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1653 East Main Street 
Rochester, New York 14609 
(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 
(716) 288 - 5989 - Fax 







FARM MACHINERY. — Swdia*. Hamtdag and 

TTw fktiig Ma ci wMwy ditcuiniJ 10 4<iffli Di&raBk 

QtMM of ScS^. How to Ran • Bm Snc c tt tluM y.- 
Intricate Woi4ung o{ the Septn^ or ThwAil 



The yearly cycle of farm operations coiumeuce in 
the fall and spring by preparing the seed bed with 
the variotia implements of tillage. These imple- 
ments have been described in Lesson V., which is 
devoted to the subject of tillage. In this lesson we 
shall, therefore, discuss the construction, operation, 
adjustment, care and repair of the various farm 
machines, taking them up in the order they are used 
on the farm and beginning with seeding machinery. 


Broadcast Seeders — ' 

] Hand rotating distributor. 

2. Endgate rotating distributor. 

3. Wheelbarrow seeders. 

4 Wheeled broadcast seedei^., 
(a) Wide track. 
'hA Narrow track. 

i ination cultivator and disc seeders. 


1. Hoe. 

2. Shoe. 

3. Single disc. 

4. Double disc. 

Covering Devices — 

1. Chains. 

2. Press wheels. 

Feeding Meohaniimi— 

1. Agitator feed. 

2. Force feed. 

(a) Single run. 

(b) Double run. 

Bud StedMr^The hand seeder shown in Fig. 1 
has a seed distributor consisting of a flat disct with 
radial flanges. The seed drops through an adjust- 
able hole in tht; bottom of the bag down upon the 
rapidly revolving distributor (Fig. 1) by which it is 

FIs. 1 

OU 9mMamt4 UmaA B wd ar, VmuUr uitmpvmd to O^mMm** 


scattered in all directions by the centrifugal force 
generated. The machine is usually strapped to the 
operator's ahoulders so as to give him the free use 
of his hands for operating the machine. The 
amount of seed sown is gauged l)y regulating the 
size of the opening in the bottoni of the sack, by the 
rapidity with which the sowman rotates the dis- 
tributor and bjr his rate of travel. This machine 
findi « limited m» . m sawing tnmip and similar 


seeds broadcast and may aUo Ke used for sowing 
gratt seeds whelk the regular drill used on the farm 

is not provided with a f^rass-seed attaehneirt. It is 

used quite exttusively for sowing bromus. This 
seed is very light, weighing approximately 14 pounds 
to the bushel, and being shaped somewhat like oats 
is difficult to sow uniformly in an ordinary drill, 
even when mixed with the seed of a nurse crop. 
With a little praetiee good results maj be obtained 
when aowing it with the hand rotating distributor. 
When this is done the nurse crop, if used, should be 
sown first with an ordinary drill when the wheel 
tracks will form eonvenient guides in mowing the 
bromus. When sowing with this machine choose as 
calm a day as possible so that the seed may seatter 

uniformly. The seed should afterwards be covered 
by light harrowing. 

Indgataa Bottliiif DifMnitor^The eodgate 

rotating distributor, illustrated in Wig, 2, is similar 

in design and construction to the hand rotat- 
ing distributor. It is desi|^ed to be attached 
to the rear of a common farm wagon. A sprocket 
wheel is bolted to the inner side of one of the rear 
wheels of the wagon from which the distributor is 
lotated by means of a chain. This type of seeder 
lends itself to the same uses as the hand machine 
and because of its cheapness and convenience was 
used quite extensively in some localities when broad- 
easting was the eommon method of seeding. Since 
the advent of the drill its use has beeome quite lim- 
ited, although it h still listed by many manu- 

I Ik. ■: 

K9 § gKt 9 Vttattav Dtolribator, attached t* rear ml mmmiM rmem 


Whetibarrow Seeder. — Tiie wheelban-ow seeder 
i« «aid to have originated in China, where it has 
been used for a^os, and it is still the most common 

type of seeder in that country. A good idea of 
its general construction and operation may be ob- 
tained from Fig. which illustrates a modern 

Fig a 

WbMlbarrow Heeder, commonljr uiied by Market Gardener*. 



machine of this lype, such as is conmionly used by 
market gardeners. In order to secure uniform seed- 
ing and prevent the clogging of the seed openings, 
the seed is agitated by a slide in the bottom of th<: 
hopper which is vibrated by coiiih" tiiif? arms struek 
by the spokes of the wheel as it revolves. 

Wide Track Broadcast Seeder. — The wide track 
broadcast seeder is mounted on two wheels between 

WW* Tmrk liiMSiJ B rt Svc4. 

which is supported the frame carryiu^^ the seed box 
and covering devices together with other mechanism 
and parts of the machine. The seeder illustrated 


by Fig. 4 is representative of this type of machine. 
In some makes the agitator feed is used while the 
better ones employ the more reliable force feed 
mechanism shewn in Fig. 15. The seed is eommonly 
conveyed in tubes to within a few inches of the 
ground and each tube is followed by a common cul- 
tivater shovel which covers the grain. These ma- 
chines do not seed and cover at an even depth, as 
some of the grain gets into the -deep furrows made 
by the shovels while some of it remains entirely 
uncovered. At present the broadcast seeder has 
been practically superseded by the drill and is but 
little used in any form in the large grain-raising 
sections of Canada and the United States. 

The Narrow Track Seeder.— The narrow track 
seeder, Fig. 5, is similar in design and eonstmction 
to the wide ^ack machine except that the wl «yls 
are placed as closely together as on a wagon. As 

Tig. 5 

Narrow Track Seeder, similar in desisa and coaatmetlen, to Wig 4. 

shown in the illustration the seed box extends be- 
yond the wheels on both sides dragging a marker 
at cither end for a guide in sowing. Narrow track 
drills are also manti^otored by several companies. 

The narrow track maefaines are used advantageonsly 
on rough, uneven ground containing stones or other 
obstructions. A wide track machine is difficult to 
guide under such conditions, for the wheels in pass- 
ing over obstructions or dropping into hollows cause 
the tongues to whip the shoulders of the hones pro- 
ducing chafing and much discomfort. The narrow 
track machine is obviously much easier to guide 
and is designed to meet the conditions described. 

Drill and Disc Harrow. — A combination drill and 
disc harrow is illustrated in Fig. 6. This type of 
machine is also made in the form of a broadcast 
seeder and is designed to do the work of a disc 
harrow as well ks a seeding machine, but, as a rule, 

has not been found espedally eftcient in its capa- 
city as either. If the discs are to be so shaped and 
adjusted that the machine is efficient us a tillage 
implement, its draft, becomes too great unless made 

narrow. As a seeder it sows unevenly, some of the 
grain dropping into the deep, narrow furrows made 
by the diiies while many kernels scatter on the sur- 
face. An uneTen stand of grain is usually the 

Drilll. — ^The idea of sowing grain in drills or 
rows was not originated when a few decades ago 
the drill commenced replacing the broadcast seeder 
as a seeding machine but is as old as agriculture. 
Records show that the Assyrians used a erode 
single row machine for sowing grain aa early as 
500 B.C. In 17.31 Jethro Tull, of England, pub- 
lished a book entitled "Horse Hoeing Husbandry," 
wherein he sots forth the advantages of drilling 
over broadcasting and constructed several machines 
to sow the grain in this way but, on account of 
the mechanical defects, drills were not a marked 
success uutil the advent of the modern machine with 
its accurate force feed mechanism. A modem drill 
with shoe fui^row openers is shown in Fig. 7. 

»Mi«rir Ortil wttl^ Wkmm -Wmwwm Opcnan. 

furrow Openers. — This is the naihe commonly 
given tbe deviees placed on drills for opening small 
furrows in which the seed is sown. In the matter 
of furrow openers, i\w manufacturers have been 
unable to produce a type that will do perfect work 
in any soil. They have found it necessary to place 
upon the^market a number of varieties so that one 
of them may suit the soil condition in any section 
where grain is raised. A number of standard fur- 
row openers has been the result. The hoe drill 
succeeded the broadcast seeder, and in spring-wheat 
seeding, especially, the shoe drill superseded the hoe 
drill, so that at present the the latter has beeome 
practically olMSolete. Later single-disc and double- 
disc drills were introduced and each is unquestion- 
ably the best for some localities. 

Hoe Drill. — The hoe drill, shown in Fig. 8, con- 
sists of a pointed hollow tube or boot through which 
the grain passes to be deposited in the furrow made 

8MM»to 0t Mm MB 

by the sharp point. To prevent breaking when the 
point atotket stumps or other obstructions, the hoe« 
IS limidljr provided with l^eak pfait nmiliur to thoee 


sometimes used on cultivator shovels. The fignrf 
shows a spring break which serves the same pur- 
pose and is more convenient jis the hop springs back 
into place as soon as iho obstruction is passed. The 
tension of the spring is usually made adjustable. 

Farmers who have had experience with various 
soils know that while the hoe furrow opener has 
good penetration it will not do satisfactory work in 
ground filled with long stubble or trash of any kind. 
It does fair work in a clean, well pr.])ared veed 
bed, but will not sow at as even depth as the other 
types aii4 is not to be compared with them. 

Sho0 Drill.— The shoe drill dates back to 1866, 
but it was not perfected or extensively used until 
1885 when its advantages began to i)e recognized 
and it became adopted throughout the grain-raising 
sections of the world. As shown in Fig. 9, the shoe 

Tbc She* DrlU, wkkli has b«en In ci^tciiaive nw for thr 
Ima* 23 yemn. 

is so shaped as to open a V-shaped furrow irto 
which the grain is deposited through a hole in the 
heel of the shoe. The shoe has the advantage over 
,the hoe that in avoiding the aecumulation of trasb 
the depth of sowing can be bett^ regulated; 


neither has it the bobbing motion eharacterittie of 
the hoe, and, therefore, greater nliiforraity of depth 
is obtainable. The shoe is forced into the groun»l 
by means of a spring. Ther*? are two types of 
springs used, viz., thi^ coil wire spring and the rod 
or bar spring. The rod or bar spring is shown in 
Pig. 9. It is apparent that the mater the resiliency 
of these springs the more periect will be the uni- 
formity of depth in ppssing over \mpven ground. 
Coil spi'ings, if of sufficient length, are quite effec- 
tive but, although they are used on a majority of 
drills, some makers claim that the bar spring per- 
mits the shoe more indi pendent action without ma- 
terial variation of pressure and that they do not 
lose their tension and elasticity as the coil springs 
sometimes do. 

