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Full text of "Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal"

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THE 



CIYIL ENGINEEK 



AKD 



AEC HITECT^S 



J U E N A L. 



VOLUME XX. -1857. 



L X D N : 

n. CllOOMBRIDGE AND SONS, 5, PATKRNOSTKR ROW; J. HEALE, Ilinil HOLBORN; W. ROBERTSON, 

DUBLIN; J. CORNISH, GRAFTON STRKKT, r)UBf,IN, AND LORD STREET, LIVERPOOL; 

J. J. CORNISH, PICCADILLY, MANCHESTER; CORNISH RROTHERS, BIRMINGHAM; 

SUTHERLAND, EDINBCRCIl; MATHIAS. PARIS; MCQUARDT, BRUSSELS. 



PSIXTEO iVD PCDI.lSnm BT Kits lilOTT, or PARK PLAI'X, SlirTH tl.(''i(NF,T, VOF. Till! PBOrSIETOIl, FBIDEBIOK WILLIAV LUIOH, i.1 TBI 

OFFICR, l.'t, VTAHirit'K Clll'IIT. nill.ll(.'UH, 



oVfA ^ 



^'l 



THE 



■7 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL. 



CHCBCH OP ST. PHTLIP THE EVANGELIST, ABUKOTON SQUABi; KLINOTON. 

(miA an Engraving, PlaU L) 



Thb ■traetsr*, the anbjeet of our firit V\»,lt, U In tli« Anglo- 
Nvmui s^le of tbe lj!lb f«itury, aud u ouiuitrtiL-Ud with 
Eaatnfc n^^tone in nttden walliu(r, nnd B«t)i hIoro drtwinf^ 
MBid ooatftlH ■ilWillllMllltlllill ftir 10.'>-1 iMTsonii, •.■liicJIjr KKtcd on 
tiM grauad floor. Tim uidmt huilicd form han bpen iwJapt«d, 
with CfrMin additiona. h> rtnder it laiubtt? ior a mudurn chimh, 
It cooiMa of nare, aicie aiilvs, and tnasi^pM, wild a itvinicireuUr 
■pie for tb« allu- at the «a«i«ru tcniiimttion of thn navn. Tho 
pMnUuitiM of the Rtri* will Ixi mcd to ooiuint in iu nuurivo 
nUdltf and boldnei* □!' outline, with k prevalanco of horiioatal 
Hbm aod a T*xt rari«ty of siufftoe oarring, for wliiah ^J>^^ 
Nortnan work, in ila Goal 'Jert>lo[itiieot, waa 10 nmarkabla. Tbo 
tower ia a lo*, Miuarv Ntnicture at the aorth-eaat angla of oeat 
tiottt, iaaked With broad (Ut buttreaaea. Its elemtioii coDiiila of 
ikrM alagf . tho loircr part farming one of the iiriacipnl riittaiioui 
t» tfae (%iirch, and the upper port the brliry. thv tuiivrm of 

[vhtdi are in p*ir*, wlthfaa dMpIj-rvoeaaeil npiiii'.-irciilar arrlim, 

oamM dlrirling the lower frtagna iif thp Inwrr; unuJl 

>Te; and th« mmica are nil drcomtod with nurfafe 

<ii«alar piniiacle ahafta at the anuleo tormiiiate vilh 

'■rTedToonodeapaiaDdaloir, timber, pyramidal roof covered with 
lead and auraioBBtod by avwie,llnietiMtlie tower. The priaolpal 
ntianoo donrwav in in thn Wist frnnt, and a* well lU that in tho 
toww, OMuiata lA a aerie* of *emidr<niKr deeply -rcceuoJ arches, 
wiifc a eoMidnaUe unomit of oarviug uiiou tbem. L'bevrou 
■oolded work, aaw-t^oth and beaded enrioliuiAuIa, twisted cablu 
AalOt, noettiM, and varied *itniillc«nt dnvioes, three Remiclrcdar 
hwntoil iriflilawe, alas enricrhol vith caning, and a larfce circular 
vhaal window, flU ap the western gable, whioh U aurmounted 
bf a dwraetertttio stone «roM. A amall atoue turret ia ZLttoohed 
la the waM and of soitth aisle; the lower alage ia aquiuw, with ibt 
«lnidar4i«ailad earrad doorway; tho uppor part is brooched into 
cfavalar form, and mrmoiiuted by a conical carved abcme root 
The Donh braneept hai* a limilir doorway, varied in detail In 
which the law-tooth billet and aiK mff mi)uldlnji prerail. Two 
MOlUirenlar-lwndod windown abi'vr, cthibit a furtliw vaiiety of 
carrtpc, in whioh the ilonblp chnvrun and bea>le<l onridiinente 
Bia <Aeliv«]y applied. A lingl^liriil drciikr window in tho 
griila aboTV u ammouated by a pUnlj cut itaue ctdb. The aide 

, 274— Vol XX.— Jaxuabt, ISO?. 



atalM are lighted bt a plainer deaeription of ■cmfebraalar-hMdecI 
wtndowv, iu paira, betweea the Hat maetive bnttt«M— , b^ whl^ 
th« thmat of tho roob ia aoataiued. Small dreolar wiadowi 
oUo light the {-i(iniatot7i carvad eorbd taUta and oontiiiaou 
molded fitter stooc* are lined with lead. The apae w™**''" Gvs 
wluduwa or eiiuiU aiw, uid the •emi-domed roof to tho samS la 
covfitvd with lead, — the main ruofa with pale green Weatmoralaiul 
alatoa with ridgea, and ornamental oruat tilea of oorr«*potidinj[ 
oolour. 

It ii in the interior, however, that tbe more importaol Cmtims 
of the atytc are ttna to advantage. Tliere ia a aombre grandeur 
and rvpoae {wrvadlna the iLabrucaa line of nava with ^ aiAad 
timber roof, toriTiinauiw with Ita deeply-raea«ad and alihoratwly 
carved circular duuiooT utb. A long range of eiroular pien 
ilirido the aialea and traaaepta from the nare. with their Mmi- 
circukr arohee, and eharacterintii! aaw-tooth eattiufb together whh 
auboMIuate arches of oouuhcLluh at the tfansepts, ^ri^og aa 
thny do from holdly aniHl LvrUIa, prodtidi^ aa tmai^a^ 
good eifnct. Open urcadc work rnclonea n pontion for the onn, 
and correaponding blank arcades the natij, at the mi os 
uorlli and loutli aialea, A dwarf atone acsMD ftniBS the SOtt- 
munion rati, open at the ends. It ia coinpossdof assritaof itflll 
columns, supporting Intarlacod nrchos. His pulpit, aUo, is of 
atone, dronlar in form, and ia placcil upon a misnint eqoare atolie 
base. It conntts of Dluik arcade work, with tbe twisted table 
and other ellei'tually oui-ed motUdinga. Tho foul is square, of 
iiuuuiro character, upuii a mined dais, and supported by a Una 
central and four smaller ihaftii, with carved caps, cable mouU- 
ingii, and beaded nnrichmnnta. It occupies tbe south aide of nave 
at weiterii entrance into the Churcih. The rcadiug<desk iLod 
pewiii(;>!it&U auata iu chaucul and roof tijubeni uiv at) HlAiiivd itark 
oak colour. A western gallery provides Hctxiinminktiir'n priu- 
ci|ia]ly for childn>ii, wiUiont braaung In npon the main linea of 
the xtnieturc, or injurious to the gasaial eOect. The gnu tilting 
by which the Cliurch is lighted are iron coroua, suitable in 
character, and embelllahed with odour and gilding, suspended 
from the rvuf. The warming is iMvMA by si* of " Tocer's 
ventilating ens fitovw.'' The paving of the gangwnyi gonerallr 
is of rod ana gr«y StaSiMAlahira lileing. The chusuv:^ wWA '«>.'ati 



THE CIVIL ENGIKEER AiT> ABCHTTECTS JOURSAL. 



Walei/k tBonrtk UIm, in knag* fltMBBtaarta; Mtd Um kpM 
wHti bla« tilM of inUvlMMi fiStma. Tht (odanro ■ bj » 
dwkrf w»U jwd low hoRBOQUl ina nili, mkI dIm villi onut- 
imMaI •Uadud*. The entire ootlajiiiiMladedm an •OMaat of 
flOOtW. h baa b««i exeiMlAd froa the dMinu wd ander tbo 
dhwtioB of Hr. A. D. Ooogh, AnUUct, of lucMter-pUaB, bjr 
McMH. Dor* BrotlienL Oeouwloi^ of UbctocL 

It k iBtondal, ira bclirr^ to eomut* tbt (kdf^ ■• npraMUed 
In ow PIkUv %r tba anetiMi af a Fknoeaga, aa tM aoMb dda of 
tha Chardi. In ArthiftoB^qian, and a oompleta att of Sdiogl 
bmldinn tar bon, gtria, ud laEuU. We bono tbia iaUBtioa 
viU beMfillad. 

Tlw lacuabcnt U the Iter. Jamo* SatberLud, B.A, ToniMrly 
aaoior onrata of tba pariah church. 



SUqGESTED REMOVAL OF THE hXW OOUST^ 

It ia higlLtiae that the praMBt Iaw Ornuta vera nao«ad from 
their pr«a*Dtsiiii»tion at WeMminaler: to the Ur^au^oritj of 
the k^ pnrfMMB and th« puUi« tbn are aaoiadiagly inconra- 
Blaol, thejr beinc at a dittaaoa from the Iaw OSoaa, the efaaai- 
ban of ODoiMeC the oSow of tlia attonuTi^ and the bmiiwat 
portkn of the uetropolui Thcr an alao ao inoonreaimt that It 
la with gnatdiSooltT the jujman, oonnael, and wttaaaMi attond- 
ii>( the miom iriala can m MaoaUBodatad. la ti» ercnt of 
newooariabahif enelad, an axealbat ihaBtiaii iwglit be Rwdilr 
obtalofd in the apaea boonded br 8l ClenwDt'a'Uiii, Canf-autct, 
Chancery-lane, neet^tnet, and the Sinad. The Ckanoary and 
ConunoQ l^w Courta, and WeaualDaUraad Kiel Priua CooHa at 
OnildliAll, might be both ooncaDUalad at thia apot, aa then 
wYiuldbeuaoleiparO*. A dopatationfnoiitlirlneorpMatedSocia^ 
Uteir waited OQ ffir Benjamin' Hall, aa Chief Commltionw « 
Wortn, toaik Ua -—'->—- but he my prmeri; polut«<l out to 
then that the inUlallTa fav iritb the prlacqiai law officcn nf the 
Crown fMthcr thaa with bini: at tfaa aaai* tinw he tspre m ed hi* 
vUlinnsN to aid |tbe work u fur •« waa in hia pow«r. The 
prapoAtloa nada bjr the deputation was ta tba ttteet that oat of 
theAuidaifl theOnut ofChaiioet;. law oourtaof flttliig aocom- 
modatiMi ahonid be encUd either ia or near tinooln'a-tnD-Addii, 
ao that nil tli« <lii)brent ooorta aUght ba oouoentrated oa on* ijiot. 
In the near bnildinj; room* ahould ba provided for rdcreacc 
meatlnai. At pnaent, oii n cniuK Iwing rcfcrml, tht) partia au J 
their Wlta—ii am mni|>clliyi to vitb<iraw iluiI vmI Mv^ral ikya 
befnre ao appolntaient uii be Bvu\e tunveuieot to all partii^i 
whrroM, if laoBia were provided f»r the purpoae, the rcferoooe 
oonld be at ouce proceeded with and gr««t ezptnae and trouble 



NEW STREET NOMENCLATCRE. 

Tnt C(m]nM(t«r appointed b/ the Mctroiiolitu] Boaid of Works 
hat* pat forth their rcporti rtooaimending aa catirelj new 
DODiaacbtnr* with reapact to thoaa atraeta in the tuetfupalia 
which bear the aanio ^oieric nnina. It apjioani from the r«po«1, 
(hat there are no (ewer tliui A71 DlrecU r«(iurius to be le- 
ehrbteaed, aince only 17 uameB fidi to the aban of that [ai^gna 
aambar. Theae are aa fulli^wa, fit. : — 



aarr:: 




nBtoa- 




Tort .. .. 


.. If 
.. 11 


as : :: 


.. at 

.. 44 


SfiL : ■■ 




TaifeplMa .. 
l-»k .. .. 


.. M 
.. tl 


Sa : :: 


. ta 


5«nh . .. 


.. n 


Uainl-ftlMli 


.. W 




In proof Ihat the oommittae have b«ab>w«l iiiu^h lalxMir on 
the taek aatruated t» than, they hav* laksa tlie )■"■"• t° 
•Oggart ftcah tuuan in the eaae of taA alratt, the iioiiie* of 
plaeea in the ofmalrr bdnv aroided. To prerent oonfiialon, it i« 
propoar d to pUee the old mniH of the etreet in very U^iblc 
chamrt4n&bo\c,aa[l the new uame below, prafl&lns to the Utter 
the word "mw." Tlila wonld meet Uie InoaDVeolence arlabg 
Iron a aaddeu ehan^ of naB]o«L Hi* two nnnca might bo kcjit 
up br tliree or fonr y*Art, aiicl tke^ the old name taken down. 

In i^ftireiioe to thn Mpw-rowl aiid a fw other grmt thoroogb- 
hnm, lb4Ti> arv iwiue peculia/iliea which liava recuivtd tba apeoal 
attention of iho cotontitta*. The great thoroDgh&re which nina 
fron the Edsware-road to the Ansol Inn, luiiigton, known aa 
the N«nr-rvaiT. omnpriara at jiment 5S pIn(^a, K|Hinitiily uiiiii- 
bared uiidar dillenat namw, and is ereij inalonct^ except one 



(Bath-ptaeeX the nMoea of th« plarra en the north and aaQth 
Met, oppoaite each other, are totally dillmnL Uaay of the 
abora aamaa are ivp«ai«i freqoantly in other part* of th<! tii*tro> 
poll*. Th« eoiaraittaa reoomaMod thai, fron tbs E4 
to Park-aqoare Eaat,itbecaltadthaUaf;nabe«*«ad: 
aqasre EaM (a Tntttaihain Coart-roai^ 8L Faneiaa-rcad Wrat; ' 
mm TetMnham OoattfiMid to Kin^a Croea, St Panrru-ctnd 
Eaa^ and ftcu Klng^ CWm to Uie Angel lun, PantoDTiUe-read. 
The naaiea of tba eepaiata plaeaa batag altogalliar abolitbedL anil 
the anabcra ooBmeaiiaE at the Angd laa, Kia^ fTrnwi, - 
Totlanham Court-road, aiS Fark-w)iure, reapeetiTcly. 
ne CoBunittee make tha following aaggaatjoaa : — 
I. TbaavdiealdnothatwioBtrcataoftheaBnenaiMia: 
S. Tba naoiee of atreeta, pJaoe*; &a ahould be painted oontpiea^ 
oariy at the cornnm ai>d at all poiuta of interanction, the inltud 
tetlen of the pnitnJ diatricta being placed Mow. 

3. "Hie namben of the hoDMa ahouM C>llow in t^^gakr enlar, 
aad not be hit^imutnl ia their ooune by pltce^ tcRaen, row^ 
Ac. Tba odd aamtiara iliould be oa ooe ride, the eT^en noniben 
on the other, and the order of onunliiigahuuldjirucviMl in a direct 
lioa fron aome eeatral point — my St. Pniil'a Catbnlrnl, ao aa ta 
prorlde tar the graduu cxtenaiou of niburhon aureola iDf> tba 
oouutrr. 

4. 1^0 «iniiYnii<nea of the Poat-offiee would be greatly eoaaolied 
if the names of the prindpal atreeta or roada war* ntad* to «osk-j 
tneaoe aud terminatfl at poiuta of inUTaectiOD by other prtaiel|M|j 
aireetaiaaj oIki, if iu the ace of *ti«ito nr rmda of ^leat leaglli^ 
tba line eoald ba dliided lata aeotions not Fxomlui;^ biUf a nile 
in length, with eorraa p o n d b c aepanie aeriea of numbeca and 
dtatineiire namea. 



PRATNAOE OF THE UETBOFOLIS. 

Ox the iiii uIl a d«putauon from the Uetrapaltlaa Board i 
Worka anbmllied the drainage plana agreed ni>on by the Voa 
wbaa Sir Be^jiunin H^l, barlag reeeiml tlie plana, made the I 
lowing ituLciuRut : — 

" 1 Bee by yinr pliua that the outfall propna^d ia preoiaety in 
aooordatice with thi' anggealiona of Oaptaia Buiitla), iui<] I wiih 
laeiabers uf thi; BlvlhI to undenlMid that CapUin itorslal uaiued 
that aa tL« Dtareat point of outbll reauiml of t-uu in oompliaBoe 
with the pniviaion* of the atalata. Tlii- Metnipulitun Bcau^ «f 
Worka hariiw, therrforc^ oomplicd with lli<!]irx>viuui» of the Act 
aa to the OUtlall, I accept thopUDa;aiidiudaiut: no, 1 will expIiuD 
the coona I afaall adopt aa clmrlv aa I cui. 1 think it doaimbla, 
ia carrying out a worit of mAi laxiaeaae magaitude, that wa 
ahould obtain the boat coaDwliuiil vivii^e. Mid tfaeooiuiie I intend 
to take ia to nominate tiurt gcuUpuicn, to whom 1 (ball ivfer tho 
plana — via. two eivU engineera and one military nnginear aa- 
lectml from the ni>-til txiiori(!Uci.-d lueu I cao Kh'I. to whom 1 ahall 
aend tlic plaua, with audi iiiMU-uclioiis as I ahiilt uuw iafonn you 
oC There ia auc |iuiiit to which 1 ahnll call thnir pitrllcular atten- 
tion. In the rrporla )irraaiiied to the Metni)i<iliiiiu Itoanl of 
Wnrka, lliere a|)iiear(d to be avnyil iliacrepniK^r ■■ to the amount 
ofaewagp to be (liacbargad, ana I ahall liruwUii^initlPUtiuuIo thia 
fiut, aa the atxc of tlic ilrainB muat gi'oativ degteii J on thu uiiuiiut 
of aewiwe tliat will Sun down iDlo Uie rirer. Then 1 think Uist 
we ought to hare the beat plaun which the ingenuity of luan can 
daviatvaod lalinll tell them thai tliay are not to owtfiuetlieinaclvca 
to the oonaidrnilion of the pbuit aabtoltted by the Metro|iolitan 
Board, and if they eon deviac auy other achcnio btitt«r odcuUlcd 
to carry out the object in riew.aud IbattaightnppcardcHi'able lo 
tlieui, iliat they ahould eel it brUi iu their ivpoii, eu that I may 
Liy ii Iwftirs your board for your con^domtloii. Parliftuieot will 
desire that Ike pliui ahnnld be exiuninod in the way I have aketcbed 
out, aud if tlifV aitw that ita mcrita had bacn niuniued by tli^ moat 
<|aalifieil miuds u( men of biluiit, they wnulj be norv likotyto 
grant the ninney thou if they had ri)iiTi»oil tlii^iiiwlvisiio uu« uiv 
ticiiUr jilnn. 1 nhull donirr th* eii^iiivvra to rvpcicx whether it ia 
deairable that thcfc should be o more diataut diaohnrga to meet 
the requiniiueutu, aud llic heat mnuia for Bocuriuji Uial object. 1 
fihidl get from them au occouut of the cuHt from tlie exteoaiim at 
B* ol thn HMrka which wimld b« fur tlio bouefit uf th« diatricla 
tliTouKh which they wouhi posi. It would be daairablo to atHlo 
thia, ao thut enuh diatricl oiav contribute to the work* bikving 
rela^oD U> the beoefita derivable from aaob axtaoaion. t>f ootu-si- 
It ia not my intanliou to impoaaon the aatrvpolia a larger aiuoout 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAU 



ffaution tfaaa for the oatfidi ftt B*, and h loos h the mctro- 
poUi cmbbIM wlUi th« renuLram«ut« ortho ut, to Qiai extent ouly 
abooU it V texel. I nhnli Ull thnn} tlint a mat ntuabw or plana 
k*TC been mqI io upon tliin irubjnct, anil I iiWl nfv all pWMOt 
kavfalg pliun Ii> (Ik^iu; uidl f«ol nasumltiiay wtU^nthOMpUu 
■A the att«allan tli«j rtqulra," 



LIST OF PLANS FOR POBLIC W0BE8 FOB 
SESSION 1697. 

TsB fonowtng b K ti*t of it)fl plana uul wctlona ilepotit«l at 
the Board of Tnd«^ Hoium nf I jwiU, unii If ouse itf Conunoni, vp 
Ib 30tb Novamber, IH-^ti, l>r ihe TnHaiiii Pari lameutat? age Qta 
wboee niuueB are eoiunonitfil. with the titlm of the blll^ hj Mr. 
OoBtof, Mr. Fknahawe, itU'J Mr. St«bbbK. nttho HoDMorCom- 
iBMia-. Rod- Mr. Stoaor uxl Mr. H.tltiM, at the Uouk of Lanli; 
aad Mr. iUckenxio, at the lltnrd n{ Treda. Tb« total namber of 
plMiR ilciHuiiol wai I7«t, of which 109 mm rallwiijrB, aud the 
reel for uueotUaiieoiu purponua. The nurabor dtpoiitcd laet yonr 
wna 1S3, •» that thi» vaar therv u un incroaM of ti, in spite of 
ttw operations of th* Limited I^inbillt; Act and the *teU of the 
iBooey BarkeL 

KiiAMButav. rariUaaUvT •fiet^ 0>V7 (ad Ol 

lUUM iBBHKKaM. lUoMt 

AdBlmlV Ulk tOMbiB;. W. r KobMO 
r««liBdllnBknMr. IMhb 

BftUitiMd IiMh Onsd JuikUob lUllnr. DrKSMdCtt. 

KdUud DvNivni lUUtiiT. tlutlu 

Itnqur fi*. lUrtiiBr, ud >aU>«. ItooUudOib 

hrCuil. Hirtmr, uiJ Kulnr "milaBd Ck 

bUH. tVnriiT. tit It-lltnr lUnia 

Wal MtMnM Uintnl Kailau. Uirpwt 

La««Ma1^ 4c.. VwTf lod Howl l^nmnilnD 

Sfwton ud HvkjvJMb KaUvit. Pilii ui4 0a 

Oritur Kh^ lUnm 

AbaiAa JODtUn R4il«u. Dnon 

OUbUB *s>l A>bM «&. bOnr. Floldto^ 

HwsuUM ud Mdbu KtUvv. Ib wn 

•Mkplid, DMcf, ud Wlukltntdn lUlInf . 



UoddlBti 



D;>ra 



Uaaff, KudiiH, and Tnniff Kiir otluu IUiia4X- 

Ldilll Billatf . I>c>l> rUiJ Cu 

Dabllnud WlcUuw B^lUni Uuggnl'ltit 

iMdoD wid Konib WMf ID R'll •i}. Uitiinfino 

Uikabcad Ovcb rtlii uul Oi, 

MriwDbH4 taaoddn. uildiiibln Jun'tlnBlMlav. rilMiadCk. 

tnuuK WMh, Ou. tIailtM. tod IUII>(7- Qrrt^ 

TnabM •«,, OndciL VadMWMd 

JE«na WMHn lUlI*^. tqwa 

ltalJtniiiU>»u. Am, 

TjW0 IWBiPWuiiwl , Diam 



Umtudi 



0»». Drufl 

Hit CiUnld Itiiimr- 



DorrtBgHs 
<MMIM Uw. DontetU'ii 
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OfM* TtnooaTb BHUnnu n>r, lUkM 

Hurt 111 Onr^iaUiu, Frtil 

IMnpdUuKM^iigiitblllaibaHia]. Diaa 

tlaaca^Mr. UnOfld. wd r.tinnliuhln lUUwr iBuiioBl- Pna 

nnw u4 SL UuT Chuifli. Om. ruowd 

Dualtii Md BaiikillHi lUllw.;. HdthscM 

YklcrU <lt* CvfafAIr*. Tnof L-id 

BmUiiI KhIIsv*. Dmtiiniii 

MjttMdTliulUllltr. llfaB 

WacktoiXis Oo'iiioMa}, DqralM 

Ooipiii't Wiuaautb, TrnU ud CD. 

lliif Knt ud Hjdb Km K*Unr. TrmO 

Cwdlcu If M^«U btd liDpfwvEiiviil*. Dqnfktfd 

Bwil*pad KurnalnB kDd Hfullud liDtiniitiiimU, inraDml 

MldlHid On*i WMl*n K*1t*«>. MuQieridjts 

Ibi« enaoaH B*ilir«j' "r ■« 

TCkary, llaldw. WHt Ccdnliuwc U*ll»ii. t>r™ 

1l»i*ii«ir. «t.am. md LimoliwMit Bae-ni ,^oibU)'. Pnn 
. KM* Ibm RaUnr. Mm 
. ■mfti d Md &MdlM aj«My. DanlBit<« 

nrl«Mi<b WMnvnrte DurrlDfiaa 
SiMaAguuudHiKisuBlUtlBH. KunUrd 

btvAtaT. BHkdn*gii.OMi,aHlUraWWiiktatldlUil<r<v. tranIM 
nxtodom and DonaBnte BaOvu. Dthii 

Ifiui auil lIuuUniDU B^ny. fifun 
t>n>biiiT, Ua«U, ud Wabdnld Ballaar, mit. 
KtfvuMinD and WrilMd tUUnT. Frill 
lllllWill uid Horns iUlltrw. Priu 
OiBl SnnUURi ud Walam Rnnnjr 4 Inlaad, I'riU 
' Gtafcaod Huilas Kallaij. T»n 
CRtoaadBndlMHailvu. tftmn 
puUibaiid Uddaklitcuid IbwUk lalln;. Ii;»iu 



QuiUM ami uudakuic ud luwUK uiinT. I);*- 
(a«IintaDdItldlu>dJBasUMlUUini|. Uirdiiu 
Att«T iBd Thb BBiln;- IWn 

I RMMUltiK Rullaw. WUtukuA 
nunbaBi, 4c., Kuwu DonUpM 
Id HadwarKdlvir, ittddo* 



1 Mfaim ud b^BOdisc A«ili 

YkaBwaiid 

nalBBahanT BabMkamt. PiliL 
Wal McwnpclIIaB HaOwv. Raddmr 
MumnOUa KtvStnM*iad ln>[iTdnaniiU 



DF«e 



Swtb Shlf Idi Imrnrmaaal a»d Qur- f«tv 

HMBMW*un«Aa Vtma 

touli bUn >aUnr IBaadtaCk Ml* 

WgM«iMB«MtKaUinr. Din 

WBlHB-l»«>k« lapntaual. Djmb 

Hoalk bMan Ridlvir lOniBirid). rrtH 

liaiiillnnil YiiilJilii ■lit i| (Tfiinliiiij ftMiij FMH 

SM«MBwtoat. ran 

BlttUafd-aaaa.ATCa Baflvu. TbuBod 
DarMnrBsdTwtarBaUnr. TMBid 

QundaaadaaaickBadvH. OnhM 
DscDtHtm WalKvaA*. Onhaoa 
raMlt oaew toeiJifc Oudla« 
Sbct Ob*. U "Dnicdl 
ntteBbadDMrfttOM. Mtlmpdl 
rwatarawhaadkhtt^BUlnf. Jokaaa aodCU. 
SbbUi DutaiB bOvar- Dxidi 
BHabMi, Hon. and maiM Vttnarka. Una 
AbBidfui.l'MBifaBait.aa, HaUnr. UobMa 
WM<tfVU» Miami Ballni MalUud 
UmlUD. CWt^ PwlBIg Bell uul Co. 
HrwifailbaiMUmatOmi,}. iithb 
DoHBBlaraad WakaMd llailnr. Uvhb 
.!<c«7, VrBinm«liil,a«.hUnj. byva 
&Hridf KauaMoBbanr. Bulnxa 
SmUM i^ainl bU«w ibtmiMa). Ofakaai 
MnaHUadBbllnL dratiBH 
Waldbd Barljvw TruL DoitliutiB 
Wturted aad Ttaoora bOnj. Orua 
OBlFdoBlaBlliawaT(LlHiWO«BUiB). OnMM 
Bmaua Md aWatMwa H«0»v. Diau 
llanllUB li |iH T «B ]« n l. Daia* 
IHIatairii aad QaiaufcnT h**tt. Diaai 
BBanvSrtriiln.an, btlnr. T.41 
noil (ad aunuEB BallvB}. Tudd 
llaldMoBBud Imx vuir; lUilnji, mil 
Buiiltkum. Ctaahrnnli. ai.. li>U>i]>. prfu 
fiuWu, Ac. bllBi;. Douii 
Hacfeban bllwBi. Prill 
rnMvMb, B«7, tc, Koada J. B. riaru 
MMwUaiidMiBldlBiltaUwH, Drua 
.■iBVfsrt. AbHiBtHia;. «E., ftallitBr. Iifn 
lUlsaall runJ Katrn^. k«B 
aaank IQMral KaUnj. d'DintBU 
€nk aad VWWs bUvar. Dfne 
»Mtk MaBeHMn Walanrarka Dnoa 
MBD^iBUr CbnanUos. MR 
ClidB KaHnHoB. tlgtiirtwn 
MMnnlllaa bUwir. Drwm 
Cam Abiohi bUw^. DmlofUe 
PnlwHrr IMn llanoat. Kdurtra 
Vldatia t«BdM D«A DonluM 
Wid X*at Hailn;. MU 
rBr«MofI>iBaO«gMt,aa.,bllTCr. MH 
MnnddrtValoaBiilwMr, PdU 
WmiT bd bUngr. Joeaaaa 
WHDob* KaUni, Dtmo 

UUlBad OnaC <vsrt(n bu*vc4 Imload. Ui^tnldn 
fanabuijaad VagiQbllVBi, UnldlDfi 
ciailug OnM Bildgat Derrtaiiiiii 
bo Kini bilaar nftnad, acj Duniuus 
11} Tidal Hartnar and Ulm. MH 
UtnB bj aad FannliaBi bu«at, DiartiifUa, 
Uijtttld BBd HMiibMd RbUibj. U BIbbc 
Kmib [aadsB bU««. Djwai 
^NiaiiBi anil Jliiillnj n«llii) Iiararoid 
laBfwItT aad Lkriiria ILulwv Mn 
FUt aod KIBIO* lUlliv. Rl'hii.lHH) 
UrtMol, aanib Waia^aade»nliaiu{««nL'iikab4iBM onw 
Blnnind, CtirlMdmidi. Ik., bilnr U«ldU« 
DbUIb BUd M«alb bUwai. iNimuiKin 
Mn-buij Put Lwltow 
Bk lluteut- RkliarUai 
BaclinMr lUulfB aad bad. Dwia 

KVaUexBalliTBjr. W;ail 
■tnlaaWr InpiunaMaL Wjralt 
^■tan Goaat» blliur btaaalaa. Mit 
XotU Laral DWd^Bl hlM 
Onk Oaa OaM ita aB Onttaar tliMladl. Mu 
Dmal OMol blKau.^uoad 
SanliDtrbnMiTbilwaj, Tiiq««ad 
■IdiBiuiu] uid Xn EimhIbb Ballvaj. Tnsad 
tVjolrtnii bUnf- TpobI 
MldK»l■IlllMm1F3rlallt.IlBrT-tCnr^ WjWt 
briiMU FcrK [•lylia. DontaiUe 
llmuni'iui^iUi IUU*u. iM^ntd 
BDjIOBn KaUvai. II17 
WIntMaa aad DcnUis BallMi, br 
Oiiial SMhm aad Wtaiaia BaO w el lirlaad. PiW 
Saqlhinploa. HiUIoI. aad Buiilb IT^ Sailviij. Dtbw 
ParuBHib UbIIbu. Mi( 
CballuiD Dlalrloi WaUmitti. rttta 
CHjrafldsdaaHDialandBnIldliiOoapaB;. UiMln 
Conn/ Valtn bUaua. Uoloua 
BL 0«nr^t nirioiu iit ADuadmiBt. IliABHi 

BoutbBork ImjM-oVdDiQL Bim 

lUrtn LoihIds ud !t;duhBm bilaay. Touif 



Al a MaaiUi e( mnafan rf Sonibmrk, n «m hbdIwI ih;>i ■ .kiiuUikm l* 
a|i|ialMBdlBnU«iairll.UaUlenomB«dUiBadcqNtaniil)L- r:Uu.'ituinif*a bIik. 
iBOppoalUaoHihalof Ihi Buanl of WnrlB. Tba plui inpunl t./ Mt. IVaaMlma 
[lAwaUnat BBniB)iHUt>aa'<b<T"ini llalUnd gnU>ii in aMnifhi dliMMaOraHHi 
\mptny of iraBll wIbb OBsraitd mli Uin buuil'i Jlco, in iraiulia Brtilag MaUno 
■ad ikBBca Ihrau^ ViaaatiaM aail U>i miw (raoad la (bat uEMlwurbnJd w Talk- 
lud, WaMUuMrtirldfiL 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



'THE CAMBRTAN AlO) UKITERSAL INSUHANCE 
COMPANY^ OFFICES, GBESHAM OTREET. 

Iv tU* building tha old l up pw to bd b> be reUioed aa &r u 

" iU*, KuJ Iba old bnarammer WW Left OBdiatartMiL, which vill 

Bt fin-BoiiM oftbe poiDU ill tlt« dadgD. Dm oliioct of the 

beet «H to eonneet Um two •loriM t«gath«r, uid to bring 

»«ldtti (fdMaMMrpleNpltMuitly uidMcil^ into the Icwer 

ifiporta^ eo M UMMfat wide windova Mid U^htpien, Hufflciuntlf 

Istrone without ftppMiing bory. llic Iniildiiig UAog ^tuate In K 

ntlter tuurrov otewt, attnation tiu li^n psJd lo ravoala and 

DiBtB. All lli« work la ex«ciit<v! in lUth Hoat^ Mr. J. Edmea- 

, Jan, &, Crowa-coovt, Old Broui-cmirt, Citjr, i» iix uddtcot. 



AHCHTTECTTmAL KXHIBITION. 

Tm rooDu of the SiitToJkntivet GaHary ara a(^ii open aa 

I fi>r tlin wintitr uiiuoii, and Uio space nvnilable ia, aa nareto- 

j wcli fiUed. Souio MO framiil clrkwin;r!t. Kud ■ goodlj atoolc 

r ^tiOfP xad fumituie iu lbs " L>«p.'irtm«ut fur >f AUciala,* tona 

UMowelraa aa Bean collactioui a.wi wh«n it is ivineiiilwml 

; Um on|orilJ of th»aa praaoat wnio cUiin to notice, and that 

ara new (tbe Cr^mittw huvliitt wiKlr odherad to tlieir 

' naotution of eicludiugnucliiuilutd Iweu e^lMiad befcra), 

; will be preewnad Uial tti^rit is HbuuJ&nce to latiafy the afe, 

1 to offer aaggMtioaa to thn mind. 

a irA gwice round Um Uajfi notu th« attention ia not 

1 bj more dun two or three prodoctioiu, luid by soirwlj- 

verj large or obbonto aoale. The prvralt^uce of 

, aa a UMdium of oonatmctiva aa wwU as deoomtiTS 

jr, ia not thia 7<ar ao appannt aa liuti that oT altarmttsly 

aod whits brick, altnoit uuivcrwlly tiT»t«l mpjvlyon the 

I liorizontal or banded priuciplu, rutiuuB howerer its huld and it 

I'la perhaoillienMalremciiiabieand judiolouamMliodof trwtoaent. 

Iln otM laroe drawing (1780. to which we ahall have occaaion 

1)^^ to rmer, the ooloumd material ia iwod but upariniil;, but 

I'tn ao blidtoua a mamier that it t-aitly aidi the ntalcitig out of 

Tihe arehiteotitial CMtitrea, Iriuda toother aa it wen th« aevend 

I parta, and enUvaiw the geoMal eOect In the " Haloiial "" apart- 

Tmeateh aerenl Uada ofjnoductionn am aubmittod which bear 

i'Uton the axtamal BMMamnoc of )>uii<liugi>, enoh aa the Oonii<w 

IKicka (3<A Stuoco Waah (28), Terr^cotut Air Briclc (31), Berpen- 

T tin* Marble (43), lUnaome'a Siliceous Stooe (37), and the eootri- 

I butiooa of the An-)iiteotaral Potl«rT Cnnipany, Poole (91). Witb- 

' out lajing too much itreas on tbn vnJur of thmo fpfcinsni— for 

< nunv of tlwm uv iximpamtivdy iiniriiHl — the prodticttoii of ao 

tnnn,T vorietlea, aiming at ^^rveaUa r«tulla ocmbdaed with 

Blcrliog utility, luuat tw hailed ae a eatltfiiotn; indlcatioa of the 

, diacKiaitioa of the Um<v). I)ut m retom. 

We have always urtied the iiuportnAoe of eonatitnttng this 
anuual Arafaitcetuml Kxliibitiou a uodiun of repreaetituig aa 
fnltv aa poeaible tlie uiistiiu nUii^ of the art. by toe dlepla]rii>g 
•ncn linwicga ae riiall ilTiutntte worlia in progrMi; and, in 
eaeee of onnipetition, the naaocoeaafiil aa well aa approved dcaigne, 
ia order that tlio profeaiion and the publio at Luge may hare an 
I epportsnity of ooinparing and judging tar tlieiaualvei. On the 

nt occasion there are not a lewdrswiDga of thIa kind, and 

liistaacN thpy ue aiifflcien^y nnmerons to miuire a 
elaaailicBtion. We refer to the oompetitiau di^aigns for 
liUe Cathednd, fi^r the liverpool Frr* Liorary and Muitt<um, 
I the Uothertuun Gnuuuar 8ohooL The fumier of tht«e wna, 
■biedlj, tlie event of the ywar; and, ia a challm^irn Ut the 
' it b no aoiall credit to oai oonDtrymeu that tlto two 
Paiuma were awarded to Kii)[li>ibmi>u, and it will be 
X aouroe of ttnktificttiuu to lenrii tbiil the i>nTii'i|ial 
of one of Uie«e auo-vtAful m\t< find a r>ln«« in the 
Cnaeot Sshibition In oompany with otbnr Ipu fortuDntc lirale. 
Tk« miKfa-canveaaed doriBii, " Quam dilerta.'' &c., which ulti- 
tnalvlf obla^ied the ■ocoiid prixe, proved tu be by Mr. Street, uf 
Oxfenl, wbo baa (brwarded a tilaii, p^rapei'livea. And parte at 
Urge, ufhlidaaigll — in all, nine drawing; and itmay l>or«TDnrkei) 
\l unoe that thej iBinieaeiiTsblv torpata in tnlent of design and 

InuutipalaCMd tboae by which tncy are here surroundnl. Why 
the Committee did not adjadse them a place on the tine we are 
■t a loas to coDOMve. The plan is more wraplete and bettor 
proportioiwd Uuui either of the otliera. It oonmita of nave and 
liugle aialea, Mveo faaya in length to the inteieeotioo of the 



truMpla (which are nther shallow): tfae east rod is apeidal, 
Mid uuatcriug aniuiid it are the several chapeU, afW the 
enatom oautii on the continent From the int^rswlina at tho 
cnjaa ristie a slender Jtfrht. At the wrat end *r<i the principal 
entniDcea and the two toweta, which at« flankml mpcKtiveljr 
by th<- baptiatetr and the mortuary ohapeL Eiternidly, the 
dnigD hna a Uild and uias«LV« Hppearanoe, attribntablc rhieAjr 
to It* tiuttreaaes. The leiwt soci'^wfu! part of the design 
S^ipeate to be tho wcatera lowr.ni, wbii;h in their upper atogaa 
are net very happy either in outliuo or detail. He spires are 
dwariijih, Btid look etill more ao from the belt ef lai^ gabled 
lurArno* wliich HUrrouod it. The interior view shows a Udo 
maasiufi of colmir aa wnll oa archlte'^nt*. In thia view the 
tapeatry and metal ncreona, ao beaaUftilly detailed on another 
■beat, are anen to great advantage. The oroan is designed Id 
two parts, ao as uot to ooooeal a ax^ nuuigold witidow oehliid. 
Hie oUiee- detalb of fgmiture, such as lectern, nmbe, confiw- 
aioual, stalls, and font, an each in Ita Iclnd ezoelleut and wall 
studied; pertiaps the pulpit, which is the nuMt anibStluus, ia the 
loBut dewirving of praise. Having aaid thiin mnch reepectiug 
Hr. Siroet'ii drawing it will not be uo^lful to etilarKe on those 
of other eoiuprtitora, which, aa we hiutwl before, fall l.-unont- 
able into tho baek|(roand. A very highly finished xtl Ly Mr. 
0. Brodriek (336-^MO) portaliea ver^' mnch of the horir«ulalitjr 
of the elasaio atylaa; ita beat featuroi are palpably copi<>d from 
Bhdna Cathedral. The gnend proportion! are better than 
most, as also is tho plan, which id many particulani ocoorIr 
with Oiac jiiit noticed, Uoe pemliority in "ibiM deaigti is that it 
baa but one orntml tower at the west end, when.'iM the olliera 
exhibit two. Mtasie. Lee and Jonea (321— 32:>) have enridmtly 
borrowed the HArm«t-«T.roet etaeple, engrdftiug fragmenta fi«n) 
the Abtiaye aux HomnMs, Cncti. Three lofly archo) fluob with 
the towoni form the portals; and the wliole is cfinxtrueted Liuide 
and out in red and white bricks altematelr. Tlie detailed t<or- 
tioua are wretchedly managed. Mr. llobinson's dmwmga 
(330— 33i) have not tlie advantage of either good ontline or 
oolouriog^ nor is the plan oompleto; lU small octagooally-tei^ 
minatod tranaepta have an odd look. The alt.\r. as iletaitedt 
is by far the beat part of the deoign. Mr. Kcllcy's ideaa in 
(33t, 33S) seem but a slight remove from thone of tho Batty 
lADgWage. Mr. Thrnpf^a (3-^ J, 303) is a eoHoT ooaiae Karly 
Knglisn, aeutely pointed, but with an abeanioably claesio- looking 
exereaoeuce at the intcraectiun. Mean. Evans and PuUan 
(3SS — 359) somewhat more sppmpriate. 

The recent deciaion reaprcling the T-iverp.K,l Free Library 
and Mnaoani will cause iicnrrnl disantiifnc^tion, if uot diai^ust; 
and the more ao since in iJie outset cvei-yttiinK pmmiaed »o fair. 
No leas than S3 of the cuuipetitluu drawiu;^ are exhibited in 
the present collection, the productiouH of twenty individual*. 
Copies of dioae 1)T Mr. Allom, to whom wrw nwarded the £r«t 
premium, ar« included in this number (174 — 177). Itlaeseeu- 
tiallya clasaic design, one that would aaanrtwcU with Bt. George's 
Hall, ita neighbonr, — which is appareutly imitated in some of the 
aohemee for lighting. It liaa a heMalyle Corinthian portico, 
on a woll-dcaiped atylobate, and flanked by iiiM«es uf watling. 
freelv reiieveJ by niches and sculpture. IntiM-nally, the central 
Hall' or Unseiuu for sculpture and jh-wintiug is a proiaiitonC 
ffaluiv, and most clcverty planned ana delineated in {ITS]. A 
vista throti((h some oolijmn' above prodnoee a ulmnuiuK effect. 
Among the othen, that of Mr. Ilugginn iiox itieist cliuu to 
notice. The elevation, ^urte Paliiuliau, in well composed. Mr. 
Grarsoo's plan {t-fH) has the uovully of a oirculoily planned 
reading-pwrn; the l)bmrian> office being in the centre. — a guaJ 
Idno, perhaps tnken from the new room at the lii-itish Mueeum. 
Tho externiJ upjwnmnoc of (336). by Mei»rs. Hay is on the 
whole, good: but then is nuoccaaiun for liio exact npetit ion of 
tho feaiuren of the ^nt ui the ^e elevatloua. Mr. Truefitt's 
design (17^ has nt least the merit of origiiialiiy : on the eoore of 
apnropriatcnoa we cannot >ay mudi. Wlit^ic is all the Deeded 
lignt to come fromi Mr. Uenitt, one of tho sixteen who*e lli«t 
skelehee were eele«l«d, has tm dnfrlngs illustrative of his 
finished design, whidi looks beat In elevaiiou: the pUd would 
anem very defective. The aamn may be said of that of Mr. 
Hugsins (2S9 — 231), whose view ia clovnrly but mysteriously 
tinl^. 

Id the drawings for the Rotherham Oramtoat School, which 
eoiiiiirine nine in number, then? Is little lo call for n<>tice. tiome 
of the letter doiigos were cxliiiiiltd lost venr in the Roval Aca- 
demy. That by Mr. T. D. Barry(413, 4I4) is bft^r the best 



THE CIVn< ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 






^ 



^ 
^ 



I 



bothio Uk gtnoral dwporiUon of ib* m—w uwl theari^nftlity 
in deaign. Mr. E. B. Lftmb'a (SOO), in Miotii«r itfU, ia perhapi 
nciuly M good. 

Tba Anihiteotiml Awoeifttion mntribaUi*, u amul, ■ birge 
•liMt rnt) «r nUcIoJ rIciUJim from iu Cluu of U»ign— not «> 
good ttiU year an fomicrlj. Mr.Clnrke niid Mr.Kaltkraniii have 
moat <Jiatiasiii«bi.'d UwuiuielvM in a " DnoMtlo Oothia Wiiiiiuw 
wilhout MuUloufi," naii t. " LuidiDft Pi«r." 

G«ii<!nll7*p<nlcin^,t1i8fnjbticbD^knK>"hitntod thiaycATkrc 
by no moana utriktne on thr aoors of merit Tlie gmiip by 
Mr. Wftlta* {!], and thoao by Mr. Golliog {B8). niid Mr. T. Bogw 
SiuUh (S), are amuuj; the b«Ht. The " Oftrpul Warekoust cnctod 
at Ki>)<l#T8UiMt«r' (G9), by Mr. J. H. Bliuid, U ■]»> good. It ia 
of nd brick, with bio* bricli occaaionally introduced •■ oheanared 
onuiacnt lUiimplidtyof IttatmBotidUgrmlnoaiiuiicnoBtian- 
Mr. Lockyer'a " Premiaw er«ctad in TMUoliaia Court R<*d" are 
good apecinieiis of the hloil, ftod wfll datAitoil in the olovatinn 
<iKhlbit«i1 (l-tU). Hot muK wA omit tho " Nrw public buildiiigi 
Mbant to be erected at Singniior?" (\i), bv Junca KdiuctUin, juu., 
u a haBdMme «Dd cbanwt«niilio pile. Mr. Eduintou alsoexlilbiu 

SI) tbe " Ofllcet of th# Cambrian ud Uuiv^ranl Fitv Mid lAh 
tanuot Comptuiy, ST, Grwham Stnot) m alt«>red by him. 
Early in tbe oalalo^o lint i( Mr. Murray'a " B&ptisi Cupel at 
OoTcntrr" (IIJ, a «tril£iiij;lv oriifinal nud olevor Gothic detign : 
fiirthor on (U), Ur. Waller'* '^Frw Tn-it HaU. AbnohMt^r." 
equally g(io(I In another ilylo. Mr P«liri> hnlf^donn akctchat 
are, IU Oioal, puwcrfvl, and a welcome feature in lb* room. 
80 ia Mr. B&wlinl^ " Care af KlephaoU" f 46J, a beautiful aiiet^imeii 
of oolouriog. Th« grout> "f deaigim exhibiltyt br Mr. MnHVii^r 
(3D) a» notloe&bia niorv uu nocnant uf th4 bolilnwu with which 
lh« lintinK u washed in. K My oontrihutar named Tmvnni 
hoH three drawinfpi, all n-nlty arebitictaml (-^0, 1211, ilS). 
Pmfeoor DoiuU'lii'<ii ntrii'M oii« of biit ancient otnour ntudteii in 
(OS, 66)- Tlie thoir of IndDpendant and other chn|>e1« is this 
j'e^r moat ininci^abU: vre oMerve acarc^ly one that i* even 
(olcnbly doooit. What kindof genioa etJi provoke *ueh adMign 
aa (TO), or(341, 3ti] t The l&tter, avowedly "cuil«d tolhelimoi," 
i« in truth m itl-(y>uc8lv«il uud uMuilAhlu aa pouible. To lanke 
tli» abmrdlty mora ■ppareut, the drawing is piftoad aiiinDg tlie 
Ulle picturn, as if Id bntleMue, Two or thrae bair-uml>xtvil 
hoiisea " in progrcu" iihnw tlmt that ityln of buitding in not 
axtlU out of rogne: (TBI by Mr. Coo, U deaij^ed in the true 
feeling. The thne dnwlun cihibitrd by Mr. Owen Jonea stand 
liromuiently forward : (S4] la an elHborat« view of the Intarior of 
the nropcnrd St. Jamn's Hall, nhsre much in cnatemplatcd by 
the aid of eolimr, and (111, 112)iihQwhiidnign for the MAnchestcr 
ExhibiUon boll ling, En secnou a ompleti^ semicircle, of iron 
conatmctlvn, mid ajirin^tig dlreiitly out of lhf> ground,— a novel, 
but not pr>|)0a«aiiiin|{ appcanuicn. Mr. E, B. lAtnb's dciiisns 
onntinnc to exhibit hin pi-<!iitiiu' mnnnenim^ and ingenuity: nia 
chnrehas are the leant Kiliafoctory. Mr, T, E. Kuightiuv is a 
frequent eoDtributnr -, tli<.' group of little dntwinipt in (IOHJ will 
attf«et notice : their proportioning la uiiiisually pictiimtqii*. 
Mr. Qny baa bnt one drawing (116), m a BtTk- that ho hu olmoat 
nude hut own. The prtamt work seeun toarcely equal to some 
■liowa heretofore. Mr, G. G. Scott exhibita (IAS) a beautiful 
design for a rtminibfrut inonanicnt to the Inte t>r. Mill, of 
Cniiibridttc: and iiliio (throiiirli Mr. ,1, D. Wvatt!, the " Porch now 
vredJng at St Mlchiu-ra, Corchill" (Sl.'O. Mr. TruoGll'a pro- 
diietiona are nmaiatakeablc ; iu uiatlereof detail, siiil irfiowork 
(Wpeclally, b« moat «scela: some rriy oikhI proofa uiny be seen 
in (130). Mr. Philip Bnnnon'a " Brickwork on .^thotic prin- 
«iplM*(16i!, IC4, 393], must fur almoat every other be rejected. 
Among the general HketuliM froui (ha Coulinent deaervuig of 
astice. may K; tuentIoii«d those by Mr. R N, Shftw. Mr. Hutulte) 
and Mr. Ailchiioii. Some <if the jilnna for the Uiddteaex 
Iiiduilrinl Sc^hoola will be cunui-d with inlereit. MesBTS. Uoigau 
uiid PhipKiu'« (300 — JOS} are on n qundmugular scheme: Messrs. 
Il(«vea liixd Butcher's no a mliAtii^! one (291), 3(13). Mr. Clnytou 
hns .-> Urge drawing [37 1] of tli« " btiii]^ for the coloaud figure 
<^ t)nr l>ord. painbid on tbe choir ceiling of Peterborough 
Cathvvlnd.' of whiub we gave & doscriplion hut uoutli ; nlaa 
name good gMmelrlcally patterned elAlneil glass ( 139). A fulio of 
iledgna for GrlMiUo sum also ia forwiinled for inapecUun by 
Mbmiv. HasAon and Butler. — It would ht euy to extend our 
ramarica on tbe oontf'uts of thin Etliibiliou, bat we have cuilca- 
vonred to aeiie on only iteuiuat iuten^tiiig or suggestive feaiurcn. 
In many of the deptrtiBNita ihera ia > uiiuiifwt room for gimt 
iisprovemcDl, wkich cuvful ttudy in loch a coUecuon aa this will 



do much to offeoL On every acoounl. tbentfore, lot each w<U- 
wiaber to Uie ut pay ft visit to Uie Exblbitioo, ud invite otbara 
to do ao likvwlse. 

The Department lor MJiUriaJa will be QOticad ia the next 
JoftnuU. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVH. ENGINEEEa 
On. S, 13J1.— Joasrn Lorn. M.F.. V.P., in tbe Chair. 

The Paper read wm " On Reetnt ImprwtmtnU m tFattr 
Jfafer.." By T. T- JorUKo. 

Aft«r nlluding to the generic merits and defects of piiton and 
bucket mctere, — mcrila which werii geuprdlly npuroi^iated, and 
defects whidi were appiuvuUy insvuftriblu from theae lUAohiiiM, 
and had outv ns vet been ]:<artijiliy removed, — the author pr«)- 
c<<eile(l to deworibe it niatcr conxtruclod OH the piaton or 
dinnhragm principle, which B.pp«nj*d to meet tlie objections 
hitherto nuulc to thitt diui uf meter, ll oonitisted of two 
menHuring cylinden, set parallel to cnch other, with working 
pistona, the rods of which projected out of tbe cylinders In 
opposite dlreolJoDS, cnnjing at their eKtremitica slidc-ralve 
finimes, for i^upporting and openting on tbe slide valves that 
goremeil Uio ports of the t^luiden. These measuring ^llndera 
were iMutuiiied iu 11 cast-Iron «i*e, or tank, into which tlie water 
to be meajtured eiiterwl under n certain preamirc. The water 
thence passed Into the cyliudera, from which, after having aotoil 
upon one or oUter of the pistous, it made lis eaoape. Through 
the agenoy of snitxble oouuting niipaiatns ooanectad with one of 
the piston rods, the reolprocating movements of the piston 
wore counted. Mid tlnis ito quantity of water pnstial through 
tho meter in a given time wna indicated. Themeaauritiachnmbcra 
were mnde somewhat like ordinary stoum-viigine cjlimlern, as 
resjiected the inlet and outlet )<orl«, but in fine of the cytiuden 
the direction of the inlet jiorts wn» inverted, in order that tho 
right hand port niiL-ht [iom the water to the left hand end of the 
cylin.ler, ond the left, hand port to (he right hand end. By 
tiiis means the two pistons were eiL»blr«.l to tallow eni^b other iu 
the utme dir«cti0O, and tomaiiiiAin a continnons etr«tim of water, 
without the use of oranhs. The nlide valves were prcdied up 
apiiiinl th« ports of the cylinder by means of springs, in order 
to retAiii them in contACt with tho faaea when the meter waa 
at T^at. They wore free to remain stationai^ during the grenter 
ptotioQ uf the progTHs of the pintijiis; but juHt us the piit^m 
of one cylinder WSJ onmpledng ilmitroke, one of a pair of tAppete 
on the valve-fhimo, oamed by tho piston-rod of that cylinder, 
vroulH strike ojpiinrt the vslvo which that valvc-fnime carried, 
aud altervd its ponljon over the pcrts of tlie other cylinder, 
whereby the rltieutioQ of the flow of wnter into that mensurinfc 
cylinder was reversed. Fartruifflnittiugthe reciprac.ittiii{ motion 
of the oialona tf> the index, one of the valve-fmmes wiu fiirnisbed 
at the l«iek with two ribs, or feathers, set unmllcl tii each other, 
but one in advance of the other. Tlioae (eathrrti .icted as teeth, 
and in sliding baokwivils aud forwiuils with tite pislon-nxl, tliev 
cntenKi aJtematety the teetli of on eacaoe-wheel, aLd bo drove it 
round tooth br tooth. The arbor of this wheel led through tho 
watei^-flsse to the counting apparatus; aud thus motion waa com- 
municated directly to it, without the aid uf pawls and rvlcbel- 
whiwla. 

By thin nrrnngcment the meter Iieciune a vei7 simpln and io- 
expFtisiro machine, not liaUe to derangement, or if injured, it 
was easily repaired, aa the only moving parts were the two 
valves aud two pistons. There was nil outire absence of con- 
cujuion : the prossurti of the head was preserved ; and being 
aimilar within and without tho cylinders, tliere was no frictioii 
upon tbe pistons ; and the water-tight eitermil cue, or chamber, 
served as « deposit for sand, or other extrHtieons BHttter These 
meriUwere atunltted by the ongineora of the Sunderland Wat«T- 
wnrks, where the motera had be«n connected with mataiv hjf 
other manufoctuirrs, and exhibited identical reaults. 

Models of Jopliug's, Keonedy'a, Siemens', and Chadwick'a 
Met«r^ were ezhibil«d in action during tho ovenlne. in the 
oonrse of Uie dlaonsdoD, descriptions were mven of Kconedv'i^ 
oi Cbadwiok's, Mid of Siemsna' metem. The former was dea- 
eribod OS consistinir of a ainglo vertical oyliDder, wherein a deep 
piston worked. wiOi a packing oonatsliDg of « vnloftaised india- 
rubber ring, mnde to roll lietweeu tha piston and the cylinder, 
allowing for easy motion, nnd yet tieing perfectly wntcr-ilght 
without friction. The alternate action of the piston was com- 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 




■ 



L 



■UBuMtod ID Um oonntlng appttnto*. hy mwna of « nek tad 
plnioD, «a>I «ctiiin tm fpvpa t>i tlia inlet and millet tbItw far 
SWUM or ft tnmblias wi^I/ht. Thii uitchiaa, ll waa cmit«id«^ 
wu rcry iluinblc, ;iud uaily kept io onlftr; dw olattidty of t)» 
pkokiiiK, viil Llii! peculuir i\illiii)|; tnvljoii iliminitlicd the frictino ; 
tbt pnMiU* ot Ih* waUtr vm prmcrreJ thmuttli t)ie meter ; ibe 
aatiou of til* nl»M WH rqpibir and liinplv, uiil iiuder the uoet 
•xtnsa liiftU the Tahalion had aerw b«en found to exoMd 
1 p<ir eaaL The nwteri were Bl*t«d to have been cxlviuivel; 
•Bplojad and mncfa approvfd hf vatnr worite Muuieen. 

Cluwtwidc'a new iDoWr wu deicribcd to ooneiet of ihrae or 
rellen^ ntoIvId)! on llieir dx«, kiucIiihI m the peripher^cif 
the epiBHlId air vhiob W'^rkeJ in jmiroftla in two Dpniht 
. . _. ; thete roUen twted upon a bag, nr piece of prepared 

.^er, with inJet Mid outlet pew^pta, and ao fixed npoo a con- 

ee W-tdate «f bnae, h to torn t1i« meaeariag ehMiiW of the 
meter. The water beinit admitted to the halt propolldl tJie 
ToUera torvtrd, ao that thej- eMcli iu turn pueeil owr every rmrt, 
jMd eiptMMd the iflaid belbre them by the ouUet pii>r. The 
uotioa WM reguUieii hj • ^Temnr, muTing iii an imji^te 
dirMtioo ta the roUnni; and the eounting appsMtiia wm ideutlcal 
with that b the old meter, deecribed on a fonoer oecanou at 
the IiutitatMQ. Theee met^ra had not benn Tery \img in ow; 
bat, M &r a4 ouald !■• aI preaent eeou, thcjr niiiiht be called 
MeeaerfuL 

Biemeoi^ meter wa« of the ctiteeleTHieil "iDfereotlal" moao'inire, 
UtA K> OMty of then wera iu u«e that it wjm nut cotuiiicnHl 
OMMeafT to give any niiaute iliMoripilon of their oanntructioDi 
hmml elating thai iu action wu eioiiUr to thAt of tlie BaTkor** 
■niH, the erater eaterion at (ho wuiro, aoil bei[ii;upelled through 
anaeroua ourred oriGcoe at the iHtriphsry of liie rovolTing meter. 

It w»« eoatenileil Ihut tlie laief dadiioniU for hiffh-pnwura 
oieten wewi ^weutacy nf maaauranioitt under vnry varying 
j»nwiiiia, fun pueeg* for the wNler without 1"^ of j>nMaur»,— 
onapaetaeei ud lightueea of oatwtruotiou, — with dimbillty and 
cbeaMeat. 

Oood nietcra wwn made both of the pietAo and liiaphngni 
cUa^ and Baay did regtrter oxcellently during kbotAlory expe- 
rimenta and for abort pcriodi : but the leal t«et waa the action 
aJter twelve month* conatuit work, and it wnagMemlly fonnd 
that eone litjury bed nvnirml ti> piaUiu niol^ni, from the intro- 
daotlaik of lend, or otbor eitrauvoiui amiler, whertae the nction 
ot the iiifi««minl melera wu iw perfect, aficr ■ovoml voaw, ne 
whMi 6r«t they wAre erected. Arguiutc that a ucrtain lureo wm 
rwiuiml to cauHe motion, it had bren siutMl. tbsc thi<ee metoni 
vrrn ant capahla of regietering eiu.Llt iiiiniiUtiiM of fluid at low 
v«4nciii>'ei ThU wa^ however, an errooeoua opinimi, in jiroDf of 
which il was mentioued. that a email houoe-mclor hwl regiilvrvd 
accurately eo einall a quantity ae half a gill pvr miuuce. Tlieae 
med-n gaineil in iPiieitivwieae aa tliey worked, whereaa pielou 
and other maten wen liable tA wear and tear. The former ocnild 
be (A ati^illed a* to preeent little more teeiatonoo than a bend in 
the ppr^—ihey were «o compnct in fonu, and *o email, that they 
«oald lie adapte*! la xliiiiMt any ■ituattun, however reetr^oted; and 
UMd^r eitbor hi|ih or low prreeure, and with coDetaat or inter- 
nittetit artion, thav bad been found to give utieGuAory ramlti. 

It wu itatAl tfiat the East LondoD Water Worka Oompauy 
bad twn h'ludrwl of SlameAo' nicten now at work. Tli«y bail 
«>*< on aaavfva^ l<Ua-pioce; biitnew&duraHliad ocourmd.Hud 
Utnae quite capable of being Temadird, eu that ouuaitioe were 
likely tn b« eron leia fieaiueul in tat/an. They were alao almort 
•xdiinvely ue«d al Brietol, where they were t««t«d every threu 
HMBtha, and U lied bren oburvcd, that they gained from 1 Ui i 
per cent. The new melera were ooneeqiiently niijoettil «o ae to 
allow Cnr that giun. 

It waa admilieil, thai both Jnidintr'a and Kconed/e meten bed, 
when letted, btea found to aot voy utialBUtorily, aud that piHu- 
tkaJly they oonld be reodvtdaa very gfioiiHifiuiuul luauUiuee, buth 
for the water onmpauiea and the ooneumera. 

It «M ehown, that there had been at lewt elovon dietinct 
<tMeee of tnotcre. and )in')bitblv not Icai than ten viiritftie> in 
mA elan: whi"b cimla be bikru ta 110 dinUuct iuvruunna. 
They might be divided into two icraat elawee: — hiffliprewiure 
n>rt«n, i. 4. working under Ihv 'lireot nroaeat* of the niniii^, and 
delivering the water witliout any (eiiaible diniinutioo of the pree- 
flin*; and low-nreeMrematere, which, tuowving the waier under 
[WiMauii merely delivered into a inetom, or other receptAcle, 
■■Mil ill J eitwitnj at the top of the buildine tu be iiupplinl. The 
mtter cIm* «u uaerted to be generally the bml, eepecially iu 



Ihoee oaaee where (ha oome um ption waa large and irTegnlar, — a* 
that of brewere. dyers hlcediera^ oalioo printenv &e. Of thii 
claai^ Farklnaoni wae eald to ruwar aecuralel^ under all oiimun- 
etauoM of change of head, and velocity, or quantity delivered. 



8ELF-ACTINO PENSTOCKS, OB FLITSBINO 
MACHINES. 

At a late meeting of the InetilutJOD of Civil Engiueere, Mr. 
Rofter Suiter espjaliied two models of eaIf«otIng Feuatoeka, or 
Plnahing Maohloea, breleaniiincbotiiie drutieand lewcre. They 
werp ot two kxntti, the one having a valve hung horiun- 
lally, the othera valve or gate buug Tertiodly. In bouee dnina, 
n tank or oeeepool wu funur<l for the ootlectl'm aud retention of 
all the waaie water riinhin;; fn-eii the hoime, wy iu the ooureeof 
one day, and thiin thU wi>U-r n'hioh would otherwiac priuibly help 
to L'rvaie the neoeauty Tur ttusliintt, would itaetf act iu a Bushing 
niediuiu. If the ritiu wntur also waa altuwrd to run iuto and col- 
lect in this lank, tli«ii the number of fluehlnpt wu<ild be inonuiMd. 
Although it wae not cnntcndcd that the couitruction ^jf fiushlud 
tiuika wae a new idea, yet it was believed that the mcdianical ar- 
nuigemeuta fur making them eelf-aellng were novel aud important. 
Themi^leofaMumplIshingthislhr the tank waa very simple: — A 
eMt-irvD pl)te waaDznd to the bottom of the tank, and on a level, 
or uearlv so, with the bottom of thedrain. A valve waa hung eo 
at to fiUl UD the outlet of this pipt^ Ibe beat for the valve having a 
oonslderable angje. To keep tme valve «lo«ed, and to preveai 
the water fifvin teoaping, a strut or stcipper, working on a Mntra, 
fell dcail on the valve, and hold it elneeloitasrat, thcrelw securing 
a wn(er-lli[ht joint. Toreloaae the water when it bad rwcu to the 
disehaiving puiut in the tank, a eraate |ilpe oouvey«d the urerflow 
til a tiitiiig baun, or bucket, hung on oentrea, at a oonvetiletit 
hoiiclit ahovd the viJve. Beyond these oentrvs an ariu or lever. 
eit«nded, to which was athtdied a weight to cuunioipoise thu 
buoket, and a nid oannecUng Ibe kver with the dirut. Wlieii 
the weight of water in llit? buuket cauieJ il to lilt or lUvp down, 
the lever and oouuscting rvd at the oppositv end <if tite immIu or 
bucket, tvSag br the tuting of the bucket, tau-riiii up the eimt 
and roloMed (de valve, and the contents of tltu tank were 
BUiUIeijly discharged into the drain. By mean* of a ntovc- 
ablu lid, [he buuket waa made to emiity itself, while the oonleuta ut 
llin tauk wtre being <U»chaivsd. When the water waa all out of 
the bucket, the balance-weight caused il to recover itaelf, aud in 
doing so again fixed down the valve, by ciiMiuiiof the itrut Iwfore 
raferred ta These maohiuoi had uuithur tntcb, catch, nor sprine, 
which by eorroeion eroald Lupedu their action. Tliey were made 
of caatJroD, and were said not ui be liable to get out of ot^. 
They had been need by ^e Board of Oi-dnancii for the cleansiuc 
of banaek-dtmnL The amngenumt in thcMe msia coniiiUdoT 
au elongated otaapool, or invi^rt, having a self-autiug flushing ma- 
chine died at ths outlet, so that wlirn Uiewater tn Uie liivi^rt hud 
risen as high ae was required, the machine aotsd, and the whole uf 
the couteuu of the cesupoDl, or invert, were at once disdiarged 
iuto the drain, bdlI swept away. In cavalry bairacks large quan- 
tities of bay, iitniw, and other matter, w^re thrown mbi ihe iuvsrt, 
yet DO incunviui iiinco hail bilhci'to arisen in their nso. It would 
be teodily inen that these niooliinos could ho appliod to tanks to 
all aitualiuuB, as uo head of water waa teqnlred, and thi-y might 
be of any ai|Mmity. In the eelf-actlug fioahlng gate, the giie was 
eaitirely cknwd the wliotc width of thi> sower, andwaaof any cou- 
venient hcigiit. Tlte gate waa kept ubnod by means of a strut 
jointed iu thi-c«Dire:aneeuduf the strut worked iu aueye fixed in 
theoeulre uf the (pxl^ whilst iheulhtTCud wurkediu aueye fixed 
to the wall of the aide onti^ancv. The tilting basin was huug on 
wntros wiUiiii the nde entrance, so ai not to interfere with Uie 
npoiiinx uf ihc j^Ie; the lever extendeii boyuud the oaotnM uid 
uadellicuLth ihe joiul uf the Blrut. The watvr hariu({ riaeu behind 
the gate to the iliHchar^ing |K)Lnt, a waste pipe took the overflow 
water liitu ih* lilting baiiiii, or bucket, when the lover raised the 
joint (rom the huriiantal pfi^ition, and the weight of water prce- 
siiig agiuusl Uie tiikir, caused it iuinicdiately t-j fly opL-u, and the 
■cour luuk ploutt. Thii le^ of the etnit, by the two nxtnmitiea 
heiaii bronj^ht di>Hpr liigf'trnT, formed the two legsof theletu-r A. 
Wjieii Uie rush of water hud subsided, the legs of the stmt, from 
their position, lia<] a leudoncy to Ihrunt the gato from tlieni, and 
the more nearly thelctpi oflhestrulaaauniedahoriBiatnJp'witiDn, 
the greater was the thrust, and the gate waa evetitaaliy forced 
Uume. 



THE CIVIL EMGIKEEa AND ABCHITECTS JOUKNAL. 



r 

m CUTBBBOE WATEBWOBKa 

I Tkk inhkbituiU of tfai* borough, long belta^ Uie mHoiu b- 
mnvmleiMi of k il«feative w»tvr vi'pp!)', tletemimnl. In 1844, h) 
OftU «pm At QjIMTiLlBoan] of Heal til uj apply Ui'- PuMic HoUth 

■ Act to Uioir diatrict, which kijumI w.i» eonijiliisl with in the 
fbllowiog vour, upon the report uiJ rr«>iiiiiirii<iaciuD <4 thpir 
iuDMbiT, Ur. B. U. Bkbbw. In the report maile by Mr. 
BtDbag^ & MhoBM for nippmaK the dulnot with waU>r wna 
pjopcmJ. tlu Lonl Board, however, preferred t&king further 
Mdvico ma bi tho b««t ineBiiii of doiog thin, >iid lecuml tlie 
•nrvioM of Mr. Pvk, of PtmIod, then etipoocr to the Prwton 
K WaUrworki. »nd subiMiquciiUy thtMC of Mr. UclAud«bi)rough, 
I dril tnglaepr, of Bnulford, who both reported upuii t)i? lubjcct. 
la 1863, a coiiiii«iiy wm fanned for iiipjilying llie borouoh with 
wnWr, Mid in the fottowini; uusloii of 18^4, an Act of pBrliatueiit 
wna obtained for auoh piirpo«>, to which there wu some l<.>cal 
oppoeiliou. Tfpon tii# Act Wina pnwurrd, the dlnwtvn hiui the 
worb airTi»<t out with ai litlln delay m poMibl*. Cantnula 
mro ODtend into in the aulunin of lh« lamc jiar for the whole 

I of the worlu, which bavo mcodU; boon completed at a m*i 
rather more than tea ft onC under the parliatnentiLry ntimnte, 
which Mtioute Indnded nich per centtge tx oonUngenclea. Th« 
main* through the itiveU ore now chbrgnl with wiit«r, and the 
inbAbilAnta ar« being auitulied t)i«n<rp>ni aa mpidljr a« the 
eanpHi; can pnt Iwaooh pipot into the houaaa, of which about 
990 turn already bean flxod. The company have bIm Hzed flre- 
plngB to the maim in all the public aliveta. at the ei{i«iM« of the 
oorpomtion, and by their uae have alremly, in one oun of Gro, 
bean the nuuni of saving coDiiderable property. The reoent 
tnpply of water for oiiUnary purpoeee waa procured principally 
from public nud private wella. which souroee yielded an abundant 
■uppir of wat^r, bright and dear, but unuanally hard; the 
principal town well (one of the sofUiat) being 13 de^«M of hard- 
neM, anil the otheni vnryiiig u hich as 34 Aeatvea, while the 
new aapply ut '-aiy 4 degree*, nnd tLij redaoeabte by boiling U> 
S) degrece. Not only In point of aoftntaa doea the new tupply 
oontTMt hvoumbly irith the rtcent auppiv, bat aUo in ita oom- 
CBTBtive freedom fruui orgivnic and aolid mnttora; and, aa the 
Kilowinji (able will ahow, it bmnt hvounthle mmpariaon with 
the wnter of other town*, iaclnding tho« nppliod &om the 
purest aonnea known : vtjtak 

iflfnliu 
per fhUuD. 

CUthvoe— Recant lupply from pnUIe welU 

fownj of the private wella oontiuu much 

hif^ prop<3rtiona of both organic and 

inorganic nuittor] 

Clilhan»— New eupplr 

Ohwow— Look Kfttrin^ new loiuxo of 

aupply 08X .,. 

Wbltehaeei)— Bnoerdale I^ke, new aonrn 

ofanpply 0-91 ... 

Dewabnrr— New aouroe of eupply ... 1*18 ... 

liTerpool— Kii-ingtun Pike, new aonrae of 

aupply 0'^6 ■>. 

Losda— ^lUver Wfaarie, new aouree of pnr- 

tlalaupply 080 ... 

Unll .-. 3-» ... 

London— New River Company 879 ... 

London— Supply from Thaince Dittoa ... iSO ... 

Malram ■■- Nolknown 

Aberdeen Ditto ... 

Yoik Ditto ... 

DkiewWalla Ditto... 

Looooa — HampaUad Water Cotnpaay ... Ditto ... 

Olaigoii^WeU water Ditto ... 

Leodon— Well water Ditto ... 

Liverpod— Well water Ditto,.. 

Tbia water, m uiteicepttoDable in <]ua]lty. Li prMured from a 
number of oop''"" ■pringsi thitt riao on Uie iuljn«nt fcUs, the 
diatrict bein{{ from 3i {•> 4^ uiiW north of Ulitheroe. Tho for- 
mation being of uiTlUtiiie icrit aiiJ from fl60 to 1300 feet 
above the luean level of the aea. The minimnn yield of the 
•ooreea ia the moat droughty aeaaona ia over 3W),0(K] gallona per 
diem, for the ixomedtate supply of which unoant the worka bare 



0-79 



fer ttOon. 



aii'30 
3-71 



been oooamciled. The oonddla and pipei^ however, have bees 
laid down of aizei to admit of their ,.«DVCTlag a nveh larger 
quantity, whii^i, wittK>ul furtbar povrera b^ff nqairod, eaa be 
auppUed at a nominal cxpviiw. Althun^ Uia populatioa of 
ClithonM in ISOl wu only 7144, in \Mi it had ao fitr inoceaaed 
aa to indooe provuiou bnng mode for an immediate niiply to not 
leoa than lO.CMX) urriHiiu, at 30 gaJIoca prr head per diem. The 
aupply ia ooUectea by ineaiii uf (artheuwitre coudulta, and cuU- 
veyoJ to a rmrTBU, rituated :kbout two miln* north of the 
borough, at an elaratkn of 7i feet above the Inval of the Caade, 
which ia the higheit part of the diatrict, and of SdO feet above 
the level of Low Moor, the loweat part The main from the 
rceervolr to the town coniiijita of 9-iucb caat-iron plp««, which, 
after deacendins for a length uf 7 furlunga, and a tul of £50 leet, 
croasea under the bed of the river Ribbte for rather more than 
300 yatda. Prom the river the main aaceods towatda the town 
for a diBluuue of half a mile, riiing, in that leiitrlh, about 94 feet; 
thence witli a gradual fall it crossea below the lltiu-kbuni railrav 
to its tenuinuR in tlie market-place, from whi'.-)i plaoe bmtidi 
pipca diverge to all parte of Ih^ iliatrict. The condiiita and ifon 
mainn extend to a length of twelve miles. The coit of the worka, 
incluaive of all eitraa, coikting'pipes, &c., but exclusive of land, 
)«rli(iment«ry, legal, and engtueeriug eipeuate, b 13*, per head, 
and incluaive of parliamentan-, legal, engineering, and every 
other expense, the work> and laud have coat K per head on thia 
above population. When the qoaiity and onaiitity of water anp- 
plied: the efliciency of the works eiecutoi for present aud future 
nquiremeots; the Eadlitiea they poaaeea f(>r eoonomiciJ eitenaion, 
and their eoat, ate oonaldered, it ia o.inc«ivo>l ihey will bear 
favourable mrapariitoD willi thoae executed in any part of the 
United Kincdom. The worka were deairiicd and enrried out by 
Ur. McLondiboroDgb, C.E.. of Bradford, Mr. J. Bnrker acting aa 
clerk of ttie works (siuu appointed mannger], and Mr. Booth aa 
inapector. The earthenware pip«a wMe nu^plieil by Mowni. 
Hi^ei^ Broueh, and Co., of Liv«<rpool', the iron pipm by Mr. 
Clarl^ of Clitheroe; the fir«-plug«, &a., by MeMni. Uuert and 
(^farimea, of Rotherham; and the tornintion of reservoir, oondulta, 
pipe-laying, &C-, were executed by Mr. J. Metoalf, of BiadfiMd. 



S-S3 

310 
3'fiL 

«75 

14-64 
18-00 
19-78 
Sl-33 

3-00 

3'AO 

9-00 
1079 

3a-.i9 

Ifl-OOto 

sew 

S8<0to 
IWD-OO 
13-80 to 



L 



ST. PETER'S CHnRCH, SCAHBORODGH. 

(fFUh en Ej^pvving, Piatt U.) 

The want of aoMtumodatiou for the resident Catholics, and 
nomcroui visitor* at thin fashionable wnleiing-ptaoe, has been 
long ^It ill the preeent building U3e<l as a cliapet, aud il wa« 
therefore reaolved to ereol a new church, of whii-li we present our 
readers with a view. The site, upon a rapid decline, and on 
tea narrow a pieoi.' of land to enable the plan to be reversed, haa 
oSered considerable difficulty to the njvhitects: resulting, how- 
ever, in a gain of nictnreeqneneea. The nlau, as will he MC% 
oouaiata of a nave and aisled, apaidal chancel with luleral (^pell^ 
baptistery, tower, aud nariHty. The atyla adopted is the 
<ioometriiml Decomted, vereiiig upon the l*lowing DeMrrated; but 
throDghout there is an evident desire to attain to origiiiulity aa 
oiipoaed to aervile copying, without, however, casting aside the 
eloqnnnt teaching of the church builders of L>!d. The moat 
remaricBbte feature in the buildinji la tlie " blind " apso, b which 
no effort is being niaile t<i avoid Hie gnAt objection to the over- 
flowing flof^l of light wiiicb procoedB from an eaatpm window, 
and utl«rly dealroyH the effect of any sonlpture or adonuuent in 
tlia wxy uf n^reiloB, &e., which ma^ he beneath it Is tfai* caae 
abundant light will be thrown into the chnrch from quoin 
eleieataty windows, two on either side; lenving the walla or the 
apae proper, frta for fVcscoea anc) sculpture. The exterior ia 
" veiled " with an aix^da adapted from the Lombard aroadinj)i of 
the Rhenish apses, Sij:. The tower (which is not itnloded in the 
proaent oontnwtt above the level of nave walls) ie ttiiatod with 
oonaidentble novelty, and is adapted to n^ist the sweeping winds 
to which the building will be of necesaity expoeed from ita 
elevated ponition. The contract waa taken aflw a apiiitod otbi- 
petition by Mr. tVlkinbridge of Whllby, for the amount of 33AOf. 
for the fabric, exclusive of all liltinpv and the npimr portion of 
tower aa wa have said above. The whole of the ashlar aud w;ill- 
atone are from qttarrtee in the neighbourhood of Wliithy. The 
walla are lined throughout with bnck, having a two-inch cavity. 
Messrs. Wcighuuau, Hodfield, and OokUe, o? Sheffidd, an the 
arcliiteota. 




Plwrf,S.Prtfli!| 
I fimni|) lis I 



?{'.mi{)i ■■ (illimiil : S(I,BKBO"Rpil0il : 



wiiOHTaM ■■•anilS ■ ooLBif 4Mh'.> i-ftndB 



leVoiiLflBh 



THE CIVU. ENGIXF.KR AXD ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



9 



ON THE DESIOS AND COXSTBOCTION 0? 

UARBOOItS.* 

B; Tnoau Srvrcreoii, C.E., P.RAB. 

lUuwuu an slthar utnnl or utilkuL tkone pftrto of Um 
ItnUrfi wmM ve koiplT pKxridod viib luUiral b»j» »aA <«m1u^ 
irtiil« in oUwr part* Um ■MOBmad^iiA and ahclUr for aliippiiw 
bar* b«Mi cntinlr MmiUed tnr arliiloUl bmuw. Tbw, IraUad 
»^ tba wart eact «f SoolUttif an plancif i Jly tnlanootttd bj «x- 
«rflMi( deap wUar ban and aachoranwi bai on Uia eaat aiul 
MMtlfWMt ahoTM of Bntaia then are bnl faw natural luurboum 
CntoMitf BayiiairiltaUMiliaUultfroini Um firth of Poftfa. which 
ia lb* M*i«at •Nthcra natural harbour; while thorn an no taw 
th« 400 aUat bMwam Um llrth of Forth and thd tbanw^ which 
may b» waiidarad i» (h« aaxt raall; naeiMpttonbla harbov or 
nA^a. 0» lb« w«at eoaat tben u« »tM>«t 9lXl ntlaa of ooaat 
bHwam tha ii«ar«t ii*tiual barboiiTB of HolrbMd and Loeh 
ftfam. The <niutfu«tioB of arUttdal plaoo of nran htcommm 
tfaiatiii a v«r7 importBAt nMttar in a 00110117 whore onr^ 
vtetar^ Ibu of ehipwrodu and loaa of Ufa, rMiiiul a% huw 
modi iMtBra haa tpft fbr art to acwmplkh. For tha noat oou- 
alala boij of «vuUaoe rvganlmg Um port* of Britain, w« cnnuot 
do brtler UiMt raTar to tha Tolaniaa of roporta bv ihu Tidal liar- 
bear'a Coainiaiofi, fur tha ooonpUtaneai of which the pnUio 
ia aalBljr iadabled to the nal of Caotaia Waahingioa, the prMcat 
iadaiUuable hjdrosrapb«r to th« Adntlnltj. 

The StJl fp iiB g of buhotin oooatitalaa ooB f ia w dly on* of Ui« 
Boat ditlkalt mnebaa of <>tU aogioeariB^ In making audi 
dvIcB^ tba asgioMr, in ordar to anil luMiialf of Um adranUtc« 
vUSt ia to be derired from put Mp«ricaoat a«M mmImvout to 
tba baat of hia powvc to iaatltnt* a oonpariaoit betwrvn tha glTmi 
MBlitj asd aooM othar, wUeh ha anpMaaa to b« iu ptri oani. 
BhCM Untltr, howatw, inthophniim preoliarilUaof dilEennt 
tf ti-iit. wldooi if over «i>««, and all thai can he doue ii lo 
•daet an asiating barboor, whioh appaara to b« m nearly aa pc«- 
inhla aioitlarij ouwuMtanoed to tha frofiaatd worV. 

Ia MmUariflg Um aufajatt nf tha oooalmeUoo of harboqr* ia 
■xpeaad ritaaliawi, the GrataadmoatiBiforlaataHbjiiotdnirrfitiK 
vor UUnliM ia tba daatmeUn action of tha elafnaot viUi wMeh 
wa ha<r« la Hml, — what luv ila eiwrgiea wban eicilecl br itirrsiii, 
Mtd what Uie Uir<i>.-t>ua of iti furuM »u the Wil«t« wliioh have 
faeon miaod to coalr<i) it t 

fliii Willi, w hti litmoij of tile EddjMoaa, wbm iqirakiui! of 
tb* objaciion that Mif ht be rM«d asnuiat the neoeantjr for mii^f 
jog^aain UMmnaonrjr of thai baSdiog^aaji^ * When we baT« to 
do with, and to Midoatuur to control lAoat poiMrw oif iu(ar# tiuit 
■rvan^fnf Ut na ealfulati/m, 1 Iriut tt will b« iliiwned pradant 
not to omit in enuh a oim aoytlunji that oui wilhoiM dllbeoltT 
baappliol. aixi that wu«U be likely toadd totbearcwHj." Thia 
atMameai ofoar grtttmt uMrine eugioear. indWMM thepn>Tiriety 
of oarernlty oiitlaitiing: Aujr beta that iimtIm1|i in lo a more aiKU- 
tMa ntirnatk* xf Ukw* fbrcoa which be ra|pvil«l aa btbig 
" ma\>JireK to uo taleohttioti.' We ahall thprtforo atat« a few facta 
which h^rplieen nwonled of th«d<atnMtire power of ibe wa<rei 
in inland Ukei^ and bi Um open oeeaa. 

Tha writer bai aeni at Port Bnmwban^ hi I<och Awe, wltero 
tha Atch !■ iimler 1-4 niilee, a alMW wm^iuk a quartar of a Uitt. 
^m out i>r the niiwintirir of ibe hading Blip aiid orertarued, 
Ur. U. HtemiMiD, ill liin ■ Bnfrin«wtli« of Kortb Am«rica,'(la- 
aoribfa iIm li*rl*>iiri in lokn Erit>«* ramiudlng him of Iboae im 
oar own nca-inrt aliorea, ami nMntione havipg aeen cms atone 
trciKhin; itjiwuiU n( half a Ion wbidi bod boeu taken out of lU 
bed iu tlic pier at BnUhln, nu-ved aevFiiO htt and overtuniDH. 
ne Cania da UanlUI, in hit ■ Hl*toii« PhrtiqiM de U Uer,' 
pabUihe>l at AnMlerdam in 1T2\ eutca Uiat the hkbeat wave 
obMrvril bybtmofi tlMahoraaor lAnpiedoeioiha Uedilermiienn 
8«B, where the breadth ia about 8M) nilea, wna 14 ft 10 In. 
At tha moMb of a hartwur ou the Uennan Ocean, with a 6i4di 
ofaUmtilQUmllM. the writer hwl obaerved fbrhln the height 
cf tho wavaa dnrag •oDtb-eMierlr nlaa, nod on one ooeulon the 
nmlt waB llU fcet froin the creu m the wava lo tba Uoufih of 
the BDB. In dtefier water, and erith a uorth-Baaiarly vale then ia 
DO doaU Uinl tba wavta of the U«riiiKn (X'ean will niuin n 
bright pooKiiUniblr greBier than thiM. In November 1(<17 tba 
wav«a lit Uie liertaiux Ocean ovrrtoninl, liial after it had been 
&iii*lie>l. a oUamB of freoatune 3(1 (rrt hif^ and 17 favt baae. 

• fiua laa niUb MIUm tt Ibi 'lauUnaJla Maaka.' 

MdCa^BiBi tiun.~ttH. 
tVa. ST*— VoL u.-JBinitST, ISSr. 



Tbadianataratthaplaeaorfraetarewaaabant 11 faet In th« 
Atkotie Ocoan, Dr. Seoreahr ataUd, hi a tcan a i mi oBti on lo tha 
Britiah AaaoentMn in 1630, that dnmg aavenl hard pirn ba 
had oMBBured may wavaa of aboat 30 fast, InU Ibe higbi«t waa 
•U feet Inta the holkrw to Uh cnat. Wavea of andi Biagnitada 
eonld BoareelT, however, tt»eb onr a-rlifidal barbonra, bntn the 
BhallowneiB o'f the water near the ahorB. To Umbo beta it may 
bo added, that we kaow (froia the tMtinoay of an eye-wiinaai) 
of a Uook of SO lona weight being noved bjr the om at Bam- 
btad, OIM of tha HebtUea; nod Au ia fiur more •xtnonlinnn, 
we know and ma vouch for the fact, that hlooka of S ton* vreigbt 
havo been qnarHed, or he^en out of tbdr be-la in rUu, on the 
top of the Bound Shern of Whalwu in ZeUand. whidt t* 
•levBted TO font above tha love] of high-waMr epHng tliUa. 
Tbc Buand Skemr and Mcghhoaring roofca, which an- in Uia 
0*mi«n Ooean, certainly fiiraieh by fcr lb* meat woo-WfuI 
proof that baa yet been dbeo*«twl, of the grnt fbroe wMcb k 
fIsvBtoped t7tb» bUkiWB of tba ooeaa when laddaaly obeokad 
bj orqioaing mck*. 

TIm writer bM ■taled ( in Um ' IVnna. Boy. floe. Edinburgh') 
thnt. hocu the obaarvatMni which he bad made with the manae 
dTiuuiMmab>r(aBflf«tfiil>nnxinirtnim<wt dedgn*! byhbnfer 
lh« pnriuae), ha bad Brand the torn of ibe witvca i4 tba Gftman 
Oom(i ilnriuK linnl galcL tu be 1| IM )Wt taptrfieiaS /bol at Ibfl 
Bell R<rK.-fc, and of the AUaaUo Ooean to be a (dm (Mr mpeijtrfdi 
fiat at the Skonyvm LighthooBt. Bat thaae reanlU OMy sUlt 
be far ihort of the maiima. Aa the auirlne djmamameter baa 
oftFR been found OMful in iDdieatlng ibr fonee of the wavee in 
MtoalioD* where Imrfnora were lo be bnill, it nuy ba proper to 
give Butfa a deacription (tf it ai will euiible any flae to have It 




Ulf I 



■ IIBTiiietiii 



IdlaMoit' A»W 



Xi KV O il a owt'inM) c^'Iiiidar, whioh b limilj bdlrd at tllB 
IvoiecUuK ftuiiEm G, to thi rook whore the osiwrinieota ojv to be 
iniule. Tlia cylinder baa a dtoular flan{^ at U. L it a <loor 
which Id opened whrii t)ic otauMvatico m to be rend otf- A 
U a circular dlae 00 wbtdi the wnvu* Lwcdnge. FaMcnnl In til* 
diae nre fc-nr snide n>di B, which )uu* IhriMigli a imuhar plate 
C, wldcb ii icrewoil down lo the lhuii» D, nod lUao ihroiigb 
holca in the bottom RF. Within the cylinder Uit^re la Bitadin 
to the nhte C a |<o«eriul itecl apring, to Um olhfr or free end 
of which i« laatctied Uie nnall ciroular plaU K, which again ia 
oemml t<> tli« guide roda B. Thero an bIm tinsn of teaibcr, T, 
which tliile cu the gnlde rode and eerre sb indion f-t regitterihg 
how &r the rodi hare been poalied throtigh the holca in the 
hottuiu, or, in other worda, how Ur ihB eprtng haa been drawn 
onl 1>y ttia aotiou of the wavea acsioBt the diac A. 

lu oninparlo^ an ezbting barbonr with a propoaad one, tn 
ordiT 10 iiitoritnm tha dimenitnn* wliicli nre ncOMenrx lo ineare 
atsbility, perhnp* the niiiBi ohviotm ^l.'iavnt ia what nuy bo 
ti-rmed Uiu Wn" ^ Brartnuni e-rjiwiiir, (it, in olber words, Ibo 
line of gTHiteBl /rlek or micA of ii|ieu ivo, which can be roallr 
moBMired from a chart. Bat though po we a wd of tbla lijf-im>a- 
Uon, the engineer •till doce not Itnow In what ratio the briylit 
of tbe wave incraaaea hi tvUtton lo any givto tueneve iu tho 
line of cipuaore. 

Ad this ini)uli7 (■ one of grent aieoKnt in tbe practice of 
rnuiae engluetriug, and hoe no* been bi any w«y InvMU^inl, 
tbe writer baa for aotne time bach been making i«cnBioual obaef^ 



TUE CIVIL ENGDTEEB AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



mtiou <n tht n!bJKt, vbra brounble clrotuiuUaoM oocurrtid. 
Ib«M obfcinliuiM hkv« b«M but limJud in axtant) and 
tBBBOt b« ng&rded u lUwiiiim of oouMenoe nakM io cmm 
vben Uw two barboiin Are not fiu- dtStnnt in their Uiim of «Xr 
poCBi*. Bofcr MUiowrxperiiiwiuUlMWgOMv tlismTwawm 
tn inenua- in ll«)|{ht moat nnarly In lit ratir <^ Iht «fMrf tvot 
<lf titir AWanew/rvm themadaard (Aor*. 

It duM not follow, however, that th« Una of nuuimnm «k- 
poinra b In vrtrf au« Uiq Uoe of niiiimiim effiMtiva forM of the 
w&vwi far thii rauat dvpond oot ool; on Ui« Ungth of nwdk, but 
■bo on the anjclo of incioaios of tba wkvai c>n too wall* of tke 
harbour. What maj be tMmed the line of mejrMriuD i^eHv 
ttpoutrt, ia that wliidi, nftor baiog oomotod br obliqaity of 
ImoKt of tliu witTts, gtroduOM the mulnram reenlt, and thla ckn 
ooir be takea from tbe cbort oAor eHccoenva triitlt. Let «= die 
graftleat force tliat cnn aMkU « pier, A ^hariit of w»vee whidi 
produea (aiUr b«lag oomelM for obltquitj) lie him! muni cflaot, 
and which an due to the liu« of nuuiuaai tOeetivQ wcMnra. 
Sin a=«iae of asmutbAl au^lo formed betwMB dliwnonaof 
piar and line of maxinram eActivs upomn^ radiiu bvlog; 
matt. Tleti « a A an' a when the fbrae » mcdved normal to 
the lioo of the pier, bat if the foroe it t«Ml*ed agaiii In the 
dli«ct)on of the wmvea thenMlvei, the txpraadon beoomea 

It vboitid not be forgotten, in econectinn «rilh tliia ■Dbjoet, 
that there are rariona i^aalif^iDg oleiuenta to wbicb medal atten- 
tion T«i|Bir«s In acnia eaaea to bo (^vea. The wave*, for exaaiple, 
mar onto bo Botioed, whaci approacnii^ iho land oblji^uol;, to 
alter tbnr direction when tfac^ get doao to tho afaora (in «on- 
aeijuaiioa of the depth ohaDgingli eo aa to atrike it mora ncarlj' 
at ri^t aa^ea to the general lute of the beaoli. lo ihia way m 
■wairftDR) UM ocoan a»j *nt»r a bnv wlitrh 1b not dinctly ex- 
poecd to iL It aboold aliio l« oWrvvrl, that tli* llnoa ot 
expoaure CBOinol be dlrvutlj' componsl if the drptha of the water 
through which thfj paae are nat«rialtr diff«retit. 

Die tidea, toc^ osmt In ouiny plac«« a ft^ tl«dded effect on 
tht oatnre of the billow*, in nornr jilooca cnaiinu wnvna of an 
untwiMlly daofferoM charaol<ir, while at otben tlioy are binnd 
to run rfmon the aea, If a marliie work ia aitiiatecl in a net or 
npid tldo-way, Hucti, for exaiu])le, u those called "rooeta" in 
Orfcnev and Zetland, tbt wmnry will be ezpoaed to the ao- 
tion of a rerv trfing and daDgtrou hl^i'OntiDg bhl Ab an 
example of thit, we mar refer to Fort-ntriclc in Wietooahire, 
where tb« riolauoe of tbe waTee ia, we have uo iloubt. maeb 
dne to tlw rapidity of the tldea. If, on the other band, the race 
or rooal mm m >ach a direction aa to hn eotlrply outaide of the 
barbour.acdal lome dlatanoo od^ it will have ndocldod taadeiicy 
toAeII«rlhe workii,an(l toaotasabreakwater. Thus it apnean, 
from obwrvatlona ipectallj made (or the writer at Sunilmrgh 
Tltni] LiKhlhonao in Slietland during a anuch-wenl^rl; atonn, 
that ao loD{ m the Somburgh rooit (one of tho mnal formidable 
in thoae aoaa) wna crating and brrakius heovily, one could have 
«a^ lauded in a email boat at a oweU or bajr colled tbe Weat 
Vo«; but no eooner did tho rooat dlaappear towarda high-water 
than there oame in toweriog bitlowa (bat totally aobmeraed 
eliffii of rerr eonaid«niUe iMoglit. The atndy of the mnditytng 
and IntaoKiytiig elbota of Itde-curreata on the wava of our 
Britiab MB« aeama to liave bean enlirelr negleoted in tho kte 
dlaeuasioDa rqgardinff tli« triorita of vertical and aloplng wolhr, 
which will be referred to in another aoction of thia aruelsi. 

We ihiuk it right to mention that we oonaidcr aa erroDOoiM 
tho ouinioQ cxprtMed by a writer in the ' EdlDbnrgh Fhiloao- 
phical Juaraal ' — that the caoae of raof* or rooala Is UM mee^ng 
of two mpid ciirrvDti-. neither do vo boliere that they are oooa- 
^oaed br the projeotioa of rocka bom the bottom of the aoa aa 
nwjr aulora (umoati. 

From carvnil iniiiilriM, ae wall oa from actual petsoaol expe- 
iMoo^ of aoch formidabii^ bmakinn water* aa the Boar of Dua- 
eaiubMr, and the Uerty Men of Mey iu the PentlnocI Firth, and 
MvanI othera, we are of ooiuiou that the tnie cniiM ii the rw«ll 
qfliamatneaunUrtitgalUiiitMrTtnt rvuniftgi* <■ ilinctUm more 
or ttu MfOtti tt tM ^ Ote wavm. While It i« obrloua that two 
mpld tldea naj meet <«oh other without any daonFona affocU^ 
it ia alao ((ulte true that when two tidea meet eaoh other in a 
iwigb aca, a« in coming round each lalud* ae Stroma or Swuna 
in tbe I'eiitlarxi ^rtb, tho effect of their union being to iDereaae 
the eurreui at that piaoc^ there will be prodaoed a highly dan- 
glirow tea; but the EicC of Ihejr mcetioj;, thouirh caleuhitod to 
^prnte, li uot, we tbiok, the primary cause. The noea which 



oooor In opeo eoai^ wa, tar Loetanoe, off headlands and tumipe- 
polDta of taa eeaat, ar* carlaia porttona of tboae aena in wluA 
the wana brtai to a greater or leaa estsnt, although the water 
may be mj deep, and there ma* bono wind at the tiine. At all J 
suoli plaoea It wUl be (bund Ibat there an i^id tMea. 11i*1 
noata on tlia witat ooant of Orkn#y or of tbe Ptoittbiid Flrt^ 
for example, air in>rat with eU tidei and xeNfffjr awalla 
becaoK the AUanlio awell and cumnt of ebb are n pp caat 
Tboee again uu Ae aaet ocaM an worat with jCm4 tUin ai>4 
eneterfj/ewellafrnmaalmllar oaoaa. Tliiuat thaeaat tDd ef Ibtj 
Pentlutd Firth thii Roarnf Dancanabay ia wril known to lagvj 
with eaatrriy iwelb and a flood tide: wberaat^ at the wvot (tM j 
of tbe lame firth, the Menj Men of Mcy an eqaally well kaowa j 
to be worei will) ebb tide and a WMtorly awefl, at whlefa ttakl 
no boat coold rntor them without the rtak of bring overtnnied.] 
Tbe dangerouii mrf which eiinta at tbe tnoatha of aome rivna i%J 
W« believe, not xolelr due to the want of depth at the bar, bat 
aloo to the nieeting of the outwiud I'nirrent with tho wavee oif tba 
aea. 

Whon a awoll cneminc«n a rrt|H'd oppoaisK current, the onwatA | 
motion of the varea aeemii to be arreetod, and their widlU 
beeomei visibly decreaaed- lliej get hlriier and Maeper, w iil,] 
and at l&at broah, aoinvtlmaa vorf partudly, aod at other ibuM 
almost aa they would on a aholriiig beacb. It appean to asl 
poaaible that MnenJ w«v«b ninv ultimately eombine in avehj 
(tiatutbed waters into one mounta'mous bfllow; fortbe wave thn] 
haa partially broken may have it* onward tDoticm ao m 
dieoked aa to allow tlia wave behind loovcTtake it, and having thn 
eonleaead, Aey tti/ij, aa one iargt wave, acquire a superior Te)oda_ 
80 ae to overlAke tboee in ttoiiL, and be (hrther angiuentwl by thaf 
union of other wavea which havo been reAeotad from tbe ibojv. 

It it to till* canne we are inclined to mftr aaoh wonde 
ofTccla a* tliAi to which wc hove already alluded, where bloeha i 
8 tons weight wore quarried out of the eolid rock atan elavallD 
of TO feet A>ve the sea. Were each violent aolion oonuMn I* j 
all the ahorea of the 0«rmaa Owan, iiuMid of bdng reaEriatadl 
to one or two etmilar plaoea, balf of oar oaatem ae^icrt towim 
would, withont any donbt, be waahed into the aea during tbe 
flnit atormy winter. Aa a fbrther proof of the gnat emol of J 
the tideii iu exaapemting the wavea, ira may maniion that tba f 
time when rauet danu^ ia done to aeawoHca which are n 
tolerabljr daap watar, la from ona to two hooia befcirs and aftw 
high-WBt«r, which naariy oorreaponda to the tinte when tba tida i 
runa atrongeet ontaide. We have feond tbia to bold trveat i 
difRsrenl pirta of tbe coast, butwillon1;ri'a(n'toouDW«U-i 

iuetanoe. At Petoriiead harbour, which prajeola promioa ^ 

Into the aoa on an iithmua, the tidea, at out a abort dietaaaa , 
Btaward of the harbour, nin very npidly. On tbe loth Jannaiy 
1840 there wu a very tiMivy sea, and a orr>wd of people wera 
down, about taa Saura biifiirw AijrA-uxiter, hel|nng to anniM thi 
whaler* and other voaieli in tho barbonr, when tbree aueoeariw] 
wavea carried away Sib feet of a bulwark, founded 9j feet abovaj 
high-water sprUigi, whiuh bad stood fbr many years, One ptoesl 
of this wall, w^faing 13 tona, was moved 60 fast. Aftor thb 
outbreak o[ tha aea tha w«vea btoame more moderal*^ natll 
abiiut ttno houri ajler %A-«attr, by which time tbe large whi^ara ■ 
had tnkeii the gruund, wbea oUiar three enOTmona wavaaaalKi 
Bwept over tbe harbour, subtnervln); the i^uayii to the defU t/t* 
ttvm B to 7 feet of unlid water, r>y which lixtern people wen 
drowneiL Thoee wave* filled the harbour to such a deptli 
as to set all tha whaleea afloat a^in, and they oontiutied ao for i 
several minotee, imtll the exoosa of wator had run out through ' 
the liartwar mouth. 

Thmw gitpuitic waves were, in onr opinion, clearly the reaiilt 
of iDiuo suoFi action aa haa been attemptad to be deeeribed. We 
abould not hnve dwelt at auob length on this subject wcni It not 
that we migh*. again lufer to the hcta when wo ootne to treat of j 
the subject of vortical and sloping walla COr harbouia of reft g i^ I 
where tt ia of importance to ebow that even t» the deapeat WaM'^ 
the wavea an oot pimiy oaejllaloiy, but that w h eeovir Ihen 
ia a tide-way the waves mil moro or leia partakaof (lietpiaJltiM 
of waves of transUtion. 

AnoUior olrenmatanoe affeoting the expoeuie of any marina , 
work ia the depth of water In frout of It. Tbe ^raat mat 
ooa Inltows soemnmanlv met with In die Atlaatie Ocean < 
be generated Id tlie shallower waters of the German Ocoad, 
n&lass, parbape in aach peculiar dn^umitiuiccB aa have just baca 
adverted to. It beoum«, therefore, of great ooueequi'ooe to 
aaaertoiu the maximum powible wave In a given depth of watct 



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Hr. 8k>H Rn MlL wboM ofaMmtiiMia on wbAt nay ba ekllfd 
tbttaJLTini! bnuuh oihjdredjiuBiMftrcaf Muh mat vkla^ )»■ 
■Wad tbAt if mna M pmpis^Md in a ahAniMl wboae <lBpi]i 
dtaitaiUwa oaiibtialjr. Um w»vm will brtak wfaaa tli«ir luig^t 
kbOM Um mrAM of the kvtl flaiil bamoMi mwI to tlia dtpth 
•ft tha bottom bolow tbe Mfftoa ('p. 4W BnL A«oe. Um. om 
Vavaa'). Tliia •totcmeat, tb« aMMung aJ which moiim doubtiU, 
Hr. BmmU clMwlMn (' laKii. CUt. Bag, p. 138') dafiiiM ikiM : 
"Hw aalliOT h«i aavar aoUead a waT* ao uneb m 10 fnt bigfa 
In 10 tmt wmttr, aar to noeb aa M bat UA hi SO frat waUr, 
Bor 30 hat Ugb ia fiva fctboma w*tM^ bat m baa aaon waT«a 
Mpaaah Ttfj iMarl;r to tboaa UnuU." It ia pnaninaJ tbal Iha 
MUn kara ralutad to ia tba awn IvrA of tb* aiu&oa of tfca aM. 
Wa ha«« had no opfNittubitiM of varUyiiig tbaaa obNmlicaiaj 
bat aa Um anbjeot u Tcnr in|MirUBt— baoaoM tha dapth of walar 
mfroatof a woriiaay ba atid to ba Uu ntiog eLamant wbich 
tha amoant of farea which it baa to reuM, wbatavar 



ha tha UiM of tnanniBB aspoaiiia^ w« thall tiuply alata what 

"lolaanaltun. 



I 



^ wfaoa 



withm our owa kaowladff* and olaai ■ altun. Wt have 
lU; aean at (liStnai parta ti tha «MMt bcaaluag wavaa of 
IkMU 4 to 6 Cwt,aimanriDg from beUaar to aaaL in froai 7 ft. Sin. 
to lu or 1 1 iMt of waiar, mMaarlag froa tha Mtloa up to tha 
BMn ta*«l; and on ooo ooowioa w» won lold of wavoa whidi 
woi* aatiuMitaJ an 9\ fact it 13 Ktot water. It laiMt, howaver, ba 
faoana in wind that Uwoe obaerratiaaa, and wa eonoaiaa ako 
thoaa of Ur. B u n a H , apjilj 0017 lo eonnoB waTea of tha aaa, 
flrlboaa ahorti alaap, aad airaarfleial marm Fbl«h an daa to an 
TT****'f wind, and nolt<f tha gnoad awolU which ara aUiKMt 
canatantlj to ba fanad in tha open ooean, and wbiob may ba 
tba ramlt uT loraar gdM, or ara tha lakaraph, aa Mr. BoMtU 
tanoa lh#n, of thaaa wtiid) an ^ to coom. 

From what hai bt*a lUted, it would apptar tliat in meat 
anaaa the b«vi«Bt wavea iJiouliI aaMJl any tide-wurk at hi|{l»- 
walii Thia, howavert aa nMUtloaed in tha lut Mwtiun, la not 
nlwaja tha eaaa, tha greataat daaiaga bttmg olWu (outid l« ooenr 
at th<< tiaiaa when tbe tiila mna atronitaat. 

Kr. LaaUe fbond that tho Arbreath ilarbonr'worki were in 
fmanl Ltaa M varely tried I9 the vefj hoaTieat waxM dian bj a tIaM 
«( wavaa eouaawhat anallw Umb tbtmt, owing to tho ootljliw 
■odui which. Erou tba anall daptb over them, had tba vlAct M 
tr ifpt m f ap tha hanvMr aaai^ awl thna daaUoylw ihmi bri'm 
tha/ iwacbad tha harbour, whiU ih* dapth wai aalicimit to allow 
the MiiaUar wato* to p^w iivcr Iha ehcwU unbvnkeu. lu ■oine 
oaaca of aarara aijMaurt tha «avea nii^t to mme eiloot ba 
reduoad br droppiiiy very larm atonea ootalde uf tha hnrbonr, 
aeaa, bj farmtDfi ui aitmeial anoal, lo canac tlMui to ci<Ht and 
baaak. 

One are>t dtfiouHj oomDMlDJ with the ralijoot r>f tho geaerK- 
tiao o( waraa aliU miiaio* iinanlved, via., — What an tba 
ninlmnai line of eipoaura and ano of aaa which aio compatlblo 
with the rsiitena of n h^oud-I iwalll Tbit auoitiOB. «v tear, 
wnnrl be ui«wer«>l in ihr prownt tlataof our Knowledge. 

Detp Walrr Itarioun. 

Barbonn of nfugo arc diatingniahoil from tidal harbours 
walnlj bv the Miperiiir dtfpih of aratcr whteh lliey poaatae, nod 
tlia Im8«V Br<« which Hmj: eaolcob The ta<]iiiail«a are ab«li«r 
dorlnjt etonua, and oaay aocae* Ibr aliippin)! at anj' tinw of tide. 
There ha* boen niu<h diacuwoni aa to whether jiian br barboura 
«f rafitw •bould be eertknf or a^v^w Col. Jonec. B.K, hiut 
Mpaoinnjr ailvotawd tbe auptriormerita of ^o Tcrtieal wnll;aiid 
Ihe dbcaatkina on Ida plan at tha lnalitutian of QtU Bnnnoara, 
and the ahla pnrteal by Sir Howard Douglai^ will be fetuid, {c<aa 
tb^ iatercat and imnorUace, to merit a cnrefid peruaaL 

Tbe priixipla iHikli ii OMerted u^ that oceanic wavee in deep 
wntcr ai« pnndr oacillatMT, aiul would ooeaHon no impaet 
•ainat vertknl Wricn, wlueh woald ba tha moat etiKible; aa 
lCi{7 would Mtlf have to eneoiuitar tha atmpla hyiUiiaUtia 
p>f Bta lino to the heat^t of the advanoin^ kullpw, and wuold 
ndant the wavea witlwui (naaing then to braak. 

Were it eran ndniiued that the wavea wen paralj' oedllatorv, 
and ware raAeelad b; a Tertieal barrier, would 110 ferae, il may it 
Mlud, be cipendod when the moUoa of Ihe pottiolM 'wm 
rweraed I The redectioo of a ware w&a equimlcnt lo the Deailjr 
tnalanliiii r ne (nation of a ware in tlie oppoaita direction, br 
wbiah a very owiaWirahU force bom eimly be reonii«d. 

We baUen, hnvever, that from the effoot of tide eunwata, t« 
wUek we bare already refertad, and twrfaam from other mnaee 
wfaoae action aeema to hare been overlookca by the advocatee of 



tho upright wall, tmy tona of banUr, in whatever depth It may 
have ben creeted, mnat ba nnfa ■finally eatgeoted to hMv^ 
Inpaet. WeeonertTe that the pOMribill^ of wavea of teaDelatiicn 
bamggnintad la thadeapMt water haabemalreadyeatabUahed, 
if wa aueoeeded In aati^ng the reader of tlie troth of tha 
fbUowiag aMectiotia: Firat, That wavoa break in deq» water 
diuina oabn weather; a fitet which ia apparent to them and 
&nUiar to all atikin; and aeooadly, and negatlvaly, liut Co 
leeward of thoae tacM or portlona of broken water, wbioh ear- 
tainly do not reflect the inoemiof wavee, theee i* ooMparattrel* 
■■Booth water both at eoa and on the adjoinii^ 4ion% nmiil auCB 
time a* the etreogth of the tide ia exhatuted, and the neat baa 
diaappaared, whau rloleat notion la again flilly mantfwted. 

It mav bo ai<giMd that theae ara oxtreeua aaeao, and thai eaob 
high veloeitiae in the cnrrent of the tide are aeldoDi bm4 with. 
TCW ob^Mtion hai^ no doubt, truth ia it; but atill tha tendmef 
i«*buwu, end thonj^ the ealodtlea may be leea in oilier qoaruri^ 
thent ainy yvt be <)nll« enoogU to deetray the eonditiou 01 ttfo*- 
llm which the oeeiUataty theory aaunaoa. Tbe beeakiag of 
wavee at am, and tbe aiiatonee of rnoee, aeem to prore beyond 
<|naattou (hat wavee of tranalatien are poauble In tli* deepen 
water. Ia It not alao a pinbable caee that warea whidi nava 
br«u r«4e<:lad by a vertical wall, and hare (irreapective of the 
({ueetiooi of tide carreBte) oambinoJ with the adviuiciux wavee, 
OMV then beoome wavae of ttuiulittion, poeeeaaing all ibe elemanta 
which radannor the etabiliiy i>f a am workT Or, aAia, bow 
nndi Biofa datnaga woold (eailt to a vertkal wall than to a 
dope of looee alonne, ttom tha Kuking of tha lbBDdatioall^ or 
from Uteir getting noderwnebad by tho na«tioa of the warea I 
It tlierefove appears that the method cenenJIy reaortad to of 
fanning deep walorharbuoraof maaiia of rabblaatone with long 
(JniH-e, ao ai to form an uliScla] beach br the wnvon lo spiiDd on, 
il, it) oic«t drauuatauoee, thn beet and chcn^t kiud of cvnttruo. 
tion. We bclise, bowpver, (o tbe adontion of lui upright wall, 
fbanded un the rubbli> ae a baale (cimiliv lo tbitl at Chorboorg, 
about 10 bo deacribedk bi prebreoce to looj paved itopea, aa there 
ie alwaya asperienecd a grant difficulty m fonndlBg the toe of 
Nuch udw walle ainomg the looee rabble. When pitched dopM 
tra adopted, gnat benefit will be foand to aoonw from latrlag at 
tlM bottcnt or toe of the alope a wide fbn-ahera. Mnoh, hnvaver, 
deptudi on local peenllariUea in Mlectioc the beat deaia (br any 
work; and Lbe DBlareoT tbe bottom iaaU-importanL Wbete the 
bottom ia ioft, a venial wall can bnrdly, if ever, be attempted. 

In maktug theae nfmnrke, we muet nut be uoderetood aa oon- 
demuli^ the adoutlcn of rartlcal walla in nuee where tbe fontak* 
tico te good. All that we aaMrt ia the opinion, that wavue of 
tianaLtUuD do exiit io deep water, and thermon that horboura of 
refuge will prove failutiie unleea they are built In >uch a manner 
oa to leaiat the imgiact of thoee wnrae of iiaiialation. The 
Clierhouiji breakwater haa been often lefcned to ea a eo tm iaftil 
iuaiauee ^the eppUottion of a veriioal wall, and haa itaefi oon- 
tiaaied with the Kymoath bnukwuicr, which baa a long alone 
But thia appnl it qnlte UlaciouH, n« the profile of that wnrk 11^ 
A8 alroadf hill led, of a ooiupoaile character, conaiatliig of a Inlna 
wall eloptngattherateof 10 horiuatal to 1 per^ieniSenlar, enr- 
niriiititiM by n pliuub wall; >o that whatever merit may be e«|>- 
poaed lo bdoDs to the vertical twoAte ia entlivly nulliHed at 
Cherbonig b^ Uie long talni wall In fr'int, on whiJi tiie viulenoe 
of liie wavee i* much broken. Uoreowr, the heaviret wavee at 
Cherbourg ocme from tbo Dorlb-wcal, and do not aMul tbe break- 
water at right auglea to iia dirvvtion. bat ooue men UMrty atird 
en to thu work, lu a« to a great extent to ran along the outer 
wall. Tlie nortli-w«Bt wavea an propagated from tM Atlantic, 
while Ihe wavea which an moat iryma to tbe work oume tnta 
tha iiortli, in which direction the line of espcaure ii only 
abtnl 31 leaguea. Tbeee Aula we obtained during a reetnt 
viali t» CheinouijL undertaken tor the ipacial parpoae of 
Moertatuiog the phyaioal oharacterialioe of the pbica. Tht 
attempt to make out a paralleliam brtwoeu Plymoatb, whidi 
bnea the Atlnutio direoUy, and Cborbonric, which ia oampnnh 
tivelr liiud'lucked, cannot, in our opuiiiai, atand the teal uf a 
laud^il iiiiiiiiry. 

OUier ci)ni]*riiinnii may be reftrred I" which have been ad- 
vanced on Hiuatir natrnable groiuidiL Th<i>, Uio old |)&er of 
Dtmleary, which i* vertical, aud ha* ainrd well, ba* hpon com- 
partd wllh tli<^ lalufi wnlla of Kiii^'etowu Uai-Uiur, w|iii:h di>w 

Kilrct Pniilcary, and wliu'li hare i-Aen rewiveil iiiiich djuiiiiL-t. 
C all-iuiportntiC rlirmiDt of dvplh of water baa b««ti iu Ihil 
inetancf etititrJy orerlookpd; far at Kingatown there ia a depth 



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THE CIVIL ENGINEER AXD ARCHITECrS JOUEXAL. 



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of 97 b«t, wbib Dunlntry ia nil bat dn. An able writer ob 
the MUM fUMTto mnta in ounparing dUfereiit Mft wall* in tbo 
Firth of Fortli, ha*, ia like luajuirr, not anSetently ■dvc>rt«il to 
thr gnwt dilEmiwM is ih* dcptlia oppodte the vorla (« wbidi 
ho nScn. 

An irapoitMit adTvnb^ie of the alopiog wall ia llie nn&U 
rodatasM whkh tt offen U) ibe iuipiuglof; wav^ but It thoukl 
also he barve in diIdiI that t)ie wct^t mliBg on Ih* fkM atonoa 
IB a talna wall U dixTrannJ in proporliMi to U19 uae of tbo aii(te 
of the alop*. 1/ we auppaae tlie wave* wbioh naaail a alopuig 
wall to act ia Uie iMriaoutal plane, Ibeir dinct inipalae, wh«a 
rMolvtd Into tba fora acting at ii^ht an^M to t1i« aloptc^ 
nrbc* of tlM talM wall, will be proportional to iho aino of tho anglo 
of Ucidctiaf-. The oBectirc foKo when catimalnl in the honxoulal 
plaiM^ wiUbeproportioDal totbcfiuaieaf ihenne ofthaaagleor 
iBoiilnice. But If we a«Humo tbe moljou of tha Imptodng 
partMM to ba horimoUl, the numbtr of tlirrio which wilT M 
intmmlad hj the aloptux •ortaer will be al«> mluoed in tbe 
ntio of the nna of the aoffie of inddeooe, or of elevation of 
tbo lalua wall. Henc>^ ilic tend^Dcj of the wavea to produce 
luviaonlal dJAplAonuitnt of tli« wall, ou tlie aafluiiipUon tliat tbe 
diraolioii of the iDipinsing pArtidaa ia horizontAt, will be propor^ 
tionnl lo the mibe of the RbiH of angle of dovatiou of Ibe walL 

If it fiutlier happma that tlicn ia oUlquitj' of action ia tbe 
a^Buthal aa well aa In the vertical pliuie arisiDc freia Uio 
r^aliva dirooUoo of tba pi«r and of Uie wiivm, ihera will b« 
another nmilar («dnctiom in tho ratio of tlie •qiinm ur oibea of 
tbe aUHle of inciitenoe acoonling aa tbe force i* reaolvnl intu that 
at right anglea to lli« line of the pier, cr to that of Uie direction 
of iM warn. 

Let • = vertical angle of incidonoa or aofcla of doration of 
w»II; 
•* = Mrimnilial aai^a of toddeoco; 
/= boriaonlal form exerted ou unit of auriaec at right 

anglea to tbe line of liarbonr wall; 
k a height of greaieat aaaalliug wai-ea; 
/CI A («n 9 tin *y. 

The kbovt upreaaion aiaigiH, w«< tbiDk, too mat a leduoijon, 
U tbe motion of tba pnrticlea mair not he liorira>ntid, and no 
aocoant it lakan of tha cSlMtaof friction ngainat the rough mirfaoo 
of ibe niaaonrjr. Kxperiiuenia are IherMore waiiiios to ileter- 
uiue Oie couBUiii for convctiug the theotvlloal pmiiIib due to 
thla expnealou. 

Ur. Soptt ItnaMll reoammeuda the pantwlic curve aa that 
beet raitod fur tbe profile where the objtvt ia to hitak the 
wai^ and not lo rtoeot ibem, aa la llie cane in slo^ag bKak- 
waten. Thit curve poaaeMN, acoordini; to Mr. Kuaacll, lli« 
odvant^^aa of anpoi^or airangtb, of eeonomj iu the matorinli, 
of bftkking the wave tarlv, and of BontiuuiDtt an uniform 
aetioa over tbe lovgeat period of lime. Wheu the tide i« low, 
the toe of tliealope, whioU apringaoutof tlie jVeiAore and fomie 
tba vertox of the F*rabuln, would, we bar, be fonml ntlier 
weal:, and perbapa ilifliealt to fomi. On the whole wr rntliar 
inaliuo in aucfa owe*, ainply to ihruw iu tbe aialoriaU, nod to 
allow tba aea to fonu Ita own alope. 

Accnrdiitz to Sr John Rannie [* AecoDot of Plymouth Dmk- 
water,*) rabblr brcokwjitrn with dopoa formed at th« angle of 
rejioae, were adopted bv Uie Oreelca ia the nolea of IVro and 
Oaitliafa, «m1 bj tlie Itoniana at Allivois and Hallavnaatiu, 
Tlia «uiM dealgn wua al*o followed nt Vviiior, Girnua, fiocbell^ 
Banalotin, and other jdncoa. Iu thi> ItiiiKiloa the dml oxamiilo 
on a large aoale which we find ia at H'lwlli. Kiu^irtowD, Huly- 
ImmI, aad tbo noble breakwater at Plviunuth, wore aftKTwnnla 
ourriedouton tba aanio priudplp, and cliioll/ itnrler theilirec- 
tlona of tba lal« Ur. Rounia. Tbe grcnt national baibour* of 
rafuDa at pmnnt in proonai in thia oountrr, aeeording to Mr. 
Keudel'a deaiffua, at Holybeai and Purtluid, at« on a ainiilar 
principla; while ihoae uadar UaNra. Walker, Burgea, and 
Cotipfr. at Dorar, AldariMg', aod Jeraa/, in mora nearly 
v*rt*cal. 

Ilanng bow oenaidered tbe few &oia of which we are in poa> 
■taaioB remidiiig the ditpuUd nature of tbe impulee of tbe 
wavea Is oetfi watara, we aball direct tbe rraJer'e attention 
to their eflbeta in aballow watar. Thoae in dcco iraUr were 
chiefly itMe w aw i , and ragnnled by many oa oriog purdy 
oacUtotorr, while tbote in tfaoal water* an breaking waro^ and 



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I 

I 




■ may b«"^H 



thervloR raganled by all aa wavaa of tranalatioa. We ban 
hitherto been oouaidering breakwater* erected ia deep water, and 
which were couataiitlT exprieeil to the wnveai w« now to tora to 
jnera and aea walla whidi are plaoed wilbb the migo of the anrf, 
and which aro axpoaed lo ila foro* for a litoitocT oeriod culy^ 
boixig aomotiiiMa IcA nearly, or altogether dry by (lie 
tida. 

Tlie impuUu of the wavea a^nat a wa-wall or pier may ba' 
reaolvod practically Into four duactiona^lat, The diieot bori- 
xoBtal force nhidi tooda to ahake Ioom, or carry before it, tbo 
blocka of which t,lic oppoaiog tQwoiny CDUaiata. Thia fo*C0 B»J 
alao blow up lh<! pilcbiog, ur overtiiru lliu iuii«r or ({Uay-waU 
b^ cundoiiatng thu air, or proealng uihui lh« «'Uer which ooco* 
piea the intcralico* of iba rnbblc. Wv know two eaaw io the 
Oenuan Oocau whore. In oomoquence of want of width in tba 
pJer, coupled, in one inaUnco, with iiutuffident workmaBildh 
tbo ianar or quay-walla ware obaerred firat to bulge and luL 
bafoni the aea-wall waa Injnrtd. One of thoaa piei* nuantrad 
28 ft 4 iu, and the other it4 feet on the roadway. Snd. Ilia 
vertical upwaitj forMtohioh may act un acy piojectiag atoM Or 
ppotiiberauce. 3rvl. Ke verlioal du«iiw*i>i foroe of ibe water 
which roaultH eltlm fnnui the wave lu'vuking iip<:>n the too of a 
talua wall, or (rom tlio wavo paaaingovar the parapet, and Ulinw 
upon the oitching behind, ao aa to plough it up. 4tii. Tlia taeh 
matghi whidi tend* }qr reaetioD from the wall to plougb up tba 
aofl bottom, and thua to undermine the lower oourata of tba 
work, or pcrhap* by/tuvion to pitll out the bcewurk. We may 
eoodudo from tho above that the [loiuli whidi require lo ba 
CHivfiiUy attended to are.— lit, Tlic i^iulvar and qoallty rf 
ntaarauT of the wall itaelf; Sod. Tbe pantpet, wliicb, if not oS 
•ofBcieut haight, or built in a piviper direction, leads to damua 
in tho pitchiuK behind it; and 'Ard. The fuundatiou eoiuae^ la 
tbededgn and oontiruolion of which, if ainulor nrocautlona ba 
not attended to, undrrwaaliiog of tbe bottom may in hjhio eiiu^ 
tloiM take plaot, so aa to Icava tlia lowaai ouiumh without pr^ 
tcctiou. 

Wd chall in the fint place cooBiter how far thoao loniarlca are 
appliiitblo where liie bottom ia aulid rock. Such a aoppoMtion 
will rftiilcr unsaoeaaary any preoantlont ariiing from iho waating 
of tbu bulioa, and, aeltri* pitribm*, there doea not «hui to ba any 
rcaaon for |ira(«rriog a talua lo a vartiod whJI, Thu (janaUon of 
prefermioe m aucb a laac will in the isnin doncnd upon the kind 
of material which oui be obtained. Sliould tlic sione ht *carre or 
GOelly, and tbo qmUity aouh a« to wnrnuit the iulriKtiiciion ef 
nttaonry cf the bMl daaeriptlou, tlie vertical wall may he fonod 
to he tba moit ooouoauical. Whrro frctatoaia is to b« u«d. it ta 
not only dcainiljle thnl it abonld be got in Inriie blocka, but thai 
tbe fixe siuiicti ehuuld |)"«Btita oo&aidarable hardnn^ Tib |ira- 
caulioti i» (lai'iI'.'ul.'U'ly oecoeaaty in sdeollrig tbe atonca for tlia 
lower courHi*. luid oapadally whcio tbo beauh coodBla uf hard 
gmvd. For the Mime reiMOO it ia highly lioportaut that all 
Kioiin which are auhjeot to decay bum alaioapharie influence 
klioijld be uitlier 4'iitintly ftyecietl or aoiieuihled in the upper 
coutaiw of the paimjicU 

Wliere the maloriahi an abundout, but of an unwotlcBUa 
nnlui>^ a lut>K tnlui wall will genernlly be fouud iihmI iiniliiiliilMl 
i'vt Euoh wiilTit lliB rate of Hiope luUBt depend very much npCB 
the oxpoNure of tlie place, and unun tlie plentifulupiu of rubw* 
DloDo hcarttnn. The (aaily.ureaaed and naturally Aa^ 
bedvled niatvriala, which the itratified rocka of the taooudai^ 
fui'iuativn vvry often furiiiah, are P*|iedally appliimble tot th« 
cwtiHli-iictiun of verliud walla; while the unoouth Uodca 
or the priauiry uid ignooua fonuatiooa are better anitad 
for tiJuit walla. Sodi rock* ni gneiM. tho achieta, liaadt^ 

KeuHtouca, nmyttdoluitlii, ancl Ihc tdighci* kiniU of gianilo, ar« 
I fitted for (iiAl purpuKL With aome of tliuno rocka llic ang«> 
larity of tlie pleoei, and the exoraaire difficulty of drcadn^ 
rendor it naucaMiy to aMombla them without aluiMt any altera* 
tion of their sluiie, by au adaptation of tlivir taliaot and ro- 
entraut HuglM, bu aa lo make a kind of random rubble faoe-wi^. 
In Cliii kitiil of work, mortar ia my addom employed. The 
porajtot j^cnurally oonaiila of iqnarod maaonry, aiinnoiuited by a 
neavy cope, and it ahould iu every cue be eat la good luw 
mortar. 

Where Ibe mater^alt are light and of email dsea it is dwrahia 
to eqnaliae die action of tlie eta over the whole work, and i»<i to 
oonemtrate it against any (mrUoular place. Ur. Buaaell atatea 
thM the oyckridal form waa recommended far tbia fnmwae hy 
fraos Oeratoer of Bohemia. Tbe uuly iuatanee with wbldt wa 



M 




THE CrVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOUBNAt. 



IS 



wrt liamliiM nf the tiivpOop of tkb nm vm ja k m* imll 
cmtM u THBlq', ntv Bdiabnrgk, I7 Uw bto Mr. Baben 
otaTBnMDt ni 1?V9> 

It W bNO Blmdy Mated lliat, irreapwCira of the ciniUlnr of 
tha taiMOBfj, tlie tvo pdaM hi Um atmctara which urn ««kX or 
dugnvni »re thu ton nn>l IniUoib of tito wall. Witli n rat/kf 
bdUom i)i» risk of fiulare at th« foamUtioiui [a remoTtil; on IM 
«th«r luMi'l, «Ii«f« tb* •hore oonrirt* erf raUm nek, moving 
dtlngi* or mnii, it t* ob*1a«a ibai praTtrioB moat b* nwdv for 
both thcMMUKiM of evil. Xn bet. If wo cMioalt (h« hiunry </ 
bulKwr^ w« tth*n flnil that bj' br th* inart freqiwuC oauM of 
dun^ M the reaction nf tlic iwn o^mt the abor^ 

The fftneni tic^if ot A (rnipniiDlary b«iuh BinHt <1i^m1 nnon 
th« nine ami tutura of tbe parlldw Uti III* tarw of thd apa. Tbo 
diMitniUrity betwMa tlia ttopM of a b«aob our the level* of 
Ugh an4 toVt H-«[«f , sriMa fttira a docrcaae id the fcrw of th« 
wsvea, owins (» their boinf; brokan b«for* (k«^ rowh ihn bij^i- 
vkternark. The2t*fttobject,lherefoTtt, la tndougn theproHleof 
oomU M a* todter lu little a* i>oa*iMit tb« arinnetrr of the 
hmA. Where hohud n^» or hrj[e bonlilan are aMii pnjeol- 
Ibg abor« the nrfim of » cuidy bMcb, than will geumillV h» 
fcniinl arooni] tli<-n boHow*, tonrcapoodlBg In depth to Die kiml 
«r obatnictlon whWi the rwka praaent Tho prineip*! point 
in tbe dMign, thcrefoce, muK b* to avoid grt^t and Midden ob- 
atraetioan to the moreaieDtoflh« water. The bnt form wfaidi 
«MiM W aiIopt«d in taf aitnatinc would "t «oiiraa b« the mim as 
Hw er<m aeelioD of the boaeh itaelf, bat thU woald anaw«r ao 
pOMfble pimmaa: and, m the wall ia tn onomrt ff heavy hlooka of 
flbme Lortoxl «r raiante partlcltn of mod, it •■ clear that a much 
■taMwr «lnp<> mv be adopted ihui fAa fnfih^mmirTanejf of tha 
enut, pmvvkd tlie lower imrt of the elope b* ftatteBod out ao m 
to DiMt tbe aafl-t at a low nngle. Tlia Mtion M' a bulwark U to 
HTWt tha wavt* before thej- wach ih* Mmaral hifb-«al«r mark, 
and V> change Ibe horiaontal liFition of tbe flaM parUHoa tu tbe 
WTticaJ plane, <rr to onrorel the wai-ea to deatroy thaniad'ns oa 
as *rtiG«ial l>sii:h onuiiatiiiK of limvj atoiiaa. To pr*ventna(l«a<- 
whUiik, the two foUawins iwjiiirflaa alioald tharefora be •• far 
•a P^hU" "pivirwl;— let, uie rjiiodatioBcoflWMorbotloKi of tba 
wnll ihoiild riM si a veir niniill nnglc vrith the bnich, ao that 
ihfir top ant&OM raajf op cnincidiit with ili# profile of coo- 
aarvatian of that porUno nf the toKrh out nf which lb» wall 

XriniTi; ani. ibr ooilin* of the wall ahould be aiK* aa to allow 
K w^r^ t<> p^JM nawanta withont nnv aitildti diaclc till il iliall 
faava renctii^l tbe atronseat part of tlic wall, which ahoiild b« an 
(kr f^tn the fouoibitloii aa pMnlblc 

TliOM two raqultltan ahow elnarly hnw biawiliaible a vertical 
wall louMln nneiauM be fcrn sandy bcaph ToMoad i<f alteiinf 
the direetloti ofthewnveal a ili^tniiM fiviin it* foandalioii. the 
whola diap^ !■ pm-lnt^d At Ihnt vnry point, luid auleo* Iht wnll 
Iw fonndeirat a grvni di-ptli, lu dcotroction it all but ontain. 
Vben the mateiUla are coetiv, bnt admit nf betnj auil.T 
draaMnl, we aro diOp^Mit to thinV tliAt a horimnlNl, or nmri^ 
horixODtnl will coonfct«d Kilh it vertlcnl one by a qaadrant 
<f > dT«le mar b^ found *iiiuiblp. Such a form will prewTii 
to a eotiiiiJenW 'xt^iit the danger of roictioii by caoaiDf an 
aherackm lu tho form of the ware at thai )wrt where the wall 
b Btrmgcat and al the ^reitevt diataDoe from the i*^ or ouib 
ooarM. Where the imttoriiil* tra abtinilant an<l oT a roitgber 
luiare, a cyeIo!d.-d wall, with renintl and horiBontnl tonjiaiita 
tooiewhnt alBiilar to lh.1t rrertrd »i Triniiy. to which weliave 
already ri^rrod, may 1« adopted with aitvantage. 

A •jwcinl cantioo may not bo out of pla« n-gnnHn^ clayey 
bottomL Mnny are apt to aappnan that tli^rr oui Iw oa Wttor 
(nuuUiion than day; and it u indent trou thnt >onie kinds of 
banl etay form a mtiaCtclory subeoiL But thei'v xn olhcn of 
a aoftfrliind, and penneated by tandy b«<i», which are ex- 
Imnelv truchcroaa If there W tbe alightrot dip iwawarda, 
there la alwnya a rink ''f nor pier lliAt may be biull nn aiich 
a baM tlippiog btalilr into tlie vea. Tbia holila espi>dally tmo 
of iDla&d Ioch^ wbriT the tidea very often slope ■nddfuly. To 
eno loitaaoe, tlie portieiilara of which <re giA on the ipot 
ibntlly after the iMi<l«nt, a plvr built on ■ cUyoy Ixnch, 
alojiins below low water at tlie ntte of I in I3j, Duddciily 
began tJ) mova, and afUr two boun it hud Uipmd vMwanla liJO 
feet, aad had by th.il time deaoendo-l U>ilily a Mght of 3t feet, 
the top nf the pi«r being thou no leu Uiui S3 bet below lcnr> 
water aprfog tlilea. 




Oi»Mtni«f{oii V fortoiira. 

Oar ipAoe will not admit of our going mnefa fiuther bilo tlva 
anUaet of th« ooaauiictkm r.f luubovn ibma tlia few raaarica 
we have alrtadjr niftde, A haowledA of woh nattaca ts^ 10 
aonte extent be aeqiiirad by a caro^ paavial of tha puUiahed 
bbtonea of marioe works; bat, afUr all, tt raitd ha oonbaed 
thut the only valuable tmoher ia thi« wide tmwtied Aeld li 
axpirlmut. It ia, in trath, impoanbte to Uy down aaj feiMral 
rnka of EuidaiMs aa to mattcn of thU kind. All that ah bs 
done wtthin onr inaoe ia (o uotkn tvj fariady aotne of the more 
Importaol metliwla of working. And finC with re(,-ard to that 
iandoAhle pioee of apparatni, the diviog-Detl, we woald rate 
t» Smcatoa'a 'Anonnt of Runmte Uvbour,' pvbliahad ia 
17il, where it na fint aji]'li(>J Inlilm to harbour morka. Tlia 
diviiu-hElmot la a moK uvful and ctnivciiieat modtficRtioa of 
the diring-bfll, luiil U n-ivr rcrv KcaeisUy enployad. 

Of lata ymtt Mr. Walker Ikaa'intTodiitiM mn nmiaa tha tMa 
of Men M n aubdtitute for backlii^. Thia artlfldal eoaorett ia 
aonetimts and in enonoiotia taawea Wa hara aeeo at Charboiirg 
blocka of SO toua praparad ia bona, whoae aidea and topa Bra 
miovoil after tbe eonccata baa aet, in order to be again ^bIIrHj 
eroployod. The propottlona uaed at Cbaiboure by U. Rabeilb 
were two ofoaiid or flae gnvel, to ooe of Poftlaod cemenL 

Wo nifty nltt) mention that the laethod of MaembUag atooea 
00 their eilgas, inatatui of on tlieir hod*, winch fanaett^ ««a In 
use in aomo old Scottiah hiirboun and aea-walla, aa at St 
Aadntw*, Pratonixuia, &c, deaervea to be more gtaernlly kaowii 
and adoptoJ, from il« auiwrior atreagth. 

The propoaal of Mr. Breaincr, of VTick, for piiUlnj; !■ lite 
ftiunilaltona of lov-walcf piera abo mi-Tltd nolica. Mr. BniBMr 
propom ta ounatmct, in tome ailjoqaing ntaca of afaaltcr, eoot^ 
nioua pootoona of timW, oa iriiieh Uie uailar porta of tbe work 
are built, and aft«rwarda flontod to the daatred apot in Ctvounbia 
wMlher, and eareriilly ^roundod. Svah a plan aiiiiht, wo have 
no doubt, be foond eooaooiiad nad naahl hi aeiae aitaattona. 

Mr. Rendd hu iutrodoctxl an Improvod method of a aaem bB a g 
the inerret periuM or nibble aaad in the oonatruetioa of huga 
hreakwatora; thi* tmrthod ha cmplmod at Millbaj Pier, acar 
Ftyraoath, ia lr<3S, in a depth ofSS feet: and ho la at praaeat 
e&rryiii; nut tho nunc prindple on a atill largtr acale^ in tbe 
(wiutmctioa of the brenkwalera at Holyhead aoil Portland. The 
improvement conriala In depoattlng tho raigh nuteriala from 
itA^lngi of tidibor atevaicd a eonaidenUa haiglil above high 
water. Tbe itoua* are brought on tbe ata^ofb *aitoaa,tbTQ|(igli 
tho bottoma of which they are dbAar^ into tbe aaa. iTi* 
principle 00 which tbe ataging* are daa^oaJ in that of odering 
tlia autalleat poaalbia noatanoa to the aeo, the under auiMuTe 
ooualating 01 nothing tnure than aingle upright pilea, thaia 
beiiig 0^ one lino of pil«a for eaoh roadway. 

Xu. Bendcl. in a kiter kindly aoouDani<nt«d to vm, alataa^ 
" I uae no tunber bracaa of any kind, a* tbtw uOer more n- 
uatauoe to Um aaa Uian atrcugth to the atagiuji. At PorlUad, 
however, whora any acviJeat would be a aerioiM tvU, owing to 
onr omployiog ooovicia in the quarHM, wo alay the pilot with 
in>n guya,' fixod to Uit^heir* aoroir bvoitdm, and »lao trsai 
the outer pllaa iu each row with inrn nxb. Wa alao &x ili« pQaa 
id tho ground with a aerew. 

"At Holyhead, howwrur, we only attach to eubiiUo boxaa 
filled with amall atonea, for the porpota of gettins them into a 
vertical puntioo, and um no aiaya or guya or ai^y Kind. 

" The aupentru«ture oonaiata limply of holka of timber, with 
ralU laid on thom to canj tbe wagutia. The ))il«k ar4> pLvad in 
rowa 30 feel apart, and ilie eaae and certainty with which the 
abngin;; ia couitrucbed k auob that a length of 30 feet, mdoding 
the auntwiu^ in of tlia ^aa, the laying down of tb« rttMlwajra, and 
all minor wurka aooMiarf to make them fit 10 Kir^ tha waguna, 
never occumra more than one WDrliiu^ d.ty ntid n half^ and nftan 
lea*. The tcuj^b of the pilea that we arv now uaiog variua fr^im 
8 1 to 90 feet, the depth of water nt boUi Uolyhtnd ao<I rorlhuul 
beios about 1 1 bthonM. 

"Oftiie atrongth of the atngeyou may Judge ftmn its carrying 
on each roadway aa mtich aa three wagona, wei^ng ia tha 
groaa 13 loiu eaolu 

"Tlie oflraiitagM of tho atuiiig are obvioii*. It ooolribniea 

Ctly to th» coil -it illation of the atone, it innke* a (.'reai^r 
Ui of hi-rakwntcr b> be under oouatruction at the lamo tiiii*, 
and it ennlilci lliu depoaita to be carri'-d ou vithoul intcrmptioii, 
almoft in tlie lienvitat weathar. Aa an inalaooc uf thii, I may 
remark that my raaldant at Ponlaud iufomi au tluA tm 



J 



14 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOimNAL. 




wudu ud loQCOUitlvM wtn toffifgiA Materd*; at h time whoo 
■in A N* wM niBntag thkt liuyc Ikmum or »VfV wen Umvn 
fit (M ibow til* waUr tevoL Aa * proof of the odlitiM wbidi 
tht itip jJbni* for npidity of conMruellon, I •honU «t«t« tLnt 
w» hftve depodUd thia fckr Rt Holyhmd, wbitra frao Ubaiir u 
OBcJoyMl, MUlj «iw miUioii tuu of atODe. The loan from 
MxMMtB to tiw aUg* ■ oompuKtircIf aiiULlt on iU tinrt r»at, 
aad whoit aprtad over th* cost of ihe whole wovIm li U a mere 
brUb. I find the Mirtlepee u«, Id Ui* dM|i nUr and exnoBod 
mrU^ fraiu ^ or e to 1 bMTotiiOfnvlkbovc Kigb-mtcr ana from 
IS le IS below lov-Wktar, fnxu which paiut th«}- mjiiiUr bsoomo 
abOMl to 1- The iundcaloPM are DCTwr mora thu Ij'to 1, Mid 
wliLwa man tltu i to I. Tlie iii»t«iala an •xmUsoL" 

Mr. Walker ba* nbo kinillf oonbribntwl aome liKta oaBOMtad 
rith tbe ooDMrnoliom of thn gnat work* now e^iiig on under the 
of UeMrs. Walker, IIutkm, and Cooper at Jeiaen 
lanw^i niid Dovnr. At Ald«ru«y, which it a vtty ^apUMd 
Ml tlw tote. D|i to It f««t Wlow luw-wnt«r, U fbmicil bv ^dm 
brown, or rvthur drupt in from barg**. Up to low-walcr the 
_ .rark ia all iIoim l>jr diTing'IivImoU. The wall U boed with 

KAlte, badtad with blooka of Mon Diade of laad, atiiDgte, and 
rlia&d eofnant. Above low-water It ts bmd witb atone of tbe 
iaUnd, k kind of mUbtoae-grit, aod it backed with blocka of 
rabble act in Bmuui eemaitt. The mUUtooe-gril u raited in 
T«tT large Uoeka. Tbc profile ia to oouaUt of a iiua;r, su eepln- 
nade. ai3 a penpeL 
Jecwjr it miwo tlie Mne aa Aldemer, but tbc peU-nuff work 
I tvricd to low-water, having nearly nrtical walla of ooodo- 
nmtc built ahovti Dover hM nearly rertioal waUa, fitoed mth 
granite from the tht botton, which it now -Ut fMt below luw- 
mrftt. Tliit work waa doue with diting-brllt. 

Sit J. Rtuinie. in bla ' Account of tha Iljniauth Brvnkwater,' 

aje, " From the botlom to within 9 feet of luW'W»lcr springa, 

wc £ml that tb<? alopo it £l or 3 to 1. Here the odeol of Uie 

waves i* o^parativetjr Nuall, belug nentaliaed bv tlw maMof 

^mur. fmn thenoe to low-water of cpriBg^dM tlie tlopo 

llmi^Hg [Toiu 3or 4 to 1, but between low-waUr of ■pi'iDg-Udes 

|k^ hisfa-waler, wbon tbe eSeot of ibe warat la greeleat, Uiers 

vt found ttiat the rubble would not lie at leaa than G to 1, 

vUlet, on tlia inikle, the alope etanda gaieiaUjr at fnxn 1^ or 

I to 1." 

The above iiiten«lln{E detaiht rcganlins Iheeu national work* 
' nr, from tbe variety which tliey exhibit howdilBcuU It b to 
. _„' down any Dcnocal rulee fi>r the oonstmction of harboure, and 
eonfinn the pnod^e tbat eadt work moat be jndged of />«r w, 

MittnUmwu ObrtrvaUm*. 
The nlttniate object of conetructiug haiboiira li^ by lowering 
itbohnghtof the wnvoi,lopre«erTc the tnutnniti^of llieareaof 
lUr wUd) b ondowd by tbe yien; and thi« property U 
- .jrfouily piiwtiitiifl b^ barbouni of dillcreot (brma, and dependt 
Buchupontberelntlre wldthaof the entranoe.nad of lhoiut«rior, 
tbe depth of water, the abaiie of the entranoa, and tha relation 
between the dirootion of ita opening, and that of the line 
uf marJmum rjpoturt. 

Tlie only furmula of which we are aware It that by tbe writer 
of tbb artiule (' Edtn. New FhiL Jounral,' ISB3), whtob girea an 
approxltoatlMi to the mlaetkt fi«(i>«r, or ia, in other word^ a nnnie- 
^Okl form of capreemng how much a wave of |pv«n height 
bMMne* rcdiKod, after it hot entered a harbour. Tlioogh the 
MMilu oMaiued by the Gmnnla may nnt bo abaoluwly correct, 
tiia will be nn objection where Uie object it merely to obtain a 
uOBii«rat3Te ralue^ ao, for example, in eompariog one deeign for 
a hariiour with another. 

When tbe paete ara higdi emouffh to eciMn tfae Inner area tima 
the wind, wlier* the dop^ it unubrm, ihv width of eotranoe not 
vary gmt iu eoaipaiiitoa with tbe width nf ibe wave^ and vlien 
the iiwy walit are vertical, and the dielanoe not lea tbu 
I bet,— let 

H =bdght in tort of wavm in the open ara. 

x^radiwed height of wave* in fcet at pkee ol obMrvalion 

In the luluior of tbe harboar. 
ftsbreadihof nntmnce toliarbourin feoL 
B=h««Hlthof barbonralplaceof obeert-Btionin f«oL 
D^dbtance (rtnu uontli of harbour to pboe of obaerva- 
tion in feuL 



Tkia formota baa been (bond to give good approxiinatioai at 
aevenJ barboure when tbe heightt of the wavea wanngUwnd. 
When n u ajwumed aa anity, j- will reprcwnt tbo 
J>eweP of tbe harboar. 

In eituationa whore the highcat wavoa oroea the barb 
tnotithatan obUi{uenug]e, afiutbcrrodnotion udne tolbbi 
Wehave bMnnnaUeto tLodanvobaervalionatbatbavabeaii 
on tliia inbject by othera, ana lor want of bette^ we aball^W^ 
tlircH obaervatio&B made nnder oar diroetimia at uthdOBwoMl 
Barbour: 




DIKUnnaibltiwb )M(kt of me alkw fWlil 

br venaL OneAtafl*. 

..... l«b«t........ IW 

aa OUB 

eg cm 





Anal* df sUlqutf . 

0' 

w 

I*)* 

Theee moat, howerer, be legartled aa but aDproslmadon*. 
b obvious that aa the wave ni^ be defleoled Ibrongh more f 
S60^, tbe ourvo ropreeeuting the Ndaction must be a apindi 
more obaen'attoD* an wanted to deteomine of what kind. 

Buccna are logs of Umber placed acroea tlio month of a harboi 
or the entrance to an inner biurin or dock, baring their eu 
•ocund by projoding into gmovea cut in the inaaonry ou eaefa 
aide of the eutranen The bocona are dropped into Uieee 
to the number of from 10 to 90, or aa many mora aa wii: 
doBo oonlaot of the loweal one with a ^•^iace placed in the . . 
of the harbour, without which procantum the awell m biind 
enter the bubour from below the boama. By tlua oontrlvao' 
wbioh forma a temponu; wall, tbe wavea are oompletwljr dMck< 
and pteveeted from ajireadiiig into the Intwior baaia. The 
longeet buooia wo have teen areabout MCsoLand in tome pi 
aa at Hartlepool and Sealuun in Durhamahire, Uiey are 
out and in by atenDi'power. 

Though p«rf<!Clly euoceatftil In thetr tnuii^uiliaing eRlNt ([ 
vidml ihay are kept to n>utact with thn ull-nicco at tbo boltoi 
faoNna are nut tuited far the moiithi of haruuura wburc then 
much tralGc. oa tbe ehippiug and unshipping of ao many loua «f 
timber Au hardly take leai than a quarter of an hour— add^ 
which might In many caeca be attended with acrioua oon*» 
■fucncoc 

It it Tory dwimblo, and in tcone coaea eaaential, that lliere be 
eilher a cuitnderuble intenni area, or elae a aeparwte batin oiipo- 
ttite Uie entrance for the wavua to deatroy or »)/tnJ tbeniaeivea. 
Such a boxia ahoald, If poaalble, be made ao m to preatrve « 
portion of tlio origiual uore for the wavea to bit«k ntion, and 
when cin^iinixiAiicc* render tliia impoteiblu, there ahould at Inut 
be a Hat IaIub of 2 or 3 to 1. Talue walla of 1 to 1, or ttevper, 
will not allow tlie wav«« to break Ailly, bat will redeot tbem iB 
aiicb a mannnr n« niight in tonie caatamake the entrance difficult 
or evsa dangerona i4 acoeat, and the berthage within utuHJo. 
There are many inabuieea of harboure being materially lojuted 
bj tbe eraellon of a anay wall aonjw a beach whore tlie wavea 
wora formerly allowed to expend ilieir force. 

It may be obserred tbat when there is an inner harbour or 
itilling biain. the elliptical form eeema to be the noei promiting. 
Let one fomie bv euppoaed tobeon the middle lloeof the enimuoa 
and 14 coincide witb the iKiint from which the wavco in expand- 
ing into the interior raoiate oa from a ceutje (wUicb they da 
approximately), and if the other focua ia dtoaUd tnlaad o( lildb- 
water mark, ibc wavea will tend to reauamble at the landwatd 
focua. and ou their way will bo dratroyed by breaking on tbo 
bead). Tfait appears from the well-known property uflheellipee^ 
that if two radii eci^rene be drawn from the two fM to any 
point in the ourre tliey will make equal anglet wilb the tongant 
at that piiint: and a« tbo angloa of uiddence and refleciioo of a 
wave from any obeticle ore nractically equal, eedi wave will be 
nearly concentrated at tbe K«ua oppoeile to that Ironi which it 

Another cante of diaturbancu in harboar^ which U ofWo not 
■uSolently coDtiderod, la the indttcrnmniale deepening of tb 
antranoe without a propoeliooatc eulbrgement of the internal 
arts or the eioontion of other worka for cuunteaoting the effect. 
Aa the depth of the water b more and more increaMd, waveaef 
greater beiglrt b^rame poatiUn at the entrance, ao tbat larger 
wavea gain adniiacicin to the interior. The writer ho* ht4 
repeated pmofa i4 (bta in the counw of hb prnetitA At (be port 
of Sunderland, Mr. D. Suvenaon reoomntended tbe removal a< 
nearly the whule of the aoQlh ttone {ntr, and tbe aubetltutlon of 
work* nf ogii^Q fi-amework in order to traaquiliae the interior. 
Tlicae work*, which have been qiute BacoMBiJ, were rei 





THE CIVIL ENGINEKR AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL, 



U 



» 



jtKtmuy bjr At ft«iuaDt ilrt^ag of tba dumael u aod luw 
ttiacBlntio*. 

TIm pnMrrkUon of tbe depth of bwboan wbora them ii k 
tCodM^ to dapMit U ofUra fttlcndcd Kith gnu iKfllealt/ and 
•xpenae. Vh«r« tb« <i«|>(Mit of lUt it eoofiaod to th« ajmae 
httwetti high uii'l lov.mur hmtIu, Um toouTing by mMU of 
Mil or frvuli vmtcr U in Moiaral eoujiftmtlTalr mtv, bnt w1i«t« 
Umt* i« * twr ouUitU of Ibe eutnboe the eu* Moomw nuM 
ftiUrlftUjr duuigcil. IIm «ffiaa^ of tht wour, w long m St k 
not imMded qr cneoanwriog aU^tuat wUar, ti k«pt np (br 
(PMt diMftncM, but «K>a cwDM Va ut ond oa ita nxwUnff tha 
acft. ProbaUj tho oulr vaj tn whith thia diffinilty might to 
aoBO txiiaxt M otiTiUM w»iild be bT ooodaeting tbc mwr in 
trm pipea to tbe bu-, & plwt which tli« aatfaor pnfioaol In 1SI3 
Ibr Ilrniali hM-boor, bat tht azpanae «u noaldmbln ud tha 
•MCaM doablfiU. TbaaamapUnwaapropoaadbyMr. Alaxondor 
Smd Ibr RirkoaUj acnue yean Utar. Wbco tbe rohuM of 
watar libenlfld la gnM eompared with tha attmi or dhaaael 
ttmnigb which ft haa to pMi, the ebJsoUoB baaed on tha aUg- 
vaaej of the «w«r originally oeeopjruif tha (buiaol dtwa tuA 
Inld to tba aaue cxtoot a» vlten the aeMiring b to bo pro- 
duced bj m Nddeo finitii mommlnnt. In the ooe oaae the (kpoi^ 
liig pownr depeuds slmptv on the (]iMBUQr libented In s praa 
apace of tinia, while in in* oth«r ii depeodt «a the propelling 
bo^ and the dirMtion in which the water laavea tlw ahiioe. 
Mr. Beodel'a adieaie for Birkeodead waa oa the fenner prii>d^& 
The 6nt emaple of aitiSeial aceoHag fu thia wanti; aeMna to 
be do* to liiiiialiiii. who aaad It efftcHuU^ at RamagMa in liTO. 

At Biit« Docka, OurdU; dMigned hj Sir W. Obit^ tba 
Moaa til tha outer bann ia kept open moat aneeeea ft Jly hj 
neana of artiflckl eaoiiring on a aipotio ecale. Tie entnuce 
^n« ciii through mad Imnka for a dutuiea of aboai tliTN-foaiiha 
of A roth- Mawnrd of h'tgh-wstor mariL The i&HU diidiMfa 
wheo tba neervoir ii fan, a lOiUA to be SAOO tone per minnts. 
Thle writer b*i Icaown evim ao titDil«J ■ diMjiarge Ibr an boor 
10 two aa one too a minut«, produce verj oiefiil efbcta la keep- 
inx a aniaU tidal barboitr dear of *and. 

Hnuy pmpoaala hare Dram tima to ttne been mode for 
ttooriog in tbe open na lloatitifr (rameworka of timber with tbe 
tIow oT likelteriiig tlie afMce eneloeed hj iben. The objedioaa 
to tlr«lioc brafwaten an so great and Dbrloiu thnl lli«n 
eiaow lilUe chaooe of their erer Mi^ ranoh mad. From wliat 



I NtAied on the aobjeet of booma, it will be ncollecud that it 
li a reqobilA that thoy ahoald fit doaely to a rill<pieee at tbe 
faottom, otharwiae the run U fouod to oxteod bto tbe barbonr. 
Tnn wlMtwill be afterwania Ntat^d regarding the llaUlinof 
timber to apeedy dealmotloa from tbe marine wnrni, anil to 
irno by cbeuilcal actios, it ia obnona that floating ■tmclQm of 
wood ooBnoclnl by iron and mooted by iron ehaina, t&uaot 
poaolbly be of long duntioo. If to all tlieaa aonrOM of evil we 
add tbe rUk of thtu- being broken by the wa we think tbe enaa 
may be almoat icsaidtd a* hopelcM. No deubi graea-biart 
■icht b« eoL^yed^ao aa to rnriat the n*^ee of tht mm, bat 
Ita iiigb amdnc graWty and ita gnat cxpenae woold prove bat* 
to iu a*nploymont. 

la aome eidniMna wh«ra tbnn is a laaa (hallow bioeh, a 
haitwnr or pUr of timber or maaDory nuy W maile at or tMar 
the low-wat4ir nark, which nu; he ooiuieoted with tbe thore by 
of a aoapeaaian bridge. 'Hie indooMiieiica lo adopt tlia 
MO«i principle are Ita rcaaomj, nnd the free pafliw* it 
aOtirita to tba cunenia, wliich in thia vmy arepnventad »om 
fanabtgaeoamobtMnaof aand-ailt, or gin>«L Tbeee adTaiitoflea 
m*, howavar, afooh redneed by the gnat wear and Mar oouae- 

Erat opon the peitAaUe natun *f the atrvcture. The hua 
DUbmI Brown mwImI two diala pjam, tbe one at Brigbtoa 
md the other at NewbaTin, near Edinbn^b, both of wfaidi an 
BtiU In exiMeoo*. 

In ae«f7 aituntioa when it ■■ eaally ptacUcabla to make two 
e utiniMj ea to a barbow. It will ha fonna wall worth llie oxlm 
Hpeoae, prorUad ther can be ao placed that tho one ahall ba 
Bvallabia when tlie otbnr liaa boooiiMi ditficnlt of aooeaiL la 
hmboiin wbidi hare bat one niuulli, vcaai'U an eAen deteineil 
firantatlenirthof ihue by the oontinaaDoe of tin wind in the 
dbveboa which throwa a heavy eta into the estnuioe. Wbwaaa 
if tlten are two entraoee* eitaal«d aa wa Lavo an p p oae d , vamola 
are at onee able to take ihair departnn by the abeltend aide. 
At the port of P e U rb cad . the north and aonth harboutawo* 
aone ytttn ago aoHed by a eavl, aoootdlag to tbe wrttar^ plia^ 
iiHl ihen the advantage baa been of the BWit marked diaaiptioo. 



