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City Document. — iVb. 12. 







THE YEAE 18al. 





City Document. — No. 12. 








THE YEAE 1851. 






In School Committee, 

July 30th, 1851. 
Ordered — ^That Messrs. Peirce, Wayland, and Anderson, be appointed 
the Annual Examining Committee for the Grammar Schools, and Messrs. 
Shailer, Seaver, Morse, Flint, Foster, and Allen, for the Primary and 
Intermediate Schools. 

December 10th, 1851. 
Messrs. Peirce, Wayland, and Anderson, submitted Reports upon the con- 
dition of the various departments of the Grammar Schools, and Mr, Shailer, 
the Report upon the condition of the Primary and Intermediate Schools, 
which Reports were severally read and accepted ; it was therefore — 

Ordered — That two thousand copies be printed and distributed to the 
citizens, as the Annual Report of the School Committee of the City of 

JOSHUA SEAVER, Secretary. 



The Committee to whom was assigned the examination 
of the Grammar Schools, have attended to their duties, and 
submit the subjoined report. 


It is due, both to the teachers and pupils of the schools, that 
your Committee should express their convictions in reference 
to the unfavorableness of the period selected for the Annual 

During the month of August there is almost an entire change 
throughout the divisions of the schools. The pupils that 
have been, through the year, in the first division, especially 
in the Washington School, leave at the close of the Summer 
term, and with the commencement of the Fall term, a gen- 
eral promotion occurs from the Primary Schools, and through 
all the sub-divisions of the Grammar Schools. In addition 
to this, children that have been detained from school through 
the summer, return again in the fall. The teachers have, 
therefore, but about three months to train the pupils in their 
several divisions — too short a period to make any very 
marked impression upon their progress. 

At this time, before the teacher has had sufficient oppor- 
tunity fuHy to develope his own system, to correct any bad 
habits previously acquired, and before the pupil has become 
thorough in his studies, and confident in his knowledge of 
the principles involved in his memoriter recitations, the prin- 
cipal examination for the year occurs. The teacher is cha- 
grined by the want of positiveness in the answers of his class, 
and the pupils are greatly agitated from lack of confidence 
in themselves. 

Your Committee, in their quarterly examinations, during 
the summer, heard recitations which, for smoothness and 
thoroughness, far surpassed the performances of classes of 
the same grade at the late examination. These embarrass- 
ments would be obviated could the annual examination 
occur at the close of the Spring quarter. To such a change, 
your Committee can see no serious objection, and they would, 
therefore, recommend that, hereafter, the Aimual Examina- 
tion take place at that time. 


Your Committee felt it to be very important that they 
should have a correct standard by which to measure the at- 
tainments and progress of our schools, — neither too high nor 
too low. A recitation might not reach the expectation of 
the examiner, and yet be fully up to the average of acquire- 
ment among children of the same age in other schools. 
Your Committee, therefore, devoted several days to visiting 
schools of the same grade in Boston, that they might be bet- 
ter prepared to form a just judgment of the comparative pro- 
ficiency of our own. 

In order that the pupils might be generally measured by 
the same rule, instead of dividing the work, and visiting the 
different divisions individually, the Committee remained to- 
gether in the examination of the upper classes in both schools, 
and made up their judgment of the proficiency of the schol- 
ars, after mutual consultation. 

To secure, however, a proper division of labor, it was ar- 

ranged that one member of the Committee should give his 
special attention to the Reading, Spelling, Grammar, &c., 
another to Mathematics, and the third to Geography, and 
History. These several reports will appear in their place. 

It is proper to remark here, that teachers experience no 
small amount of embarrassment from the different courses 
pursued by Examining Committees. One year, the gentle- 
men holding this office, require a definite and thorough ac- 
' quaintance with the text-books, and even the very Avords of 
their authors — the examination, indeed, exhibiting only the 
strength and discipline of the child's memory. Another 
year, the text-book is laid aside, and the child's acquaintance 
with the principles involved in his year's progress is tested. 
To secure verbal accuracy, as demanded by the first course, 
the teacher sometimes sacrifices the most important province 
of youthful training — the discipline of the whole mind, espe- 
cially of its reasoning powers. 

Your Committee entered the several Divisions of our 
schools to discover what the children kneiu about the branches 
of science which they had been pursuing, and not what they 
recollected to have been printed in their books. They Avished 
to see how much the pupils would carry with them from 
the school, and of how much practical advantage their 
course of study had been to them. The only reference, 
therefore, made to text-books, was to learn what had been 
the field of study for the term, and oral questions were then 
asked, by the Committee, upon the facts or principles involv- 
ed in the portion passed over. The classes may not have ex- 
hibited as much fluency and ease in their answers, as they 
would have shown had the other process been pursued, but 
pupils, teachers and committee had a more truthful view of 
the actual attainments which had been made, and a clearer 
exhibition of the exact character of the pupil's deficiency. 

The great object of education, beyond the disciplining and 
strengthening of the mental faculties, is to impress indelibly 
upon the mind such general truths and principles as will ad- 
mit of a constant application when the youth leaves liis 
books and commences the active duties of his calling. The 

memory of details may fail him, but whatever truths he has 
fully comprehended in his own mind, and distinctly under- 
stood in all their relations, will remain as his permanent 
mental resources — coming to his aid whenever the proper 
occasion presents itself 


The general appearance of our schools is very gratifying. 
In visiting other schools, your Committee found teachers 
and classes that, in some one branch of instruction or acqui- 
sition, might take rank higher than our own, but taken as a 
whole, our schools will not suffer in the comparison, either 
as to discipline, scholarship, or vivacity, with others in the 
vicinity. We were favorably impressed with the natural- 
ness and ease generally exhibited both in reading and recita- 
tions. The children appear to be happy, improving, respect- 
ful in their bearing towards their teachers, and cheerfully 
submissive to the strict, but not harsh, discipline of the school. 
We were peculiarly struck with the admirable physical 
training of the two upper Divisions of the Washington 
School. The boys pass through a series of calisthenic exer- 
cises with the precision of a military drill, affording them, 
at once, a vigorous muscular exercise, arousing the flagging 
faculties of the mind, and bringing the whole company of 
nearly two hundred into a state of absolute order and quiet- 
ness. It is proper here, also, to express the gratification felt 
by the Committee in witnessing the public literary exhibi- 
tion by the first two Divisions of the Dudley School. The 
recitations of the young ladies, the reading of select pieces, 
the original compositions and the delightful music, alto- 
gether, formed a pleasant episode in the somewhat monoton- 
ous labors of examination, and appeared to afford great 
pleasure to the parents and invited guests who were 



Having been directed by the Chairman of the " Examining 
Committee for the Grammar Schools," to give my attention 
principally to the following branches of study, viz. : Read- 
ing, Spelling, Defining, Grammar, Natm'al Philosophy and 
Writing, I beg leave to furnish some results of my observa- 
tion during the Examination of said schools. 

