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Full text of "The city of the Mormons; or, Three days at Nauvoo, in 1842"

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THE 



CITY OF THE MORMONS; 



THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO, 



IN 1842. 



BY THE REV. 

HENRY CASWALL, M.A. 

AUTHOR OF " AMERICA AND THE AMERICAN CHURCH, 

AND PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN KEMPER COLLEGE, 

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR J. G. F. & J. RIVINGTON, 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH YARD, AND WATERLOO PLACE, PALI. MALI, 
& SOLD BY W. GRAPEL, LIVERPOOL. 

1842. 



O merciful God, 

who hast made 

all men, and 

hatest nothing 

that thou hast 

made : have 

mercy upon all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and HERETICS, 
and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, 
and contempt of thy word; and so fetch them home, 
blessed Lord, TO THY FLOCK, that they may be 

saved among 

the remnant of 

true Israelites, 

and be made 

one fold under 

one Shepherd, 

Jesus Christ 

our Lord, who 

liveth and 

reigneth with 

thee and the 

Holy Spirit, 

one God, world 

without end. 
AMEN. 



PREFACE. 



THE following narrative, the result of a few weeks' 
leisure on shipboard, is presented to the Christian 
public, with a deep sense, on the Author's part, of 
the iniquity of an imposture, which, under the name 
of religion, is spreading extensively in America and 
in Great Britain. Mormonism needs but to be seen 
in its true light to be hated ; and if the following 
pages, consisting almost exclusively of the personal 
testimony of the Author, should assist in awakening 
public indignation against a cruel delusion and a 
preposterous heresy, he will consider himself amply 
rewarded. A History of Mormonism, from its com- 

' mencement to the present time, may perhaps form 
vD 

the subject of a future publication. 

V. 

Liverpool, June 19, 1842. 
- 

I 



THE 



CITY OF THE MORMONS, 



THE rise and progress of a new religion afford a 
subject of the highest interest to the philosophical 
observer. Under these circumstances human nature 
may be seen in a novel aspect. We behold the 
mind grasping at an ideal form of perfection, exulting 
in the imaginary possession of revelations, and re- 
joicing in its fancied intercourse with the Supreme 
Being. A new religion must, of necessity, be re- 
garded by Christians as a mere imposture. Painful, 
however, as it is to contemplate our fellow-beings 
deceiving and deceived, it is instructive, on the one 
hand, to watch the demeanour of those who have 
succeeded in establishing a spiritual dominion, and, 
on the other hand, to notice the conduct of those 
who believe themselves surrounded by the full blaze 
of prophecy and miracle. 



2 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

Nor is the growth of a new religion a subject 
merely of philosophical curiosity. In a historical 
point of view it is worthy of all the light which care- 
ful investigation can bestow. The cause of truth 
imperatively demands that the progress of error 
should be diligently noted. How gladly should we 
receive the testimony of one who had been a witness 
of the early growth of the religion of Mahomet ! 
How highly should we esteem an authentic account 
of the process by which the corrupt Christian of the 
seventh century was gradually alienated from the 
faith of his fathers, and induced to accept as divine 
the " revelations" of the Arabian impostor ! 

To give such a testimony, to describe such a pro- 
cess, is within the power of the traveller at the 
present day. In Western America, amid countless 
forms of schism, a new religion has arisen, as if in 
punishment for the sins of Christendom. Like 
Mahometanism, it possesses many features in common 
with the religion of Christ. It professes to admit 
the inspiration of the Old and New Testaments, it 
even acknowledges the Trinity, the Atonement and 
Divinity of the Messiah. But it has cast away that 
Church which Christ erected upon the foundation of 
Apostles and Prophets, and has substituted a false 
church in its stead. It has introduced a new book 
as a depository of the revelations of God, which in 
practice has almost superseded the sacred Scriptures. 
It teaches men to regard a profane and ignorant 
impostor as a special prophet of the Almighty, and 
to consider themselves as saints while in the practice 
of impiety. It robs them sometimes of their sub- 
stance, and too often of their honesty ; and finally 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 

sends them, beneath a shade of deep spiritual dark- 
ness, into the presence of that God of truth whose 
holy faith they have denied. 

At the first preaching of Mormonism, sensible and 
religious persons, both in Europe and in America, 
rather ridiculed than seriously opposed it. They 
imagined it to be an absurd delusion, which would 
shortly overturn itself. But system and discipline, 
almost equal to those of Rome, have been brought to 
its aid. What was at first crude and undigested, 
has been gradually reduced to shape and proportion. 
At the present moment Mormonism numbers more 
than a hundred thousand adherents, a large portion 
of whom are natives of Christian and enlightened 
England. 

The immediate cause of my visit to Nauvoo was 
the following. Early in April, 1842, business took 
me to St. Louis, a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, 
situated on the western bank of the Mississippi, from 
which Kemper College is six miles distant. Curio- 
sity led me to the river's side, where about forty 
steam-boats were busily engaged in receiving or dis- 
charging their various cargoes. The spectacle was 
truly exciting. The landing-place (or levfa, as it is 
denominated) was literally swarming with life. Here 
a ponderous consignment of lead had arrived from 
Galena, four hundred miles to the north, and the 
crew were piling it upon the shore in regular and 
well-constructed layers. There a quantity of ploughs, 
scythes, and other agricultural implements, crowded 
the decks of a steamer which had just finished a 
westward voyage of fourteen hundred miles from 
Pittsburg. In another place, a vessel that had de- 
B 2 



THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

scended the rapid current of the Missouri for many 
hundred miles in an easterly direction, was landing 
pork and other produce of the fertile West ; while 
farther down a large steam-boat from New Orleans, 
crowded with passengers from the South, having 
completed her voyage of twelve hundred miles, was 
blowing off the steam from her high pressure engines 
with a noise like thunder. 

Desiring to know something respecting the pas- 
sengers in the last boat, I proceeded on board ; and 
as soon as the stoppage of the steam permitted me 
to be heard, I inquired of the clerk of the boat how 
many persons he had brought from New Orleans. 
"Plenty of live stock," was his reply, "plenty of 
live stock ; we have three hundred English emigrants, 
all on their way to join Joe Smith, the prophet at 
Nauvoo." I walked into that portion of the vessel 
appropriated to the poorer class of travellers, and 
here I beheld my unfortunate countrymen crowded 
together in a most comfortless manner. I addressed 
myself to some of them, and found that they were 
from the neighbourhood of Preston in Lancashire. 
They were decent-looking people, and by no means 
of the lowest class. I took the liberty of questioning 
them respecting their plans, and found that they 
were indeed the dupes of the missionaries of Mor- 
monism. I begged them to be on their guard, and 
suggested to them the importance of not committing 
themselves and their property to a person who had 
long been known in that country as a deceiver. 
They were, however, bent upon completing the 
journey which they had designed, and although they 
civilly listened to my statements, they professed to 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. O 

be guided in reference to the prophet by that per- 
verted precept of Scripture ; " Prove all things, hold 
fast that which is good." 

From this moment I determined to visit the strong- 
hold of the new religion, and to obtain, if possible, 
an interview with the prophet himself. Accordingly, 
on Friday evening, April 15th, I embarked on board 
the fine steamer " Republic," bound, as her adver- 
tisement assured me, "for Galena, Dubuque, and 
Prairie du Chien." I had laid aside my clerical 
apparel, and had assumed a dress in which there was 
little probability of my being recognized as a " minis- 
ter of the Gentiles." In order to test the scholar- 
ship of the prophet, I had further provided myself 
with an ancient Greek manuscript of the Psalter 
written upon parchment, and probably about six 
hundred years old. Shortly after six o'clock our 
paddles were in motion, and we were stemming the 
rapid current of the " Father of waters," while the 
booming of our high-pressure engine re-echoed from 
the buildings and the woods along the shore. The 
passengers were principally emigrants from the 
eastern states, on their way to the new settlements 
in Iowa and Wisconsin. Those in the cabin were 
so numerous, that our long supper-table was three 
times replenished at our evening meal ; while a still 
greater number crowded the apartments of the deck 
passengers. During the night we passed the con- 
fluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi, and in the 
morning we were pushing our way through the com- 
paratively clear waters, and along the woody banks 
of the Upper Mississippi. Occasionally we passed a 
small village, and two or three times during the day 



6 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

we landed at some rising town ; but generally the 
scene was one in which nature enjoyed undisturbed 
repose. The river was high from frequent rains in 
the upper country, and its surface was about one 
foot lower than the top of the verdant banks. Our 
cabin windows were frequently brushed by the branches 
and clustering foliage of the cotton- wood trees ; the 
sugar-maple, and the sycamore, were putting forth 
their early leaves at a short distance in the back- 
ground, and one dense mass of heavy timber covered 
the picturesque bluffs to their very summit. The 
day was pleasant, and I sat almost constantly upon 
the highest or " hurricane" deck, enjoying a fine 
prospect of the noble river and its shores. During 
the following night we continued our ascending 
course, and early on Sunday morning we were at the 
foot of the " Des Moines Rapids," with Illinois on 
the right hand, and Iowa on the left. The rapids 
prevent the passage of steam-boats during the greater 
part of the year, on account of the shallowness of 
the water and the strength of the current. As the 
river was now full, we experienced no difficulty, and 
slowly made our way against a stream running per- 
haps seven miles an hour. The Mississippi is here 
about a mile and a half in width, and forms a beau- 
tiful curve. On the western side were a number of 
new houses with gardens neatly fenced, and occupied, 
I was told, by Mormon emigrants who had recently 
arrived. Farther onward the bluffs of Iowa rose 
boldly from the water's edge, while on the Illinois or 
eastern side, as the steamer gradually came round 
the curve, the Mormon city opened upon my view. 
At length, Nauvoo in all its " latter-day glory" lay 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. / 

before me. The landing-place being difficult of ac- 
cess from the rapidity of the current, the steamer 
took me to Montrose immediately opposite, and 
touching for a moment, while I stepped on shore, in 
the next moment was again ploughing the descending 
waters. 

Here I was in Iowa, two hundred and thirty miles 
from St. Louis, fifteen hundred miles from the mouth 
of the majestic river before me, and two thousand 
miles west of New York by the ordinary course of 
travel. It was nine o'clock on Sunday morning; 
the sun was shining brightly, as usual in this region, 
and a strong breeze had raised a moderate swell on 
the face of the stream. No ferryman was to be 
found, and for a few minutes it was a problem how 
I should cross to Nauvoo. The problem was soon 
solved by the appearance of a long and narrow canoe, 
hewed from the trunk of a tree, and lying close to 
the bank. In this doubtful-looking craft, thirteen 
Mormons on their way to the meeting in Nauvoo, 
proceeded to take their seats. At my request they 
accommodated me with a place, and shortly after- 
wards pushed from the shore, and put their paddles 
in motion. They worked their way with some diffi- 
culty, until they reached two islands near the middle 
of the river. Between these there was no swell, and 
little wind ; but the current ran against us through 
a narrow passage with the rapidity of a mill-race. 
Here I thought we should be effectually baffled, and 
more than once the canoe seemed to yield to the 
stream. At length the stout sinews of the Mormons 
prevailed, and we were again in open water. After 



8 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

labouring hard for more than half an hour we safely 
landed at Nauvoo. 

The situation of the place is rather striking. 
Above the curve of the Des Moines rapids the 
Mississippi makes another curve almost semicircular 
towards the east. The ground included within the 
semicircle is level, and upon this site the city has 
been laid out. The streets extend across the semi- 
circle east and west, being limited at each extremity 
by the river. These streets are intersected at right 
angles by others, which, running northward to the 
river, are bounded on the south by a rising ground, 
on the summit of which the temple is in the course of 
erection. It was to this last-mentioned spot that 
with my companions I directed my steps. Having 
ascended the hill, I found myself close to a large 
unfinished stone building, the walls of which had ad- 
vanced eight or ten feet above the ground. This was 
the Temple. The view of the winding Mississippi from 
this elevation was truly grand, and the whole of the 
lower part of the town was distinctly seen. I was 
informed by my companions that the population of 
Nauvoo was about ten thousand; but subsequent 
inquiry led me to place the estimate three or four 
thousand lower. 

The temple being unfinished, about half-past ten 
o'clock a congregation of perhaps two thousand per- 
sons assembled in a grove, within a short distance 
of the sanctuary. Their appearance was quite re- 
spectable, and fully equal to that of dissenting meet- 
ings generally in the western country. Many grey- 
headed old men were there, and many well-dressed 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 9 

females. I perceived numerous groups of the pea- 
santry of old England ; their sturdy forms, their clear 
complexions, and their heavy movements, strongly 
contrasting with the slight figure, the sallow visage, 
and the elastic step of the American. There, too, 
were the bright and innocent looks of little children, 
who, born among the privileges of England's Church, 
baptized with her consecrated waters, and taught to 
lisp her prayers and repeat her catechism, had now 
been led into this den of heresy, to listen to the 
ravings of a false prophet, and to imbibe the princi- 
ples of a semi-pagan delusion. 

The officiating elders not having yet arrived, the 
congregation listened for some time to the perform- 
ances of a choir of men and women, directed by one 
who appeared to be a professional singing-master. 
At length two elders came forward, and ascended a 
platform rudely constructed of planks and logs. One 
wore a blue coat, and his companion, a stout intem- 
perate-looking man, appeared in a thick jacket of 
green baize. He in the blue coat gave out a hymn, 
which was sung, but with little spirit, by the congre- 
gation, all standing. He then made a few common- 
place remarks on the nature of prayer ; after which, 
leaning forward on a railing in front of the platform, 
he began to pray. Having dwelt for a few minutes 
on the character and perfections of the Almighty, 
he proceeded in the following strain : 

" We thank thee, O Lord, that thou hast in these 
latter days restored the gifts of prophecy, of revela- 
tion, of great signs and wonders, as in the days of 
old. We thank Thee that, as thou didst formerly 
raise up thy servant Joseph to deliver his brethren 



10 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

in Egypt, so Thou hast now raised up another Joseph 
to save his brethren from bondage to sectarian delu- 
sion, and to bring them into this great and good 
land, a land flowing with milk and honey, which is 
the glory of all lands, and which Thou didst promise 
to be an inheritance for the seed of Jacob for ever- 
more. We pray for thy servant and prophet Joseph, 
that Thou wouldest bless him and prosper him, that 
although the archers have sorely grieved him, and 
shot at him, and hated him, his bow may abide in 
strength, and the arms of his hands may be made 
strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob. 
We pray also for thy holy temple, that the nations 
of the earth may bring gold and incense, that the 
sons of strangers may build up its walls, and fly to 
it as a cloud, and as doves to their windows. We 
pray Thee also to hasten the ingathering of thy peo- 
ple, every man to his heritage and every man to his 
land. We pray that as thou hast set up this place as 
an ensign for the nations, so Thou wouldest continue 
to assemble here the outcasts, and gather together the 
dispersed from the four corners of the earth. May 
every valley be exalted, and every mountain and hill 
be made low, and the crooked places straight, and 
the rough places plain, and may the glory of the 
Lord be revealed and all flesh see it together ! Bring 
thy sons from far, and thy daughters from the ends 
of the earth, and let them bring their silver and their 
gold with them." 