Vtaaela can ttow dear ont aa aoon ut loaded, eltiMr hj the mmh 
or aoutb moBth, aeoordliig to the Mata of the (ea. Soim caatlon 
ta aaotamj, bowwer, aa the nui ia apt to exiand from the one 
barboor to the other luleae there be a eooaidcrahJe area. 

Then la geaenltr aiach smdcnoe reoulred in the alteta^on 
or repidre of axlanog marue worka. The risk of havtag the 
whole ilniuUm deatroyed bj a gale oosihig uiddenly on whQe 
there ia an typnx breach in the worki^ mujt be obviooa; and fai 
one inttanoa^ when the expoaun of tha place waa gnat, and tha 
BvQ waa a hidden one. the wrilar coidd not recommcad tbe &ee- 
vorit being diatvibed. Tha canw of fidhmi ia thla inalaiiw was 
anppoaed to be the decay of the backing, which having doprtvad 
the f»oo«lonoa of auppoit allowed tbem to bo driven inwaraa by 
tbe foroe of the wavta. laatead of remoriog the fiuewvtit, the 
only nooBtoaDdatloD that ooold be ^von waa to Iqjaet the whole 
plor with llnid cement, ao at if poaaible, to rmder the saw 
mtmaliMe. An allernatire of tbia kind ii obviotuHy of wy 
doubtflil aneeeaa. aad can he renrded aa nothins abort ef a hat 
raaort^ for there le but a amall chanoe of getting the iit(eeted fldd 
to pertneato tbe whole mnaa of tho pier. The ayaMn of peraiea- 
tiotf tho maKinry with flnid natter oould, however, ba enptond 
with mare vhanoe of aoeotM in the j^rmofion of a pier, wbila 
each ooorte Uea open to view. In l&M. at a barbonrthM had 
atood for vary nuny yan. two or throe fnnlty Rtonea had been 
incantioiialy taken ont of tne fuoiwcirk byamaaoBwho iataadad 
to leplaoe them hj othar% whi^u a auitJeu gale caoM OD, aad 
aaaHy the riiole of the work waa levullej wiih the beaoh. 

Aa an annpla of the nuddannaee with which ooreaataoi eonat 
U viaiiJid by galea, and aa indicatiag grapbicaUy tba ralatire 
alijiiliitity of ue euauner and winter montha tat canrying ott 
harbour worka, we give tha aeeompaayiag diagran ef tiM boighta 
of waveik aa obaerved for tbe writer, by iOr. WllUara Hiddlenin, 
mlilnif anglnanr at lo^bater harboar. 

« 1 1 I « 1 C T « * I* tl IIU II It ftN. 




1 II 1 1 < T B sioiiuiiintrM. 
In landloeked baya, when a durp-water tanding-ptoce ia all ibu 
ii reqaind, aad when tha bottom ia aandy or atm, timber mny 
be employed with grmt advantage. Even tu expoaed aituutioua, 
timber can alao be need, bnt tha htal diaadvantage aHtfidiag ita 
employment in moat plaoea wban there ia no aduixtnia of mall 
water^ !■ the rapid dectnctlon oooaaioned by marine wonna. 




16 



THE CIVa ENGIXEEB AND ABCHITECrS JOCRNAL. 




Tbo duuiga eeeuioMd to bwboura in thb way ii notdeed l^ 
Staple in hi* tntUia ' On BiUhUng !n Water,' in 1776, Mid v»r7 
pnbftblir hj iuii<A*>T'IJar«rrit«n. Iad««J, the mvtffn <•{ tli4 
Ten^ nanlit we very Indicrgoiil^ dnKriM by Heolor Boko, 
(b Ua " CroaiUi* <it Scolluiil,* prlntoJ nt Kilitibargh etna 1&36L 
la til* Atlantic Oonui the 7Vr«db navalit, and at mtnj place* Ui 
Uio Ovrmaii Ocmd tbo Limnoria t*r»bmu, arc the uiiautu which 
Mv fbiuul to AutKj uiy atniettir* of timber vhleh la «ip<Me<] to 
the wUw. Timj on bund to eat tnoat mpiclly between tlie 
bollcni and low-wftt«r nttrk, but ttbove low-wntcr the ilnmiisti it 
uot M gnati ud vhat U Mngiil&r, the/ <Io not uipaiu- to exiat at 
all below th« boUnm when tA« piU i* novcrcJ wiUi mdiI, Tlicao 
iibaerv&tiooii do not, however, ijuiiilnLte with Mr, n>rl1ev'ii at 
l.ivorjiucJ, for be fbuutl tbe parn* which were nltcmaUily wet and 
tlry tu AeeAy bjter tiian the put* which werv conatkntjy im- 
menwal. Evea solid liraaBtona UonMidMtmvedby the pcnwverisg 
cdTorts of anoflMT marine aaimal eajlrd the Phetai. 

The lAt« Ur. R. 8t«ven*0D made •eveinl rxjieriinciita on Che 
imvugea of the Umnoria tmbratu at th>e B«U Rock m 1314, l&^l. 



KMrfrmtar. 



OmM-bMrt. 

Teak-weed 

Dlue 

Ditto 

TmnailofloaM ... 

BMf-woed 

IVMn^l of BullM-wood 
AMMoOtk ^ 

Ditto , 

BnalliibOek 

UItu 

EWlIAOak 

Hnglieh Oali. kjaniacd . 
AmtrieuiOak 

Ditto 

Ditto, hvulwid 

llaluoOak 

DauideOak 



SeM^OUc 

lUUoOak 

nwelVH 

Ditto ...._ 

BritWiAA 

A>h 

F.ugl\<h Elm ., 

Ditio .„..„.. 

Beoidi Bm- 

Amerioan Blm ...... 

Ckaaib Rooli Hm... 
Rondiuai Uahofwj 

Do. ttak tncnalla. 
BM«h 

Do. __ 

D*> Pavna** pal. jvo, 
CMar of Lebanon .... 
SenUhnr.teabtnenaili 

1^ fretn L«narliali 

l>A, do. 

Dot knut Intnaila 

V*mA (1r 

Kp Fir 

Daataie FSr - 

KooravIV- — 
Bailie Red Ptoa 

DilM kjrauJMil 

Plt<h Pine .. 

Dtato 
Vlrvinla Pla* 
TeJlow Ptne 

BedKne 

Ckwdie Fine 
Amerieaa YoIIdw Rim. 

Dilta. lDoarttK<nia> 
AMffaMi Bed Fine 

lanh 

rolUl«ndi 

BM^ Payu«'« paL |b« 



gbaarnd. 



rn. DO, 



i T 



4 II 
C t 

I 1 



S 11 

I 



3 11 

1 a 
s 
au 

2 II 

1 1 



I 1 
a 1 



I 
1 
1 

10 

t 
1 
1 
I 
I 
1 
1 I 

1 1 

2 t 

B 
1 
I 

« 
1 
1 



•i 
s 
I 

I 

I I 
I 1 



to 



Cuooad 

qsTW 



jn. SM. 



la 11 
« 



10 a 



in o 
* 1 

S 



3 It 
s « 



i 3 



S D 
S 

3 I 



10 



qoNe 

•end 



rn AD 
IS c 
13 It 



3 
13 



JtdGkKb. 



AlffKVd IK vBe am/*- 
alWr Uiog Wd ikim 






{DHajrlDf Txii duvly 
■ jn. uxt r EDOnilH 
t(lo>tala(laia<lura 

tHwIi dmrx] ■hsB 
■iMobHncd 

\ * ^n. luul I unnUu 
«n«t bttnjUiddnni 



(Iftar^ Hand 1 ( yn, 
WMfacd tit/ lU 



AUuMluMatoDc 
, ndudenwutt 



' A pial ctnJ <Ih*j*I 
I vluiu Aim uhnriBl 

IOdIdc fM whan Bnt 
obwnd 
rigcoldnlna'K 
1 Diji.aAtrl«iDf bU 
1 dcxrn-.mtnmiTtf 
lMTisalk«4n« 
f A fooi Ml dKunul 
t ebi aiW otiwnwl 



' DoUc Aim *liig Sm 



1837, and 1843, hy fixbz |>ico«a of different kind* at timber t« 
the rock, nod getting TeffuTnr reporta oo their dooaj'. From thoM 
expurimeiita it appeared that grMO-heart, beef-wotNl, and buUet- 
trw, were not attacked by the wonnii, while toakatood romarkablj 
well, although anScring at taat, The kj«niBng flnul and other 
propuationa have been tried, but wen not found to b« ctT 
permanent aervioA In adliliou to th«M axperimenta on timber, 
tto fewer than S$ dtnVreut kind* and eombioationa of iron wer« 
tried, including apodmonii of KalvniiiiKd irona. Althougli 
aepara'te (pocimena of eitch were trinl in ptncea wliere fhey were 
alwnji unclear water, anil also iu plaoee ware alternately wet and 
di^', j«t all the uug^vaaiitoJ Mpeolmetia were found to oxidiae 
with much the same mdlneea. Thn gntnniaed apedmena re- 
aiatoil oxidation (or time or four yean, after which the ehendcal 
aotiou went cm an oniekly aa in the othen. 

Tlie annexed table ahowa the dUTereat kiada of wood which 
wore majo tlie lubjeol of expariment at tha Bell Bock in 161^ 
1821, 1837, 1843, witli their relative tluialHliUe*. 

Qreen-he&rt timber ia now generally bail nwoune to Is plaoce 
wbcre the worniaare duatructivo. It appoui to bare beott firat 
neecl t; Ur. J. Hartley, of Liverpool, who pubiiabod in the 
'Minulea of Inatitntioin of Civil Engineer*' an aooouut of iba 
virtue* iu IMO, aa aMertaiiied at the Llvurpool Dock*. Ita ooat 
la ootMiJcnbly gT«ater than Mamel or than moat of Ibo otber 
timbM* genertdly luad. Uemel lop for the inner pile* of plan 
mi^hC perhaw, from their not beiji^ EipcmeJ to abvaalon noai 
thipa, bo eiail with t^rcen-heart planking at tbuM parte whieh an 
expoeed to the worm. Copperalieatliiug and «cu(^r nailing are 
ofkn and ■uuoeeHfulIy employed aaproteotioEiafor pica is axpeaed 
aituatlona. Brtamiag or aooriahing the wood, and aftarwaida 
aatatfttiag it with train oil, alao forma a partial protectieo. 

It ia mueh lo be ragreited Ib&t limber la so expenalve Is tfala 
oounliy, and ibat wme aluple and ecoDomiad apoclfio againat the 
worm haa not been diacoverad for prolecltng Mcmel and tli* 
choaper kiiidn of pine. The grand deoidenitiim in harbonr 
work*, which ii the uuni of wmttHuitv la tht ttnutart, would 
tlifii bL' BUp]ilIi.<>l. tt follows, fVom tn* luiown laws of flnldik 
tliat encli iuilividiial aton' in a pier which ii eauully oxfMaail 
tlir»ii|;li'iut iu whole lenj{tli, i* subjected lo a toroe whicb it 
can only rcsiat by it* own iuertin, and tlie friction due to ite 
contact «ritli the adjoining etouM. The atabUity of a triiol* 
liydmulie work may Uicrcfore be periUwl by the uao of aaudl 
■luDCB in one part of llie Ctbric^ whilo it ia in no way In- 
crmwd by the introduction of heavier Btonu into other narta. 
By tbo u»* of long loga of timber corefull)' bolted togeuicr • 
new element of atreogtb i* obvionaly obtafneil. A )>i«r ooold 
be ere<;t«d alinoet &ve of sea rt*k if cnnatracted of nctasgnUr 
or otiier aliii)HiJ priama, oousiallng of togn of timber traenailed 
and bolted togelber, eo aa to form bosi-e, any 10 liwt aqunre and 
UO or 40 feet long. The interior of the boxes would be filled with 
mbble or 6e(eM. The firat law woiUd be arranged scroea the 
pier, IU aa t(> fit the imvulRrltioa of the bottom, and above tha^ 
they might be arnuifod length way* of the piur, ao am (n form iU 
outer and iuncr widU; the apace between being filled with 
eoamon mbble or betan. 

Iu inatiy pnrta tlie iiriffinal depth hoa been decreoaed by the 
dofKOMii of ailt, aauil, and gravel Tbia in, iod«ed, a great evil, 
mill one which uufurtuuaUily ia most dilBault of our*. So 
obecure no-i a))[)areiiUy oipricloiia are the caiaaea which Iftwl la 
the fonnalion ofahonl*. lluit inlho prcacntalatoof our knowledge 
it would be littk' tbort of ^aaekrry Ut lay iluwa any gcnenl 
rulea for the uoidouoe of the eugluHor. Iu tixin^ «u the niie liir 
a iMirbow, allexialiiig obatrootioos aliould bo txaoiiiMil v> uaoar- 
tain wfaetbar there M a teiidene>- to dr|>0Mt, nii-1 the works 
ahould be kept aa br aa powble iniin |ilncm wlipro the lendeo^ 
ia meet atroagly developed. Tlie a(;uuU whii^ tH.'Oaaou ban at 
Uie montlia of barboura are tlie WAvei^ the tide carraats, ml 
land atreoma whore they exlit. Btver* are oAea more jiemidoua 
tliau benrlkinl in tboir eSeeta, eapocially where lUoy latenwcl a 
((ravelly auil; but in aotue coeea the dcHscDiliug gravu] may be 
auocco^ally ioteraected bv the rreuliou of weita. tima which the 
aeaenmolatioiu muat be irom tiuo to time rviui>ved. We agree 
witli Sir H. Dr In Beclie in bplieving that the ban at the munthe 
of river* axp moat generally formed by the cuoatont tendenov of 
111* wnvan to praeerve the eeniiauiVjr of tlie beach nrufile. It b 
tbeteGu* not to be woudaml at, thitl heavy galea ahoulil dlaloct 
and All up tlie narrow treodi which the Wk walen oat In 
mvelly or aandy beachce. The erootion of breakwater* on eoich 
Sdabaa imdanMedly a 



tgowi («CEntln.j)rol<90tuig the uhamw^ 



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Itmflvene SQCtioa 



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THE Crvn. ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



IT 



^ 



^ 



■mikbtrbra-f wttofbriDouUidoofUiabrMkwttltm Innme 
OMM tha dtpth of tli« tnek mvhc pmbkblj b> mniniAioMt br 
drtring, on cmJi aide of tlia nifehaBDal, dwrf pilm to wbioa 
eoaiiniMoa waliiigi ifaoqld be ■llMisd ao u to cnnfino lbs 
eutmit ftt low-wttt«r. Tb« tirabar Aamework aboiitd out pn>- 
jaot man than > foot or cm fthm th* boUoin, wUiub iu Home 
CMw niiebt be pliuiktd, Hiu, hovcver, U bat a hiut, Mill 
bM, ao &r M the Kutbor ia aware, oev«r b«en trinl. Tho 
pfiadptr ou wbich th« propoaftl ia bMed ia th&t of contnutiug 
tba l«<r-«Kt«r diAun«l U> & amallar width tbui tbit of lh« bigh- 
wa*»r ekaaiMi), aail tbu bj flsbg dia low-wnin- track, to pr^ 
veU a lortuooa oh«iui«1. Tha mm* pttnciple ww n<lopt<>d by 
tlw writer with aucoeu in aontroUioit *od filing Ute mitaQilcrin^ 
oT K gravwUj river, vibicb ia mbject to very auJdvu uuJ boairjr 
tnAm. 

Tbe wuit of aufficJMit TaaiU ooeuioDii a gnM nittionAl loaa 
in Ibo euiutmetion of our harbour*. The hiitory of a Ivgt 
mtiatilj of tkoaa porta which hxn been matui ij private or 
logal eDlarprtatv pwtnta but a reooni of the biiLliJLn;; of {)icn 
at ena pnnoil whnn tbe fiiiiiJ* wKn amall, uxl ciftAkiug ihem 
dowa at andtbur whcnthti inula lud inrnnicd itad mtkCH niotu 
aad aowmmodatiija were mquirod. Want of laodt ofUn pre- 
Tvuu tba origilMtl worku from beiug onrri-Hl wllbiu deep WAUtr, 
knd IB M— qiMttaa th« moat aspaoalT* part of the pnitooting 
bMakwalar ia cftao put down Juit bi tha wry place wbiob haa 
afterwmfdi to be eaavertad, at j>rrat aspaoaa, into a darp wainr 
maaam or bartbua. SomotiuiM, iudeed, a wbalo line of pior ii^ 
frmn BotlTaa of aeoaomr, plowd iu auch a uamier aa to in- 
tarAra looat mntimaUy with what might baTw bean bjr for iJi* 
beat and aafieat liertha for ahippinc , ■» tlint in tbe farlbitr ex- 
*■"■*■«' of ibc works a gimt purt of tha old harboar baa to bo 
daHWilrfiad. Want of a proper miuiiie nirrey hxjt also oftcii Isd 
to *aiT eerioiM orrora Id tb« poaitiou of tlie pier*. 

Ta aveb an extent haa thi* »yiMm prevniled, that were an 
Sigineer calM on to value iiauijr of our works u tbcy niial at 
praaaat, bia Mtimate, howL-m- fnirlv and fullv Dinde uut, would 
all laBMBtably abort of th« actual ooat. 'Hiia eatiiuntD wuuM pn>- 
caad on a nuaauiwineDt of what he aee^ whili- l1><- ncuiol ooat 



would indncle the buildinK of picni and jAtticit whioh hui lung 
iaOM eeaat d to oziat. For theio rnuonii wo conceive there could 
kanUy be a more adrimbla cxpanditiim of the public money thui 
by a eyaieu of graota fbr aupplemuDtini the looal funda on a 
linral eoale. With auoh aid th'* aiithuritini -in llie aiKit would 
ba anahled to pn><«ict and iuipmve tbe asiating phyai<»l advaa- 
tairca wikb the abom itouMMa, by pntvantins Uie conalrncdon of 
propoaed IntptwemeuU on too narrow a aoalo. But a oompnni- 
tlvaly alight Ino rn aaa of the mniuia would, in iiuLiuiocs uf whirli 
tbe writer ia awarr, hav« iudoaed a great estn area, and aeciuud 
a deeper luxt!^ with mipnrior iatamsl traD<iullitv, the want of 
wbkb DOW cripples tbe tnde; anil ii the aubjoct of butdng rogrot 
to all fre^uMitiiig the luubount. 

Behrvoa May be mada lo Bril. Anoe. Xtp, IIGO iHconsliyt; Jfia. 
/ma Ofn Sff- 'S** (Rankloa): IMtle 1S17 (Sonti K<u*ll); Diiw iStl 
(BpBB>B«t): ItefMuu'e AqnoMf, ptaim. Krp, Om. on H'av«i iy Brit. 
Amt*., J. 8. BuaMll. Load., 184^. Ritrankn m fffdrtnlj/namia, J. 
8. Beaaill — 2Vaiu. Aojr. Sot. £tiin..r<tl xir. 19^7. AtroitniofSipii- 
rimnfi as Ftrrt v/ H'ufei o/ Allanlic and Ornvm Oaant, TboiuM 
SUntaaaa,~Tntmt. Rty. Sue. Edin., vol, xxi. litlfi, On Halar'ioii a/ 
Ail^ «f K'mBi ^f^rr pamug into Uartaurt, T. StcrenH-n. — A'ifiu. 
Stm Pill. /vwnt. ISll Ica/tnt of lAt Plyfnoalh Brralirairr, l<y 
■r J. Raaaio, Laodon. 1Mt8. Bulidor*! Arrhittttart UydnMlvfac, Puia, 
S*nn|*'e TVnruc SB Jl<ii!dtn-i in U'ltiir, DuMin, IT7B. Koi/nJ Tidat 
^ammr Ovmmittlot Umati (t'aplun Waahtn^^tonl, l.tindon I5(S-4. 
"n* Aitida on TUse and Wans in Die Sa^itlopit^ia UrrnipoUiana. hy 
G, K Airey, Aacmnomer Royal Rtptinbf OimmUiio-Hm v/ Uarbam 
<^ Ktfmjft, wilk Iht Pmtrl. by .Sir Howard Douglas. 



Mr. Jobn Newton has bi«cn apfH>int<>d Surveyor to the Praatou 
n»Brd of Health. There wen- U7 uuididatca. 

It baa been determined, by the Oovarnnient, In miiMiquenoe of 
the Kunnaafiil es|i«rimcnt* at Lelcoster ntid other places, In refer- 
«BCa to ntitinoff tbe acwago of towua for the purpon~s of manure, 
to qtpoiiit a aneatifio aouimiaaiou to enquire into tbe whole lub- 
jMt, and make a nport m koo aa poa^e. Sliould the n\KiTi of 
th« oommbwioa be to tbe allk^t that Mnruisnui b<< diwHlorix^d luid 
advastaMOoalr eaploycdi, an Act of Parlianiont mar Iw cipcctcd 
prohibi&K all • ■■ - 



tMrna from polluting itrvama which arc uaad 
iC and drinking purposm. 

.— Ja«i-jUit, 1«£7. 




FBESTAOB'S IMPROVEMENTS IN LOOOMOTIVE 
ENOINESL 
{WUk M fnpratAy, FtaU m) 

We feel satlaGod that tbe loootaotive which fonne the subjeel 
of the Rngraving will prnvo of ^reat {uter«et, aod will eoo- 
vincingly show that nmid the miiliiiiida of minor chnngM and 
modifioationa which have bcon made in the oonstrucLioii of the 
looomotlva sdaIiu^ otbera of a mach mora importwat character, 
embodied In uia iDvenlioD now under itotioe, have been pa«aed 
over with oonparaUTe Defect 

It will be Boen,oD nAnoce to the Plate, that the driving aliaft 
and working parta ef tbe engine, initaui of bring phuxd below, 
are «(««< ue bailer, by which amngeiuFui the ntoee beneath i* 
rendered avaiUble fur tbe oonatrucllon of a tootc to oontaitt an 
ample supjily of water for the joQrtiey. This Utnk t* continued 
to aa lo fonn the mcles of the nnokO'Doi, by means of which tba 
water beeomea hcatwl, and thus nit only provides n supply, at 
a high temperature, for the boiler, but also oooiverte the tank and 
it* oonteute XoXo a moat effectual covering br the prevuntlen of | 
tosa of heat fWiin the bottom and eides of the hotter. The foot- 
board ia Buibcieotly extended to carry a corroepoudinc amount of 
coke. Anuther »nd very marked feature of noveltT and im- 
pmremenC in thia engine {• obaamble In the paaluoa ef the 
oyliodera, which, with their valves, an enalrded by Jwfketit and 
EUMed immediately above the ends of the tubes In the amoVe- 
box. The co(isiH]uenceB of this ftrmnitcmcnt, in an ooonomioal 
point of view, are most important, inasmuch as the aleam, in ita 
paMage from the boiler tii the cylindera, is led into tlie jackeu 
Ware mentioned, and there, beooming saperiiealed, ha« Iu eloe- 
tluily inoTMMd to an extent which would i^pnnntlyjnatify usin 
anticipating a saving of at leaal one half iu the cansumptioD of 
fuel and water. Thn% aleiun, the preamire of which iu its normal 
condition in the boiler ia iSplb. to tbe e^anre inch, hua teo- 
peraturv of ;tt;r Fshr^ while thxt of the jackri* thtoMgh whloh 
tt mujit poos before enleri^ the cylindera is «]iiiiJ tn tiUO". Bnt 
■dinfltliig that the lemperatare nf the sicun in pausing through 
the laoketa heoomn raleed to only ■MX'", ita pressure will be 
increaaod to aomethlng like tlOlb. to the eniiare Inch. It will at 
once be eeen that a« by thie rtrraagemeut tlie ateam ie eondacteil 
from the boiler to a chambAr of a much higher tamperainre, and 
then lieated. Tlie only conditions euggeeted by tlie li*nsnUtu 
Inittltule of New Yurk, as being neeeatary for Uie economical 
working of eupiirheskled eteam, have been raont aaoMMifulIy 
obtained, — the committee's report being, that thi^re would M 
gml economy in iimur aiiperbeateil swnni, or " slame," if it 
could be brought iuto opuratiuu where the temperature of ooldeo' 
bodioe woold not iuturfcre to abalract the beat oefora it coutd be 
profitably emplnynl. 

The euormon* pownr of siipdrhratrd sli-nm is more than 
auIEciently demonstrated by the awful boiler explosions we but too 
oRon have to record; yet, tremeudoua at are ita eSeota when 
uiicontrnllod. there !« no mechaaieal dlffleulty to preveoit ita 
Bubjeclion and employment to our advantage In tlie manner 
prcmoeed by Mr. Fresiagn. 

Economy in tliu consumption of fuel ia evidently a eooeideration 
of panunoDnt ini|iciriAnc«: bat at tlie nme time railway ahare- 
holdere have aim hful. anioogat other otoieei, to aowr meet 
seriously from the fp^at cost of renewal and mnintonanoe of w». 
This bos been iu a great meamre owing to the esccasive wei^I 
of the en)pnea hitherto employed,— aa evil entailed by the 
large amouut of heating eurUoe rMnlied lo obtab anBlalent 
evnpnrntivc power to ninet tli.' Uviut axptnditsre <i>ot to aar 
wa.-iifl], of sU'Diu whicli has uken plaoe to a great eileot in all, 
but mire particularly in eugiiive with OUtnt^ eylindere, when 
the lo*» by coiidensBtiou baa in aoma caaea amounted to 33 per 
cent. 

It will be evident on reflection, that in oonsninnnoe of the 
reduced siw of boiler, Mr. PrestAgc'a engiiics will be of greatly 
dimiulnhed weight — a £lu)t aoiBoietit in iteetf to bring them iutt' 
general uae. Tina will bo clearly undtiatood when it ia comudered 
that an engine of raodorato Ixiiler apace, and beuting aurboe 
superheating ite etcam, will bo equal in offidnncy to one of miaoh 
greater heating euifiue iu conuection with which the ateam !■ 
not auperheated. The diuiiuished size of Ujiler oUo telle &vou<- 
ahly In ^ving the inventor tbe option of ouQstriiullag luaen^nee 
either with driring-whoeli of Urge or of modenta aUe. It ia 
impoauble lo deuy, Uiat for faat traffic the former m dealnble, 



THE CrVTL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 




Huaei 



not only on ■coount of th« incrcuiBd ipnn] obUinnbln by their 
me, but iilao oii Avuiiiiiit of the Uimiautioo of wnu- anil t«ir coo- 
•MU«Dt oil the □iinih«r of reuiproc&tiouii of the euginc being 
Tsdncod, tuid by ttaaon of the m(ir« elTective aad euuuuiiiiui^ 
muuwr iu which the 110001 i* work«il. Tlierv Ls a fiirtliitr 
' advaalAge nrUioK from the reJucuon of iho ha.i;W ptvMwti, to 
tlie elToct of wliioli, iu the prmeat eii),-iuiia, ii in some mcasuro 
Attributed the grant ciMt of vorkiug nl bi^U velouitiea, from 
(he bot of its inereuing gTMtly In iTOiKirtioit to llie aixwxL 

It U, hoorerar, to be renurked. tliitt nn in the inventi'm before 
U the patentee, by brinffitig tdc boiler down, is enabled to 
lengthou tbn rnnnet. thou- witl be more uatural dmft, attended by 
% «orre)if>oiiitiii^ diiuiniilioii of Ui« Uut rbjulred uitl of its 
attendant l>iick pivsjurv. 

We would nliKi In^ p&rtioulor >trew upon the fact, that in 
L addiUoit to the dir«vl1;|r econoiuimi Advnuto^B »tteiidnnl iiiion 
this oonatraclioD of engini>, in ;»>iiil of miety it prcsuuta f>^ittiires 
of M> eqaally im|wrluiit choi-ftcler. Thuii, it h uurleiiiuble, tluit 
■a the centre of cravitv in brought nearer to the Ixise of n 
[• !""•*■■"■, to it* etauUity u iuoretuiGd. In this instAiiee, not only 
t&a eentte of gravity btMUght ooUHidi-rably uenrer to the base 
nd point (if rMi'atnneii than in oi'diiimy locoiiiotiven, but is nt the 
une timv ■ituntod ucoil}' in the ilirrclion of the Hue of truction, 
'kud oau«e(|UL-iillv iu a hit;hly diiimblo pooilioii fur liiinmiiig 
■toadioeM, aurl thus at uuu* t,''*'>"S increaiKd (nfrty, iu.'cr>iiiji:Liiiud 
bj* a reduction of the wear and ti.'nr of uugiuea, roaJ, aud ii>lliiig 
■took. In nur opinion, numoroiu accidents have tukru phxcc, the 
ehnnccs of wliicn, if not nltogethrr iloue awoy vith. would at 
t«Eiat have beeu oaaaiderably rcduuod by the nee of Mr. Preatage'i 
eugiuee. Wa might mentioD many which have oecurrod in oon- 
aaqiWDoe of eug;inea leavinx tlie raUs : two iu |iarticiilnr have 
btppenod Utcly, in which the leading wlicela inuunted the mils 
io Imveiaing curves; aud inatAnou hnw been kuown iu which 
they bare Ulotally leaped from the rails. That ouualtiea of this 
daaa woald be ooruidentbly reduoxl. must bti apparent; and it 
maf aflbrd aoiae Mtisf^wtion U> the public to knuw ibnt the con- 
atmcttOD of engines mny be such oa to nlf^ird invreaMid cbanum of 
their keeping tin? ruUa, Ihaa iii louie degree coinpeniutiiif; for the 
anything but iniproviug cuuditiou of the permanent witye of 
MvenU milwaye wo ooiud aanw. We may further obicrvo, ihnt 
in working thnso angiDW. tlia driver has a full view ait<l ciuy 
AOOMi to UiP working parte, wbldi mny be reiuiity lubrimleil 
while nmaiujj. Thor are. moreover, acrweaed, and plauod above 
the BOtion ul tlie ballaat^uHt, Sm., which otberwiw tell» must 
•ariooalv on their wear and t4iar; uud, from their pnaition, cnii be 
Mpairtd with f[rcat«r eaao and at less cost than in ordiiuiij 
looDiikotivea, noalljr, from tlie large «ize of tlie fire-box of these 
(ouriaea, they are particularly adopted for the combualion of eoal, 
wlildt !e daily getting into more general uae aa a fuel fur 
looomotiTai. 



BBOUTEB or NEW PATBITTI. 

CTEAU BOILERS. 
Kowis Hcnii-ooD, Sutton, ?ork, PaUaUt, April 14, 1809. 
This invention relalM to « mode of Aiing veasela or boiler* 
oaod for gpnrrating eteun where two or more firee or firnaoes are 
uiwd, and oonaiala of aFrangiog the fumocea so that whnn one 
hrnace is onmed to aupply the fim with fresh fuel, a damper or 
valve will be opened Ui an adjoining lini or fiuTUKe One, thna 
forming a coumanlcatlon between the flue and t3i« chlluney, and 
Btthevme tine cloatng a damper or valve in thollnacf that fire 
or furnace whioli ia being aupplled with freiib fuel, ami also 
clixing the door of tlie Gre or fiimaca belonging to the Que made 
to eomniunii-iiw with the cliiuiney. Aa each liro i^ beiug supplied 
with frc«h fuel the uuobe is caused to paaa or be drawn down 
through iu own fire to the aah-uil, and through tnbnm openings, 
drapertura to the adjoining oih-ijit, and up through the adjoin- 
lag nr^ esuaiug the amolceoroomtiuatiUe matlrrto beeousumed. 
In aapplying treah fiiel to the bst-nomed fire, the damper or 
valve above n»a*d wUl be reversed, and the dirertlon of the 
lilrau^ht changed to the contrary Ilue, the smoke passing driwu- 
""irJ, aa before deeerihed, throngh one lire luid up through the 
her, changing the direction of draught allyrnalely m eauU fire 
ire^aapplied withfheL The grata bora ore liollow, and conueoted 
at each end with other hollow bnra or pipn, forming a compact 



hollow fmniework for fire-bod, and connected to the veoael or 
boiler, so as to be rendttv taken ont fur repaira or other 
piupoaet- The water citinuate* lireely through the *ald hollow 
rramework, bv which the moeration of •Imib is ucdenitod, and 
the fuel grmtlf economixod. 

The fumaoo doota are ntipeaded one at each end of a boun, 
capable of sliding up and down, eo that when one ia nbed tbe 
other ia lowered, A damper iaaaapendod bypallaya,andcap«ible 
of being trnvorwd unon rniU, nlternatnly from one flae to the 
other. To (ii the hollow gmle Imn in the other hollow side bar* 
or tubee, a thread is put 00 one end of uvery oroaa-tHU', Mid meh 
altemati! uue is {iasse<l through one of the alile tubea, ao tlMt it 
will screw into tiio other or opposite* side tube. Tli* apertoro 
tlius made in tlie side tulie ia closed by a screw-plug. By «vat]r 
alternate croiw-bnr being thus sore wed into one or other of tlio 
aide tubea, a compact fnunework Is formed, screwed together 
instead of plugged or rivetted In the UKunt manner. Wlien tbe 
door is open to eupply hwh fuel to that fiirnoon the liamper of 
which ia in nonttion to cut off the communication of that fire witli 
the flue or chimupy, at the satne time the door is dosed, and tbo 
dain|Mr of that lire removed, opening a oomiunnicatioD with the 
Hun, c^iiiwiipientlv the smok^ of the firet-namnil fiiv, or that whicli 
ia newly fe<l, will pans down thmiigh ita own fire and giating to 
the ash pit, and thence throu^^h the tube* to tlie other aah pit. 
anri up thrnugh the other gtaliiig and fin to the ebimnw ; and 
when it is deurabtu to feed ilie other Ht«, the doors antl oaiaper 
ore changeil in position, nod the dmiight is thereby reveraad to 
the ooulntry direction. By this arraDgament of the fiiraaooe, the 
•moke or oombustibte matter will have to pans through both lie 
own fire and the adjoining fire, whereby it wilt bu cousiimed and 
fuel ecoiiouiieml, ^t 

Clainu. — i. The method of Axing the gmte bore dencribod. ^ 
2. The general armngemeut of furooce or apparatus apptieil to 
boilers or vessels for producing steam, boiliug wtit-.-r, iSic, whereby 
the amoke ia caused to paaa down through one fire and up througu 
the other. 



STEAM BOILERS. 
W. and J. Gai.i.owat, Manchester, Falntlft, May JS, lbj6. 

According to thin Invrntion, boilers are conslructod with one 
or more flms or furnnces, fi-oiu whence the producte of eombiutlon 
paaa apwanls or down wanls through couic&l pipes, eurroundeil by 
water, and placed with their smidler ends iipwuda The products 
of oumbiistioD nnerwatda poMi through horlxnnUl or Inclined 
tnbes surrounded by water. A \arge amount of heating snrfoce 
ia thus obtained, and a power of generating steam in proportion 
to the heatliig aurfkoe and peoulinr form, choructar, aud poaiticei 
of such euuee. 

To each builer ore two furnaces, indosed in two cylindrical 
tnhea or flui'a, pltic«l side by side, and connected by one commoa 
chamber nt Iheir back ends beyond the fires. Tlus chamber is 
separated fi'oui another chamber placed above it, by a horizontal 
water <i|uic^ which is travetaed by au assemblage of conical fire 
tubea or fluo, pUcol vorticnlly with their smaller ends upwarda 
From the chomber the producla of combustion pas through a 
series of horizontal cyliudriotl return tnbeii to a smoke-boi at 
the front end of the ooilor, from which ihcy paad up a fine into 
tlie chiniiiej. The chambers ore itAved and strengthonod bf 
conicol wat*r tubes, oluced with their larger ends upwards, or by 

SliiHlrli:ul water tubes. The couical fire tuben are omitted at 
one places in which they would iiilerferu with the water tubea. 
By tuiikiriiF the fire tubes of conical form, and placing them with 
their smaller ends opwanla, the ascent of the steam from their 
outer surfaces ia lacitltaled. It is advisable to make these conical 
fire-tubes of larger Jiaiucter than the bori^outAl cylindriL-at tubea, 
BO that the II.iiuc may not be cooled and eitinguiahed before the 
pmes ai-e completely burned. By constinicting the tioiler in this 
manner, the deposit of Boot is In a great degi^e avoided. 

Ctaimt.—l. Couslructio^ Steam boilera with on assemblage ti 
vertical conicid fire-lubes, m oombinatiou with an aaaenbls^ of 
horixoulal cylindrical fire-tubes. 

t. Constructing ^tcom boilers with an assemblage of vertical 
conical fire-tubca, in couibiDatiun with vertical water-tabes, and 
au BBeuubkgu af horizoutiJ cylindrical Hre^tubee. 




i 



THE CITIL ENGrNEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



PAvisa. 

C. J. I.B M. DK u Hakboh, naibiu7, Pattnim, Mudi 31, ISfiO, 

This inveaUoQ eooalfU In tli« MBplojmKit of Itmoi Nuid, 
uphall*, oKHilclwuc. guUK parehk, moriBa ffiat, wid wood, for 
til* f»rpcm of farming mi cm uiil diu«bl« pavnaent. A Uj*r 
oowpoed at lime tad mad b Isid down to tim thicliiiw* of ntMat 
ft iMb«a oa Uu put Ui be p«T«d, tli«n » larir of upluklto niiztd 
with Mom* to tba tbkkiiMi of about i Inchtu, after vhich a 
^•r of anphalW, cillur *l«Iia or mix«l with Mud to the depth of 
Mont I iaoh, i* Uid down, in which an Muboddod, at eqiuU dt«- 
teiieca, Mripa of nUoMiiMil OMnUbouo or vutta peroha. la the 
Int uplkatloa, a iMytr sfaaphall*. of about Wf-ausadt iit 
d•ptl^ fa bid down, and (Iim Lb« Mrip* of rulsaniMd aaontohoae 
ar cUtMarclka, of about half-wt-indi in thiekiMM^ and from a 
ials to Mrce^piartcta of an inch in braadtb, •» aa ttt farm 
qnartB or loaMgMi Tht Mrina an plaotd from 6 to 10 iodiM 
Boan, sod aro Mrand tonthar bf irod hoolu or tie*, at a dMiMica 
«r 3 lo 5 inehaa fna •Mb ottMC, which hooka paa tbrouffb thou. 
Iii«l«ad of tuiog hooka, the atrip* majr ba bavoUed at Iba adm^ 
ao a* to b« firmly eabeddad in and aeoored b^ tha aaphaiu; 
iha attipa an laid down, a aoMmd l*T«r of aaphall* la 
), ao as to ba on a la*«l with thootripa of oaoiitchouo, 
ha fiavitiK may ba eoaatmetod bjr Btwt laying dowu ou a bad 
■ layw of Mphklic. mixed with ■null atoiica, amiill croaa piMea 
of about 1 U> S incfaea in brwultb, and lialf-«u-iuch iu 
i^ i^jaetad, aeoarding to Dr. BondiFrii-o praooM. Upon 
Jhcaa croa* plaoaa ara plaoad tbs atrip* or UiihIb of rulimniaod 
tdla-nbbar or Kntla-petclia, preoaml u litmiuUtfore dwcribni. 
Aa aaphalte 3o«a not luiurailv aiUien tn ckDiitdiouo, it ia 
eecMarjr to applf * thin ooat of niariar gluo or othai' •imilar 
Bbitanea to thoor porta to ba plaood in eoulAct with the aaphalta 
~ rs baing Uid down; tho uphalt* b«M hoi oatuea tlia marina 
I to Bolt and adhere to it •tronglr. Tha atHna ot oMUlohoue 
' ' ba embeddad in and ncund to tha uphalt* dnring tho 
[ of tba lattM-. 

-Tha raalhod of coiulnialLug pavement in the ™"in r 



SrBUARINE EXPLORINQ APPAKATC3. 

W. E. Nbwtoji, ChaD0Brr-laD^ PuteiUtr, Horeh 18^ IMML 

lliia invenllau onadM* of a novel cotmlnntioQ of boat tar 
ibonariM navlcatlon, aad iBipr«vw>) appliniicM for aupplying air 
< diTen^ and hmo imprnve'l moiuia far rstdng auukon arlidea. 
Tha aahattriae bont in uuwie itrong eaoneh to rtalot the 
of the wfttrr at th# tleotli it ia Entendeirto go, being oon- 
nf Iron wilh atost riba to prerant mlJapao. It hna an 
ahape witli poinud ooda, and ia propallad by a lorew lamad 
a eruik br peraoni within, or by a dock aprtng ur deetK- 
.__jn«tte maeaiDO. Tii ttiia butt an oidimiry nuJiler ta lltt«d nt 
the itera, and an npiuid-dowB rudder at the bow. It haa two 
kMb^ *o that It will all lavol upon thatn. lugreia ia obtained at 
a man-hole at top. The boat, which brma an air reaerroir, i« 
utdd lam W oontain air lullidpnt for aevwal mMi to breailie »• 
M tbajr maj require to be uiider water withont opporUuitj 
rantilDte it 

Tbe boat bdnf; coiwtiiieteil air and wni^r tii^ht, with the 
iwa ami reiitUaiintf «t»rtnr™, U ri^ily fir iwe. The crww 
It with balUat nmrty aufficipal ia 8ink thii bont, and bj 
of a itop-oocfc the;ra>iiD)l a lUAutilyorvator, ■n<l the bent 
afadn. Br th« ootion of a forw-pnnip a iKirtiou iif thi* water ta 
ejeeted, until the Ixwt U of iiirh n ii|)eoina gravitT oa will permit 
of il« riling ur ainkinit with cijuid fiwili^. Tho boAt in then jirih 
paQed tu the dimrtiou reqmrvd, and ia govem«d by the two 
raddMu. Within the bont ia plooed a Luan, or Pmmmoiid light, 
thlnittt through the windowa, and the [itlot eau lee ibroush the 
bMT hghta fab direeiion. ami tha objociia li* anooiiuteiv. whaa 
the air i«<inir«a naewal, a little water ia pumpo<] •■<ii, aud th« 
boat rtaaa to the aur&M, two pipes ue thrn ilimiit np about 
Ofcttabovu the water; tlieirnlvoi are o|>enml,iuid tbe air at tlie 
lop put of the Intador ia piunpa'l out, and It* plane auppliwl t^ 
that which notonllj flow* in. Ur, the air ma^ be purified ia 
rane decroo by a loull fuunuin of lime water iaialng Id mauj- 
)eta, to abaorb a*rb<i4i>(i soitt gait, and the iaaue fhim a metvr ot m 
•mu aoantilj of oiygoa giuk There may be a heavy ballaat 
fcfnaaln the Mttom or nndur the ahd vcm nl tlie aldBBi wliieh eonid 
be libccwtad froca the inmde at a moin/^nt'* notioo. If the weight 
bt onder tba bottoan, It ouuld be UboialoJ by taming Iwok a 



BbTan 



(oraw. If at the ^dea, the weighta may be held by hooka, the 
tnrainz of which fWim within would Ubmt* the bauwt, and l«t 
the boat Hm MUxhinnly to tha aoiflwa. When divera aoeompany 
tbe boat, thev ait i^on ahelvea ouUda^ and draw thdr bnath 
from within bj meaui of p«pea and a •actioa>falowcr, the pipee 
bmie long enoagb to adiult <i Uielr opatatlag at a dletaaoalnH 
tho boat. Whan daaitabla, tha boat cau ba aapplUd with vnnti- 
Latins pipM raaohinij abon tho ■urfiue. the circulation of thi- air 
being kept up or quickened wlica minircd by meana of a auction- 
blower within tbe boat ur above the water. Ilie boat an ba 
drawn by a low Hue bjr a ateniner, or dra^gad b^ the oatalde 
divera to any apot ruquired. Inataad of uaing thta ao««l mo- 
etruolion of boat, the invontor prvpowa iu (omi; oaeea to employ 
an air reaervoir for reociriog mid dlatributing ^tongrOBpof 
diver*. 

The diver ahonld have dedaomv* anuoor to mint tlM pn^mm 
of the water at grvAt dnplhi, nnd in nil cans be mit*t have a 
head^iiece, with which tbe two VEHtilatiug inp*a are brought into 
oonDMticB. Que of them, the eihaait pip*^ la eunneoled with a 
blower or an air pump, by wUdt the air ia oonatjvtitty drawn out. 
The other ia 'he auppU-pIpe, and eooducta to thw diver the (r«ah 
air which naturally torn down lo aiqnitr the partial vaenvm 
eaoaed by the exhaiMt-pipc^ When the dwenaire armour admite 
uf the pipm being ooBtained within the caaing whkh ia rennd the 
body, ili<» cxhaiMt-pIpe diould li*f« a bnacb eKtandii^ down- 
ward* to abaintct tha carbonic add gas. 

In dnrp witter, a lamp i> often necHMry. A globe oanlBinln( 
the Ump hw au eihau>t-t>ipe and a supply-iupe, and tbe auuply 
and exIiauHt olr <<rect«a ui the aame manner aa for a diver. 
A lamp of aaltable ahapa ia alao attached to tba bnael or heail- 
pieceof the direr, the eir fdpaeof which aiebisnchea of hi* own 
breathing pipoiL 

The breathing pipee mnat be mede flexible, and ittong enough 
not to ba«ik by teauoo, and with rlnga or oeUs of wire within ta 
radal c^llap^e. At the jouodon of tha pip"* with tlie diring 
dreaa, tlirrr miut be in each of them a rolve. no amURnl thnt if 
th<- pipo ibonld brcnk and wtmit wnlsr, the valve woulit doea 
and pnil'icl the direr. Iu cnoe of accideul to the drcai, no that 
it ivlmita the wnter, the aup|i)y-pipe mn>it be ao allualed that tbe 
diver ciin tAke it in hit mouth, aud ia:'kke lors of hrmth until he 
evt rt*e to the onrikce and open a atop-oook, which will oMitm'i- 
nicale air to hi* month fnon above the wntv. 

Ooa baga atr employed to recover aubmerged propettv when 
fynnd in deep water, *noh mt a tliip. Eara one of them ia 
oaloulated to 4nnt to the ■nrfiice n weight equal to about ten tons. 
Snob a bag would bo in cyliudrknl form, about 11 ft tf In. lon^ 
and 6 bet in Uinmeter whrn inSated- The bog mnat be niaJe 
nir tight, and atrong enough to coutain the gaa. It ho* a valve 
hel'l doaeil by a Bpitng and by the ontalde preexure, which will 
allow tlie gaa to **eape wheacvor thi- preamm within la gnaier 
than i* deemed anio. The hag* an couuecied to tho aunkan vamel 
by chain*, and then iiiflnled. 

The gaa to itiAati! the baga may be genemud from efaomiml 
BubatHucee of varivti* kind*. In the drawer at tha bottom of the 
bag, aud which almta witior^i^t, a quantity of alkali may be put 
disaolvod in wnter or maipiena in a granulated atat* Amid tLi* 
lid ■ twttle of acid; — bmiile tliiit. ii ou imu diaft having a nuu 
Upou it, and n crank oulaiJ«. When it in deairad to indota lh« 
tog. tlie diver turn* the crank, and the can ia tlumt agahMt the 
boule nud bmtha it; the add iadidbaed in the alkali,and agiwia 
evolved which dittencU tJie bag, and givn it a lifting power. Or 
iron liliuga mny be put in tbe Ofawer of the Um, or riiic; and iu 
the boltu dilute euliiliurlc a>.4d to evolve hydrogen gna, or the 
vemel may be Inflated by burning in it a alow gunpowder. 

The Invontor nunark*, that it ia not iu all oaaaa Tim muni ij to 
have an ortifloinl di'auj^it in tbe brralbiiw pU>ee. If they are 
tnodo thick and uon-oonducUug, the wnrtnUi of the body of the 
diver, nud the heat given off ^ the lamp which In came*^ will 
make n natural dmnglit 

Ctainu. — 1. The arrangement of aubmarincvemdiMdfeeribed, 
which ia capable of corrj'iug Ihe divera fnm place to placer *»d 
of anpplyiug tlieiu uith nir. 

3. Tlie arrnnffun'-'ot Hb«re dn<cribod for creeling a dmdation 
of air throui^ the <Livei''a bdmet at or Door the oaool prewiue of 
the atmoepherc. 

3. The couitrticiinu of cuUi^ible vetad, whereby the preHura 
of the gne geuri'atvd tbenlu nuy be n^ulated a* requind. 




20 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL 



METROPOLrTAN STREET WASniNO. 

'niVCOnUBitUtnppoinbxi to iiii|i«r!:iC«n<) the new ■y«t«iu of rtrMt 

wMhinfl wlaptod in MnrylolKiiir iltirinj{ tke lut autumu, h«iT« r«- 

port(?<l llmt the e^tpcriments biui lut-ii durinl out iu OriiMJ-****** 

lui'i t)i« EiJj{«wai«'ri»d, totbe<rruii<.>a(tafactioDoft1i«ialiBlnbUIU. 

Hi* fa^HlM toreurjiaa ont iIm experinwDi* b«ci^e m inoreaaed 

tiwtulMtthaantirv oFOsfoiiJ-atrMt WMoffiMtaallr wa^ed t^ 

K Knalt ffvng of mon in two Mnaooutlve uiDruiiigB, Ad uipen- 

meat upon inuautamun) rMcU mm klunuwlo, but alihoush ^t ut 

nnfiininbla period, b; oaraAiUjr aecuriug tlivKQlly holvs Ir«e from 

tbsiliMCpnt cf liwrriiiatur, ym; tiltlapMNiditito theu, anil lh« 

l^parimeDt mji Mtialketory, the tarfiwe of tho raul being woll 

mind, daiup. uid cIcad (br nuuiy dajs after. A new itrnuun- 

Deut WA« ■ulMuiuentlf mrriad out iritk reg&rxl to gullies, bj 

|«h!ch nil aoliil mMt«r wm bnitighl to n rmervoir or pit pliused 

hinder the gmtinK. *" 'hut notliliiu, evaa flui'l, could pua into tlie 

Llewcr until it luul luociidnd to adijxtuiie ortmp, whicli al>o]n«- 

EviTOled the MDoot offpuru from the lewer. Un teetiug tli«M yiV, 

lao depoeit of bMH7 nutter wee f<mu<l tliereiu, end ootf 4} ischee 

fmiid oriud wiadflpoiilud tli«rv. In n eauicery poiut of riew 

tkie plao will diniiaiali the exhahttiane from deoimimeed eninial 

ftasi vogctabla niaiteni, and on the ecure of e1«HnltDeae and comfort 

In Uie evoideuoo of mud. dust, tuL, the pubtiv w'uUI be grcetl.T 

benoHted. Thi- relative uostbetWMn tlilHiuid tht- old ■.valem wae 

M. the old e^stem being OITt and the oew lyel^^n Vfjit. The 

leport wu adopted 



THE SUNKEN RUSSIAN H.EET. 

Ot all the 70 veteele that were ecultlcd nr «iDk io the barb>iur 
efSabMlopol between September IMleDd Feb. 1SS9, tlien have 
bcm only oue etoetner, tho Chenottfoe, anil a few tranepoeta raised. 
Thr. r«ull of the ivuuniontion to which thp otheni hnro biicn aiib- 
iocUxl by divers showi idem not to bo wocth mupli rxlicnep bciuff 

^beelawed upuu Uiem. The thtpe of the line whirh were euiik el 
'm eatisaoe cf llialiarliour hudalraady beeo ten yeara aJloM. and 
Bve now been embedded in the aand thi>r« fnr two w>iii<:ii, ao 
bat tiity oerlAinlj cannot bo worth much. Thi* linera, Pitria, 

^Qroaedinit, Conatantine, UnrU, nnd Tuchnimn ere lyius on their 
benm-eudrt, and hnro bwn much injured hy tho lurchiutf (O'er of 
the cune, the bnllnel, aud olhcr pouderuue lutroliv^ the ChiTitiry, 
KvUewtecby, aod tlie aleamera Vladimir, Beasuabia, On>ni<>iie«- 
8etC,OdM«K, KriRiM.iuidTurakared<e«ribeda*etuidinj(upri)rht 
OS Uieir keeia, and it U pmpoeed to lift thc*o by moans of the 
OlianoneM uid the tmnepurte. A> regorde llii«e etaauien wldoh 
were aninm^ tJie ve«e«la that were Inet euult, conaidarable li<>pee 
ore eolerlBioed that they mtiy be brought iutoeerviee again. The 
peiticB who have uudort&kuD the noovery of theae wrecks from 
the bottom of the hArbiiur are to be paid for their tinn hie and out- 
Uy willi oue-hair the eatimnled value of all nbjecta rvcotered, a 
nmoDemtiam llmt la thought to be In aII probability very lunde- 

aOAte U> the espeneca. The uethad peo|Kiard i« lo fnnlen on to 
le nicies uf the veuol to be raiaed aaeke niado air tiKht wilh lor 
or gutta )K'n;hai iu the caae of a Mp of the lino it in nlciilnttd 
that ItOOO of thna aadu mual he uwd, ooutaining fiii.Uf K> cubic feet 
t^ air. Whether the ecuitlod veaeela can eT<er lx< vmi or not it 
aeenu to bo decided that they muit bo liftrd, and nut blowu Io 
pleooa, inaamuch u by tho Uttrr jinxxM theroiula would be eo- 
munbered wilh a vaet number uf cliuiue, guue, auohon, and uther 
llMVjr bodiea. which wuuld for ever after ob>ttriii.-l the ni)i:linrag<» 
TcrjBiDeb. 



A cnmmuoiatlon llrafD Mr. Jamee Coey was read at a nwent 
neetlng of the Unrpool Dock dmimitl^'e, dowribing a plau by 
liim tor improved approechea to ihe pier. 1 le pn>FK>«ce to en-ct a 
bridgeaoroiatheMereeT, ofSapotaof Sill feet nwh, and nt n kvol 
nbovothe pirrheuil<>r li'j fre^ to oouDert the Londou uid Xorth- 
Weelem lUitwiiy witli the Chwieraud Birkenhead Knilwnv; ih 
tail on the IjvcqKnl aide of tho river to be carried on to tlie top 
of apiJcofgranaritaeudiuiiat Iloeooo^treotiWhoren tunnel conlrl 
be fonued to Edge-bill. It ii etoted that the cominiteeo have alao 
under oooaidatatiou a plan pnipajed by the Dude Bunrevor, Mr. 
Hutlay, foralaj]geg(«ving.docJt Btthe uortb-eaal end ol' Prince's 
Docfcbaian, aa the tntnmoe will be thmuidi the noHli-VMt comer 
of PriBOl'a Dock. The Ir ugth of the dock will be 7IJ0 feot, largo 
aongh to uoommodate Ihrve ehipo of SUOU tons burduo. 



WROUGHT IRON BEAUS.* 

ByTiiovu Datib, F.A.IS. 

Thx material fint oard in the eoaatructioo of beama wm donbt- 
1«N timber, and althoufth it lus many nrunerliee peculiarly fitting 
it (or thi* purpoe^ yet, on aooonntof ita Hexibiliiy, and the dif^ 
culty «f geiii[iK it M aitffielaBt bIm and etrnni^h for long epena, 
ita tmdency Io de»y, and it* dnatruetibitity by fiiv, it » ia 
amay oaoM imanited for the purpoee r«|uir«l. 

When the mnnuriiMiire of out metiu beoane more g^orwl, 
and the mcaoii verr obtained of making laift if^HgTi the appli- 
cKbJity of thin mnteriikl to the fonoatioa of baama eaeild not 
bii to aoBgaat itaelf. This mntoriid haa decided lulvnnUg<(»— in 
Ita rigiol^, in ita capability of beiufi mode of olmcat any 
reanirod ahapo nnd strrngtb, in ite non-liabtlity to decay, and 
in iminoocobustibililyi nuJ uonnequently, it haa eometoberery 
eiteneivelv used for Ihe porpoeo refenvd (n, 

Tlicre fine, however, been a general wont of (Mnfidoeoe In 
bfoine of thi* initterinl, arising &om different ennaea. One objee- 
tion ia, that wlien o beam give-4 way, it doee ao without any 
previone wnruiuj;. Another ol.jnfii,,ti In, that although we have 
innumerabtBeiiwrimnntaf'n Ihc atronjith of caat- metal, by wtiieh 
we arc enahted to cnlcutntc tlie amount which any partjenlar 
beam of thla nuUriid ou^ht ti> carry, it does not follow that H 
will bear that amount, iu a lar^-v cnxling there may be eome 
iuoqiuditv in the metal naed; agnin. if then< ie much didTerenee 
iu tlie ihiclniMB of the purta, the cooling of one paK before 
anotJwr prodncm, to aome extmt, a tendeooy to A'aottm^ 
•epedally if aubjeeled to anr sliarp oonuoeeion; of the addng 
may be cle&ii and appai«nlly eonni), ami yet there may b« a 
flaw, of which nothing tnn be known until it is rereuled by a 
fracture. No donbt, to guard njtninet thoac defeclev we have 
Ihe «y»tem of testing; but this ia not alwnya to be depended 
upon, na it baa been ocmaidered, that in euuie caeea beiima bavo 
been tt-Bird «o nearly to thelimlce oftlielr I'reofirih. that, ihoogh 
paHting tlio a«deal, tliey have been pernnuientlr ii>jured thereby. 
Thia enggeate another objecdon, Ihnt though a bnuii bo iu even 
wny sound, yot, if it ia ocoMuonidly subjecteiil to great ntrBiiiR, It 
will ulumaifly be mi uiuch weakened, an to bivak with k load 
much IcM thou the original breakiUK weight, 

The reeult of (he want of oonndcnoe above mentioned haa 
been, that caat-wetal boame are geoonilly made muoh strunger 
t xwD, judging from expoi-iment, they require to hr, neceeelutrng 
heavy caaiing* and inervasc of cost, with the additional draw- 
back ofinvat weight aud difliuuliy uf iiandliiig. 

MidliVLble inm beaiiiB uult«, 111 Mime extent, the advantage* of 
both timber au'l caat-niclal. Th^y {■oaiieiu the advantaco of 
timber, iiuumiuch na they an! conipanitivdy light, and thenfore 
eaaily baudled, luid wheuoverloailed, tlioy show this by yietdlnc 
oousidersbt^r befoiv breaking. They poanai the advau'tai^e ^ 
cast-metal in llieir JnooubnaUliiliQ-, in their beiug capaUe of 
beiug oonvenieuUy made ol any rci^niitKi atrength, and even to 
Homocomriderabloextunt, iu tlirir rigidity;for alUiough malleable 
iron IB cominnLtirely fluxible, yet tliis qiuUity ia in a gKal 
measure c .unteraat«i(l by Ihe m'-de of oouelrtloti&g the botnu. 
Meeare, Sl«pti<'niioii and I'liirlmim, in tlinir iuTeetlgatioM and 
experiment* relative to tubular tiridgra, were the Ont to ad] 
goiieral attention to the use oruinllonlilc iron in the CMHtTUuUm 
of beuins. After uiaiiy experiuientti on various aooUona of tubeiv 
thev arriTed at tlie reetnugular tube, nr box beam, ae the beat: 
aiiij it wna a umide atep, by dividing it in two by a vertlod liiu^ 
to eome to the uouble flange or phite bcrun, which ia the moat 
eoaveniaut shape fur L-«nen3 uae, 

Ur. niirbdini, iti hi* valiuble book on cast aud wronght-iron, 
shown th» Hiiporiority, iu many r«*[H<ctH, of iiutUeable over end' 
iron for beam*. Ha shows, moreurer, that, contrary to what 
take* tilncc iti cast uielid, the upper dnuge Te>|uires to be larger 
than the under one, in the portion of 2 : 1. aud ^vea tbrmuhelbr 
mlunlntiug the atreuKlh of btovm*. Tliere ia, however, tbie 
dii>wlin«k, that while hie book contiiiiiH the det^ila of uiad/ ex- 

C'nionta on varioua sections of oosL-iueUiI and nudleable Itna 
tx^mn, there is aJmuat n complete want of experimrala on 
luiilleable iron plate beama. There ia given, iu Eici. the nwdtof 
Hilly one (ixpi^rlment on one kind of plate btMii, and ttusexpofi- 
ni«iit WM not altogether lutiafactory. 

Tliis drvuuislaQUB, there is little doubt, fane tended to deter 
many from adopting tills if lieiim, Having miide soverU experi- 

'Xiwlsi s)I«MUi(iif lbtArBhil«Hu*1IaiUluW.li<>UtBKiliuhuikaer*b. tliUH. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEtt AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



2t 



TImI 



<ia tha kiDil of bttui refsmd to, I c ood d mJ , imdar the 

■taaooH tturf tiu rantlu of aom* of thcao mijchl be acnpt- 

to (fail lMlitnl% and migbl teml t« the mora general um of 

boua whioh hu decided «dvMiUgM Cw uuny [iiimian, 

H*Tuig bud nj ktUntion dnwa to tb* uplinbility of loklla- 

fi>r bnms, and liaviDg long (liBrM w tho ([nncml wuit 

mcv ID cMMMlal alraadj oUodcd bv 1 drtcrmiaol to 

« fint opportuki^ of makiug a trial of tbcm. An oppor- 

ty haTJi^ afliwiloJ iiAclfar ouo^ iIk'iu, 1 MOfnltad Mr. To4 

■, I^th Walk, aud hod the Ninitfit of litH aip«rl9iio«; and 

ao aatiflSed villi Ibenault of the trial, that linco tboa I 

not naed oaat-niotal for boaiaa of luij impurUiKn. 

)mjaa to my fint ciperiiMuta, I am aony to nj, wen 

hy a BnuDiJ] I'rnH, vhicli I aftrmnb dlwovmd to 

W very iiiju«ara(«. Tli« roiulta at th« eipcritnoDta, howcrcr, 

vliich arc w bv laid before thia moetug, arc onl; Uboae wliiuh 

obuiaad hy Iha applicatioa of dtetf w(^, ao Uutt 

ba aothing to «n)at« want of oonHdanm ui tho «tat«- 

ttiw laid before you. Thcae cxnorinionla wcr« miid* at 

I timea la Mr. ToU'a rard. None of the boiuai wore 

tiU tb«7 broka, aa all were iutmuWd for nae; but, aa inunt 

of tbna vrera uatad to a datfeotion gnUar tliao thai to whidt 

would ba adviaabU to ban Umpi ptmunantljr Innilnd, thaj 

ra dala for fpudajua fit fisinx the duneniDoiia <j other bcatua 

* t=-r', - 




"txix^i Lugtb of Bum 



— * 



Ii«nrinj[ ... 



Wdght of Bonin 



IS ft in. 



4 cwt. 1 qr. 




Tba Loail r<Mt«d on SO inchaa to the 
middle of tho Beam. 



Dlrta>Mi« bad. 


LwA. 


IMUrUim 


iuHkUud 






t«ftilJ{IE. 


t'oUsdlng. 


Cn. <|n. Ih. 


Oft. <Jn. lb. 


Ini. I«hi. 


Ink Ifllhi. 














sa 31 


S3 21 


n 3 


a 3 


42 3 H 


?i 3 7 


8 


4 


U 3 H 


141 1 31 


4 


Cuaity 


S8 8 


180 31 


5 




WOT 


2(>7 I 


« 


Ofall 


aa s in 


■US 31) 


7 


7 



iMd lljtoiui. 

DeOeetioD ^tth iDch. 

Then being no appttnnt penoaoeat deflacllon. 



♦*xf 



Vxaxji 



Experimmt tL 

Laagth of Beatn ... 

„ Bearing 

Wright of Beam... 



17 ft. S in. 



6 cwt 2 qr. 



M 



ax ax* 



"Hie Loui reated en tl inohea ia the 
middle of the Beam. 



♦+xi 



D»rUuiII»4 


twd. 


IM«mHd 
Lndldi. 


UnluKTiiis. 




«n. »m. lb. 


CM. Qn. lb. 


lu. WbM. 


tlHLMkfc 




• « 


4 





1 




87 3 « 


87 3 


I 


9 




13 34 


70 3 24 


a 


laaarir 




14 2 1« 


ISS I l-i 


8 


8AiU 




83 


177 1 12 


4 


4 full 




83 


228 1 12 


5 


S 






Load 

Itdleetioa 

Penmnctit deSaetiaQ 



ift 374— Vol. XI.— Janiof; 19S7- 



llltol 
Atbs in 



tona. 
ineli. 
;tfa tncb. 




Ejperimml TO. 

LnigthofBeMn ... 30ft.0ui. 

Bearing... «„ 6,, 

— f Weight of Beam ... 90cwL3<]r«^ 

'Si^tilxi The Load realieil on 9? incbat in the 
^ — -^ middle of the Beau. 



Dif Uuu tit IuhL 


Lrsd. 




t»t(i«Ma 
Vataidlw. 




cwt-on. lb. 



Cm. Qn. lb. 



In. Itta. 




lu. Mm. 
8 




84 1 4 


84 1 4 


3 


8 




13 8 13 


47 18 


3 


A 




• 3 14 


88 3 4 


1 


Teaariy 




IS S 20 


TO a 34 


C 


1 Dearly 




13 i 13 


83 3 8 


8 


1 QfuU 




10 8 


DO 9 18 


7 


1 IfttU 




18 * 


112 2 18 


1 


1 8 




IS a 


115 2 18 


1 I 


1 S 




18 « 


138 8 18 


1 3 


1 4 Dtady 




18 « « 


181 3 18 


I a 


1 4fuU 




IS 


184 3 18 


1 4 


1 8 




IS 8 


ITT 3 16 


1 9 


1 4 




IS 


ISO 2 18 


1 8 


1 7 




18 


208 i 18 


1 7 






18 


218 9 IS 


i 


3 





Load 

Deflection 
Ftftnaiieat dofleotlon 



101 tona. 
SiDcbcft 

flDOb. 



J2X| 



liXStxi 




RgpeHimtiU IV. 

Length of Beam ... 39 fl. C in. 

„ Bewing... 88 „ 6 „ 

Wright of Beam ... UowLSqnt 



■iw.i- l' The Load ti«tad on 98 ioiAoa in tlia 
Itxijxft middle of the Beam. 



*-i 



LoAAiira. 


tTniOADiMi. 


DIlUtODt 


UU. 


IMlKUai. 


•glaO. 


UU. 


Ddaoua. 


CvLQr. lb. 


On. gr. lb. 


lunbL* 


(M.(k. Ih 


C*l. Qi. lb 


lOLflll.* 





8 











n 


iPi iiP 






£88 


S ) 8 


(1 i 


17 1 34 


17 1 94 


1 


8 3 39 


14 a 4 


S 


11 2 18 


■ 30 12 


2 


11 2 14 


84 32 





11 2 18 


40 8 


a 


11 3 11 


37 8 10 


7 


11 3 14 


sa 1 16 


4 


11 S 14 


49 1 29 


I 


8 3 34 


81 14 


D Smvly 


11 2 Jfl 


ei 14 


I t 


11 3 14 


7a a 3 


06 


11 S IS 


73 8 2 


1 3 


11 3 10 


84 1 8 


7fiiU 


11 8 IB 


81 I 18 


I 3 


8 2 28 


M IB 


1 


11 3 IB 


04 4 


1 4 


! 2 24 
11 2 14 


101 8 14 
118 9 3 


1 3 fall t 


11 2 IS 


1C7 2 33 


1 S 


8 2 2lJ 


la-i 1 


1 a 


11 2 la 


IIB 1 10 


1 4 


8 2 24 


ISO 8 SB 


1 4 


11 3 18 


ISO 8 S<l 


1 7 


8 3 22 
1 14 


180 S SO 
I4> 1 B 


1 e 

1 8ftill 


18 22 


144 80 


3 


8 1 
8 1 


15S 9 B 
161 S B 


1 71 
9 0( 


13 2 


ISB 2 30 


2 1 


10 


188 B 


3 ItuSl 








a 14 


171 30 


2 2 


18 9 


171 30 


! 3 



Load «4tona. 

Deflection f( inehea. 

Pcmiaoont deflection -^ iuob, 

* Tlw Stttauaa *ert olmnti U Klbi of u bub, bat Uu tUu «al; an km (Ina. 



THE CrVIL ENGDfEER AND AHCHrTECTS JOUENAL. 



7xf 


r 


ui V 






' ^^^ 


F^KSXiS' 










r 


Length of Bonm 


93 ft. 6 in. 


*-•■ 


-i 


„ Beariug 


S3 


II 8 t. 


• 


Weight of Bum 


13cfft2)qr 




r f -f 


The Lend rtMoA on 


81 inchM in th« 


^ 


l/ixzy* 


middle of the Boun. 




% 


xi 




LOADIKO. 


Vautxoam. 




t«*d. 


migcilaii. 


Uivlalou 
lit Tnil, 


LmI. 


DoOonlnL 


on. «r. lb. 


en, Qr. lb. 


[ultlbi. 


On,*, lb. 


c<n. Qt. lb. 


.tulWu. 











(1 





2 








IT 1 84 


IT 1 24 


3 


34 8 SO 


94 S SO 


8 1 


30 I 14 


87 8 10 


4 


SO 1 14 


85 1 6 


3 


38 1 4 


61 14 


5 


2S 23 


81 2 


8 


38 1 4 


84 1 1« 


« 


33 t 4 


104 3 4 


4 


33 1 4 


107 2 22 


7 


20 I 14 
IS 1 S 
18 8 


135 13 
143 1 30 
183 33 


S] 
6{ 
l) 


33 1 4 
31 


130 3 30 
ISG 3 30 


8 
» 


IS S 


180 8 38 


Q 8 


Si 


180 8 30 


10 


18 3 
IS 3 14 


tdB 3 38 

215 1 13 


8 8) 
10 { 


35 


SOS S 20 


11 


15 3 14 


230 3 3d 


11 


35 


230 3 20 


12 


13 S 
13 3 


243 1 2S 
3EE 3 23 


13 
18 


31 8 U 


363 8 13 


13 


13 I 12 


23» 1 10 


14 


18 1 SS 


269 1 10 


14 



Lotd 

De6«otioa 

FernuuMnt defection 



ni 



tona. 
;lih» iocb. 
th inch. 



I have lu ynt hud onlv one opportunity of testing & rolled 
maJleable iron Beam, of which the following in the reai^t; — 




Leogthof B«am... 

„ Bouing 

Weight of Beua... 



10ft.9ia. 
10 „ 3 „ 
3cwt. SI lb. 



pOipoMK. For inttuiee, it nuelit bu atipposeil tbiit fuoh besma 
mn, from thin enaae, ituipplicnbte to the support of n-alln idrMdj 
bi^t, ivherH thii lower puii hiu to be reiuored, >a iu Ihi? om of 
the alUmtioDS In tihop fruots, which nre coutiuunlly htaag 
mad* in thin dvy: but I may give the reauit of an «xi>eriraent 
mnde in an nlttmttun ia Prince^-sttvet, lu n cnae in point 

A juur of bcADu were ubuI, airotliir to that referred (o in Ex- 

EerimeDl IL eio«pt ih&t th»; w«Te 3 inebea deeper, the leogtli 
Ring 14 inchM grakCer, vad th« aetnal b«uing, when put In 
tlieir nlocn, boltig 1(S (t. A in. After the ntaaonrr *bove tfa* 
boimiliad bci-ii kcyul up, and theiupportaio thewuhiroiDOVw], 
•o ki to throw the whole weight of the wnll above upon them, 
tlie deflection wu only ^igth of aa inch. I do not aeui ta nj, 
that thia wan all thn bnnmi had yieldetl; but the ksjing m, 
before the supports WEW removed, had taken up whatevsradol- 
tbnal yielding Uiere had been, olthou^'h this muxt liavabMB 
rerv tittle, m thi^ro was no appearance, ao far a> tha ef« 
could detect, of any dctloctioii iri the beain& 

Appentti-i. 
Aa already stated in the body of the p«E>er, I wui inclined to 
doubt the ^uracT of the proportiooB of the upper and uader 
flaogn, aa gtAleil liy Mr. Fairbaim. Siuoe then I have moda 
another experiment opon the beam ueed lu Eiooriuient V, 
but reversed; that is, with the huge fiange nndamiott, tbo 
lesulbi of which are ^von iu the anuexod tabli^- 



The Loud rotted on H inchoa in the oiiddle of the 
BcAm. 



On Boeount of aoote circumatanceA, the iMting was not qnit« 
■a MiUfbietory u could hare been deaireii, no tliat thn observed 
InlMMdiato dcflectioDH are not given. The total load, howovor, 
«ra«(IH4 cwt.=) lOl tAUR. The defleetioawoe ithii of on inch, 
or pecfaapB ^thii of an toch. The pttmHWOt dedectiou, afW 
themncmd of the load, wai Jth of on inch. 

It Mljfat to be Dotiiwd, that the loads liy which tlie beamii in 
tha foptgoing eiperi[ueuta were tented, oonsiat^d for the moat 
part of nulway hani, ri'qiiiriiig two men at nieb end to lift Uiem, 
and that la loading thfim wiui a considemlile nniouiit of couciuiaion 
ud ribration, to tliat the teat was considerably more sever* 
than Uiat due to the mere applimtiou of tliu load stated. 

The foregoing are the deteila of all the eiperimentB I have to 
being before the meotiog. 1 do not attempt from lo few cases to 
■enenUM; but in the incantinio I l<nvn them ticfore the Iiutituta 
nir tbelr coueidontian. 1 may montioa, that t am inclined U> 
doabt tbe Boonraqy of the prO[>ortioua of the upper and under 
flange for pUt« beauu, as given bv &lr. F&irhairu: but I am 
not at prweut In a position to Kpeak doliuitflly on tliia eubjeet 
(8m Appendix.) 

There i« one remark, however, which I beg to make, boforf con- 
eludiojt lhi« part of the paper. The floiibiliiy ot ronlleablo 
iron beoma, i» no doubt grwitvr thui that of caal-iuelal beauia, 
but it u not to great u to prevoot (liwt bebig uaed for moat 






(Hub* haua AB t-wiMt 111 Kipf^nript V, tbe Iwfn 



Length of Beam 

, Bearing 
Weight of Beam 



33ft.6ia. 

23 „ 6 „ 

13 cwt. a) qr. 



/^y-ixi 



The Load rested on 31 inches in the middle 
ct the Beau. 



-7X*- 












LoAsmo. 


CvLOAnuio. 


DlTltlnlu 


LOMl. 


DeflwUoii. 


nrtdoM 
otLiad. 


t«d. 


MtacUoi. 


Cwt. Qt. lb. 


.Cirt. Or. lb. 


lu. l«Uu. 


nwi.Qt. lb. 


cn. Qt. lb. 


tu.inkt. 

















8 


34 3 1 


34 3 1 


1 


IP 7 


19 7 


4 


17 1 8 


41 8 4 


3 


10 3 SI 


88 3 


E 


18 a 31 


80 


8 


31 1 


80 





18 u 34 
14 a Id 


78 34 
D3 13 


4 [ 
Sbuei 


37 1 8 


87 1 8 


7 


17 1 13 

20 1 


110 1 34 
180 3 34 


6) 
J( 


31 3 34 


133 4 


8 


SO 1 


150 8 34 


8 


31 3 31 


1S3 3 


P 


23 16 

ill 1 1 


171 13 
164 1 18 


8) 
10 t 


81 8 8 


isa 3 8 


10 


37 1 18 


211 8 3 


11 


33 33 


311 3 1 


11 


15 20 


226 8 33 


13 


15 30 


226 8 33 


la 


16 30 


312 IS 


13 


15 30 


SIS )S 


18 


IE 3 6 


357 8 31 


14 


15 a 8 


SS7 8 SI 


1* 


13 16 


370 B 


IS 


IS 18 


870 8 


15 



I'Oiul lallona. 

Deflection H">a ineb. 

Perinaueut deflection -/i^^* inofa. 

The cimomatiuioe of this being the same beam which was 
tested in Experiment V, and wliidi received a set of lUiof an 
inirh iu theoppoiite direction from that in which It was strained 
iu the preoeut iimlunoe, aucouuts for the apparent anomalies in 
thentiove experimeiil,n«c<}iupared wiUi the reeulia of the fornier, 
Thus, at the commouwmcnt of the second lotliug, the beam t*iit 
more ([uiekly tlian oo the former occosinn, while as the expari- 
lueut proceeds, il veenia to reoover itreuffth, and there je Gttle 
dilTi^reDoe in the ultimate struugth iu butli uaacK, Again, ia un- 
loading, the beam in the seooud t^tiug Bpriugii up move 
quickly than in the lint, whidi is inconsistent wi^ the ideft Of 
lu beiug weaker, an the observed deHeotious imply. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER A^•D ABCUITECTS JOURNAL. 



23 



An kllomuiM «iu[bt therefore ti> lie nude for bbe previotu 
rhat ou^t to be auhiititul«d for UiaI ju*t given. 



PROBLEM: 

10 rata tsroi ntot cunua to sTRm ar EUtm. 



LOADISO. 


Vnunj>uia. 




tfLnid. 


Lai. 


DtStaUaa. 


DItlUuM 
d tad. 


LoU. 


MMta. 




PM.ar.itL 


en. Or. lb. 


lultUu. 


i>t.». lb. 


on. Qr. lb. 


luinbL 




00 » 








D 


1) n 


1 




■#* rwt 


Pii --' 


.-* 


lO 7 


l» 1) 7 


S 




sse 


as 


1 


IS i ai 


H8 3 


3 




»« 


u« 


3 


31 1 


tlO 


i 




S7 


U 


3 


S7 I S 


ST 1 6 


s 




U 1 St 

K 1 


no 1 St 
ISO S St 


«] 

e( 


SI S St 


18S t 


9 




ao 1 
«a« ix 
90 1 1 


ISO S St 

lit IS 

IPI 1 IS 


ai 
tI 
s) 


St S S( 
81 S 8 


1S8 9 
ISS S 8 


T 
8 




17 1 IS 


111 8 s 





S8 D as 


311 3 S 


g 




IS 10 


iS« 3 !S 


10 


IS SO 


!36 8 S3 


10 




1 u » 


341 U IS 


11 


IS n 20 


St! 15 


11 




lust 


3s; s SI 


IS 


IS 3 < 


SST 3 SI 


13 




1 UO 1« 


370 B 


13 


IS IS 


3)0 » 


IS 





Loftd 13^ tonm. 

Doflcetioa H^^* iuch. 

Penutnent d^Mlioa ^^U) iuch. 

It would haw baen daatnUe, In ordar to hava obtiuuaJ tbe 
lof thabram, u abova, withoat mtnlriiig to liavo ra- 
< %a alloinuicea, to hare iukiI a henm vhmh hnil not baan 
iowlj atniuvd ay UMiag. TliU wu iutoodcfi to making 
I above experiiiiMit; but Uiruu^b n niistaka, tbu auna baau 
I naedor«ragaia,aii4tli«ni wuDot lui opportunity of iiuklag 
otbv onarimant bafora the boama vara aaat awnj. 
It would be reiT nnadvuftble to attainpt to dmn' pnrUuular 
ilanona u to tb« exact proportiona of the iipp«r nmj radar 
, from tlieae two esperimcota merely, but the nuulla teem 
nrnint ua in oomlng to tb« gonarftl coadualuii, tlwt Cor thta 
kind of baam tie fliuigva ought to bo naorlj eqiikl, the under 
I boing mther Ifiivcr thui ttie upper, 
guice toakiaff thU lout uxpi'rimon^ uid cocniiifi to the above 
1 oouduaioii, >iul whilH preparinf; thia paper for the preaiL 
a saw wnrk bv Mr. Fatrbtum. autUloi), 'Uaoful 
ttion for Eagiueon.' In it be inaerta kiiic of the mathe- 
tieal ioreitipitioiu of Mr. Tate on the aabjoot, which quite 
I wiUi the alatvineota here uado. Mr. T^te oouoludaa bia 
by aajiuz— "TIte diflsKaoe in tlie value of Ihew 000- 
ala U ao iiniul. aa to lead iia to infxr, thnt tlio boam in 
friment 13 approaehta to ibnt of tunxiuium nirvtiittli with k 
qnaolitj of nuUrlat The a»cliou.iJ artn of tli« lop uiiil 
1 flaogea are to each other aa 14 : 10, which ia very nearly 
I «r etinaUty," 

rBICTION OF MACHINES. 

1 Boomtit, m hie work ou tike Steam- Engine. **j*: — " The frie- 
Ition of irou eliding iqM»i Iran has geiu-nUy been taken at about 
[Me-tAOtb of \h» vnmsatf, when the Rurfaom are oiled ami then 
un, anthaiaofilm ofoil iBLulefposeil The fHdtuaof 

biag npon braae but geuemlly been taken at abonl on*- 

ith of the preaaure, under Ibe eame nroumatnuoe*: but m 

I In aetuAl operation, whera a ftlm of nme Intuinating 

_ U intor^Kiaed between tlie rabblag anrbaes, It ia not 

.Bora Iban oue-tbinl of thia amount* or I-^3rd of the vraight, 

LlHula OiM, bowerer, U the avange nwult, the friotion in a gnod 

T deal lisac in aeme eaara. The faut nppeura t/j bn that the atnoant 

|o[ the ffwhtanee dai>nmliiat«d fVictlon depeiiili^ iu a ^eat 

upon the nature of tlio nii)fiuilt omptoyod, and in 

lace the viiMidity of the unguent may oooaaion a nmter 

Fntanlatioci than the reajatanea oawed by the attrition. In 

fvuekworic, thersfare and other ftn* nachanfam, it b neoea 

arr both to k*rp tlie bearing anrikce* umall. mid to employ 

■ thin a»d limptd oil for tlie purpoae i<f hihricntion, for the 

iMMtnooe oaoaait by the vliddity of the uui^eut iw^nuuiiM witli 

(he MWKUit of aiir&oe, and the amount of aurfuoe in nlntivoly 

frcater In the UDalhreiaM of worka." 




^im 



Either br calcaUtioo, or geometriaBlty, aa in dotted Unea [u 
figure, or EuoUd, Prop. IL, Book TI, &ua the 4th projNHtionala 
to the ooi^uAta and trauavene radii, and a«t the Larger em C B 
extended toE. 

Form the rectAngle A B C D and join D E. 

Th«n AB :CD : ; CD : An 
And OB: BA : : BA : C E 
Now atrike thd eurro CF, anil biuret the angle joiuing E O. 
From o aa a ceutra, with dixtiuiaB a B, cut E U in H; tba point 
H U the oeutn) fur cune L Unite D U and extend to J, and 
ttom J with diatouoe J B culJ D In K; Join K a and extend 
toU 

Tbe pMHta E, U, K, and a, ore the true centrwa for the portions 
of curve CO. UI, IL, and LA. 

Banelona, Ifov. Vh, issa Williah Moox. 

nOTES or THE MONTH. 

Mr. RRarwood, I'cuUtotie. York, propoaaiaaiatireivemeotla 
tharaiinuiuliDllii-pi'riiianentwayoriwweiy^ by forming ihom 
of twuixkrta Mu.-h having aT-«bapod bead or edge fbnned Upon it, 
».< thiti ulion thuv are plaoed together tbe two iriU eonatitulea 
contiQunui roil, liuving m eeetion eorreepoodlns to ihoea now ia 
gcnend lue: by tliii uieana the neoaanty of wtnit it munlly tcnued 
tlie " tuitijoiut" will be obviated. One arnWRvmeut, fuoud to 
aiiBW>.>r, is m followa : — mippoae two ban of any oonvenlent 
loiigtb.aad aultnble in width, Ac, aaob liaving, lui before man- 
tionod, a T-*hApcd head or edge; theae bate have also groovaa oo- 
alot* fonofd ill such a Dunner. that when they are pUeed aide by 
aide, one edgaofone will take into the groove of the other, by tbu 
meaaa Monnng theen *o na to funn the rail, aa nwotioiiM. If 
mmiaiiji, the two parte, formed lu above, tnay be united hy 
boUe or other suitable appamtua. 

Mr. Duff, oftbeOakfaMLkEn^^ne Worka, OtMgow,haaeAected 
an improvement in the oonatruetion ofthe hlgh-pneear«Doa-ooii> 
dcMiniciir cnKino. It oonaiile of two cyliodan, laitaadof ooe.ai in 
the cinTiiiuT form of oonatmotjon, The eteom bom tlic mnaller 
of the two Jylifidara,befbT« paaaUiK into the atuioaphere, eshnnita 
ilaelf into the eaeoud oyluider, wludi is three timee the capadty 
of the flret. The effiiot ie that the iit(«m gtvoa three-tLimtha 
■diltiiodaj powi-r on oontraated with tUo aune volnmo of ateani 
ikcimg Lhruuh'h tlie former or aingle cvlindor engine, in proof of 
whiuh tlie improved engine, with a oyliniler of oiilv eight iuobea 
diameter, ie doing the work with gre«Ur fitciliCy inan the tingle 
oylindorenfiitie, which haa one of 10 inohee diameter, tlie leogth 
of stroke and urMuura of steam in both boinc the Huae, But 
there la !u addftiun this materinl diitinctiuu, tnnt the iiiiproveil 
or douhle-d' Under aO|[iua rfftrata a mviuu iu fuul of about tO per 
cent. The engine ia uuw in doily upenuou at Mr. DuiPe WovKa. 

t.* 



u 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JODRNAt. 



The anniul geoml toMUnit uul emtmamone of tlia Arcliit«c- 
tnnl InitlMt* of SouUuinl wu bald oa tlia IbI ult. in Kitiuburtth. 
The attendjuiM of moniVr* uii giMsU wm Urtre. The coUfcIiud 
of phologniphs luid ore hi Ice turn! engnivinjiB was exIeiuivB, Tb» 
, pliOto|;nt]>lui oiiicli atLrM:l«J purticTiUr niteriUun vera tba InrgiMt 
LiUierU) attempl«(l in SwiUajiiI. bv Mr. Kibble, of Glongow. The 
Lorl Pruv(i»i wm oUkJ W llio cliiir, niiii l>wil Nfovo delivered 
the Introductory adilrcM of the «oinoii. 

Tb« fintaaiiual exhlbltJoD of the anociAtion noeotiy oalaUiahed 
iu SootlMid to iiDociuTviie the ip|tlicntinn of kft to objects of onift- 
lucGt KO'l uUlitY, wu opcnod nt Kilinburgh OH the 13lh alt. hj a 
briUknt &nd «ell«tt«u<!«l eaavenanone. The exbibltlou fs to be 
mn aaniul one. 

It la etiitcd, that Mr. Chiu-lM MAnby, who baa, nftor 17 year*' 
MTViMi rHiRiial tlic |x)iit af aocretftnr to Ihc lii.ilitulion of Civil 
Enffiiieen, hns bucomiIixI the Ute lu'. StArbiicIf, an the rapKaeu- 
tktiTe io Louilun auil oii the CoDtIii«nc of the exteuaii'c eiigiiie< 
nuuiuboturkiig Hnn of Itoboit Stepbeiuoii and Co., of NowchaiIo- 
oa-T)rti& Mr. Mnriby is ■uocmdcd on secretary by Mr. Jamci 
Foireet) who hui Iwcn ouumoLod witli the liuiiiuUuu for ibu but 
14i«ua. 

wlinbotM Uuttr ia about to tuderEo mioplctA roitorntioD. 
The duuied uid its uiaUs hnving mwnily bcoa repaired, under 
the RDIiomitBEiiUnw otMi. Wyutl, alaiynC of AOOOCntbodoolhe 
tmie^ thelieoeMity ofrestoriiig thu rataaiudHr of themtnBterluui 
' baoonM mors appueiit It is (iilly ox |x>ct«d tlie work cf rmtoricifj 
tUa flue ipedmencfNoniuui and &ii'Iy EnitUsh styliai oforchiUc- 
ture iriU tnpidly prcgrew. The nocnil ri-niura of ilip miimiflr 
are of the Konoan pwiod, etpeoIaUy the uaaturu lower, trifuriuui, 
the ohuioel, anit the ardiee of the novo. 

A bridgo of novel eonttmctiou ii now bsinff made in thia coantry 
for the out Indian Itailvay. It U intoued to eroae the river 
Soane, one of ihe tribularioa of the Oange^ uid when ooinptet«d 
will be nearly n mile in l«Dgtb. Then will be S9 pier^ and the 

rfVom pier to pier will b« lAU feet, beinK about 90 leet more 
the (pan of tlie atvbca of the Hi^'LmlBridffa at Neweactli^ 
npan-T7iii\ Liltu th&titruuturv, it wtll oooaiat of two roadwaj% 
loe upper one Icrthe nilw^y, and the lower one for foot-pamen- 
|pnudp«laiii|iuii-b«anits,thDh«ight from the lower to the upper 
way being SB ftot. The peritliuityof tbo conrtraation In that ill* 
two rrxblwnyi mv ruteucil tojtether and auppiirUil by Intiiccwork 
of wroughl-irau,couibiuLug groat atrengUi with a light aoJ ele- 
gant appearsnoe. The bti» nre of eliaunel Iron, and o^m* nwh 
other oiagoiudly, bcins firmly nv«tcd togothor at eodi croesini; 
Ono ooniplot« arch boa just bEeo oouairuotcd at the Elswlck 
Engiuo Works, NowcMtltN, by way of expurimvul, aud the r^ult is 
■noal ntlahotory. The eiititv woi^fht w 1^ Uins. It u-as niaile 
with a alieht enrve, 2 inches hi;;hvr Uino a iload level, aui] when 
tMMd wi&a weight of 362 looB it only weut down 2 iii<.-ha below 
the levol, or 4 iuehea allogethv at iha notiv. The se{>arate 
leogtha or archc* will rwit at mch rii-l on live mlteni of cut' iron, 
to ^liiw of rxpaiiiinn anil i^^n trad. ion, acconiinz to the variation 
<^ the tsmprr>ture. The oDtfinrpr enauod in tho oonstnction of 
this bridge la Mr. rjeotve Itendel, of LoDdoo. Aa aoon aa the 
bridge la com pleud it will bMnkeo to pleoM Id oniar to be ihtpped, 
and will be Roonatnieted in India. 

The Oianil Tnutk BaiJwny of Canada ia now open thronchont 
from the St. lAwnuee where the great Victoria tubular bridge ia 
in pMOgraaa to the wtatem t^nnuma at lAke Ontario, near To- 
ronto, a length of (i'lO uiilra, A aingle lin>? only has aa ^et been 
laid down. The whole route ia levrl. The Victoria bn<l^ will 
not be finiahnl till 1860. The onat uf tliia (trootare waa ori|[inallv 
aMimated at 1,4G>\0(K>/., but thin aum haaeinoe been reducej, 
and the pnMot colculalioo of it* probable cnat is about 1 ,SflO,0UDJ. 
It in aimpoaed that in ita cteetinn d-VijOlNi toin of atone and TSOU 
ton* of mm have been uaed; Uie iron ■npeniLrnctun- ia mppDrtetl 
OD M pisn ftod 8 abntaaotit the eentre vpau litriu^' 330 fi-ui ; ihvru 
uv IS Npena on each dd* of tiie oentr\>. Hi iMt ench— Ibe 
«Itrene length including abuUnonta is TiH» hcU Tlie hsight 
above Bununer water lei*el in the ocntn opening ia 6() foet, 
da^odii^ toaitbtroDdat therai«of 1 in I3i), The conteota of 
tliemMonry will bethree nllliona of cnbio ttvi-. the weight of irou 
in Ibe tab«i MCO lona The following are the dlaatuleoia of tube 
thrtRUh wbioh the troina paa> in the middle apon, via.: iS feet 
high, 14 feet wide; at the eztr«ni« ends 19 foot hiKh. ISfbetwide. 
The total leogthfrnnriTer-bank to rivFr-bouk will be ia,S84 fert, 
orftbout 00 jrarda liM tbaa two Eo^iab milea. On an avero^ 
Ibei* b k atation am thia line to erwr fl milea^ i men to every 3 
■nilaih lad a looomotire to cm? 4 ouea. 



Hie Lords ef the TrBa»(U7haveimnt«d toMrlnmao, theUt* 
tdtfaf eorveyor of the OfBce of Works, a pmiaioa of axU. p«r 
annum. 

The Queen has ooD&trtd the honour of knighthooil upon Mr. 
Rowland Mai¥lwiaW8te;Aenaon,ofGlouueatcr- terrace^ Hyde park, 
and late of Oalcatla, Civil Eugineer. 

Mr. J. Jay boa nndertakiin to omplete the Oannarthon and 

Cardigan mil war from tbo MyrtJe-iiili Htatiiio of the South Wale* 
milway to LUndiiull fur l3a,UOo/. 

The Becretaiy of the Tnaaury, United State* of Ampric^ baa 
aVMded a oODtraot lo £, Haimou and Co, for the erectioo of ao 
Inta building for a Marine Uoepital at New Orlnuia Titia model 
flraand heat-proof atructure is destined to inittaU the use of imn 
in the oonstnictlou uf tlie publie architecture nf the cnuulry. It 
is regarded ai the most irapxtant neaaun for the iutercets of Iron 
uuimirovturrs ever adoptoa hy the national govenunent. 

At tlie DuDctluBion of the inqneatonthebodleeof the men killed 
at Sonthatuptoii by the ezploaion on board thn aiOKmer i^nmo, 
the vcnlict waa a very elaborate noe, the Kubstuice of which was, 
thai the dc^eised met their dratlis by th-.- aci<tiJenlal burstiosof 
the starboard forward bottcr on boorvi Ibo /'amnii, diiriij^ the trial 
of an experiment us to tlie aujierliuous hc*l in the U|>-Iiik»; that 
by a grnit amount of cntitiao the aoi-idriit might have hetti vn- 
veolai. thnt the evidence provvH that one safety-vKlve applied to 
one boiler ia not a sufhcient protivtion to life and propect;; tlM H 
is questionable whether KLfctr-vnlvea are constructed on sound 
and eflbctivo pHncijiW; Hint the Ntfety-valve of the boiler which 
cauaeil the noddeiit wns inaiiQicient in dimeusiona, and defective 
in prindpl,^: and. liwUy, the jniy declare, their oonviotioo that 
the Itoyal Mail Coiii|}a[iy and their officsn had dbplayed great 
auxiely to "hiain [H<rf(s-tion in their machinery uid to giuud 
a^nat aocidcnis, lu having their boilen and enpnes In good 
order. 

Grperimente have recently been uiade at Woolwicb, to test the 
powurof Ttalstanoe of timber lined with tinch iron platee--the 
oombined mnti>ria1* b«in^ of the nuue IhicluuM as tlie floating 
bfttterioa eoni^tmcted during the late war; and also to teat the 
dnratnlitT and uunlity of iron pinto* mannfatrtured by roUiuj^ aa 
compared with Iron tamed out by the hammer. Tlie tajvet na 
on immBoae eoDstmctlon of timber, lined with i-ineh nlatea tt 
iron of both descriplJona, the total weight waa 30 tona TwectT- 
fonr round* of 8(4 poundnrs were Hred at thia torfrot with the 
fbllowiDs rcmilu : — the first 14 routida were llred at a distaaee of 
000 yanls, and alVr the first few rounds the tloiberworit gave 
way iu several directioue. The lust 10 rounds wnn? fliwl at n 
dlatuico of 4(M) yards, and the work ofdestructiou ooiiaamniaied; 
the timbcrworic of the target was completely broken and sptin- 
tored, and the plntea of iron made by the mtlinc pmcaw were cut 
up and split, having B}>parent]y but littlo adhnsinti. The tion 
piatos which had betn made by the old prooeee nvi^tcd the solid 
WTought-iron shot mnch more siicorasiyiy, and it waa appejent 
that Uieae pktee poasceaed more wlhMJve power than tlie rolled 

iilalea. By the force of the cauucinade Uie immense tar^iet waa 
uroed hv the eoaeoMfon several feet from the foumlatioo or box 
oil which it was placed. The last shot &Ttd went mmpletely 
tlirough the Laraet, timberwiirk, and iron includeil. It waa the 
subject of remark by scleral procUial men, that the principle of 
combining timber with iron ulates, was, uo doubt, lbs beat that 
could l<e at present adopted; but it was evident fmm these eipe- 
riments that saob plates must be improved u)>ou tiefore they could 
renat the ooncussion of ropvaled liiBobargee of hmvy shut. 

Meseengcr'i Triikn^ulnr Tubular Boiler, reoHitlr patented, oon- 
siate in aurrniuding thu Sn with tnbeo, wlilah form watv 
apame extending frt>m finut to back, and secured at eaeh end 
to aoekote cast on inner i>taMe, with aid«a, and ends^ and 
flangps, to whiuh arc scfuiod fhiot and boi'k platee. A wnter 
Kfjiuv is thus fonueit between in&er and outer pIntM which conk- 
iiiuiiicatL' with the tutmi. Water admitted at the lower tube* 
iMNToiiieH h«nt«<l, circiikt4vi through all the tubce and wati^r spomei 
Kid risMi to an outlet at the upper part of the boiler, from whence 
it is conveyed to whatever place is rotiiiiroil to be heated. The 
pat«iitM describes Ita advantages as : Ist. The amount of surfaee 
wbiuh MbvthiaarrangismentevMieed tothelire, rrduoes tJuqwa* 
tity of fuel required vatToonaidsmbly; Snd. Tiib» bemg naea Ibr 
ftre-ban, all burning Mthe iron i* prvvented; 3n]. Should any 
tube bvoome ii^ured, it can be replnood without in the leaat die- 
turbliig the other part uf the boiler. To ooavert it into a steain- 
boller. the pai«niee propoesa to add aiUnm-eheatioammuniGating 
with the watcr-spaocA 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ABCIUTECrS JOUIINAL, 



9« 



OBiroAn 

Bmnllr, Ur. Naab, OM of th« ald«rt iiMnnb«n of th« Sodetj 
cfPNatania WturCoIoun. Ha dtvotod lik Bltrotlon intvly 
li^ la Dukuv drmwin^ of ooetwi Mti a J Md oUior MidMit 
mdldlBti for Ui« IMmtniiJnn «r totio|[npbiekl work*, au4 oon- 
ttatwd ■Itsrwanl* to iiunt limikr tubjects. 

lAtalj, Ur. K. K M'lan, Aniat, u AMoeiaU of Uie Sootdi 
Ackilemjr. 

Oa tko Udi ull^ Dr. Pu4a, PhvaieuuL Uo wm bmi at 
OUBfartdge on the Tth of Anriiat, 1785, una at St tcmv of n^ he 
«U alMUd ItbTatetftB to tlw Watnii ii«t«r Honpltd. He was for 
■ ■liorttin*i<ipnieCieBMPcD*imar,iuidwViil>' thfro roumlRl cho 
Bojll Oeokmied Soda^ of CorowtJL When at I'tfuanco lie 

Kra to ihe miaem the gnat boon oT the " toiiif inr bar," tho 
AiiHiM'u( hy which tbrr am aoAblod to poniM llimr buiiDcai 
mmiA iaiUniaMt (juca without tho ter of atrikbc Are from the 
rod:, lie vm deotcd Prtaiiknt of the College of Phyaicioo* in 
Um y«ar IftU, t»d Uua odlee he held ontil the hour of hU death. 
Ih-. Puta poMMwe J iw« litonur talent, ami wae the author of 
mtnn l etarlbg work*. Uii " Life of Sir ITiiniphi7 Davy" will 
erer rtauUB OM of the duMJcal biogmphiei of thv EnKli>lt 

ooKPBTrrion. 



» i^Ml « ■ to tttm mmiitm m .amrg^ wUli »boai>diKTnU «a4 aBnMka^ 

a>ianib*in«M7Mirtoa»^«t«) bito pwWtfV^ 

«Kk n« pit* M *m HHi^aMbrikioKxK* tnltiW eVi vfa naiiiMf 

IMiaud ViiBiBaniHlOTfM (o > boUilln » t* mitol in Ih> !««■ of UiwIIt 
to W B B iawfcB «( ia» 1W« Mr. KumJ yir.lU rirtlnlHi ID4T te tad uf 
Ml- ri*l«U L Iltvaa, Smmht, UbbU;. Ihugiii lo t« ant Inlif Uw IM 




nMd uat, Tk> nawd vlU (rnlU br U» ^ ud nMlisilai epprmvl br 
StoL^TO^MSnuH^ "*"" "' ***""* "* '■ (*»«''"«'. »""- 
[W OhbHU' kfijalsM bjIkTUmCbgndlrflniiolioiBHrtDlaiditoHMtlni 
^» »n tViait LiibUA AmuBLoSn pCMdim •! I0«, iOL, asd lU. lur tlu 
*«• kM iIh(cm AtflbcMB*. niuiitatew«nBuM*tib«>t«AoMl>«> Md 
-m. Tlw taildlu le MriN W pHknt., .Iif csqaIMn tdflMTud wom- 

iIUMt.. Bd DM nwdtmta.ow. TV bgiUUit iut«lil It^dae U* 
— --J *^"**"*?" ■*"> — Iw^'J* TlK (InUhs to b*i4*dtei»b«t 
»■»■ ™Sri J!*! "»n— law ud lutracnsH" »r bUMlHlOBWH 
*«'■" I. patdUM totki CDOintaliMin Is UaMT.te K v ftr >i mefllfiMlL 

BMgLI*(k*14aK<tnw. A UlI>iKn|ia(d [dm tf »• liiNBd>d ilMk ad cnMa 
-J Jfc_SF'*"°^L ""r." """^ "p™ wpUoMlBn lo Iba Towa Qwlr. o»«. 
fh*O^Bl«bii»«r Rh M*jW*Wurfe>u^lilitk BondluCD iDVte aiAUMi at 

ftwdp jJ&b^toito»«>Bdwior8tofarW«. e«dnKlMl»iaitltwtwai>d 
Mm* tt. Tbum lad n. jMaitfajWk. idlelilu Otm (taaMtiwC Tb» 
dnatoff M kt wd> u ■ aalg <rf |^ rM uibtlBcb. Oaainl arlftalMu of 
*i W«MUbtnp«lut><i.Mliilk*lmiMlii«iaiHl>MmoiWDt>.adaidn. A 
•la^BlB(k«iiiih»UetlULi«r»(aappnHlu«liliHlha l» UnUdlia M«- 
(MdfahiMVCtrdiBijavnpkrtttf ■ luft tof noipnliuulfg ichaiia to Maaa- 
ImIIh Ikt jMtarliid jHtUi dBn^ ud fta tta iBpnnBuii rf ifcr ladlu Ibn^ 
tola todadlaa W^taMw^bildn ■under u R«iud. lu piwtl at uioibwilbi. 

SET ffir"w.2i'*"^:i''™^"'" S"""" ■***«■■ ""M""- •'•i- 

MN., (eM.tadiaal. aanaiimiWnt fur (ha tan da<^ to lb ftMai OBn 
•r tML. iOK. wai. ML. lOoCloM. ud IHf. m Oitbail dadti ftTa btak 
HUB. tjjW. pmlHiairfMM, WM. low. n*« o( lh» «o«ad, w« olhar Mkn- 
V;™^"'*^"'«Niy«aUwtBMrAMrrtA«tgom«arWgrtfcTSuw. 
^UU. IMnaUteMtlBblktSDaorMiRh. ^ 

PHTi Catliadnl, ■« tba DcmwT <"1» l*u I>oke i< WfUUoUa. Itt eM. irilk ill 
a^a«a^«n<K>«niaaf«inHU. rrvnlaiu «r 1001, MoITmi., IML, aud ni« <« 
Ml A(r<nBil;BlaB<d l^ allwdnl. and Die Kto of Oa nnn«4 nonwacM, At. 
«m to toiFwdad. an «i1«l«c«i to Hr. AUtad AnaUn. <W|m oTwotlu. WUktoi! 
Mtoa tr^ wtMa rawUiK lu tlw UalMU Klagdoa to Jnns M. IHt; ba utlua 

DMaawaviDMto ■ Sa* To« Ull. to bi cmudln^t AiidiT»-a -Uie m«al 
OMUnMltanaMdlMU. IWilaoU™ unj H tart «( M«aui. OimhuI Vuie. 
Twa^to^ «L AadfW^ to^imil- '■ 

SMIMtoaabaiAMbaMUdtl bna aae l»TUcd bn wrktMta of all amalrUr 

•ML ItodMiilMlim.i&arwdili.r'I'lUiddnr.matoaaimd. 
IW Koittl Bairt dQImMUt Oanwurr lii» .rimol itodatanfM^n. Hadlud 
«ad lUtadf, to naaavanawj. tnjui aliHu itolvmaalnMad brnnDcia 

''£'!.*?I'^'S^°'J'''*'*'" ''■••■''■''^""' ■'"'IP'"! *<■—'» W"<Uii.| lad 
■lliiQ Witia WncUwiHt, annllni ullwnilliD Hni urrniiiiin.iriMJ ITwaHiuid 
fnnUB na vtaalul I17 Mr. C a XUb-U.. «f IV-c lnvni.tch, tih aMImuad 

ll»»to»3llr. T, L. Knii>.af Abla|dai<(tnM, W"iiinlini»t, fur ih- ilrniiia»ofihe 
SSE^.Ow''""'''' ''*''^' '""^^ I*" •*"■ •«I'™-1 «"l lb. nnt vnaHam 

'»j?a5iriliS7.s,''i^^ '"' "-• 




INSTITUTION OF OTVIt. ENOINEERS OF IRELAND. 

A reneral nectitig of the menbera of thU bodjr waa maintl; 
held la Dahlia, ti. W. Hetnaiu^ Eaq, tb« rwetitljr daol«d 
rreaidont, in the chair. 

The Prttidaot, la hia iaaogtml addraa (In whldi, after mqc 
ramarka eaprwdog tba raapMt and gratiliule Ut bf the iuatl- 
tation tovarda the paat pnandanta, Oeoeral Sir J. Bui^jma^ 
Oeneml Sr IL Jonea, and Dr. Grtffltli, tor their oripnallj ftim- 
iag, and anbeaqaeut aiipport of the tn«tltattnn\ imMxcded to 
rtpraaaal Hu gmt iiifloniio! aaeh a aodcty might baT«v Sf pn- 
pitrly aupportad, in dovatlug nod eata b liah i ng the fitnt-uAim of 
civil cnicineeia. Ha oonafdered that tanu t«it of a public iutluT« 
wu wantinff to oatablhh a right to eoaHdenoe whan oien nek to 
be eutnalM with vorkn ofthe utnioat importanoa lo aociely. 
At pnaaiit tnuy a(ii|ualifiod perMoa aatonied the titb of dnl 
en^iioitr. Aa then waa no law to prevent tliia, it ahoold b* tha 
object of tlia inatttntleo lo ondaavonr, by taltiait aueh a anentiBi! 
Htatidiog aa would oomBiaad pnhl ic roa^wct, to dMingnlab Ita own 
niwnbera aa raoogniaad civil oaginMn, wiio oould not without 
ailpquata tnarit l^va bean adtnitted iato their aodaty. For Ihia 
object it WM neceaaaiT to make anrtloiia to elevate the aocie^ 
itaell and to kf«p np Ita pnblie iiit«reat b^ mora frvqiieut oom- 
noDuatiaai tnm tha iMinbar% deeer^n et pttwie worU. 
A iMper ought to be raqoind from every new eandidaio fur 
adouadon in order to teat hie abali^. The public worka of 
Irdan J were then alluded to, and aonw atatlatiut giveai of oatlay 
on, and remit* ot Iri«h milwaya. Tha capital wpendad waa np 
to the praaeut tbne atuut i\(iMfiOOL, and tba Ditmbir of inlka 
nbqot lOUO, ipving (in avcnfp of l£,000f. per mila^ about half of 
tliu wbcile luoffUi bein^ aiiigle lincia In Enstand the avera^ 
outlay waa abont 39,00M per mile. In IrvWd the working 
expense* wen 41 per eont. of groM rocoipta— in England, 48 per 
ceiiL; but thi* included toxea, from which Irclnnd wna •sompt, 
Ttia taodpta per mile iu EDgland yivrv orvr Mi. per week, in 
Ireland coily aol. per mile per week; but t4M dividenda in Irehtod 
aveiwd 4-03 per cent; in Bnghmd only 3-M ptr omt. After 
lusiitionlng the i^way bridge* over iJie Boyne and the Shannon, 
and the Cwk tunnel, the Proaideiit then poaaed in r«viaw eodDft 
nthpr Irieh work^ auch aa the new docks at the end of the North 
Wall, Dublin— the jKiagnown ILvtiour Worka— the arterinl 
dninago^ &<i. and regretlad that arcounu of theae had nut 
beaa weiKhl forward, aa a« to uiuhlc him to notjo* than now In 
detail m then alaied that •uiuc hitjhly intonatiag, praiitlcal, 
•eiontific proUema awahed aolttiion in the eaming year. Hie 
Ueneral Tnuuallantie Telagtaph Cable, of whkli detaihi wet* 
given aa to the proiioaed metliod of *MWTig and taying, awl 
explaining that tlio whole coet would oolr be iOOfiCOL, for which 
nuaiagea woald, it waaezpeeted, beaeotmm AiMiicato Ir«lan<t 
at th* rata of tdu words par minalo, or 14,OuO perday. The 
Grmt EfMtirn ebamdiip, ot 22,AK> tone burthen, waa then dw 
cribeJ a« a novel frature in uavwilion, doatincd to be one of iJie 
wtai>)or« of Uritiith enlerpriee. Sne ia to be vsaily far aailins in 
tho ouKuing year. The method by which ahe ia lo be hiuiiched 
waa exblaluM. A very interoiitinK; mnehino for boring tunuela 
through rocki in onn operation wna then ilcacriliad. Ii Y\t,i\ lawn 
adoptwl by mian eminent oonlRtotim and vuxiueora on IrUl, aiul 
luviDK euoeeeded in a tunnel ot A bet diameler, waa now Koing 
to bo applied to much larger dlmomtoiu. Ita rate of proKree* 
would far eieeeil onjlnarr tunnollinK. Tho inrration waa doe to 
CapUiii Pniirior, of the ftoyitl En^ineen. If nltunately anooaaa- 
fill, It w»nlil ouMtK great onanK"' m tunnel pnctieOb The Roqae- 
fnvour A<(ut<lu('t in fVanoe; llr. BruoeVagnat brid^fe at Sallaaht 
tbe cenltv piur fi which ia nbnat £00 feet high, and huUt in on 
iniu cylli»ii.'r to a <)«fith of INJ fLvt below hijjh walor ouuk; tlir 
Niogarn Kim mn lion ItailwnvltricI^, 800 feet i(pan:Ho«t«.Crordon 
nnd Li<ltlclt'9 Crumliu Viaduct; Mr. Steplieniiou'* Victoria 
Bridj[e, &c,, were tlivn brivily demribed aa eonatruotlodu wmthy 
of caiefUl atudy: and tho IVciidont eondoded by Hpreteing hi* 
aenaeof the honour done to htm by hie deration to the diair, and 
hi* hopD Ihnt all their raeetiojgi would be cendoetod iu good 
fading and hanuony, and that they would be well eupportad in a 
prafeaadonal point of view. 

On Iu oondudoD, Dr. flriffith mae to expreM the pleaeure and 
gratiitoation willi which ho, and he waa euro all preernt, KmI 
li>i«aod to the important and ebiborateaddreaa the rrtvident hod 
bvourod them wiili. He begged to move that the marked thoulca 
of the iunticution ba given loAlr. Htniaoa fisr iL 



26 



THE CIVIL EKGIMiEB AND ARCniTECT'S JOURNAL. 



raw PATOIS. 
nonuoxAi. ntoTscnotn uujiTni worn ihk fatebi Liwa 

AMENDUEXT ACT. 
fMInl ^oinul IP. 
me. F. loif, Pula—ImlininnDniti lii lit* U*u 

nufil .r-fMnnlw 11, 
lUt- E. OrvoD. Whltrfljold— Im^irutdmdiiu JD ftcT«;iK* oi»|iU?tHl to doUH bailor 
(ulHt tad floM for AXOdULtfinf tuoi 

IhUi XipUrHnt ID. 
aw W. J. niBAkfr, LnilnW-hlU, BlrtnliiEtiui— ImpmuDsDlj lu lUUvp or Mnt 
uiaI Ib (tf on modal LooniiDNit* 

MM, J, B. HimlL AhBlBgl4. uil !i. Huivf. lUjuvkM— tafiniTUDuK lu itMni 
ud mbar boUcn 

IU>. I>. Joru4W. BuK Ucdii— liD[jn;KiwiiliUihrlrwlloiDDUrt|»inc«iiElBg^ 
•Bililwiq^pUaUoaUimDf looium ivhl pari''*' 
MM OsMw It. 
lUa. fl. OalOuin*, BaaOaBMua— A> ippuMU fiit slxalnliig mMlni ponr by 
MMU <4 ■Mar « Mbu Bala 

AoMOBUiwtl. 
1R<, V. K. Htwue. nuiiHCT >u>— Imprarad mmUmit br "■'Una ■d^ 'i'nit^ *"" 
« ilAol. lOaauDODialkAj 

ZMkd CMlIwr U. 
3)11. II. llmJutMiiw. litniiiaiH— InprOTMHiat* In ebtolnlmi iMMiiarmm Uglil 

Ptkd OcMwn. 
UIH J Funlrtv], I-UnnoB— Inprananw la 1ui|h uuI kpnaniuia oninmnl ibin- 
uLih, ukl ui BiAiitirkijiuH(i( oanaln Hqnldi te tlia pmlufUou of li^bc, iC ^m u n l r a- 
tloni 
Sj;u, J. FonTon. L(y« ySoat. uru ltr%>lfi>E4l— An fjapmrfd moUkDil of add iifntl kppJ^ 
rvlua flit pmMbUll^ IccidcfiU «D rbtJvBjA 

011x1 «tMtr tl. 
SUI. B. OoxUkllo*, Hrdd, CbsUr-^lmiiRnrmDnuiulhaonuliunknaflliiiiBlwlloii, 

uid In tbt uila of npponltii ntHn-tu^cn in Uintr MUntt 
■eUD. D. Si K. A. do clmnta, ]taEi«tn<(. Smwl— InpnimuiifoU la olmiliit ill 
unu at clmb taliria uut lUu, bf tha ippUialUiB itf » iuliHu» w uiDail arbnrlM. 

»;il. A. Hail ud 1, IIMII17. Cu<lls>i> HiU, I^ii tMittj, BMf Wnkulald— Iraprm- 
uciiu tn luAchiud^ fuf vcftvUig tli;!! and vLliflr food* 

SOD. vr. Oo— gt. widBM^ Iiini««am^-lmpnmaa)t« la lla nmrnftwoi* of girbantlM 
«f Boe, of Irm. and Dt nueusa. ud in ttw uiAi] mppllacloii of nch ouWsWw 

fHMflb.—Wrll 
StM. J. rwimoD. Danrl«)r. Yock^IiBnimiiiinU In ipmnnt for oliimliij, Mloh 

■j|manliulijiJ«o4tn>llaUBloUteiruIiuif ofnnUud ouur mfatuqi^n 
StBL O. L Bube. (IlMnw— laimTODwaU iu luuw ud aiipiuwiu (u ithnllng o 

•opplflH uUBniil Ib^ 
■An. i- EdcIml lIlAubam — ImpnTHnrnu In nijiDUjuity fuf tuokiui; bhckJ. tUos 

plf^ ud ultivr «iiiju (umdi lif ifluiLc iur«rUl» 
MM. w. II, BabiulB ud T. Cultij. Mini IlilwX Lu)CHt)n--liiip7niHl maun of 

DlDiUat mtaiat nlaUaoa 
IwL J. AjipeH;, Htd «r. OUhdU. DudbrlJii. OkjoMMor— In|irui^ •iiiuintu tiir 

— J—J-^-^l ««»» .-J J>...«l,-,.„. lulaUiicH 

MM. X. A. Unmua, FlaoMUMt— InprenioaDU ib lb* pntMUUn nf SbrH for 

■ .jfof) 
1 nnood 



MM. B. A. unmuB, nnWUMt— lapreniawDU ib a* pntMMwu "i Bbn 
apluuu. null k mMUa«T auptojcd ikonlB. lOiiuoiualnUoB Croiu B. U^jCm 
mn. r. J. W. Mcluua, ?iielnililn Bsn^ ud C r. ntc, Oitod-itowt— An 1 



(hm at MFfarlBf lor Uh Umib ud Smm 



Mil J. tL Jobom, UDiBlii*»liuillold»-luipn»«iiHllU IsisubUirnT or ■opual 
tn vmlof ud tUmut p*ptr. ICMbisuMMUd tna C. CllUlb■l^ I'nlinl Mnlm' 
tau Q W. Olnr. Svf hmil na, lapnnummli la dasUo opan ilmii, t 



Mlw gloww of • rinllar nwora 
MS. X. S. Holt, UuKluacr. K, BtnulU* .ud J. tUrlov. Tlrrtirtik Imin 



ipKntoa 
ud 



anM 



lBantlDp*ruatiiaiiD.<nclBii^>ii«n.ba(lcn^udapp«Biaoaa>Kt>d tbenwia 
jm. T, Kirp^ Knuk-m'Tinni— A tip Ibr lumilu BqaUt 
mo . J. UonlborrH. ItqofrDv^LnpniiaicQUlDniouuUiitf ur ibapiiiH oiutalfl 
sin. W. B. Oxhiuic, Uunboi^nnoik BmdUIVtttri— taipruminwilaltttiif pmui- 

MM*UofnU>tkj< 

»K. P. A. In OnW d* TbaUiliOBimwi, Bmikamti, no*bun~Aa impnmd 

BMbodottgntluMHnud Mbtrdsiteioa moUls •nrfkoH, lamniunlnUtni) 
•m. J. HmUi* ftuT. IubMc— bamrcanM to mtaOitrj IM araUv, mUib- 

iB^ tat iiiaiiBc tbf di ud nm 
ttU. T. B-SMrpud J.ADOaor OdIM, V m A tmtl lapamaBum Is kaoButln 

MU, A. r. llout.M«ilb*aipU»— Aalinf«i«dtiir'(*Uiguti<(bUdt«i 

WU. K. Kninr. Kiu(«n*i> M> Jtoun Voqauo— taptvnnniU to tprtoip br oir. 

MI. U. Run, KlBHtnrt. n. JuiH'xtiiu*— iBpnxBHta hi ibo HutnieUaii 

ofuld ud tons ofnumcH tor MonuD nadt 
3UI. 7. K, ItafudT. KalUr, BlnalBchui-^DevDClmpraTtdciKtaUktitiifiirrKidnf 



or wfiKlni ImUdliiH 
MW, CUoiin.W. Jx 
MM t. K Dm. Rfli H. Uw*. ■■u1t--laiii' 



unai't^iuiv— An Isunnd amllcUI muuro 

" ■— iBumwnimiu lu prMortloj; viUiuJ 



ud 



naotaUs MbMUot mIMU* lor buL ICMiiiuiaicMhiB tno a I. Usttu : 
MM. J. Halbolud. raddUMsD— Ad lapnnM rMlnr taaak 
)m IL C Aab, rut.DUalKoUli, lAalan-ligpninnaiM Is nllmu Hiub 
MM. O. Sul Btd r W-dJLuD.^ nrtBBon. Uamnt'-tatn tmum labadlaM} v 

ippMUw tv (plunUif wd doabUai oiRiia and athar Itanw malwMi 
vni. A. ^rnlotfUn, KnUlD, Rh^InpniMUBI* lu apptnUa Cut tUjtnt rwu and 

mnofabrtn 
MM. C- Bloki. Laodon— lA|iRitSDieiik iDodnnntloslion telaMnl. ud la ilitBga 

mallaj d naal lu Iron 
MSa. A, BM4 WduDth-««tL S<vDt*|iun. and C. cr.VcU, a<Mm-0[iiiu*-lm- 

pMf^WlM lo tnaltoCIHUlIlf oni <» nbuiu niusv 
MH. J.CtuH. Wauftfni, Cbaiwda— lupnmidmMtlBairtH'aHMUMllibiM 
J«M. J. Onanv Oartwd-rtrM, Mn— JIa bunnd tamHaalca of tadW alda 

aUMla. lOmnnalnUna Dnoi U_ Adanuy Xav Yortl 
*nM. J. AMM, Utnit-xt— IiupnitatuDU lia Iha lumuai aBiOa^ lo Iba — — fc^ 

Ula<<bM«r olbarDinalt 

ruM .N)iat«l>r », 
SH. S. P. J. I*Miu*i HoaUkAivM, nUbnr—An luvnTai aabtuUliriDt aucbtoe 



ITM. It. B. Fat, ail1<«»>UU— ImprmgHuota Is ■KUBla'^aiiBit braabaa 

3101. B. J. Itoan. UunUDcnDwt. <^>v]idlab*«|B*rT— laprorrniaoula Iht imi>ti 

tint. R. Uoaliil, (Uilaid. OlmuBMiar— InpRinaniU In (be ruuii^Uioni sf Irm 

nui. A. Vanday, KUvam'Kk— lnLtmT'<mni]t> m Hik mnjiufM^o'* □' inm 

IIU, 0. Dafrlttk •artMii-^'i, Lmi''^lJj'*'ijin-*n ihitipitimI |"i^->r utiIUWp fnrihp fritrv 

ttDO tf UqaUl^ Ib*dnaaiu4f v»uiidj. uvl !m vie uiauLl^cluio uf tiO^clbpca. I^ca* 

handa, and for olhar aiviUr parpsaoL ^Ckjsimanicalkai tna J, A- ridwt, uA 

r. r. MalaiwR. ruIUan, rrucal 

IIM. J. lUIlUia, Alilo«itcia«Ui«t. "■'*-*ir'*-*T - '~T**~~""' ** '*•' T 

HOT. II. ft^t Ipyldi— An linpnirmanMlntrttlatand bfcaehlntoiUBB 

UM. IL fUaiikhurn, IluU.'rir.riili hull, naar Saebdala— InprunuaBla In bUUaa asd 

uiUatlbrtliibUiiaAiiJ ipijintiiE onnLoMIM.or otbarabKWBiBlerUb 
SnW. J. Dm*. Baci bill, HLddlDKri-'IiBprdimBPnlalii Ubrarr ubic* OF daiba 
ITiO. y. JioU^kuu. J. IJ^Ur. and B- BIdnmuo. Bndf^nl, Vur^^Iptprurnuula Ift 

loonii ftir i»r»L| 
TTll. C. ULoka, Ltjodoo — LuprvrvDioDla Ib Iha (DuiBAutnn of Inm aad fled 

(>4Ud Kbwafnr IT. 
MIS. T. U>|«. LI'iiriBut— liuiiriionicota lo lDb»a>i-fuHln( siadilui 
TTIS. A, K- J. I^kman, LIU«. Kruiw— A mu cJu al fln l tmkprr ood cuakn7 
nil. J- WiiniiiuifioD. Muvhniiic— Ab luiprotrd mulr of •IfiialllnE (mu Uw ivad 

lolbeniirinodn^FOu raUitajr Iraina 
Itll, I', MUbnJ, L^DUi. ml I- A. Uarel, Paria— Uakbl( aIID«|>liorlcal oUamlMw 
17 in. V. Ua>k«i, Miiiiui^liuB— A art at UnpOTtad nuhlnnir Im appl^lnt iMlH* 

ptmae bi tba iiluugbiuu of lud and oUwr acrlfwliiral apfiratloo' 
'Jlir. K. aiudius. IUiJ.>. FraBM— MaeUBafT aad apaMaiai [ui mttUnt and botliic 

iMili^vudalbaralnkllaf anliitaoBaa, Ibr Tt^'j aul cpUIdc mavwod pint, aad fee 

uulUnii InaUutr ud oUur almOar malerlala. iCGiopiniHtaUnni 
nii. U. Jooataod J. K. Julw, Utannl— ABlmprmdlUiiboat 

t*iud MiaMitw la. 
t;i9. J. Wilnin. WrM liromwldi, NtaOml— JBpnrBaaali Is aprtoia br tbObij b1 

oihar CBti luiiMia • 

UTil. H. C. I.uui. Jlonnlimliua. actt Bnidlbfd— InpnimnDuia la nirinnlti; 
i7tt V A UAj^naT, 'LArrrliaiD lAitU, Xorvlcb— Tinprbr0nir,nu In <ljunplDfl papar 

tut prliiilnir 
Ifin, a. HuiurwuKh Cbala^ — Iinpro^Diutiit* la the Laaaai of lef^udiLjE tbo rufb td 

mlalDrinlln}' 
^JH. 5. l^yof, linaL^^Inipfovnil mrrhanUm. aiijjlUiblD b, pfopfliilnf jihlpt add 

vfiMilj^ ajj;)lk'.krp|[ a]*u a< l^wfr Qiocbijicrj liir ihln^ piirj*^'''* 
nu. i. linrw. bsnk luii. Tni4aul, BiiUinal'iu— Improii^uiiuuUi AUuuq caBa 
Vtsn. )(. Ufvbviu''. IJo^n-alrwii-plndD, Nev Dmuun^itneV^liotnvaiBala is Iht 

ajaaiitiulutVi uf ITDu 

ivuil .VKiMhr ifi, 
Ifll. vr. Iliuidlo;, Mi>^rK>t<vitmt-IiBiiniraBEBti In ilio Knaunanl aad applkMko 

of |mplei iii^rhnfur oorFinijif Hvim, mob. and oLbcir Ukf u»rnl purpoaaa 
Slit. T. Oilluuui. CiTvd laue. Lndpiio-bill — ImpKHaiBUia In bun vr paAlnt 

i;u. II. J- llliUn, (:ruliinirn,>LnDl, LdloMariuui*— Impnramaiiba In caniMa ud 

Mbar mid wuiikal Inalruaienla. (CoiiBiiuilaiUOil) 
tIM. W. B. duinADI and J. Bradibav, BUIjrbiidgti. CbaaUi— iMUMWigalB Ib 

uacblBcrr or uiparmluB for ilrTlnjE Tania or Aibrte^ ^pjm^^Ht la naulaaa te lUqa 

or dnaatnt Fkma or Ibmda W pnpan Ihaa la ba «svn 
tflL 1. JuniK UIddlBibur«iitIi-oi] Teaa. and Z. Jailor Iltarpool— ImproniniFgila la 

fie uanuEaiSDn or iiiDdurlTiiD and imbiiml of neUl laaiiiiei 
1139. J. Lord, Bwtubila— An ImiirDTid aduUnra or ompuund u bo cmplofad aa a 

■ubailiuM Ibr oo Id ite Inatawni of anbaal >wl, pnpmlon lo "oudlOK." 
Vit. Jnuin^ItBilotCalthaoia, BatrufiU CbaUr, Otllbnaaa— rmprnaoeBla Indrtrlnf 

balla. atrapn. iir band* Ibr DiacblBarr. and in tht appUealkn ud naa Ibaraof 
tlM. vr. E. Ntwuiu, CbiAoMT^aaa— Ad inii'roTgnini la eanOtfiMial pomjs. (VM)' 

BilBkaUou; 
tIM. 0. WnUou, Uancbodfr, ud C. •Mlisiibvalie. l^taUB— Inpnioiaatt b Ito 

niBiiatuUm of On tlsbuin 
S1*t. 1. Taanle?. SaTlSa-rn. SI, Jainai'f— Ad Impnmd nothtd of and UaMaal 

fiir applrlBB artlllda] tJiDUUiuEiu 
nil, A, WaboBand A. H. WlUlaini. C^mlilU— An iupfuml cap or up IDraaDi 

bMtia 
VltO. 9- Put, Ikepru, ftbafllald — lupni'eiuauii m BiadiljivT F« diawlnc vlro aod 

III baa 
3Tto, L A, ilr UMy, V^r\t — ImpmrnmrnTjt In Ibe loAnnfaclorn of &tlr aaita 
S'll. Su Foji. l>«par, SbaJHald— lui-furvibi^oU m beatlnv ^^^ ^'^ acil mb*^ ale* 

riba anil iinlcliiira of smbrellu and iwa»t> fiii haidnnlug, and Ui appantw tot 

atm^tenlijg aln and iBbaa 

iM*f ffM'mlirr », 
TTlt. E, Salt, Bolum-tC'VooFa — Au ijupruvud palin-eDltloc mafbliio 
Vttl. J W. OUbert, Uanc^artar— linptimmanb lu ccruln iuai:bluH for oldUBj) or 

M|ia>luii 
nit. W. Brlaoi tod J. rbmtva. yowlDU-btaiUi. MucboaMr— IinpTniibittilt Ja miil- 

IDC ttUau iifn*l> or >lainoii 
ntt, r. A. la Oinu d« VnuUlnemoinin, ^tinilh-iUgil. FUiabui;— Iiuunml nppualua 

for pniniliic arbonlc acid (h and ImprngnailnK Ibinidi Uumtltk, iCumuuiKa- 

lluD) 

nid, C. ¥. 3. Foaiobon. Boriln— IiapniviIUEiDUinUiinuiil^tiuaof boati udihOM. 

,1'nrLE^ a1V,n>ii,ilnkiii.Tlmi] 
};<;. 1 F ,T. rnurotwrt, iio-lin-lDiiiniTaBiaaUlB Iba aiUBfartnTToftualalad ■Iraa 

for ck<i:irl(j LcticTaifb*- 1 Vutxij a iiiiumiinlEaiiloa) 
nil T. f. JWDa, fflnalwibain— ImproremaBta Id JoiBlBt. inpinrilwt. ud imnfib- 

tnina Iba noa of mllintja 
3I1H. w. Moisan. Oknluvlrr lerram, Didp part— An Impronnuanl ID hntlulpani 

of c;1lDdo» and oib« UuUoit bollnaf ininlo a«ddlB| bati 

Ontait .Vnml» a. 

Vin. K. B, lliiiwci, Nrw York— tniiHunilBaiiwbilwAn; alia 

jtb-i. K. Eaujn, Hu4ei.tfrTw, >~u«-(omL BiManaa— Inipi^vomm^ In ap|«ncu Cor 

bu[nn)(oji i^lwnj^ and fnl cflJt^E pDrpBaa 
nts, L. Uanolik Kouib-wnfi, I'lBaboiy— As InprvToil DiadilOD Ibr Uw dlcanaluf of 

loaulc and Wnua anbriauaro 
flU. A. M. M. da Harnilu, IbmnogdaBS— A matbod 01 lODibodt of psrldlog ctal 

vltboUt dA-U'lxllllh4tlcil 

V)61. J, Nuniinu, Li'urpuol— tinjiroiBniaDla iB propolllag UBrlaaMa Taa i J a 
Tit:. J, W. ClniTi, n"blic-<UnE. Humv— IraprenDiiwia Ib prrTtBiInc, riBunn^ oob- 
nooiai, uid amdaajdni uaaka and nuilma npuiita, and In apiiiniiu fitr tbia* 

EFpaiar 
C ToMb, Buftoauiuu-TKHi— tniprotnotsU la rharsUii or UUbi and snlBiap 
oaakaorNbar laaati hr anlaulni (annHiliui; lJi|uUli 
VfSB. P. tddftng, r&ria— All ImprDrad tr«Tdn 
StBa, H. BMlMnbaln. UmduB— Ab Inpnund wilking-xtick plf 
3T<SI- W. K. Xgalun, Cbnuri; luc— loprrimniiuu In niaebllirrj Ibr aidnnuf or 

lirUllne Ttbniu* ■ul>dian<iH. .I'uiuukiukicMiuuj 
Sns. J. HanuK NawCToas Siirrn—linpnintaaaU III apporalua fiir oppljdniotloi 
InbHoalinif Hold to the ajilca of laiiaaj t^iTlaiEQa and loApDoUre tag^au 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



» 



II44. B. XuHjl, Diunl^-tanv, OnuMBd" 



'LoproVfimBDU In ifad onutnutin of 



1T« %. X. Bfnou. FlMtMnaV-A uoiliad of awl BmoiKloo On nudgrUit laMk 
•M iMar lite bbrla •MltMI u4 ilUdlicUlU- MBUU. ICuaugontaiUia frna 
J. UtDHButJ, BMolann, -■ ^— 



to 

tm. 



to ado It It ii ii> te uDpwi l« »mnii( Ml liadiUH 

n. T. BrtCTK uil J. ItiL. MMrtMrr, tnd JTO. PHKIwnJ. WunnnWii — 



. /iitrt ,Vo«i»».. 21. 

SO. w. T HmJfff, St Jahd.irr-i f,*l. OrrkmrnOI— ImprorfflBttlj Id itocCilo 

ftn. A. K. IWtt. Onu i>«if»(i(«ci. WsMBlDMcr— ImpnmmnM ts HViw 

i^iUiic. mitgc. ud bud^ klBdiiiig vacd 
ttTl W K UiU, lim dw lancBwaMtt U uutalD*!* (br equina noscUu, uul 



- . , — — , uutalDtfJ (br oiUiiit [nscUu, uul 

tn>..l- TimAm, BiHMt liitiiiHiiiuii to pn|wlii|| *sd dtrUi; (luii ud gfJaUiKni 



■Mnatnaaai nsUoa. wimiIiHi h^IIuMi m inirtilrwrj to bnlBI ptaaUc nU 

anii. B. A. Onna^ TkaMlngl— tBfnmtMi to 111* Euuig&ctara ol ullOcJil 
«lM^«rUnncH(otoHUUui«4 tu vlaiL wd to tppuuiu be (Oloe hrmui- 
mMk lOiiM«i*i««toW 

flTtt- J' ^ Vflfbl, B^f ip fci f ft a n — TapmraBHttto to tilt luiuio&clun nf p«n*r V 

iicmuiii In loooi fer «BTto| 

rnM. ItucliMlcr— iMvransMnl* U appwuiu 

■ [U 

'HMDli In sll>v euTlit«> (OaouBiaiil- 



pdiB-BiAcU UHl nuUIbuUnai 
frtr W. H Ijinoek. SlKflUM-Inpni 
tni. DL UudalA. lUfrinL uul EC I 



fllP< 



EMWrlojl ntf T utd MlKT doidl Ulil lU 

W. K, > nrviQ, Cluimrr lav* — Ibpn'rei 



bU 






» 



OiMMwMtH-M. 

9TW. H, Hul. OUvw— inprnmnwiii lootMbr TMTint omimatolhMM 
mi. a. ""i ialtoln, Vnrt— Impwwat M t (■ nstln^ cu|>c** knd tU*r pBat 
_m rl» 
ITft- '^ ■Wttll'T' Vftlulrv. Yurh— Idipnrtafnrnt* ir> wnrljij 
>n>. /. R, )Uni>. Diuila*— lanrnmniu Id liuliiiiu ur nmhiaa DBnuaUu lac 

MptudolMfTCWli 
frt*. M. J. diiAi^ DWMUaM. Xo«nilU4B>T;Da — Impntnufnia In auliliii, 

■ilwliM . ml iBMlllTii to i rW iiiii 
g W^6 /riis*«T. ilUga-IMnas CMBonrtelmid aM-taprorEHmBii lo •ufu^iuis 

ITW. V. B. AiioD ud a BopktoHe. XMluid Milk, llnditonAiUI-tBprafTOnti to 
nVB-MDB DniMn aal ■ |i ^ f»»»» tnple^ W nppQilBi auer In ncain boDan 

fIVr. a. Brt^lCT, WI MMB. MM OteW M l M IW JtHWlBte to IH|U» tlT Flmllllll 

n«- C K lUli^ OiWI nMnf-^NW— lapnnd apiKinlin tw IJlunliHllBc 
«HMi taDMa Ibt aoitoeB of vUv, or br (Itlnt lljlil In idIdb ud utIiH' flMtm 
«fa«lltdti«tM«w»|it™'"T»-»"l-i 
INK f. €kr, OltMiiw -iBywmiDwito Ld ibi lumuhirtun of pUs hbria 
IM a. KkanMd W. Hilar, Junw. IHiriiiiii— linpiv?Riini(* In leawn bauiBan ud 



MVJ fir iqtoC U^i kUdoillKr ■nhflADraa 

Oit«l A«H»br M. 
fT*l. J. Bind. Bunlar. I«™t» iMmiTiiiMi to bmUbot ft« aKgUnfud 

todMNloftUi numit-r of mdallwa piifiPawd bj niUm ud iliiAt 
" ' " iMbit~'bunraaui>tod>Tiugf«innii«Biiiininrnja Ui 

•PTMMMkr iMntitta, Miwlii, dQint Mn*AiD|r ud iioliti- 



SM.a.Un«.l<ni.. II 
ir* >- — "-—7 ar 



II. I n h Tmii r i r niiiiiin In Uw g m itntllm nf (CMm boUsn 



Mtotrln 

am. M.B<ii_._ _ . 

inL B. A. BmUfl. rt*Bt-aim(— li,i[irirpinw)lj In utvUUitrj fur cmLnidunu, 

.OaBDDBlaUoa Dan K. UUi. »'. >iriiii.iiiii 
■nt. J. Mbh, SMAtoa-M-TiH, Durbiiu— Inpruml mMu ta mftntiaf dlffEnnil 

Hall ar aullUto <( wad or into Iriui laeb uikrr 
SfM. J. L nua. JalnqMqaan. n. Har; Au~Ad Imprenl pnn« ipplkabla la 

aa WM atoUai B af Jaa ilXBiianBJrailiHi) 
CVT, X. UanluU, JtUL, Balbf — An ^iiruvDmuEtl La Ibe (lutlfflnif of aili aad MWj 



ITH. A. V. KanMO, CbHaHT-lasr — Iinfmrcit oicUuij br lg(|)U( Inn, (Oan. 
■auntiDn; 

KU. J. «B^iiwa,jm..Olot» IfwUMto. 5ultnii-l»-M«CT^ I^MWIat— laMBWMMito 

to thdfiovinalldavf aliMlktaaBaCbf baaclaa 
MM. J. Mawa, Uulf H M i l, UaaHar. aud J. Adto. Viii f i i i [iiiimininai 

to Jmuv< toaAISM 
ML LO- BlaKit.Saath-flIvfC. Tiatharj—Aa jnipnrwt.| umEo nf nrvpvliir vluin' 

haaajmiB filtn. aad otluv rlaalLC IwilU <Ui|ilii}«l is Uic tnunUclurfi st VMftDI 

ttmTS. ■adanw, DU«i»— lni>itii.-iiinnu a roillnn. nolng, i« ilnplni ud 

tito, A. V. KawtflB, Cliarun-f -Udd—Au Lm^iruiDotf^ut Iji like pnacEaa ciT 'vnr.lng knm 
Mk tian^ ikfrt^ apttoia, iluIi. uul "Uinr niUrlcu M inm. vitti wrUIIIr allufi, (iir 
Ilia j a ma tlrn uf rviUoc or ntJiUUini. .<^ynkjrdiM4ii:AUcu Iivm J, F^eiu, ?<dw 
Tarkj 

IMl IL K. Nluar, iaODatumao. Doruu^lniLM^'vaajtoM ia jibalagmpUc nppnntiu 

MR. A. IaiaaadD,SchoAtld. OldLaia— IiiipTiiiniD--iiUlDu<ir«(liiEiBu:Bbiriulniiliu| 

MdJaaUbw 
HH. t. A. taOmlada rgBlaluuunan. ^uih turtx, FUi'burT-^Irasnnnt wclfUDE 

itiiwwi* iCMuaimkaUia) 
Mn V. A. OUba^ Boalhamvt. tlnilnirr— An iDjiminl tuodc af ncHill and 

liftlftlljiliailli (QgiBiBaalcnikiu fruia L B«. >dv VoH 
■W WTwaAb WiaiaD KM. tilmiiaiar— Ad Irajih-mrnl Inr [wflDi land, apnliHlila 

d» to Ika nnnlHot "ut 
■11. 9, B. BadH. illilDscior^ Dambiinnrt-InuiimnuuU In ifag uuaftcnDr* 

tflMMdoU 
m& B. IfllgilTr. ]f«w-nad. BrlghtdD— luprorainriDIa to iplrlt lantpa 

rniC^ M>HMt>r T*. 
VU. %. Ortinii^ UoffltDgina-road, 1t«crDiV|«rk— IiDpromswnla to T^ada and 

■( to aa tor jwfaUIX T I r i 
MIA T. WaJW. Wairtoflso— lia(rw*uicata la hrwlnf, uid In lh< nuuhlnrrr of 

aHanUi ttopkmd tbanto 
KU, J. HlHto. HaaAaaM— LmpiDT-imniu to Inttln^ arUbi Tif "tiUr dn>(iitlI|L 

m nr ap a r^imf (htfcfrueii ■& u iv ubuiD a culouhng aatotaiKa oi liiiaaa"! 

JBtTC A.niaM, ftaslh-dnrt, riiiiil iij liii| Ii ill Hiii ianlliillli| if mutln 

', and to Iha appaoMa egnoECUd tbtowitb 




«1T. A. OglU>r,a«ilb.itnat,ntobBn— iBtnmd onidbca^ applkabli tollia<d)U« 

ud pdulu d( MIUc BMBiala 
Mil. i. H. llaMda^ Unls*BMli|ar, DoUto— larruTmeDU in «a«UDf mar* 
*tl>, U, T, SwrMM|Bjdi^ rtiaMar lin|irm»inrn[i In to|>> or nliw, paite of Ml'li 

tm. T^WruSr, UsufS*^ CMm Vrnt^lnTCBTCwlTatliiUoib)* to 

Biad to tta Buaftwara at rtfa 
nn, A. Tnntr, UIcmMt— IiDprDTtDmili blh*toanh(tBn«r<1afUoUiila 
l*n. M. Allnn, i^tMulUb (run, "— ■— -'h-TWiV— lMrr-~~~'' '" "" '"■*■ —■— * 

af vLaab-fi^Laaa 

OilM .VohkIIv M, 
***. j-fl.lijlor, Ola^frw— linprwrrmanu In pTDfll-aa«« 
HH. Caiasui^ )afaDaum,>A<Ii'ltiIii^lii.|>rufRiicouiull*ldiiial(n 
tat. 1. OrfitM. Dudaa-lBptmugala to naitof 
MM. W, JdIiBBa,UlMato'a4an4ald»-Iapr«Tf>MtelBU<4ntll». tt^Biiiuiiiilniw 

tioa, K. acbaUald, Korauk, dttoaMoM) 
Mn. L W. WilAt, B)rdail]*«B— logptsmmaila h) jai^iiay ta tmldltii glalaa Ibr 

lb* brtoaltoii «lUpat aad lataa 
ina. I. •Man, Xm Vwfc— tmvn»«Bsgu to nwobliiarr t« ndgclsi flina u gUf 

\Ctmmaoieat\ahrrva J. Xla^laad. jaa y 
lUEO. J Uniim, Iin^t>>"l— Imnwniiuai* to lb* onMaglkesI Um tovatsMait 

«hlpfl 
tUV. E. H. AlUaan, Kaatltoglir, York— AnaptaratoilnciindanatoiTipoarvhBirs 

Kaw-,ud tu»kaafMDcb«BCMahial*Ddun<Ii xirki 
Mil. J. L. Clatb, aJJJj^—^ Oanrtwk bill, tiunpaUwl— lm;ninaati to 

tlaouio Ulafnpba iTai'lj a «<■■ Iriilliiii 

MIA &.IIanB«,miuia»alna(.4adM<»-'IiD|inin9iiaUto«ai«0MD^f4Mana 

OaWRwavtv I. 

Mil. J. WoRUiMttiiB, UaorbMlir— inim'fiDniU In l«lc(npliiii( and (anaonlniUni 

•a nllnf Inlna 
lUl. (X oak*. VDlun-nm. Tunr-bUI— luimiTad Hud IW iinlinaM lor rallnf aul 

nU. J 1 Joii'^ l^>l•lld.«^M. Clitort-at M t Iha ImpromHnt ollhc ODIDaBB|t> < 
■ncd^n lr« and cnlfA 



I 



3KM. J. Oadin. WiiUlulv.anal toalb, Mnad—IupnTnaiiab to totxhiattna tba 
Jaanuli of Iba uln oTnUaw ndUolM or alkv Mir(n( 1 

manMUon trom A. Mbefkaaoa, BnaHlW 



Jaanulj ofIb»uliaarnll«w*il>lolM<' alhv tnrlnf iiam of mulilDM;. T'^na- 

manMUon trom A. Mbefkaaoa, BnaHlW 
»at. J. Oadfa. VTaUlni li ia tiwa a w ia. Mcud— bapnrgBiuU to gaa Dgtan^ ICkim- 

mmlf^illan ttota A. liMnbanaa. UtUHotu 
mt. J. Haridra. Cbuua-Kiv, WaiUilnaUi— bBpranoHBtt to ptenftou* 
MM. J, Oiban, PaddloiMB— Ui|»unia«u tobiRIni ud drawtni •»■>*<» 
!!»K. a. Oulllii, ntlUu, ud J. w. i-nnl*;, nnfUu^ Vorfc— InponBinU tn 

npliwMoa uHd Di bnlinaitof. tu^ In ihu uiuDioftoawtocnrtocpadatf tffaniga 

uadtgrncli porpoaa 
SUI. R J. ttmoM. MHHdmHlU. I'alud Diana A bo* at larrorad auanj 

dtoV. (CbiMBaglcaUaa tnw J, IHnua, MaatacAovtbl 
Mtl O. Tanaa, Xortbam, 8oulbaB|ilai— [Dfrarmeui to dmdnrtalDf Mvict nMn 

a>d WM" wjaur, ■hraltaaiauad 
■HI, r. tWodji, Lu rf iba UidWd Mal^ WW rKldlu to SI. Jaoflrt^Inat— 

lapnTodapnnnthroblatolwiDslIn [»■■ br tba *(t&o o( tba wind 
MU. J, Kuidu, Bndfcrd— tapnnuiwu HI tunaraMa uf IbanKMalimof laama 

toi vuotoca orrlato daaa of ptold^ rhndu, vul Oiaci wotao Ihbtta 
MU. E. If. D. Haidat, IVte-tnprnTi<in>>aU in inaitof or pmpwtof coloaa ftr 

HH. RTlla^dff, hrii— linprDTiuiuwU Id bridlaa nod blu tot Mop^Bf hOMM 

Muad r>Hf m^/' I. 

MtT. E. DKrrr. WmlwiA— iBpronLiaiW 1u Uio In fail If iMliTiiaii'a i^iilii 

MU. F. nmisill, Blnnlmluin — ImpraTaniuiU to Uw onMnsQoa at SM-plana 

■pplicablii &ir dffD'ral [nrjiDaM, vhurpb; omboiUaa la nodrrod Buro iifrfurt aod 

npahlf ^ r^rrnlHElnu or motrul, milt ^liTnm|tiff ffiffirMftfrl, udlbodnncM to aprn 

llf? hluaa luucb lutfaoaEil 
SritV- J- LoofboUcu, T iiadi l airiiiiiiiiiiaiiTa to bpt^mua fiir dr^Lnf, raaiuuf;, fv- 

tiRii'lni. ud caldbbu TnWibli. BtoanL aD<l niiiinil 'nl-unm 
mo. R. A. finooiaD, nat-alceat — lapfoVooKbla In (luinpi ud id pumjilnc. inmrno. 

maiiiaulinil 
MM. B. A. Hnnmu, naot-ftno*— Iaaqi«)MlihU«Mhb« (OuBnniuallee (Mn 

B. llDSnlloO 
lUl. K. A. Urwiaiat, VtaMlraM-^ •**"'—' mnu'sii.lun -it urui io !• cmiOojCfi 

Id UiBUjrimif ofvBOlaaiidnjidlOM, {OmtnunkaEW fn.m ^1 Liiuiuni 
IMI X. A llrinnaB. WattWt .ItopKuwDiiuu In pninplcg ivt^arm tod u> pgnpi, 

(CaauuUwUuni 
MM. 1. D. Olfwd. hulfr— Jinproramnita Id bjdraoll^ torbmEN 
nw, J rowlei. ;iin.. lUnitnc Kwai-Au IroiutivfiBnol to tht muufaflBi* <d air* 

roioi 
nw. J. ApiKFlr, DndbrldcB. aiomwUr-Iaprarad (ibdc appUEalila to Uie iBanallK~ 

tarp itt fwd xloUi nr apmna 
1UT. B, Dfrdan, Ktoailtu.<tn(l. Umln(b, and 4. Mlln, )lniilbbni». WIIIihi- 

^k, BanHMlaij— Ab linprutinual In llu rofutiuelluD it (lUnilrr iirlDilBt 

t»d K 'nina-Dd. UUMlar— laa p wu nw ala to BMbtoit; for Uia auuula<iiiro<ii 

knlllnl liil>ln 
lUu. A_ Haver. Llnrtiail— liBpmtamiala to a appUaaUa to Uia kida oT narliiblB 

Hi;i) J. II. U. I'bwiKH. Iliinol— AnUBimndoctvahoH.ortoiUDlBn'^'^lplull'l- 



SHI 



tol and iftLar liiln"*™ 

r. <ilK(iiani, Johii-ainiii, Adal|<hl~liDpmed anuvanaal of liima— . wbltb 



ItopivroDtnU *r> agipllnhlD In all luii <1ii<i>> fnml btM li n^ulnd 

llstnl (l*«nd)r I. 
MM. J. Him. DepUWd—lBipRiTOiMaia to appanilQa fcr nakbc W^ f*i4r bppU^ 

abla to nlli]&T7 or otbnr dODVUr purpniai 
Mn. r. Xnrun. <:iiliiiue— imiiruvrm^u In Um nuuialt«n» a( aacUnl iMp ud 

^ai. F. A. uati}', AfcilDfMt. Iducaawr^lni4<itBDjfliiU to tbo o^uauqcfkin uf Slurb 

or dnMnm 
MU. K. Rider, CuBo u ala M l. OUr—" Impiorinutuu to Ibt laanutacaiitT oi (natmU 

uCnUa-iHivba, boliii Inurofainanu nnun tin Iu'ddiIod aKorrd to ua III LalliW 

l>rijni(,ilMdtb>vnhdnrurJDlr. 1»t:l" 
Mn. A. BalMfli ud W. huLlxiieli. IilMttiBiD— tmpoTCtomito to iDoni 
SIM. B. OtabiW. Utfa. Brlulijui-lnipiuiFOiauU to Bra^ifDa asd aninbsn bodol 

tba anrtdflaa or ynjactlln toIm aM.ii iTimfriib 
tMa, J. Dnbi Q<Haiibli>x— liiipiu»iniuii> .g ippstUM (btaoikUc ud OMSitlm 

butUaa vlibobt »*lTtf aaji hi/ boiKfvn Ilia lliiLLlit uid nob. :CoaunBblc<it[BaJ 
ma, I- Daoln. MOa-rul-mtd— liiiiiRivEDiiibiato(iinacatbiruB(lllti(and mafltoa 
Mti. J K liiniluiD, KmtidJilc— InpruniMnM to tt* appHiailoa af DbMcirapUo 

pldiim to laaial and oibar jurf^na, aud In rvDdfflai Iba aana ^pHatfir at prtnung 

•urfiuHo 
ttn, W, R ^^virt'ia, Hiunar^-lan*— IntproTHl prnaw— br enanooliDf satallul 

BUlbca*lDUIagllo,uiliiRUa(fiir iiitoUngfuiKaRi, LttanaBbtoUou ft™ C. WIpT, 



ss 



MTI. A. tMCf, Piww-tnr 



TIIE CIVIL EKGINEEB AliD AECmTECTS 



1 Ib )ijdni>ll« (Dtlui 



Mil. J.Aiij«$ ud_W, Clijaja, Dadbri^^ OlagoMR~-ba[im«d mttMurj ta 

M tx iuhI In tim uT hklr or Mhur t»1/- 
B|il"TT-! 

I'l-nait, Udikn— AS Improtuncul Is 



■iB. t. ium, m>»-As iMpiiiiManaM 



-.•. >. iUrti,Mt»-Aila-i>vi> 

•tumla wtiU mA •MldM an ( 
slt( 1 Unman, tintiiatOrvnti^i 

■wapnnllici^n 
MIT. L CBiutfl, Xn y«k~IapnniiiMnu In drrliu: •UsdMpn 
MI*. P Dtfnuilud D. Lichtauladt, ILcbrfiKi. Wmajfat"!— to|iliilMBMIilB 

iMnlnj 
MtO, J.I. HoIImA Wudvuk— tsTtn'HBaaU In lb* ownnbelim «( Ina. fn at 

■Uck b apiiUBtili ID <aar juipiu M 
Hn. W. UmoD. lliKklDfhus^ifMt. iUgd«alui-ra4d. IdlafUD. «b«H. Pklur, 

T f i»ni*n iliHl flilliiilMix i Biiiimiimi W III HFtncorMlUilngmKbiSH 
Wn jL B. L. BdUvl, B*4linl4lng(, Mtud-lBprattOMiW In •Irrtaf. tnnlac 

■id BdUaf brlcki, Uli^ MdMba amnio hMuch. OinuBaiilntlcn) 
9BU. L. 1. 1. Xuiiwrlua. FutcIaprnmiMiU In tnWini ut pnpuint Eulsriila 

to he nad in numlkaurlDc RUm, maltilw, btMi. iM ohn kindi nf (wUn- 

ISM. II. Oa*1Wd, mmii» Till [II II uiri lilt I in <rwtAv> diMilnt. taA jnjtHag 
Uiiik UbrUB iDd aiUaiiik 

HU. II. pmanuul/ CroaUirr. liiHrM— iBFnmmU In BidUBCrT fnr vindlni 

rvninc ibr>^ AV>lil>lK<airtiim'Snd(iii*|nndtaditt<BbT(«rarTiifi|nl obHln, 

uil fti ■^aunwift.tif rlUiti tuid <■ ponr lom* 
VM, II M«in;!l«*wi»dior— AtoM ud*W«ad 

jaiT. vr Kim, nmtDcliuB, udD. JiBM,LlniT«ol— ADlDprnnmeutorlmiirDTv- 
Hn. T. &uviKs*>'fc> !'<iltk(luni-.la Iniin^iTTd imiUiig mppknCiia tn ntpliig ud 

— IniaatlH B n 
MM. JL ilniii. Ctiin»f>-«un'-lB|>nni*ji«U In ihlrt*. lOuDnniiumUoo) 
MM. L P- KflrtrlC th>A^<Hi hiijuinitiiiB id inacJ»Uiar> ur ftp[i«ftiiu Ibr 

KincUiii i»l«riii| BMMi W b* tBpwr*t I" tl»' [lun*'*'* <^ '■T*'°ll. <" 'u Kbor 

MIL W. arbwn. Lmhwil-MnM— Imprmd BKbinKT bt BddBc tallv 

MR. H Ofdaud H, Illbtan. fclbtd^apnrtianta apiiilaUa te oIIIk? wl 

^■1— 11'* ufltiw ftir Ibfl pfUpH* of AnvHiBV w RtmUoi tlialr BOlitHi U r^uLnd 

IMcnab, ■ui^ ludlaitim ihonmuani al ntkduiit iDRUUuutawob [uumlB 
/>i<bI OnmAcr & 
MH. W. RMtr *(d J. Vrr. Uliiiiu. u4 O. NoHVIk. BwUmbiuT-lmTnn- 

iMato IB ■priBfi tir nflnf nnlMt«^ Md (at oUm twi«H 
tVI. <V H »»■•, n«tM. M nBi tm a w -totw wM Mli In appuMm to bi luxl to 

Ike nun** «r dliiluuloi 
MM w. & Ctark. Hltl lUtera— &Bvra*«nnM la tavMami aUno uiJ fiimut (Br 

urlmlwn) uid aOa patr— lOoBBnlcMka Iras II. Mtwiliui, IWikoDn, 

r^lMd^outi 
MM. C frhlalr. OMlKBL ImkuWt— [mfntMnniU la nivtuaoty or mpv*nMi h* 

coHl^ nnia, HRnL orboMt, nd loaltod wlwdt 
mr. J r>"r. B^lrn<>»r. AWUt— 1kiP»<«bhB U IUc irMtami, applluiUoa, and 

u( «( Binrnkl tu bt itaa ■«■■>«■» of cdHVlxxv *nil lubciotflnc lutttr ad 

lu^ . _ 

MM J. Umfimum. ljnl»- Im »n wm aMl»t«o"«Uiit, wtchMtun, or mtt n mi a^ 



J, n, lyi"'. Dwilnll-nw, lUd P. Idtnui. Wdl-iU«l— JU ImprcnauU to 

front lor Imnloi; 
BOO. II. T, JCnuUa, Lgulntuu—Jl co' or lupnrTtd BHtlud of buigiaf ud clalng 

dfim 
Mm. tl L ^vMl BiliUI— laptDKuiMBU In udim 
nra J. UiUi, OoDdaiHUMot, BdtWI-itnM— ad lapivnmail la Hora uid flm- 

pbom 

/MM AwnterL 
MO*. CoUlK, niilUlii, wd K. iU/wniid. HoMM Ctmiuni. our Laedi— Impmr*. 

