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ISSIONARY biography is one of the most in- 

teresting and instructive of studies. It is, 

^ however, a department of missionary litera- 
ture to which Americans have not made proportionate 
contribution. The foreign missionary Societies of the 
United States now represent more missionaries and a 
larger expenditure than the European Societies, but 
most of the great missionary biographies are of British 
and Continental missionaries, so that many Americans 
do not realize that there are men connected with their 
own Societies whose lives have been characterized by 
eminent devotion and large achievement. 

Because I regarded Dr. McGilvary as one of tlie great 
missionaries of the Church Universal, I urged him sev- 
eral years ago to write his autobiography. He was 
then over seventy-five years of age, and 1 told him that 
he could not spend his remaining strength to any bet- 
ter Mvantage to the cause he loved than in preparing 
such a volume. His life was not only one of unusual 
length (he lived to the ripe age of eighty three), but his 
missionary service of fifty-three years covered an inter- 
esting part of the history of missionary work in Siam, 
and the entire history, t! us far, of the uiissiim to the 
Lao people of northern Siam. There is no more 
fascinating story in fiction or in that truth which is 
stranger than fiction, than the story of his discovery of 
a village of strange speech near his station at Pecba- 
buri, Siam, his learning the language of the villagers, 
his long journey with his friend, Dr. Jonathan Wilson, 



into what was tlicn tlio unknown region of nortliern 
Kiam, pushing his little lumt up the great river and 
pausing not until he had gone six hundred milea north- 
ward and arrived at the eilv of Chiengniai. The years 
that followed were years of toil and i)rivation, of lone- 
liness and Sometimes of danger; bin the missionaries 
persevered with splendid faith and courage until the 
i'ouudations of a [)rosporous Mission were laid. 

In all the marked development of the Luo Mission, 
Dr. McGilvary was a leader— the leader. He laid the 
founiIali(.ns of medical work, introdiuing quinine and 
vatcinaliou among a people scourged l)y malaria and 
smallpox, a work which has now developed into five 
hospitals and a leper asylum. He began educational 
work, which is now represented by eight boarding 
schools and twenty-two elementary schools, and is 
fast expanding into a college, a medical college, and a 
theological seminary. lie was the erangelist who won 
the first converts, founded the first church, and had a 
prominent part in founding twenty other churches, 
and in developing a Lao Christian Church of four 
thousand two hundred and five adult communicants. 
His colleague, Ihe Kev. Dr. W. V. VUnhl says (hat Dr. 
McGilvary selected the sites for all the present stations 
of the :Mission Imig before committees formally sanc- 
tioned the wisdom «)f his choice. Fie led the way into 
regions beyond and was the pioneer explorer into the 
French Lslo States, eastern Burma, and even up to 
the borders of t^iinii. tlo where you will in northern 
Siam, or in many sections of the extra Siamese Lao 
States, you will find men and women to whom Dr. Mc- 
Gilvary first brought the Good News. He well de- 
serves the name so fre<inently given him even in bis life- 
time- -" The Apo.stle to the Lao." 



It was my i)rivilc'p;e to conduct our Board's corre- 
spondence with Dr. McCiilvary for more than a decade, 
and, in 1U02, to visit bim in his home and to journey 
with him throngh an extensive region. I iiave abiding 
and tender memories of those memortilile days. lie 
was a Christian gentleman of the highest type, a man 
of cultivation and refinement, of ability and scholar- 
ship, of broad vision and constmctive leadership. His 
evangelistic zeal knew no bounds. A toilsome journey 
on elephants througii the jungles brought me to a 
Saturday night with the weary ejaculation : " Now we 
can have a day of rest I " The next morning I slept 
late; but Dr. McGilvary did not; he si)ent an hour be- 
fore breakfast in a neighbouring village, distributing 
tracts and inviting the people to come to a service at 
cur camp at ten o'clock. It w as an impressive service, 
— under a spreading bo tree, with the mighty forest 
about us, monkeys curiously peering through the 
tangled vines, the huge elephants browsing the bamboo 
tips Iteiiind us, and the wondering people sitting on 
the ground, while one of the missionaries told the 
deathless story of redeeming love. But Dr. McGilvary 
was not [)rcsent. Seventy-four years old though he 
was, he had walked three miles under a scorching sun 
to another village and was preaching there, while Dr. 
Dodd conducted the service at onr camp. And I said: 
" If that is the way Dr. McGilvary rests, what does he 
do when he works?" Dr. McKean, his associate of 
many j'ears, writes : 

" No one who has done country evangelistic work 
with Dr. McGilvary can ever forget the oft-seen picture 
of the gray-haired patriarch seated on the bamboo floor 
of a thatch-covered LAo bouse, teaching some one to 
read. Of course, the book faced the pupil, and it was 


often sflid that he had taught so many people in this 
way that he could read the Lao character vorv readily 
with the book upside down. Little children in- 
stinctively loved him, and it is therefore needless to 
say that ho loved thorn. In spite of his loii^' snow- 
white beard, never seen in men of this laud and a 
strange sight to any LSo child, the children readily 
came to him. Parents have boon led to God because 
Dr. McGilvary loved thoir ohildron and laid his hands 
upon them. In no other capacity was the spirit of the 
man more manifest than in that of a shepherd. Al- 
ways on the alert for ovri-y opj»ortunity. coimting 
neither time nor distance nor the hardshij. of iucleniont 
weather, swollen streams, pathless jungle, or impass- 
able road, ho followed the example of his Master in 
seeking to save the lost. His very last journey, which 
probably was the immediate cause of his last illness, 
was a long, w arisome ride on horseback, through 
nmddy fields and deep irrigating ditches, to visit a 
man whom he had befriended many years ago and who 
seemed to be an inquirer." 

r>r. Mc(Jilvary was pre-eminently a man who walked 
with (Jod. Uis piety was not a mere profession, but a 
pervasive and abiding force. He knew no greater joy 
than to declare the Gospel of his blessed Lord to the 
people to wiiose up-lifting he had devoto.l his life. 
" If to be great is * to take the common things of life 
and walk truly among them,' he was a great man- 
great in soul, great in simplicity, great in faith and 
groat in love. Siani is tlio richer l)ocanso Daniel Mc- 
Gilvary gave her tifty-three years of unselfish service." 
Mrs. Curtis, the gifted author of The L<inn of \orth 
8iaiii, says <.f Dr. McGilvary: " Neither Carey nor Jud- 
son surpassed him in strength of faith and zeal of par- 


pose; neither Paton nor Chalmers lias outranked him 
in the wonders of their achievements, and not one of 
the other hondreds of missionaries ever has had more 
evidence of God's blessing upon their woik " 

Not only the missionaries but the Lao p< .pic loved 
him as a friend and veuerati? i him as a lather. Some 
of his intimate friends were the abbots and monks of 
the Buddhist iiKiiiastcrics and the high oflBcials of the 
country. No oue could know him without recognizing 
the nobility of sonl of this saintly patriarch, in whom 
was no guile. Decenil . r «t» , 1910, many Americans 
and Europeans celebrated the fiftieth anriversary uf his 
marriage. The King of Siam through Prince Dam- 
rong, Minister of the Interior, sent a congratulatory 
message. Letters, telegrams, and gifts poured in from 
many dilJerent places. The Christian poople of the 
city presented a large silver tray, on which was en- 
graved : " Thr Christian people of Chiengmai to Dr. 
and Mrs. McCilvary, in memory of your having brought 
the Cosjjel of Jesus Christ to us forty-three years ago." 
The tray showed in relief the old rest-house where Dr. 
and Mrs. McCilvary spent their first two years in 
Chienjiiiiai, the residence winch was later their home 
of many years, the old dilapidated bridge, and the hand- 
some new bridge which spans the rive- opposite the 
Christian (Jirls' School— thus symbolizing the old and 
the new eras. 

The recent tours of exploration by the Rev. W. Clif- 
ton Dodd, D.D., and the Rev. John H. Freeman have 
disclosed the fact that the Lao ix'oi)ley are far more 
numerous and more widely distributed than we had 
formerly supposed. Their numbers are now estimated 
at from twelve to sixteen millions, 'ind their habitat 
includes net only the Lao States of northern Siam but 



extensive regions north and northeastward in t!it Shan 
States, Southern China, and French Indo-China. Tht 
evangelization of tliese peoples is, therefore, an even 
larger and more important undertaking than it was 
understood to be only a few years ago. All the more 
honour, therefore, must be assigned to Dr. McOilvary, 
who laid foundations upon which a great superstruc- 
ture must now l)e built. 

Dr. McGilvary died as he would have wished to die 
and as any Christian worker might wish to die. There 
was no long illiwss. He continued his great evangel- 
istic and literary labours almost to the end. Only a 
short time before his death, he made another of his 
famoos itinerating journeys, preaching the Gospel to 
the outlying villages, guiding perplexed i)eople and 
comforting the sick and dying. He recked as little of 
personal hardship as he had all his life, thinking 
nothing of hard travelling, simple fare, and exposure 
to sun, mud, and rain. Not long after his return and 
after a few brief days of illness, he quietly "fell on 
sleep," his death the simple but majestic and dignified 
ending of a great earthly career. 

The Lao country had never seen such a funeral as 
that which marked the close of this memorable life. 
Princes, Governors, and High Commissioners of Btate 
sorrowed with multitudes of common people. The 
business of Chiengmai was suspended, oiBces were 
closed, and flags hung at half-mast as the silent form 
of the great missionary was borne to its last resting- 
place in the land in which he was the first bringer 
of enlightenment, and whose history can never be truly 
written without large recognition of his achievements. 

Portimatoly, Dr. McGilvary had completed this auto- 
biography before his natural powers had abated, and 



had sent the manuscript to his brother-in law, Pro- 
fessor Cornelius B. Bradley of the University of Cali- 
fornia. Dr. Bra. ley, himself a son of a great mission- 
ary to Siam, has done bis editorial work with sympa- 
thetic insight. It has been a labour of love to him to 
put these pages through the press, and every friend of 
the Lao people and of Dr. McQilvary is his debtor. 
The book itself is characterized by breadth of sym- 
pathy, richness of experience, clearness of statement, 
and high literary charm. No one can read these pages 
without realizing anew that Dr. McOilvary was a man 
of fine mind, close observation, and descriptive gifts. 
The book is full of human interest. It is the story of 
a man who tells about the things that he heard and 
saw and who tells his story well. I count it a priv- 
ilege to have this opportunity of commending this vol- 
ume as one of the books which no student of southern 
Asia and of the missionary enterprise can afford to 

Abtucb J. Bbown. 

166 FnrTB Atshcb, New Yobk. 


YEAKS ago, in tlio absence of any adequate work 
upon the subject, tlie ollicers of our Missionary 
Board and other friends arged me to write a 
book on tlio Lfio Mission. Tlien tbcie appeared Mrs. 
L. VV. Curtis' interesting volume, The Imoh of Sorth 
Siam, much to be commended for its accuracy and its 
valual.le information, especially in view of the anthor's 
short stay in the field. But no snch work exhausts its 

I have always loved to trace the providential circum- 
stances which led to the founding of the Lao Mission 
and directed its earlv history. And It seems important 
that before it be too l»te, that early history should be 
put into permanent form. I have, therefore, en- 
deavoured to give, with some fulness of detail, the 
story of the origin and inception of the Mission, and 
of its early struggles which culminated in the Edict 
of Religious Toleration. And in the later portions of 
the narrative I have naturally given prominence to 
those things which seemed to continue the character- 
istic features and the personal interest of that earlier 
period of outreach and adventure, and especially my 
long tours into the " regions beyond." 

The appearance during the past year of Rev. J. H, 
Freeman's An Oriental Lemd of the Free, giving very 
full and accurate information regarding the present 
status of the Mission, has relieved me of the necessity of 
going over the same ground again. I have, therefore, 



been oontenf fo draw my niirrnlive to a close with the 
account of uiy last long tour in 18U8. 

The work wag nndertaken with many uiiHgivings, 
since my early training and the nature of my life- 
work liiivc not been the l)est preparation for autliorsliip. 
I ilierished the secret hope that one of my own chil- 
dren would give the book its final revision for the 
press. But at last an appeal was made to my brother- 
in-law, Professor Cornelius H. Hriidley of the Tni- 
versity of California, whose birth and years of service 
in Siam, whose broad scholarship, fine literary taste, 
and hearty sympathy with our missionary efforts in- 
dicated him as the man above all others best qualified 
for this task. His generous acceptance of this work, 
and the infinite pains he has taken in the revision and 
editing of this book, place me under lasting obligations 
to him. 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. W. A. 

Briggs and to Rev. J. H. Freeman for the use of maps 
prepared by them, and to Dr. Briggs and others for the 
use of photographs. 

Daniel McQiLVAsr. 

April 6, 1911. 


IlE task which has fallen to mc in connection 

with this book, was undertaken as a labour of 

love ; and such it seenus to me even more, now 
that it ends in sadness of farewell. It lias not been 
an easy task. The vast spaces to be traversed, and 
the months of time required before a qiMstion conld 
receive its answer, made consultation with the author 
almost impossible. And the ever-present fear that for 
him the night mipht come before the work could receive 
a last revision at his hands, or evm while he was 
still in the midst of his story, led nie continually to 
urge upon him the need of persevering in his writing — 
which was evidently becoming an irksome task — and 
on my part to hasten on a piecemeal revision as the 
chapters came to baud, though as yet I had no at/Mm- 
ure of the whole to guide me. 

It iH, tlwrefore, a great comfort tu Icnow that my 
urgency and haste were not in vain ; that all of the 
revision reached him in time to receive his criticism and 
correction — though his letter on the concluding chap- 
ter was, as I understand, the very last piece of writing 
that he ever did. How serene and bright it was, and 
with no trace of the shadow so soon to fall ! 

But the draft so made had far outgrown the possible 
limits of publication, and was, of course, without due 
measure and proportion of parts. In the delicate task 
of its reduction I am much indebted to the kind sug- 
gestions of the Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D.D., and the 



Her. A. W. Tlaliie^r, D.I)., HeeretarieR of tlw Hoard of 
Fort'ifjn Missions of ilu. I'leHbyterlan Church, and of 
the I{<.v. W. C. l>(Mi(l, n.l).. „r the Lilo Mission, who, 
fortunutt'l.v, wtm iu this countr^v, and who read the 
manuscript. For what app<>en in thia book, how- 
ever, I .ihirie iimst ussiiiiit' (he regponsibility. "An 
autobiography ih a peiwoual book, expressive of per- 
aonal opinion." And whelher we agree with them or 
not, the opiuioDH of a man like Dr. McOllTary, formed 
during' a loii^ lif»')iiiie of i lnsc^t rontiict with the mat- 
ters whereof he speaks, are an essential part not only 
of the history of thoae matteni, but of the portrait of 
tlie man, and far more interestin}? than any mere de- 
tails of events or seenes. <»ii ill I jjr-iive <iii('stioiis, there- 
fore, on which he has expressed his deliberate opinion, 
I have preferred to err on the aide of inclusion rather 
than exclusion. 

The plan adopted iu this volume for spelling Siamese 
and LOo words is intended to niak.-» pofisible, and even 

cMsy, a r<-;il ap|iroxiiiiiition to the native jtrouruciation. 
Only the toual intlections of native speeth ami tlie 
Tarleties of aspiration are ignored, as wholly foreign to 
our usage and, therefore, unmanageable. 

The cimsonant letters used ami tlie digraphs ch and 
ng have their comm(jn Kuglish values. 

The vowels are as follows: 
Long a as in father 

e a* in I hey 

Tas in pique 

o as in rude 

n as in rmlr. rood 

aw as in laicn 

* as in there (without ther) 


ft as in iritrlil ( witlidiit tiio r) 

A is the hif/h nii.nd V(iW(>l, not found ill Ellglitb. 
It niu^- be { rttnouncctl m u. 
Short a M in about (German Jfoiwi)— not aa In hat. 

e as in m t 
i an iu v/t 

o an in ubry (\. Eng. coat)— not as in cot. 
u an in pull, foot — not as in hut. 

The last fmir juii;,' vowels liavc also Ihcir con'ospond 
ing HliorlH, hut sinie tliese rarely occur, it has not lieen 
thonjtht wortli while to harden tlie Rcheme witli extra 
ciiaractcrs to lepresent them. 

Tiie (liplillionps arc coniltinationN of one of these 
Towels, heavily stri'sst^d, and nearly always long in 
quantity— which make* it Mem to ns exaggerated or 
drawled— with a " vanish " of short i, o, (for «), or o. 
a» (=Knglish long i, y) and ao (=Engli8h ow) are 
the only diphthongs with short initial element, and are 
to be diHtinguished from di and do. In deference to 
long established nsajje in maps and tl:? like /V is used 
in this volume where ia would be the cons- stent spell- 
ing, and oi for awi. 

A word remains to 1k' said concerning the name of 
the people among whom Dr. McGilvary spent hi.s life. 
That name has suffered uncommonly hard usage, espe- 
cially at the hands of Americans, as the following brief 
history vill show. Its original form in European 
writing .vas Lao, a fairly accurate transcription by 
early French travellers of the name by which the 
Siamese call their cousins to the north and east. The 
word is a monosyllable ending in a diphthong similar 
to that heard in ihe proper names Macdo, Mindanao, 
Calldo. In French writing the name often appeared 



in the plural form, hs Laos; the added s, however, be- 
ing silent, made no diflference with the pronunciation. 
This written plural, then, it would seem, English- 
speaking people took over without recognizing the fact 
that it was only plural, and made it their standard 
form for all uses, singular as well as plural. With 
characteristic ignorance or disregard of its proper pro- 
nunciation, on the mere basis of its spelling, they have 
imposed on it a barbarous pronunciation of their own — 
Lay-Ota. It is to be regretted that the usage of Amer- 
ican missionaries has been most effective in giving cur- 
rency and countenance to this blundt • — has even added 
to it the further blunder of using it as the name of the 
r^on or territory, as well as of the people. But the 
word is purely ethnical— a proper adjective likn our 
words French or English, and, like these, capaole of 
substantive use in naming either the people or their 
language, but not their land. Needless to say, these 
errors have no currency whatever among European 
peoples excepting the English, and they have very little 
currency in England. It seems high time for us of 
America to amend not only our false pronunciation, 
but our false usage, and the false spelling upon which 
these rest. In accordance with the scheme of spelling 
adopted in this work, the a of the name LSo is marked 
with the macron to indicate its long quantity and 


BnuoniBT, CALooairiA, 

Dacember, 1011. 


I. Childhood and Youth .... 19 

n. Ministerial TsAiNiNa .... 36 

in. Bangkok 43 

IV. Pbchabubi — The Call of the North 63 

y. The Chabtbb of thb Lao Mission . . 66 


VII. PiONKKR Work 84 


IX. MABrrv-DOH 102 

X. The Rotal Commission . . . .118 

XI. Death of Kawiloeot . . . .130 
XII. The New Regime 140 


XIV. First Fublouob 160 

XV. MuANQ KSn and Chieno Dao . . . 169 

XVI. Seekers After God .... 180 

XVIL Thb Rbsidbnt Commissionbb . . .191 

XVIIL Witchcraft 199 

XIX. The Edict of Religious Toleration . 207 

XX. Schools — The Nine Ybabs' Wandebeb 221 

XXL Sboond Fublouoh sse 


XXIII. EvANQBLisno Training .... 366 

XXIV. Stbugolb with the Powbbs of Dabk- 

VMM 966 

XXV. Christian Communitikb Plantbd . . 276 

XXVI. A Foothold in LampCn .... 289 




XXVII. A Peisonek of Jesus Christ . . 300 

XXVIII, Circuit Tour wnu My Dauguteu , 308 

XXIX. Lbnothbming tub Cobds and Stbbngth- 

KMNG THE Stakes . . , . 320 

XXX. Among the Musu Villages — Famine . 338 


XXXII. TUIBD FcBi. ouGH — Station at Cuibno 

Rai 370 

XXXIII. Tub Regions J!evoni) .... ,180 

XXXIV. Thb Closed Uoor 402 

XXXV. Conclusion 413 

Indbz 431 


Danibl McGilvabt .... Fronti^iece 


William J. Bingham 30 

Maha Monkut, Kino op Siah, 1851-1872 . . 48 
Pagoda of Wat Chkng, HANr.KOK ... 56 
Rbv. Dan Beach Bbadley, M.D., 1872 . ' I 7o 
KiwrL6BOT, Pbincb of Chibnomai (about 1869) f 
A Rest Between Rapids in thb Gobgb of the j 

Mb Ping Rivee >• 76 

Poling up thb Mb Ping Bivbr . . . ; 
Tbmflb of thb Old Tli Sttlb of Abchitbctubb, 

Chievgmai 82 

A Ckemation Pkocession 146 

Intbbiob of a Tbhplb, PbI: 158 

An Abbot Pheachin'; 188 

Intanon, Pbincb of Cuibngmai . . . ) 

Eldbb Nan Suwan f 

Dr. McGilvaby, 1881 I 238 

Mas. McGilvaby, 1881 I 

Chulalonokobn, King of Siah, 1872-1910 242 

Pbbsbttbby, Retubnino fboh Mbbting in Lakawn 264 

Market Scene in Chiengmai . . . ) 

In the Harvest Field f 

GiBLti' School in Chibnohai, 1898 . . . . 284 

Rkv. Jonathan Wilson, D.D , 1898 . , . 294 

First Chdrch in Chiengmai . . . . ) 

> 318 

Db. McQilv art's Home in Chibnomai . . I 

1\Irs. McGiiA AUY, 1803 332 

MuBo Pkoplk and Hut nbab Chibng Rai . . 348 



rteina rto* 

Groitp of Yunnan Lao ...... 356 

PuYA SuKA SiH, Siamese High Commissioner for 

THE North 384 

Ills Majesty, Maua Vajikavuph, Kin(; of Siam . 424 
Dr. and Mrs. McGilvary, Fifty Years after 

Thbib Mabbiaob 428 

Map of Northbbk Siam Showing Mission Stations 326 
Map of Siam 43U 


EREDITY and early environment exercise snch 

a determining influence in forming a man's 

charncter and shaping liis destiny that, with- 
out some linowledge of these as a clew, his after-life 
would often be unintelligible. And beyond these there 
is doubtless a current of events, directing the course 
of every man's life, which no one else can see so clearly 
as the man himself. In the following review of my 
early life, I have confined myself, therefore, to those 
events which seem to have led me to my life-work, or 
to have prepared me for it. 

By race I am a Scotsman of Scotsmen. My father, 
Malcom McGilvary, was a Highland lad, born in the 
Isle of Skye, and inheriting the marked characteristics 
of his race. In 1789, when Malcom was eleven years 
old, my grandfather brought his family to the United 
States, and established himself in Moore County, North 
Carolina, on the headwaters of the Cape Fear River. 
The McGilvarys had but followed in the wake of an 
earlier immigration of Scottish Highlanders, whose 
descendants to this day form a large proportion of the 
population of Moore, Cumberland, Richmond, Robeson, 
and other counties of North Carolina. My father's 
brothers gradually scattered, one going to the south- 
western, and two to the northwestern frontier. My 
father, being the youngest of the family, remained with 



h,d parents on the homestead. The country was then 
sparsely settled; communicatiun was slow and uncer- 
tain. The scattered members of the family gradually 
lost sight of one another and of the home. My mother 
belonged to the Mclver clan -from the same regiou of 
the Scottish Highlands, and as numerous in North 
Carolina as the McGiivarys were scarce. She was 
bom in this country not long after the arrival of her 

I was born May 16th, 1828, being the youngest of 
seven children. As soon after my birth as my mother 
could endure the removal, she was taken to Fayette- 
ville, thirty five miles distant, to undergo a dangerous 
surgical oi>eration. The journey was a trying one. 
Antesthetics were as yet unknown. My poor mother 
did not long survive the shock. She died on the 23d 
of November of that year. 

Since feeding-bottles were not then in use, the 
motherless infant was passed around to the care of 
aunts and cousins, who had children of like age. Two 
aunts in particular, Catharine Mclver and Margaret 
McNeill, and a cousin, EfBe Mclver, always claimed a 
Bhare in me for their motherly ministrations till, at last, 
I could be turned over to my sister Mary. She, though 
but six years my senior, was old beyond her years ; and 
the motherly care with which she watched over her lit- 
tle charge was long remembered and spoken o' ; > he 

When I was four years old, my father married bis 

second wife, Miss Nancy Mcintosh. The next nine 
years, till my father's death, June 8th, 1841, were sp^'nt 
in the uneventful routine of a godl^ > ily in a coun- 
try home. My father's rigid ideas r' jily discipline 
were inherited from his Presbyteri</ ^ ancestors in 



Scotland, and his own piety was of a distinctly old- 
Bchool type. He was a ruling elder in the church at 
Buffalo, Fayetteville Pregbytery, in which office he was 
succeeded by my brother, Evander, and three others 
of bis sons became elders in other churches. No 
pressure of business was ever allowed to interfere with 
family worship night and morning. A psalm or hymn 
from the old village hymnbook always formed part 
of the service. My father was an early riser, and, in 
the winter time, family worship was often over before 
the dawn. Almost every spare moment of his time he 
spent in reading Scott's Family Bible, the Philadelphia 
Presbyterian, or one of the few books of devotion which 
composed the family library. The special treasure of 
the book-case was the great quarto Illustrated Family 
Bible, with the Apocrypha and Brown's Concordance, 
published by M. Carey, Philadelphia, 1815. It was the 
only pictorial book in the library, and its pictures were 
awe-inspiring to us children — especially those in the 
Book of Revelation : — The Dragon Chained, The Beast 
with Seven Heads and Ten Horns, and the Vision of 
the Four Seals. These and the solemn themes of Rus- 
sell's Seven Sermons — which on rainy days I used 
to steal away by myself to read — made a profound im- 
pression on me. 

Scottish folk always carry the school with the kirk. 
Free schools were unknown; but after the crops were 
"laid by," we always had a subscription school, in 
which my father, with his large family, had a leading 
interest. The teacher " boarded around " with the 
pupils. Our regular night-task was three questions 
and answers in the Shorter Catechism — no small task 
for boys of ten or twelve years. My memory of the 
Catechism once stood me in good stead in after-life. 


When examined for licensure bv the Orange Pres- 
bytery, I was asked, " What is man's state by nature? " 
In reply I gave the answers to the ninetemth an«! 
twentieth questions in the Catechism. A j)erceptible 
smile passed over the faces of many of the presbyters, 
and Father Lynch said, " He is right on the Catechism. 
He will pass." In tLose days to be " right on the 
Catechism " would atone for many failures in Hodge 
or Turretin. 

The charch was at the village of Buffalo, four miles 
from our home, but no one of the family was expected 
to be absent from the family pew on " the Sabbath." 
Carriages were a later luxury in that region. Uur two 
horses carried father and mother, with the yoongest 
of the little folks mounted behind, till he i^ould be 
able to walk with the rest. 

The great event of the year was the camp-meeting 
at the Fall Communion. It served as an epoch from 
which the events of the year before and .ifter it were 
dated. For weeks before it came, all work on the 
farm was arranged w:th refer^ce to "Buffalo Sacra- 
ment" — pronounced with long a in the first syllable. 
It was accounted nothing fur pet)ple to come fifteen, 
tWOTty, or even forty miles to the meetings. Every pew- 
holder had a tent, and kept open house. No stranger 
went away hungry. Neighbouring ministers were in- 
vited to assist the pastor. Services began on Frid.^/, 
and closed on Monday, unless some special interest sug- 
gested the wisdom of protracting them further. The 
regular order was: A sunrise prayer meeting, break- 
fast, a prayer-me» ting at nine, a sermon at ten, an in- 
termission, and then another sermon. The sermons 
were not accounted of much worth if they w<'re not an 
hour long. The pulpit was the tail old fashioned box- 



pulpit with a eounding-board above. For want of 
room in the charch, the two Rermons on Sunday were 
preached from a stand in the open air. At the close 
of the second sermon the ruling elders, stationed in 
various parts of the congregation, distributed to the 
communicants the ''tokens,'** which admitted them 
to the sacramental table. Then, in solemn procession, 
the company marche<l up the rising ground to the 
church, singing as they went : 

Children of the Heavenly King, 
As ye journey sweetly sing." 

It was a beautiful sight, and we boys nsed to climb the 
hill in advance to see it. When the audience was 
seated, there was a brief introductory exercise. Then 
a hymn was sung, while a group of communicants filled 
the places about the communion table. There was 
an address by one of the ministers, during the progress 
of which the bread and the wine were passed to the 
group at the table. Then there was singing again, 
while the first group retired, and a second group took 
its p^ace. The same ceremony wm repeated for than, 
and again for others, until all communicants present 
had participated. The communion service must have 
occupied nearly two hours. One thing I remember 
well— when the children's dinner-time came (which 
was after all the rest had dined), the sun was low in 
the heavens, and there was still a night service before 
us. Notwithstanding some inward reliellion, it seemed 
all right then. But the same thing nowadays would 
drive all the young people out of the church. 

* Th* " token" was a thin square pboe of Umi «*»«■« p*^ wllh Uie 
iaitial lettei of liie name of Uie ciiurch. 


With Noiiio diflidpiuc I vi-nlnro tn ituike ono rrili- 
cism on our home life. The " Habbath " was too 
rigidly observed to commend itself to the jadgment and 
ronscipncp of cliildron — too rigidlj-, |»erhap8, for the 
most healthy piety iu adults. It is hard to convince 
boys that to whistle on Sunday, even though the tune 
be " Old Hundred," is a sin deserving of censure. An 
afternoon stroll in the farm or the orchard iiii{;lit even 
have claritied uiy father's vision for the enjoyment of 
his Scott's Bible at night. It would surely have been 
a means of grace to his boys. But such was the Scot- 
tish fypf of piety of days, and it was stronply 
held. The family discipline was of the reserved and 
dignified type, rather than of the affectionate. Im- 
plicit ol)edipnco was the law for children. My father 
loved bis children, but never descended to the level 
of familiarity with them when young, and could not 
sympathize with their sports. 

Hnt dark days wore cominp. Brother .John Martin 
presently married and moved west. In August, 1840, 
an infant sister died of quinsy — the' first death I ever 
witnessed. On June 8th. 1841, the father and " house- 
bond " of the family was taken away. The inher 
itance he left his children was the example of an up- 
right, spotless life — of more worth than a legacy of 
silver and pnld. These we might have squandered, but 
that was inalienable. 

At thirteen, I was small for my age — too small to do 
a man's work on the farm ;and there was no money witii 
which to secure for me an education. Just then oc- 
curred one of those casual incidents which often deter- 
mine the whole course of one's life. Mr. Roderick Mc- 
intosh, one of my mother's cousins, being disabled for 
bard work on the farm, bad learned the tailor's trade, 



and wuH then living in the Tillage of I'ittHburo, twenty- 
one miles awaj. His father was a neighboar of onn, 

and a man after my fiitlu'i's owd iicart. Tlio two fam- 
ilies had thuit alwa^'M been vi-rv intiiiiali'. Wl)!le the 
questiun of my destiny wa.s lliu.s iu the batauce, this 
cousin, one day, while on a visit to bis father, called at 
our hiiuse. fie had iiimiutcd liis horse (o leave, wheu, 
turning to ICvauder, he assiied, " What is iJan'l going 
to do? " My brother replied, " There he is; ask him." 
Tmuing to nie. lie said, " Well, Daii'l, how would you 
like to come and live with me? I will teach vou a 
trade." I had uever thought of such a thing, uor had 
it ever !>een mentioned in the family. But somehow it 
struck me favourably, liistinetively 1 replied. " I be 
lieve I should like it." A life queHtion could not have 
been settled more fortuitously. But it was the first 
step on the way to Siaiii and the Liio Mission. 

On the last day A-ipust, 1841. I farewell 
to the old home, with I its pleasant a^>sociatious. 
Every spot of it was dear, but never so dear as then. 
Accompanied by my brother I'vamler. eadi of us riding 
one of the old family horses, 1 started out for my new 
home. The departure was not utterly forlorn, since 
Evander was still with me. But the parting from him, 
as he started back next day, was probably the hard- 
est thing 1 had ever experienced. 1 had to seek a 
quiet place and give vent to a flood of tears. For a 
time I was inexpressibly sad. I realized, as never be- 
fore, that I was cut loose from the old moorings — was 
alone in the world. But the sorrows of youth are soon 
assuaged. No one could have received a warmer wel- 
come in the new home than I did. There were two 
children in the family, and they helped to till the void 
made by the separation. 


I'itUbui'u wuH uut a large village, but us uutluok was 
broader than that of my home. The world seemed 
larger. I uiyHolf felt larger tliuu I hud done us a 
rouulry hny. 1 iH-anl «liseus.siou ui pulitics uud of the 
que.slionH of (be da^. Tim touuty was strongly Whig, 
but Mr. Mcintosh was an nnyielding Democrat, and as 
fond of arj^utnent as a politician. According to south- 
ern custoiii, stores and shops were favourite rcsortH for 
passing away idle time, and for sharpening the wits of 
the villagers. The recent Presidential campaign of 
IS to fiirniHhcd onending themes for discussion in onr 
little shop. 

There was no Presbyterian church in Pittsboro at 

that time. The church-going population was divided 
between the MethodiHt and the Kpiscopalian churches, 
the former l>eing the larger. With my cousin's family 
I attended the Methodist church. On my first Sonday 
I joined the Methodist Sunday School, and that school 
was the next importanc link in my chain of life. Its 
special feature was a system of prize*^. A c<^rtaiu n<iin- 
ber of perfect answers secured a blue ticket; ten of these 
brought a yellow ticket; and yellow tickets, according 
to the number of them, entitled the possessor to various 
prizes — a hymnbook, a Bible, or the like. On the 
first Sunday I was put into a class of boya of my 
own age, at work on u little primer of on«, hundred 
Hnd six questions, all answered in monosyllables. By 
the next Sunday I was able to recite the whale, to- 
gether wi«h the Lord's I'ra\or and the Apostles' Creed 
at the end. It was no great feat; but the teacher and 
the school thought it was. So, on the strength of 
my very first lesson, I got a yellow ticket, and was 
promoted to tlic next higher class. That stimulated 
my auibitiuu, aiiU i Uc^ulcd Ui^ e\eiy spare Itouc to 



ttndy. The next book was one of qumtionM and as* 
■wen on the fonr OoRpels. They wvrv wry eaty; I 
wiis alilc I" cfiiiiniif li> iiiciiiorv scvcriil liniulicd iinswtTS 
diiiing the wetk. iu a ifW Sundays I gut my llrst 
prize ; and it was not long before I had secured all the 
prizt'H olTt'red iu tlie 8t'hool. Wliut wiis of far iii(»ro 
valiu' than the prizw was Mn' jjii-aiiT love for Ntiidy 
aud for (lie jScripturt's wliicii liie ttlort Ijad awalieiied 
in me, and a desire for an education. The shop was 
often idle ; I liad ploity of tin^ for study, and made 
the most of it. 

At one of the subsequent Quarterly Meetings, a Rev. 
Mr. Drainard, who hail considoraltlc reputation qh a 
revivalist, preached one Stunlay nijilit a vivid and 
thrilling seruiun on Noah's Ark aud the Flood. 80 
mari^ed was the impression on the audience, that, at 
the close, according to the Methodist cnstoni, '' nioiirn- 
ers" were invited to the altar. Many accepted tiie in- 
vitation. A young friend sitting beside me was greatly 
affected. With streaming eyes he said, Dan'l, let us 
pi>. for." risinti; up :>"d starlinf as he spoke. After 
a few uiumeutti 1 iollowed. liy this time the space 
about the altar was well fllk 1. There was great excite- 
ment and no little confusion — exhortation, singing, and 
prayer going ou all at once. A nundier of [)ersons 
made profession of religion, and soon my young friend 
joined them. He was full of joy, and was surprised 
to find that I was not so, too. The nieotings were con- 
tinued night after night, aud each night I went to the 
altar. As I look back upon it from this distance, it 
seems to me that, with much exhortation to repent 
and believe, there was not enough of clear and definite 
instruction regarding the plan of salvation, or the of- 
fices and work of Christ. One night, in a quiet hour 



at home, the grounds and method of a sinner's ac- 
ceptance of Christ became clear to me, and He became 
my Lord. 

Soon after, when invitation was given to the new con- 
verts to join the church as probationers, I was urged 
by some good friends to join with the rest; and was 
myself not a little inclined to do so. It was no doubt 
the induence of my cousin that enabled me to with- 
stand the excitement of the revival and the gentle 
pressure of my Methodist friends, and to join, instead, 
my father's old church at Buffalo. But I owe more 
than I shall ever linow to that Sunday School, and 
since then I hare always loved the Methodist Church. 
Meanwhile the prospects for an education grew no 
brighter, though Mr. Brantley, then a young graduate 
in charge of the Pittsboro Academy, but afterward a 
distinguished Baptist minister of Philadelphia, gave 
me a place in his school at idle times; and a Dr. Hall 
used to lend me boolis to read. 

When the opportunity for acquiring an education 
finally came, i*^ was as unexj»ected as a clap of thun- 
der out of a blue sky. The celebrated Bingham School, 
now in Asheviile, N»)rth Carolina, was then, as now, the 
most noted in the South. It was started by Rev. Will- 
iam Bingham in Pittsboro, North Carolina, in the 
closing years of the eighteenth century. It was moved 
to Hillsboro by his son, the late William J. Bingham, 
father of the present Principal. The school was 
patronized by the leadinfj families of the South. The 
number of pupils was strictly limited. To secure a 
place, application had to be made a year or more in 

My surprise, therefore, can well be imagined, when 
one day Baccus King, a young boy of the town, walked 

cniLnnooi) and youth 


into the shop v ith a letter addressed to Master Daniel 
McGilvary tiou) no J^ss a personage than William J. 
Bingham, <be great tea. .< r and Principal. At first I 
thought I i\4'.>s the V'cti.u of some boyish trick, lint 
there was f^t i: s 'jjnaturr, and the explanation that fol- 
lowed removed all duubt. Nathan Btedman, an in- 
flii('nti;il citizen of Pittshoro, was an early acquaintance 
and friend of Mr. Hingham. He had visited the school 
in person to secure a place for his nephew, young 
King, and bad brought back with him the letter for 
me. What Mr. Bingham knew of me T never dis- 
covered. No doubt Mr. Stedman could have told, 
though up to that time I had never more than spoken 
with him. Be that as it may, there was the letter 
with its most generous otFer that I take a course in 
Bingham School at the Principal's expense. He was 
to board me and furnish all necessary expenses, which, 
after graduation, I was to refiind Iiy teaching. Tf I 
became a minister of the Gospel, the tuition was to be 
free; otherwise I was to refund that also. To young 
King's enquiry what I would do, I replied, " Of course, 
I shall go." My cousin. Mr. Mcintosh, was scarcely 
less delighted than 1 was at the unexpected opening. 

The invitation to attend Bingham School came in 
the fall of 184.'5, when I was in my eighteenth year. 
There were then only two weeks till the school should 
open. I had little p -eparation to make. A pine box 
painted red was soon got ready to serve as a trunk, for 
my wardrobe was by no means elaborate. Mr. Sted- 
man kindly offered me a seat with Baccus and a friend 
of his who was returning to the school. On the way 
Baccus' friend entertained us with stories of the rigid 
discipline, for th.s was in the days when the rod was 
not spared. I had no fears of the rod, but I trembled 


lesf T should not sustain luysolf as well as such great 
kindness demanded. It might be a very ditlerent thing 
from winning a reputation in a Methodist Sunday 

It was dusk when we reached Tlie Oaks. The fam- 
ily was at supiH-T. Mr. liingham tame out to receive 
us. He told Baccus' friend to take him to his own old 
quarters, and, turning to nie, said, " I have made ar- 
rangements for you to board with Mr. C, and to room 
with Mr. K., the assistant teacher, till my house is fin- 
ished, when you are to live with us. But we are at 
supper now. You must be hungry after your long 
ride. Come in and eat with us." After supper, Mr. 
Bingham went with me to my boarding-house, and 
introduced me to my hosts and to my chum, David 
Kerr. He welcomed me, and said he thought we 
should get along tinely together. We not only did 
that, but he became a warm friend to whom I owed 
much. 80 I was in the great liingham School, over- 
whelmed with a succession of unexi)ected kindnesses 
from so many quarters ! What did it all mean? 

My highest anticipations of the school were realized. 
If there ever was a born teacher, William J. Bingham 
was one. Latin and Greek were taught then by a 
method very different from the modern one. Before a 
sentence was i-ead or translate<l, the invariable direc- 
tion was— master your grammar. In grammar-drill 
Mr. Bingham could have no superior. Bullion's 
Grammars and Readers were the text-books. The prin- 
cipal definitions were learned practically verbatim. 
The coarse print was required of all in the class. The 
older pupils were advised to learn notes, exceptions, 
and all. I never became so familiar with any other 
books as with that series of grammars. We were ex- 



pected to decline every noun and adjective, alone or 
combined, from noniinativo sinpjular to ablative plural, 
backwards ur forwards, and to give, at a nod, voice, 
mood, tense, number, and person of any verb in the 
lesson. Tiii'se exercises became at last so easy that 
they weiv j;reat fun. Even now, sixty years later, I 
often put myself to sleep by repeating the old para- 

It may seem that my estimate of Mr. IJingliaia is 
prejudiced by my sense of personal obligation to him 
for his kindness. Yet I doubt not that the universal 
verdict of every one who went there to study would 
be that he should be tated as one of the world's 
greatest teachers. The South owes much to him for 
the dignity he gave to the profession of teaching. No 
man ever left a d(H'per impress on nic. Thousands of 
times I have thanked the Lord for the opportunity to 
attend his school. 

I was graduated from the school in May, 1849, a few 
days before I was twenty -one yeai's old. On leaving 
my kind friends at The Oaks, I was again at sea. It 
will be remembered that, by my original agreement, I 
was booked for teaching — but I had no idea where. 
Once more the unexpected happened. In the midst 
of negotiations for a school in the southern part of 
the state, I was greatly surprised at receiving an offer 
from one of the prominent business men f)f my own 
town, Pittsboro, to assist me in organizing a new 
school of my own there. With much doubt and hesita- 
tion on my part — for there wei'e already two prepara- 
tory schools in I he place — the venture was made, and 
I began with ten pupils taught in a little business of- 
fice. The number was considerably increased during 
the year. But when the second year opened, I was put 


in charge of the Acadeuiy, whose Principal had re- 
signed. Hero, ill work both i)leasant and fairly profit- 
able, I remained uotil the four jears for which I had 
agreed to stay were up. 

I had by no means reached my ideal. Bat, as my 
friends had itrcdicted, it had been a success. Some 
of niy warmest supporters were sure that 1 was giv- 
ing up a certainty for an uncertainty, in not making 
teaching my life-work. It had evidently been the 
liope of my friends from the first that i would make 
Pittsboro my home, and build up a large and perma- 
nent school there. But my purpose of studying for 
the ministry had never wavered, and that made it 
easier for me to break off. 

During these four years my relations with the newly 
organized Presbyterian church had been most pleas- 
ant and profitable. Thore was no resisting the appeal 
that 1 should become ruling elder. The superintend- 
ency of the Sunday School also fell naturally to me, 
and opened up another field of usefulness. The friend- 
ship formed with the pastor, the Rev. J. H. McNeill, 
Is one of the pleasant memories of my life. 

One feature of the church connection must not be 
passed over. Neither of the other elders was so cir- 
cumstanced as to be able to attend the meetings of the 
Orange Presbytery. Three of the leading professors 
in the University were members of the Presbytery, and 
all the leading sc'iools within its bounds were taught 
by Presbyterian miuisterf? or elders. To accommodate 
this large group of teachers, the meetings were held in 
midsummer and midwinter. Thus it fell to my lot to 
represent the Pittsboro church at the Presbytery dur- 
ing nearly the whole of the four years of my stay in 
Pittsboro. As it was then constituted, its meetings 


were almost equal to a course in church government. 
The Rev. J. Doll, oue of the best of p-irliamentarians, 
was stated clerk. A group of members such as the 
two Drd. Phillips, father and son, Dr. Elisha Mitchell, 
of the University, and many others that could be 
named, would have made any assembly noted. Pro- 
fessor Charles Phillips, as chairman of the committee 
on candidates for the ministry, came into closer tonch 
with me than most of the others. Tie afterwards fol- 
lowed my course in the Seminary with an interest 
ripening into a friendship which continued throughout 
his life. 

The meetings of the Presbytery were not then 
merely formal business meetings. They began on 
Wednesday and closed on Monday. They were looked 
forward to by the church in which they were to be 
held as spiritual and intellectual feasts. To the mem- 
bers themselves they were seasons of reunion, where 
friradships were cemented, and where wits were sharp- 
ened by intellectual conflicts, often before crowded con- 

Union Seminary, now of Richmond, Vii^nia, has 
always heen under the direction of the Synods of North 
Carolina and Virginia; and there were strong reasons 
why students from those Synods should study there. 
They were always reminded of that obligation. But 
the high reputation of l)rs. Hodge and Alexander was 
a strong attraction toward Princeton. My pastor and 
Professor Phillips, chairman of the committee in charge 
of me, had both studied there. So I was allowed 
to have my preference. No doubt this proved another 
stepping-stone to Siam. Union Seminary was not then 
enthusiastic in r^rd to foreign missions, as it has 
since become. At the last meeiing of Presbytery 


that I was to attend. Dr. Alexander Wilson moved that, 
inasmuch as Orange Proshvtery owned ;i si lutlarsliip in 
rrinceton Sorninary, I be assigned t<» it. To my ob- 
jection that I liad made money to pay my own way, 
he replied, " Yon will have pleuty of ni-ed of your 
iiioTicy. You ran buy books with it." 1 followed the 
suggestion and laid in a good library. 



1 ENTERED Princeton fc>kjininary in the fall of 
1853. I did not lodge in the Seminary building, 
but, through the kindness of Kcv. Daniel 
Dcrnuclle — whom, as ajjeut of tlie American Bible So- 
ciety, 1 had come to know during his visits to I'itts- 
boro — I found a charming home in his family. Ttere 
were, of course, some disadvau(a}j;es in living a mile 
and a half away from the Seminary. 1 could not have 
the same intimate relations with my fellow Btudents 
which I might hare had if lodged in the S«ninary. 
But I had the delightful uornc-life which most of them 
missed altogether. And the compulsory exercise of 
two, or sometimes three, trips a day, helped to keep 
me in health throughout my course. I became, indeed, 
a flrst rat' walker — an accomplishment which has since 
stood me lu good stead in all my life abroad. 

Being from the South, and not a college graduate, as 
weit; most of the students, I felt lonesome enough 
when, on the first morning of the session, I entered 
the Oratory and looked about me without discovering 
a single face that I knew. But at the close of the 
lecture some one who had been told by a friend to look 
out for me, touched me on the shoulder, made himself 
known, and then took me off to introduce me to J. 
Aspinwall Hodge, who was to be a classmate of mine. 
No man ever had a purer or a better friend than this 



young irnn, afterward Dr. J. ARpinwall Hodge; and 

I never iiit t ii friend iiiori' oppnrliinely. 

Of our revered (eaehers and of the Htudics of the 
Seminary course there is no need to speak here. Onr 
class was a slrou}? one. Aiiioiij; its luemlHirs were such 
men as (Javlev. .Mills, .lonatluin W ilson, Nixon, I-efevre, 
and ("haney. Of these (layley and .Mills were already 
candidates for missionary work abroad. In other 
cliisscs were Robert McMullen and Isidore Loewen- 
thai, destined to become martyrs in Cawnpore and 
I'eshawur. Many were the stirring apiKjals we heard 
from these men. Dr. Charles Hodge, too, had given a 
son to India; and lie nevcM- s[iok(' iimre Impressively 
than when he was pleading the cause of foreign uiis- 
sior" Princeton, moreover, because of its proximity 
tr> ■ York and to the headquarters of the various 
missionary societies establisluMl then', was a favourite 
field for the visits of the Seci-etaries of these organi- 
zations, and of returned missionaries. A notable visit 
during my first year was that of Dr. .Mexander HufT, 
tlien in is prime. No one who heard him could forget 
his s( iiing criticism of the church for "playing at 
missions,"' or his impassioned apix;al8 for labourers. 

So the question was kept constantly before me. lUit 
during the first two years, the difiiculty of the ac- 
quisition of a foreign language by a person not gifted in 
his own, seemed an obstacle well-nigh insuperable. 
Conscience suggested a compromise. Within the field 
of Home Missions was there not equal need of men 
to bring the bread of life to those who were perishing 
without it? With the object of finding some such op- 
portunity, I spent my last vacation, in the summer of 
1855, in Texas as agent of the American Socday School 



Texas affordc tl, indtt-d, j;ic;it upiMirtiinitics for (^hris- 
tiuu work; but in tuc one object of tiuewt— u field 
wltere Christ was not preached— I was disappointed. 
In every small village there was already a *liurfh — 
ofh'ti iiioic tliini one. Kvcii in country s<iuHilliousen 
MetbodiHts, I'apti.sts, and Cumberland i'resbyteriaus 
had regular Sunday appointments, each having ac- 
quired ehiim to a particular Sunday nf the month. 
♦Jonditioua were such tbat tbe growth of one sect usu- 
ally meant a corresponding weakening of the others. 
It was possible, of course, to find lixal t xctplions. 
ISut it is easier even now tt> liiid viliaj;es l)y tiie liun- 
dred, with three, four, and even five I'rotestant 
churches, aided by various missionary societies ; where 
all the inhabitants, working togetlier, could do no more 
than support one church well. This may be neces- 
sary; but it is surely a great waste. 

Prom this trip I had just returned with these 
thoughts in my mind, and \.as entering upon niy senior 
year, when it was announced that Dr. 8. U. House, a 
missionary from Siam, would address the students. 
Expectation was on tij^toe to hear from this new 
kingdom of Siani. Tiic address was a revelation to us 
all. The opening of the kingdom to American mis- 
sionaries by the reigning monarch, Maha Mongkut — 
now an old story— was new then, and sounded like a 
veritable romance. My liesitation wns ended. Here 
was not merely a village or a parish, but a whole 
kingdom, just waking from its long, dark, hopeless 
sleep, livery sermon I preached tlwiv might be to 
those who had never heard that there is a God in heaven 
who made them, or a Saviour from sin. 

The appeal was for volunteers to go at once. None, 
however, of the mca who had announted themselves as 


caiKlitlalcs for scrvicf iiliniihl \v<>n' iiv;iiliil»lf I'dr Siatn. 
They wore all i»U'dged to »»tliitr tields. The call fuuud 
Jonathan VVllHon and myself In much the name state 
of expectancy, wailing for a ch'iir revelation of diit.v. 
AfitT anxiouH eousiiltaliou and prayer together, and 
with Dr. House, we promis«'d hiiii tliat we would n'lve 
the matter oar most serions thought. If the Lord 
should lead us tliiliici'. we wnnid <ii>. 

Meanwiiile the Kev. Andrew 15. Morse had been ap- 
pointed a missionary to Binm, and the immediate 
urgency of the ease was thus lightened. Shortly l>e 
fore the close oi" my Seminary «M)nrHe, in IS.'t!, there 
came to me a call to the j.istorate of two contiguous 
churches, those of Carthage and of Union, in ray native 
county in North Carolina. The call stcuKd a pnivi 
dential one, and 1 accepted it for one year only. My 
classmate, Wilson, soon after accepted a call to work 
among the Indians in Spencer Academy. 

My parish was an admiraMe one for the haininji of 
a young man. The church at Union was one of the 
oldest in the state. The church at Carthage, five 
miles away, was a colony fmiii Tnion. No disliiicl 
geographical line separated the two. Many of the 
people regularly attended both. That, of course, made 
the work harder for a young pastor. The extreme 
limits of the two parislies wtrc fifteen miles apart. 
But these were church going lulk, mostly of Scottish 
descent— not "dry-weather Christians." The pastor- 
ate had l)een vacant a whole year. 

the first morning service the church was crowded 
to its ut""^8t capacity. Some came, no doubt, from 
cariosity •' hear the new preacher; but most of them 
were hungry for the Gospel. They had all known 
my father; and some had known me — or known of me 



— front IxpvIkhmI. I (<)iil<i not avp had n more «Tm- 
Iiullit'tii niuli»'U''i', iiH 1 loarut'ii fr< ja tUc words <»f ap- 
preciation and encouragenmit spoken to me after 
cliiirdi— ('S|H'oiaIly those apedccn hj my br^lMr, who 
was preHcut. 

The year pasoed rai)iill\. Tbe worli bad in .--pered 
and was delightful. In it I formed tiie taste for 

pviuip<'liKtio touriT'tr. w' ici « afterwards ii- hf 'ny 
work among tlic Lw. Tiicr- Lad iieen a nuiiil)cr of 
acceasiona in both charoh<>«< It whr eaay to become 
engrossed in one' lirsf charpr anionf.' a p<" plo so sym- 
pathetir, iiul fo ovorlook faraway Siani. Indeed, I 
had becoihu mt far intiuenml I. -rfsent siurnnmd- 
ings as to allow my nanw to b- < . before a meet- 
ing of tli(> corifrtvf::!! ion wifli a view ,,, iccomiTiu t[w\r 
permaueul paslor. Their rhoiie uf uie was unanimous. 
Moreover, I had been dismisfied from my old Pres- 
bytery to the one within whose bounds my parish 
was. Tlio rcpjnlar iiifH'linfi <■( tin latter was not far 
off, when arraiigeincnts were to made for my ordina 
tion and installation. 

As the time drew iii>ar. do I rnifrht, my joy 
in arcepting the call seemed marred by the thought 
of Siam. T learned that the Siamese Mission, in- 
stead of f;rf)win<; stronjjer, was hwoming weaker. Mr. 
Morse"^ 'calth li;id coinpletcly broken down during 
his first year in »he field. He was then returning to 
the United Staten. Mrs. Mattoon had already come 
back an inTalid. Her bnsband, after ten years in 
Siam, was gr-eatly in need of a change; bnt was 
holding on in desperation, hoping against hope that 
he might be relieved. 

The question of my going to Siam, which had been 
left an open one, most now soon be settled by my ac- 


i \ 

I i 


cepting or declining. I nooded counsel, but knew not 
on what earthly source to tall. When the question of 
Siam flrst came up in Princeton, I had written to lead- 
ing nionibers of the Orange Pri'sbytery for advice, stat- 
ing the claims of Siam so strongly that I was sure 
these men would at least give me some encouragement 
toward going. Hut the reply I had from one of them 
was typical of all the rest : " We do not know about 
Siam; but we do know of such and such a church 
and of such and sach a field vacant here in Orange 
Presbytery. Still, of course, it may \xi your duty to 
go to Siam." In that quarter, surely, there was no 
light for me. So I devoted Saturday, August 1st, to 
fasting and prayer for guidance. In the woods back 
of the Carthage church and the Acadony, the decision 
was finally reached. I would go. 

Next morning I stopped my chief elder on his way 
to church, and informed him of my decision. After 
listening to my statement of the case, he replied, " Of 
course, if it is settled, there's nothing more to be said." 
It chanced that Mr. Rnssell, my former assistant in 
the Pittsboro Academy, had just finished his theo- 
logical course; and, wholly without reference to the 
question pending in my mind, had arranged to preach 
for me that day. The session was called together be- 
fore service, was notified of my decision, and was re- 
minded that the preacher of the day would be avail- 
able as a snccessor to me. He preached a good ser- 
mon, had a conference with the session afterwards, and 
was virtuallv engnjred tliat day. The following week 
brought notice of my appointment as missionary to 

The Inst communion season of that year wns one of 
more than usual interest. The meetings began on 


Friday. Since the minds of the congregation were 
already on the subject of foreign missions, and since 
Dr. McKay, from my home church, had been appointed 
by the 8ynod to preach on that subject at its coming 
session in Charlotte, I prevailed upon him to preach 
to lis the sermon tliat he had prepared. The text was 
from Romans x:14, "How shall tliey hear without a 
preacher?" No subject could have been more ap- 
propriate to the occasion. It produced a profound 
impression. Some were affected to tears. 

The sermon was a good preparation for the com- 
munion service that followed. At the night service 
there was deep seriousness throughout the congrega- 
tion, and a general desire to have the meetings con- 
tinued. On Monday tliere was an unexpectedly large 
congregation. At the busiest season of the year fann- 
ers had left their crops to come. The meetings soon 
grew to be one protracted prayer meeting, with occa- 
sional short applications of Scripture to the questions 
which were already pressing upon our minds. 

Finally, after the meetings had been continued from 
Friday until Wednesday week, they were reluctantly 
brought to a close; both because it seemed unwise to 
interruj»t longer the regular life of the community, 
and also because the leaders no longer had the voice 
to carry them on. As a result of the meetings, there 
were about eighty accessions to the two Presbyterian 
churches, as well as a number to other churches. Many 
asked if I did not see in the revival reason to change 
my mind and remain. But the eflfect on me was just 
the opposite. It was surely the best preparation I 
could hav- had for the long test of faith while waiting 
for results in Siara. 

Inasmuch as my certificate of dismissal had never 

been lormally presented to the FayetteviUe Presbytery, 
I preferred to return it to my old Orange Presbytery, 
and to receive my ordination at its hands. On De- 
cember 11th. the P-esbvtery met at my old home in 
Pittsboro. The installation of a foreign missionary 
was new to the Presbytery, as well as to the church 
and the connnnnity. When the ordaininp prayer was 
ended, there seemed to be but few dry eyes in the con- 
gregation. It was a day I had little dreamed of six- 
teen years before, when I first came to Pittsboro an 
orphan boy and an apprentice. I felt very small for 
the great work so solemnly committed to me. Mis- 
sionary fields were further off in those days than they 
are now, and the tsnd'^rtaking seemed greater. The 
future was unknown; bat in God was my trust— and 
He has led hxe. 



N reaching New York I went directly to the 

Mission Honse, then at 23 Centre Street. As I 

mounted the stops, tlio first man I met on the 
landing was Jonathan Wilson. We had exchanged a 
few letters, and each knew that the other had not for- 
gotten Siam; but neither expected to meet the other 
thore. "Where are you going?" sai one. "I am 
ou my way to Siam," said the other. " 80 am 1," 
was the reply. In the meantime he bad married and, 
with his young wife, was in New York awaiting 
passage. We took the first opportunity that offered, 
the clipper ship David Brown, bound for Singapore, 
and sailing on March 11th, 1858. 

Sailors have a tradition that it is unlucky to have 
missionaries on board; but the weather was propitious 
throughout, and the voyage a prosi)erou8 one. We 
three were the only passengers, and we proved to be 
good sailors. Our fare was reasonably good. We 
had plenty of good reading, and soon settled down to 
steady work. The ship was somewhat undermanned; 
and this fact was given as an excuse for not having 
service on Sundays. Hut we had a daily prayer-meet- 
ing throughout the voyage, with just a sufficient num 
ber present to plead the promise : " W^here two or three 
are ^athereil together in niy name." Wc also had 
fri-e access to the men in the forecastle when off duty. 
We had the excitement of an ocean race with a twin 



ship of Ihe sjiiiio liue, wliieb was to sail a wcoli after 
us. As we reatlied Anjer Straits on the seventy-eighth 
day out, a sail loomed up which proved to be our com- 
ixititor. She liad heaten us by a week! Ten days 
later we reached Singapore, where, indeed, we met no 
brethren, but were met by welcome lett»8 from Siam. 
Like I'aul at the Three Taverns, " we thanked God and 
took courage.'' One of the letters ran thus : 

" Those w'cro frood wordis that came to our half-discouraged 
band— the tidings that we are to have helpers in our 
work. ... In our loneliness we have sometimes heeu 
tempted to feel that our brethren at home had forgotten 
us. But we rejoice to know that there are hearts in the 
(•hurpii wlii. h sympathize with us, and that you are willing 
to come and participate with us in our labours and trials, 
our joys and Borrows, for we have both." 

We were fortunate to secure very early passage for 

r.anjikdk. On Friday, .Tune tSth, we reached the bar 
at the mouth of the Menaiu Kiver. The next day we 
engaged a small schooner to take us up to Bangkok. 
With a strong tide against us, we were uot able that 
evening to get further than Mosciuito I'diut— the most 
appropriately named plate in all that land— only to 
learn that we could not reach Bangkok until Monday 
afternoon. There was no place to sleei* on board ; and 
no sleeping would have been possible, had thei-e been 
a place. By two o'clock in the morning we could 
endure it no longer; — the mosquito contest was too 
iHK'qual. .Vt last we found a man and his wife who 
would lake us to the city in their two-oared skiff. 

Fifty years' residence in Siam has not surpassed the 
romance of that night's ride. Leaving our goods be- 
hind, we seated ourselves in the tiny craft. With gun- 
wales but two inches above the water's edge, we 



Rkiinnipd alonp; through a narrow winding oiinal over- 
hung with strange tropical trees. The moon was full, 
but there was a haze in the air, adding weirdness to 
things but dimly seen. The sight of our first Buddhist 
monastery, with its while columns and grotesque fig- 
ures, made us feel as if we were passing through some 

Just at dawn on Sunday morning, June 20th, 1858, 
we landed at the mission compound. Our quiik 
passage of only one hundred days took our friends by 
surprise. Dr. House, roused by our voices on the 
veranda, came en ih'shnbillc to the door to see wluit 
was the matter. Finding who we were, the eager man 
thrust his hand through a vacant square of the sash, 
and shook hands with us so, before he would wait to 
open the door. We were in Rangkok! It was as if 
we had waked up in a new world— in the Bangkok to 
which we had looked forward as the goal of our hopes ; 
which was to be, as we suppowd, tlio home of our lives. 

The Rev. Mr. Mattoon was still at his post, awaiting 
our coming. Mrs. Mattoon and her daughters had 
been toiiipelled to leave for home some time before our 
arrival. And not long thereafter Mr. Mattoon fol- 
lowed them on his furlough, long overdue. IJesides 
the two men of our own mission, we found in Bangkok 
the Rev. Dan B. Bradley, who was conducting 

a self-supporting mission; Rev. S. J. Smith, and Rev. 
R. Telford of the Baptist mission. 

Since neither Bangkok nor Lower Siam proved to 
be my permanent home, I shall content myself with a 
very summary account of the events of the next three 

The first work of a new missionary is to acquire the 
language of the country. His constant wish is, Ob 


for a gift of tongues to speak to the people ! As soon 

as a teaclier could be found, I settled to work at my 
kaic, kd, ki, kU No ambitious Ireshiuun has such an 
incentive for study as has the new missionary. It is 
well if he does not coutine himself to granuiuir and 
dictionary, as lie did iu the case of his liatin, (Ireek, 
and Hebrew. I'allegoix's Dictionariuiii Linyuav Thai, 
and his short Grammar in Latin, were all the foreign 
helps we had. The syntax of the lanfjuage is easy; 
but the " tones," the " aspirates," and *' inaspirates," 
are peritle-xing beyond belief. You try to say "fowl." 
No, that is egg." You mean to say " rice," but you 
actually say " mountain." 

A thousand times a day the new missionary longs to 
open his mouth, but his lips are sealed. It is a mat- 
ter of continual iv<;\\'l that he cannot pour out his 
soul in the ardour of his tirst love, unchilled by the 
deadening intluences to which it is sure to be sub- 
jected later. But the delay is not an unmitigated 
evil. He is in a new world, in which he is constantly 
reminded of the danger of giving offence by a breach 
of custom as unalterable as the laws of the Medes and 
Persians. A bright little boy runs up and salutes you. 
You stroke his long black hair, only to be reminded 
by one of your seniors — " Oh! you must micr do that! 
It is a mortal offence to lay your hand on a person's 
head." So, while you are learning the language, you 
are learning other things as well, and of no less im- 

In the mission school there was a class of bright 

boys named Ne, Dit, (Mifin, Kwai, Henry, and one 
girl, Tuan. To my great delight. Dr. House kindly 
turned them over to me. It made me think I was 
' The first excrctsc of the Siamese 8pe!llng-book. 



doing sometliiug, and 1 really was. I soon became 
deeply interested in these children. N6 grew to be an 
important busintss man and an elder in the church; 
Tuan's family betamo one of the most iulluential in 
the cburtb. Iler two sous, tbe lale I'.uu It and Elder 
Bun Yi of the First Church in Chiengmai, have been 
among the very best fiuils of the mission; though my 
personal share in their training was, (tf oours*', very 
slight. In the yepteniber after our arrival there was 
oi^anjzed the Presbytery of Siam, with the four mm 
of the mission as its constituent members. During tbe 
first Iwo years, moreover, I made a number of tours 
about the country— sometimes alone, oftener with Dr. 
House, and once with Mr. Wilson. 

I bad the pleasure of meeting His Majesty the King 
of Sianj, not only at his birthday celebrations, to 
which foreigners were invited, but once, also, at a 
public audience on the occasion of the presentation 
of a letter from President James IJuchanan of the 
United States. This was through the courtesy of Mr. 
J. H. CJhandler, the acting United States Consul. Two 
royal state barges were sent down to the Consulate to 
receive the President's letter and the consular party. 
Siamese etiquette requires tbnt the letter be accorded 
the same honour as would be given the President in per- 
son. In the first barge was the letter, placed in a 
large golden urn, with a pyramidal cover of gold, and 
escorted by the four officers who attend upon Hia 
Majesty when he ai)pears in public. In the second 
barge was the consular party. 

After a magnificent ride of four miles up the river, 
we wei-e met at the palace by gilded palanquins for 
the members of the party, while the letter, in a special 
palanquin and under the golden umbrella, led the way 


to the I'alace, some quarter of a mile distant. At the 
Palace gate a prince of rank met and nshered ub 

into the royal presence, where His Majesty sat on his 
throne of gold, richly overhung with gilded tapestry. 
Advancing toward the throne, and bowing low, we 
took our stand erect, while every hig^ prince and noble- 
man about IIS was on l)ended kaem, not daring to raise 
his eyes above the tioor. 

The Consal then read a short introductory speech, 
stepped forward, and placed the letter in the extended 
hands of the King. Having glanced over it, the King 
handed it to his secretary, who read it aloud, His 
Majesty translating the substance of it to the princes 
and nobles present. The King then arose, put his 
scarf about his waist, girded on his golden sword, 
came down, and shook hands with each of the party. 
Then, with a wave of his hand, he said, " We have given 
President Buchanan the first public reception in our 
new palace," adding, " I honour President Buchanan 
very much." He escorted the party around the room, 
showing us the i)ortraits of George Washington, Presi- 
dent Pierce, Queen Victoria, and Prince Albert. Then, 
taming to the proper officer, he directed him to con- 
duct us to an adjoining room to partake of a luncheon 
prepared for us; and, with a bow, withdrew. 

After " tiffin," we were escorted to the landing as 
we had come, and returned in like state in the royal 
barge to the Consulate. Altogether it was a notable 

Of the tours undertaken in Lower Siam, the one 
which led to the most lasting results was one in 1S59 
to Pecliabm i, which has since become well known as 
one of our mission stations. For companion on this 
trip I had Cornelius Bradley, son of the Rev. Dr. Brad 


ley of Bangkok. Shortly before this a rising young 
nohloman. iin.l a lil.orai minded friend of forelgr«rt 
had been assigned t(. the |.lnro ..stensihiv „f lieutonant- 
porernor (Pra Palat) of I'ethahurl, bui praeficaliv of 
governor. He wan a brother of the future Regen( • 
I'fi.l l>e..n on t\n> first embassy to Kngland; and at a 
hiter period beeaiue Minister for Foreign AfFairs. At 
our call, Hf8 Excellency received us very kindly^ and 
before we left invited as to dine with him on the 
following evening. 

The dinner was one that wonld have done credit t.. 
any hostess in America. I was still more surprised 
when, at the table, addressing me by a title then given 
to all missionaries, he said, '> Mau " (Poetor), "i 
want you to come and live in i'eehaburl. You have 
no family. I will furnish yon a honse, and give yon 
every assistance you need. You can teach as much 
Christianity as you please, if only y,.M will teach my 
son English. If yon want a school, I will see that 
you have pupils." I thanked hii.i for the offer, but 
could only tell him that I would think the matter over 
It might be, after all, only a Siamese cheap compli- 
ment. It seemed too good to be tme. It was, how- 
ever, directly in the line of my own thoughts. I had 
come to Siam with the idea of leav; .- he great com- 
mercial centres, and making the exiieriment among a 
rural population like that of my North Carolina 

The next day Pra Palat called on us at our 
and again broached the subject. He was very 
anxious to have his son study English. In my mission 

' A public rr t-house or shelter, such as Buddhist pletv providaa 


work I Hhould he untran)iiii'IU-<l. IU-r<ire Icnvin^ un, he 
moitionei) tlif iniittcr n-rjiin It Wiis (liis limo un 
coorteon^ ''vas ou wlicn I tolil liini I wuuld von if I 
ronld. — \Vlt;it did it all inean? 

I rc'hn !.«•<! ( > llanjrkok full <'nth!.-iasin lur 
I'cchnlMii 1 Tm more 1 |M>ndfiv<l it, ihc jjnatiT tlu 
otffr 8< . H'd H. Ik.'. IScyund ni.v iimliUTt'on lur a 
smallor fity (>>* fur rural worit, I actually d d a»t like 
MaURk ik I'l ^ilmri. Ii ut v* r, was U-yoni' Mio iiinits 
of trea!,> rijjLis. I'erinis^mn to t'8tabli»ili a kI;! on 
there could l>e had "nly by safferaiice from a {lovern- 
monr not hilinTtM noted for liberality, lit re was an 
invitation e<]ni vnlcnt »< ,i d |H'rinii aii I with no 
fnr*>,er ii'd la|>i» alx it. I loiild vv ( i ly one ob- 
stacle in the way. The Henior nM^tnlter of the miHiiion 
— the one who wn^ iiatnra)i\ itH head — 1 feared wonid 
not approve. An<l he <Iid, indivd, look attkanee at 'le 
prop<)siti«)n. He dutdtle«l whether wv eould trust the 
protniaea made. .\nd th*ii to g<» t^i far away alonp'. 
But I thoii;;! I ' new hunmn n:if ii- well enon<;h to 
tmat that man. .\s to beiBg aloi. , 1 was willing to 
risk that. Possibly if might not be beat to ride a 
free horse f(»o freelv. > would ni> with my ei)nif>- 
nient. and he at ^vv't indepi udenf : th> 

I'alal had said tlwit he di 1 in ! mind li e ex|' li 
only he could get bis mn taught English. 

Fhere eonld at least lie no <■ ,e(tion to iik -i' 
• lerimental visit and (hen eo: linuinj? it as 
I ght seem wise. Pechaburf within thirty 
i Bangkok. If taken sick, I i mid run »>ver in da> 
■• two. li lliat iinderstanditiu, :i : with hi 'it 

ather thau llie t xiiresseii sai iioi; ol the missi< I 
began to make prefmrations. 
At Isat my preparations * -re . oLiplete, ev^ai to 



baktni' umi ' <• fhf fri;>. 1 had fltte<l nji a tuiiriiiK 
b(>ui of !»' iiii-i luid • n^jjed <'apf^ n ; id lM»at- 

mev , wb« . .. ! 'le da> bef«»re I was to Ktart, cholera, 
whirh fur mifne time bad i)een !i}>oradii< in Bangkok, 
fiudU' nly 5 ' "ideinie. II tlicfi U , ,1 ncN Camp- 

bell, jtiivsiciit; 'n • IJ' f ■ (.'(mKUlate, aiiv. our med- 
ical a^ ^ 'trit^ iMiu^'ht I jth cautimi and prtidence 
j mi^ii (ft ' ' \ n« ral panii' now ar' <> nil 
«T f! an ' »'y fame to tell Miat 

. :tli8 w if • u ! ly on the canal It, it li 

' -va* to ii = •' = wo- 4 be to tempt j rovi- 

4if igfat ^tion, and it came 

il! Wll ' " t'>. (Writ . 

It*' tir met next morii np wan Dr. Hoaw, 

•i»ir ' -'-i- frmii Mr. Wilson's, lie lia<' ix ' called 
In iitlcnd M'^. Wilson, who h mI I -n Kud- 
<iei \ -mi with "the discuHe," an ^he itives 

eopben ••tit'ally call It, being snpemtitio t.! ifnrid 
i>f ut ng the name Dr. Hons, had fai oheck 
it, I! nt nip ' < all Dr. CauiplK-ll. Hut not 
t an ■ 'Uu not get the niessafrc till n a. 

n tin rbe patient had roachoil the st.-k -n 
• a.v alw'Ut t(» onsue. The disease was 
o«l lUt Mr?!. Wilson was left in a very ptecari- 
<>u condition. 

ieanw hile her little dauphtor Harriot was also taken 
ii, and fi.i- a time llie lilV of both iiioiher and danji' ter 
wa'- -i suspense. The ihiU; I'ngered on till May l.^th, 
wben she was taken to a beiter clime. On July 14th tke 
r, too, ceased from her suffering, and entered on 
r everlasting rest, 
mng these months, of course, all thoughts of 
I^ciidburi had been abandoned; nor would it then 
oave oeeB deemed wise to travel daring the wet sea- 


Bon. Before the next dry season came, Htingkok be- 
gan to have more attractions, and I had become less 
ambitious to start a new station alone. On the 11th 
of September I became engaged to Miss Sophia Royce 
Bradley, daughter of the Rev. D. B. Bradley, M.D. 
On December 6th, 1860, we were married. In my 
wife I found a helpmeet of great executive ability, and 
admirably qualified for the diversified worii before us. 
It was something, too, to have inherited the best tradi- 
tions of one of the grand missionaries of his age.* 

Samre, our mission station in Bangliok, was four 
miles distant from the heart of the city. We greatly 
needed a more central station for our work. Dr. 
Bradley offered us the use of a house on his own 
premises — one of the most desirable situations in 
Bangkok — if we would come and live there. The mis- 
sion accepted his generons offer. With relnctance I 
resigned whatever claim I might have to be the pioneer 
of the new station at Pechaburi. We were settled, as 
it would seem, for life, in Bangkok. 

' Dr. Bradley'« life would be the beat history we could have of 
Siam during <te transition period. He left a voluminous diary, and 
it was from his pen that most of the exact infwnuUiiai coacenting 
Siam WM kng derived. 



BY this time the mission generally had become 
interested in the estabiishment of a new sta- 
tion at Pechaburi. Dr. and Mrs. House were 
designated for the post. The Doctor actually went 
to Pechabnr! ; procured there, through the help of our 
frienrl the Palat, a lot with a house on it; and thus 
committed the mission to the project. But the day 
before he was to >tart homeward to prepare for re- 
moval thither, he was so seriously hurt by a fall from 
his horse that he was confined to his bed for several 
months. It was even feared that he was permanently 
disabled for active life. A new adjustment of our 
personnel was thus necessitated. Dr. Mattoon had 
just returned from the United States with the Rev. 
S. Q. McFarland, the Bev. N. A. McDonald, and their 
wives. Dr. Mattoon could not be spared from Bang- 
kok, nor was he enthusiastic over the new station. 
Mr. McDonald had no desire for such experiments. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. McFarland were anxious to move, 
bat were too new to the field to be sent out alone. 
They were urgett that we should go with them. My 
opportunity had come. So, early in June, 1861, we 
broke up the first home of onr married life, and, in 
company with the McFarlands, moved on to onr new 
home and our new work. 
Our friend, the Pra Palat, seemed pleased that we 


had come, :tftcr all. His slight knowledge of English 
had been learned as a private pnpil from Mrs. Mc- 
Oilvary's own niotlier. He was glad, whenever he had 
leisure, to continue his studies with Mrs. McGilvary. 
Mr. McFarland preferred school work. He took the 
son that I was to have taught, and k-ft me untrani- 
UM'lled to cuter upon evangelistic work. The half ho,;r 
after each evening nu'al we spent in united prayer for 
fniidanee and success. Two servants of each family 
were sclccfed as special subjects of prayer; and these, 
in due time, we had the pleasure ot welcoming into 
the church. 

Of the incidents of our Pechabnrl tife I have room 

for hut a singh' one. As we were rising from the 
dinner-table one Sunday shortly after our arrival, we 
were snrprised to see a man coming up the steps and 
crossing the veranda in haste, as if on a special errand, 
lie led by the hand a little boy of ten or twelve years, 
and said, " I want to commit this son of mine into 
yonr care. I want yon to teach him." Btmck by his 
earnest manner, we drew from him these f:u'ts: lie was 
a farmer named Nai Kawn, living some Ave miles out 
in the country. He had just heard of our arrival, had 
come immediately, and was very glad to find us. 

We asked whetlier lie had ever met a missionary be- 
fore. No, he said, but !:is father — since dead — had 
once met Dr. Bradley, and had received a book from 
him. He had beg^;ed other books from neighbours', who 
had received them but did not value them. Neither 
did be at first, till the great cholera scourge of 1849, 
when people were dying all around him. He was 
greatly alarmed, and learned from one of the books 
that I*ra Yesu heard prayer in trouble, and <<)uld save 
from sin. For a long time he prayed for light, until, 


about three years ago, ho lu liovod in Jesus, and was now 
happy in heart. He had heard onoe of Dr. IJradle.v's 
coming to Pechaburi, but not until he was gone again. 
He preached to his neighbonrs, who called him " Kon 
Pra YesQ" (Lord Jesus' man). He had prayed for 
Dr. Bradley and the missionaries; he had read the 
story of Moses, the Epistle to the Romans, the Gospel 
of John, a tract on 1 'raver, and "The Golden Bal- 
ance"; and he believed tiieni. lie could rejieat i)or- 
tions of Romans and John verbatim ; and he had his son 
repeat the Lord's Prayer. 

My subject at the afternoon service was Nicodemus 
and the New Birth. Nai Kawn sat spellbound, fre- 
quently nodding assent. At the close we asked him 
to speak a few words; which he did with great clear- 
ness. On being questioned as to the Trinity, he replied 
that he was not sure whether he understood it. He 
gathered, however, that Jehovah was the Father and 
Ruler; that the Son came to save us by dying for as; 
and that the Holy Spirit is the Comforter. The diflfer- 
ence between Jesus and Buddha is that the latter en- 
tered into Nirvana, and that was the last of him; 
while Jesus lives to save. He even insisted that he 
had seen a vision of Jesus in heaven. His other ex- 
periences were characterized by such marks of sober- 
ness that we wondered whether his faith might not 
have been strengthened l)y a dream or a vision. 

This incident, coming so soon after our arrival, 
greatly cheered us in our work. His subsequeut story 
is too long to «"ollow out in detail here. His piety and 
his sincerity were undoubted. He lived and died a 
Christian; yet he never fully identitied himself with 
the church. He insisted that he had been baptized by 
the Holy Ghost, and that there was no need of farther 


baptism. Not long after tliis T>r. r.radlry and Mr. 
Mattoon visited Pechaburi, examined the man, and 
were equally- .surprised at his history. 

What changed our life work from the Siamese to 
the Lao? There were two principal causes. The vari- 
ous LSo states which are now a part of 8iam, were 
then ruled bv feudal princes, each virtually sovereign 
within his own dominions, but all required to pay a 
triennial visit to the Siamese capital, bringing the 
customary gifts to their suzerain, the King of Siam, 
and ren. , ing their oath of allegiance to him. Their 
realms served, moreover, as a " buflfer " between Siam 
and Burma. There were six of these feudal principal- 
ities. Five of them occupied the basins of live chief 
tributaries of the Mtoam Riv -r; namely— in order 
from west to east— Chiengmai, Lamptin, Lakawn, Pre, 
and Nan. The sixth was Lttang Prabfing on the M6 
Kong River. The rapids on all these streams had 
served as an effectual barrier in keeping the northern 
and the southern states quite separate. There was 
no very frequoit communication in trade. There was 
no mail communication. OflQcial despatches were 
passed along from one governor to the next. Very 
little was known in Bangkok about the lAo provinces 
of the north. A trip from Bangkok to (^hiengmai 
seemed then like going out of the world. Only one 
Englishman, Sir Robert Schomburgk of the British 
Consulate in Bangkok, had ever made it. 

Of these Lao states, Chiengmai was the most im- 
portant. After it came Nan, then Lttang Prabang 

(since ceded to the French), Lakawn, Pr*, and Lam- 
pto. The Lfto people were regarded in Siam as a very 
warlike race; one chieftain in particular being famed 


as a great warrior. They woe withal said to be sos- 

picious and unreliable. 
Almost the only visible result of my six months' stay 

within the cit.v of Hanskok, after my marriage, was 
the formation of a slight acquaintance with the Prince 
of Chioigmal and his family. Just before my mar- 
riage he had arrived in Ban^ok with a great flotilla 
of boats and a great retinue of attendants. The 
grounds of Wat Chfing monastery, near to Dr. Brad- 
ley's compound, had always been their stopping place. 
The conse(iuenco was (hat, of all the missionaries, Dr. 
Bradley had become best acquainted with them and 
most deeply interested in them. He earnestly cul- 
tivated their friendship, invited them to his printing- 
office and to his house, and continually preached onto 
them the Gospel. They were much interested in vac- 
cination, which he had introduced, and were delighted 
to And that it protected them from smallpox. 

The day after our marriage, in response to a present 
of some wedding cal:e, the Prince himself, with his two 
daughters and a large train of attendants, called on us 
in our now home. This was my first introduction to 
Chao KawilOrot and his family, who were to play so 
important a r61e in my future life. All that I saw 
of him and of his people interested me greatly. Dur- 
ing the short lime we remained in their neighbouiiiood, 
1 made frequent visits to the Lao camp. The subject 
of a minion in Chiengmai was talked of, with apparent 
approval on the part of the Prince. My interest in 
Pechaburl was increased by the knowledge that there 
was a large colony of Lao * there. These were cap- 

> The application of this name is by m mean* ttiiifwm throoghout 
Oie prainmila. From LQaog Pi^jlag aonthmud akmc tb« «ntwa 
frontwr. tbe uibea of Uiat stock call tbsaadTti Lao sad an so 


tives of war from the r^on of KbOrat, bearing no 

very dose rcsiinhlaiue to our later parishioners in 
tlie north. At tiio Unu> of our stay iu IVcliaburi, the 
Luo in that province wei-e held as govermuent slaves, 
engaged all day on varioas pnblic works — a circum- 
stance wliicli fiivatly inipodod onr access to theni, and 
at the same time made it more diUicult for them to em- 
brace Christianity. Neither they nor we dared apply 
to the government for the requisite sanction, test 
thi'reliy their <ase bo made worse. Our best oppor- 
tunity for work among them was at night. My mosi 
pleasant memories of Pechabnri cluster about scenes 
in Lao villages, when the whole population would as- 
semble, either around a camj* fire or under the bright 
light of the moon, to listen till late in the night to the 
word of God. The conversion of Nfii Ang, the first one 
from that colony, anticipated that of NSn Inta, and the 
larger ingathering in the North. 

But there was more than a casual connection be- 
tween the two. My labours among them increased 
the desire, already awakened in me, to reach the home 
of the race. Here was another link iu the chain of 
providences by which I was led to my life-work. The 
time, however, was not yet riiHJ. The available force 
of the mission was not yet large enough to justify 
further expansion. Moreover, our knowledge of the 

cMlleil by tlieir nfighbours. But 'he central anil western groups do 
not acknowledge tlic name as ilici . at all, but call themselves limply 
Tai; or if a distinction must be made, they call themselves Kon KQa 
(Northerners), and the Siamese, Kon Tai (Southerners). The 81»- 
laese, on the other hand, also call tbemaclTcs Tai. which is r<»lty the 
race-name, common to all branches of the rtock; and they apply the 
name Lao alUie to all their northern cousins except the N- or 
Wester!: Bhans. Nothing is known of theori.LMu of the nann but 
the same root no doubt appears in sucli tribal and geograpliical 
names as Lawa, Lawa, L.iwo— the lust hcing the nameol tiM famoiH 
abandoned capital now kuotvu asi i-opiiburi.— iiu. 


Luo country was not suth as to make possible any 
comprehensive and intelligent plans for a miMion 
tlu'ic. The first thing to do was evidently to make a 
tour of exploration. The way to such a tour was 
opened in the fall of 18G3. The Presbytery of 8iam 
met in Bangkok early in November. I had so ar- 
ranged my affairs if (lie way should ojion, I c(*uld 
go north directly, without returning to Pecbaburi. I 
knew that Mr. Wilson was free, and I thought he 
would favour the trip. This he readily did, and the 
mission gave its sanction. ►So I toiiiniirte<l my wife 
and our two-year old daughter to the care of loving 
grandparents, and, after a very hasty preparation, 
wc started on the 20th of November in search of far- 
away Chiengmai. 

The six-oared touring-boat which I had fitted up in 
my bachelor days was well adapted for our purpose 
as far as the first fork of the Mtoam. The Siamese 
are experts with the oar, but are unused to the setting- 
pole, which is well-nigh the only mource all through 
the upi>er reaches of the river. It was sunset on a Fri- 
day evening before we finally got oil'. lJut it was a 
start; and it proved to be one oi the straws on which 
(he success of the trip depended. The current against 
us was very strong; so we slept the city limits 
that night. We s{>ent all day Saturday traversing a 
canal parallel with the river, where the current was 
weaker. It was sunset before we entered again the 
main stream, and stopped to spend Sunday at a monas- 
tery. To our great surprise we found that the Prince 
of Chiengmai— of whose coming we had had no intima- 
tion—had camped tliere the night before, and had 
passed on down to Bangkok that very morning. Wo 
had misiwd him hy taking the canal ! 

GO AM()N(J Tin: SlAMKSi: AM) THi: LAO 

We were iu duubt whether we uught uut to returu 
and get a letter frutu him. A favourable letter would 
be in valuable; but be might refuMe, or even forbid our 

going. If w(? may jud^e fruiii wliaf \\v nftiTWiinls 
knew of liia ttUHpicious nature, amh piobubiy would 
have been the outcome. At any rate, it would delay 
Uh; and we had already a passjHtrt from tlie Siaint'se 
government which would t'lisurt- our trip. And, doubt- 
less, we did accompii»>h our di-sigu with more freedom 
because of the Prince's absence from his realm. It 
was apparently a fortuitous ihiu^ that our uicu knew 
of the more bluggisb chanuel, aud so missed the Luo 
flotilla. But it is quite possible that upon that choice 
depended the establishment of th*' L.'h) mission. 

