t ^ May ' '
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION
BULLETIN. 1915. NO. 17 WHOLE NUMBER 642
CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY
SCHOOLS AS ILLUSTRATED
By ARTHUR W. DUNN
SPECIAL AGENT IN CIVIC EDUCATION
BUREAU OF EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
5 CENTS PER COPY
Letter of transmittal 5
The course of study 10
First year 10
Second year 10
Third year 12
Fourth year 13
Fifth year 14
Sixth year 16
Seventh year 17
Eighth year 19
Illustrative suggestions to civics teachers 20
A type lesson 22
Community arithmetic 23
Civic training through practice 26
Opening exercises 27
Method of conducting classes 28
Manual activities 29
Pui)il participation in school control 30
Pupil participation in the civic life of the community outside of the school . . 32
Is such civic education effective 34
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Education,
Washington, June 1, 1915.
Sir : From the inception of the tax-supported public school systems
in the United States, one of their most important functions has been
to give the instruction and training necessary for the intelhgent per-
formance of the duties of citizenship. Indeed, this work of prepara-
tion for citizenship has been and is still one of the strongest arguments
for making education a function of the State and in justification of
the levying of taxes for the support of schools. As the government
and industrial and social life become more democratic, the importance
of this function of the schools becomes more evident and necessary
and the means of giving the necessary instruction and traming
becomes keener and more general. For several years the pubhc
schools of the city of Indianapolis have had a reputation for unusually
good work in this direction. Since example adds much to the effec-
tiveness of theory, and may be even more useful in results, I requested
Mr. Arthur W. Dunn, the bureau's speciahst in civic education, to
make a careful study of this work in these schools for the purpose of
making a concise report of its more important features. This Mr.
Dunn was the better able to do because of the fact that he was at
one time connected with the schools of Indianapolis as director of
instruction and training in civics. The manuscript transmitted here-
with is the result of this study. I recommend that it be published
as a bulletin of the Bureau of Education.
P. P. ClAXTONj
The Secretary of the Interior.
Digitized by tine Internet Archive
in 2008 with funding from
CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
AS ILLUSTRATED IN INDIANAPOLIS.
This description of the plan of civic education in the Indianapolis
elementary schools has been prepared because of a growing, general
interest in the subject, and because of numerous inquiries as to exist-
ing methods of organized elementary civic training. The Indian-
apolis teachers and school authorities would be the last to claim that
they have spoken the final word on the subject. Indeed, one of the
characteristics of the Indianapolis course of study is its constant
readjustment to immediate needs in the light of current experience.
Even as this is being written, the course of study in arithmetic is
being revised, largely from the point of view of its civic relations.
The civic aspect of education permeates the entire work of the ele-
mentary schools in this city, and it is believed that a description of
how one community handles the problem may prove suggestive to
Indianapolis was one of the first cities to introduce in its elementary
schools what is now commonly known as "community civics." So
far as known, Chicago is the only city that antedates Indianapolis in
efforts in this direction. Mr. H. W. Thurston, then of the Chicago
Normal School, developed a syllabus in elementary civics which laid
especial emphasis upon the civic life of Chicago, a few years before
the Indianapolis plan was inaugurated. Both Indianapolis and Chi-
cago now make of community civics a prominent feature of the ele-
mentary school work, though in somewhat difi^erent ways. Other
cities have, in the last few years, introduced instruction more or less
similar in character.
Community civics was first introduced in the elementary schools
of Indianapolis in the second half of the eighth grade. With the suc-
cess of this experiment assured, attention was turned to the practi-
cability of extending systematic civic training into the lower grades.
The result is a course of study in which the civic aspects of the child's
education are emphasized throughout the elementary schools, from
the first grade through the eighth. An outline of the main features
of this course of study, so far as it relates directly to civic education,
is given in the following pages. It must be emphasized, however,
8 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTAEY SCHOOLS.
that the outhne of content is only of secondary importance. It is the
method by which the outhne is treated that is of primary importance.
To quote from the course of study —
No sensible teacher of history asks how many facts he is to teach. No two teachers —
if good ones — would teach the same number of facts or just the same facts to the same
pupils or class, and much less to different classes. No sensible teacher asks what
kind of facts he shall teach, expecting to receive in answer a tabulation of his material.
He knows that general rules accompanied by suitable illustrations are the only useful
answer to these questions.
Personal observation of actual instruction under normal con-
ditions in all grades in a number of the Indianapolis schools gives
evidence that the principles and ideals set forth in the printed course
of study are reaJized with remarkable fidelity to the letter and to the
spirit. It is of course true, however, that the ideal is approximated
more closely in some schools and in the hands of some teachers than
Before presenting the outline of the course of study, certain pre-
liminary explanations and comments are necessary.
1. It is necessary to keep in mind the definition of ''civics" that
prevails in the Indianapolis schools :
Civics is a training in habits of good citizenship, rather than merely a study of
goA-ernment forms and machinery. The broadening field of instruction in civics
finds its limits only in the ever-widening content of the term "citizenship."
There are, in general, four immediate aims in teaching civics:
To help the child realize that he is a responsible and helpful member of several
To awaken and stimulate motives that will lead to the establishment of habits of
order, cleanliness, cheerful cooperation, sympathetic service, and obedience to
To emphasize the intimate and reciprocal relation between the welfare of the
individual and the welfare of the home and'society
To develop political intelligence and to prej^are the young citizen for its exer-
2. It is particularly important to understand that civics is not
taught as a separate "subject" until the eighth grade, but that civic
education is a phase of aU the work of the school. The outline which
follows is based on the printed course of study in "geography, history^
and civics." These are recognized as the "social studies" of the
elementary school. But geography does not appear as a separate
subject until the fourth grade, or the latter part of the third; history
not until the sixth grade; and civics not until the eighth. The child
probably never hears the word "civics" in the first few years of his
school life. Nevertheless, in the process of his education he is, from
the very beginning, getting definite instruction in elemental civic
relations, just as he learns something of geographical and historical
In short, the aim m the Indianapolis elementary schools seems to
be to make of education, not a process of instruction in a variety of
subjects, but a process of living, of growth^ during which the various
relations of life are unfolded — civic, geographical, historical, ethical,
vocational, and so on. In the first grade, for example, the pupil does
not even study "English" or ''language"; he merely does things,
and talks about things, and hears and tells stories about things, the
teacher alone being conscious that she is giving the child his first
organized lessons in civic life, as well as in the use of the English
3. While geography, history, and civics appear constantly through-
out the outline, being grouped together as the social studies par
excellence of the elementary curriculum, the remaining subjects and
the entire work of the schools are ''socialized" to an unusual degree
and are correlated all along the line in the process of civic training.
Thus, the English work, the arithmetic, the hygiene, the construction
work, the school activities (such as gardening and playground acti-
vities), and the opening exercises, are all utilized as a part of the
civic education of the child. It will not be possible to make this
appear, in every case, in the outline; but in the latter part of this
bulletin there will be found a discussion of such coordinations.
4. It should be observed that the course is rich in its ethical, and
also in its vocational or ''prevocational," bearings. There is no
"subject" of ethics, or moral education, in the Indianapolis schools;
but the direct moral training afforded by the course here outlined is
So, also, while there is no attempt to give direct vocational training
in the strict sense of this term, nor even any organized form of "voca-
tional guidance," nevertheless the fact is always taken into account
that the citizen must be a worker, and the worker a citizen. The
vocational, or occupational, relations are therefore frequently brought
mto the foreground. It should be mentioned that there are, in
Indianapolis, several elementary schools, distributed in selected
districts where this so-called "prevocational" trend is particularly
marked, the vocational or economic relations of the course of study
being developed to meet the peculiar needs of the children and of the
homes of the particular districts.
5. The reader is especially urged to remember that in the following
pages no attempt is made to outline in detail the entire course of
study in the elementary schools, even in geography and history, but
only to show how the course of study and the school activities are
organized from the single standpoint of civic training. Some valua-
ble ''civics" is given under the name of "community arithmetic,"
but it is not to be supposed that the entire course in arithmetic is of
10 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTAEY SCHOOLS.
the ''community" type. So there is much work in geography and
history that has no immediate bearing on ''civics" in any proper
sense. Correlation of the course of study from a civic point of view
is not absolute nor forced.
THE COURSE OF STUDY.