The shoe drill will not do satisfactory work in 
hard ground or in clay ground whicil» bakes in 
lumps. The shoe drill does good work in a cleaii 
seed bed that has ')een thoroughly loosened and pul- 
verized by harrowing. It is not as good as the disc 
opener for sowing wheat in stubble ground, a com- 
mon practice where winter wheat is sown after , 
spring crops, neither is it a sueeess on eom stubble. 
It has the advantage of simplicity ove/ the disc 
openers as it has no bearings, requires less care, and 
lasts longer. 

Sklgle Disc Drills — These are of two types — 
those with flat discs and those with disc-shaped 
discs. The straight disc opens a narrow V-shaped 
furrow similar to that made by the shoe While the 
disc-shaped variety opens a wider furrow into which 
the grain is distributed, thus giving the grain a 
better chance to stool out and secure a better root 


development than is possible where it is crowded 
into a narrow furrow. The draft of the latter type 
is, however, greater as it requires more power to 
open the wide furrw« and besides it does cMisider- 
able work in pulverizing the soil and preparing the 
seed bed. 

The single disc has more penetration than the 
other forms of furrow openers and is, therefore, 
especially well sruited for hard and trashy ground. 
The discs are usually made dished, like those of a 
disc harrow, so that they do considerable work in 
pulverizing tiie soil and in prei)aring the seed bed 
while the others do little hut merely sow the grain. 
On this account one would naturally expect the 
draft of the single disc to be greater than that of 
the double disc and such is the ease. The following 
results of draft tests taken in the same field, on the 
same day, at the North Dakota Experiment Station, 
will prove this point: 

Distance Dlatance Total 

aipart Number (.overed Draft Draft 
K\Dd of dtoc of rowa of discs In feet In pounds per foot 

Single 6" 22 11 850 77.27 

Double 6" 22 11 675 62.27 

Some of the objections to the single disc are: 
First, it tends to make the ground imeveu since the 
soil is thrown in only one direction and is left in 
ridges but to compensate for this it leaves the soil 
in blotter tilth than any other form. Second, there 
is a tendency for the disc to ciog in wet, sticky soil. 
Third, its weak point is its bearing. 

Tn buying a single disc pay particular attention 
to tfhe disc bearings, examine them as to their dust- 
proof qnMlities Hnd eoiivenience of lubrication. 
Kui-lhci-, select a <lrill with the heel or auxiliary 
shoe of such form that it will not clog. Don't buy 


a single disc drill that allows the seed to come in 
direct contact with the di»c8 as they will scatter the 
geed. An en«k>sed boot should be provided to lead 
the seed into the bottom of the farrow before the 
earth is permitted to fall back into the I'nri-ow. hi 
spite of some of the objections raised against the 
single disc, it will meet»more of the many and vary- 
ing soil conditions to je encountered than any other 
form of furrow opener and for this reason has be- 
come very popular. 

The single disc furrow opener is illustrated in 
Fig. 10. 

Ftar. !• * 

SlnSi* Dbw Drill with Boot to 1m4 S«eA farte 

bottom of furrow. 

Double Disc — The double disc, clearly illustrated 
in Pig. 11, is the latest type of furrow opener. The 
boot and axles are commonly made in one solid 
casting to which the draw bar is attached. The disc 
axles are usually cone shaped, and are placed at 
such angle with each other as to bring the flat discs 
close together in front forming a single edge. This 
brings the discs about 2V4 inches apart in the rear 
and abont IV^ inches apart at the bottom. The 


discs revolve together and bein^r bevelled at the 
edge tend to wear sharp which enables them to 
efUeiirtiky etit through tnish and open a elean fur- 
row for the seed. 

FUr. It 

The I>oiible DIm. 

The double-disc drill is lighter in ilraft than 
eithed the shoe or single-disc, and this is one reason 
for its great popularity. It lias not tlic penetration 

Fiir. 18 

Double Farrow left by use of Double Disc Drill. 

power of the single-disc, and will consequently not 
do a« good work on hard, trashy ground, although 
it is by for th« hent ixa^rmr open^ on <HNni sAuWe 


ground. When used OB soil well puWeriied 
and in good tilth; it is undoubtedly the best fur- 
row opener on the market. The double-disc saws 
the seed in a wider furrow than the other types— m 
fact, it produees a double furrow, as shown in Figure 
12, with a single ridge between, so that the grain is 
sown in two rows instead of one. This is elaimed to 
l>c a grreat advantage by many, who maintain that it 
gives the plants more root room. The double-disc 
has a better bearing than the single-disc, and with 
equal care and wear should last longer. In general, 
a doubl'^-disc will do good work on soil on which a 
shoe drill has been suecessful, but it has not the wide 
range of adaptability posaeesed by the single-disc. 
In the right kind of 3oils it is the best furrow opener 
and should be used in many localities where the 
single disc is at present used almost exclusively. 
The double-disc is the most expensive furrow-opener 
to manufacture, and, being sold at the same price, 
must consequently be sold at a lower profit than the 
other types. For this reason, agents seldom urge 
their patrons to buy this type, although companies 
furnish it on demand. 

In buying a drill, tiie farmer rfiould determine 
which type of furrow opener is beat suited to his 
soil conditions, and demand tbat type. 

Covering Devices. — ^The common method of cov- 
ering the seed is by means of a chain composed of 
large iron rings, connected with small links, attached 
behind each furrow opener. The drill shown in 
Fig. 7 is equipped with covering ehains which do the 
work saitisfactoriiy under ordixiary soil conditions. 

Press Wheels.— When the soil is loose and dry, 
quicker and more certain germination of the seed 


W secuml by preswng the soil firmly over the seed, 
which impmves the »oil capillarity so that thr mois- 
tnro will hp firawn from henenfh and sprout thv 
M«H fi. rhm M accontplinhed by prf>m dnlte which 

t in. IX 
preMore to the wbcrts. 

do good work in a loose, well-prepared- seed- 
bed, but on hard ground mosit of the weight of the 
maehme must be used in securing proper dwth for 
the furrow openers, and the remaimler of th* weight 
being distributed on all the press wheels the pres- 
sure on each must be relatively snmll i^i^re 
»hoW8 a good type of press drill, so arranged that 
the weight of the operator gives ;dd;tioia?^pressure 
to the wheds. The tongue truck used on this 
machine is a v. y desirable feature, as it relieves 
neck weight, and no press drill of this tyL should 
be bought without a tongue truck. ^ ^ 

KiJ^ 7^ Attachments—The press wheel 

ma'Sv In^ffJS ^5 are made by 

many . anufacturers, and may be atteohed to a 

btandard high-wteel drill instead of the eovtring 

chains. No other pressure should bf applied to such 
an attachment than that resulting from the weight 
of the operator axtd of the attachment itself, unless 

fit. 14 

PrcM Wheel Attacbmcut lued with Standard Hish Wheel DrIU, 
iw twMl •! eavwlaii chain*. - 

a tougue truck is provided to relieve the horses from 
the addetl n«ck weight. One objection to many 
press- wheel atlaclimenta is that they are difficult to 

1-n ^'^^^ are liable to be broken 

m making short tnm«. In the attaehmest thown in 
Pifirurp 14, this difficulty n overcome by attaohinff 
the wheels m pairs so that a short turn mav be made 
M shown Springs are provider! for each pair of 
^eeli which insure flexibility and uniformity of 
prewure m paasmg over uneven ground. 

FaMUa, lIWi«iirai._TO8 U one of the most 
vital parts of a seeding machine, and mxmt he of faeh 
dcsipi and so calibrated that it may be set to accu- 
rately sow the different varieties of grain in amounts 

h«T.?f « * ^""^i^ « ^"«»»el to several 

buehels per acre. Manufacturers of seeding machin- 
ery, m their attempts to solve the problem of even 
and Hccurate sowmsr, have developed two type* 
VIZ., the ^gritator-feed and the force-feed ' 

tlie bot^m of the seed hopper over each grain con- 

or^rTaviJv'^^^^S, ""^"^ iM^^^ -"on 
ot gravity. The size of these openings is reeiilated 

by means of slides operated by a levef whosf auad 

rant is calibrated to indicate the aLv^tTf diffe?en^^ 

vanetjes of aeed which will be sown per acre with 

the lever m tiie different notches. This type of feed 

dernvs its name from a series of corrugated wheels 

which revolving in a shaft in tHe s^d iJ^pp^^l^^! 

mediately above the seed openings, agitate T 2r 

tL^if' Pr«^en^,«log^°g and'to^^curt 
formity of sowing. The agitator feed is not as accu- 
rate as the more recently developed force feed and 
has been almost entirely replaeedby it. 

fn ^""^"^ arranged that the seed is 

^^Wi? '""1 openings in a continuous flow 

which, when properly adjusted, produces the rate^ 


seedinf per acre that is desired. It is more positive 
in Itv midtm tiua 4iie agit«tor feed, and is lfl« Uafble 
to become eloi^ed by foreign subitftaaceH in the seed 
or when the seed is damp from treatment for smut. 

There are two standard types of force feed 
meehanisois on tlie market — the single run and the 
dottbie mn. 

