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Full text of "The City of Pretoria and districts : an official handbook describing the social, official, farming, mining, and general progress and possibilities of the administrative capital and surrounding districts"

>- 









Plate 




PRETORU 


WEST 






ARE 








RACECOURSE 








' 








PRETORIA W£ST 



POWER STATION 




Plate II. 




UNION BUILDINGS. 



The City of 
Pretoria and 
Districts. ^ 



An Official Handbook describing 
the Social, Official, Farming, 
Mining, and General Progress 
and Possibilities of the Adminis- 
trative Capital and Surrounding 
Districts. .... 



Issued under the joint auspices of the Pretoria 

Municipality and the General Manager, 

South African Railways. 

Publicity Department, 

South African Railways 
Johannesburg, 

December, 1913. 



Pretoria 

The Government Printing and Stationery Office 

1913 
R. 2409— 25/8/13— 15,000 



2>T 



CONTENTS, 



CHAPTER PAGE 

■^ I Introductory 5 

V^ II A Backward Glance 5 

j^lll Historic Pretoria 21 

^IV The Modern City 36 

* V Tours around Pretoria 44 

VI General 52 

Vll Pretoria Municipality 70 

Vlll Pretoria Architecture 83 

IX Flora 95 

X Farming 103 

XI Mining 146 

Index 157 

List of illustrations I65 



30563S6 



Introductory. 



CHAPTER I. 



^ 



"^"^HE Union Building at Pretoria is now neariug 
^^ completion. When finished it will be in 
many respects the most unique building in 
the country, for in it will be accommodated the 
bulk of South African officialdom — the Ministers of 
the country and the advisers of the Ministers ; the 
departmental heads and the technical experts ; the 
agricultural, the pastoral, the mining, the commercial, 
the financial, and the political specialists, as well as 
the hundreds of other ofiicials upon whom the adminis- 
tration and the advancement of the Union so largely 
depend. 

The building is worthy of the purpose for which it 
is intended, and its formal opening will be an 
occasion of general interest and national importance. 
Nationally it will signalize a new era of administrative 
centralization for the better conceiving and diffusing 
of concerted harmonious policy ; socially it will be the 
function of the year. Who can be in Pretoria will be 
there then. Who cannot come will seek to know 
something of what happens, and something of the 



Inlroducior}i/. 

place. Pretoria will loom large in the public attention, 
and to many the reason will not be apparent, for it 
is, after all, a city with which the country at large is 
not as well acquainted as should be the case. People 
generally do not know Pretoria as intimately as it 
deserves to be known, as intimately as in their own 
interest they should know it. 

The moment is opportune for remedying tnis. The 
dexterous Capucliins, to quote Macaulay's text, never 
chose to preach on the life and miracles of a saint 
until they had awakened the devotional feelings of 
their auditors by exhibiting some reUc of him — a thread 
of his garment, a lock of his hair, or a drop of his 
blood. Similarly, advantage may well be taken of the 
lively but possibly transient interest which the forth- 
coming opening will excite to say something about the 
progress and possibilities of Pretoria ; to gauge its 
relative importance am.ongst the towns of South 
Africa ; to indicate what \dsitors may see, and the 
significance of what they see ; to show what there is 
about Pretoria to please, what to displease; to weigh 
advantages and disadvantages fairly, and prove that 
though expansion may not have been as great as at 
Union the optimists predicted, it nevertheless has been 
considerable and promises to increase, judging from 
all augurs, at a ratio more rapid than ever. 

Everywhere, increasingly, investors and workers are 
turning to places with such rapid developing powers ; 
everywhere tourists seek new fields. It therefore 
cannot but be in the general interest to reveal 
Pretoria as it was, is, and probably will become. 



A Backward Glance. 



CHAPTER II. 



0^ 



-^Tribulations attend the growth of every 
^^ covmtry, and South Africa has had its share. 
Native war and civil strife, drought, flood, 
and pestilence have been its frequent lot. They 
however mark rather than mar its history, prove a 
high national spirit and indomitable grit rather than a 
general incompetence or lack of perseverance, for dis- 
sensions which threatened disruption, spread bitterness, 
and caused intense hardship, though they might by 
more temperate counsels have been lessened, if not 
avoided, were by unusual adaptability and resource 
generally turned from looming calamity to a greater 
expansion — a seeking of fresh pastures and better 
understanding, an adoption of improved methods and 
an opening up of new country : a wider spreading of 
settlement and an increase in stability When two 
sections of the population disagreed, the weaker 
generally withdrew to develop the unoccupied hinter- 
land ; when drought, flood, or stock disease assailed, 
they entailed loss but taught a sometimes needed 
lesson. 



A Backward Giance. 

The contemplation of the past is therefore profitable 
as indicating that, whatever our present obstacles and 
differences of opinion may be, they are minor to those 
already successfully surmounted ; from which may 
reasonably be inferred that rapid and considerable 
though past development has been, the Transvaal 
development now afoot is Ukely to be greater and 
more rapid. For conditions are better, the outlook 
brighter, than ever before. South Africa, or at least 
that portion which is now the Union, has changed 
radically for the better. The white races have been 
united, the wilds reclaimed, the natives tamed by law 
and order. Greater security and comfort, more and 
happier homes, exist than when civil strife, kaffir 
risings, and the toll of pioneering swept tragedy 
through every camp and desolation to every outpost 
household. Danger has gone, and with it much of 
hardship ; fang and claw no longer prey around the 
outspan ; no impis lie within the kopje's shadow, 
waiting to stab and murder when the time arrives ; 
peace and prosperity are assured. But the change, 
though greatly beneficial, has not been all gain. 
The aesthetic has suffered. Much that made even 
a hard uncertain life more attractive than the soft 
ease and surety of the present, much of the 
picturesque, and much of the romantic, has also gone. 
The myriad deer no longer flit across the moonlit plain. 
The rhinoceros has forsaken his haunts, the elephant 
takes his midday ease in other shades. No free-gift 
farm or foundling state awaits the trekker ; no mighty 
herds entice the hunter ; no dreams of untold wealth 
are dreamt in crazy mining huts. The drifts are 
unchurned, the clean-aired bush-girt by-ways are 
unfurrowed, the solemn silences and sun-washed 



"Plate III. 




::i. 




A Backward Glance. 

solitudes of the veld unruffled by coach or transport 
wheels ; for the railways carry all, swiftly and with- 
out ostentation, and where the adventurous once 
rode ;in open exultation, the noiseless plough now 
plies in hidden field or the miners burrow unseen 
within the earth. 

It is therefore not only profitable for future guidance, 
but pleasurable for present recreation, occasionally to 
take a backward glance, to reconstruct the past, recall 
the days of long ago, and visualize the scenes and 
circumstances in which, deliberately or by chance, men, 
and gentle women and little children, on lonely farms 
and distant mission stations, in pioneer towns and 
rough wild mining camps, on trek and in the laager, 
suffered and sometimes died that the sovereignty of 
the white man might be proclaimed and maintained, 
that unity might arise, and peace, progress, and pro- 
sperity follow, so that out of the wilds cities like 
Pretoria might be reared. 

It is well to recall how great and how wonderful 
has been the progress, especially throughout the 
Transvaal, since the days when the hyena howled 
where the smoke-stacks of the Rand now belch, since 
Moselekatse harangued his slayers of a million \dctims, 
where the stately Union Building in Pretoria now 
stands, since the white inhabitants fought each other, 
where the brave of both sides now lie buried beneath 
the wreaths of a nation's united esteem. 

Thus Pretoria, though not founded until 1855, owes 
its existence primarily to disruptive events such as 
those we have cited — to the events of 1836, which had 
their inception in Cape Colony, and caused so much of 
the dissension, so much of the strife, but indirectly and 



A Back'Oard Gland. 

ultimately so much of the good which has attended 
South Africa ! 

The means have generally justified the end, but in 
1830-36 the outlook was discouraging. It was one of 
the darkest periods through which the country has 
passed. No white men, excepting occasional hunters, 
explorers, or squatters, had penetrated or could claim 
intimacy with what are now the Free State and Trans- 
vaal Provinces. Excepting for a few pioneers in Natal, 
settlement was confined to Cape Colony ; and the 
position of the settler there, especially in the remoter 
districts, was an unenviable one. He was harassed by 
native raiders. He was goaded by the policy of a 
Government which would neither attempt to check the 
raider nor allow the raided to do so. He was faced 
with the prospect of consequent ruin, or if by chance 
that were staved off, then by the prospect of heav^' 
loss through the ill-starred regulations for the emanci- 
pation of slaves which allotted to the Colony a third 
the compensation its slaves were worth, and then 
insisted that the large portion of that inadequate com- 
pensation should escape the local slave-owners through 
the obstacles placed against obtaining payment. No 
payments were to be made in South Africa for released 
slaves. No force was to be sent, or locally raised, to 
protect the remoter settler. He was on the horns of a 
dilemma, and, turn as he would, relief seemed possible 
only by leaving the Colony. 

The blame, however, excepting possibly in the pay- 
ment of slave compensation and inapt social legislation 
for which the Colony was unripe, was not wholly on 
one side. The position of the governing was hardly 
less trying than that of the governed. Conditions of 
life were very different to what they now are ; the 



A Backward Glance. 

native problem, though still great, was greater ; white 
settlers were fewer and more widely scattered ; the 
vast native hordes were more turbulent. 

The Kaffir was a man differing widely from his 
modern descendant. He had not been subdued by 
contact with civilization. His ardour had not been 
tamed by industrial labour. Circumstances had not 
forced him into town or mine. In his own domain his 
women, as now, did the work — tilled the fields, hewed 
wood, and carried water for the tribe. The Kaffir 
himself collected cattle and practised arms, and of the 
two occupations that of fighting was the main. This 
was natural. Cattle were the symbol of a native's 
wealth and status. As such their possession was to be 
coveted. But the very existence of the tribe depended 
on its fighting strength. There was no law but that 
of might. A man of courage, versed in the use of the 
stabbing spear and battle-axe, and deft in his own 
protection with the ox-hide shield, was an asset to 
every chief and as such esteemed. Consequently every 
adult Kaffir was, or affected to be, a fighting man — a 
fighting man first, and a rancher, cattle thief, tribal 
minstrel, or hunter after. The prevalent spirit was a 
warlike one. 

Then were the people amongst whom the remoter 
Cape settlers had, apart from their farming difficulties, 
to maintain themselves and families as best they could. 
In such circumstances conciliation had little prospect 
of being effective. The native had nothing to gain 
from peace, and no natural preference for it. War 
was the object of his whole system — to defend his 
possessions when compelled, to augment them by 
looting when possible. Victory or defeat in battle 
were the only arguments he appreciated ; the rifle 
alone, not the indaha, had the power to sway him. 



A Backward Glanct. 

This the remoter Colonists saw and urged ; but the 
danger was easier to discern than to avert. The 
niihtary forces of so sparsely populated a country as 
the Cape were admittedly inadequate for the proper 
protection of so extensive a territory as the roving 
instincts of the Colonists had caused them to spread 
over. Those resources could be made adequate only 
at a cost out of all keeping with the comparative 
poverty of the Colony. It seemed good to the authori- 
ties to conciliate rather than fight the turbulent native. 
But as the native's instinct and aspirations, natural 
taste, and whole training were for war, this policy 
proved impractical. A scuffle with an outpost, which 
resulted in the death of a minor chief, was by the 
natives made a pretext for vengeance ; and then 
ensued a period which forms one of the ghastliest in 
our history. Within a few days fifty of the scattered 
settlers were butchered ; scores of homesteads were 
plundered and destroyed ; many thousands of cattle 
were swept to the Kaffir kraals. 

Nor was this all. Either because for the time being 
the natives were glutted with success, and so more 
than usually pliable, or because the settlers, stirred to 
their utmost, excelled themselves, the reprisals which 
followed quickly resulted in the marauders being driven 
into more distant territory. Neutral tribes were settled 
as a buffer between them and the settlers, and it may 
have been that affairs would have remained so 
indefinitely, necessitating alertness and occasional 
encounters, no doubt, but on the whole a state of 
affairs not intolerable. Exeter Hall, however, thought 
differently. The measures had been taken purely on 
local initiative. They were measures of self-defence, 
but they were not approved oversea. The authorities, 

10 



A Backtoard Glance. 

probably mindful of the minor chief's death, reversed 
the Colonists' action as far as possible, removed the 
neutral human barrier, gave back to the warriors their 
old territory ; and did so on the contention that the 
native had been provoked by the settler. 

On top of all came the slave trouble. The owners 
agreed that the slaves should be freed, but wanted 
them freed in batches, so as to disorganize industry 
as little as possible, and so as not suddenly to throw 
on the country a numerous horde of free but largely 
irresponsible people, unaccustomed either to the joys 
or the cares of independence. The case had its strong 
points, but the issue was one of human liberty, and if 
one man were to be released from bondage there was 
no justice in retaining another through no fault of his 
own. The slaves were released en masse, and, without 
police or military supervision, without the compulsion 
to work, threatened at least to thieve, if not worse. 
The compensation was absurdly low. and payable onlj^ 
in lyondon. 

Unprotected against the exultant native enemy, not 
only deprived of the labour of their slaves, but 
threatened by their depredations, and often nearly 
ruined by monetary losses through the unfair com- 
pensation, the settlers were in a worse position than 
ever. To a large number of them it seemed to threaten 
ruin. To the Dutch-speaking portion it proved in- 
tolerable. Prone at the best of times to take matters 
into their own hands, restraint, especially in the 
face of strong provocation and calamity, was little 
to their taste. Large numbers decided to leave the 
old Colony. North of the Orange River the country 
was mostly unoccupied, and apparently claimed by no 
one. Life there would necessarily be one of hardship 

II 



A Backward Glanct. 




and isolation. It would mean separation from all the 
amenities and prestige, but also from the burdens and 
irritations of British rule. There in the vast and 
little-trodden solitudes a man might live his life accord- 
ing to his notions of right and wrong, establishing such 
government as seemed to him best, pursuing such 
ideals as fitted his mood. Ordeals of unusual rigour 
and the diiability of remoteness from the civilized 
world would be his lot ; but so would freedom and 
justice, no power being near enough to restrict the one 
or interested enough to tamper with the other. 

So, in 1836, the Great Trek began, that movement 
from which two fine States were to grow. The magni- 
tude of the undertaking, the sense of strong grievance 
which alone could grompt it. and the sterling A 
qualities required to bring it to a successful 
issue can hardly be 
exaggerated. Not the 
versatility which 
decentralizes 







13 



A Backward Glance. 

aim, the restlessness which hinders sequence, or the 
imagination which anticipates difficulties and pictures 
miseries yet to come ; but solid patience, deep faith, 
and a large indift'erence to the vagaries of fate were 
the qualities most likely to turn such an undertaking 
to success. These qualities the Voortrekkers had. 
They were a sober, slow-going, but a sagacious, 
courageous race. They lacked the vivacity of the 
townsman, were largely without his imagination, had 
not his stock of varied, though often superficial, 
experience. But they did possess the talents and 
attainments natural to their situation — the quick eye, 
the patient resourcefulness, the strong sense of rough 
but ready justice. They had the bodily and mental 
stamina to sustain fatigue and disappointment ; they 
were strengthened by adversity, toughened by struggle. 
Their courage, self-denial, and endurance were admir- 
able. Their history is rich in acts of heroism and 
devotion. Their hospitality and natural kindliness 
were pronounced. 

Such were the people who ventured forth, in little 
bands, to conquer the wilderness and tame the bar- 
barian ; who, like the Pilgrim Fathers, opened the 
way to comfort and happiness for the thousands that 
were to follow. They rose superior to every dis- 
couragement, ultimately surmounted every obstacle — 
and such obstaces ! To-day a journey through any 
part of South Africa presents few inconveniences. 
The traveller knows exactly where he is going and 
what for. He travels in security, comfortably and 
even luxuriously. Seventy years ago it was different. 
A journey to the interior was not lightly undertaken, 
even by the hunter accustomed to imperil his life and 
trained to elude danger. To uproot whole families 

13 



A Backward Glance. 

and send them there was heroic and uncertain in 
the extreme. No one could foretell what dangers 
would be encountered or what destiny awaited the 
pioneers. It was a matter of chance. On every side, 
once the border was crossed, the country was fraught 
with danger : and beyond lay the Great Unknown. 

Nor were the inevitable hardships less than the 
probable perils. Transport facilities, as we know them 
to-day, were almost entirely lacking. Between the 
advancing voortrekkers and the Colony they were 
leaving, there were practically no lines of communica- 
tion : an occasional dispatch-rider, perhaps ; but no 
railways, no intermediate depots for refreshment arid 
replenishing stores ; no postal or telegraph services ; 
no hope of assistance, in the event of trouble, from the 
Colony behind. Once they crossed the border, inter- 
course with the outer world would for years, perhaps 
for generations, be infrequent and uncertain, owing to 
the hostility of marauding native tribes, the greatness 
of the intervening distances, and the absence of roads. 
And that the native hostility to encroachment on 
domains previously little used by them was anything 
but passive, the records prove. Only too often did it 
happen, especially when the trekkers travelled in small 
separated bands, and more especially when such isolated 
bands were surprised, that suddenly from the stillness 
the war-cry rose from thousands of savage throats ; 
and when the little laager could no longer hold out, 
when the scherms were broken and the ammunition 
spent, when the firing was over and the spears were at 
rest, the last heart-throb of the gallant white band 
had beaten. 

The commissariat, too, was a source of weakness 
and anxiety. A little bartering for food with natives 

14 



"Plate VII. 




"Plate VIII. 



ou) fR^m\ ^^^^^m 












L0^ 



"l 



JfneA/rUJl-i- 



A Backward Glance. 

temporarily friendly might be possible, but was uncer- 
tain. Game was abundant but migratory, and for all 
that was known to the contrary might be scarce at 
seasons and in places. What the trekkers would require 
in the years to come had therefore mostly to be brought 
with them. Grain for seed and for sustenance until 
crops could be grown had to be found room for, though 
for months the trekkers lived mainly and sometimes 
exclusively on the game they shot, as not much grain 
could be carried, wagon space being limited and largely 
occupied by the first essentials — powder and shot, and 
by the women and children, the cooking utensils, farm 
implements, and a little clothing and bedding. Few 
luxuries were carried, excepting sugar, coffee, and 
tobacco ; little furniture. Water was a matter of 
chance. It was a frugal existence to which the trekkers 
vowed themselves. 

They started in different parties from various centres, 
at various times, under various leaders. Finally the 
day for departure came. The loads were carefully 
apportioned, the flocks and herds assembled. Such 
articles as at the last moment could be crowded on the 
wagons — a few simple pieces of furniture, heirlooms 
with many poignant associations — were loaded. The 
bullock teams were inspanned ; the women and children 
took their places beneath the hoods of the wagons. 
The shrill cries of the Hottentot herds and the sing- 
song droning of the drivers mingled with the lowing 
of the cattle, the creaking of the axles, and the sighs 
of those who felt a parting pang. From horizon to 
horizon the plains smoked with the dust of many 
hooves and wheels, as the farmers, turning their backs 
on abandoned homes and hopes, faced the North and 
whatever it might hold. 

15 



A Backward Glance. 

Over the plains the slowly moving emigrant train 
wended, scores of wagons, one after another — wagons 
which for months, and in some instances for years, 
were to be the only homes the trekkers were to know ; 
their only tie with the civilized world ; their shelters 
from summer heat and winter frost ; their refuge in 
sickness and in peril ; their monuments and their 
epitaphs when the barbarian attacked, and the trekkers, 
having scattered in small bands, were slain ; derelict 
wagons stranded on lonely plains, the ragged remnant 
of their bucksail flapping dismally in the sighing winds, 
and telling in after years the tale of what befell. 
Ponderous, lumbering, groaning wagons, uncouth to 
look at and unwieldy to handle, but the very tiling 
for pioneering in a rough wild country : the wagons 
which have made South Africa. 

The trekkers travelled slowly, grazing their herds as 
they went, hunting a little, repairing wagons and kit 
when necessary, and camping where water and safety 
suggested, for the village and the cultivated farm were 
now far behind, and the pioneers had to fend for them- 
selves, taking what came. Over the southern grass- 
lands they passed into the higher altitudes of the 
parched alkali flats of the Great Karoo, where water 
is scarce and the air so thin and tonic that the mere 
act of breathing is a joy. Finally, the Orange River 
was behind, and when what is now the Free State was 
well entered it was decided that of the more important 
emigrant bands, which had converged, one portion 
should branch off to what is now Natal, the other 
continue north. 

It was a pleasing if not beautiful country, a country 
to warm the instincts of a rancher ; and, above all, 
seemingly a peaceful country in which no powerful 

i6 



A Backtsard Glance. 

enemy need be feared. A rest was therefore ordered, 
and for a while the evening pipe of peace was 
smoked in thankfuhiess beneath the Free State stars. 
Refreshed, the trekkers resumed their journey. Theirs 
was now a pastoral life of almost Biblical simplicity, 
resignation tempering hardship, hope for the future 
displacing discontent with the past. But it was not a 
picnic. Moselekatse, the murderous, was on the alert 
and had to be guarded against ; and nature, as well as 
the barbarian, added trials. To traverse the desert or new 
country in which the water-courses are undefined is to 
know either the horror of thirst or the many and arduous 
expedients necessary to locate one camping ground 
before another is vacated. Whoever has been racked 
by fever in a jolting wagon, far from skilled attention 
and consolations, knows the despair of such a situation. 
Those who have lain with the transport wagons by 
the drift, in strange country, the waters rising steadily, 
the rain beating in fury, night as dark as ink, cattle, 
escaped somehow, running amok dazed by the lurid 
lightning, know the tedium and discomfort of days 
and even weeks of waiting ; when water oozes every- 
where ; when earth and woods are sodden and all is 
quagmire ; when fires will not burn and food spoils ; 
when the dawn breaks grey and dispiriting, to reveal 
the carefully placed wagons islanded by flood, nails 
bleeding and limbs exhausted by the struggles of the 
night, and tempers limp as the sodden clothes and 
bedding in which one sleeps and wakes. Whoever 
has experienced these things will appreciate some of 
the minor difficulties the trekkers had to contend with. 
And whoever by the restlessness of the animals has 
been awakened, shuddering, to the awful sight of the 



17 



A Backward Glance. 

autumn veld on fire, miles of lurid flame crashing 
towards the camp, will realize another of the many 
obstacles and discouragements the trekkers had to 
encounter and surmount, without the playing of bands, 
the flying of flags, or the cheering of crowds at the 
end of the conquest. 

It was, as we have said, no picnic. When the 
country permitted the wagons to travel abreast, they 
were so sent in three columns, which drew together 
when camp was made and formed a triangle into which 
the stock were, as far as possible, driven for safety. 
In the spaces between the wagons thorn bushes were, 
whenever practical and danger threatened, filled, so 
that nothing might enter from without except at the 
appointed place. Each man slept with his rifle by his 
side. The powder and shot stood ready. And on the 
outskirts the sentinels lay, guardians through the long, 
still night. 

And so, steadily but surely, in spite of every obstacle, 
the emigrant parties progressed, some to find early 
graves, some to found republics. 

The party bound for Natal is not our main concern 
in this sketch of the events which led to the founding 
of Pretoria. The party which had elected not to go 
to Natal again divided. One section, under Trichardt, 
passed on to the extreme north of what is now the 
Transvaal, to the Zoutpansberg. The other section of 
the party, under Potgieter, obtained from a minor 
chief a large portion of the Free State, and elected to 
stay there, for the time being at all events. Mosele- 
katse was now ripe for trouble. Convinced of his title 
to the land, or, at any rate, not desirous that white 

i8 



A Backioard Glance. 

settlers should have it, he sought what to him was the 
only argument, and dispatched an impi. It fell on 
the trekkers near what is now Kroonstad, and was 
happily defeated with such severe loss that Moselekatse 
retired. 

So the Free State was by the trekkers accounted 
theirs by right of conquest, and in 1837 Winburg was 
chosen as the seat of government. Winburg is now 
little more than a village, and the political importance 
it once possessed has waned ; but historically it will 
always be of interest, for it was mainly from there 
that, as time went on, the trekkers, whose numbers 
had yearly increased by additions from the Cape, 
extended into the further north which the Zoutpans- 
berg party had already entered, settling in small com- 
nmnities in Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, and Rusten- 
burg. 

Thus settled, each little community had its own 
head and its own aspirations. Each professed the 
dignity but lacked the strength of a state. There was 
jealousy between the leaders and danger from the 
natives. To counteract the jealousy some government, 
more regular than hitherto necessary, was required ; 
to avert the native danger an amalgamation of white 
strength was essential. Union was decided upon. In 
1856 an attempt was made to join the divergent parties, 
Martinus Wessels Pretorius being appointed President. 
In the following year Pretoria was chosen as the seat 
of government and Potchefstroom as the administrative 
capital, but the I.ydenburg, Zoutpansberg, and Utrecht 
burghers held aloof from the arrangement. In i860 
renewed efforts were made to induce the settlers in 
these districts to ratify the Union, but it was not 



19 



A Backward Glance. 

until 1864, and after bloodshed, that all were incor- 
porated, Pretoria became the sole Capital of the South 
African Republic, and the last eddies of the much 
disturbed Great Trek subsided. 




30 



Historic Pretoria, 



CHAPTRR III. 

3^ 

'^^^HE past of Pretoria has in a way been as romantic 
^^ and the architectural growth in some respects 
ahnost as astonishing as that of neighbouring 
Johannesburg ; but in the early days there was Uttle 
to suggest this destiny. The town,, though the Capital 
of the Transvaal, was a very modest one in 1864, when 
union between the Transvaalers was established. 
Indeed, Pretoria was the merest village. It contained only 
about three hundred white inhabitants. Building ma- 
terial was costly, money scarce ; and the houses, hardly 
three score in number, were consequently small, squat, 
and unimposing — too few in number and too scattered 
to form streets, too poor in structure and scant in 
conveniences to afford much comfort. Mud floors, and 
mud walls that softened and caved and fell under the 
summer rains, were common ; the sanitation was 
primitive, and of municipal services there were none. 
Such, in an age when water-borne sewerage and gas 
installations, trams and railways were common else- 
where, was the principal town in a country destined 
to be proved one of the richest in the world. 



21 



Hl$lorlc Pretoria. 

It was a pioneer town of small pretensions, yet a 
town not without its attractions. If there were little 
animation and less kerbing on its paths, if no fine 
buildings graced its embryo streets, there was at least 
the minor compensation that the view of the natural 
surroundings was unobstructed, surroundings not per- 
haps strikingly impressive in their grandeur, but 
certainly pleasing and inviting in their picturesque- 
ness. No mighty mountains held the eye ; no stately 
river or mystic woods or tended parks. But the hills, 
though small, were during most of the year green and 
soothing ; the valleys were wooded and watered and 
filled with game ; the grassy plains were wholesome. 
The setting, in short, was attractive. It was a setting 
than which no finer had been encountered by those 
who had come from the Cape. The climate was health- 
ful, at times even delightful ; sport was abundant ; 
and existence, if now and again monotonous and even 
a little objectless, was on the whole so enjoyable, being 
unconventional and healthy, that in after years many 
meanwhile acquainted with the best elsewhere often 
looked back with longing to the Pretoria of the later 
sixties. 