All went well until we i-eatlied the liist fork iii Pak 
nam I'O. There the water came rushing down like a 
torrent, so swift that oars were of no avail. We tried 
first one side of the streain and then the other, but 
all in vain. Our boatmen exchanged their oars fur 
poles. But they were awliward and unaccustomed to 
their use. The boat would inevitably drift down 
stream. The poor boatmen lau<?bed despairingly at 
their own failure. At last a rope was suggested. The 
men climbed the bank, and dragged the boat around 
the point to where the current was less swift. But 
when, as often hai»j>ened, it became necessary to cross 
to the other side of the river, the first push otf the 
bank would send us into water so deep that a fifteen- 
foot pole could not reach bottom. Away would go 
the boat some hundreds of yards down stream before 
we could bring up on the opposite bank. We reached 
Bahtog, however, in nineteen travelling days — ^which 
was not by any means bad time. 

In our various joumeyings hitherto we had con- 


iKilhd oiir nwii means of transportation. Hence- 
foi tli we wore at the iiiony of native oniciala, to whose 
tenuKTatnent such things as punituality and speed 
are alhigether alien. Prom Rabtog the trip by ele- 
jiliant to ('liii'n^'iii.'ii should ho only twelve days. By 
Itoat, the tiijt would he iinich longer, though the re- 
turn trip would be eorresiHuidingly Hhnrter. We had 
a letter from Mangkok to the ofBcials along the ronte, 
directing tlicm to procure for us liojits, elephants, or 
men, as might nml. We were in a hurry, and, 
besides, were yonng and impuIsiTe. The otBcials at 
Kiilienir assured us that we sbould have prompt 
despatch. No une, however, seemed (o make any ef- 
fort to send us on. The governor was a great 
Buddhist, and fond of company and argnment. He 
could match our Trinity by a Huddhist one: PutthS, 
Thammr., Hangkho— Buddha, the Scriptures, the 
Brotherhood. Men's own good deeds were their only 
atoTiement. The one religion was as good as the other. 
On these siibjecls lu w uld lalk by the hour; but when 
urged to get our elephants, hi always had an excuse. 
At last, In despair, we decided to take onr bcmtmen 
and walk. When this news reached the governor, 
whether from pity of us, < r from fear that some trouble 
might grow ont of it, be nmt word that if we would 
wait till the next day, we should have the ^ephants 
without fail. 

We got the elephants; but, as it was, from preference 
T walked most of the way. Once T paid dear for my 
walk Ity getting separated from my elephant in the 
morning, losing my noonday lunch, and not regaining 
my i)arty till, tired and hungry, I reached camp at 
night. Our guide had taken a circnitons ronte to 
avoid a band of robbers on the main route which I 


bad f(illit\vo(! ! Thiw was my first i>.\i fiicnro of He- 
plianf ri.liiijj;. W'v « rosscd rivers when* the banks were 
Bfeop, iiinl ilieri! wjis tin ri-giiiar liinUiuK- I5«t whether 
ascend iog or deRceoding steep filopeii, whether skirting 
strcaniH nnd wjili-rfiills, nn<> in;!- trust tlio clopliant'H 
sagacity aud Kuix-footedm-ss. The view wo hud fnim 
une of the mountain ridii^pH seemed incomparably fine. 
The Mt> V'mg wound its \v. y aioiiK tlio base beneath 
us, while bcyorKi, to ri^hf :ind to left, rose ranpe Ikv 
yond range, with au oecasional i)eak towering high 
above the rest. But that was tame in comparison 
Willi itiany mountain views enconntered in subaeqaent 

We were eight days in reaching Lakawn,' which we 
maiited as one of our future mission stations. On 
being asked whether lie would welcome a mission 
there, the governor replied, " if the Kiug of 8iuiu and 
the Prince of Chiengmai approve." At Lalcawn we 
had no delay, Mtopping there only from Fri<lay till 
Monday morninp. Thenc e to Lanlpun we found sfilu > 
or resthoust's, at regular intervals. The watershed 
between tliew; towns was the highest we had crossed. 
The road follows the valley of a stream to n> ir the 
summit, and Ihen follows another stream down un the 
other side. The gorge was in places so narrow that 
tlic elephant sa<ldle scraped the mountain wall on one 
side, while on the other a niisslcp would have precip- 
itated us far d(t\vn to the brook bed l)elow. 

'A corruption <if Xakawn (for Sfiii.'-kiit nif/nra, cnpilal tity), 
which is the firsi piu! ..f tlje (.lliti.i! iiiiiue !he place, Nukawu 
Lanipang. The Post OlHce calls it riainpfing, to dialiuguish it from 
another Nakawn (likewise in ct'inniun speech), in the Malay 
Peuinsula — the place known to Europeans as Ligor. Tlio geuersl 
currency of this sliort naro«, »nd lu regular hw in ,•»!! !!•,!■ niia-iionaiy 
Utsnton, teem to justify its reteatioa iu this narratiTe.— £o. 

i'i:< iiAm uI— Tui: call tue noutii j 

At Liiiiiprin ni.v cnnipiiniuli wan not well, so fi (t 
1 aloue cullt'd on the authuritieii. The goveruur hi.J 
called the princefi tt^ther to learn otir errand. Tb^ 
geemed bewildered when told tliat we had no };ov('rn- 
nient buainetw, nor were wi» >ra<lctK — were uu\y teach- 
erw of reliRlo;- When the |m..imm' ofTloer wo« directed 
to Kcnd UM oil i]ui('kiy, lie iH'gaii (o muke excuHCH that 
it wdiild take I wo or Miiih* da^H. Turninn Hharply 
upou liiiii, the ^'oveiiior asked, " I'ruya Suuuui, how 
many eleiihantn have you?" "Pour," was the re- 
sponse. " S< c that they >?el olT Id iiU'iTow," was the 
'■iliort rcjily. Ih- ineelvly wiihdicw. There was evi- 
uently uo trilling with that n<»veruor. One day more 
brought us to Chiengmai — to the end of what aeemed 
tlien a very lonfj journey. ,\s we m ared 111" city, Mr, 
WilisoUH elephant took fright at the creaking uoiae 
of a water-wh<'>el, and ran away, crashing through 
bauihoo fenci'ii and ^ranipUng down gardens. For- 
tunately no one wa; ' 

We reached the oil 'uary Tlh, isiu, ou tbe 

forty -ninth day of o • . . • .. The nephew of tbe 
Prince had lM>«'n h-f diiriuj; the Triuce's 

absence. He evidently was ju doubt how to ' 'v>- 
us. He could not ijjnore our passport and lette. iOu. 
Itaugkok. On tin- «)llier hand, why did we not have 
a letter from the I'riiue? Our story of n i siiifr him 
Ihroii^li choosi, the canal iii. iead of the lu'm (■■■\v 
might or might not be true If the deputy were Uto 
liospitable. his Mrim c iiii<jh'; blame him. So he cut 
the knot, and went oil to ids tlelds. We saw no more 
of him till he came in to see us - ifely otf. 

The elder daughter of tbe Printe bad accompanied 
her fatlior to Bangkok, but the your^;' danghter was 
ui huuic. tshe was u person of great intiueuce, and 


was hy nature hospitable. Things could not have 
been better planned for our pui-pose. The princess 
remembered me and my wife from her call on us after 
our wedding. She now called on uh in person with 
her retinue; after that everybody else was free to 
call. It is not onlikely that that preyious acquaint- 
ance redeemed our trip from being a failure. Our 
salii was usually erowdod with visitors. We had an 
ideal opportunity of seeiug the heart of the people. 
Tliey laclced a certain external refinement seen among 
the Siamese; hut they seemed sincere aud more re- 
ligious. Buddhism had not become so much a mat- 
ter of form. Many of the older people then spent 
a day and a night, or even two days, each mouth fast- 
ing in the monaster!* Tiiere was ho})e that if such 
people saw a better way, they would accent it. One 
officer, who lived just behind our sfiia, a great merit- 
maker, was a coustant visitor. Yeai-s afterward we 
had the pleasure of welcoming him to the communion 
of the church. 

From every point of view the tour was emin«itly 
successful. Many thou- iuds heard the (lospel for the 
first time, in our main quest we were more than suc- 
cessful. We were delighted wita the country, the 
cities, the people. Every place we came to we meu- 
tally took possession of for our aud Master. In 
Chieugmai we remained only ten days; but one day 
would have sufficed to convince us. I, at least, left 
it with the joyful hope of its becoming tlie field of my 

From the tirst we had planned to return by the 
river through the rapids. But the prince in chai^ 

was very averse to our goin^ It.v thai mute. We 
blew that the route positively made uo ditleit:uce to 


him personally. Ho had only to give the word, and 
either elephants or boats would be fortbcomiiig. Was 
he afraid of our spying out the road into the comtry? 
At last we were obliged to insist on the wording of 
our letter, which specially mentioned boats. Then he 
offered us one so small that he probably thon^t we 
would roTusc it. Hut we took it; and our captain 
afterwards extlianfied it for a larger one. We made 
a swift passage through the famous rapids, and reached 
Bangkok on January 30th, 1864. 

The first news that we he.iid on our arrival was 
that Mrs. Mattoon was obliged to leave at once for the 
United States, and that Mr. Wilson was to take his 
furlough at the same time. This, of course, ended all 
plans for an.v ininiediate removal to Chiengmai. We 
hastened to Pechaburl, where the McFarlands had 
been alone during our absence. Three years were to 
pass b^ore our faces were again turned northward. 



IN the nieanliiiie, with (\v« chiiilrcn added uuto us, 
we were become a family much more difficult to 
move. We liked oiir lionic and oiir work. At 
the a;;e of ihirt.\ nine, to shike out into a new work, 
in a lan^uajje at least partly new, watt a matter not 
to be lightly undertaken. Might it not be better that 
Mr. Wilson slioiild wnik up in the I'nited States an 
interest in the new miissiou, should liiniself select his 
associates in it, and that I should give up my claim 
to that place? It was certain that three families could 
not he spared for Chien'^inai. More than <ine day was 
speiif, under the shade of a great tree hehind Wal N«)i, 
in thought on the subject, and in prayer for direc- 

Finally - tliough it was a hard thing to do- I wrote 
to Mr. Wilson, then in the I'nited States, suggesting 
the plan jn«t stated. Feeling sure that it would 
eonini"nd itself to liini, I considered the door to 
Chieugmai as prohahly closed to me. la the mean 
time Mr. Wilson had married again; and on the eve 
of his n inni wrote to me that he had failed to get 
aniillicr faiiiih to coino nut with liiiii. and was dis- 
eourage*! about the Chiengniai mission. I'rohahly the 
time had not yet come, etc., etc. I was delighted to 
get that li'M. r. [| <l('< idfd iiie to go to ( Miiciinmai, 
the Lord willing, the following dry season, with only 


Tin: ("iiakti:k of tin: .mission r.7 

m.v own fiiinil.v. if need be. IM'. Mattnou and Hr, 
House wcit! absent on fiuiougli. Mr. Wilson and I 
wootd he the Henior members of the miH^ion. The 
Hoard had alrcidv piven its sanction. Tlie mission 
in Bangkok meanwhile had l»een reiuforcud by the 
arrival of the Georges and the Cardens. On the return 
of llio8e then ali.scnt on liirlou^'li. one of these faniilies 
eonid join the Mt l"arlaii<!s in I'cchiiliuri, and vet iliei-e 
would be four families in IJangkok. Such a combina- 
tion of favourable circumHtances might not occur 

When Mr. Wilson arrived in Hangkok in the fall of 
18<)K, a letter wan waiting for him, asking him to 
visit U8 in Pecbaburi to talk over the quetstion. On his 
arrivid we spcpl one Siinday in anxious consultation. 
He waH stilt eager to go to Chiengmai, but could not 
go that year. His preference would be that we should 
wait another year. — Hut that might be to lose the op- 
portnnity. So next morning, leaving Mr. and Mrs. 
Wils(m to visit with my family, I hurried over to 
Bangkok. There was no time to be lost. The Prince 
of Cliiengniai had been called diiwn on sjiei ial bnsi- 
nesK, and was soon to return. The whole [dau might 
depend on him— as, in fact, it did. 

It was after dark on Tuesday night when I reached 
l>r. Hnidlev's, taking tlieni all by surprise. 1 made 
known my erraud. Another long and anxious con- 
sultation followed. I knew that Dr. Bradley's great 
missionary soul would not Ik- staggt ied by auy jK-T- 
Honal considerations. It would be but tlie answer to 
his own prayers to see u mission planted in Chiengmai. 
In his heart he was glad that it was to be planted 
by one of bis own r.-niiily. Earnest prayer was utlVrcd 
that night at the family altar for guidance iu the 


npffotiations of the following day, and for a blessing 
on the mission that was to he. 

On Wednesday, after an early breakfast, Dr. Brad- 
ley iUTotnpanie«l nio to our mission. M.v (•t)llpapiips, 
McDonald, George, and Carden, were easily indiu-ed 
to conseBt. Mr. McDonald said that he wonld not go 
himself; but if I were willing to risk my family, he 
wonld not oppose the schonio. and would vote to have 
Mr. Wilson follow me the next year. Thus another 
rtstacle was removed. 

Tddng Mr. McDonald and Mr. Oeorge with us. we 
proceede<l next to the I'nitt'd Slates Consulate, where 
Mr. Ilood readily agreed to give lii.s otlicial and {K!r- 
sonal aid. The two greatest obstacles remained yet: 
the Siamese governnu'nt and — as it turned out in ttie 
end — the Lao Prince ' also. The Consul wrote im- 
mediately to the King, through our former Pechaburl 
friend, who had recently been made Foreign Minister, 
a formal request {or permission to open a station in 
Chieugmai. It was Friday evening when the . -jily 

'The L.W ruler was a feu;!.".! "ii.s.sal of tlin King of Hiam, governing 
an important frontier |m.i. incu, iinil (iniuleii, wittiiu that province, 
some of the powers vvliidi are usually thouglit of as belonging to 
sorereignty — notably the power of life and death in the case of liis 
immediate subjects. His title, I'ru C.'hao, like it.s English parallel, 
Lonl, he shared with the deity as well as with kings; though the 
Kings of Biun claim the added designation, "Tu Uiia," "at the 
bMHl," at " Sovereign." By the early missioDBries, however, he was 
i^^M^ ^led " King," a term which to ua misrcpraaenU his rud 
Btetm, md wkidi leads to much confasion both of personality and 
of fuDctiou. Meantime both title and function have vanished with 
the feudal order of which they were a part, leaving US frofl to seek 
for our narrative a less misleading term. Such a term seems to be 
the word I'rince, thus defined in Murray's Dictionary («. b. II. 5); — 
" The ruirr of a |iri 'cipalily or small stale, actually, noiuinally, or 
ortgiiially, i-. feuiiulory o! a kin.L' or ernperor.' The capital initial 
shi 'ild .^ul': e fTi (leiiil.;. In > iUl i iit^ lii-h llje I'rince who is ruler fnmi 
priitces who are buch merely by accident of birth.— .''.u. 


fame that the deiisiou did not rest with the King. 
He could not force a mission upon the L3o |)eoi)lc. 
Hut the Lao Priuce was then in Bangkok. If he gave 
his t'onsent, the Siinncse govcrniiient would give theirs. 
He suggested that we have an audience with the 
Prince, at which His Majesty would have an officer in 
atteudanoe to n imrt dim th to him. 

So on Saturday- morning at ten o'clock we all ap- 
peared at the landing where the Lao boats were 
moored, asking for an audience with the Prince. We 
were invited to await liini in the sala at tlie river 
luudiug. In a few moments Llis Highness came up in 
his customary informal attire — a phdnung about his 
Unuf, no jaiket, a scarf thrown loosely over his slioul- 
dei^, and a iiltle cane iu his hand. Having shaken 
hands with us, he seated himself iu his favourite at- 
titude, dangling his right leg over his left knee. He 
asked our errand. At Mr. Hood's retjuest Dr. Brad- 
ley explained our desire to establish a mission sta- 
tion in Chieugmai, and our hope to secure his ap- 
proval. The I'rince seemed relieved to Hud that our 
errand involvi-il nothing more serious than that. The 
mi.ssiou stalitm was no new question suddenly sprung 
upon him. We had more than once spoken with him 
about it, and always apparently with his approbation. 
To all our re«iuests he now gave ready assent. Yes, 
we might establish ourselves in Chiengmai. Land was 
cheap; we need not even buy it. Timber was cheap. 
Tlifrc wonM Itr. of course, the cost of cutting and 
hauling it; but not much more. We c«»uld build our 
houses of brick or of wood, as we pleased. It was ex- 
plained, as he ali-eady knew, that our object was to 
tcai li religion, to cslahlisli s( liools. and to care for the 
tiick The King's secretary took down the replies of 

the rrinee tc our questions. Tl.e Consul expressed 
his gratitude, and committed my fauiily to h>8 grac 
clnt We wire to follow the Prince to Chiengmai as 
goon as possihle. . . 

S,Hl, >vril.e outward s.euo and ^"-"^Z^^,;^^^* 
oflleial birth of the La., mission. In t«elf t was 
ludicrous enough: the audience rl.ainUr, a s. a 
landing under tlu> shad-nv of a r.uddlns, n.ouastery , 
ousul in his ollieia. uniform; the Prmce en 
aMillc; our little Kroup awaiting the 
which depended the royal si^natur,. ol ^"-l^' 
Parau.cndr .Mal.fl Mou^kut the estabUsh- 
,„,„t of a Christian .nission. The ^f?' 
1 was myself amazed at the succesH of the ^eets 
work. On the part both of t!.. Siamcs. p.v.rnment 
and <.f tl.o Lao Prince, it was an act of ^'"''^^ 
to be exiK,-cted, though quite in keeping with the lib- 
erality of the truly great king who opened 
to civilization and 1.. rinistianity. And the Lao 
Prince, with all his faults, had m.ble and gener- 
ous traits of character. . 

Later in the day 1 called alone to tell the Pr.nce 
that as soon as 1 could after the close of the rainj 
aeason, 1 would with my family. After the In- 
tense excitement of the week, 1 spent a quiet Sabba h 
in Dr. IJradlev-s family, and on Monday mornmg could 
s.,v as did Abraham's servant, " Hinder me n«.t, seeing 
the L..rd hath prospered me." Taking the afternoon 
tide. I hastened home t.. report H." su. cess ..t my <r>;.. 
to close mv work in and t.. luake prepara- 
tion for a" new station, which was soon to be a new 

mission. . xi,. \i . 

The work in hand was easily liunod over to Mi M.^ 
Farland, an earnest and successful worker, who had 

THE ClIAirrKK OF THi: l..\(> MISSION 71 

iK'Cdino siiocinlly giflcd in llu' Siaiuese lun;>;uago. The 
rresbytery was to meet in IJangkiik in November. The 
last busy weeks passed rapidly away. At their end we 
bade fjood-bye to our lutWM' and fi-'ciids in lV'(hahun. 

Friends in Bangisok gave iiss tliuii- hearty a.sHiMtance. 
The Ladies' Sewing Society made a Hl)eral contribo- 
tion to tlie new mlHsion. Dr. .lames Campbell sup- 
plied lis with nMMiicines sind a ImioU of instrnetions how 
to use them. The (lermau ('(rnsul gave us a I'russiun 
rifle for oar personal protection. All our missionary 
friends added their jiood wishes and Mieir prayers. 

Wc had great ditUculty in Hecuriug suitable boats 
and crews for the journey. On January 8d, 18G7, we 
embarked, leaving Mr. and Mrs. Wilson to follow as 
the next year. Mr. (ie<tr^;e arciniijiiinied ns as far 
a» Kaht>ng. The trip is always a slow (me, but wc en- 
joyed it. My rifle was useful in securing pelicans 
and otlier larji^e birds for food. Once I fired into a 
larj^e llock of pelicans on tiie river and killed three 
with a siugle shot. I'Msh everywhere abounded. My 
shotgun furnished pigeons and other small game. The 
trip jilTorded line opiiortunity for evanfjelistic work. 
Nothir-j^ of the sort had ever been done there save the 
little which Mr. Wilson and I had attempted on our 
earlier trip. 

Kill: 'n«; was reached in four weeks. There we dis- 
missetl the bouts that had brought us from ISaugkok, 
and procured, instead, two lai^ ones of the sort used 
in upcouiitry travel. We should have done better 
with three of smaller size. We spent nearly a month 
in toiling up the thirty-two rapids. At one of them 
we were delayed from Friday noon till Tuesday after- 
nottn. At anntlier, to avoid llic furious current of 
the main river, we attempted u suiull channel at one 


side. As we kIowIv workf<l our wsw ;tl.<n^. tlh ;i»or 
in our clumuel bwamc shiil tiwur ami Nhallower, till we 
bad to renort to a Hystpin of eztemporixed locks. A 
ti triponuy dam was Imilt iR'hind the I"»al. The re- 
HiiHiiiK sliplit rist of uaUT would enable m to drag 
the Iwtut a little furlher, lilt again it waa atranded— 
wb«i the |>roce«a would have to be repeated. After 
two days . ' hard work at tliis. .mr Itoatnicn fjavc up 
in despair. A Obiengmai prime on liift way to Hang 
kok found ua In this extremity, and gave w an order 
to aecure help at ilic inaicst villiif,'i'. To mcikI (he 
leHer up and liriii;; ilif lioiilnuii down would re- 
quire nearly a wtrk. I'.iu ilu-re was utdliing else to do. 

My rifle helped me aoniewbat to while away the time 
of this idle waiting. We eonld hear tigers a! us 
every night. I used to skirt about among the moun- 
tain ridges an»l brooks, half hoping to shoot one of 
tbem. Since my rifle was not a repealer, it was no 
doubt best that my aiubition was not frralilit'd. Once, 
taking a Siamese lad with me, 1 strayed further and 
returned later than usual. It was nearly dark when 
we got batk to the boats, and supper was waiting. 
Hefore we had flnisluHl our meal, the boatnien euught 
sight of the glowin}; eyes of a tiger that had followed 
our trail to the further bank of the river, whence we 
had I rossed to our boat. 

(»ne of the boat raptains professed to be able to eall 
up either deer or tip r, if one were within bearing. Ity 
doubling a leaf together, and with tlnimb and tlnger 
on either side hold iig (he two edi,'es (ense betwirn his 
lips while he blew, he would prodiue a sound so nearly 
resembling the cry of a yonng goat or deer, that a doe 
within reach of the call, he rluimed, would run to tli ■ 
rescue of her young, or a tiger, hearing it, would run 


to Mcnre the prey. The two captains and I one day 
went up on a ridge, ant!, ttelecting an oiien triangular 
Kpjuf, pdsti'd om-selvt's l>mk lo Imck, faciog in tlireo 
dirt'ctiouH, with uur giiUH iu rcudiueMM. The cuptuiu 
had Rounded h\n call only two or three times, when 
siuldfiily ti iiii-K«> «!tM'r niKlicd ftiriouslv up fruiu the 
din'rliuu (I'Wiiid wliich i>in> of llii- riiptaiiiH wiiH fiicirif^. 
A lulk'U lun was l.viiiK alMHil twt'Ul.v pal^'« oil" »»u the 
edge of onr open apace. The excited animal stopped 
behind it, his Iowit parts ( (Hiccali d, hut with bn»k, 
Hhoulder, net-k, uud head tuWy exitused. Our captain 
tired away, bnt was so excited that he would hare 
niiMW'd an clcpliaut. IliH bullet entered tlie lug some 
si\ im lu's hclow the lop. In an itislaut the deer was 
gone. We f««uud not far otf the sput where evidently 
a yuung deer had been devoured by a tiger. We tried 
the experiment a number of times later, bnt witb no 

After we bad waited two days and nt^ts fur help 
from the village above, on the third ni^t tlie spirits 

caine to (»nr rescue. Kitlier with their cars ur in 
their imugiuatiouH, our crew heard >i range nuiHCs iu 
the rocks and trees about them, which they interpreted 
as a waraing from the Bpirits to be goue. Next morn- 
ing, after consnlfation ttif^etlitT, they uiade another 
desperate elTort, and got the boats olT. It was still 
several days before we met the men that came down 
in response to the prince's order. Hut smm- of the 
worst rapids were yet before us. We could hardly 
have got through without their aid. 

The efforts of a single crew, it must be remembered, 
an' intt'rly inadequate to brinjj a boat up through 
any of these rapids. Only by coiubiniug two or three 
crews can the boats be brought up one by one. Some 


of the men are on the bank, tugging at the tow-rope 
wliile tlioy clniiilHT over rocks and stnif^ple through 
bushes. Some are on board, bendiug (o their jtoles. 
Others are up to their waists in the rushing water, hy 
main force fending off the boat from being dashed 
against tlie rocks. On (me occasion I nivself liad made 
the passage in tlie first boat, which then was left 
moored in quieter waters. The crew went back to 
bring up tlie seccind boat, in which were my wife and 
children. With anxious eyes I was watching the 
struggle; when, suddenly, in the fiercest rush of the 
current, the men lost control of her. Boat and 
passengers were drifting with full force straight 
against a wall of solid rock on the ojiposKe bank. It 
seemed as if nothing could save them. Uut one of the 
fleetest boatmen, with rope in hand, swam to a rock 
in midstrenni. and took a turn of the rojK! about it, 
just in time to prevent what would have been a 

At night, about camp fires on the river bank, we were 
regaled by the boatmen with legends of the country 
through w hii h we were passing. One of these legend's 
concerned the lofty mountain which rises above the 
rajiid called Keng Soi, where we were camped. The 
story was that on its summit there had l>een in ancient 
times a city of s€ti8 (millionaires), who paid a gold 
fuuiif/ (two dollars) a bucket for all the water brought 
up for tlieii' use. It was said that remains of their 
city, and particularly an aged cocoanut tree, were still 
to be seen on the summit. 

Since it would take our boatmen at least two days 
to surmount that rajiid, 1 resolved to attempt the 
ascent, and either verity or explode the story. Start- 
ing at early dawn with my young Siamese, zigzagging 


back and forth on the slope all that long forenoon, I 
struggled upward— often despairing of success, but 
ashamed to turn back. At last we stood on the top, 
but it was noon or later. We spent two or three hours 
in search of the cocoannt tree or other evidence of 
human settlement, but all in vain. I was satisfied 
that we were the first of human kind that had ever set 
foot on that lofty summit. We had brought lunch- 
but no water! Most willingly would we have given a 
silver fHmi<i for a draught. 

The legend of the rapids themselves was one of the 
most interesting. At the edge of the plain above the 
rapids there is pointed out a wall of rock dropping 
fully a hundred feet sheer to the water's edge. The 
story goes that in ancient times a youth made love to 
the Prince's daughter. The course of true love did 
not run smooth; the father forbade the suit The lov- 
ers resolved to make tlieir escape. The young man 
mounted his steed with his bride behind him, and 
together they fled. But soon the enraged father was 
in hot pursuit. They reached the riverbrink at the 
top of the precipice, with the father in plain sight be- 
hind them. But there the lover's bean failed him. 
He could not take that leap. The maidoi then begged 
to exchange places with her lover. She mounted in 
front; tied her scarf over her eyes; put spurs to the 
horse; and took the fatal leap. To this day the vari- 
ous rapids are mostly named from various portions of 
the equipage which are supposed to have drifted down 
the stream and lodged upon the rocks. 

Lao witchcraft was another favourite theme of our 
Rahcng boatmen. They were very much afraid of the 
magical powers of wizards; and evidently believed 
that the wizards could readily despatch any who of- 


fended them. They could insert a mass of rawhide 
into one's stomach, which would produce death, and 
which could not oe consumed by fire when the body was 
cremated. They could make themselves invisible and 
invulnerable. No sword could penetrate their flesh, 
and u bullet fired at them would drop harmless from 
the mouth of the gun. 

But we have lingered too long among the rapids. 
Some distance above the last one the mountains on 
either side recede from i\w river, and enclose the great 
plain of Chiengmai and Lampuu. Both passengers 
and boatmen draw a long breath of relief when it 
opens out. The glorious sun ag&.o shines all day. 
The feathery plumes of the graceful bamboo clumps 
are a delight to the eye, and give variety to the other- 
wise tame scenery. But the distant mountains are 
always in sight. 

The season was advancing. The further we went, 
the shallower grew the stream. Long before we 
reached Chiengmai, we had to use canoes to lighten 
our boats; but presently a seasonable rise in the river 
came to our aid. On Saturday evening, April 1st, 
1867, we moored our boats beside a mighty banyan 
tree, whose spreading arras shaded a space more than 
a hundred feet wide. It stands opposite the large 
island which forty years later the government turned 
over to Dr. McKean of our mission for a leper asylum. 
Stepping out a few paces from under its shade, one 
could see across the fields the pagoda spires of Chieng- 
mai. There, prayerfully and anxiously, we sp^t the 
thirteenth and last Sunday of our long journey, not 
knowing what the future might have in store for us. 


ON Monday morning, April 3d, 1867, we reached 
the city. We had looked forward to the ar- 
rival as a welcome rest after the long confine- 
ment of our journey in the boat. But it was only the 
beginning of troubles. We were not coming to an 
established station with houses and comforts pre- 
pared by predecessors. The Prince was off on a mili- 
tary exi)edition, not to be back for over a month. 
Till he came, nothing could be done. We could not 
secure a honse to shelter ns, for there was none to be 
had. Just outside the eastern gat^ of the city, how- 
ever, a sala for public use had recently been built by 
an officer from Raheng, to " make merit," according to 
Buddhist custom. He had still a quasi claim apon it, 
and, with the consent of the Prince's representative, 
he offered it to us. It was well built, with tile roof and 
teak floor, was enclosed on three sides, and opened 
in front on a six-foot veranda. In that one room, some 
twelve feet by twenty, all our belongings were stored. 
It served for bedroom, parlour, dining-room, and study. 
In it tables, chairs, bedstead, organ, boxes, and trunks 
were all piled one upon another. A bamboo kitchen 
and a bathroom were presently extemporized in the 
yard. That was our home for more than a year. 

The news of the arrival of white foreigners soon 
spread far and wide. It was not known how long they 


would remain; and tlie oagi'iuess ol all classes to get 
sight of them before they should be gone was ab- 
solutely huli< r()us, even when most annoying. " There 
is a white woman and children! We must go and see 
them." Our visitors claimed all the immunities of 
backwoodsmen who know no better. In eti(|uette and 
manners they well deser.ed that name. Within a fcv 
feet of the sala was a rickety plank-walk leading ov 
marshy ground to the city. Everybody had to p . 
that way, and everybody must stop. When the ve- 
randa was filled, they would crowd un on the f^round 
in front as long as they could get sight of anybody 
or anything. If to-day the crowd prevented a good 
view, they would > all to-morrow. The favourite lime 
of all was, of course, our meal-time, to see how and 
what the foreigners ate. Almost never in the daytime 
could we sit down to a quiet meal without lookers-on. 
It was not uncommon for our visitors to pick up a 
knife or a fork or even the bread, and ask what that 
was. " They don't sit on the floor to eat, nor use their 
fingers, as we do ! " 

This, however, is only one side of the picture. In 
one sense we were partly to blame for our discom- 
fort. We could soon have dispersed the crowd by 
giving them to understand tiiat tlioir presence was not 
wanted. But we ourselves were on trial. If we had 
got the name of being ill-natured or ungracious, they 
would have left us, probably never to return. No. 
T' is was what we were there for. It gave us con- 
stant opportunities from daylight till dark to pro- 
claim the Gospel message. The first and commonest 
question, who we were and what was our errand, 
brought us at once to the point. We were roiiie with 
messages of mercy and with offer of eternal life from 



Air great (Jod and Saviour. We were come wuh a 
revelation of onr Heavenly Father to His wandering 
and lost rliildren. While the mass of our visitors 
came from curiosity, some came to learn; and many 
who came from curiosity went away pondering whether 
these things were so. Friendships also were formed 
wliicii stood us in good stead afterwards when we 
sorely needed friends. During our time of persecu- 
tion these persons would come in by stealth to speak 
a word of comfort, when tlioy dared not do so openly. 

As the nnnoyance of those days fell most heavily 
on the nei\es (»f my wife, it was a comfort to learn 
afterwards that possibly the very first convert heard 
the Gospel message first from her lips, while she was 
addressing a crowd of visitors very soon after our ar- 
rival. Reference will be made to him later, but it 
may be said here that from the day when he first heard 
the news, he never again worshipped an idol. 

Whatever was their object in coming to see us, we 
soon gave every cr»>wd, and nearly every risitor, to 
understand what vs had come for. We had come as 
teachers — prima: i , ^chers of a way of salvation 
for sinners. A-" jver addi-essed a crowd of 

thoughtful men or .ara who did not readily confess 
that they were su.rii n , and needed a saviour from sin. 
Hut we were not merely teachers of religion, though 
primarily such. We could often, if not usually, better 
teach religion — or, at least, could better lead up to it — 
by teaching geography or astronomy. A little globe 
that 1 had brought along was often my text. 

I presume that most Christian people in America 
have a very crude idea of the method of preaching the 
Gospel often, or. perhai)s, generally, used by mission- 
aries, particularly in new titlds. If they think that 


the bell is rang, that the people amemble in orderly 
fashion, aud take their seats, that a liynin is sung, 
prayer offered, the Scripture read, a sermon delivered, 
and the congregation dismisseu with the doxology and 
benediction,— they are very mach mistaken. All that 
comes in time. We have lived to see it come in this 
land— thanks to God's blessing upon work much more 
desultory than that. Long after the time we are now 
speaking of, one could talk of religion to the people by 
the hour, or even by the daj", one might sing hymns, 
might solemnly utter prayer, in response to inquiry as 
to how we worshipped — and they would listen respect- 
fully and with interest. Hut if public worship had 
been announced, and these same people had been in- 
vited to remain, every soul would have fled away for 
fear of being caught in some trap and made Christians 
without their consent, or for fear of boingf made to 
suffer the consequences of being reputed Christians be- 
fore they were ready to take that step. Forty years 
later than the time we are now sfieaking of, I have 
seen people who were standing about the church door 
and looking in, driven quite away by the mere in- 
vitation to come in and be seated. 

In one sense our work during the first year was vc-ry 
desultory. I had always to shape my instruction to 
the individuals before me. It would often be in an- 
swer to questions as to where was our country ; in what 
direction; how one would travel to get there; could 
one go there on foot; and so on. Or the question 
might be as to the manners and customs of our na- 
tion; or it miglit be directly on religion itself. But 
as all roads lead to Home, so all subjects may be turned 
to Christ, His cross, and His salvation. 

Of the friends found in those early days I must 



mentioQ two. One was Princess Bua Kara, the mother 
of the late and last Lfio Prince, Chao Intanon. At 

our first acquaintance, kIio formed for vf a warm 
friendship that lasted till her death. Nor could I over 
discover any other groun»' for her friendship than the 
fact that we were religious teachers. She was herself 
a devout Ruddhisf, ami continued to (he last her of- 
ferings in the monasteries. I believe that the Gospel 
plan of salTation struck a chord in her heart which 
her own religion never did. From Buddha she got no 
assurance of pardon. The ass- ranee that pardon is 
possible in itself seemed to give her hope, though by 
what process a logical mind could hardly see, so long 
as she held on to a system which, as she confessed, 
did not and could not give pardon. She was always 
pleased to hear the story of the incarnation, the birth, 
life, and miracles of Christ. She was deeply touched 
by the recital of His sufferings, persecutions, and death. 
Illustrations of the substitutionary eflBcaey of His suf- 
ferings she readily understood. She acknowledged her 
god to be a man who, by the well-nigh endless road to 
nirvana, had ceased to suffer by ceasing to exist. The 
only claim he had to warrant his pointing oat the way 
to others was the fact that he had passed over it him- 
self. There was one ground, however, on which she 
felt that she might claim the comfort both of the 
doctrines which she still held and of ours, too. A 
favourite theory of hers — and of many others — was 
that, after all, we worship the same God under dif- 
ferent names. She called hers Buddha, and we call 
ours Jehovah-Jesus. 

She had by nature a woman's tender heart. Baiev- 
olence had doubtless been developed in her by her re- 
ligion, till it bad become a second nature. The gifts 


■he loved to make were abo a means of lading up a 
atore of merit for the future. She was moat liberal in 

Bending uh tokens of remembrance. These were not 
of inujh value. A quart of wliite rice, a few oruugen, 
cocvmbera, or cocoannta on a Bilver tray, were ao cus- 
tomary a Bight that, if ever ud>- ien^tli uf time elapsed 
without tliera, we wondered if llie I'riuccNH were ill. 
And, ou the other hand, if for any cause my calls were 
far apart, riie wonld be sore to send to enqnire if I 
were ill. The " cnj» of cold wafer" w! eh slie thus so 
often pressed to uur lipH, 1 am Mure, was given fur the 
Maater'a aake. 

Another remarlcable friendship formed during that 
first year was that of a Huddliist monk, abltot of (he 
UmOng monastery. An in the other case, there was no 
favonr to ask, no axe to grind. He never made a re- 
quest for anything, unless it were for a hook. lUit the 
little novice who attended him almost always brought 
a cocoanut or some other small [iresent for us. Very 
rarly in our acqnaintance he came to see that the ani- 
verse could not be self existent, as Huddhism teaches. 
On his deeply religious nature the sense uf sin weighed 
heavily. He was well rersed in the Buddhist scrip- 
tures, and knew that there was no place for pardon in 
all that sjstem. He understood the plan of salvation 
offered to men through the intinite merit of Jesus 
Chriat. At times he wonld argue that it was impoa- 
aible. Pui the (hou^'ht that, after all, it might be 
possible, afforded him a gleam of hope that he saw 
nowhere else; and he was nut willing to renounce it 

During the dark months that followed the martyr- 
dom of our nati-^e Christians, when many who were 
true friends deemed it unwise to let their symi<athy 










be known, the good abbot visited us regularly, as, in- 
deed, he continued to do as long as he lived. At times 
1 had strong hopes that he would leave the priesthood. 
But he never could quite see his way to do that, 
though he niainlained that he never ceased to worship 
Jesus. The only likeness, plasl that I have of his dear 
old face is a photograph taiien alter death, as his body 
lay ready for cremation. Unto whom, if not unto such 
true friends of His as these, was it said, " I was a 
hungered, and ye gave Me meat ; I was thirsty, and ye 
gave Me drink; I was in prison, and ye visited Me. — 
Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these My brethr^, ye have done it unto Me "? 


HE military expedition in whicli the Prince wag 

engaged detained him in the field until some 

time in May. It was one of many unsuccessful 
attempts to "apture a notorious Xgio cliieftain who, 
turning outlaw and robber, had gathered about him a 
band of desperadoes, witli whom he sallied forth from 
his mountain fastness, raiding innocent villages and 
carrying oflf the plunder to his stronghold, before any 
force could be gathered to withstand or to pursue him. 
In this way he kept the whole country in constant 
alarm during the earlier years of our stay in Chieng- 
mai. What made matters worse was the fact — ^as the 
Lao firmly believed — that he had a charmed life, that 
he could render himself invisible, and that no weapon 
could penetrate his flesh. Had not the stockade 
within which he had taken shelter been completely sur- 
rounded one night by a cordon of armed men, and at 
dawn, when he was to have been captured, he was no- 
where to be found? Such was the man of whom we 
shall hear more further on. 

At the Lao New Year it is customary for all persons 
of princely rank, all oflicers and people of influence, to 
present their compliments to the Prince in person, and 
to take part in the ceremony of " Dam Hua," by way 
of wishing him a Happy New Year. Because of the 
Prince's absence in the field, this ceremony could not 
be observed at the regular time; but it was none the 



less brilliantly carried out a few <1a.vs after his return. 
The name, Dam llua, means " bathing the head " or 
" head-bath," and it is really a ceremonial bathing or 
baptism of the Prince's head with water poured upon 
it, first by princes and oUii ials in the order of their 
rank, and so on down to his humblest subjects. 

The first and more exclusive part of the ceremony 
took place in the palace, where I also was privileged 
to offer my New Year's greetings with the rest. The 
great reception-hall was crowded with the Prince's 
family and with officials of all degrees. The air was 
heavy with the fragrance of flowers which loaded every 
table and stand. All were in readiness with their sil- 
ver vessels filled with water, awaiting His Highness' ap- 
pearance. At length an officer with a long silver- 
handled spear announced his coming. The whole com- 
pany received him >ith lowest prostration after the 
old time fashion. Seeing me standing, he sent for a 
chair, saying that the ceremony was long, and I 
would be tii-ed. The Court Orator, or Scribe, then 
read a long address of welcome to the Prince on his 
return from his brilliant expedition, with high-sonnd- 
ing compliments on its success. Then there was a long 
invocation of all the powers above or beneath, real or 
imaginary, not to molest, but instead to protect, guide, 
and bless His Highness' jierson, kingdom, and people, 
with corresponding curses invokwl on all his enemies 
and theirs. Then came the ceremonial bath, admin- 
istered first by his own family, his relatives, and high 
officials— he standing while vase after vase of water 
was poured <m his head, drenching him completely 
and flooding all the floor. It is a ceremony not at all 
un|)leasant in a hot climate, however unendnrable it 
might be in colder regions. 


1 liis was the lifijiiininp. According to iimiu'inorial 
custom, a booth was prepared on a sand-bar in the 
river. To this, after the ceremony in the palace, the 
Prince went in full state, riding on an elephant richly 
caparisoned with ti'ai)pin<is of solid jrohl, to recpivc a 
like bath at the hands of his loyal subjects — beginning, 
as before, with some high nobles, and then passing on 
to the common people, who might all take part in this 
closinj; scene of the strange ceremony. 

I was not in the concourse at the river, but watched 
the procession from our saiH, the Prince having said to 
me that he would call on his return. This he did, 
making us a nice little visit, taking a cup of tea, and 
listening to the playing of some selections on the organ. 
He asked if I had selected a place for a permanent 
station, and sngfjested one or two himself. But I was 
in no hurry, preferring to wait for the judgment of 
Mr. Wilson on his arrival. Meanw' ile I was assared 
that I might remain in the salii, and might put up a 
temporary house to receive the new fiimily. When I 
requested his consent to the employment of a teacher, 
he asked whom I thought of employing. I mentioned 
the name of (me, and he said, " He is not good. I will 
send you a better one," — and he sent me his own 

It was a very auspicious beginning. I knew that 
neither the Siamese nor the I.fio trusted the I'rince 
very thoroughly; yet every time that 1 saw him it 
seemed to me that I might trust him. At any 
rate, I did not then look forward to the scenes that 
we were to pass through before three years were 

After the first curiosity wo;:e ofiF, many of those who 
came tu uur ssulu were patients seeking medical treat- 



mcnf. The title "Maw" (doctor) followed me from 
IJangkok, where all miKsionaries, I believe, are still so 
called. This name itself often excited hopes which, 
of course, were doomed to disappointment. To the 
ignorant all diseases weem oquallj curable, if only there 
be the requisite skill or power, ilow often during 
those first five years I regretted that I was not a 
tri.ined physician and surj^eoo! My only consolation 
was that it was not my fault. When my thoughts 
were first turned towards missions, I consulted the 
oflBcers of our IJoard on the wisdom of taking at Itast 
a partial course in preparation for my work. Rut 
medical missions had not then assumed the importance 
they since have won. In fact, jnst then they were at a»unt. The Board naturally thought that medical 
study would be, lor me at least, a waste of time, and 
ai^ed besides that in most mission fields there were 
English physicians. But it so happened that eleven 
years of my missionary life have l)een spent in sta- 
tions from one hundred to five hundred miles distant 
from a physician. So, if any physician who reads 
this narrative is inclined to criticise me as a quack, I 
beg such to remember that I was driven to it— I had 
to do whatever I could in the case of illness in my 
own family ; and for pity I could not turn away 
who often had notbing but superstitious charms to 
rely on. It was a comfort, moreover, to know that 
in spite of inevitable disappointments, our practice 
of medicine made friends, and possibly enabled us to 
maintain the field, at a time when simply as Christian 
teachers we could not have done so. Even Prince 
K^wilorot himself conceded so much when, after for- 
bidding us to remain as missiouai it's, he said we might, 
if we wished, remain to treat tlie sick. 


In such a malarial country, there is no estimating 
the boon conferred by the introduction of quinine alone. 
Malarial fevers often ran on season after season, creat- 
ing an anaemic condition such that the least exertion 
would bring on the fever and chills again. The aston- 
ishment of the people, therefore, is not surprising when 
two or three small powders of the " white medicine," 
as they called it, taken with much misgiving, would 
cut short the fever, while their own medicines, taken 
by the potfal for many months, had failed. The few 
bottles of quinine which it had beon tbdught sufficient 
to bring with me, were soon exliaiisted. The next 
order was for forty four-ounce bottles; and not till our 
physicians at length began to orcter by the thousand 
ounces could a regular supply be kept on hand. I 
have often been in villages where every child, and 
nearly every person, young or old, had chills and fever, 
till the spleen was enlarged, and the whole condition 
8uch that restoration was possible only after months of 

There was another malady very common then — the 
goitre — which had never been cured by any remedy 
known to the Lao doctors. I soon learned, however, 
thnt an ointment of potassium iodide was almost a spe- 
cific in the earlier stages of the disease. That soon gave 
my medicine and my treatme^'t a repntation that no 
regular physician could have sustained; for the people 
were sure that one who could cure the goitre must be 
able to cure any disease. If I protested that I was 
not a doctor, it seemed a triumphant answer to say, 
"Why, you cured such a one of the goitre." Often 
when I declined to undertake the treatment of some 
disease above my skill, the patient would go away say- 
ing, " I believe you could, if you would." 



One other part of my medical work I must mention 

he since reference will be made to it later. The 
ravages of smalli)ox had been fearful, . mounting at 
times to the destruction of a whole generation of 
children. The year before our arrival had witnessed 
such a scour«,'(>. Hardly a lumsehold escaped, and 
many had no children left. 1 was specially interested 
to prevent or to check these destructive epidemics, be- 
cause the Prince had seen the efHcacy of vaccination 
as practised by Dr. r.nidley in Hangkok. and because 
1 felt sure that what he had seen had influenced him 
to give his consent to our coming. One of the surest 
ways then known of seuding the virus a long distance 
was in the form of the dry scab from a vaccine pustule. 
When nee the virus had " taken," vaccination went 
on ffuia arm to arm. Dr. Bradley sent me the first 
vaccine scab. It reached me during the first season; 
and vaccination from it ran a notable course. 

The Karens and other hill tribes are so fearful of 
smallpox that when it comes near their villages, they 
all tlee to 'he mountains. Smallpox had broken out in 
a Lao village near a Karen settlement. The settlement 
was at once deserted. Meanwhile the news of the ef- 
ficacy of vaccination had reached the Lao village, and 
they sent a messenger with an elephant to beg me to 
come and vaccinate the entire community. Two young 
monks came also from an adjoining village, where the 
disease was already raging. These two I vaccinated 
at once, and sent home, arranging to follow them later 
when their pustules should be ripe. From them I vac- 
cinated about twenty of the villagers. During the fol- 
lowing week the Karens all returned, and in one day 
I vaccinated one hundred and sixty-three persons. It 
was a strange sight to see four generations all vac- 


cinated at one time — great-grandfathers holding out 
their withered arms along with babes a month old. 

Soccpss siirh as this was naturally vory flattering 
to one's pride ; and " |)ride goeth before a fall." I 
had kept the Prince informed of the snccess of my at- 
tempt, and naturally was auxious to introduce vac- 
cination into the ]»alaco. The patronage of the palace 
would ensure its introduction into the whole kingdom. 
Having a fine vaccine pnstnle on the arm of a healthy 
white infant hoy, \ took him to tlie palace to show the 
case to the Prince's daughter, and to her husband, who 
Wed the heir-apparent. They bad a little son of abont 
the same age. The parents were pleased, and sent me 
w' h the child to the Prince. As soon as he saw the 
pusitule, he pronounced it genuine, and was delighted. 
His younger daughter had lost a child in the epidemic 
of the year before, and tlie family was naturally very 
anxious on the subject. He sent me immediately to 
vaccinate his little grandson. 

I returned to the palace of the son-in-law, and very 
carefully vaccinated the young prince on whom so 
many hopes were centred. 1 watched the case daily, 
and my best hopes seemed realized. The pustules de- 
veloped finely. All the charactp'nstic symptoms ap- 
peared and disappeared at the pro[)er times. But 
when the scab was about to fall off, the little prince 
was taken with diarrhoea. I felt sure that a little 
paregoric or some other simple remedy would spoedily 
set the child right, and I offered to treat the case. But 
half a dozen doctors — most of them *' spirit-doctors " 
— were already in attendance. The poor child, I verily 
believe, was dosed to death. So evident was it that 
the imfortunate outcome could not have been the result 
of vaccination, that both the parents again and a^in 



assured me that they entertained no such thought. But 
all diseases — as was then universally believed among 

the Lilo — are the result of incurring the displeasure 
of the "spirits" of the family or of the dan. The 
"spirits" might have taken umbrage at the invasion of 
their prerogative by vaccination. 

Xo doubt some such thought was whisi)ered to the 
Printe, and it is not unnatural that he should at least 
have half believed c. In his grief at the loss of his 
grandson, it is easy to see how that thought may have 
fanned hir jealousy at the growing influence of the 

No year ever passed more rapidly or more pleas- 
antly than that first year of the mission. We were too 
busy to be either lonesome or homesick, although, to 
complete our isolation, we bad no mails of any sort 
for many months. Our two children, the one of three 
and the other of six years, were a great com.'ori to us. 
When we left Bangkok it was understood that a Mr. C. 
of the Borneo Company was to follow us in a month on 
business of their teak trade. Ue had promised to bring 
up our mail. So we felt sure of get1in<» our first let 
ters in good time. Since he would travel much faster 
than we, it was not impossible that he might overtake 
us on the way. Hut April, May, and June passed, and 
still no word of Mr. C. or of the mails h,j was bringing. 
In July we received a note from him, with a few frag- 
ments of our long lookefj for mail. He had been at- 
tacked by robbers below Uahen<;, liiinself had received 
a serious wound, and his boat had been looted of every 
portable object, including our mail-bag. Fortunately 
the robbers, finding nothing of value to them in the 
mail, had dropped as they fled some mutilated letters 
and papers, which the officers in pursuit picked up, 


and which Mr. C. forwurded to uh. OtherwiM we 
•boald hare had nothing. We covld at least be de- 
voutly thankful that we had traroraed the aame rim 

in safety. 

It was long liefore we were rare that Mr. Wilson and 
his family were coming at all that year. It was at 

least possible that any one of a thousand causes might 
delay theui, or even prevent their coming altogether. 
Their arrival on Pebrnary 15th, 1868, was, of course, a 
great event. 

Not h)ng after this we were eagerly awaiting a 
promised visit froni our old associate and friend, Dr. 
8. B. House. Both Mrs. Wilson and Mrs. McOilrary 
were expecting shortly to be confined, and the good 
doctor was making the tedious journey that he might 
be on hand to help them with his professional skill in 
the hour of their need. Our dismay can be imagined, 
when, one day, there appeared, not the doctor, but his 
native assistant, with a few pencilled lines from the 
doctor, telling us that he was lying in the forest some 
four or five days distant, dangerously, if not fatally, 
gored by an elejjhant. We were not to come to him, 
but were to stand by and attend to the ue i of our 
families. He hegged us to pray for him, and to send 
him some Cv)mforts and medicines. 

The accident happened on this wise : The doctor bad 
been walking awhile for exercise behind his riding 
elephant, ai then r.t templet, to pass up beside the 
creature to the front. The elephant, startled at his un- 
exijected appearance, struck him to the ground with a 
blow of his trunk, gored him havagely in the abdomen, 
and was about to trample him under foot, when the 
driver, not a moment too soon, got the creature again 
ander control. With rare nerve the doctor cleansed 



the frightful wound, and sewed it up hy the help of 
its reflection in a mirror, at he lay on hia back on the 
ground. He dcRpatchod Mio rapsRpnger to uh; gave 
careful instructions to iiis attendants as to wliat thpy 
ahonld do for him when the inevitable fever and de- 
lirinm ahonld come on; and resigned bimiMlf calmly 
to await whatever the outcome might be. 

The situation was, indeed, desperate. We could 
not possibly hope to reach him before the qnestion of 
life or death for him would be settled ; nor could he be 
brought to us. Tlie best we could do was to get an 
order from the Prince for a boat, boatmen, and car- 
riers, and despatch these down the river, committing 
with earnest prayer the potir sufferer to the all loving 
Father's care. The doctor was carried ou a bamboo 
litter through the jungle to the M£ Ping River, and in 
doe time reached Chiengmai convalescent, to find that 
the two I'xpected young missionaries had arrived in 
safety before him. After a month's rest he was able 
to retnm to Bangkok ; bnt not nntil be had amisted 
us in organizing the First Presbyterian Church of 

In the Presbyterian Record for November, 1868, will 
be fonnd an interesting report from the doctor's pm. 
Naturally he was struck with the predominance of 
demon-worship over Buddhism among the Lao. We 
quote the following: 

" Not only offerings, but actually prayers are made to 
demons. I shall never forget the first prayer of the kind I 
ever heard. . . . We had just entered a dark defile in the 
mountains, beyond Muang Ton, and liad come to a rude, 
imageless shrine erected to the guardian demon of the pass. 
The owner of my riding-elephant was seated on the neck 
of the big beast before me. Putting the palms of his hands 

f)i A.MoN'n Tin: siamksi: and the lao 

together and raiaiog them in the attitude of worship, he 
prayed : ' Let no evil happen to ua. We are aix men and 

throe cli'phfiiits. Let us not bo injured. I^t nothitu; come 
to frighten us,' uiid so on. On my way down the river, at 
the rupiils and gloomy piism^H in the mountains the boatnicn 
would laud, tftpcru would be lighted, and libations would be 
|)ouri'(l, and offerings of flowen, food, and betel would be 
nui<le to tin' powiTs of durkni ss." 

The doctor Hpcaka also of " the favour with which the mis- 
sionaries were received, the confidence they had won from all 
clesaea, the itiflui'iicc of thoir nipdicinos, ami the prntul 
field open tor a physician." Ilo frankly aays, "i must tou- 
fcss that tlioui;h at one time I did have some misgiviiiKs 
whether, all things considered, the movement was not a little 
premature, T now, being better able to judge, greatly honour the 
('hristi;i!i courit^ri' mid enterprise which undertook the work; 
or ratiiLT bloss (iod who inspired Mr. McGilvary's heart, and 
made his old Princeton frieml. Mr. Wilson, consent to join 
him in thus striking out boldly into an untried field. It 
will prove, I trust, a field ready to the harvedt." 



TIKIN(i tin- tirst lliii'e iiiuntlis after Mr. Wil- 

hou'h arrival we were ho occupied with mis- 

Bion work and with family careii that we had 

not made cIkiIc*' (if llif lot \vlii( li (lie I'ritic*' had prniii- 
ised to give us. Uu the ver^ day that Dr. House left 
us, however, the Prince came in person, selected, and 
made over to ns our present lH>aiiiifiil mission com- 
pound on the east hank of tiu- Mt" I'inir. He would not 
allow us to ofifer an)- compensation; but, learning after- 
wards that the native owners had received no remnnera- 
tion, we secretly paid them. Mr. Wilson lK'<,'au at once 
to erect temporary bamboo buildings, and soon moved 
to the new compound. Since it was diflBcuIt for me 
to spare time for further work of building for myself, 
and since the old location was an ideal one for mci't- 
ing the people, I moved with my family from the .sala 
into the bamboo house the Wilsons had occupied, and 
we II iule it our home for the next two years. 

Mr \V Isiui was preatly interrujitcd iu his work by 
sickness in ais family. Little Frank had fallen ill 
on the jonrney from Bangkok, and continued to suffer 
during all these months. His death on November 17th, 
18G8, was .'i heavy stroke to us all. In vain we com- 
bined our slight medical skill, and searched our books 
of domestic medicine for his relief. It was pitiful 
enough to see the natives die, with the sad feeling in 



our hearts lliat a plivsician niijj;ht Lave saved their 
lives. lUit the death of ^me of our own number, so 
soon after the trying experiences early in the year, 
emphasized, as nothing else could have done, our ap- 
peals for a physician. Yet it was not until 1S72 that 
we welcomed the first physician appointed to our 

During this time raids were continually being made 
into the Lfio country by the renegade Nglo chieftain 
already spoken of. Five hundred men from Pr6, and 
one thousand from Lakawn were drafted for the defence 
of the city, and were stationed near our compound. 
Tht " hundreds of soldiers and workmen furnished us 
an ever-changing audience. All we had to do, day or 
night, was to touch the organ, and people would crowd 
in to hear. The dry season of 1868-G9 was, therefore, 
cn exceptionally good one for our work. We had con- 
stant visitors from other provinces, who would con- 
verse with us by the hour, and, on returning to their 
homes, would carry the news of our presence and of 
our work. 

In I je fall of 1868 occurred two events which, widely 

different as they might seem to be, were in reality 
closely connected, and of much importance in their 
bearing on the mission. One was a total eclipse of the 
sun on August 17th, and the other was the conversion 
of Xfiu liita. our lirst ' aptized convert. I well re- 
member his tall figure and thoughtful face when he 
first appeared at our saia, shortly after our arrival 
in Chiengmai. He had a cough, and had come for 
medicine. Ho had heard, too, that we taught a new 
religion, and wished to enquire about that. Some 
soothing expectorant sufficiently relieved his cough to 
encourage him to make another call. On each visit 



religion was the all-absorbing topic. He hafl studied 
Buddhism, and he diligently practised its jirecepts. 
As an abbot he had led others to make offerings for 
the monastery worship, and he had two sons of his 
own in the monastic order. But Buddhism had never 
satisfied his deep spiritual nature. What of the thou- 
sands of failures and transgressions from the results 
of which there was no escape? The doctrine of a free 
and full pardon through the merits of another, was 
both new and attractive to him, but it controverted 
the fundamental principle of his religion. 

We had some arguments, also, on the science of 
geography, on the shape of the earth, on the nature 
of eclipses, and the like. What he ii«}ard was as for- 
eign to all his preconceived ideas a.s was the doctrine 
of salvation from sin by the death of Christ. Just be- 
fore the great eclipse was to occur I told him of it, 
naming the day and the hour when it was to occur. 
I pointed out that the eclii)se could not be causea by 
a monster which attacked the sun, as he had been 
taught. If that were the cause, no one could foretell 
the day when the monster would be moved to make 
the attack. He at once caught that idea. If the 
eclipse came off as I said, he would have to admit 
that his teaching was wrong on a point perfectly 
capable of being tested by the senses. There would 
then be a strong presumption that we were right in 
religion as well as in eclipses. He waited with intense 
interest for the day to come. The sky was clear, and 
everything was favourable. He watched, with a 
smoked glass that we had furnished, the reflection 
of the sun in a bucket of water. He followed the 
coming of the eclipse, its progress, and its passing off, 
as ffiBzioQsly as the wise men of old followed the star of 


Itethloliem — and, like them, be, too, was led to the 

Early the next morning he came in to see me. His 
first words were, "Men te" (It's really true). "The 
teacher's books teach truth. Ours are wrong." This 
contldent assurance had evidently been reached after 
a sleepless night. A complete revolution had taken 
place in liis mind; lu t it was one that cosi him a 
severe struggle. His ouly hope had rested on the 
teachings of Buddha, and it was no light thing to see 
the foundation of his iictpe undermined. The eclipse 
had started an ever widening rift. He began, as never 
before, to examine the credeuiiais of Christianity. He 
soon learned to read Siamese in order to gain access 
to our Scriptures. We read th'» (Jospel of John to- 
gether, lie studied the Shorter (i^atechism. He had 
a logical mind, and it was never idle. Whenever we 
met, if only for a few mom«its, he always had some 
question to ask me. or some new douitt to solve. When 
tempted to doubt, he fell back on the eclipse, saying, 
" I know my books were wrong there. If the Gospel 
system seems loo good to be true in that it offers to 
pardcm and cleanse and adopt guilt,, sinners, and give 
them a title to a heavenly inheritance, it is simply 
because it is divine, and not human." While the tmth 
dawned gradually on his mind, the full visi. u : ocmed 
to be sudden. His own account was that afterwards, 
when walking in the fields and pondering the subject, 
it all became very plain to him. His doubts all van- 
ished. Henceforth for him to live was t'hrist; ai-d 
he eounle<l all things but for the excellency oi 
the knowledge of Him. 

Tlie conversion of Niin Inta was an epoch in the his- 
tory of the mission. The ordinary concourse of vis- 



itors might be for medicine, or it might be from mere 
curiosity. But wiien oue of the most zealous 
Buddhists, well known by members of the royal fam- 
ily, openly embraced Thristianity, the matter began 
to assume a ditlerent asi)ect. What was more remark- 
able still was that he urged his two sons to abandon 
the monastic order. Tlie I'rince's younger daughter, 
bersclf a strong Buddhisl, told nie that this was to her 
convincing evidence of his sincerity. Whether Chris- 
tianity were true or false, he certainly believed it true. 
It was the height o ambition for every Lao father to 
have a son in the order. If he had none of his own, 
he often would adopt one and make him a monk. But 
here was one of the most devout of them urging his 
own sons to c me out and be Christians ! We re- 
garded it as a favourable circumstance that the patron 
and protector of this our first convert was high in 
princely rank. Nan Inta's defection from Buddhism 
produced a profound impression among jill classes. 
Emboldened by his example, secret believeri? became 
more open. Not the nnmber alone, but the character of 
the enquirers attracted attention. 

The second convert was Noi Sunya, a native doctor 
from a village eight miles to the east. He has the 
enviable distinction of never having postponed the 
Gospel offer. Fie was the chief herdsman in charge 
of the Prince's cattle. Coming to the city on an 
errand, he called at our bSlISl to see what was the at- 
traction there. As in the case of so many others, it 
was the good news of pardon for a sinsick soul that 
arrested his attention. On his return in the after- 
noon he called again to make fuller enquiry concern- 
ing " the old, old story of Jesus and His love." He 
promised to return on Bunday. Promises of that sort 


so often fail, that we were surprised and delighted to 
see him early on Sunday morning. We had an earnest 
talk together before the time came for poblic worship. 
He remained through the afternoon, and spent the 
night with us. In answer to a final exhortation be- 
fore he left us in the morning, he said, " You need not 
fear my going back. I feel sure I am right." He was 
willing to sell all — oven life itself, as it proved — for 
the pearl of great price. He went home, called his 
family together, and began family worship that very 
night. Only four brief months after this his labours 
were ended by the executioner's stroke, and he wore 
the martyr's crown. 

The third, Sto Tft Wichai, has already been men- 
tioned as receiving his first instruction in Christianity 
from the " mother teacher," as Mrs. McGilvary was 
called, during the very first month of the mission. He 
then received the great truth of the existence of God 
and of man's accountability to Him. He was an of- 
ficer living six days' journey to the north, and was un- 
der the jurisdiction of the Prince of Lampiln. On his 
visit a year later, he received further instruction, was 
baptized, and returned to tell his neighbours what he 
had found. They mly laughed at him for his oddity 
in refusing to jo in the Buddhist worship, and in 
offerings to *he spirits. 

The fourth was Nan Chai, a neighbour and friend of 
Noi Sunya, and destined to suffer martyrdom along 
with him. He, too, was an ex-abbot, and, therefore, 
exempt from government work. He was a good 
scholar, and was employed by Mr. Wilson as a teacher. 
When he became a Christian, he was strongly tempted 
to hold on still to his position in the monastery, ex- 
plaining that he would not himself engage in the wor- 



ship, but would only sweep the buildings and keep 
tbe groonds in order for others. But when his duty 
was pointed out to him, he readily gave up his posi- 
tion, and was enntlled for regular government service. 
Here were four noble and notable men at once desert- 
ing the Bnddhist faith! No wonder it became an 
anxioub question wherennto this was to grow. 



IN the course of those events our second year of 
work in Chieuguiai had ct)me to its end. We 
were now beyond the middle of the year 1869. As 
some intteflnahle sense of oppression in the air fjives 
warning of the approaching storm, so there were om- 
inous hints, and even some dark forebodings. Onr 
Christian people — who understood far better than we 
did both the character of their rulers and the sig- 
uilicance of furtive looks and innuendoes — were 
anxious. But they stood firm, and their faith strength- 
ened ours. 

In the light of subsequent events we now know 
that the most dangerous element in the gathering 
storm was the angry surprise of the Prince himself at 
the discovery that the old order seemed actually pass- 
ing away under his very eyes; that his will was no 
longer supreme ia men's minds, nor always consulted 
in their actions — this and the deep ticai liiny and ruth- 
less cruelty of his nature which it brought into i)lay. 
but there were other sinister influences at work also, 
and among them we must not overlook that of a certain 
rortuguose adventurer, Fonseca by name, lie was a 
thoroughly unprincipled man, who, having played his 
game in Bangkok and lost, had worked himself into 
the favour of the Prince during his recent visit to the 
capital, and had accompauied him on his return 




to Chienpmai. The Prince was persnaded that this 
man could be of great service to him in the two mat- 
ters which were then causing him most di»}nietnde; 
namely, the defence of certain lawsuits involving large 
sums of money, brought against him in the British 
Consular Court by Burmese timber merchants; and 
the getting rid of the missionaries. These last were 
more in Fonseca's way than they were in the Prince's, 
lie could accomplish his ends more readily if they 
were not there. 

The most plausible excuse that could be ofifered 
for desiring to be rid of the missionaries was the failure 
of the rice crop that year. In the early part of the 
season there was no rain at all. When at last the 
fields had been planted, one of the worst floods ever 
known in that region destroyed all the lowland rice. 
Then, finally, the rains ceased prematurely, and the 
upland crop was cut off by drought. The presence 
of the missionaries in the country had offended the 
spirits, and they had withheld the rain. Such was the 
pretext urged in a petition sent to Bangkok to have 
the missionaries removed. The specific address of the 
petition to the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the 
United States Consul leads one to suspect that the 
matter was directed by some one who understood the 
orde official business much better than did the Lfto 

T"^ ■ iister forwarded the document to Mr. Mc- 

Doi the acting Vice-Consul at the time. Mr. Mc- 
Donald replied to the Minister that there must be 
some mistake about it. It appeared that the scarcity 
of rice complained of had begun the year before the 
arrival of the missionaries; it was not confined to 
Chiengmai, but extended over all the northern 


provinces, lie added roguishly-, however, that be 
would strictly enjoin the American missionaries to be 
very c.-ircful in future not to cause any famine. Of 
all 111 is secret plotting we were entirely ignorant at the 
time, and learaed of it only long afterwards. While 
these plots were developing, I was frequently visiting 
the Prince, and all our relations with him were ap- 
parently satisfactory. But we know that he was un- 
der the influence of a wily and unprincipled adversary. 

The other matter in which Fonseca was supposed to 
he able to help his patron out of difficulties even more 
pressing, was the Burmese lawsuits pending berore the 
British Consul. But the British government was the 
last party fo permit officious meddling with its public 
business from such a quarter. It is presumed that 
there was evidence of his interference witb official cor- 
respondence. This much is certain — a peremptory de- 
mand was made on the Siamese government for his re- 
call. The official order sent up was too emphatic to 
be neglected. The man was sent out of the country 
in quite diflFerent style from that in which he entered 
it. This man is known to have been present at the 
consultation relative to the mission. If the jealousy 
and suspicion on the part of the Prince did not origi- 
nate with him, there is no doubt that he at least 
worked on the Prince's suspicious natuie, increasing 
his jealousy of the growing popularity of the mission, 
and leading him to think that it would be wise to stop 
it in its incipioncy. 

Yet even when the blow was about to fall, we could 
not believe that the Prince was so treacherous as to 
plan to drire us out of the country, at the same time 
that l e continued to treat us so kindly, and would 
even come to dine with us. We could not believe that 



the younger PrioceM, who had a predominating in- 
fluence over Ler father, could encourage one of the 
'Christians to put himself under her protection, only 
iiiat he might tlie more surely be sent to his death a 
day or two later. We conid not believe that an ex- 
cursion down the river bad been planned by the 
Prince, only that he might be out of reach when the 
executions shonld take place. We were still incred- 
nions, even after we received reliable information from 
the agent of the liorneo Company that he had heard 
the Prince and a certain high officer consulting together 
to stop onr work. The plan which he reported was 
to expel the converts from the country, giving their 
wives and children the option to follow them or to 
remain. After all, that wonld not have been so great 
a disaster. These men had no great possessions to 
lose. Their banishment v/ould only plant the Gospel 
in other provir r other lands. 

When, in S iber, 1869, just before the fatal 
stroke, the Prince started on what purported to be a 
three weeks' fishing trip, we thought that his absence 
would give us a respite from our present fears, and 
wonld afford him leisure for better thoughts. As his 
boats pushed off, we waved him a parting good-bye from 
the shore. His first business was at Lampun, to se- 
cure the co-operation of the governor of that province 
in ridding the country of the new religion. Inasmuch 
as SC'n Ya Wichai, the thii-d convert mentioned above, 
was a Lampun officer, it was thought prudent in his 
case to secure the action of his own immediate superior. 
He was at once sent for, and was condemned to 
death, but was saved by his young master, the gov- 
ernor's son, on the plea that he was a backwoodsman, 
and knew no better. 


Of the deep designs against m and our work we 
were thus either ignorant or incredulous till, on the 

evenlDfr of Srpfemlier llltli, just before tlnik, our 
night watohnuin came to us with the eomuion excuse 
for leaving us, that some relative was dead or dying, 
and insisting that he must go immediatel.v. In vain 
we nrced that he must not leave us tlius in the lurch. 
As a tlual argument, we threatened to tlotk him of a 
month's wages. Bnt wages were nothing to him then. 
<* All that a man hath w ill he '/we for his life." While 
we talked to hiui, he had reached the gate and was 
gone. «o, also, tied the coolc and the coolie, leaving 
only one blind Ng!o who had taken refuge with ns. 

Mr. Wilson then lived across the river on the new 
premises, and it was not until the next day that we 
learned that all his people, too, had fled in like manner 
and at the same hour. We went to Prayft Tepasing, 
the I'rince's executive oflicer, to enquire the cause. Ue 
feigned surprise, and professed entire ignorance of 
any designs against the Christians. He said, how- 
ever, that the Prince had {jivcn an order that the in- 
habitants of certain villages should bring in each a 
hewn slab of timber to repair the stockade. Possibly 
the scare might have somehow arisen from that. We 
were aware of the order, and had told the christians 
that if pressed for time to procure the timber, they 
might each take a slab of ours. We now told the 
Praya that we would ourselves be responsible for the 
timbers required of them. To assure us with regard 
to our servants, the I'rayu sent for our cook, gave him 
a letter assuring his safety, and threatened, besides, 
to have him flogged if he deserted us. The cook re- 
mained wl.-i us all through these troubles, until we 
could find another to take his place. For some reason 



Mr. Wilson did not avail himself of thii offer. He and 
Mra. Wilson got on as ttey could without aenranta for 

sevt'T-nl montlis. 

We nuw know that the order for the execution of 
the ChriHtinnB had been given long before by that 

Hanic Tiiiva Tt'iiMsinfj in Hudi Tear <.'f llic I*iin<'e was 
till' liit;lics( (illiccr in llu* n'jiliu! Not only had our 
tiervants vauislietl — lltcie w as a sudden lessation of our 
visitors as well. Few even dared to come for medi- 
cine fcr fear of licinjr suspect^'d of iM'coniiiifj f'hris 
tians. There were, however, a few notable exceptions, 
the abbot of the Cniong monasterv being the most con- 

Durins: tlio followinj; wiH'k Mr. Wilson waded out 
across t!ie Hooded country to the hoiue of Nan V.hai, 
his teacher. But his family did not dare to give any 
informal i«»n concerning hini. To tell what tliev knew 
would cost their lives also -so they bad be --i told. He 
then went on anotiier mile to Noi Sunya's hoi i, with 
t'.e same result. The wives of both these men pre- 
tended to believe that their husbands had };<me to the 
city to visit us. Mr. Wilson noticed that one of the 
women had tears in her eyes as she spoke. PuzEled 
rather than satistied by the n'sult of the visit, Mr. 
Wilson ri'turntHl with the hope that, after all, the 
men were still alive, and that we yet should see them 
in the land of the living. 

r was two weeks before our snsjtense was broken by 
the certainty of their death. On Sunday morning, 
September 2Gth, a Ngio friend and neighbour of the 
martyrs called at my house. After looking all about 
him, he asked where the Christians were. I told him 
tl.ere seemed to be a mystery about them that we could 
not unravel, but we hoped they were siecreting them- 


selves in safet^v somewhere. Weeing that I was really 
ignorant of their fate, be came doRe np to me, and 
looking aioiind again fo assure liiiiisclf tliat no one 
was near, lie asked, " If I tell ^uu, will you promise 
never to betray me?" Having demanded and re- 
ceived an «>iii]>liatic promise equivalent to nn oath, he 
dn'w his hand signitkantiy arross his neck, and whis- 
pered, " That is the way." His gestui-e was too well 
understood in that reign to leave any doubt ai to what 
was meant. The man had really come on a sad and 
dangerous errand of kindness. As soon as it was ac- 
complished, be hurried away, evidently fearing that 
the birds of the air might hear it, or that some breOM 
might waft it to the palat-e. 

On Monday morning Mr. Wilson and I went again 
to the PrayS. He could now no longer lie for his 
master as to the fact of the execution of the mea, 
hut lie offered the liinisy excuse that it was because 
they had not brought in their slabs on time. We were 
then obliged to chai^ him with patent falsehood. He 
knew that they were executed for no crime whatever, 
but only for being Christians. Poor man ! He seemed 
somewhat ashamed; but what could he do? He was 
not at lieart a bad man, as his letter of protection for 
the cook showed. The lives of two peasants were no 
great matter in those days. He bad been so trained 
to execute every behest of his master, that it scarcely 
occurred to him that he ou^rht to hesitate at this. 

But it was some relief to know the worst, and to 
know that it was known that we knew it. Before this 
we had been obliged to feign hopes that we hardly be- 
lieved ourselves. Now we could speak openly. The 
Prince had not yet returned from his iisbing trip; so 
we went to his elder daughter and her husband, after- 



ward Prince iatanon. lu their poMltion tbej could not 
■ay macii ; but they did gay that what the Prince had 
done wa« not ri|^t, and that they did not approre of 

the act. 

One uuk'oPiti of the Hitualiou wan a tloud of tlie 
wildest njmoun — some of them, no doubt, started on 
purpose tf> friKliten lis awny. One of these toiiclied oa 
in a most tender point. One of our most faithful 
Hcr^ants, who iiuil been with us from the very first, was 
desirous of visiting Banglcok. 80 we arranged to have 
him po down in eliarpe of a boat tliat was to bring 
up our supplies for the year, liy him we sent a large 
paclcage of letters written before we had reason to 
suspect so serious an outcome of the troubles that were 
brewinp. While we conld not conreal some gloomy 
forebodings, our reports were, on the whole, full of 
hope for the speedy prt^nivss of the Gospel. The boat 
left for T^anpkok a few days after the Prince started 
on his fishing trip. Presently it was reported that the 
boat had been intercepted, and that this man, with his 
wife, his soil, and his son's family, even down to a lit- 
tle grandchild of two years old. had been iiiiled, and 
the boat broken to pieces and burned. 

Althongh such atrocity seemed beyond belief, yet h 
nuiiilier of circumstances combined to pive the report 
credibility. Why, for instance, was the long, unusual 
trip dowu the river taken just before our boat was to 
start? What did it mean that, after the mnrder of 
the Christians was known, no sum of money could in- 
duce a Lfio mtiU to take a letter to Bangkok? If the 
story of the fate of our messenger were true, the act 
was the act of a madman — and there is no telling 
what a madman may not do. He was in a position 
to keep us from escaping; and if he had really gone 


BO far .'IS that, he evidently did not intend that we 
should be heard I'ruiu alive. 

For a time we virtually resigned ourselves to what 
seemed inevitable late. When we khiUI ^ft no letters 
sent, we Mcluallv l)ej;an wiitinjj the iiistorv of those 
days on the aiaij^ins of books in our library, so that, 
if we were never heard from aj^ain, some of the prece- 
dent cireunistanees of our end iiii;4!it thus, perhaps, 
come to light. It was a gi-eat relief, therefore, when an 
influential Burmese, knowing our situation, offered 
to carry a letter through to our friends in lianukok. 

On Sepleinber l!!)(h, when the leMers earried by (he 
iSurmese were written, we were s ill under the im- 
pression that our boatman had been murdered, and 
that neither he nor the letters and reiioris earried by 
him had been heard from. It was the knowledge that 
these rumours were false, and that he had passed 
Rah^ng in safety, that first relieved our minds. So, 
too, his an ival in Bangkok gave our fi iends there the 
tirst assuranee of our safety. With this explanation 
the letters themselves will give the be.-t idea of our 
situation in those dark days. The following is from 
a letter of Dr. S. II. Mouse to our Mission Hoard in 
New York, printed in (he I'lTsbi/tciiaii Record of 
February, 1870. It is dated November 11th, 1869. 

" Since our last iii:iil was despatched, tiditiRs have been 
Tecei.ed frdiri tlie iiiis-idii fainiliea in North Laos which 
have greatly distressed and alarmed ua, causing no little 
anxiety for their personal safety. This outburst of persecu- 
ticii frMin wliicli they arc now sufTi riiifj; must have bt>cn quite 
unlooked for, for their letters down to Soi)tember 10th were 
full of encouragement Never had the king and the princes * 

1 That is the Prince of Chiengmai and the nobility. These terms 
are so used generally throughout this correspoDdencc.— Ed. 



seemed more friendly; never had their prospects seemed 
brighter. Seven interesting converts hat' been baptized 
since the year began, and they had r • l bvr, enjoying a 
wonderfully favourable ()i)portunity to i-ike the t<:oi^[)^l nes- 
sage known to tlie people from every :< ! ot the ki ,.lom. 
, , . What has caused this sudden cha j: j in vhi 'iem anour 
of the king of Chiengmai toward oui" luioolo— ;ri; f» there, 
does not appeiir. . . . 

" Thus far tliey seem to have had no aiipreheiision for 
themselves personally; but the next letter, of two days' later 
(late, iiulieates that something had occurred or had come to 
their knowli iiKe which led them to believe that their own 
lives were in jeopardy. On Scptemlx^r 21)lh Mr. MeUilvary 
writes hurriedly to his father-in-law, Kev. D. B. Bradley, 
M.D., of the A. M. A. mission aa follows: — 

' ' Dear Fallior and Mother: — We write in tell you that we 
may be in frieat danger. If you never hear from us more, 
know that we are in heaven. Scud some one up here to look 
after our Christians, and do not, we beg you, grieve over the 
loss of our lives. Two of our church members died at the 
martyr's stake on the lith of Sciitenilier. Warrants are 
out for the others. What is before us we do not know. We 
are all peaceful, and very happy. We have written letters 
givinp tlie full facts, but dare not send them for fear of their 

•' • Luiijr Puk left here on the 12th direct for T'.auKkok. 
Should he never reach you, you may fear the worst for 
us. . . . He had a large mail with our reports, etc. Should 
worst ( 'in(- to worst, we have counted the cost beforehand, 
and our death will not be in vain. Love to all the dear ones. 
Good-bye. dear father, mother, brothers, sisters, and friends — 
perhaps till we meet in heaven ! ' " 

Dr. House then continues: 

" That these letters — the last one especially — awakened owe 

deepest soli.-itude. I need not a-sorc you. The brethren 
from the Pcchaburi station reached Baiifrkcik, to attr-ud the 
annual session of Presbytery, the very d.iy the startling 
tidings came; and anxious were our deliberations, and 


earnest our prayors in belialf of tluisp Lrothron lieloved and 
their holiiloss families. A inontli had then ehipscd since the 
date of the letters. Were they still in the land of the living? 

" It was deemed advisable that some of our number should 
proceed as far up the river as possible — to Raheng at least — 
to learn the existinfi: state of thinKS and e.xtend all possible 
assistance. After consultation thi.s service devolved on Bros. 
McDonald and George. 

" Owing to the peculiar allegiance which holds the Lao 
tribes tributary to the Siamese, it was thought best not to 
press any doubtful treaty rightii and claims through the 
United States Consul — that is, the protection they would 
be entitled to claim anywhere on the soil of Si am proper — 
but to throw ourselves on the friendliness and good-will 
of the Siamese Government as old residents here, most of 
us, who are greatly troubled lest harm should befall our 
friends who are living in one of their tributary states. 
What could they do to help us? 

" The deputation, consisting of Dr. Bradley, Mr. Mc- 
Donald, Mr. George, and myself, were njost kindly received 
by the new Regent of the kingdom, the late Prime Minister — 
were received in every respect as friends, and le best en- 
deavours of the Siamese Government were promised. A 
government official would be despatched at once bearing a 
letter to the king of Chiengmai, enjoining on him to give 
protection to the missionaries. But the Regent added, ' It 
is difficult to deal with a man so niooJy and arbitrary as this 
Chief of Chieiij^mai. lie is like King Theodore of Abys- 
sinia.' — This too significant comparison had already sug- 
gested itself in anything but an agreeable way to our- 

The Siamese move slowly at the best, and the brethren 
who have consented to go on this errand so full of per- 
plexity and possible peril started several days before the 
royal messenpor's prei)arations were completed. We are 
waiting with thi> greatest solicitude further tidings. I must 
say from wliat I know of the character of the man in whose 
hands and at whose mercy they are, that I have great fears. 
Others here, however, are confident that no barm can come to 
tbem personally." 



The following, from a note of mine to the I5oard, 
will throw further light on our letter to our friends 
and on our situation. It was dated O' *ober 31st, while 
we were anxiously waiting for the reply to our letters. 

..." But the particular fact that filled us with deepest 

anxiety wlien we sent that note to BaiiRknk. was a rumour 
that the king had, in person, stopped a boat in charge of our 
old servant whom we had sent down to Bangkok after money 
and supplies, and had put him, his wife, and all the boatmen 
to death. That rumour was currently believed here, and we 
had so many questions asked us about th(^ni by pers^oiis in 
high and in low station, that we were constrained almost to 
believe it. And if that had been done, we knew not what 
would cnnie next. Of course we had serious apprehensions 
regarding our own safety ; yet our duty was clear. However 
dangerous our position, we felt that flight would be more 
dangerous. . . . Our strength was to sit still. . . . 

" After waiting a month in suspense about our servants, 
we have just learned, on pretty good authority, that they were 
not murdered. They have been reported as having passed 
Raheng. In a few days we shall know the truth. If ihey 
are safe, our greatest fears were gioundless. We wait to see 
the Lord's purpose in reference to this people. We yet be- 
lieve they arc purposes of mercy. The excitement has some- 
what died down, and we have daily many visitors. But there 
is great fear of the authorities. No one feels safe; no one 
knows what will come next." 

I quote from a letter of Mr. Wilson to the Board the 
followinji account of the sufTcring and death of the 
martyrs, written January 'M, 1870, after all the various 
mmours had been sifted, and the facts were clearly 
known. Meantime the ronnnission referred to in the 
letter of Dr. House had come, and this letter was 
brought to Bangkok by it on its return. This letter 
and the one cited jast above were printed in the For- 
eign Missionary for March and for May, 1870. 


"Till withii, ,1 very ^liurt titnc licforc tlicir pxccuI icm, we 
liad no :ii)|>rrli('ii-ii)ii tliat iin.v scTion- ohvtnclc wnuld bt 
thrown in tlic way of tin,' Liio Im c cniinf;' C'liri^lians. All the 
baptisms had taken place publicly. The number, and some 
of the names, of the Christians had been given in answer 
to questions knl hy the yoiuiBcr daughter of the kinj,', 
and by others of royal blood. We had become conviuced 
that til" kiua must know that some of his people had become 
(iiscijilirf of Josus. His two (lau}i:litcrs liad assured Mr. 
5Ic(iilvary that no one should bo niokstcd for becoming 
Christians. With sui'Ii an a~-urance fmni the highest 
princesses in the land, we tiattered ourselves that the king 
would tolerate Christianit.y. The fearlessness, also, with 
which all but Xan f'liai piolV-sod Clirist. niado us fool that 
there was uo danger to ilic life of any one who had received 

" Nan Chai, however, seemed anxious. Some two months 
before his baptism he rojuested us to write to Bangkok and 
get the King of Siani to make proclamation of religious 
toleration. Not a month before his baptism he a-sked me, ' If 
the king should call me and ask, " Are you a disciple of 
Jesus?" would it bo wrong to say " Xo"^' \Yp kiiow that 
for some time he had lovod the Saviour, but ho \va~ follow- 
ing Ilini tninlilingly. His position as ovorsoiT (ex-abbot) 
of the monastery made his renunciation of Buddhism a 
more noticeable event, and rendered him more liable to pci- 
secution than >ouio the otliors. I may here state that 
those who. afti r leaving the monastery, are appointed over- 
seers of th(» t( ni|ili\ are. by virtue of their position. cxem{)t 
from the call of their masters to do goTernmont work, i'an 
Chai belonged to this class. Tlis resignation of this post 
wlii ii he bocanif a ('liri-tian. both provi'd liis sincerity, and 
made him a mark for Buddliist hate and reproach. 

" Noi Sunya's work was to tend the king's cattle, and in 
this way he perfonnod his share of public service. He also 
worki^l a farm, and was a physician. Ho v., is of a genial 
disposition and flu orfui tomjier. alwa.vs looking on the bright 
side of life, hapi)y himself, and trying to make others happy. 
He was thus a general favourite. His receptiou of the 
truth was hearty and childlike. How his face beamed with 



jny thiit coiiiniimion Sahhatli! Next day, Monday, Sep- 
tember 6tli, iiboiit noon, he started for his walk of nine 
miles across the phiin to Me Po Ka. In bidding him pood- 
bye we little thought we should see his face no more. 

" Our teacher. Nan Chai. came in the following Thursday, 
somewhiit sa^t lircausc tbr head man of his vilhige was urging 
him for some goverunieiit work aud supplies tliat were then 
being raised for the army. After resigning the oversight of 
the temple, bcitig virtually without a master, he had come in 
to the city to put himself under the king's younger daugh- 
ti T. On Satiinhiy moniiiig. llie 11th, she gave him his pro- 
tection papery, for which he paid the usual three rupees. 
Some ten days before, when Mr. McGilvary had called with 
him in reference to this matter, he had, at the princess' 
re<i ..'st, made a statement of iiis Christian faith, even to 
the repeating of a prayer. 

" On that same Saturday afternoon a message came from 
the head man of the village for NSn Chai's immediate return 
home. The message was so urgent tliat he concluded not to 
wait for the aeeustonu-d Sabhalli morning worship. Knowing 
that there was a disposition on tlie iiart of some of the 
public ofiiccrs to find fault with the Christians, I thought it 
best for him to go home, and not return to us till quiet 
should be restored. He seemed very sad, and said that hia 
master was disposed to oppress him. All that I could say did 
not rouse him from his depression. He took leave of us 
about ten o'clock at night. When we awoke on Sabbath 
morning, he was gone. We know now that shortly after 
the princess had given him her letters of protection on 
Saturday morning, she despatched a messenger to the head 
man of the village ordering Nan Chai's arrest. Imagine 
that Sabbath morning's walk of nearly nine miles, much of 
the way through water nearly knee-deep! Dear gentle 
heart, full of earc and fear! 