In general, I am happy to bear my testimony to the good 
appearance of the schools in these departments. 

In Reading, great pains is evidently taken by the teachers 
throughout all the Divisions to correct in their pupils wrong 
pronunciation — scrupulously adhering to the standard adop- 
ted by the Committee — and to fix in their minds the indis- 
pensable requisite for a good reader, to enunciate clearly the 
elementary sounds of each word. Like success in these ef- 
forts, of course, is not attained in all cases ; the result being 
modified by the skill of the instructor to impart, and the ca- 
pacity of the scholar to acquire the important lesson. Yet 
I could not point out, in either the Dudley or Washmgton 
school, (I was not present at the examination of the school 
in Guild Hall,) a single Division that could be considered 
defective in this respect. As to intonation, I camiot speak 
with such unqualified approbation. It must, however, be 
considered, that a correct understanding of the words is ne- 
cessary, in order to give correct intonation in reading, unless 
it be learned memoriter from the lips of the teacher, which 
would be of triflmg value. Accordingly, in those Divisions 
where they do not attend to definition, I passed over, with but 
slight notice, the matter of intonation. In my opinion, the 
book that is used as a Reader, in those Divisions, is unfit, in 
almost every particular, for the place it occupies. In the up- 
per Divisions there was, in many instances, a lack of vivacity, 
resulting from the pupil's not entering into the spirit of the 


piece he or she read, and consequently a tendency to meas- 
ured cadence, so disagreeable from its monotony. The female 
voice, more naturally than the male, falls into this defect. I, 
therefore, -notice with great pleasure the exertion that has 
been made by the teachers of the Dudley school, during 
the past term, to correct, so far as they have this evil, and to 
secure the tasteful reading, which, in several instances, was 
presented to the Committee. 

In this connection, I cannot omit to mention with commen- 
dation the successful drill of some boys in the First Division 
of the Washington school in the Exercises of Elocution, 
which gave a fair promise of accurate and finished public 
speaking. Probably the Reading of these schools will fa- 
vorably compare with that of any schools in the Common- 

The Spelling and Defining, were good. 

Before leaving this Department of study, I would ask per- 
mission to make two or three suggestions. 

I would suggest, that defining the lesson should accom- 
pany its reading, through all the Divisions of our Grammar 
schools ; then intonation could be intelligibly taught even 
to the youngest readers, and thus would be avoided many 
habits that must be unlearned at a later period. 

Again, I would recommend, that in the First and Second 
Divisions of each of the Grammar schools, there be regular 
exercises as often as twice a week in Phonetic spelling. I 
look upon this as the surest method of acquiring the distinct 
enunciation of the elementary sounds of words, without 
which, it is impossible to become an elegant reader. 

One thing more : I would suggest that pams be taken by 
each Teacher to destroy the traces of foreign accent in any 
of the scholars, which often furnish, in after life, the only 
ground of an unnecessary and odious distinction. The cause 
of the most common peculiarity that we have to contend 
against, will be found, upon examination, to consist chiefly of 
a tendency to abrupt guttural sounds, which might be obviated 
by enforcing the strict observance, by the scholar, of one or 
two simple rules, without creating any unpleasant notoriety 
respecting the fault. 

In Grammar, were I to say the examination was fair, 
perhaps I should he according to it all that a candid judg- 
ment would allow. The scholars did not appear, in either 
school, quite so familiar with parsing, as is desirable. The 
rules and definitions of Grammar seemed accurately com- 
mitted, but with the application of the same to the structure 
of sentences, there appeared not to be that familiarity which 
would have enabled them to parse with promptness and 
fluency. As, however, when the scholars had been under a 
longer training of the teachers, they manilested a corres- 
ponding proficiency in Grammar, we must conclude, that 
any deficiency in this department, is attributable to the brief 
time the classes were under their respective teachers, rather 
than to a v\rant of skill and attention on the part of the 
teachers. The annual examination, occurring as it does at 
the close of the first quarter after promotion, afibrds an un- 
fair criterion of the schools, and I would therefore direct es- 
pecial attention to the suggestions of the Committee, which 
will be found in another part of the report. In the grammat- 
ical and logical analyses of sentences, there were, in the first 
class of the Dudley school, great promptness and accuracy, 
Avith apparent thorough knowledge of the principles on which 
the exercise was based. In the Washington school, the im- 
maturity of the largest part of the class, prevented the ex- 
amination on this subject from being so highly satisfactory. 

In Natural Philosophy, the examination of the Dudley 
school, on the small portion of the work they had been over, 
Avas good, the pupils being able to recite the definitions 
and principles, and also to illustrate the examples. In 
the Washington School, the Principal, finding his class be- 
hind in some of the elementary studies, very wisely omitted 
Natural Philosophy for the quarter. 

The Writing in both schools cannot be commended too 
highly. The books, almost without exception, were kept 
cleanly, and the pages showed great care and diligence in 
seeking to gain that beautiful accomplishment, an easy and 
elegant handwriting. In some cases such proficieixy was 
attained as, really, to need no farther impWvement. 


In the several departments to which I gave my especial 
attention, as in the others, the examination was conducted 
with the design of ascertaining not so much what the scholar 
had learned as what he knew. Hence, taken away from the 
helps of a verbal memory, and cast upon the application of 
principles that had been stored in the mind, the scholar was 
put to the severest test that could be made to bear upon 
him, still the Committee felt that it was the only reliable 
way by which to become informed of the true state of the 
schools ; and it is matter of joy that they have so well an- 
swered the expectation formed of them. Could the teacher 
feel confident that his or her pupils would always be rated 
by such a standard, and not by mere memoriter recitation, 
he or she would then, doubtless, be more successful, even 
than at present, in making thorough scholars, and laying a 
more abidmg foundation for future intelligence. 