(Note. — The teacher alone is conscious of the various factors in the curriculum. The chUd is conscious
only of being in school and living.)
CIVICS: The family. "WTiat parents do for children. How children may show their
gi-atitiide. Helpfulness. Care of furniture, toys, clothing. Sharing of pleasures.
Respect for age. Work of each in the service of the whole.
GEOGRAPHY: "The geographic world is in the neighborhood; it needs only to be
discovered." Work based almost wholly on observation. Excursions in imme-
diate neighborhood. Study of common plants and animals.
HISTORY: National holidays — Thanksgiving; Christmas; Lincoln's and Washington's
STORIES: Home stories. Home stories from nature.
CONSTRUCTION WORK: Making and furnishing doll's house.
Beginning in September, making Christmas gifts for each member of the family.
"Teachers are fi'ee to choose construction work that will emphasize the ci\dc idea
of mutual responsibility and cooperation."
The work of the year centers aroimd stories and construction work, with resulting
conversations and activities.
The central civic idea is that of ser\T.ceable membership in a social group (com-
munity). Attention is fixed upon the family because it is the simplest form of com-
munity, because it is the social group of the child's first experience, and because of
its importance as a factor in the larger civic life. Wliile the school is systematically
developing the child's consciousness of social relations and responsibilities in the
home, he is at the same time adjusting himself to the life of the larger school com-
Note how the simple geographical and historical matter centers about the home and
CrVICS: The home in contact with activities of the commimity.
1 . How the commimity serves the home. Representatives of the community who
come to the home. For example:
The milkman . — His care for the milk ; his difficulties in cold and hot weather ;
suppose there were no deliver}'.
The man who collects the garbage. — "Who sends him? Why? '^'hat is
done with the garbage? How may we help him?
2. How the home serves the community.
Qaxe of premises.
Conduct toward neighbors.
Conduct in stores.— Respect for the grocer; why? Giving orders promptly,
quietly. Handling of foodstuffs.
THE COURSE OF STUDY. 11
GEOGRAPHY: Neighborhood geography.
Story of Pvobinson Crusoe (five weeks) —
The story of a single-handed struggle with nature, emphasizing by contrast our
dependence upon community life.
"The story . . . epitomizes, in a way, the history of the struggle of the race as a
whole . . . He uses the raw materials found about him to promote his well-
being . . . He provides himself food, clothing, shelter . . . He becomes a
housebuilder, carpenter, farmer, stock raiser, doctor, basket maker, hatter,
miller, baker, boatbuilder, tailor, and a teacher. Reasons are obvious why he
is not a merchant. The uselessness of money or gold to one in his circumstances
shoiild be pointed out. The relations of Robinson Criisoe and Friday illustrate
man's dependence upon man, resulting in the organization of society, and
show the need of language as a means of commimication."
HISTORY: National holidays.
Longfellow's "Hiawatha's Childhood."
Indian life studied, with pictures, etc.
Indian family life, work of each member; compare with children's own family
STORIES : Including such as The Carpenter, The Baker, Shoemaker and Elves, The
Flax, Our Daily Bread, Hans the She])herd Boy, Luck and Wealth, A Visit to the
CONSTRUCTION WORK: A Adllage street, or city thoroughfare. Clay work, bas-
ketry, and other objects suggested by the storj'- of Robinson Crusoe or by Indian
As in the first year, the work centers around stories, conversations, and activities.
The stories include those of Robinson Crusoe and Hiawatha, which serve as the basis
for geographical and historical concepts, as well as various occupational stories as
indicated in the outline. The civic study still centers in the home, but it is the home
as affected by the outside community through agencies with which the child is
ah'eady familiaj* (the grocer, etc.).
The key to the use made of history in this grade and in all later grades is contained
in the following c^uotations from Dewey's "Moral Principles of Education," quoted
in the printed course of study for the guidance of teachers:
"History is vital or dead to the child according as it is or is not presented from the
"The ethical value of history teaching will l>e measured by the extent to which
past events are made the means of understanding the present. . . .
"It can present to the child types of the main lines of social progress, and can set
before him what have been the chief difficulties and obstructions in the way of prog-
ARITHMETIC : Even the learning of the simple arithmetical processes is correlated
to some extent with the general civic or social idea of the grade. The young children
frequently make visits to the grocery or market on errands for the home. In one
second-grade class visited, the children were reporting to the teacher the current
priceaof meats, groceries, and provisions of various kinds. ' ' Committees " of children
were made responsible for ascertaining the prices of particular articles, taken largely
from the sales checks accompanying each ])urchase. Boys whose fathers had grocer-
ies or meat markets were sometimes called upon to verify doubtful reports. The
data thus gathered were used as the basis for arithmetical work, as well as to make
real some of the civic ideas s;iggested in the outline. A beginning is here made,
also, in a study of domestic economy.
Note how the constnictiou work is made to reenforce the other work of the grade.
12 CIVIC EDXTC\TION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Note also the cultivation of responsibility, initiative, and cooperation by requiring
various children or groups of children to bring in the data for their arithmetic and
First half year: The home and the school.
Habits that apply to each — obedience, punctuality, thoughtful ness, service,
Appearance of the home and school — care of the yard, street, alley, vacant lots,
Care of property — furniture, school supplies.
Second half year: The home-and-school community.
Beauty and protection — lawns, trees, fences, public i)roperty.
Cleanliness — of streets and alleys.
Conduct — in streets and public places.
Treatment of strangers.
Value of cooperation.
"By the time the 3A grade is reached, children can appreciate to some degree
that they are factors in a community, and that their conduct will help to im-
prove or mar it. The pride expressed in 'My school ' or 'My home' can be en-
couraged to grow into 'Our district.' "
First half year:
Observation lessons and discussions on weather, sky, etc.
"Seven Little Sisters," by Jane Andrews.
The earth as the home of man.
The geography work is still looked upon rather as reading lessons and stories
than as a distinct "subject."
Informational material is subordinated to ethical and social features.
In the story of each ' ' sister " attention is given to dwelling; home life ; food ,
clothing, and shelter; occupations; customs; products — all in comparison
with our own life. What we get from the country of each of the sisters is
Second half year:
Observation work (moisture, soil, etc.).
"Each and All" — treated in a similar manner to "Seven Little Sisters."
Local geography, including such topics as:
Direction (of school) from business center.
Car lines to reach business center.
Nature of immediate district — maiuifactiu-ing or residential.
Surface — streams crossing it.
Streets — direction, how lighted, improvements.
Map of vicinity.
Story of early settlement (Stickney's "Pioneer Iudiana})olis, " jirepared
especially for the schools).
Growth in area and population.
Excursions in the neighborhood.
First half year: Pioneer stories read and discussed.
Second half year: Stories of Great Americans for Little Americans.
THE COURSE OF STUDY. 13
STORIES: Including such us The Leak in the Dike; Miller of the Dee; The Story of
a Piinter; The Stone CuttcM-; and stories of discovery and invention.
Maps of schoolroom, schoolhouse, school yard, and of the immediate neighborhood
and district are made.
From the third grade on the simj)le construction work of daily occurrence develops
into the more fornuil manual training, household arts, etc. The correlation of
this work with the work of civic training can best be shown in a section by itself
following this outline (p. 29).
The work of the year still centers around '"stories, " but stories with a definite geo-
gra])hical and historical contentoccupy the center of attention ("Seven Little Sisters"
and "Each and AH"). The story of "Pioneer Indianapolis" affords a basis for much
of the local work.
First half year: Indianapolis.
Stories of the growth of eacli of the following, and of how they serve the com-
Public schools, library, i>ost ofTice, street railway, hospitals, jiarks, tire and
police departments, city hall, courthouse, statehouse.
Our attitude toward people in public service.
Care of public buildings.
Cleanliness and beauty of surroundings.
Second half year: Indianapolis as an industrial center in touch with other parts of
the country, showing interdei)endence.
Sources of raw materials and destination of manufactured products.
Sources of food supply and clothing.
Development of means of transj^ortation.
J.feans of communication.
First half year:
The earth as a whole (^textbook used ior first time).
Industries — Kinds, location, materials used, jiroducta, people employed.
Stores, market, ice plants, coal yards, bakeries, construction of build-
ings, dairies, stockyards and meat packing, flour mills, lumber mills,
cement works, glass factories, foundries, cotton and woolen mills,
clothing manufactures, etc.