" He reached home about noon. After dinner he called 
upon the head man of the village; but no one knew the 
nature of the conference. Ho was pi rmitte<l to slcpp at 
home that night. Next morning came the order from the 
chief man of the district for the overseers of the temples 
and those doing the king's own work to appear at his house. 


This order inoliiilfd, of cnurse, both our brethren, Noi 
and Nan Chai. Hut to make their attendance douuty sure, 
armed men were sent with clubs and pikes to conduct them 
to the appointed rendezvous. Noi Sunya took leave of his 
wife and six children in tears. He knew what that call 
and those clubs and spears meant. When tliey roachcil tlic 
hoa.^e of the district chief, tiioy found a large armed force 
ready to receive them. When arrested at their homes 
they had been cliarged with refusing to do the kinp's work. 
But now Nan Thai was asked. ' Are you an overseer of a 
temple?' He answered, 'I was, but am not now.' 'Have 
you entered the religion of the foreigners?' 'Yes.' Noi 
Sunya was asked the same question, to which he also an- 
swered ' Yes.' 

" Tliey were then .seized, and after further examination 
were told that they had been condemned to death. While 
Nan CLai was giving the reason of the faith that was in 
him, one of the examiners kicked him in the eye. leaving 
it bloodshot and causing it to swell till the eye was closed. 
The arms of the prisoners were tied behind their backs. 
Their tiecks were compressed between two pieces of timber 
(the death-.yokc) tied before and behind so tightly as pain- 
fully to impede both respiration and the circulation of the 
blood. They were thus placed in a s'tting posture near a 
wall, and cords were passed through the holes in their ears 
and tied to a beam above. In this constrained and painful 
position — not able to turn their heads or bow them in slum- 
bei^they remained from Monday afternoon till Tuesday 
morning about ten o'clock, when they were led out into the 
jungle and executed. 

" When NSn Chai was arrested, his wife started on a run 
to inform us, suppdsing that he woulil be brought to the 
city to undergo a regular trial. In that case she hoped the 
missionaries could ensure his release. She had arrived in 
sight of our house, when a messenger from the bead man 
of the village overtook her, and informed her that if she 
called nn us, it would be at the risk of her life. She re- 
turned immediately, to join him at the district chief's house; 
but was informed that if she made the least demonstration 
of grief, she too would be put to death- She sat down by 


her husband for a time. They conversed together as oppor- 
tunity offered, being narrowly watched by the merciless 
guard. The prisoners botli said. ' Oh. if the rniasionaries 
were here, we should not have to die!' Nan Chai's last 
words to his wife were, 'Tell the missionaries that we die 
for no iither cause than that we a.e Christians.' One of the 
guards angrily asked what he had said. She saw that it was 
best for her to retire, and they parted. 

" When Nan Chai knew that he and his comrade were 
doomed, he said to one of the officers, * You will kill us; we 
are prepared. But T beg you not to kill those who are in 
the employ of the missionaries. They are not Christians, 
and are not prepared to die.' What a triumph of faith in 
this once fearful disciple! What a noble forgetfulness of 
self in that earnest request for the lives of others! 

" And now, after a long and weary night of painful 
watching, the morning of Tuesday, tlie 14th, dawns upon 
them. The hour is come. They are led out into the lonely 
jungle. They kneel down. Nan Chai is asked to prny. He 
does so, his last petition being, ' Lord Jesus, receive my 
spirit.' The tenderness of tlic scene melts his enemies to 
tears. The heads of the prisoners — prisoners for Jesus' 
sake— are drawn back by slightly raising the cruel yoke they 
have worn for mon than twenty hours. The executioner 
approaches with his club. Nan Chai receives the stroke on 
the front of the neck. His body sinks to the ground a corpse. 
. . , Noi Sunya receives upon the front of his neck five or 
six strokes; but life is still not extinct. A spear is thrust into 
his heart. Ilis body is bathed in blood, and his spirit joins 
that of his martyred brother. Their bodies were hastily 
buried. Their graves we may not yet visit. . . . 

" Only a few days before his death Nan Chai wrote, at 
Mrs. Wilson's request, a little slip which she forwarded to her 
friends as a specimen of the Lao language. The last line — 
the last, no doubt, that he ever wrote — contained the fol- 
lowing words 'NSn Chai dai rap pen sit leo. Hak Yeau 
nak' (Nan Chai haa bectnne a disciple. He loves Jesoi 


Al-rFK tlu' .IcsiKil.l. of ..ur luinied notes by the 

1\ ,„„ably MU-e that our fnHuls wouM 1 • • ^ 
„,,vs „r onr silna.iun. an.l w.' were in a im-asuic it 
at tha. we stiU believed the repor « 

reports, whuh we l.a.l jus, heard belu,.. ^ 

,.v the l'.uru,ese, thai caused the f^rcat 
n iet V expressed in thou. But though we pouj^ < ut 
nnp hearts and unburdened our fears to oui liundM, 
ro^::^n>,i outside of our two fan^Uj^e^^ 
k„ew the fear that aj^itated our breasts. For two 
ul.hs or we stUl feared, that we^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
treacherously nmrdere.l under eo our ns tl -u^l < re 
done hv robbers or .la. nils. \N e kne^s not on 
down at ni«ht what u.i.iu happen before dawn. 
'7)ne of the hardest things of the ^i';':;-- ' J 
^r^ the presenee of i'ur own dear cbddren, felt 
°, Ml > poak to each other of these -atters by 
« r alone, siuee it seemed wise to conceal our fea s 
om Irn When we had native eallers. or m our 
X to the natives, we preaehed to then, just as^ 
;;,t,.in. had hapi>ened. Souu- tl-t - know were 
scut as spies (.» see what we were doing and what we 
;:ere plaining lo do. ba.l u.-tbiu. to report except the 
(l<,spel u.essa^je whieh they had heard 

tLu the time when a few tried friends en 


(Icarcd themselves fnic-.n- to us. Ai:i(.n-; thesT was 
(lie IM- iiiess Ufn Kaiii, and the abbot of the Umong 
monastery, both of whom have hotu mentioned before. 
The silver with a little rice or fruit from the 

Trinci'ss never ceased t<> eonie; and the abbot often 
made au excuse of errands elsewhere in our neigh- 
bourhood that he mij;ht have ot.-asion to call and ex- 
l»res8 his sympatliy. 

One incident wliich occurred before :lie various 
rumours had l»een cleared up, lhouf;h well uit;h tragic 
at the time, Keemed afterward amusing enough. After 
the appalling treachery of the younirer dan;;liter of 
the Prince in regard to Nan Chai, while professing 
constantly such personal friendship for us, we natu- 
rally regarde<l her with profound distrust W hat, then, 
was our surprise, when, one nij,dit in the darkest time 
of our troubles, a summons came for me to go at once 
to her palace with the officer who brought the mes- 
sage. I was by no means to wait till morning, and I 
could get no clue to the object of the summons. Unt 
it was almost a royal command. Whatever it might 
mean, nothing would be gained by refusal ; so I prom- 
ised at once to go. I'.ut a difficulty arose. My wife 
I)ositively refused to let me go . 'one. If the worst 
were to come, she would be there to see it. 

So the children were left in bed, and off we walked 
three fourths of a mile in the dark to the palace. We 
found it brilliantly lighted up. Was it for tlie final 
act? But our fears were soon allayed. The Princess 
received us as she always had done— probably a little 
surprised to see Mrs. Mcdilvary with me. A foreign 
rug was spread for us, and soon was produced a 
formidable package of documents in English, which 
the Princess wanted us to translate! They were from 


the court in Miiiilmcin, ;ith1 hiid rpfcrpmo to the liiw- 
suits. Tlip^ had just arrived, and she could not wait 
till morning. We glanced over them, gave ber the 
suhstiincc nf them, and pmniisod that if she would 
send her .scribe down next dav, we would translate 
them. She was relieved to find that there was nothing 
more formidalile in them— and so were we. The whole 
interview did not last more tiian (ifteon minutes; and 
when ready to return, we were escorted home by 
servants with lanterns. 

For a time wo had verv few visitors even for medi- 
cine. Hut the monasteries were always open, and we 
were welcomed in nearly all the homes of the princes. 
I regularly called on the Prince. When he was in a 
pleasant 'iiood, I had pleasant conversations with him. 
If I found him moody or bu.e; ' paid my respects and 
retired. His elder daughter J ber husband were 
always pleasant, and she was always interested to talk 
on the subject of ivligion. 

Another friendship formed the year before was then 
a great comfort to us, though no one could really help 
us. .V wealthy rhinese, who hac harge of collecting 
nearly all the revenue of the • vernraent, had been 
shot in the city of Lampiin, eighteen miles away. A 
messenger witli an elephant was sent, begging me to 
come at once. It seemed at first impossible for me 
to go, but finally I did so. The ball had entered be- 
low the linee while the man was lying down, bad fol- 
lowed the bone, and had lodged in the soft part of the 
thigh. It was extracted, and I remained there till 
the patient was out of danger. The wife, a Siamo- 
Chinese, was a merchant, and acted as oar banker for 
ten years. At this writing, the family has not yet 
forgotten the service rendered. 


Bat oar hoarlj tboaghts were directed to Baogkok. 
What would be the outcome of our letters? We were 
continually nsked what we were jroing to do. (Mir re- 
ply was that, of course, we intended to remain. There 
was no telegraph then, nor even a monthly mail. It 
was not till Novemljer 26th that tlu- llrst news of what 
was doing in our behalf reached us. It was brought 
by messengers sent on in advance to notify the gov- 
ernment that a Rnyal Commissioner bad arrived in 
T-aniiifin, with two foreigiicrs and a train of figliteen 
elephants and llfty three attendants. They were to be 
in Chiengmai the next day. No intimation, however, 
was given as to what the object of tlie Commission was. 
Hut plainly it must l>e a matter of no slight im- 

Early on the morning of the 27th every one was on 

the alert. A body of men under the direction of an 
oflBcer were scrubbing the old salu next door to us, for 
the letter bad asked that preparations be made for 
the party. A prince whispered in our ears to enquire 
whether we knew what the " Kfi Luang" was coming 
for. But we knew as little as he did. We were so 
hopeful, however, that we began to prepare for our 
guests, too. The whole place seemed in an attifude of 
expectancy. The sudden arrival of a Ka Luang was 
not an everyday occurrence. And then the two for- 
eigners — two " white kolas " ! 

In the afternoon the curiosity of every one was grati- 
fied by the arrival of the long train with the Commis- 
sioner at its head. The two " white kolfts " were none 
other than our associates in the Siamese mission, the 
Rev. N. A. M(Hnnald, and the Hcv. S. C. Oeorge. 
Were ever guests more welcome I The story was soon 
told of the receipt of our letters in Bangkok, and of the 

I'J'J AM<I.N<i Tin: SIAMi'.Si: ANh Till: l-AO 

negotiations wliioli liii«l icHiiiled iu (bcir toiiiinj; with 
a Koynl f'omml»(«IontT and with a " Golden Heal," M 
the royal letter in < jilh d. \V»- now know di'llnilely that 
the ('uinmissioucr litnl nmu' mi (lie Imsiin ss of the mls- 
Hioii iiittl I he (ivaliiifnl of iIm- Clirisiiaus. iiiit <tur 
brethren did not know the eontentH of the royal letter. 
No huiiiJiii sa^':i(i"v <(.iil(l yrt piciiicl wlial liiiii at" 
fails would lake. Was the laissiou to be sfiinvly 
established, or were we to be eHcorte<l safely out of the 
country? The Coniniissioner immediately nolitlod the 
I'liiicc nl" Iiis anival with (lie "(inUlen Seal," and 
awaited His llighuess' pleasure. The I'rimes euri 
osity and anxiety were frnorantee that there would be 
no ilcla.v. Nine (»'< l(»c'k next morning was nanieo as 
(he hoar l«ir the aiidien<e. The Commissioner imtilied 
us to be ready. An otlieer was sent With a palanquin 
to escort the " Golden Seal " under the golden umbrella 
to llie palace. 

Mr. Wilson and I, of course, joined the proression. 
On reaching the grand reieption hall at the palace, we 
encountered such an array of princely state as we had 
never Ix'fure seen aiioiij: the Lao. livery prince,, and ollicer who could coiae was already there. 
I quote from Mr. McDonald's olHclal report to the 
Board, dated IVhruarv 'Jd, 1S70, an account of the audi- 
ence. (I'nshi/tcii<iit h\cord, June, 1870.) 

" The next morning after our arrival the Regent's letter 
was conducted in state to the palace under the royal umbrella, 

oiiil the p'ldcii triiy contaiiiiiijr it was placed on a stand 
near the middle of the hall. Very soon the king eiitcreti tiic 
hall apparently calm, but pale with sui)prcs8ed rage. Wo 
arose and bowed to him, and then resumed our seats. The 
Siamese (;fficers, however, remainci .'ostrato before him, 
us dill every otluT one in tlic hall. I lir kit::^ imiiu'iliat.'ly 
broke the seal and handed the letter to the Siamese aec- 



n-tnry to rond. Aftor tin rending of tlip litter he lookwl 
lip. I'vi'lmtlv (|nili- rclii vcil, iiii'l n iniirkfil, ' Tlii-* Irttcr iIihm 
nut amount to sd luucli. It givt's the niissionuriL-H privilcgu 
to remain if they wish, or to po if they prefer.' " 

Mr. Mrltouiilil, then, «s a iiifiiilH'r nT lh»' ("(iiiuui!*- 
sion, nddrt'Hued the King, refen iiit,' In the kindnofiH with 
which the niissiouiiiieH had iK-rii nrciMil h.v him uq 
iIkmi- iirriviil wliirli w iis in l,n |iiiiL,' will' the fm >t3r 
siiown them in IJiinjjivok, iinti w ilii the heiii'tireul naliire 
of their work — hut regretting that lute diftfeultieH bud 
made their stay unpleasant. Annrntr olln r ihings he 
referred to tlie dcsertidii of their xtvmiIs. I'.iit nt'ither 
he nor the royal letter iiiati*' tl. Ilglite t iifiivnce 
to the murder of the Cbristian^. Mr. Mcrhmald thm 
proceeds : 

"What I said did not swm ti> mu^f lum. Ilf ii.iaiiiiitd 
to suppress his rage, and repliid, • t.i -ervnnts, he had 
never placed any hindrance. He hud imiI ro dcnth a couple 
'if fclliiW: — a fliiiij,' wliicil lie liiid 11 riijlit t" dn, iiicc llii v 
had tailed to do their allotted govcrnnieiit work. But that 
was his own biminess.' " 

The I'riiue evidcnily thdiight thai flu- all'air was 
ended, and was preparing to close tlie audience, greatly 
relieved llial llie (.ne dreaded pnltit li:id not hn'ti rc- 
ferre«l to either iu the letter or in the conference. ISut 
to stop there would have heen an inexeuHuhle blunder 
on our part. Not only liad the good name of the Chris- 
tians iH'eu tai nislied. Imt oiir o\\ !i also, if we had 
riiade all this yreat fuss ahout noiliii ^. It was a dif- 
ficult thing to face the T'rince !>ef<ire his whole conrt, 
and char^i- him wiiii falsehood; liul he had driven us 
to it. If he li:i 1 not Med. we had. l-'or once we were 
called upon to stand hefore kings lor llis name's 


sake J and I believe that words were given to me to 

I said that I was sorry to ha coiniKjlled to say that 
the Prince knew that he had not spoken the truth. 
There was not a man or woman in that audience, nor 
in the whole country, who did not know that those two 
men had been put to death for no other pretended 
reason than that they were Christians. It was done 
and was proclaimed to be done as a warning to others. 
They had not refused to do goveinment work. The 
charge that they had failed to get the slabs for the 
stockade was a subterfuge. There was not a word of 
truth in it, as the oiBcer through whom it was done, 
then present, well knew. When these men received 
the order to get the slabs, they started immediately, 
but were at once arrested, and were not allowed to 
get them. In no sense were they dealt with as crim- 
inals. On that very day (over three months after the 
order), not one-fifth of the men in the province had as 
yet brought in their timbers, and nothing was said 
about it. In this country it was an unheard-of thing, 
even for the gravest offences, to decoy men out from 
their homes into the jungle, and to kill them there with 
no pretence of a trial. There was a Sanftm (Conrt), 
there were regular offlcei-s of law, evi-n down to the 
executioner. In the case of these men, not a single 
form of law had been observed. By the Prince's own 
order they had been treacherously arrested, led out into 
the jungle, and cruelly clubbed to death in the pres- 
ence of a lawless mob by a ruffian hired to do it. 

The old man looked on me in miugled astonishment 
and rage. Possibly till then he thought we had not 
been able to learn the facts and particulars in the case. 
More likely be thought that no one would dare thus 



openly and publicly to expose them. But what was 
said had the desired effect Up to this point the 
Prince's position bad heea impregnable. To assault it 
successfully would have required the p-^duction of 
evidence; and no man in the country, high or low, 
would have dared to testify against him. Bat this nn- 
expected challenge was more than he could endure. 
He flung all caution to the winds. In an instant his 
sole defence was abandoned. Mr. McDonald says: 

" ' Yes,' he said, ' he had killed them because they had 
embraced the Christiar religion. And he would continue 
to kill every one who did the same. Leaving the religion 
of the country was rebellion against him, and he would so 
treat it. If the missionaries would remain to treat the 
sick, they might dc, so. But they must not make Christians; 
they must not teach the Christian religion. If they did, 
he would expel them from the country' ... At one time 
I feared that he might become oncontroUable. and break 
over all restraints, and do us some personal injury. The 
Siamese officer also was alarmed for our safety." 

Matters now had been brought to a crisis. The 

Christians had been proved to be not malefactors, but 
martyrs. We now understood each other, and all 
I)arties understood the situation. The Prince's 
bravado before the Commissioner in one sense was 
prdltie. He had read betweoi the lines of the King's 
letter that the Siamese were afraid of him; and he 
was quite willing to have it so. On the other hand, his 
attitude might have the effect of convincing them that 
ho wns a dangerous man, to be dealt with accordingly 
— and I believe it did. 

But, as Mr. McDonald goes on to say, ** It was use- 
less to attempt any further argument. The mission- 
aries merely told him that it was their intention to 


remain. Tlic conversation *lien turned to other sub- 
jects, and the IMineo became more calm. After re- 
tnminp: to the house of Mr. McGilvary, and after 
unxious ((insiillalidii and iiraycr, it wap considered 
best to abandon the mission for a time." 

The Commissioner strongly advised us to withdraw. 
Mr. McDonald was naturally timid, and hardly felt 
safe till he was fairly out nf the country, lie and Mr. 
George were sure that it would not be safe for us to 
remain a single day after the Commissioner departed ; 
and Mr. Wilson agreed with them. Such, then, was 
the report made to the Board, and the number of t'le 
Record from which we have quoted above announced 
the dissolution of the mission. 

The news (if the scene in the palace spread Iikc wild- 
fire over the city. We had scarcely reached home when 
our neighbours and friends began to send us secret 
messages that it would be foolish to remain. The 
Prince was like a I'on bearded in his den. When the 
Commissioner left there was no telling what he might 
do. The Commissioner naturally felt some responsi- 
bility for our safety, and desired to have ns return with 
him. I so far consented as to allow the Commissioner 
to send word to the Prince that we would retire as 
soon as we conveniently could. Yet, from what I knew 
of the feeling of the people toward us, I could not see 
that it was the will of Providence that the mission 
should be abandoned. Nor did I believe that it would 
be hazardous to remain. The Prince evidently had no 
thoufjiit of actiinlly renouncin;:; his allegiance to Siam. 
He had been directed to see to our safety, if we wished 
to remain. I think, too, that I understood him better 
tlinn did cither oiir own friends or the ("ommissicmer. 
His bluster at the audience was for ellect. It was 


more than probable that, after sober thought, he him- 
self would realize that he Lad roup too far. Before 

the cominf? of the Coinmissionor he liad bwn summoned 
to Bangkok; he was at that time busy preparing boats 
for the journey, and was soon to start. He was too 
shrewd a man to wish us to ai)i)car there before him 
as witnesses against him. It was, I thought, more 
than probable that he would meet more than half- 
way any advance made toward him, though we could 
not expect him to make the ndvanee liimself. 

Next morning before breakfast Mr. Wilson came 
over to have a long walk and talk with me. He did 
not wish to express his fears before our children. He 
argued with all liis logic that it was better to go while 
we safely could. His idea was (o retire to Kaheug, 
where we would be under the direct protection of the 
Siamese government; for, after yestei day's seem', he 
was sure we never could be safe in Chiengmai. So far 
as he was concerned, I thought it a good idea. He 
might go, and I would remain— at least as loug as I 
could. He felt, lutwever. that he would be to blame 
if any disaster happened to us. From all responsibil- 
ity on that score I freely exonerated him. As I viewed 
the case, our personal risk was at an end so soon as 
the situation siiould be known in Iiangk(»k. The 
Prince would no longer dare either to do anything or 
to cause anything to be done secretly, as once we 
feared he would. Therefovo, notwithstanding the 
bluster of the day lK>fore. fear for our personal safety 
had little weight with me. But quite apart from the 
question of danger, there was much to be said in favour 
of Mr. Wilson's going to Itaheng. The place was an 
important one for missionary work. The result might 
possibly be a station in both places, instead of in 


Cliiengmai alone. His departure might seem some 
concession to the wishes of the Prince— would show 
less determination to thwart his known will. If 
there wjre any danger in reuminiug, it would be less 
for one family than for two. All 1 wanted was time 
to see the Lord's will. At any rate, I was not willing 
to depart without having an audience with the Priuce 
alone. Against this it was urged that the Prince had 
a special grudge against me, because of the vaccination 
of his little grandson, and that this would be increased 
by my having angered him the day before. Tint of this 
I was not afraid. The parents of the dear child had 
begged me never to think that they blamed me for it. 
As to what had happened the day before, I believed 
the Prince's respect for ine was higher tlian it would 
have been had 1 allowed him to bluff us with his bare 
faced lie. The result of our walk was that Mr. Wilson 
agreed to have me call on the Prince the uext <lay, 
though Mr. McDonald maintained that for himself he 
would not risk it. 

So, next morning, I called at the palace at an hour 
when I knew I should find the Prince alone with his 
head-wife. And, just as I expected, he received me 
with unwonted cordiality. I referred to the friend- 
ship between him and my father-in-law, Dr. Bradley; 
to his cordial consent j^iven to our coming to his coun- 
try to teach the Christian religion and to benefit his 
people in other ways; to his kind reception of us when 
we came; to his granting us a place for a home; and 
to his many other acts of kindness. We had come to 
him as friends, and I could not bear we should part as 
enemies. As I had anticipated, his whole manner 
showed that he was pleased at my iidviince. That, too, 
be said, was his desire. We might remain at least till 



after his return from Bangkok, and take all the time 
needed for a comfortable departure. I thanked him 
for his consideration, and told him that Mr. Wilson 
would probalil.v po at once. We shook hands and 
parted as if the scene in the palace had never occurred. 
I had won my point. What I wanted was time, and I 
had gained it. The Prince could not possibly return 
in less than six months' time — it might be much longer. 

In a few days our friends left us. Having no faith 
in the success o^ my new negotiations, or possibly 
thinking that T might be caught in a trap, they re- 
ported to the Board) as we have seen, that the mission 
was broken up — as technically it was. This last tnm 
of affairs was merely a private arrangemoit between 
the Prince and myself. 

Had the matter not passed beyond our power, I 
doubtless should have been credulous enough, or weak 
enough, to prefer that no further action should be 
taken by our friends in Bangkok. I did write to Pr. 
Bradley and to our mission to pursue a pacific policy, 
and to show the Prince all kindness, as, indeed, I knew 
they would. But I learned afterwards that their ad- 
vances were hardly received with courtesy. Mr. 
George, \ ho asked permission to send by some one of 
the nunicrous fleet of boats some parcels to us, was 
given to understand that tlie things would not be 
needed, as the Prince expected both families to leave 
Ghiengmai upon his return. 



THE Coininissioner's icitoit of the attitude as- 
sumed by the Prince showed the Siamese gov- 
ernment tluit the man in control of tlie northern 
piovinci's was of spirit and temper tliat might be 
ditticult to curh-tliat might at any time throw every- 
thing into confusion. Hitherto it had been their pol- 
ity to stu'nfrllien liis lumds to any defjree not incon- 
sistent with his loyalty. Siam and Hurma had long 
been rivals and enemies. A strong buffer-state in the 
north had been a necessity to «iam. Hnt conditions 
were elian«jed. lUirma was now under English control, 
and had iased to be a disturbing factor in the prob- 
lem. A change in Siamese policy as regards the North 
was inevitable. 

When the news of the murder of the Christians be- 
came known in Bangkok, our friends there deferred to 
the wishes of the Siamese government as expressed by 
the I{e^'ent— whose goodwill to the mission and to our- 
selves no one doubted. No steps, therefore, were taken 
to have the United States officially represented on the 
Commission. In this we l>clieve our friends were 
providentiailv led. I'.ut l»r. House's letter does not 
state, what was also the fact, that the United States 
(^onsul, in whose presence the Lao Prince had given 
his official sanction to the establishment of the mis- 
sion, was anxious that the United States should be so 




reprpscntod. An<l when that ( 'iiniiiiisision sd signally 
failed t«) atx■olUllli^sh auytliiiiy satisiaftory, it was the 
Consul's tarn to say to our friends, " I told you so." 

lU'causc, as tlicy tlu'insflvcs cxprcssod it, of the law- 
less nature nl llie Lao Prime, and tlie consequent dif- 
ficulty of protecting foreigners so far away, our 
Biaoiese friends would then have preferred to have us 
recalled. In fact, tiiat was their tirst thought. Tlic 
first draft of the letter prepared to be sent by the ('om- 
mission actually contained the stipulation that we be 
safely conveyed back to Siani proper. It was only the 
indomitable perseverance of Dr. Hradley— who frankly 
declared that he would rather have no such letter sent 
at all — that secured the omission of that clause, and 
left tlie way oiicn for the possible continuance of the 
mission. 80, when the Commission i-eturned to Uang- 
kok, and it was known that the Lao Prince was soon 
to follow them, General Partridge, the United States 
Consul, iniinediately took up the case, and insisted 
that tlie Hiamese government give guarantee for the 
fulfilment of promises publicly made by its vassal in 
the presence of officials of both governments. " Heforc 
this you could say, ' lie is like a tiger in the jungle; we 
cannot control hini.' But when he reaches Bangkok, 
he is in your power. You can then make your own 
terms regarding liis return." 

ilow this negotiation was conducted, 1 am not aware. 
But from the Presbyterian Record of September, 1870, 
we learn that the Consul carried his point: 

" Dr. House sends us word that the Siamese goTernment 
hns oxteiided its protection over the missionaries in Chieng- 
niai : they are not to be iiiolostc.l in their work. As the king 
of ('hie!ii;iiiai is trilrutary to Siani, tliis (Icci-^ioii will no 
doubt be respected. This king is not likely to live long, and 


tic will lie siiwecdcil by bi^ son-iii-law. a prince who haa 
gbown a friendly interest in the raissionnrios. The interven- 
tion of the Siamese government was obtained by the U. S. 
Conaul, Oen. Partridge, not at the instance of the misaion- 
nriea, but he took the ground of treaty stipulations between 
Siam and our eoimtry, which accorded the right of pro- 
tection to American citizens." 

From the Foreign Missionary of September, 1870, 
we quote the following extract from the Bangkok Sum- 
mary, doubtless from the pen of Dr. Bradley: 

" I am very happy to learn from the most reliable authority 
that His Grace the Repent has been pleased to conmit the 
American citizens in Chiengmai to the care and protec- 
tion of the Maha Uparat, the son-in-law of the king, charging 
him to assist, nourish, and protect them so that they shall 
suffer no trouble and hindrance in their work from persecu- 
tions like those through which they have passed since Sep- 
tember 12th last. 

" His Grace, moreover, is understood to have promised that 
he will certainly arrange to have those American citizens 
protected in Chiengmai acc ording to the stipulations of the 
treaties, even though the present- king should live and con- 
tinue his reign. 

" The Maha Uparat enjoys the reputation of being a mild 
and discreet prince. He received this his new title a few 
weeks since from His Majesty the Supreme King of Siam, 
by virtue of which he is con8tilute<l Second King of Chieng- 
mai. I learn that Hia Grace the Regent has virtually com- 
mitted the rule of that kingdom to him during the illneaa of 
the king, and has assuicd him that he is ultimately to 
become the king's successor to the throne. 

" This I regard as good news, indeed, and too good to 
be held a day longer from the public. Who will not agree 
with me that the Siamese government is worthy of a great 
meed of praise for what it has dotie in the matter of the 
Chiengmai mission ( But let us see to it that the King of 
Kings, as well, receives our highest praise for all these 
gratifying events of His providence." 

i)i:ATn OF k\wil5rot 


While tlie (,'onsul was [tresKiiig these cluiius, Prince 
K&wilOrot, as was intimated in the last extract, be- 
came dangerously ill. H«' was Ktiii-ken with almost 
instantaneous loss of conscionsucss, and complete 
paralysis of speech. Meanwhile we in Chieiigmai, only 
five hundred miles away, were in profound ignorance 
of what was happening. If we had despatched a spe 
cial messenger thither for news, it would i.ave been 
three months before be could have returned with a re- 
ply. And the first news we received was not reassur- 
inj^. Word i :mie that the time was set for the Prince's 
return; that he had been promoted to higher honours, 
and had received higher titles; that he was retnming 
with full power, and probably flushed with fresh vie 
tories. Of course, that did not necessarily mean very 
much. Siam understood perfectly the great trick of 
oriental statecraft, the giving of high-sounding titles, 
with, perhaps, a larger stipend, in comiiensation for 
the loss of real power. But it was a time of great 
anxiety for ns. Revenge was a passion which that 
man seldom left ungratifled. Would he come breath- 
ing out slaughter against the church and vengeance 
on us? 

By and by there came a message stating that the 

Prince was ill, and directing that offerings be made for 
his recovery. Then came news that he was already 
on his way, and had sent orders for a hundred ele- 
phants to meet him at the landing station below the 
rapids. Some surmised that his illness was feigned 
in order to escape the lawsuits which were pressing 
him. About the middle of June we learned that he 
had reached the landing station, but w^as very seriously 
ill. It was still more urgently enjoined that his rela- 
tives and the monasteries in Chiengmai should " make 


morit " ill liis Itebalf, and propitiate the demons by gen- 
erous olleriugs. 
On the evming of June 29th, while riding throogh 

the streets of tlie city, sonip one railed out to me, 
" The Prince is dead ! " No news ever gave lue such a 
shock. I stepped in to the residence of one of the 
princes, a nephew of Kawilorot, to net the particulars, 
hill found him in a dreadful slate of mind. Yes. The 
Prince was dead; and word had come that he (tlie 
nephew) was to go to Bangkok to bear the brunt of the 
lawsuits — to answer in his own name for transactions 
done hy order of the dead IM ince! 

How soon the stronf^est prejudices fade and dis- 
appear in the preseiue of death! The anxious fears 
of his return that had haunted us, all dissolved into 
tender s,vuii»athy now that he was gone. We forgot 
his treachery and cruelty, and thought only of his in- 
teresting human qualities. We recalled his taking tea 
or dininp with us. and even the dry jokes that he so 
much enjoyed. He was a tender father. He could be 
a warm, though a fickle and inconstant friend. In 
many resjiects he was a fjood ruler. He was absolute 
and tyrannical; but there was no petty thieving in his 
realm. And now that voice that had made thousands 
tremble was silent in death! No doubt it was with a 
sifrh of relief that the Siamese government turned over 
the government of the North to one wh(>m they could 
better trust. 

But it would 1h' a hard heart that could follow un- 
moved that long, weary homeward trip of the dying 
Prince. He was so weak that he could not endure the 
jarring caused by the use of the set i ing jioles. His boat 
had to be taken in tow of another. Wlien the last 
lingering hope of life died out, his one desire was to 


reach home — to dif in his own palace. The trip 
throQfi^ the rapidK he could not bear, and it was too 
slow for the dylof? man. Travel bv elephant is both 
rouph and slow. lie is itninfjlit iisliore, tlKTcfore, and 
borne on a litler as swiflly as relays of men can carry 
him. Over the mountains and np the valley of the 
MO rinsr, nnch r binning sun and through drivint; rain, 
they hasten. At last, on (he evoninf; of June 28th, (hey 
halt on the left bank of the Me I'ing, with only that 
stream between him and his own connti^'. "What 
land is this?" he asks. *' Lanipun." is the icjily. 
" Carry uie across quickly! " lie is obeyed, but sinks 
exhausted by the fatigue of crossing. He passes a 
restless night. His mind wanders. He dreams of be 
inj; at home; of worshii>i»inp in his own palace. The 
morning comes. lie is still alive; but so weak that, in 
spite of his eagerness to hasten on, at every few paces 
his beartTs must halt, while attendants fan him or 
administer a cordial. At last fan and cordials fail. 
The liUcr is set down under the two golden umbrellas 
that screen it from the burning rays of the sun. The 
little group stand with bowed heads and hushed hearts 
while the spirit takes its flight, to appear before its 
Maker. — Almost, but not quite home, and with none 
of his immediate kin by him to see the end! The at- 
tendants cover the body with a cloth, and hasten on to 
the next station, a few miles below the city. The pro- 
cession halted there at about the very time that the 
messenger reached Chiengmai with the news that he 
was dead. 

Such, as I learned next day from the attending 

prime, werc the last lioiirs of Ili,« Highness (Miao 
Kilwilorot Suriyawonf;, rrinte of (Jliiengniai. He died 
at ten o'clock in the morning of June 29lh, 1870, in 


tho sorrntietb ^ar of his offt, and m the 8ixteeatb uf 
his reign. 

Next morning before breakfaat I was nt for by tbe 

younger daughter of Hie I'rincr (<> b ■ ti» the rrMidcnce 
of the nephew, I hud hfi lua in the eveuiug 
before in such a diHtracted Ktate of mind. Bow 
gbocked was I on entering to find the prince cold and 
dead! The I'rinci'SH wish''. u ...c; niy jtidgnient 
whether he was really dead i)- . "iui hope ol resusci- 
tation. Dot it required no skified phygician to an- 
swer that question. Tie had ; .ideull.v died by a dosr- 
of opium adniinistend hy his own 's' lds Tin litsle 
cup froDJ whiih it was taken was sull it.v his binlside. 
Wbetber it wm intentional Huieide to eHca|)e the law- 
anita of his dc fascd m;' . <>r was sitii|' k-sisi' *1 
to ease the mental troubtcM of that nighi, luey could 
tell a» well as I. In either caae, be slept tbe aieep 
that l^nows no waking till tbe ramraoBa of the laat 

After breakfast I rode out to the eneampn» i.i, only 
two or three miles away, where the ImAy of the P'-ince 
was lyiiiB. The family nnd (.fliccrs ;ih.l friends ore 
asscmhled to look for tho last tiiue on that ui ted facp. 
The last act before idacing the body in the coffin was 
to cover it throughout with gold-leaf, to give it tlte ap- 
pearance of ; . ng a Huddha. l?ut no jjold leal !,1 
disguise that face. The family remained there a tew 
days, partly for the nn . b needed rest, but chiefly to 
await a day of good at rury for carryii^ tbe remains 
t' the city. 

The* day was well < sen for suvh a pageant as tbe 
country bad not seen to honour alike tbe departed, 
and to welcome the s cceedinp Prince Thcrr wa^ 
long and imposing procession of soldic?*, monks, a 




<ke bead of 

OL irt In- 
Not far be- 
home on a 
of jel- 


people uiarcliiuiJ lo till- '■■ lias «if th^ funi t ul nirg* and 
to the %\ow, aolmn be^if of lirnint' N<mi 
the 'iiu', on his f'ie|»hii: \v;i r 
taiuuD, WMin to be Vrum' of « ugi i. 
bind can* the body of the de: I Prinrr 
gulden h\er auiJ ;!<-cami)ji iicd " I' > 
low ! «<i [ rients. ' ' i| w 
:ind Oil .1 lierojul lowii. -lit h 
nesa of baman poai|> snd , *eT. 
ing the hurae I s Iligm ,(mI i.. 
f >'oi" ite elepi. ait. its 1 i;.' ' <H\y . 
j.iHgs of gitld. AftP! ill*;- <;i'M(* , 

Prince's familj and other near a lative 

About ffii o'cloci th ' n ; 
which, by iuexorab n; ! V m 

to receive the dead lot ev. ; htmfsh 
whose word f<»r so !iy \ ^ ,»J 



n onimr • ? on hninuu 
jR stitioiis cu 
therefore, the 

There, u n 
his reiuains 1;= 


i ■>■■ ni 
< > lea. iiiii, 
"t, »»me*l 



af ■ 

in <tate nnti 
;iter. Meant! 

^ Btr 


Mir ;ty U 

Pr»ce I&- 
-tQved me. a^^ soi 


as i 

-hi (i 

- 1 its gate* 
d««ii were he 
its law. What 

v! :i!iny of su- 
III. f^ttuth Gate, 
I the right, and 
the EA^t (late. 
. b»'"'<le ;lie river, 
at ■■ uiation cere- 
tDii) kept bum- 
ht auf! day. A 
e. ourses of monks 
;hist <^remonial for the 
■ ■■■ whol^' night the lieat 
ni! the air. reminding- 
(••raained of one of ita 

• t otlieially installed, 
M at the encampment, 


it we we; to remain asd bailti oar bosses and proae- 

cute our work without let or hindrance. Other 
princes and officers were pleased to give the same as- 
surance. With the rriiue's party there came a large 
mail fn.m friends in l!;.ngkok, givin- full pa-tioulars 
of the negotiations that were 8topi)ed by the sudden 
illness of the Prince, and clearing up tlie questions 
about which we were so much in doubt. The interp..sP 
tiou of I'rovidcnce had been so marked that we could 
only Hi and in awe before Him who had so wonderfully 
led us For, after the utmost stn lch of my own 
rredulitv in trving to trust the Prince, my final con- 
vi-'tion is that, had he lived, he and the mission could 
not Lave existed in the same country. He could never 
have endured to see his people bcHoniing Chrr^^t ans— 
Not that he cared so much IVu- Buddhism; but it 
would have been a ci>nstant challenge to his autocratic 

rule. . , 

In March, while the scenes of this tragic drama were 
sk.wlv enacting in liaugkok, and while we were 
anxiously awaiting the d6nouement, we had a pleasant 
episode of another kind. One morning we were sur 
prised to learn from some natives that out on the plain, 
n..t far from the city, they had passed two white for- 
eigners, u man and a woman, and that they were com 
i„.r to „„r bouse. Sure enough, about ten o'clock, who 
should ride up but liev. and Mrs. J. N. Cushiug of the 
American Baptist Mission in Burma! What an un- 
expected pleasure! For throe years \xe had sinm but 
two white faces outside ..f our own little circle. Some 
of our latest news from home friends was eleven months 
old when we received it. What a social feast we did 

have! , , , 

They had started from Shwegjin, Burma, had made 
a tour west of ihe Salwin Kiver, crossed over to Keng 


NE of the results of the cbaut,'e of government 

was that we were able to build permanent 

houses. For three years and more we had 
lived within basket-woven bamboo walls that a pocket- 
knife could pierce, neither secure nor wholesome nor 
favourable for our work. They bore silent but steady 
testimony that we ourselves did not regard our stay 
as permanent. The results of our manner of living 
were already seen in the impaired health of the mem- 
bers of the mission. My wife surely could never have 
lived another decade in the old sftia with bamboo walls 
and ceiling, where the dust from the borers in the 
wood constantly tilled the air and poisoned the lungs. 
Mrs. Wilson bore up bravely for live years, until there 
was just ready for her reception the permanent house 
which she was never to enjoy. As soon as they could, 
the family started f<.r the I'nited States on furlough, 
all thoroughly broken down. After two years of rest 
Mr. Wilson alone was able to return to the fiel'j, leaving 
Mrs. Wilson behind. She never regaineil her health, 
and thev never saw each other again. Uer departure 
was a gi-eat loss to the mission. She was a gifted 
lady, a fine vocal and instrumental musician, and a 
consecrated missionary. She left one literary work in 
Lao, the translation of Bunyan s I'ilyrimS t'ruyiesa, 
which has since been published. 




But as matters then were, there was much perplexing 
work to be done before we were at all ready to begin 
building. I was favoured in getting a lot of first 
class teak logs delivered at a very cheap rate. Then 
the trouble began. The logs must be hauled up from 
the river by elephants to the lot where they are to be 
Eawn. The log is raised and mounted on two strong 
trestles. A black line to guide the saw is struck on 
either side. Two sawyers stand facing each other 
across the log. grasping the handles of a long framed 
saw with horizontal blade. Then the operation begins. 
The saw is pushed and pulled back and forth till the 
cnt is carried throngh to the end of the log. This 
operation is r^ated for every stick of timber pat 
into the house. 

But we are already too fast. Where are the sawyers 
to come from? There were then no good sawyers 
among the Lao. No one dared to learn for fear of be- 
ing appropriated by llie Prince, or of being compelled 
to work on pablic bnildings. There were, however, 
three pairs of sawyers, debtors to "le Prince, whom he 
had brought up from Kaheng for his own work. 
Whenever not needed by him or by some other person 
of rank, they were allowed to se^ employment else- 
where. So, at odd times, 1 was able to secure their 
services. Hut if the Prince needed them, they must at 
once drop everything and go. Scores of times our 
sawyers were called away, often for weeks at a time, 
and at the busiest stage of the work. 

And now for the carpenter. The Lao dared not be 
known as carpenters f > the same reason as that given 
above in the case ' f. < sawyers. Tliey wonid have 
been constantly ri- .tioneil for government work. 
There was in the place only one Siamese carpenter 

reputed to tv u ^ood workman. In order to get him, 
1 had to advance him three hundred nipeeB, professedly 
to pay a debt, but most likely to ganil.le with. He was 
to build bv eontraet. lUit he had already received 
his money,' or so much of it that he was quite inde- 
pendent. ' He soon slashed and spoiled more timber 
than his wages were worth. So, to keep him from 
ruininjj the whole, 1 had to get rid of him, even at 
Home sacrilice. Just then a Siamo-Chinese turned up, 
who took the job by the day under my direction, to be 
assisted by some Christians whom we trained thus as 
apprentices. The house was built on the plan of the 
East Indian bungalow-raised teu feet from the ground 
on posts, with single walls and a veranda all round. 
Its large loftv rooms, screened on all sides by the 
verandas, make it still one of the most comfortable 
houses in the mission. It was more than eight years 
from the time of our arrival when we entered it; and 
even then it was not tinished. ^ 

Although the new govemmait was friendly, yet 
some of the rrling spirits were in their hearts as hostile 
as the decepsed Prince had ever been, and without his 
more noble qualities. There were two in particular 
who soon began to show that their secret influence 
would be against the mission-and their open hostility, 
too so far as they ventured to let it appear. One 
was the adoi.ted son of the late Prince, and the other 
the new ruler's half-brother, who had been made 
Uparat, or second in power, when the new Prince 
ascended the throne. Had these both lived, their com- 
bined inlluence would have been nearly as formidable 
as that of KawilOrot. Unfortunately, too, the actual 
business of the country was largely in their hands. 
Prince Intanon was not at all ambitious for pow^r, 



He liked nothing better than to work without cai'e or 
responsibility in his own little woitehop, making fancy 
elephant-saddles, and let his half-brother rule the conn- 
try. During the following jear the adopted son went 
down to Bangkok to receive the insignia of bis new 
rank, bnt never returned. Hia death was even more 
sudden than that of liis foster-father. He wa.s taken 
with the cholera, and died in a few hours. This left the 
elder of the two avowed enemies of Christianity, and 
the higher in rank and power. To give an illustration 
of the kind of spirit we had to contend with in bim, I 
will anticipate an incident of a few years later. 

Two native Karens, ordained ministers, were sent by 
the American Baptist Mission to initiate in Lao ter- 
ritory a work among the Karens, a hill-people scat- 
tered sparsely throaghoat all the mountain region be- 
twem Siam and Bnrma. The native evangelists 
brought with them letters from the missionaries in 
Burma, requesting us to aid them in getting LSlo pass- 
ports. We went with them to the new Prince, and he 
very graciously gave direction to his brother to see 
that passports were issued, stating not only that the 
visitors were to be protected and aided as travellers, 
but also that they were to be allowed to teach the new 
religion, and that people were allonrad to embrace it 
without fear. 

I was specially interested that they should succeed 
in the first village which they were to visit, for it was 

the one where I had vaccinated the whole population 
during the first year of our mission. Since 1 had 
faited to make Christians of them — partly, as I sup- 
posed, on account of my ignorance of their language, 
but more on account of the persecution which fol- 
lowed so soon after — 1 hoped that when the message 

was delivered in their own tonjjue. with offiiial i>er- 
mi8«ion to embrace it, the whole village might aecept 
the Gospel. What was the •stoniAment of tta 
preaehen that, instead of being received with ibe char- 
acteristic hospitality of tlu ir race, they hardly found 
common civility! At last they learned tlB reason. 
The Chao Uparftt had secretly despatched a special 
messoiger with a letter under his own seal, forbid- 
ding any Karen subject to embrace the new religion. 
All who did so were to be reported to him. What 
that meant, «r what he wished them to infer tifflt it 
meant, was well understood. 

Our readers, therefore, will not be surprised that 
we found it necessary to keep an eye on the Chao 
Upar&t, and to use considerable diplomacy in coun- 
teracting bis schemes against the church. It was my 
policy in those days to keep up as close an acquaint- 
imce as possible with the members of the ruling fam- 
ily. It was the misfortune of all of them that they 
were ignorant ; ' and ignorance begets suspicion. Some 
of them were naturally suspicious of the missionaries. 
They could not understand what motive could induce 
men who were neither government officials nor 
merchants, to leave a great country and come to live in 

Two objects were gained by keeping in contact with 
the rulers. They saw, then, with their own eyes, and 
heard with their own ears, what we were doing. In 
nearly every interview our one great work was mag- 
nified alike to prince, priest, and people. I have here- 
tofore specially mentioned princesses, too, as well as 
princes, in this connection, because the LHo have a 

> Thto same Uptrat, whole word ruled the country, w«i uuUe to 
writs his own orders. 



proud pre-eminence among non Christian races in the 
position accorded to woman. In the family, woman's 
authoritj' is universally recognized. At the time we 
spealv of it was much the same in the government also. 
The influence of women in atlairs of state was doubt- 
less greatly increased daring the prerions reign, when, 
there lioing no sons in the royal household, the 
daughters naturally became more prominent. They 
were trained to understand and to deal with public 

1 have a i ready referred to the kindness of the elder 
daughter, now not, as in former reigns, the head-wife, 
but the only w^ife of the new ruler. By birth she was 
of higher rank than lie; and she was in every way 
worthy of the high position she now assumed. Hers 
was, in fact, the strong intelligence and steady will 
that kept her more passive consort from errors into 
which he would otherwise have been led. At this par- 
ticular juncture she was needed as a check against 
the Prince's more ambitious and less principled half- 
brotlier. 8he had a woman's instinct to discern a 
point, and a woman's revulsion against lawless acts, 
even when done by her own father. In honesty of 
purpose she and her consort were one, for his kind- 
ness of heart had drawn to him more dependents than 
any other prince in the land pijssessed. The murder 
of the Christians tliey both regarded as " worse than a 
crime— a blander." For the presoit, however, ther« 
was no indication of the sinister forces which came 
into play later. All in authority seemed to be hon- 
Mtly carrying out the orders from Bangkok concern- 
ing the missionary work. 

A year was spent in preparation for the ceremonies 
attending the cremation of the dead Prince. During 


the last tlirce monilis of this time, everything else in 
the whole land yielded place to it. Not only web there 
requisition of men and materials throughout the prov- 
ince of Chiengmai; but all the neighbouring stales fur- 
niKhed large levies of men under the personal direction 
of their princes or officers of rank. Such occasions 
oflfer exceptional opportunities for meeting people from 
all parts of the country, for foriniiig lasting friend- 
ships, and for sending some knowledge of the Gospel 
to distant provinces. In after years I never made a 
tour on whith I did not encounter friends whose ac- 
quaintance 1 had made at the great cremation fes- 

The preparations were hastened somewhat because 
of the unsettled state of the country. Chao Fa Kolan, 
the NgT<» freebooter of whom we have already heard, 
was still at his old tricks. Emboldened by the death 
of the Prince, and the confusion incident to the diange 
of rulers, he had become more insolent than ever. 
Villages had been burned within less than a day's 
march from the city. Bands of men, euphemistically 
called an army, were levied and despatched to capture 
him; but long l»efore they could reach him, he was 
safe within his stronghold in the mountains. 

The dead Prince was bom on a Sunday ; therefore 
every important event of his life must take place on 
that day, even to the last dread summons, w>>!ch is 
not under man's control— and beyond that, to the 
final disposition ' his mortal remains. Sunday, 
therefore, was the lirst day of the ceremonies. On 
that day the body was removed from the summer gar- 
den to the " Men," where i i was to lie in state to re- 
ceive the homage of his relatives and subjects until 
the following Sunday. The morning of each <lay was 




devoJeti to " oierit-niaking " of various kinds — feed* 
log the monks, making offerings to tbem, and listening 
to the roa<Iiu{; of tlie sacred books. The afternoon* 
vcre largely s[»cnt in Ixtxing pnnu-s, a favoiirito aniUKe- 
inent of the Liio. Tlie cveuiugb were given up to 

l']vprythinK went on according to programme until 
Thursday morntug, wlien tlie festivities were rudely in- 
terrupted. Ghao Fa Kdlan, the liatidii chief, taking 
advantage of the occasion, made one of his sudden 
forays to w ilhin so sliort a distance ot ("liicnpniai tliat 
he actually hud posted on ttte city gates during tite 
night an insolent manifesto to the effect that the as- 
sembled Princes need not tnniblf themselvi-s fmtlier 
with the creination of the dead I'rince. He and his 
band would attend to L'lat ! The news produced a 
tremendous panic. The whole basimss of the crema- 
tion was incnntinently stof.pefl. A force was sent out 
after the marauder — with the u>ual result. Before the 
end of the week, however, the panic had sufficiently 
snbsided to permit the ceremonies to he resumed. The 
cremation itself was carried out on the following Sun- 
day as planned. 

During all these years the demand for medical treat- 
ment, and the opportunity which i!s exercise brings, 
had been constantly growing. I made, for example, 
a second trip to Lampun, this time at the ( ill of the 
Chao Uparat of that city. The poor man had con- 
sumption, and at first neat to me for some fnrei<;n 
medicine, thinking that would surely cure him. Judg 
ing from his symptoms as reported, I sent word that I 
could not cure him; that the soothing mixture which 
I sent was sent in hope that it might give him a few 
nights' rest ; but that was all I could do. I'resently he 


Bentanelepbunt with a mo; I in;" nt iii«i'<'iil » eome 
to see him. 1 waK glad of ilu> call, for it guvi> lue the 
opijortuntty of directing a dying man to Bomethlng 
even more urgently nwdotl tb;.n incdiiiiw. I -pent 

M w dii.vs with liim. and visit d all of the leading 
faroilieH aud ofllcials of tlie ida<e. eHtabllshing most 
valuable and friendlr relations with them. 

Long before this both the dcnumd for 

i,-nl itviittiiHit and the resi.oni..ibility involved far ex- 
ceeded what uuy [wrnon without complete profetwional 
training could undertake to meet. Wo bad urged 
upon our Hoard tli.' clainis of our mission f(.r a physi- 
oian. The following touching api»eal. which appeared 
in the Fort ign Mitaiomm for March, 1870, was made 
by Mr. Wilson not long after ihe doatb of bis son 
Frank. After sending an earnest appeal from Nan 
Inta for helpers, Mr. Wilson says: 

"Of couw Nun Intn'a call for help includes 
Christian physician. Who will respond? I am connnoed 
there are many younp men in t!,r medi-'al profe^^sion whoM 
lovp for Jesus and whose sympathy with human sufferings 
an. strouK enough to bring them all the way to Chiengmai, 
if they will but yield themselves to this constraming influ- 
ence. Christian physirian, yon are greatly needed here. The 
miMionary's family needs you. This suffering people needs 
yon. You were needed months since, when a voice so sweet 
and full of glee was changed to piteous shrieks of pain. You 
were not here to give relief; and if yon now come, it will 
not greet you, for it i« hushed in .leath. You are^ needed 
heie now. A plaintive cry comes to mc as 1 .vrit^'. It is tho 
Toice of our dear babe, whose weak condition fills our hearts 
with deepest anxiety, ifay I not interpret this plaintive 
cry as addressed to you? It is the only way that M. has 
of saying to you, 'Come to Chiengmai.' When you arrive 
•he may be sleeping beside her little brother. But yon will 
find others, both old aad young, whose pains you may be able 

THi: Ni \v Ki':<iiMi: 

to soothe, and whose souls) you may win from the way that 
iMda to eternal death." 

Great was our joy, therefore, when, in the Hunmipr 
of 1871, we learned that T>r. C. W. Vrooman, from 
Dr. Cnyh'i < ihm. h in Brooklyn, had responded to 
our apiical. :iimI iilicady iin<l«'r npi ntnient of our 
Hoard for « :hi<ii}{iiiui. His arrival wum delayed Houie- 
what becaaae it was thought miRafe for him to make 
the river trip dininjj the h«'i<rli' nf ilie rainy seaHon. 
Ko it was January L'Ud, 1S72, hefore we welcoiiie<l 
him to Chiengmai. He came with high credentialM as a 
phyaician and aurgeon W''h experience both in private 
and in hospital practic*- Ho h«'<;!in worlv on the day 
of his arrival. He found Nan Inta at the point of 
death from acnte dysentery ; and his flwt trophy wa» 
thf Having of that prwious lit.-. Had he done nothing 
else, that alone w.mld havo been wel' worth wh'lf. 
One or two operal ins for venioal cuiculua p.? 'e him 
Bwh a reputation thu t patioits came crowdii!^ . < Mm 
for reli^. In his first report be writes : 

" T WAS very glad to commence work as soon as T • ' , 

in the field. The mimher was larf^e " those who cumio to 
til'- brethro!! Tc for daily treatment; and such is the repu- 
taiion whicii tJioy have established for themselves as ^lysi' 
cians, that the demand for our professional services greater 
than we can properly meet. T am sati:;fied that the demand 
for a niidical missionary her(» wn- not too fongly urged 
by the brtHhren in their earnest appeals to the Board. 

" I have already had much professional worit to do, and 
while I am minisferinr t-> 'hvsical ailments, Brother Mc- 
Gilvary, who is kiiidiy my jnterpreter, has opportuiiity to 
break unto many the br. l <n life. . . . Two men have 
just left who came a lon^ distance, hoping we <K>ald bring 
to life a brother who bad died hoars heion.** 



NOT long after Dr. Vroomau's arrival it was de- 
cided to undertake our first extended tour. It 
wa8 inip..rtant to ascertain the size and pop- 
ulation ..f <.nr whole field: and this eould be accom- 
plished only bv personal exploration. A journey for 
this pnrpcwe would, of course, afford abundant oppor 
tnnitv for preaching the Gospel; it w-mM. beside^, 
L'ive the doctor a needed change, and woiilu eflfectually 
advertise his work. Our objective was LQang Prabang, 
then one of the largest of the provinces of Siani, as It 
was also the most distant one. A journey to it seemed 
the tnosi pn.titi.ble that could be made during the time 
at our disposal, and the most comfortable as well, 
since a large stretch of it cot.ld bo ...a-h' by boat It 
WIS iiln-n.h t<.o late in the season to accomplish all 
that we .Icsind; but ' half a loaf is better than no 
bread " It might be years before a longer trip could 
be made. As a matter of fact, it was sixteen years be- 
fore I visiled Luang I'rabang again. 

The IMimc gave us a passport, sending us as his 
pnests to be entertained without exiK iis. -. though, of 
,M,rs,., w.' always paid way. Our letter stated 
that we went as teachers of religion and as physicians 
for the sick. It was a virtual proclamation for all 
the sick to ni.plv to us f.u- tn ;.tment. This gave fre- 
quent octusiou for retort that we did not remain long 




enoagh to comply with our letter. We could only re- 
ply by pointing to the clouds and the long journey 


The pnrty consisted of Dr. Vrooraan, myself, a coolc, 
a body-senrant, and eif?ht carriers, with a newly 
baptized convert as ilio «>nly available assistant in the 
religions work. The elephants re<inirefll for our trans- 
portation over the first stage of our journey — to Chieng 
Rai — we had secured, for a wonder, without effort, and 
very clipaply. Their owner was anxious to got Ihcni 
out of the country to escape an epidemic which then 
was prevalent. The start was on April mth, 1872, after 
a heavy storm which ushered in the rainy season. This 
was my first trip over the road to chienf^ Ilfii. after- 
wards so familiar to me. After leaving the plain of 
Chiengmai, the road ascends the valley of the M£ 
Kuang River, fording that stream no less than forty 
nine times before it reaches the summit. .'ilflO feet 
above sea-level, the watershed between the Me IMng 
and the M£ K9ng.* Thence it descends to the Md Kok 
at Chieng RSi. The owner of our elqihants travelled 

' III standard Biame!ic the vowel in the name of this gimt rivrr is 
uudoubtedly long o, and has be^n so since the days of the earliest 
Siamese writin;;. Such also seems to liiive been the uiidcrstfindinK 
of the early tifivcllcrs who first broiicht the name into Kupipean 
use. for Mekong is the uniform s[H'llinc of all the slanil ird Atliises 
anil (I'lZi-ttecrs which I Iiiive bpi-n able to consult. In lln; I/io dta- 
Ici't. lio-'-nvor. the vowel is that represented by mr in /,nrii. This is 
Itie proiiiinciation which Af v .1. McCarthy. Director of the Siamese 
Koyal Survey Department, heard in the North, and transferred to 
the Map of Slam, which he (torapllud, as Me Kawug. This, liow. 
ever. Mr. R. W. Qlblin, Mr. McCarthy's successor in office. rccoR- 
nized M an error, ud assured me that it should be corrected in the 
new map whioh he hoped soon tn publish. Mr. Giblin, however, 
has left the lervlce, and the map, I fear, has not yet been iMued. 
But since Hiameae speeeh and the usage of geographical authoritlea 
are at one on this point, there can scarceiy be qoHtion aa to tiw 
proper form for use here.— £o. 


with us, and was unnecessarily tender to liis beasts. 
In consequence we were ten days making this stage 
of the trip, which afterwards, with my own elophauts, 
I used to malie in less than six. On this trip 1 wallied 
almost the whole distance. 

At Chieng Rai we were cordially received. The gov- 
ernor listened to the Gospel mcssajje. and, I l)eli('vo, 
received it in faith, as we shall see later. Thence we 
toek boat down the Me Kok to its junction with the 
M6 K6ng. The sand-bar where we spent the Sabbath 
was covered with fresh tracks of lar};e HenRul tip-rs. 

Shortly after this we passed out of the Me Ivok into 
the great M6 Kong, with reference to which I take 
the liberty of quoting from a recent work, Five Year$ 
in 8iam, by H. Warrington Smyth, F.K.G.S. 

" FeTf can regard the Me Kawng without feeling its pecu- 
liar fast illation. That narrow streak connecting far coun- 
triea with the distant ocean,— what scenes it knows, what 
stories it could tell! Gliding gently here, and thundoring 
with fury there where it meets with opposition; always con- 
tinuing its great work of disintegration of hard rocks and 
of trwisport of material; with inlinitc hewing down 
the mounUin sides, and building up with them new coun- 
tries in far climes where other tongues are spoken; it never 
stays its movemont. Ilnw few men have seen its upper 
waters! What a lonely life altogether is that of the Me 
Kawng! From its cradle as the C.orpu Kiv. r in th.' far 
Thibetan highlands, to its end in the stormy China Sea, it 
never sees a populous city or a nahh building. For nearly 
three thousand Kiil. s if storms through solitudes, or wan- 
ders sullenly through jungle wastes. No wonder one sat by 
the h^ur listening to its tale. For though but iull to read 
.,f, the wide deep reality rolling before one had an intense 
interest for a lonely man. 

• Rising in about 33° 17' N. Lat. and 94° 2.5' F. Long, m 
the greatest nursery of noble rivers in the world, where six 



huge brethren have so long concealed the secrets of their 

birth, it Hows southeast through Cliiru'so Thibetan territory 
to Chuaiiile, where the tea caravan mad from Lhasa and 
Thibet on the west, crosses it eastward towards Ta CMea Ltt 
ud China, over 10,000 feet above aea level." 

Almost w ithin sifjlit from the mouth of (he Md Kok 
were the ruins of Chieng S6u, once the largest city 
In an thin rej^on. Its crumbling walls enclose an 
oblong area stretching some two miles along the river. 
Seventy years before our visit it had been taker by a 
combined army of Siamese and Lfio. Its inhabitants 
were divided among the conquerors, and carried away 
into captivity. At the time of our \isit, the city and 
the broad province of which it was the capital had 
been desolate for three-quarters of a century. Nothing 
remained bnt the dilapidated walls and cmmbling 
ruins of old temples. Judging from its innumerable 
iumges of I^uddha, its inhabitants must have been a 
very religious people. One wonders whence came all 
the bronze used in making them in those distant days. 
To me it was an unexpected pleasure to find myself in 
that old city, the ancestral home of so many of our 
parishioners. Little did I think then that twenty 
years later I should aid in organizing a church where 
we then stood. The M/^ Ki^ng is here a mighty stream. 
It must be a magnificent sight in time of high 

A short distance below the city we passed a vil- 
lage recently deserted l)ecause of the ravages of the 
tigers. The second day from Chieng S£n brought us 
to Chwng Kawng. one of the largest dependencies of 
the provincj' of Nfui. There we spent two very inter 
esting and protitable days. 1 had met the governor 
in Chiengmai. He was delighted with my repeating 


ride, and had us try it before him. There was also 
his 8on, who not long after was to succeed the father; 
but his story we shall come upon some twenty years 

At this place we were fortunate in finding an empty 
trading boat going to Luang PraMng, in which the {i..v 
ern.)r oui^navil Un- us passage on very reasonable terms. 
We left VAxH'Ui; Kawug on May M. The trip to Luang 
I'rabaug occupied five day«, and was one of the 
memorable events of my life. In some respects the 
scenerv is not so strikinj,^ as that of the m Ping rapids. 
Till' breadth of the river makes the difference. You 
miss the narrow f,'»>'^'t' with overhanging cliffs and the 
gndden bends closing in every outlet. But, on the 
other han.l. vou have an incomi.arably gi-eater river 
and higher niountains. 1 quote again from Mr. War- 
rington Smyth the following toription of one portion 
of the river scenery : 

"The high peaks, towering 5.000 feet al.oTC the river, 
which tri»o it such a sombre appearance, are generally ot the 
very extensive limestone series. They present tremendous 
precipices on .ome of tlieir and their outlines are 

particularly bold. . . • Some mdes above Luang Prabang 
the large and important trihntaries of the ^aln TT and the 
nL ^ng enter the Me Kawng. The clear transparent 
water of these tributaries fomw a strong contrast to the 
brown scliment-laden water of the Mc Kawng. . . . In 
some of the rapids with sloping l-ottoms, the tir.t jump over 
th.. edge is very pleasant; fun then comes m the short 
^n■>rIn^' wav,-. Kv..rylm,i.v .m hoard is fully occupied; the 
men at the how-car canting her head this way and that, 
the helmsman helping from tlu^ other eii.l to make lu r take 
it. straight, the men at the oars puUing for all they are worth, 
unci the re.t hailing mightily, or shouting t- any one who has 
time to listen. If the rapid is a bad one. the crews land to 
have a moid before tucklaig it. and stop to chew some betel 



and etoB^tm notes after it So it U ahrasv • aociabla 

My travelling companioo. Dr. Yrooaian, thas gives 
his improwioiiM. 

"The enrrmt of the Cambodia is very swift, in plaeea 

80 much so that it was daiiperous to naviiratc. The river is 
nearly a mile wide in pluc's; and wliere the channel is nar- 
row, it rushes along with frightful rapidity. No scenery is 
liner throughout the entire distance we travelled on it. 
Mountains rise from either bank to the height of three or 
four thousand feet. The river fills the bottom of a long, 
winding valley; and as we glided swiftly down it, there 
seemed to move by us the panorama of two half-erect hang- 
ing landscapes of woodland verdure and blossom. Only as 
we neared the city did we see ro igh and craggy mountain 
peaks and barren towering precipices." 

Twenty-aix yeans later I descended the M6 River 
from Mfiang Kwft to Lfiang PrabSng, and th^ aaeended 

it again. The i)erpendioular rock cliflfs at its junction 
\^x'a the M£ Kong surpass any that I ever saw else- 

Of greater interest to me, however, than roaring 
rapids and towerin^r rocks were the ovidonces of 
numerous human habitations perched far above us on 
the monntaitt sides. Rarely can their houses or vil- 
lages be seen ; out in many places their clearings have 
denuded the mountains of all their larger growth. It 
was tantalizing nut to be able to stop and visit these 
people in their homes. But my first opportunity to 
make extensive tours among them was not till some 
twenty years later. As for the Kong, my comment 
is : If I wished an exciting river trip, and had a com- 
fortable boat, I fibould not expect to find a more en- 


chanting stretch of three hundred miiea anywhere etae 

on the face of the earth. 

Luang Prabang was then the moat compactly bnilt 
of all Siamese cities outside of Bangk<^, which, in 
some respects, it resembled. It differs from the other 
Lao cities in having no great rural population and ex 
tensive rice plains near it. Its rice supply was then 
levied from the hill-tribes aw a tribute or tax. The 
» itv has a fine situation at the foot of a steep hill some 
two hundred feet high, tipped, as usual, with a pagoda. 
The Nfim Ktag there joins the M6 Ktog, dividing the 
city into two uneiiual portions. The view from the 
top of the hill is deliKbtful. The inhabitants belong 
to a large branch of the Tai race, extending southward 
at least to Cambodia. They are called the Lilo Pung 
Khao (White bellied Lao), as ours, because of their 
imiversal practice of tattooing the body, are called Lao 
Pung Dam (Blacli-l>tUied). 

The Prince of Luang Prabang was absent from the 
city hunting wild elephants, in which game his prov- 
ince abounds. The Chao Uparat gave us a hospitable 
welcome. Behind the city is a noted cave in a 
mountain, which the natives think is the abode of 
the very tlcrccst ( > il spirits. No doubt the real spirits 
are the malarial germs or the poisonous gas which 
later we found to be the chief danger of the Ohieng 
Dfio cave. It was in this cave that M. Mouhot, a 
noted French scientist, contracted the fever from which 
he died. The natives believed that his death was 
caused by his rashness in trespassing uprm the domain 
of the spirits who preside over the cave. We were 
astonished at some sorts of lish displayed in the 
market, such as I never saw anywhere else. Mr. Mc- 
Carthy tells of assisting at the capture of one, a plft 



Irak, seven feet long, with a body-girth of fonr feet 
and two inches, and weighing one hundred and thirty 

We remained in Lnang Prabfing six days, leaving it 
on May 14th. I was very ioalh to ro so hood. The 
people were eager for books jis well as for inodicine. 
It was the one place where Siamese books were well 
understood. We conld have disponed of basketfnls 
of the Scriptures, as Dr. IVoplcs did twenty four years 
later. It is one of the anomalies of tlie twentieth cen- 
tury that when we finally were ready to establish a 
Christian mission, after the country had passed from 
non Christian to Christian rolers, we conld not get 

From Lflang Prabftng we again took boat to Tft Dt^a, 
some sixty miles below. There we bade good bye to 
the wonderful river, and turned our faces homeward. 
Our elephants were good travellers, the swiftest we 
had so far fonnd. They gave ns no chance to stroll 
on in advance, and rest till they should come up, as 
we had done before. They brought us to Nan iu six 
days, four of which were spent in travel over high 
mountain ridges. Our road passed near the great salt 
wells; but we had no time for sight-seeing. 

Two experiences on this portion of the trip will not 
be forgotten. One was a fall from my tall elephant. 
A flock of large birds in covert near us suddenly 
flew up with loud shrill cries. I was reclining in the 
howdah at the time, and raised myself up to look out 
under the hood, and, while suspended there in unstable 
equilihrinm, another and loiuV'r cry dose at hand n.ado 
the beast give a sudden start backwards, which landed 
me in a puddle of water. Fortunately no further dam- 
age was done. Another annoyance, more serious, was 

the land leeches which we often encountered when we 
dismounted to walk. The whole ground and every 
shrub and twig seemed covered with the tiny ctMtMBfc 
gensitive to the leant noise, each one was holding 
on bv his tail, and wavinp his head back and forth 
to lav hold of any passing animal. We soon found 
that they had a special fondneaa for the gemt§ homo. 
Do what we might, every hundred jards or so we 
had to stop »<. rub them off, while the blood ran 
profusely fiom their bites. We had none of the herba 
which the Mus6 bind on their legs to keep them off. 

On Saturday evening we renched Nan, the first place 
where 1 found friends since leaving Chieng Rili. Chao 
Itiu irak, whom I had met in Chiengmai, nephew of the 
Nan Prince, and a few others, were soon on hand to 
pivc us welcome and to offer any aid we needed. The 
Prince was a venerable old man, with four sons— toe 
men, all of them. The country waa well governed, 
though it long continued conservative as regards the 
adoption of foreign ways and the welcoming of foreign 
trr-'.ers. 1 fell in love with NSn at flrat sight, and 
IT .»ed it for a future miaaion station. 

On our .Icparture from Nun. (^hao Borirak accom- 
pani^wl us as far as Pr6, bringing his own elephanta— 
one of them a colt, which he rode astride like a horae— 
the only one, in fact, that I » ver saw so uaed. At Pr« 
we found our f^ovcrnment 1.-tier not very effective. 
Rupees, however, were effective eiio'igh to prevmt any 
long delay. The ruling authority in Frt haa alwaya 

seemed weak. 

There was an amusing circumstance connected with 
an eclipse of the moon while we were there. BIn<» 
the conversion of Nto Inta, I had taken pains to 
announce each eclipse as it waa to occur. I did »o in 


Pr6 the day before it was due. The eclipse took 
i»laee early in the niyht, and 1 exi»etted to hear the 
dty resouud with the noiae of efery gnn uid Am- 
cracker in the place. Hut everyfhiujj was as .|uiet as 
a funeral. It aeeuied to Im? rej^nrded a.s our eclipse. 
The sitence may have been intended to tewt our usser 
tion that Rflha would reaotince his hold without the 
noi«', or |>osNibl.v thf ,v w»>re imwilliti},' t<. proclaim thus 
publicly the sujienor wisdom of the foreigner in 
predicting it. At any rate, they utterly ignored it, 
and let the uionsfer have his will unmolested. 

My associate liad Kaintd all (hat could have l)een 
expected from tlie f.)ur; but an aching tooth was giv- 
ing him tjreat trouble, and we harried on. We reached 
home on .Iniie L"_M. just sixlv-eight days out. We 
f. iind neither family in very good health. The th.v 
tor's toothache drove him to such deHi)eratiou that he 
insisted on my trying— all unpractised aa I waa— to 
extract the offending e.velooth. It liroke. Ther^* was 
th«» nothing to do but to make (he trip to Bangkok 
for the nearest prafeMlonal help. By the time he re- 
turned, it began to U- evident that he conld not hope 
to remain long in the field. 

Between Hangk.ik, Pechaburl, and Chiengmui, I had 
been fifteen years in the tleld; and my wife had been 
in the country front ffirllKu d without change. We had 
both endured it remarkably well, considering that we 
had had the strain of starting two new stations. Be- 
fore the end of the year, however, my wife bad reached 
the limit of Iter strength, nn<l it l»ecanie necessary to 
hnrry her out of the country. Ho, on the 3d of Janu- 
ary, 1873, she was carried in a chair to the boat, and 
we embarked for the United Btatea. 




Las\ Mtjin ^ifeet 

Rochester. New jrk UfcO^ ijSA 
'""6; 0300 - P'>one 

'It-} .^fl» =1989 - Fa. 



HE tour of the previous season had been so 

hasty and unsatisfactory, that I was very 

anxious, if possible, to duplicate the homeward 
stretch of it as far as Nan, then descend the Pitsanulok 
Forli to the Meaam, and so follow my family to Bang- 
kok. But would it be safe to leave my wife to make 
the river trip without me, when she was in such weak 
condition, and burdened with the care of four chil- 
dren, the youngest of whom was but two years old? 
I embarked and travelled with them as far as the land- 
ing for Lampun — where we must separate, if I were 
to cross over to Nan— still uncertain as to what I 
ought to do. It was then Friday. We decided to stop 
there over Sunday, and see hew matters looked on 
Monday morninp:. The quiet and rest of the boat were 
improving her condition somewhat; and her own 
bravery made up whatever was lacking there. I had 
secured a strong letter from the Prince, calling for 
the best of steersmen through the rapids, and for 
protection where the boat should stop for the night. 
So, with some anxiety, but with strong faith that the 
plan in itself so desirable would prosper, we separated 
— one party {joinff by boat down the MA I'ing, and the 
other going afoot across country to Lampfln. For the 
presoit we leave the wife and children, to hear their 
report when we meet again. 



My plan was to rely on getting elephants from point 
to point. Elephants are always very hard to get; ao 
it seemed doubtful whether my confidence were faith 
or presumption. But I was remarkably favoured. At 
Lampfin there was not an elephant nearer than the 
forests, save two of the governor's own. T had trusted 
to his friendship, and it did not faii me. I got off 
in fine style next morning on the governor's two ele- 
phants, with a letter to all the goyemors on the route 
directing them to see that I was supplied with what- 
ever I needed on the journey. 

I felt strong in having with me, in the person of 
Nan Inta, so wise a teacher and such a living witness 
of the power of the Gospel. On our first visits it has 
asnally seemed wise to spend much of the time in vis- 
iting and making known the Gospel privately to those 
of reputation, as we know one wise missionary did 
in old times. It is necessary to give the rulers a clear 
idea of the non-political natnre of our work. In order 
to do this, we must show positively what our message 
is— not merely that we are religious teachers, but that, 
as such, we have a message different from all others, 
not antagonistic or hostile to them, but supplementing 
rather that which they offer. 

In visiting among the princely families in the old 
city of Lakawn we met one most interesting case. It 
was that of an aged bedridden Princess high in rank, 
who received the Gospel with all readiness of mind. 
By nature, habit, and grace she had been very religious. 
She bad in her day built temples and rest-houses, had 
feasted Buddhist monks, and had fasted times with- 
out number, in order to lay up a store of merit for the 
great future. She hoped sometimes that she had 
laid up a sufficient store; but the Are and the eight 


commands were against her. She had killed animals; 
and the command is explicit, and condemns without a 
saviour. That the Creator of all had made these 
creatures ior our use and benefit was a new idea. That 
of itself would remove much of the burden on her con- 
science. And as one after another of the great truths 
of revelation was opened up to her, particularly the 
doctrine of the incarnation and atonement of our di- 
vine-human Redeemer, it seemed as if the burden was 
lifted. Nan Inta was himself a living testimony that the 
Christian teaching can and does give instantaneous 
relief when simply believed. It is difficult to tell 
which was more touchir<^, the sympathetic earnestness 
of the speaker, or the comfort it imparted to the 
hearer. The Princess begged us to come again and 
often. And neither of us found any other place so 

After a week spent in Lakawn, we departed on our 
way to Nan. The next Sunday we spent in the forest 
I look back with delightful memories to the occa- 
sional Sabbaths thus spent in the deep forest after a 
busy week with no rest and no privacy— a Sabbath 
in solitude, away from every noise, and even every 
song except the music of the wind and the song of 
birds! We always had service with our men; and 
then, under the shade of some cool spreading tree, or 
beside a flowing brook, one could be alone and yet not 
alone. No one more needs such retirement than a 
missionary, whose work is always a giving-out, with 
fewer external aids for resupply than others have. 

The next Sunday we spent in Wieng Sa, the first 
of the numerous little outlying towns of Nan. On 
Monday we reached Nfin itself, the limit of our tour in 
that direction. The country was wdl governed, the 


princes intelligent, and the common people friendly. 
Hut the special attraction that Niln had for me largely 
centred around one man, the I'rince's nephew, Chao 
Borirak — ^the one that rode astride the young elephant 
to see us safe to Pro on our earlier trip, with whom 
we used to talk religion about the camp-fire , till the 
small hours of the morning. We left him then ap- 
paroitly on the border land of Christianity, with 
strong hope that he soon would be ready to profess 
publicly the faith v.hich he was almost ready to con- 
fess to us. His rank and connection would make him 
of great assistance in opening a station in Nan, which, 
next to Chiengmai, was the most important province 
in the Lao region. Again he offered us a warm wel- 
come, giving up his time to visiting with ns the rulers 
and the monasteries, in one of which his son had long 
been an abbot. It seemed as if Nan Inta's experience 
would be all that was needed to settle his faith. At 
his request I asked and received permission '•om the 
Prince for him again to accompany us — with his young 
elephant foal and her mother — five days' journey to 
Tft It, where I was to take boat. Our walks by duy 
and our talks by night are never to be forgotten. But 
the convenient season to make a public profession never 
came. He lived in hope of seeing a station in Nan, but 
died not long before the station was established. 

At Ta It no boat was to be had either for sale or 
for hire. But my face was turned toward home, and I 
would have gone on a raft. I had to do the next thing 
— to take a small dugout which the Prince got for 
me. and go on to TItaradit, the next town below. There 
I was able to purchase a boat, which I afterwards sold 
in Bim^ok for what it cost me. Nftn Inta was the 
steersman, and my four men rowed. Our longest stop 



I • 


't I -f 


was at PitsannlSk, where the Siamese mission now 

has a station. On reaching Bangkok I was delighted 
to find that my family had made their long trip down 
the other river in safety, though not without great 
anxiety, and some threatened danger. Our oldest 
daughter had been quite ill on the w. y. Once they 
came perilously near falling a prey to a band of 
robbers. It was only by a clever mse of the captain 
that they escaped. As soon as he caught sight of the 
suspicious-looKing group of men on a sand-bar ahead, 
he had the gong loudly sounder! That and the wav- 
ing American flag evidently made them think that this 
was the leading boat of some prince's flotilla. They 
incontinently fled into the forest. At the next stop- 
ping-place our boatmen learned that it was, indeed, 
a marauding band that had committed many depreda- 
tions on passing boats. Wh;. a merciful preservation ! 

We spent a few weeks in Bangkok, resting and vis- 
iting in the home of my father-in-law, Dr. Bradley, of 
sainted memory. It proved to be the last time that 
we ever saw him. He lived only a few months after 

In fifteen years the world had moved. Going round 

" the Cape," even in a good clipper ship like the David 
Brown, had become too slow. We took, instead, the 
steamship Patroclus from Singapore to London, via 
the Suea Canal. The Rev. Mr. Keyesberry, a mis- 
sionary friend of Dr. Bradley's, had been waiting to find 
an escort to England for two young sens and a 
daughter. We gladly undertook that service, and so 
had a flock of seven young folks to look after ! 

We were barely under way when our own children 
broke out with the measles. The disease, fortunately, 
proved to be of a mild type, and our new chains were 


not hard to ruannge. So, on the whole, we got along 
very well. In London we had unexpected trouble be- 
cause the friend who was to meet Alice Keyesberry 
at the dock failed to appear, and, strangely enough, we 
had received no memorandum of her destination. It 
cost us two days' search to discover her friends at the 
Walthamstow Mission School. 

The boys I had promised to convoy as far as Edin- 
burgh. So, leaving my family in London, I had the 
great pleasure of a visit to the beautiful Scotch cap- 
ital. The day spent there was to me a memorable 
one. It was, however, a matter of great regret that, 
being so near tlte Highlands, t could not also visit the 
original home of my ancestors. 

We arrived in New YoA on Jaly 11th, 1873, after 
an absence of fifteen years. Under any circumstances 
fifteen years would work great changes. But that 
particular fifteen had included the Civil War. The 
changes in the South were heart-rending. 

Though North Carolina was drawn late into the 
Confederacy, it is said that she furnished a larger 
number per capita of soldiers and had a larger num- 
ber of casualties than any other state in the South. 
The havoc among my old schoolmates and pupils, and 
among my flock, was distressing, many places, too, 
the sectional feeling was still bitter. The wisest of 
the people, however, were becoming fully reconciled 
to the results of the war. The largest slaveholder in 
my own section assured me that the freeing of his 
slaves had been a boon to him, and that he was clear- 
ing more from hi.s old farm under free labour than 
he ha"^ done before with slaves. 

Unfortunately in the churches the feeling was more 
bitter. My old associate, Dr. Mattoon, had accepted 


the presidency of Biddle Institute at Charlotte-^iow 
Biddle University (colored). For a time he was very 
coldly received except by such broad minded men as 
his oid Princeton classmate, and my friend, Dr. Charles 
Phillips. By virtne, however, of his noble Christian 
character and his conservative bearing, Dr. Mattoon 
overcame these prejudices, and lived to be welcomed 
in the largest churches in the state. I f nt most 
of my furlon^i in North Carolina; and /nally I 
received a welcome almost as warm as if .ere a mis- 
sionary of the Houthern Board. Returned missionaries 
were not numerous then. It was not an uncommon 
thing for me to lecture in churches which had never 
before f n the face of a foreign missionary. 

Soon after our arrival in the United States news 
came of the resignation of Dr. Vrooman; and my first 
duty was to find a si'ccessur. For myself, and even for 
my family, I could endure to return without one. But 
I could not face the distressing api)eals from the sick 
whose ailments I was powerless to relieve. In my vis- 
its among friends in North (Uirolina T met a young 
medical graduate, Dr. M. A. Cheek, who received from 
warm friends of the mission flattering recommenda- 
tions for the place. He himself was pleased with the 
opening, and would willingly accept it, if he could first 
take a graduate course in surgery. This was easily 
arranged, and he was ready to return with us the fol- 
lowing summer. 

The hardest thing to face was the parting with our 
children. But the bitterness of this pang was soft- 
ened by the kindness of friends which opened the best 
of Christian homes and schools to receive them. We 
can never sufficiently express our gratitude for the 
kindness shown us in this matter by the late Mrs. E. 


N. Grant and Miss Mitchell of tbe StatesTille Female 
College, and to Mrs. McNeill, the widow of my old 


These two great questions settled, we left North 
Cr -olina in March, 1874— my wife with the two 

younger children, to visit friends and relatives in the 
North; and I, as 1 hoiKid, to visit the churches and the 
seminaries in search of recruits. But a cold con- 
tracted on the trip north ran into a dangerons attack 
of pleuro pneuinunia, followed by a slow recovery. Thus 
I missed my visits to the seminaries and the meeting 
of the General Assembly in 8t. Louis. 

The return to the field was by way of San Fran- 
cisco, and we reached Bangliolj on August 27th, 1874. 
On November 14th a son was given us to take tht 
place of the children left behind. In December be- 
gan our river journey to Chiengmai. The river was 
low, and we were a month and a day from Banglioli 
to Rahtog. There we found four missionaries of the 
Nova Scotia Baptist Board seeicing to establish a sta- 
tion amoug the Ivarens of Slam. Hut they found their 
Tillages too small and too widely scattered to justify 
the p. II.. •! -^nt of a station. So they were return- 
ing * On Saturday night we ail dined to- 
gether, ^ l iid a sociable hour. On Sunday evening 
we drew up our boats side by side, and had a prayer- 
meeting that we shall long remember. There was 
something delightful in thus meeting and enjoying 
Chrisiian fellowship on a sand-bar, and then passing 
on to our respective fields of work. Some of these 
men afterwards went to India, and started the Telega 
mission, which has had phenomenal success. 

There were still the rapids and four more weeks 
of travel before we could reach onr LAo home. Bat 


the Loiiit' couiing at last was delightfnl. Our faithfal 
old coolie, Lung In, with his wife, met us in a Kiiiah 
boat three da.vs' journey below Ch-engmai, with fruit 
and f»>wl8 le«t we should be iu waut. Then the tall 
figure of Nan Inta, with his face like a benediction! 

It was February 7th, 187'), when at last we drew 
lip abmgsid.' our own landing plare, and felt the warm 
handshalie of old friends. Aiuoug the lAo at last!— 
and no place that we had seen would we exchange 
for our I fio home. For the first time since our ar- 
rival in 1807 we had a permanent house to enter ! 



R. CUEEK'8 arrival was a matter of great re- 

joicing. He was very young— only twenty- 

one, in fact, (in the day lie sailed from San 
Francisco. The (rvinK drudpory that fie and others 
of our early medical inissionaries had to s?ndure, ia now 
in great measnre obviated throagb the help of native 
assistants. The remainder of the year 1876 I de- 
voted ^ery largely to assisting in the meilical work, in- 
terpreting, helping in operations, and earing for the 
Bouls of the numerous patients, without feeling the 
weight of resrionsibility for their jihysical condition, 
as I had done before. Dr. Cbeeic came out a single 
man ; bnt, lilte others before him, he lost his heart on 
the way. Toward the end of that year he went down 
to Bangkok, and was married to Miss Sarah A. Brad- 
ley. He returned to Cbiengmai just as Mr. Wilson was 
ready to start for the United States on his second 
furlough. The April communion was postponed a 
week that the newly-arrived and the departing mission- 
aries might commnne together before separating. It 
was Mrs. Wilson's last commnnion with us. 

