BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
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GEORGE LEWIS, 1
CITY COUNCIL OE ROXBURY,
DEIilVEKED BErOKE THE
TWO BRANCHES IN CONVENTION,
JANUARY 1, 1866.
.^- f Jte<^
PBINTED BY ORDER OF THE CITY COUNCIL.
GEOROE: It: MOiS^ROE; 'printer, GtllLD ROW.
18 6 6.
In Boakd of Aldermen, January 1, 1866.
Ordered, That six hundred copies of the Address of his Honor the
Mayor, be printed for the use of the City Council.
Sent down for concurrence.
JOSEPH W. TUCKER, City Clerk.
' ' Concurred.
In Common Council, January 1, 1866.
FRANKLIN WILLIAMS, Clerk.
•; /^. '6 ^
Gentlemen of the Board of Aldermen and of the Common
We this day assume the responsible duties of Municipal
legislation under auspices the most promising for our Nation,
our Commonwealth and our City.
The close of the rebellion has not, as was feared by many,
produced a revulsion in business circles ; but all evidences in-
dicate that through the renewed energies of our people the
resources of our sountry will be developed with a rapidity
never before witnessed.
To a large extent does this city participate in the general
prosperity of the nation.
Perhaps we have never welcomed a New Year which prom-
ised more satisfactory results than does the present. The
capacity of our laboring and mechanical classes is tested to the.
utmost; the prospects of the tradesmen are satisfactory; our
manufacturing interest is largely on the increase; dwellings
are no sooner offered for rent or sale than tenant or purchaser
is found therefor ; and in every direction within our borders
general prosperity and happiness prevails.
The decennial census lately completed in accordance with
the laws of this Commonwji. 1th discloses the gratifying fact
that the population of this city has increased the last five years
(notwithstanding the existence o! the rebellion) in a greater
ratio than is the case with more than one other city in the
4 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 1.
Although the relative ratio in the matter of prosperity
between Roxbury and the other municipalities in this State is
not shown in the census just taken, it is believed that our
increase in this respect has been as great as has our population.
No one can reasonably doubt that from its great natural
advantages, aided by an enterprising and industrious people,
our augmentation will be rapid hereafter. Such being the
case, if a wise system of measures be authorized by you, it must
exercise a beneficial influence, not only over our present pros-
perity, but be largely instrumental in the future advancement
of our city.
In accordance with established usage, I ask your attention to
some of the more important topics connected with our munici-
SANITARY CONDITION OF THE CITY.
The indications that the Asiatic cholera might reach us the
coming spring, induced the last Board of Health to cause a
critical examination to be made with a view of ascertaining the
sanitary condition of thjs city. The City and Consulting Phy-
sicians, with the City Marshal, attended to this matter. Their
report discloses the existence of a large number of tenements,
and several tracts of low lands, where filth and stagnant water
are found, which if allowed to remain, will without doubt not
.only cause disease in a malignant and infectious form, but must
be instrumental in inducing sickness of a more common type.
I recommend your careful perusal of that report ; and also that
immediate steps be taken to abate the nuisances referred to
All good citizens will willingly aid the authorities in the
matter of necessary purification : in the event of refusal on the
part of others, the extreme rigor of the law should be resorted
to at once.
I believe that no difference of opinion exists among those
whose experience and investigations are entitled to respect,
that the Asiatic cholera selects its victims largely from loca-
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 5
tions where filth or stagnant water is found, and from persons
of uncleanly or intemperate habits. Such being the case, it is
imperative that the authority delegated to the Board of Health
be exercised without regard to the manner in which the pecu-
niary interest of the offender is affected The healthy condi-
tion of the mind is largely influential in the prevention of this
disease, and this is of course affected for the better or worse
through the habits of the individual, and the condition of. the
locality in which he resides. Although slight reason exists for
anticipating that this disease will affect us to any extent, it is
our duty to see that all predisposing causes be removed.
To this end, the co-operation of citizens with the efforts of
the authorities is desired.
