into the 
Society, will justify the inference, that on being nuxde a Freemason, whatever Maaonic 

< Hasoaic Magasine, vol. iii.. pp. 78, 75, 76; Freemason, Oct. 80, Dec. 4. and Dec 11, 1880. 

•Swalwell Lodge-Oeneral Orders, No. 6. See ante, Chap. li, pp. 6b. ««, »«; IIL, p. 176; Vt, 
p. 819; and Lyon, Hirtoiy of the Lodge of Edinburgh, pp. 181, 18a. 

•Proceedings, Grand Lodge of MassachusetU, 1871, p. 876; Ibid.. 1888. p. 184; New England 
FreeniUBon, Boston, V.S.A., voL L, 1874, p. 67. 

• Orand Miwter Gardner (MaMachusetto), Address upon Henry Price, 1878, p. 28. 

» " On Monday next, Jonatlian Belcher, who is soon to depart in the • Susannah,' Captain Cary, 
for his government of New England, is to be entertained at dinner at Mercer's Hall, by the gentle- 
men trading to that Colony " (WeeUy Journal or British Qasetteer, No. 848, Fsb. 88, 1780). 

i J:li 

- T. 


SMNto thra tsktad, wm« ooBBoaieatod to him in thvir entiroty, pnciMly m w« nuj 
imagiiM WM tha om« wImd Aihmol* Imomim a mMnber of the Warrington Iiodge, ud in 
th« (wmIIoI imtsnoM of the reception of gentWoMn tX York, to the recordi of which 
IfaMnic centre I thall ceit tnm. 

The hiitory of FroemMonry in York will, howoTer, he only purtially treated in t^ie en< 
Ming pegee. It* later rvcordt will form the lubjtvt of a diatinot chapter, and 1 ihall 
attempt no more, at thia atage, than to introduce «nuh eitrauta from the early miuutcc, aa 
in my judgment are at all likely to elucidate the particular inquiry we are now punuing. 

At preaent I paaa over the ittftrtncu to bo dmwn from the t>xi«t«*noe of lo many oopioa 
of the " Old Chargea," aa found a home in the arohiTca of the Urand I/xlge of York. Their 
cumulatire ralue ia great, and will be liereafter conaidered. The namra alio, which appear 
on York MS. 4 (2S), at once carry ui back to the exiatence of a lodge in 1693. But whtrt 
it waa held ia a point upon which we can now only rainly ipeculate, without the poiaibility 
of arriring at any definite conoluiiop. 

Happily, there ia undoubted oridenoe, coming from two diatinct aonroea, which in er«h 
oaae pointa to the vigorouH vitality of York Maaonry in 1705, and infercntially, to itr 
tinnanoe from a more remote period. At that dutc, aa we Icum from a niiuuto-bot f 
the Old Lodge at York, which nnfortuimtcly only comtnjiiuoH in tlutt year,' " Sir Qoorgo 
Tempeat, Barronet," waa the Preaident, u poaitiou ho again Ullcd in 1TU6 and 1713. Among 
the lubaequent PreaidenU wore the Lord Mayor of York, aftorwarda Lord Bingley (1707), 
the following BaroneU, Sir William Robinaon (170S-10), Sir Walter Uawkaworth (1711-12, 
1720-23), and other poriiona of diatinction. 

The " ScarlMrouzh " MS. (28) ' fumiahea the remaining eTidenco, which atteata the 
active condition of Yorkiihirc Frcomaaonry in 1705. The endoraement in this roll may, 
without any effort of the imagination, be regarded aa bearing indirect teatimony to the in- 
fluence of the Lodge or Society at York. Thia muat have radiated to aome extent at leaat, 
and an example ia afforded by the proceedinga at Bradford in 1713. Theae, I shall presently 
cite, but ^he positioi: of York aa a local and independent centre of the tnnaitional Maaonry, 
which ni.^rpoaed betwevn the reigim of tho purely operative and the purely apecnlativo 
Societies, will be examined at greater length hereafter. We loam at all events, from tho 
roll referred to (28,) that at a primie lodge held at Scarborough " i'm the County of York," 
on the 10th of July 1705, " ))oforo " William Thompson, President, and other Free Maaons, 
six persons, whose names are subscribed, were "admitted into the fmternity." It is 
difficult to understand what is meant by the term " private lodge," an expi 'soion which ia 
frequently met with, us will be shortly |>erceived, in tho minutes of the York body itself. 
Possibly the explanation may be, that it signified a gpeeial as distinguished from a regular 
meeting, or the words may imply that an wraninnal and not a »tated' lodge was then held F 

Indeed the speculation might even Ix^ advanced, that the meeting van in effect a 
" moveable lodge," convened by the York brethren. Such assemblies were fre<|uently held 
in the county, and on the occasion of the York Ixxlgc, meeting at Bradford iti 1713, no 

■ Now unfortunately misjtiog; but for an account of the vivissitudus both of good and bad for- 
tune, through which the York Records have passed, see Hugbon, Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 
patiim; and Freemasonry in Yo.k. pout. 

•Chap. II.. p. 70. 

'For the use of these expressions, see ante. Vol. IL. pp. 134, il03, 904; The Four Old Lodges, 
pp. 27. 4S: BookofConstitiitiou!), \7i», pp. 100, 1()T. l-v>9. 137. 



\m tten tightMB gmtlMMii of Um imt (uniliM in that neighborhood wan lude Mmooa. 
A (nrthor nppoiiUon prwrata itwlf, and it i*. U»t we hnre here an example of the ouMom 
of giaatiaf written licencea to enter Maaona at a diaUnce from the lotigo. inch aa wo And 
traoea of in the Kilwinning, the Dunblane, and the Haugiifoot minutea.' If m, we may 
•appoao that the pnoedent let by the Lodge of Kilwinning in 1677.' when the Maaona 
from the Canongate of Edinburgh andiad to it for a roring oommiaaion or ' truTelling 
warrant," waa duly followed, and that the Scarborough brethren were empowered to admit 
qualifled peraon^ " in name and behalf " of the Lodge of York f 

The earlieat of the York minutee— now extant— are contained in a roll of parchment,* 
endorwd " 1712 to 1730," and for the following extracte I am indebted to my friend and 
cottaionkur, William Jamea Hughan. 

" March the 19th, 1718.'— At a prirate Loilg". held at the home of Jamea Boreham, 

aitnate in Stonegate, in the City of York, Mr Thomaa Shipton, Mr Caleb Oreenbury. 

Mr Jno. Norriwn, Mr Jno. Rumell, Jno. Whitehead, and Francia NorriM)n were aU of 

thorn MTerally awoma and admitted into the honorable Soc.cty and fraternity of Free- 


Qeo. Bowea, Eiq., D«p.-Prtiidtnt. 

Jna Wilcock alao Thoa. Shiptoii. Caleb Oroenbnry. 

admitted at the Jno. Norrinou. John Ituwell. 

ame Lodge. Fran. Norriaon. John Whitehead. 

John Wilcock." 
"June the a4th 1713.— At a General Lodge on St. Johna Day, at the houno of Jamea 
Boreham, lituato in Stonegate, in the City of York. Mr. John Laugwith waa admitted and 
awome into the honourable Society and fraternity of FreemuDona. 

Sir Walter Ilawkuworth, Knt and Bart., Preaidtnt. 
Jno. Langwith." 
" Auguat the 7th, 1713.— At a private Lodge held there at the houie of Jamee Boreham, 
situate in Stonegate, in the City of York, Robert Fairfax, E»\., and Tobias Jeukingn, Euq., 
were admitted and »wome into the hon"' Society and fraternity of FroemaaoM, aa alw tlie 
Beverend Mr Robert Barker waa then admitted and awom aa before. 

Geo. Bowes, Esq., Dep.-Pre»ident. 

Robert Fairfax. T. Jenkyns. Robt. Barber.' 

" December the 18th, 1713.— At a private Lodge held there at the house of Mr Jamea 

Boreham, in Stonegate, in the City of York, Mr Tlios. Ilanlwick, Mr Godfrey Giles, and 

Mr Tho. Challoner was admitted and aworne into the hono''" Society and Company of 

Freemaaona before the Worahipfull S' Walter Hawkaworth, Knt. and Barr*., Pruidtnt. 

Tho. Hardwicke. 
Godfrey Giles. 

Thomas T Challoner. " 

• Chap. Vm. ; and Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. lOa 
Jhap. Via, p. SO. 

» The entire oontenU of this roll were copied for Hughan, by the Ute Mr. WiUiam Cowling of 

* It is quite patent that if there had been no other evidence of the earlier existence of the Lodge, 
this record indicates that the meeting of March l»th, 1718, was not the Urst of iu kind. 


* ! 

i ill 


" 1714. — ^At • Genenl Lodge held there on the 24th June at Mr Jamee Borehun, litnata 

in Stonegate, in York, John Taylor, of Langton in the Wonlds, was admitted and swomn 

into the hono** Society and Company of Freemaaona in the Oily of York, before the 

Wonhipfoll Gharlea Fairfax, Em). 

John Taylor." 

" At St. John's Lodge in Chriatmaa, 1716. — At the hoaie of Mr Jamee Boreham, 

aitnate [in] Stonegate, in York, being a General Lodge, held there by th>> '.n^o^ Society 

and Company of Freemaaona, in the City of York, John Turner, Tic;., >nim- rworuc >nd 

admitted into the Mid Hono^ Sodety and Fraternity of Free Maaoni 

Charlee Fairfax, Ear, . D p.-Preeident. 

John Turner." 

"At 8t John's Lodge in Christmaa, 1731. — At Mr Robert Chippenaai'h, iv the 

Shamblea, York, Bob* Fairfax, Esq., then Dep. -President, the said Rob* Cfaippendal was 

admitted and swome into the hon^ Society of Free Masons. 

Bob. Fairfax, Esq., D.P. 

Robt. Chippendal." 

" January the 10th, 1722-3. — At a private Lodge, held at the house of Mrs Hall, in 

Thursday Market, in the City of York, the following persons were admitted and swome 

into y* honourable Society of Free Masons: — 

Henry Legh. Richd. Marsh. Edward Paper. 

At the same time the following persons were acknowledged as Brethren of this ancient 

Society :' — 

Edmd. Winwood. G. Rhodes. Josh. Hebson. John Vauner. Francis Hildyard, gun'." 

" February the 4th 1722-3. — At a private Lodge, held at Mr Boreham's, in Stonegate, 

York, the following persons were admitted and swome into the Ancient and Uon*^ Society 

of Free Masons: — 

John Lockwood. Matt'. Hall. 

At the same time and place, the two persons whose names are underwritten were, upon 
tlttir examinations, received as Masons, and as such were accordingly introduced and ad- 
mitted into this Lodge. ' Geo. Reynoldson. Bamaby Bawtry. " 

" November 4th, 1723. — At a private Lodge, held at Mr Wm. Stephenson's, in Peter- 
gate, York, the following persons were admitted and swome into the Antient Society of 
Free Masons: — John Taylor. Jno. Colling." 

" Feb. 5th, 1723-4. — At a private Lodge at Mr James Boreham's, in Stonegate, York, 
the underwritten persons were admitted and sworn into the Antient Society of Free 
Masons: — 

Wm. Tireman. Charles Pick. Will". Musgrave. John Jenkinson. John Sudell." 

"June 15, 1724. — At a private Lodge, held in Davy Hall, in the City of York, the 
nnderwritU-n persons were admitted and swora into the Antient Society of Free Masons: — 
Daniel Harvey. Ralph Grajrme." 

"June 22, 1724. — At a private Lodge, held at Mr Geo. Gibson's, in the City of York, 
were admitted and sworn into the Society of Free Masont the persons underwritten, viz. i-~ 
Robert Armorer. William Jackson. Geo. Gibson." 

■ Eividently these seven brethren— fieimou^^clffed and received as Masons on Januaiy 10 and Feb- 
ruary 4, 178&— were accepted either as Joining members, or as visitors, hailing from another Lodge 



" Dec. 28, 1724.— At a prirate Lodge, held at Mr Jno. CJolling'*, in Peteigito, the 
following penona were admitted and sworn into y* Society of Free Mawna. 

Wm. Wright Bic Denton. Jno. Maraden. Ste. Bulkley." 

"July 21, 1725.— At a prirate Lodge at Mr Jno. Collin^*!, in Petergate, York, fhe 

following persona were admitted and sworn into the Society of Free and Accepted 

Masons. „ _ .. „ 

Luke Lowther. Chas. Button. " 

" At an adjournment of a Lodge of Free Masons from Mr Jno. Colling, in Petergate, 
to Mr Luke Lowther's, in Ston^^te, the following Persons were admitted and sworn into 
the Society of free [and] Accepted Masons— Ed. Bell, Esq., Master. 

Chas. Bathnrst John Johnson. John Elsworth. Lewis Wood." 

" Augt 10, 1725. — At a private Lodge, held this day at the Star Inn in Stonegate, the 
underwritten Persons were admitted and swome into the Antient Society of Free Masons, 

^'*"'~ Jo. Bilton. 

The Wore'. Mr Wm. Scourfleld, M*. 

MrMarsden, ) ^^,^.. 

Mr Reynoldson, ) 

" Augt 12, 1725.— At a private Lodge, held at the Starr, in Ston^ate, the under- 
written Person was sworn and admitted a member of the Antient Society of Free Masons, 

John Wilmer. 
The Worsp^. Pliilip Huddy, M*. 
MrMarsden, > ^^^^^ 
Mr Reynoldson, ) 

" Sept 6, 1725.— At a private Lodge, held at the Starr Inn, in Stonegate, the under- 
written Persons were sworn and admitted into [the] Antient Society of Free Masons. 

William Pawson. 
The Worsp". Wm. Scourfleld, M*. Edmond Aylward. 

Jonathan Perritt \ „ , Jon. Pawson. 

Mr Marsden, J Wardens. p^^^j^ j,^^^ , 

Malby Beckwith." 
" A new Lodge being call'd as the same time and Place, the following Person was ad- 
mitted and sworn into this Antient and Hon*^ Society. 

The Worsp' Mr Scourfleld, M'. Henry Pawson. 

Mr Jonathan Pemtt, i ^^^^» 
Mr Marsden, ) 

" Oct. 6, 1725.— At a private Lodge, held at Mr James Boreham's, the underwritten 
Person[s] was [were] admitted and sworn into the Antient Society of Free Masons. 

Antho. Hall. 

Philemon Marsh." 
"Not. 3, 1726.— At a private Lodge, held at Mr Button's, at the Bl. Swan in Coney 

' Author of " Eboracum ; or, History and Antiquities of the City and Caihednl Church of York, 
1786." As Junior Grand Warden he delivered a speech at a meeting of the Grand Lodge ot York. 
December 87, 1796, which will be noticed hereafter. 



•■i n 

'f :1 

Street, in York, the following Person wm admitted and iwom into the Antient Society of 
Free Maaona. John Smith." 

" Dec. lit, 1725.— At a prirate Lodge, held at Mr Geo. Gibson's, in the City of York, 
the following Peraons were admitted and sworn into the .\ntient Society of Free Maaona 

The Worsh' K Bell, Esq., M'. 

Mr Etty, > 

Mr Perritt 1 W»"i«'"- Will. Sotheran. John Ifeaon. Joa. Lodge." 

" Dec. 8, 1725. — Ai a private Lodge at Mr Lowther's, being the Starr, m Stonegate, 
the following Persons were admitted and sworn into the Antient Society of Free Maaons. 
Christof. Conlton. Thoe. Metcalfe. Francis i. ^her. George Coatea. William Day." 

" Dec. 24, 1725.— At a private Lodge, held at Mr Lowther's, at y* Starr in Stonegate, 
the following Persons were admitted and sworn into the Antient Society of Free-Maaona. 
Matt. St. Quintin. Tim. Thompson. Fran*. Thompson. William Hendrick. Tho. Bean." 

" Dec. 27, 1725. — At a Lodge, heldat Mr Philemon Marsh's in Petergate, the following 
gentlemen were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Freemasons. Leo* Smith 
was also sworn and admitted at the same time. Chas. Howard. 

Richd. Thompson." 

" The same day the undermentioned Person was received, admitted, and acknowledged 
as a member of this Antient and Hon** Society. John Hann. 

Isaac f Scott." 

Further extracts from these minutes will be given in their proper place. I have 
brought down the evidence to 1725, because that year was as memorable in the York annals, 
as 1717 and 1736 were in those of the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland respectively. 
The most important entries are, of course, those antedating the great event of 1717. None 
of these require any very elaborate commentary, and I sliall therefore allow them, for the 
most part, to tell their own tsile. " Sworue and admitted " o- I -nitted and swome " are 
correhitive terms, which, in the documents of the Compan; ''uild, appear quite to 

belong to one another. Thus, the 14th ordinance of tht ;ed Corvisors (Cori- 

wainers) of Hereford, a.d. 1569, runs: - 

" The manner of the othe geven to any that shall be admylted to the felowshippe or 
companye— you . •. shall keepe secrete all the lawful couucill of the saide felowshipjHs, and 
shall observe all manner of rules and ordinances by the same felowshippe, made or hereafter 
to be made .•..•. soe helpe me God." ' 

Also, we learn from the ordinances of the Guild of St. Katherine, at Stamford, which 
date from 1494, though, in the opinion of Mr. Toulmin Smith, they are " the early trans- 
lation of a lost original,"* that on St Katherine's Day, " when the first euensong La doone, 
the Alderman and his Bredem shall assemble in their Halle, and dryitcke. And then 
shal becalle<l forth all thoo [those] that shal be admytted Bredern or Sustern off the Glide." 
A colloquy then ensued between the Alderman and the newcomers, the latter being asked 
if they were willing to become " Bredern," and whether they would desire and ask it, in 
the worship of Almighty God, our blessed ■ \ Saint Mary, and of the holy virgin and 

'J. D. Devlin, Helps to Hereford History, in an Aooount of the AnciRnt Curdwaiaen' Companj 
of the City. 1848, p. 88. t English Gilds, p. 191. 



martjr, SL Katherine, the founder of the Onild, "and in Ihe way of Chanfte."' To this 
"by their otene WilU," they wore to answer yea or nay, after which the clerk, by the direction 
of the Alderman, administered to them an oath of fealty to Ood, Saints Mary and Katherine, 
and the Guild. They then kissed the book, were lovingly received by the brethren, drank 
a bout, and went home.* 

The York minutes inform us that three Private lodges were held in 1713 and the 
following year, two General lodges in 1713-14, and a St. John's Lodge at Christmas, 1716. 
Confining our attention to the entries which precede the year 1717, we find the proceeding* 
of three meetings described as those of " the Honourable Society and Fraternittf of Free- 
masons," whilst on two later occasions. Fraternity gives place to Company, and in th* 
minutes of 1716, these terms arc evidently used as words of indifferent application. 

Whether a " Deputy President " was appointed by the President or elected by th» 
members as chairman of the meeting, in the absence of the latter oflScial, there are no 
means of determining. In every instance, however, the Deputy President appears to have 
been a person of gentle birth and an Eiijttire. It is worthy of note, that Charles Fairf <, 
who occupied the cliair, June 34, 1714, is styled " Worshipful " in the minutes. 

U nJer the dates, July 21, August 10 and 1 'i, September 6, and December 1, 1725, certain 
brethren are named as " Masters," but wliich of the three was really the Master, is a point 
that inurt be k'ft undocided. The apecuiativp character of the lodge is sufficiently apparent 
from the minutes of its proceedings. This, indeed, constitutes one of the ttco leading 
characteristics of the Freemasonry practised at York, a system frequently though errone- 
ously termed the York Rite — the other, being, if we form our conclusions from the docu- 
mentary evidence before us, the extreme simplicity of the lodge ceremonial. 

Two allusions to the " Freemasons," between the date at which the York records begin 
(1705) and the year 1717, remain to be noticed. These occur in the Taller, and in each 
case were penned by Mr. (afterwards Sir liirhard) Steele, who has been aptly describea by 
Mr. J. L. Lewis, in an article on the earlier of the two passages, as " one of the wits of 
Queen Anne's time — a man about town, and a close observer of everjthing transpiring in 
Jjondon in his day." ' The following are extracts from Steele's Essays: — 

June 9, 1709. — " But my Reason for troubling j-ou at this present is, to put a atop, if 
it may be, to an insinuating set of People, who sticking to the Letter of your Treatise,' 
and not to the spirit of it, do assume the Name of Puetty ' Fellows; nay, and even ge'. 

' " Amen ! Amen ! So mot hjrt be I 
Say we so alle per Charyte." 

— Halliwell Poem. Cf. Cliap. XIV., p. 342. 
*Smith, English Gilds, pp. 188, 189. See further, ibid., pp. 316-319; Rev. J. Brand, tiistory and 
Aatiqtiities of Newcastle, 1789, vol. ii., p. 346 ; Jupp, History of the Carpenters' Company, 1848, p. 
8 ; Dr. T. Harwood, History and Antiquities of Liuhfleld, 1806, p. 311 ; and Rev. C. Ouut«s, Histurj 
and Antiquities of Readini^, 1803, p. 67. 

•A Frogmeat of History (Masonic Eclectic, voL i.. New York, I860, pp. 144-14C)i 
» Referring to the TatUr, No. 84— June 4, 1709— also by Steele. 

* Sir Walter Scott in " Waverley," p. 75, makes the Highland robber, Donald bean Lean, speak 
of " the recruite who hod recently joined Waverley's troop from his Uncle's estate, aa ' pretty men,' 
meaning (says Scott), not handsome, but stout warlike fellows." Also, at p S36, note 80, he citea 
the following lines from an old ballad on the " Battle of the Bridge of Dee : "~ 

"The Highlaadmen are pretty men I But yet tliey an; but simple men 

For liaodliog sword and shield, | To stand a stricken field.' 

1 1 



They have their Signs and Tokens like Frse- 

new Karnes, u 70a very well hint . . 
Masons; they nil at Womankind," etc. ' 

May 3, 1710. — [After some remarki on " the tastele* maimer of life which a set of idle 
fellows lead in this town," the essay proceeds] " You may see them at first sight grow ac- 
qnainted by sympathy, insomuch that one who did not know the true cause of their sudden 
Familiarities, would think, that they had some secret Intimation of each other like the IVee- 

The"Fra;; • istory " from which I have already quoted, is too long for transcrip- 

tion, but Bome of Mr. Lewis's observations on the passage in the Tatler, No. 26 — it doee 
not appear that he had seen the equally significant allusion in the Tatler, No. 166— are 
so finely expressed, that I shall here introduce them. He says, " The Writer (Steele) is 
addressing a miscellaneous public, and is giving, in his usual lively style of description, 
mixed with good-humored satire, an account of a band of London dandies and loungers, 
whom he terms in the quaint lunguage of the day. Pretty Fellows. He describes their 
effeminacy and gossip, and to give his readers the best idea tliat they were a closely -allied 
community, represents them as having ' signs and tokens like the Free- Masons.' Of course 
he would employ in this, as in every other of his essays, such language as would convey 
the clearest and simplest idea to the mind of his readers. Is it conceivable, therefore, if 
Freemasonry was a novelty, that he would conteni himself with this simple reference?" 

The same commentator proceeds, " Signs and tokens are spoken of in the same techni- 
cal language which is employed at the present time, and as being something peculiarly and 
distinctively Masonic. What other society ever had its signs except Masons and their 
modern imitators ? ' In what other, even of modern societies, except the Masonic, is the 
Grip termed ' a token ? ' Whether, " he continues, " Sir Richard Steele was a Mason, / do 
nut know,' but I do know that, in the extract I have given, he speaks of signs and tokens 
as nuitters well known and well understood by the public in his day as belonging to a partic- 
ular class of men. It is left for the intelligent inquirer to ascertain how long and how widely 
such a custom must have existed and extended, to render such a brief and pointed referen'^p 
to them intelligible to the public at large, or even to a mero London public. Again, they 
are spoken of as Free-Masons, and not merely, Masons or artificers in stone, and brick, and 
mortar; and this too, like the signs and tokens, is unaccompanied by a single word of ex- 
planation. If it meant operative masons only, freemen of the Guild or Corporation, why 
should the compound word be used, connected, as, in the original, by a hyphen ? Why not 
say Free-Carpenters or Free-Smiths as well ? " 

Mr. Ijcwis then adds, — and if we agree with him, a portion of the difficulty which over- 
hangs our subject is removed, — " The conclusion forces itself irresistibly upon the mind of 
every candid and intelligent person that there existed in London in 1709, and for a long 

' The Tatler, No. 26. From Tuesday, June 7, to Thursday, June 9, 1709. 

' Ibid., No. 168. From Saturday, April 29, to Tuesday, May 2, 1710. 

• The essayist here goes much too far, though his general argument is not invalidated. See 
Chaps. I., pp. 30-22 ; V., passim ; and XV., p. 355. 

' There is no further evidence to connect Sir Richard Steele with the Society of Freemasons, bt • 
yond the existence of a curious plate in Bernard Picart's "Ceremonies and Religious Customs of the 
various Nations of the Known World," English Edition, vol. vi., 1737, p. 193, where a portrait of 
Steele surmounts a copy of Fine's "Engraved Lipt of Lodges," arranged after a very singnlar 
fashion. See further. Freemasons' ICagaiiiie, Feb. 36, 1870, p. 16S ; and Hugban, IlMonic Sketches 
and Bepriats, pt i., pp. 07, 68. 


; of idle 

56— are 
teele) is 
>8 their 
y -allied 
'. course 
tfore, if 
xly and 
d their 
:, iB the 
m, I do 
I partic- 
r widely 
n, they 
ck, and 
i of ex- 
)n, why 
rhy not 

ih over- 
mind of 
r u long 

ei. See 

sons, be- 
IS of the 
rtrait of 


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! Ml . 

' ! 



I --' ' i 


OM ^Mi^l aSSISi PH 

mm", "-.^ 

\J^M^- -'i I 




CO - 

05 z 






I' :.m 

'1 i 



«i<M befort, > Society known m the Frae-mMons. haring oerUin iidiitti modee of recogni- 
tion; »nd the proof of it ii fonnd, not in the Mmrtions of IfMonio writere mnd hirtorisM, 
but in a itMidud work. It is not found in ra el»bor»te pwiegyrio written by > MMonio pen, 
but in the bare etatement of % fact, unaccompa-iwl by explanation, becauie it needed none 
then, aa it needi none now, and ia one of theae lure and infallible guide-roarka whence the 
matenala for tmthf ul hiatory are taken, and by which ito yeracity ia teatod. " ' 

Steele's allnaiona to the Freemaaona merit our cloaeit attention, and if, indeed, the in- 
formation contained in them ahould not appear aa complete aa might be wiahed, it muat 
not be forgotten that a faint light ia better than total darkneM. 

The paMages quoted from the TaiUr, may well be held to point to aomething more 
than waa implied by the phrase, " the benefit of the Mason Wobd," which, if we follow the 
evidence, was all that ScMi»h brethren, in the tevenleenth century, were entitled to.* The 
Maaonic systems prevailing in the Im kingdoms, will be hereafter more doeely compared, 
but having regard to the expediency, of keeping steadily in our minds aa we proceed, the 
important point,' towards the determination of which we are progressing, Lyon's definition 
of wliat is to be understood by the expression Mason Word, will aaaist us in arriving at a 
conclusion with regard to the special value (if any) of the extracta from the Taller. 
" The Word," says this excellent authority, " is the only secret that is ever alluded to in 
the minutes of Mary's Chapel or in those of Kilwinning, Atcheson's Haven, or Dunblane, 
or any other that we have examined of a date prior to the erection of the Grand Lodge. 
But that this talisman consisted of something more than a word is evident from the Mcrtt$ 
of the Mason Word, being referred to in the minute-book of the Lodge of Dunblane, and 
from the further information drawn from that of Haughfoot, via., that in 1707 [1702] the 
Word was accompanied by a grip. " Lyon adds,— and in the following remarks I am wholly 
with him,—" If the communication by Masonic Lodges of secret words or signs constituted 
a degree— s, term of modem application to the esoteric observances of the Maaonic body- 
then there was, under the purely Operative regime, only one known to Scottiah Lodges,' vis., 
that in which, under an oath, apprentices obtained a knowledge of the Mason Word anc 
all that was implied in the expression." ' 

It will be observed that Lyon rests his belief in the term " Mason Word " comprising 
far more than ite ordinary meaning would convey, upon lodge-minutes of the eighteenlh 
. entury —the Haughfoot entry dating from 1702,' and that of the lodge of Dunblane so 
late as 1729.' These, however, in my judgment, are not sufficiently to be depended upon, 
in the entire absence of corroboration, as indicating, with any precision, the actual customs 
prevalent among Scottish Masons in the seventeenth century. The Haughfoot minute-book, 
like some other old manuscripts, notably the Harieian, No. 1942, and the Sloane, No. 
3329,' opens more questions than it closes; but as the records of this lodge wUl again c'aim 

•Masonic Eclectic, vol. i., loe. eit. 

« Chap. mi., pp. 11. 17, 88, 40. 49, 68, 64, 86, 87, and 74. 

•/.«., wliether the early Freemasonry of England and that o( Scotland were subatantiaUy one 
and U e same thing? See ante, p. 10. 

• The italics are mine. 

» History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, pp. 82, 33. 

• Ante. Chap. VIIL, p. 67. ' Ibid., p. 40. 

•(liven in Appendix C. of FindeVs "History of Freemasonry." and apain printod. with litho- 
graphed facsimile, under the editorial »uper\-i»ion of the Rev. A. F. A. Wo.kII..,- i, ni 1S7.I. 

K ; 



onr •ttention, I ihall tit thii point mmvly rvfrr Mow ' to loine words of mntion, tintAj 
thrown out, ngaiiiat plncing too gtmX • relwnre npon the Ilaughfoot docamenta, M laying 
bare the inner life of a rtprtMHtalive Scottiiih lodgp, even of w Ut<- a date aa the yt>ar 1702. 

Neither ia the evidence fnmiahed by the Dunblane record*, of an entirely latiffactory 
character. The fact that in 1789, two " cntorod apprtnticea " from " Mother Kilwinning," 
on proof of their powetaing "a competent knowledge of the aecreta of the Mabok Word," 
were entered and pained in the Lodge of Dunblane * ia intereating no doubt, but the pro- 
reedinga of thia meeting would be more entitled to our confidence, aa preaenting a picture 
nf Scottiah Maaonic life btfom the era of Grand Lodg«a, if they dated from an earlier period. 
It ia true that in Scotland the year 173(1 correaponda in aome reapocta with 1717 in England, 
liodgea in either country prior to theae datca respectiTely were independent communitiea. 
But it doe* not follow, becanae nineteen yeiira elapaed before the example aet in England 
(1717) waa followed in Scotland (1736), that during thia interval the apeculative Free- 
masonry of the former kingdom never croaaod the Border. Indeed, the viait of Dr. 
DiMngulicra to the Ixxlge of Edinburgh in 17t2I ' will of itself dispel this illusion, niid wo 
may leave out of sight reasons that might l>o freely cited, whirh would nffonl the movt 
convincing proof of the influence of EngliNli idoiw and English customs on the Stottii-h 
character, between the Trwity of Union (1707) and "the Forty-Five"* a period of time 
that overlaps at both ends the interval which <lividct! the two Grand Ixxlges. Tliut the 
larger number of the members of the Lodge of Dunblane were non-operatives, is also a cir- 
cumstance that must not be forgotten, and it is unlikely that the noblemen and gentlemen 
of whom the lodge was mainly composed, were wholly without curiosity in rt'spect of the 
proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England, which in 1729 Iwd been jnct twelve years 
established. The probability, indeed, is quite the other way, since we learn from the 
minutes that on September 6, 1723, William Caddell of Fossotliy, a member of the lodge, 
presented it with a " Book intituled the Constitutions of the Free Masons .•. .•. by Mr 
Ji*mes Andersone, Minister of theOosjiell, and printed at London .•. Anno Domini 1723."' 

But putting all the objections I have hitherto niised on one side, and assuming, let us 
say, that the allusion to " the Secrets of the Maso\ AV<iri> " can be carried back to tlie 
seventeenth century, what does it amonnt to? I am f:ir from contending that the t«r!!: 
" secrets " may not comprise the " signs and tokens " in use in the South. But the 
question is, will such a dwluction be juBtifie<l by the entire body of doeumeiitarv cvideiire 
relating to the early proceedings of Scottish lo<lges? Are the mention of u grip in the 
Haughfoot minutes, and the allusion to gecretn in those of Dunblane, to !ic ctiTisiiliTed !:h 
outweighing the uniform silence of the records of all the other Scottish lodges, with regard 
to aught but the Masok Wokd itself, or to the " benefit " accruing therefrom ? • 

Here, for the present, I break off. A few final words have yet to be suiil on the com- 
parative development of the two Masonic systems, but these will be more fitly introduced 

'Ante, p. 10. 'Chap. Vm., p. 40 ; Lj-on, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 417. 

'Ibid., i<p. 150-153. The details of Dexagtilicrs' reception hy tlie lA>dge of Edinburgh are fully 
given by the Scottish Historian, who, however, has foimded on them — a» I shall pi-esently endeavour 
to show — rather more than they will safely bear. ('/. post. pp. 37, 38. 

* It is somewhat singular that Cumeron of Lorhip], Lord Strathallan, Lord John Dnimmond, and 
other leading nieiiibei's <if Ow Lud^e ot Dniil'lanc. w.i.' inoininfiit aiturs uii th« Stewart siiU- m tlie 
Rebellions of 1715 and 174.5. Lord John Uiunimond was Itloster in 1 743-45 (Lyon, History' of the 
Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 414). * Lyon, History of Uie Lodge of Ediouurgh, p. 416. 

'See the ob8er\'alii'ns in C'hnp. Vlll., pp. 51, 52. 



when I hare brought up the eTidence to the ye^r 1733. But liefore attempting to deioribe 
the rite uid progrew of the " Premier Grand Lodge of the World," a remarkable manu- 
■cript of uncertain date muit be briefly noticed, aa by lu doing I iliall hold the icalei evenly, 
■ince to waire ita ooniidemtion altogether until a later period, or to examine iti pretention* 
at length in thix place, would in either caite be equivalent to dealing with the writing rhrono- 
logically, an obligation happily not foroe<l upon me, and which I nhull not nuhly awume. 

" The antiquity and independence of the three degree* " are daimeil to Im) latiiifactorily 
atteited by the evidence of 81o«ne MS. 3330. Therefore (it is argued), an the existence or 
non-exiitcnce of degrees before the era of firand UMljjen in the rrux of Masonic hiiitorianK, 
•/this MS. is of earlier date than MXt—mdil i/Hivxtit., But ina8m-.'."li as there is no other 
proof— it the premises are conceded— that deyrftK, in 'le modem acceptation of the term, 
were known in Masonry until the third decade of the eighteenth century, even the most 
supemtitious believer in the anti(|uity of the .Sloune MS. should pause before laying down 
that tlieir curlier existence is oonRluaivoJy cHtikblished — by relying on thut portion only of 
the palcogRtphicul evidence which iii satisfactory t^> his own mind. 

Sloane MS. 3339 will be prtwntly examined in connection with other documents of a 
ximilar class, "and I now turn to the great Masonic event of the eighteenth century — the 
AxREMBLY of 1717— out of which sprang the Grand Lodge of England, the Mother f 
Grand Lo<lgc». 

Unfortunately the minutes of Grand Lo<lge only commence on Juno 34, 1733. 

For the history, therefore, of the first six years of the new regime, wo are mainly de- 
pendent on the account given by Dr. Anderston in the " t'onHtitutions " of 1T;18, nothinj; 
whatever relating to the procecilinga of the Grand Lodge, except the "Genond Hcgulu- 
tions" of 1731, having Vieen inserted in the eiirlier edition of 1733. From this source I 
derive the following nurrative, in which are proBcrved us nearly U8 j)0»Bible both the ortho- 
graphical and the typographical jwculiarities of the orlgiiuil: ' — 

"King Geokoe L cnter'd Landon most magnificently on 30 Sept. 1714. vnd after 
the Rebellion was over a.D. 171(1, the few Lodgex at [Atitdim finding tliemselves neglected 
by Sir Chrintopher Wren,'' through fit to cement iinder a Ortiiid Mimler us the Centre of 
Union and Harmony, riz., the Lndgei tlwt met, 

"1. At the &ru\Gridiriin Ale house in St PituVs Chnrrh-Varl. 

"3. At the Crown Ale-house in Parker's- Lane near Drnry-hiine. 

"3. At the Apple-Tree Tavern in Chnrles-Mrtet, Vueent-dnrdeiL 

" 4. At the Hummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel-liuw, Weal minster.' 

" They and some old Brothers met at the said Apple- Tret, and having put into the 
Chair the oldest Master Mason (now the Ma.^ter of u Lodge} they constituted themselves a 

' Except other authorities are citeil, tlie ensuing account down to tlie meeting of Grand Lodge, 
at the White Lion, Cornhill, April 25, 1723, Ls taken from the * New Book of Constitutions," 1738, 
pp. 109-115. ' See Chap. XII., ^ut'nt. 

• On removing from Oxford to London m 1714, Dr. Desaguliers settled in Chann*l-Rou>, Wed- 
minsfcr, and continues! to reside there until it was puUod down to make way for the new bridge at 
Westminster. George Payne, his immediate predecessor as Grand Master, lived at New Palace 
Yard, Westminster, where he died Febnuiry 23, 1757. Both Desaguliers and Payne were member* 
in 1723 of the lodge at the " Horn" Tavern in New Palace Yard, Wcatminstef, wliich is desoribeil in 
the " Constitutions " of 1738 (p. 185)a8"ttie 0/d iodye removed from the Rcmmer and Grapes, 
CKanneUBote, whose Consfitufton is immemorial." (A'oui the Royal Somerset House and Inverness 
Lodge, Na 4.) 











Gkaitd Lomi pro Tempore in Dh* fhrm, and forthwith rerived ' the Quarterly (^mmmniem- 
/um of the QgUtrs of Lodge* (aUlM the <ftc«tt4 SoOtC) reeolr'd to hold the Annual Amm- 
RLY aiMf Am/, and them to chuMi • Orand Mastkb from unong themeelree, till th^ 
■boaki hkre the Honor of m Noble Brother at their Head. 

" Accordingly 
On St. John'* Bapti»f» Day, in the 3d ywr of Kinm OBOiiak I., a.d. 1717, the ASSEMBLY 
•nd Am/ of the Pnt and aee»pt»d Matont wm held at the foremid Goom and Oridinn 

" Beforo Dinner, the (^dt»t Matltr Maeon (now the Matter of a Lodge) in the Chair, 
propoied a Lift of proiMT Candidate*; 

and the Brethren by a Majority of Ilanda j Mr Jacob Lmmball, Carpenter, ) Grand 
elected Mr Axtony Saykk, (ientleman, I Capt. Joteph Elliot,' ) Wardena. 

Grand Ma»ttr of Maaonn, who being 

forthwith inveeted with the Badge* of OfBce and Power by the wid oldeet Matter, and 
initall'd, waa duly congratulated by the Amembly who pay'd him the Homage.' 

" Sayer, Orand Matter, commaiulod the Mati'-rs and Wardens of Lodgei to meet the 
Orand Offieen erery Quarter in OmmunUation,* ut the I^mo that he should appoint in 
his Summons sent by the Tyltr, 

• " N.a— It b call'd the QtuHertt Communieation, becaiue it should meet Quaritrln acoordinK 
to antient Uutce. And 

When the Orand Matter is prcMnt it is a Lodge in Ampk Form ; otherwiM, oaly in Due Form, yel 
having the laine Autliority with An^le Form. 

" ASSEMBLY and fhatt at the said Place 34 June 1718. 

"Brother Sayer liaving gather'd the Votes, after Dinner proclaim 'd aloud our Brothet 
GiiORdE Payne' Esq' Orand Matter of Matont who being duly invested, 

' It must be carefully borne in mind, that this revival at the Quarterly Communication w«» rr. 
eorded twenty -one years after the date of the otcurrente to whnh it refers; also, that no such 
" revival" is mentioned by Or. Anderson in the ConMtitutioas of 1723. 

• The positions of tliese worthies a. ! generally reversed, and the Captain is made to taks 
prec ^dence of the Carpenter, but the corrigenda appended to th>< " Book of Constitutions" direuti 
that the names shall be read as abov< . 

' In an anonymous und undated work, but whirh must have been published in 1768 or the fol- 
lowing year, we are told that '• the Masters und Wardens of tix Lodges assembled at the Apple Tree 
on St. Jolm'i Day, 1716, and aft the oldest Master Mason (who was also the Master of u lodge) had 
token the Chair, they constitujd among themselves a Orand Lodge ' pro tempore,' and revived 
their Quarterly Communications, and their Annual Feast" (The Complete Free-mason; or, Multa 
Faucis for Lovers of Secrets, p. 88). All subsequent writers appear to have copied from Anderson 
in their accounts of the proceedings of 1717, though the details are occasionally varied. The state- 
ment in "Multa Faucis" is evidently a " blend " of the events arranged by Anderson under the years 
1716 and 1717, and that the author of " Multa Faucis" hod studied the Constitutions of 1738 with 
some care, is proved by his placing Lambell [LambaB] and BHIiot in their proper places as Senior and 
Junior Orand Warden respectively. The word six can hardly be a misprint, as it occurs twice in 
the work (pp. 83, HI), but see ante, p. 13. 

' Although Payne is commonly described as a "learned antiquariaB," he does not appear to have 
been a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. The tJentleman'i Magatine, voL zzvii., 1757, p. 98, lias 
the following: " Zleaf As. —Jan. 33. Geo. Payne, Esq., of New-Falaoe-yd. iVomofions.— Arthur 
Leirh, Esq., secretaiy to the tax-office (Oeoige Payne, Esq., decX 


The four Lcnlges were: Original No. i. meeting at the "Goose and Gridiron" 
(now No. 3, Antiquity). Original So. 2, meeting at the "Crown" (now extinct). 
Original So. J, meeting at llie ".\\i\>\t Tree Taveni " (now .No. 12, Fortitu<le and 
Old Cumberland). And. Original So. ^. meeting at the "Rummer and Grapes" 
(now No. 4. Royal Somerset House and Inverness). 

In February, 1717. at the said "Apple Tree Tavern" ab<jve mentioned, some 
old Brothers met, anil having voted the oldest Master Mason then present into 
the chair, thev constituted themselves a Grand Lodge, fro tempore, m due form ; 
and further, they revived the quarlerly communications of the offir-rs of Lodges ; 
resolved to hold the annual assenbl'v and feast : and then to ciioose a .Grand 
Master among themselves till they should have the honor of a noble brother at 

their head. , ..... 

Accordingly, on St. John the Baptist s «lay, June 24th, the brethren again 
met, and bv a majority of hands, elected Mr. .hilltony Saycr Graml Master of 
Masons, who being forthwith invested with the bailgcs of office and power by 
the said oldest Master, and installed, was duly congratulated by the assembly, 
who paid him homage. Capt. Joseph Elliott, and Mr. Jacob Lamball. carpenter, 
he elected Grand Wardens. At this meeting the Four Old Lodges conferred upon 
themselves the sole privilege of granting warrants to other Lo<!ges by permission 
of the Grand Master, the Masons having hitherto enjoyed the privilege of assem- 
bling without a warrant, the consent of the sheriff or chief magistrate of the 
place being alone necessary. The privilege of meeting without a warrant is still 
preserved by those of the Four Old Lodges still extant. , „. 

The /ntiquity Lotlge has also other peculiar distincliuns. Its otftcers are 
called by names different from those in other Lo<lges ; for instance, there is a 
Chancellor of the Lodge, an office unknown elsewhere It has^ its own ritual; 
the Past Master is allowed to wear his jewel suspended round the neck; the 
jewels of the officers are golden or gilt, instead of being made of silver, as in 
other Lotlges; and, in common with its two surviving sisters (No. 12, and 
No 4) it Ts hdd in high estimation in the Craft. H R. H Pnnce LeopM haying 
held the office of Worshipful Master in tlus Lo,lge. Its place on the roll of 
ihe Fraternity was No. ,,' prior to the Act of Union of ,8,., when it became 
No. 2 : the Grand Masters' Lo<lge taking the place No. 1 in the list. 

II i 


i ^ 


Qrother Anthonjll Sa^er 


Engravfii from ike original pamtimg by /. Higkmort, in tk* (.'ramJ l-odge 0/ EmglanJ. 

On S' J..Iin Baptist's Hiy, in the tliiril nf Kin^ (ie')rj{c I, A. I). 1717. the Asscnilily nml of the Kiee 
ami A<\ei>leil Masons wa-. hcM at the litmse and (IriiUron Ale-house, St. P.iul's, I.otiiirm. 

'■ llrfnrc Dinner the r;'/j/ jV;j/fr Mnsim (now the -V.ijr.r nf a /i7./,v) in the Chair, jiroposcd a Li^l of 
|>n.|>tr Ctnditlites. and the Itrelhren by a M.ijorily of Hands elected Mr. Anihonv Savkr. lientleman. Ciatt,/ 
Md'ter of Atisons, who Iwinj; fortliuith invested with the Badges of (Iffit-e and Power by the said oitfesl M<nter, 
And in%t.dlM, wui duty con^ratul.ited by the Aucnibly who payM him the llumage." 

I ! : !■ 






( Mr John Oardwett, City Carpenter, ) Onu>d 
\ Mr Thonuu Morria,' Stone Cutter, J Wudena 

fnitollV. oongrktaltted snd homaged, 

ncommended the strict Obaerrance of 

the Quarterly Communication; and 

dciired any Brethren to bring to the 

Otand Lodge any old Writings and Rteonh oonoeming Ma$oni and Masonry in order to 

ihew the U«get of antient Times: And this Year aereral old Copies of the Oothio Oonsti- 

Miom were produced and collated. 

" ASSEMBLY and liait at the said Place, 24 June 1719. Brother Pat/n* haring 

nther'd the Votes, after Dinner proclaim'd aloud our Reverend Brother 

John Tktophilut Desaguliers, L.L.I). and F.R.8., Grand Master of Masons, and being 

duly mterted, install'd, congratulated and 

homaged, forthwith reviv'd the old regn- ( Mr Aniony Bayer forewid, \ Grand 

lar and peculiar Toasts or Healths of the 1 Mr Tho. Morriee foresaid, S Wardens. 
Free Masons. Now several old Brothers, 

that had neglected the Graft, visited the Lodges; some NMemen were also made Brothers, 

and more new Lodges were constituted. 

" ASSEMBLY and Feast at the forewid Place 24 June 1720. Brother Desaguliers 
having gather'd the Votes, after Dinner proclaim'd aloud 

Qbobob Paynk, Esq'; again Grand Master of Masons; who being duly invested, inataU'd, 
congratulated and homag-d, b^an ( Mr Thomas Hobby, Stone-Cutter, » Grand 
the usual Demonstrations of Joy, ( Mr Rich. Ware, Mathematician, S Wardens. 
I /e and Harmony. 

" This Year, at some private Lodges, several very valuable Manuscripts (for they had 
nothing yet in Print) concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, R^ulations, Charges, 
Secrets, and Usages (particularly one writ by Mr Jficholas Stone the Warden of Inigo 
Jones) were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers; that thoee Papers might not 
fall into strange Hands.* 

"At the Quarterly Communication or Grand Lodge, in ample Form, on St John Evan- 
gdisl's Day 1720,' at the said Pkce 

" It was agreed, in order to avoid Disputes on the Annual Feast-Day, that the nev 
Grand Master for the future shall be named and proposed to the Grand Lodge some time 
before the Feast, by the present or M Grand Master; and if approv'd, that the Brother 
proposed, if present, shall be kindly saluted; or even if absent, his Health shall be toasted 
u Grand Master EM. 

" Also agreed, tbit for the future the New Grand Master, as soon as he is install'd. 

• A member of the Mmom" Company. See ante, Vol. H., p. 874. 

•Dallaway. ciUng Ware's Eway in the Archa»lopa (vol. xvil.. p. 88), says :" Perhaps they 
thought the new mode, though dependent on taste, was independent of science, and. Uke the Caliph 
Omw, held what was agreeable to the new faith useless, and what was not, ought to be destroyed 
(Discounes upon Arehitecture, p. 438). An antagonistic writer wittily observes : •' [Freemasonry 
professes to teach the seven liberal arts, and also the black art ; professes to give one a wonderful 
secret, which is, that she has none ; who sprung from the clouds, formed by the smoke ofherou-n 
records, tthick were burnt for the hommr of the myetery," etc. (Quoted by Dr. Oliver in hU " Histori- 
cal Landmarks of Freeroasonty," 1846. vol. it, preface, p. vi.). 

• Although Quarterly CowmunluaUoiu are saui to have been enjoined by Sayer, none seem to 
have taken place up to the above date. Subsequeatiy, with the eaoeptioa of the stormy year. 1788. 

they were held with traquaaqr. 
VOL. in.— 3. 


I • 


: m 


' f, 

1 ^i* 

' I' I 



■hall haTe the sole Power of appointiiig both hia Orand Ward»nt and a Dtpufy Grand 
Ifastur (now fonnd a« neceMai; aa formerly) according to antient Onitom, when Ifobie 
Brother! were Grand Maaten.' 

" Accordingly 
At the dtsnd SodS< in amfle Form on Lady-Day 1721, at the aaid Place Orand 
Miuttr Payne proposed for his Snocesaor onr most Noble Brother. 

"John Duke of Montagu,' Master of a Lodge; who being present, was forthwith salu- 
ted Orand Matter Elect, and his Health drank in dtie Form; when they all express'd great 
Joy at the happy Prospect of being again patronized by noUe Orand Masters, as in the 
prosperous Times of Free Maxonry.' 

" Payne, Grand Master, observing the Number of Lodges to encrease, and that the 
Oeneral Assembly required more Room, proposed the next Assembly and fiast to be held 
at Stationers-Hall, Ludgate Street; which was agreed to. 

" Then the Grand Wardens were order'd, as nsnal, to prepare the Feast, and to take 
some Stewards to their Assistance, Brothers of Ability and Capacity, and to appoint some 
Brethren to attend the Tables; for that no strangers must be there.* But the Grand 
Officers not finding a proper Number of Stewards, onr Brother Mr ffostah 'Qtltcnan, 
Upholder in the Burrough Southwark, generously undertook the whole himself, attended 
by some Waiters, Thomas Morrice, Francis Bailey, tc. 

" ASSEMBLY and Feast at Stationers- Hall, A June 1721 in the 7th Year of King 
Oeorge I.' 

" Payne, Grand Master, with his Wardens, the former Grand Officers, and the Mas- 
ters and Wardens of 12 Lodges, met the Grand Master Elect in a Grand Lodge at the 
Kings' Arms Tavern* St Paul's Church-yard, in the Morning; and liaving forthwith 

■ At the risk of being found tedious, I must again a«k the reader to bear in mind that the above 
narrative was compiled many years after the evenUi occurred, upon which Dr. Anderson moralizes. 
To quote my own remarks, expressed some years ago: " The first innovation upon the usages of the 
Society occurred December 27, 1720, wlien the office of Deputy Orand Master waa established, and 
the Grand Master was em|)owered to apfxiint that officer, together with the (100 vardens. This 
encroachment upon thp privileges of members seems to have been strenuously resisted for several 
years, and the question of nomtnafion or eketion was not finally settled until April 28, 1724" (The 
Four Old Lodges, 1879, p. 80). 

'See Chap. XIII., p. 251. 'See anie, pp. 7, 8; and Chap. SIX., pasnm. 

* Notwithstanding the precautions taken to exclude the uninitiated, if we believe the witty author 
of the " Praise of Drunkenness" (ante, vol. n., pp. 2S2. 853), one stranger, at least, succeeded in ob- 
taining admission to a meeting of the Grand Lodge held at Stationers' Hall 

* Up to this period there appear to have been seven meetings of the Orand Lodge, of which one 
was held at the "Apple Tree Tavern " in Charles Street, Covent Garden, and the remainder at the 
"Goose and Gridiron" Alehouse in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

Thus the four eai'liest Grand Masters were elected in the local habitation of the " old lodge of 
St. Paul " — a circumstance which, as for as I know, furnishes the only evidence at all consistent with 
Preston's stutenient — That the new Grand Muster was always proposed and presented for approval 
in the Lodge of Antiquity (original No. 1) before his election in the Grand Lodge (Illustratiuns of 
Masonry, 1792, p. 2.57, anU. Chap. XIL, p. 171). 

' * Preston, who stylus it " the Qtieen's Arms," says in a note: " The old Lodge of St. Paul's, now 
the Lodge of Antiquity, having been removed hither" (Illustrations p. 292)— but the lodge 'n ques- 
tion is entered in the Grand L>Klgu books as meeting at the " Goose and Gridiron " in 1723, 1725, and 
1738, and continued to do so until 1729, as we Irarn from Pine's Engraved list. Of course, the lodge 
may have removed from the Goose and Gridiron to the King's Anns after 1717, and have gone back 



TWOgniMd their Choice of Brother Montagu they made lome new Brothen,' pwticnkrly 
the noble Paiup Lord Stanhope, now Earl of Chesttrfitld: And from thence they marched 
on Foot to the Hall in proper Clothing and due Form; where they were joyfully receir'd 
by about 150 true vaA. faithful, all clothed. 

" After Grace aaid, they mX donn in the antient Manner of Masone to a very elegant 
Feast, and dined with Joy and Oladnew. After Dinner and Grace said. Brother Payne, 
the old Grand Master, made the first Procession round the Hall, and when retum'd he 
proclaim'd aloud the most noble Prince and our Brother. 

"John Montagu, Duke of 9^onta0n, Grand Master of Masons/ and Brother 
Payne having inveeted hia Grace's Worship with the Ensigns and Badges of his Office and 
Authority, install'd him in Solomon's Chair and sat down on his Right Hand; while the 
Assembly own'd the Duke's Authority with due Homage and joyful Congratulations, upon 
this Beviral of the Prosperity of Masonry. 

" Montagu, G. Master, immediately call'd forth (without naming him before) as it 
were carelesly, ^O^ttt M'^^^ M.D. as his Deputy Grand Master, whom Brother Payne 
invested, and install'd him in Hiram Abbiff's Chair on the Grand Master's Left Hand. 

" In like Manner his Worship call'd forth and ( Mr Josiah Villeneau, \ Grand 
appointed ( Mr Tlwmas Morrice, ^ Wardetis, 

who were invested and install'd' by the last Grand Warder". 

" Upon which the Deputy and Wardens were saluted and, congratulated as usuaL 

" Then Montagu, G. Master, with his Officers and the old Officers, having made the 2d 
procession round the Hall, Brother ^esagutievs made an eloquent Oration about Masons 
and Masonry: And after Great Harmony, the Effect of brotherly Love, the Grand Master 
thank'd Brother Villeneau for his Care of the Fkast, and order'd him .^ Warden to close the 
Lodge in good Time. 

" The ffirand ^^oe in ample Form on 29 Sept. 1T21, at Kiny's-Anns foresaid, with 
the former Grand Officers and those of 16 Lodges. 

again before 1738? But as the Grand Lodge met ut the former house up to 1721, tliis will 
only leave three months within which the senior lodge could have changed its locale, unless we aban- 
don tlie supposition of the Goose and Gridiron having been the common meeting-place of the pri- 
vate lodge and the governing body from 1717 to 1721. To the possible objection, that these apparently 
trivial matters are beneath the dignity of history, I reply, that inasmuch as we have Preston's sole 
authority for much that is alleged to have occurred between 1717 and 1723, his accuracy in <Ul mat- 
ters, where there are opportunities of testing it, cannot be too patiently, or too minutely considered. 

■ As the famous "General Regulations" of the Society were " appro v'd" at this meeting, the 
proviso that apprentices, unless by dispensation, were to "be admitted Masters and Fellmc-Cr^ft 
only here" — i.e., at the Grand Lodge— which occurs in Article XIII.. may date from June 24, 1721, 
though in the process of " digesting " these rules into a " new method," of which we have the result, 
in the code of laws enacted in 1728, Dr. Anderson, with equal probability, may have borrowed the 
provito from the " immemorial Usages of the Fraternity," with which it is expressly stated that he 
" compar'd them." See the 9th and 12th Orders of the Alnwick Lodge (ante, p. 15; Chaf.^). VH., pp. 
130(LXIV.), ISO; VUI., p. 71; and XTV., p. 275. It issomewhat singular, that in Anderson's account 
of the proceedings on the day of St John the Baptist, 1721, we have the only evidence tliat the cere- 
mony of Initiation, Passing, or Raising, was ever actuaUy performed in the Grand Lodge. 

' " In sta ll ation— the act of giving visible possession of a rank or office by placing in the proper 
seat" (Johnson's Dictionary). 

There is no reason to believe that anything more than this was implied by the term " install'd," 
which, as will be seen above, was used in 1721 to descnbe the ceremonial in vogue at tlie investment 
of all Qmnd Offloers. 

if HIii: 

' ' 1M 


ii ; 



"Hif OnMje'i Wtnkip «nd the Lodgt finding Fault with all the Copies of the M OMie 
OnaUuiiotu, order'd Brother Jamet Andtraon, A.H., to digeet the lune in a new and 
better Method. 

"The <lv»nd £oA0C in ampU Form on St John's Daj 27 Z)(e. 1731, at the Mid 
Enf'$ Amu, with former Orand Offioert and thoae of 20 Lodget. 

" MoNTAac, Orand MasUr, at the Demre of the Lodgt, appointed 14 learned Brothen 
to examine Brother And»r*on'»' Manuicript, and to make Report. Thii Communictttion 
waa made rery entertaining by the Lectnres of aome old Maaon»." 

At thia point, and before proceeding with the narrative of Dr. Andenon, some addi- 
tional eridence from other Bouroea will be preaented. 

Between 1717 and 1720— both datea induaiTe— there are no alluaiona in the newspaper 
file* at the British Muaeum,' or in contemporary writings, which poaseaa any bearing on 
Maaonic history. In 1721, however, the Society, owing, it may well have been, to the 
acceptance by the Duke of Montagu of the office of Grand Maater, roae at one bound into 
notice and esteem. 

If we rely upon the evidence of a contemporary witness. Masonry must have languished 
under the rule of Sayer, Payne, and Desagulieis. An entry iu the diary of Dr. Stukeley ' 

reads: — 

" Jan. 6, 1721. I was made a Freemason at the Salutation Tavern, Tavbtock Street 
[London], with M' Collins and Capt. Rowe, who made the famous diving engine." 

The Doctor adds—" I was the first person made a Freemason in London for many 
years. We luid great difflcultv to fiml members enough to perform the ceremony. Imme- 
diately upon that it took u run, uiul ran itself out of breath thro' the folly of the mem- 

Stukeley, who appears to have dined at Stationeta' Hall on the occasion ,' the Duke of 
Montagu's installation, mentions that Lord Herbert and Sir Andrew Fo^.taine— names 

' It U highly probable that AnderBon was admitted into Maaoorjr before he croesed the border, 
but It i» unliltely that he became a member of an Engliik lodge prior to 1791. Had be been initiated 
or sfflliated in London at any period anterior to June 24, 1720, 1 think that, instead of electing Payne 
for a second term, the Orand Lodge would have chosen Anderson to preside over it for the year en- 
suing. See the extracts from the Diary of Dr. Stukeley, which follow in the text, and particularly 

the first. ' ^"'«> ^"l- " • P- ***• 

•Dr. William Stukeley was bom at Holbeoch in Lincolnshire, November 7, 1687, and having 
taken the degree of M.R at Cambridge, 1709, commenced practice as a physician at Boston in his 
native county; but, in 1717, removed to London, and on March 8, in the same year, he was elected 
F.RS., an honor also conferred upon John, Duke of Montagu, the earliest of our " noble Orand Mas- 
ters." at the same date; became one of the re-founders of the Society of Antiquaries, 1718; in 1736 
removed to Grantham; and in 1729 he entered into holy orders, and was presented to the Rectory of 
All Saints, Stamford. In 1747 the Duke of Montagu gave him the Rectory of St. George the Martyr, 
Queen Square, where he died March 8, 1788, in his 78th year. Stukeley's antiquarian works are more 
voluminous than valuable. He was a member of the " Gentlemen's Society " of Spalding, a literary 
association patronised by many well-known antiquaries and Freemasons, e.g.. Dr. Desaguliers, the 
Earl of Dalkeith, and Lord Coleraine (Orand Masters of England, 171B, 1723, 1787); Joseph Amec, 
David Casley, Francis Drake (Orand Master of All England, 1791-8); Martin Folkes (Dep. G. M. , 1724), 
Sir Richard Hanningfaam, Dr. Thos. Manningham (Dep. G. M., 1758-56), and "Sir Andrew Michael 
Ramsey, Knight of 3t Lazarus" (March IS, 1739). 

♦ For these extracts I am indebted to Mr. T. B. Whytehead, who has favored me with the notes 
made by the Rev. W. C. Lukis from the actual Diary, now in the possession of the Bev. H. F. St. 
Jcdin, of Dinmore House, Herefordshire. 


omitted by Aadenon— wen prawnt «t the meeting, and itstee tlut Dr. De«giiUen " pro- 
Boaaoad an Oimtion,'' alao that " Grand Maitor Pun prodnoed an old MS. of the Conrtitn- 
tione" (Chap. II., p. 69, note 1), and " read orer a new lett of Artiolee to be obeerred." 

The following reaainu for becoming a Freemaion are giren by Dr. Stokeley in hit anto- 

" Hii cnrioeity led him to be initiated into the myaterys of Maionry, eiupecting it to be 
the remain! of tfa« myiterys of the antiente; when, with difficulty, a number infficient wac 
to be found in all London. After thii it became a public faahion, not only ipred orer 
Brittain and Ireland, but [over] all of Europe." 

The Diary prooeedi:— 

" Dec. 27th, 1721. — We met at the Fountain Tayem, Strand, and by the content of 
the Grand Matter pietent, Dr Beal [D.G.M.] conitituted a lodge there, where I wat choae 


Commenting on thit entry, Mr. T. R Whytehead obterret: " Nothing it named about 
the qualification for the chair, and at Bra Stnkeley had not been twelve monthi a Maton, 
it it manifett that any brother oould be choaen to preside, at alio that the verbal content 
of the Grand Matter, or hit Deputy, wat tnfficient to authorise the formation of a lodge." ' 

The ttetement in the Diary, however, is incontittent with two paatages in Dr. Ander- 
lon'i narrative, but at the contideration of this discrepancy will bring us up to March 25, 
1722, 1 shall first of all exhaust the evidence relating to the previous year. 

This consists of the interestiug account " by Lyon of the affiliation of Dr. Desagnliers at 
a member of the Scottish Fraternity. 

"Att Maries Chapell the 24 of August 1721 years— James Wattson present leacon of 
the Masons of Edinr., Preses. The which day Doctor John Theopfiilus Desaguliers, fel 
low of the Royall Societie, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Grace James Dnkc r,f Chandois, 
late General! Master of the Mason Jxidges in England, being in to» u aud desirous to have 
a eonftrtnce with the Deacon, Warden, and Master Masons of Edinr., which was accord- 
ingly granted, and finding him duly qualified i» all points of Masonry ' they received him 
as a Brother into their Societie." 

" Liknas, upon the 25th uay of the sd moneth, the Deacons, Warden, Masters, and 
several other members of the Societie, together with the sd Doctor Desaguliere, haveing 
mett att Maries Chapell, there was a supplication presented to them ' y John Campbell, 
Esq', Lord Provost of Edinbr., George Preston, and Hugh Hathom, Baillies; James Nimo, 
Theeaurer; William Livingston, Deacon-convener of the Trades thereof; and George Irving, 
Clerk to the Dean of Guild Court,- \nd humbly craving to be admitted members of the 
td Societie; which being considered by them, they granted the desire thereof, and the 
saids honourable persons were admitted and receaved Entered Apprentices and Fellow- 
Crafts accordingly. " * 

' Freemaiion, July 81, 188a ' History of the Lod^ of Edinburgh, p. 151 

* This may either mean that Desaguliers passed a satisfactory examination in all the Masonic 
Secrets thea known in the Scottish mstropolis, or the word italicized may simply import— in Matonie 
phrase— that the Uco parties to the nmfermce were mutually satisfied with the result. 

•Neither in this, or in the following entry, is there anythinK to indicate that the persons ad- 
mitted " Entered Apprentices and Fellow Crufts" were entrusted with further secrets than those 
communicated to the " Fellow Crafts and Masters" of the seventeenth century. Cf. Chap, vui., 
pp. 87, 86, SS. 

i' i: 



V. 'm 




" And ticklike upon the 38th d«y of the Mud moneth there wu uiother petition giren 
in by Sr DuncMi Cnmpbell of Lochnell, Buronet; Robert Wightnun, Eiq'., prownt Dean 
of Oild of Edr. ; . norge Drummond, Eaq.. Ute TheMurer therof; ArchilMild M'Aulkj, l»te 
Bailly there; and Patrick Lindiay, merchant there, craroing the like benefit, which was 
alio granted, and they receaved as mombora of th Societie aa the other penona above men- 
tioned. The aame day James Koy and Thomas Aikman, senrauts to James Wattson, dea- 
con of thu masons, were admitted and receaved entered apprentices, and payed to James 
Black, warden, the ordinary dues as such. Ro. Alison, Clerk." 

Dr. Desoguliers' visit to Edinburgh appears to have taken place at the wish of the magis< 
trates there, who, when they first brought water into that city by leaden pipes, applied to 
him for information concerning the quantity of water they could obtain by means of a 
given diameter.' 

At this time, says Lyon, "a revision of the English Masonic Constitutions was in con< 
temptation; ' and the better to facilitate this, Desaguliers, along with Dr. James Anderson, 
was engaged in the examination of such ancient Masonic records as could be consulted. 
Embracing the opportunity which his sojourn in the Scottish capital offered, for comparing 
what he knew of the pre-symbolic constitutions and customs of English Masons, with those 
tliat obtained in Scotch Lodges, and animated, no doubt, by a desire for the spread of the 
new system,' he held a conference with the office-bearers and members of the Lodge of 
Edinburgh. Tliat he and his brethren in Mary's Chapvi should have so thoroughly un- 
derstood each other on all the points of Masonry, shows either that in their main features 
the secrets of the old Operative Lodges of the two countries were somewluit similar, or tliat 
an inkling of the novelty had already been conveyed into Scotland. The fact tliat English 
versions of the Masonic T^^nd and Charges were in circulation among the Scotch in the 
middle of the seventeenth century favors the former supposition;* and if this be correct, 
there is strong ground for the presumption that the conference in question had relation to 
Speculative Masonry and its introduction into Scotland." ' 

The same distinguished writer then expresses his opinion tliat on both the 25th and the 
28th of August, 1721, " the ceremony of entering and passing would, as far as the circum- 
stances of the Lodge would permit, be conducted by Desaguliers himself in accordance 
with the ritual he was anxious to introduce," and goes on to account for the Doctor's hav- 
ing confined himself to the two lesser degrees, by remarking that " it was not till 1722-2.'> 
that the English regulation restricting the conferring of the Third Degree to Grand Lodge 

■ Dr. T. Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1813, bic. iii., p. 406. 

* There is do evidenee to show that a reviaioa of the " Constitutions " was in rontemplation be- 
fore September 29, 1721. 

'This is conjecture, pure and simple, and it might with far gn'eater probability be inferred, that 
Desaguliers, whose tendency to conviviality is well known, thought that a Uttle innocent mirth in 
the society of his Masonic brethren would form an agreeable interlude between the duties he was re- 
quired to perform in a professional capacity, and his homeward journey ? 

* It is difficult to reconcile the above remarks with some others by the same writer, which appear 
on the next pa^^e of his admirable work, viz. : " Some yearn ago, and when unaware of Desagulier'n 
visit to Mary's Chapel, we publicly expressed our opinion that the system of Masonic Degrees, which, 
for nearly a century and a half, has been known in Scotland as Freemasonry, was on importation 
from England, rcuing that in the processes of initiation and advancement, coufomiity to the new 
ceremonial required the adoption of genuflections, postures, etc., which, in the manner of their use 
— the country being tlien purely presbyterian — were regarded by our forefathers with abhorrence as 
r«(li08 of Popery and Prelacy" (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 153). • Ibid., p. 153. 



WW repwlAd."' Lyon addi that ho " \m no hetitatUm in aicribing Sootknd't acqiuin- 
tance with, and rabaeqaent adoption of, Engliah Symbolical Masonry, to the conference 
which the co-fabricator and pioneer of the iyitem held with the Lodge of Edinburgh in 
Anguit 1781." 

The aflUiation of a former Grand Master of the English Society, as a member of the 
Scottish Fraternity, not only constitutes a memorable epoch in the history of the latter 
body, but is of especial Talue in our general inquiry, as aifording some assured data by aid 
of which a comparison of the Masonic Systems of the two countries may be pursued with 
more confidence, than were we left to formulate our conclusions from the evidence of 
either English or Scottish records, dealing only with the details of the individual system to 
which they relate. 

Before again placing ourselves under the guidance of Dr. Anderson, two observations 
are necessary. One, that the incident of Dosaguliers' affiliation is recorded under the 
year 1721— though its full consideration will occur later— because, in investigations like 
the present, datu are our most material facts, yet unless arranged with some approach to 
chronological exactitude, they are calculated to hmder rather than facilitate our research, 
by introducing a new element of confusion. 

The other, that nowhere do the errors of the " Sheep-walking School " of Masonic 
writers stand out in bolder relief than in their annuls of the year ITIT, where the loading 
r6le in the movement, which culminated in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, is assigned to Dosaguliers. 

Laurence Dermott (of whom more hereafter), in the third edition of his " Ahiman 
Beion," ' published in 17'''8, observes:— 

" Brother Thomas Onrjioll, a man of great veracity (elder brother of the celebrated 
James Quin, Esq.), informed his lodge No. 3 in London (in 1753) that eight persons, whoso 
namp were Desaguliors, Gofton, King, Calvert, Lumley, Madden, Pe Noyer, and Vraden, 
were the geniusses to whom the world is indebted for the memorable invention of Modern' 

Dermott continues—" Mr Grinsell often told the author [of the " Ahiman Rezon," i.e., 
himself] tliat he (GrinaoU) was a Free-mason before Modem Masonry was known. Nor is 
this to be doubted, when we consider that Mr Grinsell was an apprentice to a weaver in 

' This is incorrect. The regulation in question was only enacted in 1722-33, t.«., as far us can be 
positively oHirmed. It man, o' course, have formed a part of Payne's code (1731), but under either 
supposition there is nottiing in tlie language of the "Constitutions" of 1733 which will justify the 
condwUm, that at the date of its publication the term *' Master" signified anything but " Mastsr of 
a Lodge." Indeed, further on in his History, Lyon himself observes : " The Third Di-gree could 
hardly have been present to the mind of Dr. Anderw>n, when in VfiZ he superintended the printing 
of his ' Book of Constitutions,' for it is therein stated that the ■ key of a fellow-craft ' is that by which 
the secre. cotumunicated in the ancient Lodges could be unravelled" (History of the Lodge of Edin- 
burgh, p. 810). See in the Constitutions of 1788— The Charges of a Free-Mason, No. IV. ; and the 
QenenU Regulations, No. XIH. 

*Ante, vol II., p. 160. 

'The terms "Andenta" and " Modems" were coined by Laurence Dermott to describe the Regu- 
lar and the Seceding Masons respectively. There is a great deal in a good •' cry," and though the 
titular "AnrientK" were the actual " Modems," much of the success which attended the Oreat Schism 
was due to Dermott's unrivalled audacity, both in the choice of phrases, which placed the earlier 
Orand Lodge in a position of relative inferiority, and in ascribing to bis own a derivation from the 
"Ancient Masons of York." 

ill 1 


i li'iill 

'.' '! I 

( ■■: S 

J ■■;.! 



DaUm, when hif motlMr wm nvriad to Mr QniB'i fitUMr, mmI that Mr Quin himwlf wm 
wrmty^thiw jmn old when he died in ITM."' 

FHdnf orer iotermedikte writere, uid ouming down to the indnetrioqa oorapil«tion o. 
Herr Findel, we And the eftkbliehment of the flrtt Onuid Lodge deecribed m betaig doe to 
the eiertiona of " wrerBl brethren tiho united for thie pnrpoee, among whom were King, 
dUvert, Lnmley, MMlden," etc. " At their head," my thia Mthor, " wae Dr J. The- 
ophilnt DeMgnliert.'" 

Now, it happen*, etrangely enough, that at an oooadonal lodge held at Kew on Noreni' 
ber S, 1737, the eight peraons named by Dermott (and no othen) were preeent, and took 
part at the initiation and paaing of Frederick, Prince of Walei ! ' 

Roenming the thread of our narratire, the " Conititntione " proceed: — 

" VtStUl £odgc at the FbuiUain,* Strand, in ampU Form, 20 Marek Vm, with 
former Grand officers and thoee of 34 Lodgu. 

" The «id QmmUtM of 14 reported that they had pemied Brother Andertom'$ Mann- 
■cript, vii,, the History, Charg$», RtguUUiont, and Maiitr'a Song, and after aorae Amend- 
ment*, had approT'd of it: Upon which the Lodge deeir'd the Orand Matter to order it to 
be printed. Meanwhile 

" Ingenioui Mer of all Facnlties and Station* being oonrinoed that the Cnnent of the 
Lodge wa* Lore and Friendahip, eameetly requested to be made Maaons, Affecting this 
amicable Fraternity more than other Societies, then often disturbed by warm Diaputes. 

"Grand Ma»ter Montaod's good Government inclin'd the better Sort to continue him 
in the Chair another Year; and therefore they delay'd to prepare the /toaf." 

At this point, and with a view to presenting the somewhat scattered eTidenoe relating 
to the year 1723, with as much chronological exactitude as the nature of the materiaU 
before me will permit, I shall introduce some further extracts from Or. Stukeley's Diary, 
as the next portion of Dr. Anderson's narrative runs on, without the possibility of a break, 
from June 24, 1722, to January 17, 1723. 

" May 25th, 1722.— Met the Duke of Queensboro', Lonl Dumbarton, Hinchinbroke, 
4c., at Fountain Tavern Lodge, to consider of [the] Feast of St John's." 

" Nov. .Srd, 1722.— The Duke of Wharton and Lord Dalkeith ' visited our lodge at the 

Thf- jrrent notes by a Freemason of the period merit our careful attention, the more 
so, sin : :<he inferences they suggest awaken a suspicion, that in committing to writing a 

' Ahiman Rezon; or, A Help to a Brother, 8d edit, 1778. » History of Freemasonry, p. IS*. 

•Dr. DeMiguliera, Ma*ler; William Oofton and ErasmuB King, Wardeta; Charles Calvert Earl 
of Baltimore; the Hon. Colonel James Lumley; the Hon. Major Madden; Mr. de Noyer; and Mr. 
Vraden (The New Book of Constitutions, 1788, p. 187). 

• This conflicU with the entry, already given (December 27, 1721), from Dr. Stukeley's Diarj'. 
According to Anderson, the Grand Lodge was held at the " King's Arms" in "ample Form"— ».«., 
the Orand Master was present— on December 27, 1721— the ordinary businpss. together with the lec- 
tures delivered at this meeting, must have taken up some considerable tiiiu-, and it is unlikely that 
either before or after the Quarterly Communication, the Grand Manter, the Deputy and a posse of 
the brethren, paid a visit to the " Fountain." 

' Ttiis nobleman, afterward Duke of Bucvleuuh, succeeded the Duke of ViutrUin as Grand Master. 

'Two remarkable entries in Dr. Stukeley's Diary are: "Nov. 7th, 1722.— Order of the book in. 
stituted." •• Dec. 28th, 1722.- 1 din'd with Lord Hertford, introduced by Lord Wincfaelsea. I mads 
them both members of the Order of the Book, or Roman Kni^thood." 



ImM 0f armta in which be had borne • lasding ptrt, man*) ;^r« afUr lk$ oeranviMM h$ 
iirrihr. Dr. Anderaon'k mamory wm oooavon^y at fault, and therefore we thonM aani- 
^itm nrj eUtmij the few ooUateral referencee in newipapere or Mumacripta, whkh ante- 
date the actaal reoordt at Orand Lodge. 

The ontriea in Stnkeley'a Diary cf May 3S and Norember 3, 1722, are hardly reconcila- 
ble with the namtive (in the " Conititationa ") which I here renime. 

" Bnt Philip, Dnke of Wharton,' lately made a Brother, tho' not the Matter of a Lodge, 
being ambitiona of the Chair, got a Number of Othert to meet him at Slalionir'o-Hall 24 
June 1722. And baring no Orand OfBcen, they put in the Chair the oldett Matter Mamm 
(who waa not the pretent Uaeter of a Lodge, alio irregular), and without the ninal decent 
Cerenoniali, tho laid old Maton proclaim'd aloud 

" Philip Wharton, Duke of Wharton, Grand Haitor of Mammt, and 

\ Mr Wtlhum Hawl»u>, Mufon, t Wardent, ) 

nor waa the Lodge opened and closed in duo Form. Therefore the nMt Brothers * and all 
thoie that would not countenance Irregularities, disown'd Wharton't Authority, till worthy 
Brother Moktaov heal'd the Breach of Harmony, by summoning 

" The (Svand £)Odse to meet 17 Januarg 173} at the Kinft-Amu foresaid, where 
the Duke of Wharton promising to be Trut and fkiithful. Deputy Orami Master Beat 
proclaim'd aloud the most noble Prince and our Brother. 

" Philip Wbabtok, Duke of Wharton, Okamd Mabteh of Matont, who appointed Dr 
Pc>a0tlticVS the Dtputy Orand Master, 

|Ja.»««7'.-»«o»,fore«id,| Orand » f„, ^„„t,,„ jemitted a. always out of Town. 
( yame« Anderson, A. M., ( Wardtm, ) 
When former Oraiul Officers, with those of 25 Lodgei,' paid their Homage. 

■ Born in 1666. Son of the Whig Marquis to whom is oiicribed the authorship of UUOmrUro. 
After having, during his travels, accepted the title of Duke of Northumberland from the Old Pre- 
tender, he returned to England, and evinced the versatility of his political principles by becoming a 
warm champion of tlie Hanoverian government; created Duke of Wharton by George L in 1718. 
Having impoverished himself by extravagance, he again changed his politics, and in 1724 quitted 
England never to return. Died in indigence at a Bemadine convent in Catalonia, May 81, 1781. The 
character of Lovelace in " Clarissa " has been supposed to be that of this nobleman; and what ren- 
ders the supposition more likely, the True Briton, a political paper in which the Duke used to write, 
wiw printed by Mr. Richardson. 

' At this meeting, according to the Daily Pbtt, June 87, 1«3, " there waa a noble appearance of 
persons of distinction," and the Duke of Wharton was chosen Orand Master, and Dr. Desaguliers 
Deputy Matter, for the year ensuing. 

• The authority of Anderson,on all pointe within his own not to be lightly impeached. 
But it is a curious fact, that the joumuls of the day (and the Diary of Dr. Stukeley) do not corroba- 
rate his general statement,— «.(;.. tlie Daily FMt, June 20, 1722, notifies that tickete for the Feast 
must be taken out " before next Friday," and declares that " all those noblemen and gentlemen that 
have took ticketi, and do not appear at the hall, will be look'd upon as false brothers;" and the 
Weekly Journal or Britith Oazetteer, June 30, 1732, describing the proceedings, says: •' They had a 
most sumptuous Feast, teveral of the nobility, who are members of the Society, being present; and 
his Orace the Duke of Wharton was then unanimously chosen governor of the said Fraternity." 

'Findel, following Kloss, observes: "Only twenty Lodges, ruiirietl [tlie Cunslilutions]; live 
Lodges would not accede to, or sign them " (History of Freemasonry, p. 159). This criticism is based 
on the circumstance, that twenty-Jtve lodges were represented at the meeting of January 17, 172.3, 
whilst the Masters and Wardens of twenty only, signed the Approbation of the " Constitutions " 






43 £AIiL V BRITISH FREEMASONR K— 1688-1723. 

"O. Wanlen Andtnm pmdui-wl the mi* Bank of OmtHMkm now in Print, wkkh 
WM ^Bin •ppror'ii, wHk the Adtiitioo of tlM tmUmt Mmmr tf CmMulAn% • Ltift. 

" Now Mammry SoarbhM in Humoiiy, Bapniation, and Knaban; numjr NoblMMn 
and (}«iU»aien of tha ftnt lUnk ikar'd to be admitted into the l^rmkmUy, bandM other 
Learned Men, MtTchanta, ClergymeD. and TntdeaoMn. who found a Lodg* to be a «f> and 
pleaauit Belajuktiou from Intetwv Htady or the Harry of Bniinen, withoat Politkika or 
IVrty. Therefore the Orund Matttr waa obliged to conitituta more n»ie Lodgu, and wai 
very aandnona in vUilimg (bit Ludg«» evry Week with hia Dtyutg and n'arti*n»; aad hia 
Wor$hip waa well pleaa'd with their kiiH' and reapectfnl Maimer of receiving him^ aa they 
werb with hia afluble luid clervr converaation. 

"<fttttn4 Zodge in ampie Form, 'i!> April 1733, at the Whitt-Lion, OmAiO, with 
former Grand {Mfxn ami tkoae of 30 Lodpi call'd orer by G. Warden Andtntn, tor no 
iSKTWtery Wiw yet appointn). Wh«n 

" Wharton, Unmd .\lii*ltr, propoaed for hia 8uocaaaor the Earl of DalktUh (bow Dul* 
of Buckltugh), Matter of a Lodg*, who was nnanimoualy approved and dnly aaluted aa 
Grand Ma' ler Ei«ct." 

In bringing to a cloae theae eztracta from the " Conatitutiona " of 1738, anJ befone pro- 
ceeding to comtwre the Scottiak ayitvm of Freenmaonry with ita Engliah wmnterpMt, a 
abort biography of tho " Father of Maaonic History " becomea eaaential. 

Thia will awiat us, on the one hand, in uatimating the weight of anthority, due t'l a 
record of eventa, uncorroborated for the moat port on any material pointa, and on the otliKr 
hand, in arriring at a definite concluaion, with n>gar<! to the extent tu which the maaonuj 
ayatema in the two Kingdoma borrowed from nno auucli 

In tracing the circumatancea of Dr. Andii-son's life, I hure derived very little aaaiatanca 
from the ordinary Dictionariea of Biography.' Cliambera h.^ evidently copied from Chal- 
mers, and the letter introduced an element of confusion in his notices of the worthiea bear- 
ing the surname of Anderson, which hits caused Mackey and other Maaonic enoycIopcediKti 
to give the place and date of birth of Jamcx Anderson, Advocate and Antiquary, aa thoae of 
his nunii-aake, the Doctor of Divinity, and compiler of the " Conatitutiona." 

TluK has arisen from Chalmers stating in hin nemoir of Adam Anderson, author of the 
" Ilijtory of Commerce," that he waa the Irothcr of Jamee Anderson, the Freemaunn, and 
in that of Jamt^ Anderaon, the Antiijiiary. that he was brother to Adam Anderaon, the 
historian. Our Doctor, then-fore, huH liad Edinburgh asaiKUeil as his native town, whilst 
the date of his birth has beei^ li.Tod ut August 5, 16G3. In reality, howe\er, both hia age 
iinii birth-place are "nknowrs. though, for reasons to be presently adduced, a preai'mption 
arises that he was bn i\ and e<lucated at Abenleen. 

A sliort memoir of Dr. Amierson w:»8 given in the Scots Magazine,' but the circum- 
stances of hia life are more fully referred to in the Gentleman's Magazine' (1783), 
by a correspondent who writes under tlir letter B., and furnishes the following par- 

of that year. It muiit bp bom)> in mind, however, that ».he ■' Coiutitutioiu " suhhiitted by AnderwD 
in January 1723, were in print, und that the vicinitudes of the year 1733, must have rendered it 
dilBcult to obtain even the sifmatures of twenty, out of the iu'«n/y-/a«ir representatives of lodge* 
by whom the "Connliti ions" were onJered to be printed uu March 20, 1733. 

' B. Chambers, Bi(j<ruphical Di.tionary of Eminent i-irotsnien. vol. i. ; A. Chalmers, Oenenl 
Biofrraphical Dictionary, vol. ii. : iinii D. Irving, Lives of Scottish Writers, 9d edit., 1D89. 

'Vol. i., 1739, p. 386. VoU Uii., p. 41. 


tloalan miiecting Admn Aiul«ni«ii, a gvntlenum ho profeMM to h«Tt> both known ami 


" Adam Andenon «m • native of Scotland: he wai brotlier to tlia Ber. Jamea Ander- 
ton, D.D., editor of the " Diplomata Ncotiie " ' and " Itoyal Oeuealogioa," many yean liuue 
miniiter of the Soota rnM/yivriiut Church in Swallow Street, Piccadilly, and well-known 
in thoae day* among the people of that purauaaion resident in Liwdon, by the name of 
Biihop Andenon. a learned but imprudent man who loet u cotuidorable part of hi* prop 
erty in the fatal year 1720: he marrii-<l, and had iwuc a *on and u daughter, who was the 
wife of Hn officer in the army; hii brother Adam wa« fur 40 yean a clerk in the South Siit 
IlouM, and at length arrived to hii aemi there, being appointed chief clerk uf the Stock 
and N>w AnnuitHM, which office ho retained till his death in 176&. lie waa appointed one 
of the trustees for establishing the Colony of Oeor;gia in America, by cliarter dattNl June 9, 
5 Geo. II. (1T32). He was also one of the court of oiMistanta of the Scots Corporation in 
Lomlon. . . . ' . 

'-)Ir Anderson died ot hi" hount,* in Red Lion Street, Clerkenwell, I apprehend alxiut 
the year 1764." 

Although the anonymous writer of the prt>codiii|( memoir falls into i.jme slight errorx,' 
in |N)rtit<iui of bia narrative where tlw're are opportunities of testing itit accuracy, this memo- 
rial of Dr. And' nwu is the most trustworthy wo can refer td, as l)eing the only one in 
which a persoiutl knowledge of his subject can be inferred from the expressions of tlit^ 

For this reasoti I Imvo given it at length, and it mav be observml, that the mistake in 
citing Doctor Andenon as thf author of the learned tri itise on the cliartors and coiiw of 
Scotland, has probably arisen fr»m the coincidence of td' 'li-ath of the Ftttiintmn (weurriiig 
in the same year as the publieat on of the posthumous work of the .lnHf/uari/ (1T3U). 

Dr. Anderson's nmgnuin op, was his " Royal Genealogies," ' prixluced. it is said, at tlio 
coat of twenty yoan' close xiudj and application.* At the close of h ■ life, lie was reduifd 
to very slender circumstanccji, and <'\i)ericnced some great iniafortunes,'' but of wliat deacrip- 
ti. ■! we are w ^ told. The Pocke! 1 .mpaniuu for 1754 points out "great licfects" in the 
edition of the Constitutions," puli'ished in the year liefore his death (1738), and attrib- 
utes them I'itiior to "his want >•: health, or trusting [the MS ] to the management of 
stniti^Ts." •■ The work," it goes on to say, " appeared in a very man rled condition, an'd 
the ! 'gulaiioiia, wh h hail been revised and rorrecteil by Crand-JIa^ter I'ayne, were in 
maiii uses interjHs 'd, and in others, the sense lii't very obscure and uncertain.'" 

Upon t whol it is eufflciently clear, that the " New Book of Constitutions " (17!W), 
which ( ntains the only connectc»l history of the Grand Lodge of Englaml. for the first 

H«re we linve, possibly, the fontet origo of the confusion that has arisen between the Anti- 
<l iry nn<i the *>eetiia«oti. James Anderson, tlie Edintmrgh advocate— born August 5, 1662, died 

13, 172&— was the autlior ot " Selectus Diplomatuiii et Nuniisiuatuui Seutiae Thesaurus," a splcn- 

folio volume, published after his death in 1739. 

' " I riday, died suddenly of an apoplectic lit, at the So"'/i Sen Houte, in his 73d year, Mr. Adam 
\nderson, author of the ' Historical and Chronological 1) action of Coninieri'e,' in two volumes, 
folio, lately published" (Public Advertiser, Monday, January 14, 1768). • See tin- two l»at notes. 

' Ti»,yat G,^u6atogies, or The Genealogical Tai.:os of Enij-crori, Kin,;». and r Adais 

to UicMe Times, etc., folio, 17S3. Second edit, 1736. 

■Scots Magazine, vol. L, 1789, p. 336. ' 

' Pocket ConipaoioQ, and History of Free-Ma.'wa.s, 175*, pi«face, pp. vi. 


■iz yean of its eziitenoe (1717-1T23), «m compiled by Dr. Anderaon at • period when tron- 
bles crowded thickly npon him, and very shortly before his death. This of itself would 
tend to detract from the weight of anthority with which such a publication should descend 
to us. MoreoTer, if the discrepancies between the statements in the portion of the narra- 
tire which I hare reproduced, and those quoted from " Mnlta I^ncis," Dr. Stukeley's 
Diary, and the journals of the day, are carefully noted, it will be impossible to arrire at 
any other conclusion — without, howerer, impeaching the good faith of the compiler — than 
that the history of the Grand Lodge, from 1717 to 1733, as narrated by Anderson, is, to say 
the least, very unsat i sfactorily attested. ' Dr. Anderson died May 28, 1739,* and it is a little 
singular that none of the journals recording his decease, or that of Lis brother ' Adam 
(1765), give any further clue to the place of their birth, than the brief statement that they 
were " natives of Scotland." 

There seems, however, some ground for supposing that Dr. James Anderson was bom 
at Aberdeen or in its vicinity, and it appears to me not improbable, that the records of the 
Aberdeen Lodge might reveal the fact of his having been either an initiate or an affiliate of 
that body. 

It is at least a remarkable coincidence— if nothing more — that almost the same words 
are used to describe James Anderson, the compiler of the Laws and Statutes of the Lodge 
of Aberdeen (1670), and James Anderson, the compiler of the Constitntione of the Grand 
Lodge of England (1733). Thus the assent of the seventeenth lodge on the English Boll, 
in 1723, to the Constitutions of that year, is thus shown: — 
XVn. James Anderson, A. M. ) 

The Jmthjor of /Aw goov ) 

The assimilation into the English Slasonic System of many operative terms indigenous 
to Scotland, is incontestable.' Now, although there are no means of deciding "liether 
Anderson was initiated in, or joined the English Society,* there is evidence from which we 
may infer, either that he examined the records of the Lodge of Alx-nleen, or that extracts 
therefrom were supplied to him. 

■ The early history of the Freeni&viiu, as related ia the same work, is quite unworthy of serious 
ronsideration, and Professor Robison rightly inveighs against " the heap of rubbish with which An- 
deraon has disgraced his Constitutions of Free Haaonry— the basis of Uaaonic History " (Proofs of a 
Conqriracy against all the Religions and Oovemments of Europe, Sth edit. ITW, p. ITX 

* " Yesterday died, at his house in Exeter Court, Dr. James Anderson, a Dissenting teacher " 
(I^ndon Evening Post, from May 96 to May 39, 1789)i A similar notice appears in Beadi WttUn 
JoumaloT BrUith Chutttttr, June 9; and the Ijondm Daily Pott of May 99 says, •< the deceased was 
reckoned a very facetious companion." 

' I may observe, that the relationship between Jame* and Adam Anderson, resta upon the author- 
ity of the anonymous contributor to the Oentleman'* Xagaxine (1788, vol. liii., p. 41). One allusion 
to the Freemasons is made, indeed, by Adam Anderson, but very little can be inferred from it 
Quoting the Stat Hen. VL, cap. i., he say^-" Thus we see this Humour of Free-wummry is of no 
smaU antiquity in England " (HUtory of Conuneroe, 1784, vol. L, p. 953). 

« Conatitotions of the Freemasons, 1788, p. 74; and ef. ante. Chap. Vm., p. 64. No II. 

•Certainly Cowan and rVbtw-erttft, and possibly Jfojfer Maton, Entered, Aused, Raitd, etc. 

• If Dr. Stukeley's statement ia to be believed, Anderson could not have been initiated in London 
snUl 1781 (ante, p. 3«. It should be borne in mind, moreover, that the latter doctor is not named 
in the proceedings of Urand Lodge until September 89, 1721. His admission or affiliation, therefore, 
into English Masonry probably occurred ^^fter the election as Grand Master of the Duke of Montagu. 
In this view of the case, the infomi^aion he furnishes with regard to tlie Maaonir evento of the ; 
1717-17a(^ niuat liuve bwn derived fi^om hearmty. 



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In rapport of thii pontion, the thvenik mbKription to the Aberdeen Statntei vatj be 
apin referred to. 

Junee Andenon, " Olaaner and MeaaMn," the ehrk of the lodge in 1670, wm itiU • 
member (and Maiter) in 1696.' In a list before me, of " Gierke of the Aberdeen Lodge," 
bat which nnfortnnately onlj oommenoea in 1709, the fint name on the roll ia that of J. 
AndtrMtt, which ia repeated year by year nntil 1725.' At the time, therefore, when James 
Anderaon, the Preabyterian Miniater, pnbliahed the Engliah Book of Conatitntiona (1723), 
a J. Anderaon— preenmably the glatUr of 1670— waa the lodge clerk at Aberdeen. Xow, 
if the authmr of one Maaonic book, and the mriter of the other, were both natirea of Aber- 
deen, the aimikrity of name will imply relationahip, and in this view of the facta, it would 
seem only natural that the younger historian shoold have benefited by the research of hia 
(enior. Clearly, the glaiier and clerk of 1670 may not have beta the clerk of 1709-24; 
also. Dr. Anderson tnay bare had no connection with Aberdeen. These propositions are 
self erident, bnt though I have searched for niany weary hours in the library of the British 
MuHcnm and elaewhere, I can find nothing which conflicta with the idea, that the brothers, 
Adam and Jamea Anderson, were nativsa of Aberdeen. 

Howerer thia may bo. Dr. Anderson was certainly a Scotsman, and to thia cinsumatance 
must be attributed his introduction of many operative terms from the rocabnlary of the 
Mdter kingdom into his " Book of Constitutions." Of these, one of the most common is, 
the compound word ^low-craft,' which is plainly of Scottish derivation. Enttr'd Pnn- 
lict * also occurs, and though presented as a qnoteUitm from an old English manuscript, it 
hardly admits of a doubt that Anderson embellished the text of hia authority by changing 
tho words " new men " into " enter'd Prentices." ' 

Allusions to the Freemasonry of Scotiand are not infrequent. " Lodges there," with 
"Records and Traditions" — "kept up without interruption many hundred years" — are 
mentioned in one place,* and in another we read that " the Masons of Scotland were im- 
power'd to have a certain and fis'd Grand Master and Orand Warden " ' — here, no doubt 
the writer bod in his mind the Laird of Fdaucht, or William Schaw.* 

Again, in the " Approbation " appended to his work, Anderson expressly states that he 
has examined " several copies of the History, Charges, and Regulations, of the ancient 
Fraternity, from Scotland" and elsewhere.* 

The word Ootean, however, is reserved for the second edition of the Constitutions, '* 
where also the following passage occurs, relative to the Scottish custom of lodges meeting 
in the open air," a usage probably disclosed to the compiler by the records of the Aber- 
deen Lodge, or by his namesake, their custodian. The wonla run — 

"The Fraternity of old met i Monasteries in foul Weather, but in fair Weather they 
met early in the Morning on th<> ips of Hills, especially on St John Evangelist's Dag, 
and from thence walk'd in due Fui m to the Place of Dinner, according to the Tradition of 

•Chap, vm., p. 64. 

'The Constitutions, etc, of the Aberdeen Mason Lodge, 1853. Appendix, p. zziv. 

' Conatitutiong, 1738, passim. * I bid., p. 84. 

* " That enter'd Prentieet at their making, were chaig'd not to be Thieves, or Thieves-Maintain- 
ers" (Constitutions, 1788, p. 84). "At the flist beginning, new men .-. be charged .-. that 
[they] should never be thi«v««, nor thieves' maintsiners" (" Cookn " M8., line* 918-917). Qf. Chap, 
a, pp. 106, 107. • Constitutions, 1738, p. 87. ' Ibid. •Chop. Vin., pp. 45. 46. 

'CoDsUtutions, 1738, p. 78. ■• Pretaoe, p. ia., and pp. 54, 74 

■< AnU, Chap. Vm., pp. 48, 4B. 




the old Seott Miuoru, pvticnUurlj of thoae in the antient Lodges of Eillmnning, Skrling, 
Aberdeen," etc.' 

Our next taak will be, to compare the Maaonio lyBtemi prevailing in Scotland and £ng- 
land respectivelj, at a date preceding the era of Grand Lodges, or, to ilightly vary the 
expr«Mion, to contitwt the UMtges of the Craft in the two Kingdoms, as existing at a period 
anterior to the epoch of transition. 

The difBcnlties of disentangling the snbject from the confusion which encircles it, are 
great, but I tmst not insuperable. Dr. Anderson's narrative of occnrrencee— termed with 
lamentable accuracy, " The Basis of Masonic History " — has become a damnota hartdilaa 
to later historians. Even the prince of Masonic critics, Dr. Oeorge Kloss, has been misled 
by the positive statements in the " Constitutions."* It is true that this commentator did 
not blindly follow (as so many have done) the footsteps of Anderson. For example, be 
declares that Freemasonry originated in England, and was thence transplanted into other 
countries, but he admits, nevertheless, that it is quite possible from Anderson's History, 
to prove that it went out from France to Britain, returning thence in due season, and tfaeu 
again going to Britain, and finally being re-introduced into France in the manner afBrmud 
by French writers,* 

Sir David Brewster, in liis learned compilation,* alludes to nnmerons and elegant ruins 
then still adorning the villages of Scotland, as having been " erected by foreign masons, 
who introduced into this island the customs of their order." He also mentions, as a cnrioug 
foct, having often heard — in one of those towns where there is an elegant abbey, built in 
the twelfth century — that it was " erected by a company of industrious men, who spoke a 
foreign language, and lived separately from the townspeople."* As Brewster had previ- 
ously observed, that the mysteries of the Free Masons were probably the soui'ce from which 
the Egyptian priests derived that knowledge, for which they have been so highly cele- 
brated,' it seems to me that a good opportunity of adding to the ponderous learning which 
characterizes his book, was here let slip. According to the historians of the Middle Ages, 
the Scotch certainly came from Egypt, for they were originally the issue of Scota, who 
was a daughter of Pharaoh, and who bequeathed to them her name.' It would therefore 
have been a very simple matter, and quite as credible as nine-tenths of the historical essa^- 
with which his work commences, had Sir David Brewster brouglit Scottish Masonry directly 
from Egypt, instead of by the somewhat circuitous route to which he thought fit to acconi 
the preference. 

It is not a little singular, that in Lawrie's " ITistory of Freemasonry " — to quote tin 
title by which the work is best known — a Masonic publication, it may be observed, of un- 
doubted merit,' whilst the traditions of the English fraternity are characterized as "sill; 

'Constitutioiu, 1738, p. 91. * Ante, p. 1. 

'O.KloBS, Oeachichte der Freimaiin-rci in Frankreich (1735-1830), Darmstadt, 1833, pp. 18, 14. 

* See Chap. Vin.. p. 3. * Lawrie, History of Freemafionry, 1H04, pp. 90, 91. ' 1 hid., p. 13. 
' Of. Buckle, History of Civilization, vol. i., p. 313; and Lingard, History of Englaud, voL ii., 

p. 187. 

* " The first Historian of the Grand Lodge of Scotland who attempted to divest the History of 
Freemasonry of that jargon and mystery in whiuh it had previously been enveloped; and to afford 
nomething like a t'lassifal view of this ancient and respeifahle Institution, was Bro. Alpx. Ij»urM>, 
Orand Secretary" (Hughan, Masonic Sketches and Rephnts, pt. i., p. T). Cf. ante. Chap. VID., pp. 
S, 4. Lawrie, it should be noticed, was not the Orand Secretary in 1804, and only became iO- 
|irobabIy through the reputation aujuired from the work bearing his name — a few yean later. 



uA nniiitoTMtmg ■toriea," thow of the Soottiih Muomi are trMted in » ivrj different 
maimer. That, the aceounta of St Alhftn, King Atheletan, and Prince Edwin, which we 
meet with in the " Old Charges," are deicribed ae " merely aiaertiont, not only incapable 
of praof from authentic history, bnt inconsistent, also, with several historical events which 
rest on indubitable evidence." In a forcible passage, which every Masonic writer should 
learn by heart, Brewster then adds, " thoae who invent and propagate such tales, do not, 
surely, consider that they liring discredit upon their order by the warmth of their seal; 
and that, by supporting what is tiiwe, they debar thinking men from believing what is 

After such an admirable commentary upon the vagaries of Masonic historians, it is, to 
say {he least, extremely disappointing, to find so learned a writer, when dealing with Scot- 
ti^ legends of the Craft, altogether ignoring the canons of criticism, which he laid down 
with so much care in the former instance. 

Whatever may have been the real cause of this diversity of treatment, it at least brings 
to reoolleution the old adage: 

, "A little nonaenae, now and then, 

b relished by the wisest men." 

Or, it is possible, that the distinguished tavarU and man of letters, who was discharg- 
ing what must have been a somewhat uncongenial task, in finding arguments to uphold 
the great antiquity of Freemasonry, was prompted by sentimental feelings, to assume for 
bis own nation a Masonic precedency, to which it could lay no valid claim. Mentally ejacu- 
lating (we may well believe) " Scotland for ever" — he informs us, " that Free Alasonry was 
introduced into Scotland by those architects who bnilt the Abbey of Kilwinning, is mani- 
fest, not only from those authentic documents, by which the existence of the Kilwinning 
Lodge has been traced back as far as the end of the fifteenth century, but by other col- 
lateral arguments, which amoutU almost to a demonstration."* Next, we learn, that " the 
Barons of Roslin, as hereditary Grand Masters of Scotland, held their principal annual 
meetings at Kilwinning," ' and are further told that the introduction of Masonry into Eng- 
land occurred at about the same time as in Scotland,—" but whether the English received 
it from the Scotch Masons at Kilwinning," — so the wor ?s run,—" or from other brethren 
who had arrived from the Continent, there is no metboti of determining."* 

' Lawrie, History of Freemasonry, pp. 91, 98. Findel, following KIose, remarks, " The inventors 
of Masonic Legends were so blind to what was immediately before their eyes, and so limited in tlieir 
ideas, that, instead of connecting them with the period of the Introduction of Christianity, and with 
the monuments of Roman antiquity, which were either perfect or in ruins before them, they preferred 
associating the Legends of their Ouilds with some tradition or other. The English had the Yorlt 
Legend, reaching kvck as far as the year 936. The German Mason answers the question touching 
the origin of his Art, by pointing to the building of the Cathedral of Magdebvrg iSlfl); and the Scotch 
Mason refers only to the erection of Kilwinning— 1140" (History of Freema?i,;.ry, v-' l*. IW). 

•Lawrie, History of Freemasonry, 1804, pp. 89, 90. 

'Ibid., p. lOa Lyon observes, " he [Lawrie, ie. Brewster] does not seem f*'. have been stag- 
gered in his belief by the consideration that the 8t Claire [of Ro«lin] had no territorial or other con- 
nection with Kilwinning or its neighbourhood, or by reflecting on the improbability of Masons from 
Aberdeen, Perth, St, Andrews, Dundee, Edinhurgli, and other places, in an age when long journeys 
were attended with both difllculties and dangers, traveling to a distant obscure hamlet to adjust 
differences in connection with their handicraft" (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. M). 

*lbid., I- II. 


' 'If. 



" Legendf," to employ the worda of one of the incwt aoonrate and diligent of Uaeonio 
writen, " vn itabborn things when they hare once forced themeelres into > locality." ' It 
b improbable that the popular belief in "Hereditary Grand Maeton," with a "Grand 
Centre" at Kilwinning, will eter be effectually itampt^ oat The mythical character of 
both theee traditioni, haa, indeed, been fnlly expoaed by the hteat and ableat of Soottidi 
hiatoriani of the Craft.* But paaaing from fable to fiict, it will be unneoeaMry to concern 
ouraelrea any farther with the oompitetimi of 1804, except ao tar aa the tririd imagination 
of Sir Darid Brewiter, haa aaggested a poaaible derivation of Engliah from Soottiah Ma- 
•onry. The probability, not to put the oaae any higher, ia, indeed, quite the other way, 
but " aa watera take tincturaa and taatea from the aoila through which they mn," ao may 
the Maaonic cnatonu, though proceeding from the aame aouroe, haTe varied according to 
the r^ona and circumatancea where they were planted. Neither the tradition* nor the 
uHgea of the Craft have come down from antiquity in one clear nnruifled atream. 
Why the twt Maaonic bodiea followed in their development anch different patha, it ia the 
province of hiatory to determine. Such a taak liea, indeed, beyond my immediate pur- 
pose, and would exceed the limita of thia work. Still, however, whilst leaving the prob- 
lem to be dealt with by an historian of the future, it may be poaaible, neverthblern, in the 
enaning pages, to indicate aome promising linea of inquiry, which will lead, in my judg- 
ment, to the elucidation of many pointa of interest, if pursued with diligence. 

It haa been already noticed,' that the two legendary centrea of Masonic activity — York 
and Kilwinning— were comprised within the ancient Kingdom of Northumbria.* Diaiaeli 
observes — " The casual occurrence of the Enoles leaving their name to thia land haa 
bestowed on cur country a foreign designation; and— for the contingency was nearly aris- 
ing—had the Kingdom of Northumbria preserved ita aacendancy in the octarchy, the seat 
of dominion had been altered. In that caae, the lowlands of Scotland would have formed 
a portion of England; York would have stood forth as the metropolis of Britain, and Lon- 
don had been but a remote mart for her port and her commerce." ' 

A speculation might be advanced, though it rests on no shadow of proof, but is never- 
theless a somewhat plausible theory, that the Italian workmen imported by Benedict Bis- 
cop and Wilfrid,* may have formed Guilds — in imitation of the Collegia, which perhaps 
still existed in some form in Italy — to perpetuate the art among the natives, and hence thu 
legend of Athelstan and the Grand Lodge of York. But unfortunately, Northumbria was 
the district most completely revolutionized by the Danes, and again effectually ravaged by 

The legend pointing to Kilwinning as the original seat of Scottish Mai>rnry, baaed as it 
is upon the story which makes the institntion of the lAtdgt, and the ere' .on of the AVbty 
(1140) coe ral, is inconsistent with tlie fact that the latter was neither the first nor second 
Gothic structure erected in Scotland.* Moreover, we are assured on good authority that a 

■ Findel, History of Freemaiioniy, p. 106. 

* See Lyon, History of the Lodf^e of Edinbiiixli, pp. OS, 66. 'Chap. Xn , p. 147. 

* " Northun.t . ^.xtpnded from the Humber to the Forth, and from the North Sea inland to the 
eastern offwts of ' Vnnine Range. Ita western hmit in tlie country now called Scotland is more 
unoertain, bat woi. probably be fairly represented by a line drawn from the Liddel througfh Sel- 
kirk or Peebles to thu neighbourhood of Stirling" (Qlobe Encyclopedia, i.v.). 

'Amenities of Literature, vol. i., p. 41. *Chap. VI., p. 378. 

* Ibid., p. 278. ■ Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. MS. 