In May, 1870, Nan Inta was ordained our first ruling 
elder. The story has often been told that before bis 
ordination the Confession of Faith was given him to 
read carefully, since he would be asked whether he 
subscribed to its doctrines. When he bad finished the 



reading, li« remarked that he saw nothlnp |k< nliar in 
itH teachings. It was vor; nnicli like what he had read 
in Paul's EpiHtles! In Jauuury V& Kaiuun, the widow 
of Nol Bonyo. was baptised. It was thus appmpri 
ately given to lici- to Im» tlip tliHt woiimn received into 
tlie comrimniou of the church. Two of her daughters, 
and I'a Tenj,'. the wife of Nfln Inta, noon followed. 
Lung In was elected the first <!eii« ..n. hm was too mod 
est to be ordained to that ofVicf. Meanwhile lie was 
becoming a most useful asslHtant in the hospital. 
Strange as it may seem, the office of hospital nurse Is 
one of the most ditficult to get a Lao to till. Lung 
In, however, was not a!»nvo the most menial service for 
the sick. His real Huccessor was not found until the 
present Incumbent, Dr. K«o, was trained. Dr. Mc- 
Kean's testimony is that it would be scarcely more 
ditlicnlt to procure a good surgeon than to fill Kdo's 
place as nurse and assistant among the hospital pa- 

During the summer of 187<!. in company with NOn 
Inta, I made a tour an»ong the lour nearest provinces 
to the north and west. The governor of Mflang K6n 
had long given promise of beccmiing a Christian, and 
now invited me t<» visit his people. On his frecjuent 
visits to Chiengmai on business, he always called on 
me, and no subject was so interesting to him as the 
subject of religion. Before the proclasiiatitm of tol- 
eration, while the common people were still afraid of 
making a public profession of Christianity, our most 
effective work was probably that with the higher class 
of officials, who st«od iu somewhat less fear of the 
known antagonism of the Chao Uparat. They were, 
besides, a more interesting class than the common 
people, for they were better educated, were more ac- 


customed in their daily datiee to weigh ai-gnnients and 

decide on qneHtionH of pvidonco, nnd many of them liad 
been trained in he religiouH order. 

This Rovernor of Mfiang Kta had learned enongh of 
thi' ivnois of CliriHtianity to hoconie nnaettled nnd dip- 
satiKtled with the proHpectH of utlvation offered by a 
purely ethical reiigion. He saw the weakness of the 
foundation on which he had been taught to rely, and 
the ditrerencc l)otw( n tlio authors of tlie two religion.s. 
Ko he stood on the border land between the twu, at 
the very gate, wishing to enter in, but with many ob- 
stacles in his way, and strong opposing inflnoiees to 

My first objective, then, on this tour was Mtlang Kta. 
The governor had aslied me to come and smooth tin 

way for him by toachiog his under-offlcials and his 
townsmen. N In Inta was the living, concrete argu- 
ment, and he put his whole heart into it. We had a 
few days of deeply interesting work. Few, however, 
saw the matter as the governor did. Most of them 
" would consider it." 8ome would go further and say 
that they worshipped Jesns under the name of th^ 
promised Buddha Metraya. yet to come. 

From Mfiang K«^n we went to Chleng Dut when, 
we vi8?ted the great cave with its famous Cuddbist 
shrine. Ever since Nfln Inta becar"» a Chrir-ian, be 
had been anxions to test the truv >f some f the 
legends connected with the place — a thing he dared 
not do before. The cave is the abode of the great 
Lawa spirit, for fear of offending whom Prince 
Kawilorot was afraid to allow us to build to the north 
of the city bridge in Chiengmai. Ohicng Duo moun- 
tain, which rises above the cave, is twven thousand 
one hundred and sixty feet high— one of the highest 


peaks in all S?iam, and visible from Chiengmai, some 
thirty-seven miles away. One of the sources of the Mfi 
Ping River, twenty feet wide and knee-deep, flows 
bodily out from the cave. Since uo animal is allowed 
to be killed in so sacred a place, the stream abounds 
in a great variety of beautiful fish waiting for the 
food which no visitor fails to give them. The scramble 
for it is as interesting to watch as the perfonnance of 
the sea lions at San Francisco. 

The legend is that no one can cross the stream in- 
side the cave and return alive; and that beyond the 
stream, under the crest of the mountain, there is an 
image of pure gold seven cubits high. One enters the 
cave at a little distance from the stream, and finds 
first a grand chamber which is a veritable temple, with 
ar bed dome, natural pulpit, and innumerable images 
of Buddha, large and small. This place is regarded 
as a most sacred shrine. Buddhist monks are always 
there performing their devotions. The chamber is so 
dark that thev have to use tapers to see to read. The 
dim light and the long-drawn tones of the worshippers 
prodnce a very weird impression." 

From the temple-cb amber narrow passages lead otf 
in different directions, till there is danger of losing 
one's way in the labyrinth. I followed NSn Inta and 
his sons to the stream, which is reached at some 
distance farther on. Being neither tall nor a swim- 
mer, I stopped and sauntered about in the various 
rooms, waiting for my companions to verify or to dis- 
prove the lej;. rid. Needless to say, both parts of it 
were i)rcved myths. My companions did return alive; 
and no golden image was found. The cave is too 
damp to make it safe for one to remain long in those 
distant pawages. Farther on the tapers burned but 


very dimly; and one would not choose to be left there 
in pitch darkness. We could understand very welJ 
how the legend arose of Yaks that devour those that 
intrude into their dark caverns. There is no doubt 
of the presence of a deadly gas much more to be 
feared than the spirit of the great Lawa king, which 
is believed to have taken up his abode there. We all 
exiwrienced more or less of the symptoms premoni- 
tory of malarial attack, and before we got back to tlie 
town Nan Inta was shaking with a genuine chill. A 
heroic dose, however, of Warburg's tincture with 
quinine soon set him to rights. In this case, then, as 
in many others, there is a foundation of truth at the 
bottom of the legend. 

That night we had a great audience. It was gen- 
erally known that we intended to explore the cave, and 
many, no doubt, came to see how we had fared. It 
was well that N9n Inta had so far recovered from his 
morning's chill as to be ready to join in bearing testi- 
mony not only to the falsity of the legend, but also 
to the truth of the Gosi^el. It was a bright moonlight 
night, and the people listened till very late, while we 
gang hymns, preached the Gospel, and pointed them 
to the better way. The result was seen years after 
in the founding of a church there. 

All these provinces that we were now visiting, and 
others more distant still, were originally settled by 
refugees driven from the more southern districts by the 
persecution for witchcraft. Now they are important 
provinces. Since these people had been ruthlessly 
driven forth because of the spirits, I thought they 
would willingly accept any way of escape from their 
control. But they seemed, if anything, more super- 
Btttions and harder to reach than others. Having suf- 


fered once, as they supposed, from the malicious power 

of the spirits, tliey seemed even riore than others 
to dread to incur their anger again by deserting them. 
But there were many hopeful exceptions. 

Mftang Vrio was the next city visited. From the in- 
cidents of our stay there I select the cases of two 
persons who excited our deepest sympathy. One was 
an aged Buddhist monk, a Nglo, who, with a younger 
companion, visited our tent daily. The monk was 
a venerable man, with striking features, serene coun- 
teuance, earnest and intelligent. His long life had 
^een spent in worship, meditation, and study. All 
this he soon told us with some quite natural pride. 
While not bold, he was not reticent, freely stating his 
own doctrines, hopes, and fears, and asking ours. To 
the question what were his hopes for a future life, he 
frankly said, "I don't know. How can I? I have 
tried to keep the conunandments, have performed my 
devotions, have counted my beads. But whether I 
shall Ro up or down [indicating the directions with his 
finger] I do not know. I have, done what my books 
tell me, but I have no light here [pointing to his heart]. 
Can the teacher's religion give me any light?" 

The earnestness and the desjtondency of the man 
drew me to him. I asked, what of his failures and 
transgressions? " That," he said, " is the dark point. 
My books say that all my good deeds shall be re- 
warded, but the failures and transgressions must be 
punished before I can reach Nirvana, the final 
emancipation of the soul by the extinction of all de- 
sire." " How long will that lie? " we ask. He an- 
swered by giving a number that would baffle even 
astronomers, who are accustomed to deal in almost 
fabulous numbers. 



" IJut is not thai virtually endless? " 

"Yes; but what shall we do? That is what our 
books say." 

"But is there no room for pardon?" 

" No. Buddha only points out the way that he fol- 
lowed himself. Be reached the goal by the same al- 
most endless joui-nev. How shall we hope to do so 
by any shorter i !• different route? " 

" But supposing there is a way — that there is a great 
sovereign of the univei'se, before all Buddhas and 
higher than all Buddhas, wlio has the riglit and the 
authority to grant full pardon through his own in- 
finite merit, and his vicarious assumption of all our 
obligations and paymoit of all our debts. Would not 
that be a joyful message?" 

" Yes; if true, it would be." 

And so we ai^ued till light seemed to gleam for once 

intf his mind. But the image of the dear old man 
pointing up and then down with the sad confession, " I 
know not whither I shall go," is a vision that has sad- 
dened me many a time since. 

The other case of s[)ecial interest I state as it oc- 
curred, with no attempt at explanation of the dream 
involved in the story. — On the morning after our ar- 
rival, Nan Inta and I started out to visit monasteries or 
houses, wherever we might find listeners. I was 
dressed in white clothes, and Nun Inta had on a white 
jacket. We had made a number of calls, and were 
about to pass by a house in which we saw only an 
elderly woman and some children, presumably her 
grandchildren. We were surprised to see her come 
down from her house and run out after us, and 
jircstrating herself with the customary salutation given 
to priests and princes, she begged us to stop and come 


in. We accepted her invitation, tliough surprised at 
her evident demonstrations of joy. Sitting down on 
the mat, we began to explain that we were teachers 
of religion, pointing ont the sure way of happiness 
both in this life and in the life to come. Our mes- 
sage was one from the great God and Creator to all 
races and nations, inviting them to return from all 
other refuges, and He would give them an inheritance 
as His children in the life to come. She listened with 
marked interest as we explained to her our religion, 
and urged her to accept it. We were surprised at the 
explanation she gave of her intense interest. 

Not long before our arrival she had a dream that 
two men dressed in white came to her to teach her. 
What they were to teach her she did not +now; but 
when she saw us walking up the street she said, " There 
is the fultiluient of my dream! " She had watched ua 
as we entered other houses, fearful lest we should omit 
hers. Now she was so glud we had come. It was at 
least a strange coincidence, for she affirmed that the 
dream was before she had ever heard of us. Whatever 
may have been the cause, it was a delist to instruct 
one who seeimd lo receive all that we said as a direct 
messaf^e to lier. This at once attracted Nan luta to 
her, and she listened to him with frequent exclama- 
tions of delight, while he, in his earnest manner, ex- 
plained the Gospel niessa«io of pardon and life eternal 
through Him who liveth and was dead, and behold He 
is alive for evermore. She said her one great desire 
had been to escape from the punishment of her sins; 
but she never before had known that there was any 
other way but to sulfer for them herself. She, too, 
was a Ngio. We visited her frequently during the 
week of our stay 'n Miiang Pao, and to the last she 



interpreted our roming as the fulfilment of her dream. 
This was the last that we knew either of her or of the 
aged monk. Before we visited the place again she was 
dead, and he had moved away. 

In those days when the people were afraid to make 
a public profession of Christianity, it would have been 
a great gain to the mission if we could have had 
schools, and used them as a means of evangelizing the 
youth. A first attempt, indeed, had been made by Mr. 
Wilson with a few Burmese boys. A young Burmese 
who had been trained in Maulmein, and who spoke 
English, was employed to teach ihem under Mr. Wil 
son's oversight, in the hope that Lao boys would pres- 
ently join them. This hope was not realized, and the 
experiment was presently abandoned. 

The first call for a Christian school was for the 
education of girls. In the first Christian families girls 
predominated. Mrs. McGilvary collected six or eight 
Christian girls, and devoted as much time to them 
as her strength and her family duties would permit. 
They were really private pupils, living on our premises 
and in our family. More wished to come than she 
could do justice to. Hence about this time an appeal 
was made for two single ladies to devote their who^e 
time to the school. But it was not till four years 
later that Miss Edna E. Cole and Miss Mary Oump 
bell of the Oxford Female Seminary, 01 ' >, reached 
Chiengmai. Very soon they had twenty pupils. From 
this small beginning has grown our large Girls' School. 
Two of Mrs. McGilvary 's pupils were soon made as- 
sistants. These and others of the first group became 
fine women, who have left their mark on the church 
and the country. 
Notwithstanding onr disappointment in the delay 


of the school for boys, it proved a wise arrangement 
that the Girls' School was started first. A mission 
church is sure to be greatl.v handicapped whose young 
men must either remain single— which they will Tiot do 
— or be compelled to talce ignorant non Christian wives. 
Such are a dead weight to the husband, aLd tlie chil 
dren almost surely follow the mother. After mar- 
riage, the almost universal custom of the country has 
been that the husband lives with the wife's family. 
He becomes identified with it, and for the time a sub- 
ordinate member of it, almost to the extent of becom- 
ing weaned from his own family. Where all the at- 
mosphere of the family is stnmfily Buddhist, with 
daily offerings to the spirits and gala days at the tem- 
ple, the current would be too strong for a father, with 
his secondary place in the family, to withstand. For a 
while it was feared that Christian girls would have 
diflQculty in finding husbands. liut, on the contrary, 
our educated girls become not only more intelligent, 
but more attractive in manners, dress, and character; 
and, therefore, have been much sought after. The 
homes become Christian homes, and the children are 
reared in a Christian atmosphere. The result is that, 
instead of the .vifes dragging the husband down, she 
generally raises the husband up; and, as a general 
rule, the children early become Christians. 

In August, 187 our beloved Princess became very 
seriously ill. Dr. \:heck iiad l)een called upon to 
treat domestics in the family, but not the Prince or 
Princess. Hearing that she was in a critical condi- 
tion under native doctors, and fearing the worst, I 
took the liiiert.v of suggesting that they consult Dr. 
Cheek. They seemed pleased with the suggestion, and 
a^ed me to accompany him — ^which I did for one or 


two visits. His treatment was very successful, and 

Boon sho was convalcsront. 

About this same time we iiad an adventure with 
white ants which came ziear costing w our much- 
valued cabinet or}j;an. It will serve to illustrate an 
experience formerly common enough, and still not un- 
known. One Wednesday evening before prayer-meet- 
ing Mrs. McGilvary sat down at the instrument to look 
over the (mii's, when she found it full of white ants. 
Our house was built on higher ground, into which the 
creatures are driven when the lower grounds are filled 
with water from the annual floods. They do not at- 
tack the teak walls an'^ fhtors of our houses, but, 
climbing up the posts, at last they stumbled upon the 
soft wood and leather inside the organ, and were jnst 
beginning their feast when our meeting broke in upon 
them. Hr.d we not discovered them then, the instru- 
ment would have been completely wrecked before 

Once the white ants «'estroyed a tr"nkful of our 
children's clothes, once a box of " knock down " chairs, 
and once they attacked my library — evid«itly not at 
all deterred by the learned discussions and doep 
thought of Dr. -loseph A. Alexander's Commentary m 
Inaiah. They had got through the margin, and would 
soon have digested the rest, had not an unexpected 
occasion for opening the library saved it. 


N New Year's Day, 1877, I went into the city to 

make some calls. The first was at the new 

palace. In the large reception hall I found 
the Princess, virtually alone. She was embroidering 
some fancy pillow-ends for the priests— a work in 
which she was an expert. Her maidens, some distance 
off, were sewing priests' robes. The Prince was in his 
little workshop not far off, turning ivory rounds for 
the railing of an elephant howdah, a favourite amuse- 
ment with him. 

The subject of religion was one that continually came 
up in all my interviews with the Princess ; but hitherto 
she had apparently argued more for victory than from 
a desire to reach the truth. She was as keen as a 
lawyer to seize a point, and her quick wit made her a 
very enjoyable ant''fi;onist. Not only she and her 
domestics, but the whole country as well, had been 
preparing for a great occasion of merit-making in con- 
nection with the approaching dedication of a shrine. 
Whether the peculiar interest of this conversation was 
due to the fact that these matters had been running 
in her mind, or to some particular mood in which I 
found her, I never knew. Slost likely it was both. A 
chance allusion to the great event which was in every 
one's mouth, at once brought up the question. Stop- 
ping her work and resting her arms on the embroidery 




framp, fiho asked, Why i'* it that f.>roi<;nera do not 
worship the Huddha or his images, and do not believe 
that merit is made thereby? " 

She seemed to approach the question as a personal 
one for herself. If we were right and she were wrong, 
she would like to know it. We agreed on that point, 
and I encouraged her in her estimate of its paramount 
importance to every rational man or woman. If 
Buddhism does, indeed, lead to happiness in a future 
life, sLe was wise in diligently following its precepts ; 
bnt if wrong, it would be a fatal mistake. Why do we 
not worship Buddha? Because he was only a man. 
We reverence his character, as we do that of other 
upright men who baye tried to do good and to lead 
their fellow-men to better tbinj^p. Gautama Buddha 
seems to have sought with all his soul for light— was 
willing to forsake a kingdom and to roionnce all 
sensual and even intellectual pleasures in this life for 
the hope of escaping sin and its consequences in the 

Why do we worship Jehovah- Jesus? Because He is 

our sovereign Lord. The Buddha groaned under his 
own load of guilt, and was oppressed by the sad and 
universal consequences of sin among men. The Christ 
challenged His enemies to convince Him of sin, and His 
enemies to this day have confessed that they find no 
sin in Him. Buddhists oelieve that Buddha reached 
Nirvana after having himself passed through every 
form of being in the universe— having been in turn 
every animal in the seas, on the earth, and in the air. 
He did this by an inexorable law that he and every 
other being is subject to, and cannot evade. Our Je- 
hovah- Jesu.s. as our Scriptures teach, is the only self- 
existent being in the universe, and Himself the cause 


of all (»lliiT boinRS. An iiitiiiilc S|»irit iitid invisible, ll« 
nianitVskMl Himself to (lie wuild by Uesceudiug Irom 
boaveu, becoiiilutj man, taking on our nature in unl- 
MOD with His own holy nature, but with n«) taint of sin. 
He tli<l tliis DUt of iulinite love and pity for onr race 
after it bad siuueii. lie saw llieie was uo otber able 
to save, and He became our Saviour. 

And talce the li adiinss of llie two Hyslems— wbicb 
is tlie more credible? The sii' iiil books tif the I'rincess 
teacb tbat tliere is no (Jreator. l^verytbing, as the 
SiameHc say, " pen Png " — comes to be of itself. All 
this complieate«' universe iM-caiiie wbat it is by a for- 
tnitous eoneurr iitr of atoms, wbicb atoms themselves 
liad uo creator. We come as honest seekers for troth. 
We look around, above, beneath. i:verytbing seems to 
imply ( ontrivanee of mind. The sun rises and sets 
with greater regularity than i)ur clocks strike the hour 
of noon. The seasons follow each other with wonderful 
uniformity. Animals are born and die. plants and 
tri-es prow and deeay, each after iis kind, and in won- 
derful adjustment to the conditions about them. The 
eye is made for seeing, the ear for hearing, and the 
air for ')reatbin<?. Lifjht is nee isary for work by day, 
and darkness for sleep by nigbi. This city has it.s walls 
and gates; this palace has its beams, its roof, its doors 
and windows, and its ditYeitnt apartments, because it 
was so planned. The Princess gives her orders, and 
her servants in distant villages come at her summons. 
The Prince's command is obeyed throughout all his 
dominions. Subjects oliey because they are under con- 
stituted authority. Even so we obey Jehovah and not 
Huddba, because we believe that He is the Creator and 
the sovereign Lord of the universe. 

In His word— His letter to our race— He claims 


to be Creator nn<l Lord. We rend His word, and 
then we look uronnd for evidence as to w'letlier this !a 
"eally 80. We tind that evidence in eartli and xea 
and Bky. A > ' tter comes from the King of Biam. How 
do we know that it i,s really his? It has his seal. 
Not otherwise ' the heavens declare the glorj ot' God, 
and the firmament showeth His handiwork." By faith, 
then, w^e believe that the worlds were made, m Ilis word 
tells lis. We read (he account of that creation. What 
wonderful heiugs we are I — made iu His image, endowed 
in oar degrees with His own attributes, and with 
authority over the world in which He has placed us. 
lie iiaci given us dominion over all the leasts of the 
earth, the fowls of the air, and the tish of the sea. 
Every time that a Buddhist kills a fish or a fowl, he 
fiins, because he breaks a command of his religion. 
Why not so for a Christian? Because these creatures 
were madn for man's use, and were given to him. We 
partake with gratitude of the jrifts our Father has pro- 
vided for us. This one great truth, when received by 
Christians, relieves the conscience of one of the great- 
est burdens that the followers of Bnddha most bear. 

But if Ood made man in His imape, why all this 
suffering that we see and feel? The best explanation 
ever given is that given in the Bible. Man was created 
holy, and was put fin triiil. lie transgressed. A sub- 
ject who disobeys the law of his sovereign ;neurs his 
displeasure. He sutlers for it. We are suffering from 
this disobedience of onr first parents by a law that we 
dai'y see exemplified. A tnan by ext'-avagance or vice 
squanders his estate. His children are born penniless. 
The Prince of Wicng Chan rebelled against the King 
of Siam. His country was conqnered and laid waste, 
and thousands of its inhabitaats were ma^ captivQ 


and (Icpoilt'd. ThouHimdH of the di'McenduntH of theie 
captifei are now iwrfii. Why are they »o? RecatiM 

of the em)rH or iDiHfortiiiU's nf their nnccstnrs. Tlio 
Prim-e appointM a governor over a province, with tlie 
promiHC that If he is faithful, bin children shall snc- 
ceed him. Becaase of misiioniciinor he is deposed. 
TTiR deKceinliintH are liorn itubjecta and not rulers. We 
belong to a fulien race. 

Boniana nautaraa belonged to the same race. He 
groaned under its pains and penult ies. He saw a race 
8un1< in niiserv. He saw Its religion shamefully cor- 
rupt. He inaiigiirated one of purer morality. But he 
does not profess to be divine or a Haviour. His religion 
does not olTer a siiffieient remedy. Hy asretii-ism and 
Belf mortification it would cxtinguiBh all noble dewire as 
well as the vicious instincts with which we are bom. 
And then, after interminable eyries of transmigrations, 
we may hope to reach a state of unconscious sleep. 
Happiness and misery are inseparable things. We 
escape the one only by escaping the other. That is the 
dark jncspoot which makes P.nddhism so pessimistic. 
To this the l'rin< es8 assented, *' That is so." 

ow compare this with the religion of Jesus. The 
reign Father who loves His wanderinR, sinful chil- 
dr .1, in His infinite wisdom devised a plan that satis- 
lies their needs and desires, " (lod so loved the world 
that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever 
iKjIievcth in Him ; li« 'uld not perish, but have everlasting 
life." (^ur Maker l)ecame our Redeemer by emptying 
Himself of His glory and beconiiug man. He is Himself 
the greatest possible illustration of the love of God to 
the race. lie came t" reveal the Father. His holy life 
we have in His word. He set us the only perfect ex- 
ample, full of pity toward the miserable and the sinful. 


Then, bj a painfal an»l Rbameful donth, He liw aine 
IlimHPlf n sncriflcc for the Nins of tlif» world. He 
obeyed the law wliith we had brukeu, and which con- 
demiw as; and inffered in oar stead the penalty doe 
to UH. ITc coiKHU'rcd death. FTe took awiiy the HiUm <»' 
death by taking away Hiu. lie aroHe fruiu the dead, 
sbowing Himself for many days. He aHi-ended to 
heaven before tlu* ) v<>s of HiH disriples. Ha has sent 
His servants and His word to offer a fuU and frw 
pardon to all wiio will accept, lie ih now, and ever 
will be, oar intercessor in heaven. He sends His Bpirit 
to purify and fit n.s for an endless state of conscions 
existence which begins at death, and not cycles after. 
Millions of the best men and women the world has 
ever seen have given their testimony to the reality of 
thiH salvation by a (riiinipliant death, with the assur- 
ance that all sin and all i«utreriug were paut. JesuH 
removed the corse, and brought to light the immortality 
which we had forfeited by sin. The missionary and his 
associates have left both parents and children that 
they might offer this to the Princess and to her 

To all of this the Princess was mainly a most in- 
terested listener. She had asked to Ikj taught. She 
pat no captions questions. I have omitted an occa- 
sional assent tlinf she fxave, and an .tccaHional difficulty 
or donht — not all of which could be fully answered; as, 
for example, why an all-powerful God allowed the en- 
trance of sin, and now allows wicked spirits to tempt 
lis; or that itlier '-ad (piestion, why the Gospel had not 
Iteen sent to them, so that they might have known this 
from childhood — a question the burden of which should 
press on my readers as well as on the missionary. 

At last, after a long pause, the Princess made a won- 


derful confession, the very words of which I can never 

forget : 

" Ta cbak wa dui kwara cliing, ka hau wa paw kru 
ko tuk 16o." To speak the truth, I see that the father- 
teacher is right. " Ka chua wa kong chak mi Tra Cliao 
Ion dai sang lok." I behove there surely must be some 
divine Lord who made the world. " bat ni ko chfla 
ti paw kru atibai diii kSn pon tot doi Pra Yesu." And 
nov,- I iK'lieve what tlie father teacher lias explained 
about escape from punishment through the Lord Jesus. 
And then, sadly— almost despairingly— she added, " T6 
chak yia cha dai?" But what shall I do?— I fear it 
will not l)e well to forsake " bit paw hoi me"— the cus- 
toms of my father, the foot-prints of my mother. 

We were sitting in the new brick palace— the first 
ever built in the country. In the hall was a large 
pier-glass with numerous other foreign articles, most 
of them bought in Bangkok, and brought up for oflfer- 
ings at the coming dedication of the shrine. I asked, 
Princess, did your father or grandfather have a brick 
palace like this?" Somewhat surprised at the ques- 
tion, she replied, "No." "And I see the Princess 
riding down to the landing every day in a foreign car 
ritige. Did your ancestors do that ? " Before I could 
make the application, she blu.shed, perceiving that she 
was caught. I went on: "You do daily forsake old 
customs, and adojit new ones which your ancestors 
never kr ; w. Tlie whole method of government is 
changing. This foreign cloth, which your maidens are 
sewing for priests' robes, was all unknown to your 
f(jrefi\thers. Tlu se things all come from lands where 
the people worship neither the Buddha uor the spirits. 
These are only some of the fruits that grow on the tree. 
Better still, plant the tree; for all good fruit grows on 


it." Just then our long conversation was interrupted 
by (he entrance of the Prince, wlio had worked till 
he was tired. He asked what «Ul- and the teacher were 
talking about so long. She replied that we were dis- 
cussing " bun Ic h~\\) " — merit and sin. 

The <iuestiou ollcu caiue up after this. She was in a 
position where it was, humanly speaking, almost im- 
possible for her outwardly to forsake the customs of 
the country. I'nt I Iiave reason to know tlint on that 
morning she received truths which she never forgot. 
We have seen before that neither she nor her husband 
approved of her father's act in murdering the Chris- 
tians. Slie continued a warm friend to the last, and 
so did the I'rince. 

On my way home that same forenoon I had another 
interesting talk with our dear old friend, the abbot of 
the Umong monastery, who had been so true to us dur- 
ing onr troubles. On the gate-posts, as I entered, were 
offerings of fruit, rice, betel, etc., to i)ropitiate the 
spirits. This is in Hat violation of cue of the funda- 
mental precepts of Buddhism, which declares that any 
one who makes offerings to spirits is outside of the pale, 
or, as we should say, is virtually e.xcomniunicato. Of 
course, my abbot friend exculpated himself from all 
complicity in the offerings. He himself neither wor- 
shipped nor feared the spirits. But his disciples and 
parisliioncrs did, and hn could not withstand them. 
He, too, never gave up the form of Buddhism, but he 
claimed that he worshipped Jesus daily as the great 
Creator and licuefactor of our race. His merit lie be- 
lieved to intinitcly p:rea(er than tliat of Buddha, 
whom he knew to be a man. The abbot was a man 
of broad mind, and a tiue and faithful friend. It is 
well that it is not for as to say how much of error 


is consistt'iit witli true disciideship, evou in Christian 
lands. I know that his deep-rooted friendship for ua 
was because we were teachers of a religion that otlered 
hopes which Buddhism does not ^ivc. I liave in mind 
many others, also, who believed uur doctrine, tliougii 
they were never enrolled in our church ; and not a few 
that would urge others of theii- family and friends to 
lalvo, as rhiisliaus, the open stand wliidi, from various 
causes, \hty themselves were pre'euted from tailing. 
But the Lord knoweth them that are His. 

The great event uf tlie year 1S77 was the dedication 
of a Hu lliist sliriue recently u built on Doi Sutcp, the 
noble mountain which is the pride and glory of 
Cbiengmai. From the level of the plain, and at a 
distance of but four miles westward from the city, the 
mountain rises in a single sweep four thousand five hun- 
dred feet, forest-crowned to its very summit, seamed 
with rushing hrook^-. and embroidered with gleaming 
waterfalls. In tlie r. i ny season the play of cloud and 
vapor, of sunshine ami storm about its mighty mass, 
forms an ever-changing picture of surpassing beauty 
and grandeur. The Siamese and the Lao are very fond 
of an imposinj; setting and a commanding view for 
their temples and shrines — on bold promontories by 
sea or river, on high knolls and summits. Tlie one on 
Doi Sutcp crowns a project ii.'j,' Nlioulder or bastiim of 
the mountain, some half way up, ;ind visible from all 
parts of the Chiengmai plain. Each reigning Prince 
has been desirous of doing something to beautify and 
enrich this shriiu'. To rebuild it was. M.erefore, an 
attractive idea to Prince Intauou at t u- bc^rinning of 
his rule. 

To do lumour to (be (Kcasiou, ant! lo make merit 
thereby, all the northern states, as far east as Luang 


Prabang, sent their highest ofiScials with costly offer- 

iiij?s; aud tlio government of Siain sent a special rep- 
resentative. For weeks and months previously the 
whole conntry had been placed under requisition to 
make pioparations. Offerings were levied from every 
town, villaj^e, and monasters, and, I believe, from every 
household, liatli guest of honour had a temporary 
house built for him at tu? foot of the mountain, with 
smaller slielkrs for persons of less rank. Nearly all 
the princes and nobles of Chiengmai joined tlie en- 
campment at the base of the mountain, and thither, 
also, was the city market removed, so that our house- 
keepers had to send four miles to market ! 

I had intended to pitch a tent near the encamp- 
ment, so as to be near the people for missionary woii;. 
But a rheumatic attack during the opening days of the 
festival prevented. Still, we had as many visitors at 
home as we could attend to, and under conditions more 
favourable for missionary work. 

Such occasions aie very attractive to the Lao peo- 
ple. For the time being the prohibition against 
gambling is removed, and they make the most of it. 
It may seem a queer way of making merit, but the 
theory is that their merit earns them the risrht to a 
good time for once. Thousands of rupees change 
hands on such occasions. The mornings are given to 
making offerings, the afternoons to boxing and games, 
and the nights to theatricals and gambling. I was 
glad that I was prevented from pitching my tent in 
the midst of the noise and revelry. All those inter- 
ested in religion wcro the more free to call and con- 
verse with us apart from the princes and the rabble. 
OlBcers and monks from a distance were always espe- 
cially welcomed, and few of them in those days re- 


tarned to their homes witboat calling on the foreign 


I did not get off on a long tour that season, being 
unable to secure an elephant. It was better so, how- 
ever, for early in May Dr. Choek wont to IJangkok to 
consult a plijsician, and went on thence as far as 
Hongkong. It was April 30th of the next year before 
he got back to (Jhionfjinai. And the season jiroved )o 
he one of tlie most unhealtiiy in the history of the 
mission. Worst of all, we had only six bottles of 
quinine to begin the season with. There was a rush 
for the quinine, and it scciiumI cruel to withhold it so 
long as any was left. The fever was of a violent 
type, and often fatal. Native doctors were helpless be- 
fore the scourge. On looking about me for a sub- 
stitute for quinine, 1 found that arsenic was the next 
best remedy, and that Fowler's Solution was the best 
form for administering it. But we had not a drop of 
the solution. We had. however, a bottle of arsenious 
acid, and a United States Dispensatory, so that I had 
to become pharmacist as well as doctor. I had all the 
ingredients save one, an unessential colouring matter. 
So 1 made it up by the quart. l?ut it was not a medi- 
cine to be trusted in native bands. They were accus- 
tomed to take their own medicine by the potful, and 
had the theory that if a little is good, a great deal 
would be better. 



IN this same year, 1877, tliere occurred an event of 
utmost importance to the mission and to the 
whole conntry. We have Been that, up to the 
death of Prince Kawilnrot. Ihnse Lfio provinces which 
are now a part of Siam had been virtually free states. 
The Siamese yoke had been very easy. They had never 
been conquered in war. Their original association 
with Siam had been a vohmtary one, in order to 
escape the oppressive rule of Burma. Their location 
and their weakness made it a necessity that they should 
look to one of these rival kingdoms for protection 
:i<jainst the other. At the same time, they added both 
dignity and strength to the one on which they leaned 
—they served it as a buffer against the other. Nature 
had connected the Lao country more intimately with 
Siam. All its communication with the sea was 
through the Mtoam Chao Praya and its tributaries, 
while a range of lofty mountains separated it from 
I'.urma. In race and language too, they were Siamese, 
and not Burmese. 

The relation had been mutually beneficial. Both 
parties recognized the advantages of the arrangement, 
and were satistied. The balance of real advantage had 
been to the weaker states. Their chiefs, indeed, were 
required to make triennial visits to the Siamese cap- 
ital, to present there a nominal tribute, and to renew 
their oath of allegiance. But with this exception they 



were virtually free. In his own coontry the Prince 
had absolute nilo. The Siamose had never iuteileifl 
with, or nssuiiicd control of, the internal affairs of the 
North Lao s^tates. It will be remembered that the 
sanction of the Siamese government to the establish- 
inent of t!ie inissiim was given only after the Lilo 
Prince had j^iven his. 

It was i>ro!>al)!y an inevitable result that the stronger 
power slionld in tiiiK' -ibsorb llie weaker. And the 
course of events iiad iK'en teiidinf? that wa.v. The for- 
ests of teak on the uiiper bram hes of the Menani were 
too valuable to be concealed or to remain profitless. 
The world needed tlie timber, and was willinji to pay 
for it. The country needed its value in money. The 
Burmese of Maulmein, who were British subjects, had 
Bkill in working out the timber, which the Lao had 
not. With money and valuable presents they tempted 
the Lfio rulers, who formerly had absolute authority 
over the forests, to grant them concessions to cut the 
timber and market it in Bangkok. Both parties were 
avaricious, and both were probably crooked. Larger 
bribes sonietiines induced a Lao 'uler to issue a sec- 
ond concession to work a forest already assigned to 
an earlier applicant. The result was a constant suc- 
cession of lawsuits brought by British subjects against 
the Lao. Since the L5o states were dependencies of 
Slam, the Siamese governuK'nt was often called upon 
to enforce judgment against them: wiiile tlie Lfio felt 
that the Siamese suzerainty ought to shield them from 
such attack. Slam was now come to be in fact the 
buffer between the Lfio and the outside world. In- 
stead of the pleasant relations which had hitherto ex- 
isted between the two peoples, there was now constant 



Up to the tiuie when Prince KawilSrot gave bis pub- 
lic and official promise before the United States Consul 

nnd the rei)iesenfative of the Siamese government, in 
the little sfila at the landingstage of Wat Chfing in 
Bangkok, no foreign power other than the English had 
had any claim on the Lao or any contact with them. 
It was only the impolitic ad of killing the Christians 
which brought the Lao Prince into conllict with the 
representative of the United States government. The 
fact that it was the missionaries who were immediately 
concerned had nothing to do with the question. Had 
the agreement been made with American citizens in 
any other capacity or business, the obligation would 
have luvn t!ie same. The Siamese government recog- 
nized the obligation, and, as we have seen, guaranteed 
the continuance of the mission. And that gaarantee 
was an additional reason for having an official repre- 
itivo of Siam resident in Chiengmai. 
J the new Prince been as strong as he was mild 
biiv. good, and had the Thao Uiiarat been like him, it 
is possible that the old feudal relation might have con- 
tinued another generation or two. No doubt the 
Siamese government thoroughly trusted the loyalty 
of the now P'ince; but it did not regard him as a man 
sufficiently stmng to hold the reins of power at that 
juncture. Moreover, all the business of ruling was 
largely given over to the UparSt ; and he in a number 
of ways had slinwn his opposition to our work and his 
jealousy of the English and of foreigners generally. 
When news reached us first that a High Commissioner 
was appointed, and then that he was on the way, there 
was great anxiety to know what stand he would take 
with reference to Christianity. 
PrayS Tep Worachun proved to be an admirable 


selection for ('omniissidiu r. He \v,u\ innn.v <>f tlio qnal 
ides of a sfiitoKiiiiin. He was cool, culm, patient, and 
wise. .1 mining from the result, it in evident that his 
inntnictionH were: to be consorvative; to make no raKh 
or prciiiatiirc move; and to iiplmld tiio ro.vai atiUiority 
coujo;uti.v witit (lie old princely rule— pca(i'alil.v. if 
possible, bat flrndy— till Hiam could asHUine complete 
control. .Mi-anwiiilf lie waK to follow the i:n}ilish plan 
of pov(>rniiiu: i1ii«mi;;Ii the native rulers, lie was will- 
ing to hide his time. ICvery new assumptitm of power 
on the part of Biam was reluctantly yielded hy the Lslo. 
But everytlunp conspired to favour the pulii s of Siam. 
Tlie Lao Prime was passive and unamhilious. For 
the Uparat no one felt the reverence or the fear that 
all had felt for the late Prince Kawilorot. The Com- 
missioner's fiiinicss and business intejirity enabled 
him to maintain himself perfectly in his dillit ult posi- 
tion between the two branches of the Tal race, and 
amid the contliclinfj interests of the time. 

In relifiion the new Commissioner was a stoic. His 
boast was that he needed no other religion than to 
be loyal to his king, and upright and just in his deal- 
ings with men. Virtue was its own reward, nnd vice 
was its own punishment. lie acceitted Cibbou s con- 
clusion tLat all religions are alike good for the state, 
alike true for their adherents. :nul alike false for the 
philosopher. He encoura-ed Christianity because it 
taught a good morality and made good citizens. But 
he could see neither the possibility nor the necessity of 
an atonement for sin. On one point I shimld say we 
were in full accord. In his opposition to the spirit- 
worship of the Lao he was almost rabid. He sym- 
athized deeply with the poor people accused of witch- 
craft, who were driven out of the country. 

Tin: REHFDKN'T COM M ISSinNi;u 105 

Durinj? the abseucc of Dr. ("heck aud .Mr. Wilson 
with their familirfi, 1 should have been utterly unable 
to cope with the situation, had it not been for my wife's 
clear busineM talent and tiut in planning. The lit- 
tle girls, too, had begun to .sliow sonu'what of their 
mother's aptitude for work. 

Meanwhile the fever Hniui},'o otntinuiMl !(• si.irii<l and 
Jnci-eas.' ill violcnci'. TIii' progress of the disease was 
so rapid tiiat often the person attacked would never 
rally at all. An interesting example of the way in 
wliidi •■"iilinfi of llic Imd.v soiuotinu's ojioniMl tlip way 
to the healing of the soul, is st-en in the case of Sen 
Kam, an oflBcer who was in charge of all the irrigation 
works on the Doi Kaket plain, and wh<t one day was 
hnmsiht to n)y fjatc, as it was supposed, to die. The 
new medicine quickly checked his fever, and presently 
he began to study in Siamese the Shorter Catechism, 
Genesis, and the r.osiiel of .loKn. In due time he 
returned home a believer. I ut Ms desertion from 
Buddhism caused such opposition i. his province that 
his baptism was delayed. His family were so shaken 
that some of them wished to return to the old worship. 
But one young grand daughter of twelve or thirteen 
years had begun to read our books and to attmd our 
services. She refused to return to the nxmastery, and 
would run away from it to the chai>el. She per- 
severed until she brought back the whole family into 
the Christian fold. 

fn further illustration of the crowded experiences 
of this time, 1 may cite the following items from let- 
ters to our children, writtoi during the latter half of 
the year 1877. 

" Last week the King sont f(ir your father to treat a 
prince who bad iuid the fever for Hfteen days. During his 


paroxysms his i n. s cotihl be heard throughout the whole 
n( i^'lihoiirlio(..l. Ill tliiir extremity they •ent for your 
fatlicr, ami pave up tl-.o case to him with penniuion to 
rciiiovt' all spirit-charnis .luring the trmtment. He it now 
out of dangfr." [Mhs. McU.J 

" For three weeks I have had n yminp prince in hospital 
who hail attempteil siiieide hy cutting his throat. lie was a 
fearful sight. It did not f^ivm possible that he could survive 
the night. I sewed up the wound, howeTcr, and now he i« 
well, and apparently penitent." |D. McO.] 

" We are well as usual, hut eiiprossed in work. Your 
father is pressed beyond measure with the work of two men. 
On the return of Dr. CMieek".-. boats, we reoeited forty 
ounces < f (piiiiinc; but it is poiup at a fearful rate. The 
hospital is full of patients, iuid there are at least ouo 
hundred more to be prescribed for tlaily. If I did not drop 
ererything else and help him, he could not possibly get 
through the day's work." [Mas. McQ.] 

" Soon the quinine was all gone, and our compound was 
becoming a veritable lazaretto. Most of the patients wore 
anemic and dropsical from long-standing fever. They 

came, because to remain at homo was to die. Then a new 
complication arose. Unusual syniptotns began to occur that 
I could not account for. One morning at breakfast we 
were called to sec a little girl who had a hemorrhage. She 
had no cough and had no consumption. While I was look- 
ing up the symptoms ami cause, your mother discovered 
that the bleed • was from the gums. That gave us the 
clue. It was ccurvy. I found that we had at least thirty 
others whose g. ins were similarly diseased. We began at 
once to give them lime-juice, and prescribed vegetnbles, for 
the lack of which they were starving. It is the iiiyariahle 
custom of Lao doctors in cases of fever to put the patient on 
a strict diet of boiled rice and dried fish. On such diet 
some of our patients had been living for two or three months. 
They might as well have beeu ou an. arctic voyage ! " 

[D. McQ.] 

Tin: i{i:sii)i:nt <;()MM.'<sionkr 1!>7 

" Day bc'fori' yo.-tonlay \vc trioil to havi^ a |)icni(?. A 
prtnccflg had promised us two elephnnts, but only "Hf came. 
Your father took a horse. The throe children and 1 rode 
the elephant. Our destination wai the Doi 8ut8p temple. 
About half the way up the numntaiii tlie elephant either eon- 
c-luded that there was no fun in guinj,' up ulone, or, more 
probably, that he had an unrouifortalile load, and refused 
to go any further. He turned out of the road, and tried 
to throw till' drirer fnnii lii-» noek. The ehildren became 
alarmed, and we dismnnnteil a-* best we eoidd. The oliil- 
dren refused to try riding him nguin; aud since we had 
come largely for their pleasure, we had our lunch by • 
brook, and (etamfld home on foot" [Mbs. MoO.] 

"We had an interesting incident at our De<»mber cwn- 

munion. Just as I liad aiinnuneed tlie eotnnninion hymn, 
I saw Chao Borirak— the Nan pritieo, who had twice ac- 
companied me with his e!ei)hant on my journeys, and for 
whoso sake largely one of my trips to Nan had been taken — 
enter the room. As he had been the subject of much 
special |)rayer on our part, I could hardly command my 
voice suihciently to proceed with the hymn. On my return 
from my furlough he had written that he would visit me at 
the first opportunity. His uncle, the Prince of Nan, had 
n prandson in danprer of losinp his sight from an aceident. 
He huil iHTsiiiuk'd tiie l\[<ux- I'uiL i>-)^.--itily our me<licine 
might help him. lie brought a few presents from the 
Prince, and for himnelf had brought a fdd ring with a 
native pearl from the Nun river. He is veiy anxious thp.t I 
should move to Nan. but I tell him that he must wait for 
you. . . . Witli fever and death around us we have been 
wonderfully preserred from ' the pestilence that walketh in 
darkness, and the destruction that wasteth at noonday.' 
We have had our anxieties about the children. During the 
last hot season we were afraid that little Margaret would 
inelt away, she was so thin." [D. HoQ.] 

Itut the labours of the year were not in vain. Dur- 
ing its progress NUn Suwan, who afterwards became 


the founder of the church iu Cbieug Son, and four 
others who became iutlueutial ruliug elders, were bap- 
tized. And with these was Pa Kawug, an aged slave 
of the Prince, who lived to be one of the LSo saints. 



N January Gth, 1878, two native converts were 

received into the church— Nan RT Wichai, the 

V_--^ (Ijjp scholar who had been Tr. Chrek's teacher, 
and the wife of a Iciuling elder— and with them our 
own daughter Cornelia. This was the bright begin- 
ning of the year that brought in religious toleration. 

One day in March, as 1 was sittinp; in my study, I 
was surprised to see a tall man, a stranger, with the 
bearing of an officer, enter. He pointed with both 
fingers to his ears, and asked if the teacher could say 
"Ephphatha," and open the cars of a deaf man as 
Jesus did. It was a strange introduction— to be ac- 
costed by a Lao with a quotation from Scripture in 
the ancient Arama>an tongue! I judged by his accent 
that he was from Lakawn. In answer to my eiiquiry 
as to who he was, I learned that he was a PrayS. the 
highest rank among LSo oflBcials ; that he had formerly 
been first in the Lakawn court, but was not then in 
office. But where had he received a Bible, and wb'^ 
had taught him? 

I learned that some twenty years before this he had 
accompanied his Prince to Bangkok, and there had met 
Dr. Bradley, from whom he received a copy of the Old 
Testament History in Siamese, and the New Testa- 
ment so far as it was then published. He had learned 
Siamese in order to be able to read and understand the 



contents of these books. He often wished that he had 
lived in tiie time of Christ. I!ut, liaviufj no one to 
guide him, he bad not learned to draw the lessons that 
the Bible story was designed to teach. 

He had come to ("liieugiiiai to get the assistance of 
the jii'inces there in ri^iitiug an tinjiisl decision of 
the Laiiawu court against hini. lie had heard, too, 
that there were teachers of a new religion; and he 
wished to know whetiier we lauglil as did Dr. Hradley 
and tiie books i-t'ceiveti from him. His jiosilion, bis 
manners, bis whole histor.v, including his connection 
with my father-in-law, attracted me to him with un- 
common force. Our first interview was long and very 
satisfactory. Uis questions were such as he had long 
wished to put to some one who could explain them. 
The truth had been securely lodged in his mind. It 
was most interesting to see how a single new thought 
would illuminate it ail. 

But what he bad sown be w >.s then reaping. While 
in power he doubtless had oppres.sed others. Once he 
had received "hush money" from murderers whom be 
should have prosecuted. If he bad not taken it, he 
said they would have murdered him, too. His sins 
wciglied upon bis conscience. His most anxious ques- 
tion was whether Jesus could really save all men from 
all sins. When asked if Buddha could do so, he 
said that be never had seen any such promise in any 
of the scripture'-.. Fie would search again. He went 
to an abbot friend from whom he borrowed, as he said, 
" books by the armful." He looked them over with 
this one (juestion in view: Is there hope of pardon of- 
fered to sinners? lie went a second time for more. 
At his third coming the abbot, finding out what he was 
aftf"-, refused to lend to him further. But he con- 



fessed that hi.s search was in vain. He argued with 
the monks, refuted them ; and they cast him off. Upon 
his arrival the Chao Uparat had promised his assist- 
ance in the lawsuit. When, however, he found that 
the I'raya was becomiUi, a Christian, he dropped him. 
But he had found an intercessor greater than any 
earthly prince. For niui he was willing to face all 
opposition and to bear all reproach. 

He was baptized on the 8th of May, just before re- 
turning home. The rains had already set in, and were 
likely greatly (o impede his journey. Yet he reached 
Lakawn without encountering a shower. His account 
of it afterwards was, that whenever he saw the clouds 
threatening, he would wave his hands and pray that 
they nii«jht be dispersed. Lao Christians have not be- 
come befogged Avith doubts as to the eflQcacy of prayer 
for temporal blessings. After his return to his home, 
his family al! became believers, and others also whom 
he taught. At his invitation 1 went over to instruct 
them and to administer the sacraments. Two years 
later the numb'" was sutlicient to warrant their or- 
ganization into a church, of which the Praya was made 
the lirst elder. 

Dr. Cheek's return at the end of April, 1878, took 
from my shoulders the care of the medical work— a 
very great burden. During his ab.sence I had put up 
a hospital building of six rooms. This since then has 
been moved, and now forms the nucleus of the Chieng- 
mai nos](ital. The doctor soon found himself over- 
whelmed with practice. He was a fine surgeon and a 
good doctor, and had great influence both with princes 
and with people. Moreover, ]Mrs. Cheek's inheritance 
of the language— like my wife's— was a great ad- 
vantage to them both. Only a few days after the doc- 


tor's arrival we lost our valuiilile hospital assistant, 
Luntj In. One cvcTiiiij,' lie ((iiiiidaiuotl of sidiio trouble 
about the heart. He talked a ie uiouieuts with his 
family, then said he felt better and would go to sleep — 
and in an instant was gone. 

lu 1878 Chieng St'u, tlie old abandoned city which I 
visited in 1872, became the theme of anxious consult a 
tion on tlie \Ki\i of t\w j,'nvi'rnincnt. Tlie Lfio had 
taken away the inhabitants, but iH)uld not take away 
the land. It had become a rendezvous for robbers 
and lawless men from all quarters. Tlie Western 
Shans from lUirnia were settiins upon it. Siani evi- 
dently must repopulate the province, or lose it. It was 
finally agreed that one thousand descendants of the 
original captives should be drafted from Chiengmai, 
one thousand from Lakawn, and tive hundred from 
Lampun, and sent Itack to reotiuiiy the i»rovince. Chao 
Noi Inta, the highest in rank of the available descend 
ants of the original captive primes, was oonimissioned 
as governor. The special interest this exodus has for 
our narrative lies in the fact that among these re- 
turned captives was the family of Nan Suwan, one of 
our best men, and already an elder of the church. At 
first Nun Suwan thought of buying himself off, as 
many did. But when it was pointed out to him that 
his going would be the means of starting a church 
there, he readily consented to go. 

The governor was a warm friend of mine, and was 
urgent that we establish a mission and a church there 
before Buddhist temples could be built. The province 
was virgin soil. A great mortality usually attends the 
repeopliug of deserted places and the clearing of the 
land. The governor was very anxious that we should 


send a physician. Had we gone then witli five hun- 
dred ounces of quinine, we should have had couuuaud 
of the Bituation. As it was, Nan Suwan was furnished 
with some quinine, which gave him the name of doctor. 
Hniad-niinded, hospitahle, kindly, and thoroughly np- 
right, there could have been no l)etter selection. He 
hecame the real father of the Chieng S6n church. His 
f;iiiiily was a lijiht in the cit.v. Ilis youngest d;uigliter, 
Kui Keo, one of .Mrs. MctJilvary's liist pupiLs, taught 
most of the early Christians there to read the Scrip- 
tures in Siamese. The elder himself became a great 
favourite with the governor, who used fo say that the 
tact of his being giivernor, and, theitifore, under author- 
ity, alone prevented him from uniting with the church. 
Auother of the returning (•ai)tives was Si'n Yfi Wichai, 
the first believer in Chiengmai. He settled on the 
western border of the Chieng Sen plain. 

The Lao as a race have been in bondage to the spirits. 
We have already had frequent occasion to refer to the 
slavish fear of them among all classes, from the highest 
to the lowest. No ev* i in life, from birth to the last 
offices for the dead, could be undertaken without con- 
sulting or appeasing the presiding spirits of the clan, 
the household, or the country. Their anger is the fruit- 
ful cause of every disease and calamity that tiesh is 
heir to. 

In many ways this would seem a less elevating and 
ennobling cult than pure Buddhism. lint really it 
has a much closer atfinity with Christianity than has 
Buddhism, whether as scientilically held by the learned, 
or as embraced by the common people. Buddhism is 
too atheistic to biiiig it into coniparisou here with 
Christianity. It lacks the essential attribute of re- 


ligion — a sense of dependence on gome higher power. 

It belongs to a ditl'eiviit order of Ihoiiglit. Tlic spirit 
cult, on the oilier hand, does reio<,'uizt' invisible powers 
whose good-will or ill-will brings prosperity or ad- 
versity. Prom this to one Great Spirit, who is sover 
eifiii over all, is 1ml aiiotlier step on the same Hue of 
asci'Ul. So their spirit oUeriugs eome nearer the idea 
of propitiation than do the offerings of baddhism, 
which in some quite unuecouutable manner are sup- 
posed to bring merit to the otVerer. 

A belief in wlteheraft— that is, iu tlie temporary 
or permanent residence of some evil spirit in men — 
has been contlued to no one age or race. Its i)redom- 
inance among the uortberu Tai tri'ues is very i-emark- 
able in view of its inconsistency with Buddhism, which 
has long been the religion of the race. In the contest 
for supremaoy, the spirit cnlt, while it has not super- 
seded Buddhism, has secured the stronger hold on 
the people. They worship Buddha and make offerings 
in his temples ; but they fear and dread the power of 
the pirlts to intliet present evil. It is safer to neglect 
Buddha than these. And the power of a malicious 
spirit is most dreaded when it has taken up its abode 
iu a human habitation. 

From the time of our tirst arrival iu Chienguiai we 
were continually amazed to find what multitudes of 
l)eople had been driven from their homes for supiwsed 
witchcraft. .Ml tlie northern jtrovinces and towns, as 
has already been mentioned, were largely peopled by 
that unfortunate class. Accusation of witchcraft had 
become one of the most dreaded means of oppression 
and i»erspcution. it v/as a favourite way of getting 
rid of an envied rival or of a disagreeable neighbour. 
No family and no rank were safe from such attack. 



Princes, eren, had fallen nnder Its ban. When once 

the suspit inn of \vii< lM Tiiit wiis well i^tarted, the in- 
(iividiial or the family was doomed. Our sympnthies 
had often been aroused in belialf of these unfortunates ; 
bat no favonrable opportunity bad occnrred for inter- 
ferwice in any othor wa^ than by onr teaching. 

Finally, in August, 1S7S, the opportunity came. I 
had a request from a prince of some wealth and stand- 
ing, that I would take under onr protection PS 8tog 
Tiun and her family, accused of witchcraft. The 
woman was the under-wife of the Prince's de- 
ceased father, who was a man of note in his day. She 
had two fine boys by a subsontient husband, and a niece 
nearly grown. This second husband was a widower, 
whose former wife was suspected of dealing in the 
occnlt art; and the theory was that the evil spirit 
camo into hor family through these sons. In that 
season of heavy rains and flooded streams, the whole 
family was to be driven off — some of them surely to die 
on the way. The patron said that be was helpless; 
that no one in the land, unless it were ourselves, could 
shield them from that fate. I told him that we were 
perfectly willing to risk the anger of the spirits, only 
we did not wish unnecessarily to offend the prejudices 
of the people. lie wa .villing to assume all legal re- 
sponsibility; for the rest, we might fight it out with 
the spirits as we pleased. After notifying the Siamese 
Commissioner of the situation, we brought the family 
to our place. 

That very day their honse was burned down; and 
not a tree or bush was left standing on the premisM 
to furnish shelter to the spirits. Rut that did not stop 
the clamour. There was then in their village a great 
epidemic of fever. By common consent it was agreed 


that this luul li»'(>n raiiscd by the evil spirit resident in 
the lads. Willi Imyish curinsity they liiid twico or 
thrice gone buck to viHit tlie hite t)f their old homo, and, 
strange to say, after each visit a new case of sickness 
had occurred, which was, of course. attril)uled to their 
presence. It was vain to point out the utter ridicu- 
lousness of the idea, or to show that no sickness had 
occurred on our place wince their arrival. That was 
easily explained. The spirit v as afraid of our tJod, 
and did not dare to enter the premises, it took refuge 
in a large tree outside till the boys came out again, 
when it entered its former habitation and went with 

Finally the patron prince sent word that we must 
give that family up. He could endure the odium no 
longer. When I refused, he threatened to take the 
matter into cour To this I replied that I was per- 
fectly willing thu. ihe case be tried; but it should not 
be tried before a Lfto court, but before the Commis- 
si(mer. If they could convince him that the sickness 
in the village was caused by a malicious spirit resi- 
dent in that family, ♦hey should be sent ott immedi- 
ately. But, I addef' t would Ite fair to make one con- 
dition. If the accusers failed, they should be driven 
off. This— as I knew it would do— put an end to the 
whole affair. We heard no more of it. It was a gr^t 
victory in the dem.tu controver.'^y ; and, later, as we 
shall see, it proved a boon to scores of helpless vic- 
tims. Before the arrival of the Commissioner such 
an outcome would have been impossible. No Lao 
court would have refused to expel persons so accused. 
The family of Pa S^ng Bun proved to be a treasure, 
becoming one of the most influential and valuable in 
the Chiengmai church. 


"^UR narrative has now brought us to a point 

where an apparently trivial circumstance be- 

^^--^ caiiu' lln' occasion of an ovcnt not only of ut 
most iniportuuce to us and to our \vt)rk, but of far- 
reaching consequences to the country at large. Some- 
time near the middle of this year. ISTs, the eldest 
daughter of Nan Inta was to be married to a Christian 
young man studying for the ministry. IJoth parties 
at that time were virtually members of onr family. 
The expected bride was a pujiil of Mrs. McGilvary's, 
and the groom was a private pupil of mine. The im- 
mediate family connections on both sides were Chris- 
tians. Inasmuch as this was the first Christian mar- 
riage in the cliurrh, we had [trepared to celebrate it 
with a little wedding feast. Besides the Christians, a 
few princes and a few special friends were invited, all 
anxious to see a Christian marriage ceremony. Among 
thr invited guests was Chao Tepawong, Kan Inta's 
liege-lord, and brother of the Uparat. 

We learned that the family patriarch — known to be 
a violent ojiposer of Christianity — had threatened to 
prevent the marriage, unless we tirst paid to him, as 
tribal head of the family, the spirit fee originally de- 
signed to furnish a feast for the spirits. It was a 
small sum — ainong oommon people not more than six 
rupees. That payment would legalize marriage with- 



out iiiiv furiluT (t'lvmuiiv. In fiiii, I In- |i:i\iiu'nt may 
be regarded a« u di.stiuttivel> religious uct, sime it 
recognizes the spirits as the guardians and protectors 
of tlie fauiily. VVIicu one Imtuiik's m ( 'hiisl iati, llial 
allegiaiire in cast oil". lU an uuwritteu law or itiH- 
tuui of the euuntr.v, tliat fee belonged to the patriarch, 
and he decided to exact it or tualie trouble. I luul 
('Xjilaiucd llii- iiiari iaiic i cn iiiiiiiv tn tin- |iriii( i's iiud to 
the tJouiiiiissioner. 1 linew llial the latter rwogni/.ed 
the justice of onr position, and I assumed that the 
goverunieiit would support us if the patriarch cauMd 
any troultle. 

Sure enough, early ilt I lie morning the patriarch's 
loud voice was heard in our yard threateniii.*; dire pun- 
ishment to the family if his demand were not granted. 
The bride's father became alarmed, and thought we 
must have some official baikiug. or he would surely 
get into trouble. The guests had arrived, and every 
one was on the rirc to see wliicli side was to win 
in the contest. I went to the liege lord of the family 
for his sanction ; but he said it was too big a question 
for liiiii I" pass npuii. I must go to a higlu r authority. 
It liad evidently become a question that eould not be 
settled that morning. Old Adam would have said, 
" Marry them and trust to the justice of your cause. 
Let the old patriarch whistlel" lUit we teach our 
Christians to be obedient to the law, and we wi.shed to 
avoid unnecessary trouble. So there was nothing to 
do but to swallow our mortification, apologize to our 
guests, invite them to partake of the feast, and seek 
legal sanction afterwards. 

After dinner that same day Dr. Cheek and I called 
upon the Commissioner. t'e hn<l failed, and were 
come to him for advice, llis sympathies were easily 

Till: I'.hirT oi' i;i;Li(;i(>rs tolkk'ation jon 

pqUkIchI, liiil lie IuhI no nuthorit.v to intcrfcrR in local 
or tribal matters. He fldvlRcd nH to p^o to the Primv. 
We dill BO, mectini; liiin iiiid tlio Priru <>sn ali ae. Tbeir 
position \v!is like that of flic ( 'omrnissiorMT Tlipy. 
too, K,vin|)atlii/.('(l with tlu- .yoiin;; couple ^ud with n». 
But it raiited a new quetttion for them, anif they frm^d 

ill <r!V(' oirciKc. The I'liricess sai<l h;i 'fm 

criticised Uy our enemies for siandinj; hv us, !.* il" the 
rhao Uparat would give hiH sanction, bo one else, 
tiiey thought, would dare oppose. Ho v,c w«it next to 
the Upnrilt ; hut there we r;iii atjn'ii t a hT. ije wai! He 
inwardly laughed at our predicament, lie had us just 
where he wanted us to he. If our young people could 
not inarr.v. oiir work !il In- /iriuall.v slopped. Fie 
said that no one hut tli.- Kiii^ of Siam had c ■.■•*y 
to interfere in such a ipiesiion. 

We returned home signally defeated. Next day I 
went alone to the (*hao fparat. and arpied rhe justice 
of our case. The parlies Ijad renounced their allegi- 
ance to the spirits. It was clearly unreasonable to re- 
quire what we could not conscientiously submit to. I 
even he;;j?e<l him to come to our aid, since hoth the 
Coinmi.ssioner and the Triuce had said that they were 
sure that no one else would oppose his decision. If 
we were coiujielled, we must iippi ;il to [lis Maj^ty the 
King of Siani. tliouph we should he very reluctant to 
do so. Since marriage is a civil as well as a religious 
rite, I was sure His Majesty would admit the justice 
of our app<'al. Either thinki' g; that we would not 
make the appeal, or that the apjteal would be in vain, 
he at last refused to diiieuss the question farther. 
Little did he know. n<u- did we thea, that he was doing 
the best possible tliiufj for us. 

I returnetl then to the Commissioner to report. The 


conflict which, as we have seen, was probably inevitable 
between the royal anthority represented by the Com- 
missioner on the one hand, and the local rulers on the 
other, was becoming inevitable sooner than was an- 
ticipated. The Commissioner just then was himself 
having great trouble with ofiBcials who were restive 
under his authority. The Lakawn Princes had a dif- 
ficulty among themselves, and had come to the Com- 
missioner to have the case adjudicated. His decision 
had been unfavourable to one of the higher officials — 
probably tlie chief liiiiiself. Whoever it was, he had 
committed the unpardonable offence of departing to 
Lakawn without taking leave of the Commissioner, 
presumably intending to appeal to Bangkok. So Uiat 
morning I found His Excellency indignant at the in- 
sult offered to him, and, through him, to his sovereign. 
The royal authority which he represented was chal- 
lenged. Moreover, some of the acts of the Chao 
Uparat had offended him. His imi»ressions were con- 
firmed and strengthened by the recital of onr griev- 
ances. He advised me to write all out in full, 
giving specifications that could be substantiated — and 
such were rapidly multiplying. For, provoked at Nan 
Iota and his family, and emboldened with his own suc- 
cess in stopping tlie wedding, the Chao Fparfit had 
summoned Nan luta and had set him to watching his 
summer-house on the river — the work of a menial, such 
as Nan Inta had never yet b',en reduced to doing. 

At last tlie iiioriicnt had come when an appeal for 
religious toleratitm mi<,at be made with fair pros- 
pect of success. As the orly way of avoiding con- 
tinual intcrferenie in the future, the Commissioner 
himself advised that the appeal be made for religious 
toleration in general, rather than for freedom of 


Christian marriage, which -as only a single item. 

The Commissioner was busily engaged in writing out a 
report of hie own grievances, to be sent to the King. He 
said that he would mention our case also in his report, 
and offered to forward my letter with his despatches. 

I immediately dropped everything else, and ad- 
dressed myself to writing that appeal unto Caesar. In 
it I referred to the sanction of the Biamese government 
to the establishment of the mission, given after the 
interview with Prince Kawilorot at Wat Chfing, and 
subsequently renewed on the appointment of his suc- 
cessor, Prince Intanon. I was very careful not only 
to exonerate the latter from all blame, but also highly 
to commend both him and his Princess for their uni- 
form kindness, and for their sympathy in this par- 
ticular emergency. But the act of the Chao Uparut 
was, no doubt, only the beginning of what he would do 
if he were not restryined. It was evidently his inten- 
tion to reduce to slavery a family that had always 
been free. In behalf of his loyal Christian subjects 
we begged His Majesty to guarantee to them the same 
privileges, civil and religious, which his other subjects 
enjoyed, among which surely was the right to be mar- 
ried aroording to the corcniony of their own religion. 
One request 1 put in with some misgiving — that the 
Christians niight be exempted from compulsory work 
on the Sabbath; otherwise that point might always be 
used to create difficulty when the master was hostile. 
While thus making our appeal to man, importunate 
prayer was continually offered to Him who had been 
our help in times past. 

It was very necessary that the appeal should go as 
the joint action of the mission as then constituted. I 
was aware that Dr. Cheek, the only other member of 


the mlBsion then on the ground, did not enter heartily 
into the appeal. H( was fearful tliat it would only 
make bad worse; that it would give offence to the Lao 
rulers, and possibly to the Siamese as well. But as re- 
gards the Lfto, matters had already reached an extrem- 
ity in the case of the one who really ruled the coun- 
try. And as to the Siamese, our only human hope 
was in the King. So, when my jjajter was finished, I 
took it to Dr. Clieek, and read it over to hiju. He 
listened very attentively to the i-eading. and at its 
close I was delighted to hear hiui say, "That seems 
all right." After a few clerical alterations which he 
suggested, we both signed the paper. A summary of 
it was read to the Commissioner, and was afterwards 
enclosed by him with his despat< ''e . Our appeal 
to the King of Siam had, of course, to be made through 
the T'nited States Consul, ( olonel Siekels. Our letter 
to the King was, therefore, rmt unsealed under cover to 
the Consul, so that he might read it - and with it went 
a letter giving him a full account of all the particulars 
of the case, and urging him to ust his inlluence, both 
personal and oflQcial, on our behalf. The whole was 
entrusted to a special messenger in a swift boat, with 
instructions to make all possible speed. 

Having done our best, we waited prayerfully and 
hopefully. Hut the greatness of the issue involved 
made us anxious. The liberal policy of the young 
King was not then so well known as it became later. 
One oould not be absolutely certain how even our 
Consul would regard it. We trusted, however, to the 
friendship of the Foreign Minister, who had invited me 
to I'echaburi. and who had always been our true 
friend. No one of all these persons concerned disap- 
pointed our expectations, or even our hopes. 


(Vdonel Sickols acted with commendable despatch. 
He was favoured in securing an audience without the 
usual formalities. At that time His Maj«itj had a reg- 
ular day each weclv when liis subjects and others might 
approach liim infoimallv in his summer garden with 
petitions on urgent business. Our apijeal was pre- 
sented to him there. He was already aware of its na- 
ture througli tlie Commissioner's despatches. Anxiety 
witli regard to the political situation in the North no 
doubt prompted hira to a decisive assertion of author- 
ity in this matter as well. His Majesy informed the 
Consul that his government had already reached a 
decision favourable to our request, and that full re- 
ligious toleration was to be proclaimed. 

The courier returned with unwonted s|)eed, re. h- 
ing Chieugmai on Sunday, September 2J)th. Late in 
the afternoon of that day the Commissioner notified 
me of the arrival of despatches. Next morning I called 
upon him. He was radiant with joy. All his own re- 
quests had been granted, and enlarged powers had been 
given him, including power to make proclamation of 
religious toleration in all the Lfio states. He seemed 
as much delighted with our success as with his own. 
He said that he had already notitied the princes and 
officials to call in the afternoon, and he would then 
inform them of the result. Of coarse, our hearti were 
overflowing with gratitude. 

At the appointed hour the Prince, the Chao UparSt, 
and all the high officials were assembled. When the 
order for the proclamation was made known, some of 
them made a final personal appeal to him to stay pro- 
ceedings. They argued that unrestricted permission 
to become Christians wonid be the ruin of the country. 
To understand the force of this objection it must be 


remembered that among the LJo, breach of the Ser- 
enth Commandment was punished, not by civil op 
criminal procedure, but bv a " spirit fine " paid to the 
patriarch of the woman's family. It was argued that 
if Christian young men should tranf^nf«w 
girlB or women, under the new regime, no fine could be 
imposed, and there would be no redress whatever. The 
Commissioner then sent a messenger, asking me to 
come to the audience. The scene, as I entered, re- 
niinde<l me of that other notable audience with Prince 
Kttv^ilorot and another Commissioner. The Commis- 
sioner stated their objection, and asked me what I had 
to say. I replied that the difficulty was purely an 
imaginary one. In the first place, it was a cardinal 
doctrine of the church to forbid such sins. In the 
second place, if a professed Christian violated his vows, 
he made himself amenable to the discipline of the 
church, and so put himself beyond its protection. The 
Commissioner said, " I have already so answered, bnt I 
wanted those who are present to hear it from the 
teacher himself." To this no reply was made. After 
a short pause the Commissioner broke the silence. 
With a gesture to the andience, he said that the busi- 
ness was ended. When he had leisure, the Edict 
would be issued. One after another the assembled 
princes and officials retired. 

On my way home I noticed that the Chao Uparit had 
stopped at his little sala beside the ri -er, the same 
that Nan Inta had been set to watch. To show that 
I had no personal grudge, I stopjied to call on him. 
Rising, he gave me a more respectful welcome than 
usual, and ordered a foreign rug to he spread— the re- 
spectful way of receiving guests before the day of 
chairs. When I was seated he asked why I had made 


complaint against him to Bani^ok— he was very sore 
at heart about it. I replied that 1 was sorry, indeed, 
to be ohliged to do it. Did he not remember how I 
had told him that we conld not snbmit to his decision; 
how I had even entreated him not to force us to ap- 
peal to the King? And I could not appeal without 
giving the facts as my ground for so doiug. But now 
I hoped that bygones might be bygones, and that we 
might be friends— The fact was that my letter had 
been translated in Bangkok, sent back to Chiengmai, 
and had been read at the audience before my arrival. 
But I nevor before had such a reception from the 

The wording of the proclamation was left to the 
Commissioner. If he had been hostile, or even indif- 
ferent, its effect might easily have been neutralized 
by a little vagueness or ambiguity. But he was 
anxious to have the matter settled decisively. When 
I took my leave of him that morning, he promised to 
show me the draft of the proclamation before he sliould 
affix his seal. When I saw it, there were only a few 
verbal changes to suggest. It was a general permis- 
sion to the Lfio to adopt any religion tliey pU iiscd. I 
suggested that since it was specifically granted in (he 
interest of Christians, it was desirable that Christi- 
anity be specifically named— which was done. At my 
request two extra copies of the proclamation were 
made with the official seals attached; one for deposit 
in our safe, and one that might be read to the people. 
The following is a literal translation of this famous 

I Praya Tep Worachun, Representative of IH3 Majesty 
the Supreme King of Siam in Chiengmai, Lampiin, and 
Lakawn, hereby make prodsmation to the PrinceB, Rulers, 


and Officers of various grades, and to the common peoiilu 
in the cities and provinces named: — That His Majesty the 
King of Siam has been graciously pleased to send me a 
Royal Letter under the Koyal Seal, to the effect that D. E. 
Sickels, Esqr., United States Consul, had communicated to 
the Foreign Minister of Siam a complaint signed I'y Kev. 
D. McGilvary and Dr. M. A. Cheek against certain parties 
for molesting the Christians and compelling them to oh- 
Berve their old religious customs. The Foreign Minister laid 
the subject before His Majesty, who most graciously listened 
to the said complaint, and gave the following Royal Com- 
mand in reference to the same: — 

That religious and ciTil duties do not come in conflict. 
That whoever wishes to emhriice any religion after seeing 
that it is true and proper to be embraced, is allowed to do 
so without any restriction. That the responsibility for a 
right or a wrong choice rests on the individual making the 
choice. That there is nothing in the laws and customs of 
Siam, nor in its foreign treaties, to throw any restriction on 
the religious worship and ?-er\ iw of any one. 

To be more specific: — If any person or persons wish to 
embrace the Christian Religion, they are freely permitted 
to follow their own choice. 

This Proclamation is to certify that from this time 
forth all persons are permitted to follow the dictates of their 
own conscience in all matters of religious belief and practice. 

It is moreover strictly enjoined on Princes and Rulers, 
and on relatives and friends of those who wish to become 
Christians, that they throw no obstacles in their way, and 
that no one enforce any creed or work which their religion 
forbids them to hold or to do — such as the worship and 
feasting of demons, and working on the Sabbath day, except 
in the case of war and other great unavoidable works, which, 
however, must not be a mere pretence, but really important. 
Be it further observed that they are to have free and unob- 
structed observance of the Sabbath day. And no obstacle is 
to be thrown in the way of American citizens employing such 
persons as they may need, since such would be a breach of the 
treaty between the two countries. 

Whenerer this Proclamation is made known to the Princea 


and Rulers iiml Oflieer.s aiiil Pooplc, tlioy are to beware and 
violate no precept contained tliereiii. 

Proclamation made on the Thirteenth Day of the Eleventh 
waxing Moon, in the Eleventh Year of His Majesty's Reign, 
October the Eighth, Eighteen Hundred and Seventy-Eight. 

The Edict farnishes a second natural division in the 
history of the Lfio mission. Its first period was one of 
struggle f«)r its very existence, euhninating in positive 
prohibition to preaeb the gospel and virtual expulsion of 
the missionaries. That situation was abruptly brought 
to an end by the death of Prince Kawildrot and the 
appointment of his son-in-law, Princa Intanon. In 
our second period of struggle, the conclusion of which 
we have just witnessed, the conditions were in many 
resy)ects similar to those of the first. Our chief an- 
tagonists in the two contests were alike in their love 
of absolute power, in their determination to break 
down all rival influences, {^nd alike, therefore, in their 
settled hostility to our work. In neither case was their 
antagonism to Christianity primarily on religious 
grounds. But KSwilOrot was of much more imposing 
personality and figure than the Fparat. 

Within his own realm Kawilorot was really " Lord 
of Life." He was absolute head both of church and 
of state. He brooked no rival and no contradiction in 
either. The liifjliest positions in the religious hier- 
archy were bestowed or withdrawn at his pleasure. 
His own brothers-in-law languished in exile in Siam, 
because it was not thought safe for them to return 
and be within his reach. At home he had vanquished 
or terrified into submission all possible rivals. Even 
the court of Siam seemed inspired with a wholesome 
fear of meddling with him. The crime of the first 
Christians was the unpardonable one that they had 


dared to become such against the will of Kawilorot. 
Hut the time and place for such rulers had passed. 
Such attitude and temper suited oeitker a positioa 
under saperior anthority, nor the policy of a govem- 
mont striving to rise with the progress of the age. 
Hut he served his purprae in the world, and Providence 
used him. 

Of bis titular succeggor, Prince Intanon, and of his 

noMe wife, I have already spoken. His real successor 
in the government of the land, and in his championship 
of the old r^me of fendal autocracy, was the Chao 
Uparut. liut he had neither the commanding dignity 
of KiTwilorot nor his interesting personality; — had lit- 
tle, in fact, of any of his qualities save his lodged and 
settled hatred of all innovation. For him we had none 
of a certain kind of re8{)ect which the late Prince in- 
spired; and we were under no constraint of gratitude 
fur favours. The only debt of gratitude the mission 
owed him was for being, by bis lawless acts, the un- 
witting and unwilling cause of the proclamation of re- 
ligious freedom. 

But the crisis which he precipitated hastened 'ike- that centralization of government which Siam was 
waiting for. The tendency of the age is everywhere 
toward centralization. Strong central governments 
are everywhere taking the place of weak and scattered 
ones. Chieugiuai itself and all the existing Lao states 
have grown by the capture and absorption of their 
weaker, though by no means iusignilicant, neighbours. 
The authority end fear of Siam had long been felt in- 
directly in preventing those ])etty wars in which one 
weak state captured and enslaved another. That 
authority was now to be exerted more directly to bring 
to an end the era of arbitrary, personal, antoeratic 


rulo MiiioTiR its (IcjH'iKlcricios. .ind to ostiililisli in its 
place the more equal and istable reigu of law. Feudal- 
ism with its " organised anarchy " was to give way to 
the Nation. 

Such wiis tlu' period at which we have arrived in this 
narrative of our life and work in the Lao states. It 
is a wonderful thing to bare lived through such a 
series of changes, and possibly to hsive boon, under 
Providence, the mean.s of bringing some of them about. 
We work for an end apparent to ourselves; but God's 
designs are deeper and broader than ours. " He 
maketh the wrath of nian to praise Ilim." Of nations, 
as well as of individuals, is it true that 

" There's a diTinity that shapes our ends. 
Bough-hew them how we will." 

Among the Christians the Edict, of course, was 

greeted with an outburst of joy. To Nan Inta it was 
like life from the dead. It was in reality freedom from 
slavery. And no man made such efficient use of it as 
he did. With the sealed copy of the Edict in his hand, 
he returned to his village; and wherever he went he 
could assure the people, on the faith of his Sovereign, 
that a profession of the " Jesus-religion " meant neither 
the rulltian's club nor slavery. The effects of the Edict 
upon the church will be traced in its future growth 
as our story moves on. I may venture, however, to an- 
ticipate so much — that within two years' time two of 
our strongest village churches were organized; one of 
them in Nan Inta's own village. Neither of these 
churches could have existed had not the UparSt's 
power been abridged. 
To the country, the new authority conferred on the 


High CommisHioner at that time has resnlted in a 
revolution as silent and as effeetual as tlie clianR*' of 
the seasons. His new title, I'u Sami-et liiahakau— he 
who fulflllB the King's work— was tned, I believe, for 
the first time in that proclamation ; and it really 
iiiarke<l the passing of the sceptre I'rom the hands of 
the Princes of Chiengmai. The titular Chao Chiwit— 
Lord of Life — was allowed to retain his title and 
honours during his lifetime; but he has had no sui- 
cessor. The Lao country has ceased to be either a 
feudal dependency or a separate "buffer-state." 
Silently— almost imperceptibly— it has become an in- 
tegral portion of the consolidated Kingdom of Siam. 
Autocratic rule has everywhere ceased. And all theae 
changes are directly in line with the ciTiUzati<Hi of the 



l^IIE year 1870 opened anspiciously. In March a 

little variety was introduced into our secluded 

life by an official visit to Cbiengmai of Major 

Street, the British Cominissioner at Maulmein. Uo 
and his party arrived quite unexpectedly, spent a week 
in the city, and attended an English service at the 
mission on Sunday. We met them a number of times, 
both socially and at official dinners. They strenpth- 
ened the position of the Commissioner, and did us all 
good. Bnt at that time we were anzionsly awaiting 
another arrival, in which wo were itutro intimately con 
cemed. Mr. Wilson, who had been for two and a half 
years absent on furlough, was daily expected, and with 
him were onr long-looked-for teachers for the Girls' 

The party was to arrive on April 9th. To please 
the three children and myself, on the afternoon of the 
8th we f(»ur started down the river in a smal' ^ 
to meet and welcome them. Rut the river was low. 
and we had not yet reached them when darkness came 
on and we were obliged to seek moorings. When, st 
last, we pot ashore, we 1r 1 to our preat joy thai 
the mission boats were moored only a few hundred 
yards below, in the samo bend of the river. W^e 
all walked down in the moonlight, and presently spied 
their lights close at hand. The young ladies had re- 



tUvil to rvMl F)Mf ri..t sh-e^. Tlie meeting by moon- 
light at the rivers bi-mU was ,,i,ite romauli. \Ve 
talked till ten o'clock, ih.,ugl. Mr. \\ i|«uu wu« «o 
thnt he could wan. iv spoak. At daybreak our 
•Ic^t was un.ipr wav. \\ ,. , j„„, i.^eakfast to- 
gether on board— our visii ,!... tl il.Hr liitle table and 
we on the deck. We theu vixcd hard again until 
noon; but it was two o = ioik In-foro we caught sight 
of the niiHsion prpinis >. - i,!: rhrkrtiaag 
all waiting to greet the ar..val>, ..i.l an. I , « 

The High Commisaioner. a fen .1 . la n, ^ave a 
dinner to the uiiwlon, saying in the n...<. «f ;nvitati«i 
that It was iu honour of the yount; ladies. U,v the bold- 
ness and loety that enabled theui to leav- ^heir f irhers 
•ad mothera, and c ./ »e so far n. tea- i. hi.M y^ovle 
When notified of their arrival, the PHncess seat down 
carriages and had us all up to .all h. r. she was 
delighted to welcome the young ladit», ai«l was kiter 
Mted in the school. 

The Siamese and the lAo ton^'ucs are two ci .sely r. 
lated branches of the .same linguistic stock The Lliom 
and the great body of common words are nearly the 
same in the (wo, differing, where they do <i»ffer, chieflv 
in a.ce-it >-;d intonation. Siamese is, „f co m -,. the 
spt'ich of tue ruling race throughout (fie Siames. ; in,,, 
dom; and even at tb.^ time of which we are sf^ak ug 
It was easy to for. * that the loeal dialect of ^ts 
rortherji provinces st cventuallv give way befo. it 
csjieeially for all r , ial and literary purpo.^es. n,,' 
chief obstacle in tl- way of a speedv victor v for n <• 
Sh.mese ha.s been t, fact that the I^ is written n a 
wholly different character. Were the iwo alike id This 


reHpeet, then nv douh' ♦ha* the standard fenn of 
speech wouUI iake ttw ^.iaee f liie Jialectal mimmt 
without notice. 
Of necessity all teat hlng far sttempted ha4 been 

111 tliH Hiuuietie. Ther« wiif no a MtUuolbook in the 

Ifni eh,: I '<r ,(vi> ' ht ta !es. Wh ii thcac 

Juid heeii i ..s<, ii ' lici as u ag '0 Liio 

thai «>oal(i ?«» p»i nfo tli -ndn «»f ffa** : nor was 

'hie rospc . I 'lUi: 

comt' On Um' u i buiidv a 
there was a v .nsiiif ibie Ol» iati: r; 

- (»i 

ii t}0' 


m as-' 

both religiottx a n] 

jMISt'S of IU( 

girlH; uui iliu 
read writ 
onlj macl 

accocats, iu iviXi > Ur 

Now howpvfi when w 
lisboK'i > of uiar t \u 
7;itioi. ai d J v, (li 
post In whi 
iriv«'f 1 i was not 

ifL'ai. to it t! <'n' 

■ ars to 
a prin?, 
or I ^- 
all i • 
ttiui utue euu 
*H, therefore, not 
lor tlii'iii on other 
>se character from the 


«'ere mrived at the estab- 

witli a pmuauent organi- 
tion cuald no longer be 
■ag >hiril instruction be 
v qu. ion to decide. With 
ue of opinion among the 
ud w. On the one hand, it 
^'me* an was a L&o mission, the Lfio 
I" iO laiiiTuage of the schools. On 
jioiiited out the greater scope and 
■^ianH-ie, its assured supreu a-}, and 
> *■ the Lao throaghout the terri- 
'oi sHi at iast was compromised by 

conn Miiui. le a the Girls' School, and adopt- 

lD;r the Liio for tW tjf^> 
Seaatime it wa» desirabie to have some portions of 

yii*^. til 



the Scriptures in tlie Lao character; and, to accomplish 
this, the first requisite was a font of Lao type. To this 
end, on my first furlough in 1873, I went from North 
Carolina to New York, and not only spen."; some time, 
but was at some personal expense, in the effort to se- 
cure such a font. The American Bible Society voted 
a liberal sum for the puii)ose. Hut there tamed out 
to be some mechanical diflBculties to be overcome in 
maliing and using the type, which were beyond my 
skill to solve. So, lest the attempt should fail in my 
bands, I gave it up. And having accomplished nothing, 
I presented no bill of expense either to the Bible So- 
ciety or to the Board. 

There seemed, indeed, to be some fatality ::ttending 
onr efforts in this direction. Mr. Wilson, on the fur- 
lough from which he was but now returned, had gone 
further. He actually succeected in getting a font of 
Lao type. But the whole of it was lost, and never 
reached the mission.' It was not until Dr. Peoples' 
furlough in 1889 that we succeeded iu getting our pres- 
ent type. Meanwhile we bad nsed the Siamese Scrip- 
tures, with some present disadvantages, indeed, but with 
some advantages as well. Some of our first Christians 
were attracted to our religion by their desire to learn 
Siamese; and the Siamese Bible and catechism were 
our textbooks. And now, under Siamese rule, knowl- 
edge of the Siamese opens the way to promotion in the 
government service. Siamese alone is taught in the 

'Mr. Wilson brought only a few spoclmeiia with him. Ha 
writes :— •' The rei« of the typ« wu to be boied up tad lent to Mr. 

Cutter, and the boxes were to be put away In the store-room of the 
Mission Rooms at 28 Centre Sjtrti-t, and forwarded when called for. 
Thiy must have been lost wht n the Board moved from 88 Centie 
Street to the Lenox property, and then to 156 Fifth Avenue. 


government schools. Young monks are more eager to 
study Siamese than their own tongue. 

But the important thing, after all, wag that we had 
a school actually begun, and that there was teaching 
in both dialects. It was like a new beginning of our 
wori^ under conditions more favourable than at the 
first. For twelve years it had been a hard, and, some- 
times, an apparently hopeless struggle. Hut the his- 
tory of missions affords many similar instances with 
even fewer visible restilts. In twelve years we had 
gathered forty converts into the church. Some of these 
were among the most useful we have ever had in the 
history of the mission. It is hard to estimate rightly 
the importance of work spent on the foundations of 
snch an enterprise. ? ;;t now, with that church or- 
ganized, with the medical work well established, the 
evangelistic woi^ strengthened, and the initial school, 
begun long before by Mrs. McQilvary, placed on a per- 
manent basis, we could write in large letters on onr 
altar, " Jehovah-Nissi " — Jehovah our banner. 