Buu Is •uuB tulkri kBd BMm tniwawn 
Mot. X. Kwoa Iuhh IHTUB, iCt'-rud. BtUann— An laiimmniDt In tin muo- 

^Uf« i4 tpiU^ irhns Indla-riibliar i* ovd 
MM. J. Alloa md J. Kiul, Hlmlialiun— An InpnT«aMM la Um niuinEtaiin of 

eo«t»d biiuu ud ronMd onuamU 
MOT. J (kfina,ftIlDbiu|b~lmproraMBUlDA(Bm«iKli)« 
Ml. J- BUIn, Bdbtt'lnpnmiwMa lu Jdannl ippiiiiai lir *silB( 
not, H Cwkaa. BlrnilOfluai— Ad Inpnmd btrd ncs 
MIO. K. r. IdUUr.OuiiunDiUb-AnodaalVrtDilaiUblMBfbniitndTirtUannU, 

Boneih tabla^ otiwiUBUldadinu. fttnmi. Wl«tballk*Uiinn«OMU on rBliiMl 

or dibs niftm W tUHfMdt nlUlif 
MIL K Imill. OnlBMidvpiigb— An iDpforvmAut la roubonbircornv, cuoio. duon^a 

^g^ lljBlllf OultftaDOB* 

DaM finrntrr g, 
Mlt. J. HuTla. Pnidakut— A pooomallo itgoal upputtcu. loil aatir k« irurtiet tbo 
Bint 
B.Mll. i. lillr. Wuubaricr. nnd A. Dntaoo. Iiilbu— liDrnn«ii''nl> In ourtiinur or 
aapa/«10* l« bt uvl Ui lb* ynioainM of dr^ Inj; Aaloul. minonl, nud vdb"'*'^ 

rftiL J, Ilnmln(, MlnoriM— lotirnrMaviiU In (UirmoiiiK. 



MU. T, Vi<in.»"ii.. T. Vkan, jun,, T. -UlminfT.nDiIJ.SmlU), Liwrpnnl— Im| 



~BMB>> IB ttt luaaruMn uf bUcniU. louncn, ud oUiai Ilko utlda 



nnrnr*. 



^"i j.biwn.Bnn— InpniTotBWtilnlabrliaion 

Ml>. J K. MtnUlt, WolVMtjuniilaii— tBpnnoaU la aiiMntu U bo Mi(dOTad « 



'«• alwm ud diwcur ID (MO atbnmbfT 
MM. t. Watta^Mltf, aooa WUauloa 



-Inpn 



atotaubtai 



Mil. W. g. Out, KoiK T«t— lopnn^Hnbo In nMMloioM 
,)Ki. K. C MiMJiill. U ootpwl. and B. W. Ocriwd, II«oo OuhI— ImpniTonuHiM 

jp Iwalhii oia iiH[iTnm|rn''Tn *" "^ *-- ^..— ^ ..t.^..,^^^ 4^,1 in Hpam£li]f 

' Bilol. laloli. nnri winiK ftiiw liqildi ODnlaulai Uuia is luubiaiiiun »libmu(i. 
uoaaad Ifoa 
IM. ■- Mallo^ VortiT. Mar Loodo Aa lapntraaoni lo MUii( amD voolbo 

•M. r. 0. Ward. O)it-*u«ot. oad T. Vrnui^ Ka> d* la raia, Bntasl, HaJaMai'. 

iBpntoBoDBo B lb* isuurMtim vl naaino 
M, J. nocBial,Jaii., ^«• Niirtn>niad~liui<rofeBaui* lu gubunun 

Wall O oio.ilir 10. 
tM. W niiMoi aad T Sen;, laaaaiaw— lap « wM li fHrtnii^ DraimoBUl 

dBWwMilw ntlMairfcapa' and Calais pnpind van* bbria 
•n A. Wianlnr OaUHia Vtft Watat UaManw— lafntnaniU in b»IUns, 

UniidH, vwlUna. « daadni IMmm aaMilalo 
Wfc ». t lt«wai. r> i» ( WT to a lii f iii-n l appaiMot tor aapplrlnc Moam tnllon 

■rtib laMr, (CbiBBimleailooi 
, t. BnliL Wool •aHkllidd— .Vu UcpniTtil jnim tijr Ihldlnt budla m oUtta ol 



>'»». 



luiliilla oiiii jmnoih 

J. Oanua, TTinT>n» Impnrrfunl* in diaB-nlWm Buriilaa 



MtL J. Onm. nOadtliUi 




- la wgwawiu In Um 

i^Mdi 



mMalbroMgtniaiik oUn tdldW ond tiMioe boua, aad ita apiafMai l>r 
ladHnc or eoamlag tba iWMa flaa trra mt (bnim lo anlba 
MM. IL Boifea, liiaponJ-'lBititiniuficnU iu Eurluoi* oinipama •> ooBSbmsi laeal 



ol- 



aoiMttoa 
MM. ILBaikLUnra 
MMl T. Whaubraail w. nhouloj, op 

IkaMUBtfanUBg On 

bn' 



W. W. B«j. 
■ad Mil 



IdotigfaaiU and lanillii 

HIV mm^i, i^umi ■■■■»«« 

MH. W. Uind. TIcM^itncl— An Imprvrad iprlni dip. >» hnldlni a ulaiiibm koai 



laisiin'mirnu m Uw (suirniun aftwAti* 

i»wi»-toliiniMiinlo In tic^dcuk ood In 

lunaOiBWaol a lui tii inm aclj is ttmm Ut 

t>it. V, IMMda^a, Bao Voite, SebMrtmet war BnMla-lapnnnooU in 

iDtullle and dutlo Tirtlni 
MW. B. Bdb}, Xliw^UwI. M, Jaiaor>«iioa»— lainnoaoW In 1^ i 

otnoRalnktBilii^ocnoiiItsnllmplnimiB L>nr Inailaci 

tb* Mil, alM Wnn 
Land. TlH<.<tncl 

;iopcn^ or lAtitt Inniv wUolo* 
Mil. O. OMIti, llilllai— ImnnmnDomi la iDKblofrT or 4tiwwu tetba naaibv- 

Un of pUnI Mirls 
Mil. V- w. Aodenaq and J- BoaoUDd, Bradford. Yort'lmiiruvfDiJfliila m ajifanrao 

a Boaaft b ambfUnfl *IUi fumocvi u br^uiAi* th« wiiuoipUvEi of fmnfci* 
MM, W. IZ. T SobaoOor. Onat l^nnhatfir frrrt InnT-r-rntrn'i In dli(lIUo( CUlf 

U4l .^[|v nitllai 
tVK. W, P. MlharatoBlLx&racUin FornUBlU Suuuo. Bnsliion Kai)>v— IB- 

pmifBi'UU In loako aad IMaiilnM, (OhbdiibIiMWb fcwa Uw*. UoUoao. fuV, 
Mil, I.- Iliiinfnv. niin>na^(Saiba«<a— TWappUiatloB aad ho tlpaaOaa In 

itm nuuCictun of hiiKUt, otaUDoBla. and (daiotero lot nadlal nipoiaa 
WW. a. Klof. FnauL RBBaat hniniiTaawla lo aacUDorr In UimUi^ aod 

dnaind vbiai wd olbw craln 
mi. W. C CuobrldcB, Bniinl— Aa iBpnmdODBanirilaii uf ponablc r^nj 
9DU. L. J. t. UaicuoiilM, Pari*— Imprcrmnoato In yantjioi "<^ and aaaaall 

tHU. p. A. lo Cnml* )• FUitalnaHnau, SaiiU>.rtr«l, naibutr— lupnind ralla^ 

•Isoil amanuiu iCommumnaiaa] 
mi. J. T. VTrliUi uil IL r WiikLi, Binnlnahm A turn oc Unprond maiiBfarlari 

of npt, nnU. IIum. i«1wii. ami mlU hondlini 
ttAI. R- I. (liuidnDHU. ,M. l'iijE'«Cbun:hjrard— InproTODIMIl* tn«m' ■Jinoo. 

tnnnl'atloQi 
M61 K. Pauhtn aodC F- WaloL, Porth— ti&ttfotauaiU ul aiipafvlai fiv cbaijl^ 



(Ctai- 



ond faiiplnff Iba olpiilv- olttrvanBa 

— "- >« ~ ■■ '■ 

Car 
Uh Tains -f inam iiiilTi 



nui. vr Vnuat. UuikDIkBMiUstinittiru-lBi 
Kii. J. Canal. J. Bmdd, W. Ssllb. aad B. 



iHDiMiinau In iwulooou 
Ueiiobloj. Dflilrj—Laprarooioirto In 



aaaalt» 



MM. J. HoadlaT, Wilnl^ Raldlmaiu). I'^avU,— An iinpmr«l nmdr of 
MiUf aMWol fnuiA* la lutmu timu. and plaUng « TnHwIni <)m laaia 
Barb^aaaBto firMFOl u cxMrtur uT oiarblt auJ anUilnLuruIaljiiua urcnalBo 

Mil. B. Aiaag. Pi.-n^ni'jui. unr DarUsicUu, ud T. BlclunUou, KmnsHlxH). 
iBprvtamaBti m tn* ^n^iLTiCa^Euni.jf miD(«DDiUnf aAqmlDO 

Mta. S. X«vlnifUiu. Tioobiu^ Suooot.— liopnnoDaaulnbiulluoaaad rultlttaofv 

WM. W. B. Blrkltr, Ut>)H Ba^tiad Cord A-uiki, Clwtlwatai. nov I>«1< -luipcurt- 
BAoUlaUio naanbciaro ol puiaiad «lrv ftlloUaaodia lb* pfaparalini ol IU4.lo«, 
b«ap, aad sUht Bbmuo aabilaaoa 

MOO. 0. fiborwiB. Waiolou-road. SaiilciB— lapmroBsnta Iu ilic ■"— ifi-^'irt tl 
S>* brii^ Ulat. cnolUoi^ and oUwr anlrJa. ■baa R(s<^ l> Uwd 

B.a BUnl 



Bviittmt 



Mil, O, T, UauiKrld. Ruan plai^ tnKbhnnagb nad, 

loova for scariuc m pUed Una dwiblv. ii.^miuanlcailiic fiutt 

Bootoa, Ualtaa HUUc 

zmod immatorU. 
»«>. J. SaHb. PaUnonk, u«i MibiiIimIii IiiiiimiIbIo Jaoioanl 

lorvaatiBt 

MU, L, Bran. Wi»J.<iaM. CHr— i mja w wunu f teupa aad andi Uko antda 
MM, J. IMcali: Bairua^BMb. Bar 9Iina>4>i<r-lug.ii>T>>mnaii tn tbo iiioinlbHaia 

of aJnB or ftulpbai* (tf alunlna 
MM. H. WUtaOik lUaAooaB-riPd— A thml enanl ar tppaalua far pratocUi^ Ma 

Ibn4t ualoflforUVlBf aolDor«il<^ruB] itolcnrn 
IHT, J, widoanwb. HaialaD*^ oaar Au-ikinn— Impmn'iiu'nu Iu iMaUng ind Taa- 
.. Lilarinii apanibonla. bnUdlngiw and olJlpa. and La appualiia a^^ilkAblt ht aud Bo ^ 

Uant (ul ■ucll pVpBIOa 

VMA. ti ijtUpwood. LnadoD'Vall— IspraTumAnEB in prinllng fooaoiHe patbviu 
MOt, A. TuniH, I*lMoia--lBvn*«aKnto In Ifet nunAouni -'-■"" EiHIea 

ffvwl Mwabir It, 
SDTO. /. Oranl, llnlo-park-AnHt — LBprvTaBmo In beallnc or oooklnl by 9U^ aad 

•pporauu (or afcftlmMw ■*»* 
:m. J, Uiltaw, Qtarimod^inM, PlafllCD— tftrnTonu In ohlniaor aaw a _ 
VTl. I> D. JufeoBi. UBdvnaod, 5aMi«taB-^ paaB W ic tmk ur apcatMoa «a 

albfbeU Id Fadnf oarrUfa or mtu for Ibo iinrpvBO vf rourdloc ur "fc^fplnf 

Mn. A. T- dm CfantB, Rna doa TMt PatlllDna. Parii^inprf^TamE in boipo 

tJIi. A_ V. N'oUd. ChuafT-Uno— ImpmrrmrDU In turhtngrr fi> liwinii. tgoiaf, 




UpplBf, 

tai hiildlof Iba 



and oflrowina Ruinp for 94. vaMr. ntua, aad otbrr pipo^ asi in tiaa 
wultf iiuf an uv ' ' 



M». 

lalna. ud 



iraUd updu- 
Ihombr M. 



[(Vimmuuluotioiu 



Amain. Uitptrl^inlnadiilanv waaiti«Bitb.road— iBpranniBti lupipaoa 
ind laUoBMbKl irfJulurnaaDdlarlBfaaoBaB 
MIT, K. tlarnoil. HutUn OnimblUi, oaar Load*— iBpnTtanooM Id Baohlonr; a appa- 

nnotM IB vmtUib 
MTV, W. Oanood. Back Ptiinh lonn tn InqirtrTrm il In iinooi puiLon 
Mill. J. awbo, Lann Bask Wotlui. DonlBiiaa— luiprgtuuimto in llfUaK a tovUv 

wi r a lro a ibtmlcal H>iDldi 
MM. W. K. NvvU^CtuDari'lu"— lBipnrtRl]>r«>v<irpmiw*ii(tiT«Unifid4ffar 

anihai it BByWaadaAamaiion. or fur obialiiio( polaabor a^la tfaBrdfrnn. ^Qj^ 

mvalcaUonl 

Satat PKnUr II. 
MSV- n. & Tl iliiii, nmiiiij liiiiii liinuiii I III 11 fill" Mill iiriiWi biiFna 

.l^binuiunmbUiiEif 
S«VI J, II. U. TUnila. BiiouJ— \<« ur linpninl uiarliUiii nr tppirwui for linlinnf 

foaucB SI ncaiiK tiaopo. and apptlsablo nbuUy at In put to ouni aUnUar purfiaaa. 



rxTKtr* APPUKD n>It WITH OOKPUm: RPSOinCATIOX. ' 

UIL B. D. Dnpriand li. I>ripor. UtrnvhtH^U-^SH and BHtel iBproTROcalB IB 
uU fcrdarv. 1me^^^ itr can* fur uillof nwJlklO'rj. — UrfvmbBr a. 

Has. I. Vifut. Psiu--A nav iluli bsLrr aliu 000 a Bwa •Uatlla itrllraMna 
auf t,«im aliAlf T"r Th^t wi^'lrijf nli klitil. iif ' ' — "■ — '^■""nh" 11 

HR. D. tVni. i^iisiuunt plut. Nph nwI-.lTiipnifMD(at la yrt—m onoinioM Mt 
oivau I'r ''■'niiliiiUuD uf in>n \n-nn, aliicli pf—M anooipaiyad Ui mmya baiaa 
ol {41I4D, iMMop. fml. and Dliinr anldna i4 mar c ba m lJjip— DooBLbar tl. 





THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



S9 



IRWrOL WKSLEYAN DAY SCHOOLR 

, IWUk ait eKftvciay, PlaU IV^ 

^kl WMqru Dar Sdioob iira to b« viAeA nMu- 
IK md WQ intoiiilwl u> oanuun •omiuBodatiaii fur 
of 500 ebiMrtn of the poorer daMM od tbe OUagow 
inUm. Tttepl&iia kaie been «qbmllt«d U^ uiil rMWlvad 
imh ot the CoianlttM of CouitcU on Bducntloo uid «f 

rKdattHouI OoniBitW*. 
v* intmilerf In b« of |Mno*Bt Moim with (reeatooa 
\ tmA ibo roof will be eavet«d wHb ORianaenUl tile&, 
jbt of tbe n<DUn(l sbvy \a 14 IM, uid tbe upper Hlorj 
t k||b to IM wall pint* nii<1 ±s fiMt \AA to tli« nlUng 
re r<i)«m bninf eellml at lli« l«v«l uf Uan ontkr baaai. 
I«nf the iiiliiiwii* WMlla ar* PlitwwL An oitrimr* 
ind m froDt or the aeboota will b« prorided with awiDga, 
Mvrrred pkr ibeda win be emrlvd at eilher rad fiir bojra 
napectir*)*. 

al M th« bniUliog, pirlii>iTi< of Kxindnrin^ plky ihadf. 
ba allMt XlUUU. Tlie Hruliitrvu mm MounL Foat«r and 



baalwHit 



CONSTRUCTION OF ARTILLERY. 

[ eUtii penainMOB ta rejitr to ionic remaika in tha 
which tuce avf^ared ia the Octulwr and Nuvtmbar 
ct yout Jvurmu, of tay work, " Oci tlia Phjticid Coti' 
iVQlvoil ill til* ('Oiutraclian 'it AruWerj.' 
or reviewer aturtH with alBriuliig, that "tti-'nigit by tlie 
lia w»rk It would appaw li> tr«ii miMv at tbn itn'Qtjth 
XM%k<Mi of calUMDi^at " Mr. JtallPtt'i priiifi|ukl uli^fcl 
Iwmla ■lyateni of kuown for the eoualraclMni of guiia." 
; ua duuved with advocating a hobby of my owo, oitdcr 
ia to my book. 1 deny tha acowatlon, and ii)ipaa] to tba 
If for my Tjudtouioa. A fair rariawar uuallj tot* an 
lOMilf Ntate hia " principal obJMt' I haw done an tbu 
ifeae : " It boovnie eviileat tiiat progreaa and inprtfva* 
■^ ' in l4e eFufiwji mtlkod at eolwinictkin of ordnanco') 
M^ in tbe firMiaatancai HOI from ijUMtinu aa to maUioda 
iaOibnl by tbaaataUialuueutof prlauijilaa; thataarianca 
tmtdntf yat raqnir»d to bo tanand and ■yatooaaUaad, and 
nLiut coauioBnoo with a non acftrchinf aod axaot dia« 
r the propertka of tha ooaatniatira malcriaU for ord- 
1 strict raferaMa t» Uxir porpoaa and aftpUaatioii — ll>au 
wait g^rtu by any oaa^ and ae fiir Erou tba particular 
im which 1 ha** aufgwtad for wrooxht-i'va pan, and 
ywutlilMtiag tba pnocipal object of my work, it ia no 
ftioMtleniailj atrived at aa a method by wliioh Um otbar- 
pinUe dlluulliaa of oauUniotliw wTmi^it-irua onnaoa 
dlbia in oua poaaa or biglBD. may H mat. Yf*,appar«ntl/ 
Wr raaaoa thaa batmuH Ui* oocim near tha and of tha 
^BlhlU gntnitoualy and £Uaelr aSirmed to be the 
P^ICttff a book which, well or Ul, eubnoea the whole 
fW^Mlof artillery oomlructiun, and Lrapartially dia- 
sgr Inown maUiod. 

Mft the matlianaticaatoployed in thla particular fraipaoat 
irit foot iwvMWor baa •jxint inoat of Iub critioal tbondar 
( ant half the Giat ntriew ia occupied with a Aooriah of 
tndiiiK in aa aquation IdunlicAl with one in Um work; 
Ladv, ao &r as tba tbooratlo 'luaation of aloatldty iu 
a'bailt-npicniia'' ia diacuMied, might be aafalj mt to 
r tt my frKndf Ur. Uarti in page 369. &c., of yoor 
It •amoer. 

lOMwho tuv natltauattciaiut and ac>iuaiut«d with the 
wfl] no4 be initlod by the nrfurcnoo* mada to oxperi- 
lala which havt no eustcnce. Your reviewer, when 
hI bf Dr. Itntt to name hii ex|wrt menial autliority upon 
laflraedtlial " when Ihdcublftd i-il^iuiou in intruiluced, 
looal tenaiMi i* approxiuuU'ly In ■ oonatant ratio (E) to 
lalaxtaaaloe" a n d toygearaloeforthaeoaBdwit E, 
BUlty obtained, for any ot tbr most ordinary countruetiTa 
I— ■• only aUe to reply, that " iu roditj-, aiialogout espa- 
h*va bean made," uid liiat " some aocoutit of the 
I of the MiV(Mt BiitT bo found" in Mr. Maxwell's P^>er, 
Idla. IVvua., and Mr. ttankina'a, No^ xxt. Cuah and DuK 
W. 

moat raluable memoir I han mora than oooe 



ttpr mo 

t 



rtferrcd u tn aay woft, and I aifina that neither is that paper 
(whkh [a almoat puraly thaoratlo. and not •sperlmanta),) aor fa 
tha puUiabad worka of any phyaoial np lo thia A^y, ia a aingla 
experiaaont to be foond from which any valno (macb lana a 
rauahle out) fbr the aoeflkia n t E, for wrmghtaran, can be 
obtaineJ-, but thIa U the only experimental dwtun «« ara hei* 
CBma af ttwl with. 

Now admitting aiyuMoM grmtia, that iha raviewti't oalni- 
latioB* woiT in aUotherraapeota nnnhjirliiinahl*. tha whole foroa 
of hi* ol^octiou to the propoaodeonatmeiioii of hiil^ap wnmght- 
iron gnaa ia baaed apoo the laanmption that the valne of (ha o> 
affideut B ia aaoh, for toUad «rn»ght4roin, aa practically to afiect 
tha roMlUt aa indjoatad by Dr. Hart'a foranlaadofAad by na;— 
in other worda, that the normal oompwiona an aetaally auffioiaat 
ia nawnnt pr«ctiaally to aObot tbe laiwetilial atiaina^ and there* 
fore nay not <nfely be ue(;lected. I belteve theea ia no eagineer, 
nor any pbyaMtt. aoqwaiiUad with aucb exparimenlal data aa we 
4a pnamaa upnn tba axtenaion anil oompraaioci of wruuglil-lroa, 
bat willatoaoeaiiMiitthat ita eubioJ bMraaaamaU a ntio toila 
liMnl unmpreaiioii or extemou aa not aeneiUy to alTMit tbe icault 
in (he oaM ander eouaidaratku. No ona kuowa what tbe exaet 
cabical omapMaiau or axleBMoa of wrooght'irua ia— it can enly 
ba rodriy g a aaaed at. 

{:i.) Hut icuu— luauming for a inomant thai your trvie-mr u 
qnilo riuhL L'poo bia own aaanmptiaii aod eakaUtlou.a built-up 
wroasht.ina guSt of a giTon eallhro, Bioat ba^ Cor equal atraigth, 
ooe-lliinl tbldiar than a ooiamon gnu (i. a cf ona pJaoa) of the 
Mmecalibrtk Now, tha entire aim and objeot in view b *4loi>tisg 
buill-up gnna ia here ignortd : that otmct ia to eaeuM thna th* 
diffieultiua dae to furging in one mata^ the ohief of which ia the 
want of unifurtn diapoaltiou of the flbn of the irou io ■ huge 
forged gun, in diraetioDo all either laagtthwiai, or wranplog 
around Uia oirountbnnoa of the gna; inelawl nf whidi we obiaia 
a eonfuardly cryaialliaMl dub*, like aat-irua. Beaoo the rolled 
wi>onght>iniu bat* or hoopa of Uic bailt-op gna are pncticnlly 
{nay, aetaally] a different material In imptnl to atPNigth, from 
the (oreed gun, taking oqntO avctiolM 

(4.) In pan 1 13 nf my work, yon will find that thia dilftracK* 
ID atmogth ID itoiiKTitiing like teixn lo oaf in lavoar of tbe (tilled 
iron oonititutiiig itie material of ttie builUup no. If, tlienfbre, 
Mcordiiig to your ivriewer, ih? thiolcnMa or Uie oommou to that 
of the bnlll-Qp goD, inoat be for eqanl atresgth, and of the aoaat 
matirM, 

naS : 3, 
from the greater tenacity In tha right direotlooa of the material 
of Ulo built^p gun, lli« thickataara will be 

aa 8 : ), or aa S : 0-41 
So that aveo npon hia own abowiug (if he wlU keep in mind ibm 
oonditinn npun whioh tlie biiUt'ii)i kiiu ia prapaMd), it will have 
cqnal nlreu|,-lti with a cuniinou gun of tbe aame oaLbre, at iaM 
Uan inwAajTMa Uiefenaa*. A gooid aamjile tht« of what nathe- 
matlca are worth when appliwl without ntbeniion to niaaatini 
eonditinna. 

(iV.} Tiiue and yvur apnoe woulil not admit of aty following all 
the Mnwraplia of your reviewer ia which tbare k other ground 
for i>l>jecUon. 

If, for uumple, " it ia detnntulraUe that the expkaire fotva p 
can never bo aa great aa the Utuaiun of ulUflMle rapture,* how m 
it that any gun ever bnrala I 

With a nther iiedantio aupamliuni, the raviarwer awuaai tae 
of not kuowin){ tli* diSeranca beiwaon ai* oi'm aad niomanMaa. 
Tbn* bo aaya, P and F being tlie weight of the ahot aad gna, 

P P 

my axpraauou, - t^ — r"*, " ia eleariy wrong, and alionld be 

S 8 

the momentuu of tbe ahot ^ that of tbo gnu. Botli are true; and 
it may eooifijrt )''-ur reviewer lo hoar that my ripRsaioti in thii 
iuatauco I* i'lentioil with tbe ()notatioaa gives bv Opiwuh]* 
Ttobort ftiid Moriu, who alwaya uae thoae fur Ht nm, and Uiit 
t/it mtntrnlum, in trotlinj i|ue4tiou* of recuil ; aod that for 
reawna >a obviom, that it li anrpriaiog they aliould aacape eo 
preoiae a tnithcmatiuiao. 

(U.) Acain, at p.)^ 131, I do i>o( eay that U t*, " tlie vh virv 
■vf fVonU u intnMurr«d aa a pr«MnTe a^usc (he interiur of ilw 
breach," but that " tbv latter," oaniely, tha tvoiil Itatjf, la u 
ttannfomxl. 

Charigea of achoolboy erron auj;ht not to be axit opoa rehd- 
Inga BO grualy cnreJeaa and ineorreot. It ia nut wuith wli''-' 
bowevar, to puraoa tbeae leiaarka Airtlier. A critical 



XX.— FknvAiiT, isa?. 



so 



THE CIVIL ENGDtEEE AND ARCniTECrS JOUBNAL. 



^ 



Uli ft hiab oOlMi-^k* u u A UttitM b«t«MB katbtrittil pab^K 
bat he aaitobM Ub oBm tad akaadaat Ui tntt, vim. ia pkee 
of nnnluif lb* maia iaitai ^ bb avther <r Iti (lama of 
foUUBMot, b« k ocm^M In abowing ifaa ^hMr of Ui own 
vwjwna, or i> M^Bg to pidi bolaa in aoow miaankbU fngtmnt 
" imatad fron tiia aaiin. 

,7.) Allow Bia to add » few worik upon a part of Tour aaecnd 
noiiaa af my worfc, p. 30T of joox Novambv nuBiber. 

Tha dlflouh^ tbat jrott bkT* raiwd ■■ to ay tiawa of Ui« Uv of 
^■jilalllina([iina«iiiiiiiriaal iiiiii. lull b»»M on tho i wu iiiption 
in dtoiaa oebaratl oaat maMai t1i« intc^ruit oratali sm 
Irona. Yo« «y I itote tbam to be to la pac> >!• Brfar 



tba page, 8tr, Aitd yoa «iU find tbta again ia » aumka Mtd nta- 
) your p^ Th» paaatgo rofan lo tb* htm cryatala 
Haimj tit tmititt La oatingw, uid tp notu other. Ha 



inotuJoa no your i 



rb wbidi [ na« tbe term, " prindpad axb of the oyatol, it, I b«li«T% 
ilaar, froni p«n^{mph lILp^eS^of my worki&nd eTCU froB tbat 
of tMDOt«, pL ii3, whitfi jau print, to whidi there la no pafttie 
frineipti. if oorraetly raad, wlut it alKrma U MsbraMd In two 
propoaitibOi : 
1. Tlat tbe aymiiMtrie nxia of ifae iotcftruit crystals u ooin* 
[«Uaut with Ui« directioa «t cnagcnce of the hot wave. 

S. TbM tbi» dirtoUon ia alao tb&t uf tcsat pramn witbin Um 
cMtnetlM and tooling UMBi 

Ima, wbatbar «aat or vrougbt, ncror ia fbnod orysUllind in 
taaa in oetobadrona ■ albait tbnt anoh nmy be one at ita primary 
' ftnoa ;— it ia dimcfpbow. 

I abilll bM nuampt to aatar ftartbar bai* npon any diacuaaiaa 

of nf vlawa of ecyattUlna aggragatfoB in naaa, a* iinHui(«d to 

kiba bravin with which mich k mbject mnat be livatod in your 

I balievo tltoy wilt be done full juattM to, and oocepled 

'ibona wbo wtU Uk« Iba tiouble to bmUt tbem; nnd that 

pnotlaal hnportaneo will ba Incraaalnfiy racogalaad, sot 

ily aa appUonU* to tbo eouatruelioD of Mtallary, but in vTrry 

^Mracture, eivil oc othar^at^ into wbi«li aryatklliaw bodies ealor 

•a nMlerinU. 

Xua,AK, 

BoDEBT UaLUR'. 

*«* In (be snmber of tkia Jtvmai for NoremWr wu ptib- 
' U letter tran Dr. Bail, of Trinity College, OttbUn, replying 
^._ onr nrieturaa on bta inTMtig»tian in tba appaodlx to Ur. 
Mallet** 'Traatiae on the Cotutmctaun of Artillery.' Knttwing 
Dr. Hnrl'ii wieniific nllainiDBiilA, we preinisetl lo our uiawer in 
l^ foUowing oambn- of Uw Jinirnai, tbat we felt " none of that 
" loelnaoa In ^«i|pjt^ in oontievor^ witb bbn wblcb wa abould 
1 if arguing wiw an opponent wbo mbatitatad emda pbyaical 
tioBafornnexactknowledgeoftneobsnitnlacienoe. These 
J war* dleiated in tbo hope tooaaMoineanit nowappanw 
— tbnt Mr. MalUt had left tbo daAaoe of hia cnnaa In Dr. Hartfo 
bnnda. 

(1.) Wo print the letter whiiA we have reeeivml ft-otn Mr. 

[JtnUet, wilhovl alturation eioepl that we have reatural to prefix 

abtn to Iba pangranha tJ hii iKivr, inferred to in the oorra- 

jpnragnphaer Ihia tv|ily. In th* parsf^rapb ounibtred 

'TlX ** *** aoowed of mia-itatiugt in our review the " priocipal 

object" of Mr. Mallel'a work. Uu tumins to ibnt review it will 

be bund that we axprMoly BckaowledgBd tbst. tbounh, " by the 

btleof thlawork, it wwild appear to treat aoMy i^ tLv dreugtb 

nikd oooatmctMO of canoOM, tbn invaatintlooa Into wbiob tbe 

r eaten wlate to Bubjoeta of tho hi ijl wat naportanoa to tba 

Iril caiiiMaB and etadnntof the grornl theory of tbeatMagth 

■i* aad maAded that tlve nubjecu " ot wfaidi uia 

itnalaareaufajaotaof wrj-guni'ml t'ltrnMt.'' 

Wo flunM therafore batv gi*ntly wronjirn.l Mr. Mallet, enn if 

^«e bava etred, an be aayi, in atattns that tlie principal object of 

I work la to ndromte a Kysten of hi* own wr Ibe eonatniction 

gnan Aa ftr aa we are aware, ha baa aowbero In bU worfc 

[slated explldtiv the priudud olgect of It, imlf It be in the 

rflnt pag«, in wtiicb ia a dedication in Uiga type to tba " PrinM 

MinuttT," in tbeee wonli : 

" My IjNd,— By yofu- kindly-axpraaaad pannlaaloa, I adorn 
tbii vdIwoo witb yonrnaiBo; in raBanbtaaeaof my owing tba 
appffoanhiM trial of a project tor tba improrement of otdiiMtee 
to tbe attaeuTO aad intefligcBt oonaidaialjoa of ita doagn by your 



-'ore yon, tid vUof iq 



jaUp, and la booage to a long cumt of able ud 
aerrioe aaa alaiaamanof thaBritlah Crown. Tba inTeatintleoa 
<n tbeaa pi^** **" Pf"? ■>'x^ i> pnparatioa of my Makaa 
i^ihi^ >wU parbit* ]h fpiliiBM 



in the motto of your Lordabip'a howaa ' FltH am />aiwi— I 
bare,ft«.* 

It appean, tbeo, that tbe "npriiot" of Mr, Malhfe in««ati^ 
tiooa u epUmtiaed by the worda, "to be bea t • uM , brokaa,* 
wbioh olaarij tabr to the nao of wrongbt^roa. and the ytojiBt 
maalioned in tba ftataeataaoeof thia dedioatua. It might ba 
naaoanbly infarred, wa think. Ibat Mr. HaUat'a priiwipal objatt 
wan tbo advoca^ of the pt^aet in vpM&oa. However, ba uuA 
know hU owu luotivea better tban any one elaf^ and ba baa now 
bad lb* oppomutiij of eattinghiaaeu fight witb ournadanoa 
tbk nonntaoa tooia 

(Sj Ur. Mallet doea not appear to hare read at leaat be deea 
not notjoa— our aoawar to Dr. Hart, in the DooNnbar niunber of 
tbia Jawnai. Tliat anawor ahowod that Dr. Hart hMl artind 
at bia luain (y>ncIuuou iaa to tbe pgaaLbili^ of oonatruating gona 
of unifurm t«iiak>u; by a paNMe princ^H. i, a. bv aiwming a 
qnantity lo ba oooatanl which be inteaded to J emon t nwa la 
bo *o. The aoddental alip in hie rouoniug waa oaa of thoaa ta 
which ibc moat praotioal mothematiciana an, notwi^kabadbig 
the uimoat nre, oocaHOnally liable. 

(3.) hir. hlallet aawrla, with quito an mncb ooafideoca u illawn 
tiuu, lliat the wliole foree of our "objeollona to the prapooad 
ootwtniction of bailt-Up wmugbV'inJti gnna ia baaed iip>ia the 
iption that the valne of tbe ooefficioot E ia auch, for rolled 



wrouffDt-iron, aa pnotionUy to aOktC the reaulta, aa indicated In 
Dr. Hart'a fomiula adopted by me." It amma aufficieat to reply 
to this by the (bllowlag nootttion frcia Dr. Hart'a letter to na 
(mtr Vi>l. XIX. p. 380}: "8iaoe by your aubeetpiimt hypetbeaaa 
yon olirainatc B, I annpoaa wo may eondude that tn« rranjt 
woultt ccmtinue to bold if E = a" Onr reaalt4v aa Dr. Hart 
retuarka, do not in tbe leaat depend cm parliealar valuee of I^ 
tboooefHdeutofcubicoampraaiiblli?. Moreover, we liave giiaa 
in onr rofdy to Dr. Hart, what era boHavo to bo a rigorooa 
demcnatratioB, on iba hypotheaie that E ia aeriitfiUe, of tba 
ImpOMbdlity of eDawtructin^ a gun eo that It itZ\ bava mi- 
Ibem lonalau wh«u eabject to eigdosive fore*. We eoaaider it 
tberafera d<.'ni'>ii"if«Uid, on bcfh laaumptio*)* aa to tbe law of 
daatidty (_i, r. th« ooramogi one adt^ited by Mr. Mallet, whIdi 
Dcgtccta K, and tba more aeoonta one wbicli takee £ into 
aoooBnt], that his " proJMt" ia a pbyaical iBpoaability. 

(3.) Mr. Mallet aaya, " tbe eatiia aim and otgeot in view la 
adoptitw built-up gtina" are " to eeeene tba* tbo dISculliea thm 
to furgntg in one maee." Wo thought that a«a ti bb cljiati 
wae incToaae of atmngth. Tbe practknl adeaatagM ef B M gtBg 
in aevcrtd parte we readily admit to be ooaridenriile^ tf U^ 
eaa be obtained witbunt loea of Btreagtb ; aad it wia to tba 
latter eabject akme that we eaplieitly confined our inveetlgatlaBB, 

(4.) At page II3of Mr. Mallets werit, lie refm to tbe relaUv* 
tenaiJe atroiucth trf' wrnitEbt-ir»n in (he dinctioo of ita AbronA 
aeroaa it. He tbeu drnn a conoliiaioo na la the Jnertaaa af 
atrangth of mna, in which the andodva etiniai ata all rariam 
by wrooghMran in the buu of Ami Kvaa aappoaiag ba hu 
oavraetly eatimntnl tlii* incraaM, )l wiD not ftiUow that <t la daa 
to the peculiar inpthod of constmotion advoeatod by him. Tte 
peraliarity of hi* method ii^ w« believe, tbe eupcrpcniliaa o/ 
ringa aa uMri vwlv "abrank em" at dUfawat tempeia tw . It wan 
to the value tt tnat novelty that we cooflaod our attenttoa. Tba 
naa of gima which rteijit the oiploaiva ebaina by t«iuaoB of limt 
in the directi'in of ita fibre, is no novdty. Uf the oonaAraotka 
of wronght-tron hooped guna there are innomccable examplii^ 
anoient and modern. 

(A.) "Oi* quantity p, to whidi Mr, Mallat nkn, la aaad 
tbrangboot oiir ioveetiKationa to dnnote an aaploaifa folta whkfc 
a ouuum may bmr wilboitt niptun\ Anything more tban Ifaa 
niuai auperGciiki ku'mlcilsu uf tbe thtKiry of tba teaaiiim of vtaab 
would have prevented bun from oombatiug tba ptopeoitiea to 
wliicb he liere objaoia. 

(&) Mr. Ualkt aayi tbst tbe equation 

P F 

ie» = ^.«, 

S 9 

and tbo propoailioo that the moui«atuin of the abot = tbat of tbo 
gun, ara both true. The Utter propwit^oo give* 

P e = p-e-, 
vbeooe, oorapariog with tbo fanner eqiutioo, it foUowa that 

= 0'. 

or tbo vdoeilT of the balTe projection ia equal to that of tba 
(MHMtL'arawI Wereallyai^bl inapologiee to oarraktu'a for 



THE Cmi. ENGINEEtt AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



II 



taUaf ttp apM* by •zpo^ag bhodan m groM. Mo nttnaam 
imgmaba pnmafmot tha worla of Piob«t and Morin bjr Mr. 
Mum, hvt it ia da>r Miaiafth tkftt ba wMt )■**• mii^prabaidod 
IbowMtkon. 

(0.) Mr. Mit])«t MjB we hkvs ails«ut«d tiU ——■'■> «t pu> 
134 of bin work, awl th*t it i* not tka nw piom of IMoQ, ImI Uio 
w tni l iUrU, which lauaorfwToilMftpnMumistinMUwbiMdL 
Both etpreauona ar* oliko inoomct. To ny ihtt ritbiw tiio 
miooliT of Twooii. or tha ou cfM «f lUat rclocitjr, u » p>[««ur« ia 
to oaadound tba uaamireof iSiiiW forw wirh niMauraaafdjB^ 
nlat] *6r«U, dapondant o« oii>:ALor t>Irii>«ut liarito ta u » 
mauij, timm. Ifr. MalM nkoa ho aoniae of tba otbor bluadan 
wUtk «• ospaard in tbta f—T'f of hia boak-Mulaa tlio rsmark. 
■boat " tryiaA M ptok holaa fa ocnie ininniblo fn^aiaat dwoiiUad 
tnm Um aBtiii^' nfitn to thoia. Huivlr «« •hunU abandoii tha 
IraMof whkb ha i^Moks ao MtUjr, if, <li«>efn(iig cmto whUh 
ahow ui triUreomfoMaaaf tha almwirtajy priiuipUMardjaaalia, 
* Ued to appriaa oar raailata of than, 
f Jir. Hum aava that onr ol^eoiioti 10 lua " law of orTttalliae 
poloa of caaUnM* i* all baand on tka tUMmption, that ia 
oaharcat out niaaoaa tlia laiagranl Btya4alt ua oaCoW 
1." and that iroa ia out " foaiKl oT^aUUiaod in IBM* ia oali>> 
' fcajfftaa, alheil that raeh laajt ba oae of iu prioMfjr fiii lui Jl ia 
dioMrphoua* — (i.a. haa two fonsa^ What iathoMoond fvnal 
All Iha oTTalala of inm caKainljr faaloog to th« oubaal or odo- 
haJWl ajTMont, and tborafaro hara rtfw* rcotaagular oqoal nxtm. 
nimt ara a»a of ■jminotr;; and ttia dtficalty anae from tha 
iiieMiaiaii.ii of Mr. Mikllet «pcukmit of tha axia of tbo arratal aa 
<«^ vhtroaa it liaa Uuea aaob If TmauUie aio* of «aliieaJ or 
oetoha d r t l orjrMab ba aslNefdaU " vitfi tbo direolloa of atanrgenoa 
d tba boat wava,* a* b bara atAtol. tli«T hara alao &Ma p*rpi*- 
dfarilr t* tbo dtraetion of that wan: •» that tit* Uw, a* to 
■aAottiMad, givea no iofonuatioD amtn ibc poaitionof tlia "phoM 
of waataiw^' which iliat U« waa iateaJail hj- Mr. Matiot to 




m 



XEW SOFBCE OP POWER 

TmCvmaj aUanipta th^t hava baaa natia to apply alaclrlcity ai 

a niotira power, and aa a aeaM of illBtBinaAunk, hava hitWto 

Ui«di> etiMly froa the waal of aona ehtnpar rneana of exdtiaf 

that feraa i ur iha ooat of tba *allaio haUatiaa avployod t« pro> 

daai a Rtvaa aAot, haa Kraatly auMtUd tlia ooat of ataam or of 

Oa. A I'heapar moita of esdllng otectriciCv ia all tlwl i* mjuirad 

to mtdrr it Gstromoly aca-vieetble id taxur ilnrartHM'iita of tha 

aria. aiiJ nuflwiiNu atUuBpla hava coiwequcfitiy bc«n uiade to 

atUtu tJiatohjact GoMidariBg tlw ouuiv muroaa fhxn which It 

ia known Uiat cicctridty can ba obuiii«d, any da^ aiay hring to 

light arqiM moaiu uf rendering tho |iowar pnetiodly avaiwole. 

It i> wrll known that a looomotiTe eugine ffeneraloi, at rvoi^ 

ytirli.f it«pi o g n aaonamllway,aaainoQntof«teotridty enoMh 

Ui kill nil tbr paaaangara In ita tmin. Puriocthe buming of a 

alulle, nlw, I'bnuical aetlona eonu iatn play aomcttot to produce 

an alraiiJiuit otpply of drctridty, if the nwAna ooold Iw diaoevarad 

tf daveloping uie tnwar whicb in thui imprroeittibly genenOcd. 

iaovaai«bt iif t)odIta In cicav pnjiimity tu luaffnola haa bern 

I (o ilcviilfipa torroDla of Hentricily; an<l ProKaaor Furndny 

ahnwn tbat tbo iimasniou into acidulnl^i) wntar of iiiiauU) 

uf siao and ooppor wire, gooiciiiln, in lom than a minutt^ 

iBob olmtric fonx na ia dwi-lowd duriuK a powerful thiuider>- 

^ With thoaa and other kiiowd nmni nl conitnand, it, 

•««■» reiT probabU, that er« loug the aou^l-far 

of power and of light may bo obtaioml at a mta more 

ical Uian rill>«r ■team or gaa; luu) whpo tliat i* aocom- 

aocial ohaugaa aa great aa tboce prodiicnl by aUam loeo- 

or by ^ lighting, would diorllv be llie oooaM^uaooar. 

Among tba naaiu of aoeamulaliug i-lMop aloru of olMtrldtjr 

Uiat at [Tewnt give moat prouiao of pruclicallv uaaful raanlla^ fa 

Ih* *xtrnunliiMr|r derelopBent of power ta the induetioa-ooil 

InMOlad by M. uohaikan, of Paria. Thr ootnmon nodioal-ooil 

mathtm la a nlnlMiua repraarnlailvi? of that afiparatiw, iwd tlie 

rfirti hava bacD ao mach tncroaiod by rt^c^i^at itnpruTMiiMila 

tflMtel by Ur. Harder, of Plyoiouth. »* to pIncb the improvfd 

tppMatuv Marly M noob above M. Htiliuikorira, a« the Uttar ia 

1 lapcdor In pow«r to tlie medical iailuciiuDoiil. 

I Tbenporation of tlifadaaaof a|ip>niiiiii dtruiMids u)mii brluging 

I tMoaotkxi tlia aacoodary cnrrMit, which i* idwuyii itjJiicnl wij«U 

a miMit Ca auda aod brokan with o. voltaic Intlfr^-. A* the 




appaimtoa baa beau hlthorto aonatriMlad, avm wilb Ur. Haardn'a 
improTMiiaiita, bo diraot naa la uaila of the corrent of electrieity 
pnnMu^lr cxdiad br tha voltaic baMar?, tha rSeet beio* enlitvly 
prodno^ by the indaaad oomnt trMMmittad Ifamigh lEe BBcood 
wire, which ia coiled romid the ctia that eondvota the al«Aridiy 
of tba batwry. "Hio power thaa maalfgaiad aaou, tbertfera, t» 
be a dsar addition to that of tha dtraet aetioa of tha voltalo 
battery; and tha aArcta It nrodoeae, by tbo action of a Moall 
number of noe Mid ooppw plate*, grratlv eiceoil in iateoaity aur 
that can be oth«fw4*e obtained from t&e moat powerrol voltaw 
cemUnatioB*. or team the largtat eleotrioal macbtnoa 

In tha oitiNtmctioa of the Improved ItidocUon-oell, tha tbMt 
wire (bmaKh whidi Ibo voltaic corrHit i* tranamiltcd ti womtd 
romid a wooilon hollow oore, about 10 inehM long, and oror that 
ia pineed a (.titiaperdia tube, on to which tfaei«la woua<l abnt 
thn* mllM •.'f lin<< onppn- wlra, aboot the thldcBtaa of aawlm 
dlk. wi>)l inntUtnl by iillk and vamlab. To thi* ajipannR w 
applied a apting anaKtnrr, that antotpatiatlly breaka and makoa 
eoiiiaat opwaroa nf a thonuind times in a aecnmd ; and at Mdi 
break of oontaetthroogli tlie priniaiTwi(a,a«iirpe(itof«leclridty 
l« InitiiTHd In the luug eoil of thin wirtti Ur. Hnvnlcr )■>• aacat^ 
tainr,^! thut the olMtrtdty etdtad by thie apparatu* whnn actuaiod 
by a Tollaio battary of twelva celliv neowU thai i-idtr-i by (K» 

Elate electrical niaohlBia, each t wrt in diameter, and kepi fat 
rick action. Meiala «er« iu«ilti<d wlthgRatfodliMr,aiidtorr«lKi 
<^f brilliant aparka, 9 inebta long, pawiifbetwaw ta* tamlHta Of 
tha atcnndafy wit* 

Th«c etfectaaro, In addition to th*olaotridCy,du« to tha dirrct 
Bctiou of the battery, ami the fo««e )■ thiu exhibitad to a form 
hutniiely more iuteuar than wlien tnaamiltMl thtmigh the wfim 
c>iinr(n«>l with a voltale battery In the oflUnaiy nUBBcr, ho*^ 
aror Inrgn or numorona tha »eH«a of ptataa may b*. It la a 
poeiilUritv, alaa, of than* aecondnry eomata, that they may ba 
derelopeif either in aformof great intenalty aoaatogtvcpaaraHM 
ahocks, or iu Uripi iiiuvntitv an a> tu foae metati, bv pnnottioDlag 
the thicbnaaa and length of tba wife to tba affKtMi^tiWi. Ilia 
asdtaniMit of electricity by aeonndaiyenmMa wna diaii'verfd by 
PnAwiiir Fanday not many yt*n ago. We hare lera htm wrapt 
Ib Mimiration at the phmnmena rtiaooratad by himaetf, aa axbi' 
Mied ia ItuhmkoriTa induetjoci-oiril. "nieae pbenomeDN have 
been audi eiw.-<)etl by tbe improved appaiatu* ef Ur. Baarder, 
and tha pribciplu Niomi oapable of being fttrtliar applied ao aa l« 
beeoa* practically uaeftil. 



STREET PAVING. 

Ix addition to tbe aabtornuieotia dninage which haa oacupied tba 
pablic atleotton ao nnob of lal« wa ata bapny to &im1 that aa 
eltecttial reuwdy atema to have bam at laogth provided for tba 
evila of mud, duat, aoiae, and danger to horaia, ao aompluaad df 
tn the tbomi4^<M«o of tho melropolia. TU* remedy ia pro pu aad 
to be plAwiol Xv wliat ia termed a compoalta parioib pataatcd by 
Sir John Svtt'Lillie. 

The cooipooent parte of thi* paving arc won! and gnuute^ in 
altenint« twwi^ fomiod into blucka of about i rwt iu luogtb by 
I foot iu width, and it or 9 ineba* deep, wienleil witli aapbaltefc 
Tho matariala are rendered impervioua to water by hHumfaiMm 
lamoat, which give* tbem the advaniagaa of ftaadem frnn djMl, 
mad, noLM^ and danger to bonati wud by being fbmad into 
UodcB of about 3 feat aqvaro^ bdlitica aro nOarded for removal 
ami ra-laying, whaa aocaaa to eaa or water ruud* i* randaivd 
naoeamy. The dutalulity of tba luauriala appear, moraovtr, t» 
be rcrycunaidarably iBartaaed, If we may judge f^m aiiedmeu 
that linvo nndatgoae aevera taata by heavy wagona in oual- 
marahaBtiTvard* <<>r tlie but ttinoyoans without any apparaot 
iBJntr; aau from a *t<aoimeD laid duwii nl ihn cummenceaioat of 
Uat year at tlia Uolbom etui of SoatluimpUH»-*tnet, Bloouwhury, 
vblob baa bson aobjeetad to heavy traSo leading to tha Euatoa- 

auara railway atatioa, and to the whola of tbe traffic uf Holhorii, 
kieh W(B (lircrled into that atraat wbilu Uolboro waa being 
repnind during tha onmmaaeemenl of lacl niuuuoi'. 

Whan the vrfiuMa of our atrteta an tha* relie>«d from the 
evil* adwrtod bi, and our aublarntnaoiM dtainaipe oarried off to 
the aaa, a* ooutamptated by oui .MviropoUuui CuniuiitaioneTa, unl 
the pollul««l waiara of the Thanica abo purilicd. tli« inhabilaiila 
of tbia giaat amporJwa of trmlSu will have reaaon k> be gratet'itl. 



ttt 



TOE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



MODE OF TIMBERtNO SHAFTS. 

A iMtun WH Ut*lj d^tivcrvd b; Mr. Warlogtoo Smjtli kt 

he OorcnunMit School of UitiM. Tba diArvuco b>Hween tbo 

DM nodM of timbering ahafta in tba aeveral looUiticB in Ui« 

1 dteuicM WM poiutvd oni, and inaUnoea wen nhuvu «( the 

^iTorthani imJ Soaivnctdbin; oolliarice. A huowlmlgc of tba 

jIMtboda of tJRilMriug WM bigliljr aawDtlal to tb« lalncr, and aa 

1iia portion of iniDiag iraa v«rj axpaMlvti, it waa roquiaita tb^t 

he apnt afaoald b« prrfpctljr aoquaintcd vitli tho •tnU, ■□ m 

Ito be able to euouomiM) wiib a due regnnl to mfety. lii tlk« 

kfflBM In til* Harta UuuuUin^ and U Solimiuita, Ui* sh&fU 

limre ver7lar^illaabarlhanwaanlenliAi], and oould be obUioMl 

yat a dinp rats, aad, aMwaqatDtly, «u Doit •» great an objaet 

(In aonie caam. u «itb iKwan, traUr workit and milibuy tntiiH, 

rbere it was not roiairvil the abaft ahould but Tor a ouuitidenble 

' ne^ only aligbt tiuberuig waa u(i«d«l. Diogmus aud uiodala 

' the VMioae luodae of temporarilj tiuibcriuu ■hafU wtire tlimi 

howB and diicribml. Mr. Siuyili obearved thai io oar metalli- 

liNona mine* iu Coniwnll lomt gnoil exMOplea of tiubaring could 

be eeau, wkI the Corniab lucibud ^nm mueh tnorre aecurs than 

that prnctiMd In Comberland nnd l«iieaablr<k. The dilTerMioe 

rbttmen tiie l«oa7*tan» wnit llliMti«i«d b^dlavnuue and modola, 

''nd a wnll-axnmted cuodd ot a mine in the LlvoraUm* diiitric(> 

ipUnato«v of the niode of titqbwinff ievoU and ahnn*, wai trn 

lie tablr, and deeoribed. Therr bM been a gtent ilifli-Ktice of 

r»plitlo«i s« to whether it wu better to sink a aluut penieudiculu-l; 

Mr Ola an tDcline; In aoote eaaea tbe latter wait oDueliTaivd pnfer- 

niUe vrbcr* it »b» on tb« undertiue of t1i« lod». bni in eimaral It 

nam thiMKbt, if proper!; ef>iiiitnict«d (br tho purpou at dmwinf[ 

aa well na fur otbor cnufeuicocca, that a imrjicncllculnr ahnfl 

raa th« laoBt ecouomioal; in an iBolined abaft iUv caps linve 

greater tNidenn to brmlc. Tbe aliafl at Andreuiber);. id th« 

I, waa 410 fathona Id depth, luid It bwl btta fiiutid 1ier« 

thn liiubcT biul bci'D prcuni'viid by occaMoiinlly bring 

bgr oeld wator. Tbia waa eonaiiiBnid of ao audi im- 

I that pifwa had been earried ditwnfroiu tbe aarliioe, and 

% inlengediate plaoaa plnga had been dnwu, and the timber 

leatared, naeb in the Muna manner aa it Uin roao of an eugtoe 

had been apidied. It waa fonnd ibat tbia modu of Lrrigating die 

limber proiorvul ii for a \*a^ of tiine, and in bia ojilnioii Uie 

pnaervmliou and eoanoniiaaUoD of limber had eot roMlved the 

allsutloii lint iiicU au tuiMrtaut lubjcal mtrrited; owing to the 

laf aenoe of Lot air, aad olbnr cauaev, it waa liuble to decajr. 



SEt.F-INOICATlMO BALANCE BAROMETER 

M Snconi, of Itontp, haa recently Invented a new enoiatruatinn 
nf Hirometer, whicb poeaeaaea the advantagea nf not being liable 
tt lie broken, of girint Itie reading* cxnet which aneroid* and 
othera do not, and of n^oriling tnoae reultngi by ■rlf-acliiig 
tneetianlain. M. Secchi M711 that all IniproTemeiita ifiitherlo hare 
bees Hnited to the emidovmeni nf lArps tiib«a to avoid ihe erila 
of capillary attraction, and to the obuintngof gmtter exartSliide 
in the rauliiigL All att<iniplji U) m.^ko t£e initrnitiDnt gniphia 
—that in to aay, eelf-iicting to rMwrd the diffirenl v^^iati^m■, and 
to BuJce the iadloationo nion minute — bare not yol been auo* 
eearfU. The principlM on wbltrh t)i« new bamlneter ia eon- 
■tnicled will boiiDdenitoad by tlie fallowing alAtoTnent: — Suppoae 
the cnTctte of a barometer to be placed on a table and the gbux 
Ube eo unnsvd u to vlmit of iu being liftn! by hned. Tlia 
ftmw that will b* rt^uinyl to lift the tube will be eqnnl to the 
weight of Oiercnry In the Inbo, or in ot]i«r wiwla, to tlie amount 
of atnoephctic nrounm eierclan) on the mprciirv of the Inatni- 
ment We ehall tlierefon; bp able to rmlly weinh the priwiure of 
the nlmmphere by attaehiog the baromoter (ihc tube only) to one 
etid of a babinoe, and weigfite to the oilier; tir it ii erideut thai 
at tnrj change in ntmneiifaer^a preaaure a oorreaponding IncrMae 
or dtoreaae in wriKht will have to be mad* at the other eml of 
the balaooe to maiuin «|nilibrium. To aaoettun the value of 
abeolale preanure on a unity of »iirfiioe, it will be neoMury to 
take into OMiaideratlou the WHiKht of the lube, and alaoof the 
wetghiof that portion tbertof wlileh la ininienied in the mercary 
ooDiained ia th* envntte, and eapeclatly the interDal aretlonnl 
ana. The ki>owlcil;:e of the Utter, ao far from being an oh>*wl<<, 
la a poaiti*« advantage io (Mietraottou: for, by in<rr«uii>g Ihe 
eeetlaoai ana, tlie fbrae that aotnaini the iiialruinrnt will al«o be 
inoreaaed, and will ooneequenllj uermil uf more eini-t luid more 
^adiuga. If the aectloual area be IU equate oeulimetne, 



and tlia preeaore vuiea h^ oauUtnMre* in height, the w«ight to 
be ptaoed at the other and of the balance wiii be that of ll» 
enhleal eenlimelKa of norouij, or ISA gramum^ while, if the 
aectionol arM had born equal to one aquare oeaiinwtre only, ih* 
weight would have been but 13-& gramaea 

Slartiug from tbeat obaMrvatioM, M. Secchi adapted the 
MtowinK eonalraolioB for hia bamcoeter, wbidi liaa been made 
and naeiJ in the obeenraioTy at Rome. The baronieteical tube la 
attached tooueoiid af a itculrard or balanced lever, wfaiehcArriM 
at the other end a countothaUnoe wdght and a pointer, IS miUi- 
motrea, or |-lneh diameter, which ia radeelad in a mirrur. Thia 
mirror alao rvfleca a graduated ecale, ao tlut the variation of 
1-lOth of a line of th* pointer ia indicntni by a moveaieiit of iti 
line* OD the redeoled image. The wriUr euumeralea the CoUow. 
ingadvantage* peculiar to hia iuveiitioQ}— 1. Aa theatmoapharie 
preamre m weighed, aad not indicated by th* hcigbtof the oolnmn 
of mercury, the tube may b* cooatnioled of any DOD-fn^ple 
materiiU, *uch aa iron, which doea not anMlgamaie with the 
moremtj, provideit the bore ia of equal diameter throaghoai. S. 
By increarin^ the aeetional area of tlia tub*, the additiaoal 
weight will give aulhoiout motive power to a pencil attached to 
the other end nf ih* kver to mark tlic varialioRa of atnm- 
apberio preeaare. Ii. Uy the interventim of aoilahle gaaoB^ 
the acale of obaen-atio'ua may be aagmenl«i withont iMoa- 
venieiiea or danger to the esactneaa of the betruinent. 4. Tte 
new eonatraolion la independent cf the form of Ihe ninkcite, of 
tbo pnri^ of the mercury, of ita epeiaBe gravity, and of the 
teenperature and diflereDoo of gravity pvouliar Co differait 
latitude^ Cbr all theaa ({naltUe* exerdae influenoe upon the 
volume of nwrmn', and on the height of the eolama of namH^ 
in the toha, which haa to be maaaared to oblatu the wai^t of 
atmoaphoric pmaeore, whcreaa, with the new iartrumont, the 
weiffht t* given at omoe. Another ad van t^[e of etnploytng iron 
f<ir baromelrical tubes ie, thai there in no danger to Mar frmn the 
ailheAioii of air or mciieture, and that the mereurv may be boiled 
without rcnr <rf bnreline. Iron barnmetr^ml loDn* will llkewiac 
permit of other fluid* neing enipluyod, and probably adrao- 
Ingeously, iost(«d of mercury. Tue writer fiirllier atatea that 
he invariably found hia new lmn)iiiett*r iudlcate variatioiiR of 
atmos|>herie preaanre before otdinary bamenetere did ao, and that 
by nvi..i<llug Ion ftam friollon, moataxnet iuHlruinenta may te 
p'rmluo^l. Ill* penual of the d«acription nf tliie ingenlea* 
mventicti hasaiig^nateiliUapplication to lomo practical f nrpiMM, 
which are anbrnitted to tlic attention of enginDering and aacatiftt 
■lien- Tbe auggeetion hne for ita object to cauHtruiil— 

Ai'DiBLB OR DjU'OKit'SioMALiviNo BinoHETms, whidi. If 
placed oil board a ahip, would tell Itit- CAtiuiin and tbe wholecrew 
of tho approach of atorma ; or which, if pbicod in minea, wmld 
warn mincra and inepecton of thu presence of Hrc-dimp, aa weO 
a* indicate its preciae locality. For this purpoae it woaM be cfdy 
neoewary to (uiploy a weighing baromettfr, the pointer of which 
waa oorapoeed 01 aoni? inlmble oondnding mstorinl, but Inaulated 
fhMU the rret of the ineti-umenl. Tho pointer ahould he in eom- 
inanicaUon with one of tho pole* of an elcctro-mnnietic battery. 
The dial, over the faoeof which the pointer would nave to tncrmL, 
ahoold be compoaed of glaaa, or other suitable non-eondnethf 
material, with itintAlllr points tnaDrtod at those grMktlo&a which 
iodlcnte dnngtin>iia vnriHiitiiia nf utmoepberio prcuiur*. llieae 
pointa would have to he plncoit in commonioation with the other 
pole of ilia buttery. The ivaili^r wilt readily see, by tbia anmnge- 
meiit, tlwkt vrhvu till! prentunt uf the auuu«phere ahowa the 
priMence of danger, either at *ie:i ft'oni atnrnut or aqnalli^ or Iu 
loinoa friim the ncpiiiiiolution of cnrburettod hydrogen gM, the 

Iioiuter will como in l-ouIocI with tbe metallic ibutsar-pniut in Ihc 
lux of tbe dial, anil no oumplete the elwtiio ciivuit, which would 
have the effect, by the iuterveuUon of the urdiuarv or wetl-kaowk 
apparntua, of ioiiii<IIofan alArum, eithar by rlnEnigabril ortx- 
ploding gunpowder. The arnuignmnuta may ba varied to nit 
tbo particular caae, by making tho dial of eome oondncttng 
material, and the daugerpoinla of non-oondncting materiaU, ao 
that it witulil be thr bn»kiog of tbe electric otrontl that would 
give the alLrni. In tliv nuui uf ahljM, tbo baroRMter might be 
pl.iQod in the cnptjiiii'i ctbin, with an alnrunt thcr*^ and another 
on deck near tbe wheel Wliile in mine*, a barometer ahould be 
ptat^ iu every gnlterv, with au nlnrum to warn the minere who 
might be there; and tt ahould al«> he In ooramuulcation w|ih an 
alnrura and cornujHxidinz diiil i[iili>\ttor at tbe mouth nf the pit, 
ao that the overlooker miglit at nil time* know the atate of tbe 
atmosphere in every part of tbe mine, and be duly warned. 



J 




THE OmL EN6INEEB AND ABCHITECT'S JODRNAIa' 



*i 



I 



ST. ^AHBSlS PAKE. 

JtttM^i P»rk at the nrMonl tima loolu alnort in « 
law MBdJliaB. Ii uMiiDM at fint (igtit attf eaovA, aftar 
new atwar wax nuds, to dnin tbfl wnt«r fnm tba ttko uid 
to Icrrel it; bat na aooMr wm tba worit coMMnnwrf, tbaa an 
Ibbmiim nombar of eopkim aprin^ wan tapped, wtueh being 
babw the lenl of ib« outUi, ooald not be eam«d off bj tW 
qHIhuj nMluNja. Il wm fboBd imiiiai] ta alnk a aiuiiph or 
K w*n, at tba ml of tba bin oppe«il« tba Horw Giwr^ to 
KMtJT* tlw pfndun or thaaa awtagi, wd to araot a donbh-Mtiaa 
fmup, woriwd hj ■Uwui, to lift tba water Into tlw new aewer It 
WH alaa been fimnd rcnniaita to U7 down tfarew Uaea of tS-tnch 
dnrin pipM almtg ibe bod of tbe'Ukti, to oonduct the wat«r lo 
tba w^l, bialaad of ibmaitli euttinK*. u wu oripn^ly intrnidixL 
Tbear {npM ara now btiag carei«d up wHh earth to wiihin S het 
of the auriko^ wkiiib will than be cowed over with eancntto at a 
onUbrai ibiekneM. Whan tba whole uf the bed of the lake ia 
thoa eoupleloil. the well ■rill be (illnl uji witb ooDctet* alaOi ftwl 
IImm tba ootfaU iuto lb« aewer will lie mffioietiUy high tbat (b» 
water At any ttgaa naj ba dnttaied off bj itm-ibttion, m tfaat, if 
neeeKiuy. three or fear tinae a fear, with the uniu&cc ofaoma 
docm men, the lake nay ba dwuiead In a alngle day. 

Tba worka ar« now pfoooedinit mpidly, uuTtbAt nurtion of tba 
lake brtwean Baeklucun PoIim aad the proponed naw bridg* 
il n<nrly levdlad. AeoDi a humlreil mra Are at work, and grmt 
ttforta are being made to eomplete the worka hy tbe end of April. 
Tbe exoarationa for the foiudatioii of tba Dew brIdM ban baen 
nuk, aiid the bMenienta of the bridge will baiaunedlatety 
ttoUbad. Tha oontnttots, after dimiag A or S Uvty came to a 
bad G^ aolid peat of eocuo S feel in ibiekneM, whieh cut liko eo 
IBBell cbeear. Bud belnw tbli eMoa ]x>i>-«r(ul ipringl ware tappail; 
wUeli ootnpelted tbe civctiea of doubla-octionod pOBpa^ that are 
iMw fai fbll operainn. 



PBOPOSED NEW SUBWAYa 

0« tha I0(h nit, tba Ifatropolltan Board of Worka omo to a 

dataminatioB to rahr tba qneatlon of eubwaja under tba propoaed 

now eireeu in iionthwark and Waatuinleter U> a oommittae, lo 

adriMe *■ to the beat eoone to be adoplad. The ■ubjaol at fint 

aMl oMona a timpla one, but in practice it iafooud full of difli- 

raiUeeb Tbe Praneh Bntperm', to tbe new aireeta tlMl hare been 

fanncil in Paria, baa onUted Uie eonatruetinn of eubwaja, liir 

theparpoaaof laying tbe dilfcrentpipea for eew^ce, wMar, gaa, 

and tdcgmpbie wire*; but, aUbfliif h cheat Mn>eta mii faradvaoeid 

towarda oomiJetion, AkletmMi Cabitt, who Intel}' inapecledtheiH, 

■talad that Uiuy ^ra fir frt>ni satitifitctQcy. The •lueatlun of aab- 

wayeitadcr thcitmrtilicanipanltvely a new one; bnt Ita im- 

pikHUMc <Mi hardly be over^citlinitted, eapecially aa ngiude the 

ntottofwitU. It wa« Knt proiMumled by tlic lute John Harliji, 

the painter. There are (evvn ur eight ditTurrut gaa oompuiiea, 

umI aa many waiur ooia^AiuM, whi> drit-e ihoir jiiu^a and uuvion 

BaderDaatk the diflereitt thruauhrarea. In adJilinn to tliiii, in 

alaa<aLe*t(yatrMithoroiaaBiiiiiiaeww,witli Iha vnrioiu |>nvnUi 

•MpilUri'K At preaent tbe lrk-gni)ihia wlraa niu throagh a few 

ial«c«t«, bat e«» uinuy yrAn elupir we abnU ftnd almoat every 

|KraBt proTid<«l witlt Ui<.> nuiuiii of idtynpkic eoniniuiiicnUoiL 

|31ow oft»n th««i vArioiM pi|ie» miJ aewen rer^niro npair every 

LLmidoiier know* (o bi* oo»l N<>«oon(T batctheworkinnn made 

tbe tbomngblftre, lifter hi<>-iii|[ down watei^pijiei, than the 

I ciitipauiea braak U up again; and when tbey hare lSni>hod 

'Ir wurk. tlie evwen are fouud to bciniuSdeut, and neir ooea 

Kraluil dnwn. It la ibr tha purpoee of obviating tJiOMMiuoyanoee 

(Liuil Uio pr-poaiiioti of a icriea of aubwavi i» tnggntad. The 
ueeire i*. that uod*r eroty etroet there ahnll be a lorl of tationl. 
In which, eido by aide, (be vurioiudeaoriptionHuf •eweraniidpijiea 
Btay run, ao tlinl tbey nLtv at nil lime* bo aconwiUe wiiboiit llie 
uocceaity orbr«nkingiiptli« nuvlw&y, and tCorfuriug with the 
IrftlBc. By thia uk*ii« nrw (cb'jth -t i)i|>#ii uuuld be uwily Uid 
down or npiuced at » mtidi leu exp<-n«r, and without ioMu- 
YuIeocB. To adopt thin lyatvui thmughout the whole motro- 
Mlia would inrulia an euorinuoa outlay, wkioh the Metiopo^tan 
Board of Worka would beaitate to inour, at Iraat for the preacntt 
an.| tbey, tharefare, propoar that for tlie nonieiil exporimanta be 
triad in tbenewMreeta wbieb Uiey aro aeehiit); far ]>uvenilomb- 
aunct. En thk tbey are piinaing a juHlcioiia oourx^ aa, wbeo 
^_ tbe ftreela ai« bdng made, Uie outlny will be oonipnntirely 




trifibg^ and ahonbl Ih* plaa anooMd It can aftorwaida, by 
degneiL ba geMnlly axtauded, when tba nuiu aewen are 000- 
atra(«ad. 

The boMd have alao adopted a wiaa mtaanre in offering pn- 
ntlnou tor the beat plaai^ and in cnlling in the aMtalaiira of pro- 
laadonal wen, b>dep«Mleni of tba boud, to act aa jwl«aa. U 
woald bare been ailviaaUa If they had adoptad tbe eanta ooona 
with mpeet to the main dntiiug* anearioti, aa tbam. in >U pro- 
babiltly, tnatoad of the guverameiit UTUtg to prarua a proper 
plan at the ooat of great deh»y, tbe worica aigfat now fanvo been 
commeDOML 

Prine of lorw., SOC, and SM., we oAnd for th« three beet 
•tcaigna, and in order that Ihaniaarba no impnUlMn of carnality, 
the offloeni of the boanl are prohibited fton eoBpetiag. Tbe 
Judgw an lo be the chairman and two niaobara of tba houd. 
aariited by their engineer and anperintandlng arcbitaot, n lavia 
ennae*r<rfeBUMUca,ngaBengiiie«r, a wnur oo^noer. and nn 
arohitaet, who an not in any way to be eonneotad with the board. 
Tbeee genileiDra will inapeel thedidercotdangiMr and adriae tba 
board aa lo tha beat 



REPORT ON THE WORKS OF THE MFTBOPOLITAN 

WATKR tJom-AKlKS.* 
By HnfKT Avmv, WtLtxut Raiuh, and AtntXD Diam^ 

■ailallJtH laiffHimt U« Qtami fcanl <4 tK-gA-ilHj lU*.} 

BAST LONDON WATER COMPANY. 
WoBKa l« 18S0. 
Sourat nf SitpJf. — Ti* nvw La^ >.c abent ST per eeoL of ike 
■MfT •upplidl ti^ thii oampuy »m litvui^l lo Ohl Ford froni ibc mer 
Lh (Kl Ln> laiil)(ol, upward* ef aix niila from iw month, by u open 
canal. ocBriy two mile* in longtb; abeat IJ per oonL wu taken into Iha 
n aipiwr near Lea- bridge; and about on* pw eent wa* lakoi (nmt ■ 
bfaooh of the hm. «alle3lhe water mrkxtraain. 

A«rrToi>(.— Tbieoonipeny bad aix opon leMrrtrire, th^ eapMily, 
Isoluding tlie ouud, wa« about equil to SA.liCiU.ODO |»llan*. Th^ wwa 
■ttuUdl M (ollowi:— T«D >l Oiil Ford: two on the eaeltfB <>d< of Ike 
riter I.M. one at Lea-bridgD; and one *l Sum/ordhiU. Tbiae necf 
rein, for Uid msei part, aen linad with Kaatieh ngM>>aa. 

fibraTwa.— The water aa* not fillarad. U waa reeelved hilo two 
Urge naervnin of depeali, ptavioudy W Bowing into ttaaUar raawveii^ 
wlunw it wx puiauod iiilu tbe dlitriet aoppliid by 111* eompiay. 

Eitfint />«tf0.— Tba total ooniluat ce^na-poww wu Alo S horwe by 
Mown, at'i du. by iraiai^irbeBli. The Mttl nuMber el weem w^glnae 
waa Bve, aa loUowe : 

1. Engine, vUader BO inohM diamalar, (troke \U feel. 

„ pDiofa 41 inotaee diameter; unko 1 1 faM. 

1 Bngiae, oylladar SO inalHB dianotar; einke 10 boi. 

pnmpe 41 loolM diameter; ttroka 9 Cnl. 

3. Bngioav oyUmlw SO InohM diamatmi tuoke S bau 

piuape ij Inoba* diuiMlrr; Kraka SfceU 

i. Kiigin«^ cjliadar SO InubeidLuiiecn: atreko 6 f«at> 

„ pumpe 37 laeha lUauieter; eueke S ieeb 

S. Engine, <7linder 3« inehee diameter; aueka 8 faiA. 

pnnpa )Tf inoha diaaHaer; eueka 8 l^<«. 

ne ureter pD*«r luiaaaHd by tlia conpany eonrietad uf~ llw I^a- 

bri>l|[t walfT-slual, with (wd pnmp<i one hariny W\ laeliaa dUHMtMr, 

*iivka aevan fed; and the otbor afimii inofcaa ibwaMer, •uuke three 



(eel. Tha fkrelford waurwhed, with two pnntpe, oM bannga4c«*a 
iDoho* diameter, amka three (bet; and tha ether niao iMkree dlHaaew, 
■Uolte (bregfaoL, 

Mat**, Brandi*: *<i. — Tli* total length of nMna araa elated lo ha aa 
teaal Sti mllna, llie aiua Taryinj; in Jiaraater (torn 42 lachea In A lirflie. 
Theee ««re alway* abugDd nitli auMr, omler prtnora. Tlitea were 
baelda*. ll>l mUeeof eervIoe-pLpae of I and 3 iacbee dlanwl*f , nuking a 
toui iMigth of Bjptaga of >2» mUei. 

QitauMf 0/ Waler Pwap(d.~The qaantity of water dalirwed in tha 
ynr ending Ohrtumae I84S waa l,J2a,TIS>S76 galtona. Thia waa a 
aoinewia* luallar iUjiply ilian waa puiped In the peeiiau year, tba 
drofoue having been <lu^ it waa oonefakced, to the iumdMtion of tike 
•yaum o( <liily inth»l of eltemaM eupply, aod Ike Mviag of waale aen- 
imiuDiil tlt>-(n>ii. Tlie ann^ aupply to each houee, nolueive if jaige 
cunauuHn. nterios roada, ko., wae, tew eeveo d«|l p<e weak, HO 
gullviu per Jicm. 

Tftw^en/i SMpuUnl. — Tha total numbat of privalo houaee aiupUad 
Waa I'S.C'X. uid 304 Uiye oonauiDcra. The hi4,'he«t eenioe aflbrded 
waa about Ma f«et abere high-water mark, and liie towtat abwt three 
bet abore tha eami leTol. "nie (ul>|>ly »aa ^-ivau iii itayi Id the week, 
or orteoer ■( required, thraughuut lb* sompwy'a dieirloi. 

'* a-nf* Bt tt* tMiwal HMnl «l OmUb ea tke Wnp alli We»« >a|»>.-l»a 
On) taiitin of IbU gatign, tra /xfii, T*L XIX., pM» U«. 



a 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND AHCHITECTS JOUBNAL, 



CW(/ WtU~Th» Mai 



iHm Bpon Ik* ««cki op t« MM- 



1 



R«oi»r ALftkiTioKa Mm Antirnoira. 

Sovra 0/ Supply. —"no riitw Ix«, Bhof* Tattoihun. Portliaoon- 
Y«jta«» is Um wuo' (ram Totunkan to Lw Brido*, & new open 
«huDallMlMMaal«f tO0iqBH«bM«MtiaiwlanB. Vrom abor* Uiu 
tww Mikik • lu|« Hid Mtpmf** i&Mtwpeinc drun hx bMii nceulal, 
four and a Uf milia in kdgth, whiolt «nU off rmm ihc riv«r ihi rtAua 
of^J^vofk*! and tbo draintf* of Bdyhbouring pU«a. «kcb nn Mated 
lataraapopntMiDaof alMUlU.UOO labatnUiiU. « th>t ib« wattria 
sow ttaahiad of Ui* muim ponly *« abova Chlnfil'util Milli. 

Mifr BaU, Ratmirt, ^. — Al Lm Bridn Uis w^Mr u rncaivnl 
dtnol (nmUio rivn on to 13 no* Sltsr bpli, wbicli covv aa ana erf 13 
Mm> IImw luTv b«a MDtfnictol in l«o cirolaa, «aob witli a piu»- 
•ralcr wtU Id (ke MDUe. Iliore an: KVcn filln btda ttnapA iu ous 
(i<Rte and ill la tba otbor. 71>« Gluring inc<liuin i< thraa bet da ladbM 
in ihlAneaa, oompaaod antlnly of tauci- tVom tbo AlWr bad* tbo mun 
body of «aUt b eonvayad by a (our fad (ran plpo to the two oval raai r 

nnw ba»D aannaMatf andcovtaod with bridt afdiMk mlimlnf lk«ni«raM 
aroho* raaMng on pi«n, the lurTaa* ot thu ardiaa b«ia([ oovarad with 
■oil. TImm taaarroir) ara St aona in axleal. Hi* othar rtaarroln o( 
tlia tompyqp near OU Fori, and lliat at HCamford UiU an now ilirvwn 

Mt^Ut Pomrr.—lxi addlUoo to tbo angiuo'iiowar dcmiboi in tbo 
fonnar rtturn. a now enifm^ with liin-ioeh cTirodcr and II 'feet itnikB, 
ha* b«Mi «o<Md at L«a Bride* for tlia lUfipiy of Ibe uppn noitbom 
AUriol. IWn aca «ii boilen t«tbkao(ioa. It ia oapabla of Uflini 
ISO oubio foet otwalm rauli (troka. A uww Conilab onstna, 70-lodi 
cyUndar, i* aUo in cotiraa of ermtion at Old ford. The lypacala 
nominal an^Da-pawiir of lim nmipuiy ii now 840 boni«*i oquaT to 
40,000,000 aybn* of water par diy lined 1'<l> feci higb. 

ArBMaifnra «^ Snukr.- Some appantat haa been cmiilayHl at Old 
Kord far tbe prevenlim of denao amokD tma tbo funuooa, but 
" amokaltw' fupl ia no* uihI. 

Qaaaftty 0/ Talc Pumptd. — Thi quwiUiy of water now pampad la 
IS milKan g'lloiu par lUy, itml ihn numlwr i>t laiiniiii'nu luppiiad la 
T0,IKIU, TliH aunply ia funiiahnJ lix dayi prr weak. 

ifoiat, itnuiAej, 4«.~t1ia total Inigtb of p<ptaga laid, up to Chrlit- 
mta. MM, waa SSI mHoa. Tba plan of tno Companya maim and 
■Uttriet maini^ miutred by ilie MompoliB Water Act. \i!.1, la completa 
up to Okrlauiiii laat. It i* draun to tbo looU of I'J intbi* tii tlie loita. 

Onti 0/ W«flt, — n* ooal of tbo now worka «iecui«J •iiics ili« Aola 
of IbSX ha* baan SSO.DOUt., makiag. with tb* ptavioua outlay, a total 
oapandHnre of 995,7811. upon iiw worka of tbia Oompany. 

Otntral Antanla. 
Tbo now worka of tbo Eaat London Wnier Company meet wsrtliT of 
nota, an the 100-ioob eyUndar engine, tlin ALurui); irrkii|[Binnn<ii at l^aa 
Bridge^ end tha Inltaeoptlng dnlnua. Ttiii cuttme at Lot Unilm ia 
(aid to ba llie htfaat yet wat t i d br wato-uiarlo, allbough il will be 
aOM thai Uia Soutbwark and VauxbaU Compsny liann ana A atSI larger 
dimanaiana bow in eoone et oonelniOtian, 

TVo lilur bada an tha idoM aataniiro worki of tha kind iqipertaining 
tn the motropoUtaii (vpfdy, and thay an admiraUy anMii[od. Thay 
were oonunBiaed In ^9o%•. (In Arat buf waa oamplmad la June, 1GG4, 
and the whole by tha t(h Navamber, ISIS, when nltcred wator only waa 
daUrarad ta the Coinfaii^li diatrSet. 

Tha watarof tha LiM waatpiila aa lorbid m Ibalof iheTliarniH at tbo 
tima of iaipection, owiue M tha raoinl miaa: but, althoagb the tillering 
medhun amploywl by tliu Oamnuiy ia of I«e ihl^nMa than thai of any 
<Mmr, tUntmd watsoanaioIyappMtrad tab* thabri^tcei. 

Tha b« London Wattr Company, aa atatad la the return, omployad 
M mMiia af fllttalion hafora iDa Att of 1868. Tha largo dapoaiiing 
naervoira opon wfaicb tfaoy had to rdj Ibr dgarucaa of tbo wata* have 
DOW baas alwMloned, and all awMttnidf tlon balwaao them and the 
maio* haa baan ont olC The ooeka are now uaed ia tha main wbiob 
briaga tha Htatad water frma Laa Hridga to the aovorad rvaerroira at 
OldTord. 
IVi oompauy baa no bigh- lenioo raaarroir (or tbo mpply of tbdr 
pwaaU; tiw walw ia pumf«d dueat into tho iGatriDt for dialnbullon, 
Tha now liijilhp at La« Brido* ara «f bridt : they an aubntantial, 
■d af haiidwaaa alovatlan, Aa «hib*«j', and etand-plpa for tho aajnily 
of ibanorttMnhlgh-temldlMriat, anemliMad In a aqoaiatowar US feet 
in bdgh*. m^iwohMheochaafaCaadbatwaantht pump and Hand- 
pipa, and balwaaa iha ataod-pipa and naia. 

No aapanaa hM baan epaiad in making thaaa werka aa eomnleta aa 
poadUe. 

THK KENT WATER COMPANY. 
Tua Wimaa la I8J0. 
8»wrm (/ Aftpfy.— Tbo waCor aoppliad by thii Comptajr waa, and ta 
ID^ tlka* turn tlte Ktbt Baeaubourva, at OepUotd. 



Ji^ntorra.— Tha tola] oqadlT rf the OompaOT'e rawrrolw _ 

bada ataonnlad to ll,7IO,7M gallon*. TVoof iheae ware intpoaiMing 
l aaa n a h a rttnated at Deptfordi the watar ww toDvayed from than la 
two SltOT bediL and Iben pumped to the Mario* teacfroiia in Gracnwiah 
Part, 00 Woolwkb Common, and nou- the Harlae Barradta at Wool- 
wkh. Fnoi thaao ttmnmn fire maine vera alao laid to ooomand Ike 
0«TsnnMDl aataUMimenta at Doptford, ilnwni>ld>. and Woelwlifc. 

mbrorwa.— Tha Mad aorfcoe of the two (iltn* anploTod by Ihr O^ 
pany waa 1| aore^ Upon theaa tlia watrr wa* admitted and paaaed 
throa^ diieet to tha aagina pnmpa, all the water aopnliad bavlDg bani 
liltRWl. The fillaring B«di«B waa aimn wwi h ad naTd. at tha 
bottom. wM>ahMFWofdiallaoalh«fiaT*ka«dwdoB«heabalb. 

Av*— /'ouar.— Tha Bt«Ma-ansinaaamph>yed ocndMadortwwBoolUa 
BAd Watt aniritiai. » ineb Dyliodmv ^ '—^ aUeke. Pvam lii faichca 
diameter, S n~ ) in. atnko; and ona Coeaidi aa^na, To-lnoh oylladar, 
lO'feet eUvka. Putnpe, donbla acting, 304 Indiaa ifiamoiar, 10 bat 
atroka. 

JfoitM, Brtaelui, ,((.—Th« total loogth af main& bi>*dimalM, aide 
awloae, and H-rrine for nnall atrwta, waa SS mllea, 8 ftlrbafa, iw4 
1 OS y&rda, the lim nryii.g fRrm 34 Inohia ta 1 1 inoh in diamater. 

Quanfily ^ Wottr /■umptd.— Thu tntal quantity of water ponipcd 
dnringtheycar ISlt) wuSII3.tit8,:£0|iiillau*. The a*aeae eupply 10 
each dw^fiag bouae, nokorDngaa*aidi^p*rwaDk,waan«riyB3(aa««i 
pcrdiam. 

rennwatr AtppfWd.—The nombm- of toiwnMDta mippUwl Waa tOS^ 



and IShusaooDnuiHn. Ttwaupfdywaagiaaadxdaraawathtapriiaaa 
oaniameta, and to the GorammMii aataUUbmaM at Woolwioh aad ta 
tha tailwaya, aoTon daye a wnb. Tlio blghon awjoe aflordcd b* tha 
tlompany, waa 32i> (eol abovi: hi^*WBMr mark, aed thalowealat high- 
watar mark, 

Cetlt/ ihi IToria.— Tho total (spendituro ojxm Ih* worka waa Mt 
atatad, aa the Company'a booka do not conlaiii any annont dtowbg ihU 
nwnit, bat the (apilalralnd amounted to 'Ji'XK^t' 13r- M. Tiw MM 
ot tha woiha WM aaid to bava eioasdcd tfaii mm, aa for many ywa a 
iBtfafrieiranianofthoaaniBnn waaUd out in ininduaa «< pipea and 
olha-««At, pnparly Aaigta tl a to oapllal. 

RauasT ALTiHATtoxa asio AuuiTiovi. 

PiUtr Btdt, tUmrvttirt, iLvi.— Ona new filter bod haa txoa adiad M 
Oap^ad, making a total anrfve tat flluation of lS,S:i} aquan yanhk 
mMSItsriagoudtBm conaSaMoftwofbelof grrarel, rii itiobaa of ihaBi^ 
and two ftol of Hud . lie aubaidlng rtaarvoin at Deptbtd, deauiibed 
ts tho formor return, ccmpriee an ana of iS.t!'; aquanjacda, and ara 
capable of boliting 1,)11S,2VS oubio be< o{ wt-fj-r. 

Tha MTvio* Teaarrolr In Qraenwtoh f'ukoxnnan areaof 3133aauwa 
wda, and ooalairM lOil.Srfl euldo feet of watar. That on WoatwUli 
Doamion oonea an aim of 43TS aquaie yarda, and oonlain* tr7,SM 
<nU« |l>et ol water. 

gngvii f'owr.— One naw CUvIA auBine haa baan araMad at Dep^ 
fwd, ;o-uicb oylinder, 10-lbatamhav Double aotiag pump, l« bnebaa 
dlamaiB-. It ta eoDtainad to tha aana banhUng aa the nmilar taglaa 
bafora iWBrlbad. Tho aggngUa nmnlnal at^laa power of the Compaoy 
il now (00 boiaea. 

Contmnptim of .^noE*.— No appantua for roniuuiptioo ot amoto 
ia employed. Webb ooal l> alvaya uaed, and DO ilaiiaa amoka ii 
(bnned. 

QuuAtttp ttf Water pHmpt-l .—Tint quantity of watar pumped in ISU 
waa SfiS.TfiO.SOO gallDn*. Tbo number of tenonracta to whieb the aopptv 
la now ramlahed b 10.OT7. For llie high aeretoo lh« water la now nMi 
ta a madinum bel^t of SUO f^t, and for tha bw aenioD, 17)1 faat. 
Thewiiihi for t)iv htgb and low asrriee ara ■joito diMlnct. T*bii ontitBaa 
dally »i|>(j|y to llm dintnct In IHiA waa 34 million sallena. Hie *Up|4y 
iieiUwroonttant or ie^vmduly ui all paru of tbpdiatrict. 

Maittt. Bntnchti, ^•t.—Ths loMl lenglh rd pipaij^ now laid dawn 
ia atated i« ba IM nilM. A plan of tha nuii'i aud diitrict mlint, a« 
roquired bv^Hatmpolia Water Aot, la i'laVorwunletUa, kid down 
on tha ORlnaneo eogi»nd outline abaeta, livD fust to tha mlla, bu« il la 
not yat eoinckle. 

Co)' o/ IA( ll'tirta.— TliB aoet of the new workeenouted alnaa t8G3 
buboen 37,033'., and taking tbo amount brfnni giren aa ibe o«at of th< 
prarlona worka, tlia total eipeodilure haa amouDted to 21^)1" 
ISa. «d. 

O emn t Jtrmorb. 

Tho now worka eswnUd by the Kent Water Company dnoa I 
vioua reluni, mil for 00 particular obaerralion, eacofit tliat tti^ hara 
been Wfll carrlul nut, and that the enginaa and baildini;* ar* amodd of 
cloanlitmii and orJer. 

No DUn't-piiHi i- uW, but a latyer air reaael than n<i>a] ii oonnaolad 
with the main, il being faut in dlamoter. and ^U feet high 

Withdonbta-aotian pump*, tbawaterbein^aliiByi in motion, noiidi 
la Inoumid in pompltig directly into tlia maiui, oitbur (or (apply, or ftr 
daKTa*7 lota uia bl)^-ktd taacrroira- 

Tbe anvteo rcaorTolrafor the flitsnd water ramain mm aa btCora, Uar 
dtuatcd beyond thu limit* praembcd by tha Act of IbSS; but, it abonU 
bo added that thay ara chleUy of uae aaiaaanw in I 




■ QfUto.aaa p at ^^ i 




THE CIVIL ENOIHEEB AND ABCHITECT8 JOCBNAL. 



Th>«iHk»MifaDileMd*tlb*Md«f lUf, vaiM ik* 



u* 



iMbc OMMhm aiA to ih«Cl Mill bilMifr Tk* 

«p|]r ta ite dMfiat l> cIvMi far th mom pwt diNM fr«a tto nukUa^ 



b iif l i li n ljof ih>i«i«r»oiii. 



TBI 



lb lame m w m r, lw*«T«r. i 
mag IB M olijatUoooU* Imtlalf, 
lib* «wk>. 



UAHFCTIAI) WATBB OOUPAITT. 

WoMS U lUO. 

^ aiy i>; — "ny MurgM «r Mntr *** <— ""J ■■> •>>• 



^g^bmnm « MM^.— I'k* courgM «f Mpfl* i 

H WUMM"Mriiigi>tHiapM>wlMd1C>sW«ad,t>»ari^ w^ 
^ MJMHfOMvl^thaKaw BiT«r.* Tlw mU* mn rittuUd Mpactinty 
M HMpMwd Mil KmIU Tton. 

g wi rr i in T^i lilri Wj wt ihl mh mf miHi In ll ■! in nliwi 

anaMjUalUbaabouaCacnii lk*d^pllM«l <iw nwrvuln wu« 
U TMT ruililiiihly, mJ Iha kaUoBi to b« »u irrct;uW lUl 
«• flMiij hw aw b«a ^uk of lUr total wpadly (bM ownU b« 

AfenMM.— Tha ■•Mr «!• Mt iltMad. 

■. J---. B ■!■«■-. . — i nt lBMiwiii ll n Anit n-hanm 

■•■wawMlly. TTirr rnndrttit nf ■ f tmlili nrn^nn. it If rtliihTir— n. 
M fcflW pMrv, 44-lni* ^Uodv, IO-ShI Mralia; ud k hlgb MMMN 



» 



b^ :i<M«Mfok.. 



Jtaimt, flr— rta^ Ac— IUt«tolli^Uicfa« bud*, btuefc n»la^ 
iMn»ii<ii^ aad Mi-ticM far Biikll itraiU, 



unoimUil M kboat M aijk^ 
ruied in lUi tram IS inaliM to 8 



1 farlontt. Ill yM>di, and 
inwaal diauaU*. 

QaoiMtry a/ ITator AiMpnL— n« <{iiMitlt; of *ntcr pumped daring 
•is «iiiii)u audinf IH Dcocabs, 1840, loeludlac a tempan/7 **PF'7 
thtm ib» Nav Itlrcr Coiafnany, *»a T8,0IS.0On (allDiii- lla aatlaikM 
•Mallirddivortil to aadi hoDH for daoMtfie lapyly wa* (IS plloin par 
Aan. Ibaopfdjwaapitao tknadiTtftwaakUwaUfflioaltkadMtiaL 

SVMnMtf Aip^lM.—'nia taial duibImt oT bouMi n^plM itaHac 
ite JMT IMP aa* MHO, aiBpljkousaliuiiulTa; oos hifawoaaiMr or 
BOO nllM* Mr diam, for ni rbjrta walk, and two dilU lAM nllasa 
pw aiao, Ibr lix dan a wcdL Tlie bigbeit asrvMc affmM by tba 
e^npanj, waa about 'iiS foei abova klsb-«at«r tnarii, and tha luwvt W 
bat abim tUt UkL 

Om ^ i4( Ifart*.— n* I««bI cafilal bivaalad In Ibe worka of tUa 
(■Hpwij, aa Iha7 BiaMd )» 1^5<l, «M aMiaalsd la b« tl,13U. 

ILtcun ALTuaniMia jlhd Adiktiom. 

Jbarew f/^fiplf.— Tbvab no baah Murea of aapply for iUicoiB' 

PM;. naa*l*MaawaUatK««Miab-tawBfc«M«biobav«orib*aapjil7 

ma fcnnarlr obuuud, haa iiooa bMu SDMlniwd to a Mb of llttt M 

frana Ika aiirtMa by a bma baU aoBBaaoJag «Mt 13 iMka* in dUoMtar, 



liwiaaad Bm to IB and ttwa to i iaobem. AAar pHdag (huMfh Iha 
■Mk ia (all axpaatoCim af abtaiaing water from iha Modi inpfoiid to 
Ha bwath ili a aHMaa af wbal ia ouiaiJarad to ba tk* now red tond- 
Miaa hm baao pMMntad wilboiu lafi|iln|t ihs «|»iii|[a. 

Mturitin and FiUv Salt.— Tht laaatruin lamain m baCaia. Ona 
Hal Stvbad, Manilla g an arw of OOP ai|aan laM, divbUd is lb* 
■Udlalw nlMiWii^ patpoMa. b** bam ooiutnMad witUn lbs rtoarvair 
M Kaolkb-tAvii, u> filli^t lb< wit«r obtauinl fton Uu HamptUad and 
BI(hfato pooda. Th* lUUring tnidiuDi ii 3A. S In. In dopth, and ia 
W pB Hi l of tba Mlawing kyara: 1 bol lUfC wuhod pabUsa; * Inofaoi 
MaU waabal paMlaai * ncbo* flue ablucU and gianl: I IL 3 bi. 
Mid. TV a iM iad Witto waa Biat anpplUd at Cbriaii^t^ l&tt. 

<ha —^ a* ^ fl>ia*a No aa^atw baa bean adApud br tUa 
pvpoM. WtUeoaltowedforkna^. 

Vata*, Jwaad Ua . 4<c. —Tba toMd la^tb at ptpca^ ddw laid oiUuda 
to abavl 114 nltat. Tb* nuina «f Ibi* aempanT harr boaii lulijact to 
wdl Iravi*"^ ahata liana for Iba parpnn tt nakiog eonnarttoaa at dif- 
pB«ito mlb tba pipaa of tba flow Rtvti wut Waai Mtddlaaoi 

■ le^Dlnmaoto, tbac it ia 
' plaa of Iba wular- 
Aol. 
Hmmtiif ^ Wattr Pmt pi d — Haaa wpaM- to bo ae dato for daur- 
■Inlaf ika |i«aa amaMg iMUiir auppUad pv day to Iba laoanU of 
tUa aampaay, aa Iba abaiii far tb* wpply io a<<l by *^' N*w ItiTsr and 
Vaat Mbldlaaai Cfpiiaa. bw baan fbuadaid 00 tbv aaiouot ol ibo water 
fiMH «f tba bi ai ai anpfliiad, and *ot on ibc qutntrtj. Aaiunuog^ 
Ik* aama wara g * OMMi^r per booaB u lu th< fonnar raturti, 
> dafly atmptrWMldtaDaDMtoUUa.CiUO gaUoni, Iba nuialtvTof 
I aoptiliffl bcMf ttlA. 
Ckarq^ttr r**^— llwoaMDftbaaddUMiulworkaanonUdby tUa 
w p aa y . auioa ibo bamar Mum, ba* b**a 33,131(. ii. Srf., Baking 
wtth tba ptcTiaoa outlay a total aapmbtora of ll«,16ai.S«. id. 

GttttU Kemartl. 
Tlu aoilj no* worii of ibi* Ocmpany atrktly poaaniiiatt vpaa Iko A«t 
' " '■ aUM* doHirtlwil. 

own waa toDuBencal In JoDa^ ISSS, 
wdt, wblcb bad bcsu auuk SIO tnK daap. 



C aapaaiii^ M Moal tlto cowtantly I aaiiia leqnln 

nU to bavB ba*a topoHiUa to pawiwa a aaaMkatocy | 
p«a»J waaka aa M^okad by Ika HataapoUa Wator Ai 



■oa amiy now wont di tni* vonpanj 
rf lUX w Uh mall fillaring apurata 

Iba iivw Igring M Kaauab Yawn 
tan Ik* buttem «f tba oM wdt, wh 



abovauatod, adoplk«tf laOlfaat ha*lB| ba«D obt^nad, andiManao- 
ditur* of liWL baving baan iaourrad. Ika raaoh e( Iba aodanaUof 
war) tniHt uDBiiwotadi OaooUamUe dhPMMOO baa ariaan amow pw- 
logiiu u lo uw lutBra of tka ttiMa <rbi«A Imt* b(«i aM wlu, and 
iDuati latvotl aUackaa to tk* aabjact. An aatii* aaalioii «f ika Mnri* 
•rriTBd M tn Ike btat^ la app^iad. U voald b* 4t impntoaa* i« 
Iba caou of Klaiaa if aay Baaua eoubl ba found ftt IIm wailniwni 
or IkawartL 

A *B7 amall dlalikt la now anpBad hgr ibi* Oatofugr. SoppUaa of 
■Btor bar* b«*o obuioad ia yd far aoma tama bvm tba Now Rlmv 
CompMnr: and baCm lb* llMr bad waa nad*, Ika waUr waa alao 
obiaiMd to Ika fupidy af pan of Ika diMriat Aoto Ike Waal Uiddbaai 
Ceanpauy. 

IV wator froB tba wall at Hamnaltod. fton wblab aboot TO nllou 
par laliiuta are 1 il—l. waa foond to m olaar tad bri^l, and af Dotur 
ooloar Uiaa Ik* Shared i aawoir wator. 

Tb* nmaaof au^ly of tbo Uanpatoad C«tBpn{y> w«iM| to tkawjci- 
fio* of ttiair pravioM wall, and Iba Uw» lad abwidnnninnf ef ika new 
OM^ an now Um IhM kafeta. b ia updawWad (hat toaaa ba*e bcoi 

rad, wbaMby the ■Afam a( Iba eomiai^ wiU b* ■amid >n tbaae of 
Mew BlTar; aad Ika HaofiUad Wator Compaq, wtoah ori|pn«Md 
In lb* ttmaaf Huiiy vm., wlU tbtn aaaaa to a^ 



Kamoa o» tn> Borun ax Kmrus Tewv. 



S 



£onda»<nM 

<lMftJ 



HWwU 

m^Amdiag 

Strtm 
(dl ft. e tak) 



rXaail 
Saa^a 
(Wft.) 



MiAiUCiaii 
{IllfLdia.) 



wtiA«Brjh~Ma 
(3H&J 



CIUft>M«rl 

(17 ft. fl IB.) 



UrrsB 

GaKEtKUTD 

ITltuain.) 



(ISO ft. «tlL) 



1. TaUowalay... 
S. Blue day, wttb antona MS 
S. Motllad(i«d,ydb)«,aiid 
Uuolday 

4. VUto MDiL wiib flint 

MbbUa 

5. BlaakMBibi pwatwiato 
0. MotUad (raw tBd twd 

0U7 u 

7. Clayey aaili 

8. Daik-grey aanda with 

P. (Juiek-aaada ajih<oclc>afed 

,10. nUit-pabUoi ... 

11. Aib-«oloiif*d Mndl* 

IS. AfsUlaoeMia aada 

IX Sark-mjidijarBU^... 
j 1^ Bad J auular paM 

I, aMMduMa 

flS. OkalkwilkSnto 

Id. UardohaftwitboatamU 

1}. Cbalk.biM bard w^lk few 

flloM -.. -^ ... SI « 

18. Mcdolar cbalk. with 
tkraabaikof laboW 
fliau IS 8 

ID. Chalk. wMiBaama *( ta- 
buhr fliBl and a few 
nodolar BiMa . . .. It 8 

SO. Ctialk, with a lew tinta 
aad aam* patcbia «f 
mad • 

31. Vary licbc-fiey ebalb. 

wttb a taw fliuu ... SO « 

91L Ucht-gray cbaib. with a 
fcw tbinbwlter chalk- 
mar) anbonfiaato ... 183 

as. Ony cbalk-tnid, wilk 
aoMfaot and narty 



futa. 

M 
908 8 


Dtirth. 
ft^la. 


n 


8 






« 






• 




10 
11 


« 
8 
« 









0- 3W ft 


118 









pyrito* 

<M«y narl 

. Harder gny marl, ratkar 
aaady and witb oo(» 
aioiiiil iniD-pjritea ... 
Iluij looky aarl 

. Illaiafa'inv ■"'f ntbar 
•Ml')/; tb* to WOT part 
nun arKiliMaew* . . . 

Dal^.crean eand, miiad 
wilb(reyalay 

Blaiib'ym auaaieaoiaa 
day, ahobUyaindy ... 

Ditto, with two acama 
of arfUlaaaoua ifraaB- 
aaiid ... 

M itooaoM blwa eSuj ... 



ISl 

Si 







SIO « 



8« V 



13 »— Bn« 



ao It 



8 7 

»1 11—1111 8 



i 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AUCIUTBCrS JOUHNAU 



J 



36. 



10. 



iP, 



67. 



«I. 



M. 



IM »»i jvUmr mait, tni nndatone 
CampMt Nd elaj, wMb patcbiM of vari»- 

pBra dwk rwl el»7 

Bad eUy, whiUih mida, aail mottlnl auid- 
*on* ... ..... 

Han] red ootig;lamemle, with pebbic* of 
^MfU, gmaaMCK, tnp-rotk. quuti, 
bMvatcmi^ red olajMonv- porphyry , and 
bwUMmo* MhiM,' vdl raandod, uul 
ntttaf tn ila* from a rurbt* lo > (BiitKin- 
Wf 

HlcMBOiu rad cbyt, oinUlvd ia ^Lutm ... 

Smim of *biu fbaile unditoaB and iwd 
•uid 

UoMlfd MndMoDS 

B«d mni anil ModaMna «rilli mull pobblea 
um) AlmWtnv aad a (tw wiall pba«- 
phatieaodalM 

HMUof ndtanditanaaad whilamid* ., 

Ptbbly fu4 MDdii, anrl Diailv nnditodo ... 

Whiu uiil rnl MDiliUmc 

FtDo Uoht-nd «Miili ... ... 

Hard fiiril> wnditoiw ... ' .'.. 

Vcryfiaa Ugbt'Ndaod 

rimradolajr... ... 

Ited and laottlad dajif «»iid^ with aaiit* 
Iron-prriU* 

Red undj iiiii^sMoiiii «l^ with fiMils Mnd- 
Mono ... y, .,. 

Compaot hard ([mniih nndittona A. \ ... 

Vrajr mioaoraiw tad day ... ... 

Gnr and nd daw wnda 

Li^t.«olaani) ton MndMeiM «tlh bap 
auatlMoI AmrnvmiUt 

tt«j uod and MiidaloiiA ihlghtf ludlnedl) 

Graealib ■andatons 

WUm aiul gnr dajay «uid^ with inn- 

PJ**** 

lUdduh ajptlaoaoul auidi, with aMmi of 

MndMiiDB .. 
HloMernu red day . 

fioaM of frMnlili larirlnldiia . . 

Koi DMtlad and ni«agso(u ebVi w^lh 

pat«hB* of Kght-ecilom«d nnd aiiil ing- 

BMUof ^iMMiuriiiaBd of a Sat p ltilt ... 
H«d oonpaot roioaomu* olay, with BeUm- 

mila 
Rod qnarttoM and micaoaotii aandalom ... 
Urowniab.red clnyny Mnd ami andaiaM ... 
Vary hod toicawMua andnoocv «^th nMll 

pbUaa of whiM qMHa „ 

I^i^lrtd tiilUaoaoDtaMd 

lUd ibikIMoiic, mlaaoaoua ami (|uarua» . . . 
Li^t rvd claytj audi (wtth aiuall anttular 

(rainniiirU of chart w luDt I) 
Wbitiita anil yT««IA hard nnilatons (hori- 

■iDtall) 



Depth. 

A. in. ft. fai. 
1 

4 
4 T 

9 D 



3 







sa 


D 


a 


8 


n 


4 


s 


a 




« 














» 




s 














t 




5 


10 


a 













1 






I 






3 











3 







3 


8 




IB 


4 





G 




14 


6 




30 







s 







4 





4 







to 







8 





S 





s 


ft.- 130 


2 



PLtlMRTKAD. WOOLWICH, ASD OHABLTON WATER 
COMPANY. 

IX* wwrlu w(t« •Nahllab'd lor Uia (uppty of vator u> the abovo- 
naiiMd fariihM in IU4, and thay ban now bmu in aotoal apuraliuii 
abont i«» yMi*. Th«y ara in onuNtitlon with Ih* K«iii. Waus Com- 
panyttrara Dwldarabla perlios oftho dfitriot lupplivd. 

Stoarrr <(f Bapptf. — Thia mv Company** •nMily 1* darirod from a 
*«ll and <l(rp barinf- In iha cAalk, Uid watar tUni tthi<A, vhan fint 
taMnl. hM >]*■}• ui tqual tanporalara of abont S3 dagiaa* Fahrmhall; 
bat UiaipMial adTaiiU^ aSordsd ta the lananta oftha Company i* that 
Iha walDf ia aoftaiad by Dr. OUf k'a pmoea. When lint pumped from 
IhawdUili wmlBT haa 314 d>|t»«a of harduoH, tliai li ta (ay i\\ gnina 
of hanlanlnamallarlatiusallao. Hi of iihtdiar«d«iTodlk«iiiearb«nata 
of lioM bala in aolvlioo by an oaeau of catbnnie ac'd na. Tbt inlUDlDg 
prmw maoipltataa 18 mina of ihli aarbonata of lime, and loavwa a 
d«ar bnifht walrr of nnly t\ dtgivaa «f baninta*. 

A •^on daacriiillnn of tlia aoAaotnf proeeaa, extracted ft«m Dr. 
Clarh'« papar n>^ b«(ai« the ttociMr of Art*, and aiwaa aooount afitaa 
irml" ' applioaiioD to thaaa woKi by Iklr. llom«r*haii^tlM«nBlnear, 

Amuw ^ t» p iaoiw haa ha«N *aiy McotaafuDy eafrlad anl, will ba 
mtB, tikiM frwB vtba acfaiata obaanratwoa on thia (utgtct. 

* waMr, «Wi tha Hma addad, la nimA Into three open 



voUa of a eollBCtira araa «f Mi'* anpoitinU fcei^ aaidi reMr*«if 
b<4nf «^abla af bdttna tOO.INW gaUdiu. They tm wjuaHuatad or 
oawBrau walb Snad wlA brkh, and the whole aro Inetaiii witUn « 
baoBdaiybriEk walL Tleae la— rrira ara altarnualy filM aad Mt to 
bMU*. when tfae prrafHtatiaD it oanplata, far whkb not Ian than 4 
haun ibaold b« allawad, tba alaar aonanml watar la laiaMl ialo aaaand 
•nrvloe icaemdnv lAanea It b dladlbntad Ihroosbout tiw dMiM. Qm» 
of tbeaaagvlnai Matwl iiii Aaaledntat nunataad Commaa, a^dooift- 
nauiIaaainViMoriS? feet aboaelVinlly high water mad. It oovara 
kD araa of 10,131 aquarefeel, ^ will bald VI (wt depth of watar. It 
ia oonatractacl in two divliiaii^ and U oovorcd wlih bfldi ardiia mda^ 
on itirdnni and ogtumna. Tha atJinr tarvloa naarvoir i» aliimad on tJi* 
aide of ShooCcir'* Hill Mid canunanda a Iwal of 311 faa* above Trini^ 
higb waiter mark. It ia39I8 mperfiaial bat, and 18 (t, Sin. deap. Th« 
aapply la not yet fnrtdahad bwa Uiia appar l aaartwr. 

ratrwian.— Tha waUr ta not IUlar*l, thit npanrtien bin^ wbdly «•• 
naotaauy. He wator aomia from the w«ll paifMitly bni^t; aad *• 
dtftatAOB in thia rcapaot «n be dMrctod after it baa nndargona Iha aofU 
enlng proceae. Thia provMa. tioiievcr, fniao m a the furtiitr ^lual ad' 
vaata« uf pnmnun|[ *ubiei|u«it Tegetaiian, fram wfaiA Iha anpfty 
wobM ctbarwia* anffer dateriorBCton If kopt in «fic« i wian dia. 

Ai^ar Paiwr.— The amannt of iteam pow«r at preaent f ntaya) Ijy 
tha ooDRiany la nominally 88 bon» . but the cncine ia miA ta ba Mjiahw 
of waiVnit up to SO lnjrcate>l horara. Ii ia a doDble-aetinK oondauiMr 
angina, aylindur 30 inohiAO diamatar, lUok* flTe feel. It perforaa W 
doable atrokaa nr motutinnt ncr mtnnt*. 8uam la vaed al a p f «— ta 
of 80 lb. on Iha ai[nare in«b abora Iha atmoaphara. "nia anglaa ha ai a 
■• oonaCrnotad for tha eraotion of a dupUeala angtita. 

Cttmaai^Hm af Stmkt.-~}io iip|5»i»iii» U cmplayid for thia piirpoa*. 
Tlia boiler iala^; Ltiere ar* two (in^ptnim; irn.l alienrai* atanaf^ 
ooinUiiad with oare, ara the moana nliwl upon tor the praaaotlon tt 
•make. 

Mmu, Braiu*a, A-e. — Tba total luri|[lL of pi paagc already Ud hj 
Uia oofflpMiy ia about \i miJn, tha muna aiid k'rviora laryiog in na 
fmm H inohoa to 3 inohn lO dlamotet, A plan of tba maina aad 
diiirlcl launa, a* raqaiied by the MeUvpoliii Waior Act, \i&2, daw net 
appear lo have been vol oonipleWiL A plan oiuu at Iba offioB, ta \ 
aeala of 13 inolina to iLo mils, ihowiog tha pipea u iboy wen origiaaSjr 
pfOpoaad to be laiil iliiwii. but the altemtiona naTc not yet been InagteL 

Qaoarirfi of Water /'luvwd.— Tlia ijaantity of •mm pninpad he 
many weaka In auooraaion haa boeo UO.UdU ([allona |iM day f« aartn 
dayn in tba wMk, but tba aren^a quantity caiinoc yol bt aulel Tbt 
aupply ia ginn to 3000 hoimre, ao tliat IH8 |;a"'"i« are funilahol par 
houae par day brail purpoate. Tbn aiipply ii gi ran daily, nr twieaa 
day, ir tcquinid, but ninpt in a rary fa* inatancaa U ta eat naw oaa- 
ttuil. I n the ooiDmenocmont of th« opantaana tha ooapany fumiahad 
a coiiataiit aupply, bot the honin apparatM and amngamanta oiw 
whiob Uiey badnoeoairol, a»aaid lo hare baaadaftatt*^ a^dtakaaa 
caoMil aaoh eaeoaalva waata aa to cuuipal the «niB(«iq> to abaadfitt Iha 
ayttam. Tba angtnaar apprtlianda uo oraal dlffloulty In the caaialant 
■upniy. ir proper apparalua la uaad, and the oonnBoiloua are eara/ally 
mad* lo a propar ayaleni. 

^Mf a/ A* Ifonb.— Thr Intal eipsndlluro upon the warto of Ihia 
campanv haa bam ationt .1i>,()0»[,, of whioU 8;uOf. baa been tha eoat 
inonmd in thi adoption of thn anttanlnit prooeaa. 

iJrntraJ tUmarkt. 

At It It tlionsht dralrable to enter apoii the aopaiata aoiuaderatioa of 
Dr. Cku-k'a aofieDtnf p wnf aa a general (pealinn. then ia IlttW to 
ubaarvn ujinn tbaaa wena, axoapt that tbey bare been well carrlad ant, 
and lliat conaidaring that thia la tha Sral alWmpl al Uw oooiplcta and 
parmaneot appllntiun nf tliat proaaia to watarworka for damiMiB aupply, 
iJia airangvmenla appnar M ba of a vn-y maluml and talltfcMaay 
charaeter. They bSTe complataly tattlnl tbn iiatation of tha |aaatiaa 
biUly and euy wDrkini of liie prooeaa, and of ihs i;nal adaaaMgaa al 
ila aduplioii in all ainillar Caaaa. 

Owlnit in Uir iTKat damaod Upon the worka, thsre ia nwod to faar 
that it haa nut ilimya bcnn praetloablD to alloir aufficumt length of litoa 
For Iha OOmplato pncipiuilon of the dialk, and that Uie nalef baa at 
timta bean doIlv<W to tha oaatoman in a ■omewbat lurbid alala^ A 
certain amount of dfpoait in tha aarrlca reaarvolralao niber bivaot* lUa 
aonaloaion : but thit la a iluriHl which ia mDnliahle u any lina by 
FXtenaion of Ihs worka. Tha waUr haa baon raiaaJ to Uid Hiiic* 
reasrYolra alter 15 boura' reat, but thia would not appear to be anffloiant 
lime for onmplela preoipilation of tha ohalk- Tartnty-faun aliould ba 
alIo««l- 

H wauld ba an improvement If thera wera fbar pcaeraoita for pndpl- 
taiCtaa, and if thay ware oovareil. In the conatruetlen of tbe aattllay 
naaarroiia already IbmaJ. tba anglnaer haa providud lot arching Iha^ 
over at any lim-. 

One ton of the burnt lime added to thn wat^-r it aiid l« prodaaa SI 
lont of precipitate. The eompany bare not yol triad tha aomraarebl 
value ef thii material. 





THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ABCUITECT'S JOURNAL. 



37 



<\L CI.AEK'S PROCESS FOB SOPTEKINO WATERS. 



By HKsar Amur, Wiluax Rakoiii, ildiI Auaico Dion*, 
SvperlnuniUug Impeoton of the G«ii*nit Bonri of He&Ilh.* 

BvoBK offoriog nay oXttarviMoat on ihe uipliofttdtitjr of tiii* 
natm lo the w>tcr nujipl; oif th« MAlrupolm, timlar preamt 
'iiwiiiMlMiiHi «« thiak it raav be lutrful in glv» ui ajEpIuuUoD 
rrtkt Uw prooMi it, in Dr. C'liu-k'a own wonl«, wlijah we hkra 
uUd frmu ika l*f«r read hIa mteiiua of Uia Soeiaty of 
I Mt Ui« 14th May Wt, " On luuu* uvnii.ibla lo tb« nntro- 
Ik aod other pUcM for th« lapplr of wator fr«« bun hudDcw 
-^ (rout ari{»ata impurity.' Ue obicrvea :— 

!■ «rdv to n]riua hnir tb« iwmtiam opanMa, it will ba nacMHiy 

I M tka oltMBinl eanparidoa udNaa of tha dnoial i«^erliM 

far whUa chalk nuftia sp Iha irnat bulk v( the matter ta b* 

Aalk alw oaiiuuii thu ln)[T"liant tliac brin);i kbool iIm 

Tt» iDVeslioB ia a chnmical one for «xpeUiiij[ «balk t7 

CUk Uun cooabti^ for aran I lb. of 18 oa., af Uma B ea., aud tof 
tie uii. 7 aa. Tba 6 at. of lime may be oliUintii aiitul, (7 humiins 
I dialh. a< in a lime kiln. The U ni. of burial Uan: may W iltuolvnl 
■naotitj of walcr, doI LeM Uikn lU k^IIoiiii. Tliu wiluiii>n woulij 
I lima wttor. During the bunilnff uf thn chnik 10 convert it 
, tha 7 OC- of eu4>«Tne add ara <lriT«n ulf. mn lurid irbeo uii' 
. i* luuuntDy toUiIU and mild; il ia tba Mrue aubalAnce thai 
iwfaal liu bocii Cklkt] luila water, when >Ji«a1nxl in irattr under 



> rcn ipariiigl; aalubla in walar i* ohalk by itielf. that probably 
Df SIWO (aliiHM would ba momm/j to diaaolva I llj. of IVoa.; 




S=51b. 



Now aoi 

■ ofSH 
rvantioiay 1 tb. of dulk in water <riUi T ok. ■dtllUontl of lai- 
'M (that li to My, a* niiich more oarttoDlo ndd a* Hi* chalk itself 

a), the Dhalk b«aniiM Nadlly aohtUa in wairr. and wboa an 
ia caUcI bicariMoat* «f lima. If the iiuaniity of water oon- 
tha llti.ofelialh«ttfa7aa.Bddlllan»lof oarboimi acid wno tuo 
, ifae aolutioB would ba « waur of tha sma bardaiS m wall 
FiTDinlhactwlhamla, nilT-l nntlHj iliiraiiiril in ulliai iimna 
Tlww it appgan that I lb. ef ohalk. •ntnwty aoluble ai all in waur, 
r ba nodanil aoluble in it by aithar of two diiliiioi ulimniai] ohaogaa 
'■blab; being deprired entirnly of iu carbuuio wuil. wlinn it waa 
of chaflipng waMT ioto time water, anil tuliililc by comlntiing 
t •aoend doao ufcarboiilc aotd. uiakiii^ iij> liiiixrl innate of lime. 
' if a nluclaa of tha 9 oa. of Imriil limfi, forming lime walar, and 
' aolution of th* 1 lb. of chntk and the 7 01. of carbonic add, 

■ Uorboaata of liinai be mixed togcthor. they will to act upon 
bwaaloraatorathof lb. ef ohalk. wbich will, after tha miltora, 
, IWTlMa bright waUr nbori: Thu uator will be bm boca 

• afSma, Ine from burnt time, ami free fran ohalk, aietpt a 
I wa kaafi out of aaieunt at pment tnr tba nka at tinv- 
IfUcMy In thb emlanaHon. lie foUowiog ubia aiU thuw what ooeuM 
ilhh wniBil filitn titTtpliw 

'TSeiAoi..iaofIli»)^'^: "-■ = "■"•"f'l-ik. 

'•*-««^'- ■ r.riie.old7oc 
Bvnt bne is 40 gallonn of Lnia J = 18 «, of ebalk. 

waiM- 9o«.[ 

Btt^ ia al od of tha wbola ohalk being aspiniblo by tlie |ir«<i«aa ftom 

watar, only l(i-lltha would beaepanlad; an tlla^ wilIj rv^trd to 

the aacwM* reault would bartpnmti, if wo «u|)|>dw 4tOgallona 

r walartobaaporated Dtwn, coutainiug 171 01, of ohaJk. There 

bo aeparalod, lit ai.;--lhm would ntoain in iwliilion, 1| a>. 

RpMM lbs raaull with referanoe to a aiugls gallou, «ub gallon 

lof ciialk, if UDuAanMl, i;4gnuui if aottaood, Itfiraini 

I Jipaait 14 graioa 

I ia a OMVMueni ptao* to oiplain a node of oipreaflug banlaM)^ 

t foMml uae now, but firat iniootad by uie, la ouiiueoiion with 

1 Maw tlxniieal Icata of water, ia order to wuik out vanvoniwitly 

hanilig praceai ihat hu been deacnbaL 

jBtt^ Jtyf t/ Kafd^M it It* frt u^h futninttM oj n ffntin 9/ c^jtik, or 
tlimt, or rtr rwMaai, «■ a-rmin a/r!iali, •Kiulit jirodttcr in agitllmo/ 
utr, ly wlhirr n i nnrw iV ni.>iv U di—alni. 
ThHa, our a uppu a wJ wl-r would be \1\ d »r > M of hanlne— before 
w fta aing; I4 wpaa alW lofioaiog. And tbi* would bu tlia ml 
fMoll^ aappariag than ware in tha water Bootbar hardanInK nuLttitt tmt 
atalki but in tha bcaa qnality of chalk ««tar from aprioc* or w<lli in 
Iba ahalh itrala arognd tho inatropalii^ them >• aolii Jly iiruvnl > aoiaU 
poportiou of olber hanJanlDK matlar, aueh •• Ui preniiit ib» water (niui 
Mag aofUnod lower than ^ doB^oaa. A (pilon of auoh wator, after 
b)iDf •\aponu^ wm (ounil to bava bold in aolulioti of aaUd mailer— 
BtRJaa aoltaning, 33 grain*; after •oftaoint;, 7 gnina; the differeaoe^ 
la graini^ wa« Jua lo malk nmovad by the anltening prooaa*. 

Xa|altlBaaa«aal BoarJ af HuUfe no tte Uoln|nlli VltUt^uytl}. 
I— VoLxi.— FlUtAItT, 1M;. 




HtM OKplanatiaaa wiU mafci ll mgj to eam|nbend tba aucoeaaiTo 
parta of tho aolWoiag piopaaa. 

It will tM plherad hnm mir daaeriptMB of Uio PluflUtMil, 
Woolwioh. and ChnritoD Watcrwotfa that tUl Miaatlflo •od 
ingtrai-jma prucesa uo luE^er rcninia* In tk» poritkn of n bMUtifial 
thiie*7 of tho Inbontotj, of wliiofa t>tw pnetioal applicntioa vt 
doubwil. it linviiig now bew in oparnttiOD for two yenra m m 
largo a MiDnla with onuDMlt mMosa and advantncn. 

Wo ahnll BOW mto Ur. Homoniliam'a aocuuut, axtnctoil from 
the prooeedlngi « thv nueilog badbn rofamd I0, of Uio mock 
in which tho prootH ia Uiai* iq^kd. Ho atatca,— 

"tite manner of ouryins out tha aoAaning preoaMat Ih* w««fct wia 
ai fcdiowa : — The lime luudvu Bar* luna, tMoafron the upptr cUHt. 
ftoeh lima, frtali bunii. waa (iiiliiallj ihnlml ill aiinjl iiiiMililiia in n 
Mb wllli wain-, and waa jiuvad Ihroogh aflnarim^itf MootlDiDiAli 
to tb* iixli, inte a ■aal'iroa oiitem. Tha tiil e rD, whlat hrid aboat a 
(lay'i aupply wben fall, remMowd usdittiU'bad for iweleo hoara, when n 
quantity of olau water, found to (laai! aliuTO the lime uaato, wiackawn 
ol^ and lb* lime paalo or mam of limt, >■ it waa calloil, waa UirToil up 
to make it all of a uniform ooiiHiteniy. ohrm il wu reaily for ute. A 
quart of auob oraun of limo oaotaiKd in wvigbt about lb., 
or mihcr mar<^ of di; nndackod Ina. A* llio wnter (about ftOOgalbra* 
a minute) waapBO^ad opfromtbewdl. aiuiUblenuutilyeftbiineMn 
'if lime waa pawed, bf moan* of a large cylinder and pialon mated by the 
alAam-aiij^no. Into tha pi]« through which tho water waa ccoduMad 
(tam lb* w«li. The ar«am of lime aad water wm mtimiuely mlxad by 
oauaing ibem to paa* togMbar tb>«iigb too, wliat wtn <allii4. agitaioto, 
(riaoad at a hula £alano* apart. Bttaram tba two agilaloti^ a wrll, 
a lint inMHldbaetoriaDloDnattholiop, waa Inuapoaad. •» Unl aU 
the Uma and watar, after it bad paaaad through (ho Riat a^lalor, want 
into ihii wall on on* id!*, and fuaaod oal of il a|^in un tha othari>d4LlO 
Ibe aecond ^italor. on it* way to Uie deputitiiig naerroiiu. Tha 
object of thin W4II. whiob WM S ftet deopbrloiTtbecnfairing pips, wa* 
lo atl'iw any gritty niatur IhatbraocidRit rnigfat be intmduced withlh* 
liiuu into tlie wator to bll l« tboMllom, and ao pietcnt it piaalTUt Into 
the dnmiting laoiiirnlii l>i« *|^lator nuraty oonoiitoj of an M^qpwl 
nips. 'i I ioohoaSntenialduunatar, and about S faat in length. cMtSn- 
iTiK within and around it Ihnw pintre of wrought- Iron, about 'JlM*tapaft 
harjnf; in ^um about 110 boloa, «aob 1 iaoh b dlametv. Aa tba Kmo 
and water puaad togalh*r llnwigh thrholaaalauvlof abontSO inofaM 
aaeoood, tliay Inptngod qiueklTagauut Ihewaurlnttahoilyorihapipe, 
wUohmovad only at tbamtooflSlnch«a*aa«ond. ThoUmoMidiwler 
In ihla w)yr bacnma intimately mind, and paaNil mi tgylhaf Into a 
TOMTvoIr praparad lo raoaito lliem, oapable ofoo n tai n i i y (altar laavlng 
room for tha chalk d*pont at tho tiotiuin) <I00,000 gallon^ or one djyra 

Ina roaerroir waa dltiJed into throa oomputmenta, oaeb eapabU of 
balding 31)1), nOO galloni, foroonvnoienMinomptylngand filling. Whan 
the foaerroir wai being filled, the lima, at tha oamnien«ni*nt of flUtsg, 
wu added !n viocaa to the wator, an mnob an. ihu ■nh'it the raaarroir 
WM only thme- rcioriln full, the renuniag fourtli part wu litl*d op wMi 
pare walar from the arall. In pHwHea^ On a^iuatmml of tho euct pro- 
portiona of lima and watar wM vaty aaay; Ibe filnr Ihc waa uacd for 
tlk* final adjuatment of oaoh oompartmaat of the raatrvolr. aa dtaortbad 
in Dr. Chuk'a paper, 'lliu rtaarroir being tbu* hUeil with lame and wailar, 
and adjuated by the ailtar taat, in about wxtotn bouts afUrwmb all the 
ohalk or larboiiato of Ihaa bad fallen to tba bottom, the water had 
booome perfocliy jnr, and h waa Ihea pumped up to the •rrriee raaer 
voir fur the lupply of the conaumora. when tho retnrroir waa amptiod 
of the foflcned water down to within about t fort of the bottom (ao 
aa not lo dialurb tlie dniHiilt), it waa again ftUod witb lime and water a* 
before, til* depoail not being takonoQt DDtUit «B* IT or l&ioebaadMp; 
thli did not oouur tnnr* tlian ono* In oigbt Or tan wceha. The pipe 
(hroDgh wbidi tbs wator paaiiil boa (ha wall, after the cream of Ibae 
wa* miE«<l with it, lo the dapoaltlnc w aarralra, waa u eloaad oaat'lron 
piptV 1 1 inche* in diaiaMar, and about TS yirda in Unglh. It waa found 
for thia lenj/th, at Plnioataad, that tba pipe got ler; alowly coated with 
a dopoat of forr or aijiaalliaad carboonM of lima, 'ill* aamo kind of 
fumng «r depealt of ebalk alao locdc plao* ia tlia a^talera, but by 
making proper proriiiuu for elearing out the depoail lAloh adband to 
thoae parl4, tbey eould ner^r eaally 1)0 kept clear.' 

Aa thn opfii-ntioii in Ihiia found to be perfectly pr»clii»hle, 
them now only reiiiaina for ojuuidomlion the balanw of the 
adTuitAgm cf tbo pnifuiB with the rxiwn^u uf tha u)ii^mli<ai in 
uiv iliiiividii.il UWF. 

In nntpr to a d*Ntr tinilfntlJiDdini; of IhoM pointn, — ao muHt 
enonnon* ■Mti>mniit having Ihhiii put forwanl on the aubject, — it 
may be well to eonaidcr what are the liinita of Ibe applioatiou of 
tbo proceat, what arc tbe bmeltts to bi! dorlvod, aad what ia ifae 
probable cotd. 

Tlie proc aw la oonflned in tta Konniing action to thoae watera 
of which the liardiioaa ia derived fmm cnrboDBCe of line, or 
preeiaely tlioae wbioh are olmilaHy mrflaaad t«j «iffn\)A Vd^Vti^vil 



THE Civn. ENGINEEB AND ARCIHTECTS JOURNAL. 



Uifwntw- TbencUon of boiling diiengagta or fjijwU the free 

nrboDie ncid from the wnUr, JubI dh ttio cnuatic lliii« iiJiImI hj 

Dr. C'krk'ii pro(«M neiilraliee* or Utkm it up. ftiid tli« carbonntc 

F tt linw on loDRor hrM b^ it in ■olulJoii iirpnmt*!! uiil adhcm to 

' tl)« aidaa nnil hottoni nf tho vewcl. 

The wli-uibtK™ of thd prowu msT bo coniiiilcrnl uiiiler thi«» 
b«uli ; — health, ucimfort, nod vcmdohi.v, 

1. The oomiwrntiv* wlioleaoiueReBa ciS linnl aiiil anft wntifr for 

driaUagbM bom kaubjeet of muehdiseussinn uflnt^ yam, but 

ttac* doM Dot Rppoar to b* anj conelueire erideucp whicii would 

FbUow ofuir (.Mrrrct utimat« of tliair ciiiupamtivi! rtfifct iipi.>[i I be 

t^Uem. AltliuuKb tliei'u eta b« littlu doubi Itinc wlivru wnurs 

r»n In^pragnaUd wjtb •nm« flO or 60 degrraa nf Imnlnninj; mnttnr 

Elte rwooval would be braefitnal, it is oonMadcd br mitnv tbal 

[ elutlk, to the extent th&t it exjela iu the waten supplied by iba 

.Ixindon companSw, oannol be oouiild<;r#d iiijiiri'.iiii to tit-nlth. 

[Upon this point wo do not preU'iid t-) ofltr eu opinion; in 

'■pMking of thnndvantuHpa of the softening prooess to hcnith, we 

rofpr omply to the raluo which it te (i»id t*) possess, ofr^niaTlDD, 

ft pari, ori^iik' iinpiint}' in aolulioii in wnl^r, nnil vrhioli 

eidluAry Itlcniliua will unt diMoga^. Wo nre not awar« thfit 

[It kaa been pnti'llcxble Co d«lenauie the «It«nt of thin property 

of the procxH* ; but that it efTeettuiIly prevpntJi the rnmJ vomtn- 

lion which enaii™ ou the eookpe of frwi cnrbonxc acid gam (ram 

inter dcrivwJ fram the chalk, Aud allowed to iwit, hiui b^uD most 

^Mtiabotorlly proved at the Woolwioh work*. 

% Tho oomfart of a loft water for penouiJ nblutioa niid baching 
thrill bo admitteij bjr oil im no mean oonaidenCtoa in favour of the 
tpTDoeaa. 

I 3, The «ooDomf to be dcrivei] from the um "f the softened 

' Vkter la <t*l«d to oonidet of thn Baving in t«« and other articles 

of infiinon; in aoap and in widn: the saving of Uboiir in woah- 

ii)|t ud of thir wmraud tear of clothes; the avoiding of incrus- 

tatioaa of enj^iie boiler^ kctt1«^ ftnd I'ther vcsmIk. 

The chief economy will obvinuslf be in tea and in eonp, but 
while oilmitlinji that thia mint b* ooiieidorablc, we must expreiie 
«ur opinion that tho gnviugi that have bocn oiiculatcd In tlime 
krtiulva fruut tho use of lufhined water btive buiu inuoli over- 

TtttA. 

The (Mnimlftnioners who reported iu I9AI fin thn chpralcnl 
uollty of tho iinpply of water U> tho rnetrnpiliii foiinil that the 
inou of IiondoB water, n* ■( if eammonly uinl afirr boiling, 
W1U abuut live degi'eea; while without hentin){ it amouutu to 
14 dH|[reiM, It is probabk that the wat«r Q«ed for umkitiu t«a 
Bay not tinaally Imi boiled anflieiently Ion); Ui retluce thn hnrdnew 

F.to Uiii i^itent, and therefore thiit a saving of tea «oniowhat con- 
■idorabte would iu iitch oose result from the use of wal«r whiub 
hod undergone the xul^uing proMM, bill we pretiuuie that no 
MUih eciiuoiiiy can bo titck>ineii upon oh would he found from the 

1 1MI of the aofUiaed water aa oompared with another which 
dorivod itA hacUneea from other ■onroM than carboufile of lime 
not nsluuible by boUlog. And in tho tnutUr of snm), atthoo^h 
ev«ry hunitred nlloQa of water derlve<l from the chalk utmtn arc 

inid to be opODla of dnitroying and rcndnrins of no effect 30 
«iniCM of «oap more than if it hod undergone the lofteniag pro- 
eon, it ia obvious that thin furma a tnost errouoous basis of 
calculation of the oeluid w.iiit« incurred froin the use of «uch 
water. In all wiuhing openition> the nonp i" "ffcclively used 
with comparatively a amall (fanntity of the wat«r in the vessel, 
tho bulk of the water in use betnK in fact employtd in Husing, 
in gelling rid of the siiap that liai performed il4 olhcv, lh« 
dostructiou of which in then no longer of any coiMer|ticnci3. 

N<itwithiitandtiig thnse ovar^otimalei, however, the great 
ailvKtitogai of the »oft*ued water cannot bo qnestionwl, and they 
ore well worthy ouiidcratjou iu all phiees supplied with water 
to which the proceee is applicable. 

Th« oofteabw proc w h applicabl<) with moat advanlo)^ not to 
rivvr w»I«n Dnt to clear cnring wntcro. nuch on are usually 
derived from wolU in the ebaJk, or to other w«tori of which the 
hardncu ii derived from carbonate of lime, but which have 
aoauirrd no tituo or dlsoolourlng admix tur«. 

In thia oM* Uie prodpitatod pui« oarban»l« of lime ia stated 
to pOMew oonaiderable commercial value ua on excellent material 
Ibrvdiititig. which, occonling to Mr. Homeraham's cniculatiuni, 
would nearly pay for l)ie wlK>le worktnf; etpentM, oiid Inwrest 
OU Ihooapltrtl eitwtid';'] forMlnbtiihin^ Che procM*. The public 
would. In eui^ i»iut, enjoy alt the advantogca of the ayitom 
•laaaalftwofooet. 
If tlu prooaM wore applinl to n wmler which Lm UJuu up uty 




impurity or diacolouring matter, oa tJie water of the Thooio^ fcr 
instance, U Is oilmictird that tlie prwilnltale would be vmln 
but, uotwithslAoding thix, looking M all the comfbirt and idmi> 
tajim [n be di'rivod trota the nee of a aoTt and puie water, we 
believe that there are few c«u<ee in which we shoiJil liwitsle to 
rwuuimend lis adoption. 

A* rvj^U the Metropolis, If 11i« MppllcAtioa of the ooft^niing 
pToconK nod fonned one of tlio rtqairemeoia of tho Act of \wS, 
many of thn eouifianica' nmnffementa would necouarily have 
differad widely fn.m thorn which have Utni curried out, b<at 
conaidenibtc laviugH might probably hayu ber n offerleil in ihem 
whicli would Iu )>art have comgwneated f'>r (he oilditionol outhur. 

ReckoDiog Ihn e<>at iif t)ie procOM ni>un the experience of tan 
worka of tlie Woolwich and Flutultcnil Coiupauy, the expcauli> 
turn for world executeil dt ROW for the whole uf the melropolin 
would have amuuutnl to about half a niillltin dlerling, and thn 
worklufi ex|)eu)ies to about iiO,0llO/. pw annum ; but now that tb* 
new work* and arrsngementu of tho nevcml compauin have been 
comtilelal, it ia impnauiblo to toy what expense would be 
involved in :1b ndo|itioti : laxA iudependeotly of anv outlay that 
might be reouireU in otlditiou to ttio large sums which Uie ootn- 
paniM have beeu alnuidy atlled upon to expend, it ia eontended 
that tho pnHvwi wimld now bo in great pttrt unsuitable for, if 
not quite incompatible with, thinae worki and arrangouivuts joat 
carried out for tho improvement of the suppUee. 



MR. FAIRBAnWS LECTTTRES FOR F.NOINEERS.* 

Not a, year ha* ebped ainoa we revlewid Mr. Fiurboire't 
Lectured to Working Eugiueerti, aud uow a second edition pn- 
seuta itself (or iioticf, i\iv »(>iin>l, solid infi-'miatjon which the 
volume contains having gained for it reoily acceptance. This 
mlition follow* BO dowly on the first that there lias been littio 
opportunity for alleraliou or addition, beyond a frmli arrange- 
ment of some uf the leuliirefl to fnoililata reference and to enaun 
greater continuity of piirpnac. Theee alterations are not ntfB- 
cient to cliange the opinion we before expreued, tliat It would 
have been far better if instead of reprinting loclunis dplivend nt 
various times, and often under agieciol eircutnstancoa, yeoni 1^ 
Mr. Fiiirbuim hiul presented the results uf his experieuoo in n 
murv consecutive form, aud written up altopifther to the exittinff 
stute uf kuowlLHlue. Thi^ itilditiou of recant experlettoM to m 
opinions sometimes pnidnces an incouKTUous patchwork that 
ap])ears unintelligibly controdicUiry. Tiius, for czAiiipli', in apeak' 
iug of the forma ufbuilsrs, IhecvliudricnJ aud heiuispbcriool ibvnss 
are reoomniended hi the origi'iuil lectures as the atrougeat Mid 
best; but the eii|M!riments afterwanls niniln ou the stremsthaf flat 
anrface*. which coutntdict that opinion, urn added to the fonsAT 
without any eipliinnliou of the npuareiitly contradictory alnt^ 
meuts: Thus wh tiiiil iu pages 142 and 143, the fullowing pAHMB^ 
a portion of whioh we have tuarked Iu itolictt immediately Ibl- 
lowing each nthnr : — 

"Ai riMusGU form, it lia< otnady been proved that ths ojiindrieal 
aiiit liiFini><|>liririal f<irm> (ar Uiniw funiii hy whlcli nntum la BOTamtfd la 
all h<*r CDiiiLrui'tU'm rvUlive to pn^dHuru) 4rv iLiii Ihtjc: sod It Wfll be 
iiK0nai>7 ii»Iy In iitjiwrvH wliAt lin* nlmily bcmn fvrcibljf er^jed upenyMf 
altenlion, iioin-'lv, <o atuid, uniUr ttrtain fnmlitiani, fiiU nrfaltl, Mid 
t" u-Capl ihr ipltcrifit! nr rylindrieal form* wAfrrrrr nnil uerftr aAaWin 
rVTiirf«'»0iu thr^ are adnuribU, 

"Tbii eunot, however, at nil tinas be aooampliibiid; and that llM 
iurfjkcci ihoulit be nijide to rciijt lovero (irf4*ur«, ii oat uiiftvqoefktly ia 
e«*eiili«l jiniiil 111 coiiitructloil. Noa Ih/tr far tur/ara art not ut ftty 
B/ijrrriunnliU uv ihr icurt of itrnfjih ai ihrg o/t/irar fo lit oi finl tigtt. 
On rJw fimtr^rift 'A*y iff, v'hn\ jinyjirrl'j ■fiiyrij, the ffr-^npejt paH o/iILt 
ra'uFriicri'nn; antf Ihia I h'itt prhrtit ht/ liirtcl fxjiriiHfnt, 

We remarked, in noticing the linit edition of this work, on the 
errvmeoui notion which Mr. Fairliidm ap]ioarB to eutertoin thnt 
the pent-up force in a steam biiiler is increased by iucreaains tha 
Burfac^*. it Meems ntrongtt tliiit the sound practical an n so for miieh 
hA is distlnguiHlied, did nnt at oncedntnct inch a fnlWy, which is 
rnivfttiKl in thn present edition. It would bo unneonuiuj to do 
more than point out the error if committed by nuy one of lewwr 
nuibority, but when It is thus repeated by uueu^.'inwrof eminence 
it may be worth wbile to disprove it, which may be readily done 
by a simple illuidmtion. The statement occurs in pa^ 44, whore, 

- " IVtnl InfiimiiiUiai nil lll|Tilwl In lii|[ ■ »rln a( iMtsnii dtUnml Mtbi 
irurkiftc f Ei^kiif4i', of YvrkAhlFeaMKeeanbirf. iiHtf^ibrr viih » t«rl» af AppAsdMa.** 
Itj WilLui FtlrbUri^ r.lUl.iSe. Scoml tMlUnu. Iduduu ; Luukiuuu uul Ca. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOUBNAL. 



I 



I 



I 



•ftor •Minutinf tbn «nonn«u« fbnw pfiit up in a bigh-proaora 
boilrr with two ccntrv fliiva ktiJ Bleniu at 4^.>)b. to tha tqaan 
mA, )m) pirooeMb to nulioe tubitUr boilen, ii.n>l obanrTM tfakt tbo 
amounl of force bprire cativtMii " in, hnwcror, iiieonniilcrTtblo 
wbcu «>>iupaiy>) with tha iMMtiMtiva and lome mariui! boilenii 
irhich, yirua tit aumber of (ii5m, prrtrtil a murA larger ttl^fitttlo 
nnwiMrf." Now it beviilcuU that if thi- (wtit-iip f'>ro« be incraMWl 
by dtUrKtng thesurfiUM, tlMiutradacUuninbialH»l«ri>fnt[rontcr 
UumiMr of lubMmight iliMibUor liukdruploUieforoetboiijfbekGli 
woniJ liiaphioi B eomapondiiift bulk of Bteuii, ui<l ihiu we 
tdBmrent theAbaunUtjoTsdJiuK to tli« power by itlui- 
'aUiitiR itaqoaniitr; uiBbMinlity which Hr. nirhoim ouniot 
&il tu jwraive aa aooD «• hia atlaiiti-^n in UirtcUsI lo the lubJMt. 
Ihtre M AD impnrUat nntioa iti the proHrnt edition of Ui« 
raanltBorasperitnent' nxicatlj ooiiducbMl M the r«queat of the 
~ ■ Sodety and of the Itritltii AasDcialion (or the Advance- 
of Scranoe, on the nalaUlioe of cylindrlaU vc»»itl« to cotn- 
(rani an citeniftl and anrrooiidinft fores. These cxperi- 
which ani Ktitl in f mtimui. nppor to ooutnuliut Ibe opiuiuu 
gaaai alt/ reeai*cd by eDf{iu«en, lUiti k luii^^cyliiidhokl lube when 
iab)Fcl«lloan utiUiirm pntiort ia«)ii)il in ila power of raaintAnco 
to a abort length of tlie Mue tabo. It baa been foand, bowrver, 
En tbe receoi pxp^riiiirntii, thnt tbo Sac of a boiler ia weakoet in 
the niiidl* of ita Imj^b, and thftC by incraiaing tile length the 
■tnogtfa ia liinuniahnl iu the rall't uf tliAt inoieaaa. SDOhareaaU 
■aimi inexptioable by the knuwo action of iwiform praaiure, and 
w* aluU wait with ruQcb intereat for the di^iMla of tbe nptriineuta 
asd tlwlr final im ligation a, to aaoertiuii wheOiFf aaisiv eriur luar 
BOtlMrit under the artwiffenMOta iul"])tvil for tnllu^llii'ittrenfftK 
of the ubo* aud the uuibnultjr of tlie iireHmint. Amiiniingtbo 
m to be nnifonu, the flge woiilil tie caiiiiUly lupfKirtcd ou 
aide and In erer? piirt of ita length. It ■oeiiu uriuDUublu, 
bm, W infr.r thnt if a tube lie miLrked iutu leu^^thH i^uhI U> 
dianictrr, each leogtb will be (•lually elrinig. ^^«< cnnnnt 
iiaip anapMtiiig tbal nuuiH CLrvuinj<tnnoM h»vn b^n omltloil to be 
talten into oraiiiilenitioD during tbo cx]Miriiiicuia wbioh bavc 
-ritjatwl the reaulta. 

Subjoined ia the notice of theaoaiperimontaaaipircii in tbo 
Appendix : — 

NiAitn ^ Eiyerimtalii on the Collapit of Cylindrical t'tstrltnaw in 

Whca troatiiig uf tbe eaoaea of Unlcr rxplonnns nriiititt from 
tbe oollajne of inlenuU flua, our kiiowlpdife was at thai tituv ao 
Impetfcet aa to limit the inquiry to a fuw niuiplu rilnvrvniioiiH tu- 
taov* to coilapH frniu the heutiiij; of Tlie plat^a, <ir fn-ni ibn 
tbrmatiaai of a partial vacuum witliin the boUer «hea it waa 
forced inwanla by almoupbi-ric prcMiire. 

CaUapaee artaint: from these rntuw it wai observed at (he time 
"could amrccly becaJIp'i botlrr viphjiiioiin," but Ibave ainw hml 
raaaoli ta altf r my opttiiou froiu tbo wmk anil apparently dcfrctivo 
■late of the internal lines ef boiler* whrn expoicd ta jovei-o stisiu 
from the nraaure of tb>> ■arronntiiiig wutor ooutiiiued iu Ibe 
boiler. 1. tu eominon with olhi^r eajpneera, had Kited nndtf the 
leaurtMioii that perfectly oyliudrical tube». wbeo anbjacted to a 
onifbrm prcBurs oonvefging tipon their centre, were oqiia! in 
tbcir puweni of nelatanoe irreapactiTo uf tbeir lengtb. Duubto, 
however, baeing ariwoaa to tlieaccumcy i)f tliiscoucluainii. fr<.<itL 
avniptoiue of waakncu iu the Sum uf a boiler, T i1vt«i'uiini?d to 
mbtnit tbe tiiieatioin to Uiv test uf experiment; aiiJ h.iviiig applied 
for Mnsiaaoe U tbe Uuyal Society and llritiab Auociatiau f>jr the 
Advaaeeaientof SaieDO«,lbe luenni were pbu^eil nt luv diaposnl, 
and a tunc tnit» of eipcriiucnt* were iinilcrtAki-ii. wbioli 1 li<.<pe 
will sboruy be Riven to ttie public iu ttie tr^iieactioDa of tbnee 
bodiM. 

Iq the interval, howevrr, it may be expedient to notice that 
fonoer opinleiM were erraneoua, and tbut itiatetul of being i^f 
anifonu atnngtb throughout, the Buira of builere an weakeat Iu 
tlie middle^ and that by inoraaaing their length their atrength ia 
diminiahed intberatio of that Incraaao. Or, which ia the same 
-tiling, the alreugllia nf tubes are proved to be inverselv oa their 
lenytha. For example, the iuUrual flue uf a boifer 10 feet 
long will suatiun double tbe preMura uf a aliuilar flue of W feet 

lout' 

"niM result aloeie ia of aneb iupco-bum as to iuilicate the 
.necMaity of an entirety new mode ufcuimtructioD, and we bopeat 
BO diauintiierioil In a'how upon what principle tbe llutw *h»ald 
•be dMisaea in order Iu arrive at ojiifomilty of strength in all 
paita oflhe boiler. 



ATTRACTTVE FORCES. 

Proleworf^raday baa reircDtly delivered acoorse of six lecture* 
"On Attntelioii" at tbe Ituyal loatitulion. Tbounh intended 
chiedy for a juvenile audience dimu^ the ChriaUna* liolidayn, vet 
hi* great power of illiiatration and hi> brilliunt style of leetnnng 
never foil to pvo a degree of uovclly auil iutereel evein to eU- 
uieutArv aubjeotH, and be idways atlractt crowded aadicncoa of all 
ages, 'rbia waa eepeuially tiie caae during the course of lectures 
eouelndod on the Mb nit., tbe prcaenoe of the I'riuoe of Wales, 
who came fnitn Wiudaur cndi time, attcoded by hia lutura, rOD' 
tributiiig no doubt to crowd tbe le<;tulV^roonL 

Tbe drat five lecturiM were devuted to ihe aepar«t* oooiudera- 
tiona ot tbe atl.raclioua of gravitation, of ooboaion, of rlwminal 
tuna, of elnclricily,and of magnctiam, and in the eisth lecture h* 
reviawed {{enendly the pheuoiucua uf thuoe force*, and showed 
their iulioialr tvlslium to our auoUier; thua leading to the conclU' 
aiini thai, tbuu^b ajipareiitly distlact anil dithrent, tbey an in 
iwdtty but vanom inoillii-aitioTutof the aanie bree. 

He commenenl by eiiileavoiiring to impart a clear idea of tha 
action of uttnwtire'foroe, sudforlbat purpnaaheosedapoworftil 
eleulnvuiugTist, over wbich wan laid aalaniingboard. A cylincUr 
of iron dntwn apwanla uu th« inclined nlano, and atrongly adher- 
ing to the boaid when over the |>olc* ul the magnel) was an Ule*- 
ttntioa of the tone ot ultractiuu directly ovideut to the aanaea: 
and tbe rolling down of the L-vlliider, wlieii contact with the 
voltaiu battery waa biiiken and tlie electro- magnet be^^ne inert, 
served lo iUiifltrale grHvitiition, whieh, tboiigh eqnnllj an exliibi- 
tiou of attractive f>rGP, ii;le» cogriiubie to tbe aetuea becauae it 
Beta iH|uiilty ou all boiliea. ProleHOr Fara-lny was particularly 
auxioua IJK iuiprvsB on liis audieuoe the fiict of the nnivcrsid action 
(if the Htlracti'ju of graviution, and that it oierta the aatne in- 
fluence on the Uehirxt aa on tlin benvieat aubsUnce*. A amati 
piece of platinum was oaotnuteil with a bur of aluminium of 
equal weight, to show ibe ditTetrnl Bpecilie gravities of the nme 
CUBS uf bodiea; it being observed that IhoDgb aluudniuui U the 
Ughleat of all tha workable melala, being four times lighter Ihan 
silver, and el^bt time* lighter Uinn ptulinuni — in uuuiy uf its 

firo|>ui-ti('n it ia a better nictsl tbiiu ibu bcuvieiit, aluoe il la mora 
uatruussnd ouuduula beataud eleelriciLy better than pUUnuRi. 
Though planum audalumininmareuneijual in weight, yelbuth 
are equally actail on by the feeceof gravitation, aapruved 1^ their 
falliuff to the KTuund in the same time. The equal altracu-m ex- 
erted ny grnviLiliou ou light and heavy bodin waa further ahown 
by uumeruua eiperimeut*. To illuatrate that the rising of a 
biilloon in tbe air la causoil by the prcwure of the almoapbere and 
not by it* specific levity, a large aolid ball of iron a'ae made to 
rise inu glau vcsael when surroutidF-i by a heavier' liquid lunlian. 
mercury. A curious illuolrulion uf the dilfcreut weights of arri. 
form bui.lie« was alTonlcd b^ floating a amall balloon fllled with 
common air on oarboiiie ncid gaa. and that giis wiu ladM froinoue 
veaitcl into nnothrr with a ladle in the Kuue manner aa a lan^hU 
liquid. In idtudiug to tbe allfuoliun "f gravitarion between the 
sun and the planeUiry liiiilea, Pnrfeasor Faiminy particularly 
noticed the diacovi'ry of the planet Neptune by (lie (limiirt»uce 
itaattraotion occasiona in the movement of L'rauuN; the discovery 
bcini;, as he m,id, Imt attribulublcto tbeantriini>nivrgxziii(|;Ht the 
heavens, tli.-iii to the tibiloaiipher natculating iu hi* atu<iy— tbe 
planet havini; been " felt out" ticfom it waa seen. 

In couiideriDg tlie atlmction of cohesion, rrofeneor Faraday 
advcrtol to Uiclaw that tbe atlrnL-liuu of graviwii.iu is invvrMly 
a* the squartw of lbs distance; and be rather le<l it to be iiitcrml 
thsn staled directly, Ibat tbe atti'action of oihesion is the same 
force M tlial of ifravitation, hut actiuK iniimulely between the 
jHirticldi of Vioiiiiai. This brunch of the subjeut, however, waa uot 
very clearly uxiilaiiied, nui- dirt the illustrations liear so dir»ctiy 
on It as is usual witli Profestior Fnradav -, hni. it niiiifhtbo gathered 
from what be said, thnt ax eaub piii'tiole of mutter baa its s^cilic 
centre of gravity, from which ]>oiiit<. thie law of dislaueu begins lo 
operate, the more minute the jKirticI™, and uonBvuueiilly tbe 
nearer their contris of gravity ate brought to each other, the 
grrator is iheir rcapeutive attmclioiia, tlie toree of cubeaiou brang 
in tliose CHBM etmnger than when the centir* of |[nivity are 
farther a|.<art. Among tbr. exfterimeiits iutroduceil U> illuatnle 
the inlluencnofheat iu dimtuisliiug llie attractl<.in of coliesiou, 
WHS Uic application uf tbe flame of a spirit lamp lo a wire *us- 
peudiuj{ a heavy weighl, and the cuUM^queut frucluro of tlio 
wir«. 

Tbe lecture on chemical attraction was pi' iuc! pally directed to 

6* 



i 



4» 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AHCHITECT-S JOURNAL. 



theniiHtntioo, by»ni»iib«rDfl>ril)<ftnlMip«rii»Mit-<.ofll)«itctioa 
of chnoiirHl affiailiei iu cbnngin^ the cli&nu^UMn qi tha bodie« on 
whieh Ui«)r ofMrntA. 

Ill ifar !i^ai» r.11 olKtrkid altndiona Ihe pf^iilkr char»ptori»- 

' tica of (Iwlric foTM) trorv ptiliil^il oul aD<l «xeiiii>lifiiHl, peculiAT 

Htrea* Wlngtniilou th« ti-mnnnirynnt.tininflliat kln-lofnUnictioD, 

in whioh ro»p«ol it diHVni from the othirt al.traolive forcon. Aa 

, kn UlaMntioa of the freiiueiit txi^iteniotit of electricity uiiJcr eir- 

f «DmMmOM whan Wt thought <>(. Fn>fi.-!iKur FanidnT pinMsd Lis 

' IimhI on the top of* KDld'iwf olf^t^•^l«wr whilst fi« ruliljfxJ bis 

het on a rii^, ami on n!tnavinc> his hniiil thafoM Iimtw divrrgvd 

l>y ihc oloo.tricity lliin rxatod. 

Ob eonuuNiCTnc the leuture on ma^etunn, a niaBs of londiitiiDe 

ma bald aaapMiaiKl by a ttriag kh nu illuatnttiuu in Itself of all 

th« ftttmctivB fbroM. Ila weight in<liinU»l thf nttrwtion of 

ffmntatinn; Ita aoliditv and hanlneu rvprrmintAil tho nttnwtjnn 

I of oafaeiion; lb* ocmiliiuatjoni of the oivRrn am! irou in itn 

'-Stmeture cxhiUitnl ch(-mical aiHnity: a cfiargp of eleutricity wna 

comniiiuicatocl to tha loadirtonH to muko it eiom»lify «lm:lriMl 

ftttmetion; nod the peculiar pwptrty it noM<q<««<l of attrnctiiij^ 

Ipou and Mwl showed lU nuwnolie nttnu-lion. The induction of 

mnguctiam in »oA irou on Uie npjiroacb of % iiiB|nict witboaC 

I tODdilng waa axklUtad; and tiia ourioua (iu>t tha.t the miftnetiam 

f of tba aailh paa*e««a tha Mm* powar of oommaDicalIng llt« form, 

waa thovR by the following Hmpl« txporimont. A mafinotiimj 

st«I h«r WMdallcately bd&nc«il, und a kitchen poker, held in 

the nugnatie naridlaa and ineliued to tha maguctic dip, wm 

^brought near it Wlian bald in that pMltloDthapoltHr«-il>ilfic«il 

Uio propertJM of a mairnat, ono Mid ofit atCnictinf and tlieoUier 

«iil rntmlliiig the lu.ij^iulined ban auid by revorniiic th« ends of 

tbe poker, its polm were cliangod. A lew blow* with a hnuiiaiv 

r-WiwB held iQ that ponitiuu gava a dej(i«a of permaneincy to the 

'*— ", which otlierwino disappeared the Inatant Hut iJi* position 

a pokar waa ahangcit. The rpmnrknbin dlMppearkDoe of 

|lugnet)a property In a norw-aboc oingnet when the two poieaare 

~ BDeclAd by a plooe of aoft Iron, ii)(liaat««. In Mr. nnula/a 

|inlou, that there ia a oanfat of foroB eni!tl«l from «<idt iMla 

a mapet nd from tbopolaaof a vhKaIo battar^; and that wlira 

,^ DoaotfiHi U made between th<im by a good oonduotor like anft 

' imn, tha circuit ia oompleted, and for tlut roaaou tha mngnotie 

rff'-cia ftrn not pereeptible beyond it. 

