Skip to main content

Full text of "[City documents, 1847-1867]"

See other formats

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Public Library 

City Document. — Mo. 6. 


Citg at ^§uhnx^, 

YEAR 1859. 




dDJt]} 0f ^0^'huB» 

In School Committee, May 4, 1859. 

The Chairman appomted the following members as the Annual Exam- 
ining Committee, viz. : 

High and Grammar Schools, — Messrs. Crafts, Olmstead, Ray, Seavee, 
Brewer, Nute and Anderson. 

P7-imary and Intermediate Schools. — Messrs. Cumjiings, Putnam, Allen, 
Williams and Garvet. 

December 7, 1859. 
The Chairman of the Board (Mr. Morse) submitted his Annual 

Mr. CuMMiNGs submitted the Annual Report of the Primary and Inter- 
mediate Schools. 

December 14, 1859. 
Mr. Crafts submitted the Annual Report of the High and Grammar 
All of which were accepted. 

It was then Ordered, That the several Reports be committed to Messrs. 
Morse, Crafts and Cummings to revise, and cause to be printed 2500 
copies, to be distributed to the citizens of this City, as the Annual 
Report of the School Committee. 

JOSHUA SEAVER, Secretanj. 


The School Committee of the City of Roxbury, for the 
year 1859, respectfully submit to the citizens the follow- 
ing Report: 

The Committee, in directing the educational interests of 
the children in the Public Schools, have endeavored to 
discharge their duty in such a manner as to secure the 
best instruction and the most convenient accommodations 
they could command. Availing themselves of the experi- 
ence and testimony of others engaged in like service, in 
other cities, they have introduced some changes in the or- 
ganization of a part of the schools, which it is hoped will 
be satisfactory to the citizens, and result in permanent 
benefit to the schools. 

The Committee have exercised a proper supervision 
of the schools, and by repeated visits and examinations 
have arrived at such conclusions in relation to their condi- 
tion as are embodied in the accompanying Reports. 

The whole number of Public Schools, under the care of 
this Board, is forty-five, which are graded as Primary, 
Grammar, and High. 

4 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

The whole number of Teachers employed is seventy- 
seven, including a teacher of Music for the Grammar and 
High Schools, and one in Drawing for the High School. 

The whole number of Pupils belonging to all the 
schools is three thousand five hundred and eighty-one. 

The cost of maintaining our Public Schools the current 
year is, exclusive of the erection and repair of buildings, 
$35,137.96, or $9.80 per scholar. 


The number of Primary Schools is thirty-eight. The 
number of Pupils belonging to these schools is one thou- 
sand nine hundred and seventy- one ; making an average to 
each school of fifty-two pupils. 

The cost of keeping the Primary Schools the present 
year is $13,400, or $6.70 per scholar. 

No new Primary School House has been erected duiiug 
the present year, although it has been found necessary to 
form five new Schools, viz., two in the Orange Street 
School House, part of which was vacated by a division of 
boys, when the Comics School was opened; twoinYernon 
Street, in rooms formerly occupied by the Intermediate 
School ; and one in Winthrop Street, in the room lately 
vacated by a division of the Dudley School. 

The number of Primary School Teachers is thirty-eight, 
an increase of five during the year. 

Three Teachers resigned their places ; two were pro- 
moted to the Grammar Schools ; ten new appointments 
were made, and eight were transferred from one school to 

The Teachers of the Primary Schools are, as a whole, 
well adapted for the duties imposed upon them, and are 
devoting their best energies to meet the expectations of 
the Committee and parents. 



The Intermediate School, in Vernon Street, has been 
discontinued in that locality, and its members distributed 
to the three Grammar Schools in the Districts in which 
they reside, and are now included in the divisions of Spe- 
cial Instruction, under the supervision of the several Prin- 
cipals of these schools ; which arrangement, it is believed, 
will tend to the encouragement, better discipline and ad- 
vancement of those scholars who from neglect, sickness or 
other causes, are behind those of their own age, and are 
too old to be included in the Primary Schools. 


There are five Grammar Schools in the city, — the same 
in number as last year. The whole number of Pupils 
belonging to the Grammar Schools is one thousand five 
hundred and forty, — making an average to each Division 
of 'fifty pupils. The cost of maintaining these schools the 
current year is $17,379, or $11.20 per scholar. 

In the early part of the year, the two Central Grammar 
Schools were so over-crowded with pupils, and laboring 
under so great inconvenience by reason of having divisions 
remote from the principal buildings, that it seemed imper- 
ative that some additional accommodations should be pro- 
vided as soon as practicable. 

It was found that the majority of the boys belonging to 
the Washington School resided in the Western section of 
the city, and the greater part of the girls attending the 
Dudley School came from the Eastern section. It was 
therefore apparent that the additional accommodations 
should be made in those localities where most demanded. 
Good school buildings were already provided for the girls 
in the Western District, and for the boys in the Eastern, 
which it was found could be advantageously enlarged to a 
capacity sufficient to afford the requisite accommodations. 

6 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

Accordingly the City Authorities were requested to cause 
the proposed additions to the Comins and Dearborn School 
Houses to be made. The request was met by a cheerful 
readiness to comply, and a willingness to cooperate with 
the School Committee in making the desired additions. 
The work was completed as thoroughly and expeditiously 
as possible, although a much longer time was consumed 
than was at first anticipated. It was a cause of regret to 
the Committee, that some of the scholars were deprived 
of their schooling for a number of weeks besides the reg- 
ular vacation. Yet there seemed no Way to bring them 
together until the houses were finished. Each department 
was commenced as soon as the forwardness of the work 
would permit. 

The buildings are now completed, the grounds graded, 
and every arrangement made, so that the citizens of the 
Eastern and Western sections of the city have reason to 
congratulate themselves on possessing such safe, conve- 
nient and well-arranged school edifices in which to edu- 
cate their children. 

Although both sexes attend school in the same building, 
yet they have separate entrances, play-grounds, and separate 
apartments, except those pupils belonging to the First Di- 
vision, in which they are together in the same room only 
during school-hours, under the immediate care of the Prin- 
cipal and his Assistant. This arrangement differs but little 
from two distinct schools in the same vicinity. If children 
from the same neighborhood mingle in the streets in going 
and returning from school, it is better that they should do 
so under the vigilance of their parents, friends and school- 
mates, feeling their accountability to teachers under the 
same Principal. It is the testimony of some teachers, that 
the pupils belonging to different schools feel under less 
restraint towards each other, and it is much more difficult 
to reach any case of impropriety occurring between them, 
than between those attending the same school. 


The Grammar Schools in Boston proper, West Roxbury, 
Chelsea, Salem and Roxbury, are in whole or in part sepa- 
rate schools for boys and girls. In all other cities and 
towns of the State, including East and South Boston, the 
system of mixed schools prevails, to the satisfaction of the 
people ; the girls and boys being, for the most part, in 
the same divisions throughout the schools, many of these 
places having a class of scholars similar to our own. It 
is the testimony of many of the best educators of the day, 
that the sexes should be taught together, and that their 
reciprocal influence is promotive of intellectual develop- 
ment, good manners, self-government, and is not unfavor- 
able to good morals. 