In the early part of this year, 1879, twelve more 
persons were gathered into the church. One of them 
was Pa Sdng Bun, the poor woman accused of witch- 
craft, who, with so much dilBcnlty, was saved from 
her persecutors. Another was ilfm C, who was a 
daily visitor when we were here on our first tour of 
exploration. And another was our own dear little 
Margaret. Somewhat later there came to our notice 
one of the most interesting of all the incidents in the 
chequered history of our mission. One morning, on 
returning from my work in the city, I was told that 
a man had been waiting to see me, and was then talk- 
ing to Nan Inta. Stepping down to the house, where 


a number of persons hml collected. I saw a handsome 
man of medium height, buf of .stiikiuf,' fi-ure. larger 
and more portl.v than is usual among the Lao, and 
thirty three years old, as I learned. 
' ^'^^ fof" <'>J'^ ^vas tlie strangers name, said that 

not long after our lirst arrival in Cliiengmai, while he 
was yet a monk in the king s mouaslerv, he had vis- 
ited me, and was struck with those points in the teach- 
ings of Christianity wliich diflerentiate it from 
Buddhism. Ue received a copy of the Gosjit.! of Mat 
*hew in Siamese, learned a few verses, and took the 
" ^^^'^ ''^n^e with him to the monastery. Afterwards 

^ he visited me occasionally t(, tiiko a fiw fui (hor les- 

I sons in it. He was a prot^gr^ of Prince Kav. ilorot, who 

] paid the expenses of his entering the monastic order 

i He thus became the Prince's " Luk keo " > (jeiccl son) 

; in effect his adopted son. Not long after this he left 

I the priesthood, married, and settled out in the couu- 

I paid us a few visits from time to time, 

always, as he said, to talk on religion and to study 

When the order for the mnrder of the Christians was 
j given, a monk who was a friend (.f bis met him in the 

; streets, and asked whether he know that bis bouse was 

to be bnmed over his head, explaining that the i'rince 
had nourished him as a son, and now he had apostatized 
and joined the foreign religion. Advising him (o con- 
sider well and quickly, the priest hurried .»n. So it bad 
become known in the palace that he was visiting us 
and studying the Jesus religion. There was no time 
to be lost, not even io bid good bye to bis voung wife 
On that eventful Saturday afternoon, just before the 
> A dedgnation whose nearest paraUel in English la, perbapg. god- 



flight of our servants, he stopped at our door; but see- 
ing no one, he hastened on. On Sunday he secreted 
himself in a deserted monastery near the mountains. 
Next day he fell in with a company of traders, going 
to Ohieng RSi, six days' journey to the north, and 
travelled with them without making known what his 
errand was. At Ciiieuf,' Kfii he learned that the Chris- 
tians were put to death the day after he left. He was 
still within the Lao realm, and might be arrested. He 
made his way, therefore, to Keng Tung, in Burmese 
territory, ten or fifteen days' journey still further to 
the north. 

After remaining there some three years, he returned 
to Chieng Rai, where he heard of the death of 
KawilOrot and the accession of Trince Intanon. Still 
in fear, he pat»ed through the towns to the east of 
Chiengmai, venturing even as near as Lakawn. Then 
crossing the m Ping valley to the south of Chiengmai, 
he went beyond the Sal win into Burma, stopping 
awhile among the Bed Kar»ns, and then going on to 
llaulmein. Seeing there a foreigner's house, he en- 
quired if anything was known concerning the mis- 
sionaries in Zimme (Chiengmai). Nothing was known 
of them. Returning again to Siamese territory, he 
went to Raheng, thinking that he would go on to 
Bangkok. There, however, he was told that the mis- 
sionaries had gone back to the United States—in- 
formation baaed, no doabt, on our departure on fur- 

During bis lo"g wanderings he had made friends as 
he could, anr ^ ipport hinwelf had sometimes turned 

peddler. Iii .aste of his flight from home he had 
taken nothing »,ith him except his copy of the Gospel 
of Matthew in Siamese. He could not read it well, but 

he kept it as a kind of talisman till it ^ 
-orn. Ho had learned to pZ ^'Jl J"" 

return <il] he heard of fhl L- ^ ^® 
'^garded it a Zt^ J^'l^^^^^ He 
Btrange to say haj nlT; P'-ov'-denr. that his wife, 

ar^erls Hir^tt'frnr;;^:^^^ a'r ^'^^•"^ '"^^^ 

<lesire was uud.s.and . I th^t tr 

Gospel of Matthew / " ' * ^^^^^ ^8 

spared and kent for 1 •'"^""^ 

P-od. slnJri .'^rr^^-t'-- And so it 

a fine l^uddhist sch^ar T '''''' ^« '^^^ 

«o that I miJh hat h ""''''''■"^ *«'«^her. 

tory interested and attraotro'he« k ''t 

member, as a ruling elder and If t ^ 
dained minister, he was a Zl «° o^ 

the Ca.v when he was Taken r iJ"" ''•"^^'^ 
Gospel from hi! Z "nd ^' ^honsands heard the 

~ h. hVii?: -r th??!^^^^^^ 

things which alarmed Kawilr.rot If la u^^^ 
acute attack of pneumonia made a 


longer stay in the country impogsible. My dangbter 

Cornelia was taken ill at the same tinuj So, witli 
but little preitaiati(jn, on DecemlK^r 2Stl(, 187!), both 
mother and daiij^hter were carried iu chairs to the 
boat, and we iiassleued out of the country. Stopping 
in Bangkok only a few days, we embarked for Hong- 
kong. We met the Cliiua Sea in its worst mood. For 
three days and nights we did not see the captain's face ; 
neither did he see sun, moon, or stars in that most 
dangerous tract of the sea. The skylight was fastened 
down, for the waves swept the vessel from stem to 
atem. We were good sailors; but we could not but 
pity the one hundied and twenty Chinese steerage 
passengers, allowed ou deck only a few moments twite 
a day for a breath of air, after which Ihey had almost 
to be forced back into their hole again. There was 
withal just enough of the spice of danger to make the 
sight of Victoria Peak at last doubly welcome. 

By this time my family were all so much improved 
by the journey that there was question whether 1 
should proceed with them, or should return to Chieng- 
niai for another year's work. It was evident that, in 
order to regain her strength, Mrs. McGilvary would 
require a longer stay in the United States tijau one 
year. I could neither spare the time for so long a 
furlough for tuyself, nor could I expect the Board to 
grant it. The (juestion was not an easy one; but we 
decided at last that my wife and children should con- 
tinue their journey to the United States, and that I 
should return to Cliiengmai alone. 

During my few days' stay in Bangkok, through the 
kindness of our Consul, I had an audience with His 
Ma^ty the King. I desired to express to him in 


person uiy tliankH for the Edict of Toleration. After 
some ivnarks addressed to A» other i^tlemen pres- 
ent, the KinR asked me if I were not, duriiij^ IIh* previ- 
ous month, the bearer of despat« heK from his ^ oinnii.s- 
sioner in the Nortli — showing that he did not >verlo4>k 
small matters, as a king mi|^ he expected t» do. Re 
enquired how T liked the Coiiiniissionfr, w : iier 1 
preached in Siamese or in Lao, iiuw many converts 
we had, etc., etc. It was a very pleasant inter- 

As I iisoeiided tlie river, if became plain liiat the 
water was too low to permit the latter stage of the 
trip to be Bade in my large boat. At (>hiengmai I 
should iiud a bouse, but not a home. Hefore I could 
reach it, the touring season would be nearly over. 
The thought of stopping a season for W(irk at Kahtog 
strack me favourably. The more I considered it, the 
more attractive it became. To be sui-e. 1 bad not s«;- 
Gured the sanction of the mission to that particular 
enterprise; but I had always been allowed to choose 
my own touring ground. An otticer. Sen r'tamri, of- 
fered me a site for a bamboo bouse gratis; and before 
I had announced my final decision, be and others be- 
gan to cut bamboo on it to build the house. I had 
asked for guidance, and the question seemed to settle 

I cannot dwell on the interesting six months of the 
year 1880 spent there. Sen Utauja was interested 
from the first. liy aflliction be biid been wonderfully 
prepared for, and seemed to be waiting for, the very 
consolation that the Gospel offered him. An ez-taz- 
collector. a (Miines«' i-f some influence, was in the same 
state of mind, and soon joined the other as an en- 
quirer. My student, Noi lutacbak, entered heartily 


into the work. So(*n, with niv cook iind boy. we had 
the nucleus of quite an interesting congregation who 
attended worship twice a day. It was a delight to 

teach them. 

The case of the Chinese was deeply interesting. He 
believed the Gcspel plan of salvation, and was deeply 
anxious to be saved from his sin and its pnnishment. 
Rut there was one serious obstacle in the way of his 
making an open profession — he had two wives. The 
real wife — the one he had formally married — was child- 
less. Tlio one he had bought was younger, and had two 
lovable little children, both girls. I recall almost with 
tears the burning questionings we had over that situa- 
tion. He seemed willing to make any self-sacrifioe that 
duty required. Hut what was duty? Should he di- 
vorce one of them? If so, which one? " Of course, he 
must keep the real one," you will say. But what of 
the young mother and the helpless babes? Hie very 
mention of their being turned adrift, even with a 
dower, had produced a scene in the family. The 
poor woman felt quite unable to care for the children 
alone. The children were his children. It might easily 
have been the ruin both of mother and babes to put 
her aw.iy. My heart was not hard enough to advise 
that. Surely the man had not cut himself off from 
the hope of salvation by Iiis past— by an error or sin of 
ignorance. The conditions of church-membership are 
faith and repentance. The sacraments of the church 
are baptism and the Lord's Supper. Shall we offer a 
man the pardon of hh- nin without its sacramental 
seals? — the glorious hope of endless fellowship in 
heaven, but not the communion of saints on earth? 
A precisely parallel case I had met before in the per- 
son of a native doctor at Mtiang Awo. " What then," 


the reader will ask, " did you do? " Why, in each case 
I just (lid IK. thing. I followed the letter of the law, 
and baptized neither one. But " the letter killeth; the 
spirit nialioth alive." 

In doe time 8*n Utamfi and a nephew of the Chinese 
woro baptized. An interesting tour was made up the 
river. Kut tJie station in (niiengniai was feeling the 
pressure of the growing worlc. In July, 1880, the 
church of Bethlehem was organized, and there were 
proniisinfi ()i)oninf;s in (ither districts. It was evident 
that the IJoard was not in a condition to consider a 
permanent station in Rahteg. It would have been an 
interesting field for permanent occupation; but for 
temporary work, I had Imm there as long a time 88 
we could atlord t(t spend in one place. 

Jost then Praya SThanat— the officer from Lakawn 
who, two vears iHjfore, had greeted me with " Eph- 
phatha "—invited me to return with him. His ears 
were not opened, but his heart was. Ue had taught the 
Christian faith to his wife and children and a few 
others, nnd among these was a fellow ex-offlcer. He 
wished with them (o receive further and fuller instruc- 
tion, and to be taken into the fellowship of the church. 
Without waiting to ascertain whether I could go, he 
was come with a boat to bring me. This seemed 
to me the guiding hand of providence, and I fol- 
lowed it. 

Since a single boat cannot a.^cend the rapids with- 
out the help of another boat's crew, we made arrange- 
ment., to join forces with another party, and maL.^. 
the trip together. The night before we were to start, 
the river, w' it h had been stoadil.v rising, became a flood 
so strong that my host dared not face it in his small 
craft. Our companions, however, did not wait for na, 


but went on us they bad plunned. We waited ten 
days for another party, as well as for the river to go 
duwn. Imagine my sensatioDs, tlien, when, presently, 
we learned that the captain and owucr of tlie principal 
boat in the flotilla with which we had planned to make 
the trip, was shot and killed, and his boat was 
plundered! A band (»f dacoits secreted themselves be- 
hind a cluster of trees where the channel runs close 
to the bank, shot the steersman at his oar, and then had 
the boat at their mercy. Since all foreigners are sup- 
posed to carry money, the attack may well have been 
inten^led for me. Earlier in that same year, while 
returning alone to Rahtog, I came near being en- 
trapped by a similar band. 

The visit to Lakawn was interesting and profitable. 
Ten days were spent with the new converts. While 
my friend, the Prayil, had been busy, the devil had not 
been idle. One of the princes had threatened to have 
one of his head men flogged if be joined the Christians. 
Bnt before we teft, a chnrch was organized, with Prayft 
SIhanfit as elder. 

From Lakawn I took elephants to Chiengraai, and 
spent the last Sunday of my trip with Nun Inta and 
the newly organized chnrch of Bethlehem, named after 
Mr. Wilson's old church in Pennsylvania. Nan Inta 
was waiting for me where the road to bis village turned 
off from the main route. On Christmas day following 
this, Mr. Wilson, Dr. Cheek, and Miss Cole organized 
yet another church at M^ Dawk Deng, where Nan Su- 
wan had been doing faithful work. In both these cases 
the persecution for supposed witchcraft had furnished 
a good nucleus for the church, which thereafter the 
Edict of Toleration protected from expulsion. 

All the departments of our work., medical, educa- 


tionil, eviinRt'listii', wen- prosiwrlng. Nfin Tft, the 
loUK tiiiu' wanderer, wti.s beiouiiug a power second only 
to Nun Juta, and destined ultimately to 8urpa88 him. 
Like him, he waH a man of tliie uddremi and bearing, 
and aK'X'd Mudilliist sdioliir; l>iit lie was tiiurli younfjcr. 
lieing, moreover, tlie sun of a I'ravfi -tlie liigliest grade 
of L&o ofBcer»— be bad an influence with the nobility 
sut'h as no other of our Christians liad. In the clnin li 
he l)egan to show a capat it.v nnd jiower sach as prob- 
ably no ot!ier person has exercised. 

Meanwhile Mr. Wilson was working on plans for a 
building for the *)\vW High School. Already the 
school numbered forty-two pupils, but with no place 
in which to teach them save the teacher's house. The 
season had been very hard od Miss Campbell's health. 
She was very yuun^, nud had come direct to ('liicnf^- 
mai from the seminary without any period of rest, and 
with a constitution by no means robust. The mission 
voted her a trip to Haugk<»li for rest. Little did we 
think when we bade her good-bye that we should see 
her face no more. 

Financially for me the year had been the hardest 
in my life. With all the econoinv we could use — and 
we did not spend a useless [)enny — it seemed impossible 
for me to keep my fauiily going. When we left Ghieag- 
mai we had overdrawn onr salary, and the amount had 
to be made up that year. This condition was one of 
the straws that helped to determine me to stop over 
in Bahtog. I could live more cheaply there; in fact, 
conld hardly spend money there if I wished to. In 
only one matter had I been greatly disappointed in 
Kah^ng ; I hoped to be in somewhat closer commnnica- 
tion with my family, about whom I still felt some 
anxiety. I wm, indeed, nearer them in space, but it 


j.n.vel iinnli I'nrtlicr in time. The lin-ROst mail of the 
^vi'ur imssed on up to Chiengumi, and was sent back, 
reaching Rahtog jnat after I bad left the place. It 
flnnlly i t-ached me in CUengmai on the last day of the 
year 188U! 



MY ho.iltli lintl hpen such tliut I hoped I might 
mU'\\ fiueg(. my furlough, and have my wife 
and our yoongeiit child return to (^hiengmai 
alone. .Mv wife, iifu-r tin«lin}; a liome for a while with 
hpr bn.tlM I, I'rolesHor Bradley, in Oakland, had gone 
on in the npriu},' to North Carolina. Bnt Rhe waa not 
gaining much in streugtL. and plainly retjuircil another 
year. My own heultli was U(»t s(» jjood as it was at 
the hegiuuing of t' .• year. Ceitaiu nymptoms gave lue 
anxiety, and decided me to delay my own furloui^ 
no lunger. If it wuh lu In- taken at all, the sooiior the 
Ix'tter. Ho ou March l-'ih, 1881, I started for the 
United States. The furlough which was now begin- 
ning ended twenty-three yeara of iier?ice in the general 
Held of Siani. and fourft'cn vctus spent among the Lao. 

I had proceeded down the river but a few days, when 
a passing Iwat brought the astounding intelligoice of 
the tragic deitlli of our esteeuietl and youngest co- 
labourer. Miss Mary Caiiipbell, Wliat words can ex- 
press the shock I received! The uew.s was confirmed 
a few days later by Dr. Cheek, whom I met on the 
river. At this distance it is unnecessary tn enlarge 
on the particulars of the sad catastrophe. Indeed, it 
was all so sudden that there were few particulars to 
relate. Dr. Cheek had gone down to Bangkok on 
business soon after Miss f 'ampbell left n«. and now was 


returning with Miw* ('lunplicU under his twort. A( 
the e\tm of a hot day'* run, the boatH !n.y inoctrpd by 
a aand-bar for the night. Tlicy hntl liail Ihoir cvrninn 
iiu'iil and worship togothor. in-, riu-ok hait tnkon his 
bath in tii« river, bud (.'xuiuineu the bur, und notttled 
Mim Campbell ho-v far it wan safe to venture In 
taking here. But .omchow nIk' ' titmed out too far 
— to a depth from wliich only anjjelic arms could re- 
ceive her to a shore where there is no more death. 

The brave effort of her L&o maid, Kam Tip, and Dr. 
Chct k's nnsiicics f s' ciii li till lonj; after life nnist 
have iKcn extinct, were well known at the lime. 8he 
bad ; t juat come to her choaen field of work, in the 
bloom of youth and in the full ardour of her first con- 
vo('rati(»n, little thinkiUR that her work was to b<' so 
hoon and so sadly closed. Uer last written words to 
a friend, with the ink on them scarcely dry before her 
death, were: " Bn* : am not ! for I l ave found in 
ny dear Lao girls, Bftk . ^ydiu Tip, and in Nan TS, 
my teacher, more company . ' ever expected. 1 
wish I could Iced them to . ♦ - ' > n •enough for yon to 
know than." 

It will be evident to all that in 1^1 the work in • 
force of the mission was entirely inadetpiate r«)r ot 
cnpvins and cultivating lli<> broad and inviting field, 
now opened to us an never liefore. The medical wark, 
constantly enlarging, occupied tbf physician's whole 
time. Mr. Wilson's physical < . .iition, never very 
!-tn>T)fr. confined hln labours to the station and its 
inimediate vicinity. The attention which these alone 
required would more than fill one maa's time. The 
death of Miss Campbell niado iirii-crative " associate 
for Miss Cole. So, even if the trip to ilie United 


Stales had not been rendereii iniporative by considora- 
tions of my own health, the best interests of the work 
itself seemed to demand that soine one shoald go to 
8eek reinforcement by direct and personal appeal to 
the church at home. 

As 'or Mrs. McGilvary, after si^nding the spring 
of 1880 with her brother in Oakland, California, she 
came on with our younper s(»n to Stutesville, Nort'i 
Carolina, where she could be with our daughters, and 
not far from nor elder uon in Davidson College. 

On my arrival in New York, 1 hastened on at once 
to North Caroliua, where 1 sjient tlie summer with 
my family and friends, lecturing from time to time in 
the chnrcbes. The fall of this year I spent in Texas 
and Arkansas, visitinp relatives and friends who liad 
migrated thither from the family nest in North Caro- 
lina. In Texas I attended the meeting of the South- 
ern Synod, and both there and elsewhere I found many 
opportunities for pi-esenting the ciuse of foreign mis- 
8ioni<; and everywhere I encountered v.arm reception 
and eager interest in the work among the L&o. In the 
winter I came nortli to visit tl • Theological Sem- 
inaries, and to enlist men for the Lao mission. On 
my way 1 stiipiied in Oxford, Ohio, where 1 met Miss 
Lizzie Westervelt (afterward Mrs. Stanley K. 
Phraner), then in her senior year in Miss Peabody's 
Seminary, and preparing for missionary work among 
the Lfto, upon which she entered in the following year. 
This was the sciiool which had givm ns Mim Mary 
Campbell and Miss I^lna Cole a few years before. 

While waiting for the Theological Seminaries to re- 
open after the Christmas recess, I was tie guest of 
my wife's cousins at Castletcm Corners, Staten Island. 
There I had the very pleasant experience of observing 


"Watch Night" with tlie Moravian Church, of which 
my friaida were aembera. They called on the Lao 

missir.naiy for an account of his experience in the field. 
In that, of course, there was nothing remarkable. But 
near the cloae of the next year, when writing to the 
fanjily, I allnded to the pleasant memory of Watch 
Night and sent my greetings to the church with a re- 
quest to be remembered in their prayei-s. Instead of 
giving my message yerlwlly, my friends read the letter 
II. self, and it seemed to be appreciated. The imit was 
that the Lao letter came to be looked for regularly as a 
part of the watch service, and one was sent to them 
every year— if I were on the field— for seventeen years. 
It was a comfort to know that special juayer was al- 
ways offercHl for us by that great missionary church 
as the old year was dying, and the new year was com- 
ing in. 

The Professors at Princeton, Union, and Allegheny 
all gave their cordial endorsement and aid to me in 
my efforts to secure men. *• We want you to get our 
best men," they said, and the Lord gave them to ns. 
From I'rinceton came Chalmers Martin of the senior 
class. He had been chosen, however, for the Hebrew 
Fellowship, and was, therefore, delayed a year before 
entering npon his missionary work. Though his career 
in the Lfto field was a 8h(»rt one, he left a lasting 
mait there, as we shall see. Allegheny gave us Rev. 
K c. Peoples. M.I)., and his brother-in-law, Rer. J. H. 
Hearst. Dr. Peoples' how still abides in strength. 
His double preparation both as a minister and as a 
physician, gave him nnasual equipment for the work 
be has a.coinpIi.shed. Mr. Hearst, however, soon snc- 
cumlK'd to the Chiengiiiai clitnati'. 

Union gave us that couseciated young man, Mc- 


Laren, who chose the great city of Ban^ok— a fitting 
field for him, since his broad sympathies were bounded 
by no one race >r people. His career also was cut 
sliort witliiu a few uionlbs by cboleia, c«mtracted while 
ministering to dying seamen in the hai^oaor Coring a 
severe epidemic of the disease. 

The Northwestern Woman's Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions was then, as it has been since, a great centre of 
missionary euthusiasui. It bad sent out Miss ('ole and 
Miss Caiiipbell; and unw tiie sudden death of tlic la! 
ter had <aused its interest and that of the Chicago 
ehnrches to concentrate npon the Ltio mission. It was 
to this combination of tinuinslanccs that I was in- 
debted for an invitation to attend its Annual Meeting 
in Minneapolis, and to s|jeali there. Then the appoint- 
ment of Dr. L. E. Wishard's daughter (afterwards Mrs. 
l>r. Fulton of rant(»n, (Miiua), and that of Miss Sadie 
Wirt (Mrs. Dr. fcs. C. I'eoples), from his church in 
Chicago, gave me a pleasant visit in the Doctor's fam- 
ily both as I went up to Minneapolis and as I re- 
turned. On a Siindiiy at Lake Forest, between the 
Sunday School, the I niversity, tlie Ladies' Seminary, 
and the church, the Lao Mission had four bearings. 
At Minneapolis we learned tliiit Miss Warner from the 
Northwestern Woman's I'.oard. and Miss Griffin from 
the Southwestern, were also ajipointed to our mission, 
and Miss Linneil to Lower Siam. This completed our 
number. tlii> larp-st ri>iaforcement the mission has ever 
received at one time. 

After the adjournment of the Northwestern Board, 
a Sunday was s(.«'Ut wilh the family and the church of 
Miss Mar\ Canipitell After li;it, appointments with 
other rhiirt lies tilled up uiy time till the nieelinj; of the 
Qeneral AssemMy is Springfield, Illinois, which I at- 



tended, thoagh not as a delegate. Our Proshytcrr of 
North Laos bad not then been organized, <ind Dr. IC. P. 
Dunlap was the rcprospntiitivc of ilio Proslntorv of 
Siam. At that meeting it m'iiu'<i tu nie tluit a golden 
opportnnitj was miraed for drawing together in a 
closer union the Northem and tlic Soutliern branches 
of the Pri sbvtoriiin t'hiirch. The oiitconic threw tlie 
Southern ihurtli, nuah more weakened by the war 
than the Northern, on its own resources. In profior- 
tion to its financiiil strcii'ith. it has (h'Vt'1o])<'d into one 
of the Htrongest missionary cliurches in the land, both 
as regards the home worlc and the foreign. Meantime, 
with the growth of the country generally, the Northern 
Assembly is Ikti ming too unwieldy a bofly for its best 
eflSciency. 1 believe the time will lomc when there 
will be three Assemblies rather than one, with a 
triennial Assembly of all on a basis of representation 
agreed njion by the three — somewliat after the plan 
of the Method'st and the Episcopal chuiches; or, more 
nearly still, after the plan of the Pan-Presbyterian 

In duties and pleasures such as have just been de- 
scribed, the time slipped by till it was the fith of 
June. 1SS2, before I again reached my family in Slates 
ville. We were to start Lfio ward almnt the middle of 
July. Sly furlough en<led with a visit to my old charge 
at Union, to attend the dedication of a new church 
there, and to see my old friends once more. 

We began to gather up our scattered forces at Chi- 
cago, where the Fifth Church gave to its pastor's 
daughter, and to the rest of us there present, a hearty 
farewell. The others of onr liirge party j.iined us at 
dilierent points on our route across the continent. Dr. 
Eugene P. Dunlap and his family, also returning from 


furlough, were the very last to join us, just in time to 
sail with us from San Francisco. 

A miBsionary's vacation is very delightful, but the 
last day of it — tlie day that brings him hark to his 
home and his work — is the best of it all. Tho small 
Bangkok steamers of those days could not furnish ac- 
commodation for our whole party at once. Some of 
us were, therefore, compelled to lie over at Canton — 
a circumstance which changed the ultimate locution of 
one of our young ladies to the Canton mission, just as 
a previous successor to Miss Campbell had in a sim- 
ilar manner been changed to another station in China. 
But where there are young folks, such accidents will 

At Bangkok our United States Consul, Cioneral 
Partridge, arranged for us an audience witi; the King. 
His Majesty gave us a cordial reception, espicssiug his 
gratification at seeing so many American missionarim 
coming to his country; since he knew that they came 
to instruct his iieople, and to make them more in- 
telligent and better citizens. 

Reinforcements surely had not come too soon. Dr. 
Wilson, Mrs. Cheek, and .Miss Cole were the only mis- 
sionaries on the tield when we i-eturned; for Dr. Cheek 
was absent on business. It was now four years since 
the proclamation of religious toleration; and for the 
first time was there prospect <.f workers enough to make 
any use of the advantages it oft'ered. 

But had we relied too much on human aid? Were 
we too much elated in view of our present numbers, 
with Mr. Martin to foilow the next year? After a 
short stay in Bangkok, we reached Cbicngmai in the 
midst of one of those violeni epidemics of fever by 
which the lAo country was then, perhaps, more fre- 


qiipntl.v visilid than if ig now. Mr. and Mrs. Hearst 
and Miss ^^■arne^ were Koon prostrat<-d with tho dis 
ease, and at one time, out «>f ihe wiiole luission, scarcely 
enough were left to care for the sick. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hearst soon decided to ^ive up tlie sfrup};le and with- 
draw from tiie field. Miss Warner continued lonRfr, 
but ultimately she, too, retired with broken heaifh 
As already stated, Mr. McLaren died of cholera after 
a few hours' Rickness in Hanfjkok. (Jod was leaching 
us that it is not by nught nor by power, but by My 
Spirit, saith Jehovah." 

Soon other ( (niiplicalions arose. Smallpox was 
brought by pupils into the Girls' School, and, to our 
consternation, Miss Griffin fell a victim. She had been 
vaccinated in her childhood, but was not revaccinated 
on leavin<i home— which is always a wise precaution 
for those expecting to travel or to live in the East. 
Proper measures prevented further spread of the dis- 
ease; md though our patient had a rather hard at- 
tack, yet she made good recovery. 

During our absence, the church had sustained a great 
loss in the death of Nin Inta, our first convert and as- 
sistant. Hot liis works d(» follow him, and his life 
will long continue to be a precious legacy to the Lao 
church. He lived, however, until others were ready to 
take his place. NHn 8! Wichai, who long had been 
Dr. Chej'k's teacher, was a stronj,' character, and he was 
ordained as au elder. Nfm Ta, also, who had wandered 
so far and so long after the persecution, was growing 
fo le a power in the church, ami afterwards had the 
honour of becoming the first ordained minister amonff 
the Lfto. 



ON the 26th of Febmar;?, an KrM Indian 

apjH'art'd on nm- vi i.imlii wiili an iiii(X|iftlrd 
nolc from rii.v did kik-sI :m<l I'nciiti, iWv. I>r. .F. 
N. Cushinj; of the Aiiifiritan HapliMl Shan Mission. 
The stirprine and pleasnre of a visit from him and Mrs. 
<'nsliiug in tin- rarl.v iiiid loncsuinc davs of ilir iiii-siun 
iiavo alivad.v been refirml to. Tlie note lold us iliat 
lie was now connei ted, uh interpreter, with a unrvcv iny 
expedition under 0<»lt 8. Hallett, E8*|.. and Uiai the 
party would arrive in ( 'liii-nfrniai on the luliowinn day. 
The railroad fur which Mr. llallelt was survey ing a 
route was part of a scheme, then on foot, to baild a 
road fn»ni .Manlinein to ( 'hicnfiniai, thei-e to (oniict t 
with n roiid frtun Hanfikok. throiiyh tiie Lfto country, 
to ("itifuj? Sen, and, if successful, to l>e continued up 
to Yunnan, China. For some reason ♦he scheme was 
not carried out, ttiil the prosiicct of ;inv mud to cnnnoct 
our iholated field with ilie outside world was attractive 
to us. 

The party arrived ilie next day; and since it would 
lie very inionveiiieul for Mr. Ilailell t<; he separatwl 
from Dr. l ushing, we foun«l room in oui house for 
Mr. Hallett also, and had a fine visit with both. They 
soon began to tempt me to join ilieii expediti^m. All 
*X('< Hses were to lie paid. They 'vere not to travel on 
tsunUay. Their intended route, through the towns and 


A sL'KVi:viN<J i:xri:i»iTH)N 

villagM on tho wiiy to ('lii('n)>; liai :in<l CliifiiK S<*n, aud 
southward aguin to Lukuwu, wuh uvlt gruund 1 wuh 
anxiom to travel once more. The trip would give om 

:\ long and prulUablc visit witli iiiv rrii-iid, Dr. ('iishing. 
liut, b(>HideH all iiersouul cuiisiderutiuUM, it seemed 
right to give a little aid tu an enterprise that would 
redound to the good of the country. 

Our Chit'nninai I'rince, then <iuitf old, was most iu- 
crediiluUH uh to the powtibiiitieH of the wonderful rail- 
road. In hiH book, A Thouaand Milet of» on Elephant 
in thf Shan Stnti/>, Mr. Hullett has n'wen an aiiinsiug 
iirnniiil of his llrst iulerviow witii the I'rince. lie had 
great ditliculty in understunding huw a train eouid 
more faster than poniee, or bow it could move at all 
without l)eing drawn liy some animal. .\nd how could 
it aHcend the hills? For it would nurely slide down 
unlesa it were pulled up. " I ex{)lained to him that I 
bad made three railways in England, therefore be 
might rely upon what I had said. Railways were 
made in various parts <jf the world over much more 
difficult bills than those lying between Zimme (Chieng- 
mai) and Maulniein. ... lie seemed (luite stupefied 
l»y the revclatif>n. It might be so — it must be so, as I 
had seen it ; but he could not understand how it could 
be. He was very old; he could not live much longer. 
He hojK'd wr would he quick in setlinn alMiu) and con 
structing the line, as otherwise he would not have the 
pleasure of seeing it." 

We started at last on March 3d, 1884, with four 
lari^c ridinjj elephants, four pack elciihanls. and u\\- 
merous carriers, making forly-t»ne persons in all. The 
passport from the Siamese government, supplemented 
l)y one from the acting Connnissioiier. and the jn est nee 
with us of a L&o official of some rank, sent to see that 






the orders were carried out, secured for us men and 
elephants and all necessary equipments, so I'ar as the 
country could furnish them. The local ollicials were 
usually very kind, and as prompt as native oflScials 
ever were in those days. Mr. Hallett was very con- 
siderate in arranging to stop for the night and on 
Sundays near large villages and towns, where a little 
missionary work could be done. In the cities where 
there were Christians, we held regular serviros on 
Sundays. On these occasions our chief gave the in- 
fluence of his presence, though, of course, he could 
not understand what was said. 

On this trip ve had a good opportunity for studying 
the characteristics of the elephant. He is very con- 
scious of his dignity, and must be treated with the 
respect due to a king, and not with the familiarity of 
an equal. Yet one is amused at his timidity. I my- 
self have seen one ready to stampede if a squirrel or 
a big rat ran across the road in front of him. Mr. 
Hallett says: " Elephants, though immense in size, are 
very timid, and easily startled. We had to take them 
vft the path and turn their heads away into the 
jungles, whenever we heard the tinkling hells of an ap- 
proaching caravan; and they will turn tail and run at 
the sight of an audacious little dog that thinks fit to 
bark at them." 

On sonie of the stages of our march, when we had a 
mother-elephant in our company, we had the mis- 
chievous youngster along. Such are always an un- 
ceasing source of amusement. One of lliese seemed to 
have a special spite against Mr. llallett's Madras boy, 
either because of his peculiar dress, or for some lib- 
erty he had taken with him. Mr. Hallett writes : " The 
little elephant was taking every chance he could get 


to bustle the men over as they forded the streams, and 

in souse ♦lipin with water from his trunk. Portow, 
who had an overweening opinion of his own dignity, 
and was bent on setting up as an oracle, was, unfor- 
tunately, the butt of the boys, but was likewise the 
sport of the baby-elephant. Many a time have I seen 
him hustled over by the youngster, wlio seemed to 
have picked him out as his playmate. Slyly and softly 
stealing up behind, be would suddenly increase his 
pace, and, with a (inick slniflie or a sudden lurch, 
shoulder him sprawliug to the ground. Portow, dur- 
ing this part of the journey, behaved like a hunted man, 
ever looking behind to see whether the dreadful infant 
was behind." 

My friend. Dr. Gushing, who had been put in charge 
of the train, and our prince-guide, both believed in the 
oriental idea of making an impression by as imposing 
a pageant as possible. On nearing Chieng Rai, they 
marshalled us in procession, so that we enter^ the 
city in state, with ten armed men leading the way. 
Possibly it had its desired effect, for a warm welcome 
was given us, and every aid was granted. 

In the eleven years since my first visit there with 
Dr. Vrooman, the city had grown in size. The fertil- 
ity of its soil and the large extent of its arable land 
were sure to attract still larger population from the 
south. In addition to these natural advantages, it had 
then another strong claim for a mission station. While 
all the other Lao states, through their rulers, submit- 
ted to the introduction of Christianity rather than wel- 
comed it, C'hieng Bfli and Thieng 8to were exceptions. 
The rulers of both desired the presence of the mission- 

The Sunday spent there was a welcome day of rest. 


The week had been a strenuous one. In the morning 
we held a puMic service -the first ever held there. 
Mr. nallett and our prince guide attended, sind curi- 
osity collected quite a congregation. After tiffin, Dr. 
Gushing and I spent several hours— the first quiet ones 
wo had had— reading in the monastery grounds at the 
great bend of the river. 

That evening I met the governor at home and, save 
for the presence of his wife, alone. His intelligent 
enquiries as to ,lie truths and teachings of our religion 
showed that he had already thought much on the 
subject. Krii Nan Ta and he were not very distant 
relatives, and had had m. oy conversations on the sub- 
ject. His regard for our mission and his earnest 
desire for a mission station, as well as the protection 
he afterwards gave the Christian^ when they were 
wronged, had, 1 believe, a deeper foundation than an 
intellectual interest, or even a personal friendship 
for ns. 

Our next stage was Chieng Sen. There Nan Suwan, 
our ruling elder, and his family gave us a warm wel- 
come. He met us at the city gate, hardly hoping there 
would be a missionary in the expedition, which, rumour 
told him, was coming. His house stood on the bank of 
the river, just where Dr. Vrooman and 1 landed thir- 
teen years before, when the only occupants were wild 
beasts. The new settlers had been so busy providing 
housing and sustenance for themselves, that only one 
monastery building had been roofed, and only a por- 
tion of its images stored under shelter. Our old 
friend the pivernor had cmly a bamboo residence. Nan 
Suwan had made friends by the help of the quinine 
with which he had been supplied, and he had the best 
house in the city. It served, also, as a chapel, in 


which, with grateful hearts, we worshipped on 

The governor was even more insistent in his demand 
for a mission station than the governor of Chieng Kai 
had been. He even offered to send down elephants to 
move us up, if we would come. His was not the <:eep 
religious nature of the Chieng Rai governor. He pos- 
sibly belioved that in their sphere all religions were 
alike good. He urged, as he had done before, that we 
might even then forestall the monasteries and pre- 
occupy the field. Nothing would have pleased me 
more, had it been possible, than to accept the cordial 
invitation. It was true, as the governor said, " The 
people must and will have some religion. If you do 
not give them Christianity, they must take Buddhism." 
It was only necessity that could resist such a plea. 
But half a loaf is better than no bread. If we were 
not ready to start a regular station in Chieng Sfin, we 
must somehow work the lield as best we could. That 
consideration determined my long tours in the dry sea- 
sons of the years that followed. 

Up to this time I had never been properly equipped 
and outfitted for such tours. One outcome of this trip 
was a gi-eat improvement in my means of transporta- 
tion for the future. An application made long before 
this to the Board for an elephant, had been received as 
a huge joke. But now it happened that in the assign- 
ment of elephants for our upward trip, a large sadaw — 
a male without tusks — had fallen to me. lie proved to 
be an exceptionally fine beast belonging to an estate 
abont to be divided. He must be sold, and was held at 
a very ( heap figure. With the help of a contribution by 
Mr. Hallett, and the hire paid for its use, T was able to 
purchase it. The deputy governor gave me a good how- 

dah for it. I was as proud of luy new aciui.Ui.m a« 
fver a boy was of a new toy. But since few elephants 
wTu travel well aloue, 1 now needed a mate for hirn^ 
Before long I was fortunate enough to get a cheap and 
STua ly go^ female. I was then prepare, for n.y Ion. 
^urs. I could cross streams in safety, nd I. 
tected from rain, even if my journey were prolonged be- 
yond the limits of the dry season. 

On our return journey, in Mflang Payao we came m 
contact with tue worst epidemic ^"^^I'l'^^/J;"!,^ 
have ever seen. We met it at everv turn in the street. 
With difficulty could we keep pare, ts with children, all 
broken out with the disease, in their arms, from crowd^ 
LTround us in our sala. We had hardly taken our 
Belts on the rugs spread for us at the gove^ors of^ 
flcial reception of Mr. Hallett, when wo d.soovered 
ca OS of smallpox all ahout us. Dr. Cushmg was 
nervously afraid of it, and retired. I had to remam 
au hour as interpreter. Imagine our constornat.on on 
reaching the next station 1o find that the Doo or 
sLowed unmistakable signs of having ^'ontracted the 
dreadful disease, although he had been vaccmat^ xn 
his youth. What a discovery to he made on a jm r^ 
ney, and four days from home! On consultatum it was 
thoWht best to hasten on to Chiengmai, a thing which 
our mode of travel made possible. Mr. and Mrs. u V 
a«rs Martin had arrived during our ..bseiice, and had 
taken up their <,uarters in our house. l^J^^^^^^^^ 
fore, impossible to take our sick friend in We did 
he kext best thing, and gave him a new han boo hou e 
on our hospital lot, where Dr. Peoples carefully 
watched over him till he made a rapid recovery, and 
was able to return home in a boat as far as H-'"?'^^^, 
and thence by see. f>ia Singapore. It was a sad close, 



however, to our pleasant visit together, and to our 
otherwise interesting and profitable tour. 

I returned from Chieng S^n, as we have seen, with 
an elephant of my own. On reaching home I found 
awaiting me the best puny I ever had. It was sent 
to me as a present from the governor of Elawng 
Sawn, near the Halwin River. I had never been to M6 
Uawng Sawn, and bad but a very limited acquaintance 
with the governor. According to my uniform custom 
in those days, on his official visits to Chiengmai, T bad 
twice called upon him as the governor of a neighbour- 
ing province. On both occasions we had conversation 
on the different merits of the two religions. On one 
of these visits be had brought down some ponies to sell, 
and on my asking the price of one he said, " I am 
very sorry that I have sold all my gentle oitea. There 
is only one left. If you can use him, I shall be glad 
to give him to you." It is a McGilvary trait not to 
be timid about horses, and 1 said, " I will try him." 
So the pony was sent down to my house ; but he proved 
rather too much for my horsemanship. The first time 
I mounted him, be threw me and sprained my wrist. 
It was the unanimons vote of the family that he be 
returned with thanks. The governor sent back word 
that he was very sorry; but never mind; when he 
reached home he would see to it that I bad a good 
pony — a message which, I am sorry to say, I took as a 
good oriental compliment. I had even forgotten all 
about the matter, when, on my return from this trip, 
I found the pony in my stable. He was a most 
valuable and timely present. 

But we art not quite done with Mr. Hallett's sur- 
vey. He made a short excursion without an inter 

preter to the hot springs. Kut his final tni. was be 
?o Mflan, Fans, six days to the north an*!;;^^ 
route p..'viously taken, and distant Bome e gb y- 
miles from ChicrigmaL His object was to the re 

were not an easier route to Chieng Rai down the y^\- 
U^rTtL Me Fang and the M6 Kok The tnp 
Ht onglv appealed both to Mr. Martin and to me^d 
we gUdly aLepted Mr. Halletfa invitation t accom- 

^TftJngFang was an ancient city capti and de- 
stroyed by the Burmese in 1717; so that it lay in 
r^ns nearly two hundred years befot. it was repeopled^ 
Tides MMng Fang, we visited, either - gomg or^ 
turning our other citles-Chier.g DSo, Mftang Ngft^, 
MMng i'ao, and Miiang Kto. Not far to the south of 
Canl Fang we visited the cave of Top Too noted m 
the Buddhist legends of Northern Siam. Mr. Hallett 
thus describes our experiences there: 

« Inside was a lofty cavern lighted by a naW slight 
nn » raised platform in the cave was a great reclining 

J ?Lr="5 r of -^o,*..,, ^^^^ 

torches and proceeded further the bowels of the earin^ 
J^lTl eniovcd a quiet smoke amongst the gods. Down 
ty went crpt: through low, narrow Pa-^f 
Zl along ledges, with chasms and pits hning their path a. 


the cave cxpunded — Iiottoinlcss as far as they could jiidgR by 
the faint light of their torches, but really not more than 
twenty or thirty feet deep — ^until they could get no further, 
and had to return, having proceeded about the eighth of 

a mile." 

That night brought us to the M£ F&ag River. The 
narrative proceeds : 

" Here we spent the most unpleasant night we had yet 
spent, aa we were troubled with rain, heat, and moequitoes. 
We were UM that pamc was plentiful. Wild cattle larRer 
than buffaloes come in droves from the hills to graze in the 
plain, while the rhinoceros and the elephant roam about 
the plains. 

"At our next stopping place, after we had settled our- 
selves in an empty house, a villager came to inform us that 
the house belonged to the Chief of Muang Ffing, and that 
anybody that slept in it would have his head cut off. As 
rain was threatening, we determined to risk the penalty, 
and we were soon glad that we had done so, as the rain 
poured down in torraita." 

There 13 a small deer caHed trimn^, which twenty 
years apo was very abundant in all the northern 

provi' " ''"y are not found in the very tall grass 
of tb> ttoms, but in grass about waist-high 

thickly ftng the higher plains. They have their 
beds in this grass by day, and graze at night. They 
are lower thp.n the grass, and never leap so as to show 
the body, but glide smoothly along as if swimming, dis- 
covering their presence only through the parting and 
waving of the grass. SometimoB yon get right npon 
them before they will run. 

One Saturday we got Mr. Hallett interested in some 
survey or calculations not requiring the aid of an in- 
t^reter, and Mr. Martin and I had our first deer-htuit 


We t....k six of our dephant*, and, going «»* 
hour's ride or more from the city, we formed m open 
o'er abreast. abo,U forty ynrdn apnrt, and m perfec^ 
Bilence moved forward over the plain. The h«nt« 
tL BtartH hia own game. He aita on the back. 
better atlll, on the neck of bin .lephant. gun 
c^^od, ready for a shot at the tlr«t noine or inove^ 
ment in the gras. We started abont a ^o^n o t^e 
deer, and emptied many cartridges, but ramc back to 
Zn. with no meat-much to Mr. Halletfs d.sgust^ 

Mftang Fang, like Chieng S^n, was rich m images 
of an «L and materials. 1 never saw finer bronze 
oL^ It was a favourite field from which H.amene 
iXces and ..fflcials could get a supph "tberwine un^ 
'attainable in those days. Of course, y hare a righ 
to them. Bnt when a German traveller umlortook a 
wbiSe speculation in the images of »^"ddha U was 
quite an..ther matter, and he goi into senous diffl- 
culty with the government. • rr^^uptt loft 

sion after onr retnm to Ch.engma. Mr. Hallett k ft 
us for Bangkok. From his long residence m Burma 
and from his close connection with the mission and 
missionaries during his expedition among what he 
rails the Shan States, he understood the methods and 
results of missionary work better than most vis, tors 
who have written upon the subject. The kmd words 
Tf the dedication of his book, thongh oft«i qnoted, 
may well conclude this chapter. 

.. To the American Missionaries in Burma and Siam 
and the Shan States I dedicate this book, as a mark 
of the high esteem in which I hold the noble work the 
American Baptist Mission and the American Presby^ 
terian Mission are accomplishing in civilixing and 
Christianizing the people of Indo-Chma. 


N our return from tbe surveying expedition in 

the summer of 1884, we found F. B. Gould, 

Esq., our first British Vice-Consul, already 
established in <'hiengmai. It was an important event 
for tbe country; since i British utiicial in any place is 
a guarantee that at least the outward forms of law 
and justice will be observed. lu one important sense, 
too, it marked a new era for the mission, or, at least, 
for the missionaries. 

Those who have not tried can hardly imagine the pri- 
vation of living eighteen years without a mail system 
of any kind. Our only dependence so far was on 
catching chance trading boats to and fnnn Bangkok. 
These were always an uncertain quantity; in very low 
water they almost ceased to travel. Some boatmen 
preferred not to be responsible for the mail, not know- 
ing what it might contain. In the great dty of Bang- 
kok, and even in Chiengmai, it required a constant ef- 
fort to keep ourselves informed of the departures of 
boats. The consequence was that an absence of news 
from children, frioids, and the outside world gener- 
ally, for three or four months at a time, was very com- 
mon. Bometimes ihe interval was as much as eight 
months. Add to this the time of the long river trip, 
and our news son^times would be nearly a year old 
when it reached us Mr. Wilson's family and mine 



liiiil sclidolcd oiii s('lv<>s to tlicse nuidiliolis ; l»\it to 
those who hud been uccustoiued to u «luil> mail, they 
mmt hare been almost unendurable. 

The new Vlce-Ciai«ll came, determined by nil means 
to jfet Home regular communication establislied, if it 
were only a moutldy one. We were only too «{lad to 
do whatever we conld to that end. It was a matter 
of pride to bi.tb jiiuties that we arrangiHl at ouce for 
a regular and iiiost MuceesHful seml niouthly mail over 
land to Maolmeln. I furnished a reliable Chrlntian 
man for chief eoii tractor, and P'lod men for carriers. 
Since Mr. (lould liiid ns yet no authority from his gov- 
ernment to iutur any expense, the arrangement was 
wholly a private affair, with the nnderstanding that 
all who availed themsdvi's of it should pay a quarterly 
assessment for the maintenance of the line. But in a 
short time the British government assumed the whole 
expense. Mr. Qould promised to get the staff exempt 
from corv6e, or compnlsi iy fr,)vernment .,ervice. He 
had to use his oflBcial auth»irity for that. 

The Lao government had absolutely no interest In 
a nmil, whether weekly or yearly; but the Siamese 
looked rather askance at havinf? in their own coun- 
try a mail service over which they had no control. 
It seemed to be In some way a reflection on their na- 
tional pride. There is little doubt that our private 
enterprise hastened the weekly government mail from 
Bangkok, which was started the next year. And since 
the Maulmein route is (luicker by two weeks than 
the one by Hanfjkok, the Siamese povornment has of 
late maintained both, the tv>o moeliug at Uah^ng, and 
giving us a very creditable and regular mail service. 

In the v.pring of 1884 the mission sustained a great 


loss in (hp (h'jjth of rritKcss Tipa Kfsawn, Prince In- 
tanon'it coDnort, whom we wciv in (lie habit of cHllinR 
** the Queen." Placed as 8be was, she could not well 
have avoided the making of priests' garmoits, and the 
going fhroiiKh with the form of making olfcringH (o (lu! 
HplritH. Hut 1 HcriouKly d<tuht whether she bad an^ ex- 
pectation of laying up tliereby a store of merit fnr the 
future. One thing we do i^now, that in her last sick- 
nesH she (urnHl no anxiou.. Iduk to any of tlu'se things, 
at a time when thoughtful IJuddhiMtH are always most 
diligent In their efforts. Dr. Peoples of our mission 
attended her in hrr lasi illness a<(d the case was sub- 
mitted entirely to him. Mrs. McGilvary and I were 
both with her the day before she died. Mrs. McGil- 
vary was with her at her death, and remained to see 
the body drensed for the collin. We missed her very 
much as a friend, ant', the whole country missed her as 
a balance-wheel for her husband. 

On the arrival of the reinforcement in 1883, a Pres- 
bytery was organized of the four ministers, Wilson, 
Peoples, Hearst, and McGilvary. I was thee full of 
the idea of a theological training-class. My experi- 
ence of the accumulated power added to the mission 
ary's efforts by having such assistants as Niln Inta, 
Nftn Buwan. and Noi Intachak, raised in r, mind th. 
question. Why not inci-ease the nninber? i., ing had 
no schools, we had, of course, no body of young men 
educated on Christian lines whom we might train for 
the ministry; and we could not have such for years 
to come. But we had in our churches mature men of 
deeply religions nature, earnest students of Buddhism, 
and carefully educated in all the learning of their race. 
And a man so trained has many compeasations for 

his lack of training in onr elementary schools. He 
knows the sacred books of his own people, their 
strength and their weakness. He widerstands the 
thoughts, the needs, and the difficulties of a 
enquirer, and the mode of argument by which these 
difficulties are to met, as no young man of his own 
race, and as no foreign teacher can do. The training 
needed to make such a man an efficient preacher of the 
Gospel, is training in the (Christian Scriptures, to- 
gether with practical experience in evangelistic work 
under efflcient direction. ^ • 

I was at that time -.iving regular instruction to Noi 
Intachak. one of the finest young men I have ever 
known in that country, and very anxious to become a 
minister.* To Nan Tft, afterwards our efficient min 
ister, 1 was giving instruction less regularly, as it 
was possible for him to take it. But it would have 
been both easier and more profitable to teach a class 
of six or eight. By qualifying such a group of young 
men to work, and then working with them and through 
them, I believed that my own efficiency conld be 
quadrupled, or even sextnpled, as it was doubled when 
1 had Nan Inta to work with. 

With these thoughts and this experience impressed 
on my mind, and in order that my plan, if adopted, 
might have the ecclesiastical sanction of the Pres 
bvterv as well as the corporate sanction of the mis- 
sion I had urged the organization of the Presbytery 
iust as soon as we had the minimum quorum required^ 
In order to give the discussion its proper outlook and 
perspective, 1 noticed, also, in the paper which I read 
before the ITeshytcry, the necessity of a general edu- 
1 Our hopes for his future career, ala.. were cut Bbort by bit un- 
timely death in tt» f oUowtsg ye»r. 

E\' A N CJ 1. 1 S T I ( • T H A I N I X ( J 

cation for all our Christians, and of High Schools for 
both sexes; while I sketched more in detail the nature 
and the methods of special instruction intended for 
thf»sp in training to become evangelists and ministers. 

The training proposed for this last group was in- 
tended primarily to equip the most capable and most 
promising individuals among the (•(•nveils for filling 
well their places as lay oilicers and leaders in the 
churches, and for engaging intelligently in evangelistic 
work. But beyond this it was thought that it would 
ultimately furnish a body of picked men fn.m wIhuu 
again the best might be chosen as candidates for 
further instruction leading up to the ministerial of- 
fice. The course was to be flexible enough to permit 
occasional attendance with i»rofit on the part of men 
whose household duties or whose business would not 
permit them to attend regularly. Its special feature 
was actual and constant practice in evangelistic work 
under the direction and suj)ervisi(tu df the Principal, 
and with him as his assistants ou his tours. 

In view of the poverty of the Lao generally, and in 
order to make it possible for these men to maintain 
their families while occupied with this training, it was 
further pro[)osed that they should receive a moderate 
allowance of, perhaps, eight rupees per month of actual 
service, or about three dollars of our money. This 
seemed not unreasonable, since in Christian lands it 
is thought a wise provision to assist students in their 
preparatif>n for the ministry; and since what is re- 
quired to support one Kuro|)e<in missionary family, 
would support half a dozen fairly educated native 
ministers or ten good native evangelists. 

The Presbytery took hold of the scheme with much 
ardour, and at once began to oi'ganize it into shape. 


but on far too large a scale, and with far too formi- 
dable and too foreign apparatus. A regular " Board 
of Education " was created, with rules and regulations 
better suited to American conditions than to those of 
the Lao chuiclios. A committee was further appointed 
to examine all applicants for the course, much after 
the manner of receiving candidates for the ministry 
under the care of a Presbytery. Their " motives for 
seeking the ministry " were to be enquired into, while 
ao yet it was not at all known whether they would 
desire to become ministers. The allowance in each 
case -vas to be the absolute minimum which it was sup- 
posed would suffice for the maintenance of the stu- 
dent after he had provided all that he could himself. 
Noi Intachak, for example, was allowed the maximum 
of eight rupees a month, while Noi <"hai— one of the 
best Buddhist scholars in the country, a young man 
with a family, living ten miles away in the country- 
was allowed five rupees, on the ground that he was not 
very poor; while yet another was allowed but three. 

After this ordeal— which was thought to be a good 
test of their sincerity— the rest of the six or eight can- 
didates for instruction declined to commit themselves. 
None of them understood exactly what the Board of 
Education was about. I myself was gi-eatly disap- 
pointed at the outcome. After a week of listless study, 
Noi Thai begged to he allowed to withdraw, and the 
whole thing was disbanded. My hopeful private class 
was killed by too much " red tape," and with it all pos- 
sibility of a training-class for four years to come. I 
was again set free for long tours and my favourite 
evangelistic work. 

I continued to teach Noi Intachak till his lamented 
death, and I devoted what spare time I could to teaching 



the long-time wanderer, Nfin Ta, who had become our 
best evangelist. There seems to have been some fatal- 
ity connecltHl with all our elToits to establish a theo- 
logical traiuing school. When the next attempt was 
made, under Mr. Dodd's direction, with a large and in- 
teresting class enthasiastically tanght, through some 
cause or combination of causes— for it would be diffi- 
cult to specify any singie one as alone determinative — 
it was allowed to slip out of oar hands. Possibly a 
leading cause in this case was the same that was 
operative in the other. At a time when the mission 
was pressing the idea of self-support to its breaking 
point, an allowance probably too scanty was offered 
in the evangelistic work to the men who had been 
trained for it. The whole question in the Lao field, 
as it doubtless is in others, is a difficult one. As wages 
in other departmmts rise, and the demand for com- 
petent mc becomes more pressing both in govern- 
mental and in private business, the question will be- 
come more difftcnlt still. While on the one hand there 
is the danger of making a mercenary ministry, on the 
other baud we must romeinber that, the world over, 
educated labour now costs more, but is not, therefore, 
necessarily dearer. The same penny-wise and ponnd- 
foolish policy has lost us the strength of some of the 
best men in our church, our schools, our hospitals, and 
our printing-press, because more lucrative positions 
are offered elsewhere. But we must remember first of 
all that theological schools, like all others, are not 
made, but grow ; and, second, that the law of competi- 
tion prevails here, too, as well as elsewhere. It is 
easy to say that it ought not to do so, as between the 
ministry and other professions, or between the mis- 
sionary work and other more lucrative callings. But 


to a certnin extent the same law does hold, aud it is 
a fact to be reckoned with. 

Tn May, 1881, 11. K. H. Prince Kronunani(.n liijit, a 
brotlier of the Kiu<,' of Siani, arrived aud took up his 
residence in Cbiengniai— probably to give prestige to 
the High Commissioner, and possibly to smooth the 
road of the new Hritish Consul. It was an open secret 
that the Prince of Chieugmai could see no need what- 
ever for a British Resident, and at times he was not 
slow to make his views known. For a while the rela- 
tions betwwn the two were somewhat strained. Yet it 
was of the utmost importance that the relations be- 
tween England and Siam should remain cordial. At 
the same time it was a part of the plan of Siam, since 
fully carried out, to assume complete control of the 
government in the northern states. What was of more 
special interest to us was. as we shall see, not only 
that Prince Hijit was per onally friendly, but that he 
brought with him substantial evidence of the good will 
of His Majesty and of the Sijiraese government toward 
our work. 

It was in this year that our fii-st attempt at tstab- 
lishing a mountain sanitarium was made. It was de- 
signed to furnish a refuge from the great heat of the 
l.lain. to lK> a retreat for invalids, and a place where 
new missionaries might more safely become ac- 
climatized, and still be studying the language. Bnt as 
a matter of fact, new missionaries are put to work so 
promptly that it is jil.out as hard for them to with- 
draw from the battle as it is for the older ones. Since 
we kept no watchman on the premises, the sanitarium 
was afterwards burncfl down possibly by forest tires. 
Later a better and uore convenient situation was found 

E V AN( ; 1 : 1. 1 ST F C TH A I \ I N G 

nearer the city, so near that a man can ride up in the 
evening, spend the night there with his family, and re- 
turn in the morning to his worlc for the day. It is in 
a dciiglitful situation l»f'sido :i cool brook, but is too 
low lor the best results ua a health resort. 

At the Annual Mcotinj^ in Deteiiiber, the importance 
of opening a new station in Lakawn was discussed. 
The baptigm of the oflBcer from tliat city, and the 
organization of a church there, have already been 
mentioned. Tlio ofTicor was conslinif in his appeals 
for the establishment of a station ihere, with a mis- 
sionary in residence. Although Mr, Wilson was soon 
to start with his family for the United States on a fur- 
lough, there would still be left in Chiengiiiai — if I were 
sent +0 Lakawn — two ministers and two physicians, 
even u these were but three men in all. Besides, there 
were beginning to be some good native assistants in 
Chiengmai. No one had expressed a desire to open a 
new station, and no one had been sounded in regard 
to the matter. So I determined to make now the visit 
to Liikjiwn wiiich I bad iilauned for the previous fall, 
but had been unable to accomplish. My wife and our 
little son Norwood were to accompany me. When our 
prei)arations were well advanced, what was our delight 
to find that Dr. and Mrs. Peoples wished to accompany 
us, if they could obtain elephants. When t, is was 
mentioned to Prince Bijit, he not only volunteered the 
elephants, but informed us that he had authority from 
His Majesty to see that we had a lot for our station 
there, and, furthermore, that, in passing through 
Lakawn, be had already secured for us one of the most 
desirable lots in the place. In additi >n to this. His 
Majesty had sent by him two thousand rupees as a con- 


tribntion toward the new station and a hospital. Who 
could fail to see that the guiding band of the Lord was 
in it! Before this I had written to our United States 
Consul to pet permission to secure a lot there, but had 
never once thought of a contribution, much less of one 
so liberal. Mrs. McGilvary thus reports oar trip in 
a letter to our daughter : 

" Lakawn, January 30th, 1885. We reached Lampiin on 
Friday. I curtained oflF one end of the sala just north of 
the city, and Mrs. Peoples did the same at the other end, 
learing the space between and the veranda for callers. 
There we spent the Sabbath. Your father preached twice 
to very attentire audiences. We were impressed with the 
favourable prospect for mission work, and hope to make a 
longer visit to the place soon. We left on Monday, and 
reached this place on Thursday noon, and lodged in a public 
sili just oppos-ite the beautiful lot which the Prince has 
given us for a station. It is in a fine site, one of the best 
in the city. We called on the Chief this morning, and all 
seemed pleased at the prospect of having a mission station 
here. It is not yet settled who is to open it. We are willing 
to come, and 8o are Dr. and Mrs. Peoples.*' 

As may well be imagined, we returned to Chiengmai 
with grateful hearts for the many providfluces that 

had favoured us. The new station was assured. We 
had not then thought of keeping two physicians for 
Chiengmai. Dr. Cheek had charge of the medical 
work. Dr. Peoples, naturally, preferred a tield where 
he would have ample scope both for his medical pro- 
fession and for the itinerating work of which he was 
equally fond. His double profession and other quali- 
fications fitted him as no one else could be fitted 
for opening the new station. On my wife's account I 
wao very willing to yield him the pleasure — for such 



to me it has always been — of breaking uew ground. 
Mrs. McGiWary bad already had the labour and self- 
denial of ()|)<>ning two stations, one of which was a new 
mission. The importance of Lakawn as tlie next sta- 
tion could not be challenged. Dr. and Mrs. Peoples 
themselves were pleased with the place and the pros- 
pect of the new tield. So the^ wei-c unanimously ap- 
pointed and set apart to the new and important work. 



THE belief iu witchcraft was still prevalent every- 
where, and this year brought ii» stiikiui,' il 
lustrations nf its cruel iiower. An elderly man 
with his wife and family, living iu tme of the uutlying 
villages, was accused of witchcraft. The pair of ele- 
phants which he owned and used had belonfjed to a 
man suspected of liarbonring a malicious spirit; and it 
was thought that the denum had followed these ele- 
phants into the family of their new master. The fam- 
ily was promptly ostracized; but by driviu},' otf her 
husband with his elephants, the wife might avoid ex- 
pulsion, and might save for herself and her daughters 
the comfortable home. I endeavoured in vain to pre- 
vent this outcouu'. " I am much inore afraid of the 
spirits," said the wife, "than of be! -s and tigers." 
The husband could no longer face the universal odium 
which he encountered, and si> was driven forth. But 
the sjiirits s('rv<'d the old man a good turn— they 
drove him into the Christian religion, which he lives to 
adorr and they gave him two good elephants. The 
f:imil> afterwards applied for one <.f them. As a mat- 
ter of tHjuity he gave up one, and lived comfortably 
with a Christian son on the proceeds of the sale of 
the other. 

Then there was a great epidemic of fever in Ban I'en 
in the neighbouring province of LarapQn. Few homes 


were left without sud lieurtH uud vacant places through 
the death of one or more uieinberg. The destroyer 
must b< 80Die demop which had taken up its abode in a 

Imtiian fuiliitatioii, a; I waH pivyiiif,' on tlic iiiliahitanfs 
of the village. The family of oue of the most pro8- 
perons men in the village was finally selected m the one 
which must l»e the abode of the destroyer. A.s they 
could hardly decide in whicli partinilar MicnilK-r of it 
the demon resided, they regarded ali with equal hhs- 
picion, and proceeded to wreali their vengeance to the 
Htt(M'most upon them all. 

First, accord'ug to the usual custom, auonymous let- 
tew were dropped at the gate, warning the family to 
flee, or dire would be the consequences. When threats 
failed, armed with an order from the court, the whole 
Tillage appeared on the scene and compelled the fam- 
ily to flee for their lives. No sooner were they ont 
of the way than their two large (cak dwelling-hottws, 
with rice-bins, outhouses, etc., were torn down and scat- 
tered piecemeal over the lot. Not even a tree or shrub 
was left on the place. To gain a breathing-spell, the 
family moved info a bamboo shed iiaslilv extemporized 
on the banks of the Jle Ting, some two miles distant 
from what had been their home. By some accident 
lh"\ were directed to our mission. They had learned 
that the King's edict protected tlie (Mirisf i.ins, and, 
above all, that the Christian religion protected them 
from all fear of evil spirits. And so they came to see 
if it were tme, and if there were any refuge for 

Whatever was to be done for them in the way of 
earthly succor, must evidently be done quickly. Their 
neighbours in their temporary refuge would doubtless 
soon drive them away again. At the earnest entreaty 

of the man I took one of tlu- . hi. is. im.! went d.iwn to 
l.H.k int.. «h.. .ns.' f..r ...vsolf. it WUH heurtrendmg. 
Wliutfver they hiul Utu iible t.. Huutih from the wreck 
of a well-to-do home-bedn, bedding, furniture, kit.luii 
uteuHil«— was IicuikmI up in a pile .ovor.'.! I lie 
wlu.h' ll.K.r space ..f Hu'ir shack. The great giaud- 
Ui..ther, helpk'HH in her d..tage, and the little children, 
were lying here and there wherever a siu.K.lher spot 
could be foun.l. Their . as.' s.iMiie.l hopeless 
as far m human aid was oucerued. Nan Chaiwana 
had hiuiBclf api)ealed for aid both to the court and to 
the governor, aud had been told that th. re was nothing 
they could do for hiui. The court was c.immitteU 
againit him. The goveruur, however, was personally 
friendly to nn, and had shown no 111 will towards the 
man. It was barely possible tliat something might 
be accomplished there. We all had worship together 
amid the confusion of their hut— the first Christian 
service they had ever attended. They assured us .)f 
their joyful ic.eptan.v .tf the tiospel, and pl"dged 
obeuienee to all its teachings. We promised to do 
whatever we could in their behalf, and returned home. 

Ne.\ V Mr. Martin and I went down to Lampun 
to .all the govorn.)r. lie was not at home, but in 
the ricetlelds several miles out in the country. We fol- 
lowed him there. He received us kindly, i.ut said, 
"Were I to make pro.laniatiou to iMotect that family, 
it would be impossible lu enforce il. Nearly every- 
body in that neighbourhood believes that the bodies 
or ashes of fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, or chil 
dren are in that grav.nar.l, si ur tiiere by the demon in 
that family. If you can .1. vise s.)me plan to protect 
them, you are welcome to try it ; but if they return 
to that village, I cannot be itsponsible for the results." 


Wlu'ii told tliMf tliry hiid now rrnoiiiK ctl flic Hpiritn, 
and put tbetUMi'lvcH under the (iiTut Spirit, be naid, 
That ia all verj well, bat bow am I to eoDTince tbe 
othfTH tlint Ihcji iiiv snff?" We Hun l>of^ed that he 
would give the pluce over to its. We wanted a place 
for preacbinf;. Wc would put up one of tbe bouses 
and estahllsli n Christ Ian fiinii'y in it, with medicine to 
cure their fi'vcrs. I would overHoe it, hut would nhk 
tbe family to help in tbe worlt. To this be readily 
consented. We trusted his promise, and we returned 

A few eveninpR later 1 arrivod on the scene with our 
elder and nonie other ChriNtianN, and pitched tcut at 
the edge of tbe ricefleld, a hundred yards from tbe 
deserted lot, to enpape in a contest with the destroying 
demon. It was, moreover, a crucial contest as be- 
tween Christianity and demonism. Our whole future 
work in that province, and, to a large extent, through- 
out the land, dciK'rulcd on the result. Soon curiosity 
brought to our tent the bead man and u large num- 
ber of the villagers. We spmt the evening in preach* 
inp to them. When asked what we proposed to do 
with the situation, we explained that we had come 
to take possession of the bouse and lot— the governor 
had given it over to tbe mission for a station. It 
was now the i)roperty of the Christians, over whom the 
spirits bad no power. It was to be dedicated to tbe 
Lord's work, and we even asked their aid. 

Next morning we began work, bringing in some of 
I,' e men of the outcast fai.iil.v to assist in identifving 
and feas.senibling the scattered timbers of the bouse. 
With much difficulty bone was joined to bone, and tim- 
ber to timber. Tn a few day« sonic of the villagers of- 
fered to be hired to help. One or women of the 


family tame <nor to cook for the workmen. Before 
long one house was set up, roofed, and floored ; where- 
upon we moved up into it, iind invited tl\f neighbours 
to attend its dedication that cvcuiug. The evening was 
8pent in song and prayer and i raise. Many came up 
into the house. More listened from the ground below. 
We had given quinine to the fever patients, who were 
glad to get well by the help of Christian medicine. 
Meanwhile the epidemic subsided, and the worst fears 
of the peojile were allayed. 

When it became necessary for me to return to Chieng- 
raai, I left the elder to furnish moral support to the 
poor outcasts, who, little by little, came back to their 
home, and iK^ anie the Thristian fanii'y which we had 
promised to establish there. To save the land from 
being utterly lost to him, Nan Chaiwana had mort- 
gaged it lo one of the princes for the trifling sum of 
one hundred rupees. Not trusting to the prince's un- 
selfishness, I took Nan Chaiwana's own money, paid the 
mortgage, and with some regret the prince released the 
property to me. Tims was it all restored to the fam- 
ily. Mr. Martin and I visited the station as often as 
we could. It became an interesting centre for our 
work, and ultimately grew into the Bethel church. 

While I was engaged in this work, a strange thing 
was doing on the other side of the M« Ping. One day 
a man came in from the " I'.ig Tamarind Tree Village " 
t(, tell us tliat his wlmlc village had become Christians, 
and were building a chapel. When it was finished, he 
would invite us to come down and indoctrinate the 
people in llic teachings of our religion. This was some- 
thing new, and, of course, most interesting. In due 
time the man came to Ghiengmai to inform U8 that 


the chapel was finished, and we were invited to go 
down, take possession, dedicate it, and teach the 


On the following Friday, Mr. Martin and I took 
boat and went to the village landing, w^here we sep- 
arated, be gtiiiiR east to receive aud baptize tbc con- 
verts in the *' uew boiiie of tbe teacbeis," as the bouse 
at Ban Pto long was called; and I to dedicate the 
new chaiH'l at tlie " P.ig Taiiiariud Tree Village." I 
found the cha[iel there all ri<,'bt, aiu' tbe whole villaf^e 
assembled to velcoiue tbe teacher; and, apparently, 
like the audience that Peter found in the house of 
Cornelius, ready " to hear words whereby they might 
be saved." The chapel was built mostly of bamboo, 
but so new and neat that I complimented the villagers, 
and expressed my great delight. After our reception, 
I invited them up into the chapel for worship, and be- 
gan by announcing a hymn, aud inviting them to join 
in learning to sing it ; expecting, with my assistant and 
other Christians who had accompanied me, to spend 
the tin)e in teaching them what Christianity is; pre- 
suming that their reception of it was a foregone con- 

But .somehow things did no< seiMii to run smoothly. 
I was conscious of being in a wrong atmosphere. The 
leader of the movement seemed ill at ease. None en- 
tered in with the accustomed zeal of new converts. My 
assistant noticetl the same thinfr, and whispered in 
my ear that something was wrong. They were whis- 
pering to him, "Where is the money?" "What 
money? " " Why. the fifty or one hundred rupees that 
we were told would surely be forthcoming to every 
family that aided in the building, and that entered 
the new religion. The foreigners are rich, and, of 


course, will I)*' tU'ligbted to distribute money freely." 
The leader, of course, expected the lion's share. It 
had all been a mere business venture uii his part —or, 
rather, a swindle! This was on Satnnlay. On Mon- 
day morning Mr. Martin and I met at the boat ac- 
cording to agreement, he to report a good day and 
the baptism of ten adults ahmg with as many children, 
and the reception of a number of catechumens; and I 
to confess how I had been sdhl. 

In the sun ler of 1S85 a most interesting work was 
started in some villages to the southwest of the city. 
Onr indefatigable Nan Ta had visited that region, and 
many had itrofessed iheir faith. Mr. Martin and I 
both responded to the call, and made a number of visits 
there. Two chapels wore built by the enquirers, one 
at Lawng Kum, and one at Chrms Kam. 1 (piote the 
following account of this work from the New York Ob- 

" June 9th, 1885.— I have juat returned from the villages 
referred to in my last letter. I found twenty-two families 
of profes:,eJ belicviT^ at Lawiig Chapel, which with 
the aid of a few dollars f'-Jiu cl-^ewhere they had suc- 
ceeded in building. Among them are at least six persona 
who give good evidence of a change oi heart, and the rest 
are interesting enquirers. Ten miles from there, at ChBng 
Kam, I visited by invitation auotla r e mil any who had re- 
nounced Buddhism, and who call themselves Christian.^. On 
arriving there a roll of thirty-five familir^ was handed me. 
Most of tlu'iu had atteipi,-<l worship at times in tho chapel at 
Chioiiginai, and a few of tbeiii art.- no doubt trur Christians. 
Here also we secured a native house for a el -tin l. They 
contributed a part of the small sum needed, wh.I ? ni this 
case, as in the other, their contribution was supplemented 
from the monthly contributions uf the church in Ohicngmui, 
Deputations have been seut also from places still further 


away, representing in one ciiso twenty, and in another case 
twelre families enrolled by themselres, with others only 
waiting for the arrival of a teacher. 

" It is probably premature to predict what will be the 
result of ail this. The simultaneousness of the movement in 
villages thirty or forty milra apart is remarkable. It shows 
a longing for something they have not. To turn this 
awakening to most account, we need more help, both native 
and foreign. Mr. Martin enters into the work with all his 
zeal, and has contributed no little toward keeping up the 

Our expectations in regard to the work at Lawng 
Kum were aisappointed mainly by removals of fam- 
ilies to other places. The chapel in f'hang Kam was 
burned down bv incendiaries, but was soon replaced, 
and the village has continued to be one of our most 
importfJt out-stations. Its people have recently 
[1010] built a new and large chapel, and will soon 
be organized into a church. One zealous man in 
Ac led first bis own family and then his neighbours 
into the faith, till they, too, have now a chapel built 
of teak, with a band of faithful workers to worship 
in it. 

Onr first visits to these new places wore intensely in- 
teresting. It seemed as if the Gospel would be em- 
braced by whole villages. But the burning of the 
chapel tells a tale of a strong adverse inflaence. Op- 
position usually drives off the timid and the merely 
curious. The lines, then, are sharply drawn, and the 
Christian society really finds itself. 

During the last week of the year I spent a few days 
at the village of Me Dawk Deng to hold a copimunio? 
service there, and incidentally to give my family and 
the teachers of the Girls' School a mnch-needed outing. 
It was at the hei^t of the rice-harvest, and, one even- 


iug, we all greatly enjoyed the sight of ii regular rice- 
threshing " bee " at the farm of one of our elders. The 
"bee" Is always at niplit. The bundles f>f rice from 
the harvest field are piled up so as to form a wall five 
feet high around a space of some twenty-five feet square, 
with an opening for entrance at one corner. In the 
centre of this square is a hctrizontal frame of bamboo 
poles, against which the bundles of rice-heads are 
forcibly struck. The grain falls to the ground below, 
and the straw is tossed outside. In those days the 
wht>le plain at rice-harvest was lighted up by bonfires 
of the burning straw — a glorious sight as I have 
watched it from Doi SutSp. 

We pitched our tent neai' by to enjoy the scene. The 
men and boys do the threshing, while the women and 
girls do the cooking for the feast with which the work 
ends. The vi!la<;e maidens are always on hand to en- 
courage their beaux in their work by passing to them 
water or beiel-nut, and to serve the viands at the feast. 
It reminded me much of the husking bees I had se&i 
as a lad in the South seventy years ago. How near of 
kin is all the world ! 

We had a delightful communion service on the Sab- 
bath. Seven adults and six children weit; baptized. 
On Mond 'Porninp: we returned home refreshed and 
better prepared for the work before us. 

The year had I)een one of marked progress. The 
Oirls' School had been strengtiiened by the arrival of 
Miss Lizzie Westervelt. The new station at Lakawn 
bad been opened, and Dr. and Mrs. Peoples had been 
installed there. More new work had been oj)ened in 
the neighbourhood of Chiengmai and Lampun than in 
any one year of the history of the mission. One hnn- 



dred and two adults were added to the commnnion roll, 
and about as manv children were baptized. Our new 
"witchcraft-house" at Ban Ten, with its hospitable 
family, afforded a comfortable prophet's chamber for 
the missionaries and a chai^l for worship. The Bethel 
church was afterwards organized in it. That family 
became highly respected, and has fomished some of 
the most inflnential members of our churdi. The work 
in Nawng Fan, seven miles south of Chiengmai— Nun 
Inta's village— had steadily grown. It still continues 
to be one of our best out-stations, and will, during the 
present year [1910] be organized into a church. 



THE year 188(» opened auspiciously. But Mr. 
Martin had brought malaria in his system from 
his old lioine; iiiid llie f-fio country is a better 
j)lace for contractiug the infection tlian for eradicat- 
ing it. He worlved indefatifjatdy, but Reldom with a 
blood-temperature down to the normal. In .lannary 
he accepted an invitation from Mr. Could, the British 
Vite-ConBul, to accompany him on a tour of inspection 
through the northern provinces, hoping that the change 
might prove lieneficial. It afforded, moreover, oppor- 
tunity for some missionary work in places seldom or 
never visited. He was the first to visit the MQsfl vil- 
lages high up among the mountains. He baptized a 
few converts in < 'hieng Sen, and reported an interest 
there that should be followed up. 

About this same time KrQ Nan Ta— for such, though 
not yet ordained, I shall in future call him— returned 
from Chieng Kai with n most encnnraging report of 
developments there. Later a deputation of seven men, 
with T5o Tepasing as their leader, came to us from the 
village of M6 Kawn in the (Miicng Kai province, 
earnestly entreating a visit from the missionary. In 
their number was Pii King from Chieng Rai, who had 
been a notorious bandit, robber, and murderer. He 
hac' now submitted to the government, and was given 
a place as public executioner and as doer of other jobs 
from which only a lawless man would not shrink. Be- 



fore meeting Krfi Niln Tft, he had gone so deep in sin 

that no liope was left him, and he JKHainc liardened in 
despair. Unl liis oonscionro was ill at ease. Hearing 
ruiuuurs of the ("Uristiau religion, he determined that 
if it could give him hope of pardon, he would seek it 
at any cost. He and his wife walked one huudml and 
ten miles to see if it wet-e really' true that Jesus eould 
save even him. Our good friend the governor enconr- 
aged his coming, and said, " If the (Miristian reli^jion 

can make a k«'<»«1 ""' l*^'""' ' 

no moi-e doubts of its truth and power. ' And we have 

no donbt that it did that very thing. 

lu a few days Kru Nan Ta and I returned with the 
party. Elder A i Tfl of Chieng Bai,» with his family, 
accompanied us. We thus had quite a little congre- 
gation to worship nightly about the camp-flre, and 
every one of ''>e party was either a CJhristian or an en- 
quirer. T' 'i.s my third trip to the north, and the 
first of the nual trips that have made that road so 
familiar to me. 

The little colony of (Miristians at Wieng Pa Pao was 
prospering. One of them was the man whom his wife 
had driven off, elephan+s and all, for witchcraft. NSn 
Ta reported the governor of the place as a believer. 
He had ceased to make offerings in temples, and he 
ridiculed the idols. He received ns most hospitably, 
and desired to nave a missitm station there. After- 
wards, however, through policy and the influence of 
a Burmese son in law, he resumed his old worship; 
though to the last in his heart of hearts, I think, he 
believed our teachinfjs to he true. In the case of sub- 
ordinate otti. ials, the final step of joining the church 
is terribly hard to take. 
» Afterwards Praya Pakdl. 


At Ball Toi, " Grandma " Tan had been praying day 
and uif,'lit for our eniiiinp;. She lived some distanee 
away from the road, and feared that we miglil pass 
her by. She was overjoyed to see ns, and we had to 
check the hoinafje she offered us. The poor woman was 
sadly in need of support. She was the only Christian 
in the place, and was surrounded by hostile neighbours 
who absolutely rebelled against her establishing herself 
in llie place. Iler family had renounced the spirits, 
and therefore her "patriarch," to whom she could 
rightly look for protection, became her chief accuser. 
He went to the governor of Chieng RSi for an order 
forbiddinj; her to settle there. Hut he had his thirty- 
mile walk for his trouble. The governor told him that 
the family was not to be interfered with. How could 
he forbid those whom the King's edict allowed? 

Having failed with the governor, they tried to draw 
away the daughter in law. But she said she would 
stick by her husband and his family. Their relifjion 
should be her religion, and their (lod should be her 
God. The villagers then notitied the family that it 
would be held responsible for the value of any buffalo 
or elephant that might die in the village. The theory 
was that th" demons would take vengeance on the vil- 
lage for allowing the trespass of an enemy on their 
domains. But all their efforts to shake the poor 
woman's faith were futile. 

At Mfi Kawn village, from which the delegation had 
chiefly come, of course we were received with a warm 
welconw. On the receut visit of Nun Ta. when the 
leading supporters of the temple became Christians, 
thf less religious families also deserted it. I even saw 
oxen sheltered from the rain under its roof. A dub 
footed man, Noi Taliya by name, a good scholar in 


Ngio, UuruiCHo, and Lao, had been the life o[ the tem- 
ple. And It is the earnest Baddhist that makw the 
earnest Christian. His st.n first lu ard the (luspel. and, 
((.iiiing h.>m<', explained it to h\s fjitlier. Calling his 
fiUiiily together, the fatiier Haid to tlieui, "There are 
the spirit ahrinea. Any one may have them who 
>visli. s to continue tlieir worsliip." N'» one making a for them, a bonfire was made, and the once valued 
treaHurcB all vanished in smoke. When he went to 
Chieng Rfti to announce his conversion to the kov 
cmor and to the Cparat, he said that he prayed all 
the way that he might answer their questions dis- 
creetly and wisely. He did not know that the gov 
ernor had no more coDfulence in bis deserted idols 
and spirits than he himself had. 

On the evening of our arrival, the largest honse in 
the Tillage was filled to overflowing till late in the 
night. liefore Sunday the people La(' extemporized a 
chapel which afterwards became the loun ition of the 
M6 Kawn chnrch. Two Sundays were spent in teach- 
ing these people before we moved on to Chicng Rrd, 
leavinR the new disciples under the oversight of Noi 

On reaching Chieng Rai we were invited by the gov- 
ernor to take up our (luarters in his old residence, 
which we did. It was a better house than his present 
one, but there had been two deaths in it, and it was 
pronounced unlucky. He knew we were not afraid 
of ill luck. On the contrary, it was very good luck 
that we got it, for the rains were now falling daily. 
The governor and Nan Tft were near relatives and very 
intimate friends withal. His interest in us was as 
teachers of the only religion that ever afforded him a 
rav of hope. But on this trip Pu King, the reformed 


bandit, and his family-, were I lie teiitre of our interest 
there. And it wan not long before he, too, like Saul 
of Tarsus, became a striking illnstration of the grace 


A few liours beyond Chieng Rftl on the road to Cliiens 
Sto, was the home of ki TO. His was the first ChrlH- 

tian family in the province. II'' Iiiid imilt in i>iirt 
that '\ uiinlit furuif h a gnesl chaiulier for lite iui»«ion 
ary on his visits, iuid in puit that it might serve as 
a chapel for worship— the larpsi Imnse in all that 
neij;hln)urhi»od. Wlicn we iiiriv(<i. lie lind alrciKly va- 
cated it foi us, and had moved his family down into a 
shed. A number of families had begun to attend wor- 
ship, and to keep the Sal)l)ath; but wore fritililened 
away by that ridiculously stale story that missionaries 
were making <,'hristians in order to carry them off In 
their ships to feed the Yaks! Htrange that such a 
palpable absurdity should deceive any one; yet we 
have known whole villages to be frighlentd away by it. 

At Chieng 8*n, in the home of Nfta Buwan, we were 
at once aware of U-ing in a christian atmosphere— in 
a consecrated (Jliristian family. That family was a 
city set upon a hill— a leaven in the new city and 
province. It alone had given Christianity a good 
name. The governnr was free to say that if t'l.ris 
tlanity made such men as Nun Suwau, he would like 
to see the whole < mntry Christian. The influence of 
the Girls' School iii f-hienpimai vas strongly reflected in 
his daughter, Kul Keo. S'h- lan-ilif no regular sc'iool 
other than her Sunday School; but froni time to time 
during the week she taught the neighbours. Young 
men who began by trying to ridicule licr out of licr 
religion, now treated her with the greatest respect. 
We were lold that rude young fellows singing vulgar- 


RongB would lower their roicm whm putising by the 

\\ v t ioHscd the river In a small bout to Hiwnd a few 
duyH iu tuuiliiug four new families of Chrlatiana on 
the eaBt<>m aide. One of tte men wai Tflo Knt, the 
vil'.ijic onifcr. aud aiuttlitT was son, N'oi Thai. The 
iutU'i' iK'came un iutlueutiul ruling elder, uud, like Nuu 
Huwan, one of the pillnm of the church. 

From Chieag S«"n \vf crossed the broad iirairic like 
plain westward t(. Han Tain. The oBlcer of the village 
was Seu Yu Wichui- lueutioned in the early part of 
this narrative aa the very flrat believer in Chlengmal. 
The journey was one of the worst for tdephants that 
I ever made. Heavy raiUH had soalied the ground so 
that at every step it seemed almost imp<M8ibIe for 
them to pall their hujje feet out »)f their tracks. The 
Sell lived only a quarter of a mile from a remarkable 
feature of the ujouutaiu ridge. The Tam, the 
largest river in the plain, flows bodily ont from under 
the monutain, uiueh as does one of the sources of the 
Me I'iuK at Chieug Duo. 

It was a great pleasure to spend a Sunday with our 
now venerable Christian and his family. It was a fam 
ily of oflicers. his three sons all being either •)f the 
grade of Tao or of rifin— which shows the esteem in 
which the family was held. But, unfortunately, their 
oflinal position made it more difficult for the sons to 
follow the example of their father. 

On Sunday night the rain came down in torrents, 
remindlrg us that it was better for us to be at home. 
We started homeward early the riext morning. Our 
route skirted the beautiful mountain range, crossing 
brooks and the larger streams of the M6 Tam and the 
M6 Chan. Already the road bad become almost im- 


passable excopt for elephants and natives unencuL^- 
bered with shoes or trousers. 

We have already spoken of the great mortality in- 
curred in the attempt to people these new Lao states. 
Occasionally the straggling remnant of a family might 
be seen returning. One poor little boy awakened my 
deepest sympathy. All of his family had died except 
himself and his brother, a monk, who were trying to 
save themselves by flight back to their old home in 
the province of Chiengmai. After I passed them I 
began to wonder whether the pale, weary faced, and ex- 
hausted travellers would ever reach the rest they 
sought. Then I began io think that here I was enact- 
ing again the old tale of the priest and the Levite 
who passed by on the other side. .\t last I could stand 
it no longer. I stopped and waited for them to come 
up. I offered the pitifnl little skeleton of a boy a seat 
with me on the back of the elephant. At first he some- 
what distrusted my motive, wondering what I wanted 
to do with him; but he was too weary to refuse. When 
he revived, he proved to be a veritable little chatterbox, 
and good company. I kept him nearly a week, till we 
entered the Chienguua plain at Doi Saket. Only four 
years ago, eleven children out of five Christian fam- 
ilies who had settled in Wieng Pa PSo, died during 
the first year. 

