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Full text of "Pulp and news-paper manufacture [microform]"

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1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




moosFoiu'ntD im 
ABVANCK m oo r (Subject to RevUon) 



N.B.— This Society, aa a body, does not hold itself reqwiisible for the 
■tatoDentB and opiaiont advaaoed ia aay of^ht puUicatioas. 

PULP AND NEWS-PAPER MANUFACTURE 
By J. STADLBa 
To be read before a Monthly Meetii«, March 8th, 1914 

The subject of this paper is the power consumption in the manufacture 
of news-paper, and in the production of the fibre for the making of the 
paper, that is, the ground-wood and sulphite process. 

The fibre used in the making of newt-paper is produced entirely 
from wood. The wood used is principally spruce, hemlock and balsam. 
The other coniferous woods are used in smaller quantities. 

News-paper is usually manufactured from 75% mechanical pulp 
(ground-wood) and 25% chemical pulp (sulphite pulp). Under ordinary 
conditions one cord of wood is required to make one ton of ground-wood, 
and two cords of wood are required to make one ton of Mdphtte pulp; 
hence for the production of news-peper one and a quarter cords of wood 
are u:!ed for every ton of news-paper made. 

That Canada may be clasnfied as a papermakii^ country can be seen 
from the following figures: — 





Daily 
Pro- 
ductkm 


Production 

in tons 
per annum 


Value of 
Product 
(Dollars) 


Daily H.P. 

required 
per 24 hrs. 


Mechanical Pulp 


3,180 tons 


800,000 


12,400,000 


210,000 


Chemical Pulp 


905 tons 


272.000 


10,336,000 


7,600 




1,580 tons 


480.000 


18,240,000 


20,000 



In addition to the above, Canada is producing large quantities of 
chemical pulp made by the sr'>hate and the soda p roccs a es , from whkh 



a 



pftper is made under the classes of Kraft, packing, book and writing ptpen; 
thete papers, however, will not be considered here. 

Prom the above it will be seen that in the newi^-paper industry there is a 
daily output of 237,500 H.P., of which the principal amount is used in 
the production of mechanical pulp. 

A number of ground-wood mills do not operate the entire year round 

to full capacity for lack of motive power. 

The power requirements per ton of finished product may be taken as 
fdlow8^— 

Mechanical Pulp 1,200 to 1,030 H.P. hours-fiO to 80 H.P. per 24 
hours. 

Sulphite Pulp 144 to z40 H.P. hours-6 to 10 H.P. per 24 hours. 

News-paper 2S2 to 384 H.P. hours- 10.5 to 16 H.P. per 24 hours. 

The costs of plants are shown in diagram No. 1 and the figures are 
based on modern installations built to manufacture at lowest cost. 



MANurACTune or NewsMPc* 
Oiigram N« t 
FiRtT Cost or Mills. 




The writer is of the opinion that the heretofore prevailing custom of 
building plants for the paper industry with a view to low first cost will be 

discontinued as such plants do not manufacture economically. 

In the prtno- industry, like any other industry where motive power is 
used, consUm; peed is of importance, yet when-, a number of plants have 
been visited it is found that little has been done to provide this very 
important condition in the operation of the machinery employed. In- 
vestigations made have demonstrated that speed variations influence the 
quality and quantity produced to a very great extent and because of its 
easy application and consunt speed, electric power is beco min g mme us>. d 
in the news-paper and othet industries. 



s 



Manufacturers of paper mill machinery ihould give more attention to 
the conatruction of machinery for direct connected electric drive, aa 
generally the power required by the different machines is of such magnitude 
that machines may be operated in such » manner very efficiently. 

TBI MCCBANICAL PULP OE GlOtntD-WOOD PLANT 

It is only within the past few years tha: ground-wood pulp mills 
have been located remote from water power, and have used electrical 
energy {or their opention. 

In view of the large amount of power required, the location of such 
mills must be at places where low-priced power is available. 

The ground-wood process may be briefly followed by referring to 
Diagram No. 2, in connection with the following table: — 



Apparatus 



Approx. H.P. 
hours required 

per ton 
Air Dry Pulp 



Approx. 
ratio of 
product 
to water 



Performance of 
Apparatus 



A. Conveyors. . . . 

B. Grinder 

C. Coarse Screen 

D. Fine Screen... 

E. Refiner 

F. Wet Machine. 

G. Pump 

H. Pump 

I. Cooler 

Total 



2 to 6 
102S to 1896 

3 to 6 
36 to60 
50 to 100 
30 to 50 
24 to 60 
20 to40 



1:350 

1:350 

1:20 

1:3 

1:350 



Delivering wood to plant. 
Grinding solid wood to 

fibre. 

Separating coarse slivers 

from fibre. 
Separating fine fibre from 

coarse fibre. 
Reducing coarse fibre to 

fine fibre. 
Separating water from fine 

fibre. 

Lifting pulp and water to 

required he^ht. 
Lifting clear water to spray 

pipes. 

To absorb heat produced 
at"D." 



1200 to 1920orfrom50to 80 H.P. per ton on 24 hr. 
powv. 



N.B. — Cooler is only given to show ideal installation in actual practice. 
Sufficient fresh water is supplied to keep temperature within 
desirable limits; the surplus water thus introduced in the process 
is generally permitted to run to waste, iriiich quite often causes aa 
appreciable loss of fine fibre. 