After the completion of the Comins School House, the 
school was organized under the charge of D. W. Jones, as 
Principal, with eleven Divisions, viz. — five of girls and 
five of boys, and the First Division composed of both 
girls and hojs. Most of the boys were transferred from 
the Washington School. One room and few seats in 
several Divisions are left unoccupied. 

After the completion of the Dearborn School building, 
the school was organized under the charge of W. H. Long 
as Principal, with ten Divisions, viz. — four of girls and 
five of boys, and the First Division composed of both 
girls and boys. Most of the girls were transferred from 
the Dudley School. These Divisions are all full, but the 
hall is stiir left, to be occupied at some future time by 
two Divisions. 

During the Summer vacation, the City Government, at 
the request of the School Committee, caused the two 
upper rooms of the Washington School building to be par- 
titioned, so as to form two rooms in each story, and fur- 
nished with new desks and seats. The narrow, dilapidated 
and unsafe stairs were removed, and their places supplied 
by wide, safe and commodious ones. These improve- 
ments, so much needed, besides rendering the house much 

8 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

more comfortable for the pupils, make the expense of 
supporting the school less, by avoiding the necessity 
of employing a Sub-master. After the transfer of pupils 
belonging to the Comins School, there remained five Divi- 
sions. One room and seats in some of the Divisions were 
left unoccupied. 

The Dudley School, after having been reduced by the 
transfer of pupils belonging to the Dearborn School, is 
composed of four Divisions, and is now accommodated in 
the brick School House on Bartlett Street, with room still 
left for the increase of thirty pupils. 

The Teachers having charge of the Grammar Schools 
are generally the same as last year, although quite a num- 
ber of changes have been made. Five have been added to 
the number, viz., a Principal to the Comins School ; two 
promoted from the Primary Schools — one to a new Divi- 
sion of the Dudley, the other to a new Division of the 
Comins School ,• and the two Teachers of the Intermediate 
School, transferred — one to the Washington, and the 
other to the Comins School. 

Mr. John P. Patten, Sub-master of the Washington 
School, and Miss Isabella H. Wilson, Assistant of the First 
Division of the Dudley School, both excellent teachers, 
and well qualified for the positions they occupied, resigned 
their places in the early part of the year. In the re-organ- 
ization of the schools, it was decided to dispense with both 
these positions. Four teachers of the Washington School 
were transferred to the Comins, and four teachers of the 
Dudley School to the Dearborn. 


High School (for Girls) numbers seventy-two pupils, 
under two, the same. Teachers, as last year. 

The cost of maintaining this school the present year is 
$2,500.50, or 135.41 per scholar. 

The accompanying Report of the examinations of this 


school represents the progress and attainments of the 
scholars, to be entirely satisfactory to the Committee. 

It seems pertinent that, in this connection, something 
should be said in relation to the other two High Schools, 
which, although not under the care of the School Commit- 
tee, are public, and open to those possessing the necessary 
qualifications, as to age, attainments, &c. These schools, 
are supported by the income of a fund left for the purpose 
of maintaining a Free School, and by appropriations made 
by the City Government. They are, no doubt, excellent 
schools, and afford superior advantages to the sons of our 
citizens, in the prosecution of their advanced studies j yet 
it becomes us to inquire, if some means cannot be devised, 
by which, without diminishing the advantages of the schol- 
ars, the cost of supporting three High Schools cannot be 
materially diminished. In all other cities and towns 
of the State (Boston excepted), where High Schools are 
required to be maintained, one is found to be sufficient for 
both sexes, and is supported at far less expense than 
are ours. It may not be practicable to effect a consolida- 
tion of the three High Schools ; but it is believed that 
something can be effected by uniting two. 

The Trustees of the School Fund hold, for the benefit 
of the citizens of Roxbury, property, the present income of 
which averages about $3,000 per annum, and which will, in 
a few years, amount to a very large sum. It is evident, 
from the intent of the Donors and the use subsequently 
made of the income, that it should be devoted to the sup- 
port of such schools as are required by law, and whatever 
this income may be, by so much ought the amount to be 
raised for the support of Schools to be diminished. That 
this view of the matter is correct, a few facts in relation 
to the history of this School Fund will show. 

In 1645, about sixty of the inhabitants of Roxbury 
pledged themselves, or their estates, to pay a tax for the 
support of a School for the education of their children, which 

10 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 

is generally regarded as the beginning of the school now 
known as the Latin School. In 1647, the General Court 
of Massachusetts enacted a Law, making it obligatory upon 
every Township of fifty families, to support a school to 
teach Reading and Writing ; and upon every town of one 
hundred families, to maintain one to teach, besides the 
above-mentioned branches, some of the higher studies. 
The school was to be supported by the "parents of the 
children attending school, or by the inhabitants in gene- 
ral." The School, then already formed in Roxbury, be- 
came the one required by law to be maintained, and it 
was for its support that the several bequests, gifts, &c., 
were made, the proceeds of which eventually made the 
school free to all who chose to avail themselves of its pro- 
visions, and relieved the inhabitants of the tax which they 
otherwise would have been compelled to pay. So far as 
known, that was the only school formed in this section of 
the town, in accordance with the requirement of the law, 
for many succeeding generations. For years previous to 
1835, two schools were supported by this Fund, in which 
nearly all the scholars were taught the common elementa- 
ry English studies ; a few pursued some of the higher Eng- 
lish branches, and a less number studied Latin and Greek. 
Subsequent to 1835, the Grammar School in the easterly 
part of Roxbury — the name by which it was then known 
— underwent a change. The number of its pupils were 
reduced, and a less number of studies were pursued. In 
1839, by a special act of the Legislature, it became a High 
School, such as by the Revised Statutes, published in 1836, 
Roxbury was obliged to support. It was to be deemed 
such a school, provided, among other conditions, it should 
be one kept by a Master who should, in addition to other 
branches of learning, give instruction in the History of the 
United States, Book-keeping, Surveying, Geometry and 
Algebra, and should be competent to instruct in the Latin 
and Greek Languages, General History, Rhetoric and 


Logic. Under this Act, for some years, the Grammar 
School in the Easterly part of Roxbury was the High 
School within the meaning of the Statutes. Afterwards 
the school became one in which only the studies prepara- 
tory for College were pursued, and was called the Latin 
School, and ceased to fulfil the conditions of the Act of 
1839. Roxbury, failing to maintain a High School as re- 
quired by the Statutes, was liable to prosecution, and part 
of the youth were deprived of those educational advan- 
tages which they had a right to demand. These consid- 
erations led the School Committee, in 1852, to make an 
arrangement with the Trustees, by which the English High 
School for Boys was established. The arrangement was 
agreed to on the part of the School Committee, with the 
expectation that the income of the Fund held by the Trus- 
tees would in a short time be nearly, if not wholly, suffi- 
cient to defray the expenses of the School, and that the 
School Committee would have joint control with the Trus- 
tees in its management ; but the City was required to pay 
sums towards the support of this School, which were large 
enough to defray the whole, or nearly the whole of its ex- 
penses, and the School Committee had no legal control 
whatever over its management. Hence, in 1857, the 
School Committee terminated the arrangement, so far as 
they were concerned. Since which time the City Govern- 
ment has, as heretofore, continued to make the annual ap- 
propriation to the Trustees, and the English High School 
for Boys has been carried on under their sole control. 

