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Full text of "The city of Cincinnati : a summary of its attractions, advantages, institutions and internal improvements, with a statement of its public charities"

GENEALOGY 



COLLECTION 



J >- 

ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC,LIBRARY 




3 1833 02279 6608 



PUBLISHER OF MUSIC, 



AND DEALEB IN 






^9 

And all hinds of Musical Merchandise. 

General "Wholesale and Retail Agent for 

AND 

CABINET AND METROPOLITAN ORGANS, 

And other flrst'Class PianoH, Organs, and Melodeons. 

66 ^VEST FOURTH STREET, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



THE 

QUEEN CITY ISa© 
ITYoF L/INCINNATir 



L/ITY OF L^ 



A SUMMARY 

OF ITS 

Attractions, Advantages, 
INSTITUTIOKS AND INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, 

WITH 

A STATEMENT OF iTS PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

BY 

GEO. E. STEVENS. 



CINCINNATI: 
GEO. S. BLANCHARD & CO, 

39 WEST FOURTH STREET. 
1869. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 

GEO. E. STEVENS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the 
Southern District of Ohio. 

6TEBE0TTPED AT THE FRANKLIN TYPE FOUNDRY, CINCINNATI. 



1417482 

P u B L I s H E p^s ' Notice 



/^INCINNATI, the largest inland city of the United 
i^ States — the center of trade of the Ohio Valley, with 
a population of over a quarter of a million, admira- 
ble location and climate, and suburbs unequaled in beauty 
by those of any city in the world — has recently had no pub- 
lication setting forth its attractions and advantages, both 
as a place of trade and residence. This want, it is hoped, 
has now been supplied. 

The publishers have borne in mind the impatience of 
the public toward prolixity in style, and, at the risk of 
omitting valuable material, have endeavored to present, to 
he read, a compend, stating, in the most concise terms, 
only the leading features which characterize the great city 
of the Central West. The original design included full 
descriptions of the suburbs, but the limits of the volume 
forbade these. As it now is, the book, without being a 
mere tabular guide, will be a manual of great service to 
every stranger. The publishers bespeak for it the attention 
of every merchant, manufacturer, and property-holder in 
Cincinnati, confident that such a publication will be a 
powerful agent in the advancement of their interests. 
Believing in the promise of a magnificent future for the 
Queen City, they issue this volume, trusting that no citizen 
will be ashamed to declare it a fair exponent of the great 
metropolis of the Ohio Valley. 




w'HE design of this volume has been to present, in the 
ImJ briefest possible terms, a summary of the attractions 
and advantages, and to assert the rightful sovereignty, 
of the Queen City. Not a history, recording the past, but 
rather a photograph, an instantaneous fixing of the pres- 
ent, has been intended. With this aim, taxing the utmost 
skill to develop the salient features — to properly adjust the 
effects of light and shade — to select just the point of best 
perspective — the difficulty has been to determine, not what 
to insert, but what to omit, not how much, but how little 
to say. Thus the work, while partly the result of compi- 
lation, has required, in its preparation, much time and 
labor. It is submitted in the firm belief that those who 
have attempted a task similar to this, will form the most 
charitable opinions of its execution. Entire freedom from 
inaccuracies is not claimed. The nature of the contents 
will account for the appearance of matter which may have 
ceased since it was written, to represent facts correctly. 

Reference has been had to various sources for informa- 
tion, among which are to be credited the daily papers of 



VI PREFACE. 

the city, especially the Oazette, and the volumes of the 
late Charles Cist, to whose labors Cincinnati has been so 
greatly indebted. That invaluable work, " Lippincott's 
Gazetteer," has supplied important items. In the prepara- 
tion of the statement of the charities of the city, free use 
has been made of published reports of the various institu- 
tions. To the " Atlantic Monthly," acknowledgment is also 
due. 

The most valuable part of the book will be found to be 
the chapter upon the growth and future of Cincinnati. 
This is from the pen of E. D. Mansfield, Esq., and will 
command the attention and confidence which it deserves. 

G. E. S. 
Cincinnati, April 20, 1869. 



p 



ONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. p^8^ 
Introductory View 9 

CHAPTER II. 

Location— Physical Characteristics— La Belle Riv- 
iere—General Description— Distances to Important 
Points 12 

CHAPTER III. 

The Stranger in Cincinnati— Approach— General Di- 
rections-Different Quarters of the City— Suspension 
Bridge— Suburbs— Public Buildings and Points of In- 
terest—Hotels—Fourth Street— Levee— Fort Washing- 
ton—West End—" Over the Rhine"—" Siege of Cincin- 
nati"— Moonlight Scenes— Spring Grove— Cincinnati 
Hospital— Law School— Law Library— Church Edi- 
fices—Davidson Fountain— Garden of Eden— Young 
Men's Gymnastic Association — St. Xavier's College— 
Wesleyan Female College— Other Notable Points (ar- 
ranged alphabetically) 20 

CHAPTER IV. 

Cincinnati and its Future ; its Growth, Industry, Com- 
merce and Education - 67 

CHAPTER V. 

City Government— Public School System— School Reg- 
ulations—Postal Statistics— Wealth of the City— Board 
of Health— Police Department— Fire Department— Ad- 

(vii) 



Viii CONTENTS, 

PAGE 

ministration of Justice— Justices of the Peace— District 
Court^Court of Common Pleas— Superior Court^Pro- 
bate Court— Police Court^United States Courts 102 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Charities of Cincinnati— Introductory— Union 
Bethel— Orphan Asylum— Relief Union- Children's 
Home- German Orphan Asylum— Home for the 
Friendless— Ladies Union Aid Society — Fowell Bux- 
ton School— St. Luke's Hospital— Widow's Home — 
Women's Christian Association — Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association — Colored Orphan Asylum — House of 
Refuge— Board of Health— City Infirmary— Longview 
Asylum— Cincinnati Hospital 120 

CHAPTER VII. 

The PRE.SS— Literary, Scientific and Social Organi- 
zations— Chamber of Commerce— Board of Trade — Li- 
braries—Newspapers and Periodicals— Manufacture of 
Books— Public Library— Young Men's Mercantile Li- 
brary—Theological Library— Horticultural Society- 
Academy of Medicine— Historical and Philosophical 
Society— Mechanics Institute— Pioneer Association- 
German Pioneer Association— Lane Seminary— Mount 
Auburn Young Ladies' Institute— Literary Clubs— Mu- 
sical Societies— Social Elements 187 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Items of Caution and Notice for Strangers— Sub- 
UKUS— Horse-Car Routes— Fire Alarm Stations— Lines 
of Outward Travel — Avondale — Clifton — College 
Hill— Fast Walnut Hills— Gleudale— Mount Auburn- 
Walnut Hills— Woodburn— Wyoming 202 



The Oueen City. 



CINCINNATI, entering in 1869 the ninth decade 
of its existence, is the largest and wealthiest in- 
land city of America. The number of its inhabit- 
ants is estimated at over a quarter of a million. Settled 
in 1788, one hundred and seven years after Philadel- 
phia, it has to-day a population as great as that city 
contained in 1840, and equal to that of New York in 
1833. Receiving early in its history the title "Queen 
City of the West," it has never lost its claim to that 
proud eminence. Its present greatness may well excite 
contemplation, and its citizens gather thence a fresh 
energy to stimulate a future growth, the limit of which 
none can place. It has been no idle fancy that has 
styled Cincinnati "the Paris of America." Already 
the great workshop and exchange of the populous Val- 
ley of the Ohio, a territory greater in area than the 
whole of France, Nature has bestowed gifts which need 

(9) 



10 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

only the seconding of Art to develop upon the banks 
of "La Belle Riviere" the grandest and most beautiful 
city of the New World. American brain and nerv^e 
and muscle will find here a center where the facilities 
for the creation of wealth shall be inferior only to those 
for its enjoyment. Inevitably Cincinnati, the metropo- 
lis of the fairest portion of the United States, is moving 
steadily and compactly forward to a magnificent future. 
Its commercial sujjremacy was and is "manifest des- 
tiny," while natural advantages belong to it which 
leave it few rivals in beauty of situation among the 
cities of the world. 

The Cincinnati of A.D. 1900 will display to the visitor 
its vast commerce and manufactures crowding its lower 
plateau, while upon the elevation of the surrounding 
hills shall stretch away for miles under the genial skies 
of this favored region the dwellings of its inhabitants. 
Pushing its limits far out on every side, there will be, 
at no distant period, one consolidated municipality, 
gathering into its embrace one after another the now 
suburban villages, until one and the same boundary 
shall mark the limit of the city and the county in 
which it is situate. 

In the recently-uttered words of a distinguished citi- 
zen, the Cincinnati of the not remote future is to be 
"a city fair to the sight, with a healthy public spirit, 
and high intelligence sound to the core ; a city with 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 11 

pure water to drink, pure air to breathe, spacious pub- 
lic grounds, wide avenues ; a city not merely of much, 
traffic, but of delightful homes ; a city of manufactures, 
wherein is made every product of art — the needle-gun, 
the steam-engine, the man of learning, the woman of 
accomplishment; a city of resort for the money profit 
of its dealings, and the mental and spiritual profit of 
its culture — the Edinboro' of a new Scotland, the Boston 
of a new New England, the Paris of a new France." 

Most justly has one of the ablest of American politi- 
cal economists said, that " it requires no keenness of ob- 
servation to perceive that Cincinnati is destined to 
become the focus and mart for the grandest circle of 
manufacturing thrift on this continent. Her delightful 
climate, her unequaled and ever-increasing facilities for 
cheap and rapid commercial intercourse with all parts 
of the country and the world, her enterprising and en- 
ergetic population, her own elastic and exulting youth, 
are all elements which predict and insure her electric 
progress to giant greatness. It may be doubted if there 
is another spot on earth where food, fuel, cotton, timber, 
and iron can all be concentrated so cheaply as here. 
Such fatness of soil, such a wealth of mineral treasure — 
coal, iron, salt, and the finest clays for all purposes of 
use — and all cropping out from the steep, facile banks 
of placid, though not sluggish, navigable rivers. How 
many El Dorados could equal this valley of the Ohio?" 



CHAPTER II. 

Location— Physical Chaeacteristics— La Belle 
Riviere— General Description. 

^HE City of Cincinnati, the county seat of Hamil- 
ton County, State of Ohio, is situated in a valley 
of circular form, about twelve miles in circum- 
ference, which is bisected by the Ohio Kiver passing 
through it in a course from north-east to south-west. 
The city rests upon the north bank ; and, lying opposite, 
in the State of Kentucky, are the towns of Dayton, 
Ludlow, and Brooklyn, and the cities of Newport and 
Covington. The Licking River empties into the Ohio 
between the cities just mentioned. The hills surround- 
ing the city form a natural amphitheater unequaled 
in beauty upon this continent. From their summits, 
varying in height from three to four hundred feet, may 
be seen the splendid panorama of the great river and 
three cities with all their busy life. While Philadel- 
phia, New Orleans, Chicago, BuiTalo, and St. Louis are 
built on comparatively level ground, and afford scarcely 
any noticeable variety of position, the site of Cincin- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 13 

nati is one upon which the eye of taste may rest with 
admiration, while the natural advantages of location, 
which the city and its environs present, seize the atten- 
tion of every beholder. 

The river front of the city is about ten miles in length, 
and the northern line over two miles from low-water 
mark. 

The greater part of the city is built on two terraces, 
or plateaus — the first, fifty feet above low-water mark, 
and the second one hundred and eight feet. The front 
margin of the latter plateau, originally a steep bank, 
has been graded to a gentle declivity, so that the drain- 
age of much of the city is made directly into the river. 
This upper terrace, comprising two-thirds of the area of 
the valley, is somewhat undulating in its surface, but 
in the main slopes to the north, and, at an average dis- 
tance of a mile, terminates at the base of the hills. 

The central and business portions of the city are com- 
pactly built. The streets are laid out with regularity, 
and are about sixty-six feet in width. The sidewalks 
are Avide, and paved with brick and stone. Shade trees 
adorn many of the streets and avenues. Main Street 
runs almost due north from the river, with Broadway, 
Sycamore, Walnut, Vine, Eace, Elm, Plum, Central 
Avenue, and others, parallel with it. These are inter- 
sected at right angles by streets running east and west, 
and mostly deriving their names from their relative po- 



14 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

si tion— Front, Second, Pearl, Third, Fourth, Fifth, etc. 
The princii)al streets for wholesale business are Main, 
Walnut, Vine, Second, and Pearl; for retail. Fourth, 
Fifth, and Central Avenue. At the foot of Main, Syc- 
amore, and Broadway, on Front Street, is the Public 
Landing, an open area of ten acres, with one thousand 
feet front. The shore is paved from low-water mark, 
and furnished with floating wharves which rise and fall 
with the river. Cincinnati is remarkable for solidity 
of appearance, and presents a striking appearance both 
in regard to the architecture and the magnitude of its 
buildings. The material generally employed for the 
fronts of the best buildings is a fine freestone or sand- 
stone, though white limestone is used to a considerable 
extent. 

The city was settled in 1788, and incorporated as a 
city in 1819. In 1800, it contained only seven hundred 
and fifty inhabitants. For several years after its first 
settlement, it suffered greatly from Indian ravages. 
When this source of danger ceased, the new city moved 
forward to greatness with rapid strides. The accom- 
panying engraving represents Cincinnati as it appeared 
in 1802. 

The Ohio Eiver, which curves so gracefully around 
the southern margin of the city, is one of the finest 
rivers in the world. The early French adventurers 
called it "La Belle Riviere" — the Beautiful River. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 15 

This, it is stated, is the signification of the Indian 
appellation Ohio. No river on the globe rolls for so 
great a distance in such uniform, smooth, and placid 
current. It is formed by the confluence of the Alle- 
ghany and Monongahela in the western part of Penn- 
sylvania. Flowing in a south-westerly direction, and 
dividing Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, on the right, from 
Virginia and Kentucky, on the left, it empties into the 
Mississippi about one hundred and seventy-five miles 
below St. Louis. The entire length of the river is up- 
ward of nine hundred and fifty miles, and of the valley, 
not following the windings of the stream, about six hun- 
dred and fourteen miles. The principal tributaries are 
the Muskingum, Great Kanawha, Big Sandy, Scioto, 
Miami, Green, Kentucky, "Wabash, Cumberland, and 
Tennessee. At Pittsburgh, its elevation above the level 
of the sea is six hundred and eighty feet ; at the entrance 
of the Muskingum, five hundred and forty-one feet ; at 
the mouth of the Scioto, four hundred and sixty-four 
feet; opposite Cincinnati, four hundred and fourteen 
feet; at its confluence with the Mississippi, three hun- 
dred and twenty-four feet — making the average descent 
less than five inches to the mile. The current is very 
gentlCj being about three miles per hour. The velocity 
is, of course, very much increased at high water. In 
common with other Western rivers, the Ohio is subject 
to great elevations and depressions. The average range 



16 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

between high and low water is about fifty feet; but in 
a few instances, as in 1832, the rise has been over sixty- 
feet. The navigable waters of the Ohio and its tribu- 
taries are estimated at not less than five thousand 
miles, and the extent of area drained at two hundred 
and twenty thousand square miles. Descending the 
river from Pittsburgh, the scenery is highly picturesque 
and beautiful. The hills, two and three hundred feet 
high, and intervening valleys, approach the stream on 
either side. These exhibit in the spring and early sum- 
mer a bounteous wealth of verdure, and in autumn all 
the glories of color which have made the forests of the 
West so justly celebrated. The graceful curves and 
bends of the river, exhibiting in the distance one range 
of hills gliding into another, with their beautifully- 
rounded summits, produce a series of splendid views 
rarely found. 

Cincinnati is in longitude 84° W west from Green- 
wich, and latitude 39° 6^ 30'^ north. The upper terrace 
of the city is five hundred and forty feet above the level 
of the sea. 

The surface of the river at low water is four hundred 
and thirty-one feet, and that of the surrounding hills 
about eight hundred and fifty feet, above the sea. The 
summit of Mount Adams is three hundred and ninety- 
six feet above low-water mark in the Ohio River, Mount 
Auburn four hundred and fifty-nine feet, and Mount 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 17 

Harrison, west of the city, four hundred and sixty- 
feet. 

Geologically, Cincinnati is situated in the lower Silu- 
rian formation. Sand and gravel underlie the greater 
portion of the city. The adjacent region furnishes, in 
inexhaustible quantities, a blue fossiliferous limestone, 
which is a most valuable building material. 

Situated in the heart of a rich and populous district, 
through which are scattered rapidly-growing cities and 
towns, Cincinnati is the commercial metropolis of sev- 
eral of the finest States in the Union. Of the region 
between Lake Erie and Tennessee River, and between 
Baltimore and Saint Louis, comprising the fairest part 
of North America, it is the center. 

A table of distances to important points, by water 
and by railway, is here given : 

BY RIVER. 

Miles. 

Aurora, Ind., 26 

Cairo, 529 

Carrolton, Ky., , . . 81 

Evansville, Ind., 337 

Guyandotte, Va., 165 

Ironton, 144 

Lawrenceburg, Ind., 22 

Louisville, 142 

Madison, Ind., 91 

Marietta, O., 306 

Maysville, Ky., 61 

2 



18 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Milea. 

Memphis, '^^^ 

New Albany, Ind., 145 

New Orleans, 1520 

Parkersburg, Va., 293 

Pomeroy, O., . • . - 220 

Pittsburgh, 476 

Portsmouth, O., 114 

St. Louis, 708 

Vlcksburg, 1128 

Wheeling, 382 

BY KAIL, 

Altoona, Pa., .... 430 

Baltimore, 580 

Boston, 936 

Buffalo 438 

Cairo, 396 

Chicago, 280 

Cleveland, 255 

Columbus, O., 120 

Dayton, 60 

Detroit, 267 

Evansville, Ind., 243 

Harrisburg, Pa., 562 

Indianapolis, 115 

Lexington, Ky., 100 

Louisville, 137 

Marietta, O., 196 

Memphis, 514 

Nashville, 330 

New Orleans, 1588 

New York, 744 

Philadelphia, 668 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 19 

Uilea. 

Pittsburgh, 313 

Richmond, Ind., 70 

St. Louis, 340 

Springfield, O., 84 

Toledo, 202 

Urbana 95 

Vincennes 194 

Vlcksburg, 1215 

"Washington, 610 

Xenia, O., 65 

Cincinnati, already dis,tinguished for regularity and 
beauty of streets, is susceptible, by reason of its peculiar 
topographical features, of improvements of this kind, 
which will leave it without a rival among American 
cities. Large foresight is being displayed in the engi- 
neering of public improvements. Splendid avenues 
and parks are being projected and constructed, render- 
ing it certain that no Baron Haussman will be needed 
in the next century to remodel the Queen City. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Stranger in Cincinnati— Approach— General Di- 
rections—Different Quarters of the City — Suspen- 
sion Bridge— Prospects from the Hills— Suburbs- 
Public Buildings and Points of Interest. 

t- 
^ApjHE stranger arriving in Cincinnati will find little 

^) difficulty in acquainting himself with the streets 
and avenues of the city, and making his way to 
any part without trouble. The map of the city will aid 
him to get the points of the compass, and give a general 
idea of the location. It will also indicate the relative 
position of the railroad depots, principal hotels, the 
post-office, etc. The city is very compact, and commu- 
nication between the different points is easy. The lines 
of street cars afford a speedy transit from the railroad 
depots to the vicinity of excellent hotels. The hack 
rates of. Cincinnati were established before the war, and 
have never since been altered. As they are not now 
observed by any one, they are not here given. The 
best plan is to have a distinct understanding with the 
hackman before entering his carriage. The railroad 
omnibus lines are well managed, and transport pas- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 21 

sengers and baggage with great celerity. The streets 
running north and south are numbered from the river 
north; the east and west streets, each way from Main 
Street. 

The leading hotels of the city are here mentioned : 

BuEKET House. — This spacious hotel is located on 
the corner of Third and Vine Streets. Its fame is 
known throughout the United States. Its splendid ap- 
pointments and excellent management will continue to 
perpetuate its celebrity. The building is in the Italian 
style of architecture, and has a front of two hundred 
and tAvelve feet on Third Street and two hundred and 
ten feet on Vine Street. The present proprietors are 
Messrs. A. C. Joslin & Co. 

Gibson House. — This well-known and popular hotel 
is on Walnut Street, west side, between Fourth and 
Fifth. Its location is central and convenient to all the 
lines of street cars. Directly opposite are the Merchant's 
Exchange and the Young Men's Mercantile Library. 
Its interior arrangements are admirable, and the con- 
venience and comfort of guests are unceasingly consulted. 
Never has this house been more attractive or prosperous 
than under the management of Messrs. Sinks, Corre & 
Co., its present lessees. 

Spencer House. — This house needs no introduction 
to those at all acquainted with Cincinnati. It is on the 
north-west corner of Broadway and the Public Landing. 



22 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

It has long been a favorite with travelers on the river 
and guests from all parts of the South. The internal 
arrangements are unsurpassed in their elegance and 
convenience. The requirements of light and ventila- 
tion are well met, and the prospect upon the river and 
the Kentucky adjacencies is a splendid one. This 
house is now conducted by Messrs. Sweny & Drown. 

St. James Hotel. — This house, which has won in 
the few years of its existence an enviable reputation, is 
located on Fourth Street, at the corner of Hammond 
Street, east of Main Street. This is the only hotel 
upon this fashionable promenade. Its facilities for the 
entertainment of guests are admirable, and no house 
has gained friends more rapidly than this under the 
popular management of Henry P. Elias, Esq. 

Walnut Street House, as its name indicates, is 
on "Walnut Street, at the corner of Gano, between Sixth 
and Seventh Streets. It covers ten thousand square feet 
of ground. The dining room is a magnificent apart- 
ment. The parlors are spacious and elegant, and all the 
rooms are of convenient size and arrangement. There 
are few pleasanter places of abode for the stranger in 
the city. Messrs. Pratt & Davis, its present owners, are 
trentlemcn who thoroughly understand their business. 
Colonel Pratt was for a long time proprietor of the 
Spencer House of this city. 

Merchants Hotel.— This house has always been a 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 23 

favorite with visitors to Cincinnati. It is located on 
Fifth Street, east of Main. It is a most eligible and 
convenient stopping-place for travelers. The guests 
ever find in its courteous proprietors, Galleher, Nel- 
son & Co., gentlemen who are ever ready to contribute 
to their comfort and enjoyment. 

Galt House. — South-west corner of Sixth and Main. 

METK0P0LiTA2f HoTEL. — On the wcst side of Main 
Street, below Second. 

HEXPaE House. — North side of Third, between Main 
and Sycamore. 

The visitor to Cincinnati is not favorably impressed 
during the approach to the city. The railroads enter- 
ing the city by the valley of Millcreek afford passengers 
some idea of the extent and situation of the city, but 
the entrance by river, or by the railroads skirting its 
banks, conveys an unfortunate idea. The abruptly ris- 
ing hills crowd all improvements close down to the 
river side, and almost hide the main portion of the city, 
till, close at hand, the massive fronts rear themselves 
suddenly into view. The general aspect is that of solid- 
ity, comfort, and commercial prosperity. Wide, well- 
paved, clean streets, crossing each other at right angles, 
invite a further inspection. The substantial, elegant 
architecture of the mercantile and public buildings has 
illustration in the engravings presented in this volume. 

Once comfortably established in his quarters at the 



24 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

hotel, the visitor is at leisure to make his plans, whether 
in the way of business or pleasure. A subsequent part 
of this book will furnish the names and locations of the 
institutions of the city — civil, benevolent, educational, 
etc. Directions to excursionists will here be given only 
in a general way. 

The pages immediately succeeding will furnish an 
idea of the characteristics of different quarters of the 
city, and a carriage drive of three or four hours will 
suffice to visit them. Descriptions are also given of 
the public buildings and works that are worthy of par- 
ticular attention. 

It would be too much for one day, however, to do 
justice to the various institutions of Cincinnati, in vis- 
iting them upon a tour of inspection. A day may be 
most delightfully spent in a tour among the suburban 
attractions of the city, including that unrivaled of Amer- 
ican cemeteries. Spring Grove. Many visitors also make 
this city the point of departure upon excursions to the 
Mammoth Cave and Yellow Springs. 

In the city itself. Fourth Street is the center of attrac- 
tion. There are few more brilliant scenes than it pre- 
sents upon bright afternoons in the spring or fall, when 
it is thronged with promenaders, and glittering with the 
gay and costly equipages of wealth. 

Looking down from Fourth Street, one may behold 
upon the terrace below, convenient to the river, and 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 25 

yet secure from its invasion, the movements belonging 
to vast manufactures and commerce. He will remem- 
ber that a territory nearly three times as large as Great 
Britain draws thence its principal supplies. Some of 
that immense variety of merchandise will find a desti- 
nation, by rail or steamer, thousands of miles away — 
perchance reaching the shores of the Old World. Ex- 
tending between Main Street and Broadway is a splen- 
did levee, one thousand feet long, with an area of ten 
acres, lined with capacious steamboats. This, with 
its narrower extensions up and down the river, is the 
scene of remarkable activity. "A traveler must, indeed, 
be difiicult to please who can not find a boat bound to a 
place he would like to visit. From far back in the coal- 
mines of the Youghiogheny to high up the Eed River 
— from St. Paul to New Orleans and all intermediate 
ports — one has but to pay his money, and take his 
choice of the towns upon sixteen thousand miles of 
navigable waters." 

There is a striking view from the levee of the new 
wire-suspension bridge, which, as James Parton writes, 
springs out from the summit of the broad, steep levee 
to a lofty tower (two hundred feet high) near the wa- 
ter's edge, and then, at one leap, clears the whole river, 
and lands upon another tower upon the Covington 
side. From tower to tower is one thousand and fifty- 
seven feet; the entire length of the bridge is two thou- 



26 THE CITY or CINCINNATI. 

sand two hundred and fifty -two feet, and it is hung one 
hundred feet above low-water mark by two cables of 
wire. Seen from below, and at a little distance, it looks 
like gossamer-work, and as though the wind could blow 
it away, and waft its filmy fragments out of sight; but the 
tread of a drove of elephants would not bend or jar it. 
The Eock of Gibraltar does not feel firmer under foot 
than this spider-web of a bridge, over which endless 
trains of vehicles and pedestrians pass one another. It 
is estimated that, besides its own weight of six hundred 
tons, it would bear a burden of sixteen thousand tons. 
This remarkable work, constructed at a cost of nearly 
two million dollars, was begun twelve years ago, and 
has taxed the patience and faith of its projectors severe- 
ly ; but, now that it is finished, Cincinnatians justly look 
upon it with great pride. One taking the street cars upon 
Front Street, at the northern terminus of this bridge, may 
in an hour's ride pass over two suspension bridges, each 
flung across a navigable river, and will have been, dur- 
ing his ride, in two States, three counties, and three 
cities. 

The great staples of this market — iron, cotton, sugar, 
tobacco, etc. — are handled along Front, Water, and Sec- 
ond Streets, and their adjacencies. Pearl Street, north 
of Second, and parallel with it, is the center of opera- 
tions for an immense capital employed in distributing 
dry goods, notions, clothing, shoes, etc. 



1 5> < 



't%^ 




the' city of CINCINNATI. 27 

On Third Street are assembled most of the banks, 
insurance offices, agencies, lawyers' offices, etc. It is 
the Wall Street of Cincinnati. 

Fourth Street displays to the visitor the magnificent 
retail establishments, and is the fashionable promenade 
of the city. 

On Third Street, between Broadway and Lawrence 
Streets, the stranger may place himself on the former 
site of Fort Washington ; all traces of which, however, 
have long since vanished. It was built in 1789, when 
the infant city was hourly in danger of incursion from 
the savages who roamed the interminable forests of the 
Miami country. The following description is taken 
from " Cist's Cincinnati in 1841 : " " About the 1st of 
June, 1789, Major Doughty arrived with one hundred 
and forty men from Fort Harmar, on the Muskingum, 
and built four block-houses nearly opposite the mouth 
of Licking. When these were finished, within a lot of 
fifteen acres reserved by the United States, and imme- 
diately on the line of Third Street, between Broadway 
and Lawrence, he commenced the construction of Fort 
Washington. This building, of a square form, was 
simply a fortification of logs hewed and squared, each 
side about one hundred and eighty feet in length, 
formed into barracks two stories high. It was con- 
nected at the corners by high pickets with bastions or 
block-houses, also of hewed logs, and projecting about 



28 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

ten feet in front of each side of the fort, so that the 
cannon placed Avithin them could be brought to rake 
the walls. Extending along the whole front of the fort 
was a fine esplanade, about eighty feet wide, and in- 
closed with a handsome paling on the brow of the bank, 
the descent from which to the lower bottom was sloping 
about thirty feet. The exterior of the fort was white- 
washed, and, at a short distance, presented a handsome 
and imposing appearance. On the eastern side were 
the officers' gardens, freely cultivated and ornamented, 
with handsome summer-houses. The site of this build- 
ing is that part of Third Street opposite the Bazaar, and 
extending an average breadth of about sixty feet beyond 
the line of the street on both sides. It was completed 
by November, and on the 29th of the succeeding month 
General Harmar arrived with three hundred men and 
took possession of it." 

Many of the dwellings of Cincinnati are remarkable 
for their handsome proportions and elegance of finish. 
The east end of Fourth Street, and contiguous portions 
of Broadway and Pike Streets, exhibit some palatial 
residences. An object of interest Avill be the mansion 
and spacious grounds once occupied by Nicholas Long- 
worth, who was at the time of his death, several years 
ago, the richest man in Cincinnati. This beautiful 
estate is now occupied by F. E. Suire, Esq. 

Fourth Street, west of Central Avenue, also contains 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 29 

many handsome dwellings. Prominent among them 
is the residence of Judge D. K. Este. 

The West End, comprising a large district lying to 
the west of Central Avenue, includes the larger number 
of handsome and comfortable dwellings, and is rapidly 
growing in extent, beauty, and population. 

The district between the Miami Canal, on the south 
and west, and the hills on the north, contains a popula- 
tion of almost entirely German descent or birth, the 
number of which is estimated at eighty thousand. This 
district is known as " Over the Rhine," the Miami Canal 
receiving this sobriquet. Residents of the city during 
the Know-Nothing excitement of 1854, well remember 
the sluggish stream as marking the boundary beyond 
which it was dangerous for some obnoxious native 
Americans to venture among the excited foreigners, 
who are now, as they have ever been, a most valuable 
element of the population. 

Millcreek is at present the western boundary of the 
city. Plans are maturing to subdue this stream and 
bring into service a large additional territory which at 
present is subject to annual inundations. Many acres, 
which now, every year, at a certain season, are turned 
into a vast lake by the backwater of the Ohio, will then 
be covered with valuable improvements, and extend the 
densely-built city to the base of the western hills. 

Upon reaching the heights north of the city, the 



30 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

scene presented to the eye is one of extraordinary 
beauty. Three hundred and fifty feet above the river, 
the position commands a view of portions of two States, 
three cities, numerous villages, the graceful curve of the 
river, and the grand sweep of hills. Cincinnati, Cov- 
ington, and Newport — the two latter divided by the 
Licking River — and the United States military post on 
its eastern bank, lie off to the south. On the east may 
be seen the bold front of Mt. Adams, with its observa- 
tory, founded by the distinguished astronomer and 
noble patriot, O. M. Mitchel, and the beautiful suburb 
of Walnut Hills ; on the west, the magnificent range of 
hills and the great river winding onward in its ceaseless 
course toward the Father of Waters. The beautiful 
suburb of Clifton, with its magnificent country seats, is 
also visible. Away to the north the eye sweeps over the 
beautiful highlands, with their splendid mansions and 
inviting drives, and takes in a portion of the peaceful 
valley holding in its embrace that most beautiful of 
cemeteries, Spring Grove. In a clear atmosphere, the 
charming village of Glendale, twelve miles distant, 
may be seen. The eye falls also upon the range of 
hills which bi'istled with fortifications during the civil 
war, when Cincinnati was almost a "border city." In 
1862, when the city was menaced with attack by a 
strong army pushing up through Kentucky, every hill- 
top had its breastworks and heavy cannon, while the 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 31 

approaches south of Covington were held by a force 
numbering at one time not far from twenty-five thou- 
sand men. 

Across the river, before the present magnificent suspen- 
sion bridge was completed, stretched a pontoon bridge, 
over which many regiments of troops and endless trains 
of artillery, wagons, and munitions of war, thundered 
over into the "Dark and Bloody Ground," then most 
true to its ancient name. 

Martial law was first declared in Cincinnati, Septem- 
ber 5th, 1862. The ten days ensuing will be forever 
memorable in the annals of the city. In an article, 
entitled the " Siege of Cincinnati," T. Buchanan Bead 
wrote thus vividly of them : 

"The cheerful alacrity with which the people rose 
en masse to swell the ranks and crowd into the trench- 
es was a sight worth seeing, and, once seen, could not 
readily be forgotten. Here were the representatives of 
all nations and classes. The sturdy German, the lithe 
and gay-hearted Irishman, went, shoulder to shoulder, 
in defense of their adopted country. The man of money, 
the man of law, the merchant, the artist, and the artisan, 
swelled the lines hastening to the scene of action, armed 
either with musket, pick, or spade. Added to these was 
Dickson's long, dusky brigade of colored men, cheer- 
fully wending their way to labor on the fortifications. 
But the pleasantest and most picturesque sight of those 



32 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

remarkable days was the almost endless stream of sturdy 
men who rushed to the rescue from the rural districts of 
the State. These were known as the Squirrel Hunters. 
They came in files, numbering thousands upon thou- 
sands, in all kinds of costumes, and armed with all kinds 
of fire-arms, but chiefly the deadly rifle, which they knew 
so well how to use. Old men, young men, middle-aged 
men, and often mere boys, dropped all their peculiar av- 
ocations, and with their leathern pouches full of bullets, 
and their ox-horns full of powder, poured into the city 
by every highway and byway in such numbers that it 
seemed as if the whole State of Ohio were peopled only 
with hunters, and that the spirit of Daniel Boone stood 
upon the hills opposite the city beckoning them into 
Kentucky. 

"The pontoon bridge, which had been completed be- 
tween sundown and sundown, groaned day and night 
with the perpetual stream of life all setting southward. 
In three days, there were ten miles of intrenchments 
lining the hills, making a semicircle from the river 
above the city to the banks of the river below, and 
they were thickly manned from end to end. 

"The river also afforded protection by its flotilla of 
gunboats improvised from the swarm of steamers which 
lay at the wharves. A storm of shot and shell, such as 
they had not dreamed of, would have played upon the 
advancing columns of an enemy, while the infantry, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 33 

pouring down from the fortifications, would have fallen 
upon the rear, 

" The commanding general congratulated the citizens 
upon the rally and the result: 'Paris may have seen 
something like it in her revolutionary days, but the 
cities of America never did. Be proud that you have 
given them an example so splendid.' " The Queen City 
never surrendered. 

The beauty of the surrounding hills, which exhibit 
the gentle and varying slopes peculiar to a limestone 
formation, is of wide celebrity. There would seem to 
be no end of eligible building sites in every direction, 
from which may be commanded most lovely prospects. 
Many of the mornings in the late summer, when, be- 
neath the rays of the sun, the fog from the river fills 
all the valley below, afford, from any of the adjacent 
summits, a view of surpassing beauty. The spectator 
beholds stretching away from his feet an unbroken 
expanse, presenting the appearance of a placid lake. 
Gradually, as the sun ascends the sky, the dense va- 
pors are elevated to rarer regions, and there are dis- 
closed to view the city, the river, the villages, the nu- 
merous steamboats, and all the busy life of the valley. 
More enchanting are the moonlight scenes, when the 
valley below is wrapped in a mantle of mist, and the 
beholder may people the weird and shadowy stillness 
with all the fantastic creations of the imagination. 
3 



34 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

But not the least among the chief attractions of Cincin- 
nati will be its suburbs. These are described at length 
in a volume soon to be published, a reference to which 
will amply repay the reader. The vicinity of no city on 
the continent can furnish more enjoyable drives, more 
:jplendid landscape views, or more beautiful residences. 
The Prince of Wales' party, in 1860, pronounced the 
suburbs of Cincinnati the finest they had ever seen. 
All the different suburban localities will amply repay 
a visit, but no visitor to Cincinnati should fail to see 
Clifton, Mount Auburn, and East Walnut Hills. Trav- 
elers from all parts of America and Europe have de- 
clared the prospects from various points in these local- 
ities uncqualed in beauty anywhere. Particularly may 
this be said in the autumn, when the Western forests 
are in their glorious array of color. Here may also be 
seen the homes of wealth and taste, where nature and 
art seem to have vied with each other in the produc- 
tif)n of palatial abodes which might excite the envy of 
royalty itself A whole day is not too much to spend 
in visiting the suburbs, but four hours will suffice to 
make a shorter circuit, taking in the points already 
named. 