The attention of the last Board of Health was called to the
condition of Stony Brook, which was found to be in a state of
nuisance dangerous to the public health, and disgraceful to the
The Board unanimously decided that immediate action was
necessary in this matter. At this time certain representations
were made that negotiations were in progress for the removal
of the dam at Lowell street, by means of which, with the aid of
the City Council, in converting the brook into a common sewer,
the nuisance would be abated, private property protected, and
the interests of that locality cared for. Conceiving these
results desirable, time was granted for those interested in this
measure to make the attempt. I regret to say that this scheme
was unsuccessful so far as relates to the conversion above
The authority of the Board of Health being more arbitrary
than is delegated to any other branch of the municipal govern-
ment, it should be exercised only in extreme cases, where,
through the slower process of law, the health of individuals or
of the community is in jeopardy. Such I conceive to be the
condition of this stream, and therefore trust that no further
time will be lost in taking steps which will cause its purifica-
tion. I am confident that our people will unanimously sanc-
tion such action by the Board. No interest of the community
6 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. L
is so great as that of the preservation of its health; and the
authority referred to is given in recognition of the dangers
which are liable to arise in times like the present. To the
Board of Health, and to that Board only, can the people look
for such protection against individual perversity or public
neglect, as will secure to them this inestimable blessing. It is
therefore our duty as conservators of the public health, and
particularly so at this time, to exercise all diligence in this
A large tract of land in the region of Plymouth street, and
in the cities of Boston and Roxbury, is in a state of nuisance,
the owners of which have been indicted therefor. I am inform-
ed that application will be made to the next Legislature for a
charter, through which it is hoped this evil will be abated, and
the territory converted into upland.
The parties interested in this scheme are men of gTeat public
spirit and energy, and are possessed of ample means to carry
out the project. The success of this measure will be highly
beneficial to the locality referred to, and will without doubt be
for the interest of those owning property thereon. Should the
reverse prove to be the case, the court will undoubtedly order
that territory filled to such grade as will accomplish the desired
POOR AND ALMS-HOUSE DEPARTMENT.
The demands upon our community for charity increase each
year, tlie same arising largely from causes within the control
of the applicants.
It is apprehended that our people are as a whole unacquainted
with the importance of the authority vested in the Board of
Overseers of the Poor ; and that the office is too generally
considered as being of secondary importance to others of the
public service. Such is not the case. No municipal body is
clothed with greater power; and the best judgment is necessary
in the disbursements of charity, to avoid imposition.
The members of that Board should be selected with great
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 7
care ; and only from the most intelligent and judicious of our
Our benevolent people are too frequently ignorant of the
rules which regulate the action of the Overseers of the Poor.
The law classifies such as are to be assisted by cities and towns,
and such as are supported by the State. All asking aid are
comprised within one or other of these classes. Such as have
obtained a settlement in the cities or towns are assisted by
those localities ; all others are provided for at the State Aims-
Houses. As but a portion of this latter class are to be found
in these houses, our charitable societies in co-operation with
this Board, and the gifts of individuals, provide the means of
relief for the remainder.
The practice of countenancing street begging is pernicious
in the extreme, and should be at once abandoned ; all such as
ask assistance should be referred to the proper officers. In a
majority of cases the individuals so giving are imposed upon,
and their gifts answer a far different purpose than that
designed by the donors,
I respectfully urge our citizens to discountenance beggars,
and that such as apply be referred to the Agent of the Over-
seers of the Poor, Dr. Ira Allen.
The disbursements for charitable purposes are largely
increased through the passage of a law by the last Legislature,
whereby it becomes our duty to assist, under certain provisions,
all soldiers and sailors, and the families of such, as have been
credited to the quota of this city, when the same are in neces-
While no individual would for a moment allow those who
have faithfully served the nation in its hour of trial to suffer
for the comforts of life, it is a matter of doubt whether this
law should not be so amended that greater discrimination be
allowed to the dispensing board, and without affecting the
In accordance with law, a Truant School has been established,
under the care and direction of the Overseers of the Poor.
8 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 1.
The necessity of this school has been long apparent, but, on
account of the expense, its operation has been delayed until the
Although in existence but a few months, its beneficial results
are already apparent, lessening in a great degree the number
of truants in the streets.
The Overseers of the Poor consider themselves fortunate in
obtaining the services of one of the most gifted of our former
teachers, as principal of this school. Under her judicious
management, aided by the efficient Superintendent of the Aims-
House, little doubt exists, that many children will be reclaimed
from paths of vice, and in future become useful members of
ANNEXATION OE ROXBURY TO BOSTON.
The consolidation of the cities of Roxbury and Boston under
one municipal government, is again brought to your notice
through a petition in favor of the measure, a copy of which
has been served upon the city.