Keturning through Chieng Rai, we revisited the new 
families of Christians in that province. In the city the 
governor's wife asked us to have worship in their 
new house, to which they reverently listened. When 
we ended she said, " Why, they pray for everybody ! " 
pa King, the ezecotioner, was holding on with a deatb- 
grip to Ihe hope of salvation for the chief of sinners. 
The case of the apostle himself, and of the penitent 


tliiof, yrciUly eucouraged Liiii. Nfm Tfi also was 
greatly rejoiced that his brother Sfin Kat became a 
believiT ou this ti»nr. 

On my return J f< n:! Mr. Martin but little, if at all, 
improved, by h' 'n[». Ilo wf's so thoroughly discour- 
aged that he f< 't that hv ^■^ i not face another liot 
season. He rei • i !f]'.i i: ; till the end of the rainy 
season, and thtii, ..itL '^i'; family, left Siam for the 
United States. I never had felt so thoroughly crushed 
as I was at his departni-e. Durinp: three whole years 
we had lived in the same house, and worked together 
hand in hand in the evangelist)? work, of which he was 
very fond. 

Dr. (Mieek already had severed his official connection 
with the mission, and had gone into business of his 
own. But he kindly gave his professional service to 
the missionaries, and was ready to perform pressing 
snigical operations for the natives who came to the 

1 have often wondered whether all foreign missions 
have as many and as rapid alternations of sunshine 
and shadow, as the L^o misgion. Our medical work 
was once more at a standstill; and by the departure 
of Mr. Martin, the evangelistic work again was crip- 
pled. But at Hong Kong Mr. Martin met He v. and 
Mrs. D. O. Collins, Dr. and Mrs. A. M. Cary, and Rev. 
W. t)odd, on their way out for the Lao missior with 
Kev. W. < Met 'lure for Lower Siam. Mrs. Cary had 
become . ) exhausted by continual sea-sickness during 
the whole voyage, that, on her arrival in Bangkok, 
many thonght her unable to emlure the long river 
trip of six or seven weeks. Mr. McClure offti-ed to 
exchange fields with the Carys; but Mrs. Cary, with 


true pluck, said that she had been appointed to the 
Lao mission, and to the Lao slie would go. Bat, alas! 
it was to be otherwise. She became worse soon after 
leaving Bangkok. On Sunday, January Itith, 1887, a 
mile above Rahtog, she became unconscious, and 
shortly after gently passed into her everlasting rest. 

It was still a month's journey to their destination. 
There was nothing to be done but to lay the body 
to rest in the grounds of a monastery. Who can por- 
tray that parting scone, or adequately sympathize with 
the bereaved husband and sister (Mrs. Collins), or with 
the other members of the party, as they performed the 
last sad officii, and then resumed their lonesome jour- 
ney ! 

When the party reached Chiengmai on the 17th of 
February, they found there only the McGilvarys, Miss 
Griflan, and Miss Westervelt. Miss Cole had goue to 
Hangkok. I'.ut the Girls' School was nourishing un- 
der the direction of the two ladies last mentioned. 
Former pupils of the school were th«i doing good 
service in three different i- ivinces as teachers. But 
the arrival of the new forces made possible for the first 
time a Boys' High School. Circumstances now were 
much more favourable than they were when Mr. Wil- 
son made the attempt in the earlier days of the mis- 
sion. We now had Christian patrons, and there was a 
growing desire in the land for education. Buddhist 
pupils were willing and anxious to attend our school. 
Mr. Collins preferred the educational work. As soon 
as he acquired the language suflBciently well, he was 
put in charge of the school for boys, and it was soon 
crowded with jnipils 

Mr. Dodd's preference was along the line of a Train- 
ing School for Christian workers. Happily, the taste 


and preference of both these men were along the linos 
of greatest need. Meanwhile Mr. Dodd entered into 
the evangelistic work also with a zeal that has never 
abated. As newcomers see things with different eyes, 
it is always interesting to get their first impressions* 
Mr. Dodd's first experience is thus given in a letter 
to the Board of Jane 9th, 1887: 

"On Friday, June 3d, Rev. D. McQilvary of the LBo mis- 
sion left Chiengmai by boat for a tour soutlnvard, taking 
attendants and all necessary equipments, accompanied by a 
raw recruit, and three efficient native helpers. We arrired 
at our first station about the middle of the afternoon, and 
before bed-time held religious conversation with as many en- 
quirers as time r^ould permit. Our audience chamber was 
the house of one of our newly-receired members. Our ' out- 
ward and ordinary means' of attracting an audience was a 
watch, two mariner's compasses, a magnifying glass, a stereo- 
scope with an assortment of views, and a violin. The raw 
recruit played the violin, and tiius called the audience to- 
gether. We used both the other attractions to hold them 
and to gain their confidence and interest; and afterwards 
Dr. McGilvary easily and naturally drew them into rrlifrious 
conversation. Soon the conversation became a monologue 
of instruction in the religion of the great God. The violin 
was no longer needed to arouse or sustain an interest 
Every day, and late into the evening, the Doctor and the 
three assistants conversed; sometimes to quite an audience 
sometimes to individual enquirers. * 
"The religious attitude of the people was a revelation to 
the newly-arrived missionary, and doubtless would be to 
most of God's people in the United States. Nearly all of 
these people had heard of the TeliKion of the great God' 
but knew nothing about it, since the district had never be- 
fore been visited by a missionary. ... But their recep- 
S'^iL-T" "/"'^"""s- ■ • • Without exception these 
Buddhists confessed at the outset, or were soon brought 
to concede, the ■mmeasurable superiority of Christianity 
Many said. ' It is of no use to argue. Your books tell tb^ 


beginnings of things; ours do imt.' On nno occasion when 
Dr. McGilvary had finished read i tip and cxiilainitifr thf first 
chapter ■>f dencsis, one of his auditors rcmarktM] to liis fel- 
lows, ' There is more real information on that one page than 
in all Buddha's writings.' The sense of sin is universal, so 
too is the insiiiJicicncy of the works of tip -it. Many snd 
souls confessed that they had long been dreading the peiiaity 
for sins for which they feared that ' merit-making ' could not 

" The results wo cannot measure. We were absent two 
weeks. Religious service or conversations were lield in inoro 
than twenty different homes, and in some of these several 
times. Audiences varied from a sinfjlo emiuirer to fifty. 
Thus hundreds heard the gospel for tlie first time. Many 
who seemed aborc the suspicion of hypocrisy professed to 
believe and accept what they heard. . . . One principal 
reason for this tour just now, was to baptize in his own 
home and among his subjects the chief officer of the district. 
Himself, his wife, and his whole family were baptized — a 
most interesting household. The alil'Ot ot one village mon- 
astery professes to accept Christianity. For some time he 
has been sending his parishioners, including his own sister, 
for instruction. There is another district officer of the 
same rank as our newly-baptized convert, a constant visitor 
and deeply interested. This is a specimen Umr, neither bet- 
ter nor worse than th'^ average taken these days. For the 
last two years, although most of the time there have been 
but two ordained missionaries in the field, over ninety as- 
ee~-ions have been made to the First Church." — Church at 
Home and Abroad, May, 1888. 

Before the short trip reported by Mr. Dodd, 1 had 
taken a longer one to the northern provinces, going 
over the same ground which Mr. Martin and I had 
travelled the .season before. This time I hantized thir- 
ty-six adults and thirty-two non-communing members. 
The commnaion was administered eight times. I mar- 
ried two oonples and ordained one elder. Each Sunday 
was spent in villages where there were already Chris- 


tiaiis. This ('ncniinii^iii;,' siitross wits the harvest of 
seed sown on former tours, but gathered largely 
through God's blessing on the work of faithful elders. 
Both in Chieug Kai and in Chieng Sen we uiit^ht (hen 
have organized eliunhcs wi(h a f^oodly uuiiiher of 
members communing and non -oommuning, and with 
very good material for officers. NSn Snwan at Chieng 
S("ii, like myself, never had (he gift of (luent speech, 
but his reputation for sterling integrity has left a 
raark that eloquence might envy. And Ai TQ at Nfing 
Le bids fair to be another power in the province of 
Cliieni? Rai. IJoth of them are stronn;ly aided by their 
daughters, the lirst-fruits of our Girls' School. 

During the year 1887 the whole number of adult ac- 
cessions was one hundred and seven; and one hun- 
dred and eleven non-communing members were added 
to the roll, making two hundred and eighteen addi- 
tions to onr little flock, exclusive of Lakawn. As I 
now look back over tliese \ears, it is plain to me that 
the great lack of the mission all the way through has 
been the lack of well-trained native helpers; and 
for this lack the mission itself is largely to blame. 
Those who arc eafj'^r to aCv-omplish the evanj^eiization 
of the world within the pi-esent gene- 'ition, should first 
of all lay hold of the present generation of Christians 
in every mission field. Fill these with enthusiasm, 
qualify them, and send them forth, and we have a 
lever that will lift the world. 

From the Report of the Board in the same number 
of The Church nt Home and Abroad cited above, we 
quote the following: 

" Dr. and Mrs. Peoples are still left alone in Lakawn, the 
utmost picket of the foreign missionary line. Mis. Peoples 
has not one lady for a companion; and the doctor is dan- 


porously Imrdonod. beariiip nil iilono tho labour of teaching 
and hoaling. Tor inorc tlian two yours thoy have been 
waiting for help. No station under tho oaro of the Foreign 
Board ealla so loudly for reinforcements as this. Again 
and aKuiii we thought we had found a Christian couple for 
Lakawii; but in each case wo have loi n disHi)i)ointod. SIdkIo 
men could have been sent, but it is very much to be desired 
that the new missionary going there should be married. 
Dr. Peoples' niodioal work has won for hiin increasing 
friendliness throughout the city. . . . Mrs. McOilvary has 
revised the Lao version of Matthew's Gospel, and has trans- 
lated for the first time about half of the book of Acts. 
The Scriptures have had considerable circulation among the 
Lao, but only in the Siamese tonRuo. ... Dr. Cary had 
no sooner reached tho field than tlirougli tiie assistance of 
Dr. McGilvary and Norwood Mo(iilvary, a young lad. act- 
ing as interpreters, he was able to begin work with regular 
hours for receiving patients, and for surgical practice. . . . 
Mr. Collins has made a beginning in the much-nee^ 
school for boys. 

" Only one other mission now under the care of our 
Presbyterian Church has during the last year shown as much 
growth, in proportion to the missionary force employed, as 
tho Lao mission. . . . It is never out of place to remind our 
Presbyterian Church that it is to her alone that God haa 
committed the eTaugelization of the Lfio tribes." 



AT a meeting of the Presbytery shortly before the 
L\ opening of the year 1888, a committee consist- 
^ ing of Dr. Peoples, Mr. Dodd, and myself, was 
ajtpolnted to orj^anizc two (linrclips, ono in Chienp S^n 
and one in Chieng Rui, if the way were found open 
to do so. We also arranged that Mrs. McQilvary 
should accompany our son Norwood as far as Bang- 
kok on his way to the United ij^tates. And both ex- 
peditions were to start on the same day, Monday, 
Pebmary 7th. 

To e.Tso somewhat the strain of such a nartinp;, I 
took an earlier leave, and went on Saturday with Mr. 
Dodd to spend Sunday with the church at M£ Dawk 
D£ng. That evening we performed a marriage cere- 
mony in the church. The next day thirteen adults were 
received into the church — nine by baptism and four 
who were children f the church. On Monday Mrs. Mc- 
Gilvary and I exchanged our last good-byes by note, 
and both parties got oflE on Tuesday morning. Dr. and 
Mrs. Peoples, starting from Lakawn, made the first 
stage of their journey separately from us to a ren- 
dezvous at the Christinn village of M6 Kawn, twelve 
miles south of Chieng Kui. 

At our next Christian village another wedding was 
waiting for us, but the course of true love did not run 
smooth. The bride belonged to a well-to-do Christian 



family ; Iml no number of it rould read Ihe Scriplnres. 
They, therefore, "redeemed" a Christian family for 

four hundred rupees. !n unler to senire tlie services of 
the son as a sort of Levite iu the family, and to teaeh 
the eldest daughter to read. Naturally, the t\v«» young 
people fell in love wiili t .ieli oilier. Tliat was a cnn- 
tinfjeney the mother liiid not planned for. and a dif 

ficuity arose. She asked, " If 1 take Nan for a 

son-in-law, where do my four hundred rupees come In? " 
It was all in vain to tell her that she tjot Ihm- |.ay in 
a r^oad son in law. 8he said lie was her.s already till 
his del)t was paid. At last she so far relented as to al- 
low the ceremony to take place, hut she would not see 
it performed. We invited the father and tlie rest of 
the family and the neighbours into our tent, where, 
to their gieat joy, the two were made man and wife. 
The imphuabh' — <dher lived to see that she had not 
made a bad 1 ic: .. after all. 

At Me Kawn we were joined by Dr. and Mrs. Peo- 
ples, and we had a good Sabbath with the little flock 
there. Our elub fo(»ted man bad looked after it well, 
and be beeame later a good elder and a tine diseipli- 
tariau. About thii ime I was taken with a severe at- 
tack of indigestion from which I did not recover for 
numy months — the only continued sickness from which 
I have sullered in all my connection with the Lao 

On reaching Chieng RSi, we found our good friend 
the governor mourning the death of his wife, the same 
who, when we last saw her, invited us to worship in 
her house. It was a pleasure to point the bereaved 
man to the divine t'omforter. and we are fain to be- 
lieve that our words were not in vain. He was still 
anxious to have the mission station established, which 



wc, unfnrtnnately, could not jet promiBe. The Ohao 

r|i;irrit iiivit»'«i Dr. Peoples t<» lecture with hiH ma^c 
hititi'in, and ti> liiive worsiiip ii> lii8 residence, whei-e we 
had a cr(»\vde<l audieine. We did not organi/.e a 
church in Chicnft Rili. however, partly because the two 
Christian villafjcs. e<i'iidistant from the city north 
an«l youth, could uol agive ou llie best jdace of meet- 
ing. But we found the wa3' ojien in Chieng 8te, and 
did organize a ciuirch tiifre, iu Nan Suwau".s house, 
on the verv bank of the Me Kon^. and with one-half of 
its nienilKirs living ou the ether shore. 

Dr. PeopleH had left a large practice in Laltawn, and 
was olilijicd (o ri'tinn. Mr. Dndd returned with them 
to Lakawu, aud thence to Chienguiai. 1 hud come un- 
trammelled, to remain as long as duty called. It Heemed 
very desirable to follow up the impressioUH already 
made on that eommuuit.v. lJut I was not well, and a 
week's delay louud me no better. Thinking that a 
change might be beneficial, I crossed the plaiu to Sto 
Y& Wichai's home at the foot of the monntaina. It 
was a hard day's ride, and I became worse on the way. 
On reaching my destination I could hardly stand, 
Besting there on my back a few days without improve- 
ment, it seemed my first duty to f;et to a physician as 
soon as possible, or, at least, make the effort to do so. 
Most of the way I could stop at night either with or 
near Christian families. This I did, and so reached 
Chicnf^mai on .Vpril 1 1th. 

During my absence the building of the Boya' Hi|^ 
Bchool was completed ;and the school was opened under 
the direction of Mr. Collins on March 10th, with an en- 
rollment of forty-flve boys, nearly all children of Chris- 
tian parents. In June Dr. Wilson reached Chiengmai 
on bis return from the United States; and with him 

293 AM(tN<i Tin: siAMi:si; .wn Tvr, 

came Mi«H riwsoii, (k-xtiutHl with (ho iMtt tur (o join the 
F^plcfl at Lakawn, and Mim Belle Eakin (now Mn. 
Dodd), for the iVirW Kt hool in chiengmal. MiM Grif- 
fin was iiln'inlv poneou Iht furlough. 

Till- building Tor the (iirlH' School had long been 
in prorem nf oontitruction. Hnildeni and plans had 
Ikh'Ii scvc'iiil liiiu's cliiiu^'t'd, till iit li\st i)r. CliccU took 
the c'untnu l, ami (luisln'tl it iu the suiiimer of 1888. It 
hflR Hprved its purpose admirably the«e many yeara, and 
we theu thought it wniiM dn for all time. But thoiifrh 
llic Int tlicii scciiu'd ;miiil.v iiir;;(', it proves now entirely 
too small for the neetls of the sehocd. Moivover, it is 
impoHHlble to enlarge It. On it» nouth Bide runs the 
most travell<*d road in the eountry; \v!>ile on the east 
the land is owned by u wealthy official, who would not 
sell at any prioo. 

Our congregations had grown till a church building 
became a neeessity e^•en more nrpent than a school- 
house. The tirst mission dwelling-house was planned 
in part with reference to such need, its largest room 
long beinj; used U>v Sunday worsliip. Then a small 
l('m|>orary eliapel took its After tiiat a larger 

teak (hiuble dwelliug was bought. That, however, 
would not hold more than two hundred persons — not 
more than half of our hnm'sl eonfj^regatious at the 
present day. Then for a time we worshipited in the 
unfinished building for the Girls' School. When, at 
last, that was finished, it was needed for its original 
purpose, and we ajrain must move. It was then de- 
cided that we must have a ihurtli, aud oue worthy of 
our cause — such as would attract rather than repel 
both rulers and in'oplo. So one Sii iday afternoon we 
held a meeting of th' mgrega'ion t«» take steps for 
building it. We wetv delighted to see the interest 


manifeRted in the enterprlne. Pa Kawnff, an aged 
glave of the Vvim t; laid «li>\vii ;i silvi r nipi't', wliu li 
was all the money she pdsseHsetl and il w,,.-i the very 
first luouey ifeeived townrd tlie huilding. The t-hnrch 
was completed by the end uf tbii year. 

We h:nl < niiliinit'd cv i(h'in e of the fri"ud»iiiilt of 
I'liuce lutamm, aud eveu of his giowivifj iat*«*«t in 
our work. One rtonday, in answer to an isvitatleA 
given by Mi-h. ('heek, ht- jiMt-iided "ur umiuiiniou 
sf'i vii f, ( (iiidiu t( .1 tlii\t (lav l>v Mr. \Vii^>n AlthoUKh 
he arrived au hour aud a half t<M) sooo, ue n luaiued 
all through the long service, and bowt^d m h«; took 
bia leave, just wlini the coiniininioii tui>-. 'mk iliont 
to be passed. On lh» day of our daughter s marriage 
in Btatesville, North ( arolina, he and the O; <^ura- 
misaioner attended u rel^'I^tion iriven in bou< 
event. Tlie Prince had known lier as a child. -Mid 
seemed muck interested. " Is it tins very night that 
the marriage takes place? " he asked. The reception 
was a very pleasant affair. Tlp.ii!;h niv wile w.i^ still 
in ISaUfrkok, .Miss Flc<'son aud Miss lOakiu entei'ed with 
all their hearts into the thing, aud, with the assistance 
of Mr. Dodd and Mr. Collins, carried it ihr.njgh in 
splendid shape. Aflei- n-freshments we had t liarades 
and other games. It was amusing to see the look of 
snrpri^ on the face of the Prince when the charades 
were played.—" What are they doing? ' " What does 
that mean?" "I tl'Ut understand." Hut the game 
was quite too recondite to !»• explained to him. So, 
after the first chara^, His Highness and his party too'i 
their leave, assuring us tbat they had enj^ed the «w o- 
ing very much. 

Dr. Wilson and Miss Ple«ion presently journeyed OiJ 
to their p«8t at l^kawn. Tte governor there gave the 


mission a very desirable plot of ground for the new 
bnildings which would be retjuired, saving, " I am glad 
to have you come. It would be a shame, when you 
come to live in oar country, if the government did not 
do somethinjj; to make you comfortable." 

Scarcely loss important than the opening of the 
new station in Laka^^n, was the opening of permanent 
work in Laniptin, the largest and most important sub- 
station of (Miiongmai. Lainpun is a little gem of a 
walled city in the same great plain as Chiengmai, and 
only eighteen miles distant to the south. From the 
first settlement of the country, however, it has been 
a separate state, yet governed by a branch of the same 
ruling race. 

We have seen that the new governor of Lampun was 
friendly to the mission and the missionaries. The 
opening of the work in Bun Pen and other important 
villages near it, i-endered it almost essential to have a 
footing in LampGn itself. After some negotiation we 
secured a suitable lot, the grounds of the second gov- 
ernor recently deceased. We purchased from the fam- 
ily the land with the old residence and the stockade. 
But presently the family became alarmed lest they had 
been too hasty in selling it to foreigners, and brought 
back the money, begging us to restore the land. They 
brought, also, a message from the governor, saying that 
he wanted the residt ncc and the stockade himself, but 
would yiif us the rest of the land. It was to our in- 
terest to keep on good terms with him, and we agreed 
to the arrangement. We got what we wanted, a good 
station, and we retained, and probably increased the 
governor's friendshi; 

To make possession sure, I purchased a newly-bnilt 
house which had come to be regarded as unlucky, be- 



cause the owner's wife had suddenly died in it. Hav- 
ing arranged to have (lie house moved and set up on 
the lot, I was about to return to C*hiengmai, thinking 
that there was nothing more to do, when I was sent 
for by the chief executive oflScer of the Court. He said 
that the governor, indeed, had given us the place, but 
the Court wished to make one proviso. He begged that 
I would sign a paper promising in few words that if 
the government at any time should need it, we would 
give it up. The governor was growing old, and they 
themselves would be held responsible. I saw at once 
that such a step would put it in the power of any one 
to oust us. A nwd might he feigned, and yet we should 
be powerless to withstand it. 1 was perfectly dum- 
founded. My first thought was to go directly tr the 
governor. But presently I bethought me of the terms 
on which IT. R. IT. Trince Bijit, the brother of His 
Majesty, had given to the mission the fine lot for its 
hospital. The lot was given in perpetuity on condi- 
tion that it be used for medical and missionary pur- 
poses only. As long as it was so used, it was ours. 
But it could not be sold, or used for other purposes, 
without forfeiture to the Prince. The thought came to 
me as an inspiration. T told the officer of that written 
deed. " Very well," said he. "If you have such a 
paper as that, show it to me, and I will give you one 
like it for this lot." 

The diflTiculty was solved. A swift footman was 
despatched to Chiengmai gisking Mr. Martin to send me 
at once a copy of the Prince's deed of gift. Next morn- 
ing it cjinie, and I took it immediately to the Court. 
The officer's surprise was evident. TTe took it and 
read it carefully through. His word was given. After 
a moment's thought he said, "That is all right. It 


will relieve me of all respoMibility." Then he called 
up his clerk to copy its terms and execute the new 
deed. The land was onrs to use as long as we should 
use it for the iiuriM)ses si»ecifled; and that I hoped 
would be until the millennium! With a light heart I 
was soon aboard iiiv boat and homeward bound. 

When the house had been removed and set up on the 
lot, Mr. Collins and I went down and spent a week 
there, with interested audiences every night. It at 
once became an imjio'-tant out-station of the Chicngmai 
mission. In the meantime Mr, Dodd had already col- 
lected some twenty students for his trainlngdass, but 
without any quarters for them in Chiengmai. Later 
Mr. and Mrs. Dodd were put in charge of the station, 
and the Training School was moved over to Lampun. 
When the Lampun church was organized, its charter 
members nunil)ere(i nearly two hundred. It is now 
the mother of rwo other churches. Scarcity of men in 
the mission, oijcnings in other places, and other causes 
have prevented the Lampun station from being con- 
tinuously manned. lUit now, with such efficient work- 
ers there as Mr. and Mrs. Freeman, it has an important 
future before it, as a sub-station of Chiengmai. 

Meanwhile my own sickness had » jntinued, with 
several relapses. A minor surgical operation had so 
delayed my recovery that Dr. Cary now advised a 
change and rest in a boat trip to Bangkok. After the 
departure of our son to (he I hited States, my wife 
had remained in Bangkok lor a vi.3it, and was soon to 
return. The telegraph line which the Siamese govern- 
ment had recently completed, enabled me to wire to 
her to wait for me t(» come and bring her back. Pr. 
Cary himself, ""'ho had never recovered from the shock 
occasioned by the tragic death of Mrs. Cary, and who 


was never well during his whole stay in the misgion, de* 

cided to accompany me as far as Rahcng. 

At Paknam Po I left my boat, and took passage for 
Bangkok by river steamer, thus saving seven days. 
After remaining in Bangkok only three nights, my 
wife and 1 took passage in t'.e same steamer on her 
return trip, and rejoined our boat at the forks. The 
water was at its best stage, and we passed np some of 
tlie rapids without knowing lliat they were there. But 
my trouble had not left me. A low diet and long ill- 
ness had left me thin and weak. The round trip oc- 
cupied only two months. Our last Sunday was at Pfik 
IJawng, t'vo days below Chiengmai. There we held a 
communion service with the Christian families, and a 
new family was baptized. 

Three miles to the east is Ban Pto, the village which 
has figured in a previous chapter. The Christians 
there had long been asking for a visit, which my own 
sickness and want of time on the part of others ren- 
dered it impossible to make. On Monday morning I 
decided to take the risk and visit it. With some mis- 
givings I saw my wife's boat move oflf and leave me — 
burning, so to speak, my bridges behind me. The 
wl>ole country was flooded. Discarding shoes and 
stockings, 1 made my way on foot, weak as I was, 
through water, across ditches, or along the narrow 
ridges of rice-fields, and finally reached B&n Pto in 

And what a week I spent in that neighbourhood! 
At Nawng SIu, a village two miles distant from Ban 
Pen, there were six families of professed believers 
whom Dr. Dodd and 1 had visited the season before — 
almost swimming at times to reach them in their scat- 
tered homes. Their admission was postponed at that 


time until they shonld liavc had further instnutioB. 
To these I specially addressed myself. During the 
week our faithful elder. Nan Ta, came down to asgist 
me in the work. On Friday evening the session met 
at Nawng STu to examine and instruct these ne*- 
converts, and again on Saturday morning, closing 
finally at two o'clock in the afternoon with baptism 
and the Lord's On rounting up the numlters. 
it was found that twenty adults and seventeen chil- 
dren had been baptized. Among them was an aged 
couple with their children, grand. hiidron, and great 
grandchildren. It was a niouiorahle sight. The Sab- 
bath was spent at IJau Ten, where seven more adults 
and one child were baptized. On Monday I made my 
way hack to the boat as 1 had come, and reached home 
on Tuesday. Au<l now for the strange part of the 
story. / nachal home m:«M. My week's wading in the 
water, and the bard work, had done what medicine and 
doctors and a long lu>at trip had fail.'d to accomplish! 

But a new disappointment awaited me. Before I 
reached home, Dr. Cary had resigned. His short 
career is one of the mysteries to he explained in the 
great beyond. A consecrated physician, he had given 
his life to the Lao people. Crushed by his tragic be- 
reavement on the way out, and with a constitution 
never strong, he contended manfully for two years 
against the debilitating etVects of a malarial climate. 
But at last he had to give up the fight. His work had 
been successful. " He saved others; himself he could 
not save! " 

His departure threw on me again the oversight of 
the medical work. But this time most of the dlspens 
ing of medi. ine to the natives fell nii Chanta. a jirott'-ge 
of my own, who had had good training under two physi- 



(ians. Meanwhile I>r. Cheek looked after the mission 
families, and, as alieady stated, was always ready to 
respond to an urgent call in the hospital. My time 
was largely given, thei-efore, to the evan^'elistic work, 
to instiMicting Nun Ta and other elders, and to teach- 
ing enquirers and others to read in Riamese, first the 
Shorter Catechism, and then a Gos{)el. 

The growth of the (Uiifnginai chnrcli, though not 
phenomenal, was very healthy and very uniform 
throughout the year. There were accessions every 
month save one, amounting in all to one hundred and 
sixty souls. At the end of the year Miss I. A. GriflBn 
returned from furlough, and served a very useful term 
until 1896, when she retired greatly missed. At 
Lakawn, Rev. Hugh Taylor and his wile began a 
twenty years' course of evangelistic work carried on 
with indefatigable seal, while Miss Fleeson was no less 
zealous and successful in laying the foundation of a 
Girls' School, destined to be a power in that province. 



WE have bad frequent occasion gratefully to 
record the good will of the Siamese govern- 
njent, and of its coniinissionors arul repre- 
sentatives, towards our mission. In all its history the 
only exception to this uniform friendliness was in the 
case of the Commissioner who, iu 1880, succeeded 
Praya Tep Worachun. The lioys School was on an 
old deserted monastery-site given by the Prince to Dr. 
Peoples for a medical or a mission compound. An 
old ruined chedi or pagoda was still standing on it. 
Such lots, deserted by the monks, were then regarded 
as abodes of the spirits, and on such the natives dared 
not live. In preparing for the school buildings, the 
d6bri8 about the foot of the (hedi had been dug 
away. One of the early acts of the new Commissioner 
was to send a written notice to the mission that it was 
improper to use old Buddhist shrines for purposes 
other than those for which they were originally built ; 
and he gave us notice that we wei-e to have three months 
in which to find other quarters. But as no other lot 
was offered in its place, we remained quiet, and that 
was the last we heard of it. 

Another incident, occurring soon after, was more 
serious, and gave us a great deal of anxiety; foi- it 
came near costing the life of one of our best native 
assistants. A deputation from some twelve or fifteen 


A pris(»\i:k of .iKsiTs ciiiUKT :w\ 

families in Cbieng Duo came to us with a request that 
a native assistant be sent np to teach tbem. Kru Nftn 
T5 went np, and thev bcfuiiie believers, but required 
much further instruction. We selected Noi Siri, the 
most prudent of our elders, for the task. We charged 
him specially, inasmuch as it was in a province new 
to our work, to use great caul inn and jjivc no just 
cause of oflence to the rulers or to others. He re- 
mained there a month, and then was recalled by the 
illness of his wife. He stopped at the mission to re- 
port pronrrcss, pivinp a jiood account of the conduct and 
diligence of the new Christians. 

Great was onr sarprise, then, in a tew honrs to learn 
that Noi Siri had been arrested, i»ut in heavy irons, 
and thrown into pristm on a charge of treason against 
the government. Mr. Collins, Mr. Dodd, and I called 
upon the Commissioner to enquire the canse of his ar- 
rest. The Commissioner replied, Yes; he had him ar- 
rested on the grave charge of disloyalty in teaching 
the converts that they were exempt from goremment 
work. Such teaching was treason; and if the charge 
were true, the penalty was death. It was not, there- 
fore, a bailable offence. At the same time, he said, no 
specifications had been forwarded. He would sum- 
mon the accusers, and tlio man should have a fair trial, 
and should have the privilege of producing any wit- 
nesses he pleased in his defence. That was, of course, 
all that we could ask, save to beg that the trial be 
hastened as far as possible — to which he consented. 
Krii Nan Ta was allowed to see the prisoner in his 
cell. From him he learned that so far was the accusa- 
tion from being true, that he had taught the Christians 
that they were not exempt from government work ; and 
that, furthermore, no call had been made on them for 


sprvico while lie wiis there. We sent immediately for 
all the Christian men to come down. 

After some delay the prinoner was called Into court 
and examined. Aciordiiis to Siamese custom, hia ex- 
amination was taken down in writing. 

« Are you Noi Siri, who has been teaching in Ohieng 
Dflo? " 

" Yes." 

" When did you go there to teach? " 

" On the fourth of the third waning moon." 

" Have yon tanjj;ht that Christiana are exempt from 
public service? " 

" No. On the contrary, I taught that, as Siamese 
subjects, Christians are to pay their taxes and perform 
all the dnties of other subjects." 

The testimony of the governor of Chieng Dao, his 
accuser, was then taken in his presence. Among the 
questions asked him were these : 

" Can you state any particular time and place when 
the Christians were called to do government work and 

" Yes. I called a man or two, and they did not 


" When was that call made? " 

« On the fourth day of the third waxing moon." 

This was the only specification which the governor 
gave. The date, it will be noted, was fifteen days 
earlier than that of Noi Siri's arrival in Chieng DSo. 
If the statement were true, ir might have subjected 
the persons who were summoned to trial and punish- 
ment for disJoyalty; but it absolutely cleared Noi Siri. 
An upright judge would have dismissed the case. The 
Christian witnesses were in attendance to testify as 
to the nature of the instruction they received; but 


were not g\r&i the opportunity to do m. The accnaed 

man was reinuuded t«» prisnu. We wailed, hut nothing 
was done. We called uuoe uiure un the CummiHsiuner; 
bat were told that the case had been referred to 
Bangkok, and be muHt wait for a reply. We wuited 
ajjnin. At last we made a written ajtpeal on h's l>e 
half, and in answer were told that the ca8e was one 
with their own snbjectH, and we had nothing to do with 
it. Meantime Noi Hiri had Ihm uiiu- iniit»' ill, and all 
that we could do was to get him transferred from hia 
dungeon tu the common prison. 

Eight months after this, when Mr. Dodd went down 
to Bangkok to be married to Eakin, he made, 
through the United States Minister, an appeal to the 
Prince Minister of the North, who promised an im- 
mediate order for his release. As soon as we were as- 
sured of that, we went to the resident Prince in Chieng- 
uiai, II. K. H. I'riuoe Sonapandit, who promised that 
the order should be issued at once. The next day we 
called on the ('oiuniissioner to remind him of the 
Prince's promise; but he and the Judge hud just gone 
out for a stroll in the city. It waa then Saturday 
afternoon. Next day was our communion service, and 
1 was determined to have Noi Siri jiresent. To do this 
1 had to follow those men up at once. I was a fast 
walker, and, when necessary, conld ran. My race 
after them was the ludicrous sequel of the i j' k Two 
high officials closing their office and escaping, in order 
to keep their victim in chains another night, pursued 
by swifter feet, and overtaken in the street! The 
Judge acknowledged tl Jie Prince had given the 
order. He would attend to it to-morrow. Since to- 
morrow would be Snnday, I need not come. But I 
knew that we should not see Noi Siri in time for onr 

.'{04 AM()N<i Tin -lAMHHi: AN1> Till: I.AO 

worship unlt'HH I v.fin !■ bUu. So .n Hunday morn- 
ing I i-ulled uiire more on the .IiHlgc wlxi iiguin Mid 
that I need nut wail ; luit I iiad to teli him that I 
would not return till I Haw hi^ rt'leasi-. So \hf jiriH 
oner was called, aud 1 ^• iw tho fetters tukeu uff froiu 
bi8 ankles. 

The wcoiid Ik'II was 'ii,f.iU).' when I entered th*' 
rhurih; Itut Noi Siii wns will. nie. The congregation 
ruHc and sang Uu- ion, tu>-ti-,- loxology. There were 
not many dry eye« in tin' i-uom Mr. l)odd preached 
from (lie tt xt. " Aiitl hii that a . thiugH work 
together for good to tin ui that 1' vi- (iiMi." Auiuag the 
converts who then stood up t«> make a piMic i»o- 
fesHion of faith was NHng Sii, a -hm^hter of N'oi Siri 
and thw happy coincidence was u» planning of 

Noi Hiri'8 faith bad beat tried by fire, and be bad 

come fortli from tlie furnac*' as jniri' gold. ! ;i addii .un 
to his own imprison incnt and distress, his wife liad 
been for monthfi vi r.v h.w with Hick»e«a. and one of Hi* 
grandchildren liad di« <l during the intfi !. Hut f mii 
liis jirison .dl he had wrii, ('. his fa ily not to 
let tlieir faith be shaken eitlier by his i ials or by 
their own. r>aring the eight months »ad ten days of 
his iinprisonnient, one hundred inid 'hirty-thrc pi-r- 
sons — his daughter closing the list— w re received mto 
church nembership. A European in einfiloy of the 
govemm^it, who had cognizan.e of ihe wiiuie case, 
afterwards said > me, " It might lie well to et the 
Cuinmissiouer t< uprison a few m re (.hristian- '. " A 
history of the < -« was afterwards poblisbed f»y on 
Hoard in a leall entitleil, " The Laos Prisoner 

Hefore the e! e of the .vei'r there was an event whieh 
for the time can ■ near to overlhrowing th. jjov iBiB«>t. 

A fUlSOXf R OF -rrs? ( i;! ' IMC, 

A new tax, i thi«?fl^\ on nrv<H irwa, vauNcd much 
rxaupwarion i hrotifhoti* the rnantry. As usual, the 

tax fn n cd otif • ('hi fur collectim. The 
hKMil ofHcer^ in v;ii di-- t- <>riur<l n nmf'fion t<> 
resiHt to the uttern> ■ tht ci.iiet Mon of the tax. Of 
cevrae, ihim coitld nor be allov <>d, nince the cr>11e(*ton 
"vere tb«? ajroTit nf H • / >voi - it. '"he resii- ico wa^ 

centred 'liic;.^ in tht 'istrii 
ih( city, *horp 'rayfl ■. wi 
HM » Holdic^, U HO Ui 
fnt' 'f t!it' i ' . nfs ■• 
tnai. A (In; i vt n .ts st't 
If the:v had mat ■ dash 
liavc t ken '* for he ■ 
wholly ' itii Hi iii, and 

Oar h wf - V 
thf Chii. 

inisii ^t'Dts. li^ re ili 
that of the Sisiajese Prin 
pesit Of* . : ^he othwr 

wr-- !i( 'iHiro; 
ail' ehj ircii ot . 
aliR««8t Mrcibly t 
'.m\ i'ase, sh 
■ e»-r fr th» , 
. at i di~f 


'I \im>. ■Mm 
s ii» z- ! , a 
ill ' 



vard of 
< liiitation 
f rhieng- 
the c 'J. 
d e Hy 

iipli IH 

vvaa m, e- 

tia^nd yards away from 

viis tlio ohjfclive of the 
the C'omnuHsioner and 
t4ona^Bdit were nearly «p 
■ of the river. Our position 


a-. 3^ b«" 

other tliev dcisi 

ly the 'M-t that the wives 
()' iiluential Chinese had 
^efng' a our onmponnd. In 
.oen IB a po.sitinn of groat 
uii he other side of the river 
py. We were strongly advised 
Britii<b Consulate, wh«»He shidter 
: lis Hut the whole population in 
ti \\. watching os. If <■ -stirred, 
a general stftmpede. 
:.-<elve« and for the country, the 
■u people failed. One after an- 
leader, till at last he also fled. 


He was caught, however, and with seven other leaders 
was executed. This was the end of the matter in 
Chiengmai ; but certain parties of the insurgentB, escap- 
ing northwards, became roving bands of marauders 
that for some time disturbed tlie peace of the frontier 
towns. The rebellion never had any chance of ultimate 
success; but had the attack on the city been actually 
made, the immediate consequences would have been 
direful, and untold calamity would have been entailed 
on the whole country. 

The arrival of Dr. McKean at the close of the year 
marked an era in our medical work. He was accom- 
panied by our daughter, Miss Cornelia H. McGilvary, 
now Mrs. William Harris Jnn. It was Vie pleasant 
duty of Mrs. McGilvary to escort the party up from 
Hangkok. The appointment of our daughter was no 
less a surprise than a delight to us. During her school 
days she always said that she woald not become a 
missionary. When the question came up for final set- 
tlement, she fought it out in her own mind alone, 
and reached her own decision. The LHo language, 
which, during her ten years' absence, she seemed to 
have lost entirely, came back to her very soon and with 
little effort. 

It has been Dr. McKean's privilege to continne the 

work begun by able physicians, and to carry it to a 
higher degree of efficiency. He has combined, as most 
of our physicians have done, the two great objects of 
the medical missionary, the medical and the evangel- 
istic, making the former a moans to the latter. While 
the professional and the charitable features of the work 
have not been minimized, bnt rather magnified, no min- 
ister has more loved to i)reach the Gosj^l, or has been 
more successful in it At the same time it may be 


that the great work now cnlicstiDg his sympathj and 
his Btrennons efforts — the establishment of a leper col- 
ony and hosj)ital, and the amelioration of the condi- 
tion of that unfortunate class— may be the one with 
which bis name will be most intimately associated. 



1HAD been appointed by Presbytery to organize 
in Chiang Rai the church which was not found 
read.v for orjjanizntion on my previous visit. I 
had planned for a tour longer than usual, to incinde 
the eastern provinces as far as NSn, as well as the 
northern ones, and expected to take with me native 
assistants only. Hut upon the arrival of our rein- 
forcement, 1 was no less surprised than delighted to 
find that ray daughter desired to accompany me; and 
so it was arranged. 

Starting on February 5th, we spent the first f>unday 
in Lakawn. Here we met another surprise. Mr. 
Taylor had spent his first year in that annoying 
Work for the now missionary, the building of a house, 
lie was anxious to get out among the people, but 
feared he was not sufficiently versed in the language 
to make profitable u tour alone. He and Mrs. Taylor 
would join us if they could get elephants — a matter 
which was easily arranged. Mr. Tayh^r proved to be 
an efficient helper. My daughter had a delightful com- 
panion, and it was a great pleasure to initiate the new 
missionaries into the evangelistic work which Dr. and 
Mrs. Taylor since then have carried on so succewfully 
for twenty years. It is still their delight — may they 
live to carry it on for many years to come! 
One of the chief diversions of the trip thenceforward 



was aflForded by tli(> prankfi of an nncommonly mis- 
chievoos baby-clepliant which accompanied its mother. 
On one occasion a footman coinin<» towards vis stepped 
out of the trail and stood beside a large tree to let 
US pass. The mischievoas creature saw his oppor- 
tunily, and before t!ie man knew what was up, he 
found himself fast pinioned between the elephant's 
head and the tree trunk. The frightened man extri- 
cated himself with loud outcry, while the bdioldera 
were convulsed with laughter. 0»ir own men were con- 
stantly the victims of his pranks; so that, one day, I 
told them that there would be no trouble if they 
would only leave the creature alone — adding, by w.ay 
of clincliing my advice, " You see, he never troubles 
me." Just then, to the great delight of all, he made 
straight for me, and if there had been a tree behind 
me I should have been in the same unpleasant position 
in which the footman found himself. 

Mr. Taylor's account of the earlier portion of the trip 
is as follows: 

" We left Lakawn on the 12th of February with Dr. Mc- 

Gilvary and his daughter, anJ in four days roaehed Mdang 
Pre. Our tents were pitched by the road just outside the city 
gate. The advent of four foreigners, two of whom were 
women, created quite a stir; and we were all kept abundantly 
busy in visiting and being visited. Mrs. Taylor and Miss 
Mi'Gilvary were the first white ladies to risit the place; 
and of course, much to their own discomfort, were the centre 
of attraction. . . . 

" The people of Pre seemed very ready to listen to the 
Gospel; so plenty of auditors were found CTerywhere. On 
Sabbath, the IGth, the first convert in Pre was baptized. 
He is a blind man, Noi Wong by name, who came to 
Lakawn to *>r * Dr. Peoples operate on his eyes; but as 
nothing coi uni- for him, he returneil home carrying in 

his heart so. ^f the teachings there received, and in his 


hiiiul a riaiiuscrii>t copy of a small catechism I was able to 
spuft' him. From his answers before the session, it was evi- 
dei't that he had used his brother's eyes weil in having it 
read to him. 

'' On Wednesday we started on for Nan, and arrived there 
the following Tuesday. We received a ver^- cordial welcome 
from the officials of that city, who sent a man to put in order 
a rest-house for us, and another to conduct our elephants to 
a place for food and water. Next day, after the court closed, 
some of the officials eume tu visit us. After wading tliruugh 
the crowds on the tirst and second verandas, and finally 
planting himself cross-legged in the middle of the thronged 
reception-room, tlieir Chief said they tho.ipht we would be 
lonesome; so they had come to visit us. No idea could have 
been more c()mical to u.s: but he was seriously in earnest, 
and explained that he h id never known the people to visit 
with other foreigners who had come to their city. They 
would not, however, listen well when the subject of religion 
was broached, and with one or two exceptions would not at- 
tend any of our services." 

The morning after our arrival in Nun, laj 
daughter met in the market-place a daughter of the 
Prince, and, l)ffoit> she was aware, found herself 
escorted into the jialace. Her newlv recovered lan- 
guar^e stood her in g(»(»d stead, and she l;ad a pleas- 
ant talk with the Prince and his daughters and wives. 
Next day lie sent word that he would be pleased to give 
our party an audience. He was of venerable age, and 
Mcond only to our Chiengmai Prince in his influence 
at the court of Bangkok. He expressed his pleasure at 
our visit to his country. He was too cdd to embrace 
a new religion. We might teach his children and 
grandchildren. What they would do he did not 

At Nun the Taylors left us, returning to their sta- 
tion, while we journeyed on. Our next stage was 


f'hieng Kawng, one hundred and fifty miles to the 
northwest. We usually stopped for the night at large 
villages, or sometimes in small towns. But once we 
spent two days in the forest, where hears, tigers, and 
wild elephants abound. The first evening we juat 
missed the sight of three tigers. Our men had gone on 
ahead to select a camping-place for the night, and saw 
a mother with two cnhs crossing the road. Next 
morning one of my elephants, that had been hobbled 
and turned loose, was not on hand. It was nothing 
nnosaal for one of thctn to be a little belated, so we 
loaded up the others and prepared for starting. But 
when an hour had passed, and then two hours, and the 
elephant still did not come, we unloaded than and 
waited a long weary day and an anxious ni{,ht. Early 
next morning, however, the driver appeared. That 
was a relief, but still there was no elephant. He had 
followed her trail over the mountain ridge, down 
gorges, and across knolls, till, tired and hungry, he 
had retraced his steps. Night overtook him, and, 
crouched under a tree, he had caught snatches of sleep 
while keeping watch for tigers. Foi two nights and a 
day he had not tasted food. With an elephant's in- 
stinct, the beast was making her way towards her old 
range in Chieng Rai, many days distant. It was a 
relief to know that she had not joined a iarge wild 
herd, in which case her captur*! would be practically 

We could not remain indefinitely in the forest. So 
giving the driver food, a gun. and two carriers for 
company, with instructions not to return till the ele- 
phant was found, we moved ou five or six miles to the 
next village. Ran Kein. This was the noon of Wednes- 
day. Our detention seemed provid^tial. We found 


tho placo fever strickon. Our incdiciiies at once made 
us friends. Our teul woh crowded with visitors, so 
that I had little time to think of tt» Imt el^ant. The 
jiodple seemed lninf»Ty for Ifie (lnspcl. Tln-oo suh- 
stantial men in the village, on the nighi iK'Inre we left, 
professed a sincere and cordial acceptance ^ J^m as 
their Savionr. 

On Saturday, shortly after midday, there W3' a 
sh(mt, "Here comes Lung Noi with the elephant!" 
I WW both and sorry to hear it. Had I been alone, 
I should have remained longer. I?nt we ha<l lost so 
much time, thar every one was eager to depart. I 
[tromised if possible to come again, hut the time never 

Chier.g Kawng was our next point, a place T had 
visited with Dr. Vroomau seventeen years before. The 
young lad who then was so much interested in my re- 
jieating rifle was now governor, and came running out, 
bareheaded and barefooted, to welcome us. In the in- 
terval 1 had met him from time to time in Chiengmai, 
and he always begged that I woald make him another 
visit. I had been better than my word — I had come 
at lasi, and brought my daughter, too. His brother, 
the second governor, had seen us in time to don his 
audience dress, and he appeared more like a white 
man than any one we had seen since the Taylors left 
us. He was ready to start on an expedition to Mflang 
Bing, five days northward beyond the Mft KOng. The 
Prince of Nan had received permission from the King 
of Siam to repeojde thai old province. Hence this ex- 
pedition. The leader had three hundred men, and gave 
me a cordial invitation to go as chaplain and physi- 
cian! After this, while the work was well under way, 
thb territory was turned over to France as the result 


of the long and troubled negotiations over the boundary 
between Siam and French Indo-China. 

The wires of both the governors could scarcely he 
content with my daughter's short stay. They would 
surely become Christians, if she would remain one 
month to teach them. All I (ouM do was to promise 
once more 1o come again if iiossihie. The promised 
visit was made two years later, but then the " Nfii " 
was not along. 

From there the only travelled route to Chieng Sen 
was by Chieng liai, both hot and circuitous. The al- 
ternative was a blind, untravelled track through the 
forest, made over forty years before, when Siara 8«it 
its hist unfortunate exiwMlilion ajjainst Keng Tung. 
Here was a tempting chance to test the old proverb, 
Where there's a will, there's a way. The governor 
procured a noted hunter to guide us. Every carrier 
and driver and servant in the party carried his bush 
knife, and all promised to aid if we only would take 
the cooler road. It was, however, literally making in 
the forest " a highway for oui Uod," over which several 
missionary tours have since been made. In the denser 
parts of the foreat, we conld force our way only by cut- 
ting away branches and small trees, and at times felling 
clum[)s of hamluio. 

We had a cool place for rest and worship on Sunday. 
Onr hnnter had not promised to keep the Sabbath, 
anil we were on bis old hunting-grounds, where game 
of all kinds abounded. At dawn he was off with bis 
gtm, and we saw no more of him till sunset, when he 
apfteai-ed smiling, with some choice cnts of be^ hang- 
ing from the barrel of his gun. lie had found and fol- 
lowed, all day, a lierd of wild cattle— the Kating— and 
succeeded in kiUing one of them sear our road, a mile 


or more ahead of our camp. Though killed on Sun- 
day, we ate it and asked no qnestions for conscience' 
sake. It was suirlv the most delicious heef we ever 
tasted. We sliould iiuve had a mutiny tlio next day, 
bad we proposed to pass on without stopping to save 
the meat. And wliat a huge creature it was. It mnst 
liav*' wpiylied nearly a ton. Our men extemporized 
frames over the fire, and were busy cutting up the meat 
and drying it until late at night. Next day each man 
went loaded with it to his utmost capacity. What we 
could not carry away, the guide stored in the fork of a 
tree against his return. 

The journey through the forest was shorter and far 
more comfortable than would have been the regular 
route. When next I travelled it, it had become a 
public highway. And us long as I continued to 
journey that way, it was known as the "Teacher's 

Chieng S^n was the limit of our trip. Before reach- 
ing it, we began to hear rumours of war — that the city 
was blockaded, no one being permitted to enter or 
depart. The country population had been called in 
to defend the city, etc., etc. We were advised to re- 
turn, but kept on. At the gate the guard admitted us 
without difficulty. 

The disturbance was the aftermath of the previous 
year's tax-rebellion, which, as we supposed, was com- 
pletely ended before we left home. But a portion of 
the insurgents had fled to Keng Tun^, and. gathering 
there a lf>rger force, came south again us far as M(iang 
Ffing, where they were either captured or again scat- 
tered. It was the fear that this lawless band, on its 
retreat, might attack and plunder the city, 
that caused the confusion. But the fugitives would 


have been fools to linpcr about two weeks after their 
defeat, when they kuew that both the army behind 
them and the country in front of them would be on 
the alert for their capfni-e. The governor waa de- 
lighted to gee us, and we were al.le iu some degree 
to allay his fears. We were there, too, to speak a 
won! of c«)nifort to oar own flock, who, like the rent, 
had beeu called in to protect the eitv. The pnnio 
gradually subsided, and the people returned to flieir 
homes. Owing in part to the unsettled condition of 
the country, we did not remain long in Chioig Sto ; bnt 
long enough to visit in their homes every Christian 
family save one, and to have a delightful communion 
season with the church on Sunday. 

Our special commission on thia tour was to or- 
ganize a church in Chieng Bai, where our next Sunday 
was spent. Our governor friend was disappointed that 
we had not come to take possession of the flne lot on 
the bank of the Me Kok whi(h he had given us. At 
his suggestion a house on it was purchased from his 
son at a nominal price, with the promise that we 
would urge the mission t«) occupy it the next year. On 
April 13th, the three sectiims of' the church assembled 
by invitation at M6 Kawn. The obstacles which pre- 
vented the organization before were now removed. 
Fjfty-one communicants and thirtv two non commun- 
ing members were enrolled, two ruling elders were 
elected and ordained, and the new church started with 
fair prospt cts. 

We reachoJ home on April 29th. ,if(er an absence 
of eighty-one days. We found all well, and the work 
prospering along all the lines. It waa none too soon 
however. We were just in time to escape the riae of 
the streams. At our last encampment on the Md 

:m AMoxr, tuk sia.mi:si: aaD the lao 

Kuung we had u great Ktorui of wiud and rain, with 
trees and branches falling abont m. The trip was a 

long one for my diuiKlitcr ; hut her presence umitly en 
lianced the imparlance of the tour. On my subsequent 
tours through that region the llrst ijueslion always 
was, " Did you bring the Nfti? " and the second, " Why 

On our return we were surprised to find Dr. Mc 
Kean in a new and comfortable teak honse, toward 
the erection of which neither axe nor saw nor plane 
had Ix'on used when we left. The sawmill couM de- 
liver at once whatever was needed. Hut iny house had 
been seven years in building! 

By this time nearly all the Lao cities of Siam had 
been visitetl by missionaries. In two of theui — Chieng- 
niai and Lakawn— we had established i»ernianent sta- 
tions. For the third station, Chieng Rai seemed to 
present the strongest claim. Politically it was not so 
important as Nan. But Niin, while very cordial to 
foreigners personally, was very jealous about admitting 
foreign inlluence «»f any kipd. And the absolute con- 
trol of the pcojde by the princes of Nan would be an 
obstacle in the way of the acceptance of Christianity 
there until the princes themselves embraced it. In 
(>hien{i Rai province the governor was known to l»e 
favourable to the Jesus-religion. Its broad plains and 
fertile soil were sure to attract a large immigration 
from the south, where population is dense and land 
very dear. The city is about equidistant from the tive 
cities of Wieng Pa Pao «m the south, Miiaug Fang on 
the west, Chieng HOn on the north, Chieng Kawng on 
the northeast, and f^hieng Kam on tli^ east. In our 
rejtorts to the mission and to the Hoard, these facts 
were urged as uiguiiienls foi- tile estabiisfament of a 


station therr The tiii.'^'sion ^'avc its cordial sanction 
to a temporary octui)uuc,y. A lunger tour was author- 
ised for the next aeasoD; but the heavy debt of the 
Hoard forlMde the expenditure of more than two him- 
drtiU and tifty rupees for a temporary house in order 
to secure the land which had been given us. Our long 
delay sorely shook the good gorernort faith that we 
wouhl ever come. 

Tlie nrrival of \»'Uiit,' mihhionaries on the tield ren 
dered some kind of ph^v^ical and social recreation neces 
sary. Croquet had formerly been tried, but It gave 
very liM!,- excrcis*'. and had l)een supplanted bv the 
better game of lawn tennis. In the fall of 1890, Mrs. 
McQilvary prepared a court in our front lot, and in- 
vited the missionaries and the small European com- 
munity to an "At Home" on Tuesdiiys at 4 p.m. 
The game furnished the very exercise needed after a 
day's conflnement in school or study. It proved so 
beueticial to health nd lo efficiency in work, that the 
"At Home" was continued, with occ. sioual interrup- 
tions from weather or other causes, for thirteen or 
fourteen ^ears. This was Mrs. McGilvary's little con- 
tribution to the health and the so( il recreation of the 
community in which we lived; and it was highly ap- 

In August I had occasion to visit Wieng Pa Fio. 
Before 1 was out of the Chiengmai plain I had an ex- 
citing runaway on my big sadaw tiephai^c. A mother 
cow was grazing at some littte distance from her calf. 
As the elephant approached the calf, (he inotlier be- 
came alarmed for its safety, and rushed frantically 
towards it, bellowing to the utmost capacity of her 
lungs. Tliis was ip.ite too much for my big timid 
beast. He started off at a fearful pac^ whidi the 

driver in v:iin < n<h !iv..iiiv<1 m . - ntinl. 1-orl.inatcly it 
w iis nn iin n\H'n i»lain with uo woodn or trwH. The Ramo 
L'k jthiint on a itrevioM occanion, when Mm. McOllrary 
wan rldtng him, on notne slight aliuiii ruHlu.l in(u 
t\ ihnUci "f 1< " '"'i'**; 

went trashiug Unough the Biandinj? timber In the 
foiwt. In both case* It was nothing but tlu- HtrenRth 
of the three-Btrand attan nhih that naved cither bow- 
ili.h or riflor. Tl(e oU j.hant's fiiHteHt run it* not a 
loiK'. • l»ut a liiud (.r l«»uR swing from Bide to aide. 
It ia an awful aenaation. I never was in an earth 
qualte, but 1 inMiRinc IIh- two oxp^^riencea must he 
Bomewhat similar, with the fear in thia case of being 
at any instant daahed from yonr lofty perch to the 

The sporial reason for this trip uas the fear of some 
collision or trouble l)etween the povemraent and the 
Chriatlana with regard to the Sunday question. Be- 
sides keeping their own Sal.f. h, the Christians were 
forbidden to do any manual work on the Buddhist 
sacred days as well, making altogether eight days in 
each month. Had the rule been the outcome of con 
Rcientious samples on the part of a religioua people at 
seeing their sacred day destH-ratcd, we should have re- 
spected their acruplea. But the day was a mere holi- 
day, and, except by a few of the more religioi.s, it was 
larpplv spent in hunting and fishing. 1 had to re- 
mind "the governor of hia beautiful inconaiateiiey. He 
would not allow the Chriatiana to uae an axe or a plow 
on sacred davs, while the people generally were al- 
lowed to kill animals, thus breaking the most stringent 
of Buddha'a laws. He muat have felt the force of the 
argumfflit. f<»r l>cfor.' the very next sacred day an 
order was issued forbidding hunting aad tisbing on it. 


Bat till the original order wag revoked, strict obedi- 
ence was enjoined upon the Cliristians. 

The Annual Meeting was held in Laltawn early in 
December. Just before it convened, Dr. and Mrs. W. 
A. BriggB and Rev. Robert Irwin arrived, together with 
Dr. and Mrs. Peoples, returning from furlough. For 
the present these were stationed at Lakawn. At the 
same time Rev. and Mrs. Stanley K. Phraner were 
nearing Chiengmal on (he M6 Ping fork. Bnt our 
song of joy over their arrival was destined soon again 
to have a sad refrain. The two young brides had 
scarcely reached their hnsbands' field of labour— which 
they thought was to be theirs also— when they were 
both called to a higher sphere. 



Wini.K in IIk- T'nifed Stish's, Dr. i'copies had 
sucfwded iu procuriug a fi>ut of Lao type, 
with the neceHs.ni7 equipnwnt for printing. 
For twenty three years we h;id used only the Siamese 
Scrip! lives and literature. With many present dis- 
udvautages, it hacJ some compensations. Those who 
eoald rwid Siamese had access to the whole of the 
Old am\ N'ew Testiiiiients. Tlie ]»ress was set up in 
Chiengmai, and lUn-. D. (1. <:ollins was made man- 
ager. The first printing done was Mrs. McGilvary's 
translation of flie (Jospel of Mattliew. 

My daughter had ix'en sent down to aid the I'hraners 
on their liver trip. Word was sent alieatl tliat Mrs. 
Phraner was not well. As they drew nearer, her con- 
diti<in IxHiinie so criticnl that l>r. MeKeiiii luisteuHl 
with all speed to mett them. When she reached 
Chiengmai, her condition, while still critical, was more 
hopefnl. I was ready to start (.n my tour as soon as 
the party arriviHl. When I left home, we were still 
hopeful that rest, kind nursing, and medical treatmMit 
would set her rif^t again. 

During my absence this year I was fortunate en^aiKh 
to receive a regular weekly mail from Chiengmai. A 
Btatf of engiueerH were surveying a railroad n)ute for 
the Siamese government, and had a weekly mail sent 



to their stations along the line. They were very kind 
to include my letters also, which was particularly for- 
tunate in that ttw I could have news of tbe inralid 

left behind. 

I have learned to start on my tours with very flex- 
ible plans, leaving much to the Kaidance of provi- 
dential ojieuings on the way. On this trip, at the vil- 
lage of Pang Knii—which. Ixm ause it was a mile or 
two away from ilic road, I had not vissited in seventeen 
years— I was delayed three days by a reception so cor- 
dial that 1 could not ;>ass on. (»u in.v previous trip a 
man from the village, Noi Teeho In name, laine with 
his little girl across to our camp and begged us to 
visit it. This I could not then do; but he remained 
with us til! late at nifjht, and seen cd to bo a be- 
liever. I now found that in the interval the man had 
kept the Sabbath, and had given such other evidmce 
of his sincerity, that we could not refuse his reception 
to the communion and fellowship of the cliun li. On 
the last night of our stay we had a baptisuial and com- 
munion service that was memorable. The man made a 
pood confession l)efore many witnesses, and bis little 
daughter was baptized as a non-communing member. 

As in many other cases, this family had been 
driven by trouble to our religion. Originally he was 
the slave of a prince in Lakawn. The accusation of 
Witchcraft then settled t)n the family; but before they 
were driven oif tbe Prince compelled them to borrow 
money in order to redeem thciuselves from bim — to do 
wbich the man had to give tw(» of his children as se 
curity. After a move or two, he was driven by famine 
from Lakawn, and came to this village. 

One m. rning at Wienp IM ITio I was summoned 
in great haste to attend one of the engineers who 

t. r, 

1 1 



was thoufjlit to have been nearly killed by a fall from 
a runaway horse. I found that he had broken a col- 
lar-bone, but was otherwise uninjured. I applied all 
of my amateur surjiical skill, and set the bone. But 
my patient, naturally enough, could not feel quite sure; 
and thonght it safer to go down to our hospital and get 
Dr. McKean's judgment <»i the case. He toaad the 
bone 8et all right. 

Late one Saturday evening I reached BSn Pa Hong 
in Chieng Rfti province, and stopped with the first 
Christian family. Next day 1 learned that in the next 
section of the village there was a Christian girl very 
low with consumption. Early on Monday morning I 
moved on, but was only in time to see a lovely form 
and face apparently in the most natural sleep; but 
the living soul had departed. I had baptized her two 
years before, when she was fourteen years of age. 
She had been sick for seven months, and had spent 
most of the time in prayer. It made me inexpressibly 
sad when 1 learned that her strongest desire was to see 
her own "Paw Krn" brfore she departed. On the 
previous evening, when she heard that wf had reached 
the village near by, she said, " And the Paw Kru is at 
Koi Lin's, and I emmot me him!" I preached her 
funeral sensM, md mw decottly buried. 

The next Sunday morning, while sitting in the Mft 
Kawn chapel and pwfwring for service, I looked up 
and saw standing on tlif frroiiml before the door some 
people in a strange costume evidently not Lao, looking 
in as if in doubt whether to enter or not. I immedi- 
ately recognised tiiem as belonging to (he Mfiso tril)e, 
(\\u\o numfrous in the mountains near b.v. Thcii' ready 
acceptance of my inviiatiun ti; come in showed that 

btri:n(;thenino the stakes 323 

they were waiting to be aMked, and feared only lest 
thej might be intrtiden. As the Mflste will be prmn- 
incnf in our ujirrjitive of (his and the two following 
years, a word of introduction mav be desirable. 

They are one of a numerous groii|> of hill tribes which 
have gradually followed the mountain ridgea down 
from the interior of the continent. They live under a 
patriarchal government, if it may be rightly called a 
government at all ; and they enjoy great personal free- 
dom, though the authority of the clan approaches very 
near to ahsolutc despot}. They are worshippers of 
spirits, which are held to preside over the universe 
and the destinies of men goierally; while as a tribe 
they are under the Kunrdinnship of their own " spirits." 
They have a twelfth-day sabbath or sacred day, not 
very definitely marked. They make a great deal of 
their "kin wii.v" or New Year feast, when all com- 
mnniontion witli other villages even of Iheir own tril)e 
is cut off during the live or seven days of their feasting. 
The religioos head of the village is called Pu ChSn, 
and the head Pu Chun of a province holds in his hands 
the conscience of all his Hock. 

Their manner of life is as follows: They select a lo- 
cality, the higher ap the better, near the soarce of a 
mountain brook. They fell the trws and undergrowth 
at llie close of the rainy season, let them dry during 
the hot season, and Just before the next rainy season 
set fire to the clearing on a windy day. All that is 
readily < ombnslihle is consumed, leaving the logs on 
the ground. With a small hoe or a narrow spade they 
make shallow openings in the earth some tm inches 
apart, all over the field, and deposit in each a dozen 
rice grains, njore or less. The rains do the rest till the 
harvest. The second year's crop is the best, but it is 

324 AM()N<; rm: siamkse and the lao 

seldom iliai lla'V riiii loniia-U' wilh ihe scrub-growth 
for a third vro\\ A tcmiwrary shack ib easily erected, 
if possible, (•..iiti-iiiuns to three clearings. When these 
are abanduiu <1. they move on and repeat the opera- 
tion elsewlierc. l?.v this means all the higher moun- 
tains are being steadily denuded of their forests. 

Being hound by no s.vsleni of hoary age and venerable 
associations, like Uuddhisni or Brahmanism, most of 
the hill tribes are very receptive of the Gospel. Their 
clannishness, liowever, is such that if they become 
Cliristians at all. they come in a l)ody. But it is 
very ditlu uU for individuals or families to brealc away 
from the clan. At the same time their migratory and 
unsettled habits are by no means favourable to their 
ediuaiion and civilization. To any other power than 
that of the «iospel that would seem to be a hopeless 

But to return to our visitors at the chaj)cl. There 
were seveu r. eu and boys in the i»arty. The spokes- 
man, Cha Pii Kaw, was tall and well proportioned, 
with Hie Itearinj; of one who mij^lit be a leader of some 
position, lie nndersinml Lao better than most of his 
tribe, and through him it was by no means difficult 
to draw the others into conversation. They were from 
three families that had been driven down nearer the 
plain by accusation of witchcraft. They had learned 
from our elder that Christians were not afraid of 
witchcraft, nor of expulsion from the country. They 
had !;lso talked over with him Ihe plan of salvation 
for sinful uieu provided in the (Jospel, and had asked 
to be informed whenever we should come again. They 
readily lonsented to remain through the morning 
servii c, which was uiodilied to suit the needs of the new 
audicme. it was the first Christian worship they 



had ever attended, and tliey were evidently pleased. 
The Christians invited them t(i share their dinner, 
and the muMt uf the ufternuou was given up to their 
ingtrnctitni. The hojn were put to reading the cate- 
chism and learning to sinji liic Lao version of "There 
in a Happy Land." They remained with us till there 
was only light ent«ugh left to enable them to tind 
their way home. 

Early w\t mo: ning we crossed the plain to the foot 
of the mountain, where we siruek thi* little brt»ok 
along which and in which lay our pathway. The clirib 
was a stitV one. hut with u.)lt!e outlooks over tlu' |>1 lin 
below. In their little hamli-t there wi'iv three fam- 
ilies, or, rather, three divisions of one family, num- 
bering twenty-six souls. By their intercourse with 
the Christians at lli«> chaiK'l tlic soil had Imm'H pre- 
pared for the seed. So from niue o'clock till noon we 
addressed ourselves to teaching the elders, while the 
liiildreu were IxMoming moic and more interested in 
the catechism, and esjiccialiy in the • Happy Land." 

While tlie men and Iwiys were thus engaged, the 
grandmother and her danghterH were busy preparing 
dinner. Wlien all was ready, the sieaminjr white 
rice was emptied on a board liue that on which our 
housewives knead their bread. W ith it was a vegetable 
curry, sweet potatoes steamed over the rice, bananas, 
and other fruits, with native su<;:n in cakes for dessert. 
The board piled with f(M>d was set l)ef«»re me, and 1 was 
invited to partake. They were delighted that I could 
eat and enjoy ir. 

After all had tinished their meal, the .'xen ises of 
the morning weit; resumed, with the women now dis- 
engaged and free to listen. Long beforu night Cba Pu 
Kaw and bis brother-in-law, Cha Waw, of about the 


Huuit jiKf, I xi)re88ed their Ann belief In the tnith of 
our religion, and their accfptunce <»f the Oospel offer 
as far as they nn»!erstn<i<l it. Tlie women Raid they 
would follow their husbands. The sun was already 
gettinj; low when we had worship together before lear- 
ill}?. When we tamo to bid our liosts good bye, we 
round tiiiit we were to be escorted down by the two 
elder men and the boys, lest a tiger might meet in on 
the way. It was almost darlc when we reached the 
cliiipel. A (lily never to l»e forj^otten: 

At the ehaiiel I found letters from Chiengmai bring- 
ing the news that Mrs. Phraner's long and painful suf- 
ferings were ciiilcl. She died on February 13th. .Vll 
that thive aide |diysi» ians eoiild do was done; but in 
vain. Her mother and her family were never willing 
that she should become a missionary, being sure that 
she could not endure the straiu of a missionary's life. 
That fart tilled the husbands cup of sorrow to over- 
ilowiug. My letter stated that he was beside himself 
with grief; that the physicians, and. in fact, the whole 
mission, slroii<j;!y advised him to join me on my tour; 
and that he wouhl learh me not hmg after the letter. 

On the following Friday, while getting the new 
chili" ! n iidy. I heard the shout. " There comes the new 
(. achei ! ■■ He was w. ru and haggard, and visibly 
♦dder than when 1 left him; but making a brave effort 
to be cheerful. He said very little of his great loss. 

On Sunday the vvli'd*- Mfisn village was on hand hmg 
before the hour ior wursiiip. The women came with 
their bal»e» tied with a scurf to the mother's back, ac- 
cording to their i usf.mi. The news that they were 
licKiMie Clirisliiins iiiid spn-iid. and drew a larger num- 
ber than usual of our n<»n Christian neighbours to the 
services. The Christians, too, were greatly enconr- 


aged tiiereb^v. In the afteroMun u few of the tribe 
from another ril1«Ke were prettent, and liiitened with 
HurpriHe to Cliu Tu Kjiw'n tirHt Hcrmon. He had evi* 
dcntl^v nitrrcd ii|Min his new fiiith in earnest} and was 

not aHliuiiied to Loiii* liiH tehiiiuony. 

On Monday we moved on to Gbieng Rili, where I was 
to dim t llic r-cniiiviil ai a botHW to the lot which the 
tJovcrnor luul oflcml us. But Mr. I'liraiU'i-'H condition 
demanded niovi'nicnt und change of Nceue. Arrange- 
mentH were, therefore, made to Imtc the house moved 
by others, wliiic \\v went mi ;i( mice to t'hient; Wn. 
There we found lite (-liao Uparat just returned from a 
trip via MAang Len to MAang Sing, some hundred 
MiileH or HO to the northeast on tlie other wide of tlie 
Mf' Kontj IJiver. lie was profuse in his [u-aise both 
of MOung Siug and of the journey thither; and BUg- 
gested that it wonid be a fine opening for a mission, 
and .\ most interesting tour. Tlie sng^Htion Heemcd 
attractive to U8 iMitli. So, jifier a weelc of w«»riv in the 
church and in the city of I'hieug Sen, we started for 
Mfiang I.en and MAang Sing. 

.Muan}: Ix'n is the common market centre of a large 
number ut hill tribcH that inhabit the mountain ridges 
in all directions round about. All the cities and towns 
north of Chieng 8*n hold a fifth day fair or market. 
We were furtimate in striking Jiiarket da.v on the Satur- 
day of our arrival. Early in the morning people be- 
gan to pour into the place from all directitms. The 
mountain tribes came out, their beaux and l)ell('.s all 
in gala dress, some to buy and sell, and otiiers because 
It was their weekly holiday. 

From Chienp St^n I had brought along Nin 8uwan, 
the Lfi elder, who had coine into closer contact with 
these mountain tribes than had our elders from the 


south. lie could make the nieu, and especially the head 
men, understand fairly well. To all who understood 
the Lao I could, of course, speak directly. We took 
our stand at the end of the market, and the crowd 
gathered about us. None of them had ever seen a 
missionary. None, save some few of the Lao men, had 
ever read a book, or knew even a letter of any writ- 
ten language. They were iliildren of nature, artless 
and unsophisticated. We pressed home the thought, 
new to them, that there must be a maker of the world 
and of all creatures in it. We told them the old, old 
story of the infinite love of God, our Father, and of 
Christ, His Son, who suli'ered and died to save us. and 
of pardon freely promised to all who believe in Him. 
This is the final argument that wins these people. 

After the merely curious among the crowd had with- 
drawn, this doctrine of salvation from sin held the 
more thoughtful, and brought them to our tent in the 
afternoon, and even far on into the night. The head 
men especially, who were more free to come to me, 
expressed a deep personal interest in the new doctrine. 
The most interested and interesting man was Sto Ra- 
tana, the governor of the K6n quarter of the city. We 
met him on Sunday. On Monday we called on him and 
spent most of the morning at his house, explaining to 
him the i>lan of salvation and dictating to him por- 
tions (if Scri|ifMre for him to copy; for by thir time 
the Lao manuscript copies which we brought with us 
were exhausted. He copied, also, the first few ques- 
tions and answers of the Shorter Catechism, hoping 
that with these as a key, he could learn to read the 
Siamese Gospel and catechism which 1 gave him. 

On our return to our teat on Monday evening we 
found almost a panic among our people. Some law- 


less men had lounged iihout the tent most of the day, 
asking suspicious questions about how much money 
we carried, and how many guns, und whither we were 
going from there, etc., etc. The result was that those 
who Iiad been most eager for the trip beyond the 
Kong to Mftang Sing, began now to beg us to return. 
Mr. Phraner, moreover, became uneasy about his bor- 
rowed elephant, which would be a great prize for rob- 
bers. So, after consultation, it was decided to re- 
trace our steps. However disappointing this might be 
to me, I had at least learned the road to Mdang Sing 
and Mtiang Yawng. The tonr to hotli those places, and 
to many others, was only deferred to the following 
year, when we might hope to have at least one printed 
Gospel in the Lao language, and a tract or two to dis- 
tribute. The news of Cha Pu Kaw's conversion spread 
far and wide, and was preparing the way for further 
work among his tribe. 

Leaving Mrtang Len on Wednesday, we breathed more 
freely after we had crossed the border into Siam. On 
reaching Chieng Sen, Mr. Phraner decided to return 
to Chiengmai. He had reaped all the benefit possible 
from change of scene. He felt that he <)ii<;lit now to be 
in his future home, settling down to a systematic study 
of the language. Bnt I greatly missed his pleasant 

The object of the missionary's visit to an outlying 
church like that of Chieng Sen, is to " lengthen the 
cords and strengthen the stakes"— to awaken the 
careless, to attract the indifferent, and to deepen im- 
pressions already made. Witliin the range of influence 
of such a church there are always those who, though 
taught, indeed, by its native officers, still need further 
instruction by the naissionary — ^who have objections to 


be met and doubts to be resolved beyond the power of 
These oflScers to cope with. Not infrequently some one 
who ig already a believer has a wife, a husband, or chil- 
dren on whom his own final decision dejicnds. These 
must be Visited in tiieir h<uiies. Their confidence must 
be won and their friendship gained as a preliminary to 
awakiMiinj; (lioir interest in our religion. 

For Die salie of Hie Cliristians personally, as well 
as for the worlc in general, it is important to cultivate 
the friendship of the local rulers. It is to them that 
the Christians are responsible. And then the Chris- 
tian families must be visited, their children instructed, 
their difficulties settled, their sick be treated, and in- 
structed how to treat themselves in our absence; and 
as much Scriptural teachin<r is to be given as our time 
by night and by day will permit. But our most im- 
portant duty is to instruct toe elders themselves, and 
give them an uplift. 

When my work in (Jhieng Sen was done, I started 
for Chieng Kawng, taking Nan Suwan along, for he 
was well known there and in most of the region to be 
visited as far as (Hiieng Rai. The Me Taui, already 
referred to as the stream which rises from under the 
mountain west of the plain, becomes quite a river as 
it enters the Me Kong near Chieng S^n. The bottom 
land is covered witli reedy grass so tall that a large 
elephant carrying a high howdah can be seen only a 
short distance away. Here we lost our way com- 
pletely, and wandered about bewildered for a long 

When finally we reached the stream, its trough was 
so deep that we failed in a number of attempts to get 

down to tlie water. At last we dui^ down as best we 
could the edge of the high sandy bank, and, after much 



P'-^^^^t <>n I'i" part, my sadaw trem- 

Jlid like an al , gator, dragging his hind legs after him 
till, w,th a nughty plunge, we landed ir deep wate^' 
It was an awful sensation for the rider. TheXoe 
was in a bayon with "back water" so deep as o be 
qn. e ovor one's head ; and, unlike the natives^ the rider 
could not swim ! The landing on the further Jo JwL 
ittle better. There the elephant struggled up Z 
bank unt.l he got his forefeet on the edge above Then 
wuh a gigantic effort, he drew himself 'npt^dS 
that the nder had to hold on for dear'^ife to a^^^ 
bemg thrown over his head. It was a feat that In y 
an elephant could perform, and one would n.nch U"^ 

mg the operation. 
At Chieng Kawng I was sorry to find the governor 

tTf^ t l?""*"' ^^''^'^'^^S bis ankle and bruis- 
ing the bone. The joint had been barbarously t,^ated 
.•as fearfully swollen, and caries of the bone h d /v 
dently set ,n. I urged him to take an elephant and 
go to our hospital, as the only pcs^^ble chance Tf eu^^ 

to do so a ter trying somewhat longer the incantations 
of a noted sorceress, who was believed to luave g^t 
power over wounds. It almost passes belief tlmC! 
ai» mte ligent man conld have any faith in it. Yet "ea 
son and r.dicule alike failed to dispel the hope that 
d c'tJS'' After"': ^ ^-"'^ -^^'^ '^-e befn prl* 

While I was in Chieng Kawng, a Nto prince re- 
turning from Mfiang Sing brought the news Sat ne^ 


tiations then on foot l)etween France iuul Siuni would 
put a stop to all further sottkMucnt of that district; 
would, in tact, transfer the whole region east of the 
M£ KOng to Prance. The Prince of Nfln was greatly 
disappointed: but little did we tlii ' that the transfer 
would ultimately prove an effectual barrier to our work 
also. It is surely one of the anomalies and anachro- 
nisms of the twentieth century that a Christian naiion 
of Euro[>e should oppose the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into a region over which it has absolute control ! 

On the last night before v e left, all the princes and 
ofScers came to see us, and remained till midnight. 
They were as loath to have us leave them as we were 
to go. 

The journey from Chieng Eawng was intaisely hot; 

the tliermonictor stand' at lOir in my howdah by 
day, and on one night in my tent at 90°. On the banks 
of the M€ Ing 1 found native white roses in bloom 
in abundance, and brought home with me a plant 
which Mrs. McOilvary greatly [irized. for this was the 
only native rose I had found in the Lao territory. 

On the way to Mftang T6ng I passed the camp of 
Chao Wieng Sa, a Nan prince whom I had met in 
his home on two former visits. He was overseeing the 
felling and running of teak timber down the Mfi Ing 
and the M6 Kong to LGang PraL ".ng. ' He had received 
and road a Siamese New Testament, was iiuite familiar 
with tbe life and teachings of -Jesus, aud admired His 
character. A lawsuit afterwards hi ought him to 
Chiengmai, where I saw a great deal of him. He was 
surely a believer at heart. To me he was willing to 
confess that his only hope was in Jesus Christ, but was 
not ready to make a public profession of his faith. I 
love to think of many such whom I have met as like the 



f '.ainaliels, the Nicodemuses, and the Josephs of Christ's 

At Mdang T6ng, as Boon as I diwnonnted from my 

el phant an ofTiciT met me to enquire who I was. and 
to escort me to the public sala. I soon learned that he 
was the brother of another officer whom I had found 
on the road to Cbieng Kai the .year before, unable to 
travel and, apparently, sick unto death with fever. Ilia 
company could not linger indefinitely in the forest, 
and BO had left him there with two mai to watch him, 
and probably to see him die. A dose of calomel, and 
the cpiinine which I left with instructions as to its 
use, seem to have cured his fever and enabled him to 
reach his home in safety. He was himself now ab- 
sent, but his brother's heart had been opened to friena 
ship', and he did all that he could for my comfort. At 
night he invited his friends to the 8&1& to meet me, 
and we had an interesting evening. In all these places 
Nan Suwan and Noi Siri would often be heard talk- 
ing to tue audience after I had retired, and nntil sleep 

closed my eyes. 

r ,;i. absence from Chieng Rai a case of op- 

pre* dt least, of evident injustice, on the part 

of thb had led our friend the goveraor to take all 
Christians under his personal protection as his own 
dependents. The kindness was well meant, and we 
thanked him for it. But I doubted its wisdom. The 
only scheme nnder which Christianity can really estab- 
luah itself in all lands, is to have Christians stand on 
precisely the same level before the law as Buddhists 
or Brahmans or *he followers of any other religion. 

Prom Chieng Bai the elders were sent on to Cha Pa 
Kaw's village to see how the Miis6s were getting on. I 
followed them in a day or two. When I reached the 


rhaiM'l ill M(*- Kiiwii, the elderH had returned frou; the 
Mu8(i village with a glowing account of their con- 
Rtancy. This the tentimony of Noi Taiiya and of all 
the Lflo Christ iims ( (tnflrnied. They had not missed a 
single Sunday service; old and young alike came, and 
mothers, us before, bringing their children tied on their 
backs. They had shamed tlif Lfio Christians by their 
••arnestness. gcDinj: (.. (lie chapel first, studying hard, 
and returning houie late. 

On Saturday morning the whole village came down, 
and we spent the day logotlier. Tlicy remained that 
night as the guesis ol' (lie Luo. The next day, Sun- 
day, was largely given up to their instruction. They 
all bad renounced the worship of spirits ; they all ac- 
cepted Jesus as tluMr Saviour; they were all diligently 
learning to read and to sing. Their conduct was most 
consistent ; they had a good reflex inflnence upon the 
church; and their conversion was an astonishment to 
the non-Chri-^tian community. 

These Musos had all come, ex[)ecting to join the 
church. They had been taught that public baptism — 
confessing Christ l)efon men — was the consummating 
act, the external seal of their initiation into the priv- 
ileges of the church. Although we impressed upon 
them that they were not saved by the mere ceremony 
of baptism, yet snniphow tlicy folt that wi hout it they 
were not quite in the church, and hent e probably not 
quite safe from the spirits. Since it would be nearly 
a year before they would have another opportunity, it 
seemed unwise not to receive some of them at this 
time. The greatest doubt was about Cha Waw. Yet 
he felt that more than any other he needed whatever 
protection and assistance the church could afford him. 
He had begun with his whole strength to break: the 

stkex(}tiii:mn(} the stakes m 

cbaiUH of big opium h:il.i(. (<» stt'k panloii iind be save<l. 
He fdt confident that with God's help he would suc- 

The final decision was in nnh>i' to hind them 
to the service of Christ, tlioy were all to appear J.i'fore 
the Mision and make their profession; hut that only 
the two old men should be receired Into full com- 
munion, and that one grandson from each family lie 
baptized as uou c«»mmuning members. It was Ihought 
best to let the others wait till our next visit; though I 
have never been satisfied that they should not all have 
been admitted .hat day. Three of these Mfiso boys 
accompanied me to Chiengmai on my i-eturu, and en- 
tered the Boys' School. It is not at all surprising that, 
in surroundings so different from ih(»se of their moun- 
tain homes, they presenlly grew lonesome and home- 
sick. But they were satisfactory pupils, and re- 
mained in school long enough to get a good start in 
reading and singing. 

Cha Waw, after a manful struggle, finally succeeded 
in breaking away entirely from his opium— by the help 
of prayer and of quinine, as he always believed and 
affirmed. When the non-Christian tribesmen with 
their opium pipes visited his village, he wa.s accus- 
tomed to go down to the elders at m Kawn, to be away 
from temptation, and under Christian intluence. He 
lived a number of years after this to attest the realitv 
of his victory— the only case I have ever known where 
the victory was surely won. 

That year there was a famine among all the hill 
tribes. The upland rice was almost entirely cut off 
by a plague of rats. I do not believe in " rice Chris- 
tians"; but vhen peo].le are famishing with hunger, 
I believe in feeding them, whether they are Christiana 


or not. Tlii'su did luil u«k jiiiior fur iikuu*^ (»r for any 
other aid. But when I left them, I made arrangiNnent 

with tlic ('Idem to furnish (hem witli sixty ImckftH 
of rice, for wliirh I paid teu rupees iu udvuuit:. They 
were very gratefnl for the aid. 

Tlie days n\mit among the Mflada that week were in- 
Kliiriiij;. (Jhiwiun visions jiidsc Itcfdii' tis of a new 
trilje brought into the Chrisliau i-hunh, of which thi'He 
were the flrst fniitH. On thin whole tour, indeed, only 
nim^ iidiiKs iimi si'venteen < hildren wm* biipli/.i'd. But 
iu addition to tlu> opi'niii<; of work ainon^ the MilsAs, 
we liati for the tlrst time preached tlie (losjwi beyond 
the bordera of the kingdom of 8iam ; und oar longing 
eyes were turned toward llie Sipsawn^ I'annfi, and 
beyond tlie greut river. By tbiH time tlie ruius had 
already I>egun to fall. A new aeaRon waR needed to 
fulfil our desires. 

Much as I yUvav'- enjoy niy lonj, tours, when my 
work is done and my face at last is turned homewards, 
the gait of my Midaw seems distressingly slow. On 
reacliinjj (Miienfjniai I found all in fair iiealth, and 
all departments of work in full «»i>eratiou. But while 
1 was still ou my way, word reached me of the death 
of Mrs. Briggs in Lakawn, only a month and nine days 
after that of Mrs. lMiran(>r. So unexpected was it 
that 1 was not even aware that she had been ill. In 
answer to my request for a few particulars from Dr. 
Briggs, I have received the following, which I know he 
will excuse me for transferring to these pa|^ : 

" Mrs. Alice Hamilton Bbiogs was from Truro, Nova 
Scotia. Although within a year of graduation, she gave up 
her medical course and accompanied her husband to the 
L?o mission in answer to the call of tin- Board. When she 
bade good-bye to the Secretaries of the Board, Dr. Gillespie 

wti{i:n(jthening the stakes as? 

In hf, r^r^t y... „r. l.aor ..ff tlm,. your husb.nA S 

down „„ tlu fidd. that we an glad toL SLt,™. " 
Kw rvo „f health.' «> that you havc • 

"Beforu leaving Ami ri- an shores how^vor « . 

to allow l,..r f..m S at hoL ^^^u** ''^ ""^"^^ 

Saturday she Z cuttinH.; , , f On 

baC too Ute e«;:;-heii Xtr^^tnJSl-'" 

th Jf^ill 7!^"**' to u« as a family during 

.e fall of fh.s year, 1S91, was the arrival of our Z 
Lvander w.H. his ,o„n. hndo. and onr .l.ngkZmr- 
garet, to carry on the work begun by theS paren^^^ 
)"r son had ntade special pi^ratlon for tl^l'Zl 
the t^cripturos info the Lio lanffnaae. th«i. !- ! 
pressing need of the minion. 


