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Full text of "[City documents, 1847-1867]"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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1857 




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Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/citydocuments5712roxb 



.—No. 12. 



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EXAMINATION 



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FOE, THE 



YEAE 1857. 




ROXBURY: 
NORFOLK COUNTY JOURNAL PRESS. 

185 7. 



CITY OF ROXBUKY. 



In School Committee, April 28, 1857. 

The following Committees were appointed by the Chairman, to make 
the Annual Examination of the Public Schools for the current year : 

High Schools. — Messrs. Geo. Putnam and Nute. 

Grammar Schools. — Messrs. Shailer, Brewer, A. P. Putnam, Cum- 
mings and Farley. 

Primary and Intermediate Schools. — Messrs. Robinson, Morse, Seaa'er, 
Pay and Allen. 

June 24, 1857. 
The several Committees appointed to make the Annual Examination of 
the Schools of the City, presented their Reports, which were accepted. 

July 1, 1857. 

Mr. Ryder, the Chairman, presented his general Report of the condition 
of the Schools of the City for the School Year of 1856-7, which was ac- 
cepted ; whereupon, on motion of Dr. Nute, it was 

Ordered, That the Report submitted by the Chairman, together with the 
several Reports of the Examining Committees, be printed as the Report of 
the Annual Examination of the Public Schools, and that the same be dis- 
tributed among the citizens. 

Attest, A. I. CUMMINGS, 

Secretary of the Board. 



REPORT. 



The School Committee of Roxbury hereby submit to the 
citizens their Report for the year 185G-7. 

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS. 

The whole number of Public Schools in the City is 41. 
These represent 65 Divisions, and are under the care of 
67 Teachers. Three of these Schools are graded as High, 
5 as Grammar, 1 as Intermediate, and 32 as Primary and 
Sub-Primary. The High, Grammar, and Intermediate 
Schools are the same in number as last year; the Primary 
Schools have increased two since our last report. 

NUMBER OE PUPILS. 

Last year our Public Schools contained 2864 pupils. 
This year they contain 3287, and they are distributed as 
follows : 

High Schools, . . . . 136 

Grammar Schools, . . . . 1328 
Primary and Intermediate, . . 1823 

This is for the year a decrease of 22 pupils in the High 
Schools, an increase of 158 in the Grammar, and an in- 
crease of 287 in the Primary and Intermediate. 

The whole number of persons in the City, between the 
ages of 5 and 15, May 1, 1857, as returned by the School 



4 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 12. [May, 

Census, was 3969 — males 1989, females 1980; born of 
foreign parents 1796, foreign born 323. Of these there 
are 

In our Public Schools, . . . 3287 

Attending Private Schools, . . 252 

Not accounted for, ... . 430 

COST OF THE SCHOOLS. 

The entire cost of the Schools to the City for the year 
1856-7, exclusive of New School Building, has been thirty- 
five thousand, six hundred and seventy-seven dollars, 
seventy-eight cents. And this money has been paid out by 
the City Treasurer, — 

For Salaries of Teachers, . . $24,323.44 

" Contingent Expenses, . . 5,997.14 

" Fuel, . ' . . . 2,282.20 

" High School for Boys, . 3,075.00 

NEW SCHOOL HOUSE ON WINTHROP STREET. 

The Primary School House erected on Winthrop Street, 
last year, proves to be a very suitable and substantial 
building, and is satisfactory to the School Committee. It 
is constructed of brick, and cost five thousand three hun- 
dred and nine dollars, and sixteen cents. 

SCHOOL HOUSE ON CENTRE STREET. 

The School House on Centre Street, near the West Eox- 
bury line, — an old, inconveniently located and unsuitable 
building, — has been sold by the City Government, and 
they are now putting up a fine house on Heath Street, 
which will be ready for use at the commencement of the, 
September term. 

SCHOOL HOUSE ON MUNROE STREET. 

The loss by fire of the School House on Munroe Street, 
lias rendered it necessary to erect a new building in that 
locality. It is but just to the teacher to say that she is in 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 5 

no way responsible for the burning of the building, as the 
parties who set fire to it have been arrested and confessed 
their guilt. 

SUMNER STREET. 

The lower room of the old School House on Sumner 
Street is now occupied, temporarily, by a portion of the 
Sub-Primary School on Eustis Street. The Committee 
very much regretted the necessity of re-occupying it, as the 
place is really unsuitable ; and they would not have done 
so could they have done any better. One hundred and six 
pupils presented themselves at the Eustis Street Sub- 
Primary School, and they must be accommodated some- 
where ; and as no other room could be obtained, this was 
necessarily taken. In the mean time, the Committee on 
Public Property are arranging for the immediate enlarge- 
ment of the Eustis Street Building, so that by the Septem- 
ber term it is expected that the Schools in that vicinity 
will be well accommodated. 

DUDLEY AND HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Nothing has as yet been done for the better accommodation 
of the Dudley School. One Division of it is in the new Pri- 
mary School House on Winthrop Street, and two Divisions 
of it are still in the uncomfortable, not to say unhealthy 
rooms of Octagon Hall. The School Committee have not 
proposed any changes in school buildings for the relief of the 
Dudley School, because they have not themselves settled 
upon the best policy in the premises. Several topics are 
involved in the decision of this question. (1.) Shall the 
High School for Girls be removed from the Dudley School 
building on Kenilworth Street, and the entire premises 
from Bartlett Street to Kenilworth be devoted, as hereto- 
fore, to the Dudley School ? (2.) If this is done, a build- 
ing must be erected for the use of the Girls' High School, 
as there is none now constructed suitable for that purpose : 
but, (3.) instead of spending so much money for the ac- 



6 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 12. [May, 

coniniodation of one High School, would it not be better 
to expend a little more, and thus erect a building which 
would be sufficiently ample to receive all the High Schools, 
thus securing a more thorough classification, with English 
and Classical departments, and considerably lessening the 
cost of the High Schools, even with the interest on the pro- 
perty deducted? The time has fully come when these 
questions must be met, and as the whole subject is now 
receiving the careful attention of the members of the Board, 
it is expected that some plan will be fixed upon which our 
successors may be able to carry out. 

NEW SCHOOL HOUSE ON TEEMONT STREET. 

It will be imperatively necessary to erect next Spring a 
building for Primary Schools, at some point on Tremont 
Street, near the Eailroad Station. The Schools adjacent 
to this locality are full to overflowing. To relieve the 
pressure in that neighborhood, a new Division was organ- 
ized last year, and placed in a room over Mr. Worthen's 
Grocery Store, on Washington Street, opposite Hollis 
Place, that being the only room at all suitable that could 
be obtained. Of the 58 pupils now in that Division, all 
but two reside on Tremont Street, or in the places leading- 
out of it. No portion of the City is so poorly provided 
with school buildings as this. Ward III. contains 1124 
children between the ages of 5 and 15, and 818 under five 
years of age. Some three hundred of this number — four 
or six Divisions — can best be accommodated near the 
point mentioned above. 

SINGLE SESSIONS. 

The importance of some rule in regard to single ses- 
sions of the Schools, on what are called stormy days, has 
been often urged upon the notice of the Committee during 
the year, both by teachers and parents. The printed 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 7 

Regulations of the School Committee require that " The 
Schools shall be kept three hours in the forenoon, and 
three in the afternoon of each day, Sundays and the holi- 
days and vacations hereinafter specified excepted. " (The 
Girls' High School is also excepted.) Chap. 3, Sect. 2, p. 
17. It has however become customary, especially among 
the Primary and Girls' Grammar School teachers, to keep 
on stormy days but one session per day, and to make up 
for the time so lost, to detain the pupils in the morning- 
one or two hours beyond the time for dismissing the 
school. The Committee have not thought it proper to 
object to this custom, inasmuch as they are fully aware 
that there are days, both in warm and cold weather, when 
one session of the Primary Schools and Grammar Schools 
for Girls, would be better than two. They think it impor- 
tant, however, that there should be more uniformity as to 
the practice of single sessions, and it is but reasonable 
. that the teachers should desire to know what the pleasure 
of the Committee is upon the subject. First of -all, it is of 
course expected that the teachers will conform, as far 
forth as is practicable, to the letter of the Regulation of 
the Committee ; but in case of a very stormy day, when, 
in the judgment of the teachers, it would be improper for 
the children to come out, and when they would not be 
likely to leave their homes if they did not attend school, 
the teachers are authorized so far to depart from the letter 
of the Regulation, as to keep but one session. But in such 
case the teachers are directed not to- detain their pupils 
beyond the regular school hours. Three hours is long 
enough for one session, especially of a Primary School ; 
the scholars will learn little or nothing beyond the hour 
for closing, and had better return to their homes, ready to 
perform any useful service which may be required of them 
there. 