I am informed, however, that it is doubtful if the subject will
be presented to the Legislature at its coming session. The
frequent agitation of this question without decisive results is
injurious in the extreme ; and I conceive that the sooner tho.
question is decided, the better for our interest. The City
Council of Boston having adopted an order in reference to this
matter, I advise the appointment of a committee as therein sug-
gested, trusting that they will arrive at such conclusions as will
bring about the desired annexation, or dispose of it for a series
of years. The order alluded to is as follows, viz :
Ordered, That whenever the city council or selectmen of
any city or town, whose territory adjoins that of the city of
Boston, shall notify the city of Boston that in accordance with
a vote of their respective bodies they are empowered to con-
sult with the authorities of Boston with a view to the annex-
ation to the city of Boston of their city or town, it shall be the
duty of his Honor the Mayor of Boston to appoint three com-
missioners from the citizens of Boston to meet an equal
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 9
number from the city or town making the request. Said
commissioners shall take the whole subject into consideration,
and those appointed on the part of Boston, shall report to the
City Council the financial, industrial and sanitary condition of
the city applying for admission, with such suggestions as they
may think proper regarding conditions which would make such
annexation mutually desirable.
The use of gravel for repairing the highways having been found
both expensive, and the material itself not durable, a machine
operated by steam power was purchased by the city for the
breaking of stone for this object. Although this crusher has
been in use but a few months, it has been found to answer the
purpose desired to the fullest extent. The stone broken by it
has been used on our most travelled streets, and has given gen-
eral satisfaction. No doubt exists that when this material
shall have been distributed generally over our highways, it will
be found that these will compare favorably with such as are
repaired with gravel, and at the same time be vastly more
durable. Although broken stone may in the first place be
more expensive than gravel, owing to the cost of blasting, its
greater durability must more than compensate for the increased
outlay in its production. It is a matter of regret that the
delay in the receipt of the crusher has prevented as general
repairing of our highways as was desired, or as has been the
case in former years. It is expected that with the coming
spring we shall have greater facilities for the distribution of
broken stone, and that at the expiration of this year the streets
of the city will be found second to none in the State. Through,
the efficiency and mechanical skill of the Superintendent of
Streets, in the erection and management of the steam engine
and crusher, we have been enabled to accomplish much more
in the repairs of the highways than otherwise we could have
done. Our system of using broken stone in repairs of streets
is sufficiently near to that of McAdam to satisfy us of its
10 CITY DOCUMENT— No. L
advantages. He recommends that the covering or roof of the
soil be made of stone broken into fragments, and so laid that
these will unite into a firm and impenetrable body ; and that
no gravel be mixed with the stone.
It is a matter of question whether the annoyance arising
from the use of broken stone before the same has settled into
a compact form is more objectionable to the traveller than is
stone pavement. One of these we must submit to. The sug-
gestion is often made that a few inches of gravel placed on the
top of the stones will sooner produce a smooth and level road.
Such may be the case, but in this city the quantity of gravel
adapted for the surface of a street is extremely limited, and
commands a high price. It is, therefore, apparent that the
combined material must largely increase the cost of these
I am not aware of any unusual expenditures in the matter of
constructing new streets, or repairing old ones, which will be
required this year.
A sufficient time having elapsed since the substitution of
steam for hand engines to test the experiment in our city, I
am happy to say that the change has been found to be decidedly
beneficial, but especially so in a moral point of view, it being
impossible to over-estimate the advantages gained in this
respect. While the three steamers now in use have much
greater power than had the four hand-engines formerly employed,
it must be apparent that owing to theyearly increase of wooden
buildings in this city, another steamer must soon be procured,
to insure sufficient protection against fire. I am happy to state
that the members of this branch of the public service are able,
fearless and prompt in their discharge of duty. I take pleasure
in uniting with our entire community in recognizing the faithful
attention given by the Chief Engineer and his assistants to the
trust reposed in them. Our city has been highly favored the
past year in its exemption from serious fires. I recommend
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 11
that tlio same number of reservoirs be constructed this year as
WATCH AND POLICE DEPARTMENT.
The watch and Police Department of this city, although
small considering the extent of our territory, and its contiguity
with the metropolis, is composed of men of sound morals, correct
habits, firm in the discharge of duty, indefatigable in the detec-
tion of criminals, and the prevention of crime. I hesitate not
to say that, as a whole, the effectiveness of our Day and Night
Police is unsurpassed by any of similar extent in any other city.
