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City Document. — No. 10. 



REPORT 



EXAMINATION 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



Ciig flf ^U^tag, 



YEAR 1856. 




ROXBURY: 

NORFOLK COUNTY JOURNAL PRESS. 

18 5 6. 



CITY OF ROXBURY. 



In School Committee, April 24, 1856. 

The Chairman appointed the following Sub-Committees to make the 
Annual Examination of the Public Schools of the City, for the current 
year. 

High Schools. — Messrs. Walker and Waldock. 

Grammar Schools. — Messrs. Shailer, Crafts, Cummings, Seaver 
and Putnam. 

Primary Schools. — Messrs. Brewer, Morse, Allen, Farley and 

Otis. 

Attest, A. I. CUMMINGS, 

Secretary of the Board. 



June 18, 1856. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting of the Board, to pre- 
pare the Annual Report of the School Committee for the current year, 
from the several Reports of Examinations, submitted their Report. 
Whereupon it was 

Ordered, That the Report submitted by the Chairman be adopted, 
and that the same be printed, together with the several Reports of the 
Sub-Committees, as the Report of the Annual Examination of the 

Public Schools. 

Attest, A. I. CUMMINGS, 

Secretary of the Board. 



REPORT. 



The School Committee of Roxbury respectfully submit 
to the citizens their Report for the year 1855-6. 

The Public Schools of this city have long enjoyed an 
enviable reputation. Our more intimate acquaintance with 
them, consequent upon the discharge of our duties, has 
deepened the conviction that this reputation is fully de- 
served. It is believed that the educational advantages of 
this community, are not second to those in any city or town 
in the nation. 

"We are not, however, to flatter ourselves that We have 
reached perfection in our school system. Improvements 
are possible, and, in some respects, very desirable. We 
have done what we could, during the brief term of our 
office, to add to the efficiency of our Public Schools, and 
to remove all cause of complaint on the part of our citi- 
zens, — the teachers have been generally very faithful, and 
cheerfully aided the efforts of the Committee ; but there 
are still deficiencies to be supplied, improvements to be 
made, and errors to be corrected. The outward circum- 
stances of our community are continually changing. To 
adhere from year to year to the same methods of instruc- 
tion, or even to the same course of study, is both undesi- 
rable and impracticable. Our work, of whatever kind, to 



4 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

be effective, must be suited to the needs of the people, and 
should be fashioned, especially in teaching, after the most 
perfect models. Obviously, the danger is that this desire 
to keep up with the times, may develope a spirit of unrest, 
which is gratified only in continually trying new things, and 
which undervalues whatever is old, merely for the reason 
that it is old ; but because of this danger, — against which 
it is hoped the Committee are always on their guard, — it 
has not been thought proper to adopt the stand-still policy, 
and leave every thing as it is, for fear of not doing the 
best possible. When to make changes in text books ; what 
alteration should be made in the course of study; how 
much ground should be gone over in one school before the 
pupil enters the next higher; the length of time which 
should be given to this study before the scholar enters upon 
that ; how far the spirit of emulation should be allowed in 
the discipline of our schools ; what relation the studies 
pursued should have to the immediate wants of life, and 
what to the discipline of the mental powers ; these, and 
the like questions, are all very important, and worthy the 
deliberate thought of our most practical minds : but what- 
ever may be the difference of judgment on some of these 
points, it is very evident that the schools ought to be so 
conducted, that the pupils shall be interested in and profit- 
ed by their studies ; and so regulated, that the teachers 
shall work with assiduity, feeling that they are furnished 
with all reasonable helps to give the largest results to their 
labors; otherwise, the Institution will lack activity, and 
rapidly loose the confidence which it has so fully and de- 
servedly enjoyed. 

There are forty Public Schools in this City. These 
represent sixty^four Divisions, which are under the care of 
sixty-six teachers. Of these schools, three are graded as 
High ; five as Grammar ; one as Intermediate ; and thirty- 
one as Primary and Sub-Primary. 

The whole number of pupils in our Public Schools, is 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 5 

twenty-eight hundred and sixty-four, and they are distrib- 
uted as follows : 

High Schools, . . . . * 158 
Grammar Schools, . . . « 1170 

Primary and Intermediate, . . . 1536 

The whole number of persons in the City, between the 
ages of 5 and 15 years, May 1st, 1856, was 3964 

The cost of the Schools for the year 1855-6, Was thirty- 
two thousand three hundred and two dollars, seventy-four 
cents. This includes the total amount of expenses for 
High, Grammar, and Primary Schools. 

No new School House has been erected during the past 
year. We have, however, requested the City Council to 
provide further Primary School accommodations in the 
vicinity of the junction of Warren and Cliff Streets, and 
it is understood that they will erect, the present season, a 
suitable brick building for that purpose, on Winthrop 
Street. 

Our Grammar Schools are very well accommodated — if 
we except the Dudley School. Two Divisions of this 
School were displaced to make room for the Girls' High 
School,* these two, or Divisions nearly corresponding 
therewith, are now taught in the Octagon Hall building. 
Should it be found desirable, and practicable, to consoli- 
date our High Schools, by erecting for their use a suitable 
edifice, which shall be under one general head, — an ar- 
rangement very much to be desired in view of the economy 
of it, — the two Divisions in the uncomfortable and un- 
healthy rooms in the hired building could return to their 
proper places " otherwise, our successors, at no very re- 
mote period, may find it necessary to ask for further 
accommodations for Grammar School girls. — In this con- 
nection we express our hearty approbation of the action of 
the City Council, in setting out trees around the School 
Houses. The work appears to have been thoroughly and 
well done. The teachers will doubtless take special care 
to preserve the trees from injury by their scholars. 



6 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

In the selection of teachers, especially for the Primary- 
Schools, the Committee have been of late very particular. 
The standard of qualifications required in applicants for 
situations, has been considerably raised. The Committee 
regret that so many excellent and promising candidates fail 
to obtain situations, but they feel obliged to make the best 
selections in their power, and should not be governed by 
personal attachments, or largely influenced by the outward 
needs of individuals. 

It has been the policy of the School Committee, to hold 
each teacher responsible for the School under his or her 
charge. Local Committees seldom interfere with the in- 
ternal arrangement of the schools, unless some exigency 
arises which requires special action. What the school is, 
the teacher is answerable for. This is doubtless, in some 
cases, not exactly a fair test of the usefulness of the teach- 
er; but it is the nearest right of any rule we have been 
able to make. We are satisfied that any apology based 
upon too many pupils of this nation, or that, which is offered 
by a teacher as an excuse for a dull and inefficient School, 
ought not to be accepted. We do not expect our teachers 
to furnish their pupils with either healthy bodies or vigor- 
ous minds ; but we do expect them to give the very best 
instruction to all the pupils under their care. Because the 
average grade of material composing a school chance to 
be low, that is no reason why the quality of instruction 
should not be high. The use which the teacher makes of 
such material as he or she has, not the quality of it, should 
determine the value of that person to the City. — In view 
of this responsibility for the good standing and usefulness 
of their schools, which the Committee place upon teachers 
in their employ, we have long considered it our duty to 
befriend them in such little troubles as may from time to 
time arise, and to sustain them in such discipline as they 
may think it judicious to adopt ; provided, it be not im- 
proper, or contrary to the letter or spirit of the Regula- 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 1 

tions of the Committee. And we are happy to find so 
many parents in the community taking the same view of 
this subject, who are careful not to make complaints against 
teachers, or in any way speak disparagingly of them, with- 
in the hearing of their children. Such respect for the office 
of teacher, while it deepens the conviction in the mind of 
the occupant of the great responsibilities of the position, 
will secure the best results to all concerned. 