"^OR the tour of 1892 T was to have the company 

of r>r. McKoan as lonji as he could be spared 

from (Miienpniai, which would greatly enhance 
the value of the trip. We bad also three native 
evanf^elist-asRistants, and, last, bnt not least, we were 
well supplied with Scriptures and tracts in the Lfto 
dialect. Our start was made on January Sth. 

Our first two Sundays and the intervening week we 
spent in Wieng P& Pao, where we established onrselyes 
in the new chapel which the people themselves had 
built since our last tour. We observed the Week of 
Prayer with two chapel services daily, and house-to- 
house and heart-to-heart work in the intervals. The 
church was foiiiially org:anized with thirty-six adult 
members aud thirty children, three ruling elders, and 
two deacons. 

From Wieng Pa Pao we moved on to the village of 
Me Kawn, the centre of our very interesting work of 
the previous year among the Muso tribe. The Sun- 
day we spent there was a red-letter day in our mis- 
sir)nary life. Of it Dr. McKean writes: "This baa 
been a bles.sed day. All [of the Musos] desire baptism. 
Two boys baptized last year were admitted to the 
communion. Eleven other adults and seven children 
were bajitized, making Iweni vtwo Musos now members 
of the visible church. One Lao girl was received on 


confession, and three Lao children were baptized. Our 
Christian Musos were out in full force. A Mus/S of- 
fleer and others not Christians attended from another 
village Before this we had visited these people in 
their home.. We found that thoj had built a good 
chapel for their worship, a better building than e.ther 
of their own houses. They had been very diligent in 
observing the Sabbath, in studying the catechism, and 
m worship." ' 

We could not have been better pleased with our first 
success The exclusion of this little group from the 
arge villages made it possible and easy for all of them 
to become Christians. The whole-hearted zeal with 
which they entered the church awakened strong hopes 
for the conversion of their race. Cha PS Kaw's 
knowledge of the Lao tongue was above the average 
even of their head men. It would be a long time 
fore we could have another such interpreter and as- 
..stant. And he was nearly, or quite, "Seventy yea^ 
old; so that whatever he was to do in teaching h" 
people must be done soon. It was, therefore, thought 
best to make a strong effort through him and his fam- 
ily during that season. 

At our next stopping-place, Xang L^, we came near 
having a senous casualty. Our boys were out on a 
deer hunt, and one of them bethought him of a novel 

^rfn ^« ^'^^^^ a tree, 

and had the grass fired on the other side of the open 

space. The grass was tall and dry, and the wind blew 

ng for the deer that he forgot the fire, till it was too 
late to flee. He could climb beyond the actual flames- 
but meanwhile the whole air had become like the breath 
of a furnace. When, at last, the Are had swept past 

him, and he was able to descend, he was a mass of 
blisters. The swiftness of the of the fire alone 
saved his life. Had it been slower, he could not hare 
escaped suffocation. 

From Nang U we visited a very large Muso village. 
It was a steep fc.ot olimb of four solid houis, and, to 
make it longer, our guide missed the way. The first 
sign of human life we saw was a Muso girl alone watch- 
ing a clearing. She Hed for dear life, till, recognizing 
Cha Pu Kaw's Muso speech, she stopped long enough 
to point the way to the village. Her fleet steps out- 
pan ours, and when we reached the village, the people 
were already assembling to see the unwonted sight of 
the white foreigners. But the community was greatly 
disturbed over another matter. One of their leading 
officers, it seemed, was accused of being the abode of a 
demon that had caused an epidemic of disease. The 
authorities were hourly waiting for an order from the 
court in Chieng Rai to expel him and his family by 
force from the province. They had heard of Cha 1 u 
Kaw's conversion, and were anxious to hear from him- 
self his reasons therefor— which he gave and enforced 
till late in the night. They were expecting, however, 
on the morrow a regular condict which might result 
in bloodshed, and they evidently preferred that we 
should not be there. The head Pu Chan was several 
days' journey distant. They would confer together 
among themselves and with him, would let us know 
the result, and would invite us up again before we 
left their neighbourhood. 

About midnight a fierce storm of wind and ram 
broke upon us to our great discomfort. Our thm tmt 
afforded but poor protection. We doubled up our bed- 
ding over our clothes, and sat upon the pile under our 


umbrellas, and laughed at the novelty of our situation 
and the poor prospect of a night's sleep. But later 
the storm passed oflP, and we did get a little sleep. 
Our visit to that group of MilsA villages was evidently 
not well timed. We took tlie advice of their oflScers, 
and returned to NOng lA. 

Two days latei- vo readied CliienR S^n. Here we re- 
ceived a mail from home, with news that Mrs. McKean 
was not well, and other members of the station needed 
the doctor's presence. It w as expressed as " the unani- 
mous judgment of tlie station that he should return 
immediately." We had planned a regular campaign in 
the MSsd districts on both sides of the M6 KOng— the 
sort of trip in which t!ie medical missionary finds his 
best opportunity. But the recall was so imperative 
that it could not be ignored. So I was left to continue 
the work alone. 

The Miisd tribe was about equally numerous in the 
mountain ranges on both sides of the big river. On 
the east side there were eleven villages. It seemed ad- 
visable to take that section first, because they were un- 
der Cheng H^n rulers, of whose cordial and sincere in- 
terest in our work we were sure. S6n Chai, the head 
man of the large village nearest to the city, was a 
friend of Nan Suwan, and was strongly inclined to 
embrace our religion; but felt the diflSculty of break- 
ing the tribal bond. Before this I had made him a 
visit of two or three days, and saw clearly that our 
only chance of accomplishing anything was to gain all 
the head men of the eleven villages. It was actually 
easier to win over the whole as a unit than to win it 
piecemeal. This was a formidable task to undertake, 
but with God's blessing on the labours of Cba Pu 
Kaw and Nan 8uwan, it seemed not impossible. 


We set out for the lirst village one moniin!; shortly 
aften ton o'clock. 1 1 was four o'clock when we stopped 
for rest at the first cluster of houses on the outskirts 
of the settlement. The news of our arrival soon 
reached the main villa-c. When we started again we 
met S.-n Cliai with a regular serenade-party of ineu 
and boys with uative reed instruments, blowing their 
plaintive dirgelike music, to welcome us and escort 
us in. SO..U the population was all assembled— the 
maidens in their best sarongs, the mothers and grand- 
mothers each with an urchin strapped to her back by 
her scarf, the men coming in from their work, and the 
inevitable crowd of children. Cha Pii Kaw was al- 
ready answering their questions, with NSn Suwan's 
sympathetic aid. They were respectfully shy, but there 
was no cringing. Sen Chai invited the local Pu Chan 
and all the villagers to assemble after their evening 
meal to hear the new uoctrines. We first had worship 
with singing, and prayer by Cha Pil Kaw. It was the 
lirst time thev had heai i the (Ireat Spirit addressed 
in their own Muso tongue. There were frequent ex- 
clamations of delight that they were able to under- 
stand every wonl. 

And then, before that motlc-y crowd, drinking with 
them their uative tea from an earthen teapot, the men 
seated close around, or reclining as they smoke their 
pipes, the women and children walking about or sitting 
on the ground— we tell of God the great Spirit, the 
Creator, and Father of all— the Bible, His message to 
men— the incarnation, life, and death of (Christ, and 
redemj.tion thn.ugh His blood. Before we get through 
you Will hear man after man say, " I believe that. It 
is true." OuL man takes up the story from Cha Pu 
Kaw'8 mouth and repeats it to another— a story that 



till now be himself had never heard. Another says, 
" N&n Suwan has told us this before, but now we hear 
it from the father-teacher." 

Before we retired that night Sto Chai said to us. 
with the approval of most of his village, " Go on lo 
Sdn Bun Tuang and the head men of t'je other villages. 
If they agree, we will all accept Christianity. One vil- 
lage cannot arcfpt it alone. If we do not * kin waw ' 
with them — join in their New Year's feast — we shall 
be treated as enemies by the whole tribe.'' 

So, nt'xt morning, we set out to ^"::1 the great Pii 
Chan — the religions head of the province. On our 
way to his village we fell in with a man to whom Cha 
Pfl Kaw was spealcing with great earnestness. I found 
on approaching him that he was not a Muso, but a Kui 
■ -of a tribe which we had planned to visit later. He 
was the Pn Chin of his village. He had already in- 
vited us through Chf. Pu Kaw to change our plan, 
and visit his village tirst. It was nearer than the vil- 
lage we were intending to visit, and we were already 
tired enongh with our climb to be willing to stop at 
the nearest place. 

The village was a large one, as mountain villages go 
— of twenty-five or thirty houses, and from two hundred 
and fifty to three hundrel souls — in tremM-al act un- 
like the JIuso villages we had seen. The f'u', language 
also, while different from the Muso, is cognate wiia it, 
BO that Cha Pii Kaw could still act fairly well as our 
interpreter. His talk with the Pii Chan on the way 
had already laid a good foundation for our work in the 
evening, when curiosity and interest in our errand 
brought the whole village together to h«tr Cha PS 
Kaw's new doctrine from his own lips. The news of 
his conversion had already reached them, and he had 


made a good impression on the religious head of the vil- 
lage—And, then, it was something new to see the Miisd 
boys able to read and to sing. Nan Suwan and Cha 
Pfl Kaw led in prayer, the one in Lfto and the other in 
M086. Then our religion was explained in its two 
leading ideas— rejection of the spirit-cult, and accept- 
ance of Jesus for the pardon of sin and the life eternal. 
Questions were asked and answered. 

At last the Pii Chan suggested that, while we con- 
tinued our reading and singing with the women and 
children, he and the men, with Cha Pfi Kaw, withdraw 
to a neighbouring house and talk the matter over. It 
was evident that they would be more at their ease by 
themselves, unawed by the presence of the foreign 
teacher. For some two hours the debate continued. 
I could hear their earnest voices from the neighbour- 
ing house, with only now and then a Lao word that I 
could understand. Then they returned to make their 
report. With orioital politeness, they expressed their 
gratitude to the " great teacher" who had come so far 
and at such expense, and had brought with him a fel- 
low-mountaineer of theirs, to teach them, creatures of 
the jungle, the way to happiness. They had talked 
these matters over, and understood them somewhat, but 
not fully. Some were greatly pleased with the teach- 
ings, and believM them true. Hut they could not yet 
come as an entire village, and they dared not separate. 
Next morning we parted as friends. They were glad 
that we had found the way to their village. " Be sure 
to come again! " That I thought surely I should do; 
but this proved to be my only visit. 

At the Sen Luang's village, where the great Pfl Chftn 
lived, we had the same experience— a good reception, 
many apparently inter^ted and anxious to escape their 


own spirit-worsbip. A number of tbe bead men said, 
" If suck and sach a village accepta the Jesna-relic^on, 
we will." But no one coul^^ be found to face the clan 

and make a start. 

Tbiuking tbat our native evangelists might get at 
tbe heart of the people all tbe better if left to do it 

alone, ami l)oing anxious to got my mail from home, I 
went down on Saturday to Nan iSuwan's to 8[jend the 
Sunday there with the Christians. On Tuesday, to my 
disappointment, tbe evangelists returned to me dis- 
couraged. They were convinced that in the dis- 
trict east of the Me Kung River, uo break in tbe 
solidarity of the clan could be accomplished that 

But it was important not to leave these people with 
tbe impression that we had abandoned them. I bad 
left Sto Chai's village with the promise to return. So 
I went up with the Must) Christian boys, and spent a 
last night with tbem. The village again assembled, 
and we had an interestiug evening. The S^n was 
greatly disappointed that none of the other villages 
would join him. But the New Year was at hand, wheu 
the clan must be unbroken. They would wait anotb r 
year, and try to get the other villages to join them. On 
the whole, I was encouraged. When we left them we 
were escorted out of the village to the music of their 
pl<iintive flutes, more like a victorious than a van- 
quished army. 

After 11 day or two with the Chieug Sen church, we 
visited the ridge to the southeast of tbat city, between 
it and Chieng Kawng. Our experience there was but 
a repetition of that from which we were just come — 
cordial receptions, night audiences, manifest interest, 
individual believers, anxious consultations, promises 


f„r (bo next year; but the tribal bond was too strong 

to Ik' bniken. v u *. 

But CUa pa Kaw was anxious that we should not 
pass by his own mountain villages ou thf MA Kok. So 
we turuL'd southward again toward Chieug Kai. ThiH, 
moreover, was uue of tliose famine years, such as we 
have already encountered in our story, and shall en- 
counter vet again; niany people wore on the verge of 
starvation. In pUuos we could not get food for our own 
men And famine was beginning to be followed by 
disease and death. This was a serious obstacle to 

our work. . . . 

\notber serious obstacle was the use of opium, whicft 
became n»ore prevalent the further west we went along 
the m Kok range towards Mftang Fang. We pres- 
entlv reached villages where the poppy was cultivated, 
until, in the last village, men, women, and boys, and 
sometimes even girls, were its slaves. Fevers and dys- 
entery prevail during the rainy season. These i)eople 
have a vorv s.anty i)harmacopaiia, and no antidotes 
whatever for these diseases. Opium in some form is 
probably their surest remedy, if any persons told me 
that they began bv using it in sickness. As sickness re- 
curred the habit grew, until they were fast bound m 
its chains. These facts largely determined the char- 
acter of the instruction we gave, and made ouv tour 
a kind of anti opium crusade. Encouraged and disap- 
pointed at every village, I was still tempted on by 
visions of capturing some large village that would 
orovo a more efifective entering wedge for tb- tribe than 
Cba I'u Kaw's poor little hamlet. The six weeks so 
spent were at the time the most novel and exciting, as 
well as most arduous, of all my missionary experiences 
BO far. 


We took both the old MuhA men as aHsiHtonts, and 
the younger ones aa carriers for onr eqnipment. Oar 

first day's journey was a fair sample of what we had 
to do continually. In many places it would be a mis- 
nomer to speak of the track we travelled as a path. 
Wf left the plain in the morning, and it was half-past 
two in the afternoon when we readied tlie first summit. 
It was tive o'clock when, desperate with thirst, we came 
upon a iowing brook. There was, then, still another 
hard climb before we saw our long looked-for first vil- 
lage ahead. And, in general, because of the habit these 
people have of piuatiug their villages upon the very 
highest points where they can get water, the joumqr 
frttm one of these villages to another in jdain sight, 
and, apparently, but a short distance away, would take 
hours of the hardest travel. Sometimes we would walk 
weary hours through rain, or through bushes as wet as 
rain, to visit a village; only to .valk back again after 
sitting three hours in wet tlothef trying in vain to 
awaken some interest in old or young. 

One of the most interepting, and, at the same time, 
one of the saddest, cases we m-'t was that of MQn 
Kamprai, the head man of a village which clearly bore 
the impress of his character in the intelligence and in- 
dustry of its inhabitants. From opium he had kept 
entirely aloof until, only a few years before this time, 
under the stress of a severe illness, he began to take it. 
The poor man now realized that he was becoming a 
wreck, but seemed to have no will-power left to make 
the effort to break away from tlie habit. He was much 
interested, however, in his two fellow-tribesmen whom 
I had brought as my assistants; and Cha Waw's ex- 
ample seemed to afford him a faint gleam of hoi»e. If 
we would stop a week and teach his jteople, and would 


stand by to aid him, he would try. If succetwful, he 
would surely become a CbriBtlaii--and then hii village 
would be the one we had been hoping for to free itaelf 

from the tribal bond, and become Christian. 

The experiment was, indeed, pathetic. Removing all 
temptation, he began with a desperate determination 
to succeed. We encouraged him with human sympathy 
and the hope of divine aid. We pushed as far an we 
dared the use of a tonic which Dr. McKean had given 
me for iroch cases; and it aided him i)erceptibly. He 
held out njanfully for several days. lUit, at last, in an 
evil hour, he could endure the torture no longer, and 
before we knew it, he had resnmed the use of the dmg. 
For two nights he had not slept. In his own ex 
pressive language, it was not his eyes, but bis heart 
that could not sleep. Poor man ! his sufferings must 
have been as near those of the infernal regions as it 
is possible to experience in the body. And then his 
abs.)lute wreck of mind, and the contempt he felt for 
himself when he gave up the struggle as hope- 

We ^ iiared no labour to rea b the homes of these 
people, or their hearts. We tn. J to become Musfis to 
the Mtlsds that we might win them. Sometimes we 
had to sleep in their huts- -on a floor raised two or 
three feet from the ground, which the dogs shared 
with the family, while the pigs and goats were on 
the ground beneath. In the centre was a raised fire- 
place on which the native teapot always boiled. Sleep- 
ing-mats or thin bedding lay about on the floor, and 
on this, before bedtime, some of the inmates wonld lie 
down and fall asleep even while listening to the con- 
versation. -But everywhere the tribal bond waa too 
strong to be broken. 


By this time the rains had net in. The trails— and 
tfc« leechM that infested them— were getting worse and 
wowe. Boon the tomnt-ttrctiba woald become im- 
pa88al)ie. We n:iist return while yet we could. Oop 
•Jix weeks' wanderings we retrace<l in four days of 
conatant tramping. It hai been a hard trip for all of 
UR. I myself bad a touch of ivrer. It aeeined good 
on reaching our camp to have once more the luxniy of 
a chair and a table. And then to be on the sadaw's 
back traTelling homewards, and to meet a good mail 
on the way! My three-score and fourth birthday waa 
spent in the forest, and I reached home safely 
on the 18th of May, after an absence of nearly five 

The peninsola of Farther India is largely exempt 
from the terrible scoarge of famine which has become 
almost chronic in Hindustan, its greater neighbonr on 
the west. There the population is so numerous that 
the normal production of food is just sufficient to sup- 
ply its needs. Eron a local or a partial failure of the 
crops must produce distress. Siam, on the contrary, 
is happy in that it not only produces an abundant sup 
ply for its own people, but is a granary for the sur- 
rounding countries. The worst that has ever been ex- 
perienced in Lower Riain in years of greatest scarcity, 
has been the necessity of checking the export of rice. 
The annaa! floods there cover the whole country, so 
that a general failure of crops is, hnmanly speaking, 

In the northern states the land is higher; and con- 
siderable portions of it, being above inundation, are 
directly dependent upon the seasonal and local rains. 
But with a population by no means dense, this very 

diversity of the cultivated arras is a soiirco of safety. 
A season of heavy rainfall wiiich drowns the lowland 
rice, is apt to prove exceptionally good for the uplands. 
And, on the other hand, a season of liffht rainfall, 
which cuts short the upland crop, is apt to be a good 
season for the Hooded areas. And in considerable sec- 
tions of the country there is the chance that a second 
crop in the same season may make Rood the loss of the 
first. Tliere is a further security also in the fact that, 
until communication with the coast becomes snch as to 
make exportation profitable, the excess of fruitful years 
remains unconsuined in the country, to supi 'y the need 
of loss fruitful ones. It thus comes about that scarcity 
amounting to a real famine cannot result from the 
failure of crops in any single year. It requires two 
consecutive failures to produce extensive suffering 
among the very poor, and three to result in a real 

This last, however, was the case in 1892. in m.w 
there was a light crop throughout the land, with less 
excess than usual to be stored. In 1891 the crop was 
lighter still. In the eastern provinces, particularly in 
Lakawn and Pre, there was very little rice to be reaped. 
Famine conditions began there long before the time 
for harvest. People were scattering off in squads or 
by families into Chiengmai and the northern provinces, 
begging .1 dailv morsel. They were poverty stricken as 
well as famishing. The distress led the brethren m 
Lakawn to make an appeal to friends in the United 
States for a famine fund. Quite a liberal response, 
amounting to several thousand dollars, was made to 
this call, largely by the friends of the L5o mission. 
The relief was almost as timely for the missionaries 
as it was for the famishing people. Otherwise they 


scarcely could have lived through the long strain on 
their nerves and sympathies caused by the constant 
sight of sufferings which th^ could not even in part 

The province of Chiengmai could have met its own 
needs until the new crop came in, had it not been for 

the constant draft upon its reserves to meet the de- 
mands of Lakawn and Pr6. But, between high prices 
offered and pity for the less fortunate, those reserves 
were steadily drained away, uatil, during the latter 
months of the vear, famine was upon us in Chiengmai, 
too. Bands of men from destitute villages, maddened 
by hunger and unable to buy food, began to roam about 
the country by night, or, sometimes, by day, and seize 
rice wherever any little remnant of it could be found. 
The authorities were powerle.^8 to restrain them or to 
keep order. The condition of the more destitute prov- 
inces can better be imagined than described. 

At last the relief committee in Lakawn were asked 
if they could not spare us a small portion of their 
fund, for it seemed that their condition could not ie 
much worse than ours. A letter from Dr. W. A. Briggs 
brought us three hundred rupees, but with the follow- 
ing caveat — the italics are his : 

" Wherever we can reach the absolutely starving, that is 
a place to invest. We do not pretend to relieve all the 
suffering. Now, if the need in Chiengmai, or in the dis- 
trict mentioned, is so great that people are actually dying 

from s>tarvatiuii, and those now living are living on such 
stuff as the sample enclosed (cocanut-husks, leaves, bark, 
etc.), with never a grain of rice, then I would advise 
you to form a Famine Comn'ittee, and go into the business 
as we have done. The actual starvation must be attended to, 
no matter wlo-r^- it if. But our saddest experience is within 
Pre. Some one should be sent there at once." 


The scenes reported from Pr^ were harrowing. I 
will not pain the reader by dwellinR upon them. One 
happy result followed the efforts uf the brethren who 
went to the relief of that district. While administer- 
ing to bodily wants, they preached the Gospel, making 
such an impression that there was i. strong demand 
for a permanent station there -which was established 
the next year, with Dr. and Itivs. Briggs as pioneer 

It should be stated that, toward the last, the Siamese 
government sent up supplier A rice; but, because of the 
distance and the difficulty of transportation, not much 
reached the sufiCering people in time to help them; and 
much was lost in passing through the hands of so many 



T the Annual Meeting of the mission in December, 

1892, the broad field of Tai peoples north of 

^ ^ the frontier of Siam was discussed, and Rev. 
Robert Irwin and myself were appointed to make a 
tour into that region as long and as far as in our 
judgment might bo deemed wise. The tour occupied 
nearly five months — from January 3d to May 25th, 
1893. This time we went fairly well supplied with por- 
tions of Scriptures and tracts, and a good outfit of 
medicine. Of quinine we carried a hundred ounces, 
and returned with less than twenty-five We relied on 
the medicines for the welcome they never yet had failed 
to win for us. And Mr. Irwin hnd a cornet which did 
excellent service throughout the tour. For riding I 
had my big sadaw " elephant, and Mr. Irwin bad a 
pony ; so we could exchange mounts at our convenienct. 
I pass over the earlier portion of our route, already 
so often described, and the two weeks spent among 
the hill-tribes visited on previous trips. 

The chief object of our trip was to visit, in their an- 
cient homes, two northern tribes of the Lao rac* — the 
K6n and the Ld — ^from which very many of onr 
parishioners in the southern provinces derived their 
origin. For, under conditions which lasted very nearly 
down to our own time, there was almost constant 
predatory warfare going on in this northern conntry — 



stronger states raiding the weaker, and sweeping away 
th- entire population of the districts they overran, to 
plant them in their own realms. Thus whole villages, 
and even entire districts, in the LSo provinces of Siam, 
are peopled by the descendants of such colonies of cap- 
tiver We found it unadvisal>le to attempt both visits 
in the same season, and the Lfl were the more ac- 
cessible, living on the nearer slopes of the Kdng 
valley. We went up on the west of the river along 
the edge of the r.ritish territory, now known as the 
South Shan States, and beyond it into Chinese terri- 
tory, as far as Chieng Bong; ^ then, returning, wo made 
a somewhat wider sweep to the east of the river, 
thrcngh French Indo China; finally recrossing the 
river at Chieng Lap, where we struck once more our 

ontgoing trail. • 4^ < „ 

After leaving Mftang Lcn, the utmost point of a 
former trip, we travelled awhile by a fine road along 
the summit of a ridge so regular as to seem almost like 
an artificial embankment, and affording noble views 
over the vallev. At Wieng Mar, a recent offshoot of 
Mflang Yawng, we spent a most interesting Saturday 
and Sunday. Here the Prince-Governor sent to ask if 
he K.uld not put up a sala to shelter us during our 
sta>. In the morning we preached in the market^ 
place, and afterwards I distributed medicine and talked 
with the people till noon, when I had to flee away to 
rest under the shade of a big tree by the river. The 
people seemed hungry for the bread of life. I could 
not supply all the requests made for copies of the 

Scriptures. . , 

Mftang Yawng, the older and larger city, we reached 

iThis name eppeart on some maps as Chieng Hung, initial r In the 
North being genei»lly pronounced as ft.— Ed. 


on Monday forenoon, after a two hours' ride. An of- 
ficer met us at the gate, and showed us to the saia. 
When the Chao Mawm heard of our arrival, he sent 
for us, meeting us at the door. We had a very inter- 
esting interview, but he was not inclined to talk on 
the subject of religion. He told me that the city and 
district had been entirely depopulated in 1809 by a 
force from Chiengmai, when " nothing was left behind 
but the ground." ' It had recovered itself, however, 
and its population was now larger than that of Lam- 
pun. With Nan Suwan I visited the market and the 
Court. At the latter place I learned that the British 
Commissioner would arrive the next day. Knowing 
that everything would be in confusion, we decided to 
move on the next morning. 

From this point on, our elephant was everywhere an 
object of great interest. Sometimes the people climbed 
trees to get a better view of him. A long day's march 
broui^t us to Mftang Yu, picturesquely situated on 
high blufifs, with deep gorges running down to the 
LQi. Here we remained only overnight, leaving early 
the next morning for Mtlang Lfli, which we reached 
about noon. That evening we had a large attendance 
at worship, the governor and oflicials remaining till 
after eleven o'clock. The original population of both 
these districts, as well as that of Mflang Yawng, are 
now scattered throughout the provinces of Chiengmai 
and Lampiin. 

1 This Incident is ft striking illustntion of the methods of warfun 

la those diiys. The expedition in question was directed against th« 
Burmese, who liad established themselves in Muang Yang some 
sixty miles or more to the nortli-west. On its way it passed through 
Muiing Yawng, where it was loyally received. But being defeated 
at Muaug Yiing, it fell back upon Milaiig Yawng, and there gathered 
up all the inhabitants and swept them off to Chiengmai to prevent 
ttt^ fallhig into the haada <rf tiM eaony!— Bd. 


Next moraing we crossed the beautiful stream on a 
raft, while our el. p'.ant took the ford r>«ring the 
fcrenoon we came ui.on Captain Dav.s of theCo^mte- 
Bioner's staff, who had been Bent to make a detonr by 
Mflanp SiDR, and was then on his way to join his party. 
He w.^ resting! hy the roadside, ill with fever, and was 
clad to get from me some ciuinine. 

The following day, Saturday, brought us to mmg 
LQang, the largest and n.ost important place in the 
valley and the southernmost of the old Sipsawng Panna 
confederacy. The valley population is wholly Lfl. 
There is scarcely a Ng!u (Western Shan) to be found 
east of the Ken,- Tung watersi.ed. Here were the best 
roads xve had seen anywhere in Farther India, with 
a real arched bridge of stone across the stream at 
the entrance to the city, l^arlv next m.> we we e 
awakened by a noi.v crnw.l about our tent, anxious to 
see us. It was the great market day, so, iriBtead ot 
attempting a regular service in camp, we chose the 
market place. There, wbettier reading or speaking, we 
always had some attentive listeners. 

On Monday our road lay for many miles along the 
summit of a low ridge on which at intervals were 
fifteen large villages, just at the edge of the long 
fertile plain, where are the rice-fields that feed the 
country. I never saw in all my touring anything qu. e 
to equal that row of villages. It seemed too bad to 
pass through so many without even stopping. 

On the fourth day from Mftang Lflang we reached 
Chieng Rung, the limit of our northward journey, its 
location is strikingly beautiful, on a high steep bluff 
overlooking the Kong River, which sweeps m a 
majestic curve about its base. It is m f we tern- 
tory, and is ruled by a Chao Fa appoint., rom Ynn- 

CH11:NU Kl'NiJ AM) S11'«A\VNG I'ANNA 357 

nan. An ofliccr from Vnnnan was tliore iif (ho Uiiie 
collecting tribute. The iutiuence of the wu» 
already felt there. Mdang CM, to the weHt, bad 
rebelled a<:ainst the Chao Fa, who thcreujion sent out 
ua expedition which capture*! and hr(iuv;lit away some 
three hundred families of the inhabitants, lint Kng 
land cannot allow border warfare to go on along her 
frontier. An I^nglish oliicer appeared on the scene, and 
the thing was stopped. 

At Chimg Rnng we were still in the midst of an 
area of Lao speaking people — an area which extended 
far beyond on every side. 1 jjave a i)ortion of Scrip- 
ture to a LQ whose home was ten days' journey north- 
ward ; and others to men from as far to the east and to 
the west. 

We had an interview with the Chao Fa, by previous 
appoip^ nt At the door the officer suggested that 
we p\ onr shoes. We replied that it was not our 
custoi. .1 wa.s unnece.ssary. He looked very doubt 
ful, but said no more, and we walked in. The Chao 
FS received ns courteously. We took him to be a man 
of no great strength of character, about forty years of 
age, and somewhat weakened by the use of opuim. He 
asked whether we had not some antidote to enable him 
to stop its xae. He listened attentively to our state- 
ment of the object of our coming, and said, "You are 
merit-makers, and that is a good work." 

When we called at the court, the presiding officer 
had a wise suggestion as to how we might further our 
purpose and establish our religion in the place — a sug- 
gestion evidently not originating with himself, but 
from a bi^er source. " The favour of the Chao Pa," 
said he, " will be necessary and all-sutHcieut. I see 
you have a fine elephant. Just make a present of him 


to the Chao pa. He will be deliKhted, aud your road 
will be all smooth." I t,.ld him that 1 was an old man, 
far fn.m home, and dependent on the elephant. Bo I 
could not t with him. This same suggest on waa 
pressed upon us several times afterwards, by the In-i. 
est officials, and quite up to the hnui of our departure; 
though its form was modified from a gift to a sale, l 
became at last a little anxious about the result, and 
was somewhat relieved when we actually got away 
Wi(lu»ut 1..SS of the elephant. 

1 mav mention at this point an incident of this trip 
which never came to my knowledge till thirteen jx>ars 
later, showing Iw.w we were providentially npared from 
what w.)uld have put a sudden and tragic end to our 
tour and to our lives. When Dr. 8. C. ^^opV^J^n^ 
Dr W. C. Dodd were in Keng Tung in March, 190., tht 
presiding ..mor of the Court told them that he had 
met Dr. Metiiivary and Mr. Irwin on their way to 
Chieng Uung; that when the people of Chieng Uung 
first heard that some foreigners from the s..utlj v .f 
e.„ rnutr to their capital, they planned to kill and 
plunder them. But when they saw that the foreigners 
rode elephants and were accompanied by earners they 
d,.ri(ksl that this was probably the advance guard of a 
formidable army, which it might not be well to at- 
tack. And then, he said, the kindness of the mis 
sionaries so completely won their hearts, that all 
thoufil.t of murder and plunder was given up. 

Uur return wa.s to be through the region to the 
east of the M6 Kong. Its northern cities be 
longed to the Sipsawng ranna. Hut the .-est of .t was 
t.MTitorv recently ceded by Siam t.. France. Ihe gov- 
erning race-the people of the plains-were eveijr- 
whei-e Tai, speaking the L5o language and using the 


L;lo litornturo. On i*H mountain ridRcs dwelt ntimer- 
ouH bill tribt'H, cMpcciull^' the Kuniu and the Lumet. 

The route we were to take croMWH the river two days' 
journey south of (Miieng Rung; h(» wc had at first to 
retrace onr Rteps. We left I lit" city on Monday, March 
13tb, Hafe from unHeen |dotH, and with our elephant. 
On the second day, after leavioK our upward road to 
strike across to the rive r, we entered unexj»ectedly a 
large village, where we u»et with a reception ludicrously 
hostile. At every door mea were standing; with guns in 
their hands. We were surprised; but, supposing that 
it might he iiiuster day or sonielhin>; of the sort, we 
passed innocently aiong, without challenge, to the 
Monastery, where we dismounted and began to unload. 
Then guns were laid aside and the liead man and vil- 
lagers came up to see us and to offer assistance. They 
bad beard that foreigners were coming with elephants 
and men, whether for peace or wut- no one knew. So 
they had taken the precaution to he ready. When 
tbey found out our peaceful errand, they were ashamed. 
We had a pleasant visit and worship with them that 

The next stage of our road was had. In some 
places we had to cut our way through, and there were 
difficult passages of brook-beds and gorges. We 
reached the river at Chieu^ Tla in a pouring rain, and 
it rained again at night. The next day was the 
Buddhist sacred day, and we were awakened early by 
the crowd of merit-makers and worshippers — the 
women and girls, as usual, in their head-dresses and 
gay colours, and all anxious to see the elephant and 
the white faces. 

It was 10:30 that morning before we got 
away. Ourselves, our men, the saddles and luggage, 


were ti.iiinl <»vcr bv Ibo forry. Nan Suwan alone 
faced tbo «U'fp river on tbe Badaw to guide bim 
tbrougb. At ilie Urst i.lunge all of the elephant 
his tnink, and half ot the rider, went out of «iRht. 
Thence <.n tliev wmt. ik.w np and n. w down, till they 
stniRKled out on the further shore. Hueh an effort is 
very exhausting to the animal, and he has to have ft 
good rest and breathing spell after it. 

Mftang Ham, on the eastern bank, is larger than its 
neighbour on the west. Its governor was a Ohao 
Mawm, next in rank to the Chao Fft of Chieng Rung, 
and his wife was the Chan Fas sister. I had a long 
talk on religion with the wife. It was a new thought 
to her that any one could be greater than the Buddha, 
though he was neither Creator nor Saviour, but only a 
man. It is unnecessary continually to state what was 
everywhere the case throughout this trip; namely, that 
we iiad go.»d audiences and interested hearer* We 
left in every place some books in the bi;nds of thoae 
most likely to nse them; though we could have used 
to advantage many more, if we had had them. 

From Mfiang Ham two days' march brought us on a 
Saturday to MOang N'nn, the most important city on 
our route, and, therefore, a most desirable place to 
spend Sunday. Tbe city is in the valley of the Nam 
Ban. It bos well paved streets, and a very large 
monastery ..n an eminence above, where we camped. 
The abbot gave us a hearty welcome, and did all he 
could to make us comfortable. At our night worship 
the monks and other visitors were very attentive. 

On Sunday morning we called on the head officer of 
the Court, and had a pleasant conversation with him, 
for he was both intelligent and inquisitive. Just as we 
were ready for our own morning worship, the t'hao 


Muwui, a relative of the Cbau Fa ft>r Cliieng Rung, 
M»t to aak XM to call. We lent word in reply that it 

was our hour f<ir wnrsbip, and asked wlicllifp lie wixild, 
perhupH, like tu lia\e um wornbip iu hi.s i^'sidence. Uis 
aii8v.-er wu8 a curdiul invitation to come aud do so. 

The Prince was young and very pleasant. He had a 
HpnciouH lidUHo, and noon ho bad it filled with bin 
own family, biH otlicerH, aud hia people. Mr. Irwin, 
as Qinal, had his comet. We find that singing our 
Gospel bymnfi, with a Nhort exiilanatinu nf their cen- 
tral truths, is a better way to hold a mixed crowd 
where women and children lorm a goodly proportion, 
than is a regular serrice. NOn Snwan's Lt dialect 
served a very good turn. We had a very interesting 
morning, and we were cordially invited to hold a 
similar meeting at night, when many who had been 
absent in the morning might attend. 

At night the house was crowded with a remarkable 
gathering, for one could hardly call it a congregation. 
The invitation, the place, the attendant circumst&nces, 
were all unique. We sang and pravru j'tid preached 
with as little restraint as if we bad been iu our own 
church in Cbiengmai. The part of the serv which 
most impressed them was Nfin Snwan's prayer — a di- 
rect appeal to a Person unseen, whom be addressed as 
Father, Redeemer, Saviour, and Friend. Seldom have 
I felt so strongly for any as for these, that they were as 
sheep needing a shepherd: hungry souls asking for 
bread, and getting that which satisfied not. lOthical 
teacbiitg they bad in abundance, but no Divine Voice 
asking, " Wilt thou be made whole? " or saying, " Thy 
Bins be forgiven thee. Arise and walk!" 

Next morning we made our formal call upon the 
Prince; but be sent to our camp for our books and 





the comet, and soon we had another eongit-ation, and 
were having worship again. In the afternoon the 
Prince made us a long call. Then there was a con- 
tinuous stream of visitors, mostly for medicine, and I 
vaccinated a number of i-eisous. Tho mn of the ch.ef 
officer of the Court, a tine young man, was almost ready 
to come with us to Chiengmai to study our religion 
further. His father, too, was willing tliat he should 
come. The voung man la-ouiised that he surely would 
do so next vear, if we eame again. And now, seventeen 
years after these events, it saddens me to think no mis- 
sionary has ever been there since. An, 
then, of those oi>en S psawng I'anna States would have 
turned the Uauk of Fi'emh obstruction, and have en- 
sured an entrance from the north. 

Early on Tuesday n.orning we left Mrtang Nun, after 
•i visit all too short. The Prince, with his ollicers and 
a large crowd of peoi.le, were on hand to bid us good- 
bye That day we found our track very much ob- 
.Jructed by the jungle gn.wth, and had some d.thculty 
in cutting our way through. Another complication 
presently arose in the illness of my associate, Mr. 
Irwin. An attack of iudigestiou developed m'xt .lay 
into sy.npt..m« of dysentery, which made further travel 
for the time impossible. So we were laid up until the 
following Tuesday at Mftang Wto-aud nights 
and days they wore. Milder measures failing, we had 
to lesoVt at last to a most heroic treatment which 1 
had seen usetl in the hospital, namely, large doses of 
ipecac. By this means the disease was got under c.m- 
trol- and by care and dieting Mr. Irwin was able at 
U'ugth to continue his journey on my elephant, though 
throughout the rest of our tour he was far from being 


At Mfiang Pong, one of tlio three largest cities on the 
route, we again stopped over fr u, Thursday night till 
Tuesday. Here I had an a. a i-ohiil on th-^ night of onr 
arrival, but, with free use f quinine md a little rest, 
I escaped further attack. .e a great deal of 
fever in the place, and I spoui .navL lime in minister- 
ing to the sick. 

On Saturday I called upon the Prince and his chief 
officer. I was told that the city furuished Uve hundred 
men for the Chao Fa's expedition, and 'lad seventy 
villages within its jurisdiction. In former times it 
had been raided by au expedition from Nan. and some 
of the Nan villages to this day are jjeopled by descend- 
ants of those captives. 

On Monday the Pi ince and his chief officer made us 
long calls. The I'rince had never seen a repeating 
rifle, and seemed incredulous that it could tire twelve 
shots in unbrolcen succession, till I fired three by way 
of demonstration. Tlis look of surprise was ludicrous. 
He must have the gun, he said, to protect his coun- 
try, and began bidding for it. At last he offered a 
fine riding pony, which I accepted. He was delighted, 
saying that we two should always be brothers. If I 
should never come again myself, he would welcome and 
aid our assistants. Four years later I did visit the 
place, but the Prince had beeu killed. 

On Tuesday we reached Miiang Mung, which proved 
to be one of our most hopeful places. ^Sitting in front 
of our tent, with the whole village about us, we talked 
till midnight. I had a sore throat, but our assistants 
were inspired with enthusiasm. At last we almost 
had to drive the crowd away. 

Mfkang Sing was the objective < f this portion of onr 
tour. I first became interested in it when it was about 

to be occupied as a dependency of the province of Nan. 
Mr. Phraner and I made an attcn.i.t to i-each it in 18yi, 
but were turned back. Then, again, it seemed about 
to fall into lUitish hands, under some old claim by 
Burma. Even at the time we were there, its status was 
still uncertain. It fiave evidence of having once been 
a large city, and still had a very large territory under 
its jurisdiction. Its earlier importance was retlecUd 
in the title borne by its ruler. (Mu... Ffi -Lord o .he 
Sky_a title borne by no other LCi ruler ««»tbof 
ChLg Rung. My intex^st in ^flang Sing had been 
deepened by acquaintance with a pat.ent in the Ch>e g- 
mai hospital, of whose case Dr. McKean has kindly 
furnished the following account : 

" This Pravu Siiifrhanat, a prominent man in the local 
goverun>ent. had been for years a great sufferer i^cm^^^^l 
calculus and had tried all kinds uf -.nnedu. w^t^out avad 
Fearing his disease had been asioned by offenduig the 
.pTr s in the building of a new hous.. he tore the house 
low This pave him uo relief. Although he had spent 
t^^in the nLast.ry. and had taken all the ^^/J^ 
order, he concluded to re-enter it ni the hope of being cui^ 
uf hi; umlady, spending again -oaths u. tlu- .nonaste^. 
A travelliu^ merchant who had himself been eur .] of cal 
cuius by au operation in the n.ission hospital in ^hiengmai. 
advTsed the Praya to ,o there for relief This he determined 
to do. not without Kn-t <,p,n.ition trou> the ^'"^ 
f,.,n. his own fannly. But he was determmed. Lie sold h s 
possessions, and started with 800 rupees. His J^^^f^^J! 
oug and painful. For weeks or eve.i months at a time be 
could not travel on account of great pan. Once he was 
beset by daeoits at night. A part of h.^ money and all lus 
'"u! stolen. When he finally reached Chiengmai twehe 
months after leaving home, he was penude«s, and of course 
Btill suffering intensely. He was reeeued mto the rm.M, n 
ho^p.tal and was wholly relieved by an operat.ou. A more 
grateful patient one rarely sees. He regularly attended 


Rorvico at the hospital and evinced great interrat in 


When we reached Mftang Sinj;,, we were disappointed 
to find that the I'raya was away. But he had loudly 
sung the praises of the mission hospital, and that was a 
good introduction for us. The chief oflBcer of the Court 
was a friend of liis, and lie proved to he a friend to us, 
too. Hearing tliat we were come, the Chao Fa sent 
fop us, and turned out to be a relative of the great 
Chao Fa of Chieng Rung. Though not of a nature so 
deeply religious as some, he was interested in religion ; 
and our reply to his lirst question as to the object of 
our visit, immediately introduced the subject. 

At first he was inclined io cavil, asking such ques- 
tions as, whether Jesus could rise in the air as Buddha 
did, and the like. But this was evidently to "save 
his face before his oflicers. For a while he main- 
tained thiit the universe is self-existent, having come 
into being by the concurr?nce of the matter which com- 
poses it. But presently he confessed that it is too 
complicated for that, and plainly shows design — that 
is, a mind or Mind. At last he asked what argument 
made us foreigners so certain of our view that we 
should come to ask them to change their religion for 
ours. We told him that Jesus Christ Himself was the 
ali-sullicient argument. No matter how the world 
came into existence, we are here, and we all know that 
we are sinners. The Bud lha confessed himself to be 
only a man, and himself seeking a refuge like the n st 
of us. Jesus Christ claimed to have come down from 
heaven, and to be the Son of God. He challenged the 
world to convince Him of sin. Those who knew Him in- 
timately saw something in Him not only different and 

superior, but of a diflerent kind. TT.' showed this not 
only bv His spotless life, but by the uiirat .-s that He 
wrought. He claims to have power to forgive Bins. 
And thousands and millions who have accepted H.m 
believe that He has for^Mvcn tlu-.n; an.l show that fact 
bv becoming better men. We talked thus an hour 
and a half. He evi.ieullv felt the force of the argu- 

Sunday was the fifth day market ..r fair- the largest 
and f\no;t we had seen in the north. The hill-tnbes, as 
usual, were out in full force. I was still suffering with 
sore thrc It, but Mr. Irwin and the assistants had a fine 
morning's work, and in the afternoon had a fair at- 
tendance at the regular service. 

One of the most interesting incidents of our stay was 
the night service, held in the residence of the Chao Fa 
at his express re.iuest on the evening before our de- 
parture The audience was mainly his own family 
and dependents, and the Trince was more free than 
hefore. Duriag the singing he asked that the cornet be 
stor.iK.Hl in order that he might hear the words more 
plainly. When NSn Snwan led in prayer, he wished to 
know \t we always prayed in that way. There was the 
usual sad refrain-no hope of pardon, bondage to the 
spirits, the drawing to a better way, but so strong a 
counter-current! Yet who can tell how many, alter 
all, the truth may have reached? ., .„xfc 

We loft Mfiang Sing t>u Wednesday, April IZtn. 
There is no need to weary the reader with details of 
the ten days' travel before we reached Chieng Sto, 
or with the varied incidents of our work. 

At Chieng Sen we received letter^ that were disap- 
pointing to my plans. The mission had unanimously 
decided that, partly for considerations of our healthy 


and partly for reasons of mission polity, Mrs. McGil- 
vary and I should take our furlough at once. We had 

been ten and a half years on duty in the field. My 
wife was not really sick, but was not well, and the doc- 
tor advised her going. I was very anxious to repeat 
the same tour the next year, in spite of the few malarial 
chills 1 had encountered Ibis time. I'.iit iurnn}i:ements 
had been completed, and there was no option but to 

My companion on Ibis tour was far frotn well, and 
it was important that he should hasten home at once. 
What with daily rains, bad roads, and swollen streams, 
Mr. Irwin had a hard trip of it alone the rest of the 
way; and it was some little time l»efoie he was well 
again. For my return there was no such need of haste. 
The work among the Mtlsd had been left, upon the 
whole, in hopeful condition. The power of the tribal 
bond, which almost annihilated individual responsibil- 
ity, had been somewhat weakened. Many head men 
had promised to enrol themselves as Christians this 
season. It was certain that no tour among them could 
be made the coming year. I must visit them now. 

The experiences of this visit were entirely like thos« 
of the previous ones — everywhere the same w^arm wel- 
come, interesting night meetings, earnest consultations, 
and ministering to the sick; days spent in wading 
brooks, climbing mountain ridges, plunging down 
ravines, to get from one village to another, where the 
same round would be repeated. They would all be- 
come Christians if only another officer or two would 
join them. Thus it went on till we had visited nearly 
all of the eleven villages, and were back at POn Chai t 
and S^n Bun Yiiang's, where we began. These people 
were nearer to Nan Suwau's Christian village, had 

known more of our religion, and, n.. doubt were be- 
U^vers in tl.o UniU of our t..a.hing. We talked 
them till late at uight, aud parting with them had a 
traKic interest. They were apparently on tbe uigi 
of accepting the (Josik^I. Wo used <.ur utu.ost en^ 
deavours to persuade them to join Cha I'u Raw on the 
other side of the river, and not wait for the other 
who might come in afterwards. Th.s was probabl> 
last visit; but if any sutTinent nuudn^r would jo.n the 
church, the iuission would not desert them. " 
all probability the offer would never be pressed upon 

proved to be. About half of the vm^es 
wei. under Ihe governor of Chieng S^n. The mha^ 
itants of these were assured of their safety in t^k ng t e 
decisive step, so far as the rulers were .oneern.Hl. But 
'"le of the'larger villages were under the go..rnor of 
Maang Len. His opposition was a foregony onclu 
Bion because of his interest in the opunu l.atht. My 
^n^io gain a U.-ge entrance an.oug ^1^- ... one 
of the greatest disapp.nutn.ents in u.y whole ^orfe. 

That I was not mistaken in the hopefulness of the 
work among the Musos has since been ^^---^^^^^^f 
the many thousand converts won among the same tnbe 
by our Baptist breth,-en in the Keiig Tung region. At 
tL same time they are better prepared for such a .^rk 
than were we. Their wide experience an^ong the Karens 
of Burma, and the large number of f "'^f Ka^/^^^ 
through whom they work, give them advantages m this 
partkular work which our mission does no possess. 

the other hand, it is sure.y to be -g-tted th^ ou^ 
amission sfiuuld be limited in its ac^ss to all br^ches 
alike of the Tai population found m the northern 
^tLtL, for which, bridentity of race and language and 


literature, we are far lieUer jtrepared than our Baptist 
brethren. For while, to use a legal phrase, the mis- 
sionary holds a brief for no one particular tribe; whilo 
Lis roniniission and his duty is to preaih the (iospel 
to all whom he can n :u'h ; yet it is a well recognized 
fact that the Tai family has largely fallen to oar mis- 
sion. And it will be seen from what we have said 
above, that we relurned from this trip with enlarged 
views and bright prospects of opening up work among 
our own Tai people in the nortii. It will fake years 
of hard work and a useless expenditure of time and 
money for any other missionary organization to reach 
the point at which we were ready to begin work among 
these people. Hut this is a complicated question, the 
tangled web of which it is not possible for any one 
man to unravel. 



ON my return to Chioimniai 1 found preparations 
well advanced for our departure on furlough. 
En.barkin}: on June 7th, we reached Han^kok 
on June 22d, and ^*an Francis< o on AuRust h |S 
Of the events of that memorable year, I shall touch 
uDon only two or three. . , . <■ 

Sr. J. H. Barrow«, the originator and President o 
the Parliament ..f Religions, had invited me to attend 
:,nd narti.ipa.e in its meetings. After, perhaps a 
it le sho..k Lt the boldnes. of the idea-a« if Chr^tian- 
ity were to be put on a par with other rol,gH>ns-I 
s;mpathi..Ml with the object as legitimate and proper. 
I t was merely doing on a large scale what we mission, 
aries are called upon to do on a smaller scale every 
time that we hold an argument with ^^^^^J 
other non Christian people. The fa.rness of the dea^ 
and even its very boldness, might do good; and I be- 

lieve thev did. j * „ 

On tl,; Sunday before the o,^ning 1 ^'^^ened to a 
reallv great sernum by Dr. Harrows on " ^brist he 
Light of the World." I attended every session ..f the 
Parliament, save at the hour from 1 1 a.m. tn 2, when I 
nsually went <.vcr to the Moody meet.n^s to hear John 
McNeill, as he was familiarly called, preach his 
trenchant sermons. 
If any one went to the Parliament-as possibly some 


STATION AT (:nii:Nr, kai 


did— hoping to hear Christianity demolished, he cer- 
taiuly WEB disappointed. But there was one criticirai 
which occurred to me. Whatever may have been 

thought of the wisdom of the original conception and 
inauguration of the Parliament, the Protestant 
churches might have made a much more imposing front, 
if the ablest men of tue diftv mit (Icnominations had 
not stood aloof, either indififerent or hostile to it. It 
was surely the opportunity of a lifetime for many, who 
could not hope otherwise ever to address iKjrsonally 
the votaries -jf non-rhristian religions, to bring for- 
ward their strong reasons to bear on so many of the 
most intelligent and presumably the most earnest seek- 
ers after the truth. 

While attending those meetings in Chicago, I re- 
ceived news tiiat our son, the Kev. Evander B. McGil- 
vary, had felt himself constrained to resign from the 
Lao mission. No good can come from now reviewing 
the issues wiiidi led to this step; and it is needless to 
say how bitter was the disappointment to his par- 
ents, who had looked forward to his carrying on their 
work, and to him, who had specially prepared himself 
for that work, and for no other. But I must say that 
bitter as was the disai ; ointment, I sympathized with 
his position, and respected his motives. 

At the meeting of the General Assembly in the fol- 
lowing May, to which I was a delegate, liie one all- 
engrossing business was the trial of the Rev. Henry P. 
Smith, D.D., for heresy on the question of the " Iligher 
Criticism." Viewing the matter from this distance, 
and entirely apart from the merits of this particular 
case, I doubt whether critical and scientific questions 
are proper subjects for trials before such a body. If 
tried at all, such questions should be tried by a com- 


mission of experts. Biblical oriticisin :in«l science will 
go on, and the (luostionH involved will lie decided ac- 
cording to tUeir own lines of evidence, quite 
respective of the decrees of Poikjk, Councils, and Gen- 
eral Assemblies. I :nn nnuli mistiiken if Ihe good 
sense and temper of the cliuich would now sanction 
heresy trials on such questions. 

( »ne (lay some fifteen years earlier than the point we 
have now reached in our narrative, a letter came to 
our mission from a Mr. Robert Arthington of Leeds, 
England. The leder, iii<(' all his suhse«iuent ones, was 
on small sl>oets of, written over once, and 
then written again crosswise, so as to be almost il- 
legible. The writer had s(.m. \vii( iv learned of the 
journey of a Fro explorer wii... from the upper Me 
Kong and the Uc.^waters of the Me U, had crossed 
to the China Sea through the region now known as 
Tonking. The traveller had passed through certain 
tribes possoss.-d of a written language and supposed 
to be of Aryan stock. Hy some means Mr. Arthington 
had heard of our mi - jn, and wrote to en.iuire whether 
some of us could n.n visit those tribes and .listnhute 
among them " the Gospels of John and of Luke, and the 
Acts of the Apostles," particularly " telling them that 
the Acts followed Luke, and uns htf m same author." 

Wo had not the slightest idea who the writer was; 
but the devout spirit of the letter was charming, and 
such interest in obscure tribes along the northern 
border of our field was most surprising. His strong 
desire to send the Gosi)el message to " the regions be- 
yond " appealed to me. He api)eared to be a man of 
means, for he offered to bear the expense of circulating 
those three books. At the same time he was evidently 



gomewhat pm-ntric and impracti«al iu his ideas. Ue 
geemed not lo lia.e lliought that ♦ circulate books 
among newly discovered tribes would require— »incp 
the (('ssiition uf (lie {jift <»f t<mf?neH— noqni8iti«>n of 
their lauguat'es. traiiMlatitm, priuting iiresses, etc., etc. 
But the ease, at all events, memed worth following up. 

I acknowledged tin- ivceipt of hia h'ttfi-, pointing 
out tlic ottstiicics wliiih he seemed to overlook, direct- 
ing his attention to our own mission as occupying a 
new and Interesting field, with many hill-tribes on our 
own bonlt-r whirli \\\> hoiwMl to ivacli. I invited his 
co6i)eratiou, stating that as soon as we were properly 
enforced, we intended to go as far north as we could. 

Almost to my surprise, Mr. Arthington replied im- 
mediately, expressing his interest in our work, but still 
reverting to his scheme for evangelizing tlie " tribes of 
Aryan stock" found by his French traveller. That 
was. (jf course, impossible for us to undertake, though 
I did i)rop()se to Dr. Cushing of the American Baptist 
Mission iu Burma to join me in a tour through that 
region at Mr. Arthington's expense. This plan had 
attractions for us both; but Pr. (bushing's college work 
made it impossible. Still, we might be able to make 
some compromise with our unknown correspondent, 
go, for .,ome years, I kept up an occasional correspond 
ence with Mr. Arthington, just sufficient to keep us in 
touch with each other. He always replied immediately 
to my letters, breathing the same deep interest in mis 
sions, and especially in the tribes hitherto unreached 
by the (Jospel. Touring within my own appointed field 
engrossed the whole of my available time; but since 
that field was already in part suppUed, it did not spe- 
cially api»eal to him. 
After the tour, longer than usual, taken with my 

daughter in 1890, I »ent him a report of it In re- 
Hpons.. 1.0 sent me thirty i.oundH, which aided m the 
work of ISUl among the Mflso. The tour taken with 
Mr Phraner in 1892 wag nearer to his idea ; and the 
one talcen with Mr. Irwin in IS!.:? int.-n..Oy interested 
l.i.n - but ehietiv iK-oaUHe it s.-. nied to be a stepping 
stone toward i-eaehing his " A. van tribes" beyond. He 
thoronghly approved of that tour; expressed his re- 
gret that w." .....1.1 not ...eet in o.'der to come to a 
Hearer understanding about the geography of the 
^.gi„„_siuce all onr maps were defective; and aug- 
aegted, " I should like your dau^'hter t.. {,'.. vou 
on vour next trip, as I can well eun.-eive he idea that 
she" will be a valuable help." Ue was, moreover, » par- 
tienlarly interested that the Cambodians als.. should 
bav the r.ospels of L.ike and J.din, and the Arts. 

Following up Mr. Arthington's suggestion of an in- 
terview, 1 met him by appointment in Liverpool on my 
return from the United States. We had only a half 
hour s interview; hut he th.nmht that sufficient to en- 
able us to understand each other's plans. On reach- 
ing London I was to make out an order for what sum 
I needed f<.r ...v nex. w..rk. This I did, askin- f-.- the 
modest Bum of forty pounds, which I received by i-eturu 

^"■The trans-M6 K6ng tour, however, was iiuvitably de- 
laved If was n..: until the Ann.ial Mcetinj? -i the luis- in lSi)»; that Dr. Peoples and 1 were appointed to 
make that tour, an account of which will appear later. 
To complete, however, now the story of my relat...ns 
with Mr Arthiu-ton. I 'nay say that lu advance of the Meeting just red t.., I wrote to him that 
the projected tour would surely be tak. n, au.l sa- 
gested that sixty pounds would probably suffice to 


cover U« expeuHc. lli.s ni.I.v i »m' he'""* o"*" 

meeting adjourned, with a cheque for seventy ,>onndH, 
The timely aid swmed anticipato tlu- dr up 
j.rnv.l <.f our Mito.npf. In hit. letter be suBgv^ted. 

I'erhapH it uuj?lit Ik; u k<'"«I ITecautlon for y<m t« let 
the French know your friendly object, and lo get mi 
permimiun to travel east <.f th. ui.per walerK ..f t' - Mft 
KT.n ' as far an vmi deem pmp. r for ^ pu.p<»*e- 
Hut dear Urol her. neek-and I intend to with ym 
—the Lord's counsel and blessed comfort and RWd 

^°Tlu. I.. MI- was taiveii, as I have already intimated. 

and a full printed rei-ott was sent to Mr. Arthin^K'n. 

On the whole, he was pleased; but it is n-i . to 

Hcrve two masters. I had assur^l Uiiu aoju 

ginning that ruy first duty was to my misBion a-. 

my own field. Still he was a little disappointed 
I had to go so far out of wav to join Dr. Peoples 
in Nan; and a little more that we could not get up 

nearer to Tongking to give his favourite John, Luke, 
and the Acts" to the tribes supposed to be Aryan 
descent, found bv the French uaveller. To enable me 
to do this, he said, " 1 believe 1 should have great 
pleasure in sending you all you will need fmm -ue 
He even intimated once that he would he o 
nrovido in his will for the continuance of that work. 
While not jealous oi ray connection with the Board, 
it seemed to him a tantalissing thing that, while 1 was 
oeographically nearer his goal any one else, and 
*as, moreover, in sympathy with his devout spirit 
and evangelistic aspiraticms to reach the " regions be- 
yond,** I was not free to carry ont Ms favourite, though 
(wmewhat chimerical, plans. ^ ^ x 

The last letter 1 had from him was dated October 


22d, 1898. His passion was then as strong as ever to 
get his three fayoiirite books to ** the tribes mentioned 
by the French traveller, . . . for they are a people for 
whom I have desired much, since the day I first read 
of them, that they should have the Gospel." He ex- 
pressed great sympathy with my disappointment that 
the French would not permit our labouring in their 
territory, adding, " Yet the Lord will not be robbed 
of His own." His death occurred not very long after 
this. Of the disposition of bis large estate I found 
the following acconnt in the London Daily Oraphic: 

" The late Robert Arthington of Leeds, left about £750,000 

to the London Missionary Society, and the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society. The total value of his estate was £1,119,843. 
It is estimated that the Baptist Missionary Society will 
receive £415,000 and the London Missionary Society £335,000. 
The whole of the money must be spent in the next twenty 
years on new missionary work, and no part of it is to be 
spent in the United Kingdom." 

We reached Bangkok on September 11th, 1894. 
There we were joined by the Rev. and Mrs. Howard 
Campbell and Dr. and Mrs. C H. Denman, who had 
come via the Pacific. Earlier in this same year there 
had come to the station iu Mflang Pr^, Dr. and Mrs. 
Thomas, Mr. and Mrs. Shields, and Miss Hatch; with 
the Rev. and Mrs. L. W. Gnrtis and Miss Margaret 
Wilson for Lakawn. 

On our arrival in Ohiengmai we found Mr. Pliraner 
very ill with abscess of the liver, and suffering at times 
intoise pain. He had Leen warned by physicians and 
friends to desist from his work and lake his furlough. 
But, as chairman of the Evangelistic (.'ommitteo, he 
had been pushing the evangelistic work too eagerly to 


heed these warnings. He refnsed to leave his post 
till those who were absent should return. Soon after 
we arrived he started for the United States, but, alas! 
it was too late. He died in Singapore on January 
15th, 1895, leaving a wife and two little boys to pttrane 
their sad jouruoy alone. Mrs. Phraner — formerly Miss 
Lizzie Westervelt — had served a useful term in the 
(J iris' School before her marriage. The Phraner 
Memorial School for small children, erected by the 
family and friends beside the First Church in Chieng- 
mai, is an appropriate tribute to their labours for the 
Lao race, to which they devoted their lives. 

The year of our absence had been almost a banner 
year as regards successful evangelistic work. Mr. 
Dodd's Training School had furnished a larger num- 
ber of fairly well prepared evangelists than we ever 
had before. Between forty and fifty of these had beaa 
actually at work in the field for longer or shorter 
periods during the year, and their work had been very 
successful. The Annual Meeting convened in Ohieng- 
mai soon after our return. In it there was evident, 
on the part both of missionaries and of native as- 
sistants, a degree of enthusiasm and exuberant ex- 
pectancy which, under the most favourable circum- 
stances, could hardly have escaped the inevitable re- 
action. Krii Nan Ta, a man of magnetic power among 
his people, was then in his prime. The great value of 
his services raised probably to an excessive degree our 
estimate of the necessity of more ordained native la- 
bourers. If one had done so much, what might a dozen 
or a score accomplish? And there were the men, with 
two, three, or even -nore years of training in the study 
of the Bible. Most of them were elders or deacons in 
the differ^t churches. They had proved faithful in 


little. Why might they not be trusted with more 
talents? Nine of these men were pree^ted (or ex- 
amination before the Presbytery. 

When we began, it was thought — against the advice 
of Mr. Dodd, who was on furlough — that one or two 
might be ordained to meet the immediate needs of 
the work. Some of them had spent a number of years 
in the Buddhist priesthood, and had some knowledge 
of Pali. Others were without such education, but 
nearly all had learned to read Siamese. In Biblical 
knowledge they had made fair progress. When the 
examination was closed, there was a long and anxious 
deliberation, with special prayer for divine direction. 
It was quite safe to ordain one or two. But the next 
candidate was so near the sta- '1,' 'd of these that it 
might seem invidious to exclude him — and so with the 
next, and the next. When the vote was taken, six were 
chosen for ordination and three for licensure. The 
millennium seemed drawing near! 

With the new title and responsibility, higher wages 
were naturally to be expected. And it was precisely 
upon this rock that our hopes and plans suffered ship- 
wreck. The Board, as never before, began to insist on 
the native churches assuming the support of their own 
evangelists. Tlie methods of mission work set forth 
and practised in China by the Rev. Dr. Nevius were 
urged upon us, and became very popular, especially 
with the younger members of the mission, though in 
China they had not passed beyond the stage of ex- 
periment. They are best described in Dr. Nevius' own 

"These two ssrstems may be distinguished in general by 

the foruitr's depending largely on paid native agency, while 
the latter deprtcatea aud seeks to minimize such agency. 


Pcrliaps an equally correct and more generally acceptable 
Btatement of the difference would be, that, while both alika 
seek ultimately the establishment of independent, self- 
reliant, and aggressive native churches, the * Old System ' 
strives by the use of foreign funds to foster and stimulate 
the growth of native churches in the first stage of their 
development, and then gradually to discontinue the use of 
such funds; while those who adopt the 'New System' think 
that the denired object can be best obtained by applying 
principles of independence and self-reliance from the be- 
ginning. The difference between these two theories may 
be more clearly seen in their outward and practical working. 
The old uses freely, and as far as practicable, the more 
advanced and intelligent of the native church members, in 
the capacity of paid Colporteurs, Bible Agents, Evangelists, 
or Heads of Stations; while the new proceeds on the assump- 
tion that the persons employed in these various capacities 
would be more useful in the end by being left iu tiieir 
original homes and employments." * 

The result was that the mission took a good thing 

and ran it into the ground. Economy became almost 
a craze. The churches were assessed— not heavily, it 
is true — to support the ministers; and the ministera 
were exhorted to take whatever stipend was agreed 
upon, and count any deficiency in it as a voluntary 
contribution on their part; or as a debt they owed 
their countrymen for the Qaipers sake. Neither 
parishioners nor workers understood the scheme. But 
it was tried for one year; and at the next Annual 
Meeting (in 1895) the catastrophe came. The churches 
had been asked to walk before they could stand ; and 
the ministers were to work, as well as walk, by faith 
and not by sight. As pastors, their expenses were 
necessarily increased. They had to draw better, and 
to be an example in clothing, and edncating thdr f am- 

> MMednif mmUn Wtrk, p. 4. 


ilies, imd iu Litspilality. It seemed to them that they 
were required to make bricks without straw. A little 
yioldinfi to demands that were not unreasonable would 
have satislied the ministers, and the churches would 
have been encouraged by the continuance of some 
support from the Board for evangelistic work, even 
though the amount was much reduced. The zeal was 
well meant; but we broke off too suddenly. 

For the unfortunate results, the mission, the native 
ministers, the churches, and. indirectly, the Board 
should share the responsibility. The advantages 
gained by our Training School were nullified, and all 
progress toward a permanent Theological School was 
at an end. After those two Annual Meetings there 
was no call for theological training, and no future 
for a native ministry. So we have to go on appealing 
to the Hoard and to the Aniericau churches for 
foreijin woikers, aitlioufjii tiie salary of one of these 
would support half a dozen or more native min- 

It is easy to say tliat native ministers and church 
members should be willing, out of pure gratitude, to 
labour for the evangelization of their own people, or 
that such and such other races have done so. As a 
matter of fact, the Lao chuicli is larjiely indebted for 
its progress to the power exerted by the church itself. 
And as to the example of other races, we must re- 
member that there are racial differences. Even our 
nearest Christianized neifjhbours. the Karens, stand iu 
a class quite by themselves iu this respect. We cau 
no more apply one rule to all oriental races than we 
can enforce western customs in the Orient. Hut we 
certainly cannot expect happy results from the ap- 
plication of rules that would have discouraged our 


own ancestors when the first Christian missionaries 
found them. 

Among the things of more hopeful augury accom- 
plished in the year 181)4, two deserve special mention — 
the establishment of Christian Endeavour Societies 
in all the Lao churches, primarily through the efforts 
of Dr. Deninan, and the publication of the Hook of 
Tsalms and of a hymnal of over two hundred hymns 
and tunes. The Psalms were translated by Dr. Wil- 
son, and the hymns were almost wholly from his i>en. 

At the Annual Meeting, to which reference has al- 
ready b^en made, a committee was appointed to con- 
sider anew and re[>ort on the question whether it was 
or was not advisable now to occupy the northern 
l)ortion of the field with a permanent station, and, if it 
were deemed advisable, to determine the location. I 
had been anxious to have it occupied two years before 
this time, but had yielded then to the claims of Pr6 
and of Nan — of Prfi because the relief work among 
the sufferers from famine had furnished a most auspi- 
cious o]tening there; and of Nan because it was a larger 
city and province than any in the nearer north. Not- 
withstanding the greater progress of the work in the 
north, with organized and growing churches in Wieng 
Pa Pao, <Miieng Rai, and Chieng Sen, there seemed to 
be a lingering doubt as to the wisdom of establishing 
permanent stations in cities so small as these. Most 
of my colleagues had never visited that northern region. 
No one save myself had surveyed the whole field. Yet 
no part of the work of a mission is more important, 
or requires better judgment, than the location of its 
permanent stations. Although fully persuaded in my 
own mind, I did not wish the mission to embark on a 
new project involving outlay of money and of men, 


without the mature judgment of the whole mission. 
Hence it was at my own suggestion that the committee 
was appointed. 

On January 20th, 1896, Dr. Denman and I of this 
committee started northward. Mr. Dodd joined us 
later. It is a great thing to have a physician along 
on sQch a tour. He relieves a great deal of suf- 
fering among a needy people, and so lifts a great load 
of care from his companion. Hut beyond this, I my- 
self had quite an attack of fever on this particular trip, 
and was much indebted to his care for my recovery. 
Then we had the stereopticon along, tind lectured 
nearly every nig^t to large audiences. The doctor 
manipulated the lantern, and left the explanation and 
application to me. Those pictures have made the 
Gospel story to live in the imaginatious vf many thou- 
sands of people. The occasional introduction of a 
familiar scene from native life serves to give confidence 
that the others also are real, while a few comic ones 
interest the children, old and young. A picture of the 
King of Siam — their King — with three of his children, 
one of them with his arms about his father's neck, 
always attracted great attention, and was ott&l adEed 
for again at the close of the exhibition. 

I had some trouble this time with my sadaw ele- 
phant. At one stage his back became so sore that I 
should have left him behind, were it not that he had had 
a serious encounter with a tusker, and 1 dared not risk 
bim in that vicinity. He escaped from the encounter 
with some bruises, and it was fortunate that lie in 
flicted no serious wound on his antagonist. And he 
was quite well again, before we got home. This was, 
however, the last tonr he made with me. Elephants 
had become property so unsafe that, before the next 


mason, I disposed of both of mine. In one year, out 

of three hundred and fifty elephants employed by a 
timber firm, thirty-two died and twenty-two were 
stolen. But it was like parting with a friend to see 
the sadaw go. 

The committee visited the three northern churches, 
and, after full conference both with the local rulers 
and with the Christians, reached the unanimous deci- 
sion tliat there should be a station established in the 
north, and that it should be at Chieng Rui. In this 
we were lately influenced by the central situation of 
that plafp with reference to a considerable group of 
cities and towns within the same watershed, and all, 
liive Chieng Rai itself, rapidly tilling up with an agri- 
cultural population crowded out from the dear and 
densely settled lands further south. And in addition 
to this was the conviction that the new station would 
prove a stepping-stone to the large northern section of 
the Tai race, established in territory which is now E<ng- 
lish, French, and Chinese. We still think that some 
amicable arrangement should be made with the Amer- 
ican Baptist Missionary Union, by which the Tai race 
to the north of Slam and east of the Salwin should be 
left to our mission. The Union has a great work 
among the hill-tribes — a work for which they are spe- 
cially adapted and specially well equipped; while we 
are equally well equipped for work among the Tai. 

Dr. Denman viewed the field with special interest, 
for he had been designated to help in opening the sta- 
tion, and we had the virtual sanction of the Board 
thereto. It v/as the prosjtect of having a physician 
that specially enlisted the interest of the rulers of 
Chieng Mi; though both they and their people were 


frkudlv to our work on other grounds. It made us 
sad to think that oar old friend the governor had not 
lived to see the niisHi«»n started. But the beautiful 
lot fjivon by him on llie .MA Kok will always be a 
memorial to him. In due time Kev. and Mrs. Dodd 
and Dp. and Mrs. Denman moved up and opened the 
stafitiu. The years have abiiudautly justified the wis- 
dom of this step. In 1!>10 the aeeessiims to the 
churches in Chieug Hui equalled those of the mt»ther 
church in Chiengmai. 

From Chionn; S«'n we sent out two parties of evangel- 
ists, five in each, well loaded with Scriptures and 
tracts, one northwestward to Keng Tung, and the 
other across the M6 Kong to Mfiang Sing. This was 
the very first mission work ever d<me in the Keng Tung 
State. These parties carried also a supply of medi- 
cines, and were limited in time to two and a half 
months. They were everywhere Well received, and on 
their return gave interesting reports of their work. 
Their books were eagerly read, and the supply of them 
was far too small. There were a number of interest- 
ing oases of believers. Some villages were loath lo 
have then' leave. The experiment, in fact, was very 

As soon as our committee work was done, Mr. Dodd 
was obliged to return. After visiting the Mfiso villages, 
Dr. Denman and I moved on to Chieng Kawng. This 
town is situated on the right bank of the great river 
within the fifte<'n kilometer zjme which was reserved 
as neutral territory upon the cession of the left bank 
to France. A French military station was on the op- 
posite side of the river, and a small gunboat was lying 
there — the first that ever came up through the rapids. 
Among the crew wei-e two or three who could read 

Eliglish, and who were very anxious to pet Fnglish 
Bibles. This was an unexi>ected request we 
could not then njeet. But I applied for Hume to (he 
American Bihlo So, i,.(.v. and received them jast before 
I started on my trip of the next voar; and, linallv 
was able to forward them to the men from Luang I'm- 
bang. The caj.tain of the gunboat was very kind to 
us winle we sta.viKl at ChienK Kawng, and was much In- 
terested in having bis men get tlie Bibles. 

Letters were presently received by iJr. Deuman sum- 
moning him hack to ('hi( on account of the ill- 
ness of his wife. This left ,ne again without an as- 
•ociate, and with the added care of the medical woi k 
which cannot be avoided on such a tour, and wliich of 
course, rests more heavily ..n a layman than it does' on 
a trained physician. Before rotnrning lu.nie I made 
a call— and I believe it was the last one— at the Mus6 
villages beyond the m KOng. Again my hopes were 
raised of gaining the whole tribe. With such a pros- 
pect I would gladly have remained with them several 
months. But again I had to leave them v ith only the 
"next 3ear" promise— which never was fulfilled I 
reached home on May 5th, after an absence of three and 
a half monthfl. 



WO iini)<i, t;i!'( i i s were underiuken hy the L&o 

Miuion in -one at the opeeti^ of the ye»<*. 

^ MMltward ;m(1 i.< • 'liw nrd i vond the M^^ Ko 
River into French and < hlni sc ten , or> ; and the oth.-r 
after the close of the rainy aeason, northward into 
British territory. The latter tour led to far-reachiag 
^o^-ults, but " does not • ouw h'm i\ ■ nf \ m 

personal narrative. Tlie f»»ruu r was jvndt'n n {»o«><il)le 
by tlie timely gift of tter&iij poundhs from Mr. A rtb tup- 
ton, already nn-ntioned; ari'i ir ircsenlcd i^c nearest 
appntach we cnuld then nuikt tov ml th* Inlt nu nt of 
his great desire to reach with ...e Scrip! uret^ tiiose 
" tribes of Aryan origin " in the ' regionti beyond." 
Dr. Peoples, then of Nan, was mv > nipsnkia duriii:^' 
part of this tour; and we weui well itnpplied with 
Scriptares and tracts, no less than fourteen carriers 
being loaded with thene alone. I h ft home on Janu- 
. 12th, going eastward by way oi awn and Pre 
to Nan, wht re Dr. Peoples was to jom me. At each 
of these st- aons I spent a bosy and a deiightful Son 
day; and m Lakawn as 1 a> Nau F ' d the pleas- 
ant compii of Miss Fleeson .aid Miss I < liowman. re- 
turning h iheir pu«l from the Anuiial Mt--iiug. 

One ni^bt on thitt portion of the trip we were 
awakened by the cries of our men and ' j€ i^norting of 
the ponies, to &nd that we had a ttom --- nigst 



prowli niiii ip y !. i w». Ii. anl lo (•(;iM(m of 

the lot I >loiu > ,n h ... I'd u« ht' s^jtrung awa •. 

The tracks we founrt n Wif oHirning showed him m 
be a hiFKc IWw^ u^-i (in his siinw? Hfretrh of road, 
a» rtt-enii a>^ li h, ii. r Nan w( ^ in term {ted 


w<i K-n, liP flaall 
wii iV n -'w h 
Ten d-i> 
fi'oiifr !lir 
m^ht 111 >. 

g(.-<Kl i 'ii 

iri' .• M. 
its stei 
internet t!i -t * - 
rhe Prsvii — or n, 

lip in lief on 
(.'ai«- in the 
bade ii-^ gtf 

uad Tl' ttie 
he xt 

■IB W) cKpatr' 
= red var^ ^f 

eral meii and 
V Dr. Peoples 
miMdon coin- 

were -enf 
'eat prt in- 




t i iifi- 

for =ne as 
JeKiis rin - 

iUg n<»rthward 
•pia^ idght by 
c . ays had 
{I. 4ay we 
th« n tamed eastwii \, strik- 
ud nuikiiig niii- way up llfii Kfia wi' found sucl 
-orrv that we uiUBt move ou. 
ah he name is called throeghoat 
iittemoon in tran.sci'ifii .j^ in tbt 
ater the tract entitled " The Way 
lad he«fd something of cor re- 
ii i i-nier princess pupil of Miss 
I HU.. -rhool at Hanj;koIi. As bo 
. aid, p»fintiug upwards, " I hope 
yoB'ier," and seemed pleased that we 
icij ion. 

.iUday we camped in the monastery 

Ban Hfia Ling. The peo})l" began to as 
' rcalifast, and long beft fu it was time 
<!= rvi. e the {^rounds were full. The 
...ulis and the officers, sat directly be- 
i^ned the method of salvation through 
( i • audience listened most attentively. 
At uiti ciuae ilie uubui and the officers remained for 


farther conversation. The abbot expressed surprise at 
our errand. lie hart never known of anybody's trav- 
elling about simply to teach the people. Some ex- 
pressed fear of enconntering the anger of the spirits 
if they should no longer worship them. To this the 
doctor gave the scientific answer that fevers and most 
other diseases were caused and propagated by specitic 
germs, over which the spirits have no control what- 
ever. This was to them a now idea, but they seemed 
to comprehend it. Next morning, when we left 
them, the people followed us with expressions of re- 

When we reached Chieng Men, a town on the west- 
ern bank of the river and opposite Luang Prabang, we 
fonnd a European with a group of boys, who turned 
out to be the French schoolmaster. He invited us 
to dine with him tnat evening, and the next day aided 
us in crossing the river. Our flrst duty in LQang 
Prabang was to report to the French authorities, M. 
Vackle, the Coniniaadant Sup^rienr, and M. (5 rant, the 
Commissaire. They had been notified from Bangkok 
of our coming, and received us with genuine French 
hospitality. We never met two more perfect gentle- 
men. They even offered us a house ; but, as the abbot 
of the principal monastery was a personal friend of 
mine, they yielded to our preference to stop with 
him, but only on the ground that there would be more 
comfort and room for our men. 

That evening we were invited to dine with M. Vackle. 
M. Grant and his staff were present; and the dinner 
was a royal one, to which we were prepared to do full 
justice. We had the embarrassment of not being able 
to converse save through a native interpreter not well 
versed either in French or is English. Bat oar host 


was most considerate, as were also his French guests. 
And every evening dm ing our stay we dined with one 
or another i)f the (iHieials. 

Next day we called ou the Lao " King," as he is still 
enpbemistically called, though possessing only snch 
powers as tlie French give him. When we made our 
business call on the French oflii ials io ask jicruiission 
to proceed on our missionary tour through the French 
territory, they were very obliging. We freely discnssed 
together alternative routes, aud they otfered us pass- 
ports tor any of theiu. When at last with some hes- 
itancy, the question of permanent work and a mission 
station was broached, M. Vackle replied that for that 
he had no authority. Application would have to be 
made to the ernor General at Hanoi, and prefer- 
ably throng^ Washington and Paris. The prospect 
still seemed hopeful. 

On the evening before our departure, M. A'ackle in- 
vited ns to dine informally and spend the evi uing with 
him at his beautiful cottage and gardra two miles 
out in the country. On nieoting us, our host said, 
" The other night I was the Commandant Hup6rieur, 
To-night I am simply M. Vackle. I want to have a 
pleasant informal evenin«: with you." And snrely we 
did. We talked of the old friendship between France 
and the United States, of Washington and La Fayette, 
tbe Chicago Exposition, the Parliament of Religions, 
and of JI. Vackle's own work in the new province. 
He was interested in the Parliament of Keligions, and 
asked if Roman Catholics were equally welcome with 
Protestants. He had an exaggerated idea of the nnm- 
ber of our religious sects. We told him that the great 
body of Protestants were included in five or six groups 
Bomewhat like tlie orders of the Catholic charch, bat 


there wore niuncrous siiuiIUt siilidi visions, lie had 
heard of one tlint livotl wholly on milk. Of this we 
had to confess ignorance, unless it were that large 
group that we call infants. 

It was after eleven wlieu wo rose to take our leave; 
and even then he detained us to see by torchlight his 
beautiful garden, artificially watered, and his bowling 
alley— insisting that we try a turn on it. This was 
what 1 had never dtme before, but at the litsl bowl I 
brought down several pins. This phased hiuj, and he 
said that he had never seen a better first play. 

On taking our final leave, we spoke a last word for 
permanent mission work, reminding him thut while 
Catholicism and Protestantism had alike produced 
great nations, Buddhism never had; and that it was 
therefore political wisdom to encourage and foster 
the Christian religion in the provinces. He assented, 
but said he feai«d that the "King" might ima^ne 
that his subjects would be less loyal if they became 
Christians. We assured him that the reverse would be 
true, since it was a fundaiuental point in our teaching 
as well as in the Scriptures, that Christians were to 
be obedient to their rulers. 

Among the routes offered we chose the northern one 
as most nearly meeting Mr. Arthington's desires. Our 
passport stated that we were Bat I^iiangs, i.e., Cath- 
<ilic priests. We left LOang P -'bfint; on Monday, 
March 8th, crossed the Nam tJ near its mouth, and 
spent three weeks on our way to Mfiang Sai. At one 
point there was a theft of a considerable amount of 
our money, which deiayed us a day or two, but an- 
noyed us more. The thieves turned out to be some 
of our own men, who afterwards confessed, and eventu- 
ally we recovered tbe moiwy. From M(Uaig Sai there 


is a good route to Nan, aud as uo man had been left 
in that station along with the ladies, Dr. Peoples felt 
that he must return to it, while I should go on north- 
ward to the Si{).>^a\vnf? Pannfi and finally return to 
(Jhiengmai along the route which 1 took with Mr. 
Irwin in 1893. His departure was a great loss to me 
personally, and to the effectiveness of the tear. He 
left us on March 31st. 

The next week was one of intense interest to me. 
One of its days was the thirtieth anniversary of my 
arrival in (Miicngmai, and frauf,'ht with memories of 
the hopes, achievements, and disappointments of all 
those years. And were we now, perhaps, on the eve 
of a new opening with wider possibilities than ever? 
So it seemed. For, one day as I was in the monastery 
at Mtiang Sai, there entered an officer, S&i Suriya by 
name, who, making the obeisance usually made to 
priests, explained that, having been absent from home, 
he hau not heard the instruction we had given at our 
evening worship. His wife, however, had reported that 
a teacher from a greri;. and distant country was come 
with Scriptures and an offer of salvation from the 
great God of all. It was the great desire of his heart 
to be saved from his sins. His interest was evidently 
intense, and that roused our interest in him. Prom 
three o'clock till nightfall our elders and I explained 
to him the great truths of revelation, while he listened 
almost with rapture. 

In the midst of this earnest conference the " ilchan," 
or chief officer of the monastery, came in; and Sen 
Suriya j. ed us in explaining to this friend the 
Strang : ii« h < be had heard. The fichin was soon as 
deeply rested as he. He also desired to know 
further of this matter. Before we parted that evening, 


s^n Suiiya luid accepted the teaching joyfully; and 
his tricriti, with more reservation. 

Soon others had joined these two — notably a fam- 
ily of refugees from persecution for witchcraft. They 
were readv to a-i-ept anything which would deliver 
them from l)ondaf,'t' to the spirits, (^n Sunday at the 
public service the instruction was directed to the needs 
of these enquirers, all of whom were present. The cost 
was to be counted; the cross was to be taken up; but 
the reward was great. Sen Suriya's wife and family 
all opposed him. He had si>ent an anxious night, and 
was under great strain; but was still firm. He was 
ready at any cost. 

His friend the achan had received his appointment 
in the monastery from the Pla, or head-officer. For 
honesty's salie he felt he must notify the Pia and re- 
sign his position. It was. therefore, arranjred that our 
elders and I should go with the two friends on that 
errand that very afternoon. We went, and were kindly 
received. Sen Suriya. as spokesman, witnos.sed a good 
confession. They had been men, he said, who all their 
li'-es had sought merit and followed the teachings of 
tue Huddlia, but with great an.xiety. on account of their 
failures. Now they had learned of tlie great refuge of 
the <iod who could pardon and save both in this and in 
the coming world. Their motive was strictly religions. 
They would be as loyal as ever, and would j»erform 
faithfully their government duties. The achau said 
that his friend had fully expressed his views, but he 
wished further to resign his position in the monastery. 
Tin- I'Ta listened witli evident interest, but with some 
surpris*'. When lie spoke, he said: "All that I know 
of religion I have learned from these two men. They 
know manifold more than I do. If they see it right, 


how can I oppose? I will still take tliem as my re- 
ligions (t iKheis, and will learn Christianity of them." 

I added a word, emphasizing their assurance that 
being good Christians would only strengthen their loy- 
alty. Thanking the Pla for his kindness, I retired. 
How much of his liberality was due to my presence— 
if it were so due at all— 1 do not know. But next 
morning Sen Buriya came to say that he could not 
withstand the opposition of his wife and family. While 
his faith was firm as ever, he could do no more this 
year. By another year he hoped their opposition might 
be relaxed. Meantime the family of refugees had 
weakened. I supplied all these with medicine, and 
urged them to remain steadfast in the faith, reminding 
them that baptism was not essential to salvation. 

I had made farther stay in Mfiang Sai dependent 
upon the outcome in the case of these two men. So 
now it seemed best to continue my journey northward. 
I went out to a retired wooded hillock, and there spent 
a quiet season in prayer, commoiding those in whom 
I had become so intensely intep-sted to the care of 
the Divine Teacher, and seeking direction for my 
further coarse. 

So far we had not met many of the hill-tribes, which 
had been one of the main objectives of the t<nir. As I 
descended from the hill, 1 found some thirty Kamus 
jast arrived on some govemmoit work, and encamped 
by the road. I turned aside to speak with them, when, 
to my surprise, one, taller and more intelligent than 
the rest, answered me in good Luo. To my greater 
surprise, when I handed him a tract, he began to read 
it. It seems that, when a lad, he had been initialed into 
the monastic order by the I'lincess of Luang Prabang, 
and was one of the very few of his tribe who was a 


fairly good Lfio si luilar. lie was delighted to get the 
book; hut I \v:i> like a iiiiuer who has found a new 
gold Mine. Uad they been ready to return to their 
homes, I should at once have gone wiA them. A new 
vision seenitd to open before mv of work aun.iijr that 
interesting tribe. 1 had seen ihe great value ol ihe 
help afforded by (Jha I'Q Ka». the first Mwd> convert, 
in work among his tribe. Bvt he was not . holar, 
aiid was too old to learn, llert- w:is a Kaiiiu liolar. 
M^t he not have Iteen raised up tor this very purpose? 

