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^ i^ ill 2.2 
I bfi 12.0 







■ L _aa^^ 

■ 3 









By W. T. MicClement, M.A., D.Sc., 
Professor of Botany, and Lecturer in Systematic 
Zoology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 




Dominion Book Gnnpany 
Toronto, Canada 

Copyright, Car><iJa, 1914 


W. 0. McINDOO 

1 R 'FACE 

1^he primarv purpose of this book is to assist ^ mnj; Oanadians 
in becoming acqnaintod with the birds of Canaaa. The keva and 


Davie, Cones, Chapman, Elliott and others have l)een studied for 
many years. The authority for the distribution is naturally the 
Oatalojr of (^madian Birds, prepared by the venerable natural- 
ist of the Geoloj;ieal Survey, Dr. John Maconn. For food habits, 
the circulars published for the Biological Survey of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the United Sta.< ». have been very useful. 
Other facts of interest have been obtained from ever>^ source avail- 
able, but nothing has been stated for which the evidence seemed 
less than satisfactory. 


























line 2< 

line 9. 

line 19. 

line 1, 

line 2. 

line 24, 

line 18, 

line 25. 

line 30. 

line 29, 

line 4. 

line 27, 

line 13, 

line 6, 

line 3. 

line 10. 

line 14, 

line 29, 

line 23, 

line 11 

line 18, 

line 20 

line 21 

jointed should be Joined, 
bady ahould be body. 
For "having deciduous parts" read 
Fulmer should be Fulmar, 
hoop should be hook. 
Americana should be americana. 
ArdreldtB should be Ardeldffi. 
minituetella should be minutllla 
corealis should be borealls. 
For 'tone" read "note". 
Honed should be Horned. 
Cyanocetta should be Cyanocltta. 
icterldse should be Icterid». 
For "on" read "or". 

Should be comma after tall, none after wtnva 

Insert "inches" after "iW- 
. amerlcania should be americana. 
, references should be reference. 
, Lianilus should be L.antus. 

Omit comma after saw-fly. 

to be transposed to follow "Helmlnthophlla" 

For "migrant" read "resident" 

For "too" read "the" 

having no deciduous pans.' 



The primarv purpose of tins book is to assist youns Canadians 
in becomC q"ninted with the birds of Canada. The keys and 
ese • pUons will-it is boped-enable a earef.d observer to ,dent fy 
'm bird which he finds in Canada. AlonR with he name of the 
fed otltr facts resardin, it will be desired and the mo.,t .mport- 
ant of these are here jjiven. 

The need tor snch a book has teeo.ue very evident of recent 
veai-s because of the greatly increasiuft interest in the objects of na- 
mr S nterest if largely due to the «-e encouragemen tgu'en 
observational studies in our schools. The birds, insects, and 
nlmts m^ke an irresistible appeal to fresh young minds and to 
Sirfv The natural desire to know the name the relationship the 
t'o„d.'the b,ee<ling habits, and tl,,. rang., of our Canadian birds, 
this book has been prepared. 

The writer daims no special (,nalification for the task-other 
than thirtv years or more of most enjoya))le stndy of our birds and 
their ways/and an acquaintance with n.ost of the standard litera- 
ture relating to the subject. 

Much of the infoi-mation has been of course obtained from the 
work of others, and gniteful acknowledgment is here n^^de o the 
pleasure and satisfaction with which the writings of Audubon 
Davie, Coues, Chapman, Elliott and others have been studied for 
manv years. The authority for the distribution is naturally the 
Catalog of (^anadian Birds, prepared by the venerable natural- 
ist of the Geological Survey, Dr. John Macoun. For food habits, 
the circulars published for the Biological Survey of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the United States have been very usefu . 
Other facts of interest have been obtained from every source avail- 
able, but nothing has been stated for which the evidence seemed 
less than satisfactory. 


The descriptions for a large proportion of the birds have been 
prepared with well mounted specimens of the birds before the 
writer, but for rare forms, and especially for western forms, the 
fifth edition of that unrivalled work— Coues' "Key to North Amer- 
ican Birds"— has been the chief authority. Other works very fre- 
quently consulted and (juoted are D. 0. Elliott's "Wild Fowl of 
North America," and F .M. Ohapman's delightful "Handbook of 
the Birds of Eastei-n N„rth America." Lastly, and with especial 
gratitud(> as to a fatliei- in out door study, the writer must acknowl- 
edge his debt to the i.uhlicatious, conversations, and letters of the 
late dean of Ontari(. oniith..logists— Thomas Mcllwraith of 
''Cairnhrae" Hamilton. His "Birds of Ontario" first encouraged 
some of us to try to peer thi-ough tlu^ mysterv surrounding the lives 
of our hird neighl)oi-s, while his contagious delight in his favorite 
study made incipient naturalists of those who loved the outdoors 
and came within the circle of his charming and wholesome influence.' 

It is to be hoped that very manv observers will discover 
errors and omissions, and will make definite .vcords of the facts, 
for only in this way can our kiKAvIedge be repaired and our ignor- 
ance dispelled. 'Hie best auth.)rities have been consulted, but our 
mtormation is, on many points, (piite uncertain. 

The very limited space available, where so wide a field had to 
be covered m volnme. has necessitated almost unseemlv brevitv 
in many places. 

If this book deepens and extends the interest in this studv 
whieh IS at once so delightful, wholesome, and economicallv im- 
portant, the writer will feel that his purpose has been completelv 
served. j^y T M 

Kingston, Ont., May 10, 1914. 



"Hark, hoar the iiiciry cIkii-us, 

List to the song so sweet, 
From every ticetop o'er us, 

(^»nles a carol meet: 
Mountain and valley 'round us 

Eciin the niad rcl'i-ain, 
Bi(hlii)ju,- us all be joyous, — 

doiii in the j>ladsome strain, 
(ilierish, with kindly feeling, 

Kaeh little bird so dear. 
Ever about us tiitting, 

I>ringing us heartfelt eheer; 
Throats that ai-c never weary. 

Cfaily they chant iiieir lay. 
Birdies are ever cheery, 

Make us lik<' tliciu, \\v \nn\." 

'"M ..., 

■'lit'" fl///M'"''> 

s always morning somewhere and above 
akening continents, from shore to shore, 
lore the bii'ds ai<' siuglng evermore." 


Hast thou named all the birds without <v gun ? 

— O, be uiy t'l'ieiid and teaeli nie to be thine.— Emerson. 

Man— as a destroying;- agent— is indeed mighty when attaeking 
large creatures, but against insects, with their activity and enor- 
mous powers of repi'oduction, he is forced to look for help. One 
very powerful ally we have not yet seriously encouraged— the 
hjrds— those l)eautiful, tuneful, enthusiastic destroyers of insects. 

What can man do unaided in the face of an insect host? He 
has always been practically helpless before their myriads. His 
history is marked by black s])ots of famine, plague, and pestilence 
following visitations by insects. One great victory— that over the 
San Joso scale— has been told again and again from books and 
jdatforms. Whyi Because it was i)ractically the first time man ever 
made a clear and satisfactory conquest of an insect invader. 
See the d<?struction of magnificent trees now going on in the New 
England States— the famous Harvard Elms and others — 
doomed because of the Gipsy Moth, the Leopard Moth, and the 
Brown-tail ^loth. Money and science are fighting them, but so 
far the millions of dollars spent have barely kept them in check. 
Our own northern evergreen forests are being greatly injured by 
sawflies. Every crop we try to raise has its insect enemies, and 
the best we have done so far is to encourage the enemies of the 

France was threatened with famine because of thoughtless 
slaughter of birds. The French are a logical }>eople — the cause and 
the effect were clear. Ever since then, at every cross road and vil- 
lage green, there stands a Government proclamation cast in iron — 
asking everyone to assist in increasing the birds, and telling of the 


()i:ii (JOOI) NEl(}HB()h'S 

penalties tor the (lestruction oi birds, nests, or egj;s. Birds are 
much more numerous in Europe than in Canada, in spite of the 
dense population; and the ('roi)s of Europe ai*e nuich greater per 
acre than those of Canada. 

A swarm of leaf-eatin.u' caterpiUars occurred in the Black 
Forest region of (Jerniany. Its ri»ute looked like th;'.t of a tire — 
not a j;reen leaf left on tree or shruh. In the iniddlc ni its path 
lay the estate of a cei'tain Baron, who for twenty y(';'.is had pro- 
tected and encouraj^-ed the hirds. When the insccis had passed, 
there lay his estate with a border about 200 yards wide, green and 
leafy, an oasis in a desert of defoliated trees. He had si'veral tliou- 
saiul nestin<^^ and feedini;- places for the birds, and his y;arrison was 
at home, able and willing' to re]jcl the invasion. 

Kvery spring a most efficient corps of experts examine our 
trees. Sonie l)egin at the ground and jdck out every worm and 
nest of eggs, from the crevices of tlie bai-iv — as they systematically 
go around and around the trunk. When they reach the branches 
they tly to the base of another tree and begin again. A different 
«si)ecies undertakes the larger brancdu'S, whih' still others do all 
sorts of fancy acroliatic tricks as they insjiect the tips (»f the 
branches. These are tlie Vireos an.d the Wood Warblers, on their 
way north. Like a spring housech aning army they give our trees 
an ins])ection and pass oji. In autunni again, from August till 
sharj) frost, they slowly travel southward, eating insects as they 
go — taking just what we wish to be rid of. 

A Cuckoo has been known to have :500 tent caterpillars in ita 
stomach at one tinu'. This meal was no doubt repeated twice a 
day oi- oftener, either of lent caterpillars or of s(»me other leaf- 
eating pest. 

Think also oi he Swallows — what to}is of insects a colony of 
these graceful creatures destroy during a siunnier — without tast- 
ing a berrv or a kernel of grain! 



Hut tlip fariiiei- will say that some birds do take his cherries, 
strawbcjTics, and corn. Ho tlicy do— tliat is. for about two weeks 
of the tiftv-lwo, they cat s(»nictiiing we want to keep— the remain- 
der of the ycai- tlicy arc workinj; For us. Surely we eau defend 
ourselves a-ainst the biids without killiii--- them, but just as surely 
without their he]]) we cannot defend ourselves auainst the insects. 
Oaiti'ful study «.f the fccdiu.ii' haltits of bii'ds shows that only about 
four of our sj)ecies fail to do much nioic c-ood than harm. Even the 
Crow earns our thanks by killing crickets, .urasshoppers, beetles, 
mice, aiul moles, in myriads, fntm dune till Octolx'r. 

The .uai-deners tell us evei-y toad is worth t- pci- year because 
of the insects he eats. JJirds work m<ire rapidly and lonj?er hours: 
most of iv< prefer their songs and their appearance, how much are 
200 birds worth on a farm every year/ At least 10 i)er cent, of 
every Canadian farmer's croji is destroyed by insects. Most of 
this would be jjrevented if we saved and encoura«i'ed the birds. 
And the pitiful and disj^raceful side <d' the (pustion is that we 
destroy them because of our i<;iiorance «d' them. No })erson ever 
kills birds after s'tudying- their ways. Let us ,yive them a chance 
for ten years. There is absolutely no feai- of a plas^ue of birds, 
but we ai-e always on the vero-e of plauues oi' insects. 

— W. T. M. 

'•And now. wouldst thou. () man. deli^-ht the ear 
With ea "^ delicious sounds, or charm the eye 
With beau.. .1 creations: then pass forth 
And fiiul them midst those many-colored birds 
That till the .ulowin.u' woods. 'I'he richest hues 
Lie in their splendid plnmaj-e, and their tones 
Are sweeter than the nuisic of the lute." 





Pkkfack V 

Wki.comk to the Birds vii 

Oi i{ (i(»(»i) XKituiBoRs viii 

ll,I.i;STK\TI(».\S XV 

Gi;m xvi 


Orders 2 

Families 2 

(Jeneru 2 

•Species 2 

ARTiriciAh Kky to Orders and Families ,'{ 

The Water Birds '.] 

(i\) Diving liirds: — Grebes, Looils, Auks :{ 

(b) Lonjr-winnred S\vimm(>i-s: — Skuas. Gulls, Terns 4 

((') Tubi'-noscd Swimmers: — Albatrosses, Petrels, Shearwaters 4 

(d) Totipalmate Swimmers: — Ganncts, Cormorants, Pelieans 4 

(e) Lamellirostral Swimmers: — Ducks, Geese, Swans ."> 

(£) Waders : — Herons. Egrets, Bitterns f) 

(g) Jlarsh Birds : — Urane.s. R.ails. Coots. Gallinules ."> 

(h) Shore Birds: — Phaleropes. Snipes. Plovera (i 

The Land Birds H 

(a) Earth Scratching Birds: — Turke.vs. Grouse, Quail ti 

(b) Pigeons and Doves ' 6 

(c) Birds of Prey :— Owls, Hawks, Eagles 7 

(d) Cuckoos and Kingfishers 7 

(e) Woodpeckers 7 

(f) Goatsuckers, Swifts and Hummingbirds 8 

(g) Perching Birds: — Flyc;itchors, Blackbirds, Jays, Orioles. Spar- 

rows, Swallows. Vireos. Warblers, Wrens. Thrushes 8 

Order 1. — (Pygopodes) Diving Birds: — Grebes, Loons. Putiins, Guilla- 

mots. Auks 11 

Order 2 — (Longipenncs) Long-winged Swimmers: — ^Skuas, Gulls, Terns. 

Skimmers 23 

Key to Genera of Canadian Gulls 2'A 



Key to Species of Gulls in each (ieniw *|3 

Obdkk •.l.—(Tul>inans) Tuk'-nosed Swiminere.— Alhatroa8.ij. Petrels 

Shearvvatci-K ' ..q 

Sluiju'Wiiters ' 

Stormy Petrt'ls ' ' 

Order 4.~{St€ganopo(lrs) Totipabnate Swimmers:— (iannets. Corraor- 

ants. Pelicans .,,. 

,,, lb 


,. , JO 

( ormorfinta 

„ ,. it 

Pi'I leans 


()ri,|.;r r^.— iAnsn-rs) I>!nn.'Ilir(x^tra! Svrimmcr.s:— Ducks, ( Swans 40 

Key to Sul)-fa.niily of Ducks :-I{ivcr Ducks. Sea Ducks. .Mergansers 40 

Key to Species of Kiv.r Ducks iAhalimc) 40 

Key to Species of Sea Du<'ks ( Fuligulino') 41 


River Ducks '.'. ;J 

Sea Ducks Yc, 

Scoters *° 

Gees.. *^ 

S«"n« '■'.''.'.''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 60 

Orokr (■•,.-{ Tlerodioncs) The Wa.le,-s:-IIerons. Kf,'n-t«. Bitterns. ^^ " 62 

Herons am! Bitterns "" 

Hitterns. ... "^ 

,r 62 



Ordkr l.-iPaUuluola) Mareh Birds :-Cran,«. Rails. Gallinules. VocAs 67 


Rails ^^ 


Ordkr ^.-{Limicola) Shore Birds :-Phaleropes, Woodcock. Snipes 

bandpipei-s. Plovers ' ^^ 

Key to the Families of Shore Birds 70 

Key to the Generj! of Shor." Birds . n. 

Phalerope Familv '; 

Stilt Family . . ." '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. It 

Snipe. Sandpiper and Guriew Faniilv Ir 

Plover Family " 'z. 


Snipes, Woodcock and Sandpipers 7! 

Dowitchers. . . 


Godw-its. Tattlers and Curlews 

W^illet ^^ 




Order 9. — (Gallino') O-allinat-eou-s IVinia — Karlh ScmU'herB: -Turkeys. 

Grouse, yuail 97 

Quail, Bob-White !>8 

Grouse 9!) 

Wild Turkey 108 

Order 10. — {Columha} Pigeon.s and Doves 109 

Ordkr 11. — (liaptoris) liirtU of Prey: — Vultures. Kiiples, Iliiwks. ()wln. Ill 

Key to Birds of Prey (Raptores) 112 

Key to the Faniilie.s of the Fakonula — Kajtles and Ilawka Ill} 

Eagles lia 

Hawks 114 

Falcons 114 

Aceipiters 11.') 

Buteos ll(J 

Hawks and Eagle.s 118 

Falcons 127 

Order 12. — {Coccyges) Cuckoos and Kingfishers 14;{ 

Order V.i. — {Pici) W^oodpcckers 146 

Order. 14. — {Macrochircs) Goatsuekere, Swifts, and Hummingbirds 154 

Chuck-will 's Widow 155 

Whip-poor-will 155 

N'ighthawk 156 

Swifts 157 

Hummingbirds' 1 59 

Order 15. — (I'asseres) Perching Birds 162 

Flycatchers 162 

Larks 169 

Crow Family 171 

Blackbirds, Orioles and Meadowlarks 177 

Key to Finches, Grosbeaks and Sparrows 186 

Grosbeaks 190 

Purple Finch 192 

Rosy Finches 196 

Grass Sparrows 203 

Beach and Grasshopper Sparrows 205 

Song Sparrows 216 

Fox Sparrows 219 

Towhee Buntings 221 

Painted Finches 224 




to tW Genera '<^;^^'^:^Z^^^^^n^o^'^ '^'^^ ' ^^^^ 
to the SpccUN ot y. Auaduiii .'laic 


Taiiagers. . . • 
Swallows. • • • 
Waxwings. . 
Shrikes. . • • 


Artifieial Key 
Artifieial Key 

Plumage • ; ' ' " " ' ' 

Marks of Certain Warblers in «ny Plumage 

Wood Warblers 

Prothonotary Warbler 

Worm-eating Warblers 

Plyeatching Warblers 


AmericiUi Dippers 

Wrens and Thrashers 

Key to Genera of Wrens 


Brown Thrasher 

Mockingbirds " ' ' " ' 


Creepers ■,■.;■■,■ 

Nuthatches and Chickadees 

Kinglets and Gnatoat«hers 

Thrushes and Bluebirds .^ 

G.^ossAhV OF Tkcunical Tf*ms 

Diagram of Bird. Showing Parts . . - • • ■ 


. 279 
. 280 
. 281 
. 286 
. 289 
. 297 
. 301 
. 303 




S I 



I'IKD-Bir.UKI) (iHKHK 1.! 

\AX)S 11 





\Vn.aOV '8 TERN . 30 























COWBiRD 178 


U.RONZEI) <iRA(KLE 18r> 






S()N(} SPARROW 21(i 














CERULEAN ' '^^^LER 256 











ANADIAN HIWI> »<><>»^ 



-Mv aviary is the Kn,..d f^reon Nwod; 
I would not cage its songsters if I could. 
Sweeter the song of one wild bird to me. 
Than all the notes of sad captivity." 




In seeking for a natural arrangement of birds, we take into 
account the most important facts of their methods of life. These 
life habits have affected their structures, so that ^ bird livmg sue- 
ccssfully in one set of conditions is not qualified to get food and 
pi>3tection in another and different environment. In some in- 
stances a slight change of surroundings— as from the ocean to a 
fresh water lake— is too great for the adaptability of the creature, 
and starvation results. Broadly speaking, we arrange birds with 
respect to their relationship to water, placing first thr • > which find 
their homos, food, and protection in closest connection with bodies 
of fvosh or salt water. Such birds are scarcely able to walk on 
land, and many of them fiy only when it is absolutely necessary. 
Thev spend their lives in and on t^'" water, swimming on or be- 
neath its surface ^vitll such si)eed and skill as to catch fish and 
other a<iuatic creatures on which they feed. Their wings are often 
serviceable as organs of locomotion under the water. One of these, 
the Great Auk, lost the power of fiight, and tlirough the hasty greed 
of man, it was destroyed from the face of the earth before it had 
time to learn to fear and avoid the arch enemy of the feathered 

From the most aquatic foi-ms, we pass by stages to those 
haunting the shore and living on marsh and shallow water crea- 
tures, then to those feeding upon small animals and seeds obtained 
by scratching the soil. Next come the birds of prey, succeeded by 
tiiose that perch in trees, but capture water creatures or insects. 
Later we have those with remarkable wing development, living on 
insects taken at high or low levels of the atmosphere during their 
almost continuous flights, and these are succeeded by the group 
that dart upon passing insects from a perch. Gradually we pass 
from the insect eatei-s to those which depend largely on seeds, al- 
though a -1 use the more easily digested animal food for their nest- 


lings. The last group includes our most highly organized birds, 
and our sweetest singers. 

The largest groups are called orders, and are as follows : — 

Order I. Pygopodes—Biying Birds — Grebes, Loons, and 

Order II. Lon rji pomes— l,ojig-y;mged Swimmers— Skuas, 
Gulls, mid Terns. 

Order III. Tub in a res— Tuhe-nosed Swimmers— Albatross- 
es, Petrels, and Shearwaters. 

Order IV. Stefjanopodes — Totipalmate Swimmers — Gan- 
nets, Cormorants, and Pelicans. 

Order V. xlMSf/Y*' — Lamellirostral Swimmers — Ducks, 
Geese, Swans. 

Order VI. //eror//oHcs— Waders— Herons, Egrets, Bitterns. 
Oi'der VII. Paludicolae-Mixv&h. Birds— Cranes, Rails, Coots, 
and Gallinules. 

Order VIII. Limicolac— Shore Birds— Phaleropes, Snipes, 
and Plovers. 

Order IX. 6^aZ?/«ac— Earth-scratching Birds— Turkeys, 
Grouse, and Quail. 

Order X. Columbae — Pigeons and Doves. 

Order XI. L'aptores—Bivds of Prey— Owls, Hawks, and 


Order XII. Co<?<?//^es— Cuckoos and Kingfishers. 
Order XIII. P/c«— Woodpeckers. 

Order XIV. J/acroc/<jVcs— Goatsuckers, Swifts, and Hum- 

Order XV. P«.sseres-Perch.^g Birds— Flycatchers, Black- 
birds, Jays, Orioles, Sparrows, Swallows, Vireos, Warblers 
Wrens, and Thrushes. ' 

In each order there are usually several families, in each family 
several genera, and in each genus several species. Thus in the 
order Raptores, we have the family Strigidae— The Barn Owls; 



the family Biihonidae, the Horned Owls; the family Cathartidae — 
the Vultures; and the family Falconidac — the Hawks and Eagles. 

In the family Falconidac we have again such genera as Cir- 
cus, the Marsh Hawks; Accipiter — the Darters; Buteo — the Buz- 
zards ; and Falco — the Falcons. In Falco we find such species as 
Falco columharius — the Pigeon Hawk, and Falco sparvcrius — the 
Sparrow Hawk. 

In the key immediately following this will be found short de- 
scriptions, which will enable anyone to find the order and the 
family to which a bird belongs. 

Under each family in which the number of genera and species 
is so great as to make it difficult to read the descriptions of all, 
there will be found a key to the different genera and to the species 
in each genus. 


To avoid the use of many technical terms, the following brief 
description of each order occurring within our range, and key to 
the families in each order, are adapted from Chapman's excellent 
Handbook of Birds of Eastern Xorth America. 



Order I. Pygopodes — Grebes, Loons, and Auks. 

Duck-like birds with jDointed bills; webbed feet placed far 
back; flattened tarsi; bill without toothlike projections; tail very 
short or apparently wanting. 

1. Toes 4. tipped with a broad nail. 

a. Toes with lobate webs Podicipidae, Grebes, page 11 

b. Toes webbed Gaviidae, Loons, page 13 

2. Toes, 3, tipped with a sharp nail Alcidae, Auks, page 19 





Order II. Lo)igi penncs— Skims, Gulls, and Terns. 

Bills sharp-pointed and often hooked ; toes four, but the hind 
one very imperfect in Rissa; front toes webbed; wings long and 

1. Tip of upper mandible enlarged, rounded, and sharp-pointed; 
upper parts sooty-blackish ; middle tail feathers longest. 

Stercorariidae, Skuas, page 21 

2. Tip of upper mandible not enlarged, but curved and sharp ; tail 
feathers of about equal length .Lariclae, Gulls, page 22 

3. Bill straight, not hooked; tail usually forked. 

Sterna, Terns, page 29 

Order III. Tuhinarcs — Albatrosses, Petrels, Shearwaters. 
Tip of upper mandi])le enlarged and hooked ; nostrils tubular ; 
hind-toe very small or wanting. 

1. Very large birds; one tubular nostril on each side of the bill. 

Albatrosses, page 32 

2. ^Medium sized birds; tubular nostrils together on top of bill: — 

a. Lower mandible not hooked Fulmars, page 32 

b. Both mandibles hooked Petrels proper, page 34 


Order IV. Steganopudes — Gaunets, Cormorants, Pelicans. 
All the four toes connected by webs. Gular ])Oucli large or 

1. Bill stout and slightly curved at tip. Gular pouch small. 

Sulidae, Gannets, page 36 

2. Bill with hawk-like hook at tip : — 

a. Bill less than a foot long. Gular pouch small. 

PJialacrocoracidae, Cormorants, page 37 

b. Bill more than a foot long. Gular jwuch large. 

Pelecanidae, Pelicans, page 38 



Bodies broad, flattened below; no gular pouch; booth-like 
plates alonj? the edges of the bills. 

1. Bill long and narrow, and bearing very distinct tooth-like ser- 
rations Mcrginac, Mergansers, page 42 

2. Bill long, flattened, and duck-like:— 

a. Lores feathered : — 

(1) Scales in front of tarsus more or less square. Sexes dis- 
similar Ducks, page 41 

(2) Hind toe simple, not having flap or lobe. 

Anatinac, River Ducks, page 43 

(3) Hind toe with a lobe or flap. 

Fidifjidinnc, Sea Ducks, nage 48 

b. Scales on front of tarsus rounded. Sexes similar. 

Anscnnne, Cfecse, page 57 
e. Lores oare Cyfjuinne, Swans, page 60 

Order VI. Ilcrodioncs—llcvons and Egrets. 
Toes 4, all on the same level, slightly if at all webbed; lores 
bare : legs and neck very long. 

One family only reaches Canada. 

Ardcidae, Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns, page 62 

^ .aer VII. Paludicolae—Cvi\i\e», Rails, Coots and Gallinules. 
Toes 4, usually not webbed; hind toe usually small. 

1. Bill over 3 inches. Tarsus over 6 inches. Lores with hai)-like 
bristles Griddae, Cranes, page 68 

2. Bill under 3 inches; forehead with a bare shield, toes level. 

Gallinules and Coots, page 72-73 
^. Bill under 3 inches, liind too elevated and small. 

Ballidae, Rails, page 69 



Order VIII. Limicolae — Phaleropes, Snipes, Plovers. 

Toes 3 or 4; hind toe when present small and elevated; legs 
generally long and slender; lower half of tibia bare; bills (except 
in the plovers) long, slender, and soft; wings long and pointed. 

1. Tarsus over 3^^ inches. 

Bccnrvirostridae, Stilts and Avocets, page 74 

2. Tarsus under 31/0 inches : — 

a. Sides of the toes with lobes or webs. 

Phaleropodidae, Pha ropes, page 76 

b. Sides of the toes without lobes or webs: — 

(1) Toes 4 (except in Sanderling) ; front of tarsus with 
somewhat square scales. 

Scolopacidac, Snipes, Sandpipers, page 78 
a. Lower back white ; black band across rump. 

Aphrizidac, Turnstones, page 96 

(2) Toes 3 (except in bhick-bellied Plover) ; front of tarsus 
with rounded scales: — 

a. Bill under 2 inches. .. .Cliamdriidae, Plovers, page 93 

b. Bill over 2 inches. 

Ilaeniatopodidoc, Oystcrcatchev, page 96 



Order IX. GidHnac — Turkeys, Grouse, Quail. 
Toes 4, the hind one small and elevated; bill shoi-t and stout, 

hard and hornlike; wind's short with curved and stiff outer 


1. Head and upper nock naked. .Melcagrinae, Turkeys, page 108 

2. Head and upper neck feathered. 

Tetraonidae, Grouse, etc., page 99 



Order X. Columhue—VigeonH and Doves. 

Toes 4, all on the same level ; bill rather slender, deeply groov- 
.1, the nostrils opening in a fleshy membrane. 
Characters as above— Coin mbidac, Pigeons and Doves, page 109 


Order XI. Raptores—CH'\s, Hawks, Eagles. 

Toes 4, three in front, all armed with strong, sharp, curved 
talons or claws; nostrils opening through a cere at the base of the 
bill, which is stout, strong, and curved at the tip of the upper 
mandible into a sharp hook. 

1. Eyes set in a facial disk; tarsus generally feathered; plumage 
soft and fluffy : — 

a. Middle toe-nail with a comb-like edge. 

Sfrifjidae, Barn Owls, page 132 

b. :Middle toe-nail without a comb-like edge. 

Buhonichic, Horned Owls, page 1:58 

2. Eyes not set in a facial disk; tarsus mostly bare, plumage firm 
and close : — 

a. Plumage Idack, hind toe small, claws blunt, bill not very 
sharply hooked; head generally bare. 

Cdtltartidne, Ywhnvva, ]»age 116 

b. Hind toe as long at least as the shortest front one ; claws 
sliai-]); bill vply hooked; head not bare. 

F"h-()nlda(', Hawks, Eagles, page 118 
Order XLI. t^occiffjcs — Cuckoos and Kingtisliers. 
Toes 4, the middle and outer ones jointed for half their length, 
or two in front and t\w behind. Tail feathers not stiff and pointed. 

1. :^Iiddle and outer toe joined for half their length. 

AJccdimdac, Kingfishers, page 145 

2. Two toes in front and two h(A\\\\i\.CHCuUdae, Cuckoos, page 143 

Older XIII. F/ct— Woodpeckers. 

Toes 4. two in front and two behind, or toes 3— two in front. 
Bill strong, chisel sliaped; tail feathers stiff and pointed; nostrils 

partly covered with bristles page 146 




Order XIV. MacrocMres— Goatsuckers, Swifts and Hum- 

Feet very small and weak, wings generally long and pointed. 
Bill either short and small, with mouth large, or long and very 
slciulir, with mouth small. 

1. Plumage variegated black and brown; middle toe-nail with 

comb-like edge Caprimuhjidac, Goatsuckers, page 154 

2. Plumage sooty black, no comb on middle toe-uail; tips of tail 

feathers spiny Micro podidac. Swifts, page 157 

3. Very small; i)lumage very brilliant at least in part; bill very 

slender and long Trochilidac, Hummingbirds, page 159 



Order XV. Pnssercs — Flycatchers, Blackbirds, Jays, Orioles, 
Sparrows, Swallows, Vireos, "Warblers, Wrens, Thrushes. 

Toes 4, without webs, all on same level, hind toe as large as 
the middle one; tail of twelve feathers. 

This is by far the greatest order of birds, containing one half 
as many families as all the other orders together. 

A brief description of each family is given below: — 

1. Tyntunidac. — Flycatchers: — Bill wider than high at the base, 
slightly hooked at the tip; base with cons])icuous bristles; 
wings longer than the tail, second to fourth primary longest; 
back of tarsus rounded like the front; plumage generally 
olive-green or grayish ; page 162 

2. Alnndidac. — Larls. Bill rather stout and rounded; nostrils 
with bristly tufts; nail of hind toe much lengthened; back of 
the tarsus rounded like the front ; page . 169 

3. Corvidae. — Crows and Jays. Large birds over 10 mehes in 
length; bill stout, nostrils concealed by tufts of bristly feath- 
ers; fourth to fifth primary longest; outer tail feathers short- 
est ; feet and legs stout ; page 171 

4. Idcridae. — Blackbirds, Orioles. Length 7 to 17 inches, base 



of the bill between the nostrils extendinsjj backwards and di- 
viding the featliers of the forehead; nostrils not <;oneealed l)y 
biiotles; first three i)rimaries of about e^ual length; outer tail 
feathers generally shortest ; page 177 

5. Frinf/ilU<hu'. — 8i)arr()ws, Finches, Grosbeaks, etc. Length 
41/^ to 9 inches, generally under 8; bill short, stout, conical, 
fitted to crush seeds; third and fourth primaries of about the 
same length and nearly as long as any; page 186 

6. Tanngridac. — Tanagers. Length about 7 inches; the males of 
our species mostly red with some yellow; bill finch-like but 
less conical ; upper mandible curved and with a slight tooth on 
each edge near the middle; tail feathers of equal length; 
page 226 

7. IliiumUnidac. — Swallows. Bill short and flattened, much 
wider than high at the base; no bristles at base of bill; wings 
long and pointed, generally reacniug beyond the tail; first 
primary longest; outer tail feathers longest; feet small; tarsus 
short, round in front, sharper on the back; page 228 

8. Ampclidae. — AVaxwings. Plumage soft brownish or grayish, 
a black band across the forehead and eyes; tail tipped with 
yellow ; bill short, notched at the tip ; head crested ; page . . 233 

9. Lauiidac. — Shrikes. Length 8 to 9 inches; plumage grayish; 
most of the tail feathers tipped with white; bill hooked and 
hawklike ; page 236 

10. Virconidac. — Vireos. Length 5 to 7 inches; backs generally 
olive-green; tail feathers without white spots; bill stout, higher 
than broad at the base, the tip of the upper mandible notched 
and hooked; bristles at base of bill barely evident; tarsus 
scaled, round in front, nairower and sharper behind; toes 
united at the base ; page 238 

11. Mniotiltidac. — Wood-warblers. Length generally under 6 in- 
ches, but a few species over this ; plumage generally brightly 
colored or marked, olive-green or yellow being the commonest 


I i 



coloration; bill various, never notched at the tip, usually slen- 
der and sharp pointed, without conspicuous bristles, but some- 
times flattened and broad at the base with bristles showing; 
tarsus alwa.ys thin and sharp at the back; second or third 
primary longest, the first little shorter; tail generally square, 
but sometimes rounded ; i)age 242 

12. MotaciUidae.— Flints and Wag'tails. Bill slender, much as in 
the Warblers; no bristles over the nostrils; hind toe-nail as 
long or longer than the toe; first three primaries of equal 
length ; page 270 

13. Troglodytidae. — Thrashers and Wrens; page 272 

Sub-family, Miminae. — Thrashers, ^Mockingbirds and Cat- 
birds. Length 8 to 12 inches ; tarsus scaly ; tail rounded ; third 
to fifth primarv longest; first about half as long; 

pages " 278-279-280 

Sub- fan lily, T>-0(/]odijtiii<ic. — Wrens. I^rngth 4 to G inches, 
bill moderate, ui)per mandihlo slightly curved, no bristles at 
the base; third to fourth primary longest, first about half as 
long; tail short and i-ounded; brownish birds with indistinctly 
barred wings and tail ; })age 273 

ll. Paridnc. — Xuthatches and Chickadee; page 281 

Sub-family, Sittiiiai. — Nuthatches. Bill long and slender, end 
of lower mandible slanting slightly n2)ward; wings long and 
jiointed; the third or fourth primary longest, the first less than 
one inch long; tail short and square; outer feathers blotched 

with white ; page 282 

Sub-family, r<iri)iae. — Chickadee, Bill short, stout and round- 
ed, less than one-half inch long; fourth and fifth jirimary long- 
est, the first less than one-third as long; tail long and dull ashy 
gray without white blotches; page 28 i 

15. «S'///t'm/oe.— Kinglets and Gnatcatchers. Length o\'-2 to 5 in- 
ches; bill slender; first primary very short, only one-third as 
long as the longest ; page 28G 




16. Ttirdidae, — Thrushes and Bluebirds. Length over Sy^ in- 
ches; bill moderate, the tip of the upper mandible notched; 
tarsus smooth (booted) ; tail square; wings long and pointed, 
third primary longest, the first less than one inch in length; 
page 280 


These are all shaped for floating on the water, and have feet 
with webs between the toes. The legs are attached to the bady far 
back, a good arrangement for the use of the feet as propellers, but 
not well adapted for walking on land. In fact, these birds have to 
make use of their very short tails as a third jioint of support when 
out of the water, and thus they stand erect. The tarsus is flat, the 
bill usually sharp-pointed, and without toothlike projections. 


Six species of Grebes occur in North America, and of these 
five are found in Canada. The si)eed with which they dive when 
alai'mcd gains for them tlie vulgar names df "Hell-diver" and 
''Water-witch." Like the Loons they are able at will to change 
their specifie gravity so as to sink directly and quietly, 'i'liey are al- 
most hel])]ess on land, and are so thoroughly aquatic as to ti'ust to 
diving rather than flight for safety, although able to fly rapidly. 
Their nests are masses of water-soaked ])lant remains, floating but 
anchored among the rushes, and the soiled white eggs are not al- 
ways dry. Grebes feed on fish caught ]\v direct i)ursuit under 
water. Their toes are flattened, connected to some extent by in- 
terdigital webs, and bear broad lobes which are widest toward the 
tips of the toes. 

(A pehmophonia occidrntnUa) . 

The Western Grebe ranges from Manitoba to the Pacific, 
and southward to Mexico. A few specimens are said to have been 




found in Quebec. Its nests have been found in numbers in Sns- 
S- . n " «cl,ored amonR bulrushes, and eonstrueted rudely o 
tid rushes'and nu,d. The e^gs nun,bered four or f've and were 
laid carlv in Jinie. The bill and feet are Rreenish black; the ir.s 
red with' a white rins- The forehead and lores f'^ ^''^ery ash 
the eheeks la.ffv, and the head crested wltli dark teuthevs Back 
of hea.l and neck sooty Waekish; the feathers of the back black 
with irrav margins. Winiis brown with white secondanes ihe 
entire under parts are pure satiny white. Length about 26 mches, 
extent about 40. 


{Col (J tubus holhoellii). 
From the Atlantic to the Pacific in Greenland, Canada, and 
the United States this Grebe is found, breeding freely on the shal- 
low lakes of the plains. The eggs usually number five, and unless 
the birds have been suddenly disturbed the observer will fnid the 
eggs covered with weeds ^^ke those forming the nest. The toi) and 
back of the head and neck are greenish-black; the back blackish; 
the throat and sides of the head silvery white, while the neck and 
breast are reddish; the primaries and coverts chocolate brown, and 
the secondaries white. The under parts are dappled silky white. 
Length about 19 inches, extent about 32. 
{Colijmhus auritus). 
The breeding grounds of this Grebe are the northern tier of 
the Ignited States and Canada in general, as well as northern 
Europe and Asia. Its range includes these three contments m 
general. Its nest and eggs are quite like those already described 
In breeding plumage this is quite a brightly marked bird, and 
probablv the most beautiful of the Grel)es. The black compressed 
bill is tipped with yellow; the top of the head, the hind neck, the 



riKi) nii.i.i-.iMiKKnK. 

Ai.i.iit i l.\U->\/v. 

COPTHIQMT 1»00, BV », *. ^'l MT'iHD, rMICAGO 


ruff and the throat are glossy black ; the back and wings are black- 
ish; the secondaries white. A brownish patch below and above 
the eye extends and darkens backward into long crests. The fore- 
neck, breast and sides ai-e chestnut, the other luider parts silky 
white. Its length is about 14 inches and extent about 24. 


(Cohjmbus nigricollis calif ornicus). 

This bird seldom reaches Ontario, but breeds from Manitoba 
westward to British Columbia, northwaid to Great Slave Lake, 
and in winter it retreats southward to Central America. In size 
and color it most nearly agrees with the Horned Grebe, but is dis- 
tinguished by the depressed bill,— wider than high,— the absence 
of a ruff, and the smaller size. The long eartufts are golden brown, 
and fan-shaped, and show well against the black head and neck. 
Length 13 inches more or less, extent about 22. 


{PodilijmbuH pudiccps) . 

This is the common Hell-diver, Salmon Dii)])er, Water-witch, 
etc., of all North and most of South America. Jt furnishes an in- 
teresting vanishing target for young gunners, feeding peaceably 
while they get ready for another shot. It breeds on nearly every 
lake and pond, sometimes in colonies. The bill is bluish white 
with a broad blaek band around it. The throat patch is black, the 
crown, back of the head, and neck grayish-black; upper parts 
brownish black, and lower parts silky white mottled with dusky. 

Length about 13 inches, extent 24. 


The large diving birds called Loons are so thoroughly aquatic 
as to always seek safety under water, and are able to move very 





by dieet pursmt .nulc- later, the bird's speed being increased by 

thpu'^oof the wilisis as paddles. , 

T ,eir nests are nl^!-nys very close to the water and are mer y 
denres^ions in the Rround or anions washed-up weeds They lay 
— " -• vi 1. or sreonish brown with blackish patches. Loon 
Moii^to The-n..rtheni half of the northern hemisphere, and three 
forms are well known in Canada. 

(Gavia imhcr). 
T\x\^ is the common L..on of southern Canada, where it breeds 
in laru-e" ponds and l.kes from the Atlantic to t^^^ P'^^ific. It is 
elcM^llv at home in Labrador and from Hndson Bay to Alaska 
The win-s of the Loon are small in proportion to its size and 
wehvht i-iirelv exeeedini^ four and a half feet, and as a result it rises 
Tvith diff icultv from the water, fluttering; along the surface for some 
distance. When under motion however, it can fly very swiftly m 
a fixed direction, and when travelling from lake to lake it often 
produces a loud clear "laughing" note, consisting of the repetition 
of a rapid succession of "hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo." This call attract^ 
attention to the duck-shaped bird, with long outstretched neck 
and head, and wings apparently too far aft, hurrying straight to- 
wards its waterv destination. At nights, and before stormy weath- 
er Loons are giiiltv also of a weird maniacal scream, the most re- 
markable sound heard on our quiet inland lakes. Civilization has 
Dot interfered seriously as yet with the numbers of this harmless 
and beautiful bird, whose presence adds so much to the satisfactory 
wildness of our summer camping sites. 

Its plumage IS greenish black on the upper parts, with the 
throat and sides of ire neck sharply streaked with white, and with 




spots and bars on the back, wings, and sides. The breast and belly 
are white. Bill black, except at tip. In winter the upper parts 
and throat are grayish. Length about 32 inches, and extent about 52. 


(Gavia adamsii). 
This large northern bird seems to be unknown in southern 
Canada, and probably spends the winter on the Pacific Ocean. It 
is known to breed on the coast of Alaska, and has been seen in sum- 
mer by explorers on Great Lake, and the smaller lakes near 
Slave Hiver. Its summer • .^ is probably the tundra between 
Hudson Bay and Alaska, its head and neck are dark lustrous 
blue, with purplish and greenish shadings. The white throat 
patches are smaller than in the Common Loon, but the white 
streaks arc larger. The white bars and spots on the back are larg- 
er than those of hnber, and the bill is light yellowish excei)t at the 
base. Length about 37 inches, and extent about 56. 

{Gavia arctica). 
This is a smaller bird, in length not be\ ond 30 inches. In color 
it is like the Great Diver except that the top of the head and the 
back of the neck are gray or ashy. Its range is further north, 
from Labrador to Alaska, and it reaches southern Canada only 
in the winter or during migration. 


(Gavia lumme). 
The Red-throat is slightly smaller than the Black-throat, sel- 
dom exceeding 27 inches in length. It breeds in New Brunswick, 
Newfoundland, and Labrador, and north to the Arctic and Behring 
Sea. It is less black than the others, the back being grayish, while 
the liead and neck are ashy ; the throat bears a large chestnut patch. 




(AJcidae) . 
These are three-toed, web-footed birds, variable in color and 
often with eiirlinj? crests. Their legs are set far back, resulting 
in an erect i)osition when the birds are standing. The bill is otten 
remarkable in size and shape and may have colored horny process- 
es which are shed after the nesting season. The eggs are few in 

number, usually only one. 

Puffins are often called Sea Parrots. They are maritime 
birds, living? on the open sea, and nesting in colonies on the ledges 
of rockv shores, or in holes dug in the soil of the shore. They ily, 
swim, and dive expertly, but move on land awkwardly They are 
distinguished bv the remarkable size and shape of the beak, which 
is stron^lv compressed, about as high as long, and very large for 
the bir(i "During the breeding season temporary excrescences are 
adde ■ to the bill They feed on the fish they catch by diving. 


(F rate re id a arctica). 

This is a common bird along parts of the coast and islands of 

Newfoundland and Lalu'ador. It breeds in holes in the rocks or 

in the soil. The single dull white egg is laid on the bare earth m 

June or July. 

Its feet are orange, bill and eyelids vermilion, with a grayisli, 
horny appendage above and below each eye. The upper parts are 
blue-black; the sides of the head and throat are grayish white; 
the lower surface white; length about 13 inches, extent 
about 24. In diving for its prey, both wings and feet are used. 


{Fratercida corniculata). 
The polar sea and North Pacific,— extending on the American 
side down to the coast of British Columbia,— constitute the range 


r* r 


5 I 

hi i- 


I I 1 I I'll II IllN. 

Br *. «*. Mi_' 



of this stronj^ly marked bird. Its breeding grounds are the Aleutian 
Islands, the coast of Alaska, and the Islands of the Behring Sea, 
and there they are remarkably plentiful. The nest is usually a 
loose mass of grass and moss in a deep crevice or easily protected 
hole, often on a ledge of a high cliff. The single egg is clear white. 
The bill of the Horned Puffin is especially large and high, 
about 2 inches long, and the same in depth, by one half inch wide. 
This mask-like weapon is vermilion, the eyelids are red, and the 
feet are orange. On each upper eyelid is a long slender acute up- 
right horn. The upper parts and throat are black, and the under 
parts white. Length about 14 inches, extent about 24. 


(Luuda cirrata). 

The range of the Tufted Puffin is similar to that of the last 
described, but extends further to the south, as it breeds on the 
Farralones, off San Francisco, Cal., (Coues). It nests among the 
rocks, in holes in the soil, and on the edges of cliffs and bluffs. 
The middle of June is about the time for their eggs to be laid, and 
the birds attend closely, to defeat the attacks of foxes. 

The upper parts are glossy black; the lower surface a brown- 
ish black; the bill, eyelids, and feet are vcnnilion, the rosette at 
the corner of the mouth is yellow, as are tw^o tufts of silky plumage 
streaming back from behind the eyes. The face, and a line along 
the edge of the wing aiv white. Length about 15 inches, extent 27. 


As the Puffins with their huge beaks are often called Sea 
Parrots, so the Guillemots are commonly known as Sea Pigeons. 
They live on the open Atlantic as far south as Xew Jersey in 
winter, but during the breeding season they assemble in flocks 
on rocky islands and headlands from Bay of Fundy northward to 
the Arctic. They are expert and graceful except on land, and they 



\ ■■ 

jm' i Wfcw i 


r.„r«np fhoir f ishv prev Avith the aid of both wings and feet. They 
SVo^/oS^-Lges, standi.,. '" elo^e -. «i.h t- bacUs 
+^ +>np ^Pfl ind their eggs bet^'een their feet. The head oi ine 
Sea Pigeo; "slencL and graceful and tapers forward to the acute 


{CepphuH fjrjjUe). 

The Bhu'k CUiilloniot has in a few instances been token on 

Lake Ontario, but these were doul,tless accidental wanderers. It 

s plentiful a])out Hudson Strait, and its range is given above^ It 

s Z^Lims flving in flocks and nesting in numbers in deep 

•cwcS f ;ek;, ol ledges of cliffs, and bluff headland. In 

lunmer the Guillemot is greenish-black above -^ s-^; b -k b - 

lou- with a white patch on each wmg. In fall and wmtei it is 

^^k^nd ;hite spolted, with white head and neck, black wuHPs wirti 

a white patch, and black bill. The fec^t are carmine or coral led. 

Leng-th about 13 and extent about 22 inches. 


(Uria troile). 
Both coasts of the North Atlantic,-as far south in Canada as 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence -are the breeding grounds of the Murre, 
but in winter it extends its range to the latitude of Massachusetts. 
Enormous numbers of these birds breed in suitable places where 
fh^ are undisturbed, but such places are becoming few, since 
their large eggs have a commercial value. These eggs are notable 
for the remra'kable variability of their coring and markings 
from creamy to a distinct greenish or bluish, spotted, blotched or 
streaked with shades of brown. 

The plumage in summer is brownish black or slaty brouii on 
the head and back; with white tips on the secondaries; white under 
parts and wing linings, and dusky on the sides. In winter the 


[ I 

' i 


i 1. 


(: H 





' wt 

; 9y 





white encroaches on the bhick of the head and nock to the line of 
the comniissnre of the bill. Length 17 inches, extent 150. 


{Uria I am via). 
The rang-e of this plentiful Itird is the same as that .»f the 
common Guillemot, an<l in plumage the difference is but slight. 
The top and back of the head and neck are l)lack instead of brown, 
tiie throat is brown instead of white, and the edge of the bill is 
thickened at the base, whidi is not the case with the 'roil,. Length 
usuallv IG inches, extent about li9. 

In migrating southward fnmi Hudson Bay in autunni these 
birds fre(iuently reach the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Kivers and 
Lake Ontario. Here they perish from starvation, their stomachs 
being found empty. They are apparently unable to adai)t their 
fishing methods to fresh water. Several have been captured in a 
famishing condition <»r found dead, near Lake Ontario. 


The Auks are closely related to the Puffins and Guillemots, 
differing from the former in having decidu- us parts on their bills, 
and from the CJuillemots in having hooked instead of sharp, 
straight-pointed bills. They are like the other marine birds, and 
whin not seeking their food in the sea they stand erect on the 
rocky ledges of their remote nesting places. 


{Alca tarda). 

The American range of this bird is, in winter, as far south as 
New Jersey, but it breeds only from Grand ^lanan northward. 
It is found plentifully in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and northwai .' 
into the Arctic Ocean. Its usually single egg is laid in crevices 
and caverns opening over the ocean. Its back and wings are green- 







ish black ; its head and neck dull black. There is a white line from 
the eye to the bill, another around the black bill, and one across 
each wing. The lower parts are altogether white. Length about 
18 inches, extent about 27. 


{Planhis impcnnis). 
This largo and very interesting bird,— the Gare-fowl,— was 
last seen alive between 1840 and 1845 in Iceland, but had l)een 
plentitul before that about the Newfoundland coast. In colora- 
tion It resembled the K\azor-bill. Its wings were less than six inches 
long, although its body measured about 30 inches. Being unable 
to fly, and unafraid of man, it was destroved bv him for the sake 
of its flesh, oil, and feathers. 


{Allc allc). 
This bird is occasionally carried bv windstorms far inland 
but Its home is the North Atlantic from L<,ng Island to Iceland! 
It nests on the latter island and is one of the most northern of 
birds. Its single egg is pale greenish blue. Its coloration is simi- 
lar to that of the Razor-bill, but there is no definite line or patch of 
white about the eye, while the wings have white patches or spots. 
The bill IS short and obtuse and as wide as high. Length about 
81/2 inches, extent about 15. 


These birds are characterized by having great powers of 
flight, as well as of swimming on the surface of the water. 

Their structural peculiarities are open lateral nostrils and a 
small free hind toe. The family includes the Skuas, Gulls, Terns 
and Skimmers. ' 


I : 


■ I 





Tliose Skuas aro at Ikhiu- on our Arctic shores and lakes but 
mijjrato southwards ahuij; tlir (Mtasts, and occasionally )>y way of 
the (Sreat Lakes where a few have been captured. Their scientific 
nanio Mcoah'sttis implies urcaf Ihirrrs, and this is w»'Ii e.-irned hy 
their habit of persistently ])]und('rini;' weaker or loss determined 
<;ulis and terns. Tiieir bills are about two inches in length ami bear 
a cere or waxy outj^rowth on tlie base. 


{Mcyuhstris SUuuh). 

These birds have excellent winjj; i)owers and use their strenj^tli 
and spirit to bully weaker f,nills into disj;orj^ing recently captured 
food. UiK)n this the Skuas ]»rincii)ally live. They are occasion- 
ally found in tlie Gulf of St. Lawrence and about Nova Scotia, but 
are at home further north, usually within the Arctic Circle. They 
have been taken in Hudson Strait, but are more common about 
Iceland, the Faero Islands, and Norway. Their nests are on cliffs, 
and they lay two or three olive-^reen, or brownish spotted ejjgs. 
The plumage of the ui)i)er j)arts is altogether a blackish brown, 
while the under parts are lighter. On the neck are streaks of 
whitish feathers. Length about 21, extent (»ver 50 inches. 


{Stcrcovarlm poninriniis). 
This is a smaller, more slender bird tlian the connnon Skua, 
l)Ut has the same range and hal)its. It is nearly black on the u})pcr 
jrarts and lower belly, with white throat, neck, and breast. ^Ihe 
sides of the neck show a little yellowish. Its length is a))out 20 in- 
ches, the middle tail feathers project about 4 inches, nd are broad 
throughout and twisted near the tii 

4. - 


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•■ III 


1 i 

i''il i 1 







(Stcrcorarius parasiticus). 
Sailors have given this bird many names-such as Boatswain 

michal feathe.b. The sdc» on ^ ^.^^^^^^^^.^ .^_ 

Length about 18 inches. 


(Stcrcomritis loiKjicaiidus). 

This is the Arctic Ja,.«er, having its .estifg Sfr^^'uZ 

,,istin,.tlv in the fa.- north, nsnally within the Aret.e UvAo I •« 

, • I .,1-,. V,-i,. tlic (inlf of St. LawTcnec, and m M.iiii- 

tab': 'Xs^ Wvnis 'itl!'" r. the color reaching behnv 

tevci 'S,; k all around an.l the sides of the head are hght 

n-., V ;ellow. r l-l.-.' surface deei, slate. Under stde wh.te cU, K- 

ening io'. lack to'ward the tail. .Middle tail feathers i,ro,,eet 9 m- 

ches. Length 2?> inches. 


These are swimming birds, without a cere on the 
,.a Jam^ their middle tail feathers .lo not l-^J^^^^);^^ ^^ 
others. The closed wings project luyund the tail. TIkn alc^tlon« 



fliers, but are seldom dashing in manner, and are found on all 
coast's and many large inland waters, rather than on the open sea. 
Gulls are voracious birds feeding on fish, smaller birds, or almost 
any kind of animal or vegetable matter. 


L Adult plumage entirely white. Feet black Pagophila I. 

2. Adult plumare not entirely white. 

2a. Hind to lorly develoi)od and with a very small elaw or 

none ' ^'•s''« ^^• 

2b. Hind toe well developed and with i)erfectly developed claw. 

Lams III. 


I. Pnf/opJiila — only one species. 

P(i(joi>liila alba. Ice Gull, or Ivory Gull, page 24 

II. h'issd— 

1. Hind toe very small and clawless. 

liissa ti-idiivtjjla, Atlantic Kittiwake, page 25 

2. Hind toe small, but \\\^\\ small claw. 

liissatnihictjihi ixillictiris. Pacific Kittiwake, page 25 

III. Lat'Hs — 

A. Wing under 15 inches in length. 

a. Head white or pale ju'arly gray. 

Lonis (Iclcinin iisi.s, Ring-])illed Gull, page 27 

b. Head and throat slaty black :— 
bl. Outer i)rimary entirely black. 

Lams (ifririlld, Laughing Gull, page 28 
b2. Outer primary partly white: — 

c. Tip of first primary white. 

Lants fmnklini, Franklin's Gull, i)age 28 

d. Ti]) of first i»rimary black. 

Larus phihidciphin, Ponaparte's Gull, page 29 


|f ii 




I p 



B. Win;? over 15 inches in lon^^th. 

a. Back dark slate color. 

harm man mis, Black-l)acked Gull, page 26 

b. Back **gull blue" or pearly gray: — 
bl. Bill under 2 inches in length: — 

c. Outer primary with black on both webs. 

Lams bi-acli/jrliijiiclins. Short-billed Ciull. page 28 

el. Outer primary pearl gray, lighter at tips. 

Lai'us IfKcopteruH, Iceland Gull, jiage 25 

c2. Outer primary pearl gray with definite white tip. 

Larus glancescens, Glaucous-winged Gull, page 26 

b2. Bill over 2 inches in length : — 

d. Outer primary pearl gray. 

Lams fjJaucus, Burgomaster, page 25 
ami Lams harrocianus (slightly smaller) 

Western Glaucus, page 26 
dl. Outer primary with some black. 

Lams argentatHs smilhsouiauus, Atlantic Herring Gull, 

page 27 
d2. Similar, but dark pearl gray. 

Lams occidcntaJis, Pacific Herring Gull, page 26 


{Phayophila alba). 

This beautiful bird has been taken in Lake Ontario, but its 
home is Hudson Bay and the Arctic regions. Its length is about 
18 inches, and extent about 41. In coloration it is entirely pure 
white, but there may be dusky spots remaining on the wings and 
tail. The feet are black and the bill yellowish. 





(Ri.ssn tridacfifla). 

The Kittiwakc lnvcds nlon*;- the Labrador coast and about 
islands of the (hdf of St. Lawrence, in late antunv.i it is eonunon 
on the St. Lawi-ence l\*iver and Fiake Ontario, [ts mantle is black 
and win.ys are l)hiish t>Tay, and there is a black line alonji; the edsi:e 
of each winu-, otherwise its jdiunaiic is wliite. hi tlie kittiwakes 
the hind toe is very iniiierfect. The Pacific Kittiwake has this toe 
better developed than the Atlantic form, l)ut otherwise they are 


(Larus (jlaucus). 

T, ii'jioniaster is said to be the common larj^e gull of the 

north, : - ling in Hudson Bay and along the Labrador coast. It 
is frequently seen in Lake Ontario in winter. Wherever found it 
is a gross aiul voracious feeder. The J^acific form, by some called 
Larus barroL'iann.s, is found along the northern Pacific coasts, and 
is practically identical with the above. The mantle is ])earl gray, 
and the r(>mainder of the jjlumage white. The bill is yellow and 
the feet pinkish. Length a)>out 29 inches, extent nearly GO. 


(Lftnis IcHcopicriis). 

The Iceland (iull b(>longs chiefly to Europe, but h.'s been 
found nesting on our Arctic coast, and specimens have been taken 
in Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, St. Lawrence Kiver and Gulf, and as 
wanderers in Lake Ontario. 

Its appearance is exactly that of the Burgomaster, except that 
it is less in size, reaching only 24 inches in length. 



f^ i 




(Larus glance see ns). 
The coasts of the north Pacific are the haunts of this gull. It 
breeds on Canadian shores, fmio the south end of Vancouver Is- 
land to Behrins Straits. In cj.pearance it is like our common 
Herring Gull, but the wings lack the black markings found on all 
the other large gulls. Its mantle and wings are entirely bluish gray 
with white spots at the tips of the primaries. Length about 27 



{Larus marir.Ks). 
This is the largest and most powerful of our gulls, but is not 
confined to the American side of the Atlantic. It nests on the 
Labrador coast, in Nova Scotia, and probably in New Br nswick, 
and on islands in fresh water lakes, as well as on the ocean. The 
nest is made of moss and grass on the ground, and the two or three 
eggs are olive gray or drab, blotched with dusky. The bird gives 
the impression of strength. The bill is very stout, and bright 
chrome yellow in color in the nesting season. The temiinal half 
of the lower mandible is vermilion, as are the eyelids. The iris 
is pale leuK.ii vcUcw. The mantle is deep slate, nearly black, with 
white wing bars. The white of the head and neck is in winter 
streaked with dusky. Length '.10 inches, and extent 65. 


{Larus ocridcutalis). 

The AVestern Herring Gull is very common and breeds along 
the British Colum))ia coasts. In winter it is common in the Gulf 
of G( oruia. Its feet and 1)111 are unusually large and stout, and 
its mantle dark bluish ash, ])ut not quite slate colored. Length 
about 24, and extent about 55 inches. 



'. II 

If ■!: 


■ 1^ 



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(Lams argcntatus smith Honianus). 

The common Herrinj? Gull is the most familiar and widely 
spread of our gulls. It breeds freely on the Atlantic coast, the 
Great Lakes, and many small lakes of Ontario, in Manitoba, and 
throughout the North-West an(^ Yukon to the Arctic Ocean. As 
a scavenger it is connnon and fearless about the harbors and 
wharves of our cities, following vessels on the lakes and along the 
coasts. It builds its usually crude nests either on the ground, or, 
where persecuted, as at Grand Manan — in trees many feet from 
the ground. The eggs are normally three, from bluish white to 
yellowish or olive brown, with irregular dark markings. The 
mantle is ])early gray or "gull blue." In breeding jdumage the 
bill is bright chrome, with a vermilion spot at the angle. The 
legs and feet are pale ilesh color. The primaries bear black spots 
and shafts. Length 25 inches, extent 56. 


{Lnvus (■((Jifoniirn.s). 

This gull breeds alnuidantly in the interior of the Pacific 
States, also along the British Colunibia coast, and is said to be 
plentiful in AUn^rta and Saskatchewan. Its mantle is ])earl blue; 
the ])ill as in the Ileri'ing Gull, l)ut with an imperfect black band; 
the feet bluish green with yellow webs. The first primary has a 
white end for two inclies from the tij). Length '22 inches, extent 
about 53 inches. 


(Larus dclnirnroisis). 

We have the Ring-billed Gull recorded as common in New- 
foundland and the Great Lakes, breeding in Georgian Bay and 


^ <ti 







I'i if 


'll 1 








Lake Muskoka, and in the prairie lakes from Manitoba to the 
Roekv Mountains. It is also found in British Columbia. The 
nests'aro of grass, on the ground, and the eggs laid are usualy 
three, bluish white, often so splotched with brosvTi as to appear to 
be entirely of that color. The bill is greenish yellow, and encircled 
near the t'ip with a broad black band. The plun^.ge is the same a 
Ihat of the Herring Gull. Length not over 20 inches and extent 
about 48 inches. 

{Lams hracliyrliyiichits). 
One specimen was shot near Qnebec, but the range of this 
gull is Alaska and British Columbia and the coast south to Cali- 
fornia It breeds also on the Arctic coast. Its bill is bluish green 
short and stout, not longer than V/-, inches, and the tip is bright 
vellow. Legs and feet dusky bluish green, the webs yellowish 
These colors are bright during the nesting season. ]Mant e light 
git^fsh blue, darker than that of the Herring Gull. Length about 
17 inches, extent about 42 inches. 


This species has been taken near Toronto, but its home is 
south of the boundary and down within the tropics. It gets its 
name from its -long-drawn clear note on a high key. It is one 
of the Rosy Gulls, haying in summer the white under parts tinged 
with rose red. The bill and edges of the eyelids are carmme. The 
mantle is lead gray. Len.gth about 16 inches, extent 41. 


(Lams Franklini). 
This is a western form, accidental in Lake Ontario, but com- 
mon across the prairie provinces and breeding there. They follow 




< I 


!i ail 















the plouf^hmaii, along with bhickbirtls, feeding,' on the worms and 
grubs which are turned up. They have also been found with the 
stomach full of grasshoi)pcrs. They nest on the ground or in sloughs 
among grass and rushes where the nests may be afloat, and are 
usually in colonies. Its bill is red, mantle slaty gray, hood ahnost 
black, neck and tail white. The under parts are white washed 
with rosy red, which also tints the under side of the wings. Length 
about 14, extent about 35 inches. 

(Larus pit iladclphia). 

This little gull breeds all across Canada from ocean to ocean, 
on almost every lake of considerable si "\ Its nest is often in trees 
or bushes or on a stump, but if these ire lacking it incubates on 
the ground. Its eggs are three or four, greenish gray with small 
brownish spots. Its head and throat are dark slate color and its 
bill is black. The back and wings are pearly gray, except the tips 
of the latter, which are black. Otherwise it is white. Length 13, 
extent 32 inches. 


In most of their characteristics Terns closely resemble gulls, 
but they are all comparatively slender, with close-fitting i)lumage, 
tail generally forked, long sharp pointed bill, and elongated nar- 
row wings. Their slight buoyant bodies, combined with great 
powers of flight, enable them to rival our swallows in aerial evolu- 
tions, and the name Sea Swallows admirably designates the group, 
especially as some of the smaller forms are insectivorous. Their 
food is usuall}^ however, small fish captured by an impetuous dash 
from above, tlie bird going quite under for a moment. They haunt 
the shores of large bodies of both fresh and salt water, and nest 
in colonies on sandy or gravelly shores, where they lay two giay- 
ish eggs, variously marked with chocolate. Terns have shrill vcdces, 



) . 


'i » I 




and as they are usually in flocks, attract attention. 'Iiey ii e read- 
ily distinguished from gulls by their habit of carrying tlu ir I'ills 
]H)inting downward, while gulls carry theirs in line with the direc- 
tl(»n of flight. Terns are beautiful, harmless biri'.s, wliiith should 
be protected from the wing and plume hunters. 


This is the largest of this grouj), r<'aching 22 inches in h ngth, 
with a wing spread of over 50 inches. It is found about the New- 
foundland coasts. Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay, and Great Slave 
Lake. It is not uncommon about the tJreat Lakes during fall at d 
spring, and breeds in Lake Michigan. The crown, sides, and back 
of the head are black. This liood is very common among the terns. 
The mantle is pearl grey, the hill vermilion, and nearly three 
inches long, and the feet are black. In winter the hood is sti caked 
with white. 


{Sterna fursteri). 

This Tern breeds in the St. Clair Flats in Ontario, in the 
marshes of Manitoba lakes and southward to Texas, fts colors 
are very like those of the Casi)ian Tern, but its lentrfh is only 15 
inches and its extent :>0. It nests in marshes on grass >>v seaweeds, 
and lays two or three eggs, brownish or greenish, spotted and 
blotched with brown and blackish. 


(Sterna hiriindo). 

This is the common tern, breeding from Labrador to Bay of 
Fundy, River St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, Manitoba, and Brit- 
ish Columbia. Its range extends also over the L^nited Stat* s as 







i . 
1 '- 




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well as Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. It wears the 
black hood and pearl gray mantle, but its breast and belly are pale 
pearl gray, the bill red at the base and black at the tip, the feet 
orange red. Length 14i/o, extent 31 inches. The eggs are laid in 
a hollow in the sand and are greenish gray to brown, blotched with 
darker brown and lilac. 


( Sterna pa radisaea) . 

The Arctic Tern breeds on the shores of Hudson Bay, and 
from Massachusetts around the Arctic coast and the Aleutian 
Islands, It is known over North America at large, also in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. The hood is shining black, the mantle pearl 
gray, and the lower parts l)ut slightly paler. The feet are small 
and weak, and vermilion in color, the l)ill is entirely red. It 
greatly resembles the common tern. Length about 15 inches, ex- 
tent 31. 


(Sterna antillaru /). 
This is a southern bird occasionally found in Lake Erie and 
the west end of Lake Ontario, and about Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland. It is found all ao-oss from the New England States 
to Minnesota and southward. Its mantle is dark, the same color 
covers also the tail. A white crescent separates the hood from the 
bill. A black line through the eye extends to the feathers on the 
bill. Length about 9 inches, extent 20. 

{Hydrochclidon nigra). 
This graceful swallow-like bird breeds from our southern 
boundary north to Alaska, in the Cataraqui Marsh at Kingston, in 
the St. Clair Flats, and especially in the marshes of Manitoba and 


\v i 


1 1 




I :ir 

4 f 


Saskatchewan. Nearly all parts of North America where marshes 
extend are visited by these birds. They build often in colonies, 
making careless nests of a few rushes and dead stalks, insufficient 
to keep the eggs out of the water. They lay from two to four 
brownish olive eggs, heavily marked with spots and splashes of 
brown. Length about 9 inches, extent 25 inches. 



The Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters make up this group, 
the character common to all being tubular nostrils, which are 
latt rii.l and separated in the All)atrosses, ])ut united in the Petrels. 

Albatrosses are among the )>iost remarkable of birds in pow- 
ers of flight, owing to the great vlevelopment of the wing and the 
very numerous flight feathers. They lay one egg in a nest on the 

open ground. 


{Diomedca alhatrus). 
This species is found on the coasts of British Columbia, espe- 
cially the west side of Vancouver Island. From there northward 
to the Arctic Sea it is numerous. Other species are accidental on 
our ocean bordei-s. They are oceanic wanderers, seldom landing 
except to breed, but resting safely on the water and swimming 
strongly. The Short-tailed Albatross is supposed to nest on lonely 
islands west of the Sandwich group. Its color is white with some 
yellow on head and neck, and black on wings and tail. The bill is 
about () inches long, concave above and prominently hooked. The 
bird is about 36 inches long and has a wing extent of about 7 feet. 


The nostrils of the Petrels fonn two closely united tubes. The 
Fulmars are peculiar in having only the upper mandible hooked. 
The hind toe is present, but often very small. 


N ■>■ 


^' ;i 

tcbp:-xosed swr^rMERs 


This bird is said to l)reed in northern Greenland, ceitainly at 
St. Kilda. It is very i)h'ntiful along the Labrador eoast and New- 
foundland, and occasionally is seen further south. It lays a single 
\yhite egg on ledges and crags overhanging the sea. ft feeds on 
fish and is greedy for oily foods, following the whalers foi- blub- 
ber. Its back and wings are pale pearly blue. Other parts white, 
except usually a dark spot in front of "the eye. Length about 19 
inelies, wing 13 inelies. 

The Pacific variety of same is common on the coast and is- 
lands of the northern Pacific. It is like the Common Eulmer, but 
rather smaller and darker. 



These differ from the last in having both mandibles hooked, 
and the partition between the short nostril tubes is very thick. 
Their long thin w", us fold beyond the tail, and the feet are large 
md strong. A si^i'r white egg is laid in a rocky crevice or in a 
burrow dug by the ! ixd near the beach. 


(PuffitiK.s gravis). 

This bird is common on the coasts of Labrador and Newfonnd- 
huid, and is often seen near Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It 
hunts over the whole Atlantic, gliding over the surface of the 
water without iierceptible effort or wing motion. Its nest and 
eggs are not certiiinly known. The upper parts are blackish, with 
a grayish brown on head and rump. Under parts are white and 
changing to ashy gray on lower belly and under tm\ coverts. 
Length about 20 inches and extent about 40 inches. 




i! ■ 





(Pnffimis pnffinus). 
Although really a European bird, we find this species auite 
common on the coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, isp^e^s of 
flight making all parts of the north Atlantic its home. Th upper 
parts are lustrous black, sometimes with a brownish shade and 
ashy across the nape. Under parts white. Length about 14 hi 
ches, extent about 31 inches. ^ ^ '''" 


(Puffmus opisthomdas) . 
The Pacific coast, from California to Vancouver T^^lnnrl ,-. 


(Puff inns fitlii/inosus). 
The Sooty Shearwater is eoramon an the Banks of Kewfound- 
land a,,,! the of Labrador, and is seen on the coast of Nova 
Seoha and .\e«- Brnnswick. It ranges over the Atlantic breed 
ing .n CO onies. Its plumage is uniform sooty brown ato'veld 
.nehet' '■ *'''"'"" "''""■ ^'^"«"' " '^^es, extent about 40 


.«di«£y>i «''? 

1, ' » » 

t) ^'^H^^H 


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1 ia I 





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\ '" - -/ 

BUBiin- i n'l W wBTjr,!-. 



(ProccUaria pdigiea). 
These birds — tlie different species being all known commonly 
as Mother Carey's Chickens — breed on the islands about Green- 
land and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The coast of Greenland, 
Hudson Straits, and tlu- Lal)rador islands and bays are popuhited 
tliickly with many kinds of birds during the short summer, and 
among them these Petrels are always numerous. Tlie upi)er plum- 
age is glossy brownish black, ])elow it is more smoky in tint. The 
riunp feathers arc white with black tips, the crissum has white 
streaks, the tail is square, and the leg bones are shorter than the 
wing bone. Length about 5VL» inches. 


{Oceanodroma furcata). 
The Aleutian Islands of the North Pacific and the shores of 
Behring Sea are the home of this Petrel, but it is quite plentiful 
about Vancouver Island. Its color is bluish-ash above and paler 
lielow. Its length is about 8i,{i. inches. 


( Ocean odroma Jcucorrh oa ) . 
This bird is often called the "VVhite-rumped Petrel, although 
not ])eculiar in carrying this mark. It is found on both coasts of 
America, breeding from Maine northward, especially on Bird 
Rock, and probably on the coast of Newfoundland. It is brown- 
ish black above except for the conspicuous wliite tail coverts. 
Below it is paler, but nearly altogether blackish. Length about 
8 inches. 


(Oceanites oceaniciis). 
This is one of the best known birds, ranging over all seas. It 
is known to breed in Antarctic regions. On our shores it is com- 





! I 



mon on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Its coloration is similar to most 
of the others— l)]ackish brown above, with a little gray on the 
winjrs and with white tail coverts. Somewhat paler below, and 
the crissum and the base of the tail may be white. The legs and 
feet are very long, the latter black with a yellow si)ot on the webs. 
Length about 7 inches, extent about 16. 


Hind toe well developed and low. All four toes united by 
complete w«bs reaching from tip to tip. Nostrils minute or abor- 
tive. A gular pouch from lower mandible and throat. Bill 
neither membranous nor lamellate, the edges sometimes serrate. 
Altrieial, eggs few. Carnivorous. The order includes Cmnnets, 
Cormorants, Pelicans, and others not in our range. 


These are large, heavy, oceanic birds, that fly vigorously with 
outstretchd necks, resembling geese in gen^raf attitude. Their 
bodies are pneumatic, and they are strong swimmers. They feed 
upon fish, which are caught by phinging from the air, often from 
great heights. One species is northern, the others ai-e at home 
near the equator. A common name for them is Booby. They nest 
in colonies, the common white Gannet or Solan Goose breeding in 
great numbers on the rocky coasts of southern Labrador and N^iva 
Scotia, as well as on Gannet Hock and Bird Rock in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, and Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth. 


(Sula bassano). 
As noted above this is an inhabitant of North Atlantic coasts, 
being common in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and accidental in the 



Great Lakes. In \Yinter it j?oos as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. 
Its phimage is white except for some yellowish feathers nu the 
he? ' and neck. Its s;ular pouch is small, hare, and l)lackisli. The 
lenf^th of the Gannet is about 3 feet and extent of winjis al)ont <> 
feet. On rocky cliffs it nests in swarms of thousands, laying a 
single egg, bluish with chalky deposit. 



These are large oceanic birds with solid bodies, short wings 
and largo stiff tails. Tlic legs are set far back, so the l)ir(l st;uids 
nearly erect, using its tail as the third point of support. In the 
water they move with grace and ease, diving from the surface and 
catching iSsh by speed of swinuning under the water, the wings 
acting as paddles. The neck is long, the gular pouch small, the 
bill strongly hooked and the gape opens far behind the eye. 


(Phalarrocorax carlo). 

This, the common Cormorant, nests on ledges of rocky cliffs 
along the coast of Iial)rador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. It 
is often found in the St. Lawrence River, Ottawa River, and Lake 
Ontario, and in winter south to Virginia. Its general plumage is 
bluish bliick, with brownish on the shoulders and a white patch on 
the throat nnd on the tlank. In the breeding season a crest of 
long, white, filamentous feathers is scattered on the hind head and 
neck. The gular sac is small and yellow, and bordered behind with 
white feathers. The tail consists of fourteen feathers. Its eggs 
are three or four, bluish green with a coating of white chalky 
material. Length of body about three feet, extent about 5 feet. 



1 ^i 

■■ t 

P 1 * 


;i ■ 






i » 


(Phalacrocorax dilophus.) 

This Cormorant breeds plentifull.y on the Newfoundland 
Coasts, also in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is com- 
mon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is frequently seen in Lake 
Ontario, where it may breed, but such nesting place is not known. 
In plumage it resembles the Single-crested Cormorant, but has 
two curly black tufts of feathers on the sides of the head during 
the breeding season, and its tail consists of but twelve feathers. 
Length about 32 inches, extent about 50. 

The "White-crested Cormorant is a variety of the Double- 
crested, found on the Pacific cctnst from California to Alaska, be- 
ing common about Vancouver Island. It has a white crest of 
curly feathers over each oye, and it reaches 36 inches in lenjith. 


{Phalocrocorux /iclnfjicus) . 

This is also a Pacifif bird, inliabiting the north Pacific from 
Japan to the Aleutian Islands and south to Washington. It re- 
sides winter and summer in tlic Aleutian Archipelatjo, breeding 
freely, and becoming extremely i)kntiful. The back is lustrous 
grecai; wing coverts and sides purjtlish: neck violet iridescent; 
a crest on the top and anotlier on tli-' back of the lu id. Length 
about 27 inches, extent about 40. 