The Single Kun force feed meebaabm is illus- 
trated in Figure 15, and consists essentially of a 
Miall iron hop|H*r, one for each furrow opener, 
placed on the under side of the grain box. A 
square feed shaft pames through the hoppers and 

carries a set of fluted or corrugated cylinders When 
the machine is operated tlic seed gets into the flutes 
and is forced down into the grain conveyor. The 
amount of seed regulated by sliding the 
cylinder in or out of t?he hopper. When the eyMnder 
is entirely inside the hopper, as shown in the ri|^t 
of Figure 15, the drill sows the maximum amount. 
The feed shaft is shifted by a convenient lever, so 
that the cylinders may be shoved in or out a« desired. 
A eaiitoated piate indioateB the amount of <|jie dif- 
fereart grains sown when the lever is placed at 
various positions. In order that their drills may sow 


peag, beans aud other large seed, Bome mamrfaotor- 
ers have made the flutes in the feed cyiinders so 
large and deep that they sow wheat and smaller 
grain in bunches in the row, instead of diatributing 
iSie seed evenly, as is done with smaller and more 
numerous flutes. It is better to buy a drill that will 
sow. the staple crops perfectly, although large seed 
cannot be sown with it, than to sacrifiee even sow- 
ing for the sMike of having a machine that will handle 
more vanelfcies. 

rtg. It 

OmU* Baa Force Feed eoastots of aa Ivoa 
■•M>«r iMldo of whleh a wheal wtKk 

The Double Run force feed is espeeially well 
adapted where a large variety of grain is to be 

sown, and is the best type to buy if it is to be used 
for sowing peas, beans, corn, etc., as well as wheat 
and smaller grains. As shown in Figure 16, it oon- 
sists of an iron hopper, inside of which revolves 

A wlieel having a flanged rim Inhere are small 
ribf or cogs cast on the inside of the flanged 
rim, which engage the seed and foree it through the 
seed opening. The wheel divides the hopper into 
two compartments, one being for wheat and small 
grains, ot^r for oats, peas, etc. A lid hinged 
over t^e middle of the hopper closes the side tbst is 
not in nse. The corrugations on the wheel as well 

FlC. 17 

Speed Flute whleh ttmvOmUm weed «( Seed 
Shall, Mifl, conseifaentlT, ■niMBt 
of Seed aowii. 

as the seed opening are larger, on the side sowing 
the coarser gruns. The amount of seed sown is re- 
gulated by varying the speed of the seed shaft, which 
is accomplished by means of a speed plate shown 
in Figure 17. The face of the speed pl«fce oonsbts 
of til^Fteen or more cog circles, any one of which 
may t>e engaged by a small pinion whose different 
p<Miti<ms ara oalibraied to show the rsAie ol sowing. . 

Interehangeable Parts.— Nearly all manufactur- 
ers now make their drills with intcawhangeable ptiri» 
so thiat any type of furrow opener made by the com- 
[>any may be put on their machines. This is a great 
convenieiice when it is desired, to use another furrow 
opener, as it does not neeesadtate the puKhnse of an 
entirely new machine. 

Grass Seed Attachments.— The feed cups of the 
ordinary drill, being designed to sow relatively 
coarse seed, do not sow fine grass seeds as accurately 
as is necessary to secure an even stand. Then, too, 

ViK. IB 
Cnum Seed Attachment. 

many grass seeds are so expensive that it becomes a 

matter of considerable economy to secure such an 
even distribution of the seed^that the minimum 
amount per acre will sutfice. Grass seeds are often 
sown with a nurse crop, but the best results cannot 
be secured by mixing the seed with that ef the nurse 
crop and sowing it with a grain drill. There is a 
field, then, for a reliable grass seeder, and to meet 


ihiM deamnd nMwmfactnreM ot* seeding imicliinery 
lAve ■ perfected a grass seed at*achnient for their 
ma4shiiies. As shown in end sectioir in Figure 18, it 
eonsidts of a small seed hopper with feed shaft and 
Clips similar to, Init similler, than those of the nlwin 
dirfil. l%€i «eed conrfeyors are sponted into the main 
e(mf€yors as s^hown, but if the nurse crop is ^towfi at 
a greater depth than is desirable for the grass seed, 
the grass seed conveyor spouts may be hung straight 
down, when the grass seed will be sown broadcast. 
These attachments, when well made, are a desirable 
auxiliary on a grain drill, and on a farm where 
grasses form part of the farm crops, a drill is not 
complete without it. 

THie FraoM. — Some otherwise excellent drills, 
now on the market fail because the frame is too weak 
to support the machine without sagging. Consider- 
able strain is placed on tbe frame of a large drill, 
and it musrt, be strongly built and well triMwed. Mas- 
siveness and quantity of material used in a frame do 
not always signify strength. The material in a 
seemingly light frame may be of such quality, and 
the frame is so well designed, that it will support a 
heavier load than another frame Where much more 
mftterial is used but so placed that the b?j«t use is 
not mode of its strength. Lightness as well as 
strength must be a feature of the jdeal machine. 
In contemplating the purchase of a drill, do not fail 
to examine ita frame conatruction, and ofeservt, if 
possible, a drill of the same make that ha« been in 
use for several years — its condition will tell more 
than can be learned from the new machine. 

Distance Between Furrow Openerg.— The dis- 
tance between furrow openers in driMs varies from 
four to eight inches, and in «oine makes of drilSs 
dflfigned for dry fam»ng seotions, tiiey are far 


^n21f*'.?P"'*-*'* (Stop (nay be ci,kiv«t«l 

funow opene™1?e?.^ftT'^ between 
are clonr or farther apart. burrow openen 




Of the large retimie of mechankal serfs at the 
eonnmaml of the farmer to-day, fhe self-'binder is, 
perhaps, the moist important. Iti plaee eoaM not be 
filled by a score of men with cradles and rakes, and, 
if properly managed, it hae a greater efficiency and 
is much more subservient to the master's will than 
the human slave of old. Since the early history of 
the binder, the necessity of greater effieieoey and 
capacity has steadily increased. Not <mly is the eost 
of labor greater, but the new soil farmed at that time 
produced a strong, healthy straw that stood up well 
when ripe, and a delay in harvesting was not so 
serious. At present, on account of the ravages of 
rust and other diseases, the straw often breaks badl> 
even before the grain is ripe, so that the profilt of a 
crop is often dependent upon tiie despatch with 
which it is harvested. 

The neglect and abuse to which binders are 
often subjected, notwithstanding the fact that the 
success of an entire year's work may depend upon 
them, is proverbial. It it not uneommon to see a 
binder stored away in the ^ormr of a field where it 
was last used, or in some exposed part of the yard, 
with the twine-box full of expensive pure Manilla 
twine and the reel hoisted as high as possible, as if 
it were desbable i6 have It t^^Mmghly expoted la 
the breeze. By the time it is to be used again the 
fi^^^hfel will probab^ have cMplotO t)K 


soil; while the pole and ne(k-y,.ke are allowed tn 
h^i .7 ^iftlMsness of its oo-partner, will „f,,V„ 

farmer ««<,ently ,«ea»„res its "fe in v 'a™ i^^ 
•eal „sef,,lne« may be eonnted in days. AMn<h^r s 

H year, ana lasts about Hve vearsi wliJoi, 

b«L- eare aT,?l iuereaseHy 
Dettei care and management, and that ne"lect anH 
mismanagement result in short-lived LehinM 1m " 
prefer work, and large expense, for re^^,"'i; oT 

witwlf'^*""^ P"«« binders, together 

The B«t Time To Bepair Binders.— Before l.inw 
ers are put away after aWon's' work Ihey shouM 
be gone o^.^. with the same eare thJa emriL 

dirt iiiould be removed from the surface as we 

en^rnd^v 2""?, t''^^«° ^^'^^ ^'^^^ ^^-o' 
bene and v\ as e. Tlie ])inder should fee carefnlW 

mled, and al bright parts jrreased to prov^?' m"'^ 

ing. After the season's work is over is alL th 

S'vel?" viT'v""' r-"-" t'-e i>i.t^::- Zi 

next year. Al this Imj,. ilie operator knowo or 
•stotUd know, .11 n.e ,l,rf,.,.,.s of^he ^Jwn! Vd 
what It needs m me Ime ol exir„s and repairs to i^fli 
»t for neu <«,a«n>« work. If u,e n.aihine is pu, 

away, on the other hand, without being giveA A 
second thoug-ht until needed again, the dpcrator, if 
he atill remains on the place, will have forgotten 
what the machine moat needed. The result is that 
the binder is, perhaps, given a hasty inipe^to;, 
which in the majority of cases fails to rei^al'Mgr* 
thing, and brought out into the field with numerous 
small defects that could have been rejwiired at a 
nominal expenditure of time and money. If the 
fanner is too busy to attend to repairs immediately 
after the season's work is completed, he should at 
least find time to do the next best thing, whic^h is 
to make a thorough no<te of all defects of the machine 
with a view to remedying them when time is more 

Binders are often operated by inexperienced or 
careless persons, who, knowing nothing about the 
machine they are using, sit serenely in the seait «iiid 
do nothing but drive. Such men are as surely out of 
place as they would be on an engine platformi A 
binder operator should be familiar with and under- 
stand the function of every part of his macliine, and 
what is more, he should be able to make all neces- 
sary adjustments and repairs without the aid of an 
expert. He must know where to oil, when to oil, 
and how to oil. Many a good binder has been pre- 
maturely relegated to the scrap pile because of im- 
proper oiling^ The man who gives his binder an oil 
bath when star^Bg Aad ^ea^St io oQ wtil 
it fairly screams for more, may succeed in tuki^f a 
great deal of oil, but his binder will soon wear out. 
All oil that does not get into the bearings does more 
lutfUi thtrn good, as it serves to gather du9t and grit 

proper wi|r 

to di 18 to ufle a little at a time and often. All parts 
of t binder do not need the tame amount of oil, and 
the operator should decide which parts, by virtae of 
their work, need the most, and give them frequent 
oiling, while other parts n>ay require only occasional 

There is a tendency among farmers to discard a 
machine before its usefulness is ended, and not in- 
frequently is a binder thrown awav that, with a 
few dollars' worth of repair,' would stiH give effi- 
cient service. A farmer should, therefore, be enough 
of a mechanic to know when a machine is worn out 
and when it would pay to overhaul and repair it. 

Tools Required — In order to enable the operator 
of a binder to make proper repairs, the following 
toote fiOiouM be found in the tool box of every binder 
in the field. One or two good easting wrenches of 
such size as to fit most nuts on the binder, one mon- 
key-wrench or pair of pliers, at least one good cold- 
chisel, a punch, a drift for driving out keys, and a 
light mechanic's hammer. Equipped with these tools 
and a desire to thoroughly understand his binder, 
any person of average intelligence can soon learn to 
detect the difficulties and make all the necessary 
adjustments and repairs. 