Excursions to industries.
Maps of city (old and new).
In the general work of the term (the earth as a whole) , the topic " races of people' -
is based on observation in Indianapolis. "Occupations'' arc discussed Avith
especial reference to Indianapolis and Indiana, using the map of the State
freely. The question, Why is it necessary to work for a living? is discussed.
14 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
GE O GRAPHY— Continued .
First half year — Continued.
As an illustration of method:
Quarrying. Not all of our houses are made of wood.
Name various kinds of stone; sandstone, granite, marble, etc.
Where may these be seen? (Statehouse, post office, Union Station, vv'indow
How obtained? (Description of quarrj-ing.)
Locate Bedford quarries on map of Indiana.
Visit buildings under construction.
Do any of j'^our relatives work in qiiarries?
Visit exhibit of stones in Sta.te museum.
Second half year: "Our continent, our country, oxir State."
"A first view of our continent, country, and State. . . . comprehensive enough
to serve as a foundation for further knowledge."
First half year: Explorers.
Cohimbus, Magellan, Drake, Peaiy and the discovery of the Nortli Pole, Amund-
sen and Scott and the discovery of the South Pole.
Second half year: Explorers.
Inventors— Morse and the telegraph; Edison; Bell and the telephone; Marconi
and the wireless; Captain Eads and bridge building; Goethals and the Panama
(Note relation to topics "transportation " and " communication " in civics and geognipliy.)
Geography, as an organized body of knowledge, now assumes sufficient importance
in the education of the cliild to become a sepai-ate "subject," with a textbook. It
becomes the cliief center for the organization of historical and civic knowledge. It
will be observed how the civics topics (not yet organized as a separate "subject")
naturally grow out of the geography work.
The work in English composition (oral and written) draws largely for its materials
in this grade as in others, upon the civics, geography and liistory, and affords an
opportunity for the discussion of civic questions.
The R'ork in arithmetic enters more or less definitely into the process of civic train-
ing, as illustrated in connection with the work of the second year. See the description
of "community arithmetic" on pp. 23-26, following.
How the opening exercises and the various activities of the school are coordinated
with the curriculum is described later in this bulletin.
First half year: Waste, saving, wise expenditure.
1. In the home — foods, clotliing, furniture, light, fuel, firecrackers, Christmas
Keep fences and walks in repair, house painted, hinges on doors and
gates, shoes, clotliing and furniture clean and in repair.
Economy in buying in large quantities under certain conditions.
Buying coal in July.
Care of health saves doctor's bills.
Good quality at liigher prices as against poor quality at low prices.
Does it pay to have a "cheap " workman paint the house?
Cultivation of a garden for economy's sake.
THE COURSE OF STUDY. 15
First half year — Continued.
2. In the school — in books, desks, playground apparatus, light, water, supplies.
3. In the city — mxitilation of buildings, destniction of trees, care of lawns, streets,
"Little habits of destruction cause a waste of public money."
Second half year:
1. Advantages of home ownership —
To the owner.
To the community.
2. Progress made by man living in permanent communities.
What nomadic life offers.
Wliat permanent settlements gi\'e us.
3. Comparison of cities in Europe and in our own country.
Care of streets; police; billboards; control of building constriiction; sani-
tation; parks; etc.
First half year: Asia, Australia, and Pacific Islands.
The geographical features of the countries in question are systematically and
thoroughly studied; but the work is controlled by the thought expressed by
Dr. McMurry: "The study of the eai'th alone, its phenomena and forces, its
vegetation and animals, its rocks and atmosphere, is natural science pure and
simple. The study of man in his work and progress, Ms struggles and repre-
sentative deeds, is history. The study of the earth as related to man is geog-
raphy. The moment a topic becomes purely scientific or purely liistorical it
loses its geographical character. Geography is the connecting bridge between
two great real studies — nature and man."
The work of this half year opens with a three-days' study of Kablu, the Aryan
Boy, from Jane Andrews' "Ten Boys" (see under History for this year).
When and where he lived; his dwelling and daily customs; occupations of
members of his family; tools used; causes of migration; the new home.
The story of Joseph is suggested for opening exercises and for several geography
lessons, emphasizing the pastoral stage of life.
These stories, together witli an intensive study of some of the more important
countries of Asia, center largely about the ideas involved in the civics of the
Nomadic versus settled life.
Certain tyi^es of industry.
Wastefulness and saving as exemplified in tlie habits of the people
Second half year: Europe.
The point of view and the method are similar to those in the first half year.
First half year: First four of the "Ten boys " (Kablu tlie Aryan; Darius the Persian;
Cleon the Greek; Horatius the Roman).
The story of Josejih.
The awakening of Japan.
Second half yeai" Last six of the "Ten boys. " (German, French, EngUsh, Pi-ritan,
Yankee, present day.)
Each "boy" is studied, as far as possible, just before the study of the country
to wliich he belongs. Constant comparison is made between the "boys,"
particularly along the following lines: Industrial advance; development of
education; political and social evolution; religion; the growing dependence
of one people upon other contemporaneous people and upon the past.
"The nine boys form a noble line of ancestors for the American boy."
16 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Second half year — Continued.
"Some of the scenes described in the book, such as the Roman trial, might
profitably be dramatized by the pupils. They should be encouraged to
make a history museum to which they might contribute representations of
such tilings as Kablu's house, Darius's bow and arrow, Cleon's stylus and wax
tablet. The gii-ls may dress dolls in the various costumes described."
First half year:
Cleanliness — of person; of premises.
Ordinances regarding removal of garbage, etc.
Protection of food and drink.
2. AVealth— Wliile children can do little to produce wealth they can do much to
Care of property in the home, school, neighborhood, public places.
3. Knowledge— "As the citizen develops, so the community develops."
Punctuality and regularity.
State laws on school attendance and working certificates.
Studious habits^Responsibility to self and class.
4. Beauty —
Beautifying home and sun'oundings.
Personal appearance, simplicity, good taste.
Care of trees, parks, park benches, etc.
5. Protection —
Protection of younger and weaker children.
Servdce to older people.
Danger of congregating in crowds in case of accident.
Care in crossing streets.
Second half year: "How the child as a member of the community may appreciate
what civic growth in the community has done for him, and how he may enjoy
what has been developed; how he should endeavor to conserve and protect but
never to destroy or mar."
A study of the civic growth of our city.
Water supply. Lighting and heating. Improved streets and l)oulevards.
Parks. Public and private buildings.
Growth of our schools; such topics as —
Advantages and disadvantages of location of our school; heating, lighting,
and ventilation; building and grounds; medical inspection; libraries and
art galleries; industrial training; etc.
GEOGRAPHY. "By the time the children have reached the sixth grade they are
sufficiently mature to approach the study of a continent or country with some
problem in mind.
• "Furthermore, children should begin to do some of the research work necessary
to secure the needed facts."
THE COURSE OF STUDY. 17
GEO GRAPH Y— Continued .
First half year: Africa; South America.
The study of Africa is centered around such problems as —
"Egypt was once the leading power of the world; to-day it is a country of
little influence and under the domination of England. \Miy?"
The study of South America may center around such problems as —
"Brazil, a countiy nearly as large as the United States and known to Euro-
pean countries 400 years ago, has a population only one-fourth as largo as
that of the United States and is just beginning to take a prominent ]iart
in international affaii's."
The teacher is urged to encourage the pupils to make their own problems
based on some current event.
Second half year: The United States.
The same principles control the study of this half year.
Conservation is emphasized.
Type studies of selected cities.
First half year: Primary history stories of heroism.
The period of discovery and colonization.
"Connect the history with the geography .... according to the children's
"Teachers will show the relation of Livingstone, Cecil Rhodes, Stanley, and
Kitchener to the develoi^ment of Africa."
Second half year: Primary history.
History in this year becomes a "subject " with a textbook.
Not only is there correlation of subject matter in geography, history, and civics,
but emphasis is given in the methods of teaching, to the cultivation of initiative,
judgment, cooperation, power to organize knowledge around current events — all of
which are civic qualities of first importance.
The civics work of this year becomes more systematic, though no textbook is used
and it occupies no separate place in the program. The elementary study of Ameri-
can history and the study of the geography of various countries afford the occasion
for a simple analysis of the "desires of man that a city tries to satisfy, " and for making
comparisons between different communities.