Thus he proceeded for perhaps half an hour, after 
which he sat down, and the elder in green baize, 
having thrown aside his jacket, for the heat of the 
sun was now considerable, commenced a discourse. 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 11 

He began by stating the importance of forming 
correct views of the character of God. People were 
generally content with certain preconceived views 
on this subject derived from tradition. These views 
were for the most part incorrect. The common 
opinion respecting God made him an unjust God, 
a partial God, a cruel God, a God worthy only of 
hatred; in fact, ' the greatest devil in the universe." 
Thus also people in general had been " traditioned" 
to suppose that divine revelation was confined to 
the old-fashioned book called the Bible, a book prin- 
cipally written in Asia, by Jews, and suited to parti- 
cular circumstances and particular classes. On the 
other hand, they supposed that this vast continent 
of America had been destitute of all revelation for 
five thousand years, until Columbus discovered it, 
and " the good, pious, precise Puritans brought over 
with them, some two hundred years since, that pre- 
cious old book called the Bible." Now God had 
promised to judge all men without respect of persons. 
If, therefore, the American aborigines had never 
received a revelation, and were yet to be judged 
together with the Jews and the Christians, God 
was most horribly unjust ; and he, for his part, 
would never love such a God ; he could only hate 
him. He said there was a verse somewhere in the 
Bible, he could not tell where, as he was " a bad 
hand at quoting," but he thought it was in the Reve- 
lation. " If it's not there," he said, " read the 
whole book through, and you'll find it, I guess, some- 
where. I hav'nt a Bible with me, I left mine at 
home, as it ain't necessary." Now this verse, he 
proceeded to observe, stated that Christ had redeemed 



12 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS; 

men by his blood out of every kindred, and tongue, 
and people, and nation ; and had made them unto God 
kings and priests. But in America there were the 
ruins of vast cities, and wonderful edifices, which 
proved that great and civilized nations had existed 
on this continent. If the Bible was true, therefore, 
God must have had priests and kings among those 
nations, and numbers of them must have been 
redeemed by the blood of Christ. Revelations 
from God must consequently have been granted to 
them. The Old and New Testaments were there- 
fore only portions of the revelations of God, and 
not a complete revelation, nor were they designed 
to be so. " Am I to believe," said he, " that God 
would cast me or any body else into hell, without 
giving me a revelation ?" God now revealed Him- 
self in America just as truly as he had ever done in 
Asia. The present congregation lived in the midst 
of wonders and signs equal to those mentioned in 
the Bible, and they had the blessing of revelation 
mainly through the medium of that chosen servant 
of God, Joseph Smith. The Gentiles often came to 
Nauvoo to look at the prophet Joseph old Joe, as 
they profanely termed him and to see what he was 
doing; but many who came to laugh remained to 
pray, and soon the kings and nobles of the earth 
would count it a privilege to come to Nauvoo and 
behold the great work of the Lord in these latter 
days. " The work of God is prospering," he said, 
" in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales ; in 
Australia, and at the Cape of Good Hope, in the 
East and West Indies, in Palestine, in Africa, and 
throughout America, thousands and tens of thou- 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 13 

sands are getting converted by our preachers, are 
baptized for the remission of sins, and are selling off 
all they have that they may come to Nauvoo. The 
great and glorious work has begun, and I defy all 
earth and hell to stop it." 

A hymn was now sung ; and afterwards a tall, thin, 
New-England Yankee, with a strong nasal twang 
and provincial accent, rose up, and leaning forward 
on the railing, spoke for half an hour with great 
volubility. He said that his office required him to 
speak of business. They were all aware that God 
had by special revelation appointed a committee of 
four persons, and had required them to build a house 
unto his name, such a one as his servant, Joseph, 
should show them. That the said house should be 
called the "Nauvoo House," and should be for a 
house of boarding : that the kings and nobles of the 
earth, and all weary travellers, might lodge therein, 
while they should contemplate the word of the Lord, 
and the corner-stone, which He had appointed for 
Zion. That in this house the Lord had said that 
there should be reserved a suite of rooms for his ser- 
vant Joseph, and his seed after him from generation 
to generation. And that the Lord had also com- 
manded that stock should be subscribed by the saints, 
and received by the committee for the purpose of 
building the house. The speaker proceeded as fol- 
lows : " Now, brethren, the Lord has commanded 
this work, and the work must be done. Yes ; it shall 
be done it will be done. The Gentiles, the men of 
the world, tell us that such stock must pay twenty- 
five per cent, per annum, and the Lord hath required 
us to take stock ; surely, then, when duty and interest 



THE CITY OF THE MORMONS; 

go together, you will not be backward to contribute. 
But only a small amount of stock has hitherto been 
taken, and the committee appointed by the Lord have 
had to go on borrowing, and borrowing, until they 
can borrow no longer. In the mean time, the me- 
chanics employed on the house want their pay, and 
the committee are not able to pay them. We have 
a boat ready to be towed up the river to the pine 
country, to get pinewood for the edifice. We have a 
crew engaged, and all ready to start ; but we cannot 
send out the expedition without money. The com- 
mittee have made great personal sacrifices to fulfil 
the commandment of the Lord : I myself came here 
with seven thousand dollars, and now I have only 
two thousand, having expended five thousand upon 
the work of the Lord. But we cannot go on in this 
way any longer. I call on you, brethren, to obey 
God's command, and take stock, even though you 
may not dress so finely as you do now, or build such 
fine houses. Let not the poor man say, I am too poor ; 
but let the poor man contribute out of his poverty, 
and the rich man out of his wealth, and God will 
give you a blessing." 

During this address, I noticed some of the English 
emigrants whom I had seen a few days previously on 
board the steam-boat at St. Louis. They were listen- 
ing with fixed attention, and, doubtless, considering 
how many of their hard-earned sovereigns should be 
devoted to the pious work of building a fine hotel for 
the prophet and his posterity. The thought arose in 
my mind, that these earnest appeals for money were 
designed mainly for the ears of the three hundred 
green saints who had just arrived. 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 15 

This address being concluded, two other elders 
followed in a similar strain. They spoke with great 
fluency, and appeared equally familiar with worldly 
business and operations in finance, as with prophe- 
cies and the book of Mormon. At length, having, as 
they supposed, wrought up the zeal of the congrega- 
tion to a sufficient pitch, they called on all believers 
in the book of Mormon, who felt disposed to take 
stock, to come forward before the congregation, and 
give in their names with the amount of their sub- 
scriptions. Upon this appeal, there was much whis- 
pering among the audience; and I detected two 
Mormons, apparently from Yorkshire, in the very act 
of nodding and winking at each other. However, 
none came forward ; and one of the elders coolly re- 
marked, that as they appeared not to have made up 
their minds as to the amount which they would take, 
he requested all who wished to become stockholders to 
come to his house the next afternoon at five o'clock. 

The elder who had delivered the first discourse 
now rose, and said that a certain brother, whom he 
named, had lost a keg of white lead. " Now," said 
he, " if any of the brethren present has taken it by 
mistake, thinking it was his own, he ought to restore 
it ; but if any of the brethren present has stolen the 
keg, much more ought he to restore it ; or else, may 
be, he will get cotched 1 , and that, too, within the 
corporation limits of the city of Nauvoo." 

Another person rose and stated that he had lost a 
ten-dollar bill. He had never lost any money before 
in his life ; he always kept it very safely ; but now, a 
ten-dollar bill had escaped from him, and if any of 



16 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

the brethren had found it, or taken it, he hoped it 
would be restored. 

A hymn was now sung, and the service (if such it 
may be called) having continued from half-past ten 
o'clock till two, finally concluded. As the congrega- 
tion dispersed, I walked with the Mormon who had 
brought me over in his canoe, to see the temple. The 
building is a hundred and twenty feet in length, by 
eighty in breadth ; and is designed to be the finest 
edifice west of Philadelphia. The Mormon informed 
me, that in this house the Lord designed to reveal 
unto his Church things which had been kept secret 
from the foundation of the world ; and that He had 
declared that He would here restore the fulness of the 
priesthood. He showed me the great baptismal font, 
which is completed, and stands at the centre of the 
unfinished temple. This font is, in fact, a capacious 
laver, eighteen or twenty feet square, and about four 
in depth. It rests upon the backs of twelve oxen, as 
large as life, and tolerably well sculptured ; but for 
some reason, perhaps mystical, entirely destitute of 
feet, though possessed of legs. The laver and oxen 
are of wood, and painted white ; but are to be here- 
after gilded, or covered with plates of gold. At this 
place baptisms for the dead are to be celebrated, as 
well as baptisms for the healing of diseases ; but bap- 
tisms for the remission of sins are to be performed in 
the Mississippi. My companion told me that he was 
originally a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Canada ; but that he had obtained greater 
light, and had been led to join the " latter-day saints." 
While he was a methodist he felt that he was per- 



2 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 17 

fectly right, and could confute all other sects, except 
the Roman Catholics. These had so much of the true 
and ancient Church mixed up with their corruptions, 
that he could not readily confute them. Many pas- 
sages of the Scriptures remained at that time per- 
fectly inexplicable to him, and he felt that no deno- 
mination was organized exactly on the primitive plan. 
But since he had been led to embrace Mormonism, 
new light had opened upon his soul ; the Scriptures 
had become perfectly clear, and he had discovered a 
Church entirely conformable to the primitive model ; 
having the same divinely appointed ministry; the 
same miraculous gifts of healing, and the unknown 
tongues ; the same prophetical inspiration ; the same 
close intercourse with the Almighty. I observed, 
that the truth of Mormonism depended on the deter- 
mination of the question, whether Joseph Smith was, 
in fact, a prophet of God. He replied, that the in- 
spiration of Joseph could be proved more readily than 
that of Isaiah, Jeremiah, or Ezekiel. That Joseph 
had received revelations ever since he was fifteen 
years of age ; and that the outlines of Mormonism 
were made known to him at a time when he could 
not possibly have planned so vast a work, or antici- 
pated its triumphant success. While conversing on 
these subjects, we arrived at the " Nauvoo House," 
the hotel founded by "revelation." The walls are 
advanced about as much as those of the temple, and, 
when completed, will form a capacious building. 
Passing the prophet Smith's house, which is one of 
the best in the city, I arrived at a small, but neat, 
tavern, where I called to get dinner. An old woman, 
apparently the mistress of the house, was seated by 
c 



18 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

the fire, devoutly reading the book of Mormon, from 
which she scarcely lifted her eyes as I entered. Here 
I found a decent, and probably intelligent, Scotch- 
man. Conversing wiih him on the subject of the ser- 
vices which I had ju&t witnessed, I remarked how great- 
ly deficient they appeared in dignity and spirituality j 
and contrasted them with the decorous and solemn 
worship of the Church of England, and of the Scot- 
tish Kirk. 1 particularly referred to the keg of white 
lead and the ten-dollar bill, as well as to the deroga- 
tory manner in which the preacher had alluded to 
" the old-fashioned book called the Bible." Although 
I endeavoured to speak with mildness, the Scotchman 
replied with great warmth, that the English and 
Scottish Churches taught lies, and that their members 
loved lies more than truth. That all their solemnity 
was produced by hypocrisy and false doctrines re- 
specting God. That the Mormons despised long faces, 
and all religions which required people to wear a 
sanctimonious and hypocritical exterior. He added, 
that Mormonism was making rapid progress in Scot- 
land. 

From the tavern, I proceeded to the landing-place, 
and engaged the ferryman to take me over to Mon- 
trose, on the Iowa side of the river. I found this 
person to be a Mormon ; and learned from him, that 
the ferry was the property of the prophet Joseph. He 
further informed me, that the number of passengers 
had become so considerable, that a steam ferry-boat 
had been purchased, and would soon be in operation. 
I afterwards found that his opinion of the character of 
his brethren, "the saints," was by no means flattering 
to them. He told a person in Montrose, that it was 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 19 

" no use to hoist a flag at Nauvoo as a signal to pas- 
sengers, for it was sure to be stolen by the people 
there ; they had so much of the devil in them." 

On arriving at Montrose, I went to the house of 
a gentleman to whom I had brought letters of intro- 
duction from St. Louis. This gentleman, with his 
lady and his brother, has resided many years at Mon- 
trose ; and as he possesses the independence to resist 
the encroachments of the Mormons, and the ability to 
expose their designs, he has been an object of con- 
stant persecution since the settlement of these people 
in his vicinity. He at once desired me to make his 
house my home, and offered me every assistance in 
prosecuting my researches. Under his hospitable 
roof I spent a pleasant evening. His family united 
with me in religious services (for there is no place of 
worship in the neighbourhood) ; and, after the awful 
proceedings of the morning, I felt happy to be once 
more among Christians. 