The exhibition of the highest two divisions of the Dudley 
school, at the close of the quarter, although perhaps not 
coming exactly within the province of the Committee, still 
was so very creditable to all concerned, that a passing re- 
cognition of its excellence will be received by the public, as 
it will surely be given by us, with feelings of pleasure and 
generous pride. The personal appearance of the scholars, 
a most important point in a girl's school, was all that the 
most scrupulous regard to neatness could demand. The 
various exercises, interspersed as they were with very ex- 
cellent performances, in both instrumental and vocal music, 
reflected honor on the proficiency of the scholars, and the 
assiduity and skill of the teachers, and afforded to the nume- 
rous parents and other persons gathered on the occasion, the 
highest present satisfaction with assurances of future pro- 
gress. Perhaps the most noticeable excellencies of the exhi- 
bition, if we can fix on any for special mention, Avere the 
Writing and the Composition, — which I presume have been 
rarely equalled in any common school. 

All of which, I beg most respectfully to submit. 


Memher.of Ex. Committee for Grammar ScJiools. 



On the subject of Mathematics, the examination has been 
confined entirely to Arithmetic, from the simplest rudiments, 
onward to the most difficult problems, that can be solved 
without the aid of Algebra, which is not studied during so 
early a part of the year. The method adopted for testing the 
knowledge of the pupils, and ascertaining how far it was 
ready, available, and practical, was to lay aside books entire- 
ly, and as far as possible, to come to principles, insisting con- 
tinually upon the pupils using their own language in the 
answers given, and resorting to their own illustrations ; con- 
vinced that examples, taken from the book, with which the 
mind is familiar from frequent inspection and repetition, are 
apt to be repeated by rote, and in the majority of cases, fail 
to bring out the idea which they were originally designed to 
enucleate. Nor did we pursue any regular course, as this 
would have enabled the successive pupils, to have almost 
anticipated the inquiry which was to call forth their know- 
ledge and ingenuity. To prevent this, and to place all upon 
the same level of advantage, we proceeded at one time, 
from the simpler to the more abstruse parts ; at others from 
the most difficult, to the easiest. In this way, every ques- 
tion came to the mind with such freshness, as to render im- 
possible a mere stereotyped reply, and to show, as the pupil 
stood before us, what command he had over his attainments, 
and whether they were only lodged in the memory, or so 
orderly stored in the understanding, as to be readily accessi- 
ble, and easily put to use, as the occasion demanded. We 
also invented questions that seemed to admit of several an- 
swers, and left them to the exercise of their own judgment 
to determine the matter. To any one, at all acquainted 
with the subject, no argument is necessary to prove that 
such a course puts the knowledge of a pupil to a severe test. 


as to its extent, accuracy, and availableness. And we are 
happy to say, that the result was, in most cases, such as to 
gratify the examiners, who do not hesitate to assert, that 
classes of the same grade, in any of the Boston schools, 
would not, on the whole, have appeared better. We do 
not mean to say that there were not decided failures ; nor 
that there were not cases of marked deficienc37-, which were 
noted at the time ; and are to be accounted for, from causes 
that do not derogate from the ability and fidelity of the 
teachers, but which do sliggest a very censurable indiffer- 
ence on the part of many parents, especially those of foreign 
extraction, in carelessly keeping their children away for 
slight reasons, instead of enforcing that punctual and regu- 
lar attendance, which is necessary to derive the highest ad- 
vantage from the schools, whose doors are open to the poor- 
est '' without money and without price." This is atopic, 
on which much might be said, could we hope to reach the 
ears of those, who are thus allowing their children to lose 
opportunities of improvement, that can never return. They 
keep their children away from school, every now and then, 
a day, or a week, sometimes longer, without thinking of the 
evil it produces, how it breaks up their habits of study, and 
discourages them, at finding themselves always inferior to 
their classmates, who are regular in their attendance. The 
effect of such absence is particularly unhappy in Mathe- 
matics, in which there can be no real advance, while any 
thing behind remains unmastered. The parents may say 
that they have a right to keep them away, when they 
choose. We shall not dispute this. What we are pleading 
for, is the real interests of their children, to promote which 
we ask them to co-operate with the teachers and the School 

The general appearance of the pupils, belonging to both 
of the Grammar Schools, in this part of their examination, 
was such as, on the whole, to give great pleasure to the 
examiners, and to deepen within them the conviction, 
that our public schools are accomplishing their high object 
with as much success as can reasonably be expected, — that 


they are giving a sound common education not only to 
American children, but also to those who would otherwise 
grow up in utter and dangerous ignorance ; and that they 
deserve the continued support, and liberal patronage of this 
enlightened city. 




With a few exceptions, all the classes pursuing these 
branches reached about the average standard of proficiency 
in their recitations. The Second Division in the Washing- 
ton school, perhaps, deserves special reference for its cor- 
rectness and promptness in Geography. The First Division 
in this School had not entered upon history ; the boys com- 
posing it, not appearing to be sufficiently thorough in the 
more rudimental studies, the Principal, most judiciously, 
concluded to devote all the time to a careful drill upon these. 
We hope he will continue this course with the Division. It 
is desirable, if it can be attained, that the pupils in the 
Grammar Schools, before they leave, should have some ac- 
quaintance with Natural Philosophy, Book-keeping, Linear- 
drawing, &c., but it is of far greater moment, that they 
should be perfect in Reading, Spelling, Defining, Grammar, 
Arithmetic, Geography, and General History, — not merely 
have a smattering in these branches, but be perfectly at 
home in them. In reference to Geography and History, 
especially the former, something evidently is lacking either 
in the text-book or in the present modes of instruction, or in 
both ; for it continually occurs, that pupils who have been 
drilling upon Geography for years, in the Primary, and 
Grammar Schools, if they have temporally laid it aside for 


other studies, or even, are still engaged in its study, break 
down upon some of the simplest questions, involving the re- 
lation of places to each other. They do not lose their know- 
ledge of the Multiplication Table, but this severe acquisition 
remains with them as a permanent resource. May we not 
learn something from this 7 Cannot the youthful mind be- 
come so thoroughly invested with the general outlines of 
Geography, as never to lose its grasp upon them — with the 
principal features, cities, mountains, rivers, &c., of the vari- 
ous countries upon the globe, as ever to have them in the 
mind's eye, and to be able to recall, at once, their proper 
position on the earth's surface, when the name strikes the 
ear or meets the eye? Geography cannot be studied, to any 
very great advantage, until the mind of the child is consid- 
erably developed — especially its imagination ; for upon the 
strength of this faculty will depend, in a great degree, the 
correctness of the child's geographical acquisitions. The 
imagination is not one of the earliest developed faculties. 
The child's mind is taken up with facts and phenomena. 
Every sense is assaulted with its appropriate solicitations 
from the world without, and the latent faculties, aroused by 
these continued incitements, begin to expand themselves. 
Tiie memory is, perhaps, one of the earliest powers devel- 
oped, being continually burdened and therefore strengthened, 
by the multitude of facts gathered up by the senses. The 
appropriate studies for a young child, therefore, are those 
which most address his physical senses, or appeal chiefly to 
his memory. These are Reading, Spelling, and the simplest 
combinations of figures. The child may learn the defini- 
tions of Geography, and, by oral instruction, may have some 
general ideas of the earth upon which he lives. This know- 
ledge, however, is much more limited than is generally sup- 
posed. The child has not sufficient strength of imagination 
to project a world before his mind's eye, girdled with arbi- 
trary lines in every direction, suspended in space, and mov- 
ing upon an imaginary axis. By questioning one of these 
little Primary School Geographers, we should soon find the 
character of his acquisitions — everything, with him, will be 