4 



MMUPACTURC or NEWSfWfX 
aAMAM NO. 2 
OMUIU'MX) PwctM 




The writer is of the opinion th' ■ th> future ground-wood mills 
willbe especially constructed withs '< power from large hydro- 

electric plant! at Mich houra of the c' .dd is low, in order to raiae 

the load factor of the power plant. 

The progress made in the past fe." years with automatic pulp grinders 
facilitates such an installation. In order, however, to keep the invest- 
ment as low as practicable, the writer would propose to operate the 
auxiliary machinery of such a plant for twenty-four hours, and the grinders 
which absorb the bulk of the power for about 12 hours per day. A 
plant running only part of the year would not give steady employment 
to the help needed, and would, therefore, lead to inefficiency in operation. 
Such a ground-wood mill could, however, be operated as an individual 
plant, but in connection with a paper mill a steady power for prac- 
tically the whole year round would be essential. With this in view, 
the following has been prepared: — 

Reference to Diagram No. 2, of ground-wood process, shows that 
operation "A" requires 2 to 6 H.P. hours. 

Operation "B" requires 1,036 to 1,596 H.P. hours. 

Operation "C" to "H" inclusive requires 162.5 to 316 H.P. hours. 

Estimating on the construction of a plant making 30,000 tons per 
year, based on 300 operating days, or 100 tons per day, Item "A" 
wmild be operated in daytime oidy; Item "B" at night only; Items 
"C" to "H" during 24 hours. 

The electric power is assumed at f 16.00 per H.P. p jr annum, from 
7 A.M. to 7 P.M.; at $8.00 per H.P., from 7 P.M. to 7 A.M., which figum 
at 0.22 cents and 0. II cents per horse-power hour reqiectively. 



s 



Aa an alternative, uke a plant operating 24 hours, except Item "A". 
wUch is operatwi duriaf the day only, at a ftxed power com of |1«.00 or 
22 crate per h om - p ow r hoort— 



t% InterMt on capital in- 
vwtad 

10% deinccUtlon on auxll- 

ary equipment 

t% depredation on maia 
. •qiUpMBtaadbttildiaai 



Day power at 22 centt per 
hour. 

Nicht power at 22 cent* 
per hour 

Hitht power at II cent* 
per hour 



Total cost per ton 



No. l-MI PMMT. M hn. 



per annum per 

ton 

127,000 to. 90 
10,000 . 33 
11.000 . 70 



100H.P. houn 22 



1.300 H.P. hourt. . . 1.43 
13.08 



No. I— 1 1 ho ur p oww 





per annum 


1300.000 


tl3.000 


100.000 


10,000 


200,000 


12,000 



701* H.P. hours. l.M 

6I7.*HJ>. hours l.M 



1450,000 

100,000 

uo,ooe 



P.S.— !n the foregoing table it is assumed that 6 H.P. hours are 
required for "A"; 1,205 H.P. hours are required for "B"; 190 H.P. 
hours are required for "C" to "H." 

The power requirements are taken low for a plant of that size, but 
any increase in power consumption would be more in favor of the low priced 
power. 

It will be noticed that the plant No. 1 operates with about 830 H.P. 
load for 12 hours, and 10,800 H.P. for the other 12 hours, whereas 
No. 2 operates on a practically steady load of 5,880 H.P. 

The resulting economy of plant No. 1 over No. 2 is 73 cents per ton 
on the power figures assumed. Pro rata computations can be made for 
any other power cost. 

As already stated, the writer does not advise operating individual 
ground-wooH 'ants for part of the year only. Such plants would become 
quite expiii.ive, and the fixed cha.'ges per ton of product would be quite 
high; furthermore, ground-wood depreciates in value with age, and such a 
plant would have to store large quantities of ground-wood to supply the 
r.iarket as required. 

Of the power employed in the news-paper industry 84.4 per cent, 
is used in ground-wood mills, 8.4 per cent, in paper mills, and 3.2 per cent, 
in sulphite mills. In the ground-wood mills 86 per cent, of the total power 
consumed is applied to grinding the wood, so that out of the toUl amount 
of power used in Canada in the manufacture of news-paper and its allied 
industries, 76 per cent, is used on the grinders. 



e 



By referring to photographi 1 and 2,an idea may be formed of tbtgCMral 
arrangement of the pulp grindcra of the ordinary lypc. 

Photograph* No». 3 and 4 ohow an in»tail,ition of two automatie 
gnndcr». The ordinary grinder* are generaUy arranged in such a way 
that one roan can feed the wood into two machine* which produce from 
■ix to nine tona each in 24 hour*. 

Pulp malwr* have ueualiy believed that the spe. ,1 at which the grinder 
operated wa* of no great consequence and that the determining factor 
wa* the preMure with which the wood was forced againft the grindetone. 

The writer has made numerous experiments, which have shown that 
with a grindatone running at a *urface *peed of from 3,200 to 3,500 feet 
per minute, the pre**ure may be varied within a large range without 
having any appreciable affect on the amount of fibre produced as lonp 
aa the apced i* kept rea»orably constant. This al^, is confirmed by other 
experimenter*. 