On the following morning (Monday, April 18th), 
I took my venerable Greek manuscript of the Psalter, 
and proceeded to the ferry to obtain a passage. The 
boatman, being engaged to take over a family emi- 
grating to Nauvoo, had provided himself with a 
heavy flat-boat, which promised us a long voyage. 
The family soon came on board. It consisted of a 
simple-looking American, his wife, and a numerous 
progeny. They had with them two oxen, two cows 
and a calf, bedding, tables, chairs, and a wooden 
clock. As we were about to push off, a traveller on 
horseback came on board, whom I found to be one 
of the numerous " Gentiles " induced by curiosity to 
visit the " Zion " of the West. The father of the 
c 2 



20 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

family stated that he had become confounded by the 
conflicting doctrines of the sects, and imagined that 
in Mormonism he had finally discovered the only true 
Church . Our heavy boat was rowed up about a mile 
close to the Iowa shore. Having proceeded consi- 
derably above Nauvoo, the ferryman and his men 
began to venture out into the broad stream, in order 
to cross. As I was in haste to get over, I was per- 
mitted to take the small skiff alongside, and, in com- 
pany with the emigrant, to pull over to Nauvoo. On 
the way, I held some conversation with my compa- 
nion, and found him to be thoroughly wedded to his 
delusion. Arriving at the city, I passed along a 
straggling street of considerable length bordering on 
the strand. Perceiving a respectable-looking store 
(or shop), T entered it, and began to converse with 
the storekeeper. I mentioned that I had been in- 
formed that Mr. Smith possessed some remarkable 
Egyptian curiosities, which I wished to see. I added 
that, if Mr. Smith could be induced to show me his 
treasures, I would show him in return a very won- 
derful book which had lately come into my posses- 
sion. The storekeeper informed me that Mr. Smith 
was absent, having gone to Carthage that morning ; 
but that he would return about nine o'clock in the 
evening. He promised to obtain for me admission 
to the curiosities, and begged to be permitted to see 
the wonderful book. I accordingly unfolded it from 
the many wrappers in which I had enveloped it, and, 
in the presence of the storekeeper and many aston- 
ished spectators, whom the rumour of the arrival of 
a strange book had collected, I produced to view its 
covers of worm-eaten oak, its discoloured parchments, 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 21 

and its mysterious characters. Surprise was depicted 
on the countenances of all present, and, after a long 
silence, one person wiser than his fellows, declared 
that he knew it to be a revelation from the Lord, and 
that probably it was one of the lost books of the 
Bible providentially recovered. Looking at me with 
a patronizing air, he assured me that I had brought 
it to the right place to get it interpreted, for that 
none on earth but the Lord's prophet could explain 
it, or unfold its real antiquity and value. " Oh," I 
replied, " I am going to England next week, and 
doubtless I shall find some learned man in one of 
the universities who can expound it." To this he 
answered with a sneer, that the Lord had chosen the 
weak things of the world to confound the mighty ; 
that he had made foolish the wisdom of this world ; 
and that I ought to thank Providence for having 
brought me to Nauvoo, where the hidden things of 
darkness could be revealed by divine power. All 
expressed the utmost anxiety that I should remain 
in the city until the prophet's return. The store- 
keeper offered immediately to send an express eigh- 
teen miles to Carthage, to hasten the return of 
Joseph. This I declined, and told him that my stay 
in Nauvoo must be very limited. They promised to 
pay all my expenses, if I would remain ; and assured 
me that they would ferry me over the river as often 
as I desired it, free of charge ; besides furnishing me 
with a carriage and horses to visit the beautiful 
prairies in the vicinity. At length I yielded to their 
importunities, and promised, that if they would bring 
me over from Montrose on the following morning, 
I would exhibit the book to the prophet. They were 



22 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

very desirous that I should remain at Nauvoo during 
the night ; but as I had my fears that some of the 
saints might have a revelation, requiring them to 
take my book while I slept, I very respectfully de- 
clined their pressing invitation. They then requested 
to know where I was staying in Montrose. I men- 
tioned the name of my hospitable entertainer ; upon 
which they used the most violent language against 
him, and said that he was their bitter enemy and 
persecutor, that he was as bad as the people of Mis- 
souri, and that I ought not to believe a word that he 
said. They again pressed me most earnestly not to 
return to Montrose ; but I continued firm, and ex- 
pressed my intention of hearing both sides of the 
question. 

The storekeeper now proceeded to redeem his pro- 
mise of obtaining for me access to the curiosities. He 
led me to a room behind his store, on the door of which 
was an inscription to the following effect : " Office of 
Joseph Smith, President of the Church of Latter Day 
Saints." Having introduced me, together with se- 
veral Mormons, to this sanctum sanctorum, he locked 
the door behind him, and proceeded to what appeared 
to be a small chest of drawers. From this he drew 
forth a number of glazed slides, like picture frames, 
containing sheets of papyrus, with Egyptian inscrip- 
tions and hieroglyphics. These had been unrolled 
from four mummies, which the prophet had purchased 
at a cost of twenty-four hundred dollars. By some 
inexplicable mode, as the storekeeper informed me, 
Mr. Smith had discovered that these sheets contained 
the writings of Abraham, written with his own hand 
while in Egypt. Pointing to the figure of a man 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 2*3 

lying on a table, he said, " That is the picture of 
Abraham on the point of being sacrificed. That man 
standing by him with a drawn knife is an idolatrous 
priest of the Egyptians. Abraham prayed to God, 
who immediately unloosed his bands, and delivered 
him." Turning to another of the drawers, and 
pointing to a hieroglyphic representation, one of the 
Mormons said, " Mr. Smith informs us that this pic- 
ture is an emblem of redemption. Do you see those 
four little figures ? Well, those are the four quarters 
of the earth. And do you see that big dog looking 
at the four figures ? That is the old Devil desiring 
to devour the four quarters of the earth Look at 
this person keeping back the big dog. That is Jesus 
Christ keeping the devil from devouring the four 
quarters of the earth. Look down this way. This 
figure near the side is Jacob, and those are his two 
wives. Now do you see those steps ?" " What," 
I replied, " do you mean those stripes across the 
dress of one of Jacob's wives ?" " Yes," he said, 
" that is Jacob's ladder." " That is indeed curious," 
I remarked ; " Jacob's ladder standing on the ground, 
and only reaching up to his wife's waist." 

After this edifying explanation, a very respectable 
looking Mormon asked me to walk over to his house. 
This person was one of the committee appointed bv 
" revelation" to build the " Nauvoo house." He 
informed me that he had migrated from the Johns- 
town District in Upper Canada. He would have re- 
turned to that country before, had he not been desir- 
ous of remaining to see the wonderful works of the 
Lord in Nauvoo. He preferred Canada to the United 
States ; and the British government was, in his opi- 



24 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

nion, greatly superior to that of the Americans, which 
he considered little better than an organized mob, 
especially in the Western States. He regarded a 
strong monarchy as essential to good government, 
and believed that this opinion was generally held 
among the " Saints." In the event of a war between 
England and America, England might rely upon it 
that the Mormons would not be her enemies. The 
Indians, too, whom the Americans had persecuted 
almost as badly as the Missourians had persecuted 
the Mormons, were decidedly friendly to England. 
He had lately been among their tribes, and had 
found everywhere English muskets bearing the date 
of 1839. The Indians were already making prepa- 
rations for espousing the cause of England in a war 
with America. He foretold that great desolation 
was about to be inflicted on America by England, 
with the assistance of the oppressed negroes and 
Indians. The conversation was now interrupted by 
the entrance of numerous Mormons, who begged to 
be permitted to see and handle the wonderful book. 
They all looked upon it as something supernatural, 
and considered that I undervalued it greatly, by rea- 
son of my ignorance of its contents. It was in vain 
I assured them that a slight acquaintance with Greek 
would enable any person to decipher its meaning. 
They were unanimous in the opinion that none but 
their prophet could explain it ; and congratulated 
me on the providence which had brought me and my 
wonderful book to Nauvoo. The crowd having 
cleared away, my host asked me to give my opinion 
of Nauvoo. I told him that it was certainly a re- 
markable place, and in a beautiful situation ; but that 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 25 

I considered it the offspring of a most astonishing 
and unaccountable delusion. He said that he ad- 
mired my candour, and was not surprised at my 
unbelief, seeing that I was a stranger to the people 
and to the evidences of their faith. He then pro- 
ceeded to inform me respecting these evidences. He 
assured me, in the first place, that America had been 
mentioned by the prophet Isaiah. I begged for the 
chapter and verse. He pointed to the sentence, 
" Woe to the land shadowing with wings." Now to 
what land could this refer, but to North and South 
America, which stretched across the world with two 
great wings, like those of an eagle ? " Stop," I 
said; "does not the prophet describe the situation 
of the land ? Observe that he says, ' it is beyond 
the rivers of Ethiopia.' " " Well," said my host, 
" that may be true ; but is not America beyond 
Ethiopia ?" " Have you a map ?" I said. " Yes," 
he replied, " here is my little girl's school atlas." 
"Now tell me," I said, "where Isaiah wrote his 
book." " In Palestine," he answered. " Very well," 
I replied ; " now tell me in what direction from Pales- 
tine is Ethiopia?" " South, by the map," was the 
reply. " In what direction from Palestine is Ame- 
rica ?" "West," he answered. "Now do you 
think that Isaiah, as a man of common sense, to say 
nothing of his prophetical character, would have de- 
scribed a country in the west, as lying beyond another 
which is due south ?" He was silent for a moment, 
and then confessed that he had never thought of 
studying the Bible by the map ; " but probably this 
map was wrong." I now requested him to let me 
know the number of troops composing the Nauvoo 



26 THE CITY OF THE MOItMOXS ; 

Legion. He informed me that they consisted at 
present of seventeen hundred men. He had taken 
the oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria, and on this 
account had not connected himself with the legion. 
The discipline of this band he considered superior to 
that of the American militia generally, but inferior 
to that of British troops, or even of the Canadian 
militia. He believed that the Mormons held many 
doctrines in common with the Irvingites and other 
sects in England. He cherished the belief in a se- 
parate place of departed spirits distinct from heaven 
and hell, and in a future restoration of all souls to 
the divine favour. He considered that when the 
restitution of all things takes place, the earth will be 
purified, and then transferred from its present sphere 
to a brighter and more glorious system. 

Having listened with due attention to the instruc- 
tions of my host, I walked over to the store, where 
the storekeeper expressed his readiness to show me 
the mummies. Accordingly he led the way to a small 
house, the residence of the prophet's mother. On 
entering the dwelling, I was introduced to this emi- 
nent personage as a traveller from England, desirous 
of seeing the wonders of Nauvoo. She welcomed 
me to the holy city, and told me that here I might 
see what great things the Lord had done for his 
people. " I am old," she said, " and I shall soon 
stand before the judgment-seat of Christ ; but what 
I say to you now, I would say on my death-bed. My 
son Joseph has had revelations from God since he 
was a boy, and he is indeed a true prophet of Jeho- 
vah. The angel of the Lord appeared to him fifteen 
years since, and shewed him the cave where the 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 27 

original golden plates of the book of Mormon were 
deposited. He shewed him also the Urim and 
Thummim, by which he might understand the 
meaning of the inscriptions on the plates, and he 
shewed him the golden breastplate of the high 
priesthood. My son received these precious gifts, 
he interpreted the holy record, and now the believers 
in that revelation are more than a hundred thousand 
in number. I have myself seen and handled the 
golden plates ; they are about eight inches long, and 
six wide ; some of them are sealed together and are 
not to be opened, and some of them are loose. They 
are all connected by a ring which passes through a 
hole at the end of each plate, and are covered with 
letters beautifully engraved. I have seen and felt 
also the Urim and Thummim. They resemble two 
large bright diamonds set in a bow like a pair of spec- 
tacles. My son puts these over his eyes when he reads 
unknown languages, and they enable him to inter- 
pret them in English. I have likewise carried in my 
hands the sacred breastplate. It is composed of pure 
gold, and is made to fit the breast very exactly." 

While the old woman was thus delivering herself, 
I fixed my eyes steadily upon her. She faltered, 
and seemed unwilling to meet my glance; but 
gradually recovered her self-possession. The melan- 
choly thought entered my mind, that this poor old 
creature was not simply a dupe of her son's knavery ; 
but that she had taken an active part in the decep- 
tion. Several English and American women were 
in the room, and seemed to treat her with profound 
veneration. 

I produced my wonderful book. The old woman 



28 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

scrutinized its pages, and in an oracular manner 
assured me that the Lord was now bringing to light 
the hidden things of darkness according to his word ; 
that my manuscript was doubtless a revelation which 
had long been hidden, and which was now to be 
made known to the world, by means of her son the 
prophet Joseph. She then directed me up a steep 
flight of stairs into a chamber, and slowly crept up 
after me. She showed me a wretched cabinet, in 
which were four naked mummies frightfully disfi- 
gured, and in fact, most disgusting relics of morta- 
lity. One she said was a king of Egypt whom she 
named, two were his wives, and the remaining one 
was the daughter of another king. T asked her by 
what means she became acquainted with the names 
and histories of these mummies. She replied, that 
her son had obtained this knowledge through the 
mighty power of God. She accounted for the dis- 
figured condition of the mummies, by a circumstance 
rather illustrative of the back-woods. Some diffi- 
culty having been found in unrolling the papyrus 
which enveloped them, an axe was applied, by which 
the unfortunate mummies were literally chopped open. 
I requested her to furnish me with a " Book of Mor- 
mon." She accordingly permitted me to take one of 
the first edition belonging to her daughter Lavinia, 
for which I paid the young lady a dollar. 

From Mr. Smith's residence I proceeded to the 
Mormon printing office, where the official papers and 
" revelations" of the prophet are published in a semi- 
monthly magazine, denominated the " Times and 
Seasons." Here I purchased this magazine com- 
plete for the last year, the history of the persecution 



OH, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 29 

of the Mormons by the people of Missouri, and other 
documents of importance. The storekeeper met me 
at the printing-office, and introduced several digni- 
taries of the " Latter-day Church," and many other 
Mormons, to whom he begged me to exhibit my 
wonderful book. While they were examining it 
with great apparent interest, one of the preachers 
informed me that he had spent the last year in Eng- 
land, and that, with the aid of an associate, he had 
baptized in that country seven thousand saints. He 
had visited the British Museum, where he affirmed 
that he had seen nothing so extraordinary as my 
wonderful book. The Mormon authorities now for- 
mally requested me to sell them the book, for which 
they were willing to pay a high price. This I posi- 
tively refused, and they next importuned me to lend 
it to them, so that the prophet might translate it. 
They promised to give bonds to a considerable amount, 
that it should be forthcoming whenever I requested 
it. I was still deaf to their entreaties, and having 
promised to shew the book to their prophet on the 
ensuing day, I left them and returned to Montrose. 

On arriving at the house of Mr. K. my hospitable 
entertainer, I was informed by him that the Mor- 
mons on the Iowa side of the river had been busily 
engaged in trying to find out who I was, and whence 
I came. They had generally come to the conclusion 
that I was a convert to Mormonism recently arrived 
from England, 

After tea Mr. K. provided me with a horse, and, 
in company with him, I took a delightful ride upon 
the prairie. The grass was of an emerald green, and 
enamelled with the beautiful wild flowers of spring. 

2 



30 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

Far to the North West a line of bluffs seemed to 
bound the prairie at the distance of eight or ten 
miles, while in other directions it extended as far as 
the eye could reach. Numerous clumps of forest 
trees appeared at intervals, and herds of cattle were 
reposing on the grass or feeding on the rich herbage. 
The scene was one of novel and striking interest, 
and I felt pained at the reflection that so fine a 
region seemed destined to be given up to the fol- 
lowers of a mischievous delusion. Upon an emi- 
nence near Montrose, I was shewn the tomb of 
Kalawequois, a beautiful Indian girl of the tribe of 
Sacs and Foxes. She died recently at the early age 
of eighteen, having lingered six years in a consump- 
tion. She was buried on this spot by moonlight, 
with all the ancient ceremonies of her nation. Ad- 
joining her grave was the tomb of Skutah, a full- 
blooded Indian " brave," and a distinguished warrior 
of the same tribe. 