Of great prominence among the objects of interest 
which Cincinnati offers to the stranger is Spring 
Gkove Cemetery. In natural beauty, it is the finest 
in the world. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 35 

This cemetery is situated in the valley of the Mah- 
ket-e-wa (the Indian name of Millcreek), three miles 
north of the present limits of Cincinnati. It is ap- 
proached by an avenue one hundred feet wide, which 
is a most beautiful drive. The grounds were selected 
in 1844, and now contain, with later additions, four hun- 
dred and forty-three acres. The numerous springs and 
groves of noble forest trees suggested the name. The 
first Board of Directors consisted of the following gen- 
tlemen: Eobert Buchanan, William Neff, A. H. Ernst, 
David Loring, Nathaniel Wright, Griffin Taylor, Charles 
Stetson, J. C. Culbertson, E. G. Mitchell. 

The entrance buildings are in the Norman Gothic 
style of architecture, and cost over fifty thousand dol- 
lars. The undulating surface of the ground displays, to 
the best advantage, the abundant water and forest scen- 
ery. Avenues, twenty feet in width, conform to its 
picturesque character. On every hand are visible evi- 
dences of the excellent care of the Superintendent, 
A. Strauch. The entire absence of fences around 
lots gives the whole the harmony and pleasantness of 
a park. The monuments are remarkable for their vari- 
ety and good taste. JL^^J^^'^^S 

The Soldiers' Monument, at the junction of Lake 
Shore and Central Avenues, was erected in 1864. It is 
a bronze statue, on a granite pedestal, representing a 
United States soldier standing on guard. The design 



36 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

was furnished by the sculptor, Eandolph Eogers, and 
the work was cast by Frederick Von Miiller, at Munich. 

The Dexter mausoleum is the largest and most ele- 
gant structure at the present time. It represents a 
Gothic chapel, and was executed under the care of 
James K. Wilson, Esq., of Cincinnati. 

The Burnet mausoleum is also a costly work of most 
beautiful design. 

There are tasteful chapels which will attract atten- 
tion, among which are those belonging to the following 
names: Strader, Selves, Bodman, Worthington, Wig- 
gins, Gaylord, Taylor, Hall, Haynes, and Brown. Mar- 
ble, Aberdeen and Quincy granite, and brown stone, 
have been chiefly used for monumental purposes. The 
monuments belonging to the families mentioned below 
are notable for beauty of design and finish. They 
are those of Baum, Carlisle, Clearwater, Davenport, 
Davidson, Emery, Ernst, Gano, Hale, Hofiher, Holen- 
shade, Hosea, Harkness, Hulbert, Lawler, Longworth, 
Lytle, L'Hommedieu, NefF, Pendleton, Potter, Patter- 
son, Ringgold, Resor, Shillito, Spencer, Walker, Whet- 
stone, Wilshire, and Williams. 

At Carthage, six miles from the city, are the Hamil- 
ton County Fair-grounds. Here, in September of each 
year, the annual county fair is held. 

The Trotting Park, at which, in the spring and fall, 
are held the races, is about five miles from the city. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 37 

It may be reached either by railway or by convey- 
ance. 

Cincinnati can offer drives of unsurpassed beauty to 
its visitors. Of those on Spring Grove Avenue, down 
the river road, across the bridge and out toward La- 
tonia Springs, south of Covington — and last, but not 
least, out over Mount Auburn, on " the Fifth Avenue 
of Cincinnati," and through Clifton — the half can not 
be told. They must be seen to be appreciated. 

A grand avenue has been suggested that will com- 
pletely encircle the city, and afford a drive which will 
be really magnificent. The plan is to start at a point 
on the western bank of Millcreek, near the Warsaw 
pike; thence skirting the base of the hills due north 
to the Badgeley Eun road; thence sweeping around 
Spring Grove through the thickly-wooded lands of 
Judge Este ; thence on a line due east across the entire 
rear of the city to the Montgomery road ; thence further 
east to a point which would admit of a southern sweep 
into and through Pendleton and Columbia to the Xenia 
pike and into the city, thus comj)leting the contemplated 
circle. 

This avenue would intersect the Badgeley Eun road, 
Hamilton road. Spring Grove Avenue, the Winton road, 
Carthage pike, Eeading road, and Montgomery road, 
thus affording a drive of five, ten, or twenty miles, as 
inclination might prompt. Most of the drives which 



38 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

be in the midst, as it were, of a continuous park, so 
beautiful is the forest along parts of the line. 

There will now be given descriptions of the principal 
buildings and points of interest, 

CINCINNATI HOSPITAL. 

This imposing structure cost nearly a million dollars, 
and was opened to the public in January, 1869. It 
stands upon a large block of ground north of Twelfth 
Street, between Central Avenue and Plum Street. 

The structure, in point of beauty, solidity, and con- 
venience, has not an equal in the country. It stands in 
a sort of hollow block or square, in the center of which 
has been placed a large fountain, which, during the hot 
days of summer, gently throws up many streams of 
fresh, cool water, moistening the atmosphere and re- 
freshing the shrubs and flowers. This ground will be 
ornamented with shade trees, shrubbery, and flowers. 
The main entrance is on Twelfth Street, about midway 
between Central Avenue and Plum Street. The dimen- 
sions of this central part are as follows: seventy-five 
feet wide by fifty feet deep, supporting a main entrance, 
with a spacious hall directly through the middle. 
Upon the first floor of this block the Superintendent 
and family have their apartments; and ajipropriate 
apartments, such as an apothecary room and dispensary, 
pathological museum, reception rooms, and a library 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 39 

for the resident physician, are arranged. The base- 
ment has convenient rooms for storage purposes, and 
for the examination of drugs. There is also a labora- 
tory, laundry, and drying chamber, bathing rooms, cel- 
lars, and other places of a similar character. 

The second story is devoted to the accommodation of 
officers for sleeping rooms, and a few private wards are 
on this floor for patients who wish to have extra care, 
and are able to pay for it. 

The third story contains a large room that is intended 
for the operating lecture room, with seats for the ac- 
commodation of some seven hundred and fifty students. 
In addition to this lecture room, there are apartments 
expressly adapted for patients both before and after 
operation, rooms for operators and their instruments, 
lavatory and bath room. 

The structure is of brick, with freestone finishings. 
A Mansard roof, in slate of variegated colors, extends 
the entire length. One section is surmounted by a 
dome and spire one hundred and ten feet high. The 
accompanying engraving will present an excellent view. 
No more complete or extensive building of its kind 
exists anywhere. The grounds are 448 by 340 feet. 

CINCINNATI COLLEGE EDIFICE. 

This edifice, on Walnut Street, between Fourth and 
Fifth, is one hundred and forty feet front by one hun- 



40 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

dred deep, and is built of white limestone, in the Doric 
style. It is occupied in part by the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Young Men's Mercantile Library, and the 
Law School of Cincinnati. The hall of the Chamber 
of Commerce is one hundred and thirty-six by fifty feet. 
This building belongs to the endowment of the Cincin- 
nati College, and the income annually accruing from 
it is swelling a fund, which, at no distant day, will 
contribute to erect a grand free university. 

THE FACULTY OF THE LAW SCHOOL 

are Bellamy Storer, LL. D., Professor of Legal Rights, 
including Real Estate, the Domestic Relations, and 
Pleadings and Practice; George Hoadly, Professor of 
Equity Jurisprudence ; J. D. Cox, Professor of Com- 
mercial Law and Evidence. 

THE COUNTY COURT-HOUSE, 

on Main Street, north of Ninth, is a massive struct- 
ure, built of Dayton stone, costing at the time of its 
erection, before the era of high prices, $500,000. Im- 
mediately in the rear of it is the County Jail, with 
which there is subterranean connection. 

The opposite engraving of this magnificent edifice 
will give a better idea of it to the reader than any 





IIIll 

mill 

igiii 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 41 

description. Here is transacted the multitudinous busi- 
ness pertaining to the civil administration of Hamilton 
County. 

Here is the Law Library of the Cincinnati Bar, which 
is practically one of the best law libraries in the country, 
having been selected by practitioners with a view to the 
actual demands of practice. It contains the American, 
English, Irish, Canadian, and Nova Scotian Reports, 
and a large collection of American and English Statutes, 
besides the standard text-books. 

THE OHIO MECHANICS INSTITUTE 

is a substantial structure, on the corner of Sixth and 
Vine. It contains at present the rooms of the Public 
Library, and also is the temporary home of the Theo- 
logical and Religious Library. An engraving of it is 
presented. 

The Tower of the Fire Department is on this build- 
ing. Its lofty summit commands a bird's-eye view of 
the whole city. From its deep-toned bell the midnight 
alarm of fire wakes the city with its dreadful note. 

CHURCH EDIFICES. 

Among the more costly and elegant church edifices, 
may be mentioned Trinity Methodist Episcopal, on 
Ninth Street, west of Race; St. John's Episcopal, cor- 



42 THE CITY OF CINCINHrATI. 

ner of Plum and Seventh ; First Presbyterian, on 
Fourth Street, near Main, with a steeple two hundred 
|knd seventy feet high ; Central Presbyterian, corner 
of Mound and Barr Streets; St. Xavier's Catholic, on 
Sycamore Street, near Seventh ; and the Ninth Street 
Baptist, east of Race Street. The latter is considered 
to have the most tasteful audience room in the city. 
The congregation of Morris Chapel (Methodist) are 
engaged in the erection of an edifice which will, when 
completed, be the finest in Cincinnati. Their location 
is on the corner of Seventh and Smith Streets. 

There are one hundred and nineteen churches in 
Cincinnati, divided as follows among the various de- 
nominations: Baptists, eleven; Christian, one; Congre- 
gational, four ; Disciples of Christ, four ; Friends, two ; 
German Evangelical Union, four; German Reformed, 
three; Independent Methodist, one; Jewish Syna- 
gogues, five; Lutherans, three; Methodist Episcopal, 
sixteen; Methodist Episcopal, German, three; Meth- 
odist Protestant, three; Methodist Calvinistic, one; 
Methodist, colored, one ; New Jerusalem, one ; Presby- 
terians, Old School, six; Presbyterians, New School, 
six; Presbyterians, United, three; Presbyterians, Re- 
formed, three ; Protestant Episcopal, seven ; Roman 
Catholic, twenty-three; United Brethren in Christ, 
three; Universalist, one; Unitarian, three, Union Beth- 
el, one. 




OITY HI^LXj. 



lijj^-.'^NQPM^, - - 














tt^l 



: :H|I ^fijl'|lr|l!||| 



». W. Cor. Fourth & Race 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 43 

THE CITY HALL, 

with the beautiful grounds in front, occupies the square 
west of Plum Street, lying between Eighth and Ninth 
Streets. This is an attractive part of the city. The 
accompanying engraving will place it distinctly before 
the eye. It was built in 1853. All the city officers are 
here to be found. The sessions of the School Board, 
the City Council, and the Police Court attract to this 
edifice a multitude of people, whose conditions widely 
differ. Thus " the extremes" of humanity meet. 

THE CINCINNATI OBSERVATORY 

is situated near the eastern limits of the city, on Mount 
Adams, five hundred feet above low water, and has a 
commanding view of the city, the river, and the sur- 
rounding hills. It is furnished with a most perfect 
equatorial telescope, whose focal length is seventeen 
and one-half feet, with an object-glass twelve inches in 
diameter, which has magnifying powers ranging from 
one to fourteen hundred times. The corner-stone of 
this edifice was laid by the statesman and scholar, John 
Quincy Adams, in 1843, and the institution is insepa- 
rably associated with the memory of the astronomer and 
patriot, General O. M. Mitchel. 



44 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

THE CINCINNATI ORPHAN ASYLUM, THE HOUSE OF 
REFUGE, THE WIDOWS' HOME, AND HOME FOR 
THE FRIENDLESS 

are fully described in their respective places in tlie 
chapter upon the charities of Cincinnati. 

THE CUSTOM-HOUSE BUILDING, 

a view of Avhich is given, is an ornament to the city. 
It is on the south-west corner of Fourth and Vine 
Streets, and is the property of the United States. Here 
are the depository of government funds, the post-office, 
United States courts, and other offices pertaining to the 
general government. 

THE CARLISLE HOUSE, 

on the corner of Mound and Sixth Streets, is a hand- 
some structure. A hotel, upon the European plan, is 
here conducted in the best style. The apartments are 
spacious, and constructed purposely with a view to their 
present use. Few private dwellings excel this house in 
the tastefulness and elegance of its internal appoint- 
ments. 

CITY WORK-HOUSE. 

In 1866, a tract of twenty-six acres, near the House 
of Refuge, was purchased by the city, and in the suc- 
ceeding year work was commenced upon this magnifi- 
cent structure. It will be, when completed, the finest 



is " 





3ycoz-A.ie,T ia:.A.ijL. 



UK .®'', 



"Ti.,!iiW,:wftttte 




THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 45 

building of the kind in the United States. The edi- 
fice is five hundred and ten feet long, and will contain 
six hundred apartments. The work-shops will form a 
hollow square in the rear of the structure. The total 
cost will be nearly three-quarters of a million dollars. 
The accompanying engraving will give an idea of the 
edifice. The work will reflect great credit upon Robt. 
Allison, Esq., the Chairman of the Building Committee, 
and Messrs. Anderson & Hannaford, the architects. 

THE DAVIDSON FOUNTAIN. 

This magnificent work of art is soon to be erected 
upon Fifth Street, between Walnut and Vine. It re- 
ceives its name from its munificent projector, Tyler 
Davidson, who was long one of the merchant princes 
of Cincinnati. The execution and details of the proj- 
ect, at the death of Mr. Davidson, were left in the 
hands of Henry Probasco, Esq. The conditions im- 
posed upon the city in the gift were, briefly : That the 
fountain should always be kept in good order, with an 
abundance of pure water, and free for the use of all ; 
that the conduits should be kept supplied twelve hours 
of the day in summer, ten hours a day in the spring 
and fall, and six hours a day in winter, except when 
the mercury was below a freezing point ; that a com- 
petent person, detailed from the police, should always 
be kept near it to preserve its cleanliness, and to guard 



46 THE CITY OF CIKCINNATI. 

it from abuse; that the water should be used only 
for drinking and ornamental purposes, except in case 
of fire, in the immediate vicinity, and that to the donor 
and bis legal representatives should be reserved the 
right to hold the city responsible for the continued 
fulfillment of these conditions. 

The design of the fountain is beautiful, and it will 
stand an enduring monument to the liberality and 
taste of Messrs. Davidson and Probasco. The princi- 
pal figure will represent the Genius of Water, from 
whose hands falls the ever-flowing rain, which is caught 
by a peasant standing on the right, whose fields are 
thirsting for it. On the opposite side stands a citizen 
imploring water for his burning house. On the oppo- 
site side is the figure of a man, who, by a vigorous 
stroke, opens a spring for one on crutches who desires 
to drink. On the other side is a mother leading her 
child to the bath, invited by a nymph playing with 
the springing jets of water. Four jets, two from above 
and two from below, add life and Variety to the scene. 
Near the base are four bos reliefs, representing the 
utility of water, viz., navigation, mills, fisheries, and 
steam. 

On four corners are figures of children suggesting 
the enjoyments connected with water, viz., a girl 
adorning herself with pearls, a boy fishing for shells, 
a second fitting on skates, and a third finding corals 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 47 

and crystals. Near the top of the fountain, or just 
under the main figure, will be placed a medallion of 
Tyler Davidson. The water coming from the leaves 
of the shell is to be used as a fresh drinking water by 
a separate conduit pipe. The four upper jets belong 
only to the decoration, and are not intended for prac- 
tical use. The whole fountain will be of bronze, the 
base and its surroundings of granite and porphyry, and 
the railings or protection of the foundation will be either 
of wrought-iron or Dayton stone. 

The entire height of the structure from the street to 
the crown of the topmost figure (itself seven feet) will 
be thirty-two feet and a half. 

The entire cost of the fountain will not fall far short 
of $100,000. When completed it will be the finest af- 
fair of the kind in the United States, and not inferior 
to any in Europe. 

THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 

The avenues have been surveyed, and a force em- 
ployed to grade the same. The work has since been 
steadily prosecuted, and the avenues now graded wind 
along the hill-side, surrounding the reservoir, until, 
almost imperceptibly, you are brought to the highest 
elevation, where numerous points present themselves, 
from which magnificent views of the lake-like reservoir 
can be seen, as well as a grand and majestic view of 



48 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

the Oliio Eiver, with the picturesque hills of Kentucky 
in the distance. 

The whole tract now controlled by the city embraces 
one hundred and sixty acres. The intention is ulti- 
mately to convert it into a great city park, in which 
shall be a new and capacious reservoir. For this it is 
admirably adapted. The grounds are all within the 
city limits, and, when opened, can be reached in fif- 
teen minutes from the corner of Fourth and Vine. 

It may be remarked that no sites hitherto spoken of 
compare with this in point of eligibility and suscepti- 
bility of improvement. The great advantages of the 
Garden of Eden can be realized only by those who 
visit and explore it. 

The views from some of the avenues can not be sur- 
passed in point of grandeur and sublime effect. Nature 
has left very little to be done by the landscape gardener. 
The center of the ground is so undulating and diversi- 
fied that ample scope will be found by the landscape 
engineer to add to the natural interest by here and 
there constructing an artificial bridge where the wind- 
ings of the path make it necessary to cross some deep 
gully or murmuring stream; by the erection of grot- 
toes and artificial rock-work, and other devices calcu- 
lated to please the visitor. Several fine lakes can be 
made, with little expense, by making earth-work dams 
across one or more ravines, arranging them at difierent 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 49 

elevations, thus making the lake at the highest point 
supply those below it. Beautiful cascades will be thus 
formed, presenting charming views from the avenues 
along either bank. And these lakes, so graceful and 
beautiful in the summer, will be no less beautiful in 
the winter, when their icy surfaces shall ring with the 
steel-clad shoes of the skaters. 

The work on the new reservoir was commenced in 
1867, and already sewers have been constructed, and 
the greater portion of the underground work and foun- 
dations has been done. 

ACROSS THE RHINE. 

The manufacture of lager beer employs an immense 
capital in this city. Its consumjotion is annually on 
the increase. The product in Cincinnati amounts to 
many millions of gallons annually. 

Lager beer can be made to advantage only in the 
winter season. It is indispensable that it have ample 
time to ripen in the cellar before use. There are many 
immense cellars, in some of which five hundred thou- 
sand gallons of beer can be stowed away. One phase 
of German life, and one not uninteresting, can be seen 
only in the gardens where lager beer is dispensed in 
the summer season. Many of them are thronged dur- 
ing the warm evenings. 



50 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 



GYMNASIUM BUILDING. 

Promiuent among the many handsome fronts on Fourth 
Street is that occupied by the Gymnasium. This asso- 
ciation was organized in 1853, and a successful career 
encouraged it to attempt the splendid improvements here 
referred to, which were entered March 12, 1869. 

The ExERCisrNG Eoom. — This magnificent hall is 
about one hundred and twenty feet in length, forty-five 
feet wide, and thirty feet high, making one of the most 
spacious apartments for the purpose which could have 
been selected. Lining the walls, are some two hundred 
and twenty-five closets, neatly constructed, for the safe 
keeping of the apparel of the members during their 
exercises. At the further end of the hall are dressing- 
rooms, where the street attire may be changed for the 
more convenient habit of the g>-mnast. The arrange- 
ments of the apparatus in this vast room are all that 
can be desired for bringing into action and fully de- 
veloping every muscle of the body. For evening ex- 
ercises this hall is lighted from the ceiling by a system 
of suspended reflectors of immense size, which throw a 
mellow and softened light over the whole room, avoid- 
ing shadows, which side-lights sometimes cause. This 
experiment has resulted in a grand success, not only 
removing one of the chief causes of accidents, and ef- 
fecting a pleasing illumination, but attaining, withal, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 51 

an economy in the consumption of gas, wliicli is of no 
minor importance. The ap^Dointments in other partic- 
ulars are in keeping with those already mentioned. 
The beautiful marble drinking fountain, and the wash- 
room, finished in the highest style of the plumber's art, 
are noteworthy. 

Eeading Eoom. — After the fatigue of an hour in the 
exercising room, there is a charming retreat for a quiet 
few moments in glancing over the papers and periodic- 
als, of which there is an abundant supply, suited to all 
tastes; or, if reading be irksome, chess and checkers 
are at hand, and may be indulged in. The reading 
room is finished in green. The carpet is a beautiful 
Brussels, is of excellent quality, and in its selection 
exhibits again that marked taste which the Committee 
has shown throughout. The furniture is handsome, 
and about the whole there is an attractive and comfort- 
able appearance. 

Bath Room. — The bath room is about fifty-five feet 
long by seventeen wide, and contains a large number 
of closets. The baths are of iron, and of the most ap- 
proved pattern. These, as well as the platforms, are 
raised to prevent the accumulation of dirt, and to secure 
an easy access to any part in scrubbing. The painting 
is most beautiful and tasteful, the colors blending har- 
moniously. The most happy efiect is arrived at. The 
toilet, the mirrors, and various accommodations are of 



52 THE CITY or CINCINNATI. 

the most excellent kind. Warm and cold water is sup- 
plied, with showers, etc. The heating apparatus is a 
conical furnace, capable of heating a large boiler, con- 
taining some fifty barrels of water, in twenty minutes. 
In every respect, this important department is perfect. 

The Young Men's Gymnastic Association numbers 
now over twelve hundred members, which will undoubt- 
edly be largely increased. The officers are: A. P. C. 
Bonte, President ; J. B. Resor, Vice-President ; L. Nor- 
ton, Secretary; William Resor, Jr., Treasurer. The 
Directors are Howard Barney and A. W. Whelpley. 

HUGHES HIGH SCHOOL. 

This is an imposing edifice, in the collegiate Gothic 
style of architecture. It is on the south side of Fifth 
Street, facing Mound Street, whose southern termina- 
tion is immediately opposite. The octagon towers at 
the corner give the building a striking and novel effect. 
No expense was spared to make it one of the most 
perfect of its kind. The internal arrangements are 
admirably adapted to the requisites of a school of the 
highest order. 

LANE SEMINARY, 

at Walnut Hills, is described in a subsequent part of 
this volume. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 53 

WOODWARD HIGH SCHOOL, 

on Franklin Street, between Sycamore and Broadway, 
is an institution well worth visiting. Under the care 
of Professor George W. Harper, who has been for some 
years the Principal, this school has not only retained, 
but enhanced its ancient reputation. 

THE JEWISH TEMPLE, 

on the corner of Plum and Eighth Streets, is a point 
of great interest to visitors. Its style of architecture is 
peculiar and costly, and its internal appointments splen- 
did in detail. The building, as is the case with all 
similar structures, faces to the west, in conformity to 
Hebrew custom. Religious services are held here every 
Saturday morning, at 10 o'clock. 

KEPPLER'S. 

This edifice, owned by Keppler & Brother, is one of 
the finest in Cincinnati. It is an elegant freestone front 
thirty-eight by one hundred and thirty feet. Their ele- 
gant saloon, elaborately furnished, is one of the chief 
attractions of the city. Here a substantial meal, or lighter 
refreshments, can be obtained, served up in the best 
style. Special eiforts are made to provide for the en- 
tertainment of ladies. A visit to this will repay any 
one. It is one of the fashionable resorts. 



54 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

LINCOLN PARK, 

on the west side of Freeman, near Clark, is a beautiful 
pleasure ground. It is handsomely laid out, and needs 
only time to develop into a spot of remarkable attrac- 
tions. 

THE CITY PARK 

is on Plum Street north of Eighth. 

HOPKINS PARK 

is on the corner of Mt. Auburn Avenue and Saunders 
Street. 

WASHINGTON PARK, 

on the north side of Twelfth, between Eace and Elm, 
is the oldest of the public pleasure grounds. It was 
formerly the Presbyterian burying-ground of the city. 
Its noble trees, beautiful lawns, fountain, and other 
beauties, are much enjoyed by the multitudes who fre- 
quent it. 

LONGVIEW ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE 

is situated near Carthage, about six miles from the 
city. It is a magnificent structure, and attracts the 
notice of every passenger upon the railways entering 
the city by the Millcreek valley. The imposing front 
of this ediiice and its extent strike the attention of all. 
The internal arrangements are admirable, and all its 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 55 

appointments constitute it one of the most perfect in- 
stitutions of the kind in the country. Dr. 0. M. Lang- 
don is the efficient Superintendent and Kesident Physi- 
cian, and visitors receive at his hands the utmost 
courtesy and attention. 

This is a State institution, and is controlled by a 
Board of Commissioners appointed by the Governor of 
the State. 

The edifice is built of brick, and is six hundred and 
twelve feet long. It is almost fire-proof. The stairways 
are of iron, and the Hoors are laid in cement. There 
is an abundant supply of water, and numerous inde- 
pendent means of egress in all parts of the house, thus 
lessening the danger of loss of life in case of fire. The 
upper stories of the wings are devoted mostly to con- 
valescents, and contain the amusement and reading 
rooms, which are well furnished. The building is lighted 
by gas manufactured on the premises, and is heated 
partly by hot air and partly by steam. There are over 
six hundred apartments in the Asylum. It was com- 
pleted in 1860, and cost, in the low prices of that pe- 
riod, nearly half a million of dollars. 

Its architect was Isaiah Rogers. Extensive pleasure 
grounds are well cared for, with a view to the exercise 
and recreation of inmates. In 1868, 149 patients were 
admitted — 79 males, 70 females. The average number, 
430. Expenses for the year, $110,501.21. 



56 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

LONGWORTH'S WINE CELLAR. 

Of this Mr. Parton says : " One of the established li- 
ons of the city ; it cheers the thirsty soul of man. There 
Ave had the pleasure of seeing, by a candle's flickering 
light, two hundred thousand bottles of wine, and of 
walking along subterranean streets lined with huge 
tuns, each of them large enough to house a married 
Diogenes, or to drown a dozen Dukes of Clarence, and 
some of them containing five thousand gallons of the 
still unvexed Catawba. It was there that we made the 
acquaintance of the ' Golden Wedding ' champagne, an 
acquaintance which, we trust, will ripen into an en- 
during friendship. If there is any better wine than 
this attainable in the present state of existence, it 
ought, in consideration of human weakness, to be all 
poured into the briny deep." 

MARINE HOSPITAL. 

This is a substantial, solidly-built edifice, one hun- 
dred feet square, on the corner of Lock and Sixth 
Streets. The building is thoroughly fire-proof, and has 
every facility for the comfort and welfare of its inmates. 
Ample verandas extend along the front and sides. 

THE MASONIC TEMPLE, 

on the north-east corner of Third and Walnut, deserves 
special attention. It is in the Byzantine style of archi- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 57 

tecture, and fronts one hundred and ninety-five feet on 
Third Street by one hundred on Walnut. It is one of 
the most magnificent edifices of its kind in the United 
States. 

In the third story are a Chapter Eoom, Eoyal Select 
council room, Banquet Hall, twenty-one by fifty-eight 
feet, a Knights Templar's Encampment asylum, and 
many other apartments. A part of the fourth story is 
devoted to a Grand Lodge room, forty-three by seventy 
feet. 

MOZART HALL, 

on the corner of Vine and Longworth Streets, is a 
massive stone building, with an auditorium that will 
seat three thousand persons. 

THE OHIO MEDICAL COLLEGE, 

on Sixth Street, west of Vine, is admirably adapted to 
the uses for which it was built. It contains two large 
lecture halls, with extensive apartments for museums, 
dissection rooms, etc. 

PIKE'S OPERA-HOUSE, 

on Fourth Street, between Vine and Walnut, is a mag- 
nificent structure. The original opera-house was totally 
destroyed by fire, in March, 1866. The present edifice 
reproduces the front of the first building, but the internal 
arrangement is completely changed. It contains one of 



58 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

the most beautiful music halls in the United States. 
The front is of fine sandstone, wrought in the architec- 
tural style of the Elizabethan age, with elaborate em- 
blems of the fine arts cut in relief. This block, with the 
adjoining buildings, extending from Walnut Street to 
Vine, makes one of the most imposing displays of 
architecture to be seen in any American city. 

THE PASSENGER DEPOTS 

of the Atlantic & Great Western, the Cincinnati, Ham- 
ilton, & Dayton, and the Indianapolis, Cincinnati, & 
Lafayette Eailways are model specimens of architecture. 
The first is between Fifth and Sixth Streets, on Hoadly 
Street. The last mentioned is entered on Plum Street, 
below Third. 

QUEEN CITY SKATING RINK, 

on Freeman Street, between Laurel and Betts, is a 
lively place in the winter ; and at all seasons is a point 
of attraction for amusement seekers. 

THE UNION SKATING POND 

is west of Lincoln Park, and is the scene of hilarious 
gayety when Jack Frost is abroad in earnest. In the 
milder seasons this is the chief point of interest for the 
devotees of base ball. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 59 

ST. PAUL'S METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

This edifice, which, is now in process of erection upon 
the corner of Seventh and Smith Streets, will be an or- 
nament to the city. The audience room, with the gal- 
leries, will accommodate fifteen hundred persons. 

ST. XAVIER'S COLLEGE, 

on the corner of Sycamore and Seventh Streets, is one 
of the noticeable buildings of Cincinnati. It fronts 
sixty-six feet on Sycamore Street, and one hundred and 
sixty-six- feet on Seventh Street. The institution was 
established in 1828, and about ten years afterward it 
passed into the control of the Society of Jesus, under 
the auspices of which the present structure was erected. 
Over the entrance is carved the motto, "Ad majorem 
Dei Gloriam." The impression conveyed by this edi- 
fice is that of massive grandeur and strength, and a 
durability measured only by time itself. 

ST. PETER'S CATHEDRAL. 

Among church edifices, the most imposing is St. Peter's 
(Roman Catholic) Cathedral, which is one of the finest 
buildings in the West. It is built of white limestone, 
with a stone spire of remarkable symmetry and beauty, 
two hundred and fifty feet high, resting on a colonnade 



60 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

of Corinthian columns. It was completed in 1853, 
about eleven years after its commencement. Here are 
to be witnessed all the imposing ceremonials of the 
Catholic ritual service. The music of the choir and 
splendid organ attracts many visitors. 

RAILROAD BRIDGE. 

The projected bridge across the Ohio, between But- 
ler Street, in this city, and Saratoga Street, in Newport, 
will be completed in 1870. It wiU furnish transit for 
railway trains, vehicles, and foot passengers. 

The structure will be of wrought iron, timber being 
used only in the flooring. There will be eight piers 
and seven spans. 

The following are the oflicers of the Newport and 
Cincinnati Bridge Company : President, Alfred Gaither ; 
Vice-President, A. S. Berry; Secretary, Charles H. 
Kilgour. 

Directors : M. J. King, Wm. Eingo, W. H. Clement, 
T. G. Gaylord. 

SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

This grand achievement of engineering skill is else- 
where described. Its execution was due to the genius 
of John A. Eoebling, Esq. Its entire cost was about 
two million dollars. The entire length is nearly half 
a mile. The span is the longest in tbe world. The 



60 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

of Corintliian columns. It was completed in 1853, 
about eleven years after its commencement. Here are 
to be witnessed all the imposing ceremonials of the 
Catholic ritual service. The music of the choir and 
splendid organ attracts many visitors. 

RAILROAD BRIDGE. 

The projected bridge across the Ohio, between But- 
ler Street, in this city, and Saratoga Street, in Newport, 
will be completed in 1870. It will furnish transit for 
railway trains, vehicles, and foot passengers. 

The structure will be of wrought iron, timber being 
used only in the flooring. There will be eight piers 
and seven spans. 

The following are the officers of the Newport and 
Cincinnati Bridge Company : President, Alfred Gaither ; 
Vice-President, A. S. Berry; Secretary, Charles H. 
Kilgour. 

Directors : M. J. King, Wm. Eingo, W. H. Clement, 
T. G. Gaylord. 

SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

This grand achievement of engineering skill is else- 
where described. Its execution was due to the genius 
of John A. Eoebling, Esq. Its entire cost was about 
two million dollars. The entire length is nearly half 
a mile. The span is the longest in the world. The 




I 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 61 

rate of toll for foot passengers is three cents; for a 
horse and carriage, fifteen cents. 

SCIENCE AND BACON. 

The visitor to Cincinnati in the winter season will 
be interested in the various processes of pork-packing. 
It is quite a sight to witness the rapid disposition of 
the huge animal at the hands of skilled workmen. The 
following description is given of the process after the 
slaughtered hog is delivered on the cutting-table : " Two 
simultaneous blows with a cleaver sever his head and 
his hind-quarters from the trunk, and the subdivision 
of these is accomplished by three or four masterly 
cuts with the same instrument. Near the table are the 
open mouths of as many large wooden pipes as there 
are kinds of pieces in a hog ; and these lead to the 
various apartments below, where the several pieces are 
to be further dealt with. Away they start on their 
journey, and thus in twenty seconds the six hundred 
pounder has been cut to pieces and duly distributed." 
The pork business of Cincinnati is enormous, and is 
the source of great wealth. 

TOUR TO THE MAMMOTH CAVE. 

A brief allusion to the Mammoth Cave may not be 
out of place here. No tourist to the West should fail of 
visiting this wonder of the world. It is situated in Ed- 



62 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

inondson County, Kentucky, ninety miles south of Louis- 
ville. A stage ride of ten miles from Cave City, which is 
nine hours' ride from Cincinnati, on the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad, brings one to the Mammoth Cave. 
It is within half a mile of Green River. The cave is 
dry and exceedingly conducive to health. The most 
timid need not fear to enter it. It is visited by many 
invalids for the purpose of inhaling its air. The uni- 
form temperature in the cave the year round is 59°. It 
has been explored ten miles in an advancing line, and 
probably over fifty miles, including the lateral branches 
of its avenues. 

So bracing is the air and exciting the novelty of the 
trip, that even ladies accomplish the eighteen miles 
without fatigue. 

No description can do justice to the beauty and 
grandeur of this most wonderful cavern of the globe, 
with its avenues, domes, cataracts, rivers, immense 
chambers, and beautiful calcareous formations. 

WATER WORKS, 

on East Front Street, near Little Miami Depot. Few 
persons who have not visited these works have a cor- 
rect idea of their magnitude. The capacity of the pres- 
ent reservoir is five millions of gallons. The quantity 
required for the city daily is about eight millions. Thus, 
it will be seen that the supply has to be replenished 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 63 

nearly twice each day. To furnish this the ponderous 
engine is but leisurely at work, its pumping capacity 
being eighteen millions of gallons each twenty-four 
hours. A clearer idea of the immense power of this 
machinery may be obtained by reflecting that, at each 
revolution, it lifts two thousand gallons of water, making, 
at present speed, six thousand gallons per minute, while 
it has the capacity of lifting sixteen thousand gallons. 

CINCINNATI WESLEYAN FEMALE COLLEGE. 

From "The Ladies' Repository" are taken the follow- 
ing items relative to this noble institution. It is located 
on Wesley Avenue, between Court and Clark Streets : 

The foundations of the College were laid in the sum- 
mer of 1867, and on the 26th of September an immense 
congregation assembled on the grounds to witness the 
laying of the corner-stone, and the dedication of the 
new grounds and uprising buildings. 