(Pch ' (niidac). 

These are large aquatic birds reaching six feet or more in 
length, and having a wing expanse up to nine feet. The l)<)dy is 
remarkable for the numerous air cavities which greatly increase 
its buoyancy. The most nulewurlliy feature of this group is the 
large pouch hung to the throat and lower mandible. 





*D. St 'tSffA. 

Ddinii: ( KI-SII l> ( ciK'MilK \N 1. 

1 l'li.ii.iiTi'r.-r;t\ itilMi.liii- '. 


, R< *. M, UUH«OR0, 

I M, 





(IVlfcanu!* »TvthTorhvnclKi>). 

('.•'YKtOMt f.1'. If A. W, kUMFOHD. ■ Ml( • 



The bill itself is several times as lonj? as the liead, broad, 
straight, and strong, and ends in a sharp hoop. When the giihir 
pouch is distended it will liold several (juarts. Most of the species 
are maritime, but some are found also in fresh water. They arc 
gregarious and nest in colonies. On land they niovo awkwardly, 
but tly stron^jly thounh leisurely, and swim and dive with pjrace 
and ease. Some kinds scoop up small fish while swiuuuinji:, others 
plunge from tli«' air and dive under the water for their prey. 
When huugry th* contract the pouc. , oj.-.ptying it of water, and 
then swallow their catch. The yoUi ., .m' icl on partially di- 
i^ested fish, reirurgitated by the })arents. TUc i:( .,t is placed on the 
ground or among rocks near water an.^ i < 'fV-'s are two or three 
in number, rough and dvdl whitish. 

A.M Eh* I ( UN WHITE PELl ( 'AN 

(Pchrcuius crlhrorliynchos). 

These great birds are accidental east of Manitoba, where they 
bi'eed on the large I, ikes. They are also found in the western 
States and in Saskatchewan, All)erta, and the North-west Ter- 
ritory near Fort Smith, but tliey are not common in British Co- 
lumbia. Their plumage is white, with the llight feathers of tiie 
wings black. In the breeding season, the male has a yellow crest 
of few feathers, and a lioriiy i)roniiuence on the yellowish bill. 
Length about 5 feet, extent about ^\-_^ feet. 


{Pelccanus f srus). 

This species of ])eliean is seldom seen in (Canada. It is a 
much smaller bird, with dusky plumage, except that the top and 
sides of the head, and sides of the throat are white, with a yellow 
shade on the crest. Its home is the eastern coast of the United 
States from the Caribbean Sea to Cape Ilatteras. Occasionally 





i f 


if ii 



jf . 









II r 

K ' 


a wanderer mav reach Nova Scotia. Tliev nest in colonies, iisu- 
ally on the j^round, hut occasionally in low trees, and lay two or 
three chalky white og^s. 

A reniarkahle study of these bird., has been made with a 
movinj; picture camera by Frank M. Chapman, the famous Amer- 
ican ornithologist. 



The members of this order are all embraced in family Anatidae 
including our Ducks, Ceose, and Swans. Tlicy are characterized 
by having broad bodies flattened on the lower side, no gular pouch, 
but a series of lamellae or tooth-like plates along the cutting edge 
of their bills. 


1. Hind toe not lobed, bill flattened, duck-shaped 

Anatinac, River Ducks. 

2. Hind toe lobed, bill flattened Ftdifiulituw, Sea Ducks. 

3. Hind t(»o lobed, bill round, narrov;. not flattened. 

Mdijinin , Mergansers. 


1. Bill narrow but flattened: head with long, low crest . . 

Ai.r, page 47 

L\ l>iil widened to sp(»on-shai)ed: head not crested. 

SfKituln, page 46 

3. Bill rot sp(»on-sliaped; head not crested — 

a. Tail with long black ccntnil i'eatluM's. .M'.///<» (inale), i>age 47 

b. Tail iVathers a<-ute, not long; <-rown not whitish. 

DitfUd (female), page 47 
e. Tail fcathciN not acute: ci-own whitish Manm, jtage 45 



d. ^veculum oi \\ing white; fvet uvimiro.Clmul(la.snit(H, pnj^o 44 

e. Specuhini ol' \\h\<r violet; feet oranj-c \}ias, \m^v 44 

f. Specuhun jjrccii. Very smnll ducks:— 

fl. Head dark j-i-ay; \\'m<r coverts .sky-l)li;(>. 

Qn( nincihilii, \n\>i,v 46 
1'2. Head ehestinit (»r brown; wiii^ coverts j;reen. 

Xcffinii, ]tau;e 45 

KEY TO SI»ECIKS OF Fnlifjuliimr, SEA I)r(^KS 

J. Bill ordinary, diirk-shaped: — 
a. Nail of bill lar;?e and white; tail lonj? as winy. 

Ilnvi'hht (i>;ale), payc T)2 
1>. Bill as above; tail not long; sides (►f head whitish. 

lluvelda (female), paj-c 52 
e. Xail of bill narrow; head black with white in fntnt of eve. 

CInngula, pajje 50 
cl. Head black, with white behind the eye. 

(■Iiaritmettii, pai>-e 52 
c2. Head black, brown or chestnut, without white. 

Aijthifd, pauje 48 

2. Bill with broad decurved nail: tail f<'athers narrow, stiff, and 
ex2)Osed Kristnatuin, \n\\rv .'(J 

3. Bill with lolx' at inner angle; wiiite spots in front <tf eve ai.d 
behind the ear ///.s/, iohints, patjo 53 

4. Bill swollen at base: — 

a. With processes of bill extendini,' ujnvard toward the eves. 

SoiiKifcn'a. pa^c 5;; 

b. Without j.rocesses extendinu' hnckwim]. .Oidrniia, ])a«e 55 


The Ducks dilfer from o^cr Anotidac in having the sexes 
unlike, and the tarsus scutellate in front and shoi-ter than the 
middle toe without the elaw. They are separated into sub- 


\ l! 

I ' 





families as follows: Mcrgiuac or .Mergansers, Anatiiiac or River 
Ducks, and Fulufuliune or Sea Ducks. 



The Merita users, also called Shelldrakcs aud Saw'bills, are 
fish-eaters. The lower mandible has a series ot distinct toothlike 
serrations alonj; the up}>er odtie; tlie bill is narrow, the head more 
or less crested and the hind toe lobate. They pursue aud capture 
their i)i-«'y under water. The Hesl) of all but the Hooded Mer- 
ganser is rank aud tishy. 

DRAKE [Ml ff/iuis< r ((ni('ric(i)ius). 

This lariic Duck breeds in Lalu-adoi" and Newfouudlaiui. 
jirobably in all the maritime i»ni\inces. eertaiuly in Ontario. Mani- 
toba, and lud'tli-weslii'ly. lioth uiiiii(lil)Ies li;i\'e eunspicuou- tooth- 
like >err;iti.iis. aud 'Aw bill is stiouiily decurved at the tip. It 
nests in a hoie i i a b.-mk ui* t cr i>i- auioun- rocks ciV boulders. Eggs 
six to ten. (Ti-aniy t< ' ..IT. Tl'.e ibunage (tf the head. u)>])er neck, 
and baek. is meenish )tla<'k. 'J he l>reast i- reddish: the lower 
neck and i»el|y are uhit<'. as ai'e tiie .-..■eondai'ies and most of the 
wing coverts. 'Die rnmj) and tail are gray. The female is white 
on the chill auil upper thi'oat. hrown on the top of the heafi ami 
lower throat. Itistead of the black liack and tail, tliese are ashy 
gray. Length aln-nt 2') inches, extent about :'•'). 

RED-BRKASTKl) M Kl?< JANSEli-SIIKLLDR \KK r s( rrnfdv ). 

This beaniifni bit i : <'sts all across Canada as well as the 
jiorthej-n I'! ited S.ates. th. -p. n prairie. The nests are 
made ou ihc ground anioutr rocks and shrul)s and always near 
watt r, Lu.l;'.-' usually ei^ihr tit tucbr, dull buff, 'fin- inad ano m-ck 


m ^zLSS 

= ;^ 




are bl;>ckish greou with a thin crost. The neck lias a white rinj?, 
and the under parts are white except the front of tlie breast which 
is chestnnt red with })lack streaks. The head and throat are 
brownish; back and tail f?ray; nndcr parts white. Lens?th about 
24 inches, extent about 34. 




(Lo/>liod/jtcs cucunatus). 

This is ihc most j^rikinii; in appearance of all the smaller 
ducks because of the lar^e circular crest. It |»rt»hably iK'sts in 
Quebec an*l Oitarjfci. beiutj found rhere at all tiiiies in lli<' sum- 
BM»r. It ki laiowi; t(» breed in Manitoba, and norlhward and west- 
ward, beinp: conmion on the Paciric coast. Its nest is made in 
I'ok's IT! tvie- ;ind stumps, oftiu in fm-csis. Tlie head. 
Meek and iiai'k are i)lae!c: bicast aild belly white; siii<'s liownish, 
Tbf remarkable crest is bl;n'k in front, the n'maindei- is clear 
wliitp with a narrow black border. Th*' fenwle ha>^ the lie,;<l, neck, 
and np})er breast ^^rayish brown., with soin,- yellow brown. es})e<'i- 
ally on the small crest. The back is blackish. The younjj la<-k the 
crest. Leuj^th aboiu 17, extent r.ldait '2'> infiit-s. 

li I 


{Aiud iiiiit ). 

These Ducks are marked by liavin^; the tarsus scute! late in 
fr.-nt. and tlie hind toe simple, -wilhout a Haj) oi- hh,.. They 
are not confined to fresh water, but do not dive for tlicir food as 
do the Sea Ducks. They feed on aijuatic urasses. and th( ir tlesli is 






* ■ 


(A)i(is h(tsclitis). 

The -wild form of our domestic duck l)reeds in the United 
States, and occasionally in Ontario, hut chiefly on the ponds of the 
prairies. Tlie nest is huilt on the c;rouiid amoiij; weeds, and the 
eggs are yellowish drab. The range of this duck is from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, but it is rare in the maritime provinces. The 
head and upper part of the neck of the male are rich, dark, glossy 
green: a white ring around the neck; the breast bright chestnut; 
the belly gray with fine, wavy, black lines; the ))ack dark; and the 
tiiil bh'.ck. The si)eculum is violet or ].urple. JMU'dered at the bnse 
and tip with black and white. Female l)n>wnish on head, neck, 
back and belly. Speculum ])urple. This is one of our largest and 
most beautiful ducks, reaching alx.ut 23 inches in length and 35 
in wing extent. It is known to interl)ree(l with several otlier 
species, producing puzzling hybrids. 


{A}itis ohHcura). 

This duck, which is thought by some to be the melanistic form 
of the Mallard, is entirely dusky in sexes, with huff sire.'ks 
on the head and neck, and no wliite anywhere I'xcept in the liiung 
of the wings. The speculum is i»uri>!e. Size, lliat of the Mallard. Its 
rano-e is the eastern half of Xortli America, and it is not km)wn in 
Canada west of Manit<.ba. It breeds still in Ont.irio and (^lehec, 
and about Hudson l^ay, but is becoming Ux^ muueroiis with each 
successive shooting scisdU. 


( Cliaiihlasiinis slr< jx i ks). 

Tlu' (ia<lwell is rareh- seen m (^iiebc!' or Ontario, but brcds 
verv conunonly on the prairie^ of the western I'nite*! Slates and 








in soinli'Tii Manitoba, Saskatcliewan, and Alborta. It seems to 
belonj^ to open prairie districts rather than to forested n-^'ions. 
The nest is made of jjraas and lined with feathers, and is often on 
an island oi- point close to the water of a fresii prairie pond. Tlie 
e<,',i,'s s<.nietinies nnniber twelve, and are a })ale yellowish drab. T\\o 
head and neck are mottled brown and black; breast black, marked 
with wliite spots in the form of a border and inner rin;,' on each 
feather; belly grayish or white; chestnut on the wings. The female 
resembles the male as to the head and, l)nt has yellowish in 
place of most of the black and white. licngth about 21 inches, 
extent about 'M inches. 


(Mareca amcricanu). 
The Baldpate is a mig'-ant in eastern North Ameri<'a, but 
lireeds freely from Manitoba north-westwardly. Ft Hies high with 
whistling wings, and often associates with the Diving Ducks, steal- 
nig their food. The top of the liead is whitisli ; the sides .iiid b.ick 
of the crown green with })lack flecks; the back is grayish bi-u\vn; 
the breast is brownish; the belly white, crissum black. Tlie ^viiigs 
liave a white patcii, and the speculum is green with black border. 
The female has a black crown, otherwise the hc.d it white with 
black streaks; breast and sides yellowish; belly white. Fu'Dgth 19, 
extent ;]2 inches. 


(y ion caroliiu'nsi.s). 

The (ireeii-winged Teal is not conunon in Ontario or Quebec, 
but it is a resiik-nt of New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Labra- 
dor. It breeds aln-nt James Day iuul all across to tlie J*acitic and 
north to the A ret w ( )c(>a)i. The nest is often at some distance from 
the water, placed on the ground, or a knoll in a thicket, and made 
of dry grass, it breeds early, la\-ing from six to twelve creamy- 
yellow eggs. 


ill- ' ij 

;. ,?( 


■ W"'^ 

a i -■ 



Tlu" liead and neck are chestnut, the breast somewhat lijihter 
with (lark spots. A jjfroen inxich behind each eye. Back and sides 
iriayish with wavy lines; a white crescent bar in front of the bend 
(tf the winj;s. The speculum in both sexes is rich green on the 
upi)er half, puri)lish black on the lower or outer half. This is <me 
of our smallest ducks, reachincr about 14 inches in length and 23 
inches in extent: but very beaiitifnl, and exceedingly swift on the 
wing. The niondx^rs of the flock manoeuvre together with wonder- 
ful unanimity. It is an early mim-.-Mit both north and south, and 
i's flesli is of the highest (pialify. 

( Qiicrqucduln (liscors). 
'i'lie whole of North America, exce}it the soiirhern Paeific 
sinj.e. u'ay l)e considered the range of this little diicU. It is fairly 
t'linnioii in (^>iiehec and ()ntaii<» in s)»riiig and fall, and a few bre<'d 
l:ei-e. liut its h(»nie is tlie jtrairie of southern .Manitoba a.nd Sas- 
kateliewan. auil a lew are known t(» nest in British Columbia. It 
lays eight to tin buff eggs in a nest on tlie grouiul. IJoth on the 
water and in flight these teal ]>refer to keep in close flocks, a>nd 
move with wonderful swiftness and uniformity. Tin general 
plumage is bi'ownish, thickly spotted with black and yellow. The 
head aiid neck are dark gray, with a l;irge white crescent in front 
of the eye. The fiinaii lacks the crescent and is altogether streak- 
ed brownish. I'otli sexes \v.:\y be known b_v the blue wing coverts, 
and green speculum. Length about 10 inches and extent about '28. 


{SfnttKhi cli/itcat(i). 

The Shoveller breeds very plentifully in the northern jtrairie 

and in British Columbia. It is found occasionally in Ontario and 

Quel)ec in summer, and is a migrant eastward to the coast. In 

breeding jihunage the Shoveller is a bird of beautiful coloration, 





;i''^ iP 



r;, lit' 










but his appearance is marred by his unusually long legs, and long 
and wide bill. The head and neck are green ; the breast white ; tlie 
belly brownish. Like the preceding he has blue wing coverts, :nid 
green speculum. The back is yellowish and the rump is black. 
The female is brownish, streaked with darker, and easily distin- 
guished by the bill. 


(Dafila acuta). 

This beautiful, slender and graceful duck is not plentiful in 
eastern Canada, although seen hi migration, and probably breed- 
ing in Ontario, About James and Hudson bays and westward it 
breeds in great numbers, nesting in the grass on dry ground under 
bushes. It winters in the southern United States, Cuba, and 
Panama. The head and throat of the male are brownish with 
green and purple shadirigs, and a long white stripe on each side 
from the neck upward. The baek is gray with wavy lines. The 
under parts are whitish; the wings gray and brown, the speculum 
bronze green. The central tail feathers are very long and green- 
ish black. The female is brownish with dark streaks. The un- 
usually long neck and tail are characteristic. Length up to 30 


(Aix sponsa). 
Of all our wild water-fowl this is the most highly colored, and 
most beautiful. It breeds in all eastern North America except the 
extreme north and the states near the tropics. Its nests are found 
in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, and eastern Manitoba, in 
holes in trees and stubs often not very near water. The young are 
often carried in the bill of the parent to a stream of pond. The 
feet seem well adapted to perching on large branches. The cream 
colored or greenish eggs are usually twielve, but may reach fifteen 
in number. 


ii ' 




' m\ 


•-i >: 




The head is shining green and purple, with a long low crest of 
the same, but with white stripe- The lower cheeks, throat, and 
neck are white all around. The breast is a bright chestnut red, 
with white spots especially toward the lower margin. The back is 
brown and green, the sides yellowish with parallel white and black 
bars. The speculum is bright green or blue, and the bill is red. 
The female has a grayish head with small greenish crest, white 
chin and throat, and spotted chestnut breast. The lower surface 
is yellowish or white. Length about 19 inches, extent about 28. 



These have the tarsi scutellate in froui, and the hind toe lobate, 
i.e., with a flap or web. The feet are larger and the tarsi shorter 
and placed further back than in the River Ducks, giving less 
power on land, but better swimming and diving ability. They feed 
to some extent on mollusks, and the flesh in some is unfit for food. 


{Aythya americana). 
While not recorded as common in the maritime provinces 
even during migration, the Red-head is fairly plentiful in Ontario, 
breeding in the western part, and from Missouri north- \ to the 
prairie lakes of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. It is 
scarcely known on the Pacific slope or in the far north. It builds 
near the water, often of marsh vegetation, almost or quite sup- 
ported by water. Eggs— up to twelve or thirteen, yellowish drab 
in color. The forehead arches from the bill. The head and upper 
neck are rich red-chestnut; lower neck, back, and breast black; 
posterior parts gray with fine wavy black lines; belly white with 
black lines towarr' the tail. Female of same colore in duller 
shades. Length a^ut 21 inches, extent about 2.1 




(Aythya valisncria) . 

The Canvas-baek breeds plentifully in Saskatchewan and 
Alberta and north to Slave Lake. It migrates to the east coast of 
the United States and also to the (Kilf of Mexico, so as a migrant 
it is known in Ontario and Quebec. Its breeding habits are sim- 
ilar to those of the Red-head, as are also its feeding and migrating 
methods, although it seems to favor the west and north to a greater 
extent. Both of these related ducks are famous for the excellence 
of their flesh, but the flavor on which their reputation depends is 
due to the accident of their being able to feed freely on Valisneria 
spiralis — Tape or Eel grass — sometimes called Water Celery. If 
this has not been their chief food, the River Ducks excel them for 
the table. They are excellent divei-s and bring up rafts of vege- 
table matter, which they devour on the surface of the water. The 
Canvas-back is colored and marked much as is the Red-head, but 
may be distinguished as follows: — its forehead is low, following 
the line of the bill; the head and neck are not brownish or chest- 
nut red, but dark reddish brown. The posterior parts are not gray 
but white, with wavj^ vermiculations in black. Size, same as the 
Red-head, but bill longer and narrower. 


{Aythya marila). 

The whole of North America must be given as the range of this 
common duck, although it is rare near the east coast in the north- 
ern regions. Its nesting grounds are chiefly in Canada, from On- 
tario north-westerly to British Columbia and Alaska. Its nest is 
on the very edge of the water when such a site is available, but the 
drab eggs are kept dry. This and its smaller cousin — the Little 
Blue-bill — form the greater proportion of the grtat flocks of wild 
ducks which collect on our Great Lakes and near the marshy feed- 


■ i ^ 




) ' 'j 


1. ! 


M ' 


( ! 
f" ! 






ing grounds in late October and November. If it has fed largely 
on niollusks its flesh is far from dainty, but usually its diet has 
been such as to make it desirable food. * The bill is dull blue-gray 
with black, hooked nail. The head, neck, shoulders, and breast are 
black, either dull or greenish. The lower back, rump and tail 
blackish. The middle of the back and the under parts from the 
breast are white with fine wavy black lines. The female has 
brownish instead of black, with a white band above the base of the 
bill. Speculum white. Length about 19 inches, extent about ;}2. 


The description of the range, habits, and coloration of the 
preceding will serve for this bird. In size there seems to be a con- 
stant difference of about 3 inches in length and 4 inches in extent. 
This duck is more plentiful than the Blue-bill, with which it is 
usually associated in migration and nesting, although this form is 
believed to occur less frequently in the maritime provinces of 


{Aythyn collaris). 

This duck closely resembles the Scaup Duck in coloration, but 
ha- a chestnut collar about the loAver ne^k and a triangular white 
spot on the chin. The bill is dark, black at the end below a band 
of pale blue. It associates with the Blue-bills, but is nowhere 
plentiful, and little is known of its nesting. It breeds in Maine, 
Manitoba, and British Columbia, and probably in northern On- 
tario and in Quebec. Length about 17 inches, extent about 29. 



These ducks hove short bil s much shorter than the head, high 
at the base, tapering toward the tip which ends in a narrow nail. 



I iUI»img.W.| '«# MeJa. 

c -, 








it \ 




The head is puffy, with white patches. The females have less puffy 
heads and ihe white patches are nearly wanting. 


(Clcni(jula amcricana). 

This well-known duck breeds in Newfoundland, the shores of 
James Bay, and northwestward, and late in the fall — driven only 
by freezing water — it migrates southward through the United 
States. It is &*^ ^'V in Ontario and Quebec when the smaller 
lakes are freezi • .'or the winter. Its wings produce a shrill 

whistling soun« • "■ Jt nests in holes in trees, often as high 
as twenty feet, u ' noar water. Seton found it nesting in holes 

in Balsam Poplar as far north as this tree grows in the valley of 
the Athabasca River. The male is white and black, the i)uffy 
black head having a greenish lustre, and a roundish white spot be- 
tween the eye and the bill. Upper parts black, except the wing 
coverts and speculum, which, like tlie lower surface, are white. 
The head and upper parts of the female are I)rownish, lower parts 
white. Length 17 to 20 inches, extent about 32. 


{Clangula islandica). 

This species is known to nest in British Columbia, and is 
thought to breed in the far north. Its nest is in a hollow tree. It 
is less ijlentiful in the east than the preceding, but is coinmor on 
the British Columbia coast. In coloration it is similar to the Am- 
erican (rolden-eye, but the vhite spot in front of the eye is cres- 
cent-shaped, and that on the wings is divided by a black bar. I'he 
female of this species is very like that of the preceding, but the 
white collar is very narrow. 


■■U Iff: 

,1' ill 

? iU 'IS 

T i 


ii'- i 




. I 

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{Chnnoucttn albcola). 

This is a common misi'ant in Ontario and Quebec, and nests 
in British Cohmil)ia, but its breeding? phices in the east have not 
yet been sufficiently determined. A hole in a po])lar tree seems to 
be the favorite nestinj; place. It wears its black and white suit 
very jauntily, its decidedly ])uffy head failing to destroy its alert 
appearance. A plate of black feathers rises from the top of the 
bill, but the top and back of the head are white, the feathers rising 
almost to a crest. Upper neck and l)ack black. Lower neck, 
breast, and belly white. Length about 13 inches, extent about 23. 


( IJuvflda hijcni(tlis) . 

This is one of the noisiest and liveliest of all our water-f<nvl. 
It flies swiftly, dives most expertly in deep water, congregates in 
flocks which make themselves heard for long ^Mstances, and at- 
tracts the covetousness of the inexperienced ^ .nner. After many 
crafty and laborious attempts he may find himself the couiiueror 
of a 0<nvlieen, so rank and fishy as to be quite inedible except to a 
hungry Indian. **01d South-southerly" — as this is sometimes 
called from its scolding notes — is a sea duck l)reeding along the 
Labrador, Arctic, and Alaska coasts, and in the lakes of the 
tundra. It is connnon in the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, and 
remains in the Great Lakes all winter, often being ^ound entangled 
in fishermen's nets.. The sides of the head in the male are gray to 
dark gray: throat and back of the head and neck white; a broad 
white collar; breast blackish; belly and upper j)arts of the wings 
white. The middle tail feathers are very long and separated. The 
female is mostly white as to head, neck, and belly; browiiish on 
breast and back, and the tail is short. Female about 18 inches in 
length , male up to 24 inches, extent about 30 inches. 





( Ili.stn'onicii.s liistn'oHirits.) 
This duck, thouj^ht by .sonio to bo next to tlic WcmuI Duck in 
bcjiuty, brcctls, it is said, in Newfoundland, Hudson Stmit, aud 
alon^' the Arctic coast. It is a resident of Siberia and Manchuria 
and Ahiska, but is nowhere reported other than unconinion. The 
nude has a white spot in front of the eye, and tiiis extends as a 
stripe alonj*- each side of tlie ci-own, which is bhick. A winti' spot 
marks ^he ear and a white bar extends from behind the ear down 
the net A clear white bar forms a. colhir on the h)wer neck, some- 
times broken in front or behind, and i)arallol with it a second cres- 
cent extends in front of each winj«-. Two short wliitc winj>- bars 
and a long patch of white on the inner [)art of each wing completes 
a decidedly mottled or pinto decoration. The remainder of the 
head, back, and breast are slate colored; the belly grayish to black. 
The female is grayish or brownisii, with a large white'spot in front 
of the eye. Length about 17, extent about 25 inches. 


{Somateria mollmma horeulis). 
This variety is the American representative of the semi-do- 
mestic Elder of Europe, but is not so common with us as the next 
species. The Xorthern Eider is abundant about Greenland, Hud- 
son Strait, and northern Labrador, and has been seen in lluds<ui 
iiay. It IS not uncommon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and visits 
Nova Scotia in winter. Like the other eiders, it lines its nests 
with down plucked from its own breast. The European form 
which this very closely resembles, is so encouraged about Iceland 
as t- be fairly tame, and more than two ounces of down are taken 
from each nest in a season. The six to eight eggs are bulf, drab, or 
greenish in color. The top of the head of the male is black, except 
a median greenish line; the remainder of ilu- head, the throat, 









I 4 

I «^' 







neck, upper breast, shoulders, back and wing patches are white, 
tinted with greenish on the sides of the liead and \Vith purplish on 
the breast. The tail, lower breast, and belly are black. The frontal 
processes of the bill are short, acute, and parallel. The female is 
dark, with brownish and yellowish markings. Length about 24, 
extent about 40 inches. 


(Somafcn'n d fi'sseri.) 

Tills eider breeds abundantly in Newfoundland, and is resi- 
dent in Xova Scotia. It mi<>ht well become a most interesting and 
important resident, if the senseless and reckless destruction of its 
eggs were checked, and instruction given in encouraging the nest- 
ing of the birds and the collecting of their down. Its 
nests are found along the Labrador coasts and James Bay. The 
male in si)ring is colored similarly to the Noi-thern Eider, .at the 
frontal processes of the bill are in this species broad, rounded, and 
divergent. Thf female differs as in the preceding species, being 
yellowish brown, but distinguishable by the frontal processes. 
Length and extent same as for Northern Eider. 




(Somatfria Y-nigra.) 

Hudson Bay and Great Slave Lake, as well as our Arctic 
coasts, are haunts of this eider, which is common on the Aleutian 
Islands and north Pacific sliores. Its plumage is like that of the 
two preceding, except that it bears a large black V-shajied mark 
on the white throat, the point being forward and the limbs diverg- 
ing behind. The frontal j^rocesses are as in thp Northern Eider. 
The food oi' all the Eiders is bivalves, espei .y mussels, which 
tliey obtain by diving. Length about 22 inches. 




(Somaterin ,pc' .tbilis). 

This eider breeds on Davis Strait, the Labrador c tst, the 
iiortheni shores of Hudson Bay, and is an occasional visitor to 
Xova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Lake Ontario. The white 
throat of the male bears a lar^e black V ; there is also a black spot 
below the black-rinjj;ed eye, and a black line aUm^ the edge of the 
enlarged bulging frontal processes; the top of the h-^-ad and nape 
are pearl j;ray; the sides of head sea green- +he bill or; nge red. 
Remainder of the head, throat, neck, upper back, le. :• wing 
c<. verts, and sides of rump white. Breast varia')!e bi..^. The 
greater wing coverts, the scai)ulars, and the prim.ries are brown- 
isli or chestnut. Lower back, rump an^l tail. an. i-f^mainder of 
under parts black. Female bulT, stre.iket' ith brown above. Tail 
black. Under parts blackish brown. Length about 2.) inches. 



These Surf Ducks, or Sea Coots, are characterized )»y the 
swollen or gibbous bill, combined with black plumage, with wiiite 
patches on head or wings, or both. They are moHusk eaters when 
on the ocean, and are then scarcely fit for food, but when fed on 
aquatic plants of the fresh water lakes are quite palatable. 


{Oiilemia Americana) . 

This Black Sea-Coot breeds in Alaska, and probal)ly all along 
the Arctic coast and northern Labrador. It is seen during migra- 
tion in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Quebec, auu Ontario. The 
male has entirely black plumage, less glossy below. The bill is 
black, with an orange patch on the enlarged upper part. The 



1 ■ 

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s t 







female has a iiorinal bill and plumage of varioiis shades of brown. 
Length of male nearly 21 inches; female 17. Ext<'ut of male 36; 
female 30 inches. 


( Oidcm in drf/landi) . 

This Velvet Duck breeds in the far north and in Alaska, being 
known in southern Canada only in spring and fall, when it is found 
on the Croat Lakes, the St. liawrence, and in Manitoba. The male 
has the knobbed bill, with an orange spot, a small white spot below 
the eye, and a white speculum; otherwise entirely black. The 
female is grayish to brown, with the white speculum. Length 
about 20, extent about 36 inches. 


(Oifh'nii(( j)cr:ni)ivnUita). 

This Scoter breeds in Alaska and along the Arctic coast and 
Labrador. It is common along the shores of Newfoundland and 
the maritime provinces, and also on I^ake Ontario, and the coast 
waters of British Columbia. The upper swollen base of the bill 
of the male in spring is crimson or scarlet. A white spot on the 
f<:r('head, and a large one on the nape are the only exceptions to 
the solid black of the plumage. The female is dark l)row-n, with a 
whitish sjjot in front of the eye, and another behind the ear. The 
belly is also nearly white. Length about 20 inches, extent about M. 


{Erismatura jamaicoisis) . 

This is a species differing in many respects from all other 
ducks reaching Canada, particularly in the short, stiff, pointed 
tail feathers, which iireatlv resemble those of the Cormorants. 




The head is small and the neck thick, and the nail of the bill is wid- 
ened and dr'curved to form a hook. The bill itself is widened and 
dep]vsscd, sny-nestini;- tliat of the Spoonbill. This strange little 
duck breeds from Manitoba to the Pacific, and is occasionally 
found in Ontario and Quebec. It migrates to .Mexico and the West 
Indies. The chin and sides of the head of tlie male are white; 
crown and nape glossy black. Upper parts browiush re(l, lower 
])arts whitish. Temale brown above, ])ale below. Length 1(), ex- 
tent about 22 inches, 


Geese are the members of the group Atiscns. which are 
medium in size, have necks shoi-ter than their bodies, sexes similar, 
and feed upon vegetable food alone. They lay usually six eggs, in 
nests on the ground, and commonly not far from the water. Lores 
completely feathered, and tarsi entirely reticulated. 


(Chen hijperhoictt ) . 

This goose nests about Hudson Bay and the shores of the 
Arctic Ocean. It nugrates southward chieliy along the Pacific 
coast, although some follow the },Iississi))pi valley, and a few travel 
by the Great Lakes. A few have been taken in Ontario, where they 
are accidental wanderers. Its plumage is entirely white when 
mature, excejjt the ti]»s of the wings. Length about 2.') inches. 


{Chen liijpcrhorca iiiiudis). 

This Wavey breeds with the smaller foi-m, and all that is said 
of o]ie applies to the other, exce])t the matter of size, and it is (piite 
certiiin that there is every gradation. The smaller form reaches 
28 inciu's in length, the larger :\-\. A few of b'^th sizes have been 


;- i i. 





.1 M 





taken in Ontario. They are plentiful at times in the fall on the 
coasts of Virginia and North Carolina, and especially in Alberta. 
The young birds are dusky or grayish. 


(Chen rossi). 

The breeding ground of this goose is not known, as it is rarely 
taken by any one who rei)orts its collection. It is said to migrate 
through Alberta, and one was taken in Manitoba. Seton found it 
on the Athabasf'a River on June 1st, 1907, and in October of the 
same year many were killed near Fort Chipewyan. Its plum- 
age is snow white, except the primaries, which are black. The 
basal i^art of the ))ill is covered with wart-like excrescences. 
Length al)out 29 inches. 


{Chen cucrnlcsccnH). 

Tliis species is said to breed in the interior of Labrador and 
on the eastern shores of Hudson I>ay. A few have l)een captured 
in Ontario, but its chief migratory route is the Mississippi Valley. 
In color it is grayish ])ro\vn, \\\\\\ wing coverts and rump bluish 
gray, and the head and upper part of the neck white; the under 
parts are whitish. Size and shajte alxmt the same as the Snow 
Goose, of which it was thought to l)e the young. 


{An.ser nlhifrons gamheli). 

The northern migration of this goose is through Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba. Its breeding grounds are the Arctic Islands and 
about the mouth of the Mackenzie River, and Seton states that it 
nests near Avlmer Lake, N.W.T. Occasionallv it visits Ontario 



and Quebec. The European White-fronted Goose has been seen 
in Greenland. The fore part of the head is white, b(tunded by a 
narrow line of black; the remainder of the head is dark brown ; the 
body and wings grayish brown; the rump white. Length 28 to 29 



(Branta canadensis). 

This is the wild goose known to most Canadians, who have 
watched it with interest in spring and fall as it passes over in 
angular, musical coni])anies, on its way to or from its lu-eeding 
grmuids. It nests in Ncwfouuflland, Labrador, and Hudson Bay, 
and from ^lanitoba westward and northward through the wooded 
region. The throat is wliito, and this patch extends on each side 
of the head up behind the eye. Tlio remaining parts of the head 
and neck are ))lack. The back and wings are l)lackish brown. The 
lower parts are lighter, fading to white on the lower belly. Length 
36 to 43 inches, extent 60 inches. Tail normally of 18 to 20 feath- 
ers. The dark variety, occidcutalis, has been seen in British 


(Branta canadensis hut chin si). 

This variety of goose is rarely seen in Ontario or eastward, 
but is common in Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan. Its breed- 
ing ground is the coast of Beliring Sea a.nd the Arctic Ocean. The 
description of the Canada Goose ai)p]ies to it in every jioint, e.x- 
ce])t that its tail is said to have only 16 feathers, and its length is 
about 30 inches, extent about 48 or 50. Only a tape will distinguish 
the variety from the species in most s]»ecimens. 

The variety minima, or Cackling Goose, only al)out 24 inches 
long, is seen in British Columbia. 


k t 




" iy 








' f 



(linuifa bcniicla). 

This sjK'cios is said to breed in Greenland toward the l*oIar 
Sea, also in Fludsttii l^ay, and northward on the IJarren Grounds. 
It is frequently seen 0:1 the St. Lawrence, occasic-nally on the 
Ottawa and Lake Ontario. Ahout ^'aneouver it is not uneoninion. 
In late antinn it niiyrates alon^- the coasts as far south as the Car- 
olinas. It is said to Hy in compact tiocks without a definite leader 
when niijiratinsi". The plumage of the head, neck, and throat is 
black with a small ])atch of white sti'eaks on each side of the neck. 
The back is brownish li'ray and the sides of the rump are white. 
The lower l)reast is abrui)tly ashy gray, fadinj;' to white on the 
lower bellv. Leniith altout 25 inches, extent about 18. 


{Brant a ni<)ric(un<) . 

This is the Brant of the Pacific Coast, though occasionally 
found on the Atlantic. Like the Barnacle Goose, it nests in the 
Arctic regions, but migratf\s chiefly along our west coast. Both 
these species feed upon the connnon marine ''eel grass" {Zostcra 
)nariii(i). T\w Black Brant differs from the preceding S])ecies in 
being darker on the lower bi-east and belly, with no abrupt change 
to gray. On the front of the neck, ps well as the sides, there are 
white markings. Size same as the last. 



This groii]) of the Anafidac is characterized by having the 
lores partly nak( d. the tarsus reticulate, the hind toe simple, and 
the neck not shorter than the body. The Swans are the largest of the 
order Ansere.^, and are very graceful on the water, but walk awk- 


! -f 


wardly on the land. They fcod on nnilcrwatcr plants and small 
sholl-fisli, by reachinj; down or tiltinj? thoii- bodies, as do j;('('se. 
Their notes are hii^h-pitehed and like those of a clarionet, and 
when severely \Mounded in the body while Hyinj? they have been 
heard to produce plaintive nnisical notes — the "swan sonj:;" — 
as they sail towards the water. Their nests are lar^'e, of ••rass and 
weeds, usually i»laeed on a small island, or the shores (»f secluded 
lakes. The white eg'j^s luunber from tw(» to five or six. These 
beautiful birds have become so rare that it is soniethiiifj; of an event 
to see a nuni))er t>f Swans. At the shooting stations on our ('reat 
Lakes one is occasionally killed, but this occurrence is less frequent 
each year. AVhile enjoying a game of golf early one morning iu 
Ai)ril, 1904, I had the unexpected pleasure of watching for some 
time a Hock of ten swans, and at the same time a tl(»ck of thirty 
Canada Geese, flying slowly northward along the west shore of 
Lake Michigan. 


(Olor coli(nihi<iiu(.s). 

This great bird breeds on the Arctic coast, and in spring and 
fall is ])lentiful on the west side of Hudson Bay. It is also f(»und 
in British (V)luml)ia. During migration it is occasionally seen in 
.Manitoba, and on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence, hi color 
it is i)ure wiliite, with black bill and a small yellow si)ot on the bare 
l)atch between the bill and the eye. Length ')') inches, extent of 
wings 6 to 7 feet. 


{Olor hucvinufor). 

The Trumjteter is tl .ght to breed somewhat further south 
than does the Whistling Swan, but principally near or within the 
Arctic circle. During migration it is occasionally st-en flying in 


.J I 

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H : 


Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and less frcquentlv in 

Its bill and feet are entirely black, and body entirely white. 
In length it reaches 60 inches or more, and in extent of wings as 
much as 8 feet. 



This group includes the Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns. All 
have the peculiarity of narrow or compressed bodies, suitable for 
hiding in slender, close-growing vegetation, such as characterizes 
the margins of quiet waters. Here they live, wading about on the 
boggy, uncertain soil, their light bodies supported often on long 
stilt-like legs and wide reaching toes. Thev leed on fish, frogs'] 
reptiles, and mollusks, which they spear with their straight, sharp 
beaks. IMiev are remarkably sharp-sighted and watchful! The 
sexes are similar. 



^le greater part of this family belongs to tropical regions. 
Ihe Herons are gregarious for nesting and roosting, but solitary 
when feeding. S. .e of the group build in trees, others among the 
marsh vegetation, , ill are capable of perching on trees. 


_ Bitterns are shy and solitary marsh birds, nesting separately 
m pairs on the ground. They haye no white plumage, nor peculiar 
changes of plumage. Their size is medium, the bill is somewhat 
longer than the head, the neck feathei-s are loose, but there are no 
dorsal plumes, and the sexes and young are alike. 



{Botaunis lentiginosns). 

This bittern breeds abundantly in all the i)rovinces ot* Canada 
and as far north as Hudson Bay and Lesser Shive Lake. All of 
the northern United States are used as breeding; groiuid, and for 
the winter it retires to Central America and the West Indies. Its 
nest is made of old rushes and cattails in a marsh, Init usually well 
raised above the water, and the ejij?s are four or five in number, 
greenish yellow in color. 'Hie pluma.uc of the ])ittern makes it in- 
ccuispicuous, but it has a remarkable attitude for protection, when 
it stands erect with its bill ])ointin^ straight upward. In this i»osi- 
tion it so closely resembles the common structures among the verti- 
cal vegetation that it is very easily overlooked. 

In the evenings and mornings, during the nesting season, the 
hitteri! produces a strange "pumping" or "looming," which has 
given it such names as "Bull of the Bog" and "Stake Driver." 
This strange vocal performance is accompanied with such move- 
ments as are usually associated with violent nausea. A bittern's 
storage capacity can scarcely be judged by its appearance. I have 
seen a small specimen swallow a fish ten inches or more in length. 
The bird feeds also on frogs, snakes, and insects. 

Its jilumage is brown, spotted and streaked with black and 
buff yellow. The neck has a black streak down each side. Length 
from 23 to 30 inches or more, extent 20 to 35 inches. 

(Ardretta exilis). 
This is a shy bird, probably more plentiful than usually sup- 
posed, because when searched for a few may be found in nearly all 
large marshes in southern Quebec and Ontario. It is resident in 
the southern States, but migrates from Canada and the northern 
part of the United States. Its nest can usually be found in south- 

: i ' I 

m r 

'^ Mn il 





em Ontario, but its residence in a district is not regular, as with 
some birds. A locality that is occupied by them one vear, mav show 
none of these birds for several yeai-s afterward. This little bittern 
IS more retiring than its larger cousin, but its habits are similar 
Jt lays four to six bluish or greenish-white eggs in a large, looselv- 
huilt nest, made of and supported by dead marsh plants. The 
up])er ])arts ,.f its plumage are greenish black, except the sides and 
the back of the neck, which are chestnut. The hnver parts are 
yellowish. Length from 10 to 14 inches, extent about 18. 

Voiy's Least Bittern is probably a variety of the above, dark- 
er m color on the lower surface. It has been found in Ashbridge 
Marsh near Toronto, but elsewhere only in Florida. 


These are slender erect birds, with long bare legs, elongated 
leathers on the neck in front and behind, and during the breeding 
season a crest ..f two long, slender flowing plumes from the hind- 
liead. They feed largely on frogs, which thev often carry several 
miles from their hunting grounds to their ^•oung. The nest is 
usually one of many in a lonely, inaccessible swami). Several 
nes s may be in one tree, large platforms of sticks .m which the 
birds stand or rest. Herons have remarkable evesight and are 
vei'v wary. 


(Ardea herodias). 
This graceful bird is often erroneouslv called a crane. It al- 
wa^'s nests m colonies, and the parents mav be seen making re-u- 
ar rips between their home and their hunting grounds. In flight 
the head is drawn back to the shoulders. The sounds produced bv 
the old and the young birds in a herony are suggestive of the velp- 
mg and barking of foxes or wolves, and are often attributed to 
wild animals. Their eggs are usually three or four in number and 



are dull, light, greenish blue. The plunhigc is slaty blue with black 
and grayish blue stripes in great variety. It is not to be mistaken 
for any other species. Length from 40 to 50 inches, extent 65 to 
75, bill from 4Vj to G inches. 


(Florida caendca). 

This bird has l)een seen and captured a few times in eastern 
Canada, but its home is from the middle United States southward, 
being resident in the Gulf States. There is a remarkable differ- 
ence between the plumage of the young and the mature birds. Im- 
mature birds are white, but usually with some slaty blue, espe- 
cijilly on the tips of the primaries. The full grown birds have rcd- 
disli maroon head and neck, and ))luish slate color for the other 
parts of the body. The lower neck feathers are elongated, but no 
Illume is worn at any age or season. Length about 32 inches, ex- 
tent about 40 inches. 


( Ga rzctta ca n didissima ) . 

Florida and the Gulf States, AEexico, Central and South 
America are the home of this beautiful bird, but it occasionally 
strays across our southern boundary. Tvvx) are known to have 
been taken in Nova Scotia, one in Renfrew County, Ontario, one 
near Kingston on the Rideau, one near Pincher Creek, Alberta, 
and several in British Columbia. We should give it a more kindly 
reception, as it has been nearly exterminated in Florida, through 
the barbarous demand for its beautiful plumes for head dresses. 
No more exquisite nor harmless bird could be added to our Cana- 
dian list, and it is to be hoped that all such visitors may be encour- 
aged to come again, rather than be pursued to their death. 


It i 


tup: new Canadian bird book 


I i 

It nests in the everglades and other swampy districts of the 
tropics. Frogs, lizards, small snakes, and shell fish are its chief 
food. The plumage of both sexes is entirely white. The eyes, the 
base of the bill, and the toes are yellow; the remainder of the bill 
and the legs are black. From the back of the head and from each 
shoulder in both sexes, during the nesting season, there float long 
fine, filmy j)lumes and somewhat similar feathers hang from the 
neck in front. Length of body about 24 inches, extent ab(»ut 38, 
the bill about 3, and the bare leg more than 6 inches long. 


{ButoridcH viirsccufi). 

This beautiful little wader seems to Ije coming more frequently 
than formerly into eastern Canada from the United States, where 
it is resident. It is now quite often seen in New Brunswick, Que- 
bec, and Ontario. It is only from 16 to 18 inches long and looks 
more like a bittern than like our other herons. Its plumage is 
dark green above and brownish below. The neck is reddish chest- 
nut, with a light line in front from the white throat downward. 
Extent about 25 inches, bill about 2Vl> inches. 


(Xifcticorax nycticorax naevius). 

Our Night Heron is a variety of the European Night Heron, 
and the specific name nacvitis, which implies weanufj a hirth-marh, 
is applicable to the immature spotted birds. From Saskatchewan 
to Quebec this bird is occasionally seen in Canada, but it is not 
common. On the Lower St. Lawrence it is much more plentiful, 
breeding in large colonies, and returning to the same location year 
after year. The nests are large and carelessly made, on trees, 
shrubs, or on the ground, the taller site especially on marshes of 
Saskatchewan, and southward to Texas. The adult birds feed at 





' U: 

» |i!' 





ni^;lit, and tlu'ir loud — "«|ua\vk" — is a startlinji s»>uii<l wlicn licard 
suddenly from the darkin'ss overhead. The mature birds are 
handsomely dresst'd in s]>rinj;. Two uv three hm^ narrow plumes 
arch backward from the back of tlie iiead. The crown, shoulders, 
and upper pai-t of the back are jfreenish l)lack, the lower back, the 
winti:s, and tail are clear ashy lUM'ay ; the forehead, neck, and under 
parts are white; the k'trs and feet ni-e yellow. Inunatiire birds are 
jj,rayish brown with many white sjxtts and streaks, the Iwlly white 
instead of gray. Length about 24 inches, extent nbout 44, bill 
about 3 inches. 


(Xt/rtirord.r riohircii). 

The ))ird has seldom been seen in ''anada, as it belongs t(» the 
Southern States. Tt is gi'ayish blue, darker on the back : head and 
upper neck behind black: with a cheek patch, crown, and crest of 
whitish or yellow. Length al»out 24. extent about 44 inches. 


Cranes, Kails, Gallinules, and Coots. 

This fainily of waders are shy, skulking birds, living among 
the cattails, bulrushes, and wild rice of our marshes, most of them 
being contined to the southern part of Canada and southward in 
the United States. They agree in having narrow, compressed 
bodies and large strong legs and long toes. Thus they run over 
floating vegetation or soft mud, and find safety without flight. 
Leaving out the cranes, their wings are very short and round, 
and are seldom used except during migration. The bill is usually 
short, except in the cranes, and is not used for probing, as they 
gather their food from the surface of the mud and water. 


■V u 







Those ave common hi-as of Euror^ A.i. and Af nea, wheve 
„,o..o than a ..o.en s„oe,os ;>-;■-•;:* ™!nown to Lst regula. 
;;."rra;^'r:;.V* and wing. 


{Grus iwK ricaua). 

Thi. taU and wa-v bird is said to >>- '^--— ,;;; S". 
,„l,a and,e™« long ago. but .t "-^ ;'^i;'; , j,,^,,,, 3,,, 
i,„, and has retreated for -^t"^ ^ " .^^^ . ™" Oetober, 1907. 
„„,, seven nnsvatn>« », n'f UnSt v Mnseun,. was eaptnred 

One speeimeu, now "'Q"''" 'y",''^,. " Ontario, but this is tbe 
near Varty Lalcc in Addms on Ooun > , On ^^ .^^ ^^^^_ 

only speeimeu known m e'^*;'" *-'»"" ; ^li J.^ipin rivers, and 
tion seems to be the valleys »' "'^ ''^^^ J^^^ ,„. t1 e top and sides 
it is said to still breed niD.tota an n^^^^^^^^ '^^ ^j ,1,, 

of the head are dull red witl.on '"t^"^;{ ^ / Length about 50 

„,„,s are black ; f l'"'-- ''"-ji; "St 6 ts long and nearly 



(^Griis canadensis). 
This norther, bird is said '", '"-'' '^'[..^^"Tin— 


















a hollow in the top of a sniuly knoll. Tl,e u-st itself is d\^^-J^ 
ma.lo of (Tvass ;«<1 straws. Tl». cffis "I'e two ,n nmnbcr. ;;ra is 
ve ow with rcklish brown l,lo„-l,cs. Tho birds at that season teed 
on the ..erri,.s of the vurions heath shrubs and on smal ,na nnals 
I, n.i^rates thronsh western Canada and the ^ "'t'^'' ^.'' ' 
Me.xieo A point of feathered skill reaches upward on the bail, ot 
ihe head. Above that the skin has a lc^^■ hairs but ,m leathers 
iwn to the eves. The bill is stout and nearly straisli a id an 
i/. inelies lon,^ The adult pluniaK'c is lead gray w-rtl. brow in i 
,rav o„ the wings. The yoini, are grayish brown w.tli head teatl. 
ered. Length about 3G inelies, wing not over 19 inehes, t.iil 7, 

tarsus HV^- 


(Griis mcjcicana). 

This bird has been taken in Ontario, but is now a ver;- rai-e 
miorint its route bein- the valley of the .Mississippi and west- 
er" Itt eds in Manitoba, British Columbia and southward to 
Fhn-ida and the Gulf Cioast. These birds perform a ^^^^^^ 
dance on knolls during the mating season, quite in aeeoid u 1 1 he 
evolutions of Asiatic members of the family. ^^ ^^^^^Z^^^"^ 
cept size this species agrees with the preceding. Leng 1 40 to 48 
inches, extent about SO, wing over 20, tarsus over 9, bill o to 6 

inches long. 


K'ails are seldom noticed except by naturalists and hmiters, 
and n.avlH. pU.itiful and frequently hc-ard, but very seldom s. en 
T ev .c;ek safetv bv running and hiding, and rise m tlight onl> as 
U ^h. to t. Some of the race are ilightless, and as a group hey 
are c^ n sidered to be degenerating toward extinction. A\ hen thex 
r^r saMy their tli^ts are short and awkward, as they sknn 







<• 1 

Ui ' 





over the tops of the rushes ^vith feet dangling, and thev soon drop 
into any place offering shelter. Their nests are on the ground in 
the marsh and they lay 6 to 12 eggs, yellowish white with reddish 
brov.'n markings, 


(KaJh(s clegans). 

This is the largest of the rails found in Canada and the most 
brightly marked. Its home is the middle part of the '^nited States 
from Kansas eastward, hut occasionally it reaches Oi.uirio and the 
New England States. It nests in the St. Clair marshes, and is a 
casual migrant in other parts of Ontario, and in .Manitoba. The 
plumage of the back is ])rowiiisli and black; the throat is wliite; 
the under i)arts and wings are chestnut; while the flanks arc dark 
with l)ars of white. Length about 18 inches, extent al)out 24, bill 
2 to 2' 2 inches, tarsus 21 i inches. 


(L'aUii.s rh-fjinidti us) . 

This small edition of the King Rail is found in the spring in 
Newfoundland, Labivuhii-, and the maritime ])rovinces, no doubt 
breeding there, as it does through southern Ontario and, 
and more rarely westward to British C()luml)ia. Its eggs are buify 
or creamy white. (Coloration exactly as in the King Rail, but 
h'ligtli under 11 inches, and extent ai)out 14 inches; bill about VU 
inches, and tai-siis ab(»ut the same. 


(Porzana Carolina). 

From Prince Edward Island southward and westward this 
Rail breeds, exteuiling its rano(. northward into the Plains region 



to Lesser Slave Lake. In the marshes of southern Ontario it is 
very plentiful, and especially so further south along the Atlantic 
''^' nisit. It goes by many names, such as Soree, Meadow Chicken, 
Little Water Hen, and even Ortolan. Its flesh is held in high 
favor in autumn. The dozen or more eggs are drabish, spotted 
with reddish ])rown. The plumage of the face about the base of 
the bill, up over the crown and down the front of the neck is black. 
The remainder of breast and throat are bluish gray, the head be- 
ing the same color- The back is olive brown, marked with black 
and streaked with white; the wings are yellowish brown with white 
streakiiigs, and the flanks are sharply barred with white. The 
breast is brownish and the lower belly and crissum are white. 
Length 8i ^ inches, extent 12 to 13 inches. 


{Frozana novrhoraccnsiH). 

Few records of the Yellow Rail are available from eastern 
Canada, though it is taken quite regularly in Ontario, and may be 
fairly common. It is not known to be plentiful anywhere, but its 
range is wide, and it has to be sought carefully. It may be much 
more al)undant than we think. Like the others its nest is on the 
ground, and here ■* lays from six to twelve buff colored eggs spot- 
tod with white auldish br(mn. The i)lumage of the upper 
parts is black, \^ yellowish .- 'eaks and white bars. The breast 
is yellowish; the middle of the belly is white; the sides and h)wer 
bellv are duskv, barred with white. A vellow line over the eye and 
a black line through the eye. Length about 6 inches . 


(Prozana jamiaccnsis). 

While this bird has been taken in southern Ontario and Min- 
nesota, its liwme is really south of the Tnited States, although its 






ncftt has been fonnd as far north as New Jersey. It seems to be 
rare everywhere, l)ut is extrenielv shv and difficult to flush, and 
thus easily overlooked. 

The head and the under jmrts are slate color, changing to 
black or. the lower l)elly. The upper parts are ])lackish, marked 
with spots and bars. The flanks and tail coverts are barred with 
wiiitc. Leiigth al)out 5VL> inches. 


( Ion oni is m a rtiit ica ) . 

This is a bird of tropical America and the West Indies, but a 
few occasionally stray up through the United States as far north 
flc; Wisconsin, Ontario, Maine, and Nova Scotia. One has been 
taken in Ontario. Its habits resemble those of the J'^lorida Gal- 
linule. The front of its head is protected by a lead colored plate, 
an extension apparentl}' of the bill. The plumage of the head and 
under parts is dark purplish blue, the l)ack is shining olive green; 
the wings light greenish blue, the under tail coverts white; the bill 
is carmine or reddish orange, tipped with yellowish green. Length 
about 13 inches and extent about 22 inches. 


{GallinuJa f/alcatd). 

This "Mud Hen" belongs to the southern United States, but 
reaches regularly to the Great Lakes and nests freely on the north 
shores of Lake Ontario. In habits and flight it reseni])les the Rails, 
but is not so shy, frequently nesting and raising its young within 
sight of a road. Its forehead is covered wnth a broad, bare, horn- 
like shield, l)right red in the spring. It lays from eight to thirteen 
eggs, yellowish, with chocolate spots. Its plumage is dark slate 
color on the head, neck, and under parts, white on the belly, and 
brownish on the back. The 1)111 is red, tipped with yellow: the 
legs and feet greenish. Length about lo inches, extent about 2L 


I * 

nt. CHI. »c*o. 9r)t«.rE5 





"< 141 





i .'i 





( Fulira (imrn'cana). 

This bird whiH, nuu'h ivscn.hlos the (J;,liinul..s, l„u lw,s f.-ot 
ko those of the o.,,h<.s, is occasional in the n.antin.e ,.n v n-es 

nm "T" •" '^"^'''"'' '"^ '>^^''^l«f^-Hy in Ontario, a ul en U 
iUy m the ,,huns re.ion as far north as Lesser Shu-e Lake [is 

n, ts hll ulute, Its ,,]unia^^(> slate color, with the head aTul neck 
";aHy hhu-k and the under tail white. Its len-tl, is al,o 11 in 
ehes, extent about 25, bill u, to 11 :., and tarsus 2 incl,:.. 


Plialeropes, AVoodcock, Snipes, Sandpipers, and Plovers. 

They are all of rather small size, with round heads, slender 

'iso buMi^^ ■'%r"' ^''"' ^^ '"'''''^' ^^^^'„,„i'n, wll 
case, but lmno-n,o..tly cm sandy shores and alon<r the edges of 
n.arshes. Then- bills are adapted for probin, in the nnul, 1^ t 
many cases sensitive at the tip. 


L Toes with distinct membranous lobes on the sides. Bill as Ion- 

as the head, s ender and weak. The Phaleropes, page 7^ 

2. Toes without lobes, but sometimes webbed-- ' ' ^^ '^ 

a. Bill very long, upcurved, slender and weak; naked part of 

tibia longer than nuddle toe with claw, or over :5i :. inches- 

tront toes connected as far as the second joint. 

1 XT 1 ] , stilts and Arocets, page 74 

I), ^aked part of the tibia shorter than middle, toe with claw- 

.arsus less than :]i , inches, and scutellate in fnmt, i.e., cov' 





.; I 





! i 

ered \Vith a row of transvei-so scales reaching all across: — 
bl. Bill slender, soft and sensitive with blunt tip. 

The Snipes, Sandi)ipers, and (^urlews, page 75 
b2. Bill stout, hard, pointed and wedgeshaped at the tip. 

The Turnstones, page 96 
c. Tibia and tai-sus, as in " b," but reticulate in front, i.e., covered 
with small rounded scales: — 

el. Bill under 2 inches, not longer than the head m- the tarsus, 
and not c(»mi)ressed but constricted behind the horny tip. 

The True Plovers, i)age 93 

c2. Bill over 2 inches, and longer than the head or the tarsus, 

and nuich compressed at the tip. Toes 3, bordered by a 

narrow membrane Oystercatchers, page 96 


(Phal( rojxxlidae). 

1. Lobes on the sides of the toes almost plain; l)ill awl-shai)ed. 

StefjanojHis, i)age 77 

2. Lobes scallojied; bill awl-shaped, not broadened toward the tip. 

Phalerojms, i)age 76 

( ]t*('rH rrirosl lidac ) . 

1. Toes 4, full webbed in front; bill very long, upcurved, flattened 
and tapering to a slender, acute point. 

lieciirvirostrn, The Avoccfa, page 77 

2. Toes 3, slightly webbed; bill long, Imt slightly upturned; plum- 
age altogether dark above except the forehead, and entirely 
white l)elow. The Stilt (Ilimnntopus), should be found in Can- 
ada, but has not yet been dcniiitely recorded. 





1. Toes :i, searecly webbed; bill as loiij? as head, slender straight, 
and soft Cnlndris, The Sanderliii^', page 86 

2. Toes 4. Three outer primari(>s narrowed near the tips; upper 
mandible elevated at base; front toes slii^htly webbed. 

PJiHoIk hi, The Ameriean Woodcock, paj^e 78 
No outer primaries narrowed : — 
Toes not at all webbed: — 
Tarsus shoi-ter than middle toe and claw: — 
Bill about twice as lon^ as head ; tibia naked below :— 

frnninai/o, Wilson's Snijje, paj;e 80 
Bill little longer than head; til)ia, feathered: — 

Arqiiatclhi, Purple Saudjiiper, pacfe 82 
Tai'sus equal to or longer than middle tuQ and claw: — 
Bill straight: equal to or longer than head: — 
Bill soft aiul flexible; tarsus longer than middle too and 
claw Tn'Hfjd, page 82 

Toes partially webbed, or semii)almate: — 
Tarsus scutellate in front only; bill very bmg and decurved: — 

Numenius, page 91 
Tarsus scutellate both in front and l>ehind: — 
Tail not bai'red; primaries mottled; one very small web be- 

twe(>n the toes Tryngitcs, page 91 

Tail not barred; primaries plain; two full webs between the 

toes : — 
Bill about the same length as the head : — 

ErcuHctcs, page 85 

Bill much longer than the head Micro pdJama, page 81 

Tail barred with light and dark: — 


■ I 

3 ■ 







Gape not reaching Ijeyond the base of bill : — 
Under 12 inches lonj?; upper mandible furrowed at the tip: — 

Macro ill am pints, pa^'c 81 
Over 12 inches Ion;,'; upper mandible not furrowed at the 

tip Limosa, page 87 

Cape longer than l)ill: total lenj^th of bird under 9 inches; 

Bill gi ved from the base nearly to tip Arfitis, page 90 

Bill groowd about half way to the tip. .Helodroinas, page 88 
Gape longer than bill; total length of bird over 9 inches. 

Bill not longer than head Bartramia, page 90 

Bill longer than head. 

Legs bluish; bill stout Symphnnia, page 89 

Legs yellowish or greenish; bill slender Totaitus, page 87 



Toes 4 Squatarola, page 93 

Toes 3; plumage without bands of color, but speckled above. 

Charadrius, page 93 
Plumage with bands of color about head and neck. 

AcgialitiH, page 94 


( Ph uleropodidae ) . 


(Phalcrojms fnJicarins). 
This is known as a migrant in the maritime provinces, New- 
foundland and Labrndoi-, l)ut is seldom seen in the interior, except 
on the coasts of Hudson Bay. It breeds on the arctic coasts and 
islands. A few have been collected in Ontario. The upper sur- 
face is blackish, with yellowing edges to the feathers, the sides 
of head and rump white, and the lower parts chestnut with pur- 
plish ehades. The bill is yellowish with a white tip, and the feet 



yellowish with lohed w^'hs on the toes. Tlie Phalei-opes are pecu- 
liar in revei-sinji: the ordinary dcunestic conditions — ^the female be- 
ing the larj?er and more brightly colored bird. She does the woo- 
ing, and lays the eggs, but the male does most of the incubating. 
Ivengtli 8 inches. 


(P/idleropus lobatus). 

This bird migrates along the Atlantic coast and is occasi(mally 
seen in Quebec and Ontario. It breeds about Hudson Bay and 
the Labrador coast, and also along the Arctic Ocean. It is seen in 
great nunil)ers in spring in Saskatchewan and AJberta. Its upper 
parts are grayish black with yellowish marks; the rump and under 
parts mostly white, and the sides and front of the neck chestmit. 
Bill and feet black. Length about 7 inches. 


(Stci/diiopitu Ificolor) . 

This is a bird of the interior, breeding plentifully about sloughs 
of Saskatchewan and Alberta. As an accidental migrant it has 
been colic oied in Ontario. The top of the head and the back are 
ashy; a line over the eye, the back of the neck, tlie rump, and the 
under parts are white. A dark streak leads from the eye down the 
side of the neck where it changes to reddish or chestnut. Length 
9 to 10 inches. 



This is a small group of wading birds, having extremely long 
slender legs and bills, and belonging to the warmer latitudes. The 
toes are webbed in the swimming forms. The bill is either straight 
and acute or recurved. Only one species is known in Canada. 









(Recurvirostra amcricana). 

This is an accidental migrant east of Manitoba, a few having 
Ix'cn seen in Ontario. It breeds all across the plains region, espe- 
cially on the margins of the alkali ponds, and as far north as Great 
Slave Lake. It pret'ei's saline districts, being plentiful near the 
(Jreat Salt Lake of L'^tah. Their nests are mere depressions in the 
soil, lined with a little grass, and they lay three or four eggs— drab 
to brownish, with chocolate markings. Their food is obtained 
li'idcr water in the shallow alkaline pools. 

The shape of the body ditfcrs from that of most waders, being 
depressed, as in the case of ducks. The plumage is largely white, 
with yellowish brown on the neck and head, and black on the back 
and wings. The legs are blue, the bill black, recurved and flexible. 
Length 16 to 17 inches, expanse 28 to 35 inches. Bare legs 6 in- 
ches, bill 31/0 inches. 



Includes the Woodcock, Snipes, Dowitchers, and Sandpipers. 
These may be distinguished from the Plovers by the difference in 
the texture and shape of the bill. The bill of a plover is constrict- 
ed just behind the horny tip. The Snipe family has grooved bills, 
covered throughout with a soft skin, and lack the constriction near 
the tip. 


{Fhilohcla minor). 

Although a member of the Snipe and Sandpiper family, the 
American Woodcock, unlike these, lives in bogs and thickets, and 
is never seen in flocks. These habits, along with the fact that it 
feeds mostly at night, may enable it to survive for some time, in 



IV ^ifi 




i •'■ f 

H; g ■ 

^ 1 

■I I I Mif li«liiiiilMMaaia<lMiMl 





, Hi 


.pite of its high rank as a ganio bird. It is fouiul in all the pro- 
vinces of (^anada, as far west as .Manitoba, l>ree.lin- througlu.ut 
the range. When unhurried, the Woodcock's tiight may be as 
silent as that of a bat, but when startled, its rush produces a 
whistling sound from its wing feathers. 

Its most striking features are the great length of its straight, 
..•rooved bill, and the large promininit eyes set very high and far 
back above the ears. It has been found that the tip of the long 
bill is served bv both nc and muscles, thus the bird is able to 
feel its prev in the soft - .1, and capture it without enlarging 
the hole to enable the ba.- .1 die oill to open. Earth worms are 
its commonest food, but no doubt other succulent creatures are 


Its plumage is grav, brown, and chestnut, with black bars on 
the upper surface, and paler brown without bars below. The legs 
and neck are not elongated. Length 10 to 11 inches, female some- 
what larger: bill 21,1. to 3 inches. 

The nest is usuallv on a hummock surrounded by shrubs in 
a swampv thicket, and'is but a slight depression lined with leaves. 
The eggs are four, gravish or yellowish with chocolate markings. 
Tire nocturnal spiral flight of the Woodcock is mysterious 
and fascinating. During the nesting season, if one will place him- 
self on a hill above an alder and cedar thicket, bordering a stmim, 
he may, if fortunate, listen to the woodcock's method of celebrat- 
ing- his honevmoon. A nasal "peet-peet" is the prelude to a rapid 
sph'al flight" upward, accompanied by the sharp whistling of the 
flight feathers. After reaching apparently 150 yards vertically 
above ihe starting point, he shoots downward, making a zig-zag 
path when near the earth, and almost immediately rises for an- 
other evolution. The path of the descending bird can be made out 
only by its whistling, and the performance is attributed to the 
male, because of the analogous dances of other birds which cele- 
brate by daylight. 




10 ^ \ 





■ h 



(Ci alii mi (JO dclicnta). 

This is the true Snipe of America, and a favorite p:ame bird 
wherever found. It breeds from the Atlantic to the Pacific, as far 
north as Hudson Bay, and across to Alaska. Its favored nesting 
ground is a marsh, in the vicinity of quiet wood-land. The nest 
resem])Ies tiiat of the woodcock in lack of careful structure, and 
the eggs are souiowhat similar in color. The back feathers of the 
snijx' are black, with bars and spots of light yellowish, the neck 
and breast aj-e speckled with the same color, the crown of the head 
black, with a liglit median line, the sides and under wings ai-e l)ar- 
red with bl<!ck. the belly white. Its length is 9 to 10 inches, bill 
2 to 21 J inches. 

The Sni])e is becoming scarce in the settled districts, aiul is 
rarely seen in ^outhern Ontario except during the migrations. It 
feeds and niigrates at night, and its presence or absence cauiiot be 
safely jtredir icd at any particular place. 

Its flight on rising is very erratic and troublesome to inexperi- 
enced sports]nen. but this does not prevent its continual persecu- 
tion during its southern journey. 

The Snipe's evening performance is similar to that of the 
Woodcock and is no doubt the result of like stinudating condi- 
tions. After rising to a satisfactory height above its home, it 
speeds downward, producing a peculiar wavering sound, usually 
called "bleating"— apparently by the rush of air through its 
wing feathers. This is repeated many times, and in southern On- 
tario may be heard on cloudy warm days in late Ai)ril. It should 
be the call for careful, patient observation, which may add an im- 
portant detail to our meagre knowledge of such phenomena. 


Two species of these snipe-like birds are found in Canada, 

breedin"' in the far north and seen in southern Canada only in 

spring and fall. 





(Macrorhamph us fjriseus) . 

Newfoundland, Labrador, and about Hudson Bay are the 
breeding grounds of this bird, and in spring and fall it is known 
to migrate through the maritime provinces, Quebec, and Ontario, 
especially from Toronto eastward. 

Its plumage is in summer brownish black above, and reddish 
bro\vn below, fading to whitish on the belly. In winter the brown 
and chestnut are replaced by gray. At all seasons the tail is well 
marked by bars of black, white and yellowish. Its length is from 
10 to 11 inches, and its bill is about two and a half inches, flattened 
and pitted at the tip. 





(Macrorhamphus scolopacevs). 

This bird is slightly larger and brighter, in the same colors 
as the above, and its bill averages nearly three inches in length. It 
is known to nest in Alaska, and is thought to breed on the central 
plains near the Arctic Circle. 


(Micro palama himantopus) . 

The Dowitcher and the Stilt Sandpiper are in structure be- 
tween the Snipe and ihe ordinary Sandpiper. The front toes are 
connected by small webs, the bill is long, and the legs are long and 
bare. In length, Stilts reach to 9 inches and in wing expanse 
to 17. Bill 1%, tarsus 1%, bare leg 2% inches. The feath- 
ei*s of the upper parts are black, each bordered with grayish or 
chestnut. The lower surface is dark with reddish brown and whit- 
ish bars. The neck is streaked obscurely with white. The upper 
tail-coverts are white With black bare. 

i \ 







This interesting bird is not recorded as plentiful anywhere, 
bui is widely distributed. It has been seen in Newfoundland, New 
Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, and on the shores of the Hudson 
Bar and even in British Columbia. 

Its breeding grounds are probably in the far north, but fur- 
ther exploration and study are required in connection with the 
life historv of this and niauv others of our birds. 



. ,• t 


{TriiKja canutus). 

The Robin Snij^e, as the Knot is often called, is considered the 
handsomest, as it is the largest of our sandpipers. Its length is 
about 11 inches, its expanse 20, and its bill nearly ly^. The upper 
surface of the body is in summer brownish black, shading to chest- 
nut on the shoulders, but each feather is bordered or tipped with 
white or gi'ay. The under surface is unifcmn chestnut, fading to 
white about and behind the legs. In winter the back is clear ashy 
gray with white on the rump, while the under parts are almost 
pure white, with dusky marks on the breast. 

The nest and eggs of the Knot have been the object of search 
in the north, and though nest and nestlings were found on Grin- 
nell Land by the Nares Expedition, and one egg olitained by Gen. 
Greely on Lady Franklin Bay, we know^ little of its domestic his- 
tory. During its migration it roams widely and is occasionally 
seen from Manitoba eastward and along the Atlantic coast to 
Florida. The bill is widened and hard at the tip. They probe in 
the mud on beaches, feeding on small crustaceans and mollusks. 


{TriiKja maritima). 

This is a marine bird, .as its scientific name implies. Its upper 
parts are very dark bluish gray, almost black, and sometimes with 



purplish reflections. :Many feathers are edged with lij-ht yellow. 
A line over the eye, the secondaries, and the belly are white, while 
the breast and throat are brownish gray with black streaks. The 
winter i)lumage is lighter all over, grayish rather than blackish. 
Its feet are large and its toes long. It measures 8 to 9 inches, and 
extends to 16 inches. Its bill is rather over 1 inch. As a Canadian 
bird this can be claimed only as l)reeding on Melville Peninsula, 
and Ix'ing plentiful on the Labrador coast and occasionally found 
on the Great Lakes in its migrations. Its nest is said to be of the 
slightest, and its 3 or 4 eggs Iduish gray, with olive shading, nd 
marked with reddish brown. 


{Tringn niacnlata). 

This bird, often called in Canada the Jnck Snipe or Grass 
Snipe, is clothed on tiie upper surface with l)hick feathers, each 
edged with gray or chestnut, especially on the shoulders. The 
chin, throat, and underparts are ])ure white, except the lower neck 
and breast, which are streaked with l)rown and grayish. Its 
length is 9 inches or more, and expanse 16 or 18 inches. The bill 
is slightly over 1 inch in length. It breed's about Hudson Bay and 
plentifully in Alaska, and migrates down both coasts and l)y way 
of the Great Lakes. Here its feeding grounds are low marshy 
meadows, an>l it flies in flocks from ])lace to i»lace. Its remarkable 
characteristic is the inflation of the throat and breast of the male 
to produce a deep booming call during the breeding season. Its 
note at other seasons is described as a squeaky whistle. 


( Tringa fuscicoUis) . 

Its small size and white tail coverts- will distinguish this little 
wader. Upper parts brownish black, the feathers bordered with 




' I /it' 




■ *■ 





1 i 

lighter; shouldei's nearly white; throat, neck, and breast white, 
with distinct streaks of dark brown which extend along the sides. 
Belly and undertail pure white. Length ?!/:> inches, and wing ex- 
panse 15. The bill is rather le-ss than 1 inch long. The breeding 
ground of the White-rump is not exactly kno\\'n, but is probably 
noi-th of Hudson Bay, as it is plentiful, but not found nesting in 
Ungava, and migrates along both Hudson Bay and the Labrador 
coast, as well as by the Great Lakes and Manitoba. It is rarely seen 
in Ontario, but is more plentiful on the lower St. Lawrence River 
and the Gulf. It feeds on the coast, but seems also to enjoy the 
margins of fresh water ponds. 


(Triiif/a hairdii). 

This is another typical sandpiper, with more of the tan or 
yellowish shades on the back, but giving the general impression 
of dark brown, the rump being lighter. U'ndei- parts generally 
unspotted white, but the front of the neck yellowish with darker 
spots. The shores of the Arctic Sea, with its inland ponds and 
lakes, are the nesting grounds of this little slender billed and long 
winged shore bird. In its autumn migration it is common from 
Manitoba westward, but it is rare in Ontario or farther east. In 
length it is only about 7 inches, and expands to 16 inches. Bill less 
than 1 inch. 


{Tringa minituetella) . 

This is, as the name implies, the smallest of the sandpipers, 
and has no remarkable markings by which to distinguish it. In 
the winter its plumage on the upper parts is ashy, and under parts 
white, with dark streaks on the fore neck. In summer the feathers 
of the upper surface have a dark centre, with reddish yellow mar- 



gins and whitish tips. The under ])!ii'ts are always nearly white. 
The bill is blaek, •]X inch long. T\io. legs and feet are dark green- 
ish, the toes without webs. Length about tJ inches and expanse 
about 11. All across Canada it is plentiful in migration, and 
breeds in the north, but little of the det^iils are known. 


(Trinfja ali>ina jxicifiva). 

This, the Crooked-billed Snipe of siK)rtsmen, is rather a bird 
of the western i)arts of Canada, being seldom seen on the Atlantic 
Coast or in Quebec, but visits Ontario regularly during migration. 
It is common on the Hud on Bay coasts and breeds in great num- 
bers along the Arctic Ocean. 

The feathers of the back have black centres with rufous mar- 
gins, the breast is white with blackish streaks, a large black patch 
marks the middle of the belly, behind which the feathers are white. 
In winter the black belly spot is not present, and the whole upper 
plumage is brownish gray, the lower parts lighter, but streaked 
with dark. The bill is more than l\'-2 inches long, and bent down- 
ward near tip. I/ength about 8Vo inches, and expanse about 15. 
The eggs are yellowish to greenish brown, with chestnut brown 
markings. These birds move in close flocks, feeding mostly on 
shores or beaches. 


(Ercuncfi's pusiUns). 

In coloration and size this "J*eep" much resembles the Least 
Sandpi])er, but the partial webl)ing between the toes in this will 
distinguish them. The two species associate in feeding, in flight, 
and in migration, breeding in similar locations, but this one in the 
Hudson Bay region rather than the Arctic tundra. Its length is 
about Gi/o inches, expanse about 12, and bill rather less than 1 inch. 




i ' i^ 







The Western Semi-palmated is thought to be distinct, in hav- 
ing a darker coloration on the back in summer, and the length of 
the bill averaging over 1 inch. 



(Caladris arenaria). 