Mr. K. stated, that previously to the arrival of 
the Mormons, his only neighbours were the Indians, 
with whom he lived on the most friendly terms. 
Nothing could exceed their honesty and good faith 
in all their intercouse with him : and although 
heathens, Mr. K. considered them superior in mora- 
lity and common sense to the "latter-day saints." 
Keokuk is the present chief of the Sacs and Foxes, 
having succeeded to the jurisdiction on the demise of 
the venerable Black Hawk, who died of grief at the 
age of eighty, in consequence of the treatment ex- 
perienced by his nation at the hands of the United 
States. The residence of Keokuk and the chief 
village of his tribe, are situated near the Des Moines 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 31 

river, arid about a day's journey westward of Mon- 
trose. The tribe consisted, before the war, of about 
nine thousand persons, who are now reduced to three 
thousand. The two sons of Black Hawk still sur- 
vive, and are noble and princely both in person and 
in character. The Indians have the greatest possible 
contempt for Joseph Smith, and denominate him a 
Tshe-wal-lis-ke, which signifies a rascal. Nor have 
other false prophets risen more highly in their esti- 
mation. A few years since, that notorious deceiver 
Matthias made his appearance one evening at the 
door of Keokuk's " waikeop, ;> or cabin. He wore 
a long beard, which was parted on each side of his 
chin ; a long gun was on his shoulder, and a red 
sash around his waist. Keokuk demanded who he 
was, to which question Matthias replied, that he was 
Jesus Christ the only true God, and that he was 
come to gather the Indians, who were of the seed 
of Israel. " Well," said Keokuk, who is a very 
dignified man, " perhaps you are Jesus Christ, aud 
perhaps you are not. If you are Jesus Christ you 
cannot be killed. If you are not Jesus Christ, you 
are a rascal and deserve to be shot. Look at these 
two fine rifle pistols ; they were made in New York ; 
they never miss their aim. Now see me sound 
them with the ram-rod. They have a tremendously 
heavy charge. Now I point them at you. Now I 
am going to fire." At this Matthias suddenly 
bolted, being unwilling that his claims should be 
tested by so novel and so striking a mode of theo- 
logical argument. He afterwards obtained admis- 
sion, at Keokuk's request, to the waikeop of an old 
Indian man and woman who lived alone. They gave 



32 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

him supper, and when he had fallen asleep they 
made a fire, and watched him all night, believing 
him to be the devil, whom they had heard described 
by the Roman Catholic missionaries. 

These Indians have many remarkable customs. 
Before undertaking a war, their warriors fast forty 
days in a solitary cabin constructed of bark. During 
this period, they eat barely sufficient to keep them- 
selves alive. They also sacrifice dogs ; and having 
tied the dead bodies to trees about six feet above the 
ground, they proceed to paint the noses and stomachs 
of the victims with a deep red colour. They consult 
prophets, who are provided with sacred utensils, de- 
nominated medicine bags ; and which contain the 
skins of " skunks," with other precious articles. 
When the warriors return from their fast, the people 
make a great feast on dogs which have been fattened 
for the occasion. None but men are allowed to attend. 
At the appointed hour, the warriors may be seen tra- 
velling to the rendezvous ; each carrying, with great 
solemnity, his wooden bowl and wooden spoon. At 
the house appointed for the feast, the dead dogs are 
in readiness, together with a profusion of boiled In- 
dian corn and beans. Mr. K. was present on one of 
these occasions, and took particular notice of the cere- 
monies. Some of the warriors began by cutting the 
dogs into equal portions, which they placed in a large 
iron kettle over a fire, and boiled for about half an 
hour. The remainder of the guests reclined upon 
mats on both sides of the house, while the fire burned 
briskly at the centre, the smoke escaping through an 
opening in the roof. The corn and beans were placed 
all round the room in wooden dishes upon the ground. 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 38 

The dog meat being sufficiently boiled, the pieces were 
taken out, and every person present received his 
share. A distinguished " brave " now arose, and 
made a speech ; after which, a second stood up and 
repeated the monosyllable, " ugh." At this signal, 
all began to eat ; holding the pieces of dog in their 
hands without knives or forks, and devouring with 
all their might. This feast on dogs is considered a 
sort of penance. Whoever swallows the whole of his 
portion is called a big brave ; while those who are 
made sick by it, are denominated squaws. The men 
of this tribe enjoy themselves exceedingly at their 
villages during the winter, visiting one another with 
great sociability. All the hard work devolves upon 
the women, who cut down trees for firewood, make 
the fires, and minister like slaves to the comfort and 
luxury of their lords. These Indians, notwithstand- 
ing their neglect of the squaws, have many courteous 
and gentlemanly habits. They have no profane word 
in their vocabulary, and the most abusive words em- 
ployed by them are liar, rascal, hog, and squaw. They, 
however, catch with facility the profane expressions 
of the whites, which they use with great readiness, 
and without understanding their signification. Thus, 
they will often employ an oath as a friendly saluta- 
tion ; and while kindly shaking hands with a friend, 
will curse him in cheerful and pleasant tones of voice. 
The following morning (Tuesday, April 19th), a 
Mormon arrived with his boat and ferried me over to 
Nauvoo. A Mormon doctor accompanied me. He 
had obtained, I was told, a regular diploma from a 
medical school as a physician'; but since the Mormons 
generally prefer miraculous aid to medicine, it is pro- 

D 



34 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

bable that his practice is somewhat limited. He ar- 
gued with me as we were on the passage, and evinced 
a tolerable share of intelligence and acuteness. The 
success of Mormonism in England was a subject of 
great rejoicing to him. I observed, that I had rea- 
son to believe that the conquests of Mormonism in 
Britain had been principally among the illiterate and 
uneducated. This, he partially admitted; but he 
maintained that God had always chosen the poor, for 
they were rich in faith. I replied, that the class of 
persons to whom he referred, abounded in wrong 
faith no less than in right faith ; and that among the 
lower class of persons in England, the wildest delu- 
sions, of the most contradictory character, had, from 
time to time, been readily propagated. I further re- 
marked, that the same class of people who believed 
in Joanna Southcote, might easily be persuaded to 
credit the divine mission of Joseph Smith. I begged 
him to inform me whether the Mormons believed in 
the Trinity. "Yes," he replied; "we believe that 
the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy 
Ghost is God; that makes three at least who are 
God, and no doubt there are a great many more." 
He went on to state, that the Mormons believe that 
departed saints become a portion of the Deity, and 
may be properly denominated " Gods." 

On landing at Nauvoo, I proceeded with the Doc- 
tor along the street which I mentioned before as 
bordering on the strand. As I advanced with my 
book in my hand, numerous Mormons came forth 
from their dwellings, begging to be allowed to see its 
mysterious pages; and by the time I reached the 
prophet's house, they amounted to a perfect crowd. 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 35 

I met Joseph Smith at a short distance from his dwel- 
ling, and was regularly introduced to him. I had 
the honour of an interview with him who is a prophet, 
a seer, a merchant, a " revelator," a president, an 
elder, an editor, and the general of the " Nauvoo 
legion." He is a coarse, plebeian person in aspect, 
and his countenance exhibits a curious mixture of the 
knave and the clown. His hands are large and fat, 
and on one of his fingers he wears a massive gold 
ring, upon which I saw an inscription. His dress 
was of coarse country manufacture, and his white hat 
was enveloped by a piece of black crape as a sign of 
mourning for his deceased brother, Don Carlos Smith, 
the late editor of the "Times and Seasons." His age 
is about thirty- five. I had not an opportunity of 
observing his eyes, as he appears deficient in that 
open, straightforward look which characterizes an 
honest man. He led the way to his house, accom- 
panied by a host of elders, bishops, preachers, and 
common Mormons. On entering the house, chairs 
were provided for the prophet and myself, while the 
curious and gaping crowd remained standing. I 
handed the book to the prophet, and begged him to 
explain its contents. He asked me if I had any idea of 
its meaning. I replied, that I believed it to be a Greek 
Psalter ; but that I should like to hear his opinion. 
" No," he said; " it ain't Greek at all; except, per- 
haps, a few words. What ain't Greek, is Egyptian ; 
and what ain't Egyptian, is Greek. This book is very- 
valuable . It is a dictionary of Egyptian Hierogly- 
phics." Pointing to the capital letters at the com- 
mencement of each verse, he said : " Them figures is 
Egyptian hieroglyphics ; and them which follows, is 
D 2 



36 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

the interpretation of the hieroglyphics, written in the 
reformed Egyptian. Them characters is like the let- 
ters that was engraved on the golden plates." Upon 
this, the Mormons around began to congratulate me 
on the information I was receiving. " There," they 
said ; "we told you so we told you that our pro- 
phet would give you satisfaction. None but our pro- 
phet can explain these mysteries." The prophet now 
turned to me, and said, " this book ain't of no use 
to you, you don't understand it." " Oh yes," I re- 
plied ; " it is of some use ; for if I were in want of 
money, I could sell it, and obtain, perhaps, enough to 
live on for a whole year." " But what will you take 
for it ?" said the prophet and his elders. " My price," 
I replied, " is higher than you would be willing to 
give." " What price is that ?" they eagerly de- 
manded. I replied, " I will not tell you what price 
I would take ; but if you were to offer me this mo- 
ment nine hundred dollars in gold for it, you should 
not have it." They then repeated their request that 
I should lend it to themuntil the prophet should have 
time to translate it, and promised me the most ample 
security ; but I declined all their proposals. I placed 
the book in several envelopes, and as I deliberately 
tied knot after knot, the countenances of many among 
them gradually sunk into an expression of great de- 
spondency. Having exhibited the book to the pro- 
phet, I requested him in return to shew me his papy- 
rus ; and to give me his own explanation, which I 
had hitherto received only at second hand. He pro- 
ceeded with me to his office, accompanied by the 
multitude. He produced the glass frames which I 
had seen on the previous day ; but he did not appear 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 37 

very forward to explain the figures. I pointed to a 
particular hieroglyphic, and requested him to expound 
its meaning. No answer being returned, I looked 
up, and behold ! the prophet had disappeared. The 
Mormons told me that he had just stepped out, and 
would probably soon return. I waited some time, 
but in vain : and at length descended to the street in 
front of the store. Here I heard the noise of wheels, 
and presently I saw the prophet in his waggon, 
flourishing his whip and driving away as fast as two 
fine horses could draw him. As he disappeared from 
view, enveloped in a cloud of dust, I felt that I had 
turned over another page in the great book of human 
nature. 

The Mormons now surrounded me, and requested 
to know whether T had received satisfaction from 
the prophet's explanation. I replied that the pro- 
phet had given me no satisfaction, and that he had 
committed himself most effectually. They wished to 
know my own religious opinions. I informed them 
that I had been educated in the Church of England, 
to which I was conscientiously attached. One of 
the Mormons said that the Church of England had 
a form of godliness, but denied the power thereof, 
and that it was the duty of all men to turn away from 
her. I asked him what he understood by the power 
of godliness. He replied, " the power of working 
miracles arid of speaking in unknown tongues." He 
maintained that the Church of England denied that 
the gifts of the Holy Ghost are communicated at 
the present day to the people of God. I told him 
that he was mistaken, and referred him to the pas- 
sages in the " Service for the Ordering of Priests," 



38 THE CITY OF THE MORMOKS ; 

" Receive the Holy Ghost for the office and work of 
a Priest in the Church of God." And again, 

" Thou the Anointing Spirit art, 
Who dost thy sevenfold gifts impart." 

And again, 

" Thou in thy gifts art manifold, 
By them Christ's Church doth stand." 

Another said that the ministers of the Church of 
England were dumb dogs, that its bishops were re- 
gardless of the advancement of the gospel, that their 
belly was their God, and that money was their idol. 
I inquired whether he was particularly well acquainted 
with the English bishops and clergy. He replied, 
that he had never been out of America ; but that he 
had received these accounts from travellers. I told 
him that I had been personally acquainted with many 
of the bishops and clergy of the English Church, 
and that his assertion was not agreeable to the truth. 
A renegade now came forward, who stated himself 
to have been a member of the Established Church of 
Ireland. He said that the Thirty-nine Articles were 
a bundle of inconsistencies from beginning to end. 
I begged him to specify some of the inconsistencies. 
He said that the first Article asserts that God is 
without body, parts, or passions ; that the second 
Article teaches that Christ is God ; and that the 
fourth Article states that Christ ascended into heaven 
with his body, flesh, and bones. Thus, he main- 
tained, the fourth Article was inconsistent with the 
first. I replied, that the same charge of inconsis- 
tency might be applied to the Scriptures with equal 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 39 

fairness, and quoted the texts by which the doctrines 
of the first, second, and fourth Articles are distinctly 
proved. He flew off at once to another subject, and 
maintained that baptism in the Church of England 
is not valid, inasmuch as it is not administered by 
persons having authority. I asked him what con- 
stituted a sufficient authority. He replied, " a com- 
mission from Christ, proved by the possession of 
miraculous gifts." I said that the English clergy 
possessed a commission from Christ, which could be 
proved most conclusively, even in the absence of 
miraculous gifts at the present time. He wished to 
know how their commission could be proved without 
miracles. I told him that the bishops of the English 
Church, by whom the inferior clergy are ordained, 
are apostles just as truly as St. Barnabas and St. 
Timothy were. This statement took him altogether 
by surprise; he looked at me incredulously, and wished 
for proof. I presented him with a brief outline of 
the clear and simple argument for the Apostolic Suc- 
cession, and showed him historically that bishops 
have been always consecrated by bishops from the 
age of inspiration to the present time; that the 
commission of our Saviour to the eleven, extending 
as it did through all time and^all the world, implied 
an apostolical succession till the day of judgment ; 
that Scripture testifies to a succession of Apostles as 
long as Scripture can testify to it ; and that after- 
wards the continuance of the succession is proved by 
a vast number of Christian writers down to the pre- 
sent time. He considered for a moment, and then 
said, that such a succession must have come through 
Rome ; that Rome was the mother of harlots, and 



40 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

that the Church of England was the eldest of her 
numerous family of daughters. " The Church of 
England," said he, "reminds me of a story I heard 
about an old cow " As he was becoming abusive I 
thought it best to check him, and seriously requested 
him to inform me whether it was an English cow or 
an Irish bull of which he was speaking. At this 
the younger Mormons began to laugh, and Paddy 
seemed rather disconcerted and was silent. 