The pupils have their first systematic introduction to laws and ordinances relating
to the civic topics — "just those within the comprehension of sixth-grade chil-
dren. . . . Teachers will use judgment in dealing with these subjects."
Emphasis is laid on what the child can do for the community.
Many of the civics topics of this year, as of others, are partially developed in tlie
opening exercises and followed up in the oral and written composition work (see
A weekly lesson in hygiene in this gi-ade affords a further opportunity for discus.=iion
of questions of public health and sanitation.
Much community data is also gathered and discussed as the basis for problems in
arithmetic (see pp. 23-27).
"Generally speaking, three periods a week should be given to geography and two
to history. ^\1ienever necessary, a part of a geography period may be given to ' current
events.' . . . One period weekly the opening exercises should be devoted to civics."
93597°— 15 3
18 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
First half year: Civic beauty; gcn-ernment.
Impress upon the children that they and their parents owe it to the community
to help make it a desirable place in which to live. Create a sentiment for well-
kept honies, yards, streets, alleys; a pride in beautiful trees, parks. Decide
with the children what they can do to prevent the unsightly and to encourage
Show how, if the people become interested in it, the city will aid by (o) passing
sanitary regulations in regard to yards, etc.; (b) building good pavements and
keeping them clean and in repair; (c) making boulevards, parks, etc.; (d) pass-
ing ordinances for the protection of trees, birds, etc.
Government: The work on government must be as concrete as possible, approach-
ing it, perhaps, through the necessity for rules in the game, in the home, in
the school. The purpose is to emphasize the necessity for government, with
ample illustration of how the people may use it to satisfy their interests, with
which the children have by this time become familar, rather than to give a
great deal of information about the organization of government. State and
national, as well as local, government are referred to.
Second half year: Interdependence.
1. In the home among members of family,
2. In the community. Community furnishes schools, parks, transportation,
streets, etc. Individuals furnish labor and capital for private and public
enterprises, beautify the community in their own premises, etc.
3. Of city, State, and Nation.
4. Of different nations.
First half year: Some prominent nations of the world.
The work is centered about problems as in the preceding grade. Much attention
is given to social and economic aspects of the subject.
Second half year: The world in general. Conditions of commerce.
The sea as the great commercial highway. Causes, conditions, and control of
commerce, and the means of transportation.
The study of the British Empire, for example, includes —
How its parts are helpful to one another.
The means of knitting its parts together.
Relations of the Empire to the rest of the world.
The study of the United States in this grade includes —
What has caused it to become almost self-sustaining?
What has caused it to become one of the great commercial powers of the world?
Its present commercial status.
Conservation the great problem of the future if the present position at home
and abroad is to be maintained.
First half year: European beginnings of American history'- to the Crusades.
"No history should be treated as though it had a meaning or value in itself, but
should be made constantly to show its relation or contribution to the present . . .
In work of this grade, make children feel that the history of our country is a
part of the historj^ of the world and that it had its beginning many centuries
before its discovery. ..."
Second half year: European beginnings of American history from the (Jrusades
through the period of exploration.
THE COURSE OF STUDT. 19
No separate time allotment is yet given to ci\ics as such, except that at least one
opening exercise a week is set aside for tlxis purpose. Yet much emphasis is given
to the civic relations in connection with geography and history and the other work
of the school.
"Community arithmetic" has by the seventh year become an important part of
the regular work in arithmetic. It will be described in some detail in the pages
following this outline.
"The time given to history and civics should approximate three lessons a week to
history and two to civics. At opportune times consider important current events,
the time to be taken from either history or civics. The adjustment of the time ia
left to the teacher." (Note the flexibility of the arrangement.)
First half year:
The beginning of the community.
What is a community?
The site of the community.
Wliat the people in the community are seeking.
The home and the community.
The making of Americans.
The relations between the people and the land.
"Wliat the community is doing for the health of the citizen.
Waste and saving.
The commimity and religious life.
Second half year:
Protection of life and property.
The citizen in business life.
Relation of government to business life.
Transportation and communication.
Dependents, defectives, and delinquents, and what the community does for
How the community governs itself.
Changes in methods of self-government.
The government of rural communities — township and county.
The government of the city.
The government of the State.
The government of the Nation.
How the exj^enses of go^ ernment are met.
Fkst half year: United States history from colonization through the administration
of J. Q. Adams.
Second half year: United States history from the administration of Andrew Jackson
to the present.
20 CIVIC EDUCATIOISr IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
The eighth-grade course in civics is the culmination of the ci\'ic training of the child
in the elementary school. It is "not primarily an analysis of government In
fact, the study of government should not be gone into too deeply." It is intended to
give the pupil an organized conception of what his membership in the community
means. Government is discussed throughout the course as the supreme means by
which the entire community may cooperate for the common welfare. At the end of
the coiuse the main featiu-es of governmental organization are discussed in the light
of what has preceded.
The real object of study is the actual community life in which the children partici-
pate. The study of Indianapolis is therefore prominently in the foreground. But the
coiu"se is by no means merely a local study. The children are as truly members of a
State and a national community as of the local. Local, State, and national relations
are discussed in connection with each topic. Thus, in the study of health protection
or of the citizen in business life, for example, the pupil learns of the part played by
city, State, and Nation, of their relations to each other and to the citizen, and that the
governments of all thi-ee alike afford means of cooperation.
A textbook in civics is used this year for the first time. It is, however, merely a
guide to the study of the actual community, and an interpretation of it. "Magazine
articles, newspaper items, information gained fi'om pamphlets issued by city depart-
ments and .... through original investigation .... should constitute an important
part of the child's education."
The teacher exercises judgment in rearranging the order of topics suggested in the
outline, in order to adapt them to ciurent interests or to corresponding topics in history
or other subjects.
The topics in history and civics often directly supplement each other. For example,
the first eight topics suggested in the first half year fit well with the study of the period
of colonization. The significance of the topic "transportation and communication"
in civics is emphasized during the period of development of highways, canals, and
railroads in the nation.
Geography does not appear in the printed outline for this year, but it is an important
factor in both the history and the civics of the year.
"It is suggested that when possible the teacher of civics and the teacher of arithme-
tic cooperate." "Community arithmetic," described in detail in the pages following,
is given large emphasis in this grade.
Finally, the instruction of this year is accompanied by constant training by practice.
Cooperative activity for the common good is the keynote to the entire course. This
phase of the work is suggested in some detail in the following pages.
ILLUSTRATIVE SUGGESTIONS TO CIVICS TEACHERS.
In order to illustrate in greater detail the character and method of
the eighth-grade civics, the following "suggestions" to the teachers
of this grade with reference to the treatment of the topic "protec-
tion of health" are given. References are included to indicate the
kinds of materials used.
A week should be given to the subject; no exhaustive study can be made of it in
this time, however. Select the material for study and discussion with the following
ideas in mind:
To make real to the pupil the importance of health and of sanitary conditions to the
citizen and to the community.
To fix responsibility for health conditions of the community upon the citizen.
To inform the pupil regarding important conditions in Indianapolis.
SUGGESTIONS TO CIVICS TEACHERS. 21
To inform the pu})!! regarding the means of protecting health in Indianapolis.
To keep prominently in the foreground the civic relations of the subjects discussed.
To establish in the pupil the habit of proper action vv'ith reference to the public
Select wisely from the topics at the chapter end, and substitute others when occa-
sion suggests them.
Sanitary conditions of early times (Stickney, Pioneer Indianapolis, pp. 29-31).
The work of the school in behalf of health (T\ep. of Supt. of Schools, 1908-9, pp.
Medical inspection in the schools (Rep. of Supt. of Schools, p. 47; Rep. of Dept.
of Health, p. 8).
Contagious diseases (Rep. of Dept. of Health, pp. 7-11; also leaflets issued by
State board of health). Emphasize the difficidties encountered by government
authorities in enforcing these laws without the cooperation of each citizen and
Pure-water supply. Of the greatest importance to the coriimunity. The children
should know" that the public water supply of Indianapolis is excellent in quality,
and how it is obtained; that the greatest danger is from polluted wells, and from
unclean drinking cups and receptacles; that the Indianapolis Water Co. and the
health department have labored diligently and successfully to maintain a pure-
On pages 40-45 of the Report of the Department of Health are illuminating
tables showing results of analysis of both public and bottled water.