The Annual Examination, just concluded, and of which 
this Report gives in the accompanying papers quite a full 
statement, has been unusually thorough. Every School in 
the City has been carefully examined by some member of 
the Committee, and visited by at least one other member. 
The reports of the Examiners embody many important facts 
and suggestions, and reflect great credit upon the Commit- 
tee for the patience and perseverance with which their 
work has been done. 

It gives us great pleasure to be able to assure our fel- 
low citizens, that the very best feeling exists throughout 
our entire school system, and that everything promises 

well for the future. 

W. H. RYDER, 

Chairman of School Committee. 



CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 



HIGH SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 

This school is under the united supervision of the City 
and the Board of Trustees of the Latin School. The ex- 
amination, on the part of this Board, was attended to dur- 
ing the two weeks preceding the May vacation. Since the 
last annual examination, the school has increased very con- 
siderably. At that time the First Class contained six 
pupils; the Second, seventeen; and the Third, thirty-four; 
making the whole number connected with the school, fifty- 
seven. At the present time the First Class numbers four- 
teen pupils; the Second, twenty-four; and the Third, forty 
— making the whole number now connected with the 
school, seventy-eight. This large and rapid increase indi- 
cates the estimation in which the school is held by the 
community, and the high value set upon the advantages 
which it affords to the youth of our City. 

The several classes were examined at considerable 
length in the various studies of the year ; — from two to 
three hours being devoted to each of the more important 
branches. It was in accordance, at once with the wishes 
of the teachers and with the views of your Committee, that 
the examination should be, in the strictest sense, thorough ; 
that the pupils should be put to the severest test of their 
powers ; that each one should have opportunity to show, 
for himself, what he had learned, how he had done it, and 
how much of that which he had acquired, he had got so 
unquestionably into his possession, that it was available to 
him for e very-day use, and had gained the mastery of so 
completely, that he was not afraid of it. 

The First Class, numbering fourteen pupils, having an 
average age of 16 3 years, have been in the school nearly 
three years. They were examined in Book-keeping, Rhet- 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 9 

oric, Mental Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Elocution and 
English Composition. They have also attended, during the 
year, to Geometry, Trigonometry, Algebra and French. 

The Second Class, numbering twenty-four pupils, having 
an average age of 15/ 2 years, have been in the school 
nearly two years. They were examined in Algebra, Ge- 
ometry, French, English Composition, and Declamation. 
They have also attended to History and the Constitution 
of the United States. These classes are under the in- 
struction of the Principal of the school, Mr. S. M. Weston. 

The Third Class, numbering forty pupils, having an 
average age of 14: £, years, have been connected with the 
school about nine months. They were examined in His- 
tory, Arithmetic, Analysis and Parsing, Penmanship and 
Declamation. They have also attended to Descriptive 
Geography, Physical Geography, and English Composition. 
This class is under the instruction of Mr. R. C. Metcalf. 
During this, their first year, they have been employed, for 
the most part, in finishing up their Grammar School stu- 
dies. No time, however, has been lost. The instruction 
which they receive is by no means a repetition or reitera- 
tion of what they have already acquired, but rather an 
application of it to the higher branches, and quite essential 
as an introduction to a High School course of study. Mr. 
Metcalf is a thorough, practical teacher, and is evidently 
animated by the same spirit which makes the Principal so 
successful. 

Your Committee take pleasure in the duty of reporting 
to you, that throughout the whole course of the severe and 
protracted examination, they observed nothing in the vari- 
ous exercises of the several classes, that called for animad- 
version, but, on the contrary, much everywhere that was 
worthy of special remark. No complete failure occurred 
in any department. Few were brought to a stand, and of 
these most recovered themselves. The recitations through- 
out the school were characterized by promptness, decision, 
2 



10 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

clearness, ease, fluency and thcmghtfulness. The bearing 
of the pupils was cheerful and animated to the end. The 
excellence of many of the recitations was of the highest 
order. This was especially true of the most advanced 
class ; the pupils were evidently at home in the several 
departments of study ; no cross-questioning could confuse 
or entangle them. The very heroes of the school-room, 
they seemed to enjoy the closest investigation. Far from 
shunning the difficult points, they took care to bring them 
all out fully to the light and make the most of them. They 
had evidently been wont to make study a recreation ; to 
penetrate with ambitious and eager search into the deep 
things of Science, to uncover her mysteries and follow her 
familiarly through her most intricate processes. 

The examination of this class in Moral and Mental Phi- 
losophy and Rhetoric, occupied from two to three hours 
each. During the whole of this time the attention of the 
class never flagged. Each pupil was prepared to take up 
the subject under consideration at any moment, and dis- 
course upon it in a manner that would be creditable to a 
college class. After an analysis of the subject and free 
discussion of the text, he was subjected to close question- 
ing by the rest of the class, which exposed his weak points 
if he had made any, compelled him to think for himself, 
and would have stripped him defenceless if he had been 
merely repeating the text from memory. In this way the 
author's meaning was illustrated and fixed, the opinions of 
the class were called forth and canvassed, and many new 
thoughts brought out. Each pupil was ready also to write 
on the spot, without reference to the text-book, an ab- 
stract of any topic indicated to him, and prepare any num- 
ber of original questions upon it, from which he was at 
liberty to catechise the class indiscriminately, and on which 
he must submit, in turn, to the closest questioning from the 
class. 

In the department of Mathematics the same admirable 



EXAMINATION OP SCHOOLS. 11 

system of instruction is pursued, and with similar complete 
success. 

In the study of the French language, the true method is 
used ; the only method that can be completely successful 
with learners, who do not have the advantage of a resi- 
dence among those who speak the language. The pupil is 
first carried through a systematic analysis of the element- 
ary sounds of the language. He learns to divide the com- 
pound into simple sounds ; to make the nice distinctions 
between similar sounds of the two languages ; to dis- 
tinguish English sounds not occurring in the French, and 
French sounds not occurring in the English language. He 
is kept in practice upon these till he can make all the ele- 
mentary sounds, and their various combinations. 

Mr. Weston is very patient, laborious and exact in in- 
culcating these elements. His classes seem to have caught 
his enunciation as readily as they catch his spirit, and to 
have mastered the most difficult French sounds. Probably 
the most successful teacher of French, among us, is a 
thoroughly-trained American. A Frenchman, imperfectly 
acquainted with our language, can do very little with an 
American class. When he has occasion to say what any 
particular French sound is like, he is helpless, for, very 
probably, he cannot give the English sound with which he 
would compare it. As long as he has difficulty in uttering 
English sounds, his class will have similar difficulty in 
enunciating French sounds ; and herein, we think, lies the 
explanation of the fact that classes, after the most labori- 
ous and, apparently, the most careful training from their 
French teacher, never pronounce well to a French ear. 

In the department of Declamation, the several classes 
acquitted themselves well. Under the present organiza- 
tion of the school, with but two teachers for three classes, 
much time cannot be devoted to this, without neglecting 
more inportant branches. Nevertheless, what has been 
done has been based on the principle on which all the 



12 CITY DOCUMENT— No. 10. 

work of the school is conducted — that the pupil under- 
stand fully what he is to do, how it is to be done, and then 
set himself in earnest about it. There was, indeed, very 
little of the overwrought, theatrical style of performance ; 
no tawdry affectation of sentiments unfelt; no studied 
pomp or mock solemnity ; no aping of the manners of a 
clown ; but what is far better than these, an easy, forcible 
and dignified delivery of the sentiments and meaning of the 
authors from whose writings the passages were selected. 

The general appearance of the school corresponded with 
the style of their scholastic training. The bearing of the 
pupils toward their teacher was respectful, cheerful, and 
confiding ; toward each other good-humored, easy and dig- 
nified. Every thing about the pupils themselves, their 
school-rooms and the building, indicated that the members 
of the school were thoroughly in earnest at their various 
studies, and had no time or inclination for idle and mis- 
chievous employments. 