An old American in a blue home- spun suit, and 
with a disagreeable expression in his face, now en- 
tered the lists against me. He told me that I was 
in great darkness and unbelief, and that I ought to 
repent, obey the gospel, and be baptized. I replied, 
that as for repentance, I repented every day ; as for 
obedience, without boasting, I might claim to be 
equal to the " Latter-day Saints ; " and as for bap- 
tism, I had been lawfully baptized by one having 
authority. He said that Church of England baptism 
possessed only the authority derived from Acts of 
Parliament, and that the English Church was merely 
a Parliament Church. I replied, that the English 
Church had a double sanction : first, that of Christ 
who founded the Catholic Church, of which the 
English Church is a portion ; and secondly, that of 
Parliament, by which, long after its foundation, it 
was acknowledged as the National Religion. " As 
for you Mormons," I said, " it is now my turn to 
say something about your religion, since you have 
spoken freely of mine. It is easy for you to argue 
as you do about the descent of the Indians from 
Israel, the probability of the restoration of miraculous 
powers to the Church, and the errors and inconsis- 



OK, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 41 

tencies of existing sects ; but in regard to the real 
question at issue, on which your religion depends, 
namely, the inspiration of your prophet, you have 
given me no satisfaction whatever." They requested 
me to state what evidence I should consider satisfac- 
tory. I replied, " When the Jewish dispensation 
was to be introduced, God enabled Moses to work 
great wonders with his rod. God smote a mighty 
nation with miraculous plagues. He divided the 
Red Sea and the River Jordan. He came down on 
Mount Sinai amid clouds and lightnings and the ter- 
rific sound of the trumpet of heaven. He caused 
Moses to strike the rock and the waters gushed forth. 
He rained down manna for the space of forty years 
in the wilderness. Again, when the Christian dis- 
pensation was to be established, Christ walked upon 
the waters ; He controlled the winds and the waves ; 
He fed assembled thousands with a few loaves and 
fishes ; He healed the sick : He opened the eyes of 
the blind ; He brought the dead to life ; and finally, 
He raised Himself from the grave. 

" You maintain that your prophet is sent to estab- 
lish a third dispensation. I demand, therefore, what 
signs are given to prove his commission ?" 

The old man replied, that the healing of the sick, 
the casting out of devils, and the speaking of un- 
known tongues, were very frequent in the " Latter- 
day Church." I said that signs of that kind were 
of a very doubtful description, since the imagination 
possessed great power over the nervous system. I 
inquired whether Smith had ever walked across the 
Mississippi, or brought a dead man to life. He 
replied in the negative ; but said, that among them 



42 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

the blind received their sight, and the ears of the 
deaf were opened. I then observed, " You perceive 
that I am rather deaf, and you say that I have no 
faith. Now can you open my ears so that I may 
hear your arguments more distinctly ? " Imme- 
diately the old man stepped forward, and before I 
was aware of his object, thrust his fore-fingers into 
my ears, and lifting up his eyes, uttered for about a 
minute in a loud voice some unintelligible gibberish. 
" There," he said finally, " the Holy Ghost prompted 
me to do that, and now you have heard the unknown 
tongue." " But my hearing is not improved," I 
said. " That," he replied, " is because you have no 
faith. If ever you believe the Book of Mormon, you 
will immediately recover perfect hearing, through the 
gift of the Holy Ghost." I looked at him somewhat 
severely and said, " Take care, old man, what you 
say. When you employ the names of Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, you should speak with awe and 
reverence ; but you and other Mormons here, as far 
as I have observed, employ the most sacred terms 
with the most disgusting levity. How miserable, 
how barren were your services on last Sunday ; how 
cold your worship, how utterly unedifying and far- 
cical your preaching. The Holy Ghost was mani- 
festly absent from your assembly, which resembled a 
Jewish Synagogue more than a Christian congrega- 
tion. There was no Bible, there was no Lord's 
Prayer, there were no motives presented to humilia- 
tion, self-examination, or any branch of devotion ; 
nothing but senseless speculations on the character 
of God, idle assertions of special revelations and 
miraculous gifts, and disgraceful advertisements of 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 43 

stolen goods." Here they interrupted me and said, 
that their preachers did not need the Bible, being 
inspired by the Holy Ghost. " No," I said, " it is 
not inspiration, it is a Satanic delusion. Your pro- 
phet has committed himself to-day, and I will make 
the fact known to the world. Would you believe a 
man calling himself a prophet, who should say that 
black is white ? " " No," they replied. " Would you 
believe him if he should say that English is French ?" 
" Certainly not." " But you heard your prophet de- 
clare, that this book of mine is a Dictionary of Egyptian 
hieroglyphics, written in characters like those of the 
original Book of Mormon. I know it most positively 
to be the Psalms of David, written in ancient Greek. 
Now what shall I think of your prophet ?" They ap- 
peared confounded for a while ; but at length the 
Mormon doctor said, "Sometimes Mr. Smith speaks 
as a prophet, and sometimes as a mere man. If he 
gave a wrong opinion respecting the book, he spoke 
as a mere man." I said, " Whether he spoke as a 
prophet or as a mere man, he has committed himself, 
for he has said what is not true. If he spoke as a 
prophet, therefore, he is a false prophet. If he spoke 
as a mere man, he cannot be trusted, for he spoke 
positively and like an oracle respecting that of which 
he knew nothing. You have talked to me very 
freely respecting the Church to which I belong ; but 
I hardly like to tell you what I think respecting your 
religion, lest I should hurt your feelings." "Speak 
out," said some. " Go on," said others. ." If Smith 
be not a true prophet," I said, " you must admit 
that he is a gross impostor." " We must," they 



44 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

replied. " Then I will freely tell you my opinion, 
so that you may not think that I intend to say 
at a distance what I would not say in Nauvoo itself. 
I think it likely that most of you are credulous and 
ignorant, but well-meaning persons, and that the 
time at least has been when you desired to do the 
will of God. A knot of designing persons, of whom 
Smith is the centre, have imposed upon your cre- 
dulity and ignorance, and you have been most 
thoroughly hoaxed by. their artful devices. Mahomet 
himself was a gentleman, a Christian, and a scholar, 
when compared with your prophet. And oh ! how 
mournful to look round, as I can at present, and to 
reflect, how many have been drawn away from their 
homes, dragged across earth and sea, and brought 
to this unwholesome spot, where, with the loss of 
substance and of health, they are too often left to 
perish in wretched poverty and bitter disappoint- 
ment." One of the Mormons who had listened 
attentively to what I said, now remarked with some 
solemnity of manner, " If we are deceived, then are 
we of all men the most miserable." " Indeed I 
believe you are most miserable," I replied, " and I 
pity you from the very bottom of my heart. And oh ! 
how gladly would I see you delivered from this awful 
delusion, and returning to the bosom of that holy 
Catholic Church, from which many of you have 
apostatized. There you may find plain and honest 
teaching, without these lying signs and wonders. 
There you may find holy and solemn services fitted 
for the edification of the people of God. There you 
may find a true baptism, a true communion, true 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 45 

gifts of the Holy Ghost, and true ministers who 
descend in one unbroken line from the Apostles sent 
forth by Christ Himself." Several of them now 
said that faith is the gift of God, that God had 
promised to give wisdom to those who should ask 
it ; that they had prayed to God to guide them into 
all truth, and that He had led them to believe in the 
book of Mormon. I replied that God had appointed 
certain means of ascertaining the truth, and that if 
we neglect those means it will be vain to pray to 
Him for guidance. Thus He had declared his Church 
to be the pillar and ground of truth. But it was 
evident that they had not built upon the true ground, 
for they had attached themselves not to the apostolic 
Church, but a sect barely fifteen years old." The old 
man in blue now told me that they pitied me as much 
as I pitied them. " Come, my friend," he said to 
me, " let you and I go down to the Mississippi, only 
let me put you under the water and baptize you, and 
when you come up again, you will see all mysteries 
clearly, and will believe in our great signs and 
wonders." I told him in reply, that to submit to 
such a baptism would be almost the greatest sacri- 
lege which a Christian could commit. " I must 
now leave you," I proceeded, " I have been among 
you three days ; I have expressed my sentiments 
freely respecting your religion and your prophet, and 
I heartily thank you that you have listened to me 
with attention, and that although you have had me 
altogether in your power, you have not put me 
under the Mississippi and kept me there." 

I walked to the ferry with the Mormon who had 
brought me over in the morning, the Mormon doc- 



46 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

tor, and one or two others. When we arrived at 
the boat we found it safe, as it had been carefully 
padlocked in the morning. The oars, however, were 
missing, a circumstance which caused great vexation 
to the owner. He exclaimed " My oars are gone ; 
somebody has hooked my oars." " Who has taken 
your oars ?" I asked. " Some of the boys, I guess," 
he replied. " What ! some of the young Latter-day 
Saints ?" I said. " I guess it was," he answered. " But 
do not the young saints learn the ten commandments," 
I demanded, " and especially the eighth, 'Thou shalt 
not steal ?' " "I guess they know them all," the poor 
man answered, " but any how they don't practise 
them." Accordingly he took a piece of board in his 
hands, and having given another piece to one of his 
companions, he proceeded rather awkwardly to paddle 
across the wide and rapid stream. A third piece of 
board was given to the doctor, who sat with me in 
the stern, to be used as a rudder. For some time 
we advanced tolerably well ; but before long the 
doctor began to argue with me vehemently. He 
said that no man could obtain salvation, who devoted 
so little attention to the truth of God as I had done ; 
and that instead of spending only three days, I ought 
to have remained at least three weeks at Nauvoo. 
I told him that I had seen quite enough to convince 
any person of ordinary understanding, that Smith 
was an impostor. He replied that Smith might be 
as bad as he was reported to be, but that his prophe- 
cies would not thereby be proved false. He might 
be a swindler, a liar, a drunkard, a swearer, and still 
be a true prophet. David was a murderer and an 
adulterer, and yet was a true prophet. St. Peter 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NACVOO. 47 

said that even in his time " David had not yet ascended 
into heaven." David was in hell, for no murderer 
had eternal life abiding in him. So Smith might be 
as infamous as David was, and even deny his own 
revelations, and turn away from his religion, and 
go to hell ; but this would not affect the revelations 
which God had given by him. It was in vain that I 
attempted to correct the doctor's false positions ; the 
stream of his eloquence had begun to flow, and, 
finally, I suffered it to flow unchecked. He said that 
the truth of Mormonism did not depend on the cha- 
racter of Smith or of any other man. That our Lord 
had told the Jews that there were other sheep, not 
of that fold, whom He intended to bring, and that 
in accordance with this declaration, after his ascen- 
sion into heaven, He descended again .in America 
and preached the Gospel to the Indians, as the 
veracious history of the book of Mormon assured us. 
That for his own part, his faith had been produced 
solely by the power of God, and that if he was 
deceived, God Almighty had deceived him, and no 
other. " I was once an honest Atheist," he proceeded, 
" I felt that Christianity could not be true, since 
Christians have not yet decided among themselves 
what Christianity is. I was induced by curiosity 
to listen to the preaching of a Mormon elder. My 
attention was strongly arrested ; I began to believe 
in God, and for many weeks and months was earnest 
in my prayers to Him for a knowledge of the truth. 
After the space of six months, I was one night lying 
awake in my bed meditating, when suddenly a con- 
viction of the reality of the Christian religion flashed 
upon my mind like lightning. I saw the truth of 



48 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

the Scriptures and of the book of Mormon. I felt 
powerfully convinced that the prophecies of Joseph 
Smith were from God. At the same time I was 
filled with a supernatural extasy which resembled 
heaven itself. I could not restrain my feelings, but 
cried out, O my God, if it be thus to be baptized 
with the Holy Ghost, what must it be to be baptized 
with fire ! From that time I have been a member 
of the ' Latter-day Church,' and, believe me, I would 
rather be an honest Atheist again, than embrace the 
doctrines of any of the sects. If the religion which 
I profess be false, there is no true religion upon 
earth." 

The doctor's zeal had so completely carried him 
away, that he quite forgot his duty as helmsman. 
The boat was now about the middle of the Missis- 
sippi, and after sundry tortuous windings, seemed 
about to return to Nauvoo. The poor fellows who 
were paddling with the boards complaining of the 
doctor's steering, I volunteered to take the helm, and 
the medical gentleman forthwith resigned his piece 
of board into my hands. The skiff now proceeded 
with a straight course, and we shortly landed in 
Iowa. The doctor, on parting from me, compli- 
mented me somewhat equivocally on my seamanship, 
by observing, that if I knew the way of salvation as 
well as I knew how to steer, I might have a good 
chance of getting to heaven. 

During the remainder of the day, I employed 
myself in obtaining testimony from persons residing 
in Iowa in reference to the conduct and character 
of their Mormon neighbours. I have every reason 
to believe that this testimony is correct, partly be- 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 49 

cause it agrees with what I myself saw and heard 
in Nauvoo, and partly on account of the character 
and respectability of the witnesses. 

The reader must have already inferred from my 
description, that the false prophet himself is a coarse 
and gross personage, by no means punctilious in 
regard to truth. The following facts related by 
actual witnesses will not therefore appear incredible. 

Before the Mormons settled in the vicinity, no shop 
for the sale of spirituous liquors had been established 
in Montrose. After their arrival two of their preach- 
ers commenced a grog-shop in that place, which was 
principally supported by the " Latter-day Saints." 
In September 1841, the prophet being in Montrose, 
became intoxicated at this shop. While in this 
condition he told the by-standers " that he could 
drink them all drunk," and requested the shop- 
keeper to treat all his friends at his expense. 

On another occasion, having been discharged from 
arrest, through informality in the writ requiring his 
apprehension for high treason against the State of 
Missouri, Smith gave a party at Monmouth, and, 
after a regular frolic with his lawyers and friends, 
became thoroughly intoxicated. On being asked 
how it was that he, a prophet of the Lord, could 
get drunk, he replied, that it was necessary that he 
should do so, in order to prevent his followers from 
worshipping him as a God. 

While intoxicated at Montrose, at another time, 
he was heard by several persons saying to himself, 
"lamaP.R.O.F.I.T. lamaP .R . O . F . I .T" 
spelling (or rather mis-spelling) the word delibe- 



50 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

rately, and repeating the letters in solemn succes- 
sion. 