The upper plumage is of black feathers edged with chestnut 
and tipped with whitish, as in most of the other sandpipers. The 
wings are grayish; the bill and feet black; the latter without the 
hind toe. 

Length between 7 and 8 inches, and expanse 15 to 16, This 
is a conmion ])]()ver on the shores of rivei-s and lakes of Canada 
east of the Rocky Mountains, as it migrates northward in April 
and May. Its nest is built on marshy ground and has been found 
about James and Hudson Bavs. 


are amongst the largest bay birds, and their long bills attract 
attention even when their calls are not being uttered. 


(Li mom fcdoa). 

The ^Farbled God wit is rarely seen east of ^Manitoba, although 
occasionally taken about the Great Lakes. It nests in the plains 
regions from the western border of Ontario to British Columbia, 
building its slight nest in meadow land, and laying four olive-gray 
eggs spotted with lirown. The plumage of the back is brownish 
with dark bars, the lower surface of the same light cinnamon 
brown, but almost without markings. The bill is long and slightly 
recurved. Various in size. Length about 18 inches, expanse 35 
or more, bill 4i/>, stout toes 1VL>- 

' 86 

I r> 

f It 




(Lirnosa liacm(i.stiea). 

This Godwit follows the Atlantic coasl duriiij; mijjration, be- 
inj? seen often in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Bruns- 
wick, but seldom in Quebec and Ontario, and very rarely in Mani- 
toba and Saskatchewan. It is said to breed plentifully on the 
tundra toward the Arctic Ocean, and is often taken about Hudson 
Bay. In the sj)rinf? its lower ])lumaj?e is larj^ely chestnut or ruf- 
ous, the up])er i)arts l)einfi; brownish black with white rump and 
black tail. In fall and wintei* the upi)er parts arc j-rayish, and 
under surface yellowish white. It lays four olive or ])ale browTi 
eggs, spotted with darker brown. Length 10 inches, expanse about 
27. Bill 3 to :}i •, inches, and slightly recurved. 


We have only two sjjecies of these sharp-eyed and shrill-voiced 
birds, but they are found all across Canada, being especially com- 
mon in the spring migration along the Atlantic coast. In Sep- 
tember they regularly visit the iJreat Lakes, on tlieir way south 
to the Gulf States. 




(Totamis nichuioIrHciis). 

The black plumage of the back is spotted with ^^hite or light 
gray, that of the neck and head is streaked with the same light 
shades. The tail and tail coverts are white with black bars. The 
belly is white, the breast and sides spotted and barrc^ with black. 
In fall and winter, brown takes the place of black. he bill is 
black, straight, grooved less than half its length and "ver two in- 
ches long. Length from 12 to 14 inches and expanse about 24. 


1 l! '. ; 
■ ill 









Those arc slender, graceful birds, attracting attention by their 
cries as they circle far overhead. They are found breeding on 
Anticosti and also on \'ancouver Island, as well as on the prairie 
near the foothills of the Kockies. Durin,-' the breeding season 
they fre({uently light in trees, but nest on the ground, laying three 
or four brownish or grayish eggs, which are irregularly marked 
with dark brown. The eggs are so seldom found as to be liighlv 
prized. The birds themselves are very attractive game to the coun- 
try boy who has learned to hide himself on the edge of the muddy 
flats where these and other waders gather their food. A boat that 
will float "wherever the grass is wet," or a very well trained dog 
is necessary in the retrieving of Yellow-legs. 


(Totanus flavipes). 
This is a copy of the preceding form on slightly smaller lines. 
In length it does not exceed 12 inches and in extent it is less than 
21. The bill is under 2 inches in length and grooved rather mure 
than Jialf its length. They are thought to breed in Newfoundland, 
northern Quebec and about Hudson Bay. Its nests have been 
rarely found except on the Andei-son and other rivers flowing 
through the Barren Grounds. The eggs are various in coloration 
but usually gray to creamy with brown blotches. Like the larger 
■fonn this bird when disturbed will often perch in a tree near its 
nesting grounds. They are found regularly in fall and spring in 
the Great Lakes region, haunting the .shallow stmams and ponds 
which drain tlie northern shores of Lake Ontario, and they remain 
for several weeks as they travel gradually southward in our ')t:;.nti- 
ful Septeml)er weather. 

SANDPIPER (Hclodromas soliianus). 
The upper part.s of the Ijody are olive brown with A\hite 
streaks on the head and neck, and white spots on the back. The 


SFioin: BiUDs 

tail and sides arc hnricd with wliito and blat-k, and tlio holly is 
white. In winter, like all others of the race, the jtrevnilinjjf shade 
is frrayish. The i'onn un,-, eonnnun in British r'nlninhia is lar;;er, 
darker on the baek jmuI lij;hter ahont the head and neek. It is 
separated as the (Mnr.ainon Solit.iry Siindpipcr. Lon<;th hetwveu 
8 and 9 inches, .xtent al><)nt !<>, hill 1 to 1^^ inches. 

This speeies is funnd S(';itter<'d sjtarsely all aeross (\inada 
j)rol)a!)ly breedintr in the W(M»(led parts of every province, but its 
eg^'s have been rarely found. In northern Alberta, however, Mr. 
"Walter Kaine obtained severil sets of e^j;s. ;>11 found in the old 
nests of other birds, such as the robin, g M-i - Canada jay and 
kingbird, and in some cases 15 feet from the ^lound. More careful 
observation will probably show us that this is a resident of Ontario 
also, as it remains with us throuj^diout the sunnner, and then in- 
dulges in the habit unusual among sandpii)ers of perching on 
trees. The eggs are described as pale greenish white, heavily si)ot- 
ted and blotched, especially at the larger end, with brown and 
gray. Their average size is 1.3G x .98 inches. 


(Si/)npluini(( setnipitlmata). 

The Willets resemble the T;\ttlers or Vellow-legs in general 
appearance and plumage, l)ut aie lan;er and have stouter bill and 
legs. The latter are not yellow but bluish black, and the feet are 
semipalmated. The eastern form is said to be connnon in Nova 
Scotia and is found also in Newfoundland and New I^runswick. 
It is taken occasionally in Ontario, but its nesting grounds are 
mostly south of our boundary. 

The western form is occasinually seen in Ontario; but is com- 
mon and breeds in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta. Its low 
monotonous call, — front whicu its name is taken, — is uttered al- 
most continuously. It* home and feeding grounds re "i^caches and 
margins of ponds, both salt and < ^h iter. In L ih they vary 


11 I 

i !'■ 


i I' 

4it^: i 




from 1" to 16 with expanse of about 28. The bill is 2 to 21/2 
netes ions and stl-aight. Like other shore birds, its winter 
p^umase lacks the blackish markings, and approaches an ashy 
gray in color. 

{Bartrumia lonyicauda). 
The upper plumage of the Field Plover is blackish mth mark- 
ings of Jl and yellowish, the throat aud belly are vvhit.h the 
neck aud breast liu'ht vellow with streaks and bars of dark. \\ mgs 
Uik!:! with white, ;ith black bars,-tail yellowish black and whit. 
Bill NVith black tip. Len-th about 12 inches, expanse 22, bill 1 

^"^ ^'tIus is an upland bird, buildin- its nest on the -round in rough 
drv pastures. It shows no fear of animals, but can scarcely be 
approached bv a man on foot. Its note is clear and can be heard 
when the bird is so high as to b,> invisible. It is seen occasionally 
in eastern Canada and some undoubtedly nest in eastern Ontario, 
but its home is the prairie of the northern United States and Can- 
ada from the western boundary of Ontario to the mountains, and 
as far north as Lake xVthabasca. 


(Act it is maeulariK). 

This is the tip-up or "Teeter Snipe" of our l,rooks and shores. 
It is dressed in quaker drab above and pure white below; the 
throat, breast, and belly being marked with circular black spots. 
Tlie female is larger than the male and more strongly spotted. 
Length between 7 and 8 inches, expanse 13, bill about 1 inch. 

The peculiar habit of bowing or vibrating the body up and 
down which this little shore bird practises so f ^^^getica y w^en 
excited has never been satisfactorily explained. They flit ahead 

^^^"^"' . , . mnvifo' nlon'^ the shore, unti far enough 

of a pedestrian or a i)oat mo\ H'g aiou;, me mi<- i^-, 



i£ t: 


1! 5,1 

f ! i 


I i 



3 I* 



wk r 



■ J 


K b 








from their own particular haunts, then with a 'peet-peet' they 
make a wide curve close to the water as they return to the favorite 
locality. They nest on the jyround, often among dry grass, some- 
times on a gravel bar, laying three or four creamy or grayish 
eggs, spotted with chocolate. 

The range of the Spotted Sandpiper is from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, and it nests \Vherever suitable situations are found. 


( Try)ifjiff.s st(hn<ficoJll.i). 

This small shore bird is not common in the sonthorn parts of 
Canada. It is to be distinguished by the \)\-M-k s^XM-ks and mark- 
ings on ^he white inner wing quills, the outer \vo))s (tf which are 
yello' The inner wing coverts are also strikingly marked with 

win, .black. The tail feathers are grayish yellow with dark 

ends '■ A'liite tips. U])per surface grayish l)rown, lower surface 
pale fawn, with white tips and ol)Scur(' dark markings. Length 
7 to 8 inches ; bill less than an inch. 

Its nest is merely a hollow in tiie soil or moss, in which usually 
four eggs are deposited. I'hese are yellowish gray with spots, 
l)lotehes, and stripes of rich brown. 

While nowhere descrilx'd as abundant, this sandpiper is seen 
quite regularly in Ontario and Manitoba, and is reported from 
British Columbia. Its breeding grounds ai'c the Barren Grounds 
near the Arctic coast, and its food minute crustaceans found along 
the shores. 


(Nu men ins longirosfri.s). 
The extreme length of the liill of this large and handsome bird 
enables anyone to readily identify it. The prevailing color of the 
plumage is buff, dark above and light below. Tb(> head and neck 





jii i 

! ii 1 


are streaked, and back and tail cross-barred with black. The lower 
neck aTd breast are also streaked with dark brown or black. Lensth 
about 24 inches, expanse 36 to 3S. Bill decurved, and d to 6 or 
ovpn 8 inches in lenffth in the mature bird, 
"'"in n e:stern Canada this must be considered a rare nu^rant 

but it breeds in southern ^"^^^'J^^jt the o^.n 
mrts of British Columbia, itb nest is \\(-ii muuci i 

nr' rie The egps are drab with brown markings. \\ hen flying 
ft w . isiles or cflls loudlv in the spring, and when in i'-^^'f^ 
.ke the nar^w shape-or triangular arrangement so notable m 
Sc movements of wild geese. Its feeding grounds are the mo st 



( Nil m en ius h u dso n ia nii m ) . 

While resembling in general appearance the Long Bill^^ ^^^^■ 
lew this bird is not buff but grayish in general color. The top ot 
the he d s marked bv two dark patches separated by a line of the 
traSbdV color. • The under side of the ^^ings is varied by 
markings iiistead of phun ]>uff as in the precedmg form. 

Sh 17 to 18 inches; bill decurved and not more than 4 

and Hudson Bay, but little is kno^^nl of its nest and eggs. 

(Xumcniiis corealis). 
This is the smallest of the three curlews which we may look 
for in eastern Canada. Its plumage greatly resembles that of 




I! ^tv 




■ .'''* . - 

i • i^ 


the Hudsonian Curlew, from which it diffei-s in having no chestnut 
or white bars on the primaries, and having several narrow dusky 
streaks on the crowTi. In length it is under 15 inches, and the bill 
is under 3 inches and nearly straight. Its range in Canada is 
chiefly on the eastern coast, breeding <*m tlio level grounds toward 
the Arctic. It was formerly plentiful on the Labrador and New- 
foundland coasts and is st '; frequently seen there. In Ontario it 
is now rare. In September, 1881, the writer collected several cur- 
lews on Wolfe Island, probably of this species, but they were 
not identified because of lack of definite description. They associ- 
ated with the Colden Plover. 

PLOVER (Sqiiatarola squataroJa). 

The coloration which gives its commonest name to this plover 
is seldom seen south of Hudson Bay. The head is large and round- 
ed in appearance, with a straight bill, much like that of a pigeon. 
Unlike other forms, this species has a small but distinct hind toe. 

Tlie upper plumage is grayis'h, made up of black, w^hite and 
ashy. In the breeding season, from the eyes downward the under 
parts are black. In fall and winter the lower parts are whitish, 
with mottling of light brown on neck and breast. Length 11 to 12 
inches. Bill 1 to I14. In autumn this plover is found going south- 
ward across Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Que- 
bec and Ontario, from their breeding grounds near the Arctic 
Ocean. The northward migration seems to be largely from River 
St. Clair westward following the Mississippi valley. They were 
formerly common in autumn on the old pastures and gravel bars 
of Wolfe Island. 


(Charadrius dominicns). 
While the difference in ai)i)earanee between the Golden and 
the Black-bellied Plover is difficult to make clear in words, it is 



*r? "-f 


not difficult to distinguish average specimens from each other. 
Besides the darker plumage of this biid, with its golden yellow 
markings, the tail is gray with faint whitish bars instead of being 
white with black bars as in the preceding species. The head also 
does not give the impression of being so globular. The absence of 
the small hind toe is a good distinguishing mark. In size the Golden 
averages smaller than the Black-bellied. Length 10 to 11, bill less 
than one inch. (Jreat flocks of (Johlcn Plovers were common on 
old pasture fields and along gravelly shores of Lake Ontario, in 
September and Octol)er, but their nural)ers have greatly diminished 
since every boy can own a breach-loader. On Wolfe Island, many 
were killed by flying against the telegraph wires, and it was not un- 
common for two dozen birds to I'all ;it one discharge of a double 
barrelled gun. They nest from Hudson Bay westward on the 
tundra, and along the Arctic Ocean, and migrate all across Canada 
spending the winter in southern Brazil and Argentina. 

The Pacific Golden Plover is smaller, with more yellow or 
gold color about the head. It is the conunon form in Vancouver 
Island and Western Alaska. 


{Aegialitis vocifera). 

This is the best known of our plovers in Ontario, breeding in 
dry rough i)astures that are not far from stream or lake shores, and 
calling out its name whenever disturbed. Its back is grayish 
brown, rump yellowish or chestnut browTi, tail darkening toward 
the end, but with a light bar and bro\\Tiish tips. The throat, fore- 
neck, and line over the eye are white. A complete black collar, 
broad in front encircles the neck, and a second black breast band 
is incomi)lete behind. The forehead has a white band from eye 
to eye with a black band behind it. Belly and lov^-er breast white, 
and patches of white on the wings. Length from 9 to IOV2 inches, 
and bill % of an inch. 



While not common east of Ontario, the Killdccr is very much 
at home in the country bordering the Great Lakes, making its nest 
often among pebbles or bits of wood, and feeding on tield and shore 
insects and crustaceans. It comes in April and leaves toward the 
last of September or after the iirst frosty nights. It is plentiful 
all across the plains, and in open parts of British (.\)lunibia. 


{Aegialitis setnipalmata) . 

Back and tail ashy brown, lower parts white, except a black 
band on the lower neck. A white baud from eye to eye interrupts 
the black cap which covers the head from the bill upward. A 
broad white baud includes the throat aud encircles the head, and 
is followed by the black band mentioned above. Length ti to 7 
inches. Bill Yo inch. The toes are plainly seuiipaluiated. 

This plump little plover is a resident iu Is'ewfouudland aud 
Nova Scotia, and probably in the other eastern provinces. It 
nests in Ontario and iu the prairie provinces, but its chief breeding 
grounds are further north, the Labrador coast, Hudson Bay, and 
across the plains to Alaska. About the east eud of Lake Ontario 
they are plentiful in September, often associating with Killdeer 
Plover, but are more gregarious than the latter. They tly iu close 
bunches of from ten to thirty, aud run rapidly aloug the saudy and 
muddy beaches. Their nests are iu the sand or pebbles. 


(Aegialitis meloda). 

In this little plover, the head is pale brown or ashy, with a 
black bar across the forehead from eye to eye. The throat and a 
ring around the neck are nearly white and this is succeeded by a 
breast ring of black, incomplete in front, and usually so behind. 
The variety A. meloda circumcincta, or Belted Piping Plover, 



,1 i« 













9 ■ 




'i«4L' ^^ 


differs only in having a complete black breast band. All the upper 
parts are ashy brown, the under parts lighter to whitish. The bill 
is short, rather under i/o inch, stout and black. Their note is a 
musical, plaintive high pitched "peep." Length 61/2 to 7 inches. 
They nest in the maritime provinces and have been found in 
Ontario, and Manitoba, but are abundant only along the Atlantic 
coapit of the United States. 

(Arenaria inter pres and A. morinella). 

The crustaceans of the wet shores which form the food of 
this plover, are obtained by industriously upsetting shells and 
pebbles, hence the name. From its beautifully mottled w'hite, black 
and chestnut plumage it gets the name of Calico bird. The chest- 
nut seems part of the breeding dress, and is absent in winter, 
when brown and gray take the place of the clearer black and white 
markings. The base of the tail is white and the tip is black. The 
breast is black and belly white. 

Length 8 to 9 inches, expanding a]' ut 18, bill about 1 inch 
long, black ; feet orange. 

The breeding ground of the Turnstone is the Arctic regions, 
and in its migration it is found in all the provinces, but not plenti- 
ful or common anywhere, and belonging evidently to the ocean 
beaches. Two species have been distinguished, but probably one 
is merelv a varietv of the other. 

The Black Turnstone is darker throughout than the eastern 
forms, the head especially lacking white, hence the name A. me- 
lanocephala. It is reported as breeding on the shores of Vancouver 
Island and the mainland of British Columbia. 

(Haematopus hachmani). 

This is the only species of this striking group certainly found 
in Canada. These birds have large, coarse, strong feet and legs, 




.. » 


pale in color; the bill is adapted for opening the shplk'nf'f^-^ -^ 

oystere ao not lun fast." A large vei-mili„n bill, comniessed and .Imped, funeate like that „f the large w.^dneX'ris thf 
e(f,o,e„t weapon y whieh they explore elam and musseUhdls 

The bead and neck are glossy black, other parts brownish 
black. Length about 20 inches but varying greatly BiUlTri 
inches long, and various in shape, sometimes tent near tlfe "„ '" * 

the B itish Columwf '" ^'T' "' "" '^™ ™'''''' »"" '^ "'■"»»•' on 
blaekish "'""'''• '^^' ^""""'^h drab, speckled with 

1 • 



usually ftrtteedTlef' It?"*' """""T' ''"'""« ^1>"^' "»<• 




- 1 

I i *» 

• H ,' 


• -I 


H ■ 



; s 


{Colin as virgin ia nus). 

Ropresenting the quail and iwirtridge of Knn»p(' we 1' ne in 
eastern Canada only the Bob-white. 

This l)ird is called quail in Ontario and the eastern United 
States, and partridge in the Middle States. The term "])artridge" 
as applied t(» our grouse is misplaced, as the Bob-white alon( re- 
sembles the Partridge of Europe and Africa. Our Bob-white ur 
quail is, however, quite distinct from transatlantic forms. Many 
of the (juail family are found in tlie United States, Mexico and 
Central America. 

We can still claim the Bob-white as a Canadian bird although 
its range is now restricted to the southwestern peninsula (»f On- 
tario, and practically to the southern rounties. Here it is not un- 
common, although becoming less plentiful every year in .\ liich it is 
not continuously ])rotected. 

Its food consists chiefly of weed seeds, crickets, grassuopjxTS 
potato beetles, wireuxmns and cutworms. No bird c^in sliow l)et- 
ter reason for being carefully preserved and encouraged. It nests 
on the ground, laying a dozen or more white eggs. The call note 
of the male gives it its popular name. 

The top of the head bears a number of long loose feather.^ 
which are scarcely a crest. The plumage in general is chest ut 
with dark bars and streaks. The tail is grayish, the throat is white, 
and so is a broad line across the forehead and over the eye. Thi 
white is yellowish in winter, and in the female's plumage at al 
times. Length about 10 inches, expanse about 15. Albino form 
are not rare, and instances of melanism are occasionally found. 
These should be preserved for scientific study. 

" ! g?H ?g ! J S^!!.y?' '^^'M Bpl 




{Ortortij pivi ). 

This I 'autitul Liime I'w 1 is f iiul in soiitl •ii ('oliun- 
bia and oi \'anc<tn\. r Islntit.. liav ii; cmne fnaa tlie soutli. 

Jis ba.-k, wij _>. .in! il ai-e oLvo Iji-own; t■(^repart^^ al"ivt' and 
hi i(i\v i:tty giay ; tliroia and belly t-lu'Stnut, sides band<Ml v iX\ 
hniad ii. is (.f lilac'k and wliite. Two narrow bla^k jduini irve 
hackwiinl. narrow \\ lute line borders tlie l»ase <•!" ti II above 
.nd conti uu'.- oeynn- tlif eye down the .>ide » the noi ii'^jth 

n to 12 ihidies, with (xp.ins*- (»t' 10 inches. 


Lopliorl ij.r calif arnica). 
'Ph. is jii 'thei" i'f'.aitiful bird spreadif - 

•roltabiy intro- 
duced -ft tan ( ! fV>^ la, I 41 breedinu; Ireeh m ■ri i Cohiinbia. 

A nai-ro'" itt "ne from the bill passt ulcr tiie eye and 
down Aard aluUL, >side of the neck. A tulsi'd jdunic of a few 
feathers curves f ■ i- vard from the bi-ownisi top of the head. 
'' |>er parts are ashy ])ro\\'n, forebreast si; blue, under parts 
r V, deei»<ning to bris^ht chestnut on i e ly, where all the 
1 ii-rs are shari)ly edited with black. »*• ies olive briwi; with 
'^ larp white stripes. Length 10 to 11 inches." 


The grouse differ from the part^ridL'f^ or quail in liaving the 
tarsus feathered at least in ])art, the nostrils more or less feath- 
ered, and the sides of the toes in Winlei- 'linale. i. e. bearing on 
each side a comb-like line of h(>\n points which serve as snow- 
shoes. These develop in Sepuuiber and October and are cast in 
April. They roost in evergreens, except during thfi extreniely 
cold weather, when they burrow in the deep drifts of sn=iW. 








(Dendragapus obscurus). 

Of the Dusky Grouse and its varieties the Sooty and Richard- 
son 's Grouse, we have certainly the latter two forms, and probably 
the f jrmer. They are large handsome birds, undisturbed by the 
presence of man, and hence so easily killed as to obtain the name 
'Fool Hen' in the Rocky Mountains. They range from Arizona 
and New Mexico northward, the Dusky Grouse being the most 
southerly form, Richardson's Grouse next, and the Sooty Grouse 
ranging to or be\'ond Sitka. All belong to the coniferous forests 
of the Pacific coast, but are reported as brought for sale to Sault 
Ste. Marie as though from the Laurentides. The following are 
chief points in the description of Richardson's Grouse as given by 
Mcllwraith. Back and wings blackish brown, crossed with wavy 
lines of slaty gray. Yellowish brown on the scapulars, long side 
feathers tipped with white. Under parts light slate color, mixed 
^ith white on the lower belly. Chin and throat speckled with black, 
enlarged white feathers on the sides of the neck. Tail brownish 
black veined with gray and with a broad terminal band of grey. 
Length 20 to 22 inches. Tail 7 inches. All three are alike in size and 
general appearance, the two northern forms being darker. They 
lay from seven to ten eggs in a very slight nest on the ground, the 
eggs being buff colored, speckled with chocolate brown. 


(Dendragapus canadensis). 

This beautiful grouse belongs to eastern Canada. It is found 
in Newfoundland and Labrador, in Nova Scotia, Quebec and On- 
tario north of Ottawa, and in the forest regions of Manitoba. It 
nests on the ground in the spruce and tamarack forests in which it 
lives, and feeds on berries, leaves, and buds. Its flesh is not as well 
flavored as that of the Ruffed Grouse, nor is it so shy a bird. Its 



beauty will scarcely save it from extinction in all settled regions 
unless carefully fostered by protecting; legislation. 

Plumage jibove black, with wavy lines of grayish; black also 
below with white spots and l)ars. A bright yellow or red comb of 
naked skin forms the upper border of each eye. The tail is made 
up of sixteen feather.., black, with a rich brown bar at the ends. 
The throat is dark bordered with white. Legs feathered to the 
toes. Length 15 to 17 inches. 


{Dcudnujapus ftanklini) . 

This is a w^estern form of the Canadian Spruce Grouse- 
found throughout the wooded parts of British Columbia and the 
Eastern ridges of the Rockies. It shares with the Dusky Grouse 
the name 'Fool Hen,' from its unsuspicious nature. 


{Bonasa umbcJlL togata). 
This is the ''Partridge," so dear to all healthy country boys of 
eastern Canada, affording a good reason for many and delightful 
tramps through upland and swampy forests, with no great danger 
of being over burdened with game. The startling rush and roar 
with which it rises when close to an intruder is very disconcerting 
to young gunners, and the remarkable speed with which it places 
tree tops and trunks Iwtween itself and danger, may enable it to 
delight several more generations with excellent siwrt. Wise legis- 
lation, by establishing a close season of five years, has recently per- 
mitted it to again occupy covers long ago deserted. Its custom of 
'drumming' is one of the most interesting peculiarities of this fas- 
cinating bird. The male, at the beginning of the nesting season, 
calls the female by standing upon a slight elevation— usually a 
fallen log— and rapidly beating the air with liis concave rounded 




* \' 





I. ' ■ 


if; i 






wings. The result is a booming sound, resembling distant thunder. 
Occasionally the sound is produced in the fall. This musical per- 
formance is accompanied by struttings, \\-'ith wings drooped and 
tail spread in first rate turkey style. The Ruffed Grouse feeds 
on the ground during the summer and fall, eating haws, rosehips, 
gooseberries, grapes and other wild fruits, as well as insects and 
clover loaves. In winter, when the snow covers ground food, the 
buds of the iron wood and white birch form a favorite supper, and 
towards evening the birds may be plainly seen on the slender leaf- 
less branches against a yellow western sky. They lay about a dozen 
eggs, in a slight nest usually under a log or close against a stump 
in a heap of brush. The eggs are sometimes speckled slightly with 
brown, but usually are j \ain creamy white. 

The general color of the ui)i)er plumage is variegated grayish 
brown, with pale sp(jts on the feathers, each spot bortiered with 
black, A number of long erectile feathers on the sides of the neck 
are sjieoially well develn])ed in the male. Lower breast and belly 
pale buff marked with brown. The feathers of the back and 
esj)ecially of the tail vary fiom chestnut to gray, and upon the 
prevailing gray or rusty tones and the general dark or light shades 
of i)lumage, varieties have been established. The tail is long and 
broad, irr*>gularly mottled and barred \nth black, and with a 
broad black band near the tip. The upper i)aits of the tarsi are 
feathered. Length about 17 inches, expanse of wings about 23, 
and tail 7 to 8 inches. 

The range of the Huffed Grouse is from Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and Labrador across Canada to the poplar woods of 
^Manitoba where it merges into the gray variety. In Oregon and 
British Columbia another very dark forni is found. These seem 
to be merely ecological varieties, and the prevailing tones of the 
foliage of the district will decide the tone of the plumage, which 
must be so inconspicuous as to pennit its wearers to live long 
enough to produce offspring like themselves. 


n ■ 

• : 1, 

1 1 

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These Grouse belong to the northern regions, and come south 
to settled parts of Canada only in winter. They are very similar to 
the Ruffed Grouse in summer, but have feathers covering even 
their toes and put on a coat of white plumage for the winter. 


(Lagojms ptannifjaii)- 

This is the only ptannigan in Ontario and Quebec, where it is 
found oceasionallyin winter as far south as Sault Ste. Marie, and 
Ottawa. Its breeding range is from Labrador across to Hudson 
Bay, and The spruce forest to Alaska, where it is plentifid. 
Its' nest is in a sheltered place on the gn>und, and it lays fromJLto 
12 oogs,— buff with heavy and l/lotdies of dark brown, 
"^^^"ife^sunnner the plumage of the neck and head is chestnut 
sliditlv marked with l»lack, the back and rump are black with many 
bars of vellowish brown, the tail is black tipped with white. The 
l)rimaries and secondaries (.f the wings— both shafts and plumes-^ 
remain white, as do the lower breast and ))elly. In winter it is 
all pure white except th.e black tail, which is mostly concealed by 
the long white tail coverts. It is distinguishable in winter from the 
K»ock Ptarmigan by having a stout bill and no black stripe on the 
head. Length 15 to 17 inches. Tail 5V-. 

The varietv known as Allen's Ptarmigan,— L^/(/o/ws laf/opus 
allcni is verv similar, but has the shafts of the secondaries black. 
It is the commcm lowland ptarmigan of Newfoundland, and not 
known elsewhere. 


(Lagopus ruyestris). 
This grouse in some of its varieties is found from Greenland 
across Canada to Alaska and the mountains of V^uicouver Island. 





1; 1 







. 11 1* J 


there the>mi. ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ the ne^^ y 

in winter pure white, but with a black stripe over tl>e eye. Length 

13 1» 15 inches. Tail 41/1;. Pt-irmisan —Litimnm wel- 

, ^^ t'a^';'otXSXrt^Lteal hU ™r mountiin^s of the 

f:ZZZ^l^i>^^^nl It is not Un-v„ elsewhere but^or^- 

bla€k. Its nest aud eggs are unkno^'H. 

TAIN SNOW GROUSE {Lofjopus leucuruH). 

This cleirly marked form is found on the summits of the 
P .1 V oinH ns n British Columbia and Vancouver Island, and 

with brown. 


^ •,: 



(. i 




h \ 



1 ' 

I >i 

i.i' lili 

, 1 





(Tifm/xiHurliHs nmcricauus). 

This is the Prairie f'hicken or Prairio llcii of oastorn North 
America. It j)r(>hahly ranged at one time nearly to the Athmtie 
coast in the United States, and was found in southwestern Ontario. 
It is, however, a bird of the open meadows, and now inhabits the 
valley of the Mississippi and Red rivers, Manitoba and southern 

In Manitoba it is said to be replacing the Shari)-tailed (J rouse. 
It is likely to survive if f^iven reasonable protection, as it prefers 
cultivated fields and does not demand solitude. Even in verv cold 
weather it usually remains in the oj>en, reaching its food by 
scratching througli the snow on stubble fields. It eats grain in 
autumn and winter, along with berries and small fleshy fruits. In 
early summer it lives largely on beetles, crickets and grasshoppers. 
They 'pack' in flocks in winter, scj^arate in the spring, and come 
together only for competitive dancing and 'booming.' The latter 
is a vocal performance, in which the extensive bare patches of 
red skin between the neck tufts are distended. 

The hen birds desirous of mates come quietly to these enter- 
tainments, and are claimed l)y the victorious males. The nests 
are made in long grass or stubble and from 10 to 15 eggs, yellowish 
or grayish olive, are laid. 

The following is the descriptiou given ])y Cones and Mcll- 
wraith with additional particulai-s from Chapman's Handbook. 
"Abovf variegated with black, brown, tawny, or ochrey and 
white, the latter especially on the wings; below quite regularly 
barred with dark brown, white, and tawny; throat tawny, a little 
speckled or not; vent and crissum mostly white; quills fuscus, 
with narrow or imi)erfect white oi* tawny bars and tips. Sexes 
alike in color, but the female smaller with shorter neck tufts.*' 
"Sides of the neck with tufts of ten or more narrow stiffened black 


l!; f 


f - 



. ^i 



feathers, marked with buff and rufous, their ends rounded, the 
skin beneath these tufts bare." Length 16 to 18 inches, extent 
about 28 inches, tail W-- Lt^gs feathered to the bases of the toes. 


(Pediaccetes phasianellus). 

This is the eastern fomi of the Prairie Chicken of the north- 
west, being occasionally found between Lake AVinuipeg and Sault 
Ste. :Marie, and very rarely in Muskoka. It is common about James 
Bav, and probably wanders southward and eastward, having been 
found at Lake Abitibi and even Lake St. John. It is thought to be 
spreading eastward along the line of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, being able to adapt itself to the partially open forest country. 
"It abounds on the outskirts of the Saskatchewan plains and is 
found throughout the woi.ded districts of the Northwest Terri- 
tory." Juniper scrub is the favorite home of this grouse, and it 
eats the buds of Juniper in winter and the berries in summer. Its 
nest is on the ground, and it lays in June about six creamy olive 
drab eggs with brown specks. 

Its plumage is dark in tone, the markings being black, white 
and dark brown with little tawny. On the undei- part-^ the si.ots 
are numerous, blackish and V shaped. The throat is white and 
speckled. A bare space on each side of the neck is covered with 
feathers slightly longer bi't otherwise like the others. A number 
of narrow feathers form a -hort decurved crest. The tail is white 
and short, made up of sixteen feathers graduated in length toward 
the two middle ones which project about an inch beyond the others. 

The Prairie form of the Sharp-tail diffei-s in color tone, the 
markings being black, white and tawny. On the lower Ixjdy the 
dark siiot.s are fewer in number, bro\\'n and U shajied instead of 
black and V shaped. Its home is on the open plains and stubble 
fields, up to the foot hills, and in winter it seeks the shelter of 

■ 106 


broken, wooded country. Its nest is usually in the vicinity of 
bushes, and its eggs sometimes number sixteen, green isli to brown- 
ish with a few flecks of dark brown. 

The Columbian Sharp-tail is the form of this grouse found in 
British Columbia east of the Coast range, but can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from the prairie foiin. 


( Cc n t rocc ru s u roiihania n us ) . 

Our claim upon this as a Canadian bird rests uim.ii the fact 
that it is occasionally found in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia near the international boundary. " Its centre of abund- 
ance is the Artemisia (Sage brush) tracts of Colorado, Wyoming, 
Utah, Nevada, Idaho, eastern California and Oregon." Coues 
saw it in the Milk River district of Alberta. It is probal)ly never 
found far from the shrubby wormwood known as Sage brush. 

It is the hirgest of the Grouse native to America, measuring 
25 to 80 iuclies in length with an expanse of 3 feet, and tail about 
12 inches. The hen is one-fourth smaller. The upper ]>arts are 
"varied with black, gray, brown and buff: below chiefly white, 
with a large squarish black area on the belly. Chin and throat 
blackish, speckled with white ends of the feathers." 

The neck in front bears the naked, i)allid t\Tnpanum, capable 
of being greatly distended during amatory displays. It is border- 
ed by stiff filamentous feathers, and covered by soft filamentous 
plumes. The stiff feathers are worn down to resemble fish scales, 
by the birds rubbing their breasts on the ground. Their food is 
wonn-wood tips, berries, seeds, and grasshoppers, and the flesh 
is not palatable at ail. Strictly terrestrial. Eggs up to 17 in a 
clutch, greenisli drab in color. 









{Mclcayris fjaUojxivo, varietif fera). 

Once quite plentiful in southwestern Ontario, this greatest of 
our upland ^'anie birds is now probably extinct within our herders. 
Thev quite certainly at one time ranged as far east as Hamilton 
and possibly to the site of Toronto, but for years their only repre- 
sentatives have been restricted to forest lands in Essex and Kent 
counties and it is doubtful whether one individual now exists in 
Ontario outside the Kond Eau Government Park. 

The turkey grou]) belongs to Central and North America, and 
several species or varieties are, or were, found in the United States, 
one, the Mexican Turkey— being the form taken to Eur^tpe, where 
it became the ancestor of our more or less domesticated race. The 
Rio Grande Turkey and the Florida Turkey differ but little from 
the form found in the Eastern States and Ontario. The chief dis- 
tinction is that the Mexican race and its tame descendants have the 
tail covert feathers tipped with white, while all the more northern 
forms wear chestnut tips. The wild birds never show such a great 
development of fleshy frontal protuberance, and of caruncles on 
the neck, as do the domestic gobblers. The most beautiful form,— 
rivalling the peacock~is the spurred and oscellated Central Ameri- 
can Turkey. Wild Turkeys are gregarious, living in flocks of ten 
or more excei)t during the nesting season. Probably each flock 
represents one brood, which numbered from ten to fifteen. They 
return night after night to the same roosting place if undis- 
turbed, usually to the tops of the tall trees growing in lowlands. 
The "gobbling" call of the males in the early spring morning can 
be heard long distances, and several of them are likely to reply to 
the more plaintive note of the female. Then a display of charms 
and courage, much strutting and fierce battles, end in the capture 
of the hen by the polygamous sultan. The flesh of the wild birds 
is considered greatly superior to that of the domesticated form, 
and this is very difficult of explanation, as this wide ranging bird 




is never <iiiite tame, iilmost invariably nests in a bit of woodland 
or shrubbery, and lives upon insects, acorns, Ix'echnuts, and other 
wild provender for the greater part of its life, i-efusinj^c to recog- 
nize his master or "his master's crib" until laboriously driven 
home by force, or rarely by stress of wenthcr. Length 48 to 50 
inches, and weight varying from 12 to '.io pt)unds. 


Of this very numerous race, iv- !i!r;n of which swarmed in 
parts of Canada within fifty year .e aase at pi-esent only two 
and possii)ly only one, representai .^ . 

The passenger pigeon is not at ibis date, 1914 — certainly 
known to exist in Canada, although it is possible that some still 
nest in the Lake of the Woods region. 

Pigeons have a moderately large head, graceful neck and 
strong compact body. The beak is swollen at the tip, and covered at 
the base by a soft skin, and in this the nostrils open. The feet 
have four toes on the same level, and the wings are hmg and pow- 
erful, except in the ground doves. Two extinct forms — the Dodo 
and the Soltaire were flightless. All pigeons have large crops 
which during the breciing season secrete a milky fluid to moisten 
the half digested food which they give to their young. In drink- 
ing, j)igeons swallow ouiitinuously without raising their heads, 
which are thrust into the water. They have great api)etites, being 
credited with ability to eat in a day a quantity of food eciual to 
their own weight. They pair for life, and are thougiit to become 
deeply attached to each other. Their nests are very frail and in- 
secure platfoiTOs of twigs, on which the two w*hite eggs are incu- 
bated, the parents earing for them alternately. The young are 
decidedly altricial, requiring for some time to be fed by the parents. 
This is done by the parent's beak being placed well within that of 
the young one, into whose throat regurgitated food is then injected. 


i "i 




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1 1 




(Ectopistcs migmtorius) . 

In south eastern Ontario large flocks of this bird were occa- 
sionally seen in 1878. A few i>airs were found as late as 1883, but 
soon after that date they disappeared. In noi-th-westem Ontario 
and ]\[anit(vl)a they were seen in 1887, '^S, and '91. Unless a few 
pairs survive in the Lake of the Woods region it is probable that 
at i)resent the sjR'cics is extinct, and no completely Siitisfactorv 
reason for this can he j?iven, aithoun'h their fearlessness and their 
habit of nestini; in colonies i;ave op])ortunity for their easy and 
wholesale ca}»ture and destruction. 

AVheu a boy, the writer had a younjjj Passeufjer Pigeon as a 
pet, and it showed great cajjacity for affection and confidence. 
Thev nested in considerable nunib(i's in the hardwood groves in 
our district, and this ))ird had been taken from the nest before it 
was able to fly. It soon l)ecame very tame and showed absolutely 
no fear. No attenij)t was made to confine it, except that for safe- 
keeping it was shut in a barn at niyht. During tiie day it accom- 
panied me to my work on any part of the farm, and iterched (»n a 
fence, or gathered grain f j-om the ground, but alwaj's ready to come 
to my hand at a call, it flew about me as I rode on horse-back 
across the fields, and seemed afraid of no creature but the domestic 
cat. It ate raspberries and grain out (»f my hand, and scolded me 
with raised wings and voice if I closed my fingers over the food. 
Altogether a more delightful ])et could scarcely l>e found. 

The i>lumage of the uiipei- parts is bluish slate, with olive 
brown on the back and shoulders, and iridescent red, golden and 
])uri)le on the side* and back of the neck. The outer tail feathers 
are black at the base, then dull bluish with a white tip. The 
breast is dull pur2)lish red, whitish on l(»wer belly and under tail. 
Length 15 to 17 inches. Wing and tiiil each 7 to 8 inches. 





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I! ir * < fl 

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<P i Mam~ i B"ii' 


{Zenaidura macroura). 

This pigeon-f<ha])ed bird is hccoininf!; more inunorous every 
year in all southern Canada, and as yet lias not been greatly perse- 
cuted by shootei-s. It seems likely to replace the Passen^ei- I*i^eon, 
and being a famous eater of weed-seeds it may lu'cctme a favorite. 
In shajM} and jjfeneral ai)peai';ince it i-esembles the Passenji;:er 
lMfi;eon, but its colors are grayish brown instead of blue j^ray. A 
small black mark below the ear, and the brownish rump feathers, 
as well as the smaller size will readily distinguish it. liCiij^th about 
12 inches, wiuij: and tail each about 7)1-,. 

It nests in bushes and sinall trees or on the bushy fences, and 
even on tlu' ground. Its UKuii-nful note can be heard about sunset, 
— a loud and clear, long drawn "co(»" — followed by the smiuc twice 
(tr three times repeated briefly in a nnich softer tone. 


This order of birds is distinguished by having a cere or fleshy 
covering on the base of the strongly hooked l)eak, and never ha\ 14^ 
the toes in pairs. — two in front, and tw(» behind — as foumi wi tm 
pari*<tts. The fourth toe is somet lines versiitiie, i. <>., it uiay l»e 
turn«'d to the back. The claws are generally strong, liie tibia and 
often the tarsus are featlured. Tlw niemliers of this group are 
altricial, the young being merely downy at biith. av' carni- 
vorous Itirds, often of large si/e and great sti-euLTtii. and usually 
described as our birds t»f prey, but rhis term is (piitr as suitable to 
many other groujts such as flycatchers, swall<»ws, nighthawks, etc. 

The California N'ulture has been seen on the Canadian side 
of the boundary in British (olumbia. but .s. seld(»ni ,is to give k 
no title to be considered a <'anadian bird. 



ill i 






(Adapted from Coucs). 
In rhi* Rn.tH. we Inno uian> stages ..f the pmla<HM*us nature. 
S<.tne iK^H^ss in a high degree the activity. leT^ity, strengtii and 
eonraue whM-h we usually associate n-ith t)mt i^ ot ervatni^ 
xvhieh get their f.-.d by killing weaker living tM^^ Othei-s make 
war onh n^ou inseets and lowly f..n«s of vertebrat.^ whde still 
otlu.r. live aUnost entirely on earrion. Thes.' latter show a lack 
of the adaptations whieh (Uglify other fonns to overcome ttheir 
swift and watchful pre>-. 


1 Feet for walkinu. seareid) a<lapted f..r grasp.iiag, elam^ Wunt 
■ and hut sliglitlv curved, land toe elevated, m«*txils pertoratt"; 

l.iU long, hlunt;and hut sli-htly booked. Hccwi naked or n^-auiy 
so . ( 'of ha /•/ uh's, 1 Juzzard* . »r Vulture Family, pagf llti 

2 Feet espeeiallv aioditied for seizing, claws stroim. sharp, eoia- 
tra.-tile and eu.-ved; hind toe mrt rlevateii but loo^j, and with a 
verv eflieient elaw. Nostrils not ^rforate, l»m short and 
with a sharp ho..ked tip. Head feathered emnrely .r nearly so_ 

Acvipiti rs. Eiigles. Hawks, and Owis, i)age 11» 
•)a Head not unusuallv large, l)road. nor tiat in front; eyes 
h.oking sidewavs: nostrils entirely in the eeiv; no external 
car-eoneh; outer toe rarely reversible, and not shorter than 
the inner one: feet in most species free from feathers, toes 
Itare and scaly: plumage compact. Active in daylight. 
ill. Outer toe not reversible. 

y,ilrf„ii(l(i< . Eagles and Hawks, page 11» 

a-> Outer Kk- reversible; tarsus partly feathered, scales on 

fn.nt small and rounded. Tail barred, but back and 

wings not barred. . . . Fish Hawk or Osprey, page i:U 

[]. llea<l ve.y large, broa<l, and Hattened in fn.nt t.. f..rm a face, 




which is usually outlined by a circle or triangle of radiating 
feathers. Eyes very large, and looking forward in all but one 
Slides; and encircled by lines of peculiar radiating feathers; 
bill never toothed, and having the nostrils opening at the edge 
of the cere. A large external ear-conch is common. Outer toe 
leversible and shorter than the inner one; tVet usually feath- 
ered or bristly even on the toes. Plumage loose. Active birds 
in dim light, seldom in clear daylight. 

Stfiffes, the Owls, page 132 


A. Wing ..ver 19 inches long T^ie Eiigles 

M. Li^ej- third or more of the tarsus untVathered. 

Biild P:agle, pagr 126 

A2- Wliole tarsus feathered Golden Eagle, page 12.') 

B. Wing under 19 inches long The Hawks, |)age IIH 

These p«Kssess the characters given alxwrt' for Falcimidae, ex- 
cept those peculiar t(t the Osi)rey. (\Mies makes the distinction 
that the true Falcons in general possess sharj), strong winjrs, with 
but one or a few notched quills, and on the quills ^re sliiirply de- 
fined spots of light c.»lor. Their pwy is^ captured by an »'XtiTmely 
swift and violent dash. Other liawks have round concave wings, 
with several notched quills, and these are marke<l by Imrs of light 
color. They catch their prey by an imijetuous and persistent chast- . 
hut not by a dash. Hi»th the above feed largi'ly on birds. The 
7y„/,-o.s— called in England Buzzards— are comi»aratively slow and 
;\wkward birds, feeding largely <tn creatures easy of capture, such 
as insects, frogs, reptiles, mice and moles. Most <»f their primar- 
ies are iiot<'hed. and their liirht colored uiarkings arc inclined to 
form irregular blotcliiH. 


I J 

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y^*'^it • f* 






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Those characteristics, with those below, serve to mark off the 
three <;roups of the Hawks : — 

1. The Falcons— Upi)er nuuulihle toothed; lower mandible 
notched : winjjs pointed. 

2. The Accipiters— Bills without tooth or notch; tai-sns about 
ecpial to tibia in lenj^th; winjjs rounded, and little h.nffer than 
the tail. 

;j. The Buteos— Hill without tooth or notch: tarsus decidedly 
shorter than tibia; tail n<.t forked, and somewhat shorter than 
the obtuse wiuj^s. 

lu addition to the above jrrouj.s we have one forui— the Marsh 
Hawk or Harrier— with .»wl-like i.lunhu^', and somethin- of 
an ear-coueh. It may always be i(h'iiti(i('d hv the uufailinu white 
rump, oi- tail coverts. 


a. Lenjfth aI»out 21 inches. Tai-sus half uav down in 
tn»nt and on the sides, and lou.-er thau the nn.ldU. ti.,- without 
the claw. Fust (piill shorter than the third. 

X r ., , , Jerfalcons, j.a^'e 127 

h. Lenjjth between lb and 20 in.-hes. Tarsus feathered half dou-n 
in trout and on the sides, and lon-er than the mi.ldlc toe with- 
out the claw. First quill shorter than the third. 

. T ..1 u . , . , Frairie Falcon, jmrn- 129 

c. Lenf,th between lb and 20 inches. Tarsus (eathetvd a little in 
tront, broadly bare behind, an.l not Iou^mt than the mi.ldle toe 
without the claw. First quill not shorter than the third. 

1 T ^1 , ^ JVre^nine Falcon, page 129 

d. LcuK^h ui.der 12 inches. Tai-sus scar.rly featlu-ml above, the 
plates m tront are enlarged, and like ., d<,uble row of alteraat- 
ing scutella; the tai-sus is scarcely longer than the middle toe 


J ! 



without the claw; fii-st quill not lonjfcr than the fourth, and first 

and second notched on the inner webs. 

dl. Back reddish, barred with hhu-k in the niah', uncU-r parts 

\yhite (.r tawny Sparrow Hawk, page 131 

(12. Color same hut paler. 

Desert Sparrow Hawk, page VM 
d;i. Back slaty blue in adult, with a partial butt' collar on the 

neck; back black with butt* collar in young specimens. 

l*igeon Hawk, page TM) 
(14. Same with general blackish shade. 

Suckley's Pigeon Hawk 



Length 20 inches or less; tarsus feathered not more than oiie- 
third the way down, and very slender: — 

a.. Feet moderately stout; bare part of tarsus sh<.rter than tlie 
middle t(.e; tail s.|uare; length K' to U inches, extcjit '>() to 'Ti 

^ ;!^'''"''^ Sharpshin Hawk, page IIJ) 

b. JM^er mo.h'rately stout; bare part ..f tarsus shorter than the 
middle toe; tail ro.uuh'd; length 1«; to L'O inches- extent '»S to 
;''^' '"^'^"'-^ Cooper's Hawk, page 120 

c. Length n^rv 20 uiclu.s; tarsn. feathered half wav down or 

n.ore; top of he;. ! hb,-kish (Joshawk pag. !.i» 



I. J 

A. Four (.uter .|uills n.»i*-hcd . r simuite ..n rh<- iruter webs, 
al. Tail <»f adult clM*srrHiat r.^ with m Nack Iwr near the end 
Tail of immature bjrds - i»rred with blm-k and ^r^v. 
No iv4dii.u on wing .-.^v, - ViT,ir« 14 inches or more; tar- 
stout: under f«irts whit. - ned-tailed Hau ;., i>age 121 



1 ' i I 


a2. Tail of adult black, with about six white cross bars. Tail of 
young dark with many \Vhrtish bars ; wing coverts chestnut 
or orange brown; wing under 14 inches; tarsus slender; 
under parts reddish brown with white bars. 

Red-shouldorcd Hawik, page 122 

B. Three outer primaries notched or sinuate on the inner webs, 
bl. Tail with many light and dark cross-bars ; little if any red- 
dish on the under parts; no dark moustache; wing 12 in- 
ches or over Swainsou's Hawk, page 122 

b2. Tail blackisli with about three light bands; nmch reddish on 
the under parts; a l)lack moustache; wings 12 inches or 
less Broad-wing Hawk, jmge 123 

C. Tarsus feathered in front to the toes, reticulate behind; four or 

five outer quills eniarginate: — 

cl. Under parts white with various dark markings, but no red- 
dish. Tail white at base, and then light and dark bai*s. 
Melanistic forms nearly uniform blackish. 

American Hougli-Iegged Hawk, page 124 

e2. Under parts white, unmarked or slightly marked. Legs 
reiWish with black bars; tail silvery gray, clouded with 
^•••^"isli Rusty K'ough-legged HawJ<, page 124 

I! i 

I. I 

I I 


(I'ntlmrtes aura). 

This bird, which in the casual observer resembles the domestic 
turk('\,— uith its luad and neck bare of feathers and the skin 
bright red, and its black plumage morrjcd with brown,— is prob- 
ably resident in s<.uth western Ontario. KIstw' -re in eastern 
Canada it is im\\ a visitor, but it breeds in Manitoi»a. and ]n'obably 
in Sask.itchewan and AllH-rta, as it is seen as far n<.rth as l'>lmon- 
ton. In British Ct.iumbia it is said to be common in the southern 


- riBHBamM 


valley's. The description given alM>ve is sufficient to distinguish 
it, when taken with its measurements. L(imth about lU) inches, 
expanse of wings about C feet, tail short and rounded. The ex- 
ti'enie lengtli of wing of tliis bird gives it almost unrivalled power 
of remaiinng aloft and of soaring upward in spirals without any 
beating of tlu air by pinions. Jt has also remai'kable p(»wers of 
sight, enaitiing it1o detect a dead or dying ainmal at inunense dis- 
tances. It is a voracious feeder on carri(»n. and in this way returns 
good service for the protection given it in tr(»i»ical couni ries. Kggs 
usu.illy two, creamy, spott<'d with brown and pui'|»lish. 'i'heir 
nests are variously j)laced, often on the ground, or in stumps, o^'ca- 
sionallv in tall trees (»r on rockv cliffs. 



{Cathansta uiuba). 

This the Oarrion Crow — as it is often called — is a heavier but 
shoi'ter bi"d than the Turkey Buzzard, and lias shoi-ter wings with 
propoi-tionateiy inferior powers of flight. Its heatl is naked, but 
the feathers extend up the back (»f the neck to the head. The entire 
plumage, the bill and the skin of the head are black, or neaily so. 
'I'lie nostrils are c(»mparatively small and narrow. The tail is short 
ami not jounded. Lengtl^ about 24, exi)anse about 54, and tail 8 

Jt has till habits of tlu' Turkey Buzzard and in the vicin- 
ity of towns, especially the tropical seajxtrls, they U'came semi- 
doniesticated, enjoying legal protection be<'ause of their great 
value as .-(-avengers. 'I'heir home is tiie CJulf Statt's and the South- 
ern Atlantic States, but they stray up to Xova Scotia «|uite fr> 
ipiently, and then- is a record id" one having been killed near (^ue- 






|; I 

i 1 '1 





The Hiiwks and Ea,j,'lcs differ from the Buzzards and Vultures 
in liaviii.,' Their lieads fully feathered. From the Owls thev are 
distinguished by having tluir eyes on the sidi» of their heads, and 
lacking the facial disc s(» notable in the latter. We have in Canada 
twenty-two liawks and eagles which ;iiay well be considered as re- 
lated to mii- bird life, besides a few (Others that have occasionally 
visited us. Of all these only two are to be considered as deserving 
discouragement. These are Cooiht's Hawk and the Sharpshin. 
Carcl'nl study by the Deitartnient of Auri.mltuic of the I'nited 
States, has n-nipletely i)roved the ^uiprising tact that all <he 
others (io at h'ast as much good as harm, and that most of the large 
hawks are among the friends <.f the fanner and gardener. Tiie 
(luantities of vermin tiiey (U'stroy are .iirectly incpurtionai to their 
activity and size. Our traditional hostility towa/-(l the 'Mien hawk" 
nmst be reserved iW the small, fierce, an.l ])ersevering jdrates 
above mentioned. 


( Circus /nuisoiiicHs). 

This is the liiost ((.unnon hawk id' open lakeside and marshy 
country. They are perfectly harndess to man's propertv, living 
upon nnce, insects and .^mall reptiles, which they find by carefully 
searching low mea(h)ws and marshes in a slowflight. AH across 
Canada it is found, so far north as (Jreat Slave Lake, and in 
Alaska. The mature male bird is ashy blue in color when in i)er- 
fect plumage, but usually wears more or less brownish or chestnut. 
The distinguishing mark is the white rump,— the tail coverts in 
all i)lumages showing thi>. The tail is bluish, wiHi several dusky 
bands, the terminal one being most strongly marked. Under parts 
white. The female is dai-k or reddish, or yellowish-brown, with 
under parts yellowish, streaked with darker. H wears, however, 




the white rump patch. Leiij^h 17 to 20 iuehea, expaiise 40 to 44, tail 
about 9 inches. Nest on the j^round in marshy meadows, usually 
built of dry grass, and eontaininj; four to nine eggs, greenish or 
bluish white, with occasionally blotches of dusky. 

{Acci inter vclox). 

This, the smaller of the harmful hawks, is a resident of all 
])arts of Canada south of GU deyrces, where trees and bushes are 
to be found. It nests usually in evergreens, at about twi-nty feet 
from the ground, incubation in situthern Ontario iM'ing in early 
.June. Four, five or six eggs, pale greenish or bluish with ii-regular 
brown sjjots, are laid in the bark-lined, well built nest. The habits 
of the two iJlue Darters, as this an<l ('(Kipcr's Hawk arc often 
called, are (juitc a contrast to the industrious, |)atieiU, ukmisc hunt- 
ing of the Marsh Harrier. These live almost entirely on liirds, and 
in their pursuit and capture show great dash and determination. 
Any bird not larger than a pigeon is liable to be attacked, and car- 
ried off forthwith. (Hiickens are favorite food and will be preyed 
on day afti'r day unless the intruder be caj^tured, kille<l, or well 
friglitened. In the great lakes region the northern iriigration of 
the Sliarp-shin is in April, and the southward UKtvement in late 
September or October. The feathers of tlic upper surface are blu- 
ish gray, the primaries are barred with black: the long tail with 
(ihniitt end is ashy gray, barred with black, and tipped wilh white. 
Throat, breast, and sides whitish, with reddish brown streaks and 
bars. Hnmature birds have nnich brown coloration. The tarsus 
is unusually slender, and scutellate in front only, with feathers not 
more than one- third the way down, and separated behind. Length 
10 to 12, extent of wings 21, tail 5 to (J inches. 




* .'J 




£>» ^ 







(Accipiter coopcri). 

The above description, with slight modification, would do for 
this species except that this is decidedly the larger bird, and pro- 
portionately more destructive. Those are the only true hen-hawks 
and chicken hawks. Its range is the same as that of the Sharp- 
shin, but it is usually considered as less plentiful. 

The distinguishing marks are:— rr rounded white tip to the 
tail, the top of the head darker than the back, and a difference in 
favor of this of at least two inches in length and six inches in ex- 
tent of wings. Length about 16 inches, extent about 30, and tail 
about 8i/l> inches. 

■ f ■ 


{Accipiter atricapiUns). 

This species, with its western form, ranges all across northern 
Canada, not usually common anywhere, but nesting apparently in 
every provfnco. The Western Goshawk is reported from British 
Columbia and Alaska. The nest is placed high in hardwood trees, 
beech, mai)Ie, or birch, and its whitish or bluish white eggs are 
three or four in numl)er. On account of its superior size, this 
hawk, of the same race as the t\w preceding, would be expected to 
be more injurious. Our knowledge of it at present does not bear 
out this, as its food scorns to be at least one half rodents and other 
vermin. It has groat boldness and strength, and goes after grouse 
and hens with apparently little regard for the consequences, but 
its good deeds are thought to about comijensate for its daring at- 


i ' 


tacks on poultry. Its \vins?s are short and ror.nded, and tail fan- 

The adult male is dark bluish ,<»ray, with blaekisli head and a 
white line over the eye. The tail is slij^htly barred with dark, the 
terminal bar much the broadest. The under parts are evenly bar- 
red with white and fjvay, and streaked with black shaft lines espe- 
cially towards the throat. Tarsus feathered about half way down 
in front. Length 20 to 24 inches, extent of wing about 42, tail 9 
to 10 inches. 


(Ihdeo borcalis). 

This is another northern form, breeding in the maritime pro- 
vinces and in Ontario and Quebec. In the wooded parts of ]\Ianl- 
toba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta it is connnon, but is replaced by 
the Western Red-tail in British Columbia. It nests in high trees, 
laying two to four eggs, dull w'hite, usually blotched with brown. 
The distinguishing mark of the adult is the rich chestnut red of 
the upper surface of the tail. Near the end of the tail is a black 
band succeeded by the white tip. The under tail surface is pearly 
white with a i^ddish tinge. Back, head, and throat dark brown, 
with gray, yellowish, and white margins to many feathers. Under 
parts yellowish white, which is spotted and barred with black on 
the sides, breast, and upper belly, but unbroken on the lower belly. 
A great variation of color is, however, to be found, especially in the 
western part of its range. Tarsus feathered about half way down. 
Length 19 to 23 inches. Extent about 48, tail about 9 inches, i^'e- 
male about 2 inches longer, and extending 6 inches further. 

Less than 10 per cent, of its food is game or poultrj-. It lives 
mostly on mice, frogs, reptiles, and insects. Its tone is a long- 
drawn squeal in one tone "kee-e-e." 


' ! 






(Butco lineatus). 

This is an eastern species, found infroquently in Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, but common in Quebec, and more so in On- 
tario. It has been seen at York Factory on Hudsoy Bay, but is 
scarcely known in Manitoba, and not beyond. It nests freely in 
Ontario, and is said to return year after year to the same locality 
and to the same nest. It builds a larj^e untidy nest in a broad- 
leafed tree, at 2.') feet or more from the j^round. The eggs are like 
those of the Jied-tail, but somewhat smaller. Each of these species 
is thought to rcfi-ain from nesting in territory ranged over by the 
other, its note consists of a repetition of "ke 3'ou" in two tones. 
General color of upper surface reddish brown, the head, neck, and 
entire under ])arts yellowish or orange brown, with whitish bars 
and dark shaft lines. A conspicuous shoulder patch of reddish is 
characteristic of the adult birds, but lacking in the immatui-e. 
The lower belly is never free fn)m markings as in the Red-tail. 
Length 18 to 20 inches and extent about 40. Female 20 to 22 in- 
ches long and extent 45 inches. 

This is another of the farmer's friends, living almost entirely 
on mice, frogs, reptiles, and insects. 


{Butco sivai'ii.soni). 

This is tiie characteristic large hawk of the open prairies and 
park-like intervals in the mountains. Its eastern limit seems to 
be Ontario, where it is occasionally seen. Toward the north it 
ranges to the Arctic circle. xVlthough a large bird and well equip- 
ped for slaughter, it lacks the dash and fierceness of the Accipiters, 
and .^tudy of its stomach contents shows that mice and gophers, 
wit ' grass-hoppers as a constant appetizer, are the chief food 
materials obtained. They seem scarcelv able to capture small 




birds or grouse, and therefore must be considered a very efficient 
force in the destruction of vermin. When we become sufficiently 
intelligent to distinguish friends from foes we shall probably pro- 
tect these strong, able, and industrious assistants in the saving of 
our crops. They build large unfinished nests in low trees on the 
praiT-ie. and lay two or three eggs, grayish white with blotches of 
brown. Their plumage varies from nearly black to yellowish and 
gray, according to age and season. The u])i)er parts are often dark 
brown, with yellowish edgings to the feathers. The three outer 
primaries are notched, that is, abruptly narrowed from the middle 
to the tip, on the inner margins. In the Red- tail and Red-shoulder 
four (»nter i)rimaries are thus n(»tched. The tail is grayish, with 
several indistinct bars. The breast of the male is often covered 
with a reddish brown i>atch, while the female may wear brownish 
black in the same position. The throat is often white, as is the 
lower l)elly, l)ut strenked and marked with blackish. Length about 
20 inches, extent about 50. 

I t 


(Buteo plafupterua lafissinius). 

Ontario is the centre of distribution of this smaller Buteo, 
which is one of the connnonest of the forest and lake dwelling 
birds of i)rey. It is especially plentiful in Muskoka, ))uilding in 
black birch tree tops, and living largely on frogs, mice, insects, and 
snakes. Quite harmless to domestic fowls or game, it is yet likely 
to suffer for )>eing a hawk, as it will permit ignorant gunnei-s to 
approach it when sitting in conscious iunoceiu-e on a dead tree 
overlooking a stream or lake. It is not usually .ommon in the 
maritime provinces, and rarely reaches Manitoba. It lays two or 
three greenish-white eggs, with epots and blotches of \ '"'owish or 

It is dark brown above, the feathers often edged with gray or 
whitish. Three outer primaries narrowed and biaekish from the 


'l mm 
1 1*11 

I ! 


li i* 



notch lo the end, without yellowish bars. Tail yellowish with two 
grayish-white bars beside the grayish tip. Under parts barred 
with brownish yellow. Length of male about 14, female 17 inches. 
Extent 33, tail 6 to 8. 


(Archibtiteo lagopus sancti-johannis) . 

As would be suspected from its feathered legs, this is a north- 
ern bird, seen in Ontario and Manitoba only in spring and fall. 
Its home is northern Labrador, the Hudson Bay region, and west- 
ward across the Barren Lands. Though considered rare in Brit- 
ish Columbia it has been taken both on Vancouver Island and the 
mainland, and in Alaska. It nests on rocky cliffs or in trees at a 
height of 20 or more feet from the ground. Eggs three to five, dull 
white, and usually irregularly marked with some shade of brown. 
Its food is chiefly mice, captured by the same industrious search- 
ing as used by the ^Marsh Hawk. The Rough-leg seems almost a 
link between the hawks and owls in habits, as it is semi-nocturnal, 
and moves with the silent flight so characteristic of the owls. Dark 
forms of this sjiecies are nearly black, but usually the upper parts 
are dark brown with whitish edgings, the base of the tail white or 
buff, and with two or thre ,; grayish bars. A band made of black 
streaks and spots — continuous in immature birds, but broken in 
adults — crosses the belly, which is otherwise yellowish white. 
Breast whitish, with streaks and spots of black. Length 22, tail 
9 to 10 inches. 


■(Archibuteo ferruginous). 

This is a form of the last, which seems confined to the prairie 

districts of SasJ itchewan and Alberta, in Canada. It nests in 

trees or on the edges of cut banks, and lives largely on gophers. 

In appearance it is much more rusty in color, the tail being gray- 




ish with chestnut edges. The legs are reddish with black bars. 
Other underparts white with chestnut markings. It averages 
slightly larger than the American Rough-leg. Length 23 inches. 

(Aquila chrysaetos). 

While generally considered a bird of the mountains, the 
Golden Eagle evidently finds the Laurentian Hills satisfactory as 
a residence. From Ungava in northern Labrador to Montreal, 
and from Hudson Bay to Lake Ontario, this great northern bird 
is found. Seldom seen in the plains region, it is found through 
the Rocky mountains and foothills, and north to the Arctic, as well 
as in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Reports of its occurrence 
have been made many times to the writer in the vicinity of Lake 
Ontario, but in every case they have proved to relate to 
immature specimens of the Bald Eagle, lacking the white head and 
tail. However, two specimens of the Golden Eagle have been cap- 
tured within a few miles of Lake Onta^-io, in the Kingston dis- 
trict, and are now in the Victoria Museum at Ottawa, while a 
splendid spetumen, still in the hands of the tiixidormist, was killed 
on Amherst Island in January of last year, 1913. 

Tlie food of the Golden Eagle consists of such small mammals 
and birds as it can captui-e, and its size and fierceness make it a 
formidable enemy. 

No doubt rabbits are a staple food, as they are for nearly all 
the other carnivorous creatures. Squirrels, grouse, and ducks are 
captured, but any animal material that has ever had life seems 
welcome, as it will gladly feed on carrion and refuse, from the 
camps of hunters and lumbei-men. Hence it frequently falls a 
victim to carcasses poisoned for wolves and foxes. It nests prefer- 
ably on ledges of cliffs, but the tops of tall trees are used, if satis- 
factory cliffs are not found. .Macfarlane describes a nest in the 





■ 'i ■' 



1 f 

'i I 


Anderson River districts as follows: — "It was composed of a large 
platform of 1 uilr-up twip^s and sticks, having a bed of hay, moss, 
and feathers in the centre." It lays two or three eggs, dull white, 
blotched obscurely or distinctly with brown. 

The back, wings, and underparts are blackish brown, the back 
of the head and neck yellowish brown, the inner half or more of 
the tail is white, and the tarsi, j is covered to the toes with fine white 
feathers. Length 30 to 36 inches, extent 7 to 8 feet. The female 
is considerably larger than her mate. Young birds are darker than 
mature specimens, which bec(>me gray with age, especially increas- 
ing the white on the Inise of the tail. 


(HaJiaetus Jeucocepliahts). 

This is the American Eagle, and possesses no more virtues 
than animal em})]ems usually have. It ranges across Canada, be- 
ing as characteristic of the shores of lakes and large rivers as the 
Golden Eagle is of forested hills and mountains. Although its 
nesting sites are being destroyed, it is not yet uncommon in the 
neighborhood of the Great Lakes, being seen yet (1914) many 
times every summer about the bays near Kingston. The islands 
foi-ming the western members of the Thousand Islands group seem 
to be a favorite breeding ground, as at least five nests have been 
seen, or authentically reported to the Avriter, from Wolfe Island 
and its smaller companions. The larger lakes of the Rideau are 
also haunted by this great bird. All through Canada year after 
year these birds return to repair and enlarge the nest of the 
jorevious year, unless pei-sistently disturbed by intruders. The 
killing of an eagle is still a triumph to the '/green" gunner, but re- 
morse usually follows, and nature study is creating a sentiment 
more worthy of a civilized peoj^le. Its almost harmless habits en- 
title it to protection, while its value as a scavenger along our 



shores is very eonsideralile. Fish fonii no doubt its chief food, al- 
though it is known to capture wihl ducks, jjccse, and gulls. It is 
able to catch for itself only such livinj; fish as flcuit near the sur- 
face of the water or become embayed in tide or storm pools. It 
forais at times, however, parasitic relations upon the skill and 
activity of the Osprey, which it robs systematically day after day, 
striking down at the fish-hawk until it drops its prey, which is 
caught by the eagle before it can reach the water. It nests in tall 
trees, lining the hollow in the great platfonn with hay, moss, hair 
^ d f athers. Its eggs are usually pure white, two in number. 

ture birds are easily identified even at a distance by the 

' lite head and tail, but the young are brctwnish black, more 

-«s laottled with white, and can be distinguished satisfactorily 

from the Golden Eagle only by noting that the lower part of the 

tarsus is unfcathered. Length 32 to :'.(}, extent 80 to 90 inches. 


All the hawks we have yet to consider ])elong to the Falcon 
family, except the Osprey or Fishing Eagle. 1^'alcons are readily 
distinguished from other hawks by the notch and sharp tooth or 
two teeth near the tip of the upper mandible. The tip of the lower 
mandible is cut off squarely, and has a notch near the end. Their 
talons are very sharp and strong and the middle toe is very long. 
All are fierce and dashing in their attacks and will often* strike 
prey quite equal to themselves in weight. To this family belonged 
the birds so highly prized for hunting a few centuries ago. 

JERFALCOX (Falco i.shuidus). 

This is a bird of the northern ocean coasts, common in Iceland 
and Greenland, Hudson Strait and Bay, and northern Labrador, 
taken near Quebec, Montreal and Toronto, but here only accidental 


J •- : 

» « 



' 'M 



? ■, s 

^ 1 


I. A \\ 

\ ^ •-! 

f f ■ Si 

1" ? 




wanderers. Seen in migration in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, and occasionally found on the Pacific Coast also. 
Its food is said to be water fowl and northern groubo captured on 
the wing. Nest on rocky cliffs. 

The adult birds are about the same color as the Snowy Owl, 
the head and under parts sometimes snowy white, but often like 
the back, wings, and tail, more or less marked with dusky bars, 
and streaked with black. The tail is usually nearly pure white ex- 
cept a few central feathers. 

Length of male about 22, female 23 inches, tail 9 to 10 inches. 
Three other forms are known in Canada, differing from the above 
chiefly in color, which is a doubtful basis for distinguishing 


(Falco rusticolus). 

This has been taken near Otta a, and is believed to occur in 
Labrador and Newfoundland. Instead of a ground color of white, 
this bird is bluish gray with dark bars and spots. The crown is 
lighter than the back, while the tail is well marked with bars, and 
the lower surface is decidedly dusky. 

8 i 

II f;.« 


(Falco rusticolus jerfalco). 

This is a darker form of the above, similar in size and markings 
but the top and back of the head are darker than the back, and the 
tail is closely barred with light and dark bands of about equal 
width. It is less confined to northern coasts, but yet is chiefly 
found about Hudson Strait and Bay, and the valleys of the Mac- 
kenzie, also the Pacific coast and Alaska. 




{Falco rusticohts obsolctus). 

This form is still darker than the above, almost entirely dusky, 
and extreme eases are solidly black. Its home is n(»rthern Labrador. 
At Fort Ohimo it is said to be abundant. One was taken at Long 
Point, Lake Erie, and two are recorded from Manitoba. The 
characters of the White Jcrfalcon will, except in color, describe 
the others. 


(Falco mcricauns). 

This bird seems confined to the prairie region near the south- 
ern boundary, extending its ranges southward to Arizona. It nests 
on the faces of cutbanks, and preys on gophers, grouse, and water 

The upper surface is grayish brown, the feathers with lighter 
borders. Top of the head and nape ligliter. Tail brownish gray 
with white tip. Lower parts whitish, marked with gray and brown. 
Length about 18 inches, extent about 40. 

Its smaller size distinguishes this from the Jerfalcons, and its 
lighter color from the Duck Hawk. 


(Falco percgrinus anatum). 

In southern Ontario we see this beautiful and spirited hawk 
only in the fall, but it breeds in northern Ontario, as well as 
Quebec and the maritime provinces. It is common about Hudson 
Bay, and nests regularly in ^Lnnitoba and northwestward to Ed- 
monton and Alaska. In British Columbia it seems more plentiful 
inland than on the coast. The Peregrin" was the most highly 
prized of the trained hawks, and still exhibits its powers at the ex- 



( ii 


f I 
1 1 


i 1 

I 'IB 






I i t 



pense of our wild ducks and shore birds. These it follows in their 
southward migration. 

Upper parts bluish slate color, black on the cheeks and down- 
ward, creamy throat, and breast spotted and barred below with 
black. Tarsus feathered only at top. Toes long and powerful. 
Length about 19, extent 45, tail 7 inches. 

A still darker form is described from British Columbia. Eggs 
laid on rocky ledges or in cavities in high trees. 


(Falco columharins) . 

Distributed across Canada from Newfoundland to the Rocky 
Mountains, and north to the Arctic Ocean, this fierce little falcon 
nests throughout moist of its range, though preferring wooded to 
prairie districts. Its nests and eggs ha v'e been taken in Muskoka, 
Manitoba, and from near the Arctic ("oast. Like its larger rela- 
tive the Peregrine it follows the flocks of migrating birds in 
autumn, and levies toll on all it can master, and some of these may 
be quite equal to ^tself in weight. Beside birds, it captures mice 
and insects. Its common name is given because of its dashing and 
pigeon-like flight, as well as its pose when perching. 

In plumage it closely resembles the Peregrine of which it is 
almost a miniature. Length about 12 inches, extent 26, tail 5 to 6. 


(Falco cohimbarius suckleyi). 
This is a dark form of the above, common on Vancouver 
Island and in the lower Eraser River Valley, also in Washington 
and Oregon. 

The general color is al' st black above, and strongly marked 
with brownish black belo\, . The light bars and spots of the Pere- 
grine and Pigeon Hawk, can scarcely be noted on the wings and 
tail. Size same as last. 





I ^ 

^ F 

t I r 

1 ^1 

^' \ i 



(Falco sparveriiis) . 

This is a smalj but well marked and well known hawk. Its 
habit of hanj^ing or hovering over an object which it is examining, 
and then suddenly pouncing upon it, has given it, or its representa- 
tive in England, the name "Windhover." It is com]r»on from 
ocean to ocean, bx:?ding in woodpeckers' excavations in the dead 
tops of trees, often quite near to frequented roads. Its eggs are 
nearly spherical, creamy white, and usually four or five in num- 
ber. It should be protected and encouraged because of its beauty 
and beneficial character. Its food is almost altogether grasshop- 
pers, and mice, both of which we can spare to it. The male is blue 
gray above, the tail having a white tip following a broad black 
band. Dark shaft lines mark the top of the head, while the back 
and nape are chestnut spotted with black. The female is mostly 
reddish brown with black sti-eaks. Length about 12 inches, tail 
about 61/^. 

In British Columbia the larger and lighter colored form, 
known as the Desert Sparrow Hawk, is found spreading north- 
ward from New Mexico and Arizona. 


(Pandion halietus carolinensis) . 

The Osprey is found in every province, and as far north as 
the Arctic Circle, but more plentiful where forests and lakes 
abound. It is still to be seen following the gentle art of fishing on 
many of our small inland lakes north of Lake Ontario. It works 
industriously to supply the hungry mouths which may be seen 
reaching above the edge of the large nest, itself often a very con- 
spicuous object. The common location of the nest in Ontario is 
the top of a tall dead pine stub. 


i !^ 


On the seacoast it is said to nest in colonies, and often on 
rocky ledges. He has no regard for the close season on any fish 
he can catch, but as Mcllwraith says, "In Ontario I feel sure that 
the vote would be to let him take all he requires, in consideration 
of the additional attraction his splendid i)resence gives to the 
scenery of many a lake and river." 

Plumage dark brown, with some white on the head and nape; 
tail gray with six or eight obscure bars ; under parts mostly wliite. 
Tarsus naked, feet very large, toes all of same length and scaly 
below, claws very efficient. Length about 24, tail 81/2 inches. 




(Strix pratinicola) . 

A few records exist of visits of this southern bird to Ontario, 
— at Sault Ste. Marie, Hamilton, Toronto, and Kingston, and as 
it may visit us again a description of it is given below. The writer 
has just seen a beautiful specimen that was killed at Kingston 
Mills, a few miles from the city, in December 1911. 