The relation of the various atlncrtire forcw to (ooli olIiBr waa 
ManuilUeil in the but lecture bv a variiflv i-f '■xiioriiiiMitiiahow- 
iBKtluttiheintcal affinity, eloctnoity, nndinagnolimu am <wiiver- 
kilue irtir, n[|.> iiuuther. Havinir. for iusUiiiee. gireu an illuitrntion 
lof e4eiiiical action hv the (.imibustiiiii rif iron in uxyf^ngaa. by the 
Icombaation of nine foil in the nir, and by the solution of oopjMr 
ad ita aobeequent dopoiition on ateel by dipping a knifo iiitci thi^ 
olaticai, the tnlltienee of the crjiilact of ilisBimilar nictula in 
[chauging ohninicnl ;iL'tioii w;ui ahowii, by cauniug the d«<pu«iliou 
■arftmnitii •rtlmii-n <-n todllver wWn in coiitavtwiih steel, 
I BO anob deponitinn taken pbt^c nn ■ilvvr when nnt in con- 
i with A metal niorvmulily oxidimble than il«clf. Ilie eifoct 
baa prodnood waa next abuwii to be musud by the electridty ex- 
ited by the cnntoct of diaaimilar Diel.iK thu iwtion of Zituiboni'ii 
pi In, Id which the Tnltalo action le c«n(X'utrtt4<d by a>^ialniiinl>«r 
of altAniatimiR of metal Inavaa, lorving to indiiTatw that vnltaio 
■ •clion anil electrinty are one and t^e nine. Electricity having 
tiiuH been oliniiiiatiM fruni oheinlDal aeliou, the lattur was ahown 
I to be govemol )» •leotrieit|r. LitniiiM paper and lui'iiieri-; papiT 
; ware plnoed in thn voltaiecimiit,and thelitiniuiraji tnmeilreil tiv 
I eontaolwithoueof thepotea of tha voltaic battery, and the turmeric 
I luiveil bri'iwTi by the action of the other, in the mine manner aa 
[If the fbriDtThad been expoaed to the autiuu of an acid n,nd iha 
Vlattn to that of an alkali. On reverainK th? 7'i.lw of the bntlerv, 
I blnaooloarof thalitnina,and thn yiillnn colour nf the tn mien o 
^WWcnatOTed. Theeonverni'-nof eleotrioity iulomagnelism 
' tha fbnmtlon ad eleotro-nagnetH, and linnlly thu conversion of 
lliagnetiain Intorieotriollji wareeitubii-Ml; Ihu i.-rigiiial maffoetlo- 
HtaMiicnl machine, invent*] by Mr, .Sation. lining prodncod aa aa 
~t«tian that elortrieily may be obtJiinoii by ranjtnetisra of great 
aity and ([iiantity. The convertibility of Ihoe forcae into 
lone another proves, aa Profwninr Karaday o'lHervwI. that however 
IdileMflt they apiwar to h^, they .ire but niodilicatiotii of theeaiiie 
llnree: and tha traportaut problem now reraaiBlng to be aalvod by 
^hUoeophen ia tna diaoovery of the natnroof the breothatcaabo 
I modified to produce auch varioua elfeet^ 




NEW EDUCATIONAL MrSETW. 



Tbk Committee of Privy Conncil on Educnlion have amuiged 
to open the New EducntionaJ Muaeiim at the Now Bulidiny, 
South Kenaiiiglon, In tlic ■pring. It is hopeil tlie uiimnuB will 
atTord ffrwit help to all cliuwei of tlio puMi* in carrying o«t tba 
work oT national ednuation, and eaprcially ^oae en^igad in 
teaching. The museum will axfaiUt, under a proper n t aa w fi oat i nn , 
ail important books, dltgrama. iUnsl^aLiou^ and araantaa cob- 
Eeot«d with erlucatiim, alraady u nee or whiob may >« niUUbed 
from lime to tjma, either at Kome or abroad. The public will ba 
admitljKl free u a publio eihlbltJoQ on omain daya of die weak: 
and on mlier dnvK. which will be menreJ fur studeata, oppor- 
tunily will be given to eiamino and consult thu ol^ota wJlh 
the utuoDt fn^iitoin. The obieda ethibiteij at St. MartJD'a Hall 
til 1 Vi4, whicii were nre»rnUv! to llio Soraolyof Arta, and by that 
■ocirty given U> the Edinailioii Bonnl in order to found a nnaentt, 
will ^rni jHirt uf Ihe Giliunliouol Uuseuiu. Tbe prodnoen o 
appnratua, boi^h'S diai^mnii, mapa, &o, u»ed in uitching, will 
have the privilege — subject to certain regiilntions — of phrang 
their puhlimlintis and produotiona in tbei mnaeum, and tliua 
Ruiking thorn known U> tha pnblic; and »-e undenbmd that a 
uuuniinous dcainii to awiat hm been eaprwiril by all tJi9 gr»at 
eduoattonal aocletiea nnil publudiL^Fs. A oalalogua will b* pr^ 
pared, which will contain llie pricw llsta which cxhibitotw may 
ramiab for innertion. The liooka ami ohjeelji will Ix- ([HHipeid 
under the following diviaiona^— 1. School biiildingK and titling 
fenna, deaka, alatea, plana, modela, &a. 2. tjrueral edooalioB: 
including reading, writing, gnuomar. arithnieiie. mathefoatie^ 
fbrewn langiia«ea, historiea 3. Drawing and the dne arta. 
4. Uusic. 5, Household Mononiy. 6. Geugmphyniid antmnoray. 
7. Natural history. 8, Chemistrv, B, Phyaica. Hi. Mecbanica. 
1 1. Appai'atus fur teaching the Uind and Ihe deaf and duab> 



THE NEW SCHOOL OP ART AT SIIEFFTELD. 

TnK building haa iust been oomplotcd, and reflcotJi iLe greateat 

aTdit upon oil who fiavo liad the maua«tfmool of it. The entire 
coat, wilh filtium, purclinan of land, is "llXtf. 

The general iMrm of the builJiug Is that of on irrrgubr L, 
nuil it i« prpoled on slopiug j-rontid, so that the back iiart of 
thn bnilding in four stories hi«li, aiid about 70 fret wide, and 
herein ita magnitude consists. TIie main entrance ia iu Anindd* 
street, and u;icus into the vestibule on the nghl tisnd, whila on 
the left is the library and iwruiicil room. To the right of tfaa 
pMsngn ia the geometrical HMini, for Iho study of arvhitectnn^ 
engineering, machinery. Proceeding along the lobby, wo paaa 
the foot of the grand staircase, and reach ihe ihcalru or lectvre- 
room, which will also be nied a» thu life mwlel room. Tbe 
whole wi<lth of the buck iwrt of the building on ihis floor te 
fM-cnpiol by Ihe room for Ibo iTlnmontary elnssai, ita prvportiona 
being about TO feet by Hit ted, and il feet high. A aeooad 
siAircase couductn down to tbe niudalling mem, aub-maatec'a 
niuin, .'vnd clonk mom for the etudenta. The ^und-floor ia 
apprfiprint^l to rooms for caitting in cUy; fuel. Vpitrming and Ten- 
til/itiug apiBinitua. The porter or atteiiilani is honaed in 
premises which ciu\ be approached without havii^ to j}0 Ottt of 
doori RelrnciTig our step* we nweiid the grand atiurcMe and 
eutcr the corridor, at one end '.'f which ia a moat nicgnnt room, 
occupying the entire front of th« building upon this floor, and 
devnted lo the use of the hidies' claioes. The head EaasMr haa 
nccominudalioti opposite the heoil of the gmiid alaireaae^ and 
over the geomctvicnl room. Tu the loft of the staira, aad ovar 
the theatre, is t!ie pnintiuc ro<>m, liglitiicl by lofty side windows 
and a skylight, eitlier of which cjin be used as requitnd. At tlia 
end of the uorrid<jr, and over the elementary room, and of similar 
proportions, is the grand cast gallery. This is a heaulifnl ncn 
nir the purpose, and one in which the council havn actadjofr 
oloiwiy in aiiopting the only altomtions of any magnitude Deotlad, 
or even suggested, in the original design of the building— that ii 
to sny, elevatiDg the walls aboul thrw feel, aiid c«uiiiuctiug tliem 
with the skjligblby an elegantoove. Ovor the front part of tlM 
building, facing .^rundel^itrecl, are a series of private atndki^ 
lighted oy skylights, f'lr the odnincccl students, to use wh«n com- 
peting for priiea. All the armngements for lighting, wnmu^ 
veclilnting, wnxhing, &c., thr»u^h<>u', nn i>f the iiiiial iininplai 
and elfective kind. Urmt credii is due to Mesara. MawiIagMlit 
Uew, the arcbit«cta, and to Mr. T. E. Mycock, the contnotor. 



THE CIVIL £NaUi£Ett ASD ABCHTTECTS JOtJRNAL. 



«l 



CAST ntOK BEAMS* 

By TiiuMAn Davieh, T^IS. 

WiMTWKit bo tb* noaaiDMulktloDB of wrooclit Iron for BMina, 
[there will alwitva rtm^ii nui; cum In wbich Tt«rlll b*n«|n(ll«nt 
to ate rtnt tnutaJ for the aunn piirpoM. It U iloumblr, (tiorv- 
tlut whoi th« laiccr U >ilopt«l, it abould be awd witb mi 
, wtarlnn of iM ptDpertieis aBd of tha profHirUoai nqolnd for 
I diSkiMil ]Mrt« «f lh« B«wii, lo m b> Ktuin a gl««B Mra&gth 
I ^rilk the imm uiimuit nf iiuUtuI. 

I do not Uiink tlir.iv it aiiflicicnt ktUation paid to that, at Ihu* 

tu thl* lonlitv, if wc nutj iad|{* (nu> the wati«w of the Bmuia 

m*d in tht* nt*. in so fu- lu iMf haTC wna toidcr m^ ofaaem- 

l tiMi: For tiwUni*, I omj jvftr h> k dowrlpCiati of 1)>-un wliich I 

^IwM sotiiiDd •cvanl tinaa, and of vluch tbo antu-ml ii * 




>^ ^ In tbia CUM) Iha ikrrb«il rib U quite ateleat, aoaupjriu|t 
the wDiM ponition in wliicb tlia neul oaupotuiig it •.'uulil 
be pliLMil. At llid iniilll" of tha Bfiuii it •J^'i'iipii.-a m 
iMkHy upoMiibte llifl iHiaitiain of thamutnilnKi*, where 
llMn UuHhva fi-roF of coiuproNion tuir oUQ ofexUui- 
_j man utlui^ mmI whcrv, i-uuwHjuautly, thit inotal ia cum- 
JM plMclr thrown Bvay. UVra thi B<«uicaat plaia,Uwould 
' '^^ M aiuta aa •Iroaji, auJ nauM b« lunro aaailf modallad and 
» noaldad, and tha outiliic would more likely bo better; wbcmu, 
I if the UMtal of tha akIim rib wcrv thrown iutu the luwcr Suniio, 
I tlM Beam would be very conaidirntlil; alMu^lieiieiL 

Bui Icavum Lbii piirticular iaaUnc«, I think tbvra ia gMierally 
'**'?"'*'" Atttiiapt nyule lo aDimixiniata to th« alniott'''^ aoetion 
vf^Bcam. Thai* an do iluubt mno)* piutk-idnr aaom iu which 
UuB oantiot bo followvd out, aa, fitr i[iaUiio«<, where it is required 
to have tlie upper il.iiiea broiul fur (liu piirpiMd <>( iroulviiij' iui 
Inul 1 bat itill I t}iink, that «v(id iu such nucA tli« stri'U^^t 
WOtioil tniKlit mora nearly b« approxiinnlMl to thitu mcoia 
uaaL 

I do not attribiita tlila to & want of knowlotiie of what in 
«Tin«a on the xubiiict^ no muoli aa to a wiuit i.>f luuliJouou iu 
what ia written. I believe them Is a tecUiig, ibat nllliou^h ii 
MTtaia acctiou may b« th« ■tmiigmt fnr Gaiimit carefully <«»t, 
canftilly handUd, ami omfutty linded, yet u doubtful how far it 
fa« tbe atronjfMl. or nt all evpuU the beat, for ordinaiy 
J purpoM*. Thia {i^lin^, however, tuny bti carried too 
1 tboiigb we do not K" to tlie Mtrame of what Is abown 

ID ttrauMat Motion by experiment, we ought to npprosi- 

J^Mata to it mod) man doady thtui vie do, nad as 6ir aa other 
I ■nnriilrmlinna will allow. 

That which ia mquirwd ti> niva tlio atron^i-fit Hectiou may be 

f Mated in a general way to be — to throw aa much of the material 

pee al b l e out of the och into Iho flan^ces, and — toiuokc the 

mr flt^e coneldenibly hkr)(«r than the upper. 

Ur. Ha>lgkiaaoi>, in n prLfHir in the M«mom of the Uan<.'ha*t«r 

FtiiloappldaU Society, gives .11 the roaultti ofhla experim«ul«, that 

' Iha osder Bange ahQulilbi! to the uppir in tho pn-irmrtinn of G :1. 

I "Hit ezpariiBenla having l-ecn eilGiisivc uud carefully mado^ have 

\t9Wt einoe been conaldervii the utaudanl of nferenoe, nml 1 do not 

I n^poee that hia eoncliiainn on thiM aublect haa ever hueu called 

' I qaeetion. However, linvinE been led to examine hia «xperi- 

tt for the (lui-pose of oundeuains tho rvaulta into a general 

or Into a bw iilaMnieDlii that might bo carried on the 

, I began to enapect that there won autuethiug wrong in 

Inaion he had coma to. At first I could itmrraly bring 

fto think that tbia eould be the cm«l n(W Mr. Ilodgkill' 

hpcr had been no Iciug before tho pnuie, and after a con- 

ile portion of it bud bveu iucurpuriLliDd into two of the beat 

have on thl> euhject — 'Biirluw on the Streuelh of 

and ' furbairu on C'xat anil Wr<>ught livn,' by the 

lof wliich, the opii'ions contained in it have tboroby been 

n^ated. I bare Wked, however, over the aubjcct H^n 

Bad ■gain, to aee if by auy poasihiliiy there might bo lurking a 

Ulwj in my n-juoniug;, but I «an ate none. The ooncluaioii 

than, on thi« porticulnr point to which I bare come, druwu fMOi 

• »tU U 1 IImUbC at Iha AntittKiiiinl UMItule, held In CdUbiitli <a Fab. IS, DM. 



Ur. Hodgkiaiom'a own sxparimeat* ii^ that the etronoeel wettoa 
0fB««mbtltatwitfc&uiSMfi«a3i;l to 4 : 1, inatead of «:1,m 
ataUd hy Mr. Hodgklnaon. 

Ba&m aat«rin)c on Um mbject nun nuticulariy, I maj isdi- 
oate the naxoni <^ the overaigbt whieh I eonaidcr Iwii been nvade 
hy Mr. UodgUnaatL Ue gme tiie icnltcf ninevqNctaMote im 
beatua, with double fUnoM of dUhreat proportleiaa, frem which 
be oomea to the iMBctnalon already etated. In coroparinx thinipi 
logothtn', aa for inelanoe in the pieeimt caao, tha amapariaen of 
tbe atooiuit of atrenKth due to tbo dilFercnl propoitiona of upper 
and onder Bauffea, it ia necanary to have all other tUoff 'V^i 
or that aUowanea be made fur any dilTeretioa, and Mr. Hod^OB* 
anu haa aeeonllaalx kad thaaa Beama nade ef equal teo)^ and 
depth. Ho kaa, nowerer, in his ooMiariacnilefloatof eooaidetw- 
tion the ditferoncc iu tbo thiekaean of the wtjin. 

Ijot UH t&ke an inai&ucu : The B«m& No. 19 of Mr. Hodgkin- 
aou'e czperiuieuta,* with danuea 6 : 1, the praportioa conaiaBred 
by him the best, bna a web containing only on«-(iflh of the 
eeotioaal area, the other four-Aftha being ooulaiced in the 
flanm whieh contribute by ftr the greater amount ifalnogthto 
Uie Beam, to inoch ao that Mr. HodgHaenn throwa the web out 
of oaleuUtlon altogether. The Beam no. 3, with flange* 4 : 1 ha* 
however, a web <M*tw'"''"g one half of tlic aoctional am, ao tha 
there i* only the tenainiiig half of the material oontainol in tbe 
flanHna. 

To oompare the atrength due to th« dillbreot proportiona of 
taiigta iu th«ae two Buauie, an allnwimee ought to be nade for 
tlila differ»DO(t. Lnt bb take the material out of the weh of the 
latter Ream, an a* to rciiuce it to tfao aame prapo«ttaD al tJl&t of 
the former; nnmcly, one-Hllh of the scotional area, and let u« put 
tliia eurplua, amounting to 0-3 of the eeotioiud area. Into the 
flaom, where it may contribute Ila flill valae to (he atrcngtb ef 
UuBeam. The area of the >U)gM,*a already atatedi bO'Softhe 
eectional area; if thai, wc add 0*3 to tbu, we mcrcaae the 
■trengtb of the Beam by throo-liftha (that ia, iMviog out af eoa- 
(idoratiou, in tbe Beautim^ the atre&g^ Av» to tho vtb. which 
Mr. BvilgkiiuHm ncglecta), ao that tkfi Bmid, whbh brcdte with 
a weight »r dT3T lb, per eqaare indi of aecUan, woaU, by thia 
Kltenit4no, have ita breaking weight infreaacil bv thtee-liluu of 
thia anioiuit, nnmnly {ilXT -^ | =) 1S12 IU, niakiiig in all the 
bmikiiiK weii^ht per Biiuare inch of aectiou -ISTnlb., while tli* 
EtcAU with flnugcs 6:1, bruku with a weight of ouly ii'iri lb. per 
Mjuare inuli <•( Hc'tioii. Rut thia is not all : tho mnlal of whieb 
the htlti'i' beam waa nut, was Htrongtsr than that naed for the 
fomier, aa ahown by the staiidnrtl Ii«un out along with thenfbr 
oompariiuii. Lty anppoiiug thii former Beam to be neat of the 
Btron^T metal, we will h^vt to all-jn* & further luUlltloo to ita 
■Irength uf about GlOlIx, ao that the compariaon will now atauil 
thue:— 

BnaUMWMchipa 
aq, la. oIHHUiaL 

B«iun with flanges 6:1 «>Talb. 

Dith) ditto 4:1 4t480 „ 

jpring an eicus of eirenglh in &vour of the beun with lUogee, 
4 : 1, of about oue-rixth. 
Bat to enter on the subject more parlioul&rly and in detail—* 
Table I. ahowi tho result of Mr. Itodgkiuaon'a experimoita, 
referred to in thid puper. 

TabUh 













BUkULBiau. 




Propmlon 


Stt«|[th Hr 
Squard lucli of 




Ha. </ 
brwl- 


'^SSSSm 


umil. 


yunflBa. 


BteUaa. 




mult. 


SMko. 


1 


t :l 


SlOSlb. 








i 


% Tl 


««7,. 


compaied w)ib 


4 


aSMIb. 


3 


4 :I 


mi „ 








9 


4i:l 


3iBa „ 


ds. 


10 


2;B2 „ 


II 

13 


44:1 
S : 1 


aai4 „ 

88M„ 




doL 


13 


3603 „ 


IU 


a -i 


*0T5 ., 










ill 


;i:i 


3sra ,. 




Ad. 


SS 


SSBS ,. 


It 


38aa „ 











Avemgv of Standard Beam 



2738 1b. 



* amUmul Mcnaca nqalnuM baiudt U> Ur. Unrialitniuu'i oiinriinHiU, ai 
mvMM IB Uic flnt put cf U>. Fkirbaln'a vnit m Ciit ad Wniafhl lra«w K 
will bt DrrMurr w Tafer t« Mb mrth aa toln( bilNc n, M U naH fiaal^ laa 
unBHBMfUf (nitiv lUs f>|lar. W WsiTgnU vUb a ill Ike «v«riMA teM 
nlundta 




u 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



Hw third oolamii ahom the aotuaJ Imul per square inah of 
■Mtjon with which (bs difleiWDt Bauim broke. As these Bmhu 
wen Dot kU aat U. the sania tiiiiri, aud as it was Inipowiblo to 
■ecurs, kt diSbnut awtiimi, metitl i.-'f cuclly thn unin <iiiiilitj, 
tliort VM, atMohset of Bxperimouta,a llrnm of the utoc putl«riii 
out for ths ptupoM of asMrtuijiiiij; tile cotnparntive str^iigtli of 

betWMb till' uxpptUDcciU mufn at ilKT^reut times. Tho rmiilt of 
Umw sxperiuiHula uu tbc ■taiidaiil !ksm sre givoD In the last 
'cnhinui 

In ordar to oumpare the strength of tJie nrionB Bnims. wo 
Boat MdnM than) to oos siuidkfd. Let us take this stMJidaril to 
b* tks Kftnga itnngth of th« stAodAnl Brara, whkb is ^'38 lb. 
Mr ■qnuaiaah of section; thrn, bjrs nmplo qucstiun of jiropor- 
tioD, wa g*t Table U. iiutesd of tbe former. 

TVitfell. 



bientsMl. 


Piwoitba of 

nun*- 


Stnoflb per Sqnara Iseli 


1 




'i50a tb. 


S 




■2720 „ 


9 




IBOO,, 


9 




giai „ 


U 


8S68„ 


19 




W03., 


IB 




ssa; „ 


•M 


Siil 


sm,. 


ai 


8«8S„ 



Diagrnn I. npnttata the s&iue at od« glance, the Beams, with 
laagM of diffigniit |)T«p<:>rliL~>ii\ being mufked off IiorixuntAlly 
■long the base or datum line, ncRontiu^ t/> these proportions, and 
the various utrtrualha of these Beama beiu^' measured by the 
height of the bbick dots above this base or dntum line. The 
curved line nipreaeat^ at neorlv as poasible, the lav of vnriution 
of Mnogth br Ranmn of lUlTereiit proportious of Aaugei^ 
awordiug to the abova axperinents. 

Uk Oiagran L 



HOO 



im 









• 


^^^^ 


• 
• 


^ 


^ 


"^ « 


1 


















i 













ni:l »;l i;l lil 1:1 el 71 

The proenluig Tabic and Dingrun jurt rofcmxl to, show, thnt 
of theBuamaexpcriiucuInl un, Ihone with flange* sWut (] : 1 were 
the airoiigiMt. But, as tUreadj' aisivJ, Ui«re vught Ui be an alluw- 



ancp made for the dlifereDoe in the thiokneaa «f ths wsba of tlie 
Beams i^ijieriineatoii on, before we can cumjiaTa the strength dite 
to the differaat proportione of flfujjjns. 

There is eouie ilitGculcy in making the caleiilatiana nqoind 
for oar niirpnae with eiactucss, ou acoount ef OUT Wit of Know- 
ledge of the exact proportions uf the niwluli of alaatMty foroom- 
pmsiaD and for citenuon of emit metal, and wkaUiW these are 
ouUHtaut ur vary in some way, as the praaun^— of tbs amounU 
to wliich this uinterinl may be eitondcd or coniproMedi without 
injury to it — uud (hiis of the puaitiou of the neutral sJUS fof 
dilfercnt sections of Beatus. 

Were we to throw out of cnlculacinn the strength diM la tha 
web, we would be enabled to dispense with the cousidonlion of 
the DoeitioD of the ueutral axis, Ac, anci the calculaliona required 
would be greatly simpliliol; while the diinmruoe, though oobijm- 
tivi^Iy small, would be still uiore in favour of Beams with dka 
upper and under flanges of more equal uvportlons. 

Allhoui^h uuable to 6x the exact poaitions of the neutral axia 
fbr the varions Beutns. 1 hnve aHSumul iirubnbin positions aucurd- 
ing la thebeat of ray jiidguieut, con sidiTiui; that tlieawiuuptioiui, 
though perhaps not quite oorreet, will make a closer approxima- 
tion to Aiicuracy than leaving the qnestton altogether nut of 
considmiliou. I think, from cnleulntions made on ditferent 
aasumptions of the positioo of the nouttal axis, that any error 
that axa arise from tliis muse will probably be under 3 per 
cent. 

It may be noticed, in cnrrobonition to some eitrnt of the 
proximate correctueai of the law assumed in regulating the 
position of iho neutral axis in the diifrront Btrams. thai the 
a«umed pusitioDs agree very closely with those indicated bv 
the fntcliirM of the Beams in three of the four cases in which 
that ponitiou seenied to be thus indicated, although the law 
was B»«Hnied independently of thrae obeervaliooa. Tliiis, in 
Beiuu No. 11, the MMUmeil gioaitiou is within O'l in. of tha 
indioilvd position, while in Beams No. IK and Ml, the curve ttt 
the iwauuied law follows almost exaclly the nvenige between 
the indi(3il«l positions; in the former iJeing O'-l in. above, and 
in the latter tJ*3 below thrao indicated positiowi. 

It would Iw a needless labour, and a weiuing out of the 
patieuM of this meeting, to attenii't to go ilii-iiu^li all the esU- 
cnlations reijiiired lo come to the reatilis intendwl to he laid 
before yon; but your attention is requested (o the following, as 
an example of tlic process required to be gone through in each 
case. 

tn Beam No. 1. the dppth of llio IwLlom flange le 0-1 lo, 
and the assumed depth fivim nnder edge to neutral axis is 4*0 
in. Suppose the beam below the neutral axis, 
divideil iulu purls eigiial to the deptli of the 
thickness of ine flxn^, we will have 10 of 
these, the wabocciiiiyiiig the u[iper 9, anil the 
flange the 10th. The nroportionale amiianl 
of strength eontribiiCed by each of these parts, 
ia as the sqlure uf the dietunoe of the pott 

^ fVoni the neutral axis. The diHUnce of tlie 
: centre of the npr^er part is L nn<l the square 
[ of this ia j. and let us cull the amount of 
strength eonlribuled by tbia upper part l- 
The diHlanoe of the ceutre of the semud poit 
1), and Ihe square of this i» Sj, so tbal, in the muub pro- 
portion, the amount of sti-ength cintrihuWil by this jiart is i^; 
and M on, until we reach the 10th part, or nort of the flange 
iaiinedin[*ly uniler the web, the amount contributed by which in 
the snme uroportion Is iX'l. If we sum this series, w« aball 
find Ihut ttie whole strength due lo the 10 parl^ of 4'0 In depth 
la 33?j, Wi of which is contributed by thi> liith or lowoM part, 
anil the other 2-li| by the web.* But we have to take into 
accomil the whole flange. The flange being nt the same distance 
from the neutral axis as the lowest ur lUlh part. It will ooo- 
tribute in Ihe same projtorlion as thiit part to the strength of 
the beam. Now, the bremlth of the flange is 1-7S inT orfi'63 
times the thickupsji of the web, »o thai we have the proportionat* 
Btrangih due to il {S-83XskiJ=:) r>iG-ie. Add this to the prapor' 
tion of sl.i-ength due to the i> i>.irts of ihe web, unniely J4i'2S, 
an<l we have the proportional strength of the whole BeaiB, 
7i!SU.t 

* W« (M ihr auw nnilu nunv tlatlt ■ud man' inwlnlT. b? uklug Uk ssbM rf 
tlu' iMtvnlTi drntlu niiDi Iba utdim) ul>; Ibgj, Id' :li*- l>H)0.;^1i = H!I'S ^MS-W. 
■nil M-.-»— gil'tl- = VV II. M iihotr. ™ty nasrij. 

1 Pgttupa li In iinnresMtij l« ninUid taj. Uui Uis itnUo uT luuUHi on Uw pert at 



mitak 



HifSL- 



0-29 



inV 



I 

J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCIUTECT'S JODRXAL. 



The Mtul alnagUi of Ihit Bmoh M nduood to om atuidanl, 
.ii^ M >lnf<l^ MHi, IWU lb. iwr aqaMo Inch of moIIod. By 
ftindiDV Om into the proportiooi nbon itaMd wa aluUl g«t Itw 

ooat ooDtrikntoI bjr the web to b* („,X!-V>9=]791 Itx.uid 

rlhs uuwnt oootributed br the taagm to be (8S09— T»l=) 
1719 Ik 

Wt b»To now to ooBMdar the altwsUon od thoM qu&utitJea 
pndnmd by iwludo^ tlie tJiIckiiaH of tfce web^ uid by ■dillag 
UM Rielal Ukeu from it to the ilongna. 

Aa Bnui*. Nu«. IS, Id, Jt) and <1, btiag thooo of boct ntction 
•foonlin); to Mr. BoJgkiuaou'a oxuerimeolis hare, uu ttie Arrmge, 
vebe i>( nbout oue-fuunli of tlieir ««otiou&l >re>, we ^oll uku 
. lUaw tbaqOMitity to which, (br oobimHaod, *11 lh» wobiara to 
iondnoed. Wo have tlicn, ioBMinNo. I, tb««rMoTtli*cro« 
aeetiaa, S'SS to, of which the flangea ooinipjr l^U iiL, and Idie 

Tabk 



web 1'3SA In. The am of the web will now bo oM'foiirtI) of 
S-(U in., th»C in, ('705 in^ being a nductjou i>f D'690 in., whioh 
luia to br adilad to tlie uva uf the Daugat, making it (1-4204' 
O-mw^) 3-110 in. 

Bf thia alientioD in the mrUi^o, w« r«<l<.ioe the anwDot of 

atroD^h contribatad b; the wet) bjr l\^ X 791 = ) MI Ih^ 

while we incrtue the amouiit of Kmniith oontributed br the 

iifi ^ '7'S ~ ) ^38 lb., which giTcauiiDonue 

to the attMlgtb of the braim equal ia the difTcmnoc of theae two 
quantmet, namely, -141 ll>^ luakiuK the atrcnvth uf the B«aiD. 
No. 1 (Kiterad ao as to bare the web uB^Jba^tll of (hn aaotlaaAl 
arta] to bo tMO lb., per aqaan inch of oroaa moUod, iiutaad of 
SAOaib. 

If the aasie proceaa be gone throogh with all the Beama, «• 
aluUl have the reaiilia aa giTcn id Table UL 

lU. 



Anat^Wtb. 




to Onu* 



n-«4 

0.S01 

om 

0-100 
03H 
O'lOO 

0-ass 



: I 

I 1 
: 1 
: 1 
; I 

; I 
. 1 

; I 
: 1 



Utrtga 

pw Sifun luft 

ndud loMi* 

tUaOart. 



aso9 

W80 

seoo 

3121 

83se 

3SS7 
33»4 
86SS 



DtflMmsi 
gs utwial ff 

lUetoMoT 
W«K 



ih. 
+ 4*1 

+ 703 
+ lOSO 



+ 



7<0 

47 

SOS 



tanahfrn 
tqoan uck. w1 
tt>bf««ndto 
tu Ona MMMa. 



I9S0 
8433 
SMO 
8SS1 
SPIO 
S7iS 

seis 

»4T 

MM 



L 



On IKagmm IL the Urge dole noil curved line rapreeent to 
the eye the aaxup remits, and the nntum of the law which tliey 
fcDov, while tlie bui&II poiuts withio the dotted cirdea, and the 
dotted corva, are the aaue aa tliow ahown ou Diagnm L On 

ttibwo, Mv* Ite Main! oil. 1> emikl In uiouni tn th> ■liiiMi iir lauiwiliiii mi 
Ik* tad ikviu It, ud tb*l tbiTT(iii» ihi> liLii'.r i\.Kt ii'ii rniulni ID te calcBlatad, U 
Ma* •■> ABk la ampHUK ib* •■mutii ur ikaiui, ui uauus ilit elato riManfa at 
IkalHBatf '■ *■ — '-- - 



I tttfn^iiit un ibc fatiiAiK]) w uMaMvib 



examinattoo it will be aem, that the reault of our lorMttgatlonti, 
in ■<:> ffir an mfpra In ths atrongaat wction of Bnain, la that with 
the web oDc-fourth of the iBOtional are*; this ia obtained with 
fliuiK^i rather under 4 : 1. 

Biifur* fir<iwe<ilii(i further, we may notloe, aa a corrobomtioa 
to Buiue extent iif the oorrMtuosa of llieae iurmtignLluiiii, Gnt, 
that In the two |Mira of exi>«nmnnta, Nna. 9 and 11, iiadNo«. 
IS and 19, tlie maiilta, after the rai|iiired oorroctiotia are Dlndei 
apTiraxirante rny cloaely, the former so aa otmoat to ooinade; 
and aeoondly, that aI) the reanlta (with the exception of the hurt) 
arrkng« thi;iTii>el<re« so aa to Allow the curve to follow them 
nlniMt cxnctl/. In the cnao of the laat pair of BeaniH. Koa. ilO 
and SI. ths aiaormno; ia increnwHl bv the corre^-tiona oiado; 
bat atili it k aatiuetory to uotioe that the corve fnltown newly 
the averaga of th« two. Ai to thia diaorapancy, it perhapa aioae 
ftomaome Inequalltv in the c*alinc»|Oraomeatherof thoaeniuM 
alluded to ia tho former part ot Uita paper; bnt the eReet liH 
doubtleae been inorenjrod by the Idvixju of tho noutral axla 
Thia was pruhably about II iiic^h fruni the under edge of tt« 
Benu, giving the eRMire levemgr uf the Hangi' round the 
neutral axia m II Inch OD thn nvuragv; ao that any amall dif- 
foitiQoe in the qUHtltf of the metal, or any other enuiie tdfactii^; 
the poaition of the neutntl axU, wxild tpre a eompaintivvly 

Cuter difference iu the etreugth of Uie Beam than would ha,Vt 
a if the oeutnl uia had bnto higher. 

Thi!«e remorhit point to ani-thvr curroboration of the bveatiga- 
tions in thia papnr. In expfirimnnt 19 and £1, th« fracturM 
indicAtod the ncutml axia to bn I'i:) and I'tK) inchea fmm the 
under edge* of their reapectire Bvnma. Now this aeeiua to 
inilieate, that by a eompur&tively nunll addition to the npper 
flange, by which the neutral axis wculd b» ooiuaderKbly miwd, 
tlie atrength of the Benma would thereby he iucr«uaed much tuore 
than in the proportion of the amount of metal addod. 



The forc^in^ oalculatione hove been mads on tbe MnunpUoo 
of the web beuig oiie-fourlh of the cross aeotian, •• that ma 
about the avomge of the weba of the Beams of elrongeat aection, 
aixniiiiiig to Mr. Hodgkinaon. Ihavealaooduulateil thvatroiuth 
of the Uoiuuf, on the aaaumptinn of the wt>b bving oue-hau of 
the cross accUon, which ia the proportion in the cmo of Bmhui, 
No*. I, i, and 3. The renuU ia f^ven in Table IV. and Diagram 
ni., wliich iudSmte that in tUb caae the Beam of etrongeat a»^ 
lion 18 tlutt with flaag<« 3} : 1. 



J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOCRNAL 



I turn tiaa Uid down, on tb» Hune dUgram, the curve rapTft- 
WBUng tilt oompAnlln •trtogth of BMxnti with diffiirent pro- 
porltoiM of Bugca, vhoi ««b ia ODe-Uunl of tfa« leotiijDal ojul 

ToWelV. 







Btnaca p* 


riUlomio* 


Rtnnltb tiff 
Web tMliiwl >o 


Ho.tl 

Bun. 


Ptuwrttoo 
MnugH. 


radoMdUgn* 








BMBdiri. 


vn,. 


4 CnM SeoUon. 


1 


1 1 


Ifi0» lb. 


— 01b. 


a£OS ]b. 


a 


fl 




STM ... 


— ... 


Slid ... 


i 


4 




»D0 .,. 


— ,., 


S900... 





il 




SI31 . . 


— 305 ... 


fiSlfl ... 


n 




S«« ... 


— 428 ... 


2S*0 ... 


IS 


fl 




3402 ... 


— 819 ... 


sags... 


IB 


11 




88*7 -.. 


— un ... 


MS0 ... 


20 


"1 




SW4 .., 


— iws ... 


92»8.,. 


21 


8} 




3665 ... 


— B17 .. 


2788 ... 



Diagram IIT. 



Moa 




UM 



IMt 



Artojiiuinr .8* 



ONI 



n. t M 1^1 ■ M I - I t : I <: I T : 1 

Tftble V. (Plnli^ T.) ia Tor the pnrpose of getting the nHintiuicn 
or the n;e, in romuDjin jiiJinaeul ou the Cuinimnitive eligibility 
of the vuioua McUuiia uf Bmuiu. Tlie Jvpth uikI iiren o! oivse 
Bsctlon u« the 8Mn« Id all ; the upixr r>iw Iim the urea, 
of llio web OQD-fonKh of the cmss leclii^n, the hocciiiiJ row 
ono-thinl, ftnd the third row oni.'-liAif of the urusa ai^cliaa — n rect- 
lUiKDlar Beam of the MiTue aroa bt>iug plaue-l nloiigaiile «nch mw, 
fur tlie vaJca of oompariion. Tlie de|jlfi of the Gwuue is li units 
uf an; ktnd : the afm of cro<M Mction will ihi^n be 2i>. TIx' fi^ir«» 
xbove the RKim* Ip^-a tlie oampirutivi- strength of i>ju-J>, tlio 
BoUD of BtroncHt jwt'tion fhr each partieulnr ro«- beiuR tnk(.-n a* 
niiitr. The 6t,'ur«a lieluir the Buaoia pve the itrciiL'lli of vach, 
tbc bunm of itlnjuu<uit tiH'tioii In lh« unpei' row (thnt la, with the 
««b oii*.funrth of th* cmmt aFctioD) twiDg taken m iiniiv. It 
nky b» iioti«eil th«t there wore no experiments b? whicn tho 
et*et cmiinamtive sutngth of tlie rectuupiUr Beam coald bo 
dMenniuixl. The Htrength In the t*Me le therefom £iveu in 
roaod Dumberv, bnlnr only apnioxlmntive, for the purpmte nf 
glldlig eAine idf« of the utivngth of n Itmun with-oit DangH, tu 
«ratpkivd with thoan with flajijiea. The corrnirt utrength, liow- 
■mrrr, i* prababW nearly A per oeuU le*i than that itnloi). 

On cuuiuuiiUou of lUuiM napeiiAire MMtioua, I tliitik it will be 




ffmtnlly ooiwderod that the wob, one-fourth of the 
arvji, ia too thin fur onlinary praetioal purp««n. Oa the othvl 
hand, the w^, one-half of the Abotiunu aren, appears to m« I 
be uiuwoDiiiiarily tlii'ik: whi'tva* tlio wvboue-third of the aeutio 
Ar«a geetDit U< be more nnarly of a ppopnr pcflportion, lu ' 
wlierc the dr])th i« jtimtur in proportion to the ncctional 
than that hore mbuuihI, it might thin the web too much to luUJa] 
tbia pro|>ortii>ual area of oiie-lliird. In this olbc it wonld b^I 
neceasary to Iiiorcnm tlie pmportlon of tlie web; but prDbab)f J 
(n no c*He woulil it ho neneaaary to do ao to ft great«r proporUon' 
than on<<-hiUf of the sectional Oreo. 

(>n extunination of the aurvea ou Diaenin III., it irli ba Mra 
that there in very little dlOereiioe in tlie atreug^ of Betunir on 
Mch aide of the maiimnm. Now, aa it la g<.in'-rally deHirable^ 
for other rvaanna, to havn the Hangee of more e(|iin] proportloiw 
than thoae of maximmni strength, it will be adviaitblr to tooMtt^ 
in the cow erf Beama with the web one-hAlf of the sectional arnt, 
the strongest eeotioti to bo that with dajig<-B 3 - I , ioalvad of 3J : L 
aud in the cuao of BAama with web oii^-fourlb of the aedional 
areiL the strongest aeotion to be that with flaugoa 3) : 1, inatsad 
of about 4:1. 

From tbeie eonaide rations we oome to the oonclu.-iion, that for 
([euernj piirpoHen, the host elioiblb eECTiOH or Rkau la nur 
BAVIKO A WEB FROM ONK-TBIBD TO OHB-naLr O? THE 8ECTIOS.U. 

ARKA, AKD rLAKoES rilox 3j : 1 to 3 : l,acconling to circuin- 
etAncRR. 

There ant aome things, arising out of theee invMtigationj^ 
whtcli I fflit deaimue of laying before this meeting, encb aa rulwJ 
Ibr colcnL-iting the strength of Boauia, taking into account th«' 
proportions ofboth flanges and web, neither of which Mr, llodg. 
klnaou'a rule does; but 1 have been prev«ateil by ill health IVum 
entering into thise investigations ao thoroughly a« to be aatit£u>- 
tory; and besides, this pajier ba» piobnbly streteh«>l out to a 
BU&uent leugth fur tbe praacuU Perhape I tnoy hare the lionuor 
of Bubmitliug some further reuai'ka ti> the Inatituto on a future 
OGOnsiou. 

Tlie investigations luul oileiilations of this paper hare been 
founded wholly on the M(ierimecta of Mr. Hodgkinaon. 1 hare 
not the alighleit reason for doubljog the aceuracy of theao, aa 
they leem to have been mule with the utmost care, and are moat 
minutely detmled; yet hnving uuuie Ui different eonduiiona tna 
tboeeof the author of the exfieriuients, it would be sutiafactovy 
to have thi«e uuncluaions tested by a set of ex peri men ta arrviged 
specially for the purpose of Rxing tlio law of variiktion iu tbe 
strength of Beams of different seetiuun. 

I have tberefoiv n>8pectful!y to propose, that tht* ahoald bt 
taken up by tlio Institute. 

In the cose of it being agreed to do ao, 1 have to suggest, that 
the expenmi-ut^ be nuulc with Bcama oitat from airrfiiT^ formed 
patterns, ao as to be exactly of the under-atal«d dituenaioM and 
proportions — all the Beams to be 5 feet lon^ ;uid tnobea deep, 
and of exn«Uy the same itectioiml area, and to be tested at a 
bearing of 4 ft. <! in. The tirst Beam to be rectan^lar, tbe 
second with flanges 1 : 1, the web of thin, aa of tlie following 
being oncthir'l of the sectioual Hroa: the other Boimia to have 
flanges iu Ihe respcL-tive pro|>ortioniiof 2 : I, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, II : l,and 
6 : I. There ought to be nt least three coatings of each, ao aa to 
obtain tbe average, aud to avoid exceptional cases. 



The Boyal Enginoers have now destroyeil nearly one-half «f 
tbe <^>ld Bridge at Rochester, and the remainder will be detno- 
liahrd as speedily as pussiblo. The qnnntily of gunpowder used 




looaRtinil. The pier was built on pile* in the river bed. The 
object waa toihiike the whole without tumbling it into the river, 
a nwitll ci'initletely clfccttd, Tbe weight of [lowder uhxI ia the 
v.ipIiMions wiui neni-ly 10<M> lb., and was divided into the aama 
number of I'hnr^'ea as in the previous exjierimeuta. Sinoo 
N'nvomber. the sippers and minors hnve been cugi^ed In aiafcin g 
two shnfia iu this porlinu of tbe bridge, to Ihe resptctive daptba 
of j4 feet and ^1 feet, one in the pier, and tho other in tliAalBllt- 
ment. Al tho bnxe ofench |^]lafI sprang two gallerici, eaehSbat 
in length, and in theHo were dpponiteil the ehargea The powder 
WHS cont^neil in tin wnterpniof case*, enoloaed in wooden boi«^ 
AtXI lb. for the pier and aruh, and SOU lb. for the abuUueul. 




THE CIVIL ENGMEEH AND ARCHITECTS JOUttNAL, 



4jE 



I 



I 



I 



BIOIITSB OF MEV PATISTI. 

.STOP OR HEtiULATlNO VALVE. 

H. Wkwwoob, T. WiiiuiiT, Mil] E. Whiout, DaiUcy, 
J'mlttfiea, Juiiv II, 1S5G. 

"niu iuvuttion Ci.>n3i*l« iu a piculkr nmuimfiicut of tli« in- 
temAl puftaof th«ebMii)Mr'irviiIv« bux, bj wiilcb non aaomU 
ftuing MiHkeD* and tlm innnna of clouoe or Opening th« pumgv 
■wtj or pMBHgc v^ys of inch vktv* duunbrr lany b« wcjrknl 
nnmr pr«Mnra witb gnater HWsIImu liarctor^rc, wiil Uia riik of 
kduge «vaU«d. 

Tlw Talv« ootMiata of tvo lieDUtpherloitl oupa, of cut-Iron 
or otiiar hmUI, aocunxl u> Mch othnr by Saagm, aod hnviag a 
hraaA crabtat pipe □pou mch fur iho puqMwof ooniMcting tli« 
■■■■■ or pipea tlieraUi. Uu tbe Uiiiitr Bimnw of orio of ihoo 
fcail^iliiiiliil oup« Is mat or fixod a ciroaUr feoe of mciAl, harUifc 
tvo flfwtilii^ wboM Agiira la nearly a Dncxnr if a olrolc, tlie ana 
of tba two opttiinga exonoding iLo nrtn uf naoh of tlin bnuicbM or 
ifaotl pipes Wore DWDtloQcii; thin (svx ia turned in ft Itttha, or 
otlicrwisfl uutilv true and evva, uid u)ion tliU k diao of itnu or 

the tvii i>paaliif|« In tho flxoiT tnw. Tliin diK i« inaile to rotkta 
npoB a oonm mii vliicU i« in iha cnntro of thn Axed fiwc, ud la 
bpt firmly on ita bee byn itiwl ■prion. Tho odica of thi* mU- 
ti^ fiiee baa a wigumut of a tan^ul whcvl upon it, ancl motina 
ia ODtaiDauIntAd to tli« nine by ■ it-ruw, by which uiuaiia the 
Opwlnga lo Um diae and fix^l fiuxiSLH b# brought oppoaiu to 
•aehouar.wliicheoustitutMthoopaniiigof th* vftlve. or revecvad, 
and tho nire ia than cloml at plcantitx!. Itcan also by th« aama 
BCMUi he NgulatMl ur partly opeiUHl, to ft groftter or ]c!» oxtsnt, 
ai nfty bu miulrod. Tbar« may alao be an hidlaitoi- upon tlio 
nlwU* of tli« ■orowa which travarM upoD ttrn alldM, nud theaa 
alidoi fiirrn tbe larewifor the p/ie-kitie o'tboKrewaplsdla. Tha 
mt of ibis iudicator in toabow wboii tliovalrota opened or doasd. 
TIm valve ia appltuaUe t» M«Mn, gna, ftir, vrater, or any oth<ir 
tulda, ftnd !• capable of aoalalnlag gn^t pr«aeui<& For tome 

furpceaa tba mr&oe of tlia diai: nia^ l<equin to ba eovarol with 
raaa or other metal, but for fill ordiiMry purpotMiron fluea ftra 
OOBaidered auffiaipol, lu the hue* are tdway* in contact; corroalaa 
ia thereby avoided, and an extenaion of the durability of the 
Tftlre eiRKited. Tkla vol v* having- uu nckor lontiHrew, orothor 
ezleRial apjMndagM, occupies n «iiMl!er apace. «nd can alio be 
vorked by a ahorter sn<l moro convenient levor than Is iiow gene- 
fdly feqnifcd for <uch pnrpoiee. 

Gabn. — The pculiar form unci armngemunt of the intomal 
and wnrkiiig |inru of n vulve b<.>x c>r cliuuibor. -.la dnturibcd, fur a 
Mop or nigulfttiDg valve auiwble fur gaii, witter, uleiaa, or other 

CASTING MALLEABLE CAST IRON IN METAL 
MOVUiS. 

J>. Hottnnos, Bordaalny Worka, Bimiinghun, PiUentm. 
June 4, 1606. 

Her«tofure niimerun* artlelea have been cut in a do*eriptIc>n 
«f iron known aw inittliiable oaat-lron, which, nfWr caatiuj;, rony 
be ftnBeKled, iu> i* well ijnde>«tood;and when oMtingthfouiLrtiden, 
wtDd moiitda have blwayv been emplnvod. 

Tliii invROlion cnnaiita iu the ase ri metftl mould* wlwin cnxting 
irtklcB from tbU deaoriptlou of iron, by which the articlra mny 
be cMt with greater mjndlty anil witb a leiw exjienditure of 
kbonr. 

In mannfnctarinii artidea of wbnt ia kunwn ru m.-illivibte oiut- 
irOB (iron whtcli on he <nat into f<imi and then brnuKht Into ft 
•oft Mute by aniicaliug). it hafl tM-irn imiihI to i-iiiploy uind tnoiildn. 
The patent'* ninkm u«n of mouldii of mctnlH. gi'viiii^ tbe pre- 
ference to cnat-iron, and oncb mould of tvo or more |inrt^ aco(ini> 
iag to the nfttare of tbe artiole to Ik! cnnt. The pnrie of each 
IMNlU are nude to fit auuarat^lv lii^cber, and the intfirior 8Ur- 
fceea reodeced vvry timootb. Whon uhiug such monldi, the 
lUerior aitrfWa am nnoked or brnahfd nvcr with bhuik lend, 
iRd Uio monld* are then h«it«l ^> a low blnok lient befor« 
mmnng in the metaL By thai employing nielnl moulds tlie 
atme may be and again and a^n, and the nrtieliH p»>t iberpln 
will not only be mora emnoth, but a onuside'niile wiving- will 
natiH ia ant having to nuko a now mould for each article to lu 
aaL 

Ho. t7£— VeL XX.— FmUABT 1807. 



BLOCKS AND BRICKS FOR BUILDING. 
J. Bniaaa^ Fleevatreot, Fattmtet, .Inno 4, 1696. 

lUa Invenliijii conelMi in oonatmcting the pckita of blodu and 
bridCB (br building, wtietherof wood, atunit. iron, eartlieuware, 
oluy, or otb«r auitabU aubaUac^ ia varioiui furme oorreapondiiig 
with each other, aod ao that tmck aaonntc block or brick hna 
ftpsTtures inUi which may bo loaertad rods, bara, pJni, tic*, or 
bolta, ao aa to hold tbe block* or bridca together. The aperturu 
ar<» ao fumind and phicod that upon any two or mare Uocka 
biting brought togetlier iu the poeition they are intended le 
occupy, oou or mure of tlie apurturee Id eaJih block ahftU cor> 
reapotid with, or come oppoeite to, one or more iqierttma in (ha 
next bludc or Uocka, to allow of tbe paaaage of the tie nda 
iJiTODgb thirn, or of their biding Htippwl on the tie rode. 

Tu put the brickwork toguiJior, the holaa or aperturaa an 
pbtoed IU oa to oorreepond; ft pin or ping, fanned of wood, iron 
or any other •uilable malerliO, it then dtiren throuuh the bulM^ 
ftud mortar bclneplaccd liolween the bricka the whole ia mftdtt 
perCtctly accaro. The blooka may be aecured with pUia or pluga, 
and an liud io tbe oame way aa ordinary brickwork, so Ual 
the biuta of the diibroul bricka abaJl not awraapund. Orooroi 
or ohanncla may be forined on all aidea, enda, and £icca of theae 
bricks aad blocu which mil admit of mortar, oemeut, or other 
anitablc material being enqiloyed aa well aa the tie pina 

The iKiieutiTL. builda a paving of theee blooke wiUi the tie radi 
pUced uurizunlally, giving ft good foot-hold for boreea by etuun- 
feriiig olf the upper edge* «l the blocks and making gruovai ia 
them. 

Claim. — The conitmeUoo t4 blocks and bricks for buJIdbK 
with two or more apwtare niaJe therein, in the niKnner dcacriboiL 
fur the parpoae of reoaMug two or more riiuu to tie. hold, and 
unite logetlker any onmber of tlic lanie employed ti> build a wall, 
or paviiig, or other ■tructnn. 

SHAPINO, PBESSING. AND ROLLING MALLEABLE 

IRON AND STEEL, 

H. BKasxaiB&, London, PiiUnUf, May 31, 16.^1!. 

When ingota or mninina of mallwible Iron and utivtl am liwined 
by pouring or running the melaJ in a fluid at&tc iuto moulds, it 
U generally foniid that tbe in(^ta or maaaM to produced are mor« 
or Um Bpoagy or CBllulor, ftnil that owing to thia droanetonea, 
and to tliMrctYBlaUine cnoditinD, aiich ntat Ingota or nuueea are 
apt to be cruahed or brnltirii when put Iwtwecn rollcn of ths 
kmd now ordinarily nand for rolling malleable iron; itbaaataa 
been found thai the ordinnrv rotllTig mill doea not alfotd the 
diwiRid 6icility for raiting w! lb heavy masaaa of metal, enoh oa 
may bo ]wadnced by caaling. Tlie object of tbia invention ia 
to le.-Bcn or remove theae iliatulvunlagoe of the ordinary rolling 
mill. The appnnttna employed by the patentee canaiata of a pair 
of stout fnvmea or lUnclards of cnat-irou, further etivngthened by 
T«i1>orb»n of malleable iron, and wbidi lire aMiiii-rd ton nuwarive 
bcrl plnte mouuted ou matonrv, UrtWM-n l!if*« atandarda are 
plnoed two BC^ients of « oyliniier or roll of rery Ui]{e iliamoter; 
the cun'c>d siirfMwa of nueh legiiieiita are p!nn?d ueit to each 
other, and mch one ia i:iipable of luutton on an nxia working ia 
anitahlc bearing! furmwl iu the Ntniirliiril&, Vfr<n- menil'iDod. 
The curved porlicci of tbe Momenta formed of chillal Iron or 
eteet, and the ntlier part of caat^ron, and one or both tidce of 
tbvm should he provided wHh eegmeutai ipur genring, ao ar- 
rniiffnd na to itiaiire a corrmixmdlng motion of each Begmeiit, one 
or both of which is to lie attaehod to a canneoting rod or rod*. 
The opposite ends of thi>>ii> roils are nlao to be connootc.1 to a 
cmnk, the oouatant rotation of which will produce a r4>.'i|>ro- 
csljng motion of thf aegmeuis, Tbe crank shaft ahould have on 
it a hcnvy flywheel to regulate the motion, and it may nleo eei've 
na the cmnk shnit to auy convenient fi'rm nf atnun ennae; or 
tbe cnink «li»l\ of tbe segment mill mny tm iictuat«d tn- any 
auitable genring driven by steam or water power. Tbe &oe« 
the segmenta am to have gi^iovea funned therein, similar to the 
groom formed on the rolls nt iirew'iii in iixe fi-r mlliug bar iron, 
so that the ingct of opllulur iiH'Inl will thi» be supported 
laterally during the prcH^ing opcmtiuu, nnd will be prevented 
ftMm being eriisRtd or nroki'u to pieces, nud will be so acted npoit 
on every aide aa to weld or cKuw up any cavitiM that uiay hkve 
R:(intuil therein, and ^lua render the Ingot aolid, and ca|iable of 
liuariug the action of the ordinnry mtling mill. If the ■eg^en.ta 
etnployed are parts of dRleaoC'fran^ vi\A^U«>.'\&4ti«taBans« 

1 



46 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER ASD ARCHirECTS JOURNAL. 



thq will praM oD a much gmtcr \mgth (at mi* tlmt) of the 
jifaagot thui wouH b« ihv cue if ordiniirT rolti.-ii> of nbout IS 
plnonea io diuneler wrre obrI. nnJ itlKi tn<!rc will he much Ims 
' wodeaqr to MpKnte the iogot into piecn whpD prMAed bMwc«n 
[ loob ooiDMnttJvely Aitl aurftoes an uv prMfiiWd hy the Inr^ 

Xqnb Vcfnrn ilncnbcd. Thr rKi|)TW9)(iiig mntinn cntnniiini- 
by the crack to th« aegmenta will cnuae thcra to act on 
flie ingot both in pawsLtig Iwtnri^u tlicDi, and en ita Cotntug Wk 
to [t> oricinnl ])i>iiit[ou. *o tli.it nu tiinti will be InI in tb« |inji'i<u. 
nd UiB ubotir of r«tiirnlii|i th« miuM iif nietnl by hand, lu pmo- 
[tlaed in ordiuary rolling mills, will bn avoided. In ordar to 
I bring the curvnl faces of the ofgmenU nearer to each other aa 
I ibe OMnpronbic aiid eluiig&iiDK procculn, a hydnolio piMt 
Cj'llD<ler la ium, hariBj; a short miu acting on the braMM, tn 
irbick one of the *«gni>>nt« n»W; a ff-rcu punip, nctiintod by any 
teuvenimt moving part of thn machiiir, will iiijtct a regiilnted 
quaiiljty of wftt«r into thia cylinder at taeh motion of the aea- 
neula, and will thus briug them u«rvr togi-thL-r; or auy cou- 
1 Twtlent amDg«ni«Dt <if aorews or ecocuirica uiay be used u ll«ii 
'Ihmof if deairfd. At both *iil«n of Hip iippanima •everal light 
gnido railera an fitted up for the piirpoan of roooiTinf; the moea 
of metAl, aod allowinK the workman to move or turn it over as 
Lnqaiivd. The ingot or naaa of metal may thua be praaaMl aud 
lllu^vd Into the torm desired, or it may be flnlahed by rolling 
In A anitnble rolling mill until it la r^luocd to the dMiired fbria 
and dimpnsionii. 

In the rollins of in^ts ur niBanes of cast uallaaMo iron or 
el. oarv ahould b« tKKeu thiit the preesurr put uu thpm shuiild 
faotboauch."** tofliiiseioogrpiit an elongation "f the ingot nt wu-h 
time cf paaaing It through the rolls; this point ■iini]t<l l>n attondfil 
(o more eapecially in the oarty «tuges of the proonu, or before 
the fibre of the metal is aomewbut doveloped. It will also be 
fotind that the ingot 1« apt to lie broken In returning it over the 
rolls if much violence is used by thn workmen In ita removal; a 
rolling mill for the expreaa pnr|Kiee of rolling ingot* of eaat mnl' 
imtiLb iron ami >t«el ia oonatructed whereby tho amount of draft 
or elongation of tliu ingot at each Buwv«ivi! rolling niiiy be 
mxvMif reflated, and whereby ths dniigrr of breaking llio 
!■»(• u Um aarl; atage of the mlling ptoema may bo .ivoiJi^d, 
«M tntich labour aaved tn the proo«««. 

A strong foundation plate ia ploocd on masonry, and a aerioa 
oi rolUr frauiea ia plaeed thereon, ia which Buiulilo rolls aro 
&U«d and amaged with georiug, by wliicli the variuua roils are 
pat In ntotioiii eftoh frame wiui ita jiair of rolls beinu plfu:«d in 
radi a poeili-Nn that an ingot or maas of iron or ateel Day paaa 
from one to the other in euooeeaion; the spocc between tlie rolls 
baing oowipied by sevenl lighter guide n-liers, w aa i« prevent 
tlw IwW^h^ of the iiieot in rolling, and also aanlMt in akrrviug 
fcnnn! the ingot and forcing it into tli« jp^iovot foruuxl in 
tha pair of roll* next in anocceaion: the guiding rollers may be 
farad together by Kpriujn, m> ai not to take » vury tight grip 
OB tbe Ingot or bar, and tlit-y ahuuld aluii ho driven by a frictiou 
dotoh or othor suitabh' contrivaiKv, no that if tlieir eiirfiKei do 
Mt tMrol at tho cx.-ict B|Mwd (if thw ii>g>)t or l)nr n slipping may 
lako plaotL The apacos bctwoca each «it of roUn should tte «o 
ai|iuat«(l a* to giro mioh aa olongation of ihi? in^ot od it will l)ear 
Mfelj, ami eaoE aoooasaive pair of rutls should be au far in odvancie 
«l tM Ottwr aa will allow thn ineot or bar Uy lonve one [uir of 
rdls bafim entering another, and thns aviml tha necvasity of 
Bkaking each pnir of nilla travel at a apcod inereaaing in tlie 
•laat mtio of the incrnuiua length of tile ingot or bar. Tho 
loUi (nay be provid«id with grooves of ditrerent forms, no tliat 
OU train mn^ bo made iiso of for llie uianufactufv of bars, ruda, 
or rail*, of dilTerenl lixcs and of ditfemnt si'ctioniil figure. In 
aiMiie aunt ouu pair of rolls in fitted up having thnir axm In a 
lertioal position between eiiuli of the pairs of rolls, whiuh havo 
Ikeir ana in a hi>riEi>ntAl pi»iilii>n, so that the ingot or bar in 
•ompnawd alternately in oppoailo dircctit^s during ilniiaasaga 
Ihiongb the ntiea of rolls, in a mnnnor siniitnr to ihe all^imaie 
MmnreaMun on oupocite aiden, caused by turning ruunit tba 
bar ID each auceeauve ffniova in ordinary ruU*. 
Any convaniont outaoer of pairs of rolls may be used with pro- 

Cavely smaller gntro, each of which sboiild be only ao much 
in the groove as tho peculiar quality of the Iron nr steel will 
■afely admit of It will Iw onderelood tlint grooves of other 
Earms may be used, as already pnxctismi in rolling rods ur bars uf 
n varie^ of Kotional fomis; aud oIho that In soma caws the 
vartlMl tolh* may Im diapcnuul with, ami aaTaral amall rapport- 
ing roUcn be u*od in additiou to the guida rvlla, for tha purpoaa 



of forming a sapjnrt to tlie no'lia' aid* of tho ingot or bar, or 

supporting plate* niny be nsod. Tho grooved roll* generally 
emploj-ed iii the mnuofacture of iron and slool are auhject to oon- 
sidi'i'nbli.' WL'iu' and toir, and ixiusi^jiieiitly entail a heavy expenaa 
in their mvemwry mpair nr rt-ciewal, Till* teudencr l<i wear out 
is atill farther incretisrd in c'inKef|iienM' of their being ca»t tn 
metal niiilidentiy loH to hi- curnol in n latho. The patratoe 
makes grooved rjlls for rolling iron nnd st«el in the following 
niiiiiuer : — He limt cutts an iron oyliuder, boml out truly, and 
th«n, having two covert or and* fitted to it, eevMnl ruga ar 
hoop* of mnJlpablc iron ara pnvidad, aaeh of wht<di ia dlvidad 
aciMni tho centre; t'ie« rings are aecnrnlcly fittod into tba 
cylinder, ^ud ore put down one upon another, with their jme- 
tious at opposite sldceof tlie eyiiuder, the intenoronrftoe of aBdk 
rina beluffao Irinneil aa to cnrro«)K)nd with tbatntaaiMgroovaa 
in the roll; the cylinder go von ore bi'ie-l throngh slightly eooical, 
and the holes iu them serve to form the b<'arir>|^ or iounials of 
the roll. When all the ring* are put iulo lliecrliudor and tha 
covers bolted on, the fluid metxl Id pound iu, which will fom K 
ooroplato roll, with ita grooves anit bciarincD nil promrlv tonaei, 
without the iiecewity for tamitiK in tho lathe, and whereby an 
eKtn-mc decree of lin:dne« mar bo given to the outer lur&ca bf 
chilling, wLiile Uia cosl wilt bu much lea* than tli&t of a roll 
Sidehe'l in the Intha In some cosua a row of teeth is funned on 
the rolls (it one or botli ends of Iheiu, so oa to atuse the pair of 
rolU to revolvu together without separatd goaring. Tlia iratt 
uaed for making roll* in the manner above doicribcd mi^ ba of 
the same quality ns that which ia now generally employed, or 
they may tie cast Iu atwl or steely iron. 

Before using the monliU for costing, they may be baatad BB to 
iOO" oe '.StJU' Fall., and the interior pai-ta broiuiiNl ovur viu ■ 
thin coating of black lead, or a mixture of black lewl and oil; or 
they may &• smoked; and thus the pateut<.« is enubled lo cast 
Tolla with their jnaruals or bearitigit m well na the othei' part* 
thereof with safHcieiit atxunicy to enable tho sniue to be uaad 
wiUiout turning the surfiuM* of nich rolhi in a lathe, and form 
tliereuu ouu or more pinions in one piece, and whereby much 
of llie expense of such rolls will be saved, and their durability 
iocreascd by the hani sarfacea prodibMKi by casting tlie irua air 
at«el in metal nioulds. 

Clttimt, — I. The ahaping, presiing, and rolling of ingota or 
moulded moaaes ofcnat stoel and cost malleable iron, by laoans 
of seglnelitjil rolling apparatus, 

2. The ahiipiug, preming. and rolling of ingota or raaaaeaof 
coat malleable Iron anil of Rnat mool by a oombiuation of rollers 

3. The casting of roll* in Iron moulda. 



MANTJPACTLTRE OF IRON AND OTHER METAtA 

J. Weehs, Juhnstoue, and J. H. M'CnixoKtJ, Ulo^iow, 
PattiUen, May 30, IBM. 

This invention relates to thoai> prnceicwM employed in tlta 
smeJting, or alter inoniifactiire, or working of iron and otlier 
metula anil their ores, whenun air is or may bo used for aiding 
the action of the furnace or fnrnacea, aud ounsistB m heating 
auch air by mwms uf «teani'heiit«<.I surface*. Tho prupoaed im- 
piMved system i» pn^forabb in practice to nay of tlioae llitherto 
ndoptuii, uiid ia ca|iable of eSuoting the dcsirod ramlt with a 
diminisbotl expeudituru of fucL Iu praciicnlly oarrying out tliia 
invcution iu a miiuoer applicable, for example, to » cupola fur- 
nace for melting Iriin for foundry piir|>ose9, the air, uu its way 
from the blowing fan or other blast appamtus to the cupola, is 
made to pnjs tlirough a number of tubes, or through spaoia 
formed hy couceutric cyliudeni, or through poa^goi ot any oon- 
veuieiit iwutiou, arniugol in a vetMol supplied with stenm in any 
cnuvvoient nuumcr, an for example, by admitting thewutaataam 
of anteaiuengine. The tuliea or the side* of the air paaaageaM^ 
prefcnilily, of nielaJ, and the heat of the ileom is communitMaa 
Uiroiigh them tu the air iinssiiig along them, aud tho air ia tbiw 
niiiied U> a ooii^iitUi-nble tein|H.> nature, ita beiieSclal acUuu on tba 
furnaci! being thereby increoMxl at an ocoaomiciil cost. 

In applying this iuvcution to smelting furnace*, it ia fimpoaod 
to super-he.'kt the steam employed fur uommunicating boat to Iba 
air blast. In a moditicatlon of apparatus tat oarrying ont tlkia 
portiim of tlie invention, the air ia mnile to pasa through tobe^ 
which are themselves enclosed in laiger tUDea, Mid tbcae tabes 
are nrmuged in a furuoco, ho lu to be expoaod to tha dttoot beat 
th«rooC Steam ia supplied to the outer tubes, and aovalopa* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCUITECTS JOURNAU 



47 



'tInMi 



tJM uuMT vam, whilat tbe hut of the furiuca •upork«nl* Ibia 
•Main, or MU«liMra it vith h««t, Mid the boat U DuinmuuioUvd 
bjr tli« alMm to IM ait patdag lliniugli the iuiior tube*. lu thb 
^-'•■"' tli« tir bUaC oMj b« bruu^Lt up Ui * rrr^ gi«>t bott ui 
MB •eODuaiicBl tad caavaiiit-nt DMDiier. Thia mih* ArraugaiiioDt 
of donUF (ubo* uiny alio be ■iJoptcl. vrhi^rv conveniout, wittiout 
•PfllTtBg (b« faruucu lo supcrhout llio akau). Air bUiita, buftted 

5MWkSt-)uM4d aurboM, Moordiug Ui the lLvei>tkiii, mny b« 
nutatgaoailj sfiplifil m •Dulliiw, puddilag, mtlUng, hf«^g. 
•ad otlier fUnwoM soiplajrwl in uio manufdictuiv or workiug of 
iiHt Mul Mher nutal* nJuJ tlieir on*. 
It U fiutber propoMd to OIUH m nir bUai) bwtal to a auffi- 
^«kat ^t^N*, in tiM nMiUMr Alnxly iadloMad, ta blow opoo iron 
'mr HMttl vhllM nuHwr thn mUod of Ih* huniner, or wbllat 
tomd at workad, wheroby tbo tuotnl t»iuf( warked ii 
lad ^ ft knfthoaoil tiiuo nc b worluiiblo li«nl, aud niocb 
I anil labour !■ tbu* laved. 
A Uu ia enploTcd fur furclug ia tha air, or for prodiiciag tlM 
air bU«t, and ui« air i« blowu by thi* fiui into a duuuber, tarn- 
I naoicatio^ vith th* hcktiog appamlUM, thiMiigh whieb the air 
inair I on ila way to Um lujerM. The hMUau kp|wnttu nujr 
eouaivt of a crlindiiAl vMwl of a1i««t Iran, nitml with tubai 
[ fiMiiiig ibrvuga it fronu «ad to and. Thaat tuboa opon »t on* 
f-««d lata * (|*M batwMB Um bloiritig (ka mod tha haatiag apph- 
. ntna, and at tbg otbar (ffld into tbo apaoe aommiuiiattioB with 
tha tojonv, aud tha air paaiw thmgh tha tubM uu iu «ay to 
Utf lujrerot, :iU«iB ia adiuitt«d into tb« wlindar «o aa to odto- 
i Im* Im tubaa, wblUt Um producta of oondaaaation fam off bjr 
• Mbar pipaa Tha tuboa, beiag baatMl bjr tha anvaloping aleam, 
I incart beat to tbo air pwitiiiK thivuffh ihocD, luid it w prafomd 
to tiit<«duoe the atf«u uaar the vtil eod of ibn tubea; tjia pro- 
I diMta of Modnoiatioii paaaiug off at tbo otbar «kl, in ordar that 
I «• ibe air in lla puMfp thruugb Ui« tubaa ^ndiuUy btconaa 
I iioUar, it alao eomaa ia wntact with bottsr portiaiM of Uic tuliea, 
, and tboR ukoa np mora heat than it otherwue waiUd. The Iwat- 
I iag appacatua ii fiiniialioil with la&t; valvea, uuc oueuiug wbau 
' tka internal praaaure ia too groM, and tlia other w{i«in it i« too 
I UtU* Tha ataam umiI nm)' bv tha wMtw (leniu of a atwun- 
tn^ta, or ataam nay b« {^Derated in a boiler KptaioU}' deaij^ed 
, lor (ha parpoatk 

Qriaaft— 1. Tha^ateon armodeofhsatinK tliDairaupplisd to 
fiimaeeaeanplorad iu the anal tiuu, or after- luauufiutiLn), or work- 
up of irou and other metaLa and th«ir oraa bjr inwuM of ataara- 
I heaUJ a(u<aoi% a* deacrit>ed. 

S. Tha ayalam or laoila of heating tha air luppli^l to furnaoea 

foaploivd m tlia inieltinK, or alUr-ioauufaclutv, ut worklogof 

iron aiwl uUMrnelala and ihair uiva by laaana of atirUeaa boaled 

by Bupcrheatad or nunrliarffvil ateniu, ur hy furaaoas tbo heat of 

[ wUoh is (namitlad t*) ihu air through an intorpotad Uiiduioaa 

I or aaoaaamanl of al«am, a* dcacribed 

3. Tba apf)lieatioB and uae of air liental by ■iBaiu-beatail aiir- 
HM lo biaw apon iroa or utbor UKtai wbilat balng (bi;god, 
baannerad, ur wrouglit, aa deacribucL 



SCREW NUTS FOR AXT.E BOXES. &o. 

P. P. [hurnil, Phlladi'lphin, Pititnlet, ^(«y 23, \M6. 

TUa invauttOD consist* in en luitr noting icrcw nuts in anoh a 
taanaor na to ntmovo thu linbility of ttiuir bvL'omiug uuaorewed 
or woricit^ looac while iu une, as in oftcu lliu cobl' with BOraw 
anta of tbe onUnary kiud. For the |mipu»e of pravoDtlng 
than iocDDvei^eiia^ it bus bei.>n nauul Ui enij>loy a Hmnll aerow, 
wbkli [laaaM UirooKh the aide of tlic nut, uud beat* njpioat 
tlia t)iiv-id of tbo icrow which carriLi the out; but thin uiodo 
of areuring acrcw uuta baa proved very uuBulisfai-tory, fi'oin 
the tendency of the aaiall acraw to work Iihini.' or to fkll out 
aJuid be lual whao lb« nut U alackenad. Ttic [latantcn diajwtw!* 
' ll tbg lateral cliunpiiig tsTavi, or other Khbc ur fr«e olanip- 
^ piooe^ and ciupiuyi lualraJ a amall vluttih lever or tooth 
ttaij mounted iu a rtueaa in the flange •jf th<.' nnt or of tha 
waalKn of lh« out, lo take Into tha thread of tbo ict«w on 

.which the ant i* pilaoad, and grip the throoil firmly. 

I TIm dnUfa lerer ia mounted on a ueutre pin and chamfenyl 
at It* inner end to enable it to lake lutu the Uiread of the 
urew of th«ailelr«e or bolt, a spring Iwitig employed to pr«M 

I -«•'-•' tbe tail of Uie dutch tevnr, and kei^p it in contact with 
fit tilfvail. The toothed oxtroTnily of the lever will, by reaauu 
pf tba aoceotric foran of ita profile, prevent the nut fruiu beiuj; 
. 



tamed baek nntil the tooth ia witbdravm from the thrcod of 
thn BOTBW, The tripping up of the lertr cbunp (lo permit of tha 
elaekeuiug of Uie uut) uia^ be i-tTtfoted by pnaaiug a pia or atud 
thToo^h tna nut and praaaing it iifoa the tail m tba levar; tha 
ohuupiug tooth will then tw raiaad doar of the thread of tba 
aorew bolt or axle, and th« nut will he free to turn. A alop 
piece permaaauUy oouuected lo the elainp lever, and projeoUng 
through a alot out In the aida of the uut, may with advantaga 
1m aaad, the praaaurt of ilia flagv Wing in that caat BoffleiaDt 
lo raloaae the grip of tha dam^ Th« damp flta into a reoaaa 
anilably ahopad to permit of ita turning, aa on a centre pin 
^vhiah ia in Ihia cnae dJapenaed with), and bv weaua of a iprtng 
It ia praaaed forward lat« doae ooulact willi tha thruad ■>{ (be 
■crow. If reqairwL two damp larara or taath ouy be titte<l to 
the mmo nut, tbo leveni oSmaa a naialanoe to tlie tiu'uina of 
the nut in opposite directiona Thia anangemout ■■ nwtful when 
the uuta are opwd a* atop* for odjustuig with great aoouiaey 
the r««iprouaUug niovamant of oertiLiu part* of maohlueTV. 
Thp acrow nuta oonatmcud or 6ltad aa daaeribad an wpJIoable 
to all <a*ea whore nuta are raquirad to ba aaonrea in any 
given pusitioQ. 

Ciiiim. — Pruviding aurew uuta with one or more apring 
oatehea or trip lever* for taking Into the thiaad of the male 
aorew to whidi Uio nut ia to be applied, and thereby pravaat- 
ing the tuming of the nut, until tbe acrow ia irliaaod f^'oeu 
the bite of the uat«h or trip leror. 



STEAU ENG1NE& 
H. CjUiTwiuaBT, Broaeley, PateM^e, Jnae 2, ISaS. 

ThIa invention relatsa to Bt*am enjiinea baring two cylindcn 
aide by aiile, with their piatous working to tha aanc omnk ahaft, 
with (np crank« at right anslea to aadi other; alao to coginea of 
other conatmittinnn, and aacli of Uia (^tnden having two Ittim 
coclcB of the conatruction deaoribed in a patent dalad Jnne 2; 
1S53, and eoniiitfl iu adnpliug and applying to au^b mginaa 
auotbor pair uf ateam-uocka of the eauie couatrucliuo a» Uioae 
reteired to, and in arranglag and combining all tba ataain-ooeka 
and ataam paaaagea, ao aa to admit of the cofpnea being atartcd, 
■kippod, or rcvcracd by meona of the addituinal pair of ateam 
cociCD worked by hand gear. 

Pur thia pnrpowi oue of the rvv^nfag codis ia pLwed betweon 
the two upper atcom-cocka, nod Ute othar batwaea the two lower 
atoam-oDoka, a ronnectins rod or link impariJag tha acUua trom 
tha upper revening cock to the lower; or the ravening oo^ka 
nuv bo plaoed otherwiae than between the redproutiog eteam- 
cocka. The ateam pUMgee are *o arranged aa to adnut of ateam 
paaalng from the ateam pipe into the open end of the upper 
ravenUig ctM.'k, nml fVom tnenoo through ita f^ont aat of apertnrea 
to tbe front piunage of the iteam caaing thronghout, from wheooe 
it ia oondooted through tbe front apertnrea w the redprocatiag 
ouoks to aot agaluat tne piatous. Oii the ntoni atroke of the 
piatoiiH th« Ht«aro relarna through the mir aperturea of the rad- 
procnting cooka into the rear passage nf the atoam oaslngi and 
from thonco through the ruar aperinrea of the lower revnraiag 
cock lo the condenser ur the atmoophere. But if the plugioi 
the ri-vpraing cooka are ini'iioil ito tbnt Uia rear aperturea or the 
upper r«venilng cock communicnte with the rear paNageofthe 
■team canng, and the front aperturea of tho lower revening cock 
communicate with the fruui paaoase of the ateam caaing. the 
motioo of theeugiuo will be reveraed, beeanae the ateam will b« 
brought to net Agiiinat the oppodte ndaa of the piacnna. Thai the 
motion of the ongiue la mvemd by revoraiDgtlia ulltoea or func- 
tion* of the )Muuai[ai in the ateam caaing, Bot if the ptugaof itw 
revoreing ooeka are moved only througli half the foiraer epao^au 
aa ^r each of them to dove one aet of aperiurca, and atop bokiri 
the other aeta are open, the al«am will be siupped olT from the 
reciprocating cock*, and the engine will atopi AI«o, if the plun 
of the mvoniiug tnoka are moved thivugh a atill abortor epaee, the 
ports of tlieee cuoka may be partly doaod, and the working of the 
engine tlivrvby cnseil. 

The aotitin of ilie rcvoming i^>ckti ie aa followe : — The ataam 
paaaaafrom the boiler through the liipc, euteni theopeBeudoftba 
reveraing oock, aud Howa through the frr'nt porta of thia eock iutu 
the (runt diviaioo of ibu atuam oiaiug, which ia thus, for tho time, 
fi aU-am pipe or paaaage for tlw itteuu !•> tlip cylinder. At tba 
saiue limi? uie rear division of the *u>tnu ca^iaa belug iu communi' 
cation with the rear porta of the itveniug cock, the r«ar division 



J 



48 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND XnCniTECT'S JOUBXAL. 



ui nuulc fir th* time An «iliictioa pipe or dobmsh for tlie itenm 
from ibo cylintior to the oondeawr, or to the fttiituiphara ia tho 
cue of a Don<<o[iiti!iiiiiug ^iigin^. 

If tbc lisinile or lever be moved ho ihnt the front porta of IhU 
cook will he turD«l oti or dfised wiiiut the front diviHiou or 
pMUfie of the Steaia cnsing, nod the ruir p'irU Ciirnnd on or 
OpniM to the reArdirisiuuor [.nunukge, thaaiiukking the latter n 
stauii pipe: whilst liy the tMnic operation, luid nt the tatae time, 
th« nur ports of the cock will he tnmejl oirorelowM! ngniuat the 
roar diriaion or pMsngv, and the front porta tumeJ ormropened 
10 the front iliviriOD ur pnasage. Ihuivu]' luKkitig the Intlrr nn 
eduction piiw. Aud thin tT»nspo§itiiin of thn in<vim pMsa^ 
will exteuil through tliereciprfltatirigntwini rocks, U> the nelion 
of tho «eKm within the cylinden, irnd cause the eujtiue to ho 
(iiverwMl. But if the hivodle or lover be moved through only hnlf 
tlitf nbore-unmeil amoe, then idl the portd in the phi^'n of tho 
n'veroing cock* will be L-lo«c<d, aud the enpiie will he itr.ppeiL 
And by tiiovtng the liniidln or Idvor tlin^iigh n still ■liorter ■{>tui», 
the porta will be pnrllycloiicd,»nd the Working of tlieengrlietoaeil. 
ThuH bv moving the bandle or lever, either direolly or through 
tbe iuUin'eilli'iu of iiny luil&ble liauil ^enr (irditiHrly«mploy«d for 
worklnj; the slide vnWii* iif «t«un cDgiiiea, the pliign of the rever- 
ting coeka inity lie placed in the resjujctive poailiona required 
for storting, stopping, reversing, or easing the working of the 

CWm. — TlicndnptACiunuid iipplicstioD toatenin engines, of the 
irvfTsing cooks ileHonbed lor the pnr|)09B of starting, stopping, 
reversing, and enaing the working of such engine* ■amuy lie re- 
quired bjr mcoiiR of suitable bjuid geftr iu ooiiucctiou will) aucli 

cocks. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEEltS. 
, S, UGH.— <]. P. BiDun, E*q . Viee-PiHidcni. in Uie Chur. 
Pitper read wxa " On tht Imwi ^ the Slnmj/lh nf WrovgM 
nuirf C>ut tnia." By \Vit.i.i*« Bbli. 

lu this jfflper it was state.! that thi> chief point had bwu tho 
oousideratiua of the lonuitudiual, hs uuiuparod with the tnuM- 
renie, stiviiuth of wri'>iigiil uud ciut iron. For this purpose tho 
whole of the ci[«irini''ntii lumle up to ihc prtiwnt time on 
tenring aaiuidcr, or crushing, hnr* of cnstiron, iim! thono moiln 
tqr breaking bars trnnsvenolr, hod been tnken, nnil from them 
anil the known formulo; of ehiatiuitjr, mieb tiiluea of the couslants 
in tha formiilm lisiii bevii deiliiivjd ns would satisfy each expsrl- 
nwnc inilivid unlly. And by conijmrison it gfliieriU view of Um 
Booordance or noa-occorilnnca of Ihoiry with oxpcrtment hod 
bean obtaioed, aud houib geuertU laws arrived at. 

The malhainatical theory of elaatlcity as given hv Poitson and 
Navior was aMainod. By flodlng (or each «xj>erliiieutiil beam 
the oentnt of graviiy of trie area of cross section, thr'iiigb whidt 
aeoording to thin theort- the uoutnU axis ]hliuuc1, niid ciijciilnling 
the mouxdut of th« foruM with re^>ect lu thia .uis, the applica- 
tion of the (bnnnin to tli* cxperiiDents w:m tiia\\y uiiuIh. 

Tbn Hrst constant obtained wn* the weight per squ.ire inch of 
tha moilulua of chuticity, anrl thin, when iVlucnl from tho 
tranitrertie strain, wuJi tJUten from llic UelleciionB proiiucoii by 
smaU weijhiti, and in all eaaes where the betun or bur was wry 
little ttrvinod. For wrought iron, the most cuniparable eiperi- 
aents wore eoniiderol lit be those detaikd in the " Iron Citni- 
tnissioiMini' Hcport," which gave by trausvone strain fnim lil,2()0 
tous to 13,7^90 Ions per iKjuare inch, aud by eiteiigion of hma 
from I2,tfi>0 tons to 1i,9(xi t<i»» jwr square biuh For cast-iron 
the avunges of Low Moor, Blaonavon and Ctxrtfiherrie Irons 
wor« from tensioD 630JS tons, from o-iuiprnwiinn ,*(tUH Ions, anil 
from transverse ttraio S9Et8 tons per square inch. Other wtpori- 
meuts on th<* transverse atniin or wrought iron gitve from 9000 
to 14,0(NI tons per sinoro Inch ; whilst with cast-iron the results 
wan found to rarv fVnm 4il<.» xa Soon tons, Oo thie point it was 
statoi that Mr. w. H. Barlow. F.RlJ., in some experiments on 
ttia iwutnd asia noently laid before the Itoyal Soei*^, (bund 
nnilM nearly agreeing with the higher number. 

Another mode of anivliig ml Uii value of Vbt modulns of 

•iMtid^ by mauu of the beading or brewing weight of " long 

. pillars," was also examined ; the mtioa of Uie lengths of the 

' liUan to their dituneters being taken as absciasm, and the 

ailu; waigbti, obtained both (torn theorv and experiment, 
ordtiialeai It was thus found that, for tlie eipcrimeuls oa 
'^VroogbMroii i^Uan, ffvvu in tha befon-meutioued report, the 




onrve of theory affretd v«t well with the nirve of oliMiratie 
until the length became shorter than 70 tlniM the Ihicknew- 
The experiioeuls on oast-iron plllan exdmiiied wore those in the 
•eooud volume of 'Trwlgold on Cast Iron.' The onrvepoudeaeo 
with theory wna vnry goo-i for th<ise with tli« ends rounded, 
until the length became shorter tlisn i() times the dlaluetor ; nod 
for thn« with the ends flat, until the longth became ahorter 
than flO times the diameter. The hollow eylindrical pillaM 
with ou« exception — thnt of a short pillar — gave values lor lh« 
modulus of elastiritv of from -1300 to 6(II<0 Ions. The corre- 
e|>ondonoe between thtwiryand ex]>enmeut sotimeit in theaothor'e 
opinion to wamnt the eoncluniou that the theory wss pcrfcCtljr 
tniatworlhy when only amali eomprcasiooii and extensions nvn 
OOBOemed. 

The fuudaninntnl uisuniptions ususlty made in the theory of 
the strength of in.iterialx were then cusidered. I^isl, thai in a 
bcHm strained Imna verve ly, the extensions and oompreanonn of 
the parliclen were prooorliinial lo their diatojico from the oeulnl 
axis, betund, that the extensions and eompres«iuns wore pro- 

Krtional to the tensile nnd minpi-esHiie furves known as Hoolce'a 
V, and by the phmac, ut tmtrio, ne via. And tliii>), mnposing 
tho latter low to hold good, that whenever in a bciun subjeete-l 
Ui transverse strain ilie tension or compression on ilio outside 
partiolce ws« the siiuie as would be obtained by direct exjieri- 
ment on pulling asundT or cnmhin^ liars of the same material, 
thn beam gave way. It aji]ieKrcd, nowevor, froia «xf>i-riroont, 
thnt for large enmpresaions nod extensions the law of tlouke 
OM-icd to be upplitnble. It was found that in ciist-iron this law 
did nut diifer widely from the truth within the ranm of the 
ex|>#rimen1s ; whilst In wrought'! ron, although tlie dillbrenee 
WHS great near the point of rupture, yet tlieoun.'e of oainpremlon 
wns similar in form to the curve of extL-nsion, the ordinate* 
likewise beiny nearly equal in amount, Tlie true law mitfbt, 
therefore, be ruu;:hJy' expi-ewed by saying that beyond a given 
aniomit of force, the saine force oomtsjictnded to all oompressioaa 
anrl exlcnsionB, this force being nearly the force of riiptuiv, either 
by longiludinij eompreision or extension; in other words, the 
force wsa scarcely all«re.l by n large incrteiae of the eouipreaaiou 
or cxteuaiou. It was next considered wlint etfeot Ibis deviatlou 
from the law of Hijuke would have ns to the force ou the outaiile 
parliclea »» deduced ft<>ui that Ihw : the euppaaillon being made 
thnt the force was. eoiittant, and therefore miial to the force of 
ruplui'e for all ci impressions or eitensions. From this inreatin- 
tion the author thought it would be obvious that the uippoailion 
of a ouTiBlaut furoe wns dilfereiit fiviui the tnilJi lu one iliKctioD, 
while the law of Ho<ike was ditfiu'ent IVoni it Jti aooUinr, ao iliat 
these two laws fornieil limits between which tho truth always lay; 
in cast-iron the latter law being more nearly appruxituuieii lo. 
It was shown that the results tlerived from ei peri men ta by 
oanumiug the oi-ilinnry law were slii^htly above tin- truth, the 
dttTereiico, even in a recta ri((iilar snction of wruiight^roTi, being 
probably less than £0 per cent., aud in cn.-<t-iron still smaller; 
while in large box and double T girders with a brund bolleen 
fliuige, the ditl'eri'uue wiu priicltcally insensible. 

The other oonalauL oLtiiined was the value in toiM per eqaan 
touh of llie tension and cnnigireiwi'm of the ontsiile [uirtidn when 
tJie beam hecnme inipturcil by transverse stmiu. For wronoh^ 
in>n tiie exitertinouLi on solid iron bars were fewer than eoold be 
wished, and gave results viu'ying between Mi aud Itsi tons per 
square inch. In this material it was thought that It might 
probably he the compressive i-alher than the tenailo force which 
delemtlDed the fracture. The only experiments on the direct 
compresaoQ of wrought-iron were those on two bars given in 
the Iron Commissiouera' Iteport — when* one gave wny under a 
■traiuof 1-1'5 touai the other under IS'trt'ins pr square inch. Tbe 
quality of iron wns not stated, hni it wns believed to have boMi 
soft. It was asserted that the better kinds of wrought-iron were 
able to sustain n greater tensile force, the worse kituls n greater 
compreajve foroe. .\ccorvling to Mr. Ealuii llodgkiunoii's experi- 
ments, wrought-iron might oe detiued to hnvc itw t/^nnile to Its 
coupreMive force, oe^rly in a ratio of equality; easl^iron lo have 
thoM fbrcea in a ratio of about one to six. This being so, it was 
thought worthy of counderation, whether in the ptatiMof » Iwft 
wrought-irou bridge aubjMted to comi>res8iou a slightly Inftnor 
quiiUly of iron might be used, ant oufy as more voonomical bnt 
as better b itself. 

With regonl to rivettcd iron, the resulu from all the wrou^^ 
iron tubes in the bofore-meutiuiicd rciiorlgave from 7*1 10 38*8 
tons per aiiuare inch. The lower uumbura were a[ipareatl7 



THE CIVIL ENGDTEEB AND AECUITECrS JOURNAL. 



49 



WOMil bj Miu UuB pUt«* for Inbai of oaD|HtmUnI]r Urge 
dlaiDM«r. IT liiU wwn avoided. It wma tbenght th«£ in alsii- 
hliag til* ain&gtii of wtnughUlroD tubM 10 lona par iqnue ioob 
MfaAt be allowcil for llif lircokiog dm qd tho ouUide pATtiolM. 
WlMa tlw cxiwrimaaU on caA-lroD ««rQ eskiuineJ iu tkU 
—• •". tlM foJlowiiijt fikot IwouiM *pp*r«iit: eiperimoiilii on 
■B>U biuB bt«lwn tnon'enMlj' fpun rwalu of H) Urn*, and cvcm 
mtt*, tar Ik* toarion and ooiaptflfai of tb« oulaitU particle^ 
wbm lb« «tpenHunU ww* «ZMiiUiutI bf tb» onUoair Uieorv. 
If lliMe ratilla wera diminialivd bf SO per eWL, *lilah 11 
^ipcaivd w'juM DMK tliau mukc up llio didiEraioe caaMd bj 
— iiBliilf Uie oidiiwr; law, there wan itill a rcault of mj IC 
%om, wbila by direct Mpwliuenut on the taoiiil* bm of orun- 
irOB WTMi or eight tunn wn* foood to bo the ntmoat that it 
vimkl bcof. Ill rrganl to Uiia mbJMt, Mr. W. U. ISurlow had 
•llndtd t» Uw altcrnalirc hvpolheaia thkt the oeutRLl axis tbitlMl 
ha poadaQ aa the beam booaaie atnu&od, Mid that when ruptut* 
looc tiUc* tbo iMutrml asia waa " at or abova U>« lup of th« 
' * Thiii hypolbMi* mu eondiJnwl b; tha antbor to b« 



bMU.' 



8p«oiineiia of tbe recenUv ilUooTereJ iron depoiita in Ibe 
mmatavM, Northern Irnlia, w«r« exlubitad b; Mr, W. Soworbjr. 
Thw* dopoaita wem tonad in Iho lownr nxige of hilla, called tho 
Blabor, at a KooonJ olantinti of about MO fc«l abova tho aaj»r 
otol plaimi; and they vcre man or Ua* ooBtinuoiM froca tbe 
Snda river, om the oonfinea of Nepal, Iu the river OasffO), a G^ 
niUae above the head of tbe grand Gan^ Canali at Hoidwar, 
being about lAO miltui iu longlh. 

There were nix dideroat bed* of iroD-atone, Ofle above the 
otber, of rarying tbkkiieai and quality. The l"wiat bed wu a 
riob red IroB-atooe Meoeiated witfi clftjr, and it* tliiekoeM wn« in 
naoT plaoaa vpvatda of fiO 6et. They contwued oii au amage 
nearly SO par otnt of nuitiilUc iron. The Ibltuvlng waa \M 
analyaia of tlicae opm :— 

WatM- and L-urbaole AM ... .- ... S'OO 

Eartiiy matter ~. ... — SS-40 

Anwulo „ H, „ „ OBI 

Liiiio ..»..» _■ S'M 

tVaxida of Iran .^ 73'GO 



•oainiy to tlm ■liiiiiiiiitaMi prinajdaa of mechaaiea; for aa the 
mm of tbe oompenasive ftxme on one aide of the axb muet be 
•qoftl to tlie sum of the t«oaUe foroea on tbe other, therefore if 
mre were tmoioDa ou oue aide of the axle, there moat bo an 
an* out nf wliicb to vet ooniprMHOoe eufficinnt Ui balanoe them 
on tbe otber. Aa evideooe on Ibis point in one matteiAl, tbe 
abMrnOioiM of Bir David Brewft>-r in paeeing poUifaed light 
Ibrongb a piece of ghua aubjucied to truiaverae itmiii wen 
aUuded t«. 

In eigierinif nta on tlin direct lenaile itmiicth, it waa awnimod 
tbat the outvranl force wne nnifbnnly diitributed over tbe area of 
Ibebar; in other wurdu, that tberseulumt of the cstemal foreea 
en tbo bar puieei) tlirutiKJi, Aud had the eama dlreotiaa 
> tbe axie- Tliia prubnMj nobiincd in wmught-iron ftmn tta 
t cxieiuibilicy befora niptiim ; but in cnat-iroo there wm 
neb estetmibilily, aud thii piiini. wu thcrofore ta loiue extent 
L If a few experiiueula wvre luade, iu whioli the fortw 
froBi tlie axia by mrlaiu large nud menaumble amounta, 
were made to i^prooch tlio luia until annie lav woa 
wbidi oould be loated, ttiii point would be eet at mt. 
raa th«u given ahowln^ tli<- valiina of the force* on Iho 
particJca at the tiinn of rapliin: iu tone per equare 
I which it appeared that there wa« a diniinulicn aa tbe 
beama inenaaad. Beama three Inobe* by three inohea, 
' Willi tbeeeoae beb by one inob, ehowed a Uliug 
aoeagtb to the extent of Hliout four torn per uimrv ioch. 
ranlta derived frcou Mr. ilodgkinion'e and Mr. T. Cuhiit'e 
'menta gave abr>ut len tons ^r xiuare inch, when tbe 
beatna only of the laltt-r eiiieniiieuter weiv iudiideil In the 
itlon, or 9*6 lone per »]Ufti-f iiivh vlitiu the asouiid beame 
tokea into acoount. Fivni thin Uble it anpaarad that tho 
inK weight of tolerably large girders tnight be caluukted 
Qonaiderabje aeannuy by oeiug wren or eight loua iwr 
inob aa the loroe of teoaion on the oaUlde piirLi<.-l>M when 
I look place, 
euadii'loii the author aiprcmcd the liopi; that ho hnd sue- 
" ineetablinliinii the (oll.iwing proposilitmn : — 
L That in experimouta vtiTt tbe uint«riidii were but 
IMuly atnuued theory and euwrlmeU oobiieided. 
SeoMid. Tbat where the ordinary theory wa« applied to the 
nptMre of btaiua, and cNpecinllr Urge boonu of wrouglit-iron, 
tbeonr and experimcol practicnJly ouiuddod. 

Tlunl. Tbat Ibere appeared to be no good ranaoB (brauppoaing 
tbal tbe neairal azla ahUled Iu poalUon to any extent worth 
^aotkiBK, evea up to the time of fmctura 

ortb. That in enat-imn, altlioagb theory Meined to diHer 
uptaimeBt wlien the tranaveiee etiee^b of amall bare waa 
' witb tbe direct teuule etrength, aaanmlng the latwr to 
iy elated at aeven or eight lone per aquare Inch, yet 
irben tbe Haiwrernn stmigtb of ha^ girden waa eompand with 
llie direct iMudle etrengtb, the oouieulenaa of tfaeory and expcri- 
nrat waa nearir exact. 

nilb. That the unlinary tlieory of tlie Mreogth of niateiiale 
■M BDore imatwurtliy Ihsn was irennt&llv eiippoaed. 

In an appendix tha author explunod tho furmulB; UMd in 
■xamlniug the uxpcrrmanU, luid gnve the demonstmttona of the 
roanlta arrit-nl at ; the expennieiild for nac!ertiuDiug the modulus 
ef elialicity, and the fonea on tlie uutelde ptu-lidei at the time 
if nqitara being exaialaed in grtmt detAll. 



101-41 



Exo 



1« 

lOO-OO 

Motallie Iran SO'M p«r emt. 

The nthor bods wero chiofly n corapact brown day iron-atonev 

nlmnt 1.1 to H) fnt in tbickueiu, contiuning abuut 40 {ler cent, of 

metal. There were ahu yellow hydratei and liliceoua irMIBU»eiV 




of lea* thlokueai, aud of poor quuitv. Maaa«8 of tlie ridiaet iron* 
etoue, many tisoa in w«Sgfat, were found tying on the hill alo^Ci, 
and tho bode wem in nutnert>uit plaoia aoen espoaed ia high 
eacarpvnenla and deep larluea. 

The endeeing rocks of the bode were ougbomuh aaudnUiDee, 
not nnlUte tbe eandatonei of a cnal formalloD ; tbln eoanu oT 
liffDitic and aLtghtlyUtiimiBona coal had been found oalcropplng. 
Mountun limcatotia, ef aictdlent qnali^ for dux, fbrmed part of 
tlie ndJooMit hi) la. 

The divirict iu which the iron ore woe found waa a deoM 
priineval forett of nul, Imldoo, kya, Jainio, aod other hard 
wooHa, in inexhaiuiiblo qiwintity, *n<l peculiarly suitable tor 
umkiug chaiTioaL Tbe number of amall atreanis nnd Inrgn riven 
iuaing fVoDi the hilla wonid aflbrd ample w&trr power for any 
BiDouut of uaehinerr. 

Tlie goveratneat of India decided ou erecting a amall experi- 
mental work during the cold aeaaon'of 185^i-S8, whieh wh 
onlruatoil to Mr. Sowerby ; epedmena of the iron nrndnoed wen 
exhibited, and were «o oonclualve, a* to hare dftennlned the 
ijucnliuu of ihc extouiUDn of the works. 

The iuterior of tbe bltle wai also stated to contain Immenwe 
depoiha of rlA bnoaiite, epecular and mMuedo irou orM : lib*- 
wiw) eorper, galena, and other minerals. Views of the locally, 
and of the work orerteil, wen also ehown. 

Spocluuuui of eoal, iron, copper, galena, ftc, dieeovered bv 
Mr. Sowerby in Suuih-Koelera Africa, wen likewise exhibited. 
The eoal-bade wen* in tbe territory of Natal, and w«n traced 
from tho aea const to the Kalhlamba Moaats, a distance of aboot 
ISO miles : thoy r.xried in thiokiwa* from a few inches In 1 4 feet 
St the outerop. Iron, oo[>por, Ac, wore found in great nbundanoe 
niiii wu^ety iu various districts. 

Vet. Id, 18Ge.~fl. P. BiotiNH, Esii., VSee-Preeident, in the Chair. 

AXnCU. OKMEHAl. MRBTIIIO. 

The nport of tlie eaunetl for tho pnsi Sossioo, whirfi was read, 
slateil, tlint aiuco the cornspotujing period of tbe liuii year, 
though political tranquility bad been realored, tbe monetary 
criais oanaeqacnl upon the targe public expenditun ootsdonail 
by a elate of warbre, bad retarded tbe rtaomption of wo*ka of 
public and private enterprise. 

Some few of the foreign work* in wo g rtea wen then oolieed; 
mentioning pnrtionlAi-ly Ui*^ Huaonaful opeaiug and die extonsloa 
of tliD (Uit Indian lUilway, under Mr. Rwidel, tbe late dla- 
liugutsliej fast- President of the lustilution. In oosuisctioa 
wiui this eubjeot, it was stated, that the honour of Icnij^ithaod 
had been oonlisrnd omo Mr. Maodooald Siephensou, Aaioc. 
Inst. C.E.. who originally prapoacd, and had carried out the first 
portions of tho vast network of fntlwaye which wiu dmtiiiMl to 
work such a revdlution in tho Indian Empin. A similar die* 
tinotiou waa at the «*me time conleTrcd upnu I>r. O'Sbau^easr, 
tbe energetic projector and constructor of a eyslean of£leeurlo 
Telegrapus utteading over uetitly 40o0 miloe, Uuuugh liacuie. 



to 



THE CIVIL EN6INEEE AND AHCHITECTS JOURNAL. 




jnnijje. or over the TMt plhinn, rivvro, and mountain* of India. 

[The liidiiiu PfFoiuniUr l<4itwny, cobatructing br Mr. Jttnm 

|B<^rkl«v. 31. lust. C, IL, niiii«r tbeillrvctionof Mr. R Siophpunan, 

! Bt.r., trident, hod now about kit luilea Djieuei), ftiid ihe f^reat 

(titIc of exirniion np W SliotntxnT, luiil tliri)ugh tli* Blitrre 

I'GliAiil, WM now fiwt pro)[r<4iiiiig; whilst the execution of the 

[JTorlh Etistem ex(<niiii'>ii, iwutim the Thull Ghaut townrdn 

Kag|Kir«,Uid Jubbul|n>[v, nud tba Bent cotton ficKU, would 

'•OOlweanBnMMd. Tli'.- Mndru, the Bonibn^ nud Bnivrtn, nnd 

he Sefncle Railwnya w«r! being vigoroiwly pivi«eciiled, mid 

iM-amI othrr liai'i wvr* pniJBeutd, ninong which njui (hnt fmut 

LSdIeucia, on tlit^ MeililermnMQ, toJabrC^attc, on tho £u|>hnit«ii, 

hrtiloh river it won umpuaed to navignte hj meuw of ateun* 

'tmmU, of Nhallow dniui'htcir wuter. Thia r«oent prajeetluu] 

bnca nntnistnl U> Sir Joho UACiieill, M. lust C. E. SIqm the 

kingdom of Oude had booome a part ff the British poMMsfons, 

arnvugeincTita had been mnde for nffordiag it the bonelit ofnar- 

ticiputiim iu the niilirair flystem, vhich would ho comunrDCcil by 

'the eonHlrnctioa of a liue of Afty iuIIm in leiigth, between 

ICkwnpore and Lncknow, whence limncliea would extend U> the 

' luost importAnt diitricta. Mid bn conoected with the Kiuit Indian 

luilwiiy, Older liuoi were bIjo pro|ioiiod for nornickporo, 

, Tithoot. Uid Puniouli, uU uontributiuii to the completion of tho 

[ tetninittilMtioiu of ludla. 

Tb* PanuLiabneo nulwar, ia tlio proseoiitiou of which the Ut« 

lUr. M. A. Bortbwid^ U. Inat. C. R., loat htn lifn, lind boon 

r plaued In the ohorise of Ur. W. M. PenUton, M. luxu C. E., nnd 

vu uuikiug mliatiaatj wo g rt it . 

The |)utu Pvdro tha Bawad railway, atartbg from SEo do 

r Janeiro, luid piiwiag up ili» " Serra, into tha rall«y of the 

ifarahlbo, and thraut[h tlio prinoipnl colTotvproduclng difitrlcti, 

|%oiild be about 800 nuloaiiilaEijtlh. Tbc Unit nictloii of 40 miles 

pm> eoDUoeooed in ISU, mod would be aampleted bv About the 

■iddla of next j^vat. The turvey was iiwde amiJit n dense 

prinMV&l foroat, and tn mnay plocM through wat^r 5 or U fe«t 

deep, and Krcat difllculty wiu oiicountcred In ciecutlng the 

•arthworks with nUve labour aud iaadciiuato tooU. By dceirei^ 

however, Euroueuii metli<jdi> were ictrtHlueed by Mr. E. Friee, 

Amoo, lost C. E., tli4 oonlnvutor; and under the supcrinteudeuoe 

gf Ur. C. B. lAne, M. hint. C. E., the Eugiueer>iii.chief to the 

Uoma Dvparbncnt of the Biiuilian Oovernni«Qt, tli« rallwajr 

promiaed ta hooomc a di^o ontc.rpriiHi. Mr. Chnrlna Neatfl, Aaaoc 

lout. C. K, wiu also eoj^nged under tli« Urazllion Uoveramont, 

in oouatruotiui; iiu[M)rtBtit hydraulic worku at Kio do Jauoiro. 

Th«y eonaiaUM of uiiaj-witlU slitii^ the ww-fruut uf the oity, with 

K'atB and jetdM, bnncd of j^mnitn miuonry net ia lloa luortar, 
r which the Uumtone wni lent from Eugliuid. 

Iu Canada, the railwav uiid<--rULkea by Meur* Petou BraiDKy, 
Bmm, and Jack*i>ti, uti^hl be said to ba uompleto, with tho «x- 
uption of thn link to be fomud hjr tha Victoria Tubular Bridge, 
»(Toiii the Rivor St. Lawroncs, which wnn now In prot^n^ai. 

On the coutiuout, j-mdual oit*'iixion« of all the miiin liuoii were 
iMlOfitnaiJu. The Luuibardo-Veuvtiiui iiyitora had been tnuu- 
fcdM to ft BOTCrfhl oompany. now pretuiriuK to act with great 
wiusriiitnaproMoutioiiofUwlrplana. The" Victor-Einuanual" 
liais under tho dirvctlon of Mr. Barllctt, M. Iniit. C, E., acting 
for Ur. Itrkstoy, Auoc lait C. K., the contrnctor, wiu np- 
{ifMtabUis the flmiu of the AIim, for the traverniuj; of which 
JMMnitioii* wore being innde. and eiiieriuieutti upon the 
tnachitiDrT for the work m tunnelling on n (ari;ti mule w»r« being 
tried. That i-ortim of the line from Aix-toi'IUinii, piuRin^ 
tbrMuh Ohamboir; to Sl ■lean lio Mauneunc, uiiwonl* of .'.n 
nllaa ui length, wm opened lor public Inltic hut Oetober. The 
vorka witd urlg:Ina)ly Imd 'lUt by, and t) a great extent eieculed 
under thr dlri'Plion uf Mr. Xlnuinann, whn waa *iicc(<eiled, hut 
^■eir, by Mr. Uiucvo, under whoso loporvision thoy wore now 
nrried on. 

In Turkey, and Iu BuMia, i>it«aaive projocta both for railwayi 
aad rtakm navtgatiuii were beliij; agitated; whiUt in Euypi, 
H. H., Ilie onerfietic 3ud Padui, wa* oiniplotin^ (he r.iilwicy 
OOmmnMieation butweon Cairo and Suez, iponninR tbc Nile by a 
*aat imn bridge at Kalfre Axxayat, and had i!u[ilideil to M<>uk«1 
Btj the ocoatraetloii of the prelliuluarv works firr the Caual 
MNM iho bthmiu of Bum, advocalnl by M. Ferilnand de 
Lwapa; whilirt he had anthoriaad the oMahllHhmant, ufion the 
Nile auil ibc 5Iahaiondieh Canal, of a complete iryiitrni of atcnin 
towing vaMeli and bargea, now (a eouiae of cuuatructiou in tills 
eoantry. 
. Oft* ot the moat tniportout, an woU «a moat lut«rveliug. 



)>roJ»ct« of tha period waa tho nabEaarine electric triigraiib cab)* 
proposed to be laid from Valcntia, on the waat ooaM otf InlMid, 
to St. John'it, Newfoundland, a diatanee of aixteea hnndnd 
mllea, along tha bank, or pUtMi), discovered by laouttnanl 
Maurr, over which the greatmt ilepLli of the owan did not 
excera SOTO fathoniH. By the method of inck>alnK the inauliOed 
oonduoting wir*a within a covering of ropeo, couipoaed of anioU 
wires laid in an oppoaiU direotiou to that of the general " lay " 
of the uable, a liuht and lle&ible mble was formed, wbiuh was 
Btatcd to b« capable 'if bearing tho atrain of <lepoRitina in axU«ma 
deptlia, anil having no if ndoncy to twUt or " kink daring tiia 
process. This ingcuioua modlKoatioa of the uaoal eonatriHtioB of 
enhle, was deviaeil by Mr. Bnuiel, V. P., whose oo^pvmtiou wna 
aODght by Mr. Cyrus Field and Mr. J, W. Brett, the projeotoi^ 
onder thp adi'ice of Profeanor Monw. The Rnace««rid rsaolt of thia 
daring project for connecting the Old with the New World would 
be mare effecrtnal than any eflbrla of diplomacy, iu oenonting 
that Intimate union bo deairable fur the true inlArCBta of the 
two oountriea 

Tlie vital qneationa of the Motropolitan Sewera^ the iie« 
■treets, and tho bridges, remained m undecided aa atthopcriodof 
the Ust report. 

The principal pa^iem reail during the lessiou were then nolietdr 
meution being [Nirticulnrlv made of the oral sd<lrsaata hj Mr. 
Bidder. V. P. Inat- C. E., ' " On Mental t;a)culalion," tha oljack 
of wliich waji Xf demonstrate that the ayntpni could bo taujtht to 
children, and be auqulrud with leu IrksomeDoa and greater 
facility than ordinary arithiuelio. Speoial notice was also lakea 
of the pat>er by Mr John Morny- U- l*^**- ^- ^-^ ■"> ^' 
" .Siindpi'liknil DiTkii," which, as an example of dock engiaeorilig, 
■ti^n<l almoit nnrividlod in this countrv. 

The members were strongly urgeil to oontinuo to p ree a n t 
eopiea of scientillc awl prufestional works to the lihi'ary, vrithoitt 
whifh ill utility for reference and aonnultation ooidd not ba 
maiiilained. 

The deoenses of the membere durinK tho year were aonoroaad 
to have been : — The Itev. Dr. Buuktand, honorary raenber; 
Mea^n. M. A. Borthwick. J, Bremner,J. Chinbolm, S. Cl^fg, Jiuu 
C. Raiumell, J. M. Itcndel, T. H. Stathara, ¥. Wbiabaw, um] 
T. J. Woodhuuie, meml>era; anil I.iaut.-G«)i. tJ, M'Ltod. Mwifc 
J. Bntiy.T. Cuhict, ]>. M'IntoKli, .1. V. Miller, and IL Wilkina, 
asBocialra. The memoira of tlieoe Konllemoo were Ri^'cn iu the 
appendix to the report. Tile reeignalious of one member and 
two BBWciales were aunounccl, and it wua atated that the 
effective iiicreiiite laflr ilpdiicting tlie deceaaet and rwiglwUma,) 
during the ymr amountoil to U, whilst the total nnmbar on tu 
books was Aoii members of all ulosaea. 

The statement of the receipts and expeuditurv showed that 
there was a balance of tipwanls of Tix)/. Iu the handa ot the 
treaHurer; and ihtit the tliiancial imailion was very aatiafactory, 
so that nnt only would the current eiponsca be oanly met. hnt ■ 
balance would remuln to bring up any ari'ean of publieatioa, 
or to provide for contlngeucies. 

During the year the Beo>nd pju-tn of VoIiiiumi 1 1, Id, nnd |.^ 
of the MioutM of Proceeilings, hail been published and jaened, 
nnd the whole of Volume 15. There now only nrmained, to 
complete the series of Hftcen voltuoea, eitendiiig over twnaiiv 
year*, the aecoud parts of Volumes T, H, and 10, and the wliide 
of Volume 13. 

It was mentionnd, that at thn hut Annual Meeting. !klr. ChailM 
Msiuby (M. limt. C. E.), who had hold the post of Seorwlarjr for 
upwiinjs of seventeen vcarai tendered his resicuatiou ; he had 
cuutinued, however, to hold the po«it>ou until tne present lime, 
but iu the mouth of June, IHJJd, Mr. JniiifM Forrnit (Amoo. tnat. 
C. R.\ who waa well known to Ihe majority of the mBmbani 
from his almost CDOstant connection with the Lunlitu lion during 
the lost foui-teen years, having, iu fact, been (Hirtly brought np 
within ite walls, entered on the poet of Awii«tant 8ocr<-tary, witn 
the wlsry formerly devoted to Mr, Manby, who had espreeaad 
his willingness t» contione to act as Secretary, gratnltoualy, aa 
long an his lerviGes were considered useful to the luslitutkin. 

After the reniliug of the report, Telfui-d medals were lineulflKl 
to Me«irB. .1. Murrny, J. M. Ueiitml, H. Bobinaon, C. R. Drjaitit, 
and V. M. Kellcy: and Council FrsminmBof Booka to Maaeim J. 
Mnrray, (>. Herbert, Evan ilopkina, J. W. Ueiukc, J. BaUUft 
and W. K- Hall. 

The thanks of Ihe In'ttitution were uuanLinonsly vM«d to iht 
Prenideul fi>r hi* nttontion to the diitiea of his offlea ; totfct 
Vice-PreHideuta and other Menibers nud Associates of CoumAL 




THE Cira ENGINEER AND ABCniTECTS JOCBNAL. 



SI 



to^-oppntion with the Preaident, and ooDBtanl kUeucUuM 

imMtuiM: MklaotollMi Anditoncf UMAwomlaacul lbs 

ntiiMirni <? tbu Bullot. fur th«lr MrrlOM. SpadftI voUa of 

I wm Mmnl«il to Mr. Biddtir, for his odilrvaK* an " MenUU 

..B," wall lo Mr. fX Uuthj, decrctarv, fur the nuwocr la 

I had pmfnmip-l Lhc dntiea of his oldaa, aad hi* vBoiUat 

I to tiM iudiri.iual wUiM «f tlw MaotMra. 

foUowinc geuU«iii^n wan dtctad to 411 tli* MvarkI offioM 

iOMUicilRirt)i«''nHnine JntM'^— Bobart StwhoiiMm, U.l\ 

■t : O. P. Btddor. L K. BruiuJ, J. Hkwkihkw. and 

Hka, H.P., ViM-Proitknita : W. U. AnnatrODB, J. Uubitt, 

, Erriitav-iL, J. Fowler, C. H. Qitgotj, T. Hawiult]-. J. R. 

j^wn. / S^ H>i«»<ll, .1. WlilworUt, ud K. Wood, HfinbMa; 

i R. W. Kraaanl tkiitl Sir MMdoaidd StopbaiiMn, AawoUtM. 

. 13, tajT^I. K. BacssL, Yan-, Vio-Prwideut, iu tlie Ch^r. 
Tb* pawr rOMl wm " Oit Submarine EUti/ir Tti^/rap^." By 
,RWiv(x>». 

la A bftif nlktiem of the etrlj hmtarj of Ui<! SubnuLriua 

ie TaUgmph, it wma atsled ti<>t in linv* beao tha Liivetitidn 

•a paraoB, but tbUiiM' t)ia nianlt of thu miuliiunl 

I Mill asertioiMof nuny nxpaiimetilan. Ttin linit inon- 

Ut&t tlia autfcof had beeu iiblo to Bod of Any method of 

deatlj iBBulatinR wii«a m to euBble th«m to oonducl a enr- 

rhan aiibnicrmd in wxtw, wu, in an luxxiunl of aome nx- 

Dta tande id India hj Dr. (itow .Sir W. D.) O'Shaugfanawv, 

1839, raoordod ia tbe Journal of tbn Aaiatic Sociatv. In 

MpaHsiaDta tho vim viu corcmd vitli Eam<I jam, and 

' In a ifiUt ntCoti, whicli wu ag&iu envelupsd in ■uutli'sr 

if tarml yam. 

__ Jy after th'ia (in IMO), Fr<iGM*>r Wti«atalon« gara It aa 

■npuiioa, aspnaaaad bafora « Comniiilm of tba Honaa of Com* 

m, that a aobswriiu ootnminueattan bctvean Sngland and 

aoa araapractiCBblD:. And in Ootoberof the aamayaar, a panw- 

>h i& tba ' Balletin da I'Acnd^niia Boyala dm Scicmoaa da 

ilated, that Profemar Whaataioiia had diticoverfd a 

' BtlffitiB and Bngland by a ■iihmarine tf Inftraiih. 

n* dfcHKivary wna not, hnivcrer, mcntiaiiod. All 

I MtpfriniFntH wcrr maile prr^viuuii tu th« HUggntiijii of Pro- 

r Tai^»J to nao aa an iuniilatiiift M-unt i-iitU-wrcha, whiL-h, 

^tba pfnKDt tiiM, had bwu uiilvi-mlly (■luploywl. An cx- 

'from an AnMrioan u«wa|)A)>ar waa givon, oonuiaing an 

BtofaaubMLrinaHlBgraphataUidtoihagobiicn ancoeaamllp 

etail bv O^iwl Oalt, mm HoU (rata to Fire Uland, and 

which it WTu alto laid tbat the uiiie g<.-ull<Tuau liad npfJied 

Usited States Uuvemiucflt fi>r fiiuiii fni- tht! i>iU'poae uf 

^ a tcle(^Iihtc liu« frcm Amrricata Kiiropp. 

1M8 a aubmarine tQlagniph wire, iiiauliitn) with jn>tt&- 

laid by tiietitcuniit Siaiiiena, of tbe Ituyul Pruaiiiui 

Qff^, Ditdcr the lUiine, frvm LlvulX In Coln^ne, a ilut.inO« of 

>t balf a taile. And iu Jaiionry. 1(^, Mr. C. V. Wnlkar 

ad a ajmilar wira two mllaa \n Imieth oat to aaa, olf l>ovor, 

I aifpiala to Leodon through it. 

It, lUIX a gutta-percha coveml wire waa hid by Mr. 

on, from DoTcr to Oalaiii, ihrijuub wliiiih aignala wan 

nt with ■aoevwi, botttlaatiMl porfeut only atimir twviit^-ftnirhonrk 

On the 2^lh of 8Mil«mbfr, IhSl, n cablo n^inaiiitiiig of four 

IbaalUni wirMlnoMeillnailicathDrtanNo. I iron wiro. waa lud 

nwn fr>iu PoT«r to (^Uii, by Mr. Cmiupttiii, saiiBLeil by Mr. 

rollMtOD, and waa atated to have remained perfect l» the preaant 

b WM MaMd furth«r that It wna tntirvly owing U< tbn onargv 

ikill of Mr. Craiopton, who undertook llie ruapoiuiblg Um 

' ouTTlag out a aebtmo, up to tbnt time lookc<l upon with dia- 

S'aosiaof theleadinKcu;{ioNi's of Ibisoauulrvaiid t'ranee, 
Mvad br tha publiu geuHRUIy to be ijapouibia, that tha 
tM now 'indebted for tlia baoffita of aiibmariBatalMnplia; 
> landing oireiinnlnBOaa of tho caao wara biiafly oipUnad. 
I nntltor than jiroreoilod to ffivn a delnileil kocount of llic con- 
I of tha litvrr and lUUiii oaLle^ wliiuli wna tliu Brut laid 
Dwn; and tbe syilem of conatrucUon of all tba priiici|ial uub- 
ine talagnpliK Iu Burope up to tha prownt day, with all tli(» 
|Mtio«lan rabittva lo tbam, ma abown m a conipamtivo tAblo. 

TJw utthor diaenaaad tba leapaetive mcrita of the eoiiipouiid 
abia ayataiB, or the onllecliou or many iiuiulnt«d witca into odo 
aablc^ aa in tbe Cahtia and Oatand Leiegniiihti; and the aiinple 
oibli^ containing hat ooa wlra, ni Id tho line* of the Intanwllaual 
TlBlt)Mph Oompany to Holland nod Irelaiul ; tlio gr»M«r fuUity 
vhld Uiaaa Isttar nflxdad for repair, and tho leaa cbaoea of 



harinv tiie biuineaa atopped by ruptui«, ainoe one wlra only, and 
Dot aU, would be afliNl«d bv tho eanaiv *aa pointad out, and it 
waa aliown that tlia eoat of* the two ayatcoia did not tiiat«riaU]r 
differ. 

Theconduetiropowerofaabmorffed wireava* then tUforeUoall/ 
Invaatigat^d. and it waa abown that a couiidanUe dUEennM M 
ia time existad brtween the tnuianiaaloa of algnali upon ana- 
iwDiled wire*, and upon iiiaubited yiirm imioenitil in water, or 
biiriHl in tha aarth. That whlla viA Ilia former it aptit-Artd 
that the ooly limit of MnetJcal apead waa tlie poaaibility i)( 
il^dphering to* aignala, Uat In the lattar tha elactrio uiirrvnt 
nraiurad an aparcdsUa period at tima l« airlv* at lu doiLioatJon, 
and anotbar u>iif|nr pwiod (e MO^ from the wire lato the 
oarth. and that tfaia period of titna incraaaed rcgulariy with tha 
lengtn of tha wii«; oanaaoucntly upon a line furuied uf aub- 
margad wirea of eooaidcrable length, there would alwaya lie a 
limit of poaaibility of the avoiber of algiula that oould be tnua* 
mittcd in a eivan i(in& liiaae aAeti ware stated to ba oansad 
by latetvl iDductioD,*tbp iDanlat4w] wire oaanniinft the nature of n 
Leyden amugemetit of viurt dimeuaious where the oi)p|nr win 
i»pre«eDl«l the innff "■^'■■■■it, and the film of luobturv inr- 
roondingibegntlManhaaiDledMUMOutarooallng. Thii Utter 
anouatad to nBtnnh of 3S) aqtwn? (cet per mile. Thr iirnclial 
eSeet pmdnead bjr thin Intnnil in<^aetion waa chiefly tbe retanW 
tien or the aij^nau, and oonaoquenlly, to a oertain oxtdtt, plaoiiur 
n limit to the 4]uBi)tity of mt— ftw tlwt eould be tmnamltM 
nl.iii^ a «iibiuarine liuu. Thia elTeot waa rlaible upon a*«f7 aotK 
mannn liii« of upwarda ef 10 Hule* In length, and e*eu upon 
■ome of lav length. 

Upon the toD([eit line yatconalmcted thaineiMiyenleacanrialag 
from iha retardation of the ouneiit in aubatarima wlrea waa n«b 
ywy great; It waa not until tlie Una waa prolonged lo npwarda of 
TOO iwlea that the retardation became ■ anione otatruciion. It 
waa arKued, from af>me oxperinanta dint wero made at I.othbuJT' 
by Mr, I^tituer Clark, npon 1600 miloa of laburtnueau wire, 
that aigii^la ujH>a ^e line whioh waa about tu be bud down 
betwwii Ir"!ruiil and America, would nuuire about 2} aeeoiidata 
arriva nt tlioir dcati nation, and tlint afUrr ench algnal, onothar 
4i aeoonda muat ebtnae before tbe lino wu fm: to nsvivi: another 
efeetrie ware. Koch word of average leuKtb wouiit thua ocoupv 
abtiUt a uiiuute; aii<l eadl deapnl«h of twenty wurda, wullld. with 
thn iiMVMvtry unile aiKnulit, and uiLwiiidable' r«|ielittOD», require 
adont half-an-hour, tho* making the limit of poMiUlity anout 
fifty maaagca in twoDtv-&ur honni. 

Tlie author ar)(i<o<l, iJtat aince •ubniarine linoe wet* inurtt coatlr 
than auipeuded linea, and neverthcleaa a auialler amount uf buaU 
none oould he aent along them In an equal lliue, it waa important 
that an pMn* alionid iS apared, whereby Uiim lateral iudootion, 
and eiMiMifDtintly tho eviU itriaing from it, might be radnoed, 
though, beuiR in aooordanoo with a law of nature, it oould not lie 
entirely avoided. 

ynn. 80 onrf S7. — The entire eveuinga were devoted lo the dia. 
euaaion of Mr. Window'a paper, which will ba ^ven noxt month. 



ON THE VAHIOCS METHODS OF DTDiniATINO AND 

PlttaEKVlNO ABOHITECTLMIAL STONEWORK, 

By C. H. SniTn. 

[Pmpir md at the Rof/al liutUaU (jf Brititk Ardilt*rt», D^ L] 

TifK firat fratent for indumtiag and )irwH>r<riDg alone which I 
shall uotiw wax ^raiit'.><l to FViuifola Teydieuiie, a foreigner, 
reaiding ahrnail ; it in dnl«d Fnbrunry, 1^47 ; it afterwarde 
bi>cmni> the property of William llulch'uion. 1 bdicvo tho work* 
are now carrieil on nt TuobrJd;{e Welta, and the patent belonga 
to the " Inii united Stone Ou[U|Niny." lu general tvniia the 
operation may be thus deacribed : the atone to be indurated muat 
be worked U> tha necrwinry form, then thoroughly dried iu a 
hentvd olinmber, or by aoino other convenient method. Tha 
aotution, to which the stone ia lo be imueraed, ia oompoaod ot 
teiin diaaolved in turueuliue, oil, wax, tJtllow, or other Citty 
aiibalauw ; tlie siaieriaja are to be m«lted in a boiler of auiUiUe 
titv, anil while tbey are in a atate of ebullition tlie atoues an- 
put in, and tho operation of boiling ia continued until they ore 
impreifiialoil to s autliLTicut depth from the aurfit«c ; in ordtuni-y 
eoau two hoiiri boiling will LmpM-'iiMte the etcuw one iu-;h. 

The next Inveulion fur a aiiiiikr purpose, |MkIeiiteil bv Bar- 
naboa Barrett, ia dated October, lOOii: it ia now workud in tha 




1 



It 



THE CIVIL ENOINEEB AND ARCHITECTS JOL'RNAL. 



fiMM of "TIhi l/oaAim Stono-Ritnlonmg tad PnwRrviag Con- 

i 111117' r their ofliM wuat 41, Moorsnte-otrcet The fDllowiug ia 
if r. Bamtt'i mode at prMolure: trie iAodpu to be iuJuraiisI ura 
&nt wmpleielv wurl(«d U> ibulr reauiml form, Ui«n placed In a 
raiarabtr or uveii, whic)i ia bMt«il frnm SO to 60 do g r t^ to 
Ltfriva out wliAturnr lunixtiini thny niar i.-ontain. In nil cmui 
t where it ii proctiiabli-, thn utouM are to 1» opomlol u|Hm in &n 
Lklr-^gbt ctiuiulwr, cxhriuirt^il, or partially bo, ami tlii-n l)ie 
Mudunitiuff iiiixtur«i, wl-iL-tliFr liut or ci'KI, in &ll<iU'i«l lu tiirkle 
down or now ini^ ih* cliambpr I" till tti* vacimm ; Ui" I'rt'oM of 
which will bo thnt tho \it\a'ul iadiimliiig ■ubotance will readily 
fiti-l iu wity into Iho imiai of the ■tone, mid bocDme iumrponitixl 
■tiierewiib. Mr. BorrHt't indumtitig mixtunt ve GliuHn.il iiuder 
iris mrieliea — Ihu lint it cttuipoteA of naln dlmolved iu nnjitlin, 
lljilrits of wine, or turpeotiue, niixnd with (.oitUt-p^rrha, diualvnd 
'n 1X1*1 tur luvpthii, lUid whiiD wnrnie<l with sleiuii liviit, mixed 
ritli oil or »ny other ([rca»y mitt«nnla; after whieh "luili- 
tAOrraem" i> ground dowu aiid well mix«l with the above. 
luotber mixUire ie oompM«d of uiiHliu-'hed lime, with oil, or eoft 
fwap, and Rumts tallow, mixed with it whilst aincktng; when 
^itbU aUoked to be pUosd in ft copper with nlnm water and 
" Buta-comeia.' gronnd-np ooppenus and aeolution miule from 
potatOM and Mer •ettUnge: whDQ well boiled aud miied tu- 
ntber thej are left to settle, and the ecilatiim Is dmwu off. 
Thtm nu^iu prepanttJon* are nitlicr coi»plic«t»d, I will there- 
ftire not occupy more Ume by going further into Mr. Biurctt*! 
iavcntJDD*. 

The next pateul for Iba tame pur|fOte, crftiitdd to John 
Beujamiu Doiuee, is dated April, IKS. Vhv tpoclGmliun 
Ibee the loTitntion ns "An imprnvnl mode of tirating 
I of soft and p<iroiii stone, &c., for the presirrvntion of the 
•anie tmm decuy," Mr. Uainee' chief objei^t is to import to tlie 
eilerior narfiweii of elone or conipo buildings, the power of 
nBisliiig the deatnictiveefreotaofllie atiDospherf' nnil of ilninp; 
and in s^me meaaiire to omitfaliM t)tc teDiimcy to alkaline 
effloreaaeoco. To produoe these reaolta, he ^rst applici a nolution 
ofanlphate of lincor aiolutioo nf alum : after which nnlpbur 
dvMolTcd in linseed or other oil. This mixture is to b« laid ou 
the sutftce of buiUlui^ or baildJog materiala, bj thf> aid of a 
Imuib, or bv mcsna ofan exhaaited oaas apiJied to the w»ll nf a 
bnUdlng, or by any otbsr suitable meatui ; tAS atone will thou bo 
Imnervioue to moisturr. 

Mr, Ilenry Clinton Faffe luok ont a patent, dnteii May IBSBy 
port nf which in for " iiidnintiug comnii>» Ktoue wiirk generally," 
for Ibis purpose be distolves beiM-wax in otini tar naphtha. Hut 
if the oolonr of the stone ba very delicate, or the t)i«e«rvation of 
it* tintuml oolour be desired, Mr. Vage substitute! double distillod 
caai)>htue in place of the eoal tar n.iphtliiL, and white wax instead 
of common bees-wax. Thesolutiuu in to be applied with a brush 
b> the nurfftw of tliu stone, npnating the pnicess a* often as the 
stone willa1.>4"rb it, nnd until the poreBarecumpletetyfiUeilthoro- 
with; using the solutinn thicker for ouarae gnuned than for lino 
grained BtMi& 

Having ffiren an abstract of fmir di'tinct patentufnr attainiu^ 
tho name object, I will now endeitvoiir to sive a jzonernl viciw (if 
UietnodH of operating, and of certain pmcticuTdilliciiltiHi attendant 
iVrWD. EvelJ one pmclicnlly aci|uainied with ihn working "f 
stMie, whether oa a ma-ioij or a ivtrver, must l>« wnll nwnre »f the 
tin>e occupied, and irflhe llabililyto damage incurred in ronioving 
haivy rauaiet fit elaliomtoly wrought stone after the wurk is 
Iininlidl-. and tltnt the riik of injury or breakage is fi-r greater 
alth if>(l thnn with hard stouo. In several ef the patented inven- 
tKiriH, it ii nxpraady stated that the stones, after being completely 
Wirkcd, are to be tlioronghly dried jn a hot air chanthpr, or 
ovco: aud in one innlanrn it is staled, they are nf.envitrlK to be 
tittt into a tank of boiling kolntiou, nnd boiled for levcral hours; 
III another mathud tlic atuuea are In be put into on air-light 
ebamber, exbaueted, er partially so, and then flllr-l with the 
iaduntiiag mixture, either hot or cold. I need anaively stnti-thnt 
It ■■ an utter iiiiposaihility to exhiiut, even luirtialiy, n vessel 
cii]«douK euoueh to hold the larvestrtones that areffeaerally used 
in a tirat-elaas building. The fsUure at the almosphMio nulway, 
enlhef^roydon liot^aroan entirely tnm the impmcticnhilitv of 
Mhansting large vcaeela, as (t was found impoMible lomaketnom 
■nvlbing approscMsg to aii^tjght. If the simiiw anr to be com- 
pletely iiumerwd is the indurating mixture, there will be great 
waatri ns no ntber part than that which is to be expowNl to the 
weather i>e«l W indurated; In fact, the joints, bcrU, and back 
bdBg -covered with au oily or miuotia aubatuuo^ will pnTsnt 



1 



the mortar or other »qu»irii» cement from adhering properly to 
the ■bone: and the result must bo a cortoia ninouut of irrnVnci 
in a buihlinc so eonetructed. 

Among the wrttiugs of loriotia pal«ntMa I find the remark- 
able ■[jtteitiont, Uiul "the jirooesa givea to the most poran 
alone, tliu hardneiui of primitive graolta. It will bo nnnoica 
sary toeipatiat« on thiH imof^naty result— wo will look upon it ■■ 
the infatuatiou of a pacvut for bis ofianritig. The aaiDe pahmtoa 
attributes the decay in stouewurk to iilkaliiie elBorMecoee^ arising 
from the wmont (>r mortar used iu the wulis^ he has arriveil at 
this condnsinn after a variety of testa and trials during eleven 
years. Tliuse are onsertiooM, but no pmofs are iilTenMi Ths 
gentleman haa no doubt se«n many examples of stone in an 
advauued state of deeay, covered with a saline or allcaljna 
efflorescence; but ts he prepared to show, bv eiparimeols, that 
the same stone woold have remained perfectly free from die- 
integration, bad it boen situnteil fur from thn influeuoe of w^C 
he c'liireiveB to he deatmolive ogenta. 1 have submitted a piee* 
of linieMtone, which I knew to be uf a good and dumble qiudttv, 
to the niost uevere trstii of both salts and alkaline — triala far 
more powerful than anything likely to occur to itane in Uw 
ordinary eouree of nature;yet with all micb violent eiperiaiMtMk 
1 have never been able to produac more than a men tractt ot 
alteration or disinte'Tntiun: I am therefore diipoceil to believs 
that the Hilts and alknJifui hare little or nt>thiug to do with ihm 
dociy of ilonn. Among the puhliihed writings of jAtnntMe I 
tiud also thin remark, " In mimy cauus the ihicay of stooe Is 
accelerated by the employnitmt of sen or sidt snnil; a nroof of 
the deMtnicttve ell'ectn of «alt ui>un utouework may he obenr^ 
in any neaport town," No<loui>t the .iiitborhae observed atOBfr 
work in snme seaport towns in a drplornble state of decay, inaa* 
of the buitilingn at Brighton, constructed with Portland atoOf^ 
are in this oondition; but we have no "proof otfored Ihatsuch 
decay in ocoiuiioned by niarini> intlueuoe. The surface at tb* 
mnxrinrj- of most of the buildings iiC Oxford is so deconipoeed, 
that it is peeling off like luiper or mg«. Had tliii heautifol 
city bevu erecl«j with the lume stone, on the sea coast instead 
of the interior of the country, many might have iuuiginod that 
the wretehed condition of the aUmework was entirely owingto 
tli» ilestruvtive eflecla of sea salt, whereaa it is the reaull ofbad 
stone. 

Tlio bland of Portland is only five or ais miles fat cirailt; 
of ouuntc it is surroundeil on idl sides by the era; it oontidus 
seven villiigM, .ill built with Portland stoue, and they are in oa 
oxwlleut siAtti of prescr villi on. But Ihe wont munrluible in* 
slanc«, which pMvns thnt sea Halt hoe nu cl^ct wltatevcr 
on good stone, is that of Sandyifoiit Cast.li>. near Wevmouth, 
built Willi Portland stone iu the time of lleiiry VlU. It ja 
BO cloae to tlie seu. that uvery bu;h tide woshi-a the Iwwerpart 
of th<> walla, nuil in stormy wealber the building is ooupletely 
ovnrwhelmoi by tlie spray, yet Xiw stone la ijuite peri!Mt> aad 
the chisel marks are as fivsli ns whnn left by the WoriUDM, 
The fact is, giioit stone will reinain nearly perfoel in any atc- 
atiuu, during almost au iiulelinil^ iwriod; wlisreai bad stone, if 
ex|>o>ied to tlie weather, will rapidly moulder awity, whether 
^aced on the sea shore, or in the middle of a large eonlineilL 
The four palenta which I have described, may bo oluased under 
one geiiurol heading, because they all rccomiuoiid oily or 
resinous uiixturcs to be ajiplied to the atone iu a aomewlut 
similar innnnur 

t linVD one more invention fnr a similar purpMn to olfer to 
your ii^tiee. which has been rosorved on ai^oount of the iodatalJBg 
mixliiiva beiu;* 'if an aqueoUH and more scienlifi' olinracter, rad 
therrfi.in' differing essentially fn>in any of the others. Tli» 
inventor, Mr, Frederick Ifaiiaouie, has sent nie Ibc following 
particulate: "The process consiita in the •■m|)li>vment of two cr 
more eepanite solutioua, which, by mutually acting upon e^A 
other, proiluce wilhiu the iKires of the stone an iiideairuetihie 
njtneral iin-'cipilnte. In operating, ths stone may be eithtf 
immerseil in, or sntnnitcil on the snrfai'e witli, a weak aalutiea 
of silicate of si<da or pnt;uih: and afterwanls with a solution of 
chloride of ciileiuni or iuiriuin, when ou insoluble silicate of Itlnt 
or bai^la is formed in the puivs of the stouo, Tcndiiiius it impep* 
vloua to moiatnre nnd iiiHii«ue|itibilH uf injurions eflbcla dw 
atmoipheHe influcncea. Or, iuktenil of a ailicnle of pobksh or 
soda, a solution of sulphate of sluiuina may Im employtd, and 
then by au application of bnrvUi, a com^iouud uf snfphate of 
baryl4"4 nnd .■(ti]miiia i" prcvliiceiJ." 

Any at the before named uiixlarea, whether oily or waloT, 



J 



TirE Cmi. ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



SB 




jvUl iwililjr bt kbaorbwi iotolka pona of « u«wl)r worked piece of 
~^ n»i b)3t itfUr ■ bniMIng hai Immi mmM a fevr ymtn Ln 
udoD, or maj otkor Lukc town, iu avfiMe bfoOBiM ao 
. ^y griinad with dtut, Mot, and fanparittM of s popnloui 
SBriioMj. a«BBt«d, in ud WMit d«gno, Iqr powBrful vjuili 
rdriviufi niai, ttiU Um iodtintUug mistura OMiBOt tmulj be 
~ ' tfiwiak iiii it will ninofftl)»«ar(KeorUi«*t<»suit would 
r^lM*, or otl>i-r noa-kbaorbeat mnlcHaL But If, br mbdc eon- 
iranc*. itotn ba EDodcgnKliully tunntor Titliin Uia pom, if 
he baltiliD;«lii>olil have bccu enoMl only a few luonthi, tb* 
|rt will tic ••< JiAettlt to mnon, ifaM a Inrge pottioo (tf it miut 
tvolilitblv Iffl lalsad with th« Indumling materiala. Mid the 
It will b* * ilirtT, ilim/^Teaablr apfw*nui<,'e, jwriiuuiiutlv glv*n 
Iw •oUr* nliiicc. Wore it not for the aoot ui<l ilirt, tlia oUj 
isturea applinl to UjumIOdc would he ■□ far bUoclial in aU-ut 
r, aa to e»uae the itotie to be nttlier whiter than if uu >uch 
L had beaa apall«d to it To owrconie theae objectioiH^ 
> ha*« iiimwleii that th« «atii« aiu&ee of the atoauworic 
Id he loovrtd, aenuioit, or evus ohiaelled afraab, Ui ordtr that 
ilndonitiiig inaterialawjr have naintwrupted accMB to (he 
noe of the atoae. Thla broceedinit would not aalj be very 
■Ive, bat it would be liable to alter the character wtd dbct 
I inuoLiliBgi, carvi^p, aad dacoratitms generKlljr; and aii 
be pTojoctio^ ftttta are naulljr the Unit to *]iow eymptoau of 
rwnatare dMaT,the7wo<9ldtherelbrarH|uiiBtbDgreKt«»t amount 
findnnitiaa. CnleaatheiiidaraliugSuid cati beiaadc toeaakinto 
)Mone,«tleaat half au inob, it majr tw worae than tuekiaa; 
, la all probabtUtj, wet will get in brbiod the haMmed 
_ ,an>d then-b]roocanou UrttrrnortigMti) earolialc thao If 

dM atMM hMd been k-ft ia ica oalural niate. 

J maj DOW olSer a l«w coiauii'iitA uu tlic ninnner of twtina the 

ito of theee patented ioventiDna. Vnu b.ivi* alreodjr bMnl 

BtiMwd eoBeextnMnlinarjraaDtrivBnaMofnLr-iijtlitdiAiQbBn. 

' ** 'iag Mid boiling bailding etonaa to renikr them imperleh- 

perfonaaaoM, upon Munplea like thoae ahowB to me bjr 

eotcM; an quite within the bounda of poMibilttv; but it 

I a noveltj to MM' tbe Parliament HmiaM Knt pbicod in 

1 orta and tlieu iu a tank of boUii^; liquid. If. therefore, the 

1 object cannot be aflbctuall; Boeuuiiiliabed by aaeh meane; 

Ftlw atoacaeauaot bapniperly protccteil rfumtlieaffhot ofalmu- 

r* eric inRumcc', without I rvatiiix Ihc-io in the uiAiiriPnlnacribod, 
iltferrt>op must be, Omt If a buildiii'ii u merely bruilieil oTera 

' tineB with a fold solution, the rvsult will cer'uiiily be ineUeo 
If the fomM'r tiUii be n mtrt one, th# lMti-r luuet be very 
btfal. Tnkin;! ull eii-ciiiiwlancre birly lulo cnibinlenitlon, I 
ropinino thiit no plan 6>r indutntiny and |ir«Mtrving aivhi- 
•f^aework a likely to aunwer the intendal piirpuit^ 
I it can be applird after the bitildinir ii creel«(l, anil ivller 
I monldlBK* and atrvlug* are cuniuleiely Bniahed. Then oonir* 
gneetkin, bow ia know what b tiia bn«t nMterial, aad Ikiw U 
■ucceaafnlly ap|diod. I haireweiimnltiltidoaoffmaUapaei- 
tnMM of iudnntedelMM, wlii^Ji irbtla freah eertainly reeiat the 
dMoapiNrinB indaeiHM orniritnrl «tntFri but aa the pauuteee and 
invantnre omr do praoft whaternr that the aaote or auah pieoe* of 
,9ietM would have rapidly montdereil away, bad thajr not been 
ervnl by their indnnitinit pfDOoea, howani I to know that t)in 
< piL-'-ir4of etoae would not have itooil the weaclior «|uiilly 
witliout their a|iplloation t and I believe, up to thie linie. no 
I iajirepared toahow what onoilitluii tbi^r apednM<na will pre- 
', after eluht or l*ii yean' exposure to the weather. 1 an ant 
I to iBten with crednlity to the opinfona or leatimoniala 
lirWIoala, however hitth their poei tiea —however uumetnn* 
the Boman WfHlal letteea may Iw at the end of their nnnMB— 
mdaMtbey haveeoiaethinictoreUtennd toahowupon theauhjeot 
ef a Men erideni and eatiafaiitorr chnracler thnn aoy thtof I lian 
kill »t I Jin e heard or wltDeupd. No doubt aotne may eoaaidar me 
aaMoBS fiver ■erupulonn, ku^l delt-miiiK^I not to believe wbnt I 
whareee or kenr; but the vAKlrfy /iff <^ Paleiti*. which arFt.%k«n 
oat (br Kipptaed laTentiotio r>r ■■«Drr>vetii«tile, nioat of which are 
teitber area nr beard of aR«r«ar<la. uliout Jiow nutny rnnn there 
are, who, although tliey An not rUvayi deceive other iwo|Je, ara 
«Ani rery aocoeeWnl ia deceiving ibi'miirlrcn, by bclievtux they 
Inva (li"C»v«red an iavenliob, of gnat publiG ullllty, which le 
ia " jfkU iOO ptr (Witt. pnOtt.' and whicli i(<Jden prue|ieet thair 
faodeel ailmircn can neithnr eeen ur compreliend. 

tt wonld be a good plan to try the oonaarvntire power nf a 

vlutlim on two or tltree epeaimviu of etoue— Caen, Unth, and 

fjrthuk-I r»r inetaaoe— dinreinj pleoea of Uteir napectivv kimia, 

i^U known lo be of a parialiaUe quality. 

In. t't—VoL u.— FtsBDinT 183;. 



PVtbeeh 





I an eorry to aay that 



in Loodtn there will be no dilBenltr In proeorinc aoeh Ntedment) 
each pteee to be between two and thwe fw«ta>aaad<ife n <Btiaat 
gifth to be aoeuTMelT worked Into a lew noalUBga, ncfa U a 
pieea oTeonlai. Wben the wo^og ia eonplnod, let radi pltM 
oe broken (not aawcd) in the middle Icoytliwiae, an m to Im* 
dean ftwrtnrea, with abundaat fatdantteoa; the two pwte will Gt 
eaoh other, without th«poarfblU9of«lth«r befngcoMlerfeiwd. 
I«t oal^ one pieoe of taek ■patdBn be weD prepared with the 
indnntiaig nolutloa, taking care not to m» man or lew of the 
fluid, in propoctiaa to the mat of the ipedaieB, than would be 
<ia»d if a large edibe were to be prtpand for c Mieer r a tkiB; then 
plaM the prepared nod vamfKredtpaciacBaofMtdiklndofBtoBe 
aide in aida, on the top «f MaMOlvealedbaadbKwhemhey wBI 
be Ailly ex|ffm4 to aU weatherit doriag efrtrMT yean, teon at 
laM aecarding to cirvunutaneea. We know beforehand that bi 
ooniae of time the unprepared piecei will ibowrvklenee of decay; 
bnt if theiiidaratiagptWMaaanawvtbelBtavdedpwpoac^ iftbe 
itonee hare abeortM the AbM aalldenily deep fron their anr&oe 
to be the iBtaae of rMdering them dnrable, the prepared porttou 
oaghl to be found after a few years aoallmd, and oocnpamiiTClr 
ill a pcrfeel atate, while their oomitAipart^ IwviiwbeeneabjeelH 
to pmuelj the aaine earfatioiu of cliMaii^ woola Deriiapa be fn 
an advanoed atage of deeay, and UM^rareUteelttta] nauiree nearly 
obliterated. BxperiiiieatB thun ncrfomed and f«eeinled would 
be valuable, beeauM thoy wouLJ pro>*e, ea nearly aa poenble, 
wheUiar eiwutmlly a ontnin pnooM ni^l be aerrHcaUa or 
neeleai^ or Indeed lojiuioim Utbe aUwewort. 

During tlie laat twen^ or thirty jmr* I have had naay ran- 
venatloDfl Willi eerer*! nf the loort Inamrd ehamiMa abOK 
prveetTJne atone from decay, and bave iiiieonl with attentioti to 
the rsMaAaof intelligeat and eiperiennit pnu.-tial etoaemaoMt 
for much gold ia eometiiMa oootatned in the roogfaeet ore; aad a 
ete«r opemllve meehanift though looapKble of expnwin^ clearly 
that whidh he eoneelvea hi hia mind dialiuaW, will, byjadkiaaa 
qneatloning, atale bela^ likely to lead the elwUout mno io(« a 
train of idraw whioh he otherwiae miKhl not hare thought ol 
But after nil, ilie object in pntnult Becma to be aa fiur off aa wheu 
I oommeuced the Inquiry ; fa truth eocae yean i^ 1 thought 1 
knew Bore of tte •abjeot thas I do at pnawt; the drSeultka 
appearing to Jncreaae ae more lidbtnatiiiin la eolteeted. All the 
nelhoda of Indai«tion which are now before lh« pablic are 
Betdy meohanioil tnUturra with the atone, a aort of dnld 
oemenl or ramiah, whioh ■nrroaada the gralna wilboot .tll'ring 
them, although lo a <nrl*!n extent (I gloee them to^"!))'"-, and 
parlially keepa out mowture : bui luch io<lividual grain cootinM* 
lo the utn* etatev— 40 elwinieal ebonge whatever haa taken nbkv, 
— the elementary cnulitntiou of the etotie ia the MBeasitWM 
before the indumtini; luauriivt w applied to It. It la a charac- 
leriaUe foature in qnarriee of ooliie that iboatoiteproeai'edfron 
the uppermott bM& b generally, perfaapo inTariably, of a dnnUe 
quality; wbenas the inwrnt hnria are the fint to domy, when 
eipoaed to wMiher. The caoae of thia diflereaoe ia known to 
depend chiefly on the iiuAntity and quality of the oeneuting 
antMMiee, by whiuh the pnrilolea adbora to Moh other. Hie 
wmentthat unitiMtlieglot>iileaiaioanawi«lbmiednf theaana 
rlfiraniitx aA tlin globulea themetJrn, hot more cryetalliBc; it ia 
iu tact the divotnpoaition of the auperiuoniuheut id.im. laturatiog 
and flryatAllisiiig wltbin the bede beneath. But thia aatond 
wwoe aa of imlnrating la not performed tn a day, nur In a ywr, 
onttnagee; eo alow or cradiwl b the procma, tlint in eearotly 
any oue U the Inweat lied eo han], or ao tboronglily antunted 
with the oryvtMllioa material aa thoae above. 

It •eeiua to me, that if w i:i<ul<l punoe or imitate thla nalural 
proceaa, it might lead to the bret meane of itnpivviu; tlie natural 
coQilitlt'Ei nf lift *ti>ne ; iir, in other vords w« ui^t Salah the 
atone wlilrh i* iin|<«rfci'tly formed in the rocka; Nntarr not 
having hud tinio to oomplete her wurk. Uiui can eommand 
Nwlure iu no otlicr way tnau by obeying bur lawa; in all oat 
exueriineiiuoriierfurtaaaoaii lUa aol weeriio operate, buttbebwa 
of Nntare whieli areaet fnapaitttiou. Tbe dunblllty ofoompact 
carboDale of Unie, in a etyataUine alato, cither ia the (o4to of 
•tahwlitai^ or that of a ponma material, rvnileral deuM and 
dunhle by iinpragiiatioii, niH b« witneaaed in ■luueitiiia iu- 
■tniicea in thb ooantry, eqieotallv in the petntyinf; cavern* nf 
Derbyshire. Li the Soutli of Italy and in alcUy, the peodnction 
«f axcoUrDt building eUioe^ antiinly fanned hj d*|»*iticn from 
water, baa been going on abuuilnntly, from the eoniaet ngea of 
the worM tu the prwent linif. The TampUa of FMitani, «Mk 
■truclml more ibau tvo thiwaand ytan age^ with aqneona dapmit 



61 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCUlTECrS JOCBNAL. 



from Ui« iidglibouriiv nvtn, juv rtill bat liule lUcompoMd, to 
br M tJw aUoe it «onMni«d. Mo*t or tbs nuxlem bnlUluga tii 
Bota*. Ineladii^ 8l P*t«t'«, vhlob an wutnuUd witli a. flmiUr 
tujitarijJ, Tnrertioo atom^ or CalMTvoa* TuK *r> ^Bonvllj' in 
BXnIleut vundilion. 

lu till! waters wbicfa proiliKe th«Me pctrifActioni^ tliCK nual be 
loiiiifl MuliJ body ■■ • niKleua to bcgiD upou ; but wbkt coiiKiUUa 
iL, t<t in ii<-i ntfpMllmportMit: uiy aub«tMiee will do for thawatcn 
lo couiiuence tliair pcCrtfirili^ work* a|Nni-, — ti«licp,at thacnrorna, 
" Utt <t«nitT Mctktr" ia invited hy Uie ^iltlca to purebue birdi^ 
DMt^ punM^ »ik1 varioii* olber arUdei^ Mid ta be «hiuig»d into 
■Wim; wharaos, la &ot, the objeuu tliemaelret are nmlj' en- 
cnwied wilh ittncij- matter. Allboiig^ thb natural pii>Mi> in 
progrnfliiiiit i><'*'i Mul h'M Inmii iluriag all nges, and, to n oerlaiu 
rateat, ie well uodrnttuuij l>y chemUu bdiI otbera, rrt It liwt uut 
been apuUeil U> uiiy iia;.-uiiaol purposes, sod ocrtaiulv uuver iii 
artitidailr iniliiratiu],' niid nrewrviog «oll »toue. Ii wi> coulil 
•UoeeMfiiil.V uuilAle ii«liirv tii this reepeoli antl apl>l7 our offorte 
to the purpow) now under coaudenttitm, I Uiiuk thrjr would be 
iiioK likvl? to MuwoT lluui BUj plan heretofore Hticnipli'il, It in 
not ill mj' (wwcr tu tell you how to prooecd, but the principle 
apfMien lu clwtr and tiiaple, itiat I mh ioduoed to believe tlte 
}>Toprr mivlB of aptilicAtiun wiiuld eoon he foaud If edeullAc mou 
wonlii torn thuir attL-otinn in (lint illniction. 

Tbo u«aBBUy for proivrvin); Ibe kbincvnrk of our bulMiiiss 
hmu ptvuiAliuv ilecnv, ii uultrelj an ovil i>f uiuderu dnt<S wliiiiti, 
1b nearly all amm, onuhl uut tit eiiaC; for il' buiMnn viiK&go in a, 
legal eciDtnvoC to urn the boat matcriaU uf their nepwtiro lciii<l>i, 
they an liable to au actioo br daiuife if it can bo |irov»l tliul 
defeolire el^ua bu Iweu introduoeiT into a builditig. an auch a 
piooeedlug B11UC be au iiapentiou, if not a direct jraud, u[ion 
thoaa who have Xii jn^ lor the erotki and I belicrt I aiu oorreot 
iu atatii^, that j>lr»liag lenonuKe uf tlie Uwa of this oounu; i« 
not oonaidored an cxcuae fat the rioUtioa of lhoa« lawa, and that 
therefore, in all pcobability, a verdict would be givou m^net tlie 
oouttacton. 

With reftrreooe to the pvooeedlDgefbrindiitatiiigthestonowark 
of the New Pakoe at Weatmlnsler, I fear the parllM in authority 
are nlber prvRinturi! in Ibnir docisintu Several axperimeoUre 
have becii eel to vink without iuvoeLieition or ioquiry; without 
aaoertaiiui^ wklcb plan is bout, or wlictlier tbcir moilc of pro- 
eednre loay or ntay nut be iujuriaiu to the >touuwurk, or likeiy to 

Eravent the euooee* of aome utiier irvuiui-Dt which lua^ hereiuter 
• found auperior. With ei'ery Heutimeiil of mpect for the 
indgneBt and geuand diaorimiiutioo of the noble and learned 
lora who h*« btely taken eo much inleixMl iu thia mutter, 1 IruMt 
be wtU AiiviTe roe If I euterlaiu tlit' idrathalhUlorUahiD baayct 
much to Icaru Ixtfoiv be oen proix-rtv adjudicate and oecida on 
uinttore relating to the decay an<l pn^vrvntion of BUinewark at 
lite ParbameBt Uouaea. 

If ther« arar waa a litae when a knowtcdf^e of uood and bad 
•ti»a waa of ooiuadanble importaooe to the Briii»ii public, thai 
tiaoa i* now arTivc<l. Ourgovemment b cout^uinlnting the cover- 
ing of more thou tirentr acrw of ground, at Won tm in iter, wilh 
otnoial building! of a paJatial character; il i*, ib^rcforc. Ui bu 
boiled that the aubjeet of our atteutiDn this evuutDtf will apply 
only lo the liniea past and preaent: and that iu futuiv, when a 
msgaificenl atruotare aliall be ooiupleted, Uis eitanul maaonry 
may remain niiiopured during the lives of Ihosa who were at 
the ooel at erectiBA it, withont tlio espanse and annoyance of 
•oaObldlng^ aatoratlB^ diacotouring, and many olber vexalJuua 
ifieldeiila attendant ou the eodeavour to make the beet of a dis- 
cnnli table aAur. 



BATTERSEA PABK. 

A oaiuidenbt* portioB of l&e work* ore eoutplotal, and aome 
tboumuida of shnitM and trees are plotitcd : but ■till there ia 
nueh to be done. A (rait part of the new par^ lies verv low, 
and wiU have to be tboreognly drained, otlierefiae trees w'lU not 
thrive. Tbia ia l«iiig done, whilst, at the aane llmi^ every 
eserlion u bcioft made to plant a» many ahraba duriug Uia 
present leuoii lu poniblc. Whilat the parlc » Uiua tnpidly pru- 
aicaiim. the Cheiam Bridge worka en mlrauciiig. Out of tho 
ini|iDimiT obains has beM carried over the almttnefita, aod 
«(ut« wfll ba pat up in Uie ooiuee of a week or twi\ and should 
Dotbinc advnae ariaab it is pnoifaable that the bridge will be 
KvaJlaUa lor Ibe pnUie ib Ibe eonrae of the summer, provided 
I appreMtiea M« «nlll«iently adeaaoed. 



UEV1KW& 

TabI* o/Qimrter Sjaarm of aB ntrger miinUn vp In 10I>,00D, tff 
iMeh the Frmtufi of T<M Fart^rt sMiy br Jmind bf Ottatd ^ 
ad/litinn onrf tuhtntrtivn aiour. By SaMUBi. Liyjt Lainr&r. 
Tyiudco: I^ytiiu. ItUK KViv pp. :jl4. 