Btnow inipeotioD of ite rnina provM iti eraotion to luTe been antedated by ■oma eighty or 
ninety yean.' Still, whether at Kilwinning or eliewhere, it ia tolerably dear that the Soot- 
tiah atone-workera (A the twelfth oeatnry oame from Enghmd. The Engliah were able to 
nnd them, and the Soota required them. Alao, it ia a £ur preaumption from the tMst of 
nameroaa Engliahmen of noble birth having, at the inatance of the King, aettled in Soot- 
land at thia period, that Craftamen from the South muat aoon hare followed them.* In- 
deed, late in the twelfth century, " the two nationa, aooording to Fordun, aeemed one 
people, Engliahmen travelling at ploaaure through all the oomen of Scotland; and Scotch- 
men in like manner through England." * 

When the Legend of the Craft, or in other worda the Maaonic traditiona which we And 
enahrined in the " Old Chargea," waa or were introduced into Scotland, it ia quite impoa- 
iiUe to dedde. If, indeed, a traditionary hiatory eziated at all in Britain, before the reign 
of Edward III., aa I have Tentnred to contend that it muat have done,* thia, for nveral 
naiona, would aeem the moat likely period at which anoh tranafuaion of ideaa occurred. It 
ii true that probabUitif in rach deciaiona will often prove the moat fallaoioua guide we can 
follow. L» vraisemblaNe n'est pas loujouri vrai, and It vrai n'ut pat toujourt vraiMm- 
Habit. Yet it ia free from doubt that ajltr the war of independence in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, the Scottish people, in their knguage, their inatitntiona, and their habita, gradually 
became estranged from England.* A doaer intercoune took place with the French, and 
"the Saxon inatitntiona in Scotland were gradually buried under foreign importationa."* 
"The earlieat eccleaiaatical ediflcea of England and Scotland show the lame style of archi- 
tecture — in mantf inttancet tht tame morkmeH. When, ajtir the devastations of the war of 
independence, Gothic architecture waa reeumed, it leaned, in its gradual derelopment from 
earlier to later styles, more to the Continental than the English models; and when the 
English architects fell into the thin mouldings and shafts, depressed arches, and square 
outlines of the Tudor-Gothic, Scotland took the other direction of the rich, massiTe, wavy 
decorations and high-pointed arches of the French Flamboyant " ' 

But even if we go the length of believing that English Masons, or a least their customs, 
had penetrated into Scotland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the circumstances of 
thttt unfortunate kingdom from 1396 to 1400, have yet to be considered. Throughout this 
period, Scotland was continually ravaged by the English. In 1296, they entered Berwick, 
the richest town Scotland possessed, and not only destroyed all the property, but slew nearly 
all the inhabitants, after which they marched on to Aberdeen and Elgin, and completely 

■ " The earliest date, even were it in EInKland. that could be fixed for the erection of a structure 
like Kilwinning Abbey, would be a.d. 1890 " (Lyon, History of the Lodge of EdinburghX Qf, atUt, 

■ See a letter in the ntemamm of June 19, 1M0, signed " Leo." The writer mm b U , Mr. W. P. 
Buchan— remarks, " In the 19th and 18th centuries, Bngland, I should say, was the Mother of Scot- 
tish Operative Jrosonry, just aa in the 18th oentuiy, she was of Speculative FTtemaKmrf." 

> Rev. a. Kidpath, Border History of England and Scotland, 1810, p. 7S. Cf. Sir D. Dalrymple, 
Annals of Scotland, voL L, p. 18& * Ctuap. XTTT, 

•J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, 18S8. voL L p. 518. 'Ibid. 

'' Ibid., p. S18. " In the uiaiuions of the gentry, the influence of France was still inure complete; 
for when the English squires were building their broad, oriel-windowed, and many-chimneyed man- 
■ioDS of the Tudor style, the Scottish lairds raised tall, narrow fortalioes, crowned with rich clusters 
o( gaudy, painted turrets, like the chAteaus of Ouienne and Berri " (Ibid,). Cf. ante. Chap, vm., 
and ToL L, pp. 804, a84-88«. 
VOL. m.— 4, 



datoteted tha eomatrj.' In 1298 tlw Engliih agkin broke in, burnt Ftorth and St Andram, 
and ravagad tha whole oonntry, wnth and weat* In 13S3, Bruoe, in order to baffle an 
Engliah inraaion, waa obliged to lay waate all the diatricta eonth of the Firth of Forth. 
In 1336, Edward III. deatroyed everTthing he conld find, aa far aa Invemeaf, whilit in 1353, 
in a atill nK>re faarbarona inroad, he burnt erery uhnrch, erery village, ai>d every town he 
approached. Nor did the country fare better at the handa of hit MiccfiMor, for Richanl 
II. tfBTeraed the lonthem oonntiea to Aberdeen, acattering deatniction on everf aide, and 
retracing to aahea the citiea of Edinburgh, Dunfermline, Perth, and Dundee.' It haa been 
cttimated, that the frequent wars between Scotland and England linoe .„b death of Alex- 
ander III. (1386), had occasioned to the former country the loas of more than a century in 
the progtea a of civiliation.* We are told that, in the fifteenth century, even in the best 
parts of Scotland, the inhabitanta could not manufacture the most neceiaary artiolea, which 
they imported largely from Bruges.' At Aberdeen, in the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, there waa not a mechanic in the town capable to execute the ordinary repairs of a 

Dunfermline, aaaociated with so many historic reminiscences, at the end of the four- 
teenth century was still a poor village, composed of wooden hnts.^ At the same period, 
the houses in Edinburgh itxolf were mere huts thatched with boughs, and wen as late as 
1600 they were chiefly built of wood.* Down, or almost down, to the close of the sixteenth 
century, skilled labor was hardly known, and honest industry was universally despised.' 

If it be conceded, therefore, that prior to the war of independence the architecture of 
Scotland, and with it the customs of the building trades, received an English impress, we 
must, I think, also admit the strong improbability— to say no more — of the influence thus 
produced, having survived the period of anarchy, which has been briefly described. 
N«ithrT is it likely that French or other Continental customs became permanently en- 
fn«fted on the ScottiHh Masonic system. " Indeed, it is clear almost to demonstration, that 
the usages wherein the Maaons of Scotland differed from the other trades of that country 
were of English derivation. The " Old Charges " here come to uur aid, and prove, if they 

■. ii 

■Buckle, History of Civilization, vol. Ui. pp. 18, 14. 'Ibid. 

'Ibid. vol. iii.. pp. 15, 18. 

• J. PinkertOD, History of Scotland, vol. I, pp. 186, 167. 

• Mercer, History of Dunfermline, p. 61. Lyon, in chap. xxiv. of his " History," prints the S«>al 
o( Cause, incorporating the Hasonsand Wrights of Edinburgh, a.d. 1475, and obnerves (p. 288), " The 
reference which is made to Brl'OBS in the fourth item, is signiflcant, as indicating one of the channels 
through which the Scottish Crafts became acquainted with customs obtaining among their brethren 
in foreign countries." He adds, "the secret ceremonies observed by the representatives of the 
builders of the mediaeval edifices of which Bruges oould boast, may have to some extent been adopted 
by the Lodges of Scotch Operative masons in the fifteenth century " (History of the Lodge of Edin- 
burgh, p. 234). 

• W. Kennedy, Annals of Aberdeen, 1818, vol. I, p, 98. 
' Mercer, History of Dunfermline, p. 68. 

•O. Cbalmeis, Caledonia, vol. L, p. 8t>8; Buckle. History of Civilisation, vol. iii, pi 8a 
'Buckle, History of Civilization, vol iii., p. 31. "Our manufactures were carried on by the 
meanest of the people, who had small stocks, and were of no reputation. Theise were for the most 
part, workmen for home oonsumpt, such as ifosons, house-carpenters, armourers, blacksmiths, 
teylors. shoemakers, and the like" (ibid,, citing "The Interest of Scotland considered." 1788, p. 82). 
" The possible influence of the " (Tompanionage," and the " Steinmetcen," upon Britith Freema- 
soniy, will be considered in the next chapter. 




dQ no moic, thftt in one fmtare at lewt tho Scottkh ceramonuU wm bawd en an Engliah 
prototypo.' Th« date wbm the " Legend of the Craft " wu introducwl into Scotland ia 
indeterminable. The evidence will joetify an inference, that a oopjr ot our mannicript 
Coutitatione was in the poaieHion of the Melroee Lodge in IMI.' fUtill, it is wan-ely poe- 
■ible, if we accept this date, that it marki the iiUroductum into Scotland of a veraion of 
the "Old Chargee." From the thirteenth century, to the ckw of the lixtcenth, the 
moat popnloM 8oottiah oitiee were Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Perth, and St Andrews* 
English craftamen. or Engliih craft UMgee, it ma/ be rappoaed, paaed into Scot- 
land bjr wajr of the great towns rather thun ot the smaller ones. Melrose, it ia true, 
stands on the border line of the two countries, and its beautiful Abbey, aa previoaaly 
stated, is also betwixt the two in style.* But cTen were we to accept the dates of erection 
of the chief ecclesiastical buildings, as those of the introduction of Masonry into the Tari- 
ous districts of Scotland, it would be found, says the historian of the Lodge of Melrosa, 
that Kelso stood first, Edinburgh second, Melrose tkini, and Kilwinning fourth.' On the 
whole we shall, perhaps, not go far astray, if we assume that the lost esemphtra of the 
" Old Charges " extant in both kingdoms, or to speak more correctly, those of the normal 
or ordinarj Tenions, were in substance identical. This would carry back the ceremony 
of " reading the Charges," as a characteristic of Scottish Masonry, to the period when our 
manuscript Constitutions assumed the coherent and, as it were, stereotyped form, of which 
either the Lansdowne (3) or the Buchanan (15) MSS. affords a good illustration.' As 
against this Tiew, howcTer, it must not escape our recollection that the only direct evidence 
pointing to the existence in Scotland of versions of the Old Charges be/ore the sevententh 
century, consists of the memorandum or attestation, a copy of which ia appended to Mel- 
rose MS., No. 2 (19).' It runs- 

Extracted be me 

/M. upon 

the 1 3 3 and 4 

dayes of 




Be it knouen to all men to whom these presents shall 
come that Bobert Wincester hath lafuly done his dutie 
to the science of Masonrie in witnos whereof J. [I] John 
Wincester hi« Muster frie mason have subscribit my 
name and sett to my mark in the Yeur of our Lord 
1581 ami in the ruing of our most Soveraing Lady £3ia- 
abeth the Vii) Ycur. 

If it is consid-red that more has been founded on this entry than it will safely bear,' 
Ok in other words that it doen not warrant the inference, with regard to MS. 19 being a 
copy of a sixteenth century version, a further supposition presents itself. It is this. All 
Scottish copies of the " Old Charges " may then date after the accession of James I. to the 
English throne (1603), and the question arises, Can the words " Icidgeman to the King 

■Cha|M. n., pp. tl, M; VUI., p. S8. Cf. Lyon, Hiitory of the Lodge of Ediaburgb, pp. 106, 421. 

*Chap. D., pp. M, SI. 

'Buckle, History ot CivilixatioD, vuI iii., p. 29. 

«Chap. VI., p. 886. 

'W. F. Vernon, in the Utuonie Magazint, February, 1880. Cf. Lyon, op. eit., p. i. : and antt. 
Chap. Vm., p. 89. 

• Cf. Chap. XV., p. 881. ' Cf. Ibid., p. 382. 

*ThJs having been only partially given at Chap. 11., pp. 99, note 8, is now shown above in full. 

*Cf. Chaps. 11, pp. (7, 98; Vm., pp. 87, 71; XIV., p. 819 (So); and Hughan'i descnption ot 
Helrase lia, Na 8, in ths JHMmte Uagiuine, voL vii., 1880, p. 389. 


EA Rh Y BRI TtSH FR£E*TASONR K - 16«8- 1 7a j. 

of Bngtand " (w nndantood m refvrrinf to thk momuchf If »n, mm* dilftevltiM woaki 
b« remoTMl from out path, bnt onW, sIm, to give piao« to otbenk 

When J»mM at the deoth of Queen EUnfaetli proceeded to Engknd, the prinoipiri 
notire nobility aooompMiied him.' Nor wm thii exodiu reetricted to the uppi" oliwed. 
Howell, writiii); in 1667, MngM m a rvMon for the citie* of London Mid Wfetminster, 
vhit'h were originally far aport, having become fully joinud in the imrly jreum of tin' Mven- 
teetith centnry, the great number of 8cotch wlin ounw to liondon on thti ac'>e«Mon of Jamen 
I., and wttled chiefly along thv Strand.' It amy therefore Ite contended that 1/ about tlw 
clone of thr lixteeiith century tlii' Maaon'e lodges m England hud ceaied tn uxiit, the grout 
influx of Scotimen juat alluded to, might reaionably account for the Warrington meeting of 
164£,' before which there w no evidence of living KrueniMonry in the South. Thii, of 
<X)une, would imply either that the Scottiah Lodgee, which we know exirt«<l in the six- 
teenth centnry, t^n poaaoeMed veniona of the " Old Chargoe," or that for tome period of 
time at leact, they were withutit them. 

The latter lappeaition would, however, be weakened by the preaumption of the Eng- 
lish liodges having died out, <iince it would be hanlly likely tlwt from tlieir foaail remains 
the Scotch Maaoru extracted the manuscript Const! liitiona, which they certainly u'kI in 
the serentt'onth centnry. 

My own view it that that William Schaw. the Master of Work and fienera] \Vurdi>n. 
Iwd a copy of the "Old Charges" before him when ho |»«'nn«l the Statutes of ir>!is .u ! 
l-^nn,* and with regard to the Warrington Lodge (1646), that it was an out-growth 0/ suae 
thing essentially distinct from the 8<-otch Maaonr}' of that period. 

On both these points a few final words remain to b« expressed, but before doing so, i; 
will be convenient if I resume and conclude tlio obBorvationn on the general hiittory of 
Scotland, which I have brought down t« tb«> year lii.'iT, and bjiow iho |K>saibility of tti.- 
If^islative Union of 1707, having conducol in >w>m«' imoasure to tliu(iK>-called) Masonic Rt-vi- 
valof i:i7. 

At the accession of William III. (168'J) every Scotsman of iinportance. who could claim 
alliance with the revolutionary party, proffered Im guiilunce to the new King through IIjo 
intriracies of his itoeition. But the cluste'-ing of t/'ese fpiktnitous advisers became so trou- 
blesome to him, that the resort of nn'mbers of the Convention to Tjondon was prohibited.' 

After the Union of the two Kinpioras (1707), the infusion of English ideas was very 
rapid. Some of the most considerable persons in Scotland were oblig<.id to pass half the 
year in TiOndon, ond naturally came back with a certain change in tlioir ideas.* The 
Scotch nobles looked for future fortune, not to Scotland but to Kngl.iiid. T/mdon beuanio 
the centre of their intrigues and their hope*.' Tlie movement up to this {xsriod, it may Ije 
remarked, was entirely in ono direttion. The ptnjplo of ScotiiUkil knew Ei'/land much 
better than the people of England knew Scotland — indeed, acconiing to Burcon, the efforts 

1 3 


■Irving, History of Dumbartonshire, IMO, pp. 137, IM: BUoop Outhry, M'.moira ITtM. pp. 137, 

' Loodinopnlis, Hwtorioa, Discoume and Perlustratioa of Loadon. p. 3M. 
*Chap.XIV.. p. a«4. 
«Chap. Vra., pp. 5. », 17. 

* Burton, Histoiy of Scotland, vol. i., p. It. 

* Lecky, History of England in the E<xhtaenth Century, voL ii., p. 8B. 

* Buckle, History uf Ci\-ilization, vol. iii., p. 185. 




dL the |iM*]riil<ti)>cn to BMik* Sootknd known to tb* Enfiiih, at th« period of th« Uaion, 
nMcBbfe tb* munomuy «0or«i at the pnwnt (ky (1803) to imtract tbo people aboat tb« 
^icj of the Caffroe or the Jepuime. ' 

A pMonf glMMM at the Preemaionry of thr Sonth in 1 707— the year of the Union 
between tbe two kingdome— bae been afforded u» by the eewy of Sir Hichard Steele. ' Upon 
thw e? tdence, it ie aigoed with nwcb foroe, that a Sooioty known aa tke Freemaaoni, bar i ng 
certain dittinet ntodee of reoognition, moat bare eiieted in Loudon in 1700, and for a hug 
li:M befon*.' 

Tbii poaition, with the reeerration that tbe worda signs and tok«nt,' npon which Steele'n 
rammentator ha* relied — like the equivalent term* cited by Aubrey, Plot, Rawliiieon, and 
Bandle Holme *— do not decide the tmjcata fuautio of Maaonic degreee, will, I think, be 
generally oonced<>d. But I am hen* (nmcemed with the date only of Steele'a flrct eaar 
(1709). Wbetbrr the cuitOBfl he atteit^ were uew or old will bn ocnuidered teter. It will 
be nilBci«nt for my prewnt pnrpoee to aaenme, that about tiic period of the Union, there 
WW a nuM-ked diflerence between the ceremonial obarrruncee o( the EngUah* and of the 
ScottiBb TiOdgea, Thii conolnaion, it ia true, baa yet to ^« reduced to actnal demonetration. 
but the further proo/f on which I rely — notably the lodge procedure of Scotland— will U- 
preirntly cited, when every reader will be able to form an independent judgment with 
regard to the |>ropoiition which I have ventured to biy down. 

It im-ui^ to mo a very natural deduction from the evidtmce, that during the t^n yearr 
N , ih intervemtl between the Treaty of Union (1707), and the formation of the Orand 
l/*lpe of England (1717), tbe cbaracteriitica of the Maionic lyetcma, which exirted, »o to 
^l>"llii . «i(le b\ >i(lo, must have been frequently compared by the mcmbt>rt of tlie two brotbvr- 
liofKla. Among the numeroui Scotsmen who flocked to I»ndoii. there must have been 
111.1' V fteomatic' masons, far more, indeed, than, at this ht|)W! of time, can be identifletl as 
II rubers of the Craft This is placed beyond doubt by the evidence that has come down 
to as. To retrace our steps somewhat, we find that the Earl of Eglinton, Deacon of 
" Mother " Kilwinning in 1677, having " espouw^ the principles which led to the Revolu- 
titin. enjoyed the confidence of William the Thinl." ' Sir Duncan Campbell, a member of 
thf Ijodge of Edinburgh, was the persomt* friend and one of the confidential adviiters of 
Qut-eii Anne.* Sir John Clerk, end *?:r , . -.ok Hume, afterward* Karl of Marchmont, 
Wire also members of this lodge." S- ;f,i-.<,er, one of the Barons of the Exchequer for 
Scotland, from 1707 to 1755, wa<t aw . '-' im ■ .■»,.oner for the Union, a measure, the Buccess 
of whiih was due in no small degro: to the t«;t and address of the latter, who was one of 

' History of Scotland. 1868, vol. i.. p. 52&. 'Ante, p. 27. et teq. 'Ibid. 

' Of. Sbakeapeue, Taming of the 8hr»w, iv. 4; and Titiw Andronicua, ii. 5. In the former play.* 
Luceotio winks and laughs, and leaves a aervuut behind " to expound the meaning or moral of bis 
»ign» and tokens." In the latter. Demetrius says of Lavinia, whoRe hands have ••een cut off, and 
U>ogu<- cut out, " See, how with Higns and tokens she can scrowl." 

'Chaps. Zn., pp. 180, Ul; XTV., pp. 988, 808. 

'By this IS meant, of course, the Lodges ij the Soutliem metropolis. The English Masonic 
<yst<>m, as a whole, will be examined with some fulnewi in the next chapter. 

' Of. Chap. Vm., p. 67, note 8. 

• Lyott, History of th* Lndg<> »>f Edinburgh, p. 58. 

Wbtd, p. 106. See, however. anU, p. 87. If initiated, as Lyon states, in tke time of Quaen 
Anne, he must have/otned the Lodge of Edinbuigh in 1781 ? 

"LyoD. <>p. e«„ r ,, 90, 147. CJT. onf*. caiap. Vm., p. a& 



the foremost Scottiah itatemen of hia en.' The Treaty of Union $im> found an enaifatio 
•upportur in the Earl of Findlater, whuae name appears on the roU of the Lodge of Aber- 
deen in 1670.* 

Inasmuch as the names just cited, are those of persons at one end of the scale, whilst 
the bulk of the Scottish Craft were at the other end, it is plainly inferential, that many 
masons of intermediate degree in social rank, must also hare found their way to the English 

Let me next endeuvor, by touching lightly on the salient feature* of Scottish Masonry, 
to show what the ideas and customs were, from which the founders or early members of the 
Grand Lodge of England, could huve borrowed. In so doing, however, I hasten to disclaim 
the notion of entering into any rivalry with the highest authority upon the subject under 
inquiry. But, not to say, that in the remarks which follow, I have derived great assistance 
from notes freely supplied by Lyon, it must be remembered, as Mackey points out, that 
the learned and laborious investigations of the Ilistorian of " Mother Kilwinning " and 
" Mary's Chapel," refer only to the Lodges of Scotland. He adds, " There is no snflScient 
evidence that a more extensive system of initiation did not prevail at the same time, or 
even earlier, in England and Germany." "Indeed," he oontinuee, "Findol has shown 
that it did in the latter country."' Passing over the a11eg«d identity of the Steinmetsen 
with the Freemasons, which has been already disposed of,' the remarks of the veteran en- 
cyclopsedist will be generally acquiesced in. They arc cited, however, in this place, because 
they justify the conclusion, that some statements by Lyon, with regard to the Freemasonry 
of England, are evidently mere obiler dicta, and may be passed over, therefore, without de- 
tracting iu the slightest degree from the value of his work as an authentic history of Seottinh 
Masonry. Among these is the allusion to Desaguliera as " the pioneer and co-fabricator of 
symbolical Masonry," a popular delusion, the origin of which has been explained at an 
earlier page.* 

Leaving, however, the Freemasonry of England for later examination, let me next, in 
the shortest oomposi) that is consistent with perspicuity, summarize those features of the 
Scottish system which await final examination. 

' See the numeroiu refereaces to this nobleman, in Burton's " Histoiy of ScoUand," vol. i. 

' Chap. Vm., p. M. The Earls of Marchmont, EgUnton, and Findlater, were accused by Lock- 
hart of havin); sold tiiei' country (or £1104, ISa. 7d. ; £300 ; and £100, respectively. "It has been 
related," observes Burton, "' that the Eori of tiarchmont had so nicely estimated the value of lii.1 
conscience, as to give back 5d. in copper, on rei'eiving£1104, 16b. The price for which the Lord 
Banff had agreed to dispose of himself, was £11, Ss. — an amount held to be the mort> singularly moder- 
ate, OS lie had to throw in a change of religion with hia side of the bargain, and become a Protestant 
that he might fulfil iti " (History of Scotland, vol. i., pp. 485, 486). 

' Eni-}-clopaadia of Freeraasonrr, s.r. Word. 

•See Chap. m. ; and Q. W. Speth, The Steinmetz Theory Critically Examined— shortly to be 

' Ante, p. 39. Warburton observes, "An Ilistorian who writes of past ages ought not to s<t 
down with the reasons former writers give for things, but examine Uiem, and prove their truth or 
falsehood— this distinguishes an historian from a mere compiler" (Literary Remains, edited by the 
Rev. F. Kilvert, 1841, p. 388), cf. ante, p. 3. It may be worth remarking, that the talented author 
of the " History of the Lodge of Edinburgh" does not profess to give more than the result of re- 
nearches among the manuscripts and documents preserved in the archives of the Orand Lodge, and 
in these of Mother Kilwinning, the Lodge of Edinburgh, and other Seottiih Masonic bodies, datiofi 
from the seventeenth century or sarlier (Prafaoe, pp. vti., viii.), 



' Turning to the Sohaw StatntM, which tre baiad, aooording to mj belief, npon the " Old 
Englitk Ohargee " or Maniuoript Conrtitutiont,' we find ordinanoei of eulier dftto referred 
to. Theee, if not the ancient writings with which I hare Tentnred to identify them, muit 
hare been 10016 regulation* or orders now lost to us. However this may be, the Sohaw 
Statutes themseWes present us with an outline of the system of Masonry peculiar to Scotland 
in 1598-99, which, to a great extent, we are enabled to fill in by aid of the further docu- 
mentary evidence supplied from that kingdom, and dating from the succeeding century. 

The Schaw Statutes are given in Chapter VIII., though not in their vernacular idiom. 
For this reason a few literal extracts from the two eodiee*, npon which some visionary 
■peculations have been based, become essential. These, however — not to encumber the 
text— will appear in the notes, where they can be referred to by those of my readers, for 
whom the old Scottish dialect has attractions. 

Many of the clauses are in dose agreement with some which are to be found in the " Old 
Chaiges," whilst othe^ exhibit a striking resemblance to the regulntions of the Steinmet- 
xen,* and of the craft guilds of France.' Schaw, there can hardly be a doubt, had ancient 
writings to copy from, and what they were I have already ventured to suggest That trade 
regulations, all over the world, are characterised by a great family likeness may next be 
affirmed, and for this reason the points of similarity between the Scottish and the German 
codes appear to me to possess no particular significance, though with regaid to the influence 
of French customs upon the former, it may be otherwise. 

Lyon's dictum, that the rules ordained by William Schaw were applicable to Operative 
ilasons alone, will be regarded by most persons as a verdict from which there is no appeal. 
This point is one of some importance, for although addressed ostensibly to all the Master 
Masons within the Scottish realm, the Statutes have special reference to the business of 
Lodges, as distinguished from the less ancient organizations of the Craft known as Incor- 
poratiotu, holding their privileges direct from the crown, or under Seals of Cause granted 
by burghal authorities.* 

The purposes for which the old Scottish lodges existed, are partly disclosed by the docu- 
ments of 1598 and 1599, though, as the laws then framed or codified were not always 
obeyed, the " items " of the Warden-General, point in more than one instance to customs 
that were notoriously more honored in the breach than in the observance. Of this, a good 
illustration is afforded by the various passages in the two codes which appear to regulate 
the status of apprentices. Thus, according to the Statutes of 1598, no apprentice was to be 
made brother and fellow craft until the period of his servitude had expired.* That is to 
say, on being made free, or attaining the position of a full craftsman, he was admitted or 
accepted into the fellowship,* or to use a more modem expression, became a member of the 

> Ante, p. 53, and Chap, vm., p. 17. 

'B.J., compare the Schaw SUtutes. No. 1. (1898), ArUcles l-«, with §g IL, XLII., VL, IV., XI., 
VI. of the Straasburg Code respectively (on/e. Chaps. Vin., pp. 5. 6; and m.. p, 181 tt itq.); also 
No8. 8, 9, 10, 18, and 16 of the former, with Nos. XV., XV. (and LIV., LV.), LXI.. LXTV., and LXIV. 
of the latter. 

• Eiipecially is this the TBse with regard to the Essay or HaHterpieoe, named ia both editions of 
the Schaw Statntes. Cf. Articles 18 of the 1st and 10 of the ad, with the Montpellier Statutes of 
1888 (ante. Chape. VHI., pp. 8, 10; and IV., pp. 804-907). 

• Lyon History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 18. *| St. 

• Of p. 16, note 8, and Chap. XTV., p. 875. 




'A % 

S J8 

if IS 

Thst the ftpprantiow in Solmw^ tiaw itood on qttito • dilbrant footing from that of the 
llMtm and feUowi, ii alao attaited by the w mt mi oode,' and that tiuAr tttUmi in Uie lodRa 
daring thewventemithoentiujwaiMiBonee^ralativeinferiarii^ tathe«MiNfcr«* iuMNM 
parta of Scotland, ia ai oertain ai that m othen thajr laharcd aadar no diHbility wfaaterar, 
and were freqnently elected to the chair.' " BejPiad pMfidaag fv the ' oiderlie hoiking* 
of qtpienticee, the Sehaw Statntea an silent ae te the enatitntiaa of the Mge at entries. 
On the other hand, oare ia taken to ix the nnmbar aad ^aality ot knthren neooMBiy to the 
raoeption of m aa t e i a or fellowa of oiaft, ris., ax mi mtn and two entomd i^prenticea* 
The pr — II of ao aaay maften was deabtle« intoaded as a barrier to the advanoMnent of 
incompetent craftsiBon, and not for the conunnnicatiae of sacrats with which entered ap- 
piautieaa wen onaoqnainted; for the arrangoment refemd to paovee beyond qnestion that 
ir h a tefi i r secrets wen imparted in and by the lodge wen, as a meuis of mutniJ recognition, 
patMit to the intnmt The 'trial of skill inhisoraft," thefrntdactionof an 'essay-piece," 
and the inssvtioa of his name and marie in the lodge book, with the names of his ' six ad- 
mitters ' and ' intendaris* as qiecified in the act,' wen menly practical tests and confirma- 

• gg 10-18. The subordinacy of apprentices in Ungkntd is also abundaiitly iwoved by tfae Isatiiajr 
of the "Old CharKCSt" though, m we have seen, in tmciiig upwards or bacfewards. the rnrlilsBiiii 
firan all other sources becomes exhanstiTe when the year 1846 is reached, without appaMoUy liilsn 
lag us any nearer to a purely or even partly operative rigme. Qf. amU, p. S8, asti Chap. XTV.. 

'Of the Lodge of Olssgow, Lyon renarhs, "unlike other pre-eigfateentb century lodges, its 
manbership was exclusively operative, and although doubtlem giving the maKm word to eateied 
apprentices, none were recognised as members till they iiad joined the incorporation, which was 
composed of Hason Burgesses " (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 418). By the rules however, 
of the Operative Lodge of Banff (1T85), a penon became a member on " being Made an Eotrod Ap- 
prentice" (Freemason, March 80, 18W; and Masonic Magasine, vol. ii., p. 87). 

' Qf. Chap. VnL, p. 14; and Lyon, History of Mother Kilwinning, Freemason's Magaaice, July 
to December, 1868, pp. OS, 1S4, 881 An apprentice was elected master of the legendary parent of 
Scottish Freemasonry so late as 1786 {Ibid., p. 887)i 

< Schaw Stat. No. 1 (IStS), g la- " Hem, That na maister or fallow of craft be ressauit [received] 
nor admittit w<out the numer of sex maisteris, and twa enterit prenteisses, the wardene of that ludge 
being [am] of the said sex, and that the day of the ressauyng [neeiving] of the said frilow of craft or 
maister be ordMie buikit and his name and mark insert in the said bulk w< the names of his sex ad- 
mitteris and enterit prenteissis, and the names of the intendaris that mlbe chosin to everie persone 
to be alsua insert in thair bulk. Providing alwayis that na ninn be admittit w<out ane assay [essay] 
and sufficient tryall of his skill and worthynes in his vocatioun and craft" (Lyon, History of the 
Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 10; ante. Chap. Vm., p. 6). 

' Schavr Stut. Na 8 (ISW). § 6.—" Bern, it is ordanit be my lord warden general), that tfae war- 
den of Kilwynning, as secund in Scotland, elect and chuis sex of the maist perfyte and worthiest of 
memorio within [thair boundit], to tak tryall of the qualtMcatioun of the liaill mosonis within the 
bouuc1i!> foirsaid, of thair art, craft, $eyance and antient memorie; to the effect the warden deakin 
may be unstwerable heiraftir for sic personis as is rommittit to him, and within his boundis and jumi- 
dictioun " (Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 18; anfe. Chap. Vm., p. 10), 

•Schaw Stat. No. 3 (IS99), jS 16.—" Item, it is ordainit that all fallows of craft at his entrie pay 
to the comn-.oun bokis of the ludge the soume of ten pundis mone [moneg], with xs. worthe of gliitfis 
[gloves], or euir [before] he be admittit, and that forp the bankatt [banquet]; and that he be nut ad- 
mitit without ane tufflcient essay anil pwrift of memorie and art of entfl, be [bg] the warden, dea- 
con, and quarter maisteris of the ludge, conformc to the foirmer; and quhair-throw thai may be tlie 
mair answerable to the generall warden " (Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 13; ante. 
Chap, vm., p. 10). It will be seen that the •■ Essay " is referred to in both codes. Cf. the last 
note but one. ' Schaw Statutes No. 1. (1886), g 18. See note above, and tmU, Cbap. Vm., p. & 



tioni (rf thtf ftpidicuit'i qnslifioatioua m an •pprentice, uid his fltnea to undarteko the 
inti« of jonmeynuui or maiter in Operative Ifaaonry; and the apprentioe'i attendanoe at 
■och an enmination ooold nut be otherwiw than beneficial to him, beoanw of the op- 
pef ti uM ly it aflorded for inoreanng his profe«ional knowledge." 

No tBM of an annual " tryall of the art and memorie and (oience thairof of ererie 
IdMT «ff onrft and eTerie prentoiH,"* were found by Lyon in the recorded tnuuaotiona of 
■Hy*! Ck^pel or in thoee of the Lodge of Kilwinning. But aa already mentioned,' the 
eoitMM wm obeerred with the ntmoet regnlarity by the Lodge of Peebles/ and is alluded 
to with mote or less distinctnejs in the proceedings of other lodges.* It has been shown 
that the pwisnoe of apprentices at the admission of fellows of craft was rendered an e«en- 
tial foraality by tiie Sehaw Statutes o* 1598. This regulation appears to have been duly 
complisi with by the Lodges of Edinburgh and Kilwinning,* and in the former at least, 
the enatom of fprentioes giving or withholding their consent to any proposed accession to 
ka was also recognised. But whether the latter prerogative was exercised as 
( right, or by concession of their superiors in the craft, the records do not disclose. 
The sariisit iBstaaee of the recognition of apprentices as active members of the Lodge of 
SiiBbaigfa, is famished by a minute of June 13, 1600, whence it appears that at least four 
a< them attested the entry cA William Hastie,' whilst in those of slightly later date, certain 

' Lyon, uf «upr«, p. 17. 

'Schn No. S(ianK818.— "item, it i»ordaiiut be [by] the generall warden, that the ludge 

o( Kilw; being the Mcoud luge in Scotland, tak trgaM of the art of memorie and teienee thair- 

</, 0/ eve J tMOow of entft and everie prenteiu aeeonUng to other [either] of their voeationii; and 
in eotf that thai have bml onie point thairof, eurie [«wr|f] of thame to pay the penaltie as foUowis, 
tor their slewthfulnea, vit., ilk tallow of craft, xxs. ; ilk prentein, xis. ; and that to be payitto 
the box for the commoun well seirlie: and that oonforme to the common vae and pratik of the oom- 
moun li^ of this realm " (Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 18; ante, Cbaf. VUL, p. 
10). 'Chap, vm., p. 41. 

*" Dec. 3Y, 1718.— This being St John's day the Honourable Society of Masons mett, and after 
f*»yer, proceeded to an examination of entered apprentices and Fellow Crafts, and which was done 
kinf met to tlio ^neral satisfaction of the whole brethivn " (Old Records of the Lodge of Peebles, 
Masonic Magazine, vol. vi , |<. 3S5). 

'B.g., tlioxe at Kelso, Melrose, Dunblane, Aberdeen, and Atcheson Haven. C!f. Vernon History 
of the Lodge of Kelso, p^ 38; Masonic Magazine, vol. vii., p. 8W; and ante, Cliap. VHL, pp. 40, 49. 
The records of the liixt-named lodge contain the following minute: [December 87, 1728. J "The 
which duy the Coinpunie being convened, feinding a great loss of the Enterd Prentises not being 
trjwl every S* Jolm's^iay, thinks it fltt for the futter [future] that he who is Warden (or any in the 
Company who lie shall call to assist him (shall every S* John's-day, m the morning, try every En- 
tered Prentis that was entered the S* John's-day before, under the penalty of on croun [one eroion] 
to the box " (Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 18). The following item in the Melroae 
reoord8(l<MW>—" There was three payd for not being perfyt," shows that fines were imposed on igno- 
rant or uninstructed members (Masonic Magazine, loc eit., note 2; and (/. the Aberdeen Statutes — 
ante. Chap. VHl.— ».f. Intender) 

The second by-law of the Lodge of Brechin, enacted December 37, 1714, runs:— "It is statute 
and ordained that none be entered to this lodge unless either the MaKter of the Lodge, Warden, and 
Treasurer, with two free Masters and two entered prenticcH be present " iMasonic Magasinu, vol. i., p. 
110). Of. the Buchanan MS., Special Charges, No. 6: Smith, English Gilds, pp. 81. 31, 897, 838; and 
Plot's allusion to "6 or 6 of the AncienU of the Order, " ante. Chaps. H., p, 101; and XIV., p. 389. 

' Blais Hamilton, Thos. Couston, Thos. Tailzefeir. and Cristill Miller, who were made fellows of 
craft in March 1(101, November 1600, December 1607, and December 1600 respectively" (Lyon, His- 
tory of the Ledge of Edinburgh, p. 74). 

!! *■ 


•nterad prantioM are ropraMntad m " oonMnting and aaanting" to Um entriM to which 
they refer. The preaenoe of apprentioea in tht lodge during the nuking of feliow-orafta ia 
»1m •iBrmed by Lyon, on the authority of mimtes which he oitee,' — • "Ibot," in his 
opinion, utterly deatructire of the theory which has been adranoed, " that apprenticea wen 
merely preaent at the conatitution of the lodge for the reception of fellows of craft or 
masters, but were not present during the time the hnsinces was going on."* A minute of 
the year 1679 shows, however, very plainly, that whether in or out of the lodge the appren- 
tices were in all respects fully qnalifled to make up a quorum for the purposes either of in- 
itation or the reception of fellows. 

"December the 27, 1679: Maries Chappell. The which day Thomas Wilkia, deMon, 
and Thomas King, warden, and the rest of the brethren convened at that tyme, being 
represented unto them the great abnae and usurpation committed be Jokn Fnlltoun, 
mason, on [one] of the friemen of this place, by seducing hpo entered preiUxMe belonging 
to our Lodge, to witt, Ro. Alison and John Collaer, and other omngadrums, in the moneth 
of august last, within the sherofTdom of Air: Has taken upon himself to paeae and enter 
severall gentlemen withont licence or commiiaion from this place: Therefore for his abuse 
committed, the deacon and maisters hes forthwith enacted that he shall receave no benefit 
from this place nor no converse with any brother; and lykwayes his servants to be dis- 
charged from serving him in his imployment; and this act to stand in force, ay and whill 
[untiH he give the deacon and masters satisfaction." ' 

It has been sufficiently demonstrated, though the evidence is not yet exhausted, that 
the apprentice, at his entry, was placed in full possession of the secrets of the lodge. But 
here we must be careful not to confuse the Masonic nomenclature prevailing in the two 
kingdoms respectively. The term " Free Mason," of which, in Scotland, except in the 
" Old Charges," the use first appears in the records of Mary's Chapel, under the year 1636, 
and does not reappear until 1735, was in that country until the eighteenth century, a 
mere abbreviation of " Freemen Masons." * Thus, David Dellap on being made an entered 
apprentice at Edinburgh in 1636,' must have had communicated to him, whatever of an 
ettoteric character there was to reveal, precisely as we are justified in believing must have 
happened in Ashmole's case, when made a Free Mamn at Warrington in 1646.* Yet, 
though the latter became a Free Afanon at admission, whilst the former did not, both were 
clearly made brethren of the lodge.' The bond of brotherhood thus established may have 
been virtually one and the same thing in the two countries, or it may, on the other hand, 
have differed toto calo. But unless each of the Masonic systems be taken at< a whole, it is 

■ November 26, 1601; November 10, 1606; February' 84, 1637; and June S3, 16.87" (Ihid.). 

' Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh. Tliia point is completely set at rest by tlip evidence 
of the Aberdeen and Kilwinning records, the laws of the torm<>r lodge(1670) having been " ordained " 
by the " Maititer Meusaones and Entered Prentises," whilnt the minutes of the latter (1650) stiiow that 
apprentices notonly assisted in the transaction of business, but that they frequently presided at the 
meetings (Orici., pp. 423-437; Freemason's Magasine, July to December 1863, pp. 9S, 337). 

'Lyon, op. eit., p. 69. 

•Chaps. VIII., p. 37: XTV., p. 385, note 3. " The adoption in January 1735 by the Lodgeof Kil- 
winning, of the dlHtinguishliig title of FreniuuKme, and its reception ot symbolical Masonry, were of 
simultaneous occurrence. The same may bi' wtid of Canongate Kilwinning" (Lyon, Histoiy of the 
Lodge ot Edinburgh, p. 80). 'Chap. VIII.. p. 27. 'Chaps. XIV., p. 364; XV., pp. 365, 370. 

'The free matotu of tlie lodges of Edinburgh (1636), Melrose (1674), and Alnwick (1701), must 
have occupied au analogous position to that of the/Veefft«n of the Oateahead Compaay. Cf. Cha{is. 
Vm., pp. 27, 20; IL, \>. UI: XVI.. p 13; and XTV., p. 27.K 



impoatble to •deqiuktely bring out tho dutinrtion* ))etween the two. Conniltod in portioni, 
dates may be verified, and facts ucertained, but the lignifiianL-e of the entire body of eridenoe 
etoape* at— w« omnot enjoy a landscape reflected in the fragments of a broken mirror. 

Proceeding, therefore, with our examination of Scottish Masonry, it may be confidently 
Mierted, that thoogh the admissions of gentlemeH into the Lodge of Edinburgh, both before 
and after the entry of David Dollap (1636), arc somewhat differently recorded, the pro- 
cedure, at least so far as the communication of an3rthing to be kept secret, was the same. 

Relievers in the antiquity of the present third degree, are in the habit of citing the rec- 
ordii of the Lodge of Edinburgh, as affording evidence of gentlemen masons having, in 
the seventeenth century, been denominated "master masons." The entries of General 
Hamilton and Sir Patrick Hume are cases in point' But though each of these worthies 
was enrolled as a " fellow and master," their Masonic »tatu» did not differ from that of 
LoH Alexander and his brother Henry, who were enrolled, the one as a " fellow of craft," 
and the other as a " fellow and brother." ' The relative position, indeed, of the incorpora- 
tion and the lodge placed the making of a master mason beyond the province of tho latter.' 

" Only in four of the minutes, between December 38, 1598, and December 27, 1700, is 
tbe word ' master ' employed to denote the Masonic rank in which intrants were admitted 
in tho Lodge of Edinburgh; and it is only so used in counection with the making of theo- 
retical Masons, of whom three were gentlemen by birth, and two master wrights." ' It is 
worthy of observation, also, as Lyon forcibly points out, " that all who attest the prooeeti- 
ingB of the Lodge, practical and theoretical masons alike, are in the earliest of its records 
in general terms designated Masters— a form of expression which occurs even wheii one or 
more of those to whom it is applied happen to be apprentices." ' 

The same historian aflSrmff— and no other view would seem possible, unless we discard 
evidence for conjecture — that " if the communication of Mason Lodges of secret words or 
signs constituted a degree — a term of modern application to the esoteric observances of the 
Masonic body— then there was, under the purely Operative regime, only one known to 
Scotch Lodges, viz., that in which, under an oath, apprentices obtained a knowledge of 
the Mason Word, and all that was implied in the expreittion. " ' Two points are involved in 
this conclusion. One, the essentially operative character of the early Masonry of Scotland; 
the other, the comparative simplicity of the lodge ceremonial. Taking these in their 
order, it may be necessary to explain that a distinction must be drawn between the character 
and the compMition of the Scottish Lodges. In the former sense all were operative, in the 
latter, all, or nearly all, were more or less g^iecnlative. By this must be understood that 
the lodges in Scotland discharged a function, of which, in England, we meet with no trace 
save in our manuscript Constitutions, until the eighteenth century. It is improbable that 
the Alnwick Lodge (1701) ' was the first of its kind, still, all the evidence we have of an 

'Chap. \TI1 , p. 88. 'Ibid., p. 37; Lyon, op. cit., pp. 7», 810. 'Lyon, ut rupra. p. 810. 
' 'Ibid. ^Ibid. 

• Lyon, op. eit. , p. 83. Of the Scottish mode of initiation or Masonic reception, the same author- 
ity remarks: " That thii tea* the germ whence haa sprung SymboliccU Ma»onry, is rendered more than 
probable by the traces which have been left u|)on tlie more ancient of our Lodge records— especially 
tho«- jf Marj's Chapel— of the gradual introduction, during the seventeenth and the first quarter 
ot Uie eighteenth century, of that element in Lodge membership which at first modified and after- 
wanl» annihilated the original constitution of these ancient courts of Operative Masonry" (JWd.). 
See, however, ante, pp. 10. Hi: and the observations on degree* in the ensuing cbaptsr. 
' Ante, pp. 10. la, et teq. 


nrtiar date (witb the exception noted) be*n in quite s oontnry direction. The Scottidi 
lodgee, therafore, ezieted, to fnlfll certain operative reqniramenti, of which the neoeanty 
■wj have paaed vmj, or at leait hae been nmeoorded in the ■onth.' 

In Chiqiter VIII. will be fonnd wine alloeions to the preeenoe, tide \ej tide, of the 
opeiatiTe and ipeonhitiTe element*, in the lodge* of Scotland.* The word sptculeUim hai 
been tnmed to etrange nae* by hiatoriana of the craft. In thia respect I am no better off 
than my predeoeaion, and the reference to " SpecnktiTe Freenuuonry " at Vol. II., p. 57, 
i* at leait ambiguona, if nothing more. It ia there aigned that the ipecnladTe aaoendancy 
which, in 1670, prevailed in the Lodge of Aberdeen, might be termed, in other words, 
SptenkUivt /VMWUMonry. Thia ia true, no doubt, in a aenae, but the horiaon advancea as 
well aa recedea, and I find in aome few inatancea, that a anbject provisionally dealt with, at 
an earlier atage, require* aome qualifying remarka. Indeed, aa it haa been weU expreaaed, 
"The idea in the mind ia not alwaya found under the pen, any more than the artiat'a con> 
ception can alwaya breathe in hia pencil." 

Without doubt, the Earla of Findlator and Errol, and the other noblemen and gentle- 
men, who formed a majority of the memben of the Lodge of Aberdeen (1670), were apeca- 
lative or honorary, and not operative or practical masons. The aame may be aaid of the 
entire bead-role of Scottiah worthies whose connection with the craft haa been already 
glanced at' But the apeculative element within the lodges waa a mere ezcreacence upon 
the operative. From the earliest timea, in the cities of Scotiand, the burgeasea were ac- 
customed to purchaae the protection of some powerful noble by yielding to him the little 
independence that they might have retained.* Thus, for example, the town of Dunbar 
naturally grew up under the shelter of the castle of the same name.* Few of the Scottish 
towns ventured to elect their chief magistrate from among their own people; but the usual 
course waa to choose a neighboring peer as provost or bailie.* Indeed, it often happened 
that his office became hereditary, and waa looked upon aa the vested right of some aristo- 
cratic family.' In the same way the lodges eagerly courted the countenance and protec- 
tion of the aristocracy. Of this, many examples might be given, if, indeed, the fact were 
not sufficiently established by the evidence before us." But the hereditary connection of 
the noble house of Montgomerie with the Masonic Court of Kilwinning must not be passed 
over, as it shows, that to some extent at least, the " mother" lodge of Scottish tradition 
grew up under the shelter of Eglinton Castle.* 

" The grafting of the non- professional element on to the stem of the operative system 

> AHte. p. 10. < Pp. 30, SS, 57. »Chap. VHl., parnm. 

* Cf. Buckle, History of Civilization, vol. iii., pp. 33, 38. 

• " Dunbar became the town, in demeon, of tlie auccesHive Earls of Dunbar and March, partiikioc 
of their influences, whether, unfortunate or happy " (O. Chalmers, Caledonia, vol. il, p. 418). 

•P. F. Tytler, History of Scotland, vol. iv., p. 325. 

' Of. Buckle, op. cit., vol. iii., p. 88, and the authorities cited. 

■Chap. Vm., iHunm. Lyon observes, " it is worthy of remark that with singularly few excep- 
tions, the non-openitivrs who were admitted to Masonic fellowship in the Lodges of Edinburgh and 
Kilwinning during Uie seventeeth century were persons of quality, ttie most distinguished of whom, 
as the natural result of its metropolitan iKwition, being made in the former lodge" (Histoiy of the 
Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 81). 

'Chap, vm., pp. 8, 18. For further proof of this oonne<-tion, which extended to a comparative- 
ly recent period, see Lyon, op. eit., pp. 11, 58, 845 ; and B. Wylie, Histoiy of Mother Lodge Kilwin- 
ning, 1878, pamim. 

;|H ^^- 



«( ■MOniT," b aud to hare had its oommenoement in Scotland about the period of tha 
Befomation,' nor ar« we without evidence that will jnatify thia oonolnnon. According 
to the lolemn declaration of a church court in 16S2,' many maaona haring the " word * 
wen miniaten and profcMora in "the pnreat tymea of this kirke," which may mean any 
time after the Reformation of 1560, but must, at leaat, be regarded aa carrying back the 
•dmiMon of hcmorary members into maaonic fellowahip, beyond the oft-quoted case of 
John Boawell, in 1600. ' But as militating against the hypothesis, that honorary membership 
was then of frequent occurrence, the fact must be noted, that the records of Lodge of 
Edinburgh contain no entries relating to the admission of gtnllenuH between 1600 and 
1634, — Uie latter date, moreover, being thirty-eight years before the period at which the 
presence of Oeomatic Masons is first discernible in the Lodge of Kilwinning.* But what- 
ever may have been the motives which animated the parties on either side — Operatives or 
Specnlativea — the tie which united them woe a purely honorary one.' In the Lodge of 
Edinburgh, Geomatic Masons were charged no admission fee until 1737.* The opinion has 
been expressed that a difference existed between the ceieraonial at the admission of a theo- 
retical, and that observed at the reception of a practical mason. This is based upon the 
inability of non-professionals to comply with tests to which operatives were subjected ere 
they could be passed as fellows of craft.' Such was probably the case, and the distinction 
is material, aa naturally arising from the presumption that the interests of the latter chws 
of intiants would alone be considered in a court of purely operative masonry. 

Passing, however, to the second point — the simplicity of the lodge ceremonial — and I 
most here explain that I use this expression in the i-eatricted sense of the masonic reception 
common to both classes alike — the operative tests from which gentlemen were presumably 
exempt are of no further interest in this inquiry. The geomatic ' class of intrants, if we 
follow Lyon, were " in all likelihood initiated into a knowledge of the legendary history of 
the mason craft, and had the Word and such other secrets communicated to them, as was 
necessary to their recoj^tion as brethren, in the very limited masonic circle in which they 
were ever likely to move — limited, because there teas twthing of a cosmopolitan character, 
in the bond which [then] united the members of lodges, nor had the Lodge of Edinburgh 
at yet become acquainted with the dramatic degrees of speculative masonry."' Subject to 
the qualification, that the admission of a joining member from the Lodge of Linlithgow, by 
the brethren of the Lodge of Edinburgh, in 1653," attests that the bond of fellowship was 
something more than a mere token of membership of a particular lodge, or of a masonic 
society in a single city, the proceedings at the entry or admission of candidates for the lodge 
are well outlined by the Scottish historian. The ceremony was doubtless the same — i.e., 
the esoteric portion of it, with which we are alone concerned — whether the intrant was an 
operative apprentice, or a specuUtive fellow-craft, or master. " The l^^nd of the craft was 

'Lyon, op. eU., p. 78. 'Chap. VUL, p. M. *IhiA., pp. 36, 9. o. ; and 27. 

*£&, by the electioo of Lord CassilUs to the deaconship. ' Lyon, ut supra, p. 83. * i bid. 

^ Lyon, ut lupra, p. 83. 'C/. Chap. VIIL.p. S7, notea. 'Lyon, op. cit., pp. 83. 88. 

"Chap. Vm., p. 39:—" Dec. 33, 1703.— William CaimcroH, mason in Stockbridt^e, ^ve in his 
petition desiring Ijlierty to omociate hinwelf with this lodge, which being duly conKidered, and he 
being txamined hrfore thr meeting, they were fully satisfied of kit beifig a true entereil apprentiee 
and fellow-traft, and tliereCure admittetl liim into their Society as a member thereof in all tyme 
coming, and upon !:iii solemn pruniiae in the terms of the Society, anent which he accordingly gave" 
(Minutes of Uie Haughfoot Lodge. Freemanon's Magaane. Sept 18, 1860, p. 383). 

'■Thepracticeof the Lodge of Kilwinning sliow.s that gentlemen became aiipren/ioet at their 
entry, and not fellowa of craft or masten, an was ooninionly the case in tlie Lodge of Edinburgh. 




nad, and " the benefit of the Mason Wokd " conferred. TUe dchaw Statntee throw no 
light on the ceremony of niMonio initiation, beyond justifying the inference, that eitreme 
nmplioity mnat have been ita leading characterirtio. The Wobd ia the only aecret referred 
to tiironghont the aerenteenth century in any Scottiih recorda of that period.' The ex- 
prevon " Benefit of the MaM>n Word " ocean in leTeral itatntea of the Lodge of Aber- 
deen (1670).* The Atcheeon-Httven records (1700) mention certain " disorders of the 
lodge" which it waa feared would " bring all law and order, and consequently the mason 
word, to contempt "• The Haughfoot minutes (1702) mention a grip, though I may here 
interpolate the remark, that my belief in a plurality of secrets being appurtenant to the 
Word,* that is to say, before their introduction from England, at some period now indeter- 
minable, but not before the last quarter of the seventeenth century— has been somewhat 
disturbed by a further study of the subject since the publication of the eighth chapter of 
this history. 

The same records detail the admission of two members in 1710, who " receired the word 
in common form," ' an expression which is made clearer by the laws of the Brechin Lodge 
(1714), the third of which runs—" It is statute and ordained that when any person that is 
entered to this lodge shall be receaved by the Warden in the common form," etc* Liberty 
to gire the " Mason Word " was the principal point in dispute between Mary's Chapel and 
the Journeymen, which was settled by " Decreet Arbitral " in 1716, empowering the latter 
•' to meet together as a society for giving the MasonWord." ' 

The mcrtts of the Maaon Word are referred to, as already stated, in the minutes of the 
Lodge of Dunblane,' and what makes this entry the more remarkable is, that the " secret* " 
in question were revealed, after due examination, by two " tnttred appnnticei " from the 
Lodge of Kilwinning— in which Utter body the ceremony of initiation was of so simple a 
character, down at least to 1735,' as to be altogether destructive, in my opinion, of the 
construction which has been placed upon the report of the examiner deputed by the former 
lodge, to ascertain the masonic qualifications of the two applicants for membership. In 
the kMt-named year (1735,) as I have already shown," two persons who had been severally 
received into masonry by individual operators at a distance from the lodge, being found 
" in lawful possession of the word," were recognized as members of Mother Kilwinning 
" in the station of apprentices." 

The custom of entering per ons to the lodge — in the observance of which one mason 
could unaided make another— has been already cited as suggesting a total indifference to 
uniformity in imparting to novitiates the secrets of the craft" The masonic ceremonial. 

■ Ante, pp. 89. 8a 

> gg 1, 4, and 5. Stat. I. runs:—" Wee, Master Hasons and Entered Prentuet, all of us under 
Bubscryueis, doe here protest and vowe as hitherto wee have done at our entrie when tee received 
the benefit of the MaM>D Word," etc (Lyoo, op. eit, p. 428. Cf. Chap. Vni., p. 48). 

•Chap. Vm., p. «7. * See ante, 10, 29: and Chap. Vm., p. 88, 

» Fpeemaaon'a Mogasine, Oct. 2, 18«9, p. 808. "Jon. 24, 1711.— Mr. John Mitchelson admitted 
Apprentice and Fellow-Craft in common form" (/bid.) 

•Masonic Magazine, vol. i., 1878-74, p. 110. ' Chap. VUI., p. 88; Lyon, op. eit, p. 142 

*Ante, p. 89; and Chap. Vm., p. 40. 

•Chap, vm., p. 16; Freemasons' Magiusine, August 29, 1888, p. 164. "ibid. 

"Chap. VUI., p. 74. Mr. W. P. Buchan says:—" Seeing how difficult it is even now, with all 
the aids to help and oft-recurring meeting<i, to get offlce-bearers and brethren to work one ceremony 
properly, howdid Uw old lodges get on before 1717, who only met once a yenr? Oh I how eiabonU 



tlwrafon, of b lodge addicted to thia pnctioe, will not cwry mnoh weight m s fkithfnl 
ngiiter of contemporary naige. For tbii rcMon, m well m for othen already expreHed,' 
the evidenoe of the Onnblane record* wenu to me wholly immfflcient to iiutain the theory 
for wh'ch they have wrred ae a foandation. 

In thie view of the oaee, there will only remain the mmntee of the IxHlge of Banghfoot 
li differing in any material reapeot from thoae of other lodgee of earlier date than 1736. 
From theae we learn that in om Scottish lodge, in the year 170*^, both grip and word were 
included in the ceremony. Unfortunately " the minuten commenoo abruptly, at page 11, 
in continuation of other pagea now miaaing, wliicli, for an evident purpose, via., meney, 
hare been torn out " ' The evidence from thia source ia capable, aa observed at an earlier 
j«ge, of more than one interpretation, and to the glosa already put upon it ' I shall add 
another, premising, however, that it haa been auggested to me by an ingeuioua friend * 
nther with the view of stimulating inquiry than of attempting to definitely settle a point 
of so much importance. The passage then—" of ttUrie a» the apprerUict did "—{it ia urged) 
implies that the candidate waa not an apprentice, but doubtless a fellow-craft " Ltaving 
out {the common judye) '—they then whisper the word at before, and the Master Mason ' grips 
hit hand in the ordinary way." But aa the candidate (it is conU-nded) already possessed 
the apprentice or mason word, this word must have been a new one. " At before " could 
hardly apply to the identity of the word, but to the manner of imparting it, i.e., whispered, 
as in the former degree. So also the ordinary way must mean in the manner usual in that 

Of the two conjectures with regard to the singuUr entries in the Haughfoot minutes— 
which my readers now have before them— either may possibly be true; but us they stand 
without sufficient proof it must be granted likewise that they may both possibly be false. 
At least they cannot preclude any other opinion, which, advanced in like manner, will 
possess the same claim to credit, and may perhaps be shown by resistless evidence to be 
better founded. 

Under any view of the facts, however, the procedure of the Lodge of Haughfoot (1702) 
must be reganled as being of a most abnormal type, and as it derives no corroboration 
whatever from that of other lodgee of corresponding date, we must admit, if we do no more, 
the impossibility of positively determining whether both grip and teord were communicated 
to Scottish brethren Id the teventeenth century.' 

mint the ceremoii.v have been, when one mason rould make another ! " (Freemasons' Blagasine, July 
to Dec 18*9, p. 4011). ' Ante, pp. 39, 80. 

• Letter from Mr. R. Sanderson, Prov. O. Sec., Peebles and Selkirk, dated April 81, 1884. 
•Chap, vra., pp. «7, 68. «Mr. O. W. Speth. 

' Mr. Sanderson expresses his inability to t hrov. :t ny light on this phnuie, except that it may refer 
to CowanaoT outsiders. A better solution, howover, has been suggested in urecent letter from Lyon, 
who directs attention to the " St. Clair Charteni," printed in his well-known work (pp. 88-68; and 
see also p. 486), wherein the Laird of Roslin and his heirs are named as Patrons, Protectors, and Over- 
seers of the Craft, owing to the dilatory procedure of »he ordin.>ry (ortlitw.' ) or Conunon Judges." 
(juerg, "A prince and ruler in Israel ? " 

• In Chapter Vm., at p. 67, 1 have given " Master " simplititer, but, as will appear from the fol- 
low-ngexcerpt, the true meaning of the terra was not ob^jured:—" Haughfoot, 14th Jan , '704 years. 
—The meeting also continued John Hoppringleof yt ilk Matter ilenmu, till St Jehu'* 'Juy next* 
(Freemasons' Magazine, Sept 18, 1869, p. 888). 

'See ante, pp. 10, 89; and Chap. VUL, p. 68; and compare with Clmp. Ill . p. 148. 





Tha old SoottMhMAMjiWoKo it unknown.' It has not m yti ban divoTOT^, aitlHr 
wtet it WM, or to what utMit U WM in gMMinl OM. N«itlMro>nitbodM«rmin«l wiMtiwr 
■t any giron data prior to 17M, it waa tha auna in Scotland aa it waa in England, laoh 
nation, and indaad aaoh different locality (it haa been urgwl), awy hnra had a wofd 
(or worda) of ita own.* On thia point, alaa, like ao many othera, which oonfrro , tha 
■tndenU of onr antiqnitiea— " ingeniooa men may nadOy adranco pUoaible argnmanta to 
anpport whatever theory they ahall ohooaa to maintain; but then the miafortnne ia, eroiy 
one'a hypotheaia ii oauh aa good aa anothar'a, ainca they ara all founded on oonjeotnra." 

If the nae of any one > ord waa nniTeiml, or to apeak with preoiaion, if tha word in 
Sootkutd waa included ani^ng the wvrd*, which we ara jnitiflad in baliering, formed a 
portion of the aecreta diacloaed in the early English lodgca, it waa aomething qnite diatinct 
from the familiar mpraaaiona, which at the inlndwiion of dtgnu, were importtd into 

Mr. Officer writaa,* " I have read many old Minute- Booka of a date prior to 1736. The 
exprvMion in them all ia the WoBO, or aometimea the ' Maim'i Word.' Singularly, in 
none u( the Minnta-Booka is there the alighteat reference to any change in the form of ad- 
miasion or ritual Tk» ehangt wot mado, but it ia dealt with aa if the old ayatem con- 
tinned.'" The mme cOTreepondent further records his belief, and herein he ia in exact 
argeement with Lyon, that the Mtration of the Scottish ritual waa due primarily to the 
influence of Deaagnliera, Indeed, the latter authority emphatically dedarea ' that " the 
reorganisation and creation of offlcea in the old Scottish Lodges aftor 1721, show that a 
KBW system had been introduced." 

The minntea of " Canongate Kilwinning " contain the earlieat Scottish record extant, of 
the admission of a mnster mason under the modem Maaonio Constitution. This oocurreti 
on March 31, 173S.' But it is beliered by Lyon that the degree in question waa flr«t 
practised north of the Tweed by the " Edinburgh Kilwinning Scots Anna." This, the fimt 
specnlatiTe Scotch lodge, was established February 14, 1789, and with its erection came, 
ao he conjectures— -though I must confess that I cannot quite bring myself into the same 
way of thinking—" the formal introduction of the third degree, with ita Jewidi Legend 
and dramatic ceremonial."' 

This degree is for the first time referred to in the minntea of " Mother KOwinning " in 
1736, and in those of the Lodge of Edinburgh in 1738. The Lodges of Atcheaon'a Haren, 
Dunblane, Haaghfoot, and Peebles were unacquainted with it in 1760, and the degree wai 
not generally worked in Scottish lodges until the seventh decade of the last century.* 

But as I have already had occasion to observe, the love of mystery being implanted it, 
human nature never wholly dies out A few believera in the great antiquity of Masonii 
degrees still linger in onr midst Some cherish the singular fancy that the obaolete 

■ I take the opportunity of gratefully acknowledging the aniatance freely rendered by the Orand 
Secretary of Scotland (D. M. Lyon), Mr. William CMScer, and Mr. Robert Sandenon, throughout this 

* Cf. ante. p. 61. Vogel obaerves:— "A worthy old Salute-maion assure* roe that the maaoni 
are divided into tliree classes. The Letter-maiions, the Salute-masons, and the Freemasons. Tha 
Freemasons are truly the richest, but, he added, they work by our word and we by theirs" (Briefs 
die Freimaurerei breffetend, 1785)l 

'In a Letter dated June A, 1884. « ty. Chap. YIIL, pp. 51, SS; and post, pp. 6S. 66. 

•InaLetterdated June 16, 1881 • Lyon, u( tupro, p. 818. C/. Chap. VUL. p. SI. 

'Lroi., op. eO., pp. 176,313. •ib«L, p. 814 


phftMAlogy of th* 8oliA« StetntM,' reroala •rklmiM oonflmwtory of their hopcn, wliiM 
otiwni ralying on tb* aiiom — " that in no mtom ia it po«ible to mj, tlutt a oonriuiion 
dmwn from circa imtuitiftl evidtnce can lunoant to >lNolttt« citrtaintj," * And in the nlhjrd 
lilanoe of the 8cottiih recordi, witli regsnl to »ny alleralion of ritiwl — * like coneolktion. 
Both tbeoriee or ipeonlstioM have been ooniiilenxl with lome fnlneM,— the tatter in an 
fuUer chapter,' and the former in the preeent one. Some raya of light, however, remain 
to be thed on the general lubjeot Theau, I think, my readen will diiceni in the following 
eitiaote from the minutM of the Lo<lge of Kelao, which aeem to nie to reduct* tu actnal 
demonetntion, what the collateral fact* or circumitancea Mtiefactorily proved, have already 
wananted ni in boliering, Tii., that the lyitem of three degrees wai gradually introduced 
into Scotland in the eighteenth centnry. 

" Kelio, 18th June 1794. — The Ixidgo being ocationaly met and opened, a petition 
was preaente«t from Brother Walter Kcr, Esq. of Litledean, and the Rev. Mr Robert Mon- 
teitb, miniater of the Oospel at Longformacua, praying to be paaacd fellow-crafta, which 
wu nnanimonaly agreed to, and the Right Worahipfnl Maater, dtjmttd Bnther Samu»l 
Brown, a viiiling Bnlher, from Ginongalt,from Leilh,' to offieiat* as Matttr.and Brolhtrt 
Pttlmtr and firgus, from »nmg Lodge, to act ai wirdint on thi» oemtion, in order gt wot 
might net the mithod pmctirtd in pa»»ing fellow eraftn ia their and the other Lodges in and 
ahimt Edr. [EdinhHrgh\, and they accordingly paaaed the abore Brothers Ker and Hon- 
tfith. Fellow Crafts, who gave their obligation and pay'd their feea in due form. Tliere- 
Hfter the I^lge waa regularly closed." 

" Eodem Die. — The former brethren met aa above, continued aitting, when u|Mn con- 
vening about Buainosa relating to the Craft, and tlio forms and IVactice of this Lodge in 
particular, a most essential defect of our (institution was diseonred, fit.,— that this lodge 
had attained only to the two Degrees of Apprentices and fWow Crafts, and knowing nothing 
of the Master's part, whereas all Regular Itodges over the World are composed of at least the 
three Regular Degrees of Master, fillow Craft, and Prentice. In order, therefor, to remedg 
this defect in our Constitution, Brothers Samuel Brown, Alexander Palmer, John Fergus, 
John llondoraon, Andrew Bell, and Francia Pringle, bnng all Master Masons, did form 
themselves into a Lodge of Masters — Brother Brown to act as Master, and hrothirs Palmer 
and firgus ai Hardens, when they proceeded to raise Brothers James Lidderdale, William 
Onnislon, Robert Pringle, David Robertson, antt Thomas Walker, lu the rank of Masters, 
trim qualified and were receiv'd accordingly." 

" In the above minute," says the historian * of the Lodge, " we hat-e clearly the origin 
(if n Master Mason's Lodge in Kelso." Indeed, it might be possiblo to go further, an<i to 
contend, that the second degree was also introdui-c<l at the same meeting? But without 
liil)orin^ this point, which the evidence uiducc<l will cimbic every reader to determine in 
lii8 own mind, there is one further quotation, with which 1 hhull terminate my extracts 
from tlieue records. 

December 21, 1T4I.— " Resolved that annually att said meetiiij; [on St John's day, in 
the Councill house of Kellso], there nhould hv u public e^amimitiun by the SLi-<tcr, War- 
den, and other members, iif the Itmt entered apprentices and oyrn [others], that it thereby 

' Ante, pp. S5, ST, and »ee particularly p. .'57, note 3. ' Taylor, Law of Evidence, 1858, p. 79. 
= Vni., pp. .51, 58. 

* Douktieag the " Caaoiigat« and Leilh and Canongate " lod^e, of wliicli u Bketrli ban l»'«»ii ffivoc 
II. I'liap. VHI., p. K. el wj/. > W. F. V rr- m. The Historj- of the Lodifc of Kelno, pp. 47, 44 

VOI-. III.—.'). 





j ; 


fl ' 

I ill! 



toKj appear what progreBs they hare made under their respective Intendera, that they may 
be thanked or cenanred conform[able'] to their respective Demeritts,"' 

The cumulative value of the evidence just presented, is greater than would at first sight 
appear. Quoting the traditionary belief of the Melrose Masons, who claim for their lodge 
an antiquity coeval with the Abbey there, which was founded in 1136, Vernon considers 
he has at least as good authority — in the absence of documents— for dating the institution 
of masonry in Kelso, at the time when David I. brought over to Scotland a number of 
foreign operatives to assist in the building of the Abbey of Kelso ( 1 128). " The very fact," 
he urges, " that the Abbey was dedicated to ;S^/. John the Evangelist and the Virgin Mary, 
and that tlie Kelso lodge was dedicated to the same saint, would seem to bear out this 
idea."* But whatever the measure of antiquity to which St. John's Lodge, Kelso, can 
justly lay claim, its existence is carried bank by the evidence of its own records, to 1701, 
from which we also learn tliat it preserved its independence — i.e., did not join the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland — until 1T53.* We find, therefore, an old operative lodge, one, more- 
over, working by inherent right — in which rather than in those subordinate to a new 
organization, we might naturally expect that old customs would remain for the longest time 
unmodified— testing, in 1741, the craftsmen and apprentices "according to their voca- 
tions," in strict conformity with the Schaw Statutes of 1599.* The continuance of this 
practice up to so late a period, coupled with the circumstance that the third degree — if we 
go no further — was introduced into the procedure of the lodge, after its acceptance of a 
charter, prove therefore, to demonstration, that the tests and " tryalls " enjoined by William 
Schaw, were twl the preliminaries to any such ceremony (or ceremonies), as the brethren 
of St John's Lodge were made acquainted with, in 1754.* Thus, two facts are established. 
One, that the examinations which took place periodically in the old lodges of Scotland were 
entirely of an operative character. The other, that the alleged silence of the Scottish re- 
cords with regard to the intrnduction of degrees, is not uniform and unbroken.* 

The Kelso minutes, whch luivc been strangely overlooked — by myself as well as others 
— indicate very clearly, the manner in which the English novelties must frequently have 
become engrafted on the masonry of Scotland, viz., by radiation from the northern metrop. 
olis. No other records arc equally explicit, and those of the Lodge of Edinburgh, c»- 
pecially, leave much to be desired. The office of clerk to this body, during the transitiuu 
jieriod of the lodge's history, was held by Mr. Robert Alison, an Edinburgh Mrriter, who, 

■ Vernon, The History of the Lodge of Kelso, p. 38. 

•/Wrf., |>. 5. Cf. ante, \). ax. 

•It was agreed on Decemhcr 88, 17S8, that the Treasurer was to pay tlie expense of a charter 
from the Grand Lodge. The charter is dated February 6, 1754 (Vernon, op cit., p. 38). 

«Pg6, 10, 18. C/. an<e, pp. 56, 57. 

'If we may believe "a Right Worshipful Master, 8. 0." [Scotch Constitution], the Lodge ot 
Melrose, in 1H71, " was carrying on the same system (liat it did nearly 200 veal's before." He statM, 
" I entered into conversation with an old Mason, whose father belonged to tlic lodge, and he told me. 
that his father told him, his grandfather was a member of the Melrose lodge, and their style of 
working was the same as at present. I made a calculation from this, and it4ook me back nearly 200 
years" 1 (Freemason, Dec. 30, 1871). Without, indeed, accepting for an instant, the fanciful conjec- 
ture above quoted, is is highly probable, that the Lodge of Melrose, which has never surrendereil it.« 
independence, w:ts longer in becoming indoctrinated with the English novelties, Uian the otiicr 
lodges — whose acceptance of the speculative sjrstem, as they successively joined the Urand Lodge, 
may be inferred from the example of the Lodge of Kelso. 

• Cf. ante, «4; .and Chap. VIII., pp. 61, .'.8, 



^>J the guarded style in which he recorded its transactions, has contributed to yeil in a 
hitherto impenetrable secrecy, details of the most important epoch in the history of 
Scottish Freemasonry, of which from his position he must have been cognizant.' But, as 
I have already ventured to contend,* the silence — or, after the evidence last presented, it 
will be best to say, comparative »ilence—ot these early records with respect to degrees, will 
satisfy most minds that they could have been known, if at all, but a short while before 
being mentioned in the minutes which have come down to us. The " Lodge of Journey- 
men," then composed exclusively of fellow-crafts, took part in the erection of the Grand 
Lodge in 1736, by which body it was recognized as a lawful lodge, dating from 1709. The 
historian of the lodge — who, by the way, ejcpreases a well-grounded doubt, ^.-hether the 
gradtt of apprentice and fellow-craft, were identical with the degrees of the siime name — 
informs ns, that it contented itself for forty years with the two grades or degrees referred 
to, as no indication of its connection with the Master's degree is found until the year 1750. 
On St John's Day of that year, it made application to the Lodge of Edinburgh, to raise- 
three of its members to the dignity of Master Masons. The application was cordially re- 
ceived, and the three journeymen were admitted to that degree " without any payment of 
composition, but only as a brotherly favor." For the same privilege, a fee of fourpence- 
was imposed on two brothers in the following year; but on August IC, 1754, the Master 
announced, that their Mother Lodge of Mary's Chapel had made an offer to raise every 
member of the Joumejrmen Lodge at the rote of twopence per head ! ' 

Whether the two grades, into which the members of " Journeymen " and the " Kelso " 
Lodges were divided, were identical with the degrees of the same name, is quite immaterial 
to the actual point we are considering. If the degree of fellow-craft was incorporated with 
the procedure of the Kelso Lodge prior to June 18, 1754, the minute of that date suffi- 
ciently attests how imperfectly it had taken root. The secrets communicuced in the 
"Journeymen" Lodge — at least during that portion of its history which is alone interesting 
to the student of our antiquities — can be gauged with even greater precision. 

The "Decreet Arbitral" of 1715 has been liappily termed the "Charter "of the 
Journeymen Lodge. By this instrument, the Incorporation of Masons are absolved from 
accounting to the Journeymen, " for the moneys received for giveing the Masson Word (lus 
it is called), either to freemen or Journeymen," as well before the date of the Decreet 
Arbitral as in all time to come. Next, " for putting ane end to the contraversaries ary- 
seiug betwixt the said ffreemen and Journeymen of the said Incorporation of Massons, 
anent the giveing of tlie Masson Word and the dues paid therefore," the arbiters decide 
that the Incorporation are to record in their books an Act and Allowance, allowing the 
Journeymen " to meet togeither by themselves as a Society for giveing the MttMsnn Word, 
and to receive dues therefor." But " the whole meetings, actings, and writeings" of the 
latter, were to be confined to the collecting and distributing of their funds obtained from 
voluntary offerings, or from "giveing the Wasson Word." Also, it was laid down, that all 
the money received by the Journeymen, either by voluntary donations or " for giveing the 
MasKon Word," was to be put into a common purse, and to be employed in no other way 
than in relieving the poor and in burying the dead. In the thinl place the .loumeymen 
were to keep a book, and to strictly account for "all moneys received for giveing the Magson 

' Lyon, ut lupra, p. 48. • Chap. VIII. , 51 , 52. 

•William Hunter, History of the Lodge of Journeymen Musons, No. 8, Ediuburgb, 1884, pp, 



Word" or otherwise.' The Deed of SnbmiBsion and the Decreet Arbitral, together with 
the Letters of Homing, which complete the series of these interesting, though not eupho- 
nious documents, are printed by Provost Hunter in the work already referred to, and with 
the exception of the last named and most mysterious of the three — which is rather sug- 
gestive of a popnhur superstition — also by Lyon in his admirable history. 

It is a singular foct, that the differences thus settled by arbitration, were between thv 
Journeymen and the Incorporation, not the Lodge of Mary's ChapeL Nor is the Lodge 
ever referred to in the proceedings. If, therefore, the idea is ten^le that incorporations 
and guilds were custodians of the Meuon Word, with the privilege or prerogative of con- 
ferring it, or of eontroUing its communication, quite a new line of thought is opened up 
to the masonic antiquary. The practice at Edinburgh, in 1715, may have been a survival 
of one more general in times still further remote from our own. The Scottish lodges may, 
at some period, have resembled agencies or deputations, with vicarious authority, derived 
in their case from the incorporations and guilds. The suggestions which have prompted 
these observations come unhappily too late for me to linger over them. Documentary 
evidence ' that might piH the whole matter in a clear light, will not reach me until these 
pages have passed through the press, so the further information— if such it should prove 
to be — must of necessity be relegated to the Appendix. 

Leaving, therefore, this point an open one, we learn from the " Decreet Arbitral " of 
1715, in which it is six times mentioned, that there was only one word. 

The same conclusion is brought homo to us by a Scottish law case reported in 1730, 
but I believe heard in 1725. In this, the lodge at Lar.irk sought to interdict the masong 
at Lesmahagow from giving the "Mason Word" to persons resident there." 

In each f.' these instances, only one word — the Mason Word— is alluded to. " Had 
there been more words than one," as the friend * point? out, to whom I am indebted for 
the referonce above, " that fact would have appeared on the lace of the proceedings, and 
there being only one word, it necessarily follows that there was only om degree." 

It is EuflSciently apparent that the ancient formulary of the Scottish lodges consisted 
of the communication of the Wono, and— as already observed* — all that was implied in the 

Here, with one final quotation, I shall take leave of this branch ct. onr subject, but 
the form of oath, and some portions of the catechism given in Sloane MS. , 3.129— a writing 
which in the opinion of some high authorities, is decisive as to the antiquity and indepen- 

' William Hunter, History of the Lodge of Journeymen Masons, chap. 'V.. and Appendix No. ii. 
See also Lyon. o/i. eit., pp. 140-14.3; ante, p. 63: and Chap, vni., p. 38. 

' Now being searched for by Mr. Melville, the Registrar of Court Becord.s, Edinburgh, at the in- 
stance of Mr. W. Ofiicer, who has obliged me with notes which have suggested the remarks in the 

'June 11, 1T30. — Masons of the Lodge of Lanark, contra Hamilton (Lord Kames, Remarkable 
Decisions of the Court of Session, Edinburgh, vol. ii., p. 4). This case is evidently referred to in a 
publication of the year 1747, entitled, " Magistracy settled upon its only true and scriptural basis. An 
inquiry into the Associate Presbytery's answers to Mr. Nairn's reasons of dissent. Publishetl in 
name, and subscribed by several of those who adhere to the RuUierglen, Sanquar, and Lanark ilec- 
leitations, etc. With a protestation against the nuuon-xeord, by five masons, 8d." (Soots' Maga- 
rine, vol. ix., 1747, p. 404). Cf. Ibid., vols, xvii., 1755, p. 138; xix., 1757, pp. 432, 583; Lawrie, op 
eit., p. 132. et $eq.: and Burton, History of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 343. 

< Mr. W. Officer, in a letter datt'd Oct. 7, 1884. ' Ante, p. 29. 


dence of the three degrees ' — nvor so mnch of the Scottiah idiom, that I ihAll introduce 
them. The italics are mine. 


" The tniuon Kord and every thing therein contained you shall keep secrett yon shall 
nerer put it in writing directly or Indirectly you shall keep all that we or your attend" * 
shall bid you keep secret from Man Woman or Child Stuck or Stone ' and nerer reveal it 
but to a brother or in a Lodge of Freemasons and truly observe the Charges in a y* Con- 
stitncion all this yon promise and swere faithfully to keep and observe without any manne' 
of Equivocation or mental! resarvation directly or InJi' actly so help you god and by the 
Contents of this book. 

" So he kisses the book," etc. 

The following are extracts from the catechism: — 

(Q.) " What is a just and perfect or just and Lawful! Lodge? 

(A.) " A just and perfect Lodge is two InterpritUices," two fellow Craftes, and two 
Hast", more or fewer, the more the merrier, the fewer the bett' chear, but if need require 
five will serve, tliat is two Interprintices, ' two fellow Craftes, and one Masf on the highest 
hill or Lomst Valley' of the World without the crow of a Cock or the bark of a Dogg. 

(Q.) " Wliat were you swome by ? 

(A.) " By God and the square."' 

Although it is tolerably clear that degrees— as we now have them — were grafted upon 
Scottish Masonry in the eighteenth century, a puzzle in connection with their English deri- 
vation still awaits solution. It is this. The degrees in question — or to vary the expres- 
sion, the only degrees comprised within the "old landmarks"" of Freemasonry— viz., those 
of Master Mason, Fellow Craft, snd Entered Apprentice, bear titles which are evidently 
borrowed from the vocabulary of Scotland. Master Mason, it is true, was a term common 
in both kingdoms, but viewed in conjunction with the others, the three expressions may 
be regarded as having been taken en Noe, from the operative terminology of the northern 
kingdom. Thus, we find England furnishing Scotland with Masonic degrees, which, how- 

' Notably the Rev. A F. A. Woodford in his reprint of this MS., 1878, p. 31— q.r. 

' "ATmn>BR— comiianioii, associate " (Johnson's Dictionary). Cf. ante, pp. 66, note 4; and 57 
note 5. 

'The oath of a freischdffen, 1.*., vebmic judge — as given by Grimm— be^-ins, "to keep, hele 
and hold the vehm from man from wife, from turf from branch, from stick and stone, from grass 
and herb," etc. (Deutsche Rechts AlterthOmer, 1838, p. 51). Cf. ante, Chap. XV., pp. 355, 363, SCi, 
note 3. * Cf. ante, p. 56, note 4. 'Ibid. 

'Cy. Vol n.,p. 356, an«f,45; and Chap. Vm., pp. 48, 49. According tc arimm, " The old gericht 
was always held in the open; under the sky, in the forest, under wide spreading trees, on a hUl, by 
a spring— anciently, at some spot sacred in pagan times, later, at ihe some spot from the force 
of tradition. It was - held ui hoUotn or valley », and near large stones" (op. ctf., pp. 793, S(fJ, 
803). Cf. Fort, Thfc ,• History and Antiquities of Freemasonrj-, pp. 364, 385. 

' " There ought n^ ir\e mason, neither M' nor fellow, y' taketh his work by great to take any 
Loses [eotraiu], if he can have any frie masons or lawful! taken prentices, and if he can have mrie 
of them, he may take so many as will serve his turoe, and he ought not to let j/"< know y privilege 
of ye compoM, Square, leveU and ye plumrrtde, but to sett out their plummiiig to them, . •. . •. and 
if there come any frie mason, he ought to displace one of ye Loses" (Melrose MS., No 19, Masonic 
Magazine, vol. vii., 1880, p. 894). Cf. ante. Chaps. I., p. 33; HI., pp. 137, 158, 167. 

•See No. xxzix. of the " Gencnil Rcfc-ulaliona " of 1723 (Appendix, post). 


,1 "/'f 

«Ter, bMU* title* exactly corresponding with thoae Of the gradei of Opentiro MaiOBi7 )n the 
Utter conntry. This is of itself somewhat confusing, bat mure remains behind. 

If the degrees so imported into Scotland, had a "luch earlier existence than the date of 
their transplantation, which is fixed by Lyon at the year 1721, but may, with greater prob- 
ability, be pat down at 1733 or 1724, then this difficulty occurs. Eith( the degrees in 
question existed, though without distinctive titles, or they were re-named during the epoch 
of transition, and under each of these suppositions we must suppose that the English 
(Free) Masons, who tvere familiar with symbolical degrees, borrowed the words to describe 
them from the Scottish Masons trho were not? It is true, eridence may yet be forth- 
coming, showing that degrees under their present appellations, are referred to before the 
publication of the Constitutions of 1733. But we must base our conclusions upon the 
only evidence we possess, and the silence of all extant Masonic records of earlier date, with 
regard to the three symbolical grades of Master Mason, Fellow Craft, and Apprentice, will 
be conclusive to some minds that they had then no existence. By this, however, I do not 
wish it to be implied, that in my own belief, degrees or grades in Speculative Masonry had 
their first beginning in 1733. 

It is almost demonstrably certain that they did not. But they are first referred to in une- 
quivocal terms in the Constitutions of that year, and the titles with which they were then 
labelled, cannot be traced (in conjunction) any higher, as speculative or non-operative 

The subject of degreen, in connection with the />9«-masonry of the south, will be pres- 
ently -considered, but this phase of our inquiry will be preceded by some final references 
to the documentary evidence of the north, which will conclude this chapter. 

In the Schaw Statutes (1598) will bo found all the operative terms, which, so far as the 
evidence extends, were first turned to speculative uses by the Freemasons of the south. 
" Master Mason, Fellow Craft, and Entered Apprentice," as grades of symbolical Masvnnj, 
are not alluded to in any book or manuscript of earlier date than 1733. Indeed, with the 
exception of the first named, the expressions themselves do not occur — at least I have not 
met with them in the course of my reading — in the printed or manuscript literature pre- 
ceding the publication of Dr. Anderson's "Book of Constitutions" (1733). The title, 
" Master Mason," appears, it is true, in the Halliwell Poem,' and though not used in the 
MS. next in seniority,* will also be found in several versions of the " Old Charges." * The 
term or expression is also a very common one in the records of the building trades, and 
is occasionally met with in the Statutes of the Realm,* where its earliest use — in the Statute 
of Labourers ' (1350) — has somewhat perplexed our historians. The words mestre mason (U 
franche pert were cited by Mr. Papworth as supporting his theory — " that the term Fru- 
mason, is clearly derived from a mason who worked free-stone, in contradistinction to the 
mason who was employed in rougl: work."' Upon this, and the commentary of Dr. Klose, 

' " Mays<er (or Maysfur) Mason " (lines 88, 806). ' The " Cooke," No. 2. 

'E.g., the Lansdowoe (3) and the Antiquity (33) MSS. Cf. Hughan, The Old Charges of Britiali 
Freemasons, p[>. 3S, 68; and ante, Ciiap. XV., p. 837. 

• Cf. Chaps. VI., pp. 802, 808, 806, 307, 318; Vn., pp. 837, 367; XIV., p. 870; and Mr. Wyatt 
?apworth's Papers "On the Superintendents of English Buildings in the Middle Ages" (cited in 
Chap. VI., p. 301, note 8), passim. 

'85 Edward m., Stat, ii., c 3; ante. Chap. VH., p. 837. 

* Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1861-68, pp. 37-60. C/. ante, Cbmp. VL, 
pp. 807, 808. 



Findel found* • concluwon th»t " the won Frae-Maion ocean for the first time in the 
8t»tute 25 Edward III. (1350)," '—which ia next taken up, and again amplified by Stein- 
brenner. who, although he leaves out the word maton, in his quotation from the statute, 
attaches to " me»tr« de francht-ptre " a most arbitrary and illusory signification. " Here," 
he ttvs, " fVee-maton " — how he gets at the second half of the compound word is not 
explained—" evidently signifies a /VM-«<o««-m<i«m— one who works in Free-stoiie, as distin- 
guished from the rough mason, who merely built walls of rough unhewn stone." ' " This 
latter sort of workmen," oVjsenres Mackey— who, after quoting the passages just given, in 
turn takes up the parable, and, it may be remarked, accordr ■> Steinbrenner the entire merit 
of the research, out of which it arises— "was that class called by the Scotch Masons Cowans, 
whom the Freemasons were forbidden to work with, whence we get the modem use of that 
word."' But nowhere, except in the documents of the Scottish Craft, do we meet with 
the names, which have been employed from the year 1733, to describe the Freemasons of 
the two lower degree*. " Fellows " and " Apprentices "—or more commonly " Prentices" * 
—are constantly referred to, but not " Fellow-Oo/lfa," or Entered Apprentices— titles 
apparently unknown, or a. least not in use, in the south. " Cowans " are also alluded to 
by the Warden General, but English Masons were not familiarized with this expression 
until it was substituted by Anderson in the Constitutions of 1738,* for the terms layer,* 
Iyer, lowen, loses, etc.,' where they are used in the " Old Charges" to distinguish the ordi- 
nary wo.kman from the sworn brother. 

The terms or expressious. Master Mason, Fellow Craft, Entered Apprentice, and Co ,ran, 
appear, from documentary evidence, to have been in common use in Scotland, from the 
year 1598 down to our own times. These operative titles — now conferred on the recipients 
of degrees— VK named in the Schaw Statutes (1598), the records of Mary's Chapel (1601), 
and the laws of the Aberdeen Lodge (1670).' There, so to speak, they are presented en 
bloc, which make the references the more comprehensive and significant, but all three titles 
occur Tcry frequently in the early minutes of Scottish lodges, though that of " Master 
Mason " is often curtailed to " Master."* 

The word " Cowan " has been previously referred to,'* but in support of my argument, 

' History of FreemaK)niy, p. 79. See ante, Chap, vn., p. 337, note a. 

'The Origin and Eai.y History of Masonry, 1864, p. 111. 

'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, 1874, s.v. Freemason. 

* The Halliwell MS. (1) has, Prentysse, prentys, and prentea; the Cooke {i),prentis, prentes, and 
prcntithode; the Lan& ' wne (3) gives Prentice, which, however, in the Antiquity Roll (33) is modern- 
ized into apprintice. ' ^1 • >*•. 54, '4. 

• The use o( the word tajer— the coiumonest of these terras— in preference to eotixm, in the KU. 
winning (1«) and Atcheson Haven (17) MSS., fumishos another argument in support of the thesis,^ 
that " all Scottish versions of the ' Old Charges ' ure of English origin." Cf. ante, pp. 15, 51, 53, 55, 
and Chaps. H., p. 08 ; VUI., p. 53. 

' From a collation of thirty-flve versions of the "Old Charges." I find that {dyer— under varied 
spellings, which, however, are idem sonanfta— occurs in Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 18, JT 80, 81, 88, aSa, 
34, 35a, 36, 87, 33, 86, 87, 89; Iyer in Nos. 13, 14, 14a, 15, 38; lou-en, in Nos. 3 and 3f lose*, in No. 19; 
arangen, in No. 11; nragh maton in No. 85; rough Iteteer iu No. 45; and lewU in '<o. 81a. Nos. 18, 
31, and 44 contain no equivalent terra. See the references to ligier in Chaps. V.., p. 807; XTV., p. 
381, note 1; and compare with note 6 above. 

'Chap. Vin., pp. 6, 48, 49; Lyon op. cit., pp. 73, 488, 435. The words in the preamble of Schaw 
Stat, No. 1 (1598), that they were '• to be obseniit [obaerved] be all the raaister raaissounis [JUiuter 
Itatmi] withia this realm," were omitted in my s'immary of these regulations at Chapter Vm., 
loceit. • cy. on**, p. 68; and Chap, vm., jxMiim. "Chap. VUL, p. 10. 



thst the operative TonbnUry of the liiter kingdom farnig) mwiy of the expreaioiM of 
which we And the earlieet Mnthern uae in the pnblicationx , »r. Andennn, • few addi- 
tioutl renwriis will be oifored. 

According to Lyon—" of all the technicalitiei of OpentiTe Mmohi Umt h«ve been pre. 
■erred in the nomenclature of their ipeculative incceMore, that of ' Cowan,' nikich is a 
purtly Scotch term, hai loet leaet of its original meaning. " ' 

By Dr. Jamieaon, it i« deacribed aa " a word of contempt ; applied to one who doea the 
work of a maaon, bat haa not been regularly brod "—i.e., brought up in the trade.* 

But the term ia beat defined in the Kilwinning Reoorda, Tii., a tnatOH without the word 
— or, to Tiry the ezpreraion — an irregular or uninitiated operative maaon.' 

That it waa commonly uaed in this aenae, in the early documenta of the Scottiah Craft, 
ia placed beyond douur. 

We find it ao employed in the Minutea of the Lodge of Edinburgh— 1599— of the Olaa. 
gow Incorporation of Maaona— 1600, 1633— of " Mother" Kilwinning— 1645, 1647, iror>— 
and of the Lodge of Haddington — 1697.' 

Poaaibly, however, from the fact, that ao aimple and natural an explanation afforda nu 
acope for the exerciae of learned credulity, there ia hardly any other word, except, perhaps, 
" Eaaenea"' and " Maaon,"' which haa been traced to ao many aourcea by our etymolo- 

Thug, its origin haa been found in the "chouana" of the French Revolution, "of 
which the h waa omitted by the Engliah, who failed to aapirate it conformably to cockney 
pronunciation."' Again, in Egypt, we are informed cohen waa the title of a prieat or 
prince, and a term of honor. Bryant, apeak ing of the harpies, aays, they were priests of 
the Sun, and aa cohen waa the name of a dog as well as a priest, they are termed by ApoU 
lonins, " the dogs of Jove."' " Now, St. John cautions the Christian brethren that ' with- 
out are dogs' {Hvvtf), cowans or listeners (Rev. xxii. 15); and St Pftul exhorts the Chris- 
tians to ' beware of dogs, because .ney are evil workers' (Phil. iii. 2). Now, mvuv, a dog, 
or evil worker, is the Masonic Cowan. The above priests or metaphorical dogs, were also 
called Cercyoniana, or Cer-cowans, because they were lawless in their behavior towards 
strangers."' So far Dr. Oliver, whose remarks I quote, although his conclusions are dia- 
metrically opposed to my own, because they re-appear in the arguments of very learned 

■ Lyon, op. eit., p. 24. ' Etymological Dictionary ot the Scottish LAnguage, 1806—35, «. v. 

•Jan. 28, 1647.— "Qiihilkday Robert Qtihyt, masaoune in Air [<lyr], vpouneoath declynedall 
working with the cowaing at any tyme heirefter." Dec. 20, 1705.— "By consent of the meeting, it 
was agreed that no meaason shall employ no cowan, which i» to mty without the word, to work'' 
(Minutes, Lodge of Kilwinning— Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 412; and of ■'Mother'" 
Kilwinning, part iii. — Freemasons' Magazine, Aug. 29, 1868). 

*Lyon, op. eit., pp. 24, 25, 411. Cf. ante. Chap VIII., pp. 10, 14. 'See Chap. I., p. 81. 

• Of this word Heckethome o'oserves, " Though some etymologists pretend the name to be de- 
rived from mcuea, a club, with which the door keeper was armed to drive away uninitiated intruders 
we can only grant this etymology on the principle enunciated by Voltaire, that in etymology vowels 
go for very little, and consonants for nothing at all ! " (Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries, 
1875, vol. i., p. 251). See ante. Chap. I., p. 6: Mackey, op. eit., ».v. Mason; and for a curious refer- 
ence to the word Mate, in connection with Maton, the Orub Street Journal, February- 2, 1732: aim 
the Rawlinson MS. (Bodleian Library-), fol. 233. 

'Oliver, Historical iAndmarks of Freemasonry, 1846, vol. i., p. 142. Citing [Webb] Situal of 
Frecniasonrj', 183i>, p. 69. 

■Oliver, ul tupra, vol. i. p. 349. 'lliid., p. 349. 



Btn, by whom the derirstion of enwan hat been more recently coniiidered. ' Dr. Carpen- 
ter, who examine* and rejects the reaaoniiif; of Dr. Olirer, thinkM tht> moaning of the word 
nay be fonnd in the Anglo-Saxon cotoeit, which ligniflps a herd, as of k:;ie, hot which wo 
nie metaphorically, to denote a company of thoughtloM people, or a labble.* 

By an earlier writer,' it ha« been traced to tho Greek word bmovoi, to hear, hearken, 
or liiten to, of which the post participle aMoveav, wonld — w thinks Dr. Viner Bedolfe — 
lignify a " listening person." In a good sense, a " disciple"— in a biul sense, an " eaves- 
dropper." Mva>y, a dog, in the opinion of this writer, is also doubtless from the same 
root, in the seuse of one who listens— as dogs do— and the two ideas combined, he belieTes, 
would probably give us tho true meaning of the word.* 

I have quoted from the three doctors at some length, and by way of justification, sub- 
join the following remarks, wherein, after the subject had been debated for nearly seven 
months in the columns of the Masonic press. Dr. Carpenter ' thus sums up the whole 
matter. " I think," he says, " we have got pretty well at the meaning of the word eoteen, 
as it is uied in the Craft B". D. Murray Lyon will not take offence at my saying, that I 
much prefer B™. Dr. Bedolfe's conjecture to his, although the phrase ' cowans attd eaves- 
droppers,' in the old Scottish ritual, shows that coioan was not synonymous with listener or 
eait»dropper there. We have cowans and intruders, however,— the intruder being a person 
who might attempt to gain admission without the ' word,' and the cowan something else. 
1 got Metier through the Anglo-Saxon; B™. Dr. Beilolfe, through the Greek; but we 
agree in the import of the word, and in its use amongst Masons." ' 

The preceding observations, in conjunction with others from the pen of tho same writer, 
indicate, that without questioning the iue of tho word cowan by the Operative Fraternity 
in the sense of a clandestine or irregular mason, the doctor demurs to this having anything 
whatever to do with the origin and use of the word by the Speculative Society. " The 
Operalivei," he says, " sometimes admitted a Cowan— the Speculaiives never."' 

In the original edition of Jamieson's Dictionary, two meanings only of the word are 
given. One I have cited on the last page, and the other is a dry-diler, or a person who 
builds dry walls. After these, and as u third meaning or acceptation, we find in the edition 
of 18T9, " Cowan— one un»cquainted with the secrets of Freemasonry." • Its derivation is 

thus given:—" Snio-G ■ . 
capiti omnes tuto illui. 
a base fellow: " qui fu u\ 
dictionary deduce it f. 
imported by the Franko; 

•■-•/I, kughjon, a silly fellow: hominem imbellem, et cujus 

jppellare moris est." French — coioh, coyow, a coward, 

d«» lachete, i^«rti>iM,— Diet. Trev." The editors of this 

jiiielus. But the term is -ividently Gothic. It has been 

is derived from kufw-a, supprimere, insultare." But the 

'See the observations of Dr. W. Carpenter, Messrs. E. J. Walford, W. de St Croix, and C. O. 
Forsj-th, and Dr. Viner Bedolfe, at pp. 43, 78, 131, and 441 respectively, of the Freematon, vol. iv., 
1871. * Freemason, foe. eit. 

' " R. L.," in the Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1835, p. 438. * Freemason, toe. eit. 

' Author of " Freemasonry and Israelitism," of which twenty-six chapters or sections were pul>- 
liabed in the Freemason, vol. iv., 1871; " The Israelites Found in the Anglo-Saxons," etc. 

• Freemason, vol. iv., 1871, p. 457. The italics are the doi'tor's. ' Ibid., p. 425. 

• First given in the Supplement (ISS.)) to the original etlition. In this coteaner is also mentioned, 
a word which hiis been allowed to " drop out" by whoever is responsible for the reprint of 1879. 

• Or ancient language of Sweden. '" Ihre, Lexicon Lapponicum, Holmiae, 178ft 
" Col^rave, French and Eikglish Dictionary, 1650. 

" Trevoux, Dictionnaire Universelle Francis et Latin, 1753. 

ter, who cxMnines »nd reject* the resMmiiif; of Dr. Olirer, thinkii thu maming of the word 
BMT be fonml in the Anglo-Saxon coweu, which lignifiei a herd, aa of k:;ie, but which wo 
nw metaphorically, to denote a company of thoughtleM people, or a labble.* 

By an earlier writer,' it ha« been traood to the Greek word auovea, to hear, hearken, 
or liiten to, of which the past participle aMovatr, wonld — w thinks Dr. Viner Bedolfe — 
lignify a " listening person." In a good sense, a " disciple"— in a biul sense, an " eavea- 
dropper." Mva>y, a dog, in the opinion of this writer, is also doubtless from the same 
root, in the seuse of one who listens— as dogs do — and the two ideas combined, he believes, 
would probably give ns the tme meaning of the word.* 

I have quoted from the three doctors at some length, and by way of justification, sub- 
join the following remarks, wherein, after the subject had been debated for nearly seven 
months in the columns of the Masonic press. Dr. Carpenter ' thus sums up the whole 
matter. *' I think," he says, " we have got pretty well at the meaning of the word cowtn, 
as it is uied in the Craft B~. D. Murray Lyon will not take offence at my saying, that I 
much prefer B". Dr. Bedolfe's conjecture to his, although the phrase ' cowans atul eaves- 
droppers,' in the old Scottish ritual, shows that coioan was not synonymous with listener or 
eamdnpper there. We have cowans and intruders, however,— the intruder being a person 
who might attempt to gain admission without the ' word,' and the cowan something else. 
I got Metier through the Anglo-Saxon; B™. Dr. Beilolfe, through the Greek; but we 
agree in the import of the word, and in its use amongst Masons." * 

The preceding observations, in conjunction with others from the pen of the same writer, 
indicate, that without questioning the lue of the word cowan by the Operative Fraternity 
in the sense of a clandestine or irregular mason, the doctor demurs to this having anything 
whatever to do with the origin and use of the word by the Speculative Society. " The 
Operalivei," he says, " sometimes admitted a Cb wan— the Speculatives never."' 

In the original eilition of Jamieson's Dictionary, two meanings only of the word are 
given. One I have cited on the last page, and the other is a dry-diker, or a person who 
builds dry walls. After those, and as u third meaning or acceptation, we find in the edition 
o( 1879, " Cowan— one un»cquaintod with the secrets of Freemasonry." • Its derivation is 
thus given:— " Suio-G ■ . "'•'/i, kughjon, a silly fellow: hominem imbellem, et cnjus 

capiti omnes tuto illm. appellare moris est." French— cowh, coyow, a coward, 

a base fellow: " qui ffc i.r d«f lachete, i^«rti'M«, — Diet. Trev." The editors of this 

dictionary deduce it f. juietun. But the term is -ividimtly Gothic. It has been 

imported by the Franko; ....v is derived from kufie-a, supprimere, insultare." But the 

'See the observations of Dr. W. Carpenter, Messrs. E. J. Walford, W. de St. Croix, and C. O. 
Fopsj-th, and Dr. Viner Bedolfe, at pp. 43, 73, 121, and 441 respectively, of the Freemattm, vol. iv., 
1871. * Freemason, foe. cit. 

' " R. L.," in the Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1835, p. 428. * Freemason, toe. cit. 

' Author of " Freemasonry and Israelitism," of which twenty-six chapters or sections were pub- 
lished in the Freemason, vol. iv., 1871; " The Israelites Found in the Anglo-Saxons," etc. 

•Freemason, vol. iv., 1871, p. 457. The italics are the doi'tor's. '/bid., p. 425. 

• First given in the Supplement (18a.>) to the original etlition. In this coieaner is also mentioned, 
a word which hiis been allowed to " drop out" by whoever is responsible for the reprint of 1879. 

•Or ancient language of Sweden. '" Ihre, Lexicon Lapponicum, Holmias, 1780. 

" Col^rave, French and English Dictionary, 1630. 

" Trevoux, Dictionnaire Univereelle Francis et Latin, 17S3. 



I ttymology wai giTvn in tb* flnt adition of the work,' and in oonnootion with tbo tw« 
pnraljr opoimtire (•nd only) expluuttiona of the word. For thii rwMon my qnotktiona from 
*h» original dtotionary, and ita modem reprwentatirw tuve been (epwrntely preeented, h 
it w<cnM to me, thttt the etymological rabtletiee for which the term under examination hat 
■erred a* a target, may be appropriately brought to a cloae, by citing the new naea to which 
the old deriration jaa been applied. 

It ia true that Comma were lometimea licenaed to perform maaon'a work, but alwayi 
under certain reatrictiona. Their employment by Master Maaori, when no regular Crafta- 
men could be found within fifteen mile a, waa allowe«l by the Lodge of Kilwinning in the 
eurly part of the laat century. It waa alio the cuatom of Scotch Incorporationa in the aev. 
enteenth and eighteenth centnriea to licenae cowans — Maatera and Journeymen '—who were 
at once tlutchers, wrighta, and maaona. Liberty to execute hewn work, waa, howerer, inn' 
riably withheld. Maiater Cowanda were, under reatrictiona, admitted to memberahip in 
aome Moaonic Incorporatioiu, but their reception in Lodgea waa atrictly prohibited.* 

Among the regnlationa enjoined by the Warden General, there are aome upon which 
I muit briefly diUte. The cuatoma to which theae gare riae, or aaaiated iu perp< tuating, 
partly re-appear in the /Vw-maaonry of the South. But inoamuch aa there are no Eng- 
luh minntea or lodge recorda of earlier date than the eighteenth century, the clue, if one 
there be, to uaagea which, with alight modifioationa, have laated, in aome inatancea, to our 
own timea, muat be looked for <z tuee»»itat» rf> in the Statutea, promulgated ^y William 
Schaw, after — we may auppoae, aa in the aomewhut parallel caae of Etienne Boilean'— aatiii- 
fying himaelf by the teatimony of repreaentative craftamen, that the/ were naoul and cus- 
tomary in the trade. 

A general or head meeting day waa named by the " Maater of Work," upon which 'lie 
election of Warden waa to be conducted. Thia, in the case of Kilwinning, and ita tribu- 
tary lodgea,' waa to take place on December 20, but in all other inatancea on the day of St. 
John the Evangeliat The Utter fact, it ia true, ia not atteated by the actual Statutee, but 
that both datea of election were fixed by William Schaw, may nevertheleaa be regarded u 
having been satisfactorily proved by evidence aliunde. 

The order of the Warden General for the election of Lodge Wardena, or what at all 
events is believed by the highest authority ' to be his — except within the bounds of Kil- 
winning, the Nether Ward of Clydesdale, Glasgow, Ayr, and C'arrick— is as follows;—" xvij 
Novembris, 1599. Fimt, it is ordanit that the haill Wardenis salbe chosen ilk yeir pre- 
ciselie at Sanct Jhoneia day, to wit the xxvij day of december.' 

This minute, assumed to be a memorandum of an order emanating from the Warden 
General, is followed by another, which I shall also quote: — 

" xviij Dccembris, 1599. The qlk day the dekin & maisteris of the Indge of Edr. [Edin- 
burgh] elcctit & chcsit Jhone Broun in thair Warden be monyest of thair voitia for une 
zeir [year] to cum." ' 

■ Le., the ori^nal text, not the Supplement. 

'Some extracts from the minutes o( tlie AyrSquaremen Incorporation (15S8, 1671, 1677, and 1688), 
referring to Fellow-Craft and Master Cowanii, will be found in the Freema$OH, vol. iv., 1871, p. 409. 

• Lyon, ut tupra, p. 24 Cf. ante. Chap. ID., pp. 129, g LTV. ; 141, g 81; and §§ Q and H of the 
Strassburg Ordinances (Ibid., p. 119, note 5). In partinii: with the term, I may remark that some 
interesting notes, entitled "The Meaning of Cowan," appeared in the Miuonie Xagazint, vol. viiL, 
1880, pp. 113. 114. 

<Chap. rv., p. 188. • Chap. Vm., p. 10. • Cf. Lyon, op. cU., pp. 88, S9. ' Ibid., p. Sd 





^^oA^x^-^^ yta^^ 


I'iisi lliiiiiHMil ('■i.iiiil M.isUT "I" llii- ('.niiiil Kiir;iiii|imiMit of tli»' 
KiiiylilH Ti'iupl.'ii' i>f 111'' I iiiU'tl Stritt's. 




It BMy be obwrred, that election* frequently took place on the twenty-eiffhth instead of 
the tiotnty-s$v»tUh of December. The minntee of the Meboie (1674) and other early Soot- 
tiih Lodgei, afford examples of this apparent irregnlarity, though ita explanation — if, 
indeed, not simply arising in each case from the festival of St John the Evangelist filling 
upon a Sunday ' — may be found in an old guild-custom. Every guild had its appointed 
day or days of meeting. At these, called mom-speeches (in the various forms of the word), 
or " dayes of Spekyngges tokedere [togelher] for here [their] comune profyte," much busi- 
ness was done, such as the choice of officers, admittance of new brethren, making up 
accounts, reading over the ordinances, and the like. One day, where several were held in 
the yesr, being fixed as the " general day."* 

The word " morning-speech" (morgen-epac) is as old as Anglo-Saxon times. " Mor- 
gen " signified both " morning " and " morrow; " and the origin of the term would seem to 
be that the meeting was held either in the morning of the same day, or on the morning 
(the morrow) of the day after that on which the guild held its feast and accompanying 

However this may have been, the custom of meeting annually upon the day of St. John 
the Evangelist, in conformity with the order of the Warden General, with the exception of 
Mother Kilwinning (December 30) appears to have been observed with commendable 
fidelity by such of the early lodges whose minutes have come down to us. It was the case 
at Edinburgh— 1599; Aberdeen— 1670; Melrose— 1674; Dunbhtne— 1696; and Atcheson 
Haven — 1700. In each instance I quote the earliest reference to the practice, afforded by 
the documents of the lodge.' The usage continued, and survives at this day, but of the 
celebration of St. John the Baptist's day — or St. John's day "in Harvest,"* as distin- 
guished from St. John's day "in Christmas" — by any fraternity exclusively masonic, we 
have the earliest evidence in the York minute of June 24, 1713.' Both days, it is true, 
were observed by the Gateshead sodality of 1671;' but though the Freemasons were the 
leading ciaft of this somewhat mixed corporation, there is nothing to show, or from which 
we might infer, that the custom of meeting on Midsummer day, had its origin in a usage 
of the lodge, rather than in one of the guild. Indeed, the reverse of this supposition is the 
more credible of the two. 