During the year, some pupils have left the school to go 
into active business. Compared with the whole attend- 
ance, the number has been small ; but even this small num- 
ber is to be regretted. Doubtless to the parents of those 
who have left the course unfinished, good and sufficient, it 
may be, imperative reasons seemed to exist. No well- 
informed and judicious parent would act lightly or incon- 
siderately in removing his child from such privileges. Some, 
doubtless, act under the painful constraint of circumstan- 
ces, contrary to their cherished wishes and convictions ; 
others, probably, are influenced by what appear to them 
to be weighty considerations, but which, if closely analysed, 
and viewed in a different light, would have less influence in 
bringing them to a decision. 

A few boys leave school, perhaps, at the very outset. 
Getting discouraged at appearances, dismayed at the mere 
programme of their course, or at what they see done by 
the advanced classes, being diffident, it may be, and dis- 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 13 

trustful of their own powers, they lack courage to under- 
take the work of the school, and fall away without ever 
knowing what their capacities are. A little wholesome 
constraint, and encouragement for a few months, would 
bring such boys safely and happily over the bridge of im- 
agined difficulties, and launch them securely, prosperously, 
and permanently upon the course. 

Some boys are taken away by their parents early in the 
course, because they seem to have trouble in their work. 
They think their boys are not likely to be interested in it, 
and therefore it is of no use to keep them there ; that they 
are losing time ; ought to be at their trade. A little pa- 
tient waiting in behalf of such boys, a little friendly con- 
ference with their teacher, a little labor with them to 
create an interest in their studies, would, in most cases, set 
them right, and send them on their way profitably. 

Some boys drop off in the midst of the course. They 
get disheartened, perhaps, by being out of school on ac- 
count of sickness. When they return, they find the class 
far ahead of them. Having resumed their studies before 
they are quite well, feeling the languor and heaviness of a 
convalescence burdened with the work of health, after 
holding out for a time, two or three headaches or a settled 
relapse decides the question, and they pass away from their 
place. A longer respite before returning to their work, 
and some additional oversight and counsel on the part of 
their parents, would enable such boys to regain, gradually, 
their position, and save them from the injurious precedent 
of an abandoned work. 

Some parents take their boys away, because they come, 
in the regular course of study, upon some branch or branches 
of which they do not see the utility. The boy is to be a 
carpenter ; what does he want of Rhetoric ? He is to be 
a farmer ; what does he want of Mathematics ? He is to 
be a civil-engineer; what does he want of Intellectual 
Philosophy? He is to be a machinist; what does he want 



14 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

of French ? But the special application of a study to any 
particular business is not the point, not the real issue. It 
is, rather, the general effect of the discipline of mind, 
which all thorough and well-directed study gives, upon the 
manner of attending to the business of life. It is the 
manner, not the department of study, that is of chief im- 
portance. If a parent is satisfied that his boy is at work 
in earnest, or if not, is likely to be so soon, he may well 
be content to let him work on. He is working for life ; is 
being shaped for all the future. 

The importance of such a school cannot be too highly 
estimated. The training which boys receive here gives 
them a preparation at once for the business and the pleas- 
ure of life, invaluable to them through all their future 
years, and never fully acquired at all, unless acquired at 
this period of their lives. It sets them in the front rank 
of usefulness, dignity and success in all the various depart- 
ments of active life. The amount of actual knowledge 
acquired is very large — knowledge that is of immediate 
practical application to mechanical and mercantile as well 
as to professional pursuits. But this, however extensive 
and essential, is far outweighed in value by the mental dis- 
cipline involved in such a course of study. The power and 
habit of concentration of thought ; of generalizing and sys- 
temizing facts ; of tracing the associations of thought in the 
minds of others ; of discerning the causes of things, and 
anticipating their effects ; of expressing opinions fluently, 
and without confusion of mind ; of imparting ideas prompt- 
ly, clearly and persuasively to others ; of leading the way, 
resolutely and understanding^ in carrying them out — 
such power and habits of mind once acquired are never 
lost. Their value cannot be estimated by comparison with 
other things that we count most precious. We cannot set 
a price of money upon them, for they are the masters of 
money ; they command the capital and wealth of the world. 
We cannot measure their value with time, for they are the 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 15 

holders, employers and governors of time. Without the 
possession of them, the young man, at the present day, is 
too often constrained to stand uncertain and aimless, while 
the better-informed and trained pass by and beyond him. 

For the Examining Committee, 

JAMES WALDO CK. 



HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 

This school was examined during the fortnight preced- 
ing the May vacation. As at present organized, it consists 
of two classes. The First, numbering thirty-two pupils, 
having an average age of seventeen years, have been con- 
nected with the school nearly two years, under the instruc- 
tion of the Principal, Mr. Robert Bickfoed. The Second, 
numbering eighteen pupils, having an average age of fifteen 
years, have been connected with the school nine months, 
under the instruction of Miss Martha S. Price. 

The First Class were examined in Algebra, Geometry, 
Intellectual Philosophy, Latin, French, Reading and Rheto- 
rical Analysis, English Literature and Drawing. 

The Second Class were examined in Algebra, Latin, 
History, Botany, Reading, Composition and Drawing. They 
have also attended, during the year, to Grammar, Arith- 
metic, Physiology, English Analysis, and Writing. 

It was intended in this school, as in the High School for 
Boys, that the examination should be rigid and complete ; 
that the pupils should have opportunity to justify the high 
expectations of the Committee concerning it; that they 
should show to what purpose they had been employed, and 
to what extent the knowledge they had acquired and the 
faculties they had cultivated, were at their command. 

Your Committee take much pleasure in reporting to the 



16 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

Board, that the result of the examination was highly satis- 
factory. The pupils were prompt, thoughtful, fluent, and 
exact in all their exercises, and gave abundant evidence 
that the method of instruction used in the school is calcu- 
lated to form correct habits of study, to develop and 
strengthen all the mental powers ; that the aim of the 
teachers has not been to carry the classes smoothly and 
fluently through a recitation merely, but to set them at 
work in earnest for themselves ; to accustom them to think, 
to form opinions of their own, and subject the principles 
demonstrated and ideas inculcated in their various studies 
to the test of their own intellectual processes. 

The examination of the Second Class in Worcester's 
History was very nearly faultless. The pupils gave a phi- 
losophical account of all the important events in the His- 
tory of France, explaining the connection of one event 
with another, and the influence of the various causes which 
produced them. The exercise was especially satisfactory, 
because it was evident that they were doing more than 
merely repeating passages committed to memory from the 
text-book. 

The recitation of this class in Algebra was equally ex- 
cellent. The pupils showed that they were well acquainted 
with the first principles and rules of the science ; that they 
understood the topics which they illustrated upon the 
board, and would have no serious difficulty in applying 
them, as they advanced in the study, to the closest and 
most intricate Algebraic processes. 

The exercise in Solid and Spherical Geometry by the 
First Class, was without fault. There was no stumbling, 
no cloudiness of mind, no obscurity of thought. Every 
step of reasoning was so plain and easy, that it was impos- 
sible not to take it. Every principle was so clear to the 
pupil, so completely in her possession, that the demonstra- 
tions, without exception, could be followed readily and sat- 
isfactorily to the end. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 17 

The exercise in Beading and Ehetorical Analysis, from 
Cleveland's Compendium of English Literature, was ex- 
ceedingly interesting. It was more than mere instruction 
in the art of reading. Each pupil, after reading a passage, 
gave an analysis of its contents, explaining the author's 
meaning, showing by what laws of association the ideas ex- 
pressed succeeded each other in his mind, criticising his 
style, language and sentiments, and submitting her own 
opinions to the criticism of the class. The passages se- 
lected were read distinctly, thoughtfully, with proper feel- 
ing, without affectation, in a word — eloquently. It could 
not be otherwise, for the readers had a full comprehension 
of the author's meaning, and were in full possession of his 
spirit. Nothing in the English language can be beyond 
the reach or above the capacity of a class trained in this 
manner. It would hardly be possible, we think, to devote 
too much time to such study. To make good readers is 
to make good thinkers, good conversers and good critics ; 
to cultivate the most refined intellectual sense. 