actual, not imaginary. The axis will be a real cylinder, on 
which the earth turns, like a wheel round its axle, Avhile 
the equator and tropical circles are actual physical belts, or 
elevations, that gird the earth. He may tell you the capi- 
tals of the states, but he will break down in the first steps 
of his journey, if he attempts to travel from one to another. 
His time can be better employed in becoming familiar with 
the arts of Reading, Spelling, and combining figures. Upon 
these there should be an unremitted drill — the interest of 
the child being kept up, by the vivacity and tact of the 
teacher in varying the lessons, and in illustrating them by 
oral remarks and questions. We do not accomplish any- 
thing perfectly in the Primary School, because too much is 
attempted ; the mind of the child is burdened, and memory 
is not sufficiently strengthened by constant repetition. 

But when the child's imagination begins to open, and his 
reasoning powers to struggle to grasp the principles of things. 
Geography may be profitably introduced. The teacher 
must now devote no small amount of attention to this im- 
portant study. He must discover, by constant questionings, 
Avhether the youth's impressions are correct. He should 
move no faster than will consist with his thorough compre- 
hension of the ground he has passed over. To make the 
study one of the most interesting and enlivening in the whole 
list of Common School acquisitions, the teacher must be 
perfectly familiar with every branch of the subject — super- 
ficial, physical, political and historical. The office of the 
text-book should be simply that of a guide to his oral com- 
munications, and merely a foundation for the acquisitions 
of the pupil. Every fact that serves to hold the attention of 
the child upon any portion of the earth's surface, upon any 
city, or river, or mountain, will, through the certain action 
of a law of his being, impress that locality more permanently 
upon his memory. The power of memory is in exact ratio 
with the habit of attention. If the child does not luUy un- 
derstand his lesson, if his interest is not sufficiently awak- 
ened to restrain the ramblings of his thoughts and to make 
him a personal spectator of the scenes he describes, his im- 


pressions will be altogether indefinite, — he has merely seen 
"men as trees walking" — and the whole train will pass 
away from his memory almost as soon as it has swept past 
his field of vision. By general exercises, often recurring, in 
which, without previous preparation, the actual attainments 
of the pupils can be tested ; the teacher will discover the 
deficiencies of his class, and the scholars will be prompted 
to greater diligence. These may be made the most animat- 
ing recitations of the school. The whole earth .may be com- 
passed, every important city visited, all the prominent histo- 
rical associations may be suggested to aid and enliven the 
lagging memory, and Geography, instead of being the dull 
accumulation of the mere names of countries, cities, rivers, 
&c., may be invested with much of the charm of an actual 
tour of observation. Of course, this will lay a heavy de- 
mand upon the teacher, but the success of the experiment 
will amply compensate him for his labor. The exceeding 
interest of his class, the confidence which they exhibit in 
their answers, and the permanent accessions they have made 
to their stock of valuable knowledge, will be an honorable 
return for all his extra service. 

In reference to outline maps, a suggestion may not be out 
of place. Where quite young children are studying Geog- 
raphy, or are receiving oral lessons from a teacher, an out- 
line map will be of considerable service. And, perhaps, it 
may be sometimes used among older scholars safely, or 
even with some advantage. But their constant use can 
but be injurious. We are aware how tenacious are the 
laws of habit and association. If we remember a second 
truth from its connection with a primary, the latter must 
always be recovered by the memory, before the former can 
come within the mind's grasp again. If the lawyer is ac- 
customed to have his brief before him, however familiar he 
may be with his case, he cannot speak to the point without 
it. We have all heard of the clergyman, who had fallen 
into the habit of drawing a thread through his fingers while 
engaged in his public services, and who never failed to lose 
the thread of his discourse, whenever the literal thread un- 


happily dropped from his hands. It is this law of our men- 
tal being which renders the constant use of the outline 
maps perilous. We do not carry them with us when we 
go into the world, and if our knowledge of the relation of 
places is too closely associated with their suggestions, when 
we are beyond their aid, we shall be bewildered. The ob- 
ject of a map is to exhibit to the eye the actual relation of 
places upon the earth ; and its usefulness depends upon the 
daguerreotype counterpart which the imagination receives 
upon its surface. We want the mind to hold, not an out- 
line map — a surface of blots and lines — but one filled up, 
with the appropiate names attached. The susceptible mind 
of youth readily opens to receive these pictorial representa- 
tions, and, by the constant recurrence of them, they become 
permanent impressions. If, however, at every recitation, 
the outline map is unrolled, and by a dot here, and a shore- 
line there, the memory is aided in its work, it will, at once, 
rid itself of the more laborious task of preserving a distinct 
and full recollection of the original map, and lean itself 
upon the general outlines, continually meeting the eye. 
Thus, for instance, it occurred in the late examination, that 
pupils in the upper divisions would fail in some of the most 
simple questions, involving the relation of places upon the 
earth, but the moment the outline map was opened, they 
would, without hesitation, point out the nameless black 
dots, representing the desired localities. A moment's re- 
flection upon the law of habit, will convince the teacher 
that such a result is naturally to be expected. 

Many of the above suggestions in reference to Geography 
will apply to History. In this, even more than in Geogra- 
phy, the pupil is accustomed to memorize the exact lan- 
guage of his author, rather than to recast in his own mind 
the recitals of his text book. The pupil, therefore, only 
knows of his history what he can repeat verbally, and, as 
he has learned it in order, by the law of association, he can 
only repeat what he has learned, in course. This habit, 
the teacher can, and should, at once correct. By continued 
reviews upon disconnected portions of the history passed 


over, by encouraging the habit of inquiry among the schol- 
ars and the practice of reading the small collateral histories 
to be found in the school library, and, above all, by being 
himself the living encyclopsedia of history, making even 
the hour of recitation an hour of acquisition, quite a full 
outline of general history, certainly of the history of his 
own country, may be brought within the comprehension of 
a grammar school scholar. 