No description could give a better idea of the ele- 
gant, commodious, and durable structure than is given 
by the engraving. Its internal arrangements and finish 
are in keeping with its external appearance, and in its 
adaptations to all the purposes of a female college, both 
for the residence and for the instruction of the pupils 
it would be difficult to conceive any thing more perfect. 
It is claimed that the Wesleyan Female College, of 



64 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Cincinnati, was the first institution in tlie land, for fe- 
males, bearing the high privileges conferred by a college 
charter. Among its founders were Bishop Morris, L. L. 
Hamline, Charles Elliott, J. L. Grover, G. C. Crum, 
W. H. Lawder, Adam Miller, William Nast, T. Harri- 
son, L. Swormstedt, J. P. Kilbreth, and "William Herr. 
They were wisely directed in the selection of a first Pres- 
ident. Eev. Perlee B, Wilber was chosen, and for sev- 
enteen years, with the assistance of his estimable and 
efficient wife, most energetically and successfully con- 
ducted the educational interests of the institution. But 
few teachers succeed in so thoroughly impressing them- 
selves upon the minds and hearts of their pupils as did 
Mr. Wilber. His name is yet fragrant among the Alum- 
nae, and his power and influence are yet felt in the des- 
tinies of the institution. 

In 1859, Mr. Wilber died, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Eobert Allyn, D. D. He was followed by Eev. E. S. Eust, 
D. D., who for three years energetically, and with in- 
creasing patronage and prosperity, conducted the insti- 
tution till it became necessary to retire from the old 
college buildings, and to suspend the school till the 
erection of the new college. 

YELLOW SPRINGS 

may deserve a mention here. It is seventy-four miles 
north-east of Cincinnati, and is thus easily accessible by 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 65 

rail. Here is located Antioch College, which is in- 
timately associated with the memory of Horace Mann. 
Adjoining the college plat, on the east, is a highly 
romantic and pictnresque ravine, affording all the scenic 
variety of overhanging cliffs, waterfalls, isolated rocks, 
and numerous gushing springs, deeply embowered, and 
climbing vines, and clustering evergreens, threaded with 
varied walks, and inviting to their cooling shade. Yel- 
low Spring is about half a mile north-east of the col- 
lege. It discharges from a crevice in a limestone rock 
over one hundred gallons of water per minute. 

In the neighborhood is an enchanting spot called 
Clifton, which affords some of the most beautiful scen- 
ery in the West. Here the Little Miami River, in the 
course of a few miles, falls two hundred feet. These 
falls have cut a narrow channel, to a great depth, 
through solid rocks of limestone. The banks are cov- 
ered with hemlock, cedar, and other evergreens. 

There are excellent hotels at Yellow Springs, and, in 
the summer season, no place in the country is more 
worthy of a visit. The Neff House is well known. 

PALACES OF TRADE. 

A tour among the notable places of the city will com- 
prise the magnificent retail stores of Cincinnati. These 
are, with some exceptions, on Fourth Street, west of 
Main. Shillito's, Hopkins', DeLand's, Boutillier's, 



66 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Lewis & Livingston's, and Wilson's establishments will 
display a profusion of fabrics which are the peculiar 
delight of womankind. The rich treasures of art will 
meet the eye at Bonte's and Wiswell's, where can always 
be seen productions of Cincinnati artists, who have a 
national reputation. At McGrew's, Duhme's, Smith's, 
and Owen's, are ranged in all their tempting beauty and 
costly array, the fascinations of the jeweler's art. 

Leininger & Buhr, and the St. Nicholas, are ever 
ready to cater to the appetite of the hungry tourist. 

The principal carriage stand is on Vine Street, south 
of Fourth. The banks of the city open at nine o'clock 
and close at three. At the end of this volume will be 
found the routes of horse-cars and other information of 
use to the stranger. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Cincinnati and its Future ; its Growth, Industry, 
Commerce, and Education. 

?k!^1?'ATUKE has given Cincinnati a situation which is 
(^l* at once beautiful and attractive. If one should 
in imagination go back eighty years, and stand on 
the site of old Fort Washington, he would see the Ohio 
flowing gently through an amphitheater surrounded by 
hills. This amphitheater is a broad, expanded plain, 
which the Ohio enters on the north-east and passes out 
on the south-west. This natural plain is about twelve 
miles in circumference, and is almost exactly bisected 
by the river. Looking up from this plain, the hills 
seemed to bound the horizon on every side ; but they 
are only apparently hills — hills really to the plain be- 
low, from which they rise rather abruptly, but, in fact, 
only on the level with the great interior plain which 
descends from the lakes of the North to the Valley of 
the Ohio. This great interior plain is cut through by 
the river; and this is a great advantage to Cincinnati, 
for on every side there are interior valleys which make 
the outlets of its internal line of commerce. Opposite 



68 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

is the mouth of the Licking ; on the sides are the two 
Miamis ; on the south of the present city is Millcreek ; 
through a ravine at the north runs Deer Creek; and 
thus the circling hills were pierced by nature, as if for 
the very purpose of opening out those lines of commerce 
which were to make the arteries of a great inland city, 
and which, as they interlocked to the north, made nu- 
merous summits and vales — the future sites of palaces 
and gardens. Looking from the plain at the suri-ound- 
ing hills, they present none of the gloomy or rugged 
aspects of Alpine grandeur ; on the contrary, they are 
soft, and beautiful, and picturesque. Nature presented 
neither the sublime nor the monotonous, but formed the 
gentle and diversified hills to represent the temperate 
clime, the genial soil, and the well-watered land of this 
bright and fruitful region. At the time we spoke of, 
the flag of Fort Washington was floating gracefully in 
the western breeze, but all around were the native for- 
ests. An old Indian chief said that he had often looked 
down from the eastern hill (where the Observatory now 
is) to see what the white people were doing in the fort. 
Soon the red man cast his last look upon the Ohio; 
the fort, the Indian, and the forest disappeared to- 
gether; civilization came with its burning force, de- 
stroying the natural face of creation, but instituting 
new features and elements, growing by the vigor of 
new forces, and presenting new forms of beauty. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 6& 

We shall uot trace the history of Cincinnati, but pro- 
ceed to inquire what right it had to be a great city — 
what its growth has been— and what prospects it has 
in the future. Wliy did Cincinnati grow so rapidly? 
what are its elements of growth? and why should it 
not grow with renewed vigor ? These questions involve 
an analysis of what the city is, and what it may be — an 
analysis which may be useful to both the citizen and 
the coming immigrant. 

1. The first element in the success of Cincinnati which 
is permanent, and, without a revolution in nature, must 
forever continue, is its position. Perhaps no city was 
ever more fortunate in this particular. Cincinnati is 
central to the Ohio Valley. From the junction of the 
Monongahela with the Alleghany (which is the real 
Ohio) to the Mississippi is nine hundred and sixty miles. 
From Lake Erie to the sources of the Kanawha and the 
Tennessee (in Virginia and North Carolina) is five hun- 
dred miles. The average breadth of the valley is three 
hundred miles. Taking from this a strip on the lakes, 
and the district immediately round Pittsburgh and 
Wheeling, and there is remaining a country of two hun- 
dred thousand square miles in surface watered by the 
Ohio and its great tributaries, and fruitful with every 
product, of which Cincinnati is the geographical center, 
and to which all its products and resources must tend. 
It is thus by nature made a great central mart of trade 



70 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

and industry. Situated one thousand five hundred 
miles from the ocean, it is yet connected by navigable 
waters, not only with the ocean, but with that immense 
interior river coast, which runs interlacing the whole 
country from the Eocky Mountains to the Alleghanies. 
Vast as is this great region, if it had been like the 
steppes of Asia or the plains of Africa, Cincinnati 
might yet have failed of greatness, but the Valley of the 
Ohio is the very garden of nature. There is no need 
of recounting its resources ; for every traveler who de- 
scends the Ohio sees in the smiling vales and forest- 
crowned hills the evidences of great natural wealth. 
Nor need we recite how, in the bosom of the hills and 
under the saudstones of the valley, there lie those in- 
exhaustible beds of mineral riches which may employ 
the industry of men through future ages. The geolo- 
gist describes them, the miner digs them, and the cun- 
ning artificer in the work-shops of Cincinnati employs 
them in all the forms and purposes which civilized 
man demands. 

We may answer now the question, What right had 
Cincinnati to be a great city ? It was like the right of 
man to use his faculties. God gave to this position 
and these resources not only the right, but the neces- 
sity of creating a city which must be one of great 
magnitude and power. It is true, this city might have 
been a few miles above or below its present site, but 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 71 

even that is doubtful ; for it was attempted to found 
the city at both Columbia and North Bend, but the 
attempts failed ; and the city seems to have been built 
here almost by a decree of Providence. At any rate, so 
far. Providence has favored both the sagacity and the in- 
dustry which have here raised up the Queen of the West. 
Such were the advantages of Cincinnati by its natural 
position and resources, and we shall now see how it 
grew, and what is its present magnitude and strength. 
Here the first element is its growth in population. How- 
ever great the riches of nature, it is Man which brings 
them out and makes them useful. To Man, then, we 
must look as the artificer of cities. The growth of Cin- 
cinnati was for many years extraordinary, but in the 
last ten years has been slower. The same temjiorary 
lull in activity and growth has happened to all cities at 
the same jDcriod in city life. It hapi)ened to New York 
and to Philadelphia, and, of itself, means nothing, but 
the very obvious fact that in cities, as in men, the vigor 
of youth can not always be kept up at the same rate. 
But the great question is, whether, like New York and 
other great cities of the world, its vigor shall revive 
after this period, and its growth be continued in pro- 
portion to the extent and resources of the magnificent 
country of which it is the center? That question we 
shall consider; but, first, we must see what its growth 
has been, and what it is. 



72 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

The growth of population may be shown in two 
simple tables — one its actual growth, and the other its 
growth compared with other cities : 

In 1810, 2,320 

lu 1820, 9,602 

In 1826, 16,230 

In 1830 24,831 

In 1810, 46,382 Increase, 85 per cent. 

In 1850, 115,436 " 150 " 

In 1860, 161,044 " 39.51 " 

In 1809, 230,000 " 43 " 

In the last line is included the northern suburb, 
which is now as much a part of the city as any ward in 
it. The population, by the census of 1870, will proba- 
bly show an increase of forty-five per cent., and be an 
increase in the preceding ratio. 

The following table will show the increase of New 
York and Philadelphia at the same period of their growth, 
beginning with one hundred thousand inhabitants; 
thus : 

New York. Philadelphia. 

In 1820, .... 123,706 In 1820 137,097 

In 1830, .... 202,581 In 1830 188,961 

In 1840, . . . .312,710 In 1840, 258,037 

It will be seen that from 1820 to 1830, New York in- 
creased sixty-three per cent., and from 1830 to 1840, but 
fifty-four per cent — but little more than the ratio of 
increase in Cincinnati since 1850. Philadelphia in- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 73 

creased, from 1820 to 1830, thirty-nine per cent., and 
from 1830 to 1840, but thirty-seven per cent. Thus, 
Philadelphia increased, at the same period of its growth, 
less than Cincinnati has in the last twenty years; yet 
New York has one million of inhabitants, and Phila- 
delphia has seven hundred thousand. This fact proves 
that great cities grow, not by sudden and temporary 
causes, but by the continual development of their 
natural resources. 

The original elements of population in Cincinnati 
were chiefly from New Jersey and Pennsylvania, a 
people remarkable for thrift and industry. A few families 
of Germans came out, and settled at an early period, 
and were among the best class of citizens. But the 
German immigration did not come in very strongly 
till 1830 ; but from that time till 1860, the German cur- 
rent has set toward this city with great force. The pro- 
poi'tion of this element to the whole population may 
be seen in the following table taken from the census : 

Citizens of German birth in 1830, .... 5 per cent. 

" " " " " 1840, .... 28 " " 

" " " " " 1850, .... 27 " " 

" " " " " 18G0, .... 30 " " 

It will be seen that the German citizens continue in 
nearly the same proportion, a little more than one-fourth 
the whole number. In 1860, there were one hundred 
and sixty-one thousand and forty-four persons within 



74 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

the city limits, and it may be curious to see in what 
manner, as to nationalities, they were composed. The 
proportions were as follows : 

Americans, 87,430, 54 per cent. 

Germans, 48,931, 30 " " 

Ireland 19,375, 12 " " 

All other foreigners, . . . 5,308, 4 " " 

Now, in 1869, the proportion of nationalities has not 
materially changed. The Germans are still next to the 
Americans in number and weight. Of native Ameri-* 
cans, three-fourths are natives of Ohio, showing that 
the native population is rapidly rising up, and the period 
is not remote when the population of Ohio will be nearly 
homogeneous. The children of Germans and Irish are 
born here, and soon outnumber the natives of Europe. 
It may be remarked, that one-fourth the whole foreign 
born population of Ohio is in Cincinnati ; showing that 
relatively much the larger proportion of foreign born 
people go into the towns. The reason of this is, that 
the rural population of Europe emigrate much less 
than the artisans and laborers, and the latter seek the 
towns for employment. The effect of this upon Cin- 
cinnati has been decided and favorable. The German 
population contains many mechanics and artisans whose 
skill and industry increase the thrift and wealth of the 
city. This brings us to another element of society, the 
OCCUPATION of people. The census of 1860, showed 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 75 

that there were in Cincinnati three hundred and 
FORTY (340) different occupations. Of these, two hundred 
and thirty were mechanic's, artisans, and manufacturers. 
This simple fact speaks volumes for the industry of the 
city, and shows the real foundation of its prosperity. 
Almost every conceivable human art is carried on here ; 
and this is a conclusive evidence of the great advan- 
tage to artisans and manufacturers, settling in Cincin- 
nati. For it is a settled principle, proved by much ex- 
perience, that it is a great help for all kinds of artisans 
to be where there is a great variety of arts carried on, 
because there are all the material and workmen which 
are necessary to aid and cany on every branch of arts or 
manufactures. Beyond doubt, this has been one reason 
why so many workmen and mechanics of all kinds have 
actually come to Cincinnati for the last twenty years. 

In this respect there has been both cause and effect, 
for an examination of the occupations in Cincinnati for 
the period between 1850 and 1860, shows that in ten 
years there was an actual increase oi fifty kinds of occu- 
pations which did not exist before. In 1860, there were 
twenty more occupations in Cincinnati than in Chi- 
cago, and fifty more than in the State of Indiana. The 
tendency of these facts is to make Cincinnati the great 
central market and distributor for the whole Valley of 
Ohio, and to make it what Paris is remarkable for, the 
great emporium of all kinds of arts needed, used, and dis- 



76 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

tributed throiigli a great empire. The United States is 
now of imperial dimensions ; but what the United States 
now is, the Ohio Valley alone will be in a few years. 

Having now glanced at the number, composition, and 
occupations of the people of Cincinnati, let us look 
at the products of their industry. In that must at 
last be found the sources of wealth and prosperity. 
A city does not feed itself. It must go outside of itself ■ 
to find bread, and therefore must have something to 
exchange for it, and what is above this constitutes its 
increasing wealth. What it exchanges for food must 
necessarily be the products of its industry. While the 
commissions on merchandise imported may be large 
and prdfitable, making many engaged in commercial 
business wealthy, the great body of the people can pros- 
per only by the results of industiy. This is true even 
of the City of New York, the most commercial city in 
the country. We have seen that Cincinnati is remark- 
able for the variety of its occupations and arts; let us 
see what they have produced. 

2. The second element of Cincinnati is its industry ; 
and the progress of industry, represented in money 
values, may be thus expressed : 

In 1840, value of products, 817,432,670 

In 1850, " " 50,000,000 

In 1860, " " 56,000,000 

In 1809, esUmated, 60,000,000 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 77 

These results are, no doubt, very imperfect, because 
all canvasses of the manufacturing elements of the 
country are imperfect, from the want of a proper skill 
and discrimination in taking them. But the above 
totals are sufficiently near for the purpose of comparison. 
If it be asked why there was so moderate an advance in 
the last few years on the production of 1850, it may be 
answered, that four or five years of war, by draining 
off able-bodied men, actually diminished the products 
of manufactures ; and it may be added, that for three 
or four years prior to the war, the continual agitation 
and ill-feeling had diminished the demand in the South- 
west for the products of Cincinnati. These causes have 
all ceased, and a new era is opening for the industry of 
this city. 

The main branches of productive industry in Cin- 
cinnati are very nearly as follows: 

Iron, of all kinds 85,500,000 

Furniture, of all kinds, 1,700,000 

Meats, of all kinds, 9,000,000 

Clothing, of all kinds, 4,500,000 

Liquors, of all kinds, 4,500,000 

Soap and Candles, 1,500,000 

Oils, Lards, Resins, etc., 3,000,000 

Mills, of all sorts, • . . 2,000,000 

These are only approximations, but are suflSciently 
near to show what are the great branches of manu- 



78 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

facturing industry in Cincinnati. The export of these 
products is mainly to the South and West, and, it is 
quite obvious, must increase in proportion as popula- 
tion is increased in those directions. The pacification 
of the country, the restoration of confidence, and the 
rapid extension of population, are all in favor of the 
manufacturing industry of Cincinnati. In the year 
1860, the relative industry of the Western cities was 
as follows, taking the counties in which they lie as the 
projier rule of comparison : 



Alleghany County (Pittsburgh), 
Cook County (Chicago), . . . 
St. Louis County (St. Louis), . 
Jefferson County (Louisville), 
Hamilton County (Cincinnati), 



826,563,379 
13,.55.5,671 
27,610,070 
14,135,517 
46,995,062 



It will be seen that, nine years ago, the products of 
industry in Cincinnati were several million dollars in 
value greater than those of Chicago and St. Louis put 
together, and greater than those of St. Louis and Lou- 
isville put together. No doubt, these proportions have 
considerably changed since 1860, Chicago having grown 
greatly, and Louisville being prosperous ; but it is plain 
that, as a manufacturing place, Cincinnati is much su- 
perior to any other W^estern city. It is also superior 
in manufactures to any city of the United States, ex- 
cept New York and Philadelphia. Perhaps no fact can 
better prove the great advantage of Cincinnati for arti- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 79 

sans and laborers ; for, unless this large class of citizens 
felt themselves well off and prosperous, no such advance 
in industry by so young a town could possibly be made ; 
and unless there were extensive and profitable markets for 
the products, the manufacturers could not sustain them- 
selves. But here, in this center of the Ohio Valley, there 
is cheap food, abundant material, and markets for the 
products, extending through the immense region from 
Central Ohio to Northern Alabama, and from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Eocky Mountains. It is not strange, 
therefore, that so many kinds of arts and manufactures 
should have risen up here, nor that they will continue 
to extend till this great and fertile region shall be filled 
with people, and its towns glow with the industry of 
untold millions. 

3. With industry comes commerce. Commerce is 
the creation of labor, for there must be something to 
exchange before any thing can be got. A city, how- 
ever, filled with arts and manufactures need not be con- 
fined to its own productions. On the contrary, what the 
country produces must come to the city for a market, and 
the country must there buy what it needs. The city, 
therefore, in addition to the actual production of its 
citizens and workmen, is also the exchange for the 
commerce of both producers and consumers. Cincin- 
nati is the great exchange for the whole Ohio Valley, 
and has grown as largely in commerce as it has in 



80 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

industry. The annual reports of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, compiled with great care, show this fact in vivid 
colors. The value of the principal articles of imports 
and exports for the period from 1854 to 1864, were : 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Total. 


In 1855, 


value of 867,095,741 


138,777,394 


$105,873,135 


In 1860, 


" " 103,347,216 


77,037,188 


180,384,406 


In 1864, 


" " 389,790,537 


239,079,825 


628,860,362 



The average value of gold in 1863-4 was 55 premi- 
um; so that the aggregate value of imports and ex- 
ports in that year when reduced to gold was $314,430,- 
181. The proportional value of 1855, 1860, and 1864, 
were represented, respectively, as 105, 180, and 314. 
Thus, in ten years the aggregate commerce of Cincin- 
nati has increased 200 per cent. This may have been 
exceeded in ratio by new and small towns, but no large 
city in the country increased at a greater rate in the 
same period of time. This rate of increase was three 
times that of population in the same period; and hence, 
as we shall presently see, an equal growth in the wealth 
and resources of the city. It proves, in fact, that the 
citizens of Cincinnati had in that time been prosperous, 
and increased largely in capital and in the profits of 
trade, as well as in numbers. From 1860 to 1865, the 
war actually reduced the commerce of Cincinnati in 
many things; but, on the other hand, a great deal of 
new business sprung up to supply this deficiency. The 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. iBl 

trade in tobacco increased tenfold; that in coal, salt, 
leather, and wood doubled ; in boots and shoes trebled, 
while the general trade in dry goods increased also. 
These facts proA^e, that so great were the resources of 
Cincinnati in the productive countiy around it, that 
even the depressing effects of the war on a border city — 
from which commerce on one side was nearly cut off — 
could not arrest its progress. In the whole loyal coun- 
try no town was as liable to damage, commercially, as 
Cincinnati. It was damaged by the war, but has since 
recovered rapidly, and its commerce has expanded 
with a natural and healthy vigor. If we inquire in 
what directions the trade of this city extends, we shall 
not be restricted to the mere commerce of the Ohio 
and the Mississippi, whose interior coasts extend tens 
of thousands of miles, but Ave find even its small prod- 
ucts passing over half the globe to reach the remote 
nations of Europe and of Asia. Its crackers have been 
exported to China and its candies to Greece. It is on 
the Atlantic coast where most of its vast exports of 
breadstuffs and provisions may be found. Its largest 
export trade has been Avith New Orleans, Memphis, and 
other Southern ports, Avhence its products are distributed 
through the entire South. By the Avay of Baltimore 
it finds access to the coasts of Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, Avhere the hams and the flour of the Miami Valley 
are consumed by thousands, wdth Avhom Cincinnati has. 
6 



82 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

as yet, no railroad connection. This fact is suggestive 
of what may be done hereafter to extend the direct 
commerce of Cincinnati to the whole Southern coast. 

The manufactured articles of Cincinnati go chiefly to 
the West and South-west ; in other words, to the new 
settlements, where furniture, stoves, candles, and articles 
necessary to the comfort of a household are chiefly 
needed. Among these articles is the home itself; for 
one of the curiosities of Cincinnati is the making and 
exportation of houses by wholesale for the new farms 
and towns of the great valley. Far down the Missis- 
sippi, over the plains of Kansas, and on the waters of the 
Missouri, the Cincinnati manufacturer has put up whole 
houses, every joint and floor of which have been sav/ed, 
planed, and grooved in Cincinnati. In the same 
regions, the mills, the plows, the machinery necessary 
to carry on agricultural life have been made in this 
city. Resources of industry and commerce like these 
can not be limited^ by competition, or exhausted in 
growth till, in some future age, the country shall 
be like China, filled with its hundreds of millions of 
people. 

4. If industry creates commerce, so commerce must 
be carried on by Lii^fES or inteecommtjnication with 
all parts of the country. Cincinnati was early to see 
the need of these. It is now forty years since the 
Miami Canal was made. At that time canals were all 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 83 

the' rage, and Ohio made more than four hundred 
miles of canal, and the benefits expected from them 
have been fully realized. Cities, towns, villages, and 
cultivation have sprung up in their course, and even 
now, with all the prodigious competition of railroads, 
the canals carry an immense amount of produce and 
merchandise. The Miami Canal, which was then only 
intended to reach Dayton, has since been extended to 
Toledo, and connects with the whole lake region. 

Soon after the completion of the canals, the farmers 
became intent on turnpikes ; for no sooner was a great 
and easy artery to the city made, than the necessity of 
turnpikes to communicate with it became evident. Cin- 
cinnati engaged heartily in it, and there is now no dis- 
trict of country better supplied with good roads than 
is the Miami Valley. The twelve counties composing 
the Valley have now one thousand five hundred miles 
of turnpike and plank roads, all of which tend directly 
or indirectly to this city. These, with the common 
farm roads, make more than six thousand miles of 
roads, by which the farm produce of this fertile region 
is carried off to its great markets. 

More than thirty years ago, when the Baltimore Eail- 
road had been completed to Frederick, the subject of 
railroads was agitated in Cincinnati, and promptly was 
the work begun. The Little Miami Eailroad was the 
first made, but was soon followed by the Hamilton and 



84 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Dayton, by the Indianapolis, by the Covington, and by 
the Ohio and Mississipjii, till now there is no city — and 
we speak advisedly — which has more or more extended 
railroad communications than Cincinnati. It is cus- 
tomary with Chicago, St. Louis, and Philadelphia to 
speak of their railroad lines which enter the city as 
theirs, although they may extend across half the con- 
tinent. In one sense this is correct, for if a railroad 
enter Cincinnati from the East, and another from the 
West, and both connect with other lines over the con- 
tinent, bringing freight and passengers from town to 
town, those lines may fairly be said to belong to that 
city as much as to any other. A line which connects 
Cincinnati with Chicago belongs as much to one as it 
does to the other ; and a line which goes directly to the 
Atlantic cities belongs as much to this city as to New 
York and Philadelphia. If this were the rule of cal- 
culation, Cincinnati, being entirely central, would have 
the advantage over either. But to give a correct and 
proper view of the railroad system of Cincinnati, we 
will give two tables of railroad distance, one bound by 
State lines, and the other of direct continuous lines 
centering here, and terminating in other large cities. 
The city of Cincinnati is central to three States — Ohio, 
Indiana, and Kentucky. There is no large city in either 
of them to compete with it except Louisville, which is not 
half its size, and competes but little with its commerce. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 85 

This being the case, we may very properly take the rail- 
roads of these States as being centralized at Cincinnati 
and connected rather with it than with any other place. 
The following table presents the number and the length 
of railroads in these three States, viz. : 

NO. MILES. 

Ohio, 36, 3,500 

Indiana, 14, 2,500 

Kentucky, 5, 700 



Railroads 55, 6,700 

Here are over six thousand miles of railroad in the 
three States, whose central city is Cincinnati. The two 
States of Ohio and Indiana have a mile of railroad to 
every fourteen square miles of surface, an amount which 
is not equaled on any equal surfece in the United 
States. When we consider the newness of the country, 
and the small amount of active capital compared with 
older States and countries, this is an extraordinary re- 
sult, and sufficient to show that Cincinnati has now in- 
ternal communications enough to drain every pound of 
surplus products in the region tributary to herself on 
the north side of the Ohio. But when we look south 
of the Ohio, we see comparatively a blank. The whole 
State of Kentucky has only about seven hundred miles 
of railroad, of which only two hundred are really tribu- 
tary to Cincinnati. In the one hundred thousand 



86 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

square miles of territory south of the Ohio, whose whole 
trade must hereafter come to this city, extending to the 
mountains of North Carolina, there are only five hun- 
dred miles of railroad, four-fifths of which does not 
touch Cincinnati, This is a region, too, rich in all the 
resources of nature, and it is perfectly certain that these 
resources must soon be developed by the energy of en- 
terprise and the power of capital. For half a century 
the idea, rather than the reality, of slavery (which ex- 
isted only to a small extent) prevented men and capital 
from going where that shadow continued to rest. But 
now it is gone, and nothing can prevent that flow of 
people and energy which heretofore went only West, 
but will now pass the Ohio, and develop the rich re- 
gions of the South. 

In order, however, to look at the railroad connections 
of Cincinnati in another j)oint of view, yet which con- 
nects it with other cities, we give a table of direct lines 

to them: 

Lines. Miles. 

To Baltimore, 2 840 

To Philadelphia, 1 668 

To New York, 2 1705 

To Toledo, 1 202 

To Chicago, 2 650 

To St. Louis, 2 717 

To Louisville 1 105 

To LexiDgton, 1 100 

12 4,987 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 87 

There are five thousand miles of railroad on the di- 
rect LINES to the principal cities, and which, with 
their lateral branches, will make an aggregate of at 
least seven thousand miles. To Baltimore the routes 
are by Wheeling and Parkersburg; to New York, by 
the Central and the Erie ; to St. Louis, by Vincennes 
and by Terre Haute. The direct railroad lines to each 
of these cities are respectively : 

Miles. 

To Baltimore, 506 

To Philadelphia, 668 

To New York, 764 

To Chicago, 294 

To St. Louis, 340 

To Louisville, 105 

It will be seen that the shortest line of railroad to 
tidewater is to Baltimore ; but the distance to Norfolk 
and Charleston, on the Atlantic, is no more than to 
Baltimore, while that city is one hundred and fifty 
miles from the ocean. It is apparent, therefore, that if 
a direct Southern line is made to either Norfolk or 
Charleston, it will command the Atlantic freight from 
Cincinnati to Europe. 

The summary of the facts above presented, in regard 
to the commercial intercommunication of Cincinnati, 
exhibits some extraordinary results in the narrow 
Valley of the Miami, all of which is tributary to Cin- 
cinnati. There are : 



88 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Mixes. 

Canals, 100 

Turnpikes, 1,600 

Common Roads, 4,500 

Railroads, 500 

In the three States tributary to this city, there are 
six thousand seven hundred miles of railroad, and in the 
direct lines centering in the city there are five thousand 
miles. We have not the means of comj^aring this ex- 
hibit with the best districts of Europe, but it exceeds 
any thing to be found in an equal space of this country. 
Chicago is probably the nearest ; but the three States of 
Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin have not yet exceeded 
Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky in railroads. All New 
England and New York do not exceed, in miles of rail- 
road, the three States which lie around Cincinnati. 
But we need not proceed with these comparisons. It 
is evident that the broad plains and fertile vales, the 
inexhaustible beds of iron and coal, and the now fast- 
accumulating capital of cities and towns, will cause and 
compel, in all time to come, the largest amount of in- 
tercommunication which can belong to any great com- 
mercial center. 

5. Where industry, commerce, fertile lands, and nu- 
merous lines of communication exist together, indi- 
vidual PROPERTY and AGGREGATE WEALTH mUSt grOW 

and accumulate. Let us, for a moment, see how Cin- 
cinnati stands in regard to wealth. The assessed values 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 89 

of property are never accurate, and always below the 
true values ; but these assessments serve very well for a 
comparison, and to show the growth of capital by the 
gradual accumulations of industry and commerce. The 
following table shows the valuations of property in 
Hamilton County (in which Cincinnati is) for a series 
of years : 

Value of all property in 1841, 810,760,494 

Value of all property in 1850, 55,670,631 

Value of all property in 1860, 119,.508,170 

Valueofallproperty in 1869, 166,945,497 

These statements are taken from the Annual Eeport 
of the Auditor of State, and are sufBciently accurate to 
show the progress of the city in wealth and capital. 
From 1850 to 1869, the value of property increased 
threefold, and, in the past nine years, thirty-two per 
cent. The main increase is in money, merchandise, 
banks, and manufactures. These have, in nine years, 
increased nearly forty millions of dollars. This proves 
that Cincinnati is now passing through the same change, 
in the kind and growth of its wealth, which New York 
and Philadelphia passed through at the same period of 
their growth. In the first period of building up a con- 
siderable city, all the accumulations of capital go into 
real estate and manufactures, so that there is a defi- 
ciency of commercial capital; but, after this, when 
cities become self-sustaining, commercial and banking 



90 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

capital is increased, and the valuations form a much 
larger proportion of money, merchandise, and stocks. 
This i^eriod, New York passed through thirty years 
ago, and Cincinnati is going through now. With the 
increase of capital, comes also more frequent sales of 
property, more loans, and more building. This may 
be seen in two lines, exhibiting the deeds made, the 
money loaned on property, and the new buildings in 
the years 1859 and 1867 — the one before the war, and 
the other since, and showing the change in eight years : 

1859. 1867. 

Deeds, 4,560 6,697 

Money on Mortgages, . . $6,642,225 812,739,512 

New Buildings, .... 683 1,372 

Perhaps nothing can show the true condition and prog- 
ress of Cincinnati better than this table. It shows that, 
just previous to the war, the progress of this city had 
been much checked, but that, since, its former growth 
has recommenced. There is now more building and 
more sales of real property than has been known for 
many years. 

6. With new buildings and new growth, there comes 
the need of public impeovements, and, accordingly, 
the public mind, which lias only recently thought of 
Cincinnati as something more than a mere inland 
town, has been quickened and excited with the idea of 
public works which may adorn and improve the true 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 91 

metropolis of the West. It is but a short time since 
was completed, by an incorporated company, the most 
magnificent suspension bridge in the world. When 
the bridge at Niagara was built, it was considered one 
of those extraordinary things which could hardly be 
equaled; but the Cincinnati bridge surpasses that. It 
spans the entire River Ohio, and, at the height of 
one hundred feet in the air, admits the passage of the 
largest steamboats. Another bridge over the Licking 
unites Newport and Covington ; so that now the Queen 
City and her Kentucky daughters sit in a united, com- . 
pact, and graceful circle on the waters of the Ohio, and 
in the splendid amphitheater which nature has provided 
for them. 

The bridging of the Ohio, being thus commenced, is not 
to end with this. It is now certain that every great arte- 
rial line of railroad passing from the great lakes of the 
North to the Southern sea-board must, to be successful, 
cross the Ohio on bridges; accordingly, the Baltimore 
and Ohio Road is building one at Parkersburg; and 
so, also, the great roads which connect New York and 
Philadelphia with Cincinnati seek to bridge the river, 
that they may connect fully with the line now, or here- 
after to be, made from this city to the South. The 
bridge from Newport to this city, which is understood 
to be in the interest of the Pennsylvania Railroad, is 
begun, and will progress to completion. The roads ter- 



92 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

minating iu the west of the city have a charter, and 
anticipate building a bridge below. Thus, it takes no 
great imagination to see that cities on both sides of the 
Ohio, united by bridges and streets, will seem to be one 
harmonious whole. 

With the bridges comes also a vision of parks and 
avenues. The city council have already authorized 
and laid out three great avenues, corresponding to the 
natural outlets of the city ; and as the city climbs the 
hills and extends into what were once mere rural 
shades, these avenues will also ascend the furthest sum- 
mits, and unite the i^leasures of the country with those 
of the city. The street car, that most convenient of mod- 
ern inventions, will go with them. But there will still 
be needed also great breathing places — parks ; and parks 
the people will have, although no great progress is made 
yet. On the east of the city, near the hill where the 
old Indian chief looked down on the garrison of Fort 
Washington, the city has a large piece of ground called 
Eden Park. There the new water reservoirs are to be 
placed ; and when such a park shall be filled with water, 
trees, and shrubbery, and one shall look down on this 
vast city, and follow with the eye the winding Ohio, it 
can not be said that Cincinnati is without one of the 
most beautiful walks and gardens which natural beauty 
or artistic skill has produced for any city. Other parks 
and other adornments will come with time, and the 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 93 

cliarms of nature be enhanced by the improvements of 
man. 

7. With all this growth of industry, commerce, and 
material improvement, Cincinnati has never forgotten 
that mind is superior to matter, and that to educate the 
people is the highest obligation of a civilized commu- 
nity. Hence, from the very beginning, means have 
been taken to promote popular education, till now, 
every child in the city can be educated in the most prac- 
tical branches of knowledge; and, by the sagacity and 
liberality of individuals, means have been provided for 
the foundations of the highest institutions of learning. 
A brief outline of the schools, seminaries, and colleges 
of Cincinnati will serve the purpose of tliis general 
description. 