• January 89, 1675.— "We .'. consent .•. to meit yeirly on Saint John's Day, which is ye 37 ol 
December (if it be not on ye Sabbath Day) in y* ea»e tee ar to keipe ye next day /(Mowing .: and 
alio yt no prenti8^« shal be entered recivit in but on ye forsd day " (Mutuall A(;riement Betwixt the 
Moinones of the Lodge of Mclros;— Masonic Magazine, vol. vii., p. 365). It is singular that both sets 
of the Seliaw Statutes are dated December 38. 

• Lucy Toulmin Smith, trf tupra. Introduction to Smith, English Gilds, p. xxxiii. • IMd. 
'See, however, Fort, op. eit., pp. 118, 195; and compare with ante, Ciiap. VTII., pp. 69, 70. 

• The following is from the regulations of the " f ratemite of Taillors of Seint John de baptitt in 
•h' ^itee of Exceter:— " Also hyt ys ordcned, that alle the ffeleshyppe uf the Bachelerys schall hoUen 
ther teste at Synte John-y» day in hanecute" (Smith. English Oilds, pp. 313, 835). The same ex- 
pression will be found in the Ordinances of the Quild of St John Baptist, West Lynn (pott, p. 76, 
note 5). 

'Ante, p. 38. Cf. ibtd., pp. 14, notel, 16, 18. Although it is comparatively unimportant on 
what day the Swalwell brethren held their annual election, either in 1730, ITiS, or, indeed, at any 
period after the publication of the Book of Constitutions— the fact that the Oeneral head-meeting 
day of the Alnwick " Company and Fellowship," from 1704 onwards, as we learn from the earliest 
EngliA Lodge HeforiU that have come down to ua, was the festival of St. John the EvangeOat, ia 
worthy of our attention. ' An<«, voL II., p. 87& 



\ '' i 

M' I 

The objects of all guilds alike have been well defined by Ilincmar, Archbiihop of 
Rheinu, in one of his Capitularies." He says, " in omni obsequio religionis conjungantur " 
— they shall unite in every exercise of religion. By this was meant, before all things, the 
associations for the veneration of certain religious mysteries, and in honor of saints. Such 
guilds were everywhere under the patronage of the Holy Trinity, or of certain saints, or of 
the Holy Cross, or of the Holy Sacrament, or of some other religious mystery. In honor 
of these patrons they placed candles on their altars, and before their images, whilst in 8om< 
statutes this even appears as the only object of the guild.* 

But the definition given above must not be restricted to the social or religions guilds. 
It applies equally well to the town-guilds or guilds-merchant, and the trade-guilds or gnilils 
of crafts. None of the London trades appear to have formed fraternities without ranging 
themselves under the banner of some saint, and, if possible, they chose one who bore a fan- 
cied relation to their trade.' Thus the fishmongers adopted St Peter; the drapers chose 
the Virgin Mary, mother of the " Holy Lamb" or fleece, as the emblem of that trade. 
The goldsmiths' patron was St Dunstan, reputed to have been a brother artisan. The 
merchant tailors, another branch of the draping business, marked their connection with it 
by selecting St. John the Baptist, who was the harbinger of the Holy Lamb so adopted by 
the drapers. In other cases, the companies denominated themselves fraternities of the par- 
ticular saint in whose church or chapel they assembled, and had their altar.* 

Eleven or more of the guilds, whose ordinances are given us by Mr. Tonlmin Smith, 
had John the Baptist as their patron saint, and several of these, whilst keeping June 24 ns 
their head day, also assembled on December 27, the corresponding feast of the Evangelist.* 
Among the documents brought to light by this zealous antiquary, there are, unfortunately, 
none relatin^ directly to the Masons,' though it is somewhat curious that he cites t';» 
records of a guild, which, it is possible, may have comprisetl members of that trade,' ;u 
affording almost a solitary instance of the absence of a patron saint The guild referred to 
is that of the smiths (ffabrorum) of Chesterfield.' 

■ Of. Wilda, Das Gildewesen ira Hittelolter, 1881, pp. 33, at, 41. 

•Brentano, ut mpra, p. 19. Cf. Smith, Enf;lisli Gilds, pp. 37, 40; and ante. Chap. IV., p. 1(14. 
etmq. ' Of- Chap. X., pp. 102, 103: and Fort, op. fit., pp. 44, 103, 178. 

•Herbert, Companies of London, vol. i., 1837, p. 67. Cf. ante.. Chap, m., p. 170. 

» "And yis gilde schal haue foure mornspeches be ye [year]. The first schal ben after ye drynk- 
ynge; the sccunde schal ben vp-on ye seynt Jlion day in heruyst [harvegt]; the thryde - hal beo 
vp-on seynt Jon day in Cristeniesse; the fourte schal lien V|>-on seynt Jhon day in M. , Ordi- 
nances, Gild of St John Riptist, West Lynn— Smith, English Gilds, p. 100). Cf. ibid., pp. .'7, 5c. 
71, 119, 133, 146, 161. 358, 310; and ante, p. 75, note 5. 

• According to Mr. Coote— " At the bcginnini; of the present century (perhaps at the end of the 
laiit, through extraneous influences, a hierarchical system waa intrclucecl into Freemasonry, and all 
th<» independent lodges (or guilds) submitted themselves to one lo<lge in London as their chief, at the 
same time surrendering to the latter their royal charters (or licences) and their ordinani-es. Them 
irere probably aB destroyed by the central authority at the timo of the surrender I" (Transoctions. 
t,<>ndon and Middlesex Archaeological Society, vol. iv., 1871, p. 2). The story of the manuscripta 
sacrificed by "scrupulous brethren " (1730) will here occur to the mind of the reflective reader. C/. 
ante., p. 33. 

' Cf. Chape. L, pp. S8, 44; HI., pp. 169, 170: XIV., p. 381. 

• Mr. Smith obwrvps; " This gild xcoms to have hod no patron saint Among the records of »( 
least six hundred early English gilds that have come under my careful review, I have very rarel.v 
found absence, save in some of the Gilds-Merchant" (EngliNli Gilds, p. 168). 



An explanation of this apparent anomaly is furnished by Brentano;' but leaving the 
point an open one, whether in the case before ug Mr. Smith or his commentator has the 
beat title to our confidence, it may be remarked that the guild of the joinem and carpen> 
ten at Worcester aim appears not to have been under any saintly patronage; yet, on the 
other hand, we find the ca:penters' guild of Norwich dedicated to the Holy Trinity, whilst 
the " brotherhood " of barliers in the same town, and the "fraternity" of tailors at Exeter, 
were each under the patronage of St John the Baptist* 

The general head-meeting day of the Alnwick Lodge, in 1701, was the " Feast of St 
Hicliael," but this, however, we find shortly afterwards changed to that of St John the 

The records of Mary'a Chapel and Kilwinning are sufficiently conclusive of the fact, 
that the holding of lodge assemblies on the day of St John the Baptist was never a custom 
of the Scottish fraternity until after the erection of their Grand Lodge. By the original 
regulations of this body, the election of a Grand Master was to take place on St Andrew'^ 
Day /or the first time, and " ever thereafter " upon that of St. John the Baptist. In accor- 
dance therewith, William St Clair of Roslin was elected the first Grand Master on Novem- 
ber 30, ITSe, which day, in preference to December 37, was fixed for the annual election 
of officers by resolution of the Grand Lodge, April 13, 1737, as being the birthday of St. 
Andrew, the tutelar saint of Scotland.' 

Of all the meetings of the Lodge of Edinburgh that were held between the years 159!) 
and 1756, only some half-a-<lozen happencil to fall on June 34; and the first mention of 
the lodge celebrating the festival of St. John the Baptist, is in 1757.' 

It will be quite unnecessary, in these days, to lay stress on the circumstance, that the 
connection of the Saints John with the Masonic Institution, is of a symbolic and not of an 
historical character. The custom of assembling on the days of these saints is, apparently, 
a relic of sun-worstiip, combined with other features of the heathen Paganalia. The Pagan 
rites of the festival at the summer Solstice may be regarded as a counterpart of those used 
at the winter Solstice at Yule-tide. There is one thing which proves this beyond the pos- 
sibility of a doubt In the old Runic Fasti a wheel was used to denote the festival of 
Christmas. This wheel is common to both festivities.' 

' On the HUtory and Development of Oilds, p. 19. As the edition I quote from is the rtprint of 
1H70, it will be necessary to odd Ixiv. to this pagination to arrive at corresponding; portions of the 
"psaay" originally prefixed to Smith's" English Gilds." Thus xix. -i- Ixiv. =lxxxiii., which is 
identical with p. 19 of the re}>rint. * Smith, English Oilds, pp. 37, 40, 309, 310. > Ante, p. IS. 

* Lyon observes: " In tiie minute in which this is recorded, it is taken for granted that the 34lh 
of June was originally fixed as the date of the grand Annual Communication and Election; ' because 
it had long been customary among the fraternity to hold their principal assemblies on St John the 
Biiptist's Day,' and upon this assumption tlip fabulous story of the craft's ancient connection with 
St John the Baptist has ever since been perpetuated" (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 170. 
See, however, pp. 335, 338). 

' Ibid, See further, Historj- of the Lodge of Kelso, p. 15; and j,osl, p. 84, note 5. 

•Dr. Oliver, however, in what is one of the least valuable, though withal the most pretentious 
of his numerous works, after stating that these siiints " were perfect (larallels in Christianity as well 
iis Masonrj'," observes: " We are challenged by our opjionents to prove that St. John [the Evange-] was a Freemason. The tiling is inca|>able of direct proof. Calmet [Kieitively asserts that he 
was an Essene, which was the secret society of the day, thatconveyed moral truths under symbolical 
figures, and VMiy therefore be termed tyeemamnry, retaining the same form, tnit practited under 
mother name!" (Historical Landmarks of Fret'Miasonry, 1S46, vol. i., p. 167). 

' Brand, Popular Antiquities of Ureal Urituiu, edit by W. C. Hailitt, ItnO, vol. i., p. IM. 


In the wordi of a recent ftnthority, " the great prehiitoric midrommer fcitiTal to tlM 
nin-god hai diverged into the two Chnrch feasta, Enchariat and St. John's Day;" whilit 
" the t«nn YuU waa the name given to the featival of the winter Solitice by onr northern 
invaders, and means the FMival of the sun." ^ 

Sir Isaac Newton tells an, that the heathens were delighted with the festivals of their 
gods, and nnwiiling to part with those ceremonies; therefore Gregory, Bishop of Neo- 
Cnearea in Pontns, to facilitate their conversion, instituted annual festivals to the saints 
and martyrs. Henoe the keeping of Christmas with ivy, feasting, plays, and sports came 
in the room of the Bacchanalia and Saturnalia; the celebrating May Day with flowers, in 
the room of the Floralia; and the festiviiis to the Virgin ilary, John the Baptist, and divers 
of the Apostles, in the room of the solemnities at the entrance of the Sun into the Signs 
of the Zodiac in the old Julian Calendar.' 

In the same way, at the conversion of the Saxons by Austin the monk, the heathen 
Paganalia were continued among the converts, with some regulations, by an order of Greg- 
ory I. to MellituB the Abbot, who accompanied Austin in his mission to this island. His 
words are to tliis effect: On the Day of Dedication, or the Birth Day of the Holy Martvrs, 
whose relics are there placed," let the people make to themselves booths of the boughs of 
trees, round about those very churches which had been the temples of idols, and in a relig- 
ious way to observe a feast " Such," remarks Brand,* after quoting from Bede,* as above, 
" arc the foundations of the Country Wake." But I cite his observations, not so muih to 
record tixis curious circumstance, as to point out that the festival enjoined by the Pope 
may have become, for a time at least, associated with the memory of the Quatuor Coronati 
or Four Crowned Martyrs— 3 earliest legend^nr saints of the Masons. 

Tliis will depend upon the meaning which should be attached to the word " martyr, 
ium." Dr. Giles, in his edition of Bede's " Ecclesiagtieal History," gives us under the year 
619 — " The Church of the Four Crowneil Martyrs (martyrium beatorura quatuor coronati) 
was in the place where the fire raged most." 

The fire alluded to, laid waste a great part of the city of Canterbury, and was suddenlv 
arrested on its reaching the " martyrium " of the Crowned Martvrs, owing, we are led to 
suppose, partly to the inflnenoe of their relics, and in a greatt»r measure to the pray, rs of 
Bishop Mellitus. Now, Bede's account of the circumstance has been held by a learned 
writer to demonstrate one of two facts— either the " martyrium" contained the bodies ot 
the saints, or the martyrdoms had taken place upon the spot where the church was after. 
wards built.* In a certain sense, the former of these suppositions v i'l exactly meet th» 

'James Napier, lolk Lore; or, Superstitious Beliefs inllie Wpstof Scotland wjtliin this Centun-, 

1879, pp. 149, 175. 

' Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St John, 1733, pt. !., char. 
jtiv., pp. a04, 205. Cf. Chap. XV., pp. 388, 3«1. 

• Mrs. Jamieson, describing " the passion for relics "' which prevailed from the third to the 
fourteenth centuries, bays: " The remains of those who ha<l perished nobly for an oppressed faith 
were first buried with reverential tears, and then guarded with reverential care. Periodical fea«t» 
were celebrated on their tombs— the love-feasts (agapae) of the ancient Christians: subsequently, 
their remains were transferred to places of worship, and deposited under the table or altar from 
which thf sacrament was distributed. Such places of worship were supposed, of course, to derive 
an especial sanctity, and thence an especial celebrity, from the possession of the relics of martyrs 
highly and universally honoured " (Siured and Legendary Art, 7th edit.. 1874, vol. li., p. 6So). 

< Popular Antiquities of Oreat Britain, vol. ii., p. 2. • Eidesiastical History, chap. zzz. 

• H. C. Coote, The Romans of Britain, 1878, p. 430. See anU., Chap. X, p. 104, note a 



Aocarding to canon lir. of the 19th Connoil of Carthage, no church could be built 
for nartyn except there were on the spot either the body or some certain relics,' or where 
the urigin of lome h>' ition or poueBion, or pawion ol the martyr had been tranamitted 
from a moit tnutworthy source.' 

Martyrium, which is derived from the Qrnek nuprvpiov, as used in the context, would 
Item to mean a church where some martyr's relies are; and if we adopt this signification, 
the instructions given by Popo Gregory I. to Mellitus, and the words in which the latter 
is arociated by Bede, with the miraculous stoppage of the fire at Can^4>rbury, a.d. 619, 
are more easily comprehended. 

" The chief festivals of the Stone-masons," says Findel, " were on St. John the Baptist's 
Day, and the one designated the Day of the Four Crowned Martyrs — the principal patron 
saints of the Stone-maeons. " ' Yet although the " Qnatnor Coronati " are specially invoked 
in the Strassburg* (1459) and Torgan (1462) Ordinances,' in neither of these, or in the later 
code — tLd Brother- Book of 1563 "—do wo meet with any reference to St. John. 

On the other hand, there existed in 1430, at Cologne, a guild of stonemasons and car- 
penters, called the Fraternity of St. John the Baptist; but although the records from 
which this fact is gleaned, extend from 1396 to the seventeenth century, the Four Martyrs 
are not once named.' 

The claims of John the Baptist to be considered the earliest patron saint of the German 
masons are minutely set forth by Kranse in his " Kunsturkunden," " to which learned work, 
I must refer such of my readers, as are desirous of pursuing the subject at greater length 
than the limit of these pages will allow. 

Before, however, parting with the Saints John, there is one further aspect under which 
their assumed patronage of guilds and fraternities may be regarded. This we find in the 
heathen p'-actice of " Minne-drinking," that is, of honoring an absent or deceased one, by 
making mention of him at the assembly or banquer., and draining a goblet to his memory. 
Amoag the names applied to the goblet was minnisveig — hence stci(/ or draught. The 
usage survived the conversion — and is far from being extinct under Christianity — but in- 
stead of Thor, Odin, and the rest, the m- ine was drank of Christ, Mary, and the saints.' 
During the Middle Ages the two saints most often toasted w^re John the Evangelist and 
Gertrude. Both St Johns were however, frequently complimented in this way. Luit- 
praud, by the words " potas in a more beat! Johannis praecursoris," evidently referring to 

'According to Dr. Dyer, "during the reign oi Paul [L, 757-767], many cartloads of corpses weiv. 
disinterred from the Catacombs, and escurtcd into the city by processions of monks, and amid the 
singing of hymns, in order to be again buried uuder the cliurLhea; while ambassadors were con- 
stantly arriving from the Anglo-Saxons, Franks, and Qerraans, to begthe gift of some of these high- 
ly-prized relics." The same author adds — " It seems to have been ussuniod, as a matter of course, 
that a'.l the bones found in the Catacombs belonged not only to Christians, but '.o martyred Chris- 
tians" (History of the City of Rome; Its Structures and Monumental, 1865, p. 365). 

•Sir Isaac N<)wton, op. dt., pt. i., p. 330; Cocte, The Ramans of Britain, 1878, p. 419. 

'History of Frtomasonry, p. 6^ 'Chap. HI., p. 119, note 5. 

'Ibid., pp. 135, 136. It is noteworthy that by these regulations four special masses are to be 
■aid on certain saint's days, vii., on the days of St. Peter, of the Holy Trinity, of the Virgin Mary, 
and of the Four Crowned Martyrs The St. Johns— Baptist and Evangclisx^are not included m the 
list. See, however, p. 142, g 89. 

• Ibid., p. 121. The law* known under the above title were enacted at two me«tiiij»s held on St. 
Bartholomew's and St. Michael's days respectively. ' loid., pp. 189, 170. 

*IKe drei Aelteaten Kunsturkunden, pp. 296-305. * Cf. Fort, of>. eit., chap, xzzili 


'1i :;i 

''. -y 

"1 ■' ■■ 

B ,;!. 


the Bsptiat, whilrt in nnmerotu other com* cited by Grimm— from whom I quote — th« %1. 
losion is u dirtinotly to the Evangelirt. " Minne-drinking," even as a religious rite, ap- 
parently exists at this day in some parts of Germany. At Otbergen, a village of Hilde- 
sheim, on December S7 every year, a chalice of wine is hallowed by the priest, and handed 
to the congregation in the church to drink as Johannii tegen (blessing).' 

Among tKe remaining customs, observance of which was strictly enjoined by the 
Schaw Statuteb, there are some that must not be passed over without further notice. Thew 
I shall proceed to examine, and for the same reasoti as in the parallel case of the oelebm- 
tion of a Saint John's day by the Scottish craft, it being evident, that usages which wc 
first meet with in the Masonic system of one country, will be m^.e satisfactorily considerwl 
in connection therewith, than by postponing their examination until they reappear in tlmt 
of another country. 

It is, indeed, in the highest degree probable, that mort of the regulations ordained by 
the Warden General were based on English originals, though not exclusively of a Masonic 
character. Clauses 20 and 21 of the earlier code (1598) are clearly based on corresponding 
passages in the " Old Charges. " " The examination of journeymen before their ' 'admission" 
as masters, may have been suggested by a custom with which we are made familiar by the 
Cooke MS. (2);* and clause 10 of the same code is, strange to say, almost identical in 
phraseology with the tenth ordinance of the Guild of Joiners and Carpenters, Worcester, 
enacted in 1692, but doubtless a survival of a more ancient law. It imposes " a penalty 
of £5 for tokeing an apprentice, to sell him again to ano' of the 8,ime trade." * 

But the task immediately before us is, not so much to speculate upon the supposed 
origin of customs, which we first meet with in Masonry in the sixteenth century, as to 
realize with sufficient distinctness the actual circumstances of the early Scottish craft, 
before proceeding with the comparison for which we have been preparing. 

X he Schaw Statutes mention two classes of office-bearers, which were wholly unknown, 
or at least are not mentioned, in any Masonic records of the South. These are quarter- 
niaaters and intenders.* The latter were represented in the majority of Scottish lodges, 
but the former, though for a century holding a place among the Kilwinning fraternity, 
were never introduced into the Lodge of Edinburgh, nor have I any recoll«^tion of their 
1 icing alluded to (at first-hand)* elsewhere than in the " Items " of the Warden General and 
the minutes of " Mother Kilwinning." Whether either or both were survivals of English 
terms, which lapsed into desuetude. I shall not attempt to decide, though it, at l<>ast, 
merits our jiassing attention, that "Attendant," "Attendcr," and " Int«uidnnt." though 
shown 08 EnglUh words by Dr. Johnson, do not occur in the etymological dictionary of the 

'Jacob Orimm, Teutonic Mj-thologj-, translat 1 fron- the 4th edit, by J. a Stallybrass, vol. i. 
1880, pp. 50-62. 

» Cf. The Buclianan MS. (15), g§ xiv., xvi. {ante. Chap. U., p. 98). 

•Lines T11-T19. "And .• at such congregations, they tliat Ik- made masters, should be cj-nm- 
ined of the articles after writ, n, and be ransacked whether they be able and cunning to the protit 
of the lords, [ha'-Ing] •hem to »er\-e, and to the honour of the aforesaid art" (Ckx>ke, History and 
Articles of Ma-sonry, pp. KW, IWl. See ante, pp. 56, note 6; 57, note 2. 

* An edituriul note says: '• Of course this does not mean, as its literal sense would imply, to sell 
tin- t)ody of the appri'nt ice, but to .sell the master's iuterest in the Articles of Apprenticeship " (Smith, 
Knglisti Oilds, p. 209). 

'Stets. n., § 8. I., 8 la Cf. anU, pp. 56, 57, 85; and Chap. VUL, pp. 80, 40, 48. 

' Cf. Lyon, op. eit., p. 17. 



^loottiih Ungnage by Dr. Junieaon. Mender U not given by either of theie lexioogrt- 
ph«n. ' From the aune Kuroe— the Schaw codicet—wo learn that oaths were administered; 
one, the " great oath," * apparently at entry— mi the other, the "oath of fidelity,' ' at 
yearly interraU. The administration of an oath, the reception of fellows, the presentation 
of gloTes, the custom of banqueting, and the election of a warden,* as features of the 
Scnttish system, demand our attention, because, with the exception of the one rofrrring to 
tlu choice of a warden— which officer, however, was present, teste Ashmole at the War- 
rington Lodge in 1646 '--all of them reappear in the Masonic customs of the Staffordshire 
" moorelands," so graphically depicted by Dr. Plot* 

The references in the Schaw Statutes to gloves, b^^uquets, and the election of wardens, 
' invite a few observations, with which I shall bring to a close my review of the early 
Masonry of SootUnd. 

A high 1 uthority has laid down that the use of gloves in Masonry is t Bymbolical 
idea, borrowed from the ancient and universal language of symbolism, and was intended, 
like the apron, to denote the necessity of purity of life.' 

" The buOders," says Mackey, " who associated in companies, who traversed Rurupe, 
and were engaged in the construction of palaces and cathedrals,' liave left to uti, as their 
descendants, their name, their technical language, and the apron, that distinctive piece of 
clothing by which they protected their garments from the pollutions of their laborious 
employment." He adds, "did they also bequeath to us their gloves ? " * 

This is a question which the following extracts and references — culled from many 
sources — may enable us to solve. Gloves are spoken of by Homer as worn by Laertes, 
and from a remark in the " Cyropiedia" of Xenophon, that on one occasion Cyrus went 
without them, there is reason to believe that they used by the ancient Persians. Accord- 
ing to Favyn, the custom of throwing down the glove or gauntlet was derived from the 
Oriental mode of sealing a contract or the like, by giving the purchtser a glove by way of 
delivery or investiture, and to this effect he quotes Ruth iv. 7, and IV ,1ms cviiL 9 —passages 
where the word commonly translated " shoe " is by some rendered " glove." '' In the life 
of St. Columbanus, written in the seventh century," gloves, as a protection during manual 

' Cf. The form of oath cited, ante, p. 69. 

'Stat Ka L, § 81. "And wee command all our successores in this meason trxide, be [bg] the 
oath that they make at therenf ri«," etc. (8th Statute of the Lodge of Aberdeen, 1670— Lyon, op. cit., 
p. 436; and aide. Chap. Vm., p. 50. Sev also Chap. U., p. 98, g xiv.). 

•Stot No. n.. § 18. 

'Ante, pp. .M, 37; Chap. VHI., pp. 5, »-Schaw Stats. I., §§ 1, 13; II., §§ 1. 9, 10, 11. 

•Chap. XIV.. p. 864. •Chap. XI V, p. 289. 

' Maekey, Encyclopaxiia of Freemasonry, ».v, gloves. 

•In one of the papers to wliich I liave frequently referred (Chap. \^., p. 301, note), Mr. Wyatt 
Papworth observes: " Probably some will have expected an r^ccount of those ' travelling' bodies of 
Freemasons,' who are said to have erected all the great bu idings of Europe; nothing more, how- 
ever, is to be here noted than that / believe they never exitted t " 

Mr. Street also remarks: " The common belief in a race of clerical architects and in ubiquitous 
bodies of Freemasons, seems to me to be altogether erroneous" (Gothic Architecture in Spain, 18615, 
p. 464). Cf. ante, Chaps. VL, p. 396, et »eq. ; XII. , pp. 196, 1S8; but see Fort, A Critical Inquiry into 
the Condition of the Conventual Builders, 1884, pamim. 

' Mackey, op. cit. , p. 314. ■^ Le Theatre d'honneur, Paris, ' <&S. 

' By the abbot of Bobbio. In this, gloves are described as "tegumenta manuum r^ua Oaili 
vontot Tocamt.'' One of the articles in Ducange is headed " Chirotbeoa seu Wanti." Another 
XOL. ni.— 6. 



I rj 

t| ' ¥ 

labor, ve allnded to, «nd a.d. 749 (ciVim), Felix, in his Anglo-^Suon " Life of St Onthbc, 
Hermit of Crowknd " (chap. zi.)> mentioiii their nae h * ooTwring for the hand. 

Aoooiding to Brand, the giTing of glotea at marriagea ia a onatom of remote antiqnity; 
but it was not less common, so we are told b; his Utest editor, at funerals than at wed- 
dings.' A pair of glores are mentioned in the will of Bishop Sicnlfns, who died a.d. 915; 
and Matthew Fkris relates that Henry II. (1139) was buried with gloves on his bands. 

A.D. 1302.— In the Year Book of Edward I. it is laid down, that in oases of acquittal 
of a charge of manslanghter, the prisoner was obliged to pay a fee to the Justices' clerk in 
the form of a pair of glovM, besides the fee to the marshal. 

1321.— The Bishop of Bath and Wells received from the dean and chapter a pair of 
gloves with a gold knot* 

In the Middle Ages, gloves of white linen— or of silk beautifully embroidered and 
jewbiled — were worn by bishops or priests when in the performance of ecJesiastical func- 

1557.— Tusser, in his " Five Hundred G 3od Points of Husbandry," informs us, that it 
was customary to give the reapers gloves when the wheat was thistly,* and Hilman in hia 
" Tusser Redevivns," 1710, observes, that the large<».. which seems to have been usual in 
the old writer's time, was still a matter of course, of which the reapers did not require to 
be reminded.' 

1598.— A passage in Hall's Virgidemarium" seems to imply that a Hci w i a usual pres- 
ent at Shrove-tide; also a pair of ghven at Easter.' 

According to Dr. Pegge, the Monastery of Bury allowed its servants two pence a pieoo 
for glove-tilmr in Autumn, but though he duly quotes his authority, the date of its publi- 
cation is not given. 

The allusions, so far, bear but indirectly upon our immediate subject, but I shall now 
adduce some others of a purely Masonic character, which, for convenience sake, are grouped 
together in a chronological series of their own. 

18th Century. — An engraving copied from the painted glass of a window in the Cathe- 
dral of Chartres is given by M. Didron in his " Annales Arch6ologiquee." It represents a 

woid — obviously of Teutonic derivation— used for a glove in mediaeval Latin is gantut. It is re- 
markable that no gloves are visible in the Bayeux Tapestry. In the Liber Albus of the City of 
London (Rolls Series, pp. 800, 787), the trad? of glover is thus referred to:— 188»-58, "combustio fal- 
sarum ciroticarum," and "articuli ciroticariorum: " 187(^99, " ordinacio ciroticariorum." 

' Vol. ii., p. 77. In Arnold's Chronicle (1509), among " the artycles vpon whiche is to inquyre in 
the visitacyons of ordynaryes of chyrches," we read: " Item, whether the curat refuse to do the 
solemnysacyon of lawfull matrymonye before he have gyfte of money, hoses, or glove*" (Ibid., p. 

' H. E. Reynolds, Statutes of Wells Cathedral, p. 147. 

' Planch^, Cyclopaedia of Costume, t.v. 

* Reprinted in the British Bibliographer, 1810-14, vol. iii. 

' Bnund, op. eit., vol. ii., p. 12. 

• er gloves, or for a 8hroft-t.«c Hen, 

Which bought to give, he takes to sell again." 

—Book iv., Sat. 8, p. 42. 
Curalia Miscellanea, 1818, citing History of Hawsted, p. 190. For a quantity of curious iDtormation 
relating to the use and presentation of gloves, the reader is referred to Dr. Pegge's work, pp. 80&- 
831; the " Venetian History," 1660, chap xxv.; and Ducange, Olossarium, i.v. ChirotbeciL 


nmnlwr of opetrntire mMona st work. All of them w««r gloTM. ' Pr-»hcr eridenoe of thii 
oottom will be fonml in the " Life of King Oflk," written by Matthew Pkria, where • limi- 
Itf Kjene it depicted.* 

1868.— According to the recorde of York Cathedml, it wm uraal to find tnnice (gowne), 
•pnnu, glo'se, and clogi, »nd to give occaiional potation and remuneration for extra work. 
Olovee we. alio giren to the carpenter*.' From the mne lonroe of information we learn 
that aproof and gloree were giren to the mawna in 1371; and the latter, in the mxne year, 
to tne carpenter^ and in 1403 to the wtten. The lart-named workmen received both 
aprons and gloree {mtpront et eirotecu) in 1404. Further entriea elucidatory of the Mme 
cuitom appear under the yean 1421-23, 1432-33, and 1498-99,* ending with the following 
in 1507:— For approni and gloryt for lettyng to the maaoni, ICtf.' 

1372.— The Fabric RoUa of Exeter Cathedral inform ua tliat in this year lix pain of 
glorei were bought for the carpenters for raising the timber, \id.* 

1381.— The chitelain of Villainee en Dnemois, bought a considerable quantity of gloves 
to be given to the workmen, in order, as it is said, " to shield their hands from the stone 

1383.— Three dosen pairs of gloTos were bought and distributed to the masons when 
they commenced the buildings at the Chartreuse of Dijon,* 

1432.— A lavatory was erected in the cloisters at Durham, and the accounts show that 
three pairs of gloves at l|d. each, were given to the workmen.' 

148<^ 7.— Twenty-two paire of gloves were given to the masons and stone-cutters who 
were cr (raged ir work at the city of Amiens." 

The custom existed as late "-.s 1629, under which year, we find in the accounts of Nicoll 
Udwart, the treasurer of Heriot's Ilospita],— "Item, for sex pair of gloves to the Maissones 
at the founding of the Eist Quarter, xx«."" 

Gloves are mentioned by William Schaw in 1599," and here we enter upon a new 
phase of the inquiry. Hitherto, as will be seen above, they were given to and not by the 
masons, or any one or more of their number. The practice, of which we see the earliest 
account in the code of 1599, became — if it did not previously exist— a customary one in the 
old court of operative masonry, the proceedings of which, perhaps more than those of any 
other body of the same kind, the statutes in question were designed to regulate. Early in 
the seventeenth century it was a rule of the Lodge of Kilwinning that inirants should 
present so many pairs of gloves on their admission, but as the fnetnbernhip " increased there 

'Journal, British Archgeological Association, vol. i., 1845, p. 33. 

' Ante, Chap. VI, p. 818, note 8. *lbid., pp. 308, 803. 

* U9».— " Pro ij limatibut et ij paribus cirothecarum pro cementariis pro lea settyng-." The 
limtu was a kind of apron used by masons. 

•The Fabric Rolls of York Minster (Publications of the Surtees Society, voi. xxxv.). 
*0, Oliver. Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, and a History of the Cathedral, 1861, p. 888. 
'Journal, British Archaeological Association, loe. eit. 'Ibid. 

* J. Raine, A Brief Account of Durham Cathedral, 1888, p. 01. 
" Journal, British Archaeological Association, loc. cit. 

" Transactions, Archseological Institute of Scotland, voL ii., 18S2, pp. 84-40. 

"Statutes No. XL, § 10; aiUe, Chap. Vm., p. 10. 

■* (y. ante, pp. 55, et leg.— Probably the glove tax was imposed on tlie apprentices (or intrants) 
when the Lodge of Kilwinning departed from the strict letter of the Schaw Statutes and admitted 
them tf' 'uU membership? 


WM rach an inoonrenMnt aoonmnUttioD of thia •rtiole o( dna tbst " glore-raoDty " < 
to IM aooeptod in ite itMd.* 

OloTM w«n Nqnirad from fellow-crafU at their pMdnf , tnd from appnnticM at their 
•ntrjr, in the Sooon and Perth (1638) and the Aberdeen (1670) Lodges reepeotively; but 
whether the onitom extended to thoae who were tnttrtd in the former lodge or pa im d in 
the latter it is difflcnlt to decide.' The Urgeie expected was, howerer, more liberal in one 
case than in the other, for, according to the Aberdeen Statutes, intrants— except the <tlde«t 
sons and those married to the eldest daughters of the fellow-crafts and masters by whom 
they were framed— were obliged to present not only a " pair of good glores," but an apron 
also to erery member of the lodge. 

A regulation not unlike the above was enacted by the Melrose fraternity in 1675 re- 
quiring a " prentice " at his "entrie," and also when " mad frie maason," ' to pay a certain 
number of " pnnd Scots A suflcieut gloves." In the former case, as we learn from a sub- 
sequent minute (1695), the glores were valued at four shillings, and in the latter at Sre 
shillings a pair.* A similar usage prevailed in the Lodge of Kelso, as we learn by the 
minute for St John's Day,* 1701. 

This codifies the existing laws, and we find that the brethren, who as entered appren- 
tices were mulct in the sum of " eight pound Scots with their gloves," were further required, 
in the higher station of " master and fellow of the craft," to pay five shillings sterling to 
the company's stock, and " neu gloves to the members."* 

The obligation imposed upon intrants of " cl«/i,hing the lodge "—a phrase by which the 
custom of exacting from them gloves, and in some instances aprons, was commonly df- 
scribed, was not abolished in the Lodge of Kelso until about 1755. The material ])oiiit. 
however, for our consideration is, that the practice, in Scottish lodges, overlapped tliut 
portion of English masonic history termed by me the "epoch of tiansition," since, from 
the point of view we are surveying theae ancient customs, it matters very little how common 
they became a/ter they were " digested " by Dr. Anderson in his "Book of Constitutions." 

4j' *■ 


' Lyon, op. eit., p. 47. The same inconvenience was experienced at Kelso in 1740, when the Lodgs 
found that, owing to members whn were deficient in their entry and paning money not being en- 
titled to glovee, there was a great uumber left on hnnd. So it was resolved that " whoever next 
enters apprentice or passes Fellow, shall be obliged to take out those gloves at the Ijodge's Price o( 
Sevenpence per pair, and, till the gloves of the Lodge be disposed of. such Intrants or Passers shall 
not be allowed to buy elsewhere " (Vernon, History of the Lodge of Kelso, p. 81). 

' ■• ffourthlie. That all ffelow crafts that are post in this Lodge pay to the Master Warden und 
ITelow crafts of the samene, the sownie of SixteinePund Scottis money, besyde the Oloves and dews 
tlierof .• . .• . And yt everie entered prenties shall pay twentie merltis money, with ffourtie shil- 
ling, as their first incomeing to the Lodge, betyde the dewt thereof" (Charter of Scoon and Perth 
Lodge, A.D. 16S»— Masonic Magaziiie. vol. vu., 187»-d0, p. 184). Cf. the 5Ui Statute of the Lodge of 
Aberdeen (Lyon, op. eit., p. 435). 

» Cf. cmte, pp. 58: », note 7. 

* W. F. Vernon, The Records of an Ancient Lodge (Masonic Magazine, vol. vit, 1880, pp. 3M, 

'Vernon remarks — " While the lodge was most particular about the ofaaervance of 'Holy Saint 
John's day ' on the 37th of December, their ' Summer Saint John'.^ ' was held near, fnU never upon, 
the day dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. Al a later liate, however, tho Saint's day was also heM" 
{Op. eU., p. 15). Cf. atite, pp. 75, 77. 

* Vernon, History of the Lodge of Kelso, p. 18. 


b thk wt ind, M Na VIL of the " 0«tieral Begnliitioiit"— "£ 7 mw BrotlMr at his 
■Mkiag b dMwntljT to cltwth the /M^— thftt ii, aU the Brethren pr«M*nt," etc.* 

Here, it would wem, m in eo nuuiy other initancet, the Doctor mast hare had in his 
niad the maeonio oMRee of hie nstive country, tbongh we ihould not loee eight of the fact 
that the preeentstion of glovea by " osndidstas''to Fresmawnasnd their wirea waas cnatom 
whioh prarsiled in the MsffonUiire lodgea in 1686.* 

But whsterer were the aatharitiea npor which Andenon relied — and by the inggeetion 
that the leading festnrea of Ssottiah Maaonry were not abeent from his thonghta whiUt 
falfllling the mandate he reoeired from the Orand Lodge of England, it ia not meant to 
imply that he doeed hia eyes to eridence proceuding from any other quarter — it ii certain 
that the old maaonio onatom, which in 1723 had become a law, came down from antiquity 
in two diatinct channeli. Thia it ia neceasury to bear in mind, became whilat in the one 
caae (Scotland) we must admit that the ipeculatiTe maaoni h»ye receired from their opera- 
tive predeceaaora the gloTea aa well aa the apron, in the other oaae (England) this by nO' 
meana follows as a matter of course, since among the Freemasons of 1680 were "persons of 
the most eminent quality,"' from whoee speculative— not operative — predecessors the 
custom which Plot attesta may have been derived. Indeed, passing over the circumstance 
that cntil the sixteenth century — at least so far as there is evidence to guide us — gloves 
were presented to rather than by the operative masons, the stream of authority tends to 
prove that the usage itself was one of great antiquity, and there is absolutely nothing 
which should induce the conviction that its origin must be looked for in a custom of the 
building trades. 

Indeed, the probability is rather the other way. The giving of gloves at weddings was 
common in early times, as we have already seen. * Lovers also presented them to their 
mistresses, 'and the very common notion that if a woman surprises a man sleeping, uml can 
steal a kiss without waking him, she has a right to demand a pair of glows— huii come 
down to us with a very respectable flavor of antiquity. Thus, Oay, in the sixth pastoral 
of his " Shepherd's Week," published in 1714, has:— 

" Cie'ly brisk Maid, steps forth before the Rout, 
And kiss'd with smacking Lip the snoring Lout: 
For Custom rays, u>ho'er thia t<enturt provet. 
For such a kin demandi a pair of Qlovta." 

And it might be plausibly contended, that the origin of the practice thns mentioned by 
Oay in 1714, must be looked for at a period of time, at least equally remote, with that of 
the Masonic usage, on which Dr. Anderson based the Seventh Oeneral Regulation of 1723. 

Although " banquets " are not among the customs or regulations, ratified or ordained 
by the Warden General in 1598, they are mentioned in no less than three clauses of the 
Statutes of 1599.* This, of itself, would go far to prove, that the practice of closing the 

* The ConstitutioDB of the Freemasons, 1783, p. 60. 

' Chap. XIV., p. 889. * Ibid., p. 388. * ilnfe, pp. 81, 88. Cf. Brand, op. eit., vol 

ii., p. 76. 

■Shakespeare, Much Ado about Nothing, Act iii., sc. 4; J. O. Hailiweli, Popular Rhymes and 
Nuneiy Tales, 18«, p. 8M. 



96 EARL Y BRITISH FREEMASONR K— i6f g- 1 713. 

fomU praoMdiafi oi % owtting, with a twuk or oanoal, wm Umb of old ituuUiif. Hal 
a miaato of Mary'i Chapol,' pmocdiBf by tea days the date of Sohaw'sMoond oodo,* thowi, 
at all erenta that tha baiiqaat wai a waU-aatablUMd inMitntkm at tha tioM whan the latlw 
wai proraulgatad. 

In the Lodge of Aberdeen (1670)' both initiatioB (or entry) and pawing, were followed 
by feaiting and rerelry, at the cspenie of the apprentice and fellow reepeotively. Nor did 
the riemption with regard to gloree and aprona, which, aa we hare eeen, prerailed in the 
oaee of aona ' i eone-inkw of the " Anthoirei " and " Snbeoryuen " of the " Book," hold 
good •• to banqneti. From each and all a " epeacking pynt," a " dinner," and a " pynt 
of wyne," were rigorously emoted. 

The feetiral cf St. John the Erangeliet waa eapooially let apart by the Aberdeen 
brethren, a* a day of feaating and rejoicing. A aimilar niage prevailed at Melroee, from 
at leaet I6T0. and in all profaab ".(y from timee itill more remote. The reoorda of the old 
lodge there, fint allnde to the " feaat of the good Saint John," in 1685, when for " moat 
and drink, and making it ready," waa expended £li, Oa. lOd. Eutriea of the aame char- 
acter appear under later yeara, of which the following will auAoe; " 1687— for Meat & 
Drink k tobacco, X7, 17«. G<f. 1698 — for ale, white bread, two lege of mutton, a pound of 
tobacco and pipea, ana a capful of aalt, £11, 5«. 7d."* 

A dinner on St. John'a day, at the uxpenae of the box, waa indulged in by the brethren 
of Atcheeon'i Ilaven and Peubloa, at the b^inning of the laat century, and a like custom 
obtained in the Lodge of Edinburgh down to 1734, in which year, though the memben 
resolved to meet aa usual on tho feetival of the Evangelist, they de<^id«d tliat iu fntuK, 
those attending should pay lialf-a-crown toward the coat of tho entertainment. ' 

It has been obaerrod with truth, that during a great port of the eighteenth century, 
liard >Irinking and other oon\iTial exceaaea were carried among the upper classes in Scot- 
land, to an extent considerably greater tlian in England, and not less than in Ireknil.' 
Of his evil, the case of Dr. Archibald Pitcaime,' affords a good illustration. Ho was* 
mai of great and varied, but ill-directed ability. Burton stylos him the type of a cIsmi, 
not numerous but influential from rank and education;* and we Icam from Wodrow that 
"he ;(ot avast income, but spent it upon drinking, anrf mii iteke drunk tvtry day."' 
Yet it is doubtful whether these Imbits hud any real root among the poorer and middle 
claiiMHt. Indeed, it luis been said that the general standard of external decorum waa so (ar 
higliiT than in England, that a blind man travelling southwards would know when he 
passetl the frontier by the increasing number of blasphemies ho heard. " 

'" X t-iij D«<«mbriM, 1.199.— The qlk day the dekin ft maisteris of tlie bmt. of Edr. . •. . •. ordanii 
the sd Jhone Watt to l>e enterit prenteiBS, and to niak his baacat [banquet] wtin xviij dayis nextto- 
cum" (LyoD, Hi'^tory of the I.,od^ of Edinbuixh, p. 89). 

' December 38, 1599. The prooeedinga, however, were hegwi oa 8t John's day (Dec, 37). Cf- 
antt, p. 75; and Chap. Vm.. p. 13. >Ctaap. Vm., p. 43, tt tq. 

'Mode up from tlie following items, viz.. M. 13s. 3d. : £3, 5a. M. ; fJ, Ss. lOd. ; and 8ii. rMpA-t. 
ively— Scottish money (Records of the Helroae Lodge— Masonic Magiisine, vol. vii., p. 334, 335, 3(N), 

* Lyon, op. cit., p. 45. 

'Lecky, England in the Eighteenth Century, vol. ii., p. 89. 

' An eminent phyNit-iun bom at Edinburgh, Deivmber 35, 1053: died October 30. 1718. AdUmr 
of " Disputationes Hedica>," " Elementa Mediviiue Physico-malheraatica," and other works. 

• History of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 559. ' Aaaiecta, vol. ii., p. 385. 
"Lecky, op. cit., vol. ii.. p. 89. 


Bm« I pM to the olMtion of WMrdmi, fi though tiM tubjeot of tMnqnotinf or fMtt- 
hy b (ur from Mnf •xhanrtad, the ohmmf m» with which I thall take leave of thia oua- 
lem, will be more appropriatek introdnowi in the neit chapter. It forma, however, a 
Itading feature of the early Maaonrjr practiaed in North Britain, and aa roch haa been 
brielj notik>.u in connection with other oharaoteriatioa of the Soottiah Craft, which reap- 
pear in the mure ekborate ijatem afterwarda deriaed— or found to be in eiiatence— in the 
South. The Schaw Stotntea enjoin, aa we hare already leen, that a Warden— who waa to 
be ohoien annually — ihonld "have the charge over every lodge."' Thia regulation waa 
complied with by the Lodge of Edinburgh in 1508, but in the following year the Deacon 
■t at preaident, with the Warden aa treaaurer. Thia waa in accordance with the ordinary 
vmft which prevailed in the early Scottiih lodges, that when there waa a iKwcon lu well 
ai a Wanlen, the latter ai^ted aa trcaaurvr or b<jx-mastor.' Frequently, however, both 
offipM were held by the mme peiaon, who ae tlnd do«ignated in the minutea ol Mary 'a 
Chapri as " Deacon of the Maiona and Warden of the I^odge." 

We meet with the Mme titlea Deacon and Warden— in the recorda of the Kilwinning 
(164S), the Atcheaon Haven (ITUO), and the Feeblea (1716) Lodgea, though they are there 
nted disjunctively and apart.' In each of these iniitances the Deacon was the chief oflBcial. 
Such waa also the case in the Haddington Lodge in 1607, here, apparently, there waa no 
Warden; whilst, on the other hand, the Ijodge of Olaagow, in 1613, was ruled by a Warden, 
anil there was no such officer as Deacon. The wording of the Schaw Statutes may luve led 
t) this diversity of usage, as the two codes are slightly at variance in the regulations they 
rrf:"ctivoly contain with regard to the functions of Wardens and Deacons— the tarlier set 
'mptying tlmt the titles denoted separate offices,' while in the later one the same exnre«> 
tioiis may Iv understootl in precisely an opposite sense.* 

According to Herbert, the Alderman was the chief officer, whilst the trade fraternities of 
London were called guilds. Eschevins, Elders, and other numi>8 suixeoded, and wore in 
some instances contemporaneous. The merchant tailors were unique in styling their prin- 
cijial " Klgrim," on account of his travelling for them. Bailiffs, Masters, Wardens, Pur- 
veyors, and other names, l>ecamo usual designations when they were chartere«i. Fron- 
Richarl II. to Ilenr)- VII. their chiof officers are stylcil Wardens of the Craft, Wardens 
of the said Myst-ry, Masters or Wanlens, of such guild as they presided over, Wirdens and 
Par>-eyors, Onanliuns or Wardens,' Bailifis, and Cnatodea or Keepers.' 

■Chap. vnL, pp. 0, 9; and see mie, pp. 74, 81. 

• Hunter, History of the Loilf^ of .Toiirneymen Masoim, p. 87. Accord inij to Lyon, thoWardf >.of 
the iiixt«<>iith, !<event«enth, and parly piirtof thp eif^htnonth cpntury. wnx <'iiRtodi>'i of the ladgt tvini\» 
and the difipfiuer of its chanties- -Um ivrrHsiiondin); duties in tlie inrur|Minitioii U-ln^ dischsjfred by 
llie box-muster (History of tlic Lodf^ of Rdinbunfh, p. 41). In both tlie Aberdeen ( 1670) c -id Melrose 
tlSiS) Lr-dges, however, the tliree principal ofllcers were tlie Master (or Miwtter Maxun), tlie Warden, 
and Bax-ina.«tcr. "Lyon, o/j. ct7,, p. 41 

'Lyon. History of Mother Kilwi'^ning — rreemasons' Magazine, Aug. 8, 1888, p. SS; and History 
of the Lodg« of Edinburgh, pp. 179, 418. 

>Hrhaw Statutes, No. 1. (IMM), gg %, 4, 8, 9, 17, 83 •/but. No. U. (1399), §g 3, 7, 8. 

' In the speech of the Junior Orand Warden (Dralce) delivered at York on December 37, 1796, the 
.'ollowing occura: "I would not in this be thought to derogate from the Dignity of my OfBoe, which 
us the learned Verriegan observes, is a Title of Trust and Power, WanSen and Ouardian being syn- 
onymous terms." 

'Companies of London, vol. i., p. 51. C/. Smith, English Qilds, introduction, p. zxxiii.; and 
oats. Chap. IL, p. Ill, note L 



In the Cooke MS. (2), we meet with the expreMon— Warden under a Maiter.' Thii 
takes w back to the early part of the fifteenth oentnry,* and abont the aune date, at York, 
ai we learn from tho fabric roUa of that cathedra], vis., in 1432, John Long was Master 
Mason, and William Waddeswyk the gnardian [Warden] or second Master Mason. The 
■une records inform as that William Hyndeley, who became the Master Mason in 1473, 
had prerionsly received, in the same year, the sum of £4 in wages, as Warden of the Lodge 
of Masons, for working in the ofiBce of the Master of the Masons, it being vacant by the 
death of Robert Spyllesby, for twenty-four weeks, at Ss. 4d. each week.' lliese examples 
might be multiplied, but one more will suflSce, which I shall take from the oft-quoted essay 
of Mr. Fapworth. From this, we learn that whilst the great hall at Hampton Court was 
in course of erection, in 1531, for King Henry VIIL, John Molton was Master Mason at 
Is. per day; William Reynolds, Warden at 58. per week; the setters at 3s. 6d. per week; 
and lodgemen*—^ somewhat suggestive term — at 3b. 4d. per week.* 

From the preceding references, it will be seen that the employment of a Warden under 
a Master (or Master Mason), was a common practice in the building trades of the South, at 
a period anterior to the promulgation by William Schaw, of the Statutes which have been 
so frequently alluded to. This fact may be usefully noted, as I shall next attempt to show 
that to a similar usage in Scottish lodges, during the seventeenth and the early part of the 
eighteenth century, we are indebted for the highest of the three operative titles used by 
Dr. Anderson in his classification of the Symbolic or Speculative Society of 1T33.' The 
Scoon and Perth (1658), the Aberdeen (1670), the Melrose (1675), and the Dunblane (lG9(i) 
Lodges, were in each case ruled by the Master Mason, with the assistance of a Warden.' 
The latter officer appears, in every instance, to have ranked immediately after the former, 
and is frequently named in the records of lodges * as his deputy or substitute. It is singu- 
lar, however, that in those of " Mother Kilwinning " where the practice was, in the absence 
of the Deacon or Master, to place in the chair, with full authority, some brother present- 
not in any one case, for more than a hundred years, do we find the Warden, by virtue of 
ranking next after the Master, to have presided over the lodge.* 

The instances are rare, where a plurality of Wardens is found to have existed in the early 
Ixxlges of Scotland, anterior to the publication of Dr. Anderson's " Book of Constitutions " 


f If ■ 
1 1 

' Points vi. and viii.; and see the HalUwell MSS. {ly—oeiaisva punetxiM. 

•Vol. n., p. 341. 

' Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1861-62, pp. 37-60 (Wyatt Papworth); 
Browne, History of the Metropolitan Church of St. Peter, York, p. •SiS; Raine, The Fabric Rolls of 
York Minster, 1858, pp. 46, 77 (Publications, Surtees Soc., vol. xxxv.). 

* Of. ante. p. 71. 'TranKutions, R. I. B. A., loe. rit. 

' " y.B.—In antient timet no brct'ier, however skilled in the cnift, wtu called a magter-ma*mi 
until he had l>een elected into tlieehairofa forfge " (Constitutions of the United Grand Lodjreof En::- 
land )SS4. Antient riiarfros. No. IV.). Although the above appears for the first time in the "Con- 
stitutions" of IMLI, It is a fair deduction from the language of the " Book of Constitutions," 172.1. 

'Chap. VIII.. pp. 31, 39, 48, 70. 71; Masonic Magazine, vol. vii., 187JM0, pp. 183, 134, 333, 366. 
The following are the terms use<l in the several records, and except where otherwise stated, unde' 
the above dates: Scoon and Perth— W Measone, M' Master; Ahcrdeen—itainter Measeon, Miister; 
JlfeJro»c— Master Mason, M' Ma-ssone, Mester (1679); i>unUan('— Master Mason; and Haughfoot— 
Master Ma.son, 17(13 (ante, p. 63). 

'E.g.. those of Aberdeen and Dunblane. 

• Lyon, History of Mother Kilwinning— Freemasons' Magazine, Sept. 86, 1868, p. 887. 


(1783).' Snbaeqnently to that da;,?, indeeed, the tranntion from one warden to two, was 
gndnally bnt rarely effected. 

We find that copies of the Engliih " Conatitntions " referred to, were presented to the 
lodges of Dunblane in 1733, and of Peebles in 1735 ; ' and doubtless, these were not solitary 
instances of the practice. That the permeation of southern ideas was very thorough in 
the northern capital, as early as 1737, we may infer from a minute for St John's Day (in 
Christmas) of that year. In this, the initiation of several " creditable citizens " whose 
recognition as members of the Lodge of Edinburgh, had been objected to by the champions 
of operative rapremacy — is justified on the broad ground that, " their admissions were regu- 
larly done, conform to the knowen Uwes of this and all other teeall Ooverned Lodges in 

Ashmole's description of his initiation,* coupled with the indorsement on No. 35 of 
the Old Charges,' point to the existence of a Warden, in two English Lodges at least, dur- 
ing the seventeenth century, who was charged with very much the same functions as those 
devolving upon the corresponding oflScial under the regulations of AVilliam Schaw. It is 
tolerably clear, that Mr. Richard Penket in the one case (1646), and Mr. Isaac Brent in the 
other (1693), were the virtual presidents of their respective lodges. But this is counter- 
balanced by other evidence, intermediate in point of time. Sloane MS. 3323 (14) — dating 
from 1659 — forbids a lodge being called without "the consent of Master or Wardens;"' 
and the same officers are mentioned in two manuscripts of uncertain date — the Harleian 
1942 (11), and the Sloane 3329, as well as in the earliest printed form of the Masons' Ex- 
amination ' which has come down to us. The Gateshead (1671) and Alnwick ( 1701) frater- 
nities elected four and two Wardens each respectively; and in the latter there was also a 
Master.' The existence of a plurality of Wardens under a Master, in the Alnwick Lodge 
—if its records will bear this interpretation ' — demands our careful attention, as it tends 
to rebut the presumption of a Scottish derivation, which arises from the propinquity of 
Alnwick to the border, and the practice of affixing marks to their signatures, a custom 
observed — at least, so far as I am aware — by the members of no other English lodge whose 
records pre-date the epoch of transition. 

Although the length of this chapter may seem to illustrate the maxim that precisely in 
proportion as certainty vanishes, verbosity abounds, 1 must freely confess that of the two 
evils I should prefer to be styled prolix, rather than unsatisfactorily concise. It demands 
both industry and patience to wade through the records of the craft, and though in such 
a task one's judgment is displayed, not so much by the information given, as by that which 
is withheld, nevertheless, in writing, or attempting to write, a popular history of Free- 
masonry, it is, l»efore all things, essential to recollect that each subject will only be gener- 

'The Lodge of Abenlwn elected fu<o wardens in the last decade of the seventeenth century 
(C'liap. VIII., p. 58). In the LodgcH of Kilwinning and Edinburgh, however, a,»econd warden wa.s 
only introduced in 1733 and 1T37 i-cMpoctivcly (Ibid., pp. 18, 26). 

' Lyon, op. cit., pp. 416, 419. 'Ibid., p. 159 

' Chap. XIV., p. 364. ' Chap. II. , p. 69. • Ibid., p. 103. 

'Published in the flying Post, or Port Master, No. 4712, from Thursday, April 11, to Saturday, 
April 13, 1728; and first rcprinteil by me in the Freenuison, October 2, 1880. This, together with 
other (soK-alled) " exposures," will be dealt witli in Ch.ipter XVII. 

•Vol. 11., p. 275, ante, pp, 14-16. Compare the 13th Order of the Alnwick Lodge, with Rule 18 
of MS. No. 14 (Chap. H., p. 103, note 3> 

• Cy. ante, p. 16. 


»Uy understood, to the extent that it it eluddsted within the oompMi of rewling afforded 
by the work itaelf. 

I haTe bionght np the history of English Freemaaonry to the year 1783, and in the 
next chapter shall proceed with that of the Grand Lodge of England, basing my narratiw 
of occurrences upon its actual minutes. The scanty evidence relating to the Masonry of 
the South during the prehistoric period has been giren in full detail. To the possible 
objection that undue space has been accorded to this branch of our inquiry, I reply, the 
existence of a living Freemasonry in England before the time of Randle Holme (1688) reste 
on two sources of authority— the diary of Elias Ashmole, and the " Natural History " o( 
Dr, Plot If the former of these antiquaries had not kept a journal— and which, unlike 
most journals, was printed— and if the latter had not undertaken the task of describing 
the phenomena of Staffordshire, we should have known absolutely nothing of the existence 
of Freemasons' lodges at Warrington in 1646, at London in 1682, or in the " moorelands 
of Staffordshire, and, indeed, throughout England, in 1686. Now, judging by what light 
we have, is it credible for an instant that the attractions which drew Ashmole into the 
Society— and had not lost their hold upon his mind after a lapse of thirty-five years— com- 
prised nothing mor« than the " benefit of the Mason Word," which in Scotland alone di* 
tinguished the lodge-mason from the cowan ? The same remark will hold good with regard 
to Sir William Wise and the others in 1682, as well as to the persons of distinction who. 
according to Plot, were members of the craft in 1686. 

At the period referred to, English /Vwrnasonry must have been something different 
if not distinct, from Scottish Masonry. Under the latter system, the brethren were ma 
sons, but not (in the English sense) /Veemasons. The latter title, to quote a few representa 
tive cases, was unknown— or, at least, not in use— in the lodges of Edinburgh, Kilwinning 
and Kelso, until the years 1725, 1735, and 1741 respectively. It has therefore been oasen 
tial to examine with minuteness, the scanty e idenco that has been preserved of EnglisI 
Masonic customs during the seventeenth ce-.rary, and although the darkness which over 
spreads this portion of our annals may not be wholly removed, I trust that some light at 
least has been shed upon it. Yet, as Dr. Johnson has finely observed:-" One genenitioD 
of ignorance effaces the whole series of unwritten history. Books are faithful repositories, 
which may be a while neglected or forgotten, but, when they are opened again, will again 
imiKirt their instruction: memory, once interrupted, is not to be recalled. Written liam- 
ing is a fixod luminary, which, after the cloud that had hidden it has {lassed away, is again 
bright in ite proper station. Tradition is but a meteor, which, if once it falls, cannot be 



HAVING brought the history of English Freemasonry to a point from which our 
further progress will be greatly facilitated by the use of official d xsnments, it is 
necessary, before commencing a summary of the proceedings cf the Grand Lodge 
of England from June 24, 1 iZ, to consider a little more closely a few important matters 
aa yet only passed briefly in review. 

The year 1723 was a memorable one in the annals of English Ma"onry, and it affords 
a convenient halting-place for the discussion of many points of interest which cannot be 
properly assigned either to an earlier or a later period. The gi«at event of that year was the 
publicationof the first "Book of Constitutions." 1 sliall print the "General Regulations" 
in the Appendix, but the entire work deserves perusal, and from this, together with a 
glance at the names of the members of Ijodges in 1T24 and 1725— also appended— may be 
gained a very giKxl outside view of the Freemasonry existing at the termination of the epoch 
of transition. To see it from any other asiiect, I must ask my readers to give me their 
attention, whilst I place before them, to some extent, a retrospect of our past inquiries, 
and at the sarae time do my best to reail and understand the old evidence by the light of 
the new. 

The narrative of events in the lust chapter broke off at April 25, 1723. The storv oi" 
the formation of the Grand Lodge of England has been briefly told, but the historj n 
that body would be incomplete without some further allusion to the " Four Old Lodges " 
by whose exertions it was col 1 into existence. I number them in the order in which 
they are shown by Dr. Anderson, to have assented— through their represenuitives- to the 
Constitutions of 1723. 

Okioinal No. 1 met at the Goose and Gridiron, in St. Paul's Churchyard, from 1717 
until 1729, and removed in the latter year to the King's (or Queen's) Arms, in the same 
locality, where it remained for a long period. In 1760 it assumed the title of the " West 
India and American Lodge," which ten years later was altered to that of the " Lodge of 
Antiquity." In 1794 it absorbed the Harodim Lodge, No. 467,' a mushroom creation of 

'Among the members were Thomas Harper, "silversmith. London," and William Preston. 
Harper— D.O.M. of the •'Atholl" Grand Lodge at the time of the Union— was also a member of the 
Lodge of Antiquity from 1798, and served as Omnd Steward in 1796. He wa.s for some time Secre- 
tary to the '^ Chapter of Harodim. " Of. the memoir of Preston in Chop. XVIIL; UlustratiOlU ( f 
Masonry, 1793. p. 8S5; and Freemasons' Magazine, January to June, 1881, p. 449. 


the ycu 179A. At the Union, in 1813, the fint podtion in the new roll having devolTed 
by lot npon No. 1 of the " AthoU " Lodges, it became, and has lince remained. No. 2. 

According to the Engraved Lirt of 1739, this Lodge was originally constituted in 1691. 
Thomas Morris ' and Josias Villeneau, both in their time Qrand Wardens, were among the 
members — the former being the Master in 1733, and the latter in 1735. Benjamin Cole, 
the engraver, belonged to the Lodge in 1730; but with these three exceptions, the names, 
so fa' as they are given in the oflBcial records,* do not invite any remark until afUr Pres- 
ton's election to the chair, when the members suddenly awoke to a sense of the dignity of 
the senior English Lodge, and became gradually impressed with the importance of its tra- 
ditions.' The subsequent history of the Lodge has been incorporated with the memoir of 
William Preston, and will be found in the next chapter. But I may briefly mention that, 
from Preston's time down to our own, the Lodge of Antiquity has maintained a high de- 
gree of pre-eminence, as well for its seniority of constitution, as for the celebrity of the 
names which have graced its roll of members. The Duke of Sussex was its Master for manj 
years; and the lamented Duke o.' Albany in more recent days filled the chair throughout 
several elections. 

Okioinal No. 3 met at the Crown, Parker's Lane, in 1717, and was established at the 
Queer s Head, Turnstile, Holbom, in 1723 or earlier. Thence it moved in succeasion t« 
the Creen Lettice, Rose and Bummer, and Rose and BufBoe. In 1730 it met at tlie Bull 
and Gate, Holbom; and, appearing for the last time in the Engraved List for 1736, was 
struck off the roll at the renumbering in 1740. An application for its restoration was mad* 
in 1753, but, on the ground that none of the p-^titioners had ever been members of the 
Lodge, it was rejected.* According to the Engraved List for 1729, the Lodge was conBti- 
tuted in 1712. 

Okioinal No. 3, which met at the Apple Tree Tavern in Charles Street, Covent Gar- 
den, in 1T17, moved to the Queen's Head, Knave's Acre, in 1723 or earlier; and after sey- 
eral intermediate changes — including a stay of many years at the Fish and Bell, Charles 
Street, Soho Square — appears to have settled down, under the title of the Lodge of Forti- 
tude, at the Roebuck, Oxford Street, from 1768 until 1793. In 1818 it amalgamated with 
the Old Cumberland Lodge — constituted 1753 — and is now the Fortitude and Old Cumber- 
land Lodge, No. 12. 

Dr. Anderson informs us that, after the removal of this Lodge to the Queen's Head, 
" upon some difference, the members that met there came under a New Constitution [in 
1723] tho' they iranted it mt ; " * and cccordingly, when the Lodges were arranged in order 
of seniority .n 1729, Original No. 3, instead of being placetl as one of the Four at the head 
of the roll, found itself relegated by the Committee of Precedence to the eleventh numbt-r on 
the list. This appears to have taken the members by surprise — as well it might, consider- 
ing that the last time the Four were all represented at Grand Lodge — April 19, 1727— before 

•Received five guineas from the General Charity, December 15, 1730. 

' I do not know, of course, what further light might be thrown u|X)n the history of tliis X^oAff. 
were the present members to lay bai'e its archives to pubUc inspection. Why, inde«l, there shoiihl 
be such a rooted objection to the publication of old Masonic documents, it is hard to conjecture, un- 
less, a.s luhnson obherves, " He that possesses a valuable manuscript, hopes to raise its esteem by 
concealraent, and delights in the distinction which he uuagines himself to obtain, by keeping the ke; 
of a treasure which he neither uses or imparts " (The Idler, No. (ia, July 14, 1750). 

» Cf. Chap. Xn., pp. 162, 170. * O. L. Minutes, March 16, 1768. 

'Ck>nstitutioD(!, .788, p. 186. 

J! I- 



the icale of precedence wm adjusted in conformity with the New Regnlation enacted for 
that purpose, their reapective Magten and Wardens answered to their names in the same 
order of seniority as wo find to have prevailed when the " Book of Constitutions" was ap- 
proved by the representatives of Lodges in 1723." But although the officers of No. 11 
" represented that their Lodge was misplaced in the printed book, whereby they lost their 
Rank, and humbly prayed that the said mistake might be regnUted,"— " the said complaint 
was dismiss'd,'" It is probable that this -jiotition would have experienced a very different 
fftte had the three senior Lodges been represented on the Committee of Precedence. 

As Original No. 3— also so numbered in 1729 — " dropt out " about 1736, the Lodges 
immediately below it each went up a step in 1740; and Original No. 3 moved from the 
'Uvtnth to the tenth place on the list. If the minutes of the Committee of Charity cov- 
erinjj that period were extant, we should find, I think, a renewed protest by the subject of 
this sketch against its supercession, for one was certainly made at the next renumbering 
in 1756 — and not altogether without success, us will be seen by the following extract from 
the minute book of one of the lodges above it on the list: 

July 22, 1755.—" Letter being [read] from the Grand Sec'': Citing us to appear att the 
Committee of Charity to answer the Fish and Bell Lodge [No. 10] to their demand of 
being plac'd prior to us, viz. in No. 3. Whereon our R* Wors' Mas' attended & the Ques- 
tion being propos'd was answer'd against [it] by him with Spirit and Besolution well worthy 
the Ch;.. 'tor he assiim'd, and being put to Ballot was carr^ in favour of us. Report being 
made t Jin night of the said proceedings thanks was Retum'd him & his health drank with 
hearty Zaal by the Lodge present." ' 

But although defeate<l in this instance, the officers of No. 10 appear to have satisfied 
the committee that their Lodge was entitled to a liigher number than would fall to it in 
the ordinary course, from two of its seniors luiving " dropt out " since the revision of 1740. 
Instead, therefore, of becoming No. 8, we find that it passed over the heads of the two 
Lodges immediately above it, and appeared in the sixth place on the IJat for 1756; whilst 
th» Lodges thus superseded by the No. 10 of 1735, themselves cljanged their relative posi- 
tions in the list for 1756, with the result tlwt Nos. 8, 9, and 10 ir the former list severally 
became 8,* 7,' and 6" in the latter — or, to express it in another yay, Nos. 8 and 10 of 1755 
change places in 1756. 

Elsewhere I have observed: " The supercession of Original No. 3 by eight junior Lodges 
in 1729, together with its jjartial restoration of rank in 1756, has introduce! so much con- 

'See jMXt the proceedings of Grand Lodge under the year 1727. 

'O. L. Minutes. July 11, 1789. 

'Minutes of the George Lodge, No. 4— then meeting at the George and Draf; rafton Street 

St. Ann's. In 1787, when removed to the "Sun and Punch Bowl," its warrant wu.s "sold, or other- 
wise illegally disposed of," to certain brethren, who christened it the " Fricrdship," which name it 
•till retains (now No. 6). Among the offenders were the Duke of Beaufort and Thomaa French, 
shortly afterward Grand Master and Grand Secretarj- respectively of the Grand Lodge of England. 

•Constituted May 1723. In April 1828 yielde<l iUs warrant and position to the Alphar-a Lodge of 
Grand Officers—established shortly after the Union, which had assumed the rank of a dormant lodge, 
the No. 28 of 1798-1813. Kme the Royal Alpha Lodge, No. 16. 

'Constituted November 85, 1733: erased March 85, 1745, and January 33, 1764; rctored March 7, 
1747, and April 38, 1764, respectively. Absorbed the Lodge of St. Mary-la-Bonne, No. 108. March 35, 
1791. Now the Tuscan Lodge, No. 14. 

* Original No. 8, note Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodi;e, No. 13. 


fulion into the hktoiy of thk Lodge, thitt for upward* of a etntury iti identity with the 
'old Lodge..' which met »t the Apple Tree Tavern in 1717, appeui to h»Te been wholly 

The age of thia lodge cannot be even approximately determined. It occupied the mc- 
ond place in the EngraTed Liita for 1733 and 173S, and probably continued to do so until 
1738. The poaition of the lodge in 1739 muat have been wholly determined by the dut« 
of its warrant, and therefore affords no clue to its actual seniority. It is quite imposfible 
to say whether it was established earlier or later than original No. 2 (1713), nor pacr '''iii. 
ton can we be altogether sure — if we assume ^Iie precedency in such matters to he ,igu- 
lated by dates of formation — that the Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge, would be jus- 
tified in yielding the pat, even to the Lodge of Antiquity itself. 

Alluding to the meeting at the Ooose and Gridiron Ale-house, on St. John the Laptin's 
day, 1717, Findel observes, " This day is celebrated by all German Lodges as the day of 
the anniversary of the Society of Freemasons. It is the high-noon of the year, the da; 
of light and roses, and it ought to be celebrated everywhere.*" " 

It seems to me, however, that not only is this remarkable incident in the history of the 
Lodge of Antiquity worthy of annual commemoration but that the services of the Forti- 
tude and Old Cumberland Lodge, in connection with what may be termed the most momen- 
tous evCiii in the history of the Craft, are at least entitled to a similar distinction. The 
first Grand Master, it is true, was elected and installeil at the Goose and Gridiron, under 
the banner of the Old Lodge there, but the first Grand Lodge was formed and constituted 
at the Apple Tree, under similar auspices. Also, we must not forget, that the lodge at 
the latter tavern supplied the Grand Master — Sa3'er — who was elected and installed in the 

Orioinal No. 4 met at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern, in Channel Row, Westmin- 
ster, in 1717, and its representatives— George Payne, Master, Stephen Hall and Francis 
Sorell, Wardens — ^joined with those of nineteen other lodges, in subscribing the " Appro- 
bation " of the Constitutions in January 1723. The date of its removal to the tavern with 
which it became so long associated, and whose name it adopted, is uncertain. It is shown 
at the " Horn " in the earliest of the Engraved Lists, ostensibly of the year 1723, but there 
are grounds for believing that this appeared towards the close of the periotl embractHl It 
the Grand Mastership of the Earl of Dalkeith, which would render it of later date than the 
following extract from a newspaper of the period:— 

There was a great Lodge of the ancient Society of the Free Masons held last week at 
the Horn Tavern, in Palace Yard: at which were present the Earl of Dalkeith, their Oranl 
Master, the Deputy Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, and several other persons of 
quality, at which time, the Lord Carmichael, Col. (.'arpenter, Sir Thomas Prendergast, Col. 
Pa^et, and Col. Saunderson, were acceptc<l Free Masons, and went home in their Leather 
Aprons and Gloves. " ' 

The names f>! these five initiates, two of whom were afterwanls Grand Wanlens, are 
shown in the earliest list of membt^rs fumishetl by the liodge at the "Honi" — in conformity 
with the order of Grand Lodge.* From this we leurn that in 1724 the Duke of Richmond 
was the Master, and George Payne the Deputy Master, whilst Alexander Hardine and 

'The Four Old Lodges, p. 42. 'History of Freemaiionry, p. 137. 

•The Weekly Journ»l or Britisli Gazetteer, March 38, 1T84. « February 1», 1784. 


with the 

tt wholly 

the IXC- 
» io until 

the (late 

arf "'I's- 
he ,, gu- 
ll be jug. 


le day of 

the (la; 

ry of the 
lie Forti- 
! momen- 
n. The 
n, under 
lodge at 
il in the 

' Appro- 
ern with 
is shown 
mt there 
raced l)T 
than the 

week at 
ir Oranil 
Tsons of 
last, Col. 


lens, are 
tine and 

. 137. 

ir 1 


At STii 

A Lift of the 


M Cbj/srrruTED aOMMtxA 





Brgwnlow f^^^QfUu^ 




Iw Iwie 


'^\ ftrfet Ua^7/Mk 


Silver ftrret 

in the 


'v^Ck: '•r«iicatiou a»^^ 3it»t 'lavjo of ^iuc'* "&iicjtaoci> ifist- of f odgc» 
Copied from the original published in 1725- 


B' f* 


AWaudw Choke ' were the Warivui. The ohancter of the lodge ha* been klread; gUnoed 
■t.* hnt the uunea of ite memben daring the jtu% 1724 and 1T33, will be giren in full in 
tlw kpfmAix, to which therefore it will bo unneoeMury to do more th«n refer. Among the 
priTtte member* were DeMgulien and Andenon, neither of whom in the yean 1734-35 
held office in the lodge. Unfortunately, the page allotted to Original No. 4— or No. 3 air 
it became from 1720 — in the Orand Lodge Kegitter for 1730, ii a blank, and after that 
j«ar there ii no liat to coniult for nearly half a century, when we again meet with one in 
the official reoordi, where the name* of the then memben are headed by that of Thonuu 
Dunckerle* " a member from 1768." 

Alexander Hardine waa the Matter in 172.'i, the office becoming Tacant by the Dnke of 
Bichmond'i election a* Orand Matter. There is little doubt, lioweTer— to uie the quaint 
language of " Old liegnktion XVII." '—by yirtuo of which the Duke waa debarred from 
continuing in the chait of the " Horn Lodge," whilat at tho lieail of the Craft— that " ua 
icon at hu had honourably ditcharg'd hit Ortnul Office, he returned to that Poet or Station 
in hit particular Lodge, from which he wat call'd to officiate above." At all events he waa 
back there in 1729, for on July 11 of that year, the Deputy Grand Matter (Blackerly) in- 
formed Grend Lodge, by deure of tho " Duke of Richmond. Matter of the Horn Lodge," 
u an ezcuie for the members not having brought charity, like t:ioae of the other lodges, 
that they " were, for the most part, persons of Quality, and Members of Parliament," and 
therefore out of town at that season of the year. Tho Duke was very attentive to his duties 
in the lodge. He wat in the chair at the initiation of tho Earl of Sunderland, on January 
2, 1730, on which occasion there were present the Grand Master, Lord Kingston, the Grand 
Master elect, the Duke of Norfolk, together with the Duke of Montagu, Lords Dalkeith, 
Delvin, Inchiquii , and other persons of distinction.* 

Later in the same year, he presided over another important meeting, when ntany for- 
eign noblemen, and bI>« William Cowper (D.G.M., 1726), were admitted membert, and 
was supported by the Grand Master (Duke of Norfolk), the Deputy (Blackerly), Lord 
Monlaun , and the Marquesses of Beaumont and Du Quesne. ' The Duke of Richmond 
resigned the Mastership in April 1738, and Nathaniel Blackerly was unanimously chosen 
to fill his place.* Original No. 4 waa given the third place in the Engraved Litt for 1729, 
and in 1740 became No. 2— which number it retained till the Union. 

On April 3, 1747, it was erased from the list, for non-attendance at tho Quarterly Com- 
municationt, but waa restored to its place September 4, 1751. According to the official 
records — " Bro. Lediard informed the Brethren that the Right Worshipful Bro'. Payne,' 
L.G.M., and several other members of the Lodge lately held at the Horn, Palace Yard, 
Westminster, had been very successful in their endeavors to serve the said Lodge, und 
that they were rt 'dy to p:iy 2 guineas to the use of the Grand Charity, and therefore moved 
that out of respect to Bro. Pftyne and the several other L.G.M. [late Grand Mtuters] who 
were members thereof, the Said Lo<lge might be restored and have its former rank and 

'S. G W.. li-JU, D.O.M., 1787. 'Vol. n., p. 170. For 1723, however, read 1724. 

' As already h'ated, the ' Old Regulations " will be found in the Appendix. 

'The Weekly lournal or British Gazetteer, January 3. 1730. 

'Rawlinaon liS., fol. 229(Bodl. Lib., Oxford). See, however, pout. p. 185. 

' The London Daily Post, April 28, 1788. At this period, the new Maxter of the " Horn Lodge " 
—who had been 8.O.W., 1787; and D.O.M., 1728-30— was a justice of the peace, and chairman of the 
■enions of the city and liberties of Westminster. ' Payne was present on the occasion. 


1 I 


Plaot in Um Uila of LodgM— which wm ordcrid aooordingly." Euri Fwran «m 
of Um " Horn Lodf* " wh«i •l«rtod Onnd Maitor of Um Sookt* in 1T«8. 

On Fobraary 16, 17M, »t an " Oocanowkl " Lodg«, hold tX tho Horn Tarnra, tho Omad 
MMtor, Lord Blajmoy, prcnding, Hii Koyal HighnsM, Williain Henry, Dnko of OlonoMtor, 
" WM mad* an entered apprentice, pamd a fellow onft, and laiaed to tho degree of % 
Uoeter MaKm."' 

lliia Prinoo, and hia two brothen, the Dakea of York * and Onmberland, erenttullj 
became membert of the " New Lodge at the Horn," No. 313, the name of whkh, oat of 
compliment to them, waa changed to that of the " Rojal Lodge." At the period, howerrr, 
of the Dnke of Olonctwtor'i admiieion, into the Society (1766), there were two lodgoa meet- 
inf( at the Horn Tarem. The " Old " Lodge, the mbject of the preaent iketoh, and tlw 
" New " Lodge, No. 313,' conetituted April 4, 1*64. The Duke waa initiated in neither, 
but in an " Ocotk anal " Lodge, at which, for all we know to the contrary, raemben of tuitk 
may have been preeent But at whatorer date the decadence of the "Old Horn Lodg«" 
may be laid to have fint let in, whether directly after the formation of a new lodge at th* 
MOW tarem, or later, it reached iti culminating point about the time when the Dnke of 
Cumberland, following the example of hii two brother*, became an honorary member of 
No. 313. Thia occurred March 4, 1767, and ou April 1 of the name year, the Dukeiof 
Olouceater and Cumberland attended a meeting of the junior Lodge, and tho latter mi 
initalled it* W.M., an office he aiao held in later yean.* 

The Engraved List for 1767 showi the " Old Horn Lodge " to have removed from tht 
tavern of that name, to the Fleece, Tothill Street, Weetminstor. Thence, in 1772, it mi- 
grated to the King's Arms, also In Westminster, and on January 10, 1774, " finding them- 
aelves in a declining state, the member* agreed to incorporate with a new and flourishin;; 
lodge, entitled the Somerset House Lodge, which immediately assumed tbeir rank."' So 
far Preston, in the editions of his famous " Illustrations," published after the schism wii 
healed, of which the privileges of the Lodge of Antiquity had been the origin. Bat in 
those published whilst the schism lasted (1779-89), he tells us, that " the member* of thp< 
Lodge tttcitly agreed to a renunciation of their rights as one of the four original Lodgea 
by openly avowing a declaration of their Master in Grand Lodge. They put themseJTei 
entirely under the authority of Grand Lodge; claimed no distinct privilege, by virtue of 
an Immemorial Constitution, but precedency of rank,* and considered themselves subject 
to every law or regulation of the Grand Lodge, over whom they could admit of no control, 
and to whose determination they and every Lodge were bound to aubmit." 

' Grand Lodge Minutes. 

* Initiated abroad. He waa preoent at the Duke of Gloucester's admiisioo, and the two brothen 
were elected honorary members of No. 818, on March 5, 1*66 (Minutes of the Royal Lodge, No. 311), 
published by C. Ooodwyn, in the Freemaaon, Apiil, 8, 18*1). It was numbered 310 at the Union, and 
died out before 1883. 

' It became No. 351 at the change of numbem in 1770, and is ttiua described in the Engraved Li<t 
for that year—" Royal Lodge, Tlmtcbed House. St. James Street, late the New Lodge at the Bom." 

* The Duke of Cumberland — Grand Master of the Society, 1788-90— received the three degrees of 
Masonry, February 9, 1767, in an " Oocasional" Lodge, held at the Thatched House Tavern (OnoJ 
Lodge Minutes). The minutes of the " Royal " Lodge, call it a " Grand " Lodge, which is incorrect, 

'Preston, Illustrations of Masonry, 179a, p. si.V». 

■ There is nothing to sliow— except Preston's word, which goes for very little— that the "Fool 
Old Lodges" (until his own time) ever carried their claims any higher. 


Tba niw, InAmd, ct thk tridmoa, k mmh im|»irad— «iid miut »RP«r w, •?« to 
tkoH by whom PrMton'i vnaoitya ngMdad u tw^nd raipioton— by Um nmmmij of no- 
oaeiUng with it th* ramvli* of the mom writer if/ifr 1790, whm he epMht <i< the /we old 
lodfM then estaot, •oUiik hj iiniiiemori«l oonatitutioB.' 

Bat the jMm of the junior of tb«w lodges ttood in no neod of iwtontion ui the lauide 
of Prwton, or of any other penon or body. In all the offioikl liata, pabliahed after iU 
uMklgamation ' with a lodge lower down on the roll, from 1775 to the prewntyear, the worda 
" Time Immemorial " in lien of a date, are placed oppodte iU printed title. Nor ia there 
■ay entry in the minntea of Grand Lodge, which will bear ont the aawrtion that at the 
faiioD of the two lodges, there waa any morifloe of independence on the part of the lenior. 
The junior of the parties to this alliance— in 1774, the Somerset Home Lodge, N& 219— 
WM originally constituted May 82, 1762, and is described in the Engratwl List for 1763 as 
"On Board H.M. Ship the ' Prince,' at Plymonth;"' in 1764-66 as " On Board U.M. Ship 
the ' Guadaloupe: '" and in 1767-73 as " the Somroorset Uonse Lodge (Na 210 on the nam- 
tntion of 1770-80) at ye King's Arms, New Bond Street" 

Thomas Dnnokarley (of whom mora hereafter), a natural son George IL, waa in- 
itiated into Masonry, January 10, 1704, whilat in the naval serriu .1 which he attained 
the rank of gunner; and his duties aflxt seem to have come to an end at about the ■^m« 
date on which the oid " Sea Lodge " in the " Prince " and lastly in the " Guadaloupe," was 
removed to Lomlon and christened the " Somerset House," most probably by way of com- 
pliment to Dunckerley himself, being the name of the place of residence when quarten 
were flrrt of all assigned to him on his coming to the Metropolis. In 1767 the king ordered 
him a pension of £100 a year, which was afterwards increased to £800, with a suite of 
apartments in Hampton Court Palace. 

The official records merely inform ns that Dunckerley was a member of the Somerset 
House Lodge after the fusion, and that he had been a member of one or both of tliem from 
1768,* beyond which year the Grand Lodge Register does not extend, except longo inter- 
mllo, vii., at the returns for 1730, a gap already noticed, and which it is as impossible to 
britlgu over from one end as the other. 

After Dunckerley'g, we meet with the names of Lord Gormanstone, Sir Joseph Bankes, 
Viscount Hampden, Rowland Berkeley, James Heseltine, and Rowland Holt, and later 
•till of Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Deputy Grand Master. In 1828 the Lodge again resorted 
to amalgamation, and absorbed the " Royal Inverness " Lodge, No. 648. The latter was 
virtually a military Lodge, having been formed by the oJScers of the Royal North British 
Volunteer Corps, of which the Duke of Sussex (Earl of Inverness) was the com-mnder. 
Among the members of the " Royal Inverness" Ixxlge were Sir Augustus B'V. . son of 
the Duke of Sussex; Lord William Pitt U>nnox; Charles Matthews the elder, " comedian; " 
Laurence Thompson, " painter," the noted preceptor: and in the Grand Lodge Register, 

'Illustrations of Masoniy, 1788, and subsequent editions. 

* Some observations on the amalgamation of Lodges will be found in my "Four Old i idges," 
pp. 44,45. 

•The "Sea and Field hodget," enumerated in "Multa Faucis "(n«3-64), consist of two of the 
foraipr. "on board " the " Vanguard " and " Prince " respectively— and one in " Captain Bell's Trtwp 
of Dragoons"— in Lord Aucrum's Regiment, nuw the Uth Hussars. 

'The regulation made November 19, 1T73, requiring Lodges to furnish lists of tlieir members to 
the Grand Secretary, only applied to persons who were initiated after October, 17811 
vo:.. ni. — 7. 






nnder the date of May 5, IR'25, ig the following entry,—" Charlea James ]tlatthew8, Archi- 
tect, Ivy Cottage, aged 24. " 

The " old Lodge at the Horn," which we have traced through ao many vicinitndes— 
for reawns already given in the eketch of the Lodge of Antiquity — dropped from the aec- 
ond to the fou. Ji place on the roll at the Union; and in 1828 assumed the title of the 
" Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge," by which it is still described in the list. 
It is a subject for regret that no history of this renowned Lodge has been compiled. The 
early minutes, I am informed, arc missing, but the materials for a descriptive account of 
a Lodge associated with such brilliant memories still exist, although there may be some 
slight trouble in searching for them. Among the Masonic jottings in the early newspapers, 
and the waifs and strays at Freemasons' Hall, will be found a great many allustons to this 
ancient Lodge. Of these, examples are afforded in the sketch now brought to a close, 
which is mainly baaed on those sources of information. 

Of the three Grand Officers, whose names have alone come down to us in connection 
with the great event of 171 T, there is very little said in the proceedings of the Grand Lodge, 
over whose deliberations it was their lot to preside for the first year of its existence. Cap- 
tain Elliut drops completely out of sight; and Jacob Lamball almost so, though he reap- 
pears on the scene in 1735. on March 31 of which year he sat as Grand Warden, in the 
place of "'" Edward Mansell; not having been present, so far as can be determined from 
the oL ;ial records, at any earlier period over which they extend.' He subsequently 
attended very frequently, and in the absence of a Grand Warden, usually filled the vaaiDt 
chair. Anderson includes his name among those of the " few brethren " by whom he was 
" kindly encouraged " whilst the Constitutions of 1738 were in the press; and if, as thero 
seems groiintl for believing, the doctor was not himself present at the Grand Election of 
1717, it ia probable that he derived his account of it from the brother who was chosen 
Grand Senior Warden on that occasion. Lamball, it is sjid to relate, in his latter years 
fell into diHiiy and poverty, and at a Quarterly Communication, held April 8, 1756, was 
a petitioner ft ' when the sum of ten guineas was votod to him from the Fund of 

Charity, " wi' •' to apply again." Even of Sayer himself there occurs but a passing 

mention, lint .. hioh we are justified in inferring that his influence ami iiuthority in 

the councils of tiie Craft did not long survive his term of office as Graml Master. It is 
jirolialile that poverty and misfortunes so weiglied him down as to forbid his associatinp; on 
eiiu..! terms with the only two commoners — Payne and Desaguliers — who, besides himsi'lf, 
had tilled the Masonic throne; but there is also evidence to show that he did not scrnjile 
to infringe the laws and regulations, which it "jecanie him, p<'rhBps mon- than any otlur 
man, to set the fiishion of diligently obeying. lie was one of the (irand Wanlens under 
Desaguliers in 1719, and a Warden of his private I^odge. Original No. :!. in January IT,':!. 
but belli no office in the latter at the close of the same year or in 1705, though he continiici 
a member until 1730, and possibly later;' but from the last-named date nutil some w,r 
into the second half of the eighteenth century, there is unfortunately no register of tli ■ 
members of Lodges. After 1730 Saver virtually disappears from the scene. In that year 
we first meet with his name, as having walked last in a procession — arranged in order of 

'i.e., between June 24, 1723, and Marcli 31, ITS.'i. 

' ThomaK Morris and James Pn^Kelt. liotli members of the Mason's Company, belonped. the 
former U> Original No. 1, and the hitter to Un^inal No. 3, m \T£A and also in ITJS. From this we 
ma>- infer, that such JIfuon* as became t\tema»on» had nu predilection (or any particular Lodge. 



Jnniorify— of part Grend Mjwters, at the installation of the Duke of Norfolk. He next 
appear* aa a petitioner for relief, and finally in the character of an offender againrt the laws 
of the Society. Of these incidents in his career two are elsewhere recorded ; but with regard 
to his pecuniary circumstances, the minutes of Grand Lodge show that he was a petitioner 
-presumably for charity— on November 21, 1724; but whether he was then relieved or 
not from the General Fund, the records do not disclose. A second application was attended 
with the following result: 

April 21, 1730.— "Then the Petition of Brc u.r Anthony Suyf , formerly Grand Mas- 
ter, was read, setting forth his misfortunes an< groAt povcity, ar ' praying Relief. The 
Grand Lodge took the same into their considei .tioi . and it vat, iroposeil that he should 
have £20 out of the money received on ace' of :■ ,. ^'^ ^pra. < harity others proposed £10, 
and others £15. 

The Question being put, it was agreed that he should have £15, on acc« of his having 
been Grand Master. " ' 

He api)ear8 to have received a further sum of two guineas from the > me source on April 
17, 1741, after which date 1 can find no allusion in tlw records, or elsewhere, to the first 
"Grand Master of Masons." 

George Payne is generally described as a "learned antiquarian," though I imagine on 
no other foundation of authority than the paragraph ' into which Dr. Anderson has com- 
pressed the leading events of his Grand Mastership. It is jwssible that the archteological 
tastes of a namesake who die<l in 1739' have been ascribed to him; but however this may be, 
his name is not to be found among those of the fellows or members of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, an association established, or, to speak more correctly, rerired, at about the same 
date as the Grand Lodge of England.* Some years ago I met with a newspaper entry of 
1731, to the effect that Mr. Payne, the apothecary, had presented to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury two Greek MSS. of great antiquity and curiosity.* This seemcnl to promise 
well, so I wrote to the Society of Apothecaries, but was informed tliat its records contained 
no mention of a George Payne during the whole of the eighteenth century. Unfortunately 
there is very little to be gleamed concerning Payne's private life. His will is dated Decem- 
ber 8, 1755, and was proved March 9, 1757, by his wife, the sole executrix, the testator 
having died on January 23 in the same year. lie is described as of the parish of St. Mar- 
garet, Westminster, and appears to have t)ocn a man of good worldly substance. Among 
the various bequest* are legacies of £200 each to his nieces, Frances, Countess of Northamp- 
ton, and Catherine, Lady Francis Seymour. Pavne died at his house in New Palace Yard, 
Westminster, being at the time Secretary to the Tax Office.' How long he had resided 
there it is now impossible to say; but it is curious, to say the least, that when we first hear 
of the Lodge to which both Payne and Desaguliers belonged, it met at Channel Row, where 

' Grand Lodge Minutes. On the same evening, Joshua Timson was voted £14 " on account of 
liis having served as a Orand Warden." 

' Ante, p. 88. 

' "Death*— Sept At Ghent, George Payne, of Northumberland, Esq., F.R S., Member of the 
Royal Academy at Berlin, of the Noble Institute of Bologna," etc. (8col« Magazine, vol. i.. 1739. d. 
428). "6 , ,F 

* Cf. ArchiFologia, vol. i., Introduction, p. xxxiii.: Niciiois, Literary Anecdotes, vol vt, p, 8, 

et aeq. 

'Reads Journal, May 89, 1731. 

•.iirte, p. 81, note 8; OeDtleman's Magazine, vol. xxvii., 1757, p. 88. 


n -* 

the Ifttter lired; alao that it wm afterwards remoTed to New FkhMse Yard, where the former 

Pftynn, I apprehend, was the earlier member of the two, and the date of his joining the 
Lodge may, in my judgment, be set down at some period afltr St. John the Baptist's Day, 
1717, and bofurt the corresponding festiTal of 1718. He was greatly respected both by the 
brethren of the " old Lodge at the Horn," and the craft at large, and the esteem in which 
he was held by the latter, stood the former in good stead in 1751, when at his intercession 
the lodge in question, which had been erased from the list in 1747, was restored to its 
former rank and place. 

During his second term of ofBce as Grand Master, Payne compiled the General Regula- 
tions, which were afterwards finally arranged and published by Dr. Anderson in 1723. H« 
continued an active member of Grand Lodge until 1754, on April 37 of which year he was 
appointed a member of the committee to revise the " Constitutions" (afterwards brought 
out by Entick in 1756). According to the Minutes of Grand Lodge, he was present there 
for the last time in the following November. 

John Theophilus Dcsaguliers, the son of a French Protestant clergyman, bom at 
Rochelle, March 13, 1683, was brought to England by his father when about two years of 
age, owing to the persecution which was engendered by the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. He was educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, where he took the degree 
of B.A., and entered into deacon's orders in 1710. The same year he succeeded Dr. Keill 
as lecturer on Experimental Philosophy at Hart Hall. In 1713 he mtrried Joanna, daughter 
of Mr. William Pudsey, and proceeded to the degree of M.A. The ioUowing year he re- 
moved to the metropolis and settled in Channel Row, Westminster, where he continued 
his lectures. On July 39, 1714, he was elected F.R.S., but was excused from paying the 
subscription, on account of the number of experiments which he showed at the meetings. 
Subsequently he was elected to the office of curator, and communicated a vast number of 
curious and valuable papers between the years 1714 and ; ^43, which are printed in the 
Transactions. II also published several works of his own, particularly his large " Course 
of Experimental Philosophy," being the substance of his public lectures, and abounding 
with descriptions of the most useful machines and philosophical instruments. He acted 
as curator to within a year of his decease, and appears to have received no flxe»l salary, being 
remuneruted according to the number of experiments and communications which he maJe 
to the Society, sometimes receiving a donation of £10, and occasionally £30, £40, or £50. 

His lectures were delivered before George I. at Hampton Court in 1717, and also before 
George II., and other members of the Royal Family, at a later period. 

There is some confusion with regard to the church preferment which fell in the doctor's 
way. According to Lysons, he was appointed by the Duke of Chandos to the benefice of 
Whitchurch — otherwise termed Stanmore Parva— in 1714,' but Nichols says he was pre- 
sented by the same patron, in the same year, to the living of Edgeware.' 

It is not easy to reconcile the dist-epancy, and the description of a lodge — warranted 
April 25, 1722— in the Engraved Lists for 1723, 1725, and 1729, viz.. The Duke of Clian- 
dos's Arms, at FAgcworfh, tends to increase rather than diminish the difficulty of the task. 

In 1718 he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of Laws, and about the 
nime period was presented— through the influence of the Earl of Sunderland — to a small 

■ He anviroDB of London, 1800-11, vol. iii., p. 874. 

' Litenry Aneodotea, vol. tL, p^ 81. 


KriBg in Norfolk, the revenue of which, however, only amounted to jE70 per annum. 
This benefice he afterward exchanged for a crown living in Essex, to which he was nomi- 
nated by George II. He w-w likewise appointed chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
an office which ho had already held 1 1 the household of the Duke of Chandoa, and was 
destined to fill still later (1738) in Bowles (now the ISth) Regiment of Dragoons. 

When Channel Row, where he had lived for some years, ' was taken down to make way 
for the new bridge at Westminster, Dr. Desaguliers removed to lodgings over the Great 
Piazz i in Covent Garden, where he carried on his lectures till his death, which took place 
on February 29, 1744.' He was buried March 6 in the Chapel Royal of the Savoy. In 
ptraonal attractions the doctor -s singularly deficient, being short and thick-set, his fig-ire 
ill-shaped, his features irregular, and extremely near-sighted. In the early part of his life 
he lived very abstemiously, but in his later years was censured for an indulgence in eating 
to excess, both in the quantity and quality of his diet The following anecdote is recorded 
of his respect for the clerical character. 

Being invited to an illustrious company, one of whom, an officer, addicted to swearing 
in his discourse, at the period of every oath asked Dr. Desaguliers' pardon; the doctor bore 
this levity for some time with great patience, but at length silenced the swearer with the 
following rebuke: " Sir, you have taken some pains to render me ridiculous, if possible, 
by your pointed apologies; now, sir, I am to tell you, that if God Almighty does not hear 
you, I assure you I will never tell him."" 

He left three sons— Alexander, the eldest, who was bred to the Church and had a living 
in Norfolk, where he died in 1751 ; John Theophilus, to whom the doctor bequeathed all 
that he died possessed of; and Thomas, also named in the testator's will as " being suffi- 
ciently provided for"— for a time equerry to George III.— who attained the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-General, and died March 1, 1780, aged seventy-seven. 

Lientenant-General Desaguliers served in the Royal .\rtillery— in which regiment his 
memory is still fondly cherished as that of one of its brightest ornaments— for a period of 
fifty-seven years, during which he was en- on many arduous services, including the 

battle of Fontenoy and the sieges of Louisl , Telleisle.* The last named is the only 

one of Desaguliers' s^ns whom we know u een a Freemason. He was probably a 

member of the Lodge at the " Horn," and a» we learn from the " Constitutions " of 1738, 
was— like Jacob Lamball— among the " few brethren " by whom the author of that work 
" was kindly encouraged while the Book was in the Press." * 

In the pamphfet from which I have already quoted,' Dr. IVsaguliers is mentioned as 

' It is given as his address in a warcc pamphlet cited by Mr. Weld in hia " History of the Koyal 
Society," 1848 (vol. i., p. 434), entitled, 'A List of the Royal Society of London, with tlie places of 
Abode of most of its Hembera, etc., London, 1718. " Cf. ante, p. 31. note 3. 

' " London, March 1.— Yesterday died at his liKlgings in the Bedford Coffee House in Covent 
Oarden, Dr. Desaguliers, a gentleman imiversally known and esteem'd" (General Evening Post, No. 
1680, from Tuesday, February 38, to Thursday, March 1, 1744). 

'Literary Anecdotes, loe. eit. 

' At the former he liad the honor of supporting the gallant General Wolfe, and of the latter Cap- 
tain Duncan observes: " It » uifable that the man who commanded the siege-train on this occa- 
sion, should be one eminent ai.*rwards in the scientillc as well as Uie military world: a Fellow of 
the Roy«l Society, as well as a practiral roldipr: a (It pretteoesaor to the many who have since distin- 
Ruished the Regiment by their learning— Brigadier Desaguliers " (History of the Royal Regiment of 
ArtiUeiy, vol. L, 1878, p. 88^ » Vol. tt, p. 354. • See note 1, tapra. 

I I 


being (in 1718) specially learned in natural philoaophy, mathematica, geometry, and optica, 
but the bent of his genius mnst have been subsequently applied to the science of gunnery, 
for in the same work which is so eulogistic of the son, we And the father thus referred to, 
in connection with a visit paid to Woolwich by George III. and his consort during the peace 
of 1763-71. "It was on this occasion that their Majesti"* rym many curious firings; among 
the rest a large iron cannon, fired by a lock like a common gun; a heavy 13-pounder 
fired twenty-three times a minute, and spunged every time by a new and wonderful con- 
trivance, said to be the invention of Dr. Desaguliers, with other astonishing improvenicnU 
of the like kind." ' It is possible tliut the extraordinary prevalence of Masonic lodges in 
the Royal Artillery, during the last half of the eighteenth century, may have been due, in 
some degree, to the influence and example of the younger Desaguliers, but considerations 
of this nature lie beyond the scope of our immediate subject, which is restricted to a brief 
memoir of his father. 

The latter days of Dr. Desaguliers are said to have been clouded with sorrow and 
poverty. De Feller, in the " Biographic Universelle," says that he attired himself some- 
times as a harlequin, and sometimes as a clown, and that in one of these fits of insanity he 
died — whilst Cawthorne, in a poem entitled " The Vanity of Human Enjoyments," lameatt 
his fate in these lines: 

" permit the weeping muse to tell 

How poor neglected DsSAaULiERS fell I 
How he who taught two gracioux Icings to view 
All Boyle ennobled, and all Bacun knew, 
Died in "s cell, without a friend to save. 
Without a guinea, and without a grave." 

But as Mackey justly observes,' the accounts of the French biographer and the Engli^ 
poet are most probably both apocryphal, or, at least, much exaggerated. Desaguliers waj 
present in Grand Lodge on February 8, 1742, and his will — apparently dictated by himself 
— is dated November 29, 1743.* He certainly did not die " in a cell," but in the Bedforl 
Coffee House. His interment in the Savoy also negatives the suppoeition that he waa 
" without a prave," whilst the terms of his will, which express a desire to " settle wlmt it 
has pleased God to bless him with, Ix^f jre he departs," are altogether inconsistent with tiie 
iilea of his having been reduced to such a state of abject penury, as Cawthome's jwoni 
wouM lead us to Iwlieve. Moreover, ]masing over John Theophilus, of whose circumstaiii>ej 
wu know nothing, is it conceivable that either Alexander, the eldest son, then a beneficed 
clergyman, or Thomas, thou a captain in the artillery, would have left their father to 
starve in his lodgings, and have even grudged the expense of laying him in the grave? 

These inaccuracies, however, are of slight cons«>quence, as compared with those in 
which the historians of the Craft have freely indulged. Mackey styles DesagiUiers " the 
Father of Modern Speculative Masonry," and expresses a belief " that to him, pcrhr.n«, 
more than to any other man, are we indebted V " the present existence of Freenmsonry su 

■Duncan, op. cil., vol. i., p. 344. 

'Encyclopaudiaof Freemasonry, p. 216. Mackey, however, who relies on Nichols (Literary An- 
ecdotes, vol. vi., p. Sli, is inaccurate iu his stutenient tliat the lattor was (lersunaily acqu'iinted wiUi 
Desaguliers, Nichols having been born In 1T43, whereas Desaguliers tliud in 1744. 

'Proved March 1, 1744, by his son John Theophilus, the sole executor. 


aliring inatitution." It ws8 Deaagulien, he considera, "who, by hi» energy and enthu- 
Bflnn, infused a Bpirit of zeal into his contomporaries, which culminated in the Revival of 
the year 1717." Findel and others exproBu themselves in very similar terms, and to the 
origin of this hallucination of our literati, which has been already noticed, it will be un- 
neceaaary to do more than refer. ' 

The more the testimonies are multiplied, the stronger is always the conviction, though 
it 'requently happens that the original evidence is of a very slender character, and that 

lers have only copied one from another, or, what is worse, have added to the original 
without any new authority. Thus, Dr. Oliver, in his " Revelations of a Square," which 
,in one part of his Encyclopeedia* Mackey describes as "a sort of Masonic romance, deUiling 
in a fictitious form many of the usages of the last centuries, with anecdotes of the principal 
Jlasons of that period "—in another, he diligently transcribes from, as affording a descrip- 
tion of Deaaguliers' Masonic and personal character, derived from " tradition."' 

If time brings new materials to light, if facts and dates confute the historians of the 
Craft, we may, indeed, lose our history; but it is impossible to adhere to our historians — 
that is, unless we believe that antiquity consecrates darkness, and that a lie becomes ven- 
erable from its age. 

There is no evidence to justify a belief that Desaguliers took any active part in, or was 
even initiated into Freemasonry, prior to the year 1719, when, as the narrative of Dr. 
Anderson informs us, he was elect-Ml Grand Master, with Anthony Sayer as his Senior 
Grand Warden. 

In 1723, or possibly 1722— for the events which occurred about this period are very 
unsatisfactorily attestea— he was appointed Deputy Grand Master by the Duke of Wharton, 
and reappointed to the same office six months later by the Earl of Dalkeith; also again by 
Lord Paisley in 1725. 

According to the Register of Grand Lodge, Desaguliers was a member of the liOdge at 
the " Horn," Westminster (Original No. 4), in 1725 ; but his name is not shown as a 
memher of any Lodge in 1723. Still, there can hardly be a doubt '*-U he liailed from the 
Lotige in question in both of these years. The earliest minute book of the Grand Lodge 
of England commences: "This Manuscript was begun the 25th November 1723. The 
U' Hon'"' Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, Grand Ma'; B' John Theophilua Desaguliers, Deputy 
Grand Ma'. 

Francis Sorell, Esq'., ) , w _i 

M'JohnSenex, [ Grand Wardens." 

Next follows " A List of the Regular Constituted Lodges, together with the names of 
the Masters, Wardens, and Members of each Ijodge. " 

Now, in January 1723, the " New Constitutions " were ratified by the Masters and 
Wardens, of twenty Lodges. Among the subscribers were the Earl of Dalkeith, Master, 
Xo. XI. ; Francis SoreU, Warden, No. IV. ; and John Senex, Warden, No. XV. In the 
list of lodges given in the minute book of Grand l^odge, these numberg, XL, IV., and 
XV., are represented by the Lodges meeting at the Hummer, Cha:ing Cross; the Horn, 
Westminster; and the Greyhound, Fleat Street, respectively. But though the names of 
the members appear in all three cases, Lord Dalkeith no longer appeare on the roll of No. 
XL (Rummer); and the uime remark holds good with regiurd to the connection between 

•Ante, p. St. 

•P. 940. 

»p. an 


Sorellknd Senex with Not. IV. (Uoni) and XV. (Qreyhoand) reapectively. Sorell'g name, 
it may be added, aa well as that of DeMgnlien, appears in the Grand Lodge Register, under 
the year 1725, as a member of the Horn. 

It would seem, therefore, that in 1733 the names of the four Grand OflBcers were en- 
tered in a separate list of their own, at the head of the roll. " Past rank," or member- 
ship of and precedence in Grand Lodge, by rirtne of having held aflBce therein, it must 
be recollected, was yet unknown, which will account for the names of Pftyne and Sayer— 
former Grand Uasters — appearing in the ordinary lists. 

Deaaguliers, it is certai'-., must have belonged to some Lodge or other in 1733; and 
there seems no room for doubt that the entry of 1735, which shows him to have then been 
a member of Original No. 4, merely replaced his name on the roll, from which it was tem- ' 
porarily omitted during his tenure of office as Deputy. Elappily the lists of 1735 were 
enrolled in the Register of Grand Lodge, from returns furnished at a Quarterly Com- 
munication, held November 37, 1735; otherwise the omission might have been repeated, 
—as Deaaguliers, who vacated the Deputy's chair on St. John's Day (in harvest ) 1724, 
resumed it by appointment of Lord Paisley on St John's Day (in Christmas) 1725. Sub- 
sequently he became a member of other Lodges, whose places of meeting were at Solomon's 
Temple, Hemming's Bow (1725-30),— James Anderson being also a member: The Bear 
and narrow, in the Butcher's Row (No. 63, 1733),— the Earl of Strathmore being the 
Master, whilst the Grand Master (Lord Montague), the Deputy, and the Grand Wanlens 
of the year were among the members; and of the University Lodge, No. 74 (17;!0-3i).' 

The following summary completes the Masonic record of the learned natural philos- 
opher, which I am enabled to place before my readers. 

In 1719, whilst Grand Master, he " reviv'd the old regular and peculiar Toasts 01 
Healths of the Free Masons." In 1721, at the annual feast, he " made an eloquent Oration 
about Masons and Masonry f and in the same year visited the Lodge of Edinburgh. The 
preface to the Constitutions of 1733 was from his pen. On November 36, 1728, he 
" proposed that, in order to have the [Great Feast] conducted in the best manner, a certain 
number of Stewards should bo chosen, who should have the intire care and direction of 
the said ffeast, together with the Grand Wardens," which was agreed to. Twelve brethren 
at once signed their names as consenting to act as Stewards in the following December;' 
and the same number, with occasional intermissions, were nominated on later occasions 
until the Union, when it was increase<l to eighteen. On the same evening, the " twelve" 
" propos'd Dr. Desaguliers' Health for reviving the office of Stewards (which appeared to 
be agreeable to the Lodge in general); and the same was drank accordingly."' In 1731, 
at the Hague, he acted as Master of the Lodge in which Francis, Duke of Lorraine— after- 
ward Grand Duke of Tuscany*— was " made an EtUer'd Prentice and Fkllow Craft." * In 

i. I 

' Cf. Gould, Four Old Lodgen, 1879, pp. 49, 50. 