A number of old plant* are without speetl control, and, a* a reeult of 
the fact that the operator who attends to the grinder will not feed regularly, 
the product necesearily varie* con*iderably. To illustrate this point,' 
reference will be made to the performance of an ordinary grinder which 
wa* operated by a hydraulic turbine and to the gate mechanism of which 
wa* attached a Bristol Mechanical Recorder. The speed of this turbine 
was kept constant by a governing device and the movement shown by the 
recorder represents the gate opening of the turbine which is neariy pro- 
portional to the power. The record is for a 24 hour* run, and the shift* of 
operators were made at 7.00 a.m., 3.00 p.m., and U.OO p.m., respectively. 
It will be noted that the least efficiency was obtained between 11.00 p.m. 
and 7.00 a.m., a fact which might be attributed to the work being done at 
mght, but which was in reality due to the inexperience of the operator, 
who was a new man. 

This chart is specially shown with a view to calling attention to the 
manual expertness of operators, and to point out how necessary it is that 
plants, even of this nature, be kept in operation the whole year in order 
that the operator* may obtain a higher degree of efficiency. 

The writer has given preference to automatic grinders, especially 
when they are electrically driven and in use for part of the day only. 

Automatic grinders can be adjusted in such manner that practically 
no manual attention is necessary, and, for this reason, the efficiency of 
such a machine should be considerably in exces* of what can be obtained 
with the ordinary type of grinder. 

By referring to photograph No. 3, which shows the charging end of 
an automatic grinder, it will be noted that the receptacle over the grinder 
contains a large quantity of wood and installations have been made where 
the wood supply in these automatic grinders lasts from 12 to 16 hours. 
Such machines are specially adapted for use when surplus electrical power 
is available at any time of the day. Actual operating result have shown 
that the amount of pulp produced per H.P. hour is from 10 u 20 per cent. 



7 



In I'xcew of what has been powiblc with the ordinary type of grindert; 
and the automatic machinea have the further advantsgt that om lUllcd 
operator can suiK-rviie a mmilMt ol them, the duty of the operator being 
only to tee that the nMchaniMB to kept in good worlclng order. 

In order to avoid misunderaUnding, it should perhaps be stated 
that tuch devices for constant |)ower consumption can be and arc used 
on the ordinary ({rinder, and to repeat that so long a* the placing of the 
wood to be Rfuund depcadt upon the tUn of the operator, the bm nwha 
cannot be obtained. 

Chbhkal Ptn.p Mill 

There have been a number of mills locatetl at places where no hydraulic 
power is available. Transportation facilities for the supply of materials 
used in the manufacture, and the marketing of the finished product, are 
also large factors in the location of a plant of thto kind. The plant requires 
ia addition to the two corda of wood per ton of pulp made, sulphur, coal 
and lime, amounting in wdgbt to over one-hiM a ton for each ton of duId 
made. ' 

The power requirements of the sulphite pulp process may be obtained 
by referring to Diagram No. 3, and to the following table:— 



Apparatus 



A. Wood Conveyor. . 

B. Chipper 

C. Screen 

D. Chip Conveyor. . . 

E. Chio Bin 

F. Digester 

G. Wash Tank 

H. Stock Tank 

I. Circulating Pump 
J. Coai'se Screen. . . . 

K. Fine Screen 

L. Wet Machine. . . . 
M. Knot Reducer. . . 



N. Acid Making. 



Approx. 
H.P. hours 
required 
per con 



4 to 8 
16 to 24 

1 to 2 
3 to 6 



2 to 5 
30 to 60 
1 to 3 
14 to 25 
25 to 35 
(not 
conddered) 

48 to 72 



IVrf'ir uiance ^ 
at>panitu» 



Delivering wood ! l.n.' 
Reducing blocks I o SI -lips. 
Sorting wood rhi|. 
Delivering chips to bi 
Storing wood chips. 
Reducing wood to pulp. 
Washing pulp. 
Storage of washed pulp. 
Lifting diluted pulp. 
Separating knots from ibt«. 
Separating fine from coarae ^ 
Separating water from pulp. 

Reducing knots etc. to low 
pulp. 

Making and delivering acid 
digester. 



144 to 240 ! 



6.0 to 10 H.P. per 24 hours. 



a 




-very irregular it i, assumed in general Jr^Te\lt\ 
sufficient to deliver hourly 1 000 Ih. 7 «P«:Jty 
24 hour, is neoessarv. ^ t ^^^^^^ ^ 

Of coal the motive power required can b. P^ucX .^.^'L^l^'^'^^ 
in the capacity of the steam plant. P^"«=«» *^ • «m allowance 

Large (|uantities of water are nviiiit*^ j- ti. 
and the water should be comZ^l I manufacturing process. 

Pafbs Max 



I 



Din ng the three p . vl«.:-ground-wood, Milphite puband Mi»r 
m<ll, while «.ch . plan r««.lt. In . ««n.wh.t lo;« Lt c^SS 
.t. main ecooomy b i. th« ««dp«htlo« of th, nwm^t^ 

~« low efficfcucy of the labor may very much iaaum the com oTSwAi©. 
No. I!:nSZL^t^:l' ~y b. followed by referHn, to Dl..,.. 