It is rare in the northern United States, its home being in the 
south west, although it breeds as far north as Massachusetts and 
southern New York. This is the kind of owl which is most likely 
in America to haunt towers and ruined chimneys, as do its near 
relatives in Europe. Hollow trees, and even holes in the ground, 
are also utilized for nesting places. Its food is chiefly vermin, 
mice, rats, and gophers, and so it deserves — as do most of its family 
— our protection and encouragement. Instead of this the Owl race 
have for centuries been the object of superstitious fear and dis- 
like, probably from the association of their unpleasant cries and 
silent flight with the churchyards they often frequent. 

Plumage of delicate texture, tawny and blackish browTi above, 
finely clouded and mottled with gray and white, and spotted with 
black ; several bars of spots on the wings and tail. Lower surface 


• \ 


whitish, or tawny, or even blackish, mottled with small black 
spots, facial disc usually dark and triangular or cordate. Length 
about 16 inches. Extent about 44. 



{Asio wilsonianns) . 
Like most — ^^though not all — of the owls, this species does not 
thrust itself upon our attention, and so may occur unnoticed in 
many districts. It hunts only at night, and spends the day usually 
in dark evergreen thickets, in which it hopes to be unseen. It is 
widely distributed, being found from Newfoundland to British 
Columbia, and probably breeding throughout the forested part 
of this range, as well as in all the remainder of temperate North 
America. "It frequents the shores of Hudson Bay in summer." 
For nest it is usually satisfied to use the deserted homes 
of other birds, such as crows, hawks, and magpies. Like the other 
owls its eggs are nearly spherical and white in color. Small birds 
are occasionally eaten by it, but rats, mice, frogs and insects are 
its chief food. Its upper plumage is dark brown with some yellow- 
ish, all finely mottled with buff and white. Below, less of the 
dark brown but in large markings and streaks. Eyes in the 
centres of circular discs, which are nearly complete, and mostly 
yellowish brown with blackish border. The ear tufts are long and 
of 8 to 12 feathers. When raised they stand vertically above the 

Length about 15 inches, extent nearly 40, tail 5 to 6. 


{Asio accipitrinus). 
This can scarcely be claimed as an American bird, being very 
like the Short-eared Owl of Europe and Asia. It is a more norther- 
ly species than the last, and though breeding all across southern 



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Canada, it is more plentiful in autumn during the migration. It 
might well be called a marsh owl, as it is very commonly seen over 
wet meadows and marshes, and even nests in such places. Jit is an 
expert killer of mice which it hunts hoth by day and night, and 
for this useful habit it should be protected. Its nest is poorly 
made,— on the ground, in or near a marsh, and the eggs number 
from four to seven, laid usually in the first half of May, in south- 
ern Ontario, in June in the north. 

Plumage above dark brown or yellowish brown, the feathers 
having creamy or yellowish margins. The lower surface is lighter, 
but broadly streaked with brown on the breast, and more finely 
on the belly. The ear tufts are few feathered, and inconspicuous. 
The facial disc is pale and unmarked, except by minute dark 
speckles and a dark patch behind the ears. 

Length 15 inches, extent 40. 


(Syrnium nehtdosum). 
This is a large bird but so retiring as to require search to find 
it in the da} time, in evergreen thickets. It is becoming less com- 
mon, as thick swampy growths are being destroyed near the settled 
parts of Ont<ario, but is still found in the lake, rock, and thicket dis- 
tricts so common on the crystalline rocks of the Laurentian plateau. 
It nests in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, 
Ontario, — especially Muskoka and Algoma, — and as far north as 
Hudson Bay, also in Manitoba, but rarely. Its chief range is rather 
to the south than to the north of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence. 
Its food is found on investigation to be chiefly mice, shrews, moles, 
squirrels, rabbits, and smaller owls, but very seldom grouse or 
poultry. It may be heard more frequently than any other hooting 
owl and its loud and clear voice — especially on cool bright nights — 
is audible for a half mile or more. It nests usually in hollow trees, 
but will sometimes make use of an old nest of hawk or crow. 



Feathers of upper surface grayish brown, each barred with 
white or buff. Breast and belly paler, with similar bars on the 
breast, but streaks on the belly. No ear tufts ; eyes deep brown or 
nearly black. 

Toes feathered to claws. The disc around each eye of alter- 
nately light and dark concentric rings. Bill yellow. Length about 
19 inches, extent about 44. 


(Scotiaptex cinerea). 

This is a very northern form, occasionally coming south in 
winter to the maritime provinces, Ontario, Quebec, and the south- 
ern edge of the forested portions of the prairie provinces. It is 
a common resident of Alaska, and is seen in British Columbia in 
winter, but is always considered scarce. Southern migrations of 
these birds occasionally occur, and for the one season they v ^i be 
quite plentiful, but may not again be other than rare for ny 
years. Its nest is said to be built in high spruce trees, of twigs and 
moss. Eggs two or three, white. 

Plumage very loose, almost shaggy, giving it the appearance 
of great size. It is in fact the largest in measurement of our Can- 
adian owls, but its body is notably smaller than would be expected 
from the appearance of its plumage. In weight also it must yield 
place to both the Snowy and Horned Owls. Ashy brown, with 
wavy white linos on back, tail, and wings, breast paler and 
streaked, belly and sides barred, legs and feet hidden in feathers. 
Bill and eyes yellow, length 24 to 30 inches, extent about 60 inches. 


(Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni). 

As this bird breeds only in the far north, and migrates south- 
ward to a less distance than even the Snuwy Owl, it must be con- 



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sidered our most northerly owl. It has been seen rarely in Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, more frequently in Quebec and On- 
tario, having been taken at Ottawa, Kingston, and Toronto. In 
Manitoba it is a regular and common fall and winter visitor. It 
npsts on the Magdalen Islands, and from Great Slave Lake north- 
ward especially in Alaska. Nest in hollow tree or woodpecker's 
hole. Back, wings, and tail bro\ATi with white spots, these spots 
forming almost a collar on the nape and bars on the wing coverts. 
Under parts whit^, thickly streaked with brown. Legs and feet 
heavily feathered. Length about 11 inches, extent 20. 


(Nyctala acadica). 

This is a widely distributed Uttle owl, found in the wooded 
portions of all the provinces, but scarcely plentiful anywhere. 
Its note is unpleasant and penetrating, and heard most frequently 
in spring. It seems to move toward the southern boundary of 
Canada during severe winter weather, at any rate its presence is 
more frequently noted at such seasons, as it comes to bams and 
sheds of lonely farms, when food becomes scarce in its usual haunts. 
Specimens have been obtained by the writer in the neighborhood 
of Kingston. There is little doubt that it breeds throughout the 
southern as well as the northern part of its range, but being active 
only a* night it is not readily studied. While likely to be shot by 
the igii. it, the Saw^het has a right to our protection in con- 
sideration of the large numbers of mice and insects it destroys. Its 
nest is usually a hole in a tree, sometimes those made by the 
Flicker are used. Five to seven eggs are laid and incubation is 
going on about the 20th of May in southern Ontario. A very dark 
form of this is known as the Northwest Saw-whet Owl. It is 
found in southern British Columbia. 

Head and back yellowish brown, the former streaked, the lat- 
ter spotted with white; tail marked but scarcely barred with light; 



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under parts pale but thickly streaked and dai)pled with buffy 
brown. A dark ring around each eye, then a white disc bordered 
with black. Bill black. Legs and feet clothed with yellowish un- 
marked feathers. Length 7 to 8 inches, extent 17 to 18. 


( Mvyascops asiu ) . 

This misnamed little ow! is more likely to be seen and heard by 
citv dwellers, than anv other of our native noctunial owls. It is 
not averse to human neighl>ors, nesting in orchards and on thickly 
planted lawns, preferring a cavity — natural or artificial — in a tree. 
The range of the Little Horned Owl or Gray Owl, as it is often 
called, is confined to the eastern provinces, especially Ontario, as 
it is rare in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Quebec, and extends 
westward or northward not much beyond the Great Lakes. 

Its cry is a quaint and melancholy ululation often ascribed 
in error to the raccoon. I have frequently heard it from the trees 
in the parks of a great city, and from the orchards of fann houses. 
It occasionally nests in a hole in the wall of a building. No senti- 
ment but good will should exist for this quaint, little, night wander- 
er, because its food is very largely mice, in.-L'cts and frogs, with 
occasionally a small bird, or crayfish. It lays from four to eight 
eggs, usually early in ^Liy. The writer had a pair of young birds 
of this kind in captivity for some time, and fovmd them very en- 
tertaining pets, after they had overcome their initial terror. 
Earthworms were welcome food, and were seized with an amusing- 
ly ferocious manner. 

While a general gray coloration is common among the birds 
of a district, there are at times and "among those of the same 
brood" (Chapman) bright rusty, reddish, specimens perhaps out 
numbering the gray ones. All gradations between the two colors 
are found and the shade is not related to locality, season, age, or 


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The ear tufts — placed above the eyes, — are one inch long and 
conspicuous; upper-parts finely dappled brownish gray, with 
small and irregular streaks of black. Shoulder and wing bars of 
white and black. The facial disc is finely mottled and bordered 
with black. Under parts white with black shaft lines and wavy 
bars of black. Feet not heavily feathered. Length about 9 inches, 
extent about 22. Three slightly different forms are reported from 
British Columbia. 


(Bubo virginianns). 

This is the most respected and detested of the Owl tribe 
throughout eastern Canada, but in a region infested by rabbits, 
gophers or field mice its great ability and enthusiasm in destruc- 
tion are virtues. And a "valuable ally" to the western farmer it 
is considered in several states and provinces. Lacking the length 
and extent of the Great Gray Owl, this species far surpasses the 
other in weight, strength, and ferocity, and must be classed with 
our greatest predatory birds. In plumage varying with the region, 
it is found in all parts of Canada as well as throughout the United 
States, It is our only representative of the Eagle Owls, of which 
some form is fovmd in every continent except Australia. In On- 
taiio it visits the poultry house with disastrous results, as it has 
the malignant habit of killing more than it requires, and merely 
eating the heads. Hens, ducks, geese, and turkeys are taken, and 
the next night is very apt to find it returning for another supply. 
This often proves its undoing. The farmers have learned that a 
post ten or more feet high in the vicinity of the poultry yard is 
very likely to be used as a perch while it decides its method of at- 
tack. On such a post a trap is set and attached to a pole, which will 
yield but cannot be carried away. This arrangement is often suc- 
cessful. One instance of this, within my knowledge, resulted in 



the trap with chain and drap: being carried bodily away. The drag 
was lost, but for a month the rural population was terrified by 
the frequent trailing of a chain over the roofs of their houses in 
the night. At the expiration of this period the persevering robber 
was caught in another trap well fastened, whiU trying to carry 
away a dead turkey placed as a bait. I cannot agree with Venner 
in describing this as a thoroughly nocturnal species, having seen 
it abroad and quite at its ease long after daylight. In the full glare 
of day it is doubtless at a disadvantage, as is seen by its retreat 
before a mob of crows and other smaller birds, which never fail to 
point to this arch enemy. Of wild creatures serving as its food 
there is abimdant evidence, as mentioned by Mcllwraith, that it 
often attacks skunks, several skins that I have preserved bore 
reminiscences of such an encounter. Mice, rats, muskrats, rabbits, 
grouse, wild ducks, crows, and hawks, in fact anv bird less 
powerful than an eagle may fall a victim if found on its roost by a 
hungry Buho. It nests in holes in trees, in clefts in rocky banks, 
in old nests of hawks or crows, and probably in nests of its own con- 
struction, but nearly always in a place difficult of access. Its eggs 
number seldom more than two, and are laid in February or March, 
being occasionally frozen by a return of severe weather. As no 
other species of similar size wears ear tufts, a detailed description 
of its plumage is unnecessary. 

The distinction of being calleu norned' rather than 'eared' is 
probably due to the fact that its ear tufts are considerably wider 
apart than its eyes, appearing to rise from the sici> s rather than 
the top of the head. The plumage of this bird is subject to vari- 
ations, and these with slight differences of size have led to unneces- 
sary splitting off of three subspecies as follows:— (1) The West- 
ern Homed Owl-^ grayish prairie form. (2) The Arctic Horned 
Owl, approachmg whiteness, sometimes as light in color as speci- 
mens of the Snowy Owl. (3) The Duskv Horned Owl,— the tyiie 
of which belongs to the dark, moist woods of Oregon and British 



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Columbia. Specimens of this large dark form have, however, 
been taken near Toronto and Montreal, and in Labrador. 

Another revision by Oberholzer makes six subspecies for 



All the southern parts of Canada are visited irregularly by 
this denizen of the northein plains. The stress of winter bri»ig8 
it within our range at times, occasionally in large numbers. The 
winter of 3880 and '81 was notably one of these occasions at Wolfe 
Island, near Kingston. The preceding summer had witnessed a 
plague of field mice, — their runways seemed to co\er every foot of 
meadow and marsh, and the harvesters strung dozens of them on 
the tines of their pitchforks as they walked to and from the barns. 
Bv some 'wireless' method the Suowv Owls learned of the harvest 
awaiting them, and promptly responded. In driving along the 
roads I frequently counted the owls to be seen quartering the 
fields on each side, and found that on cloudy days an average of 
about three to the mile were usually to be seen. Sunlight, however, 
was not sufficient ^o incapacitate them, although probably causing 
some inconvenience. At any rate ^ successfully stalked one from 
the west near sunset, as he returned again and again to his perch on 
a tree after excursions across a meadow. His mounted skin decor- 
ated an office in the County Court House for several years. Many 
others .vere shot, I am sorry to say, because the boy with a gun 
can scarcely decline a safe chance at any large wild thing. 

The food of this large, active, and fierce owl is said to bo mice 
and lemmings almost entirely, but as it is able and willing to cap- 
ture birds, it is quite certain that the many forms of water and 
shore birds which nest in the north furnish in themselves and their 
eggs good hunting for this strong marauder. Its nest has been 



taken only on the Arctic coast, four to seven eggs Jxiing found in 
well lined hollows on a knoll or other elevated giound. 

It is without ear tufts, and in color varies from nearly pure 
white to grayish yellow or brown. Usually the white is barred freely 
with grayish brown. The eyes are yeliow and the legs and feet 
are fully feathered. Length about 24, extent 55 to 60 inches. 




(iSurnin ululn cnpnrorh ' . 

Sometimes called !the Canadian or Hudsonian Owl, 
this species seldom wanders south of the boundary line 
except into Maine and along the Rocky Mountains. It is found 
from coast to coast, and up the Mackenzie River to the Arctic 
Ocean. Iv Newfoundland it is reported the commonest owl, or 
most frequently seen, because of its regular habit of daylight 
hunting. Elsewhere in eastern Canada it cannot be said to be 
common except locally and at very irregular intervals. In north- 
ern Ontario and Manitoba the .ame conditions prevail, but in 
northern Saskatchewan and Alberta it is frequently seen. Its 
food is said to be small rodents, but it has shown great courage and 
fierceness in attacking a man who approached its nest. 

Its eggs are laid in cavities in trees, the nest being merely 
chips of wood mixed with feathers from the mother's breast and 

No ear tufts; eyes lateral instead of frontal as in other owls. 
Upper parts grayish brown, with w^hite spots on the head and neck 
and bars on the wings, back and tail. The tail is long and rounded. 
The face is ashy gray bordered with black. The throat is whitish, 
streaked with dark, the remaining under parts closely and finely 
barred with white and black. Feet and legs well feathered. Length 
1' 16 inches, extent of wings 33, tail 7 inches. 


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(Speotyto cunicularia liypogaed). 

This remarkable owl seems to be spreading northward into 
Canada, being found now in suitable places in Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. Its home is a de- 
serted burrow of a badger, fox, or gopher. The latter, with rabbits 
and other small rodents and insects form its chief food. Its nest 
is placed at the end of the burrow, and usually is formed of buffalo 
chips i. e. dried cow dung. From 6 to 9 eggs are laid. The bird is 
able to excavate cavities in loose soil, and the Florida variety does 
so. Its legs are nearly naked, and are long for an owl, and its feet 
well adapted for walking and digging. Habits diurnal. It has no 
ear tufts. Upper parts are dull grayish brown, plentifully spotted 
with white, which tends to fonn bars on the wings and tail; chin 
and throat white; other lower parts except thighs regularly barred 
with brown and white. Length about 9, extent 23 inches. 


{Glaucidium gnoma). 

This with its darker variety— cflZt/orntcMm— are found in 
southern British Columbia and are most interesting and bold little 
hunters. They prey upon birds, attacking some as large as them- 
selves, such as robins, p'^-osbeaks, and towhees (Coues). Insects 
and small mammals als. are captured. Their note is a low cooing 
sound, and they nest in woodpeckers' holes in trees. Several species 
of the Gnome are known in tropical America. The tail, back, 
wings, and head dark brown, marked only by round dots of white. 
Throat and collar whitish; a band of mottled brown crosses the 
breast ; the remaining lower parts white streaked with brown. Iris 
bright yellow. Length 7 to 7^2 inches, extent 14 to 15. 




Between the birds of prey and the singing birds are several 
groups not closely resembling each other, but in habits bridging 
over the gap. These are the Parrots, Cuckoos, Woodpeckers and 
Goat Suckers. No parrots reach Canada, except in captivity. 

The Cuckoo family is very numerous in tropical countries all 
round the world, and many of them have unusual nesting habits. 
The British Cuckoo is thoroughly parasitic on other birds for incu- 
bation, and rearing her young. Her eggs are laid in the nests of 
other birds, and a remarkable feature of this process is that the 
eggs are often adapted in color to those with which they are placed. 
This means that a certain bird has adopted some species of smaller 
bird to be the foster parents of her young, and lays eggs so like 
theirs as to have them pass unchallenged. In India an instance 
occurs of a young Cuckoo wearing plumage closely resembling 
that of the young of its foster parents, but not at all like that of 
its own parents. Besides this enslaving of other birds to rear their 
young. Cuckoos are believed to destroy the eggs and the j^oung of 
birds whose nests they wish to use. All the kinds live on animal 

The two Canadian species are of somewhat better habits 
than those of other countries, usually building a nest, al- 
through a poor one, incubating, and feeding their own young. 
Instances are known, however, in which they have laid their 
eggs in the nests of other birds. Dr. C. K. Clarke observed in the 
vicinity of Kingston one nest of the Yellow Warbler and two of 
Chipping Sparrows thus invaded by the Black-billed Cuckoo. Need- 
less to say the young of the foster parents are always ejected from 
the nest or starved to death, through the greed of the much larger 
adopted bird. The Ami, — a cuckoo of the West Indies, — is com- 
munistic ; many lay their eggs in one nest and take turns at incu- 
bating them. 




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{Coccyzus americanns) . 

This is the more southern of our species, and seems to be ex- 
tending northward from the United States. It is known to us 
chiefly in Ontario, being rare elsewhere. Like the others, it is a 
shy bird, heard frequently but seldom seen. It slips from tree to 
tree in orchards, flying near the ground, but in passing between 
groves it rises high above the trees. Its gurgling note — from 
which it takes its name — is heard most frequently before rain. If 
its morals were better it would be a bird to be encouraged, because 
it is almost unique in its fondness for the tent caterpillars, gorging 
itself with them whenever possible. It has also been known to 
feed greedily on the larvae of the potato beetle. It nests in a low 
tree often among vines, laying three to seven pale greenish eggs. 
Its upper plumage is a beautiful satiny 'quaker gray,' with yellow- 
ish brown on the wings. The side tail feathers are black, with large 
white tips and white outer edge. Throat, breast, and belly pure 
white. Bill yellow below and on the sides. Length about 12 
inches, extent about 16. 


{Coccyzus erythrophthalmus) . 

This is a summer resident from the Atlantic coast across 
southern Canada to Saskatchewan. Like the Yellow-billed 
Cuckoo this species seems plentiful nowhere, but its softer note is 
heard regularly about the time of plum blossoms, in all parts of its 
range. Plumage above satiny olive gray; below pure white. The 
lateral tail featliei-s have small tips of white, the wings have no 
reddish yellow and the bill is from almost, to completely, black. 
Size about the same as the other, and nest and eggs similar. 




(Crr/jlc (ilcifoii). 

Tliis is the only Kingfisher known in Canadn. over whicli it 
is widely and plentifully distributed. A few other forms are 
known along the southwestern borders of the United States, while 
many others belong to tropieal countries, esj)eeially to the islands 
of the East Indies. In Canada tlie Kingfisher is found along every 
considerable stream, and even some so small as to furnish only 
'fingerling' trout. Every lake border, i.ijge or sniall, hears his 
peculiar note, to be described only as 'rattling.' He Is iui excellent 
guide for a holiday, leading the way to the quietest, most peacefid 
reti'cats of trees and v.'ater in association. Tlis W). d is chiefly fish, 
ca})tured by pitching into shallow water from ten to twenty feet 
above, where he had poised with rai)idly beating wings. He seldom 
Uiisses his aim, and whether successful or not utters his loud call 
as he flys to his perch, — a dead brai:ch overhanging the watei'. 
He is said to eat fi'ogs, snakes and insects, and at times to live far 
from water. They nest in burrows in cutbaiiks id' (arth or sand, 
the excavation being usually their ov/n work, although they may 
enlarge the holes made by swallows. The eggs may be within two 
feet of the entrance, but are usually as many yards away from it. 
and the nest — if it deserve the name —is a small handful of fish 
b(jiies and scales. Its feet are small and zygodactyl, that is — the 
outer and middle toe are joined, having a conuuon sole. (Jrayisli 
blue is the general c<»loration of the upper parts, and r'orms a band 
across the ui)per breast. The tail is spotted and the wing feathers 
slightly speckled with white. Throat, band about neck, lower 
breast, and belly, white. A Jiarrow loose crest. Bill long, sharp, 
black. Female with chestnut baud on belly. 




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This group serves to connect the perching birds with the birds 
of prey. Like the kingfishers and cuckoos, the Woodpeckers are 
not guiltless of destroying other vertebrates, although usually con- 
fining their attention to insects. They live chiefly on animal food 
but occasionally eat lai-gely of berries and cherries. Woodpeckers 
are found in all wooded parts of the world except Australia and 
the Pacific Islands, and it is doubtful whether our northern forests 
could successfully withstand the att jk of their insect enemies 
were they nut garrisoned by efficient and industrious Woodpeck- 
ers of ail si^ets. 

Their feet are zygodactyl, two toes directed forward and two 
backward, and their bills are long, strong, and chisel pointed. The 
tongue is flattened and barbed, and attached to a greatly elongated 
hyoid bone which curves around the skull behind and passes for- 
ward to near the eye. By decreasing the size of the curve of this 
bone the long tongue can be projected. The tail is short, of stiff 
elastic fcatliers acuminate at the tips. With their peculiar equip- 
ment they are able to walk up and down the trunks of trees, chisel 
away the bark and wood to uncover the larvae of insects, and ex- 
plore the tunnels with their barbed and sticky tongues. 


{Dryohates villosus). 

This, with its larger northern and smaller southern forms, is 
distributed from Texas to Lake Athabasca and the Yukon, and 
from Nova Scotia to British Columbia, in wooded regions. The 
upper parts are black with a red band across the back of the head 
in the male, and a white stripe dowTi the middle of the back. 

White spots form bars on the wings, and the outer tail feathers 
are white. A white stripe above the eye and a longer one below 



M,\n<\' WOODl'l t:KKK. 
I Driiiliiiti s vMldsus.) 

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it. Under parts all white. Length from 9 to 11 inches, extent 16 
to 18, and bill IVi to 1^, inches. The form of this known as Harris' 
Wood])ccker is found in British Columbia and southward. It has 
fewer white spots, and the under parts are smoky gray instead of 
white. Otherwise exactly as in viUostts. 


I : 


(Dryobates puhescens). 

Our most familiar tree woodpecker. This little bird frequents 
orchards and lawns, excavating its nests within a few paces of our 
buildings. It may seem wrong to imply that one pair excavates 
more than one nest, but it is true that more than one excavation is 
made by a pair, and that an excavation is equivalent to nest, as a 
few chips and feathers are the only additions to the cavity. These 
different holes are often within a few inches of each other, and 
one is thought to be occupied at night by the male bird while his 
mate is incubating. Apple trees are carefully searched by the 
Downy Woodpecker, but this investigation does no harm, but al- 
ways good, except to the insect inhabitants of the trees. All wood- 
ed i)arts of Canada are familiar haunts of this friendly, harmless, 
little bird. Both Dryobates signal to each other by tapping separ- 
ately on a dry resonant branch. This form produces a long con- 
tinuous roll. The plumage of the Downy is practically the same in 
coloration and texture as that of the Hairy Woodpecker. They 
ai-e readily distinguished by their difference in size. Length of 
this forai less than 7 inches, extent under 12, bill about 2/c of an 

The Oairduer Woodjxjcker is exactly like the Downy, except 
that it has fewer wing spots, and it« under parts are grayish in- 
stead of white. It is a Pacific coast form. 


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The Batchelder Dowiiy Woodpecker occurs in the interior of 
British Cohimbia, and differs from the type only in the lack of 
white spots on the wings. 

The Nelson Dowaiy Woodpecker is the northern form, slightly 
larger and more inclined to be grayish, in place of jet black. 


(Xcnopicus alholarvatus). 

This woodpecker, of unique coloration, is found only in the 
mountains of California, Oregon, Washington, and southern Brit- 
isli Colunihia. Its plumage is uniformly black except a white 
patch on each wing, and the completely white head. The male has 
a red patch on the back of the head. Length about 9, extent 16 


(PicoiUcs arcticus). 

This is a resident bird in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario north of Ottawa, northern Manitoba 
and the I^'ocky .Mountains. In southern Ontario a few are seen 
nearly every winter, and I have received it from several places 
near Kingston. It is generally called the "Black-backed Wood- 
pecker," by those who notice it. Its flight is a series of deeper 
waves than usual even with woodpeckers, and its cry is loud and 
piercing. Eggs four to six, laid in May or June. 

Its plumage is strikingly marked, the male has a golden yel- 
low patch on the crown. Both sexes have a white stripe across the 
forehead in front of the eyes. Otherwise the upper parts are en- 
tirely glossy black. The sides and the undersides of the wings are 
barred white and black. The lower parts are white from chin to 
tail. Toes two in front, one behind. Length about 91/2 inches, 

extent about 16. 


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g Life-Size. 




( Picoidcs nmt'ri<nnns). 

This is a niorp noHliorn form tli.iii iit-rticiis, Wwvr rdiiiul in all 
wooded ])arts of Canada, and oofasionally coniinL,' in winter into 
sonthern Ontario. Tts lioni(> sconis \o bo the districts where tire has 
killed the ]>ino and s])riieo forests. Here it lives npon tiie insects 
that infest the dead trees. Tt is fretinently called the Ladder- 
backed Woodpecker. The male has a yellow patdi (»n the back of 
the head. The back is black e\ce]»t a whit( stripe down the middle, 
and this is re^ndarly liarred with l)lack. Winus with ])aired white 
spots. Tlie fonr middle tail feathers black, others pnre white. The 
followini:' va'-icties of this are disti)!t;nished: — the Alask,:ii Three- 
toed Woodju'cker has more white in the middle line of tlie back. 
Confined to the Rocky Mountains and Vanconvei- Island. The 
Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker has a clear white stripe down the 
middle of the back. It is also a Rockv ^Mountain fuim. 


(Spli!/ra/)ici(s varius). 

Found all across Canada in wooded parts, from Nova Scotia 
to the Rocky .Alountains. The Sapsucker is more plentiful in 
n(.rther>, Canada than in southern Ontario, but some remain and 
nest in tne Kinj?ston district, beinj? found all through the summer 
in cei-tain favorite localities. They are, however, much more plen- 
tiful in spring on their way northward, and at that time their at- 
tention to maples, white poplars, rowan trees and others on our 
lawns is apt to excite unkind acts on our part. They deliberately 
drill a series of holes thro^igh the bark, to the cambium which they 
eat. These holes are sometimes vertically above each other, or they 
may be in hoiizontal lines. A number of trees are thus tapped, then 
the bird goes its rounds sucking the sap from one little cavity after 



'I'- I 



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another, incidentally capturing insects, especially ants, that try 
to share its treat. The trees thus opened continue to yield sap for 
some weeks, and are thereby weakened by the loss of food required 
for growth. Probably more serious is the break in their protective 
armor against infection by fungus spores. Certainly many young 
rowan trees are killed, and other kinds injured in this way. Where 
the Sapsucker establishes itself for the summer among white pop- 
lars — Popiilus alba — this process goes on all the season, and in at 
least one instance the Ruby-throat Hummingbird is a constant 
though unwelcome visitor at the same fountains. I have counted 
six Sapsuckers and four Hummingbirds feeding day after day in 
this way on a group of four large poplars. The Sapsuckers seemed 
stupefit'd by theii* drink, at any rate it was possible for me to knock 
them down from their feedin^^ places with a short pole. The food 
they supply to their young uisder the above conditions, is prob- 
ably ants, as these are very numerous on the same trees, and were 
found in the stomachs of those killed. 

Their note is an easily recognizable *' cheer, cheer," some- 
what hoarsely delivered. 

The crown of both male and female is scarlet, the throat black, 
but enclosing a crimson patch in the male, and a white one in the 
female, i^ ck barred with black and white, or yellowish. Wings 
black with white spots on the quills, and a large white patch on the 
coverts. White lines from the eyes liackward meet on the nape. 
The black of the chin, throat, and breast is bordered by white. Belly 
yellowish. Tongue not very extensible. Length about 9V1>, extent 
15 to 16 inches. Two varieties of this species are found in Canada. 
The Red-naped Saj^sueker has a band of scarlet on the back of the 
neck behind the crown patch. The red throat patch is larger, and 
the yellow of the belly is whitish. Its range covers the foothills and 
the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and British Columbia. 

The Northern Red-breasted Sapsucker. In this form ''The 
whole head, nock, and breast is carmine or crimson, in which the 




markings of varius are more or less completely dissolvt'd" ( < '<nu\s). 
The ran{»e of this is oorifiiied to the coast from southern Alaska to 
lower California. 


{C'eopliheus juhutus nhictirola). 

This is the largest woodpecker found in Canada, and is pro- 
perly named Log-cock. It is distinguished fwm the great Log- 
cock, of the Southern States, by its black bill and less size. For- 
merly it was resident in all the heavily timl)ered i)arts (.f (^anada, 
but now it is seldom swn south of Muskoka in Ontario. Its great 
ability as an excavator in wood, the persistence with whi(di it will 
cut a tree into pieces, and its loud call note make it notable even in 
a family of enthusiastic and noisy carpenters. Nest usually high 
in a dead tree. Eggs five or six. 

Whole top of the head covered by a scarlet crest, lengthened 
toward the back. A narrow \Vhite line below this is succeeded bv a 
broad black line from the eyes to the nape. Then a white line wid- 
ening from the forehead and passing down the neck is yellowish in 
front of the eyes. A scarlet stripe on the cheek is lacking in the fe- 
male, which also has the front of the crest black. P,ack brownish 
black; wings partly white; under parts blackish with some yellow. 
Length about 18, extent about 27 inches. 


( Mela ncrpcs crijt li roceph aJus ) . 

Although rare in the eastern provinces, this is a conun -n resi- 
dent in Ontario, but rarely spends the winter, except in d ■ south- 
western peninsula. Jt is found in all the provinces, but doon not "-o 
very far north. It should be able to make itself at home in every 
part as it is very adaptable to its environment. 



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While apparently able to capture wood borers as well as do the 
other woodpeckers, this bird may often be seen catching flying in- 
sects in the manner of the Kingbird, and every owner of cherry 
trees will testify to its ability as a fruit eater. It nests high, in 
large trees usually, and lays its eggs in June. 

Observed from the back, its plumage is a bright sequence, of 
one-fourth, i.e., head and neck— crimson ; the next fourth— back 
and shoulders— glossy black; the next fourth— rump and wing 
coverts—pure white ; remaining fourth— ends of wings and tail- 
black. Chin, throat, and upper breast crimson; lower breast and 
belly wliite, sometimes tinted with pale red and yellow. Length 
about 9 inches. 


(Mchnicrpc's caroliyuis). 

This is thought by many to be the handsomest of our wood- 
peckers. The south-western part of Ontario is the only part of 
Canada in which it nests, as far as known. It is said to occur in 
south-eastern Quebec, and to visit Montreal occasionally, and one 
specimen was taken near Kingston. My only capture of this was 
made near Ingersoll, in Oxford County, in 1890. Its range 
stretches southward to Texas and Indian Territory. Back and 
wings rc-ularly and closely barred with black and white— zebra 
color. White spots on bases of ]>rimarios. Top of the head and 
nape bright scarlet in the male, some scarlet with grayish in the 
female. Sides of head and under parts ashy gray, becoming red 
on the belly. Length 9 to 10 inches, extent 16 to 17. 


{Asyndcsmiis torquatus). 

This is a remarkable woodpecker, unlike any others in plum- 
age, but somewhat resembling the Flicker in size and shape of bill, 





and attitude on trees. Its Canadian range is the interior of south- 
ern British Columbia, thence it extends southward in the pine for- 
ests of tlie Rockies. It catches insects on the wing, as do the Fly- 
catcliers, and flies steadily by reguhir wing beats, instead of trac- 
ing a festoon in its path as do most others of this family. 

"Upper parts, including wings and tail, flanks and crissum, 
green black, with intense bronzy lustre, especially on the V)ack. 
Face dark crimson in a patch around bill and eyes. Distinct col- 
lar, around back of neck and breast, hoary bluish gray, gradually 
brightening behind to intense rose-red. Feathei-s of under parts 
and collar bristly, hard, and loosened. No white on wings or tail. 
Length 10 to 11, "extent 20 to 22 inches" (Couos). Eggs 5 to 9. Nest 
found near Similkanu'cn River, B.C., June loth, in a live poplar 
tree about five feet from the ground. It often nests in conifers. 


(Colaj)tes anratnft). 

The above common names, and over thirty others, indicate 
that this l)ird is noticed by many people in widely separated dis- 
tricts. This is in fact the best known and most popular of our 
wood]»eckei"s, as well as the most plentiful in southern Ontario. 
It is abundant in the southern parts of all the provinces east of 
the Rockies, its place being taken in British ('olumbia by the Red- 
shafted and Nortii-western Flicker. 

Forests are not necessary to the Flicker, as he obtains much 
of his food on the ground, his esi)ecial business being the reduction 
of the i)opulation of ant hills. In this he is highly successful, and 
deserves his popularity for being both ornamental and useful. 

Back and wings grayish brown with l)lack bars ; rump white ; 
tail black above. Wings and tail quills golden yellow in under. A 
scarlet band on the nape, and a black pectoral crescent in both 
sexes. Black moustaches in the males. Chin, throat, and breast 








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like the sides of the head, grayish brown. Under parts brownish 
with black spots. Length about 12, extent 18 to 20 inches. 


(Colaptes cafcr coUaris). 
This is a western Flicker, very like auratus, except that wher- 
ever a yellowish tint is found in the eastern form it is replaced by 
reddish in the western. The under surfaces of the wings and tail 
are thus orange or vermilion. It is found on Vancouver Island 
and southern British Columbia. 


{Colaptes mcricanus saturior). 

This is a dark form of the Red-shafted Flicker and is com- 
mon in British Columbia. 

Hybrids of the Golden-winged and Red-shafted Flickers 
wearing all sorts of combinations of their ancestors' color peculi- 
arities are found in the prairie provinces, and even as far east as 
Toronto two were captured, one of which had half the tail 
orange red. 




The large fissirostral mouths of these birds, and their habit 
of flying close to the ground in pastures in chase of their insect 
prey, have no doubt led to the accusation which is expressed in the 
name. They all live on insects captured on the wing; the great 
gape of their wide open bills, aided in some forms by stiff sur- 
rounding bristles, enables them to take in even large moths. Many 
species are tropical in range, some are closely related to dark for- 
ests, while others arc quite at home over cities and treeless plains. 





(Antrostomns caroUnensis) . 

A specimen of this bird was taken in Nova Scotia and another 
at Point Pelee, Lake Erie. Its home is from North Carolina 
southward, and it is merely accidental in the northern states. 

Its plumage is com2)letely mottled and streaked with black 
and yellowi'"' ' "own, with chestnut bars. An incomplete Whitish 
band crosse. apper breast. The stiff bristles which grow 

around the of the bill have hair-like branches on the basal 
half. Length 12, extent about 25 inches. 


(Antrostomus vociferus). 

This bird of the dusk and early dawn is frequently heard, but 
rarely seen except by those searching for it. During the day it 
sometimes is to be seen perched lengthwise on a shaded branch, 
crouching close to the wood. It avoids the sunlight, and when dis- 
turbed slips with silent and bat-like flight into thicker woods. The 
clear loud call — which is well rei)resented by its name — is heard 
only during the breeding season. It builds no nest, but lays its 
eggs on the leaves li dark swampy forests, and trusts f(n' conceal- 
ment to the harmony between its own colors and those of the sur- 
rounding objects. The eggs are dull white with grayish mark- 
ings. In colors it closely resembles those given for Ohuck-Wills- 
Widow, but with less chestnut. The white throat bar is narrow 
but complete. No hairlike branches are found on the bristles 
about the beak. This difference and the smaller size distinguishes 
the two forms. Length 9 to 10 inches, extent 16 to 18. 


1 1, 








(Chonh'ilcs virginianus) . 

Throughout Canada this well known and much observed bird 
nests, and raises its young on the Barren Lands of the extreme 
north, on burnt hills of the forest region, on bare plains, or among 
the pebbles on the flat tops of lofty houses in the centre of great 

On summer evenings, when all the world possessing doorsteps 
sit about them to enjoy the cooler air, the Nighthawk performs 
his graceful airy evolutions. Wo do not quite understand his 
meaning, but all enjoy watching hiui, and tolerate his umnusical 
and peristent cry. During the nesting season, the bird— probably 
the male — after emitting his cry more frequently than usual as if 
to call attention to himself — shoots almost vertically downward, 
but checks himself and glides upward again after coming quite 
close to the earth. Just as his course curves to avoid his dashing 
against the ground, a i)eculiar booming sound is produced, no 
doubt by the vibration of the air through the stiff wing and tail 
feathers, which check and change his motion. The flight of de- 
sirable insects and not the sunlight seems to time the Nighthawk's 
hunting. Aloths and such insects as fly on cloudy days or during 
the morning and evening twilights seem to be the food desired, and 
we have every reason to think the Nighthawk a successful pur- 
suer. As stated above, they nest anywhere in unfrequented but 
open places, making no nest, but depositing their two grayish mot- 
tled eggs on a flat surface. I have found the bird incubating on 
flat, hot limestone rocks in a bushy pasture. Plumage much the 
same as that of the Whip-poor-will, but the white bar is across the 
throat rather than the upper breast. There are no bristles aljout 
the beak, and there is a large white spot on the five outer primaries 
at about mid length. This shows from below like a hole through 



the wing. In the female the white marks are merely whitit;h. 
Length about 9 inches, extent a]x)ut 23. 

The Western Nighthawk is a variety of the above, belongs to 
the prairie regions, and like other prairie birds is more grayish 
or even yellowish in tone than the eastern or northern forms. It is 
found in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Ct)lumbia. 

Nighthawks move southward in late August in large, loose, 
leisurely fiocks, hawking as they go, and return to southern On- 
tario earlv in May. 

! i 


These are fissirostral birds, as are the Goatsuekers— that is, 
the mouth extends back far beyond the horny boak. They are also 
characterized by their very long wings and small feet, being evi- 
dently adapted for catching their insect prey on the wing, and not 
for walking or perching. In some the tail feathers are stiff, and 
end in firm bristles, which aid them in clinging to the vertical 
walls on which they nest. They secrete large quantities of glue- 
like saliva, which is used in nest building, either for cementing to- 
gether the twigs com})osing the nest; or forming practically the 
whole nest, as in the East Indies, where the edibU" birds' nests are 
obtained for the Chinese. 






(Chaetura pdagica). 

Very often called Chimney Swallow in this country, the com- 
mon Swift is familiar to all, ranging from the Atlantic as far west 
as British Columbia. They have adopted the structures of man 
as preferable to those provided by nature, and now are more plen- 
tiful in the neighborhood of houses and in cities than in forest or 
plains regions. They nest in colonies t,l t.^mcs in unused or seldom 
used chimneys, often in the middle of cities. Old chimneys of 









burned houses in the country are favorite locations, and the inner 
walls of lofts or attics, in barns or houses are frequently used. The 
nest is roughly like one-half of a hollow hemisphere, the straight 
side fastened by their dried saliva to the vertical wall. The ma- 
terials of the nest are slender dry twigs, broken from the trees by 
being grasped by the l)ird's feet as it dashes downward upon them. 
These are glued neatly and strongly together, forming a bracket 
or shelf-like structure about four inches wide and projecting about 
three inches. Little or no lining is used. They lay four or five 
white eggs, and return year after year to the same nest, or at least 
similar Swifts use a nest during successive years. In flight, food, 
tittering notes, and location of nests they closely resemble the 
swallows, but in structure they are related to the hummingbirds. 
Being entirely harmless in their habits, and very useful as insect 
destroyers, Swifts should be encouraged and protected every- 
where. If not desired in a chimney, a screen of wire may be easily 
adjusted, and will be perfectly efficient, as vertical walls alone in 
dark secluded situations are the only places satisfactory to Swifts 
for nesting. They reach Ontario early in May, and go south early 
in September. Plumage brownish black with a greenish gloss 
above and paler below. Throat grayish. Wing as long as the 
body — about 5 inches. Extent about 12. 

In British Columbia two other Swifts are occasionally seen. 
The Vaux Swift {Chaetiira vaiixii), is thought to be resident. It 
resembles the Chimney Swift, but is smaller and paler, the rump 
lighter than the back and the throat is white. Length 4i/^ inches. 

The Black Swift {Cypscloidcs nigcr boreal is), has been seen 
in numbers near Douglas, British Columbia, and is thought to 
nest there. It is much like the others, but has a grayish forehead 
and belly, and measures 7 inches or more in length. 





Tliese— the most minute of feathered creatures— all belong to 
America, but most of the 450 or more species are found only in 
Mexico, Central and South America. Only five siKicies are known 
to reach Canada, and of these but one occurs east of tlie Rockv 

They are as a family readily distinguished by tli r very small 
size and brilliant coloration. The bill is awl-shapec. and usually 
longer than the head, while the iongue may be protruded nuich be- 
yond the tip of the bill. With these instruments thev collect in- 
sects in or about the fiowers, and often the nectar of "the flowers. 
(See under Sapsucker). The wings are long, narrow, and point- 
ed, and m the smaller species vibrate so rapidlv as to produce a 
buzzing sound, and to be only indistinctly visible. Their feet are 
very small, but are armed with long sharp claws. Some are said to 
have a little song, but usually their only vocal production is a weak 
unmusical chii-p. In temper they are very irritable as well as cour- 
ageous, attacking an eagle as readily as they do one of their own 
kind, which they suspect of evil designs on their nest. They are 
quite fearless of humanity and will eat sugar from the fingers if 
not offended by careless attempts at capture. Their nests resem- 
ble knots on the upper side of branches, and are beautiful little 
hollowed cushions of down, covered outside with lichens. Two 
pure white eggs are laid. The young are said to be fed bv regurgi- 
tation, as are young pigeons. 

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(Trochilus coluhriH). 

This is the only hummingbird commonly known in Canada 
ranging from the maritime provinces and Labrador to Saskatche- 


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i i ii 



wan. It nests throughout its whole Canadian range, and in favor- 
able phices is quite plentiful. It arrives about the middle of May 
in southern Ontario, and remains as long as large deep fiowers are 
open — say the middle of September. The sexes differ in lustre and 
in brilliance of coloration. 

The male is lustrcMis green above with metallic violet on the 
crown and puri)lish on wings and forked tail. Throat and sides 
of neck brilliant, lustrous, rul>y-rcd, otlu r under parts grayish 
green. Female cntiivly jirceuish .ibcxc, no red. but whitish on 
throat, and otherwise green and white. Length 3^/4, extent about 
5 inches. 


(TrocJulus alcrandri). 

British Colum])ia alone of Canadian territory is visited by 
this relative of the l|uby Throat. Its range is the Pacific coast 
from Lower Califcu'uia northward into Canada. 

The male has the tail doubly rounded l)ut not forked, while 
the female has a simply rounded tail. In ])luniage and size it 
closely resembles the Kuby Throat, but the gorget is velvety black 
in front, and blue, green and violet on tlie sides of the neck. 


(SclaspJionis ri(fiis). 

The most plentiful lumimingbird of British Columbia is this 
species of the Lightning Hummers. It is conunonly called the Red- 
backed or Nootka Ilununingbird. Throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tains region from the foothills in Alberta to the Coast, and well up 
into Ahiska it is found, as well as on Vancouver Island. It nests 
early in April while the nights are still frosty. It is the most 
northern as well as the most extensively distributed Species of the 




The tail is wedge shaped, neither rounded nor forked. The 
central tail feather is broad and tapers abruptly. The next on 
each side are notched on the inner web near the end. The color of 
the plumage in general both above and below is cinnamon-red, 
deepening to purple on the ends of the tail feathers. Some green- 
ish shades may be seen on the back and whitish on the belly. The 
gorget is glossy copper red, and ahnost becomes a ruff. The fe- 
male has no gorget, and the cinnamon color is overlaid largely with 
greenish. Length 3V1> inches. 


(Selasphorus allcni). 

This form is closely related to the last, but may be dis- 
tinguished by the tail feathers and gorget. The central tail feath- 
er tapers gradually, the next pair are not notched, and the outer 
pair are almost awi shaped. The back is golden green ; the belly 
and sides cinnamon ; and the gorget brilliant red, edged below with 
white. The female is like that of the preceding species in colors. 
Length 31/4 inches. This species has been taken near Revelstoke, 
Sicamous, and Penticton, British Columbia. 


{Stellula calliope). 

This is the smallest bird known in Canada. It ranges from the 
southern part of British Columbia south into Mexico, in the moun- 
tain regions. In appearance it is unlike the other forms described. 

The tail is doubly rounded. "The crown and back golden 
green. All tail feathers dusky, with rufous at base, and slightly 
pale tips. Gorget of violet or lilac tips of feathers set in snowy 
white. Sides of throat, and crissum white. Below white, glossed 
with green on the sides. ' ' ( Coues) . Length 2% inches. 


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T'lie order Pnsscrrs is by fa" the lar{>;est group of. birds i)Iaced 
tof^cther because of siniilai- elrai ei-s. Some of these characters 
we shall uieution. Tlie feet are adapted for grasping, by the fact 
that the hind toe is always jiresent, and so placed and developed as 
to be readily opposed to the other toes. The hind toe never turns 
forward or sideways, and none of tlie front toes turn backward. 
The ))ill is variable in form, but always, — either largely or alto- 
gether — hard jmuI horny. They are altricial, the young being 
hatched weak and naked. They are nervous and sensitive crea- 
tures, with rapid res])iration and circulation. They reside above 
the earth, in the air and amongst the plants, and they include the 
song birds of the world. Few are cosmopolitan, except the snow 
birds which pass between the continents in the northeni polar 
regions. Taken in all their characteristics, they represent the 
highest grade of development reached by the feathered race. 

The fii"st family to be noted is that of the 



This is an American family of birds, usually considered song- 
less, as their vocal organs are less highly developed than in the 
other families. Some of them, however, produce loud and fairly 
musical notes. They are very numerous in the tropics, about 350 
species being known. Only about sixteen of these reach Canada. 
They are distinguished from Passcrcs by having the tarsus round- 
ed and not reticulate behind; a bill hooked at the tip, and with 
bristles at the base. 

. 162 



( Musciiuiru foifirufa ) . 

Alth()Uf?h a l»ir<l of tlio SdutluTii States, this beautiful i\y- 
catelier has wandered into Canada and may do so ajjain. It has 
k'en reported from New JRrunswiek, Ontario, Manitoha, and York 
Factory on Hudson Bay. In the first and las»t two instances speci- 
mens were secured. It nnist l>e et)nsi(h'red accidental however 
north of Missouri. 

General color ashy, heconiinj; ahuost white below. A crown 
])atch is scarlet; the sides at the bases (►f the winys are deep red; 
and the under i)arts and crissum are often tin<ied with the same. 
The winj^ and tail are blackish, with whire <»r red edj^ings. The 
tail is very deei)ly forked and over lli inches lonj?. 

THE KlNUBllfll) 

( Tin'oinius tynnmis). 

The Kingbird is known also as the Tyrant Flycatcher from 
its habit of fiercely attacking any other bird, no matter how large, 
which comes near its nest. It builds usually in a hawthorn tree, 
making a sulxstantial, deep nest, compactly woven of all sorts of 
til)rous matter, with little attempt at concealment. The eggs, usu- 
ally four in numlx?r, are whitis'h or creamy with l)rown dots and 
splashes on the larger end. From its favorite perch on the to]) of 
a nnillein stalk the bird darts for i)assing insects, of which it 
destroys great numbers, among which may ))e an occasional honey 
bee. Its note during the breeding season is not uni)leasant, wliile 
its value as a sentinel against crows and hawks, at that time, 
is undoubted. The colors of the Kingbir'l are not striking, ex- 
cept a flame colored patch on the crown, '. ually li'dden except 
when the bird is in warlike mood. The crown, beak, and tail 
are black, the latter being broadly tipped with white. The wings 



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are dark with whito edsin^s, while the breast is gray. Length about 
eight inehes. It nests tliroughout southern Canada from coast 
to coast. The Arkansas Kingbird is found from Saskatchewan to 
Vancouver, associating with the eastern form, and having similar 
eggs and nesting habits. 






( My in nh ns crin it i(s ) . 

The shrill note of this active bird is heard in all the provinces 
from the Atlantic as far west as Manitoba. It should scarcely be 
called common, although a few may be seen in almost any district 
visited. Their calls may be heard in May in the Lake Ontario 
district, and the bird may usually be readily found standing at at- 
tention, with crest raised, on the toi)most branch of a dead tree. 
All their motions are full of suppressed onergy. They build a new 
nest in a hole in a tree, and seem to always use a discarded snake 
skin as a prominent part of the arrangement. 

Their eggs are three or five in number, and bear the unusual 
distinction of lengthwise markings of brown on the ground color 
of yellowish. "While living through the summer on insects almost 
entirely, they are known to eat berries and other small fruits in 

The back and wings are light brown with olive green shades. 
The tail mostly light chestnut. The throat and breast are pale 
gray, while the belly is bright yellow. The loose crest feathers 
of the crown are brownish. Length about 9 inches, extent about 13. 


(Sayornis phoebe). 

Central Canada from Montreal to Manitoba, but especially 
southern Ontario, seems to be the favorite Canadian range of this 




Phoebe. It has been found about Edmonton and northward along 
the Athabafeo : River. l*robably of our native birds no other is so 
common about our d\vellin^:s in southern Ontario except the 
Robin, the Song Sparrow, and the Chipping Sparrow. It makes 
its liome of moss and mud and grass under our cornices, on the 
gables of our houses, or in verandas, sheds and outhouses, also very 
commonly under bridges, on the beams supi>orting the floor. Its 
eggs number four or five, usually white, but sometimes slightly 
spotted with brown. While not musical, the note of the Phoebe 
tells of quiet and home, and is i\t u ^ me among the earlier spring 
migrants returning to their previous haunts. 

A monotonous, plaintive reiteration of "pee-wee" is the usual 
utterance, but occasionally one is heard to produce the s<ime sound 
very rapidly as if bubbling over with joy beyond ordinary ex- 
pression. Its food is insects, captured very expertly — but with 
little display— on the wing. The back, wings, and tail are olive 
brown, the head blackish, the under i)arts are whitish or yellowish, 
darker toward the head. The length about 7 inches, extent 10 to 12. 

h i\ 



{Canto pus horcalis). 

This flycatcher belongs to the wooded rather than the open 
country, and is found from Cape Breton to Vancouver Island, 
being uncommon in southern Ontario. Like the Crested Fly- 
catcher this l)ird frequents the top of the tallest trees to be found. 
They are said to live among the conifers and to build their nests 
higli on the evergreen branches. Eggs usually three, creamy, and 
spotted with reddish brown, especially at the larger end. Back 
dark greenish brown, wings and tail blackish brown. Throat 
white, and .. narruw white line down he middle of the breast. 
Other under parts stre 'ky with blackisl A yellowish white tuft 
of loose dow^1 »n ifh flank, i ,.'Ugth about 7i/^ inches. 


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(Sayornis saya). 

In Alberta and the open parts of British Columbia this is the 
bird which takes the place of the last described. Its nesting habits 
are much the same, utilizing the beams and walls of houses and 
bridges where possible, but also fastening its nest agamst the moist 
walls of cliffs. Its note is of one syllable. Plumage similar to the 
last, except that the tone of the upper parts is grayish bi-own, and 
of the lower surface cinnamon brown, paler toward the head. 

Length about 

rVo, and extent 11 inches. 

(Canfopiis richnrdsoni) . 

This form takes the place of the last from Manitoba to the 
Pacific, but favors thickets rather than the dense woods. It has 
been found in Alaska, but is not connnon there. Its note is said 
to be more abrupt than that of the last, and its nest is placed usu- 
ally among small forking branches, rather than saddled on a large 
limb. In appearance it is so like Cantoims virens and Sayornis 
saya, that the one description does for all, except that this is 
somewhat darker both above and l)elow. Size the same and eggs 
not distinguishable from those of the Wood Phoebe. 


(Cantoi)us virens). 

Found in Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba, probably most common in 
southern Ontario. It frequents hardwood forests, and places its 
beautiful lichen covered nest often on the upper side of a branch. 
It lays usually three eggs, creamy, with bro^^^l markings especially 
at the larger end. Its note is less abrupt than tliat of the common 


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COrvKIOHT <».iO, tV A. W. MUMrOND, ( MIC«r.O 


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ph(»('))o, — souiidiii.u' more like "pee-a-wee," and to us very plain- 
tive. Like the Olive-sided Flycatcher its wings are longer than its 
tail, and when standing erect it does not usually keep them closely 
folded to the body, hut hanging as though -^specially ready for an- 
other dash after insects. 

In coloration it is extremely like the connnon phoebe, but in 
length does not exceed Bi/^ inches, and extends under 11. The tar- 
sus is not longer than the bill, while the wing is about one half inch 
longer than the tail. The toes a- d tarsus are very slender. 


{Empidonax flaviventris). 

Found in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Now Brunswick, rare- 
' A western Quebec or southern Ontari(j, but occasionally in the 
"thern parts and Manitoba, plentiful nowhere. 

Nest on a mossy log in a damp thicket, eggs four, creamy 
white, with reddish brown Idotclies. 

Plumage clear olive green above, paler on the sides, and bright 
yellow on the belly. Breast yellowish olive green. Length 5 to 51/^ 


{Empidondx trailii) . 

This and the next form are so much alike that only experts 
can with certainty identify a single bird. Its range is cliictiy from 
Manitoba to the Pacific, in moist woodland, especially willow 
thickets. Its nest is built among the forked twigs of shrubs, and 
is not very com[)act but deep. Eggs three or four, blotched creamy 

Plumage dull olive brown above, darker toward the head. Be- 
low whitish with olive on the sides and across the })reas't. Lc: fj^h 
51/2 to 6 inches, extent 9 to 91/0. 


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(Empidonax difficilis) . 

This is a British Columbia form very like the Yellow-bellied 
Flycatcher, but the .coloration is not clear olive green above and 
bright yellow beloTv, but dingy on both surfaces, the belly being 
buff or ochre colored. Size same as flaviventris. 


{Empidonax traillii ahiorum). 

This is the eastern fonn of the last described, and is to be dis- 
tinguished only by its brigiiter plumage. Its range is from New- 
foundland to British Columbia, where it probably merges with the 
preceding. Size, nest and habits the same. 


(Empidonax m in imus) . 

This is a common little bird from Newfoundland to the Rocky 
^fountains, and it goes north to Fort Simpson on the Mackenzie 
River. The haunts of man are not objectionable to it, and the 
orchard and shaded city streets are often visited. Its nest is built 
in an upright fork, and the eggs are usually four, white and creamy 
and unspotted. Its note is written "che-bec" and its nature is 
much more lively and sociable than that of its relative the Phoebe. 

lis plumage is very like that of Traill's Flycatcher, but more 
grayish than brown above. Sides and breast with a tinge of 
yellowish. Length 5 to Syo inches, extent about 8. 


( E m pido nax ha m m o n di ) . 

This is the western form of the Least Flycatcher, its range 
being western Alberta, British Columbia, and Alaska. The chief 



distinction is that its coloration is olive gray both above and across 
the breast, the belly yellowish, the bill very small and narrow, and 
the tail decidedly forked. Length under 6 inches. 




About 100 species of larks are known, but in Canada we have 
one of these species, with, however, many interesting 


(Otocoris alpestris). 

This is the type, of which most Canadian larks are varieties. 
It occurs from the Atlantic to the western part of Ontario, but is 
rare in southern Ontario west of Kingston, "i . is common in Lab- 
rador and about Hudson Bay and is occasionally taken about Otta- 
wa and Georgian Bay. Homed Larks are plentiful in winter and 
spring along the north shore of Lake Ontario, but I believe all that 
I have seen to be the i' -airie form, — variety praticola. In winter 
they associate with the Snowbirds, but in spring they are usually 
in pairs flitting along the roads, gleaning from dropped seeds and 
from wayside weeds. They are not alanned by the approach of 
horses or men, and often run for some distance just ahead of a 
team, then rise and swing bacxv to their interrupted feast. 

The crown, neck, back, rump and wings are grayish brown 
with a pinkish tint, especially on the nape, wing coverts, and rump. 
The throat patch and a line over the eye are sulphur yellow. A 
black band crosses the breast; there is also a black patch below each 
eye, reaching from the bill to the side of the neck, and a black bar 
across the forhead extending backward as erectile horns over each 
eye. The lower surface is white with brownish on the sides. The 


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bill is short, the hind claw long and nearly straight. Length 7 to 
71/. inches, extent 13 to 14, wing 4I/4 to 4"?4. 

The following varieties are separated by systematisits but are 
found to grade into each other. Pallid Horned Lark — Otocoris 
alpestn's arcticola. This fonn belongs to Alaska and British Col- 
umbia, but may not be confined to those regions. Prairie Horned 
Lark. (). a. />raticola. This is the commonest form in southern 
Ontario and differs from the type in the lighter tone of the plum- 
age. The upper parts are gray rather than brown, and the yellow 
patch is pale or replaced by white. In size it is slightly smaller 
than the type ; wing under 4y> inches. It nests with us very early 
in spring, as soon as the ground is bare in March, and the first lot 
of eggs may suffer freezing. The nest is of grass and fairly well 
hidden on the ground of a meadow or pasture. The eggs are 
bluish or greenish white, evenly speckled with brown. Like the 
Skylark the Horned lark sings when flying upward, but more usu- 
ally when perched on a lump of earth or a knoll. Its song is sel- 
dom heard in Ontario, but quite freciuently on the prairies. The 
Desert Horned Lark is a still paler form with less black 
about the head and more white. Its range in Canada is along the 
boundary of the United States from ^Manitoba to the prairies. The 
Dusky Horned Lark— southern British Columbia and the forested 
regions south of it are the ranges of this darker and smaller form, 
The hair-splitting divisions of which the varieties of the Horned 
Lark, are a type, may have some value to the professional orni- 
thologist, but certainly none to the general student and bird-lover. 




This well known family includes the inajjpies, jays, crows, 
and ravens. All have loud and unpleasant voices, and most of 
them are persistent in utterinj; their calls. In general intelligence 
they rank high an -ng birds, and some show considerable courage 
and adroitness in stealing food. They all possess long, sharp, 
strong bills, and are onmivorous feeders. 


(Pica pica Jntdsonica). 
Although occasionally wandering as far east as Montreal, the 
magpie is, as yet, a bird of the western plains. It seems more 
numerous in Alberta than further east, and is described as a 
conunon I'esident in British (Vdumbia and in Alaska. No clear 
distinction seems jmssible between this and the European form. 
They nesit usually in a thicket or low tree, the structure being 
about as large as a bushel basket and built of strong sticks. A 
roof of sticks is also provided, the entrance to the cup-like clay 
nest itself being from the side. Eggs from six to ten, gi-eeuish or 
gray. Like the other members of the family they are blamed for 
carrying away for food the young of other birds. They eat car- 
rion, insects, mice, and seeds as well as fruits. Plumage glossy 
black, with green and blue lustre, especially on wings and tail. 
Lower part white from the breast to the tail, also a patch on each 
shoulder, grayish on throat and middle of back. Bill black, wings 
short and round, tail nearly a foot long, of graduated feathers. 
Length 18 to 20 inches, extent about 35 inches. Female like the 
male but slightly smaller. 


{Cyanocitta criatata). 
Like the othei's of the Crow family, the Blue Jay resides in 
considerable numbers through all the year in southern Canada, 


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anv migration that may occur being to a region but slightly 
south of the nesting district. This species ranges from the At- 
lantic to the plains of Albei-ta. Among the mountains, even m 
Alberta, Steller's Jay is more likely to be seen. Wherever found 
the Blue Jav is the same noisy, busy thief, quiet enough however, 
when actually robbing you. The eggs and the young of other birds 
are likely to'suffer from his appetite, the nuts of oak and beech^ 
the fruit of hawthorn and domestic cherry tree are all welcome t» 
him, while the corn crib or a piece of exposed meat will always 
claim his attention. His beautiful coloring, his reckless manner 
when not feeding, and his pi^sence through the winter give him 
however, a strong claim on our sympathies. Jays frequently trave 
about in small bands and seem to greatly enjoy ^^x)rrying owls and 
hawks. Their notes are very loud, clear and varied, and some even 
claim for them powers of mimicry and ventriloquism. A nest 
which I saw in the spring of 1912 occupied by the bird, was on a 
horizontal hemlock bough about twelve feet from the ground. The 
tree stood on the edge of a swamp in Frontenac Oounty, and within 
a mile of Lake Ontario. The nest was made of sticks, moss and 
irmd Thev lav four or five eggs, gray with broNvn markings. 
Wings and taif rich blue with white tips and black bai^- ^ack 
crravish blue, lower surface bluish gray, almost white on belly and 
crissum. A black collar crosses between throat and breast and 
reaches on the hind head up to the crest which is dark at the base 
in front. Tail rounded. Length 11 to 12, extent 16 to 18 inches. 

(Cyanocetta stelleri). 
This bird belongs to the Rocky Mountain region from Cali- 
fornia to Alaska being especially related to the Coast Range al- 
though I saw one in Crow's Nest Pass on the Alberta side of the 
summit. Color soft black on head, neck and back but Passmg mEb 
dull blue towards the rump. Tail and wings dark blue with black 


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bars. Size alwiit that of the eastern Blue Jay. The variety of 
Steller's Jay ki]o\vii as the Black Headed Jay shows whitish 
patches about the eyes, and bluisih streaks on the forehead, such 
as characterize the Long-crest Jay of Wyoming and Mexico. It 
niav be a hvbrid. 


{Pcrisorcus canadensis). 
All of Canada east of the Rocky Mountains and as far north 
as the forest ex-tends is the home of the "AVhisky Jack." It nests 
in Alberta in March, the young being hatched sometimes while the 
temperature is below ze-o. The nest is thick, deep and well-lined, 
placed in either evergree. . or broadleafed trees. The eggs are four 
or five, pale green or gray, dotted with brownish. The notable 
characterifftic of the Canada Jay is its fearlessness. The oamp 
fire of the lonely traveller is visited apparently in a spirit of com- 
radeship, but no opiwrtuuity of taking food is allowed to slip. 
The notes of the bird are in many tones but few of them are musi- 
cal. Its food is varied, nuts forming the staple. The plumage of 
this northern bird is very fluffy and fur-like, not at all close fit- 
ting but almost shaggy; the front of the head is white, the back of 
the head and nock black. The back, wings, and tail are gray, as 
are the under parts except the neck, which is white. Lenjrth 11 
to 12 inches. ^ 


(Perisoreus canadensis capitalis). 
This is a variety of the Canada Jay found throughout British 
Columbia. It is said to be easily distinguishable from the eastern 
form by the lead gray instead of ashy gray color, with blackish 
wmgs and tail, the feathers tipped and edged with whitish. Lower 
surface paler, shading into whitish on breast and neck. The fi-ont 
of the head distinctly whitish. Length 12 to 13, and extent 17 






» ,*.«• 



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( l*('risontis fn in if runs ) . 

This is a darker t' cf the Canada Jay, ' -and . nly in the 
coast repion. Tt has little whitish ..n the hea.l, while the wings, 
back and tail are slaty hlaek. 


( Prrisorciis h i(j tied pill k-s) . 

This is a form said to be l..eally eoniinon in northeastern 

Labra.lor, brc.edin,ii at Ungava Hay, and also resident in New- 

fonndland. It is .listinguishe.l by the greater eontrast between the 

white of the forehead and neck and the bla-k of t..e head which 

c( tines forward to the eye. 

All other parts tend to be dark slate rather than ashy grav. 
The nests and eg!,^s of the varieties are not distinguishable from 
those of the type. 

(Pcrisorcus ohscurns) . 
Southern British Oolumbia shares with Washing! n, Oregon 
and northern California in entertaining this smaller my, which 
differs from the Canada Jay in having a brownish i.aher han 
lead grav cast. The back feathers ha white shaft st npt-s anc the 
lower surface is altogether whitish. Hood black, for. e;id whre, 
Length 10 to 11 inches. 

{Pcrisortus (jriseus ) . 
This variety is said to be wmimon in some distri- <■? Brr 
Columbia, and to be distinguishable as beii - like the la&x bu^ n.n,^ 
gray instead of brownish, the under parts -rayish whi 
brownish white. 



{(■oi lis vi, .r />ri 'I'lutlis). 

Til. Ii;i -en r.ui. cs fi 11 the Atlan • to the l*ac,tic inni A 
but is scI.Imiii seen m sou hem (^ucImv or Ontario. It lir< 
th- far jn.rtu as \ -11 as in iiortiiern L.ihrador .uk' Briti h < 
bia. Its first is .Ic -crilwd as well nradc of sticks .uifl ... 
with urass, hail- and wool. Jt is usually j. laced -s i, jnac. 
ledi," of a eliii. i>iit tnay be built hi<:h in ;in -.rreen. \ 
ever ;.<»ssi))l< its food is of animal ii,,tur' a 
a rack any vunng or weak creature, such ; v( 
try, etc. I roos tra < of the bait or the ca] 
hea-ily hat-d l)y tl idiabitants of the fai 
the r.^en is well knoun, but like other- 
j>rod ••• a va '-iety of loud, hai-sh sounds. 
1 Mie 1 Hections. Throat feathers, ' <;, 
ol i)ill ill ny dm< ■, tiireo inches, de] 
22 to 2". icii* expanse 50 inches. 


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- believi d to 

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iJ, and so is 

• croak of 

is able to 

ly black with 

■f lid pointed; len^rti, 

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(Corvus iuiK Ic IS). 

From the Atlantic to the Rock ountaius the crow is found, 
but not mucli farther north than Y(,jk Factory, Hudson Bay. in 
southern Canada they are very plentiful, I reedinj; in trees some- 
times within ten feet of the ground, but more often up twenty feet 
or more. The nest is strong and well made, auu i hey lay in March 
or April five or six greenish egg- thickly mark( dWit'h dots and 
splashes of brown. They arc decidedly sociable before and after 
the nesting season, roostin- u. ' cks in some quiet evergi-een 
grove. I have counted i?i agust 609 crows flying towards their 
i"oost from one particular direction, and as ' tii,.i. flights centred 
toward the same pohn, tliere must have beei several hundred 
birds in that rendezvous. In autumn, every mornu.g sees a large de- 





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tachment directing their flight toward a certain hunting ground, 
where thev do excellent service in destroying crickets, grasshop- 
pers mice, ar>d other vermin. Just before sunset they straggle 
home for the night, the flight lasting about an hour. Apparently 
about ten per cent, of them remain about the north shore of Lake 
Ontario during the winter, visiting the garbage dumps from abat- 
toirs the edges of open waters, and every place that carrion or other 
refuse mav be had. Although willing to raise seed com, if any- 
one will plant it for him, also willing to eat chickens and other 
voung birds, and in fall to strip away the husks and gather corn 
from the ear, we must confess that the mischief done is confined to 
onlv a few weeks of the year, while during all the remainder he 
works untiringlv for us in the destruction of small rodents and 
harmful insects. We agree that the crow is not decreasmg in 
numbers, but is well able to care for himself. Plumage entirely 
black, with blue or pui-pHsh reflections. No lengthened feathers 
on the neck. Length about 19 inches, bill under 2 inches. 

■ 1 ' 

R • r ■ 

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{Corvus caurinus). 

This small Fish Crow belongs to the Pacific Coast from the 
Columbia River north to Alaska, being especially plentiful on 
Vancouver Island. In the interior of British Columbia it is less 
common. Eggs 4 or 5, like those of the common crow but smaller. 
Its food is chiefly fish, and the eggs and young of such birds as 
nest on the shores and cliffs. 

Plumage black as in the common crow. Length 14 to 16 
inches, bill 1% to 2 inches along the cuhnen. Tarsus under. 2 





(Nucefrage columhiana) . 

Throughout British Oohunbia this crow takes the place of the 
form common in the east. It is distinguished bj- its color which is 
gray, almost hite on the head, and with black and white wings and 
tail. The bill is more slender and acute than that of the eastern 
crow. Its home is among coniferous forests, and its food is 
largely derived from the pine cones. Its nest is built on a hori- 
zontal branch of an evergreen, of sticks with strips of bark and 
fibrous grasses. The eggs, 2 or 3 are grayish green, blotched with 
brown. Length of bird about 12yo, extent about 22 inches. 


(Family ictcridac). 

This group resembles the FringUlidae or Finch family in 
many particulars, such as angulated commissure,— that is the in- 
ner angles of the opening of the beak are drawn down,— also in 
possessing only 9 primaries. In beaks, however, they are more 
like the Crows, the bill being not strictly coneshaped, but usually 
as long or longer than the head, tapering to an acute point, and ex- 
tending up on the forehead. The feet are large and strong, and 
fitted for walking on the ground. The Bobolink is most like the 
Finches, and the Grackles most like the Crows. 


{Dolichonyx oryzivorus). 

The range of the Bobolink is that of a bird whose home is 
chiefly to the south of our boundary. It is not plentiful in Nova 
Scotia except in the southwest, but abundant in New Brunswick, 
southern Quebec and Ontario, the prairie districts of Manitoba, 
and southern Saskatchewan. Rare west of that province. It is 




^•1 1 


very abundant in every clover field and meadow along the Lake 
Ontario shore, nesting freely, and making tlie June atmosphere 
jingle with its joyous overflow of song. The female is careful to 
run some distance before rising, so that the nest is not very readily 
found. Eggs 5 to 7, grayish with brown blotches. Although eat- 
ing seeds, it is not considered destructive in the north, but when 
the young are full grown, and the male has adopted the quiet plu- 
mage of the female, it returns to the southern states where it be- 
comes the "reed bird" and attacks the rice and oat fields in flocks, 
doing much damage. Becoming fat on this good fare, it attracts 
the attention of epicures, and is killed in great numbers for the 
table. Served as "reed birds" or "ortolans" it is considered a 


The plumage of the male in spring is very different from that 
of the female or ^-oung, or of the male during ^■h summer, 
autumn, and winter. The head and under parts a.e black, the 
back of the neck light yellow, the middle of the back striped black 
and buff, the shoulders and lower back whitish, the tail black 
with pointed tips. The female is olive brown above, streaked with 
black, below brownish yellow. The crown is dark with a central 
stripe of brownish buff. Young similar. Length about 7 inches, 
extent about 12. 


(Molothrns ater). 

From New Brunswick westward into British Columbia we 
have records of this reprehensible bird, but it seems not to visit 
the far east nor the far west of Canada. Thi-ough southern Que- 
bec, Ontario, .Manitoba, and Saskatchewan it is plentiful, arriving 
from the south in early April, and in small groups they are soon 
exploring the meadows and pastures, apparently for insects. So 
far as known these birds do not pair, but the female accepts the 









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attention of any convenient male. With an equally debased moral 
sense, she builds no nest, but sneaks away from her comi)anions 
only long enough to drop an egg into the nest of any smaller bird 
that can be found. This is a case of true i)arasitism, the hosts 
being called upon to incubate and feed the changling offspring, al- 
most alwaj's at the cost of their own whole brood. The young in- 
truder hatches eaxlier, grows faster, makes greedier appeals for 
food, and usually monoi^lizes their entire efforts. 

In this way large flocks of these Cowbirds are reared, because, 
with uncanny knowledge, the foster parents are desei-ted by the 
young when no longer needed, and their own kind is recognized as 
proper associates for the autumn months of ])lenty. A long list 
could be made of the names of birds known to be the victims of the 
parasitic habit of the Qmbird. Davie lists several Warblers, the 
House Wren, the Vireos, Indigo Bunting, Sparrows, Goldfinch, 
Phoebes and other Flycatchers, Bluebirds, Orioles. Tanager, the 
Kingbird, Towhee, Horned Lark, Thrushes, K'ed-headed Wood- 
pecker, and Mourning Dove. The facts are not well known con- 
cerning all of these, but it is certain that many birds of many kinds 
waste their paternal care to inerease the numbers of this "ac- 
knowledged villain" in feathers. Eggs various, but usually dull 
white with brown dots or blotches. The male is glossv black, ex- 
cept the head and neck, which are brownish. The female is small- 
er and brownish gray, paler below. Length 7i/. to 8 inches 
extent 13i/£>. *" ' 


(Xanthoci phalus xanthocrphahts). 

From Manitoba to the interior of British Columbia the 
Yellow-head is found, being most abundant in southern Saskatch- 
ewan. Accidental stragglers have been taken near Toronto. Its 
habits seem to be much like those of the Red^winged Blackbird, 
with which it often associates. Its nest is hung among the cat- 



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tails and rushes, which are woven together to form it. While light 
in structure it is well able to carry the eggs, usually four or five in 
number, grayish or greenish w^ite, speckled obscurely with 

Plumage of the male black, except a white patch on each wing, 
and the whole head, neck, and breast which are bright vellow, ap- 
proaching orange. The belly is also yellowish. A black ring 
around the eyes. The female is dark brown, with no wing patches, 
only dull yellow on the breast, throat, and a line over the eye. In 
length the male is 10 to 11 inches, extent about 17, while the female 
is only 8 to 91/2 inches long, with extent of 14 or less. 

h -f 


* ' I- 


(Agclaius phocniceus). 

Rare in Nova Scotia, but plentiful from New Brunswick, 
through Quebec and Ontario, and especially numerous in all the 
marshes near Lake Ontario, the Redwing is one of our most wel- 
come harbingers of spring. The males arrive in small flocks as 
soon as the ice begins to loosen from the shores of the bays, and 
from then until July these arc the most numerous and conspicuous 
inhabitants of our marshes. Three calls are readily noted— a short 
1 1 chuck," "chuck"; a high-pitched expression of suspicion 
'*chee-e-e-e," as he flies about warning off intruders, and a satis- 
fied long-drawn ''o-ke-lee" or '*con-ker-ee-e," from a treetop 
when the danger has passed away. 

The females come later than the males, and during early May 
nest-building and housekeeping are the order of every day. The 
nests are usually built in the bushes bordering or among the reeds. 
The eggs, three to five in number, are pale bluish or greenish, with 
blotches and scrawls of blackish. Upper wing coverts scarlet 
lower coverts yellowish or whitish. Otherwise the plumage of the 
male is black. The female is blackish brown with paler streaks, 



below whitish with black streaks. Wings blackish, with yellowish 
and s(»nietinK'S reddish on the coverts. Length of male about 10, 
of female iii/L' inches. 






(Sturnella magna). 