Figure 19 illustrates a modern side-cut self-binder 
equipped with roller bearings, open elevator, tongue 
truek, and such other auxiliaries as have been found 
efficient and desirable on»a binder. This type of 
bindei: is made in 6, 7 and 8-foot cuts, and is con- 
structed almost entirely of steel and malieable iron. 
Lack of space forbids a detailed description of the 
machine, and it will be necessary to pre-euppose a 


previous knowledge of the machine on the part of 
the student; or, lacking this, that he will seek out a 
machine and familiarize himself with its construc- 
tion and the rudiments of its operation. This dis- 
cussion will be limited to a connderation of the vital 
parts of the binder— their repair, care and adjnst- 

ViK. 19 

Modmn SMe Cat Mt-W^Ur, tally cviriMMt wtth ap Sa ta 


Adjustment of Chuurdi and 8ioide.^-One of the 

first things to observe, when getting a binder into 
shape for harvest, is to see that the guards on the 
sickle bar are in line. First, see if all guard bolts 
are tight ; next, sight along the points of the guards, 
and if any are out of line, bring them into line by 
' tapping with a hammer. Examine the ledger plates 
in each guard, and if there are any with deep nicks, 
such as may result from an encounter with fence 
wire, replace them with new ones. Siekle sections 
that are nieked or broken should also be removed 
and new ones substituted. Be sure that the clips 

^ t- 


whieh hold the sickh' in place are firm, so t^at the 
sickle and ledger plates work with a true, shear cut. 

Next, determiiip if the sieklo registers— that is if 
dnnng a stroke of the pitman, a sickle section moves 
fram the centre of a jfuard to the centre of the next 
If It does not, the lost motion in the pitman and 
connections must be taken up so that it does. If 
this cannot he do)ie elfectively. buy a new pitman- 
it is usually niade of wood, and costs but little. 

Ohaios and Grown Wheels.— In order that a 
binder may run with the least possible wear an 3 
friction, the crown wheels carrying the main drive 
chain, as well as those carrying the elevator chair 
must be in perfect line. This can be easily deter- 
mined by sighting along the face of the wheels, and 
It any ire out -of alignment, they can often be put 
back by taking up the end-play of the shafts by 
means of washers. Th,' chains should be run just 
tight enough to stay on the wheels— for tight chains 
unnecessarily increase wear, tVictiou and draft. 

Bevel Gears and Counter-Shaft.— (Considerable 
trouble is often experienced by the main, or bevel 

l>etH» rouiul !>«• a" BiiMl.-r« for taking 
wi» the JBnd ThruHt on th« 
Cmuter Shaft. 


g«art, not meshing pr(H[»erl3r; and, if allowed to nm 
that way, they will soon wear out. A device similar 
to that shown in Figure 20 is found on all binders, 
/or the puiT>o8 taking up the end tlumal on tlM 
coiUit«r-«h«ft. Ib making the adjustment, liali the 
play should ho taken up with this device, and the 
rest by putting waslnTs on the pitman shaft. If all 
the play is taken up on the counter-shaft, the gears 
will not mesh propin ly, and will conaeqnently wear 
out faster. In casa one of the gears mnst be re- 
newed, the other should also be replaeed, as old and 
new gears will not mesh well. 

The Reel.— The adjustment of the reel has a 
"reat deal to do with the condition of the bundles. 
It should be so plaeed as to fitrike the grain near 
the top, straigiiteninj? it up for the sickle and bend- 
ing it back over the platform without throwmg it 
rearward, as the reel will if placed t«>o low. In un- 
even grain, especially if it eontaina 8pot» that are 
lodged or tanked, the reel requires constant atten- 
tion if good work is to be expected. 

To adjust the reel slats, lower the ret-l and place 
111.' slats so that they pass close to the inner grain 

On account of its weight, the reel sometimes sags 
to such an extent that if it is run close to the plat- 
form the outer ends of the slats may strike. Nearly 
all binders are now provided with a guy rod at- 
tached to the reel post, whieh may be lengthened or 
shortened so as to make the reel parallel with the 

The reel on most binders is so placed that the 
inner ends of the slats travel slightly in advanee of 
the outer ends, thus forming an angle between the 
slats and si<^e. The reel is placed m tins position 


ij^^i^ fn^^'T'^'L* counteracting the tendency of 

Sri. JIhv'^'^^I'"'" Although 
«n!llA. ^^^^ •peaking, not an adjustment, this 
angle may be increased, if need be, by bendiiig or 
otherwise shortening the brace rod wiaUy wSLd^ 

Beyitors and Canvases.— Tlie objection to the 
open elevator binder has been that the upper ele! 

k!!« 1 1 ' ^^'^ objection has of late yean 
ill. overcome by most manufacturers, X 

have given special attention to bracing and strength 

Xn ""'V^ '"l'^ NevertheWt 
often happens that the lower as weU at the upper 
||levator frames get twisted, or, as is often the 
have not been properly squared when first ereeted' 

vJ« ^' ^""^ ^^^^ from the can- 

inoreased^ ^^^^7 

elevator, measure with two stiekR 
or laths, diagonally across from the lower^Ilei to 

etarK'aJ' T^'i f ^ diagonals aJ: 
eqnal. If they are not equal, lengthen or shorten the 

brace rods provided for that purpose untU these 

measurements are the same. A, carpenter's square 

may be used for squaring- the elevators, bv placinc 

'^'"^ ^^^^'^^^^ fra"^«- This 

method IS accurate only when the roller is straight 

If it^ IS sprung as is often ttie case on old binders" 
nrst method should be used. omaers, 
The canvases should be run onlv tiffht PJinn^rl. 
prevent slipping, and they should fe riftethen 


the binder it not in use. Some binders are provided 
with handy devices for slackening the canvases 
without unbuckling the straps. These devices, in 
their best form, are to be recommended, and should 
be found on every binder. 

Miscellaneous Adjnitmonti.— A binder will do 
best work when tilted slightly forward, as that will 
serve to keep the butts of the grain well towards the 
front of the elevator and against the butter, thus in- 
suring even-butted bundles. 

The lever for shifting the binder so as to place 
the band on the middle of the bundle should hate a 
range of at least 15 inches. This shifting device 
should be kept working easily, and the operator 
should keep the binder attachment in a«ch a position 
that it is not necessary to move the butter very much 
to equalize the bundle. If the butter is run at a con- 
siderable angle the deek not <mly diokea up easily 
but the draft is greater, more grain k ihdled out; 
and the bundles will not be square. 

The grain cover over the deck is made adjustable 
and may be raised or lowered so as to provide more 
or less space on the deck as required. When heavy 
grain is cut it may be desirable to xaiae the grain 
cover. When cutting ripe oats, for example, which 
is often so light and fluffy that it piles up so the 
packers cannot reach it, lower the cover so as to 
force the oats down to the packers. 

The Binder Attachmmt contains the vital parts 
of the binder, and on aeeount of its somewhat com- 
plex meehanism m more likely to get out of order 
than any other part of the binder. One of the first 
things to learn about the binder attachment is that 
its mechanism must be accurately timed so that all 

its parts act at the ri-ht instant. The failure of thp 
operator to realize tliis is a fruitful source of 
troiiblp The manufacturers, in order to facilitate 
he takmg apart and putting [ogether of the m^han 
isn. ordinarily niak. use of time marks. Theaet^e 
marks are usually Mnall projections casi on a paiHf 
opposite eogs in wheels n)oshing together. If it be 

irrSTanTT ^'t.^ttaehm^ut apart and no 

iiarks ean be tound, trouble may often be avoided 
by hrst inaiung time marks with a cold chisei 

A typical binder attachment with its parts num. 
bered as tollows is shown in Figure 21 :-l 
wheel; 2, tyer wheel; 3, knotter; 4, harp braee 
breast-plate; 6, di.^harge arms: , 1 undTe Lripper^ 

fVs. St 

mmime AtteebBMat with #Mto 


8, comprew finfer; 9, trip flap; 10, compress lever; 
11, eompresg spring ; 12, bundle sizer spring ; 13, trip 
stop; 14, trip latch; 15, double drivers; 16, needle 
pitman; 17, packers; 18, needle. 

A popular type of knotter is shown in Figure 22. 
The most essential parts nre- — 1, knotter frame; 2, 
knotter pinion ; 3, kn» i ^er bill ; 4, knife arm ; 5, disc.; 
6, disc gear; 7, dise v( »!n: t', *isc pinion; 9, cord 
holder spring; 10, kiMiMi- spring. 


Famito Tn^Jti KaaMar. 

The Knotter Bill. — Perfect smoothness, so that 
the twine may be readily stripped off is a prime 
requisite for' the good working of the kn'otte. bill. 
When the binder was last stored away, the knotter 
bill should have been oiled to prevent rusting. All 
rust should be removed from the bill with emery 
eloth or fine sand paper, and care shooid be taken 
so as not to bruise or mar its surface. 

The Knotter Pinion. — This must fit close to the 
face of the tyer wheel so as to hold the Imotter bill 

against the face of thf tyer thVpf T"" 
knotter pini„„ m.y t "by jertinf IS! 

a";ieri.7th;is%z rp,t%afc!^^^ 

Wction * unnecessary wear and 

HM?^*,^ ***** «ripper and Uddm- florrt 

Holder.-Most .pachines use the s^n«in/wfe a™ 

as shown in Fiffnri> 99 Tn „ r * " *™ 

knifo. this typf :rknife ™T mea^ns^orn.*?" 

th^L^, . • ""P^. " ""^ hill. When 

JtiHI V n r™*' no*"'' "ns* hold the co^ 

moved in either direct on If th^ V ?/" 

looseiy, the needrr.rbe t'hr tt^;^ a'Vil" 

but care should be taken nnf in ihr.t ? 

-vard that it will \end1he Inrfe''/™ "1?";^' 

desirable to move the iipaHI^ fVw! i 

raised by Putting^'^^aaX^'t^'' .^-^-"y 

•Sometimes one of the cord, tJiT, J 
notch on the knife arm Tf i/ j J'"'^ t''* 
fail to aecure it and IknJ- f '^'"'l ""^ '^i" 
of the eord TMs m,^^" n/"]'^ "V'^ »" ""^ ^"^ 
the icnife whfchT«^..T;''r ^^^^^^^^^ 

A JHttmnBt Type.— In Figure 23 is shown a 
knotter with a different type of knife and cord 
holder. The parts as numbered are: 1, knotter bill; 
2, disc ; 3, knife ; 4, cord holder ; 5, upper cord holder ; 
6, needle. In this binder the cord is held over the 
knotter by means of the odd shaped casting 5 and as 
the knotter revolves in i. iking the knot it lifts the 
cord from this holder and allows it to slide down into 
the notch in the breast plate below 5 after which the 
knot is stripped of the bill by the discharge arms. 