About two years since, at a political convention 
held in Nauvoo, the prophet became intoxicated, and 
was led home by his brother Hyrum. On the fol- 
lowing Sunday, he acknowledged the fact in public. 
He said that he had been tempted, and had drunk 
too much ; but that he had yielded to the tempta- 
tion for the following reason : Several of the elders 
had got drunk, and had never made confession ; but 
he was desirous of getting drunk and confessing it, 
in order to set the elders a good example. 

The language of the prophet is gross in the ex- 
treme. A Mormon, for example, having made some 
remarks derogatory to " the elect lady," Mrs. Smith, 
the prophet was dreadfully exasperated. He endea- 
voured to find out the name of the offender ; but, 
being unable to do so, he alluded to the subject in a 
sermon, preached in the open air, at Montrose, on 
the 9th of May, 1841. He said, " I hope I may 
never find out that person ; for if I do, my appetite 
shall never be satisfied till I have his blood ; and if 
he ever crosses my threshold I will send him to 
hell." 

I have already stated some circumstances which 
may appear to reflect on the common honesty of some 
of the Mormons. Mr. K. mentioned that he had 
lived five years among heathen Indians, and had 
never been robbed by them of the most trifling arti- 
cle. During the three years which have elapsed 
since the settlement of the Mormons at Montrose 
and Nauvoo, fourteen robberies, to the amount of two 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 51 

thousand dollars, have been committed upon his pro- 
perty. 1st, His store was robbed of goods worth 
five hundred dollars ; 2nd, his warehouse was plun- 
dered of one barrel of pork, two barrels of sugar, and 
five kegs of lard ; 3rd, his smoke-house was despoiled 
of thirty-three hams and eleven shoulders ; the 4th 
robbery deprived him of a barrel and a half of salt ; 
the 5th, of another barrel of salt ; the 6th, of a sad- 
dle, bridle, and martingale, which were taken from 
his stable ; 7thly, four wheels were taken from his 
waggon ; Sthly, three saddles and bridles and a mar- 
tingale from his stable ; 9thly, sixty bushels of wheat 
from his granary ; lOthly, six boxes of glass, a hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of bacon, and two boxes of 
axes, from his warehouse ; llth, six more barrels of 
salt; 12th, between three and four hundred bushels 
of Indian corn ; 13th, one wheel was stolen from his 
chariot within an enclosure ; and, 14th, his store was 
robbed of forty-two pieces of dark prints, five or six 
pieces of satinette, and other articles, worth about 
four hundred dollars. 

Joseph Smith, alluding to these robberies in a 
sermon, said that he " did not care how much was 
taken from Mr. K. and his brother." He cited the 
example of Christ and his apostles, who, he said, 
when hungry, scrupled not to steal corn while walk- 
ing in the fields. He added the following words, 
" The world owes me a good living ; if I cannot get 
it otherwise, I will steal it, and catch me at it if 
you can." 

He has, however, thought fit to disavow these 
principles. In the " Times and Seasons" of Dec. 1, 
1841, we have the following official document : 

E 2 UBRAR1 



52 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

" State of Illinois, > ~o 
Hancock County. J k 

" Before me, John C. Bennett, Mayor of the 
City of Nauvoo, personally came Joseph Smith, Pre- 
sident of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints (commonly called Mormons), who, being duly 
sworn according to law, deposeth and saith, that he 
has never, directly or indirectly, encouraged the pur- 
loining of property, or taught the doctrine of steal- 
ing, or any other evil practice ; and that all such 
vile and unlawful acts will ever receive his unquali- 
fied and unreserved disapproval, and the most vigor- 
ous opposition of the Church over which he presides ; 
and further this deponent saith not. 

"JOSEPH SMITH, 

" President of the Church of Latter- 
day Saints." 

After this follows an account of two unlucky Mor- 
mons, who seem to be selected as scape-goats. Being 
officers of the Nauvoo legion, they are tried by court 
martial, found guilty of theft, and sentenced to be 
cashiered. Joseph Smith solemnly approves of this 
sentence, and the proceedings are published in the 
" Times and Seasons." About the same time, five 
Mormons are gazetted as being expelled from the 
church for larceny. 

The following circumstance was mentioned as a 
specimen of the manner in which these singular 
heretics endeavour to rid themselves of the imputa- 
tion of thievishness universally cast upon them. In 
the winter of 1841, a Mormon was committed to the 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 53 

penitentiary on a charge of horse-stealing. Upon 
this, the " Saints " denied that he was a Mormon. 
Two Mormon preachers, however, offered themselves 
as bail for the prisoner, and having effected his libe- 
ration, speedily decamped. When the spring session 
of the court of Lee County for 1842 had arrived, it 
appeared that the accused had followed their exam- 
ple, for neither he nor his securities were to be 
found. 

The sufferings experienced by many of the English 
emigrants at Nauvoo were described as truly appal- 
ling. Nauvoo is one of the most unhealthy spots on 
the Mississippi, between New Orleans and the Falls 
of St. Anthony. This insalubrity is produced by the 
low islands adjoining the city, which are frequently 
overflowed. Sufficient evidence of the unhealthiness 
of the place is furnished in the following extract 
from a " revelation given to Joseph Smith, January 
19th, 1841," and published in the "Times and Sea- 
sons" for June 1st, 1841 : 

" Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant, 
Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offer- 
ings and acknowledgements which you have made ; 
for unto this end have I raised you up, that I might 
show forth my wisdom through the weak things of 
the earth. ***** L e ^ no man g O from 
this place who has come here assaying to keep my 
commandments. If they live here, let them live unto 
me, and if they die, let them die unto me ; for they 
shall rest>from all their labour here, and shall con- 
tinue their, works. Therefore, let my servant Wil- 
liam put his trust in me, and cease to fear concerning 
his family, because of the sickness of the land. If 



54 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS; 

ye love me, keep my commandments, and the sick- 
ness of the land shall redound to your glory." 

I was informed again arid again in Montrose, that 
nearly half of the English who emigrated to Nauvoo 
in 1841 died soon after their arrival. Far from the 
graves of their fathers, remote from the ministers of 
the true faith, they ended their days in want and 
wretchedness, and were buried without that respect- 
ful solemnity which in England is not denied even 
to the pauper from the workhouse. 

In his sermon of the 9th of May, 1841, the fol- 
lowing words of most Christian consolation were 
delivered by the prophet to the poor deluded Eng- 
lish. 

" Many of the English who have lately come here 
have expressed great disappointment on their arrival. 
Such persons have every reason to be satisfied in this 
beautiful and fertile country. If they choose to com- 
plain, they may; but I don't want to be troubled 
with their complaints. If they are not satisfied here, 
I have only to say this to them, Don't stay whining 
about me, but go back to England and be d d." 

One of Joseph's missionaries, having returned from 
a mission to England, preached a sermon at Nauvoo 
on Sunday, July 4th, 1840. Having given an ac- 
count of his proceedings during his absence, and 
alluded to the converts whom he had persuaded to 
settle near Nauvoo, he proceeded to speak as follows: 
" T have not had an opportunity to visit these 
English brethren since my return. I cannot spend 
my time in visiting them. If they are as much dis- 
satisfied as they are said to be, I have only this to 
say to them, You had better go back to England ; 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NATTVOO. 55 

but if you go, go like men and be d d, and don't 
whine about it." 

The Secretary for the territory of Iowa was pre- 
sent on this occasion, and remarked to my informant, 
that he was astonished at hearing these expressions 
from the very man who had brought these poor peo- 
ple a distance of six thousand miles. 

The method in which the Mormons baptize is a 
perfect burlesque on the holy initiatory sacrament of 
the gospel. On one occasion, a hundred and sixty- 
five persons were baptized by immersion at Nauvoo, 
some for the remission of sins, and some for their 
deceased friends, which is their baptism for the dead. 
This business was done by seven elders, who enjoyed 
it as a capital frolic. One of these elders baptized a 
woman six times during the same day. Not satis- 
fied with this, she presented herself a seventh time, 
when the elder jocosely remarked, " What ! haven't 
you got wet enough already ?" A very tall man 
offering himself, the elder, who is very stout, laughed 
aloud, and said, " I am the only one big enough to 
put tall chaps like you under water." 

The Christian reader will feel that he has now had 
enough of these awful profanations ; and I assure 
him that nothing but a sense of the duty of exposing 
imposture could have induced me to commit them to 
paper. A mere selection from the sayings, writings, 
and doings of the leading Mormons, equal to the 
preceding in horrid wickedness, would fill volumes. 
Enough has been said, however, to prove that Mor- 
monism is associated in the minds of its most zealous 
advocates with dispositions and actions the very re- 



56 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

verse of those which are inculcated by the Gospel, 
and exhibited in the example of Jesus Christ. 

In the evening subsequent to my last visit to Nau- 
voo, I walked by the western banks of the noble Mis- 
sissippi. Beside me flowed its smooth waters, undis- 
turbed by the slightest ripple. On the eastern bank 
the rays of the setting sun were reflected from the 
windows of Nauvoo, and his parting beams illumi- 
nated the white dwellings of the prophet and his fol- 
lowers. It was a time adapted to serious reflection. I 
felt convinced, that palpable as are the absurdities of 
Mormonism, it is a system which possesses many ele- 
ments of strength, and of extension. When the pre- 
sent generation of deceivers and of dupes shall have 
gone to their graves, a new class of Mormons may 
have arisen, educated in the principles of the sect, 
and taught by experience to disavow some features in 
their religion which are at present its shame and its 
disgrace. They may consign Joseph Smith to perdi- 
tion, together with the sweet Psalmist of Israel; 
while his doctrines, somewhat refined, may be a rule 
of faith and action to admiring millions. It remains 
(under God) for Christians of the present day to de- 
termine whether Mormonism shall sink to the level of 
those fanatical sects which, like new stars, have blazed 
for a little while, and then sunk into obscurity ; or 
whether, like a second Mahometanism, it shall extend 
itself sword in hand, until, throughout western Ame- 
rica, Christianity shall be levelled with the dust. 

And how shall Christians effectually avert the cala- 
mity ? I reply, by encouraging the feeble and infant 
Christian institutions already existing in that won- 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 57 

derful land which Mormonism, even now, claims as 
its own. As a Churchman, I feel almost ashamed 
for my Church, when I reflect upon the heavy dis- 
couragements which are suffered to afflict the amiable 
and patient missionary bishop of Missouri, Iowa, and 
Wisconsin. Where are the zealous missionaries who 
should be flocking to his assistance ? Where are the 
means which should be provided for the support of a 
learned clergy in the rising cities of the west ? Why 
is Kemper College, the first and only institution of 
the Church beyond the Mississippi, permitted to lan- 
guish, while the Mormon temple, and the Mormon 
university, offer their delusive attractions to the rising 
generation ? Why is the venerable bishop of Illinois 
permitted to labour almost alone, while the mission- 
aries of Joseph Smith, with a zeal worthy of the true 
Church, perambulate his diocese and plant their 
standard in every village ? 

If the Churches of England and America possessed 
the activity of the Mormons, questions like the above 
would soon be needless. Churchmen would contri- 
bute from their poverty as well as from their riches ; 
churches would be erected, missionaries maintained, 
and colleges in which a learned clergy could be edu- 
cated, would be liberally endowed. Fanaticism, no 
longer rampant, would hide itself in the darkest re- 
cesses of the forest ; while pure and genuine religion 
would be the comfort of the weary emigrant, and the 
faithful guide of the fifty millions who, doubtless, 
before another century, will occupy the valley of the 
Mississippi. 

How present exigencies shall be met, is a question 
worthy of the careful consideration of all, both in 



58 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS ; 

England and America, who are solicitous for the 
advancement of truth and piety. The appointment 
of a self-denying missionary to reside in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Nauvoo, might in some degree check 
the rising heresy. Such a missionary should be 
thoroughly acquainted with the Mormon controversy ; 
patient, willing to endure contradiction and persecu- 
tion, and able to accommodate himself readily to all 
circumstances, and to all classes of people. Those 
who become disgusted with Mormonism might thus 
be saved from embracing Atheism ; the poor disap- 
pointed English might be relieved, encouraged, and 
restored to the Church of their fathers ; the progress 
of the delusion might be closely watched, and the 
artifices of its leaders duly exposed. 

It is also worthy of remark, that the success of 
Joseph Smith appears to warrant a system of emigra- 
tion and settlement conducted on religious principles. 
The notorious Owen, as is well known, attempted the 
establishment of an Infidel community at New Har- 
mony, in Indiana, and totally failed. Joseph Smith 
has availed himself of the religious principle natural 
to man, and has triumphantly succeeded. If a false 
faith has thus prevailed, true religion might accom- 
plish wonders. Whatever may be said, and much 
may be said with truth, respecting the superior claims 
of the British colonies, it is certain that a vast pro- 
portion of those who emigrate from Great Britain and 
Ireland, proceed to the United States. Numbers of 
these have been educated in the principles of the 
Established Church ; and yet, from various causes, 
few of them comparatively attach themselves to the 
Church in America. Many connect themselves with 



OR, THREE DAYS AT NAUVOO. 5y 

various dissenting denominations ; while still more, 
it is to be feared, sink into heartless apathy and irre- 
ligion. But we will suppose that a large body of 
members of the Church determine upon emigrating, 
on a system which shall secure mutual co-operation 
and religious fellowship. Before leaving home, the 
outlines of their plan are fixed : they are accompanied 
by a sufficient number of well-educated pastors and 
teachers : they purchase a district of four or five 
thousand acres in a healthy portion of Iowa, for ex- 
ample : they obtain from the legislature charters for 
a city, a college, and a church, respectively : they 
erect their own dwellings upon a handsome and taste- 
ful design : they elect a mayor and a corporation for 
their rising city. A substantial Church is built, which 
may afterwards form one wing of a noble Gothic 
Cathedral. Schools and teachers are provided for the 
children, professors are appointed for the college, 
libraries are commenced, and halls are erected. Allot- 
ments of land are set aside for the perpetual main- 
tenance of religion and Christian education. The 
clergy, if sufficiently numerous, elect, with the appro- 
bation of the laity, some learned and active man as 
their bishop, who is afterwards duly consecrated by 
the authorities of the American Church. The Church 
now appears in its fulness and dignity ; and mission- 
aries go forth from the city, in sincerity and truth, to 
traverse the land and to convert its inhabitants. 

This is not a chimerical idea, it is a sketch of what 
might be realized with little difficulty. Discourage- 
ments would occasionally arise ; but ultimately, with 
proper management, such a plan would undoubtedly 



60 THE CITY OF THE MORMONS. 

succeed. A new point of attraction would thus be 
presented to European and American emigrants, and 
the power of the false prophet would be shaken to its 
foundation. 