As a village the place had on the whole been delight- 
ful ; as a capital " City " it was at times destined to 
be disappointing. The period of transition, during the 
time the place was neither village, town, nor yet fine 
city, was especially trying. Growth was slow. What 
little prosperity had been attained fluctuated, waned, 
and then threatened entirely to disappear. There was 
no stability. This, under the circumstances, was 
almost inevitable. There was nothing to give an 
impetus to development ; nothing to sustain even 
what development had taken place. Minerals, both 

22 



Plate XII. 





Plate XIV. 





23 



Hhtorlc Pretoria. 

precious and base, the country had in abundance ; and 
the farming potentiaHties were good. But the minerals 
had not yet been discovered, and in the absence of 
railways, markets for farm produce were too remote 
to be profitably catered for. The Boers, as a nation, 
are essentially a pastoral people, and ostensibly farming 
was the business of the community ; and catering for 
the farmers' domestic and political needs was the 
business of the town. But though the Boers all held 
farms, there was little farming, demand for produce 
being low ; and as there was little farming, there was 
little spending power — little money for the traders, 
little revenue for the officials. It was necessary to 
turn to some additional means of support. Hunting 
became a trade. 

It was a trade after the Boer's own heart. Inheriting 
the disposition which in earlier days had sent his 
ancestors, the voortrekkers, into the unknown, he 
retained the old roving instinct, was susceptible to 
that peculiar South African visitation known as " trek 
fever." Few so well fitted as he for the frugal, arduous, 
danger-fraught, dexterous, exciting life of the hunter. 
Few so inured to hardship, so calm in face of danger, 
so patient amidst obstacles, so callous to personal 
pain. 

In those days hunting paid. Game was plentiful. 
The elephant still roamed the country in herds of 
mighty tuskers. The feather of the wild ostrich, 
however inferior to what is now sold, found a ready 
market at a time when the highly technical industry 
of feather farming had hardly been started. The 
rhinoceros and giraffe yielded valuable hides ; the horns 
of the various antelopes fetched good prices, and better 
prices when resold for the adornment of Parisian salons 

24 



Hlttoric Pretoria 

and London clubs. The business of hunting, therefore, 
gradually grew, became an important source of income, 
and from time to time lured its devotees further and 
further afield. They penetrated the malarial swamps 
of the far interior, were, familiar with the natives, 
fauna, and general conditions of Central South Africa, 
and visited the Victoria Falls. But except around the 
camp-fire, where a gesture or a grunt conveys much 
to the initiated, little was said of these things, the 
Boer of that day being a man of action rather than 
of words, a man of wide sympathies but limited voca- 
bulary, capable of feeling but not apt at describing 
what he saw. 

In such wise the knowledge of the country grew, 
and the life of the Republic was eked out. The 
quantity of tusks, hides, skins, horns, and ostrich 
feathers brought to Pretoria for exchange was enormous ; 
and a feature of the bartering between the hunter 
and the storekeeper was the almost entire absence 
of coin. There was, as a matter of fact, little 
money in the Republic. For the average individual, 
the farmer and the hunter, there was little use for it, 
so simple were conditions, so remote the entanglements 
of more complex societies. Theirs was the simple life. 
Arcadian was their system. Were a commodity pur- 
chased, its equivalent in some other commodity was 
given in exchange. The burgher buying a length of 
calico, a pocket of coffee beans, or a set of wheels for 
his wagon, paid for his purchase a measure of grain, a 
number of ostrich feathers, or a consignment of ivory, 
hides, or skins, as the case might be. 

These trophies were the only Transvaal products 
that would bear the cost of transporting. They were 
therefore the only exports, being sent principally to 

25 



Hiiforlc Pretoria. 

Natal by ox-wagon, and then distributed to the eagerly 
waiting world, which had nowhere a hunting field like 
that in Africa. And in return the outside world supplied 
the Transvaalers with sugar, coffee, and cloth. 

Thus arose that traffic which some day will no doubt 
have its epic poet to sing, in a style becomingly elevated 
and heroic, the comedies and the tragedies of con- 
veyance by ox- wagon. The days of South African 
transport-riding, like the old coaching days of Britain, 
had a picturesqueness of their own, but are now gone. 
Along the highways, to centres such as Pretoria, Johan- 
nesburg, and Barberton, the crack of the ox-whip, the 
cries of the naked, sweating, odorous native drivers, 
the rumbhng of the heavy wagons, are now seldom 
heard. Railways carry all, and the romance has 
departed from South African transportation. No 
longer, in the intense blistering sunshine, do the plains 
shimmer with the dust from many wheels, or in the 
close and sultry night do the camp-fires glow around 
the outspan. No more, in the keen and fragrant dawn, 
does the subtle perfume of the veld assail the nostrils 
of cosmopolitan hundreds — adventurers of all kinds, 
good and bad — prospectors, speculators, storekeepers, 
gamblers, ruffians, tenderfeet, ne'er-do-wells, and what 
not from the world's ends. No longer do the placid, 
slowly plodding teams wear out their lives to connect 
the Transvaal with the world. But in the seventies it 
was different. Ox- wagon was the principal mode of 
conveyance. All goods were carried by it ; and twice 
or three times a year every rural family took to the 
road, and in the tent-wagon travelled, sometimes for 
hundreds of miles, to celebrate Nachtmaal. 

The bartering trip from Pretoria to Natal and back 
occupied from two to four months, according to the 

26 




27 



Historic Pretoria. 

state of the weather, of the grazing, and of the veld 
track which was oftener than not a quagmire or else 
a dusty thing of singular annoyance. The dry season 
was usualty selected for transport-riding, but was not 
always convenient. When in the rainy season the 
wagons sank to the axles, they had to be dug out, 
sometimes several times a day. At flooded rivers they 
were sometimes delayed for weeks. Travelling was 
slow, but by no means monotonous, because for mutual 
protection the wagons usually went in convoys, and 
there was no knowing at what moment the transport- 
riders might have to light for their lives — either in the 
hunt against lion or elephant or in the dawn against 
native attack. 

So matters went on for a time. But evil days 
were at hand. In a few years the hunting trade died 
out, game becoming scarcer and scarcer in their 
former haunts, then almost completely disappearing, 
slaughtered or frightened north. The prosperity of the 
Republic waned to its former level ; farming paid less, 
trade was as slack as ever. A railway was essential 
to development. With this idea President Burgers 
visited Europe to raise sufficient capital for a line 
between Pretoria and Delagoa Bay. The line was not 
completed till many years later, when the least expected 
of all romantic destinies — that of gold-supplier-in-chief 
to the world — had befallen the Transvaal. Meanwhile 
the outlook was gloomy and darkened when, on the 
President's return in 1876, the Bapedi natives rebelled. 
As strong a force as the resources of the country afforded 
took the field, but was unsuccessful. There was no 
money in the Treasury, no assets in the country on 
which to raise the wherewithal to extend military' 
operations. The country was suffering from depression 

28 



Historic Pretoria. 

Discontent was rife, counsels were divided. One 
section of the burghers desired outside aid, even annexa- 
tion ; another section counselled delay. No course 
required less effort than that of doing nothing while 
events turned themselves, and as that course was 
adopted it was perhaps unreasonable of those who 
urged it to quarrel with the turn events did take. The 
natives remained a menace to the Repubhc and an 
incentive to natives in adjoining territories. So in 
1877 the British Government intervened. Sir Theo- 
philus Shepstone, accompanied by only a small 
troop of mounted police, hurried to Pretoria and 
annexed the Transvaal. Without bloodshed or osten- 
tation, the flag of the Republic was lowered and 
the Union Jack hoisted in its place. Some protested 
formally, others concurred ; and so the voortrekkers, 
who had suft'ered so much for their independence, 
found the burdens of state too much for them, 
and by sheer force of circumstance became British 
subjects again. 

The Zulus, however, had an old boundary grievance 
against the Transvaal, and on the annexation of the 
Republic transferred the dispute to Britain. It was 
an unreasonable claim, and, being dismissed accord- 
ingly, war resulted. The peace finally arranged with 
the Zulus upset the Basutos. British forces sent to 
subdue them met with little success. Hostilities 
rapidly spread towards the Transvaal. And so, 
from one cause and another, Pretoria became a 
garrison town and the centre of quite an official 
community. 

It was a different Pretoria to that of the sixties. 
The awkwardness of early growth had been replaced 
by something of symmetry. The town had grov>rn 

29 



Historic Pretoria. 

pretty, its amenities had become polished. Streets had 
been evolved, and each street was bordered by delight- 
ful gardens. Rose hedges separated the houses, and 
the houses stood in spacious grounds, in gardens where 
the violet and the honej'suckle ran riot with the rose 
and lent to the town a colour and a fragrance wholly 
charming. Cool shady orchards gave relief from 
sunnner heats, and down each sidewalk crystal-clear 
streams were led from the fountains. 

And the environment, like the town, was pretty 
Around, on all sides, lay the low and verdant hills, 
dominated by the bolder outline of the blue and purple 
Magaliesberg ; and the Aapies, though a small and 
turbid stream, flowed through many a cosy picnic 
glen. 

The population, too, had increased to about 4000 
and had grown more cosmopolitan. Added to the Boer 
element were many English, Dutch, and Germans. 
The patriarchial hospitality, kindliness, and manly 
worthiness of the older population had been augmented 
by the vivacity of the new-comers, among whom was 
found much of general culture and social accomplish- 
ment ; all of which added to the gaiety of the town, 
a gaiety the more infectious for its novelty, and the 
more novel for its peculiar setting. Theatres and other 
places of amusement were, of course, absent, and 
nobody went to the coast for the summer, the coach 
being tedious and expensive ; but there was no lack 
of recreation and pleasure — balls, dinners, and garden 
parties for those in the whirl ; picnics, alfresco concerts, 
and mild shooting for all. 

Whatever of strife the outside world suffered, the 
presence of the garrison assured the peace of Pretoria ; 
and the burgher, in his wide orchard, beneath the shade 

30 



T>late XVIII . 













^'^^</^^y^ ^^/lyy^ S^^^^o/^. 




Olid ^n=]-ricDH y/=if^c:>- 



Historic Pretoria. 

of the fig and the walnut tree, though he might shake 
hi? head at these newer ways, at last found that con- 
crete quiet and security, if not the abstract indepen- 
dence and contentment, for which he had sought and 
suffered so long. For whatever the political aspect of 
the situation, it was a pleasant and prosperous era for 
the town. Under the aegis of Britain, confidence 
returned. Money was again attracted and, by the 
garrison and newly arrived civilians, freely circulated. 
The farmer had a market at last. There was work of 
some sort for all. Living was cheap. And so for a 
while fortune smiled on Pretoria. 

The Basuto war was long-drawn, and the continued 
occupation of the Transvaal by the British became 
irksome to a section of its former rulers. More money 
was in circulation, trade had improved ; but it was for 
independence that the Boers had laboured, and it was 
their independence, whatever its cost, that many of 
them now began to desire back. Deputations to 
Britain were sent without result. An appeal to arms 
was decided on. A small commando at Heidelberg 
issued a declaration of independence, and towards the 
end of 1880 hostilities commenced. 

Potchefstroom, Rustenburg, and Lydenburg, as well 
as Pretoria, were garrisoned by the British. In Pretoria 
itself martial law was proclaimed. Those whose profits 
depended on or whose sympathies were with the British 
remained. Those who thirsted for a return of the power 
they had tasted, who forgot the ills of the old regime, 
or who in sheer and perhaps mistaken patriotism at 
any cost desired the country back under the old 
regime, sided with the burghers and were allowed to 
leave. 



31 



Historic Pretoria. 

The town settled down to withstand a siege. It 
lasted three months. A cordon of armed burghers, 
not strong enough to attack, but able to cut off the 
town from the country generally, lay around Pretoria. 
Further afield the Boers under General Joubert were 
doing valiant deeds. In rapid succession the battles 
of Laingsnek Bronkerspruit, and Majuba were 
fought. In 1881 the Transvaal was handed back to 
the republicans, Paul Kruger becoming President and 
continuing in that office until, in igo2, the Transvaal 
finally became a British colony. 

As usual after almost every war, a period of depres- 
sion followed the events of 1881 ; as usual in South 
Africa, when the outlook seemed darkest it brightened. 
Gold was discovered in payable quantities at Barberton, 
and by 1886 in undreamt of quantities on the Rand. 
This changed the position, and a development of the 
erstwhile languishing state followed, so romantic and 
so rapid that it has hardly a parallel anywhere. People 
of every nationality flocked to the Transvaal from 
every corner of the world. From the somnolence of 
Devonshire lanes and the roar of London streets, from 
the pits of Cornwall, the crofter's Highland patch, and 
the Irish homestead ; from Indian heat and Russian 
snow ; from gay Parisian boulevards, Continental spas, 
American backwoods, and the sampans at Chinese 
river mouths ; from ducal mansion and city slum ; 
from the barrister's bench and the coster's barrow ; 
from pulpit and from bar saloon, they came, all classes 
and conditions of men. Yet all formed in the same 
primary mould — all in the end having the same 
passions and ambitions — all yielding to the potent 
lure of gold. 

32 



Historic Pretoria. 

On every side there was feverish bustle. The weak 
and halt jostled the strong and hale : in search of 
fortune and adventure, or both, and health. Jew and 
Gentile, believer, unbeliever, and sheer pagan ; white, 
yellow, and black ; on foot and in coach, in transport 
wagon, private conveyance, donkey cart, crowded the 
roads that led to the gold. There were found the 
footsore, friendless, and forlorn, as well as the sleek, 
the well financed, and the exultant. 

At first lyydenburg, then Barberton, and then with 
a hundredfold intensity the Rand, attracted. Of the 



WW^^^^WT'^W^^f^^r^^. 




Hutoric Prttorla. 

three fields the Rand was, of course, by far the richest, 
but the mining around Barberton was in many respects 
noteworthy. 

It was Hke a romance from Bret Harte. The scenery 
was magnificent, the mountains grand beyond com- 
parison. Only to see the place was to be thrilled. 
The journey alone was enough to inspire the digger 
with hope ; it was elevating, ennobling, sustaining. 
The tortuous mountain road winds between botilders 
and huge cliffs, alongside awful precipices. Mist- 
wrapped, or tinted in all varieties of gorgeousness, 
range upon range of mountains extend into the dis- 
tance. Tropic trees and ferns and creepers fill the 
gulleys. Beautiful waterfalls pour down in cascades. 
For nine miles the road ascends the mountain side. 
On top is the Devil's Office. It is well named : the 
country around is extremely wild. Below, completely 
surrounded by peaks, the De Kaap Valley lies, called 
by the natives the Valley of Death. Opposite is the 
little town of Barberton. 

In such surroundings, amidst so much natural 
nobility, the diggers cast their lot, erected their tin 
huts unashamed, plied pick and dice-box, made and 
lost fortunes, returned whence they came, or left their 
bones in hostage with malaria. On that beautiful 
scene the kerosene lamps of the ramshackle bar-saloon 
nightly shed their brazen ra3^s, and in solitudes where 
only fever and silence had reigned the balls of the 
billiard table, the banging of the card-pack, the " tin- 
pot " piano, and the ribald song resounded, as nightly 
the bearded, sun-burnt, muscular diggers caroused. 
Then the boom of Johannesburg came and the exodus 
from Barberton commenced. Wealth in abundance 



34 



Historic Pretoria. 

flowed into the coffers of the RepubHc. Projects long 
in mind were carried out. Roads were made, railways 
and telegraphs constructed, public offices and buildings 
erected, and general improvements effected throughout 
the country. It is from that era that modern Pretoria 
dates, and commenced its rapid and in many respects 
remarkable architectural growth and social, political, 
and industrial expansion. 




■^/'|V^!'l?l/Si>^f/'- ^/^ 



35 



^^^^^ 



The Modern City. 



m 



CHAPTER IV. 

[Y gradual steps, therefore, and through many 
vicissitudes. Pretoria evolved to the status of a 
city, and in 1910 became the Administrative 
Capital of the Union of South Africa. 

It has to-day much to recommend it. But it is not 
a Manchester, a Boston, or a Cairo ; not even a 
Johannesburg or a Capetown. It is not a populous 
manufacturing town, a centre of fashion, an historic 
health resort, a gold metropolis, or a world-famed spot 
of singular beauty. Within its boundaries there is not 
the throb of intense industrialism, the parade of a 
nation's gaiety, the crumbling monuments of an age 
when the world was young ; no roar of mining batteries 
and incidental wealth ; no mist-wreathed peaks and 
pine-clad slopes of a Table Mountain. Pretoria is not 
remarkable for any of these. To represent otherwise 
would be to mislead. It would even be unnecessary, 
for after all manufacturing, fashion, old-world historical 
interest, gold mining bustle, and singular natural beauty 
are not the only criterions of a town's claim to attention. 
They are not the only standards by which its importance 



36 



The Modern City. 

and attractions may be judged. A place may have 
none of these and yet be deservedly popular. It may, 
to take an extreme case, have the haunting glamour, 
the indescribable but all-compelling fascination that 
sets at nought all shortcomings, hardships, and trial, 
and lures again and again those who once have known 
it, as do the Sahara towns and villages, the Drakens- 
berg Mountains, and the wilds of Rhodesia. Or a 
place may offer exceptional opportunities for found- 
ing comfortable homes, as does Canada ; or it may 
have an enticing quaintness, as has Japan. Or it 
may have none of these characteristics pronouncedly, 
but all or many of them to a minor degree, so 
blended as to combine in an attractiveness as potent 
as any. 

That, as we conceive, is Pretoria's claim to attention. 
It has not, perhaps, any single characteristic of out- 
standing prominence, but it has a number of charac- 
teristics which, together, make a stiong appeal to the 
tourist, to the convalescent, to the investor, and to 
the worker. Pretoria and district offer what after all 
are the main considerations, means of comfortable 
livelihood and even ultimate affluence to the man with 
energy and a little capital, and many attractions to 
the tourists. It is rich in unexploited mining and 
farming resources. It is interesting historically and 
scenically. It has a history that gives significance 
and interest to even its unpaved back streets ; a chmate 
the salubrity of which would make even squalor and 
poverty endurable ; a prettiness that, though not 
remarkable, is pleasing and refreshing. It therefore 
has attractions which, if they differ from those sup- 
porting the popularity of other cities, are in their way 
as capable of sustaining a high reputation. 

37 



The Modern City. 

Pretoria is, however, not a city of all the attractions, 
or even a finished city bearing comparison with leading 
cities oversea. To represent otherwise would be, 
consciously or unconsciously, to be ironical. Its well- 
wishers would be well advised to dissuade any such 
attempt. There are blemishes on the general fairness 
of Pretoria that no one can overlook, but the ^airness 
of the place is such as can bear many blemishes and 
yet on the whole attract, and the imperfections, such 
as they are, are being gradually removed. Certain 
disadvantages the place still suffers, but the advantages 
so far outweigh the disadvantages as to make the latter 
negligible in a final balancing. Everything considered, 
Pretoria is a city in which a life-time or a holiday 
might be happily and healthfully spent Little more 
could be said for any place. Pretoria will therefore 
gain most not by being misrepresented, however good 
the intention, but by being shown exactly as it is. 
Not by heightening the light and dispelling the shadow, 
to produce a vivid but fanciful and misleading daub ; 
but by so blending light and shade as shall give a 
faithful picture, revealing what is good, and not hiding 
what is otherwise. 

Pretoria is on the whole not yet an impressive city, 
because it is a very young city, the days of which 
were once less palmy, the tendencies to expansion and 
ornamentation fewer, than now. Consequently small 
and humble dwellings, and small and even dingy shops, 
rear their fronts on even the better streets. There 
was little systematic tree-planting in the old dorp. 
Until comparatively recently there was no well-con- 
ceived town planning to harmonize the architecture 
of the place. Much that detracts is accordingly met 
at every turn : streets that lack balance ; streets that 

38 



Plate XXII. 




The Modern City. 

are miles long, but in height seldom rise above the 
second story ; rambling streets in which beautiful 
structures stand cheek by jowl with some pioneer 
shanty ; gardens in disorder ; trees that one might 
think were grown by chance, so irregular is their 
arrangement, so various and often unhappy the taste 
that guided their selection. 

Trees there are in abundance, and beautiful gardens ; 
but the trees are mostly climped according to the 
unrestrained fancies of their planters, and such gardens 
as are attractive are themselves heightened in beauty 
by the proximity of desolate or unkempt spots, but 
in turn emphasize how far the scene as a whole is from 
the idyllic. There are no stately avenues, as in Stellen- 
bosch or Keuilworth ; no acres of consistently beautiful 
grounds, as in Parktown. In fairness to prospective 
visitors this must be admitted. But when it has been 
admitted the worst has been said. Suburbs such as 
Arcadia and Sunnyside, though somewhat new and 
straggling, contain many charming residences, have 
been consistently well planned, and promise to be 
delightful when older and fuller grown and the Jaca- 
randa trees have had time to bloom. Streets like 
Market Street contain some of the noblest structures 
in South Africa, such as the railway station, the new 
library and the museum, to say nothing of the Union 
Building, which dominates the better part of the town. 
Nooks like the area around the P'ountains and around 
the Zoological Gardens are wholly delightful. And the 
Square is beyond question the handsomest in the 
country. 

The fact is that the aesthetic sense of present-day 
Pretorians is well developed and so well pursued that 
on all sides Pretoria is showing signs of rapidly growing 

39 



The Modern City. 

beautiful. Its natural environment and its developing 
prospects are such that in a few years it will be second 
to no South African city, not perhaps in point of size, 
but in architectural beauty. But to describe it as 
already a fme city of imposing streets, splendid suburbs, 
and a general floral magnificence is to be either a 
literary libertine — or a prophet. 

However, the sterling efforts of the present regime 
have been so whole-hearted, so courageous in spite 
of disheartening obstacles, and on the whole so 
successful, and the natural winsomeness of the 
place is such, that criticism is disarmed. One 
admits that in many respects Pretoria is incongruous, 
but one is forced also to admit that there is a degree 
of charm in that very incongruity, and that when the 
city has attained its fuller splendour there may be 
more to admire, but less to love ; more of the stately 
and superb, less of the picturesque and winsome. One 
therefore enjoys while one may the attractions found 
in few cities, but which in their way are as potent 
as any. 

There is, for instance, a serenity in the atmosphere 
of Pretoria. The chmate is nearly perfect. No doubt 
trying spells occur in summer, but so they do even in 
temperate Europe, and South Africans and Anglo- 
Indians have before now been prostrated by the heat 
of a summer day in London. Speaking generally, 
however, the Pretoria climate is delightful, never too 
cold and on the whole seldom too hot — a wholesome, 
exhilarating, bracing climate. 

The difference in altitude makes a sojourn in Pretoria 
extremely beneficial as a change from Johannesburg. 
The air is a soothing mellow air, breathed without 



40 



The Modern City. 

effort ; an air that, as it were, relieves the tension 
caused by higher altitudes and comforts the respiratory 
economy of a man. And as a change from coastal 
cHmates, the Pretoria air is positively tonic — abiding 
and irresistible in its recuperative effect. If only for 
the pleasure of feeling well, a trip to Pretoria is a 
sound investment. But, as we shall soon see, it is 
an investment that returns additional dividends, gives 
various pleasures. 

There are in Pretoria public buildings, private dwel- 
lings, shops, cafes, hotels, and other places of public 
entertainment as good as any in the country ; and 
some are as bad. There are beautiful and there are 
unkempt gardens ; there are tree-lined streets and 
streets almost devoid of foliage. A Pretoria street 
therefore presents pleasing or displeasing features, 
according to how one views it. In detail, examined 
closely, it is often unimpressive in many respects. 
Seen in long perspective, it is otherwise. Seen from 
the corner of Schoeman Street, for instance. Market 
Street would command hardly a second glance. Seen 
from the eminence on which the railway station stands, 
it is far otherwise. Especially at early morning or at 
sunset, the view is delightful if one can disregard the 
immediate foreground. Below, in the farness, He the 
same hills, the same trees, the same buildings, that 
on nearer view prompted little notice ; but, such is the 
illusion of the evening haze, the hills are raised to 
nearly Alpine height, the dome of Government Building 
is gilt, the church spires in the distance rise burnished 
from the glistening foliage — all etherealized by the 
sunset, all beauties heightened, all blemishes subdued 
by the mystic haze of the afterglow. 



The Modern City. 

If, in conteaiplation of this scene from the railway, 
one turn to the left, it is to be disappointed : the fore- 
ground is disreputable and the distance indistinguish- 
able. But to the right it is far otherwise. It is like 
a slice from an Irish scene : low emerald hills and on 
their flanks red-tiled villas girt with gardens. 
|o'iliere is in this mixing of the urban and rural some- 
thing wholly delightful, something peculiarly Pretorian. 
One is in a city and yet, as it were, in a rural back- 
water. In large towns elsewhere the consciousness of 
being in a town is continuous ; one enjoys the advan- 
tages, but suffers the disadvantages, of town life. In 
Pretoria it is otherwise. All the conveniences, all the 
comforts of a well-appointed modern town are there. 
Except for one dispiriting corner. Church Square would 
do justice to the modernity and architectural pre- 
tensions of, say, Brussels. But even in Church Square, 
in the heart of the city, there is something of rusticity. 
In that centre of official and commercial stir there is 
a constant suggestion of rural proximity. The green, 
lonely slopes of the Daspoort and Magaliesberg Ranges 
are quite close. One can feel that not far away the 
herds graze, undisturbed by the city's nearness. Indeed 
an air as of the countryside blows over the place. The 
square itself is fresh, clean, and wholesome as the veld 
from which it sprang, animated and bustling at times, 
no doubt, but on the whole quiet and peaceful, like a 
stately Spanish piazza during the midday siesta ; a 
soothing scene beneath a blue, calm, sunlit sky ; no 
smoke or dust or racket ; a delightful change from the 
average town. 

Pretoria, to be properly appreciated, should therefore 
be compared not with what other cities are, but with 
what it was ; should be judged by its romance and 



42 



The Modern City. 

history, as well as by its appearance ; should be appre- 
ciated not for qualities common to other towns, but 
for unusual qualities in which the unvitiated and novel 
predominate. For Pretoria, though now up to date, 
has lost little of its pristine wholesomeness, retains 
suggestions still of those moving pictures of the life, 
actions, manners, and appearance of a pioneer people, 
white as well as black, whose like has now practically 
vanished from the earth. The Pretoria surroundings 
remain as alluring as when they attracted the voor- 
trekkers, and the breeze blows as cleanly as once it 
blew across the kraals when the snipe rose from the 
marsh where now the city stands and the warriors, in 
greeting, reared lance and buckled shield as dawn 
heralded day across the breasts of the brooditig IMagalies- 
berg. 




43 



Tours Around Pretoria. 



CHAPTER V. 



-yO 



HIvTHOUGH the age is an age of travel, the art 
and object of spending a holiday on tour is 
comparatively little studied. In the main the 
tendency is to travel aimlessly, leaving much to chance ; 
everybody who can afford it travels for pleasure, but 
comparatively few take the pains to extract the utmost 
pleasure from their travels. More and more they feel the 
need for occasionally leaving the familiar to seek change 
in the refreshment and inspiration of new scenes, new 
faces, new thoughts and habits, but do not sufficiently 
realize that the success with which this is accomplished 
depends as much on the temperament of the tourist 
as on the characteristics of the places toured. 