FUr. 99 

Another Type of Knotter vrtth different Knife and Cord Holder. 

In order that the knot may strip off easily, the 
knotter bill, when at rest, is at an oblique angle with 
the cord, while the knotter bill in Fig. 22 is at right 
angles with the cord. This position of the hill, 
together with the fact that it must transfer the cord 
from the upper cord holder, makeft the binder diown 

m Fig. 23 apt to throw /oose bundles if the knotter 
pmwn rocks. For this reason, a ri-id knotter pinion 
IS especially essential with this type of hinder. 

The Knife.~The knife must, durin- n season 
cut several thousand twines and like any othei- ed-ed 
tool, It becomes dull and needs an occasional "re- 
sharpenincr A sniall whetstone or milled file should 
be kept m th. tool box for that purpose. A duU 
fhi ! l^'^l »''^«'?«o«il)le for loose bundles where 
the cord has been broken. It also entails an un- 
necessary stram on the knotter bill and other parts. 

The knife must be accurately timed for if the cord 
iL^'f . '^i?''''"'-*^''' ^'"^^ '^'"^ apart, and if cut 

i^^i l^^l ^'^^^^^ ^^'^ discharge 

arms When the knife is too late the twine is 
usually broken on the opposite side of the bundle 
and the knot remains on tho bill, 

. To determine if the knife cuts the cord at the 
iwIV'Tk' carefully by hand and the 

in»tant the knotter tonj^ue eloses down on the cord 
the knife should be snug up against the cord and, 
witli further motion, should cut it immediately If 
at this time the edge of the knife h not up against 
the cord the knife is late and if the cord is cut the 
knife IS too early. The knife arm, which is made of 
malleable irwi and will stand bending, can be ad- 
.lusted by hmdino; with a monkey wrench in the 
direction that will secure the desired effect. Before 
this IS done be sure that the knife is out of time and, 

*t bend It but slightly as it takes very little to 
produce the desired effect. 

The revolving knives shown in Fig. 23 seldom g9t 

mit^ot adjustment and then only througii lost motion 
in the disc pinion or by the wearing back of the^ 


edges of tlie knives. Some binders have a stationary 
knife that cnts the eords as they are stretched over 
its edge when the bundle is discharged. 

Pig. 24 shows the proper relative positions of 
the knotter and knife arm when the cord is being 

l lK. 21. 

Miowins relative iiosltluus of Knotter and KnUe Arm wbeii tbe 

Cord Is bdBK vnt. 

The Knotter Spring. — Sliouid be just tight 
enough to cause t^e knotter to open and ©lose 
sharply and to hold thi- cords tight enough to form a 
good knot. It' the kuotter sprirvg h tor tight the 
knotter bill will not let go of the knot readily when 
it is formed, and the eord will break 'and remain 


weaic places are encountered in the cord. If the 

bS ^hi'V'T -^^^ «f ♦he cord 

rfnlf tV .^^"^Pl'^ted and loose bundles 

nn?h« .1^ certain to happen when a thin place 
on the cord comes in the knotter. 

d„lPfi^V«^J'''^-jf l^^'^'^^^y l««se and the knife is 
dull, the knife will shove the knot out of the bill so 

t * pronounced cases, bow or slip- 

h««^V^°''*' T^^'^ ^^'^ ^h*'^ <^he bundle is 

handled, are formed. is 

Tn binders that are old or have been nm with the 
knotter spnng top tight, the cam on the knotter 

hp 7^'^^ ^"^^^^ ^^"^ rolls s^me- 

Lrtl^t?" yorn- In that oa»e the 

knotter tonj^ue opens up insufficientlv to readilv 

« w vf '^i;^'- only one is eaught when 

a loo^e bundle accompanied by a cord with a knot on 
.T- discharged from the binder. To repair 

sary, but this expense may be obviated by making a 
larger knotter tongue roller. An ordinary roUer 
tjie^anvH ^^"^^ flattening it on 

The knotter spring is. usually quite stiff and a 
slight loosening or tiglitening makes a great differ- 
IfZ »ts tension Tn adjustng this spring never 

the time*""* '"'"''^ * "^''^^^^"^ ^ *"r° 

Disc, Cord Holder and Oord Holdtr Sin ^ng.— The 

disc shown m Fig. 22 k a flat wheel Oi with 
notches for catching and pulling (ho cord nto the 
cor^ holder. This, disc has six^notches. and as il 
travels only the distance between two notches for 


each bundle, the wear is slight, and in bindera 
properly adjiurted and oiled it seldom gives trouble. 
In old binders, or where the wear has been excessive, 
due to a too tight cord holder spring, enough lo»t 
motion in the disc pinion and in the ^diic getr and 
war^ may develop to cause the dkc to lag too far 
behind. The cord is tlien caught on the shoulder of 
the notch which l^ruises the cord and often causes It 
to break under the strain of tying and compressing. 

The difficulty may often be adjusted by taking off 
the disc gear and plaeing it back on its pin, the 
other side to, which throws the wear on the other 
side of the cogs. If the wear is exceasive the worm, 
at least, should be renewed. 

In some binders the disc is driven by an arm, 
similar to the knife arm which operates a dog work- 
ing in a ratchet on the back of the disc. The disc 
dog is adjustable and the travel of the disc may be 

In Fig. 23 is shown a wheel-shaped disc with 
grooves across its face for holding the cord in the 
cord holder and notches in the upper side of its 
flanged rim for carrying the cord into the holder. 
The twine sometimes wears grooves in this disc and 
its cord holder so that the cord slips out. These 
parts must then be renewed. 

Every binder has an upper and a lower cord 
holder between which the two cords are stretched 
and held so that they can be grasped by the knoiter. 
The tension of the lower cord holder is regulated by 
the cord holder spring whicl^is the most important 
wgtmg on the entire binder. The tension of this 
spring must be tight enough so that the cord will not 
be pulled out of the disc and ye* it must be loose 

f^pi tI''''' ^^'^ ^'^ "''f^ « ♦^'^Je «8 the knot is 
tanned. The reason for this ig that the knotter 

KeVblll*"' r '^""''^ '''' cannot slip^n'l' 
knotter bill, and (.ons.qn.'ntly, nart of the eord 
needed for making, tl..- knot n.ust h. se.un'd hv tho 
cord shppn.c, in the dis.. If the cord Im or .prin^ 
s so t.crht that it does not permit the slippa/e of Se 

the knot IS l)ein« fc.rm.d and knot on onlv the 
other end of the cord is th. resnlt. If the' el d 
hjylder sprin^r is too loose the eord is pulled out of th. 

Ti : ,di ''^1 .rf r^^^ - ^hi'twiUe. 

!J1 T i . ^ bundle tojrether with a 

piece of cord having a knot on (,ne end is d seharLd 
trom the Mnder, but the disc usuall/^SThe 

The i.roper tension of the cord holder spring may 
he determined by exc-rting a steady pull on the cord 
It requires a strong pull to break an average .<»ord 

a\'a nsVt'hP Hiii""'-1>;'"' should snap 

against the disc with a click indicating that the 

jpring IS active. In adjusting this spring tighten or 
loosen It only a little at a timf and oCrve /^u 

In some machines the knotter bill is set eeeentri 
^1 Its pin so that it has a slight movementTowards^ 
the dMc while revolving to form the knot. In 

JZn /h'T r ^"/^'"^ the knotter 

when the knot is tied. 

The N6tdl« Md PiteiMI.-The needle should go 
far enough forwara t(^ deposit the eord securely in 

the notch m the dise. If ,t does not go far enouiA 
forward to do this, the cord will be wrapped arouS 
the upper part of the knotter bill. . To throw the 

needle farther forward, shorten the needle pitman 
and lengthen it to throw the needle farther back. 
After changing the travel of the needle turn the 
binder over by hand before driving to make sure it 
does not strike. This precaution is important for it 
is jiossihlc to throw the nemile so f«r forward as to 
bend the knife arm and needle or break the binder 

Sometimes the needle is thrown ont of adjnstment 
by l)eeoming bent. To aseertain this, examine th«' 
necdh' to see if il <!<'p<»sits the eord properly in the 
dise. If it does not and still travels as far forward 
as possible the eye of the needle has been bent up. 
The needle is usually made of a good grade of malle- 
able iron and may be bent back into shape with little 
risk of breaking. To do this, grasp the tail of the 
needle with the left hand and pull up so as to take 
up the jar and hit the m edle on the top, back of the 
head in order io bend it down. To bend it up strike 
on the under side. It should not be necessary to add 
that this adjustment should not be made until one is 
thoroughly satistied that the needle has been bent. 

The Cam Wheel. — Derives its name from the eam 
or slide which it carries. This cam operates the 
eompress lever so as to compress the bundle while 
the knot is being tied. 'Hie surface of the cam 
should not be oiled as that causes the roller to slide. 
If the roller is permitted to slide it will soon wear 
Hat to such an extent that it will fail to give the 
proper motion to the compress lever and the result 
is poor compression. 

Ctampress Finger and Spring.— The i'ompres.s 
lever eontrols lln- compress linger so that the bundle 
is compressed between it and the needle. The com- 
pi-ess spi'ing is interposed between the compress lever 


and finger to give elatticity to the mechanism daring 

cbmpression. If it were not for the compress spring 
there would be danger of breaking or clogging the 
binder during compression. The compress spring 
must not, therefore, be so tight as to give a dead 
compress. To determine if compression is right, 
turn the binder over until it is at the greatest point 
«»f compression and if by a steady pull witii one 
hand you can pull the compress finger backwards the 
compression is about right. This test is based on the 
fact that the compress spring should never be so 
tight that the compress finger cannot hack away 
from the needle during compression if necessary. 

Tht Bundle 8iMr Spring.— This spring regulates 
the size and tightness of the bundles. To make 
larger bundles, increase the tension on the spring, 
and decr< ase it to make smaller bundles. The bundle 

FlK. 25 

Roller TeiMlon used for preventtnc Blntfar from lieliiar 
mined br continnally keeping tension too ticlit. 

sizer spring acts by increasing or decreasing the 
weight neeeasary to trip the binder and, conse- 
qently, the compress finger should be moved down 
so as to give more space for larger bundles and 
moved up to give less space for smaller bundles, 


The tightness of the bundlet should be iregnlated 
hj the bundle sizer spring instead of by tho twine 
tension. The twine tensiofi is merely for taking the 
slack out of the twine and should not be any tighter 
than is necessary to aceoiup'ish this. If the twine 
tenskm is too tight the twine will wear groovet in 
the needle, disc and other parts. Pig. 25 illustrates 
a roller tension which is oxeellent for preventing the 
binder from being ruined by habitually keeping the 
tension too tight. This tension can hardly be 
screwed down so tight but that it will roll readily 
with a moderate pull on the twine. 