At a special meeting of the School Committee in May, 
called to act upon the communication of His Honor the 
Mayor, as Chairman of the Committee on Public Instruc- 
tion, in relation to the cost of the High Schools, the fol- 
lowing resolution was unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved, That of the various plans proposed for the more simple, 
economical and uniform mode of sustaining the High Schools of this 
City, this Board deem that the most expedient and desirable, which 

12 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

includes the union (if found practicable) of the English High School 
for Boys and the High School for Girls, and that we shall be pleased to 
join in any measure which shall inaugurate such a consolidated School, 
to be placed under the charge of the School Committee of this City. 

It is understood that tlie Committee on Public Instruc- 
tion communicated, in relation to this matter, with the 
Trustees, but nothing further has been done to carry out 
the proposed change. 

Should the English High School for Boys, and the Girls' 
High School, be united under the charge of one Principal, 
it could be supported at considerable less expense, than is 
now paid from the City Treasury, for the two carried on 

That the management of such a school would devolve 
upon the School Committee, is evident from the fact that it 
would become a High School, such as by the Statutes 
Roxbury is required to maintain. 

The School Committee are chosen by the citizens, from 
whom they derive their authority, and to whom they are 
directly responsible, to have the care and superintendence 
of the Public Schools. They cannot delegate their author- 
ity to another body; but must exercise it in conformity 
with the Statutes, and report their doings yearly to those 
who have placed them in this important position, and also 
make returns to the State Authorities. 

Should our successors and the next City Government 
deem it advisable to make provision for the consolidation 
of the High Schools, either with, or without the Latin 
School, the Trustees could continue the sole managers of 
the Latin School, as a separate school, or as one of the 
departments of the consolidated School, which would fulfil 
the conditions of their Act of Incorporation, and be one, 
or part of the School required by the Revised Statutes to 
be supported by Roxbury. 

It is suggested that, should the income of the Fund held 
by the Trustees, be at any time more than sufficient to 


support the Latin School, the balance be paid into the City 
Treasury towards the support of the Public Schools, and 
thus diminish the amount to be raised by taxation for this 


The Primary Schools in different parts of the City, are 
provided with suitable School Houses, except in Ward One, 
where a new building may be needed next year, some- 
where near the corner of East and Adams Streets. 

The Grammar School Houses are sufficiently ample to 
supply the present wants of the several districts, with 
the exception of the Dudley School building. Sufficient 
accommodation can be afforded that school, by taking 
the house now occupied by the Girls' High School, when 
that school shall be provided for elsewhere. When that 
is effected, the Central District for Girls can be made 
to correspond to that for Boys, and thus vacate some ad- 
ditional room in the Comins School building. Should our 
successors call upon the next City Government to erect a 
building for the High School, it is hoped they will respond 
to the request, by building, in some central locality, a good, 
substantial edifice, sufficiently ample to accommodate all 
the High School scholars, of both sexes, with arrangements 
for an English and Classical department. 


During the year, the City Ordinance in relation to truant 
children and absentees from school, has been perfected, 
and a suitable place provided at the Alms House, to which 
all who are convicted under that ordinance will be sent; 
and it is hoped that the faithfulness of the Truant OffiGers 
will deter all those inclined to absent themselves from 
school from becoming truants, and the number of idle and 
vicious boys will be greatly reduced. 

HORATIO G. MORSE, Chairman. 


By the regulations of the School Committee, the annual 
examination is made at the end of the first term, in May. 
The annual report of the committee is based chiefly upon 
that examination ; but as the report is now published at 
the close of the municipal year, it seems proper that it 
should embrace a review of the progress and condition of 
the schools during the year. With that view, the commit- 
tee who made the annual examinations were appointed to 
a like service at the close of the autumn term. The sev- 
' eral divisions of the Grammar Schools were apportioned 
to the members of the committee, and a majority of the 
committee were present at the examination of the High 


To the annual examination of this school considerable 
time was given, and it was intended that it should be thor- 
ough. The classes were examined in Latin, French, Eng- 
lish Literature, Physical Geography, Natural Philosophy, 
Geometry, Algebra, History, Arithmetic, and incidentally 
in other common branches. In several of these studies 
the examination covered much of the ground over which the 
classes had passed : in others it was necessarily more cur- 
sory. As a whole, the committee found much reason to 
be gratified with the condition and progress of the school. 

The Junior Class, under the instruction of Miss Bab- 
cock, was not examined so much at length as the others, 


but the members of the committee who made the examina- 
tion reported it as highly satisfactory. The teacher of 
this class, who also instructs the Middle Class in some 
branches, is a lady of high acquirements, and is in many 
respects a teacher of rare excellence. Her position is a 
laborious, and perhaps at times a trying one ; but, with 
the able support of the principal, and with the confidence 
of the committee and of parents, she is one who can hardly 
fail of success. 

The Senior and Middle classes are under the immediate 
charge of the principal, Mr. Bickford, and here the com- 
mittee were led, by the interest of the examination, to give 
most of their time, the result being, in the main, quite 

Though no great progress is made in Latin, yet the class 
read well in Virgil, and showed a knowledge of the gram- 
matical construction of the language and a facility of trans- 
lation highly respectable, considering the time devoted to 
this study. The advantages of studying Latin were subse- 
quently illustrated, to some extent, in the exercises in 
English literature, where a knowledge of the Latin con- 
struction enabled the pupils the more readily to analyze 
and appreciate passages from the English classics. In 
most exercises in English literature, it is easy to perceive 
the advantage which those who have studied Latin possess 
over those who have not pursued that study ; and it is 
hoped that this branch will not, as has sometimes been 
suggested, be either dispensed with or curtailed. If time 
is needed, would it not be better that the higher branches 
of mathematics should yield to this ? Those branches are 
seldom of much practical use to girls, nor are they so es- 
sential, as with boys, as a discipline for the intellect, or for 
that mental culture which is desirable in woman either as 
a teacher or in domestic life. 

The French exercises were fair, and a portion of them, 
the repetition from memory of passages in French which 

16 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

had previously been given as a written exercise, appeared 
to be an excellent method of study. It did not, however, 
appear to the committee that enough was accomplished in 
this study. If pursued at all, it should be on a correct 
system, and in such a manner as to secure the most pro- 
gress — and that a decided progress — in the time which 
can be devoted to it. "It would be highly desirable, if it 
could be done without a material increase of expense, that 
a capable French teacher should be employed, and the 
principal be thus enabled to devote the time now given to 
that study to instruction in the other branches. 

Among other branches which afforded especial satisfac- 
tion to the committee was Physical Geography, then just 
completed by the Middle class. The interest awakened in 
the subject by the intelligent answers of the pupils led 
to a prolonged examination, which reflected credit on the 
class. In Natural Philosophy not so much interest was 
shown, except in a few of the topics. Girls can hardly be 
expected to take quite as deep an interest in Mechanics, 
Dynamics, Hydrostatics, etc., as boys, and it does not seem 
necessary that much time should be devoted to the study, 
or that all the details of the large text-book which is used 
should be mastered. 