This bird, belonging to the blackbirds, not the larks, is rare 
from Montreal eastwards, and extends its range but little north of 
Ottawa and Lake Huron. It is very common in southern Ontario, 
and occasionally winters here. Few meadows near lakes Ontario 
or Erie are without one or several pairs of Meadowlarks during 
th(; summer, and its peculiar flight — a few rapid wing beats, then 
a long glide, to be repeated until with a curve to right or left it 
alights again on the ground— singles it out from all our other field 
birds of eastern Ontario. This is the method of the Bobwhite and 
the Ruffed Grouse, but the Meadowlark entirely lacks the speed 
with wliifth the game birds dash away for safety. 

Its earth-loving habits are sliown by the awkwardness with 
which it alights on a fence or treetop, often nearly falling forward 
as it strikes the desired perch. The nest of the Meadowlark is 
built in a tuft of grass or weeds, woven of stalks and le;ives of the 
surrounding grasses, and often arched over, even for some dis- 
tance from the eggs. These latter number four to six, w'hite, 
speckled with reddish brown or purple. Its food is largely of 
animal origin— grasshoppei-s, beetles, spiders, moths, snails — as 
well as grain and weed seeds. 

The plumage of the back is black, but each feather is bordered 
witli yellowish, and tipped with reddish browm. The neck feath- 
ers are of the same pattern but finer, the erowii has a central buff 
line, on each side of which is a dark line; outside of these again is 
a light stripe over each eye and ear. The throat, breast, and upper 
belly are bright yellow, with a large black crescent on the breast. 


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The sides and lower belly are light yellow with black streaks. The 
female is similar, but with duller black and yellow. Length of the 
male 10 to 11 inches, the female 1 inch less. 


(Sturnella magna neglect a). 

This variety of the Meadowlark is the form found from 
Manitoba to Vancouver Island in all the open country, but does 
not extend its range north of the Saskatchewan. 

The nest and eggs are said to be indistinguishable from those 
of the eastern form. Its note is, however, very loud, clear, and 
sweet, and may be heard from the tops of trees and telephone poles 
even well within the sub-divisions fringing the western cities. 
Like the typical form the parents share with each other the duties 
of incubation, and are very faithful and gentle, in^lustrious, timid, 
stupid, and harmless, like good average citizens. 

In color the blacks and reddish browns of Sturnella magna 
are reduced to grays, the yellow of the breast extends to the 
cheeks, and tlie bars on the wings and tail are blackish and gray 


The Orioles are a bright colored race, and we are glad to have 
in our somewhat, sombre northern trees such brilliant flashes of 
color and music as are furnished by the three species that come 
to us. 


{Icterus spurius). 
This, the dullest in color, is a most excellent musician, and a 
very generous songster, as are all the Oriole family. It has been 
taken in New Brunswick and Maine, and reaches south-western 




!l Lilf sue. 



Outniio regularly, but its home is Kansas, Nebraska and Texas. 
I have seen it only near Ingereoll, in Oxford County. Its nest is 
said t(« be a masterpiece of weaving, in which both birds partici- 
pate, usin-- the long stalks and leaves of grass, which remain 
greenish for some time, and so assist in concealing the structure. 
The nest is not always completely pensile and is fastened gener- 
ally within fifteen feet of the ground. The eggs are usually five 
in number, bluish white, sjuxtted and blotched especially near the 
larger end with blackish. 

The male lias the liead, throat, neck, and upper back black, 
the rump, shoulders, breast, and belly dcip chestnut, wings and 
tail black, with white edges. The female i^' yellowish olive above, 
dull yellowish below, wings and tail brownish with white edges. 
Length about 7, extent alx)ut 10 inches, bill slender and very acute. 


(Icterus (jalhula). 

The centre of abundance of this beautiful st)ngster is Ontario 
and Manitoba. It is found somewhat rarely in the maritime ])ro- 
vinces and eastern Quebec, but from Montreal to lidmonton it is 
plentiful, apparently extending its range into northern Ontario. 

Throughout southern Ontario few birds are more i)lentiful 
or readily seen and heard, the elm trees of lawns, parks, and road- 
sides being very frequently the sites of the sacklike nest. Hung 
from slender tough branches, twenty or more feet up, the young 
orioles are literally rocked "in the treetop" by every wind, and 
are fjuite safe from cats and boys whose attention might be drawn 
to the noisy youngsters. The usually five eggs are white, spotted 
or blotched, and always scrawled with tracings in black. This is 
a very useful bird to the farmer and gardener, destrcying prob- 
ably more caterpillars than any other bird except possibly the 
cuckoo. Beetles, bugs, and grasshoppers are added to its good re- 


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cord, and these very far outweigh the brief attacks it makes on 
berries, peas, and grapes. 

The head, neck, throat, ui)per back, and wings are black ; the 
bre »st, U'lly. rump, and upper wing coverts reddish orange; a 
little white on the edges of the wings; the outer tail feathers 
orange, middle one partly black. Female, olive black and dull 
orange. Length about TV^ inches. 

E. T. Seton has found that a nest will support a weight of 
30 pounds. 


{Icterus hullocki). 

Alberta and British Columbia are the only Canadian pro- 
vinces in which this bird is at home, but specimens are known to 
have wandered much farther east. Its habits, manners, nest, and 
eggs art very like those of the Baltimore Oriole. Like the others 
it Jives among trees wherever possible. Its colors are orange and 
black, like the last, but the orange extends over the neck, forehead, 
and sides of the head. The middle and greater wing coverts are 
white. The female closely resembles that of the Baltimore. Size 
somcwlu*;: greater than the last, the length averaging 8 inches. 


(Scolecophayus caroUnus) . 

As a migrant in spring and fall this bird is common from 
Nova Scotia to Edmonton in Alberta. Its breeding ground is, 
however, in the north — Labrador, Magdalen Islands, Fort Church- 
ill, Mackenzie River at Fort Good Hope, and Alberta near Edmon- 
ton, are localities where its nests have been foimd. It builds in 
hushes or low trees, often over water, and lavs four to six gravish 
green eggs, marked with blotches of reddish brown. In autumn 
it associates with our Red-winged Blackbirds and Cowbirds, and 










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feeds on wild rice and the gleanings from grain fields. It is the 
most northern of our blackbirds, and doubtless collects insects for 
its nestlings, but lives as a seed and worm eater while south of its 
nesting range. The adult male in early summer is lustrous black, 
with green metallic reflections, the head similar to the other uppei- 
parts. Iris creamy to lemon yellow. In fall the adult male is 
glossy black, with brown edges on the under feathers. The young 
male, like the female, is rusty brown above and grayish brown 
below, with a light line over the eye. Length 9 inches, extent 141/2. 

(Quisculus quiscula aeneus). 

Though rare in Newfoundland and N.iva Scotia, the Bronzed 
Crackle is abundant in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Mani- 
toba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, and extends its breeding grounds 
north to Hudson Bay and Lesser Slave Lake. This is so prompt 
an an-ival in .March, after a few days of warm sunshine, that one 
musi tliiiik tlic'in waiting anxiously for signs of the retreat of win- 
ter. They tak.- possession of city parks and lawns, as well as coun- 
trv districts, ouilding in vines and coniices about railway stations, 
churches, and all other kinds of large !)iiildings, unci here their 
creaking notes are heard all day long. The !iests are of nnid and 
vini'S, lined with horsehair or other fibrous waste. Eggs l)luish or 
greenish, with purplish tracery and blotrhcs, and ger.<'i-:illy five in 
nuuibiT. The Bronzed Crackle will apparently eat anytiiing that 
contains nouri'^linient, and certainly attacks tlie rggs and nestlings 
of smaller birds. 

Adult jnale in spring with shining bronzy black lM)dy, head, 
neck, throat and the upper bresist steel blue, while the wings and 
tail are purplish black witliout iridescent bars. The iris is sulphur 
vcllow. The IVniale is duller, with l)rouiiish on the back and belly. 
Leugih, about 13 inches, extent about 18. 


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(Scolecophagus cyanocephalus). 

From the Red River westward to the Rockies this is the com- 
mon and characteristic blackbird, and in the open districts of 
Dritish Cohimbia it is quite frequently found. Its northward dis- 
tribution seems to reach not further than the Saskatchewan 
River. It nests on the ground, and on logs or in low bushes, usu- 
ally near a pond. The eggs number five or six, and are of the com- 
mon blackbird type— grayish green with brown spotting and 
blotching, sometimes resulting in a nearly brown egg. 

In food and habits it closely resembles the Rusty Grackle. 

The adult male is glossy greenish black, with blue and purple 
reflections on the head. Iris creamy to lemon yellow. Length 
averaging 10 inches, extent about 16. 


Th- laige number of species and the intergrading forms in 
this ^ ,iily, together with the regional, seasonal, and sexual dif- 
ferences in i>!umagc, make it ;» very difficult group to analyze. The 
following key is largely an adaption of Ridgeway's Kev, with 
omissions of southern forms, and additional characters where it 
seemed jxtssibie to make the distinctions more definite. The bill, 
feet, and other parts not readily changeable are used as far as 
possible in describing the genera. 


1. The mandibles Ix.tli strongly curved, and crossed at the tip. 

Crossbills, Loxin, page 194 

2. MandiHtes not crossed at tip: — 

2u. Head witii a iiigh crest: bill nddsh, very large, with 
stron-ly curved upper rirlgo; i>liniuige red, or red and gray. 

Cardinal (Jrosbeak, L'tinlittaUH, page 190 

f I t 


2b. Ht'.ad not crested; bill j?reenish yellow, very large, ;*b deep 
as long; plumage yellow, white, and black. 

Evening Grosbeak, Coccothrausfes, pjige 151 

2c. Head not crested; bill less in length than length of hind toe 
and claw : — 

3. Length over 8 inches; nasal tufts covering basal third of upper 

mandible Pine Grosbeak, Piniroln, ])aff(' 192 

I3a. Length under 8 inches; nasal tufts absent, or covering nnich 

less than one-third of mandible : — 

4. Gonys with curved profile; jduniage streaked alM>v*'. Imt not 
below; no red, no yellow or blue, but black throat and v^hite 
wing bar Donicstic Spai-nuv, Pasftcr. }»aj^ 193 

4a. Gonys with almost straight profile : — 

5. Primaries longei- than secondaries by the length of tlw taraus : — 

6. Wing five or more times as long as the tarsus: — 

7. Wing more than 3i/o inches long. 

a. Length of bird 8 inches; plumage ch(»colate hro^-n with red, 
especially on the tail coverts, tail i'eath»*rs witltout white, 
head black or ashy .... I{(»sy Finches, LenroHtiHe, }mge 196 

b. Length of bird under 8 inches; j)luniage rm-rttly vrhite; no 
red, hind claw nt^arly as long as the bill. 

Snowflake, Fumk^ ritw , j>age 300 
7a. Wing less than ^y* inches long; tail forked: — 

7al. Nasal tufts nearly one-third the length of the bill; tail 
feathers without white or yellow: <m'o\v! red in adults. 

K('d{>oll. AcaHthis, j)age 197 
7a2. Nasal tufts short or wanting; tail feathtrs with white or 
vellow, adults with nuich vcllow but no red. 

Ainrri<'an < Joldtinch. Axti'iKjuli^us, page 198 
m\(\ Pine Siskin. Sjtiuun, pag*" 199 
6a. Wing not five tinw^ .» h-ny^ *« UJi'sus: — 

Gal. First devehtpcd ) primary )n<t shorti-r *han die fonrth: — 


5 ]{ 




6b. Depth of ^11 at base aHi»ut ciinal to ex|>»)sed ciilmen; mis- 
trils with small tufts; pluinajje streaked above and bel&w; 
maJ# reddish, no yellow, m> while on t:\\l ■ female olive, 

hr 'Wi!. and white Purple Finch, Cm ttodarns, ])a^ 192 

6bl. Depth of bill at base h's.v than les^h oi euliaen; j^uaaage 
without red, Imt with white oa faua^ — 
6c. Middle tail feathers shorter than outer, and narrow and 
pointed at the tips: hind claw lonsj and nearly -straight:— 
6el. Gonys shorter than hiiul tut- with«)ut daw; male wcith chest- 
nut collar, and obli(|tu' white -|Mtts on tail. 

Lapland Luiurspur. ' 'alranus, page 20<i 
e2. Gonys longer than hind to<' with**ut claw, bifi swollen; no 
collar: transverse white siKits on tail. 

Black-breasred Loncfripur, MhtmHlio/tltf^m paire 202 
d. Tail rounded, middle feathers not narrow and |M..iiited, init 
white tij)ped: hind claw uoT long nor srraiirht. 

Lark Siparrow, ('m-HdeMes. pacE^OS 
6a2. First ( d«\'.'1oped ) primary shorter than tBe fourth; bill very 
stout; male with rose or orantie breast; fenmleii with yellow 
under the wings. 

Tiose-breasted (TioHW»-aks, Hnhia, page 190 
5a. Primaries but little longer tkm seccmdaries: — 
Sal. Tail feathers narrow, middle ones sharp-pointed: — 

5b. .Middle toe with claw short<'i- than tarsus; outer tail feath- 
ers white, bend of wing chestnut. 

Vesper Sparrow. Pooecctes, page 203 
5bl. Middle toe with claw not shorter than tarsus; outer tail 
feathers not white; bend of wing yellow: — 
5c. JJreast, edge of wing, and li?ie over eye, yellow; throat with 

black patch or stripes Dickcissel, Sinza, page 225 

5d. Breast without yellow; throat without black, bill some- 
what slender. 
Beach and (irasshojiper Sparrows, Ammndmmus, page 205 



5a2. Tail foatliei*s not narrow nor shar])-i»ointe(l: — 

b. Hind claw decidedly longer than liind toe: — 

bl. Bill tapering rapidly to an acute tip; nostrils concealed 
by feathers; pliiinage streaked above and below. 

l''ox Sparrows, Passcrella, page 219 

b2. Bill tapering gradually to an ol)tuse tip, nostrils ex- 
l>osed; plumage mostly black, chestnut, and white, but 
not streaked Towhees, Pijiilo, page 221 

c. Hind cUiw scarcely longer than hind toe: — 

cl. Inner secondaries nearly as long as any of the primar- 
ies; large white wing patch. 

Lark Bunting. (Utlamoapiza, page 226 

c2. Inner secondaries not nearly as long as the longest 
primaries : — 

d. Outer tail feathers white, })lumage slate or ashy, not 
streaked Sn(»w Sparrows, Jum-a, ]nige 215 

e. Outer tail feathers not xvhitf>: — 

el. Liiwer mandible mikrii deeper than the .ipper; male 
bliu* or greenish. . . . Indigc* Bird, Ct/anos/n'za, paire 224 
e2. Lower mandiljie not deei>er than upper; phmiage not 
blue, but streakefi al»ove: — 

f. Tail forked somewuat; phunage without ytljow and not 
streaked behnv . . . .rhipping Sparrows, Spi:ell(i, page 211 

fl. Tail rounded or slightly doubly rounded: — 

g. Primaries longer than secondaries by more than length of 
bill: he;ul (diestnut in young, but strii^'d with white in 
adults; jduniage not streaked below. 

Oi-owned Sjjarrows, Zonofricliia, i>age 209 

h. I'rimaries longer than secondaries l»y not more than length 

of bill; crown chestnut, or the plumage streaked below; no 

yellow anywheic. . . .Song Sparrow.«i, Meloapizn, page 216 


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-mm^'^s^w.^m^-^ ISP / j?^**; 



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This is a name applied to a number of birds which have larger 
and more heavily built beaks than those of our ordinary seed eat- 
ing birds. They belong to the FritujiU'ulue family, along with the 
Sparrows, Finches, Buntings, and Crossbills, all of which have 
stixjng beaks with the gape turning down at the inner angle. In 
length they vary from seven and a half to nine inches. 


{CanVtnulis r(inlinalis). 

The Cardinal Grosbeak, or Cardinal Bird, or Red Bird, is the 
most brilliantly colored of these found in Canada. It is common 
in Kentucky and Ohio, and occasionally crosses to Ontario, where 
it may nest, but where at present it nnist l>e considered only a 
casual visitor. The Itcautiful cardinal r<'d plumage (»f the male, 
his jjroud attitude with erect liead and crest, and ('si)ecially his 
loud, clear, r(»lling notes, make him a most attractive and desir- 
able neighbor. The female is grayish, with yellowish shades and 
lighter below. Length H\^ inches, extent 11 to V2. 


(lid hid I ml it V iv ia h h ,s ) . 

The K'ose-breasted (irosbcak, with hih black head, back, tail, 
and wings, clear white rMmp, win-r bars, and under i)arts, and ex- 
quisite i-os«' red breast and undi-r wing coverts — is also a l)ir(l to 
catch the eye. His son-;- is remarkably clear, loud and sweet. The 
female and young are less decidedly black and white, while saffron 
yellow takes Hie jtlace (»f carmine. Although usually feednig <m 
seeds, berries, and small nuts, this sjM-cies is knt^wii to eat fretiy 
of the Colorado Beetle or Potato Bug, and thus has another chiim 
ujion our gratitude. It inhabits the Cnited States and southern 


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Canada from New Brunswick to the Ritcky Mountains, n'achinR 
Ontario early in May, and mij^ratinj; southward about SeptcnilKT 
first. Its nests are found alonj^ the wooded hanks of streams, in 
hushes and low trees, and the e<;^'s are dull i,'reenish with dark 
brown niarkinj?s. Length abcmt 8 inehes, extent about 12> - inches. 


( Ha h id m via n ocepJi aid). 

The Black-headed Or(».-^beak is f(»und from Saskat<'hewaii to 
Vancouver Island, l)reedinj,' throu^iiiout this ran<;e in woodlands. 
It mij?rates to Mexico in winter. Its head. back, winfrs, and tail 
are black but the back often has brownish slia<les, and I lie wings 
and tail have clear white spots. The neck, the runij), and the under 
parts are ;.ran:>e brown, changing to yellow on the belly and 
under the wings. Size about that of the Rose-breasted, of which this 
is the western repr(>s<'ntative. It builds a poorly constructed nest 
in trees, and lays three or four greenish blue eggs, spotted and 
blotched with bro\ni. 

i : i } 


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(Coccatlirau.stcs rcsi't ttinu ). 

This is a bird of uinisual coloration for our northern regions. 
Its crown, win^s, and tail are black; the iimer wing coverts white; 
the forehead iine over the eye, the rump, and under parts behind 
cleai- yellow; while the back a lul breast are a dai-k greenish yel- 
low. The beak is very large, being about three-<iuarters of an inch 
both in length and in depth, and ck-ar greenish in color. Length 
11-2 to 9 inches. 

Its food is the seeds of ma]>les and coniferous trees, and its 
home tlie evergreen forests of north-western Canada and the 
I'uitt-d States. It is frequently met with in maple groves in 





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Spskatchewan. Occasionally a few small flocks are found in win- 
ter in Ontario and Quobcc, but its usual line of migration is the 
valley of the Hed K'ivcr. A western form occurs in British Colum- 
bia. Tbo nest of the Evenin<r Grosbeak has been found only in 
California— a sliirht structure in a low tree, containing three 
brownish green egcs. 


(Pinicola enuchator). 

Tlie Tine Ciosbenk is peeuliiirly Canadian, nesting so far 
north that little is kunwu of it.s breeding habits. In the winter it 
retreats frcmi Labrador and Mneken/ie KMver to Nova Scf^ri.i and 
all across southern C^iUitda tn the lioeki«'s. At that season small 
flocks of them are ii reguhirly found fciding on mountain ash ber- 
ries, beechnuts, and buds uf tr<vs. Length S to 9 inches. Its song 
is sweet but not loud or brilliant. The adult male is a beautiful 
bird, the outer feathers being suft'used with carmine, paler below 
and streaked with dusky on the back, l^ie females and young 
males are slate uray tinged with Ijrowni.'^h yellow. Rocky Moun- 
tain. Alaska, :iii(l Kadiak forms aiv distinguished from this type. 


(Carpodacus purpurcKs). 

The Purple Fin-h is closely related to the grosbeaks, and to 
the bull-finches of Europe. Its length is from five to six and a 
quarter inches, and the beak is less than half an inch long. In 
color the adult male is rose red, lighter on the lower parts, and 
darker on the back toward the tail. The females and young are 
greenis'! brown with dark streaks, britrhtly olivaceous on the rump. 
Their song is very sprightly and pleasing, being heard in Ontario 
mostly in .May. They are then preparing to pass to the north, 
where the majority of them nest, although a few breed in the 



southom parts of Canada. Their nosts aro built in trees and 
bushes, and their epgs are pale greenish marked with brownish. 
It associates with the Pine Grosbeak, with which it is said to hy- 
bridize. The range of the Purple Finch e?ctends from the north- 
em United States to Labrador on Lake Athabasca. During? the 
spring migration it destroys buds of fruit trees. The California 
Purple Finch, and Cassins' Purple Finch, both resembling the 
above, but less brilliant in color, are found in British Columbia. 


(Passer domesticus). 

Tills Eun 


was brought into the United States first 
about 1850, and other importations during succeeding years were 
so successful that it now is familiar from the Atlantic to the Paci- 
fic. In Canada it has reached nearly to the Rockies, and will soon 
be in every town and \'inage. Like other assisted immigrants it 
has prospered amazingly, and for some years there were grave 
feai's of its proving an uncontrollable pest. T believe, however, 
that in the eastern provinces there is now little danger of its be- 
coming more than a persistent, troublesome, non-musical, house- 
haunting bird. The native sparrows, bluebirds, and swallows are 
possibly less plentiful near our homes, and the nesting of the 
Purple Afartin is undoubtedly less common in southern Ontario, 
but the House Sparrow is no longer dreaded as an invading army. 
An equilibrium seems t<. ht gradually appiv.aching, and this 
ad.iptMble old-world form seems likely to find its ]»lace — no doubt 
a large one— among the birds living under Hie conditions of our 
civilization. As well said by Cones, **Tt nests aiiN-wliere about 
buildings, uses any rubbish as materials, and constructs a bulky 
untidy object, in which it lays from five to nine dull whitish eggs 
marked with olive browTi sparingly or ])lentifully." During the 
nesting season it gathers insects of the grasshopper and cricket 


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race chiefly, to the extent of more than one-half the food of the 
nestlinj]fs while the latter are young. Soon, however, the partially 
digested grain gathered from the droppings of horses are the chief 
food of the birds, and the adults are proved to live almost en- 
tirely on grain and weed seeds. The upper parts of the male are 
ashy gray, streaked on the back and shoulders with bay and black. 
A reddish brown extends from behind the eye to the side of the 
neck. A white bar bordered with black marks the brown wings. 
Tail plain dull brouai. Ohin, throat, and upper breast jet black, 
breast and belly grayish. Bill stout, blue black. Length about six 
inches. Female slightly smaller, with no black throat patch, no 
gray on the head, but streaked brown above, and brownish white 

t i,4 


(Loxia ciirvirostra) . 

This, the Red Crossbill, is very erratic in its home-making 
habits, having apparently little attachment to any particular re- 
gion. It is found all across Canada, from Nova Scotia, Newfound- 
land, and Labrador to Vancouver Island and Alaska, but it can 
scarcely be said to make its home regularly in awx known region. 
It has been found nesting in southern Nova Scotia, and in Labra- 
dor, but it seems satisfied to make its nest and rear its young wher- 
ever the breeding season finds it, so long as coniferous trees are 
plentiful. Mellwraith says that it nests from Georgia to Alaska. 
In Ontario it is usually only a winter visitor, but its wanderings 
at this season take it along the mountain ranges far to the south. 
Plentiful during one season, it may not l)e seen again in that local- 
ity for several years, then may return in flocks. They lay their 
(.ggs — in southern Canada — while the snow is still on the ground. 
The tijis of the mandibles are crossed, and this peculiar shape of 
the bill, — which seems a deformity, — is apparently of service to 



them in cutting away the scales < f the pine cones and extracting 
from tliem the seeds which form their chief food. In the spring, 
the adult male is hrick red in color, with blackish wings, and tail 
without "White markings. Lower belly grayish. Females and young 
are greenish olive, yellower on the rumj) and head, but much 
mixed w'th gray and brownish. Eggs three or four in number — 
pale greenish with maroon markings. Length about 6 inches. 


(Lojrin hucoptcra). 

These resemble the Red Crossbills in habits, but are known to 
breed in large numbers in Alaska. Their range seems to be the 
same as the last named, and they have the same erratic manner of 
coming in flocks to a locality, and then remaining away from that 
district for years. About Kingston they have been seen and cap- 
tured (piite frequently, but it is not possible to be sure of finding 
them in any particular year. In sugar-making time — usually the 
middle of ^Farch — they are to be noted, if present, on spruces and 
hemlocks, singing a gentle little song resembling that of the Am- 
erican goldfinch. They flit busily from tree to tree investigat- 
ing the cones and scattering the scales on the snow. Their nests 
arc made in Alaska in low spruce trees; "of si)ruce twigs extern- 
ally, and of a black lichen internally, closely felted and 
with a scanty mixture of feathers and bits of grass." 
The eggs are described as "bluish white, spotted at the 
larger ends with brown of various shades, l)lack 'ud lilac gray." 
Their flight is undulating, like that of tlie iVmerican (Joldfiuch. 
The characteristic feature is the beak, of which the tips are crossed. 
This condition is not complete till the birds are mature. The male 
is dull pink or rose red, with white bars across the wings, and 
whitish on the belly. The female is olive green, yellow on the 


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rump, grny on the belly, and blackish on the head, with whitf, wing 
bars. "\ ung, like the female, or partly red. Length about 5 


(Leucosticte) . 

These are sparrow-like birds, with small conical acute bills ; 
sexes somewhat dissimilar; coloration usually brownish, with 
more or less rose or carmine; terrestrial and highly gregarious; 
laying pure white eggs in nests on the ground. 


(Leucosticte griseinucha) . 

The Canadian range of Brandt's Rosy Finch is the Coast 
Range of British Columbia. This finch is liver brown from the 
neck and back of the head, both above and below as far back as 
the rump. The rump and under tail coverts and the primaries 
are carmine red. The forehead is black, while the sides and top 
of the head are grayish ash. Sexes nearly alike. Length about 
7 inches. 




(Leucosticte tephrocotes). 

A native of the higher parts of the Rocky Mountains, this 
finch occasionally wanders as far east as Manitoba. They breed 
on mountains above the timber line as far west as Lake Okanagan. 
The plumage is as given above for the Aleutian, but that the ashy 
band across the head is narrow, not descending below the eye. 
Length about 6% inches. A variety with wider ashy band is 
known as the Hepburn's Rosy Finch. It is known in Alaska and 
Vancouver Island and the mainland. 





{Acanthis linaria). 

This is another northern bird, leaving its customary haunts 
onh' w^hen the snow of winter covers its food. It evidently has not 
learned to fear mankind, as it visits not only the meadows and 
pastures, where it feeds on the grass and weed seeds above the 
snow, but also comes into gardens and lawms in the cities, eating 
freely of the remains of vegetation remaining unburied. The tem- 
perature of our latitude seems kindly to it, as to the Snowflake, 
and our snowstorms are often enlivened by the passage of flocks 
of these little gray-coated waifs. They remain till early spring. 
All the country from Newfoundland and Labrador to Vancouver 
Island is likely to be visited at irregular intervals. They breed in 
Labrador, the Magdalen Islands, and about Hudson Bay, as well 
as Alaska. Tlieir nests are built near the ground, of roots, grass 
stems, and lichens, and lined witih feathers and plant down. Eggs 
pale blue \vith brown speckles. The male has the throat, lores, and 
forehetid soft black, crown bright red, the entire foreparts below 
are sometimes tinted with red over whitish with brown streaks. 
ITpper parts brown, streaked with pale yellow. The rump lighter 
and likely to have rosy tints. The female with yellowish instead 
of red below and on the rump. Length about SV-j, extent about 9 

A varifty of this called Holboell's Redpoll is found in Labra- 
dor and northern Quebec. It reaches 6 inches in length, and has 
a longer bill than the common foim. 


(Acanthis liornemanii axilipes). 

■piis Redpoll occurs from southern Ontario to Labrador, 
Manitoba, and Alaska, and so may be considered to visit all of 
Canada east of the Rockies. It is only a winter visitor througL- 




! HJi: 

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out most of the region, nesting along the Arctic Ocean, and in 
Alaska. Tliose are sociable birds even during the nesting season, 
building their nui'series in numbers in the same thicket of willows 
and alders, l^liey lay four or five eggs, pale blue, with scrawls and 
irregular markings of purplish ai d brown. The plumage of this 
is somewhat like that of h'nana, but paler, w-hitish rather than pale 
yellow forming the edgings of the feathers. The rump 13 snow 
white and rosy, unstreaked, in the adults. Bill and feet veiy 
small. J.cngl-Ii about 5VL., extent 9 inches. 


{Acanthiu linaria rostrata). 

This is a foim of the common Redpoll, apparently dii^'ering 
only in size, which occurs in Hocks of linaria visiting Ontario and 
Manitoba. It nests in Labrador and Greenland. 


(Astra<jalin «s tristis) . 

From the Atlantic to the eastern foothills of the Rockies, and 
extending its range to the northern boundaries of the provinces, 
may be said to he the Canadian territory known to the Goldfinch 
In southera parts-Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and On- 
tario— some of them often remain o\er winter, making the thick 
arborvitae and spruce swamps their homes. Thev are familiar 
and welcome birds about houses, lawns, and pastures, cheering us 
with their sweet clear notes and bright plumage, and destroying 
for us the seeds of some of our worst plant enemies, especially 
attacking the thistle. Their nests are built sometimes in bushes 
or low trees, broad-leafed or evergreen, in other oases twenty or 
more 1 et from the ground. The nest is a well made structure, and 
the eggs are three or four in num-ber, pale bluish white, usually 



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(Spinus tri>ti>). 
Ji Life-size. 

CO^vWIfiMT 1'».,ij. It « A MUMFOND CMKiOO 




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The male has a bhiek crown patch and bhick wind's with white 
edges, and white or yellowish bars. The back and under i^irts are 
bright sulphur y<dl(»w. The female is grayish ».r greenish brown 
above without the black cap. The under parts are pale yellow 
shading to brown. The male wears this plumage during the win- 
ter. J.cngth alxtut 5 inches, extent 9. A paler variety is found 
from Manitoba to British Columbia. 


{Spituis i>ini(s). 

This inconspicuous little yellowish brown bird is seldom 
noticed except by bird-lovers, and so it may be more frequent in 
any particular part of +ihe country than our records sliow. So far 
as my observation goes, it is an irregular winter visitor along Lake 
Ontario. J have seen them in flocks among the cedars early in 
April, but never after the middle of that month. It is reported 
as common and resident in Nova Scotia ; a migrant in Newfound- 
land ; rather common in New Brunswick and eastern Quel)ec ; a 
winter visitor in Ontario at many points, and resident at a few. 
In Manitoba. Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia they 
are seen in such numbers and at such times as to imply their nest- 
ing, but except in British Columbia we have no breeding records 
from the west. Their nests are described as made of dark "moss," 
probably a lichen, and placed ti . the upper side of a branch uf 
spruce or balsam near the outer end. Eggs four, pale greenish 
speckled with brown. Bill very acute. Plumage yellowish brovni, 
streaked all over with black, but yellow is more prominent in the 
spring. Bases of quills and tail feathers sulphur yellow. Length 

4-'m4. to 5 inches. 



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It ^f 4 I * f:- 


(Passerina nivalis). 

This is t?ii' true Snowbird of all parts of Canada, seldom ap- 
pearing in autumn until accompanied by a snowstorm, through 
which it frolics in evident enjoj-ment. While with us the snow- 
birds are always in flocks, sometimes of great numbers, but usually 
of about twenty to thirty. They came to us only because their food 
of weed .seeds has been buried by northern snow, while our com- 
paratively mild latitude furnishes them with plenty of projecting 
spikes, enabling them to be always fat and jolly. As soon as the 
snow wears thin, they carefully precede its retreating margin 
northward, as though aware of being too conspicuous in a dark 
?audscape. On the islands of the Arctic Sea, and of Hudson 
Strait, and in. Greenland, they breed in great numbers. The nest 
of moss, grass and ]jlenty of feathers is usually built on the ground 
dose against a huimnock or boulder. The eggs are pale greenish 
or bluisl!, variously marked with browTi. 

The spring plumage c the male is very beautiful. The head 
and body are pure white, ^^-ith the back, wings, and middle of the 
tail variegated with black. The winter plumage has the white 
clouded with brown to a greater or less extent. Female similar. 
Length 61/, to 7 inches, extent 12 to 13. 


{Calcarius lapponiciis). 

Like its neighbor and associate, the Snowbird, this species 
seldom does us the honor of wearing for us its finest suit. That is 
reserved for the courtship, which is usually postponed until they 
have returned from our too warm regions to the bleak western 
shores of Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Greenland, and the Barren 
Grounds bordering the Arctic Ocean. They come southward only 
under arcss of hunger, caused by the deep snows of the northern 


. Ill 


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111 ■ I 


winter. Ap . oon as the breast of mother earth is again bared to 
theni they haeter northward. Th' :r range may be considered cir- 
cumpolfci-, a? they are knovrn in I^urope, as here, during their win- 
ter miirj ntJOh. From Nevvfoundhind to the Rocky Mountains they 
or? ia]:'.} common in winter, and are reported as very plentiful on 
the open j.hiins north of tlie forest regions durinij summer. Nest 
of grass on the ground. Eggs greenish, shaded over with brown- 
isli. The male in breeding plun qge has the head and thn.a 
black, bordered by a i. le of wh: or buff beginning above and 
passing down behind the eye, thei .. do\\Ti the side of the neck and 
in front of the wing and li- ifeing with the white of the Lides and 
belly. Tlie sides - -.d bren. ■ ,«re streaked with black. A broad 
chestnut collar se^ .ates the black head from the black and yel- 
1(;\. ish streaked back. In winter the male is similar to the fem.ile 
in summer; little decided black, but brownish, and with the chest- 
nut collar dull. The hind toe nail is as long at least as the toe, and 
together they are longer than the middle toe and claw. Length 
about ey^ inches, extent lli/o. The Alaskan variety is known to 
visit Vancouver Island. 


{Calcarius pictus). 

Occasionally this bird is plentiful as a migrant in Manitoba 
and is recorded from Saskatchewan, but is apparentlv not so 
common as any of the other Longspurs. 

The collar and under parts are bright fawn color, the crov/n 
and sides of the bead black, bounded below bv a white line. A 
white spot on the top of i\j head and white line over the eve and 
ear break the black, and relate it to the stronglv marked bark 
and wings, which show white, dark yellow, and black. Outer tail 
feathers mostly white, others unmarked. Legs pale or flesh col- 
ored. Length 6I/2, extent lli/o inches. 


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(Calcarius ortKifus). 

In this species we have a resident bird of the prairies, from 
Manitol)a to tlie mountains, and as far north as Slave Lake. They 
rear at hiast two broods between the middle of June and the end 
of August, and go south as far as Mexico in winter. The nest i.s 
of grass, in a depression under a tuft. Eggs four to six, grayish 
white, clouded with bluish or purplish. They sing while soaring. 
The belly is bright glossy black, the collar bright chestnut. The 
crown is black, with a white spot on the nape, a white line over 
the eye, and another bordering on the collar. Wings white in 
under, l)rtiwn above. Tail With outer feathers white. Length 51/2 
to 6 inches. 


( Nil yncli oph a iica ni ceo ir » ii ) . 

This is another prairie species, confined in its Canadian range 
to southern Saskatchewan and Alberta, reaching the foothills. It 
may bo extending its nesting area, but at i)resent it seems to be 
somewhat more westerly in distribution than the Chestnut-col- 
lared Longspur, with which it associates in the middle region, but 
it seldom reaches the valley of the Red River in ^lanitoba. Ex- 
cept in breeding plumage, the two species are much alike in ap- 
pearance, but this is the larger, and is also distinguished by the 
rectangular white area on the tail, and the lack of chestnut on the 
nape. "Upper parts slate gray, streaked with dark gray and 
light browm, no chestnut collar, but a patch on the wings. Crown 
jet black, bounded by a white superciliary line. Throat white, 
bounded by black maxillary stripes. Breast jet black in a broad 
crescent, shading behind into slate color, then gradually into pure 
white. Lining of wings white. All tail feathers white except the 
middle pair and the bases and tips of the intermediate ones, the 



white area ending squarely across both webs. The female and the 
male in winter have little chestnut on the wings; the crown and 
the breast crescent are slat(» gray, and there are no maxillary 
strii)es." Length about 6 inches, extent 11 or more. 


T:^se are inconsi^icuous little brownish gray birds, living in 
open fields or prairies, nesting on the ground, feeding on weed and 
grass seeds, and in many instances are sweet singers. 


(Pooccctcs gmmincKs) . 

This familiar little songster is found in southern Canada in 
sununer, from Nova Scotia to British Columbia, singing to us 
from the top of a fence post or of a low tree, and showing its two 
white outer tail feathers as it fiits away. With the Song Sparrow, 
and the Chipping Sparrow, this forms a trio of the best knowTi 
and best loved of our native sparrows. Its dainty warble at sun- 
set, its grass loving habits, and its modest gray plumage, give it 
the names by which it is known to all country dwellers. It builds 
a strongly made nest of grass stalks and rootlets, which it usually 
lines with horsehairs. This is well hidden in a hollow, screened 
by grass or weeds. The eggs are grayish-white, clouded or spot- 
ted with reddish brown. 

U^per parts brownish gray, streaked with black and a little 
buff. The bend of the wing chestnut ; tail grayish brown, the outer 
feathers mostly white and the next with some white. Under parts 
buff to whitish, streaked with black. Length about 6 inches, ex- 
tent a little more than 10. The western Vesper Sparrow is found 
from the Red River to British Columbia. Its nest and habits are 
as above, but it is paler and grayer with narrower streaks, the bill 
more slender and the tail averages longer. 



s 1 


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(Passerculus princeps). 

This is an interesting bird, breeding— so far as known — only 
on Sable Island, off the coast of Nova Scotia. Its distribution is 
limited to the Atlantic coast, from Nova Scotia to Georgia. It 
resembles a long pale Vesper Sparrow. The upper parts are gray- 
ish with sandy hrovna stripes, a little chestnut on the wings, a white 
superciliary line, and a yellowish white maxillary stripe. Below 
white, changing to ashy on the flanks, and with narrow streaks of 
sandy brown on the breast and sides. Length 6I/2 inches, extent 
11 inches. 


{Passerculus sandwichensis) . 

This is a bird of the Aleutian Islands, but is also found on the 
British Columbia coast and Vancouver Island. It is similar to 
the Savanna Sparrow, but its bill is thicker and the upper plum- 
age grayer. 


(Passerculus sandwichensis savanna). 

As the Sandwich Sparrow is a western form, this belongs to 
the east, nesting from the northern and New England States to 
Hudson Straits and Bay. It is not found west of Lake Huron. 
It breeds throughout Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Quebec, and 
Ontario, nesting on the ground, and having the habits of the Ves- 
per Sparrow. Eggs bluish white, marked or washed by reddish 
brown. The plumage above is everywhere thickly streaked. The 
general tone is brownish, the centres of the feathers being black, 
which shades at the edge to gray. Wings blackish brown, without 
chestnut, but with the edge of the wing yellowish. A yellowish 
line over the eye. Tail feathers narrow, pointed, dusky, and with 



whitish edges on the outer webs. Under surface whitish, streaked 
with black spots edged with chestnut. The spots run in chains on 
the sides, and are wedge shaped on the breast. Length about 5i/2» 
extent 8l^ to 9i/^ inches. 

A paler form, found from Manitoba to the foothills, is called 
the Western Savanna Sparrow. 


(Passercidtis hairdii). 

This is another grass sparrow of the prairies, especially 
favoring the flat alkaline plains, with discontinuous wiry grass. 
From the Pembina mountains to Calgary, and from the Saskatch- 
ewan to Nebraska, and to New ^Mexico in winter, is the range of 
this inconspicuous little bird. The plumage, colors and marks of 
these gray birds are so much alike as to make their distinction by 
descripti^•(■ terms almost an impossibility. 

Baird's Sparrow resembles the common Savanna Sparrow. 
The to]> of the head is streaked with black and brownish yellow 
on the sides, with pale yellow as a median line and on the nape. 
The back is gray streaked with brownish black, and with chestnut 
edgings on the wings. Lower parts j)ale yellowish white, with 
sharp dusky streaks on the breast, and forming vague parallel lines 
from the angle of the bill downward. In autumn the plumage is 
darker with more chestnut ; the spots on the neck are larger and 
closer together; tail dusky with slight edgings of white. Upper 
mandiblo mostly dark, lower -one pale. Length about 51/^, extent 
rathor over ir;;hes. 



{Ammodramus savantu urn passerinus). 
These are very shy little birds, haunting the weedy edges of 
the meadows and marshes, rising only when closely approached, 


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and quickly pitching into the grass again, where they hide with 
great skill. Their feet are adapted for clinging to reeds and grass 
stems. "It has a peculiar chirping note like the stridulation of 
a grasshopper, which made me give the name Grasshopper Spar- 
row to the group" (Coue^?). In Canada this species is known to 
occur in the south-western counties of Ontario, and probably fur- 
ther east. It is resident in the southern States, and must be con- 
sidered a wandering inmiigrant when it comes within our terri- 
tory. The type is found in Jamaica, While on the mainland we 
have the two varieties. This one is sometimes called the Yellow- 
winged Sparrow, while the other variety, perpallidus, or Bleached 
Yellow-wing, is found on the plains of the south-western United 

The upper parts are black, gray, and yellowish brown in 
short streaks and specks. The edge of the wing is yellow, and the 
wii]^' coverts greenish yellow; a yellow loral spot, and a light yel- 
low line over the eye. Back of the neck and the rump chestnut and 
gray. Bill stout and brownish. Length about 5 inches, extent 8 
to 8V1> inches. The nest of grass is built on the ground, and is often 
arched over. The eggs are pure white with flecks of reddish 
brown or black. The western form is grayer in tone with less 
brow-n, and the yellow is paler. Size and habits the same. An- 
other doubtful variety is reported from British Columbia. 


(Ammodramus hcnslowii) . 

This is another little and very shy sparrow, which has been 
noticed su seldom in Ontario that we know of its residence in only 
a few places, and elsewhere we have no records. 

It belongs to the eastern United States, wintering in the Gulf 
States and spreading northward barely into southern Ontario and 
probably (,^uebec, and as far westward as the edges of the prairies. 




The head and neck are olive gray, with a greenish yellow 
tinge ; sides of the crown black, breaking into fine streaks on the 
back of the neck. The back is chestnut brown, with narrow, black, 
wedge-shaped, central streaks in the feathers. The bend of the 
wings pale yellow. The tail feathers are very narrow and sharply 
pointed, the outer ones much shorter than the middle. The whit- 
ish under surface is marked with pale yellow, and streaked with 
black on the breast and sides. Length 5, extent 7VL» inches. 



(AmmodramKs Iccontei). 

Like most birds which live on the ground in marshy places, 
this little sparrow shows a great tendency to run and hide among 
the sedges rather than fly away. Its range is southern Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, and Alberta and southward on the plains to Texas 
and Florida. Occasionally it wanders to New Y •^' and Ontario. 
It breeds in marshy places in the northern part v liis range. It 
has no yellow on the bend of the wing or before the eye. The bill 
is slender. A broad yellowish line over the eye, and a buff 
central line on the blackish crown. The nape and back feathers 
have black centres and chestnut to buff edges. Tail grayish 
brown, of narrow, shari)ly pointed feathers, the lateral feathers 
much the shorter. Underparts yellowish white with black streaks 
on the sides fading to white on the belly. Length 5, extent 7 inches. 



{Ammodramus nelson i). 

This and the eastern variety are frequently known as Sharp- 
iiiled Finches. Nelson's Finch has been found from Peace River 
Landing and Edmonton to Winnii)eg, and a few more are recorded 
from near Toronto. It has the thin voice which is associated with 


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the Grasshopper Sparrows. The nest is built in a tussock of 
marsh grass near water. The type form is the Sharp-tailed Finch 
of the salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf Stai;es. 

The general color of the plumage is olive gray, sharply 
streaked on the back with black and white, the rump having 
no white. The crown is darker than the nape, with brownish 
black streaks. The sides of the head rich buff or orange brown, 
with olive gray auricular feathers, and no yellow loral spot. 
Below white, the neck, breast, and sides tinged with yellowish 
brown, and sharply streaked with dusky. The tail is brown with 
wavy cross bars. The tail feathers are narrow and acute. Bill 
short and slender. Eggs three to five, grayish white, evenly mark- 
ed with brouTi. 

The Acadian Sharp-tailed Finch is found in Prince Edward 
Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and southern Quebec, and 
differs but slightly from the above. It is described as paler, gray- 
er, with less conspicuous streaks, a longer bill, and slightly greater 
size. Its habits and song are very modest, and the bird itself is 
noticed only by those looking for it. 


(Gliondestes grammacus). 

While as yet reaching only south-western Ontario, being confin- 
ed to the counties along the shores of Lake Erie and Ontario, it is to 
bo hoped that this well marked songster may extend its range anJ 
become a familiar bird with us. It is known to nest at Toronto, 
and occasionally near London. Probably if other observers as 
earnest and knowing as J. H. Fleming and W. E. Saunders were 
available in other parts of Ontario, we should soon be able to add 
much to our knowledge of the birds. The range of the Lark Spar- 
row is from Texas to Ontario, in the ]\Iississippi Valley, and oc- 
casionally as far east as Massachusetts. It sings sweetly, nests in 
the grass, using hair as a lining, and has many of the ways of our 



Vesper Sparrow. Its eggs are white with scrawling zigzag lines 
of purple or black. The crown is chestnut, with a median white 
stripe, and one over each eye. Forehead black, a black line through 
the eye, and another below the eye, enclosing the chestnut auricul- 
ars and a white border under the eye. A black maxillary stripe 
separates the white of the neck from that of the chin and breast. 
A small black spot in the middle of the breast. Upper parts gray- 
ish brown ; under parts v hite shaded with brownish. Tail very 
long. Outer feathers with white tips. Length 6i/^. Tail about 
3 inches. 

The Western Lark Sparrow is exactly like the above, except 
for the usual paleness or dinginess of the prairie forms when 
compared with those haunting the woodlands. 



"These are our largest and handsomest sparrows, with round- 
ed wings and tail, sexes similar, nest on or near the ground, 
peculiar to America" (Ooues). Some of them are very pleasing 


(Zonotrichia queruld). 

The Mississippi Valley, the Red River Valley, and northwest 
and westward, is the district in which this well marked sparrow 
is found. It has been found nesting at Crescent Lake, Saskatche- 
wan, and at Great Slave Lake, and as far north as the forest ex- 
tends. Its nest is described as "made of grass and fine bark, lined 
with dry grass," and placed at the foot of a small tree. The eggs 
are polished, creamy white, spotted at the larger end chiefly with 
brown and lilac. The bird itself is the largest of our sparrows, 
reaching to 71/2 inches, with an extent of 11 inches. Crown, face, 


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and throat jet black, sides of the head ash, with a dark line around 
the dark ashy auriculars. Uiider parts pale ashy in front, then 
pure white, and brownish behind. Sides with dusky streaks; back 
with long streaks of blackish and reddish brown. Female similar, 
but less black on head and throat. Both in autumn with crown 
grayish black, chin pure white edged with rusty black. 


(Zonotricli ia Icncophrys). 

This is a common summer resident in Labrador, Newfound- 
land, New Brunswick, and northern Quebec. It is a migrant from 
Montreal westward to the Rockies, but nests about Hudson Bay 
abundantly. In southern Ontario we expect to see and hear it 
about the middle of May. Its song in the very early morning is 
sweet but plaintive, well repaying the effort sometimes necessary 
to reach a park or grove at the chosen hour. The nest is usually 
on the ground, made of fibrous weeds, grass, and rootlets. Eggs 
variable, but usually pale greenish blue with brown cloudings and 
spots. It is distinguished by having no yellow or white in front 
of the eye, nor on the bend of the wing, and by having a broad 
white stripe on the centre of the crown, bounded in front and on 
the sides by a black stripe of about equal width. A white line 
starting above the eye passes backward. Back grayish brown, 
streaked with chestnut, wing coverts tipped with white. Below 
pale ash, lighter on chin and belly. Len.?th 6-^4> extent 10 inches. 

Gambel's Sparrow resembles the above, of which it is a va- 
riety. The lores is gray or ashy, not black, and the streaking of 
the back is sooty black. The edge of the wing is yellow. Its range 
is from the eastern foothills of the Rockies to Vancouver Island 
and both northward and southward in the moimtains. 





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(Zonotrk'hia coronata). 

This bird belougs to the Pacific coast from Ahiaka to southern 
California, nesting in the north of its range — Queen Charlotte 
Islands and perhaps Vancouver Island, certaiidy in Alaska. Its 
head markings differ from those of the W^hite-crowned in having 
the front of the crown patch dull yellow, and the back ashy gray. 
A yellow spot over the eye, and yellow on the edge of the \\ing. 
Below ashy, becoming white on the belly and brown on the tlanks. 
Length 7 inches or more, tail over 3. 


{Zonotrichia alhicoUis). 

From Newfoundland to the Rockies and as far north as lati- 
tude 66°, this beautiful sparrow is found, and it breeds through- 
out the northern part of this Canadian range. It reaches the 
Great Lakes about the middle of April, and passes northward 
after a stay of a week or more, but some remain in dark cool 
swamps to nest. Its song — "peabody, peabody," is welcome 
to all lovers of birds and spring. The bend of the wing is yellow, 
and there is a yellcwisb ^'-u! in front of the eye. The centre of the 
crown is a narrow wl % with a wider black lino on each side. 

Throat with a squarit,. white patch. Back reddish brown with 
streaks of black and white, under parts grayish, shading to white 
on the belly. Length about 7, extent 9^ ; inches. 



This group consists of small sparrows, between five and six 
inches long, having long forked tails, made of broad feaihers. They 
have no yellowish anywhere, and when adult the under parts are 



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without streaks. The sexes are alike, the young more streaked. 
The nests are usually built iu low bushes. 

{Spizella monticola). 

With the habits of the Suowflakes and Redpolls, this little 
sparrow comes to southern Ontario iu October, and some remain 
here all winter, while others go further south to Oarolina and 
Kentucky. In March they go north again, nesting from Hudson 
Btrait to Great Slave Lake, and in the shrubs o^* the Barren 
Grounds, i^'rom Nova fcJcotia to Alberta they are known as win- 
ter migrants, but nest only in the northern part of the range. 
Sometimes before they leave for their nesting grounds they give 
us specimens of their honeymoon mus'c, and this is described as 
finer, sweeter, and not so loud as the song of the canary. Eggs 
pale green, evenly speckled with brown. Nest of grass and weeds, 
lined with feathers. Crown chestnut, no black on the forehead, 
the chestnut bordered by a grayish white line from the lores over 
the eye. A chestnut line from the eye across the auriculars. Back 
streaked with chestnut, black, and pale buff. Rump brownish 
gray. Wing coverts tipped with white. Breast grayish white 
with a small black spot iu the centre, sometimes indistinct. Sides 
pale grayish brown; bellv white. Length about six inches, extent 
about nine and a half. 

From Indian Head, Saskatchewan, to the Pacific Coast and 
northward into Alaska, the variety known as the Western Coast 
Tree Sparrow is found. It migrates south in winter as far as 
Texas. It is paler above, with fewer and smaller streaks than 
the type. 

{Spizella socialis). 
This sociable little sparrow is found from the Atlantic to and 
among the Rocky Mountams, and as far north as Moose Factory 



and Oxford House. Wherever possible it attaches itself 1- 
to the extent of living near buildings, residing in the ornan ntal 
shrubbery, and using the hairs of his horse to line its nest. It 
trustfully gathers crumbs at the door, and sings its plaintive and 
monotonous ** Chippy" song close to the household activities. The 
House Sparrow has been a factor in making this and other native 
birds less common about our homes. The forehead is black, the 
crown chestnut, the bill black, and the feet i)ale. A white line over 
the eye and a black one below it through the eve and across the 
auriculars. The back is strea^.^d with black, dull chestnut, and 
gransh brown. Under parts unmarked grayish. Two incon- 
spicuous white wing bars. In the winter the crown is striped and 
not chestnut. Length 5 to 5VL* inches, and extent 8 to 9. 


(Spizclla social is ari zonae). 

This variety is common in southern British Columbia, and 
between the mountains and the coast southward, and differs from 
the adult socialis, b"^ resembles the immature birds of thr sj«.-3iw. 
Instead of black, the streaks on the back are grayish; ti>r ore wu 
is streaked with gray and brown, but with some chestrur, Mil 
brown above, pale below. Size same as the type. 


{Spizclla pallida). 

The scrubby parts of the prairie from the Red River to, and 
among, the foothills of the Rockies, and southward into Mexico 
are the regions in which this ''Chippy" is to be found. It nests 
as far north as it reaches, that is Great Slave Lake. It builds in 
a low bush or at the foot of a shrub, often in the wild rose bushes. 
Like the common Chippy it uses horse hair as a nest lining wher- 
ever possible, but sometimes lacks it. The four or five esss are 


! i| 


! 1 






i ■ 


light dull green, sparingly and unequally speckled with different 
shades of brown. The crown and back are yellowish gray, streak- 
ed with black. The nape is ashy and less streaked, while the rump 
is a grayish brown. A pale median stripe on the crown; a white 
line over the eye, and a white breast ; and the belly washed with 
clay color. Wings like the back, with white tipped coverts. 
Length 5Vi, extent ly^ inches. 


(Spizella hrcweri). 

This is like the above, but paler and duller, with indistinct 
markings, continuous from head to tail. It is found in British 
Columbia and southward, especially in Arizona and New Mexico. 

' ■: 



{Spizella jmsilla). 

From Nova Scotia to Lake Huron— but not certainly west of 
Ontario — is the Field Sparrow known. It is recorded from near 
Kingston, Toronto, Ottawia, and London, and may be resident else- 
where, if qualified observers were present to investigate the mat- 
ter. It is of the size of the common Chipping Sparrow, but its 
plumage ret ibles rather the Tree Sparrow. Its chief distinc- 
tion is its bill, which is pale reddish. The top of the head is red- 
dish brown, nape slightly gray, back like the crown, but finely 
streaked wuth black and ashy, wdng coverts tipped with white, 
forming bars. The lower surface is white unmarked, but tinged 
with pale brown on the breast and sides. A gray line over the eye, 
but no black nor white about the head. Feet very pale. Length 

51/^, extent 8 inches. 





Those are beautiful little sparrows without spots or streaks, 
but with definite areas of solid colors. The bill is white or yellow 
with a black tip, and the lateral tail feathers are white. 


(Jnnco hycmalis). 

This is another oi the si)arrows found from Cape Breton to 
British Columbia, but not reachin*? the Pacific Coast. Its breed- 
ing? ranjie includes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland 
and southern Labrador, northern Quebec, and Ontario, the Hud- 
son Bay region as far north as Fort Churchill, and the prairie 
provinces and North-west Territories so far north as the limit of 
trees. It is also known in Alaska, As an early si)ring and late 
autumn migrant, it is common in southern Ontario and Quebec, 
where some stay all winter. In fact it is often called the Snow- 
bird here, being associated with the first fall of snow of the winter. 
The Juncoes are sociable and fearless of man, coming close to our 
buildings in country or city to gather crumbs or waste. They nest 
usually on the ground, and preferably With some large object as a 
shelter— a stump or log or broken treetop. Grass roots and stems 
with a lining of hair are the important materials of the nest. The 
eggs— three to five— are white or very pale bluish, evenly speckl- 
ed or spotted with reddish brown. The bill is flesh color. The 
upper parts, with the throat and breast, are grayish slate color, 
with a brownish cast. Belly white; tail blackish, the two outer 
feathers white, and part of the third also. Length 61/4, extent [Y'Yx 


{Jnnco orcganiis). 

This is a Pacific coast form, especially common west of the 
coast range, and on Vancouver Island. "The head, neck all 


p , 1 

I I 

I ii 




. t 



around, and the fore breast are sooty black, ending sharply against 
white on the breast, with a rounliid outline; middle of the back 
dull reddish brown; feathers of the wings much edged with the 
same; below abruptly white, tinted on the sides with pinkish 
brown. Bill white, black tipped" (Ooues). 


(Junco hyemalis connectans) . 

This form connects the two former, and is found from Ed- 
monton through the mountains to Vancouver Island, nesting 
throughout its Canadian range. In plumage it may have the red- 
dish back of oreganus, with the ashy sides of hiemalis, but oftener 
it has the ashy black of the latter and pink sides of the former. 
The coloration is less vivid than in oreganus, but in general re- 
sembles the latter. Wrongly named shufeld and montanus. 



These are sparrows of middle size, with short rounded wings 
and long rounded tail of wide feathers. No clear yellow is found 
in the plumage of the group, and brownish yellow in one species 
only. There are no bright colors, and no solid masses of colors, 
but the upper parts are all thickly streaked, and the low«r parts 
streaked across the breast, and usually along the sides. The most 
common of them, and one of our most popular birds, is the Song 


{Melospiza melodia). 

Common, and nesting from Nova Scotia to the Rocky Moun- 
tains and as far north as James Bay. While often nesting on the 
ground, it is not confined to this situation, but frequently builds 




i; • 





i i 

( . 

ri :: f 


it' ^ 


' 1 



in low shrubs. The nest is of the usual sparrow type, of grass, 
roots, and other fibrous material, lined with fine grass and haii-s. 
The four eggs are grayish or greenis' .vhite, spotted with brown 
and other shades. Coming to us as soon as the rigor of winter 
yields even temporarily to the sun's rays, singing sweetly even in 
chilly and showery weather, this little sparrow well earns for it- 
self its titles— ''Everybody's Darling" and "Silver Tongue." 
Moreover it seems to enjoy the society of mankind, and builds and 
sings close to his dwellings, rather than seeking sechision in for- 
ests and fields. 

Crown dull chestnut, with an ashy central line and one on each 
margin over the eyes. The streaks on the back are black, with 
chestnut and ashy edges. The nape and rump are grayish brown 
with few chestnut streaks. Wings like the back ; tail pale yellow 
brown and longer than the wings. Under surface white, shaded 
with brownish on the flanks and crissmn, and streaked on the 
breast and sides. In the centre of the breast the dusky streaks 
form a characteristic blotch^ Length 6i^ inches, extent 9. tail 
3 inches. 

Among the varieties of the Song Sparrow, the following forms 
have been recorded in Canada : — 


{Melospiza melodia montana). 

This \ •- been found along the international boundary in 
southern British Columbia. It differs in being of a grayer tone, 
the streaks having less black in their centres, and more brown, 
with paler gray edgings. 


(Melospiza melodia morphna). 

This is also called the Oregon Song Sparrow. In British Ool- 
imibia it is very common west of the Ooast range and extends in- 




i ^ 


land as far as Revelstoke. Its peculiarity is that the streaks are 
of dark reddish brown, without black or gray, and are almost con- 
fluent, giving a ruddy tone to the plumage. It also averages 
larger than the type. 


(Mclospiza melodia rufina). 

This is a larger and darker form of the Rusty Song Sparrow, 
found along the British Columbia coast and southern Alaska to 
Kadiak. "The tone of tne upper parts is sooty or smoky brown; 
streaking very dark. Length 6V2 or more" (Ooues). 


{Melospiza melodia juddi). 

The distinctions between this and the type are very slight in- 
deed. It is the form found in southern Saskatchewan, and can be 
separated from the common eastern Song Sparrow only by spe- 
cialists, and with great effort. 


{Melospiza lincolni). 

This little song sparrow is notable for shyness, and because 
Of this we have to report it as not common anywhere except along 
the foothills of the Rockies from the Yellowhead Pass southward. 
This lack of records is no doubt due to lack of observers, because 
its range is from Cape Breton to Vancouver Island. It remains 
mostly on the ground and creeps along more like a mouse than a 
bird. Its notes are a sharp chirp, and occasionally a peculiar song 
"suggesting the bubbling guttural notes of the House Wren com- 
bined with the sweet rippling music of the Purple Finch." Its 
nest is built on the ground of grass and rootlets, and lined with 







: (1 ' 


1 Hi 

» ; 






fine grass. Etrj?s four or five, i)ale jjri'eii or white, thickly spotted 
with reddish bix)wn. The phima^e of LineoUrs Soii^ Sparrow is 
streaked on ui)per parts with bhiek, f^ray, and grayitJh brown. The 
lower parts are white, finely streaked with l)lack. A broad band 
of yellowish brown crosses the breast ; the sides and a stripe on 
each side of the throat are tinged with the same buff. The tail 
feathers are narrow and jiointed, the outer ones shortest. Leng'th 
5y^ to 6 inches, extent 8. i^'all sjn'ciniens show more of the buff 
or grayish brown. 


{Melospizn ycorgiaua ) . 

The Canadian range of this sparrow is from Cape Breton to 
Great Slave Lake. It is to be found in the marshes of all the pro- 
vinces east of the Rockies, but is seldom noticed except by bird 
students and sportsmen. Its nest may be in the grass of a tussock 
or in a low bush. The eggs, 3 to 6, are grayish white, speckled with 
reddish brown. 

In perfect plumage, the crown of the male is bright dark 
chestnut, but is often somewhat streaked, especially in young 
birds. The forehead is black with an ashy line over the eye and a 
dark brown patch behind the eye, otherwise the sides of the head 
are ashy. This color spreads over the breast and under parts, with 
white on the throat and brown streaks on the sides and flanks. 
Back and rump brown, with black and gray streaks. Wings 
strongly marked with chestnut, as is the tail also. Length about 
5i/> and extent Ti/o to 8 inches. 



These are large, handsome sparrows, reddish or slate colored, 
with the lower surface marked with streaks and triangular spots. 


i ♦ 



m'\ ■ 



If 'i i 


^n f 

i i 


While all the true sparrows are to a great extent ground birds, 
these are notably adapted for scratching away leaves, etc., in their 
search for food, their feet and claws being unusually developed. 
The bill is strictly conical. They nest on trees, or in shrubs, or on 
the ground, and lay speckled greenish eggs. 


(Passerella iliacd). 

This is another bird which ranges in Canada from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Atlantic. It is known in Alaska as far north as 
Circle City, and in the North-west Territories to the sixty-eighth 
parallel. In eastern Canada it passes northward quickly and 
quietly, being heard in its beautiful song only for one or two days, 
and only by those who seek for it in remote shrubby pastures, and 
the .southern edges of groves, just when frogs begin to "peep." 
Its nesting has been difficult to study, but it has been found breed- 
ing rn the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on 
the Barren Grounds, and the delta of the Mackenzie River. Most 
of the nesrs were found in trees, but some on the ground, made of 
grass, coarse and fine, and lined with deer hairs and soft moss. 
The eggs are described as greenish white, speckled and blotched 
with rusty brown. 

The general color of the plumage is rusty red, the feathers 
are, however, bordered by a grayish brown. The rump, wings, and 
tail are bright ferrugineous red. The middle of the belly is white, 
but all other under parts are heavily streaked and spotted with 
reddish brown on the white background. Two whitish wing bars. 
This is a large bright sparrow, not closely resembling any other 
found in eastern Canada. Length 7, and extent about 11 inches. 

A niunber of varieties of the Fox Sparrow are recognized. 






IiiW 111,1. 

i I'!; ikt t-r \ ltir^'il(lli;ilinii> 

■; l.l.c ^ /... 

UM«f MD. fNtf 



(Paaserella iliaca townnendi). 
The Pacific coast, from northern California to Alaska, is the 
range of this variety, but its nests have not yet been found. Its 
plumage is a ruddy olive on the back, becoming foxy or rusty red 
on the rump, wings and tail. The wing bars are scarcely visible. 
Under parts marked thickly with streaks of the color of the back, 
])roducing almost uniform instead of spotted coloration. Size 
that of P. ili'acn, but appearance quite distinct. 


(Passerella iliaca fuliginosa). 

This is another Pacific coast form, confined almost entirely 
to the Coast range and the islands of the coast. It is said to nest 
on the summits of the Coast Range. Its plumage resembles Town- 
send's Fox Sparrow, but is sooty brown, instead of olive brown. 


(Passerella iliaca schistacea). 

This form is found in the interior of British Columbia, reach- 
ing the eastern foothills and extending southward to Kansas and 
California. Its upper surface is uniform slate color, with dull 
rusty on rump and tail. Wing bars obsolete in some but visible 
in others. Under surface thickly spotted with dusky brown, form- 
ing a blotch on the breast. Length from 7 to 71/^ inches. 


These are birds of sparrow-like habits, but ai o larger and 
quite different in coloration. They have conical bills, large feet 
for scratching, mngs short and round, and a long tail. The sexes 
are quite unlike each other in nearly all our northern forms. 



■ f- 




*i < 


s 1 





(Pipilo erythrophthalmus) . 

Of shy retiring disposition, the Towhee or Marsh Robin may 
be r-u-cnt in many districts without attracting the attention of 
others than students of the birds. A recently cleared field, groNvm 
111) with voung trees and brambles, with brush-heaps ana stumps 
eueumbei-iiig the ground, this is the favorite home of the Chee- 
wink Even here the male alone is likely to be seen, and then for 
onlv a few minutes while he scolds us for intruding on his domestic 
affairs. If undisturbed, he may sing his "Pill-a-will-a" song, 
prefacing it with a peculiar gurgling note. Otherwise an ener- 
getic almost fussv, repetition of his name, with flirts of his long 
tail are all that he furnishes by way of entertainment. The female 
meanwhile slips away through the shrubs without rising. The 
nest is usuallv on the ground, but may be in a shrub or heap of 
brush. It is rather a rough unfinished structure of bark, fibres, 
grass, weed stalks, and moss. Three or four eggs, white with red- 
dish brown specks, are the usual complement, and a second brood 
is not uncommon. Nova Scotia occasionally, southern Quebec, 
Ontario and .Manitoba regularly, and part of Saskatchewan are 

its Canadian range. 

The head, breast, throat, back and tail are black, except that 
the outer tail feathers are edged and tipped with white, as are the 
outer primaries of the wings. The sides are chestnut; the crissum 
dark brown, and the belly white. The female wears brown where 
the male has black, but the white markings are the same. Length 
81/2, and extent about 11 inches. 


(Pipilo macidatus oregamis). 
This and the other forms mentioned below are varieties of 
the Mexican Towhee, Pipilo macidatus. The Oregon variety is 



most like the eastern species described above. It is common near 
the Pacific Coast and on the islands of British Columbia, spend- 
ing the whole year there. Its range extends southward along the 
coast to southern California. 

Its coloration is much like P. crijthrophthalmus, but on the 
shoulders are large roundish white spots, with smaller ones on the 
coverts. The primaries and secondaries have little or no white, 
and the spots on the tail are very small, while the outer feathers 
are white only at the tip. The female is dark amber brown. 

(Pipilo macidatus arcticus). 

From the western boundary of the range of the common 
Cheewink in Saskatchewan to Calgary, this variety is found. It 
does not extend far north, but is found among the Rocky Moun- 
tains in the United States as far south as Texas. Plumage like 
that of the Oregon Towhee, but olivaceous on the back ; spots on 
the wing coverts larger, while those on the scapulars are larger 
and become streaks. The quills and tail feathers are marked as 
in the eastern form. 

(Pipilo maciilatus megalonyx). 

This is the variety most common in the mountains of Cali- 
fornia and New Mexico, and it has been found to be conunon in 
southern British Columbia, nesting there in May and June. Its 
plumage coloration resembles that of the Arctic Towhee, being 
slaty black with an olivaceous shade on the back. The female is 
quite similar to the male. Its note is said to be very much like 
that of the Catbird when wishing to repel intruders. 














■4, ■*-- 



This is a group of birds with smaller bills than those of the 
Grosbeaks, but still clearly showing their relation to the seed and 
nut eaters. Most of them have brilliant colors in masses, blue be- 
ing especially common, but others have green, or purple or red, 
on various parts of the body. Most of the group belong to regions 
nearer the tropics than any part of Canada, but one form occurs 
in the east and another in the western part, not extending their 
ranges far to the north. 


(Cyanospiza cyanea). 
This bird has a limited range in Canada. It is not com- 
mon east of Montreal, and not plentiful in eastern Ontario. 
Quite common in the western peninsula of Ontario, and 
recorded also from Manitoba. Like the Towhee, this bunting pre- 
fers shrubby pastures, or raspberry and hazel thickets, rather 
than orchards, lawns, or groves. The female is very retiring, and 
must be driven out of cover, but the male during the nesting sea- 
son, and even during our hot July days, sings from the top of a 
small tree. Their feeding habits have not been thoroughly studied 
yet, but we know that beetles as well as weed seeds are eaten. They 
build a compact nest in a thicket, well hidden, and within two feet 
of the ground usually. Their eggs are nearly white with a pale 
shade of green or blue, varying with the light, and occasionally 
somewhat speckled. The plumage of the male renders him con- 
spicuous, especially when in the sunlight. The head is dark blue, 
the back, rump, and under surface bright blue with greenish re- 
flections in the sunlight; the wings and tail are blackish with 
greenish blue gloss, and deep blue edges. The female is uniform 
grayish brown on the upper surface, and pale grayish brown with 



INDK.O lirMI\(i 

(ra>MTiii;i I vaiiiM. I. mill. 

Ah. .lit I.llr M,-,. 




* i'iii 

■ • 







indistinct streaks l)elo\v. The winjrs and tail are brownisli black 
with blue markinj!:s. Length about -H /,, and extent 81/- inches. 


( Cya n ofipiza a m ociia ) . 

From the eastern foothills of the Rockies to N'ancouver Is- 
land, across southern British Columbia, and southward in the 
Pacific coast rej^ion to Mexico, is the range of this finch. It dif- 
fers fr(»m the Jndigo Bunting chietiy in having two white wing 
bars, and chestnut brown breast, with white on lower belly and 
crissum. The female is grayish l)i'own above and brownish white 
below, paler on the belly. Size, nest, and habits similar to those 
of cijanea. 


{Spiza amcn'rdHia). 

For a numlx^r of years these birds reached Ontario and bred 
in Essex county, but they are now thought by W. E. Saunders to 
have derserted western Ontario. One has been collected in Mani- 
toba, and in the hope that some reader may find and (observe the 
habits of the bird, its description is given. Its range is the eastern 
United States, south of Massachusetts, west to Kansas, Nebraska, 
and Arizona, it is not likely to reach Canada excej^t at the south- 
ern extremity of Ontario. It is a beautiful bird of very smooth and pleasing colors. Above grayish l)rown, the middle of 
the back streaked with black. Sides of the head and neck, and the 
nape, ashy. A yellow line (ner the eye, and one on the side of 
the throat. Chin white, throat with large black patch, breast yel- 
low, l)ecoming white «»n the belly. Edge of wing yellow, wing 
covei'ts chestnut. AVings and tail feathers blackish brown. 
Length (iV^ niches, extent lOl/o. The female has no black throat, and 
less yellow on the breast. Nest oii th(> ground or in a low l)ush. Eggs 


, .1 

t : 


usuallv ..reonish white. From its coloration it is sometimes called 
"the mtle meadow lark." A poor but earnest musician. 


(Calamospiza melanocorys) . 
Southern Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia are 
the only T)nrts of Canada where this peculiar finch is found, and 
its ran-e does not reach far north of the boundary The great 
plains of the Missouri and Milk Rivers, and south to Calif orma 
and Mexico, are the home regions of the Lark Bunting. ^^ rom its 
soaring and singing while on the wing, it was associated with the 
lark but its form of bill relates it to the Grosbeaks, while its plum- 
age changes recall the Bobolink. In Canada it ner,t« in colonies 
and always under sagebush, Artemisia-hemg distinctly a bird of 
the plains. Its nest is on the ground in a hollow, and made ot 
grass stems and rootlets. Four pale blue eggs are laid, and it is 
brooding as late as the middle of July. Its song is said to be 

^ ^^ The' plumage of the male changes from the brownish black 
with white tips and edgings— which is the fall and winter cestume, 
—to clear black with a white wing patch— for the nesting seasoB 
only This change is brought about not by moulting, but by the 
brownish and white wearing off, leaving the black inner structure 
visible. The female, and the male in fall and winter, are as notec 
above, white below, shaded with grayish brown and streaked witl 
blackish, except on the throat and belly. The tail feathers ar< 
blackish, and except the middle are tipped with white. Lengtl 
about GV-, extent about IQi/o inches. 


This family of :iOO or more species, belongs to America, an 
is mostly tropical. Three species reach Canada, and in some place 




i i 




S~ -J 

1 1 

f ■ 



are fairly common, if the observer knows where to look for them. 
Sometimes they nest in orchards, but usually in hardwood groves. 
Their feeding and breeding habits are much alike in all our species. 
Their food in spring is largely of animal nature, wasps, ants, and 
beetles, but in autumn they eat often of wild berries and occasion- 
ally visit the gardens. Their nests are loosely made, shallow 
structures, placed on a broad horizontal branch, near the edge of 
a grove. The eggs are dull greenish blue, with spots of reddish 
brown. All the family have brilliant coloration, with marked 
sexual differences, and changing greatly with the seasons. The 
bill is thick and swollen above, with a notch near the tip and a 
tooth on the upper edge near the middle. 

(Piranga ludoviciana) . 

This Tanager belongs to the Rocky Mountains and Pacific 
slope. It occurs from Edmonton southward and westward to 
Vancouver Island, 

The middle of the back, the wings, and tail are black, the 
wings having two yellowish white bars, the head completely scar- 
let or crimson, the same color spreading on the breast. Other 
parts bright yellow, especially clear on the rump. The female is 
olive green on the rump, darker on the back, greenish yellow be- 
low, olive on the sides. Tail and wings blackish brown with olive 
edgings. Length about 7 inches. 


{Piranga erythromelas) . 

This is the Tanager best knouii in eastern Canada, where it 
IS sometimes called the War Bird, not from its habits, but entirely 
with references to its red coat. It is rare east of .Montreal, but a 
regular summer resident throughout Ontario, as far north as 


s > 

I ! 

1 ii 

r • I 



Muskoka and Algonquin Park. It is known in Manitoba, and 
even in eastern Saskatchewan, hut is not a prairie fonn, being al- 
ways closely associated with ui)land groves. The song of the 
Tanager cannot l)e called nuisical, hut one cannot expect every- 
thing excellent in itiic individual, and his beautiful colors are quite 
sufficient to make him a ve^ welcome visitor. Like many other 
strongly marked birds, rlie Scarlet Tanager avoids advertising his 
position, kee])ing himself well screened from the ground by stay- 
ing in the thick foliage of the tree tops. Nest, eggs, and food 
habits are similar to those of the Crimson-headed Tanager. The 
plumage of the male is scarlet, wiHi black wings and tail. The 
female olive green alxive; clear yellowish green below; wings and 
tail dark with olive edgings. Length a))out 7 inches, extent IV U. 




{Pinnujn nibrn). 

A few si)ecimens of this brilliant bird have been taki'U in On- 
tario and Nova Scotia, and others have been reported, but we 
must consider it an accidental migrant here, as its home is south 
of Connecticut, in the eastern States, wintering in Cuba and South 
America. The male is a beautiful rose red or vermilion, includ- 
ing wings and tail, although the wings may be dusky. The female 
is brownish olive above and brownish yellow below. No wing bars 
in either sex. The young are— as usual— like the mother. 



This is a natural, well marked group of birds, with represen- 
tatives throughout the world. Living entirely on insects, and ex- 
ceedingly well qualified for catching them, the importance of the 
Swallow family to agriculture can scarcely be over estimated. 




From early sprinj; till autumn they spend the lonj; days inees- 
santly eapturinj; insects over jj;ardens, (treliards, tields, and ponds. 
Examination (»f their stomach contents has shown that the chi«'t' 
kinds captured are wasps, tlies, ants, weevils, and hectics, and the 
quantity taken in any district can he estimated only in tons. 