ApiMnttus 



A. Beater or refiner. . 
B Stuff ch,_- 



I 



C. Stuff pump 

0. Stuff screens 

E. Circulating pump. 

F. Vacuum pump. . . , 

G. Fourdrinier part. . . 

H. Wet presses 

1. Dryers 



Approx. 
H.P. hours 
per ton 
finished 
paper 



70 to 120 
3 to 6 

2..') to 5 
8 to 15 
10 to 22 

10.fi to 21.0 



Approx. 
ratio of 
product 
to water 
when leaving 
apparatui 



Performance of 
apparatus 



J. Calenders 

K. Reels 

L. Rewinder 



1 tO to 180 



8 to 16 



1:250 
1:200 



1:7 



1:2.3 



Dry 



1:25 to 1:14 Preparing paper fibre. 

Reservoir for paper 
fibre. 

Pump to elevate same. 
To remove impurities. 
Circulate water useu in 

formation. 
To remove water from 

paper web. 
Formation of paper 
web. 

Mechanical removal <4 

water. 
Thermic removal of 

water. 
Polishing paper web. 
Reeling paper web. 
Cutting paper web. 



282 to 384 H.P. hours-lO.fi to 16 h.p. for 24 
hours. 



10 



>Unumcture op newswcr 

OMflRAM W14 

niMR MMUM MUGtM 




Power for items G to K is preferably supplied by the rteam engine, 
using the exhaust steam in the dryers. 

n y^^^'^'y^"' "I", "quire approximately 3 lbs. saturated steam 
at to 10 pounds pressure per pound of paper made on the machine. 

• ^T"^ '^"'"'"^ "^^'"^ * of installations 

IS made to drive all .terns above Usted, except (A) the beater or refiner. 

«?'JS1!.1.*'' T''^ ^ geoeraUy produced, causing 

condderable waste of iMat. w»uwng 

It is preferable to instal individual electric or group drives for all 
.terns except "G" to "K" inclusive. When the cost of motive Jow^r i 
low. there .s some economy in driving all parts by electric motoiV but it 
IS very essential for the machine part proper (items " G " to " K " inclusive) 
to be connected to a circuit causing no variation of speed on the motors 

On machines operating at over 600 feef reaper speed per minute a 
sudden vanation of one per cent. (1%) mr.y cause tVe pa^r to b^k 

From the above it is apparent that a minimum 112 H.P. hours are 
required for the preparation of fibre and the driving of r iliary apparatus 
in connection with the paper machine. Power requirements aref^here! 
fore, not so important a factor in the location of the paper mill but that 
preference may be given to close proximity to the market for the finished 

of thlu^"* °l P*P*^•°"• ^ proportioned to take care 
of the la.«e amount of heat required for ventilating the building. For 
every pound of paper made, about 2.3 pounds of water are removal from 

carried off by the ventilating system. 



11 



Considering the temperatnres encountered in Canada, the amount of 
heat required for ventilatiilg a paper machine building may at times be 
as much as eighty per cent, of the heat needed for drying the paper on the 
roacMne; the factors determining this are the temperature and relative 
humidity of the atmosphere. 

Temperature has an appreciable effect on the manufacture of paper; 
large quantities of water are required in the process, and some of the water 
has to be raised to suitable temperatures in cold weather. 

The water supply has also to be carefully considered in the location 
of paper mills, since there are employed various chemicals in the making 
of the paper, and unless the chemical characteristics of the water are given 
due consideration, there may result a large waste from that source. 




Fig. No. 4 



••'"d^of the 
'"•'•••'y tho^ 
y^ite City, 
•^•flerence in 
" "'e Buck. 
"oil cut the 
* pro- 

' 0004- 

""'e Of the 
'1 tlie 
>ci«t«j in 

"*d both 
'es that 

""es to 

'i«ve 
stone 
ffiag " 
and 
the 
his 

T- 
3. 



URAPHITB 



17 



amount of ?ontained pyrite. The crystnlli.ie limestone occurs a.s 
interatratified bed« in the gneiss, and forms ths highest portion of the 
Grf nville MriM proper. 

The graphite here occurs in wveral ways : 

1. As disseminated Hake in the limestono and gneiss and sometimes 
in the <|aartzite, pyroxene and even in masses of iron ore as at the 
Hull iron mines ; 

2. As lenticular or disconnected massra embedded in the limestone, 
or near the contact of this rock with eruptive maMCS, or nartly in the 
limestone and associated gneiss. Sometimes the mineral is in the 
form of flake but is often associated with oonsider»ble deposits of the 
amorphous variety : 

3. lu the form of true fissure veins which traverse the gneiss and 
sometimes the intrusive granite oi- other eruptive rocks. The mineral 
in these cases is of the columnar or foliated variety. 

The beneficial effect upon the presence of graphite exerted by the IVneiicial 
agency of intrusive rocks was evident during the examination of many fnt^glve 
of these deposits by the writer in 1893, when it was seen that in all 
the mining areas this feature was ' jnspicuous. In all cases where 
there were large bodies of disseminated ore in the gneiss or limestone 
such were usually closely associated with masses of granite or diorite. 
From notes furnished me by Mr. H. P. Brumell who was engaged in 
the graphite industry of the Buckingham district for some years it is 
evident the same conditions are seen on the property of the North 
American Graphite Co. He says of the rocks on lot 28, range VI, 
Bnckingham, that ' a series of parallel bands of graphitic gneiss are cut 
without any throw by a diorite dyke about 50 feet wide which cuts the 
strata at right angles. To the north of this main dyke is a reticulating 
system of small diorite eruptions in the neighbourhood of which the 
beds of ore are materially enriched. Again about 40 chains to the north 
of the' above and iu the pits near the mill of the i ompauy there occurs 
an apparent oversow of diorite beneath which cip the richebt ore was 
found. And it may be stated in a general way that where the graphite 
gneissee are cut by dykes the percentage of graphite is much higher 
than elsewhere." 