The study of English literature is not, perhaps, always 
sufficiently valued, but it is one which is as important, for 
girls especially, as any pursued in a High school. By it 
the taste may be formed or guided so as to reject the 
worthless literature which occupies the attention of too 
many female readers, and to seek the real treasures of the 
language in the works of the best authors. Establish such 
a taste, and mental culture will rapidly increase as the 
mind matures, and women will thus exert a higher influence 
at home and in society. If this can be accomplished even 
in a few instances in the High school, the time and labor 
is well spent. The manner in which this study is pursued, 
not being confined to the text-book alone, and designed to 


elicit critical analysis on the part of the pupils, appears to 
be an excellent one, when followed out far enough, and 
with sufficient vigor and interest, as we doubt not is the 
case in this school. 

Since the annual examination the then Senior Class has 
left the school. The exercises at the public exhibition at 
the close of the summer term reflected credit on the class 
and the school, and afforded much gratification to the large 
audience present. The recent examination, though show- 
ing the several classes in a comparatively less advanced 
stage than at the annual examination, (being earlier in the 
school year,) was in most respects highly satisfactory, and 
the examining committee felt assured that the school is 
maintaining the excellent character which it has hitherto 

The deportment of the scholars was generally quiet and 
ladylike, and, in the upper classes especially, showed a 
modest self-reliance which speaks well for the general 
good influence of the school. 

It is believed that there is no other public school in the 
state like our High School for Girls. In other places, 
(except Boston, where the High School for Girls is also a 
Normal School,) the sexes are united in the high schools. 
The course of study in those schools is necessarily such as is 
adapted for both boys and girls. In ours it is intended to 
be such as will best educate the girls. To this end, it re- 
quires, perhaps, some further improvement ; but it is be- 
lieved that in its main features it is essentially what is 
required. If in some high schools certain studies are pur- 
sued to a greater extent, the fact by no means argues 
against our own; for other studies, better adapted to 
female education, may take the place of them. The ques- 
tion with us, therefore, should not be, as we have heard 
suggested, whether we go over as much ground of the same 
nature as in other high schools, but whether we accomplish 
as much or more for the education of our girls. So long 

18 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

as we maintain a separate high school for girls, it should 
be our aim to provide for them the education best adapted 
to their peculiar wants j — not mere accomplishments, 
which may be of use only in certain conditions in society, 
but a substantial education, which will adorn alike an hum- 
ble or an elevated position, and on which good taste and 
refinement may build a more beautiful structure. 

To say that our High School is accomplishing all that 
we desire, would be to deceive ourselves, and to do injus- 
tice to those who are educated there. Our teachers are 
faithful and efficient, but we believe they are not satisfied 
that they accomplish all that is desirable. Let them be 
encouraged to greater and constant efi"orts after a higher 
excellence — encouraged by the watchful care and interest 
and advice of the committee, and the sympathy and coop- 
eration of parents, so that they may not settle down into 
the ruts of a monotonous routine, and lose all spur to ac- 
tion. Let "progress "' be the motto of all interested in the 
school, — alike of committee, teacher, parent, and pupil, — 
and we can then say, not only that our High School has 
maintained its former high character, but that it has attained 
to a higher excellence. 


The several divisions of this school were reported by 
the examiners to be making good progress. It is not to 
be expected that all the teachers of a large grammar 
school will possess equal capacity for teaching, or will 
unite all those qualities which we should desire in a model 
teacher. While, therefore, we cannot but be gratified by 
a visit to a division whose teacher is admirably qualified 
for her work, and who by her own enthusiasm and intelli- 
gence infuses an interest and vivacity into her pupils, we 
must not refuse a just commendation of those of inferior 
gifts or acquirements who labor with patient painstaking 
to secure the progress of their charge. Both these classes 


of teachers are to be found in the Dudley, as in all our 
schools. Some of the divisions appeared particularly well 
from being favored with teachers who had a faculty of im- 
parting instruction, and eliciting the knowledge of their 
scholars in a manner pleasant to both pupil and visitor. 
Others were less attractive, but in the routine of the text- 
books there was evidence of application and labor which 
it becomes us to acknowledge. A comparison of these 
divisions shows how desirable it is to break through the 
monotony of text-books, to illustrate the subject of study 
from other sources, and to fix knowledge in the mind by 
making it at once practical and pleasing. With such in- 
struction, lessons are no longer an irksome task, either to 
teacher or pupil, and progress is certain and rapid. It 
is not necessary to specify the divisions in which such in- 
struction is to some extent imparted, or those which have 
settled into the less desirable course. If by commending 
the better example we can arouse among our teachers some 
spirit of emulation in following it, we shall find new life 
and progress in our schools. 

The discipline of most of the divisions appeared to the 
committee to be what is desired. In some, the pleasant 
relations existing between teacher and pupils were worthy 
of especial remark, and we could not but feel that " the in- 
fluence of equanimity, cheerfulness and affection are quite 
as important as firmness and energy in the training of 
girls," at school as well as at home. 

By the new organization of the Dearborn School, seve- 
ral divisions of the Dudley School have been discontinued, 
and it is now reduced within a compass which can be more 
easily and pleasantly managed. The examination for the 
fall term was made soon after the new arrangement went 
into operation; and under the circumstances, the school 
could hardly be expected to appear as well. The com- 
mittee, however, found reason to think that it will be 
no less successful than heretofore, when it has fairly set- 

20 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

tied down to its work. It has been unfortunate for the 
school, especially at the time of re-organization, that the 
efficient principal met with a serious accident early in 
the term, and has been thereby detained from school. 
Her absence has been sensibly felt, but her assistant in 
the first division, and the other teachers, have labored 
earnestly to perform the additional duties which have 
devolved upon them. 


The members of the committee who made the annual 
examination of this school reported it as being, in most 
of its divisions, in a very satisfactory condition. No es- 
pecial notice was made of any division or department of 
study, and the exceptions to the generally creditable 
performance of the pupils were those which were attrib- 
utable to irregular attendance. The teachers appeared 
to be faithful and laborious, and though some may have 
been more successful than others, by reason of higher 
qualifications for their ofiice, there were none who were 
not worthy of commendation. 

The reduction of the number of boys in this school by 
the enlargement of the Comins School, and the partition 
of the upper rooms for the accommodation of single divi- 
sions, begins a new era for the school, and it is hoped that 
under the charge of earnest and competent teachers it will 
attain to a higher position than it has heretofore occupied. 
The autumn term did not commence till several weeks 
after the usual time, on account of the alteration of the 
building; but at the time of the quarterly examination 
the school was again fully organized, the pupils, recovered 
from the bad effects of a too long vacation, were fairly at 
work, and the several divisions appeared to be making 
good progress. It is proper to state, however, that the 
introduction of boys from the Intermediate School (which 
has been discontinued) appeared to the examiner of the 


lower divisions to be only a disadvantage to the school. 
If such should, upon further experience, prove to be the 
case, it will be desirable that some different provision be 
made for this class of pupils. 