8 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

TREES. 
Most of the trees planted about the school buildings 
last year by the City Council, have lived, and are growing 
finely. It is hoped that, at the earliest opportunity, those 
which have died will be replaced by live ones. 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS OCCUPIED BY SEWING CIRCLES, SUN- 
DAY SCHOOLS, ETC. 

Some of the teachers have reported to the members of 
the Committee, that their school-houses are occupied on 
Wednesday or Saturday afternoons, or on Sundays, by Sew- 
ing Circles, Sunday Schools, etc., which, they complain, is 
attended with inconvenience and trouble to them, in disar- 
ranging the school-rooms, soiling the floors, and hindering 
the sweepers in the performance of their duties. Applica- 
tion for one other of the Primary School buildings for a 
similar purpose, has recently been made to the local Com- 
mittee and chairman, which was not granted, on the ground 
that it is inexpedient to permit the public school buildings 
to be used for other than public school purposes, if indeed 
the Committee have any authority to grant their use for 
any other object. Such a decision, while it exposes the 
Committee to the charge of partiality, does not remove the 
difficulties, already existing, against which complaints are 
made. 

It does not appear, from the records of the School Com- 
mittee, that the Board has ever granted to any one the use 
of one of the public school buildings for a Sewing Circle, 
Sunday School, or for any similar purpose. On the con- 
trary, March 14, 1855, a petition was presented to the 
Board, signed by influential citizens of various sects and 
parties, asking that the hall in one of our Grammar School 
buildings " may be used and occupied for the purpose of a 
Sabbath School, and other religious exercises, on the Sab- 
bath ;" whereupon it was voted, that " it is not expedient to 
grant the prayer of the petitioners." Those now occupying 
the public school buildings for such purposes, have done so 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 9 

by sufferance rather than by direct authority of the Board 
of School Committee. Who is answerable for the use of 
fuel in cold weather necessary to keep the buildings warm, 
for the greater exposure of the buildings to fire, and for the 
additional labor of keeping the buildings clean, we are un- 
able to state. At any rate, the evil has become sufficient- 
ly serious and troublesome to require attention, and while 
the Committee regret the interference with the benevolent 
labors of certain persons which this decision will occasion, 
they feel called upon to give notice that those now occu- 
pying the School buildings, for other than public school 
purposes, are requested to vacate them on or before the 
first day of December next. 

MONITORS. 

There seems to be a growing dislike to the use of Mon- 
itors in our schools. Parents complain that they do not 
wish their children to serve as monitors, or be reported by 
them. Doubtless there are objections to the system, and 
our teachers are desired to employ monitors in the govern- 
ment of their schools as seldom as possible ; but in a school 
organized like the Washington, where there are three 
Divisions in each of the two large rooms, two of the teach- 
ers of which must necessarily be most of the time in the 
recitation rooms attending to the lessons, it must be nearly 
impossible, without additional teachers, to dispense with 
monitors altogether. If the City Government shall see fit 
to alter the interior of the Washington School House, so 
that each Division shall have a separate room, according 
to a plan which has been presented them, and at a saving 
of some $400 per annum, by dispensing with the services of 
a male assistant, this objection, in regard to the absence 
of the teachers from the main rooms, will be removed. 

The Committee of course expect the teachers to do the 
governing, and do not wish them to call the pupils to their 
aid except where it is absolutely necessary. 
2 



10 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 12. [May, 

REPORTS OF EXAMINING COMMITTEES. — GEOGRAPHY. 

The reports of the Examining Committees, which accom- 
pany these remarks, contain a somewhat minute statement 
of the condition of the several schools. These reports are 
in general very favorable, and reflect credit upon the con- 
tinued faithfulness and industry of the teachers. Geogra- 
phy is less favorably spoken of than any other study. 
This is an important branch of a practical education, and 
special effort will be made to remedy the defect, if such, 
upon further examination, it shall prove to be. Geogra- 
phy is, however, contrary to the general estimate, a hard 
study to teach, unless the instructor be thoroughly familiar 
with it, and has the ability orally to communicate her 
knowledge to her pupils. Arithmetic must be understood 
by the pupil, or he cannot proceed : so with Grammar ; 
the teacher is constantly reminded that the pupil does not 
understand the subject ; but in Geography, where so much 
may depend upon the memory, it is possible for him to go 
on with a considerable show of knowledge, with a very 
confused idea of the " description of the surface of the 
earth." Geography, as it is generally taught, and as the 
text-book makers appear to have intended it should be 
taught, is almost entirely a matter of memory. For which 
reason the danger is, that teachers may too fully rely upon 
the answers to the questions which are given in the book. 
There are numerous questions in Mitchell's School Geog- 
raphy, under the head of Geographical Definitions, which 
require at the hands of the teacher the most careful expla- 
nation, often repeated and tested, which questions must be 
understood by the pupils before Geography can be profit- 
ably taught them. Of this class are those which relate 
to the general arrangement of the surface of the earth, 
its divisions into land and water, and their various sub- 
divisions ; the form of the earth, the methods for fixing 
locality — latitude and longitude ; how distance is measured, 
circles, degrees, &c. None of these things can be taught 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 11 

children by definitions alone. The definitions may contain 
the idea, -which the teacher perceives clearly enough ; but 
the pupil, in committing them, will get nothing but the 
words. It is the business of the teacher to put the idea 
into the words — to explain, illustrate and enforce the 
definition. Thus broadly viewed, our text-book in Geogra- 
phy is not very faulty ; but upon the memorizing plan much 
of the time given to Political Divisions, Races of Men, 
Stages of Society, Government, Religion, Languages, and 
the twenty-five pages of very hard Map questions which 
follow, will be spent to small profit. 

There is also danger of giving too much time to minute 
details, in attempting to have the pupils remember compar- 
atively unimportant things, such as the names and location 
of places on the map, of which places very few in this part 
of the world have ever even heard, after leaving the school 
room, if indeed many ever heard of them in it. Of what 
practical importance are such questions as these to the 
boys and girls who live in the United States ? What river 
flows through Little Bokhara ? What island east of Mant- 
chooria ? What countries in Anam ? What country north 
of Anam ? Which are the five principal Oases in the Great 
Desert ? Which are the Mascarenha islands ? What is the 
capital of Foota Jallon ? Of Ashantee ? Of Kaarta ? Of 
Dahomey ? Of Bambarra ? Of Yarriba ? Of Bergoo ? etc. 
If the pupils shall succeed in finding out the answers to 
these questions, and in committing them to memory, it is 
not possible that they should hold them long. For this 
reason our teachers are advised to pass over, as they gene- 
rally do, such difficult and needlessly minute questions, and 
give their attention chiefly to the leading topics of the 
science, and to the more practical bearings of it. Schools 
so taught may not pass as good an examination, — be so 
ready in their replies to set questions selected from the 
text-book, — but they must have, if their teachers are 
equally competent and industrious, a better knowledge of 



12 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

the general subject of Geography, than if their minds had 
been strained and confused by such profitless details. 

Slow and sure is a safe rule in the school-room as well 
as elsewhere. Teachers are very apt to overvalue the 
ability of their pupils : they are young — boys and girls — 
they will be men and women by and by, if we give them 
time to grow. Our schools are organized, not to teach 
words but ideas ; not to fill the mind, but to develope it. 

From nothing said in any portion of these remarks, or 
in the Reports which accompany it, should it be inferred 
that our Schools are below those in any town or city in 
the Commonwealth. The Public Schools of Roxbury will 
bear criticism : our teachers are, as a body, industrious, 
energetic, capable, — of which they have given renewed 
evidence in the results of the late annual examination. 
From a personal acquaintance with the teachers, and with 
some knowledge of what each has done during the year, 
as well as the degree of fidelity with which the Sub-Com- 
mittees of this Board have attended to the duties assigned 
them, we take great pleasure in reassuring our fellow citi- 
zens that our Public Schools are doing a good work for 
our City, and that they promise well for the future. 