The practical importance of both the above studies and 
their constant application in every social relation, will be a 
sufficient apology for the prominence given them in this re- 

These suggestions have been occasioned by no marked 
remissness in our own schools, but have been presented in 
the hope that a little reflection, in this direction, will enable 
our intelligent teachers to present, at another examination, 
classes that may be considered models for their success 
in mastering these two important branches of knowledge. 

The first class of young ladies only, in the Dudley school, 
have pursued Natural History : they appeared to have a 
clear apprehension of the portion of this science which they 
have passed over, and answered very readily the questions 
proposed by the Committee. 




As a majority of the scholars in our Grammar Schools 
close their rudimental training when they have availed 
themselves of the opportunities these afford, it is very desir- 
able that they should have some knowledge of the simpler 
laws of perspective and linear drawing. This will not only 
be a grace, but a necessity, in after life. As mechanics or 
merchants, the boys will find a continued demand upon all 
their skill as draughtsmen, while, in planning the house, and 
in marking out the garden, as well as securing to herself a 
constant and grateful recreation in after years, the young 
lady will have an abundant field for the exercise of all her 
attainments in this beautiful art. By general exercises upon 
the black-board, copied upon the slate, or blank-book, suffi- 
cient instruction might be given to enable the scholar to ac- 
quire adequate skill in the use of the pencil for all practical 
purposes. More than one good end will be accomplished by 
such a discipline ; the eye will be carefully trained, a valu- 
able habit of observation will be formed, and the mind will 
be accustomed to a closer attention in its investigations of 
any object, while the fingers are rendered more flexible to 
wield the pen, as well as the pencil. 

In some of the neighboring schools, visited by your Com- 
mittee, the pupils had covered several of the black-boards 
with most admirable exhibitions of their skill in drawing, 
showing how successfully their gesthetic faculties had been 
cultivated, while their promptness in the severer sciences, 
evinced that they had not neglected the more practical qual- 
ities of their minds. 


Average number of Average daily aiien- 
pupils for the year. dance. 

Number present a 

' Average age. 

Washington School, 540 486 
Dudley School, 433 360 


10 vrs. 

11 i-3. 



With commendable public spirit and liberality, the au- 
thorities of the city, have, during the past year, secured the 
erection of a fine brick edifice in Ward 1, to afford addi- 
tional accommodations for boys residing in the easterly part 
of the city. A well situated, and pleasant site has been 
purchased, affording an ample play ground for the pupils. 
The building is two stories in height, and contains six rooms, 
twenty-eight feet square, together with a large hall, suita- 
ble for singing and general exercises. Each room is de- 
signed to seat comfortably, fifty scholars, and the furniture, 
embracing all the modern improvements, has be on selected 
with reference to the physical laws of the child, and the best 
discipline of the school. The whole expense of land, build- 
ing and furniture, will be about $-20,000. Altogether, it is 
as neat and convenient a school edifice, as any in our vicin- 
ity. Another story, which would render its external ap- 
pearance much more imposing, can easily be added, when 
the rapidly increasing population of that portion of our city 
renders it necessary. 

The building will be placed in the hands of the School 
Committee about the first of January. Should the new dis- 
trict commence at the Boston line on Washington street, fol- 
low that street to Warren street, and the latter street to the 
Dorchester line, embracing the boys of a suitable age resid- 
ing east of the line, the Washington school, including Miss 
Harris's Division, would be relieved ol two hundred pupils, 
with which number the new school would go into operation. 

With the accessions from the Primary Schools, coming in 
by the first of February, there will remain in the Wash- 
ington school, four hundred pupils. The relief afforded by 
the new district, will allow an economical change in the 
board of instruction in the Washington school, as well as 
secure greater facilities for the training and physical comfort 
of the lower divisions. But one division will be required 
in the lower rooms, and thus two female assistants can be 
spared for the new school : and, as the upper divisions will 


be smaller, the services of the assistant male teacher, in the 
first division, may be dispensed with ; an usher being ap- 
pointed to the charge of one of the divisions in the upper 

In the new building, a principal and three female assistants 
will be adequate to commence the school. During the year, 
additional Primary School accommodations may be required, 
in that part of the city, and one of the vacant rooms might 
be devoted to this purpose, for the present. 

The new building since its plan was proposed, has become, 
to us, monumental. It bears on its front the honored name 
of the first officer of our city, at the commencement of our 
present period of public service. Mayor Dearborn, is no 
longer with us in person, but the Dearborn School will bear 
his memory down to the coming generations, for whom, in 
his public services, he lived and labored. 


The salaries of the female assistants in our Grammar 
Schools are comparatively small, and it may Avell be con- 
sidered by us, whether, in order to secure the first order of 
talent, (and why should we not have it ?) the standard of 
remuneration ought not to be raised ? 

There is, indeed, always, a great demand for any offered 
vacancies, but can we hope to secure the first class of mind, 
where we fall behind our sister city nearly one hundred dol- 
lars per annum, in a female assistant's remuneration? But 
even if no addition be thought advisable, is it not just that 
some discrimination should be made between the salary of 
an assistant who has retained her place for years, and one 
who has just entered upon her duties, upon trial 1 During 
the probationary months, the inexperienced and often un- 
successful teacher, according to the present system, receives 
the same amount of wages, as the most successful and labo- 
rious assistant in the school. Could an addition of twenty- 
five dollars be made to the salary ot those who have been in 
the school for a year, or more, and who have exhibited an 


aptitude for the work, rendering them pecuharly vahiable 
as teachers, it would be at once an incentive to ambition, 
and a well-earned reward of diligence. It would have a 
tendency, also, to secure a greater amount of permanency 
in the office. Many of our divisions have suffered severely, 
during the past year, from the frequency of the changes, in 
their instructors. 

The teachers on trial might, during this period, be allowed 
the same compensation as the teachers in Primary Schools, 
and when confirmed in their appointment, receive the pres- 
ent salary allotted the Grammar School assistants ; and 
after a year's service, should there be a marked improve- 
ment and an increased facility in teaching, an additional 
twenty-five dollars might be added. 