' Orund Lodffe Minutes. It is somewhat curious that only one of the twelve—" Thomas Alfori, 
of the Rose and Rummer, in Holboum," or Original No. »— wan a member of either of the Four Old 

" Ibid. The only one of the twelve who did not act was Mr. Caesar Collys, of the " Rose, Mary 
Le Bone" (No. 48 in 1729), his place beinfr taken by Mr. Edwin Ward. 

♦ He married the famous Maria Theresa, daughter of the Emperor Charles VI., at the death of 
whose immediate successor— Charles VIL— he himseU aw^nded the Imperial throne, September 1748. 

* Constitutions, 1738, p. 129. 


1735 he wM prcient with tlie Dnke of Richmond, the Earl of Wsldegrave (Britiih Am- 
bHMdor), Premdent Monteaqnien, Lord Dnnley, and a nnmerous company, at the opening 
of a Lodge in the Hotel Bvmj, Rae de Bu««y, Pto■i^ where the Duke of Kingston, Lord 
Cbewton, the Count de 8t Florentin (Secretary of State), and others, were admitted into 
th Society.' Two yean later— namely, on November 5, 1737— he again sat as Matter at 
the initiation of a royal permnage; on which occasion, Frederick, Prince of Wales,* reoeiTed 
the first two degrees, which, however, were shortly afterward followed by that of Master 
Uison, conferred at another " Oocanonal " Lodge, oompoaed of the same members as the 
previous one. ' In the same year— also in 1738, and later— he was a frequent visitor at the 
Lodge then held at the Bear Inn, Bath— now the Roy; Cumberland Lodge, Na 41— from 
the minutes of which we learn that he frequently sat -s Master, and discharged the cere- 
monial duties incidental to that ofBce.* The Constitutions of 1738 were submitted in 
nuumscript to the perusal of Desagnliers and Payne;* and the last entry in my notes with 
regard to his active participation in the duties of Masonry, records his forewell visit to the 
Grand Lodge, which took place, as already stated, on Febmary 8, 1742. 

It is highly probable that Desaguliers became a member of the Lodge at the RimmR 
and Grapes, in Channel Row, Westminster, because its meetings were held in the vicinity 
of his dwelling We first meet with his name, in the records of Masonry, in 1719, and 
there is nothing which should lead us to infer that he had then been for any long period a 
member of the Society. On the contrary, the evidence points in quite the opposite direc- 
tion. Two meetings only of the Grand Lodge (after its " pro tempore " constitution in 
1716) appear to have been held before the " Assembly,'' on St John the Baptist's Day, 
1719, at which Desaguliers was elected Grand Master, viz.: those in 1717 and 1718, 
whereat Anthony Sayer and George Payne wero severally chosen to fill the same high office. 
It seems to me very unlikely that either Payne or Desaguliers were present at the " As- 
sembly " of 1717. Had such been the case, Anderson would hardly have failed to record 
the circuniBtance; nor can I bring my mind round to the belief that, if the name of one 
or the other had been included in the "List of proper Candidates" for the Masonic throne, 
proposed by the " oldest Master Mason " on the occasion in question— as must have hap- 
pened, had either of them been present — the choice of the Lodges and brethren would 
have fallen on Sayer. 

If, again, Desaguliers was a Freemason in 1718, I think he would have been elected a 
Grand Warden, or at least that his name would have been mentioned by Anderson in con- 
nection with the "Assembly" of that year. Payne's election as Grand MasUr scarcely 

'Rawlinson M88., Bodleian Library, Oxford; St. James" Evening Post, September 80, 1T35 (the 
latter cited by Hughan in the Masonic Magazine, February, 1877). 

' Frederick died in 1761. Three of his sons became members of the Craft The Dukes of York 
and Gloucester were initiated in 1786— the former abroad, and the latter at the Horn Tavern. The 
Duke of Cumberland joined the Society in the following year. Cf. the sketch of Original No. 4, 
ante, and O. W. Speth, " Royal Freemasons," where the initiation of every brother of royal blood is 
carefully recorded, so tar at least as it has been found possible to do so, by one of the most accurate 
and diligent of Masonic students. 

•Constitutions, 1738, p. 37. Cf. anU, p. 40, note 3. 

• T. P. Ashley. History of the Royal Cumberland Lodge, No. 41, 1873, p. 88. I hpre avail myself 
of the opportunity of thanking Dr. H. Hopkins for a series of extracts from the minutes of No. 41, 
which not only bear out the statement in the test, but have been of very gr ^t assistance to me in 
other ways. . Constitutions, 1788, p. 199. 


boMi apoQ the point at ime, it not being unreMonable to oonclude th*t he poHeHsd • 
greater hold oter the electonte than Dea^i^lien, otherwiw the Utter would hare been con- 
tinued u Grand Matter in 17S0, initead of haTing to gire place to hia predeoeaaor of 1718. 

The precise date when the lodge, Original No. 4, wan remored from the Rummbr and 
Ghapbs, in Channel Rote, to the Hobn— al«o in Wertmiiwter— cannot be determined. Iti 
meeting! were held at the former of these taverns in 1717, and at the latter in 1783. 
Beyond this the esigting records are silent. Desaguliers, it may be supposed, was induced 
to become a Freemason, owing to the propinquity of a lodge, and his lore of good fellow, 
ship. In all probability he joined the "Club of MaMUs" at the Rcmxbr and Grapes, 
just as he might have joine*.' any other club, meeting at the tavern where, following the 
custom of those days, he may have spent his evenings. If we compare, then, his Maaoni( 
record with those of Payne or Anderson, it will be seen that whilst the former of the two 
worthies with whose memories his own has been so closely linked, compiled the "General 
Rogultttions," afterwards " compar-d " and " digested " together with the " Gothic Consti- 
tutions " by the latter— the fame of Desaguliers as a member of our Society rests in the 
main upon his having introduced two customs, which bid fair to retain their popukrity, 
though to some mind», their observance is only calculated to detract from the utility of 
Masonic labor, and to mar the enjoyment of the period devoted to refreshment ' These are 
Masonic orations and after-dinner speeches. 

A short biography of Anderson has been already given,' to which the following informa- 
tion derived as this volume is passing through the press, must be regarded as supplementary. 

The lists of " Artium Magistri " at Kings College, Aberdeen, exist for the years 1675-84, 
1686-88, 1693-95, 1697, 1700-01, 1706, 1710-33, and it appears that a " Jacobus Anderson ' 
graduated there:— 

1". June 21, 1694, .... promotore Gul. Black. 
2°. May 2, 1711, .... '• Qui. Black. 

3°- 1~1'. .... " Richd. Gordon. 

The entry under the year 1711 probably refers to James Anderson the Freemason, 
though a.^ the records from which the above xtracts are taken are merely copies, there 
are uiifortunateiy no actual signatures that n.ight assist in the identification.* 

Anderson Uiok no part in the deliberations of Grand Lodge, nor was he present at any 
of its meetings between St. John's day (iu harvest), 1724, and the recurren' , of that festi- 
val in 1731. On the last-nametl date his attendance is reconled in the minutes, and the 
words appended to his name— " Author of the Book of Constitutions "—show that his 

' Wrfli regard to the oration delivered by Dr. Desaguliers in 1731, I may be permitted to quote 
from an arti. le written by me four years ago. " Findel says: ' It ia greaUy to be regretted that this 
important lecture is unknown; • I am unable to agree with him. If is, of course, quite possible that 
Masonic orations may phase some hearers, but I am aware of none that are calcuUted to afford 
either pleasure or instruction U, readers. Unless the ' oration ' of 1721 was very far superior to the 
preface or dedication which Desa^-liers wrote for the Constitutions of 1733, the recovery of the 
missing ' discourse' would neitlnr a<M v> our knowledge, or justify our mcluding its author within 
the cat^^ry of teamed Freemaso-is" (r/^muson, February 36, 1881). 

• Ante, p. 4a 

•The records of both Mariachal and Kings CoUes^e have h<»n rfilig,.ntly searched by Mr. Eobcrt 
Walker, to whom I express my grateful acknowledgments, also to Dr. Beveridge, Prov. G. M. of 
Aberdeen City, who kindly set on foot tli.' inquiry for ra*. 


■idnona l*bon in pnTiotu ye«n had by no raeani faded from recollection. In 1734, ■• 
vUI be more fully noticed hereafter, he waa ordered to prepare a wcond edition of the 
"Oonftitutiona,"and wua present in Grand Lodge— lupported by hit old frienda Payne, 
Deagnliers, and Lamball— on January 25, 1738, when ita publication wan "approved of." 
At the mioceeiling Quarterly Communication (April fl), ho attended for the last time, and 
lat in h J old place as Junior Grand Warden. Before, however, the veteran pawed away 
to hii rei , one pleaaing event occurred, which has been hitherto pamed over by his biogra- 
phers, i^our months before his d<«th ' he was introduced, by the Marqness of Carnarvon, 
Grand Master, at a private audience, to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and " in the name of 
the whole Fraternity, humbly presented the New Book of Constitutions, dedicated to hit 
Royal Highness, by whom it was graciously received."* 

Professor Bobinson rpeaks of Anderson and Desaguliers— the one, it should be remem- 
bered, a doctor of Dinnity, and the other a doctor ol laws and a Fellow of the Royal Society 
—as " two persons of little education and of low manners, who had aimed at little more 
than making a pretext, not altogether contemptible, for a convivial meeting."* 

Here we have the old story of the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, being due 
to the combined efforts of these two men, but the imputation which is cast upon their 
learning is not a little remarkable, as showing the manner in which one eminent natural 
philosopher pennita himself to speak of another.' Good wine needs no bush, and the at- 
tainments of Deaaguliers require no eulogy at the hands of his biographers. Upon those 
of Anderson it is difficult to pass judgment, but perhaps we shall be safe ir. concluding, 
that without possessing the stock of learning so loosely ascribed to him by Masonic writers, 
he was equally far removed from the state of crass ignorance to which the verdict of Dr. 
Robinson would reduce him. If, indee*!, he actually wrote the " Defence of Masonry," 
already referred to,'— and upon which I conceive the belief in his extensive reading and 
great literary ability mainly rests— then I readily admit that the view expressed by me of 
his talent and acquirements cannot stand. The authorship of the pamphlet alluded to is 
one of those subsidiary puzzles so constantly met with in Masonic investigation, and ia 
worthy of more minute examination by the " curious reader"- if such there be— but the 
critical inquiry it invites would far transcend the limits of the present work.' 

It is certain that upon Anderson, rather than either Payne and Desaguliers, devolved 

'Anderson died May 28, 1789, and there is no . opjr of his will at Somerset House, up to the year 
1744 inclusive: of course it may have been provp.l hiter, or out of London, but further investigation 
has been beyond my power, nor, indeed, do I believe that his will, if discovered, would add materi- 
ally to onr stock of knowledge respecting the man. 

* Read's Weekly Journal, January 30, 1739. 

•Proofs of a conspiracy against all the Rt^iigions and CtovernraenU of Europe, carried on in the 
Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, Illuminati, etc., 3d edit. 1798, p. 71. 

• Dr. Robison was elected to the chair of Natural Philosophy in the Un'.vereity of Edinburgh in 
1773. »Vol. n., pp. 359, 868. 

•I may be permitted to refer to letters in the Keyttitite (Philadelphia), pubUshed in tliat Journal 
on July 19, Septe liber 6 and 13, 1884, in ..hiih I contend— 1. That neither Anderson nor Desaguliers 
wrote the pamphlet in question. 3. That its real title was "A Defence of Masonry, occasioned by a 
Pamphlet called Masonry Dissected, Publithed a.d. 17:«"— the words in italics referring to the latter 
and not to the fornicr. And 3. Thai there is ground for supposing the " Defence" to have been the 
composition of Bishop Warburton, who was chaplain to the Prince of Wales at the time the Consti- 
tutions of 1738 were dedicated to His Royal Highness. 


the leading r6l« in the conmliilation nf the Oronil Lodge of Enghuid. H\» " Book of Con- 
■titntioni" hM be««n often referml to, bnt I l^iTe not yet trilled attention to the circnm- 
•tanoe that the Oenpnl Riinilutionii of IT'.'S were only deaigned " for the me of Lodge* in 
and abont London and Weatminstcr." ' The Grand Lodge, howerer, both in anthority and 
reputation, loon ontgrew the modett expectationi of ita founden. Here, I am tempted to 
iign»> bnt a f ' i-onaideration of thi .iiany points of interest, which crowd npon the mind, 
in connection ».ih the dawn of aconilitMl Mamnic liiitory, would require not one — but a 
•criea of dinertationi. I mniit, thi-refcre. hutcten on with my taak, which is to lay before 
my readers a hi»tory of Frcfmasonr}- in England, ilcrircd from official records. To sum- 
marize those, however briefly, more space will be required than originally estimated, bnt l.^ 
the value of an historical work genpraily liears some sort of proportion to that of the sourccB 
of authority upon which it is based— I shall venture to hope — subject to my own short- 
comings as an annalist— that a narrative of events, beginning in 1723, and brought down 
to the present time, founded on accredited documents, many of which have not been 
perused by any other living person, will be more instructive than any number of digreasiona 
or disquisitions. 

A pause, however, has to l>e made, before the minute book of the Grand Lodge of 
England is placed under requisition. The history of that body was brought down to the 
beginning of 172.'), in the lant ( liBj)ter, ami it liecomes essential to ascertain, as nearly as w» 
can, the charact«'r of the Frecmimonry existing in England at the date of publication 
of the first " Book of Constitutions." In the same year there appeared the earliest copy, 
now extant, of the " Mason's Examination" or "Catechism."' This — together with (if 
possible) Sloane MS. 33-,'0.* "The Grand Mystery of Freemasons Discovered,"* and "A 
Mason's Confession,"'- 1 shiill pri? =n the Appendix, where the leading references to all 

' Constitutions. 1728. ,). (18. Tl..- »•< : r as approvp*! by Orond Lodge, " with the Consent of the 
Brethren and Fellows in and ul>out tin- t'itii-s of London and Westminster" {Ibid., p. 73). 

' From thf Flyini; Post or Post Mustt-r, No. 4:i*-from April 11 to April 13. 172a A similar 
" Examination " must have been publisiiipd about the same time in the Po$t Boy, and tlie two are 
plainly referred to in the ti-.vordbearer's »<>n»?, piven by Anderson in the Consututions, 1788, p. 21!. 
" The mighty Secret's f^in'd, they boast. 
From Pout-Boy and from Flying-Boy" [Pott f]: 

Ante, pp. 31. 80. In the opinion of Mr. E. A. Bond, this MS. dates from the beginning of the 
eiffhteenth centiirj-; but accordinj; to Woodford, "thoujjh the ( liunuter of the handwriting; is prob- 
ably not ea.i t than 1710, the mutter is of a mui'h earlier date." which he fixes— on the authority of 
the late Mr. Wallbran— at not later than 1640. On the other hand commentators are not wanting, 
who dispute the correctness of any estimate which places the age of the MS. before 1717, anil con- 
sider that OK Sir Hans Sloane only died in H.W. folio 143 of the volume numbered 8829 in the col- 
l<Ktion bearing his name, mijfht verj- possibly have been written upon, ofter 1717. The eoryphtmt 
of this school, Mr. W. P. Buchan, attacked the alleged antiquity of the manuscript, in a series of 
articles, which will repay perusal (Cf. Freemason, vol. iv., 1871, p. 600; and Freemasons' Chronii le 
vol ii. 1876, p. 132). My own opinion, in a question of handwriting, I should express witli diffidence 
were it not confirmed by that of an expert in manuscript literature— Mr. W. H. Rylands— in wliose 
company I examine<l the document. The conclusion to which I am led is, that the manuscript was 
written not earlier than 1707, or later than 1720. 

•"London: Printed for T. Payne, near Stationers'-Hall, 1731 (Price Six Pence)," A seionil 
edition, which I hove not seen, containing an account of the Gormogons, was published October ?-'< 
1724 (Uaily Journal, No. 1177). 

•Scota Magazine, vol. xvii., 1755, pp. 133-137. Of Uiis Catechism— to which the date of lTi7 has 
been osstgned-Mr. Yarker, who apparenUy puasesses a MS. copy, observes, " a comparison with the 


th* MHiaUed " EzpomnM" of • •imiUu' kind will be (oand collectetl. The Comtttntioni 
j( 1733, thn C«teRhiami iMt referred to, the Itriwoe MH.,' Mul Additional MH. 33,203,' 
oonititute the stock of evidence, ii|ion which nione wo can formulate our concluiioni. The 
fint and laft of tbeae authoritie« aru all that I can attempt to examine with any minuteneM 
in thi» chapter, but the remainder can bo iitudi(Kl at luiaure by those of my readeni who are 
inUrtited in thi« branch of ronoarch. They will experience, however, two great difficultiea, 
oui' to reconcile their diwropancioa, the other, to approximate at all closely the period at 
which they were compiled. Without, therefore, concerning myielf any further than may 
be alitolutely neceMary with the evidence of manuicripta of uncertain date, I Hliall en- 
deavor to ihow what may be positively determined from thuae sources of authority u;Mn 
which we may confidently rely. The Constitutions of 1733 inform us that the brethren of 
tliat jH'riod wore divided into throe classes— Apprentices, Fellow Crafts, and Masters. 

The intrant, at his admission, became an apprentice ' and brother, " then a fellow craft 
in due time," and if properly qualified, might " ai-rive to the honor of being the Warden, 
and then the Master of the Lodge. " * " The third degree," says Lyon, " could hardly have 
been present to the mind of Dr. Anderson, when in 1733 he superintended the printing of 
bin ' Itook of Constitutions,' for it is therein stated * tlwt the ' Key of a Fellow Craft.' is 
that by which the secrets communicated in the Ancient Lodges could be unravelled."' 
We arc also told that " the moat expert of the Fellow Craftsmen shall lie chosen or ap- 
pointiHl the Master, or Overseer of the Lord's Work, who is to be called Master by those 
that work under him."' 

The references to the statu» of a Fellow Craft are equally unambiguous in the Oeneral 
Regulations,' one of which directs that when /trirate wardens— •>., wardens of private 
Lxigos— are required to act as the Grand Wardens, their places " are to [not vtay] be suf)- 
ply'd by two Fellow-Crafts of the same Lodge " (XV.). Another (.XX.X VII.), that " the 
Grand ilastcr sliall allow ant/ Rrofher, Fellow Ciaft, or Apprentice, to .Speak." 

Also, in "the Manner of Constituting a New Lodge. ' the expression occurs— "The 
Candidates, or the new Master and Wardens, beittg yt nmung the Fellow Cni/I;' and a 
little lower down we read, " the Candidate," having signified his submiasioii to the charges 
of a Master, " the Grand Master shall, by certain significant Ceremonies and ancient 

Rev. Bro. Woodford's Sloane MS. XH9. ismosit interestinif, as they oonflrra each other" (C/. Free- 
m:i»on»' Chronicle, vol. i., 1875, pp. 859, 874). The reseniblan.-e in certainly f^reat. To give one ex- 
ample, " Danty tassley," of which the use, as a jewel of the Lodge, is incomprehensible in the Sloone 
M3., reads "Dinted A-ibhir" in the printed Catechiara. 

' Chap. II., pp. 77, 78. 

♦See post, narrative of the Proceedings of Grand Lodtre— under the year 1735. 

•The term " Enter'd Prentice" (or Apprentice) only oci-u.-s twice in the first " Book of Constitu- 
tions " (anfc, pp. 30, 45, note 5. 

' The CliarKBS of a Freemason, No. IV. (Constitutions, 1733). The same chariTe (IV.) in the Con- 
stitutions of 1738, reads, that a " perfect youth . • . may become an EMter'd Prentice, or a Frt^v 
Mason of the lowest degree, and upon his due Improvements a Fellow-Craft and a Master-Mason." 
No mch words appear in the Charges as printed in 1733, and if at tliat time the distinction of the 
thn<e degrees had been as well defined as in 1788, it is only reasonable to suppose that Andenon 
would have used the same language in the Urst edition of his work. 

■ Ibid , p. 39. * Hiiitory of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 311. 

< The Charges of a Freemason, No. V. (Constitutions. 1733). 

•xin.. XV., xvni., xxv., xxxvu. 

'Constitutioiu, 1733, postscript. 




ITa^w, iulaU him." It ii in the highMt ilegiw improbsble— not to mj iapoMiblo— that 
any ment* wera communicated on ntch an o«^-a«on.' 

Throngbont th<- firet half of the eigliteentb century, and indeed considerably later,* it 
waa a oomm"' {.iitctioe in lodgea to elect their offlcert quarterly; and, apart from th« 
fact that t< .mutes of luch lodges are silent on this point, it is hanlly conceivable that s 
thme moniiib tenure of ofRoe was preceded by a 1 "ret reception. But there is stronger 
fvidenoe still to negative any such conclusion, for it was not until 1811' that the Hasten, 
even of Loudon lodges — under the Grand Lodge, whose procedure we are considering— 
were installed as " Rulers of the Craft " in the manner with which many readers of these 
pages will be familiar. 

We find, therefore, that the Freemasons of England, at the period under examination, 
were classified by the Constitution of the Society under tkr*» titles, though apparently 
not more than two degrees' wert- then rfrogmted by the goTeming body. On this point, 
however, the language of the Oeneral ReguUtions, in one plaet,* is not free from obscarity. 
Apprentices were only to be made " Matters and fillow-Onfl " in Grand Lodge, and the 
expression may be conRtrued in no less than three different ways. It has usually been held 
to point to what i« now the third degree in Masonry, which I deem to be incorrect, not 
that I am arguing against the existence in 1733 of a " Master's Part," though, I believe, 
unreeognhed at that time as a degree — for ^irrre I to do so I should presently be confuted 
out of my own mouth — but because it would be repugnant to common sense, to believe in 
an interpretation of une out of thirty-nine Itegulations, which would be wholly at variance 
with the context of the remuimlfr.' 

Lastly, how am we reconcile Dr. Anderson's allusion to " the key of a Fellow Craft" 
with the possibility of there then being » liifihiT or HUfwrior degree? There remain, then, 
two solutions of the difBculty. The " MiiKtorn " mcntionetl in Clause XIII. may have bo<n 
Masters of Lodges, or the terra may have cri'pt in through the carelessness of I>r. Anderson. 
It muHt be recollected tliat the (ienenil Regulations arc of very uncertain date.' Tin- 
proviso in question mat/ have appeared in the code urigiiially drawn up by George Payii'' 
in 1720, or, on the other hand, it may have forme<l one of the additions made by Aiultr- 
son between September 29, 1721, and March 25, 1722." If the earlier date be accepted, 

' Cf. Vol. n.. pp. 804, 867. 

June 25, 41 [the previous election having taken place on March 36]. — " This b^ing election 
Night, brother Bamnhaw, the S«-ni<>r Warden, was declared Muster. Br. Ray was declared Srn. 
Wanlen, and Br. Andrews wa» ballotted for Jiiii. Wiinlen " (MiniitcK of No. 168. 1729-89, now extinct). 
•' December 15, 1757 .'. — Being Ele<'tiun Night B™. Ulazier Kec*. the honoiirsof th«<Chuir a« Mas'. 
!(>r the Ensuing Quar*." (Minutes of the George Lodge, nuir Friendship, No. B). Quarterly electioDl 
took place in the Imperial George Lodge, note No. 78, so late as 1761. 

• Hinul.>s, Lodge of Promulgation, February 4, 1811. 

* A degree or grade is, as the word implies, a single step; but I shall distinguish the formei from 
tlie latter by using degree in its present Masonic, as representing a rank secretly conferred. 

■ "Apprentices must be admitte«l MaHters and Fellow Craft only here [i.e., in the Orai.d Lodge] 
unless by a Dispensation" (Constitutions, 1728, Reg. XIII. Cf. ante p. 85, note 1; and pod, p. 134l. 

• E.g., that of Regulation XXXVJL, directing that the Grand Ma-ster '• sliall allow any Bni'hrr. 
Fellow-Craft. or Apprentice to sfwak." This clearly means, that within the scope of the Hegulatiun, 
all brethren were (x-rmitted to express their views in the ( : Lodge — a privilege which the Mas- 
ters and Wardens of Lodges would therefore derive, not alone from the office* they held, but aloo 
from the degree of Fellow Craft to which they had been r<{mitted. 

* Ante, p. 86, note 1. • ilnte, pp. 85, 40. 


b; " MMtera " we nwy— with \mm imprnl«liilit]r— nndentend " Marten of IjodgM," utd the 
liMM or article (XIII.) woulit then br in •frrp<*m«>nt with it« followi. 

But let M eiunine the langnuK** <>f the Itifrulution a little more clowly. " Appren- 
tioM," it my, " mart be admUltd Munten ami Fellow Craft"— not Fellow Craft and Maa- 
tM»— "only here." Now, in the flrrt place, apprentice* were not eligible for the chair; 
and in erery other inatance where tlnir preferment ia mentioned, they are taken from itep 
to ilep by regular gmdationa.' But if we get over thia objection, another preMnti itwlf. 
Neither an apprentice or a Fellow Craft would be admitltd, bat would be inttalUd, a 
Matter of a Lodgt- . Next, l«t ui ican the wording of the reeolution which repealed the 
Regulation in queetion. The officer* of Lodge* are empowered to " make Maatcn at their 
dJieretion." That thi* licence enabled them to confer the rank of Maater of a Lodge ad 
liMum i* a downright impoanbility. 

A* regard! the alternative eolation, I have ezpreawd my belief that Anderson only joined 
the EnjUth craft in 1721;* but whatever the period may have been, hiii opportunitiea of 
grafting the nomenclature of one Maaonic cyitem upon that of another only commenced 
in the latter part of that year, and lasted for barely lix month*, a* hi* manuicript Coniti- 
tntiona were ordered to be printed ttarch 26, 1733. He wa* therefore debarred from bor- 
rowing a* largely a* ho muat have wiabed— judging from hi* fuller work of 1738— from 
the operative phraseology ot the Northern Kingdom; and it ii quite ponible that, lubject 
to lome trifling alteration*, the first edition of the Constitution* was compiled between Sep- 
tember 39 and December 37, 1731, as hi* " manuacript " was ready for ei mination on the 
latter of these date*.* If, then, any further explanation is sought of the two titles which 
appear, 10 to speak, in juxtaposition in Regulation XIII., it would seem most reasonable 
to look for it in the Masonic records of that country, to which — so phiced — they were indig- 
enous. At Aberdeen, in 167U, Fellow Craft and Master Mason were used as convertible 
tenns,* and the same may be said of other S^iottish towns in which there were " Mason 
iodgpt " ' Anderson appears to have been a native of Aberdeen,' but whether or not this 
wui< artually the case, he was certainly a Scotsman, and the inference Ih irre«i8tible that to 
him was due the introduction of so many Scottish wimls into the Masonic vocabulary of 
the South.' 

It may be taken, I think, that a third degree wiut not recognized as a part of the Muannic 
fVBtem up to the date of publication of the " Book of Constitutions " in January lT2;t. 
MiK'key says: " The division of the Masonio system into thrt'c degrees must liavc grown 
lip between 1717 and 17.TO, but in so graduiil and iniixTcejitible a manner, that we are 
unable j fix the precise date of the introduction of each degree." " lu this view I concur, 
with tiie reservation that there is no evidence from which we can arrive at any certainty 
with regard to the exact dates, either of the commencement or the close of the epoch of 
transition;* and I also agree with the same writer, that the second and third degrees were 
not perfected for many yi^rs. As a matter of fa*'t. we are only made acquainted with the 
circumstance that there were degrees in Masonry, by a publication of 1723," from which, 

'See the Charge* of a Free-ma«)n, No. IV., " of Maatera, Wardens, Fellows, and Apprentices* 
(Constitutions, 1738); and compare with the resolution passed November 37, 1735 {po»t, p. l.'M). 
' .ilntf, p. M, note 1. 'Ante. p. M. *Chap. Vm., p. 55. 

'ilitd., pp. 27, 3C. ' Ante, pp. 45, 107. ' Ante, pp. W, ». 

' Encyclopasdia of Freemasonry, «.v. Degrees, 
* Ante, pp. 10, 11. " The Book of Constitutions. 



together with the ntnty eTideucc yet brought to light of dightly later date, we can alone 
determine with precision that a Bystem of two d^^reee waa well establiahed in 1723, and 
that a third ceremony, which eventually developed into a degree,' bad come into nae in 
1734. Modifications continued to be made however, for some time— at leaat luoh is my 
reading of the evidence,*— and there ia no abaolnte proof that theae evolutional^ ohaugM 
were not in operation until about 1728-29. 

That a third, or additional, ceremony waa worked in 1724, there ii evidence to show, 
for three persons were " Regularly pass'd Masters " in a London Lodge befort February IS, 
1725, and it is unreasonable to suppose that this was the first example of the kind.' Heie 
we meet with the word pau, and it is curious to learn from the same source of authority, 
that before the Society was founded (February 18, 1715), the minutes of which it records, 
"a Lodge was held, consisting of Masters sufficient for that purpose. In order to pass 
Charles Cotton, Esq., Mr Fbpitton Ball, and Mr Thomas Marshall, Fellow Crafts."* It 
might be argued from these expressions, that Master, even then, was merely another name 
for Fellow Craft, or why should a lodge be formed, consisting of brethren of the higher 
title, to pass a candidate for the lower? But some entries in the same records, of a few 
months' later date, draw a clearer distinction between the two degrees. These, indeed, 
are not quite free from ambiguity, if taken alone, but all donbt aa to their meaning is dis- 
pelled, by collating them with an earlier portion of the same manuscript 

The minutes of May 12, 1725, inform us, that two persons were " regularly passed Mas- 
ters, "—one " passed Fellow Craft and Master," and another " passed Fellow Craft " only. 
Happily the names are given, and as Charles Cotton and Fttpitton Ball were the two who 
were " passed Masters," it is evident that, in the " Master's Part," something further must 
have been communicated to them than htwl been already imparted. It is doubtful if the 
" Part" in question had at that tini» assumed the form and dimensions of a degree, k 
all probabdity this happened later, and indeed the way may only have been paved for it at 
the close of the same year, by the removal of the restriction, which, as we have stfu, did 
not altogether prevent private Lodges, from infringing upon what ought at least to hay* 
been considered the especial province of the Grand Lodge. 

It is barely possible that the " Master's Part " was incorporated with those of the Ap- 
prentice and Fellow Craft,* and became, in the parlance of Grand Lodge, o degree on 
November 27, 1725. By a new Regulation of that date— which is given in full under iti 
proper year* — the members of private lodges were empowered to " make Masters at discre- 
tion." Tl'is, Dr. Anderson expands into " Masters and Fellows," ' the terms being appar- 

' By this I mean that the exact period of its recognition by the Gnuid Lodge as a part of lt« 
Masonic system, which could alone bring it within the category of degrees, cannot be positively 

* It is impofwiblp to discuss the iit6i>j>irta of Freemasonry with the same freedom as one wonld thi 
technicalities of a right of way in a law court Any one doing so would appear in the eyss of hit 
brother Masons like a men walking into the Mosque of Omar totfh his skoes om. 

•AddLMa., 38,308. * Ibid. 

'The three chapters into which "Masonry Dissected " (1780) is divided, are headed "Enter'd 
Prentice's, Fellow Craft's," and " the Master's" Degrees respectively; whilst, after each of the three 
catechisms, we find in the some way, " The End of the Enter'd Prentice's," "of the Fellow Craft'i,'' 
and " of thn Madtur"* Part*." This mode of describing the three degrees continued in vogue f«» 
many yeam. Cf. post, p. 180^ note & 

•Am<, p. 184.9.0. ^OM. 


enily ragwded by him m poMeiiing the aamo mekning. Bnt it Menu to me that there ia 
too much ambiguity in tho order of Grand Lodge, to w»TTant oar fonnding upon it any 
definite conclosion. The Congtitntiona of 1738 help us very little. Still we most do oar 
best to nnderrtand what Anderson means in one book, by comparing the passages we fail 
to comprehend, with his atterances on the same points in a later publication. 

In general terms, it may be said that " Master- Mason " is for tho most part subetitated 
for "Fellow Craft" in the second edition of the Constitutions.' There is, however, one 
notable exception. In "The Manner of Constituting a Lodge," as printed in 1738, the 
" New Master and Wardens" are taken, as before, from the Fellow Crafts, but the Master, 
" in chnsmg his Warden^" was to call " forth two Fellow-Crafts (Master-Masons)." With 
this should be contrasted an explanation by Anderson in the body of his work, that the old 
term " Master Mason " represented in 1738 the Master of a Lodge.* 

It is probable that Regulation XIII., of the code of 1723, was a survival or an imitation 
of the old operative custom, under which the apprentice, at a certain period, was declared 
free of the craft, and " admitted or accepted into the fellowship," ' at a general meeting. 

On taking up his freedom, the Englidt apprentice became a " fellow " and master in his 
trade. This usage must have prevailed from very ancient times. Gibbon observes: " The 
use of academical degrees, as old as the thirteenth century, is visibly borrowed from the 
mechanic corporations; in which an apprentice, after serving his time, obtains a testimonial 
of his skill, and a licence to practice hu trade and mystery." * 

So long as the governing body refrained from warranting lodges in the country, there 
could have been no particular hardship in requiring newly-made brethren to be passed or 
admitted "Fellows" in Grand Lodge. In 1724, however, no less than nine provincial 
lodges were constituted, and it must have become necessary, if for no other reason, to 
modify in part a series of regulations, drafted, in the first instance, to meet the wants of 
the Masons of the metropolis. 

It is unlikely that the number of " Fellow Crafts "—as we must call them from 1723 — 
was very large, that is to say, in November 1725, the date when the law relating to the 
advancement of apprentices was repealed. Out of twenty-seven lodges in the London dia- 
trict, which are shown by the Engraved List of 1729 to have been constituted up to the 
end of 1724, only eleven were in existence in 1723, when the restriction was imposed.' 
Sixteen lodges, therefore — and doubtless many others, if we could trace them — besides 
the nine country ones, must have been comparatively unfamiliar with the ceremouml of 
the second degree; and it becomes, indeed, rather a matter of surprise how in each case 
the Master and Wardens could have qualified as Fellow Crafts. 

Some confusion must, I think, have been engendered at this time by the promiscuous 
use of the term " Master," which was alike employed to describe a Follow Craft and a Master 
of a Lodge, and also gave its name — " Master's Part " — to a ceremony then growing very 

* C/. the OM and New Regulationii, Nog. XHT., XV., XVia, XXV., XXXVn. 
Mnte, p. 83; Constitutions, 1788, p. 109. * Ante, p. IS, note 8. 

* MiaceUaneous Works of Edward Oibbon, edit, by Lord Sheffield, vol. i., p. 49. Cf. cmte, p. 
80, not« 8, The Oerman Guilds suooceti d in g^etting a decree in 1831, that no one could be a Master 
in the building trades except he pawed an examination. This seems to have been repealed at some 
lime, for in 1882 the Union of Hosier Buildem — nuniberiug 4200 niembers — petiUoned the Uerman 
Bovernment for a re-introduction of the test-examination for Masters ((Tiobe, Sept. 18, 1883). 

* Datw of Constitution are not given in the earlier lists of 1738 and 178S. 

VOL. III.— 8. 


faahioiwble. It it probable th«t abont thif period the eziating degree* were remodelled, 
and the titiea of Fellow Craft and Master diqoined— the latter becoming the d^ree of 
Matter Maion, and the former Tirtoally denoting a new degree, though its eaeeutiala were 
merely compoied of a tevered portion of the ceremonial hitherto obaerred at the entry of 
an apprentice. 

Theae alterations — if I am right in my nippoaition — were not effected in a day. Indeed, 
it it poanble that a taste for " meddling with the ritual," baring been acquired, lasted 
longer than has been commonly supposed; and the " Tariations made in the established 
forms," ' which was one of the articles in the heary indictment drawn up by the Seceding, 
against the Regular Masons, may haTe been but a further manifestation of the passion for 
innoration which was erinced by the Grand Lodge of England during the first decade of 
its existence. 

The ftying Poet from April 11 to April 13, 1723,* introduces us to a picture of the 
Freemasonry at that period, which, corroborated from similar sources, as well as by'tlte 
" Book of Constitutions," amply warrant the belief that at that date, and for some time 
preceding it. Apprentice, Fellow, and Master were well established titles — though whether 
the two Utter were distinct or convertible terms, may afford matter for argument ' — that 
there was a " Master's Part,"* also that there were signs and tokens, and pointo of fellow- 
ship. I cite the printed catechism of 1723, because ite date is assured, and the question 
we have next to consider is, how for can the reading it presente be carried back? Here 
the method of texual criticism, of which an outline has been given in an earlier chapter, 
might yield good resulte; but I must leave this point, like, alas, so many others, to the 
determination of that class of readers, fitted by nature and inclination to follow up all sncu 
promising lines of inquiry. 

It will suffice for my purpose to assume, that the catechism of 1723 contains a reading 
which is several years older than the printed copy; or, in other words, that the customs it 
atteste must have reached back to a more remote date. What that date was, I shall not 
pretend to decide, but we must carefully bear in mind that its whole tenor betrays an 
operative ' origin, and therefore, if composed or manufactured between 1717 and 1723, its 

■ See post, p. ISO; and the Memoir of William Preston in Chap. XV ILL 

' Ante, p. 106. Isaac Taylor observes: " Facts remote from our personal observation may be a> 
certainly proved by evidence that is fallible in it» kind, as by that which is not open to the possibil- 
ity of error; " and he goes on to explain (the italics throughout being his) that " by certain proof is 
here meant, not merely such as may be presented to the senses, or such as cannot be rendered ol)- 
Bcure even for a moment by a perverse disputant;— but such as, when once understood, leavei no 
room for doubt in a sound mind " (History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modem Timea, 
p. 179). 

* An expression in Sloane MS. 8889—" the mast;*, or fellow's grip," would suggest that they wen 
synonymous. This view is borne out by the other catechisms, but compare ante, Chap. IL, p. 101, 
lines IT, 18. 

* " A Fellow I was sworn most rare, 

And know the Astler, Diamond, and Square: 
I kno > the JKufer's Part full well. 

As honest Uuighbin will you tell" (Mason's Examination, 1788), 
> According to Seward, ■■ John Evelyn, at the time of his death, had nude collections for a very 
great and a very useful work, which was intended to be called 'A Ueneral History of ail Trades'" 
(Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, 4th edit, vol. iii., p. S19). It is probable that this would have 
told us more about the working Masons than we are now ever likely to know. 


libricatcn rnnit not be songht for among the tpeculatives of that period ; bnt, on the C; mtrary, 
it will become eewntial to believe th«t this obsolete catechism — including the metrical dia- 
logue, which, of itself, is snggestiTe of antiquity— was compiled a few years at most, before 
its pablioation in the Flying Pott, by one or more operative Masons 1 

The oircnmstances of the case — at least in my judgment — will not admit of such a mod- 
em date being assigned to the text of this catechism. I am of opinion that, conjointly 
with the other evidence— and the undoubted fiwt of the " examination " in question having 
been actually printed in 1723, invests Sloone MS. 3339 with a reflected authority that dis- 
lipates many difBcnlties arising out of the comparative uncertainty of its date — the extract 
from the Mifing Post settles many important points with regard to which much difference 
of opinion has hitherto existed. First of all, it lends color to the statement in the " Praise 
of Drunkenness," ' that Masonic catechisms, available to all readers, had ali-eady made 
their appear&noe in 1721 or 1722.' Next it establishes that there were then two degrees* 
—those of Apprentice and Fellow or Master, the ktter being only honorary distinctions 
proper to one and the bame degree. It also suggests that in England, under the purely 
operative rigime, the apprentice was not a member of the lodge, and that he only became 
eo, and also a Freenuuon,* on his admission — after a prescribed period of servitude — to the 
degree of Fellow or Master. 

It is impossible to define the period of time during which these characteristics of a Ma- 
sonic system endured. Two obligations, and not one only, as in the Sloane MS. and the 
Old Charges, are plainly to be inferred; ' and as the latter are undoubtedly the most ancient 
records we poeeen, to the extent that the ' ' Mason's Examination " is at varia' e with these 
documents, it must be pronounced the evolutionary product of an " epoch of transition," 
beginning at some unknown date, and drawing to a close about 1724. Upon the whole, if 
we pass over the circumstance that there were two forms of reception in vogue about 
1T23, and for a period of time before that year, which can only be the subject of conjecture, 
as there are no solid proofs to rest on, the evidence just passed in review is strikingly in 
accord with the inferences deducible from Steele's essay in the Taller, from the wording 
of Ilarleian MS. 2054, from Dr. Plot's account of the Society, and from the diary of John 

In the first of these references, we are told of " Signs and Tokens like Freemasons; " ' 
in the second, of the " Seu'all Word & Signes of a Freemason; " ' in the third, of " Secret 

' AkU, Chap. Xm., pp. 8S3, 3S8. 

' See tiie letter written to the Flying Pwt, enclosing the " Examination." 

'According to Stock, the Smiths had two separate degrees for the journeymen— first, /untwr, 
then guM. The latter they could only obtain after their travels (OrundzQge der Verfawung, p. 80. 
Cf. ante. Chaps, m., p. 1S3: and XIV., p. BM. 

« Vol. n., p. 878, ante, pp. 16, M, 88. The parallel drawn at p. 888, Vol. U., between the read- 
ings of U8S. Nos. 8 and 88, may induce some readers to examine the subject more minutely. The 
" Trew Maaon" in the older documents gives place, as I have shown, to that of " Freemason" in the 
later one. See, however. Vol. n„ p. 888. 

' According to the Mason's Confession," to which the year 1TJ7 has been very arbitrarily as- 
signed, though only written in 1781, and not printed until 1758, the apprentice took an oath at entry, 
and a year afterwards, " when admitted a degree higher," swore the oath again, or declared his 
approval of it (Sooto Magmsine, vol. xvii., 1755, p. 183). CA Vol. U., pp. 130, 390, SOB, 366; ante, 
pp. 88, M, and Chap. U, p. 108. 

'.Aate, p.89. 'Vol n. p. 806. 


Signw; " ' and in the but, of " Signes and Watch-word»," alao that " the manner of Adop- 
tion ia very formall, and with an Oath of Secrecy. "' 

There is therefore nothing to induce the iuppoaition, that the leoreta of Freemaionry, 
as discloaed to Elias Ashmole in 1646 — in anght bnt the manner of imparting them— dif. 
ferad materially, if at all, from those which passed into the gnardianship of the Grand 
Lodge of England in 1717.' In all cases, I think, up to about the year 1734, and possiblj 
later, there was a marked simplicity of ceremonial, as contrasted with the procedure of a 
subsequent date. Ashmole and Kandle Holme, like the brethren of York, were in all prob- 
ability " sworn and admitted,"* whilst the " manner of Adoption "—to quote the words of 
John Aubrey— was doubtless " Tory formall " in all three cases, and quite as elaborate as 
any ceremony known in Masonry, before the introduction of a third degree. 

To those, indeed, who are apt to fancy that a chain is broken, because they cannot 
see erery one of its links, it may be replied,— that facts remote from our personal knowl- 
edge are not necessarily more or less certain, in proportion to the length of time that hae 
elapsed since they took place. Also, that the strength of evidence is not proportioned to 
its simplicity or perspicuity, or to the ease with which it may be apprehended by all per- 
sons.' The strength of our convictions, in matters of fact remote in time or place, must 
bear proportion to the extent and exactness of our knowledge, and to the consequent ful- 
ness and vividness of our ideas of that class of objects to which the question relates." 

By a clear perception of our literate, symbolical, and oral traditions,' and by an exten- 
sive acquaintance with the printed and manuscript literature of the Craft, the imagination 
of the student bears him back to distant times, with a reasonable consciousness of the real- 
ity of what is u a'olded to his view. 

Comparativ V few persons, however, possess either the time, the opportunities, or tlir 
inclination, which are requisite for the prosecution of this study, and therefore the conclu- 
sions of Masonic " experts," so far as they harmonize with one another, must be taken in 
most cases— as in so many other departments of knowledge— by the generality of reailere, 
on faith.' How far my own will stand this ordeal the future must decide, but I can at 
least assure all those under whose eyes these pages may chance to pass, that no portion of 
my task has imposed a heavier labor upon me, than those in which I have attempted a 
comparison between Scottish and English Masonry, and have sought to remove the veil 
from the obscure question of degrees. 

There is no proof tliat more than a single degree, by which I mean a secret form of 
reception, was known to the Freemasons of the seventeenth century. Ashmole was " mad" 
a Freemason." according to his diary, in 1646,' and he speaks of six gentlemen having been 
"admitted into the Fellownhip of Free Masons" in 1682, also jf being on that occasion 
"the Senior Mlow among them," it having been " 35 years since he was admitkd."" 

'Vol. a, p. 389. 'Ibid., p. m. 

' It will be seen as we proceed, that the existence of regular Masons in 1801. «.«., of brethren ini- 
tiated according to the practice of Grand Lodge, was admitted by that body in 1738. 

*Ante, pp. 88-96. See also the later entries from the York records, in Chapter XVni., par- 
ticularly the Laws of the Grand Lodge there, in 1735, and the Minutes of 1789. Degrees appear to 
have made their way very slowly into the York Masonic system. 

'Taylor, History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times, p. 1»S. 

'Ibid., p. 196. » Cf. Vol. n.. p. 857. • Cf. ante. Chap. I., p. 8, note 1. 

• Chap. XIV.. p. 864. « Ibid., p. 367. 



There is no name in Masonic history to v.nich so much interest is attached 
as that of our Grand Matter Hiram Abif. He is the one man to whom King 
Solomon was indebted for all the architectural ornamentation of the Temple. 
Amoi% the workmen sent by Hiram, King of Tyre, to Solomon was one whom 
he styled "a cunning man endued with understanding." The name of this artisan 
4S Hiram Abif, he is also recognized and spoken of by Freemasons as Hiram the 
Builder, and again as "A widow"* son, of the tribe of Naphthali,' and his father 
as "a man of Tyre," and that he was filled with wisdom and understanding and 
cunning to work in all kinds of brass. 

It has been truly said that there is no character in the annals of Freemasonry 
whose Ufe is so dependent on tradition as the celebrated architect of King 
Solomon's Temple. One legend of Hiram Abif is substantially as follows: At 
the building of King Solomon's Temple Hiram was the Master or superintending 
architect. Three Craftsmen, having determined to secure the Master's word 
from him at all hazards, placed themselves at the three principal entrances of the 
edifice, in order to waylay the illustrious-builder. His fidelity caused him to be 
assassinated with a setting maul. A search was made for his remains by a party 
travel sing towards each of the cardinal points, who discovered Hiram's tomb, 
and his body was then brought from the grave. What follows after this is non- 
communicable, to the profane, but is well known and understood by all 
perfect M. M'S. „ . , ^ , 

Hiram Abif, ihe celebrated architect of Kmg Solomon's Temple, was not a 
learned man according to the modern acceptation of the term. His accomplish- 
ments were of the material and skUlfut order. His father was a man of Tyre, 
a people famous in physical but not in intellectual works. They were a great 
commercial nation, said to be the inventors of glass, workers in iron and other 
materials. They were also great navigators and supposed to have discovered 
America ages before Columbus was bom. No one ever heard of the college 
from which Hiram Abif graduated. He is described as skillful to work in gold 
and in silver, in brass, in stone and in timber, in purple, in blue and in fine 
linen, and in crimson ; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every 
device which shall be put to him, in the mechanical artj. He was a practical 
workman, one of those men met with occasionally whose fingers seem to take 
the place of brains, and to whose cunning skill of handiwork the stubborn 
metals yield, and become as wax, taking the shapes and forms he bends tliem to. 
While Freemasonry suggests the material workman, yet it is in hfes quarry 
that he works. He there gets out the blocks and cuts and carves the stones 
which set in the walls and columns that finally grow into the great temple of 
eternal life. And the true workman, guided by a conscious rectitude, will do 
his work so as to be acceptable to all seekers for Masonic knowledge. 

When King Solomon was about to build the temple he expcnencetl such 
great difficulty in obtaining skillful workmen to execute the architectural part 
of the undertaking, that he found it necessary to ask his fnend and ally, Hiram. 
King of Tyre, for the use of some of his most skillful builders; the Tynans and 
Sidonians were, at that time, admitted to be the best architects and mechanics 
in the world. Hiram willingly complied with his request, and despatched to his 
assistance an abundance of men and materials, and among them was Hiram AOjf. 
who possessed all the skill and leaminsr that were required to carry out. in .he 
most efficient manner, the plans and designs of the King of Israel. Upon his 
arrival at Jerusalem he was at once received into the intimate <^""n'l<'"« »* 
Solomon, and intrusted with the s«perintende,:r- of all the workmen both 
Tyrians and Jews, who were en^ged in '^^'^^.f'^'^S^^^^ IccoS'ng to 
received the title of "PrinciMl Conductor of the J^"^*^' *f ' /'^^,™'^fie„'? 
M/i- ,-;,. trniliUnn formed w th Solomon and King Hinim of 1 yre. nis ancieni 
^tZiCs!:^^^T^-6\ ol Grand Masters, in which every thing was de- 

termined in relation to the constniction of the edifice and the government of 
the workmen. Thus, according to the most consistent systems and the general 
course of the traditions, there were three Grand Masters at the building of the 
Temple, of whcnn Hiram Abif was one; and hence in our Lodges he always 
receives the title of a Grand Master. 

Hiram Abif in the character of the chief architect of the Temple, one of the. 
peculiarities which most strongly attract attention, was tlie syttematic manner 
in which he conducted all the extensive operatin*.- which were placed under his 
charge. It was his custom never to put off until ij-morrow the work that mijjht 
have been accomplished to-day, for he was as remarkable for his punctuality in 
the discharge of the most trifling duties, as he was for his skill in performing 
the most important. It was hi.s constant habit to furnish the craftsmen every 
morning with a copy of the plans which he had, on the previous day. designed 
for their labor in the course of the ensuing day. As new designs were thus 
furnished by him from day to day, any neglect to provide the workmen with 
them on each successive morning would necessarily have stopped the labors of 
the whole body of the workmen for that day ; a circumstance that in so large a 
number must have produced the greatest disorder and confusion. Hence tlie 
practice of punctuality was in him a duty of the highest obligation, and one which 
could never for a moment have been neglected without leading to immediate 

In the discharge of these arduous duties, seven years passed rapidly aVay, 
when the magnificent Temple was nearly cot..'^lete<l. The Fraternity were about 
to celebrate the cope-stone with great demousn ations of joy; when in the lan- 
guage of the venerable Book of Constitutions, "their joy was soon interrupted 
by the sudden death of their worthy Grand-master, Hiram Abif." On the very 
day appointed for celebrating the cope-stone of the building, says one tradition, 
he repaired to his usual place of retirement at the meridian hour, and did not 
return alive. The story of his death, is non-communicable here, except to say 
that the circumstance filled the Craft with the most profound grief, which was 
deeply shared by his friend and patron. King Solomon, who, "after some time 
allowed to the Craft to vent their sorrow, onlered his obsequies to be performed 
with great solemnity and decency, and buried him in the Loiige near the Tcni- 
ple, — according to the ancient usages among Masons, — and long moiu-ned his 

OFFSPRING of Cain, fit but for darkest hell— 

Your doom was swift — your retribution sure; 
O'er your base ashes rang no funeral knell, 

Your hearts were too impious and impure. 
What indignation burns within the breast, 

As think we of that builder great ye slew; 
Who found no refuge East or South or West 

The while his strength all faint and fainter grew. 

Unhallowed trio ! nothing did ye gain ; 

Your victim prove<l your victor e'en in Death ; 
And as ye gazed upon the lifeless slain — 

Ye whose foul hands had ta'en his latest breath. 
No womler that your souls felt sore dismayed. 
And in your wretchedness, for death ye prayed. 
—Bro. Dr. Chas. F. Forshaw. Litt.D.. LL.D., F.RS.L. 

Our Grand faster Hiram Abif 

■•A iI\M\i. UdKKMW Ul 1 II Wl^lKiM VMi IM ,1 u, i v.M.ix. " 

^ll>i 111.' ..ii);ii,,,l luiiitMiR l,v 111,, pmim-nt arli-l. I. I. Ti^M,l, «h.. «peiu icar- in tin- i:„ly 

l-.iml III rr^arih nivl -liiclv a- l.i iN |h.,.|i1,-, U|.r., iii^tiHiis inamirr-, ,he.., etc, 

"t 111* Hihl,,,,! imtI.kI. iiimn whi. h h.- i- ,i rei.i«iiiA-,l aiitlhujlv 



Budle Hdme'i ■totMwmt it hm precw,' but from the entry in H«lei»n Ma 2064, reto- 
ting to WilliMn W«de," it i« nnMkely tluit the Cherter ceremonial differed from that of 

Warrin|{t(«. , • , _» 

It may well hare been, howerer, that the pnetice in lodgee, otmewting exduBTely of 
(Wratire Mawne, wie di«milar, but m the lolution of thie problem cannot be effected 
by inference and conjecture, 1 ihall content myeelf, having ipread out the eridence before 
my reader^ with leaving them to draw their own conduBoni with regard to a pcnnt wUch 
there i« at preaent no poetibility of determining. 

I am inclined to believe, that when the teeond degree became the third, the ceremonial 
WM le-arranged, and the traditionary hiitory enlarged, Thie view will be borne out by a 
collation of Dr. Anderson's two editions of the Comrtitntione. In both, the iplendor of 
the Temple of Solomon is much extolled, but a number of details with regard to the man- 
ner of its erection are given in 1738, wWch we do not meet with in the work of 1723. 
Thus we learn that after " the CUpe-ttone was celebrated by the Proitrnity .'. their joy- 
was soon interrupted by the sudden Death of their dear Marter, Hiram Abbwf, whon» 
they decently interr-d in the Lodge near the Temph, according to antient Usage."' 

When the legend of Hiram's death wai first incorporated with our older traditions, it 
ii not easy to decicle, but in my judgment it must have taken place between 1723 and 1729, 
snd I should be inclined to name 1725 as the most Ukely year for iU introduction to have 

taken place. . 

For reasons already expressed,' I conceive the prominence of Hiram in our tradition- 
ary Wstory or legends, in 1723, or earlier, to be wholly inconastent with the silence of the 
Old Charges, the various catechisms, and the flret " Book of Constitntions," on a point of 
M much importance.' In some of these he is, indeed, mentioned, but always as a subordi- 
nate figure, and I am aware of no evidence to justify a belief, that the circumstances of his 
decease as narrated bv Anderson, were in any shape or form, a tradition of ihe Craft, 
before the year 1723. Had they been, we shouli not, I think, have had occasion to com- 
plain that what I may almost venture to term, though not in strict propriety, the apothe- 
osis of Hiram, has not been advanced by a due gradation of preparatory incidents. The 
legendary characters who live in our written and speak through our oral, traditions, are 
in a cert^ sense our companions. We take more kindly to them, if, occasionally looking 
behind, we are prepared for their approach, or looking onwards espy them on the road 
before us. As a learned writer has observed, " it is not weU for the personages of the his- 

'Chap. XIV.. p. 80«. >». 

• Comtitatioiis, 1788, p. 14. The italics and capitals are Dr. Anderaon's. A» Hiram was certainly 
alive at the compleUon of the Temple (2 Chron. iv. U) it has been contended, that the above allusion 
in the Constitutions is not to him. but to Adoniram (or Adoram), a tax receiver under David, Solo- 
mon and Rehoboam, who was stoned to death by the people (1 Kings xii. 18). Aocordi..c u, .. L. 
Uurens, the death of Hiromis mentioned in the Talmud (Essais sur la Franche Ma?onnene, 8d 
edit 1806, p 108); whilst for an account of the murder of Adonhiram, C. C. F. W. von NetUebladt 
refers u. to what is probably the same source of authority, vis., the " Gemara of the Jews, a com- 
mentaryon the Mischna or Talmud " (GeK:hichte Freimaurerischer Systeme, 187»-wntten ctrea 
18!»-p. 74«) Both statements can hardly be true, but in default of information which 1 hoped to 
have received. I can throw light on neither. Cf. Mackey, op. eU., ».v. Hiram and Adonhiram. 

«Vol. a, p. 888. ^ . . . 

» It is also impossible to reconcUe it with the traditionary belief that the Society had its ongm m 

the time of Hemy m. (Vol. n., pp. 180, 141. S44). 


toriotti dnuna to riM on tiM ftage through the trap-doon. Th«7 ihonld flnt sppwr mtar- 
ing in batwwn the side toenee. Their play will be better nnderetood then. We ve pai- 
*led when > king, or count, suddenly Unde upon our hiatorionl ground, like • collier 
winohed up through • tluft" ' 

We are told by Fort, that " the tradition* of the Northern Deity, Baldur, nemingly 
fnmiihed the tubstantial foundation for the introduction of the legend of HiianiL"* 

Baldur, who i» the lord of light, i« ilain by the wintry lun, and the inoidente of the 
myth ihow that it cannot have been dereloped in the countriea of northern Europe. " It 
nuy be rvh," Mya Sir George Cox, " to aeiign them dogmatically to central .\«ia, but in- 
dubitably they iprung up in a country where the winter it of very short duration."' 

Other conceptiomi of the myth show that in the earliest times, the year had &ilen into 
halvti. Summer and Winter were at war with one another, exactly like Day and Night. 
Day and Summer gladden, as Night and Winter vex the world. Valiant Summer is found, 
fetched, and wakened from his sleep. Vanquished Winter is rolled In the dust, thrown 
into clukins, beaten with staves, blinded, and banished. In some parts Death has stejit 
into Winter's pUce; we might say, because in winter nature slumbers and seems dead.* 

Usually a puppet, a figure of »traw or wood, was carried about, and thrown into water, 
into a bog, or else hurni. If the figure was female, it was carried by a boy; if male, by u 

Much more remarkable is the Italian and Spanish custom of tying together at Mid Lent, 
on the Dominica Lntore, a puppet to represent the oldest wonuin in the village, which u 
carried out by the people, especially children, and »awn through the middle. This is callud 
Segare la Vecchia.' 

The same custom is found among the South Slaw. In Lent time the Croats tell their 
children, that at the hour of noon an old woman is sawn in pieces, outside the gates. In 
Carniola it is at Mid Lent again, that the old wife is led out of the vilUge and sawn througli 
the middle. ' Now, the sawing and burning of the old wife — as of the devil ' — seems iden- 
tical with the carrying out and drowning of Death (or Winter). The Scottish Highlanders 
throw the " Auld wife " into the fire at Christmas.* 

' Palgrave, Uistoiy of Normandy and of England, vol. i., p. 851. 
' Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, p. 407. 

> The Mythology of the Ar}an Nations, 1883, p. 886. Bun«;n obaerves, " the tragedy of t*- m 
Year, of the murdered and risen Ood, is familiar to iis from the days of ancient Elgypt: mur not 
be of equally primeval origin here?" (i.e., in Teutonic tradition — Baron Bunsen, Ood in > itory, 
1868-70, vol. ii., p. 498^ 

•Jacob Urimm, Teutonic Mythology, trans, from the 4th edit by J. S. StaUybrass, vol. ii., 1883, 
pp. 763, 766, 767. Cf. Brand, Popular Antiquities of Qreat Britain, 1870, voL i., pp. 130, 143; aad 
an(«. Vol. II, p. 840, efset}. 

> " The Indian Kill, on the 7th day after the March new-moon, was solemnly carried about, ood 
t)\en thrown into the Oanges. On Hay 18, the Roman Vestals bore puppets, plaited of rushes, to 
the Pons Sublicius, and then dropt them in the Tiber" (Qrimm, op. ett., vol. ii., p. 778; Ov. Fast, v. 

• Ibid., p. 781. The day for canyi'x? Death out was the quarta dominica quadragesimae, i.e., 
Laetore Sunday or Mid Lent. 

' Jacx>b Unmm, Teutonic Mythology, vrans. from the 4tfa edit by J. S. StaUybrass, vol. ii., 1883, 
p. 783. 

■ " In Appenzell tlie country children still have a game of TvJbbmg a rope against a stick tili it 
eatclies lire. This they call ' de tOfel bile,' unmanning the devil, despoiling him of his strength" 
dbid., p. 600). • at«wart. Popular SupersUtions, p. 886. 


0( tha Hinmio bgmd— which w purely Bllagoriad— it hM bMn aid, that it will bmr 
»t*o-fo>d iulwprrtitinn. oooxnlogioU Mtd MtronomickL Into thia I shall not enter, but 
|„ the Mke of thoee who w_4i to emanm the lubjeot, I indicate below' aome leading rater- 
eooaa that will facilitate their inquiry. 

For many fBaenna, I an dicpoaed to link the mtrodaction of the legend in question, 
with the creation of a third degree. At the time this occurred— assuming I am right in 
my supposition that a degree was so added— the number of fellow-crafU could not hare 
been rery large, and consequently there must hare been fewer prejudicee to conciliate,' 
than would hare been the case at a later date. Indeed, it is quite probable, that tery 
much in the wme manner as the Royal Arch made iU way into faTor, under the title of a 
fimrth degree, when taken np by the officers of Grand Lodge,* so the amplified ceremonial 
of 1725, under the name of a third degree, was readily accepted— or perhapa it will bt» 
mfer to wy, was not demurred to — by brethren of that era, under similar auspices. 

The progress of the degree is to a great extent reiled in obscurity, and the by-laws of 
a Umdm Lodge of about 1730-31, • can be road, either as indicating that the system of two 
degrees had not gone out of date, or that the Apprentice was " entered " in the M way, 
which made him a fellow craft under the new practice, and therefore eligible for tho 
" Snperiour " or third degree. But some entries in the minutes of a Oauntrif Ix>dge, on 
the occasion of its being constituted as a r«i/nlar Lodge— May 18, 1733— are eren more 
difficult to interpret, though the particulars they ailord, are as diffuse as thoee in the pre- 
vious instance are the contrary. The presence is recorded, besidea that of the Muster and 
Wardens, of three feUow crafts, six Masters, and four " PMs'd Masters. " ' The distinction 
here drawn between the two seto of Masters, it is by no means easy to explain, but it ap- 
pears to point to an epoch of confusion, when the old names had not yet been succeeded 
by the new, at least in the country Lodges. The first meeting of this Lodge, of which a 

'Lyon observes, " the fact that this step aboiindx with archaisms, is also pointed to ab a proof 
of its antiquity. But it is no breach of charity to suppow that lU fabricators knew their miasioo too 
well to frame the ritual in languaKe that would point to its modem origin: hence the antique garb 
in which it is marked " (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 8U); fJid see further, OUver. Histori- 
cal Landmarks of Freemasonry, vol. ii., p. 151. Masonic Treasury, ectures xlv., xlvi.; W. Sandys, 
A Short View of the History of Freemasonry, 183», pp. 14, 18; Fort, op. cit.. chap. xxxv. ; Constitu- 
tions, 1788, p. 816, et mq. ; and liustave Schlegel, Thian ti liwui; The Hung League, a Secret So- 
ciety with the Chinese in China and India, BuUvia, 1866, p. xxxii. 

•See, however, the account of the Gorraogons, pott. p. 129. The Operative Masons at about 
this date, showed themselves to be extremely dissatisfied with the conduct of affairs under the Specu- 
lative r^me. It is possible that tlie objections to " alterations in the established forms," had their 
origin in 1734-3S, and subsequently lapsed into a tradition? 

' i.e. , the Btgular or Conttitutional Grand Lodge, established in 1717. 

* 8d. By-Law of Lodge No. 71, held at the Bricklayers' Arms, in the Barbican.—" That no Per- 
son shall be Initiated as a Mason in this Lodge, without the Unanimous consent of all then present, 
ft for the better Regulation of this, 'tis Ordered that all Persons proposed be BoUotted for, ft if oa« 
Negative appear, then the said Person to be Refused, but if all affirmatives the Person to pay two 
Pounds seven Shillings at his Making, ft receive Double Cloathing, Also when this Lodge shall think 
Convenient, to confer the Superiour Degree, of masonry upon him, he shall pay Bve Shillings more; 
ic 'tis further Onler'd that if any Regular A worthy Brother, desires to be a Member of this Lodge, 
the same Order shaU be obeerved as to the Ballot, ft he shall pay half a Oumea at ha Entrance A 
receive single aoathing" (RawUnson MBS., C. 136. p. 80SV 

*T. P. Ashley, History o( the Rcyal Cumberland Lodge, No. 41, 1873, p. 88. 


Noord k prmnrcd. Uwk plwe, Ftewi h- 88, im. PrMmt, the lfM(<-rBni W«rt«if, 
ud Mm " ■Mmbm." No other UtI, « . , e nwd. Among tb* " Braibm " wei» Oeorr 
RaiiMfard mmI Johnwm Robnioii, th« (nrniBr of whom k dMcribod m " MMter," ud Dm 
tetter M " Fhii'd MMter," in tbr min .t.. >f May 18, 1733. It it poHiblo, to j.ot it no 
hichnr, tkkt tlMW diitinotiTe torm* «< n> umplojrod bMaiaw loiiw of the BMimlwn had 
irnMlnstad nnd«r the Orud Lodfr* lyitoni whilirf othon had hem " admittod "or " paawl " 
to their degreei, aoeording to the mwe hofi l» aag« which prweded it* The defree 
■eemi, howerer, to have become fairly m*f • tblidied by 1738, aa the Conatitntioiu of 
that year inform ni that there were the< I', viu M iitort' Lo^ee in the metropolit ' Then 

. *' I il longh it may have been different in the 

«li I the way they are ordinarily deieribed. 

.■- Tin whed. The me of the term raiu in Im-h 

rtu' ^ Oil in >he note below, though the lati' r 

r. 'ip»i! i^i.jhkt.v.' ' 

' ^.! reemaeonry matt be di»- 
.^evi, u the dimenaiona of the A t>- 

•eem to hare been at that time, in f 
ronntry— part and parcel of the I* 
woald haTe as to beliere that they wt 
of ^aM, had alao then crept into nie, . . 
waa not entirely rapeneded by the forM< 

The poMible inflnence of the Co .ip \,:u.. 
miaed in a few wordi, thongh Iihii r,ai iv, t<i 


pendii arc adoqaate to the itrain wh: h " i. ;. m » , it. 

It mnrt be frerly conceded that our c i tiwnii onititationii ihow evident tracei of 

a Gallic inflnence, and alio that lomc i.r'.icatioi : »iforded in the work of a French 
hiatorian— whoae writings . ommand gnem! i\-,-p'.-—i a ceremony performed at the 
reception of a Frctich etoneworker, irtrongly pointing !■« a ritnal not unlike our own.' 
But the (liflicnlty I experience in reco;:ni«ing in the legend of Hiram the builder, a com- 
mon feature of the Com)>anionage and the Freemaaonry of more early timee, is two-fold. 

In the case of the former, we may go the length of admitting that there ii a rtronjj 
prcmimption in favor of the legend having existed in 1717, but, unfortunately, the most 
material evidence to be addncwi in it* gupport— that of Perdiguier, ghowing that there 
was a Solomoiii.; or Hiramic legend at all '—is more thaji a century later than the date of 
the event * to which it has been held to refer. In cases of this kind, to adopt the words 
of Voltairif, the existence of a festival, or of a monument, proves indeed tlie belief which 
men entertain, but by no means proves the reality of the occurrence concerning which the 
U'iicf is held.' 

' Cf. Hughan, Orif^n of the Englinh Rite of Freemanoory. 1884. p. 85; and anU, pp. 13, 15 (note 
B). A<it>rding to Woodford, the " Penal " and oUier " Ordeni " of the SwalwtU Lodge, were writt.n 
about the year 172.5 (Maronic Magazine, vol. iii.. 187.V76. p. 82). But from whatev.r date it speak*. 
ITSi. n-IO, or later, the 8th Penal Order {Ibid., p. 84; antt, p. 15, note 5) shows that, tehen it u-a» 
martid. .■Itiier ihree defrrees, or the two previously known, were worited in an Operative Lodjje. 

' One of these ir described by Andermn as, " Blacl«— PorI* in Maiden Lane, where tliere is also a 
Masters Lwlge." This was No. 188 on the General List. i^>n«tituted Sept 81. 1737. Its niinut.--^, 
which coninienee Feb. 9, 1787, and therefore show the Lodge to have worked by inherent ri^ht tf- 
fore aeiepting a charter, contain the following entries:— Dee. 17. 1738.—" Twas agreed thatt all D.- 
batenand Business shall be between the E.A. and F.C Part." Feb. 5, 1740.— The Petition of u 
brotiier was rejected, " but unanimously agreed to Raise him a Master gratis." Sept 8, 17'3 — " If 
a Brother entring is a fellow craft, he shall be oblidge to be raised master in 3 Mouths, or be fln'tl '«." 

• A great deal of information respecting " Master Lodges," and the Third Degree generally, will 
be found colle<t.>d in Hughan's " O- igin of the English Rite of Freemasonrj-," 1884; Chap. II. , </ p. 

' Montcii, IIi.,U)ir,- d«t Fruuvais des Divers Elain, l(i63, vol. i., p. 'Mt; ante. Chap. IV., p. laO. 

• Chap, v., pp. ai«-81«. See, however, p. 840. • I.e., that a similar legend existed in 1717. 
' Essai Bur les Mocurs, CEuvres, tome xv., p. 109. 


Hat, taidMi, than is not qajto m> mnoh to n\j on, for Ptrdigaitr •i^mAj diiB.«>"<i 
kif belief in the aatiqiuty of the legend he reoonnti;' bat paMing thia orer, and aiMiiBing 
ttat in IMl the Conpuiooa, m • body, devoutly cherinlied it m nn nrtiole of fnitli, this 
will by n» mm^-r. jmlify «« in regnniing it m a matter of conviction. 

Aa tn the P r ee m ai w a, the legend— aooording to my view of the eridenoe— made ita 
tffmnam too late to he at all traoaablo to the inflnenoe of the Companionage, though 
vith regard to the tradition which rendera Charlea Martei a patron of onr Society, it may 
be otherwiiv Charlea Martei ia Mid, by many wrtten, to have tent Stonemaaons to 
Englaad at the nqnest of certain Anglo-Saxon kinga. Tbia be may poanbly have done, 
Mpeeially aa he lived at a time when the Anglo-Sazan kingdoma were in a moet floariahing 
oonditioD.* Bat he certainly waa not a great church builder, inasmuch as he aeculariied 
t large portion of the Church's property to provide for the sust««ance of thoee troopa, 
whom be waa forced to raiae to defend the Prankish monarchy against the Saracens and 
otben. For this he waa severely punished in the next world, or at least it was so pro- 
claimed at a national council held at Kiersi in 85^, where a vision of St. Eocharius, Bishop 
of Orleans, was related, in which he hsw Charlea Martei in the dei;pMt abyaiof hell.' 
Tbongh, indeed, if we concede the poaaibility of a person being seen in hell, it has been 
iuggested " that Charlea Ha'tel would have huA a better chance of beholding the holy 
bishop m that place, since hii^ reverence died three yean before him " * — but I shall le«Tt< 
the story as an interesting prubiom for modem peyi hologist 

Mr. Ellis follows Lt>yden, an author, he nys, " of much research aod information," in 
adopting the view of thi Abb<>- Velley, thitt Charles Martei waa an Armorican Chieftain, 
whose "four khm performed arioua exploits in the forest of Ardennes ugainst the four 
sons of Aymon. " ' Here we seem to meet with an old acquaintance,' and it is unfortunate, 
to say the least, that the criti> -.\ Auiizzi, whilst styling the three writers " very good an- 
thonties," yet goes on to say, '* we cannot implicitly rely on the judgment of these gentle- 

But at whatever period the name of Cliarles Murtel found its way into the Legend 
of the Craft, tlxre i-ini be no doubt that it reaches back many centuries, and probably > 
the era of the I'l8nUi^'«*net8' — 1154-1399 — when the greater part of Fnr>fo was subject to 
onr sway, including the south, which appears to have I'-en the cradle 01 the Companiou- 

A friendly critic complains of my having " t«ken no notice of the astonishing irruption 

With this sliould \k- i-muJ th" alliinons to Hiram and Adonhin i at 

■Chap, v., p.941, e(af9. 
p. ri7, Vol. ! 

' With rr^rd to the habit of generalizing namt>.s, see I'amzzi op. eit.. p. 118; ani' 
tory of Civilization in England, vol. i., p. 297. One single Charles may hav*' been in. 
Martei, Ckariu the Oreat. CharUt the Bold, Charttt the Fat, and Chartta th.- Sirapt 
their surnames w^re conferred (I believe) in each instance after death. 

•Cy. Chap. n.,p. S8. 

'Antonio Paniczi, K-oiay on the homantic Nm ratjve Poetry of the Italianit. "W p. 

'<i. Ellis .Specimens oi Early English Romances .Bohn, 1H4^\ p. 84-1 

•Chaps.n., P.W, gxix.; iV.. p. «». ' O if., p. 9" 

'Th« first member of this dys«i--.!y Hrnry IT.. p-Tssosmid, either Hy n-.-.~ag^ ..r ;r.--Htant«, h<«. 
•dep England, at least one- third of modem France. The name of anoth> me uer— U-nry III, — 
*»» ),-iven by Dugdaleto Aubrey, as that of the monarch in wliuee rei>rn a Pap:i Bull w^is _r;inted 
io the wandering Italians, from whom were derived the Freemaeons (nnfc. Vol. T pp. 180. 148, 844) 

' Okie. His- 
• of Charht 
eHfmcially us 



of Dutch Mid Oernun wtutii,— IMinte^^ arohitecU, nuuoni,— dw of Italisna, from Oeneva, 
Flownoe, and other citiw, not only in the time of Edwud III. (1327-1377), but eqwciall; 
from the raign of Heniy VI. (1422-U61) and later Henriei, which may hare gnatiy in. 
fluenced the working of the Britiih Maaona in practice and theory and tradition." ' It in 
alio true that great nnmbers of ' .eign workmen aettled in thia country beforo and during 
the nxteenth and eariy part of the seTcnteenth centuriea, bringing with them the trade 
tradition! and u«ges of the German, Flemirfi, and Dutch proTinoee;' and Mr. Pkpworth, 
in the maaterly eaay to which I hare bo frequently referred, raggerts that these workmen, 
joining lome of the friendly aocietiee they found exiiting, may have formed the foundationa 
for the lodge-meetinga recorded by Aahmole and Plot, or for those of the Four Old 
Lodges before 1717.' 

With the exception of France, however, there appears to me no continental source from 
which it is at all probable that the English Masons borrowed either their customs or their 
traditions. Had they done so from Oermany, our Masonic Tocabulary would bear traua 
of it, and we must not forget how easily German words become incorporated with our 
language. But it is impossible to find in our ritual, or in the names of the emblems of our 
art, the slightest symptom of Teutonic influence.* 

By the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and by the savage persecution which im- 
mediately preceded and followed it, France probably lost upwards of a quarter of a million 
of her most industrious citizens.' In consequence, at the early part of the eighteenth 
century, every considerable town in England, Holland, and Protestant Oermany, contained 
a colony of Frenchmen who had been thus driven from their homes.' Now, if at the time 
of this phenomenal incursion of Frenchmen, the English Masonic customs received a 
Gallic tinge, is it not reasonable to suppose that the same process would have been at work 
in other Protestant countries, to say nothing of Irehmd, where the influx of these ref ugeee 
was so great that there were no leas than three French congregations established in 

On the whole, therefore, it seems to me not unreasonable to conclude, that if the 
English borrowed from the French Masons in any other respect than ckiming Charlts 
Martel as their patron, the debt was contracted about the same time that the name of the 
" Hammer-bearer" first figured in our oral or written traditions." 

One of the legendary characters who figures in Masonic history, and may be nid to be 
the most remarkable of them all— Naymus Grecus'— deserves r w parting words. The 
longevity of this worthy mason is tame and insignificant when co...,.ared with what is pre- 
served in the literature of India. The most remarkable case is that of a personage who 
was the first king, first anchoret, and first saint This eminent man lived in a pure and 
virtuous age, and his days were indeed long in the land; since, when he was made king, 

• Cf. Chap. VIL, p. 918. 

■ Mr. Wyatt Papworth in the BuUder, March 8, 1888. 
•Truiaactioiis, Royal Institute of British Architects, loe. eit. 
*If it were otherwiw, fitttte would certainly All the place now occupied by Ztfoipe, and we migln 
alK> expect to meet with paHirtr (or paliirtr) it Fallou and Winzer were the witnesses of truth. 

• Lecky, History of Engrland in the Ei^teenth Century, voL L, p. 188. The estimates vaiy. 
Voltaire put the number as high as 800,00a 

• Ibid., p. ass. 1 1bid., vol. iL. p. 844. 
' Cf. Chap. IV., pp. W1JQ8. 

•Chap. VL, p. 800, note 4. See further, Chaps. XL, p. M; and V., p. 848. 

i5 i. 


jie ynm two million yeus old. He then reigned 6,300,000 yean, having done which, he 
iMgned hia empire, and lingered on for 100,000 years more ! ' 

I shall pass OTer, without further notice, many ancient naagea, including the habit of 
feasting or banqueting at a common table, but there is one upon which a few words must 
be Mid. Among the Teutonic nations we find a great variety of oaths, devised for the 
pnrpose of imprewing the conscience of the party, accompanied by strange and singular 
ceremonies, whose forms indicate the highest antiquity. In the " Lodthings " of Holstein, 
H among the ancient Bavarians, the Soldier swore on the edge or blade of the sword. The 
Alemannic widow appealed to her bosom or her hair. The pagan Danes swore by the holy 
bracelet.* In the earliest times the necebsity was felt of making as conspicuous as possible, 
in the most varied but always telling ways, the penalties which would be incurred by a 
breach of oath or promise.' The Christian practice in the matter of oaths was founded in 
neat measure on the Jewish. Thus the oath on the Gospels was an imitation of the 
Jewish practice of placing the hands on the book of the Law.' To raise the right hand, 
as though in a challenge to heaven, was so universal a custom among the Semitic nations, 
that in some of their languages " the right hand " is used as an equivalent to oath;' in 
others, a verb " to swear " is derived from it;* whilst in Hebrew " to raise one's liand " was 
quite a common phrase for " to swear." ' The same practice prevailed among the 6roek« 
and the Romans,' and in the customs of both these nations many of the modes of adjura- 
tion and punishment reappear, with which the pages of the Old Testament have familiar- 
ised us. 

The Bev. W. Clarke, commenting on Warburton's " Divine Legation," observes: " The 
little prejudice of raising the Egyptian Antiquities above the Jewish has been the foible of 
many great men; nor is that any excuse for idle prepossession. Moses stands upon a 
level, at least, with any antient writer; is as gooi' an authority for antient customs; and 
may justly claim a precedence when the dispute lies between him and authors many 
centuries after him." ' 

In forming a covenant various rites were used, and the contracting parties professed 
to subject themselves to such a death as that of the victim sacrificed, in case of violating 
their engagements." It was a customary thing to take a heifer and cut it in two, and 
then the contracting parties passed between the pieces." Thia is particularly referred to 
in the Book of Jeremiah (xxziv. 18-30), where it is said of those who broke a covenant so 
made, that " their dead bodies should be for meat unto the fowls of the air, and to the 
beasts of the earth." 

A similar punishment was decreed for theft, in England, by a law of King Edgar. 
" After experiencing the most frightful mutilations, the half-living carcase of the male- 

■ Asiatic Researches, voL ix., p. SOB; Buckle, History of Civiliaition in England, voL i., p. 136. 

*Palgrave, The Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, 1883, vol. it, p. czv. 

'Ewald, The AntiquiUes of Israel, trans, by H. S. Solly, 1876, p. 18. 

*Smith,DictioQary of the Bible, s.v. »Io Arabic • In Syriac, and lee Oenasis ziv., 33. 

' Ewmld, op. eit., p. 17; Kitto, Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, 8d edit, (.v. Uath. 

•Dr. Potter. ArchsBotogia Oneca, edit 1883, vol L, p. S86; Homer, IL, viii. 413; Virsil. Ma., 
xiL 196. Cf. Oen. xiv. 33; and ante. Chap. Vm., p. 48. 

'Nichols, Literary Anecdotea, vol. iv., p. 4S3. 

"Clarice, Commentary on the Bible (tiaii. xxvi. 38). " tbid. (Oen. xv. 10). 

" To be deprived of burial was in general accounted by the IsraaUtes a din addition to other cal- 
■Bitiss (Scott, Commentary on the Bible, Deut zzviii. SQb 


tadae ma oiat to the beaate of prey and the fowli vi bflaren." * In Gennany, the " fleah 
and body" of a mnrderer were condemned " to the beaeti in the foieet, the biida in the air, 
and the lUhea in thana."* 

The barbarity of the medieral penalties ia rerr marked, and thongh Orimni obaervei 
that there ia no historical record of their actual infliction, their retention, nererthelen, 
in ao many local codea thronghont the empire, bean witneaa to their high antiquity. For 
an infraction of the foreat Uwa, in one diatrict the offender waa to hare hia atomach cnt 
open at the naTd;* whilst he who remored a bonndary-atone waa to be buried in the earth 
up to his belt, and a plough driven through hia heart, or, according to other codes, 
"through hia middle or his neck."* But perhapa the moat inhuman mutilation of the 
kind waa praotiaed in Mexico, where the victim waa oaat on hia back upon a pointed atone, 
" and the high prieat "—in the quaint worda of my authority—" opened hia atomacke with 
the knife, with a atrange dezteritie and nimblenea, pulling out hia heart with hia handt, 
the which he ahewed amooking vnto the Snnne."' 

Almoat all nations, in forming leagues and allianoea, made their covenanta or contracts 
in the same way. A sacrifice was provided, its throat was cnt, and the carcase divided 
longitudinally in the moat careful manner so as to make exactly two equal parts. These 
were placed opposite to each other, and the contracting parties passed between them, or, 
entering at opposite ends, met in the centre, and there took the covenant oath.* 

When the oath was employed in making contracts or alliances, each of the two con- 
tracting parties made the other utter aloud the words of the contract which concerned 
him,' and a common meal off the sacred instruments of the treaty was regarded as indis- 

St Cyril, in hia tenth book against Julian, ahows that pasaing between the divided 
parts of a victim was used also among the Chaldeans and other ancient peoples. A varia- 
tion of the custom, in the form of a covenant with death,* is supposed to be the origin of 
a superstition to which the Algerine corsairs were addicted. It is related by Pitts, tliat 
when in great peril, an'l after vainly -upplicating the intercession of some dead marabout (or 
saint), they were in the habit of killing a sheep, by cutting off it* head, which, with the 
entrails, they threw overboard. Next with all speed, they cnt the body into two purts, 
and threw one part over the right siue of the vessel, and the other over the left, into th» 
sea as a kind of p pitiation. " 

It would be easy to show that a marked resemblance exists between many of the cere- 
monial observances note peculiar to Freemasonry, and those which we know formed a part 
of the judioial procedure common to onr Saxon ancestors. Hence it has been contended 
that the former are equally indigenous and ancient, but the burden of proof rests npon 

' Palgrave, loe. eU. •Orimm, Deutsche Bechto AlterthQmer, 1838 p 40 

•iWA, p. 619. «/6»«l.p. 547. 

•The Natvrell and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies, written in Spanish by loseph 
AcoBta, and translatwl into English by E. O., IM4, p. 885. 

• Clarke, Commentary on the Bible (Gon. vL 18, and jtv. 10; Jer. xxxiv. 18); Oodwyn, Moms and 
Aaron, 1671, p. 257. 

'Deut xxvi. 17-1»: Ewald, The Antiquities of Urael, trans, by H. S. Solly, 1876, p. 21. 

• Ewald. op. eit. p. 68. " Fpntivitieo always aocompanied Uic commonips attending oftths" (B\u^ 
der. Oriental Cusk>ms, vol. i., 1808, g 894, citing Oen. xxvi. 80, and xxxl. 64). 

•Isaiah xxviii, 16. » J. Pitt<^ The Religion and Manners of Mafaometana, 1704. p. 1& 


thon who nwintain the aiBnnative of this proposition. The subject hat been treated with 
some fulness by an abler hand,' and the points left untouched by Fort will, I hope, be 
■ummed up by Mr. Speth, in a disquisition he is preporing, with all the lucidity and force 
which characterise the emanations from his pen. 

Betnming to the history of the Grand Lodge of England, the following is an exact 
tianscript of the earliest proceedings which are recorded in its minutes: 

HALL, MONDAY, 24th JUNE 1723. 


His Grace the Duke of Wharton, G. Master. 

The Bererend J. T. Desagoliers, LL.D., F.RS., D.O.IL 

Joshua Timson, | „ 

The Beverend IT. James Anderson, ) 



That William Cowper, Esq'., a Brother of the Horn Lodge at Westminster 
—be Secietery to the Grand Lodge.' 

The order of the 17th Jan: 173f, printed at the end of the Constitutions, page 91, 
for the publishing the said Constitutions was read, purporting. That they ii»A been before 
Approved in Manuscript by the Grand Lodge, and were then (vii*), 17th January afore- 
aid, produced in Print and approved by the Society. 


The Question was mored. That th« said General Regulations be confirmed, so 
far as they are consistent with the Ancient Rules of Masonry. 

The previous Question was moved and put. Whether the words ' [so far as they are con- 
sistent with the Ancient Rules of Masonby] be part of the Question. 
Rksolted in the affirmative. 

But the main question was not put 

id the Question was moved. 
That it . not in the Power of any person, or Body of men, to make any Alteration, 
or Innovation in the Body of Masonry without the Consent first obtained of the Annual 
Grand Lodge.* 

And the Question being put accordingly. 
Resolved iu the Affirmative. 

■Fort, op. eit, chap. udx. See also ante, Chaps. XV., pp. 8S4-M>; and XVL, p. 37. 

' " On June 24, 1788, the O. Lodge choee William Ck>wper, Esq., to be their Secretary. But «ver 
since then, the New D. O. M. upon his comniencement appoints the Secretary, or continues him by 
returning hini the Books" (Constitutiona, 7738, p. ttl). 

' Square bracket* in original. 

'In the Constitutions of 1738, Dr. Anderson cites this — under Uie title of Mew Regulation 
XZXIX.— and incorporates with it the flnt ot a scries of ■ ' <juestions " aifirmatively decided in Qrand 
Lodg* on Nov. X, 17*3, and which are given pott, p. VX7. 


The two Grand Wardeng were ient out into the Hall to give Notice, That, il anj 
Brother had any Appeal, or any matter to offer, for the good of the Society, he might Come 
in and offer the «ame, in thia Grand Lodge, and two other Brethren were appointed by the 
Grand Master, to take the Grand Warden* places in the mean while. 

The i/rand Wardens being returned, reported they had given Notice accordingly. 

Then the Grand ^Master being desired to name his Successor, and declining so to do, but 
referring th; Nomination to the Lodge, 

The Bight Hon"*. The Earl of Dalkeith was proposed to be put in Nomination m 
GRAND MASTER for the ensuing year. 

The Lodge was also acquainted That in case of his Election, he had nominated I)r 
Desagnliers for his Deputy. 

And the 35th General Regulation, purporting that the Grand Master being Installed, 
shall next nominate and appoint his Deputy Grand Master, Ac, was read. 


The Question was proposed and put by the Grand Master, 
That the Deputy nominated by the Earl of Dalkeith be app.oved. 
There was a Division of the Lodge, and two Brethren appointed Tellem 

Ayes, .... 43 

Koet, . • • • 4S 

As the tellers reported the Numbeiii 


The Grand Master, in the Name of the new Grand Master, proposed Brother 
Francis Sorrel and Brother John Senex for Grand Wardens the ensuing year. 
Agreed, That they should be Ballotted for after Dinner. 


After Dinner, and some of the regular Healths Drank, the Earl of Dalkeith was de- 
clared GRAND-MASTER according to th« above mentioned Resolution of the Grand 

The late Grand Master, declaring he had some doubt upon the above mentioned Divi- 
sion in the Grand Lodge before Dinner, whether the Majority was for approving Dr Dea- 
gnlien, or whether the Tellers had truly reported the Numbers; proposed the said Question 
to be now put again in the General Lodge. 

And accordingly insisting on the said Question being now put, and putting the same, 
his Worship and several Brethren withdraw out of the Hall as dividiiig against approvinj; 
Dr Desaguliers. 

And being so withdrawn, 

Brother Robinson, producing a written Authority from the Earl of Dalkeith for that 
purpose, did declare in his Name, That his Worship had, agreeably to the Regulation 
in that behalf. Appointed, and did Appoint Dr Desaguliers his Deputy, and Brothers Sor- 
rel and Senex (irand Wardens. And iilso Brother Robinson did, in his said Worship's 
Name and behalf of the whole Fraternity, protest against the above proceedings of the 
kte Grand Master in first putting the Question of Approbation, and what followed thereon, 


Of those who were engaged in the revival of Freemasonry in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, none performed a more important part tlian he to 
whom may be well applied the epithet of the Father of Modern Speculative 
Matomy, and to whom, perhaps, more than any other person, is the present 
Grand Lodge of England indebted for its existence. 

He was bom March 12th, 1683, at Rochelle, France. The son of a French 
ProtesUnt dergnrman; his father having removed to England as a refugee on 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, he was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he todc lessons of the celebrated KeiU in experimenul philosophy. In 
1713 he received the de;rree of Master of Arts, and in the same year succeeded 
Dr. Keill as a lecturer on experimental philosophy at Hart Hall. 

Soon after his arrival in London he was made a Mason in the I^odge meet- 
ing at Goose atid Grid'.ron, in St. Patils churchyard, which subsequently took 
the name of the "Lodge of AHtiquity." The peculiar principles of the Craft, 
struck him as being eminently calculated to contribute to the benefit of the com- 
munity at large, if they could be redirected into the channel from which they 
had been diverted by the retirement of Sir Christopher Wren. It is said that 
he visited that veteran architect, and from his conversations with him was in- 
duced to inaugurate those measures which le<l in 1717 to the revival of Free- 
masonry in England. The reputation of Desaguliers as a man of science enabled 
him to secure the necessary assistance of older Masons to carry the design of 
frttffl/ into effect, and, supportetl by the activity and xeal of many brethren, he 
siiccee<led m obtaining a meeting of the four Ixjndon I^odges in 1717 at the 
Applc-Trce Tavern, where the Oand Lodge was constituted in <'.ue form, and at 
a subse«iuent meeting, on St. John the Baptists dav, Antony Saycr was elected 
jrand Master. In 1719 Desaguliers was elevated' to the throne of the Grand 
Loilge. He paid much attention to the interests of the Fraternity, and so clc- 
^•ated the character of the Order, that the reconis of the Grand Lo,lge .how 

1 J:."^"? r- «<'™"'*»™V°" **^^*"^ "^ *''« o't'^' brethren who ha<l hitherto 
rn^T'i ■ ^i"f* rc^yim,:A their visits to the Lodges, and many noblemen were 
initiate<l into the Institution. / v »:u were 

In 1721 he delivered before the Grand Lo<lge what the records call ",„, 
cloquen, oration about Masons and Masonry." .Uter his retirement from the 
??L7L^';'""' ■^''"""■' '" '7^.,D-^='g"«ers was three times appointed Deputy 
Grand Master: m ^72^, 1724. and 1725. After this. Dr. Desagi.hers passed over 
V^l Continent an<l resided for a few years in Holland. On his retur^ to 

n-lmlJiated i'SrrS'We vea^T,^ 

l«.sitinn that gave a >.tand^ntr»!.%h, %?•.*• * J'/ ^" ''"^''"'"S «"'' ""^ial 
n..l.Iemen and^m« of influ^J? *i,%w ' ul'":'- .^^^f ''™'P''t »" it" ^"PPort 
f-on.l..„ Lodges at the AwIe-TW T^ver^\« . '""?n,fica„t assemblage of four 
nnrv overshSdorrs the entire d^iS w^r H Th^:!'''^ ' "*" "*? f^""^'""*'"" which 
John Theophilus Desaguliers ^'^ '""'""^ 'P'"* «^ all this was 

'I" ' is 

brother John Theophilus Desaguliers, bb. D., F. H> S. 


I Gfan'l M.i-iter cif the <ir:intl I^uijrr of Knglami, J719. Knithcr ! >c^ai;alicr« i-i not tn3|i:ly (IrvriWiJ n-i th? 
|"Faih(r ui M xlern S|>eculative Mawinry," and there can Iw nn doulit that he well merited that di&tinciit'n, for 
I he ccn.iiily contrUiuted more than any other person to the consolidation uf the Society and the dUTusion u' its 
|prmci[' N. iuileed, he may justly Ite deemed to hive l>een the luckbone of the Grand Lo<l^e from its formation 
I until .h, ttlv iK-fi^re hit death in 1744. 


H aBpnoedented, nnmnsntoble, and Imgnkr, and tending to introdnoa into tho Society 
a Bnaoh ol Harmonjr, with the ntmoat diaorder and Confnaion. 

Ulan the Mid late Grand Maater and thoae who withdrew with him being tetnmed 
lito the Hall, and aoqnainted with the fo rea ai d Deolaration of Mother Bobioaon, 

The late Grand Jlaater went away from the Hall without Ceremony. 

After other regular Healtha Drank, 
The Lodge adjourned." 

The minutea of thk meeting are aigned by " JoBir TBiorauuB DnAOCUXM, Deputy 
Omd Matter." 

The Bffl of Dalkeith preaided at the next Quarterly Communication, held NoTamber 
8S, and the proceeding! are thua recorded: 

" The following Queetiona were put: 

1. Whether the Marter and Wardena of the lereral Lodgea hare not power to regulate 
•11 thingi relating to Maaonry at the Quarterly Meetinga, one of which muat be on St John 
Baptirt'i Day? 

Agreed, nem. am. 

2. Whether the Onu^a Maater baa not power to appoint hia Deputy? 

Agreed, impn. com. 

Agreed, That Dr Denguliera be Deputy Grand Maater from the laat Annual meeting. 

Ordered; That Brother Huddleaton of the King's Head in It; I^ne be expelled the 
Lidge for laying aeTeral Aipeniona againat the Deputy Grand Maater, which he 
could not make good, and the Grand Maater appointed M' Davis, Sen'. Warden, to 
be Maater of the laid Lodge in Ivy Lane. 

Agreed, That no new Lodge, in or near London, without it be Regularly Constituted, 
be countenanced by the Grand Lodge, nor the Maater or Wardena be admitted at 
the Grand Lodge. 

3. Whether the two Grand Wardens, Brother Sorrell and Brother Senex, are confirmed 
in their offioeef 

Agreed, netn. eon." 

The above is a literal extract from th»> ^stnal minutea of Grand Lodge; but among 
the " alterations, inxprovemeuts, and explications " of the " Old Regulations " of the Society, 
or in other words, the " New R^rulations " enacted between the dates of publication of the 
first and second editions of tho "Book of Constitutiona" Anderson gives us the follow- 
ing as having been agreed to on November 25, 1723: 

" That in the Master's absence, the Senior Warden of a lodge shall fill the chair, even 
tho' a former Master be present' 

No new Lodge to be owned unless it be regularly Constituted and rtgittered.' 

'CoortitutioDs, 1788, N.R. (New BegitlaHtm) n. 

*HM., N.R. xn. The words in italics do not appear in the minutes of Oiand Lodge, aad As- 
dcnoD omits the ezpreaion " in or near London," which oocun in the original 


That BO FMitiou Mid Appeali ■hall be heard on th* Fcwt Day or Annual Onuid Lodge.' 

That any U. Lodge duly met baa a Power to amend or explain anr of the printed Ri^. 
lutiona in the Book of Conatitntiona, while they bn<ak not in upon the antient Rulra of 
the Fraternity. But that no Alteration ihall be made in thia printed Book of C'ouatitu- 
tiona without Leave of the G. Lodge."* 

Of the foregoing reeolutiona, the flnt and third— m Anderwm inform* u»— were not 
recorded in the Grand Lodge Book. But with the exception of the latter, which miut 
hare been neceiiitated at an early date, in order to preaenre the requiaite harmony on th« 
Aacmbly or Head-meeting Day, all of them leem to be merely amplifioationa of what really 
waa enacted by the Grand liodge. Anderaon, moreover, it ihould be recollected, wai not 
preaent (or at leaat his attendance ii not recorded) at the immunication in qu)>stion. 

" Gmnd Lodge met in ampla form on February 19, 1734, when the following Queittioni 
were put and agreed to: — 

1. That no Brother belong to more than one Lodge at one time, within the BilU of 

2. That no Brother belonging to any Lodge within the BilU of Mortality be admittcl 
to any Lodge aa a viiitor, unleaa peraonally known to aome Brother of that Lodge wIi.ti- 
he visitH, and that no Strange Brother, however akilled in Masonry, be admitted witiiDiit 
taking the obligacon over again, unleai he be introduced or vouched fur by some BrutljT 
known to, and approved by, the Majority of the Lodge. And whereaa lome 3faaons have 
mett and formed a Lodge without the Grand M . Leave. 

Aouid; That no such persona be admitted into Regular Lodgea." 

At this meeting, every Master or Warden was enjoined to bring with him a liat of th« 
members belonging to his Lodge at the next Quarterly Communication. 

Two further ' ' Questions " were submitted to the Grand Lodge on April 38, antl in 
each case it was resolved by a unanimous \ole,— firstly, that the Grand Master luul tlie 
power of appointing the two Grand Wardens, and in the second place, that Cliarles, Duke 
if Richmond, Hhould " be declared Grand Master at the next Annual meeting." 

Acconling to Anderson,' the Dake was duly " install'd in Solomon's Chair," on Jun* 
34, and appointed Martin Folkes his Deputy, who was " invested and install'd by the Im 
llepnty in the Chair of Hiram Abbif." Xo such phrases occur in the official records. an<i 
the only circumstance of a noteworthy character, associated with the Assembly of IT'.M, it. 
that the Stewards were ordurc<i " to prepare a list for the Grand Master's perusal of twelve 
fit persons to serve as stewards at the next Grand Feaat" * 

'Constitutions, 1788, N.B. Xm., « 8. 'Ibid., N. B. XXXIX. 

* By a resolution of Harrh 17, 1TS5, the brethren of the French Lodge at the Solomon's Templf, 
—of which boil) Difiugulieni and Anderson were memben — were " to have the liberty to belong to 
any other Lod^u within tlic Bills uf Mortality." But tlie restriutiun to a single Lodtfe, we ok tolil 
in 1738, " is neglected for M-veral reasons, and now obsolete " (Constitutions, p. 154). It was reini- 
posed, however, in 1743 (pout, p. 146). 

< Constitutions, 1738, p. 118. 

•The minutes of Uiis meeting are signed by the Earl of Dalkeith, Dr. Deaagulfers, awl Gmti 
Wardens Sorrel and Senex. This is a little confusing, because the O. M., hia Deputy — Folkes, and 
Wardens— Puyne and Sorrel— were all present at the next Quarterly Communication (Nov. 8U II 
may be cunvvnicntly m«ntioDe<l. tliat the minutes are only occ-asionally signed by the Grand Offloen. 


DorlBd the Ownd MMUnhlp of the D«ke of Riohmond, the Committee of ChwJty— 
at the pneent d»y tenaed th"* Bowd of Beneroleno*— wm iiMtituted. The eoheme of n»i»- 
in* • fund of OeneraJ Chwity for DutraMed Mmoiw, wm propoeed, Norember 81. by the 
^kri of ndkeith, mod under the aime d»te there ia • ugniAoMit entry in the Orund Urfge 
^,l,»_" Brother Anthony Skyer'i peUtion wm read and recommended by the Orund 
Maater." It doee not sppew, hjwerer, that the premier Orund MMter receired any pecu- 
niary iMktanrn on Um oooaeion of hie flrrt application for relief, though luma of money 
were toted to him in 1730 and 1741 reepectirely aa we hare already leon. 

Lord Dalkeith'i propowl met with TOneral rapport, aad among tho« whoee namoe are 
bonorably a«ocUted with the morem^ut in ito earlier rtagea. may be mentioned Dr. Dowgn- 
lien, Oeorgw Pkyne, and Martin Folkee. 

At the iame meeting it wae raaoWed, that all PMt Gmnd Martere •honld haT« the right 
of attending and roting in Grand Lodge, and it wae " Aobikd, ntm. «/».-That if any 
brethrvn fhall meet Irregularly and make Mawni at any pUwe within len milu of Litndon.' 
theperwiu. prwentat the making (th« New Brethren Excepted) ihall not be admitted. 
•Ten «■ Tiwton, into any Reguh»r Lwlge whatKierer, unle*. they come and make euch 
(DbmiMion to {he Grand Marf. and Grand Lodge a. they .hall think fit to impow upon 

them." ^, 

A few words rourt now be deroted to the proceedings of the Oormogone, an Order 
which flnrt came under pubUc notice in thia year, though iu origin i« «iid to have been of 
earlier date. The foUowing notification appeared in the Dailif Pwd of September 3, 

"Whereae the truly Aimiirr Noblk Order of the Gormogonn, inrtitnted by Chin- 
Qnaw Ky-Po. the ftrrt Emperor of China (according to their account), many thousand 
Twn before Adam, and of which the great philowpher Confucina wae CEcumenical Volgee. 
bag lately been brought into EngUnd by a Mandarin, and ho having admitted several Gen- 
tlemen of Honour into the Mystery of that most illustrious order, they have deternunod 
to hold a Chapter at the Cattle Tavern in Meet Street, at the particular Rc-quest of several 
persons of Quality. This is to inform the public, that there will be no drawn Swor.1 at the 
Door, nor Ladder in a dark Room, nor will any Mason be reoeiv'd as a Member till lir lias 
renounced hU Novel Order and been properly degraded. N.n.-The Grand >log,.|, the 
Czar of Muscovy, and Prince Tochmas are enter-d into this Hon. Society; but it luu V-ou 
refused to the Rebel Meriweys, to his great Mortiflcation. Tlie Mandarin will shortly *•!; 
out for Rome, liaving a particular Commission to make a Present of this Autit-nt OnUt 
to his Holiness, and it is believ'd the whole Sacred College of Cardinals will commence 
Uormogons. Notice will be given in the Gazette the Day the Chapter will be held." 

If we may believe the Weekly Jourmi or Saturday Post, of the Kth of ()etob,.r follow- 
ing, " many eminent Freemasons " had by that time " degraded themselves " and gone over 
to the Gormogons, whilst several others were rejected "for want of qualification.'' But 
the fullest account of the Order is given in the second etlition of the " Grand Mystery of 
the Freemasons Discovered," published October 28, 1T24. This has been closely dissected 
by KI08S, who advances three distinct theories with regard to the appearance of the Gor- 
mogons:-L That the (Ecumenical Volgi was no less than the Chevalier Ramsay, then at 

•The word, in italici an omitted by Anderson in the Constitutions of 1788, where he gives the 
enaetment as an item of Mew Regulation VIU. 
VOL. in.— 9. 


loTO ia •ttMdutM apon the Young PntrnkUr; \l. Thirt the moTmwnt wm • dwplf 
kid KhMM OB ilM |»rt of Um JeMiti to •ttoin ontein mitb, by iMiqsamdiBf •Iter th. 
fMbioa of Um FrMnuMOMi ud III. Th«t in Um Oormogoni w« mMt with tba prwttn..n 
of tho 8chi«fttio Mmom, or " Anoienti. " The flnt and hut of thoM rapiMnUoM my W 
pMMNl oTer, but tiM Moond it more pUuaible, eepecialiy if we widen iti Applicatioa. *xA 
for " JeeniU " n»d " Romu Ctholici,- lince. curionily enoufh. the Order ia Mi«l to han 
become extinct in 17M, the ytv in which Clement XII. pgbliabod hi* Ball aniiut th» 

The Phiin Dttthr of Septembo- 14. 1784. contun* • letter from • MMidarin at Rom. 
to another in l«ndon. The former oongrmtuUtee the latter on the Rpeedy progr«« hr lu* 
mad« " from the Conrt of the Voung Sophy," and add«, " Yonr P»*eenoe i* earaertir ei- 
pected at Romk. The Father of High IVieeU i« fond of onr Order, and the Cabi.i.vau 
hare an Emnlation to be dirtinfrniahV . Our Excellent Brother (i.JiiMoooK, MnmhriH, 
Chak Fr«, M well, and Mlntea you." There ant- alio aeveral alluaiona to the Freeinft,-.!,^ 
which point to the pretalence of irr^nkritiea, asch aa we are already juatilied in believiiJ 
mnat hare exicti'd at the time.' 

The following notice appearvd in the DaOy Journal of October 26, 1730: 

" By command of the Vol-Gi. 

A General Chapter of the moat Aiipnat and Ancient order (Job-mo-ooit, will he hrld 
at the Caatle Tarem in Fleet Street, on Saturday the 31.t Inat, to commence at IJ 
o'clock; of which the aereral Graduatea and ycentiatee are to take Notice, and give thoir 

P. W. T." 

An identical anmmon*. aigned " F. N. T. ." will be found in the «une Journal for Octc 
ber 38, 1731, bnt that earlier ihapters wore WW ut the aame place may be inferred from a 
paragraph in the Brituh Jvunial of Fteeomber l.'. 1784, which reada: " We hear that a 
Peer of the firat Rank, a noU-d Member of the Sotietv of PreeMatoru, hatli aafTcrod him- 
aelf to be dcgratled aa a memVr of that S.iety, and hia Leather Apron and Glovi-« to 
be burnt, and thereupon entcrd liimaelf ae a Member of the Society of Oormojrons, at the 
CVw/fe-Tayem in Fleet Street." 

Thia can only refer to the Duko ol Wharton, whoae well-known eccentricity of chamr- 
tcr, combined with the rebuff he experienced when laat present in Grand Lodge may 
have led him to take thia atep. It U true, that in 1728 he conatitntc<l a lo<lge at .Madrid, 
but thia would be in complete harmony with the digpoaition of a man who, in politi<« and 
cverythmg elae, waa alwaya turning moral aomeraaulta; and the anbacquent application of 
the lodge to b8 "conatitut«l pr<^>,rly,-' tenda to Aow that, howerer .lefective hia own 
memory may hare been, hia apostaay woa neither forgotten nor forgiven by the Craft 

The number of renegade Gormogona must. I think, have l^^-n very largo, but the oiilv 
atH-eaaion from the " Order" that I have mrt with occurs in the Weekly Journal or BrilUh 
Umetteer of April 18, 1730, which haa-" On Satnnl.y laat, at the Prince William Tavern. 
at Charing ►{<, Mr Dennis,' the famoua i«et and critick, waa admitted a Free and 

'S«.Ap|*n.!.x. 'ft^.p. 186. 

•John iJennig. a poet, political writer, and critic, wa* U,™ in 1657, and died OD Janiiarj- 6. ITSt 
H* wiw tlierefore in hia wventy-third year when initiated into FreomaMnrj. 


AMtftod MMon, ftt « lodg» then hfM there, having rtni»tne*<' Ik* f^i^ly «/ '*• (iormo^on*. 
«f which h« had been » membc. tor rnt«ny yarn." 

ImprMiioM pf tho MeiUl <if thr Onlw— obYttup Mul reTt»r» -»rr sniM-TwI. The iniorip- 
tioM which encirrlp them tm nuffcifnt eiptwiMory in themwlvi*, »ti< I baa been ing- 
gMted th«t tho wont* Ax. Rko. rn«t Ax. Imrr.. '»n the 1ow.t r.rojectioii« rt<«pectiTely, may 
MMibly refer to thf fonndktion of ttw Order in tlie reifn of i^oeu, ' 

Herelbrinff to a cloeethm " short rtudy" on a wibject nf mm li i: Urcrt, which, I 
truit, ncv<'^fh«'l<'<»>. oth«"r rtuiUmt* will pumue. In thi» lioix-. I iwk our antiquaries not 
to loop giglit of IIP fact, tliat the (Jormogone were the only fcrmiiluble rivaU of the Free- 
magoM, ami to beur in minii also, that aeveral of the regulationu' passi'd l-\ the latter 
before 1725 an' lU-eraed by some good authorities to Imve be»'n levelled against the former. 