W. H. RYDER, 

Chairman of School Committee. 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 13 



HIGH SCHOOLS. 

G. PUTNAM, ) n 

T E, NUTE \ Commtiiee - 

The Examiner of the High School for Boys reports, that 
the exercises, which he attended in the upper Divisions, 
were highly satisfactory, and that the present condition of 
that portion of the school is such as to maintain the well- 
established reputation of the institution ; and that, if the 
appearance of the lowest Division is in some respects 
slightly less gratifying, it is owing to causes of a tempo- 
rary character. He thinks the school worthy of all the 
confidence it has hitherto enjoyed. 

The Examiner of the Girls' School reports, »that the 
recitations were in many instances excellent, and in some 
imperfect — in a few instances, failures; that there is good 
evidence of a healthy intellectual and moral tone through- 
out the school, and of a broad and generous culture. 
The school seemed to make an honest exhibition of its 
merits and defects, the former preponderating. The lower 
Division, on account of many of its members having been 
imperfectly fitted to enter school, has necessarily been 
occupied, through a great part of the year, with studies 
that should have been completed in the Grammar schools. 
In this Division, however, there is a fine spirit of mental 
activity prevailing, and much evidence of efficient progress 
and a well-spent year. 

We abstain from more extended remarks on the state 
of these schools, because, on referring to the Report of last 
year, we find a very complete and faithful account of them, 
which really covers the whole ground, and which it is not 
worth while to repeat so soon. There has been no mate- 
rial change in the condition or numbers of these schools 
since the elate of that report. The teachers, with one ex- 



14 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

ception, are all the same ; the studies the same ; the statis- 
tics nearly the same. 

The Committee will take the liberty to remark, that, in 
their opinion, the standard of admission to these schools, 
though high enough according to the printed rules, is, prac- 
tically, put too low. The work that properly belongs to 
the Grammar School has to be done here. Many pupils 
are admitted who are by no means qualified to enter upon 
the proper studies of a High School. The error should 
be corrected by more strict examinations in future. The 
High Schools should be devoted, strictly and only, to High 
School studies. Whatever reduction of numbers might 
follow, this principle, we are confident, ought to be firmly 
adhered to. The Grammar Schools should be permitted 
and required to accomplish their own appropriate work. 
Grammar- School studies should be completed there ; and 
then, the few who have time remaining for further study, 
are the subjects, and the only legitimate subjects of High 
School instruction. Necessaries before luxuries. Read- 
ing, Writing, Arithmetic and Grammar first; and then, if 
there be time, Algebra, Geometry, Philosophy, French, 
Latin, Botany, etc. We must renounce the pride of num- 
bers in relation to our High Schools. If, instead of a 
hundred and fifty, there are only half that number qualified 
to be members of them, let us honestly confess it, and let 
the public see the fact ; and then let us see what we can 
do, through the greater efficiency of the Grammar Schools 
and otherwise, to increase the number. [Upon the princi- 
ple here recommended, we think the Girls' School, the 
next year, would not exceed fifty in number, and that it 
might be well accommodated in the upper room alone, 
leaving the lower room for the use of the Dudley School.] 

The Latin School is not under the control of this Board ; 
one of this Committee has, however, taken occasion lately 
to visit it. It is free and public, like all our schools. Its 
business is to prepare boys for College. It may interest 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 15 

a portion of our citizens to know that, in our opinion, it is 
in all respects a first-rate school of its class ; and that 
better instruction of its kind is not to be obtained in any 
school, public or private, in Massachusetts. 

The Committee have been led, in the performance of 
the duties assigned to them, to give some attention to the 
subject, lately broached, of the consolidation of our High 
Schools. They, however, abstain from any expression of 
opinion at present, as that matter has been confided to a 
Special Committee. 



GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

The Committee to whom was assigned the Annual Ex- 
amination of the Grammar Schools, respectfully submit the 
following Report : 

Our Grammer Schools are five in number — the Wash- 
ington and Dearborn for Boys ; the Dudley and Comins 
for Girls ; and the Francis Street School of one Division 
for Boys and Girls. 

Although within a very few years two new buildings 
have been erected for Grammar Schools, we have yet 
insufficient accommodations. The Dudley School needs 
immediately additional room for two hundred pupils, more 
than can now be accommodated in the building which the 
City appropriates to it. For the present, one Division 
occupies a room in a Primary School House, at considera- 
ble distance from the school, and a room which may be 
needed in the Fall for the Primary School; and two Divi- 
sions occupy a hired building, which is in every respect 
ill-suited. There will be still another Division for the 
school at the beginning of the Fall term, which suggests 
the absolute necessity of immediate measures to supply 
the deficiency. 



16 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 12. [May, 

Your Committee are fully convinced of the wisdom of 
putting the Girls' schools under the charge of female 
Principals. By careful observation, to compare them with 
the Boys' schools, they find them to bear the same high 
relative standing as when they were under the charge of a 
male Principal. 

For the purpose of having all of the schools pass under 
the examination of each of the members of the Committee, 
the studies pursued were divided into four departments, to 
correspond with the number of the Committee. 

THE DEPARTMENT OE READING, SPELLING, DEFINING, 
AND DRAWING. 

There is little to be said except in commendation of the 
Reading in the several schools. 

Obviously, careful attention had been given to the first 
principles of good Reading, and the many examples of ex- 
cellent reading gave evidence of intelligent and accurate 
instruction in this branch of study. Perhaps a word should 
be said in commendation of the increased attention which 
has been given to exercises in " Yocal Drill," which may 
have contributed to the more distinct enunciation of all 
the syllables and obscure parts of words. In this exer- 
cise the teachers have been essentially aided by the assist- 
ance of Mr. D. S. Smalley, who has to some extent been 
employed in our schools. 

With the Spelling, so much satisfaction cannot be ex- 
pressed. There were certainly too many errors in a large 
number of the classes, — in several amounting to fifty per 
cent, of the words, both from the reading lesson and the 
spelling book. 

This large per centagc was confined to the lower classes. 
But the failures in Spelling were too many in a large num- 
ber of the Divisions. Possibly the Spelling-book is not 
sufficiently prominent. It should be the aim of our Gram- 
mar Schools to make perfect spellers. The Committee 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 17 

feel bound to insist upon the eminent importance of Spell- 
ing. They commend the practice of writing Spelling les- 
sons, which was observed to some extent, and they would 
also commend any other good appliance of the teachers, 
which will tend to give the very desirable result. 

The Denning of words, practiced in the higher Divisions? 
was very satisfactory. Perhaps it should be introduced 
into more of the Divisions. Scholars, as soon as they read 
words readily, ought to give attention to their definition. 
It should be an exaction of the teachers, till it becomes 
the habit of scholars, not to pass words in any of their les- 
sons which they cannot define. 

Some attention has been paid to the first principles of 
Drawing, under the thorough instruction of Mr. Bartholo- 
mew. And it has obviously been a profitable exercise. 
Not that our Grammar School scholars have acquired 
much skill in Drawing ; but its beneficial effects are seen 
in the Penmanship, in the habit of accurate observation, 
in the just notions of proportions and relations, as well as 
in the ability to sketch the outlines of objects according to 
some orderly method. It is surely an exercise of much 
utility, and should have its proper place in our schools. 

J. S. SHAILER, 

For the Committee. 



GRAMMAR, WRITING AND COMPOSITION. 

The examination in these branches occupied five half- 
days, and was generally satisfactory. There is, however, 
a very marked difference, in both the manner of teaching, 
and the degree of proficiency and interest in the several 
schools, as well as in different divisions of the same school. 
In Grammar, especially, those schools composed of Girls 
rank highest, as a whole. This, in our judgment, is gene- 
rally true, while, in some other branches of study, boys 
3 



18 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

generally excel. Among the teachers we find, as is ever 
the case, that some have not only a particular love for and 
interest in, but also peculiarly felicitous methods of teach- 
ing Grammar, in such a manner as to give to the pupil a 
clear knowledge of, and a love for, language in its pure 
and elegant formation. Others have a love for Mathe- 
matics, or some other branch of science, and consequently 
are liable to neglect, to some extent, at least, Grammar, 
or other branches of study. 