An exercise included under the head of " English Lite- 
rature," of a somewhat novel character, has been lately 
introduced by Mr. Bickford. Each pupil selects a subject 
on which to speak, informs herself upon it by reference to 
such books as she can command, and delivers an extempo- 
raneous essay on it. About two hours were devoted to 
hearing these essays. The following is a list of the sub- 
jects selected for the occasion : 

The Mammoth Cave — Iceland — Tea — Abd el Kader 
— The Pyramids — The Colosseum — The Cid — the Bat- 
tle of Otterburn — The Tower of Pisa — India — The 
Crusades — Brutus killing Caesar — Cromwell — The Trade 
Winds — St. Peters — Benjamin West — Eliot — Bichard 
Third — General Warren — Colonel Fremont — Mary, 
Queen of Scots — Longfellow — Niagara — Athens — Pal- 
myra — The Mississippi Scheme — The Kremlin. 

The Essays were delivered, for the most part, without 

3 



18 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

hesitation, distinctly, fluently, and with much self-command 
and collectedness of thought. The language used was gen- 
erally in good taste, free from grammatical errors, and 
evinced considerable originality of thought and expression. 
There was no uneasiness or confusion of mind ; no break- 
ing down upon a momentary hesitation to collect the 
thoughts. 

In the department of Latin, the First Class translated 
and parsed from Nepos. The translations were generally 
elegant, and at the same time pretty close to the text ; 
showing a clear understanding of the construction, and a 
good command of language. It is hardly to be expected 
that persons whose attention has never been given to the 
study of Latin, should appreciate fully the importance of 
the language, and the propriety of devoting so much time 
to the study of it. Even liberally-educated persons have, 
at times, been induced to add the weight of their authority 
to the prejudice against dead languages. If the mere ac- 
quisition of the language for its own sake were the most 
important consideration, the parent might reasonably ob- 
ject that the pupil would be far more profitably employed 
upon the German, Italian, or any other spoken language. 
But this is not the point. The term " dead" is very unfor- 
tunately, and, in the ordinary acceptation of it, untruly 
applied to the language. It is in the highest, noblest sense, 
a living language. It lives in the words of which we make 
the commonest daily use. It lives in our idioms. It lives 
in the structure of our language. Its vitality can never be 
lost. It will endure as long as the English Language is 
spoken. The study of the Latin is, in the strictest sense, 
the study of the English Language. A very large propor- 
tion of English words are derived directly from the Latin. 
The highest refinements of English style come from it. 
When the pupil looks for the meaning of a Latin word, she 
finds, it may be, twenty significations differing chiefly in 
shades of meaning, and requiring, on that account, a nicer 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 19 

and closer discernment to distinguish them. From these 
she must select the one adapted to her purpose, i. e. the 
one that will make good sense in the passage to be trans- 
lated. Thus she exercises her judgment. Having decided 
this, she finds, perhaps, six meanings that are synonyms, all 
making good sense, from which she must choose again ; and 
this time she exercises her taste. When she has learned 
the meaning of all the words, she must put them together 
in such connection that they will make a good English sen- 
tence : herein she exercises her ingenuity in construction. 
Finally, she combines the translated clauses according to 
their appropriate dependence upon each other, in such a 
manner that the author's train of thought shall be distinct- 
ly and faithfully followed. In this last process, the pupil's 
reasoning powers are called into full and vigorous exer- 
cise. Such mental training as this justifies, we think, the 
expenditure of time required for its accomplishment. 

The department of French has been in charge, during 
the year, of Mr. J. P. Edwards. His class translated 
promptly passages which were new to them, and conversed 
with their teacher in the language with considerable fluen- 
cy. Mr. Edwards has labored assiduously and persever- 
ingly to secure a good pronunciation on the part of his 
pupils, and seems to have made the study interesting as 
well as profitable to them. 

During the last six months, the school have had a semi- 
weekly exercise in Drawing, under the instruction of Mr. 
Wm. N. Bartholomew. His system is new, and seems to 
be based upon the true principles of the art. The progress 
which his pupils have made, and the interest which they 
manifest in the study, afford gratifying assurance of his 
success. 

The general appearance of the school accorded with the 
excellence of its intellectual culture. Good humor and 
modest, dignified manners prevailed in every department. 
The teachers maintain constant activity in the school-room, 



20 CITY DOCUMENT— No. 10. 

without resort to any unwholesome, selfish stimulus. The 
pupils love their work, and are learning, daily, to exercise 
those refined, gentle, and unobtrusive courtesies, which add 
pleasure and usefulness to all the relations of life. "We 
are indebted largely to the untiring, well-directed labor of 
the Principal, and his efficient Assistant, that the wishes of 
this Board have been so fully realized ; that we have now 
a " High School for Girls " of which we have reason to 
be proud — a school that will furnish to us the most ac- 
complished and efficient teachers, and will help to elevate 
and refine every portion of the community that is repre- 
sented in it. 

For the Examining Committee. 

JAMES WALDO CK. 



GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

The Committee appointed to make the Annual Exami- 
nation of the Grammar Schools, respectfully submit the 
following report : 

The several schools were assigned to different members 
of the Committee. By so doing, the whole Committee 
were prevented from being present at the examination of 
each school ; but, by this arrangement, they were enabled 
to give sufficient time to each to become well acquainted 
with its condition. 

The Committee are united in expressing their confident 
belief that the Grammar Schools have during the past year 
fully maintained their former good standing. They found 
abundant evidence that they were in a healthy condition. 

We have five Grammar Schools. It is to be regretted 
that we must number so many. It is only because of the 
distance which scholars would otherwise be obliged to 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 21 

walk, that so many are at all justifiable. If we had but 
two, instead of five, there would be a much better classifi- 
cation, and the teacher's work would be more concentrated 
and efficient ; and with better advantages for the pupils, 
their education would be carried on at much less expense. 
The Francis Street School, formed within the last year, 
consists of only one Division, but that is composed of 
scholars of all grades of attainment, from those who have 
just left the Primary School, to those who are nearly qual- 
ified for the High School. Of course the teacher's efforts 
must be distributed over the whole ground, and hence the 
school necessarily exhibits a want of the accuracy and 
thoroughness which are found in large schools, where the 
same range of studies and attainment is distributed to 
seven or eight teachers, besides the Principal. It is an 
enterprising school, of good standing and accomplishment ; 
but it wants the nice accuracy which we must demand, and 
may have in a large school of thorough analysis. Other 
schools — the Comins and Dearborn — suffer somewhat 
from the same cause. They each take the scholars of a 
certain district, and if they only have numbers sufficient 
for four or five divisions, they have the same variety of at- 
tainment that is found in the larger Washington and Dudley 
Schools. In these last two, because of the larger number 
of scholars, we feel justified in furnishing the Principals 
with an Assistant in the First Division. This is regarded 
very desirable, in order to give the Principals opportunity 
to spend time throughout the whole school, and so make it 
a unit in its government and methods, its spirit and attain- 
ment. In the smaller schools the necessity for such an 
assistant is not so great, and the comparative expense 
seems to forbid it. There is strong argument for large 
schools, when it is consistent. It is better that scholars 
be required to walk a long distance, than to have too many 
schools. And the policy of the City ought to be to con- 
centrate rather than scatter, reduce rather than multiply 
the number. 