Thii work is an uHtance "f tbc 1ob|> iinmspeeted power aMi 
value which may be poaaaaaeil bymeanaof whichlhe >eri- atnipJl- 
olly haa caniml them to be a^octod. By an idgtbrainit rormnla, 
ao simple that a boy mi{[hl ecini|<rehcn>l thu proof of It in hb 
fint Icaion in nlfiebra. a viuiiile way itt found of abridging tbe 
labour! orartth[iicliml ooinpDlera, liy aubttitntinji forraultlplica- 
tiun and iJii'i«!ou Ilj4i eaalar proceasea uf dlviaioo nnd aubtractiica. 
We siipjKMo iliaL the It-aet InaFned nl^bmiiit among our rfwWs 
can ascartain for himaelf that if from the aquare of a + t the 
sifuaro of — li be aubtiactei), the reinuludor ia 4 a A ; and oonae- 
quently that ((a + *)' - i (« - 6)' = ab. 

Suppciae now tlui a aadftare twonumberaof whlcb tbeprodaet 
U rfifairm] wilhunt the liibonr of multljiIicatloD, In tbe pr»- 
0»]iiiK fnriniiln this re'iuire'l product ia shown to be equal lo 
laarlrr of the mfnan of the lurn of the two number* minut tbe 
ijaitrlrr iiflhe ijunT^ of their (!iff«r*ui». 

Hence tlie utility of a table of l^iiarter Sqitarea. In anefa a 
table la placed, oppoatte each niinibtr, the auart"r of ita eqaan. 
For tnitanee, the (otlowiujj ii taken from iBe Srat page of Mr. 
lAondy*B table ; — 



Kuatar. 


<|iiiutn aqiim. 


1 ., 


-as 


S .. 


... 1-00 


8 .. 


... 3"M 


4 .. 


... <-oo 


a .. 


... ea 


II -. 


-.. B-un 


7 .. 


... 12-ii 


8 .. 


... id-oo 


9 .. 


,.. Wis 


10 ,. 


... sson 


U ,. 


... 8(J-M 


13 .. 


,., 88-00 


IS .. 


... ti-l5 


I( .. 


... t9-m 


IS .. 


... fiu-W 



HoBbVp 


QawMBiaat*. 


1« .. 


.. fllHi) 


17 .. 


... Ti"lS 


IS .. 


... 81-0« 


1» .. 


... SO-35 


» .. 


... lVU-00 


11 .. 


... 10-33 


33 .. 


... Sl'OU 


SS .. 


,.. Zirii 


at .. 


... 41-00 


33 . 


... 0ll'3.^ 


M .. 


... 98-00 


W .. 


... 83-35 


98 . 


... Sd-00 


SB .. 


... SI0-3A 


•0 .. 


... 34-00 



* Hrrc thr Unit and thirl columns mntatn tbennmberv, and ' 
aoL-Dud and fourth the qunrten iif tlieir aquares. By tbe pr _ 
ci|>le juBt eiphiucd, we have but lo lake the nnmber which L 
tlie sum of a 4, and End Ita quarter nquare fium the lahUi, lo find 
almllarly the quarter aqoars ot h '-i; and aublracting the one 
i^unrter aijiMre from the othnr, tn have al once tlie mqiiiral 
produut, u b. For initiinoc, to find the product of 13 aud 1(1 ; the 
sum of those two uunibt^ra in i% and their dllfureiico is & 
From the table, (quarter aqiuue of iit Is SIO'33 
.. u „ of 3ta a-S4 



Subtmoliug, MS-IX), mqiiired product. 
This, of courae, Is a very aimple inatauce ; but Uie real value 
of tlie lablea ia ahowu wheu the producla of higlier uiuiiberB, and 
Mpeciallv uf tltose invulviuf; dvciiunU are rw^uind. It will be 
olitnrvail thnt for inti>ger* tlie FiruJucIa jue iprwi exaotly, 
w)ioi'(i»i proilucta obLnlii«l by n table uf logarilluiu are seBentlW 
giveu appro xinintety only. 

The iiurpuwH to which a table of producla may be appli^ i 
anifold. For iiistanoe, wlieie a mullitudo of oompulatioiia 



man 

wbnl 



at« 
oompulatioiia fai 
orithmcticiana call " Practice" hns to be porfotned, Ibe 
Inlmur of Iho computer may be materially ahridued, — p*«islly 
where a itmtiuial Dotation of money, weights, ana mr^wirf. h 
uaed. Thus, to Uiid llui value of 74 oi. £ dwi. U Kr. at 4*. lUdL 
per oa, ia. of 741Uok. at £ittai per ox., ws have T4lit-|- 
in»i ~ 08917, and T4I£S — i47l)3 = 49Xa. 
Qnartcr square of 1)8917 ■= 8446U 
„ of £4793 = 60844 



I8-37T0=IU7«. ^ 
the reqldnd nnlL Agldn. Uic tnhle* mny be npnliod to 
oomputBllOM of almpta tad compound intfraet, olareM aad —.^ 
eonteuta. It appean fk«m our author ihnt the lilea of the atlUtr 
of a Uble of quarter a^oarea waa oHh-inally auggtataL or at ^1 
CTeuta praotiailly eThibilml, by vVutoiue Voisiu, in a wort entitled 
mtm ^9 Muliij-ttcationt en Logarithnift dee S'amtm EnOtr. 
AputolJ^iMfu'da^OOO, published inlHlT. AnoUierlabltvaapnk. 




J 



THE CIVa ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



<9 



b 



I 



IMiailofqiuuMraqiauMaf BtnBbMVDptoWiOOO, by H. Uetmat. 
Pw f for In til* CuUan of Vuiiim, En l^S ; ftiid PiuMwr 
Ltilk, In hi* < PbikNop&j of ArithiiM'iic' (d<l «>lil. iB»). j^ivM • 
Halkr tabU^ Anutlier aodi tsUe iii Ktron by Galbniitb, IB hia 
'OMmmI I^Um' (I83B), wbu muiuJt* npuo the utility of ■udi 
uUm to uUMiiiiiii«r* ud Hireyora. Onr anthor in uf iiiiiiiioa, 
kvBWver, Uwtt GiilbiuiUi uid L««li* mtnlv ix>pl«d troBt Volita'a 
CmMm. Pnitamr SflrwiM^wbow ERtiU miod, bot ocmtsntad 
villi tiM pmifoiutiml DMllMuiAlioKl wtarehn*. haa occupied 
UtitU «1«> aHth niuKrau more elemeiitaij. btit klmort nqooU.r 
vkliuUe arlthinetkal iBrMttoUiuua — Um caiitribui«d tu tim 
kaamMsfe at tbo anbJMl brfcr* iia p*)>en in llw * AMnnsM 
}Stptxioe' Olid tbe ' Londo n Bad EdinlMirtiti HiiltwcqibMBl Ut^pn- 



Tif wl^acl at qBwt«r equnrea b briefly noticnl in sn Miicle 
in Um ' Ptauj CyelopN^U.* AnotlMv artkde ub ' T«blM, ' in that 
viirk, (Cim> ui rwuraiit of uintlMT ciMt of tabl«e bnviug lb* 
aatD* olijecV— Miiuslj, Ublea of mulli^ioBltAQ, whlcb nive |m>- 
dviAM liirwUj. The ulilnl uuiienl i« Ibu of MorhanI, jiub- 
lUitd at Miinioh la 1610. Tb^ iitWn refejred to uv ' ilutiou'e 
TUiln of TrodscU' (1761), of which t1i« Mnnoy ie dottbtod: 
'BOrrX' O'^'): 'DodeooV (1747): ■ Cnrjlo'e Etedtentitlela.' 
{18*)); 'BohnhWa.' (1738); ' C)y.>a\ (1824); uid • CWUl'e' tl7«7): 
Iba taUes of CnUe Iwiug (bu luort estcmaivc of klL 

Of thfee worlu we bavo etuuiuoil ihitt of Cnlle only, wkidi 
«M pnhliehicid at Berlin in two ihivk volutaeei and oouiaiiu 
«t«7 pndtictof iiileKON u[i ia lUK) ijriiee KNV. Auolber more 
bmnrtant work by Crvlle (oonitled in the tintioa in the ' Penuv 
Cftlot<»dU}, ia hi ' Brleiditenitiga Tftfef (Berlin, l^t^ vrbicli 
slma th« pmdacta of all tnt«'giir* up l« 10.000,000 hy the 
inte^ en 1, S. 3, 4. A, 8, 7, h, II, mpfi?tivi>)T. Ry Mttioa down ia 
tbeir iiTuper |>Im« the product* of any nnnil'cr mnlniDln)' not 
more tb«u mvta CTi^beni, ae given in tliin labli-, va obtain by 
nwr* aililitioii any pphIiil-C m itleuoc of *iich n uiintber. Fc-r 
DVniben liigtier thnu thnee iodexixl In Mr. IjiuO'ly'a table, aud 
williiu tlie odinpaM tit CMl*** tnbU, we ii|)iirch»u>l Ihat the 
ui i HjMi of Dialli]i(i<Nlinii wuald ho lunra rtuj by l)i# la[l«r. For 
loMBnoB, Civile gircH tbe feUowinx esnaiirte of the uw of hie 
uUeio mtiltiiilj 9^157.^1 by 7«»tS3>- 

* 8 1 A 7 3 I 
7 * 5 » t » 3 



711 



7 

f i 

»|7 

13 1 
1 



3*414 
1)0 9 B 



4 I 

» « 

4 « 

a i 



7i3i;iS4ii>sftts 

CreOr** taUn are ao arnuifrod Ihat tlie prMluotaof eoe); mnlti- 
plK»n<l Inr the iiit*p)t« up U> •.' ate ^von na nn>- |uige. We have 
thepelon* ii> turn in but cue |>n;[r in obtAiii m^li required neull. 
Uw pnxlofta Ivr tli« fint live iii;;ila uf tlic mullipltouii) arc givoti 
faiMB«Di>liiiiui uf tlwMga, and fortliervniainiuKdifjita inanothet 
(eJbbiii 'rtierrfi-Ni, In lite imeediaj; example, ih«re im nqaired 
14 fin<li»Ci all "u ono paffc, and oeia addition. To obUiiB the 
■Mue re»«lt b* Mr. lAaDtI}*B lablea, a preoe i ia necnaar* whleh 
■III nil BKira Uborioaa. Anxntling to Mr. I^undy* inet(io<l, the 
Kittltiptieaad WMld t<(<<livi.le<liDt>>i<i<<|uirta,Btv'»»l&i= ^)and 
7M(— B). Tlie multiplier Ih umiUily dlvid«d Into two )mi1a, 
my 7i''>l> (= n,' and v<t (3 fr). We Imvo tlita to Hud tlie eunie 
NOd di(r''r<wi>eaof ronr|«tri ot ()iw iiunulitiea, vii., A-^-a, 4 + a. 
It + 11, B—a, A -^ It, A — t. Jl + 6. B ~b. (eight operaUiHia}. 
W* have IImu to Hud Uie quarlur miunraa of all tli«ae qoaiititin 
(ci|{bt findinp); ihea to nnJ the dlfTeeeaoM between eiub eue- 
coeive tiro of than* qtanjrter •qunrea (four more opemtioBs] ; aad, 
iMttiy, tn adil all thcne dilFereaceB. with onruiu i-y|iher*, tngetlicr 
(•lO* ii>>>Te oiicratioa). Tlie compAriBuii lielvecu tliis (iiolh-xl and 
J'r«Ue'* •t'lu'li tbuii — Till ii)ctli<>il n.'<piirei eijihl liuJiiiga ou 
dlffttnnt |ni,-e^ *i>-l thirl4<eiiOiii'nttiviiii; Crelle'* diacIkhI requiiw 
fourUwo £biliu)cs all oti one page, aud only uno oprnitiuii. The 
titter iiKtlivl appcnM, lherefi<t^ (ar nioni eSMdiiiuiin aud onay 
Ihau Mr. l«uudi'>. ni>l it Mrtaitdj ivi|uirM fewer B)[urr* In be 
writtrti ituwn. ^ul t)>>'ii^ii Mr. I^UDiiy'a iiKlhud ibus appenta 
«[ ■ •liHutvnntam wlieii high niiwiben an- ineulved, it ie by no 
^ie*n* to (« Itwrr*'! thai hie t a b lea are mr«ty way Infrr'or to 
thorn of l-'r>ll«. Ou the contrary, tiX all nuMMm uf whiob Uie 



Iuarter equara* are notvallT taholnted (aaaMly. alt iBtegjenapto 
OO^OOO]^ Ur. Laindr'B inetbod of miutipHoatioB k abppla and 
Qoniba ; and «• dovbt not that for moet pnwCit*] parpoaaa bii 
tableawill bo fuaadextrenely iwAil. Thvprintitigand anaiif»-| 
iBout of the fifurea ara adminblc. 



BLASTING OPERATIONS AT UOLYUlilAD HAKBOUK 

TniH grrat oatioBal iiiiderlnkicifc. whicb ia being oarried 0B( . 
i)itd«r tbe direction of the Board of Admimlty, by the UeMn.1 
J. and C. IQgby. of WcatsihiMer, an<l whkh waadeaigued hy 
tfae lata Mr. I&ndal, aflbrd* perfodieally tn tbn civil and military 
mi^iuar, an opjiortiuiity of wiOivMinf the ellertar larwe qnan- 
titiea of powtI«r brou]iht to hear En tbe dblodgeneat of inimeB** i 
maana of tbe bardeat deaeriplion of quans rock, anuniniing fa 
aeveral imuiteea to npwanle of 100,000 toiM One of tha 
etapeadoBa opanttioiia took plaoe on tb* tQtb ult. Th* enffioeai>' ' 
iuK artafiiienieula wim uiidnr th« [inraotial ■lic*<^ti"ii of Mr. 
Charlea Itiffhy, aaiaiwl by Mr. REilheinier, rmiduul eu^iueer. 

The asgregate dmr^' in the fnur ehamt-er*, adiiig iiMO * i 
6«e of SIO feet lo length and llfi f««t lu height, with a Una of * 
laaat radetanoa of about IS feet, waa lS,O0Ulb. of powdee. Tlia 
vol t«e battery waa ptaeadaabortdiatanoe Aoin the quarria^ and 
the epectatois wvra witbiu a proleeted battery or OMervatory in 
front of tbe mouDUin, at n diatniiMi uf only 600 vard^ tnm wnleh I 
tliey wan enabled to witaesa tli« exploaioB wlilioat daiipr, not a 
•t«a« having bean propped 100 yard« ftvtn th* faoe of tlia 
qoany. W« nay bare inention that nearly 8,000,000 toM of 
at-jue have been already diilodtted by thia nieane tor tfce oon- r 
utniction of the harbour, wltb>>iit fiulure and witbont aeddeaiL 
lu the iiiluing opetaitona whirl) lake pl.ite fi>r tbd porpono tbe 
qtiuntity of i;iiu])i>wder iiaed annually i)t>'>Kla .^\tXXl lb., or 
mora than HO ton*, aud tha *toii« depmilal in tbe eea (dt tbe 
fiimialjou of the rubble fouflibtiOBB and einbAukiuenl eieemia 
ycnrly 1,<N)0,UOO toua. In ailditiim Vi tbe ait*<ioy whiab gnn- , 
powder alluidfi fur Iho rapid ootml motion of the brealtwatar, I 
than ara amployail upnNuda of ISOU lueu. a large nnubar Of I 
loooBiotira enginaa, Mntioaary enginea, tinvelliDg ennea, with 
al«nin power, and avery modani applinneo which nie«baoinl aUll 
ean bring to benr to aoeelvmic ila oompieiioo- 

Tu ebuv ita incmnaing utility, it may be uieulionad, that In 
lest, 1788 veaeele, with a tonaaga of 137,1SB iodk aacborwl] 
uador Salter of the northeni brr«Jcwat«r, aud tliia oumber ha« 
boon tucmaaed to upwanl of 3U0O vowohi dnriou the laal year. 

The ayat«ni adupUd itf cuiutraoUng tbia breakwnleraii ae to 
oombbe the ailvnutaitea of obtaining eiooe from the adiotoingij 
inountuin wltli eoouoiuy aud ru|iiiiity of execution. Km bn 
that (if fiirmiiig limber Ma^ee^ with CHilwaya over tbe line of] 
Iho birakwator, about liu feet iiUive the bnttnta of theaeM, anil [ 
depoeitioK tbe lUAaam of alotie uf iill dioiciuioua, by ilroppiliK | 
Iheiu yeniually fmtu iiuu r^ilwnv wmjcouii, in tr\>ua of from 
10 to 12 nl II liiao, Iiilii the rvuuWiI Lioeitloni, tlio* bri^gtoift 
Up tbe nia«* liuiultnueoiihly I'. nVv- tlia loeel of tba nm. In 
tliiemannoraauiiiubiii^^jM'O to 3M,MO0 looa hn<rwbeeude|ioaiiad 
in onu week: and thi* vmetdenttiid i« aupplied by lli« gnat bUel*] 
ing openttioue. Altboiucli the aervre etorme which have re- 
(inatedly oocarred ou thia expoMKi OMat hatv done bmi time 
to tiuie inucb tiijury to jMirliutia uf the itaK**, iiot a itoue liaa 
been diipinocd fi'iiai iho ■ii|>ci'vtruclur(i now iu ouiireo of eon- , 
■trucU<>uupi>uibftubblL-viulHiukiueui,tliuaBbi'wiii){tbejud^-nient 
nnd ekilt evlmynl by the late .Mr. Kunilel iu tbe iuluj>lMn iif tliia 
HTtsteni of enciiie^riiig nn applitit i-i the mpid and uncmMaful 
forniatloii uf liiu ti'iur* of tvfiigu. Ill* oanlnii biTnkwiil«T (fi-mi- 
iua the inuer Hrm}, and packet n!ar will tie ehortly eoutmeucvd, 
wiih which the Oiealeraod Holyhead Railway will be c<'UM>cl«d, 
•II that imwvhgirr* cau, withnut deUy, emliark under oiver oa 
bnnnl Ibi- p>u-k'?'.M tViim the Ilnrbour Ttallway Station, »v,.iiling 
thereby any tnl('iTiiplI>>n tn ihn tmtllc in tlie Iraniifer fhini lie | 
pndtefa U- till- irnini. luid auviiii/ t),ercl>y nArly an hour. Thia 
pier will aluo rkilititt uf lirinK umhT aa a afre for a*, leaat ^IXNI toua 
(if onalx for ihu ueeof the packet* or iitbcr yeaaelatb&t may ataU 
Ihi'taaelifa of tlie harbiiiir. 

Tlie worts urero onmiiK^ord In JWC, nnder the avthoHty of 
1i*T Miiji-nLv'a ii'ivi'mniriit. hy Meaan. J. and C, Rigbv, and 
have eiuee lliHt time bmi unceoaingly carried fomnnl )>y tliein. 
Wl)»n cuiuplnUxl, it will eian-l nurivalM an nne "f itie moat 
*tU|>niid»u*nr4itevraietit*<>ril(r iiir^ut ajte. nud will f<<nn unei 
the tiiieat aud hu'gcat nrtlHcial harbonra IB Uw ^ratU. '-^ ' *>" 



-* ■- • 



^ 



TUE CIVIL £NGIK££B AND ABCHITECTS JOURNAL 



^ 



VOTES or noE xomt 



Th« UoKuniMMiMn of PnWiii^ id tiwiDMlioa witb lb* OrMt 
S«U Ptit«Bt Offlm, bkva an<lprt>lu(i tfao fotiMtuii in tho Udmubi 
BuiUiti^, M Eooiiagtou (•«(«, uf aniu»Biunof nMdcbofpaUntad 
■nd bthor ill veil UuUB, &u(l of n librur of iroriu od KibJMta 
rtblinji k> tbn iad ant rial >rU Tbu biiildSog !■ ncir reul^, and 
pOMCMon of BodoU d«airout of bftving tlw-m ubtbiud ui the 
nnaram »t KMMingtoii, will b« infomod wbnt nw oui be 
allotted to Oam etikpf)ti«)Ltioii ^ ktter U> ibefupenaieoikut, *t 
Aa Qnoi 8eal PMmt 0ao4 S^ SoutbanptoD-buUdLim dutii" 
0M7-Uiia. Tb* nmUU will bt k«pl in porlWtcaJar, mM la ^mm 
OMN vh*D raqoirod. 

At « UMMlag monttljr htld at Um InsUlntioit of CivU Ea^Mn, 
tlia bUmriog raaolntioiM «*ra pMMd : — " Bawthtd MiwnlmoiMly. 
^Tb«( Mr, CImHm Mkoby. «hu Iim for nnoMrda oT aewitMU 
vwn keld ibe poat of uaerotatj of the imtituUon uf Civil 
CugiuMn, luviDg ntircd from the more aolive dutic* of lit* 
uflM, (b* prwuit ia a fiuiug ooaaioti bi adtaowl«dg« tbo im- 
pottMit MmoM nudMwl by Mr. Mauby daring liU teaan of 

cAce, M WdO U bkgCMnl UWnilaM* (o (b<> pn--ra«iolL KMol<ri>d, 

— TIkat the foUowuf f[HitlHiiaii b* a ooouuittcc to otrry out tbe 
•bim objaot :— Tlie Council of til* luatitulion of CirU E^giuMri, 
■nd UMin. T. E. Bkckwell, T. R. Cruafttoa, W. T. Ooyan, 
O. V. HamuM, J. &. M*Co(well. O. Pmtl. wt^nhan; and Haan. 
J. O. Appold, J. ruaMiiifi, 3. Iliuniltoii, jiin., W. Pipar, J. Allen 
IUnaon«^ O. P. Wbiu, and T. U. VijmU, ^MaktM, wiifa poana- 
lo Mtd 10 tbeir niunbar." At a aafaaequeat miiaHiifl of Uw torn- 
mlHMi it waa reaolvMd, that Uia ol^faet of thr •ominlttM baing to 
niAka tb* tMUtBoainl aa nnotal aa poaalblav aaob anbaariptioa be 
limitad to two gninaM. Mr- O. P. mddar liaa baao ivquealed to 
M*aa trwaarar to tlte fund, aad Mr J. Forwrt baa bean appoio tod 
lioiMn«J7 aaoretvy to ib« mliiuoaio] ooinioitlae, — A portnit of 
Mr. Manb/, Mintad by Mr. Sydooy Hod«*« for Mr. T. R. 
UivnptOB, C.&, baa baaa praaantod to tiM IiialiluUoB, and 
ovdarad to ba auapondad tn tlia maatt^TOOB of llw aodoty. 

Maoaiavr HittorlT, AraUMIi Bmaitay and Ootraapoodlng 
M«HUr of tfaa Bojvl Inatltula of Britiati Arohilaota, haa jiut 
faaan alaeWd Pnndaat of tba du* of Hiw Ana of tb* Inathute 
of t^«aea. Moaaiam- Bobaulc da Fleorj, uotbar Arebitect and 
cormpoiKUot of tha Inatituto of Britiili Archilect^ a Vieo- 
Praaidaot 

At tha ConTetaftnoae of tha ArchiUctur«l Aaaoeiatioo, lialH at 
Ljou'a Inn Hall on tbo S3nl nit, Mr. Ruakis detivarad a teetain 
on "Tli« Dan of InufinBtion in Modem Archiloouinl Deatgn." 
Tbar* w«a a Tvry Aill att«ndnno«, and lbs laotnn nve ereat 
aattahaion. W* batiovo it i* tha Intantion of Mr. Itmkiu to 
pabliab it. 

At tb* newt mwttnj of tbo MUdkM x Oourt of JuaUota, tbo 
iI«aiRi of Maura. BaBb and Barnr waa ael^ctml for th« New 
Middl«wix Industrial Schoola. The fint prcuimm hail boau 

Kivioiiilj awnidod bj the magiilratfla to Muaii'a. Aickin and 
pea, and thuto gaDtleioen h^ve cinmlatad a Utho^i^h of their 
ptw), with a l«ttar, ibowing tbetr otjaotlo«ia to the dcalsn uow 
adL^«-l. and tlio adraotAgai of thnir ovn, Thair daalgn narlo^ 
bocii •elected aa tha beat, thuv nrtrc — Mid we think moacproparljr 
■o — UiAt th<tj DUj{ht to hnvF bec^ii I'mploifnl to L-r«<;t the building. 

ll la fiilly eK[>vclr<1 that (he gurvniTiieNl will nmr to a voUi of 
90,U0Ot toward* th« aroction of a break wia«r in the B&jr of Wiolc, 
bi lb* aa ti aiataa for ISCT. 

PUaa for tbe et«ctloo of a new towuat SfUfonl haw been pr»- 
parvl, aad implication ia to b« made Jii the next B«a»!na for an 
•ot tocaity tM aatnciotoollKt. It i* kid outinfrootof Milford 
dturck, and i* altiamU-ly to lie cxtpodnl to Uullc Pill. Th* 
aurnjrort bare bwb actively eugaf[ad in marking oat tha ground. 
Til* Diana arv ^Ubont^, and co m pj iw tamu«^ ahopi^ and 
dMacIiad tUIu, with a oomflahi ainMn of llgbtiii^ wator, and 
drainog*. Tbo araclioQ of pnUie taatba and an aaaombly-room 
baa boon aottlod; and in eoqjnnotioo with the lino fma Johoatoaa 
it boa been dol^rmiDed t..- rrccl a new pier, a deaidenttnui long 
needed. To carry out Uiuae inii roveiuMila a coDipaaj bu been 
farmed, who arc taking tbe n*ceatti7 aUpa to procure an act for 
tbe bnnAtion of gaaworki^ oemetory, watcr-worka, &c, and tlt« 
r-M'mrtrj pHliamentary notieoa have been ianad. 

Tho w.-H-jp Board of Uealtb hava d*t«nnlD*d on eanyi^ 
ont and oompiaHng tha axtuuiva worta of •ewcnw* and drainage 
of til* lowB, Tbajr haro approrod of the plana ui thair aurnyor, 
Mr.JoluiUi&ftdB. 




Ilia udentood that tlM Ea«t Indiaa BaUwn Ofiy 
not ]M moseeded In Hading a auocoaaor to Sir MawlciMJil 1 
pliaoaoB in lb* agency at CaloDttik It ia a prtM wall wectll I 
attention of iha bort men in tbo nulway world. 

At a rotrnt meeting of tbe Soateiyof Arta,apAper waarMdi 
"Centnvl Americn, ."Uid th« propoacd Honduna Int ~ 
Rallwsy," by Jir. E. O. Squier. Tbe ullttntion of the 
wa* fliet drawn to tlie r*>culiarty advantageoua gmiephieal i 
tJMi of Central America, which, inhctiaHnoatraaluaa thai 
idea of "tbe oentre oT tbe worl<L" Tile lino of tbe 
work «ommencea at Puerto Caballoa, in the bnv of UnixUlI'M.I 
lal 18* lO" N., and long, si' 67' W, and r^tii nearly do 
acna the ooMlnaDt to the Bay of Fon»i\-K on thn Pacil 
13° Sl'N, and long. 67*33' W. lu tat«l length from 
toanobora^ ial48geo|[mphiailmilea,oqnal toabotit 161 atatau 
milea. The line doea nut preeent anv aeriona ev^eeringdir 
onltlaa, Bowharo Involrlng a gntdlont of n»nr* thaa 00 to SO T 
to the mlla. Kr. Snnire nottmd th* varioua loo uK aa of 
conatry tb* prmwaea railwnr would derdojio, 
ailver ffiinoa, wfaicb are uuiurpcuwtl iu the amoaut and i 
of their oiCB. 

A memorial baa jiiat boon eroctod at Bovr-bridga^ 
whereon it ia i-eoordr-J thnt nearthatspot Ho theremiuni of I 
Bicbud lU. It i* a hniidiioiiie atoue, wt in the gabU of a oa 
building th«re. The nioiiuiiwit In iti Kultou stoDu, tha dealgB 
bring guild and thi; execuliim of a lintt-rnti' cliararUr 

A oMopany, under the name of the Tliiunra Ironooifa u>d 
ShIp-bluldinE Oompainr, haa been formed, for tbe purpoaa of eon- 
ttnaing the Draliard Van) Worki, Blockwall, latdj Ititl-ngim; to 
Meaara. More and Co. 

.Rxperiinctita have reocnlly been nude at Meaan. GoUinge nad 
Co.'a. WciUui lister- liridgo-noil. by the Pateut Timber BaodiBg 
Compaaj, to try the Hfeot of thair tnaobiu* fvr beiuliug llmlmrw 
large daa Iti tlii* liiatanee, tfaa " elide* put in waa li feet long 
and 16 X ; in lliicknam; and upon the maehiDo betOCpMlis 
inotir-D. itaopemtiout'ullyabowed thcoorreetDoaaaf tbepnMBfia. 
Tbe maohine ia of <a<t-iran, of rigkt-angnbr form, a oaofre pls 
being proviiied ati aa to allow the moveable arm ti> be browbt 
□early parallel to tbe fixed odd. The timber to ba beat, wbieb ia 
previuualy prepared by ateamiug, ia Analf aeeured bj a acrvw to 
the end o( tho moveaUe arm, ao that fay toinging the extnmitiee 
of tho araia tugotber, it ia gmdually dmwu round a iQ<iald of th* 
fbrm required, it being preveoltid fivm expandiuA ou the uolOT 
aid* by a atrong ohaiu, aiiting aa n back atrap, and Uio ajlf li ertiaw 
of pnaaure at Uie fod. It appeere that Wooda of all kpA^ and 
alnioat any aice, can be bent to anv curve by Uiia aimple ^ewlBI> 
and that the alrvtiKlb in aetiiaiiy incrtMcd by the oj)ttatioii^ 
although by the usuiJ luctbud, which >■ expenaiTe ami JtMtie- 
Enctonr, the [lart wl-iere the ciirvatuji! ia graalMt ia rvtilivdt 
iorarMtily, the weakeoi. Tliia invnutlou admltaof tho oiiH^ 
muit of arched timbora for architvgcural par|io*ea, wbat* ulW 
wiae expeuae woaiil prevent it. Already a Roman CatltJh 
mthednu haa Iven built in the United Stuto, with a .I'Vi 
Curmed of wood bent by thia pruooHt; and it ia much lighA 
■iranger, and cheaper tlian the oomblnatioo of metal, Iwick. afi 
pa|Uer-maiali^, freqaently omployod- Thcwuod, after being btS 
mto the niquireJ form, haa tu be ke|it in the niae form, t 
meoliauical mtana, for aoine time, in order that it ui^y cv->l an^ 
dry; but It ia than almoat iuipuHuble to t*>b*nd It to Ita fo 
aliajML 

Mr. Taplin, from the engineer^ department of Woolwich '. 
yard, Iiaviuk been deputed by the Lurda of the Admiralty i 
pRMBod to Portmouth on board iba Dm, In order to note 1 ' 
progieea of Hr. Weatbnred'n apparatna for snpaHiaaling at*a_ 
fitted on board thai veaael, haa oonfirmed the reporta already fo 
waitled io the A'Irulrahy, and hna flolly oorrobonted tbe fo< 
atateinenta, iletalllug the spedllo amount of eoiuotuy ubtaine 
thereby, without oanaing the ellghleat perceptible Injury • r exl 
atmin to the maohinery of the ahip. A aeoond inrenliou, tb 
production of n Mr. Leea, br supet^heulinif eleani, waa lal«l^ 
Drought forward Mid aiibjeeted to a prelimiuary Iriat on bi«Ti) 
tbe ataam vemel IF^ttr Sprilt, during a run of two milcn l.>w: 
the river from Erith. The appamtua couelal* priuriiialt; >'f J 
hydra-caloric engine, by which the ataam la flrwt pnidaoad in i 
amall boiler or geuei^bor. It then paMeathraaghaBncoad, whi>' 
ia naioed a "ooil boiler," and travenwa a ooil uf 30 drdon o| 
oolled tnhea, and, imning tbanoe red bot, ia received into a tkL 
whm it ia oondaoaed with water and boiled. It ia aoppUed U 




THE CIVIL ENGIKEEB AND ABCHTTECrS JODRHAL. 



47 



Ihkt ttMa for the iim of (be mgiM. Ill* «iiMriRHalB wa 
I4Bfal7 ntiAet/Ti; uiil were noonuDtsiiled for nutiicr bill*, m 
tba mMbwl, aulnM to > mliglil iwuiiin, ia eoamderfd likoljr u> 
bxomi «f odDMacrable iBiportiuioe In (La navigation of MMnMra. 

AeampMi^liM Wn fimted toouTT onttbe p«UntofOiptMn 
Stopbr* uobiloU 8mltli, tar •ubmanne piufiMM. Hi* paver 
bnoght U> bMr in ChpUiii Siullh'i MbnwriiM Ufting>wpMlua 
In atMiB aopplicd in two flM-bottooiml Iron VMkIs. "nie amik 
ia Kiiffbl (br in <If«i|> WKtrr by Uw anrvajing apptntua, 
dtv«r> on atagB)L wftti c.-luin larfilpm, Mkit dnivD aSong hj a 
-•t«4mer, the COftili Wilen liavrog no eilber nde Ui« 
liDMv ftir Bad apMkiitg Mppantoa of diran. Wbon the voaael 
fbonil, (bo ftU-mOomod •nrav-nnela an plaoed on t»A Me, 
pow«rf«I atMDo Baaebuioi7, with crab-wbiebas and dluu^ 
r applM and worited iritb tha help of a acriaa of JToa tabta 
■uiK firani tbo d*ck of eacb lifter, throuifh ila ocottal Una, U> 
rbaUatB,att that tha lifting poim- ia append from iliv owitT* of 
•I adtbost Inrchlug or illitiirliing thelrTcKloal pealtloB, 
fay dii«el lutioii aad a dcaii pull apoa tha vradc or <i(b«r 
Ikt to be liftfd. When raiaed to a Hiffld«nt el^vntiMi h mav 
I uawaid to a bCMll. or Otlwr dt»tiiiatiou, by the ict^v 
I of Uiu liften; ot tae wr«dk, It ia Mtid, oait be Ooatvd 
iirthar 



At Iha GmU Wertan RallMr malinn, F^ddlactan, a rtry 

anwaat of baildiiu[ b in jiruj^rM CiQ tba way of additiona 

eMOmona eMabliabineiit), froiu tlie iluKiKiia of Kr. Bran«I, 

AmoDg^t tba moat proEainent of them ia 



BmanM 
B|^eeM 

FWfTUnte 



ragiiiMr. 



Mfeal 



gooda ftalioo, i1m> ptatfbnn porlioii of wbi«h ia MM) tot in 
, with an BverKga wiiltb of^abovt 80 ftala Tha roof ta ot 
•ofTUptcd iron, anJ lupportad by iron eoInoBmi^ finom which 
•priBg aeKBpntal arrlw*, roofed iu wiUi rIiuo and ijata. At the 
Matem end of thin Urip pL-Ll/i-rDi in a wnnkonae of iirecuUr 
plan, the \eoglb of wfaKh ta l'jr> fiwt, and ita vTcateal width 
M feet Tbia warabooaa baa a height "f four auirite, th« grooiid 

brin^ IT Gtat in boinht, the fint 1 1 faat, aod the aooond and 
Honni, feet each, twnrae Tery largo worluhoipa are aim 

nienrij ooin[dei«d, exlauding to a lenylli of 300 ft«t: the 
otM) Ut ba iianl aa a imniagt IrimiBl^ ■Hop) being 34 ft, 
9 in- vMe; and lh» lower oua, whidi ia appropriated to the 
rnalring awl paintioi; cturiafeiiv baiag SI n> 8 ia> in wtdtli. 
Tmm lowar ahi^w luv 4<>U feet in langtE. In addition ta thoae, 
IImto it alwi the (^uecn'a carrioice ilinl, which ia 42 feet bug, 
bf 32 ft. <t in. wide. Tliia alied is liuiali«l in a aomewhat 
nperior mnnnafi being rooM witli imu ofrdvra, arehed bt^weeu 
and phutartd, aod brated with Parkinaa hot-watar appanttiie, 
wWi thn view to Um ptVHrvatinn of its eontaata, aa a prtiwitivo 
of cUtnii. Hr. John Jay. builder, of Maoel*aficild.«tt«ot North, 
Oitj-roM, iMa tbe oontnol for the work* now in progrw, and 
ib, Kebert Bowel U tha d«rk of th«i woik*, Mr. Bartram beiug 
Iha ntident etigiiiaar, tha whole being andar tha ganatal aapar- 
TUon of Mr. Bntnol. 

A lUlue of the Ri«t Earl of Chathkai, by M'Dowall, baa jaat 
haau lutJed to tlie ^ruup uf eminent ■Utami.-a whioh lino tbe 
naod eotnna» to lli« new HouaM of Parlinineut. Tvo niore — 
ttoae of GraUan and fiorka— am elUI vaDliug to euuiplete the 
Mriea (lelemiioMl on fur tbia uagnifloent npnrtm^nt. 

At a public iM«4ing In North SliiilJn, Mr. Wm. Beed, CE., 
who baa b«en eugaged^ln ccaidooling axueriiuaiita for teatiiig the 
oompriiii^: 1-lniia tor tbeMOipremiuDaonrad by tbe Steam Coal 
Colllerka Aaaociatian for the beat devioe Ibr oooaumias auulce, 
obaarved. m to amoke peevention, tbe daacription of boiler expo- 
riMientallj emolojeiL aad tlw mod* of nauagiuit the fnrnn()e:— 
'' L TIm boiler d; wliMi tha exparimantaare carried out la a marine 
jndtitnbular on^ and gaiietslly oonaldered tha wotal adapt«J 
fiir tl» prorention of amoke. i. Tbo flrr-baia are only hnlf 
Ihickneaa of tboae oomniuiilv uaorl by cinjiincera ; luid iniitcnil 
utng n deaed dead-ulalei t^ere ia a prrtorftleil pluie. The 
' experimented on ia thatoftlie Cnuulingtoa CVliiery. In niv 
■rrancKmruIa of tha drr^tratea, lite aoioko liaa beau pr«Teul<d. 
I Hiid (hat it ia >|uita «aay Ui preront amoka without appantiia 
to iDfjuurie exHCtJr the ananUty of air soing into the fiii'Uiuw^ 
hario^ UBcJ nearly duuble the tjuantity in une experiiumt more 
~' in another, and pri'renting the amoke, eraponittej; Ihsaatue 
ility of waXer to each poiUM of enal. In the ennie time, which 
eean exact qnaniity is not importnut. LikcwiitK it iaaaeaay 
i^pr4*««it anaoke wittg 17 lb of ooal to each wiiian! Itjot of grata 
■iion per boor, a» wUb uuug only 13 tb. under the aame traat- 
tnent. I And by axparluient, no Um of heat in preTeutlog the 



"LI 
j^jndi 

m 

1 vnr 



amofca; on tbe oontiMy, ia fcTour of mooka pmventioa about 
3 per oaut Baring ortr moke making. Ha peraoa in chaiga of 
the firea ongbt to flra at regobtr tlmw at nearly m p oaeibla , and 
Uw quanti^ of fntl to be evUleieat to kiNp a ihidaieaa of fin ao 
leia than 6 inche* id tbe thinncat part— the oonaainptian to be 
roBiiUtoj to tbe time by tbe damper, and nut by puttiDg on aiall 

2uantiti«« to the Braa. Tbe beat antoke mvtntor ia a canAil 
reman, with aa ordlnar/ fira-graK and fine* wrll ananged. 
Theee etalementa arc made &«m practical experience and obaerra- 
tiona Oil experimenia— the qmintitT of fbel weighed, tbe water 
moaeaivd, the air entering the funMcn naainred^-tbapMa frera 
the chimney analyatd— tempecature of th« Onea takan— tha lau- 
perature and atMa of tha atnoapbar* dwfaig tba cxperineata — 
and the raeldue of the fiWl aeeotmted (br in Uia calcalatiaB»— the 
wbola being oarefnlly arranged to aa to got data to be pncUoallv 
ueeful." 

AlomiDiDni i* now beiag amplMvd in tba eaatiug of balla. It 
i* affinnad that no metal, or oombuwtion of nalala, rielda a looa 
ao mnaionlly aweet when atmok. Prvrldad, the««ore^ that th« 
ooat of ila prudoalion besot too (ptea^ no neUl aaneoai|iaiewitb 
it Ibr baU-eaalisfr 



ATPOunjULin. 

lie thrw offioeia to whom Sir Boajamia ilall haa aatowUJ 
tbo taak uf deciding npou tlie tireat Londoo Ifminagn flnhaar. 
are Captain Donglaa OaltoB, of tbe Boyal Ei^iiMeia, Mr. Simpaou, 
and Mr. RIarlnreil. hrth well knnmi in the engiwailna jiiiifiiiinii 
The aoope «f their ukqniriee wQl ba very eompcabaneiva, aa tliay 
are not only empowered Id oonnder the plana of tlw MetnMielitnu 
Board of Worlta, but to initiata others ahonld they think it 
expedjont to do ao. 

(Uplain William 8.Mooreoca,dTU en irneer, bat been Bppoialed 
bj Mr. SeoKatary LabooolMra to ba chief esj^ineer to tbe govtni- 
mant of Ueyloo, fbr the piir poita of a railway earrey. 

The cMnniMOfioni bare appoiDted Ur. John Fowler. CE., ae 
Iheir engineer- in -chirf to carry on the Nona Vi^ky Drain^e 
Worira, originnlly oomraenoed by tbe lau Mr. Kandei, C.K. 



oiinrisT. 

At hit roMilenoa. Barton-atroet, Burton -creaoant, acad 86, John 
Brltton, K.S.A. Me wu auihur of the 'BcMitiee of BnglaiidaiBl 
Walsa,' m vole,; of the ' Arcbitaatnnl Antiqaitiaa of Ornii 
Britain,' S vob.; tbe ' Caibadral Aathtultiee of Bnghutd. U 
vola; tbe ' Public Bultdlnn «f Undon, i vola; A mctioiuuT 
of tlic Atvhitacturo and Arclwology of the M^lt Ageaj' 'Ardu- 
t«utural Aniiquitioe of Noraiandy;' * Pictnretgat Antiqnillta of 
Ei^ieb Citieaf buJ neveral other workt. Hia autotifagnidiy 
ii left uiifiuiahMl. A <leputation of tbe Council of tha Boyal 
tnatitut* of Britieh Aivhiioou altauded hia funeral at Norwood 
Uometory. 

At Bpper Seymour^treeC PormaD^atiaret aged SO, Andnrw 
Ure, U.D. P.RS., P.KA^ F.a& In ibeyenr ISIB ha btought 
forward hia 'New Espwimaatal reeenrebte en eooia cf Uw 
leading doouine* of Chlorite paaticalarlr on the rvlatlMi beWMn 
the alaaticity, imnpemlare, and latent heat of diflatvnt nnoore^ 
and on thennomatrle admc^^iinTmeut and capacity,' whioi waa 
naJ before the Boyol 8uci#ty, and pubtidied in their Tteu- 
act'k>n« forthatyear. Mr. Ivory, Ur. Daniell, and other pUkao- 
pbeta ban adopted the caloulatiooe afforded In (hia paperu a 
baacaof tbdr meloorotogicnl tbeorica. In iM^l appeared (he flrat 
edition of hia well-known ' Dictioiuuy of Cbemiiitry.' In IflU 
appeared hit paper ' On tlie ulliiuate Aualyaia of Vegtufate tab 

-•-iieee' ia tlie J^iloaonhleal Trantaetiona. In **-- 

'Syatoin of Gtwlogy wat publiahod. In IS 



the year 1M» 

bU 'Phiio- 

<wing*ear hia 



etaneee' 

liii 'Syatoin of Gtwlogy' wat publiahod. In 1839 

auphy of Moiiufiictoree^ followed, and in tha feUoi 

work ou the 'Cotton Manufacturea of flreat Britain,' in two 

voluBBl. Hln next groat work wna the 'Dietionary of Arte, 

MMinhetoNa, and Mluea,' a work of inintanae labour and reacwvb, 

t)io latt edition of which appeared in the year IftSS. Thia work 

ba* been tciuudated into tbe leading oonttMntal liTignagna 

On the 23td Nomnber last, at Csirx), Mr. ThoRua Seddon, 
artoit He waa proitcaiinK a |>mfM«iouAl journey to the BMt, 
and ehortly after Itia arrirsl at cixn waa attBckod with dyeentary. 

Raoenlly, at hit iwudouoe at BauMeoth, Mr. BrtfaMc, tlaa 
weU-luiown railway COUtiwAMC. 



i 




I 



&9 



THE CIVIL ENGDfEEB AND ARCHITECT-S JOUENAL 



FOREIGN IlATI,WA.Ta 



Aiulrian Ritiiumyi. — Tim Emprror ha« iiisii«d tho codommod 
iif (lie E.-urt (Inlicioii (tiitraad. Th« liue of wo Vteaim-S^bnrg 
railmiul ia not jct drlini lively fiied. 

TurtHth RaVmat/t. — Mr. lAr«rd'ii propnuitian for tbc «mi- 
HtnictMa of nulnrkj* in Turkej ii the mibicct ot much dincuMun. 
Tbo proooMd line m to oonneot the Danube kuiI Blnvk Sea ivith 
till) AmDimlAKOl witbbruiohBa,nllImat«l7, to th» 'litr^reol towtia 
of AnumelU and BiiloM^ It fa U> coinaianoo at RaauUiuk or 
Siliatria, abd paM by Shumla anil Ailrianopla to Sues, or aomo 
ot1i«r appiuximato pomt in the Ai'i'liipi^Intto, [t* emisw ti 
ilirtmtly went to ea«l, anJ will bo lli« bigli rm.! of Turkey. Tlio 
•utire distaooe b eatlfliat«d at 32U to 3S0 lailea. Mr. I^vard 
biinarU la moat aatigain* mi the point, fbr bn a*ka for do 
S<innuit«n tram the f^r^rnmenC, and oouudatu that the traffli; 
trill iucroanc no tnpidiv, and Kich valuable ditirieta will Iw 
thrown opon. that there will be no oocaaion for the eecurity of 
aav miiitnitini mtv of iatumt. 

Funjanb RaUavs. — The projectril line nnder tbo abov« title in 
au exleiiaiuD of the Scuide railway from MoolMa U) IjJiore and 
I'liiriteir. It la daw bring aurvc}-«i] with the nnotlou of tho 
Hon. Riut Iiiilia Coinpaay. It la atatvd to ba vicaedlngly aaay 
•if roR*trnulir>n. 

Ralhrag tenpom Pranet and Syvin. — The Freooli (aiglne«ra who 
vt-ro Mat aonie liino back int^' <Tpp4<r ArrsgoD to axainiao the 
lucatioa of carryiiij; a niilw\v iii-:^<u tho Pyroneaa, to effoot u 
OODUnnnicalion Iwtwern Fniu<» and Spain, huvc terminatod their 
■urvefa, and the mutl hu bwu lu-i-ivi^l at, that the line ahauld 
•tart from Tarbee aud end at the eky of Hiieeoa, paadufc 1^ the 
hridg* of Onvaritl. In the iieighboiirhniid nf Hneeoi, not nwer 
tban nOOOmauaraeaiplojwlin thepmliiiiinarvworlu. Ica|)p««ra 
tmui the turvin-i, lliat the paan^ acrou the I'Treneia ia uot *<• 
iliffieult at waa DelievMl. Tbe greal drawback to the uninterrupted 
wmrking of (lie line will nriee. It U ihouvht, from t)ie gr#at ijuantity 
of Huow which ia to b« buiid lu tlieae diali-tct* during four uonlhii 
of the year. 

^oeq SettliA. — A lioo oi railway is in counie of oriiietnautiOiii 
ffonj Ualifiii in Nova Sootla, to cuuDcct with the ttntiifl Trunk 
line. whbA ia derigned to obrlatfl the dllEaulties ariaijig fmui the 
loi% lee blookado of the St. lAwrance. 



COXPETITIONa. 

an^a. iiiHli.'i)Lia){>B. A pliDflf ihn (iQui"! i"*! I>« •v" 

F aOea it llM ItarU VatrA KKt ihiiiel lo woihihiUu 100 [anriBf, anil 

' WH aiMBil (Vol. InrltdUw iba BtUo^ Tbc tvu <utui(ss ■llh Mon-nan, not %a 

tftmA U«l. na Vatti wID (in lot (iir il» pUn uvl irHiOnttMi appravnl hj 

na«. fliMla W dilliWHl *t IhtoAogaf IBc B«nl. Ko. f, Cbiinb'Mnfb Soa- 

eiflua. I? ihskiiialFtiiniuT. 

riauuT miainl (ur Uia taUndcd w* ib*|nl of lb* ValLcdlit Snw CoDoaloD, 
Wiollimw-lin*. iMdi. InInniMUoD of Ur. tUuar. H. U'hi Iw. !«<]■. lluu to 
I* Htl In br Uia na IBM. 

Tba Canuiiliar (IiiuIiiIhI b; Uic Tu*a Cuanra a( BrIiWI. In MiiahsErpd Uw mtlnn 
nf A 7t«* l^aii^r (.iji.sitr Kfj\iitr\, ntfpr prvihlnmit of H>01 . ^lU , mul tCt Ibr Ibo 
Utft* !■•■ O-'tjii* li'f tbf •All'' Vlui«lohr Mti>DT|iuil<-l feirli HiJpirlllalluK ead 

Tllr lluUillW lu mxHt aOU [lUuUlU. •lib rn)ul>llt liOlilM. Hill ■ROB- 

ilUe Hui raiikdpiit aAcim Ilid uixninl la bn 4|wfulnd nti th' hnildiry Id bv 

It.MOI. BHii liM ricHdlna n.iKrai. Tljr biiUiltDC mlnld fmnifan Ibe 

1 Mx lo b* QMtl u mHh Aa |«atf U*. TbB CIrtVICO ID tn If A aUpblB bat 

t) cliBrw--UT- Tha " Ruffofilao* and Jiulnicitobt" tat bolldlDn LniUile 



l^flgint. i>ubllihn1 ti; Uw CMSinMoiHn Id Lvhh?. w bi. u br h pnvltcaUr, 
p^t( ... .... — ...... .^ _ 

.. _ (4. MUcllia ribruwT. .... ... 

•I lb ~ nt m w Mn m." KAj H laiUlntd sptn •irultnUM la tli* Zvn OaACt offlir 



Tb< nil 
KWM bftbsllUll'tbru 



mbcdguliolu UeTmn Onlfi oacB, OmKil-bowa, 
A Inbopniibcd pita et Ib« latudHl 4u, ud enplM 



Tbe OxgHHiw «f Oe RbnMd Honaipail. BUaUa, BuilKditlrr, m dulrau nf 
MoliiM D*rfaiM,B|<rdBMloiiL udSMIisaua, iranimUMAiwidieuliilan. br n 
MuiuninnlMbwHUd Id lb* Bllaun OtnMnr. Id UM mewn of ibk Idu Ut. Jnhn 
tii)MI4». TlM BMXiDrat In To aniiratwil ol aoior omlaUl »|wMc oT iwIMiok 
F<mlh(r. TMDl«MH>biuw*d tow. D«uiu. iposMruluaa, *aa •AibiIh 
■tfal Id an« b*fbi«1b« MiblDi4.,il1<tliiaqbdifd brorpbir uruuflo, IbaauDv 
a ilMpw Id br «ii>luMid in ■ MtM (UTrlupr. Tbi ilapalDilnli i4 Badrtiji. 
I lO Mhs iiaitMabfi^ ID bt t^ u lb* pcmu Hadinc 1* Uw dsalyu^ bii laMHl 
■ppfanl a( tba OianlUai. Ab; tUfUM laliiraurim n; baiibMliHi irib' 
CMaanitD Mmn, BUMkl Mo imfiiao a^ b* (Ivu luc n)HWd 

rfcr* rbanfe •» ■■ (txtnl *■ Bmwan luvllwl riim UTblUicU u( tllrauiiuin 
*m »!■ > H I gf ibt "ttUnJlt janib nf lla ni; uf llmu.' Tbx cm BM tg tiond 

^ft*0air4hea iifllw Mf4iru I'dIxam* dwlivu of tnliiB [uniiibnl alA Pita*. frC 
■uHi, ud pany aMBnlkn hr ibr mMan uf ■ t(«r WutthNH (n ibil 
falon an ■ iua aw ManNt UdtliiiK. CtuUiwi. umUliiiUo InnUdi. A UU-a- 
tiapbxl Fdn«dn*MiD.mh>HUeii>aiid iDttncilnM le arsblmti. at u U» vinl^ 
bv tBil oAvii i«i«ln«1. «nd ttJ Blbcr pArikulaiv Bar b« bad uu *rlic«n appbr^ 
I iDKr- O. Ila(bun.CWIibiULigIi«rdci( auidtaiHjCbaibaie flu Biaiiaau 
■4 Id ri« acMidfd Ur Ibr build liifi \t U.QOOt Tba ptMi4 art fwulivd to 

cMW,iddn—«>Bihtao>«fitoii«td. bribaurd kim. 




TbaOMaM>aitfib«Lw|paHH«uld'IiiUnirwMi(a nMn*rtaBBi4l 
laHoa brUMnvUnnifa liulldlna lalUbl* ftit aiub as InMUiMaicnM Biilbai 
tlMt "ni* OsBiBlibn vlll Kiipli<r Cbc urbltMt *baie plant (ad twa* ■ 
waiia—dttemial (UgiUr; and. w kla Hn|itta( tba aDplgjnil, «■ CM 1 
Um aiiaiMc* >faiiB plaa mai anpaar Id Ibn Iba noil In bi4r <( iBEriL SbMM 
tlw aicUWct vbaaa idu* an iimti Cb* iB«t d^bl* dMllnr u undiftatD Ite 



•« bf 
■•M Id 



fOpnUtudaoiDatlb* WdtkLba >UI ba |iald IH. fa U> traubk la pMMUe Hitb 
plan. Tbg plaat and itiMUIniUMA liwiau vllb a kUM [ma <•>£ uMUA 
■uilog vliiibnrba sin naduukn lb* atcnlliB <if tba Wnkh and Ua Mmtlbrw 
dnlni. Id Im ludcid b; Iba Mlb iaal. MLb JitiB UucDcft. tm\,, 1. l\ Uap^ ato 
"ill fl<« u; tintw latbnaaUDii. 



Hid rlaiu br tba Halo Dnlsan of Ibr UaravnUt havlni ben Rfirinl id I'aia. 

" ■ "■ "Impn. Kq.. C, K.aadlUiiiailt llbck-iU, lto«, 

all twnw dMlraut << caiuiaBlcaUis aua Umm 



ODBflwOalU, R. B. JamalilBip 

CJL. aoU(a bw bHB rina ikai all _ __ 

mlMani opoa Uu «U«t, naj dinci Idtan. plana ae. to tham •■ Ibilr OOat, 
\a. »t Omil aaaii**iratl, WaMmlnMr, ap U Iba «ltb Inl Tbs kMnrtaf <»- 
dlllnsi tsiui ba nbasiml >-All rTTT'tr't"-' w onuin Iba Biaiai Bad id in in 
ortiHs |iarilarutaai4tD(Ui«a,B>dM ta nluaa OS ball ibanM «f {Mtcep |kK'. aa 
iflietldaaEilr. aUb 3-lBab Dui^ dq IbalaA. Ifplauanaail In. IbaH plana ablc^ 
an duirirt plBiu iDMI b* Ml a «al* aot !■■ Iban >nr Incliw lo tba nltr. Nrcttaaa 
at Uu*! <t iaiatiit, ariil aad Tnpoiid, la ba o* a k^Iu *( ili rm u an kacli 
wrMBl. and noi lis than tsar Incbaa to a uIIb bOfUnUI. ud lo ban UMfradlBta 
■lArlinl Ob (bHn ID bUc*«^ MU tba Mibla Ib (nt and iwanai nutdmtmtt 
cnHlliiiii. A blar Unabi doDiw TMnlQ blfb-aBCB marii, (a ba tbmii « all iiWMa 
ItbvUvi of aiorki WW* bo la a aala of oneilBlilb of aa Indi t* a fitM. 

Tbe DtraoUra of lb* IMndalk Kif&an« and Uwul OnDnanr an prtHrod la raodia 
Hm ael XMUaaMo ftir Iba arMtfu of bohaDtn. Smnoa, AuMKbli Man.. Ml 
Oeanal M*f boM: tar iba uprand plaaof *Uib Ihtf alOiiTt onnnlmif WU 
*lidllulb*B«tla|ipiondaf It(. riuio la ba luluDlilnl tilon IbolalDf llaadL 
V^nbv isrtloUn vtObaglmi upon appllnUOD uUin lt»nuT iixntuHa. Mm 
Bimatl ^.1 Jatota ttobean. 

TbaCnnmUaluncnat Hw Maicil/a Wutlnand FubUc Uuitdtop InrlW aRbhvtt l< 
all sooBUiM Id turslob ibaia aUb dnalfna lot Offvat lot ih> Mcrftuj of HWr be 
fDnlcn Albla. lai tbo SacnCan of «>M te Wat, ud fur lailui ontiba^Kiad 
Minwi Iba TbantB and Si. Jtmo^B-ii^ adkdnlna Qnal QauMtnot. Tk* 

drairt^ Id ba nada u ■ aiBtaaf Id a>oltaIb*l»h. fl 1 i|nilliiiHiw tl 

(he KaUrtaU pnipotad labaaaad iBibobnUdlBgttiiMaBOWBpawifcdailp. A 
blDOk-plao iliuaiui how tbo dla na; bi u af piapriiUad LbalUw laro Iiiilll1l>p laa 
poBad Id bo ar«r1f4 noj foim nut vi a lan(* and eoaprobtailta adHDO tkv iiHii— 
nulua Ibt nnurlpa] puhUo orbnak anil to Iba luiiianoiMiI (f lb* loading ' 
loR*, locliuUnii Waualnourbridfu. >Iii'I1hi u neonU iij iitBut oi abf 
Ham uroniului furtho bootdailKiia (ir iln WuOnmuf UiU , lOM, 

1«M.. lOOl , and loot, Horni pniinluini Ur Ibp bnl Jotiiia tat Ur f- 

B[nal..*i)Oi,30W.3««., lObC, IM< . and liHd. Vot ibr bno doUfa (Ma' __ 
niu, ibneiH-Dinluaaof MM,, WOJ-. IWf. Flauof tbonwiu'l. and otbor buUm. 
(an will bo btfvardnl on awllattluD to Mr, AUVad Aa4C <MI" uT Worb. Wblw- 
ban. l><Blm»K>>ia«miigtiT tbamaof Manfe. 

DoalKDi an IntUslhon iftliia of BlleoBBUtobe a Uaaaiaabi la bo nacMdlati. 
fVil'i (kibodisL 10 Ua maoMiT of Iba law Daka tf WolUuaUB, T>ii aat. *itb aS 
ttfimt.ivntnrtn^Vi.Wil. rnvlMOo or TOOf; UW. WOI . lOOL. aadateaf 
lOiit A (looDd |il*ii (i[ Ibt (allitdrBt, aiid ibailKnf Iba jnopMl awnB»ir«l. An. 
■Ill bo tiii*Hdi4. uo aiivUaUw U> lu. ABml AoAln, OAco of Wnfci^ VrbUakall. 
IM«|j[iiB fnijn vtl'lt nuiHinir In ibn L^iLlM K1n|[diiin Id Jmii In, latl: ftvei artbiB 
ratldinitabiv-rilbiibol&Ui uT tba ■amo mofilL. 

Daufiu aro atulod li» a Kok Tanu-bikU, iv b* vcwAkI la 9,1. Audmr>-4h* oiaid 
crooilnniioiiaausad UUI. ruiirulAn b^ bt bad ot Uaaan. On«* awl V. 
1ta*B'dink>L Bi. AsdnWi. atolLuid. 

tMcuianlailladbirBiloIivluiiiutilroflbaUla Lord PlanluL Iobo|dHi4la 
IIiII (if Uin I\ai Oiuru. Diililin. JnlbrtuiUiKi nf ('-Jii^iiu kt. crijifUa. 
M'^rriirii fjuhr^ Aigib, or Robi^ii J^ibii^bHi, 3. Ui'brl'<iia fiKft. Dubtla. ~ 

TboTuVU boll OiHU|uiJr, RlUby. ban uIuiiLuI Ibi du'ilm of .Ml. >lgrTlkr; 
bolng (Mkioalcd 1^ Uia ariluuict. viUi Hitalo a<ldlluiD«, at ^inilf . Tba dail|^ 
iiamn. (Ttirb'^d Wurtbliicuiii auvnl tMa, lbtlre>Un»i' r>-iu liolt 

Tb* dialfiu of Kr. Ji-hn Joburtaor. ttnUaol. IfjaMt l puii T^nn. hoio baae . . 
(or tba new Cum lUcbaiixoaod (Joiionrt Bwd to B«nltk.u|vHi-r*f*4. nadoaiM 
llttf.AHI' rim|iiitlEora 

A I'ailjp b; .Mf . ^'^nkit Ollvar, Jim.. aiubLKrl. of ftundQiUnil. hw boon vloffod frr 
iba Saw C<ii>i:niiailiiual i^nnb aud ttubwdii. pnjwod la b* ohbM on lAe Kaflk 
<m, ararlnr-^Eif U 

Tba plaiH uf )l"ui» lUdlklir and Urali. aivbllKM oI WirlirthaDiiHoo, naa •>Ir«4 
(oiir KlA uT tiiiuu nilALilled In aiui|iDllIliia fur Ibo oibnuiun of iba tt'i^v^f- 
WutkbiniM. 






IfEW PATSKTB. 

I'BOVl'ilOSAl. rBOTECnOKS OlltNTBO tJNOBB THB PATEST LAW* 

AUKMiHKMT ACT. 

tSiUt AMmbur II. 

IIU. '. T. Pltnun. GnnoborcbfUMt— iBpnnmaMi In Um (vmlnoUea M Ina 

brUna. tCtwanuuMilcaii 

f Jolrf Snyttnlut S». 
?TS1. IL A. Unmnian, l^^ot-tlirol— A lavtbnd of and tvnaln TareUica ur ovpoaaUav 
lilt Tvadorlnji VDudaiid oUiH laboEaiicM HDlBdaniDrible and Art uriaf, ap^loabl* alia 
to tba iDdonUBf of alfmrwBt evUu iod almie, and lo Iba rondprlria u# fiaftr lad 
fkbnai daaip-pnuf. MfMbfl' wlih ■nparaliuM to naaolMUirbic niA < 
{CWamialoaUra tram Hadaaa Donlanl 

/AUrl :V.)[ni.lM ]1 . 
SIM. Vr. Ja«Aa. AlbcTt-read, aibW fl'liK MUtad-AB lopnmd sai 
btddlag and nndafiiic brick* In furuaoAt 

fulnl llnrmtrT I. 
SHI, T CnUm. SalUU— liniinit"nieiiU la nrdaNlluit nuhini^ aat 
nnvchtuart ui a|>pamiu aupUvadln tb» OMMiattlOD UuiboC wbisb appamMi It aba 
apiiliialilii III uallit pufuoia 

«..« nun.t>r a. 

Kunn C J. tovMij, and O. ya«aijtii. l}iiL<]iIeFabiirj— laiirotanLnlUfo Ibo inoisKV 

aoil apiilicaUoh of aoud ovd lu tbc cvoalrut'Elou of caoka aad >ticb )^ vtaaola, a^ 

foi olbM ponoaot 

fb>ud f>Hm(«r«. 
«1(. A. M- M>f«. Pafli— A nra uaDiua to [miiUnf Ike also aod oUmt *■■■> 

aHauij frorn Ibd kIJ, aod fur ulbor almflar pDrpcoat 
/taUd /MMHdrr ID. 
WTC C V. VaBTtnt, Kwi-unwi. Hliud— mM<lat •almnn. irooi lod lOn U. 

OCoBBUloatlon) 
Vi'K. vr. C. TbuBaa. XevnbM*m*— tiDpnivcauuulaaiaiut niaeblM* 
1kJ<ia P. i|V, l-ivbard, TrBCa]farv]iiAm-.|Dpivinl iDaaof of ^vbi^^^iaf af'iMffilw 

octal. «Hl Um adipiatkn tbrnaif N Ibt iDanufadaf* ol nttain iwCul tnkaa 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ABCraTECTS JOPRNAt. 



W. a—f, Witim, UmwU 



bM la Ih* nuabcMi* oT 




- V A>w.i 1 «Mryliiii lamromto l> pumOat f—^ lOhuouJ- 

OaMOHMWrlT- 

9Mlk M'T ■««<■ tfowhliB —tmfnnnmiM m Budilni^ to pmnptu 
A. >*<^M»» yn nli ii mm ii. Haaih-atnH. nutarT-IauonaHnH la 

■■■•Hl'nroHr- lOMaBuakUJimi 
J PUu, iMluA. btMUliln - IinpnieoMla In nmloi fcir •plualui iCbm- 

F' I*«Vt. Jan.. m4 /. JiBM. C%B Oiljn nd Bklu Irb Worti^ MouBnlk 
Jwi m iMi u U la Ih* Sri* otaiUUInc Uia h>u fWM of tilM> ftrnuH 

L C Cknpi, •mkiiMiiMa bMWafk ntiimt liiiri Tmi r* u idBstn- 

i, rffc a— tf ^ m >» L I. a^ianm. TtoW 
'^ K«M, J(n^-4a MfnnMBi III th> BmbMn (< apUU akta 

DMiri n m wilf tl. 
F, H lln«*n, tftwaoa, OUo— IiufnTHnHtt 1b niitiliiHT A"* aMIaf w BuUna 
MvkL OviiiiniuiMkn^ 



MM. W. UHlTutM. Mnaiiiii-LiipwMwWi 
Mil B. agoUiUtnr. Rfdt^ CtMMv-lMpmrHuiiU 



4niibnac nun ud gttw Una aiUarUi 
IM*. O. A. a. Xul, fcbhaIXT lloul, LkcMar^iaw* 

lli< iu> irf chUdna 
■iitl W Tiflr.JlMHBthttB-bBpinBBtibBnla^wloMW 

■pds hial^p(Mr. ud aikar nrften 
»U1. J « Bwtwiaiulu lUllte— lawmMMoM la 



teirrartnail* li t^t Itr 



mUt^K 



•a. J « Bwt«laii|lu lUllbl 
HMB asl tor rMlu d^twr 
«. IL A. ■nganrnM-^H 



Iki n«u^ WiiiMMry. ot ^fk- 



WT. 



.top. 



■k 



, MW. W. llinliT. B«rtbrt-tn|iniT«g»ulB>THni>ln|(nm*l9riptiiiit^M«.hUi. 
ittMkMUn. Mlfe.lu, vtittri«b*rflbian*uliiMiKah « •Mota, Mpn Nta«^ ur 

IMl / Dnpir, Ckliw^Il^lnvt. niiiriiiij tiii|i mim IBr tniu><'U (ur fnttif 

«ad enukuii; wit uil 'Uc>i 



nc uJt ■nil f uckr 
a. U. Ouk^ <Mai^«^ Mwv— laipK m wiWr ta ttir iminh«iirt if ii»iild«d 
cndlaa 

J. ■>■•(, DawWt, BtutMdi A» Unpiiiiiiim In (niint (niinitl niMlat* n 



■•«MflB| Iktp t» ta tied tor Ui» muntactDt* of bimiit 




K. WInu. UaiabV<Mi'-Ai itpptntH tor I(iiIUb( looUft iriiftiri, m 

«rp^*lik Hi»pk«n< or IfBlilBf Awparitta 
O. Tmt. Il»ii*mit I»pntmmMlanarmj mntimmiti}rm^ 
J. Brv**, UTa-|B(l~IiBpnnMBn)>< IB ilwcniMrwaeDtf iblia^tMdi 
W nsi^Obtet. MflUB— iBprvmBtciU la Um BiualWiiu* «l Un[K. 
Vr. jL W a ^ a^ Smod, MMKrliiiMts IT. A.— Aa bapmd IB^^— rrmg 

/taM n«n<«r l» 
L B^Tv. Wiffcw>ar Iin|«wMninij In uuyr'btiirvt fitf prna4UH WHHlt 
vr. K]T ui-I Janiu Siotnon, Oldliua— Aa laiiinitid mltnait^ nlo* tor ap»- 
ftttluQ bid ulfttfr ASnia* oubnal* 

JL U. Ui^aiut U. K. Unc Muctia«ar, aad J. Suin, BoldUli-liBiironnMiii 
s atiliualua br pulbUol or asliUBt ^uiia or Ihnadt 
' OmillBilntt. lliHoo-fvdin — lijtpnrtmiiiiU Id (fipaMtu tor 



'. lynnf Md J. Kutth. lIivluiiBd'lk*. Vuck- loiwMvd nadilsn fM nub- Uli. W. Cbit. Q>iur»rr-lu»~In]irin«iac«ti In 
. -'-T-'tit. ml lT7lintmn lBlttlrapiillnUi«. ^Oraanatmloiii 



itataMlaivlltaadMtpOtMrtik 

(Ml In tta Buubotan of mnala awr pito hMB, W«°nwkaillaa tra« C A. 

<:uiD« 

■OU. J- nUAH, Biudn1*n<l— Iinpnmd saAlMfT 1^ BWBbifqrlai Ilr«t^ MM, 

•pifa^ ud oikit •Unnw aitMln 
* ^ uiIl^lSl * " '* " — fntat. fli. halVnad, Mmtoe fpinwHM la 

*M1 7 llMtiB, KHi-aU«ai, BiriBd-AD laproTwl wahwbn fer (topplic MiKw 

l/uri* 
Wft I). lUntDHld. Olaifiw-lNpnntBiBM la vutdaft MMtMn^ d«adM aai 

pifwtM ttiMk tobrka aad MUrftk 
KU. W-. Inllh. kUniMolrM. Q>Tw»Jlih hm w. aad D. VHIkk mwliHii 

wrnua. nn(*tafli-4>MnBlat<«|irM«gitB(«nrte tafUmMTBaadnraaaa* 
MM, W. Irtaa, ffllmMar Ina ootti. ^rwUib tjralh, V iiirliln laiLiiii laiW M 

ite (ooMnalnti i( mll^ laniUiiln >nd inri(hint (n»a 
■Mt. H. Kntart, lillii(tOB, and C. Ktiiubw^ Ontt AJU«nM— toynmauMi ta 

fcnx ud Mnala BMMtbfpnnBUBilbafUlwitfkikrL [OBmminkMkal 
MCT: r. CWapla. iBMd-lka Dwa^dan tf ■ fvlate UvlUa UrtcTmfe Ik* 

hnnlor Unu "Um» ban*," UHonauntMe tt<n r, U. UnlUa. FuM 
liDM. ). CUf. nim1ii|tHia— AarvarlBptncdMnaMrFlBtlotailnprWiwlHba- 
mfat 
tDEl>. J. Mcliil/R, Knta<Ufra]ai>1>a»-A ittiti «wdli| apiaratiu oralanalx 

■vllliitf ililpt asd ■BMHi'vaaiala 
MTd. 11 H Ondaiag, Haa Dnrua PM t U ga. hrt^-fiuKMOMW In Uw naNn» 

ibAMluclK -CMtnraMaUnTnia W. H AO^ tTaUtd imIm 
ta;i w. I. Mluhnii *lbm-»i?w>. Uoduiraid, Soaik*wt-[i4«i»«B«ala la 

rmLlira; ivlli^ ai>d HfliaJ tpMr&1iL4 
mt a aoviKil. riMuHT. DuOnd-Aa Imvnmd — ^-t f l-H—f -IffYT - 

r^UiTM UvjiiB bjr uiduiBiitf air 
MM. w ■' t)wW, lii-rontbln-cniaa, HrdPrart—ltBpniTSRMBUlDndadBtaiffv 

or*a. rCVpuTAmiocaitoai 
U)i. W. Cbit.Q>iur»rf-laB»~In|iri'TMac«ti In air aad nUrjrvit aatli^ aad 



I 



l«Utn 

(Hill, ibav] 
tbanau- 



Mil n. n i tuV lar . ilowpan, llmiaaiiOiihWT-ta M B nw li tn man l«U( 
Mil. J Ktmlga, Blr«l*|b*B— laMitaunUlBUtmiaafMiirTor hiit |i 

■id alVr dm* Haa. mmb it iillldi iBlaarnamla arg alB anlhabl* IB 

^••n <d (tela aad idiBlbf dnafc«wia(i 
Ml, T. VniM^Mnbd, Uaaola-Aanor Inprand MaafMiarg <d bm^ ibsai, 

Ml (Ow gaNfbW ftr (ka toN 
Ml. g. A. Sanbee, Ckfl. t«a mgfci— j— -t-p— — .— .. » hnwii-indlng tn<- 

•tl. T. y«aW*, TbuMB. r. H^Inpratad maabbmr to aukl^ wnn 
»».0 . OL wakHB, lbnB»<liMi. KmMstUI*— Aa Uaimnmsl la carrlBi- 

niMd r>HM>lvr ;l 

I IMUtr. rtailli»-AO llB|*nflt kuife clnailir 

. Onan» Hall— Ab laipn/tvd arlf-mgin^ apn^falv for ^aalliiic an rallam 
' Mil. Bln^U.alim^lmfnntiuml» In iMnlui bandi. IBCaMctlaf fkiBcblBIi 
Mtaodi, and ID utuklni lMiid< l>> aKIdH rn)BlrlBt Uuan* 

^^K 1 rafur. >VM«lm md, LauibMb— ImptOMaoBU bi SHtlnf and aatdilBf 
ttx^roKnl pV|flKa 

I*. kaiiiiMa. t;otd«i«nri, Drad^fd— latinin'iDoaU la anvafMo* imiilDnd la 
-'^totnai 

A. Uac Bo* d* Ckallki^ fkrla-A b*« inMn oT naalacT m«ka to all 
. HadasrnibldM 
•hi. K 1V«Mdo. iIsddtnttr1d~lB|nnBiiini*latorBB(K 
MM. T. L 'Piulm. B^uudVpart. Smnf^InipTHMBnittbi naidu rnvhlTin 
MVl W. H. [tuiUM. LvflbviA-vklk. lAblivih — 1 iDproTViri*u^ id iZi- ilTf duontd 
taauw 

ma J. Multala. K. KTIli. aad J. CM|f(r, Ttnllliiiliaai Impmr ti le tebbia ant 

« MM bws nacMDRT 
Ml ». I>arU,ClH*<aaill— AalMpRMdaacrtaalkutiaia ptautor the onUldroT 

da — and ■ladnn 
■KL K RliMAiId, CliariiircnB*— An laipnTrnianl iB UK mamilmara at M uly 
IIH. W. It / i b i M Oi Aliiiac'iBiB. CtiaU>^IiauimiMialHo>nai-aa|lBM«Bdaina> 
tannMUdUHnalU 



nwM />««abvn. 
aoTA a R- rtn. ranbun. IIui>^Iiopnin««aU la tba naintorlun a( wUlMI 

r«fV^ arid In muhlDHT tor Uui p4rp«« 
ur;. W. K. Xeabis, Ch*u»ty-ha»— laiiiroriaaBIB In mbIiu nadilDH- ICMiaoJ' 

caUutL] 
■D'l. T-fluT, rikftoa— luBiminaaii 1b tanaama liiidi— 
■VTU. J. rtCilrasdW. IltMuttki,BiKkd*la.-1aHafVBMilaUiMBn-aRlDaB 
aitui) T W. Lord. LMd^-AalDpnndBodaorAJtMlai, lAv. bauhMlk. oOan. 

and rttirrjann In Iht [TimM irf dnmtin. awflni, ibalkC baawlin, aad fttftAvt 

ran Iw vibtLm 




ran Iw vaaTlsf 

111. W. Haabi, DlalnihaiB— laprenoHBU la baaUna a 
Win, a, KlUbl*. ftaKBlT-fllnal— iBipmawau la Ibt 



Mh W. BaiUk, kaUiburr^im*. Adiliihi— IntHvHOnit* la nllwv ralllDi itak. 

fOtaaiaidcalliia Crum J. D. HninpbrrjA. Itladi J#ii«im.i 
■ML W. PllMa. '*^'"r--l--~ '-)— — — In BrFwrna 

Oalnl A(«ab>r II. 
Mf. ). 8. Baiter, Ealaliltf. Yink— ImpivHOieBltla DU>:hlDeri ft>r rainblnt ■»! Mid 

alharflbma oiMuliib 
ML W. !<»(*, Cbannn-lana— Innrn>«iMat*lB Ikeiuiiuhftunuf toll. KViniiua- 

■MUOB fiiim e. P. J M. Albrrl. Riie do rEmpmar, A Ifonloanr^ Mar) 
IM. J. X- tMd. AlBVick.Sonbambulatid-IiiiRmatU la atada* wbw 
IMl W. K. Ifraw^ (Thaaoi? iaiw-AB liiipni*«4 wda «r nauiibiiailUK <>i|i«l» 

llrNalalMB(to«dIdDaa fO«anBOlaitIai) fCen J. flinaiHr. V«ar. kbu %atlc\ 

lifcwilinil 
Ml. W. K 9f*wiag, Onm a rr -l w a - lai pum a H aU id nn^ion for wtUTi aiid nlbii 

MMa. n^nmitDlcBlMil 
MC t. A a air U B, W*al>1rk. Kmi^ImprnmnniU in pmtKllnK Unai'rtf baltrrft*. 

AlBL laad halfartdK, martallD teir«>. nr cpUi^r i:iwj«trui^Lnaa, uaUut ibxil ur rlidL 

« Mkar jnMUIoi 
MA. W. FTSnjd, Mandm. t^nrulilir, t Unjmiih, cd ihn imb* |d<i*. and D. 

MrTj Baralv^. l^iHwdtirr — Ibi^iti'iwidiiI* Iu immn tor vvtvin^ 
MM. /. lart, Mdiatoid, Vaiiihali-<n>*— Lnprtmmsau In bUiu tor bumlni 

■MHfala la ikr aiaaatoAan if lime aad ranaia 
MS. J. L. O. lUaiT, K lna^Biw la p io num ila I* wtadlaa sp cr DalBialDlDc Ika 

|a»ar«ltfBito 



aad Trfi'llnlni 
iiniiiil^laii tf k(d> aad 

ion. ji.C. W^^CCaanwiLiiM— IiniKvrtDnUlDUwaiaaBllwlaiaolMladtlMk. 

rPaHlf a aanaBBloilliipi 
MU. t. AlUa and Id. Wllnr. WoiIlBtbaiB-l iun a*M wu M to fcMaa laoi. pawr. aad 

olbrrUirfcB 
toai, J. Uard, flah Pna»-IaproroD«M to oaikin to SUlB> aad* ika feal at 

UUat. Mtt^ and oUwr Aallar pin- si booHk^ r>^ 

1U1. ~ " f ~ •• ," 1 . 1 . ^j --. 

uin|>ii>ic ■■"I. ud In banunbif mn aad vnaahMna 
Mit. J. It li. Wtlb^ »ai4lra«, Bicand-taniignMmW IB Mqa udialrwsad 

Uunralia. iCbmiamltailDa Dtmb H. F. Blrwgli*. TVnilMd 
■MP. T Ablai, Hiw Totk, U.tL-iMUiv aad duulbotua pnMti« irp* 
Hm. J. J. v^piwd. (iin aad J. A. luilij, Nun Vint, I..»— laipronaiMto la Ik* 

BHaubawiE of waiiilini pipat asd totH 

/hh-f l/tttmim 11, 
Mil. W. A OUbsr. •MOIIi^tlrm. rnibarr— iBpnnVBniH In W a M l l^ b ill 11 1 to 

tba aiaaub'Mn of rbxfw. lOxnmonlmlaal 
MH. J. K C F. OndnrflK Honth ■inM. nuhnrT—Oirwla lBp>*nnaaa> M toaMc 

anwaiaa 
UfL W. ( Xtwvia, CkBMaiT-ba*>--lBVrni4 gNao* of pnnwtui tk* irplrtia « 

itaaoi bulMr*. (OgaaiaMllna Mb IL k. ■crtn, PtUDii 
MM K, A. Hrsoaua. Bw H toaal t ppwaiaola la ihr auuwUui ol paHaUa 



fCaatanaMIM 



: 9. Oakajldl^ Flrt»-lB|avTfBeiil> In natfaburj tor BioDldUu aad iiiaaliii 

flMallMaad BtaMlowMaaoa., and todrl>iB( iMMOTfrm lb* TiuaUi 

I, O. ir. Via AteqAO^d— ialMpmiwaHa bant aoiaa, Ifck h aba ap- 



•Bt Mkar (IMto dotaatato 
btoirbaM 




haaaia aad o<k« balidln0i. tOnnaiaoliattai IRitB F l><4l« i 
UM. K. A. BiuuaaD, rtoet-Hmi— Iniurunnueou lu UIUbi laifet. 

fnoi Ur. MbiAnll 
Kftt. B. A. Bmoiaii. FleW ilii An iHipmrHwiBi IB Balni watMnaij. 

nlcaUoe Ihna Balat Albaa Usfiw*) 
U9I, K- A. DfaaoB^ Flaat-MroM^InitvuTaiDsiiu In iiiaiinfMlirln B^Hdia it 

•anhiaaan and otktr oafanlo aialaOili^ and In lb* aiBahlawj aid apparaMi 

•BIlBndMwda. lOawakMkatoB JL BwaqM 
HH. O A. Ikis, OanaaaltHB*. Mackkaatk-Aabapn^ ■ i* fti i to OmMt^ 

aadiltaiulainnrBsrtrBla. lUonnaBlMlliia (rua C Vi< Tnrtal 
MM. i. Uaa. Maattlaa-Oaiiala lapimnwali la Jaataaid fct. OwmaM» 

to* ton Gbatallu B. di Saa. a«gad, Tlula; 

UiM. J. I). UflDFT. >otlb4tf«M, FlMbiuj - Uij'rennMHiti ta Ihi pcdaitta of 

^irilHBaed iDr^oB oa W3od 
SIOl r. KaddM. flalt Ko4n-itrv«t, ft«aJlTlj— Im ^ woronmnti m tomv^ v ii*- 

plam tfit-Hiira* M aatti in lur tor alibnr heaitiif cf drrlng kilm, luuilBf gf «b- 

•unnv, "I iMBlInf of bsOon 
■IAS 'vf l^mjr, FollrtnEMiia— TmpnTTHBfnlalD tpvtion *nirlna 
Slitl. '' »' WiIlUiiL*. ij'oriKKil — ImpnniBainiu in ■|<p.uaia> (»- DicbariUBlf 

fdtart^Drhraaow vlibtool 
tlM, A. K. Tarry, todtbrd-nw— Impramiiniii la n«bta<r> tor mUof •scat aad 

glkanlMMiM 
IIM. W. HiCBlIoch aad T. KiDiMdf, El]iBanHct^t»pnm<nTiito la iid^^wkB or 

•alraa 
IML W. a HioB and F. i. tafnm, toil ftaadt. Uada— Aa taapnnd eiwU (f 
<Mb(aolkaUMM> 



GO 



THE CmL ENGINEEB AND ABCHITECTS JOTJRNAL. 



Band J mm a r^ I. 



I. J.T.Itau, awartiw* HrtM— A BBCAim fcr owklac cw^ II W md Mka 



*9" 



nlMM) 



V. fl.— Ab InpiVTRiiBni lu ths niMMrrf 



>. a C. K*li>ku«, BtfHBML 
■■WH* kMltt ■• tna^^ or ^a, findata, or «k« 

t Tf IH(trri Mfrnli nwrMinritiMirr lirfniTiaiWIi HjAiinrj iir»prir»nii rrr 
IJilil "**-'"- II J Bill m or Hlh» (iDploTid fet p&UiM ••Ufo ud otlur 

•.W . BMm BflUIV4lnat— 4a iBpnNd *Mn mia (W MtrtalM dtflM itan 
V K.T MouilbivwidJ n. Framrt, Mto-lMwwIi ta MJlrlni m»tl» wm 

(. i-SoUh. Qnu BrU|(nln>Mnai. (ad ll. WiaaJHa, OnM AHMta-Mnat, 
M MttM lir ■■JHTOHW1 M MigiMn br Amp tmOt, tad k atipHWu cwsMMl 

T. F. H. Ihbitlaj, aiovcurket, Softilk— ImnnrnuaU la tlu conMnolia of 

>, V, m trt wi FB. ImoVinn, Smad. iBpnmmanla la m^ttpf lui nrxaal vvar 
k^ r.aL.IMU,BMif(M. Ve<k-aarnn««l*iB(lliU«lta*pi>U(sMaloM<«Baad 

cttir ooiltp ponr owlnv 
1 1. A. larliotN, IWIOnl tiui* bii, CMniuniU-nNd— An Innnmninit In lurpuf ag 



. jtio.. Itnvrrtjitf. u^%t lUuifurd'impflmcamU b cl*^Bf anAioa to 



nMnboNa 
IL W.B. nUlii 

II. J, rtiw)n, 

t^m^ »'■ vlLh vtinilMni lu>lil*iDf*u 
IL IV LdvmiKu, rticWv-'Au Imjtnttvl cJiliDBf 7 <%p or cowl and *?DU]>lor 
II. & V, i, L ^>««)r|(«— IiBpn"fcavjjl« lu pjwniui uittuAi uibvUsf*^ fur fionl 
li J Biiukf, ULAh)rtr*~lij)|inrt«ttinlBJbcau9«uL/i»Ua|*iid pronxii^ laUknoiJ uUiBT 

!«. J. UiLfnii4ii,r*ik»UH,llktluiT,;. Pilmii. (nd^. 0-P*Innr, UDdn;*iniii, 
9U4tv KflBUuftuu— Aa nvbioUliJ O" lijfbt «li*fitor Mod OoniauMr 
* iUiiMBMaiiMuu*g(W«id 



IL J. IMHp**. >»■*"•' 
IT. i. II, JolidMe. Lluali 



■toip«wiw'»l» la . ._ 

In** Ina-Mo*— XBimmiuata In affwalu fet nuliDK mai. 
Iiai—Mloiiliia Iniu P. da Ittudnr, D|}(u). Fnnal 
W, I. U JoliBBB. UDmhi'tiDB lilli— tinpmniDipiiU In Dnnsn vh(h. LOoDiBit- 

tt. A. dnL UuwUka. Fiuw— luAumnfniU la abwUaia* uiUta punr 
n, J. Mrd. 0(i>an. aoar tUann— laqiRmnKnu la pUiiiBi u*aimt. 
n. R. C. RHnlmiT. BfRmida-pUM, lUlknad, PttUiaOi— la^nrw u aW la pn 
IMlni — ------- -■ — rrt']) [|-f nodwinc aalk aod Mba dracUim •■■v]irwf 

^L J. Tiani<r, ICIa^t.LjiiB, Tfartnlk-'IiapiiAiiiDBDU lu oacUlaUiig cjlludtt 4(«un 

IBH 

HifTla, Ituiirall. lliitiUcHi— tDf«Dv«flMiiU tq uMAlunf 4aJ U*atniUMu| 
■Wlw fnaat 
W, K. A BnsnaB. neM^trwt^ImivomnBDU la lauij tiain-fiicuiai. (pHBHrt^ 

TT. X. A- Bronnui. riw-iinM--Aa InpcvnA AnvD-ongitin. liVminiDalcaUiia) 
nutt Jatt^rt I. 
_M. L. W. WMliot, nuulMbiMnm, Xn'tav-n" inuufutani <i( a ooaipiiMiliin. 



•I; kmm u pull;. U to aiad In prluini uil oiln- pan«« 
trro, H»uo«— T)i» mnoabnuR af »prr tnun t tifataUa or 
1 Uif ul^ oT Suillott ind Spde. wd aUch bt [irujnMa U call Prnu iBpu 



•prr Cnw t tifataUa or bvb Uial (nun 

. J> bo [irujnMa U call Prnu iBpu 

VT. K. ITfvbVkH Chiux«rT-uw»— laiprmikOMntf lu Itetaiau of nanecUn^, wiirvu- 
Uu Mnlnliix. uiJ ajipMiii nwrrrd povgr IIk lb« fsUMm of nUot; brtuki 
■udilHi »iwr«mHM. nSmmijoBltiiUun,' 
(I. A- A- Oroll, Uanild'* Waod Idtn uar >oai(ii(d^InincvroaMBU la Die maaalke- 

WaiCoBBlffl 
11 K. A.. Snoaaa. FlnlMtRM— lEoimnomite la wiiutln^, liMIn;. u,t dimbllni 
■bniaa aalariablaUia Dadiln<ir7<»pli>r*ilibr»la.udui tho mnlr uT drlrtagUiii 
•as*, parte of ablEb ImpmnrniniU ur ippllia'iti- Id Urn nunmuulnUni of nutj 
•Mian W othrr lUCblnciT.— .UoaiDuulwIuu FnuD J. K IlilllnT. MnlliiniB. 
ti. C Blnb, liondun -ImranBMU In Inatlag on la Uu tnaunfuiiiiT ut Inn, ud In 

ofalaAnlaf |>n)dTiru Uicnonin 
II. 0. itol*. l-mJia— lapm n a igla (a rttallMng «mlu cwnpatinJ. uf craiictan 

/hila^ Jliaiwy I. 
U f. Vnnftk, Waaihodfr— liniinHanRililalaciimMiTniud oihnr Rmm •iiOnia 
U J. WoD. aad K tsAaO. BndlkHd, and & lathta. lUlKU-ImiirvnmtBte In 

■mnlBi ini|ilnii>l In Anlaklaa UMUa WrM 
IT A SmndM, BimlBikan— tapnTCaMilBU nuMBilrw lu»K •nd laoonURietlac 

ami DHinilni mo hrMAa, hMba. Ud vUnrwct llb> (ui>nlii|[< 
t*. r. BnlUlaiiM. Oapv«i«M,BaMWd-amar*— An iniproiM uirtbul ufrriiriailu 

Am bM IVin Ua n 
1* D MnkfT. OUlMv' AIbib WorkK VnluUra— An iiiaiinnuniial in ibi auabcton 



Vid, >Wl La ib'< nqU'lmrtioD of AjijtAftitu* it*«L fiv ivh ndnafuUkn 
U^ J. Wton.rrHUo.UvAu^-'tii k|ipniiu Aw clotflflg lb* flOpiiljr MrJa of (V 

■I. i. H. UfAh CWibirUBd Iron Woittv DrIMiri-tawmBaata la Ina and avadui 
Alfa « wi n li. anil In ;ka adaptaUot at imhlimj far pnpiUlBf tb- lamo 
li^ml J imm n I. 
W. V DvamrArj, S. Un, and J, ttufm. Paria— ImpnfiBRiU la ahHli ud 
H (w oHnaioa load (afflHat 
"" K -nii*f4, ftaaaiaricu. II<dit'|ittli— liniiraroniniU In mMallle jiIIh 
B4UIU, rn<MD«, Tann^ar limit—ijuio in Ut pnumkn ti c«iiiuiipUi« 
tt *^-^^^ lb iBfflbia and Arv-bteMa 
It L A ■IMwtaadt. Wirt f i ^ lfc »n«it«* r oot - lniprot»mrDU In Uioiranipiini 

tfnMMHaanaMlilgf w«ltpjib mitoii 
II J l>. Trip*. Kln('a>plaa. OmMfdal-Nid— tBifnni«Hete la ntMliiaUB lir 
i*rtlii| intraMd Mmnr U nta^ UpL oe oOw anaf*M> iMd M -nililfin 
*> tniMuiiUif Ibr B» af i^nn. wyn. and bi|uM« 
«• r. II, Hnbdtor, MoniiKha, DaMb— InpivrmDnnu In nuucniriiiw mpWIe* 
!■ •xi'nt'. (or »)>aniiiif lb* laid ft«a flu- aril J inuuim ibimiT, ai,4 liir nrUtiuf . 
•lufliiL udfafTTliic aanj llio «aaa 
14. n. laiilaiit. LufrnnD-lmiim'wnniU In mmb twUwi 

»L C 8. witibt. ftn-n-iftf-K. lUfUilnn-IniiHuraiBcDM la pmparliu InbrlnUnf 
— pwiali >-■-■. 

t': S. A B'ltman, rkartdlfcrl—tniprpvomnala In loiluific flantu [C^BmoaluUm 
II A, A I'nnlur. OlucDv— tnpniiuuiiiauilUtloi. lawwlaj. iiiddbraiiaiitBtoUii^ 

II. H 7VniUe>. fh^iba^ twIarvlU. Tark— tnpnmDiHiM ll leuli for gnuiai c iUd, 

4tMMd <«laJ tomt 
Ai. C nnt. Konnt4inqC, GriMraioT.i4aAm^lmiTr«pTUHQto la appaALiu tnr 

mlag drufbia la chlDavj* aad ftir iiiJiar parpwa 
l>aM,Aliw> ;. 
14,, B. Huinam., Ii ab «n ta ia Can*, anr ianlir. aad A. Uaandalt. Swal.*- 

Iwpww m ntJ Is Iwa* ftir natli^ 





IT. C.r.CUw,UUJM<d,mMw-Ot>Wala|llB0r«anpaudao(UBb«lb*w*Ta 



or ellvpiBa M Waned ibiiM ina 
Mk y, Mmb. Mra Konl Mud-Iar 



tetanaU^aaayui 



tf. P nlHnrwundT IfnTiriiilii ft rfrtnilna. I antartir ImwnraWMii h — *fcT 
« appaniaa f« ■iiMag, elianliM. ifltallrn, |r'-^'X f"'*''''!. <* Blilit nflaw 



matariali 
«0. W. i. OwVt. Ctna^Bol, Old Bnad«MM— tapmnBuli la nUav axMna- 

boiH 

II. W. T.BBlIk, BjrdMTMne^ SbiOgld— la InnniBHl tn laatoi all kudi tl 

mad 
II. II, C WU, (ka/doo— iBipmnBaala la Mmr and UAI^ jat k*. and In BaAUaa 

te UnUft imMH. and loa trlDn 

19. O V. Onapfr. W«l»<inli- ImprmmnUlaUicinaiiiifHtaiTaf ablrii 

«. B. KawUn, ltlruti!t:>iuii , A Me* at iatmrad uunuhituni of BiaalUo baS* 

KG. W, Fnalskli, iil^Iiiiii— linpniTaBmlaUipi buman 

nt. K J. Ilnifh-u. Maiirh.aUT— ImprwHiHOti M tba aiaDB&«iii« and ifi|llMilM «< 
Aioiiwnu'l- iminnilci: tmu piribi and tanMlKaifc fMaliMr, Itatoa. aiMm. a< 



4 



uthrr *fft(Alilc Bjiil mliu&I pulHUar 
M. 1. lUirU. Uu*.:JI— Ad taipnnnt lock, and mtbodT at adfaoapaatocb-bi*^ 

laiabaa. Uptaad nlT«. nUaajandglbiralinala. bilb. andolbor ■UlHMsliua* 
di. A. UeDoathl, fDUnbad OiuiU* Wotbi, AEndaio—ImpmnHinnia la Ui bmb- 

Ibcaon of ooluauiik pUaalBta, aad duhv nlinUar atnuthm of paalla^ narUVt 
bjn. laqat, aarpiaUaik attall*, aad olbai aUaat arablt il natftM(alil(b 



TOl T- ljiaaa,€bap»rT.Urje'-A Aaablnaoaappafafeaalaba otod la 

log. mil iti^lnf aolmiitiiid wgi la b ia «»t«iaa» 
!1 f miaudJ. wjikw.. No H ltOi—-lapra w «ilBiBaaiifataarta|la«padmj|a. 

•uluUe fui llir uiaXlet <iF (hiaea and oUur aitldiB 
TL J. J, llMaaU W«laa>biu7. and 1. H, flanll, UMM—trnfrt Ti«la la tta 

mnnuIWUn of iMtl Ubn, iirllaHi ii ibnllm i< nuati baUan aad a(Wr aaaa. 
;i, T. W. Knai*^ Cbalhatt-pUw-laiyronaada la Ibe lr«atiaM at Bnapnaa iMbU 

aad Mbar niMUa of M^san 
Tl. ' lobat^ Dpaar— InipfotwBaiUlncbaalDppvtaiaatclaMataf jari, i 

Mm aa ml i. aHiUshlaalu i* ihalololimofawlkeniiiartBua attar )dpaa 
Tfr IL TarnbuU, Hanr^cb, Ruau— InptmrFinDtiU la crndloa far h narl i n a|nblpa. 

i>alM Jiawtmry *. 
TA. i. IL T>aT.aad J. flLnbj^ BlrmlDj^hai^— Iippn>v>ianlalnoooa4nu41af Md 
knobi and liaudlr* of diamn aad door^ mpboaid Isrru. and olbtr i 



aiUda 
IT. J.W Jotaoxm. IJnFOlDVinn Mdi 

■Ing or unllLnjj aA4 omniornllnl Uhrus. 



tiajuir, ParU' 



.tntpmrvmaaUla macfalavrr or aannllA 
(OimmagJnlkin (ran CMlMai 



nulUi) LDaBTldla, anar FnaUia — lajproremAQU In lb* aiauubctar* if i 

BklrUa«i and cnnlairpaUtaHta 
TD, i. ti. Johnaon. Unoolifa-ln'llfltd»— liniirovfiD"ou In Iba appflalUni at tte i 

Inu M ulxuD pUailc imnHa. tOwnannlfaUna (mn Loioii, ruUl 
KD, J. A. Cumtborak Ov^r l>arTda, aaar BUokbora — batnratniniu u lb* i 

anlbad id fonulnE Un loaa* or abad la ilnltt. aanlac v VMriuj. 
■I. J. Uatdam^ tusolwaur— Inpioreamu In BwohiBarT ai aiipaiaUi tor 



coUun, ■oil. and oUiar flb 
«1. i. OUM, 



alBla 



I Id b* apua. 



, AUmdaa-aliiM, W wl aui n iar-tiapraraaaBU bi mraalat BoU lad at 
rninsibnlrBairtoiaBadlMaolbataiibalaiinawuiaisflala'BUbvbicK Ibif ana 



bia<«l. 



ar 



Datad Jmuary ID. 
-taprnnaaaUUIaMaa 

. IB ■achlanr ■> vaniilMtarl 



tl. J aad a On«U, rnat 
M. U J. BrMh. - 

dnlolag blpaa» b Icba, Ul*^ aad all ouar albUar plaatia artioka 
W tt. D, ijit, AlbaarrtiHl, Hauul'a patli-A aalbad si rrtwdlDf vt 

ttliwtj ttnUu and oaMacaa. a|i|d[aiblc alia (a mMtm' aa catDinoi luala 
II. J. Adaais Irj Cigwi«aik QaoonVraad. fiablm— A ailaU ut vibw rlkajfU . 

aaw and bnpiortd plaa 
M, i. Cbanwr. Kwoo(h-nol aad J. WakrlMd, farlilwnt ItiiliTIn liiiianiiiiMilll 

iba Ira-bana ur toiaacH of loaaiaolln suflar Mli^n 
ii- J. HotliMin. ftircstlajr.a(real. LiTurmol^An Itaprnr^maDl la onaalncllai < 

Inn nuau,rB[dik tuaipriM, aad oibar •byia' apan 
W. r. X. KoUa, Kano rov. Ulls-and lau— tinprarnnriiM In apparaua fe( haadil 

aunwbf laa 
1>1. r. K.0III1II^ Park-boa, Rrda-ivb. and J. A- aoOop, Mav IMalditrMI— («, 

pmrrd appnniiH tit ol«uUic Imlrta 
HI. F. Daariiiii, Faria— Impnimoauta ui iiurlTrlnf (*a 
VI, VT. Vail. B n L ft iM — I m pToraaiMnU lu inj^iiiE^ir )ir«paria( ladlnn oam abA ' 

fiain ud ain;lai«niia T'enuUe aub-UiLon lor (ormiuUUnn and dtalUlatMa 
». B. A. BrvoiaaB, Flaai^trMl — t*iv«nincaia li (alnak touorUn and m ap 

tmaMMd tbonvlib. lOonmaBlcalUio mm UIL Oraul, Jaa,, aad Da Pmik 
M B. A. llnnuu, flarMtnat— InnDniDHito la pmpalllaa ablpa. boata, aaJ 

I f I la (CHOinonlcaLllon from T, Joaadr4oi 

D,itiJ Jmiinry ir 
VT, B Blnn, Roibarbaai — ^ImpruTvaitnia in bacMnaa far muliirif nmi aad 

tt. A- (loadatu. aDihUii4-air«tt— Aa ImprnraaiaBi In lilac ^° labulor lla*ala 

bnilun 
lOI V. HooH, CMadag-town. and f. llaldif, Bapwalaf - 1 iBpnrTnn nia i n Uw i 

CjK-turBDfaialal tjpB,aail (bBarraaKDmfmioflbaaaoia fitf torlnui ixir^wn 
101 R. Cbriaiait Halborbaai—lBipniiauiaataliiapparalutfeir n(ulaunt ibai 

ntliltdi 

ftalad Jawnan 111. 
lot, J Mlnll*. and O. WilK Unnlngliani — An iiapivamaiil nr Ibp 

niMaUlepaM 
lOT. W. Ouaaan, Wldata, T a nf a nli lw ■lfnrT^f*infnlr la IhraABufnttnTt <di 

add.aadlBU*oBaaUiHU«olappaniliia oaad fiiraueb iiiaiiultilun 
IW. H. IMIa. MaaabaUr— Hw appUeallos of (eula auiUrUi lu iIkt inMoltctwi 

<< bllda Ear ■oarlga 

rlaowQiof ibaHaual.Ftanrv*— laiprTFTMnanl'ln AbCAlalnf aitraiAi fmai iaa4^r 
r. A. Vaidall. Baa St. Solliluc. Pulh and E fl|-1i I. Iiial tnif flilil rillaini id*- 
hr djaln< and ulDUni 
lit. IL ftuitll, DMbr,--ljBproiviavaUlu ilvraaaadlra-pla 



I'ATBifn AmjKD roK wrru ooururriE iiriicirir.AnoH. 

SOIA. J II K UanHhat. l-aiia~-l(npniiraBtalalsbjdraalU(naaf*~Una,M 
Um, C S. Kmultg. Unadeu-JaiunnMuala u pnyarUf aad nnbUilat 

■nbaUuca for ibu prodnelUn ol Dloun. aad lamaumtlurlnc ilu> laiua— Dk^ 
ntl, U, Wtan-. Uarama fumimttim, OiaBra itiaW An ttapnTad pwiMw. ;!>!■ 

BigD«Uan fraco Hi. Amdn. n«aaa)-I>aa. IT, IMd 
rfulk-Unn 



i»Ii3^ 



IM. W. X*«i«ah Wella. 
"PS T " 
I bapt 



Kmfulk-b 



ubd'iilot laaaa a( dgpaaH Iw tilhwiii 



Mamp^ labala, or pai^t*. h minaj'fii ihuL tout adbarfaa MjHra i 
la a aolibmi^ naaa 4»iiul au-l ~puw*-Jab, Ui, UN 




THB CIVIL ENCrNEES AND ABCUITECTS JOURNAL. 



«1 



STOKR SCHOOLS. 

(Via an JTivwWv. ''M* TL) 

Tmrnm hIkmI* uv Ntaalcd new GviUfiird, md an bailt of 
BugMc itMM— «tiMh M MMlafMn to tad wockvd tb» mow aa 
KatUi ng, ud b feund near Oodalatag— viUi dnMlngiH 
watoT^titbh*, te^ ot tht bMt wtiit* local brtckik E*di adioal- 
mnni w AS X 10, kMl SA ft 6 in. high to ridge; the ruofia open. 
Tbe tQftvLi an far ToatnAtion- The wb«l« ia arranged upon 
Ilia EDVFnua«nt aTilcni, and to accominodaU 380 cblMJrao. lli« 
«oatnctt UKdaiUng lluiiica, eatmiM pl*^ approaob road, 
taew, *&, «u Ittet lit^ Ibr wblcfc maa tbev hara been 
vnentad (7 Mr, W. Swurnr, bnildtr, OvUdlbrd. ander Uie 
diractioD <if Ur. ThoaM* Goodchild, ardiiteot, of Quudfbnl. 



ON THE APPLICATION OP MACHINBRY IN 
THB WAR DEPARTMKNT- 

B7 Jobs Avtmww, laapactKr of MadiiMaiT in tbo 
Boya] Araenal, Woolwldi. 

SmaU-Jrmt. 
Tbi ■mall-araa BUumiutBra et EngUnd, IwUi in (he pnhlic 
aaJ pnrat* wtaMiatnotata of tba oonntnr, h«* not kent pan with 
otbar branehca of iadiMlij, in the aitpuaatian of hUKiiir-siviiig 
Baacbinnr. ThU hu r«nilt«d hva vuiona cimw^ PM^Ij frvtu 
tba peculW OTgaaUaiioo oftliMaTMamafhaiid labour, bf wliMi 
the VftriofM [wta of tba notlcat bava baaa hitbsrto pntduewl, 
tbua mderiaeit dif5ealt1oa|^jnia«biiM>7miaJiSed toeompMa 
lliwwwitb, anil which, at tbe aaoia tiaiii, woold rep«/ th« u«ciit- 
mrr ovtla;. 

"tbe Diaaket befog an laatnUDtntof oonaldtnifala nflBantBt, 
ivi]iiiri>ig froB thoaa wbo imIm it a Mgb d^pw ofakDl, and *a 
utnma luoa^ of worlunjuiabip in dwdjt of ita oampoDDOt parta, 
tba ofcataolta in Ui« wajr of appljriuv tbe ordioarj maehinerj of 
AavMliibe maker are auraeroiia: (oraltbongbtbara majappear 
tame 1 laiiinhhin 1 li«twMn muakata and anudl madilacry, nt, 
wben eeoiMnd minnt«1jr, tha (imilu-ity JKMn ranLkhea. Tha 
(gnu an|ilo^ b* tb« Bsacbine nukt^r h.\v«, with a few oxecp- 
l)oaa,beMi Klmiilincd into the lini^, Ihi- plane, the circle, tbe coiic^ 
and Uia aphctr. nil of which ntv tery nuily prudaocd hj aioipM 
appantaa. The jiaru of the muiikpt, ou tke contnr;, are of 
fcma ao vatioun bikI noui,)i'«cripC u to call for anotfaer dvecrip- 
^ ties of teola, iiivulvinc a hishnr and not* adnootd itale of the 
^■arta l« laaurr 1u naocwfiil tntroducli«n. The parlj of unlioiuj 
^P mneliinrr}', altlMiiijfa aecurate, aa oooipared vItU llie geunal 
wurk of nMpeiit«ra, atill oome far abott of tba predaion miulnd 
Di Uic fabrication of tsiall anm. wbara the form aud dinteuaiona 
are (]«t«n&[nMl to the tbrniaandth port nf an inch. 

I For the but hnnilnMl fcarn, maehiom, >uch u tbe mae lath«^ 
bavr Ik*u nuule to prodaoe the moat nfioed batrumeQia, ao 
a«cur»tF, it>clr«d, that DO baodlabourounldlDiitata thcmi hut tbe 
Work U |i«rf^iriaeil an alnwly aaiorradar itaprodooafor lov coatJy 
for tlir work*hnp of the fantnoker, «bo rMLuiraa a qratam of 
Uparaiua whieb ahall aflbra the tttjnoac exsetn(*i, folly eqaal to 
£a of Ui« pbtloaupbical inaWnmeut maker, but which, at the 
■aiuc ti«e, will .rieid a rate of ravilaiiiiiin Miiial I0 that of tlie 
iiMT« limiJeaad laaarwAiiivl woridnnnililp of the marbino inakor. 
I Tli^ ditAcolly of rerondlinji tliiar two condilioDi, haa hitherto 

^U^u of *o ftrniiiUlile a chariMtcT, aa to have ollered a oompleic 
^Pbarrier tn ibe iM^iuive applicatiou of macbiuajT in tbe nura&o- 
tnre of am*]) araia. 

Bad tbe mauiifiKtni* of muakru boon cnrriad ou ia the aaaa 
S&aBMr aa tbatof nuchioer;, !□ Rtffiiriea wherr tbeaereral parte 
eaf abK-fcilock, bitrrel. luiil bajL-net, were uiotle lUideroDx ajatein 
of maHtgemenl, the ^-fiieral iiitrcdaotioii of refined toula would 
tiare been «niit»rr arritti] at: but ftvu tbe ooDatmction of Ifals 
of liidB4ir.v, with tha arparate parta prodacod br diflbmit 
a»d tltcu afttrwarda oo|]e<^i«d in tbe wnrlnhape of 
lube thete pot ta;(«ilier, then ia llitl« diiliuulty 
iv'lng at uiM catiae of tbe lltoiled ai>plieaiion of machinery; 
Um moraao tliat tbe ptejudiota or thoae eiisnged ia that 
■.m w«r« luitutally oppoaed ti> a ayatnn which pal tliatr 
ta U> one aidi^ and wbicb demanded a degree of 
ictit IB toob and naehliiety out to be met with tu any 
uaBaEitUin la the kbgilom. 




i 



»IX J7ft— Vol M.— Mjibch, IM7. 



Bafcra a aaaaaCaetory for MiaU-anna eontd be aatirfaetoril/ 
Qfoaitliad, tbe worid bad to nndergo a cerUis oonrac of tiaiaing. 
ne iRTCBtioeia cf WaM and Ariiwrighi led to the maBohclan 
ofwiai-hinwy on the laroat acatn whDa tbe invontione of Pft'liMa 
aad Bnuel oeauintd umoat all tbe laaintial cktDenia of tncdMa 
teob, and n»ore ecMdally tbe (Btm of tbe application of KMcbtitarx 
to copy btricaU iEjima fton a pKttarai a pri&dple of openiioa 
which baa been OMiat ■uceiiiftilly developed Is the new email* 
aroM loauubctotT of the war department 

Alihou^ tbe oifficoltT of intmlncinv radical clukit;^ into tbe 
g«n trade of tbe whole world, wbera it baa eiiited for ocntnnee^ 
and wbere tbere are obetade* of a tndilional and lotnl cbancMr 
to be ovoroima (btaidee tbe prime interaata witb wbleh tbqr 
come lato cr>I|inoD), are verr icreati atill, it u notanrpiitlag ttkat 
ta a new omutry tike the Cuilcd Statea of America, wbere (be 
Mice of labour waa rery bisb and ii^Maity aba&daot, in eebib- 
uriiiag tbe ntanubeture nl mall aniu, they ahoulii jNUaoe ft 
dilarCDt Indt (and all tlia Bora ao wliea pla<«d under tba 
nuMcoieiit of audi an able maefainiat >a tbe oelebrmted WUtaeiyk 
In wbich tbe e nc na rf ul inventioaa and mecbaaickl prineiplea of 
other dejMrtnieata of art are aaatmhlFd together, and apcdallr 
adapted to (be reqntrenienta of muaketa or piatot mantifaotiBa^ 
at the aamc time eonbiniiig tban wfUi (be Ina nasafccuutii^ 

Eriaciplea wliicb bave be» ao tninently aatcwftd In other 
nMicbea of bdtutiy. 

There hiring been aouie difficulty eiperienwd in obtajninclfaa 
Uini^ rifle in IM3 aad ISVt. tbo govrnimeoit dMcrmiMd to 
erect a mAouliictonr of imall-anaa wbich aboold corabaae iH 
nodem afititiaacee lor aanng laboar acil MM-uriog tha moat li^bi 
teeunty of prodnclion. Aooordingly inch ao retaUiefaneat baa 
bean oomplotad on a aole ca[>Ue of productnf about lOOO 
muaketa |ier waak. It oompriae* about ISO borw-power, 3U00 
feet of a h a fl ing in motioB, and Dpwar<la of IIXK> maeblnee.or 
appanlua, for tbe rariooa piorpcera ni' ibo manulhetim, up- 
warda of 800 of tbeae nocblnea Itave been brought iWin America, 
m Uff *ere obtained in Belgium, but by far ili« ercnter oomber. 
between eigbt and nine bvndraiL wem made in BuglatM], aad, In 
order to inavre perfbet aoootetk tbe detaiU are boii^ carried ost 
by an American flMtlemaa, brought over bv (lie govcmnHiit, 
wbo poeieeice a thoronffli and practical experfeaee in tlie worluug 
of thu mteiB in the United Suu*, and who haa tbe aauitaaoe 
ofaeretalof biaowncoast(7iDen,fnwa(baeiBall-atm fiKtoriea of 
New Eniitand. 

The leading priadple npon which thii manalaeAoty ha* beco 
orgaaieed ooMUtoof ao extreme nulxii vision uf opo'nttiona, to 
produce eadi of tbe aapante parta causing a maaltetj iu order 
that ea«k «pBt«Ucn or proc ea e bi» be in Iteelf eo rimplc, >• tlial 
it m^ be pecfcrmed br an uaakilled Lndiridual. and at (lie aame 
time mtyaSord (bat ngid aocwracy of fomi and dimenainne whieb 
are eeecndal to perftci fittings MM to tnaunt (bat anMont of pre- 
eielon which will euoble tbe parte of aeventl Binakete U> inter- 
ehange with each other. Tbe openilioue pertmued by tbe 
BeT«nl machmca are ao amagad ooMaentively, that tbe greater 
portion iif the work ta dooa, or BBtarial nmoved, by a (MeliBl* 
nary olaaa of mnehiaM, (hna leaving to tboae that follow after 
ooaipHtntivelf little ta do. laeraly to prodnoe tbat d^nM of 
exact«>eM wbieh ia abaotntely new [itial 

In the ciaitbina depaitmeal, atticlee audi aa the havoBet, the 
•evenl paru of the lode, tbe ramrod, and even tbe barrel, are 
prodnoed byaayvlen) of copy ius either by tbe forging BuicbiiM. 
by diea In the American drop bauuuer, by rolla oontaLiung |]i« 
fonn requiml iipou tboir mrnlw, oebyaonMotberBiadilieaUoboi 
tbat principle, ill wbioli Ibeforoiortliearttcledoca not depend on 
tbe operator m much aa on tbe appofatua. Wben tbrged, aoeli 
articleaiuilwbayotietandthapartaof tbe lod, peat toanannt*^ 
ing depftrtmciit, where thcv aiv pill intoovma to be aolWedi ti>ty 
then proveed onwaul* to t)ie picklios branch, where^by uieaiiaof 
add, all (Ik oside or auale la reoiovcd, ami the pure iiici.t]Iie aut^ 
flue le laU bare; by thb mraiie the cultiug iuBtniau^iiia in tbe 
Anialiing departioent are pnnerved froou the ligurv and Uaotiuir 
to whicB Ibcy would otlicrwiae be upoeal. In ttii> luAchiue or 
liniahiiig rDom (which iMuianareaaf 4U,0UO»iiuiLrD feet), when- (lie 
Bsveral parta are cut to (lie prouer diuieaaioiia, (be tool or inirtrii- 
lUttut wtiioh ia priedpally employed in tlio luAcliinea for cutting 
metal ariidea ia eoiae modiflcatiuu of the circular outtcrc, itvb- 
niodly termed " milling tools." Three milling utolt tin tnoi)«^,^ 
CTC17 rariei* aad form to pnxtnce th<- rc^uirod *liaWL, " ,a„m 
aevaralartloioi^aiidtbayarenMunledun adiuatablc t, ..' 1 l^ 
ankle to be cBt b«ing beU In a pecnUai vice ^r^iii^X^f^l^ 



THE CrVTL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



I 



I 
I 



adifiM Ui itwlf, utd h^ a (olf-kctin;; mnttoo pMtiog truis- 
Temelj K^iniit the revolving <«tl«r, iTlil<:b i* an amn^ tint 
«tmi th« aiwnUoii i* QDinple(«t the uiAchinc itopa ^ iudf. 
When bol«B tinvo to be ilrllled lu an lulidi!, u iti tli« luck-iibu-, 
for eskinpte, it is micIomiI Id • p«r(iKt]jr titling 8t«*l box, hnviug 
* liil provitM irltli holM aafrMpoDding with (hoM requln^; tha 
driUhis iBftcbin* ooetmu a nnaibcr of BptDdliM, «aeh carT7ing k 
drill M the [vquittxi lUc, and raooiiiff at the proper ■peoJ. TbcM 
drilla ia aucoMajiHj nre foaetd throngh tli« rvapcctire noW tu tli« 
ltd oftbe eaa*, at tli« mom tim* DMnbg (Im aoft article vhteh tt 
Mutalnai thus perfect idantit}-aiidalMolnt«itoeanu;^ are obtained; 
Mid R« ouch nucliiiic U innl for a Kn^tn onnratian naljr, that 
opemlion ia tlietebj raiidemt FXtreiiielv nmpfc, and rcquirea but 
■ amall amount afoan or tkiU in ita [wrfi^nujiQue. 

The bavoaet, fram tnA (o laet, nndergoea eeventj-eis opera- 
UOBB, eacti of whkh la definit* and nn]^ and at tlie coucltwion 
of til* iMt ooef the levcral bnyoDota are aa Ptnch alike aa tho 
diifciVBt piaeaa of raoiief from tJie Hint, and tbafprewnt a degree 
of Meaner vlikli iwuld not be equall«d, even at ibrM Itmet 
Uia ooat, Of the tools and apporatiu yibitii hare hitherto been 
enpIojM III Eni^aDd. 

To Bccare aueh a dc^pn* of preciaion in an artide whieta liaa 
to be nikde bj the Ihouaand, iovolvea an euUre)}' dilTcrmt ■yntcm 
of maatifBctiire to thnt pureued bj the mauhiciat ur thi; cugiiiMr; 
to adect a alugle illiwiTation out of fanniiiedi that uigfat be 
Bameil if time permittfld— the tbrautioo of the hole through iho 
bajronet aockot, where it fita upon the end of the tnnaket barrel. 
The Nolid iron eocket, aa it oone* from tlie pickling room, is fiml 
put into a nuUlug uacbine, where, by ni^an* of a pair uf [iiilliug 
inatminent^ It bcut at thn nnda to witliin the llftinth of au iitru 
of the proper aixe; thoo, by a lecoad machine, it la bored or 
drilled out roughly, and nearly to the correct dimeniioiia; then, 
by » third maobme, it in bored otit alill uearer aud very oiirofully 
bjr aal«tioi»i7 inatriiinorit, with the eorket revolving. It then 
prooeeda to another dnacriptinn of nia«hine, to hsvp nno nnd of 
the sookot eomplctod by n revolving tool, thon to anothrr aimilar 
nutcJiine to have the other rod aump!«ted in the lamF mimnor. 
Bx a aixth machtne the hole Is ulightly tinerod; tlieu, after a 
nnmber <^ otber openttionn have heen pcrroraiei) on ditfereut 
parta of the baronf^t, ihiii hole is again enttred by auother 
tapering too!, making tho hole within ■ thoo-inndth mrt of an 
inch of the Rniiihod Jimeimiouiii and, laatly, all«r tixe bayonet ii 
all but oorap1eti«l. thi- holt' reueiveH the ftniahiag tuuoh. By tliii 
■yatem the IioIm in thi: socket of nnch bayonet are pcrfeollj Alik->, 
•ndaatheinatriinionti which perform tlie more de1icatcps.ru of the 
proeaaa have so little work to do, they continue for moiiihi with- 
out the mtaUeit mrialivu. A sinillar timtuient is bestowed uu 
every other part of the eitnrior of the bayonet socket, on it* 
neok, on tbe blado and locking ring, alio ou errry other metal 
part of the moaket, but which tudescribe miuiitely atthcproacnt 
tiioe would oooupy too much apaoei yet <uch ia the preciaion of 
thia ayatem OH tne sevemi jiarti, that wlien o'^mplelwl wiih a 
■Dial) amount of band finish and polishing, the aeveml part^ 
interchange, and ni.\y be lelDCted at random from a honp, to b« 
put togetlwr. 

The gon atock ia au article which, from the irreealarity of ita 
farm, and the extreme >l'>gr<>e of einctneiw reouiied In tlioee 
parta where It has to rtiwivn the lock, the linrrnf, and its other 
oampouenla, » obviouily a most diflieolt thing Ui produce by 
BUWninary; this, however, ban beou doue to the utniont degree of 
perfection. In ita m»uufaetiire the etix'k liax lu iiaBii ihrouKh 
■ome twenty opeiAtio OS, all of which arr on the copying priui'iple, 
Imring only the polishing proecu to be pcrfi>rme(] by haDil 
labour, tho nttiiiK of tiie look, trigger guard, barrel, and all otiior 
■lee parts being nucb un could only be (iquallwl by the moat ciiro- 
All workmen, uo hand duishing being mqiiir«d, while the time 
occupied in perfonning Uie aaveral operations in under balf-au- 
bour, which mclude* the fixing and unSxing of the gun stock in 
the aeveral maebinea. 

The aame syalem ia purauetl in the manufacture of the gnn- 
banela, and oif all tbe other part* of the musket, bat which, fur 
want of time, ennnot bo dtaenbod at pruumt. 

The amall-ams ntanuhotorr ia now all but completed, and 

tbe ^lecfineBtof itapcoduoe, whiehhaveboennelectedat random, 

- iar« laid on the table for eiamioatlon. In an economio pc>int of 

'*^ — thi* uUbliahment will well reiiay the outlay whiuh h^ui 

(«. ^ 'mi in Ite erection, but it will bo found of still sreater 

)■] \nd T«lna aa an agent that will alford a higher 

■ncy and re6Bemont, that will aecurc that 



I 



1 



miuiit« dflffree of preciawo by wlikh the aevenJ parte of ma 
nisy iuter^ange; auil if the mllitarv gumnakera of bigland . 
Winn in tlipir gcnemtlon, they will not deepiee thia inrateai I 
uuuiu&ctiirc, but, on the oontror^, will adopt it, fur it will M«qi 
for them it high rantago ground lucuiujHiliug with tillivr partal 
the world. Nor ar« the pecnlinr advastageaof thia svstum i 
fined to that branch Mt trade sJonc, it i* capable oi ex 
application in other manufactui-e*; aud the Americiui 
which ha* bona iotroduoed into EugWd by the War l>e, 
i« so tiosuiiar aud different Lo that usuidly made iu tbiit 
that it pteoeuta a rich mine vf mi'cbanleal aotioua, W' 
being atudled by our luacbine makei^. The gun-ato«k 
•apedally, is a podtive addition to the mocbanial 
the nation. 

An attentive ex-iminatiou will bear out this statement, anj 
will show that our tritiulantic eompetitAru am not behind oa in 
the raoe of uiacbiuO'UiaUug; that tlmy show un ori^aality aad 
a comiuon-aense in many of their armngemenu whv<n ate 
not to be dcapiacd, but, ou tbe iwolrarT, are either tu be oo|de4 
or improvni upon; and, knowinuall the circumstauoee, i cob- 
aider thtit the guvifnimeut of tlua conntry are juetly entitlrd 
to A larpp nhftro of oi'i.'dit Pt the dotorminod ponuvtennec with 
which they have oarrinl out this great, hut uspopuUr, under- 
taking, which, I am sure, will be fully appreiiialed by the natsM^ 
wlien ita numerous advautagta an properly uuderatood. 

Ammanilian Store*. 

]>uring the latter port of the EWi-rh war couaidenUe 
wAH infuovd iuto ttie uouatructiou of laboratory Hrlictea, but 
uietliud uf pi-uJuciug tb«n continiioil, witli little alteratuo, 
until within ihc l.'uit few yean. After this lapie of time it ia 
difficult to accoimt for indifference lo nueli an impoi taiil particular, 
seeing that the numerous Luveutloaa uf Sir Sauiuel Ueulham aM 
uthers, which would have been *o niivii^nhln, were well knoint 
aud utiide avait.ible in other departments of thesnrvioe. 

Jktween the years )^i4()and 1^3 a few muchinua wcr« in: 
ducod into the raanufactuw of porcuasioo ciipB, spherical bi 
and metal fuses; but, upon the whulo, thwre waa comjiantl' 
little done to improvt) the systctii of production 

In lb23 thegovemuieiil dcti^rmined to ci'ect suitable 
or workshops which ahoiild ombntvethe leading priucijilea 
boat couductod manuloctoricH, in which the raw material 
enter at one aide, and, by n gnuiiial advance, arrive at tl: 
houtie ou the opposite side a finished article, and the macl 
aa £ir AS possible, should bo solf-ncting. The iustroctiona 
were then given have been fully carried out, aud to n 
grenU^r exteut than al that time waa HUticipatiid. 

Of the more important »pplii«Ltiun8 of machinery to RUni 
ture this numertiusclnss of ailiclcs, may be ODnmoratcd 
proilucing the ammunition for small anus, shells, fuiee, 
rockctA. 

The adopLi«i of the Mini* rifle having created a decDftad tar 
the etuiigated bullet in large numbers, and '>t ritremo acca: 
in Wright and dimensions, Ui iiinct these reijuirementa a plant 
ap|>ar»tns has bci^n provided, cii|iuble uf producing ^00 ~ 
per miuolo, or more than a cjuiirlor of a milliuu daily, 
nuuiufaoture the lead in lirst put iuto a cyliuder, frum whi 
squirted iuto a loni; rml b^ UKuinsof tiydmnlic pn<«sure; thel 
rod in then wounu upon tn:>n reels, which arc irannrprrrd to 
mariiini^ry for compreadng the bullet. The bullet luaahF"'* 
entirely snlf-actin{t and unwind tlie lead rod fiom the 
they require it, first cutting off the required quantity, then 
preaslug it Into form, and then delivering tho buUot ready f 
the cartriilge. 

For fAch cartridge a conitol wooden plug, of peculiar forrn t&d 
exact dimeuaiouit, is required. These plugs are made by meuu 
of aelf-a<.*tmg machinery, for whii-li the wood is lirat cut up Into 
long square rods by means of circular aaws; one end of the rod 
is put into the iron hands of tho maobiue from the extremity of 
which tho plug is fushioned by a revulviug cutter and then DUl 
off by auuther iimtrumeut, aud so on uutd the rod !s used up^ 
a boy being sufficient to attend upon several niachinca: the pro-^ 
dijoe iaequsl to a quarter of a million daily. 

Hitliiirto small-arm cartridges have beeu made Up with 
pinuos of pn|jcr that wore roIleJ iutt) the proper form, to hold 
Lullet, plug, aud powder, an arrangement which has been foi _ _ 
liable lu suuie important objections. A few year* itga, a metliod 
of making snanilesa sugar bags direct from the pulp, and witimit 
tho intermediate stage cf abeet paper having bean inronted, na 



tU^ 





•ed up^ 
;he prft-^i 

hoidt^H 

metlu)d~ 



M 



TBS CIVIL EUGlHEESt ^A^HD ABCmtBCTS JOUENAU 



RrywUwdtbt nmri u fta tpHllCiUUt? for ouIvUm 
h hkTlag apptand, atur cutnl aniniiKtton, to oAbf 

■tnoftli with ■ jiivca quantity of i»Mr,eaatioiiir, amlBliU Uon 
Ib MMnl to Mouiw^ of diiuBaloa^ UMi BfiMni (uM, aceordliiglj, 
boan inUMiusaiL 

la Iba BaaafiKtim at utidea, «ich mm oartriilgaB for anall- 
anu«t whicUan ra^uireil by thohaftilmt thiuaacd, k icrj trifling 
■>Mitinii»l DpcraUoD liAvioD h> be {wrTiiniini during iImui pivdao- 
lioe, vill nutcrinlly alfcct tbe qnoMioK et ttmaomy, and will 
baqocaOjr dMMtaiu for or a^ati Ita appllcatioti: it h, tbara- 
tbrt, «t MMDtMl ImpoitaiMa id BiaiiMlwtwriiig tbaaa ■nail 
ataoikaaliagi, that ikayabovMnnderyoBoaBiMeMHafyhandlUif, 
«r awti hava to be ■ubjwted to tfaaopcntiaa of pMUog pravioiiB 
to Um inirodaetion of ilia batiM and fCHupowder, aaelag that if 
ikaj an eraahocl or aveu <t«B|iUd, tba pnMCM of Ofiwtiiig, in 
oratr to raodva tha bolUt and powder, would hnva to ba gona 
ifctMigb, tlina iurolTing an aspcMtitnn of timo and trouble 
mma\j oqul (o the nine of tlie nateiial. Under tlieae aircon- 
MaaoM tbo {orcfanuBt detamiiMd to eraot a Miaiinfautory on 
pnrpoan Uiii eauMielinwH ■l e iiiwily eonlaiiia tlia ordlnarjr 
■aoUnerT of tlia paptr nalur tot tba ndoMion of the la^ into 
n|]p, awl aJao. id additioo. tha apMial npiianitaia raqnired fur 
tfcb pMulior manufoctarc^ but witttovt ilia aheM fN^ier-niakuig 
mai'tiintfj of ike itrdinarr pa|H?r-milL 

Tha apecial apMmtiia rviiuinxl for tlia amaU^ma aMinlaM 
flUtrUga-hi^ aonalata cf a BOMbw of amaU ptrforatal laoulda, of 
lire aana Ibnn aa thaoartridga-hw. whklvMv cliiirtt-iT<t to^^Uier 
oa tha «'nd of a flexible pi))o, iu wbich a vacntm U kvpt op by 
of an air pump. Eai'li hii^r in Uila grovp of tuoulili is 
with a wor » t«d slip oor«r, or ntttao, and tbo wliolo 
alaat«r ia tlw« dipfioil iat» a olatom couUining the liquid pulp, 
vhieb in as loataut u dfawn upon tiieni thrDuglt tbe agoMjr of 
Uie bHoTMl Tacumu, oombinecl wiili ihe astMBaTptwauTC of tlie 
a unoayhara. TIm woraiad mitwii-s with tliair p^par wnring, 
an tbeo plaoed oa ilriavanf tlt««xact tliiiicnaioaia, tliMare baaiad 
br auaai. tha whole opantMB of fonniag and dryin( ooaiipTinK 
about a ()oart*r of an lionr. 

Th« aaai* prindph of nuuiiifiwture ia alao applUable for varioua 
otliar parpnaea, to aoiiM of wbteb it haa Ixiea alioailr npi>li«l, sjid 
it will Im fully lakoa adrwUage uf iu diM tlma. Wb«u tlia addi- 
tional apparatoi thai ia now b«iuK coimtf uolad ia ooaplMed, it 
will raqaJradailf fiUOaiBHaiiilioD banwb to oontaio tfeeprodnao. 
lb maal tliiA reauiranMnt, a oomplela plnnl of ■Mchiner^ n now 
Idw BTOviiM tir Ibr barrd BaaaCuUkrc 

UadlunerYlinayallobedOTlaadderthalnawtiaa ofllia|wwder 
and the bnlM, ai alao to parfom tbe opmtioo of twitUog and 
balcohM tlia noiilh of tha aramliai \»%. Aa tkoM prooeaMa are 
bnth iIfIioiU Bod liuariloiu, the oontriviufi iif a mBcaiue for tbie 
Mqwoo i* Intter fitted ftir tlie laianra uf pttoca thaa for tbe 
brmdi bnatta of the bat few jaara, 

ShtlU. 

riawiiu to aaathar olaaa of aiipantna, that for the prednetlon 
(f (hella uHi fuM^ a Mbjact wlueh baa oocopiad a lai^ abare of 
•ttvBiion. 

Ib \tiA\, the danjuid for the ordiuary oaat-tron alielle having 
Ijeen eitraaidy argeot. tiiany of llu iiitireolittiblafouodriMof tha 
IdBgdom an«u<d in their Diaiiiifwuirei utill from niUBaroiiii 
dUknltio which u* alBoat inrarinbly ezperioucad \n a nav 
nabvr in producing ahalb of the tiM^iiired exaetneae, thiere wna 
oMHiiarable dalay and noeh diwippoiutiiieat esperienoed, both 
\>j ihe gorrmiMBt aad tbe aootnutont. 

Bafoew ihalU ew be made eoouowkalljr and MtiiCwtorily, It ia 
firranr;" to beoDme atf|ii^Btod with a norahor of lainulc pointa 
of dalall, tbe kuowladge of whioh i* ewtmlia] to eoaiire ihu rigid 
fMeUoa of forw, diaanaona, anherioity, oonoeuli^oicy of tlie 
atn, and prrfeot aoandnaw of tlia Mating; <iuallAcBtiana whkb 
•r* imwraUvely denuiaded. In ibia cstnmi^ it waa ooBMdwwl 
adrlaaUr lo en<t a model foundry, for the pvrpeae of aaiAing 
Mw onalnetnn with tbo roqnitite infonantion. and alao with the 
inlaotion of doviaing a more nwiuiMA and. If puWbl^ a more 
aaaaonriokl xyXoin o{ miuiafitctura, di« method oommouly em- 
|)oyed having b«ra ouiiaklamJ itrf d«fi«tj*a. A no* foundry 
a«a boilL aoconliiigiy. fuid ftiroiibed with a aet of ap^mtiM, 
nWch more than naliaod all tb*t bad been anticipated; iiideed, 
•0 imnonAnt did tha nndt apfiear, both in rvgard lt> aoeonuy 
aad the e«oeia«ay of prodaotlott, thai a atiU hmcer foundry waa 
dMemitiad npoo, then briag l&iln«iiae alorw of old iron, gSM, 



«» 



I 

• 



andothardaMlnM Hailable far tha fWpaH of bAg omI lato 
abella. Sach a fotmdfT ha» been araetod oaeaUa of ddivtcns 
90O toaa of abot and ihtlb daily, if each ahonld av«r be raqsini 
Ilia proTidcd with M*bor*e power to work the nuKhiaery, Slain 
oapoMt and vtaj bsility for oan7ing on tbe ihot and ahall 
BBUu&oIwa aeoMBitatlly. Iha fuel and iron paa in al ona 
aide of tha ertabliahment; tbe Bioolda are eMivajwl hy tailwi^ 
ftan the iBouldiDg arm to the liciiiity of tho cupolaa for Uw 
raorptiOB of Iba liqoid luatal. than, without hariiw bean lenOTed 
fron Iba nrriagc^ ihey at« oonreycd odwuxIb tu tLe braaUng np 
and alaaning departnMni; Um ahoUt nre put into tha rlMwIiig 
naehiMt aad tha aouldfaig bone witli t]»e eon afiindlea uaJ a i g o 
a rigid aaaminalion before belDC retamed to tha mrndding ana. 
Tlia aand ako haa to be brofean up, reaiiRd, aad atfted hv 
aianhiiMf7 before it ia retnnted lo the nioukleca. The ebella toU 
ou to tb« busliiog maefaiato, mAm whkili, bv thair own grarliy, 
they will rvU akiag a antlaUa rail acrcaa tna Arwail, ont Into 
tha river by nieaua of a loag t«b«^ aad into tbe hold of a vaaaal 
for traneponatian. 

The chief peealiarity in tht* foundry ia tbe taooUiiiK npparaiaii 
whioli ia aiMJi, that acouraia ebelli are produeed with iinahHlaH 
laboor afW a few faonra' tralnlngi Ita laadiag feaior* coubMb of 
Ml arni^mntit by which the pattera ia dntwn throuj-h the irco 
pUto upon whioh the mooLd ia fonn«d, (hua preKTriog tlia 
Ha^tlle ed^ of the naoU from bactare on ili« witbJntwal of the 
Iiatlcm, Baah Inadiiao haa two aela of a))iuualnB, eorreapoodiag 
with Iba two halrea of tha nouldi bat ilia two balvea bum no 
ooaaeetion nattl the^. along with tbe eora, an aaNiablad on tbe 
oarriaice for the eaatuig procMat. 

Tbe whole of the inouEding and oorc apparatua, together with 
tlie Utimi, have be«u mnJe with aa luucfa ■ctnintO}- aa can be 
obtaiiieil in tlie preaeiit utatv of tlir nria, by the proc w aea of 
luming, plfiniug, ami ecniiiiiig; and il ie invarulily found, that 
wiih Curreet apjiamUia, tho diaucca of fnilarc are noticed lo a 
tiiinlmum. To pirfonu the operatioui uf drilling, acrewing, and 
bii»biti); ahclli), fur the receullou of the fus^ a large plant of 
Dainp'>iiit(l ilriltliig and «cniwlng mnebtne* has been provided. In 
one day of Ivcdty'fuur lioun, dnriBg tlia Lttc vat, upwanl' of 
tO,400alitllapii»nl tlirangli ihia iiiftchin*Ty,Artat whicli probably 
onuM not have been aooomplished in any other wotkiliop iu iIm 
world. 

Pron the oompleteoeia of the arrangemeiil, tbeta abella only 
twiujre to be lifted onor, after whieli uiey roll oawarde till eout- 
jileloil; thia economical ayatetn of roIliDg haa beco intiodoood 
(luriii]( the war, and hail proved of eaeestial tervicc to tho 
dewLTtineDt. 

Towardi the doat of 1854, nn nrgeat denaiid wna nude tna 
the Crimea (or wrought-inn ehcna, au arii..'l« of nepuliar ehaiM. 
not nnliko an iminiUijM dianiiMigBo botilc, wlticfi it was fiHiutl 
iai|)o<cible to get by contract in aulSoiuot (iuiu and uiuuittly lo 
uicet tlie deniaud. In ihb eoiergency, a nictotr cnpaUe of pro- 
ducing 100 of itiww Rhnlle dally wna eroetfdi It covera 30^000 
■quare fcot, contnins 4 tleaai-eogino*, 7 eteau-haaiiurTe, and 
npworda of 40 machinet of varioua doacriptioa^ many of then 
urigiii.ll auJ *|H.>ciiUly adapted to tliia nianubotiir*; aa>) this 
e»UblLih[u«ui wna ia opemtion within two nHntfaa fiom the dalo 
of ordM-, and ihui, too, during tbe Mvcre winter of 18&4-2, ntact 
which la worthy <•( bring iwcunlcd. 

Tbeac alictli are made uut of n •iDsto plnle or alab of troti Into 
au arliuts rceemblins n boiiltf in fonn, with eii or aenii 
hentings; a faaaaHimbw example uf what weH- o i g aa l aed anaagr- 
monte will aoeumplleb. Twi> of thu innchiixre that arc omployol 
in thia mnnuAietore may, ftvin their uoralty, Lo irrerrttl to. 
Tbe ■hvlla, hnvin^ to be of one aoifcem weight, are lumol ia 
A luthu, both iiuiide and exteetullv. Tli* btha^piixUe. liow- 
ov«r, ia a hollow trunk, whioh bolaa a fhaU at botli ende, and 
oach ahdl ia aetad npun by a dean or von cuuing-tooU 
aiamltaueoaRly on lM>th niita, and in oppnaite direoliooii Uiuh 
(he whole anpaiMua la thrown iolo a eundilion of ei|Uilibrinni, 
and riiltered of tbe innrdiule amount of friotioa which vrould 
oihunnw eiuil,aud the i'nar roiiiiml iarodooed l:i proporlion. 
Tbe otliar loacliine that haa bo«u raferred lo la for eunverting 
tha rod hot cyliiulTKal nuM into the fam of a bottle, whiub it 
doM in Imu Uuui live luiunte*. TV> have perfonaed liiii oiirn^- 
(ion by tho otdinary uMauia of 111* emillwry would havo 
IbtoIvihI manv eiu* btaling* «f tbe artida. would haw 

Kwtly Injitivd tho material, and, at tbe aama Uaie, wuidd 
ro Deaa rt-ry espenaiva. By thia ooutrivaDOe tbe todhot 
maaa b pat into the giant graap of a laoat puwrrfnl apparMua^ 



k 



t^ 



TUE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND ABCHXTECTS JOUBNAU 



uid ■ Ktod apoa in oil ^netiaaa bf an intenM poMDMiv* 
fora, tiiiw iMving tb* arthOa no aiUnmitn but to dung* 
iuta Um raanircfl >lup*>, uid wttboat as/ oranpliiig of tM 

idM ■> nuglll be iMUectAi. 

ADolhtr brud) u( ibe tbell dcptutiacnt ii the munbeMn 
of ttw woodM ubotiv vl^tnli hM beau wall d«TClo|Md. In thU 
pkat of ■uufciMTT, tht wb«*U of Uw caUlBg-bUtninMiU u* 
monintad on « «oinbiiMtioo of •UdoraiUu whl& anallMtiMUd 
bj on* nwTMMOt in tlicir wrcnl (linetiona, vtxtii htoagjUt into 
ooDUct wjih m flxed uo]\ Tbe adjtutiiix of this Mop datarafaiM 
the Mivml iliiaoiuioiia of Um anicle, whik tbe ehapc k de- 
MOideal on tlu poMtiim of tlie bfol-bulder*. TbcM tlitngt wen 
furacrij made bj tbe ordinu7 twlaof th« wood-tuner, in tbe 
Bflnnl iMnBwr: bnt, with (hit aMMnnM, bo;! or onduUed meii 
■» qiuM eafflieient, and the nUtava tutce of p«wlm!tiait an 
tnnrmBi< hma7 to sa 

Tbe beiBiBfiberi<«l interior of tbe eatrnt, wli«i« It bat to fit 
ilia aheU, ae ««t out in an eqaally nsuiy manuer. The gou^ 
or cuttii^ tool, le fixed on a moveable contrc, with tha ratting 
ed^ Mt at the nro|i*r tadlM^ iban, b^ ^ring a forward move- 
meot with the left hand, and a iweep to tbe toal-holdor with 
the rizbt bimd, tha tnu Mr&ea b proano*d Ln a few accoudu, the 
axaot depth being dotenained hj an a«(jtii>t«d et<>p. 

A varjr perfect and eitonairp plant of ninchuier7 haa been 
BToridad lor tU* nannfaoture of the diScreot aorta of ■hell 
itiaa^ both wood and metal, apable of prodimns 8000 daily, 
which, for aonuacy and eoonomj, it will be foun^ diffioiilt to 
excel, and in repiiJ to prodaction, i( ia fiilly equal to the wanta 
of anj tmttftacj; hot to enter into detail w^d require more 
apaoe than h at pneeot diapoiablc. 

War Rodent. 

The mannfiuture of war rocketa b a subject vhicb haa 
occupifd a lam ahai* of aibeiiti-;.ii. and tha gnatar portion (f 
a plant of maohlBaiT haa buen Gr«<^t(?J, wbioh will, when oom- 
pleted, pfodnea 600 dallf. T\\« wrought-iroa tubca will be 
made bj the lap-walding yraram*, than cut to the proper 
laagthi^ bored, twDed, and ilriliail \rf apvciidl; adaptad aelf* 
aeong inaflhlwMy. Uirliprto wu- mekeU have been fillad with 
the wBpoaidoB bf hand, and drivon by mean* of a fidling 
wei^t worked \»j a nunbrr of men. Thia ^atetn ii now bang 
abandoned, and hydraulic preeaura aubstituled. Aa (hia in a 
dangerona operation, the now vorluaranmoradfraiBtha violaEty 
of Uw other manufiutorin to a pieoe of ground oonaialing of 
about 1 14 aerea^ wfakb baa bmn eneloaed from the manbea, and 
BOW Ionia a part of the KuynX Arsenal. On thia piece of ground 
a M^un-eeijnna, with the r«qui«it« bydranlic ni.'Uihiuery haa bent 
(nolad. Ae wator.pf«aiDM ia oon*«;od ttirough r>ipoatotha 
aevard preaa honaea, which are eepantted from each other by 
otpong travecaeii whkih in the event of acddeot, may nrevBOt 
ooraBanication; lnde«d, everything which may be oanaldered aa 
oondndve to aafety, haa born dona mpddleM of aspenae. 

Uadiiucry on an extooaiva aoale haa been applied to the 
aamhetura of petvaMlon <Mpt, (riotian tubea, and to every 
daaoriptlon of thia «laaa of war atorea, and aUo to an rxienuve 
range of artidea, whieli an mode of aliMt-ooppar or tin-plate; 
moat of tbcaa aoaebiM* havw been brought from America, and are 
welt worthy ofrst^nBive appltcaUon in tha general tin ware 
jaaBObotnrva of tlio oountry. 

Qum* and G«n C»TTia$tt. 

SPaanng to another claaa of aitlclea — to the manubciun of 
.na and gun carriagta, it will ba found, to My the leaat, that 
e toala and Bianhuetj in tbe eBtahlisbmenta of tbe War 
Depanmant an not behind any priTala nuumCMtunn, either 
in ra^trd to aAdanoy or aa aeonomlc ayateai of production. 

About tha year 1780, tmriug mltti^ to be worked by horaeo, 
nana to England ftim tha Hi^j tbsM warn bt ana ttll lint, 
and altbonn elumayi ware provided wiUi Taritable alidc-nsta, 
and la ifatlr A^ uoM have t>Mn conadand fine apecimcua of 
(Bgisatrlag. Banram IMXaod ISAI a ooniplata plant «f maohi- 
iwy TTiaiiitiniliinidftiilhaiiiaiiiifiiiliiiaiifbiiaaniiitimiiWt whliih, 
altbongh OB a bmilad aoal^ waa (ally cqaal to aBjtbln^ vhi(& 
haa aluoe been aoeotnplnbei^ and ia aU tha mora intefaaliag (ran 



L 



the oirniiinatanea that hatn the conne of improronent may be 
aaid to haTo oonmeaoad. In 18M tha demand fur bnuu f^m 
wu ao gnat that a ooMtdarabla antCBdea bad to he mads to tlia 
plant, in order to niia tbs prodaetfadi to twain gone par weak; 
and many impronnania ban baaa ia tw d m n d , mora upadally 
in tbe tailing dajMrtvanL BiMa gua bad faitberto beta 



noolded on a loam modal, raqnlilng naawnl for aacb < 
ayatem which ia aUIl aOBpmrad St neat of tbe 
Ibnndriea: thia, bowrvor, baa wen abankmed, and a ayat^ i 
melal ualtema with buuI niouldi in iron boxaa baa boao i 
tul«d, by iDMnaof which mon aoMu-at« oaaUngaaneb(nfa>ad, i 
at a icea coat. Eiten»ive additiona have aUo been made in 
«r«otioa of additional machiuoy for the boring and finia 
brnaolMa. and alao for praludDft tbe aeranl nonntiDga reii n 
both for tmna and iron ordnnuce for tha tnoj and aavy. In i 
quantity likely to be reqaired during a period of war. 

From the gnat lUlun uf the iron mortara at Swoahotg , and tha 
great difficukv oxlMirinnnxlinobUaaiBgironof thepniperqii 
and ■tn'DKtli of metal, witbont prevwua pnpamtioai on the { 
of oonlnutonL tha Uovenunont detanninad to anot a fo 
and boring mill eapabia of ivodndng five heavy inn gun* dally 
In thl* aetahllehraeRt the grvat aim will ba to eaonra ucAal of I 
■trongral quality. An oitf naive oiurae of prtfiaratory ezpori* 
uiBDta ii now f^ing on with lodiou, Swedialu and Nova Sootia., 
Irana; aa alao with tho bnt of lli« Britiah btaada and 
««v«nl miituna; tliaae iitXn are both ebemical and pbymcal, i 
from tliaiu importaut and uMfiil rwaiu tat likely to bo dartvod \ 

In tbi> nuuiuEHcUiry of iron jfuna, oveo^ detiul ooodnctra I 
economy baa alao bean attended to. In tbe fonndty there are II] 
wrouoht-iroa ooating ptu, from IS to 90 feet la depth, tfi boriu-l 
maohuiea aultable for tha heavieot doacripllon of orduanre, witS 
the other madilnery and lifting oanaa of a cormiiiondtD 
character; altogethvr thia will be ooa of tbe finaot entaUii 
in the War IVsparttncnt, and (idly commenanraW with lb* | 
requinnieata of tbe eervioe. 

Ills vanalholim of gun oarriagaa had bean in advano* of lb* 
otbar departnien ta in the empbymMit of laboar«a*ing niai liliiMf i 
for working wooil. Daring tha latter part of the neneh wnqm 
the iBTentiotiB of Brunei, Maiidalar, and Bramah, wara 
availa;bla to a limited axuint, oou^atlag ohially of amring, ] 
and ndiar macbiaei, but itill tbe graatar part of tbe ' 
done by hand latmor. 

Within the laat fow yr«n all the improrementa of moder^J 
nia^hiuery have been apnlied; upwurda of 300 lahowMvins 
uudtinea'bave beau brought iulu operatiuo: bcaidea aanie twen^ 
Btaaw engines. In aucb an extenaive ooUeotion, while man 
the macfaloM aia oumiooa, than an a number which ban I 
bronzht from America and Praaoi^ that ccinuin many no* 
worthy of tha aticntioa of primta manubclurcni; but wbieh, j 
a abort paper, cannot even be named. Of tbu more iupoetiurt^ 
worka may ba onunamlad a now *aw-mill, witli VU-lioraa powinv 
containing all tbe lataet impraveoieuta in MWing niacfainary; tba 
anw frame* am larK* enough to admit a leg of timber .t fcctj 
■qoai'ei the mill oontaiua a drculor eaw fit} iuclies in diainctcr. 
which la arraugMl to ■qoara the eoda of the toga in tha aarecal 
fnunm, and to out In a ttauavataa line from oiia aide of tba mlU 
to the othor, tha law bdng nwnabla, and tha ural«r ■tatlonary; 
it ia alao pravidad with appaiattw worked by the pr'Wcr, for 
drawing the haavy baulka of Umber aud dnlivt-ring th«m on tbn^ 
trucks Mtwmn the aaw fhuuaii. AJjuiuiiig thetaw millaa I 
timber fidd haa been laid oat, whidi la provided with a i 
of nilwayn, on which an a number of owrhoad ttavdling i 
arranged to tnverae the whole field, and to pile up tbe Mulka i 

timbM in the best puation for acnamiing. 

Until reamtty tbv wIimiU of guu and other carriagea 
made entirely by hand labour; they art now wholly wMla \n ft 
■yitem of copying nuii-.hiiinry, which haa been vei-y Piiimiailiil 
and i> worth examining by private maoufaclurcra wbo mar alUl 
make their oarnatjc wiuwla by baud. The wheel niaking ia 
carried ou in a room 100 feet aqnare, ooverad wilb tbe ww i 
arrangomoot, wbidi admita mily of a nortbam light; it ia ) 
vided with parallel linea of nhafting at every twenty feet. Amoof^ 
the more intemUng macbine* may bo nainfld the eodie 
law, which ia extenaivdy naad in tbe M'ar DHpaituaot for i 
1"ir|K>«ea; lien) It ia Uded for outliug out aeguinnt* and a« 
de*uription of intricate aawing, which it don iu a style aa rMr 
both apaed and qnaliQr, anperior to any other. Eodkat nt 
knirea on the same prindple, are being employed in ootling i 
tha doUi in the flannel bag oartridga niauufoetura. Tha wk . 
felloes an turned in a lathe in whioh tbe fitrm of the (Orwrr i 
nude in tl>ft cuUiDg tod; thia tod bring held in a dide reat in 
pualiad against tha nrolvii^ felloe, which ia cumpleted ia a fcw 
ininutea Tb« nave ia turned in a latlit^ in which tlia outtf — ' 
tool la guided in tlw required irregular line, imspeoliva of 
worknaan, a copy or ptolile of the nave bdng attadiad to Ibn 



TOE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHTTBCrS JOURNAL. 



65 



■lUa FMt. Til* aorHebg of Um htiom uad uvm for the 
NMptioD of tba apokM, !■ Um doM bj njuhiuM^. The tpidu* 
■n «ttt to tiM propw ibapt bjr Mlf-utiag oojo^ UUim, in 
whi«h wn Uva palUm of tlia raqnlnd mm ia pboadt and !• 
MMintatj iMMd lir die kMMimUu, vUehW m iiianb Um( k 
Ubeonr «u bUmJ npoB uirM nacliiBa. Wli«ii tbe acvcnl 
tt tbe wli*ela an ftawpUnd, thejr we Uiiil in poaitioo 
1 ft dfde (tf lis hvdnuul« prank all poahisg Mwanb > 
"I «eatr«, br vbieb tk^ ata imldtljr, Mtonlj, ukI finslr 
llila imnnfart ory Hmt owUioa an AaericMi 
Bg ttacUna. tb« Ant «f tLe kind ia Euitluiil, wbidi 
m^alrai to b« inawB to Um cabinet tmlc to innur* iu 
d utrodaetioa: aaotliar '"■Ai*^ icrmnl tfaa Americui 
BOnlduig m a« h iBe^ hai abo baaa oni*r«d by the Wu 
UttMUt b«t It Ikat not j«l arri*«di tbit will aJm Ions a 
nnsUkry to tlw TnWitW-i—kiin ti^l* of this ctnuxirj. 
Mpacialljr in tba aoaavbebu* of tkaira; it ia alao n«^ 
lany ofber <l«aaipiii>na of ImgnUr ojf^iag In tbe CuUed 
[StntciL 

A pwoliar batur* [a tiiaapplkatiouariiMdilBrrjr in lb« War 
Dtpartaant it, ilia fnqiMQt aad ■aoetMfiil attaanpt to eoam- 
gU» a oombar of UiatriiiiMOU loptlwr, m aaeb a manner Uiat 
Ibar Baj act an an articU, or a •«)«■ ottunUm, (iiBnllanMuttjr. 
lb n d ect two auuiplea— oaa nacklno la aountad with Iwannr 
or men dmnlar Mwa, on diffetwnt ■■hwUm, borisgnlal, vartiea^ 
and at variau* aaglat, •» amand that a r—r^ tbrongb tlia 
wUrttng group will prodiiM the reqair«d ahape or fi>nD; a 
Mtmbar otpiMM oT limUr arc lli«d ta a moviug tabk, aikj ona 
after anoUier pan through tbe aaw^ and ara uMaiitl/ tnna- 
btnad Into ahapi Afui^ Uura ar» tnaeluDni in wliiob aoua 
iwia^ or BMta drilla an anangad in the imiw maimer, aud 
plaeM ao aa to drill ntiwwdi^ Ia a«ilrr to get rid of (ha cUpa; 
thia prinoipte at ojwratiaa ia asUiMl'alr Mad for hard-woud 
■Mctidng pariMMea ia variooa wajn^ and ia nrjr axpadttioiMi 

Ocdin*rfl7, tba aaMl and glaM pnuarinc of wood-WDrk, ovao 
in large nanofactortee^ ia parforawd by the hauil; in the Vfor 
Dapartanant tha glaw ia mooBtad en drvna, abuut four f«ii in 
dianuter, which are drivoa at a bl^b apaedi hj tlii« arrauf^iuFot 
the wotfc i* parformad mora n^Mdlv, and yet witli «uiltciunt 
bIm^ tortbadaaaof articlaaio whidiU iaitppliod. 

An axtaailTt luaoufluuua of woodfti boxoi ami packing-caata 
la OBfriad on, lu wbieh tbe wliole of the praiMiBta«7 work of 
■awtMg, plutiiA mortleiog, drlllitiK, auJ dciimtlliig, la pcrfonned 
b]ri|Mdal maoiioor^, laaTitig onlv Uie putttog MMUar tu be 
dMW bf basd. Dunng the war, tharo w«n opwaru of a thou- 
■aad ea ihaaa boxea nado duly, whi<^ involvad ooMddarabla 
•xpuditwa of kbotir in tlia mare couvejanoe at the malMial to 
aail Item the laaehUiary. and onward* to tbe (aotral depot, where 
til* parla are aaatmbM A aavlog of bboiir ba* beeu afKretad 
by an amamokant of eodleai boriaoutal banda. Ttta priaolpal 
band axlania alon^ the aide of die building that oaolaiu th* 
iiiaiihiBwy, and ia id ooeutaut motion low&iOi the depot: within 
tlia baiUtug and fna each maehina ia plaoad a aeriM of ainilar, 
hfltahOTter, baodi, all wofMng at right aaglae to Uia foraiar. 
At «Mb plaiee of wuud ia <xuapletcd at nof nuehinet it ia ikniwa 
Bpen tba traurvetae baud br Uh worlcniiui, and br it ia dcliv«««d 
ttpoo iha long band which oonrcya it to th« ilepM, when tbe 
parla an ea p a r ated ioio bto«^ roady for tbe woriiBMB who put 
the peMca to^tthrr into boxeei 

Tba <[tuuitily uf thia ebwa of articlea that ie nquiiwl ia enor- 
nuoa lAat]rttr they nambarad 387,171. Uf heavy uDrtar-beda, 
gun-earriagaa of digwaat dugripttona, with tli« li'iabfra for the 
travaUing-cairiagea, and liafMeUut plalfortnr, ilie latvr iiniubar 
of 3715 wan praicliMad, nod tbe toial anutlMr ofoomplato 
»rlidaa whllb ptated thro<^ thedoMrtanintaniouulad lo M^13). 
Thalr coupanant pari* would uamtwr miuiy mitlioiua. 