In regard to the economic production of graphite, while as 'ilready Economic 
mentioned many of the fissure dejxjsits are of great purity, the uncer- 1"^"***** 
tainty of Uieae occurrences is against their profitable exploitation ' n 
the large scale. Certair. of the veins oometimes reach a thickness m 
places or between one and two feet, but these large veins are usually 

ORAP — 2 



<ir« f ^^'^"'^t.unt of tu vein 

^ ''P.cJ '"^'•^ i'^ri ^T••^«o„,e^;^7'^'-e««^• 
*''<*'sseinin..^ ^''P^' cent I„ , . ^' 'ante Vr ^'^^S. •X)ck 



oiuram 



19 



de){ree of purity (|uite e<|ual to that found in the best Ceylon or 
Tioonderoga ore. Concerning the value of the prepared graphite, 
Dr. Hoffmann itates that " in respect to incombustibility the Canadian 
graphite maydaim perfect equality with that of the Ceylon ; and that, 
apart from any consideration of proportion and nature of the 
auoeiated foreign matter, it is in no wise inferior to the latter as a 
material for the nianuftcture of crucibles." Regarding the diaHenii- 
nated variety he also says in discuMiug this subject, that " prepared 
according to the present procees the dreved graphite obtained from 
beds of disseminated mineral, is apt to contain more or less carbonate 
of soda and oxide of iron." He however points out that the-sn can be 
easily removed by a simple process and the graphite be left " with a 
very small amount of ash, and that of a nature in no wise prejudicial 
to its application for the purposes under consideration." Hep, 1676-77. 

Discussing the nature of these deposits, Mr. J. Fraser Torrane<>, who Market 
spent some months in the graphite district in the study of apatite and "J^".'',!,',,',''' 
other minerals, remarks that the Lad reputation of the Canadian gra- q<)«l>ty 
phite on the marlcet abroad is due to the uncertain qnality of the '"^ ' 
article shipped, (Rep. 1882-83, p. 31 J.,) and to the fact that it con- 
tained certain impurities pointed out by Dr. Hoffmann as easily remo- 
vable, but which had not apparently been done by the company that 
worked the mine ; in other words that while certain portions of the 
mill product werj of excellent quality, this excellence was not main- 
tained throughout, su that the purchaser was uncertain as to the exact 
nature of the material purchased, and in oonaequence the market 
demand speedily ceaaed. In point of fact this statement appears to be 
clearly borne out in the history of all these mining operations which 
have been carried on at intervals for many years, since while all autho- 
rities are agreed as to the excellent quality of the ore, and to its abun- 
dance at miny places, the loss of a permanent market has always been 
attributed to a lack of care in its preparation and proper purification. 

The early history of graphite mining in the Buckingham district Karly hitiu>ry 
dates back for about 40 years. The first mill of any importance appears mimni^'*^ 
to have been erected by the Loohaber Plumbago Co. on the Blanche 
river, lot 28, range X, Loohaber. The mill was run by water power, 
and was supplied with a battery of eight stamps and two circular 
buddies. The ore was stamped in water, and then passed over the 
buddies and ufterwards through the stones and screens, but this part 
of the process was kept secret. The ore was obtained from several, 
points in the vicinity and principally from lot 24, range VIII, and 
lots 23-34, range XI. The ore beds were apparently in crystalline 
OBAP— 2} 



90 

M about >n '''^ on«„!!: '•ported », 
t«-en sent to Home»J F^'^'' '^'"g 




ORAPHITK 



31 



Olivers Ft>rry, Oat, Mid the praom tber* !• ntrnttd to gW« MklMnetorjr 

re»ulU, 

In thfl wet prooeM the nw material after paMing thmudh the oru«- ih-uiln . : w- 
hers goeiH to the itAinp battery where it is crushml in wiiinr. Thintce 
it paiaes to the buddlee, then to the millstoneii, and is Hnaily M|)arate<i 
in a aeriee of aeneaa by whieb tba separated flake is graded for the 

market. In the tnili of the North American (iraphite t'o,, lot 'iH, 
range VI, an improvement was introduced in the huddling pr(M'<"<t li) 
which it it claimed greater affloienoy ia attained by the use of the 
Bruinell Meparator, whuroby a very clotte Heparation in acliii'Vi'cl ut 
once I'v the flotation of the dried f^rapiiite ore upon the Nurfaoc of ii 
cnrret. : of water. After concentration, the method employed ii the 
'.ame as that in uhc at most of the other mills on the continent, vi/,, 
by buhr stones and screeni*. The product ia hi^h Krode Hake and 
low grade ground stocks. 

All these mills operate on the dissoininated graphite, inustly frimi 
that contained in the greyish gneiss, and the columnar form is no 
considered aa being in suffioient quantity to warrant the areotiou al 
commercial plants for itn treatment owing to the uneartainty att< ' 

ing the deposits of this variety. 