APPENDIX. 



PAGE 2. "Amid countless forms of schism." 
Bishop Kemper gives the following information on 

this subject, in a recent appeal to the European 

Churches. 

" Under a canon of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, passed in the year 1835, I was consecrated 
a missionary Bishop for Indiana and Missouri, to 
which were afterwards added Wisconsin, Iowa, and 
the country beyond the Mississippi, extending south- 
ward to latitude 36 30', northward to the British 
possessions, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. This 
region contains a million of square miles, a million 
and a quarter of white and negro inhabitants, and 
numerous Indian tribes amounting in population to 
not less than three hundred thousand souls. I pro- 
ceeded forthwith to my field of labour, and found 
many members of our Catholic and Apostolic Church 
straying from her fold through the want of pastors. 
Romanism, heresy, schism, infidelity, paganism, and 
a new religion known as Mormonism, extensively 
pervading the land ; and not more than six or seven 
clergymen of our church scattered at wide intervals 
over this prodigious surface. I also found that about 



62 APPENDIX. 

thirty thousand emigrants from Europe annually set- 
tled within my jurisdiction, a large proportion of 
whom were members of the Reformed Churches of 
Great Britain, Germany, Prussia, Norway, Sweden, 
and Denmark, in addition to a vast influx of settlers 
from the eastern parts of the United States, and 
British America." 

Speaking of the Roman Catholics, the Bishop says, 

" Within the bounds of my mission, where I have 
(1841) but twenty- three fellow-labourers, they have 
three bishops, and one hundred and six priests. 
They annually receive large funds from Vienna, 
Lyons, &c., by which they are enabled to erect 
splendid cathedrals, extensive colleges, large con- 
vents, and substantial stone churches. In St. Louis 
alone they have a large cathedral, which cost, it is 
said, eighty thousand dollars, to which, beside the 
bishop, there are attached four clergymen, who preach 
and catechise every Sunday in English, French, and 
German. They have also four chapels, and a splen- 
did church, as yet unfinished, one hundred and twenty 
feet in length, and eighty in width. The present 
position of their diocese of St. Louis is as follows : 
fifty-six churches, nine churches building, sixty other 
stations, seventy-three clergymen, two ecclesiastical 
seminaries, two colleges for young men, one academy 
for boys, ten female convents, ten academies for 
young ladies, four schools, and eight charitable 
institutions." 

PAGE 3. "A New Book." 

The Book of Mormon contains five hundred and 



APPENDIX. 63 

eighty-eight duodecimo pages, consisting of fifteen 
different books, purporting to he written at different 
times, and by different authors, whose names they 
respectively bear. The period of time covered by 
these spurious records is about a thousand years, 
commencing with the time of Zedekiah, and termi- 
nating with the year of our Lord 420. It professes 
to trace the history of the American aborigines, from 
the time of their leaving Jerusalem in the reign of 
Zedekiah, under one Lehi, down to their final disas- 
ter near the hill Camorah, in the state of New York, 
in which contest, according to " the prophet Moroni," 
about 230,000 were slain in a single battle, and he 
alone escaped to tell the tale. These records, with 
which various prophecies and sermons are intermin- 
gled, are declared by Smith to have been written on 
golden plates, in " the reformed Egyptian character," 
and discovered to him by an angel in the year 1823. 
An English edition of the Book of Mormon, revised 
and corrected, has been published at Manchester, for 
the benefit of British " Saints." 



PAGE 4. "a large portion of whom are natives of 
Christian and enlightened England." 

I am permitted by a clergyman of the diocese of 
Chester to give the following extracts from a letter, 
addressed by him to me, February 4th, 1842. 

" For your very kind and satisfactory information 
as to that arch-impostor, Joe Smith, I most cordially 
thank you. Mormonism is a heresy of a very dan- 
gerous and disgraceful tendency ; and I am sorry to 
add, it has produced effects already in some parishes 



64 APPENDIX. 

in England which, in this enlightened age, one could 
scarcely imagine possible. They first of all laid their 
blasphemous scheme at Preston, in Lancashire, after 
taking out a licence at the quarter sessions. This 
occurred about the year 1836 or 37; and they soon 
numbered in that locality nearly 500 converts. In 
1838, they extended their iniquitous operations to 
various villages on each side of the Kibble. At Rib- 
chester, the famous Roman station of Ribcunium, 
they seduced many ; and the same results followed 
in other places nearer Clitheroe. Since that time, 
itinerant preachers among the Methodists and Cal- 
vinists have joined the unholy compact; and even 
farmers, labourers, mechanics, and others, in short, 
whoever among them could supply the needful, have 
been persuaded to sell their property, and emigrate 
to Nauvoo. In 1838, every Mormon in one village, 
and in other villages probably the same, received a 
certificate, or passport, of which the following is a 
copy: 

" We do hereby certify that A. B., the bearer of 
this, is a regular member, and in good standing and 
fellowship, in the Church of the Latter-day Saints in 
Waddington, and is a worthy member of the same ; 
and as a token also of our love and good will, we 
give unto him this letter of commendation to the 
esteem and fellowship of the Saints, in any land or 
country to which he may be pleased to remove. 

"AfarcA*29, " H. C. KIMBALL, 

1838. "ORSON HYDE, 

" Presiding Elders of said Church. 

" This will be called for." 
2 



APPENDIX. 65 

Three hundred of these certificates were printed 
at Clitheroe, by which speculation about 15 were 
realized. 

The way in which a Mormon prophecy is given to 
produce effect on the converts, is artfully designing. 
A young man, for instance, is immersed. After his 
immersion, the elders write a letter, unknown to the 
proselyte himself. As long as he remains faithful, 
all is right ; the letter remains carefully sealed, and 
is kept by third parties. If he leaves them, a meet- 
ing of all the Mormons in the neighbourhood takes 
place, the letter is brought out with solemn pomp, 
the seal is broken, and the contents are read pub- 
licly. The following will serve for an example of 
these prophetic letters : 

" Liverpool, April 13, 1838. 

" DEAR BROTHERS AND SISTERS IN PRESTON, It 
seemeth good unto us, and also unto the Holy Ghost, 
to write to you a few words, which cause pain in our 
hearts, and will also pain you when they are fulfilled 
before you ; yet you shall have joy in the end. Bro- 
ther Webster will not abide in the Spirit of the Lord, 
but will reject the truth, and become the enemy of 
the people of God, and expose the mysteries which 
have been committed to him, that a righteous judg- 
ment may be executed upon him, unless he speedily 
repent. When this sorrowful prediction shall be 
fulfilled, this letter shall be read to the chwrch, and 
it shall prove a solemn warning to all to beware. 
" Farewell in the Lord, 

" ORSON HYDE, 
" H. C. KIMBALL." 



66 APPENDIX. 

In England, the preachers of Mormonism gene- 
rally begin by insinuating among the astonished na- 
tives of rural villages, or the weak and wavering 
classes in larger towns, that our Bible has suffered 
by translation, and that it is deficient and incomplete 
in many particulars. They next declare that the 
Book of Mormon and the revelations bestowed on 
Smith and Rigdon are additional favours from the 
Deity, designed to explain the obscurities and supply 
the deficiencies of our Scriptures. It never enters 
into the minds of their dupes to inquire as to the 
credentials of these preachers. They are the eye-wit- 
nesses of no miracle : they see no dead raised to life, 
no dumb qualified to speak, no blind enabled to see. 

One night the Mormon elder commences by ob- 
serving to his congregation that he does not know 
what to say, but that he will say whatever the Lord 
shall put into his mouth. On another night, he 
gravely announces his intention to read a portion of 
the old Scriptures for edification ; invariably, how- 
ever, taking care not to confine himself to any parti- 
cular subject, but to have as extensive a field as pos- 
sible, in order to weave in from time to time such 
portions of the " Book of Mormon" as he knows to 
be best adapted to effect his object. The American 
edition of this book had no index to guide its readers 
to any particular passage or doctrine; it was not 
generally circulated in England, even among the 
converts-; and hence very few were able to know 
precisely when the preacher's words were Mormonic, 
and when they were not. This peculiarity was re- 
marked upon at the time, and in an English edition, 
printed at Manchester, an index was inserted. 



APPENDIX. 67 

For the continuance of the fraudulent scheme, they 
proceed to enact a mock ordination, choosing out of 
the whole body of converts certain individuals who 
are deemed most trustworthy. These assume their 
blasphemous calling on the pretended sanction of the 
Deity, immerse converts after dark, confirm the par- 
ties next day, and administer, in the course of two or 
three days at the farthest, a mock sacrament, to in- 
dividuals who in the bewildered state of their minds 
scarcely know their right hand from their left. 

It is under the very convenient cloak of night, 
however, that Mormonism in England performs most 
of its operations. It is then in the zenith of its 
glory, converting ignorance into the tool of delusion, 
chaining it fast by iniquitous discipline, order, and 
system, and trying with all its energy to make the 
worse appear the better cause. In such beguiling 
hours, the secret " Church Meeting " is held, to the 
exclusion of every individual except the initiated. 
High and mighty is the business transacted on such 
occasions. It consists of exhortations to stand firm, 
instructions given, explanations offered, visions and 
revelations stated, gifts received for the " Bishop of 
Zion," confessions made, threatenings held out, con- 
verts reprimanded, apostates excommunicated, the 
successes of Mormonism described, and suggestions 
offered for removing the difficulties in its way. 
Enquiries are made in reference to other particulars : 
for example, " What kind of people reside in this 
neighbourhood ? What places of worship do they 
frequent ? What opinions have you formed as to 
the natural bent of their respective dispositions ? 
Will they be disposed to join us, or will they exercise 
P 2 



68 APPENDIX. 

an influence against us ? Are they principally in the 
humble walks of life, or are they of some knowledge 
and understanding? If the answer to these and 
other questions be apparently favourable, the neces- 
sary advice is given to the first converts how they 
may prevail upon more. Suggestions are thrown 
out how to persuade ; and the next step is to urge 
in every possible way the grievous sin of baptizing 
infants, and the absolute necessity of dipping, as the 
very sine qud non, the only effectual path to everlast- 
ing salvation. 

It was the opinion of many of our clerical brethren 
in England, at first, that the evil would upset itself. 
But system, order, and discipline are powerful ingre- 
dients, even in a bad cause. Smith writes to Eng- 
land as follows : " The Nauvoo Legion embraces all 
our military power." " The University of Nauvoo 
will enable us to teach our children arts, sciences, 
and learned professions. The regents of the uni- 
versity will supervise all matters of education, from 
common schools up to the highest branches." 

PAGE. 3. "St. Louis, a city of thirty thousand 
inhabitants." 

St. Louis was founded in 1764, under the auspices 
of the French government, by M. Laclede, who 
named it in honour of the reigning monarch, Louis 
XV. In 1770, it passed into the possession of 
Spain, and as the seat of government for Upper 
Louisiana was occupied by a Spanish governor. In 
1800, Louisiana was retroceded to France, from 
which government it was purchased by the United 
States during the presidency of Mr. Jefferson. St. 



APPENDIX. 69 

Louis increased slowly until the introduction of steam 
navigation on the western rivers ; but during the last 
seven years its population has increased from 8000 
to 30,000. It contains fifteen places of worship, 
viz., two Episcopalian churches, two Roman Catho- 
lic, two Methodist meeting-houses, two Presbyterian, 
one Associate Reformed Presbyterian, one German 
Lutheran, one Baptist, one Unitarian, an African 
Methodist, and an African Baptist meeting-house, 
besides a Jewish synagogue. A third Roman Catho- 
lic church is in progress, and the number of Roman 
Catholics in the city is not less than 14,000. The 
buildings are of brick or stone, and generally present 
a handsome appearance. 

PAGE 5. " Father of waters," &c. 

When the Mississippi is at its lowest stage, the 
depth of water at St. Louis is four feet ; when full, 
the depth is twenty-nine feet. The width of the 
river is three-quarters of a mile ; the average velocity 
four miles an hour ; the average descent of the stream 
six inches in every mile. 

PAGE 8. " This was the Temple." 

The following are some of Joseph Smith's " Reve- 
lations" on the subject of the temple, extracted from 
the "Times and Seasons" for June I, 1841. 

" Verily, verily, I say unto you, let all my saints 
come from afar, and send ye swift messengers, yea, 
chosen messengers, and say unto them, Come ye 
with all your gold, and your silver, and your precious 
stones, and with all your antiquities ; and all who 



70 APPENDIX. 

have knowledge of antiquities that will come, may 
come ; and bring the box-tree, and the fir-tree, and 
the pine-tree, together with all the precious trees of 
the earth ; and with iron, and with copper, and with 
brass, and with zinc, and with all your precious 
things of the earth ; and build a house to my name, 
for the Most High to dwell therein : for there is not 
a place found upon earth, that he may come and 
restore again that which was lost unto you, or which 
he hath taken away, even the fulness of the priest- 
hood. 

t< * * * And again, verily, I say unto you, 
how shall your washings be acceptable unto me, 
except ye perform them in a house which you have 
built to my name ? For for this cause, I com- 
manded Moses that he should build a tabernacle, 
that they should bear it in the wilderness, and to 
build a house in the land of promise, that those ordi- 
nances might be revealed which had been hid from 
before the world was. * * * * 

" And verily I say unto you, let this house be 
built unto my name, that I may reveal mine ordi- 
nances therein unto my people ; for I design to reveal 
unto my church things which have been kept hid from 
the foundation of the world ; things that pertain to 
the dispensation of the fulness of times. And I will 
show unto my servant Joseph, all things pertaining 
to this house, and the priesthood thereof, and the 
place whereon it shall be built. * * * * And it 
shall come to pass, that if you build a house unto my 
name, and do not the things that I say, I will not 
perform the oath which I make unto you ; neither 
fulfil the promises which ye expect a,t my hands, saith 



APPENDIX. 71 

the Lord : for instead of blessings, ye by your own 
works, bring cursings, wrath, indignation, and judg- 
ment upon your own heads by your follies, and by all 
your abominations which you practise before me, 
saith the Lord." 

PAGE 1 2. " In Palestine, &c." 
The following is from the ' Times and Seasons' for 
April 1st, 1842. 