Amuridmbl* amount of for««J wruui;lit'imn workiaeinplayad 
in the eoaatnotioB of gun carrtaga«v and trom the ctrouioetanM 
that nany of the artictn at* raqnired of tha Muoe aliape, an 
oppartnnlV baa bean aOorded of prodaoing many of thom by 
n«MDi of ataam hkmman and other niMbiMi^ which, wore a fcwer 
avmbar mqirind, would bafa lo be mad* tf the banuner and band 
oftbabiaetamitb. An eilaaaiva vaitotj of audi artldea ia nado 
iB dl«a nadar the atean hanuMr; tbepiMtof iron Itflrvtroagbly 
b«Bt into tha ittft, then made welding hot aud put between the 
dla«; a «Bgl* blow aqiiaabaa it Into emy cranca, and the fin 
I the middla wbare tha dice fain, ia ajVcnrunlB cvt 



vhicJi ia 1% in I 

otfiy baingpnahadUupnghiaothardleby'i 



lOf a punching 



Ai . _ . 

baa bean foond axeeadlngly naf ul la alnnKng the 
ab4alnlng pacnllar forma of Iron bar that are not to be hnd In the 
Bvket, and alao to work up tb* vhule uf the aorap Iron ef tit* 
dapanmante. An intenating featnra in thia rollbg mill \m m 
nMttMdafaaUngkngabA luga, cratMoaMaof bar iron, -lor 
IndMa la brandtb, and tnm 4 to 8 bet in diametar; to 
roll aitoba bar Into Uwfcrm of a boop ia eounMn, balUMninUflg 
of ring* ia not ao gananl; it ia aoeontpUibad by plaeli^ a riglil 
goida MliindtlMinalgnwnintbarDlla,ao that, aa tha nd hot 
bar loMoa tb ar efrom, il aocnaa hilo contact with tbe gnid^ and 
thereby ie oonaoalnad to ewaap roand into tha enrre rM^nind. 
which itdoaa in aa isMant of time, and withonl an/ additiconl 
eiponac having to be inoumd. An immenae niuabar of iimilar 
and equally inimctautoontrivaiWN ooold ba namad If tba tima 
panuittod. foralthongb thaaa mlantadala i lico n atitgtathekeyatoBa 
on which Iba antOM at a inanithtliMir mainly deyenda, atU^ 
finun their manbar, Ihay ar« not admianbla iato a gananl alat*- 
meat. 

Gnapewdrr. 

Daring Iha Franeh war th«r« wara three govarament mann* 
betcrieacfgnapowdcr; th««« now mnaina bat tneoMatWal than 
Abbey. From tbe Urge etock of powder OB hand at the pMce In 
1815, thia «alaUiafan«Dt, by tha yaar 1640^ hadanak loaverj low 
atala. At that time tha prodnea waa only aqoal to about 3000 
barrele par anntun, and tbe grearer portion of the plant and 
DMohinerr waa oonplctalT worn out In that year oomnMoeed a 
eonne of iroprovenMut which baa been ooDtiaaoOB op to tbe pn- 
aont time, tbe ptodoca now btiag abont UjOOO barrua, and, In a 
abort tlmey it will amonat to HtflOO bairalB par annnm. 

One of tha leading batuna in tbe many improvamenta ia 
tha anbelitntioa uf metal for wood in the omattuMloa ef tht 
powder maebiaery. Tba wooden watar-whael^ anotad by tha 
oelahmtod SOMalon, are bcdag ivplaead hj Itgfat iroa whatb, with 
avan modem appUaaoe lo auika the Buoat oTihe watar^wer. 

The driving gaar of tlia ineofpccating nulla baa been placail 
nsdarground, ao that in tbe eveot cf MpJoaiao tt may ba aafo 
from tbe daaUnotiTe eftcC; and watartauka hare been plaoail 
Dvertuad, ready at any moment, lo dala^a tha mill in the avwit 
of ex|rfaeJoa in the »ajob>iiig homo, the cocomunioating amngp- 
meata bring aalf-actiag. 

A new ayatom of graaolating maehinrry baa bran iatrodoead 
to take the place of the fiu- man daageroua prtioeaa of hand-corn- 
ing. Aa thia ia l^ br tha moat etitieal part of the aa n tth rt nia^ 
a Urge aaonnt c« care haa btan ezpaadad to make the opetntieoa 
aa aaA aa may be attainable. Tbomaehiae hoa been made aalf- 
aoting to an extent which diapanaea with any atundanoe. A 
(loanuty of prewnl oak* fc pat intoa hopper hrion- ihp marhlma 
goa to work; fir-ui tbl* WHigtilJff* it anppllM iMlf br mruu of an 
eudlen band, aud Uien, by toothed roUant. it broaka the hard cake 
Into tbe different aorta of gnla. then. In aa arrangement of rierao. 
It aaparatae tham and depoMta the vaiioaa qaalltlaa of ooaiaa and 
ftM grain ie their reapoctivo boxee; aa Iheae boxaa baen ia a tlM, 
the maeliiite naaorea them uf it* own aeeord, and pata dmra 
tmptyotwainataad,nat!liuauppty iicihanatad, when it atopa 
uf iiaelf, and after having dona to, and all danger beinjg over, 
it Uini ringa a bell hr ita attradant, whc^ laMBWtifle may 
have boui rradiog a book in a place of aalk^ pforUad for tbn 
purpose. 

Tliia iBiuiuCutory oonUlna tweaty.ooe water whcel% each on an 
average of four horeo-puwrr, luid one itoain-eDgiae of 30-faor<te 
powrr, undupon tbe whdcUn very omlitahleMtaoliahment, while 
in regard to quality tbe powder U oonaidarad taoond to none in 
the worU. 

FlMlitif PatUtr^ 

Tho numrroai waoU of tbo army in the Oriaiea, and ita gnat 
linpcD'teiice on mechanical reaonme, enggeai ad the idea of eanding 
out a fliKiting CMtory. Aacraw alaam^aaBel,of aootona^haviaK 
b«en proeurmi, At waa Sued up aa a factory, with geaimg aad 
all the oanal bnU of on anginaai'a ariablidwicnti li oortala ad a 
cupola, fonr imdth'a forgea^ twaaty-alghl heavy maahlw^ and 
many tboomnd amall took, aad a gwaral aaaortmaat <f aneli 
atorea aad natarlalaM wan likely lobe raqnired: itaUocoBtaiaad 
a compMa aaw alllL*'*!' ^1 tlx* requircmautaof a bnaaandiren 
fonadry. aa amngamaatofpcTtablueuginc^etandaidi^anddiaA- 
ing to aat up a maiiuGkctory on aay leeM piaea of grovnd aaboic^ 
if Mich abould bo reqnired. Tha cnglaaa cf the vwaal wan 
arranged lo work aither thaacnw of UMahipor thamackinaaji 



68 



THE CIVIL BNGINEEB AND AttCIUTECTS JOUBHAL. 



•■a In tMi wMin 4ft«r Ui« WK-lCni)M«r cm tbe Older Uib TMwl 
WM iwdy far m*, with % mwufier ud h ftm • body at picked 
workmaaM eonld ba dMiMd: tbM w«n all atloetcd in Um 
rioinily of KaweHU»«poti-T}rne. Ob Mrinng nt BaUkUvn tin 
fanoMBM) Importaaoe at the wtabUabnent wu nt ohm duaoa- 
•tnu«d; a Ibuiidrjr wu srl np on altoM^ whidi vu ki^ In cqo- 
■Unl naployiiMiil wliliti lli« vmmI rmiunwl in tlu Crimea. 
BeqaniUonn nnorrd tii fniRi ntl bnnobMOf the Mrrien, which wen 
eznctiUd with nn nliuirit; that Bxcit*il tho oooiniaKUtiDa of all 
eodoiniM. Sevi'Qly-niuc rcquiiilioiia were oiada fur npnln to 
tli« tvilwny plant, brly-niuc rrum ibH uavy, and aii^-olght from 
Mm alMun tranipon wn)^ inilppcodmtljr of tha la^timate 
work of tha bctMy far tli« Bommi—riat and land tranB|)ort 

b BeaidM tlie floating b/eUiry, wmal other pUnta of maohlnan 
— 1 wot out; anoBg tb« mi a ooispltuaaw mill, wiib aaitabls 
n Mgiaa to 81no|w,Mi«ther in Bilaklara, with Uitli tireaLu 
E^MtframaaawaiaailottMrnMcliiMry. 

Pier and Jfj/dranlle Craim, Sft. 
_ Of nufloellan?oui Horrke* parried out duiing tli« vxr, ooa of 
UMl iiD|Hiriant wa> the erT>ctJoD of a ptniit the wharf ofttia 
al ArHiial, Fxtmdiug out into de«p water, h^ ni«a»» of which 
' of IW InrueHl cIiMt of vtmels can lia alongside during nil 
I pxiditioui of Ui« ticta : luul III ooitDocttoti with thia pier is lb<) 
ItppliOKlioD of bjrdraulie nowcr to work the cruien. 

Bitlierto *hipa bad U>lie offju the river, nod to be Inadctl or 
nnlowUd hy mttt>» of bargnit, v'liich wen* flonUd aloo^piide, and to 
, or from Ihp wliarf. 

By the ncwamosoioprit tturiihips can dmu.- up to the pier 
oii'> time, and by mcatii of the hj'ilraulic cnuiea. the work 
a vi-ek ii rtduc«d to leu houre, Ui« limit tospwd boing'.ha 
> rwiuircd to stow away or aUutf the nrtideiwlthin th«h<ddof 
tho Tcatel. 

Diiriiit; the ns monthii endingthe 30th November, 113 trana- 

rorl*, leprMmting a toiinnfie of 6B,9T3 tous, were nntuAded, 

rhich h cxeluHiTe of the •lilpa that brouj^t tiome the land 

anipnrt corp, the tiooiw, horwt and th«ir aevcral equipment. 

bo whole vipeoie of tlilH fcrvice, including the sl«am-en^oe 

'and hydmulic and aceumalalor apparetuH, and the cranM, 

amuuDiiii); to nekrlj' 'Ut,'ii>Of., wiu cleared olTin the Miviug of the 

itiiof of VBvetB alone during lh« Crat «ix weeka that It wiuin 

horatioD — an iinportaut cKtialdoratloii, althoiifh M-coudar]r to 
e far hi|{brr advuntaeo which itaffom the War Dopnrtniont, 
the rajiiditj' with which it can embark war ututerlal and 
omt. 
ITtiiil Imi j(>ar all iTiiuano* eloru wero convoyed to th« out- 

Eataand uuling hIix-im; Ixit «mi01 turew (teamen an now being 
troiluo-'il, the Mivaii t^e to h« derived therefrom being «o obvloua 
U M require no axplanation. 

no Anuatronglijdnulio apparatus, for working the cranM^i* 
nJao btiag adApled as an imm«iu« flre-«xtingiusliing engine, with 
tta air t^mI to iirodnco tlin omtinuotin tquirt of water. This 
* r r«a*«l is iu Uie form of a cjliiidrieni itcain boUoT. with heml- 
rleal ends, and is place] vcrticalljr. In ooanectfon tliMVwith 
I [nb rsMrt'oir, 100 b«t iu diauel«r, haa bom |)ko(d on a hill 
I Ihe Wciuiiy, S2ii fwl above the Arwinal, and is filled thronch 
te fire nuim b; the hvdniulic anparatus. In case of fire, the 
valeriiillie ti>iervoiri«alwa'r"teaay,PiciiuwhiIatheiitvnin engines, 
equal to 30 liorse-power, will gu to vruik on (he puniiiios sjipa- 
ratuaaaounnxllian', auil Xhe two ctinibinf) witlaffonlapienltful 
of water, equaJ to thft twiuiremoiita of any probablo 
ergeuc}-. 

Tfaan Me OB Steiun-boilera In the Var D«partment, — It i^ 
ktrtfare, of hnportanoaUiatm'erythina conducive to anfetT and 
MOBOOiy tu toel shouM be eanfiillT at&oded to. In order lo 
■BOuie thcM iwB eoudiU-ws, a syaleiu of reporting hu li<«u 
«r|ptni«eil, far the puipo« of nhowing iha working histoi? uf each 
boiler, iu teguU to jmiof, times o{ eiamiuatkiB, cleaning and 
,Slpain, also die couuniptioa of fu»l, tJie qnantaiy of water 
aponted h^ a pound of eoal, and other particulars. The 
^ salcrnunalMr of the boilenareaupnlied with Keiiiieity's water 
netvr, br uicaus of which, prucise and definite fcoowledKe of the 
«0ai|MnuJra nicrila of Ui« aevenl hoUen^ and tlie eraporaling 
^VBlae of diHenwt oualj^ will be vbtaia*d. 



ON TALL CHISOrtT COSSTErCITON.* 
By B. HawLiMOV, C.E. 

CHmutT CDtiBtruetioa may appear to many a vef7 hnmble 
th«in«, and if we examine moat oi the atrocwiree n«ct«4 to paai 
smoke and f<in) vapoitn into the atmoepber*, w* rtiall find sadt 
atmctarcsarosa bald as the ihema is bumble. Tobe''*> bidBOOB 
OS a liutory ehimoey" hon past"! into a by- word, or u i M mbtK 
oomparison; and moat certainly huge piles of brickwork, with«Bl 
br*ak hi lins or oontonr— hare, ban, and griuty— cannot h« mM 
tonrtaenttothpsremnchtosdmife. For tlie most part, (MTtorr 
and otliPT tnll chimneys hare one (ona — a vrrlicid base flclibrd 
with. a plaiu itring-«ounw; Ihm a nnifomi haitiT, finialied at lh« 
top by a nhuQ stone string-coune or oipitig. Some few tail 
ehlmaeys nave heavy, over-haugiag cvmiee Imishlaga, cramped 
and hmrid in [ilsce. Many of th«i<e are, bowevsr, lumpy bb4 
painful to ngli^ and danf(eroas to the *tmctun>s. CsmpanPsiL 
watdi towers, nod minarelA exist as (all and aslighl in soctiOBM 
wea as miuiy of uur tall chimueys. 

These remarks willgiTe the 1iey-na!« to the deatinis now pUoed 
btfon thn socie^. "n* Hortsqiu, Eastern, and Italian ftotima 
will no donbt be reoogniaed. 

In Italy and throughout the Gast, a bare or positively nriy 
chimney -shaft or group nf ohimueya, is tarely to be seen.' I do 
not remember to mvb ssen sncli, but I saw hnijdnth whtob In 
design and form pteaacd the cyn. A fint Tlaloii of BritU 
chimn«yj>, as con tcm plated from our railways, must, I Cwr, hav« 
oauBMl many a nigliUuure to seusilive foreigners. Our bonat 
chlmnej-s are fur the most part brick abortions, nwuie nioiB 
frightAil by pipn and oovrls of pot, sln^ and Ittai. To be ofAj 
ia an evil; but such diimneya an not only ugly, (liey an um 
dongerona 

It baa been said, " then) la a time for even-thing.* In Italy 
during the middle affes there wss a time of building (all towwa. 
In 1 1 So there wa* srmiit I o,(XXl tati towers Iu Plss.t and a pro- 
portionate numbrr hiul been erected in most of the ptinafBl 
dtiesof Ilaly, Tlie towers of Asinelli andnari>rniUatBol<wu 
show how udl chimney -like tber wen In Hfp«aniuoe. The 
Aslnelll tower M'muusidmuat entue, and is 371 feet high. U>. 
Gaily Kuiahl designaioa It "a alaadlng mounmcut of priileaad 
abaardity'-'an Annnlli folly. The noblta of luily built thsae 
towers firvt as a mpani of dcfmoe, but sobsequ<>ui)y ia rivahy. 
aa a symbol of illuHtrious birth. Tbey wrrs toslilonnhle; sm 
whit will man not do to head a prevailing fosbiool Ilie tntds 
n^ulremrata of siodrim times neoessltale tlie >>aildiDf; of tall 
chunneys; and Uanchostcr can match the 1U,000 loll towers of 
Piaa, as thenmuubotnrinff towns con match the otiier cititaof 
Italy. I ainoerely hope it may beoouie fashioBsbtc to atrivn 
after giaoo and ornament. A tall ohiuuey n«d Bot be u^y, 

MtJknvl CMmntj/t. 
The obiumey oonatruoliuua of metliKval limes atw only bmbmI 
for the purpoM of dtreoiiou tlia attention of the studrat nwnsben 
to their bsautios. Examplns are to be luuiid in CMtlea, barOdlBl 
residcnooa, and in maiiiions, dsling frtxn 140lt ilnauwBlils 
Brilton may be uonsultwl relative to brick cuii»li-iictioiM and 
obismaya in the secoud volume of ' Archiieolurnl Antiqnitlsi%' 
pwe ftSt ongnved rspr««entatioua sre alio Ik be fbniut ia uUl^i 
well-knovn atvhitectnrol work*. <.>)d Kuglish mausioiM i^y i! 
be inspected, but there are many modern imilatiuna in po^ 
tona-outta, and iu iwnieut, Few are worked out as tlwy 
worked out In ths boiicHl old tim««. 

mi CMmnej/ Finmdation*. 
Tbefonndation ofonybuUtliiigniust bo the Ant condor'' 
earn of an arohltect. Tlie foundation of a tall chimney,!^ "*"^ 
require extraordinary pre»tuii<>us. Ibjck will b<i ex<3tvU<i'-~~~^ 
dressed off to a level and own bed. Clay, uiarl, gravrj, «**- -_.^ 
varying mixtures of tbeso may tai nil the reviimws of that 
neer or aroliiti.'cl. An unequal or imcron fvuiidaciuu, portj 
and part hard, is most to tio drecuiud. A compmsible ' 
tion is also unsafo— that In, dny, mnr), or ahale, oompii 
weight. Many of (he oolitic .iiirl teri.iikry nutria arc coi_ 
to oouaderable depths, and ought not to be trusted, 
solid tb«y may s^em to be. The nroUvbillty is tlial imist oj 
UauiDg l'<w><i^<>f Ilaly arvfiiQDded on such "ImUL tv-<'i 

* PafMMsSu UioUruvwIAntilUctimJaiHl Arckaiil<«iials.>t>i^, 

I MjsataivUf u OOli KDl(bt. Bull tUsk Ibm bimI »* mom sMdaA 

(SSCISlB Wtluvn ill Utf* BDniUr. U^Sl ISIfMI^SiMl, Iht ril SIMrrtnL j 

sfHiM. V* \am. hO**nt, dm van ous* tb*o ■*«. ' 



i 





THE aVIL ENGINEEH A.SD AaCIIlTKCTS JOURNAL" 



W» 



"Ming Vtwtn w M <I«nU f..und»iiou bllgra. 
TT., BwdwB ««l,lt«t ku »t hi. e-winand mow. tad «». 

•MP «Mi. ud Ui^ fUHflg Umb ttp «Uh OMCMU bM hn. b>^ 
MwUm w«U-«telc«n «UI ga Aawu in any 



■Mek Mftttlmi. 



■^ or bMry weighting. TlU W?*-^ 5" '''"«■ ''?'^ ~^ 
orWvy Ba,nf b„i|4i„_!ftJarre«cUc.B. A bur; mbMilRiiMit 
fti • dliruiM oT aianr yiiLjyi''*'"^ aUduba tbe >iu&eo grooad 

w« rMtanuttd o*- on •iJ'^' '''••"™'**'* **"■*"* ■"'""'P"""'* 
-I ,. /^iniifr till*, uiti* cue Difty be. A UU 

:* IMMpurtioiM, b«iJt oil aadi a fonailitkiD, 

ju%eieiit dtpth, would niiot likrlv boOMoe 

uot actoiJIv K GtlllBji tower. PrnMUf tb« 

I ill tx>iu|>i>«(ubl« around ooglit not to be 

- Um tntoDil'Hl beigSlaboregrouiidi ib&ti*^ 

'•i tba flnMbtioB Moiil<l b« mdt mean to a 

hlacotitdtuUj bedoMby piling or by wiU 



"79 ■— — "•«! wrcra 
WWaey, or b.«.r of I 
H Bit m»iU *afe to 
■ "WaiBK loww," i 
deptli uf m fonuJaL 



— on«-f-Ki 



loAy to«< 
BIMI pAtlCoi 

tock>,uid 

noo «or 




Britht and Mortar. 
of llBly ud die ralnaretn of the Rwt im Ibr 
4lruol«il of brioln and BortBr. I have cxBinioed 
bar* tMtod tbe AortBT, awl tauiid that actthar 
olbw u bettar Hub, If as good a^ Uie modern 
re at hit aoiBiiiaad. Tlia pmporllMi of brick to 
iRii •(riMlans tUbn, however, noat naltrlBlly 

Italy and of thi> Kaat are vety iliin in proportion 

Dine uKhea niiur* tiy lach, or at tbe ntcal iaob 

in thMfcueaa. Tlien bridu, or, a« m ibosld 

l« tlimi, tilt*, an fra^ueotly art or bedded in 

TckW *pr«A<l M til* brlok, m that there ia afanoat aa 

T lu bricli. fVoiB Biy «xamiiiali<>n 1 huve no bMita- 

viuR ihat tfce pcrmaooMv nf the ir<^A in iti a grt»t 

ite(>c<ideut on tfiii libenl lue of hadl '«ottia^ totigb 

iTIi* bjnlBil'r'i awiri^p nil.) (he carthuunkA ahoek h»v% 

to overthrow t)i«o» rilrud«r and lofly pfloa; thoiuli 

tliey BOitt hav» «h«k')i, vibntMl, aod beat uoder 

effiMBof UieeontAn'ltug al«n«uU and inti tRcnbtiop 

'- Tbo daiticitv aiiO teniioity of tbt inurtar, hitv«, ib 



th. 



nlnti, akuM ^rM«r\'rd tbo ittuelurea ftooi •utldeo otti^ 

It ii a inndcm proctioo to atiitt the tue of tnortar. 

ilcKtioiii HDcrally aet f»nh that a b«d of tuorfar shall not 

d onw-elgwh of an iii<^h. It will bo a ii«w claoM — but not 

r loM Baeful one — if at tiniM wo ■pecify Ihnt a bed of mortar 
^tall not bo Irae in Uilokueai than half or (pwrter of an inch. In 

J obimueya or towai-a tbe oiorlar ahould b« uf the bvat quality; 

It abonlJ be tfouud by borea or alaaia power, and ahuuld be 

■ed llbeiaUy. "^ 

Thoea who wMi to aanrtain tbe noalilj and power of mortar 

tve only to viall tlia UraiiMol dook^ tmA inuwct tho worka of 

I Hartley. Iliay will tbeta find rinr and dock walla having 

lir eoanpontioB alooat aa laBch mortBr aa atone, aed the one 

nduriag aa the other, ahbongh thai etoBo la th« hardeat and 

Lynuita. 

ptli thin bneka and tbMc bade of mortar th* Italiana naed 

Ita for bond, aad aooM of tbe BaalnB nlaarcta bare polca 

|ber aadoaed vertkBlIy in tiiea. Ttoibar eaaaoc of mmne, 

1 1n tall diliuDeya, but hooi>-irai for bond ia ««{| known to 

bMloa, and ita aid la hignly dcaimble for many purpoaea. 

■ bolla of wioq^t iroo, W gin TBttiEnl tie, may be aaed; 



bat all tail atraittma ahould itapend on tbe amngtb, a ohetini^ ' 
add gntvity of tbs laalarlali^ far stability and praniMmina. ratbar 
thaa ea iron or oifaar atda 

Tall ■•faimoiBya ha** aUaaenta of il<atr«crtiaa to eemtand with 
whicb ar« abaiat ia Italian tower and Eaaioro tniaaret, naaelr, 
grtu haw, andaaaea which may affect and da Woy both briofca 
aad mortar, ni* only reiaclv ^luaat thea* alaoMata will bn eo 
to daafga wmI eooatnut iba e4liBiMy aa to han> an inner lining 
of tba StM, wfaMi nay be ««t oat, taken away, luid be i«plaa«d 
without audugpring tho ctructurti. A apaoe or air Jia iB bw 
bdlwiit Uirfine abaft and lining will ba of great awrtoa iB 
fn^MirviAg thowbola 

Towen and Boiiwreti hava, ftr a* SKMt part, intaraal ttaii^ 
or noana of acoeaa ap tboBi. Our Urgert and talleat ohimuM 
may naaily baro meana of acoeaa provided, oa alao umbm br 
erecting temporary acBflbldbe (br examination and renatts, eboBld 
repoin he ntiuireiiL lltla limt will, I doubt not, be auffitUBL 
Au arvhiiKt ur aa euglnen- ihoald provide for all eontingencle^ 
and ot>t build a tcin-er or chiumoy WO feet in height, and remora 
hia •caff>ldiog, without baring oooaideml the tnekna of futiuo 
axaminatiou and repaint A rtocae^ witb alep aad hand-lrooi^ 
and put'lock holea at rwolar Uagm, propatfy formad (br aaaj 
uae, may famish loeana withla tbe abaft. Opaningi through tM 
ahaft may funik part of tho ileugn, aiich openinM having the 
eharactar of aunk apaoea, tbe foniied apaoe Miig Glleil in, but 
afbeding neBna for tbe removBl of tbe ttUiag wilbout fractarlng 
the BMia work of tba abaft. All tall cfatmaayt or lowvrt aioat 
hava pmpar elaetrio oosdaBtoca^ aaenrod Jn iba beat manner. 

Cnleicr sai AMMoif 

Coloor aad oraaaiaat may b« need in tall efaimneye; eoalnat 
of ooleur may be ravla to prodnoo omamenL The oommoa 
brieka of almoat aay dietricl nuty be aotted ao aa to pctiduea ooa- 
tnatiB ttnlor toBe— red, audyeUmr, oroeamookitr. Tbia tiat 
of the brieka maT be prewrveii aad heightMied by oelag moiltf 
of tbaaunetoeaor tbtL FoiiMoe aaboa aad Hoa will prodneaa 
dark murtar; poaudad red htiok or red tile miaed with liaie will 
give a red mne to tnortar: and cheap mlnenl ooloaia nay ba 
udad to moctar for pointJiig. The oolour of mottar k Mdly 
Bt^kelad, aa the Mubo while lime and oind are naad for all toaaa 
of««Joiirin briak% and aotaufre^uently wliita|iutty mortar ia 
o»od for Jelating tbo raddeet aa well aa tbe ligbteat-eoloared 
brick*; tbe Ught-edonrod work haviu hanaany of bnadtb ami 
kf«pii^— tbe red brick portion bdag irittoted wad brokon up bj 
tbe ooBltaat belwiat bncka and bfda and Joaata. 

If pcraeedent amy ba our guide b oatUnc it may alao ba a 
guklo in tbe uae 09 coloured oontnut; aad althoui^ the mm of 
marfalae of varioua coloun with atone and with brieka m deaig* 
naicd " atrange and prepoateroua,* I rauai oonbaa lo a Icaaiw m 
&roDr of oolour, and moat atioogly advocate ita um where dtngy 
nouotooy luay be relieved. Tliero are plea^ of brisk and atoat 
ffuota dreary and wearyiog to tlie imagination. The oppraeriva 
fialiBg prvdnead by a red Sriek bmlt town -i f I may judge \^ 
my owa aeat i ona iaone of laatiag djaappolntmaat. My aarltwl 
eaaiatieiM ««e matored la lAacaatar, a dean, etona-bmlt tawa. 
Hj firet Jeniaey waa to Praaton, a town of red bri«ta. At tbie 
diataao* of tiro* I do not forjcet tbo diaagretable foelingi whiefa 
came over mc, and which 1 au)ipo*o I never ehall folget. 

1 would oarneatly reoomnteud all ardiLtoctural etudoata to 
•tudy the beat Mok atrnetui-ee of Buglaiid and of tbe eontiutrni, 
at alito th* builtllage b which alltrnat* uouiaca of hrieki, atvna, 
or marblaa are ueod- I woald not abriak from ariag "whtlat 
bladi, red, hfown,* or any other cohiur, if moDOtooy aoald b« 
prevouted and the eye aad mlod gntUftad. Tbe tlmricil m^ 
may call me a Saraoeo if be thlnln praptr— I bold to tli* oaa of 
colour. 

In advocntiog colour, I oaed acaroaly tay that at tbe auae time 
I advocate breMth aad harmony, that ia, "keeping." Tbe lawa 
of ooloor muet be well oudetitoDJ, and tbMe lawa moM ha 
attended to. A* in muric ao iu outline and ia oolour, th* atadeat 
muat laorti well the famat, and atlead to hb thirds fiflbi^ and 
octavei^ or dlaoord will be tbe reault of hia tabaar«-^iDd diaeonlt 
in archilecture are quite aa diaagreeable to Ihoreelingiaadiaoorda 
in muiic 

The liine ia ripe for origloallty of deaim in the ut* of brkk, II 
onr youag arcbiteet will oaly gnpple boldly with aiiatiBg diO 
oultlea. Mariiifacturerv may m found who will eecood hi* vjahea 
if lii( platw and aket-^n nre only pnutieable. Thev matf be 
practiablo, not ooly to tbe maker, but alao to tba oriAUa.'^. 



THE CmL ENGINEEB AND ARCHITECTS JOUBNAU 



Abj aiw fono <rf briek moM work tn faoad, ot in OMim with 
comnoii WUik Tba dlnwaloM cfaajr imv brnw in briw oi* 
tcRBreoUn aheulil tlao sot sseaod th« «U7 uMiiintUllaD of tbo 
■nateriiiJ froiD the tAt^j atats to ths flntihnl tad bnnMd briek «r 
tile; nod the farm iu kU OMMtthouIi be om of •Uvngth, both 
bdbr« nw and after it boa been aat in an; baililinc. The 
tttm anil dinMaaiona of a <»iumoB brick an p«rfMtioiii vun an 
■Imgtii, bcilitr of huidliiig,aad adapUbiliqr to«urkaii7ua«rta 
bond. CoitDtuoD bricki loajr aUo beamngnl to lottn a vaal varwtjr 
of otaanwni. 

I woulil ^nct attaoUoa to the lata Arohlteotunl ElbibiUon, 
wbara tatay of thne maleriala were alkowo. The ottalopM fci*t* 
full infonoatioB both aa to tnakan and plaoa* of manu&cture. "^ 

rtrflMl lAiut. 
In the (lealgns now aubinitleJ, vertical Lnoa are, tor the moirt 
part, HBid wbara exuilii^ atructarea (UL ciiimaeyi) uirtsvAiy 
batter. Tlien ia, I ooDMin^ mat boautv in a verticnl liu« u«mI 
aa propoaei). for nrccodetil I miut rcter to Italian exaiuplea, 
the cbaate cankpuniln sod towen^ whiuh I would ftl& Ht more 
ntadied. I mhy rervr lo San mdkno, Luocn; Saala FrnnecaM 
B'>W'i"i Boom; Sao Zeuon«, V«runai San Mi^hslc haaat; 
tba ntftt woHc ot Giotto, the Ounpanito of Kloreoco; Ihc VaiAixxi 
PnUke, ^ennn; the Calhnlnil, Trvot; aud otiiera. 

Deaeription af SMfhe*. 

Tba anhitoctiinil atndent will nwililr father thonovenil tteeigiui 
-^hatie, uametliMroriipnandtypp, I will not, thorcfnrr, cuniver 
in]r notca with cbbornte diacripticiiia, but ilaipljrdrschbe each 
aketeh, aa numbered, giving mv ideaa nf thr ninlerial Ui be ninl, 
and namiagany peenlliiritleaafcnnKrurrtloD. M(>*t<ifthrilFaisiia 
an fin- dataebod atraonmi, and it la denlrable that tall chimnrTi 
abonU atand detaehed, on ^leir own biun. A qicml (bundation 
nmat th«n be pnpared, and the cbimooy wit] not depend on may 
bondidK for anpport, nor iujum or be injured by vibmtlon, or 
Mttlal aettlemeDt in tlie foundationa, or in the niateriala need. 
Th* vortical fortii adopted almo*t thronghoot may be objected to 
M oArinit a Inrger an« for the wind to act upon. My rrply it, 
the wind will not injure a aound atruoturv aUuidiag on a good 
feundatiMi. Tbefbmof the windinourgreateeletonuaranl^ 
naebea 30 lb. on the aooare foot; the nrnvity of any ohimnay la 
mudk greater than thia. Eafitem minnrata and Italian lowcn 
atand niot only atom)* of wind, hut abo ahooka of mrthcioake. 

In nn oaae are qnnina shown, either in plinth or abaft, anil their 
naeiarepudiated to the uttermnaL WhnteTor material ia uaed 
ffluatae* in wmrae with tbefanok^ortnuni form entira oouraaa 
renmi pllntb or abaft Tlib rule uuat have no exception, hut 
BiuM ag^ly from foDodatit'n toiiinimit An eitemalhaDdof alone 
mar be uw-kcd up with bfick to reoHva thr APtiuo of lire nr heat; 
but iu fliKili caae the alone must «t in bou<l with aone exnot 
Dttinher of oonraea of briehe, ao that the whole nnty be graniad 
and Buabad ioto aolidlty. 

In amaging camion and moAi on chininnya, it may he ncoea- 
maj lo nae iron bond and iron erunpa. In anch caae grent nra 
Diuai be taken aa lo uae the metal a« to run ^e leaat riak ftom 
oontraeiioa orexpaaaion. It Sh pnetiableto tmnbiue imn ariili 
atona and brickwork ao aa to en*iit« atrensth and aafety, iMt 
the combination ninat not be lightlv UDdertnkea nor caraleaily 
mada Then ahouhl not he any cntltn^r^bricka, ifpoaiible: but 
all fan-work ahould luve the tirenikia preaer>-ed. 

Ia penfkotiag ooatraal In oolonr bv bridtwork, I do n<<t eontein- 
ptate tba naoataity of obtaining emlV bridtaiyom n distance; but 
lor the maaa of the work the eommon bricks of a diitrict tnnr be 
an aaaortad and aet in mortar of the aamu tone of culcmr aa to 
•fleet all the cootrut rMiiiired. Moalde<l briirke for oniaineatal 
paqnaeav being iwiiiinxl in email ijuMiIitien, may ha obtained 
from a diataaco without adding very uiudi III tho whole coat of 
the work. 



TV Soiilaft$ CeJWina (/ HoHan .4ri.~After baring been 
aabuiUod lo public criliciam at Marlboruugh Uouer, iiuice the 
Tth Decenibar, the exliibilion of thin ouUvctiou waa cloned uo 
St>lurday the Tth Fcbniary. During thl* period It hna Ikvu 
viHUd by 'f6,(Ki3 perannn, which ii juitt double the uaual uuiuber 
atteudiitg at ihii h>uoii. Among tlieae vinton aa many aa 
61M hnva paiil ^ir admiieit'ii, being ninefold the aven^ number 
payiog. Wo umlervlaod that the utfer (J aale hna been made to 
tbe MorammcBt for latSSM., with tlie monoMndalioa that if 
boaght for the nation, it Day bo aont to Mancbcatar. 



1 



HANSION OF CHABLE3 BUXTON, 

{Wilk on EnfT^ving, Plata VH.) 
This btnldlng «xhibila a nrrr aucueaafiil adaptal 
atyle of Uie old mnnor-hemie. The prindpal pecnliai 
all the eitorioT moulded and oniam«uUl work ia oxae 
brick. It U well known thai a aariotw oUaotlaa to tl 
of ihia n>nt«rial ia the dlAoalty of obtaiatog atnlgfal 
aad v.>rtiad Ucira; but that difficulty ha« baen ably I 
ia Ibis oiae. Some of tli« bricka fi>r tbe anglM i 
window* an aa niiwh aa 12 iocbv aMlli way on the i 
10 iaohea hi^- The plan iudadaa tba naual a«ooaui 
- laatdimce of thia daae. U is intendad to dia 
kmtiBg in the iuterior : all tba jotner'a work ia to b 
.ilaal, ajxed and varnialicd. 
. ^^uliarity b btruduced on the aootb aids ol 
catudM^^^"* ^'"' "^^^' «mimnnic*ilog with ili 
^1 ^a! 'tJt'ffMe- »»d ccmroanilina estenri' 

tfa>a will have • P^^ .....rtm^olJ door of moulded 
eucan.t,c tile, abor^ ^^^^ .^ ^, 




A. Anb-pll. 1. Ouan. 0. rwlii. D, Omn. 

I*. iDiin Tatk. 0. IJilut-tnocD. r. $aarT}. 

Tiita lo<lge waa bnilt in 16.'>.'i.fi, nt the entrance to t 
anitoiuuU&([ a maoaion erected in ISU-a, for E. IJor> 
Tbe matenala an red briok, with mcmlded angle-ti 
opeulnge, and moulded while brick aichea and atiir 
addlticai tu tlie acrammuiiation ou the ei'oiind-flooi 
oellare below the hviug-tvoin, and two btxTrocmi alio' 

Ur. William Rrid (^>r«inn wna tlie uohilccljaM^ 
Cnydon the contractor. ^si^^m 





THE CIVn, EMGISEEB AND AHCHITECTS JOUBNAL. 



69 



ON THE SCIKSCE OF THE ENOINEEft* 

Br W. J. Uioqcoui RiKKiMB, CE, F.aSS. LouIm ft Edia. 

TssfiiguiMrUlwwho, bjr ut tad (ckinoa, niftkM tb« tneelui- 
ai«l prapcrtiM of BMter Mrv« tt* Mill ef naiu In thf wideat 
MOM, tiiaoA wary nui b nor* or la« m» cnfiiiMr. Tba fint 
mftn wlio brblgad k tomnt with a tfilka tree, Iwl in him eaB*- 
' tb«cBgineer;llMflnt nun who dtig tatir ahunal for* 
■4lw ftrat BM wlio dmred a |>tttliwa;r In the ferMt, hftd 
_ Hm«tUiig of Um eogineer; bnl the title of cnpaeer i* 
!• p iotiwly tMUiotMi to ih«v who mnkc the bhAiI «ppUa»- 

1 ociiieeluniMi adeaoe tlieir pccali«r atailjr uid preAawik 

Uu ii bj utDan ■ ooaetractive craatTiTei by l&itiDCt he ii 
■Dond Ui put logeUur the hecUte which he flnde nrowod him into 
atrnetuw anil «Dgin«« for hU oe. Ha in sifted, though not 
iritk tnMta ikill, jet with the lUaire ami Ihp power of Mq«MB( 
iiiOl In eooatrnttina; aod be hi* other pureuite whu thq* Bay, 
be daUghU to Uut aliUl wbkh «iMiaa him lo maalor the 




I 



SEnes the aariiaet noordei) aotiiinity, men in power ba*e 
Moght to penetoftto their tune br n«at alructurM of one ktod 
W another. The kUig* of Egypt hail Uirir uyramlile and their 
cuttk; the Raisaa ooneula aod emperom their ronda, aqueduct*, 
•ad InrlMUTa. Unau-, in tlie hiatory of hii oonqneela, oflou 
nairatea a vktoiy in a few wonlt, hut he devotM the whole 
flhuWr to toll how, in the (ace of gnat dUBeoltka, ho made a 
hrijgo over the Bhiue; and then are woritt fe the paeaee of the 
A^ which will tmmorlaUaa, bio*« aonly than all hie battle*, 
the nane of the flnt Napoleon. 

NaitkMi, too^ (M an iotereat and a pride in the art of ooa, 
•bwdon. Theyanwrmglyaeonaedofhaviug, in anelaut Umea- 
banonrcd end nmcnbated their ocoquerore and lyrante only, 
^d of having aaglaoled and forgotun their bcnobctora, the 
lne«Btora ef the maAil artai on the conirary, the want of 
kuhentie reoorda of Ihoae beoeifiictara of manhiad b*a arfean 
frgoB Uie blind eiMM of nilmiratioo, which led the heathen 
natioiia of aniiiiuily lo tr«at thrlr memory with divine bonottra, 
M that tlwir reiki btatory bfte beoo loot amoa^ the &hleB of 
l^thol'^- In our ovn time, Moh work of meehanical tUll 
umai an inlorait ex(«iisJTe in prDpaTllan to the Importance of 
the work; the opening of a briifge oollMt* the InhabttantB of a 
great dty; the opening of a mllway, those of many eonntieai the 
eamplebao of a Cryalal Palace ti a national featival; and when 
n tnek la to be hniu in air ovar tlie Meooi 9tmiu, or the Fi^ 
of Hl^an, the rvauTt ia aaxioiwly awaited by the whole dvlllaed 
worliL 

Cr«*tiir«a lower Ihia man ban tlie diepoiition and the ability 
ta ooaatrucl; but th* oiantroctive power of nch kind of oaimnl 
fi limited to one kind if atructiirv; and within that limit iU 
opentioui nre ilirrotod by unerring skill, nnd neither can be, nor 
neeil be imiimred. 

Man'i iMRaim^-iiTc pnwer in not limited to any one kind of 
atruetiire; hut hi* akill, ftr Iroai being unerring ta never wholly 
free frosl tmr; he iloea not pomem innate HKill, bnt only a 
greater or lea Mpadty for aoqftiiag eUU by etiKly nnd pmcticc; 
aadhia ofMntiioua era capable of Uidelinite UDprovement, not 
ottty la tlie Mme man, but from nukn toman, aadnomage to age. 

In the htalarr of mecbaniotl art, tvu modea of peogreaa may 
be dbtinnuiaheo— ihefm^rrtraJaud tlie ttienllfie. I iToDotaiy 
the pnietusaf and the Ueerrtu, for tliat diiiinction b &Unoioae; 
aL ml prognea In mechauicnl nrt, whether theopetical or not, 
must be tiractiml. Tbetmodiitinctiobii tbia; that tbeempirical 
mode M pTDgreM ia porvly and limply practioO; the aoientiHc 
node of progreaa ia at ont^e prw'ticAl mid theontio. 

Empinoal prugna* ia that which haa been going on alowly and 
ooBtinoalty froB the earlieat udiph to the prearat day, by meaua 
ef grailoal anieHontioa in materiakand workmanahip, of imall 
ausomaive angrocntMiona of the rine cf atra^tuiK* !iii>l power of 
■a^dnea, and cf the axerolae of Indlvidaal ingomiitv in inattara 
of deiaU. Thb mod* of pro^rcMk though omential lo the |«r- 
faotfaig of meekanicnl art ia tta detailed ii oonfiaed to nutting 
•BuU alteration! on esiiting exampln^ and ia ooaseijueutly 
Baniteit In Uie range of Ila efllNta. 

BeieotUla pcogran in the moohanicnt arte takee place, not oon- 
timoaely, hot at interrnli, nAvn dialant, and by groat efforts. 
Vh4ii the Rimlta of eiperienoe and obaervation oo the pro)iertlBa 

* Ae Utioiacurj l^rian, ddlfwsi to lb* diM g( QiU Eo;liic«rtu( ud Ue- 
ahia* IB iW Crtnmllr at liUi^ f m. 

Xo. Srt-VoL ai.-lUaai. IWT. 



of the aatmmla which are uaed in a daaa of itruotora^ and of 
the lawa of the aotiooa which take pbm in a rlaM of machii w^ 
have bee* radooed to a eaienoe, then the Improvcmeot of each 
atraotima and mnf^'-— ia no Icager oonSned to ameedmHita or 
emhwitetaeBta In detail of pwTionJy eriating wi a mn l W } hot from 
the plnoiplea of eeionce pmetiial ralae anMlMNd, afaowmgnot 
only how to bring the aenoture or m aeh in a to Iha c on di t ion ta 
gtwleat aSmey eonaiahot with the avallaUe auteriak and work- 
manahlp, bnt uao how to adapt it lo any oomlnnatioo of drcnm* 
ataneee, bow diflhrut aoo-er from tho« which have previo«|y 
0Miin«d. Wh«i a gnsat advano* haa thoa baan made b yetaeB- 
tUe progrtaa, cmpirJoiiXprogTeaa again cornea into play, to peneM 
the leaJta in their detafla. , , 

Bat the beet aKxU of oiplaming the dieUnetioti and the proper 
fltnctloaa of amniriad and adenUflc progieM ia mcehaueal art 
la by a naaiage m ila UttMT; and I aeleet Ibr that pnrpoae the 
piogrw ofthe etMio-en^ne. The Bgyptfaoi need ateui in an 
biperfaet war to Dove email piaeea of mechaoiam, fkvm an 
nnknown period of anaijuity, aa we know by ihs wiitinge of 
Hero, more than a oentiiiy before onr eta. For aerentMu 
eetrtnrwe after Hnrc/a tinM^ wa have ae tneord of any progRan 
in the nae of the motive pewerofateam; but with the revival cf 
learning <Mme the intiodncliaa of Hero'a writtngi Into Weatam 
Eutnpei and then bMan the em^rical progreaa of the (team- 
engine, which lasted Ibr abontaaantaryaada halL and oon>iat«d 
in improvemefita by alow 4fgrae^ in mattara of detail. At the 
commeiicemeot of the aaveMieonth oentviT Ita Oana applied the 
dirwi i)reMUKuf nleam to miae a jet of the water ittalf freu 
which the eteam was prodnoed. Forty or fifty ream anerwarda, 
Unl Waremtor added a aeporaU boiler. After thirty year* 
mwiT, Papin inrwited the cylinder and rfalon. Then aavery 
introdaoed Uie nae of the eondeuatiou of the eteam bj n ainaB 
of water. Early lo the eiriitoenih aeDtDiy.NewDonMneombiaed 
theiDTfatioaaof hb predecewora Into the atmiapherie engine; 
ia whi<i, for about half a oaniaij, improvemenW iu detaU oon- 
tinned to be made by Potter, Bei|^lon, and othere, until, in the 
liaDda of Smealoa, It became, eouaidanag the geaetnl oonditMn 
of pnctiod mechaaica at the tlme^ a vwy perfect machine in 
workmanehip and meobanlaBL But all thia improvoiwmt had 
been merely trnpiHe^; and in eveeything that depeoiM on 
principle, toe ainam-eugiaa of tbat^riod was a meal mde, 
waeteful. and Ineffldant madiina. "Aiaa tame the tio* wheci 
adenco waa to ellbet oaore la a few years than men amplnM 
prcwrcM had done In aiaetoaa oentnrice. Watt eel to woric 
aoientiScally IWun the ftrat. He atnitied the lawa of the pmeure 
of ebuiie fluida, and of the anpomtiag action of heat, »o Car as 
thev ware known In hia time (and yon w«U know that near thia 
iipnt bo punmed hia alndlea); be aaoartained a* aocimuely as be 
could with the BMane of esperimonling ai hie dlspnal, the ex- 
jieudiiiirB of fuH in e*apor>tiag a given ([naatity of water, and 
thn irlotioue between the tomporalnre, nreeanre, andvolomoof 
the etmiu. Tlioa maoniog from the diata which be had tbui 
obtainu.!. lie fmiied a bmly of ]>riiicii>lo« exptvealng the oonditiona 
of tlio eiSciuDt uuouomic worlciog of the ateam-eai^e;— and the 
lirM. engine that waa made according to thoee prindpJea oom- 

C' ely anooeoded, and fulfilled Watt'a aatidpadoan aMctly. 
apedfiention of Watt'* fitet patent oontaina no mfaiBta dewb 
of mcohaniam; iiooiuietHAlmaslontinily of broad ganeral priad- 
plee; and down to th« present day, the Nnctioal impamnnMitta 
La tlie aleam-vogiaa have ooneiated cbioily in the enrtyiag iMt 
and development of the principle* of Watt, aod in ibe gradoat 
perfecting, by eiiv>ir>^ progrm*. of the workiuaaahip aod mecba- 
niam. 

Wntl's encoMi waa owing to thia— that befoe* proeeediog tu 
put hia ianntioa in pnwtioe, he had well atudied Ita theory, h 
r» true that the ompincol pructioaofaU arts is man andonl than 
the thei>r} ", and thia indeed ia necoouy, beoaiiao pnoticc fur- 
idahea part nf the data on whioh theory iiifuoiiil*!, luidpropouud* 
quettion* for theory to aolve. But ii<;rioi<ii (ram time to time 
Kriae (Huch aa that of the dieooverie* of Watt) when it beoooie* 
oecrwary for theory to taka Iba lead of pnrtioe, and lo Uv down 
the prinoiplea by which futnn pcsctioe mutt be guided; piin- 
dplea linmdad, not only on the fiiete of former pnctiee of the 
arte io quettion, but o'u the alody and eoupariion of all the 
UAtund phenomciui wbiL'h an oounectod with that art. 

And henm lioi the uioat important ndvauUge of the afiplka- 
tion of tcienoe lo practloe. Tboae who rtudy praetioe enpincUly 
alone have for their giudanee only the atraotnraa and machinea 
of former eoginecra, with the waate of material, and loaa a( ^u«<n 



I 



THE CrVIL ENGINEER AND ARCmTECTS JOFRNAL. 



and otbor fkalU iavolvod in tbem; KDd, vitli ill tbe patience anil 
utgcDuitjr irhicli un be applUil to thoM datl^ ootudderKble 
iiDiico<rEiiienta aw onl/ be aUAined at ttie ocwt of repented hUuTM^ 
AIM crron iu jtrUiciplfl w^ rcoiAla for (iT«r vntlM«et«iI: — but bn 
whbiiliMlio* tb« adHDRM tbnt bear upon hi* tat, him brforv hlra, 
in nntUTMl objocta, luid in tlie onler of the unireriw, stnirtum in 
wbidi there I* no wnaU of material, and uinchiupi in wliioh tliere 
ia no loaa of power. Thence he learn* to bm In mcli work of 
bumaii art Iiow br Et Atlla short nf perfect effidonc^; aoit, 
allhoui'li perfocl cfflcl«ic7 be nnattainabJo, he leAma to judge la 
wbal otrcction pnwtice ouslit to atrire, in order to apiiroxiinate 
(0 perfect tJRcieucv ai neany m ii poorible to hunaan ■ItiU. 

In the Mtinvl of tliU oeune I ahall have frequent ocuatiaa to 
A«w hov toe Hbeory of a itiuctiire or tnaclitne «ota before the 
mlcu] i't Uie cfijilDeer to Uraf perftctl; efildcat model, not eaiable 
of boiuf fall; nnliaod, bat aerring aa a gnide to the eSorta of 
pmelicu imprDrouieut. 

I will now pobt out more epwifically the nature of thoaa 
bnoche* of auMiw which are applicable to tlk« art of the ea(^- 
aeer. 

Tboee braodiaa of Hiencv loll under the general hcml of 
3tttiamc4; but thej are dlititict tn method and applioatiou 
(though ooCln prloclplfl) from lutronooifnifinfdMAlrf, which tnmta 
of the motjoD of the etars, luid from thom piute of jihj/tleai 
tntehatiSa which mlnt^ lo *aeh aobjeeta aa the tnnimiaiiou of 
■oiuul and Hglit. Tbcj arc alio eo fiir to he kept diatinct ttom 
pun or alminKt mwhuaiet, that in treatSog speLiallr of niecha- 
nice as Ap)ilied to eugiueeriiiL', oertalu ftandainentat prludplea 
are to be lakfo for gnviited, tdn dDRioniitTntion of which forms 
part of thecounc of Xattirnl rliilcMOpby. To that eniirw, nlHO, 
miKt bo left all mechanical prubleuia, which ore btcrcrting in a 
•deotiGo pcnul of view only, an>l not praetloilly luelUl. 

I fanve already fV«(iaontIy refenwd b> ilrttelvrtu nod tmuMnm, 
aa b^U the obiocta to whicli the nciwi™ of thu rngiiirnr rclatt*. 

Striwy apeauw, all machiiiei arv tlrucluret, tlioujjh all iitrac- 
tuica arv not macunca: biit it is convenient V> limit the term 
afnidurw to thoa^ eoiuh! nations of solid malerials, whose parte 
atunot inl«udcd to have nktlvs tnotioni and which aiv thus 
to be diatin^ished fruta machtna, wboto parU are tntcaded to 
bavD relative motion and tn perform vurlc. 

TbethaoryodatructurvN in fmcclcd ou the priiiciplei ofttntica^ 
or the Kienoe of equilibrium. It iit divided into two pnrta, 
relating re»MCtiT«lr to the two r<irtiiiiiilt/« of a structure, tiahilitij 
and «rreiijia:— etAbilln being the power of reelsting force* 
tending \o orcitluvw the atruetore, or to denutge the part* of 
which it i* made from their proper reUtire poaitiona,— wid 
euvQgth, the powerorreaistingtbrcestcudiagtuaJter the figures 
of Ihoae porta, or to bT«ak them in pincrs. 

Fnr example, in a bridge, tlahiliiy mjuire* crrtain tvlatiouii to 
oxitt betireen the dialributiou of llio loiul, Uic figure of the nrch, 
aad the diui^uiiousofthe abulmenli, in order to pivveiit thedi»- 
looatlou (if llu' arah-etonee, or tlie overthrow of the ahainierits; 
kud ttrfiiKfih rm(uim* the arch to Im of a thickniMM eufhcitiut to 
rMMt the leniK-iicy to cnwh it. 

In applying ibeprbciiJeaof atablUtrand etrenglh toitmcturen, 
regard must be h;ul to the special pnoiiertiea of the materials 
eiuplcyul, wlii^tilier earth, ston?, hridu, ceinnnt, ttniber. Iron or 
other m^talx, aa woU oa to th« kind of workm-imhip to which 
each material in nubjeoled, and the forma in which il i> uatil. 

The cart to iK.-vimed at ui every •clentifimlly deainied structure. 
Is to ai^ual exactly tlie position, form, and size of the whole and 
of mill part, to the force* which it ha* lo ttutain, Tlie more 
nearly Uib end ia attained, tli« better will the ilriicturo be, not 
only lu edicieucy, durability, and eeonomy, but also iu beautv. 
Thi*, independently of oru.'iment, \i the ftuidanieutal principle 
ofbMSty uk arehttsctnre, aa well as In engtnnrliig. 

TbetMoi7ofindetfn«*iafoundodonthcfirincipleiiof(>fnmM(fef, 
or tbe science of motion eonridered iu itsotf; and on those of 
rfpMMMtue, or tbe soleiiae of the reUlioua betwMu motion and 
force. 

Aire mrrAanUm is the name which lioj been given to the 
e\m*matkal pwt of the theory of ainctiinr'i, or that which takes 
into eansMlemtiou their aeUon in transmitiiDi! and modifying 
motion on Iv, without raoud to the ron-vwhii^liiaatthesaiiie time 
ttansttiitiML Aa examples of Its application I may i,^te pantllel 
motion, the amngeraMit and proportioning of wtienU, aad the 
oometabapingoftlidr teeth. The acienoa of pure mecbaniara 
haa of late b««n brought to a very oomdete stau^and reduoed 
enliiely to the couecquence* of one goneonl prlnelplo. 



The rfynirniiaii part of tiM theory of maoltinet ooaMdcn tkem I 
traoniiuUinK at oner, both motion and force, or perfofrniuig flw' 
It trust* of tbe reaistanow, wbetlier fitvo aoUda or Bnida, ertili 
Impede tha aotien of tnacUiMa, the lueana of regnUtiDg that aetioo. 
aud tlienatnnofthe eourcM of motive power, whether animal 
strength, the gnvitation of water, the correnta of the lur, or the 
uwchaniaa] action of heat. Tbe outiro theory of the work of 
maehintf ia founded on one principle, Chut of the (otuenvfioA ff 
eneray. 

lucblnee have furtlier toboconndered with icGenDoe to thnr 
etrnvU, or capacity for suatainiag without injury th« forces which 
they traoamit 

Tbe term Civii Snei»eenna U ajqilied to a wide and somewhat 
ind«£nite iMiceof auhjectsi but il may be deflnoil a* ombracuig 
those appUoaUona of mechanics, and of tho oit* of coutmctioD 
gauenilly, which bdoag to Itnn ^T troneporl fur Koodt ami 
pasaeogen, whether roads, nilwaya, oaoala, or navifanle Hvcn^ 
—4(1 work* for tbe flMaveyanou of water, whether for dxsiaage or 
water-supply, — to hai'boura, aoil works for the protectioB of tbe 
omat. All these kind* of works aiv cnmbinaliona of structures 
and machines; they comprise tirueturtt — in vATthwork, aa eultingi^ 
embaokmont^ and icaervoire, — in ninauurv, timber, and iion,as 
bridgce, viodnots, aqueducts, lookajbaaina, piers, and breakwaUr*; 
they comprise mucAinM, — aoeha*carnagt*nud locomotive asginest 
look-gates, aluioM, and vajvca, pumping steam-ca^Bea, ilroJging- 
maaihiBTit Their princinlce tlK-refore oousiet to a great extent of 
the gwunl prindples of^ oonstruDtiou and maoblDei?, oombined 
and adapted to *uit the cireuioNtnikcea of each kind of work. Bui 
Civil Euglueering hnn besides some pnndplas peculiar to itaslC 
It Involvaa the art of laving out linoa of tnuiapori, awl aelecting 
the ailee for works, in tho bust manner poasible with refefvnoe to 
the features of Uic country, su nji to ni^cure ev»nomy in execution 
and working. Hydraulic rugiiiei^riug involves the law* of run- 
lallMul of tSe supply and tbudowofatreanu^audtheengineeri^ 
of ooast works rtqulres a knowledge of the ociion ot the wans 
uid tulest 

Suoh ia a briof and generaloullino of tlie nature oftlio bntnohai 
of meohaniaal scienoe whldi coulaLu tbe principles of the art of 
th* engineer. The application of thoao priuciploa to pnictioe i* 
an art of itaelf; for tlus amongst other wencns : — that tbe exact 
exprosslon of a meelumical principle in often of cunslderible 
mathematicnl intririu;yi wheruuitie desireablo, that rules for 
practicnl uie ihoiil'l he as simi-le aa possiblsi and the sagilMer, in 
such cow*, rvqoiruatobuablu lo juilKebow for itiaall(TwahJe,for 
IwaoUcal purpose*, to sacrifice ebsoTute euclnesB for the sake oS 
■iinpliaty. 

Although Moehanioi is the sueuoe witti nhiob the anmaaat m 
ohlefly coiiwmed, and although the couno of losturea which I am 
about to deliver must beoontiiied to incclianicnl C%cim and priDiri- 
ples, with tlielr oonaeqnenaes and applicatiouH,— ntdl it is ri^hi 
that I ahouhl Mint out other depurlmBUtH of Hcionoo which ereiT 
enniwer would do well to study. These any Geology and 
UineikU^i Cheoilstry, esve<ually in so &r aa it relate* to the 
proMrtlea and treatment of raetoU, and of building materisle; 
and Butiuiy and Yogotnblo Physiology, with siwciol rtfertuoe to 
timber trees. 

Beaidas the knowledge of tha scientiHc prindnle* of liia pro- 
fession, ther« la a kind of knnwlodgc required by tho ttmata 
vUcii may bei^ledfiur</ypnie(icaj;andwhichiKile<]ture%book% 
or study can leadi- It oouDriiiea the power of judging of the 

Saality of materials and wurKiuauship, which can oiily neaa|air«J 
y inapectinff them ou avM-y oportuiiity; — the art of directing tlie 
operailonaoF workmen,— 4liat of judging of uoinmerGiaJ queetsoM 
oonneeted with engineering sohemee, — iuid that of coudnotlag 
buaness goncraily, which are to be learnt bv pLvnonal oxperienoe 
alone. But the eng^eer who has sludietl the sdeooe of hia pro- 
fession poMcasSi a grant advantage in the aoqiusition of purdr 
praoticol knowledge, and Icains mncfa more rapjdly and aovnilfr 
mm liis ponional cxperionoe, tluui uue who is willinut thaoretku 
knowledge;— for Uie sdcntUic anginoer |kism«m8 a mUm of 
priaoiKilee, the embodiment of the exporii-uoc of hi* predcciMeora, 
and of the axiierimsncs and nasonin^ ofthoaeBoieutiliomen wlw 
have BtiidipiV pnictical mechauios, which enable him to oUanlty 
liic fools that ha observes^ and to draw from them sound ooo- 
dusions. 

1 r^oice to know tliat no place b the world affonls a bcMv 
field for ths acquisition of the prootioal knowledge of the suglaeer 
than the grent city which suiroisnda ihle Unlvenily. 
Tbe trite antitheeis of practice and theoii7, with a view to enh 



THK Oirn. £NGDiEEK A2iD ABCmTECTS JODKNAL 



71 



_ Um om or Uie ctLtr, u ft remnuit of a Um 
^ lued to cLr«k tbv Uaodcn of j)r«tcuJDra IwOi lo 
IabiI pntKKl kuowUdifei— Iva luud* of luiowledge 
i can oziat only in luuuMujr, aiid wlww lunnony U novhm 
~ npwUnt than ia the art aJBd (cUbm oTtb* EogtiMar. 
he oOBBeMeaudt of (Lit Locton^ I rcfamed to tbo lutunl 
;M»d intnaat whick taea (eel in the art of oonxtruotiou. 
'onliBMry hdviBtagM whicli ntteDil tluU lu that art) lucb u 
. Jth wi>l rcMlatiou, art vm w«11 Iumwii and obvlout to need to 
J tnateJ in ileUtL 

f_&»t bcfoiMl tli« iBBpulB'' it a natural d^Ji^t in oonatniation, 
^~~ rwi>d iIm inJoooiiMnt of rejiatatioii utJ wuallli [jy wliiali 
Hi« Inl lo pnctioe and U> eDOdUnige tb« art i>f Ui« «ui(iuuer. 
I B^uirinn iDiod oaa ptnti-n gnat bmiafidal mkJ*, |)l)^Kical 
\ ammi, ifwarda wbtui tliat art U an uiatramoDL Pbf ncsllj, 
itinual inprovtowBt iwil rxtcnnoii of tlie eu^pnoeriiig nrt 
JtU, DOl Boralf to (Le oomiurt anil ta^ja^iuuut, but Ui itie 
I awl snWiHtvDce, of the ooutioiull/ nccuuiiaUlliig popuU- 
rgnatciiioi ai^JiHifiulow uatSoBai But for tlie poinirfu] 

lof trani|K«t by liut<l *iul vat«r itflbnJod tqr modem ini- 

vdneuU w Macu«al moduuics the miillitudea awcnUed in 
tcitiM eouM DOl bcpantiiuiUlj aupp]I«>J vidi food uul fiiel, 
r tlM ntani nov affordud uf ««ift and eoonoralcal trarcUinfi, 
jritn*BofpM)uloiuid!tlri(:tawoaldofUtDlaniDto<]cititiitiL>ii, 
hMBX uuabw U> raach a mxrkct for tfacir kbour*. The 
_laiuier fiuda health aiul ■trccEth in thu ijiring nnir lila door, 
1 the air aroumd hU dwelliiwi but the ritiwn would Ot^nerate 
porub, were it not Ibr the raUnur anil tho ttwunbaftt tlint 
him lo the iu«untaiD air, nod ue w^utdtict that ■nuiliee 
I BOOM with tb« waur* of tbo mountain •trcau.—Uonlly, tba 
: of the eugiuter tend* to dininiak the tnnatucj aod the oon- 
of WAT,— to promote the fremlly LntCTOonree of hmo mkI of 
lad above all. to aMiat in tho rapid and cxt«BMTO diSu- 
_ owledge aod of tmlli. 

; the 7«<iug fiiginear, then bo convineed, thnt the pnhanon 
i«h hi' ettidiee U not a oiere nrof table binhmi^ bat a libatal 
I a uibln art, teoitiug towarae gr«M and good ande; and that 
~ i<n lo the nuaort to i>vrf«ci hbaaalf m that art, and in the 
I ou which it dcpwidn, i« not mwely a tamer of i ii cK B>tion 
rpoUc/, bat a aacnd duty. 



OS WARM ISO AN1> VENTI LATINO* 
By I>r. Nbii. Annom. 

f . — Open FJrar. 

apra fit*, altlioiigh it \t jnon wMtt-M than the oloae Move, 
nd hvi othft dbndranlagw, atUI hu jimprrtia which <»i»« ft 
I be grti>rally ^ferrvd whererer fuel it elienp. It La ao liiBiilo 
at any ramw can lenm to light and feed iti it b pleaain^ to the 
litiBnil it ii felt by manr to >>(■ In winter a chenn]eom|«nio(L 
igr-fit fialtxiif open firoeof the oomnioa type are: l.moke; 
jMte of hicl; 3. unmnnl bmtioE of the roonta; 4, trouble of 
grmvtit and «rn!ciiu0. In Ixmdoa alone, for iDHtauM, 
Ilvi riirvrijuacd tlint on KL-otint of thn Mnolcy ntmo- 
1 itJi hiivp f jwy for wanliiiig tlioir clolhee 
, . ii.iifdterKiig prr yoar MOW thnn if tliey lived 
r; that thfy nnv trrtiiiunie nt l«nat nnollier miUioii'e 
I more thui vrtnx with ^ooil open tirta «-nuld bo 
lli»t a cocisiidunilile imrt of tlie wiiilfr HJanaiR* and pr»- 
urtalllr of the eitv !• due to Iiiiilt4 in rwtpeci to tempe- 
IvtntiUtiQii: xi><) tli.uth« number of doniMtioeervnnta 
naler bi^uuw ot their hAviaj; to tnannge the preMOt 

hot IfttelT that Ihew evlb connect"! with coimnon open 
„iv« bm fiirlv l<Mkr<l at and ackoowlfil^ by acientlfia 
ni>'l )«rlic'il»rly l>y nrrhittcta, whoae buaincM it was lo 
J feiul corrc^ the ermra. Archit«ct8 hnva been oanieat in 
Ming heantifol fonut, but have dMtiicd tlif chciuiatry and 
buucs of tho lirepliicn Rnd chimney not worth tlirir notion. 
: onfliflrnctlnn anil nranagrtnptit of gntea were left, thnvbiv, 
atf rtilir*!* to the ore nad minoonwptloOT of little-«<lnnsl«d 
workai'n uid ■ervHata. It in tnte tlint M . (lau^r nnd otlinre 
In "Fnacr, Dr. ('raaklin nixl othcra it: America, and Uount 
Bnmfbnl and nthtn In Rngbnd, nude important murka, iind 

llaMii K M il l III llii rr i* l ril['-'- " r' -'■'—■• ■- »■— --^ ■ 



I. 



gare rery oaeful ooaaael reapectiag tint, and that lh« latter 
partimUrly impni«d not a little ooramon pmctioc by eiplainicg 
the advant^ea of narrowing the diimney throaU; bat tnaiiy 
le«on* are required to change oatAhliahed pcMtice founded on 
pop«lar IgnoraBot. Bamfonf ^owed that -if the heat produced 
IB the couiaoci flrae of hit dny about •« veo-cigfatlia went iip the 
diimoey to waato. 

In 1638 Dr. Aroott, pubtuhed a little work on wanning and 
veoUlalliig, iu which tnasy eouunoa orroe* were pointed out, and 
•onw mouM of r«aiedyinj[ faulla were dMarllwd. He alao hoa 
puhliabed a aeooiid tn«tiae on the aaiDo aabj«cbv oMtt&lnlug the 
•nhelanoe of the (brmer treatiae, with nildilii-ina. For the 
oovelliea decm«d of importance, the Couudl of the Jtoynl 
Sod^ty, in 1651, awinJed him their Boiufonl Modal Tlie 
princl[»l novellies are: 1, the nuokelwa open tn; 8 eelf- 
rq^olaUiw and aulf-foKling doea etoTo; 3, the aaine, irith modlil- 
cattooiL Mr warming Kpaciona bunding* by hot wat«r or atotmi 
4, rentilatiiw pump Tor Urge edificea; A, the hent-trancfcrrer, by 
whlcli hot foul air (aaaiog away ia made to warm pure air 
oDlering^ 

The PrMrident of the Gonnral Boajd of Health naiucd a 
eomuiaaion to examine and tvport oD the perf^rmanice of aoiae 
of the obiccU above meutioued, which ore already in uw, 
Thia Ika* Wn done to teat again the meiita; and, if merit be 
foQud, to loaaen obetaclM always oxiatiu U> the Jntroductioa of 
novcltiea, and eapaoially if oo indiridual bu pecuaiftry intmtet to 
Uhuur for their adwtioa. 

Iu the new mmmtttfirt are combino) mrfout particalara 
which liit«UI»iiil tnen at former tlmaa had thought Maud uaed 
•ingly, but ot whiah, when uaed ain^y and imper£etjy, the value 
waa ao amall that thoy have not been duly appr«ciat«d. 

1. Such was the uarroviug iif the lhi>nl of the chimney pro- 
poted by Count Rtuolbnl, whi^, wfaeo elided iu the exact 
degree ntquirtd, allows cDly what may be called the trttt tmph* 
to paa* away, and not aleo four or many nw>re timoe ah louoh of 
the pure warm lu'r from the room acaompoinTing the amoke to 
waate, at lutppeua io otqnmon wid«-throat«d flOM; but, for waul 
of a throttle valve or other regiatcr in the flue, with na iudex 
alwfjra cIcarU aecn, which misht be adjuatod oaroAilly. oAer 
lighting tlie nre, to the foroe of the chimuev ilnttij;Kt tu> iTiniinnccd 
by the wind and otiier cauMd, the briclc-oontraclol thnut of 
Bumfotd wua found geoeially lo be cither loo much or loo little 
eontncted, aod the true value of the oeotrlnnce wtu out under- 
■tood. 

2. Such, aggjn, waa the plan of Mr. Cutl«r ai>d other*, nf 
lacing the charge fur the day of tmb cool in a box tin<l«miia(h 
le Gk, m that when erial wn> wiuittd, ft ouiild be niand up into 

the grat« by mechnnlral form. on»aritig that all tl(« aiuoke iiuulng 
from it ii)i"iilil poa* through the ignited c«al 10 bf hunit*!. But 
because of tho complexity of the raking mNhiuiinu Mml, aud 
the want of a proper tbroltlc'tAlvu or doioprr fur tlic chimney, 
aa above dewribed, with ouiilniciiiMi of the anaoe over the fire 
(yet to be eiplaiucd), to give strong dranght nnij ptrttet aooiniand 
ofthecginbiutioii, tlint pUn, Although strongly |>ra«at^ 00 pn1>Uc 
notioe, wua aoon abandoneil. 

3. llieu, again, mnuy penoua aaw how atrikiugty tlie actinty 
of tlie coiubuatlnii of a couinion fir* U uii(I''r ci/uituand whero 
there i* a blower nr apr^'U to the gmte, <ir «hpi« tli<; upaoe 
bctweeu Om fuel nnd tlie cliiniticy lhtv<at i* li«)Kticd b^ a Ihilng 
of Gni- brick, producinj- iiMirly the mnc cSijctaa a l4owvr: hot 
uot rufllcieiitly avniv tliiit cxoMslve nciiiuii of thoe la oouipt<^«ljr 
provf-nlibl* by tlie cbinio^v ihroitlp-vnU^i, and bflitviug erm- 
neoualy tliat the Ii«t Hiiiokc, while riting through n larvo open 
tfaM over the Giu, nulintci much h«tt into the i-oom, tTi>'v ijtd 
uot contract that ii|aoi> uor uiu the blower, and an iQiBi.sf Ix-ih 
the mjuirdl uoDir<d t'ler the («mbustluii, Kud Bl)owe>l the true 
aaoko to mix withmul dr^ along with It a Inrge ijiuuitlty of the 
pure warm nir aIkiuI the Tire. 

4. Theu.itiU'lli^viit iKinniutiiul noted the exlrauriliijfirypovera 
of veiitilntiug tha Kn-in ubtubed by ao oMiiiDi; mode cehr the 
cviling wlii.>re ll»' hot fi.nil nir ia usually colitcitir iutu tlie I1<k- of 
a Mroiigly drawing chimney; bat from nut kninring Uinl, by 
narrawiug the ii\>mx- ovoi' tho dra and (bn throat of the chiiuitey, 
only very hot air ia alluwed to enter the flue,— and nut n'llwtiag 
that the chimney draogbt Ii elrong iii proportion to that luui, 
— luid nr>i itwarc that a baliincod valve of metal placed iu the 
veiitilatittg o|>?oing wonid allow tlw foul air ttttn the nom m 
Micr, but no imoke to eecaiio,— «ucb anungemeut tina been 
rarely adopted. 

10* 



J 



It 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



^. Thm, Uatly, ptnoas h*v« nude chAimcU lor tttA ur to 
r tbe rtmat, «m aprnd froa setr the Ura-plaM, but U^um 
, Ibdct opeBiiip w«n «ttli«r vadar Dm gntt, w tliiit tb« ur 
w til* tin imgukrlr, anil acattcfvd th« uh duat, or b«c*iMe 
rtbo kir WM ■doilttM to ctuuinoU too etoM to tli* urate, in which 
U VM OVtrlitMcd, ud tfaeo uc«aided away to lb« oeilmg, like » 
2l»-bttUoon, doinc littlo wrviat below, the' pku got liLtte fnv'mr. 
Hj Allowing the mmli air, howorpr, to «iil«r uniler m broad cUao 
ftodar it In g«titl;r wannoil by •i>u loci witk thai, and tkra «pPMu!a 
' — nably iu th« rouia, pore and tefopcrol, pieveoting qnit« the 
diunghu ^iB wlodow* tar doora, m> muah conipkiu«d of 
I ordiimry ouea. 
^ In the aev m iok A tm Br% tli«M flra objeeta u« combliwt] in 
fit tnaBUM and degree^ and other iraportMit object^ a« tho high 
or low podlioD of the an, arc att^udod to. 

A nrjr bnporta&t ohjaot eihibit«>i iu Lh« Pari* EihibitfoD wia 
ftpnparad fiiet, oalled tho "eharbon •{« P)u^" The maniiiko- 
Ituv taluafiwinentaordiittof bibamiooiu ooal, orof eaOincitev 
chareed, or coiie, and mixing theee in ocrtun proportioiu with 
ooal-tM) h« malua a aofl maae, which, hj moatda, be tliapre i(it» 
^Undneal piooM oT about 4 iucfaea long and 1 1 <n diameu-r, and 
M afterwards hardcma thorn bjr bicat. liiM* bom t(v7 lik« 
charcoAl, tree from nnoke, and giving iotcnae heat. Thcte are 
BOW tBany makon of auob fu«t, mcuhqj co beliere the exceUeuee 
ot their product (o de|>8iid«h!«11]rontheproportioiieoif iheingTf 
dlcdla, and attributtiie too littlo to the uDubrm alxe and ahape 
of the pieoea, which aUow that riBhtlj- propoKionfd kpproMh of 
ftlr to then on which perfect eotubaatioii *a mucti dopcud*. 

Then were iu the Exhibition tnaiiy Bpt-dnitaia, both Conti- 
Bemtal and Endiiah, of artlftdal coal or fuel of kindred oompoti- 
ich Cuvor mi 



1 



tion, in mtich Cuvor maawt. AaobvioiMadTontagaofaadhover 
eommon oo<xl in Uiat tho lunipB, nheo pot tosstber, oecQpj leaa 
space tliaa on wjuaI weight of irregularly bnMun oonunon ooal. 
and ihenbre can be i(oi«d tnon advaatagMualj in ehSpa. And 
in tho eompoaltion there may b* of biiainea or pitcny matter 

i'nat what uds the Maady oombuatloa wllhaut ounlnf nnoke, 
lavin^ therefor*^ nmther the exeeae nor the dcflcieneyfeiuid in 
iM»aaUmIooi^ 

The see of etat^ u a fuel for cookiug, aoU eomettmett for 
wunlngnoma^ ie epreading over Eurupc, and well auited appa- 
nbu Md beta etut to tho Exhibition frutu aavenJ onnuW 
Tor tba porpoee of warmiiiK a room giM in ft v*i7 expenalve ftiel, 
but for i«^king, it may, in miuiy ouch, bu both comveniMit Mid 
eeonomlooL evident niivautogm arc, that th» fire haa not to be 
lighted until the moment when the cookiug Welna, that it can 
eauly, b; th« re^Utin^ clock, bo TcnileriMi and miuulAlned of 
exactly ttip rc^uiuU >trcnjcth, and that it may be cxtiDgiiixhsd at 

OUCe wheu tlir work i* doOr. 

In the Paria Exhibition then were open fire-gntea, of roriety 
iOiiio«t endleai, flltad for bUTDine wood or ooal. Uaii;r ""^n 
•nry taateful, and of perfect worinnuiahip, but ezhiUtiog do 
important norelty of principle. There w«n vary omamcoUl 
and ooatly srato* bwa Eiuland, aa might be expeeted. from the 
ouen crate hvina than tiw iiiilrnial flra-plaee, owins to the 
abandauca and chMpoeea of tlie Utnmtnoua ooal fitted £r tliem. 
BsTOsI of tb* London nuannictaren had aent apocimorui of tba 
new ainokeleaa grate. 

Until recetitly the kinds of fuel baru«l in Pnria wwe chiefly 
wood and charccal, which, fr<7ui their tutture. produM t«ry little 
iinoka. Hcnoa the reToarknble deaittoaa of the «ky in Parian and 
the noaoiled exterior nod intarior of the buildiug*^ uomparal 
wiUi tba moke-loaded atmoaphere and the blackened walls of 
Londoo,wbec« bitaminoue ooal almoet alone is employed. Now, 
howaver, theuee of bitumluoue Mial ie rapidly extending in Paris, 
and, nnlwa nrocaatiooa be takeo, thn Kama ooaaoqoonoaa will 
dtow aa in London. There in no jfoad raaMD why the lejpala- 
taree in both ciiiu ftlmuld oot interfere with reaped to the imoke 
of domeetio Htm, aa luu otrtody been done in London ao uaefuJly 
with reawot to that ol the nirnaoea ot ateam-englnM tad ethem 
Tbiu all Ad eiHa ftora imok*^ •• aet fbrth at tba beainidog 
of lltia report, would be much abated in London, and would neror 
exiat in Paria. 

Il^—O/lht Ciote Store. 

Thii haa been made hiUirrto iiiarly in the lam* ways in all 
eonntriea. It enotosoa the fim*, ao that no air can enter it or can 
Uaa by the chimney, eiceot what i* wanted to snppurt the oom- 
Dnatkoniand muoh of the neat of the smoke peasin^ thnragh the 
metallic nrbrickniat«risl of the oonatnctionremauia in the room, 
a* already mentioned. One portion of ooal burned in aueh a itovo 



warms a room >■ audi aa about four tamee the qnaatlty bonud 
in on open flre. litdo emoke ie produood in it. 

CloaeatoTca are very oommoa in Forii, and are of mat variety 
of form. They difler fmn EngUab medmen^ in having getunUgr 
greater extent of expoeed metallk ciiimaay-ntbaa for giving «■• 
hoat, amnced in tantrfiil way*. 

Amaag me doee ktoTts tent to tbenuwExhitritionbyEngfiah 
makers were aome for burning Don-UMoinoaa fuel, u cofce^ 
anthradte^ or chareoal, ahowing the modlficalleoia deritcd by l>r. 
Amott for obtaining important new (itialittea Intliatformof 
flnplacc The balanced valvo regulator girea oooiplaU eCBInl 
over the entering wr, canaing the oombaation to be aa nntfom ■• 
ia that of H oaudle, afMl by a almple aiHuatneBl of it, tba eon- 
gumption of fael may be inoreeaed or cumlnlahed at will, bj> a 
(ingle pooml in ii hoora. A reeeirtMle to eontdn Aiel movA 
for £4 or even -(H boura ia placed with tte open month immediaMf 
over tho fire, and freah fuel fidU from aboi-o oa the fuel below h 
COUKUiu«>J. Tlie fire bums thua during a whole winter wttlkont 
being extioguishod, and re<|uir<« little morv earvioe lliaaakUdMB 
clonk. Such a (tflvnoit nowducribeil haa perfomedintbeV' 
room of tho writer for liitoen ycarv, and during that 
there h.u not boeii uenl to aiirep the ctiimoey. 

Then^gnlatorofthls itovo Ie rolnutelvdeeortMd in the pnbllafa 
trratim'. It isof grant sinplloity, aotfeoataoijy afew ehUlinga. 
It linot tiMily hurt orderangcd. Many farmaof svch regulator 
wcr« Jcviaeil b^ the invtotor, wlien ycora ago be formedamaM* 
menta for luamtainiug an abeolutely unifonn t«»perat«re n 
ohemlcnj a^id r>ther apiiaiatua Hona M. E. RoUnBd, of Pan% 
has lately 'loviiMil kindred fonss of thermortat for hie apparaui^ 
oklled TorreEic^teur, exhibitnl in the Kipoaition, without being 
aware that auch arrangemeula hod been tnode before. 

UL, TV.^^tff-ftyvlatinjf Firr/vr hmting Watrr and fir ptwiitiitf 
Steam. 
The utore above deecribeil may have ila walla doubLcL with 
water betwouu theut, and tbun will luaiutaln hot any dealred 
quantity of water for the uio of bedroomay nuraeriea, to.-, and a 
larger £ro or furnace ao regulated may be used to heat boalera for 
the wanniuguf Urge buildiu^ by circulation ofwater,ar to pro- 
duce atoaui ior the aanic purpose. 



belowH I 
wtthont i 
tkUdMB 

ibUabeff 



hiohi^H 
chana^^H 
ihcrvar 1^ 



VESTiLinos. 
Ventilation of Bungle mom in aumnter may bo offfded by 
window* open at the top. In wiuler it is aupcioaed iu genefal 
to be auflloiently seuiired by tlie etreaui of air paaaing up tha 
chimney from thn fin?placi-, and it niny then be teooend 
perfect by a ventUatiog valve, properly niani^od. But whan 
a spacious buildiug ia to bo rentiUlol by night and by dqr, 
in summer and in winter, u a hospital or barraok, oOier meaiM 
an required. Thoee, uou'for tarns years employed, are obiefljrof 
two kiada. 

1. A lofty ehoit or chininey. healed by a Greorbot water pipei^ 
and baring communication with the plaeea to be puri&eo. !■ 
F^anoe suoli a ehaft in cnllod c^tuuinfr ifopjui, 

2. Air piiroim or fon whi^cl* driven by machinery, which 
be uafd oitlicr to forLV air into tho boildiug throu^ St chax 
ortodniw air out, like the boated ahnfli and by whiohcrvar 
these mcaoi the viiiaii'd.'kir from the roamaUoausedtoleavethsnt 
It may Lieue either Uitvugh opuoinganaar theeoQin^pndnotng 
upwerd vcitUlntion, or through openings near the flwra, effactiag 
downward vuitilation. 

In many ICugtinh prisons ventiUteJ by a hot abaft, the pon 
air, vurui^d or oMl«d, it caumxl t-i ent^i' the cells near the to^ 
and the impure air in withdmwn tlirongh opaniofn near the 
bottom. This lyitcm ban not given senvml (atis&ctioci. With 
aome doiirablc iguolititMi, it baa L>[ie which ia decidedly had. A 
good quality in, that it diiruiM<4 iu n rixitu the warmth of entering 
air uture equably than when the »oiir<» of h«ni ia below; for erana 
air entering being lighter than tho mau in tho room, i|veadi 
itself all over that, and deocouda uulynatt oiolsand ns niiira Trrali 
warm air enters. The system is ecoiiuujical olio, for the air 
which is paaaing awuy at the bottom, being the heaviest ur in 
the ro'iui, is aloo the coldaat, and therefore in departing iniiiia 
away little h«aL Tho heaviest mr, however, is not Uie omI 
impure air, aa that ahonld be which ii dejArtiog, for the impne 
breath bung warm olwaj's riaea to mix with the entertog frssh 
air, and so remotua to be in |i*rl br«iithed again. 

Iu France, for many hoeiiitals, prlaons, end laiga h*Ua af 
•NStnbly, this node of deeoending vsotiUtiom, b; d«pwilB( 



4 



THE CIVIL ENOINEEB AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



•unate at Ik* floor inn towanli « liMUd tWt li ■dai>Ud [a 
MOM lh« pore ■ar •■Ian b«low alnadjr bMWod, M>d in kiida it U 
fc ul ii tn tb« nom br conUet with wriheM of wbat ar« c«ll»1 
vkta* alevM, eotttalniiig atrcnUtiDK hot vxtw. It U IkiimhIU* 
>ft«r k liUie tuM UuU ui* penoa En «aolt plM« gob bt brmtbliig 
*ir parftoUj para, for mJoM Uio wholo auw* of ur in ths roem M 
(broad dowawanla to aaeapo at Uio ftoor with gmler ipaad ikaa 
tha hot braath b tkiiic through tha fluMnd mam, tba bn»th 



■ad ba diSawd in tlio mam, and nnat aooo 
dMoeod a^in, aUboag^ diluted, to Mit4r oMn or Um tha chaala 
of all ponou praaaat. 

la tha oU HottM of CotBrnofu para air, drawn tivm a 
faiilli lAver, ud Dioclrntoljr wanaed, waa admitlcd thnxngh nsa/ 
aponiirta ia the floor, and tha iiapora fiml air waa drawa awaV 
wo«gkoiNaiu*abo*aloal«Ajr haatod raatiiatiag ibaft. Thla 
plas, whwoatlartkadiractloaofDr. Bcid, vaa found for jraara 
toaaswar very wall 

[■ iha Hooac at Lordi ateaai-eaKioea of SO-horaa povar 
■f* Mad to isipal air aloog chaniuli anoag plpaa haatad bj oon- 
ttfabg ataaia, and ihw Itito tha graat hall oflliaBiunbara. Ilia 
Imiraalrlabrlbaaatatiiigparaairfaraadoataf the chamber, 
«hlalT throosh opaaiafi at UM top towaide a vealilaling ahaft or 
lUmatf. Thit «ratetii lo aot wiril iMuina oouataat aUUad 
MI■MtaBe^ and Id Ita fltat aaUblMirowrt b rarj eoatl;;. 

Th* plana adopted in Paria for watvhig aad vaottbUngeertain 
higa baildiBfa hy Miiaaia l>aon Duvoir le Blan<v Beni l>u««ir, 
GnBvvUe^ Thowwat iMinmt, and other*, in eipbuuUloa of whUi 
t here ««ra tnodda and dcawinfa ia the ExDoaition, an alao ex- 
■Biplaa of tha a/atana abora deembed. In thoae ia whidi tho 
heated eheft le uaad there U only the fecblaandauateadjrchiBner 
fcrcov which ia too liablo to bJlarv. 

M. Leon Ihivoir la Blanc heaU all tha tooioeof a bnfldlw bjr 
(fmUtiod of hot water tnm a eingia holler pboed Id the Daaa- 
IL The vnlar it Ibroad up fruni tliat U> a high rtaervoir bjr 
wrigtil of tlie deacvadiag cnrrtmta, from which reaervur 
pBH to cvory room, oarnrtDg Lhu hot water lo voMala 
oaltol wntei^COVM (po/fer ifmu], from which, when 
, it dceoenda lo be T«-beatad. The 1m<1t afn waur-etora ia 
hjT Baa/ paiMgaa or rabaa open >t Ixrfh raiim, through 
toa nah air la canatd to enter the rooen, and 




warawd by lb* eeoUet rieea toward* the oeiliiiK. Hw 

baavlwt, baoane* «old«at air of th* nwen aubaidee to near t£a floor, 
and (h«fts iu proportion aa freah air «ul«f^paaaeaawn7 bjr tha 
emtilAliug opHuiwa. TUiajetatuhH theadmilaftee of Mviof 
Ibcl «■ above deacribad, and of oauainic uDiform distnbution cc 
WMBlfa, b*tt it haa the dieadvantaflM of the iiapuritv Mt, owing 
tollwlowesilof tlkc air, and of the feeUe and Queuadj' pnpvt- 
£agpow«r. 

bl thaptanofU-BeafDoroir. nUblidwd at rEcole Poljr- 
tMliiii<)iM and efaewlMra, hot wniar cirenlatre Erom the boiler m 
larger labce plaoH in chumob funned in (he wall* and flo>:iri^ 
alai^ which aleo the freeh air niovea toward* the roooM. Iiiutlier 
iia|Wi<a there b naeh raapmblariM to tha pUn of H. Dnvoir la 
Bbnei It ia aoma adraatafte that tbuv oanuot be wonaius of 
Aa raona without TMtilatiou, beoaaee warmth can be cairi^J in 
aoJr br the froeh air. Than Um air in riaiug through warm 
■*"*■"-'- beooniM warm oolumtia, aiding th* aodom of th* <li«n^nde 
tfacnal or abaft. 

it. Orouralle'a areten hualao the thnftandeentnllmUr with 
water curna, but the watar in iho atoraa b heated not alwHS 
direetlx in the txiiler, but by ■loim rtalag from tha boQer to th* 
^ovm, or to dietiaot partial wator alnulatlon*. Thera are 004!lt% 
■a in all the oUmt arrangaflaenta apolwu of fur regulating Iho die- 
MbMion of heat acoordine to the uood. 

UNH^ThooUH and Launmi, M «ihililted at the hoaplul 
lAriboisiira, nae Bl«am«igin«a of tf>-boi»e power U) forco ihoalr 
h* flui-wheeli ihiMgh th* bnlhllnfe Tba neali air ii hratnl by 
to* M«an of the auguiea after that haa dona ita work iu Ihem. 
Tha iajeotion cf the fmh air dnv« ibe uiK<Juroulof th«warde 
h7 Opeadage chiefly in the aide wsUa, imue of them bdng halfway 
■(S wwu tower down. Th* eapaaae of the firat eatabtiebmeat M 
laeh nppanuue b mj gnat. 

'nw «vid*at daitderalntn. theo, for th* effeotual ventilation of 
Ihm buJIdiaMU aaimple.andthereforeohcnuiiti.'oliiuiiiul power, 
miMcnneilhor force or draw air aa dealred, and which ehall 
wetlc with ■nfiuling regularity aoeonling to raquiait* and okarly 
dellnad raeavar*. Itahonld take th* plaice of the expomrivo and 
■Biightly ahafle, and of the ataam-efiginea ahore deaoribod, ur of 
i.J«Ce, — wetkhv timfonalr Uirough th* nlghta aa w«U a* 



the dan, and avnidiug the neeeeiltj fcf £rea, aad for the valohing 
of ekilled attcnaanta. 

Si»h an air^moring apnuntoa, it t* brlieved. esiatt Ja As 
reoUlating punp drrbed hy Dr. Anotl, of the body of whicb 
tbara waa a modal la tha Pane BxhlbitiooL. The eonreeientiaoda 
uf worldngona,bow«vorbrg*,bnotbjraetaaB-eag(&e, but by 
the ordinary eapply of water lo th* hoaa^ delivaradM flnt lute a 
olatera placed high in the bouae, aad nmd* to more th* pnmp m 
itgndnalljdaeanidatolawarlevelaferthedaniMtbnaca. maa 
aMJ amuMCDwat eTM^ ^nt of water wfatch deacoade 90 yarai ia 
<aiued toioroetJOanlMe feet of puraairiiiV' the houae^ throngh 
braaomng ohaajMla of diitribution if dcairod* »"^ the pomp 
workebTnigfataabyday niA thangvlarity ofaclodcaadetoiN 
only if the daily enpply of watar from th* water oompuiy ehould 
Ihil. 

The foUowios extract from a Hinnte of th* Oonvral B>>ArJ of 
Health, datod Ootober 4. ISdO, reUiea to a trial of th« appaiiitna 
tnade, while one Entanoad (br the new bomital at Ynrk waayvb 
la the iaaiivlhctor7 of th* ooatmolora, Mcaain. Bailey, of fllKh 
Holbom. 

" The Board, atoKiipanied by Mr. Anataa, Dr. SntfaerUod, Ur. 
Qamnell, having iaijiucUHl the n«w cagin* aad ^paratus forth* 
teotilatioB of the Ycrfc Uoapetal, aad having coaanllcd their offl- 
«tt% *s>^ ■>'oF^al«D that the madhiae and amngementa w«r« a( 
ahlghly faaportaot character, aa going &r lo eolv* lh*qne*tiea of 
chen|i aad eflicirnt rcDiilalion. Ia thl* oaaa th* ooat of tha 
ventilation of a buQdiug to aooomnodat* 1000 ptnoat would 
probably not exceed one diilling per day. Conudeiing the im- 
portaaoe, in a eauitoty point uf view, of aa apparatua e^iabb at 
a email onetof re^ulatiiig day and night, without aaptrlaiaBdenei^ 
the ciuantityof air drawn in end out of dwelUag and rfeeptag 
room^ the BoartI deeme it deeirablo to eo m ia uu icat* with^lM 
dinetora of th* York hoapital, aad loobtaSn from tlieau th* reaatta 
of lla pratieal working.* 

After the apparatua had been in uae at York for two yean^ 
th* coraa^UM of ntaaagetaent of the boepiUl reported ta 
the Board of H*alth that th* performuoa '' waa Itighly aatb- 
Ihctory." 



BEPOnr ON TrtK WORKS OF THE MITHOPOUTAN 

WATER COMPANlEa* 
By HairaT Arsriy, Wiluxm lUxoaa, and Ai.ntm Dicseji^ 

»q| irlMialln lapMn •( ik* wnl llnMd ■( Unlit. 
ScuaART. 

We beg to preaHit in a tahaiatnd form a eoada* vtvw of th* 
aialn balura* of the autiro worfca of (he netropaUa «rat«r anpfily, 
already aqiaral«lyiIeeorib«d.t 

In briagiagth*ahi«/wQtkBoftli*e*vanlGonBpanie* thiiaiato 
JaxtapuaiUoa, varieuaamnaatlaaaud di^iroportlona baooma u>- 
pamnt, which aceai at firat aight to b* ifroooactlahb, anoh aa l£* 
qouittty of water »u|>jilicd, thoamonnt of aleaai power ptoridod, 
theamteftaaervoin and of Alter bed*, and the cu*t of the worke 
••oOM|Ni«dwtlhlh*Bumb*rofttooa«*aup)iliiHl l>y tordi of the 
Oompaaiea. But while, on the on* hand, many of tlire* eeemiag 
diaprotKirtioina wonld doubtbaa lie apiiroxiraatoii by a fall expon- 
tion ot the varioueaad apeoial drouaulanoeaof earefacaee^itmuat 
be bom* in nkiii4 on the other hand, UiM theae worfca are for 
Ih* moat part the prt^reanre growth of many years, under auuy 
ptofeMioiul adviawB wcirkinK tudepoudontly, and wiiicr whou^ 
with no uuliirm plan of aciiuu for guidaaoe^ vary ditfcrctit views 
would be mm to find exprMtion. 

Th* only dieproportiun of (ha kind to which we oonthleo' it 
deairabb to dir««t apocial aii/>iit)oo, aa probably aflbcliu at ilnua 
the quality of tha snppliea, ii ilia very aninll amount of filtering 
area provided tuaonie of tbeeo works at couipand with that of 
othera. 

Aoeonlbg to th* retnra faniehed by the aevoral Water Cun- 
paniaeia tMO^ it appeared tbatno^ihouaaawtmhauanpDlIad 
with water, the groea dailv ouanlitv ddiveiad having nan 
41,363,33s galloua. It will Iw uleerved Cram the preceding labia 
that tlie enpply of waipr lo the luetrcpolia haa now rea<li*d Um 
•noruQuaquiviiUty of upwardeoftil million gallon* per day, if 
hamag k*a near^ rfeaAM in tit *iarl »pace ^ tU georL. (i ia 

* Itifwi hi th. (huxnl BmiJ ot UttUh (a Uw UKnpola WtMr **ftlf. 
1 roi<l<UU«-inrturt.«A>nM^UUp. U. 




THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND AHCHITECTS JOCFRNAL. 





TbUf 4 


r (b ntin 


Worl* ^ 


iA< ir«r 


tfdk Wa 


MpAypt 


9- 






' 


LMttWiHrCMgMlM 


Bvam 

optdKd. 




MMBpr. 


KlIUMd 

Urn, hit 


Am<rf 

fclT It-, 


AfMd 

niier 
BMbk 


Ana«r 

<ip<i> 

firmund 


An»<f 

Watac 






y«> JKm^Lo, Chalk Spnnjp, Me. 


SS,0B3 


OatloM- 

as.ooo.ooo 


Huna. 


UUOL 

4v<.son 


AcroL 

es-00 


Aara. 
S'OO 


AuTK. 

None. 


Am. 
»-7« 


1,431,717 


stt^oei 




70,000 


le, 000,000 


UO 


SSI 


IIon«L 


IS-00 


Nod*. 


«-iO 


748,781 


3M,D00 


.ftwrtwart amf raurAn/t — "nianiM at 


I1.JS8 


10.831,133 


1006 


13a 


7-«S 


4-40 


}ima. 


Nods. 


434,547 


314.010 


[Hunpitoii 


a9,S41 


0,109,000 


OSO 


30« 


Nona. 


0-73 


1-26 


S-00 


207,362 


3U1.0U 


t7u( jriiiijlw.1— Thuna* M Qamplon 

(TnMttI /MKfi«i — TbsMM M HMnpWn 
£(■1 — tUrtBiboiinN 


S3.7S! 
£5,030 
17.S2I 
18,077 


6,8«,a« 

6,333,000 
fl,7t 1.303 
9,^00,0001 


430 

700 

1410 

eon 


178 

lesi 

117 
lU 


1«'00 
SCO 
T-8II 


1-60 

s-oo 


Ketia. 

KOD*. 


1-7S 


e<8,6tfa 


1S7^W 

4r3.au 
sii.m 


s-so 


466,719 


617 
S-M 


Nmo. 
I-56 


V07 


301^101 


»7.on 




e.sis 


tatfiSf) 


72 


sai 


Sa-00 


0-14 


Nooe. 


Heat. 


ei.981 


SS.3S4 


PlumltaitMtd ITmMcA— Challi »^ 
TMk 


8,000 


660,000 


S5 


i« 


0-10 


Knw. 


3-SO 


0-32 


Nods. 


64,0(10 


S£S,Sei 


61,D2S,SIS 


7264 


3084 


141-M 


wee 


ll-WO 


4,ai»,«»> 


i,'iia,tu 



a^itaiaio3a^Ioftha3«V»01iaiuMwMA now bm tix 
^pvgjida wHhio th* Bmfurtnr Qtoanfi dlatriet. Thoo, tho 
Kvwi^ (Lulj iuradjr of walorformU purpocM, vhieh in IdAOwu 
164 Villous per boiue, b now, In 18S6, 946 KaUona per hoiuo. 
Hw total iiotuiuJ rogiiM power omptoytd um In raoerre it ti\nal 
to 7381 bopwi. Tho tnAiti* And bnuich plpm Tor bHocing t1i« 
WAtor trtfia the Mrvra] aounen, asd dutribnting K lu tli« diKiricU 
oxdonTeoftbe prJTAU ierrioapipea, Ibrm n toulknirtliof 208S 
mVitt. Iht filt«r btdi oov«r na nm «f upwarda of 40 sotml 
BefaralbapMBlogof tbeMotrapolia WittM- Act of 1852, md- 
BidetKbly mora than bAlftha aiipplv mu not filMred; aubBtdtug; 
rtwrvoin mn in locb uuic tlieonly moaiia of cloAring tJi« water 
of iBpuritiM in mapcnaion; tlwae arc now for dio moat pnrt 
umpto^ Aa «r«U aa tbe fltUr bed*, tlic tolAl arm of aabudiug 
iMo rotf in M» bring upwuds of Ul scm in extent. Tlie 
Itltend walDr i* itorail in fnurtrdii oomod nmrfoln oempriabis 
oa ANftof neiHy l.^oiTd, ntiii tn fenr nnoovered raMrvoira, OT 
not quite 3 acrta, «biuh an l)l^y(md five milea dixtanec (roin St. 
PanPa. Tli« COM of tlie new work* exMuled under tlie UetrDjiolia 
WAtar Act, IM2, and tfa* recent Acta of tlie eevcr&l mmpsnleH, 
hH UDomttad to 2,282,SMJL, BuilcSnjt witli tlio fonnar exptiidUnra 
an (liiwru by tfae retunuiof IBSli^ tlie oMrt ofthe entire water work* 
of the mulropoUit cpintrWii iff ttven millSan* Hrrtiiig. hrtn thii 
amuunl, h(i«-«'vi>r, will &I1 aliort of the lotnl ezpeixlilurc; for tlie 
Inlennixtiat* onllnT* brtirroa the fbrin<-r rctnrna Anil thn pnjvilDg 
nf tJiencw Acta, and the co*t of inaBj worka hi band, butiioiyet 
QMnplete, ore not inolnded iu tlui enm. 

lo pKaentiiie thia Minunu^ of ibe eitnbliihiumta ta wliicluoar 
inieiriea hnre OMii dlredwt, we ilnlre to obtM-re, in order to 
gtarH ngainat miacaooeption m to tho nmiwion of other raliiAble 
matter, that we have ■ooflit only, in fnlfilnientof ooriDntriieUnna, 
to ipve Bucb a gennsl detciriptiou of the engineering fentnm of 
the vorka of Mch oompany a< wvuM fuinieh a MmciideAof the 
af/mpiie worka of tnetrapolitan water RUp^iIy. Numberk'en 
pmnta of dehdla of oonetmcUon, nnd information cemcemiBg the 
wotliiDg of then eetAblishraent^ woald, no doabt, hare bean in- 
urartingiD tbMtiMlT«B,bvt they toanvly appeared to ha ueoeBarr, 
keeping in view the mnia object of the inntiiry with which we 
]iAVe had the bononr to be intraated, while Ruch lui ntoitnion 
VKiulil haroinvolred a very einbonte and lengthened mnrirt, the 
ntepiuivtioa of wbicfa would bnve required much longer lime thtm 
It apfiMnd deiilrable to derota to the Inqnlry. 

In ooDtdiMJon, «• dealre to oberrvo, u the reaolt of ORrlnmrti* 
gBtiooM into the present eUte of tbo netropoliMn watee anpply >— 

laL TliAt the reonirenMnta set foetb in the ccniiueiieement of 
our Bepon. etrntpnaine tlie lat, ind, 3td, -ttb, 14th, anrl ITth 
ohHiaeaoftheMatropoli* WAt«r Act. inXibave b nil eaeenlial 
fMpxta, be«a fblly and aatialitctArily complied with by Ibowvenl 
CompAuiee, (tlte provinooi for eonatant anpply not coraiof into 
ejMrKlioo tiatil tlie lat July 1667). The new worka hAVe noil, in 



Cut, boon llmltad to vbkt» btn ocnfolinuce with thoMpro^i^gu 
wonld bATo IblSUed. MeaanraahAra t>Mu itdopwd for tM giuiiS 
tmpi«Tamenl of the auppUei^ whtcb evince apropvriuiAlely On UM 
partoftlieoompAnieeiDtbediiiabiirgooftbedutteaoftlii-ii-ixiaitlistl 
tOwanU llie [lablla 

ind. Tlini liavins regiuvt to the aerioni (tete of oontAininnticii 
to wbidi uiAay of the nrom and aticaiui of the country lurbeii^ 
nduoed by tfao dmiui^ceopenitioiia cnrriwl out in the ne!glibM»~ 
ioglowuH, And by the direct dinchATSevrilif sewage without niiy 
jDeana adopt«id fi>r tho provvntion ofthe pollution of tbn wAtct*, 
— ^conditloD which iaavldenoed to the idhubitADtaorthe nietro- 
polie by the suddenly iocraaMd polliitian of the Tbiunts ilnlf At 
the point* whence their wAtoraapplrbiuibutniceuUybceu drawn, 
—we deeire lo roooonuiwnd tbat earlv atti^utiuu be dirMted to the 
t«wiiedn£nlnglatothe TliAmeHADil lie tributaries, and iulo the 
Lm and BAvensboome, above thn pi-ernDt nouivoa of aupjilT.ao 
that oiaBAnrca mAy be Adopted with rrgardtothe dminiife of tboee 
(daeei which will periuAnenlly pmcrvc the supply of water to (be 
metropollii in iut uuuoal praotiuble etale of purity. 



EXAMINATION OP THE HIVER THAMES ABOVE 

THE NEW SOUltCE-S OF SUPI'LY.' 
By Hkhht AnrriK, Wili-iav Raicuo, And ALrnitD Dicke(^ 

fiaisiinlHiiUut IiupKUn of Hit 0«unl Bwd aC ll«*l>h. 

Is the conne of our early ciaminatioiui of the works of the 
vAter coupuiiai which derive their eiippliee from the river 
lliAniea, wa conld not fail to obaM-ve tho vary turbid and die- 
coloured alAte of tlia wAter, An effect tbet ie aaid to be for the 
meet part due to the chty waahed down by the beary nJas, and 
is found to be comoon alaa to the riv^r I.e«. Ihit thia Awt, 
coupled with our obMirvHtions In Other placiv, of (he injurion* 
ellbcta upoti rivwr* and ittwma which have Arisen from tba 
drainage of the nciglil mil ring towne into theui, led us lo enurider 
itof inpurtAtioe to imttiire ne to the aaioaiit of deterioration to 
which the supplies of water fiimiebed to the Bintrofwll* migfal 
beaubjeot by the drainage of the uwnairittiAtad above ilie newly 
Adopteii aonroM. 

It is difhcull to deterrnine from what Amount of popvUMoa 
the Thame* :tbovc Hamptao may be nid to nedv* the eewiga 
Mtbor ditMllr or by meana of ita trllmtarleiv but at tba amallast 
GoniputAiiou it is A very oonsidmibla nnmber. 

We ware the mnrv inipntned with this point of inquiry 6<Mi 
the Ihct, thai thu luoit urgent queetiuii which miw f r Man ti 
itaelf in the progreea ctf the sanitary iiapromneot of nanyof ibt 
wiintty towns, of wbieh the drainage baa been ouried oat wlUi- 
out proper nietiiie for niilisii^ ar tnaling the eewaf^ iMfttaF. ia 



P 



' l«rKi H Ibe Mansl B«^d tf BmlUi ub tu UctfnpuUi Witv 



:m 



THE CIVIL EKOINKEB AKD ABCmTECTS JOURNAL. 



75 



of tit* ri*«n kud atnum to «liich tlM 

iMBiinyliittvaMd potlntloa of the TtuDM from Ui« hum 

viuiiii tidal iaSnmoe, duriuf t)i« Uat IW ymn, bn ben 

' of MUptiM ud ooauoMU for mb* tim«, ud, looldnff iit 

I cril oooMquBeH of fodi "t**— *"***" of w»l«ra fwnUboil 

wrtie «H, it k ntllor ftr t«gnt that the ■HwkUoin of tba 

I ofmpiil; wai not wvmtr comiatinoed. 

^tii* lioM of the Mlbrckk of oholcra In 1646, Um aUt* of tba 

>t tfa« pi>iiit vhMoa th« LMnbrtli Ocnapuijr dnw tiiair 

■afmiiii lobaa^badaatoiiKliica tbMBtouluiiMMurea 

I Car tbe nttcmlion ef tfaoir Kiarm. ALihat time the w»i«r 

by the ^viuthwark ami V'skxIiaU C(Mi]p*ii]r, lakt-a at 

dda aad CKXtfullr fittcml, onioyed a oouparaUva npuUtkoi 
ftor purity, aud yet within Uia diort period to tba «aoowduig 
flfUnafch tba rivar at ibta b%har point lipcanM to nnidlr vone 
■a to load (■> the fearfnl inrnaaii of BMrttlit; wliich li** been ao 
MHlBrim^ ikduaed tram a mnpwiaMi of Ibe d«atb nU 
■BOM tba tatunia of tbe two ounnuuea in tba aamadiatrlet 

U abouid be boma bi aiiad tW tbla aouna of danger ia a 
«Mar aapDljr ia aearalf fwnovMble by any amount it cat« on 
Iba part M a oompuiy. It ia not within (ho oontiol of onlinaij 
iBntion. The poiaoa bciBK tlieni in K>tatMD, tba« aoatns to be 
■ft eui* b«t tba abandonment of auch a aouna of anpplj, and 
Ifca worka of lb* SnttbmTlt and VMutball Cooipanr, for Ibia 
pomaa, vara iti progrNi at tbe very time of tbo ovthnak of 
abolwiii vbicfa ia provod to bar« <iNnmitt«d cneh [ncraaed 
nvnyaa iritbin Uua diatrict 

Conaidention of thc«« beta led na, aa we li.tve aaid, to an «xn- 
■JBaMow of the tirtr Thaaea above tlie ii*«r toonMa of anoply. 
Vm amianiMd eroz iittiim^ioii at CarenbniB'bcidga^ anova 
rwillwn about &fty milaa livroud Hampton, now tlia higluat 
inint ofanpplr on tba riror. Wa look aavontMO aamplea of tba 
water below tbe WT«nl towiM and tba tribittary atreaioa of tbo 
^HuJaaa. 

^B Tba weaUi«r wa* dry during tba whola of tJia Una, and oar 

^Bamniuatioo tatiafiBl ua of k nt7 patfo^itiblo incraaaa of tuattera 

^■In au«]i«ntia«i in tbo water in ita pnograaa downwinlj from ona 

Vpomt to tlie otber, and thii inoreoaa wna eapecinlly notloeabla 

■Aa* pMaing WtuJaoraudKtou. two townsof wliioh tit* draiuMa 

hna Mao Uttetly carried oat lo a groat «Xl«it, withi^ut tba 

aduMion of any n>*aua tor avoiding poUutiun af the rivar. 

Tu wlmt axUnt tbe daagn- of aoefa pollution may be obviated 
bf the actiou of the atmoaphwr. or by otltar aanaea, in to gient n 
lenctb of flow aa there ia MtwMn theae plaoea and the (oilTMa of 
MaMvoUian w««r anpply, we do not tuppooe that an^rbod; is 
ea|»bH of ditt«nuiiiing. Wo «an onlr noli^ the ennaidarabla 
1—aaaa of innttar in autfinnaioD whim waa paxejitahle in the 
WBter M we paaaed down tlw nrrr. and whi«b impUeil, to our 
DBivdj^ ootreapoBdiikg impiuitr in aotntioD. 

Vo ragrat that tnen naa been ao opportaaity for aanlyrinff 
tba Mfltplo obtaiaad; but, lookfnf; at the iwult of ehemioal 
•xwDitmiMn of watora of more dadded diArencaa of qiuiliiy than 
oonldbeeonceivedtd cxiit in (beaaauD^ea, we aboulJ ii<^ eipcst 
to find maeh ebemiod rariety nol«d in tlii^m froni wblrh any 
poaitlve TCodusiona ooald lie formed-, for, tnroin^ to tho 
*lliipart of tha Coiatnlaiionera on the CImnicat Quality of the 
Sapply of Watar to tho Uatropolia,' nobliahad in Jnae 16S1, 
«« BJiil. in tbe aaalyana of thoae water* in wliidi w« aboald bare 
axpadad tba uoalnUikedcoatnial^-namely, iboaafrom Lamboth, 
bm BaMtwaa, and from Tbaaea Dltton, the following fi(rnra« : 

OnlDB Ut LdtpnUJ rmlirm 
^_ OipnlD tIaUtf. Aaauionla. 

^h LambNh. ._„_.,„„„ It OB tnwo 

^B BatMnaa »~«.. I'Al OfS 

^H TWinaaOiiUa tSO Inxa 

^B ftom thia axtmet it mil ba obaarrad that tho lAnibi?Ui water, 
wfaieb wna (ban ahont to be voluntarily nlnvudoued by Iba Oom- 
pany baaaiiM af ita poUai«l aiaio, ahowed very lltlh- mora 
cmuic laipariiy under dwtaiaal analvaia llinu tlie Thamoa 
Ditloa water wUdi baa baM anbataaiad for it. The BattotaM 
aater, auMdiad hy the Sontliwark and Vanihall Company, to 
th* aae of which a dire cnhunity wm ao aooo to be traoNi, 
Mtonlly «xiubll«l tn thia emninatioo br leaa oipala Imparity 
than atlber (if the otbaia, or. Indeed, than any of tba TnanMn 
watara, nod abowad tbo miniitaat tnuuitity oaly of aamtonin. 

Tba BatlMiwa waUr no doabt bad bacome woraa nt the time 
tf tbe anfaaeqaent outbreak of ebolen, bat tbeae are not 
4Uknnoeafrom wbidblbepullatedataleof the waterat Lambeth 



■a«4 



■840 



and at Battetaea eran ra ISSl, as co re parcd w{tb tbni at TfaaiMa 
Oltlen, eonld poanbly have been InAmd. 

IVmlag alao to the andyaaa eentained in the ' Report of tha 
Oonmlltae for Sdeotifie inquiriea io ralntiMi tu tbo Cbolaca 
Bpttdamic of ISM,* we ffnd the following flgorea : 

OnU* M tspBlal piMm, 

Lnmbtdi Ooaravr—tfaimm Dillon I-3M 

Gnad Jancfioo Cuapany— Eaw ... I'KO 

ChebM Company— Chd«a. ltt» 

Somkuntk and Vanahal Csmpany— I •..«» 

Battmea { 

Trvm which it will be obaerved that allbqogb both tho CbeUra 
and Bnttomen water hare ormuio mnttH- oonadcmbly in exctm 
of the anpply fiton TbamM DlttMi, tbe BaUarsn water hu it 
not •« much in ezcoaa of Um Thnniu Ditton an tiply aa the C'helaen 
water liaa it ia cxcnm of the Battenua: while tlto watar inm 
Krw, within tbo tidal ioHueno, aud noalTbg the drainn^ of a 
vnj Urge populatiun from iumciJiataly abova^ appomubea mncti 
mora searly to the qn&lity of Ibo Thauea Ditton wnUtr. Add 
to thb that tba Southwnrk aud VkuxliaU water, whidi was 
eondcmnod na tha want aupply, and the Thamea DUton walar, 
the new scarce of tapply, at tli&t tluM eart^aty the heat, wero 
the only two watara tbta fUniiahed to tbe Uatnpolia in which 
any tra«e of »n»»wFi*i> was ftniod, and the inferenee will tuturnlly 
be drawn that dianlcal analyaia does not at praattit oonrey nn 
exact nndnatandiog of the dan([er to health whkli a particular 
wat«r may ooanon. Indeed, we naderatand it to bean adnutlod 
&01 that it ia a most difficult tblof; to diaoorar, by any cbemieal 
nrooMa hitherto adopUd, llio jiroaua amonnt of tbeae poinBoas 
ingndisDta which may prodooeanoh injurr totheiyatem; whila^ 
on ths othar hand, it ia inipcMjble to ay bow tmiiH a quantity 
of sueb matter niigbt not, nndar oertaln dr roai ata n cts, bo ia- 
Jnrioua. 

Neither can aiK-li ingradiaaU bsuaaally d«*eetad by the aenaes. 
It ia irao thnt wo foiuvd tha Sltaiad water of tbe oom|ianl4a In 
every oase bnitht to tb« m, and plaaiant to ths laate^ but 
uttber «ye nor palate will ilaoovar avoa a danoanMia amooal of 
Impurity in a walar whan that watsr is in a freab and «ool alata. 
Tba watara froui tlic uliailow walla of London, parfaolly bright 
aa Ih^ ara, frcqiwmtlj- penant, under euuaiaatioci, evidweo of 
impnnlioii il«nviHi from tbe ionumerablo oHi]Miola and aewvni 
with wbioli the mulropolia ia riddled and tiavaraodi but thuaa 
hnpuTifua may not ba dataotad by tli« aenata. The waiar always 
MBoa oald and apaiUing fn>n the ptunp. and, iu itpiotaaos of 
anob daoffarons impregnatMn. it haa bssn aunuii aaivsnally 

C'rrMifor drinking. Tbe &ial oaoBaqaanasa that m^wiiiM 
tbe «e of aneli «al«i« are atrikuigly eridciuood ia ths report 
br a oommittao of Iba vestry of St. Jomta's Wcstuunslar, on Um 
cboloia outbrMk is that pariah. 

We a» induced U> eall ape^al aUmUoo to the point nmlor 
soasidemtiao, beanae, wlian the laoulria* ware inaUuinl br tlta 
Oenaral Board of lluatth in 1k,» into tbe watcravpply of tbe 
taotropolii^ gntat atrtaa wu htid, apparently with good ra a ioB, 
by tho SouUiwarfc nod VauxliiUl Compan^. ujMa th* aaalyma 
oonducted by etniuent cliemiula, in opposition to nny change of 
aourse of that vary aupply to which auch ovil ODnaeqaonow nava 
lines boon tnced, and it i> not a nutter of auipriae tbai, bacMd 
by aoch aaalyaoa and by the opinion opnsaed by tluroe of lbs 
Hnt uhemials of tbe day, that this water waa, " in the full annas 
of the term, wlioleaoans and proper for Ihs aapply of a town," 
remonatnuioM ihould arvan more reoEntty bava been urged 
agaiast any sncb clianjca. 

8«oh a tort, now oftenthnes rcfwatcd, having bna finud 
wanting, or at the kaat uncertain, we vanturs Ut warn aoainM 
too muoli ooiUldencs bring placed in tha roanlt, if analyak abould 
fail to dctaci any awiooa difforeneo of quality between ths water 
of tlio ThMuoa nt Ctt-on<hani-brid)[o, and that now inpplied fr*a 
Uamptoo or Tbama Ihtluu. 

We know (rvui ejtparitnoc^ at all evanU, that whatever nmount 
of puUutiua t)ia river mn now derive from tha towna along its 
banlu, ia aa nothing to what it will be when the dtainage worki^ 
for wbi<ii aorne of tlioao towna ore nlr«iuly [ircfiacillg, will have 
been ouried oat. 

That tb« water oompnnlea Ihamsalvaa aro fully alivo to the 
importanosof thia queatioo, ia ovident from the Ukrge espenses 
wbicli th* Lsmbetb and the I'^t Iiondou Coapaalea have already 
taken upon theraarirta, and the New River Caau|«ny bavi- pro- 
poaod to take, to i«more tbe more immedlaie contamination to 



T6 



THE ClVn, ENGIKEER AND ABCHITECT'S JOL'HNAL. 



their BOttrcea of rappl^ tn nbJMt ttma this (sum; utd, 
leUagat (he gDormouB oallaipa to which all hkra bMB anDpalled 
1 iiiiiniii norar n{ipliflt, in ioitiM to thtaa, wo eontidar tlut 
_ bOMnrw Mould be ftdopud for Kiuoving kdj pNTcntible mom 
[OfaMitamiiwtion wliioh, dt fntnre incrtiue nur tend to nwr the 
tetuj of tlie world which lure bwa lo w«ll earried out. 
Btrt, Mil qOMlion of public iMftldi, how much luore wonld It 
kppMtr to b« ui impentiv* datx, mpaatiij koepinj; in via* the 
m which him reocutly been taJagbt ftam too \aag oeulcot of 
tutiofflAry mouoreo, to urge Uwl no sbep be IcA unUWBD in a 
Pmm which iuvolrcatbepiuitjr of Iba maply dt w«lw lo dmtI; 
Ubo whole popuUtdou «f tha tnctropolia, lor dthoagli our noikrlu 
[Wra beau ditwMd iaar«Mp«daU|r (« tboHuoMa, tiwj'uwtqiuilj 
'■p^icablf to the Lea and to the mveuboum^ 

In HUtiiT dtntBtry town*, wniplcle worlu of water >upply utd 
,dnilM^haTeb««u carried uu I within tba lut bw v«ar«. aud the 
rKtttbantiM.pr«b!iblTcoDOMFing(bat there the probtMnofunitM? 
rnform woaUi cud, have been cootMil to ditoharge the whole 
IMWBM of their diatrictn into the nckrert walerccnme*. The 
llBMnltnil* of the new evil which ariee*, — the cuiupli.'t« puiaouins 
ef ue etrMma, — will, it a bofted, aoou work ila own reniadj, and 
enforea the appliotian of mean* for th« Icgitimato dinpoaal of the 
r refhae in the Mrtdliiation of the landa. Alreadj have aeveral 
[ibwna been oompcUed hj legal proceedlDgii, or bjureement with 
wa intereatail, lo toko meaaarea for avoiding pollution of the 
iiM^ and there would appear to bono iojuetitv, iu nay caac, 
lb aixiag upon all towna the adoption of a eour*G which muet 
ItiBUtt^ tenil to their own benefit and advauU|{e- 
We TcMure to hope that eonaidemtiou of theae facta inar at 
nnet lead totli* oonelneluD thai a auffli-ieat caae la priMeiilM for 
Oritur ioqnii? into the mmorable causea of oontaiDiiu)tioo of the 
inler anpply of the metropolii above the preaent aourooi of 
"Pplj- 

Cosirtjisit Sltfli. 
The purer sourcea of water aonply reiiiiral bv the IiO{p'aIntMr« 
haviu^ now bouu Hluptvd, and tie watur liltcreJ and pre^rrnl iu 
^Aoverod reaervoira frem local inipnritiea aad atmnnpbi^ric 
deiariotmtion, if meaaufea be taken br preventing polluiloii of the 
riven theaiaalvo*. the only reniaining aerioua oiiiaeof o>uiamiua- 
tiou will be the ciateru, water^butte, and other naaiia oiuplovuil 
tar etoring the anppltM now rumlihod by the oiiapiuunt. 
Althongb ooBsldenilile iu)pr\^vciDL'ut has alrvaJly taken puce In 
I- the diatribntiein, and the water formerly supplladonly on alteraato 
'aye ia now for the moat port giron dail^, except on Sundaya, to 
~~' port of owh Comnuiy'a diatriot, lu atonigv crcn from aay 
' !■ the privaie butta and datema of moil hoiti«, and 
'ia tliaaeorthepooreralaaaaOitoaicrMiteiteutdeatroya 
the advaiitegea tliat ao Blnoh raini linva beau taltaii to aeou>«h 
The iiiiiy oim]>lDto remedy for thia iwrioiui debet will be the eon- 
LMoolaupply, tlialii tony, a lupplyobtuneitalBi] tiin« by direct 
DHiunlcAtloii of ibc liijuae mrvicc pipe* with ibe conaUuitly 
ItBoiu of thoeompaniaa, thua avoiding the neoCMity Ibr 
nyineana of atotnge wbMever on Uie private ^inteM. 
Theoaaetantaop^jwaMldbethenieanaofrecCifyiqgabtiBnother 
I defect lo which the public ia not nn&aqneotlv liable in 
puapmaeat ayaicm, nanelv, the iri-ofiuUritiea of the aupply. 
^KotwitliatoaiUng that tlio Companlea have abundant Dicaua of 
Kfimuahinganyijuiintiljr of wnter that con be lagitiiiiately uaeil 
throughout loeir diatnut, loud oniplninta ate too nften hcnrd of 
a want of water in certain looalitiea. The de6cieuoy would atipear 
lo oriae not from kclual lack of water, but from mttav irregulnrily 
from tiina to time in " dMrleCiiu" the aervice, which Uia muittaut 
^oNpply would obviate. Wrwould nllndealao to tfaegrcat advantage 
rcoaetautly charged niaiui. in caae of Gre,aano«lnnlIc«i^aiderK- 
n, but wo rafmiu from entering at lenffth upon tliu and oth^r 
inla ioTolvedin Uiia imporUnt part oT the fluotUuu of a propor 
' water aupply aa the proTidonaof the Mutropolia Water Act, I Mid, 
eiopuwcring the inbabiConta under certain eonditiona to require 
. the emiatantaervico, do net eome into epemliou until five ytu* 
Rafter the pnaaing of that act, namely, let July lHi)7. Tti«napj>ear 
I however, to he no practical diffioultlaa in the w» of thia boon to 
the public It will inralea^ no doubt, conaidoraelecliangnio tlie 
private weriu for the prevention of aodilent and waalc^ anil the 
Act provldea for tlie proper examination of iheee wDi\a by the 
Cen^aiika' ottcera. 



EDUCATIONAL UtrSECTM, 80CTH KEN'SINOTO! 

Trb foUowiuu lecnlatioD* for the gnldoBea of oontributon to 
tlie Sdneaticual MuMum, have juu been lataed by the Deport- 
ment of Sci^noc and Art. 

I. The Uuaeum will be open tnt lo the Publk, ^ Ucodays. 
Tneedaya, and Satiir<]»ya; anil on Wedneadaya, Tlmiedaya, ud 
Fridays, U> .'ttuddiiU and the Public generally, on payment of U 
ea«h, or a nubecription of ten ahUtingB a year or five eWIMnga a 
quarter, payable in adraace, 

5. CoiitrtbutluuD fi^rwarded for eiUbdtioii willbodaaai&ed oad 
amnind br the officer* of thn MuMinm. 

3. Bxtumtcn will bo requdital to attach to their eoBUibutiou 
deecrintive labdx jiivio^ Lheoiuoee, luea, &C.; the ^ae aikd form 
of Buoh label to be hereafter determined, 

4. It ledeairablethat Ibeuaool mtail price ahoold bediatinotly 
marked on all artlelae ant for Exhibition. 

6. Aa it ia the wiahof the Cominittee ou EJucoliMt, and the 
evident inlBrrflt of Kiliibitora, that the Mtueum ahoidd at all 
timea repreeent the then eiistiiif^ aUte of Educational appllaneaa 
•very biility will beg^ven for thuintroiluctionofnewlnrent*o«s 
Book*. DUgnuni, Ac, relaiivo to Edui^ition. 

It. BiMiIcn. and ather Eklncotional applianoM out of date, or Ihe 
utility of which may have been auponinled, or Artiolee that nay 
have beoome injurvil, may he removed or replooad at the optwu 
of the Exhibitor. 

T. To pt^>vnnt contuMoo, and the powiibiUty of ATttdea bcu^ 
ramnrod by pcraonanot properly onthoriaod bTtlicExJiib(tar,du 
notioe in writingof the inteitiOD to remove artieleamuatbegWas. 
aad no Book or bl^eet la lo be rano>red until it baa bfen exUfaltaa 
at leaet twelve moatha. 

K Id order to protect the property of Kxbibiton, no Artkle 
will benllowed to be removeii from the Huaoiuu without a wrilteo 
authorilr from the Supciiintj^oileDt. 

». On' Wedumdays, Thui'siiava, and FVIdaya, th« Booka a^d 
oth«r o^oota in tbe Mnaeum, wUl be open to Stodentaoiadtolhe 
Public for inapeoUon and atudy, and«r auefa ragulatwoa oa ore 
nauiUly found oouvenienl iua Poblie Ubnuy. 

10. A oaulogoe will from lime to time bo [lubllehed, eo aa <• 
keep nace aa much aa poauble with the addilioua lo the MsMUm, 
and toe withdrawals from it 

II. ExhilHioradeaintnaof ailvortiniir in the Catologn^ nay 
aend thoir Froapnrtuec*, lUumirnlioiiH, f'Hooluita, &C- lOOOoooiea 
at a time, and printnt in ifcmjr Hue., so that they may Dehmuul up 
in the Catalogue. The binding will be free of coat to the Ex- 
hibilori but Exhlbltora will b^ nny depreciation in the value of 
the objocta from their ueo by viiiton. 

12. All eontribuliona forwanlcdUitheMuacum. tobeoddnMed 
totheSearetoijroftfceDepartmantof Si^lenwauti Art,Cromw(tl 
Ooidaaa, Smith Kenaliurten, ear* gf Biuhanl A Thotupaon, Ea^., 
Superintendent of the Muaeum. 



WROUGHT IBON BEAMS AND JOlSTa.* 

By W. FAiBSMiut, F.B.S., CE. 

Ix the moQuKi^iirearwroaKht-iton benmaandjolatathe PreMh 
have t.tken an un<toubted lead; anil the anecimen* eihihiied from 
tlie Forge nt Fonderle de Montatiurr, and mhrni at the lata Potia 
UnivetMl F.shibition,indicni«l a degree of perfection wbieb baa 
nut aa yet been altninad in thia country. Sonic of the ioista, of 
the seotionnl drmemriouH shown in the annexed ah#t<ai (fig. 1 , 
wera rolled 60 fi-e<t long; and another apedmen cfatJH Renter 
dimenotou aa at Ijg, t, wax rolled 40 fimt Ions. Tboae ii[ii iliiMW. 
and aevcml othiira of difTfirut lixM, xhowisl how much tiM bima 
done, and haw uitich may yet be aoi'omplitibul iu thta Iwnrli of 
moauiiwiare: aud we hare yet to leoni why the aame fiacditten 
cannot be ulTordad for the intraductica of Uusehaaof work direct 
from lulla by Ihr iron-makan of England and Sootland. If lUa 
deaeription of bcanu wrre properly rolled end manu(luUit<td, it 
woalo elfeet a great mvin};iuiiiMiliaaical mnatruotioo, and wovld, 
at the name time^ produoe niui?h greater oertnlnty in the acremtfa 
of baoma, brdiapenalntr »icli the prMeiitayatnn'of joinla,aadtbe 
liveled angWjron, which cDiuttiute at Ibe pt<wint motMM oar 
dabctive mode of conntroction*, u mhown in tbe eeetion fig. 3. It 

•Abonui ellt«fBtt»ibtfiwlfcim<U»— rt«<Ti*il«,»ait«faMt:it*aml 

BrfilM^tim 



I 




THK CIVIL ENOINEEB AlfO ARCHITECTS JODENAI.. 



Vo«ld inlrodtioe «1m iato our pwen t mtein of muiaGKtiiro • 
■Ad gnmtij calHgad bniMh of ladvMry, m l mftaA I* all 
i«i}ai(«BiMU of Uw trd^tMlt Uw boiUtr, tad dw ragii 





n* introdaction of thi* new tUneriptioo of biMiD, if [ iropwij 

^nfttrad, would caUbUih t onr uid tmportft&t eram the hiatorj 

[ of eoiwtncttve Mifocc, u i t would mippl; ikTcbilcMa ud aojhiwn 

>«ftli «ii utkk CO wiiidi Umjt Bal^lakMyilmeDdlbr dnrabill^ 

1 po««r of ititauiiee to KniD; wbkli wonld not br lUUs to 

■•fot, Mb or nnt of the doitruetiT* dltwiw to which timber ia 

Ak»: and wUcB would be free fron ooidntion wbeo kept Ary 

[lnlMdd*d in pUM«r. Thi« ie ibovn by the ooiwcruotioa m 

ia ccoMnBt OM ia Pari*. BeaidM, * building m ooo- 

leM^M tb» ftdmitkgM oT b«ing firapmof, itrong, nod 

■Bcure. 

It BUjr here be ■tnlnl, that tha flnoni nf all tbo better tiam 
I «f h o — >« in Pkri* are now bailt with iron joi>t«, pUoed kt db- 
^taaoat viuTing rroan 2 ft«t u> 2 ft 6 iti. aHnnder. Soma of 
thcur Soon «apport<d ou iron Jniats tn 30 fwt wlda. At abont 
•T«rT 3 (L 9 in. eroaa tjv-nxl* nrw phte«d, on which nat 
■leader wronght-irMi rod* ) innli miuatp. thnw bptwoen each 
^[•t; tb«ae rixli an ran ihroiijch [«rfnnit«ilbrickioflheu>beltd 
Ifenutfl^i.) TbaaeluacKian bniltinaaligbtlrarotied 





?■•.*. 



ri«. (. 




jtr, and the apaca balow lh«m Atlni with plHlw, G:>nning 

• paribdlj tolid floor. Actom tlirae rnda nad ardica vooden 
timiptn are plamd to reoMre the boanliog for the floors tearing 
a htulow apace betwoeo tnA ioiat, na at A A (fig. 3.) In Ibia 
deaeriptioa of floor* tberv la tiwry aecuHty from lire, and tike 
plMl«rbno(abad«aiodiictor(if bMt, equaliMa th« l«iup«nitnr« 
<<lh a rooei. Tbe only objection ia th« open ipaee A A (fig. A), 

^ tbu aKbea and tbe boarding aernng aa a reooplJuiM for 

ThU oljection migbt be mored by divialooB of plulw 
i]m» thick eartlad acrvaa the floor, and in oontaut with tho 
borii. ThiedeaeriptKmof bailding laiogenonl u«e in Farii 
ud Boat otli«r towoa cf Franco, and viewing it aa a permaaeut 
finproof tiractarr, I ahould tuunoatlj reoommeud ila adtiplion in 
thiaooaDiiy. 

In UieniMinbetarcof niallaablcironbckiDain FnU]ca,aulBdont 
•llHUtoB h^ not been pud to ftinn, in order to attnin Uie Kctiou 
iigrtMni elnogtli. Th« nvndi nbiloaophet* and mtfiuwr* am 
Ibl^ awaie of IM MiieriuiNila nade in tu jtn 18l.:i, lur iuvan- 
IjjIkUBg lL« atrmMh and fotnof iraiibaaBia,faioRlerto«atabUati 
Ihaprindpl* oa which thr Britanai* ADd Conway tnbaUrbridgM 
ihoud bo omatraotcd. Tbe funnula dednoed from tlinw rxiieri- 
■anta an wall known iu Fnnoe, and up to tbe preMnt lime liaT« 
hMn uatd for aioiUar oouatruetioua. They pruvod that wroaghi- 
mn bcaaia followad a totally differml law in ihrir PNiaUDM to 
tUftin, to oun-iron; that in wronghtiroo beaine tlia nrta of the 
boUoni flan^ rtqairos to be little laoni than on^bolf that of the 
Ml>: while in ntat-uvn b«an*theaK«of the bottom flange xhonld 
Ka. t7»-ToL n.— Mugb, UiJ. 



J^ 



be tv (mbm that of the top dang«L Thia difbmca ariaea tnm 
the ^naltwdotaaoe which wnMigkb-lroOatfm to a taa^atfaia, 
and ito wmpaiatiTtly laforior rw W Uaca (o eoaip(«Micti. Out- 
iron, oa the oUmt baad, pONHaaa a high power of rcmataaee to 
oompnMnoa and ibfaotira rwiataaaa toleaaiaB. 

The bUowUur labia of ranalaneea will ahow howiha aiateial 
■hould be dIatciMtad ta oolar to olM^ IIm aa«1iMia of atnagth 
with tbe BuilBiun ot baat nqnlrad quantity of iDatwial: 

Th* rautiag poww of.— 

laMaik laMfc 
Wroaght4ron plataa ia S> IS 

Ooppar » * 

Caot-tron . 8 U 

Tmm the above [t ia evident that 
to obuln the niaiinom atrength in a 
wnniffht-iron beam f^on tbe kaat 
qoaitnty of material, the ana of tha lop 
flan^ ahonld be nearly doabU that M 
the bottom but aa tlua ia diffieolt in 
praetlea, I aafamlt Um aaaexed form 
(A(. B) a* the Manat approMli to a 
maximnm aeodooal atnagth. It la da- 
airaUe to rnake the top fliuigo at bread 
aa poeatble, fer the punioae of giving 
the beam laloral atnagto, and in thia 
fem the B wl iM malarial now gtvea to 
the bottom flanga would bt aavad. 

In other deecriptionB of mannbotote^ 
■aeh aa nflwar-bat^ angle-iron, T-irai, 
and other vatMlK w* an la advaaoe 
of other natiooM, thoogh in beama and 

joiati^ nice thoae ao oxtouaivdy oaed la Franca, wa an far bom 
perftct 




n*. (. 




IMPROVED GRADUATED LEVELLlEfG STAFF. 

8ta — la tho ooaraa of my 
prattiee in the axMotloii of 
wotka, I bava ftnmd ptM 
diffieol^, whan lartlliiig oa 
a very fine day, in nailiim 
Ui« ttaff eomdly, u at 
preeant graduated Hen- 
with ii » paOetn of uie I 
hare adopted; lamnotawan 
of any ahnilar. Aa it Ima 
glvaa me ao mqcb —**■*» 
lion, aiid having faoen ap- 
proved of by (cTeriil CDginaen 
of itamling, I aiu indoeed to 
moke it public. The cUaf 
Gtataraa an— the oratn aab- 
dlviikra of the taothaan pot 
praminaady forward, tao* 
greatlv relieving the «n moA 
dimiaklihig the liabUity to 
error In iha IndkatioiL Tha 
diviaoa* an, reepoodvaly, 
two-hnudrcdth bud oma-haii- 
dndth part* of a foot In 
beJg b t Yon mw abo par- 
calve at the ootjoaetloa of 
tbe tentha, that the Uaa ol 
aepantion ia net dnwa the 
Ml width acroaa By thia 
amagemcnt the fignna, 
leeitha, and enbdlrtakuo are 
nndend ao diatiaet, that iha 
■taffoui be read at a kIbucv, 
and ata nneh greaiar dwlanra 
than at creaaaL Mora epaee 
in braadth ia alae gatuM for 
the figarea, irithont inwgaa- 
iiiH tlm wiillh of the atnlT 
wtiidi u of great inipoft«a<». 
lanijic, 
Gaoi Skith, joiL, (XB 
11 




30, ArlkW'itml, Bttfiut. 



THE CirtL ENGIKEEB AND ARCHITElCrS JODBNAL. 



BjieiBTiB or VIV riTBVTI. 



«»( ik •< 



I 



I 

I 



«i „ LOCOMOm'E ENGINES. 

J. S. M'CoicnLU Wolr««tof), PiiieiUtt, Juna 3, 18M. 

niu invantioo rrlnUa, fiin^to improrcHMiitB iu (lie fin boXM 
orfomAOMof liitvmotivc ADil nigh-preiuun tiiiUen, Mberebj wi 
liumwd fenl-intUr li«atiiig rar&oe U obUiiieil with tho 
Mhnltii"" «f bt«ud klr over or throiigli th« fuel, nfTKUiig a mora 
perfMt enmbiiRtlait of th* •tooke aad kiwm than is nt pi^icDt the 
ouetn Ibaordiiuuy looomoUve fira baits; •md acoandtj. to on 
impnvreil aud ■iupUSed fonn of wrouehtrirou or BtMl [Mtou uid 
pftcldng. 

A flx«(l irator imce or partition ii piftced Kt or dom tUo fWmt 
of the fin box. uid contaiiitng tti0 (ted water, whi«h u pnmpod 
into it IB tba oMtnAry muiiiar throu|[h the pipes lenitijig Cran 
th« iBniler. Tile fi>«l water attar betas he«t«d in thla parlitioo, 
Uallow^d tndreulnie tbrough ttie boUor. HiU water apoosor 
jMrtltlon la m> amuiged u M altow of a DOmnt of ^ to pam 
Mhiitdit frtim thi)»»h-p«4i,andbMW0Bln*toddgr<tigim[Mwiy, 
Hid IB UiLi beat«I *tittc the nir i* diieetcri over or throu^ UM 
boning fuel, for the piirpoM of oblainiag a more perAct oom- 
bnotton. AnumbMroriubabrHl^ytniAjr t«fltl«dLal«thianratar 
■pMa for tbo IiMt««] air to |Um through. A •maw apace or 
bridge nuj be plncoil tiaiuvstwlj, if fonad deairable, at or near 
the oentre of the jcn^te, and ntan^, or not, bchbd a tianaTerae 
ttidfeather tonueciod with the boiler. A nvmber of tubular 
ataj* are ileo fltl«d into tttii brlJ^ for tJie purtiofle <)f directing 
atrwunii orjota of b*AtMl airiotoor orerthafoou tf found dnir- 
abl<s two flafid water partitiounM^v b»nMd,plaMilkingitsdinaUy 
one on eaab aide of an onlitury nridfoathor, the air in idl onaee 
being )wal«d, anddirentd over or Ibrough the fneL 

Aoeotrling to acuthtr niixllllcatioti the paWutM propoeeatouH 
W air and nter chiunber or bridge, plaeed undenitnth and 
paiallol lotho ordiDU-yU>ii^tuJiaalDiidfaatJior,a>ulI)ciDntipaoe 
or opeuing bebg loft between tliatop of tbcbridfgeandihe bottom 
of tbamlilfeatliw toallow of the ffnniM paoilugfreel}- from one 
■ida«rtii*fiinMOek) ibeothur. Thia bridge ooaslAU eitherofa 
double i^iBbMrlotoinlaia tho nat«r whi«DWpninp«d iuto it in 
tbtonlioafj niAoner from the tender, and la Atted with tubalar 
■ta^ to admit hofttod air (rem the a^-iian to the fuel ai ehown, 
or it ma; be ouide with one central air paange having n oon- 
UnDDuB water epoce all round it. 

Wlif o an air and water beidge la employed Lu a looomoUve flro 
box which w ostpadi^ into the bnirol of the boilar, it iaproposod 
in aomo naee to bavo two valvn ordampcm in the extended 

Eartitm of the firebox, one on each eideofthciuidf'catliar.iio that 
J doaing one daaipeF, the flame and nwM will be (;um|Mlli>d U> 
IMM from one aide or tho fariiAue ovnr tne liridgw to the other 
•Idaof th«famace.aiul vioa vcim, thoroby etfofftuallj ooniiiiming 
tha VBoko and tmbumt naea diiriii^ th^irpiuMige over the inmD- 
deaeent fuel in that sitlo of thi; funifuju wherein the damper has 
been left open. 

Tke water in the tender hat been dencribod ■• being pumped 
1b thoonUnaiy nuDner thronRh, nod hnn14ii by water partition* 
or bridfM ioaide tin.' fire box-, it i* pn>poi>od nUo Ui h«it nuch 
water t^ allowing it to circulale by euilAblo pipes thraugb a beat- 
ing ohruabM- or water epaee placed Inaide tbe amb of ihe emoke 
box aud ■urTOODdiug the luouth or entnnce to tha chiinnpyi or 
lu |i]ace of ■implj' aliowioK thn water in the t«nd«r to eiivulat« 
thn>a|[b thle healinft chamber, the fccil water may he pumped 
from the tender or tank in the onlinary manner, and f<iivcd into 
tlie beating dumbtr iu iheamolta box lhroui'blht"4ilinaryaladc 
valvea, in which ahamber it la heated before entering the boUar 
Ileelf. 

Another portion of tlie invention eoniiiteinmakintiii>eof any 
oonvcuicnlamuiranentofappanitualbrtnavaiiiogur iliuuniahiuK 
al pluaaurv Iha kIt aiaocB b^ween the faniaoe bank 

AMonlia^ to another uodiflcalion, this may be otheteJ by a 
Teaettan Uind armnnniMit, thabanlHiingnui'latotumpnrtially 
or awivel on their uwer edgoM, ■□ an to be (n|iahle of beiiiff 
brvught to a rertioal peeitioa or edj^ewise whuu tne air apaoe wiu 
be n«U«(. or of bdng laid flat, vi UMirly no, when the admiaidon 
of air will beatoppedaDtirolyorpartiidly.acixirdin^totheaiDonnl 
of tn<)lin*tion oiven to the w« win. For the bettor aupjiljtna of 
heated air to ui« fiol, the patentee propaaea to uk n icnei of air 
tnbea, extendiiu (roan tlie nre box itin>uh>h (be tuba plite and 
■moke box, nod ^onin^ into the atmoejrbere in Ihs fruut uf the 



■Dofca box, far the poipoae of nUowingacamnt oreorreBleaf 
ftaeh air to enio- thenin nod heeoaie h(£terl by ila paeaage akiq|t 
the tubea. In tbia boated elate Ihoah- U dlnoinl on to or ow 
the fuel in tlie fire box and ipently — !■>■ wmby»tknk 

Aocordiu)- tu aoothsr nodUoanoB, nir pinoi or vwatla are «otk* 
talued iu the ioialto box and reonvo ttitk air from oataido llio 
engine, which air ia boated in aueh pipeaorvaMela, and ballowod 
to poet in a htktoditate to thelbelin the fire box b; a pipe or 
ptpcn phwed either outeide or loinde the birfler, and ntajr be (breed 
into the fire box eitlier ^ a fan blowar or fiaap. 

The eeoond portion of tbr invention oooeiata in oonatnieUnc 
wrooght'iroti orat«el piatone in the Tinn of anraplediie, Ibmd 
in one piece with the piston ml, and haviujf one or moreanivuar 
groovea of greater or i«tu width Din>lc round ita peripber?. In 
Vlu) annular groov«a of the diss or boily of the pielon aro luwrteJ 
ooe or more iteel or other metallic aplit nng), the inharest 
elaaliaiCy of which, \a ooniunatioti with iteam preewre behind 
them a* horein-afier dewribed, will lend to keep the packijig 
tight without any other elaatlo neilin. Wltera a ^gle lUu oaly 
ia umkI the jciint tharvin luay be krpt atoasi-ti^it by the utUav 
poaltionofa tongue piece, bat thia toii|[uojiiecem^bedbiMnBad 
with when nwre than one packing nng la uaed, ae in that cnee 
the joints nu^' be ao nrmogea aa to interaept each other. 8|ij^ 
■prinn tonotonUie tHtukiuguwy 1>« ix^ witborwitlioutateaiB, 
and the eteaai. If osed, ma^ be admitted behind the padting t— 
dot^ chwiieli. or nooMCO, fbnned in the inner (ideeor flangoa 
tha paoldno' groovy and eommunicating with the annular ohi * 
or apaoe bdimd the packing ring or nnga, or. In phioe of 
chaunda or reecnaw, being mode in the flungee of the gron 
neb alota, cHannela, or reoeasesmaj'beformiHlacroM the ' 
rtmn tliMiisolvea. 

Cialnit. — I. The appltco(ion auJ uau to, ai^ in tbo fire 
or furnace* cif, luoiimotivi* or othar hii:h-pr«sur« boilen^ of 
•paMD or partitions plawd (ranaveniply or luut^tadinallT in 
fire boxeeor furuaNn. and flt(«d u'ith liollowa(«yalortue 
of heated air to the flr«. 

fi. Tlio introduction of heated nir fii^n tbo amoko box to the 
b the fire tnx. 

3. The hmtitig of tlie feed water In an annular reatel on tha top 
of the wuokt' ln.'x. 

4, 'nieapptmtii.naod usoof a'ljiMtahleQrebaraforthepurpon 
of rngnlntlng the iblmimicn of nir to the fire. 

A. The pet! iilinr construction ami amuii;caicntof ■olidwroagh^ 
iron or ateul pIntouH, in cumbiiintifu witli (he [Mvuliar ni«b of 
admitting aiean behind the packing ring or riaga. 

(I. Thu ftpplleatlon and uae of wrought-imn or aieel plMooe 
eonaiatiiuj of a ■iraple iliac in one piece or wilid witli thuir platan 
roda, and drcunifercii tint ly grooved to admit pnchius nitgt, aueh 
ringa being fce^it tight by th/Ar own inherent etuticity, and alaa 
aotodnfMn by tpringaorataam preBnire,uiiedetllier*«p*ntal/er 
in combinAtiou. 




*l 



PURIFICATION OF GAS. 
?. 0. HiLW, Deptftwd, P»ttHtm, May S7, 1S3R 

Thia Invention relates (o purlfyiug ooal-gaa Irom ammoiui^ 
sulphur«tted h,rilrcigoii, nnd other Impurltiea after it leavea the 
retorta, by mcann of ii^rublx-rs or rmriflrnk, or Toaenla partiaQr 
filled wiUi coke or charcoal, or sawilmt, mixed or uomlxod wUn 
hydroled or pmoiiillali'd oxides of iron or lime, nnd kept daon 
by wat«r or »th#r purlMng liiiiiid, which it cauonl toapfe«t 
over It and to perealnt« tlirough It. 

The improvomonta cnuiiat, tint, in purifyiuK the gna wUcb 
eacanea into the retort houao or other gaa work buil<tin^ A 
aoniDbcr, made preferably of thin wroughl-iruu, or other light 
mal«rial, ia placed in thu top of ih« roof, or iu the upper put of 
the retort botue, and all tbn npcrtaroa En the sUtM or tllee and 
upper cart of the building are to be doted, ao aa to cauMthana 
in the biiiidiuj; to escape through the acrubbnr. To damp ne 
gaaea, a ■(enm-pipc with hol«eorjeti pointing upwarda anooU 
M placed Iu ih^ Vitlnni of the ecnibber, and to eauae the finace 
topasa through th« ncnibher, the top oTIt ahould be oovom air- 
tight, cither by dipping into a wntw' lute, or oUienriae, and a 
eonununicatioQ by menus uf a pine be made to the diimoey If 
there ie aluire draogfat enoogh in it to draw tho )(a« throngli the 
acrabber. Or, Inatetd of th* efalianey, an ei1:iauN(er mar bo uaed 
to draw the gM through tlie acrubber: uraeteam Jet will uavtr 
tbepnrpoa^pbtoodian tubeor chimney fixed ia the cover. Tlie 




THE CIVIL EKOINEEft AND ABCmTEOXS JO0BNAL. 



T» 





_i InsIbs npvariaikcn tlw J«t Utroufb Um ^iauisf or tnbe 
InrUJr Uiaur and niak*ilU|hl»r, mmm^mw Dm mm cut 
'' I bukluig throDfth UieBiMlucoiiUiiMdiD tli*MruDb*r, M)d 
I ■icdift nr tlii* porpeoe ■bonld ooonat of oolcei chueo*!, or 
or moh lik« nuLUrial, iuto wblch bjnlntiHl ozidM ot 
AA ateariMil, or with which ib«y m« muted, w as to form 
rgnMil>**d or poroua body niAanDtly oohw (o Mow Um tmoky 
gH fa tb« baitdiDf[ ta p<ua thniDxh it, lint* nuijr W UMd itutoM 
of Olid* of iron to Diii vith tlic cbiumwl, &c, bal it ii not m 
good. PMtor nvdut ohuvoai !• pcrluii* lb« bMl [a abnrb 
' : «ttJ) the bydrftUd oxidM of irvn Tbe Mmbber It to tm 

i ii to be laid oD tlicai iu (bin Uj««% *M should b« kept 
,1 by aa iui«miitUataupf)lf of water,wihicii*bDtiMbemiiwd 
(iiuu thruui{b it m la kn ordinary ombbcr, whii^b mil lo « 
Mt rileiit wuliBWAj tb* carbon of iba wiolwwidduit wliiuh 
I dspoalted u tlH diKraoal, and wQl ktop it pmMblo by thn 
Tlib acrabbei' tany bo of an; eonraniaDt fcrm, and there 
d be a buUniD to it, tiiroad up tu the aide* lo catch au; 
■ that may mo Ibnmgb the purifyiug ii>ai>a in the ecrubber, 
•hich irivi«r (n^ be tbaiiQ* «uiivey«d a«v- ^<* udaa uf 
tacrubber ibould not toudi the botion, bat oiily wene down 
» the lo««*t giAtiu*, and betwoon thi* );ratinK a&il tbe 
tliMC ihonld be leh toBBcieiit epaoe for the gna to be 
iiite tbe aonibber, and lo \jam up Uirot^ u« media 
I ooataiBcd. Ten or twelve laohea depth of opeadag all 
, Um aide* will ba in moat caaae aDflteient far pnniying Um 
I nfter it loavee the hrdnolk maiu. The aerubbor or ptuitter, 
'^&raivli which the gfs u to pMS, ia lo befiUed with ooke, brokeo 
ilastmrti, or other aaob naterial, and wUeb ia (o be kefit damn 
bgraiiinteraiitlentaiipply ofooJd water orotherpurifyiof; liquid, 
■s b tbe odUaarj way. Thia eervbbsr inay be plaoed on tbe 
■roond, and anat have a doaed bottom iutead ofan open one, aa 
EeAne Jcaeribed, and ekana ia to be intnduoed Into Ih* bottom 
of Ute ecrubber below (he hoUun ffraling; or Uie euam may be 
paaMd into the pipe thioagli which uie ^a« paeMs lo the atrnboat^ 
M aa to mis with tbe gia, and oomUne with Ui« ammonia, aod 
ether randonuble impurittea it oanUiua. The niiied vnpuur and 
fH will then |iaaa tinwanla Uirongh Itie coke or oilier divided 
media RooiaitMd in tne acnibbcr, and meeting with the oold 
pwifirisgliqakl which Upenolatia^downtbroti^bil, (he Tapour 
wilt be oowMued with the ammonui, Ac; which it biid taken up, 
nad will fall to the btiltom of the ecrubber aa ammoaiacal Ikjoor, 
nad the gaa will be more pure. 

Tbe emmd impnivmneat ooiMBta in niiag warm wntor inatead 
afeold tar inreaoiDg over the materiala onutalned In an ordinary 
Mtrabber. CM water, aipecUlly in winter, i* ant to 0>>ot the f»« 
loo <|iiioUT. nod thereby oocnaioo a dnpnuitioa ot napthnlinoi and 
Um tar, uao, which ia oualained in tho i;bii bcojinea fixed, aad 
•omaktMlly Mofm np the intenlicea between the pieoee of coke 
or Other mnii-riol, or eASIa tlien over, no aa to obatnic* Um fr«e 
paa«^'! of the gu ilir 'ii^h the ecrubber; but when the water ii 
varai,*«y 7U to Uii>° Fuhrenhcit, or tbcreabouta, tbe crj^talliim- 
tionNid depoMt of the uajithnliiie br luilileti oooliog ia toancsl 
-^Bl aroided, and the tar ia idaoiir<atty prevented from 
biag tlie aMloo uf the acrubbar. Wb«u ataam ia need Ui eon- 
. &■« wlUi tiM parifyinjc lK|uiil, a* alraady deaoibad, the eoU 
jutd which ia lyread over tlir top of the media in the acrubber 
1 beoome warm, by neetiuj[ the stenm and gaa wbicb aiv 
■iUk- up and coming iu cuutnct wiUi it; tlierefor*, when eteaui 
ie><i lu ooojancttou with water or other purifj'ing liquid, (lia 
luld apread oi-ar the top of the KTubbiog or punfyiug matenala 

I Thw third iuiprorenMnt comuta in a^rendiag water or cdlicrdeu 
Lliiinid oter ilie luaterint* coniaiuiul in tli« aeruLber br meana of 
— oo* p]p«*> dlaphiaffma, or filler aUmee^ which, by alJowiiig ilio 
' to niter through Uiara, will rnnacut n dow^- eut&ot lo Uiu 
, and the valer or othnr purilVing liquid will be osuneil lo 
Dp cjually over ibc nufaoe of tiie maierialn ooutniaed bi tlia 
aenibbei\ or a ecrubber or coB^enaer maybe formod wlioltyof 
llieee |wrou> lUlerliig platea or diaptuagtoa iaalead i^t briug filled 
with O'ko or otbiM" graailr dirideu media, aud the waU-r bcliig 
ewaiied (g filler through ibaw |>liitee or diaphr^piui, will preaeut 
k damp (urfiioe to the eaa, which wilt cmuleime the aniiuoubi it 
e«tiuDa. Tlie pCTirvatGaphrngmaltentrefemdlo are principally 
the artillcial lilieriugplaJleaM lundebj Ruwoueand iiima, of 
Veatmlaater. Anv convediient arrangement of the Ulter platei^ 
«hid> will allow ine wnter to paaa through tbom and preeent an 
nieeided damp or dewy (■rfaoe to tbe gna, wilt anawer tbt pur- 



MaiL Tbe tep «f ak ni illi— j Mbe Mrabbrr nay ba made of ■> 
Iron frame, in cotapartauBl^ havlw tlima Star platea ctn en ted 
into Uietii, ai> aa lo lonn a lank of a frw indiea deep to hold 
wnttr Eor lllteriax through and anpplyitiK the acrabbar, aa 
deaoribed. A gaa-tigbt cover afaonU be iitt«d on tbe lop of tUa 
•mrr-lanlf tlmT bit gat may f-tp- 
Tk» teiHlh iMproeamaat cohifaia to aptading water in a finely 

iMnperi 



k 



divided •tale in a roaael tbroodi which tbe gaa which hoe i 
into the trtort hnaee mingUa with air ami amokc h caueed to 
pnm bcfbre entering the aorabber alraady deacrifacd. Thia la 
efflKted by mcnna »t a (team jet. fiaed lu a email fnn&el-abnped 
or coDcave baaia. aud wlikh baain ia placed in tbe eentre of the 
bottom part of the veaael, which may ha of any eeurcnient tls^ 
or depth; and the oriEoaof the ataam jet ia to be a fcw incbea 
above tho bottom of the bann in tbe centre, and water ia lo 
he run at any rsuuirvd pa«s into tbe tittle coukal or fnnnal* 
ahaped baain. aoJ when it eooea lo the bottom of tbe hoain 
below tbe orifloe of Uie ataam jet, tbrvugh which h^b-pi*«Hu« 
■tcaiD i* caueed to iiBun, it will bu |«rli<dly cuuTerted inlo vapour, 
and will be diapenMd iu all direetiona, Iqr wbieh meana Iha 
graaer or uarbuvnoe<>a« imunrltiet of tJia naam paml B g tbroogh 
the Ttaeel will be depoeited or ooudeoeedliefan the pm tnmm 
into the acrubber eaolaiaing Uie purifying mnterini, ammdy 
douribo'l. Thia remel, ia which the water ia thue epRnJ, eboold 
be made preferably nf tight vrougbt inn, and may be wore- 
nlenUy plnoed beluw Lhe ecrubber In tbe n>of, bglbm daacribed, 
and mi^ form aa aateuuim of it br making it lo much deeper; 
or, if praernd, il may be ooaaoctoi by pipe* to tho eembbcr in 
any ooovenient way. 

CleJiM.— 1. Fur pHriryin^gaa(whethercaeapiugiuto the retort 
boone or into the hydnubc main) comUaing the nee of atmm 
with the uao of pnri^rnw laqnida in aerubbcn, or purifaia oon- 
taininx the purifying and dirided media. 

i. xlie enipkiviDent in Um ecrabbeeB of a warm tnatcad of n 
eold Mirifylug liquid. 

a. Tbe diitribiaUoa of tbe piirifjinji liquid over tbe divided 
media in the amnbbara or purifiun by uieana of filtering pialei 
or dij^iliraRiai: and lin tbe funning Uie eerabben or puriflan 
of a eerie* uf aaeb filtering pUtea or dia|)bngma ioatend of «3u 
or other divided media. 