From the expeiience obtained from the running of WKveral 
plants it has been clearly established that for all purp<i<4v . which 
graphite in usually applied, with the exception of fine pencit making, 
the graphite so obtained has been proved eminently snitabla. It has 
also been demonstrated that in prop.-rly constructed niilU, and with 
proper care, a very high grade of grapliite can lie produced from the 
disseminated ores of the Ottawa district, as is evidenced from the 
analysea of the finished products made by diffeient reliable aHsayen. 

Much infon.iation relating to the extent and richness of the many Infcinnntiun 
graphite deposits in this province is given in the earlier reports of the li'^n'i^r'reiiru 
Survey, more especially in the Geology of Canads, 18il3, and In •'"•'■"I"<P«a> 
Vennor's report for 1873-74, pp. 139-143. In Vol. X, 1897, (pp. 00- ' 
73 S.) a very full description is given of the nnnierous deposits In the 
Buckingham district, prepared by Mr. A. A. Cole for the (ieolngloal 
Survey, shewing the extent of the ore bodies and the amount of deve- 
lopment work done. This is accompanied by a reliable map of the 
area on which are placed all known outcrops, mill locations, and Other 
points of general interest. 



«»d the output Z . 'r'^' "i. i^n • • 

*-'"«"«^ to their:;- portion 



OKArillTR 23 

ftboul oa« mile diiuuit, when a mill for the ii«p»nitiun of the mineral 
w«i ereotcd in 187'i. Tnis wa* e«|aippe<l with lUiopi, buddleM, and 
oicvflu or Hcreem, and Mveral urmin of the wparated flake wer«i pro- 
duMd, of which the Mnatt waa used fur elMtrotjrping. a Mcond for 
Itibrieatin;; parpoie«, a third for pencil itock, a fourth foratove polish, 
and a Hftli for foundry fitcingt. The arnoi'-" of mineral in the nxk at 
the mine wan hold t'> run from 10 to 2V , and wat taken from 

a pit .100 to 400 feet long by 200 V ^iih a d«»pth (rf about 'iO 

feni. After workinff for Mrerai jrti. .« mill wm apparmitly oloead 
down in \f<''> 70. 

The property waa Inter worke<l for a tin»o in 1893 by Mr. .1. F'lHier W,>rk«l by 
Torranoe, but this woe appun-ntly not attended with much »ucceM Turriilw.'*' 
owing to reM0B< not etated. The detail* of th« Artl company'* opera- 
tioni are given at length in the Keport of the Bureau of Mines, Ont. 
for 1896, (pp. 35-36). 

The |)ioparty apparently lay idlu till 1901 when Dr. U. A Pyne of 
Toronto secured the dittmond drill of the Ontario Government and 
bored mveral holes to teat th') depth and extent of this deposit. In 
this Work four holes were Nunk to the depths respectively of ITO, 140, 
6 1, and 100 fee'. The borings sheweil the presence of graphite of nooi 
<|uality and in large quantity. In the first boring the log nhowed 32 
feet of graphite, the remainder of the hole being in an altered gra- 
nite and limestone to the full depth of the hole ; No. 3 Hhewed two 
feet of altered granite mixed with graphite, the remainder of the hole 
being in limestone ; ana in H \ 4, there was found 30 feet of rich ore, 
the rest being lean. The niture of the " altered granite " is not stated 
imi it may include certain of the b:ind« of gneiia usually associated 
with the limestones of the formation. 

Nj attempt at mining is recorded by Di-, Pyne, but the property -ty 
waa secured shortly after by Mr. Rinaldo MoConnell of Ottawa who K^„^ii, 
also test«d the property with < ""lent drill preparatory to McConnell. 

mining, which was commenced 'n tt,' spr^ ^, . i .102, the value of the 
property having been well asc\. aineJ and th«> p'^nce of large ore 
bo lies determined, which in gr. nntc.it: corii],.ire very favourably 

with those which have beon i 'nf... tho f'- 'c!: ogham district of 
Quebeo. Surface shewings w - fonn.< <.»■ lot 22, range VI, 

Burgess, but the ac.ual value is li kn.. • . 

The work of Mr. McConnell inclu" e. action of a mill at the 

village of Port Elmsley, or rather the alteration of an old grinding 

mill whi;h had been built at that place on the River lay, some .ears 
before. Here there is a water power with a seven foot head which 
furnishes, with a Dodge turbine, about 50 hme power. 



8. 



0«OlooiCAt anov. 
""-^tion,. ■ '^^'■'"■n^ began at „ cawaoa 

,1'^^ - e genfrXr^-it/on of the ^er, ''^'^g quTte 
the main trpn t . to In w-. ^carceiv H so 

of the ! /• The "''"rply east end of 

in the ootcj? '''e surf! " 

of ?K "PP^*"-^ to be ^^n'^ 1 ""'^ 'lave been «ho^7 

The or u rich 1 " ^ttotn of ^' "'"^ "o 

" present ^^^-^ ''^"^^^^ 

-o.d^tir'"'''^'-^^-^^^^^^ - the h-.e.to„e , 

enough e! ', '"^-'^^'^ntj^ to 1 ^""'^ miJes ^'O'n* 

r ''''-■^ Ik '^"oe t/f;;^^ passes t^^ '^^^''-''-^e, 
"'^-P-ated o:^l';P''«'""atict,.^t„'«. inch sC^'^.^ -"es of 
'ng thenoe to t; ^ the ^Jl!' '« ""mberanW / 'he 