As, therefore, the extent to which a resort will appeal 
depends largely on circumstances and the individual, it 
is unsafe to dogmatize about any place. Some people 
are habitually unimpressionable, unmoved, if not 
actually bored, by scenery and old associations, or at 
best susceptible only to what is urban and stirring. 
Others can enjoy themselves almost anywhere, having 



44 



Tours Around Pretoria. 

the imagination, the quick perception, and the keen 
appreciation to find satisfaction in every experi- 
ence, however trivial, provided it is new and contrasts 
with everyday routine experience. They find pleasure 
in the suggestiveness of anything that is strange, in 
the unfamiliarity of new places, new incidents, new 
sounds, new fragrances, colourings, and atmosphere — 
in the contemplation of nature away from the towns, 
in the peace of tranquil wayside evenings, in the allure- 
ment of voices that call from the veld. 

With these reservations, and leaving tourists to 
decide for themselves what their predilections and 
capacities for enjoyment are, it may be affirmed that 
for those with the eyes to see and the minds to com- 
prehend, there are several places in the Pretoria Dis- 
trict which well repay whatever exertion or expense is 
incurred in reaching them. Situated at distances of 
from three to twenty miles from the city and reached 
by road or rail are such places as the outskirts of the 
bushveld, in the vicinity of the Crocodile River and 
Commando Nek ; The Fountains, Wonderboom, Hen- 
nops River, Baviaans Poort. 

None of these places aflord accommodation or are of 
a nature to warrant a prolonged stay, but each is worth 
visiting with the necessary lunch basket ; each has 
some claim to attention. 

There is not about this Pretoria environment the 
almost endless variety found in the sea, mountain, 
and woodland attractions of certain coastal resorts. 
Indeed there is a degree of sameness about Pretorian 
resorts, and especially about the roads that lead to 
them, which at first is disconcerting. But gradually 
the attraction grows. There is just sufiicient variety 

45 



Tours Around Pretoria. 

to prevent ennui, but not sufficient to cause the rest- 
lessness prompted by attempts to stir the mind to 
fresh appreciations at ever>' turn. The verj' absence 
of starthng changes becomes restful and comforting. 
You feel 3'ou would hardly wish it otherwise. You 
are lulled into a state of semi-somnolence, irritating 
sensibility deadens, and for once you feel peace and 
contentment. 

That these resorts are not as much v-isited as inferior 
resorts elsewhere is perhaps attributable to the bias of 
the interested or the injustice of the irresponsible, 
whose descriptions have been somewhat misleading 
because conflicting, and conflicting because either 
extravagant or inadequate. It has, for instance, been 
claimed that the scenery compares with any in the 
Transvaal, not excepting the mountainous glamour of 
Barberton or the sub-tropical splendour of the low 
veld : and as a counterblast it has been affirmed that 
the rivers are sluits, the ranges insignificant, and the 
plains and valleys on the whole uninteresting. The 
tendency has been either unduly to laud or unfairly 
to belittle. The result has been in the one case expecta- 
tions few places could satisfy, and in the other case 
apathy : not because the attractions of the district, if 
justly assessed and temperately proclaimed, are on 
their own unbolstered merits otherwise than well 
calculated to appeal to visitors, but because of a certain 
insensibility to the fact that just as in human beings 
character influences more than appearance, so in tourist 
resorts charm appeals more than even beauty. There 
is an even natural beauty that leaves one cold ; there 
never was a charm that did not stir. Excepting 
ephemeral colouring, elusive light and shade efl^ects, 
and the glow of cosmopolitan picturesqueness, there is 

46 



'Plate XXII!. 




e. 




'Plate XXVI. 



MESl 




Toun Around Pretoria. 

little or no beauty about Egypt ; but there is a spell 
and a suggestiveness even for those unversed in historj' 
which is stronger in its appeal to the imagination, than 
any scenery or modern pageantry could be. 

This is the claim for the Pretoria District. It is not 
without beauty, if rightly gauged ; not the vivid beauty 
that astonishes one into admiration, but the subdued 
beauty that by its very quietness compels one's liking. 
But the district has charm rather than beauty ; it is 
in many respects alluring, but its lure, properly under- 
stood, does not arise from rushing waters, towering 
peaks, or picturesque foliage. There is little that is 
impressive about Pretorian streams, little grandeur 
about the Magaliesberg, little sublimity about the 
grassy or even the remoter wooded plains. But there 
is about the Pretoria district, as there is about an 
indescribable perfume or a plaintive melody, a certain 
subtlety, a wistful something, a spell more vague, 
more intangible, yet more potent, than concrete beauty 
— a spell that stirs till you not only see, but for once 
in a while feel, feel sensations exquisitely new, experi- 
ence a mood that is singularly pleasing. It is not 
perhaps happiness, but the emotions that constitute 
happiness when fixed in retrospect and looked back 
upon as remembrances. One realizes this when one 
has toured the district, more than when actually in 
it ; for having returned whence one came, it is to be 
assailed by that loneliness even in cities, and that 
restlessness and longing even in urban repletion, which 
the veld, whatever its shortcomings and whatever its 
hardships, breeds in all who have known it, so that 
they return again and again, or live continuously in 
the hope of doing so, from the sickly air of cities to 
the tonic air of the wilds, from the leaden skies of the 

47 



Tours Around Pretoria. 

North to the great snn-washed splendours of the South — 
to the South African veld, and not least of all to the 
veld around Pretoria and district. There those who 
lived the life of the veld found that success was pro- 
portionate to desert. The hardships and the reverses 
were many, but so were the compensations — the clean 
life, the swift eye, the clear brain, and subtle muscle, 
rather than the length of the banking account, ancestral 
prestige, or well-cut garments being the criterion of a 
man's worth. It was a natural socialism possible only 
in a land where a man's wants were simple, and, being 
simple, were abundantly provided. There the big 
game roamed in thousands, and the hunters, alluvial 
diggers, and transport-riders led lives of adventure. 
It was the home of the lion, the leopard, and the 
elephant ; the land of the swollen rain-fed ford, the 
dusty trail, and the shimmering plain where the hot 
air quivered at noon. There, in the old days, death 
lurked on every hand, carried by most living things, 
from the lion in pursuit of the scudding giraffe to the 
mosquito injecting malarial. But still it was a land 
to rave about, a wonderland in which, while it lasted, 
the full joy of living was felt. It was a land etherealized 
when at evening the slender fingers of the setting sun 
thrilled over kopje and krantz, and the stately koodoo, 
the dainty impala, the bushbuck, and the minor ante- 
lope, like noiseless wraiths from other worlds glided 
in elfin beauty through the shaaow>' kloofs. 

Such, in the summers of long ago, was the bushveld 
around the Barberton and Lydenburg Districts. Such, 
to some extent, were also portions of the Pretoria 
District, as one realizes when, having crossed the 
Crocodile River where it flows in an uninteresting 
phase about fifteen miles from the city, one traverses 

a8 



Tourt Around Prelorh. 

the cutting in the low-lying range and, through Com- 
mando Nek, enters the silenced outskirts of the once 
teeming bushveld. The shadows come and go as then 
they did, and the sunbeams quiver through the per- 
fumed dusk of the resinous foliage ; but the actors are 
gone. They no longer outspan, those hardy pioneers 
of old, by the creeks and the water-holes. No longer 
does the evening lilt ascend from the digger's cabin or 
the embers of the dying camp-fires glow by the wagons. 
For the trekking, the hunting, and the digging days 
are over or devoid of adventure ; the game paths are 
empty, the wagon road deserted, and the bushveld, as 
glimpsed from Commando Nek, is a solitude in which 
deep silence reigns. It is a sunlit, bush-clad, hill-girt 
land grown drowsy. A quiet restful land where nothing 
stirs save the leaves that flutter in the hot still sun- 
shine. Nothing more vocal is heard than the lulling 
drumming of the tock-tockie beetle, nothing more 
vibrant felt than the rustle of the tall tambuki grass 
where a wandering wind sighs through it. It is a 
lonely, wistful land lost in reverie and veiled in hazy 
blue, a land of soft colouring and soft sounds, where 
evening, in place of the old-time stir, now brings only 
the whirring cadence from some partridge covey over- 
head or the mournful cry of a belated khoraan home- 
coming. Then the moon's white blaze pours on the 
empty veld and the wide-flung plains lie hushed. 

Far otherwise is the place known as " The Foun- 
tains," three miles from Church Square. As Pretoria 
gradually grows into the populous, outstanding city it 
is destined to become, " The Fountains " will no doubt 
become its Hyde Park, where in the cool of the evening, 
beneath the willows and the soothing blue, under 
branches that arch above the avenues where the 

4q 



Toun Around Pretoria. 

diminutive river flows, society will take its daily outing 
by the turbid but not unpicturesque Aapies. The 
foliage is rich and pleasing, and the surrounding hills 
intensely green for the longer part of the year, and 
one can imagine them in the days to come crowded with 
villas and sweet smelling gardens. 

The Hennops River, about fourteen miles from 
Pretoria, is a popular picnic resort. Not only the 
place, but the journey to it is pleasing, if not thrilling. 
One passes through a land of low green hills and 
verdant pastures. It is somewhat tenantless and 
lonely, no doubt, but has the charm of tranquil pastoral 
homeliness — cattle and sheep upon the hillsides and 
drowsy herd boys nodding in the noontide heat, \vith 
here and there little farmsteads dotted, and a golden 
ghnt upon the maize fields. 

The river itself is unremarkable, small almost to the 

point of meanness and far from cr>'Stal-like ; but it 

flows through an extreme^ picturesque setting — through 

a witchery of colouring, colour in the rocks, in the water, 

in the foliage, in the atmosphere : and where the water 

ripples musically, albeit somewhat turbidly, over the 

pebbled shallows, a sense of charm pervades, and one 

feels the place to be not perhaps outstanding, but a 

place such as Wordsworth may have had in mind 

when — 

" Pleased if some souls (for such there needs must be) 
Who have felt the weight of too much liberty 
Should find brief solace there as I have found." 

But perhaps the quaintest and in a way the most 
insinuatingly suggestive place of all is Baviaans Poort, 
about fourteen miles by road from Pretoria. It is a 
place worth travelling further to enjoy. Excepting 
the mile-long gum avenue half-way, at Silverton, where 

50 



Tours Around Pretoria. 

a small stream flows through a sylvan retreat, the 
country, until one reaches the hills, is flat and unex- 
ceptional, but far from uninviting. It is an exhilarating 
gallop across the plains, in the cool of an autumn day, 
under the magic of mighty wind-swept spaces ; and 
an even more delightful journey by motor, on a dewy- 
summer morning, when the early rains have set the 
grasses free, and on every hand mile upon mile of 
refreshing green stretches into the distances where the 
hills stand blue in the morning haze. 

Then, leaving the roj^ i, one enters a cutting in the 
hills, and suddenly the scene is changed. The place 
within is wild and lonely. The hills themselves are 
comparatively low, but so abrupt and startling in 
their contours as to seem imposing, and so fantastic 
in their arrangement as to appear a little weird. But 
it is an inviting place on the whole, this one-time tavern 
of the monkey folk, especially when the shadows fall 
from the naked sun-kissed krantzes, and he around 
the stunted bushes, and throw broad spokes across the 
little stream that babbles and calls, babbles and calls 
unceasingly, perhaps to those who once abode there. 







51 



General. 



CHAPTER VI. 



-rO 



(1) THE MUSEUM. 

®FTEN, no doubt, a museum is regarded merely 
as a tedious array of exhibits : musty smelling 
and possibly instructive to the interested, but 
conveying little to the uninitiated. Rightly regarded, 
however, it should be, to those with a little imagination, 
a place of recreation and learning, almost as entertaining 
and certainly as instructive as a theatre. For a museum 
is history in the concrete, the record of man's achieve- 
ment ; in it are the trappings of the past, somewhat 
dingy at times, perhaps, and even inanimate, but 
potent with significance for those who can take and 
develop a hint. What, for instance, could be more 
stirring than the train of thought aroused by the 
contemplation, in the Pretoria Aluseum, of the 
2000-years-old mummy suggestive of an age, of customs, 
peoples, and scenes when the world was young, of 
splendours and mysteries now unfathomable, of cities 
and nations dead, buried, and forgotten beneath the 
modern cities and nations of ancient Eg>'pt ! 



52 



General. 

A Venetian sequin or a vSpanish dollar, what romantic 
adventures were not theirs, from the days when the 
Cape was the tavern for all who fought, trafficked, and 
intrigued between East and West to the day when 
these relics found a resting place in Pretoria ! 

Or to come nearer our own history. Is there not 
poignant suggestiveness and even tragedy equal to that 
of any staged drama in contemplating the crude but 
lovingly, laboriously-engraved little tombstone wrought 
and erected by some lonely saddened survivor to the 
memory of the first English lady who found an exile's 
grave in the remote wilds of Matabeleland nearly a 
hundred years ago ? 

One visualizes, too, times that were passing strange, 
and to a peaceable, security-loving generation almost 
incomprehensible, when musing on the history of the 
wonderful cannon made almost without facilities by 
the voortrekkers, and the implements of destruction 
used by the Dutch East India Company, maybe against 
some Oriental slaver or European buccaneer. How 
many hopes, how many fortunes, how many lives 
depended on the efficacy of these rude weapons ? 
Could they but talk, what acts of heroism and devotion, 
what tragedies and comedies, would stand revealed ? 
One can only surmise, but in the surmising there is 
much that is profitable and entertaining, the only 
cause for annoyance being that the collections, though 
good of their kind, are far from complete and their 
histories far from being thoroughly known and fully 
proclaimed. For these omissions our ancestors are to 
blame, but they had other and more pressing things 
to think about. The moral is, however, plain : in a 
country like South Africa, where so many of the old 



53 



General. 

conditions and implements were so novel and are so 
rapidly passing away, it cannot but be in the interest 
of all, and therefore should be an object of all, thoroughly 
to support national institutions like the Pretoria Museum 
by saving for and presenting to the museum everything 
worthy of such a destiny, or in assisting those who do 
this by supporting the museum and taking a live 
interest in it. It costs so little either in effort or money ; 
it means so much for future generations, and even for 
ourselves. It is desirable, so that those not exclusively 
occupied by the mundane may for their refreshment 
and enlightenment occasionally step from the modern 
everyday world into the dim cloisters of the past, there 
in imagination to live for a while as our forebears lived, 
and see spread out, in a narrow compass, within high 
walls and a roof, all that is redolent of early South 
Africa — of the Bushmen and the Hottentots and the 
game that roamed the veld, of the Kaffirs when they 
lived in barbaric splendour, of early settlers on pioneer 
farm and in pioneer tovv^n : the life of the kraal and 
the camp and the mining hut, of a time when South 
Africans were in many respects rougher and hardier 
than now, but in other respects more romantic and 
more picturesque. It is a national work, this con- 
servation of what is of South African historical interest : 
a work in which all should help. 

The Pretoria Museum was commenced in 1892 \vith 
a small collection of objects of national interest. Some 
years later natural history' specimens were added. In 
1896 faunistic work was started. Since then the object 
has been to study the flora and fauna of South Africa 
in general and of the Transvaal in particular, and to 
make the collections as complete, as instructive, and 
as generally interesting as possible. 

54 



Plale XXVII. 




Plalc XXIX. 




BAVIAANS POORT. 



Plate XXX. 




General. 

The collections at present accessible to the pubhc 
are exhibited in six halls. The first contains mounted 
South African birds, their nests, and eggs ; the second 
and third hall contain South African mammals, reptiles, 
amphibians, and fishes, as well as exhibits of the more 
important internal and external parasites which are 
capable of causing so much damage to the live stock 
and crops of farmers. The fourth room contains what 
is perhaps of most general interest — the historical and 
ethnographical collections and coins, and the other two 
rooms foreign mammals and birds. 

An important part, indeed the greater part, of the 
historical and ethnographical collections is not on view, 
being stored away owing to want of room in the present 
premises, but when the new premises in Market Street 
are occupied this will, of course, be remedied. 

The entomological collections are also inaccessible to 
the general public for the present. Over 125,000 South 
African specimens have been named and classified, but 
want of cabinets and space prevents the scientific 
classification of thousands of exotic insects. The 
important herbarium, too, is inadequately housed, and 
the reference library attached to the museum scattered 
variously. No doubt this all detracts from the general 
usefulness of the institution, not only because many 
valuable specimens are for the time being stored away, 
but also because even the specimens on view are in 
many instances so huddled through want of space that 
their significance is dwindled. This will, however, be 
altered when the palatial new building in Market 
Street, which is to house the museum for the future, 
is taken over. Accommodation there, if not ample, 
will at least be sufficient ; and it may confidently be 



55 



General. 

expected that with such improved housing the exhibits 
will be displayed to proper advantage and catalogued 
and classed so as best to facilitate inspection and 
study. 



(2) THE PRETORIA ZOO. 

Of vSouth African zoological gardens that at Pretoria 
is probably the most charming and the most interesting. 
Few places are better worth visiting. The grounds are 
extensive and beautifully laid out, and accommodate 
a collection of animals that is both large and varied. 
Just to saunter through the flower-brightened paths, 
or to rest in the shade of the silver-oaks and palms, is 
distinctly pleasurable ; and at every turn, in the cages, 
paddocks and ponds, something to instruct or entertain 
will be found. 

The zoo is a miniature world, in which has been 
gathered something suggestive of nearly every corner 
of the outer world. There every rank and grade of 
the animal world live, if not in amity, then at least 
in toleration. There the aristocrat and the proletariat 
from the forests, mountains, rivers, plains, valleys, and 
seas of the known earth live in a kind of socialism, all 
wants being provided and existence rendered effort- 
less. The zoo is the acme of cosmopolitanism — a true 
democracy, where artificial barriers, save in the matter 
of bars and wire netting, have been levelled, all natural 
fears and preying instincts so far allayed that the deer 
suckle their young undismayed by the roar of the 
adjacent lion, the doves, knowing the efficacy of netting, 
coo openly in view of the eagle ; there the leopard 
gambols with the baboon, the vulture preens the wing 
of the Nile goose and, disregarding dietics, takes a 

56 



General. 

friendly interest in the goslings.* Food and comfort 
come automatically, and the incentive to kill is there- 
fore largely reduced. 

The environment of the Pretoria Zoo is so beautiful 
that thousands of visitors are attracted yearly, and 
so admirably adapted to the widely differing tempera- 
ments and needs of the various denizens that they 
make it their home and, with certain limitations of 
course follow their usual avocations, chewing the cud 
of utter contentment, bringing forth and rearing their 
young, basking lazily in the comforting sunshine, and 
dreaming, no doubt, of the jungle they once trod or 
the seas they skimmed. Each cage and enclosure is a 
lattice, so to speak, through which, with a little 
imagination, one gets a glimpse of luxuriant forests, 
snow-capped Himalayan peaks, mighty rivers, lonely 
African plains, sun-scorched deserts, and sparkling seas. 

Blue, 3'ellow, and red macaws flash their gorgeous 
plumage in the sun-flecked shadows of the entrance 
avenue, and a parrot in green screams its " Hello !" 
to the visitor. Their surroundings are very different 
to those of their native haunt ; but, perhaps because 
they have forgotten, they are a contented party. The 
overflowing seed dish and protection from kestrel, 
puma, and jaguar are perhaps some compensation for 
the absence of that lurid hot-house, their one-time 
home, where in places the Amazon flows six miles 
broad and forests sweep 3000 miles inland to the Andes. 
The tonic, air and the brilliant sunshine of Pretoria 
are perhaps some compensation, even to an exotic 
bird, for the sweeping forests and tropic vapours where 
the palm, myrtle, acacia, and mimosa, gnarled by the 
centuries and shrouded by the heavy luxuriant climbers. 

* " The next cage shows us a Cheetah and an East African Baboon, grown up together 
When one considers that a baboon is always looked upon as one of the moMt exquisite 
delicacies of a leopard's menu, one may really marvel at the absolute friendship of thege 
two animals, who by their constant and funny play make one of the most attraotiva 
•zhiblta In tb* (iektd»n»."—Sxtract from Curator t Report. 

57 



General. 

close their ranks so densely that beneath the tree tops, 
in the hot, miasmal atmosphere of the Amazon banks, 
day is a dim affaii of faltering twilight and night an 
awesome pall of utter black. It is a distant and, one 
may suppose, an unregretted home, for on their Pre- 
toria perches the macaws now drowse uncaring through 
the slumbering afternoon of the African summer and 
the Amazon parrot utters its scrap of English with 
something akin to pride. 

The pond close by, among other denizens, contains 
a pair of seals. The day can at times be hot at 
Pretoria, and the zoo pond is often discoloured. One 
then pities the seals, taken from cool, wholesome, 
sparkling seas and dumped a thousand miles inland 
where even the smell of the ocean is denied them. 
But it is misplaced pity, for suddenly their affectation 
of lethargy vanishes and in a very whirlwind of admir- 
able, if mistaken, zeal they swim, dive, and romp, 
with a gusto and dexterity sadly disconcerting to the 
other inmates of the pond. 

Perhaps they, too, have their compensations, for 
though accustomed to congregate, especially in the 
breeding season, and though now isolated far from 
their kind (in what at best is an artificial environment 
sans ice floe, salt spume, dashing wave), the female 
enjoys the attractions of monogamy, and the old male, 
though deprived of the harem he would have had under 
the old regime, is on the other hand spared the necessity 
for continuously defending it from adventurous suitors 
and himself from unceasing domestic squabbles such 
as turn the natural breeding places of the seals into 
places of din and turmoil. 

The bear den contains, among other interesting 
occupants, a denizen from the far-off Himalayas, who, 

}« 



Gtneral. 

in the cool of Indian evenings, may have loitered once 
by the banks of the Brahmaputra. Honey, roots, and 
a little flesh formed his diet in those days and were 
sought in divers and widely differing places, ranging 
from the dry icy heights of the " snow abode " to the 
lower, hotter, and wetter regions along the great plain 
of Asia. His was the saunter from the aromatic pine 
slopes and keen air of the upper altitudes down to the 
palms, bamboos, tree-ferns, and orchids of the plains, 
where the sunbird, the vividly coloured trogon, and 
the beautiful kingfisher have their home with the cobra 
and the python, the tiger and the elephant. 

The elephant is a companionable brute. For pre- 
ference, rather than for protection, it wanders in herds, 
gambolling, when in jovial mood, with a lightness 
that, considering its size, is nothing short of wonderful, 
or lolling in the jungle shadows during the noontide 
heat, or bathing. The solitary female at the zoo, 
musing perhaps on such past jaunts, is inclined at times 
to be pensive, when, in the absence of water, she may 
be seen moodily squirting sand over ponderous shoul- 
ders. Maybe her thoughts are with the calf which, in 
happier circumstances, would be by her side amongst 
the plantains and the bamboos of an Asiatic home. 
But she is an amiable and gentle though a somewhat 
heavy dame, and whatever her thoughts or ambitions 
may be is inclined to sink them on the advent of a 
banana which she nimbly but courteously filches from 
the spectator. 

The lion is, in a paternal sense, essentially a family 
animal. He attaches himself to one mate only and 
lives with her for life — that is to say, for her life, as 
instances are on record where, in the stress of hunger 
or wrath, Uons have killed and eaten their consorts. 

39 



General. 

As a bachelor, too, he is in many respects sociable. 
He hunts with other bachelors until, under the influence 
of jealousy, discord ensues, when the weaker is killed 
and the victor, suing the lithe one of the contention, 
roars nightly in the wilderness till she, stirred by the 
pairing instinct, slinks from her family circle and not 
without a certain coyness joins her fierce-blooded 
suitor in some rocky fastness of their own, killing with 
him only when hungry or annoyed, rearing her cubs 
while her lord hunts for their food. And when family 
affairs have been eased and the young have been taught 
to fend for themselves, she joins her savage mate in 
social evenings ; when, as Gordon-Cumming has written, 
the roar of the assembled lions at the water-holes, in a 
unison that is extremely impressive, constitutes a 
nocturnal concert inconceivably stirring and grand. 

There are two lionesses and a lion at the Pretoria 
Zoo. The elder of the former is somewhat aged, 
extremely brittle in temper, soured either by spinster- 
hood or confinement, her sociability so far destroyed 
that on a companion being placed in her cage she 
immediately broke his back. 

The male, however, seems a placid animal, largely 
given to basking in the sun with a dreamy far-away 
look in his yellow eye, and a nervous, ceaseless twitch- 
ing of his sinuous tail tip, as though in the farness he 
saw visions that stirred his slumbering passions ; or 
maybe some whimper or some whiff from the adjacent 
cage, in which his fierce mate suckled her newly whelped 
brood, may have roused his paternal feelings, stirred 
instincts connected with freedom, the plains, and the 
hunt. 

Of Diana monkeys there are a pair in the zoo, 
delicate, refined, almost human animals from the fetid, 

60 



General. 

impenetrable, excessively rank vegetation of the 
Equator, where the mahogany, the teak, and the 
ebony grows, where the mighty Congo plunges in 
gorges and rapids, and the Arab slave raiders once had 
their loathsome strongholds. 

So one wanders between cages, paddocks, and 
aviaries, seeing continuously something to instruct and 
interest, something to widen the horizon of one's out- 
look by reminiscences and suggestions. Of all the animals 
there, the hippopotamus is perhaps the most curious, 
a huge ungainly brute like some relic from primeval 
times, resembling nothing else that walks the earth 
to-day. He is a full-grown bull, exceedingly ugly and 
unwieldy, but capable of a passionate attachment to 
his native keeper, whose frequent admonitions appear 
to conve}^ something to whatever understanding lies 
behind the absurdly small eyes in that wierdly ponderous 
head. 

Though the cemented pond in which this hippo, 
spends most of his time is small and gives little oppor- 
tunity for the dexteious diving and the perambulating 
on the river bottom in search of adventure, for which 
hippos, in their natural environment are noted, these 
deficiencies are no doubt made up for by the fact that 
the zoo rations are uncommonly good. Huge slabs of 
moistened mealie meal slip down his capacious mouth 
and are swallowed with the rapidity and ease of 03'sters 
down a human throat, the while the ridiculously beady 
eyes peer greedily for more, and the small flexible ears 
twitch alertly as though to catch some distant sound, 
some grunt, perhaps, to charm a lonely captive, such 
as in the vicinity of the Zambesi is nightly heard when 
the hippos, leave the water and walk the banks in 
search of food and gallantry. 

61 



Ceneral. 

To enumerate all the denizens of this zoo would be 
to take up too much space and the place would still 
be done less than justice. There are bisons from the 
American prairies, bears from Japan, pumas, leopards, 
and llamas ; camels from the burning deserts and 
tamarisk-shaded oases of the Sahara ; scores of different 
kinds of antelopes and birds innumerable, each single 
specimen oi which is worthy of some individual atten- 
tion. 



(3) THE LIBRARIES OF PRETORIA. 

Of the numerous departmental libraries for the use 
of officials, to which public access is more or less 
restricted, the library of the Agricultural Department 
is one of the largest and most important. Other non- 
public, though not purely departmental, libraries are 
the Supreme Court Library and Legislative Council 
Library, The one librarv is lodged in the Palace of 
Justice and contains several thousand legal works, 
access to which is limited to members of the Bar. 
The other library, which was begun a few years before 
Union, is in Government Buildings. It contains a 
wide selection of books, principally of a reference 
character, intended primarily for the use of members 
of the Pro\'incial Council and officials. 

The State Library, frequently styled the Government 
Library, is the old " Staats Bibliotheek " of the Trans- 
vaal Republic, and fulfils very successfully the functions 
of a public library. It is also a depository for official 
publications, and contains, among its 50.000 odd books 
and documents, many valuable collections dealing with 
the history of South Africa, and particularly of the 
Transvaal, from the earliest times. 

62 



Tlate XXXI y 




General. 