■L Spraadiug valer by ajatofslean. 

ABTmCIAL STONE. 
t. D. OwKN, Londoo, I'otentei^ Uay 38, 16S& 

Thia invention eooaiite ia fanning block* of artiftolal atone, for 
building purpoaea, aa a eubetiiule for brick and atooea. He 
beeia of thi* improved building block an lime and slieioua mod, 
artidee whloli ara old and well known materiala for bailding pur- 
poaea, anil wbiirh have bmn iiiihI tu a gnat variety «f leuMvv 
proporiioDa, ei iher a* mortar In cement etomea or btieka together, 
aa ooDcrele to make foundationa, or for other purpoaea. The 
Mtenteeetatee that although It 1* compoaed of Mieb otd and well- 
Known nHtcrliJ. jt\ theae materialaare aooombined na to give to 
the blodc uflw pn>r«rtieaand advania g ee la ee m lallj diSertntfWiM 
thoae poa*i>iBctf bv any oUier known arU&ckl buiMinc material. 

A iiu.Miiity 'if fr-ane ailidona aand, aa free aa peealble from ad- 
miiture wiih dsy ■■r oilier rarth i» ororided, li<Ke(her with a 

Snaatity of fretbly alacked limv in pomler. A> much aand and 
Rie aa can he moulded tiiUi bloolu during an hi>ur are IImb to be 
thoroaghly mixed to^elher, in the proportion of about one part 
of lime to from lix to twrive parte of aand, accordius to the 
nature of the eand or the qutdity of the lima, tho lime bring the 
dry powder hydrate prodnoed when lump* of oUciued limeatone 
are freefaly •Incke'l, and the land having that decree of moUUre 
ilorditutrilyha* wli«idugouli>f the earth. IT preCirrrd. ibc 
calciaeil limtwtone mnv be ground anil ui1xi->l with ibn aamlpir** 
vioue to being alacked, aiM thnn aa niU'^h wvUt oiMM aa i* 
neceamry forthejiroone of alacking; thin entupceitiou i« then 
plaeedtuto the mouM, ofthe T«qnired ahapecfa mould iug preea, 
aimtliar to tliote used for making brioka tViNn ]mlverulent cl^, 
aud il there mbmitted lo great pree*nr«, wbieh ehould be pro> 

EDrtkined tolhelhirkueae roqoirod. A enilable pRwiiin hr n 
I'wk ofS tnolkM thi<-k iroiild beabmit 3 inue fo the ■>|unre inch: 
bl'icke may be fununl noilcr leaa prtaenie, birt it ia eruJest thai 
theei>iup(MtDn>t uf Iba bluck iBi^reAaea wllb the ]ir««*un to a 
certain cxteut. After Uie hl'<rii hiui been eahmtltod lo tbi* 
premure. It la carehilly remurrd from the mould and laid apou a 

U' 



■ 



80 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ABCmTECTS JOUBNAL. 



Oat waihee, with &m mwm of ktr, wbn« it riionld nomIii tuitil 
toAetaatiy hudMudor ripeiwd. wben U will b» mdv (br om. 
For th* porpcM «f fluUiUtiiw tiie ripeaiiiK of Uw block, it iboBld 
ifUrgirtbuiaooBuiuni bfM(,b«petfaf*lM viih cmw or man 
bol«i tlMMwinidalttkaUuMptMrieftir into the interior of 
the block, wbenbjr th» bvdMt* of HnN will b« MovacMd into 
t»rbc«iWe,*ifcMige wbicii,iftbobteck»wcreL«rjf8md Mlid,woiiJd 
rvqnin t, eotwidenUo tim«. 

Tb» partklM of Mad in tba oompoMtion uv, bf th* hMvj' 
prcflum to whioh it ii ■ubj«el«d, foradintomeh dowproiiiiiit]', 
Ihftt it Nqslraa but v«rr little ntaent to fill the intention) uid 
■cgloBMrua thrai togatntr Into m block of ooBput nndirtutie. 
n* blodn tliiu iB*d« boooniA iodiUkt*(l kftart fbw noatta to nieji 
a dagne thkt ihey m not readily dintin^bbkhlo tlma nxtiml 
MMatocie, In thV prawnition of thiiiuiit«ria1<nrcmiiiitbatAkeB 
not to «n)plo:r wet Mnd, booMu if there i> ta cxocm of moiattm, 
to ack ft da^TM M to extado «iit«r whilst the block !• pnmtA, 
it wonld ba inpo«IUa to give to th« nuu* tli« rwjubito ooUdity, 
na th* oobeMon of tbc water to tbe suid ftod titiw in no •troog, 
uid ita iooo ni pt aia ibility ao grMt, thnt it oould not bo expraacd 
In tbaTMyfartrfapaaa of tliM daring whtoli th« block ia oipoaed 
topntnr*. Tbla auaaa of wiriar would &fl«mi^ enponkte, 
loaTiDgi tbo block enmpMiUiTcly pomua, light, nod friable; It^ao 
wonld be muA tournr in h«riJenin|^ ontek in drjing, ftod not 
aulmdn Ita ahapa. WliwiaMtdi(B0trMdiIroblAiiuibU,emnd3' 
palv«riMd aeeria from Ainuwaa, brieka, or other polvendcDt 
■dlidow iBatt4T nay b* aaipto7«d in place at tb« mnd; the Une 
fcnd aand mny be mixed with oxidr* of oiotal, or other colourlug 
nuilter, to give the blouki anj diMired colour. Tbaaa bloeka dry 
withoatthiwiu or w»rp!ug, and beace paiif gmt adrantap* 
over briolte wUtG always ikriak nucb and rwy uoeqimllj, ud 
alM wupia buraiof. BkiekamAj bemad* tnanr deainble brat 
or abafc, tJiuo orarDani««it«l, p«rfontl«d or aolid. For Uoeka 
iat«MMd»r bnUding in water, waterlimeiBiucd. These Ucidu 
an mads In a hIoiIIm' manner to those ubove deaoribcd, but when 
removed fmni the praa and ealBcieDtly «t. It la wcU to aabmarge 
thamin watorfora ttme, bjr which meaai tlwjr will rapidly grow 
hard and lit lor iiae. 

OMm.— The mianbctim of blocka of artiSdal atone from 
•and or other pulreralmt elllclona mall«r ia eotubioattou 
with lime, and formed in mould* under great preaaure. 



PERMANENT WAY OF SAILWAYa 

F. P. DiMrru, PhiUdelphia, U.a. Falmtm, Ma^ 27, 1S56. 

Thb invention trlatca to a nuNle ol ooauecting the rail* of raU- 
waye i« the wooilen alcepera, whereby the rait* uv mar* firmly 
beb) tluui by tli« ordinary nlaua of aeanring nili. and ■ r«il of 
muck lighter w«ight than ta nsually euplot-ad may be adopted. 
lotMnd of Mf.Qriiig tha rails bv meMw cf pJna «r spikes to tha 
upper anrftoe cif a loDtptadinitl aloeper, tho p*t«Dta* Imbed* the 
foot of the rail in the sleeper, by cuttiiijE oat groovse therein to 
riKeive the rail. A double T rWil ia prvferrnl. To imbed the 
foot of the mil in lli« aleeper, the latter a out loniptuiliiiiUly 
down th* middle, and move* or recewe* are eat in the iuuer 
lido of the two balven of the loDgitoilinid iileeper of each a aiu 
and thuw a« to receive the foot of the mil when tbe two halves 
of the ttleeMT we brought together ajjfaia. The ftrMtcr portion 
of the nil la thua Midossd between tbe alee'iicni, and the font of 
ilrMtebiilf oa one half of the sleeper nud half on (ho other hnlf 
ot the sleeper. The whole is held togother by bulta and euta, 
the bolts psesing through the rail and the two halvrs vf the 
aleepcr. Tbe inner ends of the bolta or eome of them mny If 
nqulred be provided wMi ayea to reeelve the rode (br eonuoeting 
the tiro rail* of the tnck togetliar, and tho* preaMrlng tbe 

■ nncaof thelinc: 
Tbe patantee obsii riM, that in onler to pt^erent m niuoh as 
powible tbe latsntl deAertlon of the lailo. It may be lieiirablo to 
give eae-half of the deeper a ereaUr elevation than tho oihi-r 
halt the lower half baug at tbe highest eJeratlon compatible 
with tbe flange of the tnvening twilwny whcphi, denriug it, but 
the other aMtting i^nst the iMad of the rail. A reelstlng 
modfam ia thna proviiM agabst the IntemI nrceiam of the 
paadng tram. The atveral timber* fomituu tliv sleepen ars 
arranxwl *o that thoy abaU bnak joint, nut noily with (Mh other, 
but with the langtha of bar inm (btming the rails: thoa, wb«t« a 
joint in the nul cooura they will be suppcrted on both tide* by 



the loogitndinal sicepen, and oppodte a Joint Id the ate«pen Mt 
Ottbroken length of nul will be pnMaDl«d. 

CValsi.— The mode described (HT obtaining a oontiniioua bearing 
for the rails nf tailwayi^ and of holdtog them In position witbon 
the aid of eliMrs or outer analogona stipporta. 



8EPULCHEUL MONTTMESTS. 
W. Pons, Sandsworth, PmanUt, Jans 4, ISM. 

Thb Invention relalea to the moatrasUon of arpulohrml moini- 
meats, combining eponomy with superior arehit«etural and aniatio 
demgn. The patentee make* coTen for tcmbe by casttag er 
moaldln|i the ouver* in natural or artilidal stone or rnvtal, or by 
cutting tW stone, marble or other material, with rtoeasc* or pro- 
jeettenslD theeentre of theouvarm. 

Tbe insmption frame i* f>>rm*d at ha fewer put en as to A 
aocumtely into a remea. Where tbe bases an finmcd of naunl 
HtoDc, iron beams are placed nndeniBatb.inskad of aslooeBaiwSh 

Tbe Bang** are plaeed below the tbe leret of the laaes of ua 
covers, aoaaro made of a suitable width to sink or Imbed In tlie 
nnmoved earth between tomfad Th* flanges nreeerra the leret 
of the montunenta if the earth aoverinK "f the tomb ■hnuld ebil^ 
avoiding the neoetaity for briukwork Ui iiutain it The inaerip' 
tlon pUtea to be in«crt«d in tlm iiiitortfilicu fmiue ^re tupptied 
deUiehed Aram the inacription frnmc, ut m to provide the con- 
venience nf adding at a modcrato coit a nnw and durable reeord 
of a recent death. 

Tbe plftt«i ar«i fastened by a flange at the tower end, being let 
into the inacHption fnuno, and by a lock bolt Into tbe frame at 
the ton. In some scpulohtal monnmente, the Inacriplioa pUiM 
are all looae, and are neld to the iiiacripticin franr by ktow* and 
nuts, and remoT«able at pjeunre to be replaced by otbon con- 
taining new racord* of deaths. 

The ■c^^wn by which the toscriptlon plate* an *«cur«d to tbe 
monnment nnie throng hole* into thv interior of the monuio«at| 
ac«ea* to which (i gained for tbe purpose of acrewlng and bd- 
scrvwiog the insorlptioo plate* br the removal oT VM cover, 
which mny be secnted In [t* phuw by a lock. 

Claim- — The casting or forming covna far tomb* or gravw 
with recMMts or projeetlonii to r«cpiT« (he Insoriplloo frmmcs at 
the centre of the coverv, and alio outtng or forming the ooven 
with flangM bdow the leviel of the b«M cr ^nnd linn* of tba 
covers, to preserve the level of the coven if the in^ve itaelf (inki^ 
and alio supplying inscription plate* composed iu luoee piece*, »> 
aa to teadify affix a now record of a death. 



FDHNACES, 

C. DnNoe, Bedford -street, Siraud, faOnUt, Juno t(^ 18ML 

This invention consists In so encloaing the ash-box or pit ef 
funiaoca that the air Deceasaiy to cniabu*lion I* Impelled hy tbt 
ohimnqr draft to enter the Airaaco qnickly, nnd iri Cjikiiigaavan- 
tage of the low air nrcasupe above the fuel in the furnaoe to 
draw the ganes reeultmg (iow tbe diatilktiuu of the cvah^ ud 
canainj^ them t» pas*, together with the fnsh nir, throvgfa tht 
cnriioniiKil fufl ill the fiirn.ice. 

Tlie fuel riin above the upper level of the floo to the cbiianty, 
iK> thnl the drafl thureto luimci thro<i](h the bulk of tha fuJ; K 
grttvU oiwniiig or puuel forma the eutnuice to the chimney flu^ 
a^inat whinli thf fuel rs«U; a uietalllu plate eitoidl over ike 
whole vidlh of tliir fiimoco, dividing if, in two ]iarta, one of wbid 
remains free lor tho pa*ange of amoke, and th* ontranee pMi^t 
of the air Into tbe Mh-piu The draft proiluced cause* a eutrMt 
of air to enter rapidly, and to pam directly iotu the ash-pit, and 
uj> thnragh the furnace ban. The current and direction of the 
air tbui civen canam the smoke resulting rroiii tbe dlstilUUte of 
freah fuel Ui prLu over the partition down into tho wih-plt, vArs 
it mixes with the Crvah air, and ii with it carrlod tbrol^l ibe 
ni.iM of incanilewent fUel lying on the grate uf tbe fttrnaon nd 
»o xa the flae, wheniby the emolte Is oousnmed. 

C'^im.— The smoko-conauiaing fiiniace deaoribe^ In e Ucfe 
fhr rlii f fiiliir ii ttir rntiim nr niinilii 1 1 f ihii JIMS nnl sii tla^ 
or products of combustion arising from 6eah rod, nt an<v Wtt 
the a*li-pit, and through the laeudescent part of the fire, b ' ifci 
nctioD of the draft. ! 




THE crra engineer and archttects jocrnac^ 



81 



BATLWAT CHATBS. 



BjlILow, t)eihr, tad W. IL Woocnocm, WHttainater, 



Mxbr, taa 



JuiM 16, 1W6. 



tttvcadoa propcMM inpMvWMOla in eoniiMttaK *ai 
th« fuifU of nuU of nuiwayL For thM« narpoMM tba 
iDpli>THl u« «Ab mwle ill twn puu, which m not in 
iw. tbe htUrior of lh« olalr ii lbra«l to r*oeiv< tva 
liktea IB iddltloo to tha i^, kod ■ Mn* bolt puMB 
tb* tiro jkwt of tbn chkir, tliKKi^h the mil, mtA throuKh 
" fijih" plAtoa; where joint ohatn w« Qa«d, tha chain 
La widoi and lnr« two boUa tlumgh «Mh of tha jftw« 
)r bolU, M tlul OM Imll ommi thrangh th* vnd of Mch 
mU M Ihraii^ tbi " &>h* pht«a ukI th« jnwa of tha 
Iha "Bah" pUtnara aUo bolted to lh« rail* bv oUmt 
aim pawing throngh tlicon. And U i* fbaiiid ai^vut»- 
ikaBudiif^fiA" pUtMiB enuiMlingtlwMidnaf mlla 
f^n, to aoiploy pUtM with two or BBon boMla Kran 
tn plM» ot Mpwnl* nut* for mush ncnw bolt naed. 

^INa APPABATtJS FOB UDTSa* 
B; WjuuxoiuM Sana. 

Dtor tiBM bMT«ls w«r« awd, uii1 thn** now nailvr tha 
klbblM, wsra enptojrcd in onrniolaUifenMUiiU&ai; thcae 
nuiooi cnoftractMiM and noai, ncil ii ilopcnded wbethar 

E for wioH bone or Ntenin power. Thaj wouldisgaiMnJ 
1 ewL to I toB; ■oaMtlniM tha/ wara mndaof wroQgbt> 
a nt othara at wood, atrnnglf BuMnad wim bvo. luay 
hitd an ovil cocwtnictioo. In K«nml, in onal mining 
I, thia BrnuipatMit hnd been KuuennM, tlioujili it ooiila 
Inllr be aeen in Beigiam and the BrUtol awl Samenetahlra 
I. In thlt localltj, by tha arraogoiUHnt of a otop, thay 
)a to tolca tlio ■mtgoait to t1i« liilo 'if tli« ulinfl, nnd than 

coal, and fmtn Uicnoe it n-u drawn V> tlie mrface. In 
W^ to alrMiKtbu) the kibble*, and prvvealocciiJL'nta, there 
ilae bottom placed in tl>«m. If ^mil ouv wure ti»( takan, 
b tCBdermiaenlaaoMi vailiabletoUwk. lu Utunur, 
fpf kibblea ud Umk ba had aeaa atrong bafiefoz-ltiaa 
t daMripUon of tboM would b* foand in the woffca of 
%; tha/ wi>m morelr two ox-hii|«a tewn attougly together; 
k WM not at ail nndoairealile or to be eoaJeiiiued wheca 
biiiee oonid be nuro'iaaed at a cheap nt«. H<' h»d men, at 
lu, Cram fMO lb. to lOOO lb. of ulver ore drawn to tha 
hi one of tliaae bnga. One nf the Brrni objectiona to the 
waatheirawiittiDf backward! and Ibrwardii iu the ihuft, 
^wbenn ehaithad lobeliinbered.ofteDocawioDedgTnat 
: Then waenotonl/ the wear and tear hare, but llkewiM 
Uw ififw and kibble, ud It waa long «Da*ldor*d bolbn 
, whaUiar thekibUaeoould not beiuaed by tbomaanaof 
pr raila. At the latter end of the hwt oentur/ hnakeU 
icJojrod, and the/ had not now smeu entiral/ intoillauae, 
In be aeen in eoine of tha nsaller oolUerla* in lAnouhlre^ 
; b/ iroa bandi. TIm fint place whe:« ^-iiidaa were n«>d, 
) ymn ago, wwi in tlia Saxon miue* : ronii/ uf the aliafta 
txa underlie, atid it wna dMireable to obviate tlw great 
j Abonl the ruar 18^ the/ wpni fint emplo/ed In the 
Ik ODiUiee/ lUatrtet, In Sontare^tahtrtt. A doaeriptinn uf tha 
ba than given, aoeompaDied vilh adiagrmni, a&d this pr«- 
ti/ attempta iu the North of England. Prona IbM tu inm 
ttontioD waa drawn to tbia in aeverU of the ooai iJiairiaie^ 
^^ thoM /ear* it owe into general ua* In Northmubei^ 
d Uevon. In egBw cHOi tlia ipiidaa wen amall, but the/ 
nriooa deataipUooa, anob m iron ohaiu, iron roda, win 
bd wood: wood waa noat geoenil/ eDDiiil^ml to be 
r* Tkoae of inn w«ee generalT/ etreiened fruui the botteen 
It to the top. It waa OMlnbla the/ ■Loulit havi' iliJferMit 
OMi Ibr It was wttl known that when two ntnUla of the 
tm WW* oaed then would bo a great friction, an<t thin, if 
\, wiaalwa/i to be obviatod. The old method li»d been 
10 be ver/ ckeirucUvo, ae the ooutMtt re-loadhig of eo 
i ninml waa likul/ great!/ to datericnt* iU nlue. The 
I of acoaoMV waa uow graall/ aliidlad, ao ae to pnTani, 
I poanblek the rariooa (»-badiiif[B. There waa grant akill 
1 inlnTingontaabafL Sonetimoa one rope would be 

, ia other {natauoea two woold be fonad neceaunr, and 



^CMVali 



Ibsre wan cnace where it wna requlalte that four ahould be «m- 
ployad. OnMeBoMofthaTeBtUatioB. itWMndtinUathat tha 
wagOBt abouLd be nada aa amnll aa poadb l a, in eompnriaou wHh 
the ahaft. Tlia cage ehonld not w«i^ bearier th>n 4 or 9 ewL, 
bnt made ofaUnng and dmUemntenali^aa the ligbtor the cage 
the gnatar <|naatjt/af nunei»l oould belntupertaa to tb« lU&e^ 
A deaORptlon of the oedlaaiT eaga waa IKmi gtew. iewnnaica 
with a dagntn. SomatlBiea the Mga wm «> eoMtrndad that it 
earned two wigona^aida byaiilK m othan tha one waa pineal 
ovM- the other. In aeollier/ that he knew, the Grvid Honia. 
nearMotuLin Belgiom, a gnat quantity of odoI wm drawn up at 
one time hr a nsgle tteam-aogiae : the rope then uaad waa of 
aloe 6bf«: the cuawudividad into ooBipartsiaBta, and protaetcd 
b/ a bouaet: aaeb eompartmant «nied two wagnw, which would 
held about S cwt. cacli, Kod wen loaded 6om the diHitftntlevda. 
Onat meed waa there eiereiaed : th^ ordinaril/ drew to tha 
■ur&M from eoO to 000 tosa per dien, Irat If raqulnd OmU briuft 
to paMMmnohaa from lOOO to 1900 lona In twelve boon. Tha 
depth of thia eliaft wm about tW ftna., and therniring wna aAoted 
with gnat rcgnlarit/ and amooUmeaa of method, u I^MuUra 
and iome of Uie northeni diaUiola, It waa net nacomnen for n 
weight of oo(U tnoo WO to 300 lb. to be bronght to aorfhoa lu { 
tof«rnmiBulA Aladaep pttnlUonkweanDOoth, whidi waa 
IM baa. in depth, li»r w^opa hod been brought up in If 
minute. The averafe qieed might be reakaaed at &om 10 to iO 
milea per hour. It wne aiower when £r«t deaeeadla^ qniclor In 
the Buddie of the alinft, and gentler when approaebing the bottom. 
It waa alwaya aewmary not oaly to catoulaU the wairtt of tha 
rope or chain, bnt likewiaa to aMiiilaiii ita atrangth aBdonrabilit/. 
II«d it not hern for the ialndaotion of Iha wire-rope tha deep 
mineeiu the UariE would have bean abawJoaed ; thlawaalar^fy 
need In eolUerlea. The lactaror tlieu deacribad the Tanoaa 
conntarpoieaa raqniml to be aard, all of which won iUnalraled 
by loodeU. In Belginio, ia aame miiia^ (ha men wen for^nJden 
to go down in the engm: in tbia eonntij, however, the/ were 
albwed. He next deacribed the mfetj-eaga Innated bj Mr. 
FuurdriiUer; Uion was another, whlth had baeu need at Aaaia, ia 
Pranot.whiebhadmrvdmao/IJTM: thUbsdapairofanaa, which 
so soon aa the npe broke cLuped the gnidss. Another wna tiiat 
ofHcvm. White aod tinot, of Glaagow, which Imd likewise 
bem found aflicnciuuB: he thouuht howvvcrdeeirablo iheoe invea- 
tiona luigfat be, when the/ cousidertd the imporitlea the/ were 
tlkri/ to receive frem maI diiat, aod aomatteiee acid water, that 
the/ would Sul. nnlem thrac vai a conatant and diligent auocr- 
riaioa exerriaed orer thMO, It/ the late Act, collier/ ownennad 
been required to pivlecl tlii> mnutlii of ahandooed ebutsi iMa waa 
a ver/ taliitur measure, and he triiat«d gT«ater diligence and 
mon> fstondao control would be exerelsad than bad been the «ase, 
ao that uuuxy of the acddenta that now ooenrred, if the/ oouhl not 
be entinl/ avrndcd, wuuld at Icaat b* nateriall/ remedied 



<f alMtnedlnr«iMa*a«*gnims(3caMltf Mian. 



AuiiraUm Aif/u<ajw.~The laglelatun of New 3o<atb Wales 
have Duetd an liaportiuit act to eoablo the Qo*«mor, with tba 
aid of the Executive Coun<dl, " frotu lioic to time to raiae^ bf tha 
mlea of debeuluree aeourvd u)hmi the oonaolldatod rarmiue Atad of 
tlie colon/, aad bearing iatereat at a raU not airaaillng fi per 
ceaL per aaaom, aaoh aum or auma of none/ aot oxeaadlna 
KftfiOOL, aa autr be nqaircd for earrriiig oa of lailwa/ waefca5 
— --OoBtnicW liave Ihwu ncoepted for providing toeomocivea, 
rolling atock, tc. from Euclaud fur the Melbonma and WlUiama- 
town railway, the aucnaeiftil teuderan being Ueeet^ I>e Pa**, 
Brothers, aad Co., at ^ per esut. uptn the Kogiiah pricea. The 
Mma firm hare aUo cunirnctol [or tlio aapplr of 1^000 tona vt 
ralla. Tenders Lav,! likeTige been invited for the aoppl/ of 
11(1,000 aloopen tot the Melbourne, Mount Alexander, and 
Marra/ Itiror rulwar, aod the braadi Una to WiUiamrtowa; 
and for a tlircc'Rkil foneo on both atdsii of tbe main line for 
SO milee (rom Uelbuurne. Toodera liave been received for tha 
■apply of a larue qiiantftv of rolling stock of ooloidal annofcctniet 
bat have not boon vet Jecidad upon. Tbe mllw^ bom Hot- 
bonne to St. Kilda la being lapidlr prooaadsd with, and the lino 
fiom Melbaume to Ocoloog wiU M opened tor traffic tfaroogh- 

out, it la oonfidentlv SMcrted. In Fabniaty. The Oeelougnnd 

BnlUrnt line Is also in s forward utatej and oommunioalioa 
betwoou thaae pUcaa will be eaUbUahed, it is expeetod, on or 

befon the let of Decomber. ^Tha mmy of tha Noith-aastara 

litM^ to ccnneot Uelboame^ Kilmora, Seymour^ ^*-ia"*L Soech- 
worth, and Belvoir, is now in prograa. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AA'D AHCniTECTS JOCBNAL. 



1N8TITUT10K OF CIVIL ENGISEERa 
Jm. 30 Kud ST.— I. K. Bncxn, &>)., V. P.. is tlx Ulufr. 
Th« DkouMloii oo Mf. P. IL Wuvuw'a Papw " <M Aitounw TUc- 

> A4««eripttonwMfi>«nDf iJirtwakintUof nbaAiine cable* (OtplDftil. 
t-;— th« (impb OkU*. oompoaxl of ono wir* in («<>> nau'copdaaing 
I «i¥alop«, a ocfUin Dusibar ol then Mn^ Uid J'l'n ■i<lu t? nde, w Uul 
[ki OMof k OMuJlf oooiirrliig to c-ce win ttw otlmi mi^hl b« maile um 
Of;~aDit Uie oiaijx-und (stile, wboma > glrni tiumbti' of w<r«* nr* 
bortnd by one envolope ol iniD wipe. The rewot tuu&lti«t ocDOtTtnf 
I to th«M Ckbloa »er« quoMd la lappoK of ttm *ilv>titiigui offered hj tlia 
[ifanpte cablaiM, ia eaoaequuie*; the (Vlki* otblc, whtcb waaoftt* 
tetDptuBil hinil, Mtig torn uontln' bf the Jincbor et « v«mbI Joifaig Ui» 
rlM* (bIm, ihert had (fiRi*4 oonn'denUe incolirtD(«QO<^ uiitll tbe lr*A>t 
|«f tMmMn(ai«auldbekn»iignI bjr anotlwrreiit*, whONM lb* Mmplo 
[ mUm^ iltboiich ftrtHtilj injund, but nenu- eeMad to b« capaUa of cwi- 
I miog MHsige*. It «u oat mourt bj Lhii ta mkA, Ibkt th* iliuplv 
,^U« would be ttw beat fortboeuiDaelhig link beMMD tit* woM pmiM 
I ^ Iralaod and thn L'nlletl SeaIm; hot tbooeM vuirarUiMiiddantlMi, 
[}t the ouUrt of ito iuiiwrteot an un(lert«kin|[. Ithul not been tbe objeot 
I ar lL« autjior of th* ytflu Uniuifumgn IIm aUempt to oaait; tolofimpluc 
HHi Up^ Iti A nif^n, ii«i did be ineao to MarrI Uiel tbe epeiJ would be 
iilow u tobg ebar to proGlr but beWl^itnhieinipneiriDii^ lUrind 
tini cxparimont, ebieQy with tbe *icir of <<[ioitiiiKWan]ulitin, fniin 
■M* Obo had boiler opportoniliea of iiire«ti|[>tiiig Ibe >uhJ0Dt. 
It w«* remartlod, ttud lonts additloni wen titcrmmrf to render tbe 
Plfcr«ae>iDptetaT*parlortbopro]traei to tbe finaontdniD, endemeaiiJIy 
tbn tbe prepoitlmiM finauib and w>l||bt ot Ibe dlHbneit o*bW uxl 
Ibtir emiatraetios, thouM bare bwn ginni the deptli and cluuKter of 
kttiabotMni altheTariou* iStei^ and Ihetnaimirafpijtagoiil, would bav* 
rbem iatereating; ai aleo eumc inlonaalicni aa lo tbe powwr ua«d in the 
iMNriDWDttNOorded in the Wblra; tb* propoftlon between thepoweref 
PwMawnnt and ibedtffvrent lRiigih«afiakiiidtor«rireibonld have been 
I taaniit>«d. The cMof poiut eugipeted for dinuwon waa tbe diffiotitt; 
[if working, at a Mtbractory ralt^ thnugh eobb a length ot oblo uthat 
I how btinjt oanelnicled to oonneet Europe wtlli Amerioa. Tbare waa 
[i«a«on to believe, tbal tbe rifnlaof tbepbenDTncna oritiiluctton and 
I fctanUtion wetnenfeentn), Tbeolwctriot nnditloni of an underfrounit 
f frire ooinddnl wilb inon ef a tubmarin* wirv. Tbo fint Kn^llib under- 
aed line ef aajr impoTtuoe, eeaitedwilb gutta-rercba, wu tbai hid 
baM^netio Coropiny, Inlfttl, between Linrfioal and Muiobeetor. 
•BWl of bldiMUon manlfeeled lledir there, but Mr. Honleyli 
IbMnniMiH met IbedilSRuJty, and pramlaed, w^lb eoioe rnudlfleatiam, 
[.to VOroiraie any eitaoaion oril Ulicly to ariea in tbe loufcr Una then 
t •Oatemplated. "Hiey differed fraiulhe <>til plan in tbe u*e of revureed 
Iplllllla of ei|nal Oration, and ol high pruportiwialaiiiteaelly, eninpared 
tirith tbe ordinary plTanle ennwnt. Thia equaUlT ot time and tercc waa 
[iB very inipartaiil fnturr, for any diffentnce nai lalatto working through 
[irMClonnb* of wirn alibotcd by inducUou. In an luelmiDiint siODe 
jtODlTftMIO work wilb rsvereed eurrDDU from a galranio batterv, in 
rwUeli llie duration of the cnrrenti Taried according as the ngiini*. or 

raea, were lonifer, or ihorUr, a abort vumnt wm found not to bckhls 
nrmount the reeidual tllccta of a lar|[e one, and ihua a preper 
|iwn(fali«tian did not take plaoe. Tke inenaae of induution by a ourroot 
f |p«at duration waa eelr-eTident, aod nii|;bt I* praeticaUy even by 
bargina a ir«ll-inaulAt«d «rr< for eome (iioci the riliint ciitmit. Or dia- 
I rtaiia.liiiil Ibn more pawer tban a brisf current from ibr batMr^ Itaelf 
Lvn •hon eireola. On tlweileruion of die undergrotuid ■yateni, nooauae 
liar dlaoeara«Denl waa fbniid.aa. with tome altmilani, tbe inatnimenta 
I ^wfcaJ adiBifahly: and knatead of bang I'^'t'^i*. oircuila bad freqnenllT 
l^jOaa worfcad at the tat* of four hundred oorronl* pcv minute^ wblM 
lw«ii)«L bw U>"r length, only atbiw of too eurreota being aent at the 
lane tiro*, if tbe tlieory adnHiaeJ eueound. Some time einoe Mr. 
IQuuIh Bright, in ooiyuDctien with &lr, \VbiMliokUie, had made eonta 
[ niNciiuenti through twothouaandmUee of a-ini, oounrccoi eo aa to 
Ibna a continuoua circuit, icmlDating at both vudii in ibeeartb, Imar- 
[fiodialelanrameotawcre placed U«mIi loop, lo teat the tborooirb action 
['af tbe dedrlikl wave* tbroogb ih* en^re lenglb. and ijiiual* were cl«rly 
I Jateed al atate of Ion Id twelve words per minuM. Two large induo- 
I eoili^ ihtwe feet in lenglb, excited by a powerful '(imre' batten of 
t ipiM aallit but eoDnuoiad for quantity in aeu tit tan, wen u**a to 
•nto Ibe cvrrtslB, wbicli were very p<.w*rfiil. Krniu all that had 
I abown in ibe Paper, it wm nnteniW. Ibat no diffiuutly wa* likely 
I b aria*! in working trout Inlind to Nowfoundlnnd. that ooulil not be 
UfEMnully dadt with. 

J pDrtion* were o^iblto] of tbe nbinajini! cabiM loadius to Calala and 
ItoOiitiind, ubiult bad bnu rupturiHl during the rrcantguw tit a vtaaal 
Idregging bee aocbor. and baoyioi; upon lliaa« cabica oonaeouuvely. It 
Fira* reinacked, that tbau|{b 'ucb foree bad been uaol u r ujilurod lb* 
|fc>Dn wii*and Iwiated Hin a roniarkablo manner, tbe giill.i |i«n.lia cover- 
■ o(tW Gopor win wva bul little injured, and only mhibiieil a tfmple 
1 dlaai eecoao, all Ibe f**t of tbe ooreriDg being in aa rood a *lal« m 
■ftMttwvwtmbiddewv, STveaanaod aW/nvnoaaly. 
It WM obeerred. thai ahhacgB Ur. Cranpton* name bad bc«n pr*- 



mjjiotitly iDBntiancd. inconnection witb tbeflnlfDoe«arfUw>dp«ma<cA 
ai^jklibiatiofi of lubrnjuiDu cmbk'i, be did uoi ia any way daun Lite cnezH 
cl the inTciiiiou, and waa inoet auiioua tu brlon Mrwaid tbe 1n_lliiiiala 
cUime to priority of all tbeae who bad made tbe liirMtlnailniie n[iaw 
wbiub tbe tyateni wm baeed, and to pve thiia *ban ot mant to all wbo 
hwl oo-openteil with bim, In tbe adual opMatiea a( luri«c down Ike 
Snt worKing cable. Tiie invention, or diaeoeaiy, i MulteJ ja fat* friiB 
the oombioed bvMtintion* and exparinrattofacTital giWicnua, m 
bail l>«n oliKTTtd in UM Papwi ud la oorroboratioD of i^ a tnol*( 
waa eiliitiiicd of a drawtna m^ tot Pn/eaaor MliealMcoa In IMOt 
•bowing tbe aubmarine nble in tla detail* of cauatnetioiL '— t"*"*-' hj 
tarred vam and covered wllb Iron wire: and the mode of laying down 
and pl^ng up waa alao abown. 'lliert eoubl uul be aia doubt of the 
aolhoiitlctiy of tbe drawing, and II wia known Uial Lutwkke, wbe 
made it, went to Aoabalia in 1841. aaid bod net noe been ■■ tU* 
country. It waa alwan aaid oTUm tbal he bad aided RvlMaor WltaM- 
etonn ia wcgrkia|[oot Ibe mechanical detail* of tbe pWfiMad eyatam tt 
nbmwineUlagrapb*, natad by like I'nLf***er, befoiw « hrilanuataiy 
Qcamiltack M be uraticabl*. 

The rrmnirfTilr "''illrrTii nn -nrljln'- -iiirr hilhn llH irll^l. 
Wilkiiii aud Wuatberly, wlio klt*iiili.-<l to Itiv luacbbien Car ooiiatmetii^ 
Itic oat>Ic.^-<>r Mr. NewaU. nlio luaUd llir oible^ — of Mr. SUH^iDi «ke 
cffcclcd tbe gutla parvlia inaulaliun.— at Meter*. IJavia and OampU^ 
tuliuliurt, to whoae aoeivy and confidence tbe uMmato (Mmm wmib 
CTeatly due, — ejid of Mr. Hretl, whoae indomitable peeeae e rwoae had 
kept tilt eubjootoonitantljbelbntiiepublie, were tn r nranrrlj iwantlon^L 
and their raapootive aharc* in the merit of the 'liiliinaiiniiTi^anmili doly 
apportioned. 

It WM abown, that tbe eiporimente on the vatealty of elaebrk 
Currante on long aofanMrxed wine, made by Mr. LatiUMr Clark, m»J 
referrvd to in lb* I^aper, formed tbe aubjeet of a levtwre ^veii M lit 
Renl inititulioo by fWcNor Pandny, on tbe 20ifa uf Janoary. Itdl, 
and thU tbebatleiJiiMdcnnabtodof 3M pairaof iilataa (t by U inubea}. 
It wu nawhiw ui«DlIoo*d bi tbe P*|ier. IbM "ty no applunoa «Mil 
and wire above a certHO hnvtb be wcffced Ibroogk, but " tfaal ahhaogh 
tbediSoultie* otindneticncouldboleaeetied, tbey oouid bya»aMbM* 
be entirely aiolUed.* Though alluaion bad been made to Ibe Ml •( 
OToroonUug Ma oerlain point tbe eflbcu uf ehai^ and diaclurge^ dw M 
Induolion, Ibe mcdianloa] appllanoe* by which tbi* wac auoowipfiabal 
were not deaertbed tn tbe Paiier, a* they would be modi mon: ea4y 
underetood lij a riea mo raplanalion, The flnt (act ooiioed wm Ibe 
neoewitj fn* an incn i aa d iiilenaity in tbe current cmpliMrod; aia) tb« 
magneto-eleetrio telcgrapti, vbiob gnre oumDla of gnu utanaily, a*! 
taoh eurren) Id a necne dirvclloa m the ImI, appearnd to b* vary eoilad 
to Bobniarlne work, u tbe mverae curreol tadtted Ifce diMhar]{e of tb* 
wire. An iuiiniment invented to eAot the Mune tbtnc. with a galeauln 
bnUery, wiu iliowa and deeerlbed. A ka;. upon bdng aitMMlttf 
prvaaod down and rehiaaad, tont cnrnoU, firet in one, Iboa in tbe otW 
uiieolioii, whioh, aoUng upoa aa destm-oagnei at tht other cad of lb* 
line. CBUMdaueedletodcJIeot to tberi^lor lefi, ioibeceiecaM Tiding 
ooDtaat wUb the lom) latloy. aiid in the other breaking it. Oilier ia- 
ttrumont* (or the tame piirpcwe wirrealaodeacribed. It wa* notieed tlia* 
the Inftrvnoea drauii from cipeHmenla where eevival wire* is mia ^Ua 
wore looped up into a tingle Itn^b. might Iw falUdou*. I>rcaue« iker* 
would. Ill llui caao, bo oumnLt flowingin oppoeite dirrvtioM, in Imm*' 
diat^ lirotiiiiity tn eadi other, and thelnduoed eorrenlii wnuld alao ha «l 
■n appntlU nalare, and ibua neulraljao each other: and lliu dhei <d 
indueUon would, tbarefiire. ba wry didarent to that Upou a digit 
isaulaled wire, of the aucig length. oiUnded Id a vlraigM line. 

llie queation M to itiduvtiou from wire to wica, (u tbe mmitnl 
upon a Jeugtb of two thouoaud miloa, required tome e»|ihnali«B. Hm 

f;raa(att care and Ibe mutt delioale ap|iuatiu wen cnuhiyod to aacartate 
t any error cuuld ariie from Ibis uaute, and the raauU wM quito iMl^ 
factory. 

The tabli* (rem wbiub argunienta had ba«n nxtncl*) agaiut lb* 
tucoeaaful wcriiiiig cf Inng lina* of aubmarino wire abowed, lorciUy, tli* 
woakncat of thote ailment*. It bad been itatcd. Ibal Probeaor 
Wboatalono prortil tbe paasace of an etecuic current to naiA tb* 
■umnooa epved at 8S8.000 nUloa pir eeoond. uid tbe tiUtlt piihwHy 
deaoended to eolf l8,Ut)litnilM. with other oiperiineiiUealbeMjMdMB 
ol oaDdaoion. If tbn nature of the exlating pomn had bean le o ta d ri. 
tbe atalcmont would bare olearly deroontualal, ihal ditftnnk ftrttlM 
ofpowgr fenduoed Tuy diftirenl raaull*. Tbe finl aiporimeiiU ««ra 
nude willi hiith tauiaion vlMtriolty, the laa> with current* of cltalar 
']uaiitity. aiitl liuiiw the diJEemioa. A ttalament by l*n>lee*aT Ihm^ 
eon, o( lilaagow. ahownl ihiit Ibe nuouing from tluorj, without n^ad 
to praolical roaulta, taugtii tint a iciy munti gicator rate iW tbal 
named in the Fapa would U- Aiiunifd la the hue frum Ireland to Xaw- 
foundiond- 

Tlilt •latciDeDt bylVobnoT tliampeon, reealleil the hoi of the **9^ 
rimentt of Mr. Wlblinan Wliltahouee baring nlilbllal ibe ttMMrolaaMB 
of diatlnct auii*K at llie rat* of four per arnind. tlimuch a gtMltr 
Itogtbof nniWgrounrl wirw tban would Im r*i)wiml ef aeTiiiailnii eriia 
tooenneet Ireland with »wfoondl*iid, for the United Slat«a Ilk*, ll 
WM remarkad, that in the Prvceedinge of tbe Itoyal Society (May I U5X 
and Ln the ICeport af tbe Pnweodbige of tbe Britiab AaaodadtN, al 



JM 




TUB CmL ENGIXEEtt AND ABCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



as 



k b Ui* (MM TMT. tiM UiMrMlcal nhiM4i«M now Inught 
r ba4 b*M »rmi (fBliiM the ■•heme, uii im\Mft£Parf — iwKi 






Nd !• Ill* Aiirmnui nr Nomnbtr tSGit. and in ft iSipar f«>d 
||« ftnjtl tt^amj i* DooBmber IS&O. all lbs mmoiiIb(« bttag 

■haw innaUgKlioiu H >pf«M«il. Hut ■Uk«i>t viy dlnrt trUl 

nm. or MbnukilM win*, but br rvMMiIng- on tfc* known 

innnenU ngudliiv aladnn ooniliKtian iLrangk mpp«r, 

Ma MoetliM menm talif miulUan. tktra «sra ■trmg gmiKtdi 

la cf (MUns ihM ■ mMwa of twral; vonb wonld not 

M Mm BifaatM for iu i<r\irrrj. anif that two haiiHrnd 

oonU h* MM dnriuj iha ilar of mui^rour hour*, 

ft cftU* a* «ia w»e«d (o b«^aiJ aorcM Uit Allautla, 

•*n namn M tlilsk that tUa Bight WQlUnutolT eneainl, 

bitfnf or ifca mUn iMradoMit bj Mr. WillafcauM. 

nptrtnaot* through a \miglh of IflOD nlU* of win, niftd* 

Mbc tMUrr pavtn, imfuall; ioerraMd. hjr toMMaiTD add]- 

M BI oJI' to Mium Hdim JI nlli, thorp wai no MtiMlJo raria- 

n T«bdtT of lh« MmnU, which wm found on ^n aienfe to 

I lOOn bIIm Mr aocond. Tbm wh. h*«a*er. do oontlftnt 

al tfala dnnaidsd vpon the laaelitT of the lifttMry. Uia tMchiMi 

Ituf, uidlbaalwDr ih«Mpp«r<rI>«.BDdlhaMiiMqnontlndoe- 

WWjgalDtf on b«lw«en It and tfa* Mrtk. fiiilMquentJy, etpcv1> 

•laiflar «in< had ba*n nu<l*, SnA w!ih Ui« foltwf haiurr, 

wlib thaaofrniiuidiioBdbyaR ^l•«l>»■(KW^a^ imd a ililFnmiM 

UiMdl; nbMiMd hj (be t*n inaana Wat inant"! Thi >}wt«m 

bjlat alMmal« cumnta, or wa*M. of poailWo and Bngatira 

tf, wWck bad b«<«i flr« ■oounpliiheil bjr DMana of Mr. BnHtift 

•nl. NftbM groMtr apnd to b« obtidaod tbntagh luidersniiwJ 

OiiMinn win*, and «ai the ontj en« la dm at uio (maeut iky. 

bo. «r ihm rignala nu^t be m^o to lear* iho band of tbo 

r bfAr* the flnt h*d bate IndltaMd on Uia diatanl inatromanU. 

fe tiplainad, thai tlin Aflbrtnoa in tlia obitmd *t>Mdi «t alao- 

tnt from the oiroanuuinov, that tha arrind of tilt alvouio wkra 

[m BaiiiBAm powat only wu notlofd. and not ita MmnidDeaoilnt, 

■Ua ovu 'l«pandant vpou th« power etnpltgrol. aa wdl aa apan 

lar oaiiJH)«n« of the conduotor at Ihntimd. The uaaa^ of an 

iWimnt waa in rsalitj tnMantancoat. far «ttetrintf laHng no 

inertia, and being iMomtireaitble Into a Miuhiotor, and 

■ng throvfh aoT length of line. It muM tngla to flow 

end iJBuUftnooaJy vita the afiplieiillon of Uie battery at 

I ohaamil. that th« iUtmacnt of PinfMBDr Fm^ that diOerent 
L wsTM of •Itolricit; mi|-bc o>eiiit in any long mbmanno 
iTf at the MOif inataul of tiiso, wu fuUj- larae out ly the rueent 
-t«titi. Whitahooai. In ft length of win of l":in miUi, Itina 
r a llgMl trvkt bdl had taoo dbtiacllj hc«nl after the hand 
4 to tfamnit; aed In ft length of 499 milea, two «uch aljniali 
htil hteu biMd- Prom •oma eipnriinunU which tud !>•» 
• trlawo^arrlrlng at the Uw* aflacling the uaoamiMioii of 
laaabmarlna caiidnstor*, it bad b««i found, that the law 
. aa bUtrena b«U, wia totally inapplitkUn to tJw pbenomena 
abd Itol the ttudancjr hh to approaib inuali mote oearlj to 
arithaatical ratio, nichan amount of eloctrio foroc, inadt- 
with the ieagiii of win to be lUled np, it u-x* a*en 
ien, oocurHny in llie later portlona of the tfuiiit, iioiild 

- ^mHj ftaraneaUiig r«tlo. In proportion to tliv bicnailiijfly 

oaadluiio or the o&foebleil ourmit; wbilat if the amount of 

~n fvra vai gmiler, aiid aion> (airly r^ud l« t!bu lougth of 

w elected, iheti a aor* uuifonn rate of propaf^Liou of the dao- 

rti would obtain, on iJie nveral porUaiu of uijr pren length of 

with inacn«(A*ol(>otric eunrtita a rale dC umuainianon ta^aoda- 

tbrm time* gtrater ihan that of any loliaia impulao had bom 

I; and there na liua fiuth«r advautuua'alWu'liiig aueh oorreliU, 

•irv oDuM nevte be ovtecharipid (toiu mu inequality iu the duo 

M of po«lliiv and nagfttlTc oumuta. With rDj[anl to tha aubjeet 

I (ndudioo IVoa wlra to wiro^ it h-u atat*! tUat a ourrvul whoM 

>Uftl*g power wa«ai(iulta t.K.OOO graiua, when i«t into a wire 

M fn lei^;!^ prodoocd iu au a<^aoMt parallel wu*. nt eqnU 

ft toftnarai DUfrmt of ouly 1 ^ grain*, by latenl iailuDtioii, or 

MO, ft propertioo tnii^ificant in amount when comparsl ailb 

iMUnol UBiIer examination; and it >ai fiirthcr proved by elperi- 

«nrt BO iadueno* on tJUe nle ofpropn^lan. 

I that the nlblact andor illaouiwion Involved two 
whieh Aouhl be AtenMod eoparai'ly, namely, Ih« 
1 ana of InnUtle^, diliddiftff. and aubuvrging the nrtallio 
, tad the alaoMtat quaKlon of irsnanuttiag Pnaaagei tblQUvtl 
what laid. Wilb NSftRl le the firet, it waa ahon, that A. 
of Berliua dlKavencI Uw oon-oendueling pn>perty of 
•irtft in IMd: a>d ttat ia the eprinf of \»i7, Iw proiwini to the 
» OoramaBi, Uia «UbUahnunt of uodcefrvoud line wirv^ 
riih that matefW. In thoftutmna of that year aa axparinwntal 
M m9M la bngth, bo« Ofoa Bv«o to BcKin, waa eompletei^ 
iKtlwd to werh ao niaoeMUly, ttat in the yean 18(£-0, about 
irereUd on thiaiyeteoi. In Alvdi I8<S, BtreraJ mile* of 
Mated with pitU'P«rcfaa, bynuaneofUMOjIinderniaahine, 



rineoaled 



wen auhmaiswl ia the harbeor ef Kiel, tbt Iht porpoae o( trtabUihiag 
bMwatB the *e«« w« Mvanl polalata iba 



aa eteetriaeo 



caMon 



deep AMBad. and thia waa aMirted to be tfca flrtt atUiopi evv aada la 
aeUUiah eabiMrine eommuamalbue. WHh r^gaed to the kw of the 
retMdftlton of eleotfie waraa, Ike Iheery had been adraaerd. that the 
ntariatkm Jaereaaeil a* lh» a^uan of the diWaBoe; wyiat, ater* raegotly, 
another eiperlmenler had liialtllliwl (hat it tonMilil only aa tU 
ta&glh. UwatbJIwedthatlfftlllha JwBBMtanwaftheblee aipen- 
»aat* bad been tahan Into aeoeon^ (key woobl lend to oembontt lb* 
aeeriiai ihaoiy. It had bew anppoeed, that the I m rwing r ei lWaae* 
m long oonduelen inia4>t be onnome bj pnfiMrtionately inrmihg tk» 
eleetro-metire (brae, but it waa oonlended, that if lliia fon* bieawa 
omtiiw. lb* diatharg* would nalongar|M* thraugh the length of Iba 
oaUtt awl baA Ihnagh lh« ewlfc, bat wonld «TCM Iba inaalttiag nedcnoi 
la (he form of a epafk, and dlMbb Um mU*. It had alao baaa pie p ee** 
to aend a oanaidiraU* anmbtr ef wae m dm^ltaoeoih Ifatwffb th* 
oabla^ hut it wa« uiyad, that the auMbtr wbloh eooU bOow. without 
doMToying each othor, waa limited to three or four, aad that fa> (ht 
Allaa^o «abb it would not be poNtUa la eand men than en* wot4 per 
DaooU. It waa eaggeite^ thai the paatag* of an deolrio watathMgh 
ft cable mtgfat be ftcoMarated toniarly four timeaila natural rdtaitj, by 
■Inmtj ntumiiiK lit* cunent Unoogh a eMwnd inaalaled win within tM 
athb, Intend of thioagb lb* oartb. Tbe two wiree being tiMiiliHMoai^ 
thai |[ I if, the one with podll're and the otba with nemlln ebotriciR, 
eompletelv neutraUaad Iha deoMe nbaffaofthomtalMcaTeriacof tla 
w»«. Oiber dietorfaiag ebubm^ andi aa the maenatUatkn af tha iif 
nundiMg bvo eotaring, wbloh i«tt«ttad a oenMerable ntafdlag tBaek 
upon the eleotrio wan, w«ald *l*e be nnioved. The poeitire and 
negative wave* in the two eaeloead wiiaawonldfikewiaenwlually aeoeU- 
rale adi other, by nHaie indnotion. 

It wna obternd; that the Paper befcn the loeetliig did not give ua 
acomint of the lovee or hllan* of aeverKl nbtnarln* «dacifo-tal«gr«fUe 
oaUeiV attempted to bo Uld down, but from wlu'ah man might h* Mini 
than from a wboU Mtatevna at lUBoemful opecaUana; netUitr bad any 
nenlion bean taad* of tAegnpUog thimigh water, witboat wirN^ «r 
ftoy other metalUo eoododor. Ilio prwwnt aa ut aaM milaoMbie caUe* 
were a eombiaatiOD of a porfeetlv Inanlaled «1r^ oootalned within 
exterior etrrmg Iron wlmi, muting u a lougitudiaaBy epii«l dtrattlok. 
Tha isveniioa ot thi* kind ot <aUe waa olalnad for Bfr. Edward HIgblod. 
ou the authority of a judgmoDl itated to have baeo glTeD hi tho Os«r 
iDparial* d« Paria, and ft wae aaerted that the Solid torOonaral far 
'^ng'^'i ooncarnd in thia opiuion. Although Kutta-peroha, whan buried 
la tho oarth. and aolad apoo uedor paoiUitr ouvoinatanoee, waa ubjeet 
to deoay. y<t aa EaraJ paat eipariDDO* had gODl^ h^ water amned to ba 
apreeeivativeof that gum. It waa lUgnned, that the oondaDiiiig wire 
oia aubtemnean. or uitimarlM* lalagr^h, night be prolaeted from «xl- 
dalion, ordooy aluy point of leakafe^ fay maana ofaaaleouieeuinBt. 

Rcforenoe WM uiada to Ih* foUowlag (DrmnU of F tttvmo t Ohm, 
tor ikteruilidng the vilocdty of Iha faa^a of ft oumM of tb» 
irloity;— 

a it 
F= 

nnn tr 

~r + T 

in which X waa tha eltotiv-matiTe torn*: ■ the MiDiber of pUteaj D th* 
diMaaGeoTplateai gtb*rpedfio reejr) auto of fluid; e th* atolion of win; 
Stbeanaof plalaa; I the length of eireuit; and r IheapeciAe reeiMaaM 
of adw. 

The oOiMt* prodnood many yean tra with two battsriai, tha «■• aot 
emeediogtbe ^ of a«Dbtalnah^ aadlho othartlio«j|dth fanof ftoabio 
Inob. w«ra alao alluded (a^ aa iiaallWnlee l^o apidlralinti nf fiinltinaalni 
hydn eleoukUy, lor IdegrapbM pnrpoata. Tiie itaportano* ef a good 
« J w ar n el oode aiguali, wlMn th* eoat of the intervening wim betwaaa 
two Tcey diatant •taHont waa grant, waa nut mDarked on, aftd a coda 
waa aiUbiled by whioh an almoat infinite number ef *ig;njl* oonld ha 
tranmultad with very law euirenu of abctrieiv. A matbod waa 
dcMiribad of *eniliag meeMga* eimulianootuly thnogb Iba aania iaM^ 
raidng win in oaeh dinotioa. without iolorfiifeiiaa wttb aadi other; and 
(be opittloo wu tipnaiM, that II a Ihonagbl* inrulatod wire coold b* 
obtained and maisiained between Rn^and aad JLtnsloa, tbm could ba 
no doubt that a moeli greater number of mewaga* oonld b* tnn*miti«d 
than had bnn pndlet«3 In (b* F>p*r. 

Incidental to the dlaeonrfon, it wia ntntioiMd (hat an IngiBioD* 
hHtnunent. iuvenieil by Mr. Window, tho anthor of the Tupm, had 
b*<ai aubiuittvd by him t« the Telagraph Cemfany, and by older of lb* 
Dineton given to on* of th*ir ^««r«, who hid reporUd adreraaly 
to IM bat within a thiai tin* tha idonljoal iaalnaiMit «r** patented by 
the oSoer who had reported agnatt it, and it wia now almoat wnirer- 
tftlly employed be worldng tho anbfnanno talc^rapha. 

To tbu u waa relied, that the paieatad inatmnant in qnettian waa 
Im^lacd to beanieoedentlothelntrodaolionofaaignUat inainitneatbf 
Mr. Window, and that (I had been the remit of a long aertM of 
•beorvatlone: for *o ear^ aa the year 1S4S, tha uAela of induction 
w*n naUo«4 la lb* uadincround win* throng London, which wan 
iniulaled in haddi j^pea by pitch and ooUoni and thia hidiioed obargh 



S4 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND AKCHITECrS JOURNAL 



WM nMd U • WTtn Utt of Uia pcvfootMfi of Ik* IniuIatioD, m bdnf 
.*«• dalicu* ihM Ibt fklTMioiBMtn Uiaa In oml A|t>lB, i> Ml-i, 
■vkM Um oobmsUm (f LMwIaD villi HuiebdM« tnd Urapool, ti^ 
lof wirMiamlsMlby pilte-potliAWMconUmplatod, thalnfanflo* 
I dnvB (toil 1( would bot b* powiliU to moA •> » ogmma-cial aptod 
h Uw priptiag ioatnwmrta In nt atthat p»iai^ and ■( wat lo obvfat* 
I (hat *• iMbwnMt hMl bMO larmlKL 



tba Grtat Nwlliara and SeUJi Waaieni Bum, appUoabbeaiulv U Ifa 
douUali«adtdM>dt^il«r»>t.«eoiiUMtw^nUliUr.W. k. BMtaWh 
doubt* w«dp k^ (4Air>: Mr. fanooa] lA luf Bud wood UMdJdal 



I that to ISM) Mr. Uenler. lb* patcntMoTUM M^ 
IpMa Tdccnpb, had inbautlad U* idcM lo Kr Cbarin Fox, afUr harloK 
l^own Iha Inilnittn lo ■oma ackAOwtadgad antborllla, b; wbom bs 
iloUlhalll wa«apt«U7taj, batafnaimiitlcBluiilitT. SiiCbarlM 
boviwar, bappaoiog to antarUtn a dlSnant opinioi^ took il U 
r Wtni>,j, who ocnfirTBfd Ua *i*«^ tad Ibu* moaangwl Ur. 
to ftnartti antH tk* piMml nMih ma aluinol. TbM* 
I vtra namad to luiaaiu^* pwavtranpB^ aitd to prartnt tb* 
B«at amnduit npoa Ihofint wantcf iWiMN. 
I tk* doM «f Ik* dtocMMOo It WH PHiarind, t^t it would 
tb««ndMlralit«lf ■omanirtbgrinfcnMtioa badbeao afionkd, a* to 
I meaiu propo«ad lo b« adoptod In laying lb* Atlaatio cabbi; naltbar 
' llB coaatnietjoii, nor tba malarbdi to Iw ompbijod, nor Ita ilnnfttb, 
I mMiAviaiiij MpUinMl. Donbilaai mauT oonliuganolw would 
I in cHTTinc out tbl* groat uodarlAklog— uid il bad not baoo itatod 
' lb*** wan propMtd lo b* onraoiiM. Tba gnat dapUi at wbiob 
I abla waa le bo lud would oauaa un untnpponad langlb of apwardi 
"^milM to be pnMotail to the action of onmnl^ and to tba ibovlu 
rtod daring Immj •••«. It w>a juit poailUa tbat ibc itnint 
oogbt npoa lb* eabl* migbt ba puiJally UMndod tbraogbout lb* 
oIb MMtlppoilv] la^tlb, ajid operate in (tnigbleuiDg tba ourvo It 
"laMiMin. but, on tba olbcr hud, ibey nilglil ba mora Itmlt*! In 
bair raaga, and tb«a tiis (|iiv*lioii aroM^ wbctbor tbe cable waa tulB' 
ott; atrong M naat tb*** *lninii . 1 1 waa tnia, tliat tb« M*dit«rT«- 
I Mblo b>d b*Mi laid at u graat a dcplb, and wu uU lo hat* Tailad 
,' bma a doSinanDj In Ibv langthi but, finoin whalvvw cauM, it wa* a 
1 tbat Ikat oommunintion ba3 not boan mad*. En-rjonc niuit foal 
■ Amep int«r«*t in the progrHa of BD undertaking, wbicli ooula not ful [o 
•ivrcuo 10 iisponaul mi mfluimoe ou oiTiliiKtion and on eonimcrva, and 
Ikt bop* wa* expreaaad tbat all would williusly oontributo mggtnioa^ 
«y A night bars tbe effect of leaacuing tbe diaucta of IUluT*a and of as 
•muring il4 prababU i 



FtA, $.— G. P. Bumu. Bai}., V. P., la tba Chair. 

n* bl l>aper raad «a« "Ok (U VarittiH a/ Ptmumtnt Way. 
frolitallfim kk an Aai*Iira,vv" Bj W. Biitiian AokHa. 

Hm Fapor mmiinincnl lijr lUliiiji, Ibal lh<> calculuiuiu nf Hn0in(>>^r*. 
aa to UioKrangtb and dunUouut '' pinnaneal wdjr,' had btan balHoil 
l>y tb* tt iBl bfwwi ioBwaa ofttmBc, aod tka4 lb* preportioa* *f Iba raid 
tolk* bakvjMtgioMPrqoirad tu b« nconaideTMl, It than doacribrJths 
princtplat involTod—Utnnl nnd iRrlicsl atriingtb ot nili bdiI Gnn joint*, 
^^^Ol^* boving aurraofi of iba rmlla on tba alaojiora, and of tbu hioepflr* 
on iIm teOaM, — chemical durability of tba mUcrinla.—ibB poroiu hallaat 
Ibr dnln^o,— and Ik* buoyant pnnnpla Tor boggy s"'Dnil. 

Tba hnporlano* of the depdi of tbe mil, to provenl too grail fleinro 
under tba railing bjad, waa then dwnlt on, oomblood with the priuoipla of 
•uinmrtlng lb* nil, by th« upper portion, a* doadj «a pomlilu to tliv 
•unaoo, to pnomt di«pUo«CMnt. 

Tlte chronolosigal ••qBaaoe of tba varloua (omu ol nil*, waa Ui* 
•iB(|a Ti Ibo Joubl* I, the bridyo. anil Iba uontTMlflr'i nili then 
tbn «b*ir ■arring aa an ulmiled bua to kcwp Ilia nil fram tllung 
mitmtiji, 

Tb* pNMoN of Bab jointing w tbsn oonti-Iani]. with r*g>n] to Ita 
•Seat tn conveHiuff oaiib nH idIo " a bckm fixed u the two end*," and 
Ikua pracUealljr addiuit to tbe Terlioi] atreogUi. It wai tbowii, lliat the 
■trengoat form of tbe double- hauled mil, lu which tba ihoulilan fonoed 
*■ obim* Migl* with tb* *«rCieal Bali, ou ibe wuntfomi for Habing, 
•■dikBt thebhoa wnoonlj k^tiiKlit 1>7 ui i"ieii>»iair»lii<iii tbulMlla, 
■bitfc eonmualy worked loo**, •» Umi if ti<);lacu<l. ilin «uipc(i<la<] fiab 
jcint WM Itaa p«tfa«t than an orlina.ry joint chair. The pnwtics of 
ralUag nill «flk tqoaNd aidr obaiinrlii, to t,-et batMrr hold on the rnOa, 
WM k a rial nil, f«r tbe odgea were ibui cipoaril to ba iIiuutnI uIT by 
Iba aMIUi ^ tk* Mgleo «b**U, A ramodjr for ibia *ia ■boHs lo be 
incUaallf, by atamelng Ibo uu<l> <,( tba nila, iilutil hot, m diaa, k aa 
10 «qaaao Uw obannBia to the lauijili of Uia ftaliaa. uiil tliii* lo miiipr*** 
tboOHUd la tba band*, and iu prove lU >|uiUily at ihiit |wrl wben it 
mm nauaUj tlio laMt •ouod. Tba* tbo aoaU for ih* fiaha* vruuM ba 
■qMTC iMdanta and fiie-aiadlau. Ao iiupruvoioeDl in tba form ii( 
Um Ui ilaalf waa lo roll it aa ao anglo iron, with a borinnlai rib 
bat**, wkish, wfaila ad£ng to tba boriaonlal alnnglk, adbcded Ibo mean* 
clMoiutagaKgfeUrdMB of b«lM ft«ni gattiag looai^ br kesvic thsm 
bMMBB iL )2* MdtheWtdltdridMoftboaotoMidbdtlMMbi A 
Mod* nf kaylng onBna^ tab bolu wm alao abown. hj driting thin pUl* 
wodgo* botwoan lb* barallad edgaa of adjoining bolta, A doaorlptlon 
loUowod of (■tiooa eikarjolnt*: Mr. Fowler'a Ibroe ■edus obalr; Mr. 
HMiuelV Sabcfaair; Ml. P. W. Bariow'* douUo obatr. bollml b*lo« the 
raO; Mr. HoCooaeblo'a wa^o obair; Ur. M«naal'a wood pile-ahair; 
Ur. AdaaiT bnak*^ or ka** joint and iat«nn*diato fialeiilagi, uaed on 



ebairr Mr. Bnrleigfa't joint ohaar a*d losg kn, without wood Utag] 
Mr Wngbt'a*ia»ioinldiBir; aDdMr-BMsbabMa^laagdaaUo^ialS 
on Ixi alaepM*. SplH nUn in two parta^ ln«*kiog joint TnngtluiianHf, 
<r«ra then doaoribad. and alio • i gaia n i of woodaa diain and atiMa wai 



in Fiuiie. 



He filling and ioinling of boi aad lnd|a nik wa« tbaa Iraalai 
•aflallm, and the ma* joint for bridfa nih OMMladi^ Ik* i 



dawntbad. ThonfoUowad lbo*erWoa9iM«rfe«pgmy,— Mr. BmoUa' 
"bey-troagb OMiala,' Mr. Greave*' ^diwoldJ alcqwra, Mr. 1*. W. 
BaHow** caat'tron vy, Mr. Saiirad'* wood lined caat^lton aleapaw, aad 
Mr. D* Beri;uv'a ca«l- imn alaapan. 

Wrought' iron way imrl alacpeiv, without timbar, war* lk«a aaaMlDod. 
beginning oith Mr, <:. W. Book, in l^li, who prodooed a plaa my 
rimiUr to that intnxluocd by Mr. W. H Barlow, in 18tP, tba » ari e«aa 
■attlont of wliicb wont ortticiaHJ. Thau foUowod the ginlar nil. iM 
propounilcd by Mr. Adaaa in ISM. and now nndUied aod iWHiwrfiillj 
laaUd anil atUndlng In nao. A nuipte of tbia nil T ladtaa la iwtlal 
depth WM aliuwii. with angle bnckot* aprtading lo a width of 1 1 inrhaa. 
Inakinj; joint, and bvll«l beneath tbe hantonlal weba. Plaa* of ik* 
aani* bind w«r* aim ithllnud, i>|>[ilieaDle lo tbe oatUaaay doabla T nfl; 
anil ofMlb., anil a bnu'krt of i^? lb., with beta bearing (■ tko« or ^ 
■xlaroal odooa; Ibo bearing aurlw* on the tadlaM baiH *4«nl la a aavM 
damr raad with tba aletpen al iniorvala of 3 fM. Tlaa* wraii^*4nH 
gMer nil* wen, pnctiaiay, beama; but wan anlBtaialty alaalia la 
Enarant daaauotioo in Uowa— a quality alwaya inaiatad ea bgr Un 
nabett Stepbeutun. Kxperuncnlal r«aulU ware giTvn: and a deaari^ 
tloo of Mr. Spaneer'a eorragalod panuaneni way ooinpkud ika aaaiaa. 

t^ittnii diagnou of vtfte^ee of Mnnutent way. baglnnkf whb Iba 
atour-lilook tyatam and onling wlib the (irdar rai^ wen eRhabMad, 
•bowlOK tba variou* hmeku abor* the baairing nufte* on tba baftM^ 
from 1b Inobe* down to 3^ inohe*. 

tfaeoimrni were abown of Mr. Aidkow' 4miU«- btadad gifdaf nil, M 
ued oD tbe Graat Northern tUilwni of tba bridge and iraaa joJM m 
wh) od the Gnat Nenbcni and WeBt«n of Ifahnd, ike BdM «ad 
Ballymena. tb* South Coaat, tba South Wartaa, aad Mkev tallw^ 
th> liraokel JolDt. a* Di*d on tbe Crnat Noitiwni and Sooth Weaian: 
and Bodalaof the bnudiel joint andintenaodiaiobndtMawiik two beta% 
and of the mode of keying fiab bulla. 

I'be aaeond Fnper rvbi WK« ' ' '>n luinr tinrmt Imprwmmis n At 
PtruuvuM Way o/ Kaiimy:' By P. H. PAMoKa, A»»a. Isat. C.B. 

Tbe improfemants dewrilwil in this Paper bad rvferano* portioularij 
lo the fortn of tha ohair and to tba nature of tha faateninga. A> laid 00 
tba Eaat Kant Bailwmr. tlii> joint cbaira iroighod ib^ut il lb. eaoh, and, 
•rith die aaaaptlon of being •iiueofaat tonyu. were iu gaiKtaJ appcanBO* 
■inflar to ordinaiy obi^. Tliey were I :l inobe* in l«i]fth, anil Ike ad*, 
or bottom, area prorided at the undecilde with a eroai rib at e*ch aad. 
orariianging thealaopar on oaob aide, aad forming wttli it an iavertad 
Bonob iiSrSu, at which ilie riba wen tha waba. and the aeb. or banaM 
«f tb* chair, WM the iUnj^, One Jaw of the chair wm mad* to It tkt 
•boulden of tfai' rwla, and tbe other wa* provided willi two rMtaaaik 
whioh reerived two thin cranaoted dm block*, out aci-nwi tbe grain. 

aetiog a* ooahion*,— a wrougbt-iraa wadn, protided with ju*. tr 
bata, babg driaaa betarcon the nSk and tbe woodea cuahiona. b ib« 
latarnadlalB dtaln, one jaw waa of mob a form that tk* uppar nirt 
prtaatd agnlnat tbe wab, and ttio lower part agmlnal the aide of Ike Mil, 
The other jaw had an ln««id Indiuatiiin ot about an* in tJtreo, and Wat 
proridod with s duvelail racttaa, lo hold iba wiinltii cDiliiuii,~>a eaa^ 
Iron wedgo bmng inlruOucwl Ixitwecn it and tin' nil. Thia wnlge, iaalaad 
of fitting agninHt both ilinuldim rA the nil. wu made to brar tafiwH 
tbe w*b, and tba uppai part of ita lower aliouldar. by which tha nul wai 
fureed down upon thp aeat, and wu held finiily in a Uteiml J lroedw. 
A ibort lanotb of wkt on thia ayntsm waa liud in IS&l. on the OrMt 
Nortbvn Bail way. wndoi the dincUon of the EngiDcv^inCUaf, Mr. 
Cttblll. and tbe nanlla wera conaidcrod to be rnj aatialhotear. 

Bpedman* of tbeae ohain and haioulng* wen aihJMtad, aod Aa 
mbjnot wa* ganontly fullv llliutnled by a larga aari** of medah to> 
nialiad by the PWmwianl Way Company. 



Pit,. 10 and 17.— J. LooEK, Eaq.. Mi>., V. P., )<« ibe Cbak 



Tbe diaauaaion upon tha " PamiMiant Way of Rvlwan' 
bolh e>aniiigL It waa remarked chat the Paner omMtod al Wlka of 
tha uinaa of r*ateiiini[i emjilojcd previoii* to the bitrodaetkai af tke 
wooden key. Iliii cbue conaiitcd eitherof iron pint, email Iroa aradf*^ 
er aoiww boll*, all cuilwilyiug the aame priucipis of email aMal aarihaM 
baaring upon email poiai* of contact. Ilia fit waa giai n Wy *a«7 1*' 
paiAnI, aod Ih* faMeningi i^dly datarioratad. Wbaa, fraaa a^ 
irrapiUrity of fit, aa anda* etrain oama upon the bolt, tk* Ihaiari af lb* 
itfaw waa *bippt(I, or tha nut look a panimilnr ant, tn wkiob k 
returned when (Grrwod ap. Tlieae hatoning* wan abaadoood rinakk- 
naooalj by all Bn^neeie in farour of ibo woodao key, « bid | 
an alaetle aiedium lo ocuopimiaU for ioaooundet, and broagki 
tlvdy large aurfaooa Into eontact. 




THE CIVIL ENGCiKEB ASD AKCUITECrS JOOBNAL. 



V 



. _^ amMliiUlmi gf Mwa bnduU. and Ui plalai^ wbioli Wl 
IM 4o*ii kbout l««l>* mmiUa mm ««ra mcoihI I17 botu uid 
id Uut In lU |Ain of imnt^ «Mk pur ^nng It bolu, :2<!1 
louM, u>d tf nor* oni >JI«p(b*r. Ihuiuh wj Wl t-«en 
>p *itlii» ilkmtm. na>uii^w4l)MM mIU •! cKh joiul 
. ._ . ■ 1 to 8. Il m%a oont^ai. Ilunforv tlwt bolu uiJ ouu, 
M •«« Miluuril}' Bwl. w*r< w«f«, iiwffldost, aoJ *xpni«iva 
10(1, for eaai»H)Uiis l«3Mlwr tba parti af > ponnvunt way, anil 
Ih^ ««n »M to ba nlioi <m. 




I [aoTaf hi rigiditj Mid want a\ piMUtily la be ■> pMt. tliat Iho 

nifbli nmr ouried on nilwan aouM Mon deftnj ita nppn 

•ad «aii*a it to Umioalc. ilk* tflrcl, Im^ af r«luotn|[ Ika 

bMt «f Uifl middk ••<)>. <nuld be In twnaM tlw ««« nf lb* nil* 

lo» -^d Umoifh cradit had b*aa ut« fcr a aviqf to tfc* iMn of 

«■ lU* mlan. It oat thouAt llM Bi^lMan g«Mt«ll; would 

iKka todbnlBrib Ihaamanniaf td^aaanulwiiT. 

It VM n Wa rid. tbtf a* w r n l ial prtnetiils In a ponnanml waj waa 

■ fttwUwTwtoiwIiafltiKfnukfaiWoflntlnaoibara. bf fisiDg Ibm 

'allb«ir«aib^«iib«b7cbaifa, w bfadiM^, » RAm futjfA, or 

It, or br hrak'JMBft aneto plaUa. WiUi a «faw I* prom iha 

I Araui SBning lou*. a mMM ImI bNad«*i**d tat Mdngboth hiKl* 

, an ■■ to prvTMt Ukbi (tw Uifiuir immid. Tbia w*a pnipo*od 

> ha •a«oapn*(d bf borill^ ttM odfca oT lh« bslU and naU wW* Id 

nuM vitli iWIUm, lOB* tobm grooica Ln which M •trim jilat* 

I bftwMB oealq{*Bn* balta. aiid than to dl thi-m bj Uirnna op iha 

I. It WM mantiiMwd thai tho oriaiiinl " fiili * wm kafad Into Uw 

I atkl sot bolud; tad it wu Wliovn) Uai llili WM SraiM- (ban Ifaa 

—imndlSaalijft ol t)» "fuhjaint' oithbutu. Mupmdad bMwatw 

To gonpna* th* and* of th* nilt. and at Ibe wme lune 10 rocm 

irha1nl*nr tba fiahaa to fie at reat, without tlrala on the bolu. 

I to iqotaw the «od* of the rail* whilal hot, bttwoan a 

. I iM a nat a *a Ika emMMtln valBhU of tha oaat^inm alMpan 
I as tha L ■■ liBdry and Awii*ktll«a a«d tb* .Sooth- KuUrn Liaa*. 
■aa alalal tint lb* ligbiMt pertion of liM lattor <taa S par owl. 
nar tbn lb* haanail poriioa of tba £unl*luUeu pannaneut waf, 
. tbf gaBil atraragg Ha* Ifl par aant. bavinr. Attogetbtr about 

nUa* of tboa navirun ilHlwri kwi haou liuil, on iliffsml nilw*j« 

I Soj^nd and Indaod duii^ tlu Imc i*n J wn^ »f^ ""Ij nlxtut I pat 
l,p*rann*mhMli«uir*diabar«idac«dmaiallmw«a. ExptrimeuM 

fMMtlj twon made to lait iha alrangtb vfdiAraat rami* of oaal- 

fir whicb parfwa* a bHiiii nxa, wwj^nng 13 vmi^ waa 

Twmt^ihnia fgnna wwo vsporinuntad apon. and Um ranlt 

I M «tifinai7 tii lb rail, will) 1 CM baartnn. w«* doUvjad, by 

nng , with a fall of S feat, whibt tin South-SaaWni iloewr bora a 

luf 4 II a in. Majt 1 (Mt mora than any utber whiob waa mad. 

I of a (ben bngtb of Da Bartue'a oaal^ran ainper way 00 the 

' Maftbcn Radway waa Matad lo bav« ahowB thai the |iIm« 

I mfilrad a >*■* auwant •( aUoatian m to ludunu and lifting, 

the ordkary inaafwtae wood al«ap«n. Tba rliiut ilaraol of ihu 

w»« awrtad to b« th* method *I Adng the nil to tb* ilaapar. 

I «oiD* adtant^ea of ooal in aome nCuMtona, and with 

bSuliani woold nrohably lie niade to aniwor will for liaht 

Adama'k auapnnled fli^r nJI had al*e been aul^eet lo a aimiUr 

ainl Uie ranilt waa, in mmit raaptola vary aatiafaoMcy. Jt waa 

r oaualty rigid in all it* ^v*». poai i Mid a eartain aaioont e( eka^ 

t ileri*«d (hnn tba wlnga, and bat little vartical dcfloi^un. Il 

' mat fncUIUea for pairing, and oonlil be Ilflad In Ua 

balf !•* tinM raquirad by tbv wood alcepfr ayaWin, Il aw^\ 

d«MilH*°i'* *«( tba fotun to inoraaMi tba width el the Insd v\ llie 

II an* aUtod. tb»l than- wei» i.nw about lOf milea of ringlo Bno Uid 
llifl BmIow nil, aoJ ihat tbouifb In the flnt Inatuioe truiivme 

I tlotpcrabadbHinaRid. y*t thiamathodbad now been atKndonad. 
1 bdng Uid <lowB without eloepani The dlfncnltlea went the 
kclsi'! <•( a Mu&d nil. and the riiridily of the way wlicn made. 
Piinju^bi tnu way wai mora rigia than thui of oiK-iron. The 
S^of lb* latt*- inl|[bt be onroonM, il wae baliavi"), by til* adoplioD 
Ts^u*!'* trougfa al*ep«r with wooden Autonirigi. It am* Nmaikvd 
bore were Dow noi* than 1100 niilca ofeingle line of iron pn*- 
I wi^ bid aad n opanlion. tlio imeilcabllity of tho nte ot that 
_ d had, ihcrcbta, b««n pmred, ilioujb, proUibly. the butt form 
iDOl y«t lure botn diTviao<r It waa n>n*iiler«d iiii)piUr, that B 
abciuiidiiig ill iroa ahould annually 'ipnni) Liindnda of tbouaaad* 
I in btiii(liig lixnW fnrni fonign countrioa, to li>y and rol on 
■ay* of tha LiafdcoD. 

I ttalad thai a rvHat examiiMition of tonie portlnni of th' !?oiilb 
Kaiiway dciioiiil rated lie aolldjty of the pnnnanrul way laid 
d> joii.u. leiy few, it aiiy, of Ibe Uitu and nut* wore looae, and 
Htoo iteiMTklly *aa la a nry jjood (lata. Tbs Buie mi^t ^e nid of 
SuiMfa id) chain, and of Onava*^ mUon, wtild, had t«i) lo eiten' 
4t*^ (sd BtMactorOy Mad on lb* Scyptiaii nilway*. Where bad 



bolt* and Dot* had been ua*d tboy wera looMt aod bad <aiuad ■butJi 
Iraubte, but Et tba ooRipnuy w<i<itil ptnn'it a du" npmdltim. Il wa« not 
at all difflmit tA make "tich a nij u uviold bo raaltypennaainl; ludac^ 
ai waa laUtMuMitly nmarfcd, wliecmrr gond maiaid* of aeffidrnt 
wci'iilit ami wall p«l toj^lhor. w«ra eiopIinrH], it »a* dllflaill to mako 
a lad p<nnaDent way. Nothing but undue oeonocsy !iidu<«id i*^ a 
muJt. The rontpnaan] woodn keyi were fine iHid on tho LIrcrpeol 
and IdanobMter Railway in 1 VSi. and the Improtuntnta io thrir maau- 
faolun iolroduaed by Meaan. Rmaome and May. \aA matcrUly ax- 
tendnl Lhcii D(e. Tbe doubto- headed nil waa ISiel rolln] uodnr tfa* 
diiectioa and fnm the dealgnt of Mr. L»dM, and it wa* M*aftad, Is 
eaalndictlaD of •una «uan(«tt foktita lo tMr not bdng r«««f«d, 
that iLara vera turn. If any, nil* of that dnoription ftntljy ri;|aetfld *■ 
bcitif worn out Ubro th^ bad bvcti revtned in the cbalra. A* to the 
aaausied rigidity of oaat-ima pennaDant way, >l waa ahova, that tba 
apaciiaeu* of Graan*' and of De Btrgqo'a uou way ilomonMnled the 
fitllainr of ••fh an aaeomplJDn. ■• ibey were bolli ruiind to Im^ aflar inaay 
yean hard luafi^ lo an ei«el]oDt aute of prcecrtatloo, and hid uoi 
prodooed any ii^junooa eSecIa oa Iba roIUnij Mod. 

Il wa* adinllMd, thai in many of tbe oxpeiitnaiit* on fiihbw joint*. 
lodiffimBl matatial* had been uied and will, corTvapuniliag naaJU; ibwr 
Lid beaa flnt adi^lad to railwaya i» a biJ conLlitiQii, where iba etHlt of 
tku fall* woi* iojurod, and Ilia dabaa did not fit; Ibo pina wife Uioa 
bcuLsu acxl IhrnaulU wmdlcaaUoua; butwfaen tboy had beau tidapt«ij 
to uaw or uiiinjurad raili, tha raaulta were ietaiiabl} good. 

Il wa* olfjooted to iht I'aps, thai it bad oveibokod many of tha matt 
talient injiraTcmeuL*. oodi a* the brid^ nil. and Ranaooe't aud May^ 
oaat-imn chain, which latter were, willt the oimpitaaad keys atid 
trenail*, now uaed on Doarljr ■ti tbouiaad uiila (£ allele tine of ptrma- 
Dant aay. Alao, that the llarbw nil* did nut, a* had baon firtnl. 
aack op th* water benoih thsin : but that ll>a hallait, when dii)y yaiAfrd,. 
waa aoUd and tMiainod (or a long period without bQing. 

Tlio eompje*! l J wood inaaija and keys, with nil'iroo chalia iS 
UBifuno eonttruation and good form, aad a nil not eueeding KS lb. par 
yard, fitad at ihu iolni*, mado a vrry finn and good way. 

It wa* aaaertcd, with reapKt lo tbo fith joint, that Mr. Kichanliaii 
waa tba rnl inrentor, hebemg at the ^e an naalolairt toglaMT on tbe 
Ewlera UnwD (Uilwav, whera tbo Bihaa wen Aral mad vj X/. Bniff 
to tie togatber and aciflbn the cad* of the nil*, and mi Jir Ibam, in hot, 
a ii^rdor aonxa a veil bridge on that Gnn. To Uiia il waa repSod, that 
llr. Richardnou't hnl idea naa not a fiabed Jniul M all, but ■iiu^jf » 
tmried joint ml, which wa* nut adoptod, boMua* U wa* m4 ooiialderad 
aUMlivo. Ur. Adam* than pruduotda joint baving tha iaiDeobJo*ta< 
the operation of Bahing a epar, an operation ao wclT known to aaamoDi 
it waa palantad in the naoiea of Adani) and RIcbvdaon, tba fanner 
gecllenita drawing the apeeifiatiau and making Iheinoddi at hit worii*. 
wbara they were toon and approvtd of by Sir. Puisr Aahcron. bafon 
tba ptrMd of the «ompciitlon for the |ir{ie effi'Tcd by the Eattom 
Coontloa Railway Company for an cAxtual inallio'l of aaouiiog Ihe 
joinu of rmlli. TbI* waa baflevod to be lhtmr[e>:l vrraion of tholutco- 
tiod of the &*h#d jolot. ft waa at tbo nia* llmf alMsd, UM apwaida 
of ttrauty yaara auo, aerenl hundred torn oftbeaaSahe* bad ba*n relied, 
and baen nxpnrtad from Limrpool, by Mr Edwin JIbwo. to Amorica 
and to Germauy, and lint there wia not any noralty in tboir tutatiiuaul 
tntrodootion on the Engliah rsilwayv. 

It WM arged, that the melbod of depredating alt pitrrioua ajilfit 
for tbe purpoae of adioaaling a nav lulru-lucllou. wa* ■iiwiaa. The 
Eujrlnoee* would judge (or tbemielvc* a* to the oeriMoI saw inTeotioMt, 
aad wara didoIi fwttcr able lo judge of ehetn Ihaa the 'nvenieea tht«' 
atl***. It w*a Tory juvjudbial tu lb* pcoCttaion, that Engiween, hiiiiag 
tha sontrol of nilway^ thoutd besome [atontaM, and l«id ihtmaeltM 
togolbar for tha purchaao of other innatioii* to bo niod on the Kno* 
upon which any of ihpru ware amplovril: it lud them open l« uumidoiM 
to whiob prcfoMional man ahonld nol be aubjected, and gaT« a owinr t« 
the ■talement*. that contnuilora wera obliged to pay br tha uaa of th*te 
(otenta. in order to prereai their teadera bMn being wjaattd, on otbv 
ocoaiioni, wboa aabmilled to eugincen ao plaead. 

It bad betn altemplad to be ahowo. that It wa* iirtiaiil«|LtuiM Ikr n 
eonipany to become poaaeaaod of a nunilwr uf fstanla, ia oaderto laat- 
lilal'- daalinp with Ihain; but it wa* oonlaaitrd. that whca Ihtre wara 
nuint-roua iiivHiUin whou olatina wore iMnrly lialanrod, it wm more 
propalile, that enginaon would ba able lo arHte at equiubbi and r«aaon- 
aMe arranginnenta for tbe uaa of the inrenlioii*. 00 belter lenn* ttit th* 
railway cvmpanSeaL 

Il waattaied, thai the permanent war adoMcd for the lliifaof rwhrny 
tn tbo Kaat Indie*, wu of ibc rtmpleat otanetiir. cnnaiating of the 
ordinai7 double- beaded rnll, bild w4lh chair* on inntvnr** wood ■Icepcf*. 
and cOnnooWd with flibod Juinu; nplanitioiiawer* alw- iriimi of orrtabi 
point* tn th* dtaign and conHnKtlon that had beea aarrfuUy atttwdtd 
to, in ordoT loanaitro a ■oonaaMrvaah. 

'Hie faHser of aaarrting. that a Kal eooa rt ry aAnittad of tha ua* of 
iinan*T enginra and fichtar permanent way, are* dfwittratail, The 

Srtontione neoe^ary nrconMruoting rail way* in Norway, l>*un**b. 
ua&K and all coQnirita wherr- the mM waa lalcnaa, wen Hptniawd, 
and It waa ahown, Ihftt the enginrer tnuat ailipl th* •yalaia of piraia- 
cnit way to tbe circunatanea* of tbe ooontry ibA nlllliahi 




86 



THE cmX ENGIXEER AND ABCHITECPS JOURNAI- 



1 



II wia mIibIUmI, tktt iiwud^nbtatoMfttnUai noeh m pOMtbU. 

t MnntMidat from Iha Itftnifl qoMtiao*, mTuidiiur tlw tcnam. In 

ewfUn* »t lb* IiuiituUaD, but It *h diffloalt M Jl lime* lo ■!« n. 

In mddkioa lo Uia iptaiu prcvionil; uonnoDad, ■pcoiowM ud 

[dnsiogi www «KblUMil of au^ln^ doln uiad on tb* Bait LknoMhin 

. fiaOwaj br Mr. J. B- Ptntng; at Spmotr'i onninud lUepw r«wl; of 

m new nil by Mr. EUcol; ud «f * aoltd diillwr iiTMaiii|[ by Um««. 

BMUOQMUld lUdlv, 

ACl M.— O. p. Bimn, V»n., V. P. ia Um ohklr. 

The rkparttftd. wm "Oa Oot'ii (7a((( Md 7iM«tr 7V*t>.>9 JVocAJM).' 
By T. Doim. 

no hfilnallii pTOM tUrohlnta. for UMin|[ dhato Cibl*^ bad boen 

Jly H) coitlv In eonKnictlon, kail r*>(uind luch aipmain tbnii- 

a, that ttw atlta cbMia mxiahciliirtn had on Ihnr pmnltM any 

I of IMtlne th*{r obain*. Uamn. Diwn, BaU«nl^. and Co.. of 

iWlndaor Ibidg* Iran Woik^ MancbaaUr, btTiuf badTtliBir attention 

' lo thk want, daajnw4 Mm alinpUflad tafUng nuMhiao. thn do- 

lof whieli tbtOMd uoaatyertM Um hpor, aad wfaleb oauld ba 

I br SOOL U> 3001.. iD*tc*l of i IHOL la ItOCU., Uu tort of tbo 

CBk aad oorfMnitloo Uatiu; suiAlnM. Tba bed of Uu new 

EmmUbo flondiud of a mu|tb o< cut-iron, wllb » dnt tbrougboat iu 

Flinclh OO ywda), to oonlaia lbs poKloa of lablo andar pnofi tbia CrouKb 

^na hli 00 vDiil(H» of wood aa > foUDdation. and a low nnu ban wen 

^M«d 0*«r tba llnl, lo pronvnt tbo and of tlie cliain from riaing, in Caao 

' ttacMn. Tbia arnuigcmant praeludr-J tlia ponibitily of accident to 

I workmen wb«n tMting rhuna, ai tbe ondi were rvuliied wiihin th« 

~i tnatoad of ivHfiing aenxa laKnJly, aa fr«<iueiitly ooourvl whra 

ifaw ««v laid upon a bandt for leittw. Tbe ajTan|[«iMnU for 

» mdn kydrMiRe qmodar, tba*aln«, and tSabTan^ ww« nryibapte 

IcAbetlT^ and th* mnlta of T817 miBMroiu Mriaa of «t}i«rfmoDl>, 

"iwar* glvto, deinonxnitad tba »w«r and uniform aoUon of tbsaa 

,_ iMa— oneof vhiuh wuiuad M lb* nuia UnlroroJ Eibibitlnn io 

lISS, for making alony Mrio* of rxparimetitKin thetcrengthaqroulonial 

and otbar timber, nndor tba dlreDtion of CapUin Fowko. It.E., part of 

^wboaa raport wm qnoled. 

lalbamwwoflliadiaoiualanit wu remitfcad, tbat tbobroksa link* 

~ , in alowal m«n tniMncc that tba frartnrta bait ariaen trom an 

feet anion of the Iran o( tbo llnka In waldln|[. It waa oonaidared 

i aoflUiaol tmtm and r>pldlty of blow* oonU riol b« obtnioad by band 

nir, and that lilt bammora witb tlie nH|uiiilt« (jtaad had not yet buen 

^•Bfloytd; o«icbn- bad lUani hammen, wbiob vara menlr hflol by 

1 fall by thoir own grarily. aaffialflnt *po«d (br heavy «1ialn 

A OMOription na fiinn of Kaylor"* linglo. 01 douUfrkcIini; alAtm 
tMBmer, which Muld be oliulgod at ploaaore, by merely niarin); 1 lerer, 
■ttd by whieb any amount of aloatn. tram a mora bmlliiiig U|>aa tJi« 
nbton, to ibat of Uio full prcaonrv of tba botlw MUld b« applied, add 
la wted wbilU tba hammer wia In fall work. 

Two oftbetalianuiHin ware employed in th-? vrorhihopiortbo Eaatara 
OMBtiaa Railway it Stritford, and one at Niirwii^li. They tmn aorae- 
what like the " Nwoytli' bammer. bat iqmpriiod icvenl modifioatioiia 
hanng rTifaraiiM particnlarly to tbe talioa aod the Talve Jtearlng. Tho 
hanmoii weigbed 10 ovt. oaob. and when worfcod with a leutboTatrako 
of IS inidiM. and doobls acling, 2M blan per minme could bo obtained, 
or acre tbau Iwloa the noinlier that could be gitca by an ordinary ban- 
mtr lUM by aleam, and lalllna by ill ovn unulilul j[T*vilv. Tb* Mnu 

Sicdpla wa* Mid III be ippUcabU for rinfllliiij,- tniii plutn^ for diip 
liSni;— alto for ballon, lanka. wiougbt iron liri'Ijfra. riret making, to. 
Some oaloulationa wbSob had brvn made In dltoorer the bw wbioh 
rapiktod tbe lia^ of lb* ohaiu cable and the nijthl of anchor for a pToo 

Alp, ibowed that 

i i^l^lad dilfjaccmeiit 
gan the dlai—Ur «f tbe ebun cable uauatly anplawed by aonw- 
a(«amera of tba p n a wi t form. 



ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIEnT OF ABTR 

0» Ilk Appliiatttn 0/ /rua ottd Slat Wirt M dU Jk»mrt«i'iy 
«/ Obi* /ron. Ujr Wii.uah BaiM, Kliubunib.— ne author Mated, 
ml bl order lo ai<oamptiiih lhi«, adraiitage ia lakou cf wrought iron 
UMvlaelarad into wira being, Inr maqy rT>gr»u«, Ilia atrongaat fonn 
In wUdi it can be fniam£ Bat owing lo the tuwioUiibU Emit 
ef iu dimeoDout, Mtd, «onMfnmllr, iti waot ct rlgldlqr, exoapt by 
l«n*oii, which «Bi)Oo( bo aMMn(luned without oanauming a propor- 
lia« ef lie alnagib. It ia, whbont the aaliuate cf aome other ma- 
larial, tnafmlieabla In many eaaM wbara gt«M tfraagth ia rei|ulred. 
ne wlro Mo|[ out iulo dMirad Io^Uk end woU claaaed and (irw^ fnim 
«tii», and al*o ai^ B**"* " fther matter which might toid lo generate 
giam, ia Inlfodauaa mla the naaU Bn^arrJ to r«»iT« tba nollaa Inn 
•Ad Wd in a««f«d diieoticM; A amall loantity thn* maahanically 
•omUoad with owt iron, moulded Into beaune or othor wtlngi, na* 
Mated Id add gnatly to tboir elicogtb: in proof of which, be ataled that 
the Itltowing eipttlmtBl w»a made by him In ardir to afford a praotlial 



thaOtm 

DltaMH 




lael ef bla taetfaod of luf«ttiug ativDglh to cut Iroo >-lline irea ban 
ef one tnch aquai* aoction, aod od« of the aamo nii^ ooalaintaK a wbr; 
wfaoee aeotional area waa about one twenty- thiid of an ladi. were nM 
from tbe aame ladle, and, after being olaoed upo* •■ppMla fear fbat 
apan, wtn an^eoted to woighia nipoaded ban tbtkonrtreei Ilia lh»ai 
Ibnoer, which were Xfuad^ broke wttb GO* Iba., £04 Iba., and COS I 
rameottidj, and the ktter, notwltbilandlng the oonin«Doe of a 
■t lU point of fnictun, eueialnad S74 Iba. befon bmking. Dm ' 
neutt, ibereforo. approaohed by thi* eiperlnaBi, erea mhm int 
wHb by Iba bubble almdy nolicoil. wont lo prore tbat by tbe iMiwIacdatt 
of Iba (rira the alnnglb of the bar waa imcnaaed by about a aeraotb. 

0* tmml propoted tmproMttnU in SmoO jFypilofu; m'tA riwtnrfa 
m Ut tutramiagnxu tmpUj/mtut of Laryt Suplioiu fvr /ntrpairt Jar 
v M A At% an iM eommoofy nod. Kj Juaeii !':tMi>T, Loo V.P. — 
Tbe object of the pmpoeed iisprovanauia it ta laciliuie tho Slling cf 
lb* aypbnn in all ea—. but nnMciaUy is tboeo ia which it i* enployod 
for drawing elTacldeor olbar Bquida with wbloh manual cootaot i* nli ii 
tfnble. "niia ott^eol a itfMlcJ in Tariqu* wayn. mon or Im 
aooonliiig to the oiiaumMaiina of tbe oaae, but in eien ina 
maana or an additional tuboatuwhed albv to tbe ooma pan *tA 
(ypbon, ornoar oaextnaiitT. In Ibim iit lliii jainiiiiid tmmm of 1 
atrumant. the «ul«r end of iLe additional tube opeua loM a bollow I 
hull. wUb which It bai an aiftigbt counouuon. In uaing tbcae, ibe taiS 
ia first oumprvuml with the bud, cheu tbe aypbon le InLOianeii nUb one 
or both ciiremitlaa in tba liauid, and iba ball relaxed. Tbo eyoboa 
Immediately tSk. If both entls are unmenad, tbe iTpbon It lifUil o«t 
fnll: but if one oifl only ti iiiim<T»d. Ihr Cngrr ti plaotd apoa the othar, 
and alW relaxing the ball th-? fin^-rr ii nHihilnwn, irilboiit MIJ nnwfMt 
with tbe Iiij*ud. aod the liquid luatutlty flowi. Tbo onplajnailt of 
large ■ypfaona vaa r«nmniended in oerUau eaeei of dr«Iuiu ponde and 
muaMa lempannty — ai, for inUauoe, lo obuiu dopoeita c7 marl (ran 
thoir brdi, ioiload of lbs oonunon f«oocn of deep outliii|ia or I iiiniiiili 
and atao in *uot> owea a« a(hauit!n|[ Iba walat^^om eolEir-dauia in n^id 
atreami. inatod ot the uaual malhiM by puoipiog. 

ImpnrtmtrU in Hl-mr-eutlin'; Mathiiu'y. By P. K. Hurm, G«*Ma 
Foundry, BiaoohaeUr. — 'The object of tin maafaine waa -^n-) to be lo 
out freotoae of an* aort into ains auitaUe for baiUbg er oAor p^ 
poaeiv by mouia of baideaod toola or cutun 6ud in tbe putpbury of a 
rtvoMng diar, on tbo piindplo of a circniu oaw. and to eapereoda th* 
■low and oidinury loulhiNl of entthig by (riotloa with iron nltlaaamil wiwl 
TbM, by tlili new iiiiftliod, arammon grindaUnia of any ibiokiMM wab* 
cut Ibroiiijh with v«rv Utile watte of atoel, and fed forward to Iba mmUs* 
at thi< rate of 7 incboa pn* mi^ut4^. Tie tool* are of round bar tlnat. 
and ate made hollow «p the (Wni (inimpcCahapBdllollMUltateUieibBn- 
oning of their edgt^ which la ihiuixid out upon the born uf the anill, 
and ihon driven Into a mould rnnde for tbe porpoao. afttr wydi Ibty 
arc illBblly ground, lliu iliidtueai of col lakm witb aa II bel diM M 
1| inchei: ihlnnoroata may be taken with aauJIer fiasj diaEC. It wa* 
•taUd tliat a nambar of tbaaa ttaehinas are at wuik in diSmnt poMe of 
Scotland; and in D««B Poiwt, Oloaoaatervblre, nno wtlfa daaa II IWt 
dianiBCer la oaed for oulting np f rooetoaa bleaha inio flaga foe |tt«in(. 
and i( able l« turn off 3S0 euperfioial feet in tan boufa— Ik* force t<- 
quirwl to dri*e it being about oiio-homi nvwer. Two laboURn on 
iT>jui»d to atlend the Duchioe, and ■ imitli to ibarpes ibe taaii. one 
(et of which, twenty four in nnlnbnr. being able lo cut SO or Do fee* of 
ordinary (tone, and from 40 to Si) fnt of common grlnditoue, the total 
waele of aleel beini; at the rate of alx ouneea per IvO lb«( ef atone eoL 
llin advantage* of iliv minJiina wen alatad lo bo, Ihu it irquina ao 
•killmt iwnnii to vnrk It. u any Uboicrar Mm turn or nplooa the tocl^ 
Ihry bring cninpletrly •vK-wljuiting; and that it caa cut at leaM tm 
timet more none than any utber maoblna with Ibe laiBa aaaoanl of 
horafl power. 

Stl/ofting Vntilator /or Pnralt Raoiu, Offen. HaO*. *t. By Ro- 
nxT TiioTTKn, Edinburgh.— Thia rontiUtor may ba niad* anilraly of 
wood, or ot xinc, or partly cf aino and uf glna*. Il it nlaood Ib Iba 
upper furi of on* or more of the wlndowa of the room lo be TeoAnalad, 
Meordiii): to iu nta and oilier oirouoittanote ; and tbe pfindpio on 
whiob tbe vcntllauir aote ia that of allowing a frot eeoape mm Ibe nam 
of boated and polluted ain while, at the aame lima, it pniTenta all OOeM* 
into it by die window in whiih it it fitted np of cold air frcon wlihool) 
in oooaei^ueaco of the opening left by tbe vcntiUtor for tbe eoo^ie of Mm 
poUuMd air beiiifi tamparu-ily abut Up by any current of air froa wUboM 
allenipliug to flaw into tho room. Tbo adcanlHjcta of tbia v 
were alatad to be — 1*1, That from lla being actf-aciing, the *ent 
tbe niom dote not, to any degiee, depead on nro or altMitioa 
part of eorvinU or otben. 3dly, From It* ooutruiition and actloo, He 
rurrent ofoold air 1* iotroduoad by mean* of il into the r<;inn: ttA tH], 




¥t*v TiTiiiiUtinn it evoared by it at a n-ry imall oipeide, Tble nolM 
of t*Dtd:tcion haa been for tome time put, and ii now, in ■ueoceitiu op» 
nuion in Uto lam itutitolioiia of tbia city, and 1* abont 10 ba 



■*► 



of t*Dtd:tcion haa been for tome time paat, and ii now, in luo 

nuion in Uto lam itutitolioiia of tbia city, and 1* abont 10 h 

of in n MUb, ute aareni of the buildtnui it waa Intndacad villi Ifc* 

aaaoUoo and aptworal cf axperloncad and ablo Mobitorte, who, 

carefiil Inauliy ud panonal eiamlna*loo, eonRm Uia EtTomiU* it, 

mad* by ibc olBcaaU of ail of them of lb* •uooeeafnl working of Ibai 

iflaton, without produoing the allgbteat inoonTmiaoo* of aay klad. 



THE CIVIL ENGINKEE AND ABCHTTECT'S JOCRKAU 



W 




,BCaiTECTUa.\L IMPROVEMKNTS OF LONDON. 

No VUL— Ou» »iii«rw. 

oar prvrioM Mtiew w« hkn priacnpall; MsftMd our 

to iadividiul baiMian; w« unal\ now msr to aooM of 

ttzvet imBroTpnenU. In Jata| this wa nuij b«i«fljr ailnct 

vhsi the laifl Nfr. Null noraiuplUked in Btmot-Mreat nkI 

PittarlcM-pUea, in lirick, <xia»p<», ud muTir. wUcli M tha tioic 

■v* eouiikrtd my eitnoralBMy pro<lBctioM. Sinea that 

kowercr, » kew ipirit Mmu to h«va pMaicleJ OTttr our 

ilcetunl dream*. whii!li ar« utiw naiLicJ lo a largn «xlait in 

ad brtek, tko latuir tiuUrial ia muij iii^niuft Mag 

lo ahow ill vwn baauUfol and ijarabia £Mt, loataid « 

; aovand with eaiaeat that reqnirca U> ba oalourodorpidtiUd 

tv« ar tbrne tcslti^ to Dtako it look auythiag hko 

eUble. In Krerting to tlia aUw«t improveiacnU at LoDdon 

our qwa <lajr, w« Moat bagiu «ilJ> Nev Caunon*aueal. our 

Dttoia (daaJparaMutfMW !■ thia (Uevt vary gmat tliian 

boea doiM, if w« cnnoot nrodnoe that long atralgnt 

■wacp at prrapMlive bvanty, to b« obaerv«d in tba Bim deBivali 

>hrla,aaiiat«<laallbao'matarlalljr ovaUtga portMiii of oob of 

laUUi br tba Ikfadaaef tha Palaoaa of tha Luorra aad Um 

Naw QuMB-atnet, «• nenl acarcolj obaarva Kill, In 

lextarBalappaHSDMbeinaffraatmeuuremanadbyilaDortbera 

' L wUeh ia no* btuic rcbntlt peoa-meal, without much rcoard 

ilfcar gm tt lttr indlridwd cSml Ou ilt« t<.uitiem aida of 

, bowtvar, wa lia*a aoma vary hir »&inijlaa of ih* daaa 

■gi wUcb cone uiulai thn lioail of wbolaaale wanhowaa, 

J ofioK and atber biwineaa pramiaca, wliioh nuy Urljr 

aofue of the pilaiii of Venioa, KIorihic, aaJ VeroM. 

I br aa aiae ia ooaeaniad, outdo atany of tlieoL W« ahali 

Naw CaanaD-«tf«H at iia wMtam ««id, wliteb Ofitn apOB 

. I^al'a Churcbyard, and bafore duipig ao abailpaiwatAobawvo 

it if Ilia CorporatMa of ib« i-'ity tit Loadon wmIi Io inunorta- 

I *bair aaiue^ »ow ia iba iuu« u> do ao. Thia U to be «S»eted 

naaovbig ^^uA portion of tti>? h\iiA nf old nr«at bulldlvn, 

' ih abM afainat tba Conlvrnlnnni' f [nil, ao aa to ky opao Ibo 

rafSk Faan^ team one eoil ofita parnpot to tli« other, from 

rmiicalnir to La'J{at«-hiU, aud aba offval a pe«p of ita 

Tbi* being done, them tbotitd ba a inonaoient to 

ai archiiad. Wren, eneted on the iriMcuUr plot at gruuod 

1 baa lain waata no long, oppoaila to If aaaro. Coob'a wara- 

I Ia 8k Panl'a Clian:hyArtl. Tlii* baiug aeooiaplUhad, w« 

1 hava a uoat apleudid pciapadive riaw or the leoand bail 

lanpla of tba Chriatiau world, and a memorial to llic 

eMory of on« of tba greaUat arebiMeia of «ii)ier andeiit or 

nmlara litaaa Wa bava oonfidanoa Id beliaving, if a ntonainanl 

of thia daacnptiiMi war* propoaad to be «re«tad by public aub- 

omptioB, llisl one woiili) be proJaood at uuoe hoiiourabia to 

Wiwi, and a grrM pmbelllshmvot to thia part of tlia t'ily. Ou 

' Nrv CaatiOd-itratt (mm Iha ar«a^ Ilia fiml iKiportant 

< tbal naota ib« «ya la tb* block buill f»r Mcaan. Bnraiu 

OionbciVi tr«ta tliadaairna of Profcaaor Iluakinn the main 

I uT which jurtakfl of Italian ebaiactcriatica. It i« carried 

t to the fnai. height uf tlo feet from Ui« lerel uf tttefoot pavamaat, 

«t« wbioh at* atiiua in tho roof, hidilan by a |(anpot, Iwving 

'«■ tba pian raaea cut ia Batb itone. Ooliko auy oUitn in tho 

■BM raoKc, thii baildinK eontoiiu a niKlMumuout of two alorioa, 

fctlow llic stnet level, the lower vne of whiuh ii 6 (L. in. in 

Mokl, aod affomk targe addiiiunai apaoe t/r itiu purpoae of 

pt^trg gooda TfaaoroauiJ-fluurportlanof tba alavatioa, which 

m rntfaaiad ia a paonllT manner worthy of moiicr, iaiaoed with 

Btrllaad atones and tba npptr atoriaa to the lev«>l of the prtuoipal 

OHwiea at the cwrea are UeM villi Beart'a mtent briciu^ with 

I^rtlaad cavaat di aai iu gi lo Uio wiudowo, the pr!uoi{ial oomioa 

betagof the mm* BuUeriala. Tlia bDildio]^ iwa w e aiM aoun peou- 

larlnMof dalaiL Iliacobitnicledintbonioitaiibktaiitialmauier, 

^^J^wfaole tif the aupporling tinbera of the Soora bring of oak, aotne 

^^^^b tnain haama lO ihl-Iim wiuan, aiul othcra li> itichvn by 9, 

^^^^Bfeptb of the adtfioa u lOU tt*u and aa a wliok- it furnia the 

^^Ett« NwA friMn Old Change Ui Dlatoff-huie. Beyuiid thii, on 

^^^M miao miitj and estandtng to Frid^r-atnol, uv the ext«a>iva 

flMOiiaoa of Heaar*. Kerr ao3 Scott, alao euilHtUiilinl with Italian 

Maila^ and Uk tBterior elegantly Ulted-up, having wbat it tenli- 

Tiirallj termed a wail in the ocatra, Ughtad ftnin thx roof. Aronnd 

tUa well, on aaeh ftour, ibo gooda are ashihdtad. Pracoadiag 

ftwtliaf IO the right, eaatof PriitnT-atnet, ia another Urjie block. 

iha grovnd atoiy cf which ia diatingaiih<<l In- a wriei of ititted 

CBOt in T«>7 good (aat«, and an estre'tuely heavy ooitiloa 





fetthaeaTeaef thanwC From thin atMrtdua uuther granp to 
thaoBd of Sari-fti«e(,mnehpklaar,bMl in batter taaie. Nearly 
oopcMlU to UaMra. BooU and Kart^ pnmlMi, and oUaa t« t^ 
Cixrdwaisor'a Hall, n bollding i* being aractid Cram tba dimigABOf 
iSr. Boberla, of l^wreaor Pountaeynaoa^ and in eonatiwowd of 
POrtlaad atiHiF, malm, and r«d brlcka^ In thin alnclan tho 
aiebilael faaa de|ian«l from tba aet mlaa of lulian daaign, aod 
prodneed a atmctan nxsewinc oooaidMsbl* novelty. lu 
wiMlowa haveaomepcculiiihliaaMLambanliedeMgu.baijigaami- 
dnmlar beaded, with labela aroiud them reatii^ o|>oa oorbeb, 
and their Jamha and toffiu being hoUowtd iaMcad of cither aqua» 
or iplnynd. Thia bnildlng hM a frontM* of 07 t»H in Canam- 
■treei, and -IS (eat In FHiuy-atrert. Tba bat^t of Ua alevatian 
Irom the onrb laral la opwanb of 80 bet. Portland aiona In 
amployad br the (aaing of tba whale of the ground atwy. On tba 
oppw part of tfae niera, on each itda of th* aMnaoe^ ia a peofa- 
aioD of earring of fruit, Oowera, and Iwu' baada. adnOnUy exa. 
cutod. The plain baaga of the walla at« yOlaw malm biUka, 
and the atria g w u wea aad arabed beada af tba appar wiadowa 
ar«f«L TWmtariariaeaMtnwtMlIallie BMMtaatmdandnib- 
atantial maBMr, moat of the bnVkvork bdi^ a»t in cement, aad 
it baa Um aama atranganieni u Moaat*. Soott aa.1 Ken'a ware- 
hooaaa, having a wall, 90 bei by 10 feat, wbioh axtenda trtm th« 
baaanent Io the rent, nod b Mpported by a eeriea of iron ooliuum, 
which wUl ba omdted oat and adomad with Corintbiaa oaptlala 
and anricbad eotablatapaa. Six of the atoriaa In tfae buiUing will 
be entirely oeoupiad aa general warehooaaa, aaeh eoutalolniF an 
area of ft? bat by 43 fa»L T»k«i lu s vhola, thia adiOoa will ba 
wu of tba Bloat oompUta of ita kind iu Londoa. 



KEVUW& 

A Pndkal Tftolim m Catt and ITntnffKt Iron Bridgtt flad 
GMva, M V pl M to KailuMf Slnuiiira and tv BriSgrn 
gmtrtUjf, vIU niriMrMU namplm drawn U> a laryt KtUt. tet^at 
/mm tie puMiii aierAa </* the mott tminrni tn^nmrt. Jij W. 
IK-HueiL Iviodou: S|>on. Paria 1 to 7. Folio. 
Notwitliatoniling the eiUnt and variety uf theoretiaal SnlonB^ 
tion napacting tba atiiin^it)) of beiuiu, which the adentiftc to^ 
neer may reaort to for bb auidnooe in the conatructlou of girutf 
biiilgea, a vast ounber of Uie detail* of tboae itroctotaa moat be 
deaignoil by Ma own ezparienea aad lagasnity, inoapeetivoly of 
theocetiol knowledf^ The nwtbataiitkal priac^ptee of the 
atrangth of mntorinU inrolvc conaidomtlooa 80 dlAcult that tb«y 
can w«ly be applied to any but aimpJe awe% and it ia obrioua 
that varioiH oonplaxitiM of coiiatruatian muat freqaonUr owar 
ill praotkM, which im bayoiid the reaoh of alrict tboorelioal invea- 
ligatiou. It ia the dutyof thoanginMr toatcertain a«anr«dly, in 
er^ry inalacni, whether the rarinliona (V«ra thaaimpleat fbraia at 
L'inltTa which he i« compelled Io adopt d« not matarially albel 
kuown \hw of Mianuth and alabilityi but thia a^nimnca ia not 
alwaya coaily arrivodat Vta have aaan Inalanoea in which app^ 
rontly uiding deviationa from alaadard ftirma have been all«iMied 
br moat diaaatroua rmulta For axampU^ the oombiiiation of 
oblii^ae leoaian nxb of wroogbt-iroa with oMb-iron baama 
appeared aoma yearn ago to very etniaent engiaeeta to aaeurg an 
nuiouut of atrangth which the eipnienoe of a fitlal aocidciit 
ahowed to be arronoonaly eatlmatod. It ia dear that wbaa ao 

Ct a departnre Irom ealabliehcd modoaof coaatnielion, u thai 
alluded to, woa oon tarn plated, the new oonatructioa ought 
to bave beea preltmiiuuily tailMl oillii^r by octtial esperimeat, or 
by moat aooduaive thaoraliaal raaaonLng. There arc^ of conn^ 
minor novdtiea of OMiatruetton, which may ba aafely adopted 
without exact compulation of their elleeta, wnare the e egioMr ia 
anffirientiv guided by that gencm] power of perception of tba 
atalico) ediaieaay ofatractural detnilo, which U acquired bv coot- 
prehetialra experieBMr and a aonnd kiiowladge of tDMlianica. 
T« ibia llmitad oxt«at ouljr ana empirical rulea admlaaible ia 
deaignioK itnictnrea vi which the wciuity i* •» importaat aa 
ia tMt of railway bridge*. 

A well adected and wi'U ammged ooUeotlfU of exiuuplea of 
gbilar hrldcM cannot tli«rvfiire fail to be of great value to tba 
medan engmaar. Such a aeriea ought to abow the meana wbldi 
ba*a bou aaocamfully adopted in oTcrmminc bxal aad osoap- 
tionni exigtEndea by apecial oontrivancca. Or aneb a aerie^ tooy 
the value woatd be gnatly Inereaaed \n a ayaWm of pcogreadf* 
adraaee ftom the almphat tamm of girders to the moat eompUs, 



•8 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ABCHITECT'S JOURNAL 



Mid bj a MMDBuiMti of diAmit modM of doling wttli m^ 
AtfBM cbM of tKriktiou. Tb« woA htbm ns eantoiiii % am- 
tMsnUe muBlMr of nlBibl« nuuniila^ imt Udw the iTalMn aad 
umliiiil «Uch a|ip««r to m bo dcnnblv. Tba plates in ifa* 
dUhmt parte <k Am wArk lira glron withaat Mijr Kmiimiit 
i^MB, ■!« imgulvly naahrrtil, utA do not oomMMBd to the 
■ceompwyiag detcHptioa in (lis l«tter-pf«M. Fcrwipa ■* the 
^rark »dvuieei thu debet will be to k>iii« extent noUfieil, bol at 
M«MBt therearanotnwMof RyBtem in t^o arfeetion ofexMnpln; 
Tthf iBUndoetMR doet not ifiiNAr to ni written vitli a dwr 
knwwMp at the lawe of the atnogtb oT |;inl«ni. For iiuUncit, 
w» find it ■tat«'l fiotiN 3} tlut the dofleelaon of a ainlcr on^t 
•M to aOMd I ia AoO, whvrtna, it ii eertain Ibat tho amount of 
4eSMtl<>o «l>ich a fiiriirr will L«ivr d«])ooda aiooiig otber Uiing* 
M ttM nbAion of ita depth to It* ktitftb. A ^-irtlnr mav ba m 
dMptlut adeAectloaof 1 in Attuvonlilitnin it bojnond (lie limit 
of mpdire, or llie dqitb mn.V be » uaalL and ita Seiibilitjr 
Mnarauentij ao Knat, tbu a be ttnateET deAeotJon would not 
MMiUj imiMlr tbc rliunjiitr. Anlo, «c find in tbe nm» para- 
mph, that "asirdcr willVdtdKted iBorebfB land ranting 
Vkpkllf vr*r H, tban if tlx aamo ia carriod over it elovrlj-. Es- 
pnitnaDla bave bwa made, and the mrulta bave prored tbat 
Ibm it an lnorfa«i of about aae-aeveoth ia tbo former inrtanoe." 
We mppoM (Iw oxparinwnta b«re aUud«d to an tboae Bwda soma 
Team ago vndeir Uie antbority of tlie Royal Commiaeion of 
iBiiilry twpeeting- inia HnKtnrw. It would appatr (rota tli<i 
•TDt'iaee jutt quoted, tbat tho tnoteaae of deflection ia tbi! sun« 
in ail^iMi but b trnih thnt inonaae depcuda od tbe velocity of 
tbr load and ita weifbt. \^> liav« made thaae objeoliona h> the 
pnbtieatioR before ni benuae wo aboald slndly rp» it improve na 
It progreawa. The wovkt aaticttd for iDaatmion ore uoit of 
them valuabla examplea of cugnvingH, atid ibe pUu-a &» very 
clear and appwr to boBXocaUd with grtal atteution to accuracy. 

Bnmfkt tf Antimt D«mtMii* AreUleetnrt. Part I [., Boyal 4to. 

10 riatoB, Br F. T. Dollvait, Ardt]I«ct LaDdou: Bell and 

Daldy. 

Thin part of Mr. Dolltnan'a vulunhle work is wlxiilv deTf.t*d 
to tbo Hoapttal of SL Cma, one of th« moit flnciMl, iote- 
natinR, and cliaritAble foaudntiooa in tho kingdom, and one 
nerhapa which mains more of iU orl^nal intentioa and oba- 
rMter than luiy (imilar remnant of aucii^nt piety in the iahuid. 
Tbe Wintal stand* at Sparkford, on tbe bankii of the Itchin 
rirer, about ou" mile wert from WiuohMter, and owoa ite 
•XHtenw* lo Bixhop Henry d? Bloia, wlio founded it about 1 13:it 
for tbe liealtb of hu own'aoiil, and the inula of hia pfodeooHOra 
aiul Umm of tbe Kinge of Rngliuid, and for the nuiutouuiee 
and rondeuoe of in poor ni«n, ao dv0iy«d in henltli luiJ foittme, 
that withoat diaritnble BWfAiin«u th<!y cannot mitiiiiain theok- 
•dm'. and for the relief of ono hnndrnd othor indigtat p*rBona 
of the city, of deTout and modest clutraetur. Tlic daily alloi^ 
■ace Ibr the poor brethren coneisled of a loaf of {;ood wheat 
bnad of 3 IU 10 e«. weight: ais quarta of good auuU beer, a 
anSoient quanlin of pottage, and three nieae** for dinner, one 
ntled "moruvll, mnoe of milk and waatoU bread; ono of e,»b, 
■All one of flMh: and one mona for lupper, tbe ralue of which 
■moiintod to 17d. trnrlh par wedi- The daily dide for tbe 
bundmfl men »iui diapcnacl nl rJiuntT'time, in tbe place called 
** Hnudrajneaalwlir Ibla portion of tbe building ilill exists, 
and ia ao named in the ground plan of the bnilding by Mr. 
DoUman. It eonaiated of a loaf nf eoaner bread of 3 IbL IU tut. 
wvdght, three qnarts of atnoll bwr, a auflicirnt anantitj* uf 
pottAge or a msH of pnbc, cue herring, or two pilcbatds, or 
two egga, or one farthiniCa worth of i^hMM, valuu 3d- Thirteen 
of lh« poorer etadenta of the vriimmar aehool formed |i«rt of 
the ODO hoadred recipiente of tiiin bounty. After dinner wm 
doae, ijw frngmenta of tbe mtfti of oich wat allowed to be 
Ukto awa/ by tboae it belonged to. On aevml liolldan 
Ibrovghout th« year, and panlcularly on the anaivcnary of tbe 
foundri'a oUt, great aditltiona were made to the mtione of 
llie bnUiren, aa well as the bondral poor, wbiob number on 
theae oeeuaaoa wu trebled. 

■ ImetlM «>i iMM (UNBHii* <■ hofHal «MMd k«* Mbn Bltbaf Uaur'* 
(Inalni'nt'^'A ~' ■[■•"^-i't"-'^— 

I TlH iniMr» wtm fcrntd Ita (MdOit'i onnlllHel •tonaUDn In annun Ik 
tiiil1il-|- '^—"-~ nuuei, iwurtn, i}ib«. mU and bad* bdn^iii le tba 
^^ * In (■• nikttf* iwieim^ aa* ynlMJ. %atti^ttt u an aiUsiMtuf 

. hbiib; taS, aacrtlic M u aHintig auUtnl ikvanl 



WllltaB<<W)hi*a«,Meljpr hbib; aa4 

■I Ite tmt t«M, Am mi. ^ iBara. 



Beaidof Uic anpport ior the poor btn awn t Jotwd, tbeie ma 
MipoaUj an endowment for a master, ■ atewaH, (bar ohaplidiii^ 
thirteen elerins ■b'1 aeven chorieters. 

In 1107, theguudiana and adminietnton wrra oonatitntTCl by 
th* founder to lie themaeter and br«lhmi of SL John of Jcrw- 
■alem, laTing to himself hii cai>oDi<nl juriadictJoB. In tbc tine 
of Biabon Toelirc, a qmuTel arose betwesn Uin and the Maatw 
■od bretl»«n, which grew ta anoh a heoght that Hmv; IL wm 
oatnpelled lo aediata between Iheoi, and an ■■reeaieot «■• mida 
diat tbe admlalMiktlcn shonld be mded to Uie Biibop of Win. 
ebeator, npon Itis uadsHaking to givt th«m the improprialio)i of 
the ebuiehca of liardca sad iunnitoD fi>r tbo payment of 
fiftj-tbree marka per annua), and givintt them a disch*r(^ for • 
petieloD of t«u marks, two wtx oaadM, aad tea pounda of 
wax for dte Hoots of St Croes. 

The end and purport of thia charity, before tite pinla^ of tbe 
uunifioent William of Wykehom, hod besa so diTwrtsd by abnaM 
flmm the int«n lion of tbe founder, that he detcnnhiad, aad an^ 
cnoded. nfter long and ladioni litigation, to reatore iia wtnaam 
to thnir original nss; K-Mtablbhlng It tsourely, aeetr att^rtian 
woa huslowrd by hitn npon the well ordering of ila anaaaa- 
Biente. ao that those who were to enjoy tbo adtmntaaes of uia 
charlliy ahoitld fully be to enabled. The good offects nnanw frvai 
tha att^atloB to Ita intarasta, ^ William of Wykdiun, ware so 
evblent lo hie mkccaaaor, Cardinnl Beaufort, that he detcnntiMd 
to colarKo it liy giving it- niiditioOAl luid permanont means to aa|K 
port two prial* and tbirty-fivv more luetbreo, chosen Anoi 
dseaycdgentlemea.wboweretoreaideia the h«afiiul:tb«taw«» 
to be attendsd upon In slckneas ud fnKnnity by tbive boapital 
nana. Indeed, no vnac wiu the Cardlnal'e beneEkoUcm toward it, 
tbat be rauy be rrganlnl na the aeoond founder of 91. Croaa, X 
which he waa deBiroDt ataonld be callod " The AInnlwusa of 
Noble Povertr," from the grade uf sneb oocuponla aa 1m had 
dcetiiied it to be the support of 

Throngb t)i« spoliation and flendnf the hospital oaderawtt 
at tbe time of the Rcfnrtaation, and eince, dis estatjlieb&ieat bat 
beoome only the shadow uf ihe two original inatitutinBa; iaaUad 
of Itsserenly ttaideutclergr ami laity- who were here toppmiad, 
bMidee the 100 out-uiembera *l>a reoeivad their neat and drink, 
die charity unw only supports t«a naldent bnthren, and tbrva 
out psniionon, oxclnaive of (he uiami^r and cha[dftia. 

Here may be eorn aomolhing likv tbo conventual eattame of 
ancient tlmoe, thou)|h l)>e hospitij never wa* a mooaaleir, but 
merely a uoblu diarit«bli9 foamlutiuD for "uiciont and iiillm 
men, to live i»^tlipr in a reitnlar and ileroal manner.'* The 
innulea rudde lu acijurato dwsllinn which are reoiarkable for 
their noatufaii. and they woar n block flowing dnsa, having a 
large rilvercrowi upi>u Ih? l>ri«at, and aalate each oUiar with 
the conventual appoUatiou of " Brutlitr." 

From the alcetch of tho anxient and preaeBt fcttfidation we 
have given of this nnro importnnt pliuv, we will uow turn h> a 
eooahjcntion of the plutca which Mr. Dollinna baa ftambhed to 
•how the architecture and arTsugemenla of St. Croaa, t^dag 
thrill in th«ir order. The fimt plates in the jiaft are twohalF 
abwia, wbicli ahov ihe ground and Artt-fioor plnuB of th« tnlin 
ho*inUl; tiiese mstoro thoee mru which are not In extaUBC^ 
and lire deserving of beins well atudicd for ndniirabla armig»- 
ment and aenamtA conipleteDesa. I^te IA oompriMs tbaaoHh 
and south rWation of (be handsome tower pte-houae, bnill 
by Cardinal Boaoforl, who !* r^iretented in one of tbe Ihiee 
efrgant nichtn in the nppcr part; the oUier two have bstn 
d«e(ioiled by time of tbeir ttatun. I'lnie 111 ia devntad to the 
refbotory, which is shown well in tTnnnvcrac nnd kngitudioa] 
SHTtiona, boili of whidi ditplny thi? ciiistruction of its opta 
ttrobcrrd roof of Iriah onk; in uldttion (o tbsM secttoai^ the 
pUte is liUeil up with detaiU cf wiDdnwa, galeway-porcll, aad 
Mria|^coor•«a. Plate 17 contoina elcntiona of Uia hrsthraa^ 
dwulPinct, back and front, wtth sevcnil entire aeetioaia tbra^b 
tlie dwdlingn, taken at ditterent pari* Plate 18 givee iha ooia- 
plete armngemeni of (bo retired ambiilatoi^-, whMi laaj be 
oniuidcred uoai reronrkiblv pictar«iiuc in its arraagramL 
Plate 19 is filled with plans anil •lelaila of tbs deap ta^ 
winilows, the studded oaken doors and fireplace^ and tba bea- 
work, ooiwiitting ef knooksni etcalng-ringt, and key-ptatss: «ul 
the last Ilate (dO) is orctipisd with ft pciKpectivs cf tbe baildii^ 
■round the prineipal qiudranglr, with ila triiiiiaed IniamI 

I tha (dilliMuJ muiH wiilni IWn iht dmislkaf vt tba cadlls 



naflt laliH ts IM. loitudi H|ipanliif bli utoualiHi ut Ibe tMOdaUM «( It. I 



THK Cirn. ENGINKCvK AND ABCUJTECT'S JOURNAL. 



wd woUrtw^ valla. Baowth tii* vivr ia « blodc 

of tb« Mtin bo^NUl: iU dmroh and «alk>l (pidcoa, ami 

Ld«Uila at the apudriu ia tha dexUr and uoiater alMa at 

Bylaws; in ihr Dortb ■iil« of tiM mls-hoitM. 
J Dotlmaa bu now performed lulf hia task, aod wb alKnild 
; lo tbo eatb* «Uabelioci nf hU pklroiu and lobaiiriban. 
l|lUtaMari*a)MriarlOlhoMiiihi«linitpKrt,aiid arc draerritig 
r rrerr pniM far dcftmo* and bcku^ of axMoUon. We ahanla 
, jiok tbuM architfcta wlio are engued 1b boildiaga fareWitaUe 
■■)) adaoaiioaBl parpoaae, and wIm nav* not wan oranbaoribed lo 
Ibtairorii, wUldowoU toaiU It totbalraaoa libntiaa. 'Aiili«nt 
ack ArchitMCan' in ever; yny a^j be oaiuude(«d aa 
hj of bcinff plaeed bjr tbe aido of tb« laboon of Mr. l>oDauut'a 
r, tha alder Pngio. 

Av^iHar'* iWM BMk >br U* year 1807, mUakUif 
4ad aittaafaa 2Wm and FtrmaUr; taftUttr tBitk <■» 
BMd Diary. Loodoa : flmrcura and Co. pp^ 3KL 

I i» Iha pn eeni aditioa of thta etuukrd and omAiI worit, aovenl 

t bsve beta iBtradaoad. Fran o«ia of theaa, upon 

," *e ezUaol the 1c>Uo^db>- 

bkll vMiaalad«atb«|hwiinp*taoipl^~lbniacfn tiM pun air, 

l«lin|[it *ln*eout ibaimfnir*, aepaakarebonUbBkntar liMiilihaa 

N Twiiilatnl aa ik» vuvem prlndpl*— Jrawiiif olT the impura ur, 

baiiH ifct puT* io 6tid teetm. 

to iLa lorm of oooIomiI epMM (w aaauMloiJ fmpo^m, two penaua 

Mpgotir* lua of iw moIomJ ellipia, aail tN^onil wlui aUtiahdra 

■ring 'It «^ MBit ''U )>• aa^ola to «aeb othor tf lb* lUelaaoa 

ta any psiM iB lb* panpliK?. and tbcao* to Ilia «tber, m% 

'ithiniuoh hrariiw illilanna CoQldthe poaition for Iheapaakaf 

punt, kia W or tb* pUta of aHMDhlir ahouM b* a panbolk, 

I tae wflaetinl t%Jt la panllsl Ilaea. or a vidat auri-e. to dira«t 

^ iQlly TW wtIMt hu aaeocaarully applied itia bollaw parti- 

w an acouuie eaiinpj u> ■ pulpit, itia RHna batng ritoaud in 

ijwalUun of lha miaiMn-'a moutk, and the baaa aeit Uie 

Tlio nlatir* diataooa at atnal-baarias in frent~*t riibw 

t, vhaa tW nMBkar ia loskiDx ilrsiuhl brsard. 



1 tn (ba raw, 

myaqlii'dy. aa SO. JO. and 



30. Thnr prDportion* wUl 



^Bfc J u iBBli i egg-oTal ; aad th*7 nut; with advaataga bo twrvata 
il^na iba pkdns of a oaoinJ I 







pulpit or Kslrain. 
"7nm ttw pul^l, aoiiad baa baoi lud on with ntU'pcrclia tubce to 
IW pewi of pmtM oAiiAad «rilh iuip«rf«l audltioa. A oulD, oMn- 
idftjm lha pulpit withaoapadonatronipal-inaulti. niiglit ba r«|[ardad 
an autniaJ in a lar^a idiurah. affurdiiiK tha opportunity of atudiini{ 
S bf»n«h aai^tuU whtn wanted.* 

Tien la 4U» aBexeellcctpaporon "Contottr Lereli," and 

a pper an " PerTo-MetaUurgy' embnoM a good doMripllaB 

af BMMuer'a proewa. An ititenaUii( Wf <>■> " Mtuuriog 

laalnifUMita' ia aJao addad to tlili edition. 

^w oouipeaaating principlo ia uiiUiDcd that baa boeu applied 

foTRiatlo«i of meaeuring roda tor the triji^ni-'aietrical eurray 

The.ijriiiiratuBaatdbj Col. Colby wa« two lU-feat bus 

imJ iruti joinuil together, and to adjuxtedtbat two minnla 

nur the onda were CBMolaiiied tqui-diatant. Tboae w«m 

il by TrooffhtoB and Simnu. — Three nielhoi)* are ginni for 

, nut a circle or ciraular am wheie thattntre i* iiiaoii«a*lhIe, 

mdiiM i* an gnat u to predude tfaa poatlbUlt^r of itriklug 

anrva frua a Sied Motn, 

lorten'a BuUitn' Pficf Buok fir 1897; eoftatnlng wptranb of 
ami Pritr; earr/'u% ovrrtrM from lb* prMNt PHet of 
' Mattrlatt and iMbmr, 30(>O Vtrfiitmut Important Mmurnnda; 
lOfMer yilh TiA(tt fiir Piin^uuti^ Ltamt. Ettatei and 
Atauiti**: Arr» onrf Cireun\/'erenoei o/ Cirtiti, SrtnUitig* iff 
TinArr, U'lifhU of Iron, Tlmier, Jft. By Wii.i.iam Laxtok, 
AfvbilMl. Afd Ik* wM* ^ M* MrlTopiilU SaiMiug Art, 
wiM Nolm tf Com*, tim LOmpaiM Stetieiu >,/ the ^K Viet., e. 
H, end IM 0/ lUttrkl SurtrfW*. Tfcirtv-fuurtli Editioti. 
B/ Fiim. W. LArrax, Bun-ieter^i-Uiw, f.S.A. Ijmdoti: 
Jobn Knott, Civil BBgiiwer aail Ar«hitoffl'e Jouniol-odlca, 19, 
ArtmdetMreet, Strano. 

the prwaat odltloll li ad>t«d m Appoadli with Dlmtnitin&ii, 
'\aK awend n«« iavontiona ami tnat^riaie a<kpt«d for 

. \g ^unoaea; abM, the liaeription of cijitity birildiiig 

<BBia, witb tbeir coat per foot at 'iiuury nail in liOti dun, miii«rfJ 
Jaelgaation, ooloor of tbeatons, wbero koowii or rvp(:>rt«d to 
ha<r« bem etaplored, aad.iprii^nil romarka, the nuaniea being 
rhwiiliBil into diatricta and oonotleii. The Index bu baaa 
n-wtiitCB, ami aa lodes added to tba Building Act. 

Ka. m.—VA. n^XiXcH, 1U7. 



B» Fj 

^Jobnl 
Artmd 



WEarrMQiSTER IMPROVEMENTS. 

Sir Baojaain Uall baa in part aiated in the Itonae of Ooni- 
inona tbe peoapeeU of tbe Weatobiitar tnpraveineot pinna. Aa 
nuij aa 1791 apeciflcatioai bnve baan aant oat, ioriting doii^ 
for tbe War aod Foivtgn CXBcaa. block plana for o coaoeutrMjon 
id tbe pnblfe oAoaa on tbe Und between St. Jamea'a-park and 
tte rirer, and tbe tdte of a new brMge In Um of WeMoiiaaiati- 

' Wft There it a growUig opinion in bvour of tha pbw 
fuallj wegeetad of Sir Howard Doa^aa for pladnK the 
Ige aonwwhere nennir ChnrinK-«ran, whicb ia iu tbe dinel 
Uae ft«di iBoet of the graal fai^wajra oa the other fide of 
ttia rtvar. Sir Howard alao nB:eal«d aiioUiM- bridg* M LninbHll 
ItitTi !a the motowbile S8r BenLfttnhn Hall baa oaooed n mrvej 
ta be made of the bed of the Thnnea, which ia var^ ftmtly 
nhend rinoa the laat •orre; by Mr. Tetford in l8iQL Then 
baa been a grant dtqnaad for the ajieoifioatioiis front proAMlotMl 
men in our own conntrT', and ui nil {xirta of tlia w«iid^ 
Ameera, Italy, Pnuice, Donuwrfc, Spain, 8w«dan, and many 
Slaten of Oenuiiiy, The plana, vhetber on tbe Bat or in tbe 
round, will oocupya vory oonaidenthleapaecvand K iaevnnmleii- 
liitad tbattlMry cannot all be ^ into Weatnbiater-liaU, bnt that 
aaawanpnl«naitalbniUuigiDth«neighb(HirlKiodwfllber«inir«(L 
Th« exhiUtioB will be opened at EnMr to tbe wliole pnbhc 

BAILWAV CROSSMOa 

At a TKcnl Boetlng of the Inatitation of Civil Engineeni, a 
model of an Improved milwny oroninfc, by Mr. Hctiij C. Hnrry, 
waa «xhibau>l. The obieola aouglit to be attained wen; to nuke 
aprfwt oontionitjof the main line rail through all cnaainga, 
without " point and wlug" (or " elbow "^ nilii, and to elfVct a 
•aving In the evpenDO of the permanent way of railwaya. By 
perfect eoDtinuity of tho niniQ linu rail throngh croiainp^ the 
extra wear and tear which at praaeui took place at tsmttia^ 
both to the permanuDl wny and to tlie rollbg etock, waa pre- 
vented, and the iJiuigcr of wlimli getting olf the rail, or on tn the 
wrong rail, particulvly ia " elbow" cnaairtjn, waareinoTed, Ho 
■tMlM "point and winj> and elbow" ruls uaeJ in Ihecooelrue- 
tlon of cromnge, part* involving oonaidFrable wear and rspen<K, 
were removed. In thin iinpToveuieut, where n main line waa 
onwaed, the rell eroaiing, In appr<iiv:hini{ thn tnioi of ertxiduc, 
WM miwil to aboQt l| inch above thu kvt,] of the main tin* rati. 
Tbe «r<ieeing nU, botb ioaidc and outnile the wain line ntil, wma 
out at each a diaianeo aa to allow of the free pumge of wbeeJ* 
upon the main line, and both endaof the mil werelient d<-wn ftir 
aoout one fcut, ao that t)i<> ettretn* podata wi'r* on thi' aame level 
aa the main llii« rail. It''iwoeii tb* end of the mil and tbe ont- 
elde of the iiiiuu line rail wm lud a pncking at the aaun? I«vel aa 
tlie main lino, anil in t)ie line tliat tbe laugea cf wbLvU tra- 
roreini tha croHing would take* of a mifflolont width to allow lar 
deviationa of gtoge. Between the iiiaide of the mniu lino, and 
the end of the croaatng nil waa plncc.l n movable pocking or 
wedge, which reeled npon inclintB in aucli a way that it might 
be raiaed to the level of tbe main Hue, or lowered euHkiently to 
allow ^e flange* of wheela upon the mab line to olear. Tlut 
mav«meiit w«a prodnead bv tlie iction that rmrenoil tbe pninta 
leading to tb* oruMiiit^ By tbaae mnn* a level and eontiiiaou 
%ny waa mad* for wbeela to p*sa along (upon tbeir flangutj for 
the diatanne between tb* end* of tbe cut rail* of the orcMUg Gnn 
The gauge waa malntnined by a cheek nlL Tn the croaatng of a 
aidiuutaU with a eiilliig rail, the niovablo )inckiQii waa not r*- 
quir<M, at it was not nernaMu-y to keep the coutiuuity of either 
rail. Iu tlii* oaae both null were ca*t Ui the aame way m tha 
craninK mil before deacribed, and they were laid down on the 
aama level, their end* b«in$ btnt down a« deaorlbed, (a the Ifrvel 
of a pack ing laid 1 f inch Iwlow their ecnen^ lerel, and so placeil 
aa to carry wheala wh*n trnveoriug ciiVer line, over Uie ilistnaoe 
between Ui* nili^ tbe gnui;o being kept by check raila. 




Sir Charloa ButUke** hint at the Ai7ad«ay dinnn- haa been 
taken by Lord Palmnraton, wlio uya the arliata nituf haro more 
room; and the govenimeiit arcbitecta liav* prepared jdaiia f>r 
an allcmlion in the eotnneeJwll of tbe Oallery in Tralidgnr- 
•qoare, aieaat to provide a 'vff'' noto, better lighted, for tbe 
•v*r^«lar0ng acbool of Biigliah (OuIpAure. Tlie i-reaeut Inck 
room ia to tie thrown into tbe ball) a n«w dome ia to ria* ou the 
roo4 nud light the new room. 

18 



J 



9D 



THE CITIL ENGINEEB AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



APPIJCATtOy OP BAILS FOR HORSE TRAXSIT IN 

THE STHEET9 AND ENVIRONS Of LONDON, AND 

ALftO FOB RAILWAY BRANCffEa* 

Br W. BKtoon Adavs. 

Tmk MriiMl Kodi wcrr tha •iinnli mibeo of Um mtth. Wh«a 

inla rala, a uew aud pftnulcl track waa takra, and Uiea 

lanoUwr aod uivtber. Wbal ar« aallc<1 wheal roadu In ibe 

Dipaa of La Plata aod tba aWppM of Bouia, an wuddIm of 

ka. Bat tbia kiad of aooguuBodatioa ma only avaikbl* on 

bnsd plain*, with land of little or no nlatt. Oa valaablc iMid, 

Lw in Diiiiend diatricta or rodij TaJleva, it rnu ttoaJful to reptir 

like tnoks whan worn. Wli«n atoiM ui«(«tl, tho ubvinui metWl 

^WM to braak H ialo anuU plaoa^ Mid Uiruw it iutu Ihe ruu, a« 

I tba aaa in D«rbj«bira anddaavbani aud ihio uo donbt «u 

I Mrlicat kio'l of mncadagi. 

In tlie ooal diitricta of thu North, whm Und «aa ntliiable, it 
I tho pntdioe in optaiiog a coal-pit to hiro a "way Lmto," 
■ right of «aj, or leave a wn^ ojwa which, if iho pit workail 
, could aAin ba luwd for cultintioit or gruiag. If tha ordi> 
groond waa nacd to inivol on, a boraa could only draw 
' aboat 17 cwt. of oc«U, aud u> amend this tba aarlicat nulwayi 
««re d«riaed, via, a a/vtnu of crou iilo:|icra, pinoad two or throo 
ttel Kpui, and on tb«*« went tr«uail«d duwn longitudinal woodan 
nUb^aqoaivd to aaactionof aixiiioboa broail by AvainchMdMp, 
tba goage oS wajr htiag (bar fnoL Oti thoM wooden rsila, which 
foraied a aubalmoturc^ were trFoiiiled ditwn other pieooa of 
timbar, which could ba ukeo away and roptaoed wljoa worn. On 
tbia kind cS railway a liorae coold dnw 4i cwt.. or two«nd-a' 
half timoa the load of iba ordinary Kjad. Th« intfodoctiou of 
thwo roada took plaoe about tho yor 1000. It wsa, of eounu, 
nMeMUy to l«vel tlie sronnd bcocath nnd amund the timbeni fur 
Ui« horan" r<«t, nod tliii therefore ccuilituled the first iuveution 
of railwaja, an Jiiv<.>uti()D (brc»d on bv tUeabaoluta nec«Mlty of 
A eoBtinaoiia atrtaiD of iniAc wbiob onliiiarr roada wora uuoquol 
(o. 

Hie wtar of the timber be;iot the praetioe at covering it In 
parUwith ulaiMof irou, in Btrako* like the tyre of a wheel. 
6isba«iii«Btly caauiroB pUlea w«ra uaed, of an angular fotiu, 
•trvtehiii)* ftvm alaapfr to aleepcr, an alenMd rib Halng from 
a flat plata Cwteaod down to tba aleapera, th* riba being 
callier ioaido tho wheel* or oiitatdo. Thi* kind of rail vma called 
tlM tfamway, either from the name of ttie eoipueer who lint 
lUMd it, Mr. Outrniu, or from tlie &ct of ibi tnmmulUiiif tho 
vbeala to thdr patJi. The objectiou to it waa the fadlilr of dirt 
[ on it, impodlng the path of the whooU. Thii i* ihowu by 



bpood hmd bqt ouTwr bwe, to prorid* )br vbidi a «a*t-irHi 
chair t* naoit f^. ft abowa the donUe-headcd rail, alao oaad 
with 4 cbair, aad urtemled for reveraal upaide dewa wh«n worn. 



IC^." 




Fid. L 

Tliii nltjouitaly jpivt riav to tha invention of the odga- 
rkil, i.*^ the rail projecting above the surfW of the grouDd, 
and without a j[iiidiuf( flango, whidi wft« applied to the 

wen nriona. Fig. 8 



vhwl iualead. Tlie fomu of the nil 




rial ru-i. 

ibom a aoctloa of nil, wtlh a broad flat baae, apQud down npon 
•iMptn^ oonuaouly ottA In the Uuted Statea. Fig. 3 n bridge 
l»H, wanail/ aewwed down npoa aleepaw. Fig. « a rail with a 

■ r*!* I*** M <k* 9«lM]> tt Ant, LoDdnc 




ne, I. Ttn. t. 

All thoe lyitfini of mil*, whether trtiniwayi nr «dga nXlg, 
prefect abuTe the suiiioe, ned the whf«l* are guided by boitli 
rail*, aud uuuiiot b« goided by one rail ouly, or tbey woold run 
off. Thia foct involvM a very complimted amuigeoiMit of what 
arc called awitoha* and pointa and croMingn, whan It b reiftilnd 
to move a train from one line nf rail* to ano4livr, a *y*t«iB whidi 
iuvolvea alao gnnt expetiae iu np«in and oon*ideT«hl« riak of 
getting etf tha llDa^ In oaae of any irngntarity at b%b apeedL 

The fiwt of proJeotJOD above the Mir&oiv uid the apude oaad* 
led to a Kenotsl iBopnMaon that railraad* mnat bt dIalliMt raid* 
&i>mhigliway*,aadthat it would be impa«iblo to oaetbei 



road for both purpoaca. Yet even opun the railwnym the bot 
waa wactlcally dMnooatrated tobeothcrwiae, for st what are 
eallod level cmwing* the apnccv bntwoi'u and outride the ralla am 
boarded over to the level, to nllow otilio.try Tchiolae to pMB over 
Uieoi. Itia truetfaalthii iovolroa n f^roaUy increnaod oxpeJlao. 

Id ycnn pa*l before edge railwayi exiatod, I waa fiuniliitr witb 
miuiy of tlie lo«.'omol!ste who advocated uid pnutiaed the nan 
of ■toam-Qarnagoi on oommon roada, and who, eaoaldariiic the 
diffiaullita they had to oontend triUi, pra«tiotlly aoaompluhad 
KTMt nwulu. Mr. Waller Hancock wai one of the moat iin- 
tiriiig, aud I fra;ueiitly i>o!nt«d out to bin that hli chief dif- 
fiailtv WM the want »> solidity to au«uiu the load of his wh««ti, 
ftnd thni )i^ niiiHt tnk« either to atouo curb* or iron nul* beflir* 
ho could itK^n^l. He Dould not nceomplinfa tbia ; for alUioogh 
the JAw allowed hitn to run hia ateam-oania^ on tbi> ra*d, It 
did not &llow bim to i«pair, and atill lea* to improve the roiid. 
Tlie law allowed the road tmalee* to dictate the wtdtli of lyrM in 
firviKirCinu to loaii, or to eharga aooordingly, yet, iMlwitbataBd* 
uig, pomiitiing di*1i^ whoola, with coned p^ripherlM, to aeoep 
out ue ruid while rolliti^, without rcrard to diuiui^, but givtof 
no specific iuHlniutiouii na to the hara«niug of iho road itaclf) ao 
that the it^udlviiiDH Bi>plioation of tuad metal ouuld, at their will, 
prevnut tniffic altogsther. 

Still, my nwn ooiiviction rnmained that iron tmdta wer* the 
true aolulioo of tho jiroblom. In proportion to tho amootliiUM 
and hanliieaa uf the auriW i> the fiiuititv of dtanglit and thenr^ 
tug in wiiar luid tear of vuhicl^it. A railway ia better tbuinhi^ 
way, in rirtue of Ita faiiril aod nooutli aiir&oe^ Ito (^If^gnt'IaltBt 
for the vehicle*, and it* better level. But if the vohi.-W ninaiug 
on a railway b« greatly in exceai of iia atrength, they may In- 
volve men rtaiaUiiM Uian an omnibua maning on a hanl modMn 
Toad which dee* not yield nmler the wheels, 

A 1^1 abould bo— haviog n^nl to tha load on it-^ wide aa 
to prevent lateral deflection, and ao deep aa to prerent twrtloal 
deSevtiou iu itaelf. and it ahould have *o much aurfiice-bekria^ U 
toprevem it frum siukiug in the ballaat. 

Bm it ia not iieotMiiry in all caaea that the liaubge oa rail* 
ahould be performed by itoam, though in moat caie* that (a iha 
eheapeel mode of traction. The etoiua railway* In the Unll«<l 
Statea hnve given riae to horae railwav* through citiee and towni. 
Xbar bepui in a peculiar aiauuer. 

Ttie American rsllw^a, it ia well known, wer* made to run lo 
ftnd throngb town* and citica, inatead of to thorn only. The la- 
habilMita were rarely anii'^iu, u In Enjcland, to keep tha ndl 
ttmj trvm theni, but the ountrary. It waa deemed neciiawjT to 
mn round atreet coruera. The nt«t engiue waa otdered in &ig> 
Und, and wm built b^ Meaar*. Robert Stapheason and Co.. U 
KewcaNtlfKin-Tyne, with tho loquircnivnt ot going roond a aharp 
our>-e. It wiu, therefore, conatructed lua two-wheol eri^liw, with 
a avLvelliug truck on bur low wheeb in fronl. Tbi* kind of 
truck, ua«d iu the work-ebop to carry huge oaaUnga, waa known 
nndw the enpbonioua name of a " bci|gy." The euglae wu^ then- 




TH£ CIVIL £NG1K££B AND ABCmTECTS JOUBNAL. 



91 



inptd «iiil iavoicMl M ft bogj-«a^e. From Uiftt ■prang 

■botenetof Am«ri<aa bogjr-vagliiM Md curiaft* upon 

jie^ or Mgtit wbcd)^ and Brother <ToruU]iiui eUined It m 

iorsQlioDi but th&l. u ol! — ia hi* awa ()u*uit pAmMOlogj — 

■a tbt fint nulwrnj)* b«gftii to work, tint Ui-ro aiithoriiiu 
' Btip*iiI&Ud tluil tbe eajpaat ahoold br unliooliod, and 1ior>c« iu«d 
b> <lr«w tli« tnina IbmuKli the slrv«U; though anbaequenOj tbU 
««• oimcouiuleil fur hy working th« enffioe uowly, under & Urge 
Bu)ile «!*)), tin whidi wiu {loiatod — ''Look out for Um «o^o 
WMB the Ml ria^.' 

Oitoe AuniliariMd with nulw«]r ctrrisfr* drawn hf honci, tbe 

obMTvaiit AmerkAQ mind ma not alow to pnrolve tli.il tb« ar- 

imngannit wu "nffj anperlor to omnibiiiw* for town tntiixit. 

fit vet after Rtrvei in New York tuid other dtle« wu Ulil dimt 

^^^^Anll*i imd OB itraoU of gnftl Uttfflc biiuij:' Itoe* nf miU were 

^^^^BttWB aide by ndo. Breadwaj u mm of the her atneta witb- 

^^m^Hwn, and tnu ibat haa been the anbjeot of a lair-Buit bit- 

twaD Mw and «M mikra, 

A i>«iMhn)M) ImpQCtwl th« pUo to F^rii, and it la probable 
that it will beeooM an UDivnnuU CnotineittAl )inmiai. 

Bat it baa ni>t been done in Knf^lnnd, n«l iIods id London, iu 
Mlimlwti I ] or ulher ffrnat (oviii, whrrv lb« amouDt dI traSIc 
■iirmt iiDDmtiveljr to call fur tbe tutmJaciiuo of the aTataan.— 
Why hMtt not hem dneT 

Tbe antwer u plain. The wboU thing ia *o «inpU and eaa^, 
WUi thr ontlav neeiled ao ■oiall, that thrre in no acojie for either 
hwyen or «nnueer» Tbetv nr« neither bridge* cor vorkii to 
enUYOMvTf nuiiuged rlgbtiy, anv aet of parltimeDt to obtain, 
I no large nomber of iiaraaai lo Iw Interealed. 
hi December, {MO, I rwd a paper advtmting the BTrteo. 
the Sodetj of Aru, in whidi I atatcd :— " It wonM 
to eoDverC the turnpike rood* into a aTatem of pcmo- 
nUwaTi, by inaerHng nila lerel iHth the aur£ww, to 
_ I od U ata^ooacb apiad b^ aleam. Thia ananDMneat 
ah) place th* wkola cf the agncnltiiral dialricta of &^M»1 
Lb a rspidtj impnvriDfE oonditioo. the fnrmeat one end of tba line 
ad tbe luarketa at the other. The oniitinrr tnStm would not be 
itufenil wUb try tbia plau of nilx, ui vcbidea ooiild orOM and 
MTOMitbem." 

Id iSill aa attempt waa nada by Ur. TbnuuM Wright to g«t 
BpAMIBpaii* to nuwe utront rail wave, but withont euccen. 

Evan aopDoeiufi tt>e Mreet nuIwAJr, i.r^ the pcmianont way, to 

'•oat aa tnai!B a* iJm stiMxa pcrmamout wny, ie., about iOtiuJ!.' per 

nile tingle trav, aiill It woold be a eouroe of great eoonomf to 

^^ make it. A aouna pri'ralla tliat a* on oomiaoii road* tli* Mliidea 

^Kjare oBipantivelr li;;ht, vi^ry litiht raih will enfllcr, but this ia 

^Kni'l tlio r<teit. Tbu nula ou (uiuiuon road* would be ■abjeetod to 

^■•U* blowa and diagonal hJowa frain beary oi«lm^gona and 

^P Atber vi^hidet, uud lh*rebre tliev uenl lie hwrf and toiish. 

Vrnngfat-lroa only enii ba uwil, lor caat-lroa nlwnya erauUaa 

«way at Uie joiuta, cvrn when tdada atrong anoogh uot to 

brttik b_T Uawa. If wruugbt-irou be noeJ, it mm; be uaed wit& 

or wiLh'.ui limber al«ep«i«. Li mort oaMa it will be an udvan- 

tafre to UM no tltnber whateTar, oa account of Ita mpid dMtruo- 

li«nh but if Biad it abould bo menly aa a packing below ibe nuls 

and nut a« a part of tbu Uraelupe. 

TIm atraotnral detail ia m nmtler o^ greiU imporloaM. Tbe 
nqitiaite ttnditiooa are -.—Vim. Strength lo reaiet violvnca. 
Beooodly. Simplicity of atraelure and ftwaeeaof parte. TlilrdJy. 
finSdency of depth and width to give verlic*l and hitml 
fieiiteiire. and conlitiiiiiai Mrenirlb at tba jointet Kourthly. 
J^a lity in Uying dawu, niaiuuintiiK. and r«p1aoiug. Fifkbly. 
tfntertevnee with aooea tu Jraiui and tawere, and water- 
^ below. Laatly. Eooeiuniy lu coet. 
are hnd miiiiy |Jnn* of itructuree iritli tulla made on pur, 
, but it hu {■•r •"■lie time ^wat ofcurird to uic that the ei 
J mile of railwaii wuni ont by the Inooniotive, uni perfedly 
I adapted to itreei uae. They ibnrelero albtd ua the meiuui 
f gr eat elretiglh of Iron at low omL 
Tliefv are two ooniiderationa— eith«r to ndapt the alroet rnih 
lie tbe wbc*la of tbe ordinary omnibnaee and cab*, or to adapt 
■them toe epedalfonn of wheel lyre. 

Por orrlinnry wbeeln. my )4an la aa followa; — Tli« common 
'4eiifaJe T rail naed on tbe anntiit gvage railway* la aa flg. 6, 
4bdi*a ra het^i< and it^ Incbea in width. It ia cosaectad 
to«elher At Ihejointa by a patented inreutioti of iBtIW,(Mllc)l tlic 
blied joint, iron liabee fitting iu tbe iuicinil cbntiMla, bolted by 
(mt one* botta. 



In praelloe tbe wheels of the locomotiTe with lU tone dead 
weight oa them, ahra>I' lh« npper enrfiue, wtill* Ilia lowar anr- 
ISuM ie dana^ in the cbaira. Bat the side chaitBela rrnMiQ 
iDta«t I tborefon Ulie the raili and lay them down flat, holtlltf 
tbaffl U tbe jojnta to a block of cut-Iran tbroogh tha bh-bolt 




r- 




1 




1 


[OJ 


[oj 


loj 


' 


1 



y«t. f. 



bolea. tlie aaiae bloek betn^ providad witli a hoiiaootal hole, ia 
which ie received a lie or goace bar, connecting tbe two oppoMle 
r«ilB together, aa ahown in ig. 7. 



^ 



-iJ- 



T^ne^^ 




IP 




FM.I. 

Tbeae rail*, li leet long, are [aid in Ilia eround flat witb th« 
aorbce, sad^tha tia-bar burial below, kaya uietu down. Aa tbo 
grealeet toad that can oouo upon them ia one toa per wheel, in- 
•uad of aix tona per wheel in tbe rvrtioal poalllou, tbe timigth 
will bo more iban ample. 

Them ia aautber coualderatioQ — tlieir bearing larfnce on tbe 
ground tu prevwnt the raile liMn cnuhing in. An nnlally lud 
on railwayi^ the bcwing ear&oe is fbmeuby tbe aleepere. In a 
llrat-<dAS* croM aleepor n»d the aleepen are Ui<l iliraa (eet 
apM^; the nradttcal hearing anr&o* of eaeb sleeper i> about rii 
fitet, wkiob la about two foel per foot run of the two raili. Tli* 
two rails tuid flatwiRc ^I'o a buring eurfaoe of ID inchea per 
foot ruii. If tberrjbrv two feet be equiraleat to IS Una on tv« 
wlie«])i, 10 iiuhc* wilt be more than ampla tor two loot oa tw« 
wheAla. lu ihu ciutii of the locomotive, tbe baanng is 2 inchea 
per ton : iu thi- i-u»o of tlie street trnffle it ia ft iaehaa per ton ; 
nud the lateral xtronsth of each nil ie compraased from 2j| 
tDuliee to li incliaa. They would be ecmpeCant to eagiaee with 
not mote than two tons on en«h wheel. 