The annual examination of this school was also report- 
ed in general terms as satisfactory. The classes were 
examined in all the studies pursued, and exhibited a good 
degree of proficiency on the part of the pupils and faith- 
fulness on the part of teachers. 

The enlargement of the School-house, for the accommo- 
dation of girls, was not completed until quite late in the 
autumn term. The long vacation of some three months 
occasioned by this delay, did not conduce to the easy or- 
ganization of the school, or the condition of the boys' 
divisions upon re-assembling. The school was but fairly 
under way at the time for the quarterly examination, and 
the committee did not deem it expedient to do more than 
take such a view as would enable them to observe the 
general working of the school under its new organization. 
Sufficient time had not elapsed to judge of the success of 
the new system, but the several divisions appeared to be 
orderly, diligent and well conducted. The first division, 
composed of both boys and girls, was commended by the 
examiner (Mr. Ray) as appearing unusually well. Future 
examinations, after the school has fairly got at work, will 
better show the advantages or disadvantages of the new 
organization. In the mean time it has commenced work 
under favorable auspices, and should receive the watchful 
care of the committee. 


In the age of the pupils and their advancement in stud- 
ies, the Comins School has ranked somewhat below the 
Dudley School; but in its general appearance, notwith- 

22 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

standing these and other disadvantages, it compares favor- 
ably with any of the schools. The First Division, under 
the charge of the excellent principal, has always appeared 
to be accomplishing something, and the progress made 
there under her thorough method of teaching is sure, if not 
rapid. The influence of this division extends to the others, 
and good order, diligence and promptness prevail in all. 
At the annual examination, each division was examined in 
nearly all the studies pursued, and in most cases much to 
the gratification of the examiners. In one or two of the 
divisions especially, an intelligent interest was shown on 
the part of the scholars, speaking well for the method of 
the teachers. On the whole, the excellences were many, 
the failures few. 

Like the Dearborn, this school was interrupted by a 
long vacation while the building was being enlarged. In 
re-organizing the school for both boys and girls, it was 
necessary to employ a male principal. Mr. D. W. Jones 
was chosen by the Board from among many applicants, and 
at the opening of the school, near the last of October, he 
entered upon his duties. With a new principal, the re-or- 
ganization was not commenced under so favorable auspices, 
perhaps, as the Dearborn; but with the aid of the ener- 
getic female principal of the school, as before organized, 
and the teachers formerly in the Washington School, the 
divisions were duly arranged, and the work commenced. 
The examination made at the close of the last term leads 
the committee to think that the school is well governed 
and well taught, and that in due time it will hold a high 
rank among our schools. 


This school, composed of both sexes, usually gratifies 
the visitor. It is a small school, but as it embraces pupils 
of all the ages to be found in the -Grammar Schools, it re- 
quires a good deal of energy and industry on the part of 


tbe teacher. In discipline it does not appear so regular 
and quiet as some of the divisions of other schools, but a 
good spirit pervades it, and the work of the school-room 
is carried on with a cheerfulness and interest that is pleas- 
ant to the visitor and advantageous to the pupils. One 
difficulty under which the school labors is the number of 
the classes, which imposes the necessity of some recita- 
tions being made to members of the school. This, how- 
ever, if judiciously managed, may be an advantage in some 
respects. On the whole, the committee have found that 
good progress is made in most of the studies, and the 
school gave much satisfaction. 


Instruction in Yocal Music is given in the High School 
and the several Grammar Schools, (except the Francis St. 
School,) and Drawing is taught in the High School. The 
Standing Committee on these branches, Messrs. Nute, Wil- 
liams and Allen, have made examinations in them each 
term during the year. In Music, the committee state that 
their examinations have been highly satisfactory. In their 
judgment the branch is well taught, and good progress is 
made by the pupils. The instruction in Drawing in the 
High School has also been satisfactory, and the committee 
recommend a continuance of the small outlay required for 
instruction in these branches. 

An examination of the abstracts of the several schools 
will show that the average attendance has been good in 
nearly all the divisions. These returns may not, however, 
show the irregularity of attendance, which may extend to 
two or three times the average number of absentees. This 
irregularity on the part of half a dozen members of a 
class will seriously affect the good appearance of the whole. 
A punctual and constant attendance can be secured only 

24 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

by tlie cooperation of parents, and it -would seem that a 
due appreciation of the advantages of our public schools 
should lead to such cooperation. 

Frequent visits by the members of the School Commit- 
tee will undoubtedly do much to prevent the teachers and 
schools from settling into a monotonous routine. And it 
is believed that occasional and not infrequent visits from 
parents and others who are interested in the success of 
our schools, would have a still better effect in keeping up 
the ambition of both teachers and pupils, and encouraging 
them to new and greater efforts. Such visits need not 
interrupt the regular exercises of the school, and would 
not were tbe custom established. In the higher divisions 
of the Grammar Schools, and in the High School, such 
visits would not only act as an incentive to exertion, but 
would also serve to give more confidence and self-reliance 
to the pupils. May we not properly commend this subject 
to the attention of our citizens who are interested in edu- 
cation, and especially such as have children in the schools ? 

WM. A. CRAFTS, Chairman 

of Examining Committee. 


The schools in Roxbury of the rank of Primary and Sub- 
Primary are thirty-eight in number, five of which have 
been formed during the present year ; and notwithstanding 
this large increase of accommodations, many of the schools 
are still full, and some of them overflowing. The exceed- 
ingly rapid increase of those who are entitled to Primary 
School privileges (to say nothing of the number, by no 
means very small, who are smuggled in while under the 
age required by law) has rendered it necessary, at com- 
paratively short intervals, for the Board to make further 
provision in this direction, and such unquestionably will be 
the case in future. In these schools we have an excellent 
corps of teachers, almost without exception. There is 
not one against whom any serious fault has been found by 
the several quarterly examiners. In two of the number, 
the order has been reported as " susceptible of improve- 
ment." It may well be questioned whether any city or 
town in the Commonwealth has, as a whole, a class of 
teachers equal in number with us, who are more worthy of 
commendation and confidence, more devoted to their call- 
ing, more conscientious in the discharge of duty, or better 
qualified in every respect for their responsible situation, 
than are those in our own Primary Schools to-day. 