The sinallness of the remuneration at first, may be thought 
to be an impediment in the Avay of securing the services of 
good teachers, who have had experience in other schools, 
but the certain advancement of the salary to a more ade- 
quate compensation, would be a satisfactory offset to the 
.limited amount received during the months of trial. Cer- 
tainly, after a teacher has shown the wisdom of her selec- 
tion, by the experiment of years, has become acquainted 
with all the demands of her onerous office, and, by earnest 
endeavors and constant study, raised herself to the contin- 
ually advancing standard of requirement, it seems but an 
act of justice, when her services have really become so 
much more valuable than at first, or than those of any in- 
experienced substitute, that she should receive some pecun- 
iary consideration for her toil and some significant expres- 
sion of the public appreciation of her efforts. 

There is no province of public labor, in v/hich the sex can 
acquire greater honor, or perform a higher service for the 
race, than in the profession of the teacher. Her gentleness, 
kindness, patience, and mental activity, united with a har- 
monious development of the moral faculties, render her an 
admirable companion, guide, and educator, for the young. 

But she must be trained to the work ; must become a 
thorough scholar, and a skilful tactician, as well as, an ami- 


able and patient disciplinarian. To secure this end, and 
direct the attention of the most worthy and able minds to 
the profession, an adequate compensation and encourage- 
ment must be offered. It should not be considered, as the 
female teacher's profession is often looked upon, as the last 
shelter of orphanage, or the final retreat from the heavy 
pressure of affliction and poverty, but an honorable and open 
field for the chastened ambition of any earnest mind, seek- 
ing to fill up the measure of an useful and happy life, and 
to leave an impression for good upon society. 

The subject is worthy the consideration of the Board, and 
to them we leave the elaboration of a plan to meet the ob- 
ject proposed in this part of our report. 


One of the most delicate, and yet important offices of the 
teacher, is to bring his school into a state of perfect, but 
cheerful, discipline. His discipline is perfect, when he has 
secured the voluntary obedience of his pupils, and their 
hearty acquiescence in his plans of study, and laws of order. 
To attain this, the respect and affection of his pupils, must 
be won. By the moral dignity of his character, by his su- 
perior information, by his self-control and unvarying faith- 
fulness, he must render himself respected by all the mem- 
bers of his school. By his interest in their studies, their 
persons, and their future well-being; by constant encourage- 
ment ; by approbation, where diligence is crowned with suc- 
cess, and by expressions of sorrow, rather than anger, when 
a failure has resulted from neglect, or when punishment has 
been made necessary by a violated rule of conduct, he must 
secure for himself a warm place in the susceptible heart of 
youth. Just in proportion as these ends are gained, will the 
disciplinary labor of the master be lightened. The admin- 
istration of corporal punishment may secure the temporary 
obedience and the servile fear of the child, but it will not 
quicken his mental faculties, nor prevent another breach of 


discipline when the eye of the master is not upon him, and 
there is a possibiUty of impunity in transgression. 

And just here, may be seen the great importance of teach- 
ing the morals, and virtues of the Bible, in our schools — to 
secure a conscientious and voluntary respect for the right, 
and an abhorrence of the wrong, whether the eyes of thous- 
ands are gazing, or only the Omniscient Eye is looking down 
upon the heart. 

It will always be found that those schools are conducted 
with the least disciplinary punishment, and exhibit the most 
cheerful respect towards their instructors, where the most 
attention is paid to the inculcation of good morals, and vir- 
tuous habits ; where the moral sense of the scholars is devel- 
oped, and educated, and loyalty to the order of the school 
is insisted upon, not merely because it must be rendered, but 
because it is right. 

An intelligent teacher will have no lack of occasions to 
secure this moral training. At the opening devotional servi- 
ces of the day, in the ordinary reading lessons, in the records 
of history, and in nearly every case of the open breach of 
the school regulations, an opportunity is presented for the 
rallying of the moral faculties of the pupils, and for making 
a fresh impression upon their minds, of the nobleness of 
right-doing, and the sin and results, of the opposite course. 

There are those, however, upon whom every other argu- 
ment fails ; it may be through indulgence or severity at 
home, or through weakness of moral sensibility, or perverse 
indolence, or wilfulness of mind, the order of the school is 
continually broken, all appeals to the higher motives prove 
unavailing : certainly, now, the period has come for the ad- 
ministration of Solomon's discipline, and it may not be 
safely withheld. This never can, of course, be pleasant to 
the child : it is intended that physical pain should be in- 
duced, that the child may feel a restraining fear of repeating 
the act of wrong doing. 

The general rule in our schools for the administration of 
corporal punishment is, that it shall be executed by a rattan 
or rule upon the palm of the hand, and that the head, and any 


part of the body where permanent mjury may be received, 
shall never be approached. It is also miderstood, that cor- 
poral punishment is not to be resorted to, until other means 
of influencing the pupils have failed, and then is to be ad- 
ministered in such a way as to operate on the moral sensi- 
bilities of the pupil in the strongest manner. All brutal 
punishments, such as pulling the hair, or twisting the ears, 
are strictly forbidden. There may have one or two instances 
occurred where young teachers, losing their self-control, 
when irritated by the perverseness and obstmacy of the 
child, have punished the offender upon the head : this how- 
ever, has always been understood to be contrary to the rule 
of the school, the often expressed opinion of the Committee, 
and to the explicit directions of the principals. Probably, 
in every case, no one has felt more grief at the occurrence, 
than the teacher, and ample acknowledgment has been made 
when the momentary exasperation has worn away. In one 
case, during the past year, an assistant was peremptorily 
removed for her neglect of this established law of school 

The statistics of corporal punishment in the Dudley 
school, last year, show, that while its discipline is commen- 
dable for its perfectness, it is not secured by the slavish fear 
of punishment, but by the moral restraints which have been 
thrown around the pupil. The corporal punishments for 
the year have only averaged to one and six-tenths per 
teacher, for three months. Nine tenths of all the punish- 
ments occurred in three of the lower divisions, where fre- 
quent changes in instructors have greatly disturbed the 
discipline of the rooms. In the first and second divisions of 
the school no corporal punishments occurred during the year. 

In the Washington school we have failed to obtain the 
statistics of corporal punishment, required by the regulations 
of the school committee. The principal and a few of the 
assistants have preserved the required record ; their reports 
exhibit but few corporal punishments and the majority of 
these were slight, the only exceptions appearing to have 
been instances of incorrigible truancy. 


The Committee would feel more confidence in the public 
assurances they are expected to give, if the regulation of 
the Board were complied with, and each teacher recorded 
every case of corporal punishment, with the name of the 
party, the kind and degree of punishment, and the cause of 
its infliction. 