This library has been housed for the past nine years, 
after two previous changes of premises, in the Church 
Street buildings formerly known as the " Staats Druk- 
kerij " of the Transvaal Repubhc. The occupation of 
these premises will, however, not continue long. The 
library will shortly be transferred to the more imposing 
and commodious building recently erected at the top 
of Market Street. 

This library was started in 1887 and has grown from 
very modest beginnings into an important institution. 
Its constitution and regulations, as now in force, were 
approved and established by resolution of the Executive 
Council in 1893 and confirmed by the Government in 
1903. 



(4) THE BACTERIOLOGICAL STATION. 

A few miles outside Pretoria is situated the world- 
famed institution for the study of animal diseases — 
the Transvaal Bacteriological Station. It is a branch 
of the Union Agricultural Department and was erected 
at a cost of £60,000, which in an extensive stock- 
breeding country, where without adequate protections 
the ravages from stock diseases might entail the loss 
of millions, is one of the best public investments ever 
made. 

The station is the headquarters for continuously 
investigating and administering measures to check 
stock diseases of all kinds, and under the aegis of some 
of the most brilliant veterinarians of the age has done 
remarkably good work. 

63 



General. 

(5) THE CLIMATE OF PRETORIA. 

The following statistics are the averages deduced 
from seven years' ofHcial observations : — 
Rainfall. 

City : 29 -51 inches District : 27 -84 inches 

per annum. Rain fell on per annum. Rain fell on 
an average of 82 days an average of 72 days 
per annum. per annum. 

Mean Maximum Temperature. 

Summer 81 -2° F. 

Winter 72 -2° F. 

Mean Minimum Temperature. 

Summer 55-4° F. 

Winter 41-3° F. 

Sunshine (Town) — Mean. 
Sum.mer mean : 66 per cent, of possible hours of 
sunshine. 

Winter mean : 82 per cent, of possible hours of 
sunshine. 

Humidity — 8 a.m. 
Winter mean : 72 per cent, relative humidity. 
Summer mean : 72 per cent, relative humidity. 

Humidity — 7 p.m. 
Summer mean : 65 per cent, relative humidity. 
Winter mean : 58 per cent, relative humidity. 

(6) EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES. 

Transvaal University College. 

This institution is the chief centre of higher education 
in the Transvaal, and is fully equipped for preparing 

64 



General. 

pupils for all university examinations above the Matricu- 
lation and up to and including the degree of Master of 
Arts. Although the college has not been long founded, 
some of its students have found their way to Oxford 
and the principal educational finishing centres of 
Europe and America. 

The college buildings, surrounded by ample recreation 
fields, are situated near Rissik vStation. They consist 
of two detached blocks, which, however, are only a 
portion of a larger design to be completed when the 
growth of the institution warrants. The front block is 
Byzantine in style — two stories in height, and contains 
classrooms, biological and geological laboratories, lecture 
rooms, library, a large lecture hall, professors' rooms, 
and offices. The back block is a single-story building, 
and is occupied by the departments of chemistry and 
physics ; it contains also two lecture rooms. 

The institution is an autonomous body with an 
independent council and constitution. For a full 
degree course the fee is ;fi6 per annum, payable half- 
yearly in advance, and for separate subjects it is £4. 4s. 
per annum. 

The stafi consists of professors in Latin, Greek, 
English, philosophy, economics, history, Dutch, 
mathematics, physics, and chemistry, and a com- 
petent body of lecturers in other subjects. 

Fuller particulars may be obtained from the Secretary 
to the Council, Mr. D. G. Hafner. 

Boys' High School. 

There are two institutions in Pretoria which make 
provision for secondary education — the High School 
for Boys and the High School for Girls. 

6.S 



General. 

The High School for Boys is situated on the side of 
the kopje to the south-west of the town, in rural, 
healthful surroundings. The main building of the 
school consists of two floors : on the ground floor 
there is a large assembly hall with a gallery, and round 
it are grouped classrooms, laboratories, a gymnasium, 
and excellent lavatory accommodation. On the first 
floor are more classrooms, the school library, the head- 
master's study, and a masters' common room. Every- 
thing that experience could suggest has been provided 
to make the school as convenient in plan and as fully 
equipped for educational purposes as possible. There 
are two detached wings to the building used as boarding- 
houses. They are well designed and furnished, and 
capable of accommodating eighty boarders. 

The governing body of the school consists of eight 
elected and four nominated members. 

The course of instruction is planned to prepare the 
pupils for the Cape University Matriculation Examina- 
tion. The school fees range from £2 to £4 per term. 

The boarding fees are £12. los. per term. Bursaries 
are offered by the Transvaal Education Department. 

The playing fields are extensive and athletics and 
games are well organized. A railway station is within 
a few minutes' walk of the school and a tram terminus 
within easy access. 

About 250 pupils attend regularly. 

The headmaster is Mr. W. H. Hofmeyr, M.A. (Cam- 
bridge). 

High School for GirU. 

The High vSchool for Girls is situated on a large plot 
of ground bounded by Visagie and Skinner Streets, but 

66 



General. 

the intention is to erect new buildings outside the town 
near the University College. The new boarding-house 
has already been commenced. 

The present school building consists of two stories, 
and contains airy and well-lighted classrooms, rooms 
for music, drawing, science, and a gymnasium. 

Connected with this school there is a preparatory 
school for boys and girls under ten years of age. The 
average enrolment of the two establishments is 320, 
including between 60 and 70 boarders. 

Great attention is paid in the school to physical 
training in a way to help and not hinder the mental 
training of the pupils. The curriculum is the same as 
that of the High School for Boys and bursaries are 
offered annually. 

The fees for the day school vary from ;^i. los. in 
the lower to £;^ in the upper school per term. Music, 
singing, painting, and dancing are extras, but in no 
case do the fees in any of these subjects exceed £^ 
per term. 

The headmistress is Miss B. Aitken, an M.A. of 
Dublin University and a graduate in honours of Cam- 
bridge. 

Pretoria Normal College. 

The Normal College proper consists of a fine modern 
range of buildings, which provide teaching accom- 
modation for all students and residential accommodation 
for women in two hostels. The buildings are well 
designed, fully equipped, and attractively situated in 
extensive grounds in Rissik Street, Sunnyside. Close 
by boarding accommodation for male students is pro- 
vided in the residence occupied by Sir Arthur Lawley 

67 



General. 

when he was lyieutenant-Goveruor of the Transvaal, 
hut additional quarters are to be erected to meet the 
increased number of applications for accommodation. 

The large number of Government primary schools 
in Pretoria is a great advantage to the Normal College, 
as the students are enabled to obtain a very varied 
range of knowledge and experience in practical teaching, 
while wthin easy range of the town there are schools 
the conditions of which approach very closely to those 
of the farm school. 

Recreations and sports of all kinds are well organized. 

From time to time courses of instruction are given 
at the college during the winter school vacation for 
teachers who are already in the service of the Trans- 
vaal Education Department. 

The principal of the college is Mr. E. Garnett, from 
whom fuller particulars may be obtained. 

Pretoria Trades School and Polytechnic. 

This school provides technical education in trades ; 
connected with it is a polytechnic in which a more 
advanced curriculum is given. The school has a 
governing body of its own, but is under the super- 
vision of an officer of the Education Department. 

Wagon-building, carpentry, plumbing, electrical 
engineering, farriery, etc., are taught in well-equipped 
workshops, and there are continuation classes in the 
evenings. Classes are also held for literary and com- 
mercial subjects, and lectures are given on the theoretical 
side of technology. 

Attached to the school is a Polytechnic Club, which 
serves to bring the students together for outdoor as 
well as indoor recreation. The curriculum aims at 

68 



General. 

providing preparation for the examinations of the City 
and Guilds of London Institute, the Sanitary Institute, 
and the Johannesburg School of Mines and Technology. 
The principal is Mr. Sidney Wood, B.vSc. (ist Class 
Honours), I^ondon, M.E., C.E., from whom all par- 
ticulars may be obtained. 

Pretoria Manual Training Centre. 

The Pretoria Manual Training Centre is on the 
grounds of the Gymnasium School, Proes Street. It 
is a centre for woodwork instruction and is attended 
by all boys from Standards IV in the schools in the 
immediate vicinity. 

The object of the instruction is not the training of 
future tradesmen, as in the case of the Trades School, 
but simply to give a manual dexterity which will be 
useful in any walk of life the pupil may afterwards 
follow. A manual training centre has also been estab- 
lished at the Boys' High School. 

The principal in manual training in the Pretoria 
(town) area is Mr. Daniel Linekar. 




69 



Pretoria Municipally. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ITS HISTORY FROM 1880. 

^H^UNICIPAIvLY Pretoria already compares 
|[^||^ favourably with many of the older towns of 
South Africa, in spite of the fact that its 
municipal vicissitudes have been as numerous and 
varied as those of the voortrekkers themselves. It 
owns its various public services, such as w^ater supply, 
electric supply, and tramways, and will soon have its 
public abattoirs, swimming baths, and cattle markets 
which at the time of writing are under construction, 
together with such public works as sewerage, storm- 
water diains, kerbing and guttering, road-making, 
All this has been accomplished in little more than a 
decade, as the Municipal Charter of the City only dates 
from 1903. 

It was in 1880, or thirty-three years ago, that 
responsible municipal government was first meditated 
in Pretoria. A proclamation by Sir Owen I,anyon 
gave a charter to the town and a municipal election 
was held. A Dorps Raad was formed and the late 
Mr. J. C. Preller was elected first MayoT of Pretoria, 
but he never took his seat as such, the first Transvaal 
war breaking out shortly afterwards. 



70 



Plate XXXV. 




<^ pR£/ORlUS 3T ^ JOWH H-FfLL^ 

THiw II II II II I I ' H jilii ••'• ' ' ,. 




^ 






Plalc XXXVIl. 




^3\nc xhX^^ad^ 



Plate XXXVUI. 




^I'u'l'Mnifl !t 



!^ 1^ 



< Mil 11 11 IKI II 



Ipli'lil-.'.--: ":" !LU.(ttl'l-M 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Pretoria Municipally. 

Thereafter, until 1897, the municipal affairs of the 
town were controlled chiefly by the I^anddrost, or 
Magistrate, assisted by Commissioners, but in December, 
1897, a Temporary Town Council (Tijdelik Stads- 
bestuur) was appointed by proclamation of the late 
President Kruger, dated 20tli December, 1897, and 
published in the Staatscourant of 29th December, 1897. 
The Council consisted of the following gentlemen, who 
were nominated by the Government : —Messrs. E. P. A. 
Meintjes, T. N. de VilHers, P. G. van der Byl, P. Botha, 
R. K. Iroveday, E. F. Bourke, P. Beyers, P. Kruger, 
P. Mare, Advocate F. W. Reitz, and Dr. G. W. S. 
lyingbeek. The foregoing eleven gentlemen represented 
the town, and were assisted by the following four 
gentlemen representing the Government : — Mr. C. E. 
Schutte, Captain A. Schiel, Dr. Messum, and Mr. E. Lutz 
(Town Engineer). 

Mr. T. N. de Villiers was appointed Chairman, 
Advocate F. W. Reitz, Vice-Chairman, and Mr. J. 
Bosch was appointed the first Town Clerk. 

A grant of £1000 was made by Government in 
December, 1897, to defray necessary expenses, and 
thereafter two grants of ;£5ooo were made on 22nd 
February, 1898, and 17th May, 1898, whilst ;^22,468 
was paid by Government to the Landdrost during 1898 
for repairs to streets, sanitation, salaries, wages, feeding 
of mules, etc. Altogether there was provided for 
Pretoria in the 1898 Estimates the sum of ;^6o,300. 
In 1899 the Estimates for Pretoria for repairs and 
maintenance of streets amounted to £40,000. 

The only municipal revenue at this time appeared 
to be the erf tax, which was an annual tax of los. on 
a vacant erf and one of 30s. on an erf which was built 
upon. 

71 



Pretoria Municipally. 

The various services of the town, water supply, 
electric supph% tramways, markets, and even the 
sanitary service, had been granted to various persons 
as concessions, and the town, municipally, was in 
this position when the second Transvaal war broke 
out. 

In February, 1902, a Proclamation by the Military 
Governor created a Nominated Town Council and 
conferred upon them various powers, including that of 
rating. In 1903 a Municipal Elections Ordinance con- 
ferred responsible municipal government upon the city, 
and a Municipal Rating Ordinance superseded the 
rating powers of the 1902 Proclamation. A compre- 
hensive Municipal Corporations Ordinance was passed 
later in 1903, which would have given the newly elected 
Council greatly enhanced powers had they chosen to 
come under the operation thereof and abandon the 
1902 Proclamation, as they were invdted to do. But 
the adoption of the new Ordinance automatically 
repealed the old Stads Regulaties (Town Regulations) 
of 1899, which still remained on the Statute Book. 
To these regulations, which prohibit the use of the 
footpaths b}^ natives and coloured persons among other 
things, the then Town Council attached so much 
importance (and the ratepayers were with them in 
the matt'^r) that they steadfastly refused to be brought 
under the Ordinance, thereby sacrificing a revenue of 
some ;f3000 per annum from erf tax, which was exacted 
by Government, but which under the Ordinance was 
created municipal revenue. The Council's application 
to be brought under the Ordinance, minus the section 
objected to, was refused, and the Council of Pretoria, 
until November, 1912, remained without powers 
possessed by every other municipaht}^ in the Transvaal. 

72 



Pretoria Municipally. 

In spite of this disability, and with the aid of the 
Hmited powers conferred by the 1902 Proclamation, 
plus other powers acquired by private legislation, and 
the application of portions of the various Municipal 
Ordinances promulgated by the Government from 
time to time, the City progressed rapidly. All the 
services of a municipal nature concessioned away (with 
the exception of the Market Concession) were actiuired 
by the Council before the end of 1904, and an era of 
real municipal activity and progress was entered upon, 
which is continuing at the present day. 

Population. 

The population of greater Pretoria, including suburbs 
at present outside the municipal area, MiUtary Canton- 
ments, and other large Government institutions, as 
estimated in December, 1912, is as follows : — 

European 38,850 

Coloured 22,550 

Total 61,400 



The civil population within the municipality, as 
estimated in December, 1912, is 43,400, made up as 
follows : — 

European 26,000 

Coloured , , . 17,400 

ToTAi, 43,400 



Valuation and Rates. 

The total valuation of the town, including non- 
rateable and Government property, with the exception 
of the Union Buildings, which are not yet valued, i? 



73 



Pretoria Municipally. 

£10,485,213. Of this amount £7,760,958 is rateable. 
Rates are levied on the full vahie of land and buildings, 
and the rates for the years 1911, 1912, and 1913 were 
2d., 2jd., and 2M. in the £1 respectively. These rates 
cover all general municipal services, such as street and 
road making, street watering and cleansing, health and 
fire protection, parks and pleasure groun.ds, etc., but 
do not cover the personal services of water supply, 
household refuse removal, and sewerage or sanitary 
services, for which separate charges are made. 

Water Supply. 

The water supply of Pretoria is derived from a series 
of dolomite springs, having their outlet on the portion 
of the farm Groenkloof, locally known as the " Foun- 
tains Valley," at an altitude some 150 feet above 
Church Square, and in distance three miles from Church 
Square. At present the approximate discharge of the 
combined fountains is 6,000,000 gallons per diem. 
About five years ago the combined discharge of the 
springs fell to 5,000,000 gallons ; an increase, however, 
took place after the great flood of 1909. During the 
period covered from August to December the con- 
sumption of the community is roughly 4,000,000 to 
5,000,000 gallons per diem. There is practically no 
restriction placed upon the domestic consumption of 
water by the inhabitants of Pretoria. Domestic con- 
sumption has come to be recognized as including the 
watering of gardens, and in this direction water is used 
lavishly, the consumption during the summer being 
practically 100 gallons per head per diem, and for this 
consumption the following charges are made : — 

los. per quarter for dwellings (building value only) 
valued at £250 to £3 per quarter for dwellings 



74 



Pretoria Municipally. 

valued at £6000 and over. For gardens the 
charge is ^i per annum for each 7000 square feet 
of garden on which water is used. 

Meters are only used on Government institutions, 
hotels, and large business premises. Before any meter 
charge is made against the Government they are entitled 
to 100,000 gallons of water per diem free of charge. 
The vSouth African Railways are entitled to 600,000 
gallons of water per diem free of charge, but their 
consumption at the present is far below this figure. 
The charge to the Government over and above the 
100,000 gallons is is. per 1000 gallons. Business 
premises are charged at the rate of 2S. per 1000 gallons 
up to a certain quantity, and thereafter is. 3d. per 
1000 gallons. The Kent and Tyler meters, British 
Positive, are used locally. Water is at present delivered 
by means of three mains, varying in diameter from 
18 inches to 10 inches, but this older scheme is being 
rapidly abohshed. The total flow of the springs will 
at an early date be delivered to a reservoir by means 
of a 3-foot diameter reinforced concrete aqueduct, and 
the water will be stored in a service reservoir, which 
will have a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons. From this 
point water will be distributed throughout the whole 
municipal estate by means of steel and cast-iron pipes 
to reservoirs in Arcadia, Sunnyside, and the western 
town lands. Pumping is necessary to the higher areas 
of Arcadia and Sunnyside, particularly that area 
occupied by the Union Government Buildings. The 
water is about 7° hardness and is perfectly clear and 
absolutely pure. No filtering has at any time been 
found necessary. An analysis of the water is made 
weekly. 



75 



Pretoria Municipally. 

Electric Supply. 

The electric supply of Pretoria is D.C. at 250 or 500 
volts, over a radius of about two and a half miles. 
The charges per unit are as follows : — 

Lighting, 6d. per unit. 

To bona fide private dwelling-houses, 6d. per 
unit for such number of units in one month as 
is represented by i unit for each £100 valuation 
of buildings plus 12 units, and for all in excess 
of this, 2d. per unit. 
Power rate. — First 500 units a month, 3d. per unit. 
Next 500 ,, ,, 2d. 

,, icoo ,, ,, id. ,, 

All over 2000 units a month, |d. ,, 
Two rate meters are installed for any consumer at a 
charge of 2S. 6d. per month, when all day consumption 
is charged at power rates. 

Tramways. 

The electric tramways cover about 11 J miles of 
route, and radiate from Church vSquare to Railway 
Station, West End, Hospital, Zoo, Sunnyside, Arcadia, 
and Union Buildings. The fares are 3d. cash or 2d. 
by coupon per stage. All routes from Church Square 
are one stage, with the exception of Sunnyside, Arcadia, 
and Union Buildings routes, which are divided into 
two stages. 

The cars leave the Railway Station for Church Square 
and other routes at least every seven and a half minutes, 
and extra cars meet all important passenger trains. 

Special cars can always be provided to meet large 
parties arriving by train, on notice being given in 
advance to the Municipal Tramways Department. 

76 



Pretoria Municipally. 

Sewerage System and Sanitation. 

The sewerage system of Pretoria is that known as 
the " Water-borne System," and has cost approxi- 
mately a quarter of a milhon sterhag. The whole town 
is saturated with sub-soil water, and this has necessitated 
sub-soil drains being laid under all reticulation and 
other sewers. About forty miles of reticulation sewers 
have been laid, which constitutes practically the whole 
of the reticulation system of Pretoria proper, the only 
portion of the municipality as yet which has been 
sewered. Stoneware pipes, having the Stanford bitu- 
men joint, are universally used. The intercepting trap 
on the street boundary is not provided. The recom- 
mendation of the Departmental Committee, appointed 
by the President of the Local Government Board, has 
been adopted. No special arrangement has been made 
with regard to ventilating the street sewers, and no 
nuisance has so far arisen, and each nuisance as it 
arises will be dealt wdth on its merits. The stoneware 
pipes used are of Transvaal manufacture, and are 
vitrified and glazed by the usual methods. The 
reticulation system connects at various points with 
3-foot diameter reinforced concrete outfall sewer, 
which discharges its contents at the sewage outfall 
works situated at the lowest portion of Pretoria proper, 
and at the extreme edge of the northern boundary of 
the municipality. The outfall works consist of Watson 
detritus cone-shaped tanks, with automatic supply 
tanks feeding continuous aerating filters. The medium 
of aerating filters is composed of granite, graded from 
I inch to 3 inches, resting on a false floor of aerating 
tiles. The effluent from the filters passes direct into 
the Aapies River. The sludging of the detritus tank 
takes place daily and is discharged into septic tanks, 



77 



Pretoria Municipally. 

which have no contact whatever with the aerating 
filters. The septic effluent passes thence on to suitable 
loamy soil, which is cultivated with lucerne. No part 
of the septic effluent finds its way into the river. 

The scheme as a whole is still in progress. The 
effluent so far from the works has been entirely satis- 
factory from every point of view. The manager in 
charge of the outfall works acts jointly under the 
control of the Town Engineer and the Medical Officer 
of Health, and this officer has a knowledge of chemistry 
and agriculture and is possessed of general business 
aptitude. The daily chemical analyses are made by 
the manager at the laboratory at the works. Samples 
of sewage are analysed and a complete record kept of the 
behaviour of the effluent. The works are capable of 
dealing with 3,000,000 gallons per diem, which is based 
on 30 gallons per head per diem on a population of 
100,000, so provision has been made for nearly two 
and a half times the whole population of the munici- 
pality. 

The charges for connections to the municipal sewers 
are ;^i. los. per annum for each w.c. for Europeans 
and each urinal space of 27 inches in width, and los, 
per annum for each w.c. for the use of natives. In 
addition to this, a rate of ^d. in the ^^i is levied on the 
valuation of all property in the sewered area, whether 
built upon or not. 

Prior to the introduction of the sewerage system, 
the Council were carrying out 8588 pail services, of 
which 1500 were daily and 7088 tri-weekly. The 
removals are performed between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m., 
and the service has been described as the cleanest and 
most efficient in the whole of South Africa. The 

78 



Pretoria Municipally. 

charges are — for daily services, £y. los. per annum ; 
tri-weekly services, £^ per annum. About 4000 of 
these services are ceasing as properties in the sewered 
area are connected to the sewers. 

The household rubbish removal service is carried out 
daily or bi-weekly at the wish of the householder ; the 
charges being — for a daily service, ;^5 per annum ; 
bi-weekly service, ^Ti. los. per annum. 

Fire Department. 

The Fire Department is housed in a magnificent 
building at the corner of Koch and Minaar Streets. 

The premises were specially designed for the purpose 
and give accommodation for — 
Officers, 

15 married firemen, 
and a number of single men. 

The building comprises — 
Watchroom, 
Engine-room, 
Offices, 
Gymnasium, 
Billiard-room, 
Reading-room, 
Messroom, 
Workshop, etc., 
and was erected during 1912 at a cost of ^30,000. 

The equipment consists of — 

53 Gamewell street fire-alarm boxes, 
8 Circuit station instruments and recording 

set. 
17 Private fire alarms. 
17 Private telephones. 

79 



Pretoria Municipally. 

1 Motor chemical engine. 

2 Motor turbine pumps. 

I Motor turntable fire escape. 

I Motor ambulance. 

I Motor car for chief officer. 

The whole of the fire hydrants throughout the muni- 
cipal area are of the pillar pattern. 

The Ambulance Department is under the control of 
the brigade, and about 400 cases are attended to 
annually. 

The cost of upkeep of the department is approxi- 
mately ;^8ooo per annum. 

The brigade was established in 1902 and the fire 
losses in that year amounted to £30,843. They have 
steadily decreased year by year, and for the present 
municipal year the fire losses amounted to £2000. 

Great attention is accorded to the question of fire 
prevention by the brigade, and separate inspections 
are made. These inspections cover — 

Theatres, 

Public buildings, 

Petrol and oil stores, and 

Commercial buildings generally, 
and the effect of these inspections has been consider- 
able in reducing causes of fire, while the general influence 
of the Fire Department's prevention policy is giving 
fire protection that standing which it merits as a highly 
important economic feature in municipal and national 
life. 

Roads, etc. 

The condition of a number of the principal roads in 
Pretoria is excellent, but much has yet to be done in this 

80 



Pretoria Municipally. 

direction. The Council are considering the question 
of raising a special loan of ^250,000 for this particular 
purpose. The following statistics show some of the 
permanent work accomplished since 1902 : — 
Number of miles of road made 
since 1902 — 

ist class 25^ miles. 

2nd class 62 J „ 

88 miles. 

Kerbing and guttering 25 miles. 

Storm-water drains 35 „ 

Sewers 25 „ 

Electric tram track 13^ ,, 

Aapies River canalization.... 2-9 miles, complete. 
Aapies River canalization .. . 1-3 ,, partial. 



Total 4-2 miles. 

Labour. 

The supply of labour in Pretoria, white and coloured, 
is generally sufficient for all requirements, with the 
exception of trained female domestics, white or coloured, 
for which there is always a demand. 

The rates of pay of men in the municipal service 
may be taken as a fair criterion of wages paid in 
Pretoria : — 

Natives, unsldlled — 35s. to 50s. per month, with 
housing and rations. 

Natives (sanitary service) — ^^3 to £$ per month. 

Mule-drivers (white) — 7s. 6d. to 8s. 6d. per day. 

81 



Pretoria Municipally. 

Steam-roller drivers (white) — i6s. per day. 

Masons, fitters, carpenters, smiths, and other artisans 
— 2S. 6d. per hour. 

Gangers (white) — 7s. 6d. to 15s. per day. 

Foremen and inspectors — 22s. 6d. to 25s. per day. 

Book-keepers, cashiers, clerks, Hcence officers, 
draughtsmen, and other officials on the permanent staff 
have fixed grades, and their salaries range from £120 
to ;f500 per annum. 




82 




)[^^^(^ 



The Architecture of Pretoria. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

" An honest tale speeds best, being plainly told." 
(By V. S. R. P.) 
"IIVrETORIA lies more or less in a hollow, sur- 
n^ rounded by hills, of which Meintjes Kop is the 
most important, and of considerable eminence, on the 
northern side of the town. 

The climate, although warm in summer, is during 
the autumn and winter months as perfect as any in 
the country. 

Nature has been generous to Pretoria in many ways, 
and the various opportunities afforded will it is hoped 
be treated to give the town an added impetus towards 
that future for which nature, its position, and the course 
of politics and industrial development have combined 
to single it out. I<ake and lay-out schemes are under 
careful consideration, together with industrial and other 
big propositions backed up by fine efforts in design 
and architecture. 

In setting out on this great enterprise, a start has 
been made from a definite standpoint, directing efforts to 
a single end, and labouring under no illusion as to its 
aims and objects. 

83 



The Jlrchitecture of 'Pretoria. 

Despots in ancient times made it one of their objects 
to build on a big scale, partly to display their own 
magnificence and power, yet recognizing the fact that 
the beautification of their cities was the best method 
of appealing to the people and attracting visitors, at 
the same time giving the idea of civic and national 
dignity and advancement. 

Confronting us in every direction, we are made 
aware of a modern daybreak in architecture, and the 
great work of architectural education is being pro- 
moted. 

It is therefore the duty of each one to strive that 
this heritage may pass on to our successors greatly 
magnified and improved in beauty, and of no less 
instruction to them than it has been to us, fighting 
earnestly against the modern vanity which would 
obliterate all traces of bygone days, when art was living, 
with the dull imported present-day stamp of feeble 
copyism or wilful falsification. 

It is hoped that this modern garden city which has 
had an auspicious start will have power to show 
capacity to reject the bad and accept the good of 
older civilization ; to build and lay out permanent 
and beautiful records of faith in itself and for the 
ultimate advancement of the nation. 