The Indianapolis Water Co. has been very courteous in providing means for
civics classes and their teachers to visit the filtration plant Arrange-
ments should be made in advance.
Pm-e-milk supply — hardly less important than the water supply. Instances of the
spread of disease thi-ough milk may be found in the Report of the Department
of Health, page 9.
Milk and dairy 'inspection (same report, pp. 4, 5, 58-72, 82-87; see photo-
A report of the work of the pure-milk stations established by the Children's
Aid Association soon to be published.
Emphasize the responsibility of the person who keeps a cow (or cows) for clean-
liness of animals and surroundings, and for care in handling milk.
Pure-food supply (Rep. of Dept. of Health, pp. 6, 7, 73-80, 90-95).
Point out the respective fields of local, State, and National Governments in
this connection. Note existence of State and national piu-e-food laws. Why
both? Why should the National Government appoint meat inspectors at Kingan's
packing house, while milk inspection is left In the hands of local authorities?
Disposal of the city's wastes. Printed reports meager. Little available material
except by observation. General references on. the subject at the chapter end.
Parks and playgi'ounds. Postpone study of park system as such until subject of
civic beauty is reached. Emphasize, however, the relation between parks and
Much literatiu-e on general subject of playgrounds (see such magazines as The
Survey). On local playground situation see Report of Superintendent of Schools,
General sanitation and hygiene. Numerous matters of public sanitary importance
may be brought close home to the pupil, such as cleanliness of back yards, expec-
toration on sidewalks and in street cars, etc.
Attention should especially be called to the fact that garbage, the accumula-
tion of stables, etc., attract and breed flies, and that flies are most dangerous dis-
ease carriers. Children can do much themselves to get rid of dangerous sources
22 CIVIC EDUCATION IN" ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Decrease in death rate. On page 22, Report of Department of Health, is a table
showing decrease in death rate in the period 1900-1908. This decreasing death
rate shows improving health conditions. Call attention to the fact that the board
of health and the city sanitarian have been increasingly efficient diu-ing the
last few years.
Governmental machinery for the protection of health. See Report of the Depart-
ment of Health. Emphasize different spheres of activity of local, State, and
To whom is the report of the board of health made? Why?
A TYPE LESSON.
The following summary of a discussion of health protection as it
occurred in an Indianapolis class is reproduced to illustrate the point
of view and the procedure of a class exercise in eighth-grade commu-
nity civics. The lesson extended over several days, including obser-
vational work, etc. Textbook assignment was made only after the
class discussion was well under way.
The pupils discussed informally what good health means to each one, and gave
examples from theii' own experience of consequences of sickness. They discussed
specific dangers to their own health, such as impure food, water, or air. They ex-
plained how they individually care for theii' own health, or how at times they axe
careless of it. They discussed how in many cases their health depends not merely on
their own care, but on the care of others, and how the danger to health is increased
where many people are gathered together. They gave examples of the dependence
of each upon others for health protection, as in the case of epidemics. They derived
from this the need for cooperation in the interest of health. They illustrated such
cooi^eration in the home and in the school, and mentioned rules that necessarily exist
in home and school for health protection. They gave examplfes of neighborhood coop-
eration for health protection, such as combined efforts for clean yards, alleys, and
streets. After observation and inquiry, they reported on actual menaces to health in
their own city, and made the logical deduction regaxding the necessity for cooperation
on the part of the entire city to avoid these dangers or to remove 1-hem. This raised
the question as to whether the city did so cooperate, and led to a thorough discussion
of how the city government proAddes the means for such cooperation. They went
into detail in regard to how the department of health insures pure water for the use
of each family, provides for the removal of garbage from their back doors, and preA^enta
the spread of contagious diseases. This brought under review the regulations (laws,
ordinances) bearing on these matters, the activities of the various health officers, and
how these are supervised by the board of health. The relation of the latter to the
people was discussed, and also the responsibility of each citizen for cooperation with
the board of health for the health of the community.
In a discussion of the various duties of the board of health, one boy asserted that
"it passes pure food laws." Another at once objected, "No, it is the National Gov-
ernment that makes the pure food laws." At once the horizon was broadened, the
question why the National Government acts in a case like this was discussed, and the
relation of the great packing houses (for example) to the common health interests of
the entire Nation was disclosed. This led to a consideration of other national health
interests, and of what the National Government is doing in this field. It also sug-
gested the sphere of State activity, which was in turn related to the interests of the
individual and to the activities of the local and the General Government.
CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 23
"Community aritlimetic" is not a course separate from the regular
arithmetic course in the Indianapohs schools; nor does the "commu-
nity" feature characterize all arithmetic work done in the grades.
There is no forced correlation between arithmetic as such and commu-
nity study. The life in which the children participate simply fur-
nishes the data for much of the arithmetic study; and, on the other
hand, the arithmetic study affords opportunity for fixing important
social and civic ideas.
In the introduction to the printed course of study in community
arithmetic for the eighth grade occur the following statements:
A controlling principle in the development of any topic is that to be of value, it
must appeal to the life of the individual in such a way as to excite his interest.
This is as true of arithmetic as of any other subject in the curriculum. If the prob-
lems arise from the community interests, the home, or the industrial work of the
pupil, he at once becomes interested in their solution.
A rational presentation of the processes and the principles of arithmetic can be
secured as well through material representing real conditions as through material
representing artificial conditions.
What is said in this bulletin regarding community arithmetic is
based largely on the printed suggestions for the work in the seventh
and eighth grades. A revision of this course is now under way, by
which it will probably be extended through the fifth to the eighth
grades inclusive. Even at the present time real community arith-
metic may be found more or less definitely provided for in all grades,
according to the resourcefulness of the principals and teachers in
charge. Reference has already been made to it (pp. 11, 14, 19, 20).
All that can be attempted here is to suggest and illustrate the
method of community arithmetic. It should be stated that the
pupils are expected, as far as possible, to make their own problems
from data acquired from their own observation and research.
PROBLEMS RELATING TO FOOD, CLOTHING, AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY.
Pupils in groups, or committees, report on current prices, which
are placed on the blackboard in the form of market quotations. A
large number and variety of problems are based on such price lists.
Find the cost of the following dinner: ^ pound chicken; I pound coffee; celery,
15 cts.; J peck potatoes; f pound butter; 1 loaf bread; 1 can best peas; 1 head
cauliflower; 1 cake at 35 cents; 1 quart ice cream.
A man earns $1.75 per day. He pays $1.50 a week for rent, $1 for f«el and $1 for inci-
dental expenses. Make a list of groceries which his wife could afford to order
during the week for a family of four. She should be able to save a small amount
each week for clothing.
The pupil should consult his mother before making his list.
Compare the cost per pound of sugar bought by the pound with the co£t when Ijought
by the 25-pound sack.
24 CIVIC EDUCATIOX IN ELEMEXTAEY SCHOOLS.
Compare the cost per liar of laundry soap bought by the bar and by the quarter's
worth; by the bar and by the box, by the quarter's worth and by the box.
Compare the cost of potatoes bought at the market by the quarter-peck with the cost
by the peck; by the bushel.
A housekeeper having canned a bushel of peaches wants to know the cost per can.
Find it if a bushel of peaches, 9 pounds of sugar, 100 cubic feet of gas, and 15
Mason jars were used.
Find the value of the canned peaches in this problem at current prices.
COST OF LIGHTING AXD HEATING.
Diagrams of electric and gas meters are studied, and tlio children
taught how to read them. Such problems as the follo^\dng are
f ormuhited :
Read your electric meter for two successive months and calculate the bill at 10 cents
per kilowatt hour.
In case your school uses electric current, read the meter at intorvalo cf a week and
determine the cost at 7^ cents per kilowatt hour.
Pupil bring a receipted gas bill and determine the position of the hands on the dial for
the given readings.
FURNISHING THE HOME.
Ask the boys to decide vvhat furniture is required for certain rooms of the house,
say, the kitchen, dining rjom, living room, and a bedroom; the girls to decide upon the
necessary dishes, cooking utensils, linen, and curtains. From their replies, made in
writing, a list of the necessary articles may be made out.
Have them consult the newspaper advertisements to determine a low, an average,
and a high price for each article. Determine the cost on each of the three bases for a
minimum outfit for the four rooms m-entioned. This problem should be planned so as
to take as little class time as necessary.