It is true that there is a marked difference in the teach- 
ers of the City, especially as regards what is usually de- 
nominated " aptness to teachp and results assure us 

26 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

that it is not always the most cultivated minds — the 
highest order of talent, or the largest experience — which 
succeed the best in the school-room. Teaching talent is 
requisite, and almost indispensable to success in imparting 
instruction, especially to young minds. This, united to a 
love for the tvork, and a healthy enthusiasm, give us the best 
promise of success in the school-room. Without these neces- 
sary qualifications, everything goes wrong. There is little 
sympathy between teacher and pupils, and coldness and 
indifference on the part of both render the school-room 
rather a prison than a home, as it ever should be. A love 
for the ivork of teaching is absolutely necessary to consti- 
tute a successful teacher, as well as in all other employ- 

The fact is becoming more and more apparent every 
year, to those who have the responsibility of superintend- 
ing the school instruction of our Commonwealth, in any 
capacity, that the highest order of teaching talent is abso- 
lutely necessary to the highest and best culture of the 
minds of young children ; and the mistaken idea that " any 
body can teach a Primary School," is as false as it is mis- 
chievous in community. If ever the child needs a good 
teacher, it is at the very commencement of his school life, 
and not so much after he has learned to think for himself. 
The unfledged bird needs the assistance of its parent before 
it can fly ; but when its wings are strong and feathered 
fully, it can fly without assistance. Aptness to teach, if 
required in any class of teachers, is preeminently neces- 
sary in the teacher of a Primary School, and in no place 
can an injudicious, indiscreet, ill-tempered or careless teach- 
er do so serious, so permanent harm as in the Primary 
School. Every look, word and action of the teacher in tliis 
grade of schools is watched by eagle eyes, and quick and 
active, as well as retentive minds are receiving every mo- 
ment impressions, which are indelibly fixed for good or 
evil in future. Hitherto the Board have been eminently 


successful in securing valuable teaching talent, and this 
has contributed as much as anything to secure for our 
schools the position which they now occupy in a vicinity 
where good schools are the ambition and pride of its 


In most of the Primary Schools the pupils are regularly 
drilled in this very important exercise for the cultivation 
of the voice. This cannot be dispensed with in any school 
of this grade, (and is it not as valuable in higher grades 
of schools ?) without serious injury to every pupil, which 
will be felt, in a greater or less degree, in after life. It 
matters not so much what the system is, if the young pupil 
can be thoroughly instructed and drilled (for it requires 
much practice) in the forty elementary sounds of the Eng- 
lish language. It matters little whether the chart from 
which he is instructed consists of purely arbitrary, or sim- 
ply the usual Roman characters, provided the pupil can be 
made to thoroughly comprehend, and become master of it. 
It is far easier to teach a child the nice distinctions of 
sounds of letters than it is an adult, and whenever thor- 
oughly learned, by constant exercise in drilling, they will 
not easily be forgotten. The greatest fault, perhaps, in our 
schools is that the elementary lessons are not thoroughly 
learned. There is a disposition on the part of teachers 
as well as pupils, too frequently, to hurry over these im- 
portant lessons, as of little consequence, when in truth 
they are the only sure foundation upon which the future 
superstructure of a good education can be raised. Like 
the foundation stones of a building, deep laid in the earth, 
are these elementary lessons, and at every step will the 
want of this very knowledge be felt in the future progress 
of the learner. Especially is a correct knowledge of the 
elementary sounds of the letters of the alphabet of any 
language necessary to the learner, since upon these sounds 

28 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 

is every language on earth composed. More attention 
than formerly has of late been given to this important sub- 
ject, and we trust that still more will be given to it in 

Yery many of our most learned men — not only profes- 
sional men, but educators — professors in our colleges and 
seminaries, have, of late, given great attention to vocal 
drill, as the very foundation of a good elocution. Yery 
few of those who were educated, so far as schools were 
concerned, even a few years since, were taught accurately 
the elementary sounds of the alphabet of even their own 
native tongue, and this circumstance gave rise to a prepa- 
ration on the part of certain individuals of both sexes, to 
become teachers of elocution. The Board cannot, in our 
judgment, do a better service to the pupils in the schools 
under their charge, than to furnish every necessary facility 
for instruction, accurate and thorough, in vocal drill, and 
to require of every teacher in the schools, from the highest 
to the lowest grade, to give such time and attention to the 
subject as shall secure a result so desirable, and so valua- 
ble. It may seem to some a small matter, but no one 
would part with such knowledge, if it were once secured, 
for any consideration. 


Most of the teachers in the Primary Schools are capable 
of instructing their young pupils, to an extent sufficient, 
perhaps, in the delightful and salutary exercise of Singing. 
In some of these the children make wonderful proficiency, 
and with sparkling eyes and eager buoyancy of spirit they 
join in unison, in a song suited to the occasion and their 
capacity, morning and afternoon, or oftener, and with 
cheerful, joyful countenances, show, in language too plain to 
be misunderstood, how much they enjoy this valuable exer- 
cise. Sunshine pervades the room — for when there is 
sunshine in the heart, it matters not what the weather is 


without, or the circumstances which surround them when 
away from the sacred home of their school-room — jarring- 
discords and disputes are forgotten, and, for the time, at 
least, young hearts are happy. There can be no better 
exercise than singing for occasional enjoyment by the pu- 
pils, and in no school-room, of any grade, should it be neg- 
lected or omitted. More than twice in a half-day, can a 
few moments be given to singing, especially in Primary 
Schools, with good results. 

Young children from five to eight years old cannot be 
expected to be engaged every moment in the exercises or 
lessons of the school-room without fatigue, and, conse- 
quently, restlessness, and the more the exercises can be 
varied, the better will they engage the attention and in- 
terest of young minds. It takes but little time for the 
pupils to sing a short piece, and if they can be learned, 
also, to act out the sentiment by suitable gestures, so as 
to combine singing with some degree of physical exercise, 
as is done in some of our schools, so much the better. This 
serves, better than anything else, in our opinion, to secure 
harmony, peace, good-will, and, consequently, happiness in 
the school-room, and to render those studies which would 
otherwise become irksome and disagreeable, pleasant and 
profitable, as well as interesting. 

The school-room should be made, next to home, the 
happiest spot on earth to the child ; and those are the best 
teachers, generally, whose pupils love them the best, and 
who manage to make the school-room a pleasant spot — so 
much so, as to render it a task for the pupils to be kept 
away from their accustomed place, even for a day. Let 
this be the case in our schools, and many of our truants 
would become good boys and girls, and learn rapidly, who 
now dread the wholesome restraint of the school-room as 
the worst evil that can befall them. Let teachers, then, 
especially in this grade of schools, strive to make the 
school-room pleasant to every pupil, and let the sunshine 


of a warm, loving heart fill the room, and there will be a 
response from the ardent, warm-hearted, buoyant throng, 
which will render both teachers and scholars mutually 
happy, and increase the usefulness and efiiciency of the 
teacher an hundred fold. Let teachers look around them, 
and seeing the young immortals under their charge from 
day to day, ask their own hearts if these things are not so. 
Good nature is infectious, and happy indeed is that teach- 
er whose heart is full of love and sunshine, for such a 
teacher always has a good school and good pupils, and 
her services are " more precious than rubies." 


Young children, above all others, need suitable exercise, 
and in some way it must be furnished for them, or they 
will suffer. Cramped in small chairs in the school-room, 
the children feel that they are confined, and are conse- 
quently uneasy and fretful, unless they can have something 
agreeable to anticipate, as the reward for good behavior. 
Furthermore, children who are feeble, constitutionally, 
need, and must have a certain amount of physical exercise, 
besides walking to and from school, if we desire that phys- 
ical development should accompany mental improvement ; 
and as health is the great desideratum in every case, no 
proper means or precautions should be neglected, which 
have a tendency to promote it. Without health, all men- 
tal acquirements are divested of much of their value ; but 
" a sound mind in a sound body " is the highest state of 
the perfection of nature. If we can, in any degree, con- 
tribute to secure such results for the pupils in our schools, 
our labors will not prove in vain. 