As has been frequently said, true art is of national 
growth, and the outcome and corollary of national life, 
not only the concern of a special class or profession ; 
we are on the eve of developments which, wisely 
directed, will make our architecture a national art. 

Those who are capable of looking boldly towards the 
future will not be disposed to deny the fame the Capital 
deserves and the redeeming influence already produced 
by good work on the art and architecture of the country. 

84 



The Architecture of "Pretoria. 

It may not be inopportune to take a general survey 
of some of the most important architectural works 
in Pretoria, which, when seen, will speak for them- 
selves. 

Upon entering the City through the Fountains Valley, 
a picturesque panoramic view is obtained of the sur- 
rounding hills and general outlay, stretching towards 
the eastern suburbs and away beyond for miles. 

Right across upon the opposite range of hills facing 
the entrance to Pretoria rear the sister towers of the 
Union Buildings, with bold unbroken skyline, in which 
the opportunity to display genius for design has been 
fully grasped. A most striking effect of this noble 
building is obtained just before sunset, when it stands 
up bathed in roseate glow, while all the surroundings 
remain in deep shadow. 

Railway Station. 

Situated at the highest part of the town on the 
south side is the newly completed Railway Station, 
facing down Market Street. Of noble dimensions and 
built in stone, this building certainly displays character 
in the simple architectural treatment adapted for a 
sunny climate. The roof has wide overhanging eaves 
laid with red, local-made, pan-shaped tiles, and in the 
centre rises a stone clock turret or fleche. 

The various waiting and refreshment rooms have 
wall linings of marble, each of different colours. 
The furniture has all been specially designed and 
made of South African woods. 

Leading out from the main hall, which has a domed 
and vaulted ceiling, supported by pohshed red granite 
columns, is placed a wide loggia stretching almost the 

8.5 



The Architecture of "Pretoria. 

whole length of the main fa9ade. A porte cochere 
forms the central feature, above which forms a balcony 
leading from the upper arcade. 

A piazza spreads out in front of the building planted 
with turf and ornamental evergreen trees, through 
which run the trams, stopping in front of the main 
entrance. 

Museum, Library, and Art Gallery. 

After leaving the Railway Station and half-way 
down towards Church vSquare is placed the New Museum 
Buildings. 

The main fa9ade, which is built of stone, forms a 
two-story colonnade on either side of central entrance. 
Although the scheme is only partially complete, the 
side wings having yet to be added, this block is massive 
and dignified in appearance. 

Fire Station. 

The New Fire Station, which has just been opened, 
is almost opposite the Museum Buildings, but in an 
adjoining street. This building looks well with a red- 
tile roof and white plastered walls, standing upon a 
base of rough local stone. 

Church Square. 

The Church vSquare, which at one time was a barren 
and uninteresting open space, now wears a vastly 
improved and orderly appearance. 

At the entrance from Market Street, on the south 
side, a flight of steps, extending the width of the 
street, leads down into the Square proper, bounded 
on either side by massive carved " pylons," bearing 
the arms of the Union and the Municipality. At the 
foot of the steps are placed pedestals for lions, which 
will be fixed in position in the near future. 

86 








5^ 



m 




! ^'1 .a 



Plate XLl. 




COUNTRY CLUB, WATERKLOOF. 



The Archileclure of 'Pretoria. 

From the " pylons " the retaining wall is built, 
forming an elipse on plan, in which recessed fountains 
are placed. 

A classic balustrade surrounds top of wall at the 
pavement level. Pedestals occupy positions at each 
entrance, upon which will be placed bronze statues of 
eminent South Africans. 

Upon the lower or northern side of the Square, 
pillars are placed to receive bronze chains, and along 
the pavements an avenue of trees {Lagustnen jafonica, 
are planted, affording a shady and majestic walk) 
at the same time giving a balance to the whole 
scheme. 

The centre of the Square is occupied by a large 
circular flat spray fountain, with m.assive granite urns 
at the angles, in which palms are planted. Opposite 
these urns bronze lamp standards will be fixed for 
illuminating purposes. A bronze figure will occupy 
and form the central feature, with decorative bronze 
reliefs in each panel. The footways across the Square 
will be paved with granite, laid in patterns, and divided 
by terra-cotta urns containing ornamental trees. The 
remaining spaces within the vSquare have been planted 
with lawns. 

The two angles on north side above wall are occupied 
by tramway pavilions, with offices in the basement. 

The whole scheme has been carried out in local 
granite, and a fine architectural effect has been obtained. 

Po«t Office. 

The New Post Office is of stone, built upon a granite 
base, three stories in height, and occupies a corner site 
upon the west side of Church Square. The " style " 

87 



The Architecture of 'Pretoria. 

is bold and dignified in treatment, with a central 
colonnade over an arched loggia on the Square 
fa9ade. 

From this arcade entrance doorways lead into the 
stair hall and Post Office business hall. 

These halls are lined with red Warmbaths stone, 
and have pavings of black and white marble, laid in 
patterns. 

The building is splendidly equipped and finished, 
and all the fittings to main counters are of bronze. 

It is a great pity that all the buildings surrounding 
the Square are not more uniform and symmetrical in 
appearance. 

It is hoped that buildings of a more monumental 
character will be erected to replace the chaos of different 
treatments existing to-day. 

The Union Buildings. 

The Union Buildings, which are situated within a 
mile distance of Church Square, and about half-way 
out towards the principal suburbs, occupy a grand 
and commanding position upon the plateau below 
Meintjes Kop. 

On this range of hills, which form the Acropolis of 
Pretoria, where the atmosphere is bracing and invigorat- 
ing, the Government have erected a magnificent pile 
of public buildings. 

The building is approached by a tramway and 
carriage drive, winding round and passing in front 
of the main terrace. 

A series of steps and terraces are necessitated, which 
rise immediately in front of the central or amphitheatre 
block. 



The Architecture of T^retoria. 

The rising tiers of the auditorium have been cut out 
of the face of the hill, and this amphitheatre, which 
was primarily designed to serve purely utilitarian 
purposes, is certainly one of the finest possible com- 
positions. 

The buildings are grouped in three main blocks, 
formed by the eastern and western wings and connected 
by the great semicircular and amphitheatre block. 
This central block is bounded on each side by sister 
towers, crowned by figures of " Atlas " in bronze. 

The space enclosed by the semicircular treatment 
is terraced and formed with stone, at the bottom of 
which is placed a rostrum with ornamental ponds, 
stretching the whole length of amphitheatre and crossed 
by bridges. 

This magnificent pile has been designed to suit the 
conditions of a southern climate, where large open 
courts with fountains and loggias are necessary to 
ventilate and cool the building. 

The dominant feature characteristic of this style is 
the long unbroken tile-covered roof, with heavy pro- 
jecting eaves running the entire length of the building. 
The great columnar pavilions, which project at the 
ends of the blocks, give the necessary relief, together 
with colonnaded porticos leading directly into the 
atriums or open courts. 

The archives department extends under the greater 
portion of the buildings, wherein 43,000 superficial feet 
of space is provided to store records. 

In the sub-basements stationery stores, bookbinding 
departments, heating chambers, and storerooms for 
caretakers are arranged. 

89 



The Architecture of "Pretoria. 

Access is obtained from the main road by a subway 
under the end pavilions. 

Each of the blocks has three floors of offices, pro- 
viding in all accommodation for about 1500 officials, 
including offices for Ministers and the Governor- 
General. 

The Ministers' rooms and Executive Council chambers 
are placed in the projecting corner pavilions, and the 
general offices in these blocks are grouped round the 
internal courts or atriums. 

The central block, which connects the eastern and 
western blocks, contains the necessary common rooms, 
which lead into an open stone colonnade overlooking 
the amphitheatre. 

On each side is provided conference rooms, library, 
reading-rooms, and a tearoom. 

The whole building is erected in freestone, resting 
on a base of local granite. The approaches to the 
" Capitol " have been carefully considered, and are 
made as easy in gradient as possible. The 8o-foot-wide 
roadway, which is 12 feet below main terrace, will be 
planted with a double row of trees. Twenty feet below 
the public roadway lies the tramway track, and placed 
in the wall at convenient spots are recessed grottos 
or waiting shelters for tram passengers. 

From this level two subways lead to staircases in 
each block. 

The building will be approached from the railway, 
the City, and the eastern suburbs by an easy winding 
road, specially contrived to give facility of access, 
and from the last by a high level road from Bryntirion 
and Government House on the east side. 



90 



The Architecture of 'Pretoria. 

The precincts are to be laid out on the principle of 
the great Italian and French models in broad lines and 
vistas. 

The whole is a noble piece of architecture, 
which has been wrought in the field of art through 
hard and unceasing work, combined with genius, has 
brought its designer fame and placed the Capital of 
South Africa far up in the field of architecture. 

The high standard which obtains in much con- 
temporary work is due to the influence and funda- 
mental principles which govern house planning in a 
sunny climate and the beauty of its accessories, where 
beauty does not depend on extravagant detail, but on 
its subordination to simplicity of treatment and unity 
of idea. This influence over the younger generation 
is perhaps the greatest hope for our architecture in 
the future. 

Government House. 

The Government House, which is situated on the 
same range of hills as the Union Buildings, lies 
further east, and about two and a half miles out of 
the town. 

The position it occupies is on the top of a stony 
kopje and on the very edge of the ridge, and was 
specially selected so as to overlook the valley on the 
north and that of the south, in which the Capital is 
built. 

The sloping sides of the hills are covered with native 
bush, and a very extensive view is obtained of the 
surrounding country. 

The building has been treated in the Cape Colonial 
style, with whitewashed walls and curved gables. 

91 



The Architecture of 'Pretoria. 

The roof is covered with red tiles, and the exterior 
woodwork painted green, to suit the atmosphere and 
landscape of the Transvaal. 

The position on the edge of the kopje, allowing only 
a small semicircular terrace on the northern garden 
front of the house, rendered it necessary to have the 
entrance hall, the vestibule, and the porte cochere at 
a lower level than the ground floor. This treatment 
gave opportunity for the extensive cloakrooms which 
are required. 

The chief feature in the plan is the large hall for 
receptions, which has been made an integral part of 
the house, instead of being, as in most of the large 
Colonial Government Houses, a separate suite of enter- 
taining rooms detached from the Hving portions of 
the house. 

Leading from the hall is a large vaulted peristyle, 
open in the centre to give light and brightness to the 
bay window of the hall, from the shady recesses in 
which palms are placed a magnificent view is obtained 
of the gardens and the distant hills. 

Above the peristyle and loggias runs an open balcony, 
which is much occupied of an evening during the 
summer. 

Although the hill site renders the building cool, it is 
yet necessary that all the windows should be protected 
by shutters from the direct rays of the sun, at the 
same time giving a fine architectural effect of the green 
woodwork against the white walls. 

The gardens are beautifully laid out, and treated 
in the Italian manner with pergolas and broad 
vistas. 



92 



The Architecture of 'Pretoria. 

Transvaal University. 

Pretoria is rich in institutions which go to the making 
of an important centre. Its educational faciHties are 
as varied as they are complete. The Transvaal Uni- 
versity for higher education has been placed on the 
eastern side of the town, between the town and the 
suburbs. The site is an open and healthy one, upon 
rising ground, facing the new sports grounds. The 
building is of stone, with a tiled roof, and is U-shaped 
on plan with cloisters on the three inner sides. 

A palm avenue is to be planted leading up to the 
main entrance on similar lines to the famous Californian 
examples. 

Boys' High School and Boarding-houses. 

These buildings have been erected upon the slopes of 
a hill on the opposite side of the valley to the Union 
Buildings. It is an imposing block of buildings, erected 
in faced brick and stone, with a tiled dome rising 
from the centre of the blocks, overlooking the new 
public sports ground which lies in the valley below. 

Normal College. 

The Normal College, which is erected in the southern 
suburb called " Sunnyside," is erected in faced brick 
and stone, bounded on either side by residences, both 
for men and women. This institution is intended for 
the training of teachers. 

The Site of a National College of Agriculture. 

This magnificent property lies one and a half miles 
from the centre of the town, and comprises acres of 
valley, veld, forest, and hills. It is the most beautiful 
and picturesque spot around Pretoria, and will form 
one of the largest agricultural college grounds in the 
world. 

93 



The Architecture of 'Pretoria. 

It is intended to spend ;^ioo,ooo upon the first portion 
of the buildings, which will give a fine opportunity for 
a bold and suitable design, erected to suit and har- 
monize with its vast and rugged surroundings. 

There is much to be done, and as the pages are 
slowly turned over it is hoped that architectural tradi- 
tion will be worthily maintained by the rising genera- 
tion ; at the same time look back with vivid pleasure 
to those wrestlings which have taken place in the 
years gone by to give Pretoria the position it holds 
to-day. These privileges must be maintained, and to 
those who have enthusiasm and interest this labour 
will be a perennial delight to hand on the torch of 
architecture, as in the old Greek game of lampadephoria, 
where runners took torches, lit at the altar of Prome- 
theus, Athene, and Hephaistos, and passed them from 
hand to hand till they reached the winning post. 




94 



Flora. 



CHAPTER IX. 



B 



OTANICALLY Pretoria and district form one of 



On one side is the typical high veld flora, and 
southwards the bushveld flora extends above its normal 
altitude to the hmits of the Magaliesberg. The district 
is therefore peculiarly rich in types of what are really 
two distinct kinds of flora — that of the IJmpopo Basin 
region and that of the central plateau region of the 
Transvaal and Orange Free State. 

The diversity of the geological formation also tends 
to increase the variety in the local flora ; and as Pre- 
toria is an important railway centre, excursions can 
easily and quickly be made to points of widely differing 
botanical interest, so that the botanist who is visiting 
South Africa for the first time would be well advised 
to make Pretoria his centre of operations for an extensive 
portion of his stay in the country. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF PRETORIA. 

On the kopjes round Pretoria there are, in the first 
place, the grasses of which the following genera and 
species are predominant : — 

Family Gramineae. 

Agrostis lachnantha, Nees. 

95 



Flora. 



Andropogon appendiculatus, Nees. 
,, cerisiaeformis, Nees. 

„ amplectens, Nees. 

„ hirtiflonis, Kunth. 

„ intermedius, R. Br., var. punctatvis, 

Hack. 
,, encomis, Nees. 

Aristida aequiglumis, Hack. 

,, barbicoUis, Tr. and Rupr. 
Axonopus semialatus, Hook., var. ecklonii, Stapf. 
Bromus unioloides, A. B, K. 
Chloris virgata, Sw. 
Cymbopogou excavatus (Hoclist.), Stapf, 

,. hirtus (Iv.), Stapf. 

Cynodon dactylon, Pers. 
Digitaria eriantha, Steud. 
Elionurus argenteus, Nees. 
Eleusine indica, Gaertn. 
Eragrostis brizoides, Nees. 

chloromelas, Steud. 
gummiflua, Nees. 
major, Host, 
plana, Nees. 
superba, Peyr. 
Lolium temulentum, Iv. 
Microchloa caffra, Nees. 
Heteropogon contortus, R. and S. 
Panicum serratum, Spr. 
Pennisetum cenchroides. Rich. 
Perotis latifolia. Ait. 
Setaria nigrorostris, Dur. and Schinz. 
,, perenuis, Hack. 
,, sulcata, Raddi. 
,, verticillata, Beauv. 

96 



Flora. 

Sporobolus festivus, Hochst., var. stuppeus, Stapf. 

Themeda Forskalii, Hack. var. 

Trachypogon polymorphus, Hack., var. capensis. 

Tragus racemosus, All. 

Tricholaena rosea, Nees. 

,, setifolia, Stapf. 

Trichopteryx flavida, Stapf. 
Tristachya biseriata, Stapf. 
Urelytrum squarrosum, Hack. 

In vleis and near the water — 

Imperata arundinacea, Cyr. 

Phragmites communis, L. 

Erianthus junceus, Stapf. 

Between them grow annuals, bulbous plants, suc- 
culents, low and tall shrubs, and small trees. Ihe 
bigger trees are north of Pretoria at Wonderboom- 
poort. Of these we have to mention, in the first place, 
the Wonderboom, Ficus cordata, Thunb., consisting of 
the old fig tree in the middle and younger ones around 
it, looking at a distance as one immense tree. The 
younger ones have sprung up from branches of the old 
tree, which are bent to the ground and have rooted 
there. In the second place, come all the mimosa trees, 
the Kaffir tree, species ef Rhus and Combretum, etc. 

Family Leguminosae. 
Acacia arabica, Willd. 

,, caffra, Willd. (Haakjesdoorn). 
,, giraft'ae, Burch. (Kameeldoorn). 
,, hebeclada, D. C. 

,, horrida, Willd. (Wacht-een-beetje, Karroo- 
thorn). 
,, robusta, Burch. 
Dichrostachys nutans, Benth. (Sikkelbosch). 



97 



Flora. 

Burkea africana, Hook. (Wilde sering). 
Peltophorum africanum, Sond. 
Erythrina caffra, Thutib. (Kafferboom). 

Family Anacardiaceae. 

Sclerocarya caffra, Sond. (Maroela). 
Launea dicolor (Sond.), Engl. 
Rhus excisa, Thunb. 
,, Gueinzii, Sond. 

lancea, L,.f. (Karreeboom). 

Family Combretaceae. 

Terminalia sericea, Sond. (Vaalbosch). 
Combretum glomeruliflorum, Sond. (Vaderlands 
Wilge). 
,, Zeyheri, Sond. 

Family Sapota^'eae. 

Mimusops Zeyheri, Sond. (Moepel). 
Family Rhamnaceae. 

Zizyphus mucronata, Willd. (Blinkbaar wacht-een- 
beetje). 

Rhamnus prinoides, I^'Herit. 
Family Sterculiaceae. 

Dombeya rotundifolia, Harv. (Wilde peer). 
Family Sapindaceae. 

Pappea capensis, E. and Z. var. 
Family Ulmaceae. 

Celtis rhamnifolia, Presl. (Gamdebo stinkhout). 

Family Euphorhiaceae. 

Croton gratissimus, Burch. 

Smaller trees are : Ochna pulchra, Hook., f. (Ochna- 
ceae) ; Protea abyssinica, Willd. (Proteaceae) [Zuiker- 
bosch] ; Gymnosporia buxifolia (L.), Szys5\ (Celas- 
traceae) ; Royena pallens, Thb., and Euclea lanceolata, 

98 



Flora. 

E. Mey. (Ebenaceae) ; Chrysophylluni magalismon- 
tanum, Sond. (Sapotaceae) [Stamvrucht] ; Gardenia 
Rothmannia, L. f. (Rubiaceae) [Wilde katje-piering] ; 
Combretum holosericeum, Sond. (Combretaceae) ; Rhus 
flexuosa, Diels. ; Rhus Zeyheri, Sond. (Anacardiaceae) ; 
Strychnos pungcns, Solered. [Klapper] ; ChiHanthus 
arboreus, A. D. C. ; Nuxia pubescens, Sond. (Loga- 
niaceae) ; Ximenia caffra, Sond. (Olacaceae) [the wild 
plum] ; Pittosporum viridiflorum, Sims (Pittospora- 
ceae) ; Acocanthera venenata, G. Don (Apocynaceae) 
[Giftboom] ; Hetcromorpha arborescens, Ch, and Schl. 
(Umbelliferae) ; Cussonia paniculata, E. and Z. (Aralia- 
ceae) [Kiepersol]. Most of them occur at Wonder- 
boompoort and are spread over the kopjes round 
Pretoria. 

Of the taller shrubs I mention : Buddleia salviae- 
foHa, Lam. (Loganiaceae) [Wilde salie] ; Mundulea 
suberosa, Bth. (Iveguminosae) ; Brachylaena discolor, 
D, C. (Compositae) ; Pavetta Zeyheri, Sond., Vangueria 
infausta, Burch., Vangueria parvifolia, Sond., Plectronia 
Mundtiana (Ch. and Schl.), Pappe (fam. Rubiaceae) ; 
Maerua caffra (Burch), Pax. (fam. Capparidaceae) ; 
Xanthoxylum capense, Harv. (fam. Rutaceae) [Knopjes- 
hout, Wild cardamon] ; Gymnosporia tenuispina (Sond.), 
Szysy. (fam. Celastraceae) ; Grewia occidentalis, L. 
[Kruisbesje], Grewia cana, Sond. (fam. Tiliaceae) ; 
Ehretia hottentotica, Burch. (fam. Borraginaceae) ; 
Clerodendron glabrum, E. Mey. (fam. Verbenaceae) ; 
and some more. 

The spring and early summer is the time for the 
bulbous plants. Common are : — 
Family Liliaceae. 

Bulbine asphodeloides, R. and S. 
,, narcissifolia, Salm.-Dyck. 

99 



Flora. 

Anthericum Cooperi, Baker. 

,, trichoplilebium, Baker. 

Albuca pachychlamys, Baker. 
Aloe arborescens, Mill. 
„ Peglerae, Schoul. 
,, transvaalensis, O. Ktze. 
Asparagus plumosus, Baker. 
„ stipulaceus, Lam. 

„ virgatus, Baker. 

Bowiea volubilis, Harv. 
Chlorophytuin Bowkeri, Baker. 
Dipcadi ciliare, Baker. 

„ viride, Moench. 
Drimia media, Jacq. 
Encomis regia, Ait. 
Kniphofia natalensis, Baker. 
Ornithogalum Eckloni, Schlecht. 
Scilla lanceaefolia, Baker. 

„ rigidifolia, Kunth. 
Tulbaghia alliacea, L- 
Urginea multisetosa, Baker. 

Family Amaryllidaceae. 

Buphane toxicaria, Thunb. 
Crinum longifolium, Thunb. 
Haemanthus magnificus, Herb. 
Hypoxis argentea, Harv. 
,, rigidula, Baker. 

,. ,, var. pilosissima. 

,, Rooperi, Baker. 

Family IriUaceae. 

Gladiolus crassifolius, Baker. 
„ permiabilis, Delar. 
Homeria pallida, Baker. 



100 



Flora. 

Lapeyrousia grandiflora, Baker. 

Moraca ediilis, Ker. 

Climbing and straggling plants are ; — 

Clematis brachiata, Thunb. (fam. Ranunculaceae) 
[Traveller's joy, Klimop] ; Landolphia capensis, 01i\- 
(fam. Apocynaceae) [Wild peach] ; Triaspis Nelsoni 
Oliv., Sphedamnocarpus pruriens, Planch., Sphedam 
nocarpus galphimiaefolius, Juss. (fam. Malpighiaceae) 
Rumex sagittatus, Thunb. (fam. Polygonaceae) ; Rhyn 
chosia adenodes, E. and Z., Rh. crassifolia, Benth. 
Rh. monophylla, Schltr., Rh. nervosa, Benth. (fam 
Leguminosae) ; Vigna vexillata, Benth., Dolichos lab 
lab, L. (fam. Leguminosae) ; Tribulus terrestris, L 
(fam. Zygophyllaceae) ; Tragia cordata, Harv. (fam 
Euphorbiaceae) ; Rhoicissus erythrodes, Planch., Cissus 
lanigera, Harv. (fam. Vitaceae) ; Cryptolepis trans 
vaalensis, Schltr., Pentarrhinum insipidum, E. Mey. 
Orthanthera jasminiflora, N. E. Br. (fam. Asclepiada 
ceae) ; Convolvulus sagittatus, Thunb., Conv. ulosepa 
lus, Hall f., Ipomoea bathycolpos, Hall f., Ip. crassipes 
Hook., Ip. oblongata, E. Mey., Ip. obscura, Ker., Ip 
papilio, Hall f., Ip. sarmentacea, Rdle. (fam. Convol 
vulaceae) ; Solanum rigescens, Jacq., Sol. supinum 
Dun. (fam. Solanaceae) ; Aptosimum depressum, Burch. 
Walafrida tenuifolia, Rolfe, Graderia subintegra. Mast 
(fam. Crophulariaceae) ; Pretrea zanguebarica, Gay 
(fam. Pedaliaceae) ; Thunbergia neglecta, Sond., 
Crabbea nana, Crabbea angustifolia, Nees, Barleria 
macrostegia, Nees., Barleria obtusa, Nees., Blepharis 
squarrosa, T. Anders., Justicia anagalloides, T. Anders, 
(fam. Acanthaceae) ; Kedostris africana (Sond.), Cogn., 
Momordica balsamina, l^., Citrullus pubescens, Sond., 
Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad., Cucumis Zeyheri, Sond., 
Trochomeria Hookeri, Harv. (fam. Cucurbitaceae) ; 
Dicoma anomala, Sond. (fam. Compositae). 

lOI 



Flora. 

Poisonous plants occurring round Pretoria are : — 
Dichapetalum cymosum (Hook.), Engl. [Giftblaar]. 
Homeria pallida, Baker [Geele tulp]. 
Buphane toxicaria, Thunb. (Giftbol]. 
Acocanthera venenata, G. Don [Giftboom]. 

Noxious weeds round Pretoria are : — 

Pretrea zanguebarica. Gay. [Devil's dish, Schape- 

doorns, Duivelsdis]. 
Tribulus terrestris, L. [Devil's thorns, Dubbeltjes]. 
Xanthium spinosura, Iv. [Boetebosje]. 

,, strumarium, L. 
Bidens pilosa, L. [Black jack]. 

Nearly all plant families are represented in the 
Pretoria flora. Most representatives have the families 
Gramineae, Compositae (Senecio, Helichrysum, Nido- 
rella,Dicoma,etc.),Lcguminosae (Rhynchosia,Tephrosia, 
Indigofera, Acacia, etc.), Acanthaceae (Crabbea, 
Chaetacanthus, Justicia, Barleria, etc.), Asclepiadaceae 
(Asclepias, Schizoglossum, Pachycarpus, Raphionacme, 
etc.), Scrophulariaceae (Sutera, Striga, Nemesia, Wala- 
frida), and Convolvulaceae (Convolvulus, Ipomoea). 
Showy flowers have the different species of Hibiscus 
(fam. Malvaceae), the Orchids (Eulophia, Habenaria, 
Satyrium), Gardenia and Pavetta (Rubiaceae), Ipo- 
moea's (Convolvulaceae), many Asclepiadaceae, and most 
of the bulbous plants. The most common ferns are : 
Pellaea calomelanos. Link. ; Cheilanthes hirta, Sw. ; 
and Gymnograrame cordata, Schlt. 






102 



Farming. 



CHAPTER X. 

BACK TO THE LAND. 

^Jjf OUTH AFRICA, in proportion to its population, 
J^^ has in its towns too many people who, whatever 
their abiUty and financial resources, lead lives 
that at best are not as profitable as they might be in 
such a country. The country needs a rearranging of 
its inhabitants' occupations. It needs producers of 
commodities, not merely distributors ; it needs more 
people on the land, fewer behind the shop counter, 
the office desk, the lawyer's signboard, and the doctor's 
stethoscope. Then, and not till then, South Africa 
may be regarded with the large producers and may 
hope to export as they do. 