That evening 1 s\)mt with my elders in their camp. 
I left with luy new friend a number of books, wliii li 
he promised to read lo his iKMijiie. I took down the 
names of their villages, and promised if possible to 
visit them next year — which they all begged me to do. 
That a;>parently lasual meeting sci'mcd to me u bnid 
call, Come over and help us! And it led ttt a most in- 
teresting work, which was stopped only at the com- 
mand of the French. 

Leaving Miiaug Sai, we j(»urueyed northward along 
the telegraph road, enlivened by noble views of long 
slopes, deep gorges, and high peaks. We passed some 
villages of the Yao tril)e with whom we could converse 
only by signs. On the third day out, at I{an Na Tawng, 
we left the telegraph road, turning off at right 
angles to MOang LS. At one village the head man 
assembled his people to mit't us, when he learned that 
here was a man from seven days beyond the great 
French country! At one place we passed a village of 
Lentlns, so named from the tlistrict in (.'ochin China 
fntm whi( h they came. They showed tliei" Chinese in- 
genuity by having their rice pounding done by water- 

Mftang Ai was the last town in French territory; be- 


yond it one enters the province of Yunnan, China. 
Here we bad scarcely pitched our tent before the gov- 
ernor had road our little tract ou '* The Way to Hap- 
piness," aud asked us to stay awhile to teach his 
people. This we did, remaining from Friday till Tues- 
day, lie invited us to \v(trslii[) in his house, which was 
tilled to overilowinf^. On Saturday, in coinpany with 
the governor, 1 attended a wedding least. 1 got along 
finely with the various dishes until a bowl of blood 
fresh from a slaughtei-ed hog was i)assed around, and 
each guest took a spoonful ! My note upon leaving the 
town was, " It is wonderful how many, especially of 
the otlicers and the more thoughtful class, are struck 
witli the self-evidencing truths of the (k»spel on its tirst 
presentation. xVnd their first thought is the sincere 
conviction that the Gkmpel meets their wants. Nor is 
this testimony invalidated because, when they come to 
count the cost, they are not willing to pay it." 

I was much pleased to hear uuiforui testimony to 
the uprightness of Fr«)ch oflicials. My own rrapect 
for French rule had fjre:itly inereased since we en- 
tered their territory. Is it that the Tai race beyond 
the Edng is more religious, or is it on account of 
the French rule, that people there seem more deeply 
interested in the (losj)el iiicssa^e? Hut sucli has been 
the fact. I have never been cheered by brighter visions 
of hopeful and speedy results of our labours. It seems 
almost inconceivable that a European nation should 
forbid missionary work among its i)eople. 

From this point on we were warned not to allow our 
party to be separated on the march. Shortly before 
this a merchant travellinjr with his son had been at 
tacked aud killed. I heard of two mountain tribes in 
this neighbourhood new to me. and of a third further 


to the northwest, which sacriflcos at every rice-harvest 
a iiuiuun victim captiiml from sniiie other tribe. 

Scarcely any ono liad ever licanl nf tlic nanio of Jesus. 

Not far Irom the tt)\vu we passed ou a ridge u well- 
marlced boundary stone with the letters B. P. (R6- 
pul)li(nie 1'rain.aise) on one side, and C. R. (Cbieng 
liuug) ou the other, iu larpe Koinan capitals. Notic- 
ing by tbe roadside a large stack of bricks, we learned 
that we were near the salt wells, and that the salt was 
compressed into bricks for easier transportation on 
mules. Tbe salt industry makes Itan Itaw Ke uu im- 
portant place. No one with white clothes, white hair, 
or white lieard is allowed to enter the enclosure about 
tbe salt wells; so 1 did not see them. 1 could get no 
reason for tbe probibition, save tbat tbe spirits would 
be displeased. 

The lime of my visit was unfortunate, being the be- 
ginning of tbeir New Year festival, which is always a 
season of carousal. That nigbt we bad a scene tbat 
defied description. After supper a man came to tell 
me to get ready; Ibey we-re going to "saw" me. I 
did nut know what " saw " iug might be; but 1 soon 
learned, to my disgust. Presently a noisy crowd en- 
tered the sala where I was, with drums, fifes, ani other 
musical instruments, and surrounded me with deafen- 
ing noise and songs. A great personaige had come to 
their place, and they were come to do him honour. 
He had great riches, and they e.v^ k ted a treat of fifty 
raises. Paying no attention to my attempted dis- 
claimt', they went on: "Give us out your money. 
Give us fifty rui>ees! Give us twenty-five! " Pushing 
my way out of the noisy circle, I was followed with 
more imperative demands. At last tbe governor's son 
came up as a friend and advised me to give them five or 


six niiiecs, or fhoy would never tlepart. Then om of 
my elders ( aiiie to me, anzioas regarding the outcome, 
and sjiid lluit it was only a New Year cnstnio, not a 
religious oue— inliiiiatint,' tl'Ut 1 need have no con- 
iwientlong scmpleti in tlie matter. Finally the gov 
ei nor's sou said he could get them off with three rupees. 
I had t.uly one in my poeket, and did not dai-c open 
my box before that uiob. At last I handed the young 
man that one, and, with an emphasis which they under- 
stood, fold him that I would give no more, ap|)caling 
to his father for protection, and holding him re 
sponsible for the consequenccH. They went off sullenly 
ent.ugh. Having gone so far, I doubt whether they 
wonld have desisted without something " to save their 
face." From me they went to the governor's, and so 
on, in order, throughout the place, with their hideous 
noise, which I could hear far on into the night. 

At anothi-r village further on, the peoi)Ie seemed in 
doubt how to receive me, till a ,\oung man came for- 
ward and asked if I were not the man who a few 
years ?)eforc travelled through that country with an 
elephant, and let the Prince of Muang have a 
gun. Then, turning to the head man, he said, " You 
need not be afraid. He is a teacher of the Jesus- 
religion." My standing in that village was issnred. 
One of the listeners at our worship in the monastery 
that night was much impressed, not with the idea of 
pardon, as is commonly the case, but with that of the 
Holy Spirit to purify and cleanse. That was what 
he needed; and he earnestly enquired how to obtain 
bis aid. This led to the subject of prayer to a tiving, 
personal (lod, who has promised this aid. Wc left him 
with the hope that his great need would be supplied. 
Mftang La was the farthest point reached on this 


lour. From it we rttrnck westward into our old ronte 

«if Ib'.i'.i iit MCiaiij; IViiij;. 'I he ( luio I'Ti u lio got my 
gnu liiid k'l'ii killt'il liv liis luHtplc 1 \Tas iiuicli sfruok 
witli tbe Judiciul asjuTt of tl»e act as told uie. One 
of the officers uald, " He was a bad man, who op- 
pressed tlie ptMtple, liued and executed them utijuHtly, 
and, of course, we killed him. That is the way the L&o 
do." A nephew and adopted son of the murdered 
Prince succeeded him, but the authority was largely in 
the haiiils ^•f the I'raya I.Tiaiig, though the young 
Trime's mother also had great inlluence. She invited 
me to a good dinner, and we hud a most interesting 
conversntiun. Among other things she asked, "How 
is it that you say IJuddliism cannot save?" and she 
seemed much impressed with the answer: Jlecanse 
Gautama Buddha is gone, and it is more than twenty- 
five hundred years before the next ItudUha is expected " 
We were now travelling southward, and soon canie 
once more ui»on the tricolour tloating over the French 
post at Mfiang Sing. I felt like salnting it. I was 
greatly surprised to f^nd an Englishman, Mr. Eva, in 
charge, lie fairly shouted to hear his mother tongne 
once mot«. He bad scarcely heard a word of it for 
three years. Seeing that I was spent with my long, 
hot ride, and that niy carriers would not get in till 
nightfall, he kindly oll'ered to hunt me up some 
luncheon. This I declined, if only I might bare a 
Clip of tea and a piece of dry bread. Holding up both 
hands, he exclaimed, "You've got me there! I've al- 
most forgotten how wheat bread tastes." He insisted 
on my taking up my quarters in his bungalow, til! I 
said, " If you were on French business, you would 
wish to stop where you could best accomplish it, would 
you not? I am here on missionary work, and my 


basii^m w wUh the ix'oplo. The inoniiHtery grounds 
will 8uit ine ImiUt.' "Looking at It in that light," 
«ai(i he. " you'ro rmht. I'll s;iy no iiiort'." I know 
that in the huine of a rieuch official 1 nhould have no 
▼Isiton at all. 

He was tlie son of an [:nf?lisli Wesh'van minister; 
but, being a wild lad, he had wandcitd away and 
drifted Into the French army, wheie he rose to an of- 
li.ial position. But the influences of his early days 
had not been lost. Wo had many heart to heart lalks 
together, lie wanted an English Bible. Uaviuf; only 
my "Oxford" along, I conid not spare him that, hut 
brought him one on my next lour. On Kunday he at- 
tended the service led l>y the elders, phased at the 
evidence they gave of the reality of uur missionary 
work. He bad six tbonsand Kamns in his district. 

The opium habit is very con >n. We found but 

few monasteries in the Sipsawug Pauna whose abbots 
and monks did not use opium. One man, wh^n asked 
whether be nsed it, made a significant answer: " When 
I have money, I dr). When I have none, 1 ilon't." 

The Ohao Fu of MCkang Sing was busy in epai ing for 
the marriage of bis dangfater with a son of the great 
Chao Fu of Cbioig Rung. So I did not see much of 
him. I had a long talk, howem, wi-'i the prospective 
groom. He doubted the poasibiltty of pardon for sin. 
I had several interviews with Dr. HcKean's patirat 
for calculus, before mentionc lie was not so near 
Christianity as I hoped to find him^ but was profuse 
in praise of the doctor and the hospital. He had two 
wives before the operation, and now was ntilising bis 
new lease of life by taking another younger one. I 
saw here some peaches not quite ripe — which was very 
tantalizing. Bnt I did get some ripe plums. 


When I left MAan;; SIdk on Api-il 2Sth, Mr. 
IWa escorted me !<ix inilt's on my way. aiiti we 
l>a»l«' nil (itlwr nomMiye fmir (»r ti\t' tinu's hclor*' we 
KMikl tiiially puit. At Wicng ITikii 1 Imd uut>ther 
warm welcome from the French Commimaire. I had 
to (If( liin" Ilis invita!i(»n. also, to ho<mI qiiartct-M 
with him; hut diued with him ut night, uud 
next momtnt; he wnt me a nice Hhoulder of beef. A 
htri;(> iiiiiiilti'i- (if Kamutf were here eiii<;iiK<^d on some 
piililic Works. I'lilikc most of llitir trilic, llicsc are 
liuddhi:4ts, und there were a nuuil)er who rouid i-eud, 
and who were delighted to get books. It wuk remark* 
Hble that tlieir women sftuke fairly well. Their 
eliief otlicer liad eighteen hundred men under him. 
After talking with them till near midnight, I turned 
them over to the elders, and wan tMHtn aiileep. Next 
morniufr my cook < iiiin' to my tent to eniinirc whether 
1 were not ill. It wj^ hulf past nix, and breukfast was 

We passed many Kamii villa;j;es in iliiM portioa of 
our route. .Mosi of them would welcome a missionary, 
and seemed ripe for I lie < ioM[tel. Formerly, under the 
government of NOn, they bad an easy time, with no 
taxes and almost voluntary service. Now they natu- 
rally eumplained of the stricter ri'gime of the French. 
I consoled them with the fact that the world over 
people have to pay taxes to the government that pro- 
tects ttiem. For this I did not at all liccfl tlie warn- 
ing which Mr. Eva gave me, that the one thing wliieh 
the French would not tolerate was interference with 
their f^ov<'rnment work. At ("hieiifi Kawufj ! took 
leave of French territory, with nolliiuji but fecliii;is of 
gratitude for the uniforu) |»i'rsonal kindness of their 
oSicials, and their appar«itly kind interest In our 


work. That work I niutit now diHrniMn wuli the very 
brief oiitlino I have given. I believe that light was 
( onvpypd In nijin.v sickn-H after truth, and seed was 
hown wbi< h will nut be lost. 

From Vh\eng Kawng nnwardii I was on old touring 
pruiind, mill jiiiioHf,' fii» n.Is. I spt iif a Snndny there, 
luude a slmrt v'mit lo flic .i.sA hills, iitiil Liiiiul a warm 
welcome in Chicng IMi fi<.iii thi- two missionary fam- 
ilies who were now establii^ed in that station, as well 
as fiom in.v many t);itivc fii.-nds. Here I m-eived my 
long dL'Kirwl mail. ItH ^ood cheer was tempered by 
one sad piece of tows— the death of my siater Maiy 
and ui\ hr<; 'i«'p Kvandcr, the last of my own mother's 
ihildicii On May lUtli I cnlcrcil ii|Min niy own thrco- 
scoit! and lentil year. Ix^uving ( "hieng Kai on the 18th, 
I reached home on the 2«th, after an absence of fonr 
and a half niontlis. 

Meanwhile the work it onr own md in aU the 
other stations had ln^'n euerge;!- . ''v prosecuted by a 
faithfu and of younger workers, u ■ t- nrepared than 
the old ones to oarry it on to :• (. i And the 
othj-r long tour to the Englinh te ■ . ianned for 
the later portion of the year, was t.i.'.<:ts iully carried 
ont by Dr. Briggs, Bev. Mr. Dodd, and Ber. Mr. Irwin. 


HE tour of 1898 was undertaken with two upe- 

(iiil objoots in view: (1) to follow up the 

auspifiou.s begiuuin};^ of work among the Kainu 
and LamSt tribes, tlie largest and moHt important 
within the nionnliiin area cxjdored during the previ 
ous M^asou, and, apparent l.v, ready as a body to accept 
the (lospel; and (2) t«i secure the Nanction of the 
French government for continued work in French ter- 
rili>rv. 1 was unable to secure i niissionarv colleague 
for the lour, and therefore went accompanied only by 
native evangel ists. I took the most direct ronte, erod- 
ing the Me Kong at Pak Il^ng, following the Il^ug 
reiver to its source, and I'rossin;^ by the jiass at its 
head to Muang Sal, the |H)int at which the most 
promising work of the previous tour was begun. The 
journey so fnr occupied nearly a month's time. 

The tour \v;is organized on notice too sho.'t to per- 
mit my passport from the United States Minister in 
Bangkok to reach me in Chiengmai before I started. 
It was. therefnre, smf on direct to the I'^rench author 
ities at Luang I'rabang. Meantime M. Vackle, the 
Commandant Snp^rienr, who was so kind to us the 
year before, Iiad In'en 8U|)erse<le<l by M. Luce; and him, 
unfortunately, we just niiss<Ml at t!ie crossing of the 
Me Ivfing. He passed up In a steamer the day iKjfore 
we reached the river, liy the time we reached M6ang 



Sai, M. Luce had returned to Luang Trabung, and bad 
wired to the ofBee in Mdaiig Sat that my pamport 

was come, and that I was expected in Liiang Prabang. 
No inatructions were given regarding my work, and 
the aathorities were in doubt what to do. Under the 
circuinsranct's. tlie only passport they could imae was 
one to tlic capital, Luanp I'labanf;. 

They were not particular, however, as to the route 
I should take. So I chose a circuit to the northeast, 
leading (hrouph the mountain region to the River, 
down which 1 could descend bv boat to Lfiuiifi I'ra- 
bang. This would enable me to lind Nan Tit, ine Kaniu 
scholar whom I met at Mdang Sai on my previous 
tour, and to visit with liiiii a few Kaiiiii villages. The 
extent of the v oik 1 ho|»ed to undertake that season 
would depend upon the opening I found there. A pass- 
port was given ine by that route, and a soldier was sent 
aUtng as gtiide and escort. 

Nan Tit, as 1 hoi>ed, had read the books 1 gave him, 
had prepared rhe way for me by teaching the sub- 
stance of them t(» his neighbours, and now would as- 
sist me in teaching his tribe. With him as interpreter 
and assistant we visited a number of coniiguous vil- 
lages, holding night conferences, at which the whole 
population of the village would lie present. Every- 
where a wonderfully ready was given to the 
Gospel. They, too, were oppressed by the dread of 
spirits, and welcomed deliverance from their bondage. 
They would aci«>pl the Gospel, but, naturally, referred 
us on to the Via. 

To his village at last we went. He was a venerabte 
man near seventy, and though for years hopelessly 
crippled by paralysis of the lower limbs, his bright 
mind and business talents had raised him to his pres 


put posit iuu, aud given him u commanding intiiienee. I 
shall never foi^t our first interview. He had heard 
the rumour Hint tmr rclijiion could overcoiiio the spirits 
and Buve from sin. Crawling painfully on his hands to 
meet us, he welcomed us to his village and hiH people. 
He had heard of the JesuH-religion, and wished to 
embrace it. Since he was old, he must do it soon. 
This was <»u Friday afternoon. Ity Saturday night 
every family in the place had made the same decision, 
and woidd begin by keeping their tirst Salihath next 
(lav. Our elders entered with lieart and soul into 
teaching thei.i. The young fctlks s(»ou learned a verse 
or two of " The Happy Land," and some a verse or two 
in the Catechism. Next morning, before I was dressed, 
(dd and young of b<»th sexes were gathering to learn 
how to keep the Sabbath. Tt was a great day. just the 
like of which I liad never seen. It settled the deci- 
sion of hundreds, possibly of thousands, of jteople. 

Still, everytliing depended ujjon the French author- 
ities. They could forbid our teaching, as, in fact, tbej 
afterward- did. Hut up to this point I could not be- 
lieve that they would. A prompt an<l candid inter- 
view seemed all that would be necessary to settle that 
matter, and make the Kamns feel safe. If such an 
o|»ening were found, I had detcrruined to reuuiin with 
them throughout the season. Hut in that ease my 
family and the mission must be informed. More medi- 
cine and books and some comforts would l>e reijuired to 
carry me through. It was, therefore, decided to move 
on a day's journey to Mfiang La, a convenient point, 
leave there two elders to instruct the people, and Bcaad 
back three carrirrs to (Miiengmai for the needed sup- 
plies and another elder; while I went «»n overland to 
Mt^ung Kwa, aud there took boat down the C Uiver. 


Tile iiiojiitaiu sicnory along this river is very beauti- 
ful, especially so near Its jnnctioo with the M« K8ng. 
We reacbfHl Lfiaiif,' Pialian}; on Monday, May 9tb, and 
tailed at once on M. Grant, wbo was so kind to m Jlie 
year before. He gave me a greeting as warm as ever. 
The king was having an interview with M. Loce that 
• lay, so I coiiKi not see hini till Tnesday. I d!ne<l thai 
night with M. tJrant, he himself coming at dusk to 
walk over with me. We had a delightful evening. 
TlitMc liad hccn a regular exodus of Kamits that year to 
^'hiengmai and other souflHTii provinces. M. (Iraut 
asked if I had heard any reason assigned for it. 1 t«)ld 
him that T had heard of three— the deamess of rice, 
owing to the failure of the last crup; the exhaustion 
of the mountain lands, and the lack of remunerative 
employment by which they could earn the money re 
quired to pay their taxes. 

On Tuesday afternoon the Commandant Sup^rieur 
sent his secretary to invite me to an interview, ile, 
too, gave me a cordial greeting. He had received my 
passport together with a letter of introduction from 
the Consul Odn^ral in Mangkok. I had also a kind 
personal letter from our United States Minister, Mr. 
John Barrett. He had used his personal influence, and 
a><suif'(l me that if would all Ik; right. .My interview 
was very plea.sant. M. Luce enquii-ed abcjul our mis 
sion work, the namber of our converts, and other sim- 
ilar matters. He then ref« iit'd to the large emigra- 
tion of Ramus; aske.l if I had heard of any reason for 
it, and bow many of our three thousand converts were 
Kamas. He was much surprised to learn that the 
converts were almost entirely, with not a half 
doisen Kamus among them. Putting his anxiety about 
the emigration and our work among these people to- 


gether, it wemed to me later that be must have 

tbouf^lit tht' tiKivcnicnt a rolifjious nno. 

When, at last, 1 stated luy spt'!.-iul errand tu the 
city, naiiH ;.v, that a number of villages in his province 
were interested in onr relijiiou, that I wislietl to teach 
them fnrtlitr, ami that, simc tliey weiv Krondi sub- 
jeets, I (houylil it jiruiter tti inform him and secure his 
sanction, he thanked me for doing ho, but his man- 
ner at once changed. He said he should have to con- 
sult the kin^' aliout that; the niountaia i»e«»ple were 
hard to iiach ; the country was unliealthy; the Catholic 
niigftionarief* in the sooth were living, or bad left ; the 
kin<; would fear that flio Kaiiiii'; miuhl liecnuie disloyal 
to him if they became Christians. To tins I replied 
that the native officials had uniformly granted us per- 
mission to teach among their subjects; that they 
i-eaiizcd that it was a lieiietit to their country, and 
even gave us their a.ssislame; and that it was the fixed 
policy of oar miminn to teach Christians loyalty to 
their rulers. M. sai<l he woiild consult with the 
king, and would let me know the decision. I expressed 
my wish to pay my resjiects to the king, which he said 
was a very proper thing, and, on my leaving, he gave me 
a cordial inviialiim to dine with him that night. 

>.'ext day, through M. CJraut, 1 secured a very pleas- 
ant intervfew with the king. My long residence in the 
.uiintry and acquaintance with both Siamese and LSo 
otlit ials, gave us much common ground for conversa- 
tion, lie was pleased that 1 had known their 
Majesties, the present King of Hiam and his father, his 
fr)riiier liejielords. (^uife in line with native ideas, 
he thought i must Im a man of great nierit to be so 
old imd y^ so strong. I explained at his request the 
teaching ef onr religion, pointing out some of its dis- 


tinctive differencefl from Buddhism, in all of which 
things he was interested. He said that it was all very 

good, but ho was born and reared in the Huddhist wor- 
ship, and was too old to change. Gradually introduc- 
ing my errand, I told him of my interest in the Kamns, 
and (if their desire to become Christians; that I had 
come down to get permission to work among them. 
We taught them a better morality, of which loyalty to 
rulers was a fundamental article, mjoined by Jesus on 
His discipU's. Ho raised the objection that (he Kamus 
were ignorant, una we would tind them harder to teach 
than the Lfto. To this I replied that these villagers 
had become l)elievers, and I was going to spend sereral 
monrbs in teaching them. He asked if I did not think 
I was running risk in living so long in the forest, 
and so far away from home " Well," said I, " I am 
used to life in the forest and jungle, and you can see 
for yourself how 1 have fai-ed." At which he smiled, 
and made no further objection. 1 left with the firm 
conviction that if M. Luce were not unwilling, there 
Wdtild Ih) no difliculty with him. 

While at dinner that night, I informed M. Luce of 
my pleasant audience with the king; how I told him my 
plans, and be had virtually given his consent. "Is 
that so? " said he. " I must see the king myself about 
that." And as I took my leave, he said again, " I will 
«ee the king to-morrow, and will let you know the 

The next afternoon, Thursday, M. I.uce had a long 
interview at the Prince's residence. On Friday after- 
noon I called on M. Grant on my way to the Com- 
mandant's oflice. He told me that M. l.u.'c wished to 
see me, but had instructed him to notify me that the 
king did not understand that I was to si)end several 


months among the Kamns — thongh he certainly did, 

or why sh«)uld he have raised the question of my 
healtli? 1 n-iiiinded M. (Irant that my passport was 
not to the king, but to the French authorities. All 
the world recognired the country as French territory. 
It would have been considered a discourtesy to tlie 
French if the representative of the United States had 
sent a letter tu the king as such. He admitted 
that in a limited sense this was true ; but tliey did not 
treat the king as a compiered vassal. Cochin China 
had fought the French, and had been comjuered and 
annexed. But Liiang Prabfing had put itself under 
llu'ir protection without firing a gun. M. Grant de- 
livered his uipssaj^e with as much consideration toward 
my disappointment as was consistent with loyalty to 
his superior. But my disappointment I could not 

M. Luce, 1 was informed, was very busy that day, 
but would be glad to see me on Saturday afternoon. 
The decision, however, was irreversible. Further 
prossHit' would be useless, and mif?ht he unwise, in 
that case, I said, of course 1 must submit. I had 
shown i»ropcr respect for the ruling authority, and my 
own desire to avoid future mi.sunderstandin{j, by iiiak 
infj; t!ic long iiud costly journey to Luang rrabang. 
.My errand was now ended. 1 would take my leave 
at once, and return next morning. 

Tills Ix int; icjiorted to M. Luce, lie sent wf)rd that 
lie must .see me bi'lui-e 1 left. 1 might come immedi- 
ately. Personally, again, he was very kind, but made 
a studied effort to put the responsibility upon the 
king, whii. ;i>^ ln' s;>id, had not understood that I 
wished to make a long slay among the Kiimus, which 
he thought was unsafe for me. Of conn^, I had no 



complaint to make of the king, who had been most 
Rra(i<,ns. I submitted to their decision, and would 
return home. But my arrangprnents required my re- 
turn to the Kamu villages, where I had left my "men 
and my goods, sv.ul would be detained there till my 
messengers sii,.u!d return from ChienRmai -which, he 
said, was all right Since the i-espoiisibilK v had lK.en 
put on the king, and the adverse decision had been 
based sol. l.v on thc^ danger to my personal health and 
safety, 1 thought if unwise to raise the question of 
native aBsistanis, and so felt free to leave these on 
the ground to teach the new believers, as, indeed, I 
felt under obligation to do. 

Thanking M. Luce for all his personal kindness, I 
begged to take my leave of him then, so that I might 
start on my return the next morning. But he evi- 
dently was n(.t satisfied with his t.wn part in the mat- 
ter, and wished to make some i>ersonal amends to 
soothe my disappointmoit. He hoped I would not 
leave in the morning, but would remain till Monday, 
and give him the pleasure of a dinner with me and m! 
Giant on Sunday night. 1 hoped he would still ex^ 
cuse me, since, if I remained, that would be our time 
for puhli.' w(.rship. "Then." ^;iid be. " ac shall be 
pleased to have you on Satnniay night; and if you 
are not ready now to give an affirmative reply, I hope 
you will so arrange it as to notify my secretary in the 
morning." Notwilhsfandiug bis evident disiagenu- 
ousnesH in trying to shift the respounibility for liis 
own acts to another, there was no reason for making 
i( i>. personal matter; and it would be impolitic to leave 
apparently angry. So I to remain tin Mon- 
day, and accepted the invitatirm for Saturday night. 
I feared there would be great constraint on both 


sides at the diuuer; but in this I was agreeably dis- 
appointed. That very day a long telegram bad ar- 
rived, reporting the declarntion of war with Spain, 
and the particulars of the great naval victory of 
Manila Bay. On my arrival at his house. M. Lnre 
handed me a full translation of these into i:iiKli«h. 
which he had had made for me. They weie much sur- 
prised at the victory, f«)r they thought the Spanish 
navy ranch larger and stronger than ours; and they 
were high in their praise of the victors. We really 
had a delightful time. After dinner our host and M. 
(J rant both laid themselves out to show me beautiful 
maps and pictures. M. Luce invited me tt> call on 
Monday morning, and he would si-iid a long telegram 
to my wife without charge. This he did, and we all 
parted friends. The departure on the 16th, my sev- 
entieth birthday, was not as jc.yful as 1 had lio]"'d. 

On my retinii to ^lining Sal, 1 fouud that my car- 
riers had been delayed by sore feet and sickness. I 
could not leave till they came, for fear of missing 
them and causing further toiiiplications. So my long 
trip home was thrown into the middle of a very rainy 
season. 1 had to apologize as best I could to the new 
converts for the cl»ange in my plan to irnuiiu with 
tlu ni. \W ih» y were glad to have our elders stay and 
i. a. Ii them. If that shady tree on the little hill at 
.Muaug Sai could speak, it would tell of much anxious 
prayer on leaving the Christiai s and starting on the 
lujig j(mmey before me. My Ebeneaer was left on that 

That journey was altogether the worst I ever had. 

I did not reach home till August Ctli, after the longest 
t..ur 1 Iiad . ver takeu. M. Luce's telegram had pre- 
pared my family and friends for my changed plans. 



A few lines mast close the history of the work 

niuonK the Kiimus. In December the three evangelisti 
returned with a most enfouruKiug report. The con- 
verts had remained tirm, and others wcit: waiting to 
join them. The next season a native minister was 
sent to tlicm. In ]!Hi;{ tlie mission ventiuvd to send 
two of our younger men, Dr. Campell and Mr. Mai kay. 
to Mfiang Hai, to visit the Christians, and respond to a 
pressing call to extend the work. Imagine their sur- 
|)nse on reaching Mflang Sai to tlnd that the h»cul 
commissiouei- imd received orders to forbid our mis- 
sionaries to visit the Christian commnnit.v. or to hold 
any relifilims service with them, on |K'ii:ilt.v of being 
conducted out of the country, in force i«" necessary. 
The command was so imperative that tlie Commis- 
sioner dared not disobey. He begged them for his sake 
(u rcfmn [»eaceahly. \o eflFort has been made since 
to reach the Christians at Mdang Sai, or to extend 
the work. 

It will l>e remembered that a few members of the 
Chienfi Sj'u chincli— never more than half a dozen 
families- lived on the east banli of the Kong, in 
French territory. So objectionable was the very pres- 
ence of a mission. iry jiakiiifj a few days' visit among 
his dock, that it was regarded of sutlicient imjioriance 
to warrant an official protest from the aulliorities at 
Liian^' I'rjihnn};. seii* through the Governor General 
of Hanoi, and llie i'uited States Minister at Bangkok. 

Complaint was made of a visit made by the Rev , 

who had exhibited Scripture pictures and distributed 
hooks amon^i the people whicli was so contrary to 
their policy that they forbade the Koiiian Catholic 
missionaries from working in their territory. They 
begged that the thing be not repeated I For the credit 


of the Fi( uch utillmrif ieH I mIiuuIiI liave been glad to 
Bopprewi the latter part of tbia atory. But, on the 
otluT tiiind, 1 tbiuk it sh(.\i M 1k> kr .wn, in order that 
it niiiy bf.onit' a l.tinlen «»u the pru.vera of the Cbria- 
tiau world of uH dentnuinationa, that God's ^fldrace 
may opoi the whole penionrift of Indo^hlaa to the 
preaching of the QoapeU 



MY advaaeiiig aRe rantesti the wiadom of not 
attempting fr» (ontinue this fiersnnal nar- 
rative Ijeyctnd tlie account ju8t givea of inv 
last long misaionary tour. I may venture to add, 
however, by way of cooelnaioii, a few fraggefitiim and 
.TiticiHms corKfrninR the work of onr mission as a 
whole, and brietly notice a few of the more iun»ortant 
peraonaiitiea and erents of tfaMe later yeara. 

Special prominence huN been given througkoot to 
the evangelistic work, m being the foundation of all 
other missionary work. A Christian Church and a 
Chriatian conatitaeney nraat be tb« flmt aim in all mla- 
Hions. In this we have not been unsuccessful. Our 
ideals, it is true, have not been realized. W have 
not witneaaed among the Riamese or the LSo any racial 
movement towards Christianity; nor have there been 
any great revivals resulting.' in largo accessions t« the 
cborch. Both of these we hope for in the not far 
distant fntnre. Yet tbe uniform, bealthfal growth of 
the church, as distingniabed frotn spasmodic or spo- 
radic increase, has been most gratifying. Seldom docs 
a week pass without accessions to some of our 

An adult membership of four thousand is a good 
foundation. And it must never be forgotten that the 
roll of cbnrch-memberahip ia a very inadequate index 



of the real influence and power of a mission. In addi- 
tion to a mnch lar}?er constituency of adherents, there 
is our large roll of non-communing members, the hope 
of the future church. And signs of most hopeful 
promise have appeared within the present year. The 
growth of the Chieng Kai church during that time has 
been surpassed only by the results of Dr. Campbell's 
recent tours, amounting to eighty accessions within a 
few weeks. The supporters of our missions have every 
cjiuse for gratitude, and a call for earnest, effectual 
prayer in their behalf. 

A review of our evangelistic work suggests one or 
two criticisms. On one line at least, with a smaller 
amount of hard work done by the missionary himself, 
we might have accomplished more, might now be better 
prepared for advanced work, and the native church 
might be better able to stand alone, if we had ad- 
dressed our efforts more steadily to the development 
and use of native assistance. While we have not had 
the material of well educated young men out of which 
to form a theological seminary and to furnish a fully 
equipped native ministry, we have not used, to the 
extent to which we should have used it, the material 
which was available. For a mission as old as ours, we 
must confess that in this most important matter we 
are very backward. 

Th^ delay in starting our school for boys was not 
our fault; it was inevitable. The Lao rulers of the 
earlier years were absolutely indifferent to all educa- 
tion, and were positively jealous of any that was given 
by the mission. But as the church began to increase, 
we had accessions of men trained in the Buddhist 
priesthood. Some of these were among the best edu- 
cated men in the country. They understood— as 



young men even from mission schools could not be 
expected to understand — the religion, the modes of 
thought, the needs of their own people, and how to 
reach them. Their education, however deficient, 
brought them many comi)ensations. They form the 
class from which nearly all of our evangelists have 
been drawn. When such men have been drilled in 
the Scriptures, their Buddhistic knowledge malies them 
the very best men for successful work among their 
countrymen. They visit and sleep in the homes of 
their people, and are one with ihem. The missionary 
in his work mnst rely largely on thdr jndgm^t and 

It mnst not be understood that we have not taught 
these men or u^d them. A great deal of labour has 
been spent in training them; very much in the same 
way in which in American churches, a generation ago, 
busy pastors trained up young men to be some of our 
best ministers. The criticism I make — and in it I 
believe all my colleagues will concur — is that we have 
not made as much of them as we should have done. 
No doubt there have been diflSculties in the way. Their 
families must somehow be provided for during the 
process. The native churches were not strong enough 
to undertake their support. We were warned that to 
aid them with foreign funds would make the churches 
mercenary. What the missionary himself sometimes 
did to eke out their subsistence was irregular and 
difficult, and often unsatisfactory. But the labourer 
is worthy of his hire. Hungry mouths must be fed. 
The Board and the churches at home do not begrudge 
a thousand dollars or more to support a missionary in 
the fidd. Should they begrudge the same amount 
spent up<MD half a dozen men who will treble or 


quadruple the missionary's work and his intluencp? 
In any business it is poor policy to employ a high- 
salaried foreman, and then not furnish him cheaper 
men to do that which unskilled labour can accomplish 
better than he. 

In this matter, as in some others, we might have 
learned valuable lessons from our nearest missionary 
neighbours in Burma, even though the conditions of 
our work have been in many resjtects vtiv different 
from theirs. Maliing all allowance for our condi- 
tiona, I frankly confess that our greatest mistake has 
probably been in doing too much of the work our- 
selves, instead of training others to do it, and work- 
ing through them. This conviction, however, must not 
in the least lead us to relax our efforts in the line 
of general education. For the ultimate establishment 
of the church, and to meet the demands of the age, 
we must have workmen thoroughly equipped. Till 
that time comes, we must, as we should more fully 
have done hitherto, rely on whatever good working 
material we find ready to hand. 

With regard to plans and methods of work, an- 
other thought suggests itself. In a business organized 
as ours is, where the majority in the Annual Meet- 
ing has absolute power, it is difficult to avoid the ap- 
pearance—and sometimes the reality— of a vacillating 
policy. New stations are established, and mission- 
aries are located by the ballot of the mission there 
assembled. From year to year the personnel of the 
mission is constantly changing by reason of furloughs, 
breakdown of health, and necessary removals. We 
make our disposition of forces at one meeting, and at 
the next an entirely new disposition has become neces- 



sary. A family has been left alone without a physi- 
dan or associate. Missionary enthusiaHm, or an 
earnest minority interested in a particular field or a 
particular cause, may initiate a policy which a rob- 
sequent majority may be unable to sanction, or which 
it may be found difficult or impossible to carry out. 

Again, as between the policy of maintaining one 
strong central station, and that of maintaining sev- 
eral smaller ones in difl'eient |>arts of the country, it 
is often difficult to decide. With the aim originally 
of establishing the Gospel in all the states under 
Siamese rule, we seem to have been led to adopt the 
latter policy. Through God's blessing on evangelistic 
tours, in Lampun and in the frontier provinces of 
the north, there grew up churches which called for 
missionary oversight. The famine in Pr6 summoned 
U£ thither; and to secure the worlt then done, a mis- 
sionary in residmce was needed. Though no church 
had been formed in Kan, yet our tours had opened 
the way to one, and the importance of the province 
anu its distance from our centre demanded a station. 
In every case these stations were opened with the cor- 
dial approval of the mission and of the Board at 
home. Yet it has been difficult to keep them all 
manned, as has been specially true in the case of Pr6 
— and there to the great detriment of the work. It 
is easy to say now that a strong central policy might 
have been better. And that criticism would prob- 
ably hit me harder than anyone else, for I have sanc- 
tioned the establishment of every me of those sta- 
tioiis. It is possible that a more centralized organi- 
zation might have accomplished more toward the edu- 
cation of native workers — ^the point last under dis- 


With reference to the establishment of stations in 

the north beyond the frontier of Siam, there wa.« not 
until recently absolute unanimity in the mission. But 
that was not from any diversity of opinion as re- 
gards the (juestion iu itself, but because a sister de- 
noniinaliou had established itself there. There lias 
never been reasonable ground for doubt that the lau 
guage and race of the ruling class, and of the pop- 
ulation of the plains would naturally assign them to 
the Lflo mission. Aud no other mission is s.' well 
equipped for working that field. A Lflo Inland Mis- 
sion, somewhat on the plan of the China Inland Mis 
sion, would be an ideal scheuit for i-eaohing the whole 
of the Tai-speaking peoples of the north and northeast 
under English and French and Chinese rule. The 
obligation to carry the Gospel to those peoples should 
rest heavily on the consrienee of the Christian Church, 
and on our Church in particular. Who will volun- 
teer to be the leaders? 

It has already been noticed that in our educational 
work the Girls' School had the precedence in time, and 
possibly in importance. Boys did at least learn to 
read and write in the monasteries. At the time of 
our arrival in Chiengmai, only two women in the 
province could read. The Chiengmai Girls' School 
has had a wide educational influence ihroughont the 
north, and to-day our Girls' Schools have practically 
no com[)etitors. 

The Phraner Memorial School for small children, 
in connection with the Firet Church, Chiengmai, un- 
der Mrs. Campbell's dii. ction, is preparing material 
both for High Schools and for the College. We have 
good schools for girls in Lakawn, NSn, and Chieng 
B&i; and parochial mixed schools in most of our 


country chnrches and ont-stations. The young womoi 
who have been engaged in this department, and many 

self-saciiUcmg married women, have great reason to 
rejoice over the work accomplished. Xo greater work 
can be done than that of educating the wives and 
mothers of the churdi and fhe land. I>:diHated Chris- 
tian men are greatly handicapped when consorted 
with illiterate and superstitious wives. Without a 
Christian wife and mother there can be no Christian 
family, the fciindation both of the church and of 
the Christian State. 

On a recent visit to Chiengmai, Princess Darft Rat- 
sami— one of the wivrs «,f His late Majesty of Siam, 
and daughter of Prince Intauoii of r'hienfjmai and his 
wife, the Princess Tipakesawn, often mentioned in the 
Iirecoding narrative— was much interested in the Girls' 
Sehodl, and was pleased to name it the Phra Rjij- 
chayar School, after herself— using therefor her title, 
and not her personal name. 

The mi.ssion had been founded twenty years before 
it had, and almost before it could have had, a School 
for Boys. It is the intention of the mission to make 
of this school— the Prince Royal Colleg&-the future 
Christian College. Similar schools have been estab- 
lishad in the other stations. 

Since the Siamese government assumed control in 
the North, it has manifested a laudable aeal in estab- 
lishing schools, in which, howeve r, the Siamese lan- 
guage alone is taught. His Majesty is most fortunate 
m having such an able and progressive representative 
in the North as the present High Commissioner, Chow 
Praya Surasih Visithasakdi. And the country is no 
less fortunate in having a ruler whose high personal 
character and wise administration command the con 


fldencc a^d rt'spect of all rlassos. He is intcrcstrd 
ii (>dn;i.liu}j tlif people, and in everything that ad- 
vances the interests of the country. 

I regard the educa^'onal question as the great ques- 
tion now iK'foro the inissicm. The existeure of the 
Siamese schools greatly emphasizes the importance 
of our own work, and the necessity of maintaining a 
high standard and a stronfj teaching force in Siamese, 
Euglish, mathematics, and the sciences. Their schools 
then will be tributary to ours. 

The ultimate prevalence of the Sian^se language 
in all the provinces under Siamese rule, has been in- 
evitable from the start. All f,'()vernments realize the 
ortance of a uniform language in unifying a peo- 
ple, and have no interest whatever in perpetuating a 
provincial <lialect. The Siamese, in fact, look down 
with a kind of disdain upon the Lao speech, and use 
it only as a temporary necessity during the period of 
transition. And the Siamese is really the richer of 
the two by reason of itt large borrowing 'rom the 
Pal'., the better scholarship behind it, and its closer 
connection with the o' "Hd. 

These two forms of ■ ^»oech — with a common 

idiom, and with the ^ '.-jdy of words in both 
identical, or differing only in vocal inflection — have 
been kept apart chiefly by the fact that they have dif- 
ferent written characters. All of the Lao women and 
children, and two-thirds of the men had to be taught 
to read, whichever character were adopted; and they 
could have learned the one form quite as easily as the 
other. Had the mission adopted *he Siamese char- 
acter from the start, it would now be master of the 
educational situation, working on a uniform scheme 
with the Siamese Educational Department. More- 





over, the Simiioso lanKiiiiKC In our scliools would have 
been a distiud atfr-clion tdwiinl ediicafion and 
toward Cbiistiauity. And thus there would have 
been available for the North the laboara of two or 
more generations of able workers in the southern 
niission, from which so far the Lao chunh has been 
mostly cut off. The whole liible would have been ac- 
cessible from the flnt; whereas now nearly half of it 
remains still untranslated into the Lao. If the future 
needs of the Hianiese provinces alone were to be con- 
sidered, it might even be doubted whether it were 
worth while to complete the translation. When the 
monks, in their studies teadiiuf?, adopt the 

Siamese, as it is n(»w the intention of the government 
> have them do, Lao books will soon be without read- 
e. 1 throughout Siam. When for the young a choice 
is iKWaible in the matter of such a transcendent instru 
ment of thought and culture as language, all surely 
would wish their training to be in that one which has 
in it the promise of the future. These words are 
written in no idle criticism of the past, and in no 
captious spirit regarding the present; but with full 
sense of the gravity of the decision which confronts 
the mission in shaping its educational policy for those 
who henceforth are to be Siamese. 

Meanwhile, Lfio type and books in the LJlo dialect 
are needed, not merely for the present generation of 
older people who cannot or will not learn a new char- 
acter, but also for the instruction and Christianization 
of that much lai^r mass of Lfto folk beyond the 
frontier of Siam as revealed by recent explorations. 
Removed, as these are, entirely from the political and 
cultural influence of Siam, and divided up under the 
jnrisdiction of ee great nations of diverse and 


alien speech, it ia inconcelrable the siaimso 
should ever win the aarendency over tliem. Nor has 
pither <.f these nations any inunediate and pressing 
incentive toward unify ins the upeech of itii prorindals, 
RQch 88 hag actuated Siam in this matter. If tlie 
field of thf' mission is to be extended to include 
these " regions beyond "—as we all hope that it soon 
may be— Lflo speech will inevitably be the medium of 
all its worli theiv. Then all tiial so far luis been ac- 
coiiiplislu'd in tiie way of translation, writing, and 
printing in the Lao tongue, will be so much Invaluable 
capital to be turned over to the newei intentrise. 

As regards tiie medical department of the mission, 
the"lield has been an ideal one lor its operation 
and for demonstration of its results. When the field 
was virtually closed to the simple tlospel. tlif» mis- 
sicnary physician fonnd everywhere an exalted, not 
to say exaggerated, idea of the efficacy of foreign medi- 
cine, and a warm welcome for timself. Dr. Cheek, 
who virtually lonuded ret,nilar i.K'dical work among 
tli»' Lao. had been on the field but a short time when 
he i-eported thirteen thousand patients treated in one 
year. Probably no subsequent physician has liad such 
absolute control of the situation as he had. so long as 
he gave his time and talents to his calling. But even 
the layman finds his medical chest an invaluable ad- 
junct to his evangelistic work, as we have had fre- 
quent occasion to notice. We are devoutly thankful 
for— we might almost envy— the influence that our 
medical missionaries have exerted In the civilization 
and (lie Clii istianizatitm of tlie Lao tribes. 

Somewhat of the present status and imporiance of 
the medical mission may be judged from the follow- 
ing facts: Dr. J. W. McKean's projected Leper Asylum 



is the largest charitahle institatlon ever planned in 

fhe kiiifrdnin. e new Orerbfook llospilal in Cb'enp 
Rai, the generouH jtift of the Gent faniil.v of Ovi >ok, 
PennRylvania, is the flnest building iu the luiKsion. 
The Charles T. Van Santroonl Hospital in Lakawn 
is another similar pin. Native ph.\sii'iaiiM, Iniincd as 
far as present opportunities permit in Western surgery 
and medicine, are now maintained at certain posts by 
the government. And eKi)ecially the work of 
Dr. Arthur Kerr, the Koverninont jthysitian in Chicng- 
mui, and his unremitting kindness to the mission, are 
deeply appreciated by ns all. 

1 lannot close these remarks wlthont making spe- 
cial reference to the work of my old friend and 
classmate and early associate in the mission, Dr. 
Jonathan Wilson. In addition to his other most 
valuable labours, he si»ent years of loving and devoted 
service in the preparation of hymns for Lao worabip, 
which will monld and lead the spiritnal life of this 
people for years to come. The Lao are lovers of 
music. Many of them have leceived mu< ?i of their re- 
ligious instruction through the use of i <■ hymns. 
His inSnoice in the LSn chnrch may tie c(»^pared to 
that of Watts and Wesley for the t^nglkit r^. 

Onr long isolation as a mission has enaUed ii to 
appreciate the coming to us in late years of *a aijifciu 
of distinguished visitors, who have greatly en- 
aged and strengthened us. 

At the Annual Meeting in December, 1900, we 
favoured with a visit from our United States II nisi 
Hon. Hamilton King, and his two daughters. U 
ferring to his visit, the Lao Quarterly Letter" said 
"His addresses to the missionaries and native a^ 


istera and eldem of the Pre8b;y U rv were much appre- 
ciated, and our lar^e cliurch building waH crowded on 
two BOCcesHive 8abbatbH to hear his eloquent words 
of encouragement to native Cbriatiana, and his warm 
lommendation of (^briHtianity to non ('hrintians. It lH>cn said that one of !li(> boat hings which a 
I'nited States Miuiater cau tak« to a n^n-Chrigtian 
land is a good Christian home. And thi • is JiMt wliat 
Mr. Kinn has broiij^lit to Siain." 

At tlie Annual Meeting of the following year, in 
Lakawn, w< reeeived the first ofBcial viait we ever had 
from one of the Secretaries of onr Board, in 'person 
of Kcv. Arthur J. Itrown, P.I)., accompanied by his 
good wife. The importance of these Hecietarial visits 
to distant missions can hardly be overestimated. It ia 
impossible to legislate intelligently for a constituency 
twelve tbonsand miles away. No amount of writing 
can give the varied kinds of information necessary 
tor a fall understanding of the people, the mission- 
aries, their surroundings, and the needs of the field, 
which a single visit Will convey. Then, too, there are 
qaestions of administration and mission polity, re- 
quiring settlement in the home Hoard, which can 
with difficulty be understood through correspondence. 
Dr. Brown's oflScial visit was most helpful, as also 
his words of encouragement, his sermons and ad- 
dresses. The pleasure derived from the personal visits 
of Dr. and Mrs. I5rown to various members of the 
Mission will always linger in our memories. 

Another notable visit to Cbiengmai was that of 
the Crown Prince of Siam, now His Majesty Maha 
Vajiravudh, in the winter of 1905-6. On this visit His 
Royal Highness very graciously accepted the invita- 
tion of the mission to lay the corner stone of the Will- 



iam Allen Butler Hall, the recitation hall of the new- 
Boys' School. On that occasion he delivered an ad- 
dress, of which the following is a translation: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: — I have listened with great 
pleasure to the complimentary remarks which have just been 
made. I regard them as indisputable evidence of your 
friendship for the whole Kingdom of Siam. 

" During my visit to the United States, the American 
people were pleased to gire me a most enthusiastic welcome. 
I may mention particularly the sumptuous banquet with 
which your Board of Foreign Missions honoured me. I 
perceived clearly that the American people received me 
whole-heartedly and not perfunctorily. This also made 
it evident to me that the American people have a sincere 
friendship for the Kingdom of Siam. Of this fact I was 
profoundly convinced, and I certainly shall not soon forget 
my visit to the United States. 

" This being so, I feel compelled to reciprocate this kind- 
ness to the full extent of my ability. As my Buyal Grand- 
father and my Boyal Father have befriended the mission- 
aries, so I trust that I too shall have opportunity, on 
proper occasions, to assist them to the limits of my power. 

"Tour invitation to me to-day to lay the comer stone 
of your new School Building, is another evidence of your 
friendship and goodwill toward Siam. I have full confi- 
dence that you will make every endeavour to teach the 
students to use their knowledge for the welfare of their 
country. Therefore I take great pleasure in complying with 
your request, and T invoke a rich blessing on this new in- 
stitution. May it prosper and fulfil the highest expecta- 
tions of its foun<terfll" 

In response to a request from the Principal that he 
would name the new school, His Royal Highness sent 
the following reply : 

"Chienomai, .January 2d, 1906. 
" I have great pleasure in naming the new school, the 
foundation stone of which I have just laid. The Prince 
Bojral'B CoUege. May this School which I have so named. 


be prosperous, and realize all that its well-wishers hoi^e for 
it May it long flourish, and remain a worthy monument of 
the enterprise of tlio American Presbyterian _ Church of 
Chienamai. This is the wish of their sincere friend, 
^ " Vajibatddh." 

Little did we then think that His Royal Highness 
would so soon be called to till the liigli office left 
vacant by the lamented death of his distinguished 
father, King Chnlalangkorn, which occurred October 
22d, 1910. 

In December, 190S, Mi-s. McGilvary's brother, Pro- 
fessor Cornelius B. Bradley of the University of Cali- 
fornia, while on a visit to the land of his birth and 
of his father's labours, paid us a visit in the North. 
He was present at our Annual Meeting in Lakawn, 
and on Sunday preached the Commnnion sermon, and 
again in Chiengmai. It was to the astonishment of all 
who heard him, boin natives and foreigners, that he 
could converse fluently and flawlessly, and could so 
preach, after an absence of thirty-six years. It was 
upon this visit to.Siam that he made a special study 
and translation of the Sukhothai Stone— the earliest 
known monument of the Siamese language. 

In company with Professor Bradley came Mr. Wil- 
liam McClusky, a business man, on a visit to his 
daughter, Mrs. M. B. Palmer. The significance of this 
visit lies in the fact that Mr. McClusky has remained 
among us, and has identified himself with the work of 
the mission, endearing himself to ail. 

In V.m :\Irs. Mcf'.ilvary returned to the United 
States for a much needed change. I remained on the 
field until 1906, when I was cabled for on account 
of the very serious state of her health. 1 found her 
very low, and my visit was devoted to the restoration 



of her health. In the antnmn she was suflScicntly re- 
covered to make onr retam possible, and the voyage 

was undertaken in compliance with her own ardent 
wish. She was greatly benefited by the sea-voyage, and 
since her return her health has been fully restored. 

On May Ifith, 1908, my daughter, Mrs. William Har- 
ris, gave a dinner in honour of my eightieth birthday, 
at which all our missionary and European friends in 
Chiengmai were guests. Dr. McKean expressed the 
congratulations of my friends in an address, from 
which I quote the following : " Eighty years of age, 
sir, but not eighty years old! We do not associate 
the term old age with you, for you seem to have drunk 
of the fount of perpetual youth." But the sentiment 
to which I most heartily subscribe is the following: 
"There is a common maxim among men to which 
we all readily assent; namely, that no man is able to 
do his best work in the world without having re- 
ceived from God that best of all temporal gifts, a help- 
meet for him. We most heartily congratulate you 
that, early in your life in Siam, Mrs. McGilvary was 
made a partner in this great life work. And no one 
knows so well as yourself how large a part she has 
had in making possible much of the strenuous work 
that you have done. To her, likewise, we offer on this 
happy occasion our hearty congratulations and our 
fervent wishes for an ever-brightening future ! " 

On December 6th, 1910, Mrs. McGilvary and I cele- 
brated our Golden Wedding. As this occurred during 
the Annual Meeting of the Mission, most of our mis- 
sionary friends, as well as our friends of the foreign 
colony, were present. Tt was a mnttor of great re- 
gret, however, that Dr. Wilson, who was present at 
tl» wedding fifty years before, was too feeble to come 


to Chiengmai on this occasion. The many beautiful 
gifts received were another tolsen of the loving regard 
of our friends and dear ones in this and in the home- 
land. Among the many letters an<l telegrams re- 
ceived was a cablegram from our children in Amer- 
ica. " It was lilie a hand clasp and a whisper of 
love flashed around the worid." Dr. Arthur J. Brown, 
spealiing for himself and the members of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, wrote: "We greatly rejoice in your 
long and conspicuously devoted and influential service 
for the Lao people. We share the veneration and lov^ 
with which we know you are regarded by the people 
among whom your lives have been spent, and by the 
missionaries with whom you have be«i so closely as- 
sociated. It woi'ld be a joy if we could join the rela- 
tives and friends A-ho will be with you on that happy 
day in December. We invoke God's richest bless- 
ings on you both. Mrs. Brown and aii my colleagues 
in the olBce unite with the members of the Board in 
loving congratulations." 

One of the most valued of these messages came from 
H. R. H. Prince Damrong, Minister of the Interior: 
" I just learn from the local papers of the celebration 
of your Golden Wedding. I wish you and Mrs. Mc- 
Gilvary to accept my sincere congratulations and best 
wishes that you both may be spared tc continue your 
great work for many more years. Damrong." 

Our good friend, H. E. Praya Surasih Visithsakdl, 
High Commissioner for the Northwestern Provinces, 
brought his congratulations in person, presenting Mrs. 
McGilvary with a very rare old Siamese bowl of inlaid 
work of silver and gold. 

From the native church in Chieng Rai a message in 
Lfto was received, of which the following is a transla- 



tion: " The Ohieng Rai Christians invoke Divine bless- 
ings on the Father-Teacher and Mother Teacher Mc- 
Gllrary, who are by us more beloved than gold." 

We were deeply touched oy a most unexpected 
demonstration of the Chitngmai Christians, who as- 
sembled at our home, and with many expressions of 
loving esteem and gratitude presented as with a sil- 
ver tray, designed by themselves, on which were repre- 
sentetl in relief the progress of the city in these tifty 
years: on one end the old bridge, on the other rhe 
new bridge just completed; on the two sides, the rest- 
house wo occupied ir .ur arrival in Chiengmai, and 
our present home. The inscription, in LSo, reads: 
"1867-1910. The Christian people of Chiengmai to 
Father-Teacher and Mother-Teacher McGilvary, in 
memory of your having brought the Good Ne^^'s of 
Christ, forty-three years ago." — It makes one feel very 
humble to qnote snch expressions from our colleagues 
and friends. But it would not be in human nature 
to fail to appreciate them. 

I would not close this life-story without express- 

ng, on behalf of my wife and myt elf, our heartfelt 
gratitude to our friends, native and foreign, for the 
great kindness shown us in our intercourse with them 
during these long years; and, above all, our devout 
gratitude to the Giver of all good, for sparing so long 
our lives, and them with such rich bless- 
ings. Of these the greatest has been in permitting us 
to lay the foundations, and to witness the steady 
growth of the Church of Christ in Northern Siam. 


Arthington, Robert, 373-37C, 

Bradley, Rev. Dan Beach, M.D., 
45, 52, 54-67, «7-70, 131-132, 
164, 199. 

Buddhist shrines, 172173, 188, 

CennnoBieB and Festivals: Dam 
Hfia, 84-86; cremation, 145- 
147; dedication of a shrine, 
188-189; rice-harvest, 274; 
fairs, 327, 356, 366; "kin 
waw," 323, 343; sacred days, 
318-319; wedding feast, 396; 
New Year, 396-397. 

Chulalongkom, King of Siam, 
211-213, 382. 426. 

Commission, Royal, 112, 121- 

Conunissioners, High : Praya 
T5p Worachun, 193-194, 205, 
206, 208, 210, 213-215, 
222, 300; Comraisaioner not 
named, 300-304; Chow Prayft 
Surasth, 419. 

Cushing, Rt v. .1. N.. D.D., 138- 
139, 244, 247. 2r.O. ;{73. 

Demonisin and witcluraft, 75- 
76, 91. 03-lt4, 17.J. 194, 203- 
.208, 214, 260-270, 278, 321, 
324, 331, 340. 

Diseases: cholpra, 51; fever, 
88, 100. 195, 205. 242; 
goitre. 88; smallpox (vacci- 
nation), .57, H9-91, 243. 250; 
scurvv, 19(1; nioitalitv of re- 
peopled districts. 202,'2S2. 

Education: f J iris' School. 177- 
178, 221-2_'3. 274. 284, 287, 
292, 418-419; Boys' School, 
284, 291, 300. 419, 424-426; 
Phraner Memorial, 377, 418; 

|)arooliin1, 418; government, 
419 420; educ:ilioiial policy 
as regards language, 222-225, 
Elephants: saddle, 62, 151-152, 
157, 246, 249-260, 311-312, 
317-318, 330-331. 35S, 369- 
360, 382 383; wild, 1.56, 253, 
311; baby elephants, 246-247, 

Evangeli.sts and ministers, na- 
tive, 267-263, 377-380, 414- 

Famine, 336, 346, 349-352. 
French Indo-China, 332, 364, 

358, 384, and chapters xxziii, 


Hallet, Holt S. (railroad sur- 
vey) 244-264. 

House, Rev. S. R., M.D., 37- 
38. *5, 63, 67, 92-93. 110-112. 

Intanon, Prince of Chiengmai, 
81, 90, 108-109, 132, 137, 142, 
145, 187, 193-194, 209, 245, 
262, 29.1. 300. 

Kamu trilie, 3B8, 393-394, 400. 
403, 405. 407, 411. 

Karpn:^. 89. 143 144. 

KawilOrot. Prince of Chieng- 
mai (1855-1870). 57. iu. 69- 
70, 85-8(i. 90, 95, 102-106, 
121-129, 133-138, 14(M47. 

Lao: the name, 13 14. 57-58; 
spellinj^ of Lao words. 1213; 
people. 58. 15(1; states. 130, 
191-192, 218-219, 262; lan- 
giiagp, 357. 35S, 420-422, see 
also Education; women. 144- 

Lao Mission: planted. 77; Rev. 
.1. \\'ils(m arrives, 92; 
church organized, 93; a gift 




of land, 05; llrnt nntivc mom 
bfTH rccfiv.Ml, !t(M()l ; ptTsc 
tiition, 10(1-1 17; miHH. Ill niip- 
post'dly atrUKloiu'ii, 12(5; iii- 
ttTvention, l:tOi:t'i; new 
r<iKime. i:»71U; pt'rmuiiont 
buililinKi, HO 142; tifMt 
phyaiciiin. U!>; <'<irU' S(li(x>l, 
177; U'liilii'H arrive, 221- 
222; riMiiliiriH'im'iil, 242; 
Pn'sbytery orgnniml, 257; 
printinK pr«'«s, :120; Cliris- 
tian Kmleavor, li-^l ; rtiiiii- 
inurieH, 217 2 IH, 225, 2S7- 
288, 209. :t04, 401 ; general re- 
view, 41M 423. 

Later Missioiiarien: Brijiup, 
Rev. W. A., M.D., 10, 310, 
330 337. 351-352, 401; Camp- 
bell, Rev. Howard, .370, 411. 
414; Mrtf. CamplK'!!, 418; 
Campbell, Miss Mary, 177, 
221 222, 234. 230-237, 240; 
Cary, A. M.. M.D., 283-284. 
290. 298; Clieek, M. A., M.D., 
100, 109, 178, 190, 196, 212, 
233, 236-237, 283, 292; Mra. 
Cheek, 169, 242, 293; Cole, 
Miss Edna E., 177, 221-222, 
233, 240, 284, 387; Collins, 
Rev. D. G., 283, 284, 296, 
301 ; Curtis, Rev. L. VV., 376; 
Mrs. Curtis, 9; Denman, C. 

H. , M.D., 876, 881, 382-386; 
Dodd, Rev. W. C, D.D., 283, 
284-286, 289, 291, 296, 301, 
368, 377-378, 382, 384, 401; 
Mrs. Dodd (Miss B. Eakin), 
292, 293, 303; Fleeson, MiH.t, 
292, 293, 299; Freeman, Rev. 
J. H., 9, 296; Griffin, Miss 

I. A., 240, 243. 284, 292, 200; 
Hearst, Rev. J. H.. 230, 243; 
Irwin, Rev. Robert. 319, 353, 
362, 367, 401; Martin, Rev. 
Chalmers. 230, 250, 252, 268, 
270, 271-273, 270. 283: 
McGilvary, Cornelia II. (Mr^. 
William Harris). 199. 306, 
308-316, 427; Mctiilvaiy. 

Hcv. Evander B„ 337, 371; 
Mt'<!i1vury, Marffaret A. 
(.Mrx. Roderick Gillie*). 197, 
:\X, ■ M< Keun, .1. VV., M.D., 
;U>0. 310. 320, 338. .141, 422- 
423, 427 ; I'eoplcs, Rev. H. C, 
M.I)., 230, 250. 237. 263-266, 
•JS!> 20I, .(00, 319. 387; Mrs. 
l'eople«, 240; Phraner. Rev. 
Slunl. y K.. 319. 320, 326-329, 
370 377, 418; Mrs. Phraner 
( Lizzie VVe»ter\'elt) , 238, 274, 
2H4; Taylor. Rev. Hugh, 299, 
308 300; Vrooman, C. W., 
M.D., 149 169. 166. 
Native Converts: Ai Tfl 
(Praya Pakdi). 277, 280, 
287; Cha Pfl Kaw and Cha 
Waw. Die under MflsA; Chao 
Borirak. 158, 103, 197; Lung 
In. 168, 170, 202; NSn Chai, 
100-101, 114 117; Nfln Chai- 
wana, 200-270; Nan Inta, 
96-99. 149, 101, 163, 207, 208, 
210, 233, 243, 257, 268; N»n 
Ta, 225-228, 234, 243, 248, 
258, 272, 276, 277, 283, 299, 
.301 ; Nan 81 Wichai. 199, 243; 
Nan Suwan, 197-198, 233, 
248, 257, 280. 287. 327, 830, 
333, 341, 369; Noi Intachak, 
230, 257, 260; Noi Siri, 301- 
304, 333; Noi Sunya, 99-100, 
114-117; Noi Taiiya, 278-279, 
290, 334; Pk Seng Bun, 206- 
206; PrayB Sfhanat, 199-201, 
232-233; Stn UtamS, 230, 
232; S*n Ya Wichai, 79, 100, 
105, 203, 281, 291. 
Maha Mongkut, King of 

Slam. 37, 47-48, 70. 
Maha V'ajiravudh, King of 

8iani, 425-420. 
Mattoon. Hev. S., D.D.. 39, 45, 

07, 105-100. 
MiDoniild, Rov. N. A.. D.D.. 53, 

(IS. I():!-104. 121ff. 
McF'arland, Rev. S. G., D.D., 
63, 70-71. 



McGilvary, Rev. Daniel, D.D., 
birth (1828), 20; parentage, 
10-20; childhood, 20-28; con- 
version, 27-28; lUngham 
School. 20-31; teaching, 31- 
32 ; Prenbytery of Orange, 32- 
34; Priiir('t<»n Si-niinttry 
( 1 833-1 85tl ) , .).■> .iH ; pastor- 
ate, 38-41; orilinution, 42; 
voyage, 43-4S ; Bangkok 
(1858-1861), 45-52; marriage 
(IHliO), 52; Pechaburl, 63ff; 
first ncqiiiiintAnce with the 
l.aii, :>'-'tH; iour of explora- 
tion to t'hienpiuii. 50-6fi; 
charter of the Li'io rniHsion, 
66-70; removal to C'hiengmai 
(1867), 71 70: pionwr ex- 

Kriences, 77-83; ceremony of 
un Htia, 84-86; non-pro- 
feaaional medicine and siir- 
gBry, 8S-91, !)5, 120, 147-148, 
158, 100. 106, ,S22, 362; 
vi». froiii Dr. Houhp, 92; 
Firsv Church organiml, 93; 
tirst-fniits, 95-101; thu 
gutlirri'ip storm, 102 105; it 
breaks (Sop. 18«»). 106; 
terrifying,' Rii.spensp, 107, 118- 
110; alarm in Hangkok, 111- 
113; the martyrw, 114 117; 
Siarae«e Royal Commission, 
121; a stormy audience and 
its results, 122-129; death of 
KfiwilOrot, 13.1-135; visit 
from Dr. and Mrs. Cushing, 
138-1,10; the new rulers, 137- 
144; building, 140-142; arri- 
val of a missionary physi- 
cian, 149; First Tour ('872, 
with Dr. Vroonian) — explora- 
tion north and east. 150- 
159; visit to Lakawn and 
Nan, 161-168; first furlough 
(1873-187.')). 150 168: Sec- 
ond Tour (187i), — explora- 
tion northwestward. 170-177; 
conversation witli the Prin- 
cess, 180-187; shrine on Doi 
Sutep, 188-189; flrmer 

mese policy — the Resident 
High Commissioner, 191-104; 
the deaf Prayft, 100 201; 
struggle with demonism: — 
P4 8*ng Bun, 203-206; Chris- 
tian marriage defeated, 207- 
209; appeal unto Ciesar, 210- 
212; Kdiet of Religious Tol- 
eration (187H), 213 220; 
teuchern for the (lirls' 
School, 221-222; the harvest 
of twelve years. 225 ; the nine 
years' wanderer, 225-228 ; 
voyage to Hongkong, 228-230; 
Rah^ng, 230-232; churches 
organized, 233; second fur- 
lough (1881 1882)— rein- 
fiireementa and losses, 236- 
243; a surveying expedition 
(1884), 244-254; equipment 
for touring, 240-251 ; semi- 
monthly mail to Maulmein, 
255-2.")»l ; death of Princess 
Tipa Kesawn, 2.')7 ; Presbytery 
of North Laos and the train- 
ing of native evangelists, 
257-262; station establi.shed 
at Lakawn, 263-265; struggle 
with demouism renewed — 
Bun lYn, 266-270; work 
among the villages, 270-274; 
Third Tour (1886, with Mr. 
Martin ) — Christian commun- 
ities in the north, 276-283; 
reinforcements, 283-284; 
river trip with Mr. Dodd, 
285-286 ; Fourth Tour 
(1887), 286-287; Fifth Tour 
(1888, with Dr. Peoples and 
Mr. Dodd): — chureh organ- 
ized in Chieng SCn, 289-291; 
serious illness, 291 ; mar- 
riage of his daughter — the 
Prince and the charades, 293; 
foothold secured in LarapQn, 
294-296; trip to Bangkok, 
297; week at Ban Pen, 297- 
298; a marvellous recovery, 
208 ; the " prisoner of Jesus 
Chriat," SOO-SOi} taz-rdbel- 



lion, mi.intl; Dr. MiKonn. 
and a oontinirnu* imdiiMl 
miasion at lii«t, ;ioti:t(»7; 
Sixth Tour ( isim, with Mi"* 
McOllv.irv ) : I.uknwn, I'rf. 
Nan, 3tw:tl(>; tho loxt (Ic 
phant, 311; ChifriK Kawii^' 
and tho " TenrhiT's Unitil," 
313-314; (MiiciifT Si'n arid 
CliipiiK RAi, 314 315; .>li' 
jiliHiit -niiwiiyH, 317-31H; 
Huildliist Hnrn'd dii.vi4 to 1>« 
olworvnl 1)V ('hri!<tianH, 31H- 
319; Sfvinlli i'our (1H!)I, 
with Mr. I'hranrr). 320 33(1: 
— flrstt nifftmj; uitli (he 
MOdOh. 32.2 327; MiVin;; I^'ti, 
327-320; Cliionn Srn. 32i»- 
330; a thrillin^; cxiMrii'ticcs 
3.'»0 331; Cliii'iiK KawiiK iilid 
.dP.MiiR Tr.iifj. 332-333; 
MusAm liapti/iil. 333-33(1; 
Ki^'hlh Ti>ui ( 1^^112. with Dr. 
Mc'l\oaii) — amonj; tho Muhi"* 
villag"s, 33H-34H ; tragic 

Rtruf;^''' "|>iiii"' 
famine 34!<-3r)2; Xinth To\ir 
(1803, with Mr. Irwin)— tho 
Sipsawnp I'ai^na. 3rj3-3tiS; 
MOanj: Yawnji, 3.">4-3.">,") ; an 
iiniliiiovi-rrd peril. 3.'")H; C'hi- 
Knii>.'; ferrv and furd of 
the K.'.nR, 3.')0-360; 

dysentery and horoio trent- 
mrnt, 3(12; Mftan^ Sing, 363- 
3(i«; MfH(^s pas* of the Me 
K6n»r. '(U-3f.>^; third fur- 
louKh ( 1H03-I -04). 370 .•i7(i; 
Mr. Arthing- >n "f Ix'ed-i, 3V3- 
376; I'l'^shyteiy nd a native 
niinislr\ 377 '"^O; Tentli 
'l our 'j.-^i ."• V ilh Dr. Urn- 
man ) — < 'lif :itr i\ai chosen for 
a stntion. l^2-3H4; evanp'l- 
ists 8ent toith. 3!M ; Mfisos, 
38,5; Elevr.itli Tour ( 1.«''7. 
with Dr. Peoples )~thp 
" rejiions beyond ": I.nang 
ri,i;...r,^. /.-.-■;'".; roiirSesy of 
French officials, 388-390, 395, 

liils, 400; Mflang Rai, 3M- 
.10 1; MrtnnB aT. .394-30."S; 
wi'ildinK ffiaiit, 305; Hiirpri«i> 
party, 306 .307; Mni.nj* Sinjf, 
,30M. 300; Twelfth Tour 
( IHIIH) - the c losed <loor, 402- 
412: ^^umnlolled to the 1'. S. 
Iiy illm ss of Mrs. Meliilvary 
( I'Mi.". I . 427 ; (Jolden 

Wedding. 427-4;JUj apprecia- 
tion l)v Dr. Arthur J. Brown, 
D.D., 1-7. 

Otiservation.s and eriticisms: 
Continuity in mission poliey, 
416 417; Cntiverti* with more 
than one wife, 231-232; Kx- 
rlusion of th, miHi«ion 
from the Lao sjieakinfj peo- 
ples of the north. 1^1. .3.32, 
36H-360, 404, 411-412; Girls* 
Sihtvds ns Chrit^tianizinK 
afjencies. 17«, 203, 2H0, 2H4, 
2H7, 418 410; Heresy trials, 
371-372; Lanmia^e prohlem, 
222 22.'}, 420-422; Native 
cvantridists and ministers, 
2.-)7 262, ,377-380, 414-416; 
rarliaiiient of religions, 370- 
371; OlH'dient to constitutud 
authority and law, 208, 301, 
.303. 400. 406; Outlying 
Christian eommunities — their 
claim on the missionary, 329- 
330 ; Rulers — importance of 
cultivating their acquaint- 
ance, 90, ' 144, 161, 170-171, 

Religious teachings and con- 
versations, 97-98, 161-162, 
174-176, 180-188, 199-200, 
34 ?-343, 365. 
Mcfiilvaiy, Mrs. Sophia Brad- 
lev, marriage, 52; wina first 
LAO convert, 79, 100; life in 
a hamhoo shack, 140; fur- 
lougV. after twenty-three 
years in Siain. 169-160; river 
j.iurney without iscort, 164; 
opens fiT^t iMo school, 177; 
cole assistant in tbe miBsion, 



198-107i trsatkitM fint (ion 

pel into T An, 288, .120; vjHitH 
to thi> I . S., ISH, 2'2!t, >:\H. 
42rt-427; (i.)l(lcn \V .liiiK. 
427- »2K. 

Modiciil xMiHniiin, Hiiinniiirv, 
4.'2 4L';». 

Mi rit making. fi4, m. i:t4, 147. 

I HO, 257. 
MiM^ioii, Aiiii-ricau Uuptist, of 

iiuniia. l.'IH, 143, 264, 368, 

:)h:i. 41H. 

MuH.t trilH , L-Tfl, 322-327. 334- 

336, 338-348. 
Neviut, Rav. Dr., 378-379. 
OpIuBi, 136, 333, 346-348, 357, 


Pmbytery: of Siam, 47, 59, 71 ; 
of North Lao!., '_'.i7-2«0, .^77- 

PrineMs: Tipa Kf^sawn. "(.-> 00, 
lOH-lOfl, 145, 17H, ISO 1S7, 
209, 222, 257; the younger, 

5.-.. «.1M, 108. 114, US, 119, 


I'rtiitiiij; |)r»'H-i, ami l.rto tna, 
224. .120, :i.t.s, :i5.i. ;}H4. 

I'ii>,t3 niu\ U'li'ifraplis, 91, 121, 

2.'>.'i 2.">tl. 210). .(20. 
Hapidt: Mt' iMiig, 71-75i M4 

Ki.MK. |.">ll.').'l 

Kt'H.'iit nf Si, nil. 1 12. 1.12. 

KiiIiImTH illlil 1)1 IJ^.Uhlllf,'!'. Ul, 

104. 2:1:1. ■.il'.K :i.VS; i.anilit 
chieftain, H4, !I0, 140, 147. 
Toluruliun, Edict of, chapter 


Waifari' piilation, 218, 

.15:1 ■'" , l57. ;i0.t. 

Uh 170. 

Wil.i r. ; <!.MT. 2.").1, .1.39; 
cat I ■>.:y.i. ;ii:i; tijjcr- 72, 
152, . :til. :i.stl ;)H7. 

Wilson. |{('V. .loiiatlian, D.I)., 

;io, .iH, 4;(, 51, 05, 07, 92, 

!)5, ll;t, 140, 14H, 100, 221, 
233, 203, 291, 381, 423, 428. 

numCD IK THE ONnXI. -^rAit^i 01 »i^^kJCA 



The Foreign Dodtor: "Tht Hakim s«hlb" 

A Biography of Joseph Plumb Cochran, M.D., of 
Persia. Illusirated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.50. 

Dr. Cochran came to a position of power in Western 
FWtis which made his life as interesting as a romance. Ht 
wu one of the central figfurrs in the Kurdish invasion 
Penia. and was the chief means of savins the city of Vrm 
tnia. In no other biography is there as fulian account of tB« 
actual medical work done by the medical missionary, and of 
the problem of the use of the political influence acquired by 
a man of Dr. Cochran's gifts and opportunities. 


William Scott Ament A^^Jf^ZMun^ 

inustratc<i, 8vo, cloth, net $1.50. 
A biography of one of the most honored mistionariei of 
the Congregational Church, whose long and effective service in 
China has inscribed his name high in the annala of tnoie 
whose lives have been given to the uplift of tbeur feUowmen. 


Frank Field Ellinwood 

His Life and Work. Illustrated, cloth, net fi.oo. 

A charming biography of one of th-^ greateat miaaionary 
leaders of the Nineteenth Century.— /eoi»#r* S. Spttr. 


The Story of Antonio the Galley Slave 

With Portrait, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 
"Reads like a romance, and the wonderful thing about 
it is that it is true. A fervid religious experience, a passion 
for service and good intellectual etjuipment were his splendid 
preparation for a great missionary work among his country- 
men in America." — Zion't HeriUd. 


riMtnrtrt^ Mnllpr The MoJern Apostle of Faith 
oeorge Jnuuer, Frederick G. Wabnk. 

JVtw EJitiof, inclttdine the t.aterStory ofthtBHsttl Orfkam 

Horn: illustrated, cloth, net 75c. 

"Wliat deep attractiveness is found in thia life of the 
great and simple-hearted apostle." — ChristUtn Advocatt. 


Dr. Apricot of "Heaven-Below" 

Illustrated, 8vo, cloth, net $1.00. 

' No one who has read thia book will ever afterwanb 
repeat the threadbare objection, "1 don't believe in mia- 
iiona."— -C<»il»«»«» 


ROBERT E. SPEER The Cole Lectures for 1911. 

Some Great Leaden in tiie World 

Movement i2mo, doth, net ^WS- 

Mr. Speer In his characteristic inspiring way hai pr* 
tented the Itey note of the Uvea of six of the World s great- 
est missionaries: Raymond Lull, the crusading spirit la mis- 
sions; William Carey, the problems of the pioneer; Altzander 
Uuff, Missions and Education; Geor{[e Bowen, the •"25 
ideal in missions; John Lawrence, politics and mtiainna; MM 
Charles G. Gordon, modern missionary knigbt-emacf. 

S. M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S., and Otheri 

Islam and Missions 

izmo, cloth, net ? .50. ^ ... <- j 

This volume presents the papers read at fte_ Second 
Conference on Missions to Moslcma, recently MM m LiOCk- 
now, India. The contributors are all experts 01 HUrfS «• 

perience in snth mission effort. 

V AN SOMXfER, ANNIE, and Othm 

Da> light in the Harem 

A New Era for Moslem Women, /n Press. 

Woman's work for Woman is nowhere more needed than 
on the part of Christian women for their sisters of Islam. 
It ia a most difficult field of service, but this volume by au- 
thors long and practically interested in this important Oiris- 
tkn mlnUtry, aemonstrates how effectually this work haa 
SJiiJd and ii beat c"™'' forward with promising results. 

pn?ERT A. HUME. D P. 

' An Interpretation of India's Religious 

i2mo, cloth, ret $1.25. 

The author of this careful, though popular, study, is 
eminently qualified to deal with the subject of his thought- 
ful volume. E^ipped for this purpose through long reii- 
denoe in Indis and intimate study of India's religious his- 
tory what he says will be accepted the estimate and in- 
terpretation of an tathority. 


The Education of Women in China 

Tlltistrated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 

The author of this scholarly study of the Chinese woman 
and education is the daughtrr ui Prof. Ernest E- Burton, of 

the University of Chicago The work is probably the 

most thoroogn study of an important phase of the economic 
development of the world's moat popuhnis conatry th«t bat 


Z. S. LOFTIS, M. D. 

A MesM^e from Qataog 

The Dinry of Z. S. Loftis. M.D. lUastnM, 
l2mo. cloth, net 75& 

Dr. Loftis went out to Tiltet as a medical miwioiian of 

the Disciples Church. His diary costaiiu tke events of the 
outgoing trip together with inc iJenta of the dailr Ufa of • 
missionary in this "closed" land. 


The Fruits of the Tree 

liSoMV bouds, net 35c. 

Thia {■ the address which Mr. Bryan delivered at the 
World's Missionary Conference at Edinburgh and contains 
his views on missions — views which are the result of hia 
personal and painstaking investigation on foreign fields. 


Pandita Ramabai 

The Story of Her Life. Second Edition. Illus- 
trated, izmo, cloth, $1.25. 

"The story of a wonderful life, still in tke mideareer of 
high usefulness. 'Pandita' skodd b* kaowa «o all Ancrkaa 
women." — Tht Outlook. 


The HappieA Girl in Korea 

And Other Sketches from the Land of Momkig 
Calm. Ilhistrated, t2mo, cloth, net 6oc 

These sketch stories of actual life in Korea by a mii- 
afamary of experience and insight portray conditions of real 
life; they combine humor, patbus and vivid description, 


Secretary to the Aftfuon Co Lepers in India and the East. 

Mary Reed, Missionary to the Lepers 

New BdiHon. lUtittnted, unto, c!oth.Qet soc; 
paper, net 2Sc. 

G. r. B. DAVIS 

Korea for Chri^ 

Illustrated, paper, nrt 25c. 
An effective report of the recent revivals in Korea toM 
ky an eye witncaa, wko kiawelf partidpatad is the work. 



A History of Protestant MSssions in the 
Near East svo, cisth, net 

A companion volume to "A History of Mis'i-^ni In Ib- 
dia," \>j this ^reat authority. The progress of M.-t gospel w 
traced in Asia Minor, Persia, Arabia, Syria, nnd Egypt. 
Non sec' r'.an in spirit, thoroughly comprcbcniivc in s c opt . 


The Modem AGssionary Challenge 

i'al* Ltcturti, igto. lamo, cloth, net $IJ0|. 
These lectures, by the author of "Indla'i Problem, 
Krisha or Christ?" are a re-survey of the demand of missions 

in the light of propress made, in their relation to human 
thought. The new difficulties, the new incentives, are con- 
sidered by one whose experience in the field and as a writer, 
<r* '!e him to cnnsideration. 


Sketches from the Karen Hills 

Illustrated, izmo. Cloth, net $i.oo. 

lliase descriptive chapters from a missionary's life in 

Burma are of exceptional vividness and rich in an appre- 
ciation for color. His pen pictures give not only a splendid 
insight into n.itive life, missionary work, but have a distinc- 
tive literary charm which charMtertiM hit "So« Ih^" 


The Unique Message and Universal 
Mission of Christianity 

limo, cloth, net $i.JS. 

A volume dealing with the philosophy of mission! at 
once penetrating and unusual. It is perhaps one of the most 
original and valuable contributions to the mbjcct yet made. 


Winners of the World During Twenty 

Centuries Adapted for Boys and Girls. 

A Story and a Study of Missionary Effort from the Time of 
Paul to the Present Day. Cloth, net 6oc; paper, net JOO. 

Children's Missionary Series 

Kusirated in Colors, Cloth, Decoraud, each, net 6oc, 

Children of Africa. James B, Baird. 

Children of Arabia. John C. Veung. 

Children of China. C. Campbsll Brown, 

Children of Indim. Janet Harrey Relman. ^ 


The World Missionary Conference 

Report of the Ecnmenical Conference held in Edinhureh 
in 1910, la Bine volumes, eacli, net 7Sc.; the complete let 
oi nine ▼oiume*, net Is oo- 
A whole miitioilary library by experts and wrought up to 
the via? Uid hour. The Conference has been called a modern 
qonncil of Nkea and the report the greatest nuHionary pub- 
lication ever made. 

Vol. I. Carryins the Gospel. Vol.6. The Home Base. 
Vol. 2. The Church in the Vol. 7. Missions and Ga»eri» 

Missiun Field. nienl'*. 
Vol. 3. Christian Education. Vol. 8. Oi-operntion and 
Vol. 4. The Missionary Mes- Unity. 

sage. Vol. 9. ilistory, Records and 

Vol. Preparation of Mia- Addresses. 


Echoes from Edinbui^h, 1910 

By W. H. T. GAiRDinit, author of"D. M. Thornton." 
\ima, cloth, net soc. 

The popular story of the Conference — its preparation— its 
nian.igement — its cfltct ami furrcabl of its inlliK-ncf ou the 
church at home and the work abroad. An official publication 
in no way conflicting with the larger work— which it rather 


Fifty-three Years in Syria 

Introduction by James S. Dennis. Two volumes, illustrated, 
8to, cloth, boxed, net $5.00. 

"A rich mine of information for the liistori.m, the c'h- 
noloiflst and the student of human nature apart from the 
labors to which the author devoted his life. A thorouEhly in- 
teresting book that will yield endless pickings."— A^. Y, Sun, 


Christianity and the Nati<MU 

The Dud Lectures for 1910. 
8vo, cloth, net $2.00. 

Amorg the many notable volumes that have resulted 
from the well knov. n DufI foundation Lectureship this new 
work embodying the series given by Mr. Robert E. Speer 
in Edinburgh, Clasgow and Aberdeen, will rank among the 
most important. The peneral theme, "The Reflex Influence 
of Missions rp.^n tiio Nations," auggetts a large, imponanlt 
and most interesting work. 

6. T. R. DAVIS 
15c net 

An effective report of the recent revivals in Korea told 
OB eye witness, who himself participated in the work. 



Character Building in China 

The Life Story of Julia Brown Mateer. With In- 
troduction by Robert li. Speer. Illustrated, net $1.00. 

Robert Fv. Spctr anys: "Mr^. Matrrr heUmnfd to the old 
beroic bchciul which did hard lliins;s withmit inakiiiR any fuss, 
which achieved the impossihle Ixcausr it wa» mic's liuly to 
achieve it. May thia itory <>( her strong, vigorous life be the 
■ummona to many young women in our coUegCB and Cborcb 
Xo-izy.— From Ihr IntroductioH, 


n/tf Yuri Mliilnuirf it tin Amtrltm B—ri In Turiit 

Christian and Mohammedan 

A Plea for Bridging the Chasm. Illustrated, i2mo, 
cloth, net $1.25. 

"Dr. Herrick has glTea hit life to miitlonary work 

amnng the \fohanimedans. Thia book is the mature expres- 
sion of his profound belief that the followers of the Arabian 
I'rophet are to be won to Christianity by patiently showing 
JiMis riin-t, witli kindly appreciation of the pooil whiii' fully 
paiijriliK the deadly evd of their rrlininus system. Opinions leitdmg nnssiijnarirs to Mohaniniedaiis. in all parts of 
the world have been brought togtthcr in the book. — Henry 
Otis Dwight, LL.D. 


A Glimpse of the Heart of China 

Illustrated, i6mo, cloth, net 60c. 

"A simple, clear story from a physician's point of view 
f>f the sieki!' '^s. the unnecessary sufTering, the ignorant and 
siiperstiliou- practice of the native physician, constrasted 
with the Comfort and healinp that follow in the w.ake of 
the skillful treatment of a Christian Chinese 'woman doc- 
tor,' lias in it many elements of interest. The reader of 
these pages feels that he has truly had a 'glimpse of the 
heart of China.' " — Mitsionary Veict, 


The Stolen Bridegroom east inp?"iuvlls 

W ith Introduction by George Smith, CLE., Au- 
or of ' Thf Conversion of India." Illustrated, 

i^nio, cloth, net 75c. 

"The author reveals, as only an expert could, the life of 
tlie Marathi women of Western India. With delicate touch, 
l)ut realistic effect, she .Iraus back the curtain that conceals 

the Zenana The Missionary with the native Hible- 

woman is seen on her daily round of love and mercy, in 
the home, the hospital and the school, winning the weary HM 
de^Muring women and widows."— C«0rg« SwntK