The Trip itop, Trip Lftteh and Trip Spring.— 

Most hinders are tripped by pressure on the compress 
finger, but the one illustrated in Fig. 22 is tripped by 
a trip flap as shown in the figure. The trip flap or 
compress finger, as the case may be, raises the trip 
stop and the binder is thrown into gear by the trip 
spring forcing the latch forward so that it is caught 
by the double drivers. The trip stop throws the 
mechanism out of gear by lifting the latch so that it 
escapes the double -drivers. 

Farmers sometimes come to town complaininij 
that "the arms won't go round." This is due to 
either a broken or weak trip spring or to the shoulder 
on the trip latch being worn so that it slips off the 
double drivers. This difficulty is easily detected 
and as easily repaired. 

Header Binder.— The header binder li^wn in 
Fig. 26 is the latest important addition to harresttng 
maehinersr. For ail practical purposes it is a dual 
type, maehme ; by removing the bind-jr attachment 
and putting on an elevator it may be used as a 
header when conditions are favorable. This machine 


Jill • « n ^ ^ t plal'orm. wiiich gives 

t the capacity of two ordinary binderi and mtm the 
labor of one man. 

Flu. M 

He«d Wader, latent ImiNtrtant aMiltoa to Harvntln* MarhlMn. 

Mechanical Power.— :M,^chHnic-aI power for har- 
vesting IS beuiu; used in many localities where steam 
or gas tractors are used for plowing. During recent 
years experiments have been made by manufacturers 
and tarmers with a small treneral purpose gasoline 
engine attaelied to the binder as shown in Pi.r 97 
The engine is intended to merely operate^ tlie 
mechanism of the binder while it is being hauled by 
horses. Two horses will furnish ample power for 
hauling the binder and when t •en^.-ine is not used 
for harvesting it may be detached and used for 
pumping water, grinding feed, etc,, so that it will be 
found a very economical source of power This 


method of harvostiiig will doubtless prove popultr 
o& small Hiid nie(yiiiD sized famis where trftetors 
cannot be used economically. 

■■mil Gasoline Engine used to operate 

of Binder while It la belns hauled by 


wiflf!!^"^^ ^"""^ °»<>dern thresher 

bushes n^^'"' K "^'^'^^ ^^^^ thousand 
bushels per day has been perfectt ' within the 

memory of men living to-day, I is nevertlele s t^ue 

that Its primitive conception dates baek to the dim 

and distant past of prehistoric times. Like moS 

n^r?L'r?V^^' ^^^^^hi'^g machine in iL 

nn! '^^^ ^« to the efforts of 

one or two men nor to the mechanical »kill of one 
country alone, but to the inventive genius of both 
Europe and America as well. 

The modern machine is a consolidation of what 
wag at an early period in its development t^ree 
separate machines. It consiste essentially of a 
threshing machine, a separating machine and a 
cleaning machine or fanning mill Since the^ain 

turn passes through the separating and cleaainc 
mechanisms this order will be foUoled after wSch 
rJLr hi """'"'^ '"l^ auziliary devices as the self. 

2^1^' t^""' ^^^^^ important labor 

savmg devices, are not essential to the efficient 
operation of the machine itself. emcient 

^rZttj'^T*'''^ '.P^''''^' "^^y be classified into 
pnmary and auiuliary. The primary separating 
devices consist of either racks or raddles whUe 
grates, beaters, pickers, spreadiDg forks, ete., which 
are found in many machines to aid separation, are 
commonly called auxiliaries. 


The Cleaning Mechanism cooyBiflts of a t'aiming 
mill ioinetimee seeonded by another miU called a re- 
cleaner funiallj placed on top of the machine. 

The Oj^inder. — The object of the cylinder is to 
loosen the grain from the straw. This it does by 
striking the straw with its rapidly revolving teeth 
which pass between similar teeth in the concave. 
The common type of cylinder shown in Fig. 28 is 

He. ts 

C'snawn Type vf CyttnAer «Mil lii ItoMhlaf MacklMs. 

conatruoted by attaching parallel bars to the circum- 
ference of cast spiders or wheels mounted on the 

cylinder shaft. The bars carry the teeth, as shown, 
and to make the cylinder rigid enough to withstand 
the great centrifugal force generated by its high 
speed and the enormous strain of threshing, heavy 
wrought iron bands are shrunk on over the bars. A 
solid or drum cylinder is used by some manufactur- 
ers but the bar cylind(?r is by far the niost common. 
The teeth are usually held in place by nuts and lock 
washers although tapered wedges as shown in 
Fig. 29 are employed by some manufacturers. The 
bars are umally made double when the cylinder is 


known as a double bar cylinder. The double bar is 
used because it will yield slightly, thus reducing the 
tendency of teeth to break off at the shank. Wooden 

Tig 29 

Teeth. UMd In Crlliuler are held la vl«c« by Nats mad 
WmAm mm wm mm Wtd«««. 

bars reinforced with steel plate.«, and rivets arf 
employed for this purpose with good results by some 

Leoffth of Cylinder is an important factor in 

determininfr the size of the maehiue. Separators are 
designated hy size as .SHxiiO or 40x6(). etc., the first 
nun^ber referriuj; to the length of the cylinder and 
the second to the size of the separating racks. 

Size of Cylinders varies greatly in modern mach- 
ines and IS determined hy the number of l)ars rather 
than by the diameter. A J2-l)ar cylinder is spoken 
of as a standard cylinder, and is the smallest used on 
modem machines. The sizes range from 12 to 21 
and 22 bars. 

Opinions liitt'er as !o th»^ relative merits of the 
large and th.- small evlinder. Both will do good 
work and ,is f;ir as ean he observed both require 

about the same amount of power. It is urged by 
btiilden of the Imrge cylinder thst its greater 

momeuttun will cause steadier motion and Ian 
liability to "slugging.'* They also claim that since a 
larger cylinder pulley can be used there is less belt 
slippage and it also enables them to use ^ a larger 
grate surface, thus securing better separation. Tke 
builders of small cylinder machines contend that as 
the speed of the large cylinder is less its momentum 
is no greater than that of the small cylinder ; besides, 
its larger radius gives greater leverage for any mate- 
rial in the concave which may prodnce "slugging." 
They maintain, further, that with proper construc- 
tion a sufficiently large grate may be secured with a 
small cylinder and that the large cylinder, weighing 
often about a ton, throws an unnecessary weight and 
strain on the frameworic add o»ther partf if the 

Oylinder Speed.— This is usually given in revo- 
lutions per minute, being about 1125 for the standard 
12jbar cylinder and in the neighborhood of 800 for 
the 20-lwr cylinder. The true threshing speed is the 
speed with which the cylinder teeth travel through 
the concave and is about 6000 feet per minute which 
has be n found to secure the best results when the 
gra" *n good condition for threshing. Mami- 
fac J ^ base the number of revolutions per minute 
tha\ ir cylinder is to run upon its diameter so 
that the threshing speed is about the same, 6,000 feet, 
regardless of its siae. Proper threshing speed is im- 
portant if good results are expected, and ewy 
threshing machine opcratw f^onld have a reliable 
speed indicator so that he may be assured that his 
machine is running at the proper speed. 

Cylinder Bearings in order to withstand the tre- 
mendous strains of threshing, must be of ample size 
and of orood construction. The cylinder boxes should 
be self-aligning so that there will be no binding even 
though the frame may sag or twist. The bearings 
are usually either of braes or babbit. Brass bearings 
when in good eoiiditiori will run with slightly less 
heat and friction than habbit, but are much more 
expensive to replace when worn out, and for that 
reason are not so popular. A competent separator 
man should be able to line up the shaft and pour 
new babbit bearings when necessary. 

Proper Adjitstniriit of cylinder boxes is important, 
and if neglected they will soon heat and pause 
trouble. Before starting a new machine the pans 
should be removed and dirt or grit which may have 
lodged in them dnring shipment of the machine from 
the factory should be carefully removed. Tf a box 
pounds or heats the lost motion should be taken up a 
little at a time and care should be used not to get it 
toD tight. 

Lubrication of cylinder boxes is secured bv either 
hard or liquid oil. ^Hard oil is convenient because it 
can be used in compression cups, but does not lubri- 
cate a high speed bearing like those of the cylinder 
as well as does a good grade of liquid oil. The best 
type oi oiler at present on the market for .cylinder 
boxes IS the ring or chain oiler. It consists of a ring 
or chain having a slightly greater diameter than the 
cylinder shaft which revolves in a groove in the 
honnm^r dips inu, an oil reservoir in the lower 
halt ot the box, thus continually carrying oil to the 
top 01 the bearing. 


The Ooncave. — The concave derives its name from 
its shape, being concave so as to fit the periphery oi' 
the cylinder. As shown in Fig. 30 it consists of two 
slides, one on each side of the machine, which hold 
the concave bars that carry rowk of teeth similar to 
those of the cylinder. 

The office of the concave is to act as a holder or 
retarder, while the cylinder teeth thresh the grain 
out of the straw. While it is necessary that the 
kernels be eflPeetively jarred loose from the straw, it 

11k. s« * 

The Cvuemf «mMa •t two SMm, om m each Mm 0t ^ MMhtM, 
whi«k holil the Concave Barn that rarry rows of Tcctfc, 
fiiniilar to thour of thr Cylinder. 

is desirable to get the straw through the threshing 
devices as unbroken as possible. Broken straw not 
only means a great waste of power, but drops 
through the racks and gets into the fanning mill 
where it clog^ the sieves and causes waste of grain. 

The proper adjustment of the concave is, there- • 
fore, of great importance if efficient threshing is to 


be don«'. As is clearly shown in Fig. 30 the position 
of the concave with respect to the cylinder is made 
adjustable. Concaves may be adjusted so as to b'! 
concentric with the cylinder or so that there is a 
larger opening between the cylinder and the concave 
in the rear of the concave than at the front, or vice- 
versa, as desired. It is usually safest to place the 
concave lower at the rear than in front because this 
permits any material that gets into the cylinder to 
get out and tends to lessen the danger of clogging 
and breaking of concaves. 