In some of the schools of this grade in this City, the 
teachers have adopted a system of physical exercises, 
which serves not only for amusement, but also conduces to 
the health of their young pupils. There is no text-book 
known by us which is suitable — they are all too large 


and expensive ; but every teacher can form soine system 
of her own, if it is nothing more than requiring the pupils 
to imitate her in taking certain postures. Young children 
need something new, frequently, to make them contented 
and interested in the school-room, and there is nothing- 
better for occasional use as an amusement than such phys- 
ical exercise as can be used without fatigue on the part 
of the pupils. This should never be allowed to become 
irksome, but should be used as a recreation simply, and be 
understood by the pupils as such. It should not be too 
severe for the youngest to participate in, and only for a 
short time, at stated and known intervals, should it be 
used. Will our teachers attend to this, and they will have 
reason to be abundantly satisfied at the results. 

Finally, we are happy to report to the citizens of Roxbu- 
ry, that, so far, at least, as the Primary Schools of the City 
are concerned, (and the same may be said of all the higher 
grades,) their money has not been spent in vain, notwith- 
standing their well-known and commendable liberality. 
The standard of excellence, in all grades, is, from year to 
year, being raised higher and higher, and as the number of 
pupils increase so rapidly in our city, successive Boards of 
those to whom the care of our schools is intrusted by our 
fellow-citizens cannot but feel the high responsibilities 
attached to their office ; and by the prompt and noble 
liberality of successive City Councils, in furnishing ample 
and abundant means and accommodations, they are ena- 
bled to aim at, and succeed in gaining a high standard of 
excellence, which will in future be raised, we doubt not, 
very much higher. There is room for improvement, it is 
true, and we trust that, in this respect, every reasonable 
expectation will be realized in future ; but we assure our 
fellow-citizens that the schools of Roxbury are, according 
to the quarterly reports of the examiners, in every re- 
spect fully equal to those of other towns and cities in this 
Commonwealth, and we trust the time is far distant when. 


from any cause, or combination of causes, the schools of 
Roxburj shall cease to maintain the enviable position 
which has so long and so justly characterized them. Our 
schools are our jewels — the nurseries of young minds, 
where they are prepared for a life of usefulness and honor. 
The proverbial solicitude of Massachusetts for her schools 
has never been exaggerated ; and never, probably, were 
the schools of the State, or of this city, in a better condi- 
tion than to-day. They involve the citizens in a large and 
increasing expense, but it is cheerfully paid, and will be in 
future ; and so long as old Roxbury is the home, so long- 
will she be the faithful educator of her children — and not 
of hers only, but of all whom she adopts into her family. 

A. I. CUMMINGS, Chairman 

of Exam,ining Committee. 

Extracts from the Regulations of the Public Schools. 

Chapter I. Teachers. 

Sect. 4. The teachers shall open the school rooms of their respective 
schools, for the reception of scholars, at least ten minutes before the 
time prescribed for commencing the school. 

Sect. 5. The teachers shall give the children constant employment, 
and endeavor by judicious and diversified modes, to render the exercises 
of the school pleasant as well as profitable ; — they shall maintain firm, 
prudent and vigilant discipline ; they shall punish as spairingly as 
possible, consistent with securing obedience, and shall govern by per- 
suasive and gentle measures as far as practicable. They shall never 
resort to corporal punishment, until other means of influencing the pu- 
pils shall have failed ; and when it shall be necessary, it shall be ad- 
ministered in such a manner as to operate on the moral sense of the 
pupil in the strongest manner. As far as practicable, they shall also 
exercise a general inspection over their scholars, as well out of, as 
within the school, and on all suitable occasions inculcate upon them 
the principles of truth and virtue. 

Sect. 8. The teachers of the several Grammar Schools shall impart 
oral instruction to their pupils, at stated times, by assigning topics for 
their consideration, referring them to approved works for information, 
questioning them upon the themes assigned, and communicating such 
information thereon as they may think necessary. These exercises 
shall take place as frequently as may be thought practicable by the Lo- 
cal Committee and teachers. A list of the topics shall be open to the 
inspection of the examining committee. 

Sect. 10. In the Grammar Schools for Girls, no lessons shall be as- 
signed expressly for study out of the regular school hours ; and in all 
the schools, except the High School, the programme of daily study 
shall be arranged, and the time apportioned, as far as possible, so that 
the lessons assigned may be prepared in school, and not remain for 
study out of school. Of the pupils in the High School, a moderate 
amount of study out of school may be required. 

Sect. 11. When the example of any pupil is very injurious, and in 
all cases where reformation appears hopeless, it shall be the duty of 
the teacher, with the approval of the Local Committee, to suspend or 
expel such pupil from the school. But any child under this public 
censure, who shall have expressed to the teacher regret for such misde- 
meanor, as openly and implicitly as the nature of the case may require, 

34 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 6. 

and shall have given evidences of reform, shall, w^ith the previous con- 
sent of said committee, be reinstated in the privileges of the school. 

Sect. 18. The teachers are required to make vocal music one of the 
exercises of the school. 

Chapter II. Pupils, 

Sect. 1. All children residing within the limits of this City, shall, 
on application to the Local Committee, have free admission to such 
public schools as, in the opinion of said Committee they may be quali- 
fied to enter, provided they be five years of age ; and no obstacle shall 
be interposed by any teacher or any member of this Board. 

Sect. 2. But no child shall be admitted into any of the public 
schools without a certificate from his parent, or a physician, that he 
has been vaccinated, or otherwise secured against the contagion of the 

Sect. 3. Children of the age of eight years and upwards, who may 
pass a satisfactory examination in the reading books used in the Prima- 
ry Schools, in spelling words selected from the reading lessons and from 
the spelling book used in the Primary Schools, in explaining the use of 
the marks of punctuation, in enunciating clearly and accurately the 
elementary sounds of our language, in writing words in script hand 
vipon the slate, in reading and writing Arabic numbers containing four 
figures, and in the Arithmetic used in Primary Schools, shall be enti- 
tled to admission into the Grammar Schools. 

The examination for admission into the Grammar Schools shall be 
made by the principal or assistant teachers thereof, and shall take place 
on the first Monday of the first and third terms ; and no pupil shall be 
admitted into the Grammar Schools from the Primary Schools except at 
those times. Provided, however, that the Local Committees shall have 
discretionary power to admit pupils, possessing the necessary qualifica- 
tions, at other times than those mentioned. Pupils changing residence, 
shall be transferred from one school to another of the same rank, pro- 
vided they bear a certificate from the teacher of the school they leave, 
expressing their standing and character, as a condition of their admis- 
sion by the teacher to whom they apply for that pui'pose . 

The examination for admission into the High School, shall take place 
during the last week of the second term. Pupils who shall have reach- 
ed the age of twelve years, and shall present a certificate of good moral 
character, and of presumed literary qualifications, from the Principal of 
the school which they last attended, and shall pass a satisfactory exam- 
ination in the following studies, viz : Spelling, Beading, Writing, Eng- 
lish Grammar, Arithmetic, Modern Geography, and the History of the 
United States, shall be regarded by the School Committee as qualified to 
enter the High School. 