Swallows seldom walk on the ji;round, and perch (»n!y wheit; 
they can readily j^rasp the support with their weak feet, hut their 
win^ (h'velopment is i-emarUahle, and on this they depend for 
catching their prey. Associated with this method of capturinj; 
tlyinj; insects is the fissi-rostral c(»iulition — the mouth cxtendinj^ 
far hack heyond the weak hill. This we noted in the Xij^hthawk 
of the Goatsucker family. A well devel(»i)ed tail, often louj; and 
forked, assists the lonu; strong- wiu^s in the rapid evolutions re- 
quired in securing- their food. Many sjx'cies are sociahle with 
each other and with man, ne-vtini-- in colonies under the cornices 
and on the rafters of our l)uildinj;s. Tlie destruction of the for- 
ests, and with them the hollow trees suitahle for their nests, has 
forced the Martin and the Tree vSwallow to make use of bird 
houses and boxes jmt uj) for their acconuuixhition. 


(Proi/Hc s/ihis). 

This is a southern si)ecies, but breeds in Canada, all across the 
southern portion, esi)ecially where encourajied by beinjjj furnish(,'d 
with houses or boxes, and w here the ILnise Sparrow is diseouraj,'ed. 
In appearance, graceful flij;ht, and dear gui-^ling notes, tlie Mar- 
tin is a most attractive and welcome bird, expressing in an unusu- 
ally perfect way the bright busy si)irit of summer, rejoicing loud- 
ly in unceasing and satisfactorx lal)oi'. The male is lustrous ])lue 
black. The female is grayish brow, with so?ne glossy bluish back 
on the head and back, the lower surface wincish with much dark 
gray. Young like the female. Length about 8 inches, extent 15. 
Eggs pure glossy white. 



I ? 



I ! 

i ■ 





{Petrochelidon htniftons). 

Tliis bird is very familiar to farm dwellers from its some- 
times troulticsome habit of buildiiiy; luiij; ranges of flask-shaped 
nests of mild under the eaves of barns and houses. If its value as 
an insect destroyer weie well known it would be pro- 
tected, but in many districts it is now seldom found about barns, 
where formerly hundreds were reared every year. This is due to 
persistent destruction of the nests. It reaches southern Ontario 
about the middle of May, and starts for its winter quarters in 
Central and Soutii America about the niichlle of August. In the 
absence of hospitable buildings, it constructs its nest against the 
face of a cliff or cutbank. From the Atlantic to the 
Coast range of British Columbia, and as far north as the Arctic 
Circle, it has been recorded in Canada. Its nest is of clay, lined 
with feathers, straw, and wool. P'ggs four or five, white with 
brown sj^ots. The sexes are similar, and the young merely lack 
the chestnut throat patch. The forehead is whitish, the crown, 
back, and a spot on the throat are steel blue; the throat, sides of 
the head, and the rump are chestnut; the breast, sides, and a collar 
around the back of the neck are grayish bro\\ii. Belly whitish. 
Length 5I/2, extent 12 inches. 

(Hirtmdo erythrogaster). 
As the Cliff Swallow nests outside farm buildings, this species 
nests inside, against the rafters and alon„^ rl - roof beams. I^s 
summer range in Canada includes all parts south of the Arctic 
Circle, its nest being especially common aboui Imildings of either 
white men or Indians. Like the other species noted, this bird lives 
amicably witli its fellows in colonies of many families. Ii is very 
fond of momentary plumage baths taken while on the wing, and 



may f,'enorally be woeii Imimtinf,' 4uict on siumncr cvcnini^s. 
Its nest is always insido hiiildiiifrs, and whilo larj^cly made cC inudi 
tho stucturo contains nindi more jjiass and straw than tliat of 
tho Oliff Swallow. It is lined freely with jri'ass and feathers. 
Ejrjrs four t«. five, white with reddish hrown spots. I'pjK'r parts 
of the phnnaffe jjlossy steel l.hie, lower j.arts pale chestnut: tore- 
head, chin, and throat deep chestnut; an imperfect collar of steel 
blue across the breast; white spots on the inner webs of all the tail 
feathers except the middle two. Tail d<vply forked in the adult, 
{sexes alike, and the y(,un- similar, but j.aler I)el<,w, Length G to 
t inches, and extent abon i. . 

VIOL l^:'i'-( } R E E X SWA L LOW 

( Tarh/jcincta thalassinu). 

This is a species confined to the Rocky Mountains and the 
other Pacific ranjjes, from Banff to Vancouver and southward, 
and up through Alaska to Circle City. Jt nests in crevices in 
cliffs, in holes in cutbanks, and in crevices between the loj^s of 
cabins. Its winter home is south of the United States, probably 
in Central and South America. This is one of the most beautifiil 
swallows reaching Canada. The plumage of the under side— 
including the sides of the head below the eyes— is pure silkv white. 
Upper parts soft velvety green, mixed witli violet purj.le." This 
latter color is especially i)rominent on the back of the neek and the 
rump. The wings and tail are blackish with violet and i)urple 
gloss. Length about five inches, extent about twelve. 


(Tachycineta bicolor). 

This litt]e swallow is a summer resident of all soutliern Can- 
ada f r. m Nova Scotia and the bou-idary line as far north as Hud- 
son Strait, York Factory on Hud> B.'iy, Fort Good Hope on the 



. u 

■ ■ ■ 1 


Mackenzie Kivor, and Chilcat, Alaska. AVhile naturally independ- 
ent of man and his structures, the disappearance of hollow forest 
trees has made the Tree Swallow willing to build in woodpeckers' 
deserted nests, hollow posts, fence rails, and even empty boxes and 
bird houses. This is i)ro))ably the most numerous of all our swal- 
lows, and is also the earliest both in arriving and in leaving. Their 
flocks are made up early in August and roost at night in cattail 
marshes. About the middle of the month they move southward, 
flying during the day often at a considerable height. 

Their nests are made of grass, straw, and leaves, and are 
lined with feathers. The eggs are pure white and from four to 
eight in nunil)er. The upjx-r i)lumage is lustrous steel blue or 
green, the under i)arts pui'c white, outer tail feathers longer than 
the middle ones. Jx'ngth about (), extent about 13 inches. 


{ClivicoUt riporid). 

Bank Swallows are rare in Labrador and Newfoundland, but 
plentiful in southern Nova Scotia, and especially so in Prince 
Edward Island, also connnon in New Brunswick, Quebec, On- 
tario, Manitoba, and across the plains of central British Columbia. 
Northward they are found to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, 
and to Dawson in the Yukon, and Circle City, Alaska. Every 
bank of sand along river or lake, railway ballast pit or sand pit is 
almost certain to have many tenants of ihis species. Their nests 
are placed in holes excavated to a depth of two or three feet, often 
with two entrances. The nest itself is made of grass, but is slight 
in structure, and the three to Ave white eggs have very thin shells. 
These nests are often in hundreds, and the population of one bank 
mav bv August be a thousand or more. 

The plumage of the upper i)art is a brownish gray, and a 
band of the same crosses the breast; the throat is white, as are the 



other under parts. There is a small tuft of feathers above the 
hind toe; and the outside of the outer quill of the wings has no 
I'ecurved hooklets. Length about 5 inches, and extent lO'/ii. 


(Stel(ji(loj>ti'rifx sirriju'tniis). 

In habits and appearance the Rough-winged Swallow resem- 
bles the Bank Swallow, but is not known further east than Ontario. 
It is found from Toronto we ward to the Paeifie coast, but may 
have a wider range than n<)\ .nown, bc^cause the bird must be in 
the hand in order to be dist- ^uished from the preceding species. 
It builds in holes in banks, or walls, or stone bridges, almost al- 
ways over water, and the nest is said to be lined, not with feathers, 
but with willow leaves. More careful observation is needed re- 
garding both distribution and habits of this bird. 

The upper plumage is brownish gray, with a paler shade (»f 
the same on the throat and breast. The belly is white. The marks 
which distinguish this species from the Bank Swallow are the re- 
curved hooklets on the outside of the outer wing quill, and the 
absence of the tuft of feathers just al)ove the hind toe. 



These peculiar l>irds are apparently not closely related to any 
other group. Three species are known, two of which are often 
seen in Oanada, the other is peculiar to Asia. They are gregari- 
ous and migratory, weak in voice, and fearless of man. The pecu- 
liarity which gives them their name is the narrow horny ti^), look- 
ing like red sealing wax, which terminates the tail feathers and 
the secondaries of the wings. The plumage of the Waxwings is 
in general fine and silky, a i)laiu brownish drab, with a sharp 
pointed crest of the same color. 


' II 



,1 5 

i - 


H ' 




(Ampc'lis garruU(s) . 

This is the larger form known in Canada, and is common also 
to northern Europe and Asia. With us it spends the summer in 
the north, from the latitude of Fort Churchill and Banff to Great 
Bear Lake. Near all three of these points its nests have been 
found. In Europe its nesting was a subject of great interest, un- 
til found in Finland by Dresser. Their food is chiefly berries of 
the Vacciithim or Huckleberry family during the summer, and of 
the Red Cedar or Juniper during the fall and winter. In spring 
they catch insects, and no doubt feed them to their nestlings, and 
during their winter visit to southern Ontario they live largely on 
the frozen berries of the Rowan trees. Its range seems to cover 
most of Canada and the northern States, although very irregular 
in distribution in all parts, except possibly the eastern foothills 
of the Rockies. Every observer describes its appearance as er- 
ratic, several years often intervening between the occurrence of 
the flocks in which it travels. Its home seems to be the uninhab- 
ited wilds bordering on the treeless Arctic plains. When it is 
driven south by lack of food in winter it is quite free from the 
caution learned by the birds of "civilized" regions, and will 
perch close to windows and sidewalks while it gathers the fruit 
left by our more southerly migrants. 

These beautiful birds may be thought of with the Evening or 
Pine Grosbeaks, and Crossbills, and Arctic Owls, visiting this 
part of the world only under stress of deep snow and zero weather. 
A flock spent about a fortnight in Kingston during the winter of 

They nest usually in evergreens, at twenty or more feet from 
the ground, laying four or five eggs — pale bluish gray with spot*" 
of brownish black. 






1" i 



■ II 






Ill) \I< \V WWIM. 

: -i/f. 



The sexes are alike and seasonal changes are very slight, the 
plumage is smooth and silky, a brownish gray on the upper parts, 
brighter on the tail, rump, and wings. The primaries and second- 
aries have bars of white or yellow, and the tail a yellow band at 
the end. The under tail coverts are chestnut. The breast is 
brownish gray, like the back, the belly being paler, but not yel- 
lowish. The forehead, chin, and throat, and a bar through the 
eyes are velvety black, while the sides of the head and the fi'ont 
ot' the crest are often chestnut. Length between 7 and 8 inches, 
extent 13 to 14 -nches. 



(.1 mpclis ccdrorn m ) . 
This is much better known than its larger and more beautiful 
relative. It ranges all across the northern States and Canada, 
coming into Ontario about the middle of May. They go about in 
flocks in spring, nesting quite late, of* n in July. Until the young 
are fledged, insects form the chief food of these birds, locusts. May 
flies, and elm-tree beetle larvae being found in their stomachs, and 
they are believed to destroy canker worms. Their nests are built 
in apple or othe. broad-leafed trees or in evergreens, seldom 
higher than fifteen feet from the ground. In the fall the birds, 
young and old, in small flocks devote their attention to fruits, 
juniper berries, huckleberries, cultivated and wild cherries, and 
later mountain ash or rowan berries. Their boldness in taking 
possession of cherry trees under the immediate supervision of the 
o\sTier results in the death of many, but they are slow to learn shy- 
ness. The small injury they occasionally do to our cherries should 
be overlooked in view of their destruction of insects, and their 
general confiding, gentle ways, and graceful beauty. Their eggs 
are four or five, blue gray with spots and blotches, and are quite 
like those of the Bohemian Waxwing, but smaller. 




. I 




The coloration of the Cedar Bird is very like that of its larger 
cousin— a qiiaker color— plain grayish brown on back, wings, 
tail, and breast. The end of the tail has a yellow band, the lower 
belly is yellowish. There are no white spots on the wings. The 
forehead, chin, and a line through the eye are black. The second- 
aries, and sometimes the tail feathers, have the red wax-like tips 
in many eases, although sometimes wanting, and their presence 
has not been j)roven to be due to sex, season, nor age. Length about 
7 inches, extent lli^, to 12 inches. 



This family has the peculiar structural characteristics of 
weak i)erchiug feet, associated with the bill of a bird of prey — 
notched, toothed, and hooked. Their characteristic habit is that 
of impaling their prey on splinters, thorns, or barbs of wire 
fences, aj)pareutly for convenience of feeding ui)on it. 

Jn (Canada only two species are known to occur regularly. In 
plumage our Shrikes are uuich alike, and strikingly resemble 
the :Mocking-bird of the south. All are carnivorous, living entire- 
ly on mice, birds, lizards, snakes, and insects, in varying propor- 
tions, depending on the lociility and season. 


(Laiiiiufi bon'ctlis) . 

In southern Canada, from ocean to ocean, this bird is found 
in winter, but the summer is si)ent usually some distance north of 
the boundary. It nests in Labrador, Quebec, and Ontario, also in 
Manitol)a, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The nest is large and 
rough, and built within ten feet of the ground. The eggs are usu- 
ally four; greenish grfiy with brown and purplish spots. In spring 
this hawk-like bird is said (E. E. Thompson) to sing as well as a 










• in 
,s a 




Cat-bird, but few seem to have heard this snrprisiujj; pei-fornianee. 
Its food ill winter is ehietly small birds, especially the house spar- 
row in the vicinity uf villages and t<»wiis. In winter the Hutcher 
Bird is known to kill various other birds, mostly f»rain eat<'rs. 
However, durinj? spnnj?, summer, and autumn its chief food is 
such as to offset its winter crimes, if killinfj; Ikhisc sparrows can 
be called a crime. It then feeds larjjfely on mice, crickets, jjrass- 
hopj)ers, cateri)illars, and lizards. 

The plumaji'e of the upiier part is f>;ray. with winj^s and tail 
black, excei)t the ti])S of the secondaries and of the outei- tail 
feathers. Forehead whitish, lores ni-ayisii, ear coverts black. 
Under parts white, usually with fine wavy lines of black. Lenj^th 
about 10, extent VS\(> to 14VL' inches. Tarsus less than 1 inch. 


( L((>iii(s li((l(n-ici'(nms). 

From Nova Scotia to Manitoba this is the well known Shrike 
of southern Canada. It is common as far north as (leor^ian i3ay, 
nestintjj in hawthorn trees. Its j>i'asshopper larder is frequently 
tlie barbed wire fences, which may be seen decorated with insects' 
bodies in consideral)le numbers. It catches small mice and small 
birds, but is not so stiMiig or well e(iuii)ped for slaugiiter as the 
Butcher Bird. As the Lof>;fj;erhead u'oes southward in winter, its 
food while with us is almost entirely such as we can well spare. 
Caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, and mice are its principal 
victims. Its note is not musical, but is i)ersistently uttered. These 
birds show little shyness, building near the ground, and allowing 
an observer to approach close to them and their nests without 
displaying alarm. Like the Kingbird and hawks, the Shrike 
perches on the top of a tree or stake, where its vision enables it to 
note moving insects or mice at some distance. Coloration in gen- 
eral like the last, but the forehead is black and the lower parts 


:i I 




are withoiu dark wavy lines. The rump and «^-P^"^^^^ 
white markings, and the primaries a short white patch. Length 
8 to 81/2 inches, tai-sus 1 inch or more. 

(Lanius Uulovicianus excubitoroides). 
From Manitoba westward to the mountains, and in the mid- 
dle United States this is the common form. In habits this variety 
dosolv resembles the other, but being a more southerly fo^-m than 
?he Butcher Bird, its food seems to be more of insects av less of 

^'"""^The distinction between this and the Loggerhead is largely 
the proportion of white. This has much white on the rump and 
slpulak and a long white patch on the primaries. The young 
of all thi'ee forms mentioned have the black wavy lines on the 

lower surface. , - . v 

From southern Bri^^sh Columbia we have a record of the 
capture of one specimen of the California Shrike, a variety of the 
Loggerhead, darker in color than either of the others. 


(Vireonidae) . 
We have used the name Flycatchers for one group of insect- 
eating birds-those which dart out from their perch to catch 
paSlg insects. Examples of that group are the Kingbird and 
Phoebe. Tliis group-the Vireos or Greenlets-are as truly in- 
sect-eaters, but their hunting grounds are the leaves and bark of 
trees These they explore most carefully in search of eggs or 
larvae or creeping forms of insects. Their structural peculiari- 
ties are- (1) bills like those of the Shrikes, hooked, notched, and 
toothed; (2) toes stout, mth sharp claws, and united at the base. 
These feet are not used for catching their prey, but for their acro- 





ba' e needs when < lin- ij? to 1 aves and 1 i^s. In color they are 
olivi" jii-ccn org cv. a ins; • they arc i .ally between five and 
six inches i len^^fh. '1 iie se.\ are alike, witli-.iit seasonal varia- 
tion, and ih. youi : are similai o the parents. Th. v uihl a pen- 
sile lest <.i' tibrou.v materials and lay four <r fi.e rj-s, white or 
siiiflujy I totted. 

rii< Vireos have decided musical abilM smi, them hav- 

ing' \< 'v pleasinjf sou^s, which tiny rr- late at s\v intervals. 

As iiulHMted above, they are ^ "ictlv ai 
cliinl' 111.' and searchinj";. They ar ki 
for is -scai insects, leaf hop])e 
joinr-wonu i s, ants, :May-flies, ca 
mnst, tnerefo . be reckoned anioncr 
son of our forest and fruit trees 

'!. and ol. lin prey by 

i- eat the following 

ink: s, saw-fly, larvae, 

d l>eetles. They 

' lie winged garri- 




(Vireosyi a oUvacea). 

'"he summer range of this ongster is the whole of the wooded 
pt>rtions of North America fi > Cape Bret(.n to Vancouver, as 
far north as Lesser Slave L k nd south to the <Uilf of Mexico. 
In some places the Ked-eyc Known as the 'itreaeher,"' and it 
certainly sets an example of clear, persistent reiteration of a state- 
ment, during the midday heat as well as at the more usual and 
"convenient season" of matins and m ~]uy». Its nest is closelv 
and smoothly woven of bark, tendrils, twigs, wasps' nest pa?)er, 
and plant down, and is saft y hung in a fork of small hrancfies 
usually high in a maf.le. '?'!■: ,.ggs are three or four, pure vhite 
with a fe\ reddish own .ots near the larger end. The erown 
of the head is gi ,y, oordered by with a shni-i, white line 
over the eye. Tpper parts olive greer under j>arts\vhite. No 
wmg bars. Line around the eye red. ? ngth about -v inches 
extent about 10. ' 




( Vircosylva philadelphica). 

The range of this bird is not v.ell deftued. because the close 
resemblance it bears to other Vireos has prevented its bemg ti^- 
nuentlv recorded. Only expert observers distinguish it trom the 
^receding and the next species. It has been taken as tar north as 
James Bav and as far west as Edmonton. It is known to occur 
as a migrant near Ottawa, Toronto, London, and Guelph. It is 
reported as breeding in Leeds County, Ont., in Manitoba and in 
Saskatchewan. Careful observations are needed to knit together 
these scattered records. Its nest and eggs are similar to those of 
the Ked<'yt^d Vireo. The distinguishing peculiarity of its plum- 
age is the fact that the grayish crown is not bordered by b ack- 
isli, and that the entire under parts are pale greenish yellow. 
Length usually 5 inches, extent 8 to SV-i- 


{Vireosilva yilvus). 

This and the Red-eyed Vireo are our common and well known 
species From Nova Scotia to Vancouver Island we may hear the 
bright sweet warble of this bird, especially in the maples and elms 
of citv streets and parks. It seems to prefer the vicinity ot build- 
ings, and brightens every daylight hour with its clear strong song 
persistentlv repeated. It hangs its nest often from the highest 
branches of tall maples, and its eggs are similar to those already 

To distinguish this from the two preceding species we must 
notice that it has very little yellow on the lower surface on a 
white ground color. Length about o^Vx inches, extent about 9^/4. 

Some ornithologists distingush the forai found in the Rocky 
Mountains and British Columbia as a variety to be loiown as the 



"Western Warbling Vireo, but the characteristics are too slight to 
enable most observers to appreciate them. It is said to be smaller 
and paler than V. gilvus. 


(Lanivireo flavifrons). 

This bird may be more plentiful than we think, because of the 
ease with which it may be overlooked. When seen close at hand 
there is no difficulty in distinguishing this species from those pre- 
ceding it, but it stays in the tops of the trees, and resembles the 
Solitary and White-eyed Vireos in its markings. It is known to 
occur infrequently about Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston, and 
Toronto; frequently at London, and rarely in Manitoba and 
southern Saskatchewan. It nests throughout this range. Chap- 
man describes it as a contralto singer with rich notes, and more 
expression than most of the others. Its nest and eggs are similar 
to the others described 

The upper plumage is bright olive green, with gray on the 
rump, and two distinct white wing bars. The eye-ring, throat, and 
breast are bright yellow, belly and crissum abruptly white. 
Length just under 6 inches, extent 10. 



(Lanivireo solitarius). 

New England and the northern tier of states, and Canada 
north to Georgian Bay and to Lesser Slave Lake, and west to 
southern Saskatchewan seems to be the range of this splendid 
musician. It is thought by many to be the best singer of a gifted 
family. It builds its hanging nest quite low, often within five 
feet of the ground, and lays usually four eggs. In southern On- 



; ■ ' 


tario we see the Solitary Vireo only in May and September, as it 
builds usually further north. 

The peculiarity in the plumage of this Vireo is the blue gray 
on the top and sides of the hrad, giving it the name Blue-headed 
Vireo. From the nostrils to and around the oye is a whitish line. 
The back, wings, and tail are olive green. Two white wing bars ; 
sides and crissum yellowish ; belly and breast pure white. Length 
5l/<; inches, extent SYi ; body stout. 

In British Columbia a dull and more brownish variety of the 
Solitarv Vireo is found, and is known as Cassin's Vireo. 


(Vireo novaboracensis). 

Shrubby pastures of the eastern United States are the sum- 
mer home of this bold and sprightly singer, but it has been collected 
in New Brunswick and Ontario. In winter it goes south to Central 
America. One nest is reported from the vicinity of Toronto. 

Upper surface bright olive green, with two distinct white wing 
bars; lores and eye-ring yellow; iris white; throat and belly white; 
breast and sides ycllt)w. Length about 5, extent about 8 inches. 


(Vireo huttoui obscurus). 

This variety has been taken on Vancouver Island. It is a 
dusky form of Hutton's Greenlet which is found on the Pacific 
Slope further south. It is a small bird under five inches in 
length, with plumage like that of the White-eyed Vireo except 
that the upper parts have a bro\\ cast and the lower surface is 
almost entirely yellowish. 






wiinr. F.\ I'.i) viKi II 

(\ irco inivrrH>ran'n>i^. ) 
.\;iuui Lilesiif. 

*Jr * J 

■ ! 







beis mav be chaiia-pfl l.v «.-.,.^ i "opicai. ihese num- 

3..rin« '^^nJ^i^2^:^t:Z^ ^y, observer. The 

K"ili!,' on within ,Ioors ont^irl^ f ^ , <i,.sturhmg process is 

-"» «ith eves, hv the d'.ilvr,hU Zt """"•' "'"■'"■•"•' '^ *"« 
overhaul o„, ,n „ .nd fnVit '% "" "™-~' "' '"'^I«^-=to'^ "'"t 
twi^s. Of all elL i !l7 ♦ r? "" '"'"' •" '™'>k to tip of 
crevice and examine everJ hole\„d tw I - '"""'' '™''^' 

One day the ,«a,,oritv of ihos ir,tS tm VT^^"'.""-'"' '^'''■ 
white hirds, c-eenins „„ nnd . , ^ streaked black and 

.-t da.v „,;, ,;S ' : f, ;:- ^'- ;-ks ..d branches, the 

..■on. — ;v^::er^i:t:riaVt":"orTr '-- 

anion- ()„r best songsters. ^'^° B"-d— rank 

In southen, Ontario «'e ex, "ec t l!*^ ?'"""''^ fm-ther north. 

A,..-il, and fron. that uI^X t, ™d ."vt'v t l"'' r'' '" 
«l.o>v everv da.v new and ver, interestlnSlIeL'. """ '"■'' 


■I ■ 




U 3S 




(Adapted from Coues). 
1. Length 7 inches or more, Bill very stout. . . .Icteria, page 267 
1. Length between 5Vo and 7 inches : — 

Bill ordinary, tail feathers unmarked Seiurus, page 263 

1. Length under 5^4 inches: — 

2. Wing equal to tail or shorter, head ashy. 

Geothlypis, pages 264-265-266 

2. Wing equal to tail or longer. Head not ashy: — 

3. Tarsus shorter than middle toe and claw; plumage streaked, 
black and white Mniotilta, page 247 

3. Tarsus not shorter than middle toe and claw. 

4. Riotal bristles reaching far beyond the nostrils. Tail greenish, 
plain or with white spots Wilsonia, pages 267-268-269 

4. Rictal bristles not reaching beyond the nostrils: — 

5. Tail feathers all unmarked: — 

5. Tail feathers blotched with white or yellow: — 

6. Bill not over y^ inch long : — 

7. Wing not over 2^^ inches long. Bill very acute 

Uelminthophila, pages 248-249 

8. No rictal bristles. Whole foreparts yellow. 

8. Rictal bristles evident:- ' Protonotaria, page 247 

9. Back blue gray with a yellowish patch. 

Compsothlypis, page 250 

9. Coloration otherwise. 

Dendroica, pages 251-253-254-255-256-257-258-259-260-261-262 

1. Tail feathers edged with yellow, head yellow. 

1. Tail feathers blotched ^vith white :- «^«^*^«' P^^^^ 251-252 

2. White spot at base of primaries : — 






o ix^'^'V-^'"' 'f I'u'^ caendesccns, page 253 

^. No white spot at base of primaries:— 

4. Wing bars not white : — 

5. White below, sides chestnut, streaked, crown yellow. 

K v^ii , , . , pennsylvanica, page 255 

5. Yellow below, sides reddish-streaked, crown chestnut. 

s v^ii 11 . , palmar uni, page 261 

5. Yellow below; sides black streaked, above ashy. 

c v«,, , , . , , , hirtlandi, j>age 260 

sTreakI ' ' ' ''^ '*'''^^'^' ^^^''" °^!^^ ^'^^^ ^^^dish 

^ TIT- 1- ,' ." discolor, paire 262 

4. Wing bars white— sometimes fused.— 

6. Crown blue like back, below white, sides and back streaked. 

6. Crown chestnut like the throat, and under parte and 'sTdes^of 

neck tinged with buff . 

f. f^ f ' , ^ cmtanca, page 255 

0. Crown clear ash, breast and sides black streaked; under parts 

and rump j^llow mac./o.r/, page 254 

b. Crown blackish, median line and ear coverts orange brown. 

nmip yellow %n««. page 251 

6. Crown perfectly black, throat black, with a small yellovv loral 

spot • 

.. A ^'\\'\\": ntgreaccHs, page 258 

(). Crown perfectly black, throat not black; no vellow; foef. flesh 

color ' / • X 

f. ^ -^i -i. striata, jiage 256 

6. Crown with yellow spot:— 

7. Throat flame color, rump not yellow. . . .Uachhurma, page 257 
7. Ihroat white, rump and sides of breast yellow. 

7 m i. „ coronata, page 252 

/. Throat yellow, rump and sides of breast yellow. 

an J.-, . auduboni, pasre 253 

6. Crown otherwise than 6:— ^ 

'' vellow ^''''^' ^""'^ '''^'' streaked, rump ash colored, crown 

• ^ ^^ occidcntalis, i)age 259 




y' " 


'- i 



7 Throat black, back olive, crown olive virem, page 258 

7 Throat black, back olive, croxNii not olive, .townsnidi, page -o9 
7 Throat vellow, back olive, head withont ashy or black. 

vigorsii, page 2w 


(Copied from Cones). 

Bill verv acute with decurved tip, rump generally yellow. 

tiyrina, page 2ol 

Wing bars and belly yellow dineolor, page 262 

Wing bars and tail dusky, edged with yellow. _ 

aesfiva, pages 251-2o2 

Wing bars yellow, belly pure white, .peini.siflrmiiea, page252 
A vellow spot in front of the eye and nowhere else. 

nigreseens, page 258 

A white spot at base of priniai-ies. . . .enende.seens, page 253 
Rump, sides of bvea.«t, crown and throat more or less yellow. 

(luduhoni, page 253 

Rump, sides of breast and crown with yellow, throat white. _ 

(oronata, page 252 
Wing l)ars white, tail spots obli.iue, and only at the ends of 

two outer feathers vufoi-m, page 260 

Spots at end of nearlv all tail IVather.s. No definite yeUow 

anvwhere '•"'•^'^ P'^g*^ "'^^ 

Wing l)ars l»rownish, tail spots s(|uare and at end of the two 

outer feathers only palmanuu, page 261 

Wing bars n(»t very conspicuous, wholly underpart yellow, 

back with no green" kirtlmuU, i)age 260 

Spots at middle of nearly all the tail feathers; rump and belly 

yellow ' maeidom, page 254 

Throat yellow or orange, crown with some trace of central 
yellow or orange spot, and outer tail feathers white-edged ex- 

Urnallv hlackhurnia, page 257 




(Miiiotiltn varia). 

This is more likely to bo called a ereeiter than a Warbler, as 
it runs up and down and an)undthe trunks of trees befor? the leaves 
are fully exjjanded. Its note is thin and not musical. As a sinnmer 
resident it is found in Nova Scotia and New Bi'iniswick, also near 
Quebec, Monti-eal. and Ottawa. It is a conunon inijirant and 
breeds in considerable nund>ers in Ontario, a mij;rant also in Mani- 
toba, where it occasionally nests, but it is seldom found 
west of that, although a few have been taken in the foot-hill coun- 
try of Alberta. It makes its nest on the ground, among trees, or 
lo<is, laying four or five eggs, creamy white with brown spots 
uear the larger end. 

The plumage is everywhere black and white striped, except 
the middle of the belly, which is white. Two white wing bars. Ear 
coverts black. No yellow anywhere. The female has more white 
below. Length about 5 inches, extent about Sy^. 


(Protonotaria citrca). 

This is one of the Golden Swamp Warblers, nesting in cavities 
in trees or logs, and partial to shrubbery and thick swampy growth. 
Its home is the southeastern United States as far noi-th as Vir- 
ginia. Any reaching Canada do so as accidental wanderers. Its 
eggs are five or six, creamy white, spotted with brown or red. 
The beauty of the bird is accentuated by the dark background of 
its usual home. The head, neck and breast are golden or orange 
yellow, with greenish on the 'back, and paler yellow on the belly; 
rump, wings, and tail ashy ; bill large and black. Length Sy^, 
extent 9 or more inches. 



^' • t 


(Helminthophila chrysoptera). 

These are of the so-called Worm-eating Warblers, having 
slender acute bills, and wings long and pointed. It is known but 
rarely in Canada, but has been seen in the Magdalen Islands, in 
New Brunswick, in Western Ontario, and in Manitoba. Its pro- 
per range is the eastern United States, wintering in Mexico and 
Central America. It is reported by W. E. Saunders to make a 
bulky nest of leaves among the stems of shrubs. The eggs are as 
usual white with reddish brown specks. The plumage is beauti- 
fully colored. The back, wings and tail are slaty blue, the crown 
and wing spots bright yellow. The chin, throat, and upper breast 
are black, as is also a stripe on each side of the head. These black 
patches are bordered with white. The lower parts otherwise are 
white, but sometimes yellowish. The black markings are obscure 
in the young birds, which also show some yellow on wings and 

Length about 5 inches, extent 7i/o inches. 


(UdmintliopJiila rubncapilla). 

From the Atlaitic provinces to Manitoba, probably about 
Hudson Bay as it was taken in Greenland, and through the east- 
ern United Sitates, wintering in Mexico and southward,^^8 
quietly dress( d and inconspicuous warbler ranges. It keeps to 
the shrubbery of wood borders, and among second growth and 
scrub. Its nest is built on the ground, its eg^s being white or 
creamy with reddish specks chiefly at the larger end. hs song 
is not very musical. 

The back, wings, and tail are olive green, the top and sides 
of the head gray, with a somewhat concealed chestnut patch on the 
crown ; under parts bright yellow, paler on the belly. 



Length 41/^ or more, extent about 71/2 inches. 

A variety of the Nashville Warbler, named the Calaveras 
Warbler, but considered by some good authorities as identical 
with the above, occurs in the Rocky Mountains of both the Unit- 
ed States and Canada. It is described as somewhat more brightly 
colored both above and below. 


(Helminthophila celata). 

This is a westerly foi-m, being rarely taken east of Ontario, 
nor commonly in Ontario, and found breeding very seldom east of 
Manitoba. It is known to nest in Manitoba and Alaska. Being 
of quiet coloration and not notable as songsters, these may pass 
us unnoticed, but their chief migration route seems to be west of 
Ontario. They build their nest in deep grass, in shaded and often 
moist places. The eggs are not different from those of other 
small warblers. 

The upper surface is dull olive green, biighter on the rump, 
below they are greenish white, pale on belly and throat, and some- 
what streaky. On the crown is an orange-brown patch partly con- 
cealed. Length about C inches, extent about 7Vo. 

The Pacific Orange-crowned Warbler, variety lutescens, is 
found from Edmonton to Vancouver Island, and differs from the 
type in being more richly colored. It is bright olive green above, 
and greenish yellow below, with dusky streaks. It nests on the 
mountains from California to Alaska. 


(Heminthophila percgrina) . 

Across the continent from Nova Scotia and Anticosti to Cen- 
tral British Columbia, we have records of this warbler. It breeds 
from the New England States northward, but is not noted as 
common except near the At'rabasca and Lesser Slave Lakes. When 



, I 

f^; ■: 

it is better known it may prove to hv more plentiful than our 
present records indicate. It nests on the {(round under old grass 
anions? shrubs, and the white eggs are thickly speckled with brown 
at the larger ends. Open woodland, and shrubby fences are the 
favorite haunts of this inconspicuous littk bird. In plumage this 
resembles the Nashville and Orange-crowned Warblers, but the 
adults may be distinguished by notinu rliat this warbler — while i>ale 
greenish yellow below, — is not streaked, as is the Orange-crowned 
Warbler, while the Nashville is bright yellow below. The tail of 
the Tennessee Warbler is only 2 inches or less, while the wing 
is 2-' I or more. The upper parts are bright olive green with bluish 
gray on the top and sides of the head, and no crowu patch of 
different color. Length about 4*'^, and extent T-; 4 inches. 



(Co>ni>sofhlyi>i.s americaua usncae). 
This beautiful little warl)ler is a southei-n bird, but those com- 
ing to southern Ontario seem to go on northward to nest. It is 
recorded as resident in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In 
May it is quite i)lentiful just north of the Great Lakes but it is not 
known to breed there. In the southern Tnited States it makes its 
nest in the 'long gray moss' — Tillandsia, — which is a flowering 
plant and not a moss. In the north it uses the Usnea, — a hanging 
lichen, but often called moss, — f(»r the same |»urpose. Our north- 
ern form is said to be slightly larger and with shorter bill than the 
type, but this is scarcely sufficient distinction to make a new name 

It is seen chiefly in tall treetoi)S. The u])per parts are gray- 
ish blue, with a greenish yellow patch on the back. Two white 
wing bars, and two outer wing feathers with white patches near 
the ends. Throat and breast yellow, but with a dark or chestnut 
band across the breast. Belly white. Length 4-;4 or under, extent 
about 714 inches. 



1' \l^l I. A U .\KI;i,| K. 


t l.ifrniie 



{Vcudroica tiyrina). 

Tbis is a beautiful mfe i.ini^but -^^^VHs'^^itane" 
fact it seems t„ be »"-'';;7/-™™'^- J ^Quci^e, Moi.treai, and 
are known fn.n, . an,es »^' • ^^^^^^Vw Bron»«iek andtbe Mas- 
Ottawa. Its nc«t bas been l""'^ ■' '" „ ,,„.„ niigrant, but in 
dalen Islands. In «' K» ' ' .j' i"s„id to nest tbere. 
eastern Manitoba .t is nio.v 1*"\\ " -'^ ,5,1,, ,„„„tr.v. but it is 

A few s,,eein>ens have l«en «"';' ' " ;'" \ ;, ,,„„i „f ,all eve,- 
„,ovelikely t"l.eseenmvv«, 1 _^ .^, ^___^ 

^J:^l^::^U^l:':^^^^- .. is tbi. and 

01- siiots, and rump yellow 1 1'>^ <-"ov ^_(^ 

,i„;and ear -ver.s of oranRe b.wn Jbe^ull . .^^^^^^ ^, 

deeurved til-, and the •'•*'"•; ''^.fre vlb-w. A black line 

and the sides of the bead ^."^";\,;.,^t;a„d sides are streaked 
thronsbtbeeye.andtbehnverth oat ... .St,. ^^^ ^^^ 

with blaek. The white wm« '"'^ ' '^^ ,"„; "^e i. ner webs near 
onte,- tail f.'athers have a large « ' *' P' *"; .;"'^;,„ „f ,ail feathers 
the ,i,.. Fen,ale with -'"'^ I'ateh n .nn.r wc_ ^^^^^ .^ 



{Dcndroicn arsiivn). 
.hisisour— ,n.VellowBi.i;ar.;<-au^ 
latter name is also ^nveii t(. the Am*^^^' j^, ^,-^^^ ,,i,d likely 

iar species of tlie Warbler group. 




r I, 
i . 



From Cape Breton to Vancouver Island it is common, and 
throughout all the wooded and shrubby parts of North America, as 
far north as James Bay and Great Slave Lake it is a plentiful 
and well known bird. Its nest is built in low trees, of grass stems 
and leaves, lined with feathers and willow and poplar down. It 
frequently happens that the parasitic Cowbird drops her egg into 
the nest of the Yellow Warbler, and thus destroys a brood of de- 
sirable birds to secure the life of one undesirable. Occasionally the 
AA arbler rises to the occasion by building another nest over the egg 
of the intruder. Its song is a iai)id repetition of "Wee-chee" 
ending in *'chee-chec-cliee," i)r.)duce(l with evident pleasure, but 
little musical ability. 

It is greenish yollow all over, the crown clearer, and the lower 
parts brighter yellow, streaked slightly with dark. Length under 
5 inches, extent about 7K inches. 


{Dctidroica ncstiva rubiginosa) . 

This ..s tiie variety of Summer Warbl* r most common in Brit- 
isi •, .olumi>ia. It differs from the tyj.ical foi-m ..nlv in being more 
unifonuly greeniwh yellow all over, 


(Ddiidriora coroudhn. 

This is a well known Warbler from Cai)e Breton, Newfound- 
land, and Labrador, to the coast of British Columbia, and north- 
ward to the valley of the Mackenzie River. 

Favoriiijj: tiic northern part of this ranjje as a nesting ground, 
it IS however known t(^ breed sparingly in eastern Ontario and 
in Manuoba It builds usually n-ithin twelve feet of the _i,'round 
11/ evergreens, and the nest and eggs are o'' the usual Warbler type. 

The adult male in spring is grayish blue streaked with black 
above, and the belly and throat are unspotted white; while the 




M 1 !• 

KItl I K. 







.#<^/ raVLnr^-:'%MIR':iWU^HI^ '\°^<MHS»l!Ufif 


sides of the head, the breast, and sides are mostly black. The 
characteristic marks are the sharply yellow rump, crown patch, 
and sides of the breast. The eye-lids and a line over the eye are 
white. The male in winter and the female in summer are brownish 
blue, and the breast is merely streaked With black. Two white 
wing bars and w-hite spots on the outer tail feathers. Length about 
51/0, and extent about 9 inches. 

Tn British Columbia and Alaska a variety of the Myrtle 
Warbler is quite common, brooding as far north as the Arctic 
Circle. It is scarcely sopara))lo from tlio tyj>e. but has been called 
Hoover's Myrtle Warbler. 


{Pcndroica caerulcscrns) . 

■^he male of this species is one of our most beautiful warblers, 
and tlic birds are not unoonnnon in Ontario in May and September. 
East of Montreal they seem less plentiful, and west of Ontario 
they are not recorded. While the northern districts are its favor- 
ite breeding grounds, a few bof-ome resident fi'om Montreal \ est- 
ward through Ontario. The aest is built within a yard of the 
ground, of fibrous bark, and grass and lea^os. 

Upper parts of male gi ayisii hluo, sometimes with a few black 
featheis. Breast and bolly .vhito- white sp«»t at the base of 
primaries, and on outer tail leathers next the tips. The sides of 
the head and throat are bii*«k, and this extends along the sides of 
the body. No wing bars. Female dull olive green above, pale yel- 
lowish below, but with white spots on the primaries. Length about 
5, extent about l'-]^ inches. 


{Dendroivd aitduboni) . 
The Rocky Mountains and their oastoin foot-hills, from Cen- 
tral America to and through British Cohmibia, are the homes of 
this beautiful bird. It spends the winior in the south and the 




summer in the northern part of this range. In British Columbia 
it is a very common resident. Like the Myrtle AVarbler it prefera 
for its home an evergreen tree near the water. In plumage it re- 
sembles in general the last named, Innng bhiish ash colored above, 
streaked with black. The rump, a central crown spot, the throat, 
and a patch on each side of the breast are rich yellow. 

The sides of the Iicad are shite color, and the eye-lids white, 
but no white su})erciliary line. Breast black, usually with some 
grayish or yellow. The sides are streaked with black. The belly 
and undertail coverts are white. Wings with white blotch, and 
outer tail feathers marked the same way. Female nmch like the 
male in summer but the colors not so clear or sharply defined. In 
autunm both are brownish above and all yellow and brown mark- 
ings are obscure. Lengtli over Hy^ inches, extent about 9 inches. 

WAHIUiEK {Drudroicn macuUmt). 

Through eastern North America this bird is known as a resi- 
dent of Canada, and as a migrant in the United States. Near the 
shores of Lake Oi.tario its nest is seldom found, but further north 
and in the maritime provinc«'s it is a connnon migrant, becoming 
less numerous westward, and found only in the .astern part of the 
mountain district. It lays four white or crearuy .'ggs, strongly 
marked or blotched with reddish brown. The nest is usuallv near 
tlie ground in low evergreens. Near Kingston ir« northern migra- 
tion is late in May. 

The hack is black with souh' olive, especiallv in the female; 
the runij) is yellow. The erown is a bluish gray: the <'liecks and a 
narrow forehead sti'ipe are })lacU. The eyelids and a strij.e behind 
the ('ve are white. Cnder parts entirely yellow I'xcept the crissum 
which is white. The breast and sides are heavily striped witu 
black. The white win.:,^ bars are fused into a patch. The tail is 
blackish with square white spots on all the feathers exce}>t the 


li. , „ ,1 

I. it.' -\y 



. Ill - I SI 1 -!lll I 1 .'. vh|.l> I 



middle pair. The foiiiale is similar to the male, and the young 
have the same rump and tail marks. 
Length about 5 inches, extent IV^. 


( Dcndruira castdnca). 

The range of this bird is similar to that of the Chestnut-sided 
Warbler, — the United States and Canada east of the plains region, 
and north to Hudson Bay. A few stragglers are se'^n west of 
Manitoba, but it is like the other warblers — tliuroughly arboreal — 
and finds little satisfaetion in the treeless prairies. In southern 
Ontario it is not eomnion, but seen chiefly as a migrant, its bi*eed- 
ing grounds being mostly further north. Evergreen coniferous 
trees are its favorite haunts both for food and nesting. The nest 
is of^en rear the ground among twigs growing from the side of 
the trunk of a tree. 

The crown is bright chestnut; the chin, throat and sides of the 
body are also chestnut, but not so bright. The back is streaked 
with l)lack and grayish green. The forehead and sides of the head 
are black, with light buff i)atch("S on tlu sides of the neck. Two 
white wing-bars, and white i)atches on outer tail feathers. Lower 
breast and belly buffy white. The female lias an olive green crown 
patch, but otherwise is like the male. Length about ')\U inches. 


{IJandroica /icn . 

Til" eastern and northern middle states and Canada from 
Newfoundland to Manitoba are the home of this Warbler, which 
is not found north of James Bay nor west of the forested regions. 
It nests in low broadleafed ti'ces or bushes, near the ground, and 
is quite c()mm(m through the provinces of eastern Canada. 

The back is stiraked, black, olive green and white, the crown 
is bi-ight yellow, cheeks black, ear coverts wiiite, separated from 
the crown by a black line. Wing bars yellowish and often fused, 


1 1 



-i n 

i I 


taU spots on the outer feathers white. The under parts are white 
the sides with bright chestnut streaks the whole length of the body' 
The female is similar though less bright, but the young are differ- 
ent being yellowish green above and white below, but recognizable 
by the yellow wing bars. Length about 5 inches, extent about 8. 
{Dendroica rara). 
The home of this little beauty is the valley of the Mississippi 
especially the wooded .astern portion. From this it comes hi o 
ou hwesiein Ontario, but rareiy is seen in the eastern portion 
It IS known to nest o.H^asicmallv near London and Niagara 

• .1, ^'Jf"'^ "^^^''' '"''^''*^^ '« ^"^^>' ^^l"^"' ^^itii --ome blac/.rreak^ 
in the midd e of the back. Th. crown is deeper blue and may hav; 

nT./; rT\ ^'''^ P'"^' "^^^^ ^^i^ and side marl' 

r 11 bu"^t ; 'T "'''^: "^"^ '^^' ^^^ «^«" -^^^ '^^ spots 

on all but the central pair of feathers. The female is dull green 
above with some gray blue. The eyelids, line over the eve and the under parts white, with a yellowish cast. L^ng^h 41 J 
inches or less. -"c*ij,iu t^j 

{Dendroica striata). 

ada Jr!!f .^^^'^^.f '" ^..^^^^'^^^ migrant all across southern Can- 
ada and the northern United States, and breeds sparingly in tfie 
eastern part Its nesting ground is Labrador, about HudL Bav 

o h/ W ^Y^}'^\^^ so northward, and is seen from the mid llo 
to the last of ^lav in southern Ontario Ti.« . ^u j ""ocno 


1 11)11 \1 ,> .. JtlJII. 


', Li:---'!.'.'-. 

• "I' l.v 
Niiliiri' -ilmli I'lili I II , inT. ( hiriiuii. 







> IN 


streaked. Le.„„ „„o.,t 5% inches. SeTabo'.tf^!:.''"" '^'^ 


(Demlroica hlackhurniac) 

t-l America, t^d' : " 'a" ™ ^nj ^^fke" ^^'" ""' ^^"- 
dent in Xova Scotia iiid v„„ ''i"''"''.°f "'"'^e it a common resi- 

recorded. Its favoritTh nZ t h * '"'7 ""■'* " '""* »»' ^eeu 
itsnestisusualirin nne". f„ '" "^ "* ''"«"'''' "■'■<■«- «nd 
the sronnd. The " st rcomn cM f 'u"'™*-'' "'■ """■» ^'<^^ f''"™ 
Like the home of t le othei T hi ''' T^ ''"'* '^''''''■'' "" » '™l'. 
is often used bv le Cowbird ■ '' T'' "' ""^ Blaekburnian 
os.«s. The four egg^ a,et vi , T "'•'"■"? 'T ''"• "'-'""''««" 
br..«n and lilac. This il nsl ' m ^T^'f "■''"'' ^P"""' «"'' 
the wai-blers. The back is bhei^ T,^'*™'" *'"^ ">"»' brilliant of 
front of the crow riine n h '""" "''"'^ f<'»"'<^r'- The 

«idos of the n k ;; a hri! IN, ;: "''' '^^^ *■"■""'• *"" >'-"'' -d 


257 ^ 


•1 f 1 

II t- 



bars fused into a white patch. Tail feathers largely white. Fe- 
male, olive and black strnked, throat and line over eye clear 
yellow. Two white wing Lars. Length dy, inches, extent 81/^. 


(Dendroica nigrescens). 
The Pacific Slope has a few Warblers of its own, never found 
east of the ranges. One of these is tlie Black-throated Gray. From 
Mexico, where it spends the winter, to British Columbia, the 
shrubby growths on the mountains are the home of this definitely 
marked bird. The crown, sides of head, chin, and throat are black. 
A yellow spot between the eye and the bill. A white stripe behind 
the eye and another from the lower mandible down the side of the 
neck. Upper parts bluish gray with some black on the back. Two 
broad white wing bars. Lower parts white, with sides streaked 
with black. Length, 5 inches, extent 7%. Female similar, but 
grayish on crown, and some white on the throat. 


{Dendroica virens). 

This bird ranges from the Atlantic Coast to the plains, reach- 
ing occasionally to the foot-hills of the Rockies. It is a common 
resident in the maritime provinces, and nests in dark swamps in 
southern Ontario, but most of those seen go further north to 
breed, probably to the Hudson Bay region. It builds in ever- 
greens a compact round nest, placed near the end of a horizontal 
branch, and made of shreds of birch and other bark and spruce 
twigs, and lined with hair and fine grass. The four eggs are of the 
usual warbler style. Its food is obtained among the highest 
branches of the evergreens, and there we must look for the birds. 

The crown and back are bright olive green, the forehead line 
over the eye, nd sides of the head and neck are bright greenish 
yellow. Chn., throat, and breast jet black, the sides being streaked 




with black, while the other under parts are white with yellowish 
tinge. The wings have two white bars; otherwise blackish, with 
gray edges to the feathers. The tail is dusky, the outer feathers 
mostly white. The female lacks the clear black on the throat. 
Length about 5 inches, extent T^li. 


(Dcndroica toivnsendi). 

This is considered the western form of the Black-throated 
Green "Warbler, and is found between the Rocky Mountains and 
the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Central America. It breeds in 
the evergreen forests of the northern states and British Columbi.i. 
Occasionally a straggler of the species is found in the east, prob- 
ably accompanying its eastern relatives from winter quarters. 

The upper parts are bright olive green, streaked everywhere 
with black, especially on the crown. A black patch around the 
eyes and on the ear coverts; otherwise the sides of the head are 
bright greenish yellow. The chin, throat, and upper breast are 
black, lower breast and sides yellow; white wing bars and tail 
blotches. Length about 5 inches, extent about 8. Female yellowish 
over the black of the throat. The distinction from virens is the 
black of the crown. 


{Dcndroica occidentalis) . 
This is a form confined to the west between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the Pacific. In winter it goes to Central America, and 
in summer it ranges north to tiouthern British Columbia. The 
tops of the tall conifers of this region of tall trees, are its favorite 
feeding and nesting place. It is as yet but slightly known in Can- 
ada. The following description is from Coues :— Above ashy gr-iy 
tinged with olive, especially on the rump, and closely streai ^d 
with black. Top and sides of the head rich yellow, the foraier spot- 
ted with black. Below white, central line of chin, throat and upper 


II i 



breast black, ending on the breast with a sharp convex outline, 
contrasted with the adjoining white. The tail is like that of virens. 
The female is more dusky above, and the throat is white spotted 
with dark. Length just under 5 inches, extent 7'>4 inches. 


(Dendroica kirtlandi). 

We have only one record of this Warbler in Canada and this 
comes from Toronto. It is said to be the rarest of all the warblers, 
and to have as its range the Bahama Islands and the eastern 
United States. Its nest and eggs are as yet unknown. Mr. Hughes 
Samuel describes its song as quite powerful and pleasing. A de- 
scription from Chapman may enable others to identify the bird 
and perhaps give us facts regarding its breeding habits. A dozen 
specimens have been taken in the United States, as far west as 
Michigan, and we should find it in Ontario, as it probably nests in 
our northern districts. 

Head bluish gray, sometimes spotted with black; lores and 
sides of the throat black ; back brownish ashy, spotted with black ; 
no white wing bars; outer tail feathers with white patches on 
inner webs at the tips ; under parts pale yellow ; sides streaked and 
spotted with black. Length 51/2 to o% inches. 


{Dendroica vigorsii). 

This is a plentiful bird in winter in the pine forests of the 
southern states. In summer it ranges as far north as Manitoba, 
Ontario, and the maritime provinces. We lack in southern On- 
tario the necessary atti-actioii for a bird so closely related to the 
pine woods, so it is rathe rarely seen with us. It finds both food 
and home in the coniferous trees, nesting high in pines and cedars. 
Its song is an improvement on that or most of the warblers, re- 



sembling the song of the Chipping Sparrow in the north, but it is 
said to be more musical in the southern part of its range. The 
Pine Warbler is one of the largest and most plainly dressed in the 
group. The upper surface is uniform yellowish olive, sometimes 
grayish. The wings have two white bars and the two outer pairs 
of tail feathers have large oblique white spots near their tips. The 
under parts are yellow, which is paler or grayish toward the belly. 
The female is similar, but duller, being sometimes brownish green 
above and grayish white or yellow below. Length about 5-!4 inches, 
extent 8%. 


(Dcndroica palmarum). 

P^rom its winter home in Mexico and Texas, the north bound 
army of this Warbler spreads between Maine and Manitoba. It is 
not so plentiful near the coast as in the interior; in fact it is most 
abundant in Canada in western Ontario and Manitoba. It reaches 
Great Slave Lake and Hudson Bay, but seems not plentiful so far 
north. This is the most terrestrial of the group, being seen often 
with the sparrows, haunting shrubby fence rows. It also remains 
in the north until the snow drives it to other regions. 

The male is brownish olive above, with yellowish olive rump, 
and chestnut crown. The back is sometimes obscurely streaked 
with dusky. A line over the eye, the throat, and the breast are 
bright yellow. 

No wing bars. The sides of the throat, the breast, and sides of 
the body are streaked with chestnut. Belly yellowish white, cris- 
sum yellow. The tail spots are peculiar and characteristic in 
everv plumage. Only the two outer pairs have the white and this 
at the very tips of the inner webs, and squarely cut off. The fe- 
male is like the male and the young may be known by the tail spots 
and absence of wing bars. 

Length 5 inches or more, extent about 8 inches. Brighter in- 
dividuals are by some called the Yellow Palm Warbler. 



i i 

I J 




(Dcndroica discolor). 

This beautiful Warbler belongs to the middle and southern 
United States as far north as Massachusetts, Michigan, and West- 
ern Kansas. A few specimens have been taken in Ontario, all 
in the western part, and its visits are likely to be repeated. It 
frequents thickets and scrubby evergreens and builds its nest near 
the ground. It captures flies on the wing, in the style of the Fly- 

The upper plumage is bright olive green with spots of chest- 
nut or brick red on the back. The wing bars are yellow, as are the 
forehead, a line over the eye, and the entire under parts. The 
lores, a crescent below the eye, a narrow line through the eye and 
streaks along the sides of the neck and body are black. White tail 
blotches very large, especially on the outer pair of feathers, which 
are mostly white. Female very similar. Length 4%, extent 71/4 


(Seiurus aurocapillus). 

These thrush-like Warblers differ from the others in color- 
ation, in habits, and in nest building, as well as in their great vocal 
powers. The Oven Bird is quite common in secluded woodlands, 
and its song may be heard frequently during the nesting season. 
Later in the summer the birds are so silent and unobtrusive as to 
be very seldom seen. Its note is very clear and ringing, and is by 
John Burroughs translated into English as "teacher, teacher, 
teacher," becoming stronger with each repetition. The common 
name is given it because of its peculiar covered nest with a side 
entrance, somewhat the shape of an old Dutch oven, placed among 
the leaves on the ground. The materials iised may be twigs, leaves, 
and grass, or pine needles, and the lining of leaves and grass or 



J ,- 



hair. The eggs, laid in June, are yellowish or pinkish white, marked 
with lilac and brown. From the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, 
north to Slave Lake, nesting in all but the most southern parts, 
and going in September to Mexico and Central America,— may 
be given as its range. It is in colors that the Seiurus group most 
near'y resembles the thrushes. The Oven Bird is bright olive 
green above, without markings except the golden-brown crov\^) 
with its black lateral stripes. Around the eye is a white ring. 
Tiower surface pure white, spotted on the breast, and streaked on 
\e sides with dusky. Female and young similar. Length about 
b inches, usually more, extent about 10. 


(Seiurus novaboraccnsis). 

The range of this bird is practically the same as that of the 
Oven Bird,— Newfoundland, Labrador, and the maritime prov- 
inces and westward to thf^ plains region, extending into Alaska. 
South of Canada this Wau:- Thrush is known chiefly as a migrant, 
but it nests from our southern boundary northward, except per- 
haps near Lake Erie. It does not cover its habitation, but builds 
on the side of a bank or among upturned tree roots, near streams 
and swamps. Like some of the sandpipers it has the habit of 
nervously jerking its tail, as it walks along the edge of the water. 
In the east it sings from an elevation, but in the west it hides in 
low thickets for its excellent musical performance. It is not very 
shy with us, and may remain on our lawns for some days. Its en- 
tire upper plumage, including wings and tail, is brownish olive. A 
whitish line over the eye. Lower surface pale sulphur yellow, 
marked everywhere with black; smaller spots on throat; a streak 
on the breast. Bill half an inch long. Length 6 inches, and ex- 
tent about 9. The western form from Manitoba to the mountains 
is said to be larger and darker, and is called by some Grinnell's 
Water Thrush. 


• { 




( S(in nts m otacilla ) . 

This is tlio Lar^e-billcd Water Thrush, having the southern 
part of the eastern United States as its range. Massachusetts 
and southern Ontario are its nortliern limits. It is occasionally 
found near Toronto, Hamilton and London, and is more common 
along the north shore of Lake Erie in rocky ravines where streams 
flow. Its habits, nest, and eggs are like those of the novabora- 
censis. Few know much about the bird because of its shyness, 
and the speed with which it retreats into thickets. Its song is de- 
lightfully rich and clear. In idumage it closely resembles the last 
described. A clear white line over the eye, and the buff instead 
of sulphur yellow of the lower i)ai-fs are the chief characteristics 
to be noted at a distance. The bill is longer and stouter. Length 
about 6V4 inches, extent lOy^, bill over \(> inch. 


{Gcotlthji'lH af/ilis). 

This bird is rarely seen in Ontario, but is a common summer 
resident of Manitoba. Otherwise we have no records of it in Can- 
ada. Its usual summer home is tlie eastern slope of the United 
States, while in winter it reaches South America. The head, neck, 
and l)reast are bluish gray, lighter on the throat; narrow eye-ring 
white; other upper parts olive green; sides olive green; under 
parts yellow. The female lacks the bluish gray on the head and 
neck. Length 514 inclics, extent 8i/^. 


(GeothJypis formo 

This is an accidental visitor as yet in Canada. One has been 
recorded from Quebec, and one from near London, Ontario, but 



the northern Ixmiulary of lU \v ax] rniijic is Coiineetii'Ut. In the 
west it cecasionally reaches Niichij^an. It makes a lar^e shallow 
nest of grass, leaves, and rootlets on or near the gro' id. The egi?8 
are bcautifnlly white, sprinkled with dots of reddish brown and 
lilac. The plumage of the male and female is similar, Ijeing clear 
olive gieen above; pure bright yilow below; crown, cheeks, and 
sides of the cr(»wn black; a yellow line from the bill (tver and 
around the eye. Length about 5-;> |, extent abouc J)i/i inches. 


( (rvolli li/jH.s jili iladrlftli in ; . 
This is a shy bird that may be more ciOhriion than we think. 
It is found occasionally in the mari 'm '^ jirovi.i' i-s and (Quebec, but 
is fairly conmion &' :i migrant in si.uihern Ontario and as a resi- 
dent throughout the greater part of the province. It breeds in 
Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan also. Its winter home is 
esouth of the United States, and its chief migration route is the 
Mississippi valley. Its nest is built among weeds and ferns near 
tlic ground or in a low shrub and is not easily found. The eggs 
are variable in their markings, sometimes being but slightly 
speckled. The descriptive name comes from the crape-like band 
of black on the throat and breast of the birds in the spring. 
The head, neck, and throat are bluish gray, blackish on the throat 
and breast in perfect plumage. The eye ring is not white. Other 
upper parts plain olive green, and the lower surface yellow. The 
distinction between the Mourning and the Connecticut Warbler is 
the short round wing of the former, and the long pointed wing of 
the latter, in relation to the length of tail. Length about 5i/i 
inches, extent about 8. 


(G cothly pis tolmici) . 
This is the western representative of the Mourning Warbler, 
being found from Saskatchewan to \'ancouver Island, and through- 



out the forested region of the Pacific, from Central America to 
British Columbia. The nest and eggs are as in the others. Its 
differences in coloration are the absence of black on the clear ashy- 
head, neck, ind breast, the white eye ring, and the black lores. The 
size is the same as that of the Mourning Warbler. 


( r 


(GeotJiIijpis trichns). 

This bright, active, and brave little bird is quite common from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Labrador and Lesser Slave 
Lake to Central America. It bi-eeds throughout its Canadian range, 
and also in the northern and eastern United States. In southern 
Ontario we hear and see it from the first week in May until Sej)- 
tember, the wave of plenty of this as with most of the Warblei-s 
being, however, from the 10th to the 24th of :May. The nest is 
built just above the ground, and well concealed in a clump of grass 
and weeds. The eggs sometiuK^s number six, and may be quite 
sparingly marked ; but in both size and markings the eggs of Warb- 
lers show great variation. The neck, back, wings and tail are dark 
olive green; the chin, throat, and upper breast are bright rich yel- 
low; under tail coverts dull yellow, belly grayish white. A broad 
black mark extends across the forehead and sides of the head, and 
is bordered behind by grayish ash. The female has not the definite 
black mark, and the yellow is paler. Length 41/. to 5 inches ex- 
tent 6i/o to 7. 


{G. t. Occident alis). 

This is slightly longer in the tail and more richly marked. Its 
range overlaps that of the common form in Alberta. 




1 1 


1 I 


. 1 


-^ ii^ 



{Icteria virens). 

The Chats are better known in Europe and Africa than with 
us, but we have one species which well exhibits the peculiarities 
of the group. They are closely related to both the Wood Warbler 
and the Thrush families, and probably to the mocking birds. All 
the Chats are noted for their singing powers, and for their acro- 
batic performances during the nesting season. Our species is very 
shy, and long quiet watching is necessary if one is to see the strut- 
ting, soaring, tumbling and other displays, usually accompanied 
by a great variety of utterances, with which the male entertains 
his mate. The range of the Yellow-breasted Chat is from the 
Mississippi River throughout the eastern States, a few reaching 
Ontario. In winter it retreats to Mexico and further south. It 
inhabits thickets and half cleared shrubbery, l)uilding in bushes 
near the ground a bulky nest of fibrous materials. The eggs re- 
semble those of Warblers in general but are larger. The character- 
istic Warbler coloration is well shown in this, the largest member 
of the group. Upper parts, wings, and tail are olive green without 
marks except a white line over the eye to the bill and around the 
eye. Throat, breast, and upper belly golden yellow, then abruptly 
white, posteriorly. A white line on the side of the throat. Lores 
black. Length about 71/2, extent about 10 inches. 

The variety known as the Long-tailed Chat — Idcria virens 
longicauda— is found in southern British Columbia and south- 
ward. It is grayish olive above, and the tail averages longer than 
in the eastern form. 



This is a small group of three species and some varieties, char- 
acterized among the warblers by the length of the rictal bristles, 


•■ ! 


which in these reach decidedly beyond the nostrils Jh^ bills are 
broad and depressed at the base, and like the Fly-catchers they cap- 
ture flying insects. 



RanKO, eastern Noi-th America as far westward as the plains 
only and north to Connecticut, southern New York, southern On- 
trrfo and Michigan. Onlv an occasional visitor in Canada It 
nes's in low bus fes and lays four eggs of the usual kind for WarV. 
fers The upper plumage is clear, olive green, with black crown 
and nape forehead and cheeks bright yellow. Two or three oute 
taU f Tth'ers blotched with white. Throat and -ck black; br^^^^^^^ 
and bellv rich vellow, shading into olive along the sides. The f t- 
xnale and voung show a less clear black, and it may be much less 
extensive.^ Length about 5i/, inches, extent about 81/.. 


{Wilsonia pusilla). 
This species with its western variety-the P";»l»te;i Bla^- 
capped Warbler-is found in the wooded regions of No th Amer 
ca both east and west, and occasionally during -'8- ^ "" «^^ 
nlains also. All of its Canadian range except southern Ontario 
!id One e is breeding ground, even to the Arctic Ocean along the 
Mackenzie valley. The nest is built on the g'»™d by the eas^ « 
form, but from one to four feet above the ground, by the western 
variety (Davie). The sexes are similar, while the young differ in 
lacking the black cap. Upper parts, including wings and tail 
bright olive green without wing bars or tail blotches; forehead 
aniline over the eve yellow, and the crown bluish black Under 
part all bright veliow; with olive on the sides. The western form 
werrs brighfer yellow. Length nearly 5 inches, extent nearly 7. 



. It 
le fc- 
1 less 

•n the 
3g the 
ffer in 
1 tail, 
1 form 


f il m I ■ n J II m 

«r*n t, ifs, ((. 


< ANAIII \N W \K1,I.|;K' 

Ali.iiit Mil- ^i/,.. 

iMfBicit C;.:"!'** S^. 6"l. 1 ■ 



(Wilsonia canadensis). 

This beautiful fly-catching warbler is found from Nova 
Scotia to Saskatchewan and through the eastern United States 
especially the Alleghany region. It has been captured as far north 
as James Bay. When settled in its nesting range its favorite home 
is moist thickets and wet woods, and there it nests very near the 
ground, frequently in the upturned roots of tr 'es. The eggs are 
described as clear white with a rosy blush, and the coloration 
orange, rather than reddish or brown (Kells). The sexes are much 
alike. The upper parts, wings, and tail are bluish gray, without 
wing bars or tail spots. The crown is spotted with lanceolate 
black markings, nearly solid on the forehead; lores and sides of 
neck black, continuous with a necklace of black spots across the 
breast. A line from the bill to the eye, the throat, and under parts 
are clear vellow. In the voung and the females the black is of less 
extent and not so bright. Length about 51/w, extent about 8 inches. 

■ I 


(Setophaga ruticilla). 

Many of this group of warblers are found in tropical America, 
but only three reach to United States and but one is known in 
Canada. The name is derived from the German words for red 
uiil and is in Europe and Asia applied to the genus ruticilla which 
frc(|uent lawns and parks and is a very popular gi-oup of birds. 
In Canada and United States the Redstart is generally distributed, 
being found from ocean to ocean, breeding from the international 
boundary northward to Labrador, liiulsoii Bay, Fort Good Hope 
on the Mackenzie River, and less commonly in British Columbia. 
In southern Ontario it appears about the middle of May and 
again when going southward about September 1st. It builds a 
beautifully neat and compact nest of fibrous materials in a fork 






If ' 


. J' 





of a young tree, within twenty feet of the ground. The Redstart 
is probably our most brilliant Warbler, and has a sweet song also 
to win our delighted attention. The upper parts, throat, and 
breast are shining black ; the belly, flanks, and crissum white, often 
with a pinkish yellow or salmon color. The sides of the body and 
the lining of the wings deep flame color. Bases of the wing quills, 
and the tail feathers except the middle pair orange yellow. Fe- 
male olive, instead of black, and yellow in place of orange or flame 
color. Length nearly Sy^* extent nearly 8 inches. 



We have now reached a group of terrestrial, walking birds, 
insectivorous and gregarious, building on the ground, and like 
some other groups marked by the habit of moving the tail up and 
down while walking or standing. The group belongs chiefly to 
Europe and Asia, and of the true Wagtails only a few are known 
to have reached Greenland and Alaska. The closely allied Pipits 
form perhaps 40 species in tropical America, but only two reach 


(Anthus pennsylvanicus) . 

These birds winter in the tropics, and are known throughout 
North America, as a migrant in the United States and southern 
Canada, but nesting in northern Labrador, about Hudson Bay, 
Great Slave Lake, on the mountains in British Columbia, anH in 
Alaska. In southern Ontario they are seen in flocks in April and 
again in September. They sing sweetly while soaring, and have 
many lark-like habits. They lay from four to six eggs, which are 
bluish but stained with brown. 

The upper plumage is brownish gray or olive, a line over the 
eye, and also the under parts buf f y white streaked with dusky ; 

270 ' 



wings and tail blackish. The end half of the outer tail feathers 
white, the next pair with white tips. Fentale similar. The hind 
toe nail is the longest, being at least as long as the toe. Length of 
bird about 6-^4 inches, extent nearly 11. 


(Anthm spraguei). 

This bird has a notable singing and soaring lark-like habit, 
rising almost out of sight and returning to the same place, singing 
constantly. Its range is from the valley of the Red River to the 
Rocky Mountains, and in winter southwards to Texas and Mexico. 
It is a common summer resident in the dry and treeless plains of 
southern Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

The upper parts are brownish gray with v;ell marked dark 
streaks. Below dull white with brownish on sides. The two outer 
pairs of tail feathers mostly white, others dusky. Length under 
7 inches, extent about 101/2. 



This is a remarkable group of little birds combiiiing many of 
the characters of the Warblers and the Thrushes. They are, how- 
ever, peculiar in their habits and plumage. The body is sturdy 
and full of energy. The teetering motions of some water thrushes 
and sandpipers are here seen combined with the power of walking, 
running, and apparently flying under water. Stagnant water is 
avoided,— only rapid, cold, mountain streams are satisfactory, and 
in these the Dipper finds its food, collecting it on the bottom of 
the rapidly flowing water, and walking into and out of the stream 
in a peculiarly casual way. The bird does not dive, but merely 
runs into the water and along the bottom, gathering its prey as it 
goes, then walks out with dry plumage. Only one species is known 
in Canada. 



•I . 

■i- 1 


(Cinclus mexicunus). 

The range of this most interesting little bird is the Rocky 
Mountain region from Alaska to Central America. In Canada it 
is found from the foot-hills in Alberta to the Coast Range. I 
found it plentiful in the Crows' Nest Pass, wherever rapids and 
waterfalls gave it satisfactory conditions. It is said to winter in 
Alaska, and certninly it seems quite indifferent to the tempera tui-e 
of glacier water. The song of the Dipper is well described by F. 
M. Drew, as "sweet, sparkling, aud vivacious like crystallized 
spray — the very embodiment of a mountain stream." They build 
an oven-shaped or domed nest of moss, with au opening in the 
side, and this is usually placed near a waterfall, often on a ledge 
behind the curtain of water. The eggs are three to five, plain and 
pure white. In appearance the Dipper resembles the Catbird. Its 
fine compact water proof plumage is smoky grey or slaty in color, 
lighter below, and sooty brown on the head. In winter the lower 
surface is paler than in summer. Eyelids white, bill black, feet 
yellowish. Length 6 to 7 inches, extent 10 to 11. 


(Troglodytidae) . 

This group includes two sub-families which may be disting- 
uished from each other as follows: — (1) Mockers or Miminae: — 
size large, length 8 inches or more, appearance thrush-like, inner 
toe free to its base from the middle toe, rictal bristles evident; 
represented by Mocking Birds, Cat Birds, and Thrashers. (2) 
Wrens or Troglodytinae: — size small, — under 8 inches in length, 
rictal bristles not evident ; represented by all kinds of Wrens. A 
few species of wrens are known in Europe, but this whole group is 
chiefly American. They like brushy thickets where the heavy 
timber has been removed. There they fuss, and scold, and sing, 




workinj? without rest from rnoriiiiij? till nif,'Iit. Tho thrashers aro 
also dwellers in thickets rather than hij?h trees, and rank fii-st of 
all American songsters for brilliance of execution. 


1. Tail broad, fan shaped, each feather widening toward the end. 
Length about 6 inches. Tarsus scutellatc behind: Lateral toes 

of unequal length Saljtinrtcs, page 214 

1. Tail thin, of narrow parallel edged feathers: — 
2. Large; upper parts uniform in color without streaks <»i- bars 
except the tail : — 
'.i. Tail not longer than wing, and all its feathers brown and dis- 
tinctly bai-rcd Th,jrofl>on(.s, page 214 

.3. Tail decidedly longer than wing, and blackish, not barred on 

all the feathers T/ti/ronninrs, page 1275 

2. Snuill; upper parts not uniform, back, wings. Hanks, and tail, 
with crossbars: — 

4. Tail about equal to wings. Feet when outstretched reaching 
not beyond the tail Trofjhdi/trs, page 275 

4. Tail decidedly shorter than wing, feet outstretched reaching 
far beyond tail [tiorflun-a. page 276 

2. Small ; upper parts not uniform, back w= ->gthwise streaks 
flanks scarcely barred: — ' 

5. Bill not more than half as long as the head; crown and back 

, ^^^^^^'^^ C,-,tof/>on,s, page •>77 

o. Bill two-thirds as long as head, crown plain, back streaked 

between wings Telmatoiliftis, pag(>s 277-278 


These are lively, courageous, little birds, of which the common 
House Wren may be taken as the type. They are impudent, fussy, 







i ■ 

i H 

and (|nan-«'lsoim', scttldinu; viu<n'nnsl_v if they rliiiiU anyone nu-ans 
to intrude on premises wliieli they liavo taken nn<ler tiieir pro- 
t<'etion. 'I'liey sinj; (»r ri^li' with Mpial <lash ami persistence, at- 
taeUinj; much hir^cr birds, sj.a nous, martins, and hhielfirds, w'mse 
homes they often take for themselves. They aic never at rest «hir- 
iiij; daylight hotirs, and an- <'sp<"ei.dly persevering;- in eaitturiny; iii- 
stM;ts for themselves and their Uahies. They nest in cavities in 
houses, trees, and Ioy,s, of build bulky nests of reeds, moss, and 
;;rass h'aves, with hoh s in the sides foi' tln'ir entrance. They lay 
several sets of cuus. and raise many \nun,u; i-adi summ<'r. 

Tin: KMX'K wmiN 

( Sill Itilich s ohsiilihls :. 

This is a western form, .-ontined in (*anada to southern Sas- 
katciiewaii. Alberta. aJid llriiish Columbia. Krom Iowa to the 
Pacific and south to Central Aineric;: it ran};('s in ntcky |)laces. It 
is a restless, noisy bird. I)uildin,i;' in a ci-evice amont'' rocks, and 
layiu}? from five to ei^^ht enus. white with reddish brown dots. Its 
upper plumau'e is brownish ^-fay with small sharp spots of Itlack, 
borderinu- spots of white, and often wavy lines of dusky. Wimis 
with spots like these on the back. A white line over tin- eye, ami 
tan colored rump are characteristic. Middle tail featlu-rs like the 
l)ack with e.|ual black and white on outer wel)S. All tail feathers 
with tan colored tips following' a broad black zone, Hel<»w. whitish 
with broken streaks of dusky oji the throat and breast. Leitutii 
about 51/. iuches. 


(Tlijirotlinriis liiiloriridims). 

A few sjjecimens of this wren have been taken iu Canada, all 
in .southern Ontario,— St. Thomas, Forest, and Point i*elee. The 
more southern of the eastern States are its home; and Mas.sachu- 
.setts. Ontario, and Michi,n-an are but rarely visited. Its outdoor 



iirst is usually rootVd ovci-, hut it frequently liuilds iu holl<»w frees 
or stuiui»s, or in outhouses. Its white v^t^^s aiv thiekly spotted 
and Motehed witii purplish l)r;»\vii. The upper plumai;e is uni- 
form reddish brown, below pale buff, (U'cpeninj^ l)aekward. A 
lonj; whitish line over the eye, and whitish spots »tn the edj^es of 
the win^ (piills. Leiij^th alxuit (>, extent about 7' j inches. This 
is a shy, thieket-lovinji; bird, with a elear loud sonj;. 


( Thurotniim s h* iv'n-ki ) . 