It is proper, however, to remark, that the only complaints 
in reference to punishments in this school, during the year, 
were in the case of the teacher removed by the Committee, 
and the accidental severity of another, who has since left, 
in which instance, a satisfactory apology was made to the 

But for minor faults, for voluntary tardiness, for indo- 
lence, whispering, and failing in lesson, some other devices 
must be suggested to preserve the tone of the school, and to 
arouse the lagging faculties of the mind. It has been ob- 
jected to some of these, that they are demeaning, and serve 
to break down the self-respect of the child. Now, no pun- 
ishment can be ennobling. It certainly can be no honor to 
a child to render itself worthy of a reprimand. The very 
object of the punishment is to cause a wholesome blush of 
shame to suffuse the cheek, that its recurrence may be suffi- 
ciently dreaded to restrain from the commission again of the 
misdemeanor. The change of position in the class or in 
the form, standing erect, the limiting of the recess, tarrying 
after school, or sitting upon the teacher's platform — these 
are nearly if not all the punishments administered in our 
schools. If these were not somewhat humbling, of what 
would they avail ? And if corporal punishment should be 
the very last resort, what more appropriate intermediate 
penalties can be devised 1 

It occurs perhaps in all our families that, at times, the 
discipline of the school jostles a little our domestic economy. 
In detaining the child after school, some considerable incon- 
venience arises in reference to the regular hours for the fam- 
ily meals ; or, just at the unfortunate moment when he is 
detained, the child's services or presence may be wanted at 
home. All this is inconvenient, but is not the end to be 


gained, worthy of all the personal sacrifices it calls for ? It 
is not for the child's injury but for his permanent good, that 
he thus disciplined ; and it is not on his account alone, but 
for the benefit of others — his classmates — who would be 
embarrassed by his negligence and waywardness, that he is 
detained to make up for the time he has squandered in idle- 
ness. It can be from no personal unkindness to the pupil, 
on the part of the master, for oppressed and wearied as he 
is with the labors of the day, he must suffer himself, the 
very punishment he admmisters to the scholar — he must re- 
main to hear the recitation that the pupil tarries to prepare. 

How can the tone of the school be preserved, and each 
individual scholar receive all the benefits he should derive 
from schools supported at so great a public expense, unless 
the teachers have the power of securing, in some way, the 
punctual attendance of the scholar, and his studiousness 
during the limited daily period allotted to his tasks 7 

There are, however, domestic contingencies that demand 
the delay or the absence of the child from school. The pa- 
rent, of course, must decide upon the imperativeness of 
these calls. It is to be supposed that he will feel the im- 
portance of the constant and punctual attendance of his child, 
and will allow no ordinary occasion to interrupt the regular 
discharge of his school duties. A written request from a 
parent, therefore, for the early dismission of his 'child, or a 
written excuse for tardiness must always be respected by 
the teacher, and save the child from any disciplinary action, 
save that which necessarily occurs from his loss of time and 
study. These requests and excuses must be written^ or too 
great a temptation would be thrown in the path of the weak, 
and too favorable an occasion be offered to the wicked, to de- 
ceive the teacher and avoid the studies of the school-room. 
The written certificate is the only safe-guard of the master, 
it is best for the pupil, and it makes but a slight demand 
upon the parent. 

The relation of the teacher to the pupil, during the period 
that the child is within the precincts of the school, is parental. 
He takes the place, and for the time being, assumes the vol- , 


untarily conceded rights of the parent, subject to the same 
moral and legal restraints. For all the well-defined pur- 
poses of the school, he is to have the entire control, and 
should secure the perfect obedience of the child. With the 
studies, and order of the school, the individual parent has 
no right to interfere : these are established by a legal Com- 
mittee and the master himself has no power to change them. 
If the discipline of the school, in the case of his child, seems 
to be cruel, it is, then, both his duty and his right to demand 
of the constituted authority, the Committee of the school, a 
thorough examination of the alleged punishment; and it 
scarcely appears possible that a body of gentlemen, the most, 
if not all, of whom, are parents, and who have no personal 
relations to the teachers, — whose published rules besides, ex- 
pressly inhibit all barbarous or even perilous corporal inflic- 
tions, would sustain a master in an act of passion, or in any 
undue assumption of authority. 

Should they, from any principle of false sympathy, at- 
tempt thus to shield a real offender, the law offers redress to 
the sufferer, and the ballot-box, to an outraged community. 

Could parents for a moment, consider how much the pub- 
lic good demands a systematic and thorough discipline in 
our schools — schools composed of every variety of social and 
moral character — and how manifestly the progress of their 
own children depends upon it, they would cheerfully submit 
to the occasional domestic inconveniences, and not be too 
eager to receive the, perhaps unintentionally, but naturally, 
exaggerated accounts of grievances, which the chagrined 
child may bear home, in the heat, perhaps, of his unsubdued 

We are confident, taken as a whole, that as few occasions 
for irritation, on the part of parents, occur in our school, as 
ought reasonably to be expected. 


Roxbury^ December 10, 1851. 



The Committee appointed to examine the Primary Schools, 
respectfully report, that, 

The whole number of Primary Schools now in the city, 
is twenty-six. 

Of these, one is called the Intermediate School, consisting 
of an average number of one himdred boys, in two Divi- 
sions of fifty each, who are too old to be in the Primary 
Schools, and too backward to enter the Grammar School. 
And eleven are denominated Sub-Primary Schools. 

The Committee have embodied the result of their Exam- 
ination as to their estimate of the character of the different 
schools and their relative standing in the Tabular Abstract, 
which is subjoined. 

The schools stand numbered in the Table as they did be- 
fore the schools of West Roxbury were separated from them. 

The Committee were not able to be together in the exam- 
ination of all the Schools, but from consultation endeavored 
as near as possible to obtain the same standard of estima- 
tion from which they would mark the character of the sev- 
eral departments of the different schools. 

To represent those departments in the schools which were 
very highly satisfactory, they use the mark Ex. (excellent.) 
For those very satisfactory, V. G., (very good.) For those 
satisfactory, G., (good.) For those imsatisfactory, M., (mod- 
erate.) For those not to be tolerated, D., (deficient.) 

Their estimate is founded mostly on the Annual Examm- 
ation, but has also some reference to the character of the 


schools as observed through the year. They are aware, 
after all their care to do justice and represent the schools 
fairly as to relative standing, of their liability, in some cases, 
to misrepresent. 