22 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

The deportment of the several schools, was found highly 
satisfactory. Order was good, giving evidence of having 
been obtained by a large exercise of the nobler moral 
qualities, and a small judicious resort to corporal punish- 
ment. The Committee were highly gratified to find so 
much of anxious solicitude on the part of teachers in behalf 
of the morals and general social deportment of the pupils. 
They prized highly those schools and divisions most emi- 
nent in cultivating true politeness in the intercourse be- 
tween teacher and scholar, and purity of language and 
morals. A teacher with power over pupils to restrain 
them from vulgarity and profanity, and to cultivate in them 
a taste for the appropriate and becoming, ranks high in 
qualification. We believe our Grammar Schools worthy 
of commendation for their .healthful moral influence. 

In this connection, the Committee would express their 
pleasure in observing an apparent earnestness in many of 
the teachers, in seeking to improve their own qualifications 
for their responsible work. A spirit of inquiry was man- 
ifest, and an intelligence in reference to instructive period- 
ical literature bearing upon their profession, and also an 
interest in Teachers' Associations, all of which gives evi- 
dence that they are awake to the importance of their work, 
and promises still greater efficiency and attainment in 
future. "We most heartily commend the earnestness which 
leads teachers to practice observation upon good schools, 
and to keep themselves well read in all that is written for 
their special benefit. As highly as we may justly speak of 
our Grammar Schools, the highest ideal, the best school 
is not yet realized ; and we commend the zeal that reaches 
after it, and condemn the self-satisfaction that is content 
with present attainment. There is a maxim, " Let well 
enough alone ; " but it does not apply to schools. They 
are not well enough in any present attainment. 

The Reading in the several schools gave general satis- 
faction. It showed careful instruction in the distinct enun- 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 23 

ciation of sounds and syllables, and an understanding and 
natural utterance of the sentiment. Our Grammar Schools 
should be thoroughly trained in the elementary sounds, 
beginning with the lowest divisions, or rather with the Pri- 
mary School, and continued through all of the divisions. 

The Spelling and Defining were not so generally satis- 
factory. There were more failures and deficiencies than 
there ought to have been with sufficient relative attention 
to this important branch of Education. It is of the first 
importance that Spelling be thoroughly taught. The time 
that is necessary should be devoted to it; so that no 
teacher is excusable for allowing Spelling to be indiffer- 
ently learned. It is indispensable, and must be gained in 
the early stages of education. Other branches can be ac- 
quired later, but Spelling must take the precedence. The 
Committee would urge upon teachers the importance of 
giving it its proper place and of seeing that it is thorough- 
ly attained. 

The recitations in Geography were very creditable. 
This is a branch of study in which our text-books are very 
imperfect, and there is consequently liability to injudicious 
labor. The Committee, however, found very little to com- 
plain of. In some instances there seemed to have been 
more time spent in learning minute descriptions of foreign 
countries than appeared judicious. The Geography of our 
own country ought to be very minutely learned — that of 
others less so. The course of study in every branch in 
our schools should have a strong reference to practical 
utility ; and hence, in Geography, after a thorough under- 
standing of the general principles and description, the 
Geography of our own country should claim by far the 
most particular attention. 

Some fine specimens of Map Drawing were shown. 
There has, perhaps, been less attention paid to Map Draw- 
ing the past year than in some previous years. The Com- 
mittee commend the practice as the very best means of 



24 CITY DOCUMENT— No. 10. 

acquiring accurate geographical knowledge, and hope it 
•will not be neglected in any of our Grammar Schools. 

The Committee find little occasion, in their report, to 
dwell upon the examination in Arithmetic. They found 
abundant evidence that it was thoroughly taught. A mark- 
ed difference was, however, observable in different schools 
and divisions. This is a study in which the energy and 
efficiency of a teacher are very much tested. It is the 
study in which sharp attention and promptness are best 
cultivated in the scholar. 

In some of the schools Colburn's First Lessons were 
found to have been dropped earlier than seemed to the 
Committee judicious. Indeed, the exercise in Intellectual 
Arithmetic is so beneficial, that Colburn's Lessons may be 
very profitably continued for occasional exercise after 
Written Arithmetic has been taken as the main study in 
this branch. 

In the department of Grammar the Committee were 
highly pleased with the examination of several of the 
classes in parsing and analysis of sentences. The method 
of our schools in this branch is no doubt the right one, 
and the results very satisfactory. 

Penmanship was found to be very creditable in nearly 
all of the schools and divisions. The Committee were 
gratified with the very neat and well-executed writing- 
books of the lowest divisions. "Writing should be begun 
there, and prosecuted with care, till in all the higher divi- 
sions we find elegant penmanship ; such, indeed, as we did 
find in very many instances. So much attention should be 
given to it in the lowest divisions, that those scholars who 
find it necessary to leave the school before they reach the 
higher divisions, shall have acquired a good penmanship. 
This was found to be realized. 

The Compositions of the higher classes were some of 
them very good. The Committee would be glad to see 
still greater attention paid to this important exercise. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 25 

We have by no means reached the highest standard for 
our schools in this respect. We shall be glad to see the 
method improved and the practice increased in this exer- 
cise, by the introduction of some text-book which shall be 
well adapted. The discipline and advantage gained by 
much practice in writing Composition are very great, pro- 
vided the requirement be brought to the capacity of the 
scholar, and he be led along in it step by step, as in Arith- 
metic. We shall gladly welcome the text-book that shall 
meet our wants in this respect. 

The Singing, which had been made a regular exercise 
once a week in the higher classes, gave evidence of the 
profitableness of the exercise. 

The Committee would have been glad to have had pre- 
sented for examination specimens of Drawing. But this 
has not been made a regular study. The rudiments of this 
art and some practice might be introduced into our Gram- 
mar Schools with profit ; making an agreeable change for 
one or two lessons a week, and cultivating in the pupils a 
taste and observation very desirable. 

J. S. SHAILER, 
In behalf of the Examining; Committee. 



THE INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL. 

This school, as is well known, is composed of children 
who are too old for admission into the Primary Schools, 
and who are not sufficiently qualified for admission to the 
lower divisions of the Grammar Schools. Previous to 
their connection with this school, very few of them enjoy- 
ed the benefits of any instruction. 

The materials of which this school is composed, are of 
such a character as to require great labor and perse- 
4 



26 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

verance on the part of the teachers, in order to pro- 
duce satisfactory results. Formerly it was quite difficult 
to secure regularity in attendance, and a reliable truthful- 
ness in the scholars ; but of late it is gratifying to observe 
a decided improvement in these particulars. Cases of tru- 
ancy rarely occur, and the scholars appear to manifest a 
deep interest in their studies, are punctual in their attend- 
ance, and orderly in their appearance. Their manners and 
morals have undergone a change decidedly for the better. 

The examination was entirely satisfactory. Order and 
discipline has been maintained, to use the language of the 
Examining Committee of last year, "not by physical force, 
but by the power of kindness, and the wise adaptation of 
measures to awaken the affections and moral sense of the 
pupils." 

The teachers, Miss Delia Mansfield and Miss Nancy L. 
Tuckek, have discharged their duties in a highly satisfac- 
tory manner, and it is gratifying to observe that their 
labors have been crowned with the success that all well- 
directed efforts deserve. 

JOSEPH N. BREWER. 



PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

The examination of the Primary Schools, just concluded, 
has been, in many respects, satisfactory to the Committee. 
The teachers, taken as a whole, have labored diligently 
and earnestly, and we see the results of their labor in the 
condition of their respective schools. We cannot say that 
every school examined by us came fully up to the desired 
standard, yet we are happy to find that few fell but little 
below it. It cannot of course be expected that all our 
Primary Schools should reach the same point of excellence, 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 27 

for that would be unreasonable. Children, having the advan- 
tages of home instruction, and surrounded by influences 
highly favorable to the development of their mental powers, 
under the care and guidance of parents who watch care- 
fully over their manners and morals, aiding them in their 
studies, and keeping them regular in their attendance at 
school, will of course appear to better advantage than 
those less fortunately situated, who are constantly sur- 
rounded by influences unfavorable, and whose manners and 
morals are little cared for. The differences between such 
scholars are marked, and are visible in the school-room as 
well as out of it j and it cannot be expected that where 
such differences, in home influences, opportunities, and 
advantages exist, that we should look for or expect any- 
thing like uniformity in the appearance of the schools, or 
an approach to the same standard of excellence And if 
the labors of our teachers have not been crowned in every 
instance with the success hoped for and desired, it must 
not be attributed to any want of effort on their part, but 
to causes outside of the school-room, over which of course 
they have no control. 

The several schools were divided among different mem- 
bers of the Committee for examination; and it is not 
deemed expedient to present their several reports here at 
length. For details respecting any of the schools, refer- 
ence may be made to the reports on file. 

Primary Schools. Nos. 1, Sarah T. Jennison; 2, Car- 
oline J. Nash ; 3, Eliza C. Parmelee ; 4, Sarah 0. Bab- 
cock ; 5, Elizabeth A. Morse ; 6, Margaret E. Davis, 
teachers — were examined by Dr. Allen. 

The examination was generally satisfactory. The First 
and Second Classes in No. 6 have not been promoted, as 
they should have been the last term. We do not, how- 
ever, consider the teacher as responsible for this omission. 



28 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

Nos. 7, Makia L. Young; 9, Hakriet H. Fay; 10, Su- 
sannah L. Durant; 25, Caroline N. Heath, teachers — 
were examined by Mr. Brewer. 

The examination was generally satisfactory. The order, 
in some instances, was not all that could be desired. 

Nos. 11, Emily Gardner; 12, Susan A. Fall; 13, Cor- 
nelia J. Bills ; 14, Pluma A. Savage ; 15, Ann M. Back- 
up; 16, Ann Crowninshield, teachers — were examined 
by Dr. Morse ; who says, in his report : 

" The four schools first named are in the same building. 
At the commencement of last term they were arranged as 
to grade the same as the schools in Yeoman Street. The 
limited time the present arrangement has been adopted, 
has not so fully developed its superiority, as will be made 
manifest at future examinations. There is no doubt, that, 
in a given time, the pupils will be advanced more rapidly, 
and be more thoroughly prepared for the Grammar Schools, 
than they would be under the former arrangement. 

" The two higher schools, instead of being divided into 
five or six classes each, are now arranged in three classes 
each, those the more advanced being under the charge of 
Miss Gardner, and those less advanced being under the 
care of Miss Fall ; thus each teacher has a less number of 
classes, and consequently can devote more time to each 
class. 

" The progress of pupils of this rank, depends more upon 
the familiar illustrations and explanations of the teacher, 
than upon the direct application of the pupils. If a teacher 
is fitted for her position, and does not confine her efforts 
to hearing lessons and exercises contained in the pre- 
scribed books, but, from her own resources, adapts the 
illustration and explanation to the capacities of her pupils, 
she will advance her scholars much more rapidly, the more 
time she can devote to a class, although that class may be 
large in numbers. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 29 

"The two Sub-Primary Schools (Nos. 13 and 14) are of 
the same grade. Children are received into one or the 
other, as they can be accommodated, and, when prepared, 
are promoted from both to No. 12 ; and after being qualified 
in that, are transferred to No. 11 — the teacher of which, 
having charge of the older and more advanced pupils, is the 
Principal, whose duty it is, besides attending to her own 
school, to exercise supervision over the other schools, so 
far as to regulate the opening and closing the house, care 
of building and yard, and the time and manner of recess ; 
to be consulted in all cases of promotion, and cases of dif- 
ficulty between parents and teachers, and to give advice 
in other matters whenever requested so to do." 

The examination of these four schools, was highly satis- 
factory. In each good order was maintained without the 
appearance of restraint. Of No. 15, the order and gen- 
eral appearance of the pupils was good. Of No. 16, order 
and general appearance, satisfactory. 

Nos. 17, Sarah W. Holbrook; 18, Almira B. Russell: 
19, Frances N. Brooks; 27, Margaret G. Chenery; 28, 
Sarah A. Dudley; 29, H. B. Scammell, teachers — were 
examined by Mr. Farley. 

The results of the examination were generally satisfac- 
tory ; order generally good. 

Nos. 20, Mary A. Waldock ; 21, Elvira Morse; 22, 
Elizabeth Waldock ; 23, Henrietta M. Wood ; 24, Mary 
A. Morse; 26, PersisA. Winn — teachers, were examined 
by Mr. Otis. 

These schools are furnished with good and pleasant 
rooms, large and airy yards, and all the interior fittings, 
such as maps, &c, creditable to the city. The general ap- 
pearance of neatness, attention to the duties of the school, 
respect for the teacher and her requirements on the part 
of the pupils, were all that could be expected. The teach- 



30 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

ers are kind, faithful, efficient, successful. No. 24 has 94 
pupils ; forty at least more than should attend the school. 
Some efficient remedy should be resorted to, to reduce this 
school. 

We have thus stated in brief the general results of our 
examination. From a close and careful observation, it is 
apparent to the minds of the Committee, that the order in 
a portion of the schools is not what it ought to be, and not 
what we have a right to expect. A little more attention, 
however, in most cases, on the part of the teacher, will 
remedy this defect. Order and obedience must first be 
secured before we can look for any success in teaching ; 
and if any teacher fails in her efforts to secure these, it is 
clear that she fails at the starting-point, and much of her 
after-work is labor lost. Difficulties oftentimes lie in 
the path of a teacher in endeavoring to secure obedience 
to her commands ; but these difficulties must be overcome 
by labor, perseverance and kindness. She must not only 
have patience, but energy and decision of character, and 
exercise her authority, not harshly nor with severity, but 
with firmness combined with gentleness and amiability. A 
teacher may appear laborious, painstaking, patient and 
kind — all great virtues, — but without firmness, decision, 
and command, they do not produce their perfect work. 
We know that teachers not unfrequently receive blame 
when they deserve praise, because some parents seem un- 
willing to have their children brought into proper subjec- 
tion, and the teacher is pronounced severe in her discipline 
and harsh in her commands, if she simply requires of them 
order and obedience. Children who have been under 
no sort of restraint at home, who have a very faint 
knowledge of authority, whose ideas of obedience are very 
limited — no matter to what condition in society they be- 
long — are not so easily influenced, managed or controlled 
as others, who have been so fortunate as to have been 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 31 

taught to recognize authority somewhere. The former 
class are generally masters at home, and naturally pre- 
sume to rebel against the authority of the school-room. 
To bring them into subjection, and under proper re- 
straint and good discipline — which work should have been 
performed elsewhere and by other hands — requires not 
only great labor, but the exercise of good judgment, pa- 
tience and discretion on the part of the teacher ; and many 
schools suffer not a little, in their disorderly appearance, 
because of the existence of the evil, which too many indul- 
gent, as well as too many negligent parents have uncon- 
sciously brought upon it. If parents do not think it 
expedient to bring their children under proper restraints 
or influences at home, it is well for them to understand 
that this omission must be supplied in the school-room, 
and they will be required to submit to the authority 
established there, to conform to the rules of the school, 
and taught, what has been omitted under the parental roof, 
habits of order and obedience, and a due respect to their 
parents and instructors. 