One speeiinen td' tiiisspeei<'s has been taken l)y \V. K. Saunders 
in western Ontario, but the western form is abundant in south- 
ern British ( -oluinbia. The luune of Bewick's Wren is tiie interior 
of the eastern Tnited States fro intn»- coast to the jthiitis, but it is 
scarce near the Atlantic. Tlie western fonn ranges from Mexico 
to j^ritish ("oiumbia. Above, the plumau'e is dark ;,n-ayish bnuvn; 
bejov.-. it is ashy white. The rump has concealed white spots. The 
tail is decidedly longer than the win^s. A white line over the eye 
from the nostrils to the najie. The r 'ddle tail feathers liave 
iiiaiiy fine black bars, the others liave whitish niirkinus on outer 
webs and ti|)s. licn^th about .')1 ._. inches, extent Cr''\. 


( Tnttfhxliflcs (KfloH ). 

'IMiis is the familiar wren of the eastern Tnited States and 
Canada, and is represented by the variety parkmnui iu the Pacific 
Coast region, and as far east as .Manit(»ba. A lar^c loose nest iu 
anv enclo.^ed space is the home chosen by those familiar and brave 
little birds, jiiul havinj;' decided upon it they fij^ht for it a^^ainst all 
comers. Year after year if luidisturbed they return to the box, 
knot hole, cornice, old hat, empty can, or bleached skidl which satis- 
fies th^' iesire for a ])osition of strength. They lay seven or 



■ ! 



eiffht eg£?s, whitish, spotted with brown. The song of the House 
Wren is pleasing although brief, and is persistently repeated with 
peculiar tiltings of tlie ridiculous litth" tail, which is such an ex- 
pressive part of the bird's makeui). 

The upper surface is brown, brighter on rump and tail. Be- 
low it is rustv or gravish brown, or even whitish brown. The back 
has'darker bars, the rump has concealed white spots The wings 
tail, and under parts are all barred with blackish. Length about 

5 inches, extent about 674. ., , 1 1 wi 

Parkman's Wren is more deeply barred on the back, but the 

variety grades into the type. (Coues.) 


(Anoftlmra liicmalifi). 
This is the American form of the r:uropean Wren. It differs 
from the House AVren in having the wings longer than the tail. 
The outstretched feet also reach beyond the tail. The usual winter 
home of this bird is south of the internati.aial boundary, but a 
few of them remain in our dense arbiu- vitae or white cedar 
swamps, and luav hv seen on bright days in midwinter. The breed- 
ino- of "the Winter Wren are the Alleghany Mountains 
froin Carolina northward, and throughout eastern Canada from 
Nova Scotia to Manitol)a and north to Labrador and James Bay. 
It is more plentiful in the maritime provinces than in Ontario, 
except during the migration. Its song is a delightful and sur- 
prising melodv. The nest is of ; built among the tangled roots 
of a fallen tree in a dark swamp, and is usually a spherical mass 
of moss with an entrance on one side. Six, seven, or eight eggs 
are laid, white with pale markings. The plumage is very similar 
to that of the House Wren, l)ut the relative lengths of wings, legs, 
and tail, noted above, will always distinguish them. Length about 
4 inches, extent about 614. The Pacific Coast form is slightly 
darker, and ranges through the mountains. 


I wi 


KiNt.mi.I.l I> M AK-ll \\ KKN 

(Ci?>tuth'irn^ (..ihi^tri>- ) 



( Cist oth o rii s st ella ris ) . 

Eastern North America,— breeding in Ontario and Manitoba 
and probably the New England States,— may be considered the 
range of this very interesting but shy bird. As it never leaves its 
mai-shy home it is not at all familiar to many who would enjoy 
hearing its bright, sweet, little song. Its nest is built of c.iirsi' 
grass and cattails woven together to form a spherical mass. On 
one side of this and possibly elsewhere the materials are so loose 
as to permit easy entrance, but no chnir open passage is formed. 
The excess of domestic energy of these bustling iUtle songsters 
usually results in the construction of several nesis, only one of 
which'is used. The object of this is not yet apparent, perhaps it 
is to fool the water snakes, which without doubt take all the young 
birds they can find. Eggs five to eight usually pure white. The 
upper surface of the plumage is streaked with brown, black, and 
white, the wings and tail are barred. The lower ])arts are pale 
brownish white, darkei on the sides and under tail coverts; flanks 
barred witli dusky. Length 4 to 41/0 inches, extent under fi. Bill 
less than one-half inch. 


( Telmatodytea paliistris). 

The range and habits of this form are very like those of the 
preceding. It probably nests further north and is certainly more 
unif^xmly distributed in southern Ontario. The cat-tail marshes 
along the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario seem to be alive v.'ith 
these little settlers about the 24th of May, and their globular nests, 
about a foot in diameter, may be seen all along the quiet sluggish 
waterways. Birds near you are anxiously enquiring your busi- 
ness in their neighborhood, but those more distant can be seen 
":"ing to the height of ten feet, apparently carried up by the burst 


I, yt 










of melody which ripi>l('S from their oju'ii l)eaivs, then siiikinj;: and 
inmiediatcly sinj^inj;' theii- way up a<;ain. Each pair builds several 
nests hesi(h's the (»ne selected for occu})an<'y, and these may be 
SvUne yai-ds apart. 

The crown is ]»hun olive-iirceii, bounded by a white line oxer 
the eye. Tlu' back is black, streaked with white between the wings; 
rump brown; tail and wings barred with dark. Sides grayish- 
brown; undei- i)arts white alnn"; tlie middle line. Length "» inches 
or more, extent about ()i o, bill i ^ inch or niore. 


{Tdmatodijtcs paliusfris pahidicoJo). 

This is the variety of Long-billed Marsh Wren found between 
the Rocky Mcmntains and the Pacific Coast from Mexico into Brit- 
ish C'ohnnbia. It is said to have a slightly shorter bill, and to be 
more distinctly barred on the tail. 

The Western Marsh Wren and the l*rairie Marsh Wren are 
names given to forms found resix'ctively in southern British 
('obunI»ia. and in the })rairie marshes <(f soutln'ni Alberta and 
Saskatchewan. The descri})tion of the tyi)e will sei-ve for them all. 


(JhiriHirhi/itrliKS nifus). 

The eastern Tnited States and Canada to the foot of the 
Rockies, form the I'ange of the Brown Thrasher. (}roun(l Thrush, 
or Sandy .Mockingbird as this is called. It winters in the .south- 
ern States and nests as far north as the Saskatchewan River in the 
west, but only in Southern Ontario and alxmt .Montreal in the east. 
The habits of the Thrasher are retiring except when in the Innmu' 
for singing, — morning and evening. Then he takes a prominent 
position, — the top of a small tree usually, — and gives a finished 
performance, loud, clear and brilliant. But even in a (piiet and 









1^ - 


i 5- X 

? i" ^ 




^ 1 


■ « 

1 - 


\ ' 



.» n 












(Miniiis ixilinjli'tfo^)- 


„,„, kn..w th,. l.inl ".'ll. He nmnnt..! .. ,-.,vl .::>. .mhI H" sp." 
,n,.|i is Mt i.nsciit in tlir |.nssossi..n "I Ins l.>i"il>- 

■n,,..,. must Ml! In. ,„nsi.UTe.l .,ricl™t:>l visitors a.uluo .-an 

m.aflvn.tfSlifik.Ml.ananyotlu.i-..f .mf...,„„„mliif(ls. 

T1.0 ttlM-f |,a>1san. ashy R.ay : «i„ss a,.,! taillthK-ktsh wtth a 
„.l,it, l.t ... t,.. ,..i...afi<.s. Tl... onto,- tail foath.Ts a,v larfjely 
^vltito. llwof sttt'fa.,. gfayisi, whit... l.^nt-th t,b, 10 tnehes, 
extent about 14. 


: ! 

. n 


( GoJcoscoptes caroUnensis ) . 

All the wjiy from Nova Scotia to Vancouver Island, and from 
54 depfrees north latitude, or about the Saskatchewan River, to 
the Southern United States, the Oatbird is resident, moi-e plenti- 
fully however in the east. Ewoptinc? his cousin the Brown Thrash- 
er, ho has no rival as a nnisieian in Canada, and the friendly 
nature he shows in living near our houses and sin^inf? his dclij?ht- 
ful melodies for us, makes him one of the best loved of wild 
creatures. The vagrant cat,— and all cats are vagrants,— is his 
especial abominatiftn, and deservedly so, because his nest is certain 
to be visited when the young family ))ecome well worth eating. 
During all but the fall months the Catbird lives on insects alone, 
thus protecting all growing fruits and vegetables. When the 
raspl)eri-ies and strawberries are ripe, he claims his proper share, 
and he certainly has earned the right. His nest is built usually 
within six feet of the ground in thickets of elioke-cherry, sweet 
briar, or other dense shrubbery. The eggs are greenish blue. 

Plumage is slaty gray ; crown and tail black ; under tail coverts 
dark chestnut. Length 8V1> to 9 inches, extent 11 or more. 



This is an Old AVorld family, except the one species and its 
varieties named below. The mark by which our Creeper may 
readily be known is its stiff tail of acuminate feathers, used as 
the Woodpeckei-s use their similar structures, as a prop for the 
body while the bird climbs spirally up the trunks of trees. The 
bill is very long, sharp, and decurved, and by its use the bird lives 
by picking bugs, beetles, and woinis out of the crevices in the bark. 


, >-i '""n ■ 



i l,i(e-si?e. 

II fj 


.< . 

i ■ : 







( Ce rth ia fa m ilia ris ) . 

Eastern North America— as far north as Xcwfoundland and 
as far west as Manitoba— forms the ran^e of the type form of 
the Brown (Veeper. It is common in few jjlaces; always confined 
to wooded districts, and is partialis .nigratory. In southern On- 
tario we occasionally see it in winter and in sunmier. hut more 
fre(,uently in si)rin,i; and fall. It nests in hollow trees or holes 
made by woodpeckers, and lays from five to ei^ht sjie-kled ej^ss- 
The custom of this bird is to start at the bott(»m of a tree and climb 
it spirally until the branches bec(»me somewhat small, then it lloats 
off to the foot of a neijfhborinj,' tree and beijins aj>ain. It ])ays 
little attention to observers but attends strictly to is lifeloni; busi- 
ness. IMumajie on the ni)i)er surface brown, streaked and barred 
with bl.ick and white: rump clear brown; lower surface white or 
brownish white. Wintjs dark, with yellowish and whitish sj)ots 
and bars: tail brown, of stiff sharp ixunti'd feathers. Lenijih about 
.')i/L' inches, extent 7i U to S. 

The Rocky :Mountain rree])er— 6'. /'. m(»itana~ifi found in 
central British Columbia, and is said to differ in beinj? j?rayer, 
with contrast!. >; tawny rump. It is tlioui^ht to average loiiger 

The Tawny Creeper,— ^7. /. Occident alis, is another variety 
found (mly on the P.- ific slope from California to Alaska, and 
is darker in tone. 


This family of small birds is related to the Wrens and Creep- 
ers, but is distinguished by having: 

(1) tail about as long as tlie wings: 

(2) tail feathers not stiff nor acuminate ; 


TlIK NKW < AN A 1)1.'.:: HI in) liOOK 

{ ;> > frmit toes iiiiiiiil ;it the \k\sv: 

{ I I hill ••nin|iirs>r<l. stuiit. stl'ilitillt ;in<l lllllrll sllorli-f tli;iH 

rlu' Ih'.uI. 

'rinse rliiilMi-lcrs licjuiin ;ils(i |u tlu' .l;i\s, Idlt (till- .l;iy.s 
nw tivcr seven iiiclics ioiii;-, while all tuir Nuthatches. Chiekadees 
and Tits aic under se\'en inches. They helnnu' tu the ni»rfhei-ii 
heniispJH re, and ar( ainiosi indiri'ereiu to luw teiu|iei-afures. al- 
thnnuli sli;L;htiy nd,ufati>ry in the nui'thein parts nf their i-ani:-e. 
They ai«' adixc. ( nel'u'etic, I'eai less id' eatinu alnmst anythinL;'. 
and sevei'al nl'theni lia\-e pit asinn' iitth smms. 

Nuthatches p't theii- name fi-oni theii- hahits id' wedn'in.i; a nut. 
-as (il' the heeeh in a crevice, and then npeuinn' or hat(diinti- it 
with IiIkus id' ilieir hill. They cliiuh d<>\\-)i\vard as well ,is upv.ard 
on the trunks of trees, l)ut unlike \\'oi.d,...cke:s and Creepers, do 
not use lilt il' tails as supports. ( 'liiekade^ • oi* 'I'itnnce seek their 
prey rather anionu- the Iwi^s and outer hrauclKs. hut are very 
aceoinniodatin^' in their appetih. and u'really < njoy a hit of meat 
oi* suet in winter. 


( Siffti (-(iroliiK usis ). 
!"roni the (iuif (d' .Mexico north and eastward to Laliradoj' 
and dames l>ay. this ;,,tei-estin,n- little acn^hat raiiu'es. nesting- in 
the iiortliern part and in the mountain reyidiis. In .southorn On- 
tario it is more jdeiitirul in fall and v.inter than in sunuuer, heinic 
only )>artly nuuratiuw. Its food is e!ii( fly insects. i»ut it also eats 
nuts and hai'd fruits. Its calls are scaively nmsical. hut the pe- 
culiar hahits of the l)ird make it always interestinti'. It.s nest is 
made in a natural or artificial cavity in a tree, often far fmm tlie 
lironnd. very fi-ecpiently in a litde made hy themselves or hy a 
woodjiecker. It lays from five to eiyht e,u-«;s.-- whitish and sjieck- 
led with hrowni. 

The pluma.iic of the hack and the ceuti-al tail-feathers are 
clear hluish uray. the top d' the head and the hack of the ne-ek and 



I'KI.m'IIIm; i{|i:hs 

ii l»;ni<l ;icr<iss the sliniili!rrs licih;: uli'S>\ l»l.;i-k. '\'\u MiMt r l.iil- 
tV';itlu'i-s jiiT l»l;irk with white hinicho. Tlu' -idc- i>r thr hcjul .mil 
the imdcr |»;iiMs ;iic white. iMcumint: iii.-»i\ hrn-vn mi ilir lower 
l»elly .111(1 cpissiiiii. I''elii;ih' > I»ill vith some ^IMV iiiised 
with the l>l;iek. Leimth ;ihoiit (I iiielies, < \t( lit .ilMiiit 1'*':.. The 
variety of this ealhd the l»o,-k\ )!(.iiiitai;i Xiiiii.iteh i- r<'>idyiit 
ill I{rili>li ('uhiiiihia. and fe|iurt(d I'li'iii .\lanituli,i. 

I'Ki.MV Nl'i'IlA'ICII 

( Silhi iii/'iinin II ). 

'I'ilis Nllthateh is emiriiKd lo the I'aeit'ie shipe. l»eiii^ fuillid 
ill ('aiiada •»iily in sniith-wi steni IJriiisii ('uliiiiil)ia. 'I'heir nesiinu 
ha hi Is are like tiinse nl' t lie dl hers, hnt tliey are deserihed a-- "caiilk- 
ip^- i!|> tlie hoh's and s<'aiiis in t!ie trees anniiid their nests with 
hair." ( Sprcadlxtrou^-h ). It lays six or seven white enus thickly 
s|>eekled with ri'(hlisli. The einwii. tile nape. ;ind tiie si(h'< of ihe 
head tn hclow tlie eyes are (dive-hrnw n. a Idaekish line aioiind the 
eyes forms a hoiih-r to tlie crow n-|iateh, remainiii.u- uppi'i- parts 
ashy-hliie. Central tail I'eatlier like the hack, hut witli a Iniiu' 
white spot, others blackish with white marks. I'mhT >iirt';ice 
sliadiiii;^ from a dusky-white in front, to sinoky-hrow ii or even 
hlackisn towards the tail. Si/e the same as that of th( Ifed- 


( Siltii (-(Uidih lists I. 

This little Nuthatch is found iii Lalirador .md Newfoinidlaii(i. 
and is resident in Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. (Quebec, northern 
Ont^ii'io, in .Manitoba and westw.ird to the Pacific in wooded 
iTii^ions. and north to Alaska. It is a common mi.urant in 
sonthern Ontario. They often exca\ate their own n<'stin'4-i»laces 
in rotten ti'ees and stumps, usually not more than ten feet from 


i It 

I ! 





- i i 


the ijround. An interesting; peculiarity is the fact noted by sev- 
eral observers.— tliat tliey often i)Iaee around the entrance to the 
nest a rinj,' of i)ine sum, whicli is sui)i)<)sed to be either a trap for 
insects or a defence aii:ainst mice. Everjiji-een trees and their 
cones are favorite objects of investij,^ation by this nuthatch, and 
tliey probably cat the seeds of pines. Their note is thinner and 
more nasal than that of tiie AVhite-breasted. They lay about six 
e.utis, embedding them in liair and feathers. B<"side the crown 
strij.e this sjx'cies has a wide black stripe through the eye, reach- 
in.i? back to the nape, and widening .m the side of the neck. Back 
and tail like those of the White-breasted. The throat is white but 
the breast and belly are yellowish brown or almost chestnut 
Lensjth rather over 4U inches, extent about 814. 


( Paras atricdpiUuH). 

The forest regions of eastern North America from North 
Carolina to Lal)rador and James Bay, are the range of this, our 
common Chickadee. It is a resident in all the provinces east of 
Manitoba, but there its place is taken by the long-tailed variety. 
They nest in holes which they excavate in rotten stumps or fence 
posts. They lay from six to eight eggs, white, speckled with red- 
dish-brown. In southern Ontario, we notice these birds more 
frequently in winter when they come near the houses and barns, 
showing no fear of man, singing their "chik-a-dee-dee-dee" very 
cheerfully when the days are bright. During the summer they re- 
main in the cool evergreen swamps. The back, wings and tail 
are brownish-ash ; the crown, nape, chin, and throat shining black; 
the sides of the neck and Head white : wing and tail feathers border- 
ed with white; brf-ast white and belly brownish. Length 514 
inches, extent 8 inches 




{I*(trns atricdjnlliis sc/ih nl riomilis). 

From Manitoba westward, csiti-cially in tlic IJocky Mountain 
region, the Cliickadecs arc somewhat lariicr an<l tlicii' tails are 
longer, suri>assin5i the winijs in length. The (*(il<iiatinn is the same 
as that of the ]»re<'edinn-, hut clear and shai-p. the l»lack more ex- 
tensive on the na})!', and in front rcachinii' \n the breast. The 
feathers of the win«>s and tail are stroni;ly edged with whitish. 


(P(tn(.s atrial piUiis occidt iifalis). 

This fonn, belonging to the Pacific coast region, is dark in 
tone, with very light whitish edgings on wing and tail feathei's, and 
a brownish wash on tlie blue-gi-ay of the sides. 


{P((nis (/(imhcli). 

From the foot-hills of the Rockies in Alberta to the Racific 
Coast, and southward to California, Gambel's Chickadee is a com- 
mon resident. Its upper sni-face is unshaded ashy-gray, and the 
under parts grayish-white, nearly pure white in a median line. 
Sides of neck and head white; throat and to)* <d' head black, with 
a narrow white line over the eyes and across the forehead. Length 
about ') inches, extent about SVi;. 


( Pa r us Ii u (I HO uic u s ) . 

This bird ranges from northern New England and the CJreat 
Lakes northward in the coniferous forests to Hudson Bay, and 
westward to Alaska. It is common in the maritime ]n'ovinccs and 



\i M 

is occasionally seen in soiirhcni Ontario as a winter niij>rant. Its 
note isdiircivnt from that of the connnon Chickadee, and its color- 
ation quire distinct. The two slides are often associated in their 
winter wanderini>s. The en. wn, nape, and hack are ashy-hn.wn, 
small throat patch black, sides (»f the head Ik'Iow the eyes white, 
under paiMs whitish, with l)rownish on sides and flank. 


( l*<uiis ri(f( .sc( Hs). 

This species is connnon in the Pacific coast rei^ion from Ore- 
i^on tliroujih, British ('olund)ia, and southern Alaska. 
It haunts shruhhery and coniferous f<.i'ests, and nests in hollow 
trees. Its coloration disti nun ishes it, heinj;- chestnut (.n the sides 
and hack, dark brown on the crown and nape, black on tlu' throat, 
with a larn'c wliile patch on cadi side of the neck. Its h'n.LTth is 
about 1 ■"■ I inches and its extent 7' - inches. 


( Sijlriithi)' ). 

This uroiij) contains the Old World Warblers (d* which \\v 
have r.o records in .\merica except of one species which has been 
taken in Alaska, — also the Kiimlets — h\'(/i(Iin(ic, and the (5nat- 
catchers — roli<>iiliIiinii . of which we have a tew. Tliey are all re- 
lated to the Thnislu s. but nioult twic<' a year, wliereas the Thrushes 
moult but <mce. Coniieclcd with this is the lack <d' spots on the 
younj; Sijlriidnc, which are so marked a character in the Thrushes. 

The Kiuiilets — licnulhutc — are active and ele^^ant little birds 
of olive j^reen coloration, jiale below, and with i-ed, black, or yel- 
low (-rown. Two species and one variety are known in Canada, 
an additional sjx'cies l)ein.u,' known in the l^inted States, and about 
seven other specie-s are inhabitants of Kui'oi)e and Asia. Some 






( >r('- 
th is 

ll \V(> 


11 IV- 


• y.'l- 



l'KI{(lilN(; I5II?1)S 

of tlicsf iirc — next tn the Hiiiimiiiij;'l»ir(ls' tlic smallest rc.-itiici'cd 
(M(';itnr<'s kiinwii. 'I'lic tarsus is Wonicd. \cvy slciidcf. and Inii-^-cr 
lliaii the middle 1i>e and claw. 


( It'i fiiihis stil ni pa ) . 

This is a l)ear.tii'nl iiltle bird willi a pleasinii- soiur, and is 
I'Ciiown in all parts of Noi-tli Anieviea,. It seldom breeds snutli of 
llie (\'niadian boundary except on mountains, hui, uidess in south- 
western ()ntai-io. it is a i-esideiil in all parts where there are plenty 
• ••'evergreen eonifei's. Durinu'iuild winters it I'emains in Ontario, 
but it usually nnu'rates a shoi't distance southward, it l>uilds a 
bulky partially suspeiided nest of ^reen moss ajul all soi-ts id' 
fibrous vegetable matei-ials. lined with fine rootlets and feathers, 
'i'his it fastens jiear the end of a bi-aneh of an e\erureen. td'ten hi^'h 
in the tree. The e^'.iis tuuubi'r sometimes ten. and are er<'amv or 
j>ale iii'ayish yellow, with a few bi-own marks. The erown is red- 
dish oi-anu'e bordered with yellow and black. In the female the i-ed 
sh;ules aie abseiU. Tiie forehead and a lijie oxer the eye are whit- 
ish. A tiny feathi ;■ o\-ei- <'acli nostril. Tpper parts othei-wise 
olive u'reen; winus and tail, dusky. Lower surface iirayish or 
yellowish white. Leti^'th -I inches, extent (>i ^ or in(U-e. The i'tu-in 
found in British rojuiubia is l)y some called /»'. v. o/irdccoiis. or 
\V(stern (iohk'U-ci'owned Kinulet. and is "said to be of ;i livelier 
coloration than the abi,\-e." (Cones.) 

Iv' r BV-( Mx»( )\VX Kl) K I \(; LET 

( I}*('!/iihis ((tlouhiUi). 

The iiistribution of this bird is practically the same as that of 
the (ioldeu-Crowned Kinulet. with which it often associates. Tlie 
l?uby-er(»wn is however a brilliant unisician. his "mellow flute- 
iiko" warble boint;- of surprisinu" streui;tli and .(ualitv for such a 



m IV 



) ■! 





diminutive bird. Mis song is heard in perfection only in spring, 
usually early in May, ai.d the call note of autumn <,nves us no suj;- 
gestiou of the bird's ability as a singer. It seldom nests in south- 
ern Ontario, but docs so in Xova Scotia. The distinction between 
the birds is in the crown spot and wing bars. In this species the 
crown has a jjartly concealed rich scarlet patch, the rest of the 
upper i)arts arc greenish olixc, more yellowish on the rump. The 
wings have two whitish bars, and the under parts are a drab white. 
Length 4^ U, extent 7i/L» inches. Its nest and eggs are very similar 
to those <»t' the preceding species, 


( P(>liof)tila c(t( ridc'd). 

This is one of the birds whose northern limit i)ractically coin- 
cides with our international lx)undary. A few specimens stray 
across, but so far they must be classed as accidental visitors, except 
in southwestern Ontario. It has been taken at Montreal, Ottawa, 
Toi-onto, and London. Its home is south of the northern tier of 
states, and it breeds from the east coast to California in well-wood- 
ed districts. Its nest is one of the most ])erfect known, being deep, 
compact, contracted at the mouth, and often deeorated with lichens. 
Tlie interior is beautifully lined with dt»wn and feathers. This 
structure is usually fixed to twigs so as to be susjiended, but may 
be saddled on a high horizontal branch. The bird has a thin but 
pleasing song, and stays in the tops of tall trees. The upper parts 
of the plumage are grayish-blue, brightest on the crown, with a 
black forehand and line over the eye in the male. Under parts 
whitish, the outer tail feather is white, as are two-thirds of the 
second and the tip of the third; the others are jet black. Length 
41 ■. or more, extent 6Vi> inches. 





The marks of North Anicricaii iiicinbers of this family are, — 
hooted tarsi, 10 primaries, — tlie first si)iirious, — and win;;- dver :» 
inches \o\vj:,. This W(»nld, liowever, iiiehi(h' one hird — the Ameri- 
can l)ii){)or,— which (hies not hehtnj;' iiere. The fusion of the 
scales of the tarsus into a l)(»ot is complete only at maturity. 

The Fly-catching- Tiirushes oi- Solitaires ar<' confined to tropi- 
cal America except one : — 


(Mijiadcstcs toivnscndi). 

The Kocky Mountain region f]«om New Mexico and California 
to Alaska is the home and hi'eeding ground of this interesting and 
remarkable singer. Jt feeds on insects during the summer, and on 
fruit in the cold weather. Its nest and eggs have been taken near 
Banff, the nest built on tlie ground usually on the side of a bank. 
Eggs three to six, bluish, speckled with reddish brown. The 
plumage in general is brownish gray, paler below, especially on 
the throat, belly, and crissum. Wings and tail blackish,- the former 
with a tawny spot and blackish bar ; the tail with white on the outer 
feathere. A white ring around the eye. Length alM)ut S inches. 



Many species of Thrush are known, and they are found in all 
parts of the world, being especially well represented in tropical 
America. Six species with several varieties reach Canada, while 
about twelve species are known in the United States, All are in- 
sect and fruit eating birds, inhabiting wooded regions, and travel- 
ling in flocks during migration. The young are streaked and spot- 



ted in tlicir first feathers, liiit s»miii Wecoine like the parents. For 
sweetness of voice and expression these birds tieenpy the firsl 
jdaee, althongh others may excel in brilliance and power. The 
Nij;htin^ale of Enrope beh>n|;j;s to the same f>n)np. At present this 
gronp, including; the Blnebirds, is j)laced at the head of the divi- 
sion of animal life known as birds, Thev are believed to represent 
the hiy' point in bird structure, althouyh this is o})en to (jues- 


( II ylorirhUi niiislt h'lui). 

The Wood Thrush winters in (Vntral America and ranges 
over the eastern United States and southern Ontario. It breeds 
as far north as Georgian Bay, l)uilding a firm cuplike nest, similar 
to that of the ^Vmerican l\obiii, and phicing it usually within ten 
feet of the ground, often in a young broad leafed tree. The eggs, 
usually four, are light greenish blue. The note of the Wood Thrush 
is significant of peace and rest, and while too short to be properly 
designated a song, it is one of the most pleasing and satisfying of 
Nature's evening voices. The markings of the Wood Thrush are 
more i-eadily distinguished than those of any other of his retiring 
and forest loving family. The ui)i)er surface is yellowish brown, 
brightest on the head, shading to olive brown on the rump and tail ; 
a light ring around the eye; under ]>arts white, thickly marked 
with large round blackish spots, except the throat and middle of 
the belly. Length about H inches, extent about 13. 


( Hylocich la fii.sccHce n s ) , 

The eastern United States, the maritime provinces, Quebec 
and Ontario are the range of the V^eery. Ft goes further north 
than the Wood Thrush and is also a much more common resident 



in eastern Ontario. It places its nest on the ground or near it, 
on a bush or stmnj), ninkinj:; it of grass and weed stems, hark and 
other tihrous materials, but with little nuid. The eggs are similar 
to those of the Wood Thrush. The song of The Veery cannot well 
be described. "All the wondrous my.sterit's of the woods find a 
voice in the song of this biid; he thrills us with emotion we cannot 
oxi)ress." The upper plumage is uniform reddish brown. No 
light ring around the eye. IJreast and throat washed with brown- 
ish yellow. Lower breast and belly white, sides grayish or olive. 
Chin and middle line nearly white, and unspotted, while indistinct 
brownish spots mark the throat and Jugulum. Length 7 to TVii 
inches, extent about 12. 

From Manitoba to the (Wst Uange t»f British Oolund)ia in 
all well wooded places the Willow Thrush, — //. /. salicicola, — is 
found. The upper surface is less yellow, more olive, the lower 
less yellow also, than in the type, with few^ or no spots back of the 
dusky breast. 



{Hylot'ichla alieiac). 

Range, 'i^astern North America, breeding in Labrador, 
about Hudson Bay, in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, about (Jreat Slave 
Lake, ..nd to the mouth of the Mackenize Rivei". Rarely noted in 
Ontario excei)t by a few skilled observers. It is a shy bird, diffi- 
cult to distinguish. Its nest is placed usually in low trees or 
bushes, -md sometimes on the ground. The eggs are greenish blue 
sj)eckled with brown. 

The upper parts are uniform olive, no buff around the eye. 
Middle of throat and belly white, sides of throat and breast may 
have a faint wash of creamy buff, and "with wedgeshaped dark 
marks on the throat, and half-round spots on the sides of breast." 
Length about 734, extent about 13 inches. 


•■ { 



{Hylocichla aliciac hickncUi). 
This is a smallor and l)i'i<(htc'i- variety of Alice's Thrush. 


belongs to the White Mountains and Xov; Scotia, nesting near the 
mountiun-tops in scrubby evergreens. 



The range of the Russet-backed Thrush is the Pacific coast 
from Central America lo Alaska, nesting abundantly in British 

Upper surface russet olive, as in the Willow Thrush. A buff 
ring around the eye. The breast and throat are thickly marked 
with dark olive spots, which extend back of the buff area of the 
breast. Sides shaded with olive gray. Length T'y^, extent 12 to 
121/2 inches. 

(Hylocichla guttata). 

This is the Hermit Thrush of the west coast, especially of 
Alaska and northern British Columbia. The more southern 
part of British Columbia has the variety auduhoni — Audubon's 
Hermit Thrush, while the Eastern Hermit Thrush or Swamp 
Angel, is the variety pallasi. As the latter is the best known we 
shall notice its characters and the differences among the varieties. 
This is the commonest thrush in many parts of the east and is 
found in woodlands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and 
British Columbia. This bird winters from the latitude of New 
Jersey southward, and nests from Massachusetts and Michigan 
northward to the latitude of Lesser Slave Lake. It comes to us 
in southern Ontario soon after the snow disappears, and remains 



till lale t.ill. Tlic'ir Umd is pn.halily Inr-cly -atlu'ird from the 
.ground, as we usually see them t'lyiu.u; up frcm the -round as we 
approach the thickets in which they make their homes. While not 
a timid l.ii d, the Hermit Thrush prefers to live in secluded idaecs, 
and is deeidedly averse to beiii^- eonspieuous. 

Its son-'- is" plaee<l hy many at the very top of the eatalo-ue of 
Amerieaii bird nmsie because of its sweetness of tone. It builds 
iisuallv on the ,ui'ouiul a nest of moss, leaves, and j-fass, lined with 
fine rootlets, and soir.etimes leaves of conifers. The site of the 
nest is nsuallv verv secluded, a dense shnibl)y thicket far from the 
hauiits of meii. boys, or doL-'s. The jdmna-e of the upper surface is 
olive brown, beniniif.t;- reddish l)rown on the rump and tail. Tliroat 
and breast tinj-ed with Iniff. middle <d' the belly white, sides of the 
throat with wedoo-shaped black spots, the breast with rounded 
spots : sides l)rownish gray. Length al)out 7 inches, extent about 

The variety known as Audubon's Thrush is a little larger, 
reacliing seven iind three-quarter inches in length. The l)ack is in- 
clined to be olive gray instead of brown and the tail not so bright. 
The Kadiak Hermit Thrush is smaller, scarcely seven inches long, 
the colors being the same as those of the eastern form. 

I ii 


ilhflociclila Hsfidttid sirainsoni). 

This is the eastern variety of ustuluta, and breeds mostly in 
Oanada and Alaska. Its western limit is the Coast Range of Brit- 
ish (N)lumbia. while it is common in the maritime provinces and 
Xew Enuland. It is said to spend the winter in the West Indies 
and South America. Its eye ring and ears are buffy yellow and 
iis upper surface lacks russet, teing a uniform oL -^ceous; the 
lower surface is white with brownish gray on the sides. The fore 
j.arts except the throat are marked with many large dusky spots; 








the sides of t\\v throat with wi'dj-L'-shaiiod hlack feather tips. 
Length about 7, extent 12 to 12'/-^ inches. 


{Mcnila migi'dlomi). 

Our liobin ranj-es over Nortli America at lar^;e except the ex- 
treme northern phiins and tlie western part of Mexico. The form 
in the Roci<y Mountains and I'aeific slope re^'ions is perhaps 
slifi-htly laryer, hut otherwise is praeticallv icU'Utieal with the tyi»e. 
No otiier bird is better known or hived tiian this dieerful Red- 
breasted Thrusli, sini-inj*- vocifentusly under ehei'rU'ss .March skies 
before the snow 1ms disappeared, stayin.y- with us till it comes 
again, and in southern Ontario, not infrequently all winter long, 
iji the vicinity of <lense cxx'igreen swamjts. It is known lo rai^' its 
young from near the border (d* Mexico t(» the Arctic Ocean in 
Alaska, and under favorable circumstances four broods in a sea- 
son. The nest is half grass, leaves, twigs and hair, held together 
and lined with clay. It is a fairly deej) cup, and the eggs— usually 
four or five, — are greenish blue, usually plain, but occasionally 
having brownish markings. The deep chestmit i-eddisli <d* the 
under parts exce])t the throat, is a sufficient mark of identilica- 
tion. Tlie female is less bright, and both in the fall li.-vc whitish 
tips on the reddish feathers. The young birds are for a short time 
after leaving the nest s]iotted and streaked with black. Length 
from 9Vl' to 10 inches, extent 16. 


( Ilfi.speroriclihi xacvia). 

This thrush ranges from Mexico to Alaska, being (|uite com- 
mon throughout western Ri-itish Uohnnbia. The ui)])er plumage 
is dai'k slate color, wmgs and tail blackish or i)lackish olive, two 
wing bars of orang( browni. The sanu' (U-ange forms a stripe be- 


. n 


I'.i iKiuun. M/.-. 



hind the eye, and covers the nnder parts to the lower belly, where 
it fades to whitish. The breast is crossed by a broad l)lack band 
whieh extends ui»\vard round the orange brown on the sides of the 
neek and head. Th<' female is more olivaeeous above, and duller 
l)(.],,w,— rusty rather than oranu'e ))r<»wn. Lenijth about })-'V| 
in<'hes. extent about !(> inehes. Very rarely a si)ecimen of this 
thrush \van(h'rs to tlu' eastern I'nited States. 


( Sd.ricola oounitlic). 

The stone-chats are birds of Europe. A .a, and Africa, and 
this can be cdusidered nu rely as a circumiM'lar v>,!nderei- which 
(.ceasionally mi,urat<'s soutliward throuu-h Canada. It possibly 
breeds in northern Labrador and (Jreenlaud. A few specimens 
have 'oeen taken in Ontario, l^)uel)ec, autl New Brunswick. It 
nests in holes in the juround or crevices in rocks, iayiny; ;4reenish 
blue unsiiotted e,uj>s. The adult male is ashy j^ray, with a. white 
line over the eyes and jicross the forehead, and the under parts 
white or washed with (Uisky. IJump white: winj>s and end of tail 
b];)ek, but m(«ie than one iialf the upper portion of the tail feathers 
white. Female brownish ,!;i'ay. Lenuth alxiut (»' •> inehes, extent 
alioiit V2 iiiclies. Sonu pleasiuL!,' and somewhat imitative. 


{Si alia xi(tlis). 

Krom Newfoundland to eastern Manitoba, and from the 
.southern States to Hudson J^ay is the ran.ue of our common Blue- 
bird. It is not nearly so plentiful in the maritime provinces as 
in western (Quebec and Ontario, where it is abundant. Like the 
Hobin it enjoys the conditions of auricullure, ami prefers hollow 
rails and jjost.s, a woodpecker's excavjition in a tele;;raph pole, or 
a )»ox or birdhonse. to the hoUow tree t>f remote woodlands. 1'iie 


1 1 



}^cii*(leii, orchard, and farm uut-biiildiiii;s are favorite breeding 
gi'ounds. It is welcome everywhere, and in sprinsif its early, sweet, 
plaintive call is the essence of loving, gentle cheerfulness. "Pnr- 
i-ty, pur-i-ty" is its admonition, given in the spring with joy- 
fulness, and in autumn with sadness. 

The egps are jiale blue. The upper parts, — head, wings, and 
tail are bright blue. The throat, breast, and side? of the body are 
reddish chestnut, beliy ai:d crissum whitish. 

The female has a brownish cast over the blue of tiio l)ack, 
while the under parts are rust^'-brown. Length about 7 inches, 
extent about 121/^ inches. 


(Sialia mcricuna occidentnUa) . 
In southern British Columbia and southward to New Alexico 
this bluebird is common, fts habits, nest and eggs are very simi- 
lar to those of "he eastern form. The rich blue of the back, wings, 
and tail, also includes the head and neck all around. On the upper 
back is a ])arch or two patches of bright chestnut. The breast and 
sides are chestnut, the belly and crissum are l)luish. There seems 
to be either hybrids or intergrading forms between these blue- 
birds. Ijcngth and extent same as the last, 


(Sialia arctica). 
From western Manitoba to the Pacific Coast especially 
thntughout the mountain region, and from Alaska to Mexico this 
is a conunon bird. Its nest and habits are the same, but its eggs 
are larger than those of the eastern bluebird. The upper plumage 
is a palei- azure blue than that of the other species, and at times 
has a gi'e(>nish shade. Below, the surface is a pale greenish-blue, 
fadii'.g into wiiite on the lower belly and crissum. Length 7 inches 
or more, and extent 13 or more. 




^\^ticM . . .l..'>n o,- hatched in an immature, n.iflodpjed, 

'*'^' luMi.lcss c.ndition, and ro- ninns protrctum 

;mh1 f'p<.d from the parents f(.r some time. 
A,n/,(1afed I'-'vinc? a Hinn-e in direetion in tlie <M.nnnis- 

siire (see lielnw). 

\rhorcnl living' in trees or shrubs. . . ^^ ^ 

Bend of u-imj the nn..l,. fornud wheTi tlu> wm- is to ded 

Booed. . . Imvino. tl,e seal* . of the tarsus fused into a unmarked cnverino- as in th.e robin. 

Bristle m stiff hair. „ , , ^ i.i 

Celr . tieshv .,r skinli'e eoverin- of the base of t he 

l,ill in portain birds, cspeeially the hawks 

and owls. 

Ce rclatinu' to the neck. 

(yj, tl)c si)aee b(>tw(>en the two branches ot the 

Idwcr ))ill or jaw. 
Commissure tlie line on whicli the mandibles <.f a bird are 


Compressed flattened sidevvise. . , . ,. .,, .. 

Cou/rostral bavin- the beak corneal m form with the 

commissure aimnlated. 
Coverts . . .small feathers hidint,- the bases of the .|iiills. 
fy,.ggf; Ici'.tithened feathers about the top of the 


Crissum under tail coverts. 

Crop an enlarsemeut of the gullet of bird. 

Culmni the middle lino or i-idire of the upper man- 

dible of a bird's bill. 

Deciduous fallinu' off after a season, temporary. 

Decurved curved downward. 

Dentate with toothlike notches or plates. 

Depressed .' . tlattemd from above and below. 

Depth di;',meter in a vertical direction. 

Bistal '.'. the (>nd furthest from the i)oint of attach- 




Ecological (U'peiident on suirouiiding cdiiditioiis. 

hmarf/iriafc liaviiij,' .1 portion cut out, resulting in the 

.ihrupt n.-uTowing of quill feathers, and the 
. sliglit forking of the tail. 

Lnctilc ;|i,](. to ])(> raised or erected. 

^/'^'^^ I)( longi 'g to tlie face or front of the skull. 

tuivitti long, r.iicrow and curved like a sickle. 

tism-ostml having tlie hill deeply ch'ft. heyond the base 

of the lioruy ]»art, as in tlie swallows and 

Furcate forked, having the lateral tail feati.ers long- 

ci' than tlie middle ones. 

' -'/'^ the opening of the luouth. 

Oomj.s the middle lin*^ of the lower surface of the 

lower mandible in birds. 
Oorget the throat i»atch of peculiar feathers, not- 

ahlc in the luunmingbirds. 
Graduated Itccoming progressively longer fron the out- 
er toward the central, as in the tail feathers 

of the magpie. 

\^iV hclonging to the throat or upper fore-neck. 

^Jf'^V'J in hirds,— the hind toe. 

Uyout belonging to the tongue. 

imbricate overlapping like shiiigles on a roof. 

imperforate „ot i)ierced through. 

J_^W»liim x\\v lower throat. 

^"'"^''"^' plate-like ])rocesses like tliose inside the bill 

, ,,. of a duck, 

l^ametf, rostral i,.,,.i„„. p]atc-like or tooth-like projections 

T- . , along tlie edge of the bill, as in ducks. 

Yy''''' toward or on the side. 

furnished with membranous flaps, as the 

_ toes of the coots and grebes 

i^r^*'^'" the space between the eve and the bill. 

■J/'/''' the back of the neck. 

^"'^ff ' relating to the nostrils. 

'^^^'"'i i)ertaiuing to the nape or the back of the 




Obscure ... scarcely visible. 

Obsolete scarcely to be found. 

nhtu<ip . . .blunt. „ ,, , , 

Om>7fl?' .helonsin- to the l)ack of the head. 

Ocellate with eye-like spots. 

Palmate ' • • .having- webs between the toes. 

PcH nto l^-^^'"^' '• '''^' *'** ^^^'">' ^''^'"*' ^^^""^ ^ 

as the toes <.f the orouse in winter. 

Perforate pierced throni?h. 

Pifjment coloring matter. 

Pimnbeoiis lead colored. 

Pohiqamous unitint;- ith more than one female. 

Precocial al>le to run and feed themselves as soon as 

Primary one of the nine or ten longest stiff quills ot 

a bird's wing. 
Pn'man/ wing rov^r^.^.the coverts overlying the primaries. 

Punctate . . " dotted with small spots or points. 

Quadrate nearly S(|uare. „ ., • i.„;i 

^,,,7/ ,)iio of the stiff feathers of the wmg or tail 

of a bird. 

Rachis the shaft of a feather. 

Reticulate marked or divided by a network of lines. 

Retractile able to be drawn inward, as the claws ot a 

cat an(. >f some birds. 

Rctrorsc turned backward. 

Rictal lu'longing to the gape of the mouth. 

Rnstrai l)elonging to the beak or snout. 

Rudimentary uudevelo])ed. 

Euff ' a collar t>f modified feathers. 

Scapular relating to the shoulder. 

Scntellate having broad shield-like plates regularly ar- 
ranged, as on the tarsus of certain birds. 

Secondaries the shorter quills growing on the inner part 

of the wing. 

Semi palmate half-webbed, toes connected at the base by 

a wel). 



1^ ( 


Septum a i)nrtition. 

Serrate notched like a saw. 

Shaft tlio axis of a feather. 

Speculum a s])eeial colored area on the flisjht feathers 

(if many kinds of ducks. 

Sternum the breast bone. 

Snhnhite awl-shaped. 

Supra-orbital above the 

Sjjiulactyle l\:!vii!<i; two toes welded tojjjether for some 

distance as in the kinirfishers. 
Tar.sus tl'c ankle bones, — or the shank bone between 

the til)ia and the toes. 

Tarsi ]tlural of tarsus. 

Terete cvlindrical. 

Terminal at the end. 

Tihia the bone above and jointed to the tarsus. 

Tominm the cuttinoj edire of the bill. 

Torsi plural of tarsus. 

Toti palmate havinj; all four toes connected by webs. 

Transverse crosswise. 

Truncate cut squarely off, abrupt. 

Ventral pertaining to the abdomen. 

Versatile capable of being turned either way. 

Zygodactyle liaving the toes in pairs, two in front and 

two behind. 



















-SL* ^ 



Aca(lian Shar|>t;iiU>i| KiiKli, 208 

Acanthia linaria nistrutu, 198. 

.Iraiithi^, 1ST. 

.lcn)ithii hnnii imiiui ii.rihi>< 

AranthU limirio, 197. 

.Iccipitf, H. 

Jrcipitnx, 114115. 

<'ooppr's IFawk, II.') 120. 
(iiwhawk, n.")120. 
Sharp-shiniiod, 11.' 119. 
.Icciintir alricai>illiiK, 120. 
Airipittr cooiuii. 120. 
Jccipittr rt'/ox, 119. 
Aftitix macula rill, 90. 
Actodroinas, 75. 
Arfhm<>i>liorii.'. itri-iihittuliA. 11. 
Aegialitit, 76. 
Aipialitin mdoda, 95. 
.1. iiulaiioccphnia, 90. 
A. miloila ririKiniiiitta, O.^i. 
Acflialitix nnnipalmiiia, 95. 
Affiiulitis rofifira. 94. 
.IcsJiid, 244-216. 
Atjelaius phornicu.i. 180. 
.I'ljr. 40. 

liji spoiisii, 47. 
Alaiida, 169. 
.lJaH(JiVJ(r, 8. 

.Vla.«k!in .Tay, 171. 

.Maskau Siimtiipr Warbler, 252. 

.\Iaskan Thrcc-tucil Woodppi-krr 

.Vlbatrossos, 2-4-:{2. 

Albatross, Short-tailc'l, 32. 

Alca torda, 19. 

Alcidiiiid(t, 7. 
Ih-idi'. :!-16. 

AldeJ Flvcirfhii. 168. 

Alieo's Thrush, 291-2!t2. 

AUe allc, 20. 

Allen's Humminghonl, 161. 

Allen's Ptarmig-an, 104. 

Aleutian Lcvcostirte, Brant's Hosv Fi 

Alpine Three-toed Woodpec«er, 149. 

American .\vocet, 78. Bittern, 63. 

.Vnierican Barn Owl, 132. 

American Black Tern, 31. 

.\meriean Crossbill, 194. 

American Coot, Water Hen, Crow Duck 



. 73. 

.Vmi'ricaH Crmv, 175. 

.\merican Dipper, 271-272. 

.Viiicrii-an K:irci| (irobe, 13. 

.\nicri<-an Kidef, 54. 

AincriiMii (inldt'ii Kye, WhintliT, 51. 

Auii'riiMii (ii>ldcn I'lover, 93. 

American GoUlfiinch, 187 l!t.'>198. 

Aiiii'ricaii (iosliawk, 11.~>'120. 

American Green Sandpiper, 88. 

American Hawk Owl, 141. 

.Vmi'ric-an Herring; (iull, 27. 

.Vmerican Kestrel Sparrow Hawk, 131. 

Anicrican Lonjj-eared Owl, 133. 

American .Magpie, 171. 

.Viiiericaii Merganser, (ioosander. Shell- 
drake," 42. 

Anicrican I'ipit, 270. 

Aincrii-aTi I'ocliarcl. Kvilheiul, 48. 

American Redstart, 269. 

Aiiiericaii b'oliin, 294. 

American l{oiigh-l('jr)jeil Hawk, 11()-124. 

.\merican Scoter, 55. 

American Three-toed Woodpecker, 149. 

.Vmi'rican White-fronted (ioose, 58. 

American Wiiite Pelican, 39. 

Amerii'aii Wiiljreon, Biildpate, 45. 

American Woodcock, 78-79. 

Ami. 143. 

A iiuiiuiiruiuus, IMS. 

Ammodiamii.t lit iikIoiiH. 206. 

Aiiiiiitiilraiinis liciiiitci, 207. 

Ammiidramux nelsoni, 207. 

AminiHlriimun muannariim pn.incrinus. 205. 

Ampi hdir, i>-233. 

Ampclis ridronim, 235. 

Ampilix iiarriiUix, 234. 

A nan, 41. 

Allan hoschan, 44. 

Ana.% obsriira, 44. 

Aiialida. 40-41-61). 

Anatiiiir, .5-40-43. 

Anorthiira, 273. 

Anorthura hiemalis, 276. 

Aiisir alhifrons gambeli. 58. 

Aii-ytrin, 2-5-40-.')7-60. 

Aiixtriiiir, 't. 

.\nthony V'ireo, 242. 

Aiithus pi iiiixylianii'u/i. 270. 

Anthus spraguei, 271. 

Antrostomus caroUnensis, 155. 



""" I 

I i 



Aiil rDsloiiiiix I oii/'frim, 166. 

Al'lirizida , ti. 

Aiinihi lUriiMiliix, 125. 

Arthihiilio li rn:iiii!i.iix, 124. 

,lr( luhiihii liiiioi>iin siiiiili-jiihniiiii.s, 124. 

Arctic) Horned Oh I, 139. 

Aretii- Moiuitiiin Hliicliir.J, 296. 

Art-tic Uwlt, l';{4. 

Arctio Tt»ri;. 31. 

Arctic! 'Ilirt'e-tocl WoDiljicckiT, 148. 

Aretiii 'roHlici'. 223. 

Ardea In rniliiin. 64. 

AnUiilir, ,)-62. 

Ardrttta txilis, 63. 

.Ininiriii iiiti i/ins, 96. 

.1. HK IttlliiCi idlllht. 96. 

A. moiiiiilUi, 96. 

Aripiulilla, 75. 

Artriui.siti, L':.'tJ. 

Artificial Key to Orders ani( ^'aIllilie^^, 3. 

Artificial Key to Species of Canadian rniile 
Dendriiic:!', in any pkim.tgc, 244. 

Artificial Kcv to the (iencra of ( 'aii.adiaii 
Warl.lcis, 244. 

Asia acripitriitiiit, 133. 

Asia, 133. 

A8tra<iaUiui.t, 1S7. 

Astnijiuliiiiis Iri.sti.'i, 198. 

Asyiidvxniiiy ttinniatus, 162. 

Atlantic Herrin;; Gull, 24. 

Atlantic Kifti^vakc U':i-25. 

.\udub.)n"s Hermit Thnisli. 292. 

.Vitdiilion's Tlirii«h. 20;(. 

AudiiKon''* Warbler, 253. 

Aiikn. 2 .1-11 1619 20. 

Auk, Great, 20. 

Littli- A'lk, Dovikie. 20. 
Razorliilled. 19. 

Avocets, 74-77-78. 

Aytlvia. A\. , 

.Viiioric:iii .Vviii-et. Hhie Stockinj;. 78. 

Ajlthiiii unit riitina, 48. 

Aylhiia coUaris, 50. 
Aythya marila, 49. 
Aythya valltni ria, 49. 
Azure Warbler. 256. 
Baircl's Snndi)iper. 84. 
Baird's Sparrow. 205. 
Bald Eagle, 113-125-126. 
Baldpate, 45. 
Baltimore Oriole, 183-184. 
Bank Swallow, 232-23:!. 
Barnacle Goose, 60. 
Barn Owls. 2-7-132. 
Barn Swallow, 230. 
Barred Owl, 134. 
Barrow's Golden-eye, 61. 


.Nelson 's Sharp- 

parts, :!()l. 

lull I rii mill. ",'(!. 
Hi: il III milt liiiifiicauda, 90. 
Bartramiari S'indpi;pi'r, 90. 
Haiilu'Mif Ddrtiiy Woodpecker, 148. 
Bay-breasfe I Warhlcr, 235. 
Beach and (irassliopper Sparrows, 20S. 
<iras-.n'i|i(irr. 205. 
Ilen-lm\ ■«, 206. 
I.ark. 208. 
l.e,(ii;iii '-i. 207. 
Nelson's S[>;in-ii\\ ,11' 
tailed Finch, 207. 
Melted Kiri.,'lisli,.r, 145. 
Belted Pipiii;; I'luvci'. li.'i. 
Pewick Wren. 275. 
Bicknell's Tlirnsli, 292. 
Bird l)rawi:';j, <hinvin;; 
Birds of Prey, 2-7-112. 
Cuckoo:<, 143. 
Kajrles, 118. 
Goatsiicker"^, 154. 
Ifawk'. 118. 
Ifiininiinjliirds. 159. 
Kingfishers, 145, 
Owls. 132. 
><.vif(.', 157. 
Viilfnrcs, 116. 
Woodpeckers. 146. 
Bittern. 2.T 62. 
American. 63. 
T^east. e^ 
niai-k Brant lO. 
Black-hackeci .nil, 24-26. 
Black-backed Woodpecker, 14S. 
Black-hellied Plover or Bull-head Plover. 

Blnck-I)illed Cuckoo, 143-144. 
niackl.irds. 2-S-177186. 
Brewer's. 186. 

Crow nr Bronzed Grackle. 185. 
Ked-winj;. 180. 
Knstv Crackle. 184. 
Yellow-headed, 179. 
Black-breasted Longspur, 188-202. 
Blackburnian Warbler. 257. 
Black Cap, 268. 

Black-chinned Hnmminsbird, 160. 
Black-crowned Night Heron, 66. 
Black Duck, Dusky Mallard, 44. 
Black and White Warbler, 246. 
Black and Yellow Wnrbler, \fagnolia. 264. 
Black nnillemot, 18. 
Black-headed Grosbeak, 191. 
Rlack-headed Jay, 173. 
Black .Terfalcon. 129. 
Black Marlin, 130. 
Black Ovster-catcher, 96. 



Avcii'et. 78. 

Hlaikpoll Wnrbler. 256. 
I'.liick Kail, 71. 
Black Swift. 158. 
Black Soa cot, r,'}. 
Black-throatod Blue Warbler. 253. 
Black-throateil Buntini;. Uiikcix-ol, 225. 
Hlackthroato.l dray Warlilcr. 258. 
Blac'k-tliroatiMl lircen Warbler. 268 259. 
Black-throated Loon, 16. 
BlackvciitiMl Shearwater, 34. 
Ftlack Vulture, 117. 
Bleached Yclluw-wiin;, -•'"'■ 
Illm-liill, (IreatiT .Scaup Duck, 49. 
Bluobird.s, lo- IT'.i 21tO-295 296. 
■Vri'tic, Mdiiiiliiin. 296. 
Mexican. Tciwii-i'Mil 's, 296. 
Bliiii Darters. U!*. 
Hliui (ionso, 58. 
BUu! (irav Onatcatcher, 288. 
Blue, Dusky or S.i.'ty C.n.ii-e, 100. 
Bhio-hoaded Vireo. 242. 
MUui .Tay, 171-172. 
n\\u< Stocking', .VniiTJcaii 
Blue-winfjed Teal, 46. 
Bluo Yellow-backed, or 

Wlarbii r, 250. 
Boatswain, 22. 
Bobolink, 177-l"<l-22(i. 
B<)b-Whit.>, 98. ,.,. 

Bolu-miau Waxwiii;: «r Chatterer, 2Si:.<.> 
BoM-ipar!e--i (iull. 2:'.-29. 
Honiisii iimbiUit iomtta. 101. 
Booby, :U). 

Hotiinr.H hiit.ft'iwsuf, 63. 
Brant, 60. 

Black, 60. 
Hroiita ()i ri'ichi. 60. 
lUdnta ftiii(id<-i.-ii, 59. 
lirniitd ronadtiisis hutchii.^i, 59. 
Brant Ooo^e. Barnacle (i'o-e. 60. 
Branta niqruaiiK. 60. 
Brant,'<i Hosv Finch, .Mciiti.-ni l.eiiro-;ti 

Brewer's Blackldrd. 186. 
lirewerN Sparrow, 214. 
British Cuckoo, 14:'..'cd Hawk, llfi-123. 
Bron/.od firackle. Crow B^nkbird. 185. 
Brown Crcoper, 281. 
Brown .Trrfalcon, 128. 
Brown Marlin, Marbled Godwit. 86. 
Brown Dclican, 39. 
Brown Thrasher, 278. 
Brunnich's Murre, Thick-biUe.l •.uiUomot, 
Bubo, 139. 
Bubortidce, 3-7. 
Bubo virginianus, 138. 
Buff-breasted Sandpiper, 91. 

BiiiJU'-hrud, Butter ball. 52. 

Bullock's Oriole, 184. 

Bull of the Boi:. <i-. ,, ^„ 

Buntinns, 17'.t 1^!" I'.H' 200 221 224 225 226. 

Toweo BuutiuK8, 221. 
.\ relic, 223. 
Oregon. 222. 
Spurred, 223. 
Towheo or Clieewiiik, 222. 
I'aiiiteil I'Miclie-i, 224. 

[i:ditfo Bunting, Indi^to Bird, 224, 
Lazuli Bunt in;-, 225. 
ISur^'oMiastiT, I.e, or (ilaucous (iull, '.\ io- 
Burrowin;; Owl, 142. 

Bulclier Bird, Norllieru Shrike, 236 2:17 
BuliuH. :; Ib'.-IH 116. 

American Kou^'h lenijed Hawk, 116-124. 
Broad »intf Hawk, 116-123. 
Wed-«l,oullered Hawk, 1 ltil22-123. 
Hcltaili'd Hawk, 1 lt512112:t. 
Kusty Kou(;li-h"_'ired Hawk, 116-124. 
Swaiuson's Hawk. 116-122. 
Biiho IxiniiliA, 121. 
Bull II liiunldf, 122. 
la Biil'ii jiliiiiiili Ids liili.'siiiiiis, 123. 
But CO suaiii.ioni 122. 
Biiloridi ■•!, iirisci iig, 66. 
Butter-ball. ButU.-hcad. 52. 
Buzzards, :M1J11h. 
t ackliu;; (ioos«>. 59. 
('iilililii.< iin nil rill, 86. 
Calaveras Warbler, 24i>. 
Ciiliimosiiini nil hiiiociiriin, 
( alearius. l^s. 
i'oUariiiK liiiiiiiiniiii". 200. 
Cnlrariiis oiiiiitus, 202. 
I'lilrariiis ;>(( 'I'.v. 201. 
Calliopo liuiuuiiii:;biril, 161. 
< anada Goose, 59-61. 
Canada <iro,i.e. S|.r;iee Barrnd-e, 100. 
Canada .Tay, S!l. 173-174. 
te Canadian SprM-e c.r.mse. lOOlul. 
Canadian Warbhr. 269. 
Canary, 2.01. 
Citiiliiiiii--< hi>riiiU.<. 165. 
CdiitniiiiK rirliiirilxoiii. 166. 
Caiitopu» VIII IIS. 166. 
Canvas-back, White-back. 49. 
Capo May Warbler. 251. 
Caiirimubiida-, 8. 
Cardinal Bird, 190. 
Cardinal Grosbeak, 186-190. 
Cnriliiialis. 186. 
19 CnrdinaVs ciirdimdii, 190. 
Carolina Rail, Sora, 70. 
Carolina Wren. 274. 
Carpodacus, 188. 
Carpndanis pvrprirfux. H^'i. 



, "a 1 






• 'iirri.m Crow, 1 1 ;, 
(':iHpi»ii Tern, 30. 
Oa«»in's Purpli' Kirn-h. IH.'! 

• .■nVniN \"iriMi. Jli'. 
('.illiir.l, 111 I'l;:;-:.',',; •^:-^ •_';!» 280 
Citlhiinula iiruha, 117, 
Colhiirtin iiiira, 118. 
('afhltrllllif, ,17. 
CalhtirliitiH, 111'. 

Cnt Owl, (iro:it l|.>niis| ');,;. iag, 
<V(liir Hir.l, or ( hi-irv I', nl. 23C L' " 

rrnjlhU)"' f.lhilh'S nil', I ■■1,1,1, 101, 

l'il>l)liii.: iiri/ll,-, 18. 

Criliiii liniiiliiiris. 2H]. 

<'.f. rno!i!:iii:i, 'JMl. 

< '.t. ocriili ,iliili\, ■_'■» I . 

Cirlhiulii-. 280. 

<'i iitriii; I)-- iii',),!,,,,^,,!,,,!., 107. 

'■prillcri!! Willi. !ir, .\/iir> WnrMcr. 

Chit turn I'l liiiii,,:. 157 

Chnliim iiiii.rii. |."S. 

ChariKhiiihr, li 7(1. 

Chiirnilriii.'i ,hiii>iiii,-ii^, 93. 

Chariiilriiit, 7fl. 

Cliiiridiii till, il. 

Chat-, 267 295. 

< 'trittiTcr, I! 'h -irMii W.i \ .. ■ ii^'. 234, 

CUiuili liisiiiii- 


Chefiwink, nr 

riiiTrv Hinl, 'V,|ir I'.jnl .r i ,. i.., 

r/)( (I fit nih .si; 
(III n liiipi rl,i,i 
('hen rnn.ii, 58. 

nicxtriiit tiai'kcl ' liic-kii.l'-', :'Mi. 
rii('stMii;-i-i)ll;iriMl l,on;,'*|Mir. 202 
I'liritMiit-M h'.l rlrck'i.lo,.. 28(5. 
ClM"';iui!-sii|pil Wiirlilor. 250. 
"'liick.-iiliM', 2Si; 284 L'S.-i-L'SC). 

irii.N'iir iM, 2».'">. 

!.on;r-t.iiloi). 285, 

Wo-ftcrn nr Oregon, 285. 

NTomitiiiii or (!:i!iili ! '-. 285. 

Olioslniit-backol, 286. 
riiirnney Swiillow, 157, 
''hitiinpv Switt. 157. 




II, rns, U 

II w 




ir 1! 

inl ■. 




I liipjiitii; Sii'irrmv^ 

RrpnorV, 214. 

rhippin-;. IT.iir Hir.!. 212. 

Clay-colorp.I, 213, 

PipM. 214. 

Trcf, Wii'icr rhippv. 212, 

Wp.^tern, 213. 
I hippy, 213. 
Clmnihstm, ISS. 
Chovilrsli X iirnmnuifiix, 205. 

|li.->-]S!l-20:! 211 JM- 

CUniii, iti.i ririi.iitinuK, l')b 

rliiickwiirs Ui. .. 155 

Ciiirh.l.r. 271. 

i'hirtii.i nil .riftti, II*, '^7'J,. 

I inimiiiii'i H)lit^irN Siitiilpjp. >-, -d. 

t'liiii.i, :\, 

Cirfun liiiilxiiiii, 1, 118. 

I 'istiitliiirii ■. L'? . 

Cl.lliithiiins shlllir,.s, 277. 
''l:iiijr,||:i. 11 r,o 
Clihiiinlit illi, 1,1,1, 52. 
I'liiiiiinhi ,1,11, rii II:',,, ,51. 
I'litiiiinlii ixliiiiil III. 51. 
''I;irk'-i Cr r,v. il.-irk'i Niili-r i k^r IT 
I l;i-i-ii(iriitii>ii .it' W'tA-'. 1. 
I.:iii.| MirN. 6. 

Hinls nf I'l -v, J 7 111 I i:'. 1 H. 

K.-irtli-HiT'iN'liiii;; Hir.l-, G 

(iii-it-iiirkcrs, Suifts nil. I liiiiiiii'' 

Pcr.liiiii: Hii.N. 8. 

Pit;. HI, ;|t|.l |)|,\|. , ti. 

W.ii.r liir.N 3. 
Divinu Hir.Ii. 3. 
r.fiMirIlirii>;lr:il Su i'lincr-. ""i. 
l.iiMi; u Irii^r,.,! Su i |.;r!cr-. !. 
\r;irtli I'.ir '-. ,5, 
Slion. Bir.N, 6. 
T.iiipiihiiiifi'il Swiiiiiiim. < 
Tuln'-im^i'il ^i\ iMiiiiir-. I 


il(irf| S 


■ ■. v.n 

I'HIT Su,i!lmv. 230 -1 
I 'ifriilliniii.' Il .'■ II .\ii, 
roi'i'ysrpy, L' 7143, 
r'ocri/ri/.^ iiiiu rii iviis, 14}. 
t' I nilliniiilitliiihiiii.-i, 144. 
Ciiltiplis nil minx. 153. 
Cnliijil, V ,71/', r iiilliins. 154. 
CfiUijihs I'll .Tifiintin .lalnniir, 154. 
Ciiliiiii.i I ii'iiiiiiiiiihi. 98. 
I'dUniihir. L" 6 109. 
novii, 109. 

Pif,'.'..!!., 109. 

Cohimhiihr. 6. 

('nil/ mil 11.1 iiiiritii.-. 12. 

I'lihmilni.'i liiilliii l.'ii. 12 

I'lihliiiliii.-: II iiirirtiHi.v , lii,.r,i,-iis, l.*{. 

I'liiiiiiiiiii FnliiKir. St. Ki!.l! Pefri'I. 33. 

f'oiiiiiiiiu (iiiilli'iiiiit. Mi.rrr. 18. 

<'. .111111..'!. <i-eat Slic-iruntiT, IT:!;;, 33. 

'■|)Tiunoii I'niliii. 16. 

('(Hiiiiion Skuii. Sciiliiiwk. Hiii.\i:i. 21. 

''oiiiinoii S^tiiriny ', 35. 

Ciiiniisiithhipi.t, i' I 1. 

( DiniiKiillilfiiii.t null III It nil ii.- ...,. 250. 

Cmiiif.'tii-iit \\';irlilpr. 264-L'fi."i. 

fonpr •> Unwk, 11." I 1^ 119-120 






<'oo' 2-5-53-66 tir 73 
Cormorant, 2 4 sii 37 :'.">«, 

I>e!ih!,>-cr,wt--.|. 3i 
Sini;l.--cr.-.!c *U: . 37 
Violof-gr.iii :!8. 

Corvidii'. ■< 171 

Cor I- UK II" ' . .' . I7f) 

CnniiK n, iiiis, 176. 

Corvii.H (- .!.r 1^-11" '■■'• 175. 

Corv'n |„ ■>! Uitti 

Corthlnl, 178 !7!ll- , j 

<'oK lipon. nlil S.|iia l>Ui-k. 

rrHij( - •_' .'-fires ii'.' 

1,1 ;.. Ilr.irtn 68. 

Whi-'. V iipirii.'. US- 
Crpcr-or- 280 s^l i"*'-'. 

Itrii n, 281. 

ifoi'ki' .Nfiniiifi.ii. 281 

Ta\\ tiv. 281. 
('n.H'oil FlMMtclicr, li i IH.'i. 
f^riN iiih-IiomIc"! Tan.'iiTi-r. -Jis. 
I'r >k-'l-hi'' Stiipc. s." 


■lil-. 1-*.: 

•0 l;»M;>r) 




A iivin. T.') 
'•li.-- ■'. 177 
"JHl,. 176. 
N'ori hvvi'-it. id 
'■■^ ^ F.'riiiiv. iTl 
I'r lis. 175-17^ 
.hivs 171-172 1 . t. 
Nfa-iiii';. 171 

.,v Rl.ickliii-.l. I!r..iiZ'-l Cr.T.-klo. 18!>. 
- lU- DiK-k. A i|pric;ni ''not. \V:iti'r Tlon. 
wno.l S'M aus ls|i209. 
fJnliloii-iTinviii'il, 211. 
Harrii' or Hhi:'k-h'. ■ lo.l. 209. 
Whito-oMwriP'l. 210. 
Whlto-tliror.t.'.l. 211. 
Cuckoo, 2-7143 144 14fi. 

ni;u'k-i.nif.i. nt. 

Vpllow-l.illr.!. 144. 
CuckO'm .nul l\in','fi>lu'r-i. 143. 
Cuculidir, 7. 
'■urloiv. 74-75 86 91-92 ii:;. 

K-ki'iio. 92. 

Ilnilsdiiiiin. 92. 

T.ons-billeil. 91. 
Cyane.a, 225. 
Ciianoi'ifta ciixtatn, 171. 
Cu'ittot^itta i-lrlUr^. 172. 
Cyavo.ipi::(i. lSil-224. 
Cyann.tpKn iimn iia. 225. 
Cynnn.ipirn ryanca. 224. 

,1 I 

V, 1.'." 

. 101' 

h.M-iinis. lOf^. 





f J, »■, ,7 60, 

fill I'nttiH ni''' • '"'I' 

iW hivk, r I Mil.' 

/' in, 

l>u Ill-Ill u. 7. 

I»:ik ::i H.inn irrnw, 218. 

Dartt-rs, :t. 

Di iiilritiiii/i'ii . ■nil n.\, 

III lllfllimil: - / .■lllillll .. 

/>< iiilrililillni I. 

fhnilriiiril. 2) ! 

//, nilriiuil II ^1 I II 

/). nilriiini ii'ntiiii 

III iiilriiirn iiiiiliilin 

III iiilroii'ii liliiikhii 

fli ndroiiii III 'ill Ki-i 

t)i itilni'i ii (■( III II, 

III /■./)•(., I'll ifi. . iilii. 

Ill fiilniifit tlisriiliir. 

Pi iiilrtiirii I. irlhltiili 

III iiilrnii n III III- ii\ I SII 

III nilniirii niifi'i s 'i h 

lliiiihiiiin nviiili 

III iiilriiiiii I'lihiiiii 

lit iiilrii'iii III, III,. I . 2r>.' 

1U iiilriiiiii rurii. _ 

f)i iiilroii I' ■ ' 'Hi'' 

Pi iiilrniiii 1. 


Di iiilrnirii 

l)tiiih'i'i'-ii I 

IV'«<>r' Spnri 

I>i.-ii,'ri!ii '.I' 1: 

Dick.'iss,.!, Hl;i 

l')iii:iii"li:i 'ill' 

|)i])I«T-i, 27] ■-'. 

A^M. - "2, 
73. Diviner 1 ' U !"• 

Auk V 

(in-> ii, 

lionii 13. 
H.1,1.1, W.I. 

Diilirliiiiiii.r I, r.inir- 177, 
Do'iii-itic Sj,, 
Hoiisi' Sp-irr 

Ml. -zry^ 



!Ali. 11.'. 131, 

iliiiuini,' p:ir|i ). 301. 
k-tliroriti'iriVrntiii!.'. 1>*>< 225. 
!■.->. .32, 

■ 1 


i ' iVOi*, 


!i., it. 


'. 193. 
ri'-^tC'l < 'onnoraii'lc Auk. 20. 

u\,,:. Ill, 

. <?o.1, 81 



licUio i Snii"'. 81. 

ihMvny WoO'lpt'ikiT. 147 14>>, 
llniuliiiU .\ jiiihisri iix, Ii". 
/)..-,,,, /,,i(, y !■'■""«'"•■. 146 
Uiicks. :; ,7 »(l. 

Key to tliP Suh-f:i'nilv 
.iiintiiKr. River nu^'k> 

f Ducks. 40. 



i ! 




s, . 



^ H 


FuUgulina; Sea Ducks, 40. 
Mert/ii (!', Mergansers, 4U-42. 
Key to Species of AnatiiKr, River Ducks, 
American \Vi>;foii, Jialdpate, 45. 
Black, Dusky Mallar.l, 44. 
Blue-winged Teal, 46. 
Ga.lwall. (iray Duck, 44. 
Green-wingi'J Teal, 45. 
Mallard, 44. 
Pintail, Sprig-tail. 47. 
Spuon-liill, Slioveller. 46. 
Wood Duck, SuiiiuiiT Duck, 47. 
Kev to Sjiecies of Fiiliiii.itina'. Sea Ducks, 
' 41. 

American Eider, 54. 
American GiildiMi-cyc, Whistler, 51. 
American I-Dchar.!, K'fd-hcad. 48. 
.\nu'rican Scoter, Black Sea-Coot, 55. 
Barrow's Gollen-eye, 51. 
Bluc-liill, (irciitor "Scau|) Duck, 49. 
Bufflp-h.-ad, Buttor-bail. 52. 
Canva«lMck. Wliite-h.-ick, 49. 
Cowhoen, ()1 1 S(|ii:nv. 52. 
Eider. 53-54-55. 
OoMeu-eycs, 50. 
Greater Scnnp, 49. 
Greenland, Xortherii Eider, 53. 
Harlequin (F.ord anil Lady"). 53. 
Lesser Sc-iup, 50. 
Little Blue-bill, 50. 
Pacific Eider, 54. 
Red-head, 48. 

Ring-necked Sc.nun. IJin<;-bill. 50. 
Rudder, Ruddy Duck, 56. 
Scoters, 55-.")fi. 
St-a Coots, 55. 

Spectaided Eider, King Eider, 56. 
Surf Ducks, 55. 

Surf Scoter, Spectacle-billed foot, 56, 
White-winged Scoter. Velvet Sinter, 56. 
Key to .U< niiiKr. The Mergan^rs, 5-40-42- 
' 4.^. 

American, 42. 
GoDsiuidor. 42. 
Hooded. 43. 
Little S:.w-bill. 43. 
Red-breasted, 42. 
Shelldrakes, 42-4,'?. 
Eagles, 2-.S-7-111-112-11.3-118-123-1 26-127. 
Bald, 126. 
Golden, 125-127. 
Eagles and Hawks, ] 1.1-118, 
Eagle Owh, 1.18. 
Earth Scratching Birds, 2-6-97. 
Grouse, 99. 
Turkeys, 108. 
Quail, 2-6-07-98-99. 


Eastern Fox Sparrow, 220. 

Eastern Hermit Thrush, Swamp Angel, 292. 

Ectopistes miiimtoriiiD, 110. 

Eel grasi, 49. 

Egrets, 2-5-62-65. 

Little, 65. 
Eider, 53-54-55. 
.Vnierican, 54. 
Greenland, N'ortlurn, 53. 
Pacific, 54, 

SjK'ctaded, King, 55, 
ICiii/ii/loiiax difficili.i, 168. 
i'.mpidomix fhiciii utris, 167-16S. 
Kmpitloiiiijr hominiiiidi, 168. 
Empidoimx miiiimii.f. 168. 
Empiiliiiiiix Iniitlii, 167. 
EmpidoiKix traiUii ahioriim. 168. 
English Buzzard, 11.'!. 

English Sparrow (see House Sparrow), 193. 
ErcHiHtt.'i, 7.5. 
Ertiiiii ti .■< luixillitu, S.l. 
Erisnuitiini, 41. 
Erixmatuni jamifcnxix, 56. 
Eskimo Curlew, 92, 
Evening Cirosbeak, lS7-191-2.'i4. 
" Evi>rvbodv's Darling," 217 
Faho, '-.',. ■■ 

Falco (iiliimhiiriit!!, 130, 
Fah'o fohimhariiis .<fi«7, (< i/f. 130. 
Falco ixliiiidii.i. 127. 
Falco nHj-icainix. 129. 
Fnlcoiiidw. :',-7-112 113. 
Falcons. :!-113-114-127128. 

.\iiieric.iii Kestrel, Sparrow H.awk, 131. 
Black MiTlin, 130. 
Desert Sparrow Hawk, 131. 
Duck Hawk, 129. 
.Terfaleons, 127-12S-12!". 
Black, 129. 
Brown. 128. 
Grey, 128. 

White. Ireland or Greenland, 127-129. 
Peregrine, 129-1. '10. 
Pigeon H.Twk, 130. 
Prairie Falcon, 129. 
Falco prrifiriiitix (iiKilitm. 129. 
Falco nixticohix, 128. 
Faho ritxlicnhi.t J< rftiho, 128. 
Falco rii.ilii'iiliis ohsnii tiis, 129. 
F<ilco spuni riiix, :'i-131. 
Families of tli<- Falcoiiida\ 113. 
Field Plover, 00. 
Field Sparrow, 214. 
Finch. 9 177-186, 

.\le\itian T^eucosticte, Brandt's, 196. 
American Goldfinch, 198, 
Black-breasted Longspur, 202. 
Ch<»str;ut-collared Lonjjspur, 202. 