Sect. 4. No pupil, whilst under sentence of suspension from one 
school, shall be admitted to the privileges of another, unless by a vote 
of this Board. 

Sect. 5. In the Grammar Schools, each session, there shall be a re- 
cess for every pupil, of ten or fifteen minutes ; and in the Primary 
Schools of from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

Sect. 6. Pupils shall be prompt and punctual at school, and shall 
not absent themselves from school except on account of sickness or oth- 
er urgent reason ; and no request for absence shall be deemed valid, un- 
less it be a written one from parents or guardians. Every pupil enter- 
ing after the time prescribed for the commencement of school shall be 
marked tardy ; and whenever any pupil shall absent himself or herself 
for two weeks in succession, such pupil shall be considered no longer a 
member of the school. 

Chaptee, III. Periods of Instruction, 

Sect. 1. There shall be four Terms in the year. The first shall com- 
mence the Monday after the third Monday in February. 

The second shall commence the Monday following the last Wednesday 
in May. 

The third shall commence the first Monday in September. 

ThxG fourth shall commence on the Monday after Thanksgiving Day. 

Sect. 2. The schools shall be kept three hours in the forenoon, and 
three in the afternoon of each day, Sundays and the holidays and vaca- 
tions hereinafter specified, excepted. Schools shall begin at eight 
o'clock in the morning, from May to August inclusive ; — at other timesj 
at nine in the morning ; and shall commence at two in the afternoon, 
except the Girls' High School, which shall commence at nine in the 
morning, and close at two in the afternoon. Scholars may, however, 
be detained for delinquencies a reasonable time after the regular school 

Sect. 3. There shall be the following Faca/ions ; 

1. One week commencing on the third Monday in February. 

2. One week commencing on the Monday before the last "Wednesday 
in May. 

3. Six weeks next preceding the first Monday in September. 

4. One week, commencing on the Monday before Thanksgiving Day. 
Sect. 4. The following holidays shall be granted alike to all the 

schools : — Every Wednesday and Saturday afternoon ; Fast Day ; In- 
dependence Day ; Christmas Day ; New Year's Day ; May Day. No 
holiday not herein specified shall be given except by a vote of the Board, 
or by a written certificate, signed by at least seven members of the 
School Committee ; and in such case it shall be given alike to all the 
schools in the city. 




cu O 



;3 o 

o o 



-pna^j-B JO 

•:)U93 J3(J 

-pnajiT! JO 



o o 
o o 

CO >C 
I— I 

O O O O lO 
O lO lO (M (M 
ir^co CO CO 00 

o o lo lO lo lo 
o o <M (M (M cq 

"tf CO CO CO CO oo 






















o "^ 


S-i o 

^ . 

'C S. 

OJ !^ OJ 


B rf 

















2 «B O 

Q OJ 53 


rt ^ 







CO g_ 

!z; <^ 

g ^ 

n ^— ' 

I— 1 T— 1 

I— 1 

1— 1 

Wn r-t» -W 

I— 1 I— 1 r-l 



T— 1 

(M O Oi O 
I— 1 1—1 

1 -w 


I— 1 

o cq 



krt --t^ lO 
05 Oi Ci 

1 (M 

1 OS 

C5 Oi Ci 05 

1 -ei 

1 as 


CO (M 



•* XO ^ 


I— 1 

(M CO O J^ 
»0 O TfH tJ< 

I 1^ 



CO >o 
CO (M 



O CD <N 
■Tt< »0 lO 



tH 00 ^H I— 1 

xn lO lo o 

































^ <v 

a 9 


O O lO (M (M CM (M >0 (M (M CM CM 



t^ (M C^l CM <M lO (M <M CM 





(Mr-tT-iOC3i<Mi— IOCS 

I— 1 T— 1 -H 1— 1 T— 1 r— 1 1— 1 

I— 1 


CM"— lOOC3^01r-IOOO 


I— 1 
I— 1 








»Oi— ((Mr- i(M«D'*^»0 


r— 1 

1— i 

1— '^(M^OOr-IOCOlO 



CO »0 rfi rt< >r5 Ci »0 t— Oi 1 
Ti< lO IC lO VO Tt< >0 lO U2 1 





ce g £ oj 

'3 8 cw 

s S o 















fl>^ i: 

^ (D 

•y ^-^.^-^-s 

. "^ -^ •£ r^ r^ '^ -^ 
( -+3 -+J -^3 r^ r^ _^j 4j 

I -* lO O (M CO 1^ lO 

■Q^ ti fe o<^" pi; 2 

1-5 . ^ 

F : o) - - 
^ <tj -^ - - 

P jg 1^ M ■^ 

I 2 =5 


o fl • 

s a Sj 

■53 1-^ n 

-tJ -U "73 'O -u -u -*o 

10 CO (M CO •«*< >0 O 




w o 
50 ^ 

!2i o 









«2 g 
O 1 

o Z 




•pua^^JB JO 

•5.U33 J3J 

•pua;:^^ JO 


o <l 



i3 - 02 
CO u 








fl - 


;h "■ 







c3 -. g 




•^ -r^' 


CD • O 

:-< ?-t 9 

s s a 



^ a » 

O ' — < '^ -^ 

?3 S f-i 

Cw n «s 

rf OS 










- <a 


Francis Street. 
Centre Street. . 

Heath Street. . 
Edinboro' Street. 

It 4l 

Munroe Street. 
Elm Street. 

a It 

Heath Place. . 

Winthrop Street. 

Heath Place. . 

Orange Street. 
11 It 

Vernon Street. 



H» h!m r-So m-ji (*)< «;» HS «W -«f) 





T— 1 


I— 1 

Anna M. Eaton. . 
Elizabeth Waldock. 
Henrietta M. Wood. 
Mary A. Morse. 
Caroline N. Heath. 
Maria L. J. Perry. 
Matilda M. Hutchins. 
Almira B. Russell. 
Anne E. Boynton. 
H. B. Scammell. . 
Sarah C. Duncklee. 
Frances N. Brooks. 
Asenath Nichols. . 
Emily W. Fillebrown. 
Martha H. Horn. . 
Kate F. Mayall. . 
Eliza D. Cole. . . 
Maria L. Young. . 

i-H(McO-:+<tOOt^ODC50i— ICMfOrtlOOI^CO 
<M O-l C-l C-A (M CM C^^ C<1 CM iro CO (TO CO CO CO CO CO CO 

^ ft 

ti a 


a u 

a <D 

ce ft 


U O 


S o 





S >> 

(M u 


■eft s 




fj V2 




^ M 





o m 


§ 4> 






.'f^ ^n 


^ fH 

.^. t^ 





























FOR 1860. 


George Putnam, William A. Crafts, Edwin Ray. 


Ward 1. — Horatio G. Morse, Franklin Williams. 
" 2. — Joshua Seaver, Ira Allen. 
ii 3. — Timothy R. Nute, John D. McGill. 
« 4. — John W. Olmstead, Jeremiah Plympton. 
(( 5. — Sylvester Bliss, William S. King.