I consider ourselves as being extremely fortunate in the Chief
of this Department, combining as he does in a rare degree
qualifications requisite for producing harmony and usefulness
in this the most trying and hazardous of our corrective insti-
In this connection I desire to say that I was, a few days
since, enabled to reply to certain questions of the Adjutant
General of this State, having reference to our records of crime
since the return home of our soldiers, that no increase exists
which can be attributed to them, and I am of the opinion that
the average influence of army life upon this class has been
morally beneficial rather than the reverse.
Our schools being under the control and management of the
Board of School Committee, and in these respects independent
of (he City Council, I am unable to give you other information
than that contained in the annual report of that body. To
that document I respectfully refer you for such intelligence
relative to these as may be desired.
It is highly gratifying to know that these institutions are, as
a whole, second to none in the Commonwealth. The interest
of the teachers in their work increases each year ; and the
children generally second their efforts. The grade of our
12 CITY DOCUMENT— No. 1.
schools cannot be the same from year to year, and it affords
me pleasure to state that whatever changes occur, are ia a
While the members of the School Committee are selected
from those best adapted to discharge the duties of their office,
and general satisfaction prevails in reference to the manner in
which these institutions are watched over, it seems to me desi-
rable that some official connection should exist between the
City Council and the School Committee. Such is the custom
in other cities, and I think it would be productive of good
with us. The City Council through such connection would be
informed of the action of the School Committee, and the reasons
which influence them would be better understood. I have no
doubt this suggestion will be favorably considered by the School
Committee, and also by our citizens.
A communication from the School Committee, asking further
school accommodations in Ward No. 3, has been referred to
you by' your predecessors. I advise that you investigate the
necessity of this case ; and in the event of your approval thereof,
that land be at once purchased, and the necessary steps taken
for the erection of a building.
My confidence in the beneficial results arising from the
evening or adult school is unabated. I renew my recommenda-
tion that such schools be established in Wards 1 and 2.
FOREST HILLS CEMETERY.
The annual report of the Commissioners of Forest Hills
Cemetery discloses the gratifying fact that its attractiveness
is still on the increase. The receipts realized from sales of
lots are in excess of any former year. The gateway so long
contemplated has been erected, but owing to the season of the
year certain portions of the work have been necessarily post-
poned until the coming Spring.
As this gateway is intended to be of a permanent nature,
and is elaborate in design and execution, the Commissioners
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 13
caused the construction to be done by the day, and under their
immediate supervision, conceiving that increased durability and
beauty would be thereby obtained. The result shows conclu-
sively tlie correctness of their action in so doing. Although
the cost of the gateway is large, it is to be considered as being
erected not alone for our time, but for a long series of years.
Even for the present it is believed that the attractiveness of
the cemetery is so largely increased through its erection, as
to warrant the outlay. It cannot be otherwise than that the
interest of our people in the cemetery will increase day by
day. Such being the case, with judicious management it must
become the most attractive spot in our neighborhood, combin-
ing as it does such essentials to this end, as sacred associations,
natural beauty, and the embellishments of art.
F^'Sundry orders of notice have been served upon the city,
that petitions will be presented to the Legislature at its next
session, asking charters for horse railroads over our streets.
Were it not that so general dissatisfaction exists with reference
to the management of the Metropolitan Railroad Company, these
petitions would have little weight with our people. I think it
is unnecessary for us to suffer more in the enormously increased
expense in the repairs of our streets caused by these rails, and
the annoyance to a large minority of our people which they
occasion. It is a matter of regret that the management of the
Metropolitan Railroad Company has failed to satisfy the public.
The general feeling is, that the privilege is a monopoly, and
that its management are ever on the alert to obtain advantages
inconsistent with the general good, and that it is unscrupulous
in the mode of acquiring these. The recent rise of fares has
caused a general indignation, from the belief that the net in-
come of the road at the old prices, as originally located, would
warrant good dividends. From official sources the statement
is made that the purchase or lease of other roads warrants the
14 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 1.
outlay which they occasioned; and that, through the peculiar
interests involved, the course was necessary. Our people are
slow to credit these statements in the matter of profits ; and
object to the addition of forty per centum to their fares, con-
ceiving that the increased number of passengers over the
original tracks will offset the advanced cost of labor, food and
material. The passengers over the new routes should be made
to pay a proper sum, corresponding with the length of route,
number carried and cost of carriage, in addition to the fare
over the original route, and if the result be unprofitable, it is
the misfortune of the stockholders.