A great variety of problems of a practical character may be formu-
lated under this head, of which the following are merely samples:
Frank left school at 14 years of age to go to work at |4 a week. His wages were raised
50 cents a week at the end of each year of employment. His cousin Will, who
was of the same age, went through high school and, because of his better education,
got a position which paid |7 a week as soon as he had graduated at the age of 18.
His salary was raised §2 a week at the end of each year. At 25 years of age which
one had earned the more money, and how much, calling the working year 50 weeks?
How much does a man save by buying coal at $4 a ton instead of paying 15 cents a
basket? (A basket of coal weighs about 50 pounds.)
Mr. Lawrence bought his coal in May at $5.50 a ton. Mr. Starr postponed buying his
until October, when he had to pay $7 a ton. Each bought 13 tons. How much
more did Mr. Starr pay than Mr. Lawrence?
Many of the problems m community arithmetic are based upon
actual operations or transactions m the industries of Indianapolis,
and in many cases are formulated by business men of the community.
COMMUNITY AEITHMETIC. 25
Fifty-two men are employed in the B. paper mills; 42 are unskilled workmen, whose
average wage is $1.80 per day; the others are machinists, whose wages average
$3.30 a day. If they work every day in the year excejjt Sunday, what arc the
total wages paid?
If they worked 12^ hours per day, what is the rate per hour for each class of workmen
as stated above?
This mill uses a million and a half dollars' worth of printers' scraps every year. At
65 cents a hundred pounds, how many tons is that?
They use 30 tons of coal every 24 hours. At $2.50 per ton, what does the fuel cost for
one year, excluding Sundays?
In New York City land is sold by the square foot; in Indianapolis by the front foot.
'\Miat price must be paid in New York for a lot 100 feet long and 40 feet wide at
$50 a square foot? What is the sum paid for a lot of the same size in Indianapolis
at $50 a front foot?
INDIANAPOLIS GAS PLANT.
Among the important by-products of gas-making are coke, tar, and ammonia liquor.
200 tons of coal are used per day.
65 per cent of this amount is used in the retorts in which the gas iv? made.
70 per cent of the amount in the retorts is coke.
1 pound of coal yields 5 cubic feet of gas, sold at 60 cents per 1,000 cubic feet.
1 ton of coal yields 3J pounds of ammonia, sold at 16 cents a pound.
1 ton of coal yields 14 gallons of tar, sold at 3 cents a gallon.
The plant has a large tank, with a capacity of 3,000,000 cubic feet and a relief tank
with a capacity of 1,000,000 cubic feet,
1 carload contains 40 tons. of coal.
The coal costs the company from $2.50 to $3 per ton.
Coke is sold at an average of $6 a ton.
The plant has 72 retorts, each holding | ton, and which are filled every six hours.
The plant keeps in reserve a supply of coal and coke (10,000 tons of each) to last them
four months in case of a strike in the mines.
There is sufficient gas in the tanks to last patrons 18 hours in case the plant were shut
down for any reason.
There are two furnaces, making from 50,000 to 60,000 cubic foot of gas per hour.
It costs 15 cents per foot to pipe a house for gas.
An ordinary gas burner consumes from 4 to 6 cubic feet of gas per hour.
With, this concrete data relating to the Indianapolis gas plant in
hand, such problems as the following are formulated :
How much coal is used in making enough gas to fill the large tank? Find the cost of
the coal at $2.75 per ton.
Which yields the larger profit, and how much — the coke or the gas?
How much ammonia is made daily?
How long will both furnaces have to run to fill both tanks?
The data upon which the problems are based were gathered by pupils during a
visit to a bakery.
Among other things the manager told the children that a barrel of flour will bring
$23 when made into a certain kind of crackers. The pupils thought tliis an unusual
per cent of gain until the expense connected with the business and the loss incurred
by stale goods were considered.
26 CIVIC EDUCATION- IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
The oiitput of a bakery is 150,000 loaves of bread per week. Tliis is sold to local grocers
at 4 cents a loaf. The grocers in turn sell 92 per cent and return the remainder to
■ the bakery; 50 per cent of this remainder is sold at the bakery at 2 loaves for 5
cents; 10 per cent of it at l^ cents a loaf; 40 per cent is ground and sold at |25 a
ton. (This will average about 12 ounces to a loaf.) Wliat are the baker's weekly
If the output is 150,000 loaves a week and $3,600 is spent for flour, $750 for other
material, and $400 for labor, what is the average cost of production per loaf?
A certain family uses an average of 10 loaves of bread a week. How much cheaper
would it be for them to make the bread than to pay 5 cents a loaf when flour is
$5.50 a barrel and the cost of fuel and other material averages $1.10 to each barrel
of flour? (12 ounces flour to each loaf.)
FIRE DEPARTMENT PROBLEMS.
During the year 1910 the fire department responded to 1,402 calls. During the year
1911 it responded to 1,700 calls. "What was the per cent increase in calls for 1911?
The Indianapolis Water Co. notified the department of 129 fire hydrants put in service
during 1910, m-aking a total of 2,709 hydrants in service. If the city pays $45 rent
annually for 1 hydrant, what was the total water bill for fire hydrants? How
much was the increase in the 1910 bill?
CITY HOSPITAL PROBLEMS.
In 1910 there were 3,520 patients at the hospital. The total expenses for the year were
$93,594.57. "V^liat was the per capita expense?
On January 1, 1910, there were 10 patients in the tubercular colony; 56 entered during
the year. Of these patients, 39 were discharged as improved and 1 as cured.
What per cent of the patients were benefited?
During the year 1910 there were 3,520 patients treated at the hospital. Of these, 7
came from Bulgaria, 12 from Greece, 15 from Hungary, 24 from Macedonia, 1 from
Montenegro, 36 from Roumania, 33 from Servia, 1 from Turkey. What per cent
of all patients came from the southeastern part of Europe?
The problems vary from school to school, and from time to time,
in accordance with current interest and occasion. Every industry
or business in Indianapolis may suggest problems, as also the work of
every department of the city government or of the institutions of the
city. The problems suggested in the printed syllabus for the eighth
grade represent, for example, the follo-w-ing activities and depart-
ments of community life: Lumber business, building construction,
brush and broom factory, gas plant, bakery, canning factory, veneer
w^orks, dairy and milk depot, iBre department, city market, city hos-
pital, taxation, government of the To^vn of Woodruff Place (an
independent corporation within the limits of Indianapolis), a branch
of the city library, cement walks and street improvements, construc-
tion of a boulevard, railway passenger service, transportation, track
elevation, insurance, stocks and bonds.
CIVIC TRAINING THROUGH PRACTICE.
From the foregoing partial outline of the elementary course of study
in the Indianapolis schools, it is evident to v/hat extent the so-called
''book studies" — arithmetic, geography, history, English, civics — are
CIVIC TRAINING THROUGH PRACTICE. 27
in reality studies of aspects of real life and contribute directly to the
civic training of the child. One principal stated the idea as follows:
Civics ia related to every subject. Life is a unit. We may emphasize a certain
expression of that life, such as arithmetic, or history, or geography, but civics is not
absent from any of it any more than morals is absent from any of it. Yet sometimes a
lesson in ci\T.cs, pure and simple, is given.
From the practice in the Indianapolis schools three phases of the
process of civic education stand out clearly.
1. The first of these is to help the pupil (so far as his mental
maturity will permit) to understand the nature of his own community
life, his dependence upon it, and his responsibility for it.
2. The second is to develop a proper understanding of, and a right
attitude toward, government as the supreme means hy which all memhers
of the community may cooperate for the com,mon interest.
3. The third is to cultivate habits of right action as a member of
the commiunity, and in relation to its government or control.
The foregoing outline amply illustrates how the entire course of
study is made to contribute to the child's understanding of his own
community. His "own community" may mean his home, his school,
his city, his State, or his jSTation. He is given instruction with refer-
ence to each of these, and ideas and habits developed with reference
to one are applied to others.
Incidentally and gradually, also, the pupil is familiarized with the
idea of government and its function. In the upper grades more
stress is laid upon this aspect of civic education until, in the eighth
grade, a systematic and well-organized course in civics, as such, is
given in which the work of government as the agent of the community
is especially emphasized, but always with reference to the community
life and interests with which the child is by this time quite familiar.