The Grand lK)dge on May "0, 1T25, onlereti tliat the mmuteii of the lust meeting 
ihould be rwd— u formality noticed for the first time: it was al>>o " ordered, that his Grace 
the Ihiko of Richmond be continued (irand Mu»'. for \\v next half year ending at Chrirt- 
Buw," and there occurs a tinguliir entry, with regard to which we shonld remain entirely 
in the darlt, were it not for the discovery of a mannscript in the library of the British 
Mnsenm, by the 'ate Matthew t'ooke,' tlmt clears up the whole matter. The minute runs 

'Notes and QueiK*, 4th serie,,, vol. iv., p. 441. The iUuctrationii of the jf«'.-l are from pho- 
togmphs of Kne in the poswjwion of Mr. W. H. Ryland.*, and therefon> .-xaitly represent the appear- 
ance and size of ttie original. whi<h in of silver. Tlie owner points ml to me tliat Anno Re^i S» of 
Georjte XXL would be 179R-W, which may be companxl with Miv "An. Inst., H798 " of tlie medal. A.D. 
1899 would be the 11th and 18th of William (ar.d Mar> », the only other reijrn of that period having 
?» regnal years. 

' A'.jf., those of February 19 and November 34, 1724. 

• Adai. MS. 28, Sie. Numerous extracts from it were given in the Frrt^nuuon't Stiigazine (July 
to December 1861. pf . •'. "i'!. IBS. 904. .93*1. ."***> l>,v Mr. Cooke, who in nnnouncing li ■* discovery (p. 67), 
Mvs: " I think I am entitled to claim for the MS. before me, tlie distinguished |iONition of tlu- old«st 
Mgt minute-bcuk in existente." As will be seen, however, the minuU-s are not those i f » t-^dgt, 
but of ft Society, which admitted none but Freemasons as members or visitors, I am glad to sUte 


— " Orderad, that then be • letter wrote to the foUowing brethnn, to deein t>vem to attend 
the On&d Lodge at the next Qnarterly Ciommnnication (rii'.) William Ooleton, Coort 
Knefitt, WiUiam Jonei, Gharlee Cotton, Thomaa ffidier, Thomaa Harbin, ud Siancif 
XaTier OeminianL" ' 

The manoaoript referred to, informii n., that theae perK>na were membere-and, with 
three ezceptioni, foundere— of an aMOciation, entitled the " Philo Munon et Architectural 
Sooietae, Apolloni," ertablirfied February 18, 1725, by aeven brethren from the Lodge at 
the Queen • Head in Hollea Street, and one other. 

The minntea of the Society extend to 296 pagee, and the hwt entry ia dated March 23, 
1787. Bole xriii, ordain*-" that no Person be admitted aa a Viaitor, unlew he be a Free 
tiamm," and the ranka of the Society were recruited iolely from the Cimft But if tlie 
appUcant for membenhip waa not a maaon, the Society pittoeeded to make him one, and 
aomeUmee went further, for we find that on May 12, 1725. two brothera " were regularly 
paised Maaters,"one "wa* regularly paaaed fellow Craft & Maiter,''and another "wm 
regularly paawd FeUow Craft '"-the ordinance (XIIL) of Onnd Lodge enjoining that 
such ceremonies should only be performed in the presence of that body, being in full force 
at the time. 

The ordinary practice in oases where the candidates were devoid of the Masonic quali- 
fication, was to make them Masons in the first instance,' after which they were ordered to 
attend " to be admitted and properly inducted members. " This, however, they f requeutlj 
failed to do, and on Maroh 17. 1726. two pemons were ignominioualy expoUod for not 
taking up their membership-for which they had been duly qualified— though tlirioe 
summoned to do so. 

" Geo: Payne J: G: Warden," was present as a viaitor on September 2, 1725, and tlit 
following entry occurs in the minutes under December 16 of the same year: 

" A letter Dat the 8th Instant from Brother Geo. Payne, Jun' Grand Warden, directed 
m form to thU Society, inclosing a Letter from the Duke of Kichmond, Grand ilust.r 
dat likewise the 8 Instant, directed to the Presid'. and the rest of the Brethren at the 
Apollo,* m which he Erroneously insists on and Assumes to himst-if a IVetended AaUioritv 
to call Our R>. Wdrpfull and Highly Esteem'd Society to an account /or makitui «'^">^^ 
irregularly for which reasons, as well as for want of a Due Kegard, Just Esteem, and Oniit- 
ting to Address himself in proper form to the lit. WSrpfuU and Highly Esteemed Socioty. 
Ordered — 
That the Said Letters do lye on the Table." 

that the MS -whicl. throw, a great deal of h^ht upon «>rae hitherto obscun, poioU, in Masonic l.i.,. 
tory-w.ll shortly be publUhed by Mr. W. H. Kyland,-a« the/rrf. ,t „,ay be hoped, of « lous «..„., 
of man.«.T.pU of U.e Ciuft." a sphereof Ubor for which he ia eminently Btted. boU. l.y Us... a.ul 
quah.l.«t.ons. tKough I almost fear, that to carry out afl the literary |.~ject« which a«. Hoat.ns ,u 
his brain, he would require the hand, of BriareiM and the life of Uie Wandering Jew 

-All these brethren, except (flgherand Harbin, were '• made Ma8on. " in the Lodge altheOueen v. 
O^H M f ^Tt ""' '""* °' them-Knevitt. Jon«s an.l (Jotton-by the Duke of Rich.non.i. 

IrJ TT\ ^u" "" ' """"**' "' "" """' ^^^ '" "^"^ Thorn*. Hlsher wa» junio, w»r. 
den of tlie L.«lge at Ben . Coffee Hou*,. New Bond at«»t. in I78a Of. anU, p. 1 18. • Ante, n 1 12 

u. J.mI ,\ ' '■^"i^''"^ ""'' ^""'*'' """'P'-y* »"<! J'^'* Bayne he made Ma«,n.. 
t^ ?™> "^'""'^ """'^" °' *'"* "■ **■""" '»'* H*hly El.t«emd Society " (Min- 

xkv», p. iw). . The sign of the liouw where Uie Society met had been changed. 


The mbject u not agun referred to in the minntee of the Society, or in thoee of Orsnd 
Lodge, but we le«m from the former that a week later— December 23, 1725— three 
memben of "the Lodge at the Horn "were prewint aa Tintore, including Alexander 
Haidine, the Maater, and Francia Sorrell, Senior Grand Warden. 

The preceding extraota throw a fuller light, than has hitherto been shed, upon a Tery 
dark portion of Maaonic history. It ia highly probable that Pkyne's riait to the Muiical 
Society took place at the instance of the Duke of Richmond, by whom, aa we hare seen, 
three of the members were " made Maaona." ' But the attendance of Sorrell and Hardine 
«/br the Grand Master's letter had been so contemptuously disregarded, is not a little re- 
markable. Still more curious is the drcamstonco, that at the very time their Tisit oc- 
cnned, Coort Knevitt was also a member of the " Lodge at the Horn." It may be taken, 
therefore, that the dennnciations of the Grand Master were a mere brulem fulmen, and led 
to no practical result. The Musical Society died out in the early port of 1727, but the 
minutes show that the membe<v persisted in making Masons until June 23, 1726, and 
possibly would hare continued the practice much later had the supply of candidates lasted 
longer than it apparently did. 

William Gulston, the prmMS, or p/esident of the Society during the greater part of 
its existence, whose name, we may suppose, would have been particularly obnoxious to 
the rulers of the Craft, was a member of Lodge No. 40, at the St I'anl's Head, in 1730, 
and his name appears first on the list There were 107 members in all, and among them 
were Dr. Bichard Bawlinson, Grand Steward 1734; John Jesse, Grand Treasurer 1738-52; 
and Fotherley Baker, Dep. O. M. 1747-51. These were not the kind of men to join in 
fellowship with any person whose Masonic record would not bear investigation. It is 
reasonably clear that, down at least to 17-,'5, and perhaps later, the bonds of discipline so 
recently forged were unequal to the strain which was imposed upon them. Confidence is 
• plant of slow growth, and even were evidence wanting, to confirm the belief, tliat the 
" beneficent despotism " which arose out of the unconditional surrender of their inherent 
privileges by /our private lodges, was not submitted to without resistance by the Craft at 
large — from the nature of things, no other conclusion could be adopted. 

We may therefore suppose that Gulston and the others gradually ceased to commit the 
irregularities for which they were censured, and that they did so before the time had arrived 
vben the Grand Lodge felt itself established on a sufficiently firm basis to be able to main- 
tain in their integrity the General Regulations agreed to by the Masons of London and 
Westminster in 1723.' 

The remaining characteristic of Additional MS. 23,202 has been referred to ou a pre- 
vious page," and the evidence it affords of the Fellow Craft's and Master's " parts" having 
been actually wrought other than in Grand Lodge, before February 18, 1726, is of great 
value, both as marking the earliest date at which surh ceremonies are tnoicn to have been 
worked, and from the inference we are justified in drawing, that at the period in question 
there was nothing unusual in the action of the brethren concerned in these proceedings. 

The Quarterly Communication, held November 27, 1725, was attended by the officers 
of forty-uuw lodges, a number vastly in excess of any previous record of a simihur char- 

* Ante, p. 182, note 1. 

'See the "Approbutioo " appeodod to the first " Book of ConstitutioDK," 172& 



acter, and which doe* not ■gun mwh the wme flgnrM nntil the NoTember meeting of 
1738. Two reMona may be aligned for m fall an attendance— one, the general interact 
•xperieooed by the fraternity at large in the raooeH of the Committee of Charity, the report 
of which body, drawn up by William Cowper, the chairman, waa to be piewnted to Qrand 
Lodge; the other, that an extension of the authority of private lodges was to be considered, 
and, as the following extract shows, conceded: " A Motion being made that such p«t of 
the 13th Article of the Gen". Begulation^ relating to the making of Ma* only at a 
Quarterly Court may be repealed, and that the Ma- of Each Lodge, with the consent of 
_ his Wardens and the Majority of the Brethren, being Ma"., may make Ma"" at their dis- 
cretion. Agreed, iV«f»». Oon,"* 

It is singular, that whUst forty-nint* lodges are stated to hare beea reprmnted in 
Grand Lodge on this occasion, the Engrared List of 1789 has only flfty-fonr lodges in all, 
forty.four of which, and no more, were constituted up to, and inclusiTc of the yev 172.').' 
This is at first sight somewhat confusing, but the EngnTcd List of 1785 shows that sirty! 
four lodges existed in that year, and as we shall presently see, there were many influences 
at work between the years 1785 and 1789, tending to keep down and still further reduce 
the number of lodges. 

The Duke of Richmond was succeeded by Lord Paisley, afterward Earl of Abereom, 
who appointed Dr. Deeagnliers his Deputy, and during this Gmnd Mastership the only 
event worth recording, is the rcwlution passed February 88, 1786, giving past rank to 
Deputy Grand Masters, a privUege, it may be observed, also extended to Grand Wardtiu 
on May 10, 1K7. 

The next to ascend the Masonic throne was the Earl of Inchiquin, during whose t.rm 
of office. Provincial Grand Masters were first appointed, and on June 84, 172;, tlia 
Masters and Wardens of Private Lodges were ordered to wear at all Masonic meetings, 
"the JeweUs of Masonry hanging to a White Ribbon (vizt.) That the Ma", wear the 
Square, the Sen'. Warden the Levell, and the Jun'. Warden the Plumb Rule.'" 

About this period the question of Masonic precedency began to agitate the lodges, and 
the following extract from the minutes of Grand Lodge wiU afford the best picture I am 
able to present, of the manner in which their relative positions at the Quarterly Communi. 
cations were determined, before any strict rule on the subject was laid down. 

" December 19, 1727. -The Masters and Wardens of the Several Lodges following, 
attended and answered to their Karnes, vixt: — 

• Anderson renders this-" The Matter of a I.odge, with his TTardensand a competent JVumfxr 
of the Lodg» anembled in due Form, can make itcuttrt and FtUowi at Discretion " (New Regula- 
tion Xin., g n The italics are the doctor's. It will be seen that the actual minutes of Grand Lodgi 
are silent with regard to the admission of " FeUows." Cf. ante, pp. 110. lit. 

• Althoigh this statement resU upon Anderson's assertion in the Constitutions of 1788, I am da- 
posed to beUeve it, because flniUy. it seems inherenUy probable, and in the second place, An.leraon 
apparently derived his./ltn<ret from something in the nature of an attendance book, now mimag. 
I B«ay also add, that tlie number of lodges he aUegos to have been present at any parUcular meeting 
of Grand Lodge, has always been correct, whenever I have been able to test iU accuracy. 

' " 36 June ITaj-Mastem and Wardens of Lodges shall never attend the O. Lodge without their 
Jewels and" (Constitutions. 1788, N. R. TOl). Here Anderson is plainly incorrect, as the 
regulation to which he aUudes, was . uaeted-according to the actual minutes of Urand Lodge-is 
the previous year. 


ing of 
at s 
r d» 

•d io 

a all, 



ik to 


, thu 
r the 

. and 





I the 

vt . l-'?ii 

The Goose and Gridiron Tavern, London 

IXKU lUNK i4TK. 1717, AM) II) WIIUll All. IIIK i;KAM> LkHUEa OK THE WllRll) TIACK 





L OooM and Ondiron, St Fuda 
t Bom and Rnmnitr, CuU« Yard. 

3. Qnaan'i Haad, Kimt*'i Aon. 

4. Horn, Waif. 

6. Oram, Dragon, Nawiato St 

6. St Fknl'i Head, Lndgato St 

7. Three Tnna, Swithin'e Alley. 

8. Qneen'e Head, Onak Queen St 

9. Ship, Fiih St HilL 

10. Globe, Strand. 

11. Tom's Coffee Honae, Clara Market 
18. Crown and Soepter, St Martin'ii 

15. Swan, Oreonwieh. 

14. Croaa Keya, Henrietta St, Co: Garden. 
10. Swan, Tottenham High Croai. 

16. Swan and Bummer, Finch Lane. 

17. Mag: Pj9, against Biahopagato Church. 

18. Mount Coffee Houae, Oroarenor St" 

Here we find the " Four Old Lodges" at the head of the roll, and arranged, moreorer, 
in due order of seniority, reckoned from their age, or respeotiTe dates of establishment or 
oonstitution. This position they doubtless owed to the sense entertained of their serricea 
H fonndjn of the Grand Lodge. But the places of the remaining lodges appear to hsTa 
been legnlatad by no principle whaterer. No. 5 above, becomea No. 19 on the first liat 
(1729), in which the poaitiona of lodgea were determined by the datea of their warranta of 
oonatitntion. Similariy, No. 6 dropa down to the number 18, 7 to 12, 8 to 14, 9 to 22, 13 
to 25, whilst the No. 11 of 1727 goea up to the dxth pUoe on the EngrsTed Liat of 1729. 

In the same year, at the Abbkhblt on St John's Day (in Christmas), the following 
nsolntion was adopted, " That it shall be referred to the snooeeding Grand Master, Deputy 
Orand Master, and Grand Wardens, to enquire into the Precedency of the SeTeral Lodgea, 
•nd to make report thereof at the next Quarterly Communication, in order that the same 
may be finally settled and entre'd accordingly." 

In conformity with this regulation, " most of the Lodgea preaent deliTered the datea of 
their being Constituted into Lodges, in order to have precedency in the Printed Book;* 
others did so on June 25, 1728; and at the ensuing Orand Lodge held in November, the 
Master and Wardens of the several lodges were for the first time " called according to their 

The grand officers, under whose superintendence the Engraved List' of 1729 was 
brought out— Lord Colerane, Grand Master; Alexander Choke, the Deputy; Nathaniel 
niakerbj and Joseph Highmore, Orand Wardens— were invested with their bodges of office 
on the aforesaid St John's Day, 1727, at which Assembly, an application by the members 
of the Lodge at the King's Head in Salford, that their names might be entered in the 
Orand Lodge Books, and themselves taken under the care and patronage of the Orand 
IxKlge — which was acceded to — deserves to be recorded, both as showing the existence at 
that time of lodges other than those forming part of the regular esteblishment, as well as 
the tendency of all such bodies to gradually become absorbed within the central organiza- 
tion. These accessions strengthened the authority of Orand Lodge, whose officers wisely 
forebore from interposing any obstacles that might hinder or retard a surrender of their 
iudependence by those lodges whicli had not yet given in their adhesion to the new regime. 
Thus on November 26, 1738, a petition was presented from the " Master and Wardens of 
a Lodge held for tome time pait at Bishopegate Coffee Uouae, declaring their intention and 
earnest desire to be Constituted as soon an it will suit the conveniency of the Deputy Orand 

■ It is hesded " A List of BaouLAB Looon aeeording to Sentoray <ft Comahtutiom." 
la Italics appear in no previous lists. 

The words 


to ooDfer i\» honour npon tbem. vdA hunbly pnTing to be admittod unou th« 
rasniw Ud|M at thii Qiivtorly Communiction. - 

TbeDnMity Onad M«.tor-Al6ander Choke-w« «w Informed, "did diqmue with 
Ui«r being at pr««nt irregnlar. and admitted tb«>m into the Grand I>»dge." At the nme 
meeting, which was the bat nnder the adminiMration of Lor«l Colerane. it waa wttled, on 
the motion of Dr. Deaagnlieri, that thm shoald be twelve itowarda for the future, who 
ahonl.) hftTo the entire care and direction of the Annual Feaet Alio, it wae ordered, that 
in the abeence of any oOoer of a lodge-Maator or Warden-one of the member., • but 
not a mere EtUw'i Pnntiee." might attend the Grand Lodge, " to rapplr hia Boom and 
rapport the Honor of hii Lodge." ' 

Viaoonnt Kingrton-who wm afterward at the head of the Craft in Ireland— waa tlie» 
next Grand Marter, and the prooeedinga of Grand Lodge were agreeably divenifled on the 
occa«on of hi. inrtallation-Deoember 87. 1728-by a petition being premtod from *Tera) 
Ifcwon. rending at Fort William in Bengal, wherein they acknowledged the authority of 
the Grand Haater in England, and humbly prayed to be conatitutod into "a Regular' 
Lodge." The prayer wai acceded to, and the duty entniato<.l to Mr. Geoige Pomfrtt 
brother to one of the petitioner., then on the ere of proceeding tn the Eart Indie., and t^ 
whom wa. granted a deputation for the pnrpoae. SimiUr deputation, were gianted to wme 
brethren at Gibraltar* and to Mr. Charle. Labelle (or LaMyt), Marter of the Lodge at 
Madnd-originally " conrtituted " by the Duke of Wharton in 1728 '-but which the 
membem «ub*qnently pnyed might be " conatituted property " nnder the direct «nction 
of Grand Lodge.* 

The deputation to the Gibraltar Mawn. i.r. granted to them " for and on behalf of 
aereral other Brethren, commiHioned and non-com miwioned ofHoer. aiid other., to bo 
oonrtitnted a regnlar I^ge in due form," and the body thu. legitimated, in a ™b«M,uent 
letter wherein they rtyle themMWe. " The Lodge of St John of Jeru.lem ' Utely con.ti- 
tutod at Gibraltar," exp«« their thank, to Grand Lodge for empowering them " to hold a 
Lodge in a. due and ample manner a. hath been hitherto practiwd by our Brethren. • ' 

Lord King«ton made rery handwme preeent. to the Grand Lodge, and w great wa8 hi« 
*n» of the reeponribilitie. of hi. office, that on a menage reaching him in Ireland from 
the Deputy Grand Marter, rtating hi. prewnee wa. demiable at the Quarterly Comn.uni.*- 
t.on of November 85, 1789, he forthwith embarked for England, and "rode Post from 
Holyhead in two day. and a half," in order to pr«,ide over the meeting.-at the prmee-1- 
ing. of which harmony appear, to have prevaile<l, wyA cc-rtainlv did toward the en.! for 
the rceordH inform n., " that the Deputy Grand Master, having gone through all buf aiea-, 
clord the Lodge with the Mawn'a Song." 

'ConMilutiom, 1788, N. K. TOL 

•The met casual reader ran hardly fail to notice, how unive«ally the epithet, of rtgular, and 
<fT,ffutar areui^ in the official reconls. to di.ting«i«h the tributary and the in.lepenrient lodpe, 
I lupcciivdV' 

• Copie. o( the Fort William and Gibraltar Deputations, dated Februarj- «, and M:m-1. 9, r^r«-. 
Bvely, are pven in vol. i. of the Grand Lodjce Minutes. 

•Gnuid Lodge Minutes, April 17, 1788. Ubid.. March 87. 1789. 

T « . . ""* '"'"*'' "' "■* neputotion sent to Gibraltar, using tlie expression ■• a Lodge of 8t John." 
I find the earliest use of the phrai*. a •" St. Johns Lodge " or " nian." employed with k> much tn. 
quency later, to denote the ' unattached " lodge or brother. 

'Grand Lodge Minutes, IX-ci-riiber 27, 1789. 




Duing the term of oflkw of this noblenun, the Ownd Lodg* " ordain'd " th»t erery 
MW Mg* thftt ihonld to oonitituted by the Qimnd MMtor, or by hia authority, Mhoald psy 
the nBi of two guiiMM tow»rd the OenenU Chwity.' We ftleo (Irrt h«v of theee grtTe 
jnefokritiee, which, under the title of " nuking mawma for nikU -md noworthy oon- 
aderatiani,'' * m afterward ao frequently alluded to in the dBoial record*. According to 
the minntee of Maroh 87, 1789, "Complaint being made that at the Lwlge at the One Tun 
in NoWe Stwet, a perwm who was not a Maaon waa preaent at a Making, and that they 
made Maaona upon a trifling ezpenae only for the aake of a amall reckoning, and that one 
Hnddkatone of that Lodge brought one Templeman of the South Sea Honae with him, 
who waa not a Maaon, and the obligation waa not required." 

The Maater and Wardena of the Lodge were ordered to attend at the next Quarterly 
Commnnioation, " and in the mean time " to " endearor to make tho aaid Templeman a 
ngular Maaon." At the enauing meeting the Maater attended, and hia explanation waa 
deemed mtiafactory; but whether, with the aariatanoe of hia Wardena, he ultimately auc- 
ceeded in bringing TemiJeman within the fold, the recorda leare undecided. 

The Duke of Norfolk, who auooeeded Lord Kingaton, waa iuTeated and inatalled at an 
AsBlMBLY and Feaat held at Merohant-toylor'a Hall, on January 29, 1730, in the preaenoe 
of a brilliant company. No leaa than nine former Grand Masters attended on the occaiwn, 
and walked in the prooe«on in order of juniority— via., Lorda Colerane, Inohiqnin, and 
Paiiley, the Dnke of Richmond, Lord Dalkeith, the Duke of Montagu, Dr. Deaagnlien, 
Qeorge Payne, and Anthony Sayer. 

Although thia waa the only time the Dnke of Norfolk waa preaent at Grand I»dge 
daring hia tenure of office, aa he ahortly afterward went to Italy, hie intereat in the proe- 
perity of the Inatitution ia evinced both by hia having peraonally conatituted aereral lodgea 
prior 10 hia depwtnre,* and having aent home many valuable preaento from abroad, con- 
liating of (1.) twenty pounda to the Charity fund, (2.) a large folio book for the recorda of 
Gmnd Lodge, and (3.) a awoid of atate (atill in uae), to be borne before the Grand Maater, 
being the old truaty aword of Guatavna Adolphne, King of Sweden, which waa next worn 
by Wa brave ancceaaor in war, Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, with both their namea on 
the blade. 

■ Grand Lodge Minutes, December 37, 1739. 

• Other infractions of the Generul R*gulaUons of a kindred, though not of ao identical chansctw-, 
be<«me indeed the subject of Masonic legislaUon at a much earlier period, e.g.-" 38 April 172&- 
Every Brother concerned in making Masons clandestinely, shall not be allowed to visn any Lodge 
till he has made due aubmission, even tho' the Brothers so made may be allowed " (New Kegulation 
Vm., item i.— Constitutions, 1788, p. ISC). 

> "Thursday night at the new erected Lodge, the Prince William Tavern, Charing Cross, the 
following gentlemen were admitted Free and Accepted Masons- viz.. Governor Tinkler. General 

Tinkler, Governor Burrington, Frederick, Esq.. a foreign minister, Goulston. Esq., Philip 

Laasels, Esq.. Major Singleton, Mr Theobalds. Capt Read, Mr Rice, and Mr Baynes, Master of the 
House. Preeent-The Duke of Norfolk, G.M.. Lord Kingston. Nat Blackerby. D.O.M.. Sir W. 
Saunderson, Sir W. Young, CoL Can«nt«r, and Mr Batson " (The Weekly Journal or British Gazet- 
teer, No. 88», Mareh 7, 1780). " Latter end of last week a new Lodge was set up at ihe Bear and 
Harrow Tavern in Butcher's Row, near Temple Bar, where several genUeroen of fortune were ad- 
mitted Free and Accepted Masons. Present^the Grand Master (Duke cC Norfolk), Lord Kingston, 
late G.M , Nat. Blackerby, D.O.M., and all the other Grand Officers of the Society" {Ibid., No. 880, 
March 14, 1780). The former of the«> lodgea I cannot identify, but the constitution of the latter (No. 
74^ was paid for April 31, 1780. 

\i C 


fn thk jmr tiM i»»|riilet alrMiiy Nfemd to, ratttM " MMOiiry Thwrtrf,- wm pab 
■ by SuBod PrichMd. •• Thk work oontalnad • grwt il««l of plMuibla mtttr 
mingM with tome trathM well Mfklwhood; pMMd throufh • gr«t iwny rfitioM; wii 
timMhtod into th« Frtnch, Oam»a, mi Datok knfiNgM; md bwuM- the bMb or model 
on which aU the mAm^ mm< ' lu-ciUM expodtiou wore fnuned." • It -Hoited • noble wply 
from an unknown writer, rtyli-tl "A Defeooe of llMoiiry," which bM b(«n commonly 
though (I think) erroneou-ly. Mcribed to Dr. Anderwn, vxl produced one other go. ol 
reeult by inducing rtri<-ter CMition at the adtti«Jon of rinton into lodgee. Thue we learn, 
from the minute* of Grand Lodge, that on Auguet 28, 1730, " Dr. Demgnlien ttood uii 
and (taking notioo of a priiit«l Pfcper Utoiy publiehed and d.#pmed about the Town, an.! 
■ince inaerted in the Newe Paper., pretending to discoTer and rereal the Miitorie* of thn 
Craft of Ifaionry) recommenacd nereral things to the conwileration of the Oiand Lodg , 
particularly the Reeolution of the laet Quarterly C«mmunic*tion.' for prerenting any talw 
Iwethren being admitted into regular Lodges, and Huch as call thcmeelves Honorary MasoniL 
The Deputy Grand Master seconded the Doctor, and propomnl seveml rules to the Grand 
Lodge, to be obserred in their respectire LodgMi, for their security against all open and 
Secret Enemies to the Craft" 

The same rct.irds inform us that in the foUowing December "D.O.M, Blaokerby took 
notice of a Rimphlet lately published by one Prichard, who pretends to hare been ma.]e • 
regular Mason: In violation of the Obligation of a Mason w* he swears he has brok« ,r. 
order to do hurt to Masonry, and expressing himself with the utmoet indignation 
both him (SUUng him an Impostor) and of his Book as a foolish thing not to be reganlod. 
But m order to prevent the Lodges being imposed upon by false Brethren or Impostors 
Proposed till otherwise Ordered by the Grand Lodge, that no Person whatooover shaU l» 
admitted into Lodge, unless some Member of the Lodge there pn»ent would vouch for 
such vuutmg Brothers being a regular Mason, and the Member's Name to be entered 
against the vuitor-s Name in the Lodge Book, which Proposal was unanimously agreed to " 
It IS a curious coincidence that the names of two of the earliest Grand Masters should 
be prominently associated with the proceedings of this meeting-Desaguliers. as the 
champion of order and regularity, and Sayer. alas, as an offender against the Uws of that 
body over which ho was called, in the first instance, to preside. The records state-" A 
paper,<d by the Master and Wardens of tho Lo,!^ at the Queen's Head in KnaveV 
Acre, was presented and read, complaining of great irregularities having been committed 
by B- Anthony Sayer. notwithstanding the great ffavour. he hath lately received by order 
of the Grand Lodge."* ' 

December 15, 1730.-" B~. Sayer attended to answer the complaint made against him 
and after hearing both parties, and some of the Brethren being of opinion that what he 
had done was clandestine, others that it was irregular-the Question was put whether 
what was done was cUndestine, or irregutar only, and the Lodge was of opinion that it 
was irregular only- whereupon the Deputy Grand Master told B". Sayer that he was ac- 
quitted of the cliarge against him," and recofiimended it to him to do nothing to irregular 
for the future/ ' 

• It diffenw] from the wWier «OK:alled •■exp«»- in bcin^ much fuller, but then i. everr 
reawn to believe that cat*< hisn, . of a Uke churact-r (ami value) were in .,™ very .horUy after th. 
establishmont of tl,.- Orand L-jdge. Cf. ante. pp. 109, 1 15, and Chap. XIII ,. 353 

•Mackey.op.etf.. p 601. • Not recorded. Mnfe p » 


At thto mMting the powen of th« Coramittw of Charity wew much oitMided. All 
^„iinTT- reforrinc to Charity wm deUigated to it for th« future, and the CommittM war* 
Mipowerad to hear complainti, and orderwl to report their opinion to Grand I^dge. 

Tha Earl of 8umlerland and Lord Portmore declining to be put in nomination for the 
Grand Martmhip, Lord Urell wai electort to Vat offloe on March 17, 1731, on which 
oooaaion the following important regulations were enacted:— 
That no Lodge ihould onlcr a dinner on the (!»nd Feaat Day. 

That none but the (Imud Matter, hu Deputy, an.! the Orand Warden*, ihould wear 
the Jewel* in gold or gilt pendant to blue ribbon* about their neck*, and white leather 
apron* lined with blue (ilk. 

Tliat all who had »erTB.l any of the three grand oflSca* ' ahould wear the like apron lined 
with blue lilk in all lodge* and A**cmblie* of Maw>n*. 

Tl»at HtewiinU •hould wcur apron* lined with ro.1 *ilk, and hare their proper Jewel* 
pendant to red ribboiA 

Tliat all who ha«l «erTed the offloe of Steward, ahould be at liberty to wear aprona lined 
with reil *i!k " and not otherwiae." 

That Master* and Warden* of Lodge* might wear their apron* lined with white *ilk, 
and their resjiective jewel* with plain white riblion*, «' but of no other colour what«oe»er." 
At the Quarterly C'ommuni<»tion in June, a petition wa* prcaenUnl, nigned by ■eTcral 
brethren, praying tlwt they might bo admitted into the Grand Ixidgo, and conttituted into 
• rtgvlar lodge at the Three King* in tVi»pin Street, Spittlefleld*. " After *ome debate, 
leveral brethren present vouching tlmt they were rtgular Ma*on», they were admitted, and 
the Grand Maater declared, that he or hu I>eputy would conaUtute them accordingly, and 
«igneil their petition for that purpose." 

0( the distinction then drawn between the " regular " maaons, and those liailing from 
lodges still working by inherent right, and independently of the central authority, the 
official records afford a good illustration. 

These inform us that thj petition for relief of Brother William Kemble wa* dismis*Hl 
"sati*faction not being given to the Grand Lo«1kc, how long he had been made a rtgular 
Mason,'" whilst a similar application from Brother Rlwanl Hall, a member of the Lodge 
at the Swan in Chichester, rcsultol in a vote of Six Guineas, the latter alU-ging tliat he 
bad been made a Mason in the said Lo«lge " by the late Duke of Richmond, six-and- 
thirty years ago," and being recommended by the then holder of tlwt title, the Grand 
Master of 1724, who was present during the consideration of the jwtition.' 

The Duke of Lorraine, who had received the two first degrees of Masonry at Uie Hague, 
by virtue of a Deputation granted to Dr. Desaguiicrs and other* in 17:11, visited England 
' /.«., G.M., D.Q.M., aad Wardens. The Treasurer and Secretary were not at this Ume regarded 
as Grand Offlcem. Cf. poil, p. 144. 

•Grand Lodge Minutes, June 34. 1781. Another applicant for relief at this meetmg-Henry 
Prit*-liard-w.w described as "a regular mason iipwanls of forty years." Tills, if it does nothing 
else, would ueein to establish the f«t that theexistem«or Ljd,fe» in 16»l-ir.n-W«(; on the mime line, 
a, the memorable Four, who met at Iho Goose and Gridiron in 1717-was believed in by the Grand 
Loilse of 1731. C/. ante, p. 116, note 3. 

'Grand Lodge Minutes. March 3, 17S3. Cf. ante. p. 13. My friend, the Hev. A F. A. Wood- 
ford, lays great stress on this cireunuitance, as t.>ndins to " whitewash " Anderson, so far at least a* 
respecU the latter's statement with refeTHxl to the Duke of Richmond having been Grand Master in 
18B5. See, however, onfe, pp. 8, 18: and Chap. XIL, itatnim. 


the nme year, and was made a Marter Mawn, together with the Dnke of Newcastle, at an 
" Occarional" Lodge formed by the Grand Master at Houghton HaU, the seat of Sir 
Robert Walpole, for that pnrpoee.' 

Lord LoTell was succeeded by Viscount Montagu,' and the latter by the Earl of Strath- 
more, at the time of his election Master of No. 90, the "University Lodge, at the Bear 
and Harrow in the Butcher's Row." He was installed by proxy, but presided over Grand 
Lodge on December 13, 1733, when the following resolutions were unanimously agreed to: 

" That all such business which cannot conreniently be despatched by the Quarterly 
Communication, shall be referred to the Committee of Charity. 

"That all JIasters of Regular Lodges (contributors within twelve months to the Genm! 
Charity), together with all presen \ former, and future Grand Officers, shaU be membcni 
of that Committee. 

" That all questions shall be carried by a majority of those present" 

It has been necessary to give the preceding resolutions somewhat at length, because 
they have been singularly misunderstood by Findel and other commentators. Thus the 
German historian assures us—" This innovation, viz., the extension of the Committee for 
the administration of the Charity Fund into a meeting of Master Mamns,' on whom power 
was conferred to make arrangements of the greatest importance, and to prepare new 
resolutions, not only virtually annulled the authority vested in the Grand Lodge, but like- 
wise greatly endangered the equality of the Brethren in the different Lotlges.'" 

The criticism is misplaced. No such evils resulted, as, indeed, wo'^ld have been sim- 
ply impossible, upon the state of facte which the records disclose. Indeed, the schismatic 
Grand Lodge of ITSS-which is supposed to have owed ite existence to the series of inno- 
vations begun December 13, 1733-a8 we shall presently see, delegated, in like manner. 
the management of ite routine business to a very similar committee, styled the " Steward's 

'CoMtitutioiM, 1788, p. 18«.-According to the minutes of No. 80,-con8tituted at Norwich 1724 
r^.; I?' ! • ""' *''* ''*"*°* ^'S^^ to the Lodge of RecUtude, Westbuiy. No. 633 (now 
No 885)-publ»hed in the Freenumm. Dec. 17. 1870, "Ye Rt Hon. ye Lord Lovell, when he wag 
G.M^summonedyeM. and Bn. to hold a lodge at Houghton Hall-there were present the O.M 
His Roy^ Highness the Duke of Lorrain. and many other noble Bn., and when all was put into due 
form, G.M. presented the Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of Essex, Major-Oen-ral Churchill and his 
own Chaplm, who were unanimously accepted of, and made Masons by Rt. Wpful Tlios Johnston 
the then M. of this Lodge." Among the distinguished members of U.e Lodge were Martin Folk« 
and Dr. Samuel Parr. 

• According to Anderson (Constitutions. 1738, p. IM). Deputations were gmnted by Lord Mon- 
tagu for constituting lodges at Valenciennes [in French Flanders], No. 127, and Uie Hotel de Bussy 
m Pans, No. 90. but the numerical position of the former, and the notice already given (ante p ia() 
of the latt*r, conflict with this assertion. Preston says, that in Lord Montagu's year, the Brethren 
met at Hampetead, and instituted the "Country Feast" This is slightly misleaxiing. According' : 
to the records-" Viscount Montague, Grund Master, being Master of the Lodge at theGolden Spikes, ' 
Hampetead d^red ««ft trethrtn a, plea^ul, to dine unth him there, and accordingly " the Dukes of 
Norfolk and Richmond. Lords Strathmore. Carpenter, and Teynham, and above one hundred breth- 
i»n " dmed with the Grand Master at the house of B".. Captain Talbot, being Uie Golden Spikes, 
Hampstead, at which lime the Grand Ma.ster resign'd his cliair as Master of that Lodge to the Lord 
Teynham " (Grand Lo<lge Minutes, April 13, 178ax 

• The italics are mine. 

'Findel, History of Freemasonry, p. 184. 


Lodge," the record of whose proceodingB happily ranriTes, whilst of that of its prototype, 
•las, only a fragment has been preserved.' 

Whilst, however, many important details mnst remain hidden, which might explain 
mnch that is obscure in this portion of our annals, it ia satisfactory to know that all matters 
deemed to be of conseqnence — and many that were not — were brought up by the Commit- 
tee of Charity at the next Quarterly Communication for final determination. It is when 
the Communications were held with irregularity that our loss is the greatest, and of this 
we meet with an early example, for during the administration of the Earl of Crawford, 
who succeeded Lord Strathmore,' an interval of eleven months occurred between the meet- 
ings of Grand Lodge. 

The former of these noblemen was initiated in the Lodge of Edinburgh under somewhat 
singular circumstances, as the following minute of that body attests: " Att Maries Cha{!ell, 
the Tth day of August 1733. Present: the Right Honourable James Eurle of Strathmore, 
present Orand Master of all the Lodges in England, and also chosen Grand Master for this 
present meetting. The which day the Right Honourable John Earle of Orawfnrd, John 
Earle of Kiutore, and Alexander Lord Garlies, upon application to the Sociotie, were 
admitted entered apprentices, and also receaved fellow crafts as honorary members."' 

The Earl of Crawford was installed in office March 30, 1734, and the next meeting of 
Grand Lodge took place on February 24, 1735,' when " Dr Anderson, formerly Grand 
Warden, presented a Memorial, setting forth, that whereas the first edition of the General 
Constitutions of Masonry, compiled by himself, was all sold off, and a Second edition very 
much wanted, and that he had spent some thoughts upon some alterations and additions 
that might flttly be made to them, which he was now ready to lay before the Grand Lodge 
for their approbation — Resolved — that a Committee be apjwiuted consisting of the present 
and former Grand Officers, and such other Master Masons us they &hould think proper to 
call on, to revise and compare the same, and when finished to lay the same before the 
Orand Lodge ensuing for their approbation." 

Dr. Anderson " further represented that one William Smith, said to be a Mason, had, 
without privity or consent, pyrated a considerable part of the Constitutions of Masonry 
aforesaid, to the prejudice of the said IV Anderson, it being his solo property." 

' It was therefore Resolved and Ordered — That every Master and Wr.rden present 
should do dl in their power to discountenance so unfair a practice, and prevent the said 
Smith's Books ' being bought by any member of their respective Lodges." 

At this meeting the minutes of the two last Committees of Charity were read and 
approved of. The cost of serving the grand-mastership was restricted in future to the sum 
of thirty guineas, and the following resolution was adopted: 

" That if any Lodge for the future within the Bills of Mortality shall not regularly meet 

' Tlie Minutes of the Committee of Cliarit y, now extant, commence Juno 3, 176t. 

•The Earl of Strattimore was elected Grand Master of Scotland, December 1, 1740. 

'Lyon op. eit., p. 161. On the same occasion two former Loi-d Pi-ovostsof Edinburgh were also 
initiated, and of the "group of Intrants" Lyon observes — "Two of them — Lords Crawfurd and Kin- 
tore — became Orand Masters uf the Orand Lodge of England; the latter also tilled that post In tlie 
Orand Lodge of Scotland; another — Lord (larlies— presided in the same Orand Body; and the 
remaining two — ex-provosts Lindsay and M'Aulay — were afterwards Orand Wardens under the 
Scottish Constitution " (1 bid). 

•Vol. n.. p. 135. 

• The work referred to was entitled •■ A Pocket Companion For Freemasons," MDCCXXXIT. 


«w the ipMe of one jmt, inch Lodge shall be enued out of the Book of Lodgee, and in 
cue they shall afterwards be desirons of meeting again as a Lodge, they shall loose their 
former Bank, and snbmitt themaelres to a New Oonstitution." ' 

In the following month— March 31— the Grand Master "took notice (in a rery hand- 
some speech) of the Grievance of making extraneous Masons, in a private and clandestine 
manner, upon small and unworthy considerations, and proposed, that in order to prevent 
the Practice for the future: No person thns admitted into the Craft, nor any that can be 
proved to have assisted at such Makings, shall be capable either of acting as a Grand Offi- 
cer on occasions, or even as an officer in a private Lodge, nor ought they to have any part 
in the General Charity, which is much impaired by this clandestine Practice." 

" His Worship, secondly, proposed, that since the General Charity may possibly be an 
inducement to certain persons to become Masons merely to be admitted to the Benefit there- 
of: That it be a Resolution of the Grand Lodge that the Brethren subscribing any Petitions 
of Charity should be able to certify that they have known the Petitioner in reputable or at 
least in toUerable circumstances." 

These proposals of the Grand Master, together with some others referring to the fund 
of Charity, " were received with great unanimity and agreed to." ' 

"Then a Motion was made that Dr James Anderson should be desired to print *!• 
Names (in his New Book of Constitutions ') of all the Grand Masters that could be collected 
from the beginning of time," also of the Deputy Grand Masters, Grand Wardens, and of 
" the Brethren who have served the Craft in the Quality of Stewards, which was thought 
necessary- Because it is Resolved, that for thv. future, all Grand Officers (except the Gi^d 
Master) shall be selected out of that Body." 

The business of this important meetin„ having been brought to a satisfactory close, 
"his Lordship was pleased to order"— so the minutes inform us— "a large quantity ci 
l{ack, that was made a j-resent of, from Bengali, to be made into Punch, and to be dis- 
tributed among the Brethren." 

Lord Weymouth,' who became the next head of the Society, was installed April 17, 
1733, but left all business to be transacted by his Deputy John (afterwards Lord) Ward] 
in which capacity the latter presided at a Quarteriy Communication, held June 24, and 
as the minutes inform us, "very justly took notice of the great want of order that had 
sometimes happened in the debates of these Assemblies, and earnestly recommended to 
those present, the preserving proper Decency ' and Temper in the management of the De- 

The "force of this resolution "was afterwards made to operate from June 84, 1735, and to apply 
to '• afl Lodge* in England, that neither meet, nor send in their charity, or attend Quarterly Com. 
munication, within the space of one year." 

' A summary of the above resolutions forms the 5th Item of New Regulation Vm., as given in 
the Constitutions of 1788 (p. 156). 

» The publication of this book— according to Findel— was most likely delayed in consequence of 
the grievous events which, like a storm, were gaUiering round the Fraternity, threatening to dis- 
turb its peace, and whicii were sought to be averted by the passing of the resolution (New Regula- 
tion vm.) against the Ulegal conventions of Masons, " who have lately met secretly," etc. (History 
of Freemasonry, p. 155). See, however, the last note, and ante, p. 137. 

* The author of " Multa Paucis " omits Viscount Weymouth from the hst of Grand Masters, and 
8ay»-" Grand Master Crawford honoured the Fraternity with continuing in Solomon'- Chair for the 
rpace of two years " (p. 98t. 

• On April 6, 1736, a New Regulation (XL.) containing ten articler-for explaining what concem'd 


tatei; and advised that only one person should tpeok at a time, deriring only that the 
Practice of the Qnnd Lodge in thii caae might be a fitt Pattern to be followed by every 
Private Lodge. " On the game occasion, a memorial waa read from the Stewards, praying: — 

" 1. That they might meet monthly or otherwise, as a Lodge of Master Masons (under 
the Denomination of the Steward's Lodge) and be enrolled among the nnmber of the 
Lodges as usual, with the times of their meeting. 

" 2. That they might be so far distinguished (since all the Grand Officers are for the 
future appointed to be chosen out of their number ') as to send a deputation of 13 from 
the whole body of Stewards to each Quarterlv Communication. All the 12 to have voices, 
and to pay half a crown apiece towards the expense of that occasion. 

" 3. That no one who had not served the Society as a Steward might be permitted to 
wear the Coloured Ribbonds or Aprons. But that such as had been Stewards might wear 
a particular Jewel suspended in the proper Ribbond wherein they appear as Masons." 

On a division being taken, the privileges sought to be obtained, were granted, " 45 of 
the Assembly being in the Affirmative, and 4S in the negative." 

" It was also declared — That the 12 Stewards for any coming year might attend in their 
proper colours, and on paying as usual for 4 Lodges, but are not to be allowed to vote, nor 
to be heard in any debate, unless relating to the ensuing Feast." 

The twelve Stewards appeared for the 1st time in their new badges at a Grand Lodge, 
held December 11, 1T35. Sir Robert Lawley, Master of the newly constituted Steward's 
Lodge, " reported that B'. Clare, the Junior Grand Warden, had been pleased to entertain 
it on the nrst visiting Night with an excellent Discourse containing some Maxims and Ad- 
vice that concerned the Society in General, which at the time seemed to their own Lodge, 
and an hundred visiting Brethren," worthy of being read before the Grand Ijodge itself — 
which was • cordi i,;ly done, it being " received with great attention and applause," and 
the lecturer " 'esint' to print the same."' 

After these amenities, the proceedings were diversified by the presentation of " a peti- 
tion and appeal, signed by several Masters of Lodges against the privileges granted to the 
Steward's Lodge at the last Quarterly Communication. The Appellants were heard at large, 
and the question being put, whether the determination of the last Quorterly Communica- 
tion, relating to that matter, should be confirmed or not. In the course of the collecting 
the votes on this occasion, there appeared so much confusioi. that it was not possible for 
the Grand Officers to determine with any certainty what the numbers on either side of the 
question were. They were therefore obliged to dismiss the Debate and close the Lodge." 

Martin Clare, the Junior Grand Wanlen, acted on this occasion as Deputy Grand Mas- 
ter, and George Payne (by desire) as Grand Master, with Jacob Lamball and Dr. Anderson 
as his Wardens "pro tempore." 

To the Tiresence, perhaps, in the official chairs, of the three veterans, whoi ^ services as 
Grand C s bogan before those of the Grand Stewards had any existence, nutj be due 

tlie Decency of Assemblies and Communications — was proposed by D.O.M. Ward, and agreed to by 
the Omnd Lodge. 

'Agreed to at (he previous Communication in March. The privilege of nominating their sue- 
cesBors, had been conceded to the Stewards, March S, 1732. 

' Martin Clare — a Fellow of the Royal Society — was appointed D.O.M. in 1741, His Oration was 
tranKlat«d into several foreign languages, and a reprint of it will be found in the Pocket Com[ianion 
for 17S4 (pp. 883-S91), and other works. 


the fact, that for once at leut, the pretensions of the kttter met with • signal check. At 
the next meeting of the Grand Lodge, however, held April 6,1736, Ward was present, and 
in the chair, with Desaguliers sitting as hi^ Deputy, and against the influence of these two 
supporters of the Steward's Lodge, combined with that of seven] noblemen who also at 
tended on the occasion, Pbyne, Lamball, and Anderson, though 1 . inforoed by the presence 
of a fourth veteran— Josiah Villencau, Grand Warden in 1721— must have felt— if, indeed, 
my belief in their wishing to give the weaker side in the contention tde benefit of fair play 
rests upon any other foundation than conjecture — that it would be useless to struggle. 

The appeal does not seem to have been proceeded with, though the principle it involved 
was virtnaUy decided (without debate ') by the members of Grand Lodge being declared to 
be — 1. The four present and all former grand officers; 2. The Master and Wardens of all 
constituted (i.e., regular) lodges; and 3. The Master and Wardens, and nin$ representatives 
of the Steward's Lodge.' 

It was not until June 34, 1741, that "the Treasurer, Secretary, and Sword-bearer of 
the Society were declared members of every Quarterly Communication or Grand Lodge; " 
and it was only decided, after a long debate, on June 14, 1753, that " the Treasurer was a 
' Grand Officer,' by virtue of his office, and as such, to be elected from amongst the brethren 
who had served the Stewardship." 

Frederick, Prince of Wales, became a member of the Society in 1737, and the " New 
Book of Constitutions" was published in 1738, the same year in which the first Papal Bull 
was issued against the Freemasons. With the exception of these events, and the issue of 
deputations for the purpose of founding lodges in foreign parts — of which more hereafter 
— there is nothing of moment to chronicle from April 15, 1736, when the sequence of 
Grand Masters was continued by the installation of the Earl of Loudoun, down to May 3, 
1739, when Henry, Marquess of Carnarvon, who followed the Earl of Damley in the chair, 
in turn gave place to Lord Raymond. 

Not to break the thread of my narrative, the few observations that I have to make on 
the Constitutions and the Bull of 1738 will be postponed until the general history of the 
Society has been brought down to the year 1754, at which date another Marquess of ("ar- 
narvon appears on the scene, also as Grand Master, with whose acts, notably in regard to 
the so-called " Ancitat " Masons, those of his predecessor in office (and title) appear — per- 
haps not unnaturally — to have been confounded. 

During the administration of James, the Slarquess and Grand Master of 1754-56, we 
find many subjects engaging the attention of Grand Lodge, with which we are, to a certain 
extent, familiar, from the earlier records dealing with the hi.itory of English Masonrj- at 
the time of Henry, the Marquess and Grand Master of 1738-39. Irregularities, calling for 
prompt action on the part of the authorities, occurred in either case, and to corapk'to the 
parallel, new editions of the "Constitutions" were published in 1738, and also in 1750. 
But the " irregularities "—to use the generic term by which all breaches of Masonic law or 

' I.e., in Grand Lodge, though the subject was doubtless discussed at the Committee of Cliarity, 
which resisted the encroa<'hment« of the Stewards until a much later date. See the next not«. 

' Feb. 7, 1T70,— "As the right of the niembem of the Steward's Lodge in general to attend the 
Committee of Charity appeared doub'ful the Orand Lodge was of opinion they hod not a K''n'' 
right to attend. But in order to make a proper distinction between that and the other LmlyeH, a 
motion was made [and adopted], that as the Master alone of each private Lodge liad a right to attend, 
so the Master and three other members should attend on behalf of the Steward's Lodge, at every 
succeeding Committee " (Orand Lodge MinutesV 

dtelpline were commonly d«Kribed-wen. of an entirelj different clu«ctor in th« wqx*- 
liTe era. of the two Loid. Carnarron; and it i> quite as improper to a«oc»te »»» Kf"*" 
nuwtenhip of the earlier of these noblemen with the commencement of the great 8chi/im, 
M it would be to mark the date of some event .till looming in the future, by connecl ing 
it with the year (1874) when the name of a third Lord Carnarvon was added-amid genoral 
rMoiciny-to the roU of our English Grand Master* ,^ . .^ 

On June 12, 1739, the members of Grand Lodge were " moved to take mto then- fntnre 
coniT. the complaint concerning the irregular n«.''ing of Masons," brought before them m 
the previous June. "Whereupon the Grand blaster [Lord Raymond] took notice, that 
^though some Brothers might have been guUty of an offence tending so much to destroy 
the Cement of the Lodge, and so utterly inconsistent with the Rules of the Society, yet he 
could not bring himself to beUeve that it had been done otherwise than through Inadver- 
tency, and therefore proposed that if any such Brothers there were, they might be forgiven 
for this time, which was Ordered accordingly; " also " that the Laws be strictly put m Exe- 
cution against all such Brothers m shaU for the future countenance, connive, or assist at 
any such irregular makings." „j i-ba. 

A summary of these proceedings is given in the Constitutions of 1 . 56, 1 . 67, and 1 . 84, 
wt in the edition last named, we meet with a note of fifty lines, extending over three 
p«es,' and which, from its appearance in a work sanctioned and recommended by the Ma- 
Zic authoritiec, ha. led to a wide diffusion of error with regard to the historical points it 
was placed there to elucidate. It does not even possess the merit of originality, for the 
compUer or editor. John Noorthouck. took it without acknowledgment from Preston. 
bv whom the statements it contains, were first given to the world in a manner pecn^ly 
his own and from which those familiar with the general proportion borne by the latter-s 
assertioM to the actual truth, wUl believe that the note in question rests on a very insecure 
foundation of authority. Besides the affairs of the Society in 1739, it also professc. to ex- 
plain the causes which led to the great Schism, and for this reason will be considered Uter 
and as introductory to the two following chapters, wherein thef ormat.on of a aecond Gi«>d 
lodge of England and its alleged connection with York are severally treated. 

Lord Raymond was succeeded in April 1740 by the Earl of Kintore, who had only 
retired from the presidency of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in the previous November 
The !att r's initiation has been already adverted to,' and it only remains to be stated that 
he was M. .ter of the Lodge of Aberdeen from 1735 to 1738 inclusive; »1«> th-f" « ^ " ^ 
Master of the Scottish, as well as of the English Craft, he was succeeded by the, Earl of 

"oTjuly 23, 1740, "B". Berrington informed the [Grand] Lodge that several Irregu- 
larities in the making of Masons having been lately committed, and other Indecencies 
offered in the Craft by several Brethren, he cautioned the Masters and \Vardens against 
admitting such persons into their Lodges. And thereupon, seve. d Brethren ins«ti.^that 
such Pe^ns should be the same was, after a long De' te and -^^^^^^^ 
put-Ordered accordingly. When B" Berrington informed he Lodge that B George 
Monkman had a list of several such persons. Ht on being required to do so named 
Esquire Carv, Mam«ll Bransby, and James Bernard, kite Stewards,* who assisted at an 

> 880-341 »fb.t,p.l4». *Ante.vUl. 

«Sir«rved the office of Stewarf at the GrandFeaat. April 82. 1740. were thanked In the v-ual 
form by the Oraud Itaater. and were directed to choose their sucoesaon. 
VOL. in. — 10. 


imgakr Making." The minntM of thia meetiiig U sto tomewhat abniptly with the 
word.-" When it being rery bte. the Lodge wae doseU. ' No further proceedings in the 
matter are recorded, nor indeed, are any imgularitiM of the kind again mentioned in the 
official recorda until 1749, when Lord Byron had entered upon the third year of hi* grand 
marterdiip. Thi^ conjointly with the circnnutance that Berrington and Monkman, m 
well as the others, were former Grand Stewards,' whem position in those days corresponded 
▼ery closely with that of Grand Officers in onr own, demands Tery carefnl attention. 

It is evident that the authority of Grand Lodge was in no wise seriously menaced b* 
tween 1740 and 1749, as the stream of historians would have us believe; indeed, on th« 
contrary, the i.>«>lute silence of the records, with regard to infractions of Old and Ne» 
Regulation V J'lL' during the period in question, sufficiently proves that, for a time at li-aat 
in the regular Mgee, they had entirely ceased. This supposition is strengthened, however 
by the evidence krt presented, from which it would appear that irregularities were com! 
mitted by the thoughtless, as well as by those who were wilfully disobedient to the laws; 
and that in both cases the governing body was quite able to vindicate its authority. 

On June 24, 1741, it was ordered by Grand Lodge that the proceedings of ledges, and 
the names of brethren present at meetings, should not in future be printed without the 
permission of the Grand Master or his deputy. Also " that no new Lodge should for the 
future be constituted within the Bills of Mortality, without the consent of the Brethren 
assembled in Quarterly Communication first obtained for that purpose." The latter regu- 
lation being found detrimental to the Craft, was repealed March 83, 1742, and in lieu 
thereof it was resolved " that every brother do conform to the law made February 19, 172 J, 
' that no brother belong to more than one Lodge within the Bills of Mortality. ' " » 

Lord Ward, who succeeded the Eari of Morton in April 1742, was well acquainted with 
the nature and government of the Society, having served every office from the Secretary in 
a private lodge to that of Grand Master. The administration of the Eari of Strathmons 
who next presided over the Society, is associated with no event of importance; and of that 
of his successor. Lord Cranstoun, it is only necessary to record that on April 3, 1747, a 
resolution was passed, discontinuing for the future the usual procession on the feast day.' 

" The occasion of this pnident regulation was, that some unfaithful brethren, diaap- 
pointed in their expectations of the high offices and honours of the Society, had joined a 
number of the buffoons of the day, in a scheme to exhibit a mockery of the pubUc proces- 
sion to the grand feast"' 

Lord Byron was elected Grand Master on April 30, 1747, and presided over the frater- 
nity until March 20, 1752, but was only present in Grand Lodge on those dates, and on 
March 16, 1752, when he proposed Lord Caryafort as his successor. During the presidency 
of this nobleman, which lasted for five years, the affairs of the Society were much neg- 
' Findel justly observes (here foUowing Kloss), " that the establishment of the Steward's Lodge 
and the privileges accorded to them, although innovations totally opposed to ti.e MaM>iiic Spirit of 
Equality, were not by any means a suffltient reason for disunion in the Fraternity " (op eit p 1 73). 
Indeed, .b will be seen from the text, the Stewards took part in the very irregularities, which have 
bwn attributed to the favoritism— shown to themselves ! 

' ConsUtut ons. 1738, pp. 156, 157. Tlie former will be found in the Appendix. The latter con- 
^isto of laws passed April 25, 1733; Feb. 1» and Nov. 21, 1724, Feb. 84 and March 81, 1788; which an. 
referred to in this chapter under their respective yean. 
'Ante, 128. 
♦Constitutions, 1794, p. 858. 


leoUni, MMi to thii period of miinik'-nggraTated by the tnininary emsure of lodgee to 
which I eball ihortly have occwion to refer— we mart look, I think, for the cause of that 
organiied rebellion againit authority, rerolting in the gmii Schiim. A» will be leen 
below," oaly one Grand Lodge (bender the Grand Feart of April 30) wai held in 1747; in 
1748 there were two; in 1749 and 1760, one each; and in 1751, two. Between, moreover, 
them eeyeral Communication, there were, in two instance*, great intervals of time— that 
of June 1750, being held thirtttn, and that of September 1751, /(/?«», monthi after iti 
immediate predeceawr. 

The iame Grand OflOcen, and Grand Steward^ continued in office from 1747 until 1752, 
which i« the more remarkable becaune the honors of the Craft were much coveted. The 
Stewards were an influential body, and from 1728 to 1747, with but two exceptions-1742- 
43 and 1745-4C, when Lords Ward and Cranrtoun respectively had second terms-twelve 
Stewards were annually appointed. 

In " Multa Faucis" a statement occurs, which, though the work is not one of much 
authority, I think must have had some foundation in fact, the more especially, as the event 
it professes to record, is only said to have happened about eleven or twelve years previously, 
and therefore stands on quite another footing, historioaUy speaking, from the earlier part 
of the same publication.* 

The following is the passage referred to: 

" Grand Master Byron was very inactive. Several years passed by without his coming 
to a Grand Assembly, nay, even neglected to nominate his successor. 

" The Fraternity, finding themselves hitirely neglected, it was the Opinion of many 
old Masons to have a consultation about electing a new and more active tf tand S*a»tc»;. 
and assembled for that Purpose, according to an Advertisement, which accidentally was 
perceived by our worthy Brother, Thomcu Manmugham, M.D., who, for the (iced of 
Masonry, took the trouble upon him to attend at this Assembly, and gave the Fraternity 
the most pmdent Advice for their future Observance, Pnd lasting Advantage, They all 
submitted to our torihy Brother's superior Judgment, the Breach was healed." ' 

The minutes of the Grand Lodge are provokingly silent throughout the perio<l under 

nly entry to which I need allude occurs under May 26, 1740, when 

g acknowledged his fault, and explained that u person made a 

agreed to be regulariy made the next Lodge night at the (Jeorge 

, at the intercession of the Master and Wardens of the said Lodge, 

examination- " 
a " Bro. Me: 
mason irrej; . r. 
in Iroumonj ~ ' 

Lord Byron, who, we learn, " had been abroad for several years," proposed Lord Carys- 
fort as his successor, on March 15, and the latter was duly placed in the chair on March 
80, 1762, when "all expressed the greatest Joy at the happy Occasion of their Meeting, 

' Dec 1«, 1747; March 7 and Dec. 82, 1748: May M, 1749; June 25, 1760: Sept. 4 and Oct 84, 1751. 

♦ Every historical work needs to be analyzed, and to huve its several p.>rtioiu. separately esti- 
mated. Whatever is remote or particular will claim our credence acc-onhng to tlie opinion we may 
formol the historian's veracity, accuracy, judgment, and means of information; but the truth of 
nanmUves relating to event* that Ktre matter» of notoritiy in the writer- » time, rests altogether upon 
a different ground; being necessarily involved in the fact that the work was published and accept«d 
as authentic at such or such a date " (Taylor, the Process of Historical Proof, 1838, p. 57). 

•The complete Free Mason; or, Multa Faucis for Lovers of Secrets [1763-64], p. 106. Cf. Vol 
n., p. 161, ante, pp. 62, 146. 


•Itor . longw noM. than hMl Wn uwuil.'' Dr. ICumingluuii. who h,..l b««ii oiw of the 
Grand Stowwdi under Lord Byron, wm .npoinfaid Deputy Onnd Matter, althoagb, unlike 
•11 hi. predeceeMre in that offlce from 1735/ he had not preriouily wrred a* a Grand War- 
den. a qualification deeme-l lo indiapenuhle in latw yeom. tu to be affirmed by a rwolution 
of the Committee of Charity.' Thi. \^m,U to hit having rendered lignal aerTice. to the 
Society, *hich would so far hamoniae with the poMige in " Multa Pkncia," and be alto- 
gether in keeping with the character of the man.' 

On June 18, 1753, complaint wa« made in fir^md Lodge, "of the frequency of irregular 
^, makingr-when the D.O.M. rcctmmended the brethren to lend to him or the Grand 
Secretary the namea of racb aa ohall be ao inegukrly made, and of tho«> who make 

At thia date, howerer, the achiam or leceaaion had ammed form and coheaion, and 
although the recu«nt numna had not yet formed a " Grand Lodge," they were goreme.! 
by a " Grand Committee," ' which waa the aame thing except in name. 

On Norember 23, 1753, it waa enacted, " That no Lodge ahall ever make i MaK»n with- 
out due inquiry into hU character, neither ahall any Lodge be permitted to make an.! n»i«, 
the same Brother at one and the aame Meeting, without a diapenaation from the Grand 
Marter, which on very particular occaaiona may be requeated." 

Alao, " That no Lodge ahall ever make a Mason for a Icaa mm than one Guinea an.l 
that Guinea to be appropriated either to t. private Fund of the Lodge, or to the Publick 
Cliarity, without deducting from auch Depoait any Money towu da the Deliayinz the Kr. 
Iiense of the Tyler," etc. * 

The latter resolution was not to extend, however, to waiters or other menial sc -rants. 

I»rd Carysfort was succeeded by Jamt», Marquess of Carnarvon-eon of the Duko ..f 
Chandos, a former Grand Master '-who, on investment- March 25, l754-continuc.l l»r 
Manningham as his Deputy. In this year a committee was appointed to revise the " B.„k 
of Constitutions; " twenty-one country lodges were erased for nonconformity with the la».' 
and some irregularities were committed by a lodge meeting at the Ben Jonson's Head in 
Pelham Street, Spitalfields, through which we flret learn, in the records under examination 
of the existence of «Malled Ancient Mamm, who claimed to be independent of the (irat.) 
Udge of 1717, and, as such, neither subject to its laws or to the authority of its Gran.l 

According to Uurence Dermott, the members of this Lodge, No. 94, "were censunnl. 
not for assembling under the denomimition of ' Ancient Masons,' but for practising Anoi.n, 
Masonry; which is incorrect, a. they were guilty of Mh those offences. The former 
they .Emitted and the latter was substantiated by the evidence of " Bro" Jackson and 
l-ollard, who had been refused admittance at those Meetings until they 8ubmitte<l to be 

aU^,;^'h!r""l "T ■?• ^" " ^''"'-''' ^ y--»«\v.r.; E. Hod,; and Fotherly Baker, 1^ 
all served both as Steward* and Grand Wardens. 

(nSTinwI". ",!!:. ^TJ.'** f "" *" 1813, every D.O.M. except Mannmgh«n and John Revi. 

iTg», and was Grand Secretary 1734-56. 
' C/. Constitutions, 1756. p. 258. 

♦The " Transactions " of this body commence February 8, 1758. C/. Chap. XVm 
*.4nie, p. 144. , .u „ .>_, 

* Ahiman Resoa, 1778. 


BMd« IN tk»ir muvtl ami paHiailar Manntr."' For thcM pmeticM the lodge wm fery 
Moperly enaed, and it is cnriouf that the onlr huidi held up in iU U,iot were thoee of the 
npmnitatiTea of the lodge then meeting at the Fuh and Dell— Original No. 3. 

The Maniaia of Camarron was encceeded by Lord Aberdonr, afterwardi 16th Earl of 
Morton, a former Grand Marter of Scotland (1755), May Ifl, 1757, of whow adminirtiation 
it wUl be ■uAcient to record, that on January 84, 1700, a reflation wai paMed t » the effect 
that the nim of fifty ponnde be lent to Germany, to be dirtribnted among the wldiore who 
were MaMna in Prince Perdinand'a army, whether Engliih, HanoTeriana, or Hewianij. 

I haTe now brought down the annali " ihn Grand Lodge of England to a period at 
which it will be conTenient to panae, whilrt we proceed to examine the records of two con- 
temporary bodice— the " Grand Lodge of All England," and the " Grand Lodge of England 
according to the Old InaUtutioM." Accounte of the* Societieg wUl therefore be given 
in Chapten XVllL and XIX. reepectitely, and the order of time will be to far tranigreiKid 
as to preaerre the narrations entire. But it is first of all esaential to revert to the alltgtd 
origin of the Great Schism, and there arc also a few features of the Frecnuwonry of England 
between 1723 and 1760 upon which a word or two have yet to be said. 

The note in the Constitutions of 1784, to which I have referred at p. 145, was copied 
from the " Freemasoas* Calendar" of 1783; but the snbject-matter appeared in the earlier 
Calendar of 1770, whilst that imblication was brought out by the Stotioners' Company,' 
and before it had p««ed into the hands of Grand Lodge. Tlie disputes of the year 1739 
were included among the " Remarkable Occurrences in Masonry," compiled by William Pres- 
ton," who, 1 apprehend, must have published a pamphlet, reflecting on the Schismatics, 
in 1775.' A still earlier notice of his quondam co-sectaries, occurs in the second edition 
of the " ninstiations of Masonry," which also appeared in that year. It is given as a 
note to the narrative of Lonl Raymond's admmistration under the year 1739,' and runs— 
" Several persons, disgusted at some of the procee<iing8 of the Grand Lodge at thii time, 
renounced their allegiance to the Grand Master, and in opposition to the originiil laws of tho 
Society, and their solemn ties, held meetings, made miisons, and falsely assuming the appel- 
lation of a Lodge, even presumed to constitute lodges. The regular masons, finding it 
necessary to check their "' -ress, adopted name new iiuaKurex. Piqued by this proceeding, 
they endeavoured to pro' e an opinion, that tho ancient practices of the Society were 

retained by them, and . ily abolished by the rogulur Lodges, on whom they conferred 

the appellation of Modern Matotig. By this artifice they continued to imjiose on the 
public, and introduced several gentlemen into their assemblies; but of late years, the fal- 
lacy being detected, they have not been bo successful." 

In the " Freemasons' Calendar" of 1776, however, the disturbances, which we are told 
above had their origin in 1739, are traced back to the time of Lord Loudon, whoM> appoint- 
ment of grand officers in 1736, Preston now informs us, gave offence to a few indi.iduals, 
• ho withdrew from the society during tho presidency of the Earl of Darnley, but in that of 
Lord Raymond " assembled in the character of Masons, and *=thout any power or author- 
ity from the Grand Matter, initiaied several persons into the order for small and unworthy 

' Grand Lodge Minutes, March 8, 1754; March 80 and July 34, 1788. 
' The editions of 1776 and 1778 were published y tlie StiUoncrs' Company, 
•fhrtp. 175. «iWtJ.,r. 176. 'P. 388 

•Pp. 18, aO; also reproduced in aubstaoce in the edition for 1781 


UItiB.UIy th. rtonr MM-Md th. .tonxMrH tf«m in ,hioh w now poM. ii Sae. 
owiT. .ditiou of th« lUfutmUoM of EMoniy.- pnblUMd in 1781, 1788, ITW nnd kter 
btform 01 thn* in the time of Lord C«anron (1738) lome dimntontod bnthrm. hOtiJ 
ndTMitag. of Um brwoh betwrn th* Onnd Lodgw of London tnd York,' Mramed 
wUhont .athority, tho oh«cter of York M.»n.: tl>.t tfa jiMnn. .doptod to oWk 
ttaomj««med to anthoriM »n omiwon of, and • miction in, the uoient oenmonie., th«t 
the leoeden immediately wnounoed independency, and ammed the appelUtion of a«. 
ci»Ht manna. al«> they propagated an opinion that the ancient tenet, and practice, of 
MMonry were preeerred by them, and that the reguUr lodges being compoeed ol modern 
Bu-OM, had adopted ntw plaw, and were not to be conudered m acting under the old 

Here. a. I hare alitwly rentur«l to ezpre«, we meet with an anaohrc nian. for the pro- 
oeedingi of the Grand Lodge of 1738 arc certainly oonfuMd with tho«> of a much Uter date 
^V^lSf """** "' ""• '^^' "** '" ^^ t«tomont that change, were ir«l. in the 
eet|^ubed forma. • which even the urgency of the cue could not wanmnt"" Although 
indeed, the piMge. laat quoted were eontinutd in tii • edition! of hi. work publiahed after 
1789. we murt not loae dght of the fact that they were written (1781) by Pr«.ton-a rery 
doubtful authority at any time-during the ■uapenmon of hb Ma«,nic pririlege.. and when 
hemurt have been quite unable to critidie diqiawonately the proceedings of the Grand 
Lodge, againat whoee thority he had been ao ktely in rebellion.' 

It appeara to me tU. (he rammary erunre of lodges for non-attendance at the quar- 
ts y Commumcationa. and for not " paying in their charity," was one of the le«ling can*«. 
of the Sece«on. which, u before expremed. I think must have taken place during the pm,i. 

J!7,.f ^ r"" <'^*^-*^>- ^° *•«' **° y«^ •P«^'"'< "»«"%' commencing June 
1' ! . , fV •* ^'''«""»«' 30. 1752. no less than forty-five lodges, or about a thirtl of 
the toUl of those meeting in the metropolis, were struck out of the list Three, indee.1 
were restored to their former places, but only after intervals of two. four, and six ycar^ 
reepectively The ca«. of the "Horn" Lodge ha. been alre«ly referred toj' but with 
regard to those of ita fellow^nfferers, mentioned in the note below,' it may be stated tint 
No. 9 was restored, " it appearing that their Non-Attendance was occasioned by Mistake- " 
alK. No. 54, •• It appearing that their not meeting regularly had been occasioned by una- 
voidable Accidents." ' 

On the principle that history repeats itself, the minutes of " Sarum " Lodge, later in 
the century, may hold up a mirror, in which is reflected the course of action adopted bv 
the erwed lodge, of 1742-52 This lodge, which became No. 37 at the change of numbers 
m 1,80, was erased February 6, 1777, for non-compliance with the order of Gnmd Lodge 
requiring an account of registering fees and subscriptions since October 1768 

" Our refusal," says their letter in reply,' " ha- arisen from a strict obedience to the 
laws, principles, and constitutions, which exproe,lv • , 'that though the Grand Lodge have 

1 S^l/^''«L "t^ ' '- '"trat''"" of Ma«>nry. 1788, p. 388, e( «». 

p. 14»). '' ^^ """ "'*"*' "^''''^ '" ^ ***^ '~" "•« ««"«» »' »"« («»<'• 

[^'J'iJT-J*'^- 'Ante, p. 96. 

84. Th^o!:,!^' Tu^ ^'^ ^"* ^^^ eraeedtUr^U, 1748; r^Mared lf.»h 7. 1747. No. 
84. The Geoirse, .n St. Mary A^e. eraeed Nov. 81. 1746; r»(or»d Sept. 4. 1751. No. 8. The Horn, io 
Wartiniiuiter.erMed April 8. 1747: «rtorri Sept. 4. 1781. ■" t«>ni, in 

* DateU March IB, 1777. 

MinhwrotpowwMdMthorHftBindwiiw innUtfc»!M,tli«r«d bMwllt of the Mwirot 
PmUniity iWl In aU omw b« oonralUd. and th« <>ld Undiurki oanfully piMMrrad.' By 
tlM litto attompt rf U» Onuid Lodge to impoee » Ux on the brethren at large, nnder 
pmaltT of eraaing then from that llrt wherein they have a right to ituid enroUed, aa long 
M they shaU pteaerre the princii)lee of that oonatitntion, the b< ndi praaoribed by thaae 
twdmarka leem to haw been oxoeeded; the Grand Lodge haa taken upon Uaelf the n- 
mm ot a power Wtherto unknown} tlw andent rulea oT the fh,temity (which ga»e 
tnedom to eTery Hawn) have been broke in upon; and that decency of rabmianon, which 
ii produced by an equitable goTemment, haa been changed to an exton^TC, and, we ap- 
prehend, a Jnrtiflable reiiiUnoe to the endMiTora of the Grand Lodge." 

The Lodge wai reetored May 1, 1777, but on a further requiaition from the Grand 
Lodge of two •hillingi per annum from each brother toward the yquidation Fund, the 
memben met, NoTeml»rr 19, 1800, and unanimoudy agreed not to contribute to thii req- 
Dintion. After which, a propoeal for forming a Grand Lodge m Saliabury, independent 
of the Grand Lodge of England, waa moTod and carried.' 

The arbitrary pioceedinge of 1742-53 wore doubtlea aa much reeented in London, aa 
thoMS of 1777-99 were in the Country, and in pa«ng from the mibject, I ihaU briefly 
remark that though the >aat Lodge wan • t«d in 1755, bore the number 271, only 200 
Lodges were carried forward at the cloeing i.p and alteration of numbere in 1756.* 

According to the Engrared Lirta,' Lodgea were conitituted by the Grand Lodge of 
EngUnd at Madrid in 1728, in Bengal 1730, at Paria 1732. Hamburgh and Beaton (U.S. A.) 
1733, the Hague, LUbon, and in Georgia, 1735; in the Weet Indies 1738, Switier'and 1739, 
Denmark 1746, Jlinoroa 1750, Madraa 1752, Virginia 1753, and in Bombay 1758. Dep- 
utationt were alao granted to a number of pereom. in foreign countrioa, but of tbeee no 
exact record haa been preeerrod. 

Among the early Grand Masters who were Fellows of the Royal Society, may be 
Dr. Desaguliers, the Duke of Montagu, the EarU of Dalkeith, Stratha.ore, Crawford, and 
Morton, Lords Paisley and Colerane-and Francis Drake, who presiieH oyer the Grand 
Lodge at York. The Duke of Lorraine, and the ChoTalier Bamaa; , wore likewiae both 

" Brethren " and " Fellows." 

The foUowing Deputiee were also F.R.S.: Martin Folks, D.O.M., 1724; 3r»me, 
1739; Martin Clare, 1741; and E. Hody, 1745-46; so were Sir J. The n hill. 8.( .. ., 1728, 
and Richard HawUnson, Grand Steward, 1734; whilst it may inte-uet wmc readers to learn 
that WiUiam Hogarth, son-in-law of the former, serred the stewardship in 1735. Of the 
other Grani Stewai-ds down to the year 1760 it will be :u- ient to nan ■ .! ;hn Faber, 1740; 
Mark Adston, 1753; Samuel Spencer, 1754; the Rev J ;r .lek, 1752; auJ Jonathan Soott, 

1758-59. ^ 

Editions of the " Book of Constitutions " appeared in 1723, 1738, 1746,' and 1756. The 

' F H Qoldney, History of Freemtsonty in Wiltshire, 1880, pp. 109-UO. 

'FoHyBve L«mA>» Lodges were erased in 1743-88; one-at the Ben Jonion's Head-in 17M; 
ud during the same period 4 surrendered their warranto; total 50. Twenty-one Omntr, Lodg*" 
were struck out in 1W4, which gives us 80 + 81 = 71. Three of the former class, as we have seen, 
were restored, and this represento the number of Lodges omitted in the list of 178«, oonoeming 
which no details are afforded by the records. 

•The series commences in 1788, and apparenUy terminates in 1778. The " Signs of the Houses" 

arc not shown after 1708. 

«The 1788 adiUon, with a new tiUe-iM««. 


kat named wm compiled by the Her. John Entick, md pnblidied by Jouthan Scott and 
m it wme alterations in, and additiomi to, the " Ancient OhaTg«^» which had di«flgnred 
the aeoond edition, were omitted. The spirit of toleration which breathe, in the Masons' 
creed has been attributed by Fbdel ■ and others to the inilnence of certain infidel writers 
Bnt of these, Woolston waa probably mad. and, a. ramarked by a contemporary, "the 
doTil lent him a good deal of his wickedness and none of his wit" Chnbb was almost 
wholly uneducated; and although Collins, Tindal, and Toland discussed grare question. 
wiOi grare arguments, they were much inferior in learning and ability to sereial of their 
opponents, and they struggled against the pr,«ure of general obloquy. The deist wa, 
liablo to great social contempt, and in the writings of Addison, Steele, Pope, and Swift h, 
was h.bituaUy treated as external to all the courtesies of life. A simpler reawm for the 
language of the Charge, " Concerning God and Beligion," will be found in the feet that 
Anderson was a Presbyterian, and Dessguliers an Episcopalian; whilst otheis, no doubt, of 
the Grand Officers of that era were members of the older faith. It is therefore reasonable 
to suppose that they united on a platform which would divide them the least; and in so 
doing, the churchmen among them may have consoled themselves with the reflection, that 
Cumberland, Bishop of Peterborough, had many yean before (1672), endeavored to con- 
struct a system of morals without the aid of theology. At the same time, it must be fr^lv 
^.needed, that the principles of inluctive philosophy which Bacon tought, and which the 
Royal Society had strengthened, had acquired a complete ascendancy over the ablest minds. 
Perhaps therefore the object of these prescient br»thr«n, to whom is dnc the absence of 
^nanism m our Charges, may be summed up in the words of Bishop Spratt (1667), the 
firsthand best historian of the Royal Society, who thus describes the purposes of ite founders: 
• * k! !. V "^ *" ^^ "•*"'^"' themselves, that are to constitute the Society, it 
IS t« be noted that they have freely admitted men of different religions, countries, and 
professions of Irfe. This they were obliged to do. or else they would come far short of the 

inTTf i^.'^Tf^*'""" ^°' theyopenly profess not to lay the foundation ..( 
an Englwh, Scoteh. Insh, Popish, or Protestant philoeophy-but « M«fo*o/,Ay of mankind." 

DO. 's^lJ^.'Zi T ^,^' .'"'*«^"- ^'^^y^ HiBtory of England in the Eighteenth Cent«ry. vol. ii, 




I HAVE already cited the " PMchment Boll " ' as evidence of the character of the old 
Lodge at York from March 19, 1712, down to December 27, 1725, during which period 
the records testify that the meetings were simply entitled those of a Lodge, Society, 
Fraternity, or Oompany of " Antient and Honourable Assemblies of Free and Accepted 

Other eridenoet of tiie existence of the Lodge at York hare been given, dating back to 
the aeventeenth century, notably the York MS. of a.d. 1693, which contains " the names 
of the Lodge;" six in all, including the warden.' A still earlier relic is a mahogany flat 
rale or gauge, with the following names and year incised: — 

William ^ Baron 

^ 1663 

of Yorke 

lohn Crake lohn "fy Baron. 

Mr. Todd* is inclined to think that the John Drake mentioned was collated to the Pre- 
bendal Stall of Donington in the cathedral church of York in October 1663, and if so, 
Frencis Drake, the historian, was a descendant, which, to say the least, is very probable. 

Considerable activity was manifested by the York brotherhood from 1T23— the year 
when the premier Grand Lodge of England published its first " Book of Constitutions"- 
and particularly during 1725. 

The following will complete the roll of meetings (1712-17.10), of which the first port* 
tion has been already furnished. 

"•This day Dec. 27, 1725, Being the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, the Society 
went in Procession to Merchant's Hall, where after the Grand Feast was over, they nnani- 
monsly chose the Worsp'. Charles Bathurst, Esqre., their Grand Master, Mr. Johnson hib 
Deputy, Mr. Pawson and Mr. Drake, Wardens, Mr. Scourfield, Treasurer, and John Bus- 
sell, Clerk for the ensuing year." 

•Pp. 28-96, *Cbap. IL, p, 69; and aeefaetimiU in Hughan's "Old Charges." 

•Freemason, Kor. 16, 1884. 

'Continued from page 36, and now for the fimt time published in axtento. 



"Dea 31, ITOS.-At • prirate Lodge held at Mr Luke Lowther^i, at the Starr in 
Stonegato, the underwritten Gentleman wa. nrom and admitted into the Antient Societr 
of FreeMawn*." ,„._ -^ j , ' 

««T K mo. « . [Name omitted.] 

Jan. 6, 1786.6.-At a private Lodge held at Mr John CoUing'a at f White Swan in 
mergate, the underwritten penona were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of 
Free Ibaona. ™.^ „ ^ ' 

Thomas Preston. 

"WK J i>» Martin CroftB." 

Feb. 4, 1726-fi.— At a private Lodge at the Star in Stonegate, Sr William Milner 
Bai^., was sworn and admitted into the Society of Free Masons. W-. Mihier.' ' 

"Mar. 2, 1725-6. -At a private Lodge at the White Swan in Petei^te, the undernamed 
Uentleman was sworn and admitted into the Society of Free Masons. John Lewis. " 

" Apr. 2, 1726.— At a private Lodge at y Starr in Stonegate, the foUowing Gentlemen 
were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masons. 

Rooert Eaye. 
W. WombeU. 
W". Kitchinman. 

«< A ^ iwc 1 ^y"^ Arthington." 

Apr. 4, 1726.— At a pnvate Lodge at the Star in Stonegate, the following Gentleman 
was sworn and admitted into y Antient Society of Free Masons. J. Kaye. " 

" May 4, 1726. -At a private Lodge at M' James Boreham's, the underwritten Persons 
were sworn and admitted into the Society of Free and Accepted Masons. 

Charles Ouarles. 
Rich". Atkinson. 
«u le Sam'. Ascongh." 

May 16, 1726.-At a private Lodge at Mr. Lowther-s at y Star in Stonegate, the un. 
dermentioned Gentleman was sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masona. 
, f - Gregory Rhodes. 

June 24, 1726.-At a ' General Lodge held at M' Boreham's in Stonegate, the under- 
mentioned GenOemen were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masons. 

Jo". Cossley. 
. . W". Johnstone. 

At the same tune the foUowing persons were sworn and admitted into the Hon* 

^^''^y'"^' William Marshall. ' 

Matt W Collar. 


Benjamin 'ampsalL 
William Maachamp. 
W". Robinson. 
Matthew Groul. 
John Bradley. 

" T 1 fi i^oa WTL ^'^^^ Hawman." 

Jwy b, 17-6.— Whereas it has been oertify'd to me that M' William Scourfield has 
presumed to caU a Lodge and make masons without the consent of the Grand Master or 
l>eputy, and in opposition to the 8th article of the Constitutions,' I do, with the consent 

• Hughan is of opinion that there w« another minute book for records of Uw regular 
«»•««««» EvidenUjr Regulation Vm. of the Grand Lodge in London is het« referred to. 



of the Onnd Master and the approbation of the whole Lodge, declare him to be diaqiulifT'd 
from being a member of this Society, and he is for ever banished from the nme. 

" Such membemaa were aasisting in constituting and forming M' Scourfleld's Schismat- 
ical Lodge on the 34th of the last month, whose names are John Carpenter, William 
HoagraTe, Thomas AUanson, and Tho*. Preston, are by the same authority liable to the 
nme sentence, yet upon their acknowledging their Error in being deluded, and making 
gnch submission as shall be judg'd Bequisite by the Grand Master and Lodge at the next 
monthly Meeting, shall be receiv'd into the favour of the Brotherhood, otherwise to be 
banish'd, and Mr Scourfield and their names to bo cras'd out of the Roll and Articles. 

" If any other Brother or Brothers shall hereafter separate from us, or be aiding and 
assisting in forming any Lodge under the said Mr Scourfield or any other Person without 
due Licence for the same. He or they so offending shall be disown'd as members of this 
Lodge, and for ever Excluded from the same." 

" July 6, 1726.— At a private Lodge held at M' Geo. Gibson's, the underwritten Persons 
were sworn and admitted into the Antient and Honourable Society of Free Masons, viz., 

Henry Tireman. 
Will. Thompson." 
" Augt. 13, 1726.— At a private Lodge at M' Lowther's at the Star in Stonegato, tho 
underwritten Gentlemen were awoni and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masons, 
yj2t., Bellingham Graham. 

Nic". Roberts." 
" Dec. 13, 1726.— At a private Lodge at the Star in Stonegate, the Right Hon"'. Arthur 
L*. Viscount Imn was sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masons. 

A. Irwin." 
" Dec. 15, 1726.— At a private Lodge at the Star in Stonegate, the undernamed Persons 
were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masons. 

Jno. Motley. 
W". Davile. 
Tho". Snowsell." 
" Dec. 23, 1736.— At a private Lodge at the Star in Stonegate, the underiamed Persons 
were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Free Masonu 

Richard Woodhouse. 
Robart Tilbum." 
"June 24, 1739.— At St John's Lodge held at y* Starr in Stonegate, the following 
Gentlemen were sworn and admitted into the Antient Society of Freemasons, vizt., 

Basil Forcer. 

John Lamb." 

"The same day Edward Thompson, Junior of Marston, Esq'., was chosen Grand 

Master, M' John Wilmer, Deputy Grand Miister, Mr Geo. Rhodes and Mr Geo. Reynoldaon, 

Grand Wardens, for ye year ensuing, and afterwards the Grand Master was pleased to order 

the following appointments, viz., I do appoint !>• Johnson, Mr Drake, M' Marsden, Mr 

'The York authorities were evidently determined to put down with a strong hand all irregrulari- 
tieii on the port of Schismatics. Wm. Scourfield, referred to above, was, in all probability, the 
Grand Treasurer elected at the Festival of 1725. Tiie records are silent as to the name of the pre- 
siding officer. 



Denton, M' Brigham, M' R. Mamh, utd Mr Et^ to aMirt in wgnkting the itate of the 
Lodge, and redretniig from time to time any inoonTenienoea that may ariae. 

Edw'. Thompaon, Or. Mr." 

" May 4, 1730.— At a prirate Lodge at Mr CoUing's, being the Sign of y» White Swan 
in Petergate, York, it waa order'd by the Dep. Martf. then prewnt— That if from thence- 
forth any of the ofHoett of y* Lodge should be abaent from y* Company at y* Monthly 
Lodgea, tbey ahall forfeit thu mm of one ahilling for each omiwion. 

John Wilmer, Dep. O. M." 

It will be at once noticed that the FertiTal of St. John the Evangeliat, 1785, waa cele- 
brated under somewhat different circumatances from any of those held previously, inasmuch 
as it was termed the "Grand Feast," the "President" of former years being now the 
" Gnmd Master," and a Deputy Grand Master, and Grand Wardens, Treasurer, and Clerk 
were also elected. It is impoasible to arrive at any other conclusion than that this expan- 
sion of the Northern organisation was due to the formation of the premier Grand Lodge 
in 1717, of which doubtless the York Fraternity had been informed, and who thernfore de- 
sired to follow the example of the Lodges in London, by having a Grand Master to rule 
over them. 

A point much discussed of late years is the number of lodges which are essential to the 
legal constitution of a Grand Lodge, for even if the minimum were fixed at three . r five,' 
as some advocate, the York organization would be condemned as illegal. It mnsc, how- 
ever, be borne in mind, that in 1725, as in 1717, there were no laws to govern th; Craft 
as to the constitution of Grand Lodges, the first of ite kind being only some eight ye-^rs old 
when the jnd Grand Lodgt ^as inaugurated; and though the Northern Authoritj wag 
not the result, so far as is known, of a combination of lodges, as in London, clearly there 
was as much right to form such an organization in the one case as m the other. 

It is to be regretted that the records of the " Four Old Lodges" do not antedate thoee 
of the " Grand Lodge " they brought into existence, as fortunately happens in the case ol 
the single lodge which blossomed into the " Grand Lodge of all England, held at York," 
and assuredly the priority of a few years cannot be urged as a reason for styling the one 
body legal, and denying such a position to the other. Apparently for some years the York 
Grand Lodge was without any chartered subordinates, but that of itself does not invalidato 
its claim to be the chief authority, at least for Yorkshire and the neighboring counties. 
That it emanated from an old lodge at work for years prior to the creation of the London 
Grand Lodge, there cannot be a doubt; the records / .-eserved going back to 1712, whilst 
ot lers ranging from 1705 were extant in the last century. These extend throughout, and 
indeed overlap, that obscure portion of our annals, viz., the epoch of transition. It has 
long been assumed that this lodge of 1705-12 and later, is the same as the one alluded to 
in the Minster Archives of the fourteenth century. It may be so, and the popular belief 
is iHjrhaps the true one, but until it is supported by at least a modicum of evidence, k 
would be a waste of time to proceed with its examination.* 

■ The earliest of all Grand Lodges, viz., that constituted at London in 1717, was pronounced by 
Laurence Derraott " cte/ecK»e m numben," because " in order to form a Grand Lodge, tUrt s/wm/d 
have been the Masters and Wardens of ;J»e regular lodges" (Ahin»an Reson, 8d edit, 1778, p. 14). 

» There is absolutely W connect the York Lodge of the eighleenth and most probably 
the seventeenth century wiUi lodges of earlier date, though of coune the posaibiUty of the former 
being a Uneal descendant of the latter rnunt be conceded. 

of the 


I Swan 


» cele- 
>w the 
I Clerk 
ore de- 
bo rule 

to the 
r five,' 
c, how- 
i Craft 
f^n old 
it} wae 
y there 

e those 
case ol 
;he one 
e York 
, whilBt 
nt, and 
It has 
ided 10 
ir belief 
encc, K 

■e should 
I. 14). 
i former 


iAJ-^^/Ca^Ji -^^0%^^^ ,w*y^*^ /^P-^a^^ Y 

tJ-'i^ ^M^la^S^ /,^a*«^^ /^.z^^^> cjf^^pa^^ 

AnSs //l^v€Ha^U i^^tr-KTrrcJ' ^t^/cU^ P/ ^ ^-t^r^OTfi^ oZ/Cf^ 

I FaoSimile, From the Original, of the Conclusion of the VorH /VIS. 

No. 4, A.D., 1693 



In tha brM ngiiten of the meeting! trom 172S to 1730, H will be Mm that after the 
jmt 172S> VIVO, when FeetiTaU were held, they an not deeoribed a* Grand Lodge a«am- 
bliee; bnt that lome of them were lo regarded i* erident from the epeeoh delirered by 
Fianois Drake, F.B.S.,' "Junior Grand Warden," at the celebration of the Feetiral of 
St John the Erangeliit m 1736. Thia well-known antiquary wu familiar with the Con- 
■titntiona of 1723, for he itylea Dr. Anderson " The Learned Author of the Antiquity of 
llaioniy, annexed to which are our C<matitationa," and adda, " that diligent Antiquary 
haa traced out to na thoae many atupendoug work* of the Antienti, which were certainly, 
wd without doubt, infinitely ■nperior to the Modema."' Drake'* itatement that "the 
fint Grand Lodge erer held in England, waa held at York," I need not pauae to examine, 
iU absurdity haring been fully demonstrated in earlier Chapterik' If indeed, for Orand 
Lfdge, we substitute " AMtttMy," the contention may perhaps be brought within the 
region of possibility, and the ingenious speculation that the meeting in question waa held 
under the ausptoea of " Edwin, the first Christian King of the Northumbnrs, about the Six 
Hundredth year after Christ, who laid the Foundation of our Cathedral," is at least en- 
titled to consideration, notwithstanding the weakness of its attestation.* Not so, however, 
the aaaettiona, that " King Edwin " presided aa " Grand Master," and that the York Lodge 
is " the Mother Lodge of them all," which will rather serve to amuse, than to convince the 
readers of thia History. The explanation offered by Drake with regard to " Edwin of the 
Xorthumben" does not seem to have been popular at any time, either with the York 
Mi.9ons, or with the Craft at large, for the date ascribed to the apocryphal " Constitutions 
of J2C," haa been almost invariably preferred by the brethren in the north, and Laurence 
Dermott was not ilow to follow their example, as will be seen farther on." The "Old 
Charges" explicitly refer to Prince Edwin temp. Athelstan, and to no one else, as being 
the medium of procuring for the Masons the privilege of holding their Assemblies once a 
year, when they would, one of which was held at Yoik; and therefore, it requires some- 
thing more than the colorable solution of Drake, to set aside the uniform testimony of our 
time-honored Operative Constitutions. Hargrove states thit " In searching the Archives 
of Masonry, we find the first lodge was instituted in this city (York) at a very early 
period; indeed, even prior to any other recorded in England. It was termed ' The Most 
Ancient Orand Lodge of all England,' and was instituted at York by King Edwin in 926, 
as appears by the following curious extracts from the ancient records of the Fraternity." • 
The first writer who treated the subject of Masonry in York at any length was Findel,' 

■ Ante, pp. as, 9A. 

• " A Speech deliver'd to the Worshipful and Ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons at a 
Orand Lodge, held at Herchanto' Hall, in the City of York, on St John's &!.v, December 27, 1736. 
The Right Worshipful Cliarles Bathurst, Esq., Grand Master" (Ist edit, Thomas Gent York, Van, 
orco. Beprinted, London, 1789 and 1784; also by Uughan, ^lasonic Sketches, 1871). 

« a, pp. 108, 107; XIL, pp. 179, 188. ♦ Cf. Chap. XV., p. 878. 

' Cf. ante, p. W, and poet, the ObservaUons on the SchiamaUc or " AthoU" Grand Lodge, 

•Hughan informs me that the ex*ract he had sent him (and which he inserted in his "Old 
Charges," m reference to York) frjm Hargrove's History, 1818. p. 476, is deficient in the following 
Une, " and gave them the cfcorter and oommtHwn to meet annually in communioayUon." This clause 
is peculiar to the MS. noted by Hargrove, which so far has escaped detecUou. VitU Chap. IL, |k 
7S; also Hughan. Old Charges, p. 7. 

1 History of Freemasonry, pp. 83, 158-170. 

II ' I 

I i 


bot tlw olwrwtloM of thi. able hiHorkn lar. b-«. «« 

•" from th. pen of H„gh«.. p„lZJb 1^. ai^Tl!?!*?''^'* "^ « 

wntOT matt Dot be igBomL iLnrToT!-' . }' ,, * ''**^ ''«'•*'• «' ««btidi»ry 

•wnd. would ban ..amwl th. »r«»ir^r ,*""**' "P'wwt work, which in other 

;»p««b,o. tot^coT^Jtrsr'^^^^^ 

ceded him. Bn»oi.lly i. thi. the c-e ^h ««!l ^ kJ?*^ *** "^ 

"i««iof wh.t i. oorZtJ^ ^^ * ^ ^*'"^*'- Th'-'qaicklr 

it i. pat down to the ^^colroMSrLT^" ""T^' """'^ " *^ »"•» •"PI*-.! 
.horten. the roi„l to knowwl I J^JIk ^V "^ '«"°'*' '*• '' » *">• th«t be who 
we believe we «,. to t^cXSnThom'j;'" T •"«>'"»- -debtcd than 
tare, doomed to clear .w.t Z LTnd^K kk u ?"" **"""^ " *'«' P'»»~" «' liter.- 
.nd to victory, withoat^^ 2 t^l^w. "„':"' '" ""^.'"«*' ''"'> P— »» bo„" 
itate. their progre*- * ' ' "°«'* ""'• "^ "» »"»»ble drudge that lacil- 

Among thoie memben of the Craft, to whoae ni«.».t,^ 
notice, of York and it. FrMma«,n. -v T i ""^^^ *• "• "bieflj indebted for the 
literature of the Cr^^'J^T^^'J^Tl'LT^'^ t"""^"""* the more ephe.o.l 
late E. W. Schaw ■ wa. familiar to . ^Ine^L „f m "^ '""'*'• '^^ ""»" <>' »"<' 
the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford.* whoiCTrT.! «' M.«n.c re^ler., not ]e« «, that of 

one. Mr. T. R Whytehe«l' a:' Mr. jZh T^.P mat' •"? ^'^ "''^ ^'^ '"^^ 
explorer, of MH«,nic Antiquities, and toTh JtL,r„!: T "'t"*' **' •"'»• '^'"^"t 
of York.hire Ma«,nry are «, much indebtS ^""*'«Jk«. '""tor. at the old .hrine 

•' P^l^"X;';hl^ ;ro: rt;;: -^-^ ^-ing. of the York B..hre„ 
"Gene«l " or "St JohnV iT ' U^l?^ IVT ""' ^'""•*' »-'°« """tl.i 
in the ab^nce of the P-idt^^Tnd tS^n" S 0^^^^^^^ 

Marter.. but I do not consider thevwer«fh*,„ ^ ^^"^"' '*"« '•««»ib«l m 

there were tHree Brethren ^ enuL^Th ICelfri^ Tl '"'^' ""* ""'^ '-'"- 
21. Augurt 10 and 12, September 6 anH^ t ^"" ** *''" '"^*'"«« ^eld on July 
that period wen, named ^r'Sl' ThfT^^ '' '?' '"* *^"*« '''^ ««'- « 
distinct from the -Private Lod^^" 1 i!h 7^ f"""'''-' '"^'''^ "^^ «PP««-ntlv 
and it ma, well be, were ^^.J^l^^^:^ ^^'^ «^'-^ --i^. 
^^Mbe I^ge .ndicate that the intere. of L membra. wer/uZraTrf^ WH. b, .neorpo^eed all the ,. .^rLl'u, t^ril^ ''°"' " --»*-P"'««' ">• «■« author, in 
'Lmcu, vol. ii., p. lot "■ 



Tlw " Old RniM of the Onuid Lodge »k York, 35," ' wtn m followi: 
" Article! igreed to be kept and ofaeerred by the Antient Society of Freemaioni in the 
City of York, and to be ■nbeoribed by erery Member thereof st their Admittance into the 
•id Society. 
Imprimie.— That erery flrrt Wedneaday in the month a Lodge ahall be held at the honie 

of a Brother according aa their turn ahall fall out. 
S.— All Snfaacri'jert to thecn Artiolea not appearing at the monthly Lodge, ihall forfeit Six- 
pence <»ch time. 
3.— If any Brotiter appear at a Lodge that i* not a Subeoriber to theie Article!, he ihall 

pay over and abore hia club [i.e., ralMcription] the !um of one Shilling. 
4.— The Bowl iholl be filled at the monthly Lodgea with Punch once. Ale, Breed, Cheeae, 
and Tobacco in common, but if any more thall be called for by any Brother, either 
for eating or drinking, that Brother so calling shall nay for it himielf beaidw his 
5,— The Maater or Deputy ihall be obliged to call a Bill exactly at ten o'clock, if they 

meet in the evening, and diKharge it. 
6.— None to be admitted to the making of a Brother but rach aa have inbecribed to these 

:.— Timely notice ihall be given to all the Subecriben when a Brother or Brother* are to 

be mude. 
S.— Any Brother or Brothen presuming to call a Lodge with a design to make a Maion or 
Maions, without the Master or Deputy, or one of them deputed, for every such 
offence shall forfeit the sum of Five Pounds. 
9,_Xny Brother that ihall interrupt the Examination of a Brother shall forfeit one 


10.— Clerk's Salary for keeping the Books and Accounts shall be one Shilling, to be paid 

him by each Brother at his admittance, and at each of the two Grand days he 

shall receive such gratuity as the Company [i.e., those present] shall think projwr. 

11.— A Steward to bo chose for keeping the Stock at the Grand Lodge, at Christmas, and 

the Accounts to be passed three daj-s after each Lodge. 
12.-11 any disputes arise, the Master shall silence them by a knock of the Mallet, any 
Brother that shall presume to disobey shall immediately be obliged to leave the 
Company, or forfeit five Shillings. 
13.— An Hour skdl be set apart to talk Masonry. 

14.— No pt rson rfhall be admitted into the Ixxige but after having been strictly examined. 
15.— No more persons shall be admitted as Brothers of this Society that sluill keep a 

16.— That these Articles, shall at Lodges be laid upon the Table, to be perused by the 
Members, and also when any new Brothers are made, the Clerk shall publicly 
read them. 
17.— Evpry new Brother at his admittance shall pay the Wait[er]8 as their Salary, the sum 
of two Shillings, the money to be lodged in the Steward's hands, and paid to 
them at each of the Grand days. 

' These are given by Hughan in his " Masonic Sketches and Reprints." pp. 44, 45, as transcribed 
from the original, written on parchment, and now in the custody of the " York " Ijodge, Na S8& 



iamofoi»8liUHiifMhtaWM7[«i.Rulo7J. --uhmo. », 

*'^~^" iSl^ *" "'""^** ""' ** "" *'*'' '^' ^ •"" »' *"• -«»«»• "Wth 
Th« Uw. w« .i(.«l by " Bd. BeU. Ifart.,," ^d 87 M.mbm, ud thongh not nn- 
«uid tooh^otor for U.« p«rfod. thoy i. not unworthy of «pr«iuotion mT ^uI 
Wfutotkmt known, of th. old Lodg«»t York. -won m tne o«ii«rt 

• -H rrfj^S-r^*^ th^ th. "nmow folio nuu,a«rtpt Book. b.ginnin« Tth 

•borti.* With th. Ttlttbl. doonm.nt b.foi« m, it would donbUM. bTeMy to obUin 

1.78. « th. foUowinr Irtter pn,TM, which wm «nt by th. th.n Onwd 8«>rrtii,y (York) 
t ^l"^iV '-"'»™' <J- W. of th. "Lod^ of Antiquity"), in o^ Iw 
"wJl^n. ftl'^JL'^ "' "^ ""• ""^ lodg.rind '.uthor of h. fS t 

Lodg. .t York promn. to th. .rt.blidun.nt of th.t .t London in 1717 I h.," i^tS 

which I h.T. .xt»ct«i th. of th. Or«.d M»t.n during thtt p.riod m follow 
1705 Sir QMrge T.mpMt Btrronot 

The Right Hononrabl. Robert B.nfon Lord Mayor [of York 1 

Sir Williwn Robinion B«*. •• -J 

Sir Waltor Hawkiworth Biv*. 

Sir Omrg. T.nip«jrt Bai». 

Charlw Fairfu Eiq'. 

Sir W«lter Hawkwworth Bm«. 

Edward Bell Eaq'. 

Charle. Bathnnt E«i'. 

Edward Thomp«)n Ewj'. M.P. 

John Johnson E«q'. M.D. 

John Manden Esq'. 

V Kvl' . . ■'■'^ "• Yorkdure when 18 Gentlemen of the flp,t families in thst 

Neighbourhood wero made Masons. ""nmes m mat 

"In short the superior antiquity of the Grand Lodge of York to alt other Lodee. in the 

an armed Force to dislodge the Brethren, it apears by the Lodge Books since that Tin.: 

"U^Xf^^^l^^^-^ •"-' "-^ ^^--^ «. im wil, be round iuHu^haa. 
• Coptod for Hugh«, by Mr. Todd. P.M. and Treasurer of th« " Vork " Lodge, No. m 














ttet Ihk Lodgt Imw bwa ngnl* / oofttiBtwil and pwtionkrly by tha Book tlwre eitraotad 
Itet it WM ia bsiiif wurly in U pnMnt Century prwrioni to the En of tlie Aggmndiied 
Lodge of London- -nnd that it now eziete even the Compilen of the ICaiona Alnuumok 
imbliihed under the anotion of tlwt Lodge onnnot bat auknowledgo tho tiiejr Mooniiinny 
noh their acknowledgement with nn inridioai nnd nnmaeonio Prophecy that it will be 
non totally annihilated— an event which we tmet that no man nor wtt of men who are 
■«an ecough to wiah, ihall ever live to aee. 

" I have intimated to thii Lodge what pamtJ between ui of your Intention to apply for 
aOonadtntion under it and have the «tiiilaotion tn inform you that it met with uniTenal 
Aprofaation — Yon will therefore be pleaaed to fumiah me with a petition to be preaentmi 
lot the pnrpoae ipeoifying the Namea of the Brethren to be appointed to the wreral 
Offlciee, and I make no Doubt that the Matter will be ip.edily accompliibed, 

" My beat Reapecti attendi brother Preaton whom I expect you « 11 make acquainted 
with the purport of thia and Lope it will be agreeable to him— I am with true Regard 

Your moet faithfull Brother 
and Obedient Servant 

Jacob Buasav, O.Sl 
"To Mr Benjam. Bradley, 

N*. 3 Clenwnti Lane Lombard Street 
"York. 2»th Aug* 1778." 

I sLali here merely notice the oircunutance that Grand Secretary Bnaaey terma the chief 
offlcen prior to December 1725 " Grand Maaten," initead of " Preaidenta." 

Preanming that the year in each cane meani the period of lervice, and that the election 
or initallation took place ou the celebration of the (imm^iateiy) preceding Feitival of St. 
John tho Evangeliat, that would really take the Regiiter back to December 1704; whvn 
Sir George Tempeit, Bart,, waa choaen to be the Preiidunt; succeeded in 1707 by the Riglit 
Hon. Robert Benwn, Lord Mayor of York (afterward Baron Bingley); after whom cunm 
Sir William Robinson, Bart, for 1708 (M.P. for York, 1713); followed by other local 
celebritiea, down to the year 1734. Mr. Wbjrtehead obaerves moat truly, tl - " a largn 
proportion of the Maaons at York were Lord fttayors. Aldermen, and Shorii:.; and even 
down to our own day it baa been the same."' Admiral Robert Fairfax, tho " Deputy 
President" at Ghristmaa 1731, was Lord Mayor in 1715 and M.P. in 171:1; und other 
instances might be cited of the distinguished social position of these early nilera of the 
Yorkshire Fraternity. I am not, indeed, much impressed with the accuracy or critical 
value of the list of " Grand Masters " supplied by PTv Bussey, anu for more reasons than 
one. Take, for instance, the names of some of the Presidents. Sir Walter llawkeswortli 
is recorded as the Preeideuc, June 34, 1713,* though not mentioned by Dussoy after 171 1 
antil 1730. Then, agcin, Charles Fairfax is not i-ecognized as the chief Ruler in tht; 
minutes of Christmas 1716 and 1731, but is distinctly described as the Deputy President 
("D. P."); neither is he anywhere termed the President in the existing Roll of 1712-30. 
Hit) name certainly occurs as "The Worshipful Charles Fairfax, Esq".," on June 34, 1714; 
but the same prefix was accorded to other temporary occupants of the chair, who were not 

■ Some Ancient Mason* and their Early Hauat* (Freemason, October 33, 1884)l 
' Cf. anUt, p. as. 

VOL. HL— 11. 



P««dento «t the time. The toHxIled Pw«dent of 1725 is rimply entiUed " Morter » on 
July 31 m that ye«, .. Soonrfield «id Haddy we in 1725. It is i,npo«ible, therefore, to 
•mye at any definite concision with regard to theee officers as respects the list in question 
nor can their status in the Lodge be even approximately determined upon the eridence 
before us. 

Dr. Bell, of Hull, in hi. "Stream of English Freemasonry," mther too confidently 
assumes that the tenure of office of the successive Presidents lasted from the yean opposite 
their own n«nes until the dates placed by the same authority against those of theirVnc 
ceswrs. This, of course, rmy have been sometimes the case; but we know for a certainty 
that It was not always so. For 1713 the same writer gives Sir Walter Hawkesworth instead 
f".?*'^. ^""^^ " *''' President, and I am inclined to agree with him in so doimr 
notwithstanding it is opposed to Bussey's statement. Dr. Boll bestows the title of President 
on Charles Bathnrst for the year 1724, and " Edmund Bell or WiUiam Scourfleld » Esquires 
for 1725 Charles Bathurst was not initUted until July 21, 1735,- unless, indeed, the office 
was held by his father, as Mr. Whytehead suggesta' was possible; if so, the elder Bathurst 
died during his year of office, and was succeeded by his son on December 27, 1725 I am 
incbned to believe the year stated by the Grand Secretary was not the right one. for there 
areother discrepancies which have yet to be considered. So far as can now be conjectured 
George Bowes, Esq.," who was Deputy President on March 19, V.V-, and August 7 171 i 
was as much entitled to be described as President as either of the three gentlemen alre*u' 
mentioned Mr. Whytehead has succeeded in tracing another Gnrnd Master "of the 
Grand Lodge of all England at York," thus paring the incomplete character of the li-t 
of Masonic dignitaries supplied by the Grand Secretary of 1778. The discover}- made by 
ttisexceUent authority he thus relates: " A short time ago, I noticed in au old copy of 
Debrett a statement tliat the first baronet of theMilnor" family was Grand Master of 
Freemasons in England. I knew that he had been ' made ' at York, as also that he Imd 
not been Grand Master of either of the Southern Bodies; an.l after some enquiry, and t' . 