Another general point to which we should, perhaps, 
refer, is that of Text Books. One class in the Washing- 
ton School, (the 1st Class, 4th Division,) commenced with 
Tower's Elements of Grammar. They have been only 
eight weeks engaged in the study, and have had but two 
lessons per week ; and yet, in our judgment, this class, of 
twenty-four pupils, have made more actual progress in ac- 
quiring a knowledge of the composition of language, pro- 
portionally, than any other class in any of the schools. 

Analysis in Grammar is as necessary to a thorough 
comprehension of the elements of any language, as in Math- 
ematics, or any other branch of science. Butler's Grammar 
is, in many respects, a very excellent work, but is better fit- 
ted to be useful to advanced classes than to those who are 
commencing the study. Too little time is, in our opinion, 
given, in many of the Divisions, to the study of this impor- 
tant branch. The lessons are thereby rendered so infre- 
quent, as to cause the pupil to forget, in a measure, at least, 
what he has previously learned, and also to cause him to 
lose, to a great extent, his interest in the study. One 
lesson each day, at least, it would seem, is absolutely ne- 
cessary to a good degree of progress, especially for those 
commencing the study; and if sufficient time for this cannot 
be allowed, it is better to postpone the study to a future 
time, when it can be allowed. 

The comparative standing in Grammar, of those schools 
which are composed of pupils of one sex only, and which 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 19 

are graded, are, 1st, the Dudley; 2d, the Comins; 3d, the 
Dearborn ; and 4th, the Washington. In this comparison, 
the above schools are each taken as a whole, and not by 
Divisions. It is but justice to say, in relation to the. 
"Washington, that some of the Divisions — especially the 
First — bore an excellent examination ; but the Second 
Division was comparatively the least worthy of compli- 
ment of any Division examined in any of the schools. A 
change of teachers may have been, to some extent, the 
cause of this ; but apart from the comparative duluess of 
most of the pupils, the order was very deficient and unsat- 
isfactory. Your Committee has the highest confidence in 
the excellent Principal of this school, Mr. Kneeland; and 
his labors and interest, as well as his indefatigable indus- 
try for the good of the pupils, were rendered very appa- 
rent by the examinations. 

The Dudley School, as usual, appeared remarkably well, 
and never was it more evident to us that Miss Adeline 
Seaver, the Principal, is worthy of our highest confidence 
and esteem, than during this examination. Long may the 
pupils of that school enjoy her instruction, and her kind 
regard for their welfare, heretofore so valuable. 

All the classes in this school appeared to have made 
excellent improvement, and their thoroughness and readi- 
ness in answering questions, gave ample evidence that the 
labors of their teachers had not been in vain to them. 

The Comins School, under the care of Miss Sarah A. M. 
dishing, we are happy to say, bore an excellent examina- 
tion as a whole. The pupils in the First Division are, on 
an average, younger than those of the Dudley. The first 
class of the First Division consists of only seven in this 
branch, but they were found to be fully equal to the aver- 
age of the same class in the Dudley School. Miss Cush- 
ing has labored hard and successfully, and is worthy of 
high commendation and the full confidence of the Board. 
The other teachers in this school have been successful in 



20 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

their labors for the advancement of their pupils, at least in 
the department of Grammar. 

The Dearborn School, which, as a whole, stands, in our 
opinion, next to the female schools, bore a very good ex- 
amination in all its Divisions. Mr. Long, the Principal, 
has for some time felt the need of an Assistant, to enable 
him to give more time to the other Divisions under his 
care, and for the welfare of which he is, to a great degree, 
held responsible, and we are not sure that an Assistant 
may not profitably be employed in this school. Having 
the entire charge of the First Division, the Principal can- 
not judiciously leave his pupils often, or for any length of 
time, and if he does so, it must be to the detriment of his 
Division necessarily. We suggest to the Board the expe- 
diency of providing an Assistant for the Principal in this 
school. The examination revealed a good degree of im- 
provement in the several Divisions, and, as a whole, in this 
branch of science ; and we believe the Principal and 
teachers are doing a good work, and commend them 
accordingly. 

As regards the Washington School, of which we have 
spoken, it is but justice to the Principal, and female As- 
sistants, to say that they have been indefatigable in their 
labors, and were the Second Division as well regulated, 
and as good in proportion as the others, it would, as a 
whole, rank fully with the Dearborn in Grammar. 

The Francis Street School is the only mixed school in 
the City ; and if the members of the Board will visit, and 
examine thoroughly that school, we think they will find 
there a strong argument for mixed schools. More emula- 
tion exists among the pupils of that school than we have 
been accustomed to find in most of the Divisions of the 
other Grammar Schools of the City. The influence exert- 
ed by the sexes upon each other, are, in our opinion, in 
many ways salutary. In the first place, a strong desire is 
manifested by the pupils to answer the questions of the 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 21 

Examiner correctly, that their blunders or failure may not 
subject them to the criticisms or the mortification of a 
triumph over them by those especially of the opposite sex : 
thus rendering them more careful to answer correctly. 
Again, in point of deportment : this school excels in the 
respectful and kind manner in which the pupils conduct 
themselves towards each other and towards their teacher. 
We might enumerate other points of interest observed, 
arising from the associating of the sexes, but have not 
room to spare in this Report. The teacher of this school 
is, in our opinion, admirably adapted to the place she oc- 
cupies, and the intelligence and general praiseworthy con- 
duct of the pupils give ample evidence of the value of her 
labors, and especially in the department of Grammar. 

The whole number of pupils in all the Grammar Schools 
engaged in studying this branch, (Grammar,) is Jive hundred 
and six ; distributed as follows, viz.: in the Dudley 130, 
Dearborn 124, Comins 59, Washington 169, and in the 
Francis Street 24. 

As a whole, the schools have made commendable pro- 
gress in this branch. The knowledge of the pupils seems 
to be thorough and practical, so far as they have advanced, 
and we believe that in no previous year has the general 
standing of the schools, in this branch, at least, been more 
encouraging and satisfactory to the Examiners than at the 
present. 

It remains only for us to speak more fully on one or 
two points, already noticed, so far as this branch is con- 
cerned. 

We wish, if possible, that Trior e time could be devoted 
to this very important branch of study. Two lessons each 
week, as we found in some cases, at least, to be the extent, 
are not enough, even to keep up the interest of the pupil ; 
and he will necessarily forget, from one lesson to another, 
much which he has previously acquired. Again : the study 
should be rendered practical by the teacher, and the pupil 



22 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

should commence parsing, or, what is very much better, 
analyzing, as early as possible. It is not necessary that 
all the parts of speech, and their connections, should be 
learned previous to commencing to render the lessons 
practical, and the mere study of the parts of speech, etc., 
without a knowledge, to some extent, at least, of how they 
are to be applied, cannot but be dry and uninteresting. 
The Analysis of language should be attended to early, that 
the pupil may learn in what manner he shall need so many 
parts of speech, etc. Grammar may be as advantageously 
taught from examples on the Blackboard, as Mathematics. 
For years we were accustomed to teach Grammar in this 
manner, and used the Text-book only as a work of refer- 
ence for rules, etc. After pupils become interested in this 
branch, it is generally a favorite study with them, and they 
then make rapid progress ; but the first few lessons are 
generally dry and uninteresting. 

WRITING. 

The pupils, in all the schools of this grade, attend to 
Writing, and, as in all other branches, their proficiency is 
variable, some making rapid progress, and some, seemingly, 
very little, if any advancement. The time given is twice 
a week, and this is, it would seem, sufficient, in proportion 
to the time allowed for other branches. Girls generally 
write better than those of the other sex, but we found 
many excellent penmen among the boys. As a whole, (for 
we have not room to particularize,) the improvement in 
Writing was very satisfactory, and in many instances meri- 
torious. The writing-books, as a general thing, were found 
neat and clean, showing much care on the part of their 
owners. 

Some specimens of beautiful Map Drawing were shown 
us at the Dearborn School, and, though not belonging to 
the Department assigned for our examination, we cannot 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 23 

forbear to say that they were not only beautiful, but re- 
markably accurate, and deserve notice and commendation. 
"We think this form of Drawing should be encouraged in 
all the schools, as it is certainly a very useful and practi- 
cal accomplishment, and affords opportunity for' recreation 
as well as improvement. We hope other schools will 
follow the Dearborn, in this respect, and that we may in 
future have specimens often presented. 