At the basis of education in this city are the public 
SCHOOLS. To these all youth, between the ages of five 
and twenty-one, haveaccess. According to the law of pro- 
portions, established by the censuses, this comprehends 
thirty-nine per cent, of the whole population, and at the 
present time gives ninety thousand seven hundred youth 
within the legal age entitled to public instruction. Of 
these only about twenty-five thousand are in the schools 
at any one time; but ten thousand others are in the 
parochial and private schools — making in all thirty-five 
thousand at one period in course of education. Some 
persons have compared this with the whole number 



94 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

entitled by law to attend the schools, and hence in- 
ferred that there must be great numbers of children who 
do not attend school at all, but this is a great mistake. 
The children of the poor and working classes, which 
are the greatest number, are withdrawn from school 
at not more than twelve or thirteen years of age, and 
nearly the whole body of youth in school are with- 
drawn before they are eighteen years; so that the at- 
tendance in the schools is by classes and installments, 
and probably thirty-five thousand is as many as can 
be expected to be in attendance at the present time. 
Probably not more than one in a hundred escape in- 
struction at any school, and those who do not attend 
more than one-third of the time to which they are en- 
titled, nevertheless get what are called the rudiments 
of knowledge. But some one may ask. How come ten 
thousand in parochial and private schools ? The great 
body of these are in the Eoman Catholic parish schools. 
They originated in consequence of the dissatisfaction of 
the Catholics with the conduct of the public schools. 
Parish schools are attached to nearly all the Eoman Cath- 
olic churches, and contain several thousand pupils. In 
addition to these are many private schools and semina- 
ries, especially those for girls, which are preferred by 
some parents on account of special instruction, particu- 
larly in the ornamental branches which they aSbrd. 
In 1860, there were forty-six schools and seminariea, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 95 

parocliial and private, in Cincinnati, of which twenty- 
seven were Roman Catholic, containing nine thousand 
and six hundred pupils, but the number is no doubt 
increased. There are now in this class of schools and 
seminaries fully twelve thousand. The public schools 
of Cincinnati have, in recent years, been crowned by the 
high schools, institutions, which, in their general char- 
acter, are the same with what are commonly known as 
" colleges," and in regard to law, may be made to com- 
prehend universal knowledge, for the law does not re- 
strict their studies. Of these one is for boys and the 
other for girls. Both have been founded by the sagac- 
ity and liberality of early pioneers — William Wood- 
ward and John Hughes — from whom they are called 
the Woodward and Hughes Schools. The pupils of 
these colleges are the graduates of the common schools. 
At each annual examination a certain number of those 
who have passed out are entitled to enter the High 
Schools, and thus they may pursue, so far as they have 
time and ambition, the highest range of studies. The 
list of subjects pursued in the high schools, as returned 
in the annual reports, shows that to these students is open 
every branch of learning attainable in any of our col- 
leges. Then the public system is perfected by the estab- 
lishment of a graduated system of instruction, which 
leads the minds of youths, if they give time to it, from 
the very alphabet of knowledge to the higher regions of 



96 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

learning. It is to give their children the benefits of 
these schools that many families have come to Cin- 
cinnati, and thus the institution of the public schools 
has added to the wealth as well as the intelligence of 
the city. 

After the public schools, we may mention the colleges 
and professional seminaries, some of which were founded 
long previous to the public schools. The earliest of 
these is Cincinnati College, with whose name and 
history is associated the honored memory of the oldest 
and best founders of the city, originally chartered as 
a purely litei'ary seminary. It was for many years a 
regular college, in which many youths were educated. 
Having ceased its work for a period, it was again re- 
vived as a college and a medical school; but has now, 
for several years, been continued as a law school. In 
the meantime it has been relieved of all embarrass- 
ments by the payment of its debts, and possesses an 
unincumbered property worth $200,000. It is proposed 
to make this fund, in connection with some other, the 
foundation of the future University of Cincinnati. 

Within a few years Mr. McMicken has given a large 
estate for the education of youth in Cincinnati, subject 
to some limitations, and intended ultimately to found a 
college or university. The property has been so man- 
aged by the trustees as to be at present a large endow- 
ment for whatever institution they may hereafter erect. 




llneoll ftirtingirilolilli 




Picket &S0TI, Aiclntects 



Hii Lolt T-t)rliritiei ivl'a Hlli (in 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 97 

We may, therefore, expect that the McMicken Univer- 
*sity will be a fact of the future. 

The St. Xaviee. College (Roman Catholic) has 
been many years in existence, and pursues a regular 
course of instruction, chiefly conducted by the Jesuits. 

In addition to these literary institutions, there are 
professional schools — law, medical, theological, and 
commercial. There is but one law school, which is 
a branch of Cincinnati College, and has been thirty 
years in successful operation. In that period it has 
had several professors distinguished for legal learning, 
for social standing, and political influence. It has 
graduated twelve hundred students, among whom may 
be found men who have adorned the bench and the 
bar, society and government. 

The Medical Schools are the oldest professional insti- 
tutions, and have always had large numbers of students. 
The Medical College of Ohio was founded half a cen- 
tury since, and has probably graduated thousands of 
pupils. The Miami Medical College is a newer insti- 
tution, but with an able Faculty, and promises much 
future usefulness. 

The Physio-Medical College teaches the peculiar doc- 
trines of what is generally termed the Botanical School. 

The College of Dental Surgeons is one of the evi- 
dences that, in recent years, dentistry is treated as a 
science. This is, perhaps, the reason of the established 



98 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

fact that American dentists enjoy the highest reputation 
in all foreign countries. The College of Dental Sur- 
geons in Cincinnati has added to both the skill and the 
reputation of the profession. 

Of theological schools, there are two — one Roman 
Catholic, on the summit west of Millcreek; and the 
other Presbyterian, on Walnut Hills. The latter, Lane 
Seminary, is well endowed, has considerable income, 
and maintains a regular course of theological teaching. 

Another class of colleges, so called, are the commercial. 
These, however, do not pretend to teach what is usually 
understood as a collegiate course, but simply those prac- 
tical elements necessary to commercial business. 

From what we have said, education for the masses, 
and for the common business of life, is well provided 
for. Every child may have some sort of education, and 
every one intended for business may here acquire well 
the elements of his profession ; and for those who Avish 
to be instructed in science and the classics, the High 
Schools afford an opportunity ; yet, for high scholarship, 
the youth of the city must look to the coming, rather 
than the present colleges. The Cincinnati College 
Fund, the McMicken Fund, the Observatory, and some 
others which may be gathered in, would be sufficient to 
lay the foundation and build up the stately structure of 
a future university. Whether they can ever be united 
and concentrated for such a purpose, we know not ; but 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 99 

after contemplating the noble and liberal contributions, 
private and public, made here for the universal instruc- 
tion of the people — after seeing so many tens of thou- 
sands already brought into the schools, and so many 
other thousands who have gone forth from these insti- 
tutions as merchants, lawyers, physicians, and clergy- 
men, to be useful and honored citizens of the republic — 
after all this, we can not help thinking and hoping that 
this broad and spacious ediiice of popular education 
may be crowned with a Cincinnati University. Then 
the work of the children will well compare with that of 
their fathers, and scholars of profoundest learning go 
forth from the city which already furnishes the arts, 
and manufactures, and commerce which adorn and im- 
prove the Valley of the Ohio, and hence made herself 
the Queen of the West. 

We have now finished our outline sketch of the 
growth of this city and of its principal elements. We 
said nothing of the young cities on the opposite shore, 
or of the far-extending suburbs to the north ; but we 
may return for a moment to contrast this scene as it was 
observed by Judge Symmes eighty years ago, with that 
now seen from Eden Park, and that which will be seen in 
some future. Then, the proprietors of the Miami coun- 
try saw with delight this beautiful amphitheater sur- 
rounded with its wood-crowned hills; but then the 
forest was unbroken, solitude rested on the bosom of 



100 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Nature, and the Ked Indian looked with suspicion on 
the approaching white man. Now, the forest is cleared 
away, a great town is built up, silence is fled, the in- 
cipient roar of clanging industry thunders upon the ear, 
the voices of shouting multitudes are heard, and the 
visitor to Eden Park beholds these cities filling the 
valley below. The temples of God and the schools of 
youth, the factories of art and the vessels of navigation 
rise in the midst of forty thousand houses, filled with 
three hundred thousand people ! 

Such is the present scene compared with that when 
civilized man came to conquer the wilderness of nature. 
But it is not improper, and it will require no extraor- 
dinary gift of prophecy to look a little into what the 
future may, and probably will, produce. Cincinnati has 
now reached the period when, as New York did thirty 
years ago, it is passing from the condition of a respect- 
able town to that of a great city, where, in fact, capital 
is sufliciently accumulated and public spirit excited to 
make these extensive improvements, which both vital- 
ize its resources and adorn its aspect. Most of these we 
have already mentioned in this sketch, but we may 
group them together.: first, the natural resources 
around the summit hills, the gentle curves of the hills, 
and their decline to the north, have made the suburbs 
of Cincinnati the most beautiful in the United States, 
No other city can compare with them. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 101 

Then, to enjoy these suburban scenes, come the ave- 
nues : these will wind up the ravines, finally pass north 
of the hills, meet the valley beyond, and thus make 
splendid boulevards, to which no others can compare. 
Then come the parks : these will be on the hills or in 
the northern valley, and, being reached by street cars, 
will make lovely and healthy country gardens for the 
resort of all classes of people. Then the reservoirs on 
the hills will furnish living fountains for the avenues 
and the gardens. Far to the west, in the Valley of 
Millcreek, what has heretofore been a great mud lake 
will be leveled and filled, built up, and the city extend 
to the western hills as it does to the eastern. Then the 
gardens and the avenues will crown the western sum- 
mits. In the meanwhile, the great railroad bridges over 
the Ohio will have been built, the Southern railroad 
will be seen as one of the great arteries of commerce, 
and the young cities of Newport and Covington will 
climb the hills of the south, as Cincinnati does those 
of the north. Then will be seen, on some of the sur- 
rounding points to the north, the University, and, near 
it, the Observatory; and science and letters, and the 
beautiful arts, will crown the scene which industry, and 
commerce, and education have created. Then, if a 
kind Providence shall favor the labors of man, the 
Cincinnati of the future will be, as it has been, the 
metropolis of the Great Central West. 



CHAPTER V. 

City Government— School System— Boaed of Health- 
Police AND Fire Departments— Administration of 
Justice. 

^^^^HE government of municipal affairs in Cincinnati 

^p devolves upon a mayor, a city council composed 

of two members from each ward, and a board of 

city improvements composed of the mayor, city civil 

engineer, and three city commissioners. 

The city elections occur on the first Monday in April, 
most of the officers serving for a term of two years. 

Candidates for council are required to be freeholders, 
and residents of the city three years previous to the 
election. 

The following gentlemen occupy at present city of- 
fices as respectively named : 

Mayor. — John F. Torrence. 

CITY COXJNCIll.. 

James W. Fitzgerald President. 

WARD. 

1...T. F. Eckert J. W. Fitzgerald. 

2...Wm. Loder Chas. Kahn, Jr. 

3...V. Eiclienlaub Conrad Schultz. 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 103 

4...Wm. H. Glass P. F. Maley. 

5. ..Daniel Wolf. J. S. HiU. 

6...B. C. Corbett T. Cannon. 

7...L. C. Buente.. David Baker. 

8. ..James Morgan A. P. C. Bonte. 

9. ..Chris. Von Seggern Jos. Eveslage. 

10.. .Joseph Siefert A. Wagner. 

11... H. B. Eckelman Jos. Kinsey. 

12... Jacob Benninger G. W. Ziegler. 

13. ..G. A. Doherty M. Corbett. 

14... Wm. H. Harrison R. M. Moore. 

15.. .A. T. Goshorn T. F. Baker. 

16...Drausin Wulsin W. H. Brickell. 

17... James B. Doan A. K. Brookbank. 

18. ..Clinton Buente Samuel Beresford, Jr. 

19... F. W. Schwencker L. C. Frintz. 

20.. .A. E. Jones Wm. Kirton. 

City Auditor. — Chas. H. Titus. 

City Treasurer. — Robert Moore. 

City Solicitor. — J. Bryant Walker. 

City Civil Engineer. — R. C. Phillips. 

City Commissioners.— John H. Lawrence, L, Mc- 

HuGH, Theodore Chambers. 
Judge of Police Court. — Walter F. Straub. 
Chief of Police. — 

Prosecuting Attorney of Police Court. — Moses 
F. Wilson. 



104 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

The public school system of Cincinnati has long been 
celebrated for its efficiency and the liberal scale upon 
which it is conducted. The efforts of such men as 
Nathan Guilford, John P. Foote, George Graham, and 
Samuel Lewis, established a broad foundation for future 
growth. The details of its workings can not, for want 
of space, here be given. The Annual Report, which, 
itself, constitutes each year quite a volume, may be 
referred to for all necessary information. A Board 
of Trustees, elected by the people, administer the 
business affairs. A Board of Examiners, appointed 
by the City Council, decide uj^on the qualifications of 
teachers. 

John Hancock is the Superintendent of Schools. His 
administration has evinced great ability, and the schools 
have never been more prosperous than at present. 

The Board, during 1868, made arrangements to open 
a Normal School, for the training of females intending 
to qualify themselves for teaching. The inauguration 
of this plan marks a new and important era in our sys- 
tem, and success seems to await it. 

The following regulations exist for the government of 
the schools : 

" None but the children of actual bona fide residents 
of Cincinnati shall, under amj circumstances, be admitted 
to the common schools, /ree / but children of non-resi- 
dents may be admitted by the Trustees of any district, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 105 

on payment, in advance, to the Clerk of the Board, the 
following tuition fees, viz. : 

"For admittance into intermediate schools, at the 
rate of twenty dollars per annum ; district schools, six- 
teen dollars per annum — payable, in each case, semi- 
quarterly, quarterly, semi-annually, or yearly." 

The regular meetings of the Board of Examiners are 
held at the Office of Public Schools, City Buildings, on 
Eighth Street, between Plum and Central Avenue, on 
the second Thursday of each month, except July and 
August, at two o'clock P. M. 

The Board grants two grades of Certificates, denom- 
inated, respectively, Male Principal's Certificate and 
Female Assistant's Certificate. 

Candidates for a Male Principal's Certificate are ex- 
amined in Spelling and Definitions, Reading, English 
Grammar, Geography, American History, Mental Arith- 
metic, Written Arithmetic, Algebra, Theory and Prac- 
tice of Teaching, Natural Philosophy, Constitution of 
the United States, Ancient and Modern Historj', Anat- 
omy and Physiology, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geometry, 
English Literature, and Penmanship. 

Candidates for a Female Assistant's Certificate are 
examined in Spelling and Definitions, Reading, English 
Grammar, Geography, American History, Mental Arith- 
metic, Written Arithmetic, English Literature, Theoiy 
and Practice of Teaching, Natural Philosophy, Con- 



106 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

stitution of the United States, Anatomy and Physiol- 
ogy, Penmanship, and Ancient and Modern History. 

Candidates for positions in the High Schools will be 
examined in Chemistry and Astronomy, in addition to 
the above list. 

The number opposite to each branch, in the column 
on the right of the list of studies on the certificate 
issued, measures the result of the examination, ten being 
the maximum. Less than seven, in either English 
Grammar, Geography, Mental Arithmetic or Written 
Arithmetic, is a failure. Certificates are vaUd as follows : 
For an average of seventy per cent, of correct answers, 
one year ; eighty per cent., three years ; ninety per cent., 
five years, 

A record of the character of the examination of each 
individual is preserved in a volume for the use of the 
Board of Education. 

Candidates who have not taught in the Common 
Schools of Cincinnati, must leave with the Clerk of 
the Board, at least three days before the monthly meet- 
ing, a certificate of good moral character, together with a 
declaration that they are eighteen years of age, (or seven- 
teen, if graduates from the High Schools, or with similar 
attainments), and that they design to teach in the Public 
Schools of Cincinnati, if found qualified. Candidates are 
requested to leave their address, and a statement of any 
experience they may have had in teaching. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 107 

Candidates shall be examined in the absence of all 
spectators, save the members of the Board of Education. 

Candidates shall not be examined who are not pres- 
ent, punctually, at the appointed hour. None shall be 
admitted to a second examination, till after the expi- 
ration of six months. 

No Cei-tificate shall be issued without an average of 
seventy per cent, of the full number of marks. 

The Board will grant no certificate to any candidate 
who entirely fails in any branch of study in which an 
examination is required by the Board. 

Graduates of the Normal School have preference in 
the selection of teachers for the schools. 

One week prior to the annual opening of the schools 
each year, all the teachers of the Common Schools shall 
be required to attend a Teacher's Institute, held in the 
city. Such institute shall be open to all persons who 
may desire to become teachers in the Common Schools 
of Cincinnati. 

The salaries of teachers' in the Cincinnati Schools 
range from $400 per annum to $2,100. 

The following are the names of the members of the 
Board of Education, for the years 1869-70, commencing 
in July: 

WAED. 

1...J. H. Brunsman W. J. O'Neil. 

2...Peter Gibson J. W. B. Kelly. 



108 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

3...C. C. Campbell E. M. Johnson. 

4...D. J. MuUaney Benj. J. Ricking. 

5.. .Dr. Wolfley H. W. Poor. 

6...F. Macke J. P. Carberry. 

7...a F. Bruckner H. P. Siebel. 

8...a H. Gould J. C. Cbristin. 

9...F. W. Ranch Joseph Kramer. 

10.. .Wm. Kuhn H. L. Wehmer. 

11. ..S. S. Fisher 

12. ..A. Themkaupf. J. C. Krieger. 

13. ..George D. Temple.. .Wm. McClennan. 

14.. .Henry Mack G. W. Gladden. 

15... A. D. Mayo Abner L. Frazer. 

16. ..Francis Ferry John P. Storey. 

17. ..S. A. Miller J. L. Drake. 

18. ..A. Bohling Louis Ballauf. 

19... S. F. Wisnewski Herman Eckel. 

20. ..J. H. Rhodes James F. Fisher. 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD, 

President, S. S. Fisher. 
Vice-President, Francis Ferry. 
Corresponding Secretary, James F. Irwin. 
Clerk, W. F. Hurlbut. 

OFFICERS OF THE SCHOOLS 

Superintendent of Schools, John Hancock. 
Superintendent of Buildings, John McCammon. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 109 



POST-OFFICE. 

C. W. Thomas, Esq., the late efficient and popular 
Postmaster of Cincinnati, has kindly furnished some 
interesting items in regard to the business of his de- 
partment : 

As nearly every interest of a civilized people pulsates 
through the post-office, it undoubtedly furnishes the 
most reliable indication of numerical, commercial, and 
social progress. From a statement in the " Commercial 
Daily Advertiser," of November 19, 1829, we learn 
" there was received for postage the last year $12,160, 
having increased in three years upward of fifty per 
cent." This was when Cincinnati had a population of 
twenty-five thousand. She had outstripped all other 
Western cities, 'and was indisputably the " Queen." 
These figures aflbrd an interesting comparison with the 
business done at the office during 1867-8. 

The cash receipts of the Cincinnati Post-office, on 
postage account, were, for the past year, $264,587.47, 
and the expenses for salaries and miscellaneous, exclu- 
sive of those incident to the free-delivery system, were 
$62,306.06 ; net earnings paid over to the Government, 
$202,281.41. 

The receipts and disbursements in the Money-Order 
Department of the office were each over half a mill- 
ion dollars. At the present rate of business, over 



110 THE OITY OF CINCINNATI. 

$760,000 will be paid on money orders during the pres- 
ent year. 

The number of letters received for delivery during 
the past year was nine million three hundred and 
eight thousand, and the number received for distribu- 
tion was twenty-eight million. 

The amount of mail matter daily handled is about 
twenty-five thousand pounds. There are one hundred 
employes, including letter carriers, and the machinery 
of the office is incessant day and night. 

It should be remembered, that in 1829, domestic 
postage on letters was 12^, 18f , and 25 cents, according 
to the distance conveyed. That year's receipts, $12,150, 
would be equivalent to the transmission of sixty-four 
thousand eight hundred letters at the average of 18f 
cents each. The same sum will now convey four hun- 
dred and five thousand half-ounce letters to any dis- 
tance Avithin the United States; so the whole sum of 
$264,587.47, the postage receipts for the past year, 
fairly represents about nine millions of letters received 
by the people of this city. 

THE ANNUAL MESSAGE 

of Mayor Charles F. Wilstach, dated April 9, 1869, 
congratulates the city upon the enterprise and pros- 
perity which has hitherto marked its career, and takes 
the most enlarged and comprehensive views of its fu- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. Ill 

ture. It states the bonded debt of the city to be now 
$4,507,000, and the value of property belonging to the 
city at $11,850,000, showing nearly $7,000,000 on the 
right side of the ledger. 

The following items in regard to some of the depart- 
ments of the municipal government are taken from the 
message : 

THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

The Board of Health has, during the past year, ac- 
complished much that has been valuable to the health 
and comfort of the citizens. Through its officers, it has 
succeeded in ridding the markets of unwholesome meats 
and vegetables. It has prevented the sale of diseased 
cattle, and has required of the venders of milk the most 
rigid conformance to its rules against adulteration. 

It also prevented the spread of that terrible scourge 
called the Texas cattle fever. The Health Officer, Dr. 
William Clendenin, was especially energetic in his en- 
deavors to prevent its spread among the cattle of this 
vicinity. That these efforts were effectual, the results 
have abundantly proven. 

The mortality in Cincinnati for the year ending 
February 28, 1869, was 4,684. The population of the 
city, being estimated at 260,000, would make the death 
rate 18.05 in 1,000 inhabitants. This is a remarkably 
low mortality, and clearly demonstrates the great salu- 
brity of Cincinnati. In New York City, in 1868, the 



112 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

death rate was 32.27 in 1,000 inhabitants ; in Brooklyn, 
the same year, it was 27.81 ; in Providence, in 1864, it 
was 23.50 in 1,000. In St. Louis, according to the last 
annual report of the Board of Health, for the year 1868, 
the mortality was 5,193 ; in Chicago, during the same 
period, the mortality was 4,604. 

The mortality from particular diseases exhibits 
equally satisfactory results. For example, the mor- 
tality from consumption in Cincinnati during the year 
ending with February last, was 444, or 9.48 per cent, of 
the whole number of deaths in that time. The mor- 
tality from consumption in New York last year was 
3,286, or 14.02 per centage on the total number of 
deaths. In Philadelphia, during the same period, the 
mortality from consumption was 1,947, or 15.38 per 
consumption during the year 1868, in St. Louis, were 
503. 

THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

The Chief of Police, Captain James L. Euffin, reports 
that the total number of arrests during the year, for all 
degrees of crimes, was 8,291, of which 6,734 were males 
and 1,557 females. In the lodging apartments of the 
different station-houses, there have been accommodated 
25,000 persons, of whom 20,209 were males and 3,424 
females ; for safe keeping, 1,152 ; lost children returned 
to parents, 255 j deserters arrested, 11 ; number of per- 




1 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 113 

sons committed to the Work-house during the year, 
1,176, of whom 1,037 were males and 139 females. 

The Police Telegraph has sent, during the year, 
4,092 messages, as follows: Lost children returned, 
755; estrays returned, 290; wagons, buggies, etc., re- 
turned, 200; prisoners discharged from Work-house, 
169; officers to suppress riots, 7; orders issued, 20; 
prisoners for court, 150 ; miscellaneous 2,555. 

THE FIRE DEPARTMENT 

still maintains its supremacy over any like department 
in existence, and is famed throughout the country for 
its efficiency and promptness in subduing the ravages of 
one of the fiercest elements of destruction known to the 
human race. Our city has enjoyed, during the past 
year, a marked immunity from large fires. New and 
powerful machines are being added to the present 
effective force, and nothing is left undone to render the 
department equal to the growth of the city and the de- 
mands of the citizens for the fullest protection. 

Enoch G. Megrue, the veteran Chief of the Depart- 
ment, has continued to devote his entire energies to the 
discipline and management of the force. 

The cost of the department for the past year has been 
$240,584.13. There have been 183 alarms and 90 actual 
fires during the year. Value of property destroyed, 



114 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

$447,382.00, the insurance on which was $271,016.00^ 
making the actual loss to property-owners $176,366.00. 

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

1. Justices of the Peace are elected by the voters 
of each township, for terms of three years. They have 
jurisdiction in all civil suits, with a few exceptions, 
when the debt or damages do not exceed three hun- 
dred dollars. In criminal cases they have jurisdiction 
throughout the county, of minor offenses, and to hold 
persons accused of crime to answer the charge in the 
Court of Common Pleas. 

2. The District Court is composed of the three 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Hamilton 
County, and one of the judges of the Supreme Court of 
Ohio, auy three of whom constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. Two terms are held each year, 
commencing on the first Monday of April, and first 
Monday of October respectively. It has but little 
original jurisdiction, its business being chiefly the de- 
termination of appeals, and cases in error from the 
Court of Common Pleas. 

3. The Court of Common Pleas is composed of 
three judges, elected by the people of Hamilton County, 
for a term of five years. The regular terms of the Court 
commence on the first Monday of January, the second 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 115 

Monday of May, and the first Monday of November in 
each year. The judges sit separately and alternately, 
in each of the three rooms of the court. They have 
authority, by statute, to classify and distribute among 
themselves for trial the business pending in the court. 
Civil cases are tried by the court in room No. 1, and 
before a jury in room No. 2, and criminal cases are tried 
in room No. 3. This court has original jurisdiction in 
all civil cases where the sum or matter in dispute ex- 
ceeds one hundred dollars, and has appellate jurisdic- 
tion from the judgment of justices of the peace, and ' 
also in certain cases from the decisions of the county 
commissioners. It has jurisdiction of all crimes and 
offenses in which persons are indicted by the grand 
jury ; of all writs of certiorari to the Police Court and 
justices of the peace in criminal cases; of petitions in 
error from judgments rendered by the Probate Court or 
justices of the peace ; in cases of contested election of 
county officers ; and of petitions by administrators and 
executors for the sale of lands of deceased persons, and 
in habeas corpus. It also has powers and duties pres- 
cribed by statute, with reference to savings societies, 
petitions filed by railroads for change of grade or route, 
sales of property of religious societies ; sales of ceme- 
teries in cities and towns ; changes of names of persons, 
towns, and villages; vacation of town plats; appointment 
of auctioneers, inspectors, etc. ; sales of entailed estates ; 



116 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

barring dower of insane wives ; appointment of various 
trastees ; approval of appointment of deputies of the 
clerk, sheriff, and recorder, etc. The judges, whose terms 
will expire in 1872, are Hons. Charles C. Murdock, 
Joseph Cox, and Manning F. Force. 

4. The Superior Court of Cincinnati consists 
of three judges, elected at city elections, by the voters 
of Cincinnati, for the term of five years. The terms of 
the court commence on the first Monday of each month, 
except July, August, and September. A special term 
of the court is held by each judge, and, as a general rule, 
the judges sit alternately in each of the three rooms of 
the court, submitted cases being heard in room No. 1, 
and jury cases in rooms No. 2 and 3. The general term 
is held at such time as the court may direct, by two or 
more judges, the concurrence of two being necessary to 
IDronounce judgment at general term. Petitions in error 
lie from the special to the general terms, and from the 
general terms directly to the Supreme Court of the State. 
This court has no jurisdiction except that specially con- 
ferred upon it by statute. Generally it has, in civil 
actions, the same jurisdiction in the City of Cincinnati 
that the Court of Common Pleas has in the county of 
Hamilton. It has no jurisdiction of appeals or petitions 
in error from other tribunals, nor of criminal cases, nor 
of applications for divorce and alimony. At present, 
the judges are Hon. Bellamy Storer, whose term ex- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 117 

pires in 1872 ; Hon, M. B. Hagans, whose term expires 
in 1873; and Hon. Alplionso Taffc, whose term expires 
in 1874. 

5. The Probate Court, a court of record, open at 
all times, is holden by one judge, elected by the voters 
of the county for the term of three years. The Pro- 
bate Judge is clerk of his own court, and his compen- 
sation is by fees fixed by law. He has jurisdiction in 
probate and testamentary matters; in the appointment 
of administrators and guardians ; in the settlement of 
the accounts of executors, administrators, and guardi- 
ans; in habeas corpus; in the issuing of marriage 
licenses; in sales of land, on petition of executors, ad- 
ministrators, and guardians ; in the completion of con- 
tracts concerning real estate, on petition of executors 
and administrators ; in holding inquests of lunacy ; in 
ascertaining the amount of compensation to be made 
to owners of land appropriated to the use of corpora- 
tions; to try contested elections of justices of the peace, 
and of proceedings in aid of execution. He also has 
authority to administer oaths, and to take depositions, 
and the acknowledgment of deeds, etc. The present 
incumbent is the Hon. Edw. F. Noyes. 

6. The Police Court of Cincinnati is held by a 
police judge, elected by the voters of the city, for the 
term of two years. He has, in criminal cases, the same 
powers and jurisdiction as justices of the peace. He 



118 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

has jurisdiction of all violations of the ordinances of 
the city, and of all cases of petit larceny and other in- 
ferior offenses committed within the limits of the city, 
or within one mile thereof, and which the constitution 
or laAvs of the State do not require to be prosecuted by 
indictment or presentment of a grand jury. In the ab- 
sence, sickness, or other disability of the police judge, 
the mayor may select some reputable member of the 
bar, residing in the city, who may, after taking the 
necessary oath of office, preside in the police court aa 
" acting police judge." Hon. Walter F. Straub is the 
present judge of this court. 

7. The United States Courts held in the city of 
Cincinnati are the Circuit and District Courts for the 
Southern District of Ohio. The District Court is held 
by the District Judge, and has jurisdiction in cases in 
admiralty, in bankruptcy, of all seizures, of all suits 
for penalties and forfeitures, and of suits at common 
law by the United States, or any officer thereof The 
Circuit Court consists of a judge of the Supreme Court 
assigned to the Circuit, and of the Judge of the. Dis- 
trict Court of the District. A recent statute provides 
for the appointment of an additional Circuit judge. The 
Circuit Court may be held by either of the judges. It 
has, in general, cognizance of crimes and offenses cog- 
nizable under the authority of the United States, and 
of suits of a civil nature, when the matter in dispute 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 119 

exceeds five hundred dollars, exclusive of costs, and 
when the United States are plaintiffs, or an alien is a 
party, or the suit is between a citizen of the State and 
a citizen of another State. Justice N. H. Swayne, of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, and Hon. H. 
Leavitt, Judge of the District Court, are the present 
judges of the Circuit Court. Judges of the United 
States Courts hold their offices during good behavior. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Charities of Cincinnati. 

[[HE nineteenth century can boast of no brighter 
glory than its Christian Charities. They distin- 
guish it as the era of philanthropy, and, in their 
vast extent and ramifications, declare a nobler type of 
humanity and a higher civilization than any previous 
age has seen. The toilers of the Christian Commission 
were truer heroes than the exactors of Magna Charta ; 
John Howard and Elizabeth Fry the apostles of a more 
glorious idea than that which made martyrs of Hamp- 
den and Sidney. Let history, then, set anew its stakes 
and cords, and mark well the track of the philanthropies 
which have made these later years an epoch in the prog- 
ress of the race, and which make gloriously true the 
utterance, that "Peace hath her victories no less re- 
nowned than war." 

The chronicles of the Charities of Cincinnati would, 
of themselves, require a volume. But a brief outline 
can here be given. There is exhibited a princely lib- 
erality in the support of these " inns upon the road of 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 121 

life, where suffering humanity finds alleviation and sym- 
pathy;" and all honor is due to those individuals who 
pass not by unheeded their pitiable fellow-mortals, but 
are stretching forth unceasingly the helping hand. 
These are they who do not believe that misfortune is a 
crime, but who, recognizing the universal brotherhood of 
humanity, "walk the crowded streets with eyes keenly 
alert to detect the objects of suffering and sympathy 
around them, and wait not for the opportunity to be 
pressed upon them, but seek out the opportunities which 
shall give expression to the grand impulses of their 
natures." 

Let this be counted a hopeful sign of the times, that 
there is rapidly progressing a skillful adaptation of ju- 
dicious charities to the wants of men, and that those 
heaven-born words " Our Father," of which Madam 
De Stael said that if Christ had simply taught men to 
say them, he would have been the greatest benefactor 
of the race, are gaining here, as elsewhere, a new mean- 
ing in the minds of earnest men. 

A reliable, though necessarily brief, statement will 
be given in the following pages. It is done in the hope 
that such persons as are willing to bestow a portion of 
their time and wealth in a benevolent direction may 
be able to gain a knowledge of the special province 
of each institution. It will be well if from many new 
sources there come generous responses toward these in- 



122 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

stitutions of blessing, whose corps of workers is always 
open to recruits, and whose treasuries can never be too 
full. The greater prominence is given to what may be 
termed the voluntary Charities, unsectarian in their 
character, and maintained by voluntary contributions. 
The municipal institutions are mentioned subsequently. 
Laboring side by side with the common purpose of 
lightening the load of human misery, they are a shin- 
ing sisterhood of mercy, a joy to the world. 

CINCINNATI UNION BETHEL. 

The Cincinnati Union Bethel was first established 
on the 27th of January, 1839. It owes its existence 
to the efibrts of the Western Seamen's Friend Society, 
under whose control it was, Avith some intermission, 
from the above date until February, 1856, when it be- 
came an independent institution, incorporated under 
the general law of the State of Ohio. 

The first record book states that, at its opening, on 
that date, there were present seven teachers and six- 
teen scholars ; that the school was opened with prayer, 
led by Philip Hinkle; and that it commenced its mis- 
sionary labors by inciting the zeal of the scholars in a 
promise to record, on the minutes, the name of the 
scholar who brought in the most children on the next 
Sunday. The week following, the minutes of the 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 123 

school showed thai John Ryland and John M. Jones 
each brought two new scholars, and that William Har- 
rison brought two as far as the door — " one came in, 
but the other ran off." 

Since the period of this simple, life-like record, the 
Bethel has passed through many changes — at times 
being suspended, and at others abandoned. It was 
then a tenant at will in the location now occupied, was 
frequently driven from place to place in search of a 
home, until, in the year 1852, it entered upon a new 
and more permanent career. The citizens of Cincin- 
nati placed at the disposal of the Western Seamen's 
Friend Society, means sufficient to build the well- 
known Floating Bethel, which was occupied until the 
year 1859. In that Chapel, in the year 1854, the 
Bethel School, which has continued without interrup- 
tion since, was gathered by Rev. S. D. Clayton; was 
carried on under his direction until 1857 ; from 1857 to 
1859, under the management of Eev. Wm. Andrews ; 
and in the fall of 1859 was removed from the Floating 
Bethel to its present location on the wharf. Subse- 
quently, the school has passed into the charge of Ben- 
jamin Frankland, and with the exception of the two 
years, from 1859 to 1861, when Mr, Clayton was again 
the efficient Chaplain, the entire Bethel work was under 
his general supervision. 

Under Mr. Frankland's care, it accomplished won- 



124 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

derfiil results, and reached the height of a successful 
career. Thomas Lee is now Superintendent, and a new 
future of prosperity is opening. 

The object and organization of the Bethel are pre- 
sented in the following extracts from the Constitution : 

This Association shall be known as the Cincinnati 
Union Bethel. 

The object shall be to provide for the spiritual and 
temporal welfare of river-men and their families, and all 
others who may be unreached by regular church organ- 
izations; to gather in and furnish religious instruction 
and material aid to the poor and neglected children of 
Cincinnati and vicinity, and to make such provisions 
as may be deemed best for their social elevation ; also, 
to provide homes and employment for the destitute. 

Any person paying into the treasury of the corpora- 
tion the sum of ten dollars, shall be a member for one 
year, and of fifty dollars, a member for life. 

There shall be a Board of Directors, to consist of 
twelve persons, four of whom shall retire each year, 
and their successors shall be elected at the annual 
meeting, to serve for the term of three years. 

The Board shall appoint from their own number a 
committee of five, to be called the Property Commit- 
tee, whose duty it shall be to supervise and manage 
all real estate, of which the corporation may at any 
time become the possessors, and all moneys or prop- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 125 

erty which may be donated or bequeathed for the en- 
dowment of said corporation, under direction of the 
Board. 

All operations of the Union shall be conducted upon 
the basis of a union of all Christian denominations. 

No debt shall ever be contracted by the Board of 
Directors which will encumber the property of the cor- 
I)oration. 

It shall not be in the power of the members of the 
Society at any meeting, or of the officers thereof, to 
divert the property of the institution, real or personal, 
from the distinct purposes provided for in these arti- 
cles, but the same shall forever remain to fulfill the 
object of the Society, as herein defined, and for no 
otlier purpose whatever. 