..I"f r'^T "* ^"- ^'"""''' *^"'''""" """^ "^ ^^^^ Si' F. G. Milner, I have ascertain.! 
that the first baronet was Grand Master at York in 1738-9. In a MS. work in four volumes 
m the Leeds Library, entitled, 'A Collection of Coats of Arms and Descents of the Sc-venil 
Families of the ^\est Riding, from MSS. of John Hopkinson; corrected by T. Wilson of 

mf ;-« ! v'T'";^^ '"''^'/"•^'' "^^ •"""" "^ ^'^^^'- ^""•"•= ''^" St- John Baptist 
l>.y l<-8, at lork, he was elected Grand Master of the Freemasons in England. beinR 

tTZ^lZZ" .^'"" *'^ '"^*-' ™^ '' "" ''''-'-' »^'^'"- ^ ^•'^ "«* «^ '••« 

It will te remembered that the next Grand Mast^^r. "Edward Thompson, Junior, of 
Maijon Esq. was elected and installed at a " St John's L«lge," held on June 24, 17-. 
What Jacob Bussey, G.S., intended to convoy by the words, "It is observable tbit, 

\ 5" r'« f ■ ^' ' f "">'"»«'". November 8. 1884. 

L M« L ^''^\rT^^^'^- " (ac«.nlinK to Mr. Whyt^hea..,. tl.e la.ter l,av„,, 
been .n.talle,i a« W M. of the " Eborncum Lclpe." No. 1611. York, on November !(.. 1884, and cur' 
ouBly enough the interesting di^overy came just in time tofurnish the materials foroneo Znlt 
att^ctive features of the toast-list at the subsequent banquet, desired by the ZZ^^ZZl 

* Freemason, December 80, 1884. 



during the abore period, the Qrand Lodge was not holden twice together at the same 
place," ' ia not altogether clear, aa aereral conaecntive meeting* took place at Mr. James 
Boieham'8, 1712-26, and at the " Starr in Stongate," 1725-29. Moreover, there were 
Lodgea held in other houaea more than once in the year — e.g., at John Ceiling's, in Peter- 
gate, 1724-25.' 

It is from thia letter we learn that the Lodge was held at Bradford by the York 
Brethren, when some eighteen gentlemen were made Masons. No mention is made of 
the Lodge held at Scarborough in 1705, under the presidency of William Thompson, Esq., 
though I am strongly of opinion that it assembled under the banner of the old Lodge at 

Preston bases hia account of the York Grand Lodge on the letter of its Grand sec- 
retary (probably with subsequent additions from the same source). " From this account," 
aaya Preston, " which is authenticated by the Books of the Grand Lodge at York, it appears 
that the RcTival of Masonry in the South of England did not interfere with the proceed- 
ings of the fraternity in the North; nor did that event taking place alienate any allegiance 
that might be due to the General Assembly or Grand Lodge there, which seems to have 
been considered at that time, and long after, as the Mother Lodge of the whole Kingdom. 
For a series of years the most perfect harmony subsisted between the two Grand Lodges, 
and private Lodges flourished in both parts of the Kingdom under their separate jurisdiction. 
The only mark of superiority which the Grand Lodge in the North appears to have retained 
after the revival of Masonry in the South, is in the title which they claimed, viz., the Grand 
Lodge of all England,' TOTIUS ANGLI.<£ ; while the Grand Lodge in the South passed 
only under the denomination of ' The Orand Lodge of England."" The distinctiou 
claimed by the York Masons appears to have originated with the junior Grand Warden on 
December 27, 1726; at least, there is no earlier reference to it with which I am acquainted. 

Preston was a warm adherent of the Northern Grand Lodge during the period of his 
separation from the Grand Lodge of England,' and assuredly, if all he states about it^ antiq- 
uity and character could be substantiated, no one ucihI wonder at his partiality being so 
marked. He declares that " To be ranked as descendants of the original York Matins was 
the glory and boast of the Brethren in almost every country where .Masonry was c-Btab- 
lished; and from the prevalence and universality of the idea that York was the pluce where 
Masonry was first established by Charter, the Masons of England have received tribute 

' Occasionally the Feast was held at the houses of the brethren by turns — in udo certo loco ad ali- 
quesse domum fratrum vel sororum." — Caistor, Bundle cccx., No. 193 (English Gilds, introduction, , 
by Lucy Toulmin SmiUi, p. xxxiii., note 4), 

• Ante, pp. 28-26. 

' Hughon informs me, on the authority of Mr. Samuel Middleton, of Scarborough, that William 
Thompson was M.P. for that town in 1706, and was appointed Warden of the Mint in 1715. He died 
in 1744. In a footnote to an old local liiKtory, he is described as " of Scarbro." 

'It is passible (as Hughan Buggests) that this title may have been a retort upon the Pope, by 
whom Canterbury was given a precedence over York, the Archbishop of the former city being »ty led 
" Primate of aU England," and the latter " of England " only. 

' niustrations of Masonry, 1788, pp. 245, 246. The above remarks are slightly viu-ied and cur- 
tailed in later editions. 

'le., tlieRegularor Constitutional Qrand Lodge, dating from 1717. His connection with other 
Gmad Lodges will be presently noticed. 



from th« fln^ States m Europe." ' What o« be mii. of .uoh . rt.tement, when, « . «m. 
pie matter of Ikct, not a IxKlge abroad wm erer oonrtituted by the York Gtmnd Lod« 
Md ». to the tnbuto mentioned, there i. not the dightert confirmatory eridence re«ectin« 
It to be found anywhere. * 

The fact «. Pt«rton doubtless wrote what he thought ought to be the caw. if it wera 
not reany ao. or shall we say, what he considered might be true, if the means for a full in. 
Teatigation were granted him. 

fteston's vermon of the breach wWch occurred between the two Grand Lodges-Londo. 
and York-w in the form of two distinct statements, one of which must be imtccurate, a. 
both cannot be true. According to him, it arose out " of a few Brethren at York having 
on some tnml o^on. seceded from their ancient Lodge, [and] applied to London for a 
Warrant of Constitution. Without any inquiry into the merits of the case, their applica- 
tion was honoured. Instead of being recommended to the Mother Lodge, to be restonxi 
to W. these Brethren were encouraged to revolt; and in open defiance of an establishe.) 
auUionty, permitted under the banner of the Grand Lodge at London, to open a new 
Lodge m the city of York itself. This illegal extension of power, and violent encroach, 
ment on the privileges of antient Masonry, gave the highest offence to the Grand Lodge at 
\ork. and occasioned a breach, which time, and • proper attention to the Rules of th» 
Order, only can repair." • His second version of the « breach " is said to be duo to the en. 
croachment of the Earl of Crawford on the "jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Masons 
m the City of York, by comrtituting two Lodges within their district, and by granting 
without their consent, three Deputations, one for LancasWre. a second for Durham, and » 
thu^ for Northumberland. This circumstance the Grand Lodge at York at that time 
highly reeented, and ever after seem to have viewed the Grand Lodge at London witl. » 
jealous eye. All friendly intercourse was dropt'" Yet another supposed cause of «n- 
pleasantness was found in the granting of a Patent to the Provincial Grand Master of York- 
Jire, by the Marquis of Carnarvon, ir .738, which it seems so troubled the minds of the 
York Brothers that sinoe that circumstance, aU correspondence between the two Gmnd 
Lodges has ceased." * 

Those who have adopted Preston's view of the subject have been led astray, for the,^ h 
not even the shadow of a proof, to substantbte the allegation that at any tima there wa* 
animosity, either on the one side or the other; and as Hughan • clearly shows, if Preston'. 
explarmtions are accepted, the granting of the warrant for No. 69, Scarborough, on August 
il. 1729. IS quite Ignored, besides which, we shall find farther on. that a friendly corn-s- 
pondence on the part of the York Grand Lodge was offered the Grand Lodge of Eugiand. 
after the breach between them is said to have occurred. 

It is singular also to note the error of Findel ' and other historians with respect to th. 
invasion of the York Territory, a.d. 1734. for as Hughan conclusively points out. there is 
no register of any lodge warranted or constituted in Yorkshire or its neighborhood in that 
V*"'«n I'k "*' "*" "^"""^ Yorkshire Lodge was No. 176, Halifax, July 12, IT 3 (now 

Ko. 61), the tirst, as I have already stated, being the one at Scarborough of 1729.' 

'DhMtrationsof Mawuty, p.m .^.y.. 1788. p. m. 

•Maiioni.^ Sketches and Rsprints, part )., p. 81. 

l4TliSifdTffi°tl!^f/'^ '^"'** '^"'^ '" !-»««<»» "chTter for the institution of a Lodg. 
at York (Fmdel. H«to,y of FreemasouTr, p. 185). 1 Qf, Gould. " Pour Old Lodges" pp. SUB. 



It b aot poMible now to decide wben the " Gnnd Lodge of all Englaad " oeand to 
irork— that ii to mij, apasmodically at leaat Findel ststee that " the York Lodge waa 
inactiTe from 1730 to 1760," and "at ila last gai^),'" on May 30, 1730, when flnea were 
leried for non-attendance. The nme able writer obaerrea: " The isolated or Mother Lodge, 
which datee from a very early period, had, until the year 1730, neither made nor conititated 
any other Lodge."* If by the latter declaration, it is meant that a lodge or lodges were 
formed by the " Grand Lodge of all England," in 1730, 1 am not aware of any evidence to 
justify the statement, but it oocnn to me, that collateral proof is not wanting to snggest 
the constitution, or a least the holding of lodges in other parts of the country, beddee York, 
under the authority of the Old Lodge in question, prior to 1730; the assemblies at Scar- 
borough and Bradford in 1705 and 1713 respectiTely, being alone sufficient to wayfoxi this 

That the Grand Lodge at York was not extinct eren in 1734 is also susceptible of proof, 
for the Roll of Parchment, No. 9, still preserved by the present " York" Lodge (No. 236), 
which is a List of Master Masons, thirty-five in all, indi'>ates that meetings had been held 
io late as that year, and probably later, July 7, 1734, being attached to the 27th name on 
the Register. There are then eight more names to be accownt*- J for, which may fairly be 
approximately d i«d a few months farther on, if not into the year 1735. 

Neither is there occasion to depend entirely upon the testimony of this Roll of Master 
Masons (the earliest date on which is of 1729, and the latest of 1734), for the " Book of 
Constitations," 1738, contains the following reference to ' e York Lodge, which is not one 
likely to have been inserted, unless it was known that, about the time or year mentioned, 
the Lodge was still in existence. 

" All these foreign Lodges [i.«., those to which Deputations had been granted by the 
Grand Lodge of 1717] are under the Patronage of our ttKattA piasiet of Eng- 
" But the <M Lodge at York City, and the Lodges of Scotland, Ireland, France, 
and Italy, affecting Independency, are under their own Grand Masters, tho' they 
have the same CoMlitutiont, Charges, Regulations, 4c, for Substance, with their 
Brethren of England."' 
Then there are the several allusions to Freemasonry at York by Dr. Fifield Dassigny 
in 1744, especially the note, " I am informed in that city is held an ast; n' .y of Master 
Masons, under the title of Royal Arch Masons,"* which in all fairness cannot be dated 
farther back than 1740; but of this more anon. It appears to me, therefore, that there 
is evidence of a positive character, confirmatory of the belief that the York Masons did 
not lay aside their working tools until considerably later than the year named by Findel 
and other Historians; hence I quite agree with Hughan in his supposition that the " Grand 
Lodge of all England " was in actual being until about 1740-50. 

That the Lodge flourished at York many years anterior to the inauguration of the 
Premier Grand Lodge of England, cannot, I think, be doubted, though it was not digni- 
fied by the name of a " Grand Lodge" nntU some eight year* after tha oonrtitution of its 

■ History of Freemasonry, p. 101 

'ibid, p. IMk ' Constitutions, 1788, p. 1M. 

•Dr. Fifield Dassigny, A Serious and Impartial Enquiry into the Cause of the Present Decay of 
Preemasonry, Dublin, MDCCXLrv., reprinted in Hugban's Uasoaic Memo ri als , 1874, w jare ti» pasn«« 
quoted above wiU be (ouad at p. SUl 



fonrndable nral; %tA, thst it w» «i honowble. •• well a. u moient Sooietr, fa abun- 
dMtly proved by reference, to thow of ite valuable reoonb which are happUj .till pre 
»rved and Maloudy guarded by their careful cortodian.. the member, of the " York - 
(late the "Union") Lodge. ««■ « we xork 

Whatever uncertainty may rarwnnd the quertion of the cemtion from work (1740-50) 
there 1. none whatever a. to the period of the Bevival of the " 0«nd Lodge of «// Eni' 
»t ^ o'k, a. fortunately the record, are pre«,rved of the inaugu«tion of the prcceeS- 
•ng^ and the commencement of a new life, which though fi» mor« vigorou. than the old 
one. wa. yet dertined to run it. courw ere the century had expired. We .hall hardlv err 
If we mjcnbethi. revival to the ert»bliriunent of a lodge at York by the Onuid Lodge of 

Xt^R, » ^^ ;!.'?" "*" ~" "' "^^ ~"*^''"' organi»tion. heldTaTthe 

Punch Bowl. wa. «r»rranted January 12. 1761, whilrt the neighborhood, » to nnsak 

wa. unoccupied territory." The charter and minute, of thi. friendly rivri are inthe 

by Mr. T. B Whytehead.' The earliert record i. dated February 2. 1761. but it. pro- 
moter. «)on .hook oft their flrrt allegiance, evidently preferring a connection with the local 
Grand Ixnlge to remaming, «, to .peak, but a remote pendicle of the mor« powerful onani- 
z»t.on of the metropolis. That thi. wa. not the flrrt lodge ertablidiod by the latT in 

.n?48 l^T^" ""^L'*^*^. ^'•■^" '*■* ^"^ *»' Scarborough in 1729, Halifax 
m 1.38 and Leed. m 1754, besides many others in adjoining province., and Provinou.1 
Gmnd Masters were appointed for Yorkshire in 1738, and al«> in 1740, when Mr. William 
llorton was succeeded by Mr. Edward Rooke.* 

On the opening day at the " Punch Bowi" there were eight member. pre*nt, and tl>n 
«ne number of visitors. Great zeal was manifested by the petitioner, and the brethr, a 
pneral^, several meetings being held from 1761 to 1763; but I do not think they met as a 
lodge after Januarj- 1764. Malby Beckwith, the new Master, who was placed in the chair 
on Januanr 18, 1762, was duly addressed by the retiring W. M. Bro. Frodsham, and by re- 
En • M™ WW . 71^' was printed and published, going through more than one 
ediUon. Mr.^^hytehead tells us that "as Bro. Seth Agar, the W. M. (from Jan. 3. 
1.63). soon afterwartls became Gmnd Master of all England, it seems probable that thi 
.upenor assumption of Grand Lodge had eclipsed the humble Punch Bowl Lodge, and that 
the latter was deserted by its members."* 

That the constitution of the Lodge of 1761 was actually the cause of the revival of the 
Ir.^?! r ^^ °*°"°' ^ positively asserted, but it appears to me most prob- 

able tl«t the formation of the one led to the restorBtion of the other, and vet. singular to 
state, the latter organization, though ap,«rently owing a new lease of life to the existence 
of he former, was only able to shake oC the lethargy of long years by absorbing the very 
body which stimulated ita own reconstitution. ^ ■ ^ b j- 

' l.t., the Grand Lodjfe constituted at London. a.d. 1717. 
• Freemasons' Chronicle. Dec 97. 187»: EVeemason, Jan. 10. 1880 

•Dr Bell, in his "History of the Province of North and Ea«t Yorkshire." pves the num. of 
WUham Horton as Prov. G.M. to 1756. but he died in or before 1740 

. Vl:^ ^u^T "^^'"■^'*^ *" "'« "•«*' «">«»» and honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons 

L ^oS. 1 , " ,^".'=''-«"*'- '- «*»"<«'''<'. York, upon Friday th, ,8th of j^i^ ^ b^ 
Bro. Frodsliaiii, at Ills dismission of the chair." u<»rjr *.«, oj 

' Freemason. Jan. 10. 1880. 



I wfll now dto tte fall aooouiit of the rrrM, which ia girea fay Hagh«a' fram the 
Mtual reoorda. 

» ThtAnttent Md iBdepwiamt ConrtltutloB o« F^ •nd Aootpted MiiMiis Betook 
ol Yock, WM thfa Seventeenth day of March, in the year o( our Lord 1761, Revived by six o( the 
aurviving memben of the Fraternity by the Grand Lodge being opened, and held at the Hcuee of 
Iff Heniy Howard, to Lendall, In the said City, by them and othet» hereinafter named. When 
»d where it was further agreed r% that It should be continued and held thwre only the Second and 

iMt Monday in every month.* 


• Oiand Martsr, . • Brother Francis Drake, Esq. F.B.a 

i)aiiuty O.M., • . George Reynoldaon. 

Otmnd WardaiM, George Coates and Thomas Mason. 

Tttgettaar with Brothen Christopher Coulton and MarUn Crotts, 

Vinting Brtthren. 

TMker, Leng, Swrtaam, Malby BecKwith, Frodsbam, FltimanrlMi Granger, Crisp, Oram, Burton, 

and Howard. 

" Mtautes of the Transactions at the Revival and Opening of the said Grand Lodge:- 
" Brother J«*n Tasker was by the Grand Master, and the rest of the Breuiren. unanimously ap- 
pointed Grand Secretary and Treasurer. He taavtog ttret petitioned to become a member, and betog 
approved and accepted nem. con. .,,,., 

" Brother Henry Howard Also petitioned to ba admitted a member, who was accordingly bal- 

Jotted for and approved nem. eon. 

"Mr Charles Chaloner, Mr Seth Agar, George Palmes, Esq., Mr Ambrose Beckwith, and Mr 
William Siddall, petitioned to be made Brethren the flnit opportunity, who being severally baUoted 

for, were all approved nem. eon. ^ „ .. , . . 

"This Lodge was closed tiU Monday, the 88rd day of this Instant March, unless m case of 


Several of the viritora mentioned were membera of the Lodge aasembling at the " Punch 
Bowl," and the fact of their being present in such a capacity is sufficient proof that the 
two Grand Lodges were on terms of amity, especially emphasized by the friendly action of 
the York organization later on, about which a few words have presently to be said. 

A noticeable featnre of this record is that ♦l.e Grand Master, Deputy, and Wardens 
occupied their positions as if holding them of inherent right, the only Brother elected to 
office being the Grand Secretary, who was also the Grand Treasurer. I think, therefore, 
that Francis Drake and his principal officers must have acted in their several capacities 
prior to the dormancy of 1740-50. If this was the case- -and there are no facts which 
militate against such an hypothesis-then the Grand M - and his coadjutors were 
nominated and elected at assemblies of the Grand Lodge o no record has come down 

to us. 

The five candidates proposed on March 17 were initiated on May 11, 1761; mention 
is also made of a Brother being raised to the degree ot a master mason on May 23, and ap- 
prentices were duly passed as Fellow Crafts. Minutes of this kind, however, I need not 
reproduce in these pages, neither is there much in the rules agreed (o in 1761 and later, 
which require particularication. 

' Masonic Sketches, p. 61. .,,,,, ^u . 

« The " volume ot the Sacred Law," which It ia believed wa« nw><1 at the meetings, ia in the safe- 
keeping of Eboracum l^KO No.m and 1. inscribed •' 2»u i«W. Wonffs to ttte IVee 3fo«.«^ /-^ 

at Mr. Howard: s at York, IVO. " 



"•,!LlL hJt ^ ^^'!^ »«»b.«hip ««.„„ted to «. Ifa, which «,m 

excn«d the brother from «,y further expence during Lodge hour, for that Quarte/ 

«pp.r«.ddnnk<«t./«„IGl««. broke ,« the Ix,dgeoldy3p^ The q JZ^ 

fTS « "■^^"'"'"'^""'' ""'^ " ••«'«•" C.ndiZ. were 0.3ns 
for uutmtoon on . nnanunou. bdlot, but joining member^ « regularly made LoS t 

another Lodge.- were elected if there wer« not more th«. two ^iveTToti; the ^^Z 

.tt.relect.on half a guin«. C««ful providon. were laid down for the guid«.ce o 

"ntZ:"" U •'^•'"*j"^'^'r. ■^» ""^^ ''^" were unable to^rovethel 
«5-«/flr,<^ It was ordered on July 15. 1777. " that when a Conrtitutio. /^nted to 

any place the Bother who pedtionca for «.ch d.all pay the fee, chaffed thern^J: 
A/,«j.r^.« and on Nor. 20. 1778. the memben, ««,lved "that the Qr^^U^^olZ 
Engbuid be on aU occafflons a. «,ch rtiled and addre«ed by the Title of Mo,t WarMvM 
•nd the Marten, of all Lodges under the Conrtitution of 4i. Gnmd Lod« by iZS.:, 
P^J^^f^-"r^ ^^tary's salary was fl,«i at ten guinea' Xlf^omt' 
2„ 1^9. and the Tm«nrer was required " to execute his Bond in the Penal sum of one 
hundred pound^" The fee for certificate, was fixed at six shilling, each. "alwT Z 

.n one eyemng. and '< sepamte Ballot shall be made to each degree distinct." as is still^ 
curtom under many Grand Lodges, but not in England. onTJLlot coy ring 7^ 
'iegrees, and also membership.' "« »" mres 

oJ^LTZ '^^T** "", ''"^'**"* innoyation on the port of the York Grand Lodge, no 

^ r^? L ^ ■" ^"^"•' P"**"*^- ^ I •»'« P'^viously intimated, the meeting 
o the old lodge at York, held out of that city, do not appear to have led to le^^o^ 
of sepa«to lodges, such as Br^lford in 1713 and elsewhe.;.'^ this point it is imZS^ 
o speak w,th prec^ion; it cannot be positiyely affirmed they did no^ but on JTl 
lu.n4 there .s no eyidence to warrant eyen a random conjectu« that th:y dii 

adva^cS" tirJT '" '^""'™"'' ''•"" " ""^'^'''^ *" '^™"t *»>« *-•-'' -» frequently 
advanc«l.tha charters were granted for subonlinate lodges by the Gn»nd Lod^e of a// 
England, until after the " Reviyal " of 1761. Prior to that Z. indeed, it is quS ill! 
hat fluent meetmgs wer. hdd by the old York Lodge, in neighboring towS^. t^I 
^ 1762 and'Z^ "" "' " '"^ "'^*"^ "^ *^* ^^^ " - ^-- there we" 
No little trouble has been taken in an attempt to compile for the flrrt time a list of the 

a^t m'r :rT '^ *'', ''"' "'''•''"*'^^' ^»» -^-^-tely there is not suffi i 
data to make he roll as complete as could be desired. The only one of the series tha 
bears an officud number is the first lodge that was warmnted.' 



"Tau" LoDOJH VBOif 1768. 





" Crown," 

" Dnke of DeTouhin^" 

" Punch Bowl," York, June 10, 
Aug. 19, 
Jnly 31, 
Oct 30, 
Sept 24, 
May 29, 







Snainton, near Malton, 
" Dmidical Lodge," Botherham, 

" Fortitude," at the " Snn,* Hollingwood, Lane. , 
Deputation for a "Grand Lodge." 
" Grand Lodge of England, South of the River Trent," March 29, 
j Na 1, "Lodge of Perfect Observance," London, Aug. 9, 

( Na 9, " Lodge of Perseverance and Triumph," London, Nov. 15, 



1779. J 
1779. 3 

In addition to these, I should add that in the Records and elsewhere, mention is made 
of petitions being presented to the Grand Lodge for the holding of lodges, some of which 
Mere doubtless granted; but there is no register existing from which we can ascertain what 
charters wera actually issued. 

I. Petition addressed to the " G.M. of All England at York," and signed by Abraham 
Sampson, about the year 1771. He declared that he had been taken to task by the 
" Grand Lodge in London " for getting a Warrant for Macclesfield. The new Lodge 
was to be held at the " Black Bull, otherwise the Rising Sun, Pettycoat Lane, White 
Chappel," the first Master and Wardens being nominated. 

n. A lett«r was read at the Grand Lodge held September 27, 1779, " Requiring the 
mode of applying for a Constitution," the petitioner being " Bro. William Powell, " 
of HiilL Mr. J. Coultman Smith ' declared that the charter of the pret>. nt " Ilumber 
Lodge," No. 57, of that town, was derived from the York Grand Lodge; but he is 
in error, that Lodge having been constituted by the " AthoU " Grand Lodge, London. ' 

IIL A letter was received from Doncaster, dated July 11, 1780, to the effect tliat a Warrant 
bad been applied for and granted. I imagine there had been an application sect to 

' There was much correspondence about certain masonic jewels, between the Grand Secretary 
at York and a Bro. W. Hutton Steel, of Scarborough, and others, extending from 1T73 to 1781. The 
jewels were said to have been used by a lodge whose " Constitution was obtained from York," prob- 
ably Na 3 as above. Bro. Steel presented them on Dec. 36, 1770, and declared that " No meeting of 
a Lodge since 1735" had been held, and that he was the "Last Survivor of four score brethren." 
My impression is that this aged Brother referred to the Lodge No. 59, warranted by the Orand 
Lodge of England— not All England— in 1739, and this opinion is strengthened by the fact that 1739 
is engraved on theje jewels, which are carefully treasured at York. Duubtleas they were used by 
both the lodges named, pnor to their becoming extinct. 

' History of the Warrant of the Humber Lodge, 1855. 

■ See my " AthoU Lodges," pp. 18, 14, tor the vicissitudes of this Lodge. 


the York Onnd Lodga; but % ohartor had bMn obtained ad inttrim from Loudon, 
—the preeent St. Oeorge'i Lodge, No. 842, of Donoaeter, being the one raferred to.' 

IV. A petition wae receired for a Lodge to be held at the " Bnuh Maken' Amu, Smithy 
Door," at the houie of John Woodman^ Mancheeter, dated December 83, 1787; bat 
ai the records of that period are mivng, I cannot mjr what annrer wai giTen to the 
petitioners, but it is very lilcely that a charter wai granted. 

I am indebted to Mr. Whytehead for the foUowing intereating extnot from the reoo#d^ 
wWch eetabludiee the fact that the year 1763 witneaeed the fiiat Lodge being placed ou ih« 
roll of the rorived Grand Lodge at York.* 

" Constitntiona or Warrante granted by this Right Worriiipfnl Orand Lodge to Bretlurn 
enabling them to hold Lodge* at the placea and in the hooiee particularly mentioned ia 
■nch constitutions or warrants. 

" Na 1. Anno Secuii' 
tution or warrant was gi 
their Parol (rii.) Dn Fr 
and Francis Le Orand, 
Lodge at the sign of t 
Brethren as from time 
their successors from n. 

Brother Drake G. M. On the 10» day of June 1768 a oon«i- 
■d unto the following Brethren, French Prisoners of War od 
Le Pettier, Julian Vilfort, Pierre Le Villiane, Louis Bruale, 
ehy enabling them and others to open and continue to hold a 
nch Bowl in Stonegate in the City of York and to make New 
me occasion might require. Prohibiting nerertheleaa them and 
ng any one a Brother who shall be a subject of Great Britain or 
Ireland, tehich said Lodge was accordingly opened and held on the said 10* day of June 
and to be continued reguUrly on the second Thursday in every month or oftener if occasion 
shall require." 

Of the second Lodge but little account has been preserved in the arehiree of the " York 
Lodge," though undoubtedly a minute-book was sent to the Orand Lodge for safe cnstodj, 
which contained the rocordg either of this Lodge or of the one formed in 1729 by the 
Grand Lodge in London.' 

Of the third on the list there is no doubt, it having been duly "seal'd and signed;" 
neither is there any as to the fourth, the minute of October 30, 1769, reading as follows: 
" The three lust-mentioned Brethren petitioned for a Constitution to open and hold a 
Lodge at the sign of the Crown in Knaresbrough, which was unanimously agreed to, and 
tlje following were appointed officers for the opening of the same." It would seem that 
the belief in a Lodge having been warranted in the InniskUling Dragoons by the York au- 

' W. Delanoy, History of St. Qeor^'s Lodge, 1881. 

• It would have siroplifled niattere very considerably if this list, which was begun "in order," 
liad been continued in like manner by the Yorli officials. 

' Hughan declares be saw a minute-book, or extracts therefrom, in the York archives, being 
records of a Lodge opened at Scarborough " on Thursday the 19th August 1783 by virtue of a Wai^ 
rant from the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons at York, Bro. Tho Balderston, K Worpi- 
M.; Tho-^ Hart, S.W.; John Walsham, J.W.; Matt". Fowler, 8.;" hence I am inclmed to beUeve 
that the second on the roll is lliu Lodge referred to. Mr. Joseph Todd lias kindly transcribed the 
tew minutes thus pieeerved, which betpn March 85, 17«a (before the warrant was received), and eud 
August 80, 17M. 



thoritiM'— which I ihared with Hnghsn— on the oum day aa No. 4, mait be giren np, 
■inoe MaMH. Whytehead and Todd poiitirely affirm that then is no reference wbaterar in 
the minntea to luoh a charter having been granted. The earliest allnaion to the Inniakilling 
Dragoona is in 1770, when the brethren of the Lodge held in that regLaent (donbtle* No. 
123 on the roll of " AthoU " Lodges) took part, with olhtr vuiiors, in the Great Procession 
on the celebration of the Festival of St John the Evangelist It was arranged on Decem- 
ber 17, Mr. Whytehead informs me, that "the Brethren of the Indskilling Begimeut 
who carry the Coloars and act aa Tylers, as also all the Brethren in the said B^ment wlio 
$n private soldiers to have tickets gratis. " The hospitality thus exhibited to the members 
of a regimental Lodge by the brethren at York, has been again and again exercised of late 
years by the " York " and " Eboraoam " Lodges, no warmer reception being ever given to 
military Lodges than in the city of York. The Lodge at Sfauclesfleld does not seem to 
have been snccessfally launched, as no fees were ever paid to the anthorities at York; and 
probably the existence of an " AthoU " Lodge in the same town from 1764 ' may have had 
something to do with the memben of Na 6 transferring their alienee. 

I have nothmg to add as to Noe. 6 and 7, but the ninth of the series, according to 
Hughan, was called " No. 109 " at Rotherham, the members evidently considering that 
the addition of one hundred to its number would increase its importance. Some of its 
records have found their way to York, ranging from December 22, 1778, to March 26, 
1779. There is no account of the Lodge at Hollingwood among the York documents, the 
only notice of its origin being the original charter in the archives of the " United Grand 
Lodge of England," which has been transcribed and published by Hughan.' A volume of 
minutes of the York Grand Loilge, 1780-92, is evidently still missing, which Hargrove saw 
in Blanchard's hands so late as 1819. 

Hughan, in his " History of Freemasonry at York," and Whytenead, ably continuing 
the same subject, " As Told by an Old Newspaper File,"' huve fumiBhed most interesting 
sketches of the proceedings of the York Grand Ivodge from the *' Revival " of 1761, as well 
as of those assembling under other Constitutions. It is not my intention, however, to do 
more than pass in review a few of their leading references. In the York Courant for 
December 20, 1763, is an advertisement by authority of Mr. J. S. Morritt, the Grand 
Master, the two Grand Wardens being Messrs. Brooks and Atkinson, the latter Brother 
Slaving been the Build' of the Bridge over the Foss at York. He and his brother were 
initiated in 1761, " without paying the usual fees of the Lodge, as being working masons," 
indicating (Whytehead suggests) the fact that the old Lodge at York recognized its opera- 
tive origin. Several of the festivals were held at the " Punch Bowl," an inn being much 
frequented by the York masons. The Lodges favored processions to church prior to the 

' AthoU Lodges, p. 85. It is but fair, however, to state that the text of the minutes of the pro- 
cenioD suggest that a Lodge was formed, either in InniskiUing or in connection with the regiment 
mentioned, us the record reads: " Many Brethren from York, as well as from the daughter Lodges 
of the Grand Lodge, established at Ripon, Knaresborough, and InniskilUng, were present at this 

•iJ)«.,p. 12. ^.,^ 

•Masonic Sketches, Pt. 2, Appendix C, p. 41. The warrant was signed by Messrs. KUby and 
Blanchard, Grand Master and Grand Secretary re»|«etively. It is to be regretted that this charter 
is not included among the Masonic docuraente so zealously guarded at York. 

* Freemason, September, 1884. 



''^^J*^ '•**'^ m«.y of the ■dfrrtk.nmiti for which h.T« \ma a«.f«l), :» 
prodooM by Whjrtehaad. ' 

u J' ^J^^"^ '«» J««» W. "70, k u MwmnowDwit on behalf of t>t Lodge .t th# 
ttwm, KiMwAoroogh, for Jaw. 26.-'< A regnW Procdon to Ohnnh to h«r Ditin. 

\!I!r**!!*!J!. ^^ *° *" P^*^ ''y ' *°*^' •»**^'« ^ *•» ooowon,« being the 
ch«f .tfaiwtion. oire«d by th, lUnr. Chwle. Ked.,. the llMte r. uA Mew.. BirteJ a„d 

vSr'* r^ . ^ ""''" ^'^^ '""^•"' proce«ion wu «lTerti*d for D«»mber':: 
1. 70. to 8t John^Chnrch. Micklegte. York, the notice being iieaed by order of QnM 

\nT ^^A . fu™""" "^ ^^^ ^^ ^"- *•* ^- '^^ ^•' R~*«' "^ B"»«to". 
.n the Eiut Ridmg, the congregation bolnding more th«i > hundred brethren. It *a. 

n«al to hare both • rammer and winter fertir.! in York; lo the >eal of the Fmtemity 
tTs^*'"' " *^ " '"~^''°' ""^ '"^" gathering, could promote the intere«. of 

^r^y^Z^'l.V^}'^ •tthe"Punch BowrdTBl) did not det«r the 

brethren of the Grand Lodge of England from conrtituting another Lodge in York-tI.e 

ApoUo being warranted there a. No. 450 on July 31, 1773. Mr. Whytehead* .tates Ut 

many dirt- omhod brethren were connected with this Lodge; and rereral of the memberg 

K. li ' rT' * ■'""'''* **'" •*"*' *'y ^^^ ""»"'"• *«"» 0'«" t» the "ore fanhion- 
able body which met at the George Hotel, in Coney Street The " Apollo " wa. evidently 
r^rded u an intruder by the York Grand I^ge, as the brethren of the latter convened 

heir meeting, on the eame day and hour as those of the rival Society. In 1767 the Oran.i 
Udge of England (London) wa. courteourfy informed by Mr. David Lambert, Omn,i 
TJTZ. f^ organization, that the Lodge formerly hold at the " Punch Bowl • 

IT , r'u It. '*""*' ^""^ di«ontinued, and that the most Antient Grand Lodge of a// 
Enghind, held from time immemorial in thi. city, is the only Lodge held therein.'" r„e 
rZ !!t • ^!f^ ^ "°* *^^ satisfaction of transmitting the intelligence of the 
A*^ .T ""*• '' '"' *^' '*"^' **""'^«^ *'>•' York Grand Lodge by Sinv year. ' 
Another Lodge came on the scene, and announced that its fertival was to be held 'J" the 

2"T4 *^^,^'^'«"" «'T!f "'' t»«e Star and Garter, in Nessgate, York." on Deeeml,.; 
2^1.75 This was the" Monah''Lo.lge, originally chartered by the " Atholl " G„.„l 

M^~, n ":'" *'"' ^'* "'^'"™* "' Y**'"*''^ M"'*'"' « ^'»- 1'6' Sheffield,' OctO.r 
i t" ,. .^^ « thecty was probably of very short duration, being a military Lodge. 
St Johns Day, 1,. 7, witnessed the Grand Lodge being held at " York Tavern.- /nd 

the ProvincuJ Grand Lodge • at " Nicholson's Coffee nouse." Both bodies attende.1 divine 

rri .' T7 *i^'- ««'«"'« »"'» *»»« '•»**«' »t St. Martin's, suitable discours..B being 
delivered by the Rev. Brethcni John Parker and James Lawson respectively. The Rev J 
ftrker. of St Helen's, was "made" in 177C, without any fee being charged, and 
became Chaplain to the Grand Lodge, being also the annual preacher aUhe holding of 
the fertivals. Meetings by both bodies-Grand Provincial-were frequently thus held on 

*FreemaK>n, August BO, 1884. 

' Author of a " History of Holdemess." 
'Bughan, Hasonic Sketches, pt i., p. 58. 

Vork^ir'^ ''^"°' ^r *'"""' " "^"* "" y~' "'8'"" «'• Todd "uppose. (Histoo' of the 

lir^ ^ *" ! ""'"" ^- " "■" "ubsequently knowu a. the " Ph«ubc," until iU linal col- 
lapse about twenty years afterwards, 

• Atholl Lodges, p. 84. . Holding under the Grand Lodge of England. 




the Muno day. Still .nother Lodge wm ooiutitatod by the " Mother o( Grand Lodgw." 
Mid thii time on mich • Mire foundation that it hM outlived all ita early contemporarieii. 
I allude to the " Union " Lodge, No. 504, which wan flrrt held by diapeniation dated June 
SO, 1777, Mr. JoMph Jonet being the fint W.M. The lulMoquent and erentful career 
of thia jnetly celebrated Lodge, I cannot now |wum) to comiider, and will nmply remark 
that iti name wae appropriately changed to that of the " York " in 1870, when Na 336, 
time IwTing but Mrred to enhance ita reputation. The huit meeting advertiaed in tlie 
(tturant by the York Grand Lodge, waa dated June 18, 1782; but undoubtedly there were 
many aaaembliea of the brethren held after that year, even lo kto aa the next decade. 
ILunore' atatee, " Aa a further proof of the importance of thia Lodge, we find it recnled 
tlukt ' On the 24th June 1783, the Grand Miwter, with all the offlcent, attended in the great 
room of the Manaion Uouae, where a Lodge in the third degree waa opened, and brother 
Wm. Siddall, eaquirp, at that time the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor and Grand Maater eleot, 
waa inaUUed, accruing to an ancient uaage and cnatom. The Moat Wonhipful Grand 
Maater Maaon of all England, and waa thua aaluted, homaged, and acknowledgjnl.' About 
the year 1787 the meetings of thia lodge were diacontinucd, and the only member now 
reraainiag ia M:. Blancliard, propriutor of the York Ohronich, to whom the writer ia in- 
debted for information on tho aubject He waa a member many years, and lieing ' Granil 
Secrotarj-,' all tho books and papers which belonged to the lodge are still in his iKWoosaion. " 
Either Hargrove miaunderatood Blanchard, or the latter posaeaaed a very treacherous 
memory, aince there ia abundant evidence to prove that the Grand Lodge waa in exiatenco 
even so late aa Auguat 23. 1792, which is the date " of a rough minute recording the elec- 
tion of Bro. Wolley ' as Grand Master, Bro. Geo. Kitaon, Grand Treasurer, Bro. Thomas 
Riclui'dson, 8.G.W., and Bro. Williams, J.G.M."* There is also a list still exUnt, in 
Blaneuard's handwriting, containing an entry of October 1, 1790, when a brother waa 
raised to tho Third Degree; and I have alreiuly raciitionod the grant of a warrant in tlmt 
vear by the same body, which docs not aavor of extinction. I need not add other evidences 
of the activity of the Grand Ixxlge, as the foregoing are amply sufficient. Even the Con- 
stitutions of 1784, published by the authority of the Grand Lodge of England, thus refers 
to the Northern Grand Lodge. " Some brethren at York continued to act under their 
original constitution, notwithstanding the revival of tho Grand Lodge of England; but 
the irregular Masons in London never received any patronage from them. Tho ancient 
York Maaona were confined to one Lodge, which is dill eitaiU, but consists of very few 
memters, and will probably bo soon altogether annihilated."* Here, doubtless, the wish 
waa father to the thought, but the prediction of John Noorthouck was soon fulfilled, 
though it must not be overlooked that he acknowledges the antiquity and, so to speak, tho 
Tcgul rity, of the York Grand Lodge, at a iieriod, moreover, when the secession of the 
liodge of Antiquity from the Grand Lodge of England— in which movement, though a 
member of No. 1," Noorthouck was not a participant— had greatly embittered (for reasons 

' Historj' and description of the Ancient City of York, 1818, vol. ii.. pt 3, pp. 478, 479. 

•Tlie "York" Lodge has an engraved portrait of Grand Master WoUey, and Mr. Whyteheail 
preseTited one to the Grand Lodge of England. Wolley afterwards changed his name to Copley. 

■ Hughan, Masonic Sketches, pt i., p. 60. 

•Constitutions, 1784, p. 240; Freemasons' Calendar, 1783, p. 88. 

•John Noorthouck, stationer, is entered in the Grand Lodge register as having become a meni- 
bor of tlie Lodge of Antiquity in 1771, three years iM-foiv Preston joined it Both men were largely 
employed by the celebrated printer, William Strahan. 


* riJ^^!T7T . ''^ *• •rtingnwh or oo.n» the other; the ap|»rent trinmi,b 
of the mtoority who W the «pport of thlr 0»nd Lodge, il..,^on7^^^^t 
thee^uUwnof the l«d«,. i«„„di„g the fiunoa.«.thorof the " Il.urtration. of mIC- 

ZTliSrliMr^ j"lf!"P''"'*''""^ - the whole rto^i.«,thoroughly7„rr 
woT« w,th the hbtory of the I^rfge of Antiquity, wd the cWmJ-ml or imJoi^l 

^ hat oo«pr.hen«v. memoir of th.t well-known writer, which will come int . 
^ThrZ "'P;iP™*^y *^. •» "y »"«" •*<««. dnoe in ^idition to the lending J 

wnicn X nare brought up to the beginning of the «ccond half of the eiirhtA«n»». ^„. 

. du.pen«t.on to form » lodge and to make Masona/ *^°'*^ '*'*'" 

to. u«e ha» been n^e of the foUowW t^ "^^"'/"'-"-■'t. and authorities .pecially ref.n," 
F,^™«on,- Magazine. voUv n^ /^t, iuT t,"' *"""'^' "^"'°"' '™'- '™«- '''^-■ 
of Facts: Bein^ a namxlive of .^mfiate P^inlTnT^"!':"'- '• '«»- P' «2«= "A 8U.. 
i«n Preston, Past Mastor of the ^^* f . ^f^'''^ °' *^"*™"*''»' "^l*^""? W''! 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the Lodge of Ant,qu,ty. No. 1. London. Printed in the vear 


juri«hction of the Omnd Lodge Z,«!^Z , '' '■°"''"^'"*^ "^"^ ""«»'» '''«*rf«~ ^th U,. 

«ror Kob Lochhead petitioned for DispensaUon to make Mu«ons at xZ .,.-a 



PmtoB «M Um Moond pnrwn hihktod nnder thU diqtanatkm, and Um Miockitad 
bNtiurm wtr* Bftwinwd dnly coiuUtatod into • lod(» (Na 111) by Uia offlomof the 
••Aneiant'' Onuid Lodga in pnwn, on or nbont A|iril 30, 1783. After meeting inaoeMiTely 
•t Horn T»Tem, Fleet Street; The Sooti Hall. Blaokfriwt; ud the Hslf Moon. OheApMe; 
the membere of Na 111— At the inetnaoe of WiltSum Preeton— petitioned for* charter 
ffom the " RegnUr " Orand Lodge, and the lodge wu wxm after conititnted a Mcottd time 
in Ample Form, by the name of the " Caledonian Lodge," onder which name it etill exiete 
(No. 1S4). Ob Half 21, 1773, he inititnted a Orand Oala at the Crvwn and Anchor Tavern 
in the Strand, and delirered an oration, afterward printed in the flrat edition of the " Dlne- 
trationa of Mawnry," pnUiihed in the Mune year. 

A regnUr coune of lecturea were pablidy deliyered bj him at the Mitre Tarem in 
Fleet Street in 1774. 

At hwt he waa inrited by hia frieada to Tint the Lodge of Antiqnity, Na 1, then held 
at tbo Mitre. This he did, June 15, 1774, when the Brethren of that Lodge were pleased 
to admit him a member, and— what was very nnusual — elected him Master at the «me 

He had been Master of the Philanthropic Lodg .t the Queen's Head, Gray's Inn 
Gate, Holbom, above six /ears, and of several other lodges before that time. Rut he was 
now taught to consider the importance of the office of the first Master under the English 

To the Lodge of Antiquity he now began chiefly to confine his attention, and during 
his nuutership, which continued for some years, the lodge increased in numbers and im- 
proved in ito finances. 

During the Grand Mastership of the Duke of Beaufort, and the Secretaryship of 
Thomas French, he had become a useful assistant in arranging the General Regulations 
of the Society, and reviving the foreign and country correspondence. Having been ap- 
pointed to the office of Deputy Grand Secretary, under James Heseltine, he compiled for 
tlie benefit of the charity, the History of Remarkable Occurrences inserted in the first two 
publications of the " Freemasons' Calendar," and aim prepared for the press an appendix 
to the " Book of Constitutions," from 1707, published in 1776. 

From the various memoranda he had made, he was enabled to form the History of 
Masonry, afterward printed in his " Illustrations." The office of Deputy Grand Secretary 
he soon after voluntarily resigned. 

The Schismatic body, under whose banii.r he had been initiated, were regarded by him 
with very scant affection, a feeling heartily reciprocated by the Athnll (or Ancient) Grand 
liOdfre, as the minutes of that Society attest. 

Thus, in November 1775, a long correspondence between William Preston, styled "a 
Lecturer on Masonry in London," and William Masson, Grand Secretary of Scotland, was 
read — the former having endeavored to establish an understanding between the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland and the " Modem " ' Grand Lodge — but being referred by the latter to B"*. 

of the White Hart, in the Strand— And a dispensation was granted to him to continu' .n force for 
the space of 80 days" (Minutes of the Orand Lodge of England *■ According to the Old Institutions— 
Lc, of the Schiiunaticii or ' Ancients ' "). 

■Bearing curiowily enough (17Sft-T0) the same number— 111— as that of his mother lodge. 

'i.e., the Regular or Coiuftfuttonai Orand Lodge, established a.d. 1717. The so-called 
"Ancients" being a Schismatic body, dating- as a Orand Lodge— from 1758-^ The epithets. 



W. 1 . Dtckev. 0«nd Secretory, " Aucienta," for information, in . reply dated October 9 
T\L " '■**^ ^ undewtond by your letter, that the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
h« been m> gro«ly imposed upon aa to hare eatobliahed a con«pondence with an irregular 
body of men, ^ho falaely aamime the appellation of Antient Maaona." 

P'o«»Uiere8olution8paaBedonthii.occa8ion,weflndthatthe"Ancient''Gnuid Lodee 
•tjgmahzed, in terms of gr«»t aeverity, certain paHagee in Preaton'a writinga,' for example 
where deacnbmg the " Ancients," he mentions their rise into notice. " nnder the flctitiou, 
«nct.on of the Ancient York Comrtitntion, which was entirely dropt atthereyival in 
1-17 -and they placed on record an expression of surprise " at an Ancient Grand Lodee 
being said to be revived by entirely dropping the old Constitutions." " Of equal sense and 
veraci^," did they deem a further statement of Preston's, " that the regular masons were 
♦T^i.!^ «»dopt fresh measures, and some variations were made in and additions to the 
estoblu^ed forms," remarking that an adoption of fresh measures and variations was openly 
confes«Kl, nor could human wisdom conceive how such a change could be constitutional 
or even useful m detecting impostors, though it was plain that such new change might be 
sufficient to distinguUh the members of the new Masonical Heresy from those who adhered 
tothe good old s^m." They also " thought it remarkable (if such alterations were 
absolutely necessary) that no account of them had been transmitted to Scotland or Ireland 
as such alterations obliterated the ancient landmarks in such manner as to render the 
^nt^Y^m scarcely distinguishable by either of those motions, tho' ever famous for 

The dispute in which Preston's Lodge, at his instigation became embroiled with the 
regular or Comrtitutional " Grand Lodge of England, originated in this way- 

„f A^i ^J' ^ ^1^^""' "^" °^ ^^' ^"'''^ ^'^ ''•^^^*^ •'•^P'"™ to the Lodge 
01 Antiquity, engaged to preach an anniversary sermon on December 87, 1777. particular 
of whK=h were advertised in the Gazetteer for December 24. The brethren preceded to 
chun^h informally, clothing as masons in the vestry. On returning they walked to the 
Lodge -m wthout having divested themselves of their masonic clothing. John Noor 
thouo mber. took exception to the latter action of the Lodge, but Preston claimed 

!I! nr, '"fi;^«'/ '^\ »«'•»«•» on St John's Day were perfectly conformable to 

the prn . .os of the Institution and the laws of the Society." Preston cited the law ro 
speotmg processions, but contended tluit it was not "calculated to debar the memlK-rs of 
any private lodge from offering up their adoraUon to the Deity in a public place of worship 

Bottomley failed te obtam the consent of the members to a resolution terming the pro- 
«.88.o„ an unguarded transaction," but on Preston moving " that the Lodge of Antiquity 

Grand Lodge, it was passed um»n.mously. A memorial was presented to the Grand Lodge 

' The reference given in the minutes is-" p. 4, line 85 etc."— and f h. ™.Kii~.* . , . 

sages referred to, slightly amplified, will be found (under the vear 17391 i„ .nT ?'. . "^ 
also in the " Fn^^masons' Calender." 1T76; and the " SlitaUonT" S '*»«'«'"«'-= 



by the minority, signed by the two mentioned, and two others, four in all. A reply to 
thia protest was aleo signed in open lodge on January 37, 1778, by all but six (including 
Preston), and by six others subsequently who were not at the meeting, making a total of 
seventeen. The R.W.M. (John Wilson) and Preston waited on the Grand Secretary in 
the interim, imploring him to do his utmost to obtain an amicable settlement' The 
"Committee of Charity," on January 30, 1778, sided with the minority, and as Preston 
justified the proceedings of the Lodge, on the ground of its possessing certain " inherent 
privileges by virtue of its original con' illusion, that other lodges of a more modem date 
were not possessed of," resolved t^ ^ the i.oilgit oi Antiquity possessed no other privilege 
than its rank according to seniorit and " Mr. J'roslo'^ was desired publicly to retract that 
doctrine, as it might tend to creat' 6. s> liism." This he refused to do, or to sign a declara- 
tion to the same purport, and was '■■'.■ t.ivith (xiiellc. from the Society.' At the Quarterly 
Communication ensuing, however, he presenttvl 'lie following memorial: — " I am sorry I 
have uttered a doctrine contrary to the general opinion of the Grand Ijodge, and declare 
lieill never in future promulgate or propagate a doctrine of any inherent right, privilege, 
or pre-eminence in Lodge No. I more than any other lodf e, except its priority as the senior 
Lodge." The motion for his expulsion was then rescinded." 

Tliere, it might have been expected, matters would have been allowed to rest, but the 
lamentable course pursued by the majority in the Lodge, in expelling Noorthouck, 
Bottomley, and Brearly, led to fresh disturbances. At the Quarteriy Communication held 
April 8, 1778, the Master of No. 1 was directed to produce the Minute Book on the "9th 
of the month, and Preston's name was ordered to be struck off the list of members of the 
" Hall Committee," " by reason of his having been chiefly instrumental in fomenting dis- 
cord in the Lodge No. 1 ; and his being otherwise obnoxious to the greatest part of the 

On January 29, 1779, the Master of No. 1 being called upon by the Committee of 
Charity to state whether their order, ' respecting the restoration of Brothers Bottomley, 
Noorthouck, and Brearly, had been complied with, " Bro. Wm. Rigge, the Master, stated 
that on the evening of the last Quarterly Communication, viz., Nov. 4, last, it was resoived 
not to comply with the order of the Grand Lodge, and that the Lodge should withdraw 
itself from the authority of the Grand Lodge in London, and immediately join what they 
called the York Grand Lodge, after which the health of James Siddell was drank as Grand 
Master of Masons, the said Bro. Wm. Rigge and Brother Le Caan only dissenting. And 
tliat it was further resolved to notify such proceedings to the Grand Secretary, and that a 
manifesto' should be published to the world. " 

It was further stated that a minority— who were desirous of continuing their allegiance 
to the Grand Lodge — opposed the violent proceedings of the majority, and informed the 

' So for, Preston himself, in his " State ot Facts," but the subsequent proceedings, at the Com- 
mittee of Charity, are griven from the actual minutes of that body. 

' Minutes, Committee ot Cliarity, January 30, 177S. 

' Ontnd Lodge Minutes, February 4, 1778. 

♦Made October 80, 1778. At this meeting " a Pamphlet lately published by Bro. Wm. Preston 
under the title of ' a State of Facts,' was cited as containing < many severe, inflammatory, and ftUae 
Reflections upon the proceedings of the Grand Lodge in general, and upon the Conduct of Brother 
Heseltine, the Grand Secretary, in particular.' " 

^Printed by Hughan in " Masonic Sketche.1 and Reprints" (Appendix D); and by myself in the 
" Four Old Lodges," p. 36. 

VOL, in. — 12. 



latter, that they had no right to take away the booki and furniture of the lodge, whieli 
were the joint property of all the members, " notwithstanding which the factious junto 
in defiance of every rule of justice, honor, or common honesty, in the deadest hour of 
the night, by force took away all the furniture. Jewels, and Books belonging to the Lodge 
and had since assembled under a pretended [and] ridiculous authority called by them the 
Grand Lodge of York Masons, of which one James Siddell, a tradesman in York calls 
himself Grand Master." ' 

It was also reported that the " Manifesto " alluded to had been published and dispereed 
^80 that the members who remained true to their allegiance had elected the said AVm' 
Rigge their Master, and had restored Brothers Noorthouck, Bottoinlev, and Bi-early to 
their rank and status in the Lodge. The following resolution was then passed by the 
Committee of Charity:— 

" That whenever the Majority of a Lodge determine to quit the Society, the Constitn- 
tion and Power of Assembling remains with the rest of the members who are desirous of 
continuing their alliance." 

After which John Wilson, William Preston— described as a "Journeyman Printer "- 
and nine others, were expelled from the Society, and their names ordered to be " trans- 
mitted to all regular Lodges, with an Injunction not to receive or admit them as members 
or otherwise; nor to countenance, acknowledge, or admit into their Lodges, any Person or 
Persons, assuming or calling themselves by the name of York Moions, or by any other 
Denomination than that of Free and Accepted Masons under the Authority of, or in 
Alliance and Friendship with, the Grand Lodge of Englanu ■ of which his Grace the Duke 
ol Manchester is at present Grand Master." 

These proceedings-confirmed by Grand Lodge, February 3, lT79-evoked a further 
pamphlet from the seceders, dated March 24 in the same year, and issued from the Queen's 
Arms Tavern, St. Paul's, under the hand of "J. Scaly, Secretary," wherein thev protest 
against "the very disrespectful and injurious manner in which the names of several 
brethren are mentioned," and "tbe false, mean, and scandalous designations annexed to 

The expelled members, as we have seen, resorted to the " Deputation from the Grand 
Lodge of all England to the R. W. Lodge of Antiquity, constituting the latter a Grand 
Lodge of England south of the River Trent, dated March 29, 1779,"' and were soon 
aotively engaged under their new constitution. 

Mr. John Wilson, late Master of No. 1, was the first Grand Master, and Mr. John Sealy 
the Grand Secretary, the inaugural proceedings taking place on June 24, 1779-Pre..ton 
having the offiro of Grand Orator conferred upon him on November 3. On April 19, 1780 
Mr. Benjamin Bradley was installed as the second Grand Master, Preston being apjiointod 
1.18 D.G.M., and Messrs. Donaldson and Sealy were elected Grand Treasurer and Secretary 
respectively. The only two lotlges formed under the auspices of this " feudal " Grand 
Lodge were numbered one and two, the junior being the first to be constituted. The 
ceremony took place at the " Queen's Head Tavern," Holbom, on August 9, 1779. The 

'(•*•• a« distinguished from the other Grand Lodge of England (AncientB), of which the Duke of 
Atholl (also at the head of the Scottish craft) was then the Grand Master. 

• A copy of this pamphlet (folio) is to be found in the archives of the Lodge of Antiquity 
Hargrove says it was granted in 1799 (op. cit., p. 478), but this y>u probably due to a tvpo- 
gntphiral error only, 1770 being intended. 



lodge was named " Peiwverance and Trinmph/'and had Preeton for its firat Master. On 
November 15, 1T79, the " Lodge of Perfect Observanre" was constituted at the " Mitre 
Tavern," Fleet Street— P. Lambert de Lintot' being B.W.M. Mr. B. H. Latrobe was 
Grand Secretary in 17.'- i, and in a report to the " Grand Lodge of all England held at 
York," mentioned that "at the lastQ.C, 29 Dec. 1T89, the decayed state of the two 
Lodges was taken into consideration," and a deputation was appointed to make dne 
inquiries. This was followed by a favorable result, which led that official to remark that, 
" upon the whole, the prospect before us seems to be less gloomy than that we have had 
for some time past" 

As the " Lo<' • of Antiquity " preserved a dual existence, the private lodge and the 
Grand Lodge (orishoot of the York Grand Lodge) being kept quite distinct (on paper) — 
though virtually one and the same body — there were, in a certain sense, three subordinate 
lodges on the roll of the " Grand Lodge of England south of the Trent" ' 

During the suspension of his masonic privileges by the Grand Lodge of England, 
Preston rarely or ever attended any meetings of the Society, though he was u member of 
nmny lodges both at home and abroad. It was at this i>eriod of his life that he wrote the 
passages in his " Illustrations " concerning the "inherent rights "of the four lodges of 
KIT, which have been since adopted by the generality of Masonic historians. In the 
edition of 1781, referring to the subject, he observes — " when the former editions of tliis 
Book were printed, the author was not sufficiently acquainted with this part of the history 
of Masonry in England."' It may be so, and the reflections in which he indulges during 
tiie "Antiquity " schism were possibly the result of honest research, rather than mere efforts 
of the imagination. However, I shall follow the example, and echo the words last quoted, 
of the writer whose memoir I am compiling,by asking the readers of ray " Four Old Lodges " 
to believe that when " that book was printe<l, the author " — to the extent that he took on 
trust the loose statements in the "Illustrations" — "was not sufficiently acquainted with 
those parts of the history of Masonry in England. " 

A memorial from Prest-- tdpecting his expulsion, was laid before Grand Lodge on 
April 8, 1789, but it was i • "lowed to be read. At the ensuing Grand Feast, how- 

ever, in the May following, incils prevailed, and mainly through the mediation of 

Willi ..n Birch, afterward Ma . ^r of the Lodge of Antiquity. Preston ami those expelleil 
with him in 1779, all "expressing their desire of promoting conciliatory measures with the 
Grand Lodge, and signifying their concern that through misrepresentation they should 
have incurred the displeasure of Grand Lodge — their wish to be restored to the privileges 
of tlie Society, to the laws of whii'h they were ready to conform," the (Jnind Lo<lge, being 
"satisfied with their apology," ordered tliat they should be restored to their privileges 
in the Society.* It has been said that Preston came out of this dispute the victor. Such 

'Some notes respecting Lintot will be found in the Frtemamm, February 11, March 11, and May 
C. 1883. 

' Further details respecting these lodges are given by Hughan in his " Miutonic Sketches and 
Reprints," p. 59; and by Whytehead in the Freenuuon for Hay 14, 1881, May 11, 1882, and Decem- 
ber 18, 1884 Of '.he " Antiquity " Grand Lodge, I have merely to record that there were but two 
Orand Mar "« — John Wilson and Benjamin Bradley— and two Grand Secretaries — John Sealy, and 
later, R H. ..obe. 

■Illustrations of Masonry, 1781, p. 234. 

* Grand Lodge Minutes, May 4, 1789, and printed, with some slight variation, in the Grand Lodge 
I'lnn-ediogi, November 85, 1789. 




WM far from being the caw. The attitude of the Grand Lodge of England wm the mme, 
from flnt to last— that is to say, in the riew which it adopted with regaid to the groat 
quertion of priWlege raised by the senior Lodge on its roU. The " Manifesto ''' of the latter 
was revoked. The " majority " party tendered their submission. The " Grand Lodge of 
England South of the Trent " passed into the realm of tradition, and the members of the 
Lodge of Antiquity, reunited after many years of discord, have since that period, and up 
to the present day, worked together in such love and harmony as to render the Senior 
English Lodge, all that even William Preston could have desired,— vis., a pattern and a 
model for all ite juniors on the roll. 

In 1787 Preston was instrumental in forming— or, to use the Masonic equivalent, " re. 
v»r%"— the Grand Chapter of Harodim, particuUm of which are given in his work.' 
But it is upon his " Illustrations of Masonry " that his fame chiefly rests. Of this twelve 
editions were published in the lifetime of the author; and the late Godfrey Higgins was 
not far out in his statement that it "contains much useful information, but [Preston] had 
not the least suspicion of the real origin of Masonry." • It would be possible to go much 
further, but we should do well to recollect that "the times immediately preceding their 
own are what all men are least acquainted with." • It was Preston's merit that he sought 
to unravel many historical puzzles a stage or two removed from his own in point of time; 
and it must be regarded as his misfortune that he failed in Us laudable purpose. He wa^ 
too prone to generalize largely from a very small number of solitary facts; and of this a 
striking example is nflorded by his observations on the early history of the Great Schism, 
upon which I have already had occasion to enlaige. 

Preston died, after a long illness, on April 1, 1818, aged deventy-six, and was buricl 
in St Paul's Cathedral. Among the bequests in his will were X500 consols to the Fun.l 
of Benevolence, and £300 consols as an endowment to ensure the annual deUvery of the 
Prestonian lecture. 

Ketnming to the history of Freemasonry at York, the following list of Grend Masters 
*nd Grand Secretaries from 1761, though not complete, is fuller than any before published 

Grand Masters. 

1V61-2. Francis Drake. F.R.& 

1763. John S. Morritt. 

1764-t). John Palmes. 

1767. Seth Agar. 

1768-70. George Palmes. 

1771-3. Sir T. Oascoigne, Bart 

1773. diaries Chaloner. 

1774. Henry Stapilton. 

1775. Do. 
1776-8. William Siddall. 

1779. Do. 

1780. Francis Smyth, Jun. 
1733. Robert Sinclair. 

Ghand Secretaribs. 

John Tasker 


David Lambert. 
Thomas Williamson. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Nicholas Nickson. 

Joseph Atkinson, 
Jacob Bussey. 
John Browne. 



•Ed. 17n p »«. .An«»lyp.i,. ,836. vol. i., p. «T. 

'Horace Walpole, Letters to Sir H. Maan, vol. i., p. 181. 



1783-4. William Siddidl. William Blancburd. 

1730. Thomas Kilby. Do. 

1792. Edwanl WoUey.' Do. 

1 miut now advert to some noTeltiea which fonnd their way into and were considered 
« part of the York Masonic system. The subject is one that requires very delicate hand- 
ling, and I shall do my best to avoid giving offence, either to those who believe that genuine 
Freemasonry consists of three degrees, and no more; or to the other and perhaps larger 
section of the Fraternity, who are not content with the simple system known to our 
Masonic forefathers— Payne, Anderson, and Desaguliers. On both sides of the question 
a great deal might be advanced which it would be difficult to answer; but J thai] endeavor 
to steer clear of the difficulties that beset our path — whether we incline iu the one direction 
or the other — by rigidly confining myself, as far as possible, to actual facts, and by oere- 
fully eschewing (within the same limitations) those points of divergence upon which all 
good Masons «an agrte to differ. 

Happily the Freemasons of England, who composed their differences and were reunited 
on a broader platform in 1813, are juEtified in leaving the considerittion of all moot points 
of discipline and ceremonial of earlier date, to the antiquaries of the Craft, against whose 
research even the Solemn Act of Union cannot be pleaded as an estoppel.* 

The additional ceremonies which had crept into use shortly before the fusion of the 
two Grand Lodges, are pleasantly alluded to by William Preston, who observes: 

" It is well known to ihe Masons of this country, that some men of warm and enthu- 
siastic imaginations have been disposed to amplify ports of the institution of Freemasonry, 
and in their supposed improvements to have elevated their discoveries into new degrees, to 
which they have added ceremonies, rituals, and dresses, ill-suited to the native simplicity 
of the Order, ew it was originally practised in this covntrij. But all these degrees, though 
probably deserving reprehension, as improper innovations on the original system of 
Masonry, I can never believe that they have either proceeded from bad niotivs, or could 
be viewed 'n any other light than as innocent and inoffensive amusements." ' 

" By the Solemn Act of Union between the two biand Lodges of Free- Masons of 
England, in December 1813, it was ' declared and pronounced tliat pure Antient Masonry 
consists of three degrees and no more, viz., those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow 
Craft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch.' " ' 

This is a little confusing. The degree— as we now have it — of Installeil Master not 
being mentioned at all, whUst that of the Royal Arch is brought in as the complement of 
certain other degrees, which, it was expressly stated, were all that existed of their kind. 

The Grand Lodge of York went further, as will be shortly told; but it is first of all 
necessary to observe, that until quite recently the earliest allusion to Royal Arch Masonry 
(at York) was to be found in the " Treasurer's Book of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch 
Masons," commencing April 29, 1768; but the fortunate discovery of Messrs. Whjrtehead 
and Todd in 1879 now enables us to trace the degree back to February 7, 1762. " Passing 
over the mention of the Royal Arch by the ' AthoU ' Masons m 1752, the next in order 
of priority is the precious little volume at York. ... Its chief value consists in being 
the earliest records of a Chapter, including a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, 

Afterwards called Copley, of Potto Hall, near Stokesley. 

* Cf. The Four Old Lodges, p. 87 mi.). 

* Illustrations of "'vHoay, edit 1804, pp. 1(89, 840. 

< Book of ConRtitutioM. 1884. p. 16. 



known." ' Full pBrticulara of thin valiubl. minute-book will be found in Mr. WhytehnadV 
article, entitled "The Boyal Arch at York.'" Hughan, who ha« carefully examined tho 
volume, dooa not ooniiider that it could have been the first record of the Royal Arch iit 
York, though it ia the earliest preserved. The meetings are described as then of n 
" Lodge "-not a " Chapter '-up to April 39, 1768; and the association, though evidently 
an oihhoot of Lodge No. 259 at the " Punch Bowl," the chief ofBcer (" P. II.") in 176-! 
being Frodsham, who was the first Master of that Lodge, it gradually obtained the support 
of the York Grand Lodge, and ultimately developed \ia.\a a Omnd Chapter for that degret-. 
The special value of the volume is its record of the warrants granted to Royal Arch Chapters 
in the neighborhood of York, the first of which was petitioned for on December 88, 1769 
being the date of the earliest issued by the Orand Chapter in London ("Modems"), which 
was granted on February 7, 1770. The booic ends on January 6, 1776, the thread of th« 
narraUve being continued in another volume, beginning February 8, 1778, and ending 
Septembjr 10, 1781, which was recognized by Hughan amongst the books in the Oran.i 
Lodge of England. The "York" Lodge, by petition to the then Grand Master, Lonl 
ZetUnd, secured its return to their archives, with the folio minute book, and two old MSS., 
which were all at that time preserved in the office of the Grand Secretary. Four Royal 
Arch warrants at least were granted, and probably more. 

^' R'Pon. Agreed to February 7, 1770. 

2. " Crown " Inn, Knaresborough, . " April 1770. 

3. Inniskilling Regiment of Dragoons, . " October 1770. 

4. " Druidical " Chapter, Rotherham, . " February 35, 1780. 

These Chapters appear to have been held under the protecting wings of Craft Lodges, 
as is the custom now— three out of the four preserving a connection with the " York " 
Grand I^gu and the other, as already shown, being a regimental Lodge of the " Atholl " 
Masons. The degree was conferred at York on brethren hailing from Hull, Leeds, ana 
other towns, which suggests that a knowledge of Royal Arch Masonry even at that period was 
far from being confined to the schismatics of London '—but of this more hereafter. Tl.o 
officers of the " Grand Lodge of all England " wore elected " Masters of this Royal 
Chapter whenever such Presiding Officers shall be members hereof. In case of default, 
Hiey shall be succeeded by the senior members of the Royal Arch Cliapter (May 2, 1779)." 
The only copy of a York charter (E A.) known, is given by Huglian,* and w'as i'ssuwl on 
.July 7, 1780, to members of the " Druidical Lodge of Antient York Masons at Rothor- 
Imm," under the seal of the " Grand Lodge of all England." 

A unique meeting of the Royal Arch degree (not the " third," as Hargrove errone- 
ously states) took place on May 37, 17T8, in York Cathedral, and is thus described: 
" The Royal Arch Brethren whose names are undermentioned assembled in the Ancient 
Lodge, now a sacred Recess with [in] the Cathedral Church of York, and then and ther<. 
opened Chapter of Free and Accented Masons in the Most Sublime Degree of Royal Arch. 
The Chapter was held, and then closed in usual form, being adjourned to the first Sunc'jiy 

' Hughan, Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry. 1884, p. 64. 

• Freemuson, November 7, 1879. 

• l.f., the Masons under the obedience of the " Atholl " or " Ancient" Orand Lodg«. 
'Masonic Sketches, pt ii., p. 18. 



in Jane except in OMe of Emergency." Thi* unusual gathering, in all prolMbility, ban 
mipplied the text or basis (or the " tradition " that the Orand Lodge in olden times was in 
the habit of holding its august assemblies in the crypt of the venerated Minster. 

On Juno 2, 1780, the Orand Ctutpter resolved that the " Masonic Oovemment, anciently 
established by the Royal Edwin, and now existing at York nnder the title of The Orand Lodge 
of all England, comprehending in its nature all the different Order* or Degrees of Masonri/, 
very justly claims the subonlination of all other Lodges or Chapters of Free and Accepted 
Masons in this Realm." The degrees were five in number, viz; the first three, the Royal 
Arch, and that of Knight Templar. The Orand Lodge, on June, 20, 1780, assumed their 
protection, and its minute-book was utilized in part for the preservation of the records of 
the Royal Arch and Knight Templar Degrees. Hughun considers that the draft of a o>.t- 
tificate preserved at York for the five degrees oi January 26, 1779, to November 29, 1779, 
" is the oldest dated reference that we know of to Knight Templary in England." ' 

Of the Encampments warranted by the Grand Lodge of all England for the Fifth 
Degree," i.e., the Knight Templar, I know but of two, viz.: 

K. T. Encampment, Rotherham.' . . July 6. 1780. 

Do., No. 1.5, Manchester,' . October 10, 1786 

What ultimately became of the first mentioned is unknown, but the second seems to luve 
joined the Grand Encampment held in London, under "Thomas Dunkerley, G.M.," tlio 
■charter l>earing date May 20, 1795.* 

It will be seen, therefore, that, though various methods were employed to preserve the 
vitality of the York organization, the prestige and prosperity generally of the rival Grand 
Lodges in London ultimately brought about its dissolution. Notwithstanding the recog- 
nition of the Royal Arch Degree, and Bubsequently of the Templar ceremony, the Grand 
Lodge of all England— if we except the transitory Grand Lodge formed in London— never 
exorcisetl any influence beyond Yorkshire and Lancashire; and hence all itg warraalu, 
which have been traced from the earliest down to the latest records, were authorized to be 
held in those two counties only. The boast, therefore, of being " York Masions," so fre- 
quently indulged in, more especially in the United States, is an utterly baseless one, be- 
cause the Grand Lodge of York (as we are justified in inferring) liad outlived all its 
daughter Lodges— which existed in England only— before linking into its final slumber 
towards the close of the last century. 

Even at the height of its fortunes, the York branch of the Society was a very small one. 
Still, however, the relative antiquity of the Lodge— which certainly existed in the seven- 
teenth centurj-, and probably much earlier— invests the history of Freemasonry at this tradi- 
tional centre with an amount of interest which, it is hoped, will more than justify the 
space which has been accorded to its narra;ion. 

Before, however, passing from the subject, a few words have yet to be said respecting 
the seals used by the now extinct Grand Lodge of all England, for impressions of wnich I 
have to thai'k Mr. Joseph Todd; and with this description I shall include, for the sake of 
convenience, that of some other arms, of which plates are given. 

'T. C. Whytehead, "The Connection between the Templars and the Freemasons in the City of 
York," 1*77. See also Hughan, Origin of the English Bite of Freemasonry, p. 68. 

'Hughaa, Masonic Sketches, pt i., p. 6ii. 

•John Yarker, Notes on the Qiders of the Temple and St. Johri. etc., 18<». *Ibid. 






When « M«l wu flnt used b; the York Maaoiu it w now impoMiVe to decide. The 
■Ml affixed to the York " Conrtitntions and Certificate*," a* deKribed by the Grand Seoiv- 
tary on December 14, 1767, in a letter to the " Grand Lodge of England," mw " Three Regal 
Cro«mi, with thii Circnnucription: ' Sigillnm Edwini Northnm. Regis.' "' I take this to 
be the " Old Seal of Prince Edwin'i Arms," of liWer, mentioned in the inventory of Jan. 
1, 1776, aa " An iron acrew preas, with a Seal of Prince Edwin's Amu let into the fvli," 
and also in the " Schedule of the Regalia and Records, etc," of September 15, 1779. In 
the latter inventory is nak>ied " A Seal and Counter Seal, the first bearing the arms of Prince 
Edwin, and the other the arms of Masonrj'." The seal-in-chief of the kttter is of brass. 
and bears the legend: "^ Sigil: Frat: Ebor: Per. Edwin: Coll: " above the three crowns 
being the year " a.d. 936." Tlie " Counter Seal " (of copper) contains the arms and crest, 
as used by the " Atholl " Masons, of which I shall have occasion to speak further on.' 

It is quite ckmr to me, tliat the first seal mentioned, is the one referred to by Grand 
Secretary Laml)ert in 176T, and that it was set aside later on for the " Seal and Countor 
Seal " named in the inventory of 1779. Impressions of the latter are attached to the war- 
rant or deputation to " The Grand Lodge of England South of the River Trent," of Marcii 
29, 1779, and are in an oval tin box, opening with movable lids on both sidi -, liappily still 
prcserve<l by the Lodge of Antiquity. It would therefore be made between the dates of 
the two inventories — 1776-1779. 

An engraving of these seals (seal and counter seal) is to be found in Hargrove's 
" History of York,"' and likewise in Ilughan's latest work.* The seal preserved of the 
Grand Cliapter (York) is apparently the one mentioned in the records March 3, 1780— 
" Ordered that a Seal be provided for the use of the Grand Chapter not exceetling half a 
Guinea." It was paid for on April 7. The design is of an unusual kind, being a nunbow 
resting on clouds at each end; below is a triangle, and then a crescent, and the legend, 
" Grand-Royal- Arch-C'hapter- York." It has been reproduced by Ilnghan for the first 
time, who, however, is not corn-ct in t' ating the seal of the " Arms of Masonry" as the 
routi/er seal of the Grand Chapter, us it is distinctly stated in the inventory of 1779 to be 
fl»at of the Grand Lodge. I believe we owe to Mr. W. H. Rylands the correct arrangement 
of the so.ile at York. 

Colonel Shadwell Clerke, Grand Secretary, has kindly placed at my disposal impressions 
of the seals preserved at Grand Lodge. Of these, the more important will be fonnd engravwl 
with those from York. In order to distinguish the seals of the two Grand Lodges of 
Kfi^land, the title " Atholl " has been used in one (ase. It may be pointed out that the 
arnii' used by " The Grand Lodge of Masons," as it is styled on the seal (No.2), are those 
granted to the Masons' Company, with the colors changed, the addition of beavers as sup- 
porters, and with a bird assumed to be intended for a dove, but here more nearly resemblinu 
a falcon, sulwtituted for fix- original crest of a towered castle. The other Grand Lodge. 
called on the seal (Nt, 6 ) of Free and Accepted Masons," bears the arms as given b\ 

'Huphan. Masooio Sketches, pt. i., p. 52. The author styles this the " Counter Seal," in his 
" Uri)^n of the English Rite of Freemasonry," 1804; but I should doubt its havinf^ been used for that 

'"A lanre silk Banner, with thp Society's Arms. Mottos. etc. paint»l on Isnth sidps. fringed 
about with silk fringe," is entered in the inventoriee of ITd and 1779. (See colored plate.) 

"History of York, 1818, vol. ii., pt 2, p. 477. 

' Origin of tlie English Rite of Freemasonry, 1884. 


Tm aRANO Looac or cn'-- *no 

Copied from the originals, ant! highest authorities. 




JVirmoU in 1764. »nd okllcd the " Aran of MMonry " in the York inTentory of 17T9. Of 
the two oolorad pUtM very little need be Mid, hi tlu- iiwcriptioM, like thow of the «•!•, 
■ufflciently dewribe what they r8|Mre«nt They include reduced copies of the »rm» m 
gi»en in the gnnU to the Mmoiu' and Urpenten' Com|iMiiee in the fifteenth century,— 
of the M«rbler», FreenuMona (the towert being in thia insUnoe gold), and the Bricklayer! 
and tilen, a« painted upon the Oateahead Charter of lOTl. The date circa 1680, of the 
panel in the poMeaiion of Mr. Rylandi, ia, in the opinion of lomo antiquarica, the wWtwi 
to which it may bo attributed; moat probably the blue of the field in the flrft and third 
quartern hai pcriihcd. For a careful colored drawing of the banner already referred 
to, I am indebted to Mr. Joaepb Todd, who has moat willingly placed at my diiponul 
in thii aa in other mattera all the information of which he i« in poaaeMion. Aa thia banner 
ii mentioned in the InTentoriea of January 1, 1776, and September 15, 1779, it muat have 
been for some little time in the poaaeaiion of the Lodge at York, otherwiae it could not be 
the mme aa that mentioned in the minutea under December 37, 1779, then aoid to be pre- 
aented by Bro. William Siddall. 

The anna of the Stoncmaaona of Stnwabnrg from the aeal circn 1725, ii colored ac- 
cording to the dcBcription given by Hoidolofl; and in the caae of thoBc of the Nurenberg, 
alio looaely deecribe<l by the aame author, Mr. W. 11. Rylanda ia of opinion that the descrip- 
tion i» perhapa to be underatood,— following a naual custom in her. dry, that the arma and 
colors were the wme aa thoee of Straaabnrg, only "with thia differeuce, it is the bend that 
i« red," that is to my, the colora were simply rereraed for diatinction. The arms of the city 
of Cologne are given for compariaon with those from the seal of the Masons of that city, 
found on the Charter, dated 1396. No colora are to be noticed on the original seal, which 
vpj*ttrs with others of the same class on a plate in an earlier portion of this work. In a 
inoet oourtpou* reply to a request made by Mr. Bylands for help m the matter, I)r. Hohl- 
baum, Stadtorcliiviir of Cologne, although he i^fr^inl tliat the colors were most probably 
iMised on those in the arms of the city, was uufortunaU'ly unable to give any definite in- 
formation on the subject. These colors hav. been followed in the plate. The three coronote 
on an azure field, were the arms Iwrno by the Orand Lodge of M England—" Prince 
Edwib'a arma"— and are therefore the same as those given on the York Seals. 







THE Minutes of that Schiamatic body, commonly, but erroneously, termed the " An- 
cient Masons," commence in the following manner: 




At the Griffin Tawrn in Holhorn, London, m. Uh, 1752. Mb Haoahty ■ in the Chair. 

Also present the Officers of Nob. 2. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, being the representotive, 

of all the Ancient Masons in and adjacent to London. Brother John Monran, On„.,I 

.Secretary, Informed the Committee tliat he being lately appointed to an office on bounl 

T- . ^."n '^f r ^'^'P*''""^'^"'- «"^«" ^ P-^Pare for hie departure, and therefore 
advised the Grand Committee to choose a new Secretary immediately 

Upon which Bro. John Morris, past Master of No. 5, and Bro. Laurence Dermott of 
J^r^h ffi 'Tn "^^"^^ ^'"- 2«' '« Dublin, were proposed and admitted as candidates 
for the office .f Grand Secretary, and Grand Secretory Moi^n was ordered to examine the 
candidates separately, and report his opinion of their Qualifications. 

After a long minute Examination, relative to Initiation, passing. Insulations, ana 
General Reg" at.ons. etc., Bn,. Morgan decUred that Bro. Laurence Dermott was duly 
quahfietl for the office of Grand Secretory. ^ 

Whereon, the Worshipful Master in the chair put up the Names of John Morris and 
Laurence Dermott. seperately. when the latter was Unanimously chosen Grand Secretory, 
hIT m!!! ' 1 r ""''""' <'" *'* ^"•"''"* ^""•'') "^y '"^^ ^'""Wpful M' .Tame: 

^^H^t^ °'^" *!°'^" ^"^ *•"" '"''"^ "' '^^ P"**'^^"*) P^X'J'i^'^d the new Grand 
Secretary thrice, according to ancient custom, upon which the new Secretory received the 

£No.L"i„''^;'rr].*""" '''"°" ^^^^ " " •*"'*''• '^' "'—«-("«)« I-tl»r l^, London- 


1 37 

:«i8ual salutes, and then the PrcBidcnt and lato Orand Si-rretary, John Morgan, delivered the 
books, etc., into the hands of the new Secretary, Upon certain conditions which was agrwd 
by all porties, and which conditions the said Worshipful Bro. James Hugurty can explain. ' 
The Grand Committee unanimously joined in wishing B™. Morgan Health and a suc- 
cessful voyage, and then closed with the Greatest Harmony. Having adjourned to Wed- 
nesday, the fourth of March next" 

Of Laurence Dermott, the first Grand Secretary of the Seceders, it may be said, with- 
out erring on the side of panegyric, that he was the most remarkable Mason that ever 
existed. " As a polemic," observes a judicious writer, " he was sarcastic, bitter, uncom- 
promising, and not altogether sincere or veracious. But in intellectual attainments he 
was inferior to none of his adversaries, and in a philosophical appreciation of the character 
of the Masonic Institution, he was in advance of the spirit of his age.'" Yet although a 
very unscrupulous writer, he was a matchless administrator. In the former capacity he 
was the embodiment of the maxim, " de Vaudace, encore de raudace, toujotirs de Vaudace," 
but in the latter, ho displayed qualities which we find united in no other member of the 
€raft, who came either before or after him. 

As Grand Secretary, and later as Deputy Grand Master, he was simply the life and soul 
of the body with which he was so closely associated. He was also its historian, and to the 
influence of his writings, must be attributed, in a great measure, the marvellous success 
of the Schism. 

The epitheta of " Ancient " and " Modern " applied by Dermott to the usages of his 
own and of the older Society respectively, produced a really wonderful result.' The 
antithesis at once caught the public ear, and what is perhaps the strangest fact connecteil 
with the whole affair, the terms soon passed into general use, among the brethren under 
Mh Grand Lodges. The senior of thest; bodies, it is true, occasionally protested against 
tlio employment of expressions, which implied a relative inferiority on the part of its own 
members,' but the epithets stuck, and we constantly meet with thoni in the minute-books 
of lodges under the older system, where they were apparently used without any sense of 

The memoirs of Laurence Dermott, for the most part inscribed by his own hand, are 
given us in the records of the " Ancients." By this I do not mean that we ha.c there 
hia autobiography, but the personality of the man was so marked, tiiut with brief excej)- 
tions from the time the minutes commence, down to the date of his last appearance in 
Grand Lodge, the historj- of that body is very largely comjwsed of personal incidents in the 
career of its Secretary and Deputy Grand Master. 

Some curious anecdotes may be gleaned from these old records; and if Warburton's 
dicfum be sound, who set more value on one material historical anecdote, than on twenty 

'< I 

"•Be it Remembered that M' John Morgan, lato Grand Swretarj-, had a certain claim on the 
Manuscripts here said to be delivered to Laurent'e Dermott. Which claim Was acknowledged by the 
t;^ C'uniiuitlee as goo<l and lawful, auu for that and other liood Rca.sons which cannot be committeil 
to writing. The Worshipful Orand Committee did oRree with Brother John Morgan, late Grand 
Hwretary, that the new Secretary, Lau. Dermott, should be solemly bound never to deliver the said 
Manuscript (vit, a Large folio bound in White Vellum) to any perwn, But him the said John Mor- 
^jQ or his order in writing " [i hid.]. 

•Mackey, Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry. (. v. « Ante. p. 39. note 8. ♦ Ante, pp. U9, 178. 

'Art, pp. 196, note 2; 214, 315; and see "The Four Old Lodges," p. 35. 


! r 



new bypothewi in Philatophy, or • hnndred good critioiama— we cannot do better tlmn 
trace the fortunes of Laurence Dermott, under the guidance of hia own hand. 

But before entering upon thia taak, a few preliminary words are essential. Laurence 
Dennott was bom in Ireland, 1720; initiated into Masonry, 1740; installed as Master of 
No. 26,' Dublin, June 24, 1746; and in the same year became a Royal Arch Mason. 
Shortly after this, he came to England; and in 1748, joined a lodge under the regular es. 
tablishment, but had shifted his allegiance, and become a member of Nos. 9 and 10, on 
the Roll of the Schismatics, when elected Grand Secretary by the latter, February 5, 1752. 
This office he laid down in 1771; and on March 27, that year, was appointed Deputy 
Grand Master, being succeeded, at his own request, by William Dickey, December 1777. 
He was again " Deputy " from December 27, 1783, until the recurrence of the »me festival 
in 1787, when— also at his own request— he was succeeded by James Perry. His last at- 
tendance at Grand Lodge occurred June 3, 1789, and he died in June 1691.' There is 
no allusion to his death in the " Atholl " Records; and the only one I have met with in 
those of other Masonic jurisdictions, is the following: "June 4, 1792. RMolred, that in 
order to show the just regard and respect of this Grand Lodge for our late Bro. Laurence 
Dermott, the patron and founder thereof, it be recommended to every member of this 
Grand Lodge to appear on St John's Day neit, with Aprons bordered with black or other 
marks of mourning. " ' 

Dermott— who, the Minutes of July 13, 1753, inform us, "was obliged to worlc 
twelve hours in the day, for the blaster Painter who employed him "—in all probability 
owed his appointment as Grand Secretary to the influence of James Hagarty, in whost- 
employment it is very possible he was at the time. 

As time advanced, his circumstances in life improved, for in 1764, the officer^! of No. 
31 offered to become his security to the amount of £1000, if he was chosen Grand Trtat- 
urer; in 1766, he was able to subscribe £5 toward the relief of a brother in Xewgat<>: in 
1767, he " made a volluntary gift of the Grand Master's Throne, compleat, which cort in 
the whole, £34;"' and in 1768, he is described in the reconls as a Wine Merchant. 

His attainments were of no mean order. The Minutes of the Steward's I»dge— Marc h 
21, 1764— informs us that, an " Arabian Mason having petitioned for relief, the (Jrand 
Secretary conversed with him in the Hebrew language," after which, he was voted £\, le. 
Of Latin, he possessed at least a smattering, for when Grand Master Matthew, on being 
asked by him to name the text for a sermon— June 12, 1767— replied, " In principio erat 
sermo ille et sermo ille erat apud Deum erat que ille sermo Deus"— the Secretary at once 
made a bow and said, " Fungor ofBcio meo." 

Of his conscientiousness in the performance of his duties, the following affords a good 

"March 19, 1766. .V. B. The Grand Secretary was fined for swearing an oath, which 
fine he paid immediately; and was ordered to withdraw, during which time the St«wanlV 
Lodge order'd that the G. S should be excused, and that the fine shou'd not be inserted 

' According to the " Pocket Companion for Freemasons," Dublin, 1786, the Lodge. No. 86, ii,ea 
met at " the Eagle Tavern on Cork Hill." 

•1 derive this, ite from " Notes on Lau. Dermott and his Work," 1884, by W. M. Bywat«r, P. M. 
(and hititoi'ian) of Uh! " Ruyal AtlielDtan "' Lodge, No. 18, p. 57. 

' Early Hixtory and Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Pt ii., 1878, p. 119. 


Miong the Transactions of the Steward's Lodge. Notwithstanding this lenitive order, 
the O. S. thinks he cannot vioUte tliat part of his Instalation Ceremony, which expressly 
Mys, that he shall not favour the undeserved. I*«- Dennott 

" Therefore I have made this not.-." ' 

Although frequently debarred bv sickness from actual attendance at the meetings of 
OraiKl Lodge, toward the closing years of his Secretaryship, the records afford numerous 
examples of his devotion to the best interests of the Society. Thus, under March 7, IT . 0, 
we and: " Heard a second letter from O. S. Dermott, humbly proposing that no part of 
the Grand Fund be appropriated, expended, disbursed, nor ordered toward defraying the 
cliarges of any Publick Feast, Musick or Procession for the future, the FuneraU of In- 
digent Brethren (only) excepted-and which was unanimously approved of. " 

In addition to his manifold labors as Secretary, he took npon himself the task of com- 
piling a " Book of Constitutions" for the Seceders. This work-which will be hereafter 
considered-passed through no less than four editions during the author's lifetime," and 
if Ws fame rested on nothing else, would alone serve as a lasting monument of his zeal and 
ability Originally published at his own risk, its sale must have been very remunerative; 
and on September 29, 1785, when the thanks of Grand Lodge were voted tohinifor 
" giving up his property of 'Ahiman Rezon' to the Charity," the endowment must have 
been a very substantial addition to that fund. 

It is worthy of notice, that in " Ahiman Rezon," 1764, whilst exphUning the difference 
between " Antient and Mo<lern" [Miisonry], the author says: "I thii> it my duty to 
de<;lare solemnly, before God and man, tliat I have not the least antipathy against the 
gentlemen, members of the Modem Society; but, on the contrary, love and respect them. 
" Such " he adds, fourteen years later, " was my declaration in the second edition of this 
book; nevertheless, some of the Modern Society have been extremely malapert of late. 
Not satisfied with saying the Ancient Masons in England had no Grand Master, some of 
them descended so far from truth as to report, the author had forged the Grand Master^s 
hand-writing to Masonic warrants, etc. Upon application. His Grace the most Noble 
Prince John, Duke of Atholl, our present R. W. Grand Master's father, avowed his Grace s 
hand-writing, supi^rtod the Ancient Craft, and vindicated the author in the public news- 
mpcrs." Ue then goes on to say: " As they differ in mattcn- of Masonry, so they did in 
matters of calumny; for while some were charging me with forgery, others said, that I was 
so illiterate as not to know how to write my name. But what may appear more strange is, 
that some insisted that I had neither father nor mother; but tlmt I grew up spontaneously 
in the comer of a pototoe garden in Ireland. " " I cannot reconcile myself," he continues, 
"to the idea of having neither father nor mother; but .-. be that as it may, as I do not 
find that the calumny of a few Modem Masons has done me any real injury, I shall con- 
tinue in the same mind as expressed in the declaration to which this notice is written."* 

In Masonic cireles, Dermott was probably the best abused man of his time, and he 
revenged himself by holding up the members of the rival Society' to the ndicule of the 
public. Of this, one example must suffice. Describing their innovations, he says: " There 

' Steward's Lodge Minutes— footnote. 

» 17M, 17«4, 1778, and 1787. Subwsquent oditions appeared in 1800, 1801, 1807, and IHII. 

«P. xxiv. ' Aliiman Rezon, H<l «lit., 1778. 

» /.e.. The " Regular " or ' Constitutional ' Oraiul Lixige of England. 


WM another old custom that gave umbrage to the young architect*, i.e., the wearing of 
aprons which made the gentlemen look like lo many mechanicks, therefore it was propoetHj, 
that no brother (for the future; should wear an apron. This proposal was rejected by the 
oldert Members, who declared that the aprons were all the signs of Masonry then remaining 
amongst them, and for that reason they would keep and wear them. [It was then pro- 
posed, that (as they were resolved to wear aprons) they should be turned upside down, in 
order to avoid appearing mechanical. This proposal took place, and answered the design, 
for that which was formerly the lower part, was now fastened round the abdomen, and 
the bib and strings hung downwards, dangling, in such manner as might convince the 
spectators that there was not a working mason amongst them. 

" Agreeable as this alteration might seem to the gentlemen, nevertheless it was attended 
with an ugly circumstance: for, in traversing the lodge, the brethren were subject to treud 
upon the strings, which often caused them to fall with great violence, so that it was thought 
necessary to invent several methods of walking, in order to avoid treading upon thf 

" After many years' observation on these ingenious methods of walking, I conceive 
that the first was invented by a man grievously afflicted with the sciatica. The second by 
a sailor, much accustomed to the rolling of a ship. And the third by a man who, for 
recreation, or through excess of strong liquors, was wont to dance the dnmken peasant."' 

Although the passages within crotchets were omitted after 1787, the remainder appeared 
in every latvr edition, including the final one of 1813. That such coarse observations could 
ever find t V. 'r way into a work of the kind, may occasion surprise; but we should do well 
to recollect iliat when " journeymen painters" take to writing " Books of Constitutions".*' 
some little (ieviation from the ordinary methods must be expected. But we gain a clearer 
insight into the real character of the man, from the lines with which he concludes thii- 
portion of his work, wherein he expresses a hojie— renewed in the two succeeding editions 
published before his death— that he may " live to see a general conformity and universa: 
unity between the worthy masons of all denominations "—a hope, alas, not destined to ful- 

Mutatis mtitandig, the description given by Burton of the split in the Associate Synod, 
will exactly describe the breach between, and reunion of, tlie .Masons of England: 

" After long separation, these iKxlies, which hatl been pursuing their course in different 
liiien, re-united their forces. But, in the meantime, according to a common ecclesiafti.ul 
habit, each body counted itself the Synod, and denied the existence of the other, save as a 
mob of impenitent Schismatics." ' 

As the eariiest reconls of the Seceders are in the handwriting of Laurence Dermott, 
and date from his election as Orand Secretary, it is impossible to say how far, as an organ- 
ized body, their existence should be carried l>ack. A note to the minutes of September 
14, 1752, affords the only clue to the difficulty, and, as will be seen, does not materially 
assist us. It states that a General Assembly of Ancient Masons was held at the Turks 
Head Tavern in Greek Street, Soho,' on July 17, 1751, when the Masters of 2, 3, 4, 5, «. 

• Ibid., 1778. Footnote to text of previous edition. 

' Ahiman Rezon, 1784, p. xxxi. 

'History of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 344. 

«M»y 6, nS2-" Motion made-That this Orand Committee be removed back to the Turk's Head 
Tavern in (Jreek St., Solio, where it had [becnj long held under tlie tiUe of the Orand Lodge of Free 
»n<l Accepted MaM>ns of the Old Institution. Thix motion w«> not seconded, and therefore a«,pl " 

on tbt' 

ond }))• 
ho, for 
9 could 
Id well 
ee tliji' 
to fii!- 

IjniOi] . 



as n 


f Fiw 

OF LONDON, ath lOWARO IV, 1466. 





CofitJ from Iht Origmah and HtghtsI Mulhorilit$. 

Till arms borne by 

area 17.": 

/roiM iUltshfaJ chjrltr ll>7l. 


from sijl H')(> [iOloiirs ristortJ.) 


U>t<i<J ,'0-. Ihi Onginala Jn.i Hightit Aulhorilits. 
S.I I'jgi iS.i. 








Mid 7 WM« Mtboriierf to gnnt ditpMuntioiu •nd wwranU, iind to act ai Qrand MMtor. 
And th* Maalen of tbrae lodgM " did actiuUy eieroiw mch •uthority, in ugninK the 
wurmnt No. 8, from which [m the word* run] thiit not« ia written, for Dennott never 
recMTed any copy or nuMiuicript of the former TmuNictioni from Mr. Morgan, late Grand 
Heeretary; Nor doeii Laurence Dennott, the prewnt Orand Secretary, think that Bro. 
Morgan did keep any book of Tnuuaotiont,— though there ii no certainty that he did 

From thia we learn that there were lix' lodge* in eziitenoe prior to July 17, 1T51, bnt 
the «»ct date* of their oonititution there are no mvansof detormining; still it ii not 
likely that the olduet of theie lodges waa formed before 1747.' 

The proceedings of the Orand ('om.uittee, held March 4, 1753— Bro. John Gaunt. 
Ma«tor of No. ■>. in the fliair — are than recofded by Laurence Dcrmirtt: 

" Formal complaints made against Thomas Phealon and John Macky, bettor known by 
the name of the ' leg of mutton masonii.' In vrmrse of the oaminati ;n, it appeared that 
Phealon and Macky liad initiated many peraona for Uio moan considemtion of a leg of 
inntton for dinner or supper, to the disgrace of the AAcient craft. That Macky was un 
Kmpiric iu phisio; and both impostors in Masonry. That upon examining some brother 
irhom they prctondcd to havi- made Qoyal-Archnien,' the ivrties had not the least idea of 
tliat secret That IT. Macky (for so Itu was called) pretoiiUed to tevh a Maaouical Art. 
by which any man could (in u moment) rt nder himself invisible. Tli:at the (irand Secre- 
tary had examiiuHl Macky. aii' tliat Macky appeared incapable of makiiig an Apprentice 
with any dogni- of propriety. Nor had Macky the least idea or knowlvugc of Royal-Arch 
Masonry. But instead thcrei- '. he had tohl the people whom he deceived, a long story 
atiout 13 white Marble StoneH. etc., etc. And that the Rainbow was the Royal Arch,' with 
many other absurdities equally foreign and rcdieulous. 

" Agreed and ordered— that neither Thomas Phealon nor John Mackey be admitted 
into any ancient Lodge during their natural Lives." 

On SoptomU'i- in the same year, it waa agreed that every sick member should rect ve 
one peniiv per week from every registered Mason in London and \^esti: iister; after whi. ti 
"the Loilgo was opcne<l in Ancient form of Oraiu: Ixxlge, and cvcrv (lart f real Frce- 
masonr*- was trace<l and explaiiUHl" by the rirand Secretary, " except the Royii Arch. " 

"Dei. 6, 1752. — Resolved unanimously; that the Lodges, who by neglect rdi«)l)eili- 

Uiranil Omimittw Miniit«A). An ••xplanation of t ..• statement embodied with the forefroiiK .osolu- 
liin, will lit- found above. Its value historically i^ ncarnly i-qunl to thu' of the pi k- of a bi51 

which has the ill luck not to ripen into an Act of Purliament. Cf. ante, t lap. VTl. :S73. 

'^^"Urand Committee of the ' Ancient*,' which subsequently clevclniied in •. tii>>ir ' Orand 
Lodf|r<*,' waa n» ilnubt originally their senior private lodge, whose growth in liis i :>evt ia ukin to 
tliat of the Orand (Chapter of the ' Modems,' whi< h, commemini; in 1765 an ii >nvi^ Chai'ler, with- 

in a few years aHsume) tiie general direction u( Ii. A. Masonry, and isMuud wu -an 
(Atltoll Lodges, p. ix.). 

' ty. ante, p. 147. 

'The only allusion to the " Bol/al Arch," of earlier date, will be u nd in i 
rioim and Impartial Enquiry into the Cause of the present Decay of Freeis isor \ 
l!> liuid," 1744. Reprinted by Hughan, in "Masonic Memorials of the Union," 
'unijuzinr, vol. ii., p. 868; vul. iii., pp. 5, 63, Hi. 

* Q. " Whence comes the Pattern M an Arch ? A. From the Hambow " (V 

u( Couxtitution " 

i -r. Diiiwigny's " Se- 
\ in lli>- Kingdom of 
874; also in Jfosonic 

oD°<> Examination, 

fi J. 






enoe hare forfeited their Buik and Number, iludl be diMMntinned on the Begiatry, and 
the Jonior Lodge* who have proved thenuelTea faithful frienda of the Andent Craft, shall 
henceforth bear the Title or Number w forfeited: The distribution to be according to 
Seniority. The Grand Secretary Jedred to know whether there was any other books or 
Manuscripts more than had been delivered to him upon the 2nd of Feb. 1752. To which 
several of the Brethren answered that they did not know of any; others said they know 
M'. Morgan had a roll of parchment of prodigious length, which contained some historical 
matters relative to the ancient Craft, which parchment they did suppose he had taken 
abroad with him. It was further said, That many Manuscripts were lost amongst the 
Lodges lately Modernised, where a vestige of the ancient Craft [word erased] was not auf. 
fared to be revived or practized. And that it was for this reason so many of them withdrew 
from Lodges (under the Modem sanction) to Support the true Ancient System. That 
they found the freemasons from IreUmd and ScotUnd had been initiated in the very same 
manner as themselves, which confirmed their system and practice as right and juet. Without 
which none could be deemed legal, though possessed of all the books and papers on Earth. 
" The Grand Secretary (Dermott) produced a very old Manuscript, written or copied 
by one Bramhall of Canterbury, in the reign of King Henry the seventh; which was pre- 
sented to M'. Dermott in 1748, by one of the descendants of the writer— on perusal it 
proved to contain the whole matter m the fore-mentioned parchment, as well as other 
matters not in that parchment 

" B' Quay moved ' that the thanks of the General committee be given to G. 8. Dermott; ' 
upon which B". James Bradshaw [and others] protested against any thanks or even appro- 
bation of the Secretary's conduct, who, instead of being useful, had actually Sung and 
lectured the Brethren out of their senses. The Secretary said— if he was so unfortunate 
as to sing any brother out of his Senses, he hoped the Worshipful Master in the Chair, un.l 
the Grand Committee, would allow him an hour's time, and he would endeavor to eiug 
them into their senses again. 

" The request was granted with great good humour, the Secretary made proper use of 
his time, and the W. Master clos'd and adjourned the Grand Committee to the Five Bells 
Tavern in the Strand." 

Several resolutions of a financial character were passed in the early part of 1753. On 
January 3, that every member of a Begular Lodge in and abou« ^he metropolis," shouM 
contribute fourpence a month toward raising a Charity Fund; February 7, that the 
ofHcers of lodges might pay ten shillings per week to a sick member, and seven to a 
member confined for debt, with the aanirance of being recouped from the Grand Fund; and. 
on April 4, that one shilling be spent by each member at every meeting; also that lodges 
pay two shillings and sixpence for each newly-made Mason, one shilling for joining mem- 
bers, and " that the G. Secretary be free from Contributions or reckonings, whilst being 
entitled to every benefit of the Grand Lodge, except a vote in chusing Grand Officers.'" 

The firet country Lodge on the roll of the " Ancients" was constituted in this year. 
A petition from some brethren residing at Bristol was read October 3, when it was ordered 
" that the Grand Secretary shall proceed according to the antient custom of the Craft 
during the inter Magittrum."' 

' At this time Uiere were no others • Lodges No* 8 to 17 were reprsMnted at this meeting. 

•The London lodgm wore iBually established by means of a provisionai dispeanaUou in U>e fln.t 

instance— e.ff.: "June 19, 175». -Ordered a dispensation for John Doughty, for tlie purpose of con- 



At the next meeting of the Grand Committee— December 5, 1753—" the Grand Secre- 
tary made a motion, 'that aa the Fraternity had not made choice of any of the Noble per- 
wnagea formerly mentioned in thow Tranaactiona,' and it being donbtfnl whether the 
antient Graft con'd be hononr'd with a Noble Grand Master at this time, he hnmbly beg'd 
that the Brethren won'd make choice of aome worthy and 8killfall Master to fill the chair 
for the space of six months saccesaiTely.' Accordingly B^. Robert Turner, Master of No. 
15, was nominated and unanimously chosen, Instal'd, and Saluted." The Grand Master 
appointed Bro. William Bankin his Tteputy, and Bros. Samuel Quay of No. 3 and lAchlan 
M'Intosh' of No. 3, were elected Senior and Junior Grand Wardens respectively. 

The last lodge constituted in 1753 bore the No. 29, which, together with the transition 
from "Grand Committee" to "Grand Lodge," amply justified the brethren in voting a 
jewel of the value of five guineas to the Grand Secretary, on the second anniversary of his 
ulection to that office. 

In 1754, a Committee of Charity, to be styled the Steward's Lodge, was appointed, the 
proceedings of which were read at the next ensuing meeting of Grand Lodge. Several 
lodges in arrears were declared vacant, and a minute of October 3 introduces us to a practice 
unknown, I believe, under any other Masonic jurisdiction. It runs—" Bro. Cowen, Master 
of Lodge No. 37, proposed paying one guinea into the Grand Fund for No. 6 (now vacant). 
This proposal was accepted, and the Brethren of No. 37 are to rank as Na 6 for ye 

Robert Turner, the first Grand Master, who had been continued in office for a second 
term of nx months, was succ^it-ded by the Hon. Edward Vaughan on St. Johu'g Day in 
December. During the administration of the latter, the first of a long series of Military 
Warrants' was issued by this Grand Lodge, a 'oe of a Guinea, was imixwed on every new 
charter,' and the Grand Secretary was ordered to install and invest the several officers of 
Lodges, in cases where the retiring Masters " were incapable of [this] performance." ' 

The Earl of Blesington was elected Grand Master December 27, 1 756, and for four years 
presided over the Society, at least nominally, for he was present at none of its meetings. 
His Deputy was William Holford, but the management of affairs appears to have been left 
almost wholly to Laurence Dermott, by whom was brought out the same year, " Ahiman 
Beson; or, A Help to a Brother"— the " Book of Constitutions" of the "Ancients." 

On March 2, 1757, the Grand Secretary, in vindication of his character, which had 
been aspersed by one John Hamilton, proved to the satisfaction of the Grand Lodge that 
he had been duly installed Master of Lodge No. 26, in the Kingdom of Ireland, May 24, 
1746, having previously served therein the offices of Senior and Junior Deacon, Senior and 
Junior Warden, and Secretary. 

Kregating aod making of Freemasona at the One Tun in the Stimnd, from tliis day unto the first 
Wednesday in July next" (Grand Lodge Minutes). Vf. ante, p. 174, note 4 

' April 1, 1788.— Three brethren reported that they had waited on Lord George Sackville, who 
waa about to attend his father, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but upon his return, would either 
accept the chair, or recommend them to anottier nobleman (Orand Lodge Minutes). The names of 
Lords Chesterdeld, Ponsonby, Inchiquin, and Blesington " were laid before the Committee" in the 
following November. 

* April 19, 1760.— Reprimanded by the Steward's I<odge for making masons clandestinely at 
Bristol, but his previous services recognised in having established Lodges at Berwick and Bremen. 
May 17.— Ordered to make submiiision before Nos. M and 118, BristoL 

• No. 41, 87th Foot. Sept 7. 1786. ' June 8, 1788. » June 84, 1758. 

VOL. 111.-13. 



At the Mine meeting it wm ordered—" that no penon b«j made a mawn in an Antient 
Lodge nnder the sum of XI, 5* 6d., and cloath the Lodge if required. 

" That a General Meeting of Bfarter Mawms be held on the 13th Inrt., to compare and 
regulate wveral things reUtire to the Antient Craft; [and that] the Maaten of the E-»yaI 
Arch ihall also be rammon'd to meet, in order to reguUte things rektive to that most 
Talluable branch of the Craft" 

On March 13, the Grand Secretary " traced and explained the 1st, 2d, and 3d part of 
the Antient Craft, and Settled many things (then disputed) to the intire satisfaction of all 
the brethren present, who faithfully promised to adhere strictly to the Antient System and 
to cultivate the same in their sereral LodgesL*' Forty-«z brethren, representing twenty- 
six lodges, were present on this occasion. 

In the following June a regulation was made, forbidding the ofBcers of Lodge*— under 
the penalty of forfeiture of warrant- to admit as member or visitor, " any person not 
strictly an ancient Mason, Certified Sojourners excepted." 