In matters of discipline we are happy to find that there 
has been little occasion to resort to corporal punishment. 
Severity in discipline is unnecessary. Much more can be 
accomplished by resorting to other means, especially in 
schools of this character. In former times, we believe, it 
was thought that to " spare the rod " would " spoil the 
child," and that ancient appendage of the school-room was 
brought daily into requisition for the very laudable pur- 
pose of not only enforcing order, but of beating knowledge 
into children, which they could obtain in no other way. 
The experience of modern times, however, demonstrates 
the fact, that the use of more rational means can be made 
most effectual in accomplishing the desired end, and the 
rod can very appropriately be dispensed with, except in 
cases where all other means shall have absolutely failed. 



32 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

To abolish corporal punishment might be desirable, but 
such a measure would be impracticable ; for if it be under- 
stood by some pupils that the teacher possessed no power 
to enforce obedience by resorting to this mode of punish- 
ment, her authority would be disregarded, and consequent- 
ly her usefulness would be at an end ; and it is for such 
pupils, and such only, that corporal chastisement may be 
necessary, and should be retained for their especial benefit 
and advantage. 

Oral instruction has been given by the teachers as usual, 
upon subjects connected with the lessons of the day, as 
well as upon other subjects, as opportunities presented. 
We cannot over-estimate the importance of instruction of 
this character, upon subjects which cannot fail to be of 
great use to them in the practical relations of life ; more 
especially as many of the children in our schools may not 
possess advantages beyond those enjoyed in the school- 
room. In those schools where instruction has been given 
in the elementary principles of Physiology, the Committee 
were highly gratified to witness the success that has at- 
tended the efforts of the teachers. The responses of the 
pupils to the questions put to them showed a better knowl- 
edge of the laws of health, derived almost exclusively from 
instruction received here, than is generally possessed by 
persons of maturer years. Of the importance of this branch 
of instruction there exists no doubt in the minds of the 
Committee, and they fully concur in the opinion expressed 
by the sanitary commission of the State a few years since, 
that " every child should be taught, early in life, that, to 
preserve his own life and his own health, and the lives and 
health of others, is one of the most important and con- 
stantly abiding duties. By obeying certain laws, or per- 
forming certain acts, his life and health may be preserved ; 
by disobedience, or performing certain other acts, they 
will both be destroyed. By knowing and avoiding the 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 33 

causes of disease, disease itself will be avoided, and he 
may enjoy health and live ; by ignorance of these causes, 
and exposure to them, he may contract disease, ruin his 
health, and die. Every thing connected with wealth, hap- 
piness and long life depends upon health ; and even the 
great duties of morals and religion are performed more 
acceptably in a healthy than in a sickly condition. Intel- 
lectual culture has received too much, and physical train- 
ing too little attention." 

In concluding this part of their report, the Committee 
would observe, that the results of the examination of the 
several schools have, in general terms, been satisfactory. 
Although some deficiencies were made manifest, we have 
reason to presume they will be remedied before another 
examination. These, as we have before observed, it is 
unnecessary to present here for comment at this time. 
We were much pleased, in several instances in many of the 
schools, with the promptness and accuracy which charac- 
terized the answers of the pupils to the questions propos- 
ed in the general exercises. A ready reply on the part of 
the pupil does not always prove the existence of a knowl- 
edge of the subject ; it sometimes shows only a good 
memory. There may be cases where the pupil has had 
impressed upon his mind, by frequent repetition, the phra- 
seology of the book, or a form of words employed by the 
teacher, but the ideas enclosed in either, he has as yet 
been unable to discover. In such cases, of course very 
little instruction has been given. It has been the aim of 
the Committee to ascertain, so far as was possible, what 
the pupils actually knew of their general exercises ; — what 
amount of instruction they had received ; — whether it was 
all superficial ; or whether they had a knowledge of things 
below the surface. And to this end they resorted in dif- 
ferent ways and by various methods to test the accuracy of 
their knowledge ; and the result has been gratifying, and 
in most cases all that could be expected. " There is no 
5 



34 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

other safe rule for the teacher to follow," says a high- 
authority, " than to take nothing for granted ; and to 
question the accuracy of the pupiVs knowledge, till it is 
incontestably proved." Following this rule, our teachers 
would accomplish much more than in relying upon any 
other standard less certain in its results. 

The Committee entertain the opinion that there is a 
want of system and harmony in the studies pursued in our 
Primary Schools, and they would suggest whether some 
standard of excellence might not be adopted, both in the 
mode of teaching and the kind and amount of knowledge 
to be acquired which would make them more successful. 

In reference to our School Buildings, we may remark, 
that we do not need or require costly or expensive struc- 
tures, but plain, neat, substantial and convenient ones, 
without any unnecessary ornament or architectural display. 
These we have, and they are generally well suited for their 
purpose. Those erected within the last few years have 
play-grounds of ample space, and the children need not 
resort to the public highway for recreation. In former 
times little attention was paid to the erection of buildings 
of this character, in regard to many things essential to their 
comfort and convenience, but now we are happy to say, 
that in their architectural arrangement health is regarded, 
in their site, structure, heating apparatus and ventilation — 
the last of which not always receiving the attention it de- 
serves. An abundant and constant supply of air, in its 
pure and natural state and of a proper temperature, is a 
very important, though, we admit, a very difficult matter. 
We cannot over-estimate the importance of a well-ventila- 
ted school-house. We consider the ventilation of all our 
school-houses more or less imperfect ; and some of them 
particularly objectionable ; but in nearly all, by care and 
the exercise of good judgment on the part of the teachers, 
they can be made comfortable. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 35 

The buildings and grounds, we are happy to state, are 
kept neat and clean, and the buildings, internally and ex- 
ternally, as well as the fences, bear but few marks of inju- 
ry. The teachers are careful to impress upon their pupils 
the impropriety of marking or otherwise defacing them, 
and we are pleased to find that their instructions are so 
generally heeded. 

Since West Eoxbury was set oflf, the location of No. 25 
is not such as to accommodate that section of the city. 
The building not only covers all the land belonging to the 
city, but encroaches upon the adjoining estate. It is earn- 
estly hoped that a change of location may be made in this 
school with the least possible delay. 

The school in Sumner Street, No. 7, is situated in a 
neighborhood in every respect unsuitable for a school. 
The building is much out of repair, and is otherwise objec- 
tionable. It was erected in 1797 by several public-spirited 
citizens residing in different parts of the city, and the land 
upon which it stands was leased to them conditionally, for 
the use of a school. A few years ago the school dis- 
trict surrendered the building and their interest in the 
property to the town, and since then it has been occupied 
by Primary schools. Some additional land was afterwards 
purchased by the town, but the whole is insufficient for the 
comfort and convenience of the scholars. 

The house is badly ventilated, or, in other words, there 
is scarcely any ventilation at all, except that obtained 
through rickety windows, and others that can be occasion- 
ally opened with considerable effort. It is well, perhaps, 
that the ventilation is no better, for the air in the im- 
mediate vicinity is not always of so pure a quality as 
might be desired, arising from the existence of stables 
north and south, a dense population surrounding it, a want 



36 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

of better drainage to the dwellings to prevent the escape 
of foul and offensive odors, which occasionally disturb the 
comfort of the neighborhood. The Committee feel that 
they would come short of their duty if they failed to urge 
the importance of making better provision for this school, 
by changing its location to more comfortable quarters. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Examining Committee, 

JOSEPH N. BREWER, Chairman. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 



37 



ABSTRACT 

Of the several Schools for the Year ending May 24, 1856. 









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HIGH SCHOOLS. 