An understandmg of community life and of government, however,
is fruitless without the cultivation of qualities and habits of good
citizenship. Instruction and trauiing must go hand in hand. The
latter is largely a matter of practice. In the remainmg pages of this
bulletin an attempt will be made to suggest by illustration, rather
than to describe in detail, how civic trainmg through practice is
reahzed in the Indianapolis schools.
Reference has been made to the fact that the opening exercises
are utilized to impress civic lessons. In fact,^ until the eighth grade
is reached, the opening exercises are the only periods allotted spe-
cifically to civics as such. In some of the schools, though not in all,
the children themselves are made responsible for the conduct of these
exercises. They choose their own committee to arrange the program,
28 CIVIC EDUCATIOX IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
and they understand that the main topic must grow out of the life
of the school or school environment. The topic chosen often becomes
the topic, also, for oral or \\Titten English composition work in the
classes that follow.
For example, the central idea for an opening exercise in the sixth
grade was ''protection." Stories appropriate to the subject were
given. This was followed up in oral composition work in the English
classes by calling upon the children to tell incidents in their own
experience to show how boys and girls have been helpful to the com-
munity by affording protection to some person or thing. A girl told
of a boy who had voluntarily opened a street drain after a heavy rain.
A boy told of the benefit arising from the gathering by school children
of cocoons of certain destructive moths.
On the other hand, incidents brought out in class work sometimes
afford material for the openmg exercises. A boy one day told, in a
written composition, of a Halloween prank in which a chicken coop
w^as destroyed and the chickens set free. This story not only fur-
nished the topic for further composition work on "The right kind
of Halloween pranks," but provided excellent material for several
"civics" lessons in succeeding opening exercises.
The importance of these incidents lies not so much in their subject
matter, however, as in the fact that the children were being trained
in seK-management, in initiative, in judgment, m power to organize
and apply their knowledge.
METHOD OF CONDUCTING CLASSES.
One of the conspicuous features of the best recitations (and the
aim was common to all recitations observed) was the democratic
.spirit that prevailed — a spirit that left upon the visitor an impres-
sion not of a teacher and a class, but of a class community which
included the teacher, working together on problems of common
interest. There are times when one forgets the presence of a teacher,
so thorouglily is the initiative taken by the pupils. She never
hesitates to adopt the role of learner nor to permit the pupil to
become the teacher. Whether a lesson in geography or history, or
even in government itself, is good or bad from the point of view of
civic trainmg depends far less on the subject matter than on the
method by which it is presented.
Reference was made on page 16 to the "problem method" by
which geography is taught in the sixth and seventh grades. The
study of the geography of Africa or of South America in relation
to concrete problems suggested by current events or by present
interests is mtended to cultivate the habit of organizing knowl-
edge, to stimulate initiative, to develop judgment. So in the
CIVIC TRAINING THROUGH PRACTICE. 29
second grade (page 11), when groups of 7 or 8 year old children
bring in prices of butter and eggs and bread and ribbons as a basis
for simple aritlunetical operations, they are not merely studying
arithmetic, nor even learning first lessons in domestic economy;
they are having their sense of personal responsibility for the class
work cultivated and being trained in habits of cooperation.
In some of the schools valuable collections have been made of
materials illustrative of various studies — pamplilets, reports, photo-
graphs, samples of textiles in process of manufactm'e, etc. Such
collections are not provided for the pupils, but are obtained hj
them. Much of this collecting has been done by correspondence
with manufacturers, business men, and public officials. All the
members of a class write letters for the trainmg this involves; but
only one letter is sent — the one that the class decides is in best
form. The children learn not only how to write letters of request
and of thanks and appreciation for answers and materials received,
but also through what channels the requests should properly be
made, and, more important than all, perhaps, to respect the time
and convenience of public officials and business men by not imposing
upon them a number of similar requests when one will suffice. They
learn that while one function of the public official is to furnish
information, it is the duty of the citizen not to interfere unnecessarily
with the performance of more important public service.
Shop work, domestic science, and school gardening afford peculiar
opportunities for group work, and therefore for the cultivation of
social and civic habits. Such work is seen at its best, in Indianapolis,
in the six or eight schools known as "industrial" or "vocational
centers." These are not vocational schools in the strict sense;
"trades" or "vocations" are not taught m them. But their work is
adapted directly to the social and industrial requirements of the homes
upon which they draw. Shop work, home making and home man-
agement, and the industrial aspects of the "book" studies (arith-
metic, geography, etc.) are especially emphasized.
When the girls of a class act ui turn as hostesses at a weeldy
luncheon, the preparation and serving of which they have super-
vised and the materials for which they have marketed and some-
times raised in their own gardens, it is not, strictly speaking, a
lesson in "civics;" but it affords opportunity for the cultivation of
habits which have a direct civic value. In connection with such
work the civic relations of home making and home management are
A number of cottages adjoining one of the colored schools, and
formerly occupied by colored families, have been acquired by the
30 CIVIC EDUCATTOX IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
school board. These cottages have been repaired, decorated, and
furnished ahnost entirely by the labor of the pupils, the shop work, the
art work, and the mathematics centering largely about the practical
operations involved. While some of these have been appropriated for
shop or industrial purposes, others have been transformed into typical
dwellings in which all the household arts are taught by practice. In
this school, also, cobblmg is taught, because of its practical utility
in the neighborhood. Much shoe repairing is done here for the
families of the vicmity. The print shop of this school, like that of the
other ''industrial centers," does much of the printmg required by the
school board. Luncheon is served at small cost for such pupils as
desire it. The marketing of the materials, the preparation and serv-
ing of the luncheon, and the accounting of expenditures and proceeds,
are all done by the pupils themselves. Profits are devoted to the
further equipment of the plant. Incidentally, many children are
provided with more nourishing food than they would obtain at home.
A savings bank is conducted in this school.
These are merely illustrations. Such activities are motivated by
real community needs and interests. The principal of the school from
which these illustrations are taken remarked that the proficiency of the
pupils in their ''civics" work was judged "98 per cent on the basis of
conduct and 2 per cent on the basis of the recitation." This school
is also the center of a neighborhood that has been literally trans-
formed physically and socially as a result of the influence of the school.
PUPIL PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL CONTROL.
Reference has been made to the democratic spirit prevailing in the
classrooms (p. 28). Generally speaking, this spirit is characteristic
of the entire life of the elementary schools of Indianapohs, though it
is more fully developed in some than in others. The theory is that if
children are to be trained to Uve in self-governmg communities they
must be given practice in self-management. The end is accomplished
in a perfectly natural manner by cultivating in the children a sense of
their personal responsibility for the conduct and welfare of the school
community, and by giving them fuU opportunity to participate in its
direction. The common interests of the school community are kept
constantly in the foreground, the necessity for cooperation to safe-
guard these common interests is made apparent, and the initiative and
judgment of the children are stimulated and trained by various
methods, some of which have already been mentioned.
In no instance, at the present time, is an Indianapolis school organ-
ized for purposes of self-government on the model of a city or State.
The school is considered as a simple community, with its own distinc-
tive characteristics and conditions of life. The idea seems to be to
CIVIC TKAINING THROUGH PRACTICE. 31
cultivate in the children habits of self-government in the actual con-
ditions of their present Ufe, and not to introduce conditions that are
wholly fictitious so far as the school is concerned and that can be only
the roughest approximation to the conditions of life and government
m a city or a State.
There has been at least one successful experiment in Indianapolis ,
in pupil self-government on the "school city" plan, with a mayor,
council, courts, and poUcemen. This was in the colored school men-
tioned above (p. 29), mider the administration of a former principal.
This "school city" plan has been abandoned by the present principal,
not because it broke down at any point, but rather in the interest of
simphcity and "natm-ahiess." This history of the movement for
pupil self-government m Indianapolis can not be taken as evidence
that the more formal devices for self-government, such as the "school
city," are failures. Such a device was higlily successful mider given
conditions in the one case cited. It does seem to afford evidence,
however, that the device is nonessential from the point of view of
effective training for self-government. Many in Indianapolis would
go further than this, and say that the more "natural" method of
pupil participation in school control which prevails in that city is more
far-reaching in its educational value. Among other things, it
removes all danger of dependence upon mere machinery and insures
a reality of conditions and of reaction to them.