It is a consummation much to be desired, and one 
not impossible of achievement. The Transvaal, for 
instance, is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, of 
mining centres ; but rich as it is in minerals, it is 
even richer in farming resources. The enormous 
wealth which in a generation has been taken from 
the mines constitutes a toll few countries have yielded 
in a century, yet is less than what the farms, now 



103 



Farming. 

largely idle, may be made to yield. And what in this 
respect is true of the Transvaal generally is especially 
true of the Pretoria District, in or immediately around 
which are situated most of the best mines and many 
of the best farms in South Africa. Fifty years ago 
few realized the diamond wealth in and the gold and 
coal wealth immediately around Pretoria District ; and 
its vast farming potentialities are only now beginning 
to receive attention. Progress there has of course 
been. But the farming of the district is still in its 
initial stage. Opportunities which in a few years may 
be gone are now obtainable. Land which under tobacco 
would be capable of returning £25 to £^5 per acre per 
annum clear profit, and even more under citrus fruit, lies 
largely idle, or at best supports a few head of unprofitable, 
because nondescript, live stock. For every productive 
acre twenty are fallow ; and in many instances the 
productive acre 3delds only a fraction of what, under 
improved methods, it could be made to yield. 

The reason is not far to seek. The Transvaal is 
essentially a farming country, but a large proportion 
of its population is not a farming population. They 
are not farmers in the intensive sense that the rural 
populations of Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland are 
farmers, because other matters have mainly occupied 
them. The development of the country has not hitherto 
depended on the farmers. In the past the man with 
capital, and the man without, on the share market, 
and on the prospecting field, found lures greater than 
farming. The spirit of romance and adventure was 
excited. To mining and its ramifications, rather than 
to farming and its slower but surer returns, the people 
mainly turned. The mines were developed and the 
farms mostly neglected. 

104 



Farming. 

But those days are past. Mining has found its 
proper level as an investment, has become a stable, 
prosaic industry, from which the element of chance 
and the consequent gambling spirit have largely been 
eliminated. Fortunes are not now made in a week at 
a ratio altogether disproportionate to the capital and 
labour entailed; gambling has ceased, and farming is 
coming into its own. This it deserves. The soil 
generally is capable of a more prolific yield of a larger 
variety of crops, the climate on the whole is superior, 
and good local and oversea markets are nearer than is 
the case with many agricultural centres which have 
nevertheless been made to flourish. The only reason 
Transvaal farming is so largely undeveloped, and that 
it is undeveloped cannot be convincingly denied, is 
that its potentialities have not been sufficiently sought, 
not sufficiently turned to account, perhaps not suffi- 
ciently realized. 

Of course, Transvaal farming is not all ease and 
profits. There are obstacles and hardships, disadvan- 
tages as well as advantages, failures as well as successes, 
because there are technically bad and indifferent as 
well as technically good farmers. There are those who 
have made or are making fortunes out of Transvaal 
farming. There are also those who, consciously or 
unconsciously, regard agriculture as a game of chance 
in which the seed are the counters on the random 
scattering of which the farmer can afford to stake his 
all, resignedly leaving to nature's vagary the point 
whether a grudging yield or nothing shall result. They 
do not do well, such farmers, in Pretoria or in any 
other district. To be successful a farmer must be 
capable. Farming is a profession in which, as in most 
professions, energy, intelligence, and good business 

105 



Farming. 

management, even more than money, count. With 
these almost anything, agriculturally and pastorally, 
may be done in the Pretoria District ; without them, 
money will avail little. 

Progressiveness in saving labour and reducing costs 
by the use of up-to-date appliances is, of course, sound. 
But it is not the expensive plough, cultivator, planter, 
or sheller, so much as the intelligence and energy with 
which they are used, the skill wHh which the soil is 
prepared, the care with which adapted seed are selected 
for prolific type and sure germination, the thorough- 
ness with which the lands are weeded, and the enter- 
prise in fertilizing, where possible — these are the con- 
ditions which secure, for instance, a good stand of 
heavy-yielding high-grade maize instead of the 40 per 
cent, to 50 per cent, stand of inferior cobs so often 
seen. 

It is not the price of the land or the cost of the 
fertilizer so much as the continuous pains taken in the 
cultivation that ensures a field of high-class tobacco ; 
and not so much expensive flue-barns as indefatigable 
attention, careful regulating, and ripe experience in 
the process of curing, grading, and packing, that secure 
a shilling a pound for the leaf instead of fourpence. 

The well-bred, carefully selected, high-yielding, 
though small, herd, rather than the large herd of 
randomly-acquired cheaply-kept cattle, is the herd 
which, by careful observation to eliminate the unpro- 
fitable and by proper feeding and housing, pays best, 
either for slaughter or milking. 

However good the farm, potato growing w4D be 
unprofitable, whatever money is put into it, whatever 
markets are at hand, if any kind of potato is planted 

106 



Farming. 

and carelessly marketed. But if a smooth-skinned, 
shallow-eyed, medium-sized, appetizing potato be grown, 
and by judicious fertilizing be made to yield heavily ; 
and if it be sold, not when the market is glutted, as 
it may be one fortnight, but when prices are satis- 
factory to the grower, as they may be the next fort- 
night, then the possibiHties of potato growing should 
be great, possibly as great as in Europe, where by 
intensive culture upwards of £1000 per annum has 
been made from a 30-acre plot. 

Poultry pay, not by releasing on the farm a few 
hundred head of even prize fowls to fend for themselves, 
but by beginning modestly with a prolific strain, 
eliminating those that eat more than they return, 
breeding up from the acclimatized birds, feeding, 
housing, and tending the resulting flock properly, 
marketing the eggs quickly to preserve their bloom, 
and direct to avoid middlemen's profits and deteriora- 
tion. 

Similarly throughout the whole gamut of farming : 
hard work and deep thinking, rather than abnormal 
capital expenditure, are the essentials to success. These 
were the factors which in Denmark and Holland, where 
the original farming difficulties were greater than they 
are in South Africa, gave the small farmer a chance 
and made those countries foremost. They are the 
factors which by their presence will make, or by their 
absence mar, the South African farming industry ; will 
give to the man of small capital but good capabilities 
a chance of rural livelihood, or will leave the land, as 
at present, largely tied up and idle. For until the 
average South African farmer abandons the idea that 
anything under 4000 acres is contemptible, and learns 
the economics of farming successfully on 400 to 800 

107 



Farming. 

acres, and in instances even on less land, he will be 
more a landowner than a producer, and South Africa 
will import instead of export. 

Money, of course, the beginner must have ; but in 
districts like that of Pretoria he secures from farming 
an immediate livelihood and the prospect of ultimate 
affluence for less initial capital outlay than would be 
necessary, for similar returns, in almost any other 
undertaking anywhere. 

A man putting, say, ;^8oo into a grocer's, chemist's, 
draper's, or butcher's business would ordinarily be 
content if it and his utmost exertions returned him 
and his family a living. He could not reasonably 
expect more. Combinations, competition, and trade 
conditions generally being what they are, he could not 
hope to expand his business much, at least in most 
situations. It is different in farming. Put into the 
soil, that capital would ordinarily give a much better 
return. It would give as good an immediate livelihood 
as in any business, and a surplus which in a few years 
secures to the farmer his house and lands, and enables 
him in time to expand his operations till something 
like affluence is attained. The grower of produce is 
producing the necessaries of life. He is always an 
essential. The distributor of produce is in one of the 
most overcrowded and largely artificial situations in 
life, the butt of competition, the victim of combina- 
tions and middlemen's cut profits. 

When in South Africa this is more widely realized, 
it will be apparent that for the intelligent, active man 
with a little capital there are better opportunities in 
farming, or in learning to farm, than in almost any 
other occupation ; and in the Pretoria District the 

1 08 



Farming. 

farming opportunities are as good as, and in some 
respects better than, in any other part of the 
country. 

South Africa is naturally the richest and geographi- 
cally the most favourably situated of undeveloped 
countries. It is now entering upon a wonderful agri- 
cultural era ; and the Pretoria District is the district 
from which much of the ensuing prosperity will come. 
In Pretoria are situated the headquarters of the Union 
Agricultural Department, one of the best organized 
departments of its kind in the world ; and in the 
district will be situated the National College of Agri- 
culture. Pretoria District, in addition to its great 
natural endowments, has therefore the exceptional 
advantages, not only of a large market on the Rand, 
but of having within its boundaries the best of farming 
education, expert advice, and progressive example. 

This is worth remembering by those who, oppressed 
by the contemplation of overcrowded trades and pro- 
fessions, are troubled by the problem of how to improve 
their own positions or provide careers for their youths. 
It is worth remembering by farmers dissatisfied with 
their present districts, and by farmers who, able to 
sell their present farms at tempting prices, are on the 
lookout for cheaper land which by development may 
become as good as or better than the southern farms 
they now occupy. 



FACTS ABOUT PRETORIA FARMING. 

The District of Pretoria is approximately 6525 square 
miles in extent. Roughly it may be divided into three 
zones, each of which has some farming peculiarity. 

109 



Farming. 

The southern portion of the district, abutting on to 
the Witwatersrand, is typical of open South African 
sour veld, has a temperate climate, and somewhat 
severe frosts. Nearer the city of Pretoria the climate 
is warmer, the frosts later and less severe, and the 
veld mostly open. The northern portion of the dis- 
trict, cut off by the MagaUesberg Hills, is principally 
law-lying bushveld country, over a great portion of 
which the farming conditions are sub-tropical. 

The rainfall for the whole of the district averages 
27 inches per annum ; the compositions of the soil 
vary ; there is a good supply of surface water (river 
and spruit), as well as artesian water, which is generally 
reached at depths of from 100 to 150 feet. The altitude 
of the district slopes gradually from an average of about 
5400 feet near Johannesburg to 3800 feet in the low- 
lying northern portions. 

Hailstorms occur in all parts of the district, but not 
with the frequency or destructiveness characteristic of 
many districts in which farmers nevertheless flourish. 

Locusts are no longer a serious menace. For some 
time they have given little or no trouble. Should they 
become threatening in numbers, it is felt that the 
Agricultural Department's Division of Entomology will 
be able successfully to cope with them. 

In an area containing such variations of altitude, 
soil, climate, and on the whole such a sufficiency of 
water, production is naturally good and varies much, 
ranging from maize, oats, wheat, rye, lucerne, potatoes, 
peanuts, tobacco, citrus and stone fruits, to bananas, 
pawpaws, pineapples, cotton, fibre plants, oil-seeds, 
chicory, and possibly coffee, sugar, and rubber, as well 
as cattle, horses, sheep, ostriches, pigs, and poultry. 



1 10 



Farmtng. 

Maize is a payable crop and, according to variety, 
grows well throughout the district. Mainly along the 
northern slopes of the Magaliesberg, but also elsewhere 
in the district, first-class citrus fruit is grown. Magalies- 
berg leaf is the premier pipe-smoking tobacco in South 
Africa, and in most parts of the district excellent 
Virginia tobacco for cigarette making can be grown 
and sold at profits highly satisfactory to the farmer, 
lyucerne, especially where slightly irrigated, flourishes 
throughout the district. So do cattle, horses, pigs, 
ostriches, and poultry. Sheep may be farmed on a 
moderate scale in certain areas where the veld is well 
grazed by large stock ; and stone fruits, including 
excellent table grapes, are profitably grown in the 
southern portions of the district. 

The question of which portion of the district to prefer 
is therefore one requiring too many qualifications for a 
dogmatic answer to be safe. It depends upon the 
kind of farming to be undertaken. 

Equally unsafe is it to suggest what kind of farming 
to undertake. That, again, depends on the farmer. 
The man whose capital runs into four or five figures 
has considerable latitude of choice. He can follow his 
natural bent, because he can afford either to wait for 
his returns, so long as they are ultimately good, or 
force returns from sources not open to the man with 
little capital. He could, for instance, sink the bulk of 
his capital in citrus orchards ; and, until in three or 
four years his orchards started returning him tenfold 
what he had put into them, he could keep cattle or 
ostriches, breed horses, donkeys, or mules, or grow 
tobacco or innumerable other crops. 

The man of small means cannot do this. His 
resources would be strained to make a start anywhere, 

III 



Farming. 

and he must make his start within the Hmits of those 
resources. He must not sink the whole of his capital 
in anj' one branch of farming that, through exceptional 
circumstances, may prove unprofitable in the ensuing 
season. His first returns must be quick and sure, 
rather than large. He shotild therefore start with 
maize as his main crop, and with mixed farming as 
his objective. For instance, he should during the first 
year or two grow, according to his means, 80 to 150 
acres of maize, including a few acres for the ensilage 
pit ; 10 to 15 acres of lucerne, beans, monkey-nuts, 
or similar minor crop ; keep a few first-class milch 
cows, in a manner later to be indicated, and some 
poultry. 

The return from citrus or tobacco is, of course, 
greater in the long run than from the other sources. 
But a citrus orchard yields nothing for the first few 
years, and tobacco culture necessitates considerable 
initial outlay for curing appliances, labour, and fertilizer 
to produce even 10 acres of leaf. 

Whereas the man who has his land, either bought 
or leased ; who has his ploughs, cultivators, 
and teams, and a moderate supply of native labour, 
personal energy and intelligence, by starting with 
maize, a little up-to-date dairying, a few small auxiliary 
crops, and some poultry, can secure a quick return 
that, though not affluent, is yet the means of immediate 
livelihood and something over. In the Pretoria Dis- 
trict that something over will, if returned to the land 
year after year, increase faster than in any bank or 
other investment, and in a surprisingly short time 
enable the small farmer to launch out in such fortune- 
making branches as citrus and tobacco growing. 



iia 



Farming. 

Whilst, therefore, the man of large capital, who is 
wise enough to put it into Pretoria fanning, may follow 
his own inclinations and by intelligent application be 
assured of excellent returns, the man with small means 
would, in proportion to his means, have as good oppor- 
tunities by starting modestly in minor branches of 
farming. What those opportunities are the following 
pages show in detail. 



ENORMOUS PROFITS FROM FRUIT GROWING. 

The Pretoria District may be divided, for fruit 
growing, into two zones : that which lies north, and 
that which lies south, of the Magaliesberg Range. 

The southern area is less suited for citrus than for 
stone fruits, such as apricots, peaches, plums, and 
nectarines, as well as excellent table grapes, apples, 
pears, and figs. The stone fruits raised in this area 
are equal to the best from any other part of the 
country. So are the pears. The table grapes are 
excellent of their kind, and have the additional merit 
of being marketable, at good prices, early in the season 
before supplies from the Cape Province reach the 
Transvaal in large quantities. The apples, though 
possessing the desirable qualities of fair size and good 
flavour, do not keep as well as those grown in the 
eastern areas of the Province. 

Over a considerable portion of the northern parts 
of the Province, notably on the slopes of the Magalies- 
berg Range, high-grade citrus fruit is largely grown, 
and can be grow^n in much larger quantities. For 
oranges and lemons the climate is as near perfection, 
and the soil as good, as could be wished for anywhere. 



113 



Farming. 

Were water more plentiful in this area, these fruits 
might be profitably grown in almost unlimited quanti- 
ties, and as they ripen locally at the time of year when 
most of the oversea orchards are not yielding, there is 
an almost unlimited oversea market, and the Sout"h 
African facilities for reaching that market are good. 
As it is, there is sufficient water to warrant the assertion 
that nearly every farmer within this area and in several 
other areas of the Pretoria District will find citrus 
culture, on a large or small scale according to his 
means, extremely lucrative. 

The citrus fruit which commands the best local and 
oversea prices, and is admirably suited for the district, 
is the Washington navel and the Valentia late orange. 
Both are hardy fruits and well suited for exportation. 
On the lyondon market they have realized, wholesale, 
up to 6s. per dozen. This, of course, was a high price. 
But at a conservative estimate the average price may 
be calculated at i8s. per 150 well-grown and attractively 
packed oranges. 

Compared with these selling prices, the cost of pro- 
duction is low. The initial expense of laying out an 
orchard and the cost of maintaining it subsequently 
are well within the means of most farmers. Assuming 
trees are planted 25 feet apart, 75 will be required to 
the acre. Young trees, yielding their first crops within 
four 3'-ears after planting, cost about ;^I5 per lOO. 
The preparation of the land entails the expense only 
of ploughing deeply and cultivating, laying off for 
planting, and digging irrigating furrows. 

Irrigating is essential. It is, in the Pretoria District, 
quite useless attempting to grow satisfactory citrus 
fruit for sale without a sufficient water supply. On 



114 



Farming. 

the subject of irrigating the citrus orchard no hard 
and fast rule can be laid down. To a large extent the 
irrigating necessary depends on the rainfall during the 
wet season. But it may be said, in a tentative way, 
that the soil should never be saturated with moisture. 
The roots of the trees should never stand in water, nor 
be allowed to dry. Possibly some six irrigations per 
annum should be sufficient, but it depends largely on 
how the irrigating is done. 

The best way of applying water to a citrus orchard 
is by means of furrows led between the trees, the 
furrows nearest the trees being approximately not 
nearer than the off-side farthest spreading branches. 
On no account should water be applied to trees on the 
basin system — that is, accumulated in a hollow around 
the tree trunk. It is improper to irrigate the trunk 
of a tree, because the feeding roots are not near the 
trunk, but extended for a long distance in all direc- 
tions ; and when water is concentrated in a basin 
scooped around the trunk it draws the roots to the 
surface, whereas they should descend deep into the 
soil for their moisture and plant food. Otherwise they 
are enfeebled, and in time of drought die or at best 
diminish the fruit yield. 

The furrow system is therefore the best. It has been 
proved. When irrigating is done by this system, the 
water should be made to soak into the ground as deeply 
as possible, the cultivator being then used to produce 
a mulch to shield from evaporation the water which 
has been applied. 

In the Pretoria District the cost of maintaining a 
citrus orchard may be estimated at £;^ to £4. per acre 
per annum, provided the grower does his own work, 



115 



Farming. 

with his own animals and with such labour as can 
from time to time, when circumstances permit, be 
detached from other operations on his farm. The hire 
of labour solely for the orchard is, except in the case 
of large orchards, comparatively costly and would 
considerably increase expenses. 

Fruit in small quantities may be expected in three 
years after planting the orchard, if trees of the size 
indicated by the price of £1$ per 100 were commenced 
with, if they were properly looked after, and if no 
untoward circumstances arose. In five years after 
planting, each tree should yield about 150 oranges or 
lemons, the yield thereafter increasing yearly until the 
twelfth or fourteenth year after planting, when the 
tree should be in full bearing, yielding 600 to 1200 
oranges or lemons, according to circumstances. 

Lemons also pay the grower well, but on the whole, 
perhaps, not as well as oranges, as the oversea demand 
is not so large and invariable. By lemon is meant the 
ordinary commercial lemon or lime. In most parts of 
the Pretoria District the tree is hard}' and a prolific 
yielder. Many instances are on record of local trees 
producing in third year crops that averaged 30s. per 
tree, and as they mature they become still more pro- 
fitable. 

Naartjes have not been exported to any considerable 
extent, but there is a large local demand at prices 
satisfactory to the grower. 

The grape-fruit is another citrus fruit from which 
good returns are obtainable. It is in large demand in 
Europe and America, and stands handhng well. Pre- 
toria samples were classed with the best of their kind 
on the oversea market. 

116 



Farming. 

A grower raising two or more kinds of citrus fruit 
is, of course, careful not to plant them indiscriminately 
in the same orchard, cross-fertilization being capable 
of confusing the peculiarities of each, so that the 
Washington navel orange may acquire the seed and 
properties of the lemon, and the smooth-skinned lemon 
the navel and less acidulous properties of the Washing- 
ton navel. 

With these reservations it may be stated, with a full 
sense of the responsibility incurred, that of the many 
money-making opportunities which the Transvaal has 
presented to investors, none have been more promising 
than those of the citrus industry. The fitness of such 
portions of the country as the Pretoria District for 
growing citrus fruits on a large scale, at huge profits, 
is nothing short of wonderful. This is not merely 
theory. It has been proved. The excellence of the 
fruit, the prolific yield of the local orchards, and the 
almost insatiable oversea and local demand at high 
prices have been fully demonstrated on commercial 
lines. At the time of the year when Pretoria orchards 
are yielding, the London market can take, in addition 
to the supplies from Australia, as much high-grade 
citrus fruit, at top prices, as the whole of South Africa 
can produce for many years ; and there then remains 
the even larger European markets, and the fact that 
South Africa is nearer these markets than Australia 
or other similarly seasoned citrus producing rivals. 

The glowing outlook for South African citrus culture 
is being realized. In the Pretoria District large orchards 
are being laid down, but much good land is still avail- 
able at reasonable prices ; at prices, indeed, startlingly 
low, when compared with prices in California and 
Florida or Spain, where similar and even inferior but 

117 



Farming. 

1 aid-out land, and land worked under climatic and 
labour conditions less favourable than in the Pretoria 
District, has fetched up to £200 per acre ; whereas in 
Pretoria District it may still be obtained for from £2 
to £6 per acre, virgin soil, of course. 

So enormous has been the appreciation of citrus land 
outside South Africa, and so easily and cheaply may 
such land still be obtained in the Pretoria District, 
that those who invest now, and use the land to advan- 
tage, cannot but reap enormous returns. There is no 
longer any need for capital to lie idle or at best return 
from 6 to 8 per cent, from house or mine property. 
Invested in Pretoria citrus growing, it, under good 
security, returns much more. 



FORTUNES IN TOBACCO. 

The rapid and enormous mining development of the 
Transvaal made practical, as perhaps no other develop- 
ment could have done in the time, the extensive rail- 
way construction without which such great internal 
expansion could not have taken place. To the enter- 
prise, ability, and success with which the mines have 
been developed the advancement and prosperity of 
South Africa must, therefore, largely be attributed. 
Mining is, and long will remain, our main industry. 
But the advancement of the country would probably 
have been greater, the prosperity wider spread, had 
that enterprise and abihty been devoted less to mining 
and more to farming. For no mining profits, however 
gratifying, can compare, if the basis of comparison be 
initial capital outlay, working costs, and risks, with the 
profits, for instance, from tobacco growing. In the 
Pretoria District there are fortunes for the tobacco grower. 

118 



Farming. 

With iSverage effort he can secure from 800 to looo lb. 
of leaf per acre ; under intensive culture and expert 
handling, acres have yielded up to 2000 lb. of leaf 
each under conditions identical to those in Pretoria 
District. 

When it is added that the total cost of growing and 
curing the leaf is from ;^io to ;^I2 per acre ; that from 
8d. to lod. per lb. is iisually obtained for good but not 
best leaf ; that this means a profit of from ;^20 to ;^35 
or even more per acre, and that at these figures the 
local demand for good leaf exceeds supply and is likely 
long to do so, it will be apparent that no ;riooo put 
into mining ever returned, save under abnormal risk 
to the investor, dividends anything like those accruing 
to the Transvaal grower of tobacco. 

Rustenburg, Piet Retief, Barberton, Zoutpansoerg, 
and Potchefstroom are at present the principal tobacco 
growing districts in the Transvaal, producing large and 
increasing crops every year. The tobacco output of 
the Pretoria District does not yet equal in quantity 
that of these others, not so much because the Pretoria 
District is less well suited for tobacco growing, as 
because other almost equally lucrative branches of 
agriculture have in the past mainly occupied its farmers, 
and because much of its land is wholly undeveloped. 
The Government experts are emphatically of the opinion 
that over a large area of the Pretoria District tobacco 
can be grown as well as in the best districts 
outside. 

No doubt instances are on record where tobacco 
growing in the Pretoria District has not been all that 
could be desired. Where failure has occurred, however, 
it should often be attributed rather to inexperience or 



119 



Farming. 

lethargy in the farmer than to inherent defect in the 
farm. For tobacco growing and selling is an art. It 
is an art for which only those with specialized training 
are fitted. It is not sufficient to grow a crop. The 
kind of tobacco crop for which there is a demand must 
be grown. The tobacco most required, at good prices, 
and of which large quantities are still imported, is a 
high-grade, bright yellow Virginia leaf for cigarette 
making. 

That is the tobacco the grower, to make large profits, 
must grow successfully ; and to grow it successfully 
he must know his business well. He must know how 
to produce a leaf of certain length and breadth, in 
which waste fibre is reduced to a minimum. He must, 
by proper fertilizing and irrigating, to the extent he 
does irrigate, know how to infuse into that leaf the 
essential oils which give the aroma and the pHability 
that permits handhng in the warehouse with a minimum 
of powdering. And when the crop is reaped, he must, 
by assiduity and experience, know how to control the 
temperature in his flue-barns, know when to raise and 
when to lower that temperature, when to harmonize 
it with the fluctuating temperature outside and with 
the gradually dwindling moisture content of the 
leaf. 

Hardly less important than the growing and curing 
is the packing of the leaf for sale. Many a grower 
two-thirds of whose crop was worth 8d. per lb, and 
the rest 4d. received the latter figure for the whole 
crop through neglecting, when baling the leaf, the vital 
precaution of sorting it into grades. Grading is of 
prime importance. The tobacco in each bale should 
be of uniform quality throughout, so that buyers may 
easily estimate the value of such bale. Otherwise a 

120 



Farming. 

bale is judged, not by the best leaf it contains, but by 
the worst. If the grading has to be done by the buyer, 
the expense of sorting and the deterioration through 
handling devolves on the grower as the}'- would in the 
first instance, and in addition he gets a much lower 
average price than if he had undertaken that expense 
and labour at the outset. 

But if the necessary precautions are observed, if the 
buyer's requirements and preferences are studied and 
met, and they are easily ascertained from tobacco 
growers' associations, average high prices may be 
expected by the experienced grower. And any energetic 
man of average intelligence can become a successful 
tobacco cultivator. If he has had training in other 
countries, it needs only to be shghtly adapted for 
Transvaal conditions. If he has not had training, he 
can obtain it, at nominal cost, with Transvaal growers 
of repute, on Government farms, or in agricultural 
schools. 

Where the prospects in tobacco growing are so good 
as in the Transvaal, it is natural to inquire why every 
farmer in suitable localities does not grow tobacco. 
The reason is clear and detracts nothing from the case 
for increased tobacco growing. In the first place, 
every farmer, assuming he has the right kind of soil, 
has not the experience, or the initiative, or the leisure 
to acquire experience to grow and cure tobacco suc- 
cessfully. And, in the second place, every farmer has 
not the rather considerable capital required to commence 
tobacco growing. 

At the outset he must erect curing barns, either flue 
or air ; they cost about the same, if properly built. 
If he can build his barns himself, they wiU cost about 



121 



Farming. 

;^200 ; if he cannot build, he must pay a contractor 
probably more. For such an outlay, barns with a 
capacity for lo acres of leaf could be erected. In 
addition the grower must employ at least one native 
labourer per acre, at a cost of from 20s, to 30s. per 
native per month. Then there are ploughs, cultivators, 
draught animals for tilling, fertilizers, and living ex- 
penses. So that, apart from the cost of his land, the 
tobacco grower must have at least ;^8oo capital to start 
even on a small scale. In other branches of farming a 
small start, leading gradually to bigger operations, and 
culminating in tobacco growing, can be made with 
less capital ; but the man who has the means can 
hardly find anywhere better returns for his money and 
labour than in Pretoria tobacco growing. 



MAIZE: THE STEPPING STONE TO AFFLUENCE. 

Pretoria District is admirably suited for maize 
growing, and where this can be said few farmers can 
afford to disregard the possibilities of the crop. It is 
a crop on which thousands of South African and over- 
sea farmers depend mainly for their livelihood. The 
general demand for South African maize is enormous ; 
and when, as sometimes happens, supply exceeds 
local demand, the oversea markets can be catered for 
at prices satisfactory to the grower. 

In maize growing, as in most farming, there are 
ways of making and wayc> of losing profits. Some 
farmers obtain from three to five bags of maize per 
acre ; others, under identical natural conditions, obtain 
from eight to twelve bags : instances have been known 
where an average of from fifteen to twenty bags per 



122 



Farming, 

acre over a considerable area have, by exceptional 
skill, been obtained. It depends mainly on the 
farmer. 