High School for Boys, 












S. M. Weston, Principal. < 


I 2 


17 

25 


16| 
22| 


14 

22 


16.3 
15.8 


Robert C.Metcalf, Assistant 


. 3 


44 


42 


38 


14.4 






86 


81 


74 


15.2 


High School for Girls, 












Robert Bickford, Principal 


. 1 


46 


34 


27 


17 


Martha S. Price, Assistant. 


2 


24 


m 


18 


15 






70 


51| 


45 


16 


GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 












Dudley School for Girls, 












Adeline Seaver, Principal. 












Lydia M. Harris, Assistant 


1 


43 


39 


45 


14.4 


Caroline Alden, . . . 


2 


48 


41 


43 


13.3 


Mary A. Ward, . . . 


3 


43 


39 


37 


13 


Clara B. Tucker, . . . 


4 


46 


42 


57 


11 


Ellen A. Marean, . . . 


5 


50 


45 


49 


10.5 


Henrietta M. Young, 


6 


51 


47 


46 


10 


Clementina B. Thompson, 


7 


51 
332 


46 


50 


9 




299 


327 


11| 



3S 



CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 



ABSTRACT— Continued. 



GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

Washington School foe Boys, 
John Kneeland, Principal. 
Sarah H. Page, Assistant. 
Benjamin C. Vose, . . 
Anna M. Williams, . . 
Hannah R. Chadbourne, 
Harriet E. Burrell, . . 
Sarah M. Vose, . . . 
Margaret A. Mathews, . 
Caroline C. Drown, . . 



Dearborn School for Boys, 
William H. Long, Principal 
Louisa E. Harris, . . 
Ruth P. Stockbridge, 
Martha Stone, . . . 
S. Frances Haskell, . 
Louisa J. Fisher, . . 



Comins School for Girls, 
S. A. M. Cushing, Principal. 
Mary C: Eaton, .... 
Eliza W. Young, .... 
Almira W. Chamberlain, 



Francis Street School, 

(Both Sexes.) 
Sophronia F. Wright, Principal 



5 s "2 
S 



46 

42 
44 
43 
47 
41 
45 
51 

359 



34 
41 
43 
44 
45 
44 

251 



33 
43 
42 

55 

173 



45 
40 
41 
41 
45 
39 
43 



= H 



46 
36 
37 
41 
46 
42 
45 



48 


54 


342 


347 


33 


30 


40 


37 


42 


36 


41 


39 


43 


41 


42 


45 


241 


228 


31 


30 


38 


37 


35 


42 


45 


51 


149 


160 


27 


23 



13» 
121 

121 
115 
101 
10l 
92 



162 



13 



Al2 

10$ 
10 

81 

11 



13 
11 

ios 

10 



11! 



II. 1 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 



39 



ABSTRACT— Continued. 





c 

5 


0} t- 

CJ.O 

t£ 
> 3 


6 
o 
c 

to -a 
£ c 


Present at 
Annual Ex'n. 


Average Age. 


INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL. 

Delia Mansfield, Principal. 
Nancy L. Tucker, .... 


1 

2 

1 


128 
124 

252" | 


42 
39 

81 


39 
36 


11 

9 
~10 



40 



CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 



ABSTRAC T 

Of the Primary Schools for the Quarter ending May 

24, 1856. 









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Sarah T. Jennison, Teacher. 


1 


40 


35 


37 


Caroline J. Nash, .... 


2 


52 


48 


48 


Eliza C. Parmelee, . . . 


3 


60 


52 


55 


Sarah 0. Babcock, . . . 


4 


64 


58 


60 


Elizabeth A. Morse, . . . 


5 


44 


39 


40 


Margaret E. Davis, . . . 


6 


63 


51 


65 


Maria L. Young, .... 


7 


58 


42 


49 


Vacancy. 


8 








Harriet H. Fay, .... 


9 


49 


44 


38 


Susannah L. Durant, . . . 


10 


48 


41 


43 


Emily Gardner, .... 


11 


49 


40 


40 


Susan A. Fall, ..... 


12 


49 


44 


43 


Cornelia J. Bills, .... 


13 


61 


46 


42 


Plooma A. Savage, . . . 


14 


60 


40 


42 


Ann M. Backup, .... 


15 


28 


25 


26 


Ann Crowninshield, . . . 


16 


61 


46 


55 


Sarah W. Holbrook, . . . 


17 


36 


29 


30 


Almira B. Russell, . . . 


18 


40 


36 


34 


Frances N. Brooks, . . . 


19 


65 


46 


49 


Mary A. Waldock, . . . 


20 


34 


31 


32 


Elvira Morse, 


21 


72 


54 


69 


Elizabeth Waldock, . . . 


22 


22 


17 


24 


Henrietta M. Wood, . . . 


23 


46 


40 


43 


Mary A. Morse, .... 


24 


94 


71 


83 


Caroline N. Heath, . . . 


25 


44 


26 


37 


Persis A. Winn, .... 


26 


64 


58 


56 


Vacancy. 


27 








Margaret G. Chenery, . . 


28 


26 


18 


25 


Sarah A. Dudley, .... 


29 


42 


40 


41 


H. B. Scammell, .... 


30 


57 


44 


53 


C. N. Stowell, 


31 


— 


— 


— 






1428 


1161 


1259 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 41 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE, 1856. 



ELECTED AT LARGE. 

William H. Ryder, Julius S. Shatter, George Putnam. 

ELECTED BY WARDS. 

Ward 1. — Horatio G. Morse, Henry W. Farley. 

" 2. — Joshua Seaver, Ira Allen. 

" 3. — William A. Crafts, A. I. Cummings. 

" 4. — James Waldock, Joseph N. Brewer.* 

" 5. — -Samuel Walker, Theodore Otis. 

William H. Ryder, Chairman. A. I. Cummings, Sec'ry. 



RESIDENCES OP THE COMMITTEE. 

William H. Ryder, 48 Vernon st. 

Julius S. Shatter, Washington, corner of Ruggles st. 

George Putnam, Highland st. 

Horatio G. Morse, 65 Zeigler st. 

Henry W. Farley, Eustis, opposite Plymouth st. 

Joshua Seaver, Ruggles st., corner of Sumner place, (Office 

63 Washington st.) 
Ira Allen, Cabot, corner of Sudbury st., (Office, corner of 

Ruggles and Tremont sts.) 

* Elected in place of John W. Olmstead, resigned. 
6 



42 CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 

William A. Crafts, "Washington, near Francis st. 

A. I. Cummings, 121 Dudley st. 

James Waldock, Alleghany st. 

Joseph N. Brewer, 37 Centre st. 

Samuel Walker, Eustis, near Dorchester Brook. 

Theodore Otis, Otis, near Walnut st. 



SUB-COMMITTEES. 

Regulations. — Messrs. Shailer, Crafts, Farley. 
Books.— Messrs. Byder. Shailer, Morse, Farley, Crafts. 
Finance. — Messrs. Seaver, Putnam, Walker. 
Filling Vacancies in Primary and Intermediate Schools. 
— Messrs. Ryder, Morse, Otis, Shailer, Cummings. 



EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 



43 



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CITY DOCUMENT — No. 10. 



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EXAMINATION OF SCHOOLS. 45 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY 

OF TTIE 

CITY OF BOSTON. 

ABBREVIATED REGULATIONS-.. 

One volume can be taken at a time from the 
Lower Hall, and one ^om the Bates Hall. 
Books can be kept out U clays. 
A tine of 2 cents for each volume will be 
marred for each day a book is detained more 
than 14 days. 

Any book detained more than a week be- 
vomUhe time limited, will be sent for at the 
e ^o^^e i Sttofthe household 

turn of books are from 10 oc *>c k, AM 
1 SU E^S^,^r penalty S e^ 
"ATS^SSbeWntcd ;vl--ra