The Bethel work, at this time, embraces the follow- 
ing departments : 

1. The River Mission, among boatmen, etc, 

2. Systematic Visitation of Families. 

3. The Bethel Church. 

4. The Bethel School. 

5. The Relief Department. 

6. The Sewing School. 

7. The Free Reading and Cheap Dining Hall. 

8. The Newsboys' Home. 

The details of the various branches of the work are 
placed, by the constitution, in the hands of an execu- 



126 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

tive committee, composed of tliree members of the 
Board, and the Secretary of the Society. 

The annual report of the Secretary, Dr. J. Taft, made 
in March, 1869, furnishes the following interesting facts 
in regard to these departments. They will make the best 
exhibit of the varied work of tbis noble institution. 

The Bethel Church. — Services have been held 
regularly each Sabbath, morning and evening, and each 
Wednesday evening a social prayer meeting has met. 
Extra meetings in January and February, under the 
ministrations of Rev. Thomas Lee, resulted in an acces- 
sion to the church of twenty persons. 

The Eiver Mission. — We have, as in the past, en- 
deavored to carry on active work among the boatmen 
and laborers that throng our wharf, by missionary visi- 
tation to the boat, the distribution of tracts, and wel- 
come to the services of the Bethel. 

The Bethel School has not only sustained its 
previous reputation for numbers and interest, but has 
considerably exceeded the last report. The averages 
of attendance of scholars for the several months have 
been as follows: 

lS68^March, 1,630; April, 1,350; May, 920; June, 
920; July,700j August, 75,0; September, 850 ; October, 
1,250 ; STovember, 1,850 ; December, 1,970. 1869— Jan- 
uary, 1,940; February, 2,000. 

Since the 1st of November last the actual attendance 



<\ 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 127 

of scholars has exceeded 1,800 on sixteen Sabbaths ; has 
exceeded 1,900 on eight Sabbaths ; and has exceeded 
2,000 on four Sabbaths. The highest attendance was 
on February 21, when the number of scholars present 
was 2,248. 

The usual attendance in the boys' infant class is 
about 350 ; the girls, 300. We have fully 200 scholars 
over eighteen years of age. 

The indications of the accomplishment of great good 
in this department are so manifest and abundant as to 
constitute a source of great gratification. 

The Eelief Department is carried on under the 
special direction of the Ladies' Union Bethel Aid So- 
ciety. 

From the report of Mrs. J. W. Canfield, their Secre- 
tary, are compiled the following statistics : 

The number of distributions of clothing held during 
the year was twenty-nine, at which 2,782 articles of made 
clothing were given away; also 1,388 yards of white 
muslin, 3,862 yards of calico, and 803 yards of cloth for 
boys' wear. , 

Embraced in the abov^ are the following items of 
separate articles, and numbers given : Shoes, 750 pairs 
hose, 140 pairs; hoods, 84; caps, 234; jackets, 61 
shawls, 63 ; skirts, 10 ; comforts, 55 ; girls* hats, 100 
aprons, 79 ; shirts, 159 ; pants, 90 y dresses, 69 ; under 
garments, 190. 



128 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

In addition to these regular clothing distributions, 
almost hourly calls at the Bethel for assistance have 
been patiently inquired into, and, when deemed worthy, 
and the means at our disposal have justified it, relief 
has been given. 

Sewing School. — Intimately connected with the 
above department of the work, is the Mothers' Sewing 
School, which, during the most of the winter, has met, 
eacli Wednesday afternoon, at the Bethel building, under 
the direction of a committee of the Ladies' Bethel Aid 
Society. It numbers eighty-four members. 

The following materials have been made into gar- 
ments by the women attending ; calico, 587j yards ; 
muslin, 222| yards; flannel, 126| yards. 

This movement has been very successful, the time 
occupied by the women in sewing being improved by 
the reading of interesting and profitable selections from 
books and magazines, and in giving practical advice in 
matters of domestic economy. 

Newsboys' Home. — Three thousand six hundred 
and fifty night lodgings have been furnished to boys — 
newsboys and boot-blacks — and about seven thousand 
five hundred meals, at a nominal price of ten cents each. 

In September, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Worcester, who, 
for more than a year, had charge of this department, 
left us to enter a missionary field in the Indian Terri- 
tory, From that time, Mr. C. B. Taylor, of Lane Semi- 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 129 

nary, superintended the newsboys' department. He also, 
for some three months, successfully carried on a night 
school for boys, with an average attendance of twenty- 
two. 

The Coffee and Reading Room. — This has been 
successfully continued, and is fulfilling the purpose of 
its establishment, not only by furnishing a cheap and 
substantial meal, without any of the objectionable asso- 
ciations too often found in boatmen's boarding houses, 
but as a direct means of promoting frugality, temper- 
ance, and practical religion. The number of persons 
daily availing themselves of its advantages is about 
three hundred. 

While it is self-sustaining, it really proves, from the 
low rates charged, a great help to many whose means 
are limited, and it attracts to our institution a large 
number of just the class of people that we are desirous 
should become acquainted with the other features of our 
work. The following bill of fare, etc., wUl give an idea 
of the arrangements: 

BILL OF FARE. 

Coffee or Tea, with Crackers or Bread, . . 5 cts. 

Milk, 5 cts. 

Butter, Sets. 

Doughnuts, T . . . 5 cts. 

Pie, Sets. 

Soup, with Crackers or Bread, 5 cts. 

9 



130 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Cold Meat 5 cts. 

Roast Meat and Potatoes, 10 cts. 

Pork and Beans, 10 cts. 

Other articles in proportion. 

Dinner Tickets, ... 25 Cents, 

For which will be furnished Roast Meat and "Vegetables, Pie, 

Coffee, Bread, and Butter. 

Dinner from 12 to 2 o'clock. 

The rooms are open from six A. M. to eight P. M. 
The free reading room is supplied with daily and week- 
ly papers, and other reading matter. 

The importance of a suitable building had long been 
felt, and, in 1868, the foundation of a noble edifice was 
laid. Its estimated cost is sixty thousand dollars, and 
the plan provides for the following departments : 

1. A grand hall, with class and anterooms, capable 
of holding two thousand five hundred people, or three 
thousand children, to be used for the sessions of the 
Bethel School, meetings and lectures, religious and oth- 
erwise, and for night schools for the working classes. 

2. A temperance eating establishment, where, with 
cheerful and pleasant surroundings, the boatman and 
laboring man can obtain a cheap meal, without resort- 
ing to drinking saloons. 

3. A free reading room, accessible at all times, and 
supplied with choice and entertaining reading matter. 

4. Dormitories, airy and clean, for boatmen, poor stran- 
gers, and children who may need temporary shelter. 



THE CITY OF CINCINKATI, 131 

5. A people's bath and wash-house, conducted upon 
such plan as will reach the wants of all. 

6. A workingmen's gymnasium. 

7. Kooms for relief department and uses of Ladies' 
Bethel Aid Society. 

8. A newsboys' home. 

There will be a hall seventy-five by eighty-six feet, 
the height of the ceiling being forty feet. 

The plan proposes a wide entrance-way from Front 
Street, and two entrances from Yeatman Street. Spa- 
cious galleries are to occupy three sides of the audience 
room, the space underneath being divided into Bible 
and infant clas'. rooms, separated by sliding glass doors. 
It will probably be the most complete hall of the kind 
in the country, and, for school purposes, will accommo- 
date four thousand children. 

Thus is the Cincinnati Bethel faithfully fulfilling its 
noble trust, A pure and lofty purpose, a catholic spirit, 
and far-reaching charity make it a mighty agency for 
good. The entire community owe to it a debt of grati- 
tude that should find its expression in substantial to- 
kens. 

Officers. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

John Gates, President. Philip Hinkle, Vice-Pres. 

C. E. Lewis, Treasurer. J. Taft, Secretary. 

L. E. Stevens, A. Judson Davis, 



132 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

M. M. White, A. Erkenbrecher, 

C, H, Gould, Abner L. Frazer, 

W. B. Moores. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

C. H. Gould, M. M. ^Vhite, 

Chas. R. Lewis, J. Taft, Ex-officw. 

PROPERTY COMMITTEE. 

Philip Hinkle, L. E. Stevens, 

C. H. Gould, Andrew Erkenbrecher, 

W. B. Moores. 

AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

C. H. Gould, Abner L. Frazer. 

GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT. 

Rev. Thomas Lee. 

BETHEL CHURCH ( Undenominational). 
Rev. Thomas Lee, Pastor. 

BETHEL SCHOOL. 

Rev. Thomas Lee, Superintendent. 
Philip Hinkle, Assistant Superintendent, 
J. Taft, 

John Gates, " " 

C. R. Lewis, Secretary. 
Cincinnati Union Bethel, Nos. 30 and 31, Public 
Landing. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 133 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

I give and bequeath to "The Cincinnati Union Bethel," a 
Corporation created in the year eighteen hundred and sixty- 
five, under the laws of the State of Ohio, or to the Treasurer 
thereof, for the time being, for its corporate purposes, the 
sum of dollars. 

FORM OF DEVISE OF REAL ESTATE. 

I give and devise to " The Cincinnati Union Bethel," a Cor- 
poration created in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-flve, 
under the laws of the State of Ohio, or to the Treasurer there- 
of, for the time being, for its corporate purposes, all that, etc. 
(Here describe the property.) 

CINCINNATI ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

No class of sufferiag humanity more tenderly appeals 
to the heart of benevolence, or more readily enlists the 
sympathy and kindness of men, than orphans. Not only 
does their destitute and helpless condition awaken pity, 
but their forming minds and impressible natures seem to 
invite the power of good influences to shape and mold 
them into beings who shall ornament society and bless 
the world. It was thus that they early became the ob- 
jects of philanthropical effort. Early in the history of 
Cincinnati this method of charity began to enlist at- 
tention, and the result was the pioneer charity of the 
Queen City, the Cincinnati Orphan Asylum. 

This beneficent institution is now in the thirty-sixth 



134 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

year of its corporate existence. One of the earliest 
organized Charities in the State of Ohio, it has steadily 
pursued its object of caring for that class of children 
whose misfortunes appeal so strongly to their fellow- 
mortals. For many years it was the only Protestant 
institution in the city which offered relief and shelter to 
those of tender years. It had its origin in a previously 
existing society of ladies who had in view the circula- 
tion of Bibles and the general relief of the poor. In 
1833, a charter was obtained, and in 1836, a commodious 
building was erected upon Elm Street, north of Twelfth, 
sufficient to meet the growing demands of the Society. 
Prominently identified with its early history are the 
names of Mrs. Judge Burnet, Mrs. Samuel Cloon, Mrs. 
Catherine Bates, Mrs. Samuel W. Davies, Mrs. Stille, 
and others. The arms of its generous ministrations were 
stretched widely to embrace every class of suffering 
and neglected children. The establishment, in later 
years, of kindred institutions in a different field, left 
the Orphan Asylum to carry out its primary intention 
and to devote all its means and energies to orphans 
alone. 

In 1861, the Elm Street property having been sold, 
the structure now occupied on Mt. Auburn was erected. 
The location is a delightful one, comprising ample 
grounds and commanding an extensive view of the city, 
Ohio River, and the distant hills. The building is a 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 135 

spacious brick edifice, three stories, witli basement and 
tower. Suitable aiJartments are provided, the best ven- 
tilation secured, and every provision made for the com- 
fort and health of the inmates. The regulations provide 
for a Board of Managers, consisting of twelve ladies. 
They are elected agreeably to the charter every three 
years. A duly appointed committee exercise discretion 
in regard to the admission of children. All applicants 
are examined by the attending physician. A binding 
committee superintend the placing of children in 
homes. No child is to be placed with any one who 
keeps a hotel, tavern, or coffee house, nor with any one 
who does not regularly attend religious worship. The 
relatives and friends of the children are allowed to visit 
them on the first Wednesday in every two months, and 
at other times only by special permission of the man- 
agers. 

The laws of the institution are formed with a careful 
regard to the present and future well-being of the 
orphans. No child can be taken out of the asylum 
until it has remained there at least one year, so that 
vicious habits may be corrected before they mingle 
with society. The strictest scrutiny is made into the 
character of individuals who apply for children. Stip- 
ulations are made as to the amount of education they 
shall receive. When a child leaves the institution, a 
manager is appointed as its guardian, to whom, in case 



136 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

of grievance, it may apply for redress, and look for pro- 
tection. 

Every attention is given to the moral and mental 
training of the children. Regular religious services 
and Sabbath school instruction are provided, while, 
during the week, those of sufficient age attend the city 
Public Schools. The present Matron is Miss Jennie 
Watson, assisted by her sister. Miss Belle Watson. Dr. 
C. D. Palmer is physician in charge. The cost of con- 
ducting the institution is about $15,000 per annum. 
Of this, the endowment fund yields an annual revenue 
of about eight thousand dollars. This leaves about the 
same amount to be contributed by the benevolent people 
of Cincinnati and its vicinity. 

The Thirty-fifth Annual Report, made in 1868, states 
the whole number of children admitted, since the 
founding of the institution, to be 16,053. There are 
about 100 inmates at present. 

What a history of benefaction do the annals of this 
institution present ! Who shall define the ever-widen- 
ing circles of its precious influence ? As long as useful 
men and women have a work to do ; as long as a happy 
home gathers about its name the dearest associations of 
human existence, so long shall this shelter and comfort 
of the orphan continue to receive the countenance and 
support of the dispensers of charitj'. The fifth decade 
of its history should be one of signal prosperity. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 137 

OFFICERS AND MANAGERS. 

Officers. 

Mrs. Catherine Bates, President. 
Mrs. Eliza J. Funk, Vice-President. 
Miss Janet C. Brown, Recording Secretary. 
Mrs. John Davis, Corresponding Secretary. 
Mrs. John Shillito, Treasurer. 

Managers. 

Mrs. J. P. Harrison, Mrs. Henry Probasco, 
J. D. Jones, " S. J. Broadwell, 

A. D. Bullock, " A. S. Winslow, 
M. F. Thompson, " G. H. Barbour, 
J. H. Cheever, " G. T. Stedman, 
A. F. Perry, " William Hooper, 

Mrs. C. T. H. Stille. 

CINCINNATI RELIEF UNION. 

This noble organization was established in 1848. 
Prominent among its originators was Rev. James H. 
Perkins, whose benevolent efforts in Cincinnati are 
matters of history. It is regularly incorporated, and 
has for its sole mission the temporary relief of the 
worthy and destitute poor of the city without distinc- 
tion of religion, nationality, or color. It is altogether 
dependent on voluntary contributions. As often as 



138 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI- 

appealed to, a generous community has responded with 
funds. A Board of Managers, composed of members 
from each ward, gratuitously devote much time and 
care, and have given it years of experience. The de- 
sign of the institution is : 

The prevention of vagrancy and street-begging ; 

The diminution of imposition upon the benevolent ; 

Advice and instruction to all as to some honest 
means of procuring a livelihood ; 

The placing of the young in secular and Sabbath 
schools ; 

The relief of those who are known to need it, by gifts 
of food, fuel, clothing, and other actual necessaries. 

The expenditures of the institution for a period of 
twelve months, from November 8, 1866, to November 9, 
1867, show an aggregate of relief dispensed of $34,000, 
prudently distributed in provisions, shoes, clothing, 
fuel, and other necessaries, to the needy and worthy 
poor of Cincinnati. 

To properly carry out the above objects, the institu- 
tion is organized as follows : 

There are several managers or directors for eveiy 
ward in the city, whose duty it is to become acquainted 
with the condition of those families in the ward that 
require assistance; and, to more eflfectually carry out 
this provision, it is considered the duty of the managers 
to visit the families at their residences. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 139 

A Board of Control meets weekly during the winter 
season, and once a month the balance of the year. 

There is a Central Office, where the goods purchased 
for distribution are stored, and where the orders of the 
Ward Directors are filled. The office is open every 
afternoon, except Sundays, during the winter season, 
from 2 to 4 o'clock, for the transaction of business. 

The Relief Union has the highest claims, and should 
be cordially sustained by the citizens. 

Its method of distributing relief is admitted to be the 
best of any system of charity now in vogue, combining 
simplicity with great economy. It is managed by gen- 
tlemen who serve gratuitously, and whose only motive 
is to do good. The whole expenses of the institution, 
for several years, have averaged less than $300 per 
year. 

No money is distributed except in extreme cases, the 
means of the institution being invested in goods, pur- 
chased at the lowest rates. 

By the thorough system of visitation and inquiiy 
adopted by the managers, the relief goes where it is 
most needed. The directors are familiar with the 
wants of the poor of our city, and are also familiar 
with the means generally adopted by impostors and the 
unworthy to impose on the benevolent. 

Indiscriminate giving of charity is injurious, and en- 
courages vagrancy and street-begging. Many of the 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

persons who solicit charity in the streets are unworthy 
of assistance. By supplying the Relief Union with 
abundant means each year, the subscribers to this great 
charity fund can be assured, with all confidence, that 
the really needy and worthy will be properly assisted 
when in distress. 

The name of C. W. Starbuck will stand upon the 
records of this munificent charity as that of " one who 
loved his fellow-men." Its success in late years has 
been largely due to his efforts. 

The office of the Relief Union is in the City Build- 
ings. 

Officers. 

Rev. J. Chester, President. S. S. Davis, Treasurer. 
J. C. Morrison, Vice-Pres. Alex. Aupperle, Secretary. 

Managers. 

1...E. Evans Wm. Haller. 

2... George C. Miller R. Allison. 

3...H. Kiersted Wm. Clark, J. C. Morrison. 

4... J. E. Vansant. 

5...G. H. Dean John H. Balance. 

6 . . . Ira Wood Henry StaufFer, Sam. Stokes. 

7... Samuel Blair J. F. Leuchtenburg. 

8...R. B. Moore Hugh Pugh, A. Carnes. 

9...F. Beresford J. Feldwisch. 

10. ..Jos. Siefert Isaac Wieser. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 141 

Ward. 

11. ..R. Bieman M. B. Masson. 

12. ..John F. Forbus C. V. Bechman, Geo. Scheu. 

13... Dr. M. Lilienthal John T. Jones. 

14. ..John Webb, Jr Benjamin Groffl 

15... C. W. Starbuck Carter Cook. 

16.. .Wm. H. King Hiram Pugh. 

17. ..Milton Glenn H. Janes. 

18.. .Rev. J. Chester H. W. Taylor, 

19. ..Alex. Aupperle John Whetstone. 

20...Thos. Asbury Samuel Beresford. 

CHILDREN'S HOME. 

The idea of the reformation and training of neglected 
children is of comparatively recent development. Chris- 
tian philanthropy had long been accomplishing a noble 
work in other directions before Raikes, wiser than he 
knew, initiated the movement which has grown into 
the vast system of juvenile reformation now existing. 
The philosophy is correct — the twig may be bent where 
all eflFort will fail to change the tree. Murray Shipley 
had long been actively engaged in this department of 
labor in Cincinnati, when, in 1860, the initiatoiy steps 
were taken by him in a new and noble enterprise. 

It was found that a portion of the city, south of Fourth 
and west of Plum, was almost destitute of religious in- 
struction. It embraced over thirty squares, closely popu- 



142 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

lated, in which, were many tenement houses, rookeries, 
and shanties, and included one ward of the city noted 
as a resort for large numbers of regular thieves and 
abandoned characters. 

The need being felt of some evangelizing influence, 
a cellar-room on Mill Street, below Third, was rented, 
and there was commenced the Penn Mission Sabbath 
School. The children were of the rudest and roughest 
character. The numbers were limited to the capacity 
of the room, about seventy ; but in November, 1863, a 
three-story brick building having been erected on Park 
Street, with a large hall in the third story, fitted up for 
meetings and Sabbath Schools, a removal was made, and 
the school at once increased to an attendance of three 
hundred. 

The Children's Home of Cincinnati was incorporated 
December 12, 1864. The work had been previously car- 
ried on by the President, Murray Shipley, and the ma- 
jority of the present lady managers. There were then 
a superintendent and matron employed, and thirteen 
children in the Home, 

Experience having shown that the boys received who 
were over twelve years of age needed to be trained into 
habits of industry, an appeal to our citizens met with a 
ready response, and $20,000 was subscribed. As a result, 
in the spring of 1867, a farm of seventy-five acres, on Col- 
lege Hill, about eight miles from the city, was purchased, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 143 

and is now in successful operation. This is the Chil- 
dren's Home School Farm. 

A Branch Home, on East Sixth Street, with a day 
school, was established in January, 1868. There are 
then, three departments: 

1st. The Home, 19 and 21 Park Street, where the 
children lire, and its day school. 

2d. The School Farm, for older boys. A similar pro- 
vision for girls is in contemplation. 

3d. Branch No. 1, East Sixth Street, and its day school. 

Religious services of various kinds are held on Sunday 
and during the week. The Penn Mission Sabbath School, 
on Park Street, and the Grellet Mission School, on Sixth 
Street, have each an enrollment of about five hundred. 

The institution aims to ameliorate and elevate the 
condition of the children of poor and unfortunate par- 
ents: 

1st. By procuring for the homeless and destitute 
who may be committed to it, in accordance with its 
charter, permanent country homes in Christian families, 
where they shall be trained in habits of industry, and 
receive a suitable English education. They are clothed, 
fed, and instructed gratuitously as long as they remain 
in the institution. 

2d. By aflfording a temporary home to poor children, 
whose parents, thus aided, may be enabled to support 
them in a short time in homes of their own. 



144 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

3d, By rescuing from the education of the streets, so 
ruinous in its effects, many who, for the want of cloth- 
ing, books, etc., do not attend tlie Public Schools. 

The following are some of the conditions in regard to 
applicants for children to be placed in homes. 

The applicant must live in the country, and is required 
to be a member of some Evangelical Christian Church. 

He is to agree to take the child into his family, clothe 
and feed it comfortably, give it good common school 
education, so as to enable it to enter creditably on the 
ordinary duties of life. 

4th. He is to agree to train it up, so far as he is able, 
in the precepts of virtue and the Christian religion. 

Parties having children will be expected to report to 
the Superintendent every three months. 

A cordial invitation is extended to all to visit " The 
Home," at 19 and 21 Park Street. 

In 1868, one hundred and fifty-nine children were 
received into the Home, and one hundred and foui-teen 
were provided with homes in the country. Thus the 
grand work is going on, and hundreds of useful men 
and women will hereafter rise up and pronounce blessed 
this noble charity. 

The Trustees of the Institution for 1869 are — 
Murray Shipley, President. 
O. N. Bush, Treasurer. 
B. Homans, Jr,, Secretary. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 145 

S. S. Fisher, W. H. Doane, 

Wm. Woods, Larz Anderson, 

John Shillito, G. H. Lounsbery, 

H. Thane Miller. 

Lady Managers. 
Mary J. Taylor, Mary S. Johnson, 

Hannah D. Shipley, Harriet D. Bush, 

Hannah P. Smith, Aurelia S. Fisher, 

Lydia S. Bateman, Cornelia B. Marsh, 

Elizabeth L. Taylor, Caroline Bruce, 

Priscilla Jones. 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

I give and bequeath to the Children's Home of Cincinnati, 

Ohio, the sum of Dollars, to be paid to the Treasurer, 

for the time being, for the use of said Association. 

THE GERMAN PROTESTANT ORPHAN ASYLUM 

was chartered in 1849. A structure of ample dimen- 
sions was erected upon Highland Avenue, Mt. Auburn, 
to which extensive additions have recently been made. 
The aims and modes of operation of this institution 
are similar to those of the Cincinnati Asylum. 

The institution is under the superintendence of Eev. 
G. F. Pfafflin and Mrs. Mary Pfafflin. Under their able 
and careful management, the Asylum has enjoyed most 
encouraging prosperity. 

10 



146 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Children of members of the Association are admitted, 
though they may have lost but one parent ; in other cases, 
only those who are bereaved of both parents. 

At such times as are deemed proper, the children are 
placed in families, who obligate themselves to retain 
them until they arrive at their majority, at which time 
the boys are to receive two hundred dollars and the 
girls one hundred dollars in cash. 

Cooperating with the institution, is the Ladies' Prot- 
estant Orphan Association, that ftirnishes all the cloth- 
ing for the children. 

The present improvements will cost thirty thousand 
dollars, and will accommodate one hundred additional 
children. 

HOME FOR THE FRIENDLESS. 

This praiseworthy charity, the object of which is the 
reclamation of abandoned females, is under the direc- 
tion and management of ladies connected with the dif-^ 
ferent Protestant Churches of the city. The Board of 
Managers includes benevolent women who move in the 
highest circles of the city, and who deserve honor for 
their persevering efforts in behalf of an unfortunate 
class that are regarded by many, though unjustly, as 
beyond the hope of redemption. An act of incorpora- 
tion was obtained in 1860. 

The constitution provides as follows : 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 147 

This Society shall be called "The Protestant Home 
for the Friendless and Female Guardian Society." 

The object of this Society shall be to seek out and 
provide a home for destitute females who, having for- 
saken the path of virtue, or having fallen into the hands 
of the betrayer, desire to return from their evil way, and 
again become respectable members of society. And it 
shall be the duty of the Society to guard virtuous fe- 
males (who may seek temporary protection in the Home) 
from the snares of vice, by aiding them in every laud- 
able way to obtain an honest livelihood and avoid 
temptation. It shall be its duty also to provide tem- 
porarily for destitute children, and, whenever practi- 
cable, to secure for them permanent homes in respect- 
able families. 

The affairs of the Society shall be controlled by fif- 
teen managers, to be elected, as far as practicable, to 
represent the various Protestant denominations. 

Any person paying the sum of from three dollars to 
five dollars yearly subscription shall be entitled to a 
membership in this institution, and each donor of 
twenty dollars, at any one time, shall be a member for 
Ufe. 

The work of these noble women who are thus, through 
this institution, bringing so many each year from loath- 
some to virtuous lives, is a glorious one. Many who 
enter the walls of the Home to attempt reformation be- 



148 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

come good women, and finally become useful members 
of society. 

The following are statistical items from tbe last 
report : 

Number admitted during the year, 163 ; of these re- 
turned to parents or friends, 23; provided with situ- 
ations, 52 ; sent to hospital, 29 ; dismissed at their own 
request, 3 ; dismissed for bad behavior, 2 ; died, 3 ; ad- 
mitted for transient rest, 44. 

For several years the want of accommodations was 
strongly felt. Funds were raised, and in September, 
1868, the corner-stone of a new building was laid. 
This edifice was formally opened in April, 1869. It is 
located on Court Street, between Central Avenue and 
John. The Home is a handsome structure of brick, 
with stone trimmings, fifty-four feet front, and four 
stories high. The internal arrangements are admirable. 
There is a roomy chapel, dormitories, and all needful 
accommodations for one hundred and fifty inmates. 

Officers. 

Mrs. Bellamy Storer, President. 
" K. M. Bishop, 
" W. B. Chapman, 

" Sarah Frankland, Corresponding Secretary. 
" M. M. White, Recording Secretary. 
" G. F. Bradley, Treasurer. 



> Vice-Presidents. 
1, ) 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 149 

Managers. 
Mrs. E. M. Bishop, Mrs. Cyrus Mendenhall, 

" C. F. Bradley, " Wm. H. Malone, 

" W. B. Chapman, " B. F. Richardson, 

" Sarah Frankland, " Bellamy Storer, 

" Richard Gray, " Mary J. Taylor, 

" G. Mendenhall, " M. M, White, 

Mrs. J. F. White. 

Trustees. 
R. M. Bishop, President. Joseph Kinsey, Vice-Prest. 
S. S. Davis, Treasurer. B. F. Brannan, Secretary. 

Robert Moore. 
Mrs. Geo. H. Smith, Matron. 
Miss M. A. Cunningham, Asst. Matron. 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

I give and bequeath unto the Protestant Home fob the 
Friendless and Female Guardian Society of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, the sum of , to be paid to the Treasurer, 

for the time being, for the use of said association. 

LADIES UNION AID SOCIETY. 

The object of this Society is to relieve the destitute 
sick and the deserving poor, without regard to color, 
and render aid to suffering humanity in general. It 
has been in operation but a few years, but has already 
done a noble work. 



150 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

The number of persons who received assistance in. 
1867, nearly all of whom had aid each week during 
the winter, were six hundred and fifty-six. 

Clothing and provisions distributed, were as follows : 
Calico, 1,006 yards; tlannel, 1,186 yards; muslin, 
1,096 yards; jeans, 246 yards; burlaps, 368 yards; 
blankets, 72 ; comforts, 23 ; drawers, 109 pairs ; stock- 
ings, 310 pairs ; underclothing. 111 ; shirts, 45 ; shoes, 
65 ; dresses, 61 ; skirts, 44; sacks_, 6 ; hoods, etc., 10 ; hats 
and caps, 9 ; boots, 3 pairs ; vests, 19 ; thread, 404 spools ; 
bread tickets, 294; corn-meal, 1,276 quarts; hominy, 
475 quarts ; beans, 519 quarts ; potatoes, 4 bushels ; 
bacon, etc., 12, 
The officers are : 

Mrs. H. C. Whitman, President. 

Mrs. Nathan Guilford, Sen., Vice-President. 

Miss L. Vallette, Treasurer. 

Mrs. A. L. Eyder, Secretary. 

Managers. 

Miss M. L. Harrison, Mrs. Henchman. 

Mrs. Charles Graham, Miss L. Vallette, 

" R. B. Field, Mrs. William Woods, 
" J. P. Whiteman, " Bellows, 

" W. J. Sampson, " J. E. Stevenson, 

" E. D. Wilder, " J. Paul, 

" Wesley Taylor, " E. W. Guilford, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 151 

Mrs. H. S. Applegate, Mrs. H. C. Whitman, 
" William Coolidge, " A.L.Ryder, 

" Pitts Harrison, " N. Guild, 

" William Sumner, " S. B, Brown, 

" Dr. Eichardson, " J. B. Bruce. 



FOWELL BUXTON MISSION SABBATH SCHOOL. 

Officers. 

H. B. Baily, Supt. Levi C. Goodale, Assistant. 

Wm. Browne, Treas. Wm. I. Gray, " 

Geo. B. Frost, Secretary. 

John T. Bateman, Cyrus Mendenhall, Dr. Wm. Storer 

How, Executive Committee. 

This mission originated in January, 1865, beginning 
with twenty-eight scholars and three teachers. 

Its name was taken from that of Sir Thomas Fowell 
Buxton, a prominent leader of Emancipation, in Eng- 
land. 

The objects are : 

To gather in the neglected and destitute colored 
children of our city ; to teach them the truths of the 
Christian religion, to the saving of their souls, and to 
relieve the physical suffering of those requiring aid. 

To accomplish this, they are furnished with Bibles, 
New Testaments, Sabbath School books and papers, 



152 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

for their attendance, and the very needy are supplied 
with clothing, after personal visitation. 

To help to raise the down-trodden, to impart a love 
of truth and virtue, to aid to self-respect, to help to 
educate into law-abiding citizens, must be to secure the 
sympathy of the Christian public every-where. To 
perform it efficiently, they are dependent, to a great 
extent, on the cooperation and sympathies, not only 
of Christian philanthropists, but of a generous commu- 
nity. 

The average attendance during the year has been three 
hundred and forty-three scholars, the highest being 
six hundred and twelve. There are on active duty 
forty-four teachers and assistants. 

These represent different denominations. 

ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL. 

The object of this institution is to afford medical and 
surgical aid and nursing to sick and disabled persons, 
by a hospital and other appropriate means, and also 
to provide such jjersons with the ministrations of the 
Gospel. 

The Hospital is located on the south-west corner of 
Franklin Street and Broadway. The Association was 
incorporated in January, 1866, with Henry Probasco, 
William Proctor, and Thomas G. Odiorne as Trustees. 

The constitution provides that this Association shall 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 153 

be called "St. Luke's Hospital Association of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the City of Cincinnati, 
Ohio," and has the following provisions : 

The Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of 
the Diocese of Ohio shall be the President of this As- 
sociation, and the Assistant Bishop First Vice-Presi- 
dent. The other officers shall be three Vice-Presidents, 
a Treasurer, and a Secretary, to be elected from and by 
a Board of thirty-three Managers, who, together with 
the said President and the members of the Board of 
Council and Advice, shall be denominated " The Board 
of Managers," any seven of whom shall be a quorum 
for the transaction of business. 

The rectors and city missionaries of the Protestant 
Episcoj^al Church in Cincinnati and its vicinity shall, 
together with the President of the Association and the 
First Vice-President, constitute a Board, to be denom- 
inated the " Board of Council and Advice," to whom 
shall be committed all matters touching the religious 
ministrations of this Association, and of all institutions 
connected therewith. 

Every person who shall contribute the sum of S5, an- 
nually, to this Association, shall be a member thereof, 
and every person contributing a sum not less than $500 
shall be a life member thereof. 

The following extracts are made from the reports of 
the Board of Managers : 



154 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

In 1865, it was determined that we should no longer 
neglect to provide a hospital for the sick poor of all 
classes, with the best medical treatment, and to afford a 
suitable refuge and consolation, in sickness, for Protest- 
ant Christians and all others who would choose the 
benefits of such an institution. The intention was to 
begin with a few beds, and to carefully increase them 
as the means offered, until thirty beds should be sup- 
ported. The building on the comer of Broadway and 
Franklin Streets, with twenty-eight rooms, the lot one 
hundred feet front on Broadway by ninety feet on 
Franklin Street, was leased, with the privilege of pur- 
chase at $15,000. Very soon the applicants for admis- 
sion became so numerous that an immediate increase 
of beds was called for, and was promptly met by the 
benevolent societies of our churches, and thirty-six beds 
were occupied. It was also intended to provide a free 
dispensary for the poor outside of the house. 

The managers have kept in mind that this hospital 
must minister moral and religious support to the minds 
of the suffering, as well as bodily cure; and it is in- 
tended to use every effort to make this most important 
part of the work more efficient. Devoted Christian 
women will be accepted, and encouraged to engage as 
voluntary laborers for Christ's sake, in this most noble 
work, systematically and with constancy of purpose. 

In admission, there has been no respect to persons on 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 155 

account of creed. Of two hundred and thirty patients 
admitted in 1866, the first year of the existence of the 
Hospital, only thirty were Protestant Episcopalians. 
All the patients have had the privilege of calling in 
their own religious teachers at any time they desired. 

The sacred character of the ministrations, of the 
gentle influences enjoyed by those who are nursed in 
an institution like this, of the awakening of their moral 
sensibilities, and of the evidences of their physical and 
spiritual improvement, renders it impossible to exhibit 
completely its results and benefits in a brief sketch ; 
and so the most interesting facts can only be made 
public by those who, with gladdened hearts, restored in 
mind and body, are continually passing out from its 
quiet wards. 

Thousands of people in Cincinnati have already seen, 
and know of, the substantial benefits which have been 
dispensed in the last three years. Its growth has been 
quiet, but not secret; and it promises well to shine as 
a bright object among the many dark things in our 
large city. Hundreds have gone out testifying, with 
tears of thankfulness, to the Christian charity that 
raised them up to life and happiness. 

Accomplished Christian ladies, who have means of 
support independently of the Hospital Association, and 
who have been thoroughly trained in the art of nursing 
and conducting a hospital properly, reside in the insti- 



156 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

tution, and work gratuitously, superintending it, and 
receiving no remuneration. These are independent 
Protestant Sisters, devoting their whole time in Chris- 
tian charity to beneficent work. Benevolent ladies of 
distinction, and of high social and intellectual culture, 
are now in many places bending their energies to this 
noble and elevated sacrifice — devoting their superior 
qualities of mind and heart to the best interests of 
mankind and of Christianity. 

No one connected with the hospital receives any 
payment for what they do for it, excepting the physi- 
cian who resides in the hospital, under the direction of 
the medical and surgical staif, and some subordinate 
employes. 

Persons who are sick and are able to pay for nursing, 
may have suitable accommodation in the rooms of the 
hospital, and be treated by their own physician, under 
the rules; and those who may be strangers here, and 
unexpectedly fall sick, or those who might be other- 
wise inconveniently situated in a hotel or boarding 
house, and require the best care, can find it here. 

By paying $300 for a year, or by endowment in trust 
of $3,000, benevolent societies or persons may support 
or endow a single bed, and have the privilege of send- 
ing a patient to occupy it for a year, or permanently. 