»«toir,tic. rr P'vLnL-^ ^''•^ Method tl ^''e 

"^-•^ «'3o m«?e af '""' a«a b. ^, 



25 



Deposits of graphite were observed in 1S96 in the township of Oth. r 
Blythfield on lots 13 and 14, range IV, near the bank of the Mada- 
wMka river, a ihon diatanoe above the High Falls, on land owned by 
Mr. James Bailey. These were opaneil to a small extent, and the 
mineral occura in a greyish rusty gneiss associated with granite and 
greenish-grey pyroxene. The disMininatfld ore is partly flake and 
partly amorphous. The gneiss is in plafleH liighly garnetiferous and no 
limestone was seen at the locality wliem the graphite is exposed. 

Among other places where the preienoe of this mineral is recorded 
in Ontario may be mentioned lot 13, riinge VIIJ, township of Mar- 
mora, where it is said to occur in ocnMidfiable abundance, though no 
record of development work is to hand. The graphite from this p'ace 
was examined in the laboratory of thi' OcologicHl Survey and is of the 
amorphous variety, containing a small amount of finely disseminated 
pyrite, and gave on analjriis, graphite 78i3, foreign matter, 27-86 
per cent. Annual Report, Geol. Surv. Can., Vol. VII (N.S.) 1894, 
p. II R. 

It has also been reported as occurring in the township of Faraday, 
on lot 13, range I, and by Dr. Barlow in ilie townships of Dysart and 
Glamorgan, where it is somewhat widuly distributed in the limestone 
and upper gneiss of the OrenvUle teriae, (Summary Report, 1896, p. 53) 
but apparently no development work h«« yet bdcn attempted in this 
area. 

In the township of Darling aUo a umall duposit of the amorphous 
variety has been located near Tatloek, but the value has not been 
definitely determined, though from surface indications the amount of 
the mineral does not appear to be largo. 

In Addington county, township of Denbigh, on lot 34, range VIII, Dei>u8it in 
a deposit of gri^ite was located mmv ymn ago and samples were f'™„,'fj' 
examined by this Department. Tbu mineral occurred in layers and 
patches in a caloareo-silioeons gangue, and on assay was found to con- 
tain 51-67 per cent graf^ite. It a|>pMn to be of the amorphous va- 
riety. 

Recently this property has been opnwd up by Air. J. G. Allan of Worked by 
Hamilton, Ont., who has furnished me some notes as to the nature of ^' 
the work lately done. Mr. Allan sayii operations were commenced 
about the beginning of December, 1003, and a number of tons were 
taken out that month. In 1903 the mine was worked for about five 
months and 150 tons mined. Thw ibaft is about 46 feet deep and well 
timbered. The material is somewhat mixed with quarts, but runs 



26 



Uraphit^ 

Silica 

ox.iron::"- •■• ■ 

Carb.Ji„e fjj 

-'"ated on Jots 16 ! 'J^ '"'T^'-'J' the Ontario "''T ""^ 

- <We : ; ' ^ nr.""'' ^-P"'- Co. U U 

«M*t of tile J«M^ '1 1895 OR J 

''T^dt.h of about 10 L *''^"' '30 feet. wUh '"""" "^^ 
limestone ^"^^ ^^"^ TjZ 

^ The strike of the «Z! ™sty enei J 5 " crw. 

--«'3oobaerveVree"rlr^-'- o'th^Ue'T 

-onof therr'--^--- -^^.ir: 

property w ' t I ^ **** 

e-etod in Stawa " ! "^^^ ^P^ned up e,t« ^ 



^ OBAPBITI 



27 



This mill was operated 



brought in from the mine for treatment, 
for some months and then closed down. 

As to the mine development, the Ontario Graphite Co. began ope- Worked by 
rations on a somewhat large scale, the detail t of which can be given (j^hiu? Co." 
from the reports of The Bureau of Mines of Ontario. 

Thus in the report for 1895, it is stated that the deposit has a Swtiou of 
length of 300 feet, and four cross cuts made at inter- vals of 60 feet ' 
shew widths of the vein or bed as respectively 12, 17, 18 and 24 feet. 
The place was bored with a diamond drill with the following result. 
One bore on the shore of the lake passed through 39 feet of graphite, 
succeeded downward by six and a half feet of mixed limestone and 
graphite ; this again by 10 feet of graphite ; then seven feet of mi.\ed 
limestone and graphite, one foot and a half graphite and two feet 
felspar and quai tz. In another hole further removed from the shore 
there was graphite 16 feet, graphite and limestone seven feet and 
graphite six feet. 

The deposit is not homogeneous throughout. The calcite occurs in Dpposit not 
nests and irregular pockets or masses, but containing also irregularly throughout 
disseminated graphite and minute scales of mica. The quality of the 
mineral is somewhat lowered by the presence of the calcite in such a 
degree as to render portion of the deposit useless. An assay by Dr. J. 
T. Dor ''.Id of Montreal, gave graphite 84' 12, but the percentage varies 
in different specimens from 49 to 85. The graphite has a greyish 
aspect, is very hard, and occurs both as flake and amorphous. Tt is 
partly embedded, in gneiss in the manner of a vein witli a strike north- 
east and south-west. 