Kninber of TMth to Use.— The number of teeth 
to use with different kinds and conditions of grain is 
also of great importance. Each concave bar usually 
carries two rows of teeth although some large 
machines have three row bars. 8ix rows of teeth or 
three bars fill the ordinary concave, and when fewer 
teeth are needed blank bars or grates are used to fill 
the circle. In Fig. 30 four rows are shown, two in 
troAt and two in the rear with a grate bar in the- 
middle. It is good practice to always use as few 
teeth as possible and to run tlie concave rath^ close 
instead ol using a large number of teeth with the 
concave open. 

FOR WHEAT AND BAKLEY, when in average 
good condition for threshing, use four rows, two in 
front and two behind, although three rows will often 
suffice. When the grain is damp, five rows may be 

FOR BYE, two rows, both in front, or better, one. 
in front and one behind, will be ample, but tho speed 
of the machine should be increased to prevent 


. FOR OATS, two rows placed the same as for rye 
will be sufficient, and when damp use three or more. 


rows. Some machines are provided with special 
bars having corrugated teeth for these crops, and for 
clover and other grass seeds. 

It it a good rate never to use a blank in the front 
of the concave M this gives the cylinder too much 
draft and may cause clogging and breaking of the 

QraAes. — Back of the cylinder and extending from 
the eoncaves upward and backward are the gj-ates 
wkieh pl*y a very iiB|>ortant part in separation. 
The grates are generally made from thin, flat bars of 
wrought iron placed in a frame at such an angle as 
to deflect the grain thrown against them through to. 
the grain, pan below. Although nearly all grates on 
the market consist essentially of a slotted wrought 
iron construction, they are made in a variety of 
shapes and sizes, depending upon the ideas of the 
inventor and the pickers and beaters used in ctm- 
nection with them. The machine shown in Fig. 32 
has a very large grate over which the straw is 
combed by means of two crank mounted forks as 
shown. The machine shown in Fig. 33 has a grate 
which is given a rocking motiim by means of eccen- 

Beaters. — The cylinder whose teeth travel at a 
speed considerably above a mile a minute necessarily 
imparts an enormous velocity to the straw and grain 
which, if not retarded in some manner, would be 
thrown to the rear of the machine. This difficulty is 
overcome in most machines by placing immediately 
behind the cylinder a fan-like drum called a beater 
(see Fig. 31) which intercepts the straw and flying 
kernels, retarding their motion and allowing them t > 
pass on to the straw racks at a much lower rate of 
speed. Besides stopping the flying grain the beater 


assists in separating: prevents clogging and winding 
ot the cylmdt^r hy removing straw, which wouK: 
otherwise pile up in the rear of the cylinder; spreads 
the straw in an even sheet above the raekg asd is abo 
said to create a suetion which draws disagreeable 
dust through the machine away from the operators 
It IS generally conceded that the beater has but little 

Witt. m. 

BMtm, M for intercentin* Straw and flyins Kernels and altowliw 
thtm to pmM on to Straw Rmeka at a mach lower 
rat* of 

value as a separating device for its rapid motion 
gives It a tendency to throw the grain it beats out of 
the straw up and rearward, where it falls on top of 
the straw to be lost or re-separated by the straw 
ra«ks. The beater has been found to perform its 
work best when revolving just rapidly enough to 
prevent winding. 

Check Boards.— Behind the beater or spreader is 

usually placed a fall-board or curtain, commonly 
known as the check board, for the purpose of cheek- 
ing the straw and flying kernels as they come from 
the cylinder. The check board also serves the addi- 
tional purpose of compressing the straw, which 
leaves the cylinder and beater in a loose, fluffy condi- 
tion not favorable to the most efficient action of the 
separating racks and raddles. Check boards are 
usually made adjustable so that the amount they 
retard and compress the straw may be varied to suit 
existing conditions. 


The Straw BtdL^-This is generally constructed 
entirely of wooden slat work, eontairing sufficient 
openings to allow the grain to fall through, while the 
straw remains above. Notched boards or fish backs 
as shown in Pigs. 32 and 33 are often placed on top 
of the racks to aid in agitating the straw and to 
facilitate its rapid motion rearward. Besides having 
openings of correct amount and size, another essen- 
tial feature of straw racks is lightntjss consistent 
with strength and durability. 

. ^idK B al aaet. — rack machine generally con- 
tains two or more separating tables or raeks, and it 

is absolutely necessary to the smooth running and 
good lasting qualities of the machine that they be 
perfectly balanced. To accomplish this their vibra- 
tions alternate, that is — the two racks always move 
in opposite directions. This arrangement not only 
serves to give the machine a regular steady motion, 
but also prevents "bunching," as a bunch of straw, 
even if it happened to pass the front racks and 
pickers, could not pass the junction of the racks 
without being pulled apart. 

Rack Motions. — Although there are numerous 
combinations and modifications, rack motions may be 
classified into three distinct types — the concave, 
convex and rotary motions. The former is produced 
by suspending the rack by means of hangers and 
oscillating the rack by cranks which give a concave 
motion to the rack surface. The convex motion is 
produced by mounting the racks on rocker arms, 
while the rotary motion is produced by attaching the 
racks directly to a series of revolving cranks which 
impart a circular motion to the rack. These motions 
are used with good results in various combinations. 
In the machine shown in Pig. 32, for example, the 
front rack is mounted on a rocker arm and a hanger, 

while th« rear rack is given a circular crank motion 
at jf» front tnd and a «H»n«»avp hanger motion at its 
rt^ar. It is plain tliaf a «• mbi nation of these motions 
imparts to cvi-ry s«»ction uf tli lii. k a slightly diflfer- 
••nt motion from that inipartrrl to evory other section 
which cannot help but agitate or stir the moving 
column of straw in such 8 way m to loosen the 
kerni Is of and permit thf-m to drop through to 
tlx* «;rain pan below. 

The Grain Pan.— Beneath Ju: ei^arating devic.'s 
and extendinicr.wpll undern<\ h i::e grates and con- 
eave, is the grain pan. As shawn in B'igs. 32 «id 33. 
It forms the Ho<.r of the maeiiint und receives the 
gram and ehatr as it falls tliroueu th- spparatinp- 
devices. In a raek machine it generall y re( ives its 
motion from the same mechanism as do the racks 
and 18 so oscillated as to counterbalance them, i^ing 
merely a vibrating platform designed to convey ♦hf 
uncleaned grain to the mill it is very simple in con- 
struction and is plainly shown in the illustrations 
referred to. 

The Auxiliary Blast Fan.— This is a eomparativelv 

recent innovation in the line of s»'parating devices 
It IS simple in construction, and consists of a rapidl 
revolving encased fan, similar to that of the fanning 
mill whose blast is directed against the irtraw and 
ehatf on the racks The blast has a tendency to lift 
and dislodge the saaw, allowing the grain to s. uut Mfe 
freely. It also blows a great deal of chaff to the i av 
of the machine where it passes into the ^traw inst- ad 
of encun!?)erin^ the fanning mill and tailings ou- 
veyor. Fig. 'A2 shows the fan placed immecBMely 
below the front rack with its blasi directed to strike 
the straw as it falls on the second raek. This ar- 
rangement very effectively exposes the straw to the 
action of the blast. 


The Shoe or Fanning Bfill. Yuv funt ti(»n f th*» 
shoe is propt'riy c h i ti irraiii as fast as 
delivered i it by ttie sepanttiug devices and, unlets 
the ehoe ea . do thb well the maebine is not a oeecM 
no matter how |»erf*^t pr> itf thr^hiBg and aepai^it- 
inpr (levicps. 

The Oombinaiion Blast and Sieve Shoe. -This is 
the most eo»iiinoti iy\n\ ,n<i may be id to "mhody 
three esRential \a^H or f^^ti^pleB, viz.. the ti* 'es, 
the Want, an<' the utiun Tn pc of shoe is 
employed in e ni.K-. ines iUmtraitHi by Figa. 32 and 

i^otary i an -The rotaj m. iiicb i the devi. 
used OB 9^1 ma> Nines for '^r m ^ bl ^t, ia plaeeu 

in an enea-ed drum \mu r = th separatiii;. 
meehaii si! ''i re a wo n )f far ' -signated 
by the ireciio' of u .r i lion, if tae blast is 
deliver- d ab< ho ntre of the fan it is called an 
ovefhlast fan, an<i i ie blast is delivered below the 
eeni f it i^ call d m iinderhlast fan. Althout'^' 
diffi 'nt makers ini superiority for both ^ 
ther. is r liitl*' fference in the i esults a** 
defil^tors tiad w ■ aards, if properly placed, v 
givf the deaire 1 u ? , cti" of thi' blast in either ea>. 
Th.' fans, shov ( Fig.v 32 and 33, are both of th 
ov Tblas* *ype 

Sieves. Tht; fficr ot the sieves is primarily with 
le of he blast to perlorm the final aeparatton of 

he cpHff iid rubbish that lias passed thrdngh the 
?iek<: rad lies. To meet the cl .l'erent require- 
meii s i>t' thi arioiis kinds and conditions of grain 
threshed a f ti!. • <if interchangeable «eveii, ew^ 
adapte<l for . , irticular kind of grain, is usually 

I irnished willi taeh machine, in order to further 

II ct the deniauds imposed by the different condi- 
ins of grain all up-to-date shoes are made with the 


position of the sieves adjustable so that by varying 
the single of the sieves the speed of the tra veiling 
grain may be changed and the blast deflected through 
the meghes as conditions may require. In many 
machines the angle of the sieves can be adjusted 
while the machine is in operation. This is a very 
desirable feature, and is certain to result in closer 
adjustment and better work than if the machine has 
to be stopped, which is expensive and not lial)le to be 
done. ^ 

THE CHAFFER or top sieve is placed at the rear 
end ot the grain pan and oscillated above the shoe. 
Its purpose is to rid the grain of broken straw and 
rubbish before it paraes to the sieves below. A large 

P^""* dispensed with on. the 

cnalTer. Chaffers are variously constructed. Some 
.are made of wooden slat work sufficiently open to 
insure the free descent of all grain, others are made 
of flat iron strips the angle and openings of which 
are often made adjustable; still others are of the 
lipped steel pattern similar to the ehaflfer uaed in the 
machine shown in Fig. 33. 