The three to five bag per acre farmer may have done 
his best, but it was a poor best. He may have had 
a bad season ; but in farming, estimates should be 
made over an average of, say, five years, taking the 
good seasons with the bad. On such a basis it may 
be said that if the three to five bag farmer did his best, 
it might well be improved upon, with a little experi- 
ence, a little thinking, and a little extra exertion. A 
maize grower needs to know what his soil is capable 
of, and then needs to exert himself to get the utmost 
it will yield. He needs to handle his soil intelligently. 
It pays. This is as true in maize growing as in tobacco 
growing. Wliere, as in this country'-, most farmers have 
sufiicient land to permit part of it to lie fallow, it is a 
mistake to use the same plot year after year for maize. 
It is a mistake, in the Transvaal, to defer ploughing 
until after the spring rains. It is better to plough 
after the late autumn rains, and to leave such ploughed 
land fallow until required for maize planting in the 
following spring. It may entail more labour and 
expense, but the increased crop v/ill more than cover 
that. 

If the ploughing be deep and thorough, say 15 to 
20 inches instead of 6 to 10 ; if the seed be pains- 
takingly selected to secure a prolific, good-selling 
strain, adapted to local conditions and of proved 
germinating powers ; if care be taken to guard against 
cross-fertilizing from adjacent kaffir or other inferior 
fields ; if trouble, even much trouble, be taken to 
replace infertile seed when the young plants are up 
(at least in small fields), and so secure a good full 

123 



Farming. 

Stand, instead of the frequent 40 to 50 pei" cent, stand ; 
and if cultivating be skilful and frequent until the 
cultivator can no longer be passed between the rows — 
then in the Pretoria District generally, as in the maize 
belt of America, there is no reason why an average 
ten to twelve bags per acre should not be obtained, 
and an even larger yield by fertilizing. Certainly 
these methods, whilst more productive, are also more 
expensive and more troublesome than methods which 
leave to nature responsibilities and exertions which 
rightly the farmer should assume. But the extra out- 
lay is so much below the increased return that there 
can be no question of whether it pays to acquire skill 
and exert pains in maize growing ; and when, as during 
months of 1912-13, maize sells locally for upwards of 
i8s. per 200 lb., there can be no doubt that in instances 
it pays to fertilize judiciously. 

It pays, in fact, to go in for intensive culture. The 
difference in return from careful, as compared with 
careless, culture is enormous. The same amount of 
land is occupied ; the amount of extra labour is, on 
an organized farm, hardly 50 per cent, different ; the 
yield may be increased from 200 to 300 per cent. 

When this is realized and acted upon, it will be clear 
that maize growing on a much larger scale than at 
present can be satisfactorily undertaken. Of course, 
selling prices fluctuate. But at a conservative estimate 
the Pretoria District farmer can generally rely on 
getting not less than los. 6d. per 200 lb. He 
should, as has been shown, obtain an average 
of at least ten bags per acre. Often he should 
get more. The cost of production varies, as the abilities 
of farmers vary ; but, speaking generally, it should not 
be more than 4s. 2d. per bag of 200 lb., including price 

124 



Farming. 

of sack. At a low estimate, therefore, the profit should 
generally be not less than 6s. 46.. per 200 lb., or a little 
over ^3 per acre. In many cases it should be up to 
£4 or £5 or even more per acre, if the crop is well 
grown and marketed with discretion. 

There are, of course, risks. So, however, there are 
in nearly all enterprises. In the larger portion of the 
Pretoria District, however, the maize grower runs less 
risk than elsewhere. His growing season is longer 
than in most maize districts. Even when the rainy 
season commences late, he can generally reap his crop 
before the frosts. Or, if the rains commence very 
late, or if for some other reason early sowing is deferred 
or fails, he still has his chance with one of the rapid 
maturing varieties of maize adapted to the Pretoria 
District by the Government experts. Such types 
mature in from eighty days. They may not yet have 
been evolved to yield as prolifically as types taking 
upwards of 160 days to mature, but they turn into 
some degree of profit what in bad seasons and in other 
localities would be complete loss. 

The acreage a Pretoria maize grower should handle 
depends, of course, on circumstances. Where his land 
and resources are limited, it should, however, be possible, 
by intensive culture of 80 to 150 acres of maize, and 
by mixed farming on the rest of his land, to make a 
comfortable living. It has not been proved practical 
in many cases, simply because it has not been properly 
tried. It is done oversea, notably in the United States, 
and has not been proved impractical in Pretoria 
District. 



125 



Farming. 

COTTON POSSIBILITIES. 

Crops of excellent cotton have been grown variously 
in the Transvaal. The crop requires, during the five 
months' growing season, a rainfall averaging about 
4 inches per month, decreasing as the bolls ripen, and 
succeeded by a warm, dry season for the picking. 
With such a climate, cotton grows well in almost any 
good or even moderate soil. 

These conditions exist throughout the Pretoria Dis- 
trict, and cotton growing on commercial lines is judged, 
by experts with oversea experience, quite feasible. 

The demand for cotton is world-wide and practically 
unlimited. Probably three times the world's present 
output of cotton could be marketed, at prices satis- 
factory to growers on a large scale. So pressing, 
indeed, is the demand for more cotton that British 
manufacturers and cotton associations have become 
assiduous in fostering the increased growing of cotton 
within the Empire. 

In Pretoria District cotton growing would yield a 
profit of about £4. per acre, from lint and cottonseed, 
which latter product yields a commercial oil and is 
excellent for feeding to cattle. As labour and transport 
became organized on the local cotton plantation, and 
the grower's experience increased, the profits would, no 
doubt, be greater. In some countries they are upwards 
of ;{io per acre. 

The picking of cotton, though entailing the greatest 
expenditure the grower incurs, is light work, and on 
oversea plantations is largely undertaken by women 
and children. Of course, there are cotton pickers and 
cotton pickers. The picker of experience may gather 



ia6 



Farming. 

upwards of 250 lb. per day, the inexperienced only 
40 lb. Still, where a South African grower is near a 
kaffir kraal, or where the labour supply is not abnormally 
low, the picking should not be an insuperable difficulty 
any more than it is in East Africa. The local labour 
may at first not be efficient, but it would be very cheap. 
The labour is light and congenial and hkely to attract 
workers. 

Ginning for export could be done at one or other 
of the ginneries already in the district, and as the 
cotton production increases, so no doubt will the 
ginning facili'aes. 

That large Quantities of cotton are not grown in and 
around the Picloria District is therefore not attribut- 
able to any insuperable obstacle, but merely to the 
fact that most farmers are embarked on a variety of 
mixed farming which, though it entails a larger initial 
outlay of capital, also returns a profit proportionately 
greater than that from cotton. Cotton, like maize, is 
a crop for the farmer starting with little capital. It 
is a good soil renovator, and in normal seasons entails 
little risk. And as the chances of failure in farming 
lessen proportionately to the variety of crops from 
which the farmer may chose when calculating the 
conditions, market and climatic, of the ensuing season, 
the potentialities of cotton growing deserve the atten- 
tion of Pretoria farmers. 



GENERAL CROPS. 

Among other crops proveJ^ payable in Pretoria 
District — 
Sisal hemp grows well ; maple peas yield heavily in 

127 



Farming. 

winter, and could be grown as a rotation crop between 
plantings of maize. Wheat is grown successfully on 
the irrigable lands north of the Magaliesberg. Malting 
barley for beer has been tried successfully. Linseed 
thrives on the high veld. Mangels, sweet potatoes, 
winter oats, buckwheat, peanuts in the sandy soil of 
the north, soy beans, velvet beans for silage could all 
be made to pay. 



PASTORAL. 

Speaking generally, and taking as l criterion the 
percentage of mortality in live stock, the Pretoria 
District is singularly free from serious disease, and 
may be regarded as, on the whole, one of the healthiest 
portions of the Transvaal. 

There is a certain amount of gall-sickness, especially 
in spring, after the first rains ; but the district has 
been entirely rid of East Coast fever, although, of 
course, dipping is optional ; and redwater is no longer 
a menace. 

There is no glanders in the district, and little anthrax ; 
and horses, as well as mules, are now successfully 
treated by Dr. Theiler's inoculation for horse-sickness, 
loss in the infrequent event of mortality being insured 
against by the Government on payment of a nominal 
premium calculated on the value of the animal ; and 
bihary fever is now easily treated if taken in time. 

The sheep of the district do not suffer from 1am- 
ziekte, but are susceptible, especially when pastured 

128 



Farming. 

on rank sour veld, to internal parasites ; and blue- 
tongue is prevalent to some extent. 

Less loss from stock disease will be found in hardly 
any district. In other respects, too^ the larger portion 
of the district is admirably suited for the raising, on 
a large or small scale, of cattle, horses, mules, ostriches, 
pigs, poultry, and, to a moderate extent on occasional 
areas, sheep. Where, however, soil and climate are 
so conducive to agriculture, the land, by being put 
under crops, can generally be used to better advantage 
than for natural veld grazing ; and no progressive 
farmer would be so insensible to his opportunities as 
to leave a Pretoria farm undeveloped and used mainly 
for grazing. He would devote to stock only that 
portion of the farm beyond his resources to handle 
und«. r crops ; and he would, if progressive, not rest 
until he had enhanced the grazing value of that portion 
of his farm by sowing it as far as possible with the 
various excellent pasture grasses, many of which are 
drought resisting, and which the Government expert 
has now adapted to the district. In addition, if the 
farmer grew, as with little extra expense most farmers 
can grow, root crops for auxiliary feeding, and some 
acres of maize for the ensilage pit, he would no doubt 
make of his ranching a lucrative source of income. 
He would make profits beyond the highest conception 
of those who, content to let their stock depend on such 
sustenance as the natural veld affords throughout the 
year, run only that hardy native or slightly crossed 
type of stock in which productiveness is sacrificed to 
endurance— cattle which during the unfavourable con- 
ditions of winter and during,-t?r^es of drought have 
such a struggle for existence that for the best part of 
the year their energies are so absorbed in obtaining a 

129 



Farming. 

livelihood as to leave little capacity for produc- 
tiveness. 

The farming of such stock is farming of a kind, but 
it is not progressive farming. The farmer who expects 
profits from his ranching must avail himself of the 
dearly bought experience of oversea contemporaries. 
He must learn that ranching is a science. He must 
learn the wisdom of starting, on however small a scale, 
with only good stock. He must feed such stock, 
however distasteful the exertion, with something 
besides natural and often parched, unpalatable grasses, 
or he must esteem himself incompetent of farming 
successfully, incapable of meeting the stress of modern 
competition. 

When he has acquired and applied this spirit ; when 
by the expenditure of effort and intelligence he has 
secured and learnt how to maintain a good class of 
stock in good productive condition, whatever the 
season of the year, and whatever the nature of the 
season, he will have learnt the advantage of the ensilage 
pit, of growing root crops and pasture grasses and hay ; 
and he wiii have become largely independent of droughts , 
and largely master of disease. He will have learnt 
that, whether for dairying or slaughter, it pays best 
to carry well-bred stock, though such stock require 
careful feeding, careful housing, and careful attention. 

The proof of this Hes in a Uttle reflection. Like the 
implement through which maize is converted into the 
higher-priced commodity maizena, a cow, though not 
a machine, is the medium through which, in a com- 
paratively cheap manner, todder is converted into the 
more valuable commodity milk. The profitable cow 



130 



rarming. 

is therefore the cow which does this converting well, 
eats heavily, and, within reason, milks heavily. It is 
poor economy, if a cow has this capacity, to begrudge 
it the best of all it can eat. It is poor economy to 
acquire, however cheaply, a cow that has not this 
capacity. Only the high yielding cow should be kept. 
Such a cow certainly costs more to keep, even when 
its fodder is grown by the keeper, than the cheap, 
veld-fed cow. But it also yields more than the latter. 
The money spent for the cheap cow's purchase lies 
largely idle ; the veld devoted to the animal's susten- 
ance could be turned to better advantage. The one 
cow costs comparatively little to buy and keep, and 
yields proportionately less. The other cow digests 
large quantities of comparatively costly fodder, but 
turns it into the more valuable product milk, and the 
aim should be to grow and put through that cow as 
much as it can safely take. The success with which 
this is done depends as much on the farmer as on the 
cow. If the cow be defective, or if its food or housing 
be, the business is unprofitable, however good the 
farm ; and the fault lies not with the farm but with 
the farmer. 

Similarly for slaughter purposes it pays best to buy 
and properly feed well-selected stock. Such stock, by 
yielding a better quality and a larger quantity of beef, 
and by doing so in much less time than poorly bred 
stock dependent on veld grazing, give a return so 
much greater, and do it so much quicker, that the 
extra initial outlay, pains, and maintaining expense 
are more than amply repaid. 

It is better to pay ;r40 a^^a^ properly house and feed 
a cow yielding thirty bottles of milk per day for the 



Farming. 

best part of the year than to pay ;fio for a cow which, 
however fed, has not the capacity to yield more than 
six bottles of milk a day, for a few months a year, 
when milk is plentiful and proportionately cheap. 
And it is better to breed from expensive, but in the 
long run cheap, stock that will give a calf which, by 
proper feeding and care, will in from three to four 
years scale from 1600 to 1800 lb. of prime beef than 
to breed from initially cheap, but in the long run dear, 
stock, producing a calf which, on natural veld feeding, 
will in from six to eight years scale 1000 to 1300 lb. of 
inferior beef. Pound for pound of initial outlay, the 
return from good stock is proportionately greater than 
from poor stock ; and the capital takes only half the 
time to produce that return. 

The poorer method may have suited conditions when 
land was cheap and abundant, when stock were left 
to thrive or die as nature dictated, when the farmer 
took life easily, content with small or no profits, markets 
being few and remote, so long as he might live at peace, 
exertionless. But times have changed, and with them 
methods. The age is a progressive one, and none but 
the progressive can hope to succeed in it. vSwit/er- 
land, Holland, and Denmark could not have become 
the dairy countries they have become but for the 
fact ;tl;iat there has been a rigid elimination of mediocre 
stoc^c.-; The heids have been graded up to return the 
most for what they cost. South African farmers, 
excepting in the remoter districts, must do the same 
or succumb to the competition of progressive oversea 
farmers. Already the position is that, a pastoral 
people though we pretend to be, we do not supply 
our own needs in milk products, such as butter, cheese, 
condensed milk, and cream. We allow oversea farmers 

132 



Farming. 

to do SO. Not because vSouth Africa is less suited for 
dairying than other countries, but merely because its 
grand potentialities are not, excepting in a compara- 
tively few cases, propeily handled. 

The oversea dairyman captures not only surrounding 
markets, but actually competes in South Africa, not 
because he has some Divine assistance, nor because 
he has better natural resources, but because he works 
hard and understands his business. He has realized 
that it pays to work only first-class stock, and he has 
learnt how to handle them. He works and thinks 
and compels every one associated with him to work 
and think. And until more than a small minority of 
South African dairymen do that, their efforts may 
be regarded as recreation, hardly as serious business. 
Until they work and understand their business, until 
they select their herds for specific purposes, cows that 
will give milk, not acquire fat, steers that will fatten, 
not meditate and languish ; until they feed and house 
such stock to force them to their utmost yield within 
reason, and study each individual animal to eliminate 
the unprofitable ; until they do that, instead of taking 
what stock chance or heritage has entailed on them, 
and leaving it to the vagaries of nature, to the inclemency 
of the veld, and the inconsequence of the Kaffir herd 
and milk boy, they will continue to find the large local 
butter and cheese market not worth wrenching from 
the outsider, and the selling of milk at excessive prices 
in adjacent towns only just worthy of attention. 

But if vSouth Africa i cattlemen will profit by the 
experience of other countries, will by the discriminate 
purchase and the scientific handling of herds produce 
the quality and quantity of milk and beef desired, 
instead of an absurd quantity of milk per cow and 

133 



Farming. , , 

beef that is endured but seldom enjoyed, they will make 
cattle pay on even small holdings, for they can then 
capture not only the South African market, but face 
competition oversea, as New Zealand and Australia 
do. Then, but not before, we may expect to see beef, 
butter, and cheese being exported instead of imported. 
The laden dairy trains will then resound through our 
railway depots, the countryside, partitioned into small, 
instead of 5000-acre, farms, will then respond to the 
industry of the many instead of being silent and largely 
unproductive. 

For those who have realized and will act upon these 
prece]^ ts, the raising of cattle in the Pretoria District 
offers excellent opportunities. For those who require 
20 to 30 acres for each head cf stock, the opportunities 
are not so good. 



SHEEP. 

In a country like South Africa, many portions of 
which are so admirably suited for the production of 
wool and mutton, the Pretoria District cannot be 
pronounced as eminent for sheep farming. For sheep 
the district may be divided into two areas. The 
southern area, abutting on the Witwatersrand, consists 
mainly of sour veld, and is on the whole unsuitable 
for sheep farming on a large scale. The northern area, 
abutting on the Middelburg District, carries a fair 
amount of sheep where the veld, is open. In both areas 
the grasses, especially in the wet season, are liable to 
become very rank for sheep ; and the sheep, unless 
very well cared for, are liable to blue-tongue and 
internal parasites. 

134 



Farming. 

On the whole, therefore, the district is not noted 
for its wool or mutton possibiHties. But sheep breeding 
on a small scale may be made profitable on some 
farms, especially if, as recommended, teff or similar 
grasses for general purposes, including sheep pasturing, 
are laid down. 



POULTRY FOR PROFIT. 

Where so many kinds of stock and crops can be 
raised, and mixed farming is the consequence, it 
pays, especially the small farmer, to keep poultry. 
The capitalist, who has the means of taking up 
extensive citrus, tobacco, or stock raising ; who deals 
in thousands, not in hundreds, when calculating 
his returns, is working on a scale which places poultry 
beneath notice. There are few, if any, local cases 
on record where large poultry' farms have paid, but 
the farmer whose financial limitations resign him to 
contentment with a livelihood as a start, and better 
things gradually, will in most cases find that, as an 
auxiliary to his main branches of farming, a few hundred 
head of poultry considerabty accelerate progress. 

Fowls, especially, are or can be made profitable for 
laying or for table use. Good eggs and good table 
birds are always in demand, whatever the importations. 
It is the small, the watery, the partly discoloured egg, 
not the large, well-flavoured egg with the bloom still 
on, that does not retail above the shilling per dozen 
which long-stored eggs fetch. It is the stringy, non- 
descript bird that depreciates the price of the coop to 
little above what the railage cost. But such eggs and 
such birds are not produced by farming. They are 
the products of chance — the yield of flocks which, by 

^35 



Farming. 

incessant inbreeding and by the necessity for feuding 
for themselves, have been so enfeebled or are so occupied 
in scratching that the forming of succulent flesh has 
become an impossibility, and egg-laying passed from 
a regular business to merely a spring pastime. 

Throughout the country poultry keeping has often 
been found unprofitable. vSo it is when carried on, not 
as a business, but as an affair that can look after itself 
or at best be tended by the incompetent. Unselected, 
unadapted, unattended poultry will not pay ; but 
neither would citrus or tobacco farms if mismanaged. 
It takes experience and skill to produce good eggs and 
good table birds, but not more than the average farmer, 
with the assistance of his household, can usually spare 
from his other branches of farming. 

It is well to start on a small scale, to select even as 
few as twenty or thirty birds, of a prolific laying strain 
like Leghorns for eggs, or Cochins for the table. 

They must first be adapted to the particular locahty. 
They must then be studied. The hen is an egg-laying 
apparatus and should be regarded and regulated as 
such. Some hens, whatever their condition and breed, 
lay worse than others. Only the birds, therefore, with 
active habits, a large food capacity, and the ability 
regularly to turn that food into good eggs should be 
kept. The others, however fine their plumage or gait, 
should be rigidly excluded. 

From the eggs of the hens so selected the flock proper 
should be incubated ; it will then be born to its environ- 
ment, and fitted for it. The resulting flock should be 
kept to such a size as can be handled efficiently. Hens 
shoxild be pen-fed and fattened for table use after 
laying for two years, except those with unusually good 

136 



Parmhg. 

laying characteristics, which might be separated and 
kept in the breeding flock to replace the drain from 
the laying flock. 

The laying hens should be separated from the male 
birds when the eggs are for sale, so that, unworried 
by untimely attentions, they may the better devote 
themselves to the business for which they are kept. 
Eggs for consumption are in any case the better for 
being unfertilized. 

The laying, as distinguished from the breeding, 
hens should then be forced, within reason, to their 
utmost laying powers. Those powers should be con- 
siderable, if a prolific strain has been bred from, and 
may be maintained all the year round by creating the 
conditions of the natural laying season, i.e. spring. 
This is possible by feeding and housing the hens 
properly ; by feeding with the food peculiar to spring — 
a good and varied assortment of grains, plenty of 
green stuff, wholesome shredded meat in place of 
worms and insects, and an abundance of pure water, 
not too cold and not too warm. An egg contains a 
large percentage of water, which the hen must drink, 
and drink, if its productiveness is not to be disturbed, 
without having its egg-laying economy impaired by 
chill or filth. 

The runs should be quiet and secluded, shaded from 
the summer glare, and sheltered from the chills of 
winter. 

The collecting and the handling of the eggs is hardly 
less important than their production. They should be 
gathered as quickly as possible from the nest, stored 
in a dark, cool place away from all taint. They should 
be dispatched to the consumer as soon as possible, not 

^37 



Farming. 

packed in sawdust or other contaminating material, 
but in partitioned boxes. Eggs, as their shells are 
porous, are easily contaminated. In improper packing, 
or when kept long, or exposed to the light, or handled 
much, they deteriorate, lose their bloom, and fetch 
poor prices, which are further reduced by middlemen's 
charges and by the competition of similar deteriorated 
eggs from abroad. 

By producing a good egg, by ensuring that that egg 
shall reach the consumer at its best, fowls can be made 
to pay in a district like that of Pretoria, which has 
the large Johannesburg market practically at its door, 
where good eggs fetch good prices from consumers 
such as hospitals, nursing homes, the better-class 
hotels, and restaurants, as well as from private house- 
holds, all of whom may be reached cheaply and quickly 
by the " Collect on delivery " system of the Railway 
Department. 



PRETORIA DISTRICT: FARMING STATISTICS. 

The following figures from the latest (191 1) Census 
help to substantiate (as far as they go) the various 
conclusions drawn in this chapter : — 

The arable land of the district was occupied as 
follows : — 

Cultivated 82,306 morgen. 

Fallow 15,162 ,, 

Grazing 1,160,027 >> 

Of the cultivated land the following areas were used 
for the crops mentioned : — 

Wheat 3,829 morgen. 

Oats 4,952 

Barley 325 

138 



Farming. 



Mealies 25,749 morgen. 

Kaffir corn 568 

Rye 13 

Peas 61 ,, 

Potatoes 956 ,, 

Sweet potatoes 94 ,, 

Pumpkins 391 ,, 

Tobacco 206 ,, 

Lucerne 365 ,, 

Ground-nuts 44 ,, 

The yield was as follows : — 

Wheat muids 35,690 

Oats „ 8,531 

Oat-hay lb. 17,069,176 

Barley. . . muids 1,067 

Green barley bundles 269,197 

Mealies muids 273,793 

Kaffir corn ,, 37,491 

Potatoes ,, 36,905 

Pumpkins No. 331,517 

Tobacco lb. 558,884 

Lucerne tons 1,500 

In addition, the following fruit was produced 

NUMBER. 

Apricots 7,451,272 

Peaches 32,189,976 

Plums 1,840,344 

Nectarines 63,890 

Apples 1,983,282 

Pears 764,420 

Oranges 4,612,118 

Naartjes 891,048 

Lemons 540.934 



139 



Farming. 

NtBIBER. 

Pompelmoes 39.070 

Citron MA^5 

Banana 15,600 

Almond lb. 1,032 

Walnut ,, 3,246 

Figs •. .- Qi,357 

and about 40 tons of various dried fruits. 

The district contained the following live stock : — 

Cattle 152,020 

Horses 5=732 

Asses 11,082 

Mules 2,999 

Ostriches 427 

Sheep 150,727 

Goats 141,235 

Pigs 33,610 

Of the cattle, 15 head only were imported ; of the 
goats, only 5168 were Angora ; and of the sheep, 
35,822 wooUed, and of those only 8893 were Merino. 

The herds were made up as follows : — 

Bulls 4,490 

Cows 58,740 

Oxen 44,769 

Other 44,021 



152,020 



The yield from the cows was as follows : — 

Milk gallons 136,000 

Butter lb. 36,160 

Cream ,, 17,321 

and only 
Cheese „ 15 



140 



Farming. 



Farm workers employed : — 

Males 9,478 

Females 1,293 

10,771 



Of these 3489 were white males, 855 white females, 
5656 South African native males, 406 females, 365 
other coloured races. 



LAND AVAILABLE. 

There are as good farming opportunities in the 
Union as anywhere outside, and no one need go else- 
where for land. Such are the farming potentialities 
of the Pretoria District, however, that most of the 
farms have been taken up by private owners ; but 
there is still some Government land obtainaT)le, or 
likely to be obtainable in the near future, and privately 
owned land is obtainable at prices which, considering 
the productiveness of that land, are extremely low. 
When desired, the Government assists farmers to 
acquire such privately owned land. Section 11 of the 
Land Settlement Act, No. 12 of 1912, empowers the 
Government to purchase such land at the request of 
an intending farmer, provided the intending farmer is 
prepared to contribute at least one-fifth of the purchase 
price of such land. He may then pay off the rest of 
the purchase price, plus incidental expenses, in forty 
equal instalments, payable half-yearly. 

This Act also contains a provision whereby the 
Government may allot Crown lands to applicants who 
possess, in the opinion of the Minister of Lands, suffi- 
cient working capital to enable them to develop and 

141 



Farming. 

work such lands beneficially. Each allotment will be 
made on a lease of five years, with the option of pur- 
chase during or at the expiry of that period. No rent 
will be payable in respect of the first year, but in 
respect of the second and third year 2 per cent, per 
annum, and in respect of the remaining two years 
3^ per cent, per annum will be payable on the purchase 
price of the holding. WHien the option of purchase is 
exercised, the purchase price, together with interest 
at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum, will be payable 
to the Government half-yearly in advance by forty 
equal instalments. 

Full particulars in regard to the land to be allotted 
will from time to time be published in the Union 
Gazette ; a notification will also appear in the principal 
newspapers. 

Under this Act the Government may also advance 
to lessees of holdings an amount not exceeding 50 per 
cent, of the total value of the improvements effected 
by them on their said holdings for the purpose of 
purchasing stock, seeds, implements, and other farming 
requisites, such advance not to exceed ;^500. Each 
advance is repayable within five years at 4J per cent, 
per armum interest. 



LABOUR. 

As in the rest of South Africa, so in this district, 
there is no surfeit of native labour ; but the Pretoria 
District has this advantage, that owing to the natives' 
preferences for working on the mines and railways, 
which pay good wages, natives from all parts of the 
country trek through the district to the adjacent mines 
and railway bureaus, with the result that they may 

142 



Farming, 

often be diverted from their original intentions and 
recruited by the local fanners. There is also a con- 
siderable native population resident in the kraals of 
the district, and this large potential labour supply is 
largely protected for the local farmers to draw upon 
by the fact that the recruiting of outside native labour 
agents is to a considerable extent debarred. 