COMPOSITION. 

This is the last branch upon which it devolves upon us 
to report. The comparatively few compositions present- 
ed for our inspection, or read in our presence, in the seve- 
ral schools, were sufficient evidence to us, that if more 
time and attention were given to this very important 
branch, the pupils would be much the gainers. Although 
considerable time and attention are given to this exercise 
in the several schools, there is still great room for im- 
provement in this respect. In the Dudley School we heard 
several read, and perused a few personally, which were 
highly creditable to both teachers and pupils, and which 
would do no dishonor to many whose effusions are ushered 
into the world by the press. In the Comins School, also, 
we read a few of the same character. The same may be 
said, to a limited extent, of the other schools. Several 
letters to the teacher were shown us at the Francis Street 
School, which did honor both to the head and heart of the 
writers. In the "Washington School a form of Book-Keep- 
ing has been introduced in the First Division, in which 
each pupil keeps an imaginary account with the other 
members of the Division, and occasionally, especially if one 
of the pupils is to leave, all the others make out their re- 
spective bills, from their Day-Book, against him, for settle- 
ment. The charges are of course purely fictitious. Many 
of the books thus kept, and the bills made out, were very 



24 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

neat and accurate, and of course are matters of great 
interest to the pupils, as they are all subjected to the crit- 
icism of the Principal or some teacher. 

We approve heartily of this plan, as by it the pupils 
learn Writing, Arithmetic, Book-Keeping and Composition 
simultaneously. The Compositions of the Dearborn School 
were many of them very excellent. We wish more atten- 
tion could be given to this valuable exercise, since the 
want of practical knowledge in this respect frequently 
renders even epistolary correspondence irksome, and not 
unfrequently subjects letters thus written to ridicule, on 
account of their numerous errors and faulty style, or, 
rather, no style at all. The examination, as a whole, in 
this branch was very satisfactory. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. I. CUMMINGS, Examiner. 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

The examination in History and Geography was com- 
mitted to the undersigned. In consequence of previous 
engagements, that could not be deferred, I was unable to 
make the examination entire in all the schools, at the pre- 
cise time required ; and I am happy here to acknowledge 
my personal obligations to the Reverend Chairman of the 
Committee, who, at my request, very kindly consented to 
take charge of the examination in History in the First Di- 
visions of the Dudley and Comins Schools, and in Geogra- 
phy in the four Lower Divisions of the Dearborn School. 
That duty was readily and cheerfully performed by him, 
and it is unnecessary for me to say, that it was well and 
faithfully discharged, and the results of his examination I 
give in his own language : 

" Some three hours were spent in the lowest four Divi- 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 25 

sions of the Dearborn School, upon the topic of Geogra- 
phy. The pupils had some knowledge of this important 
branch of study, and gave, on the whole, correct answers 
to the question put them. About the average progress 
has been made. There was nothing very striking about 
the recitations, — some of them dragged a little, and out- 
side the text-books there was less clearness than within 
the limit of the definitions. A comparison of the Divisions 
with each other will hardly be expected. 

" My examination of History, in the First Division of 
the Dudley School occupied half a day. Of the twenty- 
three pupils belonging to the class, eighteen were present, 
and though somewhat wearied from the hard week's labor, 
were in good spirits, and entered upon the work cheerfully. 
Of the result, I am compelled to speak more qualifiedly 
than I could wish. Important facts and dates had passed 
out of the minds of the pupils, so that they did not go on 
as they had expected to, and as their teacher had reason 
to hope they would. While from one point of view the 
examination in History might be justly styled a failure, 
from another it was very successful, for no exercise which 
I have witnessed in this school has done more towards 
deepening my conviction of the faithfulness and competen- 
cy of the Principal of it, or of the diligence and conscien- 
tiousness of the pupils. And while I state these facts in 
reference to the examination on the afternoon of the 21st 
of May, because of that time and occasion they are facts, 
it is but simple justice to say, that I am fully satisfied that 
there is as much knowledge of History in the Dudley 
School, as can be found in any corresponding Division in 
the City, and our schools are, all things considered, second 
to none in the Commonwealth. 

" I visited the Comins School May 22d, and asked a few 
questions in History, but the examination was too superfi- 
cial to aiford data for a report." 

The same reason prevented me from examining the three 
4 



26 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

lower Divisions in the Dudley — (though I have since then 
examined two of them) — one Division in the Comins, and 
the Francis Street Grammar School ; and I am happy to 
record my obligations to Drs. Nute and Cunrmings, who 
readily consented to add this to their other duties assign- 
ed to them in the annual examination. 

The Divisions in the Dudley School, examined by Dr. 
Nute, are represented by him, verbally, to me, to have 
given satisfaction. 

Dr. Cummings says of the Comins School, " The Division 
examined has but just commenced, and the lessons have 
been from the outline, maps. The examination in this Di- 
vision was very satisfactory." 

Of the Francis Street School he says, " The answers were 
given promptly and accurately, in most cases, and show a 
thorough drill on the part of the teacher. The proportion 
of correct answers were full eighty per cent. I doubt if 
many classes have made more real advancement in Geog- 
raphy than those in this school." 

The Second Division of the Dudley School was exam- 
ined by me in History. Considerable progress has been 
made since the last quarterly examination in this branch 
of study ; and I am happy to report the condition of this 
Division as satisfactory. 

One entire afternoon was spent in examining the First 
Division in the Washington School, in History. The result 
of this examination was entirely satisfactory, and pre- 
sented evidence, that neither the teacher nor the pupils 
had been unmindful of what might be expected of them in 
the discharge of their respective duties. Important facts, 
dates, circumstances, and general details were well re- 
membered, clearly and accurately stated, to disconnected 
questions, put outside of the text-book, in different periods 
of time, and clearly demonstrated that the labors of teach- 
ers and the efforts of the scholars had been well directed, 
and that their success was well deserved. 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 27 

History forms no part of the studies pursued in the 
Dearborn School. The particular reason for this omission 
I am unable to present to the Committee ; and as this is a 
matter more particularly under the direction of the Local 
Committee of that school, my duty will be sufficiently dis- 
charged by a simple statement of the fact, without comment. 

The examination of these Divisions was conducted 
orally. 

The examination of the First and Second Divisions in 
the several schools, in Geography, was made by the under- 
signed. Questions, to the number of 228, were prepared 
and printed on a letter sheet, and distributed among the 
pupils of these Divisions. Some four hours were allowed 
the pupils to write their answers. The papers were then 
gathered together, and an examination afterwards made, 
to ascertain the number of correct answers. 

The result of the examination is as follows : — 

Dudley School. 

First Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 125, or 55 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 114, or 50 pr. ct. 

Second Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 117, or 51 pr. ct. 

Secoiid Class. 

The average No. of correct answers was 95, or 42 pr. ct. 

Per centage of correct answers of the two Divisions, 48. 

Comins School. 

First Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 157, or 69 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 130, or 56 pr. ct. 



28 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

Third Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 96, or 42 pr. ct. 

Second Division — First Class. 

The average No. of correct answers was 88, or 39 pr. ct. 

Per centage of correct answers of the two Divisions, 48. 

Washington School. 

First Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 190, or 83 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 163, or 71 pr. ct. 

Second Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 103, or 45 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 

The average No. of correct answers was 100, or 44 pr. ct. 

Per centage of correct answers of the two Divisions, 64. 

Dearborn School. 

First Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 85, or 37 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 99, or 43 pr. ct. 

Second Division — First Class. 
The average No. of correct answers was 70, or 30 pr. ct. 

Second Class. 

The average No. of correct answers was 83, or 36 pr. ct. 

Per centage of correct answers of the two Divisions, 36. 

Taken together, the result is as follows : — 

Average number of correct answers, was .... 114 

" " of incorrect answers 28 

" " not answered 86 

Per centage of correct answers 50 



1857.] 



SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 



29 



Perhaps it would be better understood by the Commit- 
tee, if the results should be presented in tabular form. 
The following tables, therefore, have been prepared, and 
the results will be seen more in detail. 

The first table presents the result of the examination 
by Classes. 

The second table presents the result of the examination 
by Divisions. 

The third table presents the result of the examination 
by Schools, and also the result of the schools taken to- 
gether. The number of scholars — average age — average 
number of correct answers — average number of incorrect 
answers — average number not answered — and the per 
centage of correct answers, will be found in each table. 