I am opposed to having further charters granted for horse
railroads over our streets, believing that it is easier to control
one such road than more ; and experience teaches us that in
all probability any new location granted will soon become the
property of the Metropolitan, in which event our troubles will
only be increased. I think the united action of the city and
town governments where the original locations exist, would
induce the Legislature to so amend the charter of the Metro-
politan Railroad Company, as that in the matter of accommo-
dation, fares, &c., our citizens would receive relief from the,
annoyances referred to, and that the result would prove
advantageous to the company. I recommend the consider-
ation of this subject by that branch of the government having
jurisdiction over horse railroads; and that such action be
taken in the matter as may be deemed expedient.
For a number of years the Board of Aldermen have adopted
an order having reference to the removal of snow and ice from
the rails of the Metropolitan Railroad Company in this city.
That order is not respected by the Company, and I advise the
passage of an ordinance in reference to this matter, and that
such penalties be imposed therein as shall enforce the necessai'y
REVISION OF CITY ORDINANCES.
I recommend that you cause a revision of our ordinances to
be made, as I am informed that a number of these contain
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 15
provisions which are inconsistent with the statute laws of this
CITY DEBT AND TAXATION.
A year since, the city debt was 11,040,195, of which $65,000
was temporarily borrowed for the payment of bounties. This
last-named sum, together with $27,000 of the funded debt
which matured last year, was assessed in the tax, and is now
paid, leaving a present indebtedness of $948,195. I congrat-
ulate the citizens of Roxbury that the first step for many years
in this direction has been taken, and think the unanimity with
which our people sanctioned this action of the government
warrants us in adopting a similar course the present year.
The sum of $27,000 of the debt matures this year, and I
recommend that the same be paid through our annual tax. It
not unfrequently happens that our scrip is offered for sale ;
and, as but $8,000 matures in 1867, I suggest that authority
be given to the Committee on Finance to purchase such as may
be offered, not exceeding $20j000 in amount, provided the
price and time of maturity justifies them in so doing ; and that
in payment therefor a temporary loan be created, payable the
Were it not for the introduction of pure water, I know no
object for which the public debt should ever again be perma-
Anticipating that the day is not far distant when this question
must be met, it should be the policy of the City Council to
reduce the indebtedness of the city as far as practicable. I
doubt not this course of action will produce such results that
when that time arrives, the outlay for water will not injuriously
affect the prosperity of the city.
The expense of the Stony Brook sewer must be provided
for ; and I suggest that all balances in the treasury at the
close of the fiscal year, and also all the indebtedness then due
to the city, be appropriated for that purpose ; and that the
excess be borrowed, and made payable in four yearly payments.
■16 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 1.
It is impossible to state at this time what the amount of these
assets will be, or what will be the cost of the sewer.
I advise that Ordinance Number 6 be ao amended that the
annual report of the Committee on Accounts shall be made up
to the first day of May, in place of February first, as is
therein provided. The advantages of this change are that the
committee will have been a sufficiently long time in office to
become acquainted with the routine pursued; whereas now it
often happens that such is not the case ; and also that their
report will show the receipts and disbursements of our fiscal
year, which ends with the thirtieth day of April.
With the close of the rebellion the labors of the committee
having these subjects in charge practically ceased. Their
principal duty at this time has reference to the aid given to
families of soldiers and sailors. The number now in receipt
of aid is about sixty, and is being daily diminished. A large
proportion of these are the families of deceased and invalid
soldiers. I trust that the State will assume the entire charge
of this matter, w'lich, from the comparatively small number
now assisted, can be easily attended to by its officers, who
have greater facilities to this end than is the case with those
of cities and towns.
Our militia organization consists of Company D, 1st Bat-
talion Cavalry, Captain Richard Holmes, and four couipanies
of unattached infantry, commanded by Captains Jordan, Fille-
brown, Ryan, and Lieut. Foster. Through a recent examina-
tion by the proper State officer, we learn that these companies
are all above the minimum standard of law. The members
are mostly of our young and enterprising men, and, should
occasion arise, these would promptly respond to the call of the
authorities. It is a matter of regret that, though a long time
has elapsed since the organization of these infantry companies,
as yet some are without arms and accoutrements, and all are
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 17
without uniforms. This delay on tlie part of the State causes
dissatisfaction. No great interest can exist, neither can a high
standard of military discipline be attained, under such circum-
stances. These companies are in similar condition with many
others, and it is to be hoped. that arrangements will be at once
made to provide the necessary equipments in pursuance of law.