In the foUowing yeai— March 1, 1758-a letter was read from the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland, announcing "a strict union with the Antient Grand Lodge in London." ' 

On December 5, 1759, " The Grand Secretary made a long and labouHd speech againut 
any victuler being chosen a Grand Officer, which gave great offence to some persons in the 
Grand Lo<lge. The D.O.M. put the Question, vii. : 
^«rhether the Sec'., L«u. Dermott, for his last Speech, Merited Appkuse, or Deserved 

For applauding the Secretary, 44 

Against, t 

Upon which the R. W. Deputy said, « Brethren, there are 44 votes for the Secretary, and 
4 against him, by which it Geems there are only 4 Publicans in the Room.' "' 

The next Grand Master was the Earl of Kelly, at whose accession— December 37, 
1760— the number of lodges on the roll was eighty-three, being an increase of twenty-fonri 
during the presidency of Lord Blesington. The most soteworthy were Nos. 65, Prov. 
G. Lodge of Nova Scotia (1757), and 69,' Philadelphia (1758). 

The Grand Offip'-B of the previous year were continued in their offices, and the 
"general thanks of ihe Fraternity " were conveyed to Laurence Dermott, who in reply 
"asked the Grand Lodge to believe two things, 1st, that he thought liimself us happy in 
his Secretaryship, as the Great Pitt was in being Secretary of State; and, 2dly, that he 
would exert his utmost powers for the Good of the Antient Fraternity, so long as he lived." 
The services of the Grand Secretary were again recognized in a v 7 marked and unusual 
manner in the following June, when the Deputy Grand Master proposed that he should 
be " toasted with the No. of his years," and it was " unanimously agreed that Uurenuc 

'June 8. 1768. A letter read from the Secretarj- to the Grand Lodge of Ireland, proposmff a 
" continual correspondence," etc., and after citing the action of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, in not 
admitting any Sojourner from England, as a member or petiUoner, without a certiarat« under the 
seal of the Ancient Grmnd Lodge in London; it was ordered, that Sojoumera from Ireland nhould 
amiilariy produce proper certifloates from the Grand Lodge of that .nuntry (Grand Lodge Hinutea) 

• Warrant surrendered, but the precedency of the Lodge confirmed— Feb. 10, 1780— by the fYo- 
vineial Grand Lodge under the Ancients, (No. 89). The latter was " elose.1 forever " on Sept. 38, 
1786, and the next dajr at a convenUun of 18 Lodges, was constituted the Orand I.odn of 
Ppnnsj'lvania, ^^ 

J -Sr. 


Demott, Eki., Giwd Secretory, OM be drmnk in form with 89, being now in the 39th 
year of his Age-which wm acoonlingly done." A footnote, howew, in his own hand- 
writing informi or that " the Secretary waa in hia 41rt year." 

On September 1, 1762, it wm ordered, on the motion of the Secretary, who appears to 
hare taken the lead in legislation, as weU as in other things, that no one after October 2, 
ensuing, should be made a mason for a less sum than two Guineas, of which fire shillings 
was to be paid to the Fund of Charity, and one shilling to the Grand Secretary: Also, 
That the whole sum should be paid on the night of Entrance, under the penalty of a 
uuinea, to be levied on the warrant, which was to be cancelled within su months, m 

default of payment , . . ^ , ^ . « _x 

That this prudent regulation was not immediately complied with, at least m all quarters, 
there is evidence to show, for the records inform us-under December 27, n62-that 
" David Fisher, late Grand Warden Elect, having attempted to form a Grand Lodge of his 
own, and offered to Register Masons therein for 6d. each, was deem'd unworthy of any 

office or seat in the Grand Lodge." , , , _,j 

A year later-December 7, 1763-the Grand Secretary was " Warranted and Tmpower'd 

to call and congregate a General Lodge in the town of Birmingham, and there to adjust 

and determine all complaints, disputes, or controversies, in or between the members »f the 

Lodge No. 71 (or anv other Brethren), in Birmingham aforesaid." 

In 1764, there appeared a second edition of " Ahiman Reson." A Bru. Matthew Beath 

was elected Grand Treasurer, June 6; and the members of No. 110 were admonuhed " for 

admitting Modem Masons into their Lodge," September 5. . ^ . ;, 

On June 5, 1765, it was proposed, " that Every Past Master shaH be a Member of, and 

have a vote in all Grand Lodges during his continuance [as] a Member of any Lodge under 

the Antient Constitution. , tt- j 

"This pre isal occasion'd long various debates, several of tiie Masters and Wardens 
argued stienuo'usly against the motion, while the presiding officer and three Masters were 
the only persons who spoke in favour of it" At length Grand Warden Gibson, who was 
in the Chair, put an amendment to the meeting, which was carried by a majority of 2.: votes 
-ther- being 48 "for the past masters," and 26 "against them "-Whereupon, it was 
" ordfc' and declared that from and after the third day of December 1765, all and every 
Regular -at master, while a member of any private Lodge, shall be a memWr of this 
(Jrand Lodge also, and shall have a vote in all cases except in making New Laws-which 
power is vested in the Master and Wunlens, as being the only true Representatives of aU 
the Lodges, according to the Old Regulation the t-n'-h." 

In the ensuing year-March 5, 1766-the Grand Master, with his grand officers and 
others, in fourteen coaches and chariots, drove in procession through Hampstead <uid 
Highgate, returning to the Five Bi-Us Tavern in the Strand t j dine 

During the nominal presidency of Lord Kelly, sixty-two Udges were added to the roll. 
Of these, seven were formed in regiments or garrisons, and eight m the colonies or abro«L 
Omitting Philailelphia-which received a second and third warrant m 1761 and 1764 re- 
«HJctively'-we find that Lodges under the "Ancienta" were established at Charles Town, 
South Carolina, 1761; Amsterdwn, 1762: Torlola, Mar«iilles, Leghorn, and Jamaica, 
1763; St Helena, 1764; and Minoit*, 1766. The next Grand Marter, the Hon. Thorn- 

Mate, p. iU. 







JUtthow, ProTincial Grand Muter of Munrter, who wm priwtely installed e«ly in 1767. 
sppeua to have been the linrt holder of the office who attended a meeting of the 0»nd 
Lodge. It was the tastom of thia worthy, whererer he redded— whether in Ireland. 
Great Britain, or Fi«nc .— ' to hold a regular Lodge amongn hia own domertici" 

There now occur fmquent entriee-"G. S. Dermott absent in the Gout." which must 
have necessitated the aswstance of a Deputy Grand Secretary, to which office we find that 
William Dickey, Jun., P.M. No. 14, was elected, June I. 176&' This he r«tained until 
1771. and was subsequently Grand Secretary, 1771-77; D.G.M., 1777-81; President of the 
Grand Committee, IT82; and again D.Q.M. from December 87, 1794, untU hia death 
July 27, 180<). ' 

The Grand Secretary and his Deputy had frequent dispute^ and the former aoonscd 
the latter-Jnnc 6, KTO-of having resigned his post "when he [Dermott] w»i so ill in 
the gout that he was obliged to be carried out in his bed (when incapable to wear shoes, 
stockings, or even britches) to do his duty at the Gd, Steward's Lodge." At the next 
meeting of Grand Lodge-September 5-Dermott "beg'd the Grand Lodge would please 
to do him justice, otherwise he sh* be under the disagreeable rioc««ity of publishing hia 
case. " Tlie Grand Secretary afterward said " he should not give them any further trouble 
concerning his affairs, and that henceforth he would resign and for ever disclaim any 
office in the Grand Lodge." 

Further recriminations were exchanged on December 5. The records state, " Many 
warm disputes happen'd between Laurence Dermott, William Dickey, Junior, and other-, 
the recording of which wou'd be of no service to the Craft nor to the various speakers.'" 

At a subsequent meeting, held December 19, it was unanimously agreed that William 
Dickey had been in fault, and the public thanks of the Grand Lodge were returned to 
Laurence Dermott for his great assiduity in his office. 

John, third Duke of AthoU, was chosen Grand Master, January 30, and installed on 
March 3, 1771, at the Half Mooi. Tavern in Cheapside. Dermott was appointed D.G.M. ; and 
on March 6, William Dickey, Jun., was elected Grand Secretarj-.' These two men worke,! 
m thorough accord from this time, although the election of the latter took place in oppo- i- 
tion to the wishes of the former, who favored the cUims of a rival candidate for the 
Scoretarj-ship-which. to say the least, savored slightly of ingratitude, since it was on the 
motion of V\ illiam Dickey, Jun., that Dermott was recommended to the Duke of Atholl 
for the office of Deputy. 

During the la«t four years of Dennett's Grand Secretaryship, twenty-two new number» 
were added to the roll, which would show an apparent list of 167 Lodges in 1771, as cora- 

' The legality of the installaUon of the Grand Master tn primte was demurred to. November 35 
. ; '"''"':' ''•°-" ^^^ " "■"'the late Omnd Master, the Karl of Blesington. had been only p-,. 
vutely installed by U,e grand offlcen and Secretary in his Lordriup'g library in Margaret Street" la 
the result, the .nst»llaUon of Grand Master Matthew was "declared regular." 
lia^'^l^^^^^ t76*-"Visete«-Br Dickey, j.. W. [M.] of No. 14. Antieni" [and other.]. 
March 81. 1766-" B. Lowrie Proposed M Will- Dickoy. Junior, to Be made a modem Ha»>n of; 
w« Firsted and Seconded: f nd was admited, and was made a mason In this Lodge, and went 
through the Reg„lar Degrees of the Entered Apprentice and FeUow Craft, and Raisd to the Sub- 
Ume degree of Master Mason " Minutes of the •• Lebeok's Head " Lodge. Na 846 under the " Regular " 
or " Ponstitutiooal ~ Grand Lodge). 

.. ' "^i** '"'"" "^" ^^ *• minutes taken by Lau. Dermott, From the year 1781 [ITMl to 
tJie year 1771" (Oiund Lodge MiiuteeX 


pu«d with 145 at the end of 1766. But this ii mideBding, becBue the " Ancienta " con- 
Btantly allotted » vacant inatend of s furthtr number to a new Lodge. Of thia practice I 
liftTe traced aome thirty examplet down to the oloae of 1770; and therefore, aaroming 
that in every oaae a ««» warrant had received a ntw number, a grand total of at leaat 197 
Lodges would liave been rewjhed by 1771.' Within the nme period, about 339 Lodgea 
we» constituted by the oldtr Grand Lodge of England.* 

On the side of the Secedera, two mUitary Lodges, and one each in CalcntU and MadnBp 
were among the additions to the roll during the four years preceding 1771. 

At a Grand Lodge, held September 4, 1771, Grand Secretary Dickey put the following 
question; " Is His Grace the Duke of Atholl Grand Master of Masons in every respect?" 
which being answered in the affirmative, the proposer said, " he had several times heard it 
advanced that the Grand Master had not a right to inspect into the proceedings of the 
Royal Arch." The Secretary further complained of many flagrant abuses of that " moat 
sacred part of Masonry, and proposed that the Masters and Past Masters of Warranted 
Lodges be conven'd as aoon as Possible, in order to put this part of Masonry on a SoUd 


Meetings accordingly took place in October and November, with the proceedings of 
which, Grand Lodge waa made conversant by the Deputy Grand Master, D«wember 4, 


Dermott "expatiated a long time on the scandalous method pursued by most of the 
Lodges (on St John's Days) in passing a number of Brethren through the Chair, on 
purpose to obtain the sacred Mystry's of the Royal Arch. The Deputy was answered by 
several Brethren, that there were many Members of Lodges, who from their Proffeaions in 
Life (The Sea for Example) that could never regularly attain that part of Masonry, tho' 
very able deserving Men." 

Ultimately, it was resolved unanimously— " That no person for the future shall be 
made a Royal Arch Mason, but the legal Representatives of the Lodge, except a Brother 
(ilrnt is goiiig abroad) who hath been 12 months a Registered Mason; and must have the 
Unanimous Voice of his Lodge to receive such Qualification." 

The case of those brethren who "had been admitted among the Royal Arch Masons 
niegaly," the Deputy suggested should be left to the next Grand Chapter,' which was 
agreed to. 

On March 4, 1772, it vras resolved "that the Master and Wardens of every Lodge 
(within five mUes of London) shall attend the Grand L«jdgfi on every St. John's Day; on 
default thereof the Lodge shall pay ten shillin,^ and sixpence to the Charitable Fund." 
This regulation was made more stringent in the following September, when it was ordered 
that the same officers, and within the same radius, siiould attend all meetings of the Grand 
Lodge, when duly summoned by the Grand Secretary, or else pay a fine of five shillings 
aud three pence, which was " to be lev/d on the warrant," 

• m Lodge, were a»igned numben by the "Regular" or " Constttutional " Grand Lodge down 
to the end of 1789. ft_.w. 

» i.e.. 880 were added to the roll between February 5, 1788, and Ow clowj of 177a This, +»-Uie 
number of "Ancient" Lodges in existence at that date— =889. 

•This is the first mention of "Grand Chapter" in thw records, and there ar* no Royal Arch 
Minutes of earlier date than 1788. The dejfree itwU. however, is referred to under the year 1758. 
Cf. oats, p. 191. 



V ' 

In the Mme yeM— April 8-" Junes Cock, P. Muter* No. 9, mored th»t » cbiplain 
(for the Orud Lodge) ihoald be appointed •nnnaUy, which wu approTed of, and the Rev. 
Dr. James Grant was elected aooordingly." Al«), on June 3, it was " agreed that a brother 
be appointed pro ttmport to carry the Sword at Public Prooeasions, and that B"". Nash, 
Jn'. of No. 3, carry the same next St John's Day." 

At a Grand Lodge, held September 2, a letter was read from Bro. T. Corker, D. 0. 
Seopetary-lreland-stating that " he cannot find any traces of the agreement, which wm 
made between the two Grand Lodges in 1757," and also, " that nothing could hare been 
more advantageons to our poor fraternity' than a strict adherence to such a resolution." 

Resolved, " that a Brotherly connexion and correspondence with the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland, has been, and wiU always be found, productive of Honour and advantage to the 
Craft in both Kingdoms." 

A resolution in identical terms, was pasMd with regard to the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 
The reply of the Utter was read May 3, 1773. It stated that the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland were of opinion that the Brotherly intercourse and correspondence (suggested), 
would be serviceable to both Grand Lodges.' 

The entente cordiale between the two Grand Lodges may have been dne in a great 
measure to the fact, that the Duke of Atholl, then at the head of the fraternity in the 
south, became Grand Master elect of Scothmd, November 30, 1773, and Grand Master a 
year later. Indeed, at this, as at all other stages of his career, Dermott probably made thr 
moat of his opportunities, and so sagacious a ruler of men must have been fully alive to tl.^ 
im|)ortance of securing the friendship of the Masons m tb. Northern Kingdom. Th 
minutes of the same meeting— May 3— then proceed: 

" In order to preserve (for ever) the Harmony subsisting between the two Gniii I 
Lodges, We [the Grand Lodge of England] tUnk it necessary to declare that (from thi^ 
time) no warrant should be granted by the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland, to uiiy 
part of the World where either of them have a Provincial Lodge Established." * 

The next entry which I shall transcribe, occurs under December 15, 1773, and is 
worthy of all praise.-" Ordered, That any Lodges running in arrears with their Landlonl.s 
[and not paying the same] on or before St John's Day, the Warrant shall be forfeited." 

On June 1, 1TT4, Grand Secretary Dickey having reported tliat several lodges assembkil 
under an authority from a set of gentlemen called Modem Masons, it was resolved—" If 
any Lodge under the ancient constitution of England, from the time hereafter mentione.1, 
vii., Europe, Six Months; Asia, Two Years; Africa and America, Twelve Months; tf. Im 
computed from the 34th day of June 1774; that shall have in their possessions any 
Authority from the Grand Lodge of Moderns, or in :ny manner assemble or meet under 
Such Authority, Shall be deemed unworthy of associating with the members of the 
Annient Community, and the Warrant they hold under this R«. W. G. lyjdge shall be im- 
mediately Cancel-*: Compleat notice of which the G. Sec^ shall give to all Warf* Lodges 
under the Ancient Sanction. 

" Resolved— That all Ancient Masons (of Repute) under the Sanction of the Modunw, 
' It 18 evident that at this date Past Uaatem posaeased votes. Cf. ante, p. t»9. 

• The italics are mine. Cf. ante, p. 184. 

• <y. Lawrie, History of Freemasonry, 1804, pp. 305-309. 

« ir Uii. regulation was operative at the prenent day, and the Grand Lodge of Ireland also agreed 
to It, the Grand Secretaries of the three Masonic juriwlictionit in these Islands, would liave far leas 
foreign correspondence to contend with. 



thst Buy be incUned to obUin an Authority from thii R. W. O. Lodge, Sh^, by applying 
•ny time before the 24th June 1776, be Wammted, and the Expenoe of Such Warrant to 
be Charged only aa a Renewal." 

The death of the third Duke of Atholl— from whom a letter waa read September 7, 
expreMing ■atufaction that the " Ancient craft is ngaining its ground over the Modems " 
—caused the election of grand officers to be postponed from December 7, 1774, untU Maroh 

On the latter date, the Grand Secretary "reported the foUowing transactions of the 
Grand Master's Lodge: ' 

" ' Feb. 25, 1775.— Admitted. His Grace the [fourth] Duke of Atholl into the first, 
second, and third degree; and after proper instructions had been giren [it was] proposed 
that [he] should be Immediately Installed Master of the Grand Master's Lodge, which was 

accordingly done.' . tv_i . »iu « 

"Upon the Secretary reading the above transactions. His Grace the Duke of AthoU 
was unanimously elected Grand Master," and, on the 25th of the same month, duly inswUed 
in the presence of the Duke of Leinster and Sir James Adolphus Oughton,' former Grand 
Maetom of Ireland' and Scotland' respectively. WiUiam Dickey was continued as Secretary, 
and the new Grand Master " signed a warrant appointing Bro' Uu: Dermott, Esq., to be 
His Grace's deputy; and ordered that the said deputy should be installed whenever his 
present indisposition would admit him to attend;" which was not until Uter in the year, 
when a series of discussions took place relative to a correspondence between WUliam Preston 
and the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which has been already referred to.* 

In the following yeai— March 6-it was ordered, " That in future every Modern Mason, 
remade under this Constitution, shall pay to the Charitable Fund, etc.. Six Shillings, 
unless they produce a cert;iflcate of their having been made a Modem, and in tliat case shall 
pay only three Shillings to the Fund." 

On St. John's Day (in Christmas) 1777, " Dermott informed the brethren tliat he had 
petitioned the Grand Master for liberty to resign his office of Deputy. His age, infirmities, 
and twenty years' service, having constrained him to take such measures." A letter was 
then read from the Duke of Atholl, expressing approval of William Dickey* as D.G.M., and 
stating that he had accepted the office of Grand Master of Scotland, " as he imagmed it 
might accrue to the advantage of Ancient Masonry in England by indubitably shewing the 

• September 6, 1789.-" The Grand Master's Lodge proclaimed, and took Uie flret seat accordingly 
as No. 1" (Grand Lodge Minutes). Bevh-ed December 16. 1787. and retained iU number at the 

Union. Cf. ante, p. 92. ^^tj.uij 

» In 1753 General Oughton was Prov. O. M. of Minorca, under the older Grand Lodge of England, 
and informed that body " that the Craft flourished there in full vigour; that they adhered to their 
Kules [of] Decency and Regularity so strictly and invariably, that neither the envious. 'n»^°«». O"" 
inquisitive could And the least ground to exercise their Talent." (Grand Lodge Minutes- 178»-181»- 

» 1771. and again 1778. ""■™- ^ .^ ,, . 

• Ante p. n«. It is somewhat curious, that in their published works neither the "journeyman 
nriBfsr"' nor the "journeyman painter "'-Pieston and Dermott-the former an 4ncien< before 
he became a JUbdem. and the latter a Modem before he became an Ancient-using these terms m a 
popular though erroneous signiflca tion— refers the one to the other. 

•James Jone^ who had been chosen Grand etocrstary. March 8. 1777. wm r..elected on D«>«ii- 

;; i 



tonrti to b« the wme." At the Mine meeUnf gold medide wen roted both to the aew 
M>d to the retiring Depnty.' 

D.O.Jt Dickey gere notioe-M«uroh 4, 1778-"th»t on the flnt Wedneedey ia Jane 
nejt, he wou'd proceed to diqxMe of the wwrante, kying at thin time domimt, ftr the 
rapport of the Fnnd <rf Chwi^j" and in the June following it wae reeolved "that the 
Senior Na hare the preference by paying to the Charity £1, 1b. Od."* 

On March 3, 1779, Charles Bearblock, P.M., No. 4, wa. elected Oituid Secietary; and 
on the motion of " P. Deputy O. M. Dermott," it wa. reeolved " that every lodge within 
the Billi of Mortality, in future do pay to the fond of Charity Ten Shilling! and lizpence 
for every new made member." 

On Octob€* 18, 1781, Lodge Na 813,' in the Royal Artillery, waa conatitutod at New 
York by the Rev. W. Walter, who, acooiding to the ouatomary piactice, waa empowend 
to act ai Deputy Grand Maeter for three houn only, together with the Maatera and 
Wardens of Noa. 169, 210, 212, 134 (Scotland), and 359 (Ireland). 

On February 6, 1783, William Dickey waa unanimously chosen President of the " Grand 
Committee." the Dukes of Atholl and Leinstor having reqiectively declined, the former 
to retain, and the latter to accept, the position of Grand Master if elected. 

After an interregnum of a year and a quarter— March 6. 1783-the Earl of Antrim 
was elected to the chair. Laurence Dermott was appointed Deputy, and Robert I^ie waa 
chosen Grand Secretary in the place of Charles Bearblock, " discharged from that ofBce " 
At a Grand Committee, held March 29, 1784-William Dickey in the chair-a letter 
was read from the Deputy G.M., complaining of an irregular and incorrect circular issued 
by the Grand Secretary, and also of his having usurped the power of the Grand Master and 
Deputy, "more particularly in a di*ptn»ing power for congregating and forming a new 
ixidge. After ranch discussion, it having been recommended " that every matter heard 
»»fore the Committee should be lost in oblivion," Dermott and Leslie "wore called in and 
gave their assent thereto." 

In the following September the D.G.M. " informed the Lodge that he would not act, 
nor advise or suffer the Grand Master to act, with the present Grand Secretary, who he 
declared mcapable of his office, and if again reelected, he would request leave of the G M 
to resign his office. " Leslie expressed surprise at the use of language as " unmasouic " as 
It was " unmanly." especially after the Deputy had agreed to bury all differences i-, ob- 
livion, and charged the latter with having "descended to the grossest personal scurrility, 
unbecoming a Man, Mason, or Gentleman." The Grand Secretary was re-elected, but afte'r- 
ward begged leave to decline any contest for the officc,"and. penristing in bis resignation, 
a new election .as ordered to take place in Maroh. but on December 1, it was carried by a 
unanimous vote, tliat the thanks of the Grand Lodge be conveyed t j Bro. Leslie G 8. 

On the St John's day following, a letter was read from Dermott, objecting to the pro- 
ceedings of the h»t Grand Lodge, and particularly of ito having " attempted to n»cind the 
confirmed acta of a Grand Lodge [held] in due form.' In support of this contention a 
great many authorities were cited, and among them, strange to say, " Doct' Anderson's 

or hl^rirSl'^r "^ "^'^ "^ -^--t^ti ve Ubor to bHn, out . tHir, edition 

• Be«oJnd«d September 2, 1T78. 

•Purchased the ninth place on the list for £9, 8s. in 1787, 
BOW the Albion Lodge, Quebec. 

Became No. 17 at the Union, aod it 


Conititatioiu, pi«e 162, pub. 1788 1" The mi«ive wm md .loud mow thm once, uid 
kfter » lolemn i»u», • TOto of crororo wm unanimousljf pasttd on the writer, " the con- 
tMiU of the Mid letter, and the conduct of the D.O.M.," •ppewing to the Orand Lodge 
" arbitrary, if not altogether illegal." 

. The beharior of Ledie at thi« juncture cannot be too highly commended. A new 
generation had iprung up, which waa ill di^wwd to brook the petuliinoe of the deputy. 
Nothing but the forbearance of the Grand Secretary prevented an open rupture, in which 
«M» Dermott murt have gone to the wall; but in a noble letter to the Earl of Antrim, 
written September 10, 1784, Ledie thui expreerwt himielf : " I again beg your LonUiip'a 
pwdon, when I hint that a continuance of your former deputy may be mort agreeable tr) 
the Grand Lodge, and that the want of hii awirtanoe would be irreparable." 

On January 31, 1785, "a letter [wag] read from the Grand Martcr. appointing Uu. 
Dermott, Eaq., hia deputy, and wishing that any difference between the H. W. Dteputy] 
•nd Sec» Leelie might be buried in oblivion- the aaid letter waa read twice, and the R. W.^ 
D. put the same into hia pocket without any motion being made thereon by the Lodge.' 
The vote of censure pawed at the previous meeting was removed. Dermott returned thanks. 
decUned taking upon himself the ofBce of D. O. M., and repeated that " he would not work 
with Sec' Leslie, upon which the Grand Lodge got into confusion and disorder for some 

'""The following entry in the minutes of the " Steward's Lodge " tends to prove that about 
this time, the bonds of di«!ipline were much relaxed: June 15. 1785.-" B' Weatherhead 
Master of No. 5 was fln'd one shilling for swearing, and he also chaling'd the Marter of No. 3 
to turn out to fight Um wit i sword and pistol, and us'd the W. 0. J. Warden [Feakings] 
in a Redicules manner, which oblig-d him to close the Lodge before the business was com- 

pleated." . , , . 

In the following March. Leslie made way for John M' but was again elected 
Grand Secretary, December 1, 1790. an office which he filled until the Union; and a gold 
medal was voted to him December 1. 1813. " for Ws long and faith[ful] serrices as Grand 
Secretary for more than thirty years." 

I/)rd Antrim was installed as Grand Master. June 7. 1785. and at the same meetmg in- 
vcrtod Uurence Dermott as his Deputy. In the following September the sum of one guinea 
was fixed as the amount to b..> paid when "Modem Masons " were made " Antiont. " From this 
it may be estimated that the latter were irore than holding their own in the rivalry which 
existed, an inference still further sustair. ■ by the language of a communication addressed 
by the Grand Secretary to the Grand Muster March 20, 1786, informing him "that the 
Provincial Grand Ixidge of Andalusia, which had been under the government of the Modems 
for upwards of twenty years, had offered for a warrant under the Antients, also that the 
said Grand Lodge consisted of none under the depree of an Ensign, and who had refused 
to act longer under the authority of the Moderns. " tho' the Duke of Cumberland is said to 
be their Grand Master." 

At a Grand Lodge, held December 27, 1787, James Peny, J. G. W., who was invested 
as Deputy Grand Master, moved, " that the thanks of the G. L. l)e given to R. W. Lau: 
Dermott, Esq., P. Dep. G. M., who after forty-seven years zealously and successfully 
devoted to the sorvice of the Craft, had now rctircl from the Eminent station which he 
held, and to whose masonic knowledge and abilities, inflexible adherence to the Antient 
Uws of the Fraternity, and Impartial administration of office, the Fraternity are so much 



iadabtod. " Tb« motioii wm owrad witbont » duMntitnt rote; and it wm fnrtlMr hMtw), 
" that • oommittM be foriiMd couuting of th« Omnd OflkMn, to oooMdw the bMt omum 
of oonferring lonM ngul nuu-k of th* •pprobstion of the Qnuid Lodge on the aid M' Deputy 
Oennott," ead to report accordingly. 

Unrence Dermott attended Grand Lodge in the following Jane, and wae alio preaent at 
Oommnnicationa held on June 4, 1788, March 4,' and Jane 3, 1789. After the lart date 
the minntea are altogether lilent with regard to hia name, and even hia death ia unrecorded. 

When Dermott resigned the office of Grand Secretary (1770) there were 167 lodgee on 
the roll; at the cloae of 1789 there were 858, showing an inoreaw of 91. Bnt within the 
same period, about 4«— as nearly as I can trace them— were constituted, or reriyed at 
Taoa.->t numbers, thus making a grand total of 137 new lodgea. 

The expansion of the rival organisation, between the same datee, was as followa: 119 
lodges were added to iU roll after 1770 and belore 1780; and 125 daring the ten yean 
ending 1789, forming a total increase of 844. But the real position of the " AthoU " Grand 
Lodge is not disclosed by theee figures In the Coloniee, and wher«Ter there were Britiih 
garrisons, the new system was slowly but surely undermining the old one. Forty-nine 
military lodges had been constituted by the Seoeders down to the close of 1789,* and the 
infiuence they exercised in disseminating the principlee of which Dermott was the exponent, 
will be treated with some fulness hereafter. In this place it will be sufBcient to say, that 
to the preeence of lo many army lodges in North America was mainly due the form which 
Masonry assumed when the various States became independent of the mother country.' 
The actual number of lodges working under what was styled the "Anrient Sanction" at 
the period under examination cannot be very easily determined. For example, on October 
84, 1782, there were four lodges' at work in Halifax, N.S., " under Dispensation from the 
warranted lodges, Nos. 155 and 211," in that town.' Many local warranto were granted rob- 
seqnently by the Provincial Grand Lodge,' bnt as none of these were exchanged for charters 
from London until 1889, it would now be difficult to trace the dates they originally bon-, 
but that at least seventeen lodges were constituted under this jurisdiction, and probably 
more, before the year 1790, there is evidence to show. ' Unfortunately the "AthoU" 
records do not give the lodgea in existence under provincial establiihmento, and the ewliest 
printed li.^t was not published until 1804. In that year, however, we find that the provinoa 
of Gibraltar comprised 9 lodges, Jamaica 15, Quebec 11, Niagara 12, and Halifax 29. 
The Grand Ixidge of England, previous to the death of Dermott, demanded no fees from 

' There were present, inter aliot, at this meeting, Jamea Perry, D.O.M., in the chair; Laurence 
Dermott. P. Dep. Q.M. ; Thomas Harper, S.a.W. ; and James Agar, J.a.W.,-all of whom were 
voted, at different times, gold medals by the Society. In 1818 the Duke of Kent selected three past 
masters of No. 1-vix., Thooias Harper. D.O.M., James Perty, and James Agar, patt D.U.M.'s-to 
assist him, on behalf of the " Ancients," in preparing the Articles of Union. 

'Sixty-seven were chartered subsequently, making a total of 116. 

•Seeporf, •' Military Lodges," and " Freemasonry in America." 

• The •• Union. St Oeoige's, Virgin, and Thistle " Lodges. The three last named were held in the 
Nova Scotia Volunteers, Royal Artillery, and SU Foot respectively, and are not included in the forty- 
nine military lodges noticed above, or in the sixty-seven mentioned in note 3. 

•J. Fletcher Brennan, History of Freemasonry in the Maritim* Provinces of British America. 
1878, p. 878. • Be-wammted at its old auaber (86) June 3, 1784. 

' April 15, 1789.-" John Boggs, of No. 17 Ancisnt York Lodge, Nova Scotia, reUevad as a So- 
journer with 1 guinea" (Steward's Lodge Minutes). 


NoT» Sooti*. Th« Prorinckl body wm Tirtumlly mn independout org»ni»ition, [Miying trib- 
ttto to none, uid exacting the raepwt due to »ny indepwiident 0»nd Lodge of PraeiUHOua.' 
In other pwU of the world, Protinci»l Grand Lodgee under the "Ancient*" ak) war- 
ranted a large number of lubiidiary lodgw. but thew, in the ab«.nce of lUt«, it ia now. for 
the mort part, impowble to identify. One of thew bodiw, howeter, before aeTering iu 
connection with EngUmd-8optember 25, I78.l-had no lew tlian forty-wx lodgea on iU 
roll,' all of whkh, up to that date, mu-* hj n-ganlod a« having been remote pendicle* of 
the " Grand Lodge of England acconling to the Old Inntitutionfc" 

Jamea Perry continuwl to lerre as Deputy until Dooembsr 37, 1790. when he was «no- 
eceded by Jameo Agar, and on the MMne day Robert Lwdie w»« inreited m Omml S.x:reUry 
in Uie plaoc of John M'Cormick— awarded a penaion of a ibilling a day during the reimiu- 
der of h«* nutural life " for hi« ffaithful iervioe to the Craft"' 

On the dfttth of the Earl (and Marsuew) of Antrim in 1791, John, fourth Dulce of 
AthoU. waa again elected Grand Maater, and inrtalled January 20. 179*,'. In thia year- 
March 7— it waa EewiWed and Ordered—" That a general uniformity of the practice and 
ceremonie. of the Ancient (!r«ft may be preeenred and landed down u.ichanged to po.- 
terity, the Ixidgea in London and W€«tmin»ter shall be required to nominatt- a Brother from 
each Lodge, who muft be a Master or Paat Marter, and otherwi*u well-akillod in the Craft, 
to be put in Nomination at the Grand Chapter, in October of ewsh year, to be elected one 
of the nine Excellent Mantcrs; who are allowed to viait the Lodge*; and «hould occanon re- 
quire, they are to report thereon to th« Grand Chapter, or the R. W. Deputy Grand Maa- 
ter. who will act aa he ahall deem nece««ry." 

At the following meeting, held June 6, the minute* of the preceding one were confirmed, 
and also thoae of the Royal Arch Chapter relating " to the appointment of nine Excellent 
Maater* to aaaist the Grand OflRcer* for the current year."' 

In the ensuing .September, in order " to accelerate the husinea* of Grand Lodge," it waa 
unanimously ordered " that the Grand Maater or his Deputy do grant such warranto as are 
Tacant to Lodge* making application for the same, giving the preference or choice to the 
Senior Lodges: And that the sum of Five Guineas, to be paid into the Fund of Chai ity, 
shall be the established fees for taking out such Senior warrant" 

' Brennao, op. eit.. p. 408. In reply to a letter from Adam Fife, Brst Master of the " Virgin » 
Lodge, Laurence Dermott wrote, Aug. 7. 1787: " Pecuniary Submission i» not the aim of the Mother 
OrandLodge. To cultivate and establish the True System of Ancient Masonrj-. Unity, and Brotherly 
Love is the only point in view" (ibtU, p. 424). 

'Early History of the Grand Lo«ige of Pennsylvania, pt. i.. p. 83; and pt. ui.. Ai>pendix, p. ». 
•The remuneration of the Secretary was not lanfe at this Ume, as the following mmutes show. 
June 8 iWa-"A Motion wa. made to Raise the O. Secretarj's Sallarj-. and by the shew of hands it 
wasca^ to allow him lOCHuineas]. added to the/t,e, and to receive it (Juurterly or half yearly 
a. he pleased to take if Dec 5, 1793.-" Ordered, That the sura of three shilling, be m future paid 
to the Grand Secretary for a Master Mason's Grand Lodge Certificate; he paying the expense of 

pan-hment and printing the same." „,,.„» , »■ 

'Nov 18 1801.-" A motion was made and seconded that the nine Excellent Masteni for the 
time being should have a Medal emblematic of their office, which should be given up, "he>»they 
were out of office, for their successors, which was agreed to, subject to the opinion of Grand Lodge 
(Stewart's Lodge Minutes). June 1, 1808.-"Order'd, That to prevent the intrusion of improper 
pe^on. into the Grand Lodge, each member shall sign his name and laok in Ins Lodge m a book 
r~vld«i for that purpose, in the outer poreh. And the excellent Masters ^"-^ 1'"^^}^^^^ 
be required, in rotation, to attend early, and carry Uie same mto effect' (Grand Lodge Mmutes). 



Ob Mttoh 4, KM, it wu orilwd-Uurt Qamirj. Fcmign. utd MiliUij LodgM (whm 
BO Orand Lod^e »m held) thovia |«7 St., Mid London Lodfct ton ihilling* .od tixpfncr 
to Um Omitd Fund of Ckwlty upon tha t^ttaj of every new nMde maaon, •icln«T.-Iv 
(ondor both mmIm) of the Omnd Hwrt.t»ry'« fee, of a ibilling. ' The Metropolitu Lodp, 
were »lw> rMjniral to psy • farther ram of one shilling per qturtor for every oootribnting 

Junee Agmr wm roooeeded by William Dickey, who, Dwiember 27, 17M, apin und«- 
took the leeponaible dntiee of Deputy Oruul llarter. a pontion for which he wae more 
eminently qualified than any other living man. 

Until the December meeting of 1 797, tliere v lothing of moment to record : but on tkil 
occMwn "it wat moved by Bro. Moreton of Na 03, and leconded by Bro, M'Oilleverv 
of No. 3, That a committee bo appoinUnl by thii R. W. Grand Lodge, to OMet one that may 
be appointed by the Grand Lodge of Modem MawtM. and with ihtii to effect a Union. " But. 
alaa, the time for a reconcilation had not yet arrived, and it will therefore oonauon no sur- 
priw that " the previons Quertion wae thereupon Moved and Carried almoet nnanimoody. " 
The negotiation* which preceded the fmion of the two Sooietiei ar« verv fully entored in 
the AthoU reoorda, but the rtory of the Union will be beat preaeuted a« a whole, and for 
this rcMon I shall postpone its nan»tion nntil the next chapter. 

On Jnly 3, 1798, a meeting took place for the purpow of establishing a Masonic Charity 
for educating and clothing the sons of indigent Freemasons; a rabscription was opened to 
carry this object into execution; and six nhiidren were immediately put upon the establish- 
ment Donations of ten and two hnndmi guineM wer.. voted by Grand Lodge in 1803 and 
1809 respectively to this meritorious inrtitution; and .« March 4, 1812, the London Lodges 
were ordered to pay five shillings, and the other lodgu* |«lf that sum, at every new initiation. 
to be added to its funds. 

The Duke of AthoU was present at a Grand Lodge held May 6, 1799, when it was deemed 
essential "to inhibit and totally prevent all Publ.. Ma«raio Processions, and all private 
meetings of Masons, or I^ges of Emergency, upon any pretence whatever, and to sup- 
press and suspend all Masonic meetings, except upon the regular stated Lodge meetings and 
Royal Arch Chapters, which shall be held open to all Masons to visit, duly qualified a» 
such." It was further resolved, "That when the usual Masonic Business is ended, the 
Ixxlge shall then disperse, the Tyler withdraw from the door, and Formality and Hestwint 
of Admittance shall cease." 

Two months later-July 12, 17fl9-an Act of Pariiament was pas8ed-39 Geo. III., cap. 
79— which will be referred to in the next chapter; and from that date until the year KSO'> 
no neto waminta were granted by the "AthoU" Grand Lodge, wWch cnntente<l it*.|f with 
reviving and re-issuing those granted and held before the act in question was added to the 
statute-roll. At the death of William Dickey, Thomw Harper was selected to fill his place, 
and received the appointment of Deputy. March 4. 1801. This office he held until the 
Union, and during the protrnoted negotiations which preceded that event, was the leading 
figure on the Atholl side. He served as Senior Grand Warden from 1786 to 1788, was pre- 
sented with a gold medal, March 3, 1T90, and became Deputy Gmnd Secretary' (by appoint- 
'According to the minutes of the Steward's Lodge. Nov. 90, 17WL th- " annual complimrnt to 

! .^**^ « '"u '"" *™' " " "' """"" " "*•*•" «f"*~»-- September 18, 17W. it w„ i„cr««s.d 
to thirty, and March 88, 1800, lowered to ten. 

•lawards Harper, alw of No. 807 Fleet 8tr«et, served as Dep. Q. Secy, under Leslie, fram D» 



mnA «f RolMrt LmIiw). T>eoemb«r 37, 1793. According to the i.ratwl Clapo BefiflUr, ha 
WM nuMle • Royal Arch Mmoii in No. 19<).' at ChftTiMtown, South (. «roliiu, unii th* data 
giT«n i« ITTO. Hera there ia erideutly a miiUke. m the lodge i -«ring that nnmber wa« 
only constituted in 1 TT 4 ; bat an eariiM' ona (Na 9S) was eatabliahed at rharl«tovn, andw 
the Mmo juriadiotion, in 1761. and it ii probithle thut the numbvn of th ' t«.'o lodgM bare 
U^vn confuwHl. At the period of hia nomination at Deputy Grand Maiter, he waa a roeni' 
bci of Mk Hocietiea, aad had Mrred the uti^wardihip * in the older one. by which, aa we 
•hall tee in the next chapter, he waa ioicoeaaifely expelled and re-inat«ted during the aome- 
what tortuona procoediij^a which liara yet to be recountml. 

Beyond an addition to the minimum tee \nr inatallation. whi>'h wu inoreaaed to two 
atid a half guineaa on DiK-umber 4, 1M04,' thorn are no entries c utiiiig for attention till we 
ifuch the year 18U6, when the minntea of thp St<>ward'a Lodge, under April in. inform 
ut of a report made to that body by Grand Warden PInmmt r, to the effect that certain 
m>fmbera of Noa. 334 and 364 " had lately taken upon themael' -i to addreaa the Duke of 
Keni, and requeated Uia Royal Highneaa to udopt an^l t;ike upon himaclf the office of 
Grand Haater. and to viich addreaa [the Duke] ha>l k->'ti plctMed to return an aniwpr. 
under the imnroeaion that [it] had been written by tin- order, »r under the Hanction, of the 
(Jrand Lodge." At a aubaequenti mc«-ting the incrinui.*tcil ;i.irtica " wer.< ^^ veiely repri- 
manded from the chair," and warned that aimilar tonduot ^ "ild bo more iwverely dealt 
with in the future.* 

On March 4, '.807, the Deputy Grand Secretary waa jrwut^'d m annual .stipend of 
twenty guineaa, and it wag order"!, " That in future, no brother bo iXTmilUtt to hold or 
Uke upon hirowlf the office of Mjtater of a Lodge, unleaa he ahull bt- Srttt <!uiy registered 
in the booki <>f Orumi Lodge." 

In tb« following jf'ar— March 3— the Ueaolntion poaK<d May 6, 1799, inhibiting all 
Masonic Procea»iou» and I»<lge» of Emergency, waa rcpt>aled; and on June 1, aaJariea of 
thirty and twciit, ponnda reupcctiyely were voted to the Grand Punoivant and Grand Tyler. 

On September -1. 1811, on the motion of Jamea Perrj-, it waa reaoWed— " That from 
and lifter Saint John's day next, no brother Rhall be eligible to be elected Maater of any 
Lodge, unleaa he nball have acted for twelve monthi aa Warden in the said I»dge, and that 
he shall net be entitled to the privileges of a past Maater, untill he ghall hare itned om 
ichole year in tK» chair of hi* Lodge." * 

At the aame period, as wc shall presently see, the older Grand r»dge waa also carrying 
out changea in its procedure, in view of the impending reconciliation. 

The Duke of AthoU presided at a special Grand Lodge, heli? May 18, 181?, in honour 

t«inber97, 1800. uatU the Union. Presented with a g(AA medal. Dec«mber 1, 1811 Harper and W. 
H White were appointed joint Qrand Secretaries to the Unittd (irand Lodge of EnffJand. The 
former resigned in October 1888, and enjoyed til! his deittli, in November 1885, a yearly grant of 


' Atterwaidd the Grand Lodge of "Ancient York Masons" of 8outh Carolion, and which amal- 
giunated with the Grand Lodge of " Free and Aco*pt*d Masons - of the same State in 1817. 

* Ante, p. 91, note 1. ' Rai^d to tiiree guineas, March 4. 1818. 

•Steward's Lodge Minutes, May 31, 1808. 

' Finally approved December 4, 1811. A rough iiwniorauduin. pinned into Uw irinute-book. an.I 
endorsed "Q. L. Extraordinary 88 Oct," gives the same rttm>lution, hut in place of the last fourteen 
words (italicisod above), has—" untU he shall have served full two months as Master in y Chair of 
Ills Ludge." 




1» f 

of H.EH. the Dnke of Kent, " ProTincUl Onuid Maeter for Canada." The royal Tiiitor 
" ezpreMed in the warmeat terms hi* unchangeable affection and attachment to Maionry 
• according to the Ancient Inrtitntion,' and to the Grand Lodge of England, in which thow 
principles were so purely and correctly preserved." He further md, "that upon erery 
oocadon he ihonld be happy to co-operate with them in exerting themaelree for the pieaer- 
ration of the Righti and Principles of the Craft, and that, howeTer desirable a Union 
might be with the other fraUrmty of Maaona,' it could only be desirable if accomplished 
on the basis of the Ancient Institution, and with the maintenance of all the rights of the 
Ancient Craft" 

The Dnke of Atholl resigned in favor of the Dnke of Kent, November 8, 1813. The 
latter was installed as Grand Master, December 1, and on St. John's day following, the 
Freemasons of England were re-united in a single Society. 

It is improbable, that, at the commencement of the Schism, the Lodges of the Seoeders 
differed in any other respect from those on the regular establishment, than in acknowl- 
edging no common raperior. With Dermott, however, came a change, and it will next 
become our task, to ascertain upon what sources of authority he must have relied, when 
compiling the " Book of Constitutions," or, in other words, the bws and regulations of the 

The mmntes of March 2, 1T57, have been already referred to.' These also inform us 
that, on the date in question, I^urence Dermott produced a certificate, under the teal of 
the Grand I>odge of Ireland, signed by " Edward Spratt, Grand Secretary," The latter 
was appointed Deputy Grand Secretary, December 27, 1742, succeede.! to the higher office, 
June 24, 1743, and brought out a " Book of Constitutions for the use of the Ixrfges in 
Ireland," in 1761. The compiler styles himself " only a faithful Editor and Transcriber 
of the Work of Dr. Anderson," which appeared when " Lord Mountjoy," afterward " Earl 
of Blessington,"* was Grand Master of Ireland, who apiwintod a select committee of the 
Grand Lodge, over which he presided, to compare the customs and regulations in use 
there, with those of the English brethren, mid found " no essential differences," except m 
those rules of the latter relating to the " Steward's Lodge," which were therefore omitted. 

The "Charges, General B^nlations," and "the manner of constituting a Lodge," 
were copied by Spratt from Dr. Anderson's Constitutions of 1738. Dermott appears to 
have done precisely the same thing in his "Ahiman Kezon.'" if, indeed, he did not copy 
ttt second hand from Spratt, Both compilers give the " Old " and " New" RegulatioiiK, 
in parallel columns, in the same manner as they are shown by Anderson, but instead of 
taking the former from the edition of 1723, they reproduce the garbled and inaocnrato 
vpraion of 1738.' Regulations XXIII. to XXXL-relating to the Steward's Lo.lgc. and 
to Feasts— also XXXVII. and XXXVIIL, are omitted in the Irish and the ".\mifnt" 
codes; XXXIII. and XXXIV. are compressed into one Law (XXIV.); and the No. 

' This is a sumewhat curious exprcnion, consideriofr that Prince Edward (afterwards Duko of 
Kent), when appointed Prov. «.M. of Lower Cwada by the Duke of Atholl— March 7, 1798— held a 
RiiiiUar office under the Prince of Wales, Grand Master of " the other fraternity." Prince Edward 
was accorded the rank of Past Hrand Ma«tei--„nder the older Miimnic syBtem-February 10, 1790, 
and in the wnie year became Prov. O.M. of Gibraltar, an office he retained until 1800. 

*Afat,p. 193. 

• In another part of the hook (p. 147)de»cribed as "Vincount Montjoy, and Earl of BlewlDg. 
♦o*^" *-*»'«. P- I* • (y. ante, pp. 48, 188. 




XXXIX, of Anderwn ii reprMented by the No. XXVIL of Dennott and Spmtt The 
<■ Old " RegnktioM of the two totter termiiwte with thia number. Bat they add a " New " 
one— XXVIII.— which if identical with the XL. of Dr. Andeiion, and contain! the ten 
articles or rulea p«Md on the motion of D.0.3L Ward, in 1736.' " Old " and " New " 
Bcgnlation XXXIX. in the Conititationi of 1738, are snbatautially reproduced in O.K. 
and N. B. XXVII, of " Ahiman Bezon," 1756. According to both code^ the " Old Land 
Marks" to which the Section refers, are to "be carefully preserved;" but Spratt and 
Dennott omit the injunction in the (M Begnlation, requiring proposed alterations in the 
laws to be submitted " to the Perusal of the yongest Enter'd Prentice," and the statement 
in the Nero one (XXXIX.),— that the Grand Lodge can make " Nbw Regclations with- 
out the consent of AU the Brethren, at the Grand Annual Feast" In other respects, the 
"Old " B^^lations, as given in " Ahiman Bezon, 1T56, are simply copied from Anderson 
or Spratt The " New " Regulations, however, of the former, are not quoted by Dennott 
with the same fulness, but as an example of the source of authority, whence the laws of 
the "Ancients" were derived, it may be interesting to state, that the compiler of their 
"Constitutions," adopted in its entirety Anderson's " New" Regulation VIII., consisting 
of a series of laws, passed by the original Grand Lodge of England in 1733, 1724, and 1735 
respectively.* Here Dennott simply walked in the footsteps of Spratt, who had done 
precisely the same thing in 1751, and the former also followed the latter, in curtailing the 
number of " Old " Regulations to XXVIL, and of " New " Regulations to XXVIIL 

Indeed, in one respect only, which may be deemed material or otherwise, according to 
the foncies of individual readers, are the Irish and the " Ancient " Grand Secretaries at 
variance. In the "Manner of Constituting a Lodge," we learn from Anderson and Spratt 
that the Grand Master is to say certain words and use " some other Expressions that are 
proper and usual on that Occasion, but not proper to be written. " Dermott puts the same 
words into the mouth of the Grand Master, but requires them to be said " qfler some other 
Oeremoniee ' and Expressions that cannot be written." 

The " Royal Arch " is alluded to in "Ahiman Rezon," 1756, but, that part of Bfasonry, 
as it is there termed, will be examined with some fulness when my observations on the 
" Constitutions " of the " Ancients " are brought to a close. With regard to the first edi- 
tion I shall merely add that it made its way into favor without any direct official sanction. 
The biethr«n for whose use it was designed were styled the "Ancient York Masons in Eng- 
land; and the pnblication itself was dcdicatotl to the Earl of Bleg<iington, with the object, 
no doubt, of gaining the consent of tlmt peer to figure as the first " noble Grand Master " 
of the Secedors— tt scheme which was eminently successful, and reflects the greatest credit 
upon the sagacity of the Grand Secretary. 

Lord Blessingtou attended no meetings of the Grand Lodge, but it is not a little sin- 
gular that Dermott secured the services as titular Grand Master, for the {Schismatics, of the 
very nobleman under whose presidency the (irand Lodge of Ireland conformed to the laws 
and reguktions enacted by the " Regular " or " Original " Grand Lodge of England. 

A second edition of " Ahiman Rezon " appeared in 1764, and extends to 224 pages, of 
which all but !>G are devoted to jxxjtry and songs. It contains a " Philacteria" for persons 
desiring to become Free-Maaona, and also a description of " Modem Masonry," extrw^ts 

■ Ante, p. 14a, note 5. ' Ante, pp. 187, not« i; 188. 139, 181, note 1; and 146, note 8. 

' Twenty-two yean later, Dermott ol)aerves, that the Ancients and Mutlerns " differ exceedingly 
in makini^, certmaniei, knowlodge, maaonical languafe, and imtallatUm^ (Ahiman Reson, 1T78X 


■ K 


from which hare been already giren. ' In the latter, Drrmott introdnoee a catechetical 
method of arguing, and beaidee that Freemaaonry, at practiied in the Antient (bat not in 
the Modem) Lodgee, ia nnirenal; that a Modem Mawn may with safety communicate all 
nil Moreta to an Antient Haaon, but not vie» v»r$d; that " a person made in the modem 
mamntdr, and not after the antknt coatom of the craft, hai no right to be called free and 
accepted— hia being unqualified to appear in a maritr't hdg»,' according to the onivenal 
system of Blaaonry," rendering "the appellation improper; " and that a Modem cannot be 
initiated or introduced " into a Royal Arch Lodge (the very esKnoe of Masonry), without 
going through the Antient Ceremonies." ' He also lays down that the number of Antient 
Maamis, compared with the Modems, ia as ninety-nine to one. But there is one qaeation 
and answer, which, as they are omitted in all subsequent editions, I diall transcribe. The 
writer asks, " What Art or Science haa been btroduced and practised in London wiUuMit 
receiving the least improvement ? " To this the reply is—" Freemasonry." 

In this edition we first meet with disparaging Elusions to the older Society; but in 
" Ahiman Reson," 1778, these increase in volume, and are often couched in most offensive 
terms. For example, a note to " Charge " III., which forbids the initiation of women or 
eunuchs, has, ' This is still the law of Ancient Masons, though disregarded by our Breth- 
ron (I mean our Sisters) the Modern Masons." * Also in another place it is urged ly Dur- 
mott that the premier Orand Lodge, not having been established by the Masters and 
Wardens of /i« Lodges, was " defective in form and capacity; " whilst, on the other hand, 
he contends that " the Orand Lodge of Ancient Masons received the old system without 
adulteration!" But Dermott certainly finds weak spots in the harness of his adversaries, 
when he inveighs against a statement in the " Freemasons'" Calendar," and another br 
Samuel Spencer, Grand Secretary to the older Institution. The former alludes to tlie Ancient 
York Constitutions having been " entirely dropped at the revival in 1717; " ' and the totter. 
made in reply to an Irish Mason who was an applicant for relief, informs him, " Our Society 
is neither Arch, Rojral Arch, or Ancient; so that you have no right to partake of our 
Charity." " Such," remarki Dermott, " was the character given them by their own Grand 
Secretary about fourteen years ago; ' how much they have changed for better or worae m 
no bnsineas of mine. " ' 

Many regulations originally taken from Anderson or Spratt are omitted in the thirl 
edition of " Ahiman Bezon," e.g., " New" regulations IIL and IV.; whilst this is coun- 

' Vol. n., p. 160; ante, p. 190. 

* HuKhan obwrves: " There was apparently a difference between the ' Ref^ilar ' and the ' Atholl ' 
Maaona. which has come down to us in the ceremony of the Third Def^ree, thereby explaining the 
lue of two sets of words of similar import or meaning, and the preference for the combination 
rather than the omtanon of either of these peculiar and brief fientencea" (op. eit., p. M). 

' Apart from the reasona mentioned in the last note, it is quite clear that, in order to attain the 
Royal Arch, the candidate would have to "iiro through a ceremony "—viz., that of installation or 
" paaaing the chair," which was unrecognised in any way by tlie Original Orand Lodge of England 
until 1811. Of. ante, p. 110. 

* " The Modems," Dermott oontinuen, " some years ago admitted Signor Singsong, the eunuch, 
T-nd-d, at one of their Lodges in the Btrtm). And upon a late tryal at Westminster, it appeared 
that they admitted a woman called Hadam U'E(on]" (Ahiman Reson, 1778). 

' Ante, pp. V», nt. 

'The occurrence is related io the Orand Looge Minutes under December S, 17S9. 

' Ahiman Reaon, 1773. 



twiwiaand by tb* vmK^m of aew Um pMnd I7 the Seoeden, inch, for example, m the 
prmlege of Totinf amaM to Paat Marrtm (N.R. XII.), wd the r«ht of the Gmid 
llMter to make MkmmM ai ngfat (0. E. XIIL4. 

A laurth edttim of tta work i^aared in 1787, and a co mm itU e of Grand Offtaers, with 
the nine ExceUert Ma*»8, -aa affointed, on Maroh 4, 1795, to aanst the Depaty G»nd 
MM tT- ia bringing o«t a ifth, whicfc wa» published in 1800, under liie editorial ■uperviBon 
of Tho»a« Harper, ayen whom alao devolved the talk of seeing the anbaequent edition* of 
1801. 1807, and 1813 through the press. 

" The Royal Arch," mj% Laurence Dermott, " I flnnly believe to be the root, heart 
and marrow of Masonry." This <^ion is expresiad in his " Ahiman Reion " of 1756, 
•nd doubtless did much to populariae the degree. The publication in question was nat 
then one of authority, though it soon b«wame so; but we should do weU to pecoUeert tiiat 
not untU 1771 ' can the Boyal Arch be wid to have formed an integral part of the system 
of Blasonry practised by the Seceders. It was wrought, no doubt, in the so^mlled 
" Ancient " Lodges from a much earlier period, but oaly as a side or bye degree; and we 
must not emulate the credulity of those who in former years regarded the utterances of 
Dermott as standing upon a similar footing with the Responsa Prudentum of the Civil 
Law. In the list of subscribers prefixed to the work, seven names have t' lers 

" A. M." appended. This, Kloss reads as signifying " Arch Masoa,'" and li ofore 

concludes that in 1756 the dejrree was very restricted in its scope. Here, however, the 
great Masonic critic has made too hasty a deduction from the evidence b<4ore him. The 
seven subscribers were all actual or Past Grand Officers, and in every case their Masonic 
rank was placed opposite their names. Thus— "Edward Vaughan, O.M., A.M." 
{Orand Mster, Ancient Mamns), and so on. That Jeremiah Coleman, whose name also 
appears on the list, but without the letters " A.} ,," was certainly an Arch Mason, and 
doubtless many others, u to be inferred from the following notification which appeared 
in the PuNic Advertiser for 1756:' 

" To the Brethren of the Most Antient and Honourable, Free and Accepted Antient 
York Masons— this is to give notice tliat your company U desired, viz., such as are con- 
cerned in E[xcellent], G[rand]. commonly called R[oyal] A[rch], at Bro. Sargent's, the 
Prince of Wales' Head, in Caple-Street, near WeUcloso Square, this day, at six in the even- 
ing, to accommodate P. L. R. S. as your forefathers were. By the order of P. T. Z. L. J. 
A.,' President. Jer. Coleman, Sec'y." 

Kloss attributes the introduction of new degrees into Britain, to the influence of the 
French Masons, though he is careful to point out tliat the innovators in each country 
hoodwinked their oompatriote by si)eaking of the novelties as foreign importations. There 
is little doubt, however, that the degrees of Installed Master, and of the Royal Arch, had 
their inception in the " Scote " degrees, which sprang up in all part« of France about 1740. 

' Ante, p. m. 

'Qeachichte der Freimaurerei in EnerUnd, Ireland, and SchottUnd, 1847, p. 888. 

•This I have been unable to verify. It appeared in a series of extracts taken from the above 
journal, and given in the Freematotuf Magcaine, February 18, ll«5, which were afterwards re- 
printed (Without the slightest acknowledgment) in the f'reemamm, September 38. 1884. 

• After the last verse of Song No. XXXVIIL in '• Ahiman Beson, " 1756, the expnawon occurs, 
<• To the Memory (f P. H. Z. L. and J. A." These letters were doubtless the correct ones Cf. 
Hugfaaa. Origin of the English Bite of Freemasonry, p. 66; and Freemason, October 4, 1884. 
VOL. in.— 14. 







" Soota MMonry " will fonn the nibject of a fntnre diMertetion; ' and in thia place it will 
be rafflcient to obwnre that the minnte booki of two Lodge*' proTe that it had taken roof 
in thia country aome yean at leaat before the period of time which I hare ventured to 
aaaign aa that of the commencement of the Schism. The records of the Lodge of In- 
dnatry, Oateahead, aupply information of an analogous if not identical character. These 
iirfbrm n* that on July 1, 1746, it was " Enacted at aGnmd Lodge, That no brother Mason 
should be admitted into the dignity of a Highrodiam " for less than 2a. 6d., or into that of 
" Doaaakin or Forin," for leaa than Ss. " Highrodiam " ia very suggestive of " Harodim,' 
«f which it may have been a corruption; but the word " Domaskin " I cannot venture to 
explain. The two degrees or steps were, I think, some form of " Scots Masonry "—a con- 
clusijB to which I am led by the "N.R" which follows the entry given above. This 
reads: " The English Mattert to pay for entering into the said Mutenhip 3s. 6d.. ner 
majority."' *^ 

It is a carious circumstance, that the only knowledge we poaseas concerning the Royal 
Arch before 1T52' arises from an inpidtntal allusion in a work of 1744, and an entry in 
the records of the Ancients, informing us that Dermott became a member of that degree 
in 1746. The former occurs in Dassigny's, " Serious and Impartial Enquiry," ' of which 
the passages relating to the subject will be given in the Appendix. Their meaning is not 
free from obscurity, but we are justified in inferring that a few years before 1744 some 
person in Dublin pretended to have been made " Master of the Royal Arch " at York, 
and thereby deluded many worthy people; that "at length" a " Brother who had sonL 
snmll .ipact be/ore' attained that excellent part of Masonry in London, plainly proved that 
his doctrine was false; " and also, that the degree was restricted to brethren who had passed 
the chair. 

But this only proves that a side or bye degree, as yet unrecognized by the governing 
bodies at York and the three capitals, had found its way from London to Dublin, and we 
cannot be sure, from the laiipruage employed, whether in 1744, more than a single person 
at the latter city, was in possession of it. 

I conceive that the word " Arch " must have been first used in the sense of " Chief.' 
or. " of the first class," as Arc/tan^l. ArehM»hop, in which signification, we meet with the 
same expression in connection with associations outside the pale of the order.' 

An " Arch-Mason," therefore, was one who had received a degree or step beyond tin' 
recognized and legitimate three. Out of this was ultimately evolved the degree of Instalka 
Master, n ceremony unknown, in the older system, until the 8econd decade of the pr.sent 
century, and of which I can trace no sign «nong the " Ancients," until the growing 
practice of conferring the " Arch " upon brethren not legally (lualitteil to receive it, brought 

' PntI, Mitsonry in France. 

' •• Jun. 8, 174«.-Bro«. Thomas Nai»h and John Burps were this day made Scotch Masters, and 
paid for niukin^ 28. 8d. each " (Jfinutes of the K..val Cumberland Lodge, Bath. No 41) "Oct 19 
nW.-At this lodge were mu*le Scotts Masons, five brethrea of the lod^e" (Goldney. op. eit quoU 
uiK the Minut^.8 of the Sarum Lo.lgre). Qf. ante, p. 151. Five member, of present No. 41 were sub- 
seqiiently maile "Scotch Masons," Nov. 87, 1754. 

' Masonic MaKasine, vol. iii.. 1878-7«, pp. 73, 75. *Ante. p. 1»1. • Ibid 

• I cannot quitP .igrec with Hughan (pp. cit.. p. 49) that these words necessarily imply that the 
brother who received the Royal Arch degree in London did so before the date of the imposture. 

' lu the Annual HegUter. 17«1, p. 51, there U a reference to " the alraoxt innumerable club, and 
so„eti,^ whi.l, .listingi,i.h th«m«,lve^ K,me by Arcli, and oUiem by very significant e.pre.ion..-' 

I' (^ 


kbont a conMrHctirt pasting through the chair, which, bj qualifying candidate* not other- 
wiw eligible, naturally entailed the introduction of a ceremony,' additional to the simple 
forma known to Ffeyne, Anderwm, and Desagnlierib 

A lodge under the title of " Royal Arch," Olaigow, waa erwsted by the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland on Angnit 6, 1755. But though from this it may be inferred that the ianova- 
tion had penetrated into North Britain, the charter only empowered the members to 
-'admit and receiye apprentice*, pan fellow-craft*, aad raiae master maMiiB.'" In 
the aame way, a knowledge of the degree by the mawna of Philadelphia, in 1758, may 
be prewimed from the fact that a lodge oonatituted there in that year by the " Ancient* '* 
bore a aimilar appellation.' Next in point of date, and apart from any record* of th« 
Seoeder*, Kipreme or gubeidiary, we find the Royal Arch well e*tabliri»ed at York, 1762; ' 
London, 1765; in Lancaehire, 1767;* at Bort»n (U.S.A.), 1769; and in Irdand, 1772.* 

The Royal Arch minntes of the " Ancient*" commence November 5, 1783, and recite 
certain re*olutionii passed in the Grand Lodge, December 4, 1771,' and in the Grand 
Chapter, January 3, 1772. To the latter there i* a preamble to the effect that some pereoni* 
had " lately pretended to teach Masonical Mysterie*, Superior to, or nece**ary to be adde<l 
to the Mystery of the Royal Arch;" wherefore it was resolved: "That it is the 
clear opinion of this Grand Chapter that Royal Arch Masonry i* (in itaelf) so stnpeii- 
donsly Excellent that it Is, truely, what the Roman Masons of Old said, ' Ut Nihil poesit 
cogitare: Nothing cou'd be imagined more.' Therefore to attempt an amendment or add 
to the Mysteries of the Holy Royal Arch, wou'd be a profanation of that which every good 
man (especially a fret^mason) wou'd and ought to preserve pore and undeflled." 

Inasmuch as at this period the " original " Grand Lo<lgc of England was coquetting 
with the myriads of degree* which were then in existence on the Continent,' it is almost 
demonstrably clear, that had not Dermott drawn the line at the Royal Arch, the older 
Society would have eventually followed him. in adopting any number of foreign novelties, 
with the same complaisance which was shown in 1811 and 1813.' 

The Grand Chapt.jr on the same occasion— January 3, 1773— took into consideration 
the matter referred to it in December 1771," and decided that those brethren who had 
" been introduced [into Royal Arch Masonry] contrary to Antient Custom should be 
remade " gratis upon a recommendation from their respective Lodge*." 

' According to Mom, the degree of InrtalleU Master is (or was) identical, in nearly every respect, 
with one of the grades of "Scots Manonry" known on the Continent (op. cit., p. 484). 
'D. H. Lyon, in a letter dated March IS, 1885. 
»C. E. Meyer, History of the Jeniaalera C^iapter, No. 8, Philadelphia. * Ante, p. 183. 

• History of the Anchor and Hope Lodge, No. 87, Bolton, by O. P. Brockbank and James New- 
ton, 1888, p. 10. 

• Hugiian, op. cU., p. 104. According to tiie Grand Chapter Register (Ancients) of " Excellent 
Masters in the degree of the Royal Ar»h," Dermott was "admitted" in No. 26, Dublin, in 174«; and 
two others in No. 881, Ireland (1767), and in the Thistle Lodge, Bcotland (1768). respecUvely. 

• Ante, p. 187. 

• De VignoUes, Provincial Grand Master for foreign lodges, under this body wrote— Dec. 28, 
177a-to the Master of the Lodge " Charles" at Brunswick, stating that Grand Lodge did not deny 
that there must be and were exalted degrees, though which were to be admitted or rejected, wan 
Htill in suspense. But in the interim the Grand Master permitted all lodges to form private Chapl«n> 
of the " high " degrees, as they might see Ut (Kloss, op. eit. . p. 427). 

'Ante, pp. no, 181. " Ante, p. 107. 

" From this, we may perhaps conclude, that brethren were also re-made, in the ordinary degm*. 
rather In vindication of a principle, than because there was any actual necessity for itf 





At Um meeting held NoTember 5, 1783, it wm rawWed " that thii Chapter do perfectly 
coincide with the foregoing resolution, and that maatera, and paatm*. (Bond fidt) only 
ought to be admitted Hasten of the Bojral Arch." It was olw further agraed that the 
names of all Royal Arch Masons should be recorded in a book to be called " Seper Enholah 
Sabbim, i.e., the Register of Ezocllent Masters;" that the Grand Lodge should meet at 
least twice in the year, and on one of these occasions, in conjunction with the Grand OfBcen 
■elect a certain number of " Excellent Masters," which was not to exceed nine person*, 
who were to examine all persons undertaking to perform any of the ceremonies relatire to 
the Royal Areh, the installation of Grand Officers, or to Procesnons. Theae brethren, 
who were Indifferently styled the nine Excellent Masters or Worthies,' subaeqnently had 
their functions enlaiged, as we hare already seen.* 

Royal Arch certificates were issned by the "Ancients" in 1791, and the degree it 
accorded great prominence in the editions of " Ahiman Reson," published in 1800 and 
later years. Nerertheless, I am strongly of opinion, that it was not fully appreciated by 
the "Ancients," until the novelty was invested with so much importance by the " MotJems " 
— as in this connection I may venture to style them, without being guilty of an anachron- 
ism—and who decorated and embellished the degree with many ^cifii] alterations and 
additions of their own creation.' 

The earliest Royal Arch minntes are among the York Records; and next in point of 
date are those of the body which ultimately became the Grand Chapter, tolerated, if not 
actually recognized, by the earlier Grand Lodge of England. The latter commence ,\uw 
13, 1765, at which date the fee for " passing the Arch " was five guineas. In the followinj,' 
year. Lord Blaney, Grand Master, and James Ileseltine, Grand Secretary, of the oUir 
" Grand Lodge of England," became members, and also " Grand Master " and " ScrilM' ' 
respectively of the " fourth degree." On March 11, 1768, Edward Gibbon, the historian, 
was proposed by Dunkerley and Rowland Holt, "and unanimously approved of;" but 
there is no record of his exaltation or admission. In 1769 warrants of Constitution were 
issued, and in the next year the title of "Grand and Royal Chapter" was assumed. In 
1773 the use of a distinctive apron was forbidden, until the "Companions" were allowcsl 
to wear such " in the Grand Lodge, and in All private Free-mason's Lodges."* The Duke 
of Cuml)crland was elecU>«l " perpetual patron " in 1785. In 1796 the " Grand Chapter " 
became Uie " Grand Lodge of Royal Arch." The Earl of Moira was exalted in 1803, and 
the Duke of Sussex btcitme a member in 1810. But the degree was not formally recog- 
nized by the Society over which these brethren in turn presided, until the Union, and 
when a eompUint was presented from one Robert Sampson who had been expelled from 
Royal Arch Masonry— December 29, 1791—" for declaring his intention of exalting Masti-r 
Masons for Ss. each." It was resolved— November 21, 1792—" that the Grand Lodge of 
England has nothing to do with the proceedings of the Society of Royal Arch Masons."' 

' Sept 80, 1808. " » Chaplin propowd, that » Bollora should be returned to the Qrand Royal 
Arch Chapter, as one of the Nine Worthys for the year" (Minutes of No. 194, note the Middlesex 
Lodge. No. 148). t ^„,,_ p j^g^ ,^^ however. Hughan. op. cit, p. 93. 

♦The following- opinion was expressed by Laurence Dermott, May 15. 1778:— "Royal Arth- 
Uatmu must not. in any place, except in the Royal Arch Lodjce, be distinguished by any garment 
or badge different from wliat belongs to them as offlcen of the Orand, or their own private Lodge " 
<Early History of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, p. cxii.). 

'A further roniplaint by Sampson, arising out of the same matter, was heard by the "Com- 
mittee of Charity," February 1, 1798, and " dismissed, as frivolous and vexatioia." 




On March 18, 1817, the two Omnd Cluiptew followed the eumple of the Gr»nd Lodge* 
with which they were ieTemlly connected, and amalgamated, under the title of " Uniitd 
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Maaona of England." 

The Royal Arch degree waa originally conferred in the lodge, both by " Ancienta " and 
•• Modema "— exprewoM which, baring regard to the dates whereon thii " InnoTation in 
the Body of Masonry " ' waa made by these two bodies respcctirely, may here be employed 
in their ordinary or popular signification. Chapters were first brought into use by the 
latter, and the earliest of which a record lias been preserved was well established in 1765. 
This, as prerionsly sUted, developed into a " Grand Body," and issued warrants of consti- 
tutions to subordinate chapters, after which the degree gradually ceased to be workeil 
surreptitiously, by lodges under the older system. The York brethren also met as a 
Chapter from April 29, 1768.* Of this practice I have found but one early example among^ 
the Ancients; it occurs in the records of No. 174 Lodge, norv the Royal Gloucester, 
Chapter No. 130, and is of value in more ways than one. First of all, it establishes the 
fact that the Royal Arch was not always worked in the " Ancient" Lo«lges, for No. 174 
was constituted April 22, 1772, and did not become acquainted with the degree until 
October 7, 1783, on which date (we next learn) a brother of No. 74 under the Irish Regit- 
try, attached to the second battalion of the 1st (or Royal) Regiment, assisted by three 
other " Arch Masons, held a Chapter for the purpose of Raising several Brethren to this 
Sublime Degree, in order to their holding a Chapter in Southampton." ' 

Under both Grand Lodges, the practice of " passing brethren through the chair," or, 
in other wonla, of conferring upon them the degree (without serving the office) of " Installed 
Master," which had crept into the ritual of the " AncienU," was very common.' In Noe. 
37 and 42 it lasted until 1846 and 1850 respectively. 

Undue stress has been laid upon the custom which prevailed under the two Grand 
Lodges of England, of requiring brethren, who had already graduated under one system, 
to go through the ceremonies a second time under the other. The fees for registration 
may have been at the bottom of the whole affair, and in each case, as the admission of 
brethren from the rival camp in the capacity of vinitors '—until a comparatively late period 
—plainly indicates, a re-making was more a protest against the regularity than the 
validity of the degree to which the postulant had been previously admitted. lodges and 
Masons who went over to the enemy were said to huve " apostotized " by the body with 
whom they were formerly in communion, and all kinds of terms, of which " translated"" 
is perhaps the most singular and expressive, are used in tlie records of Io<lgeB to describe 
the status of a brother who waa "healed" or re-made. But the practice of re-making 
'4n<e, p. 188. •ibid., p. 182. 

• At a Chapter of Emergency, held Feb. 18, 1796, it was prop^wed to make a brother an " excel- 
lent and super-excellent Boyal Arch Mason." Cf. Histcry of the Lotlge of Antiquity, No. 146, 
Bolton (J. Newton), p. 87. 

♦ Numerous examples of the custom are given in the following Lodge Histories: " Anchor and 
Hope," Bolton, No. 87 (G. P. Brockbank and James Newton); 'Relief," Burj-, No. 48 (E. A. Evans): 
"BriUsh Union," Ipswich, No. 114{Emra Holmes); and under the "Ancienta," -Enoch,' London, 
No. 11 (Freemasons Chronicle, vol. iv., p. 833): and "St. John's," Bolton, No. 221 (O. P. Brockbank). 

'Oct. 19, 1764.— "ViaBitingBretheren(inferaf»o»], Brcth. Jackson of No. llSof the MoilrenCoii- 
(tutation " (Minutes of No. 86 "Ancients," note " Union Wt.terloo," No. 18). Cf. ante, p. 196, note 3. 

•The cost of "translation" was a guinea and a half (G. W. Speth, Histof}- of the Lodge of 
Unity, No. 183, p. 88). The same amount was charged foi re-making in an " Ancient " Lodge, prv 
est No. Ml (O. P. Brockbank, History of St John's Lodge. Bolton, p. 31). 




•ppMn to have been dupetued with, in caiwe when an entire lodge shifted ite aUegiaooe, 
or where • wunrnnt of oonftitution wm gnnted bj either Onuad Lodge to petitioner! who 
had graduated under itn rival.' Thua, the luiuutee of No. 8«, two mouth* befora it waa 
chartered bj the " Anoienta," inform ua that it waa agreed to " make no new Maiona for 
the feuther, till anch time ai we can procure a New Warrant, aa the one we now act 
under 18 Illeagel, Being Modderant ' Conatitntion. " The warrant waa granted in due oonrK, 
but there i« no mention of "re-making»" until a much Uter period, when the entriev 
become very inatructive. For example, in the year 1774, two brethren were "re-made," 
both of whom had been " made " in Soothmd— m the " Union and Crown " ' and in the 
" Kilwinning " Lodges roapectively. 

Inaamuch aa the " Ancient* " were then on the beet poeaible terma with the Grand 
IMgi of Scotland, over which the Duke of Atholl— also their own Grand Maater— at that 
time presided, the process of legitimation here resorted to waa wholly uncalled for and 
unnecessary. * But the entries tend to prove, that brethren passing from ore Masonic juris- 
diction to another, were re-made, not because there were essential differunces between the 
ceremonial observances peculiar to each system, but rather as a diaciplinarj- requirement, 
and from motives of policy. 

Notwitlwtanding the bitter feud between the rival Grand Lodges of England, the lodges 
on the two rolls worked together, on the whole, with greater lovo and harmony than 
might have been expected. Sometimes in a so-called " Ancient " Lodge the " Business " 
was " Modem,"* and oftener still, lodges under the older system, followed the method of 
working iu vogue among the " Ancients."' 

Of a divided allegiance there are a few examples. Thus, the present Royal Gloucester 
Lodge, Southampton, No. 130, was warranted by the "Ancients" in XTri, and by the 
older Society twenty years kter. Sometimes the members met in one capacity, and somc- 
times in the other. Often it was resolved to abandon one of the "Constitutions;" but 
which was to be " dropped," the members could never finally decide, though each in turn 
was temporarily renounced on a variety of occasions. At the Union, however, the lodRc 
wisely clung to iU original charter, thus obtaining a higher position on the roll.' 

The members of both Societies constantly walked together in processions, and their 
common attendance at church on these and similar occasions is very frequently recorded.' 

' The wwrant of 8t Johns Lodge. Leicester, now No. 8TO, was gnmted in 1790, by the Original 
Grand Lodge of England, to some of the princi|>al otllwni and membeni of No. 91 " Ancients," and 
tlie previous warrant remained for a long time in the hands of Bro. Horton, who waa Master botli of 
the "old ■• and the •• new" lodge, but was eventually delivered up to some of the brethren who stiU 
desired to work under it (W. Kelly, Freemasonrj- in Leicesterahire, p. 34). 

' The use of this term, under the circumstances, lalls for no remark, but its constant appearance 
in the minutes of lodges under the older sanction is, as already observed (ante, p. 187). very extraor- 
dinaiy. The following is a curious example of the almost universal custom: Nov. 1, 18U8.— •' Bro. 
Rolf prvHKJsed Wm. Laysonby French to be modemiieil into masonry, at one guinea .xpense " (Emra 
Holmes, Minutes of the British Union Lodge, No. 114, Ipswich-Masonic Magazine, vol. iv., p. 533). 

• Instituted at Glasgow, Dec. 88, 17««, note No. 108. 

• Uf. ante, pp. 193, 199. i Minutes of No. 8«, now Union Waterloo, No. 18. 

• Aaording to the Minutes of a lodge under the older Society, two brothers were " Raised the 
3rd stepe of Mo.leni Masonry" in 1791, and three were "Raised Master Masons Antient" in 1792 
(E. A. Evans. History of the Lodge of R.aief, No. 43, Bury, 1883. p. 89). 

' J. R. Stebbing, Histor}- of the Royal Gloucester Lodge, No. 180(8ouUuuuptoo Times, Ap. 37, 1878). 
'See Histories of the Anchor and Hope Lodge, No. 87. p. 37 (O. P. Brovkbank and James New- 




A mngnUr initanoe of their acting in oonoert ii afforded by » MMonic addreit prescntod to 
Prince Edwwd— irfterwardi Duke of Kent— January 9, 1794, on hia approaohing dcporturo 
from Canada. At the foot are two lignaturoa, one to the loft, the other to the nght of the 
page— the former being that of "William Grant, D.O.M. of Modem M»ions,"and the 
latter that of " Thomaa Ainalie, D.O.M. of Ancient Maaoni." A iMrograph in the addreaa 
runt—" We hare a confident hope that, under the conciliating influence of your Royal 
HighncM, the Fraternity in general of Freemaaoni in hia Majeaty'a domiuiona will lOon be 
united;" to which the Prince replied— "You may truat that my ntraoat efforts ihall be 
eierted, that the much-wiahed-for Union of the whole Fraternity of Mawni may be 


The flnt offlcera of the "Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Institutions" were 
the Grand Master, Deputy. Wardens, and Secretary, all of whom, except tlio Deputy, were 
elected year by year. The appointment of this officer was one of the pren^tives of the Grand 
Master, but in practice some experienced brother was recommended for t!ie oftiw;, and the 
approval of the Grand Master followed as a matter of course. A new offije, that of 
Treasurer, waa created in 1T54, and in 1768 William Dickey was elected Deputy Grand 
Secretary. A Grand Pursuivant and also a Grand Tyler were appointed in 1771. In the 
following year there was a Grand Chaplain and a Sword-bearer "pro tempore," but the 
Utter office, though apparently rerived in 1788, did not become a permanent one unti\ 
1791. A. Deputy Grand Chaplain was among the officers for 1809. 

The Steward's Lodge, or Committee of Charity, was invested with full power to hear 
complaints of a Masonic nature, and to punish delinquento according to the laws of the 
Craft Its chief function, however, was to deal with petitions for relief, and the following 
are examples of the various grounds on which such applications were rejected: 

January 17, 1781. From a certified Mason of No. 153, Ireland—" he having resided in 
London upwards of three years, and never Inquired after a Lodge or visited." 

June 16, 1784. From James Barker of No. 81. " It appearing to the Steward's Lodge, 
his being hime and otherwise disfigured at the time of being made, he ought not to be 


August 20, 1788. From Robert Brown— on the ground of his " haveing no other certif- 
icate" than that of a Knight Templar, which had been granted him by "the Carrickfcrgus 
True Blue Lodge, No. 253, under the Registry of Ireland." 

November 19, 1788.— From an applicant — "not appearing to have any concern in 
Masonry from the time he was made." 

August 15, 1804.—" Resolved, That T. Sculthorpe, being a person not perfect in body, 
but deformed, and much below the common stature of man, was a very improper person to 
become, and is now unfit to continue, a Member of this most ancient and honorable Fra- 
ternity—and consequently not entiUed to the advantages or privileges of Masonry in any 
degree whatever."' 

April 17, 1805.— From a member of the Union Ixnigeat Eibing— "A Modem? not able 
to make himself known as an Antient Mason." 

ton); St. John's Lodge, No. 331. p. 88 (O. P. Brockbank); the Lodge of Antiquity. No. 146, p. SO 
(James Newton); and of Freemasonry in Lcicesteishire and Rutland (W. Kelly. 1870). 

■ In the Freemason's Magasine. voL iii., 17»4. p. 18, from which I quote, both the extracts givon 

above are shown in italics. 

• Contirmed at the September meeUng of Grand Lodge, by which body, m the previous June, a 
Master of a Lodge had been reprimanded tor having initiated a cripple. 

' 1 1 


SoButiiiiM nry inUimting pointi of Mawnie L«« wer« dimuMd or datenninMl nt 
iiwvtiuga of tiiu body, «.jr., — 

AprU 16, 1777.— Dennott ttat«l, that " alth.^gh the Onwd MMter had fi.ii pover and 
authority to nmlu (in hia preaenur. or '%tm to be made) Maaona, wh*n and whore he 
pleaaod, yet be oonld not oblidge any I^ilg*- to ailmit the peraoM («o mad( ) aa mombera, 
withont the nnaniroona oonaent of aach Lodge, u<l if the Grand Maxter made oaet of hia 
privelidge in making of Maaona, he onght to hare made a auffioient number »( them to form 
a Lodge and grant them a warrant, by which mwtnK they woiiM b»- ntitled to Begiatry, 
otherwiae not."' 

December 18, 1811.— A memorial waa read from Na 225, wmphuning that one of 
thair meinbera had been refuned admittance by No. 24.'.. "on thp grouml of hia being u 
Qnaker, when, tho' rognUrly admitted on hia tokmn affirnuUivt, tlir offioera of No. 34.^ 
contended waa a tioUtion of tJ»e principlt-a of the Conatitntion." The atewarda were of 
opinion " that there did not appear any cenauru to either of the Lodgea in wlwt had been 
done, bat upon a queation lo no»el and pecnliar, recommended that the final dispoaul of 
tho matter be postponed till next Steward'a Lodge." The aubjcct is not again mentioned 
in thpw record*, but the minutes of the Royal Olonoeater Lodge, No. 130, inform ni, tliat 
in a letter dated April 13, 1796, the Grand Secretary of the "AncionU " had comnnniuaU'd 
to tliat body the deoiaion of Orund Lodge, tliat a Quaker waa ineligible for initiation." 

!• has been ahown that the laws and custom* of the "Ancient" Maaons were based on 
Irisli originals. The former Dermott simply appropriate<l from Spratt, and the hitter he 
appi-ara to hare gradually introdueetl into tho ritual of the Seoedera. But the author of 
"Ahiinan Rcaon " waa by no meana content to follow in the footatepa of any guide and 
boldly struck out a path of hia own, which haa become tho well-beaten track traToraed by 
the Frecmaaona of England. The epithet of "Moderns" which he bestowed on the 
brethren, under whoae lawa and curtoms he had been admitted into Maaonry in hia natire 
country, was singnlarly out of place, and had the "journeymen printer" been aa well 
skilled in polemical exerciaea aa tho "journeyman painter," the former might have com- 
pletely turnetl the tables on the latter. Aa it was, howoTer, whilst Preston's slip respect- 
ing the "droppcHl forms"' servetl as a neyer-faiiing text for the deunnciationa of the 
Seceders,* Ocrmott's more serious blnndera and misstatements Uayo not, up to thts present 
day, been fully refuted. Some of hia errors in history and chronology liave been already 
noticed,' but it ha« yet to be pointed out, that by adopting the Regulations— Old and New 
—of the premier Oriiiul Lodge of England, and at the same time denying the legality of 
that boiiy, ho placed himself on the horns of a dilemma. 

Thin, however, he appears to have entirely overlooked, and in the first edition of his 
"Ahiman Rezon,"' observes with regard to the New Regulations,' "they have been wi-ot • 
Bt different Times, b<j Order of the whole Ommunily." fin a<lmisBion which it would hir. 
taxed his resources to explain, had the s]i|) In-en harped upon with the same wearisoin 
iteration as in the somewhat parallel caae of William Preston. 

' TJiiK ii.lin,'. sliKlitly umplined, wan iiflerwards insertoa by Dermott aa a note to " Old Rejculu- 
ticii. Xni ,- III •• .\hiiiKin Reion," HVH. and tho latter huB s..rve.l u« the loundation of authoritv, 
upon which a straiiKe U.Klrine valM •• MakiOf? Mamns at Sight," lian been erected. 

•Tl.» nilimf is now obsolete. ' AhU, p. m. -Ahiman Reion. 18OT. p. 127 

Vol II., pp. 160, 161; ante, pp. 38, 808. . P. w. ' cf. ante. pp. Joe, 307 


Th« •itont to which Dwinott Bilded to, or imprwred npon, the cpri-monioi o( the C«ft, 
mn only fonn the rabjeot of oonjectare, though the biluwe of prolwbility inclinee itronf ly 

in one direotion. . i » ~i 

WhirteTer onatoma or oenmoniee Dennett h»d wquired • knowledge of in hU Lodge, 
No. 86, Dublin, we may take for gnmted that he HUted in pwrnng on-tery much m 
they were Uught to him-in thie country. The by-tawe of the Lodge in qnoetion were 
•dopted M a itandard for the guidance of the "Ancient " Lodge* before Dermott had been 
two oionth* installed ai Grand Secretary. Prom thie fonrco (or from Scotland) mwt ha»e 
beoi dwired the office of " deacon," ' which wae unknown to the older Grand Lodge of 
Enghmd until the Union. 

The degree of Inrtalled Maeter, aa well aa that of the Royal Aioh. may haye been 
wrought in the Dublin Lodgee before Dermott eeyered hii connection with the Ineh capi- 
tal. But neither of them derired at that time any countenance from the Grand Lodge of 
Irehuid, by which body, indeed, if we may beliefe a writer in the Prmmuon'* QuarUrly 
Enitw; the propoeal of their Grand Matter, the Earl of Donoughmore, in 1813. to ac- 
knowledge the Royal Arch degree, met with inch little faTor. that they paMed a rote of 
oenmro upon him, and were with difficulty reetrained from eipelling him from MaK>nry 

altogether. , 

It ia abundantly dear, howerer, that during the pendency of the Schiam no other 

degr«ea were reoogniaed by the Oimnd Lodgea of Ireland and Scotland than the aunple 

ikrm, authoriaed by the earlieat of Grand Bodiea. 

' <y. •»«.. p. Jie. Deacoaa aw •!*» Baa^dtothe Miaute. of the Seoeden on July II. MM. 
• 1844. p. 4Ml 



If! ■! 



IT is now essential to retnm to the proceedings of the earlier or original Grand Lodge 
of England, the narrative of which was interrupted at p. 149, in order that the 
records of two contemporary bodies might be placed under examination. 

We left off at the year 1760, but before proceeding to relate the further events of 
importance which occurred during the presidency of Lord Aberdour, some remarks of a 
general character will bo offered. 

The first lodge to adopt a distinctive title, apart from the sign of the tavern where it 
met, was the " University " Lodge, No. 74, in 1730. This was followed by the " Grena- 
diers" Lodge, No. 189, in 1739; after which, the constitution in the latter year of the 
"Pftrham," the "Court-House," the "Bakers," and the "Basseterre" Lodges, in the 
West Indies, led to the usage becoming a more general one. Inasmuch, however, as the 
"signs of the houses" where the lodges met were shown in the Engraved Lists, these, in 
some instances at least, must doubtless have been substituted for distinctive titles, in cases 
even where the latter existed.' This view is borne out by the list for 1760, wherein out 
of 245 lodges, one EntjUgh lodge only— the last on the roll— No. 245, the Temple Lodge, 
Bristol, appears with what may be termed in strictness a distinctive name. Nos. 1 and TO 
•re indeed styleil respectively the "West India and American" and the "Steward's" 
Lodges, but in each case the sign of the tavern is shown, and these designations appca • ta 
have merely meant that the former lodge was frequented by one class of persons, and tlm 
latter by another. The same remark will hold good as regards the " Scotts' Masons' 
Lodge," No. 115,* which, according to the Engraved List for 1734, met at the Devil. 
Temple Bar, in that year. 

But although only a single English lodge has a name affixed to it in the list for 1760, 
no less than twelve lodges in the West Indies, as well as four in Germany, and tlw same 
number in Holland, appear with distinctive titles in the same publication.' The majority 
of the West Indian lodges bore saintly appellatives. Those in Germany were the " Union 

' Thus the " Grenadiers" and the " Absalom " Lodges, Nob. 110 and 119, are only described in 
1760 as meetinij at the "King's Arms and Tun, Hyde Park Comer," and the "Bunch of Grape"'. 
Decker St, Hamburg," respectively. 

' Described in a MS. list of Dr. Rawlinson for tlie year 1783 (ptrca) as " a Scotch Mason's Lclge, " 
which designation is withhold in the Engraved List for 1736, where the following entry appeu™ 
opposite the No. 1 15: " Daniel's Coffee House, Temple Bar." Extinct in 1737. 

• The titles of Nos. 113 (" \ai Parfaite Union des Strangers ") and 119 f" Absalom ") are omitted 
m this list. The former Wiw constituted February 2, 1733, at Lausanne, iu tl.^ CaoU>a of Bern-. 


of AngeU," Frankfort (i;42);" tlio "St George," Hamburgh (174:1); the "St Michael's,'' 
Mecklenburg (1754); and tho "Grand Lodgo Frederick," Hanover (1755). In Holland 
there were the lodges of " Orange," Rotterdam, and of " Charity, Peace, and Kogularity," 
at AmBterdam. Other lodges, for example, " Solomon's Lodge," Chark-s Town, South 
Carolina (1735), and " Providence Lodge," in Rhode island (1757), boro distinctiTC titles 
before 1760, but in these and many similar cases the later lists are misleading, as both the 
lodges named were only given places corresponding with their actual seniority, some years 
after the publication of the list nnder examination, the former being assigned No. 74, and 
the latter No. 224, which were filled in the first instance by lodges at Bristol and Santa 
Croix respectively. 

In 1767, the lodge of which the Duke of Beaufort, Grand Master, was a member,' 
assumed a distinctive title in lieu of the " sign of the house "—the Sun and Punch Bowl 
—whereby it had previously been described, and the practice soon became very general. 
Tho happy designation bestowed on the " New Lodge at the Horn," ' may have helped to 
set the fashion, but at any rate, tho " Old Lodge at the Horn " became the " Old Horn 
Lodge" in 1768. In the same year original No. 3 took vhe title of tho " Lodge of Forti- 
tude," and in 1770 the senior English lodge assumed the now time-honored designation of 
the " Lodge of Antiquity." 

The lodges were re-numbered, in 1740, 1756, 1770, 1781. and 1792, and as the same 
process was resorted to at the Union (1813), and again in 18:! : and 1863, much confusion 
has been the result, especially when it has been sought to identify lodges of the past cen- 
tury with those still existing in our own. Some of the difficulties of this task have been 
removed, but the immethodical way in which vacant numbers were allotted during the 
intervals between the general re-numberings, will always render it a somewhat puzzling 
undertaking to trace the fortunes of those lodges of bygone days, which are undistinguished 
from the others, save by numbers and the names of Hie taverns where they assembled. 

The positions on the roll during the numeration of 1756-69 of the lodges at C'harles- 
trwn and Rhode Island liave been already noticed. The former found a place on the roll 
in the first instance as No. 251, and is described in the Engraved List for 1761 as 
"Solomon's Lodge, Charles Town, S. Carolina, 1735." Immediately above it, strange to 
say, at the Nos. 247-250, arc four other South Carolina lodges, stated to have been con- 
stituted, the two eartiest in 1743 and 1755, and the two latest in 1750 respectively. In 
the list for the following year, however, a vacant niche was available at the No. 74, and 
"Solomon's" lodge was accordingly shifted there from its lower position, the lodge imme- 
diately below it being described as "No. 75, Savannah, In the Province of Georgia, 
1735.'" In the same way the Nos. 141-143 on the list of 1756 were filled by Minorca 
lodges up to the year 1766, hut in 1768 they were assigned to lodges in Boston and Mar- 

■ Constituted, according to the official Hat, June 17, 1743, l)ut tho actual warrant (which is in tho 
tYench langvage, and will be printed in tlie Appendix) bears daie February 8. 1743. It is there 
styled, " fllle de notre bonne Loge de lUnion de Londres," and tlie " Motlier Lodge" referred to was 
apivirently No. 87 on the 1710 list, whicli then met at the " rnt.»« Coffee House," in the Haymarket. 
Lodge " Absalom," at Hanibur-, was of still earlier c.rlsin— viz., 1740. It first appeared in the 
Engraved Lists (as No. 119) in 1758, but dropped out at the re-nuinboring in 1770, and again found 
a place on tl>e roll, as No. 506, in 1787. 

• Cf. ante. p. 93, note 3, and irnut, p. 233. ' Cf- i"'«> P- "• 

• Also stvled •■ Solomons I.o.l,-.-" iii later lists. Cf. Fr.wma«>nV Clir..niole. April 9, 1881. 



blehead (Maw), and in Newh«Ten (Connecticut), respectively. At the next change of 
numberi (17T0) the four remaining lodges in South Carolina, miaphMed in the official list, 
were lifted to positions on the roll tallying with their respective seniority. " St Johus 
Lodge," New York, wWch was first entered in the Engraved List of 1762, was on the 
same occasion placed— according to the date of its constitution— among the lodges of 1767. 

Certificates signed by the Grand Secretary were first issued in 1755, in which year, it 
may be stated, the practice of " smoaking tobacco " in Grand Lodge during the transaction 
of business was forbidden, the D. G. M. (Manningham) observing, " that it was not only 
highly disagreeable to the many not used to it, But it was also an Indecency that should 
never be suffered in any solemn assembly." 

Lodges, more particularly during the first half of the eighteenth century,' were, in 
many instances, formed long before they were constituted. The latter ceremony was of a 
very simple character. Usually it was performed by the Deputy Grand Master in person, 
and a record of the circumstance, duly attested by the signatures of the grand or acting 
grand officers, forms, not uncommonly, the first entry in a minute-book. The officers 
were elected quarterly or half-yearly, the former i-racLce being the more frequent of the 
two. But one method was substituted for the other, with very little formality, as tlie 
following entries attest: 

March 1, 1762.— "Agreed that every quart' it be a bollotten for a new Master and 

December 20, 1762.-" This night it was agreed that Election-night should be everv 
•ir months."' ' 

The installation of officers wss devoid of the ceremonial observances peculiar 10 the 
"Seccders," and though the novelties of one system ultimately penetrated into the otucr, 
they were not considered orthodox or regular by brethren of the " Older School " until the 
somewhat "unconditional surrender" of their Grand Lodge which preceded the Union 
In what is now the "Friendship Lodge," No. 6, we learn from the minutes that, March 
16, 1758, "it being Election Night, the Sen' Ward- took the Chair; the Jun' Ward" 
[thc]S. W.; y Secretary [the] J' W; and B' J. Anderson was Elected Secretary." In 
the "Moira," No. 92, on March 6, 1760, " B' Dodsworth, by desire, accepted of the 
Master's Jewell." 

The services of the " Right Worshipful Master," as the presiding officer was then styled, 
were frequently retained throughout several elections,' whilst in case of illness, or inability 
to attend the meetings, they were as summarily dispensed with. Thus, in a London 
lodge, on February 2, 1744, the Master having " declared on the box," being sick, another 
brother was forthwith elected in his room.* 

Wine and tobacco were often supplied in the lodge-room. In one of tl jntry 
lodges it took several bottles to audit the Treasurer's account, and when that >».8 done 
and the balanci" struck and carried out, it was a common practice to add a postscript of 
" One bottle more," and deduct that from the baUnce.' The following by-law was passed 

now extinct), which had mtt 

' As late as 1760 a lodge was cmutUuted at Canterbury (No. 
since 1756 (J. R Hall, Freemasonry in Canterbury, 1880, p. 9). 

* Minutes of the Moira Hod^, No. 93. 

•Dec. 19, 1788.-" It being Ellexcion night, B' Garrett wha, r^allextled has master of this Lodee 
ki Dew forme. (Minut« of the Moira Lodge, No. 98.) ' Minutes of No. 188, now extinct 

' T. P. Ashley, Hintorj- of the Royal Cumberland Lodge, Bath, .\o. 41, y, 25 


by a London lodge in 17T3: " Th»t on account of the great expense incurr'd by allo-lag 
wine at mpper, and in order to prevent the bad consequenceg arising therefrom, no liquor 
shall be paid for out of the Lodge Fund* which u drunk out of the Lodge Room, except 
beer or ale drank at aupper. " 

In the " Treasurer's Accounte" of the same lodge, under October 20, 1777, there is an 
entry recording the payment of one shilling and sixpence for "Herb Tobacco" for the 
Lodgo if Instruction, an offshoot of the lodge, established on the motion of " Brother 
Wm. White "—afterwards Grand Secretary— in 1773.' 

By some lodges, however, the consumption of liquors during the period of Masonic 
labor was stricUy forbidden; and in the Moira Lodge, now No. 92," on February 4, 1765, 
a " B' Hutchinson paid a fine of 3 pence for drinking in ye Lodge." 

Frequently the lodge, besides its normal functions, also discharged those of a benefit 
society. In such cases there was a limit as to the ago of admission, and jwrsons over forty 
were generally ineligible as candidates. The rules ordinarily guard against an influx of 
members that might press with undue weight upon the finances. People following certain 
callings, such as soldiers, saUors, bricklayers, and constables, were in most cases declared 
incapable of membership; and there was frequently a general proviso that no one whoso 
employment in life was either prejudicial to health or of " a dangerous character," should 
be proposed for admission. Virtually they were trades-unions, and in one instance a 
regulation enacts that the •'proposed" must not " occupy any business which may inter- 
fere or closs [clash] with [that of] any member already entered." ' The following is from 
the same records: 

"December 2, 1742.— A Motion was made. Seconded, and agreed to A'.C, that the 
Box shou'd be shut up from this night for six months fi-om aU benefits (Deaths & Burials 
excepted), unless to such members who, during the aforesaid time, shall produce a person 
to be made a mason, or a person to be entr'd a member— Which member so producing 
such shall Immediately become free." 

The first two degrees were usually conferred on the same evening, and the third could 
also be included by dispensation." The fees and dues ordinarily charged in Lodges about 
the year 1760 were as follows: for initiation and passing, £1 Is.; raising, 5s; quarterage, 
68. It was customary for all who were present at a meeting to pay something " for the 
good of the house." Usually each member paid a shilling; visitors from other Lodges, 
eighteen pence; and " St John's men," ' or brethren unattached, two shillings. Until com- 
paratively late in the century, visite were freely interchanged by the Masons under the 
rival jurisdictions. If the visitor, though not personally known, could pass a satisfactory 
examination, this was sufficient; and cen in cases of defective moinorj-, the administra- 
' Brackstone Baker, History of the Lodge c" Emulation, No. 21, 1872, pp. 8, 9. William Preston, 
and James Heseltine, Grand Secretarj-, joined the lodge in 1772. 

•The following by-law was enacted in 1755: " Any member y* comes into this Lodg Disguis* in 
Liquor and Swan, fined •*." 

• Minutes of No. I'W, at the Black Poets, Maiden Lane, March 23, 1738. 

•March 12, 1755.— " By convention, and with y« DLs|)en>ation of y» Deputy Grand Master, this 
Lodfte was cal'd upon to make M' Garrett Meyer, a Mason in y« 8 degrees " (Minutes of the George 
Lodge, now " Friendship," No. 6). 

• In the minutes of the Moira Lodge, No. 03, the presence is recorded of " B' Herbert of St. 
John's of the Universe" (1757i, and of other visitors, descilbwi as "from the Lodge of Hcly 8t 
John"(1760)Bndas "aSt. John'smun'*0784) resiwvtively. Cf. ante. p. 136, note 6. 



tion of a.1 "oblifi^ation generally qualified a itranger for admiaaion.' Of this cnitom two 
example* will infBce. 

December 4, 1758.—" Brotlicr Glorer, of St John's Lodg, being an Ancient Meason, 
liaring taken hiii obligation of this Lodg, paid the ujal fine of two shilling and became a 

October 15, 1763.—" Evald Ribe, M. D., Member of St Edward's Lodge at Stockholm, 
took the obligation, ft was proposed to become a member, & carried X. C" 

The usage at this period seems to have been> that " extraneous brethren," as they are 
commonly termed in the records both of the " Regular" Masons and the Speeders — or, in 
other words, persons who had been admitted into Masonry under other jurisdictions- 
were allowed to visit freely in the " Regular " Lodges. They were apparently re-made — 
in the sense of going through the ceremonies a second time — if they so wished, but nut 
otherwise. According to the minutes of the Lodge at the Lebeck's Head, William Di'-key 
was present as a visitor several times before he was " made a modem Mason of,"* in con- 
formity, there can be little doubt, with his own desire, as he did not become a member of 
the Lodge, and therefore no pressure could have been put upon him. Evidently he could, 
had he liked, have attained membership in Mo. 346 in the same simple manner as Dr. 
Ribe, in connection with whom, it may be observed, that the first deputation for the ofBce 
of Provincial Grand Master at Stockholm — under the Grand Lodge, whose history we art- 
considering — was granted by Lord Bliiyney in 1765; and that no Lodge constituted under 
it appeared on the English roll until 1769.* As the earliest Lodge in Sweden for which 
a charter was granted by the Seceders was only established in 1773,* " St Edward's Lodge, 
Stockholm," if of British origin, must, therefore, have been an offshoot of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland, under a patent from which body a Lodge was erected at Stockholm in 1754.' 

Lord Aberdour held the oflfice of Grand Master from May 18, 1757, until May 3, 1763, 
having filled the same position in Scotland from December 1, 1755, until Xovember 30, 
1757. In the latter capacity he granted a warrant of constitution to some brethren in 
Massachusetts, empowering them to meet under the title of St Andrew's Lodge, \io. 82. 
The petitioners were "Ancient" Masons, in the sense of belonging to the body dis- 
tinguished by that popular title. These, as observed by Findel,* "transplanted tlie 
dissensions prevailing in England, and formed two opposing campb over the oceai. " Thi-; 
Lodge, which was established November 13, 1756, resolved, in December, 176S, to keep 
the Festival of St John the Evangelist, and " That none vulgarly called ' Modem Masons ' 
be admitted to the Feast"* It v.ltimately became the " Massachusetts Grand Lodge of 
Ancient Masons," " and amalgamated in 1793 with the " St John's Grand Lodge " of the 

' "Oct. 16, 1761.— Resolved, that any B' who can work himself in, may be admitted, & in cjuse 
any doubts arise, to take the obligation. A Member of the Regular Lodges to pay Is. 6d. for Viziting, 
and a Member of St. John's 2s." (Minutes of tlie " Lebeck's Head " Lodge, No. 246). 

» Minutes of the Moiru Lodge, No. 98. ' Minutes of No. 248. * Ante, p. 196, note 8. 

' In the Engraved List for 1770, Nos. "1,8, and 3, Sweden," appear as Nos. 385-887, and are 
.Ma* cil among the English Lodges constituted in 1789. 

• " No. 181." constituted by 8. O. W. Chnstian, at the Globe Tjvem, Fleet Street, London. Juiy 
14, 1773, who installed James Gersdorff as Master, James Norin and Dan* Ourtausan as Wardens. 
The Lodge was to be held at a private room in the city of Stockholm. 

'Lawrie, History of Freemasonry. 1804, p. 134. • Op. cit, p. 3S3. 

• Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1870, pp. 139, 168. 
" Address of Grand Muster Gardner (Massachusetts) 1870, p. 19. 


tame State, as the gOTerning body under the o'.der Grand Lodge of England waa then 

PreciBely as in the mother country, the Mason? were divided into two denominations, 
and even whilst Lord Aberdonr was at the head of the Craft in both kingdoms, the 
"Ancients" in St Andrew's Lodge and the so-called "Modernf," in the other Boston 
Lodges we- ' at open variance. This is the more remarkable, bejanse about the very time 
when a ditference of procedure between the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the original 
Grand Lodge of England was alleged to exist by the brethren of Massachnsetta, a letUr 
was written by Dr. Manningham ' to a correspondent in Holland, informing him, in sub- 
stance, after having consulted Lord Aberdonr and several other Scottish noblemen and 
gentlemen that were " good Masons," that the Masonic ceremonies were ideLtical under 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the older Grand \Mge of England, both of which knew 
only three orders, viz., " Masters, Fellow-Crafts, and Apprentices." 

Lord Aberdonr was succeeded as Grand Master by Earl Ferrers in 1762, and the latter 
gave place in turn to Lord Blayney on May 8, 1764. 

During the administration of this nobleman, the Dukes of York, Cumberland, and 
Gloucester became members of the Society, and it waa ordered by Grand Lodge, that they 
should each be presented with an apron, lined with blue silk, and that in all future pro- 
cessions they should rank as Font Grand Masters, next to the grand officers for the time 


In April, 1766, a new edition of the " Book of Constitutions" was ordered to be printed 

Under the inspection of a committee." 

In the same month, at the Committee of Charity, a complaint was made "that the 
Lodge at the Old Bell in Bell Savage Yaru, Ludgato Hill, had been illegally sold. It 
appeared from the Respondente that they were Foreigners, and had made (as they appre- 
hended) a fair purchase thereof, and had paid a valuable consideration for the same, and 
did under tliat Constitution hold a regular Lodge at the Fountain in Ludgate Hill. It 
was determined under these circnmstanees that in Equity they had a Eight to the Con- 
stitution, and that they should be permitted to hold their Lwlge under it, but that for the 
Future the sale of A Constitution should on no account be held valid, but [it] should im- 
mediately be considered as Forfeited." 

A further idnstratio.. of the practise lust referred is affonled by the minutes of the same 
tribunal for April 8, 1767, on which date a " si" Paterson reported that the Constitution of 
the Lodge No. 3, held at the Sun and Punch Bowl, had been sold or otherwise illegally 
disposed of, and that the same was purchas'd by a Number [of] Mivsons, who now meet by 
virtue thereof, under the name of the Lodge of Friendship, at the Thatched House in St. 
.James St And that B" 'T •ench was the person principally concerned, together with the 
brethren of the Lodge fc. leriy held at the Sun and Punch Bowl." 

The decision of the c mmittee was postponed-" but as a mark of high respect to his 
Grace the Duka of Beaufort, and the Noblemen and Honorable Gentlemen meeting under 
the name of the Lodge of Friendship, and in consideration of their being very young Masom 
[it was ordered], that the Constitution No. 3 shall remain with them, even tho' it should 
appear upon further enquiry, that this affair hath been transacted contrary to the Consti- 

' Cf. ante, pp. 147, 148; and Chap. XU., pp. 1S9, 160. 