TABLE I.— BY CLASSES. 



KAME OF SCHOOL. 


CLASS. 


= 2 

Eo 

S02 


to 

2* 

<3 60 

>< 

< 


6« 

6tc fe 

a>»- - 

< 


Co 

a g S 


611- p 

fe ° s 
>*< 

< 


O ^ 


Dudley. 
















(Girls,) First Division 


1st 


18 


141 


125 


35 


68 


.55 


u a 


2d 


23 


13i 


114 


28 


86 


.50 


Second " 


1st 


14 


13 


117 


46 


65 


.51 


K a 


2d 


29 


121 


95 


31 


102 


.42 


COMINS. 
















(Girls,) First Division 


1st 


6 


14 


157 


19 


52 


.69 


a u 


2d 


13 


13i 


130 


34 


64 


.56 


u a 


3d 


13 


12 


96 


27 


105 


.42 


Second " 


1st 


17 


111 


88 


24 


116 


.39 


Washington. 
















(Boys,) First Division 


1st 


29 


131- 


190 


21 


17 


.83 


u u 


2d 


26 


12* 


163 


39 


26 


.71 


Second " 


1st 


16 


124 


103 


45 


80 


.45 


n cc 


2d 


25 


12 


100 


30 


98 


.44 


Dearborn. 
















(Boys,) First Division 


1st 


23 


14 


85 


14 


129 


.37 


u a 


2d 


12 


13 


99 


13 


116 


.43 


Second " 


1st 


24 


121 


70 


20 


138 


.30 


U t( 


2d 


15 


12 


83 


17 


128 


.36 



30 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. 



[May, 



TABLE II.— BY DIVISIONS 



NAME OF SCHOOL. 


So 
•A 


o 

bo . 

<! 


o +-■ . 

° £ s 
s n S| 

«<1 


6o 

"" r % 
fci 9 ^ 

>^* "Z 


-a 


»f « 

c i. & 
p-i 


Dudley. First Division 
Second " 


41 
43 


13? 

12* 


US 

102 


31 

38 


79 

8S 


.52 
.45 


Comins. First 

Second " 


32 

17 


13 
11* 


121 

88 


28 
24 


79 
116 


.53 
.39 


Washington. First 

Second " 


55 
41 


13 
12i 


177 
101 


29 
36 


22 
91 


.77 
.44 


Dearborn. First 

Second " 


35 
39 


133 
12i 


90 
76 


14 
19 


124 
133 


.39 
.33 



TABLE III. — BY SCHOOLS. 



NAME OF SCHOOL. 


So 

3tB 


03 


6*j 

a s-. o 

go| 

o— 5 


6 o 

**» 

<u o ** 


■a 
a> o o 

£2«! 


o 

tj«S3 

c ? s- 
o s 




fc 


< 


^ 


< 


Ph 


Dudley 


84 


131 


110 


34 


84 


.48 




49 


12^ 


110 


27 


91 


.48 




96 


128 


145 


32 


51 


.64 




74 


13 


82 


17 


129 


.36 


Total .... 


303 


12 6 5 


114 


28 


86 


.50 



Upon a careful examination of the papers returned, it is 
seen that there are pupils in all the schools, "who are enti- 
tled to great credit for so large a per centage of correct 
answers ; the best averaging from seventy-five to ninety - 
eight per cent. That they have been laborious in their 
efforts, the written evidence clearly establishes beyond all 
question, and it is exceedingly gratifying to witness the 
results. But while these cases are comparatively few, 
there are far too many whose deficiency is too manifest, 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 31 

to allow the examination in this branch of study to be con- 
sidered as entirely satisfactory. The questions prepared 
and submitted "were principally elementary in their char- 
acter, embracing general . definitions in Natural, Political, 
and Mathematical Geography, which the pupils in the two 
higher Divisions of our schools ought to be able to answer 
readily, and with a good degree of correctness, or else 
what they have learned in the lower Divisions has been of 
little benefit to them. To teach this science successfully, 
a great deal depends upon the teacher and the mode of 
imparting instruction. We should not rely too much upon 
the text-book for all that is necessary to be known re- 
specting it, for many of these are based upon defective 
systems, as well as being destitute of philosophical ar- 
rangement. And to this, perhaps, more than to any other 
cause, may be attributed the failure to accomplish all that 
we desire. Says an intelligent author : " Hard labor may 
enable the pupil to learn the government of a country, the 
population of a city, the length of a river, and other details 
equally dry and repulsive. But Geography is something 
more than a mere collection of detached facts ; it is a sci- 
ence founded on fixed principles, which underlie its details, 
and which must be thoroughly understood before the lat- 
ter can be profitably learned. Its province is the whole 
earth ; and only when the characteristics of the earth, as a 
whole, the arrangement and distribution of its elements, 
the relations subsisting between its various parts, the 
agencies constantly at work on its surface, and the phe- 
nomena peculiar to it, both as an individual planet and as 
a member of the solar system, — only when these are intel- 
ligibly fixed in the mind as a great and enduring founda- 
tion, can the superstructure of facts and statistics be pro- 
perly reared." 

In conclusion : it is but justice to say, that while the 
result of the examination in some of the Divisions is 
satisfactory, the result of the schools, taken as a whole, 



32 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

falls below the standard which the Committee have a right 
to expect. And how are we to account for this result ? 
Has too much time been devoted to other branches, and 
too little to this ? Is the teaching faulty ? Are the text- 
books used, the best we can obtain ? These are questions 
which it would seem proper for the Committee to consi- 
der ; and having considered them, they would be enabled 
to propose remedies for existing deficiencies, and cause a 
higher standard of excellence to be attained in this highly 
important branch of study. 

JOSEPH N. BREWER, Examiner. 



ARITHMETIC. 



The Committee to whom was assigned the duty of ex- 
amining the Grammar Schools in Arithmetic, visited most 
of the Divisions, and would state briefly the general con- 
clusions which he formed respecting their condition and 
merits. It is not necessary to single out here any parti- 
cular Divisions for either censure or praise. Not for cen- 
sure, certainly, when, as a whole, the schools appeared, in 
this branch of study, so well, and when, perhaps, every ex- 
ceptional case might be explained, to a great degree, by 
other causes than by an absolute inability to perform the 
examples which were submitted. When all proper allow- 
ance has been made for the natural diffidence of some of 
the pupils — for that fear which others have that they 
may fail, and which so often itself ensures the dreaded 
result — and for the fact that the Committee was wholly 
unknown to most of those whom he was called upon to 
visit — it may be said, with truth, that the acquaintance 
with Arithmetic, which these Grammar Schools gave evi- 
dence of possessing, was highly satisfactory. There were 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 33 

some classes in Colburn's First Lessons, which appeared 
remarkably well. The promptness and the accuracy with 
which some of the smaller children answered the questions 
which were put to them, and which were chosen at random 
from every page they had studied, were admirable, while 
the familiarity which they displayed with the principles 
therein involved, attested the fidelity of both teachers and 
pupils. 

It was noticed, that in some of the Divisions, those who 
studied this book had been always accustomed to the use 
of their copies during the recitation, while in others the 
questions were repeated from simply hearing them stated 
by the teacher, and were * faithfully retained in the mind 
until they were solved. In the latter case it was a purely 
mental process, and as such it might be well recommended 
to those Divisions in which it is not yet generally observ- 
ed. It forms better habits of attention in the pupil, 
strengthens his memory, gives him greater grasp of mind, 
and quickens the play of all his faculties. 

A. P. PUTNAM, 

Examining Committee. 



PRIMARY AND INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

The Committee appointed to conduct the examination 
of the Primary and Intermediate Schools, close their la- 
bors with the following 

REPORT: 

The importance of Primary Schools is not likely to be 
over-estimated. It is in them the foundation must be laid 
for a good education. Here a large proportion of the 
5 



34 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 12. [May, 

children of our City receive their first impressions of a 
necessity for neatness and order, of a regard for those ap- 
pointed to rule over them, of a reverence for law. 