The extent of operations of this institution is contin- 
ually widening, and it is hoped that, at no distant day, 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 157 

the funds will be raised to erect a commodious edifice 
for its use. 

The following items are from the regulations : 

Application for admission of patients may be made 
at the hospital, or to any member of the Executive 
Committee. Patients will be admitted without refer- 
ence to their religion, and may be visited by clergy- 
men of their own selection. 

No cases of contagious diseases are admitted. Chronic 
or incurable cases will be retained no longer than med- 
ical treatment and nursing are essential to the relief or 
amelioration of sufiering. 

The friends of patients are admitted from 10|^ to 12 
A. M. every day, excepting Sundays. 

All visitors are respectfully requested to leave when 
the bell rings at the expiration of the visiting hour. 

On Sundays visits to the patients are permitted only 
in cases of extrer«e sickness. 

Officers of St. Luke's Hospital Association. 

Eight Rev. C. P. Mcllvaine, D. D., President. 
Right Rev. G. T. Bedell, D. D., First Vice-President. 

Wm. Proctor, 1 

T. G. Odiorne, > Vice-Presidents. 

Henry Probasco, J 



158 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 



William Proctor, 
G. H. Barbour, 

C. Wann, 
Gideon Burton, 
James A. Frazer, 
G. K. Shoenberger, 
Samuel Davis, Jr., 

D. B. Pierson, 
T. G. Odiome, 
S. S. Eowe, 
William Walter, 
R. Wilson Lee, 
Isaac C. Collins, 
William M. Bush, 
William B. Trott, 

E. J. Miller, 

B. Homans, Jr., 



Managers. 

H. Probasco, 
John Cinnamon, 
A. L. Frazer, 
C. F. Bradley, 
George H. Smith, 
George T. Stedman, 
H. D. Huntington, 
W. J. M. Gordon, 
John H. Hewson, 
Wm. Henry Davis, 
J. H. French, 
William A. Proctor, 
Seth L. Thompson, 
H. B. Bissell, 
Z. B. Coffin, 
P. W. Strader. 



BOARD OF COUNCIL AND ADVICE. 

Eight Eev. C. P. Mcllvaine, D. D. 
Eight Eev. G. T. Bedell, D. D, 



Eev. Eichard Gray, 
" J. H. Elliott, 
" E. P. Wright, 
" E. T. Kerfoot, 
" Samuel Clements, 



Eev. G. D. E. Mortimer, 
" Francis Lobdell, 
" Wm. Allen Fiske, 
" Wm. A. Snively, 
" D.H.Greer. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 159 

KXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

T. G. Odiorne, Wm. Henry Davis, 

William Proctor, G. H. Barbour, 

Jolm Cinnamon, A. L. Frazer, 

C. F. Bradley. 

Wm. Henry Davis, Treasurer. 

S. S. Eowe, Secretai'y. 

AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

C. F. Bradley, • Isaac C. Collins. 

DAILY ATTENDING PHYSICIANS. 

A. L. Carrick, M. D. H. Ludington, M. D. 

B. Taylor, M. D. W. I. Wolfley, M. D. 

CONSULTING PHYSICIANS. 

C. G. Comegys^ M. D. Israel S. Dodge, M. D. 
Geo. Mendenhall, M. D. N. Foster, M. D. 

ATTENDING SURGEONS. 

P. S. Conner, M. D. O. D. Norton, M. D. 

CONSULTING BURGEONS. 

Thomas Wood, M. D. W. H. Mussey, M. D. 

OCULIST. 

E. Williams, M. D. 



160 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

The attention of benevolent persons, who may be dis- 
posing of their property for charitable use, is directed 
to the following 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

I give and bequeath to " St. Luke's Hospital Associa- 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the City of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio," a Corporation created in the year 18C5, under 
the laws of the State of Ohio, or to the Treasurer thereof, for 

the time being, for its corporate purposes, the sum of 

dollars. 

Dated at . » 

FORM OF DEVISE OF REAL ESTATE. 

I give and devise to " St. Luke's Hospital Association of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the City of Cincinnati, 
Ohio," a Corporation created in the year 1865, under the laws 
of the State of Ohio, or to the Treasurer thereof for the time 
being, for its corporate purposes, all that, etc. (here desci'ibe 
the property). * 

Dated at . 

WIDOWS' HOME. 

This asylum for aged women was originated in 1848. 
After struggling through the first years of its existence, 
it became fixed in the public opinion as an object worthy 
of benevolence. 

The charter was granted in 1851, the corporators being 
Robert Buchanan, Edward D. Mansfield, Davis B. Law- 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 161 

ler, Lucius Brigham, Eufus King, Wesley Smead, John 
Stille, and others. The establishment of the Home upon 
a permanent footing, was largely owing to the personal 
efforts of Wesley Smead, at that time a banker of the 
city. 

The following description of this institution is taken 
from the valuable and interesting book, lately pub- 
lished, on the "Suburbs of Cincinnati." 
"The object of the institution is to provide a home for 
aged and indigent females, who can give satisfactory 
testimonials of good conduct and respectable character. 
Persons under sixty years of age are not admitted, though 
this is not an invariable rule. 

The fiscal affairs of the Home are under the control 
of a Board of Trustees of three gentlemen, and the im- 
mediate management of all matters pertaining to the 
household is reposed in a Board of Managers, consist- 
ing of twenty ladies. The present Matron is Mrs. M. 
Oves, and the number of persons in the Home forty- 
six. 

The house is on the west side of Highland Avenue, 
immediately opposite the German Protestant Orphan 
Asylum. It consists of a large main three-story brick 
edifice, facing the south, with wings of two stories on 
both east and west, and a basement throughout the en- 
tire building. The house is airy, with good halls, com- 
fortable, well-furnished rooms, a parlor for the reception 
11 



162 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

of guests, and a room set apart for religious Avorship and 
other meetings. The location is an eligible one, and the 
surroundings desirable and pleasant. 

The institution has an endowment fund, but this but 
partially defrays the current expenses. The benevolence 
of the community is looked to for the remainder. 

The members of the family are compelled to do no 
more work than is desirable. Those who are able are 
expected to make their own beds and sweep their rooms 
each morning, to sew, knit, assist in domestic duties, and 
render all the service they can for the benefit of the in- 
stitution and for those who are more helpless than them- 
selves. 

All that is necessary for their comfortable support is 
provided from the funds of the Society, and no person 
is allowed, under any circumstances, to leave the insti- 
tixtion for assistance or work. Religious exercises are 
supplied by Rev. Joseph Emery, City Missionary, who 
preaches on alternate Wednesday afternoons. Services 
are also held by Rev. J. F. Wright, pastor of the Meth- 
odist Church in Mount Auburn ; Rev. J. F. Lloyd, of 
High Street Church ; Rev. J. Pierson, of Mears Chapel ; 
and Rev. J. M. Straeffer. In addition to these, the stu- 
dents of Lane Seminary, during the session, hold regu- 
lar Sabbath afternoon exercises." 

This institution has done, and is doing, a noble work. 
Many aged, indigent women who, in better days, were 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. ' 163 

surrounded by refinement and culture, have here been 
sheltered and cared for, and their declining days made 
brighter by the kindly offices of Christian benevolence. 
The following regulations are observed: 

1. No person shall be admitted into the asylum but 
those who bring satisfactory testimonials to the pro- 
priety of their conduct and the respectability of their 
character. 

2. When they are pensioners on any church, benev- 
olent institution, or society, it is expected their pen- 
sions will be continued, to assist in their support, and 
their funeral expenses will be defrayed. 

3. No person under sixty years of age will be admit- . 
ted; but the managers may, at their discretion, admit 
persons under that age, if satisfied that they have be- 
come helpless by premature old age. 

4. Every person admitted as an inmate must pay a 
fee of one hundred dollars in advance. 

6. No inmate who may be dismissed, or shall quit the 
asylum without the consent of the managers, will be 
re-admitted. 

Officers. 

Mrs. A. N. Eiddle, President. 
Mrs. John Shillito, Vice-President. 
Mrs. Wm. Proctor, Treasurer. 
Miss Clarissa Gest, Secretary. 



164 * THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Managers. 

Mrs. A. E. Chamberlain, Mrs. H. Thane Miller, 
" R. Buchanan, " Edw. Sargent, 

" C. H. Stille, " David James, 

" J. P. Kilbreth, " T. Maddox, 

" Lawson, " R. M. Corwine, 

" G. D. Smith, " G. H. Pendleton, 

" J.Graff, " McCormick, 

" Thos. Butler, " Benj. Bruce, 

" Oliver Perin, " Brooks Johnson, 

" Eleanor Douglas, " Theo. Cook. 

Matron, Mrs. Oves. Assistant, Mrs. Dryer. 

Fiscal Trustees. 

A. E. Chamberlain, Edward Sargent, 

W. W. Scarborough. 

THE WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

of Cincinnati was organized in June, 1868. The idea 
of its establishment originated with one of the most 
active members of the Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation, a student of Lane Theological Seminary. 

There had come under his attention the condition of 
the poorly-paid working girls of the city, and the thought 
was suggested to him of an organization that should do 
for young women what another association was already 
doing for young men. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 165 

After much deliberation and planning, the matter 
had at length become so well matured, that he deemed 
it time to take others into his counsels. Accordingly, 
he visited some two hundred ladies in the city, ex- 
plained to them his views, showed the results he hoped 
to secure, met objections with convincing arguments, 
and at last won over to his views and side so many of 
the earnest Christian women of the city, that he 
thought a meeting might be safely called. So, one 
afternoon in the summer, after two months of hard 
preliminary work, in response to a call published in 
the papers, a small number of ladies assembled in the 
hall of the Y. M. C. A., for the purpose of forming a 
Women's Christian Association, Probably the hot 
weather kept some away; perhaps, too, the time was 
not yet fully ripe for the consummation of the work. 
At all events, after a little consultation, of a rather 
informal character, the meeting adjourned to meet 
again in the autumn. Early in October, invigorated 
by their summer wanderings, the ladies assembled once 
more. 

Every one seemed to recognize the fact that the pro- 
posed institution, properly managed, would prevent 
the ultimate ruin of many a young stranger unused to 
the dangerous allurements of city life, and give a 
pleasant, cheerful home, at the mere cost of living, to 
others whose meager salaries would make such com- 



166 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

forts otherwise impossible. The only wonder was, that 
such a work had not long ago been undertaken. This 
time all meant work, and before the meeting adjourned, 
the movement had been inaugurated. 

The plan that was adopted, looked, in the first place, 
to the establishment of a boarding-house for women. 
Of course, this is but a single direction of the many 
in which the association proposes to work. Its scope 
•will be as comprehensive as that of the Young Men's 
Association. But all the ladies seemed to feel that 
more than any thing else there was needed a house 
where young women, strangers in the city, either in 
poorly-paid services, or in none at all, might find a 
safe and comfortable home. So to the work of raising 
funds for the leasing of a suitable building they at once 
applied themselves. 

Five thousand dollars were needed. This amount 
was secured, and the association found itself upon a 
firm basis of successful operation, with a host of good 
friends and well-wishers. 

A commodious building was leased, at No. 27 Long- 
worth Street. 

The churches were especially active in giving assist- 
ance. All denominations joined heartily in the work, 
,the Presbyterian shaking hands with the Swedenbor- 
Igian, the Baptist with the Unitarian, the Methodist 
and Episcopalian with the Christian. The only rivalry 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 167 

was to see which society should do most good with its 
money. Each church took upon itself the fitting up 
of a single room, aiming in its purchases to secure 
comfort. The result was, that the twenty-seven rooms 
in the building were provided neatly with black wal- 
nut furniture, oiled, with cheerful carpets, and other 
tasteful fittings. More attractive, cozy, comfortable 
rooms are hardly to be found in the city. 

Upon the day of the opening of the Home, in March, 
1869, these rooms were thronged. More than two 
thousand persons visited them, and the visitors were 
enthusiastic in their praise of the manner in which the 
work had been done. 

In this, as in all large cities, there exists a class pe- 
culiarly needing sympathy and care. Attracted by the 
glitter of a city life, or seeking a livelihood for them- 
selves, many young women leave quiet country homes, 
and flock to the crowded city. Far from home and 
protectors, inexperienced, friendless, and alone, they 
stand dismayed amid the perplexities, temptations, 
and wrongs of a great metropolis. They look in vain 
for a protecting hand and a sympathizing word. The 
common boarding-house is no place for them, and they 
can not pay half the prices demanded in those of a 
better class. At this point " Evil, with proffered hand 
and treacherous smile, stands ready to lead them on to 
ruin." 



168 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

A prominent object of the institution is to furnish to 
such a temporary shelter. For these, the Home, with 
its welcome, comfort, and Christian influence, is open. 
It is not to be thought of as a public institution, 
neither is it an ordinary boarding-house, where the 
lonely ones may live friendless and forgotten. It is a 
retired, pleasant home, the social and religious influ- 
ences forming its chief characteristics. 

A new and wide field of benevolence has thus been 
entered. 

The Home will become the head-quarters of the 
great army of Christian women of the city. Bureaus 
will be organized, and new departments of Christian 
activity will be created. A field as broad as that oc- 
cupied by the Young Men's Christian Association will 
be opened. A work as noble, as comprehensive, as 
vast, as important as the most tireless of workers could 
wish, will be aSbrded. 

Officers. 
Mrs. Dr. John Davis, President. 
Vice-Presidents. 
, Mrs. S. S. Fisher, Mrs. W, W. Scarborough, 

" A. D. Bullock, " J. F. Perry, 

" Alphonso Taft, " Dr. E. Williams. 

Mrs. H. W. Sage, Recording Secretary. 
" Robert Brown, Jr., Corresponding Secretary. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 169 

Mrs. Dr. W. B. Davis, Treasurer. 
Miss A. C. Crossette, Auditor. 

Managers. 

Mrs. D, W. Clark, Mrs. George W. McAlpin, 

" A. F. Perry, " Elizabeth Dean, 

" B. F. Brannan, " Murray Shipley, 

" C. J, Acton, " Mary J. Taylor, 

" Jacob D. Cox, " W. M. Bush, 

" Thane Miller, Miss Mary Fitz, 

" Frank Whetstone, " Hester Smith, 

" A. J. Howe, " Mary H. Sibley, 

" C. L. Thompson, " Julia Carpenter. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

The Young Men's Christian Association of Cincin- 
nati deserves a high rank among the charities of the 
city. The suggestions of a wise and thoroughly earnest 
and practical Christianity are carried out in its jiresent 
organization and methods of labor. The scope of these, 
and the means and ends of its usefulness, are well set 
forth in the following language : 

" The Christian Association, in proportion to its mem- 
bership and their activity, becomes a moral police 
wherever it is established, arresting the vicious in their 
mad career, preventing much of the sin that promises 
to ripen into crime, removing or diminishing, so far as 



170 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

its influence extends, the teeming tenaptations of city 
life, and attracting toward itself the confidence and 
love of those whose rescue has thus been wrought. 
By its well-arranged system of practical fraternity, the 
institution provides employment for the unemployed, 
homes and churches and friends for the stranger, nurses 
and physicians for the sick, and all this without other 
incentive than the consciousness of discharging duty and 
the hope of winning souls to Christ. It makes not mem- 
bership the sole title to its benefits, it exacts no oaths 
of secrecy, it assumes no prerogatives of power or privi- 
lege, it puts forth no pretension to peculiar sanctity." 

On the evening of the 8th of October, 1848, a band 
of youug men organized, in Cincinnati, a "society for 
mutual improvement in grace and religious knowledge." 
At first, the Central Presbyterian Church only w'as rep- 
resented, but, three months later, January 8, 1849, they 
bad discovered a ready sympathy with their objects on 
the part of others, and the organization was extended 
to all denominations, founded on the broad principle of 
Christian union. 

Its meetings, with a view to mental and spiritual 
improvement, were occupied by reports of the members 
from mission fields at a distance, of home work among 
the churches of the city, and of personal experience, 
especially in labors with young men whom they sought 
to bring in — if Christians, to work with them ; if not 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI, 171 

Christians, that they might do them good. A special 
membership was provided identical with the present 
" Associate Membership." Later, in 1850, a " Contrib- 
uting Membership " was formed. 

The society was designated, early in its history, as the 
" Young Men's Society of Inquiry ; " later, April, 1849, 
as the " Cincinnati Society of Religious Inquirj' ; " then, 
in the spring of 1853, when the existence of similar 
organizations had become known and sympathies had 
been exchanged, the addition to the title of "Young 
Men's Christian Union" was made; and, in 1858, the 
latter title was used exclusively. In May, 1863, the 
name " Young Men's Christian Association " was 
adojited to secure uniformity in title with the kindred 
organizations which had now been formed in every 
section of the country. 

The early progress of the Cincinnati society had been 
gradual but sure. It became a power in the community 
known and felt by a large number, especially of young 
men. Its life was quickened when, in 1853, it learned 
of other societies which had been established with iden- 
tically the same objects, at London, in June, 1844; at 
Montreal, December, 1851; and at Boston, December 
29, 1851. The societies at London and Cincinnati were 
entirely independent of, and unknown to, each other 
until about this time. In 1853, the number of associa- 
tions had increased to twenty-five. 



172 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Thus, the cause had come to be a power in the whole 
land, and with its growth each society grew. A con- 
federation was formed of nearly all the associations on 
the continent in 1855, and from that time the institu- 
tion began to assume larger proportions, and greater 
uniformity and wisdom of purpose. 

The Cincinnati association pursued its work with 
success till 1861. The breaking out of the civil war 
then interfered seriously with its operations, and, for 
two or three years, it practically ceased to exist. 

On the 18th of July, 1865, the present society, in full 
sympathy with the former organization, adopted a con- 
stitution, which, as amended May 7, 1867, is now in 
force. 

The first meetings were held in the lecture room of 
the Seventh Street Congregational Church, until a 
room was procured at No. 54 West Fourth Street. 

The accommodations here being insufficient, new quar- 
ters were sought. The present premises of the Associa- 
tion, at 200 and 202 Vine Street, were first occupied in 
September, 1865. At this time, William J. Breed was 
President. His administration was marked with vigor 
and unprecedented success, and the institution took rank 
among the leading forces arrayed against the vice, pau- 
perism, and crime of the great city. In 1868, H. Thane 
Miller was elected President, and the Association has 
received a new impetus in its glorious work. It has 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 173 

felt in its every department the earnest spirit and en- 
thusiasm of such a leader. 

The object of the Association is to promote the men- 
tal, moral, and spiritual welfare of the young men of 
Cincinnati. 

The plan has been to divide the work into depart- 
ments, each under the care of an efficient committee, 
and to have the whole field under the supervision of 
an executive board. Reports from all committees are 
made in writing, once a month, and are read at the 
business meeting of the Association. 

The Reading Room is free to all. It has been con- 
stantly open from eight A. M. to ten P, M., and has 
been a pleasant resort for thousands of homeless young 
men. 

The Music Room adjoins the reading room, and is 
made as homelike as possible, with pictures and illu- 
minated texts on the walls, a piano, cabinet organ, and 
other attractions. This is designed for the large class 
of homeless young men who wander up and down the 
streets, cheerless and forlorn, and who, because they are 
homeless, are so easily beguiled into the gilded haunts 
of vice and infamy. In this room they meet pleasant 
faces, a smile of welcome, and a cordial grasp of the 
hand. 

Social meetings are held on the third Tuesday even- 
ing of the month, to which ladies and gentlemen are 



174 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

cordially invited. Eeadings, recitations, music, and 
conversation fill the evening. 

The COiSrvERSATiON Koom is open every evening, 
and has been visited by not less than twenty thousand 
young men during the year. As many as three hun- 
dred and fifty have been present in a single evening. 
All enjoy the innocent games, and as soon as they cross 
» the threshold realize the necessity of gentlemanly lan- 
guage and deportment. This room has kept many young 
men from scenes of dissipation, and has proved the start- 
ing point toward a better life. 

A lyceum has been established, under the auspices of 
the Association, and weekly meetings are held. Essays, 
debates, and criticisms occupy the evening. 

Missionary work has been carried on most successfully. 
There are many institutions of relief, punishment, and 
reform, with every attention paid to the physical wants 
of the inmates, but no adequate provision made for their 
spiritual wants. A committee was appointed to super- 
vise the field, and volunteers came forward to visit 
the jail, the city prison, the work-house, hospitals, and 
other public institutions, on the Sabbath. Eeligious 
tracts and papers were distributed, personal conversa- 
tions were held with the patients and prisoners, and 
religious services conducted in the wards and chapels. 

A Bible class, conducted by clergymen and laymen 
alternately, is held every Sunday. A noonday religious 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 175 

service has been regularly sustained, and one or more 
evening prayer meetings every week. On the Sabbath, 
the Gospel has been proclaimed at every possible point 
specially adapted to collect an audience of non-church- 
goers ; parks, market-spaces, theaters, and public halls 
have been turned into places of prayer. 

The Stranger's Home, open during the cold season, 
proved a great benefaction to hundreds of homeless wan-^ 
derers. A building was engaged with sutBcient space for 
a large kitchen, dining room, and dormitories; charita- 
ble persons, in diiFerent parts of the city, purchased tick- 
ets, and, when needy persons applied to them for assist- 
ance, tickets were given, with directions where to find the 
"Stranger's Home." Tickets can not be converted into 
money, nor spent for liquor. More than one hundred 
m'^ frequently slept there at night who would otherwise 
have been inmates of the station-houses. In the day- 
time they were provided with plain, wholesome food, and 
with bathing facilities. Cleanly habits were strictly en- 
joined, good order preserved, good morals taught. 

Coffee Eoom. — It is nearly three years since the 
Workingmen's Coffee and Reading Room was opened 
on the corner of John and Columbia Streets. It speed- 
ily became self-supporting, and has proved of great 
benefit to the class for whom it was specially designed. 
The aim was to furnish coffee and soup as substitutes 
for beer and stronger drinks, at a price so cheap that 



176 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

men would come from motives of economy. The plan 
was successful. 

The drinking saloons in the vicinity have lost cus- 
tomers, and in four instances have suspended opera- 
tions entirely. 

An employment register is kept, looking to the re- 
lief of young men by finding for them situations. 
Hundreds of young men every year receive temporary 
assistance in the way of shelter, food, clothing, or 
transportation to distant homes. Friendless strangers, 
in hotels and boarding-houses, are cared for in sick- 
ness and death. Thus widely is this glorious institu- 
tion stretching the arms of its usefulness. Its achieve- 
ments shall be unmeasured in time, and its far-reaching 
results known only in eternity. 

Officers of the Association. 
H. Thane Miller, Prest. E. S. Fulton, Rec. Secy. 
W. J. Breed, Vice-Prest. John H. Cheever, Treas. 
H. P. Lloyd, Cor. Secy. L. Sheaff, Superintendent. 

Executive. Comviittee. 
H. Thane Miller, H. P. Clough, 

W. J. Breed, W. R. Kidd, 

H. P. Lloyd, . Cyrus S. Bates, 

E. S. Fulton, L. E. Hull, 

J. H. Cheever, Abuer L. Frazer, 

Lang Sheaff, 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 177 

Finance Oommittee. 

S. J. Broadwell, Hugh McBirney, 

B. Homans, Jr., W. H. Doane, 

James B. Wilson, H. W. Brown, 

W. F. Thorne, W. J. Breed, 

Matthew Addy, Theo. Cook, 

C. W. Starbuck. 

Standing Committees. 

BECDFTION. 

Jas, C. McCurdy, Chas. E. Hayward, 

C. E. Wood. 

PRAYER MEETING. 

Wm. G. McL. Doering, John L. Ledman, 
Mr. Springit. 

BIBLE CLASS. 

Walter Alden, L. H. Swormstedt. 

SABBATH EVENING SERVICES. 

S. M. Chester, W. H. Davis. 

THEATER SERVICES. 

S. Lowry, Geo. E. Stev.ens, 

i. A. Grover. 
12 



178 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

HOSPITALS. 

G. H. Smith, T. B. Horton, 

Jos. Eiggs. 

COUNTY JAIL. 

John Stuyvesant, E. M. Crevath, 

W. J. Baker, Jr. 

U. S. BARRACKS. 

B. F. Barry, S. B. Brown, 

Walter Tearne. 

WORK-HOUSE. 

C. Hitchcock, L. Parker, 

H. J. Page, H. P. Hopkius. 

FEMALE PRISON. 

George Gray, D. I. Jones. 

LYCEUM. 

E. H. Foster. 

LECTURES. 

Sidney D. Maxwell, S. L. Frazer, 

H. M. Taylor. 

SOCIAL MEETINGS. 

J. F. Crossett, T. M. Hinkle, 

E. G. Hall.* 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 179 

STRANGERS HOME. 

J. Emery, W. S. How, 

Win. B. Williamson. 

EMPLOYMENT. 

E. A. Holden, E. S. Lloyd, 

C. S. Morten. 

BOARDING HOUSES. 

C. A. Aiken, H. Griggs, 

W. C. Herron. 

COFFEE ROOMS. 

Murray Shipley, W. E. London, 

S. C. Tatem. 

LIBRARY AND PERIODICALS. 

J. T. Perry, R. D. Barney, 

H. P. B. Jewett. 

COLORED ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

This institution aims to accomplish for colored chil- 
dren the ends contemplated in kindred organizations. 
Its building is at Avondale. Statistics of its operations 
are not at hand. 

CINCINNATI HOUSE OF REFUGE. 

This institution was established in 1850. Its support 
is provided for by law, although its operations enlist the 



180 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

sympathies of many who manifest their interest by sub- 
stantial tokens of regard. In the magnitude of its work 
and the great good accomplished by it, it yields to no 
other institution. It stands a monument to the mem- 
ory of the philanthropic citizens who urged its necessity, 
and saw after many years the consummation of their 
noble endeavors. Prominent among these gentlemen 
were William Burnet, Thomas J. Biggs, George Craw- 
ford, H. B. Curtis, Miles Greenwood, E. P. Langdon, 
William McCammon, Joseph Eay, Alphonso Taft, 
and Charles Thomas. 

The object of the institution is the reformation of 
depraved and unmanageable children in the city of 
Cincinnati. The majority are sent here from the Police 
Court. In September, 1868, there were inmates one 
hundred and sixty boys and thirty-four girls. Their 
mental and moral training is of the best character, and 
a large number learn to excel in mechanical employ- 
ments. This labor, besides its reformatory influence, is 
a source of considerable income. Many leave the walls 
of this institution to rise rapidly in the social scale, and 
take their places as useful members of society. 

Under the superintendence of H. A. Monfort, Esq., 
the House of Eefuge is fulfilling the most sanguine 
hopes of its founders. No institution of its kind in the 
United States is better managed. 

The buildings are situated in Millcreek Valley, one 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 181 

mile north of corporation line. The buildings are of 
blue limestone, with windows, cornices, casings, and por- 
tico of white Dayton stone, and are erected in the Gre- 
cian style. The grounds belonging to the institution 
contain nine and seven-eighths acres, five and three- 
fourths of which are inclosed by a stone wall twenty 
feet high, within which stand all the buildings except 
the stable. 

The " House" presents an imposing front of two hun- 
dred and seventy-seven feet, and is composed of a main 
building, eighty-five by fifty-five feet, four stories in 
height, with towers at the extremities projecting two 
feet in front, and which are five stories high, besides 
the basement. In the main building are the offices, 
superintendents' and officers' apartment, principal store- 
room, boys' hospitals and dispensary. 

Extending north and south from the main building 
are two wings, each ninety-six by thirty-eight, with 
towers at the extremities projecting two feet in front 
and rear. The wings are four stories in height, and the 
towers five, besides the basement. The buildings will 
accommodate three hundred and fifty inmates, with the 
requisite officers. 

Board of Directors. 

A. E. Chamberlain, Jos. C. Butler, 

Charles Thomas, R. A. Holden, 



182 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Chas. F. Wilstach, H. Thane MUler, 

S. Bonner, Jas. M. Johnston, 

John D. Minor. 

Officers. 
A. E. Chamberlain, President. 
Joseph C. Butler, Treasurer. 
H. A. Monfort, Superintendent and Secretary. 
A. B. Chase, Assistant Superintendent. 

Joseph Chester, Chaplain. 
Mrs. M. Fleckinger, Matron. 
Miss S. G. Paulson, Nurse. 
Mrs. E. Wilson, Housekeeper. 
W. H, Taylor, Acting Physician. 
G. F. Magaw, 
Wm. Wilcox, 

Mrs. E. M. Herrick, \ '^'^^'''' 
Miss Auretta Hoyt, 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

The Board of Health was established in 1867, and 
has accomplished most desirable results. The Mayor 
of the city is President, ex-offido. 

John F. Torrence, President. 

William Clendenin, M. D., Health Officer. 

Guy W. Armstrong, Secretary. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 183 

Hugh McBixney, S. S. Davis, 

Charles Thomas, John Simpkinson, 

J. C. Baum, John Hauck. 

THE CITY INFIRMARY 

is a municipal institution, affording relief in the shape 
of coal, tickets to the Soup House, and admission into 
the City Infirmary. The office is on Plum Street, be- 
tween Seventh and Eighth. The buildings of the In- 
firmary are located on the Carthage road, eight and a 
half miles north of the city. The farm contains one 
hundred and sixty acres of beautifully rolling land. 
The spacious edifice, recently erected, is an ornament 
to its vicinity, and the position commands a fine view 
of the surrounding country. 

Application for relief must be made to the overseers 
of the poor. 

The Directors of the City Infirmary are Messrs. W. 
H. Watters, Ira Wood, and John Martin. 

LONGVIEW ASYLUM. 

This institution for the treatment of lunatics is de- 
scribed elsewhere. Its Board of Directors are — 

Judge John Burgoyne, President. 

Hon. Joshua H. Bates, Secretary. 
Hon. Jno. F. Torrence, Hon. Henry Kessler, 
Joseph Siefert, Esq., Hon. John K. Green. 



184 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

It has the following corps of officers : 

0. M. Langdon, M. D., Supt. and Physician. 
A. P. Courtwright, M, D., Assistant Physician. 
K. T. Thorburn, Esq., Steward. 
Mrs. Loxiisa W. Jones, Matron. 

THE CINCINNATI HOSPITAL. 

The object of this institution is to provide medical 
attendance for the sick poor of Cincinnati. Patients 
who are able to pay and non-residents incur a charge 
of five dollars per week for board, medicines, and treat- 
ment. The advancement of medical science is consulted 
in the provision of clinical lectures, to which all medi- 
cal students who have regularly matriculated in a medi- 
cal college may be admitted. 

The government and control of the hospital is vested 
in a board of seven trustees, of which the Mayor of the 
city and the director of the City Infirmary, oldest in 
commission, are members ex-officio. One trustee is 
appointed by the Governor of the State, two by the 
Sujjerior Court, and two by the Court of Common 
Pleas. The present board are — 

Hon. John F. Torrence, President. 
J. J. Quinn, M. D., Secretary. 

B. F. Brannan, Esq., David Judkins, M. J)., 

F. J. Mayer, Esq., John Carlisle, Esq., 

Ira Wood, Esq. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 185 

Henry M. Jones, Superintendent. 
T. E. H. McLean, Clerh 
Agnes Eose, Matron. 
Charles Biele, Druggist. 

PHYSICIANS. 

C. G. Comegys, M. D., John A. Murphy, M. D,, 

John Davis, M. D., J. F. White, M. D. 

SURGEONS. 

W. H, Mussey, M. D., W. W. Dawson, M. D., 

H. E. Foote, M. D., Wm. Clendenin, M. D. 

OBSTETRICIANS. 

M. B. Wright, M. D., Geo. Mendenhall, M. D. 

OCULISTS. 

E. Williams, M. D., W. W. Seeley, M. D. 

PATHOLOGISTS. 

W. H. Taylor, M. D., Eoberts Bartholow, M. D., 

Wm. Carson, M. D, 

PHYSICIAN TO PEST-HOUSE. 

J. L. Neilson, M. D. 

CHIEF HOUSE PHYSICIANS. 

J. L. Quinn, M. D., Jas. Dawson, M. D., 

J. B. Richie, M. D. 



186 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

ASSISTANT HOUSE PHYSICIANS. 

S. W. Anderson, M. D., H. Illowy, M. D., 
W. W. Vinnedge, M, D. 

This summary view is, of course, too limited to pre- 
sent a statement of all public charitable efforts in a 
city of the size of Cincinnati. No mention has been 
made of the widely-extended benevolent operations of 
the Masonic and other s©e^et organizations, and the 
various trades' unions, through whose agencies large 
sums are spent in the alleviation of human suffering. 
The vast system of the Eoman Catholics, who, within 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati, have two orphan asylums, 
two hospitals, and six charitable institutions of different 
kinds; the extensive efforts made within the bounds 
of the Episcopal Church and other Protestant denomi- 
nations, and other special methods, remain without full 
statistics or extended notice. Ample evidence has been 
given, however, that benevolent effort is wide-awake 
and effective in this great metropolis, and that, in this 
golden age of Charity, the Queen City may compare 
its record with any. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Press— Chamber of Commerce— Board of Trade- 
Libraries— Literary, Scientific, and Social Organi- 
zations. 

Cincinnati may justly boast of the excellent 
quality and liigli tone of its daily press. Nowhere 
in the land, outside of New York, are newspapers 
conducted upon an equal scale of expense. The jour- 
nals of the Queen City challenge comparison the world 
over for beauty of typography and value of contents; 
while, as mediums of reaching the public, they rank 
higher with advertisers than those of any other city, 
New York alone excepted. 

The Commercial is published in the quarto form, is 
independent in politics, and claims the largest circula- 
tion in the Mississippi Valley. No expense is spared 
in its service of the public, and it has performed most 
astonishing feats in giving the earliest publicity to im- 
portant news. It keeps an impartial and sleepless eye 
upon current afiairs. The Commercial is published by 
M. Halstead & Co., and is issued every morning in the 
week. 



188 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

The Chronicle, an evening paper, is in the second year 
of its existence, and full of the energy and sprightliness 
of a vigorous youth. In the presentation of literary and 
scientific intelligence, with its general news, it is unsur- 
passed. The public spirit and sagacity of its publishers 
have entitled them to the remarkable success they have 
achieved. The Chronicle is Republican in politics. 

The Enquirer, the Democratic organ, is one of the best 
conducted newspapers in the country. Liberal in spirit 
and enterprising in management, it wields enormous 
power throughout the South and West. Its conductors, 
Messrs. Faran & McLean, thoroughly understand the 
art of journalism, and produce a paper which may 
safely invite comparison. 

The Gazette, Eepublican in politics, is now in the 
fifty-second year of its existence, and in the full tide of 
prosperity. Its various departments enlist first-class 
talent, and its influence in the formation of public 
opinion is immense. As a business newspaper it is in- 
valuable, its columns embodying all current facts and 
documents of commercial interest. Matter of permanent 
historical value which is constantly appearing, makes it 
most valuable for preservation. 

The Times, published in the evening, is the oldest 
daily in Cincinnati with one exception, having been 
established in 1840. Its columns give evidence of un- 
ceasing care and vigilance in the publication of all 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 189 

matters of general public interest. Independent of 
party, it seeks to fill all the requirements of a news- 
paper for the family circle. Its weekly edition has a 
circulation of nearly seventy thousand, and goes into 
every State and Territory in the Union. 

To meet the wants of the large German citizenship, 
two dailies are published in the German language, every 
morning. 

Tlie Volksblatt, Republican in politics, is published by 
Hof & Hassaurek, 

The Volksfreund, of the Democratic persuasion, is 
published by a stock company. 

Each of the morning papers publish weekly editions. 

The other papers and periodicals published in the city 
are here given : 

WEEKLIES, 

American Christian Revieiv (Christian). Published 
by Franklin & Rice. Circulation, 9,500. 

Catholic Telegraph. 

Christian Apologist (German Methodist). Circula- 
tion, 16,000. Published by Hitchcock & Walden. 

Christian Herald (New School Presbyterian). Circu- 
lation, 8,000. 

Christian World (Reformed Church). Circulation, 
6,000. 