LAND BANK. 

The great boon which the establishment of a Land 
Bank has been to South African farming is very 
noticeable in the Pretoria District. The loans from 
the bank have enabled local farmers to make many 
improvements ; the stability of farming has increased ; 
land values have improved, and a degree of prosperity 
has resulted that, without the aid of the Land Bank, 
would have been deferred for many years. 

The object of the bank is to aid deserving farmers 
in the development of their farms. The business of 
the bank is — 

{a) to advance money to farmers on mortgage of 
land within the Union ; 

(b) to advauce money to, and to guarantee the per- 
formance of contracts by, co-operative societies ; 

(c) to advance money to farmers holding land under 
agreement of purchase from the Crown, or holding 
land from the Crown under a lease the unexpired 
period whereof is ten j'^ears or more ; 

and generally to make all such advances and do all 
such acts as the bank may be authorized to make or 
do by Act of Parliament. 

10 



FaTming. 

Advances are made by the bank for all or any of 
the following purposes : — 

(i) Improvements, in which term shall be included 
farm buildings, fences, tanks and other structures 
for the dipping or spraying of stock, the clearing 
of land for cultivation, the blocking of sluits, 
dongas, and water-courses to prevent denudation 
of soil, and the planting of trees, orchards, vine- 
yards, sugar-cane, and tea. 

(2) The'purchase of stock or plant of all kinds and 
of agricultural requirements generally. 

(3) The discharge of existing liabilities on land or, 
in special circumstances, any other existing 
liabilities. 

(.-I.) The payment of costs incidental to the sub- 
division of land held in undivided shares. 

(5) The establishment and promotion of agricultural 
and rural industries, including, in addition to 
other such industries, tobacco, doiry, and like 
industries, and the cultivation, sale, and exporta- 
tion of fruit. 

(6) The purchase of land for any of the purposes 
described in paragraphs i, 2, and 5 of this section 
by a person or group of persons whose financial 
resources are deemed adequate to carry on a 
purpose described in any of those paragraphs. 

But no advance shall be made by the bank for the 
purpose of any such irrigation, water storage, or boring 
work as may be made the subject of a loan under any 
loan relating to irrigation or conservation of water. 

Ivoans are made [a) upon the security of freehold 
and quitrent land, to an amount not exceeding 60 pet 
cent, of the agricultural or pastoral value thereof 

144 



Farming. 

(6) upon the security of Crown land, to an amount not 
exceeding 50 per cent, of the purchase price already 
paid ; (c) upon the security of land held under lease 
from the Crown, to an amount not exceeding 50 per 
cent, of the value of the lessee's interest in the lease. 
In every case the vahie will be determined by the 
Board. 

Loans under {a) are granted for a period of thirty 
years. During the first five years interest at the rate 
of 5 per cent, is payable, and the capital may during 
that period be reduced by instalments of £^ or any 
multiple thereof. At the end of five years the balance 
of the loan will be repayable within a period of twenty - 
five years, by half-yearly instalments, consisting of 
capita] and interest, each instalment, except the last, 
being at the rate of ^3. los. for every ^100 of the loan. 

I/Oans under (5) and (c) are repayable within a period 
of five years. 

Except in special cases, no advances are made for 
amouDts of less than ;^5o or more than ^^2000. 

The headquarters of the bank are at Pretoria. Its 
officials, and magistrates throughout the Union, will 
furnish fuller information on application, and render 
all necessary assistance in the completion of forms of 
application, etc. 




145 



Mining. 



CHAPTER XI. 
TO 

/flREAr though the Transvaal mineral output has 
^^ been for years, it has by no means reached its 
maximum. It increases every year, and shows 
every tendency of increasing at a more rapid ratio as 
the deposits worked show no signs of petering out, 
speaking generally, and the deposits unworked and 
untested are many. 

It has been shovsm, in a previous chapter, that large 
though this mineral wealth is, the farming potentiaUties 
are even greater, but largely undeveloped, as the 
tendency has been mainly towards mining. This 
tendency has resulted in widespread prospecting 
throughout the country, and in the vicinity of Pretoria 
deposits have been discovered of diamonds, tin, iron, 
gold, silver, lead, coal, and calcareous formations for 
making lime and cement. Millions are now taken 
annually in diamonds from the vicinity of Pretoria, 
hundreds of thousands in tin and in coal ; and the 
recent discovery of a large deposit, not of titanium 
iron, but of a superior more easily worked iron-ore 
suggests an additional mining industry of considerable 
importance. 

146 



MMng. 

But considerable though the prospecting has been, 
and satisfactory though the results, it has been neither 
systematic nor conclusive. Many portions of the dis- 
trict are still unproved geologically. There may be 
near Pretoria undiscovered diamond mines as rich as 
the Premier Mine, or tin and coal fields as valuable as 
those of Potgietersrust and Witbank. There is still 
considerable need for mineral research in the Pretoria 
District, as the details giv^en under each of the following 
specific headings will show. 

Diamonds. 

A diamond pipe gives no surface indications of its 
presence, except the actual diamonds and garnets near 
it, and is therefore extremely difficult to locate ; and 
so infinitesimal is the proportion of diamonds to the 
tonnage of earth worked to disclose them, even in a 
payable mine, that when a pipe is located it is almost 
impossible to judge its payability conclusively, except 
by extensive working. 

The result was that, though ten years ago there had 
been a good deal of diamond prospecting in the dis- 
trict without a payable mine being located, this was 
not evidence that such a mine did not exist, as the 
subsequent discovery of the Premier Mine proved. 
And though to-day the Premier Mine remains the only 
payable diamond mine in the district, this by no means 
proves that there are not other payable pipes waiting 
to be discovered. On the contrary the inference is, 
as experience has taught in Kimberley, that where one 
payable pipe exists others are probably in the locahty, 
requiring only operations sufficienth' extensive to prove 
their payability. 



147 



Mining. 

There is consequently little doubt that more pipes 
than ha\'e been proved payable exist in the Pretoria 
District ; that some of them may be extremely rich ; 
and that, therefore, increased diamond prospecting on 
systematic, scientific hues would be justified. 

The Premier Diamond Mine, situated twenty-four 
miles from Pretoria, is to-day one of the largest mining 
ventures in the world. Probably more tons of ground 
are handled in it than in any other single undertaking 
except the Panama Canal construction. As much as 
40,000 loads (i.e. tons) have been worked in one day. 
During 191 2, 9,979,716 loads were handled, yielding 
2,047,185 carats, valued at /i, 909,564. 

Upwards of 1200 white men and 17,000 Kaffirs are 
employed by the company. 

The mine is worked open-cast and is approximately 
996 yards long by 483 yards wide and of a depth 
ranging from 200 to 300 feet. 

Apart from this mine, some twelve diamond pipes 
have been located in the district, but up to the present 
none have been proved payable. Alluvial diamonds 
are also found alongside most of the streams flou-ing 
from the neighbourhood of the Premier Mine. From 
these various sources and the mine the total output 
for 1912 was 2,049,767 carats, valued at £2,207,700, 
an increase over the pievious year of 244,563 carats, 
valued at £569,803. 

It is figures such as these which emphasize the 
mineral progress and the vast potentialities of the 
Pretoria District. 

Tin. 

As in the case of diamonds, so with tin, prospecting 
has been extensive, has resulted in the location of large 

148 



Mining. 

deposits, some of which are at present yielding hand- 
some returns, but the district as a whole has not been 
exhaustively prospected. The tin deposits found are 
probably only an iota of -what may yet be found. 
New discoveries of tin-bearing rock are continuously 
being made, and with incicased operations, both mining 
and prospecting, there is ever>' likelihood that the tin 
industry is destined to become one of the important 
permanent assets of the Transvaal. 

Red bushveld granite, the miatrix in which the 
celebrated Transvaal tinfields occur, begins at the 
Pyramids, some twelve miles from Pretoria, and 
stretches northwards indefinitely. The tin mines now 
worked are situated about seventy miles north of 
Pretoria, where they form a line beginning at Rooiberg 
on the west and ending at Potgietersrust on the east, 
a zone about lOO miles long. The output for 1912 
was 2948 tons of concentrates (cassitarites), valued at 
;f370,ooo. 

At the Rooiberg end of the zone the tin occurs 
mostly in veins and fissures, as in other countries, but 
in the Potgietersrust locality it occurs in a very peculiar 
pipe-like formation which has given rise to much 
geological controversy. 

Iron. 

Much has been written, and more talked, about the 
potentiaHties of the Transvaal iron industry. The 
general contention is that our large deposits of iron-ore 
could be profitably worked, being situated, as they are, 
if not near, then at least within, economic reach of 
satisfactory' coking coal and lime deposits. It has 
been urged by many that, whilst no doubt the per- 
centage of titanium in much of this ore makes it too 



149 



Mining. 

refractory for blast furnaces, the difficulty has in 
Europe been overcome by using electric furnaces ; 
that such a plant, though costly, should not be imprac- 
ticable in a country importing annually shoes, dies, 
steel rails, trucks, wheels, and fencing standards to 
the value of more than a million sterling ; that the 
power for such furnaces could be generated cheaply 
where coal is so cheap, or possibly along some stream ; 
and that, therefore, enterprise only is required to 
establish a local iron industry on substantial lines. 

The argument is neither conclusive nor convincing. 
In it the point is overlooked that while the suggested 
electric furnaces, though not tested with our refractory 
ores, might be successful in the Transvaal, the large 
initial outlay for their installation would be prohibitive 
in a country where markets are so restricted. However 
successfully refractory ores might be turned into pig- 
iron and steel by costly electric processes, it would be 
impossible, without protection, 1o compete, except in 
a very restricted area, with steel and steel products 
from America, Great Britain, and Europe, where 
manufacturers work on so much larger a scale than 
would be possible here, that in open competition, or 
in face of our present Customs tariff, they wouJd con- 
tinue to hold, against a Transvaal ironmaster seeking 
returns for his huge outlay on electric furnaces, the 
vSouth African market as far in nearly as the Free 
State border on the one side and the Natal border 
on the other. And by reducing prices, as they 
doubtless would do, they could hold probably the 
whole market. 

Certainly the duty on imported steel might be raised. 
But it would have to be raised much to be effective. 
And such a necessity would be the proof that our 

150 



Mining 

titanium iron, even if it can be successfully treated 
in electric furnaces, can be worked only by bounty. 
Of course, a kind of bounty is being given in Canada 
and Australia to support the young iron industries 
there, and something of the kind might be feasible in 
South Africa. That is a national question on which 
opinion is divided. But to protect the iron industry 
through the Customs wjuld be to bolster it at the cost 
and to the detriment of more important local indus- 
tries, at least until sxich time as the economic 
position of South Africa becomes very different to 
what it now is. 

The whole matter was thoroughly inquired into at 
the instigation of the Transvaal Government in 1910 
by Mr. F. W. Harboard, one of the leading r,uropean 
experts on iron smelting. His report was unfavourable. 
It may be found in full attached to the 1910 report of 
the Government Mining Engineer. 

But that does not dispose of the possibility, nay, 
probability, of starting an early Transvaal iron-ore 
smelting industry. Since those reports were issued a 
very superior ore has been discovered some sixty miles 
north of Pretoria, in the vicinity of the farm Leeuw- 
kraal, showing, again, the almost infinite mineral 
possibilities of the district if adequately prospected. 

Considerable development is confidently expected 
from this discovery, as the quality of the ore is excellent 
and the quantity visible very large. Such an ore will 
prove workable if it can be smelted in blast furnaces, 
because such furnaces can be erected as small or as 
large as the market warrants the output being. Such 
an industry would not require a capital altogether out 
of proportion to the probable dividends. 

151 



MMng. 

Gold. 

Near Pretoria one or two small gold mines are being 
worked in quartz veins in the dolomite, but though 
of geological interest, they are unimportant com- 
mercially. 

Silver . 

The above remarks apply also largely to silver. 
\'ery rich bonanza of argentiferous copper-ore was at 
one time worked at the Willows, six miles east of 
Pretoria, but work has long since ceased. 

Argentiferous lead ores also occur in the dolomite 
south of Pretoria and at Edendale, fifteen miles east. 
At the latter place a mine has been working more or 
less successfully for several years past. During 1912 
it was worked for only a few months and yielded 
141 tons of lead, valued at ;{i436. 

Still further west another argentiferous lead mine 
was at one time worked under the name of the Trans- 
vaal Silver Mine. It has been shut down for some 
twenty yea.rs and the sides have completely caved in ; 
but its richness may be judged from the fact that 
dumps which were washed over in igi2 ^-ielded 1979 tons 
of lead, valued at £yooo, and silver valued at £5000. 

Coal- 
Coal has been located twelve miles north of Pretoria, 
immediately on the far side of Pyramids, and from 
there extends, with breaks, all over the bushveld, up 
to the Waterberg Range. 

Up to date these coal deposits have not been worked, 
as supplies from Witbank are of better quality and can 
hardly be undersold. 

152 



Mining 

The Witbank Coalfield starts at Balmoral, east 
of Pretoria, and stretches as far as Belfast. 
It is, however, not a continuous sheet, as erosion 
has exposed the underlying formation in valleys ; 
but, speaking generally, the tops of the bults or downs 
are covered by coal, while vleis or valleys lie beneath, 
giving a curious lace-like pattern to a geological map 
of the area. 

The coal from this field amounted in igi2 to 
3,587,481 tons, valued at £yyy,225, being an increase 
of 250,000 tons, valued at £ig,8^y, over the previous 
year. Over 35,000 gallons of tar were also obtained, 
and used mainly for street repairing in Johannesburg. 
400 white men and 7149 natives were employed 
during the year. 

Coking Coal. 

It was former!}' thought that South African coal 
was entirely unsuited for coking purposes. This 
theory has now been proved wrong. In 191 1 the 
Government sent to Britain six samples of 10 
tons each taken from representative collieries of 
the Province. These were tested under ordinary con- 
ditions at Middlesborough, in England, under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Harboard. the eminent 
expert formerly mentioned. The results were sur- 
prisingly favourable. Details may be found in a 
pamphlet issued in 191 1 by the Department of Mines, 
entitled " Coking Tests of Transvaal Coals." 

Cement. 

The only cement factory in South Africa is estab- 
lished in the Pretoria District. It produced 62,745 
tons of cement during 1912. 



153 



S4Mng. 

The cement equals in quality any imported Portland 
cement, though it requires slightly different treatment. 
That the industry is profitable is proved by the fact 
that for several years past the company has paid 
dividends of nearly 40 per cent, per annum, and is 
now establishing subsidiary factories at points nearer 
the coast to compete more extensively with the imported 
article ; for, as in the case of iron, cement can be 
brought from London to a South African inland point 
as far north as Beaufort West, in Cape Province, as 
cheaply as from Pretoria to that point. 

Attached to the cement factory is an industry known 
as the Concrete Construction Company, which produces 
concrete shapes of every description, from sheep troughs 
to pulpits, but chiefly hollow blocks for building pur- 
poses. The company possesses the most advanced 
American plant obtainable, and its manufactures are 
equal to any imported. 

Clays. 

At Olifantsfontein, eighteen miles south of Pretoria, 
the ConsoHdated Rand Brick, Tile, and Pottery Works 
are situated. These turn out not only ornam.ental 
brick and tile work, but eveiy description of domestic 
earthenware and chiuaware. 

Salt and Alkali. 

What is known as the Pretoria Saltpan is situated 
twenty-five miles north of the city. It is one of the 
geological enigmas of South Africa. To all appear- 
ances it is the crater of an extinct volcano, the bottom 
of the crater being some 400 feet below the rim and 
200 feet below the surrounding country. The floor of 
this crater-like depression is occupied by a pan, covered 

154 



Mining. 

in the dry season by an incrustation of salt and alkali, 
which is sub-layered by a lo-feet deposit of pure 
natron or native carbonate of soda. 

A borehole sunk 170 feet in this pan disclosed nothing 
but alternate layers of mud and salt. The banks of 
the pan and the crater itself consist of bushveld granite, 
and not a trace of pumice or other volcanic ejector 
can be found in the neighbourhood. Apart from its 
geological significance, the spot is an extremely pretty 
and interesting one, well worth visiting by ever}' one 
in search of the picturesque. 

An alkali industry is now being started in Johannes- 
burg to absorl) the natron excavated from this pan in 
dry season. 

Chrome Iron-Ore. 

Beds of chrome iron-ore have also been found near 
the Pyramids. Up to the present no serious work has 
been done on these beds, as the visible outcrop contains 
less than 40 per cent, of chromic acid. It is, however, 
possible, and even probable, that richer beds ma^' be 
found by prospecting beneath the sub-soil, as has been 
the case in Rhodesia. 

Manufacturing. 

As Pretoria is exceptionally central, is extensively 
connected by rail, is the centre of an extremely rich 
mining and farming area, has a huge market on the 
Rand, is within economic reach of Natal and Rhodesia, 
as well as the port of Delagoa Bay, the opportunities 
it offers for industrialists of all kinds are unusually 
good. There, if anywhere in South Africa, manufac- 
tures of certain kinds may be established successfully. 
Splendid sites, abundant water supply, and electric 

155 



Mining. 

power if desired will be supplied by the Municipality 
to manufacturers at reduced rates. L-arge quantities 
of raw materials are produced in the districts ; huge 
quantities will soon be produced, especially if there 
are local factories to absorb such raw material. To 
Pretoria, therefore, manufacturers should turn atten- 
tion. 




156 



SOUTH AFRICAN 
RAILWAY MAP. 



--On 



.J 
/ 

/ 

\ PORIUOUESE 

f EAST AFRICA 



BJCmMHALAKI 



UUIlUALAnD 

KIMBERLCYi 

WEST 




L 


^ 




uunn ffsr 1 


~A 


I K»tQyflttST<tWH{f;.<^ /JP 


KUWJUT J^^;jL^ ^^ 




-7 


\ 


V/ ^OKMnrno 




■v^^ 


*&S^xaM£n 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate. 

I — Panorama. 
II — Union Buildings. 

HI- ,. 
IV- „ 
V- „ 
VI— „ 
VII — Pretoria Scenes — Early Days. 
VIII — Old Pretoria Residences. 
IX — Modern Pretoria Residences. 
X — ,, II ,1 

XI— Jess's Cottage, Pretoria. 
XII — Church Square. 
XIII— „ 

XIV — Post Office and Government Buildings. 
XV — Governor-General's Residence, Pretoria Club, etc. 
XVI — Market Squaie. 
XVII— Burgers Park. 

XVIII— New Railway Station and Old Station Yard. 
XIX — Museum. 
XX— Typical Street Scenes. 
XXI — Lovers' Walk, Pretoria. 
XXII— Street Scenes. 

XXIII — Aapics River and Fountain GroTC. 
XXIV — In and near Fountain Grove. 
XXV — Hennops River. 
XXVI— To Hennops River. 
XXVII — River Scenery — Aapies and Hennops River. 
XXVIII— To Haviaans Poort. 
XXIX— Baviaans Poort. 
XXX— The Wonderboom. 
XXXI— At the Zoo. 
XXXII— The Zoo. 
XXXIII -In the Zoo. 
XXXIV— At the Zoo. 
XXXV— Pretorius Street and Town Hall. 
XXXVI— Town Hall. 
XXXVII— Fire Brigade Station. 
XXXVIII— Education Institutions. 
XXXIX— Union Buildings, West Block, etc. 
XL — Railway Station. 
XLI— Country Club, Waterkloof. 
XLII — Plant Pathologist's Laboratory, 



I N DEX. 



A 

Page 

Agricultural College 93,109 

Annexation of Transvaal 29 

Arcadia 39 

Architecture 83 

Church Square 86 

Fire Station 86 

■ Government House 91 

■ M useum 86 

Post Office 87 

Railway Station 85 

Schools 93 

Transvaal University 93 

Union Buildings 88 

Around Pretoria 44 

Art Gallery 86 

B 

Back to the Land 103 

Backv^ard Glance, A 5 

Bacteriological Station, The 63 

Bapedi Rebellion, The 28 

Barberton 33,34 

Basutos, The 29 

— War 31 

157 

II 



Index. 

Page 

Baviaans Poort 43 

Boer, The 

— as Colonist 8 

— as Hunter 24 

— as Pioneer 13 

— as Ruler 28 

— War, The 31 

Boys' High School, The 65,83 

British Annexation ol Transvaal 29 

Burgers, President 28 

c 

Cattle Farming 128 

Cement 153 

Chrome , 155 

Church Square 86 

Clays 154 

Climate of Pretoria 40,64 

Coal 152 

— Coking 153 

Commando Nek 45 

Cotton possibilities 1 26 

Crocodile River 45 

Crops, General 127 

D 

Dairying 128 

Daspoort 42 

Diamonds 1 47 

E 

Early 'Eighties in Pretoria 29 

Educational Facilities 64 

Electric Supply 76 



Farming ; 



F 

Back to the Land 103 

Cattle 13! 

158 



Index. 

Farming : Page 

Cotton, Possibilities of 126 

Crops, General 127 

Dairyi 129 

Facts about Pretoria 109 

Fruit, Enormous Profits in 1 13 

Labour 142 

Lank Bank 143 

Maize and Aflluence 122 

Pastoral 128 

Poultry 135 

Sheep 134 

Statistics 138 

Tobacco, Fortunes in 118 

Fire Department, The 79,86 

Flora 95 

Founding of Pretoria 7 

Fountains, The 45 

Fruit Growxng, Enormous Profits in , 1 13 

G 

General Crops 127 

Girls' High School 66 

Gold 152 

— Discovery of 32 

— The Rush for 32 

Government H ouse 91 

Great Karoo, The 16 

Great Trek, The 

Causes of 8-11 

Commences 12 

The Journey 16 

Obstacles of 13-18 

Growth of Pretoria , 22 

H 

Hennops River 45 

High School, The Boys* 65 

„ „ The Girls* 66 

Hunting becomes a Trade 24 

159 



Index. 

I Page 

Introductory 3 

Iron 149 



J 

Jacaranda, The 39 

Johannesburg 33, 34 

Joubert, General 32 

K 

Kafir. The 9 

Kroonstad 19 

Kruger, Paul 32 

L 

Labour 81,142 

Land Available 141 

Land Bank, The 143 

Lead 152 

Libraries of Pretoria, The 62,86 

Lydenburg 19,31,33 

M 

Magaliesberg 42 

Maize 122 

Majuba 32 

Manufacturing 155 

Mining 146 

Moselekatse 17, 18 

Municipal : 

Electric Supply > 76 

Fire Department 79 

History 70 

Labour 81 

Population 73 

Rates 73 

Roads, etc 80 

i6o 



Index. 

Municipal : Page 

Sanitation 77 

Sewerage 77 

Tramways 76 

Valuation 73 

Water Supply 74 

Museum, The 52, 86 

N 

Natal 16 

Native Raiders 8 

Normal College 67,93 

O 

Olifantsfontein 154 

Orange Free State 16, 18, 19 

Orange River 16 

Ox-wagon Transport : 

■ Comedy and Tragedy of 26 

Value of 16 

P 

Past and Present 6 

Pastoral 128 

Post Office 87 

Potchefstroom 19-31 

Potgieter 18 

Poultry 135 

Pretoria : 

1864 21 

Administrative Capital 36 

Architecture 83 

Climate 40 

Compared 36 

Early 'Eighties 29 

Educational Facilities 64 

Electric Supply 76 

i6i 



Index. 

Pretoria : Page 

Farming Opportunities 108 

Garrison Town, A 29 

Growth of 22 

Land Available Around 141 

Manufacturing in 155 

Modern City, The , 36 

Municipality of 70 

■ Population of 73 

Rates 73 

■ Siege of 32 

Tours Around 44 

Valuation of 73 

Pretorius, M. W 19 

R 

Railway Station, The 85 

Ranching 128 

Rand, The 33 

Rates 73 

Roads 80 

Rustenburg 19-31 

S 

Salt and Alkali 154 

Sanitation • 77 

Schools 65-69 

Sheep 134 

Shepstone, Sir T 29 

Siege of Pretoria 32 

Silver 152 

Slave Emancipation 8-11 

South African Republic 20 

Early Days of 25 

Statistics : 

Farming 138 

Land 141 

Land Bank 143 



162 



Index. 

Statistics : Page 

Mining 146 

■ Weather 64 

Stock Farming 128 

Streets 80 

Sunnyside 39 



T 

Tin 148 

Tobacco, Fortunes in 118 

Tours Around Pretoria 44 

Trade School, The 68 

Tramways 76 

Transvaal Annexed 29 

Handed Back 32 

Transvaal University College 64, 93 

Trichardt 18 

Trek, The Great : 

— Causes of 8-11 

— Commencement of 12 

— Journey, The 16 

— Obstacles of 13-17 



U 

Union Buildings : 

Opening of 4,88 

Union, The First 19 

University College, Transvaal 64, 93 

Utrecht 19 



V 

Valuation of Pretoria 73 

Voortrekkers, The : 

Obstacles of 13 

Qualities of the 13 



163 



Index. 

Page 

War of 1880 31 

Water Supply, Pretoria 74 

Winburg 19 

Witbank 153 

Wonderboom 43 

z 

Zoo, The 56 

Zoutpansberg 18 

Zulus, The 29 

— War 29 



^ 



164 



If anything is required by you when on a 
VISIT TO PRETORIA, 



-YOU WILL FIND THK — 



BEST CLASS OF GOODS 

— AT^ 

REASONABLE PRICES 

— BY CALLING AT — 

JOHN JACK, Ltd,, 

CHURCH STREET. 



Gent.'s and Youths' Outfitting. 

Ladies' Drapery m Latest Fashions. 

Household Ironmongery. 

TRA YELLING REQUISITES, 

— AND- - 

All kinds of Grocery and Sweets, etc., etc. 



HENWOOD'S, 

Church Street, Pretoria, 

Is a large, well-equipped Modern Store devoted to 

the necessaries for outdoor and indoor wear, the 

Home, the Garden, the Farm. 

A Visit of Inspection is cordially invited. 




A Splendid Range of 

exclusive Novelties 

in ALL Departments. 
Oi ic II zno n t i r II i n 



Gowns, 

Blouses, 

Hats. 




oc 



DOC 



Men's Wear, 
Boots and 
Shoes. 

lOI 



lO 



Hardware, 

China and Glass, 

Furniture. 

n i ir 



"II in 



Pretoria's Lowest Prices Always. 



THE 

WORLD OF DRESS 



) 




ALWAYS : 
:: SHOWING 

The Newest Styles 
for 

LADIES' AND :: 
CHILDREN'S WEAR. 



SPECIALISTS for Household Linens, 

FURNISHING DRAPERY, 
Blinds, Carpets and Linoleums, 



Store Bros., p'RETORlt 



^^^ Private Hotel, ^^ 
PRETORIA, 

Box 548. 185 Schoeman Street. 'Phone 631. 



CENTRAL. CLEAN. COMFORTABLE. 



Excellent Table, Up-to-date Sanitation. 



TERMS: lOs. PER DAY. K. GROENEVELD, 

£2. 10s. per Week. Proprietor. 



& 



Pretoria Shopping Centre. 



i 




?T. W. BECKETT & Co. A 

Ltd., 

Church Street, PRETORIA 



o o o 



The leading store 



^'I'fi 



For High-grade Drapery, Outfitting, 
Boots, Shoes, China and Glass, 
Hardware, Furnishing and Furniture, 
Provisions, and all Household 
Requisites. :: :: :: 



&■ 



^ 



UC SOUTHERN REGK/.'AL LIBRARY FACILITY 



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