The home influences exercised over many of the children 
gathered here for instruction, render the duty of the teach- 
ers, in many cases, arduous. Not only is a thorough knowl- 
edge of the elementary branches needed by them, but a 
facility in imparting oral instruction upon general subjects 
which children can comprehend. Very much valuable 
knowledge may thus be gained by the children, which shall 
serve as a stimulus for gaining more. With all this 
is needed unwearied patience, that can give line upon 
line and precept upon precept, repeating and re-repeating 
the necessary instruction, until the proper impression is 
made upon the plastic minds under their care. This the 
teachers, in general, appear to understand, and the good 
order maintained in the schools, the affection in many cases 
manifested between teachers and pupils, are very gratify- 
ing to the Committee. 

The labors of the Committee were sub-divided; the 
Intermediate and Primary Schools Nos. 5, 6, 9, 10 and 25 
were examined by Dr. Morse. They are " all in a satis- 
factory condition : Each school had been drilled in the 
characters on the charts representing the elementary 
sounds of letters and syllables, and had made a good de- 
gree of proficiency in the analysis of words, which, when 
thoroughly learned, will, from the clear distinct enuncia- 
tion of each syllable, make better readers, and prove of 
much advantage to our schools. 

" The teachers are faithful, and devoted to their work ; 
some have been more successful than others, but no more 
so than could be expected. The attainments of the pupils 
of a school will vary with their ability to acquire knowl- 
edge, so that a school, with the same teacher, but with 
different pupils, may rank high one year, and fall consider- 
ably below that standard the next. Good order is main- 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 35 

tained in all the above schools." The several abstracts 
of the above schools are herewith submitted. 

The Committee are gratified to learn from the Mayor, 
that an eligible lot of land has been purchased on Heath 
Street, ninety feet front, and extending back from 125 to 
133 feet, and containing 11,610 square feet, on which it is 
the intention of the City authorities to erect a handsome 
and convenient School-house, suitable for two Divisions of 
scholars ; when this shall have been done, School No. 25 
will be removed from its present unsuitable and inconve- 
nient location to this place. 

Schools Nos. 17, 26, 27 and 28 were very thoroughly 
examined by Mr. Eobinson, on the 14th, 15th and 16th of 
May. Much time was spent in going through with all the 
exercises, and on the whole the result was satisfactory : 
The order is generally good, very good in No. 17. The 
abstracts of these schools are herewith presented. The 
Committee learn, with pleasure, that a School-house on 
Munroe Street is soon to be erected, suitable for two Di- 
visions of scholars. When this is completed, it provides 
a proper place for No. 28. 

Schools No. 18 to 24, inclusive, were examined by Dr. 
Allen. No. 18 is divided into four classes; the first and 
second classes — comprising one half the school — in 
Heading, Spelling, Arithmetic and Geography, were highly 
satisfactory. The order and general appearance were 
good. No. 19 was satisfactory ; the present teacher has had 
the charge of the school only six weeks, during which time 
one half of the pupils now belonging have been admitted. 
Many of them have not attended school before, and belong 
to families in which very poor order and discipline have 
been observed. The number of scholars is too large for 
any one teacher. The success of the present teacher will 
no doubt satisfy the reasonable expectations of the School 
Committee. In No. 20, the several exercises were very 
good — order and general appearance unexceptionable. 



36 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

No. 21 — the Reading and Spelling fair; the number of 
scholars, we think, is the largest belonging to any Sub- 
Primary School ; large average attendance. Some arrange- 
ment ought to be made for further accommodation of a part 
of the pupils. The teacher has applied herself faithfully 
to the school. No. 22 was highly satisfactory. No. 23, 
Reading and Spelling very good, order and general -appear- 
ance good; average attendance is small, which we think is 
the fault of the parents. The relation existing between 
teacher and pupils are of a happy character. No. 24 was 
very satisfactory ; good order and attention are maintained 
here, giving great pleasure to the Examining Committee. 
The abstracts of these schools will be found herewith. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 29, 30, 31 and 32 were examined by 
Mr. Ray. In 3 and 4, Sub-Primarys, the Reading and 
Spelling fully answered the expectation — creditable to 
the pupils and their excellent teachers. Nos. 1 and 2 dif- 
fer a little in grade. The scholars are promoted from 
Nos. 3 and 4 to No. 2. and then to No. 1, Reading, 
Spelling, Geography, Addition, Multiplication and Punctu- 
ations quite satisfactory. Oral Lessons and Singing pleas- 
ing ; order, discipline, and cleanliness good. The teachers 
deserve high commendation. Nos. 29 and 30 is beauti- 
fully located. Since the opening of the Winthrop Street 
School, it has been relieved of a part of its scholars, and 
greatly to the advantage of those that remain. The ex- 
amination was perfectly satisfactory, proving the faithful- 
ness of the teachers. In No. 29 is a class of six or eight 
pupils, older than most of the others — kept from entering 
the Grammar schools by request of their parents, appa- 
rently to their own disadvantage. The propriety of com- 
plying with such a request may well be doubted, unless in 
case of very delicate constitutions. Nos. 31 and 32 are 
in a healthy and prosperous condition ; the pupils sustained 
the examination in a satisfactory manner. Very pleasing 
Oral Instruction is here given by the teachers as well as 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 37 

in 29 and 30. The introduction of Phonetics, as an exer- 
cise, meets the approval of the teachers of the several 
schools examined by the Committee, and seems likely to 
succeed well. The abstracts of these schools accompany 
this Report. 

Nos. 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 were examined by 
Mr. Seaver. No. 7, though considered by the teacher Sub- 
Primary, appeared to the Committee to rank above the 
average grade of such schools; Reading, Spelling, and all 
the exercises were excellent. No. 11 reflects great credit 
upon teacher and pupils, and the examination was highly 
satisfactory. No. 12 presented an unfavorable appearance ; 
it is but just, however, to say, that the present teacher has 
been here only one month, which may be an excuse on her 
part for the dulness of the scholars. The Committee con- 
sider her competent ; but more energy is wanted to wake 
up the scholars. 

No. 13, a Sub-Primary, was found in an excellent condi- 
tion; the teacher appeared well fitted for her vocation. 

Nos. 14 and 15 passed a fair examination, "but there is 
abundant room for improvement." 

No. 16, formerly taught by Miss Crowninshield, has been 
under the charge of the present teacher since 1st Febru- 
ary last ; it is Sub-Primary, and passed a very fair exam- 
ination. The abstracts of these schools will be found 
herewith. 

Your Committee feel it to be their duty to call the 
attention of the Board to the fact, that several of the Pri- 
mary Schools have not been visited by their Local Com- 
mittees during the current quarter, as required by the 
Rules of the Board, and by the best interests of the schools. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Per order of the Committee, 

J. P. ROBINSON, Chairman. 



38 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. 



[May, 



ABSTRACT 

Of the High Schools for the Yea?- ending May 23d, 1857. 



High School for Boys. 
S. M. Weston, Principal. \ 
George H. Gorely, Assistant. 
Total, 

High School for Girls. 
Rob't Bickforcl, Principal. < 
Martha S. Price, Assistant. 
Total, 






16 

27 
34 

T7 



19 
14 
34 

"67 



15| 
26i 
33* 

751 



18 
13 
32 

~63~ 



.97 
.98 
.98 

^98 



.95 
.93 
.94 



.007 
.004 
.002 

^004 



.005 
.005 
.006 



.0051 



16} 

15* 

15* 



1^ 

16* 

151 



ABSTRACT 

Of the Grammar and Intermediate Schools for Quarter 
ending May 23d, 1857. 





s 
p 


03 «.Q 


sf 

£ a 
> - 




o . 

I'l 

<t si 

P-iH 


o 

TO to 
>< 


Dudley School for Girls. 














Adeline Seaver, Principal. 
Ellen M. Haskell, Assistant. 


1 


54 


48 


.89 


.016 


14J 


Caroline Alclen, 


2 


50 


45 


.90 


.009 


13j| 


Ellen A. Marean, 


3 


56 


51 


.91 


.026 


124 


Clara B. Tucker, 


4 


53 


50 


.93 


.006 


11 


Caroline J. Nash, 


5 


49 


46 


.93 


.006 


10 3 4 


Clementina B. Thompson, 


6 


50 


46 


.92 


.004 


9 


Helen J. Otis, . 


7 48 


42 


.87 


.008 


9* 


Total, 


|360 


328 


.91 


.011 


HI 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 

ABSTRACT— Continued. 



39 



Washington School foe 
Boys. 