Cincinnati Price Current. William Smith, Editor and 
Proprietor. 



190 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Cincinnati Wahrhdtsfreund (German Catholic). Cir- 
culation, 14,000. 

Free Nation. Published by Amos Moore. 

Journal and Messenger (Baptist). Circulation, 5,500. 

Literary Eclectic. Published by H. M. Moos. 

Presbyter (Old School Presbyterian). Circulation, 
5,200. Published by Monfort & Wampler. 

Protestantische Zeitblatter. Published by Edw. Luther. 

Railroad Record. Published by Wrightson & Co. 

Temperance Age. John Gundry, Editor and Pro- 
prietor. 

Sendbote (German Baptist). Circulation, 3,000. Eev. 
P. W. Bickel, Editor. 

The Deborah. Published by Bloch & Co. 

The Israelite. Published by Bloch & Co. 

The Star in the West (Universalist). Circulation, 
5,300. Published by Williamson & Cantwell. 

Western Christian Advocate (Methodist). Circulation, 
25,000. Published by Hitchcock & Walden. 

SEMI-MONTHLY. 

Sunday School Advocate (Methodist). 
Sunday School Bell (German Methodist). Eev. W. 
Nast, D. D., Editor. 

MONTHLY. 

Children's Home Record. Rev. B. W. Chidlaw, Editor. 



\ 



I 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 191 

Christian Press. Circulation, 23,000. Rev. B. P. Ay- 
delott, D. D., Editor. 

Christian Pulpit. Eev. N. Summerbell, D. D., Ed- 
itor. 

Dental Register. Dr. J. Taft, Editor. 

Eclectic Medical Journal. J. M. Scudder, M. D., Ed- 
itor. 

Family Treasure. Eev. Jos, Chester, Editor. 

Journal of Medicine. George C. Blackman, M. D., 
Editor. 

Ladies^ Repository. Circulation, 24,000. Rev. I. W. 
Wiley, D. D., Editor. 

Lancet and Observer. Dr. E. B. Stevens, Publisher. 

Medical Repository. J. A. Thacker, M. D., Editor. 

Masonic Review. Cornelius Moore, Editor. 

National Normal. R. H. Holbrook, Editor. 

Phonographic Magazine. Benn Pitman, Publisher. 

Painter's Magazine. 

Sabbath School Missionary. Circulation, 22,000. West- 
ern Tract & Book Society. 

Scemann (German Baptist). Circulation, 10,000. 

Sabbath Paper. Circulation, 12,000. Western Tract 
& Book Society. 

The Treasury (Welsh). Charles Bathgate, Editor. 

The Theological Eclectic. Moore, Wilstach & Moore, 
Publishers. 

Temperance Review. John Mofiatt, Editor. 



192 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

QUARTERLY. 

The Christian Quarterly, Rev. W. T. Moore, Editor. 

Cincinnati, with its numerous newspapers and peri- 
odicals, produces also, largely, literature of a more 
permanent character, ranking fourth among American 
cities in the manufacture of books. An immense capi- 
tal is embarked in the publishing business. Messrs. 
Wilson, Hinkle & Co., publish a series of text-books, of 
which over three million copies are sold annually. It 
is the largest publishing house of elementary school 
books in the world. The Methodist Book Concern 
publish over twenty-five hundred separate volumes, and 
turn out, under the supervision of the veteran printer, 
R. P. Thompson, work which can challenge comparison 
with the finest printing done in the Atlantic cities. 
The Elm Street Printing Company, besides other busi- 
ness, print more than twenty difierent periodicals, which 
distribute to the public annually over fifty million pages 
of reading matter. 

THE CINCINNATI CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

This organization, which has attained such influence 
and prominence in its relations to the commerce of the 
United States, was established in 1839. The following 
board of officers was elected January 14, 1840 : 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 193 

Griffin Taylor, President. 

Vice-Presidents. 

E. G. Mitchell, Thomas J. Adams, 

John Reeves, S. B. Findley, 

Peter Neflf, Samuel Trevor. 

B. W. Hewson, Treasurer. 

Henry Eockey, Secretary. 

Subsequent Presidents have been Lewis Whiteman, 

E. G. Mitchell, Thomas J. Adams, James C. Hall, 
N, W. Thomas, E. M. W. Taylor, James F. Torrence, 
Joseph Torrence, J. W. Sibley, Jos. C. Butler, George 

F. Davis, Theodore Cook, S. C Newton, and John A. 
Gano. 

The object in view was to afford occasion and place 
for the discussion of all leading questions of mercantile 
usage, of matters of finance, and of laws affecting com- 
merce, and also to collect information in relation to 
commercial, financial, and industrial affairs that might 
be of general interest and value ; to secure uniformity 
in commercial laws and customs; to facilitate business 
intercourse and to promote equitable principles, as well 
as the adjustment of differences and disputes in trade. 

OFFICERS OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

President. 
John A. Gano. 

13 



194 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Vice-Presidetits. 
J. II. Freucb, H. M. Johnston, 

A. L. Frazer, Wm. Henry Davis, 

S. F. Covington, Florence Marmet. 

William Shaffer, Treasurer. 
George McLaughlin, Secretary. 
William Smith, Sup't Merchants Exchange. 

THE BOARD OF TRADE OF CINCINNATI. 

This organization was formed in 1868, to represent 
and promote the immense industrial interests which 
make Cincinnati the third in importance of manufac- 
turing cities in the United States, Its effort will be to 
collect and record such local and general statistical 
information relating to manufactures and commerce 
as may promote the manufacturing, commercial, and 
financial welfare of the city of Cincinnati, and espe- 
cially to protect, foster, and develop its manufacturing 
and industrial interests. 

Any person, a resident of Cincinnati, or of Hamilton 
County, State of Ohio, or of Campbell or Kenton 
Counties, State of Kentucky, or any firm or corporation 
doing business within said limits, if approved by the 
Executive Board of Officers, may become an active 
member of this association upon payment of the annual 
dues prescribed. 



THE CITY OF CIKCINNATI. 195 

Executive Board. 
Miles Greenwood, President. 
Eobert Mitchell, First Vice-President. 
A. T. Goshorn, Second Vice-President. 
S. S. Davis, Treasurer. 

Trustees. 
Joseph Kinsey, M. Kleiner, 

James L. Haven, Josiah Kirby, 

A. P. C. Bonte. 

H, H. Tatem, Seci'etary. 

LIBRARIES. 

The Public Library is under the direction of a 
Board of Managers chosen by the Board of Education. 
This Board of Managers is now as follows : 

J. M. Walden, Chairman. J. B. Powell, Sedy. 
M. D. Hanover, Treasurer. 
Eufus King, Eobert Brown, Jr., 

H. Eckel, S. S. Fisher. 

The number of volumes in the library is 23,786. Of 
these, 16,196 volumes belong to the Public Library, 
5,852 volumes to the Ohio Mechanics Institute, and 
1,738 volumes to the Historical Society of Obio. This 
extensive collection is for the free use of all residents 
of the city. It is constantly growing, and in time will 



196 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

occupy a new building whicli, in convenience of ar- 
rangement, will be surpassed by none in the land. 

YOUNG MEN'S MERCANTILE LIBRARY. 
This institution was establisbed in 1835. Moses Ean- 
ney was the first President. Its members now number 
2,141. The libraiy contains 30,499 volumes. 

The library and reading rooms are handsomely fitted 
up and are well stocked with books in every depart- 
ment of general literature, and newspapers and period- 
icals from all parts. There is no more pleasant resort 
than these rooms, in the College building on Walnut 
Street, above Fourth. 

Officers. 
Frank H. Baldwin, President. 
Albert W. Mullen, Vice-President. 
W. E. Looker, Corresponding Secretary. 
Charles B. Murray, Recording Secretary. 
Hugh Colville, Treasurer. 

Directors. 
James M. Clark, Samuel McKeehan, 

John J. Rickey, Alexander Clark, 

William T. Tibbitts. 
M. Hazen White, A. M., Librarian and Sup't. 
W. E. Barnwell, A. B., First Assistant. 
A. McLean, Second Assistant. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 197 

GENERAL THEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS LIBRARY. 
The association controlling this collection was formed 
in 1864. Its object is to form a complete collection of 
religious literature, representing every creed and every 
shade of theological belief An apartment in the edi- 
fice of the Mechanics Institute, on the corner of Sixth 
and Vine, is occupied at present. The library com- 
prises 3,800 volumes. 

THE LAW LIBRARY, 

one of the best in the country, is alluded to elsewhere. 

The above embraces the principal collections in the 
city, though there are many others of minor impor- 
tance. 

The limits of this volume will not suffice to mention, 
at length, the various associations, literary, scientific, 
social, and otherwise, which exist in Cincinnati, and 
give tone to public opinion and means of social im- 
provement. A few of these will, however, be noticed. 

CINCINNATI HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in 1843, Eobert Buchanan 
being one of the most active of its originators. Its 
career has been a prosperous one, and its influence has 
been felt far and wide in the promotion of knowledge 
and achievements in the growth of fruits and flowers. 



198 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

Exhibitions are held semi-annually. The President 

of the Society is W. P. Anderson, Esq. 

ACADEMY OF MEDICINE. 

This organization, formed in 1867, meets weekly, for 
the discussion of appropriate subjects, and for other 
objects of special interest to the medical profession. 
W. W. Dawson, M. D., is President. 

THE HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

was organized in 1824, and has been of great value in 
preserving facts relative to the history of the West, 
and in subserving the interests of science and litera- 
ture generally. Robert Buchanan is its President. 

THE OHIO MECHANICS INSTITUTE 

was incorporated in 1829. It provides, annually, at 
a mere nominal cost, the best instruction in practical 
branches of knowledge for any who choose to partake 
of its benefits. 

THE PIONEERS ASSOCIATION 

is composed of the early settlers and those born here 
previous to July 4, 1812. It was organized in 1856, 
and celebrates, each year, the settlement of Ohio, upon 
the 6th of April, and the settlement of Cincinnati, 
upon the 26th of December. Thomas H. Yeatman is 
its President. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 199 

THE YOUNG MENS' GYMNASTIC ASSOCIATION 

is alluded to elsewhere in this volume. 

THE GERMAN PIONEER xVSSOCIATION 

was organized in 1868, and now numbers about three 
hundred members. It publishes a monthly periodical, 
which will embody much valuable information in regard 
to pioneer history. Through the kindness of the officers 
of the society, the engraving of Cincinnati in 1802 has 
been furnished. 

LANE SEMINARY 

has long been a prominent institution of Cincinnati. Its 
early history made it known and famous throughout the 
country, associating with it the names of Rev. Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, Eev. Dr. Thomas Biggs, Eev. Calvin E. 
Stowe, and others. Situated at Walnut Hills, it has 
made that locality marked as the point whence have 
gone forth hundreds of ministers who are now laboring 
in every quarter of the globe. The library is one of 
the best in the United States, containing about fifteen 
thousand volumes. 

The present faculty consists of Eev. D. Howe Allen, 
Emeritus Professor of Systematic Theology ; Eev. Henry 
Smith, Professor of Sacred Ehetoric and Biblical Liter- 
ature ; Eev. Henry A. Nelson, Professor of Systematic 
and Pastoral Theologv; Eev. Edward D. Morris, Pro- 



200 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

fessor of Ecclesiastical History and Churcli Polity, 
and Rev. Llewelyn J. Evans, Professor of Hebrew and 

Greek Exegesis. 

Cincinnati may be proud of its provisions for the edu- 
cation of females. Among the many institutions of this 
kind may be mentioned the Wesleyan Female College, 
which is described elsewhere. Professor Lucius H. Bug- 
bee is now the President. Professor C. C. Bragdon 
occupies the chair of ancient languages. 

THE MOUNT AUBURN YOUNG LADIES' INSTITUTE, 

established in 1856, has always held the first rank as a 
school of thorough culture and the best advantages. 
Its admirable location and facilities for its work con- 
tinue to attract to it a large number of pupils. Rev. 
A. J. Rowland is at the head of this institution. 

THE CINCINNATI LITERARY CLUB, 

John "W. Herron, President; John M. Newton, Secre- 
tary, is well sustained. Besides this, there are the 
Burns, Davenport, Old Woodward, Shakspeare, St. 
Elmo, U. C. D. and Yale Clubs, all with hosts of friends, 
and enjoying a vigorous life. The association of Ger- 
man Turners wields great influence. The Allemania, 
Caledonia, and St. George Societies are well-known 
organizations. 







O 
R 

^ 



"^' 







\«» ^ 







l^ 



^.\lt^% 



!£?i 




THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 201 

The Mannerchor, the Harmonic, Cecilia and other 
musical societies, which are amply supported, give evi- 
dence of cultivation and taste in the divine art. 

This hasty survey will give but a glimpse at the social 
elements of Cincinnati, There is a high social, intel- 
lectual, and religious tone, and true public spirit. Its 
private collections of literature and art are famous, and 
in all that aids and adorns civilization, this great me- 
tropolis need not fear comparison with older American 
cities. 



CHAPTER YIII. 

Items of Caution and Notice— Hobse-car Routes— Fire- 
alarm Stations— Lines of Outward Travel— Miscel- 
laneous. 

Mfs(i'HE stranger in any large city may avail himself 
'^ of facilities which will soon make him entirely 
at home, and almost independent of the vague 
information to be obtained by asking questions. In 
Cincinnati, Williams & Co.'s Directory, prepared with 
great accuracy, and to be found at every hotel, will 
give almost all items of knowledge desired by the vis- 
itor. 

No more than a word is needed here to caution per- 
sons against being imposed upon by the various " con- 
fidence games " which have been so often exposed. 
Pickpockets are emphatically a city " institution," and 
wherever there is a crowd, it is well to beware of them. 
Money should never be shown among strangers, and 
large sums should always be deposited in bank, or in 
other trustworthy hands. 

All the banks and express offices require identifica- 
tion of persons drawing money or obtaining goods. 





Race &Pearl Sts .|y 



To our Friends and tlie Public : 

Having removed to our splendid neiv five-story stone-front httildings, 
Kos. 85 and 87 Bcwe Street, two doora south of the corner of Race and 
Pearl Streets, we take great pleasure in announcing to our numerous 
customers and friends, that we enter these new buildings with in- 
creased facilities every way for furnishing a large and well-selected stock 
of Groceries at the very lowest prices. Mr. R. M. Bishop, the senior 
member of the firm, who will give his personal attention, as hereto- 
fore, to purchasing for the house, has had forty years' experience as 
a merchant, and twenty-two years of that time in the 

Wholesale Grocery Business, 

in this city, and we feel assured that he can and will buy our stock at 
such advantages as will enable us to sell at lower rates than houses 
that have not our experience or our facilities. 

As the reputation of our house is so well established, we do not 
think it necessary to send solicitors or drummers through the coun- 
try, but prefer to give our customers the advantage of this very con- 
siderable expense, and tee will do it with all who may send us their 
orders. All we ask is to gice ns a fair trial, and we feel confident that we 
will be able to give entire satisfaction. 

Our stock of 

TEAS, TOBACCOS, AND CIGARS 

will always be found large and comxilete — selected with great care and 
purchased from first hands. This branch of our business will bo 
under the special charge of one of the firm, and we feel confident we 
can offer inducements in these articles. 

Call and see us at our Neiu Stores, Nos. 85 Sf 87 Race Street, 

and you will always receive a cordial welcome; but, if not convenient 
to visit the city, send us your orders, and you can rely upon their being 
promptly and satisfactorily filled. 
Respectfully, 

R. M. BISHOP Sc CO., 

S5 and 87 Race Street. 



Geo. S. Blanchard & Co., 

Call attention to their well-assorted stock of Books and Sta- 
tionery. Their established reputation and long experience 
guarantee faithful and intelligent dealing with tlieir custom- 
ers. Book-buyers will find upon their shelves a select stock 
of Standard works in every department of Literature. His- 
tory, Poetry, Science, Fiction, Belles-Lettres, etc., are well 
represented. AH New Publications are promptly received. 
Parties residing at a distance from the city will find it very 
much to their advantage to correspond with G. S. B. & Co., 
in reference to whatever they may wish in their line. Par- 
ticular attention is given to supplying College, Society, and 
Private Libraries. To Purchasers for Libraries, Professional 
Men, Teachers, and Students, liberal terms are offered. Every 
variety of Stationery, Blank Books, Writing Papers, and En- 
velopes will be furnished at the lowest rates. 

The Public are requested to call and examine our stock ; or, 
if unable to visit Cincinnati, to communicate with us by Let- 
ter. All orders will receive prompt attention, and informa- 
tion of the prices at which articles can be furnished will be 
cheerfully given. 

GEO. S. BLANCHARD & CO., 

No. 39 West Fourth St., Cincinnati. 



Messrs. Geo. S. Blanchard & Co. will publish, in May, 
1869, a volume descriptive of the 

SUBURBS OF CINCINNATI. 

"No inland city hi the world surpasses Ciuciuuati iu the beauty of 
its environs."— Atlantic Monthly. 

Tiie work will embrace a historical sketch of each of the 
principal suburban localities and detailed descriptions of the 
various attractions and beauties which have given the en- 
virons of Cincinnati a wide celebrity. It will possess great 
interest for every resident of the city and every tourist who 
visits the " Queen of the West." 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 203 

The routes of the street cars are given below. The 
fare is six cents to any part of the city, with the ex- 
ception of Mount Auburn. 

CINCINNATI STREET E. E. 

ROTTTE.— Cars start from the corner of Fourth and "Vine 
Streets ; thence north on Vine to Seventh Street ; thence west 
on Seventh to Freeman ; thence north on Freeman to Ham- 
ilton road; thence (returning) south on Freeman to York 
Street ; thence east on York, to Linn ; tlieuce south on Lynn 
to Ninth Street; thence east on Ninth to Walnut; thence 
south on Walnut to Fourth ; thence west on Fourth to Vine 
Street. 

CITY PASSENGEE STEEET E. E. 

Office, north-west corner Fourth and Main Streets. Route. 
—Cars start from the intersection of Fourth and Main Streets; 
thence west on Fourth to John; thence north on John to 
Fiudlay ; thence west on Fiudlay to Baymiller ; thence north 
on Baymiller to Bank Street ; thence west on Bank Street 
to Patterson; thence north on Pattei-son to Harrison pike; 
thence east on Harrison pike to Cumminsville pike; thence 
(returning) south on Central Avenue to Fifth Street ; thence 
east on Fifth to Main ; thence south on Main to place of be- 
ginning. 

PASSENGEE STEEET E. E. 

Office, north-west corner Fourth and Main Streets. Route. 
—Cars start from the corner of Third and Lawrence Sti'eets; 
thence nortli on Lawrence to Fourth ; tlience west on Fourth 
to Smith ; thence north on Smith to Fifth ; tlience west on 
Fiftli to north-west corner of Fifth and Freeman; thence 
(returning) east on Fifth, by double track, to Wood Street; 
thence south on Wood to Third ; thence east on Third to 
place of beginning. 

PENDLETON STEEET E. E. 

Office, north-west corner Third and Lock Streets. Route 
No. 5 commences at Fourth and Walnut ; up Walnut to Fifth ; 



204 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

east on Fifth to Broadway ; south on Broadway to Pearl ; east 
on Pearl to junction with Front Street at Little Miami Depot; 
thence east on Front to Washington, the terminus— return- 
ing by Third and Martin Streets to Pearl ; west on Pearl to 
Broadway ; up Broadway to Fourth ; west on Fourth to Wal- 
nut. Route No. 7 commences at Washington Street, termi- 
nus of Route No. 5; thence east on Front Street to Sports- 
man's Hall and Ohmer's Garden— returning, by double track, 
to Washington Street. Distance from Fourth and Walnut to 
Sportsman's Hall, four and one-fourth miles ; time, every six 
minutes. The cars on this road pass the Little Miami Depot 
and the Dry Docks and ship-yai-ds of Fulton. Steam cars 
every fifteen minutes from Ohmer's Garden to Columbia; 
also Horse-cars from Miami Depot, along Front Street, to the 
Suspension Bridge, connecting with all trains on the Little 
Miami Road. To Fourth and Walnut daily, four-horse cars 
connect with each train on Miami Road. 

COVINGTON CITY RAILWAY. 

Office, Thirteenth and Madison, Covington. Route No. 2.— 
From Cincinnati side of Suspension Bridge to Second Street; 
on Second to Scott; on Scott to Third ; on Tliird to Madison ; 
thence to Eighteenth Street; return the same route to Third 
and Scott; thence on Third to Greenup; on Greenup to Sec- 
ond ; on Second to Bridge ; and across the Bridge to Cincin- 
nati. 

STORES AND SEDAMSVILLE STREET R. E. 

Cars leave Sedamsville, going east, at 6 A. M., and every 
fifteen minutes thereafter, during the day, up to 7 P. M. 
Leave foot of Sixth, going west, at 6 : 30 A. M., and every fif- 
teen minutes thereafter, during the day. Night car leaves 
Sedamsville at 7, 8, 9, and 10 P. M., going east— and foot of 
Sixth Street at 7:30, 8:30, 9:30, and 10:30 P. M., going west. 
The line of this road commences at foot of Sixth Street, and 
runs along the River road, through Sedamsville, to Readers- 
ville, a distance of three miles. 

CUMMIN3VILLE AND SPRING GROVE R. R. 

Offices, Gate No. 1, Spring Grove Avenue, and at Cummins- 
ville. Cars leave Beukeustein's Garden every ten minutes, 



a^SPEE'"S F®Ei0BI#miEi 



" Unquestionably the best sustained work of the kind in the world," 
HARPER'S MAGAZINE. 

The most popular Monthly in the worU. — Xew York Observer. 

It is one of the wonders of journalism — the editorial management 
of Harpee's. — Nation. 

It meets precisely the popular taste, furnishing a pleasing and in- 
structing variety of reading for all. — Zion's Herald, Boston. 

"A complete Pictorial History of the Times." 
HARPER'S WEEKLY. 

AN ILLUSTRATED NEWSPAPER. 

The model newspaper of our country — complete in all the depart- 
ments of an American family paper — Harper's Weekly has earned 
for itself a right to its title, " A Journal of Civilization." — N. Y. 
Evening Post. 

This paper furnishes the best illustrations. Our future historians 
will enrich themselves out of Harper's Weekly long after writers and 
printers and publishers are turned to dust. — New York Evangelist. 

The articles upon public questions which appear in Harper's 
Weekly from week to week form a remarkable series of brief political 
essays. They are distinguished by clear and pointed statements, by 
good common sense, by independence and breadth of view. They are 
the expression of mature conviction, high principle, and strong feel- 
ing, and take their place among the best newspaper writing of tho 
time. ^North American Review. 

An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Fashioii, Pleasure & Instruction. 
HARPER'S BAZAR. 

A Supplement, containing numerous full-sized Patterns of useful 
articles, accompanies the paper every fortnight, and occasionally an 
elegant Colored Fashion Plate. 

Harper's Bazar contains, besides pictures, patterns, etc., a variety 
of matter of especial use and interest to the family ; articles on health, 
dress, and housekeeping in all its branches ; its editorial matter is 
specially adapted to the circle it is intended to interest and instruct ; 
and it has, besides, good stories and literary matter of merit. — New 
York Evening Post. 

It has the merit of being sensible, of conveying instruction, of giv- 
ing excellent patterns in every department, and of being well stocked 
with good reading matter. — Walcliman and Reflector. 

To dress according to Harper's Bazar will be the aim and ambition 
of the women of America. — Boston Transcript. 

TSRHS FOR HARPER'S PERIOI)ICAL.S. 

Harper's Magazine, One Year 84 00 

Harper's Weekly, One Year i 00 

Harper's Bazar, One year 4 00 

Harper's Magazine, Harper's Weekly, and Harper's Bazar, to one 
address, for one year, SIO 00; or any two lor 87 00. 

Address HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. 



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Geo. B. Lester, Actuary. Chas. E. Wilson, AssH Sec'y. 

R. D. HARRISON, Oolumbvs, 
Gen. Agent /or Ohio. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 205 

running on Spring Grove Avenue to Cumminsville and 
Spring Grove Cemetery. Distance, two miles from Cincin- 
nati to Cumminsville ; do., three miles to Spring Grove Cem- 
etery—returning same route every ten minutes. Last car 
leaves Benkenstein's at 11 P. M. Fare to Cumminsville, ten 
cents; to Spring Grove, fifteen cents. Cars start at 6 A. M. ; 
connect with John Street aud Freeman Street Lines. Depot, 
one square from Brighton House. Strangers wishing to visit 
Spring Grove Cemetery can procure tickets at the office of 
Secretary Samuel B. Spear, Pike's Opera House, up stairs, 
or at the first toll-gate on the road. 

MT. AUBURN AND CINCINNATI STREET E. R. 

Office, 232 Main Street. Route.— From Fifth, up Main, to 
Orchard; thence to Sycamore— returning on Liberty, Main, 
Court, and Walnut Streets. Time, every fifteen minutes. 
From corner Sycamore and Liberty, cars ascend the hill to 
Mount Auburn ; return same route. Time, thirty minutes. 
First car down, 6 A. M. ; last car up, 9 : 15 P. M. 

FIRE-ALARM STATIONS. 
The number of the box signaling the fire will be 
struck upon the bells of all the engine houses, together 
with that upon the Mechanics Institute. For exam- 
ple: To announce an alarm from signal box No. 24, 
the bells will be struck twice, and after a pause of 
five seconds, will be struck four times: thus, 2 — 4. 
If from No. 124, thus, 1—2^. The number of the 
box will be repeated at intervals of twenty seconds 
until a sufficient alarm has been sounded. 

LIST OF SIGNAL BOXES. 

1. Eng. House No. 15,Observ- 3. Cent. Avenue and Sixth, 
atory and Pavilion Sts. 4. Eng. House No. 14, Fifth 

2. Fifth and Elm. near Smith. 



206 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 



5. Third and Sinitli. 48. 

6. Second and John. 49. 

7. Front and Smith. 51. 

8. John and Clark. 

9. Front and Elm. 52. 

12. Engine House No. 1, Race 53. 
and Commerce. 54. 

13. Walnut and Second. 56. 

14. Front and Main. 57. 

15. Second and Sycamore. 58. 

16. Front and Broadway. 59. 

17. Front and Pike. 61. 

18. Little Miami R. R. Depot, 62. 
west end. 63. 

19. Engine House No. 6, Pearl 64. 
and Martin. G5. 

21. Third and Lock. 67. 

23. Fifth and Lock. 68. 

24. Eng. House No. 10, Third 69. 
and Lawrence. 71. 

25. Market and East Front 
(Drugstore). 72. 

26. Main and Pearl. 73. 

27. Third and Vine. 74. 

28. Third and Elm. 75. 

29. I. & C. R. R. Depot, Pearl 76. 
and Plum. 78. 

31. Fourth and Central Ave. 79. 

32. Fourth and Race. 81. 
S4. Fourth and Walnut. 

35. Vine and Water. 82. 

36. Sixth and Main. 83. 

37. Fifth and Sycamore. 

38. Sixtli and Broadway. 84. 

39. Eiglith and Miami Canal. 85. 

41. Eng. House No. 4, Syca- 86. 
more and Wlietstoue Al. 87. 

42. Eighth and Walnut. 89. 

43. Seventh and Race. 91. 

45. Ninth and Elm. 

46. Marine Railway, Fulton. 92. 

47. Eighth and Mound. 93. 



Seventh and Cutter. 
Sixth and Park. 
Eng. House No. 2, Ninth 
and Freeman. 
Seveutli and Baymiller. 
Sixth and Baymiller. 
Fifth «& I. & C. R. R. B'dge. 
Fourth and Mill. 
Front and Mill. 
Wood and Front. 
Sixth and Freeman. 
Sixth and Harriet. 
Sixth and Front. 
Eighth and Harriet. 
Gest and Harriet. 
Richmond and Linn. 
Court and Cutter. 
Richmond and John. 
Plum and South Canal. 
Eng. House No. 5, Vine, 
north of Court. 
Twelfth and Race. 
Twelfth and Walnut. 
Court and Main. 
Eighth & Accommodat'n. 
Hunt and Broadway. 
Sycamore and Abigail. 
Spring and Woodward. 
Eng. House No. 7, Webster, 
bet. Main and Sycamore. 
Liberty and Pendleton. 
Junction of Lebanon and 
Montgomery Roads. 
North Mount Aaburn. 
Mason St., Mt. Auburn. 
Sycamore and Schiller. 
Mulberry and Locust. 
Vine and Mulberry. 
Eng. House No. 12, Ham- 
ilton Road and Vine. 
Walnut and Liberty. 
Walnut and Mercer. 



WESTERN METHODIST BOOK CONCERN, 

HITCHCOCK & WALDEN, Agents, 

A GENEEAL EELIGIOUS PUBLISHING HOUSE, 

CllSrCTlSrNJ^'Tl, 190 ^KV. Foxirtli St. 
CHICAGrO, 66 ^Vashington St. 
ST. L.OTJIS, <tl3 Locust St. 

This House publishes all standard Methodist works. Also, 

Theological Works, Coininentariesy Christian biography fCtc* 

And about Two Thousand dififerent Books for 

Also constantly on hand a full assortment of the best Books for Sunday -scboola and 
the Family, from other Publishing Houses. The 

GERMAN DEPARTMENT 

Comprises Theological Works, and Books for the Family, and for Sunday-schools. A 
good supply of imported German Books also kept on haud. 
OyCatalogues sent, post-paid, on application. 

Address Hitclicoclc «& "Waltlen, 

Cinciimati, Cttieago, or St. Louis. 



Published by the Same: 

THE LADIES' REPOSITORY AND HOME MAGAZINE, 

A Literary and Religious Monthly for the Family. Each number illustrated with 
Original Stekl Engravings and first-class Wood Engravings, and containing 
eighty super-royal octavo pages of reading matter. 

Price, $3 50 per year. Specimen number sent on receipt of thirty cents. 



GOLDEN HOURS. 

A first-class illustrated Monthly Magazine, for Children and Young people. It con- 
tains a large variety of Literary Matter — Tales, Travels, Biography, Science, Natural 
History, Incidents, etc. Each number contains 48 large octavo pages, printed on fine 
paper. 

Price S2 00 per year. Specimen number sent on receipt of twenty cents. 

For either the Ladies' Repository or the Golden Hours, address, 

HITCHCOCK & WAIi]>£N, 

CincitDiaii, Chicar/o, or SI. Z,otiis. 
CARLTON & LANAHAN, New York, 



Family Religions Papers Published by Hitchcock A Walden. 

Wbstekn Christian Advocate, Cinciunati, $2 us per year. 

Northwestern Thristian Advocate, ('hirago. 111 2 Hi 

Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis Mo 2 .ou 

Methodist Advocate, Atlanta, Ga 2 00 

Christian Apologist (German), Cincinnati, 2 fHJ 

Sandabudet (Swedish), Chicago, 111 2 of) 

STJiTiD.A.Tr-scTa:ooXi ipj^i'Easts. 

Sunday-School .\dvocate, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis. Single 
copies, 40 cents per year. To clubs^ ?..') cents per year. 

Sunday-School Bell (German), (Cincinnati. Single copies, 40 cents a 
year. To Clubs, 35 cents per year. 







PHILIP PHILLIPS & CO., 

37 Union Square, Broadway , 

NEW YORK, 

WHOLESALE ANK RETAIL DEALERS IN 



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Books sent to any address by mail when desired, free of charge. 



Address, 



fHITLIf PHirLIPS & CO., 

37 Union Square, Broadway, New York. 



HEAMTM Al^S"© HOME, 

Ah lUustrated Weeily of Hi handsome folio pages, for Oie 

Farm, Grarderi, and Fireside, 

EDITED BY 

X>OjN"A.1LiI> O. ^VtlTCHJELL, 

HA.ItR.rE2T' IBEECHER. !STO"\rE:, 

Assisted by a corps of able editors and contributors in all departments. 
HEAKTH AND HOME has now reached its eighth number, and meets 
with universal favor from ;ill classes of persons in town and countrj'. 

It contains every week original articles by the best American 
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Oartlening, Floner Culture, etc. 

In its Literary Department it includes the choicest original reading 
for all members of the family : Adventures by Sea and Land, Pure 
and Elevating Stories, Sketches, Biographies, Poems, etc. 

THC BOYS AK]> OlRIiS 

Will be specially provided for, and will find their own page always 
lighted with Fun in Pictures and Fun in Stories, so tempered with good 
teaching that we hope to make them wiser and better while we make 
them merrier. 
Terms. — Single copies $4, invariably in advance ; 3 copies $10 ; 5 copies $15. 

PETTENGILL, BATES & CO., 87 Park Bow, New York. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 



207 



M. Race and Fourteenth, 

95. Vine and Milk. 

96. Elm and Liberty. 

97. Elm and Findlay. 

98. Hamilton Road and Elm. 
121. Eng. House No. 13, Bank, 

bet. Cent. Ave. & Linn. 

123. Central Ave. and York. 

124. Linn and York. 

125. Poplar and Linn. 

126. Central Ave. & Liberty. 

127. John and Wade. 

128. Central Ave. & Clinton. 

129. Bast end of Seventeenth 
Ward. 

131. Eng. House No. 8, Cutter, 
bet. Laurel and Betts. 

132. Linn and Clark. 

134. Baymiller and Laurel. 

135. Freeman and Hopkins. 

136. Freeman and Everett. 

137. Linn and Everett. 

138. Baymiller and Liberty. 

139. Freeman and Findlay. 
141. Freeman and Bank. 



142. 
143. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
151. 
152. 
153. 

154. 
156. 



158. 
161. 

162. 
163. 
164. 
165. 
171. 
172. 



Cent. Ave. & Baymiller. 
Brighton House. 
Briglaton St. & Cent. Ave 
Third and Coliard. 
Ninth St. Police Station 
Bremen St. Police Stat'n 
Fulton Police Station. 
Hammond St. Police St'n. 
Cent. Ave. Police Station. 
Little Miami Loconrotive 
Works. 

John and Water. 
Harrison Road, we.st of 
Millcreek Bridge. 
Eng. House No. 11, East 
Front and Vance. 
Farmers Hotel, Fulton. 
Central Station, Sixth and 
Vine. 

Front, west of Millcreek. 
Gest, west of Millcreek. 
Western Ave. and Bank. 
Fourteenth and Race. 
Walnut Hills. 
Work-house. 



Cincinnati has five railroad depots, including one in 
Covington, which are used by thirteen different lines. 
These are designated as follows : 

Dayton Depot, Hoadly Street, between Fifth and 
Sixth Streets. 

Covington Depot, Eighth and Washington Streets, 
Covington. 

Indianapolis Depot, Plum and Pearl Streets. 

Little Miami Depot, Kilgour and Front Streets. 



208 THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 

Ohio and Mississippi Depot, West Front Street, corner 
of Mill Street. 

The ticket offices can be found under the Burnet 
House. 

The following tables will give the chief lines of rail- 
way leading out of Cincinnati, with principal inter- 
mediate and connecting points, and names of general 
officers in Cincinnati. 

CINCINNATI, HAMILTON AND DAYTON R. R. 

Connecting for Richmond, Connersville, Rushville, 
Cambridge City, Dayton, Lima, Fort Wayne, Chicago 
and the North-west ; Sandusky, Cleveland, and Buffalo, 
Toledo, Detroit, and ail Points in Canada. (Dayton 
Depot.) 

D. McLaren, General Superintendent. 

Samuel Stevenson, General Ticket Agent. 

CINCINNATI AND ZANESVILLE R. R. 

Morrow, Wilmington, Circleville. (Little Miami 
Depot.) 

ERIE AND ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN R. R. 

One thousand two hundred and fifty miles under one 
tuanagement ; eight hundred and sixty miles without 
change of coaches. The entire Broad-Guage Line from 



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THE GATES AJAR. 

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It is a work of genius.— i?.ra)nu!er and Chronirlc (Neio York. ) 

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FIELDS, OSGOOD A CO.. 
X34 Tremoiit St., Hoston. 



The Poor Man's Wealth ! 

The Rich Man's Best Investment ! 



LIFE INSURANCE CO. 

or NEWAEK, N. J. 