Tail Piece or Chaffer Extension.— In order to save 
any gram which has not been threshed out by the 
cylinder or which by some chance has passed over 
the chaffer, the chaffer is usually provided with an 
extension as shown in Fig. 33. This extension, or 
tailpiece consists of the tailings spout screen ending 
\l * uli surface. Over this everything not passed 
through the ehaffer must travel before making ite 
final exit from the machine. This arrangement aeti 
as a safety device and returns to the cylinder by w4y 
of the taihngs elevator all grain that a too strong 
Waat has thrown over the sieves or that the cylinder 
hat failed to thresh. 


The eottditum of the tailings are a good indieation 

of how the machine is workinjj. If the tailings con- 
tain mnch grain in the heads it indicates that too few 
concave teeth are used or that the concave is too 
open ; if plump, threshed grain is found in the tailings 
it indieatee clogged sieves, improper position of tlie 
sieves, or that the blast i either too strimg or is con- 
centrated too mueh through the rear end of the 
sieves. An efficient separator man will always 
observe the condition of the tailings and endeavor 
so to adjust his maehine that they are as M$ant and 
free irom grain as posdble. 

Xotkan — ^There are two types of sieve motions — 
the side shake and the end diake. The end shake 
motion causes a pMitive rearward movement of the 
material on the sie^ , s, while in the side shake shoe 
this must be accomplished primarily by the blast. 
The side shake is used to spread the grain evenly 
ov«r sieTes, bnt is not as commonly used as the 
end shake. 

The motion should in all cases be strong enough 
to eause the grain to slightly leaved taere at eai& 
oseillation thus moving the grain and ehaff rearwtird 
with sufficient dispatch, and at the same time per- 
mitting the blast to readily blow the chaff oat of the 

The shoe is often divided into two sections, each 
having a distinct separate motion. The upper sec- 
tion, oontah^iif t^erm, is then giren a rearward 
and rising motion, ivkile tiie lower scttiw, 
holds the sereens and conveys the cleaned grain to 
the grain anger, has an inward and carrying moTe- 
ment. This method of constructing the shoe permito 


of timing the motion of the two sections so that they 
will counterbalance each other. 

T1i« Blast.— In the shoe a great deal depends unon 
the uniform strengrth, direction and eaay control of 
the blast. Thp blast should at all time* be of just 
sufficient force to keep the meshes open and to blow 
the chaff rearward while the grain is being tossed 
upwards by the sieve vibrations. 

It has been found essential that the blast be 
stronger under and in the sieve meshes than above. 
If this condition exists the strong blast in the meshea 
will keep them open while the milder blast above 
which, of course, must be sufficient to eliminate the 
chaff will permit any kernels that have been lifted to 
readily return. This condition can be produced only 
by making the open and solid portions of the sieves 
in proper proportion. This, according to several 
manufacturers, is about as five in to seven, go that the 
meshes will compose but 5/12 of the sieve surface, 
while the remaining 7/12 is blind, thus retarding 
7/12 of the blast, making it only 5/12 as strong over 
the sieves as in the meshes. A wire sieve is too open 
to i>ermit of this proportion, and hence is not as good 
as the different types of sheet metal deves. 

Windboards.— Windboards or blast deflectors are 

placed in the machine and made adjustable sa that 
the main force of the blast may be directed >o any 
l)art of the sieves. Some shoes are fitted with an 
upper and a lower windboard marked 1 and 2 
reject ively in Fig. 33. The former defleettf a saaAl 
portion of the blast in such a direction that it sweeps 
the surface of the sieves blowing the chaff rearward 
while the lower deflector directs the major force of 
the blast up through the meshes of the sieves. The 
blast in coming up through the sieves ribiild \m 


deflected as nearly perpendicular to the plane of the 
sieves as possible. This will permit of a strong blast 
wMeh, if at ar. oblique angle, wonld blow grain over. 
A nearly vertical angle of the blast has also the addi' 
tional advantage of allowing grain to descend more 
freely. The major portion of the underblast should 
be directed to the front, or fan end, of the sieves 
where it can at once commence a vigorous elimina- 
tion of the ehaff. If the main part of the blast is 
directed at this point, there is less danger of grain 
being blown over for, although the lighter grain may 
be unduly lifted it will return through the sieve when 
entering the milder blast zone in the rear of the shoe. 
If the blast is not of sufficient strength at the front 
end the meshes will clog at that point forcing the 
blast to escape through the rear portion of the sieves. 
This will cause chaff and dirt to fall through the fan 
end of the sieve, and is also certain to cause grain to 
be blown over the tail piece when entering the 
steong Must through the rear of the sieve. 

The Strength of the Blast.— This is regulated by 
throttling the air through the. intake in the fan case, 
and the device eonosts merely of movable bHi.dB 
restricting the inrushing air at both ends of the fan 
drum. While some manufacturers make these blinds 
automatically governed by the wind pressure in the 
drum, their adjustment is commonly left to the dis- 
isretlon 4ii the operator. In adjusting these 4>linds it 
must be rem«anfoered that the ri|^t h&nd tM^eU the^ 
left side, "^-l the left blind effects the right side. 
•Therefon the grain is being blown over on one 
side the i. . on the opposite side should be closed 
just si^<»«iiitly to prevent the grain from blowing 
*over. A sid« wind will increase the presrare la thftt 


Mid of the fan drum, eongequently making it neces- 
sary to throttle the intake more cn the windy side of 
the machine than ' n the other. As ranch blast 
should be U3ed as porsihle without wasting the grain, 
and in this connection it is well to remember that the 
greater the amount ot ehafT and jfrain handled the 
stronger the blast required, tor the blast will be 
spent and retarded in proportion to the densiiy of 
the mass on the sieves. It consequently follows that 
a blast whieh is .lust right when the machine is taxed 
to Its limit is apt to blow grain over when the 
machine is fed lightly. 

Self Fwdm.— The self feeder has won sueh uni- 
versal favor and become such an indis[)ensable ad- 
junct to a machine, that it can scarcely be looked 
upon as an auxiliary device but rather as' an essential 
part of the machine, necessary te- its successful 
operation. Jn its best form it has to-dav reached a 
state of perfection where, if properly cared for and 
operated, it will equal the most skilled hand feeder. 

The difficulty with the proper working of a self 
feeder doe^ not so much lie with the feeder itself as 
with the men who pitch the grain into it. If the 
pitchers would use the same care and judgment in 
tlieir work with a self feeder as the hand feeder does 
when feeding the machine by hand, a self feeder 
would eame but Uttlc troublb. But, with the care- 
lessness and ignoranee to prevalent a^ng the aver- 
age workmen around a machine, the self feeder must 
literally furnish the intelligence that guides the forks 
m the loads or stacks. Cases have come under the 

writer where men have de-. 
liberately fed grown and matted bundka into the 
machine which they knew might choke the 0|rU!^ 
and» perhape, result in an espmiTe breakdown. 

With such diflPiculties to contend with, a self 
feeder, in order to be a j)ractical and efficient sub- 
stitute for hand fcediuj?, must be simple, effective, 
durable and self governing. It mu«t have a suffi- 
cient capacity to at l»\ist equal that of the separator, 
for if it fei'd.s too slowly it wastes time, and if it feeds 
improperly it wastes irrain. In order to properly 
fultiil these reipiirements it must he more than merely 
a set of band cutters and a raddle to carry the 
bundles. It must cut the bands without failing, dis- 
trJbifte them evenly over the entire width of the 
cylinder, retard the lower part of the bundles and 
feed olt' the' top in such a manner that the heads of 
the grain do not all strike the cylinder at the same 
time, but are evenly distributed throughout the 
straw and, above all, it must feed uniformly and at 
the proper angle as fast as the machine can efficiently 
handle the grain. 

Fig. 34 illustrates a modem self feeder with erank 
mounted band cutters and an efficient straw and 

H > 4tni Self rmaSmr wttli Cnwk HmuatmA Baat IMtan mm* m 

Slmw Mid 

•peed govenior. Pigr. 35 iUuftratet another- feeder 

having revolving band cutters, fish back retarders, 
and a govorning mechanism regulatinc; the feedin- 
by varying the speed of the feeding hooks in accord- 
ance with the amount of material in the feeder 

Fl«. W 

Sectleiwl Ttew 9t Feeder with revolvinc Band Cutt«.r.i, FMi Bm* 
■tetardere. Mid mechaniam for resalatliis Fred. 

BEscellaneous Devices and. Parts.— A modern 
machine is equipped with a large numlver of devices 
such as the pneumatic stacker, the <rrHin elevator 
and weigher, etc., but these are simpk' in construc- 
tion and will be easily understood. Much valuaWe 
information can be secured regarding them by 
referring to manufacturers' catalogues. 

Manufacturers are always glad to furnish cata- 
logues upon application, and the student will find 
them of material assistance in studying this lesson 
Jt IS also suggested that he thoroughly examine anv 
and all makes of threshing machines which may be 



1. What is the difference between a broadcast 

seeder and a drill ? 

2. For what conditions is a narrow track seeder 
or drill adapted? 

3. What are the objections against a combination 
drill and disc harrow? 

4. How is uniformity of depth secured with a shoe 
drill ? 

5. For what soil and field conditions is the donble 
disc superior to the other types of furrow openers, 
and what are its advantages and disadvantages? 

6. If it should become necessary to tak*; the bind- 
er attachment apart what precautions should be 
taken to avoid tronble in putting it together again? 

7. How can you determine if the knife cuts the 
eord at the right instant ? 

8. What is t^e trouble if the needle goes as far 
forward as possible and still does not come low 
enough to deposit the cord in the disc? 

9. How would you adjust the binder to make 
larger bundles — tighter bundles? 

10. What is the object of the twine-box tension? 

11. What is meant by a standard cylinder? 

12. How many rows of concave teeth should be 
used for threshing— wheat, barley, oats, flax rad 
timothy ? 

13. Describe the construction of the straw raek. 

14. How is the blast in the fanning mill &djtltt«ft 

as to the amount and direction ? 

15. How will the condition of the tailings indicMe 
how the threshiBg madiine is working?