John Kneeland, Principal. 
Harriet E. Burrell, Assistant. 
Benjamin C. Vose, . 
Anna M. Williams, . 
Alice C. Pierce, 
Sarah M. Vose, 
Rebecca A. Jordan, . 
Margaret A. Mathews, 
Caroline C. Drown, . 

Total 



Dearborn School for Boys. 

William H. Long, Principal. 
Louisa E. Harris, 
Ruth P. Stockbridge, 
Louisa J. Fisher, 
J. Ellen Horton, 
Henrietta M. Young, 

Total 



Comins School for Girls. 

Sarah A. M. Cushing, Prirtl. 
Mary C. Eaton, 
Elizabeth W. Young, 
Almira W. Chamberlain, . 

Total, 

Francis Street School. 

(Both Sexes.) 

Sophronia F. Wright, 



5h3 



60 
49 
49 
50 
49 
52 
57 
57 

4"23~ 



44 

48 
50 
48 
46 

274~ 



37 
46 

52 
54 

189" 



35 



59 

45* 

47" 

46| 

46 

50i 

55A 

54" 

4~oT 



37 
41 
46 
48 
44 
44 



260 



44 

47 
50 

176" 



31 



0h<J 



.98 
.93 
.96 
.93 

.94 
.97 
.97 
.95 



.98 
.94 
.97 
.96 
.92 
.95 



.002 
.004 
.010 
.016 
.011 
.008 
.005 
.009 

JH)8~ 



001 131 



.95 



.95 
.95 
.91 
.91 

193" 



.91 



.003 
.003 
.004 
.005 
.005 

Tool" 



.015 
.009 
.035 
.022 

^02l" 



13i 
12| 

ni 

n 

10* 
101 
10 

JL 

11 



12- 

Hi 
11 

qi 
H 



is 1 
11 
ioi 

9 

lof 



.002 11» 



40 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. 
ABSTRACT — Continued. 



[May, 





s 
o 

5 


|1 

H 

< 


6 

© 3 

611 •O 

£ a 

© u 

•55 


OS 

© ^ 


o ^ 


< 


Intermediate School. 














Delia Mansfield, 


1 


48 


37 


.77 


.037 


11 


Nancy L. Tucker, 


2 


44 


35 


.79 


.045 


10 


Total, 


92 


72 


.78 


.041 


m 



OJ the Pri 



ABSTRACT 

rimary Schools for Quarter ending May 23d, 

1857. 



TEACHERS. 



o 

So 
= 02 
Z 


|" s§ 
< 


6 

, « 
© a 

©3 

!> £ 


o 2 

o = 


o • 

si 1 

(2 H 


1 


48' 


45 


.93 


.04 


2 


49 


46 


.94 


.04 


3 


50 


45 


.90 


.08 


4 


52 


48 


.93 


.12 


5 


49 


44 


.89 


.on 


6 


73 


66 


.90 


•Oil 


7 


31 


27 


.90 


.03 


8 










9 


52 


45 


.85 


.09 


10 


59 


48 


.81 


.04 


11 


51 


45 


.88 


.02 


12 


48 


42 


.87 


.02 


13 


52 


44 


.85 


.04 


14 


55 


45 


.81 


•04 


15 


32 


28 


•90 


.07 


16 


50 


41 


.82 


.14 






Sarah T. Jennison, . 
Eliza Brown, . 
Sarah 0. Babcock, . 
Julia B. Burrell, 
Elizabeth A. Morse, . 
Margaret E. Davis, . 
Maria L. Young, 
Vacancy. . 
Harriet H. Fay, 
Susannah L. Durant, . 
Emily Gardner, 
Sophia L. Stone, 
Cornelia J. Bills, 
Charlotte P. Williams, 
Ann M. Backup, 
Carrie M. Adams, 



54 



6^ 

u 2 



6 

8 

7 

? 



1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 

ABSTRACT— Continued. 



41 



TEACHERS. 


o . 

j= O 

Ho 


si 

»c s 

CO C o 

fe = m 


QJ 

•a 

s-s 


a * 

° 5 


o u5 

" a 

U-3 






= 31 


;za 


>£ 




QJ 03 


>< 




fc 


«! 


« 


Pu< 


ChB 


< 


Sarah W. Holbrook, 


17 


39 


33 


.85 


.10 


7 


Almira B. Russell, . 


18 


51 


46 


.90 


.03 


8 


Carrie Y. Rice, 


19 


68 


62 


.91 


.02 


6 


Mary A. Waldock, . 


20 


50 


46 


92 


.02 


8 


Harriet L. Macarty, . 


21 


73 


68 


.93 


.05 


6J 


Elizabeth Waldock, . 


22 


27 


22 


.81 


.03 


% 


Henrietta M. Wood, 


23 


48 


36 


.75 


•06 


8 


Mary A. Morse, 


24 


37 


33 


.90 


•04 


6, 1 . 


Caroline N. Heath, . 


25 


47 


33 


.70 


•10 


n 


Plooma A Savage, . 


26 


35 


30 


.86 


.04 


% 


Mary G. Hewes, 


27 


39 


32 


.82 


.02 


5k 


Margaret G. Chenery, 


28 


24 


21 


.87 


.02 


7 


Sarah A. Dudley, 


29 


35 


31 


89 


.02 


ri 


H. B. Scammell, 


30 


39 


39 


.74 




6 * 


Catharine N. Stowell, 


31 


42 


38 


.91 


.07 


H 


Frances N. Brooks, . 


32 


55 


45 


.82 


.03 


7 


Total, 




1460 


1264 


TsT 


~05" 


"ef 



RECAPITULATION. 



TEACHERS. 


"5 £ 


u 
>- a 

qj — 

* a 

<1 


6 
u 

•g 


^j a 

■Sol 

S a 

z$ 

<u — 


c Jg 

. Ov 


< 


High Schools, . 
Grammar Schools, . 
Intermediate Schools, 
Primary Schools, 


2 

5 

1 

31 


144 

1281 

92 

1460 


138 
1199 

72 
1264 


.96 
.94 

.78 

.87 


.005 
.010 
.041 
.050 


I5j 

Hi 
10* 

63 


Total, 


39 


2977 


2673 


.90 


.030 


10 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE, 1857. 



ELECTED AT LAEGE. 

George Putnam, William H. Ryder, Julius S. Shailer. 

ELECTED BY WARDS. 

Ward 1. — Horatio G. Morse, Henry W. Farley. 

" 2. — Joshua Seaver, Ira Allen. 

" 3. — A. I. Cummings, T. R. Nute. 

" 4. — Joseph N. Brewer, J. P. Robinson. 

" 5. — A. P. Putnam, Edwin Ray. 

William H. Ryder, Chairman. A. I. Cummings, Secretary. 



RESIDENCES OP THE COMMITTEE. 

George Putnam, Highland st. 

William H. Ryder, 48 Vernon st. 

Julius S. Shailer, Washington, corner of Ruggles st. 

Horatio G. Morse, 65 Zeigler st. 

Henry W. Farley, Eustis, opposite Plymouth st. 

Joshua Seaver, Ruggles st., corner of Sumner place, (Office 

Webber Block.) 
Ira Allen, Cabot, corner of Sudbury st., (Office, corner of 

Ruggles and Tremont sts.) 
A. I. Cummings, 121 Dudley st. 
T. R. Nute, 163 Dudley st. 



44 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. [May, 

Joseph N. Brewer, 37 Centre st. 

J. P. Robinson, Cedar st. 

Alfred P. Putnam, Mrs. Field's, Regent st. 

Edwin Ray, Walnut, corner of Dale st. 



SUB-COMMITTEES. 

Regulations. — Messrs. Shailer, Nute, Seaver. 
Books. — Messrs. Ryder, Shailer, Morse, Farley, Brewer. 
Finance. — Messrs. Seaver, G. Putnam, Robinson. 
Filling Vacancies in Primary and Intermediate Schools. 
— Messrs. Ryder, Morse, Shailer, Cummings, Ray. 



Curator of School Buildings. — Jonas Pierce, Jr. 
Residence on Bartlett Street. 



1857.] 



SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 



45 



a 


60 


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a 

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a 


3 

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to 




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46 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 12. 



[May, 



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2 

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a 



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1857.] SCHOOL EXAMINATION. 47 



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