" Another letter has just come to hand from Elder 
Hyde, dated Jaffa, Oct. He was then on his way 
to Jerusalem, the date being much earlier than the 
one inserted in another page. We have only room 
for the following extract, which we publish as 
among the most extraordinary signs of the times. 
' On my passage from Beyroot to this place (Jaffa) 
the night before last, at one o'clock, as I was medi- 
tating on the deck of the vessel as she was beating 
down against a sultry wind, a very bright glittering 
sword appeared in the heavens, with a beautiful hilt, 
as plain and complete as any cut you ever saw. And 
what is still more remarkable, an arm with a perfect 
hand, stretched itself out and took hold of the hilt 
of the sword. The appearance really made my hair 
rise, and my flesh, as it were, crawl on my bones. 
The Arabs made a wonderful outcry at the sight. 
Oh, Allah ! Allah ! was their exclamation all over 
the vessel. I mention this, because you know there 
is a commandment of God for me, which says, ' Unto 
you it shall be given to know the signs of the times, 
and the sign of the coming of the Son of man.' 
Yours, in Christ, 

ORSON HYDE." 



72 APPENDIX. 

PAGE 13. " Nauvoo House." 
The following is a further extract from the " Reve- 
lation" of January 19, 1841, quoted above. 

" Verily, I say unto you, let ray servant George, 
and my servant Lyman, and my servant John Snider, 
and others, build a house unto my name, such an one 
as my servant Joseph shall show unto them, upon 
the place which he shall show unto them also. And 
it shall be for a house of boarding, a house that 
strangers may come from afar to lodge therein. * * 
* * Let it be built unto my name, and let my name 
be named upon it ; and let my servant Joseph and 
his house have place therein, from generation to 
generation. For this anointing have I put upon his 
head, that his blessing shall also be put upon the 
heads of his posterity after him ; and as I said unto 
Abraham, even so I say unto my servant Joseph, in 
thee and in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the 
earth be blessed. Therefore, let my servant Joseph 
and his seed after him have place in that house from 
generation to generation, for ever and ever, saith the 
Lord ; and let the name of that house be called the 
Nauvoo House, and let it be a delightful habitation 
for man, and a resting-place for the weary traveller, 
that he may contemplate the glory of Zion, and the 
glory of this corner-stone thereof." 

PAGE 22. " The writings of Abraham." 
Smith's pretended version of these documents may 
be found in the "Times and Seasons" for March 1, 
and March 15, 1842, with the following heading : 

" A Translation of some ancient Records that have 



APPENDIX. 73 

fallen into our hands from the Catacombs of Egypt, 
purporting to be the writings of Abraham while he 
was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written 
by his own hand upon papyrus." 

PAGE 25. " The Nauvoo Legion." 

The subjoined will serve as a specimen of " General 
Orders," issued by Joseph Smith, in his military ca- 
pacity : 

" Head Quarters. Nauvoo Legion, City of Nauvoo. 
"May 25, A. D. 1841. 

"The 1st Company (riflemen), 1st Battalion, 2nd 
Regiment, 2nd Cohort, will be attached to the escort 
contemplated in the general order of the 4th instant, 
for the 3rd of July next. In forming the Legion, 
the Adjutant will observe the rank of companies as 
follows, to wit : 

" 1st Cohort. The flying artillery first, the lancers 
next, and the riflemen next, visiting companies of 
dragoons next the lancers, and cavalry next the 
dragoons. 

" 2nd Cohort. the artillery first, the lancers next, 
the riflemen next, the light-infantry next, visiting com- 
panies in their appropriate places, on the right of the 
troops of their own grade : the ranking company of 
the 1st Cohort will be formed on the right of the said 
Cohort, and the ranking company of the 2nd Cohort 
will be formed on the left of the said Cohort, the 
next on the right of the left ; and so on to the centre. 
The escort will be formed on the right of the forces. 
" JOHN C. BENNETT, " JOSEPH SMITH." 
" Major-General, " Lieutenant- General." 



74- APPENDIX. 

PAGE 33. " The Mormons prefer miraculous aid 
to medicine." 

The following is abridged from a London paper : 
" On Wednesday an investigation was gone into 
before Mr. Baker the coroner, at the Royal Oak, 
Galway Street, St. Luke's, on the body of Eliza- 
beth Morgan, aged fifty-five years, whose death was 
alleged to have been caused through improper treat- 
ment by unqualified persons. Maria Watkins said 
she had known deceased about twelve months, and 
on Tuesday week witness was sent for to attend 
her. Witness found her very ill; but no medical 
gentleman was called in, it being against the religi- 
ous tenets of the sect to which the deceased belonged 
to do so. The sect to which she belonged styled 
themselves ' The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints,' their place of meeting being in Castle 
street, Cow-cross. They treated their sick accord- 
ing to a text taken from the last chapter of the Epistle 
of St. James. Witness had known of healing under 
such circumstances, but the deceased sank and died 
on Saturday last. No surgeon was sent for. The 
coroner said he hardly knew how to deal with the 
case, as he had his doubts whether it was not one 
of manslaughter. The jury, after some deliberation, 
returned a verdict of ' Natural death/ with a hope 
that the present inquiry would act as a caution for 
the future." 

PAGE 41. "The healing of the sick, the casting 
out of devils," &c. 

In the " Times and Seasons," vol. iii. p. 709. may 
be found Joseph Smith's creed, in which are con- 
tained the following articles : 



APPENDIX. 75 

" We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, 
revelation, visions, healing, interpretation of tongues, 
&c." " We believe all that God has revealed, all 
that He does now reveal, and we believe that He 
will yet reveal many great and important things 
pertaining to the kingdom of God." 

PAGE 44. " A knot of designing persons." 
Professor Turner of Illinois College, thus addresses 
Joseph Smith. 

" I have charitably sought to find some ground 
for believing that you and your comrades were only 
a new species of religious maniacs. I have sought 
in vain. A man, however kindly disposed to think 
well of you, after a thorough examination of your 
career, might as well attempt to believe your reli- 
gion, as to regard you in any other light than that 
of a deliberate, cold-blooded, persevering deceiver. 
I do not pretend that in the outset you even antici- 
pated the final result. On the contrary, there is 
abundant evidence that at first your aims rose no 
higher than those of ordinary vagrants and jugglers. 
You have not even the poor merit of either talent 
or originality. Your highest aim has ever been to 
crawl among the droves of reptile impostors who 
have preceded you, and though your ignorance and 
utter incapacity have not suffered you to turn aside 
from their loathsome track, your fortunate union 
with others of greater ability, who have entered into 
your secrets, and the lamentable credulity of the 
times, have enabled you to attain a more signal and 
desolating success than most of your predeces- 
sors," 



76 APPENDIX. 

PAGE 44. " Mahomet" &c. 

In the course of the trial of Joseph Smith and 
others, for high treason against the state of Missouri, 
George M. Hinkle testified as follows : 

" I have heard Joseph Smith say, that he believed 
Mahomet was a good man ; that the Koran was not 
a true thing, but that the world belied Mahomet as 
they belied him, and that Mahomet was a true pro- 
phet." 

John Corrill also testified that he had heard 
Joseph Smith say publicly, " that if people molested 
him he would establish his religion by the sword ; 
and that he would become to this generation a second 
Mahomet." 

PAGE 47. " David was in hell." 

In a report of Smith's sermon of May 16th, 1841, 
in the "Times and Seasons" of June 1st, 1841, we 
find the annexed passage : 

" Even David must wait for the times of refresh- 
ing before he can come forth and his sins be blotted 
out ; for Peter speaking of him says, ' David hath 
not ascended into heaven, for his sepulchre is 
with us to this day : ' his remains were then in the 
tomb. Now we read that many bodies of the Saints 
arose at Christ's resurrection, probably all the Saints, 
but it seems that David did not. Why ? because he 
had been a murderer." 

PAGE 47. " He descended in America and preached 
the Gospel to the Indians." 

See Book of Mormon, 5th chapter of Nephi. " And 
now it came to pass that there were a great multi- 
tude gathered together of the people of Nephi ; . * * 



APPENDIX. 77 

* * and they cast their eyes up towards heaven, and 
behold they saw a man descending out of heaven ; 
he was clothed in a white robe, and he came down 
and stood in the midst of them, and the eyes of 
the whole multitude was turned upon him, * * * and 
it came to pass that he stretched forth his hand and 
spake unto the people saying : ' Behold I am Jesus 
Christ of which the prophets testified that should come 
into the world, and behold I am the light and life of 
the world, and I have drank out of that bitter cup 
which the Father hath given me, and have glorified the 
Father, in taking upon me the sins of the world.' " 

PAGE 55. " Baptism for the dead." 
Joseph Smith says in an article on this subject in 
the "Times and Seasons," for April 15th, 1842. 

" What has become of our fathers ? will they be 
damned for not obeying the Gospel, when they never 
heard it ? Certainly not. But they will possess the 
same privilege that we here enjoy through the medium 
of the everlasting priesthood, which not only adminis- 
ters in earth, but in heaven, * * * they will come out 
of their prison upon the same principle as those 
who were disobedient in the days of Noah were 
visited by our Saviour, * * * and in order that they 
might fulfil all the requisitions of God, their living 
friends were baptized for their dead friends, and thus 
fulfilled the requirements of God : ' Except a man 
be born again of water, and of the Spirit, he can in 
no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven ;' they 
were baptized of course, not for themselves, but for 
their dead. Crysostum says, that the Marchionites * 

* This is the prophet's own orthography. 



78 APPENDIX. 

practised baptism for the dead, ' after a catechumen 
was dead, they hid a living man under the bed of 
the deceased; then coming to the dead man, they 
asked him whether he would receive baptism ; and 
he making no answer, the other answered for him, 
and said that he would be baptized in his stead, and 
so they baptized the living for the dead." 

It appears by the above extract, that the prophet 
is beginning (in his own way) to quote the fathers. 

PAGE 57. " The amiable and patient missionary 
bishop of Missouri," &c. 

It is pleasing to turn from Joseph Smith, to the 
contemplation of the truly estimable person in 
question. Bishop Kemper is of German descent ; 
his immediate ancestors having emigrated from 
Manheim on the Rhine. For many years he was 
assistant minister to the late bishop White, in the 
parochial charge of Christ- Church, Philadelphia. 
He was subsequently elected and consecrated by the 
House of Bishops, as the first missionary bishop. 
The expenses of his mission are borne by the com- 
mittee for domestic missions in the United States. 
He is absolutely without a home, being almost per- 
petually engaged in visiting various portions of the 
enormous region committed to his ecclesiastical 
superintendence. A more difficult field of mission- 
ary duty can scarcely be imagined. 

PAGE 57. " Keraper College." 

This institution is the most western Protestant 
Episcopal college in the world, being nearly half-way 
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The main 



APPENDIX. 79 

building was completed externally during the year 
1841, Bishop Kemper having solicited and obtained 
funds for the purpose, to the amount of twenty-five 
thousand dollars, from zealous Christians in New 
York and Philadelphia. In the same year a consi- 
derable amount of valuable books was presented to 
the college by pious individuals in England, as well 
as by several of the great Societies. The object of 
the college, is the preparation of young men for the 
ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and, 
under the enlightened and active presidency of the 
Rev. E. C. Hutchinson, it bids fair ultimately to realize 
the sanguine expectations of the Church. 

PAGE 57. "The Mormon University." 
Under an act of the Illinois legislature, incorporat- 
ing the city of Nauvoo, the following provisions are 
found : 

" Sec. 24. The city council may establish and 
organize an institution of learning within the limits 
of the city, for the teaching of the arts, sciences, and 
learned professions, to be called the ' University of 
the city of Nauvoo/ which institution shall be under 
the control and management of a board of trustees, 
consisting of a chancellor, registrar, and twenty-three 
regents, which board shall thereafter be a body 
corporate and politic, with perpetual succession, by 
the name of the chancellor and regents of the uni- 
versity of the city of Nauvoo, * * * provided that the 
trustees shall at all times be appointed by the city 
council, and shall have all the powers and privileges 
for the advancement of the cause of education, which 



80 APPENDIX. 

appertain to the trustees of any other college or 
university of this state." 

PAGE 58. " Few attach themselves to the Church 
in America." 

The indifference of the poorer class of English 
emigrants to the Church of their fathers is truly 
lamentable. The Roman Catholic emigrant, however 
poor or friendless, retains his attachment to his faith. 
The German Lutheran is firm in his allegiance to the 
principles which he held in the land of his nativity. 
The same may be said of the Scottish Presbyterian, 
and of the Irish and Scottish Episcopalian. But the 
English labourer, mechanic, or small farmer, on his 
arrival in the United States, too often forgets his 
churchmanship, and, through ignorance or careless- 
ness, readily connects himself with any schismatic 
conventicle which may be at hand. 



THE MORMON CREED. 

THE Mormon Creed, as published by Joseph 
Smith himself, is given below. (See " Times and 
Seasons," vol. iii. p. 709.) 

" We believe in God the Eternal Father, and in 
his Son Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 

" We believe that men will be punished for their 
own sins, and not for Adam's transgression. 

" We believe that through the atonement of Christ 
all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws 
and ordinances of the gospel. 



APPENDIX. 81 

" We believe that these ordinances are, 1st, Faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ ; 2nd, Repentance : 3rd, 
Baptism by immersion, for the remission of sins ; 
4th, Laying on of hands, for the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. 

" We believe that a man must be called of God 
by prophecy, and by laying on of hands by those 
who are in authority, to preach the Gospel, and ad- 
minister in the ordinances thereof. 

" We believe in the same organization that existed 
in the primitive church, viz, Apostles, Prophets, Pas- 
tors, Teachers, Evangelists, &c. 

" We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, 
revelation, visions, healing, interpreting of tongues, 
&c. 

" We believe the Bible to be the Word of God, as 
far as it is translated correctly ; we also believe the 
Book of Mormon to be the Word of God. 

" We believe all that God has revealed, all that 
he does now reveal, and we believe that he will yet 
reveal many great and important things pertaining 
to the kingdom of God. 

" We believe in the literal gathering of Israel, and 
in the restoration of the Ten Tribes ; that Zion will 
be built upon this continent ; that Christ will reign 
personally upon the earth ; and that the earth will 
be renewed, and receive its paradisaic glory. 

" We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty 
God according to the dictates of our conscience, and 
allow all men the same privilege, let them worship 
how, where, or what they may. 

" We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, 



82 AI'PKNDTX. 

rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, honouring, and 
sustaining the law. 

" We believe in being honest, true, chaste, bene- 
volent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men ; in- 
deed we may say that we follow the admonition of 
Paul, ' we believe all things, we hope all things ;' we 
have endured many things, and hope to be able to 
endure all things. If there is anything virtuous, 
lovely, or of good report, or praiseworthy, we seek 
after these things." 



Joseph Smith, by his own account, was born in 
the town of Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont 
(U. S.), on the 23rd of December, 1805. 



THE END. 



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