' The alterations proposed to be made by the committee were approved, and five hundred boc<» 
ordered to be printed, Januar>- 28, 1767. 






tation, bnt »t the Mine time rcMlved, that this ilwU not be looked upon m a Precadcnt 
for the fatnra on any account whataoerer." ' 

A week later, the minntei of the loat CommittM of Charity were read in Grand Lodge 
and confirmed, " except that part of them which related to Brother French," by whom 
an apology was made " in open Quarterly Communication." At this meeting the Duke of 
Beaufort waa electad Grand Ifaater, and in the following year, a Taoancy occurring, he 
appointed French to the office of Grand Secretary.* 

At the Committee of Charity, held January 20, 1768, two letters were read from the 
Grand Lodge of France, desiring a friendly correspondence with the Grand Lodge of 
England, which was cheerfully agreed to.' 

At the April meeting of the same body, it was carried by a majority, that the practice 
of brethren appearing armed in Lodges, was an innovation upon the ancient usages and 
customs of the Society, and it was resolved tha*: " the Grand Master be requested to forbid 
such practice in future." 

In the following October, the Deputy Grand Master, who presided, informed the Com- 
mittee " that the Duke of Beaufort was resolved to have the Society incorporated, and pro- 
posed that the brethren present should take into serious consideration the most effectual 
means to raise a fund for defraying the expense of building a hall." 

A weeV later, the Hon. Charles Dillon, D.G.M., explained in Grand Lodge the plan 
he had submitted at the Committee of Charity. Ten resolutions were thereupon passed, 
which were ordered to be forthwith printed and transmitted to all the lodges on record. 
By these it was provided, that certain fees should be paid by the Grand Officen annually, 
by new Lodges at their constitution, by brethren at initiation or joining, and for dispenma- 
tions. Many further articles or regulations were subsequently added. No. XL — Nov. 19, 
1773 — requires each lodge to transmit to the Grand Secretary a list of its members, with 
the dates of their admission or initiation; also their ages, together with their titles, pro- 
fessions, or trades; and that five shillings be transmitted for every initiate, and half-a- 
crown for each joining member as registration fees; and that no person initiated >> ',0 
masonry, after October 38, 1768, shall be entitled to partake of the General Cha. ■■' " 
any other of the privileges of the Grand Lodge, unless his name be duly register , 
the fees paid as above. 

Article XIL, enacted Feb. 23, 1775, is simply a plan of granting annuities fo-, 
with the benefit of survivorship, or in other words it merely provides the machinery tor 
a lontine. 

The following is the Xlllth regulation — " Subscribers o' £35 as a loan, without inter- 
est, toward paying ofF the hall debts, to be presented with a medal, to wear as an honorable 
testimony of their services, and to be members of the Grand Lodge; ' a like medal to be 

■ According to the same records, the Lodge of Zeal, No. 318, was erased November 17, ITiH, 
liaWng proclaimed its own delinquency, by resisting a pecuniary claim on the ground " of having 
paid a valuable consideratioD (or tlie said Lodge, and that none o( the old members ever belonged to 
it since such sale." 

' Of. ante, p. 98, note 8. ' Ratified at the ensuing Orand Lodge, held January 38. 

* William Birch, Master of the Royal Lodge, protested against this clause, as being, "subversive 
of the principles and constitutions of Hasonr}-, by admitting those to have seats and voice in that 
assembly, whem none have been or ought to be, but in their Beprasentative edacity " (Grand Lodge 
Minutes, Feb. 14, 1788). 

KiT«n to eTerr lodge tW. «»«rib«.. to be worn by the Mwtor; and e,trj »ub»crihint 
Lodgt M attJtd to m,ui on, other rtj>r*untatm to th* Grand Lodge, besidet the Ma»t0' 
andWanUni.uniatht money bi repaid."' 

A copy of the intended Chmrtor of Inoorpontion we. cirenletod among the lodge., three 
of wWch, including the " Stowwd'." end the " Royel " Lodge, memoriidi-rf Orend Lodge, 
to di«x>ntinne the project, u>d Mother, the Cidedonien U^lge, «ctu»Uy entered a cavct 
•gkiut it, in the office of the attomey-genend. „ . , . , . v- i-.n 

On April 27. 1769. the quertion wa. put. whether the Caledonian Lodge No. 3-5, 
should be enaed, " but on V. E. 0. Muller,' Marter of the laid Lodge, pubUckly 
pardon in the munei of hinuelf and hU lodge, the ofleuce wai forgiven. " 

The Deputy Grand Marter then iUted that 168 lodge, had declared in laror of Incor- 
poimtion. and 4^ againrt it, and "a motion being made whether the Society .hould be 
Incorporated or not-itwa. carried in the afBrmatiTe by a great majority." 

The deugn of incorporating the Society by act of parliament wa. abandoned in 1 . . , 
when, in oowequence of the oppodtion it encountered, the Hon. Charle. Dillon him«lf 
moved that the con«dei»tion of the bill riiould be portponed eine die. which wa. •greed to. 
Meanwhile, however, a conridemble .urn had been rab^iribed for the purpo*. of build- 
ing a hall, and on April 23, 1773, a committee wa. appointed to a«ime a generalroper- 
intendence of the undertaking. It con«rted of the Pn«ent and Part Grand Ofl^-^er., 
Prorincial Gmnd Marten, the Marter of the Steward'. Lodge, and the Maeten of .uch ten 
other Lodge., within the bill, of mortality, a. they might nominate at their flrrt meeting. 
Prerton. who wa. him«»lf a member of thi. committee.' mjt that "eveiry measure wm 
»loptod to enforce the law. for lai-ng a new fund to carry the deeign. of the Society into 
execution, and no pain, were n»red by the committee to complete the purpo« of their 

appointment." , _. .. 

Indeed, the new bowd Mon uwrped Mme of the function, of the Committee of Charity, 
and, a. we OM pnwently «e, a gwat deal of the ordinary buwuew of the Society wa. 
remitted to it for consideration and deepateh. ••«_*« 

On November 10, 1773, some regulation, were made to enforce tho pa»ed in October. 
1768. but the«J, with other, of a kindred character, will be found collected at a previous 

^n the following yeai-Novembe.- 25, 1774-the committee reported the purcha.* of 
premiM. in Great Queen Street at a cort of i3150. The foundation rtone of a Jew Hall 
washud May 1. 1775. and the building itaelf was opened May 23, 17,6. and dedicated m 
solemn form to MA80SBT,ViicruE,UKiTBE8ALCHARrrY, and Benevolesce. 

Although the leading occurrence during the presidency of the Duke of Beaufort wa. 
the plan of an Incorporation by Royal Charter, there are «>me of the proceclings under 
the adminirtraOon of that nobleman to which it will be necessary to return. 

• Con.tituUonr, 1784. p. 888. The portion, of the regulation in itolia we« enacted January 8. 
1788, and the remainder on June 31, 177». . . o™ v,^i^ M,ui.*r 

• Expelled from Ub^tj, Feb. 7. 1770. " having brought an action against B~ Preston. Master 
of thelS Lodge, who JLui in turning hin. out of the Committee of Charity 'or h.. gro» nu. 
tZL th^(0.«.d Lodge Minute.. Th. Master. J'^^''-^^'^-^' ^'Z;"^: 
Lodge were likewise expelled. April 86. 1771. • for sending a letter to Uie P.G.M^of the Austnan 
Netherlands reflecting upon the Grand Lodge of England in the grossest term. (Ibid.). 

' Cf. ante, p. 177. 

voi~ III.— 15. 



Tht inerMW of foraign LodgM occanoned the kppoiiitiiiMit of a new oflkr, vii., U»t 
of Profinci*! Onud Miuter for foreign LodgM in general, which wai beitowcd on John 
Joaeph de Vignoles, Enq. The metropolitan Lodget were aleo placed nnder the control of 
a Ovucral Inapector or Prorincial Grand Maater; but the majority of the London Lodget 
dkapprof ing the appointment, it waa icon after withdrawn. ' 

In 1770 a friendly alliance was entered into by the (irond Txidge of England with the 
"National Cirand Lod^n of the United Provincet uf Uolland and their deiiendenciea." 
The former undertaking not to conitituto Lotlgm within the juriidietion of the latter, and 
the Grand Lodge of Holland promising to " obHcrre the wme restriction with respect to 
the Grand Lodge of England in ali imrta of the world." 

In the same year the Lodges wore aguin rvnunibered, by dosing np the Tacancies uii 
the roll, and moring the numbers of the exinting Lodges forwartl.* 

On April 26, 1771, the following resolutions wen- moved by " Bro. Derwas of the 
Steward's Lodge," and " approved of " in the following November. None of them, how- 
ever, appear to have been carried into effect: 

" 1. That the law made the 3d of March 173| giving a privilege to every acting rteward 
at the Grand Feast, of nominating his successor, be abrogated. 

" 3. That there shall in future be 15 stewards instead of 13. 

" 3 That these 15 stewards shall be nominated by the Lodges within the Bills of Mor- 
tality in rotation, beginning.' with the enior Lodge; each of such Lodges having power to 
nominate one person at the annual Grand Feast, to serve that office for the year ensuing. 

" 4. That if any of the IS Lodges in turn tu nominate a steward shall decline or omit 
to do so, then the frivilege to pass to the next Lodge in rotation." 

Similar proposals, for throwing open the privilege of the "Red Apron" to all the 
metropolitan Lodges in succession, were made at a much later date, and will be narrated 
at a future page; but the remaining resolutions, affecting the Grand Stewanl's Lo<lgp nr 
the body of its members, pa88(>d by the older Grand Ixtdge of England, prior to the fusioTi 
of the two Societies, will be now briefly summarised. 

At a Grand Lodge held February 3, 1779, a representation was made by the Master and 
other brethren of the Steward's Lodge, that it had been ue ' of late for brethren who 
H^rved the office of steward, to neglect all attendance upon the .. reward's Lodge afterwanls 
as members; and when summoned and calknl upon for their subscriptions, to declare that 
they never considered themselves us meml-er?, whereby the fund of that Lodge was greatly 
injured, their books and accounts left in a very irregular state, and the actual members 
much disgusted. To obviate these complaints, n resolution was passed in the following terms: 

" Whereas it appears from the Book of Constitutions, to liave been the invariable usage 
of the Society, to appoint the officers of the Grand Lodge from such brethren only who 
have served the office of Grand Steward, Resolved, that in future, no brother be appointed 
a Grand officer, until he shall have served the officer of Steward at a Grand Feat>t: nor 
unle!!8 he be an actual subscribing member of the Steward's Lodge at the time of his 
appointment. " 

On April 18, 1793,* it was ordered, " that the Steward's Lodge be placed at the head 
of the List of Lo<lge8 without a Number," and this position it retained at the Union. 

■ PrvbtoD, Illustrations of Masonry, 1793, p. 306. 

* Cf. ante, p. Sltt. 


' It liatl previously borne the following numbers: 117 (1736), 116 (1740), 70 (1756), 60 (17701, and 47 

In 1:04. the BoTd of r.i»d th« price of the ti.keU for the 0,»nd F«m» fn>« 
hlf . guin«» to on. gnine.. bnt the .Iteration being objected to. .t wm " decUr«l .»- 
Dfoper •• by the Committee of Chtrity. „ „, ^ ,;„„. 

•^Urd /etre wa. elected Gr.nd M«ter 'n 1T73. .nd the 6rrt edit.on of the niutr-Uon- 
of M-onry,- which .ppfrt^ in tl»t y«iT. wu p«bli.h«i with hw «#rw/ «nct.on. Thi. 
wL.di.Unct innoT.tion upon the oniin.ry u«ge with regunl to M«K,n.c put cafOM. 
none hitherto, the Book, of Con.titut.on. alone excepted.«fc ««M,.Ted the tmfr^inatw 

"' The I^e t^^nige wm extended to the «,con.l edition, which .ppewed in ITM • in 
which ye« theauthor w.. appointed Deputy or A«irt.nt Secretary under J,me. He«l Une 
with a -lary. and hi. " Illn.tration. of M««nry." a. well a. the " t rcema«,n, ( .l-ndar 
for 1777. and an Appendix to the " Book of Con.titution. "-brought out under h,. 
riL «~Ai.ion-weVe a.Werti«.l for «le in the pr.nted proceeding, of the (}««.! Udge 
of England for November 13. 1776. Through the «me mmlium Uutchin^nV " Sp.nt of 
Ma«.nry.- and the oration delivered b, Dr. Dodd at the dedicat'ou of Freem««.n. Hall. 
were alw recommended to the fraternity. 

^e Rev. William Dodd, LLD., wa. appointed Grand Chaptain May 1. I;". «>" "^'ch 

cUte^e7onndation..tone of the new hall wa. laid with Ma«.nic honor.. The «l«l-»- 

J;l. building gave ri«> to another new ofllce, that "^ /rand Arch.^^ - on- 

ferred on Thoma. Sandby. by whom the rtructure wa. de..gned. Both the*, ofUctrK ,. . rt 

XTnS aTIhe ncxt^Aiembly and Fea.t-June 3 1776_but in thejol -ng -M ... 

on a ™pre«.ntation that Dr. Dodd had been convicted of forgery, and confined in ^ew- 

■rate he wa. unanimously expelled the Society. . ^ , . 

•^ 'ke 7.i Grand C Jplaifwa. the Rev. Sydney Swinney. D.D.. who wa. ^PF-ted bj 

the Di,ke of Mancherter in 1781. afU-r which year the office rema.nd vacant «''" 1'85. 

when the Rev. A. H. Eccle. wa. «>lect«l to fill it, and retained the "!'I-"'';':"\^^;-J; 

1802. being .uccecded by the Rev. Luciu. Coghlan, D.D., who hkcw.Bo ''"''1 >' ^''■- ^^J 

vear. and officiated as Grand Chaplain until after the Union, and wa. one of the (.ran.l 

Sah«, the other being Dr. Edward Barry,' of the " United " Grand Udge of England, 

inverted by the Duke of Subbcx in 1814. 

' Januarv 87 1777 -The Lodge of Fortitude. No. 6, petitioned the Grand Lodge •■ to di«ro«t,>me 
their rct7n o Pnln'. ' DluM^tion. of Ma«,nry.- a« it tended to lay Masonic .Hretsopen n 

•The sanction wan in each cane nubscnbed by the urana umcer» j 

oc«»ion« certify that they have •• pen.8ed and do recommend the book. „„blication of 

«T>r OHversaVB- " The work was rece.vcl with, as the only MuwiR l>uDno«>.ion 01 
«a. v^Tn iTxisuL U was the first emcient attempt to explain, -^^^^-^^^^^^-ZT:. 
manner, the true philosophy of the onier. Dr. Anderson and U.e -"^;°'^;'';; Xri^-Xe 
[17.W] indicated the existence of the mine.-Calcott opened .t. and Hutx:h.n«,n worked .t (preface 
to tho edition for 1843. p. 2S). Sre. however. Find^l: op- "«•• P' »»• 

•(irand Chaplain of the ■ Atholl" Grand Lodge, 1791-1H13. 


Tbomai Handhjr Mainml the title nf Oimnd Archiieot utfl hia daslh, Aiid !• »> 
(le*.<rib«d iii the ofDciul ruconla mmI cftlendan, altiwnsb not fomukUy rMppointed after 
KT)i. At the Gninii KetMt <n 1790, Robert BrattinKlwm wm inveiteil m hMwccrMor, m<1 
fliled the olticv until the re<.arrenoe of the mbm feitinkl in 1801, TuYm WUliun Tyler, the 
A. hiteot of the Tavern, hMTing been propoaad aa a oandidat* for the ofltoe, the Orand 
Maitvr obeerrett that the oflloe of Orand Architect had been oonferrad on Brother Sandby 
only as a mark of perwiial attachment, he having been the Architect of the Hall, bat that 
it WM neror intended to be a permanent oflloe in the Society. The Orand Lodge there- 
fore resoWed that the oflSce of Orand Architect ihonld be diacontinned, bnt that in oom- 
pliment to Brothen Brettingliam and Tykr, both theae gentlemen ihould be permitted to 
att»nd the Grand Lodge, and wear an honorary jewel as a mark of personal respect 

This, in eifect, brought them within the provisions of a regulation passed February 14, 
1T76, permitting /in*< as well as m,iuui Orb ad oflloers to wear distinotive Jewels, upon 
wliioh innovation I'retton remarks—" How far the introduction of thia now ornament is 
reconoihble to the uriginal practices of the Society, I will not presume to determine; but 
it is the opinion of many old masons, that multiplying honorary distinctions only leaseni 
the value and importance of the real Jewels, by which the acting olBoers of every Lodge 
are distingnishod. " ' 

No farther offices were created during the administration of Lord Potre, nor is there 
much to add with respect to this section of Masonic history. 

In 1773 — April 23 — it was Besolved, that no master of a pnblic-house should in future 
be a member of any Lodge holden in his house. 

Three days later, at the annual Feast, the Orand Secretary informed the Orand Lodge 
of a proposal for establishing a friendly anion and correspondence with the Orand Lodge 
of Gvrmany, held at Berlin, under the patronage of the Prince vA Hesse-Damrftadt, which 
mot with general approbation. 

On November 34, 177S, it was resolved that an Appendii to the " Book of Constitu- 
tions,"' and also a Freemason's Calendar, should be published, the latter ia opposition to 
an almanac of similar name brought out by the Stationer's Company, and both matters 
were referred to the Hall Committee. 

An Extraordinary Orand Lodge was held April 7, 1777, consisting of the Orand Oflloers, 
the Master, Wardenn, and assistants of the Steward's Lodge, and the Maaters of seventy-five 
private Lodges. 

The Orand Secretary informed the brethren that the object of the meeting was to take 
into consideration a report from the Hall Committee, concerning the proper means of dis- 
couraging the irregular assemblies of persons calling themselves antitnt mitont; and for 
supporting th* dignity of the Society, by advsncing the fees for initiation, and for new 
constitutioa' U3 revival of old ones. The report being read, it was resolved — 

" Tiiat the t'eraons who assemble in London and elsewhere in the character of Masons, 
calling themselves Anlitnt Masont, by virtue of an Authority from a pretended Orand 
Lodge in England, and at preeent said to be under the patronage of the Duke of Athol, 
are not to be countenanced or acknowledged as Masons' by any regnhu- Lodge or Mason 
under the Constitution of EngUnd; nor shall any regular Mason be present at any of their 

■ niustrations of Mawnrjr, 17W, p. SIO. 

* Brought out in 1776, compiled and edited by William PraitorM 

'Compare with the regulation panted April IS, IWW, pott. 

Cf. ante, pp. 173, $Kt. 

Cob «.tioi«. to gire • 8.«ction to iXmr Proceeding., under the Fenidt, of forfeiting tbo 
PriTilffM of the Hocieij; neither dudi wy P«r«.n initi«t«l .t thr» irreg«tar Meeting, be 
•dnittMi into .ny Ud|« with' «t Mug n».iii«de,' and paying the M»king !•.«. 

.. Thrt tbi. C.D«i« d»l. not attend to wy Lodge or Mmod made in Scottoi-d or Ire- 
lud under the Conrtitution of either of theee Kingdom.: or to any Lodge or M«on ««»• 
.broMl under the PWronn* 'A «iy Foreign Grand Lodge in AUiwice with the Oraiid 
Lodge of KngUnd. but that nch Lodges and Ma«n). d»ll be deemed regular and conrtitu- 

It WW alw reioWed, that afUr Blay 1 then enroing. no perwn ri.ould be made a Ma»n 
for a 1«. ium than two guinea.. That the fee payable at the con.titution of a London 
Lodge Aonld be «x. and for a country lodge four, guin««, and that two gam... from 
.ach\hould be appropriated to the HaU Fund. The following reK,lttt.on. whush wa. duly 
naaad. concluded the buaneM of the erening: 

^-That all Lodge, which hate not complied with the Order., i • Intion. o Ae 
Grand Lodge in reganl to the Begulation. for buUding a Hall, <• the U.e of the 

SccietT. be wuedTTof the Lirt, unle- they tranwut to the G..nd 8ecret«7, on or 
^: Vh Quarterly Communication, an accurate Lirt of all Member. m«le or adm.tud 
«nc October 89. 17«8, with the Begirtering Fee .tipnlated by the Regulation, of that 
Date;' or girewme-ktidactoryBxcww for their Neglect." 

1^ proceeding, of thi. meeting were of a very inrtructire ch«ct*'- ^ irrt of .1 , we 
learn that the Original Qr,xA Lodge of E .gland had at but«>d the '•<•''»>• "'^^e 
Sm. a. weU -the expediency of adopting more decided me«.r« to check the rebellion 
Lnrt authority; next, that in addition to the function, which itwa. primarily M 
^ di^sharge, a large portion of the ordinary b«.ine« of the Society wh. tran«.te.l 
bTSe Hiil Crmitter»d la.Oy, that very arbitrary mea.ure. were being re.orU^ to m 
Sder to coerce the lodge, and brethren into rai«ng the requi..t. fund, to balance « 
incr««ng expenditure, out of al p:oportion to the ordinary or normal revenue of G«n<l 

''X remaining facU, aowever. that h. ny ^.earing on t»»^8<^»>'*'"/; •' VrcllTt' 
will be given in the rtory of the Union, a. ' le further pror M-ding. of the Hall Commit- 
tee I Aall alw K>per»te from the i^reral u . .ative, which I here resume. 

Lord Petre w« .ucceed.a «. Cx^A Ma.ter by the Duke of Mancherter, who wa. in- 
vcted with the en.i^. of hi. o^ce on May 1. KT:; after which the former noblemai. 
ettied thanks -r ..e honor. I ■ . -1 received in the Society, and a..«r,-a the brethren 
rhUatUohment ., ... interest. Nor were the« mere idle wonl. The -able charac- 
ter of Lord Petre and his zc*l a. a Mu«..n. may-to use the >,x,n s of a '^""'^"'P"™?-^ 
lalled, but cannot be .urpa»ed. He wa. a Catholic, but held M. r.-hgious faith without 
Zotry, and by his liberality and worth won the e.toem of all parties. He was general^ 
n^^Sd « the head of the Catholic body in this country, and therefore his continuing to 
Zwe for five years over a braiuh of the So -iety against whi.h the thunders of the \ at.c«. 
frb^enlaunched in 1738. and again in KSl,' affords conclusive ,roof that in England. 
> The re<o„ls of .nany lodges under the Older Sanction .how that, in con^uence of this repu- 
latiou Uie^:! oL inJn^onof their fn^terna. Nations «ith lod.e, «-'- the Mh^l b...... 

"^ "rr^J^'lo'^.o p^sent Pope-April 30. t884--Th, .i..t «a.uir^^ ;'^;>^- ^ ^^^ 
Clement XII. in '-^, and hU Edie m^ condrraed and renewed t.y Benedict XI\ . (1751,. F.u. V. 



towaniii the clow of the eighteenth century, the two Bulls usned by Boman Pontiffs 
against the Freemasoni had been devoid of any practical result 

Lonl Petre was present at, and presided over, many meetings of the Society after the 
tt'rmination of his tenure of office. His hut attendance appears to have occurred November 
24, 1791, when, though the Acting Grand Master, Lord Rawdon, was present, he took the 
chair as Pttst Grand Master. He died July 3, 1801, and after his decease it was ascertained 
that he ezp.;nded annually £5000 in charitable benefactions. 

During the administration of the Duke of Manchester, the tranquillity of the Society 
was interrupted by some private dissensions. An unfortunate dispute arose among the 
members oi the Lodge of Antiquity, and the contest was introduced into the Grand Lodge, 
where it occupied the attention of every committee and communication for twelve months. 
The result was u schism, which subsisted for the space of ton years, when the two bodies — 
each claiming to be No. 1 — were happily re-united. The particulars of the controversy 
have been already given,' so the subject will not claim our further attention in thia place. 

The Grand Master, at a Quarterly Communication held February 3, 1780, laid before 
the brethren a letter in the Persian language, enclosed in an elegant cover of cloth of 
gold, addressed to the Grand Master and Grand Lodge of England, from Omdit ul Omrah 
Baliaudar, eldi-st son of the Nabob of Arcot. Tliis Prince had been initiated into Masonry 
in the Lodge at Trichinopoly, near Madras, and his letter — which acknowledged in grace- 
ful terms, a comi)limentary address forwarded by the Grand Lodge, on the circumstance 
liecoming known in this country — was so appreciated by the brethren, that a translation of 
it was OHlered to be copied on vellum, and, with the original, to be elegantly framed and 
glazed, and hung up in the Hall at every public meeting of the Society. 

At the ensuing Grand Feast, Captain George Smith was appointed Junior Grand 
Warden, though the Grand Secretary objected, that, being then Provincial Grand Master 
for Kent, he was disqualified for serving that office. Ultimately the objection was waived. 
Captain Smith offering to resign the Provincial Grand-Mastership, should the union of both 
officers in the same person prove incompatible. In the following November, a letter was 
read from Captain Smith, resigning the office of Junior Grand Warden, but to prevent a 
similar difficulty occurring, it was resolved " that it is inoom(mtible with the laws of this 
Society, for any brother to hold more than one office in the Grand Lodge at the same time." 

At this Grand Lodge, the Grand Master was empowen'd, in consequence of the great 
increase of business, to npiwiiit a Joint Grand Secretary, with equal power and rank in the 
Society, and William White, Master of the Steward's Lodge, was thereupon appointed to 
tluit office." 

On February 7, 1781, at the request of the Grand Lodge of Germany, brother John 
liconhardi was appointed their representative at the Grand Liodge of England, and it was 

followed in their 8teps (1831) ; and Leo XII. , in his Apostolic EMict 'Quo Oraviora' (1885). embraced 
the acta and decrtrefi of tlie earlier Po|)es on tliis subject, and ordered them to be ratilied forever. 
To the same effect. Pius VII. (1829), Gre^iy XVI. (1833), and very often Piu8 IX. (1846, 186S, etc.), 
Iiave s|>oken" (Eocychual Letter of Pope Leu XIII. — " Do Sectu Mossonuni," translated by Mr. & 
L. Hawkins). 

' Aytte. p. 176, et »eq.; and see Illustrations of MaHonry, 1793, pp. 317-334. 

* The new Grand Secretary' was present, and acted us Grand Suord-Bearer, a position which wa4 
tH-mlly filled by the Ma.ster of the Steward's Lodge {if present) in the absence of the actual holder of 
tiie oiBoe. 

!£>, _■ 

•IM rewWed, that brother Leonhwdi should wear the clothing of a Grand officer, and rank 
next to V»A Grand officeri, at all public meetings of the Society. 

At the Communication in April, 1783, the prospect of establishing a fraternal allianoo, 
still nearer home, was discussed at some length. A report was brought up from tne Com- 
mittee of Charity, that the Grand Lodge of Scotland was disposed to enter into a tegular 
correspondence, and after long debate, it was unanimously resoWed, that it bo recom- 
mended to the Grand Master, to use every means which in his wisdom he may think proper, 
for promoting a correspondence and good understanding with the Grand Lodges -f Scot- 
Und and IreUnd, so far as might be consistent with the laws of the Society. 

At the same meeting, HU Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland and Eari Ferrer, 
were severally proposed for the office of Grand Master, and on the question being ;)ut, the 
former was elected by a very great majority. 

A motion was then made by Brother Dagge, that whenever a Pnnce of the Blood did 
the Society the honor to accept the office of Grand Master, he should be at liberty to nomi- 
nate any peer of the realm to be the Acting Grand Master, which passed unanimously in 

the affirmative. - 

The Eari of Effingham was appointed to the new office, and as proxy for the Duke ol 
Cumberland, was installed and invested at the ensuing Feast. 

At a Communication, held April 9, 1783, among the minutes of the preceding Com- 
mittee of Charity, then confirmed, was one, representing that the Grand Secretary, 
Heeeltine, had requested the opinion of the Committee, on an application made to him bj 
Captain George Smith, to procure the sanction of the Grand Lodge for a book he intended 
to publish, entitled. The Une and Abuse of Free Maeonry; and that the Committee, after 
mature consideration, had resolved, that it be recommended to the Grand Lodge not to 
giant any sanction for such intended publication.' 

Of the work in question, it has been well said. " that it would not at the present day 
enhance the reputation of ite writer, but at the time when it appeared there was a great 
dearth of Masonic literature-Anderson, Calcott, Hutchinson, and Preston, being the only 
authors of any repute that had as yet written on the subject of Masonry. There was much 
historical information contained within its pages, and some few suggestive thoughte on the 
symbolism and phUosophy of the Order."' Captain Smith held an appointment in the 
Royal Military Academy at Vroolwich, and was a member of a Lodge at that town, the 
proceedings of which formed the subject of inquiry at a Grand Lodge held Xovember 19 
1783 when Captain G. Smith and Mr. Thomas Brooke were charged with the ofiEence of 
"making Masons in a clandestine manner in the King's Bench Prison." In a written 
defence, it was pleaded that " there being several Masons in the Prison, they had assembled 
as such for the benefit of instruction, and had also advanced some of them to the 3rd 
degree. But a doubt arising whether it could be done with propriety, the Royal Military 

•Noorthouck observes-" No objection being stated against the above-mentioned 
work the natural conclusion is. that a sanction was refused on the general principle, that, consider- 
ing the flourishing state of our Lodges, where reff«/ur instruction and suitable exercise, are ever 
ready foraU brethren who sealously aspire to improve in Masonical Knowledge, new publications 
are unnecessary on a.ubject which books .unnot teach" (Constitutions. 1784. p. 847. editoruU note). 

•Mackey op «<., p. 730. The following is the full title of the publication: "The Use and 
Abuse of Freemasonry: a work of the great«st^ utility to the Brethren of the Society, to Mankind i. 
general, and to the Ladies in Particular, 1788." 


IP' i 

1: 1 


Lodge, No. 371, »t Woolwich, adjonrned with their Conititntion for that pnrpow to the 
King*! Bench Priion (Captain Smith being Master thereof), being one of thoae itinerant 
Lodges which move with the Regimenta, the Master of which, wherever he ia, havin-^ the 
Conatitution of the Lodge, was by Captain Smith jndged to have a right to hold a Lodge, 
make Maaons, etc That this happened previoas to B^ Thomas Brooke coming to the 
prison, bat that he afterward attended their meetings, not thinking it any harm." The 
two brethren concluded their defence by " begging pardon of the Grand Lodge for any 
error they had committed," and expressing a hope, "that grace wonld be granted to 
them." Whereupon it was resolved: " That it is the opinion of this Grand Lodge, that it 
is inconsittent with the principles of Masonry, that any Free Mason's Lodge can be rbgn- 
larly held for the purposes of making, passing, or raising Masons in any Prison or Place of 
confinement" ' At the next Quarterly Communication — February 11, 1784 — ^the Boynl 
Military Lodge, No. 371, was erased from the list, and in the following November it wuu 
ordered that Cuptain Smith — whose name disappears from the calendar of that year as a 
Provincial Grand Master — should be summoned before the next Committee of Charity to 
answer for his complicity in a misdemeanor of a still graver character. The charge was 
proved to the satisfaction of that tribunal, and at a Quarterly Communication, held 
February 2, 1785, " Captain John George Smith, late Provincial Grand Master for the 
County of Kent, having been charged with uttering an Instrument purporting to bo a 
certificate of the Grand Lodge, recommending two distressed Brethren; and he not appear- 
ing, or in any Manner exculpating himself, though personally summoned to appear for 
that Purpose, was duly expelled the Society. " 

A new edition of the " Constitutions," which had been sanctioned in 1783, was brought 
out in 1784, under the direction of the Hall Committee, who secured the services of John 
Noorthouck,* as editor or compiler. The work reflects credit on all who were conoemed 
in its publication, the constant repetition of mere formal business, and of the names of 
stewards and members present at the stated meetings of the Society, are very properly 
omitted, whilst it possesses a full index, " without which," as rightly observed by the 
editor, " no publication beyond the size of a pamphlet, can be deemed compleat." 

At the Grand Feast, in this year, James Ileseltine, declining a reappointment, William 
White became sole Grand Secretary. The services of the former were gracefully recog- 
nised in 1785 by his appointment as S* ' • Grand Warden, a position, however, which he 
resigned six months later, on being unai nously elected to the office of Grand Treasurer, 
November, 23, 1785, vacant by the death of Rowland Berkeley. 

The same evening a new oflSce was created, that of Grand Portrait Painter, and con- 
ferred on the Rev. William Peters, in acknowledgment of his elegant present of the por- 
trait of Lord Petre, which, it was considered, " opened a Prospect to the Society of having 
its Hall ornamented with the successive Portraits of the Grand Masters rn future." 

The Grand Portrait Painter ranked after the Grand Architect, and before Grand 
Sword-Bearer. The office was regarded as a purely personal one, to be held by Peters, 
quamdiu m bene gesseril, and though his name is not included in the list of annual ap- 

' The following note appears in the FreetaoMon for July 2, 1T70: " John WUke»—ihe members of 
the Lodge held at the Jerusalem Tavern, St John's Gate, attended at the King's Bench Prison, and 
made Wilkes a Mason, Man-h 8, 1769." 

' Author of the " New History of London," 1778, and an " Historical and Classical Dictipnan-," 
1778. Cf. ante, pp. 178, note 4; 176. 


pointmento declared on the Grand Fea.t Day, it dnly appears among tho«, of the Grand 
officer, of the Society pnblUhed in «cce«ve edition, of the " Freemaaonii' Calendar, 
from 1787 to 1814.' The new Grand officer proved himaelf to have been m every way 
worthy of the mark of dirtinction conferred by the Grand Lodge; and on November 2S. 
1787 a resolution wa. passed, conveying the thanks of that body to the Rev. W. Peter., 
G.P.P., for " his kind Superintendance and great Liberality, in the beantifymg and orna- 
menting of the HalL" 

On April 12, 1786, complaint was made of the intolerant spirit of some of the regulu- 
tions of the Grand Lodge at Berlin, and the Grand Master and the Grand officers were 
empowered to take such measures as they thought necessary for abrogating or altering the 
compact between the two Grand Lodges, entered into in 1773. The subject does not 
appear to have been further discussed at any subsequent communication of Grand Lodge, 
uniaNovember 26, 1788, when it was stated that the Grand Master and Grand officers 
had found it expedient to dissolve and annul the compact referred to.' At the same meet- 
ing a provisional agreement, entered into with the Provincial Grand Lodge of Frankfort, 
was Uid before and ratified by Grand Lodge. 

In November, 1786, Admiral Sir Peter Parker was appointed to the office of Deputy 
Grand Master, which had become vacant by the death of Rowland Holf The new 
Deputy who was a distinguished naval commander, had previously served as Grand 
Steward and Grand Warden,* and then held the office of Provincial Grand Master for 
Jamaica. At this Grand Lodge also a motion passed, that " in future the Grand Secretary 
be allowed a salary of £100 per annum for himself and clerks, exclusive of the usual 
fees;" and it was resolved unanimously "That the Rank of a Past Senior Grand War- 
den' (with the Right of taking Place immediately next to the present Senior Grand 
Warden) be granted to Thomas Dunckerley, Esq., Pro. G.M. for Dorset, Essex, 
Gloucester, Somerset, and Southampton, with the City and County of Bristol and the Isle 
of Wight, in grateful Testimony of the high Sense the Grand Lodge entertains of his 
zealous and indefatigable Exertions, for many years, to promote the Honor and Interest 

of the Society." .. ^ » » 

The story of Dunekerley's life is not an easy one to relate. According to one set ot 
biographers, his mother was the daughter of a physician;* and according to another she 
was a servant girl in the family of Sir Robert WaliK)le.' By the former he is said to have 
been a natural son of King George II.; whilst by the latter he is alleged to have availed 
himself of the remarkable likeness he bore to the Royal Family, to get it represented to 
George III that the previous king was in truth his father. These acconnte of liia parent- 
age are irreconcilable, and some other difficulties present then xlvcs when we collate the 
two biographies. Certain facts, however, are free from dispute. Born October 23, 1T24, 
he was apprenticed to a barber, and very shortly afterward entered the naval service, from 
which he retired, with the rank of gunner, about 1704. His mother's apartments ut 
Somerset House-where her husband, his putative father, had been a jiorter-were oon- 
. Tl.e appointment took place too late in tl.e year (17M) to find a pW in the edition for 1786. 

• Cf. ante, p. 828. 

'(Irand Steward. 1768 ; 8.G.W., 1768-70 ; D.G.M.. 1775-«6. 

• In 1778. Both Rowland Holt and Sir Peter Parlter served these offices concurrently. 
•Freemaimn's Magazine, vol. i.. 1783, p. 878; vol. iv., 17«6, p. 86. 

• Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixv., 1785, pt iL, p. 10S8. 

.Ji i' 


tinned to him, by order (it is aud) of the Duke of Devonshire. On May T, 1T67, • peniion 
of £100 • year was anigned to him by the king, from his privy pnne, which waa after- 
ward increawd to £800, though with regard to the latter amount the evidence ia hardly 

According to the itream of Uaionic writers, who all derive their information from the 
■ame fount — the Fnemaaoni^ Magatin», vols. I. to IV.,' published in the last century — 
Dunckerley waa fint told of his close relation to George II., in 1760, by a Mrs. Pinkney, 
for many years his mother's neighbor in Somerset House, and to whom the secret had been 
confided by the latter. He was then on leave of absence from H.M.S. "Vanguard," 
which had just arrived from Quebec; and it has been asked, with much force, why he 
made no effort to communicate with any of the Royal Family until after the death of Mrs. 
Pinkney, the sole witness he had to verify his singular story.* But whatever may be the 
true explanation of this mystery, he apparently at once rejoined his ship, which forthwith 
aailed for the Mediterranean. According to his own acc>^unt, he was appointed gunner of 
the " Vanguard " by Admiral Boscawen, and to the same position in the " Prince " by 
Lord Anson. The dates he gives as to these appointments are a little confusing; but there 
can be no doubt that he served in both vessels, and "<n hoard of" each there was a 
Lodge, as I have already had occasion to relate.* As one cf these (in the " Prince ") ulti. 
mately became the " Somerset House Lodge," of which Dunckerley was undoubtedly a 
member, it is at least a reasonable supposition that he was : n some way connected with the 
other.* Indeed, we may go still further, and assume, if we do no more, the strong proba- 
bility r<f his baring been the originator and founder of tht* Lodge "on Board H.M.S. 
' Canceaux,' at Quebec," No. 224, which, together with five other Lodges in Canada,* 
appears for the first time on the roll, in the Engraved List for 1770, immediately below 
the " Merchant's Lodge," Quebec, No. 220, constituted in 1762, tud next but one to the 
" Somerset House Lodge," formerly "on Board the ' Prince,'" also dating from 1762. 

No other " Seti Lodges " than these three were constituted either before or since. One 
we know him to have been a member of. Another was held in the " Vanguard," No. 254, 
constituted January 16, 17G0 — in which, ut the time, he held the position of gunner 
and " teacher of the mathematicks" — whilst the third was very possibly an offshoot of the 
other two. The Lodge, No. 224, is described in the ofiBcial list as being on board a ship 
of war "at Quebec." This must have been in some sense a stationary vessel, otherwise 
the words here shown in ital :d would be meaningless. It may have been a guard-ship, or 
perhaps bore the flag of the senior naval ofiScer; but whatever function it discharged, we 
may conclude that the crew afloat were on intimate terms with the garrison ashore. 

Now it is a little curious that one of the five Lodges — No. 226 — placed on the roll at 
the same time as No. 224, is tliere described as " In the 52d Regt of Foot,* at Quebec." 
Thus at what has been termed " the Gibraltar of America," we find that ii. 1763 there was 
both a " Sea " and a " Field " Lodge; and it is almost certain that some others of the latter 
character had accompanied the expedition under General Wolfe (1759). Dunckerley, whilst 

' Vol. i. contains a biof^nphy of Dunckerley by the editor ; vol. iv., a narrative in his own hand- 
writing, communicated by his executors ; and tlie intermediate volumes, miscellaneous matters. 

• Freemasons' Chronicle, December 7, 1878. • Ante, p. 97. 

• No. 254, now ins, the " London Lod^." 

• Nos. 231-326, ull of which, with the exneption of No. 323 (Montreal), were held at guebec. 

• In the previous year (1761) an Irish Lod^, No. 870, was established in this regiment. 


on the Xorth American gtation, »nd indeed throughout the whole period of hi« ser/ice 
«flo»t—after hi» admiBWon into the Craft— was doubtlew an occasional visitor at Army 
Lodge*. Mort of thew were under the Grand Lodge of Ireland, which issued no leu than 
tifty-one military warrants between 1733 and 1763 inclusive. The profound knowledge, 
the'refore, of Boyal Arch Masonry, which has been tr^itionally ascribed to Thomas Duno- 
kerley, may have been acquired in Irish Lodges, which doubtless worked the degree in his 
time— though it must be freely confessed that the common belief in the profundity of his 
maMnic learning is altogether destitute of evidence to support it. lie was initiated into 
masonry on January 10, 1754, a date I derive from the Grand Lodge books, and is said to 
have delivered a lecture " on Masonic Light, Truth, and Cliarity," ' at Plymouth in 1757, 
which is not so well substantiated. But ev«n if we concede tliat the lecture in 4uesti«a 
was really given as alleged it proves very little,-.iit.rely that Dunckerloy was capable of 
stringing together a quantity of platitudes, and constructing a sort, of masonic oration 
»ther below than above the ordinary level of such iierformances. 

The rank of Grand Warden must have bt"en conferred, I think, out of respect to the 
Dake of Cumberland, Grand Master, whose uncle he was very generally supposed to be. 

Dnnckericv, who died in 1795, was a very worthy member of the Craft; but the loose 
statemente of "Dr. Oliver that " he w^ta the oracle of the Grand Lodge, and the accredited 
interpreter of its Constitutions; ' also that "his decision was final -^n all points, both of 
doctrine and discipline," are simply untrue— which is the more to be regretted, as they 
have been copied and re-copied by the generality of later writers. 

At the next Quarteriy Communication, held February 7, 1787, it was resolved that the 
snm of £150 be paid annually to the Grand Secretary and his clerks, and that all fees 
should be carried to the account of the Society. 

At the same meeting the Grand Master (who presided) stated tliat the Prince of Wales 
had been initiated into Masonry at a sjiecial Ix)dge held for that purpose at the Star and 
Garter, Pall Mall, on the previous evening. Whereuimn tlie following resolutioi. *-a« 
passed by an unanimous vote: "That in testimony of the high Bcnse th<! Grand Lodge 
entertains of the Great Honor conferred on the Society by the Initiation of the Prince of 
Wales, His Royal Highness shall be a member of ti.e Grand Lodge, una shall take Place next 
to, and on the Right Hand of, the Grand Miifter." 

A resolution of a similar, though not quite identical diameter, was passed at tlie next 
meeting of Grand Lodge, when it being announced that Prince William Uenry-afterwwd 
King William IV.-had been received into Masonry' in the Pi .nee George Lodge, No. 86 
Plymouth, it was proposed, and carrieil without a dissentient vote, that an Apron hned 
with blue silk should be presented to His Royal Highness, and that in all future Proces- 
sions he should rank as a Past Grand Mteter of the Society. 

Precisely the same compliment was paid to other sons of Kir? Geor- III., all of whom, 
with the exception of the Duke of Cambridge, became members jf th t-the Duke ol 

York, in the Britannic Lodge, No. 29, November 21, 1787; IVinc -ward, afterward 

< Printed by Dr Oliver in his " Masonic Iislitutes," vol. i., 1847, p. 187. 

'•Sna^iy^nsUtuted .. No. 303. beanie No. 134 .n 1T56, and 106 ^^ ^'''J^^^'^,;:^^ 
at the ciLge of number in 1781, but inter,«Uit«l in th.- lut (or 178-J «h No 8<^-most of the lod«^ 
ot later daS .howa in the " F..e.»asou.' CaleuOa." for the former ye«-. bem^ p«.h«l down on. 
number in the edition for 1783. 


Duke of Kent, in the " Union T»dge," Genev*; ' Prince Ernest, aftenrtrd Dnke of Cnm- 
berknd and King of Hanover,' at the house of the Earl of Moira, May 11, 1790: and 
Prince Augnitus, afterward Dnke of Sussex, in th 1 " Royal York Lodge of Friendship," 
Berlin, in 1708. Prince William, afterward Dukr o( Uloncester, the King's nephew and 
son-in-law, was also a Freemason, lutving been '.nitiated in the liritannic Lodge May V2, 
1795. He ma accorded the usual privileges voted to brethren uf the Bloud Boyal, April 
1.3, 1796. 

On March 25, 1788, "the Royal Freemasons' Charity tor Female Children "—now 
called the Royal Ma»..aic Institution for Girls— was established for maintaining, clothing, 
and educating the female children and orphans of indigent Brethren. This Charity owes 
its existence mainly to the benevolent exertions of the Chevalier Bartholomew Rnspini.' 
The number of children to be received was at first limited to fifteen, whi u had increased 
to sixty-five in 1821, but the fortunes of this most meritorious Institution will be again 
referred to in some later observations on the general scope and utility of the three English 
Masonic Charities. Here, therefore, it will be sufficient to remark, that at a Grand Lodge, 
held February 10, 1790, an annual subscription of £35 was voted to the Institution; and 
on a motion by the Grand Treasurer, it was resolved unanimously, 

"That the charitable Institution, called Th£ Royal Cumberland Freemasons' 
School, established for the SupjMrt and Education of the Daughters of indigent Free- 
Masoiis, be announced in the Grand Treasurer's printed Accounts, and also in the Free- 
Masons' Calendar, and that it be recommended to tho Attention of the Society at large, as 
<i Charity highly deserving their Support." 

On February 6, 1793, a donation of twenty guineas was voted to the school, and it 
was again recommended " as an Institution highly dexerving the mott effectual Support 
of the Lodges and Brethren in general;" also, in almost identical terms, on February 8 

On May 4, 1789, the annual Feast of the Society was attended by the Duke of Cum- 
berland — Grand Master — the Prince of Wales, the Duke of York, Prince William Henry, 
and above five hundred other brethren. 

In the following year, at the recurrence of the same Festival, Lord Rawdon — afterward 
Earl of Moira, and later, Afurquess of Hastings — was appointed Acting Grand Master in 
the room of the Earl of Effingham, and retained that position under the Prince of Wales, 
who was elect,e<l Grand Master, November 24, 1790. 

On April 18, 1792, the Lodges were again ordered to be renumbered, and in the 
i.'llowing Mi»y, at the Gmnd Feast, the Prince of Wales was installed Grand Master 
in the presence of the Duke of York, I^ord Rawdon, and a numerous company of breth- 

The first number of the Freemasons' Magazine or General and Complete Library, ap- 
peared in June, 1793, and was coiitiuucd monthly till the close of 1798, when its title was 
changed. Durin*;; a portion of its brief existence, it was published with the unction of 
Grand Lodge. 

' The circumstance was announced in Grand Lml^^e, February 10, 1*90, but the date of initiation 
is nowhere named in the records of the same body. Cf. ante, p. 206. 

' Cf. a. W. Spcth. Royal Frrpm.-isons, p. /. 

* O.S.B., 1791-^1813, Dentist to the Prince of Wales, and a founder of the Lod^ named after Hii 
Royal Highness, ]>rr»'nt No. 2."i9. 


The i'rinco of Walc« again presided at a Gruml Foart, held May 13, IT95. Th<^ (trend 
Maater waa supported by his brother, the Duke of Clarence, and his cousin, Prince 
William, afterward Duke of Olonoester. His Hoj-al Highness expressed his waTurat wishes 
for the prosperity of the Society, and concluded with a graceful compliment to the Acting 
Grand Master, the Earl of Moiri, whom be styled " the man of hia heart, and the friend 
he admired," hoping " that ho might long li»e to superintend the government of the 
Craft, and extend the principles of the Art"' 

In the ezprewion of these sentiments, the Grand Master constituted himself, as it were, 
the mouthpiece of the brethren at largo, who were overjoyed at the safe return of their 
respected Acting Grand Master, from a mission of equal hazard and responsibility. 

In 1794, when the situation of the British army and tl»t of the allies in Flanders was 
extremely critical, the Earl c2 Moire— who, in the previous year, had succeeded to the 
title, and been promoted to the rank of major-general— was despatched with a reinforce- 
ment of ten thousand men, and most fortunately succeeded in effecting a junction with 
the Duke of York, then nr >rlT sunounded by L -utile forces much suiwrior in number^ 
The French general, Pichegru, who was in the vicinity of Bruges with a force much greater 
than the British, was completely out-gcnoralled. 

This was one of the most extraordinary marclxes of which mil Lury history affords an 
example. After the Eari of Moira had cleared the French armies, and was passing the 
Austrian corps under Field-I' jshal Clarfayt, the latter said to Wm, " My Lord, you hare 
done what was imposrible." 

Two works were published m 1797, which, though now seldom read, and never tited 
in Masonic controversiea, produced an immense sensation at the time, and evoked an 
elaborate defence of the Society from the Earl of Moira. That illustrious brother, 
however, in 1809, !>ractically »dmiti<!d the justice of the strictures, which nine years 
previously he had .applied Umaelf to -efute by speaking of " mischievous combinations 
on the Qmtinent, borrowing and proe.ituting the respectable name of Masonry, and 
sowing disaffection and sedition through the communities within which tney were pro- 

The publications to which reference has been made, were written by the Abb6 Barmel 
and Professor Bobison, both of them Freemasons, in the same year, and without mutual 

The former writer was the author of " M^moires pour servir a 1 aistoire du Jacobin- 
i8me»-transtated into English by the Hon. Robert Clifford, in 1798-and the latter of 
" Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on 
in the Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, lUuminati, and Reading Societies." 

Both works aim at proving that a secret association had been formed, and for many 
Tcan cj. fried on, for rooting out all the religious establishments, and overturning all the 
existing goTemments of Europe; and that this association Imd employed, as its chief instru- 
ments, the Lodges of Freemasons, who were under the direction of unknown supericTS. 
and whose emissaries were everywhere busy to complete the scheme.' The Abbft had the 
candor to admit, that the occult Ix-iges of the Illuminati were unknown in the British 

' Praston. niwtrations of Manoniy, 1831, edit, by Stephen Jonea. p. 301. 
•Speech at Leith, Sootland (Laurie, op. cit, p. lit). 
■ niustrmtioiis of Masonry, 1831. p. 3118. 



Um, and th«t the English Freenuuoni were not implioited in the ohargee he had 1 
but .lie Profeeeor did not think it worth while to except the Bngliih Lfldgee from the 
nproauh of being wditionB, until hit work reached a lecond edition, when he admita that 
" while the Preemawnry of the Continent waa perrertcd to the moet pre igate and impious 
pnrpoeee it retained in Britain iU original form, limple and unadorned, and the Lodgu« 
temained the aoenee of innocent merriment, or meeting! of charity and benefloenoe." ' 80 
ftf ^t, after all, his charges are not against Freemasonry in its original constitution, but 
against its corruption in a time of great political exc- ement* Indeed, to use the well- 
choeen words in which the author of the famous " Illu^rations of Masonry " sums up tlio 
whole controversy: " The host of doctrines has been corrupted, and the most sacred of all 
institutions prostituted, to base and unworthy purposes. The genuine Mason, duly con- 
sidering this, finds a consolation in the midst of reproach and apostasy; and while he 
despises the one, will endeavor by his own example to refute the other." • 

On July 12, 1799, an Act of Parliament was passed, " for the more effectual suppression 
of societies established for seditious and treasonable purposes, and for preventing treasons, 
ble and seditious practices." 

By tliis Statute — 39 Geo. III., c. 79— it was enacted that all societies, the members 
whereof are required to take anv oath not authorized by law, shall be deemed unlawful 
combinations, and their meml . > «hall be deemed guilty of an unlawful lombination and 
confederacy, and shall be liable to a penalty of jCUO. 

Societies, however, " held under the Denomination of Lodge* tf Fmmasont," were 
expressly exempted from the operation of the Act' because their meetings " have been in 
great measure directed to charitable Purposes; " but it is " Provided always. That this 
Exemption shall not extend to any such Society unless Two of the Members 
the same shall certify upon Oath . . . that such Society or Lodge has before the 
passing of this Act been usually held under the Denomination of a Lodge of Freemasons, 
and in conformity to the Rules prevailing among the Societies or Lodges of Free Masons 
in this Kingdom. . . . Provided also, that this Exemption siiall not extend to any 
such Society or Lodge, unless the Name or Denomination thereof, and the usual Place or 
Places and the Time or Times of its Meetings, and the Names and Descriptions of all and 
every the Members thereof, be registered with such Clerk of the Peace as aforesaid, within 
two months after the passing of this Act, and also on or before the Twenty-fifth Day of 
Hareh in every succeeding Year." 

The insertion of these clauses was due to the combined efforts of the Duke of Atholl ' 
and Lord Moira. Indeed, the latter subsequently affirmed ' that the exemption in favor 
of Masonic meetings was admitted into the Act in consequence of his assurance to Mr, 
Pitt " that nothing could be deemed a Lodge which did not sit by precise aathorization 
from the Grand Lodge, and under its direct superintendence." 

But this state'nent, though emanating from the " Bayard " of the English Craft, is a 
little misleading. Doubtless the Freemasons were chiefly beholden to the Earl of Moini 
for the saving clauses of the Act— an obligation most amply acknowledged by the Society 

'P. 622. ' (/. Mackey, op. cit., p. «61. 

•Edit. 1831, p. S12. *«;§5, «. 

•Ahiman Rezon, 1807, p. 118. Cf. ante, p. 204. 

•In a letter tc -> Sheriff-Depute, Edinburgh, dated .^.upiiit 11, 1808 (Lyon, op. eU., p. MS). 

£, .. : « 


•t Imrge.' Bat, noTertheleM, the letter of the Acting Grand Maater, u he then wm in 
both kingdomi, wm bMcd on wrong premiwc, wid luggetted to the oivil •uthoritici a 
conrae not in keeping with the principle of the Statute to which it referred.* The Bill 
WM mnch modified in itf pMWge through Committee; but " the Act wm ultimately framed 
■o M to embrace m participanta in ita immunitiea all Lodges of Freemasoni complying 
with ita requirementa, irreapectiTe of any Grand Lodge control." ' 

On the passing of the Statute, it wm aammed that no new I^xlges cuuld be constituted, 
and at a Grand Lodge, held NoTember 20, 1TD9, the common threat of erasnro from the 
list for non-compliance with ita arbitrary regulations, wm invested with new terror. Tlie 
necessity of conforming to the laws wm once more laid down, followed by this note of 
warning: — 

" It behoves erery Lodge to be particularly careful not to incur a Forfeiture of ita Con> 
■titation at the present Period, m, in Consequence of the late Act of Parliament, no new 
Constitation can be granted." 

Immediately after the paasing of the Act, the Grand Ljdge of Scotland consulted the 
Lord Advocate m to whether they might interpret the Act m applying to Orand Lodges, 
and therefore enabling new lubordittatt Lodges to be constituted. He replied — " It 
appears to me imjioBsible to maintain . . . that a Lodge of Yr-r^ Masons, instituted 
since the 12th of July last, can be entitled to the benefit of the ; <te. . . . The 
interpretation suggested cannot be adopted; " and he concluded by advising them to go to 
Parliament for powen to establish new Lodges.' Ultimately— m we are told by fiaurie — 
the Grand Lodge "agreed, in 1806, upon the recommendation of the Earl of Moiro, then 
Acting Grand Master Elect (of Scotland), to adopt the practice of the Orand Lodge of 
England, viz., to assign to new Lodges the numbers and charters of Lodges that hud 
become dormant, or had ceased to bold regular meetings." ' 

The practice, however, of the Orand Lodge of England, in this respect, has been 
slightly misstated. The Grand Master was fretiucntly authorized to assign the warrants of 
erased Lodges "to other Brethren," but there was always the proviso, "with Numbers 
subsequent to the last on the List of Lodges." ' 

By a further Statute, 57 Gea III., c. 19, passed on March 31, 1817, it was enacted 
that all Societies, the members whereof are required " to take any Oath not required or 
authorized by Laws, , . . shall be deemed and taken to be unlawful Combina- 
tions and Confederacies," and the members thereof " shall be deemed guilty of aa 
nn'—vful Combination and Confederacy," and sliall be punished as provided by 39 Geo. 
IIL, c. 79.' 

But by the next clause of the same Act,* all societies " holden under the Denomi- 
nation of Lodges of Free Masons, in conformity to the Rules prevailing in such Socie- 
ties of Freemasons," are exempted from the operation of the Act, " provided such 
Ixidges shall comply with the Rules and Regulations containctl in the said Act of 
the Thirty- ninth Year of His present Majesty, relating to such Jiodgea of Free- 

■ Cf. the speech ot the Duke of Sunsex, January 27, 1813, pott, p. 343. 

* Lyon, ut supra, p. 867. ' / Wd. 

* Laurie, History of Freemasonry, 1859, p. 161. • Ibid. 

* Cf. Freemasons' Calendar, 1810, p. 84 

'§85. •§»«. 


mtfti , :;: 

^Rii ' '^ 

Mig ' .^ff 


1 ■!■■ 


* M 



It hM b««n Jodioially determined,' that ui MWwUtion, the memben of which aw bound 
by oath not to dtoloae iU Morata, ii an nnlawfnl combination and confecleraoy— nnlea 
tzpNMly declared by lome etatute to be legal— for whaterer parpoee or object it nay be 
formedj and the adminirtering an oath not to rereal anything done in nich aMOciati<m ia 
an oflenoe within the Stat 37 Geo. III.. 0. 123, ( 1.' 

At a Ormd Lodge, held April 10, 1799, the Baron de Silrerhjelm, Miniiter from toe 
King of Sweden to the Court of Great BriUin, preeented to the Grand Marter in the chivir 
a letter' from the National Grand Lodge of Sweden, iolioiting a social union and oorr.- 
■IMmdenoe, which waa nnanimouily acceded ta 

At the Mine meeting, the Earl of Moir^ who prended, " acquainted the Grand Lodge 
tlmt leTerml Brethren had ertaWiehed a iltucMc Benefit Soeielp. by a tnull quarterly con- 
tribution, through which the memben would be entitled to a weekly Allowance in Caw of 
Sicknea or Di«biUty of Labor, on a Soak of greater Adrantage than attend, other Benefit- 
Sooietiea; repreeenting that the Plan appeared to merit not only the Countenance of Indi- 
Tidnali, but of the Grand Lodge, ai it would erentuaUy be the Meant of prerenting many 
ApplioatioM for Belief to the Fund of Charity, whereupon it waa 

Bmolvid, That the Mcuonic Benefit SoeMy meeU with the Approbation of the Grand 

Lodge, and that notice thereof be inserted in the printed Account of the Grand Lodge."* 

In the following year- April 9, 1800-Hi further reeolntion waa paawd recommending 

to the ProTincial Grand Marten " to giro erery Aid and Amirtanoe in thoir Power, within 

their req»eotiTe Prorincee, to promote the Object and Intention* of the Mammie Benefit 


The inttitntion of thia Society is included among the " Remarkable Oocurrenoea m 
Masonry" printed in the "Freemasons' Calendar" for 1801, and is continued in subse- 
quent editi'ms down to the year 1814, and possibly later; but the earliest ^<.Union 
calendar available for present reference is the edition for 1817, in which there is no men- 
tion of the Benefit Society.* 

On May 16, 1800, the King was fired at from the pit of Drury Lane Theatre, and at a 
Special Grand Lodge, held June 3, the Earl of Moira informed the brethren that it had been 
convened for the purpose of considering a suitable address to be presented to HU Majesty. 

> In Re> o. LovelSM, per Baron William^ who said, " The Preamble of Stat. 87 Geo. HI., c. 198. 
tefen to •ediUous or mutinous sodeUes ; but I am of opinion that the enacUng p«urt of the .totuto 
extends to aU societies of an illegal nature ; and the second section of the Stot. 89 Geo. UI.. c. 7». 
enacU that all societies shall be illegal, the memben whereof shall, according to the rules thereof, 
be required to take an oath or engagement not required by law (C. and P. Reports, vol. vi., p. 
Mt). Of. the remarks of the same judge in Rex. v. Brodribb (/6W. . p. 870>. 

• It has been contended, that by 81 and 89 Vict, c. 78, the administration of oaths of any kind in 
Masonic Lodges is forbidden. Part U. of this Statute is headed " Oaths to be Abolished," and Mie 
thiid paregmph reads: " Where before the passing of this Act, an Oath was required to be taken on, 
or as a condition of, admimion to Membership or Fellowship or participation in the Privileges of any 
OuUd, Body Corporate, Society, or Ckmpany, a declaration to the Uke effect of such oath shall be 


•This letter, and the Prince of Wales' reply, are given in the " Bluatrations of Masonry," 1831. 

p. 890, et teq. 

• This was done, and the above extract is taken from the published proceedings of Grand Lodge, 
transmitted to the private Lodges on record. 

•The curious reader wiU find an abstract of its Rules and Orders in the "Illustrations of 
Masoory," 1891, pp. 819, 880. 


The Acting Oniid Muter " took ocnwon, in the conne of hit Speech, to allnde to 
oertain modern Publiontioni holding forth to the World the Hocietr of Mmom m • I-m^m 
•gkinat conitituted Autlioritiee: Au ImpuUition the more lecure bewuM the known Con- 
ditioni of onr Fellowihip nwke it certain that no Aniwer can be pnblUhed. It ii not to 
be ditpnted, that in countriee where impolitic Prohibition! reetrict the Communication of 
Sentiment, the Actirity of the human mind may, among other Meani of baffling the 
Control, hare rewrted to the Artifice of borrowing the Denomination of Free-MuMmi, to 
coTer Meetings for K>ditioui Purpowse, jant aa any other Dewjription might be auume.1 for 
the Mme object: But, in the flrrt pUwe, it i« the invaluable Distinction of thit free country 
that luch a juit liitorcour* of Opiniona exitt, without Keiitraint. aa cannot leave to any 
Number of Men the Dewre of forming or frequenting thoew diagu'^-d Societiea where dan- 
gerona Diapoaitiona may be imbibed: And, aecondly, profligate Doctrinoa, wWcli may liave 
been nurtured in any auch aelf-eaUblialied Aaat-mbliea, could never liave been tolerated for 
a Moment in any Lodge meeUng under reguUr Authority. We aver tliat not only auch 
Laxity of Opinion haa no Sort of Connexion with the Teneta of Maaonry, but ia diametri- 
cally oppoaed to the Injunction which we regard aa the Foundation-Stone of the I»dge, 
namely, ' Fear God and Honor the King.' In ConOrmation of thia aolemn Aaaertion, what 
can we advance more irrefragable, than that ao launy of llia MaJMty'a iUuatrioua Family 
stand in the higheat Order of Maaonry, are fully inatructed in all iu Tcndeuciea. and have 
intimate Knowledge of every PlirticuUr in iU current Adminiatration under the Grand 
liodgo of England." 

Lord Moim then produced an Addrcaa, which waa read and unanimously approved, 
and after warda personally presented to the Kin. by hia aon, the Prince of Wuleo, Grand 

Maater of the Society. 

Another Addreaa, couched lu aimibtr terma of loyalty and affection, waa voted by the 
Fraternity under the Onind Masterahip of the Duke of Atholl, and signed by order of that 
Grand Lodge— June 24, 1800— by " Wm. Dickey, Deputy Grand Maater." 

On February 10, 1802, a friendly alliance waa reaumud with the Ixxlges in Berlin, and 
at the Grand Feast— May 12— on the application of four Lodges in Portugal, it vraa agreed 
to exchange representatives with the Oiand Lodge there, and that the Brethren belonging 
to each Grand Lodge should be equally entitled to the privileges of the other. 

In 1805 the Earl of Moira, who then combined the functions of Acting Grand Maater 
of English Freemasons with those of Commander of the Forces in Scotland, became the 
htppy medium through which hia own a!id the Grand Lodge of the Northern Tingdom 
were brought into fraternal union. In the same year— November 2T— and through the 
same channel, a correspondence on term* of amity and brotherly communication was 
arranged with the Grand Lodge of Prussia. 

Also at thia Grand Lodge, the brethren, to mark their st-nae of the services rendered 
to Masonry by the Acting Grand Master, "agreed that the Fraternity should dine together 
on December 7, it being the birthday of Earl Moira." 

This practice continued to be observed by a large number of the metropolitan Lodges, 
until the departure of tliat nobleman for India; and a survival of it still exists in the 
Moira Lodge, No. 92,' which holds its aniiuiil festival on IHwmber 7, when the toast of 
the evening is, " the memory of Earl Moini, the jiatroii of the I/^lgc." 

> ConsUtuted June IT. 1755. and styled, about twenty years later, " The ImA^ of FreeUom and 
Ease," a title it discartled io ^^\ for iU present desijfnation. 




Od Dwrnnlwr SI, IMW, tlw fonmUtioii-atoiM of Cormt Owd«i Thwlra wm hid bj tb* 
PriBM of W»l«, M OnHid MMtor of Enfland Mid SootlMid.' RMdng om Uiom rrrat* 
whiob f or— d any part of tho protraotad noprtifttioiM that prMwdod th Union, w« «• 
brmght down to 1813, on Fvbnury 18 of which jmr the Dnko of SniMi wm sppointod 
Dtpnty Onnd Mvter, in inocMiion to Sir Peter PUrker, Admiral of the Fleet, who died 
in the preriou Daoember. At the enraing Grand Fenit, May 19, the Oraad Lodge having 
leeolTcd that a Grand Organist ahonld be appointed, the Acting Grand Matter accordingly 
nominated Mr. Samuel Wealey to that oSceb 

In the conne of this ycwr the Earl of Moira waa appointed Oovemor-Oeneral of India, 
and it waa ooniidercd by the Fraternity ai only dae to hii exalted merit, to entertain him 
at a farewell banqnet before hir departure from England, and to preacnt him with a valua- 
ble Maaonio jewel, ai a memorial of their gratitude for hie eminent lerviceai 

January 27, 1813, waa the day appointed, and mora than five hundred brethren attended, 
including dz royal dukei.* The Duke of Sniaex, aa Deputy Grand Maater, tock the chair, 
being supported rai the right by the Earl of Moira, and on the left by the Duke of Yoric 

The ipeechM were far above the ordinary level of inch performanoaa. In happy terms, 
the chairman oharacteriied the exertions of the earl as having saved the Society from total 
deatmction;' whilst in terms still happier, the guest of the evening acknowledged the 
compliment The speech is too long for quotation, but I shall cull one extract, which is 
an excellent sample of the whole. 

" The prominent station vhich I hold here," observed Lord ^oin, " concentrstvea all 
the rays of the Craft upon my person, as it would upon the penon of a... jther placed in 
the same elevation; and the illustrious Deputy Onuid Master w ikeu an effort to persuade 
himself that this lunar brilliancy is the genuine^ irradiation of the sun. My real relation 
to yon may be best explained by an Asiatic apologue.* In the baths oi the East, perfumed 
clay is used instead of soap. A poet is introduced, who breaks out into an enthusiastio 
flow of admiration at the odour of a lump of clay of this sort. 'Alas ! ' answers the clay, 
' I am only a piece of ordinary earth, but I happened to come in contact with the roae, and 
have borrowed some of iu fragrance.' I have borrowed the character of the virtues in- 
herent in this institution; and my best hope is that, however minute be the portion with 
which I have been thus imbued, at least I am not likely to lose what has been so fortuitously 
acquired. Gratitude holds a high rank among those virtues; and if I can be confident of 
anything, it must be of this, that earnest gratitude toward you cannot depart from my 
breast but with the last puis*- of life." * 

On Lord Moira's passage to India, the vessel in which he had embarked, calling at the 
Mauritius — at the head of the Masons of that island, he laid the first stone of the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral of Port Louis.* 

' The Prince of Waleo wan elected Grand Master and Patron, and the Earl of Moira Acting 
Grand Master Elect, by the Grand Lodge of Scotlund, December 2, 180S, 

•Sussex, D.O.M., York, Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, and Gloucester. 'Ante, p. 3."W. 

* The Prophecy of Sadi. 

•An account of the Proceedings at the Festival of January 27, 1818, taken in Short- Hand by 
Alexander Fraser, pp. 47, 48. 

• Daruty, from whom I quote, adds, " La Loge La Paix, possMe de lui un trte beau portrait dA 
au pinceau du peintre Casanova qui suivit le noble Lord dam I'lnde pour arriver i remplir aa 
mission. Ce portrait cofita, dit-on, i cause des frais de voyajce qu'il occasionna, quarante miWb 
roupies [rupee*],— que paya M. A. Maure, alors V«n«rable de la Loge La ftiiar" (Becherches sur Le 
Rite Ecossais Ancien Accepts, 1879, p. 8S). 


The Bart of Moin iMMiMd niiM jMfi in Indk. uid bronght two win to • mcoMrful 
Iwaiaatkm. On hk arHnU at Otkatta (to vm hb own wordi), " th«r« wtra madr ofw to 
him no )«■ thu> ti* hoitito diKn«iona with native powon. Mwh onpnbla of entMilinf • 
iMort to anns; " nnd at that tin* " tho iudopondent power* of India were lo nomeroue and 
■troBg, M to oonceiTe theuMlvM equal to expel tho Britidi; " whilM at the termination of 
Bar! Moira'i rale, every native itato in that vaat region wai in either acknowledged, or 
•mential rabjngation, to oar Government Jame* Mill, the hietorian of British India, 
mya, " The adminietration of the MarqneH of Halting*, may be regarded a* the comple- 
tion of the great icheme of which Clive had laid the fonndation, and Warren Haeting* and 
the Maiquam of Welleriey had rMured the nperatractnre. The crowning pinnacle w*i tho 
work of Lord Baiting*, and by hi' i wai the inpremaoy of the Britiah Empire in India 
finally eitabliihed." In 1823, having in the meantime been created Marqaee* of Ilarting*, 
he retnraed to England, whence, in the following year, he proceeded to Malta ai Governor 
•nd Commander-in-Chief, and died November 7», 1826, on board n.M.S. " Revenge," at 
Baia Bay, near Ni^tle*. 

Contemporary reooidi itate, that hii excemive liberality and nnbonnded generosity had 
M imporeriihed him, that hii ample fortune absolutely »nk under the benevolence of hi* 


Before leaving Ciilontta, he wai preeented with an addreas by the Freema«on«,' and the 
late Sir James Bnrnes has placed on record, " how hii Lordihip, impreiaed with ilevotioii 
(or the Cmft, and love for all the brethren, deicended from hii high ortate as Governor- 
General and Commander-in-Chief in India, and within the halli of hii own palace offen .1 
the right hand of fellowihip, with hii parting benediction, to every soldier, indiTiduslly, 
who wore an apron; acknowWging,' alio, hii pride, that Maionic principlei had influenced 
him in the exerciie of hii authority. " 

Whilit in the Eait, Lord Moir»— created Marquem of Uaitingi, December 7, 181*— 
was styled " Acting Grand Maiter In India." 

The Begency of the United Kingdom was conferred by parliament upon the Prince of 
Wales, in February, 1811, who, however, w tinned to preside over the Fraternity until 
1813, when, declining a re-election, the Du, of Sussex was unanimously choeen as his 
luccessor— the Prince Regent shortly afterwardi accepting the title of Grand I ..iron of the 

The Duke of Suiiex wai installed at the Grand Feait, held May 12, 1813, and the 
following brethren were also invested as Grand officers: Lord Dundas, Deputy; John 
Aldridge and Sin'^" M'Gillivraj, Wardens; John Bayford, Treaiurer; W. H. White, Sec- 
retary;' Rev. Luciui Coghlan, Chaphun; Chevalier Bnspini, Sword Bearer; and Samuel 
Weiley, Organist.* 

It has been tialy aid, "that the Duke of Susmx whole heart wai bent on accom- 
pliihing that great detideratum of Maioni, the Union of the Two Fraternitiei who had been 
miitermed Aticietit and Modern;' and hii high lUtion in life certainly curried with it an 
influence which could not have been found in a humbler individual."* 

' Frwmaaoiu' (Juarterly Review, 1886, p. 68. ' 'W*. 184*. P- «•■ 

• Appointed Onuid Secretary jointly with bu father, Jiay 10, 18ia 
« Originally appointed May 18, 1818, when the office wan created. Cf. ante, p. 242. 
•Preston ubaerves. "to be explicit without circumlocution, we murt, at present, make use of 
thcM! term, relatively" aUustratlons of Masonry. 1821, p. 8«7). The same reflation has occurred to 
all later Manonic write™, * ^ Wd. 

'' .^ 


But before proceeding to narrate the share borne by the Dnke in the grand achieve- 
ment of re-uuiting the Frcvmasons of England within a single fraternity, it will be requi- 
site to retrace our steps and turn to the succession of events which culminated in tho 
Masonic Union of December, 1813. 

Inasmuch, however, as I have already brought down the annals of tho Uoo societies, to 
the year of the fusion, some matters of detail connected with the older sjrstem — which, if 
previously introduced, would have interrupted the sequence of the narrative^will be 
briefly dealt with, before passing away to the story of the Union. 

On November 4, 1779, tho laws for the contribution of Lodges to the Hall Fund, were 
onlered to Iw enforced, and at a Grand Lodge Extraordinarj-, consisting of the actual and 
{)a8t Grand officers, and the Masters of Lodges, held January 8, 1783, a variety of resolu- 
tions were iKUssed imposing further regulations of a most ouerous character, which lukve 
been already referriMj to. ' 

" How far," olMcrvos Preston, " they are consistent with the original plan of tho 
Masonic in-stitution, must be left to abler judges to determine. In earlier periods of our 
history, such compulsory regulations were unnecessary."' 

At a special Grand Lodge, held Miirch 30, 1788, it was resolved to pull down and 
rebuild Freemason's Tavern, and in order to augment the finances of the Society, it waa 
ordered, that in London and within ten miles thereof, the fee for registry should be luilf 
a guinea, instead of five shillings, as stipulated by the regulation of October 38, 17()8.' 

At tliis meeting also, a very extraordinary resolution was passed, that Lodges omitting; 
for twelve months to comply with the preceding regulation, should not bo (wrniitted t'> 
send Representatives to, or liave any Vote in, the Grand Lodge. 

On February 7, 1798, on the ground that debts had acccumulated to the amount of 
ilTOOO, on account of the Hall and Tavern, and that the sum of iI250 was pa3'able yearly 
under the Tontine, it was ordered, that every Lodge do pay, at the Grand Lodge in 
February, yearly to the account of the Hall Fund, two shillings for every subscribing 
member, over and Ijesides all other jiayments directed to be made. 

Tiiis re<ru1ation not lieiiig generally complied with, a committee was appointed to con- 
sider the U'st moans of giving it due effect, on whose recommendation it was resolved — 
November 20, 1T!»!) — that it was the duty of Lodges to expel such of their members as 
iii"j;KvttMi to nuike the prescribed payments, for which the former were accountable to the 
GrtiT.d Lodge, and would l»e erased from the list for withholding, after February Vi, then 

I'ountry Lodges were afterwards given until November, 1800, to pay their arrears, but 
the additional fe«' im{)Ot)ed February 7, 1798, was not abolished until the same date in 1810. 

Acconling to Preston, " the Lodges readily concurred in the plan of liquidating tho 
debts,"' but this was not so. The number of Lodges erased from the list was very great. 
No leas tlian nine in the metropolittm district were struck off at one swoop on February 
I'J, 1800; and in previous years, from 1768,' in which nineteen Lodges wore removed from 
the roll, down to tiie close of the century, tho erasures mount up to a total of two hundred 
and forty-seven. .Some of these, it is true, lap:ied in the ordinary way, but the greater 
number were summarily struck out for not contributing to the Hall Fund. Others were 
reston-d; f.-r instance, on Noromlwr 17, 1784, five liwlges wen- reinstated in their rank — 

' Antt. p 235. « Op. eit.. p. 337. > Ante, p. 334 ♦ Edit. l«!l, p. 838. 

• Cf. The Reflation passed on October 38 of that year. ante. \t. 334. 


four of which had been depriyed of it in the previons April—" having »ti«fied the O. 
Lodge with their Intention! of diKharging their Arrears. " 

But in the great majority of caws, the erased Lodges ceased to ex'st, or went over to 
the " Ancienta," and the sentimente of the Samm Lodge, No, 37,' with regard to the 
arbitrary mearores pursued by the Grand Lodge were, without doubt, shared by many 
other Lodgea of that era, whose records have not yet fallen in the way of an e<inally com- 
petent investigator. 

Besides the Lodges that have been incidentally referred to, we find from the official caUn- 
dars, that warrants of constitution, under the authority of the Original Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, found their way into North Carolina, 1755; Quebec, 1762; Honduras, 1763; Maryland, 
1766; Bordeaux' and Normandy, 1766; Grenoble, Canton (China), and Berlin, 1767; 
Naples, 1768; Sweden, 1769; the Austrian Netherlands, 1770; Leghorn and St Peters- 
burg, 1771; Strasbourg, Venice, Verona, and Turin, 1775; Sicily, 1778; Malta, 1789;» 
and Sumatra, 1796. 

" Sea and Field" Lodges, as they are happily termed in " Multa Faucis," were con- 
stituted in 1760 and 1755 respectively, the former " on Board His Majesty's slip the Van- 
guard," and the hitter in the 8th or " King's Regiment of Foot" 

In the preceding summary, as well as those of a like character given in previous chap 
ters,' I have, as a rule, only named the first town in each country where a Lodge was 
established. It may therefore be convenient to add, that at the date of the Union (1813) 
the number of Continental Lodges-active or dormant-shown on the roll of the Grand 
Lodge of England, was as follows, vis.: in Germany, 35; Italy, 11; Russia, 8; Holland, 5; 
Flanders, 4; France and Sweden, 3. At the same period there were 15 Lodgt-s " in Mili- 
tary Corps, not stationary." 

The foreign "deputations" granted by this Grand I.odge have not been ret^orded with 
precision. Most of them, however, will be cited in connection with the countries to which 
they were issued, and all that I can succeed in tracing will be found tabulate<l in the 


Numerous Lodges were established lor the association of i«rticnlftr clash's of Masons. 
Thus the Grand Stewards were formed into a Lo<lge in 173. , and we find Lclges existing 
in the Army, Navy, and Marines, in 1755, 1761, and 1759 respectively. A " Soa Captains 
Lodge" was constituted at Wapping in 1751, and another at Yarmouth in 1759. The 
former afterwards moved to Fenchurch Street, and a " Mariner's Lodge " was forthwith set 
up in its place. Lodges composed of " operative Masons " were formeu-or received con- 
stitutions—in 1764 and 1766.* 

The "Country Steward's Lodge," No. 540, was constituted July 25. 1789, and on 
November 25 following, it was resolved in Grand Lodge, "that in consequence of the 
trouble attending the office of Steward for the Country Feast of the Society, the brethren 
who have served that office be permitted to wear a suitable jewel pendant to a green 

• •' [No.l'ses, EngUsh Lodge at Bordeaux, have met since the year 1738, Mar, 6, 17M" (Engraved 

List, 1768). 

» No 539, 8t John's Lodge of Secrecy and Harmony, constituted March 30. 1789. 

« Antt, pp. 160, 190, IH 196, 202. ^. „ ,„ ,«, 

• No.. 886, noiP extinct ; and 864, now the Bedford Lodge, No. 167. See Chap. D., pp. 79, 106. 





The Country Feart wm notified as taking place July 5, in the " Freenukwn't Calendar ** 
for 1T85 and the two following yesn, and a still earlier notice of it — which escaped my own 
roiearch— has recently been diacorered by Mr. H. Sadler, Qrand Tyler, in the Grand 
Lodge minutes for May 4, 1773, where it is recorded " tliat the Deputy Qrand Master 
acquainted the brethren that the Country Feast was to be held at the long room at Hamp- 
stead on the 35th June next" 

It appears to have been known as the " Deputy Grand Masi^r's," or " Annual Country 
Feast " of the Society. 

On Xorember 35, 1795, the members of No. 540 were granted permission to line their 
aprons with green silk, or, in other words, to become a " Green-apron-lodge," but the 
privilege was withdrawn at the next Communication — February 10, 1796 — by a majority of 
fire votes, the numbers being 53 to 48. 

The Country Stewards renewed their application to Grand Lodge, November 33, 1796, 
and the vote passed in their &vor by a majority of 30, the numbers being 73 for, to 53 

The questioi; of the "Green Apron" was again brought up, February 7, 1797 — 
" Upon which iJebates arose, but it being found difficult to ascertain the Sense of Gi-i: jd 
Lodge by the holding np of Hands, a Division was proposed, but from the confusion, 
tumult, and irregularity which took place thereon, the Grand Master in the Chair,' found 
himself under the necessity, at a very late hour, of closing the Grand Lodge and Adjourn- 
ing the whole of the Business."' 

At the next Communication, held April 13, on the motion of the Earl of Moin, who 
presided, the resolution passed in the previous November, was annulled by a majority of 95, 
54 br-thron voting that it should stand, and 149 against, upon which, on a proposal made 
and ' 3Conded by members of the Country Steward's Lodge, it was resolvet. , that the grant 
in November, 1789, of a green collar and medal, be also rescinded. The latter privilege, 
however, was restored to the Lodge in the February ensuing. 

The Lodge, which became No. 449 in 1793, died out about 1803, aid is described in 
the " Freemasons' Calendar " for 1803 as the Lodge of " Faith and Friendship " meeting 
at Berkeley, Gloucestershire, whither the " Constitution " had evidently found its way 
from London, in conformity with a usage of which many illustrations might be given.' 
The names of members of Lodges were then registered in two books — one for London, and 
the other for the country. The last entry — under the No. 449 — in the former bears dai : 
1793,' and the earliest in the latter, November 4, 1802, when the name appears of " W" 
Fitzharding, L" Viscount Dursley, Berkley Castle (age 17)." "Ed. Jenner, M.D., 
Berkly," seems to have joined or been initiated " Dec. 30, 1802." 

But perhaps the most remarkable of the different kinds of liodges, establislted for clasi 
purposes, were those formed for the association of foreign brethren residing in this coun- 
try. The earliest of these, held at the "Sol man's Temple," Hemmings Bow, in 1725, 

' Georse Porter, 8.G.W. a» O.M. 

' Cf. ante, p. 144. 

' E.g., •• The Amphibious Lodge," No. 407, is described in the " Freemasons' Calendar " (or 1804 
B8 being held " at the Marine Barracks, Stonehouse, near Plymouth," and in ttie next edition (1805), 
■a meeting at " High Town. Yorkshire." 

*The Orand Tyler, however, has traced the attendance of representatives of the "Country 
Bteward'a Lodge" at Orand Lodge, down to April, 17W. 


hM been already referred to." Next in point of date oomea the " French Lodge " at the 
Swan, Long Acre,* No 20, apparently to styled about 1732. Thia, which became the 
"French Swan Lodge" in 1736, was carried forward in the numeration of 1740 as the 
" French Swan " No 19, and erased March 25, 1745. 

Another French Lodge existed about the same time, No. 98, meeting at the Prince 
Ugen's [Eugm^i] Head in 1732, and at the " Duke of Lorraine" in 1734. In 1740 the 
Lodge met at the "Union Coffee House" in the Haymarket, and was numbered 87. It 
would seem to have constituted the Lodge " Union of Angels" at Frankfort, in 1743, as 
the latter is "acknowledged" as "daughter of the Union Lodge of London" in the 
warrant, a copy of which will be found in the Appendix.' Curiously enough, by that 
official document, permission is given for " the masons of one and the other Lodges, to be 
members respectively of both." No. 87 died out before the change of numbers in 1756. 

In 1759 we meet once more, at the No. 122, with the " Swan, the old French Lodge," 
in Grafton Street, but this title, acquired after 1756, was lost by 1764, in which year the 
Lodge assembled at tLb " Two Chairmen," Charing Cross. In the Engraved LUt for 1 778, 
it is described as the Lodge of Unity, a title it still retains as present No. 69.* 

On January 29, 1765, a French Lodge was constituted at the "Horn," in Doctors 
Commons, as No. 331, which became No. 270, in 1770, but was extinct before 1778. 

In the following year, on June 16, a conference was held at the " Crown and Anchor" 
in the Strand, at which it was determined to establish a new Lodge, to be composed of 
foreign brethren, and to work in the French Language. The first master was J. J. de 
Vignoles,' who, at the next meeting, stated that he had received from the Grand Master a 
letter complying with their request, except as to the designation of the Lodge. This, 
Lord Blayney thought, "should be changed from ' L'ImmortaliU' des Freres,' to ' L'lm- 
mortalitf- de L'Ordre ' (as a more modest title)," which suggestion was adopted. 

The Lodge of Friendsliip appears to have cultivated a very intimate acquaintance with 
tWs French Lodge, for a particular minute of the latter records, under April 20, 1768, 
that " No. 3 have agreed to receive regnlariy the brethren of ' L'lmmortalit^ de L'Ordre,' 
on payment of the same nightly dues as their own members, namely, five shillings each; 
and finally, the brethren of the two Lodges were considered as partaking of the advantages 
of membership of both."* The !.^ .ge was originally numbered 376, became No. 303 m 
1770, and was erased April 28, 1775. The establishment of another French Lodge in 
1774, the " Lodge des Amis Rfunis," No 475, at the Turk's Head, Gerrard Street, Soho. 
may have brought about this catastrophe. This, however, did not remain long on the 
roll, from which it was struck out, February 7, 1777. The next French Lodge, 
" L'Esperance," No. 434, was constituted in 1768, and met at Gerrard Street, Soho. 
where, on a removal to St James Street in 1785, its place was taken by a new Lodge 
formed in that year, " L'Egalit6," No. 469. 

But in order to be clear, I must now invite attention to the Engraved List for .■'.O, 

'Ante, p. 188, note 8. 

« An Englith Lodge, No. 44, was held at the same tavern, erased Apnl 4, 1744. 

» Ante, p. 819, note 1. . .. j ■ .^ w 

• The existing records of No. W do not extend beyond 1764. at which date it had oeaMd to be a 

French Lodge. 
> 4nte. p. 886. 

• Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1845, p. tS. 


where at the Na 1S3, we find the "Ancient French Lodge, White Swan, Omfton Street," 
which thni re*ppe«rt upon the aoene, its member* haying parohued their " conititution " 
between 1759 and 1763, in which latter year they met nnder it at the " Fonntain," on 
Lndgate Hill, the Lodge being then numbered 193.' 

In 1781 the Lodge became No. 122 — a namenke baring borne, ringnlarly anoagh, the 
exact nnmerioal podtion in 1759— and in 1792, No. 110. On April 9, 1794, it nnited with 
No. 380, " Lodge Egaliti " (conrtitnted 1785), nnder the title of " Lege dee Amis lUanis," 
and on April 10, 1799, with " L'£q)erance," No. 238 (conatitnted 1768 aa No. 434), nnder 
that of " Lodge de L'Eip^-rance." It waa placed on the Union Boll aa Na 134, but died 
out before 1832.' 

The experiment of founding a Lodge, to be compoeed of Germans, and in which the 
ceremonies should be conducted in their national tongue, has proved a more auccessful 
one. The Pilgrim Lodge, tiov) No. 238, waa establiahed on these lines on August 25, 
1779, and celebrated its centenary October 1, 1879. Not only are the proceedings carried 
on in the German language, but the method of working is also German. The Lodge 
possesses a choice library, and is justly renowned for ita excellent working and lavish 

It has been shown that an eam«8t de.nre for a Masonic Union waa expressed by the 
Masons of Lower Canada in 1794 ; ' also that a proposal to that ef t was actually made in 
thu Grand Lodge under the Duke of Atholl in 1797.' The pron:inent position occupied 
by the Prince of Wales in the older Society doubtless encouraged this feeling, which must 
have received a still further impetus from the popularity of his locum tenetu, the Earl of 
Moira — a nobleman, in whom, as proved by later events, all parties reposed the fullest 
confidence. By the Scottish and Irish Masons the Schism in the English Craft waa always 
regarded with pity and indignation; ' and though a closer intercourse had been maintained 
by their Orand Lodges with one moiety of it, than with the other, this arose from the 
election of Irish and Scottish noblemen as Grand Masters, by the "Ancients," rather than 
from any special predilection on the part of Masons of those nationalities for that Society. 

The first proposal for a Union, made in either of the two Grand Lodges, took place in 
1797, and as we have seen, fell to the ground.* The next attempt, to heal the Schism, 
came from the other side, and was equally unsuccessful, though the negotiations which 
then proceeded and lasted for a year or two, made it quite clear that the rank and file of 
the Craft were bent on a thorough reconciliation, which the misdirected efforts of the 
Musonic authorities had only retarded for a time. 

At the Committee of Charity, held April 10, 1801, "a complaint was preferred by B' 
W. C. Daniel, Master of the Royal Naval Lodge, No. 57, Wapping, against Thomas 
Harper of Fleet S'., jeweller, Robert Gill, and William Burwood, for encouraging irregular 
meetings and infringing on the privileges of the Ancient Grand Lodge of all England, 
assembling under the authority of II.RII. The Prince of Wales." 

The inquiry was adjoume<l, in the first instance until the following November, and 

' Ante. p. 823. 

* The " Lodge of St George de robservance," No. 49, erased April 9, 1794, may have been French. 
But its tlien title was assumed after April 84, 1776, on which date it waa reinstated " as the Lodg^ 
No. 68. at tiie Globe in Litohdeld St.," having been erased for the first time in the previous April. 

*Ante, p. 215. *lbid., p. 804. 

' La»ri<\ up. cit.. p. 117. 'Ante, p. Mi. 


'!■■ ■ 


■gain until February 5, 1802, when, on tbe wpreientation of the Grand Treamirer, " th«, 
hkTing recently oonTersed with B' Harper and James Agar, E«q., it ha» been raggestetl 
that a Union of the two Societiei upon liberal and conititut' mal grounds might take 
place," the complaint was " dismissed." 

In order to pave the way for the intended Union, a committee was appointed, and the 
Earl of Moiia, on accepting his nomination as a member, decUred that he should consider 
the day on which a cojdition was formed as one of the -.nost fortunate in his life. 

It is alleged that although pledged to use his influence to effect a union, Harper oorertly 
exerted himself to preyent it, being afraid of losing th^ power he possessed, and the profit 
he derived from the sale of articles belonging to his trade. It is further said that, on two 
occasions in 1802, when proposals were made in the "AthoU " Grand Lodge with reference 
to a fusion of the two Societies, he "violently" closed the proceedings of the meeting.' 
The records of the Seceders leave these pointo undecided, but they prove at least that a very 
inflammatory address, eminently calculated to stir up strife, and to defeat any attempt U> 
promote a reconciliation, was r««d and approved in Grand Lodge — December 1, 1801— and 
" ordered to be circulated throughout the whole of the Ancient Craft"' 

At the Committee of Charity, held November 19, 1802, the Earl of Moira in the chair, 
it was ordered " that the Grand Secretary do write to M' Thomas Harper, and acquaint 
him that he is to consider himself as standing under a peculiar engagement toward the 
Grand Lodge; " also, that his " non-attendance at this Committee appears an indecorous 
n^lect. In consequence of which an explanation is required from him before Wednesday 
next, such as may determine the procedure which the Grand Lo<lge shall at that meeting 

Harper's reply was i«ad in Grand Lodge, November 24, in which, after expressing 
surprise that "the very frivolous charge brought against him" liad been renewea, he 
states—" That I was an Ancient Mason has long been known to many, to M' Heseltine 
particularly, as also to yourself [W. White], having frequently referred persons to mo in 
that oapaci'y. I sUted the fact to M' Heseltine at the Committee of Charity previous to 
my taking upon myself the office of Grand Steward, and it was then publicly declared by 
him to be no impediment" Untoward circumstances, he continues, had precluded his 
attendance on November 19, and, in conclusion, he remarks, " that feeling the rectitude 
of his conduct duriii ' a period of thirty-five years devoted to Masonry, without having in 
any instance impiiir "pon its laws, should the Grand Lodge be disposed to revive the 
charge against hir ould bow with the utmost deference to the decision." 

The " consider. .>f what censure should \y":% against M' Harper " was deferred until 
February 9, 1803, v/iiou, by a unanimous vote, he was expelled the Society, and it was 
ordered tLil, the laws should be strictly enforced against ail who might countenance or 
attend the Lodges or meetings of persons calling themselves Antient Masons. 

This, for a time, put an end to the project of a union, as in the following month- 
March 3— a manifesto was drawn up by the Atholl Grand Lodge, which was ordered " to 
be forthwith printed (signed by the Secretary), and circulated throughout the whole extent 
of its Masonic commrnion and connection." 

' An Address to tlie Duke of Atholl on the Subject of an Union with the Regular Masons of 
EnffUnd. 1804. The author is suppownl to have been W. C. Daniel, of the Roval Naval Lodge, No. 
57. Vf. ante, p. 204. 

' Pnnt«d in " Ahiman Rezon," ISOT, pp. 131-18S. 


Hen we meet — happily for the laat time— with the £unili«r allnaion to the " rari*- 
tioni in the eetabliihed form;" but though the addree* flUi nearly liz pages of 
"Abiman Reion," there it nothing elw in it worth noticing, except the concluding 
paragraph, which enjoins that no one ia to be receired into a Lodge or treated aa a 
brother "who has not received the obligations of Masonry according to the Ancient 

Negotiations for a union were not resun I until 1809, when it became apparent to all 
candid minds that the breach would soon be repaired which had so long separated the two 
Societies. In the interim, however, the position of the elder Qrand Lodge had been 
strengthened by fraternal alliances entered into with the Orand Lodges of Scotland and 
Ireland, the former of which was ruled by the same Orand and Acting Grand Master, 
whilst the latter had pledged itself in 1808 not to countenance or receive as a Brother any 
person standing under the interdict of the Orand Lodge of England for Masonic trans- 

On April 13, 1809, a very remarkable step was taken by the senior of the rival bodies, 
and at a Quarterly Communication held that day it was resolved, 

" That this Qrand Lodge do agree in Opinion with the Committee of Charity that it is 
not necessary any longer to continue in Force those Measures which were resorted to, in 
or about the year 1739, respecting irregular Masons, and do therefore enjoin the several 
Lodges to revert to the Ancient Land Marks of the Society." 

This tacit admission of the propriety of the epithets— "Ancients " and " Modems"— 
by which the members of the two fraternities had so long been distinguished, fully justified 
the sanguine forecast of the brethren by whom it was drawn up. 

At an (Atholl) Orand Lodge, held September 6, 1809, ' S" Jeremiah Cranfield, P.M., 
255 " — now the Oak Lodge, No. 190 — brought forward a renewed motion (presented, but 
afterward withdrawn, in the previous June) that a Committ^ should be appointed to 
consider and adopt prompt and effectual measures for accomplishing a Masonic Union. 
But after a long debate. Harper, " according with his duty as Deputy Orand Master, per- 
emptorily refused to admit the Motion, and afterward closed and adjourned the Orand 
Lodge, post 13 o'clock at night." 

A committee, however, was appointed to report as to the propriety and practicability 
of a Union by a vote of the same body, in the following December, whilst on February 7, 
1810, the resolution passed in 1803, by the older Orand Lodge, for the expulsion of 
Thomas Harper, was rescinded. 

After two meetings, the "Atholl " Committee made a report to their Orand Lodge, by 
which body it was resolved — March 7, 1810 — " that a Masonic Union on principles equal 
and honorable to both Qrand Lodges, and preserving inviolate the Land Marks of the 
Ancient Craft, would, in the opinion of this Orand Lodge, be expedient and advantageous 
to both." 

This resolution was enclosed in a letter to the Earl of Moira, who, on April 10, informed 
the Qrand Lodge over which he presided, " That in conference with the Duke of Atholl, 
tlicy were both fully of opinion, that it would be an event truly desirable, to consolidate 
under one head the two Societies of Masons that existed in this country. ... In con- 
sequence of the points then discuased, and reciprocally admitted, the result was a resolution 

■ Edit. 1807, p. 13S, e( mq. 


in the Grand Lodge nndir the Dnke of Atholl"— which being read, it wm thereupon re- 
■olred, " that thii Grand Jjodge meet* with unfeigned cordiality, the desire expreMed by 
the Grand Lodge under hia Grace the Duke of Atholl for a He-Union." 

" That the Grand offio^n for the year, with the additioL t the R.W. Hasten of the 
Somerset House, Emulation, Shakespeare, Jerusalem, and Bank of England Lodges, be a 
committee for negotiating this most desirable arrangement." 

The Masters thus nominated were respectively the Earl of Mount Norris, W. H. White 
(Muter, both of the " Emulation" and the " Shakespeare"), James Deans, and James Joyce, 
all of whom are named in a warrant granted by Lord Moira, October 'J6, 1809, constituting 
a " Lodge of Masons, for the purpose of ascertaining and promulgating the Ancient Land 
Marks of the Craft" 

The proceedings of the Grand Lodge, held April 10, 1810, were communicated to Mr. 
Harper by the Earl of Moira, and in the following July a letter, signed by the D.G.M., was 
written to the latter from the " Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons," enclosing sundry reso- 
lutions passed by that body on May 1, and requesting his " Lordship to appoint a day and 
middle Place for the meeting of the two Committeed." 

The resolutions stipulated: " That the Prince of Wales' Masons were to concent to take 
the same obligations under which the other three Grand Lodges were bound, and to work 
in the same forms. 

" That Pastmasten should sit in the United Grand Lodge; and that Masonic Benero- 

lence should be distributed monthly. 

"Also, the following were appointed members of the 'Atholl' Committee, vir.., the 
Present and Past Grand officers, with Brothers Dewsnap, Cranfield, M'Cann, Heron, and 

In reply to this communication. Grand Secretary White was directed to invite the 
"Atholl" Committee to dine with the Committee of his own Grand Lodge on July 31, 
at b o'clock, " for the purpose of conferring on the subject of the said Letter and Resolu- 
tion," and the former body, though it " was not the Answer they expected," nevertheless, 
" to expedite the business," accepted uie invitation to dine, but " earnestly requested that 
the other Committee would meet them at three o'clock on the same day, previous t» 
dinner, for the purpose of conferring together." 

The Committee duly met, but owing to the absence of the Earl of Moire, notliing 
definite could be arranged with regard to the resolntions of May 1. Ultimately, however, 
all difficulties were overcome, thoagh the question of admitting Past Masters into the 
United Grand Lodge was only settled by a compromise, the privilege being restricted to 
all who had attained that rank, but to one Past Master only for each Lodge after the 

On the important point of ritual the Committee of the Grand Lodge under the Prince 
Regent, gave a distinct assurance that it was desired " to put an end to diversity and 
establish the one true system. They [the older Society] have exerted themselves to act 
by the ancient forms, and had formed a Lodge of Promulgation, whereat they had the 
assistance of several ancient Masons. But, in short, were ready to concur in any plan 
for investigating and ascertaining the genuine course, and when demonstrated, to walk 
in it" 

The members of the " Lodge of Promulgation " were, in the first instance, only em- 
powered to meet until December 31, 1810, but this period was afterward extended to th« 



tnd of Febniuy, 1811. Tba minntM begin Noramber 81, 1809, wbon J»mM Eartiihaw, 
J.O.W., WM alaotad W.M., and sppointad Jmim Dcmu and W. H. Wbita aa hia Wardena. 
The Lodga baing ampowerad " to aaaociato with them, from time to time, diacrcat and 
intelligent Brethren," then proceeded to elect aa membera, thirteen Grand oiBoera, two 
PiBBt Maatera of the Orand Steward'a Lodge, the Maator (Dulte of SoMei), and the S.W. 
(Charlea Bonnor), of the Lodge of Antiquity, anil the Maatera of eight other London 

According to the warrant of the Lodge, it waa conatituted for tlie pnrpoae of promul- 
gating the Ancient Land Marka of the Society, and inatmcting the Craft in all anch 
mattora aa might be neceaaary to be known by them, in conieqaenoe of, and in obedience 
to, the Beaolntion paaaed by Orand Lodge, April 13, 1809. 

The membera proceeded, in the flrat inatanco, to consider " the principal pointa of 
variation between the Ancient and the Modern practice in the aeveral degreea of the 
Older," bat their labora ultimately aaaumed a mnch wider acope. Thus, on December 29, 
1809, "A particular explanation of the Ancient practice of a respectable community of 
the Craft, who hsTe never entertained the Modem practice, waa minutely aet forth by the 
Secretary (Bonnor), so fitf aa relates to the ceremoniea of constituting a Board of Trial, 
with the entire aeriea of proceedings in raising a candidate from the ^ to the 3' Degree. 
Whereupon certain deviations from the practice so explained were iwinted out, agreeable to 
the proceedings of the Athol Lodges, which deviations were ably descanted upon and dis- 
cussed. B** H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex was pleased to contribnte to the accumulation of 
information, by a luminous exposition of the practice adhered to by our Maaonic Brethren 
at Berlin." 

The ceremonies were " settled " with great care and deliberation, after which they wire 
rehearsed in the presence of the Masters of the London Lodges, who were duly sum- 
moned to attend. At an early stage it was resolved, " that Deacons (being proved, on 
dne investigation, to be not only Ancient, but useful and necesuary officers) be recom- 

As the word "Ancient " is usetl theonghout in a double sense, both as relating to the 
practice of the Seceders, and the immenioriHl usiige of the entire Craft, it is not easy, in 
all cases, to determine from the minutes of the Lodge, the precise extent to which the 
Society under the Prince Regent, borrowed from that under the Duke of Atholl. In sub- 
stance, however, the method of working among the "Ancients" — to use the hackneyetl 
phrase— was adopted by the " Modems." 

This was virtually a return to the old practice, and it will be sufficient to remark, that 
with the exception of the opportunities selected under the two syptenis for the communica- 
tion of secrets, there appears to have been no real difference between the procedure (or 
ceremonial) of the rival fraternities." 

On October 19, 1810, it was resolved, "that it appears to this Lo<lge, that the cere- 
mony of Installation of Masters of Lodges, is one of the two Land Marks of the Craft and 
ought to be observed." 

' Preterit Nos. 8, 18, 23, 28, 92, M, and 108. The Lodge of Sincerity (extinct), then No. 66, wan 
also represented. 

• This point is well illustrated by D-alcho (Orations, p. 84); Hughan (Origin of Uie Elngli-sh Rile of 
Freemasonry, pp. 56, 57); and in the "Address to the Duke of AthoD," pafrim. Cf. ante. p. 249 
note 1. 


At the n«xt maeting— NoTomber 16— tho Grsnd Troaaurer and (our ot^en, " being 
Inttalled iluten, retired to an ^Jjoining chambor, formed • Board of Ini. tiled Maaten 
aooording to the Ancient constitution of the order, and forthwith initalled B" Jai. Earn- 
■haw, R.W.M.," and the Muaten of tun other ludgos. 

On December 28, 1810, " the Matter* of I^xlges were informed that they would, at the 
two next mmtinga, be summoned for the purpose of being regularly Installed as Rulers of 
the Craft," and accordingly one-half of the Masters of London Ixxlges were installed on 
the 18th and the other half on the 35th, January. 

In the following month, at a Quarterly Communication held February 6, " the M.W. 
Acting Grand Master, the Earl of Moira, having signified his directions to the R.W. 
Master and ofHoers of tho Lodge of Promulgation, was Installed according to ancient 
custom (such members of the Grand Lodge as were not actual Installed Masters having 
been ordered to withdraw)." At the same meeting the thanks of Grand I^go were 
conveyed to the Lodge of Promulgation, and blue aprons were presented to Bros. lieans 
and Bonnor, " the other leading officers of the Lodge already possessing such aprons as 
Grand Officers." 

A petition was signed by seven, on behalf of twenty-eight Mastera of Lodges, praying 
that the Earl of Moira would renew the Lodge of Promulgation for another year; but on 
March 5, 1811, the Grand Secretary reported that his lordship conceived it would not be 
advisable to authorize the further continuance of its labors. 

Before, however, passing from the minutes of this lodge, it may be interesting to state, 
that among them is a report to Lord Moira, suggesting " the propriety of instituting tho 
office or degree of a Masonic Professor of the Art and Mystery of Speculative JIasonry, to 
be conferred by diploma on some skilled Craftsman of distinguished acquirements, with 
power to avail himself occasionally of the assistance of other skilled Craftsmen, and to be 
emiwwered to instruct publicly or privately." The assistant professors, it was recom- 
mended, should be distinguished by a medal, ribbon, or a sash. The reply of the Acting 
Grand Master — if he made one — is not recorded. 

The Duke of Sussex, Grand Master of one Fniternity, and the Duke of Kent, Grand 
Master of the other, were installed and investe.l on May 13 and December 1, 1813, respec- 
tively. On the former occasion the Duke of Kent acted as Deputy Grand Master, and on 
tho latter, the Duke of Sussex was made an A>icient Mason (in a room adjoining) in order 
to take part in the proceedings. 

The Articles of Union were signed and sealed 011 Xovemlxjr 23, 1813, by the Duke ot 
Sussex; \V. R. Wright, Provincial Grand Master in the Ionian Isles; Arthur Tegart and 
James Deans, Past Grand Wardens— on the one jwrt; and by tho Duke of Kent; Thomas 
Harper, Deputy Grand Master; James Perry and James Agar, Past Deputy Grand Masters 
— on the other part. 

These are in number XXI. Article II., the most important of them all, has been 
already quoted.' Article V. enjoins that the two (iniiid Masters shall appoint each nine 
Master Masons or Past Masters of their resjH'ctive Fraternities, with warrant and instruc- 
tions to either hold a lodge, to be entitled the Lodge of Reconciliation, or to visit the 
several lodges for the purpose of obligating, instructing, and perfecting the members. The 
remainder will be found in the Appemlix. 

" AnU, p. 181. 


On St. John's Hvj, DeoemW 27, 1813, the brethren of the uTeml lodgei who had been 
perionalj ro-oblignted and oertifled by the Lodge of RuconoUktion were nrmnged on the 
two iMm of FroeniMon's Hall, in inch order that the two Fmtemitiea were completely 
intermixed. The two Grand Maiten leated thenuelTee in two eqnal chain, on each tide 
of the throne. The Aot of Union waa then read— and aooepted, ratified, and oonfinned, 
by the AmemUy. 

Otu Grand Lodge waa then conetitnted. The Dnke of Kent then itated that the great 
view with which he had taken upon himeelf the important office of Grand Matter of the 
Ancient Fraternity, aa declared at the time, waa to facilitate the important object of 
the Union, which had been that day lo happily oonrammated. He therefore proposed 
Hii Royal Highness the Dnke of Snisex to bo Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of 
Ancient Freemasons of England for the year eniaing. This being pnt to the T0(e, was 
carried ananimonsly, and the Dnke of Sussex reoeired the homage of the Fraternity. 






BY the TTnion of the two Engliih Societiei • gre*t work wm acoompluhed, although 
the terms on which it wu effuoted, left many thingi to he deeired. " Neither the 
Bnglith writer nor the English reader," it has been observed with some justice, 
" can keep dear from the egotistical insular tendency to look upon England as the central 
point of the whole system of events in this wide world." Animated by this proclivity, our 
native historians have too rashly assumed that the termination of the Oreat Schism — which 
restored peace and concord to the English Craft — has been as favorably criticised by foreign 
writers as by themselves. Not indeed that the authors of our text-books are alone in this 
misapprehension. The fact that Masonry has a general, as well as a national, cliaractiT, 
has been but too often forgotten by the legislators as well as by the students of the Craft. 
Foreign commentators, however, have regarded the mutual concessions of 1813 as involv- 
ing a great sacrifice of principle — to say nothing of a Iocs of dignity — on the part of the 
oldei^-and as they rightly style it— legitimate Grand Lodge of England. Thus, by Heboid 
the recognition of the Royal Arch degree has been termed an act of feebleness on the 
part of that body, which has destroyed, to a great extent, the unity and the basis of true 
Masonry, as it had been practised by them up to that time with a laudable firmness. ' The 
admission of Past Masters to a seat in, and a life membership of. Grand Lodge, has been 
denounced in equally strong terms by Mitchell ' — whilst Krause, writing shortly after the 
Union, boldly affirms that the New Grand Lodge of Ix)ndon has not only retained the 
ancient restrictions and impediments which obstructed the progress of the Fraternity, but 
has actually imposed even further new regulations, which will have precisely the contrary 
effect • [to what might have been hoped and expected]. Between the English Masonic 
usages and those existing in the United States, there are now some remarkable dis- 
orepanoiee. These — according to writers of the latter country — arise from the fact that 
Masonry was planted in America much more than a century ago, and has never been 
altered by law since, while Masonry in England has. True, they say, Webb re-shaped it 
sUghtly, and Cross still more, whilst later lecturers have done wliat they could to make 

'General History of Freemasonry, trans, by J. F. Bre