Company D, 1st Battalion Mass. Cavalry, formerly Roxbury
Horse Guards, maintains the enviable character it has always
enjoyed; its ranks are full, and it has received great praise in
military circles, for its drill and soldierly appearance. Com-
pany D, State Guard, Captain Edward Wyman, originally
Roxbury Reserve Guard, having fulfilled the purpose for which
it was organized, was, at the request of its members, disbanded
by his Excellency the Governor. This company is now histor-
ical; its valuable services rendered during the rebellion will
be long remembered, and its members will ever feel a just
pride in their association.
I know of no one subject more vital to the present pros-
perity of this city than that of sewerage. While we have some
thirty miles of streets, less than three miles of sewers are laid.
No artificial supply of water can be judiciously undertaken,
before the city is properly provided with the means of dis-
posing of the same, as the earth would not absorb such quan*-
titles as are used where it is so easily obtained, and the supply
The sanitary condition of our most densely settled localities
is Such that no permanent improvement can be expected in
these until the opportunity of drainage is afforded. In the
northerly and westerly sections of the city, no outlet for sew-
erage matter exists. This must be obtained before lateral
sewers can be made useful.
In accordance with my recommendation, made a year since,
the last city government, by a unanimous vote, authorized the
^^ CITY DOCUMENT— No. 1.
diversion of Stony Brook for sewerage purposes below Tre-
mont street, and a contract has been made with Messrs. Elizur
Barnes and George Clapp, of Dorchester, to finish the same
within one year from its date, for the sum of sixty-eight
thousand seven hundred and fifty-seven dollars ($68,757).
The advantages of this diversion were so fully set forth in my
inaugural address of 1865, and also in the lucid report of Mr.
W. H. Bradley (this last being City Document No. 2 of that
year), that I refrain from further allusion thereto. I ask your
examination of those documents; and am happy to say, that
after a year's investigation of this matter, and from frequent
conversations with scientific and practical men, my opinions
therein expressed are not changed, but strengthened. As this
city has not the authority to lay sewers through private prop-
erty, this privilege will be asked of the next Legislature. If
this power be obtained, I recommend that Stony Brook, from
the culvert to Orange street, be converted into a sewer, as
suggested in the report of Mr. Bradley.
I regret being unable to advise the conversion of that por-
tion of the brook which is above Orange street, owing to
objections made by the Boston Belting Company.
I am informed that this company use large quantities of
water, for manufacturing purposes, and that the conversion of
the brook into a sewer, above Orange street, would prove a
serious injury to its business, and most likely end in litigation,
thus occasioning long delay. I learn that legal steps have been
taken by the Boston Belting Company to stop the entrance df
sewerage into the stream above Orange street; and as no
other outlet exists, the business of the establishments located
in that region must cease, or the means of drainage be pro-
vided. I therefore advise that a brick sewer be laid forthwith
through portions of Lowell, Washington and Tremont streets
having its outlet either into the culvert at Tremont street or
into the proposed Stony Brook sewer.
MAYOR'S ADDRESS. 19
Gentlemen, — I embrace this opportunity of acknowledging
the obligations I am under to my fellow-citizens for my re-elec-
tion to the Mayoralty of this city. If in the discharge of the
duties of that office, their anticipations are accomplished, my
desires will be answered.
For the last four years, our civil war has engrossed the
thoughts of our people. Our object is attained, and the nation
is at peace. The world has never witnessed so sublime a
spectacle of love of country and loyalty to government as this
struggle has evoked. No sacrifice of life or treasure has been
too great for the accomplishment of this object. Those who
attempted the destruction of the nation accept the result with
better grace than might have been expected. Sectional ani-
mosities, prejudice and local traditions, are slowly but surely
disappearing, and the day is not far distant when, under the
benign influence of Christianity and Commerce, our people
will be, re-united, not through the force of arms alone, but in
the more holy unity of friendship and love. Let us not forget
that for this Happy New Year we are alone indebted to Him
who holds the destinies of nations in His hand. May He
continue to our favored land the inestimable blessings of
Liberty, Union and Peace, through all coming years !