In the repirt for 1901, (Mining Bureau of Ont.) it is stated that 
the company known as the Ontario Graphite Co. was organized in 1896. 
The workings consisted of open cuts and a shaft 80 feet deep, with a 
drift to the north-east from the bottom of 1 oO feet which extended under 
the lake. The vein is vertical, and at the bottom has a width of 22 
feet with enclosing walls of crystalline limestone. An analysis by the 
Crescent Steel Co. gave graphitic carbon, 84-06, silica, 3-90, lime 
1005. 

In the report for 1902, fiuieau of Mines), further details are given, steam i«l»nt 
The steam plant was replaced by an electric plant, operated by power ^^J^ ^ 
generated at the Mountain Chute on the Madawaska river, two miles 
and a half south-east of the mine. This plant furnishes sufficient power 
for working the mine including lighting and heating, and for the 
graphite refinery which is erected close to the mine on the shore of the 



28 

WOIOOICAI, SPBVir o» rxv 

lake Tl . CAVAi,.^ 

'"'fe- The main shaft i, 10,,,, 

^-'".'-„t. South t '"""^ 

this a v;rti:r3;:;^ ' ""^^ «0 feet t °' «•« 

diamond driJl ho esM; ; ^"«dred let 7", /''* ''"^ 

J.-'dinggraphitetVd" fr ^««o. 'the So 
flinty ««k .topped the '''' the surf^I 1, ' 

*hich the Kraohll '^""^ rock to he » . 

^-seventtttn::;^^ '--'^ -^hVt •L^"'^''^ 
graphite with ]5 to 2 "bout <4 feet of ^ ''"■•^'"« 

the walls are of Ik '"'^'te.- For f ^ 

««Pl>ite flake. Lj ""estone, car Jin, """ee feet 

•bund.ntto Lk!r°l/'''^ «™phiteTXl^i'''^^'-'»-«ted 

-ysta„i„e£o„r"'°'^ '"'"^"^ ocouw both '^^'^ed- 

seriously the autumn of I909 . l , 

bpSt, r^'^'V-^'-^^-^ under L^ak~:^r""^ -of of the . . 

of mine. for/ned the lake h«W the water »;*u l °® ''"ft 

affected further d^v«i accident has. "^"^'ngs eon- 

--tern porZ TZT '^''^^ -in^ bLr'"^- J"""^^^ 
appeared. ^^P^^it. the results of whT^ T °° 

Tj ■ I * not yet 

^hioh wa« shipped. ''"^ extracted? " 

^tentofope 'pk„ ^ 'n JtfOI, met of 

body. ^ {he amount of ore in ' , . 

shaft appean, to be q„ite the deposit west of 

body, and in it; , 'n the easternor Z '"*'n 

ioca.de Jo;:enV ;L7. '^^^ ^^^CeTT Z 

^'"«n.,ne„wene<,„ipp«,,,,,7-/^ 



GBAHHITE 



•29 



for raiBina: and separating the ore and the output from the refinery is 
prodaced in nine grades, of which the tirst four are composed of flake 
or crystalline graphite of different sizes and with a purity of from 93 
to 9G per cent carbon ; the next is a mixture of flake and amorphous 
running about 78 per cent carbon; and the last four are amorphous 
powders of varying degrees of purity from 54 to 62 per ^en*- 
details of mill, Ac, see Bureau of Mines report, Ont., 1903, pp. 13- .54. 

Other occurrences of graphite are i-ecorded, as in South Canonto on 
the second range, lot not mentioned, where a small amount of work 
has been done. Also on lot •>, range VI, Bedford ; Dunfjannon, lot 
28, XIII ; Loughborough, lot 6, range IX ; North Burgess, lot 10, 
ranxe I ; North Elmsley, lot 7, range IX ; and at Parry Sound ; see 
Minerals of Ontario, Bureau of Mines, 1900, page 199. 

In regard to the western portions of the Dominion including the 
Rocky mountain area and Pacific coast slopes no records o£ graphite 
depoeits of economic importance have yet been recorded. 



Statistico. 

The first records of production given in the Geological Survey Production. 
Reports of the Section of Mines, are for the year 1886, the output for 
thaVyear being sUted as 500 tons with a value of §4,000. Since that 
date for about ten years the figures fluctuate and in 1893-4 the output 
was practically nil. There was a marked revival of the industry in 
1895, and since that time the output has increased regularly to 1901, 
when it reached 2210 tons valued at «37,780. Owing to the closing 
of one of the principal mines for a time the output for 1902 declined 
to 1095 tons valued at 128,300. 

The principal producers during the last year mentioned were the 
Canada Paint Co. of Fairville, N. B., the North American Graphite 
Co. of Buckingham, Que. ; and the Ontorio Graphite Co. of Ontano, 
operating at Whitefish lake. Brougham township. 

The value of graphite in the crude and as manufactured imported 
in the year 1901 into Canada, waa «77,89S as under. 

Plumbago, not ground 

Black leMl 2^'^*® 

Plumbago, ground and manufactured, crucibles, &c. 49,890 



$77,893 



30 



♦67,772 



t