Of course it is recognized that dramatization of government pro-
cedure has a value as a means of mstruction. Such dramatization of
councils and courts occm's in the Indianapolis schools, but it is distinct
from the real self-government of the schools except in so far as the
pupils manage the dramatization.
Pupil participation in school management is a very real thing in
Indianapolis, and in some schools is carried to a high degree of effec-
tiveness. It consists m a realization of the theory that the school is a
real community with characteristics of its own, although possessing
certain fundamental characters in common with aU communities. Of
this community, pupils and teachers are members with certain com-
mon interests. Cooperation is the keynote of the community life.
The realization of this cooperation is seen in the classrooms, in study
halls, in the assembly room, in the corridors, on the playground. It
manifests itself in the method of preparing and conducting recita-
tions; in the care of school property; in protecting the rights of
younger children; in maintaining the sanitary conditions of the
building and gromid; in the elimination of cases of "discipline" and
of irregularity of attendance; in the preparation and conduct of open-
ing exercises, school entertainments, and graduating exercises; in
beautifying school grounds; in the making of repairs and equipment
for "our school"; in fact, in every aspect of the school life. If
32 CIVIC EDUCATio:^ iisr elementary schools.
"machinery" is necessary, committees appropriate to the occasion are
chosen by the pupils themselves.
PUPIL PARTICIPATION IN THE CIVIC LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL.
Pupil participation in the government of the school shades imper-
ceptibly into pupil participation in the larger civic life of the com-
munity of which the school itself is a part.
In the first place, the fact is continually emphasized that the
children are now citizens of the larger communities of city, State,
and Nation, and that in going to school they are doing the very thing
that the community expects of them. Regularity and diligence in
school work are made to seem a public service. School buildings and
equipment are public property. Teachers, principals, superintend-
ents, and school board are a part of the governing machinery of the
city and State. The children's cooperation with these representatives
of the community is good citizenship of the most practical kind.
The maintaining of order on the playground naturally extends to
the maintaining of order on the streets in the vicinity of the school.
It is common for committees of older boys to look after the safety of
younger children in crossing streets near the school. Solicitude for
the cleanliness and beauty of school grounds develops equal solicitude
for the cleanliness and beauty of adjoining streets, alleys, lawns, and
vacant lots. School gardening quickly stimulates home gardening,
and whole neighborhoods have been transformed through the influence
of the schools. The sodding of the barren dooryard of an adjoining
tenement by a group of colored schoolboys led in one case to imitative
activity on the part of neighboring residents. Neighboring fences
were straightened up, walks repaired, back yards cleaned.
Experience in Indianapolis, as elsewhere, shows that children are
eager enough to do things if their interest is once aroused. The
problem is one of guiding action rather than of stimulating it. Pupil
participation in community activities demands good judgment on the
part of the teacher and affords excellent opportunity to train the
judgment of the pupd. Children should not be permitted to develop
undue officiousness nor to assume responsibilities that properly
belong elsewhere. In the suggestions for teachers in the Indianapohs
course of study occurs the warning, for example, that "petitions and
reporting should be left to the more mature judgment of adults" — a
pertinent suggestion in view of the somewhat common practice of
adult organizations in many cities to "make a showing" by obtain-
ing the signatures of school children to petitions relating to questions
about which they can by no possibihty form an independent judg-
A few years ago, while the children in the Indianapolis schools were
studying questions relating to public health, they became much
CIVIC TRAINING THEOUGH PEACTICE. 33
aroused by the existing conditions of sidewalks, street cars, and other
pubhc places because of the violation of the ordinance against expec-
toration. As usual they wanted to do something about it. Many
(hke their elders) wanted to complain of the situation — complain to
the street railway authorities, to the board of health, to the mayor,
to the pohce. Discussion, however, led to the conclusion that it was
diflicult to place responsibility in any one spot, and that, anyway,
mere complaint seldom accompUshed much. Some proposed speak-
ing personally to offenders. Others thought that this would be too
officious and might expose children to abuse. Various methods of
procedure were thus discussed. The final conclusion was reached
that there was no reason why the street railway authorities should
want dirty cars, and that there must be difficulties in the way;
therefore, let a committee be appointed by a proper authority (which
they decided should, in their case, be the supermtendent of schools)
to inquire of the street railway authorities what their difficulties wore
and to offer the assistance of the children in any way that seemed
feasible. This step ultimately led to a general movement in which
the street railway officials, the board of health, many civic organiza-
tions, and the newspapers united, ending in a successful campaign for
health and cleanfiness. The children's participation consisted in three
things: They initiated the general movement through proper chan-
nels; they helped form public opinion by their conversation at homo
and with friends; and they themselves observed the law against
expectoration. The chief importance of the incident, so far as the
children were concerned, was the training in judgment, in initiative,
in cooperation, in responsibility, which they derived from it.
Spectacular children's crusades have not been in evidence m
Indianapolis; but tlu'oughout the schools the children are quietly
being trained in habits of cooperation with the fire department, the
board of health, the street-cleaning department, the school and
library authorities, and all public and private agencies of the city
and State, in the interest of the common welfare. The following
incident illustrates this.
The board of health requested the school children to cooperate
with it in the mspection of the city for unsightly and insanitary con-
ditions, noting especially the disposal of rubbish and garbage and
the. presence of manure bins in alleys. In one school the class in
civics proceeded as follows:
1. The class drew upon the blackboard a map of their district, indicating streets
2. The boys of the class were divided into squads, each sqxiad to be responeiljle for
a given section of the district.
3 . Each boy prepared a map of his own section.
34 CIVIC EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
4. The boys went in i^airs through their respective sections, taking notes concern-
ing conditions, and locating on their maps places noted.
5. These notes and maps were examined and criticized by the girls, Avho made fur-
ther inspections in groups.
6. The boys reinspected localities criticized adversely by the girls.
7. Written reports in good English, accompanied with the maps, were made to the
secretary' of the board of health, and the complete report delivered in person to the
Becretaiy by a member of the class.
8. Two weeks later the boys reinspected the district, to find what improvements the
board of health had made.
9. Reports of failure to remedy conditions in certain localities were made to the
Becretary of the board, with an invitation to him to look over the district with them.
10. The secretary came to the school, explained to the class the working system of
the board, and assuring them of as speedy action as possible.
11. The boys located, with the secretary, on the school map the most flagrant offenses
against civic health and beauty.
12. The boys who reported the worst sections took the secretary to the points indi-
cated on the map.
13. Two weeks later the boys again visited their special sections. They found:
(a) In a number of cases families were taking better care of garbage and of sur-
(b) The board of health was at work cleaning up the district.
IS SUCH CIVIC EDUCATION EFFECTIVE?
Whether the children who are now undergomg this training for
citizenship will in reality be efficient citizens 10 or 20 years hence can
not, of course, be foretold. But there is apparently ample evidence
that they are better citizens 7iow, and moreover, that the i^resent
civic life of the city is appreciably affected by it.
The growth of the qualities and habits which it is the chief pur-
pose of civic education to cultivate is observable. The growmg inter-
est of children in their community relations; the assumption of an
increasmg measure of responsibility for the welfare of the commu-
nity — home, school, neighborhood, or city; the power to mterpret
knowledge in terms of community interest; the development of civic
initiative and of judgment; the growth of effective cooperation; the
increasmg respect for law which is the expression of a common inter-
est — such traits and habits as these are being developed more or less
obviously under the eyes of teachers and parents. Teachers not only
observe the change in conduct in the school, but say that it is no
uncommon thing for parents to inquire what is being done in the
schools to cause the transformation observable in the conduct of
children at home.
But the effect reaches beyond the school and the individual home.
In some cases, as has already been said, whole neighborhoods have
been transformed. One large section of Indianapolis in particular,
formerly a physical and moral plague spot, has become almost a
model of orderliness, and unquestionably this is due chiefly to the
IS SUCH CIVIC EDUCATION EFFECTIVE. 35
influence of the neighborhood school, although the latter has sought
and obtained the cooperation of other agencies in bringmg about the
residt. In a neighborhood of a very different character from that
just mentioned two adult civic organizations have been organized
in the mterest of neighborhood welfare and to stimulate wider inter-
est in the city as a whole as a direct result, it is said, of the activities
and the unconscious mfluence of the children of the school.
These are but illustrations. They are enough to suggest that where
immediate results are so apparent and so far-reachmg, the effect
upon future citizenship should certainly be appreciable.