ASSETS OVER - - $18,000,000. 

At the age of 30 an Estate of 

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Other ages, from 14 to 35 years, at proportionate rates. 
This Company has been Established in Cincinnati 95 years. 

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Office S. -E. Cor. Jfafnul raid Third Sis., 
CINCINNATI. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 209 

Cincinnati to New York has been consolidated, and is 
now managed and operated by the Erie Company. 

The track has been put in the most perfect condition, 
and the equipment of the line greatly improved. (Day- 
ton Depot.) 

W. B. Shattuc, Passenger Agent, 

CINCINNATI AND INDIANAPOLIS JUNCTION R. R. 

For Oxford, Connersville, Cambridge City, Newcastle, 
Rushville, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, St. Louis, and all 
points West. (Dayton Depot.) 

J. H. Sheldon, Superintendents 

J. A. Perkins, General Freight Agent. 

INDIANAPOLIS. CINCINNATI AND LAFAYETTE R. R. 

Through passenger route from Cincinnati to St. Louis, 
Chicago, Cairo, Memphis, New Orleans, Springfield, 
Quincy, St. Joseph, Keokuk, Des Moines, Omaha, and 
all towns and cities in the West, North-west, and South- 
west. (Indianapolis Depot.) 

The splendid Passenger Depot of the I. C. & L. R. R. 
is about a mile nearer the business center of the city 
than the depot of any other railroad, and within a few 
squares of the Post-office and the principal hotels and 
steamboat landings. 

J. F. Richardson, Superintendent, 

A. E. Clark, General Ticket Agent. 



210 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

LITTLE MIAMI RAILROAD, VIA COLUMBUS. 

Elegant Silver Palace day and sleeping cars com- 
bined, are run through from Cincinnati to New York 
without change. This is the famous Pan-Handle route. 
The morning exj^ress goes through to New York in 
twenty-nine hours. Express train leaves every night. 
Trains run by Columbus time, which is seven minutes 
faster than Cincinnati time. 

W. L. O'Brien, General Ticket Agent. 

D. G. A. Davenport, Auditor. 

LOUISVILLE AND CINCINNATI R. R. 

Just completed ; an air line to Louisville, 106 miles. 
This will, in time, connect with the new railroad bridge. 
(Covington Depot.) 

KENTUCKY CENTRAL R. R. 

Covington, Cynthiana, Paris, Lexington. (Covington 
Depot.) 

H. P. Eansom, General Ticket Agent. 

MARIETTA AND CINCINNATI R. R. 

Loveland, Chillicothe, Athens. (Indianapolis Depot. ) 
C. F. Low, General Ticket Agent. 

OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI R. R. 
Three daily express trains leave Cincinnati, arriving 
at St. Louis in about twelve hours, and connecting 
with West-bound express trains for Quincy, St. Joseph, 



The most widely-axyprovecl 

SCHOOL TEXT-BOOKS: 

THE 

EOLEOTIO EDUCATIONAL SERIES: 
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137 WaliiLit Street, Cincinnati. 



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Ray's Arithmetics, Algebras, and (xeometry. 
Pinneo's Grammars and Composition. 



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Harrey's English Grammar. 

Ray's Rudiments of Arithmetic (with Answers). 

Ray's Geometry and Trigonometry. 

Pinneo's Exercises for Parsing and Analysis. 

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Knell & Jones's Phonic Reader, No. 1. 

Leigh's Phonetic Primer. 

Leigh's Phonetic Primary Readei*. 

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ECCE HOMO, ECCE DEUS. 

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may call an air, which grows musical by degrees, and which, becoming more distinct 
even as it swells, takes form, as in due time we find, in the articulate conclusion, 
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are almost as many admirers, the sale of both books being nearly alike. 

Both volumes bound uniformly. Sold separately. Price of each, $1.50. 

Prof. Ingraham's Works. 

THK PRINCE OF THE HOUSE OF DAVID ; or, Three Years in the Holy City. 

THE PILLAR OF FIRE; or, Israel in Bondage. 

THE THRONE OF DAVID ; from the Consecration of the Shepherd of Bethlehem to the 

Rebellion of Prince Absalom. 

In three volumes, I'imo, cloth, gilt, with illustrations. Sold separately. Price of 
each, $2.00. 

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The Heaven Series. 

HEAVEN OUR HOME. We have no Savior but .lesus, and no Home but Heaven. 
MEET FOR HEAVEN. A State of Grace upon Earth the Only Preparation for a State 

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LIFE IN HEAVEN. There Faith is changed into Sight, and Hope is passed into 

blissful fruition. 

The Library of Exemplary Women, viz. : 

MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE OF MADAME RECAMIER. 

LIFE AND LETTERS OF MADAMP; SWETCHINE. 

THE FRIENDSHIPS OF WOMEN. Bv Rev. W. R. Alger. 

SAINTE-BEUVE'S PORTRAITS OF CELEBRATED WOMEN. 

THE LETTERS OF MADAME DE SEVIGNE. Edited, with a Memoir, by Mrs. Sarah 

J. Hale. 
THE LETTERS OF LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU. Edited, with a Memoir, 

by Mrs. Sarah J. H;ile. 

The price of each volume of the Library of Exemplary Women, neatly bound in 
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Jean Ingelow's Writings. 



POEMS.— Complete, two volumes, $3.50, or one volume $2.25. 

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ROBERTS BROTHERS, 



IBoBtori. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 211 

Leavenwortli, Kansas City, Lawrence, and all Western 
points ; connecting at Odin, without delay, with the Illi- 
nois Central for Cairo, Memphis, Mobile, New Orleans, 
and all Southern points; and connecting at Sandoval 
for Galena, Dubuque, and all parts of the North-west, 

One train, Sunday evening, through to Louisville, 
St. Louis, and Cairo. Depot, foot of Mill Street. 

A. H. Lewis, General Superintendent. 

C. E. Follett, General Passenger Agent. 

UNITED STATES MAIL LINE STEAMERS 

to Madison and Louisville. From wharf-boat, foot of 
Vine Street, at 12 M., Major Anderson, Captain Samuel 
Hildreth ; General Buell, Captain Charles David, 
landing for all way business. The splendid steamers, 
General Lytle, Captain E.. M. Wade ; St. Charles, Cap- 
tain David Whitten, leave foot of Vine Street at 5:30 
P. M., landing at Aurora and Madison only. 

On Sundays only one boat, departing at 12 M., 
making all mail landings. All these steamers make 
prompt connection at Louisville with morning trains 
for Nashville, Memphis, and all points South. Through 
railroad tickets, between Cincinnati and Louisville, will 
be received for passage on these steamers, and will en- 
title the holder to meals and state-room free. Baggage 
checked to all principal points on the boats. 

C. G. Pearce, President. Thos. Sherlock, Treasurer. 



212 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

To all points upon the Ohio and the great system 
of rivers of the Mississippi Valley steamers may be 
found at the levee. 

The various stage lines out of the city are given in 
the Directory. 

The Express offices are located as follows : 

Adams Express, 67 West Fourth Street; J. H. 
Rhodes, Agent. 

American Express, 118 West Fourth Street; Frank 
Clark, Agent. 

Harnden Express, 114 West Third Street; D. F. 
Raymond, Agent. 

United States Express, 122 West Fourth Street; J. 
J. Henderson, Agent. 

The suburbs of Cincinnati are so essentially a part of 
the city — their population having entire community of 
interest with the residents of the city proper — that a 
detailed description of them, in addition to allusions 
already made, would seem to have proper place in these 
pages. But to do justice to them would transcend the 
limits of this summary view, and the briefest mention 
only is here made, while the reader is referred to the 
interesting volume prepared by Sidney D. Maxwell, 
Esq., in which their beauties and attractions are fully 
set forth. They are a sylvan crown adorning the brow 
of the Queen of the West. 



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YOUNG AMERICA ABROAD. 

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Shamrock&TMstle. Palace and Cottage. 
Red Cross. Down the Rhine. 

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Breaking Aw.ay. Make or Break. 

Seek and Find. Down the River. 

ARMY AND NAVY STORIES. 

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■WOODVILLE STORIES. 

Uniform with Library fur Young People. 

Six vols. 16mo. Illustrated. Per vol., 

$1."25. Comprising: 

Rich and Humble. Work and "Win. 

In Schnol and Out. Hope and Have. 

Watch and Wait. Haste and Waste. 
FAMOUS BOAT-CLUB SERIES. 

Library for Young People. Handsomely 

illustrated. Six vols., in neat box. Per 

vol., 31.25. Comprising: 

The Boat Club. Trv Again. 

All Aboard. Poor and Proud. 

Now or Never. Little by Little. 

RIVERDALE STORIES. 

Twelve vols., profusely illustrated from 

new designs by Billings. In neat box. 

Cloth. Per vol., 45 cents. Comprising: 

Little Merchant. Proud and Lazy. 



Young Voyagers. 
Christmas Gift. 
Dolly and I. 
Uncle Ben. 
Birthday Party. 



reless Kate. 
Robinson Crusoe, Jr. 
The Picnic Partv. 
The Gold Thimble. 
The Do-Somethings. 



OUR STANDARD-BEARER. 
A Life of General U. S. Grant. By Oli- 
ver Optic. Illustrated by Thomas Nast. 
lemo, cloth. $1.50. 

JffEW .TUVEyiT.ES. 

DOTTY DIMPLE STORIES. 

By Sophie May. To be completed in six 
volumes. Illustrated. Per volume, 75 
cents. Comprising : 
Dotty at her Grandma's. Dotty at School. 
Dotty at Home. Dotty at Play. 

Dotty out West. Dotty's Flyaway. 

LITTLE PRUDY STORIES. 
By Sophie May. Six vols. Illustrated. 
Per vol., 75 cents. 
Little Prudy. 
Little Prudy's Sister Susie. 
Little Prudy's Captain Horace. 
Little Prudy's Cousin Grace. 
Little Prtidy's Story Book. 
Little Prudy's Dotty Dimple. 
THE HELPINQ-HAND SERIES. 
By May Mannering. To be completed in 
six vols. Illustrated. Per volume, $1.00. 
Comprising : 
Climbing the Rope. 
Billy Grimes' Favorite. 
The Cruise of the Dashaway. 
The Little Spaniard. 
Salt-water Dick. 
The Little Maid of Oxbow 

Id Prc«. 

LITTLE ANNA STORIES. 
Six vols. Illustrated. IHmo, cloth. Per 
vol., 60 cents. Comprising: 
Little Anna. Stories About Dogs. 

Alice Leamont. A Thousand a Year. 

The Little Helper. The Cheerful Heart. 
ELM ISLAND STORIES. 
By Rev. Elijah Kellogg, author of " Good 
Old Times," &c. To be completed in six 
vols. Illustrated. Per vol., $1.25. 
1. Lion Ben of Elm Island, in Pro«. 
2. Charlie Ross of Elm Island. 
3 The Ark of Elm Island. 



Sold by all Bool'sellers and Neirsdeahrs, and sent hy mail, 
postpaid, on receipt of price. 

The Only Illustrated Juvenile Magazine Published once a Week ! 

Oliver Optic's Magazine, "Our Boys and Girls." 

The Cheapest, HaMlsoyiicst, and Best Juvenile Magu.-.ine PnhVushed. 

6 cents per No. ; $2.50 per year ; SI .25 por voluim-, gix months. .Specimen 

sent free on application to 

LEE & SHEPARD, Publishers, 149 Washington St., Boston. 



PASSllERS' ASSURANCE CO. 



CASH CAPITAL . . . $304,800. 



Insures Against Accidental loss 
of Life, and Personal Injury, 
From One to Thirty Days, 
by Tickets sold at all 
the Principal Rail- 
road Stations, 

30,000 paid on these Tickets on account of the "Angola 
accident." 

iO,000 paid on account of the " Corn Rock accident." 

Buy Insurance With Your Passage Tickets. 

JAMES G. BATTERSON", Pres't 
GEO. B. WRIGHT, Vice Pres't. 

C. D. PALMER. Sec'y. 



THE CITY OP CINCINNATI. 213 

AVONDALE 

is a little east of north of the center of the city, at a 
distance of two miles and a half. Here are to be found 
the quiet and simple pleasures of rural life, remote 
from any thing to suggest the crowded, noisy, dusty city. 
The population of this village is not far from twelve 
hundred, and embraces many of the well-known citizens 
of Cincinnati. 

CLIFTON 

is the pride of Cincinnati. Its park-like grounds, its 
beautiful drives, its magnificent prospects, its splendid 
I'esidences, make it a chief point of interest to tourists. 
Its charming retirement has been invaded by nothing 
in the shape of shop or store. Residences are here of 
palatial elegance and size, and surroundings which 
present every thing beautiful which taste and wealth 
can furnish. 

COLLEGE HILL, 

is five miles from the city limits, in a north-westerly 
direction. It is the seat of two widely-known institu- 
tions — Farmers College and the Ohio Female College. 
The Presbyterians and Episcopalians have excellent 
houses of worship. Within this village is one of the 
highest points of land in Hamilton County. Good 
schools, the best social elements, and religious privi- 
leges are the features of College Hill. 



214 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

EAST WALNUT HILLS 

is a little over three miles north-east of the Court- 
house in Cincinnati, and adjoins the village of Wood- 
burn. Here are some of the finest residences in the 
vicinity of the city, and landscape views which, in their 
variety and beauty, have no superior upon the Hudson 
or the Ehine. Hills, dales, and river combine to pre- 
sent to the eye a feast of which it never tires. 

GLENDALE 

is one of the most delightful suburban villages in the 
United States. It is north of Cincinnati, fifteen miles 
by rail and twelve by turnpike. The Glendale Female 
College is located here. The Presbyterians, Swedenbor- 
gians, and Episcopalians have flourishing churches, and 
the public school is of the first class. The quiet beauty 
and social advantages of this place are well known, and 
the evidences of taste, refinement, and wealth visible 
on every hand. 

MOUNT AUBURN 

is now almost wholly within the city limits. It has 
long enjoyed the reputation of being one of the chief 
attractions of Cincinnati. Eesidents here have all the 
enjoyment of rural life, at the same time being within 
easy reach of all the advantages which the city can 
oflfer. Several of the public charitable institutions are 



FOR 



MONUMENTS 

OF 

POLISHED GRANITE, 

3XAiaBLE AND POItPHYIiY^, 

APPLY TO 

JAMES G. BATTEBSOJV, 

HARTFOKD, CONN., 



DESIGNS AND ESTIMATES FORWARDED BY MAIL OR 
EXPRESS TO ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. 



MANY OF THE 

F-IIVEST ]Vi:OlVU]\IEIVTS 

IN SPRING GROVE CEMETERY 

WEJtX: FROM THIS JESTABI^ISSMENT, 

WHICH IMPORTS DIRECT FROM 

SCOTLAND, FRANCE, NOR"WAY. SWEDEN, 
BUSSIA, FINLAND AND ITALY, 

THE MOST BEAUTIFUL 

GRANITES AND MARBLES 

IN THE WORLD. 



With or tuithout Rouse's Psalms, 



©SlOmB FEATim 1®©ES, 

Containing the additional Hymns. 

NEW BOOKS. 

THE DAYS OF KXOX. By the author of the "Dark Year 

of Dundee." 12mo., luuslin. §2.25. 

CHRIST! A7V I.EABERS ©F THE EAST t'ENTURY; 

OR. ENGLAND A HUNDRED YEARS AGO. By Rev. J. C. 
Byle. 12mo., muslin. $2.25. 

EIFE OF JESUS. For Children. By the author of "Kind 

Woi'ds." 12mo., muslin. Illustrated. 81.50. 

THE BIRD. By Jules Michelet. With 210 exquisite illustrations, 
by Giaconnelli. 8vo., muslin, extra beveled, $6 ; or, in Turkey 
morocco, 810. 

THOS. NELSON & SONS, 

53 BLEECKEB ST., Cor. of Mulberry St., 

FOLEY'S CELEBRATED "BANK" GOLD PENS. 



JOHN FOLEY, 

MAITFACTURER OF FINE 
AND 

Gold Mounted Rubber Pen Cases, etc. 

No. 262 BEOADWAT, bet. Chambers & "Warren Sts., 

NEW YORK. 

B®" Sold by Booksellers and Jewelers every-where, at the man- 
ufacturer's prices. 



THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 215 

located here, and the Mount Auburn Ladies' Institute 
affords unsurpassed educational facilities, 

WALNUT HILLS, 

now partly within the city limits, has long been famous 
as the seat of Lane Theological Seminary. A settle- 
ment was made here in 1791. It is easily accessible, 
and offers in its educational and religious advantages, 
one of the most desirable localities for residences in the 
neighborhood of Cincinnati. 

WOODBURN 

embraces about a section of land, and is two miles 
north-east of the Court-house in Cincinnati. Many of 
its beautiful building sites command extensive pros- 
pects of the most charming description. The village is 
controlled by a class of citizens whose administration 
contributes every thing necessary to its beauty and the 
comfort of the residents. 

WYOMING, 

about two miles south of Glendale, twelve miles from 
Cincinnati by rail, is a delightful suburb. Some of its 
building sites are unsurpassed in beauty, and command 
extensive views up and down the Millcreek valley, upon 
which the eye never ceases to dwell with pleasure. 
Of other suburbs of Cincinnati which present many 



216 THE CITY OF CINCINNATI. 

points of rural beauty, Mount Washington, Linwood, 
Oakley, Fairmount, Spring Grove, Mount Harrison, 
Glen Grove, Eiverside, Mount Airy, Mahketewah, and 
Hartwell, only the names can be here given. 

A summary view has now been taken of the attrac- 
tions and advantages of Cincinnati, both as a place of 
trade and residence, with a glance at its institutions and 
internal improvements. 

The comparison of its area with that of other Western 
cities, which are spread over a much larger territory, 
will show how much greater it will be, in statistics of 
population, when, like them, it embraces within munic- 
ipal limits all adjacent settled localities. Annexation 
is already the progressive watchword, and erelong tlie 
area will be largely increased. 

The City moves forward in the steady march of im- 
provement, and Public Spirit points to the magnificent 
possibilities of coming years. Who shall define the 
limits of Cincinnati at its centennial, or calculate its 
increase in all the elements of a wealthy, populous, and 
powerful municipality ? 



j^APER Warehouse 

124: Walnut St., Cincinnati, 



MAWUFACTUEEKS OF 

int ^ntht0 Uppers iintr febelopcs. 

FACTOR r at ROCKVILLE, COJ^Jf. 
FRANKLIN 

Allison, Smith & Johnson, 

MANUFACTUREES OF AND DKALEBS IN 

XEIVS, BOOK & JOB TYPE, 
PBINTENG PRESSES, 

CASES, OAIXlEYS, ETC., 

rmis & PBrxTOfG matebiai. 

of Every Description. 

STiRiQ)TYPCe«@ Q)W ALL KEP«©§o 

BOOKS, MUSIC, Volumes of all sizes, in Modern and Ancient Languagea. 
Cards, Isabels, Stamps, in Type Metal or Copper. 

Pattern Ijettent of various Styles. Electrotypins in nil its Branches. 



The GleeiRRatl Comfiiereia _ 

An Independent Newspaper, PUBLISHED EVERY MORNING, with the 
Largest Daily Circulation in the Mississippi Valley. 



PAPES EVERY DAY OF THE ^'EEK. 

One Tear $U 00] Three months.S3 75 

Sis months.. 7 00 | One month 1 50 

For week, [served by Carrier,] 

WITHOUT SUNDAY PAPER. 

One year §12 00 1 Three mouths.SS 

Six months.. G 00 | One month 1 25 

For week, [served by Carrier,] '25 

WEEKLY PAPER. 

For one year, $2 00. Clubs five to ten 
copies, $1 80. Ten to twenty copies, SI 75. 

Cash for mail subscriptions always in advance. 
CiT' The rule is absolute that all paid matter goes into the advertising columns. 



ADVERTISKMKKTS. 

Displays, one square, eight lines,?! 00; 
business notices, bth page, per line. "JO cts ; 
wants, 10 cts per eight words ; preferred 
specials, $1 50 per square ; column, first 
pase, S50 00; fighth page, S40 00; cuts, 
eighth page only, S2 00 per square ; extra 
display, eighth puge only, SI 50 per square. 

All' PAID MATTER PUBLISHED AS ADVER- 
TISEMENTS. 



The Daily Commercial has Special News by Telegraph from all important news cen- 
ters in the country, and Correspondents in places of the most considerable general in- 
terest both in Europe and America. The purpose of the proprietors of the Commfrcial, 
who neither ask nor receive official patronage fmm any quarter, is t-o give the earliest 
possible publicity to all facts that interest the people, and to comment upon current aftairs 
in the interests of the g'-neral welfare. As a Business newspaper, the Commercial haa 
especial value ; its Monetary Department embracer Market reports from all parts of the 
world in the most authentic form, and is prepared with the greatest pains to secure in- 
variable reliability. 

The Weekly Commercial contains the choicest matter from seven daily issues, and 
is one of the handsomest and completest newspapers in the country, placing the news 
gathered by Telegraph before Western readers from two to ten days ahead of the East- 
ern weeklies. 



Fourth and Race Streets. 



C1LITIE3 FOR EXECUTING 



B11.1.S OF I.A»IX«, K.ETTER II[I:AS>IX«S, 

Bllili HKAD.^, 1<E«:AI> BI.AKKS. 

CHECKS. CARDS, »RAY RECEIPTS. 

l.ABEL,S. EXVEIiOPES, NOTES, DRAFTS, 

AND KVKUY DESCRIPTION OF 
ARE unsurpassed. 



PIla^R am*! DlllliniiliDttedi Sfi@w Pp^ntinii 



Address. 



m. HALSTEAD & CO., Proprietors. 




s,ESoaa'S block:. 




T 



OUNG Ladies' Institute. 

Estahlished 1856. 



The advantages of this School are: 

1. Its Xorofion.— "Within the city limits, it is only a half 
hour's drive distant from any of the Depots, and within easy 
call of the Telegraph Offices, Post-office, and Stores. But be- 
ing five hundred feet above the level of the river, it has none 
of the annoyances of the city. Surrounded by beautiful resi- 
dences, it looks out in every direction upon a delightful pros- 
pect, and is as free from intrusion as though it were in a quiet 
country village. 

3. Its Home Influence,— The building used by the Boarding 
Department is entirely detached from the School House. Its 
rooms, each of which is designed to accommodate two young 
ladies, are large, and are furnished with a view to make them 
home-like. A Parlor, 50 by 40 feet, is devoted exclusively to 
the school. The discipline of the School is that of the family. 
It is the constant aim of those in charge to keep up the home 
feeling, to create an atmosphere of perfect material comfort, 
and then to administer a moral discipline inspired by love, 
and instructed by the law of Christ. 

3. Its Extended and Comprehensive Course of Sttidy, — The 
course of study runs through tliree departments, of four years 
each, insuring a continuous and symmetrical mental discip- 
line. The lengtli of the course guarantees comprehensive- 
ness. The classical schedule comprises a list of the higher 
branches of study, which bears comparison with that of col- 
leges for young men. 

4. The QUALITY of its Instruction.— ^o Instructors are 
emploj-ed but those who have either, by long experience, 
proved themselves apt to teach, or who have been trained in 
the School. To secure such, no expense has been spared. 

For further mformatio)}, address, 

I. H. WHITE, Treasurer, 
or Rev. A. J. ROWLAND, President, 

<U 1 rSTOl rVlV ATI. 



The Cincinnati Chronicle, 

DAILY AND WEEKLY, 

IS A FIRST-CL,ASS 

Political and Family Jfewspaper. 



Political Principles, 

In politics the Chronicle is Republican, but not partisan ; never 
neutral, but always independent. Adhering to the principles of that 
great party under whose auspices the gallant soldiers of the Republic 
weie led and cheered to victory over treason and armed rebellion, it 
none the less freely and independently discusses all political measures 
proposed for public sanction, presenting the claims of party only as 
a means of promoting the good of the whole countrj". 

Home and Foreign Neivs. 

As a news center for the entire Mississippi Valley, Cincinnati has 
no superior, and has facilities which defy competition from even the 
great commercial centers of the East. The latest news from all parts 
of the world to the hour of going to press, will be given from two 
days to one week in advance of the Eastern weeklies. The news from 
Europe by the ocean cable is published at the same moment in Cin- 
cinnati as in New York. 

LifcraUire, Science, and Art. 

For the general reader we shall give each week a digested summary 
of Personal Items, Literary Intelligence, Notices of New Books and 
Magazines, Scientific Developments and Discoveries in Art. With 
each number will be given one or more domestic stories suited to the 
home circle. 

Official Paper of City and County. 

No newspaper ever started under as favorable auspices as the Chron- 
icle. In the short space of twelve months, so popular had it become 
with the people, and so successful its management, that it was made 
the official paper, for doing both City and County advertising. 

Advertising in the Chronicle. 

The very large and rapidly-growing circulation of both the Daily 
and the Weekly Chronicle, throughout the whole West, renders 
them unsurpassed as mediums of advertising. Communications from 
the business public in regard to rates, etc., will receive prompt at- 
tention. 

Address, CHRONICLE COMPANY, 

CINCINNATI, onto. 



f OOLWORTH, AINSWORTn & CO., 

Wholesale Booksellers & Stationers, 

117 Washington St., Boston. Ill State Street, Chicago. 

PTJBLISHEHS OP 

Payson, Dunton, & Scribner's National System of Penniansliip; Han- 
aford & Payson's Book-keeping ; Campbell's New German Course ; 
Magill's French Reader ; Magill's French Grammar ; Hanson'a 
Prep. Latin Prose Book; Hanson & Eolfe's Hand-book of 
Latin Poetry ; Selections from Ovid and Virgil ; Rolfe 
& Gillet's Cambridge Conrse of Physics ; Hand- 
book of the Stars ; Hand-book of Chemistry ; 
Hand-book of Philosophy ; Bartholomew's 
Drawing Books. Catalogues of Pub- 
lications sent free on application. 

TWO SPLENDID SETS OF BOOKS 

By the Author of GATES AJAR. 

4 vols. lemo. Price $5.00 

Oypsy Breynton. 1 Gypsy's Sowing & Reaping. 

Gypsy's Cousin Joy. \ Gypsy atthe. Golden Crescent. 

Tiny. I JSUen's Idol. 

Tiny' 8 Sunday J^igltts, | I Do n't Know Hotv. 

4 VOLS. 18M0. PRICE $3.00. 
Every Body Should Read Thera. 
HENRT A. YOUNG & CO. , 

J3i. Cornhilt, Sostotiy Mass., 
tSS'Vox sale in Cincinnati by 

GHO. S. BLANCBARI) & CO. 



THE CINCINNATI GAZETTE: 

DAILY, SEMI-WEEKLY, AND WEEKLY. 

As a newspaper, the Daily Gazette is not surpassed by any publication 
in the Uiiiteii States. It covers the entire field of News, Litcriitiire, 
Commerce, Manufactures, Agriculture, and Amusements, and occupies 
it fully. Matter coming under these heads, not found in the Gazette, 
will not be worth reading. In its Editorial Department, the Gazette 
has all the excellence that a variety of first-class talent can impart to it. 

TERMS OP THE DAILY: 

By mall, per annnm SIS.OO 

do. for six xuoiillis 6.00 



THE SEMI-WEEKLY GAZETTE. 

This paper is printed on Tuesday and Friday of each week. It is the 
game size of the Daily and Weekly, containing thirty-six full columns 
of reading matter. Most of the reading matter prepared for the Daily 
and Weekly will be printed in this edition. Persons who desire a paper 
oftener than once a week, but do not need a daily, will find this the 
cheapest and best paper published anywhere. 

TERMS OF THE SEMI- WEEKLY : 
One copy (104 Jifos.) ^4.00 

JLn extra copy will be sent to the getter up of each club 
of ten and iipward. 



The Weekly Gazette contains more reading; matter than any other 
newspaper puldished in the United States. Ilaving nn great political 
battles ti> figlit during the year, we sliall liave more space fur general 
and niiserlhnieiins reading. This will lie .K-ciipieil, in part, I'y articles 
under the bead uf PJBRSOBTAIi REC'01.1,E€TI03f,S, one of which 
will be published weekly. These will be written by eminent men in vari- 
ous parts of the West, vrho have alreaily been engaged for that purpose. 
Our authors liave been selected from the various professions, including 
Ministers, Lawyers, Politicians, Fanners, Merchants, and Editors. 
Each article wilt have attached to it the name of the writer. The cren- 
tlenien whose services have been secured occupy high positions, and have 
made lor themselves national reputations. 

©tlicr Departments, including Editorial, News, Commercial, 
Correspundence, Agricultural, and Miscellaneous, will be carried to the 
standard of excellence. Important news transpiring at home or abroad 
will be published in the Gazette from three to six days in advance of 
Eastern publications. 

TERMS OF THE WEEKLY: 
One copy $2.00 

Address 

GAZETTE COMPANY, 

CINCINNATI. 



Appletons' Journal. 



Appletonr' Journal is published weekly. It consists of thirty-two 
quarto pages, each number illustrated, or accompanied by a Pictorial 
Supplement. It is devoted to popular current Literature, an organ 
of advanced opinion with respect to all the great interests of society, 
of popular Science in its best sense, and of Art. 

The department of Literature embraces Fiction, in the form of both 
serial novels and short stories ; Essaj'S upon literary and social 
topics ; Sketches of travel and adventure ; Discussions upon art, 
books, and kindred themes; Papers upon all the various subjects that 
pertain to the pursuits and recreations of the people, whether of town 
or country ; and Poems by our foremost poets. 

A distinctive feature is a fuller treatment of Science than is preva- 
lent in popular journals. In this branch the publishers have secured 
the services of the ablest and most authoritative thinkers. 

Illustrations form an important feature in the plan of the Journal. 
They usually consist of either an Illustrated Supplement on some 
popular theme, a Steel Engraving in the best style of the art, or a 
large Cartoon engraved on wood^those on steel, and the cartoons, 
consisting of views of American scenery by our most distinguished 
painters. 

D. APPLETON & CO., New York. 

Price 10 Cents per No., or $4.00 per Annum, in advance. 



PuTNAM's Monthly Magazine 

OF 

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART, 

AND 

NATIONAL INTERESTS. 



Putnam's Magazine will be a National publication, supported by 
the best writers, in each department, from every section of the coun- 
try. High-toned papers on matters of National Interest, Popular 
Science, Industrial Pursuits, and sound Information and Instruction 
on important topics, will be especially cultivated. In the lighter 
articles. Healthy Entertainment and Pure Amusement for the family 
circle will be carefully chosen from the ample resources presented by 
a large circle of contributors. 

Teems. — $4.00 per Ammm in advance, or 35 Cents per Number. 

Special premiums for clubs. 

G. P. PUTNAM & SON, Publishees, 
eel Begadway, New Yobk. 



iSyo. PROSPECTUS 

OF TUE 

CINCINNATI DAILY AND WEEKLY 



1870. 



lElTH 



VTIt^ElIt 



A POPULAR 



Democratic, Business, News, and Family Journal, 



DEVOTED TO 



Constitutional Liberty, National Unity, and 

the General Welfare of the 

Whole Country. 



The Enquieee, with its history of half a century, npeJs no introduc- 
tion to the people of the West, either as to its news, ri-liability, or po- 
litical integrity. We warmly appeal to all our Democratic friends to 
stand by the old Democratic flag, which, by the last election, had a 
majority of half a million of the white voters of the United States, 
whose accession to power erelong is a certainty ; and to use their best 
exertions to obtain for the Enquikkr a circulation that will enable it 
to assist in the good work, and which will be worthy of the prosperity 
it has hitherto enjoyed. Democratic reader, exercise your best exer- 
tions to obtain us a list of names in your town or precinct. 



TERlVtS. 



DAILY ENQTJIilEK : 

By mail, one year $12 00 

Six months 6 00 

Three months 8 25 

One month 1 25 

Per week , delivered by carriers 30 

SEMI & TRI-WEEKLY RATES. 

As we publish only Daily and Weekly 
Editions, we still send our Daily issue on 
any days desired, as follows : 

DAILY PAPERS, TWO TIMES A WEEK: 

For three months $1 25 

For six months 2 25 

For one year 4 00 

THREE TIMES A WEEK : 

For three months $1 75 

For six months 3 00 

For one year 6 00 



■WEEKLY ENQUIRER. 

Single copy, one year $2 00 

Single copy, six months 1 25 

Ten copies, one year, each 1 75 

Twenty copies and over, each 1 50 

An extra copy is allowed the Club Agent 
for every Club of tea at Si To each, and 
for every Club of twenty at SI 50 each. 



CAUTION. 



The unusual number of letters lost in the 
mail of late makes it absolutely necessary 
that our patrons should use every precau- 
tion in forwarding Money. Send at our 
risk by Express, Post-office Money Orders, 
draft or in Registered Letters. We will 
not be responsible for letters sent in the 
mail without registering. 

(Xj^Specimen copies sent on application. 



Address, 



FARAN & McLEAN, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 




Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton R. R. Depot. 




oj^E-LiSLE isxriXiX)ii5r<3- 



Franklin Insurance Go. 

OF CINCINNATI. 



Office, yo. 26 West Third Street, Cincinnati. 



Gash Capital, $150,000 00 

Surplus, Jan. 1, 1869, 40,309 16 



$190,309 16 



Directors : 



John S. Taj'lor, Wm. Glenn, Alexander Swift, 

Samuel Davis, Jr., G. S. Blanchard, Lewis Wald 

Caleb Allen, M. Fechheimer, J. Stacey Hill. 

JOHN S. TAYLOR, President. 

0. E, DEMAREST, Secretary. 
J. A. KEY, Surveyor. 

e®= Fire and Marine Policies issued on favorable terms. 
Insures Buildings, Merchandise, Furniture, Rents, Leases, 
etc., against loss or damage by fire. 



MlM StKEET &KINTING ifioMPANY, 
176 & 178 Elm Street, 

CINCIIVIV^TI, OHIO. 



The effort of the Editors and Publishers of the Religious Journals 
of this city, to build up a first-class Printing Establishment, has been 
80 far successful that they liave erected another five-story brick build- 
ing in addition to that occupied in 1808. 

The policy of charging low prices has been vindicated by our expe- 
rience thus far, as profitable to the Company and satisfactory to our 
patrons. 

Our Book and Jobbing Departments are liberally supplied with all 
that is requisite to execute large amounts of work neatly, tastefully, 
and promptly. 

Orders for Pamphlets, Books, Stereotyping ; Commercial, Bank, 
and Railroad Printing, etc., will receive prompt attention. 

8®^ We will give mtisfaclioii in all cases to those favoring us with 
orders. 

Estimates carefully made for those proposing to print books, pam- 
phlets, or other work. Address 

W. C. GRAY, 

Treasurer and Superintendent, 



CINCINNATI WEEKLY TIMES. 

Established in 1843. 

This paper, in its eiilargc'il and improved condition, is well known as 
the largest and cheapest weekly paper now published in the Western 
country, if not in the United States. The following is a list of the 
number of post-offices in the different States to which it is sent: 



Ohio 1616 

Tennessee 2(10 

Iowa 623 

Wisconsin 610 

Kansas 140 

Illinois 970 

Indiana 800 

Missouri 367 



Virginia 250 

Michigan 361 

Kentucky 289 

New York 416 

Pennsylvania 671 

Minnesota 90 

Other States 3000 



Thus it will be seen that the Wkekly Times is circulated through 
more than trii thousand po»l-oJfices^ and, from this fact, affords an excel- 
lent medium for those who wish to advertise their business. 

Terms.— .SiH(7?e suhscriplions, S2.00 per year; Clubs of Teii, $1.50 each, an 
extra copy to getter up of the Club. 

ADVEBTISING IN WEEKLY TIMES: 

As Ordinary Advertisements 50 Cents per line, each insertion 

As Special Notices 75 " " " " 

As Heading Matter $100 " " " " 

Cii'culation, 67,000 "W^eekly. 



Cincinnati Hail^^ Timesm 

Established iy the Present Proprietor in 1 840. 

City Subscribers supplied by Carriers at 20 Cents per Week. 
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