Dickcissel, Hlaek-throated Bunting, 225. 

(irav-iTinvnpil liOiipostiote, Swainson's, 

fu'liiT'i nmiting, rmlign Biril, 224. 

Lai>lMinl l.onfcspiir, 200. 

Ijark Hiintiii;;. Wliito-win^jcil Ulack- 
hinl, 226. 

Lazuli Hnntiiij:. 225. 

Paintpil, 224. 

Pino Siskin, 199. 

I'urplf. 192 21S. 

Reapoll, 197. 
Crci:.';, 198. 
Ho.irv. 197. 

Kosy. 196. 

Smith's I.()iis;-;pur, 201. 

Sni)\vl)irJ. Siimvflikc or Snow Bunting. 
Finohr<!. ('■roshoak-!, ami Sparrows. 186. 
Fish Hank, O-^iircv. 1 ll'-n:M27-131. 
Fishing Kaglcs. 127131. 
Flicker, 1. -.2-153-154. 
Flnriihi i-n iirlin, 65. 
Florida Turkev. lOS. 
Fl.irida Oalliiiiilo, Mud Hon, 72. 
Flveateher-!. 2-8 1621631f.4-165-166 16716S- 

.\ldrr, 168. 

Crc^ic'i, 164. 

HaniniomlN, 168. 

Lca-^!. 168. 

Olivfi-sided. 165. 

Phiphc. 164- 1H(). 

Say's Phu'hi' or Flycatclii-r. 166. 

Scissor-t ailed, 163. " 

Traill's. 167. 

Tyrant or Kngliird, 163. 

Wpstorn VpIIiv.v hrlliod, 168. 

Yellow-bJlied, 167. 
Fly-catching Warblers, 267. 
Fool Hon, 100-101. 
Forstor's Torn, 30. 
Fox Sparrows. lSH-219 220221. 

Kastern. 220. 

Slate-polored. 221. 

Sooty, 221. 

Townsend's, 221. 
Fra.iiklin's CM. 2:'. 28. 
Franklin's Spr i •,> (Jrouse, 101. 
Frati until tiri'ticn. 16. 
Fratcroila cornicnhild. 16. 
FrhiiiillUhr. 9-177186-100-242. 
Fulirn in:urii-niia. 73. 
Fullinilinir. ,')-40-42-48. 
Fulmar, 4-;!2-33. 
Gadwall. fir.ay Pui-k, 44. 
Galrn^COp'C mrnliiiiiixix, 280. 
Oallinaecous Birds, 97. 

(ialliniv, 2-6-97. 
Gallinago, 75. 
Gallinafjo dclicaln. 80. 
GaUiiiuUi palxitit. 72. 
Callinulcs," 2-.-)-67-72-7:!, 

Florida, Mud Hi-n, 72. 
Purple, 72. 
Cambprs Chickadco, 285. 
Oannets. 2-4-36-.!7. 

White or Solan (iocwe. 36. 
fJarefowl, 20. 
(larciltii riiii(iir'(li.ts{itii\ 65. 
Oiivio (idamsii. 15. 
(laria arilii'it. 15. 
(Ini in iiiihi r . 14. 
diiria hiinnir. 15. 
OaviiiUr. ;M3. 
(ieeso, 2-.--40-.^,7-r,l-<t2. 

.Vinerican White-fronted, 58. 
Rlaik Brant, 60. 
Blue, 58. 

Brant. Barn.iele. 60. 
("'aiiaila, 59. 

(ireater Snow, Comaion Wavey, 57. 
Itutehin's, Little Wild, 59. 
Lesser Snow, Little Wavey, 57. 
IJoss' Snowv, Horned Wavey. 58. 
Grothhipi^, 24;!.' 
Geothhiiiix o/;i7i.<, 264. 
Gmtldiiiii.t formasa. 264. 
Gtfilhhipis philadrlpf''"- 265. 
«: t.thhtpis tolmiei, 265. 
I.I iithlii]iin trii-hiix. 266. 
Gliiucidinm finoma, 142. 
niaueous i.ull, 25. 
fJlaaeouswinged Gull, 24-26. 
Glossary of Technical Terms. 297. 
Gnatcatchers, 10-286-288. 
Goatsuckers. 2-8143154-157-229. 
Godwits. 86-87. 

Tludsonian, 87. 
Marbled, Brown Marlin, 86. 
K'cdlirrasteil Ooilwit or Ring-tailed Mar- 
lin, 87. 
Golden-crowned Kingli>t. 287. 
Golden-crowned Thrush, dven Bird, 262. 
GoMen-crowiicd Sparrow. 211. 
Gol.len K.igle. li:!-125-126-127. 
Golden eyes. 50-.->l. 

American, Whistler. 51. 
Barrow's, 51. 
Golden Plover. 93-94. 
Golden Swamp Warbler. 247. 
Golden-winged Flicker, 154. 
Golden-winged Warbler. 248. 
Goldflnch, 170-1R7 198. 
Goosander. 42. 
Goose (see Geese'). 57. 




* * 

Nelson's Sharp-tail 

Bird, Vesper Spurrmv. 

Goshawk, 115-120. 
Grackle, 89177-184-185. 

Bronzed, Crow Blackbird, 185. 

Rusty, 184. 
Grass Bir<l, 203. 
GrasshopjMT Sparrows, 188-205-206-207-208. 

Grasshopper, 205. 

Henslow's, 206. 

Lark, 208. 

Leciinte's, 207. 

Nelson's Sparrow, 
ed I'ini'h, 207. 
Grass Snipe, 83. 
Grass Sparrow, 203. 

Baird's, 205. 

<irav Bird. (;ra< 

Ipswich, 204. 

Sandwich, 204. 

Savannah, 204. 
Gr:iy (';iiin'l;i Tav. 174. 
Gray-checked. .Mice'-; Tliiiisli, 291. 
Grav-erowned Leiici).itic'e. S\ .iiKniri Kosv 

Finch, 196. 
Gray Duck. (!;i.hv:ill. 44. 
Gray Fork-t.niled Petrel. S,""!. 
Great .\nk, 20. 
Great Bl;ick-backed (iiill. 26. 
Great Blue IIeri>ii, 64. 
Great Diver, lioon, 14-1.">. 
Great Gr.iy ()»I. 135 l.i7. 
Great Ilnrnel f)\vl. ('at 
Great Shearwater. 33. 
Great Wliife Owl. ><iiowv Owl 
Greater Redpoll, 198. 
Greater Scaup Duck. Blue Bill, 49. 
Greater Sni)wy Goixe. roninion Wavy. 57. 
Greater Yellow-letrs, S". 
Grelie, 2-311-12-i;f-7;:. 

.\niericaii Eared. 13. 

Dah-chick. 13. 

irolbneU'x. 12. 

Horned, 12. 

Pied-billed, 13 

Rod-necked. 12. 

We-itern, 11. 
Green TTerun, 66. 
Greenland .Terfalcon, 127. 
Greenland, Northern Kider, 53. 
Greenland Wheatear or Stonc-ehat 295. 
Oreenlets, 238. 
Green-winged Teal, 45. 
Grey .Terfalcon, 128. 
Grinnell's Wafer Thni'^h. 2(>.'i. 
Grosbeaks, !1-14L'-186-19;t 22fi-2.14. 

Black-headed. 191. 
rnrdira!. 100. 

Kveniiiy 18? 


Oul. 138. 


Pine, 192. 

Rose-breasted, 190. 
Grouse, 2-6-7-97-107-125. 

Blue, Dusky, Sooty, 100. 

Canadian, Spruce Partridge. 100. 

Franklin's Spruce, 101. 

Norther Sharp-tailea, 106. 

Pinnated, 105. 

Ruffeil, 101-102. 

Sage, Sage H<'n. Spint'-laileil. 107. 

Ptarmigan, 103. 
Rock, 103. 
White-tailed, luicky Mmintain Suo» 

Grouse, 104. 
Willow, 103. 
Cnddir, .^-68. 
llniA (inn licdiKi. 68. 
Gni.1 canaihiisis, 68. 
Oru.i iiitj-ic<i:i(i. G9. 
Guillemots, 16-17-18-19. 

Black, 18. 

Common, Murre, 18. 

Thick-bille I. Mnnniicli's .Murre, 19. 
I ill 11, 2-4-20-29. 

.Vmorican Herring, 27. 

.Vtliintic Herring. 24-27. 

Atlantic Kittiwake, 2.'i-25. 

Black-bicked. 24 26. 

Bonaparte's, 2;i-29. 

Burgomaster. Fee, 2f-25. 

Calif(ir!iia, 27. 

Franklin's. 2:! 28. 

Great Black backed. 26. 

Glaucous, 25. 

Glaucdiis-winire I, 24-26. 

Herring, 24-27. 

Fee. jviiry. Snow, 2.'i-24-25. 

Iceland, 24-25. 

Kittiwake, 25. 

I.aughinu. 2:!-28. 

Pacific Herrin-;. 24-26. 

King-billed, 2:1-27. 

Short-hilled. 21 28. 

Western. 26. 
Gulls ami Terns, 22. 
Tlahia, IS'-ISS. 
Ifahia hKlnriiiunii.y, I'.X). 
TTahia inehinocfphtiUi. 191. 
II(Fm<il(>p(iilii1(r. 6. 
ITcrmiiloptix linchwniii. 96. 
Hats, 33. 
Hair Bird. 212. 
Ffairy Wcioilpecker, lt()-147. 
ItalitPtv.t li Htorrphalii.f. 
Hammond's Flycatcher, 168. 
fTarleqnin Duck, T,or-l and T,a ly, ,53. 
fTnrpnrhiinrhus riiftm, 278. 


Harrier Ha«k. 1 14-118-1 1'.i. 

[Tarris', Hlack Hooileil Spa mm. '.'Oli. 

llanUla, 41. 

llaviUUi InicmatU, 52. 

Hank, J :!-7 

Aceipiters, IM 1:;-114-11." 1 1'.' fJn. 

<'oo|icr"s. 11.") 120. 

Oushank. 115-120. 

Sharp-shinned, 115-119. 

Hiitpos. :! ii:!i 14 115-1111 ii;iii;l' ;l'.; im. 

Atnerii-an Roiigh-IeK;;eil Hawk, 116-124. 

Hniail-winKf'l, IKi 123. 

Reil-^houlilereil, 1IH122 I'J.;. 

Hed-tailo.l, 116-121-123. 

Rusty ''.Mii;!!-!!';:;;!'.!, 1 11M24. 

Swain^Hii',, lltil22. 
l-'alcdris. 114. 

Duck. 120. 

.TiTfali-oii. 114-127. 

Ainoriiviti Kpftrcl. S[>-iir(nv, V. 15 131. 

Unnvii. 128. 

(irpv, 128. 

Prairie. 114-129. 

Pere^'rinp, 114 129. 

Pigeon H;n\k. 115-130. 

Do-ort Sparrow Hauk. ll."-131. 
Alarsh. Harrier. 114-118. 
Osprpv. Fish Hawk, Fi^liirii.' F.ajrl''. 131. 
Hawks an.l Kaglo-i, 3-7 112 118. 
Hoil-. liver, l.'i. 
ITflmiiithoithilii. 244. 
rrdminlhniiliila ,;l,it,i. 249. 
Hflmiiithuii I ■•hriisDfIt rn. 248. 
rfdminlhti ■ ihru-iiiiiUn. 248. 

fTrlmi'ithn • .regrinii, 249. 


Ilclixiroiniix ,^. ' .lorlii.'^. 88. 
Hen, 10,-j-l.TH. 

Prairie, lii.". 
Hen Hawk, US 1:2((. 
Henslow'-i S|inrrii\v. 2(Hi. 
Hepluirn'-t Ro>»y Finrli. 1 
Hermit Tliriisli". 292-293. 
Hermit Warblrr. 259. 
TTfroflioiKs, 2-5-62. 
Herons an.l nitte-.n-s. 62. 
Herons 2 5 62-64-65 66 67. 

niai'k-i"ri)wnpi1 Ni. 

("Sreat Hlnp, 64. 

r.r(>en, 66. 

liittlo Blue, 65. 
Little Kgref, 65. 

Snowy, 65. 

Vellow-eniwnpd Ni;;li!, 67. 
Herring Onll. 26 27 2S. 

!fi <■>>. rnrir!)!,-! ,•!(( jifl. 294. 

Higiii.l.ler, 153. 



II immilDiiiiii, 74. 

Uininihimliv. 9 228. 

Hiruiido t rj^tliriHiii.-'li 1-, 230. 

II istridiiifiis hint rl<)ii:ri(y. hS. 

Hoary Redpoll, 197. 

Ifollio'irs (irebe. 12. 

llollxell'i hN'dpuM, 197. 

Hooded MeiMMii-er. !,i •;■■ Sawl.dl, MIipI; 

drak.'. 42 4«. 
ilood.'d Warliler. 268. 
Hoinpr's Myrtle War'i ir. V't-''. 
Horned tirelie. 12-i:i. 
Horned I-ark, 169-170-179. 
Horned Owls, :i-7-i:!5-l.'!7138-i:i!t. 
Horned Piiflin, 16-17. 

Horned Wavey. l.'i--" Sn.r.v; (;.,,„•. 58. 
Iloii-e Sparrow. 193-21:: 'J21I 
House Wren. I 7!' 21--27:; 275 L'Td 
Hudsonian ( hiekadee, 285. 
Hudsoniati Turlev. 92-it:'.. 
Hndsonian (ioluit. Rei.ireasted (iotlwit, 

Ringtailed Marliii. 87. 
Hndsonian Owl, 141, 
Hummingldrd. J >< l.'ii !.■,> L"«7. 

Allen "s 161. 

Blaek-ehie.-:.' I. 160. 

('allioi>e. 161. 

Rnby-!hr latel. l.-|i 159. 

Rufou<. 160. 
Hutcdiin's Ciiasi-. l.irrli' Wild 'Joose. 59. 
Hutton's Oreenlet, 242. 
Ifvdrochcliiloii rtiiiii. 31. 
IfitUiciclild iiliriii. 291. 
II <IOii,-hUi iili<i<i- l.irl.iiilll. 292. 
H'.lhiriitiUi lii.-;s,; „.-. 290. 
Ifnlmichla iintlnlo. 292. 
UylociMn miixU ln'o. 290. 
ftillocidilii iish^liitd. 292. 
II flliit-iihUi ii.'^l iiUitii xiriiiiifii':!. 293. 
leelaad 127. 
Trtiriit. L'4I. 
Iftcria rirtiin, 267. 
Ictirin fin II.'- hniiiiini'iii . 267. 
IctirkUr. 8-177. 
li'UruK 182. 
IdfTim hiillorti. 184. 
Irtcru.i fiiilhiilii. 183. 
Ictcnii spiirhts. 182. 
Fee. Ivory (i;ill. L':i-24 2.". 
[llustr.'itioiis. List nf ( v' , . 
Index. 303 318. 

hiiligo Bird, In liiri, UuntMi,', 17!' 1SM224 '225 
Innnnii.i mnrtiiiicn, 72. 
rp«wieh Sparrow, 204. 
fvarv (!::!!, 2:; 21. 
.raek Snipe. S:!. 


fi. f 




.Taijfer, 21-22. 

Long-taiied, 22. 

Parasitic, 22. 

Pomarine, 21. 
.Tays. 2-8-S!l 171-172-173 17 1 

Alaskan, 174. 

Blue, 171. 

Canadian, 173. 

(Jr;iv Caiiailian, 174. 

Lahrailor, 17-1. 

Oregon, Obscure, 174. 

Roikv Mountain, White InM.hil, 173. 

Steller's. 172. 
.Terfalcons. 114-127 128 129. 

Blaek. 129. 

Brown, 128. 

Grey, 128. 

White, rcelauil, (Irccniaiul, 127. 
.Tunco, Snow Sparrows, 1S9-215 216. 

Oregon, 215. 

Shufeldf •>■. 216. 

Slate-colored, 215. 
Jvticii hii( iiiiilis. 215. 
Jnnco hj/cmnUs cotinirtans, 216. 
Jvnco on 11(11111.1, 215. 
Kadiak, 192-218. 
Kailiak ITermit Thrusli. 292-293. 
Kentucky Warbler. 264. 
Key, Artificial, to the Order an.l Families, 3. 
Key to B'rd<! of Prey, 112. 
Key to certain Warblers in any Plumage, 

Key to Families of Finches, Grosbeaks, and 

Sparrows, 186. 
Key to Families of Shore Birds, 73. 
Key to Genera of Canadian (iulls, 23. 
Key to Genera of Canadian Warhleri, 244. 
Key to Genera of Shore Birli. 74. 
Key to Genera of Wrens, 273. 
Key to Species of .1 not inn, Hirer Ducks, 40. 
Key to Species of FiiUmiliiKr. Sea Ducks. 41 
Key to Species of Gulls in each Genus, 23. 
Key to Suh-f.-miilies of Ducks, 40. 
Killdeer Plover, 94-9.'). 
Kintrhird, 152-163-164-1 7n-2."?7-238. 
Kingfisher, 2-7 143 145-146. 
King Eider, Spectacled Eider. 55. 
Kinglets, 10 286 287. 

GoMen-crowned, 287. 
Ruby-crmvned. 287. 
Kin;r!cts and GnatiMtchor-i, 286. 
King Kail. 70. 
Kirtland 's Warbler, 260. 
Kiniwake, 2.''.-25. 
.\tlantic. 2.T-26. 
Pacific, 2.3-26. 
liabiailoj' -Tin . 174. 

Lor/opiis lafjopux .tltrin. 10.'!. 

Lagopus leucurus, 104. 
Lagopus ptanniiian, 103. 
Lagopus rupfstris, 103. 
l.amellirostral Swiminers, 2 5 40. 

Ducks, 41-43-48. 

Geese, 67. 

Mergansers, 42. 

Swans, 60. 
Land Birds, 6. 

Birds of Prey. 7. 

Pigeons am! Doves, 6. 

Earth-scratching Birds, 6. 

Perching Birds. 8. 
Latiidw. 9-236. 
Laniiis borealis, 236. 
Laniur ludovwiaiiu.i. 237. 
Laiiius ludoviridiiiis iscuhitdioiili .-.. 238. 
Lanivireo flavifrous, 241. 
Lanivireo solitariu.i, 241. 
Lapland Longspur, 18S-200. 
Lapogiis u-elshi, 104. 
I.apuijux lruairu.1, 104. 
Large-billed Water Thrush. 264. 
Larida", 4-22. 
Larks. 8 169- 170-181- 1S2. 

Horned, 169. 
Lark Bunting, White winger »l;i.-khird, 

L.ark Sparrow, 18S-208. 
Larvi, 23. 

Lams ari/rntatus f!mitli,sii)ii(tnv.y. 24 27. 
Laru.i iitririlla. 23. 
I.arus harroriaiivs, 24. 
I.arus hrnchnrhynchu.t, 24-28. 
l.arns voUfornicux, 27. 
I.arun deletvarensis, 23-27. 
Larus franlclini, 23-28. 
Lams glaurrscrns, 24-26. 
r,<iniii glo tints, 24-25. 
Lams leucnptems, 24-25. 
I^ams marinus, 24-26. 
Lnms orcidcntalis, 24-26. 
T.ams Philadelphia, 23-29. 
Laughing Gull, 23-28. 
Lazuli Bunting, 225. 
Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel, 35. 
Least Bittern. 63. 
Learnt Flycaichcr, 168. 
Least S,indr)iper. Little Stint. 84. 
Least Tern. 31. 
T/econte's Sparrow. 207. 
Lesser Scaup Duck, Little Blue Bill, 50. 
Lesser Snow Goose. Little Wavey, 57. 
Lesser Yellow-legs, 88. 
f.imitoUr. 2-6-73. 
Limiisa, 7h. 
f.imosa frdna, 88. 




Limoxa hu'iiutMticii, 87. 

Lincoln's Song Sparrow, 218- J 19. 

Lightning Huinnior.-i, 160. 

Little Auk. Doveki", 20. 

Little TJluc-hill, Losser Duck, 50 

Little Bine Heron. 65. 

Little Brown ' rane, 68 

Liftlo Egret, Snowy Heron, 65. 

Little Horned Owl. Gray. I'M. 

Little Stint. Lfast Samlpipor, S4. 

T..ittlo Wavpy. T^esser Snow Ooi -io. .^7. 

Little WiM 'Oonsp. Hntcliin's Ooose, 59. 

I.tiiicstictc. 187-196. 

Lcnroxtifte nrinciinirhn, 196. 

I.cvro.itict)' ti phrocnti.t, 196. 

Lewis ' Woiipoeker. 152. 

Lofj-eock, l.")l. 

Lnjrjrerhoail Shrike, 237-L'.".S. 

Lonji-billeil Curl. .v. '.'1 t>L'. 

Lons-hilk'il DnwiNlier, Heil-bellieil Snipe, "i. 

Long-billo.l Marsh Wren, 277-27S. 

Lonff-cro-it .Tay. 17.">. 

Ti0ni;ipennP3, 2-4-20. 

LongspiT, l>5S-200. 

Black-breastoil. 202. 
Chpstnut-i-dllarcl. 202. 
Lapland, 200. 
Smith's, 201. 
Long-tailed Chat. 267. 
Long-tai'ed Chickadee. 285. 
f.nng-winped Swimmers, i!-4-20. 
Oiill», 22. 
.Taggers, 21-22. 
Skaiis. 2-4-20-21. 
Sea Swallows, 29. 
Terns. 2-4-20-22 29-30 31. 
Loons, 2.111 13 14 15. 
Black-throated. 15. 
Creat Diver. 14. 
Ked-throated. 15. 
Yellow-billed. 15. 
Lord and Lady, 53. 
Lophodi/tcK cunilhilus, 43. 
I.itphnrtjix californica, 99. 
Louisiana. Crimson-heided Tanager, 227. 
Louisiana Water Thrush. 264. 
Loxia, 1S6. 

Loria ruri-irostrii, 194. 
Loria Introplrra, 195. 
ifnerochircx, 2-8 154. 
^f(l(■rorham|lhvli, 7(). 
MacrorhampliuH firitu tin, 81. 
^fai^rorhat»phu.^< niolopareus. 81. 
Maculosa, 24.5-246. 

Mairiiolia, Blaek and Yellow Warbler, 254. 
Magpie, 171. 
Mallard, 44. 

.Man.x Shearwater, 34. 

.Marbled Ciodwit, Hri.wii Marlin, 86. 

Mareca, 40. 

Mareca americnmt, 45. 

.Mark.s of certain Wlirblers in jinv plumage, 

Marlinspike, 22. 
.Marsh Birds. 2-5 67. 
Coots, 73. 
Cranes, 68. 
CiaUinulcs, 72. 
Kails, 69. 
.Marsh. Harrier, Hawk. :: 1 14 118-119-124. 
Marsh IJobiii. 222. 
Marsh Wren, 277 278. 
Martin, l'ur|)lc, 229. 
Maryland Yellow-throar. 206. 
Meadow Chicken, 71. 
Meadow Lark, 181-182. 
Meffakstrm, 21. 
Megalestrig skuas, 21. 
Ml i/asrops asio, 137. 
Mtiaiu .pes carolinua, 152. 
Melaiierpts erythrocephalus, 161. 
M(U":iris iKill'ipdio. variety /in/. 108. 
MtkaqniHT, 7. 
M<iospi:a, 18!)-216. 
MtUispi:a ijcorf/ianii. 219. 

Mtlospf.a tiitriiliii, 218. 

Mi:lospt:a mclodta, 216. 

Melospi:a mtlodia jiuldi, 218. 

M<lospi:a viilndia iitoniunii, 217. 

Melo.-ipUa iiitioiiia ituirphita, 217. 

Melospizn milodi.i riilina, 218. 

Mrrijiinr. ,'5 40. 

Merganser, 5-40-42-4;i. 

American, (ioosander, Shelldrake. 42. 
Hooded. Little Saw-hill. Shelldrake. 43. 
Ked-breasted. Shell Irak.'. 42. 

Uerfianscr anuriraiius, 42. 

Mtraans'T .si ri'iitor, 42. 

Mcrttla mitimtorid, 294. 

Mexican Towhee. 222. 

Mexican. Townseud's HliU'liird, 296. 

Mexican Turkey, lUS. 

Micropalama. 75. 

MicriipaUuna hinuinliipiis, 81. 

Micrapodidir. S 

Mimino-. 10-272. 

Mimus pnliinlottos. 279. 

Missouri Lark, Sprague's Pipit. 271. 

Mtiirtiltn lariii, 247. 

MnioUHido', 9-242. 

Mockers. 272. 

Mockingbird. 10 2."6-2':7 27 2 27'< 279. 

Mololhnis OUT, 178. 

MotariUid,r. 10-270. 




I 1 



Afother (Hrey's Chickens'. 35. 
Moiint:iiri or" Arctic Rliiehird, 296. 
Mountain or (iainlv! "s Cliickadeo. 285. 
^^ollnt.^in Sonj: Sp.irrow. 217. 
Mnuining Dove, 111-179. 
Monrnini; U'.irWcr. 265 1'06 
Mnd Hen. 72. 
Miirre, 18-19. 

Brnnnich 's. 19. 
Munciinra forficita. 16.''. 
.\fiii( toiriinvndi. 289. 
.\f;iiiirfhiif> rrinitus, 164. 

Mvrtlp Wrirlilrr. Vi' 252 L'.'..'. 254 
N'ashvillo Warblor. 2iJ8-250. 
Xelson's Downy W.iolppcker. 148. 
Vels'in's Sparrr.w ,,■• N'.-Isoii 's SShnrii-iMiliMl 

Finch, 207. 

X'ltini,. 41. 

Kitl'.Di' i-iiriiliiii N.Kis, IC). 
Xisrhtinjrnle. 290. 
Niilhthawk. 1561.T7-22II. 
N'ii:li- Hen. II. 66 ()7. 
IMoc'k-crownerl, 66. 
VelliHT-crownpil. 67. 
N'oofkn TTifii'iiiiiirlMriN. 160. 
Northern Eider. 53,14. 

XortliMiii ['anila, Blue Vellow-backed War- 
bler, 2'>0. 
Xorthern Phalempe. 77. 
Vorthcrii I.Vivcii. 175. 
Vortbern Sharp-taile.l Oroiiw^, 106. 
S«rU.-in S|,r;k... HM;.-lior Bir.l. 236. 
N'ortli-no^r ''row. 176. 
X.>rfh-\vp--:,-r!. Plii-ki-r. 1.5.'^.154. cnhimhuiiia. ItT. 
Nitminiiis horraUf, 92. 
Kumeniux, ''i. 
Svwt niux liiKhniiiaiiiim, 92. 
Sumt'nnix lotiriirostrix. 91. 
Vnr.T3.k(»r-. I lark's, Clark's Oin-. 177. 
Xnfh,ri'he>; .in.I Chipkaclces. 281. 
Vnfhat,!i. 10-281 282 283-2S4. 
I'iiT'i'v. 283. . 
Hp[ lireti-itcd. 283. 
\Vh:;r-hrpast,^i|, 282. 
Xiidiiht iiiiKliro. 136. 
Xiictiihi ti niiriiilmi ri'hardxoni. 135. 
Xi/fttn iiiirtfa, 140. 
Xiirtirnruj- iivrticnrar ntrtitif:. 66. 
X iiriirnriu rwlacra. 67. 
Ob-,-iirp, Orpcfon .fay. 174. 
Ormintrx nrrnvicux, 35. 
ik-faiHtdromn furcnta, 35. 
fjr'-rai)tiilroma Irurorrhoa. 35. 
milemia. 41-55. 
Oidrnud nmcricann. 55. 
Oiiirmitt ilti/lanili. 56. 
Oidemiit perxpiriJUitn. 56. 

DM Hijuaw, Cowhen. 62. 
Old Soiith-MDiithprlv, 52. 
(•I 1 Worlil Warblers. 286. 
Dlive-backed Thrush, 293. 
Olive-sided Flycatcher. 165-107. 
Olnr buccinator, 61. 
Ohir volumhidiiK.i, 61, 
Oranj{e-cro\vnoil W.irbler, 249-2.")<i 
Orchard Oriolp. 182. 
Order I., 2-.'! 11. 
Order 11., 2-4-20. 
firder FFr.. •_>-) 32. 
Order fV.. 2-4-36. 
Order V'., 2-5-40. 
Order VI., 2-.'5 62. 
Order VI f.. 2 .1 67. 
Order VI 11., 2-»i 7-73. 
Order IX., 2-6-97. 
Oriler X., 2-6-109. 
Order Xf.. 2-7111. 
Order XII.. 2 7-143. 
Order XIII.. 2-7-146. 
Order XIV.. 2 S-154. 
Order XV.. 2 7 S-162. 
Oregon. Wp-tern Chicka.ipp. 285. 
Orey-on .l;iy, ObscMirc .I,ay. 174. 
Oregon .Tmucu, 215. 
Oregon Robin. Varied Tlini-li, 294. 
Oregon 'luv. Inc. 222-22.'!. 
Oreortyt piclux. 99. 
Oriole. 2 S-179-182 183-184. 
Baltimore, 183. 
Bullock's, 184. 
Orchard, 182. 
Ortolan. 7M7S. 
Osprey, Pish Hawk, Fisljlng Kagle. 112 1 1: 

Otocoria (iljuntris, 169. 
Otocorix alpistiix nnt'cdla. 17(1. 
Otficiiri.-, itii'if-tris pnitirnlii. 17(1. 
Our Cooil Xeiglibnrs. xiw 
Oven Bird, Colilpn-cro-vned Tln-u-!i. 

<>v\ls. 2-7-111-142. 
Barn, 132. 
Barred, 134. 
Burrowing, 142. 
(ireat Grey, 135. 
Oreat Horned, 138. 
Hawk, 141. 
Long-eared, l,*!:!. 
Pigmy, 142. 
Richardson's. 135. 
Saw-wliet, 136. 
Screech, 1-37. 
Sliort-earcd. 133. 
Snow. 140. 

2 4: 



Ovstorfatchcr. G-74-96. 

Black, 96. 
Pacific Coast Yellon-throat, 266. 
Pacific Killer, 54. 
Pacific, ('.(.Mpii Plover, 9». 
Piu'ific Herrinj; OuU, 24. 
Pacific Kittiwake, j:!-2."). 
Pacific ()ranj;c-crnwiicil WTarhlcr, 24i'. 
Paiwphiln, 2.'t. 
rufi'iiiliihi nihil, 2:1-24. 
I'ainteil Finches, 224. 

riiili;;i> Hiuitinj;. 224. 

Lazuli Biintinji, 225. 
Pallid Horned hark, 170. 
F'alm Warbler, 261. 
I'liliiiiiiolii-, 2-5-67. 
I'liniliiiii liiiliitiix ciiriiVnii 131. 
Parasitic .l;i;riT. 22. 
I'nrhlir, 10 281. 
rariiiiT, 10. 
Parkmani, 27.". 
F'arroti, !43. 
P:irtri !;;.<. !tS 99100 KH. 

< .ilil'ornia, 99. 

I'hiMip.l. 99. 

Spruce. 100. 
j'lini.-: iitriiiipillus orcidentalis, 285. 
I'lini.i (itrwiijiillii.'i Hi /ill rntriiiiiiilix. 285. 
Fanix iKimhtli, 285. 
Pani\ liiiil.ti>i(i( un, 285. 
I'linia niftuft n.% 286. 
I'ani.^ (itririipiUiix, 284. 
Paxxf,-. 1S7. 

Pnst!i ,■ itomt'Slirux, 193. 
Passf rr.^, 2-8-162. 
Pasxcrculns hairdii, 205. 
Pa.i.itn-ulii.i iiniKi IIS. 204. 
Pa.i.iircuhix siiiuliiiihiiisis, 204. 
Pa.isi riuhis soiulirii'lit iisi.i savanna, 204. 
Passcrclla, ISO 219. 
Pa.'<strclla ilian:, 200-221. 
Pass( rrlla iliaio fiiliiiiiiosa, 221. 
Pa.isrrfUa ili((i<i scliislacva. 221. 
Pas.srriUa il:iic<i tdtrnsindi, 221. 
Passrriiia, 187. 
Pasesriiia nivalis, 200. 
Pa^osngcr Pigeon. 110. 
F'cacoek, 97-108. 
Pedi(r(i-tcs phasiaiulhis. 106. 
Peep, 85. 
Pelicans, 2-4-:!6-38 39. 

.A.mcric:ui Whih", 39 

Brown, 39. 
P< hcai.iiln'. 1-38. 

Pehraniis i rtliiinhilni Ims, 39. 
Pelt f anus fiisii's, 39. 
Perchinjr Birds 2-8 162. 

Blackliir.l^, 177. 

M!ncllird^^, 289. 

rhickadcen, 281 284 285. 

CrowM, 171. 

Pinches. 186. 

Klvcat.lier-. 162. 

• ■•rosl.ciik-*. 186. 

(iiiatcatcluT-. 286. 

.rays, 171. 

Kinglets 286. 

I, arks. 169. 

N'lithatchPS 281 282 283. 

Orioles, 177. 

Pipit.i, 270-271. 

Shrikes, 236. 

Sparrows. 186. 

Swallows. 228. 

Tanagers, 226. 

Thrashers, 270-27 

Thrushes, 289. 

Titmice, 2.Sl-2S2-2^4- 

Vireos, 238. 

Wagtails, 270. 

Warblers. 243. 

Waxwings, 233. 

Wrens. 270-273-27S. 
Peregrine, 12!t-i:!0. 
Peregrine Falcon, IH. 
Pcrisiin r. niiiili nsis, 173. 
Pirisun IIS iiiiiiiiUiisis <'iipilalis. 173. 
Prrisoriiis fiiivifroiis. 174. 
/Vri,so)< II.! ji rim iix, 174. 
I'l rison IIS iiiiini-niiilliis. 174. 
Perisiirt IIS uli.-i-iiriis, 174. 
Petrels, 2-4 32 33 34 35. 

Black-vented SlicaiuMnr. 34. 



Common Fulmar. St. Kilii 
<'o!!imon, (Ireat Slicarwater. 
Manx Shearwater. 34. 
Sootv She!irwater. 34. 
Stor'my Petrels, 34 35. 
Common. 35. 
(iray Foik-tailed, 35. 
lA'ach's Fork-tailel, 35. 
Wilson's, 35. 
PttroihiUdoii liiiiifriin.'-. 230. 
Phaiiophila alhn. 24. 
Phalarrororiiciilir, 4-37. 
I'halarrororajr lurlm, 37. 
/'hahirroiornx diUiph.ns. 38, 
Phalafrni'oui.r jh laiiuiis, 38. 
Phalerope family. 74. 

Mag. 33. 




I'hahropps, 2-6-7;i-76 77. 
NorthiTii, 77. 
Uo.l. 76. 
Wilson's, 77. 

I'hiih ropod'uhv. 6-74. 

I'luiltropiiD, 74. 

Phali rnpiix lohdliis, 77. 

Phah ii>iiux fiiliriiiiiis, 76. 

Pheasant, ilT. 

Philailclpliiii Vircd. 240. 

I'liilohcia, 73. 

I'hilolula minor, 7S. 

Phoi'lic. 164-It).")-166 i()7n;;i--':;s 

Pici, 2-7-146. 

/'/<(( jiictt liiiil.iiiiiicd, 171. 

Piiiiiih.^ iimi ricuiin.'f. 149. 

PicniiUs (irrtictix, 148. 

Pectoral Sandpaper, 83. 

Pieil-hilloil Orehp, 13. 

Pifreoiw, 109-110. 
Pigeons and Doves. 12-6109. 
>roiuning Dove, 111.;er Pi^^'con. 110. 
Pigeon Hawk, ."1-1 1.")-130. 
Pigmy .Viith;iti-h, 283. 
Pigmy Owl, 142. 

TMIpolated Hlack capped Warbler. 268. 
Pileated Woodpeekor. 151. 
Pin-tail, Sprig-tail. 47. 
Pine Ornslieak, 1S7-192-1J).".-2.'M. 
Pine Siskin, 187-199. 
Pine Wi;irtilor. 260-261. 
Pinicola, 1S7. 
Phiicnhi 1,'uchator. 192. 
Pinnated Nroiise, 105. 
Pipilo. ISit-221. 
Pipiln rn/throphthnhiui/i. 222. 
Pipilo tiuii'ultitnn. 222. 
Pipilo Wdi-iilalii.': (irclicii.i. 223. 
Pipiht iimrii},itii.i mipalotiiix, 223. 
Pipito liiiiciildliis on tfaini.'i, 222. 
Piping F'lovcr, 95. 
Pipit.s, 10-270-271. 
Pirnviia t rtithroimJa.t, 227. 
PiniiifKi Itiilniiriii.iii, 227. 
Piraii'Ki nihro, 228. 

Pllll'fll'i il!lllf,ll''>l, 2(1. 

Plover, 2-6-73-95. 

.\merican fiolden, 93, 

Hlack-hcIIi.,!. Biill-heado I, 93. 

Killdeer. 94. 

Piping, 95. 

I'iim 'i('i-k. S,Mii-pa!mii,tcd, 95. 
Plover Ka' Illy, 76. 

Plumed I'artridg,'. .Moiinrain (^uail, 99. 
Poch.ard. Aimri. an. Ke.i-head. 48. 
Porlicipiihr, .'ill. 
PddHjimhux pntlirepg. 13. 

ir I.'oi'k.i- Mountain Snow 

I'olhptila rwnilca, 288. 
Polioptiliiiw, 286. 
Poinarine .Ta'ger, 21. 
PooeceUs, 188. 
Pooti'ctis iii-tiniiiitiix, 203. 
Popiilu.1 aiha, \r,0. 
Purcnna inrolina, 70. 
Porcaiia nov( horaci iiKi.t. 71. 
Por:nna itnuiiu-cnsia, 71. 
Prairie Cliifken. 10."i-l(l(i. 
Prairit. Falcon, 11 M29. 
Prairie lien. lOo. 
PrairiB Marsh Men. 27<s. 
Prairie Wa.rl)ler, 262. 
Preacher, 23!t. 
Preface, xv. 

Prince of Musician.s, 279. 
ProrcUarin pcliiiicn, 35. 
Proijnc mihi.i, 229. 
Prothonotary Warbler. 247. 
Protoiiotnrin, 244. 
Protonotaria citira, 247. 
I'tarmigan. 103!(:4. 
Rock, 103. 

Grouse, 104. 
Willow. 103. 
Puffins, 16-17-1!». 
("oininon, 16. 
Iforneil, 16, 
Tufted, 17. 
Puifinuf, 33. 
Pnffinii.t iinni.-. O.I. 
Pujfiitim fiilifjihvxn.t, 34. 
Plifiidis fpixthrimclns; 34. 
Puffinux puffiini.i, 34. 
Purple Finch, 1 88-192- I9,'f-2 18. 
Purple Oallinule, 72. 
Purplii Martin. 229. 

Purple Sandpiper or Rock Sandpiper, 82. 
Pyfiopndts. 2-3-11. 
Quail, 2-6-97-98-99. 
Rob-white, 98. 
California Partridge, 99. 
Mountain, 99. 
Plumeil Partri<lge. 99. 
Valley Quail, 99. 
Qurri/itrthda, 41. 
Querqucdula dixcor/t. 46. 
IJw.iriiliif! iiiiixriiln a mux. 185 
Kails, 2.5-67-69-70-71-72. 
Rlack. 71. 
Tarolina, 70. 
King. 70. 
Sora. 70. 
V'iriginia, 70. 
Yellow, 71, 




Pallida:, 5-60. 

HalluH clegaiis, 70. 

KiilhiA rirt/inianus, 70. 

Raptores, 2-7111- 112. 

Ravens, 170-175. 

Razor-billcl .Viik, 19-20. 

Hccunirustra, 74-77. 

Recuriirostni (im< ricaiiii, 78. 

Ht'CUT}irontrid(t, 6-74. 

Iteil-bai'keil Samlpipor, 85. 

Red-belliivl Snipe, 81. 

Red-bollipil \Voo,l|).>.'ker, 152. 

Red Bird, 190-227-228. 

Red-breasted Dowitcher, 81. 

Red-breasted Godwit, 87. 

Red-breasted Merftanser, Slirllilriikc. 42. 

Ifed-breasted Niitliatcli, 283. 

Ri'il ('n)ssbill, ISMIO"). 

I?ed-eved Viron, 239-240. 

K.-.Mirad, .Viiierifan I'ochar.l, 48-4!). 

Red-headed Woodpei'ki r, 15117it. 

Keiliiaiii'd ."^apsiicker. \'>i). 

Red-necked "r Ifolboe'l's Grebe, 12. 

lied Phalorope, 76. 

iiedpoll. 197 198. 

Greater, 198. 

Tlonrv, 197. 

Ilolboeirs, 197. 
Red-shaftel ?'liiker, 154. 
Ked-shoMldere.l ll;iuk, 1 U;-122-12:!. 
Redstart, 269-270. 
Red-tailrd U.Twk, 116-121-12:!. 
r?ed-tnil, 26!). 
Red-tliroated Loon, 15. 
Red winged Blackbird, 17!t-180-is !. 
Reedliirds. 17S. 
IleijuliiA rail iiiliila, 287. 
h'epvlax .s(i()V(/)((, 287. 
/.Vf/i'/iiKP, 286. 
IHiiimophiiiuA, ISS. 
I,'liiiiiili<ipii!ii.t inrcotcnii, 202. 
Rirliardson's Grouse, 100. 
Richar.lson's Owl. 135. 
Ring Bill, 50. 
i,' Gull, 23-27. 
Rint,'-i;eck Scaup, Ring Bill, 50. 
Riii; r:iile<l Marlin, 87. 
Rio (;r;iiide Turkey, 108. 
lUssa. 4-2.1. 

Iii»iia tri'hu-tyla, 2.1-25. 
Ttismi tridactyla jioUicaris, 23. 
River Ducks, 5-40-42-43-48-49. 

Ameriean Widgeon. Baldpate, 45. 

Black Duck, Dusky Mallard, 44. 

Bliie-wliijfid Teal, 46. 

Gadwell, ((ray Duck, 44. 

Green-winged Teal, 45. 

Mallard, 44. 

I'intail. Sprij; tail, 47. 
Spoon-bill, Hliov(>ll>'r, 46. 
Wood Dii.k. Sinnmi'r Duck. 47. 
Robin, 89-142-16.1-294 2i».". 
Robin Snii.e. 82. 
I.Viik 1 tiinnigan, 103. 
Rock Sandpiper, 82. 
Rock Wren, 274. 
Rocky .Moiititaiu (rccpcr, 2H1. 
Rocky Mountain .lay, White lir.ideil .lay. 

Roeky Mounlaiii Sim\ (Irouse, 104. 
Ro'e-brcasted Grosbeak, 1S8-190. 
Rose Tanager, 228. 

Ross' Snowy (iuo-e, Ilornel Wavey, 58. 
Rosy I-'ir.clics, 187-198. 
Ifosy Gulls, 28. 
Rough-legged Hawk. 124. 
l>ougli-witi.^e(l Swallow, 233. 
b'ubycrouned Kinglet, 287. 
Ruby-throated llumurngliird. l.'iO ?159160. 
b'udder Duck, Ruddy Duck, 56. 
Ruffed Grouse. 100-101 Iil2-10;M81. 
Rufous Hummingbird, 160. 
Russet-hacked Thrush, 292. 
Ru^ty Grackle. 184. 
Rusty Rough-legged Hawk, 116-124. 
Rusty Song Sparrow, 27-218. 
Iv'uticilla. 269. 
Sagi' (irouM>, Sage Hen. Spine-tail (Irouse, 

Sago Hen, 107. 
Salmon Dipper, 13. 
Salpiiictrt!, 27.'!. 
Siitpiiiitc.i <ih.ti)litH.i. 274. 
Sandorlings. 7o-86. 
Sandhill Crane, 69. 
Saiulpipers, (i-73-!n. 

Mairl's. 84. 

Hartrtimiati, 90. 

Buff-breasted, 91. 

Knot or Robin Snipe, 82. 

I.,east, Little Stint, 84. 

Pectoral. 83. 

Purple. Rock. 82. 

I{e<l-backed, 85. 

Semi-palmatPcl, 85. 

Solitary. Amoriean Green, 88. 

Spotted. 90. 

Stilt. 81. 

White-rumped, 83. 
Sandy Mockingbird, 278. 
Sandwich Sparrow, 204. 
Sapsucker, 149-l.'i0-l.')9. 
9a\'nnna Sparrow, 204. 




> - 

■; \ 
V 1 


|r ' 

Siii/ornia phrbe, 164. 
Sui/oniis xaiia. 166. 
Say's Pha'bc, Klvi-atchcr. 166. 
Sawbill, 41!. 
!Sa\v«-|iet Owl, 136. 
SajriiDln <i iiniillii, 295. 
.Scarli't Taiia^fr. 227l'2s. 
Scaup Dufk. 49-50. 
Sci<siir-t:irlc.| Klvi-.U.IitT, 163. 
.^(■ri/(C(>/)/(((<//f.s turiiliiiiiK, 184. 
Scoli iiiiilii iiii.i nitiiiiit , iiliiihin. 186. 
Seutorx, 55-56. 

.Viiii'ririiii, 55. 

Surf,;irli'-liil!,'i| (•(ml, 56. 
Vflvct. Wliiti -wiii'.'id. 56. 
Sfiiliiimi iilir. (i-75-78. 
Sctitidiih ,,■: fiiiii.<. IS.'i. 
Scoiitv .Mli'ii, 22. 
Scrcf(-h ()«!. 137. 
Sea Coots, 55. 

.\nu>rii'an .s.ii;,.i, 55. 
I.'iiililir or Diiek, 56. 
S|ici>r;iclp-l.ill,.i| Coot, 56. 
Surf SrotiT. 56. 
Vt'lvcr. Wliiti'-uiiiiicl 
Wliito-winjicil Si'oriT. 
Sea Diieks, o-40-4:?-4.'5-4S. 
.\inprii-an lOiiliT, 54. 
.\iiioric:iii •Mihli'ii-evc, 
Anioricati Scotir, 55. 
I!:irrovv 's (ioliliu-oyi', 
Black Sea-coot, o.!. 
Mliif'-hill. (iri'ntiT S,-:iiiii, 49. 
HiillV hiuil. Miitter-liall. 02. 
Canvas-bark. Wliitebark, 49. 
Ki br, 5354 55. 
(!oliIen-eyes, 50. 

(Jrpciilanil Ki(br. .Northern V'Mvv. 53. 
irarle(|iiin. ( an<l 53. 
Little Hlui'-liill, I,pj-;it St-auo. ."jO. 
Olil S(|ii;i\v, Cowlii'i'M. 52. 
I'aciti,' Ki.b.r. 54. 
Red-head, .Vinerican I'ocharl. 43. 
b'in<.'.iiri-kc>.l Si-aiip, Ring-liill, ,50. 
Kiiddcr. i;'i,|,lv Di.rk. .%. 
Scoters, 55 56. 

Spectacb'd Kider. Kiric Kider. 55 
Surf Ducks, Sea Coot-!, ,".-,, 
Surf Si-.iter, Spectacle-biilcd Cm.:, .<J6. 
Wiitc-win;,'i'd Scoter. Velvet S.'oter. 56. 
Seahawk. Boiixia. fornninti Skii:i. 21. 
Sea Parrots, 16-17. 
Sea Pigeons, 17. 
Sea Swallows, Terns, 29. 
SiiiiruK. L'44-2(i:i. 
Situru.i iiuriicii/iiHti.i, 262. 
Seiuriin mntacilla. 264. 
Stinrii.* )(oiohomr(ii.ii.i, 263. 


Whistler, 51. 

Selwtphoni* alleni, 161. 
SelaniihoriiM rufug, 160. 
Semi-palinatp 1 Plover, KinKneck Plover, 98. 
Semi-palmated Sandpiper, 85. 
Setophayu riitirillu, 269. 
Shag, Single-crestPd Cormorant, 37. 
Sharpshin Hawk, 115-11S-119. 
Sharp-tailed (irouse, 105. 
Shearn!iter<. ;i 4 32 33-34. 
Black-vented, 34. 

('innnioii, (Jreat Shearwaiir, llaj;. 33. 
Ntanx, 34. 
Sooty, 34. 
Shelldrake--, 42 43. 

Ifoodel .Mer;;anstr, Little Sawbill, 43. 
Keil-breaste.j Mei),'!in»er. 42. 
Shore Uird^, 2 6 73. 
Key to Kami lies, 73. 
Key to (iericra, 74. 

l"'li:ileropc Family. 74-76-77. 
.Vor!liern, 77. 
Red, 76. 
Wilson's. 77. 
Siilt I'arnilv, 74-77-78. 
.Vvorrts, 77-78. 

nine Stocki?];;, .\iiiiTiraii. 78. 
Stilt. 74. 
Snipe. S;indpiper and Curlew Family, 75 
Godwits, Tattlers .and Curlews, 86, 
' urlews, 74-7.')-><(!-91-92 i•.^. 
Kskimo. 92. 
Ffudsonian, 92. 
Long-billed, 91. 
C.idwits. 86. 

Brown Marlin. M.irbled. 86. 
IfuiNonian. Keil-breasted. Hinjf- 
tailed M;irlin, 87. 
T.'i'tlers. or Vcllinv-fogs, 87. 
<ireater Vellow-lei;s. 87. 
Lesser Velio" !ejjs, 8b. 
Plover Fii'uilv. ij 73-74-76 78-110 93-94- 
.\iiie;-i ■■in (nilde! , 0.j. 
l!!a,k-be!lied. Bull-headed, Golden, 93 
Kilbleer. 94. 
I'ip'ii^, 95. 

Kin;;-nfi-keil. ■■*etni-pal:u:i'e I. 95. 
Sandpipers. 7><-82-91. 

.Virii'rican (Ireen. .•^nlitarv, H8. 
Baird's. 84. 
1; irtramian. 90. 
ButT-breasted, 91. 
Knot. Rob'ii Snipe, 82. 
Least, Little Stint, 84. 
Pectoral. 83. 
I'urple. Rock. 82. 
Rod-backed, 85. 
Semi-palniafed, 85. 





Solitarj-, 88. 
Spotti'il, 90. 
Stilt, 81. 

Whiterumped, 83. 
Saii.liTliii;,', 7."i 86. 
D.iuitclicr. 80. 
Kcil-breasted, 81. 

l,un,i,'-l>ill.M, [{.•.|-!,rll',sl Sini..., 81. 
Oystoreat.liiT, M!;uk. 96. 
Snii).!<, i; 6 7.1 71 7." 7S-80 81 ^J s:; <.m. 
l;.'il-b-li;.. I. l,iiMi;-!.ill.. I l).i>i . h. r. 

WilMiiii's. 7' 80. 
'riirnxlc)!!!', OC. 
Willet, 89. 

V.''Dck, AiiiiTicMi'. 7'>7i. 
Slort-billed Gull, 24-28. 
Short-hillod Marsh Wr.-ii. 277. 
Sliiirtcarcl Owl, 133. 
Sliort-tiiili'd .Mbatrois, 32. 
Sluivfllor. SptuMi-liill. 46. 
Slirik.--, !» 236 237 238. 

Hul.-luT I'.iid. Niiitlioni. 2'M. 
I,.ii:i;.".-lii';nl. ijnT. 
Whiterumped, 238. 
Siiiifolilt'-; .I'liir.i, 216. 
Siiiliii (inliiii, 296. 
!<i(lli(i iiiijriniiiit Mil i(/, )tliilis. 296. 

Sialia sinli.t, 295. 

• ' Silver Toir.'ue. ' ' :! 1 7. 

Siiii,>-le-iT''-itc.! Cor!!! 'i Milt. Sli;iir. 37-.'tS. 

Silld ciiiioilt nsis, 283. 

Siltii riiriiliiii iisin, 282. 

Sittr, jiii(inii' i:. 283. 

SiiliiKt', 10. 

Skaiis, .Tiijiers. 2-4-20-21-22. 

Common Skua, Seahawk, Ronxia, 21. 

I.onj; t:iile.l .l:i-."-. 22. 

rarii^iri.' ^■■.■■^■>■. 22 

Tomarine .Ispger, 21. 
Sl:ite-ci)!ore I Piix Spurrnu, 221. 
Slatc-pdlorpil .Iiinc'i. 215. 
.Small-bille.j Writer ■|'hriisl,, 263. 
Smith's T.ongspur, 201. 
Sn'.jnw, Wiiodcock iiml S:iii(lpipers, 78. 

Ameriean Woodcock, 78. 

DDwitchor^. 80. 

Long-billed P.iwiN'her, Bed-bellied 

Snijio, 81. 
Re 1 breasted. 81. 
Snii>e-i, L'-t>-7;t-!tO. 

Red-lx'llied, lionjj-billeil Dowiteher, 81. 

Wilson's, 80. 
Snowbird. Siuirt liiiii: in;;, Smm llakf. l(i'.l-lS7 

Snow (inll. Ivory Gull, 24. 



8nu«' .Sparriirt -1. .Iiii les, l">;'215. 
Oregon .Iimhm. '<il.'). 
Sbufeldt'!! .run.v), 216. 

Slate <'ol»re.| .luncj, 216. 
Snowy llermi, Litll.- I'-fcTel, 65. 
Snowy Ov\l. (.re'it White Owl. l:;.'i 
Sohui (i(n>-^e. White <lriiiiiet, 36. 
Solitaire, TowTi-eiid'>, 289. 
S.ditiiry. .\iiierii:in lin ■!!. S;iiidi>ipi 
S,)lifaire. H19. 
.Sooty Fox Sp.irrow, 221. 
Sooty, Dii-ky. Blue, llron-^r 
Sooty Slic'irwaler. 3-1. 
Sooty Song Sparrow, 213. 
Siimatiria, 41. 
Soiiiiilt rill itri sn ri, 54. 
Soiiiiil' nti imilliniimi hiirmt 
SnitKtIi rill .s/f I hihilis, r>5. 
SiiiiiiitirUi I'linifii, 51. 
Song Sparrow, lti.1 IS'., jo ; 31G :;i;i. 

l>;ikot:i. 218. 

1 ii.'oln'... 218. 

Moiiiit:iin, 217. 

KuHty, 217. 

Sootv, 218. 

Song, 216. 

Swamp, 219. 
SoTii, Carolina Rtiil. 70. 
S.iree, 71. 

Sparrows, 2-S-'.t-H:; I7'.t- Isti L'til. 
Heaeli and ( ira-shoi)|ii'r S[irr-: > -. 

(irn-shopper, 205. 

ir,Miihiw''-. 206. 

I. ark. 208. 

I.eroiite'-:. 207. 

Nehon's Sparrou. NrNoii'^ SUar 
Pin eh, 207. 
I hipping S[iarrows, 2Jl. 

Mnwrr'-. 214. 

Chippiii_. Hair Hir 

Clav-eolored, 213. 

Field. 214. 

Tree, Wiiitir Calpp 

Western. 213. 
Crowned .S[)arrows. 209. 

Colden-rr i,;:ie 1. 211. 

Harris', lila.khooded. 209. 

White-erowned, 211. 

White-throated, 211. 
l>om(>-<tic S)i;irro\v. Is7. 
Fox Sparrows, 219. 

Kastern. 220. 

Slale-i-olur.d. 223. 

Sooty, 221. 

Townsend'-i. 221. 

!:!!• 140. 










I u* 

Or:!"-! S(>:irrin\». 203. 

UainlV'. 205. 

<ir:iv Hiril, (ir;is< Bird. \fs|i.T, 203. 

Ipswich, 204. 

Hnmlwith. 204. 

Saviinnii, 204. 
Ifimsn Si.,.rrii\v, 193. 
Snow S!i;irrip\v-<, .liiiu- "•■<. 21.'i. 

()rpi;iiii, 2iri.'-, 216. 

Slntc-ralortMl, 216. 
Song Sparrow s. 216. 

Dakiifii, 218. 

Kincoln'n. 218. 

Nroiint:iiii, 217. 

Kiistv. 217. 

8un^', 216. 

Sooty. 218. 

Swatnp, 219. 
Sparrow Hawk, ill 15-131. 
Spatula, Af>. 
Spoliihi fhiimihi, 46. 
Spri-taclt>lr:ilc.l Coot. Surf Si'Ot«-r. 56. 
Sppi'taclP'l F-iilor, Kinj; Eider, 66. 
Spiiihjlii iiiiiiriiUiria hiijioima. 142. 
Sphi/rapuiiK niriiis', 149. 
Spinptail (trousp, Sago Grouse, Sajje Hot, 

SpiniiA ni II 11.1. 199. 
Spica. is**. 

Spi:a am> rirmiia, 225. 
Spiza montiioln. 212. 
Spicilla, 180-211. 
Spizillii hrmiri, 214. 
Spizilla pallida, 213. 
Spi'dlii pii.silln. 214. 
Spicdia .iociaU.i, 212. 
Spicclla .voct(i/i.« nri^onir, 213. 
Spoon-bifl, Shoveller, 46-.57. 
SpotTptl S.nmlpipcr. 90-!)l. 
Spr.Tpiu' 's Pipit. Nfisso\iri T;ark. 271. 
Sprig-tail, Pin-tail, 47. 
Spruce Partridge. Canada Grouse, 100-101. 
Spurred Tos^liee. 223. 
SiinatarnUi, 7fi. 
SijMitdroln xiiiiattirola, 93. 
Stake Driver, C:!. 
Sti'ifanopodr.i. 2-4-36. 
Stepaiwpus, 74. 
Steiianopun trimhir, 77. 
Steiler's .lay, 172. 
Stelffidopteryx .scrripennis, 233. 
Stellula calliope, 161. 
Stervorariidte . 4-21. 
Stercnrariu.t lonf/iauidus, 22. 
Stercorariun para.iititcvs, 22. 
Stercorariux ponuirinus, 21. 

.SItriiii. 4. 

Stirna antilliirum, 31. 

Stirnit iu.ipHi, 30. 

Sl/riia fdrstiri, 30. 

Sti run hiruiido, 30. 

Stiiiiti piirniltnati. 31. 

Stilt, 6-7.1-74 81. 

Stilt Fainily, 74. 

Stilt Sandpiper, 81. 

St. Kilda Pi'tnl. Coiirii ii Kulinar, 33. 

Stone-ehat, (in . i land Wln-jitear, 296. 

Stormy Petrels. 34 35. 

('oliiuioii. 30. 

(iray Kork-tailed, 33. 

loach's Fork tailed, 35. 

Wilson "k, 35. 
Striuea, U:'. 132. 
StrifiiiUr. 2-7-132. 
StriJ pniliniiolii, 132. 
.Sluriiilla mn'iiiii, 181 1S2. 
Stvrnella I'luima iiriilccln, 182. 
ShIii liii.s.'tnitii. 36. 
Siiltdiv, 4 36. 

SuMiuier ])uik. Wood Duck, 47. 
.Suninier Ked Mini, Summer Tanajjer, Ho^e 

TaiiaL'er, 228. 
Summer Warbler, 251-252. 
Surf Duek, Sea Coots, 55. 
Surf Scoter. Spectacle-billed <'oot, 56. 
Siiriiia iiliilii rapiirorh, 141. 
Swainson's Hawk, 116-122. 
Swallow.s, 8 !»- l.-)7-228-22!i 230 231-232 233. 

Chimney Swallows. Chimney Swift. 157. 

Swallows, 228. 
Rank, 232. 
Barn, 230. 
Cliff. 230. 

Purple Martin. 229. 
li'ough-ninjted, 233. 
Tree. 231. 
Violet-green, 231. 

Sea Swallows, Terns. 29. 
Swamp .\ngel. 2'.>2. 
Swamp Song Sparrow, 219. 
Swans, 2 .^-40-60-61. 

Trumpeter, 61. 

Whistling. 61. 
Swainson 's Hosy Finch, Gray-crowned Leu- 
cost ictt; 196. 
Swifts, Hummingbirds and Goa „.4uckers, 164. 
Swift.^, 2-8-157-158. 

Black, 158. 

Chimnc-V. 157. 

Vaux, 158. 
Rylviida; 10-286. 
Symphemia xemi-palmata, 89. 








Symiitm iiihulDxum. 134. 
Tachifrintta birolor, 231. 
Tachyniitta thalitssuin, 231. 
TanaKert, 226. 

Lotiisiana, CriiuiDn-hcaile'l. 2!27. 
atarlct. Rp,l Hira, 227. 
Summer, Tiit<>e, SutimiiT Ri"l, 228. 
Tanni/riilir, !)-226. 
TaiH', Kol (iniss, 49. 
Tattlers, Yellow l.iTM, '4ti.87'88. 
Oreator. Yelloiv lojf-i. 87. 
I^esser, Ypllowlejjti, 88. 
Tawny ('reoi- ■ 2S1. 
Teal, 45-46. 

Blue-win(tea. 46. 
Oreen-wingt'il, 45. 
Teeter Snipe, 90. 
Telmatod' tes, 27.3. 
Telmatniliitin jialu»tris, 277. 
Ti'lmntodi/trx palustrix paludtrohi, 278. 
T<Miiiesseo Warbler, 249. 
Terns, 2-4-20-22-29-30-31. 
American Black, 31. 
Arctic, 31. 
Caspian, 30. 
Porster 'g, 30. 
Least, 31. 
Wilson's, 30. 
Tftraonidce, 7. 
Tip-up, 90. 
Titmice, or Chickaile 
Thiek-billeil Guillemi 
Thrashers, 10-272 27 

Brown, 278. 
Thrn.ihps, 2 810-179-267-289 ^95. 
Thrushes ami Bluebirds, 289. 
.\meric;in Rcbin. 294. 
Bluebir.l, 295-296. 

.\rctic. Mountain, 296. 
Mexican, Townsend's, 296. 
Oreenlanil 'Wnicari'ar, Stmn'cha!. 295. 
Townsend's Solitaire, 289. 
True Thrushes, 289. 
Bicknell's, 292. 
r. ray-cheeked, Alice's, 291. 
Kadiak Hermit, 292. 
Olive-backed, 293. 
Russet-backed, 292. 
Wilsan's, Veerv, 290. 
W..X1, 290. 
Varieil Thrush, Oregon Robin, 294. 
Thyromanif, 27."?. 
Thyromaiitx htwirki, 275. 
Thyrothnrux. 27,1. 
Thyrothoms ludoiuutnus, 274 
Titlark, 270. 

, 10. 

. Brunnich 's Miirre, 



Tit*, 2x2. 
Titmice, 2S2. 
Tolmie's Warl.ler, 266. 
Totanux fluviiHu. 88. 
Tolanu.1 milnn()l<U(u:<, 87. 
Totipalmafti Swimmers, 2 4 36 .'17 
Cortiiorants, 37. 

Double (Teste I. 38. 
Single. iTe-;te, I. Shaj;, 37. 
\'ioIet );roen, 38. 
Oannets, 36. 

Solan (loose. White (iannet. 36. 
Pelican, 38 39. 

American White, 39. 
~r. TD, 39. 
TfiwtiK v . •2l7iilH!t-222 223-224. 
r ivih'i. I. iifinifs, 221. 
Ar ti., 223. 
"!*;• n, 222. 
iipurreil, 223. 
Towhee, Cheewink, 222. 
Townsend'.s Bluebird, 296. 
Townsend's Fox Sparrow. 221. 
Townsend's Solitaire, 289. 
Townsend's Warbler. 259. 
Traill's Flycatcher, 167 16S. 
Tree Sparrow, Winter (hippy, 212. 
Tree Swallow, 22'.»-231. 
Trinpa, 7.5. 

Trxnfia itlpiiia imrifica. 86. 
Tringa hairdii, 84. 
Tnniia canutus, 82. 
Tringa fuscicollis, 83. 
Tringa macuUitn. 83. 
Tringa maritima, 82. 
Tringa minutilln, 84. 
Tr(H-hilid(F. S-159. 
Trnchilux alcxandri, 160. 
TrochiluK rohibris. 159. 
Troglodyte*, 273. 
Troiilndytrs iidon. 275. 
Troglodytidcr, 10-272. 
Trnglodiitiiia-. 10. 
True Plovers, 74. 
True Thrushes, 289. 
Trumpeter Swan, 61. 
Tryngitrx, 75. 
Tryngitr.i .mhriificollin, 91. 
Tube-nased Swimmers. 2-4-32. 
Albatrosses, 32. 
Fulmars, 32. 
Petrels proper, 34. 
Shearwaters, 3S. 
Tubinares, 2-4-32. 
Tufted Puffin, 17. 
Twdidce, 10-289. 
Turdina, 289. 




\ \ 

Turkey*, 2-6-7-97-108-138. 
Turkey Biir.zanis or Vultures, 116. 
Turkey Hiizzard, 117. 
Turnstones, 6-74-96. 
Tympaniichug am(ricanus, 106. 
Tyrniiiiiilii . '^•162. 
Tyrant Flycatcher, 163. 
Tyraunu* (.i/ro/i/ic- 163. 
Dria lomvia, 19. 
Dria troilc. 18. 
falisitfria Kpirnlis, i'.\. 
Valley Quail, 99. 

Varied Thriwh, Orpjr<>n Knhin. 294. 
Vaux Swift. 158. 
Veery, 29n-2!M. 
Velvot Diii'k, ,">(), 
Velvet Scoter, 56. 

Vesper Sparrow. lSS-2(t2-203L'n4-20n. 
Violptgret'n ('onncrant, 38. 
Violpt-(jree:i Snallow, 231. 
Vireos. 2-8 !»17ti 238 239-240 241-242. 
.\nthi«iiy. 242. 
Blup-he'riiled, 211. 
Philndelphi:!. 240. 
Rdl-eve.I, 239. 
Solita'rv. 241. 
Warlilini'. 240. 
Wliiti'-pycl. 242. 
Vpllinv-tliroatiT. 241. 
I'lrjo huttoiii nhscurii.t, 242. 
I'irro voniljfiriKi iixis. 242. 
rireonititr, 9-238. 
rirfou'lra fiiliiis. 240. 
rircos>ilia olitnrrn, 239. 
I'irtotiiiha philnddphnn. 240. 
Virijinin Rail, 70. 
Vulturp, .'i 7. 

Vnltiirp Family. lU' 116 117. 
Vultures. Kagl'fj, Hawks, am' Owls, 111-112. 
Black Vulturp, 117. 
Tiirk'.'v Biizzari, Vuiturp. 116. 
WaJers, 2-5 62. 

Bitterns. 62 63. 
Egrets, 62-65. 
Herons, 62 64 CD 66. 
Wagtails, 10-270. 

.\meri-an Pippit, Titlark. 270. 
Spragup's Pippit. Missouri I>ark, 271. 
War Binl. 227. 
Warblers, 2 817!) 242. 
Wood Warblers. 243. 
Alaskan Sninner, 252. 
.Xineriran Reii«tnrt, 269. 
Auiliibon 's, 253. 
Azure, Cerulean, 256. 
Biiy-breasterl, '254. 
Black Pap, Wilson's, 268 

Black and White. 246. 

Black and Vellow, Magnolia, 254. 

Blackburnian, 267. 

Black-poll, 256. 

Black-throate.l Hlue, 253. 

Black-throated (iray.^SS. 

Black-throated (ireen, 258. 

Blue Vellowliacked. Northern I'arula. 

Canadian, 269. 
«'aj»o .May, 250. 
• hestnut sided. 265. 
('<)nnectii-iit, 264. 
Fl-<'afchinB, 267. 

Ct(>ldenrr(nvn"d Thrush, Oven Bird. 262. 
(iolden-winged. 247. 
Hermit, 259. 
Hooded, 268. 
Kentucky. 264. 
Kirt land's, 260. 
Louisiana Water Thrush, 264. 
Maryland Yellowthroat, 266. 
.Mourning', 265. 
Myrtle, Yellow-ruuiped, 252. 
Nashville. 248. 
Orange-crowned. 248. 
Pacific Coast V'ellowthroat. 266. 
Palm, 261. 

Pileolated I'.lark c.ipped, 268. 
Pine, 260. 
Prairie, 262. 
I'rothiinot.iry, 247. 
Sniall-liilled" Water Thrush, 263. 
S'lii.mer, Vtdlow, 251. 
Tennessee. 249. 
Tolmio's. 265. 
Townsend 's, 259. 
Vellow-breJusted Chat. 267. 
Warblin!» Vireo. 240. 
Water Birds, 3. 

Diving Birds, 311-1.1 19. 
l.amellirostral Swimmers, 5. 
I,ong-wingei| Swimmers. 4. 
Mar-h Birds, 5. 
Shorn Birds, 6. 
'rotip.ahnate Swimmers. 4. 
Tube nosei! Swimmers, 4. 
Waders, 5. 
Water Celery, 40. 
Water Hen,' 71 73. 
Water Thrush, 263-264. 
Waterwitch. l.'i. 
Wavey, 57 58. 
Common, 67. 
Horned, 68. 
Little, 67. 



WaxwioKs, 9-233-234-235-23«. 

Bohemian, Chatterer, 234. 

Cedar, Cherry Bird, 235. 
Welcome to the Birds, iii. 
Welsh's Ptarmigan, 104. 
Western Chipping Spnrrow, 213. 
Western (tlaucous, Oull, 24. 
Western (rolden-urowned Kinglet. 287. 
Western (ioshawk, l;;0. 
Weater.i Grebe, 11. 
Western (iull, 26. 
Western Herring (iiiU, 26. 
Western Horned Owl. l.W. 
Western I..ark Sparrow, 200. 
Western Marsh Wren, 27S. 
Western Mealonlark, 182. 
Western Nighthawk, LI". 
Western nr Oregon Chickadee, 285. 
WVstern Ked tail Hawk, 121. 
Western Savanna Sparrow, 205. 
Western mated Sandpiper, 86. 
Western v'esper Sparrow, 203. 
Western Warbling V'irco, 241. 
Western Wood Phmbe, 166. 
Western Yellow-bellied Flvcateher, 168. 
Whip-poor-Will, 155-156. ' • 
Whistler. 51. 
Whittling Swan, 61. 
White Rack, 49. 

White-breasted N'lithatch. 282-284. 
Wiitecrested Cormorant. US. 
Whitc-rrnwtu'd Sparrow, 210-211. 
WHiite-eved Vireo, 241-242. 
Whiti> (!ann<'t. S<-lan Goose, 36. 
White-headed .Fay, 173. 
White-headed Woodpecker. 148. 
White .ferf.ilion. Iceland or Greenland Jer- 

falcon. 127-128. 
White or Whooping Crane, 68. 
\Vhite-rii!ni>ed Petrel, .15. 
White-niTiiped Sandpiper, 83. 
WhiteriiMiped Shrike, 238. 
Whiti'faili'd Ptarmigan or Uocky Mountain 

Snow ('.rouse. 104. 
White fhroate<l Sparrow. 211. 
White-winged ('riissbill, 195. 
Whife-winsji'il l{|;ickl)ird, 226. 
Whiff. win;;ed i^coter, Velvet Scoter. 56. 
Wild Geese. 57-61. 

American White-fronted. 58. 

Rarnaole, Brant, 60. 

Black Mrant, 60. 

Blue, 58. 

<"ana.|.T, 59. 

Greater Snow, Common Wavev, 57. 

Hornc(l Wavev, Rn«s' Snowr. 68. 

Hutchin's, Mttle Wild, 59." 

I,es«er Snow, Little Waver, 67. 

Wibt Turkey, 108. 

Willet, 89. 

Willow Grimse, I(i4. 

Willow Ptarmigan. 103. 

Willow Thrush, •.'".•1 292. 

n'Unoiiio, 24-1 267. 

ft'ilsonia ranadtiimii, 209. 

li'iUonia mil rata, 268. 

tVihoiiut pu.silla, 268. 

Wilson's I'etrel, 34-35. 

Wilson's Phalcrope, 77. 

Wilson's Snipe, 75-80. 

Wil«)on's Tern, 30. 

Wilson's Thrush. Vwry. 290. 

Wilson's Warbler. Bla.k Cap, 268. 

Windhove.-. l.'il. 

Winter ('hi[ir>v. Tree Sparrow, 212. 

Winter Vv'r.'n,"276. 

Woodcock, 73-".") 78-7!i. 

Wood Oiick. Summer Duck, 47-53. 

Wood[M ck.r, 2-7- 14'2-1.54-280-281 •288-895, 

.\nierica!i Three-t^ed, 149, 

Arctic Three-toed, 148, 

Blick-backcd, I-,S 

Don III'. 117, 

F'licki'r. Vellowhariimer, Highol<)er, 183. 

Hairy, 14C. 

I^wis', l.'J2. 

N'orth-wcvt.Tu Flicker, 164, 

Pileated. 151, 

Re I bellied, 152. 

Red headed, 151, 

Red shafterl, 154. 

Yellow-bellied S;i.psiieker. 149, 

White-headed. 148. 
Woo. I Phcpbe, 166. 
Wood Thrush, 290291. 
Wood Warbler. 242 267. 
Wfirme.-vting Whrblers. 247, 
Wren't and 'I hnishers, 272-278. 
Wrens, 2 S 10 272 27S 2S1. 

Be.vick's. 275. 

California, 278. 

<'nrolina, 274 

House, 275. Marsh. 2^. 

Rock, 274. 

Short billed Marsh, 277. 

Winter, 276. 
Xituthiiii'ihnlhn xmiiliiicij-hiilux, 179 
Xennpu «.■( nlh'ilorvnUi-^. 148. 
Yellowbe'lied Flycatcher, 167, 
Yellowlx'llieil Sapsucker, 149. 
Yellow-billed <■' koo, 144. 
Yellow-billed \.(, n, 16, 
Yellowbirii. Yellow Warbler, 261. 
Yellow-breasted Chit, 267. 


< .1 


TeUow-erowned Night Heron, 67. 
Teilow Ebmmer, Flicker, Highold«r, 163. 
Yellow-headed Blackbird, 179. 
Yellow Legs, Tatlers, 87 88-89. 

Greater, 87. 

Leaser, 88. 
Yellow or Summer Warbler, 251-252. 
Yellow Palm Warbler, 261. 
Ydlow RaU, 71. 

Yellow Kiimped, Myrtie Warbler, 252. 
Yellow-throated Vireo, 241. 
Yellow-winged Sparrow, 206. 
Xenaidura macrmira. 111. 
Zenotrichia, 18i>-209. 
Zenotrichia albicollis, 211. 
Zenotrichia coronata, 211. 
Zenotrichia lencophrys, 210. 
Zenotrichia <(uerula, 209. 


Thirty Nature Study lessons 




Lecturer in Scien.*-. Faculty of fid 

ucatioii, University of loronto. 

The* le.«ons are basal on tl^ cla^ro.^ ^^ of th. author a,^ 
•oe found both .utere,t,ng .„d he.pfn, to the teacher. 


That the farmer should k«ow th« birds becaime <x tlieir iueatiniftble value 
in relation to agriciiltare is no longer disputed, hence there is an increasing 
demand for definite informaiioii ui regard tutheio, and tor a well defined method 
of studyiiin their lialnts 


III •'Tliirt)- Lc'i^oiis on HinN the author has presented in outline form, 
ooj.venient fur studyinij the most common birds of Caaada. euipliasizing their 
economic >ni|>ortaiice 


riicse outline lessons are not hare headings hut contain tte facts whKh 
enable the student to answer the <|ue?»tioiis found -n «uch '.essotr For fuiier 
detail, however, the student i- leferretl tu the Nets Cau.idiaa Hird RtKaK iv Prof . 
\V. T. MacCleinent, M. A . I>. Sc. , Oneeu > rntrw^tv. K.iii4;stou In this Bird 
Book. Prof. MacClement uives a concise and readaiite descnpticm of every bird 
of Canada, tlealiiig witii the subject from the Cuuailian ;>oiiit of view. He has 
made the work more vahiahle hy the aiiditiou o! many careful! v selectetl full 
pai^e pictures of hinU true to life in m/c. posture ami color. 






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(.m,l, „|, b.,„l .„ study >l,i, b..„,if„, ^„,| 





Toronto . Canada