It sometimes happens that the deportment or the exercises 
at an exammation, give quite too favorable impression of the 
real character, or it may be the reverse, as we feel confident 
was the case with some, for instance, in Spelling. If the 
marks had accorded strictly with the character of the efforts 
at the examination, they would have been marked D., in- 
stead of G., but circumstances and previous observation 
upon their character in that respect, led us to make the 
higher mark, as the one fitly representing the standing. 

A practiced observer can generally judge what is acciden- 
tal and what is the real condition, and it is hoped that our 
Table which gives the sum of our report, is in a high degree 

It will be observed that School, No. 24, at the Aims-House, 
is not fully carried out in the Table. It is because of its un- 
settled state, having recently changed from one place to 
another. We have confidence in the Teacher, and have no 
doubt, that, if circumstances were favorable, the school 
would, as it has heretofore, stand comparatively well. 

There are some things which the Committee regard as of 
great importance which do not appear in the Table. Among 
these, Oral Instruction is prominent. This has great value 
in our Primary Schools, The Committee were especially 
pleased with Schools, Nos. 14, 17, 23 and 31, in this respect. 
The teachers had evidently taken pams to impart valuable 
and varied information by a system of Oral instruction which 
awakened the interest of their pupils and gave to their school 
exercises an increased charm. 

Others have more or less attended to it, and we would 
especially commend it as admirably adapted to break the 
monotony of the daily task for the teachers, and to stimulate 
the intellectual activity and interest of the pupils and keep 
them from wearying from an endless round with the books 
merely. We are aware that it requires some thought and 
invention on the part of the teacher to carry on and vary 


such exercises, but her own interest and the profit of the 
school are so much in it that we strongly commend it. 

The Committee were highly gratified with the singmg of 
the scholars in several of the schools. Nos. 19, 21, and 22, 
may be named among those which excel in singing. The 
genial influence upon the children, of a few minutes spent 
in singing every day, in addition to the propriety of com- 
mencing early to cultivate the musical powers, makes surg- 
ing in our Primary schools desirable. 

A word upon Spellmg. Spelling is, perhaps, the import- 
ant thing in our Primary schools. Other things can be 
easier gained in our higher schools. But the child must 
learn to spell, or, it is probable he will never become a good 
speller. In our language, although it is subject to some 
rules, spelling is very much a thing of the memory, and the 
child, at his starting with education, must give particular 
attention to it, and continue this prominent attention, until 
he knows how to spell the words which we use. Two or 
three of our Primary school teachers are not perfect spellers, 
as is evident from their Quarterly returns, but this, perhaps, 
does not prevent their being thorough teachers of spelling ; 
and it is the special desire of the Committee, that all should 
be thorough in this branch of instruction. In our examina- 
tions, the fault of not pronomicmg every syllable as it was 
spelled, to the last syllable, and then the whole word, Avas 
noticed, in many of the schools. They feel it duty to exact 
this, and cannot call that good spelling, which, merely calls 
the letters of the word, and does not pronounce each of its 
separate syllables. 

The Committee noticed considerable diversity in the 
schools, m their attention to the little things which give the 
finishing grace to good order, — such as having their hats and 
over-garments each carefully hung in their owner's place, — 
the appearance and arrangement of the books in the rack 
— a regular system and careful stillness in going from their 
seats to the position for recitation, with their hands and books 
in their appropriate position, and all in uniformity. It is not 
so much stiff stillness, as easy and ready obedience to the 


wholesome rules of the teacher, which she rigidly and abso- 
lutely requires, that constitutes good order. 

The amount of tardiness and absence of the scholars, 
enters, also, as an element of the order of the school. A 
teacher of thorough interest in her work, and who secures 
an affectionate obedience, will reduce very much the tardi- 
ness and absence of her scholars. 

The Committee, in their observations, were made quite 
sensible of the laborious task of many of our Primary school 
teachers, especially of the teachers in the Intermediate school, 
which is crowded with boys of different ages and habits, 
and has not good conveniences for making a school of two 
divisions so large, agreeable. The teachers are worthy of 
commendation, for their industry and success, and we should 
be glad to see the opportunity of improving the conveniences 
of their room, in order that they might have every facility 
for accomplishing their task, which they already do so well. 

It is, indeed, with pleasure that we take a general survey 
of our Primary schools, believing that they compare favora- 
bly with our schools in former years, and with any other 
schools of their class. 

The Committee might well speak a word of reproof to 
themselves and their associates, for not having given that 
frequent attention to the schools during the year which is 
desirable, both for the encouragement of the teachers and 
the improvement of the schools. 

If this were the place, a reference might be made to the 
improvement needed in some of our school-houses, and the 
necessity of having one or more houses built immediately 
for the accommodation of our children. But this will be 
presented more effectively at some other time and urged 
upon the attention of the City Government. 



H. G. MORSE, , ^ 

J. S. FLINT, \Commmee. 


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Teacher's Name. 

Mary E. Dudley. 
Nancy L. Tucker. 

Mary Brooks. 
Louisa Curtis. 
Anna F. Reed. 
Caroline N. Heath. 
Louisa Mitchell. 
Henrietta M. Young. 
Louisa Newell. 
Sarah E. Gardner. 
Lucretia W. Hewes. 
M. E. Daniels. 
Elizabeth F. Thomas. 
Hannah Hall. 
Susan M. Underwood. 
Harriet S. Farnnm. 

Abby J. Tren. 
Harriet E. Bnrrill. 
Cornelia J. Bills. 
L. M. Wood. 
Sarah T. Jennison. 
Mary E. Hodge. 
Mary A. VValdock. 
Annie M. Wentworth. 
Ann M. Horn. 
Ann Crowningshield. 
Margaret A. Mathews. 



Vernon street. 
Vernon street. 

Isumner street. 
Centre street. 
Smith street. 
Centre street. 
Mill Dam. 
Oxford street. 
Yeoman street. 
Orange street. 
Euslis street. 
Elm street. 
Edinboro' street. 
Alms House. 
Vernon street. 
Avon Place. 

Sumner street. 
Eustis street. 
Oxford street. 
Centre street. 
Yeoman street. 
Orange street. 
Smith street. 
Elm street. 
Vernon street. 
Avon place. 
Edinboro' street. 

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Errata. — On page 25, thirteenth hne from the bottom, for 
"averaged to one," &c., read "averaged one," &c. Page 27, fourth 
line from the top, for " he thus disciphned," read " he in thus," &c.