In the ebunnele of these raiU tha onlinary onnibaa whaele 
am run, and, •up|Mxiiig the gaugu the eamu, utiliuan' nilway 
wngguua could run equally well, the whcela ruuniug ooi tbeir 
flangea laatead of their tnwieu. 

lu the tmmwar, FVg. 1, and tha adca railway. Fig. i, it will 
be aeou tlial both mil* sM eaeaatitt to keep the wagjton in traek. 
Bat it la woetby of rsmark that ia theae chauiaJ raik uoe rail 
only will serve lor guiiluacey and tbe opuoeit^ nil tna^ ba a 
simple i^ne ■urfBO^ m iu Fig. 11. Coniiderable latend irictloa 
may be avoided by this arnuigomont, na it will penuii of eligbt 
inaoeiirMi» of guag* la tbe omnlbue whoHi. 

There ie o«e disulvKOtii|{o in tbe c&nnocl rail— ^lirt may get 
tut(> it, wtildi will not rvsl on the edge rail Tlii* nmy Iw ob- 
viittrd in two ways; a spring scraper may l>e altMhed lo tli* 
vrhii'le, and smart lade from the rod or blae cihiw Brigwlo 
mijilit be selectal and provided with a crooked stick each, to 
patml the Hue; 

It is obvious that ardinarr omaibasea niDalng en tliese niU 
would be in no difficulty; if rvqulriug lo turn off and rta oa 
onlUuuy toitds, ibey can easily be turned out of tlic rail I'hss- 
nela, without any ueoeasttf for noint* and cruaiiiigs, or aer <>f 
tbe expensive paiapharuBaa ncedrd ou nulwava by na ao iL t.^ tbe 
great weighta. 

18* 



9S 



THE Cim, ENGINEER AND ABCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



The jflBoUoM Ibr nmiGcftUou ue auU^ nuda by ooitnteUng 
jtvo linM tide b^ tiJu wlUi » doabl* culisg fend coUiDg «««]r th* 
rib bitwMn then). 

Ob ordiUATf roaiU it will bo found tafficieot U> wne it rmumUia 
■urfncn bntvccn nnd lit tiio tidM at the ntUo. lu •UmIb It 
■ould be .(Mimble to |»t« next the i*U% If notall snr lbs «ir- 
^IkM, uid my pUu of pAvtng would 1m diinnut ftooa the ordinary 

For the pTirgr of wbeeli. It u dawrabU to bkte the sur&oe 
u nioetli M poaible^ but for foot hold for hotae^ ftet It in de* 
vnbb to Iwve • OMrtKlo smoaat of rougboMiL "Hi* euliert atone 
fMviag WM with boolden, gndoaJlv replnccd by cut gnuiUii, ia 
pUcai of greeter horiKontol width than vortic*! depth. The prc- 
aent pntctlcQ i* to iwc thcar deep xtotis I.ud in pukllel linei^ aad 
to counoot them by hot tluie grouilDj,-. ^Then uew tbn mrhea h 
rough, utd nited U> the hotwM' bat, and Uia bterlocking of the 
gtoatuga hukea the Modm » oontiitnoue bodjr. Bat thu inrfnce 
WMZS meolh, the gnntuig emeloi, nod the Btonea nuk in detail, 
b*&iK nftial Hul eoeh depoiding oolj on ita owq hut wliau the 
boadbraik>. 

I propOK tfi lav the ttMiMi nt ui an^ln of about 4-* drg. one 
upon another. Thus in the coim of rcrUcol bloffn evi^nr lUino la 
•opport«d bv the other*, And them ii lum timdeuc}' to crack the 
grouting. Moreover, one of the U]»ier udgu* of the atone* iw &n 
acat* u^(^ which loatantly bredc* awti^ m it in wf>m thin, 
and ■ mmoe adftpteil to the horaoi^ feet in thiu nuuntained to 
thelaat. 

In the rnilwftj wheehi wbioh ore faat on the ulea ae ahown at 
F^H. 4 and 0, the cone fonu of the peripbcrioa, aa before de- 
■cnbcd, in lappoeed to ix:im|>eD«ite for cnrvw uid Irregularitlaai 
If it does thia, it i* deer it ought to be run ae it wen on knife- 
edgea. If the profile of the wheel oorreapouda to the proRle of 
the nii it la elckr that » bugu amouBl cf friaUon moat euauo 
Muloffooa to that pnduoed bjr bnad «e0Bmi wtiaaL^ wUA us 
diahad and ourved on tbelr jMripheriea. The veitioaJ wheel la 
u all eaaa* beat, ami with & cy li&dricnl tread, but it i* «nential 
abo lu anch caae that evcrv wheel ahould ruu looee on its axle. 

It ia eaiontial aleo tlial bmkea ahould be tued for the puipote 
of etoppage or for retardation en iuolliua, and vetr^ aftaple me- 
^anioaJ mean* ntay be n-udcre J avaibihte to IkciUtate the mnsit 
upinclinea. 

SnppoiiDg aiugle linea to bo uml in the fint inatonce, It will be 
daaii^lt at interval* to mnke turn* i>ut,u eliawn by Fig 8. 




na.lJ 



tor the pttTTKMP nf retnmiDg, the rail m^y be of n honeehoe 
nm, to thAt the omnge. guided bv the whoola on one oidc^ will 
tam nuad in n circle, llie diagnoa, Rip. 9 ebows thia arnags- 
meat, with one rail aad a flat sor&oe. Ih. 10 ebowe a tum-ont. 




Tbii ejatam oStta pecaliiu- mlTAnlagea to ntflwaf aompantea 
for coDUBtuieatbig wilii town* utd Tilla^ne at a ehaap rate. Ther 
Inve abondaiica of iron raib, aad the ecet bej-ond the mifa 
aeareclj axeaada two to three hundred pound* per mile. There 
are nanjr loolitlee wbora raflwqr oommnuication ia veer daai*- 
able, but the eoet of wcrica^ bridgea, persuuMotway, atat)oni,aiMl 
aot of parliaineat, ia an abaolnt* proUbitiML In iiimifaiaailiaiK 



ia a hi^way or tnrapilce, or ooaajttdon read, aklrthig the tail and 
eommniueatinf; vitb tlie tuwn. with the old rails laid on the 
road on ^e pinii junt ahown do alationa arc mnirad, for Um rail* 
eaa carry vehicle* to the doon of the exiitinK ton* luoog Ihi) ei- 
iatliig dtrerte, luid if horeee be not laflieieat, email engjata, wiih 
whe<^s of ■mftll diiuii«t«r, nnd not more than two toD> on each 
wheel, can Iw micd on tliem, a cleaa of enginee ad^tted (O tht 
utaken of llie (lortable liinn engine*. 



o 



o 




Txa. 1ft. 

So &r aa regarda the cnorertion of the ordiBar; doable T nul 
to •tracta and roade; but then iaaoolborrmil alaowuUadaplitdto 
the ^^e purpoee, and poicaainii grealer lateral aad vertiaal 
Btreii;^ for thii purpciw — Lbe bndgo nil, f1^ 3. The fortn ef 
the briJjM i«il i* a huUow, and it ie appuad aa ahown at fig. 3 

ru raUwaya. Fur atreot aud road purpoaee it ia tqroaed, with 
groovea above, reaUng on the bottom aad the aide Aaa)^ na 
■hown nt %. 11. At the lointa^ the conneotioniamadebjaflliaB- ] 
nel-fomied iron cMting. beaiing beunath the ftangea and bollad I 
through the orowa of the rail. A tie-bar panting horixontaUy 
ihraugk the easting ccaairta iha two oppoaitc twli together. 





fte-iL 

He whwlH to run on thia kind of rail wQl require lUnjiaa in 
the eentrv of the hitndlh of tlio ^rr*s es ahown. But It it not 
nnilal>i7 io buTo fliuisea eicopt oa one lide of the carringe: tb* 
O|qioaile silc lany be f£un tvrea, A ipritig icraper *nll k(<ep the 
graovea dean, or a bo/ can M employed. All the other amuiga- 
mente will be the aama aa balbt* oaaeribed with (lie dooUe T 
rail. Tlieae rail* are 6 iodtaa wide each, and about 34 deep; 
thereforo the bearing anrikee of 19 inchc* ^loujd he o^tdntentto 
aiz loiiR, or tlirue tons per wbeeL 

This s}-alt!m of raila through the atreeta afford* a IkeiGty tat 
carrying ou the imlhc, when a c c aw ie mquiredlo the water-pipe^ 
dtsina, or eowara, which ie not the oiae with tlie ofdinarrpaviBg, 
aa ovMt people know to their very gn«t vexation. wKh the 
ntlli, if then be need to eioavate below them, the opemtion woald 
be to ojien uji horiaontal trenchaa tranavmely at three lo Awr 
feet npikrt, iu which to lay deopere for the ralla to rent on, nadi 
in tb4 inniii mo-Io that in uacd to luaptod the watcr-pipa*. Oa dw 
aleepera are laid plank* for the bonaa, and thua tne MccavaUoo 
oao go on below without nny iuleenptlon. 

Oirlinary wheela oould not run on theae briilge rallt^ but B^t 
cnKiuM cixild, in suborbati diatrieta, or on railway bnMMa, 

It ia ohvioua that convenient carriaRc*. ■iniiliu' in eonMmctlm 
tonHnj carria^ea, could be ueed on uiern lin«,but witbotrltha 
nir— iljr for their great dead weight. Framea uid wheela migtat 
all be of the lightest cuuetmotlMi, aa there 1*bo toa^todinaleott- 
ouieion to apprehcad. 

Thia paper relataa to the atreeta and aabttrha of Loodoo hi far- 
tjeular, nut the roenlt would beextcnaica to oomBuinkMol 
isllwaya and turnpike roada. 



J 



THE CIVrL EN0tSl5ER AND ARCmTECT'S JOURNAL. 



93 



wtms or TRz movth. 

At k nent lUHiag at tbo IdcUtatioa of Civil BogiiMtnL 
Scbeobt^ CweiiUtiw "—*■'"■ wai «xhibit43, tad 
•KpbiiMd bj Mr. B*Mmp ukd >£r. QnntL 71i«n 
MO iltawii ■ portion ot m table of logwitltBa, whicb 
had bMB eeoiMMil, odcoUlAd, unl printed entlrelj h^ iu kid, 
and witboat lbs «m nf tfpm. It «m MtJnMed ttut tfaeat oob- 
pansd opMsliviw wold ba uooMpUdiad IntMttbaabatf tfaa tine 
vUdi a oonpontDr wiwM take to art tlio npMi and at the tune 
tin* all liabtlity of arror ««■ avoiiled. Tba mfhint bad bMit 
wtamMy ^wehaaed br Ur. J. R HMbbon«. of Albaar, U.&, far 
prw aiiUlua to (ba Dodla^ Otmtmiorj, 0,3. Anerioa 

At tbo HoBtUj Ballot at th« Imttitiitioa of Ctnl BngioMn, 
(ba fellowtBff caadldaUa war* baUoted for uuJ dolr elected :— 
Haam. T. T Cbaop^ J. r. PurUnk. H. E. FmeaMa, R W. 
Qisbaai, W. WMllen*, ud T. A. Ymtow. aa nemben: and 
OalMd Oordoa, K.K, Major Jervott, B^Captala CnUlagwood, 
H^ and Uemn. W. Binaf, J. Bronton, K. Bvm^ W. B. Onilt- 
hard, O, Dtmo, L Entuiik, J. En)ttand, itm., H. C Porde, C H. 
Orut, W. B. Uall. C. F.. n«'mk«, O. KaUht, J. N«wton, O. 
BobcrtaoB, a W. IliiMon. G. T. Selby, and J. WItlicn, aa A*- 



Tb* ■«« Art'T^MMrM Pakeaat UandMator, tbe ah«U of wbkb 
haa enlj jaat ban oonpletnl, wm tbrowo o^ni fnr prooimado a 
fcw dan «w% prariona to reoeivinf tbe utwiud Sttliiga aod 
deeotmlwaa. 

Bmdei Ibe nanal annual prina olSarvd \>j th« AfnAfnj of 
flriMBei at Pari* for nentolra on variona adantitle iiiliinrtH, aa 
•UmonlilHrr priM of aic tboDaml Awaai is oSEred thia .mr far 
■n tmaj on the Application of Sl^am t<> [h« Nkvv, Tbe etaajn 
saat ba iant to tbo tiuljtata mt or M-m th< Is't of Novtmlwr 
aaaL 

EaglUi eulllTaton of mImcc have bMB faviraml randidatoi of 
lata Mr tbo bonoim oaiiferr«l bj tha Fn<noli Aoadonj of Seienoea. 
At the BOiiaa] meeting uf that body, held nwaatly, U. OtoSroy 
Bl. Hilaiie prMidiuA a priu for jLMronanijr wu tntowtd on Mr. 
Popon, of Osfonl, for ua dueuvery of th« tilAnrt Lna. One of 
tbe HoDibvoti prixM (or diaMTwiea Is medieine and mui[my waa 
l^ruiic'l Ut Mr. Sliupaoa for hla nooeaafdl nae of cfatorofonn in 
■msical opanttioita aad Meoueheneoti. The Cuvier ftiar mm 
weondad to Piufaaor Otreo, fnr havine, t>j- hi* laboara dnrluK 
twwity jeara, «> (craatljenlariied the field of ojiiDiiaratireiUMtomj 
and of paliMiDioi^Qr. 

Mr. M'DoiraU baaKOMredKooMBUMOii toeiaoulothaTuner 
moaamcet for St. n^nJ'a. Th« pUBterka I000t,b7will, briLa 
menorUl; and tbe eoupctition mr Ita axeeution wm eonhned tu 
Bojal A.faitamliit»na. 

Tba Emperorof Japan intenda to bava the miao* of bi* nalm 
worked ia a K«entlfia war, and to Ibat aod bu nqneated the 
^^Duib govOTBBiaBt In India to lend Urn a troatworthv Enrapon 
^^^^per Id enoMqnrace of tht* re^nn^ H«rr Otto Tliigunio, a 
^H^F)f tba Acadamy of DeUl, bw act oat for Jeddo. 
^^Ur. Dnvb, who liaa bean for the lait two iBonthi Mcaratlnc 
Vunong the nUu oT Okrthaoe, under tbo niM|H'c** of the BritlaE 
fmntncotand MaMttm, hna discorBml tbe rsnuuo* of ao an- 
3aBt temple, whicb u b«lieml to )i« that of DIdo. Afl«r cutting 
raofb two layvra of flooring, wliich rauNt have been laid down 
b^[tbened iuternla, be came on a sioet tpleudid nleoe ct mo- 
■any aqakra yard* ia aren, and in which were delineaUit two 
laada, •acli tbn« foet bi^tt, *uppoeed to be tboee of bido and 
^aaot beaidee wnnl graoMtit titlm SgiUM, and a numbrr of 
elegant davleea and omam«Uei aijoaJ, It la allwed, to the 
iantil\tl ipaetoMO* of Ui« art JK bniiaght to iTghL Mr. 
Davia baa taken anrnr pnoantion to guard tbe moaaie from tlie 
liidneiiw of the weatber Uiimppaaod that the Britiah govMn- 
■MOt will deejialf h a veisci to cravoj it to Biglaitd, aa well aa 
olber objecta <:^ iutervit which bf hiui discoveracT 

Hm CoiBBiiMiomera undtr the LUndudaa Local IroprovoBitiit 
Act have eatered into aoontiact with Mr. Ksight, of Uauebeatcr, 
bt the dtalaiM of tbe town. Tbe plana aBdipecificaUutu have 
beea proparad or Hr. T. U. Smith, of London, UE. Ther have 
kata cmnBaaoM, aod an to b* ooiupl*icd by Augiul ooxt. 

iir. Jtmpk TWdtar, of the firm of Iloekiiii and Tucker, of 
Bcietol, baa Inraatod a ndnj poop for aliiia, which i* adaptaa to 
bMb onllnary and aUam vcwelit In onx of foondering or fir^ 
tta poop b oapaUe of beioK iniiiMdialoly dciaobed and ounvtrted 
Imo a taft, aad proviaion ia uudv fur iteerfag IL 



Aa Aaetleaatra' and Uad Agonti^ SafaacriptkiB-roam and 
Ezchaiwe ha* b*aa oMaMiabod in Prinoee atreet, opporita tb* 
Beak or Ed^ukL Tbe nilea and regoUiUoa* i^iMd to fla tba 
aonnal labMriptiaaa ftom Janaarr lo Jaaaary, at 3(. 3a. for la- 
dividuaU, and 4L 4a for finaa, pa}-able in advance. Mr. C. Q. 
Roberta i* th* aecreiary. OtM of ili« cbiaf obieeta of tbii new aa> 
aooiMiaa la to eapply a porfeot lyatMn of ngutfativn, to cnaUo 
tb* mMsbera mof« readily to find pnrohaaan for what tbey laay 
ban lo atU and obtafai iaTammut» for tboee wi*liiii)[ to buy. 
Anotber o1|^ct ii the TaUng of tbo position aol public iiAndiog 
of tbe prof*«*lefL TtebriniliigorbiiyM-aadMiliitrVuOMoentnd 
point (■ itaelf an iiaportaat Mijeot for lb* hdliMf oa of bnalnaaa 

Tbe CoriuntloB of Olauow bave purchased ground oQ (ba 
•ootb of tb* rivw for aa aitlitiutial park, ai the aum of 30,0001. 

Tb* OovanuDMit have doddod on tbo orectioB of a laige priaan 
at Norfolk lalaad, for the roception of oantiata aadtranteao* of 
tnnaportitioa. 

Hi* wovka of tbe Plyrnoutb Oraat Weatom Dock* having been 
nSeieatly eomploiod, tbe Krew atoanubip ifOa entared lb* baain 
OBtb* lltb nit., aadwa* placed in tbe gravlngiodt. Tbebaalii, 
or laaor ioA, wbiefa i« now for tbe Ant. tlaia availaU* for laac- 
outila porpeaae, boa aa area of 1 1 ncrva, wUh a daptb of ft2 foal, 
and ia eatarad by imn jpiloi 60 foot wide ia iba olear. Th* 
wharf* wblcb aiDTonnd it an moH uwnoivty and mltabla itor** 
are la oonia* of araotlan. laaU* tba baiia 1* th* paviag dock, 
3TS feet \a^b and S6 whl*^ and capable of affording amnio aoeoin- 
modalion to vweL aa laif* or lugtr than th* ctounahip if iaw- 
I«|M. Tb* ouUr harlwnr being protected by Mill Bay-pier and 
by tbe otber work* of the eomiaay, tli* BiSa wbb enaUu witb 
great fooUty lo aUaia tbrourii tbe entnac* aad Into fa*r birth 
aloQgaido the bann wharf wuboat rainiring a warp to dheok bcr. 
8be M la feel ioag, rvitcca 448 torn, aadcairiea SOO poaa 

The Bradford bnuicb of tb* Qreat WMtem lailwqr from tba 
mwa line at Bath to tbn Wilt^ Somar***. and W«yKioath railway 
at TnwbrMgB, haa lort bwn opeo*d for paaaenger traffic Tha 
n«w line la aboat •Igbl milea ia lengtb, and. ahbongh abort, it U 
of conaidanble imponaac* by mttlncofT an aouto angk, and 
fcminir with the wUta, Somanrt, and Weynaoatb brancb. neartr 
a direct liuo of railway oo tbe br«ad puga from Both and BrialU 
to Saliabury, Southamploa, aod Weynoatb. 

On the aatbontr of &Ir. N»iU, th* Oound-OiitMal for Hen- 
dnra*, it i* Mated that the worlu of th* PimMnbneo tailwny ai« 
proKTseaiiig favourably amlor the laperinteDdcnoB of Mr. J. 
Bayliat, cTE- tbe r«preeentative in Biwdl of 51r. PurocM, the 
eontrwitor; that Mr. Peanlatoa, lb* eoiapany'* cblef enginear. 
report* rooet enooon^tuly aa to tbo aolfdtly of tb* aiaouoon of 
the wurlu; and tbat they wiU b* eompteted before tb* ttok* 
ori^nnlly •Muiemplatad ; and, from tb* intereet displayed ^ tli* 
pooolo of tli<> oimatry in tbe underlaking; that tb* tnffic ■■ 
likely to con«id9ntl>!y exoeed tb* proqieeUve ntbuta 

Tbe pivjooced railway from the Meditermneaa lo th* Enphral** 
will oommence oa tbe ooaat of Syria. The plaee ob oaeo for tki* 
bead ot the lin* u nrar a dmp ^ad walMwltorod biy, about two 
ndlaa from th* l«ft bank of the Oroat«a A port mU be coa- 
atraeted at thii ipol, whiah appoiu* to bnva bean dammed by 
DAtura for auob an vndettaking. On qnittbiK tb* eoaat tbe road 
willbedIrect*dtowardBK!U(*,aeomiHroial town in Syria, unm- 
berinx about 1 1,000 inhaUtaata. FMm KIIU* th* laQaay will 
be oobtinued to Antioeh oa tb* Ofont**^ and ftmca Aatiocb to 
Aleppo, the chief town of tbe pubAlik of that nam*. Akppo ta 
tho moat Important town in all Syria to raped to ooaunenai 
The inhabitant* addreaied a peUliuu to tbe Sultan, praying that 
th* ndlway might pa« n*ar tbeir town, and Uictr reqneM waa 
graolad. After paaung Al*i>pa t^n rond will mn neariy paralla) 
with (be Eapbralet to a pbtce called tha Cb«tle of Ja' Bar, ■tnata 
below UabytDB, between HUla and Semaoun* oa the BupbmUA 
Th«ro will tcnaiaal* tb* tnt •eotion of th* gnat irunL Tb* 
line will aftorwarda b* dliactod from Ja* Ber to BuMorab. It 
will enter on iho Pernaa t*rritoi7 by turning tb* t*ft bank of 
tbe Peraian Oulf oa for aa SUna : will eroaa (bo Baloooluatan, 
and RAoh British India by Hyderabad in the Deomo. Such ia 
tba plan of tha railway, wlklcb will bring pamangen from (bu 
ooaat of Svria to tha heart of India vitliout quitting th* line— a 
diftancc of •1000 milo*. 

Capiala OalUo, &£., baa preecntcd to Uw Boaid of Trade a 
valuable raportoa tbe BaUwaraof tbe UaltAdState*, with thdr 
Mogtapbind poouliaritiaa, inriili iif iininliiiiitinii. iMiiauwiiiiil, in 
Wc ahall give some eitracta uext month. 



,M 



THE CIVIL ENGLVEER AND ABCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



WKPETITIONB. 



rksiiDtiita^UHlKMIiiulHUKladMCiittiiiUDvutwdHiibcm^iClhtuvbarUI 
VHBdibrUuEUri^WtiNMwi i*u ciu)>aU loin f Dd Mbv taUdlofik Doom. 
ImU wil dnilucc at lbs lud btuif pnrtiiUd Ci '. Th* tMai of tbi {Qua tdoew 
biaawnnilihiwwki. nwalam.. IDl, u<J W, lUr Itii atcaBil ud IbMbul 

SL bifcruulniiaBftehaarili, Jobs Blil. Tii«»<Jjcb. ObIWmU, WqwIK. 
■ M la xui IB ly (be IMb luL 
lUuuil IrtiBktM an luiiud (gr ite EmUuo uf Bittu iiiii W ut liniuai in ihiiFiiII- 
■mw, Dvbf. PuiIcoUn DUf b< Kuivn im tpplkuluu to Hi- Fiut, Cbui»*ilalu, 
ViVB^adl, JMbgr. emBlam*U.totaH^ft|rtmi|<tn,^Bllll>LllUtt»mlKaibml. 
nui u biMUlo Ur. I'rwi b;Uu Kill mil. 
'Dio IWiMnuaii of <:uillfl, xiloc h tbt Barttl Hur<l. ure diiinilKt noinlll| 
DbUih, ApMllkMoii. ud EalEuiai tit tmittittad IHvaimU Knt «i UhI u 
MiMr, uutiudUli Citgnaiiit roo Clavt\t.ljiin, aad wciiyUaa'nniB^uid 
IM lAJtDCwtUiB lud w* lUrulUmaMi witb nvb ul pMbouit ud i»ikln( 
«i«t7 p»r( upact. Til* Koanl wiu hm Uml Hii»wlT«i (a tafiat At p—m» irtkuH 
dM|n »r ta u|irait4: bat lu mm b* tbgiiM DM bt •mpIg^H. Uw Bnni *iU pu 
.laB«fe*MBOlTMnrTi>aiBiiufnrliiid«]faL A pUa of tb* land, wiblMvlaMid 
•wMin. Bigr br oMnlDid « iiftn»<MI(ia u iba Town dick. DaMina M ba laa U 
Mr. ft r. Slobud^ Tan-tfixk. tianUO, br Uw Itib UH. 

t OKDDiHS«Mn tf B« ItajMif -( Work* tat PgUti BolUiaa IdtU* anbltada i4 
tU muirira U (Brauta Uuhb vUb dsUiu !« Oinm Fur ibe itatutj ol Mai* (br 
Pa««B AflbM. (Dt ib> latnwtj ot Buia bu Wu, »<] IW laj^Of •« tba nmmA 
'balnn Uw thum iBd Bl. iuH'a-uirb, KljNinlim limt ilaonB » t r—t. Tbt 
dimvjnn to ba made w » inlt of 10 Utt U Uia IrnJi. tiaMnl ipmilallMU «( 
t»« natwtkla pnpaMd la br lUEd Id ibe buUdUc* avt vtamimtt aaeb dnripi. A 
. Wack-pUa ibaalu bus Uw alia inx b> m tfpnfrU,»l Ibal iba im buitdiiifi pr» 

Kl to baancuJ BUf torm pan>l( ( W|*aiid ooiaprtbault* Kbamt tat SOOMB' 
Of ibipnortnal ;uMla vAch. u>I Icu tbo ImpraniUDni nttbr Icadiuit ihonub- 
tint. lucliuuaK Wouiliuiar-brtilxi. •bnber u nnrdi lu praaioi « anjr iMar «M. 
'ftone imuluiai Ibr Iba bat dHl|<i> lor Urn WaiUOlMtrf n«l., IM.. IDOf., «nl„ 
low., inM., But IML Sam iniDliiiui fn tbt bH> dulcii* (w ttr r^HTiia Onn. 
' « bgol., IMI.. MOI. KHM., luui:. luuf . >»d luul. Mr IbB Mai d..l|U Ki> * Madi 

e. iftiaa pHaluuiiiidoul,, luN. lUul. UAn el iba (rvoDd. ud lUut panlen- 
*UI ba Lnuilfil go Bunltnluui >u Mr. AUnd Aiuuii. OlSat ol Wwbi. WUm- 
' " OMaoa lateatBI bib/ lilt tOihuflUnti. 

PiMfc >ad BRIiulaa mn mjiilnd in Tolupni iba Dunn CVigot; tMuaUn 

Jus. nmoD. Tbaplau is iiroildi uimual aiKuiniiHdatUiu bir lui palkida 
Uq4t Btl l w l l a tt. vltb idtloa*. Aho p*aiuB;>, v^mli-bndgd*, uid b olu^HiL 
Ivnatumi, «M. Bad -jiU r>nicalan bib; br lull of 111, Eibu^ O101117 Eaiti^ur, 
Wiaihonin riBua la ba B0BL lu It Iba Urn loti, 

Tbr UaruJ KibuI ftir lb* TuUh ol W. Uar;. Wwvkk. wUb la ncMn ptaaa and 
WMIIniiB lu arMUBi Tku iJbai^ ud b Lod^* *i|>ob Um BarUI Utwud. Vmi- 
IkSbfa may be bun oe anIloBiliiB to Ui, lluaua Xtctu, dark i« ibo Baanl, u 

' ' whan riaoa w* u M diUrand br Ibi lln luL Itu pnaUBn li oaacad. 

Badfuan biTtta4 RaaXn Hnbaal.^ tuUlaUoa M Xsrtb lUrialda. la Ind^a • 
libnij « lacom-RBiB, nadlaa-nnm, duarwn, iwai (or Ibi naldauoi of Iba 
llbivlBR. k'. Trraiara. Kl, lubrDuiliia lUT ba abulued ol Mr. T. KeU'kk. 
JMnat* MmfDr. Xmb SblcM*. Dwliu i<i to msi n br U>a tind Iul 

llMOauaUMa tx mlHilldlnt Ibahrtali Cbimb uf BnUDcoU. ICiiliUKbaintbln. btk 
dalHuodwaiTiuc i'lauand Ifuinain-- H'lij inr^noBUoB inil lio^na w utUn 
M(v(nJBnllx1iiDrHiiii|-il, rtait Iht ftladA Bl lb< dliuoi^ uF Ibr CuhkjnJIIfV. in ApfiUfB- 
UUh Kn. w. H Ciuirall. HnLiuuW. PluH bl bn ilnllnind lif lb> tUb inil 



ABflB 

.ud t 



. _ I an laim<4 (ma biiWu •>( aU oMioulai Iw a Muunamui 10 lu >nU>d in At, 
RboT* CMbadlal, W Uu owoiif; \3l Ibi Uu Dukr at Walibuuo. Tbr «aa. iruii all 
mmatm,aMUm»^W.aOlil. rntBlnnK at inoi, tWM,. WOf. tDW.. (Bd drt ul 
Iwl A (naBd'iiUB << th> aaibadiBl. and Ibt alu of ibt jmiuHd BKuomm. A<., 

<mUbabnnfdfd.ONa(ipUcUiaulii alt. AUnd AatOo. onoe at Wotta. WblbiLili. 
l^iaUfrt Inn Bru^u raauiox m iba UulBad Kincdoio b> Jub* ibl. ItHT, ln>B) BitUu 

'^ nudiBfahraad WibaltlbodbattdHninalh. 

iiadSBUIoOB. Bad Brtlnabai Bra lavlud bir aiU^H aiiliol br tcrtnllBnl 
iBTav* Is BoBflMk^Tif. rrvialufB^ 7't ?', C>' Iba ImL ^kr uT ftilra^iia irllb 

^ 4 btd-lfHiiw taab, aud bl- ti, (nr Ibt Of«t aUU fiH b Mir «f wltafoa with l«o 
bnl'rooiBt aaA. pBtilnlBn aur ba faalof ilii HogsrarrBKnUrtn clibaOUtd, 



'^. 



' unobanu.add Ibidiutar LBWonn riuadtooaii. iballaf.J. A. Cola^al itbapcaa 

kiwuituuiii>, uav lluUaiur. tua IWi. u Wv*. wiaabui, aaartibBTiL Mid Mr. Vf. 
VfiarkK CRgkwna, Flain to br icui ia b; iba Uii UwL 

aDIrartuMof tb^ Diiudalli Xicbuifa anil Hvbat OiBfiaa/an pniMnd bi nalT9 
■naoaaod KMbauaa hr ib> lUKiisa at lictua^ SfVangs. AMaggbl; IhiaiB. and 
Oaaanl lUruti f<ji ib^ Bwrorad pl|Micil aiKbilu/ ml el" a prattlon ol M,, 
Mid lilt (ba aai aiipnna of Ul. riuu M ba aabaiEUd bbm Iba lad of Aprtl. 
FurUiar )ianl«ila» aia ba fleiiD apon »[i|iU(auiii ijtba llaoarBrr ^umlBnaa, mar 
loHall aadJattaaAtlMiUB. 
tViUuiBnuniBlbiraaiaiariu coaaUa nT ibs Uia LoMFlnabat, biba plaiMd In iba 
Uiill ul Ul* P«r CniiK DiDliu, InC'itTniiha) at CUaBa Id. OlsiUa. W, 
>t>iniui'>|iiu«tiiiiib.«r JbibrnJ-itiiAHi. t, UaiiKiNb^HTti. Dgbtla. flaaraiailat. 
[.AhVw bir B tbopcb la b> amud al Bama Bi* iDtlMl buuiari'blltcWvlall nMiUrlia 
> — B»> of Ua "tianullj UBOab ol tta tilt ol B 'i m. ' lai Htt iiui lu su:<ad 
ilMI. Taa am (uUa ta M, ; ba[audala.(<iU aiid •ilrii. an bIu giranil. 
^■IMmaotltf. tnUluBlUll.*nbllael, Laadn. hwa b««i actaaMd loriba Ualbodlal 
■iriwCCu«aaaaBFal,tabtaneladlBibai<(t)r. Tb* aailiuiad tuai to MOW. 
• Dadpu <l Ur- IdaHkua nooipaaa, MfUBaM. o( Xanaall* and SundtrtaBd. ban 
■■• ailnM l<r Ui' ignilarUad ttnialaiT CommltMa Iw li)in( 101 iDi (rimad and 
< (vatlloi Uie <bB|>>l< auil ladfi* 
iTa«o hall i^guiuBi. Kufbj'i b*»a(kOdiba DHdjuor Ur. Uumr. anbllMI, 
tor Ibi JfHTuantidlMbamnadl^flH. nie txlBaMd oul la UDOI, 
nt Triui~> it Uia Wb*a flnna IblaM. Xnmnl. Ian anriad Iba flnl rnMom 
■4 ui> liiiin'aa, lu U«~n )l,Hciii>iid I'blaaw, ul I. I'maa tta. Mlwiid; ihc&Hjuad 
14 luu Uuiuua hi )li, J. II lluu". ul Maiditiuu: Blul tlia TUid PfwilaiD of Ul 
Uuuirw u HaHi> Uiu aod lliiUiuluia, «l DauA-bui, Suud, Eh iba ban dadfM 
ba la; l>( KM ibla aHMa 

fDmnnlaa bs iba Uacniirlil Cbnrsb al CoMiaalliiapU tat* irlaaM TWiMn 
Mi^iii HI (f Iba luiX'*'>*"biBni4d, aapBiimlBi obtlua Em dlatlosUso. aid baaa 
ttaanlBaad Ukbi : 

maawiL— ■••. W. Buc«Ds lad. O. K. dinal^ M, 0. B. Badlaf . 
/>W«H AttM< raman an did/jr nKw rrU(.— W, MUBt. 

KlUa. a. Tniaatl, WalibMiBih fladlatd. and Ouldla. 

Mmtkmt t <i^£>wuill|r..— 4. Ball, r (naiba iVialLgia:, HnttU 



bBi£i3d. 



rrkkaid ami SrdUuu. 



nv PABuraii. 

noriSUNAL VCOTKTIOKH or.ANTIEII ITXDKK THE PATtXT 
AKSA'DHXyr ACT. 

nn*4 .V.waita' *. 
WbL K K.CbdaLaatiniUiiUittiiinrt. Farta-Iiii[>i«i«naala la A* 




»iii>l Miamtar U, 
KU. T. IDadlb DladAam-lBimnMBltlalba aaBobtUnitMEiUthMc* 

/loM Wwaaabir tl. 
ni«. C tL J. W. IL Uebnaan. raftsan. Uaddundlald ImijimwIi la lb* 
ptirUaiUnu lit ■B»ar, Bad la tba niiaraUm id »aiart»la ont^orad Ihafita. ffibB- 
munirallanl 

natM nbHnb" 91. 
tint. r. y-Clvib. Btnala<hao— lainvmiiutia ia uotaltlc laadic lar badUlagi^aad 
la appandnvoi (o rw& 

CUMf r»nrfii6<r t>. 
UK, T. PeakK AMkj trm Bill. IMrb;— ImiinnvBiniU la Um ■aaafctlan al 
obanUla and cabor pllni ^brlta 

finlnl OMMbrr 11, 

KM. J Cbaiinn. Wrabibaiii— Ad aipaadUf <anp>atallB( aUda fcr t«alalaia|pt 

aad atbir ItfM alaa appUeablc fet aUisr amilai inrpaaaa 

/laMl ff a m tarll, 

mt. a. H. P Bain. Vlmtol Oirtiait-H. SallUaaib, Klikniv-Aa ainal iftaiM 

or BppflJaiiu b>r aartjEBElBg iba air 

fbUal nrerm/itr l». 
Ull J. Mafdaah, Pmdaa— Aa Impmrrd afcipfimui paup. appUcabk la Mbat (at- 
naaa ^i"^ 

/MH Owa«l*»10, 
aOlt H. llaarbaoaa, DanUo, Ibacbaalar— liuprmaoianta In aaU^aclU^ il^ali At 

ndaap 

Utl A. B«>, J VdlntliiD.A Uamj. aulJ^- Uw, IWanidra, KlaiwdlMaUra, 
inpTovoinr-ni4 In cljn itunA^ilitn nf 1x4! gu, tbn rBadam If aoA pvUytaf |aacH« 
Mac BiiptlDtlitoalinaraaBmBBiiianrnir nuiDattaiiiilaa pafraiB 
/JUtNl .AuKirf 9. 
1>. J, WUaio.3i. Balaa'i, [annaaiBr ^lunmniaiawla la Iba HiBBiiflwtara at aUal 

OamI A wMQi I- 

U. J.flundman, A. Ufn, aad L. OuudiaaB, Rltt Da'M-ljuia. ttadaall-^avnao- 

l^iUa IbUlb uuiidfailiuafl^aBpaarcaiiartfifaliir Ibabi^d 

^altf-f Jtrnvutrf A. 

«1, J, lluitiaa tnd J. V. Binis Fhlaiml, Suir<ilk^Iisiiiurad laadldtal Blttoni^ 

adBpu-l Iir flulDC dlasaan «f (aula 

IHIM Jaimirr 10. 

n. J. P. furter, Firk4Lreai, WaMBlBoUr— ImpnjvgiBanU la lb* awaakcan af 

btwkaaad oDmr jnlija* vftlBi' bdJ liildbianli. <jt >>[lta; lUaouuilal 

rtiU.1 .r.ii-UiirT 11 

dl. O.r. Wlliun, Balmiiat. Viuthali— liDpnivimaiu iD iiaaUaf Bariaa aad mib 

Hbr p«in>lpikiD, and ibalr ihuUui^u 
IDO. J. II. lEi'sri], Sti'lllaliL Bid >' lltrrirr. lUfaarkH— tuponamu la ttr aaa*- 
brlan' <>f alaan buiisn 

lot (>. Eiiibiiliii>Bad U. IT1II111 n lib 111 tiiii I Ill III Bijiimm In jaaiaai 

tut ■M<^ Si "alar Ihm mrrm iripaa aad uiaiiviit 
;ugrl J.infHHy II, 
101 1. Brnrar, ]jT4rp*il— tiaii(w<n.-hia bi af B|ipU«bl«Bij Iba bnia af mt^bMI 



101. D. ('liWbBin. Bxtidtla -ImpcvrioaDU ID appanliu appltmbta Is . 

fltiier bikLlcr* 
Its R. C. dulLiiii, lUuOiiuiuiDn. anmr— An ap{knitiuliir||alB<alBiaitolkalB(aaM 

ot dirvlUiiii.liaiiw Ib eav« ill bajxlvj 
Ul. ). Htiihain..UbDn Itovl. — -„ j— »i. ■-■i-| ■ ■- ■'-Tn' 

(bAun uTiDBta or laiirls uad tat ptiKiit 

tr.itad Jtmmirf It. 
11*. Sir J. Uurrar, Dubllu— Aballoi ibr laiilb and Usaaal^ lbs fctOl^a niW 

QBaa ul Uiivld maBDraa^ «a*an. ga^ vf uther lli4iten,Buclfiirinaaaaaf fabiaf arpa^ 

mtneli Bilxuina and oihn tallda or Balda w eumuitni bolcu* ar dIaiMaaa 
. BadiUa. Cuiiif.ri^B. WaaliiilB>lf r— iDiproaaowjila In tDtlllaf uiaa Mdia 
KMuilDEasduUaixiiit [irii.liicu ibxiifrw. ii.'uiaaiaDloaUun) 
in. W. K Ifawun, CiukQ.:!^; Uu^.— An Uuprvod elaan aoiftu*- lA oomniufilj 
lis. 4'. JL tUfttbos. CbBDraij.laiit-AuliupinrBDfBI lu loUgTa naida^ad Ite . 

darUc, laaMllat andaUwr Bi ut aa m ofanalMPBartaf M iai. ,A «aiaaideau« 
III>. n. A. Blll£iirtU. NcV'alMel, UoUad fiataa oC Amitka-IiBpa««aHau la 
braauh-biadlBa tr^^tat 

i^JIAl Jfltti^rit 11. 

W. A. C. BabbB. Cb<a|»ldi>— Anlu>(iiiiTi.Mcuiisluduaiid lalcbaa 

121. D. II. Fi'wtitt^ >"'« Orlrvii., t^iulHBUa— Aii iDpiuvanuDql la alaaatbollBa 

III <i r.irl(p> anil M*. tlBJtiii, HuobaaUt— tmliromDalila U uacftlDofJlf 

AtrAQIm;. Aiiil iiTLU'lJif i.<iCli>ii 
Ul. J, IIikIuiid, bUijkjUHi^r-'liuiiivtaninu In *atva mudcal iaamasaato 
Ut. ■'. V. WIllll^l^ l.»nnaiil~lipp»THDinu Ul luman (TMaa aiid tprban 

110, T, If. IKiklb'V. I1rikiiil'>, Mlddlrwl— liu|iiuViTiaDala la Iba |m|iarBUi« ar 
iMMn f vHaiii U-niiiMa ar Ui|iiun ul iba iiaion and dianiiar ut ' 
alnaa, aad In Iba noaaa of ublalalac Iba aBinn. 

in. K WaUU'ul. HuauniidMd CHttOf. Dlni.iu|[bBni~tln|iTvaniaiitt In aucbltaf 

DiBnnlkcliulup bulla, 'pibta. aad lltolB 
lit. aV !Inua, ck(iioirj-1aar.-lBtntiiiuBlla Blaan-aagiMii- lOobb 
in, J. Homan, lIUk-aitMi, Cbaapilda— loipratiid laaiiblBaiT '"• liildU| 

tvafilk> 
10. 9. IVvl>>n. Mjuohoaut— taipn>vMimuuigiialla(aBdlBanIa<lii|iiatn 
lAOb VL X- Unlr, Bad J, ILaU^LaEu. i«l«.tfv»— liopruraowQIa bi ai^vldiBi at al 

latUla 
IIL K AdamaiD. lad B. Uidiaiid. Prbiuu— InprarmgEla la lovoa tbr v«nl^ 

/filial Aiaorttji ITh 
tip. r. A. T, rioJiin^DUon, l*rBMa-Aalin[gvTgdpn(iailMaBi](nlU|H«4^aU- 

UU1 Iha avUlaai^ at bcuIb fuiglfp Ifi tba bark 

111. C r VnuiMt. Kau-iiraat, Mnsd— A aa* banish lUgsnEbMaUlw •«• K. 
ilBj^ad, rrH>iii|i^ tiaaoaj 

IIS, <.' ". Va-rrM. Hui-itnal, Rlraad— Onarla) bU dvolMUa tl fiala aiOl a 

taiUloulBLuKia Mnannntand ibtappBfaiwMaidgivd tx Vtt turn lUaaaib- 

caimn lioDi L M.P. •!, d'IUlan,0>laut. Fraaaai 
II). J. |hbi>l»/o Buil tl. Iturvi. llalifai'-iEuprvvautfiiia la lomaa li« warfaw 
Itt, F. WolLrr VTurbiEi^a. laBiiuwi~-liiip(araDiBai> la apiAnMa iiai|tii|rt 1* 

dlttlUiD( aad la lb« niauaUkclBiv td inucfar 
lU. A. I. Aslraji, Bat da nScUitdM. PtaU-luipniniugntaiii tlig vldu af aaOaM 

andlaiBpa 
M«. J.CBAaaiid W. canha. Shmabair— A aawar IStniad nWatf «MMik 1^ 

ba aaad at a (ta*a»iWat, mat-abatC •ratedlar, ic i^qi 



^^l^_ 




THE CIVIL ENOn«£EB AND AKCHITECPS JOURNAL. 



95 



i Kh i H ii Its te nIM lk>_«MuMli Owiwr WMlSwlaMW taKan 



ta. K Mhm i^ '. >WH. RmWi. WHUBT-lopr 



■k li mJiliMrj to 



ii^KHBc Mm* l» atitahanl pH^iM* 
U>. W W*rnlbMHhu-I*Tra*MMI>lafhiBM*flMnini<4wUeMn|>i 
U*. J. iMfctlnt W latf»ria««mil>«<MlwiMa<>»i i «ctWMidattn«twlM 

flM*f JbwwvU. 
m. X. rMMw, Fwto-tnpnwmvBM it lb* BUB6c(iir> nf lilh huiillM 
IM. a. Yawir, Buda rMbxnt^B TioHn Fvit-lmpfmiBaikiR iMMtebt*' 

— XHdwIliBbUU THiowolkwalailupurpiwB 

rwJ C.Ttam,Btniti,UoaiMi~lmfimmt»)»ti pnff kaat hr 

1. HIMM, BrokktjB, X<b York. Q. l.-tOpranoMb Id atuu tu dl<M- 

, OnU Q«^<>ft. WialnlHtor-lnpnTMUUi la llMI^ do«b 
lliirk Wa(fcii.gMrl>aA1i7~lnipnm««MittlMtUBSiHian<tf uUdlai 
■J Mj I i I* to ■!•« H ■Ud*v kHdi ud tDK Itokli. ud gtbcr idalUi fiM of 

U>. E dirt. Oiiianm i*™*. WMtalmtw— laiirowiiiMl* la lUcklMiy « ip- 
mMm hr nhUf Mm Ml ■!«• nui tut ika pgrnw of «uiiiila>UaD ud Rp*lr 




IM. r. Urvdi u^ a. BnliT. DrMricr 4iU. Sufforl— Rot « lB(nMd mcUbht 

Ut. W. B. Stm^ GkuevT^u*— [iBpniniBiBU u H>(iia nxMiMi, [Oman*!- 

IM. r C Ctlftn. Wnfl—g IV «■•> appltarttso ofeulata nMuoa In jUffu- 
Mfc <■*» «> ilfcajlii IKHI IM iMIIIi fcfaai mil ngw 

«tt«tolU(4l>Moi(a«radB'lggaiH(luia. [ODaaoottsUesftm H. Im«iU> 

MHil 
IA( V. A. KWiiT, hrU^lQ|irOTMii"iLU ir> narblqvrr ^ !■* «ofkHl bf lidABi or 

ottnr pivtr, Cir da*<l«( ud plauiMiut t»d 
W, t. J ■>■— . f tiii I ■ laftttwiwiii l« yarHrlin tltollm I— 

Ul> R- tlBi*. F*«l illl lilili Ill In lUnvMiBB 

U*. «. It Butn, Dwhf. uJ U. WwUhuw. rwlUaent-WnM -Impnnunu 

hH tj^B ■■■■A^rill VKt of IBOBBiIS 

IM T lUflc, B^te^lmCMdCMf-lull — liBpniMiiDDU ia uuuUo n4Mlli« 



•laUMlk* 



m. J M JiliHH. liooOi'ilM AiU>— Imhmmhbu In ippuaUu fbr ik> i 

- - ■J.T.duHr^NHVsrk.U.H.I 



tiH<f UrHd ■nr*<r*>*H. lOi 

in. J. B- Ji.ftMfc Uw^Vlau-tridi 



uid 



— Inimmunu la appamw Iw Ika pf * ■> ! ■ ■ 

^ta»i*Mlt, lOfwIitlfalWnf, T-OarUtk. New Vurt, IJ.a; 
MUAf Jfn^ry Jl 

•■t MSI r<V. M kt uirfhiribt fwi>«r>IJnnB(iir iiiiuipii« iki. M<r. wd uher 



ttt. J. Mmh* m4 /. Hartmm. jaa., Bualv— Iiipnmamiii )■ mnAlnprr or 
.i ^yM imliiiln lAa prtpuMtHtr hum km Wk<r Bbniu lulaitik tot 



tU. R-OMKtafU^ >■■, JItitmiA NacWk -InprmaaU la ImpWniooC* or 

UiWiM*(W|lH|Ui^iUilikbiir«ghl*Mlnf Und 
IM.KJ.B Udrin.rvU-.UUmnHdnUVsf'krMt 
in. W. C- SMI. WtftUa OIU^H, CuilaimU^liDprunsuiiM la appualu br 

•■panUaatan 
III. K K. AIhUim, LhAm— Japntid if pvuut fur tlii im alia miW fin tl pnctuu 



119. !l Drn,*rliMl~tucai«(MM*latbtp«>Ulu(>.>udli tin^hnat, JIhhukL 

aCMMd >lkw tnnll'n 
111, tL Jk. BnMa*a. fi—t-M^i-lmtni w u In (kt BMHlMlua of lulnaulii( 
aiUffa* 'C«UBCIaLc4liMnl 
Hatttai aaMi6ad-[ii>pivt«m«l* la udlgirr or appuwa Mtploirri la (h* 



IB. fl.OM>r. Aubgr^mABtnnnft'lapnnaaUlBatMn-biilm 
■M. IL Uidl^ dnU Ibdkoniuih-ticwl, WiMui 



J of |l4H fend tb« flrliktf al jviutrj vur 
, I HmK K*«TiC(-parl~rBipruiiuiiinulBapiiaraliuftrnlrl|<niUa(oreoalia(^ 
' m«lti«it Iks Isw^mion li tvru and knai. •klsk lur aUa bt MDvland M 
IwaiUdliMaut 
IM X. T. Staua. Ck4imrT I w 'lapnifd inaaa* sf irauilUilMI iiinniiii br 
(CMuulMlw 
wMfiawL Bpalti 
haU II>i)kBnii(h-iiCH«, WaUUBOfr-Ati liaprvrsl mMhod irf 

'. L. BovH, lllniilnChiA.-Ak l(q|inr«<iBtnl vt Lmprovani*ntfl la Ibt CDaEiijfKtiBr* of 
ntiii^ ■{tta^ ■>!»■ Iiltal^ auu (iir anrai. aod ■(•ban 
>. N. tlduu ud IL VaUu, Pirli -Impfu'aiuanu ia pUnat and gtbor 
_td aemktltulnmmtt 
IM, i. Vtn*. WirBuaik-plaa. X*v Kini-nad.'A n« lumhlDWlnn gd sMali 

»MbU> u daonNn aid ch«IiiI parprM, jitn nT aliiob Uitsiiiuu li appUoakla 
B* ib« laethud «f «intilnla( nmajB uid aUur> of oMaI. 
lit. E JLudMiad W. M iMafc Uinalubim—IinptiinfBaiito li (b> MiDgbcura at 
pkMimfMi, IttMmf latttiti r*— Taiim vnadur papltr nlohl biudaUm*. 
aad Aiw nwd rtfolat ar IrrciW fiamii ti> rntKli*! la mtheaiat, and Ibt 
r bf cUTTtat ml neb rmpnmiuiHiii. pirb of vblcb an applMbhi to 



i« r 



T ITT H cUTTUt ml neb impnmiiiaiiii. pirb id nlch an applUkbki to 

•(kff p ii JM aban tavlaa <h ihipinf U ni|iiin4 
mac. Sw«f«ai. MKkbaln— loipruinainu to ih* ctnairamra oTinticlIha te 

r^odnnxad unan 
Ui J. Itokatj, Dlrialiiflws— tnpnniBaai lu nuiian. lapoMrliai^ udolbxpuU 

af aaAfUii* M>4 pa^wob 
IM. O. F. Ai TWiBia^ l'(ldi7'«lr<iM~lDipi<iT<4uiQU la th* onuirucalUD of utlBdai 



U*. a. II lUiteaa (ud i. Hltknaa, Blbtoa^Aa lupnnmNil Ib lb* CDMted id 
I -I*----— I Mf^ h4 boap rnie oaad ftir mUuic nmitbiUini tuba and uhir 

Ul <t LiiJiti^ Sittaa-lanHa. BaMB-huod Ilnrt KoUinfbain— Imprnirpiunita Is 

iklililM pBBO m%im oaaa. n. or air ■• lunl 
IM, B. Ji l kil m . CblbrMfrljlMT. A(ii-Km. St. PaDina-'luiin.niuuita iB lti« 

■ iipiihiMi fii mill m ifcuiiiii ni 

BL «r. Bcbarti, MlUnU— liqnnaaiil* la ananflgf lOilpi' and eUir itBlUr 
nl, iC <* WIDabanl, H. J<>kB'»BtuBd— As Impmrad nunliiif lawiubviuriDf 4ian 



n. J. 0. Uanbalt. L cwl i— ImpnrrmiaU is invpnilag lUi. bMSO, ObiM (no. ud 

■Av wgHttdf RkXQt wb rt a n aM 
BL P. ■adpvfi, VaMB-cavn, Old Rrnad-ftntt-ImiirateiocnM to (ha EOMtnwtkn 

M alrtu « Mb« aHkai ar ibutirn aad Inoaa 

MMad I'—ijiplI, 
M A. Biiyat— f iBd T. WbnMfp, (ipwbas, UiocbiMct— laiunnnBoiU In alld* 

-hn *-- -* — ni* ' -"^^ r~i — 



tU. O. BadaDB, ll§M*imu iMBiniuiH ta «oUIO| Ihb m1 Mbv MUt vUk 

■mUIi or BMalllB onoota. 
IM. &r Ti ipil. fcummttaad-AaUapntBdaiii^iia. 'CmmuloBHaU 
IM r. r. VaMM. lHK-a(n<a«i>d'-A kjAdaUMi kallon. ["— — i^rl^ 

tnnK A-Ld'AiKBMKBoiUBhMH.VMaoti 
m. C. r. Ta>t«wl. T fa »f m ail. IKaad-AB lapnfcd ^nphuMe Ibaa <■ lla««- 

bai and llj{kiar. .'Oim<B«b)atfM(MB K A. t.d'Ain.»aU«>3lliB, (Mga, PnMI 
KI. O IEik£i4n*,agdH.WlttxaMkates^lapnTaeUakiMD<>Baat<BcM 
«M. P. A. ]t nugta d* PtaWnaanaB, Sootb^Ma^ naataiT— Impmaa^a ii 
lialbabaJMaubaiMadibanWb. (CaaaOBlMllDn) 



drp^nu. and ( 



la ranabamlBT aad 



IN. i. r. PtoiMl. AlUm-plana, Urd»»**<l-lap 

Mbuliniaaa 
tia. n. r. WOma. Bamnil. YanibaH— An lain wraaaJI li lb» aauaftaB— < »Mit- 

Ugba 
III. r. A- laliiWlaC Ibaatla. ll^-lap i nwa n ala Ik <1rtt UtaffBpbJ 
nt. O. r. Wilaia. MaoM. Yauibdt— taprorcBalt In ike uaaidwMn af 

omdlM 

Oaad.KMMf*n. 
Mt; a MiuMr. Banald^ AbMib. InJasd— ImbviMMM to blawUaf or rtiiifna 

laitlwail>n«i«BMMlala>BdBaUdal<and tKBdl^pBnr 
IM. J. rinMl r lliBTrr. MmiNaii lapmnmaililiiiiiiliiknil iltlir aiBBitwi 

In (piuujit «ad diMbUki 

111. It llulBW "—■.— .-t- 

Jt». I' 

Tor .tnUhlob JtrlGA and **^*^*"t a 
ltd, J. BuTi«, J^ltda. Luie4*ur^luit*av*tt(al«lii1lfIlllnC9aftir lllaalnallon 
!«;. I) (1 r Oudui^ <Uln>ld» Brtdci, B>rrt<£. !(. B., 0. Yuoiif, Dquc. Hd 

J, timll. iJtilniiMr Urtdl*- Inrwonanu lb cnaniloinaaB 
MS. T. Ok^ Nn .itnM, Funland tan— InipnHMMnla u nallUMn IH BttkSmaV 

aad lb aiMmlua Pt adoaUu Ibi tama 
U), W.ir!UftM«a.aBaltaTOt— AnloproraDaDllBc 
no K. A. BnODU nM4H«M-A* ' 

•iMliirlat plabU. araba, lad 

•lallu Unelaraa. loBMbai wHb macblBtiT (or aanabtunpt tb« amo, i 

aiada iT iniipanlng l« sbab lauat liAmmiiiraUiiBlns J. Ou^f 
HI. A_ r. Ud*. Uatl.laua-Aubapra'nIaiiU'carUatawM 
in B. A-Biwraao, nM-Mnd—ABloprrrTadButhad 4dai*lta|i 



I (piuuiit MS ooaaubi 
B lluitfw BKukinn-IapnMaaaUbiappannalBbBappaidHMnMUtHa 
1' » ii.i>dJ. Tm himta. VnflafUe. UaaaUr— ImpnnDMM Is Btiatn«r 

r .tnUhlob dnlG^ aadllaiabiBA vaataJUvln 



wl-A* lapnnd pf«t«tlTC bmUbi er bbcU to 

Mb*r nnlabk rroluMiim. plla, Owmb, lad oitw 

iHb macblBtiT (or aanabtunpt tb« amo, aad tb* 



tiqnidi ,i>iBBiiDlestlan tna J. Baaiul 

- ' t.V«1«i.LB|BlalW«bii,anuilif, MMdlii 



UI. J 



-Inpr 



MMtailMllifar 



UI. wTOrul, Ifmliaa^tnit, Blfwan-TOid— InprnniuiMia la Ibc naudMMi*!/ 

baidb* and (un 
lU. 1. L. Kertua. taoaiti Wtrti, Bnublar. Ulddlaait— Lmrnnmnio In apBfalln 

tin. A. ilut. Illib-aml. »ialbui(iliiB--lBpnnaHla b Blpkl taapi 

HI. a. P Wibin.aabml, YaioUI-lBpnmacaU la uwUif Ivma* Mid h* 

UbapHnOcan 
»f O K. DaariBKl>KU>K>I«l*-tapnnaBitalaIt|MU|nd«M«^mb>(( 

nUvaj iWTlacBa 
IM. n. Cbiuibarlla, XaiUnrwct. N orfBlk—laiii w ^ata la patina ar »Hi1b( iba 

•artaca* ot fwK flfnc^ nr vtjrv 

fMlarf JltHvar a SB 
MO. aB-^BWDda, llOBialbid. SuuUiwb-loipniniDaia la Ilia usaOulBla «l 

OLlda <i Irard aad lu lalU 
gill. W, Uijmul. MaovhaMw— Iapni**m«ainbaUmftrno«nllR|itaaa 
mt. A. Mallni. lliruilB|han— A aa* m lapnnd oMbvl M — aBito( waton br 

lUnllarT. hap^ (haudalMi. eBfbiOM, and anlsa «nl^ cartalBlaBdfc and csnab- 

fui 
n. AampuB aad J. )UnpwB. Ogrdoa-aiiTCL Bndfonl, aad K. tuSfr. LBBboaac 
u>«t WabnAald— lupRimHBUIaappanlaa la alhntbii IB* (oUlBf » it|ili(rf 
^orao ^bAca 
M4. S. JaraodO.^nBb Il«aMU««»>-AB laprvrad hnod ar camtof ta Oa ka^ 
opablaoriidaauadalihar lapanUBna. or A) aiioMnaiUe ■lib, MbJpJat^ 
aacb «« tlaata. laaatlat npi» dwartmawa^ and oibBtaUMar pBitUI MWIaca 
till iiu, bnauB had; 
tU. C. UaBsaR. UomniUa-nad— naradacUogditfatfMB 
tU. t. R. Wi-frinM. lUabara—IupivitmiBla la Iba maaabalan «( lalla4<ibBa 

u aartaai. jOBaaiuiMkB fim X, ikjcani) 
M>. W. WdU, ttaadwalar— iBiiwnHDaBU In loooa tcr aaartu pU* MtlA|aMir 
■Ucb InpnniiMDti an ippUeabls lo l«mi tot aaariaa alb> Milca 
iiok^ AaA^np kp. 
P. E. L. d< Lar^eri^ B«e da ri(bli|*lv. IMt-lBpnmsaaM to Uh i 



S« - . 

tun of eamfsunh acaiA. and iKbat lite <vnfflii(> Kir Ibt aarb 
lt*L J. Furar. Bon. UnoaiMa— InpntnoM ia ippuuiu 
iv or pa 

of tb* haiHf 



I aad tern t 



ttt tajOiaUn lb* 



nV J. T. niiBUL OnMbanft ■»>■ I— An Im] 
lb* Inamaanlal aaala 



1TI. J.Tbm.LuDbMb-ltapfnwmMlaikaemalneMaaadaodtaf&ilafMUMri 

MaHi 
an. .<L HnUfn. OunbUl— Inptoteniau lb pafUv Oaai 
*I1. J. X. ^taoU. VfMUalaaar— An lapnaM BNfeod 1 hnUtt w iMWiilit 

am»1(* 
mi- C. UfiA Feiii'biudi anM—Aa Imimnaail la lh»Daaabiilan«rca<l>tHl 
ITL T. Kllla, Tj Mast. INioin"Ud- UlaOMVUiUi*— lapavUBtau la tb* pntMro- 

Uoa otladlimblvr aod (ntia-pwck* bf aiaMalBf ibanvlib -MUt Eaakcialt 
m. A. Wii(kl,NrvrMKMifad-Ablaiaoir*douaaftaHinafBaH 
lit. P. W. &Dpta, atnnd— n* eUBHbdWta tf a ounaU aaUl* kMa, laanl bp 

tb* Ibaaaar ' tlav OBuml*." f ^iii"»iwi*»iK.». h 
m I. HoldabBi. 0(al*> naai FWIa— iDpmbRiN)'. In ■uinuf and dr]rlB| void wid 

oOcr tbra^ part of aUcb laptPraaabB la apiilloabln ■hm aanfOliic Mpiiker 

lannba <if UolWbr atbir parpaaaa 
It«. I. ll<ildan.((. tiaula.uar IMlt~-t«uirsnB*alalot«ablacw«dkadMkarllbn* 
110. I. Uuldco. n. Da*l^ aau h(l»-lni|B*nBiaBla u pncorim aad oaMv vaal 

aad iiUui nliraa 
';>! I lli<lilTn.n. D«al>t onrlMi— lBpron»«iHIS(aiiDn(>wi|aBdoUifrfli>*a 
39;. EL Kwlib, UIU* Maii i Hai in w l. Knalaabau— ImpnnaiMuu In vindaa prioa 

iiikiTb. aurl Tblcb laid Illl imiiiiiiii Ilia «• alia appUoiUr w IM orbbiBiBltaii aiul 

pniia* 111' •nppinar^apaitntaa fbr biddloi taarf and oitMr pndik abu IuUh 

nii-lrDlMinrhiiicnraiuivudlatvladgv Uofeata 
3«l. T. AHw*. O^loo— Inprgwaaai* IB aabblnar a* «pB«i»Wa fa pulp^ioitff 
Ml. J. <>«a, Woniaj. UaeaiUr— InpintBaaaU la aa^lnor w a^ p ialM fa ifa 

WT'fnlMaafBnJdaaUlB aaosdlcvaad danndbif (ban* of alaa^ ablA aald la- 



iinmuKBiaan ajio applkakia Ut hulailDp and nUmliniiii isaaUai* 
IM. t. A- vniUatw. S^oB. WIU>— luiiKviiuKuu lu aiablnirx oi affantia fa 
pHafkUifl o( tailat ^'^ 'V aMan poai* 

SuMd Jaaaaip U. 



W. A. UtnaU HMtod plam naUoa-Makbc iMttWinl fwt 
" ~ HMalavuii 



Ut, B. AppliibT. XamwUpoB-TTDP— lapnMOaMala vuhini 

Mil. W. Uai^naaohBradhad— ]iBpiaaua*aMlUBa*Un«Tfa 

nU. half, ilU, oonae, lai, 1^ olbtt nbiw* BOlaMngai 



lapnitaaaalalB vuhing manliloai 

pwpaiint md oaaUnt 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEB AND ABCHITECT'S JOUBHAL. 



__f>. lLWi«d,a*Utanl. UMuMr-AalBnfonBMlBftdAlunrulBdMrip- 
Uou aftartluialM"«rd>''ui1 "lUefeMi" 

O. OmVv ud T. Wad, UwKftaMr. *ad T. L UnybM. iBlCxd— Ab BnponJ 
I i«nlBfprti8iM« In il« payw* rt tunutoilaa 
IN. P. lovarib. lluihmUi— Tba aiipllrsiiiia <■( > — ^— ***n. mtWtnw or timvt- 

' lit. A.T FrtWt IbnW Kwrt— liii uuMMWto lU wtiiUai nf loM hai wntlii 
■■Ann nlMank BrnpounAh uil ntdtcB 
BL W. Dnir. Sno-luu^ LgnilsD— As Inpimeuai la plntha 

J>*lal MAnunr t. 
OT- W, H. lloliltJitf «ad J. Rh CbbAf, CbflUhUu— Imp^ntTiiiDDl' ta (bo Buitf&ctun 

tf np 
Wa. C Enunli^ UnrWl— ImprDnnsBU In ablpi' mubi ■hdIiU 
m^ J. HMiTlmffl . i\Mii iTnp-TTTn-ntir tn nsaumlim Ihs anvka of fgrwa 
IDO. R. BiAitnai. Mbnl— Impnmniniit In sucUmit sr ApFUWiu for BciiiUii( 

SI. J,F. DiidatoM, tbatb-«tne(,ruutiui7— IninTinnaaUlii lunu kr aHMiui 
L B. HateBu ud i. Cular. Ibithi— tiiiinei wm iil* la ■mnlu Isr LBlndgdm 
th*iill« >lni U(4 IB «c*<lii( BniHili oifM* tA Mhtf flM fttirtA 
Ml. f. H- JohMOB, Unsdi^i-ua-BiIli— ImiBnvBainiu Is beiilim Uw Iwl-«usr of 

■MBfB-batlpni. rc^:4Ainaiimtl<T& fttfD U^an, ftaudwrim, IVillnrinr. u4 Kiobv4J 
)tl. M. A. lislrurl J. HtO'iuiiii Olwci* - Iiuiitmwixiiu ID minildiTiii ni iJi&iilai 

iMtali 
tO(. X. UinuBO, ]|ff>KMiI»-Bp«i-lyi*-Iin[iiimai*DU In itcHu-twUm 

DnM/WnHnl). 
Ht. T.O»buRi. lIuab«Mr,J. l>daB, ItadMan. u>l J, itinlik. SHIDH— loi- 
imnBula In tsvtamt iw npltllr^ tod IndloWInc (bo fmrnun of *Mun uid 

MI. T. W, Kunwr. Vint-(l*oni'»BMl— Imtmoaifit* Id Dock* ud nlm 

MM. J. HoBt. llDlinuiM. Xulini'l— Inpmi'iDniitalu tlrnnU uid >i>v1m fur lavnl 

••I 
■U. f. Ouud. Kan-anin. 6Uuil— Jiu|>niTeii»nb la MaoUttUif louUnu lud 

muu at (Up^aa U inntduiil/ 
tlO. w. Lund. riMtMnri— tiDpniTiiDiuU In iMurlif aiM aaelBliilBt bolllBt h>4 

oIlNr ibImU* rnpiMT. fwta ut vbicb iU4 appUraMo U Urn irauliic o( b>lBi wd 

olhwBBrtar'i 
UL. LlACBlat, lIvBWl'' UaaUi, CorkOaM— Inpnriai'al* lBpiirtl)1B| am, Id ob- 

Hlulat nmwuli tattti tv lb*i vorna, ud li oortUi af *■"** d>fM iituluftt 

cortBla nmouBkal and plwapbatSo inbituaaiobUiuaUcuiwlMB iii tbn paniylntf 

tU. J/TailM, UMdlHtnT-os-TfH— IrnlmfTiBHit* In Ih* (oiitum hi Uis cuj^n 
at «n« 'AtuDm. uta Mbar nvHJi prnpuiad Itam Iht Man 

1)1, J.Tnloc. Ulddlabiii'-ui-T»H-~Aoiai|i(uiaiUii(cnn* 

U*. U. wbn^ lAiune* rDUutBt|-lHn— lupnncuau It dfiUis ind |iiIdUiii tiiiUs 
Obntmil UwkL (CWnflioDintloo CmnC. IadUi. tlulbipuo. Fmiiio; 

|U. C. CwAniia. OanHAy tno-iniih.lUdilligtbia'-uu-TiMK-AiiuupromiiaBllabiW- 
laf Uul hr blaal fBnuait add capnln* 

Jit. IL UdMa UHOeld-Impiiniuaiu In Ua atiplUBIMi «( «hU bMl Kvo ndit 
vt«a 

OMajrUniaryd. 

tfljfvk <^i^ rii^ik'^iT of DaDlbiu nnlDCMn and oChor noclvw of maaor u4*r dsiUir 

dRunuUiim. 10 bn Btemaliid tm M UmIi loiplajgnk vltbiwl uMu K tDKb*Bk*I 

mllMOi 
■If. 7. BatHbn. niBlmli ilnM-icinli. rtiullai— IinpnnoniiniCi |g iho — --f— im 

tf Hfc"lfftif Ibr pulUblnj, tuflcnlf^ and prqarrljic InjU uid ibOML BfJd oUvr 

Itslbm MtlflH 
■H, O. Oaudlnr, Keiraisii •urn. Oifi>nl4(ngl— An InilloUtnt uqiai 
ni. E. U*l> kad O. Biibiu. C^iluiiudmi— tapntMHDU In piuiUni la cnloim. 

cftUad aa unirrvTTal pLuugilTabagnpfaic obraauipftplilc pneam 
9tL K lUrt, rmUud-nrH^ limpoal— InpKfnatBW In apfamiM hr nliuc aad 

Mi C. Dtltexur, Duvetie-blB'-tnpnnniM* la Ibc aitbador, or inBiBlw (<*■ 

laflpflba pAnniuirfil fTVorrtllwnn 
U>. w. ILJ<*noii.<%>inntTl*Di>-lDi|inrt«iiHOI(ln{ilan(i'fbnia. 

m, J nun<ws Vtif^^ImpninHDaUln Maaufnauii* 
na. J. u. jiibuu. lAMuiiA-iBn - - - - 



._ . , — — , , {OnaainiilcBtlnii 

1 . Xtaion. ChuKHT lUB—Aa InunmucDi m BadUaaij fn folMlnji Dtt 
n of fUk fuid ullim mtBlabfoa- iConaiDalcBliwr 



dtBilat UiiUi aiawrtak 
m. K- 11. llffilHon. Or 
tnM|ion on tiUr 



i-ltid*— tmniomnnB In ttw fr—mwil of Ou and 
(OuaiamnltaBora (Mti J. IcMnn. BrauHc 
npdi— ImpmusaH In tflactlBf gMM*] cvUTOj'aDCf or 



10. T. ^iBBUiicrs JVqnbnni Irva-wnrbi^ ftnuthamptiiD— liBpnmirDonla Id gn^jia tor 



•U. 



dlMaof Hwart aad nnasi 
r.MAraOd r. ihitULIW. BnnHlnM- 



'iBpnmBaBM b Innlllti !■«• i 



lUdanantralwIbrCHrilaf bMBiiibanlB 
V, MnUb, OuBOVT'laii*— Aa la|iiv<«auii ts cmUbi omMIUc utielga. 



Ml A. 

;l>noiDqcii<vivwj 
Ml. t; Bruil uid W. Om— ck. Cbuday. lADaadawiapmBnma In Idubu ta 



Vtfattatf 

i4. II. maltbt .'"Uml'fil — linfavtvin«i»u In Tifcjmdiliic in 
Ht. Tj* r WiTiin riiiiinnri (ini [rii|irr !■ in hiriiti inaiflii|llmiBi. {Ota- 



U4. 



iMiiltbt .^*lainr''rd — linfavtvin«i»u In Ti^jmUiliic rnvfilnrar 



nanltaWial 
nt. O. Obana, Jinw ilBm. Oav 
DMdvlBfcaia 



it^udan— PnnaUDi liintiDr CHaaUiai as Uia 



MI. T. SMI, Babda, aaw WbiUar. la 

■W, W. OtMB. rtmhreto Omtgm. C«lado»b>a-i«4 



bomU 



d. 
taipr 



DM iBpbAam 



_ . . laUaCCna— taipnninMa in 

ouuintuiunii(ocriadiialDK>«b>Uaati«t« Imlhatln bMiU,*b«^ aad oUut aiw. 

U4t lb umhlni>J or appaiiiliu far oftvdDf tba aaiaa 
fto. H. A Ui a iM M. Wii» «fi— iKpi w Baiilt la ptapfipa nr dwaiiuj l^^«»d^ anj 

•nd <Mti>r nimaa piaMlali. and It tba BacblDBj copIOTd tbanla, iiAuuntaliB- 

Un mt) K a T. ODOtallni 
111. i, (lUnr, AaMluiiHntlil, luat l>iiUad>ta<nk llMfna— InannHateU ia apnlr- 

laCKaRtKrolbnimllliUd ■iaaitrb7i>aiohIiifr7iawnBfbbiia 
■It J. M. Wonan, M<Dr4— An uapravoiami u ftaliblai a «<n*lD daaoipUiw of 

l«<Uana calUd " dlaf^ala " 
*ll n WrutH. WiHMM-la n i ii n wi m to a m patai » twplnw 
IH. T. RfMMi, WiIhU, Mafucd— bipfonaHUa tt lb* MotlracllBR «l ftocbarai 

■aaUMvaadappniduH UimHi, (Tinij a aaniiiwa toilaa) 
bu. A. Dbdt and P. A- DnaH. Paila- lk[nnii»nU la U» nunlvtm i4 



44& F. MaVB. Parift— 1nprDnm«iiifl ia prriivLiig aitd apiiZ/tac larb^ igr palnUag 

Ur. B. aaaUaadA.a*Bbl,!UdnWbaIliT,UM«aI(r-lBipnnDWWIsli»DuaDd 

in nnftai awd Itr anrlv 
lU. y. VMlia, MMiblw. aM a. Btr<^ Sw^-taiRn^MM h I 
Mtk J. A. LtoWt-IlMWMumalamarijai 



tU. r r Biilrla^ riiniinn rnw. TTaiiiiliMlif Imnmrwiiwifc !■ tii 

lOamQaalalua) 
lU. O-Oisiinv, OtDdI<ird-|dv>. Lntr If iiiilinl i liii tini iiii»ia> 

Undtod «ni* or pMola lot B1IIIU17 and tibM- paiynmi, and *bbb «M M 

an ifnUDabli. and sUI idBkU al bilBf 

UX r. Wnclai, HtMbraKT-ABlBpnr _ _. 

t6i. J. B. Jubaaoa, UaodnVian'ftardfl — ImprovflQiala ta oaU^ 

nlcaiiw tnm Jatten llnabiwi. TMii, QaMit. a>d Cta. RIM ■' 
»(. J. N. V. CbdUl. Parla-Tba apvUMlm otaortdlkivl Unt 

or aB7 oUlfr T'inflir banl latailaDBaik In vUUag 
■U. J. HbartcUaj. CUIeri-niw), Da liaBBtolt-atmi»-lm t wr» ai aB» k, 

miniifiniini nfiiiia 
m. W. UmuIa'hr%lM(l,aBdJ.Wind,ei.Fwieu.MMdlf>«-lBt>< 



ilatniirl 



bnuhs. apcdaUjappltablaWpBUtai^bnabis 
* •■---■"-- jrwa. ijjington. aad K. Omm. 

tataabaamttnan pruaiaM id puUia 



UI. 1. lijlai, rMHT^t roM. taliniton. aad K. Oam. AlardMB-unBc^ B 

Iinpfnniiifliii Gi [banaaabclafvof nDtai pruaiaM id puUia 
HS r. L. Saunas BaDal^.nod— An latpmiad iBodr at tnnl^ m 



bt» mattan, tad'ln lbs spnanKW anplond Ibanb, 
UD. T 1110*11 aad 0. IVtt, Ebb* Vds. UoDiEiMib— InpnaotwMt toll 

tun? o( ii^u 
K». K. A. Bnxaaa, nati-dnat— Ad Uupmrad noUwd li aUalulai 

{CkHDBnukMlnftwn G. Biuao) 
Hi. S^ a. Bmnpat. P£aBC-a(nia-^iapruviDn«ita in airvvtmic ib« la 

OBHalB «( aito Ud olb<T (UoUm naaK aad Id U><nBBiunr (fvoiU 

tbtfala. ^€Daniablcatl«) 
let. (I. T. iMaBald, SuiMt-plaoi, Lii<iibbcsniA«Bd. BMUn— tl 

Uorpt ads|iC>d (ur bunliif mlii nil, (UaiBionlialiini Qua U. Fi 

lex. v. lUm, l^tJi— luiimrvaiuDiiL* la utABOfKturliv Utad laArlaa 

lev W. WlUou^ rtoutlninwl, Hmbury— Ab unjirat-d canuw. vbl* 

nrolilai bsUwf . H^wiaDnMalkiB tiun K Amm. luJKmm. V. H, 
KU. f- a. l-mout, Itakfralnei, AdeM"-Iia|<niniuania In Iba 

raU*an 

naiml Fitnaryf. 
■fiO. J. Uunlirh. N4|>li: lau-An iDpniieBiaBI la IbinrmHiirf 

ll«> •ilk.vhiib !• •W.ippUisUatvtbalbnadaotolbarmnan 

muonliaiiou buu 1). Annand, Lnui 
UI J. Tajlcic, llrtuaula Wui>*.lUitBnbMd— Ln piuni i Bii W i lniM^I^ 

nHau lUhsiaDU 
m. U. Canvrlfbl, Daan Bnsilar. SbrssaUn — TiiijaiHiiimiia m IW mil 

BwteorimtU«maoMcaDaaMUB«n(tB« 
Ml a nnur, and L. WaltnaiBn. lJ»«TBal— Japw wa a ii la It 



AiBofhalagwdsfnBaBiiw, nua, palm bad, ar rtbar Uka DBlnlala 

110. t. TUabgl, OasaaCa d'AsIio, rafir-liiiimnaMUU Ui tba -^' 

andautl 

tti . J, fiBBD, Xaapil»atnA— An laiimniooiil It ofl^cnaa and olbar 
iCuDUnuakaUao t 

111. D. tatann. CaoaiTilda, hUajr-ImvumnHnia In (bs 
(r>c raliloi and ftnlBi «t •■Mi « Mbai anld, air. or taaa 

Vi, J. Uanllai. T iaali l iiiiaiiiiiicWa In ilta in^imaal «d motaUlc 
IK T. J. Tajlur, SwktirdMiMl, Unrbawnll-At Uniovnd 

lib, ft llriiTri fiiilil nhnaH'Mf Inipnnaiiiiaira Inot^ni 

lie. II, WUUa. KMUfialor^inM, OiVa-lbD^nnd, iBpnnnabUIn 

CMMfWnBiFlft 
•n, W. T. Walbv. KlaiMfur*. 9t. Inbla faiapraaunt* la apfMl 

■urka An- atbuiUug, fmiiUiii, InaoBlllbid kud ntnlatlat ilia Mw 

rtanwim Bad >BnMw ■■■ apnamiu 
tUL A. tlMkoL ainnlHjhla — Xra or iiupmnl nuchlnarjr (a ba 

liNiinDtBaut, Nab aowra, aad oUiar •imilai ururliv 
114. J. Dnrnanl. Albanjr. PlrjAdlllT-'laipnTtannDti In the manohiMf* dr 

a( brsla aud aboaa, IT enraftaga lor lb* tal, and la Uu Diai:hlwi)> n 

pJaTsd la aiicb ai a n i it a ct ara 
HO. D. B. Hota. VnabUl-nw— ImpiamMOta In apfaiBtaa Ibr 

Inc. iCamuiuiilaaHiiB) 
Wl. ». W. Onid. Oaadalk-AD IDipcand nalbod id aaibWlPi wti 

pIpMot ntaaa 
HE. J. Qraban and J. Mbopbunl, Bnmlaf, bwI T. Wmuter, 

mrnta In pnitpr Wicria tsr iri4tUif 
M8. J. M*r|>u, KidilamiiuUir— lajHorMiifDla la Ibe aiBBnbonm cd 1 

vIff Ibr bmbrrfLi and ^laraaol Umam 
m, W, K. IbilaE*. Uancbsaias— baprotnaauu lo ih* anumlktwri 

inatrrlal, aadof itaappllmUohtooArtAl^ ininuvv 
tU. A. CbambMK, Clbltfbury. aad W, ll! Cbanipinii, LTTHMd. 

mrUac nilaw tamka 
UC U. BidaD, Uancli*aUi.-lnpiamaoBlt la oaliag i»[al nib auMi 



tonpMnda 



IVu, ?rw Turk. C.S.— An ImpnTcd i>iiitii>l ••! ■ 



caadnealaf aad atiaorblijr rapoqra, fiac*. add Ibnoa^ srT«>UDE and t 

llicalaii, ■MUIIK or atapr panlctM. and muMTlai b«ai (na laif 

Hold! and puImstoDt inbalanm 
Kit, T, r. Johnwu aud J WUUuii. Lricaaltf-teyiwinaBl* In acw j 

till j>fy|«riiii; ami aad oUmi SbnHa laaiarlala 
Itg. J. J. Waiwn, M. JshnVavoaN, diT l sinaU— lapwwai B la la Ibt < 

olBalcliaa 
lUO. J. HrldDnnl. Ilni I m Inn I" 1 ■■mil till II|«B lalbil 

rloHiaand nb-haud taiiua. and bUdIb Uii< nau* (fMappUB ^ ( 

bajid tnalaa 
Ml. W. W. niobar, SU >lai|araf »M-OUI^ l>anp— UnprTmnBaiil* 1 

vltbrMblaa faaabiaoa 
W: A. Royua aud J- ICanTDn, Loarar^plaflr, llooi^dal'^^lBpr^mHarti^ 1 

t]i.jiiii*twnE lb marbinu (l4 tplDDli^; or auu1>Uuif, cvrumuatj knovnoii 
^l^^, B. A. HnuiDati. Flfrt aliwi— An ImpmnmoM It, oi Mtd H Ia 1^ ' 

KnaiBw. lUuuSaHlcBlioa Irsu J. B, Loucai 
»«. T. Ilnwird, Klna aad Qnsaa Inn WOIi^ BolbdtbUba ■Imp 

(nailnicUai otcntM abaAaaratlaa 
191. H, Haild aad A. Uoald. tebda WhiD^, la>Mal«i^-top 

and pklBrobadB aautowad la vaaalM 
111(1. II. T. BoHS BMl 0. W. 'nooaa, QTarpssI— lanntniinla IB I 

fUiort Iv ovtca. ia|a, otsUianlnsiatd WdiB«iiSlli{uda. 

l-ATt-na APFUED FOR WITU CDUFLXTE »T 

ISO. T, Klbalo«kIw«IH«iBat,IlmB."ii-li-.inar»— Aniaprota* tn«b_ 
dlDUiaW baia|ilv)>«lM»bnBk(a« (wailM. or attlda oddlH.— J«». I 



THE OIVII< ENGINEER A>'D ABCUiTECTS JQURKAL. 



St 



RIPLBTS noSPlTAU l-AKCASTEa 
<inu «■< Enfnmnt, FlaU VUL) 

Tan ttlitei U to be in t)i« stylt of lb* 1 Sth oenlorr, muJly 
dMomiDmLH) tho EarlT PoinM. TIi« plui U Knatwliat ia tiu 
form of the ktur C Le. with « side luiil tvo wto0,anilfraDUtli« 
nurth-vcaL the centre liiM of the biiiMing being thnngh tli* 
eeaire of Jolin o'OaiuiI'* To««r in Um CmJ«, — the dde batWMd 
the wing* b«iB|C IIU tMt is UiiKtki tad iidivij^dbila three •^ua) 
mce* b}- A bold nrojcctkiii in u* onitK wfcieb riaia to the hei^t 
m toar atocM* (6a fia). Th« two nde tfmieat rwo to tbe height 
of three itoriee (50 tett). In tlie woIfc 'llvuiuia of tlw lidi- b 
the priBci]NJ mtnuM. Aod MAir-ca»« iMiliu^ to the coiuniIU«« 
noco, upper lull. iaatj«ii'« room, widttng room, — and la tlu top 
•tonr it UM infinouT, uanwi' room, && At tbe h»ck wq the 
lulcnen «ffie«t, throe ■lorie* high i-iA feot). Orcr the iD&nakr7, 
in the middle of the front prujectiun. ri«e> ft dock towi.T 18 M( 
■qamre, mid 96 feet hl^, pierced with tbree (all lueet llghta on 
Mich liik. At tttc uortlk'weet a,ngh ot the tower U &d ooteconel 
tBfTM, vith«|iinlitJUr,nmoiuit«diritliO.O.nNf,cildo(I*p«ar 
uA n^Oit. The broken lice aS thi* aide of the boiii^itg by th« 
oeatre projoetiun, tlie Uiwer, nod pointed KkUea ftnd |ptuKt% rta- 
tiktiog luTTvU in the alcie tpMei^ utd the climtered chinuwy^ 
will produce & verjr (dcttmmiie elfeoL 

The two ltd* viMcea iwii Mljniiiisig wioo ar« rapectireljr 
■pproprixtad— the one to the boje uid the otber to the pila— 
having each ihoir piajr nwiai wul ^fruuiida nunpletelv Mpar»t«d 
EftMS each other b^ UiA eculre projection and Ititdiw'offlCM. 

From th' aeotr* pnf(tclioti on eMb lUe to the winge tslMd 
Mthed or doietared oorrittots, onisBuiiiicntiug with the wing* uid 
lido liiviMoun b)' brn»>l utonoetftirK. 

The wiii>ri oD each aide mv 130 feet long, each fonr itoiica high 
(C9 feet), and are terminatMl at the north-weal rxtremitiee by 
Mtiaee, one for tha adiootanutiir on the bo/e' etdf^ and the other 
for the Klioolmialna* on the girla' aide. Thee* hara each a 
■narsto tnlnutct and alair, and at the mmo titm poaaeae modea 
gfacMw to the aefaool rocTO* and durmilories in the winga. 

nia pound floor of the haj^ aide, 1)vtin«n thaadteol-iOMter'a 
houM and elaira, is appropruitol bj n covered plH Toata, open 
wched nest tb« plar gruaDil: and ftuni the wiagtotMcenirepro- 
}ectioiu ftfv ft large plunge batli, Uwt can be hnated in cold Wfather, 
a dreaeing nxxn, and wardrobe room. 

In the giilV aid<L on the Mine floor, are a waali-liouae, laundry, 
drying duaet, wai\lrobe roam, and play nxtm. Over thne apart- 
neola, bKweeu lli« oentre projection nnd winga, on aaoh aide ia a 
dining roam, CS feet loni*. B9 bet wide, and 1 4 ft. 9 in. h\A- A 
direct anaai to tJicac dining rooiaa b obtiunni from the kiichan 
ou the annia floor by a wide oMaage on each tide of aconlrftl open 
ooortj ao that at mekl tiuiea th« food can be carried into each room, 
and the uieoafla retnoved, without iuUrfering with a&yothrrpart 
of thv boilding. Overeactiof tha«oroeuui8ftik>m^tory,lntMid(<d 
to aixxmodato 30 cliildmn. 

Otvf tiM plftT rooma in th« winfpv and on the aame Icvd aa the 
dining rooBia, m a tdiMl room, each 69 feel long, SI fwt wide, 
and 14 ft. 6 in. bkh. On the oOier aide of theataiii,lneaoh wing 
and at the auda o( t1i« dining iwMi^ U a lantory, for wuhing 
eitJivr bafiire or aft«r raoala. 

Orer the acbool roomi in the two wing*, ora two atorie* of 
dMwil«riM,«nmeaiMaa tbeachoalroan>a,eaob cattnlatedtocon- 
tain 50 cbiURD, making tli*reby fnr eaeh divl^on of the building 
jwoowraodation for 130 boy* and ISO girls, or 300 alt^wrther. 
lie alaira are ao aitnated aa to gin the grcriaal bcility oraaxna 
to and fttMDthedioinff-rooaia,a3iool-roo4n*^dormiloriea^ and play 
ponnda, and ore with the corridora fire-proof. 

Anaple ueana Cor thorot^ TeutUatloD Ihronghont the whole 
lioiUing bftTebaan deriaed, and amy other rrqiurpmeiit for light, 
deaoliuea«v tMklth, and comfort to the ittmalta kiu t>oea raoat 
liberally prorided. 

The material dtoeen for the eiterior of the building la the 
biavtifa] white aandaloDe Croa tlie ftd^Ment quarrit*. The 
a|Mcea between the hewn parts ar* to Im fltleil in vlih Inaerled 
rabble. l««hnieft]ly ao termed, which hanooniaca welt with tlie 
•tole adopted. 

The ar<:h!te«t for the bniidlngia Ur J. Conningham, of Lirpr- 
|>ool. and the coDtrwctor ia Mr.OhadeaBbd«*,oif LancaMer, Tie 
Taliiiiiri'l ooet Ea nearly 16,000^. 



Ko. 177.— Vou u^Arut, 18S7. 



WOOLLAin>, WiFSffrSHIBE. 

A veiy WH— mt and aaoceaaful churcli liaa lately boeu mm- 

ftMd•( Um above plae*, &o«n the douxii of Mr. Oilbert Stott. 
t apat ia a muat paoliirenwe aae^ being liiiuite in the V'ak of 
Blackjaore, cloee to one of toe aeala of the old ThorahiU ftnitj. 
The property belong* at pi want to Uontagua WUllama, Eaq. A 
cfcwcb axbted bare aa «rlj aa aj>. M3, aad waa given by King 
AtfaeblHi to the Abbey of Middletom or Hilton Abbaa. Ueado* 
of thia draidi or ehapd i* made In the old " I>oainadny" boolL 

The church of the mitUle aM waa taken down and nbuJlt 
ia 1743, a liula further weaU The anoiaat cbiiroh had oerlaiah 
a nave, ohaiMv), and alMe, nml ^bably a tower. The one whlA 
aaomoilAi via eridenlly a very iuforior wi>rh; H eooaiateil merrlr 
of nave and chanoel, and hoii iiateod of a tower a anull belt 
tnrrct of wood. 

ThediuitthJwtfiaWied parUkaa mora oT the origiaal ^pe; it 
eoaeieta of aave^ ehangal, aoutb aialo, poreh, and a ramarkablj 
Sae atone hell-tumt. The chaneu la fiaiihed with aa oob- 
augular end Canning an apao, which ia fkiitlier diMiagniahed ia 
the akape of ita roof. Tina part of the bultdiug Ea eooiporatively 
plain externally, and is light«il in the ihraa Gaora of the aaae t^ 
aiogle-light wlndoiri only, wbieli are, howoTer, trefolled la the 
heMa. Baeidae thaec, the chnood baa on the north tide two 
two-light windDwa, and on the oppoaite aide two otbef^ which 
do u'^t puKiaely oorreapood, owing to the aeoweaiy imgolarity 
of the pUa. A 11 theae wiadow* ar*^ interaially, peculiarly rieh, 
In arch nMuldinsaeapecially, which apring from pMi«b(<d Piirbedc 
marble ahaAa. Tho whole of the chnuoel ia raulled with chalk 
Tftalting, on Bath-atone moulded rlbe, having elahoiftte canad 
boaaeaatthfliaterwectiatia. TbeHgroia-ribariae from red marble 
(J>evua»hlre) oolnmaa, which paaa down betwera the windowi 
aad In the angles, and have ioliated cajM of Bath atooe. The 
floor b laid with Uinton'a tiles, having omaUDiilal bordcn 
of other colovia. Th« chanoel aroh ii of twir urdeie, the oentre 
one bong oarriad bf marble oolnauieor DerbnluR encrinitiaal 
marble, the two tUe oaee by Furback aiarUe poUahed ahaftA 
The caps of all are fully carved. Tlie atepa both to and wUhIn 
the chancel are of poliahod Krntoa aloac. The Bttiaga lu tlie 
aare are low and open, but aiibatantial looking The aaau theu- 
aalvea arc liroed, and the back slope* atigbtlvi tlioeo ia the aiale 
an mortable. but atmllar iu deaign U) tlie lAbent The etiiU are 
moulded, and the material throughout it wninaeot. The fltoiiug 
of tha diiirdi geaer^ ie of Uiaioo'e tilea, diipoenl iu red 
and hiach patteroa- Tie palpit it of Uaeu atone, ocUgoaal ia 
ahap*^ eulend bva paaMge in the wall beluad: it haa also a 
Mode book-boaro, wbieli ia aupperted by folti^ of the " Firnvli * 
medinsval character; d'jwn the an^oa of the pulpit and under 
the capping mould are carroJ row« of the ball-Bower otnamaal, 
ami the iotermeHialc paaola hare cirulae eoaiaiuii^ dsliuatety 
oarvoil boupa of iViweim in qoatrefodU. Bebw the capping M 
cftTvcd a aui table imcription. 

The >M>uth aide ia divided from tlie nave by two archoa: the 
oentiul pillar ia a aiuglo one, of Derbyshire ui.ti-Me, aii>l ha* a 
Urge capital c\n-«d with "atalk" fouan. The bell-lumit ia 
carried partly by llii.- weat wall of the euurch, aad pArtl}' by aa 
arah croaaing ueor tlie weet end, and amu>|^ for the piupoee; 
the qwce between tlie two bdag gntned iu aioaa. Tlie oumpo- 
aitioD of this end liaa^ iDtarnaJly, an eacellaat eflisel, to vhich 
the pr<>porti<>iiB of the anbalanliij- looking weet window t44 not 
a littlft The nave ia lighted mainly by threc^light windowi^ 
which am lUIcd uitli omameittal gtaea by WailiM, of Ncwmatlo. 
The aiale biu, no Uie aottlh aide, a wiaikw, breNkiitf, duntwr- 
foihtoo, into the lean-to roof behind. TbenMaof botli ii.ivi; and 
aisle are o|i«n, aad plaatored between the niilen. Tk4> oriijiiuil 
" rerpeBdicalar" font ia rrfauued, but placed on a nen- pTiiitli 
and atepa. One old brae* iikewiee ia preterved and nfiied (dale 
1616); aa also some ancient claaalc mouumeuia. The tunvt 
before reforrad to^ riaas externally siiuare at flrelt but It ia imme- 
diately oonvertod into aa octagon, baring bullreaaee to lill out 
the aidpB which croaa the angtea- There i| a ainglr light Into lbs 
bell door on tacli of the canlinal fiuoa, tlie jftroba o< wbi^ an 
boMl* naulded aad abftfteil. Above Ibe curuice rieaa tlie tnfty 
la|>enug tpira, also of atonu, ornamented al various M^ea of tlie 
htiglit by banda of atnte wnrk. The whole is aiiraiouulcd by a 
crow of wrouj;ht-irun, painted and g^l, beftrinc on Iu top 
a revival of the ancient uut peonllar to thia cliurch— a fn^ 

The general walling mMerfal Is (tone fix-iu the loenlity, vis. — 
Haaalbnry Briaat, aad HamhJIl, with Caeu or Baih atoue fur 

11 



98 



THE CIVa ENGINEER AND ABCHITECTS JOUBNAL. 



the ddfcKU e&Tiolinionta tud ewitig. Hu latter, wbicb it 
thnnghoiit ricfllvut, wu done bj Mr. ^inDer, of WntniiiBtcf- 
rotiL The ptnni war* canHfd oitt under conuct, hj Mr. A- U. 
Orm, of BUndfon), who bu mo** er«<llub]j pnlonatd hU 
tuk: nor miHi the anwc*ried Ubotin ut tb« cl«rk of llie vorlu, 
Mr. J. T. IrriiMv be pwaed over oiinotiaecL 

AllogethM- Ibixiimh it, in ita WET, ■ gem of ul, re&ecHng the 
Ui^eM pntM on nil eonoened in i'u enetioo. In the ohnrah- 
7»rd ta one o( pmbMj, the Wgeet yav-trfea ia BagUod. 




ACOUSTICS, IN BBLATEOS TO THE FORMS AND 
MATERIALS OP BUILI>ING& 

It appran i/> be &a &olciiowl«vlKal &et, that it u Impoeslble, 
whcQ a boililiiig te in coum* of erection, to foresee whether the 
ftaiMTlag e&ct of ra^Mtiarallan oif waod will exist in it or not; 
and It Metma to be Kltnoet u nneertklu wbeilier thnt defect can 
be remedied wben it does ciiat In the hope of drkwiag Atten- 
tion to the anl^ect, with « view topreseiit dau for eome prartiogj 
infertocee, we have eoUeeted nun particuliin m mw he iieentl 
for tbe pnjrpoM, tod th«a|Moiu of iudi ecicuUSc writcn u hnre 
trtat»l oil tlie jtenenJ qtieatlou. 

SirJ»)uillrrs«lieletktcaUiat "thereflccti'macFfeoiiod in anadl 
biillt]iii|{* &re liisardatUieiMnetiBieMtheorinnaleoaDijjbeaMiie 
M »>uiid tntvel* at the nie of nbont ll2A%ettn a second of 
time, the eebo eannot Beiullj bare eo fiu- to travel m to be heard 
•epanlelj." The ti»e inloreening bi>tw«eu the nrimitiva aotind 
and lu echo baa aomrtimee been employed iu •Ictennining t^e 
dUbuioe fi-OTii the ipsvVor to the reflecting object, allowUig S71 
feet for nch btertaediito ecooud of time; but, like all metbode 
depending nior'oiiiii'liviilualJudgineBtthanmeehftiiica] niraeaie- 
ment, iLia pmc«« mu«c be Aable to CMiiliierable im^&ritlM. 
When eeverat objecta reflect eoun't, tlie uiiitiber of eeboea L* 
greAtly multiplied, not only from the priranry eehoeeof each, hut 
nleo from secondary and tettiaTT ecboea^ by eecond and third 
reSeetiooi of retomlBg vaTetagauaM the rererberKtoe^obataelea. 
Saeli re^ecbo ooneiica of only ^rtlona or frvttn of the praeeiling; 
tiieir Inteueitiee tborvfore dimiiiinh, Kiid they gnduaUj die away 
Upon the ear, in the auiie manner tliat object* become obecare, 
Md bjiepiM imperocpUhlp, in eonseqneuce of the diminution 
of light wGco we look between two oppoeite and parallel plaiie 
Dimre. 

A* inataneee of the distanee at whiob founds «nn be pRrceivod, 
take the folUiwinK;— The watchword of the night, pven by a 
aentluel M th« lalrol ou the ramparta at Now GiLrallar, hiu lieen 
bean) dialinotly, on a ititl, eerene niflhl, and the water being 
perftctly cabs, at Old Gibr .cnr, a diitoiice of about ten mile* 
nd a-halC The report of Uie guue at Edinboiyh Caetl* i« afu>a 
dbtliunifahed twenty mOes ofi; while the nolae oooatioaed bv the 
lUla of NUgata U mid to be (ometimai h(!Ill^] at Hie diatancu uf 
twnutr milM. An e4Te«t of rapidly rvficatcd rcliueit uiay be per- 
ceived in the ppolonffed tiwul and ringing wunda which we tienr 
when walkinji in itiMunu throucli lou; Ipdleriea, dciiiti^ra, and 
other narrow puanKa with pendlel aidea, partioularlv when the 
ftir ie ooufiBeu; but hanKiiigi ui'l cerpociDga, yielaing to the 
iuftoeace of the eonoroua vavei, or itilliiig ihem by a multitude 
of interior redcctlona, (aether with open windowa or much fur- 
niture, diminiih theee eflteta to a great degree. 

" The meet (avountlilo pc«iiioa for th« ptodnetion of a diitinot 
•oho from plane eurficue U, wbnn the auditor ie pla^ between 
two *ucb, exactly luidwiy. In thii poeition the eouuda reverbe- 
ralod froin both will reucfa him at the laino iotaot, and reinforce 
•aek other. If nearer to one aur&oe thin anothrr, the nno will 
xmA hiln eooner thati the other, auil Ihu echo will be doubli* and 
•OOAiaed.** Thia,liowever,«uppo«eii the auditor to be aolW from 
the relbetli^ euTftoee aa to prevent the echo from being heard at 
tiie aama time aa the original aouod. 

FWim tbeee &cta we may foriu aumc eonjvcturc na to the CtHM 
of itreguUr whoee. If (he reiiiiliu-ecLrin arise from thercflectioD 
ef Um aoiUKl no quickly ai to V litar>l at the same time u the 
OTtginal Bound, th« irreKolar ocbona would amm to be a rcaolt 
of the refleetieiu harm); taken ■ longer oout>e tbrousliout the 
bniMinf, for, at therateal whiuli ■oondtrareb.itmuitbea very 
large buitdtag in which the dinet reverberation from any part 
«Ba Btrike the ear eo aa to be perceived aAer the original tonad. 
lu larjp bulldiags, each aa eatbedrals, the tegular echo can be 



' HhkUI, ■ tngOM do BmoA.' 



• nM. 



beard after the principal aonad liaa oeaeed; " aod it i* owiiw w 
this that oar cathedral eerrke J* mul in a eiHUilBad luUntB 
tone: and a good reader will time his aylUhlee, If m«tUev ■» M 
to make one hi) in with the echo of the hwt, which will thtie be 
merged In the louder souDd, and produce leea eeolWon In hii 
dellvei7."t 

Among other Impedimenta to good hearing may be tncntiooed 
deep reoeaaeK, open win<lowe, hanginn or cai^peting, ai>d BQiinw* 
roue audience in woollen clothing, 'flieeeareto aouad wbalblBclE 
•pacea Ib an aparliiiput would be to tight; th«v return back none^ 
or nest to none, '•( whAt tMt on them. Their fault is, noteo 
■anh that they rrfl^ct it im^nlnrly. oa that they do not rrfleettt 
at atL Vet there is nn doiiht that the advantage to be derlTcd 
fiom tchot<i Sa strenftthcning the or^j^nol eounda bat been <r*i^ 
rated. It \» ill reality m-:at desirable thnttbe refleetJOina of aomd 
alinll tak<i a> «hort a coiirm napoealble, ao that there may ti#MO 
ehanee of an irregular echo. Tne Hall of the Repr tem iiativee at 
Washington, U.&, appear* to be very well adapt«l for the 
object. The ontline of the phw is a semicircle of 99 feet ehord, 
elongated In Ite diameter lioe by a panllelagram 73 feet long bf 
3i foot tride. The height lo the'top of the entablatntv blocking u 
UfMt,and to the apes of the domed tetll&g A7feet. llie ovwb 
of this dome is pierced by a circular aperture, terminating ia a 
lantern, whii'h admits an abundance of 1i^hi> serving at ibetaON 
time to ventilate the ruom, white not mNlvrially interfering with 
the enrrrntit of roiukI, Some alteration! which have been nadt 
aince the building wna firtt erected have considerably impcovad 
lu general adaptation to the nurnoses for which it was deeiinieA 
Tlie deddiog on a semieircnlar form in the plan of this hall, by 
the arclifteet, iveulted trom a conviction of ita being the Mtt 
enitn! f«r iin ptirpoeee. Before the alteratlcna were made, th* 
mombers sp'ke/nini the cdrclo, and nonsequeiitly fethe diameter 
or straight tine; honoe on indistinccneas of voice, even nnder the 
moat improveil ibrni, but more esjiecially when subject to the 
fVetted aurface which the mc^m prevJoii«lv poMemnl. On almilw 
principlcH, the Hall of (he French Clinmfer of Depntles Imb been 
oonstrueteil; this, too, lammnountrd bv a very flatdome— «plaa 
unauimoualy recommended by a committM> composed of the mMt 
celebrat<.-<l architecta of France. It is eniil to be one of the fineit 
rooms, fur epeuking and hearing now existing, ^le walla an 
perfectly oMa, and the tribune, Grom whence the manbenBddreat 
the chamber, in along the lino of the diameter. cwMpgnently It 
the ciirle, and thua ennh auditor gains the fdl force of the wonb 
that are uttered. The ancient liuiiica form of plan haa iia 
admlreta, but more on the score of admitting or oonvenicnt 
armngomenta than ou acoustic principles. The niuroliaa bnlli hj 
Sir Chriatopher Wren axe generally s» planne-l St. Jame^ 
Weetminster, pleased him better than any or his otbor ehurtlMi^ 
and Ite has oarefully described thoschemeon which itaproportinia 
were act out. The breadth in hnil the sum ofits height ana Iwglh, 
it* height half Ila length, and ite braudth the ataquialtw* or la 
height; the nombert are 84 bet, 63 ftet, and 49 feet reepectlTCly. 
The church is divided ttanavcrsoly into three unequal parla, Wa 
range of aU columns each ride tit the nnve, forming aisles which 
are each one'tiftb of the whole braadtb; the reoMlning ihtee- 
flltlis being given to the part of the nave. The m>f ia carried 
upon these ^umns. Sir (Tliriiitophoradds; " I can hardly thiak 
it iioBiiblc to mAke a single room so capnriotii, with pews and 
galleries, u to hold above ^OUU pcriHins, ntid oil to hear the service, 
and botli to hear distinctly and to see the preaclier,* Concerning 
the place for a pulpit he aaya, — that " a uiodcnite voice mav be 
boiuti SO fset diatant from the pmiebor; 30 feet on each aide ef 
him, and SO feet behind him" — provided the prannnciatioB be 
distinct and even. The eipcriraenia tried by Sir. Wyait proved 
that the teach of the voice, wheu mulemtely exerted, waa in the 
proportion of about two-ninthx further in a direct fWnt llnethaa 
latetnlly; and that being distinctly audible on nch aide of thi 
epeaker, at a distance of T.'> feet,' it will ben* phunly beard at a 
dWaooeof 9S fuet in front of him, decliuiug in power bchiud bin 
to aa not lo he hpord at much more than 30 feet. 

Among theimportant building* moentlyerectedlothiacoBnlrv, 
in which wo mny siippoen ibnt theacienoA of acouatica wm dtll^ 
conaidercd in their oonatruction, mav be mentioned the Town 
Halle at Birmingbam and Uverpuol; Exeter Uoll, Londoa 
fetpeclallv aince ita eeUing waa altetvd by Mr. DaukeeJ; the Free 
Trade IIaII at Monoheater; St. Martin's Hnll, London; and tb* 
new Mnne Hall* at Birmingham and Rnidfnrd. The St. JunoA 
Hall, Piocadilly, now in eoarscof erection nndor Mr. Owen Jonaa 
and of which on interior view appeared in the late Architeetuitl 




TU£ CIVIL ENGINEER AND AKCIUXECTS JOURNAL. 



89 



&UUUoa. !■ to b* uf IB oUow wtbraJcMi form, with a mou- 
(faMlw wUl^ ^Vi'y cariebwL bat with lurikeo nrnuucul onl^. 
Bow ttr tfcli KmnnfDctit wiU bo aflMted bj RrerberalioiM or 
«ibM> will b« (aatpd in » ■b«rt pcnod, m Ui« buUditig if now 
>■ Ml Willi mi mniplMian. 

It b b^ bu^ umI mootb mt&cm of plMtar Md wood, UiAt 
ln>inUrMliM*u«iiiMtlilnl)r tob* pcwniMd; (oTMioundBiuat 
hiijliiHi a^B tbtn U wvifT eouMivkble uvdo, wb«tker pro- 
— Il^ difwit or nttected fmn olher p«rU of Uio buiUIiiK, «> It 
^htairain iwllMtei) at Ui« oppu«w aagle WUMparpMwicakr, 
MTBved acmm tliebuUdlng. Such Urga ud Miootb aurfiMM 
I iw iiiMWTeiMvMM of tbia kind in u* roocna of dw«ltin| 
, bal Ib h<iiMiin» eoatuMiug ona vast ana, tbo aouod ba* 
I anwa to u»Tel abavL Agua. rou^caed auriaoea, if 
( UM aoand in ererjr dirsotlctii u aeA. Ibajr do the aaiiM, 
naoh «MU*r dcgna. Hum^ Uianfbra, pcawat Um 
I of ahorfaaiDg lh« oouna of aonada bjr ndwUng them in all 
looa, ItimUmI nrimmaiiiawlj arrnaa to aomootfaw [«rt of a 
itoir. wberr \hrr majr be IiuikiI into a new eouraa. Clotbea 
ijrkiod, (■nccUUv woollen ones, an hu beta obarrvcd, an 
ij HMludioiitl, and iha aame ranuik appltM to tba 
anJ Amltara of a publio buUdbg. 
~ aa boan tlKiiigfat nQfAToimble to aoimd, fnoo tba affiKto 
tapoaauunouiiutnUDeiiU, which acv friBqaauU; ■pviled 
taMUalioB. 

~~ » aoBoniM, and ptnduoea t, hanh, dlaa ^r aiabb tooa, 
fshte to ths traDantiauon of aonnd; and Molt powwawi 
lUu iwopMtJDi wb«D uaad by itoolf. 

Wf4 ia woti koovD to ba both aoiKifviiH and vibntive. Of all 
■al<iiiaU it prodooM the Moal agneable mhI ndodiotta too^— a 
mtUty owing, jwiacipallx, to ita olutioitjr. For thit rNMOU it 
H anitabto fair liaiug tb« wallH of biiililiog* uard for tb« purpoao* 
«#pabUoapaakiBg. It will b« fi>uiid not to absorb ao much a* 
■MM naMmU, or to eoadiMt ao ninck aa olbon, wliile the liltlo 
taoBBiioe it ocoaNDo* will be fooml mtlieraffrtoftble than iujurioua. 
Othrr anbaUnoea nigbt be BBui&entad, but we have proforrwl 
flmfiniiig ounalvea to taoaa moat in commcio uaa, ap aa to raodcr 
ear ofaanrrattOBa aa •ogpaltva aad pnwtiiMl aa poaiible. Tba 
■llijirt i* out aa jM wmpiuMiTelj unosplared. 




IHPROVKD PILE-DRTVINO MAC7HTNE. 

A p*pv *>* \aXe\j read at tbo luatilucioo of Slcchnnival En- 
an, oti u> Inipruved Pile-<lrivbg Maohiue, tbe joint ioren- 
1 uf Mr- Michael Scott, of LondoD, and Hr. Audrew Ri>bert- 
Bljrtli. Tlie pnf/w eoDaidared theoKtleally the ralallve 
_ igi of a groat iiiinib«r orccmparalivolr ll^ht blowa or ofa 
%«vrr« blows for liiiviog fUe^ and it wa« loand to be deair- 
aUe to hAve aa baary a nun na powible, with the greatect avail- 
kble he^t of Ul thai waa conpa^ble wiUi the atrragtb of the 
pUea, The iniprorad |>!]»drlvlag machi&e ia eonitractod on thia 
MiDclple, the weight of the nun boiog a ton and a bntf, with a 
Ul iocreaaing aa the pile U driven, the &1I beinR a smalt amoont 
at the ooBDieiioemeat, wbil«t at the later blowa it omouDta to 
twelre or foartoan feci. Two nuna are ralaod by a portable ei^tne 
'' ' a gohl**! whloh are nadily ai^iutod to any i«t]ii]r«d looll- 
thr aoictiit, toDothor with the gaidea, ia airrinl on a plat- 
_, high tamagh to be alw»yii above lugh water; lbs platform 
_,j oB a lower framework, nualiig OB A tomporvy railway Uid 
. the ground for diangiiig the poaitloa of tba mm-hine. The 
windiug app&ratu* for rAJon^ the niniii is sn arran;;;ivl lliat tlie 
RDo Twiasa them alternAlcly, tbe workiut; being cbniijjpd by a 
f'«etiiigapparaiua, without eilbor Rtopping or revetving the 
Sp ue. The eofiue can aoeonlbgly be worked eootiiiuouBly, and 
\ unpurtjuit aaring of time bi thereby eflMtod la driving the 
leak lu oouetiiMBoa of tlia diiuinishod nimbar nf blowa r«- 
''qitUwd for driving aach pile, on acoouul of the grauer foroo of 
neh blow, the head* of the pile* am not found to heat all injured 
In drivinit- 

Tl»e maehine it bring rmployed at tbo preaent timo to drive 
the piles ('It the ouUaUvolJou of a wharf or aiiuay on the river 
BIyth, la North nmbctland, above the untnuico to the propiiasd 
arw dooka at ihr mouth of that river. The ground is prioetpally 
BUil, and the nwin piles are driven to a depth of U| liwt into 
the groand -, the aane an^Bt alto drivn an inner row of alay 
^lea wlthoal ebange of poaitluu, luul the oiachine haa boou found 
IB (urforiB tha work with rapidity and piwonon. 




NEW STREETS PROPOSED BY THE METBOPOUTAM 
BOABD OF ffOBKa 

At a reetBl Baelinc of the Boyal Inatitate of Britl*h Anbl- 
toola, Ur. DoBaUioa gave a deaniptioa of tba stnatawopoaad to 
be forwed by tbe MetrmnUtBU Baud of Worfa. Ha obaervod 
thai aa the aKontiou of PattbuBaat would nco ba called to theae 
projecia, b« iboiH^l it Bight ba ialanatiag to the OMBbera to ba 
Baada aounaintod with then, and he waa happy to be abia to 
•abmit tbe engraved pbuia, whldi had aome Unw alnoo bam 
kindlv preacatcd to tbe iuMilule by Mr. AUrrBble. The flnt 
and aBorteat of tba new lines was tha ooa oa tbe Hiddleaax aida 
of the Thanti^ lla pufMae beinM to oonaoet Ki^'atraat, Ooveot- 
gitnlcn, with liolcaeiaf square. It had been long felt, that that* 
was n»t aofficiut aooeaa to Cavenl-|anlen-aiarlt<i aad DfVTj- 
laiic ThMUe bom the Weat-eui aiuTthat much ooBfUrioB waa 
produoed br the grast trafia lu that Balgkbomheod, a^wdaQr 
during tha DutinasBof the markat in tba awning, and at nigh% 
when tha ibaabaa van o^n; it waa alao ooonikrad vw^ necaa- 
•ary to form tba eoauauBiaation eo aa to oontinua Cranboum- 
atiaet to the Strvod, and alao to ralieva St. Haitln'a-hna of tha 
tiaSo between Tuttonham.Murt'Twd and tha northan parts of 
Loodoa with tba Btnnd; ami aocordingly it bad bean propoeeil 
aooia yeara wo by Mr. riniDctboruo, under the direction of tha 
CoBinuMion br Metropolia ImprorameoteL that a new alraat 
ahould be node in an oblique dtreotloii iron the aaat^OBd of 
Cranbonni.«trM<, at ita juncture witli Ijong'SHrro and St. HartinV 
lane, to U» Weat end of KiogsEreei;— « Hop whteb appearod the 
more elEgible now that the (ost end of Lraoester-aquare hod been 
opened by the enlargeiBrat of Ciaubonrti-atreet. Ou tbe othar 
hatuL it had beeo st^oMed, that the llBa of St. MartinVpasai^ 
and New-atr««t wovld ba more dealTahla, and mon dinecli but 
by adopting that llaa, It would intarfbn with a much loo^ lino 
of hnnnD iirn|iorty, and involve the neoeMily of widening aa 
nubliahctl tliarougbfiu« with a partioulor etaaa of boainaa 
(wlit(?b would Incur an eoonnooa axpaiHe), aod wnald luA pro- 
vide for the north truffle: anil tha plan of Mr. Pennethonie, 
altliough It waa a tnoro abropt detour than ooOld be desbad, 
wiMtId M ffrncuJly admitted to meet, to a gnal denw, Iha dU- 
oultiea of uie nas. Tbe Duke uf Bedfonl bad edbnd to «oa- 
tributo *om« 19,0001. towards it; and tbe plan waa aaaottonad by 
tbegovemiaRiiooaualatloaera. Bat wbtni tbe saw HaOopolitaB 
Bill wiM iKts^l, and tlia Ceatnl BoanI waa (-riianised, all former 
proo(^iiigi< were siiimaodcd, and Hr. Mnrrable waa orderad W 
make a fradi aurvoy and esiiinatA- Hr. MarraUe, however, 
after doe oMiaideratiou, arrived at tha same conolnaioo as Mr. 
I^aethorue, with ngani to Uie roato; and hi* astimata of tbt 
ooat of the new tliwt wna, tar purchsa* of property aBd coal of 
aewor !)I,H3U^, to be rcaliiwd hv sale of grtiaBd rente and old 
matoi-iols 4«,800f., leaving ibe aciual oost 48,0301. 

Mr. DooaUlaoa next odrartad to tbe tnportaBD* of a dinct 
ooRunuuicativu from the weaUrB parte of London to tbo Borough, 
t1i« railway tamiiai at Lmiduci.bndg^ Ac, ia order to avoid Uw 
difficalties of tha rout* through the dty. He ealled atUotioB to 
tbo bet. that tbe exiting line ou the other alda of iha rivar ef 
the York-road and Stamford^tnat eonatituUd tbe gnaler por- 
tion of the ootuiua&leatiun bow pK>jeot«il by the Uctropouiaii 
Boanli and that a continuation of the latter strcei eaelwatdi to 
the Borough would complete tbe line. One project w eAot tUa 
Ultrr aeclioo betwoFO Blackfrior* and Loudon faridj(ea waa alOQg 
tbe south bonk of the liver; but uiy line of this kind muat pa« 
allbar nuder or over South wark .bridge-road, which wooM be 
very objoetionnble; and, in Mlditiou, St. Saviuur's Cbnrch odkn 
a great obstaelo: for the church itoelf would be more loot to aight 
tlun at pniveat, or moot be entirely pulled down. But a pro- 

gaed Use mora auoihward would alao mtorfera direetiy with tbe 
irongh-nurkct, Maaara. Bardav'a tiremiaaa, and other properly, 
which BO man ia bia aooaca would Uiink of UneUag for audi a 
piirpoae. Mr. Danaldwmnextdatcribrd Ibcline pnpoaad b* lb* 
Buant of Worker which oammeDoed at a point north of tha Town 
Uall, SiKiiliwark, and tormlnate<d oppoaita tbe «ul eiul of Slam ■ 
fi)tx|.eirv«. Thia line waa noc taa arMy curved, in order to avoid, 
whiUi cloidy iofiin/iDa u|>ou, tbo Co&tfB Alma Houia%M— w. 
Bnrvbvya' piomUca, M«r>. IVll^ Tinegar Worka^ HnptooTa 
Ahnahousea, the prsmisea and amrkot of the Hop Pbauwra' Com- 

eioy, Mcaan. Euton and Amos' Foundry. &c. Tbe eatiniatee 
r thli line wer«, ftir purchoae of property aad coit of scewr 
ClDi-l^V., to 1m rralicil by oale of gA>iuid mil, pmpei'ty r^^iald, 
and old tuaWrinla, lii^i,^i^iL, leaving the neU ouet 3£0,e;K. Bat 

14* 



100 



r 

■ tmnli this VM then vm tiretdj aboat SO^OOOL ta Um twub 
H oT tbe gnrcnuDtat. 

^1 Coatnuted with Ui« kbora plin, Kr. I>aDKldMii deacribed 

H t)i« riMile laid do>wB by Mr. Peoncthorae in IS33,bei]iK«atT»iKht 

H line froa ■ polst mv tbe Lunbedi miI« of Han^rionl-bridg;^ 

H irtiloh It U prone— d to vidm (o • curiage wst, pMnliig doM 

■ to the north tid* of Surr*}- Chapri, dir«ct to th« Town lUU 
H in tlie Borooeb. IVa linn it mm jJdo propOMd to coatiBtM 
H nafMird* to Berantubn-, and wcatwarda bjr « eomd lioe to 
H tb* 8arT«7 Ibot of WMtntuwt«r-bridue. The nMin portion of tbo 
H UiM pnmad tkroncb a *«t7 iafiniordwcrlptloii of property, — tho 
H vathnau mad* by Hr. Hunbl* b^ag, for pomhaac of property, 

■ goodwill, Mtd oMt of anrvr, n)9,liM£, to b* rwliwd by profwrty 
V aold, ground ranta, aail old nutcnaK 631,704^^ Imviny tbo 

Mtiul Mat g63,31uJ. Hr. Daaoldaon brielly referred to another 
■duimUe project by Ur. PanvMlioni*, in IMi, tor n lino dlraot 
frani WeitaamKtra--hridg« toSt. ^^itwirg^'* C1ion;li in the Besmigb, 
<M throogh BrrmonHwiy, whic^ would th'n bo oponad ip to 
maetHl tnuflio; KaaJwi toaiintheraehdmu fur wiii«>niD;; tha «uat- 
Of liao of tbe Now Cut Wid tlie nlmui beyond Sumy Cbapal 
wMtward to the Borough, &• a «heap nethod of ineeUng uia 
rcqairad objoct. Ho ooocluded by iniprMring upon tba niMtiog 
tbe mperiority of Mr PMinotharDc'a plau over tbat Abniit to be 
■ubmtlted to l^uliiuneiit, *« bmng abortor, more eeonotniol, 
ftnd k« briBginr into moro <lii«et plar and cominuuio>tion 
WMtniuler, Htiugerford, Waterloo, Bluklriara, nud London 
brtdgM. 



THE CrriL £N6INEEB AND ARCHTTECrS JOURNAL. 




EETIXWa. 



I 



Dwdibigt pf IIm I^ittturing Ctasm i» tke Mrtntpatit. By ^it^of 
OenMnl O. B. TRiMBViiuftE, Ut« Suptrriutt'udiag Engineer 
of lbs TuaJBuh, r.O.& London : Kutghl \o>l Co. IHOft 
TKird AHHual Rifort <^ Iht Dirtrtort ^ On AtMciation far Pr^ 
matiiig /■yroewwwt in 'Ac Dmllingt corf AoaiMtte CoitJitioit 
of AiricvUtiral Labourer! in Umlimd. And Sufipltmralan/ 
MfftTi, viU Tico Jiaign* /or Otltaget, ty William t'curLKa. 
ArdiiUut to tiie AMcKilatioa. Bdtnbarrii: BIocIiwwhI auii 
SoBt. ISQT. 

■-nure ii no ftauro Id tb« grMt Military acbemo now in operation 
uoreiniportiuittn it* boarinn tbnii tbe <ar« bntowfd on thedeaiga 
ttiularraiMemeDtof tb«d<r«lingHf»r ihit hnrnblirr rlafwna a mok 
•ore whlen alt gr«d«a of t be commnnity are ill t«rrart*d in promoCiog, 
bat wbleh tamla to the kociaI and monl benefit of tboae mora 
imneiliataly andar ita iitfliiMiM, btrouJ. perhaiia, \uy other 
a>e«M Uwt eould ba iloviatd. It hM i>r<«ii wnll i<n>|>utiii.l'.>d, tbat 
"tba phyaleal taOmagt at the poor nra not Ui«ir ohiirf otIW 
Th* grwt oalanKy of tho poor ia not tiieir povorty, but th* 
tcnilmey of tiiirir priTUlcna and of their aooinl mnk to dogmdo- 
tioR of miiuL Soeioqr la net oidy d!»flgiirvl Init endangered 1^ 
(bo Dorertr, ijpianuiee, and rleanf a maltitniioof lu membeni; 
and Ita seeurily mid li-ippinsu demuul uotbing lo iln]M)riouHlv 
M Hint tbtl wKtohwl inua aliiralcl \ie Dulightened and elvmtei. 
TbanototliopowOTfiil wordnof Mr. Charlea DleltaiM— "O! fnr a 
good apirit— who wnnld take tho hoiiaotopa off with a more 
potent nod bfiDii;naat hand than tbo Umo demoa hi the Ma, 
■ad ahow a Ohrirtinu people what dark ahuHa iMae fhiln Utililn 
their hotnea, to awull tbo retinue of tbe ileatmyitig anxcl na ba 
inovea fortb among Iheu; — for only one uiglil's vivvr of Uie pnle 
phantom riung front the ■aoBC of our Uw long aeKleot, and fruin 
the tbiefc and aalleo ab, wbora vieo mud fovwr propagato together, 
niaiog thetnenmdoaaioeUI retribntioni which ±n over jwurlng 
down, and evareoming thicker! Bright and bleat the loomiag 
that aboald riee oo aoeh a night: for nien,del«y«d no more by 
atumbliag bloeka of tbeir own ranking, whicli nre but ifieoka of 
(luat unoa the path between ibnin and eternity, would apply 
tbeiaaelT«a lik« errainrae of one ootninon origin, owning on* 
duty to tbe [\th«ror one tunily, and teaidiDg to one eonuaoo 
■Dd— to inaka tba worU a batter plaoe." 

The attontion of laaiad pro|irietoni haa been long called to th« 
AMeNiir for tbe impioremieat oT labonrera' dwnUioga^ and tbua 
not unftfooaiilly ha« tbe lupert of a ri]^[« bnm IboronKhly 
oMianiaitAawd by tba w«U directed eObrta of n aingle huidhird, 
Th« Omka of Bodford, the Earl of Ohkbealer, tbe Lmcya" of 
Oharleeot*, at onco apring to mtnd a« Botable •lanapleai and ao 
br hmk u a centnry ngn, Uie beneroleat John Howard eonvartad 
th* rilli^ of Cardu^ton, near Bedford, wharo be naidad, Eroin 




OB* of tho fl»oat talaenble apMs ia tba Idagdoo, into ft iwj) 
hoalthy, eoafbetabU plan, whoor iababitaata becnse pntnr- 
lionataly tfariviiy and oonttnitod. Ho reaolvod to b«^ hU woric 
at tbe trae itaTting point, by bat improving Iboir pnfrinnl aa» 
ditiou, autiptyiug theia with tb* meaaa ofeoofbrt, ifaoi ■tiarfilng 
them to tneirowa Sraaklc^ andflaatoriagMKl drtatofiinciB then 
a ralieh for aimplo doBMMie tajmriiMnB. It ia nnt reoogh to 
boild ooblagenaa wawnnid bniUDanuor buUiIm, tboogh 
few people do aa aiuah for the oottagn aa Ibey do for tlw I 
yanf. It la no uae deoaiviog oufBdrea iu ihia nuttor. If 
prietore do not t^ce at leaat an equal amount of iatMnt in 
oottBgn fto'l thxir labourer* tm tboy do in Iboii- ban* and : 

thoir ilicpp anil thrir oxen, it may reaaonably be eumolaal 

the aame danger will overtake thcau aa haa already b]aat«d aoua 
of the faireet oououiea iu Knroiie. The time will anuvdly eome 
-^t nay not be (a thla generation— but oome it will, wbao tfaoas 
rich men only iriil be aafr «bo hare oonciliatcd the pereonal 
aHeotion of thoJr dependanu and nnigbboaring poor. Nerer 
waa a more eDaaervativD truth enuneiatsd than this (tbaogb tt 
course tba nuuuior and time uf itd enaamation may vni; [ia fl^ 
priety), tlial prujttrt^ Imt U* Julit* of «mU n« iU rigUm and ^rt 
viltgm; au<l lliuro van ataroely ba one nan incnnbenb or ntera 

Etefiil than tliatofprvvidiwdwNOldwtUinnEor tbe poor who 
-e erttlad on lui rataU, It n in thia UgU that lb« matter 
ahould be viewed, nther than in a uoaetaiy point of viaWt 
riooe good oot4ag»-buildii)g auiat not ba eoipoetod to yMd. ta 
direot tULymeut, even a modeiato ratnm for th* outbty wbith a 
capitalist might, in otli«r caeea, <uqMCt. The huidad proprieter 
muat b« conWDt to look &tr bia ntnra from implored eottagea 
jnat aa be doee from improved fonn-buildinga or brB>4wuaa% 
vix:— in the general and pennamtut ainelkiratkin of hia aMM 
thereby. T^ie fact Is, lliat it ia ihia vtrj noi»>ninnne»tiaa if 
cottage- building that wnatituica tlie landed oroprietor'a gm to rt 
■afagiiard. If Rood oottngea could really bo built upatapi^teg 
prioe^ every pariah in the eonntry lliat had an aera of grooM, 
indepeuduul of the gmtt proprietor, would soon wwann vjih 
tbem. Aeaia, under auoh drcumetaucaa, thort ia a natanl oo» 
atruoliva EMriilty In man which loada over>«ae to build that ma 
aflbid it, beiiiiloi a love of the independenoe of hariug a IwiNa of 
onf'e own, and tho privilegna of a comity vote; so that then 
WDulil he almya a honi of ■mall buiMent reaily to invaat Ibrir 
cnpiUkl, if iheybare it, if not, their labour, la thta moat |>ncaiioa% 
but t«iuiptiiig, kind of properly. 

or the two public aocietica whose pHhlicaiinDa are now bcAm 
ua, one devotea lu anorgioa cntirrly t<i the n.'<.|u)rcni«utaof abo^ 
of ffl«a iuclnded in tlic nboro reniarks— theagrioultURd bboeUW, 
and proaeuU ua with ita thtnl annual Bepori of ita procaedi&p 
Their aiude uf opuratiuu in cMeutially a yrarliad OM, it belilig 
thedr plan, from Uuie lo tiiup to iReuadiaetiuus, withitiobiaetrve- 
lioou and apeeiflcalione an may be needed in illuiti-ation, aad 
reoeiring in return the opiaion* of partiaa who barocaiTied tham 
ont, which ore Again printed and ciroulatod no the n«xt ooO MJon . 
TLu*, ajitivuil'^d to ihi* report Is an«xtonaiveoorrcapoud«ae«ftna 
wbicli mtidi sHrvieeabU luformatlon la^ b« gathered, aad it U 
elated tbot " thero ia ovary taaaon M brieve, from a pntty n- 
teuaiva mIc, in EDglaad aa well aa Sootlaud, tbat the Hti>:«tplkii^ 
aaut out with meiwurcinenta laat year, bnvo b<«o tlioual.il both 
oaeAil and iosiruL-tiiu," and tbe preaeut pnuaphlet eontalnif addi- 
tional pluiis, and a table of inetruotiona, on pointa of importaao* 
tobeattuuded to In regard to th* diSisienl portiona of'^wert 
involved in cottage croetions. 

In the plana published by this Asaodation onogeneml prin'dpb 
luki been adliered to— vis : that " throe aeponto aparLuL-D 
the tuiuiiutiin accoino<btian for a labourera famUy." 

" Some of tliaee plui* nnt arrwi^l to have no beda in tbo kii 
■ml nano of Ibnn liivv mora tbau odf (eiuppliiijc one ef the (ilaii* i 
Keport, in «hldi Uien.- u nxiiu tot a ohil'l'i orili in atUitioii 
parent** beJ)i lu Muue there a a tlii^D«t uid •qAnt* oiiimm 
apartiiient, aiid in otliom one or luoniof tlie beJ-clnirt, ).f» mudo lu 
from the kiuhun or rouiu; hut in all of them thera ii aoconuaoUAliol 
tbnw bettt in Mnarato aiiartmeot*. 

'- It will abo be oliaemd that then are no bafk'doore ta any o, 
iwcliTly'* (liana Tbera )■ a nrj cenaral ounpUlol that baek'doota 
■ cold liaoH, ooit thii i< not mudi lo be woiider«d at. when tbo 
area of tli< liouie U taken into oonaidention. Whon eottaKai a 
ia foin^anJ theyaron)iiohbctt«r in that way than wbsnalat]^ 
aivplaotd (Metlter).tbeeaiatiolnoOD*<ruesicainceiBcloUietiacl 
by iheenil oi ihehoiu*: a link in tti«tcuUerT)J«odaca««yi°oc 
with the aeoeaaity for a baelk-dogr^ . 



THE CIVIL ENGINBER AITD AKCBZTECrS JOCBKAL. 



af mmbrt an»nMRl«d !■ ilia m>*htti ot 



h»l«dbaMdfrgwllwirallr*ffr<MlMtthi>r tlaa. TbahaKcoUln 

iMiDg •!() d*ap DiMa Jrj tmi aoiafarUUa, n* fln-nlaj mU 

bad-nMOM and tiu dr*-«l^ Ig^HNd) MalUr7>iiak, hkT« oaen 

( Ui* piM wiiwn M diSeraatpkrU of tbo country vllkauocaa. 

. H pat u> vitbout auj pUmtMr-irork,— « puikl of Mina 

nporti>c in baiMiafi, ramovnl, u iliaj o(l«a v*, toutj nilM 
oa uif ptantNT. Toe famwr rviulm iia uoim jwnbi, uid *iU bo 
lOBd a (KTiai oT oipvue tn tb«t« puu of th* oauntrj *h«n (roHlona 
•eaKK* 

The coDAniclkia oT diMp uid dimblo flint w>lU u Ihu 

•wribeJ :— 

" FUnt vaUi »r» fanneil b«tw*M twopluikaor frafoet, thalimebaiaf 

wral unangst the flinu in a I^uid ium. In aonia oana Ui« ImsmI 

ntaan Nlectnl. twooannoi UiJ wltb tti*a— on* ouMlda, tli4 oLhar 

ieot ihc wkll— kod tiM aeatra Sited UB wltli •null v Ainu uit liquid 

tlM Bbi« ahMlil ba miiad witli ihur^ Uin'l anal olpan gnrol. 

I m fcnasd of Mek, and lon(Uu>£n*i bwidt of hrMt an alto 

I fr«B S fcM to 9 ft. < in. apart; Umm buibi an IbtMol of 

■■of tn«ka.oB«bwdarai>dth«ollnritrmbv. WltMvbtfcln 

; bo h»l. flat bwldad iloMo miy ba oatd br tbaa* bandn.' 

U^r Tr*3i'^ilii-nr*'« «aaK]p ti « coaileuutioD of aloUMloi, ni>d 

to ahov \hM under jndidotia nutnaMeMtit, acIioniM for 

oriht the dwellio^ at the Uboimiu cumm have not only 

id •A'«ipportiii>(, but hnre prandml beiiclea » bir rat« of 

(fiir th« atpltAt «ialiarknl, And th« cubJMt in oaiutderei) on 

•IMPCW groonda, exhibiting the rMiOtx of CAloulntioua 

DqntriM on tilt* intomttij^ poiai. For tliia pur|UMo, 

Dcebmade to the "Socicl}' for Improrins theOondiiion of 

h« I«haarkig CtaMM," which hiu-II.Obot. erapToTod in hiiildioipi, 

' wlileli otM hair or morp uunaittt of fattda Mtrrowed at Ibe 

not rati- of iotorwt of the d»?, ranging fhtia 3 to ij percent 

he ojMintMna of the Motfopolitnn AMneialion imsIaokiMlywd, 

I exhibiting the oafitkl of tlie Soeictj (Hl,034£} dittrihuiml 

[ the (Sur dHfrrenl waya in which it i* eoiplored. Tbiw 

and 0guT«t form an inbtmliiiv- tiase. In tlie t-itcuiled 

arks, allatloD b made to the model loiluing^hoiuea in Geowe* 

rWrett, PatU)ool-lAiie, CfaariM-«tn>et. Albert-atrvet, and 8oba 

' ChunWn, taa total capital of which •moantii tn St.T-U/.; and 

Ifct nvarage gfm* trnl per luintani fbr 3 jt*n, to 340IK 19#. id. 

■"^"■"•"Twratfre remucprtiUuii uniniiif their appoaia to be Mibjoct 
flnotiMtkm, arlaing partlr from a diwidTanlageona loov 
mrtlj from a too ntea^re mam of bnlliling, for when 
uidifvliiahi ooinn tngMiMn-, atmojrancra wllfariee, and 
era of diaagrecfliont* am ptvportroualtj iacrMMed. 
tihor adrooate* th« appropriati'tn of the ait* of 8inith> 
be erection of lod^ng-houaM, adding that it i« nAr the 
the nwtropcili*, and that In the jiorWi of Clcrkeuwell, 

eloM by, then were^ b.r iba Uat eenm*, SI.TOA potwua tliegreat 
B^fority of whom wen wovking people with bituliea. 

"Nothr ftauSmtthlleUioUiBGaneral 1Vit'aSlca,aniplDr1ngB«T«taI 
koarirv] DM*. Tbc •frrleee of ihoae mm vo loniatiinci raiulradal «liort 
Da(l«e, aad H womM bo oMireutont If t^ llnd In a kie*lli;i fTarn «b>eh 
the; oouU tw r«dlh (nnsonvd. If niodal lu<l|ciiii;-lii>UBa wn onotwl 
id tfcal Mt|Uia«iMad, the PoM-offloo Mnanu would probabl<r ba 
aUvactod to ili^ ia taijf* auBbwe; far it may ba aattrted uriUwnl foar 
of <ontndi«lion, that wbalhrr a* tingle men or vilhfkmiEe^ tbayoould 
»oi bo ao ««a aoeainHodMed. or on larm* ao modcnca, in any other 
le^ing-heaae •haurir.' 

ThB nnia In the model hansM dMerlbad ar« coUeetvd wmU; 
wtobovt dIBcalty; arraan ocoaaianally occur, but dwUoatloiM, 
axMTit tar eaonll annant*, aeuoelj- ever. 

~|n one mm, the actual Iobmb In one year were St., out uf a tola] 
foalal rf llrtlM., wbMl ia toaredv 1 per oenL A tenant i* nry larrl; 
ejected foe aeapajwat. Hie BocletlM naerra the r^ht of duiug is 
Mr rtotouaeondM, or lb* habitual uaeef bad lw]|;uafe, if pMiMtal in 
(ethamonraiiaeoroihar bdfen. Tbeae IWeie augur Mi for the (oeoea 
el tw nndai Mfiaf -baoee exeunt. 

"Ae acperiMeat. lo far ae the peojilD an conMni«<l, haa boee 
entleelj eveMeafal. and U ie bdiend that, tor Uid Futuir, it nil) be au 
alee to tlw opitaliai. if pnfm reganl bg pud to the cipcricnuc of ilie 

KI( a ■ujyreiti'Xi nucbt be vealnnd upon to the AetocUlion* ttiitt 
Ihsu the fooueere la ihla |[0od eauae, it it, that all the iieual raeaiu 
Aeol'l be roeonod to ti>r attracting Ibe oraalnymont of capital to treeli 
■ndertalling* ander tMr laMiigeineati and ai ihi) can ner«r take plaoe 
■Mmoi the orJinan MueeMmt, it might b« imrth tbvir conriileraljoii, 
^^■htfho the l«ue of pwlW an pe ebaieav to ohieb oartain deHnite i>tca of 
^HjlHHMet could he anacbad, would not fdace thnn in a paeitlan lo otoud 



101 



Ihalr opeiaUant «oaMimUr> and. la Ue end, to aaka die whole mmfij 
reeDUBcratlve. 

" The llaelt of S per oenL peofila Aould alao be reOMred. tat ii wUI 
be tnueh tnorelraiteartelnwetoaaund tbeadranluaa aTbealUi; liunee 
(o tboonnd^ than that the orer-etrapuWu* ebouM rafuet (o >v<«ira 
More than a lanlted petora for mone* whiA aan oaly pnride a fcw 
bandfeda arith thie blcMdag. Th a available eaplnal ciait be ioenaeed, 
or the whole thing will *Cudbi« loan ladeAalle period. 

" He MBtlarT eOMIe whloh teva rMahad Aom iBpeomd llTilllnp 
fcr the tobourli^ fl i mt i ate euob a* wight T eaee n a hly bare beea a a pad A 
If jou lake man, aotBtn, aadeUUrei^ ftoua aea&oe altaephei u, boo 
owaJed aarrotiiated rooiaa, and the deprenn^ InAaeaee of tllk, and 
plaoe Ihaoi ondar eenditaeae enlirety oppoailc, improred health aod a 
Uwir nu of mortali^ will follow, ai tOtct hum oauMt It ie actor- 
dioglj band that the lohabltanta of the uev and altered led^ag-beiniw 
have beat eutrioet to a laonallty in the proeortion of only oao-haU of 
that whloh la Known to oooiir to the rvet of the population ef Loodoa. 
... ..Tuialng lo the moral tMulia whieb diauitee of t^ natiuv In 
the dweUliiKe of the people at* Mloulated to {irwleoa. there U a arido 
Ud for thought, la the tiaio of cteanlinaH, decenqy, and domeede 
ooia£3rt% how many good iafluenow may follow and lakie peeaewea of tha 
working maul fteiaed Ant in hie own aeteen, ba wfll not eady hl^Ntf 
heoooa a hatter mna. but will aoek t» elnoua and aivHUM hi* cUUeea 
In the aa«i*) ac<J*k HUf My ■-—"■■i »n' ■■■■■■-■ ■i^'i-M-'*^ fnf 
of a bighc* and mare eodorlag Intaoeat.* 



EjHimrlt* ^ BtUUing Ctnulrarthn; hfi^ a .'Ana* iff IFwUl^ 
Dntu'iagt ta a Utm tvak, StUetti /nua tU Varto if KaOami 
ArdkiUcl*. By HtMKt Larrux. VoUiom far ltU>7. LoBite : 
Fubliahed by tho Author. 

&Uny •loolteat worke hare bean piiMiahad on arebitMUan^ 
but nsoot of thaiD aro far loo Bxptcudve for the Hmlted BMoa M 
pupil* and worfcoieti. Too artietto, piolnreaqna^ and nilBat«, tbej 
may pleaae tbe eye, diffeae • laate^ but fbr all prMtinl porpoaaa 
are lualaaa. The work baftira tia ia of a differenl diaract'^'; it ia 
•aliMly pmetMal,— Plate* taken from tlia actual worting 
drawinifBuf well-known archttaete, to a aeataUtkarta unknown, 
many of the dmwinjn baing made to the lekl liaa, and otban In 
Bfoponivn lo th« tiae of tbe work, fonoing; aa ita titlo-iwM 
Inm-nu na, "aa < Mu m aaiafci* for thie prafoHiaaal nun ancl ll>e 
ope rati v«." 

The volnine befon na eonlaina SO Imperial Platea, each of 
which po*Boa*ca tta apoeial inlvreat, and it ia pabUahad at ■■»cli a 
low pnoe, via. — i». id. per mcalh, far four large plaU* — that It 
la bmaghl whhln the cota|iaa* of any (nving wnrfcmwi. Among 
the g«n*ral wMauta then an naaeaimt and olker windoiNt 
Iwy wlnitqwa, donuwr wjodowa, aabanee and Inner doota, eor- 
aiota, atair ein ni^ roob, akylighta^ e*t«a> towata, ootnmn*, balna- 
tradei^ pnlpita, aereena— and liieaa by aacfa emineot nwn aa Sir 
Cbaijea Virtj, Sir ftoben Snirka, Meaara IVnnethonie, ^nw, 
Kaowlee, Owjlt, Somen Clariia, OollLng, Abtahua, BiUing, 
Onbltt, Ac 

Tlie lint plate coiuiata of a cMMuont window aai) boshig 
■hutl«n, drawn to the mal eiKe, from Ihoae conatttietMl at Iha 
workaliopa uf tlie oelebratad firm of CuUtt and Col; every tlelaal 
i* *o cloarly ihawa, that the menat tyro can underataud theoL 
Another raoaliant axamnla of a cnaMnent window {Plal«e 7 
and B\ with ialenial and external rinTinya. U taknn from 8lr 
CliarlM Barry, and execated at Walton i&naa. The brautirttl 
proponiiiii and duiail* of tfak* window ouy aerve aa a moiM 
to the apaoulaiira builder, who ia often mnoh in want at eitcli 
a aubject. Another window, 33 (not a caaameat) ii of a diflbreot 
eharaclor, aud ie eelect«d from on* by Hr. Shaw, at Oowbridga. 
The arcbltravea are bold and eOeollvc, and havo the f*i^ntmf 
of former day*, when a mon tilling and mmple etyla wrn in vt^n, 
Tlie a^icuiid-llonr windownof iliat eleTeTly-dMlgiMd baildiag At 
tha oornor of Chmuvry-laao ami Fleet-alnct, by Ur. KnowH^ 
exhibit Bame ox<i.-lloni and novel dolula ihat deaarvu attetitire 
Btudy. Then la no buiUlng in Loudon that baa takoa hold ef 
tho popular taete ao raueh na tbla dedgn. The norel tnatmMit «( 
the a}io|h-ft«ni ; theeev^^^il delniboToonalmuthMi; tfaeaooneenfeal 
RM of v><iod foe til* onMBimtal tracory; the iron ooltuana in 
give lightuca*, and bul>l niaaoairy aoljdity, are alt wall attidi«d. 
an-1 tktam a maater-buid in oouatruetioji. The new wiii-b'wa 
(U and SO) ofch.* Clinpul at nootonHall, Cbabirv. by Mr. J, IC 
Ikillip^, nn twautifal i.<«aai|deeof akighly ornamaatiU dttra«ter, 
and exhibit the taalo and judgmant of thia eniintint aod truly 
n*efWlmtrinberoftbenrofaMian.whoae*D<elail* of Gothic Arahl- 
laetnre ' have wbdilialMd him a bme not eaaily effaewL oir bow 
and bay windows then are aevcral eHunpke: one at Fnra* HUl 



102 



THE CIVIL ENGDJEEE AND ARCHITECTS JOCHNAL. 



Lodn (M)t bj Ur. VoBDf, of imKoUr odtMgrm pten. alioiri 
maw tiwtflail/ In packing tke wcl^hta ku<l ihutiera. Auuifaur 
bovwiocfow, from k vUU of ml ui<l while briok, hy Mr. J. 
BilliDK. in full of oatful dttall, tviny mouldtoff txlnc gtvin to a 
bugu nCTilo. A bow window (PUtc W],frnoi "TIw XSlaw" at 
PuUm/ (0. UorgMif •I'cliiteet), will bo found very uacTuI for 
that form of bow tbs pLui beiox aemicircuW; the bouug-iii ot 
til* abuttara haa oacn iMcw with muati thongfat. Id Sir C^arlaa 
Ban^^ oslabraUd worii. the Vrtorm Clnbfaouae, tlia oatar 
mad uuter doon of the principal «ntnuiM an vuaUtoi •tudHa, 
tmry detail givoa to Iha real aiee. Tha innsr doon are foldiqa 
mad Buda to awrtngi thej are at Uonditiaa nMhotpwr, reUMred 
wtth bast Spanish, the upper paaeb glaiad with plata^aa. 
TIm oatar doon art of dial, also biding, with bold bolaotioa 
BMuldii^a, and pNfWNd to act back when opao, and forai tha 
aide* of the lobtf^. The anrichud dooirwaf fPlatoa 42 and 43^ to 
Uaaara. Host awl Browu'a varolioosa in Wooil-BtrMt, bj Mr. 
SeoMn Clarlia^ i* a B])«ciineu wurtLr iuiutiua. Tlw Joon an 
■nqMuUd and nui into apaoa* k(i t!ir Iheoi lu tha walla: they 
an eirmlaF-headed and of bold daaigu. Tfaa apandrsla to 
the «xl«nud alone dnaaiiigi of Ui* circnlaT'hoad are filled in 
with ndii bUage, qnarter-oolaoina are placed on the ndo* of 
Um arebilravaik and au paricfaed Dorie coroioa fprtm H altu- 

ean inpOMBg chitrai-tcr. Dotailii are alao fArai of the 
(Plata 41) with oniaiueiiUl oelliiig, tha Inner ewing 
docn, feud aone of tha intonal fittinm. Tha fnldins-doon 
to Iha Aaatnifalr Boon, Aahton Town Hall (Plate 4A). bj Mr. 
Yooag, ara bold and eflMUre. TIm exlomAl dee Una a ciroulor- 
liead and a ihall-fonued panel ov«r the door, »itrrounflwl by an 
arahtlravB, and aapportad bjr angle pllaeiera. On each aide aro 
two ourichcd tmaa*^ fixed on plain nutor pilnatan, and ■urutounted 
bj a aijDple ooraio& The iulornal fiuwa of the doora hava plain 
arcfaitnro drtaalup, with ouuaolea and dentil ooniioch The door- 
way lo tha Tower at Richmond, by Ur. H. IaxIod, oouuiQa a 
pair of boleettoo moulded folding-dooff^ with glase fjui oTarj the 
r*De»ed moulded ar«dutrav«8 giro dopih and tMldoca* to ths 
dcaign, wldch ia umled on aooonnt of the limitod width of Iho 
tower. On aaoli tide ot the door i> a paneled pilaaivr, iiupportiiiK 
K maiMva cooauU varmieiitatoJ on (he aMet, wiiiuli iiup|>c>rta a 
anull bnlnetrailei) Ixdouny to the window over. Oimiiois, both 
exUrual and Julamal, eogrraa a ooiiaiderable nuTiibtfr of the 
plaWa, aad ara oxeellont axamplea. Th« •■omiiv at Mimt aud 
Brown's wMebonee eoonata of aDricliPil projcctintt mouldinfi, 
eapport«d by ft aoiiea of nioulilod tniam; belwnu the triwea 
tn panaJ-briaad windows, wiih bnikeii temicircular euda^ 
which aheraato with blank panHa throiwhont Uie comicn: tlkla ia 
finMied with a neck moaliiiux Chat iormn n contiBUoua allL 
Plate 07 npn m aU ihe UiUI •lautilaod block -oamioe,eunnouu ted 
by a baluatnul^ at Smith auil Son's pmuiwa, •ximpr of Arundel* 
BKOet. Plata 76 ooulaiiis ihi- main lii-iickvltcd ifiruioe of Bridga- 
Unaea, Richitmnd, iui<t an enriched hall oailins in the tower. 
Plata 48 hai the priod |utl coroico and attic aloi? of " Tha Oedara," 
Putney; and I'mts 7i< showa tha enre* oomtoe of tiie red and 
whit* brick villa at Tunbridge Wetla, whemin the gutter ia cut 
out at Uie Molld m-ai« aad mwd with canwut. 

or r<Wa there an aeveral exoallant aueulman^ the furoniost 
of which we may oonridar that of Coven t-garden Tbcatre 
(Plate M\ OB aooonnt of ita having been iloetmyeil aitico thia 
dnwing «*a eonipleted. The dt«iKti ■■ by &r ltub«n Sniirkc, 
and la one of tha beet eusiplea of roob of laige apau, Ua 
bearing bring Bi feat between Ui« walla, and having formed 
withiu it liir)(« room* lluit won uaed for work*h<^T>a, which an 
aeeurrly vaipcndo] by doubin king and auoni iKxta. Tlic dimon- 
aiooia of tlie aeveml timbera wrre taken from actual Dieaaui«uent 
A abort tln*e wavious to t)ie fire, eKprcaaIr for thia work. Plate 
SI flooilaina Uie drawlaBcd' a mofnt firidge-temc<^, Itlchnioud, 
whafoiu the motuaof tha attie atory are fomicil «iUiin it ami 
over the lio^wama, and the ^rca-KUtter ia ootiatruotcd in hiick 
anit tila, and «bwxI with Portland oemenL Plate :i ban tho 
roof i>f Exeier Hall (befbre Ibe alteTatiiiu), 7A feet apiui, and Oie 
roof of WhIieliatI ClingM'l, at feet eptn. The roof of Dr. Fleuhei'a 
Chapel I.Plato ;!.')) is an exampU of a very dal roof for »o larsa a 
nan aa 73 ft. <! in.; it ia strengthened by nn nrch foimol of 
time thlefcineeia of a-inoh plnoka alteraately bolted Co^-rihcr to 



hratk Joint, and atiffeoed by croea biaoea betsMo the Inieaea^ 
Plate IB ebowe tli* ronf over the Lambetli Bntlia and Waah- 
hottMi^ on Aehpito) a»d WkJeheord'a lauioed prinriple; the apna 
ia W fU U in.. Tbe timban ara licht, but nnnamna, hAving mx 
^naana with ctoa tmaKe between each pair to atitfeu them. 



The roof to Pkrriogdon Hall (Plat* 70) haa a < t i ie «B-fii»it tfSM 
witli o))en timbera; equaia paaeia an fi>Rue>l between toe eollai^ 
and hoeiMBInl Ughia of an ottfoa form an> intiodaead in the 
centre of tha panel. T1i*m are Vightal by akylighla, fvmllel M 
tho roof, and Band over them. Tlie mof te the new Chapel (bM 
IHonuaa) in the IltKenfa-park ia a atudy of eonetnicUoa, o*ar- 
eofoiag a dtflleulty where tbe enppoeta of one end of tlie truMee 
have beao retnored. New stmo^ qneen-poet troeaee h«i« bean 
fixed doae alongmde the old king'4ruae, one on each Mm af 
tha fall length of the bearing aad the anda of all three 
tnuw* are liuug up bv croaa-heada, fixed OT«r an iron boxed 
^tder, 64 feet lous. PlNte S7 iaahammer^Mamroofof Charltoa 
new Church, by Mr. tiwilt; and Plate 03 ahowa three lOoEi tram 
Wnatleiirh ChHfvh, I*ni3whire. 

Tbe Iron Shop FrvnU (PUtos 21, £i, S3, !»), erected in 
frunt of aoRie tiouan at Maidttone, are of tuucfa intereat, 
aa iairoducitig the oae of iron ti> the otnanientatiod of Ibe 
outaide of bmldlqra. Hie *tvl« la peculiar, aomawhat orieolall 
cotumna aad entaUaturea, full of enrichmenta, cover the aw&M 
from ground almoat to rao4| aod much Ingenuity haa boea <l» 
played in eecuring the icreral l»rt» ttinither. Plate XSexUbiH 
a ayntem of lij^tJug and VBiitilnti'iu, liy Mr. WbMioonl, wbWt 
ia effected npou a good prlaelpl<-, t)ie noxioiia vnpoura being 
ouried olf throogh tabea In the o^iting. The coatroctioB of a 
"aun-lifcht burner," with the rcnliUting appatntua orer il| 
ia alao uacfid, aurieii out on the miua nriacipla. 

The eimple, yet olTccUve, screen and ataitoaae by Mr. Tbotnaa^ 
Iht Kolptor, at tbe Begeot'a Park Chapel, of which then.- an 
eerenl plate^ and the campanile lately aracted b^ Mr. Utarj 
loiton, near the bridseat Itichrn'Od, of which detoili are girao, 
nn> oomojendabla Plate i!U is dpToted to tlie tiDber acaifclding 
need by tiriasdl and PeUi in ereetiiw tlw MeJaon Moanmeati 
it ia oompoaad of whole anil half tlniMn^ of dnpla bol atroM 
conatrueaon, and anawerod ita purpcee admintUy. The polpu 
(Plate 1 1) of Mr. Arnold in given, with all ite minitte ukooMinjie 
aod enriohmente: also b r«uUng-dcsk and aeat, wall deaigned and 
worthy of imitelii'o. The white aud red brink viUa encted far 
Mr. Baevea, at Tuubridfra Weila, from the daalgn of Mr. 6. BU- 
liag^ oocnpiaa many of ute plataa, aud will be fouiid oaefnl lo the 
pupil atuaylng villa arotiilortinv. Tliere an two asotUenl axan- 

S1<a of lantern lighto and akyliKbta ; the first (Plate 13) bj 
It. Pcnoothome, ervcled over the Mueoatn of QcoJogy, Jenaysr 
atreet, an^l the skrligUl (31) over the Bteimwe of one uf thenian- 
aloaa at Albert U'ate, by the Ute ThouuM Cobilt. 

The several platen hava beau aiaeuud on aine^ with Butck 
caro, by Mr. J. R. Jobbina, and hava been solooted aud tauefuUr 
arrongwl bv Mr. II. Loxten, from drawings liberally fnrniahad 
bv many o/ our ieading architecla, who hare gcoBroiHly aided 
the auUiur, and enabled liiiu te mrry out tbe autifasaot of 
fonaing a text-book w li ioh eliidl coniain a rasi«i«T oTaeiBe of the 
beat worke of the preaont period. The work i* well got Up, haa 
an artiatiaaUy.d(ai(med froutlsp'oce, the plaice are on a al/an( 
paper, and the whole neatly buuud, in two aiwa — the real iia* 
and half aia^-the Utter having the plato* once folded, »— n^j 
the volume of mora eonveuieut aize. 



PROFESSOR FARADAY^ VIEWa HKSPECTrNO THB 
CONSERVATION OF FORCE. 
Probtwir Fttraday hiia (t eoiue time paat bc«n engaged fai la- 
VMtlgatiiig the nature and action* uf force*, nnd at the Bonl 
luatituticii, on die S7lh Fvbeoory, ho slated the reenlta of nil 
tnveetigations to an ovfrrflowinu andluncF. Prince Albert boMis 
the ohair. Tbe title (giwn tu tic pupc r lie read on tliat ootnaleB 
waa, "On the Conaervation olFcrcc," lhpmiun|iciiit towhitkall 
his iihvrvntlolM tended being that forvn in inilaUructiUc, nnd that 
like lUAltcr, it eon be neither araled nor deattoved. Thia ii not 
inclcL'd, A nrw iliscuvprT. if dlicovcry it be, lor siniilar notioM M 
Ihe imloatrui-ijbiliiy of force have been prevjoutly entettatoadi 
but tbie IB the first time thHt It hiia been nropoaiided ae a 
tcionlitlc truth, euitjiortod by w«ll.c«t>»iilrro(i indncticma froB 
ciiwrimentnl invaell^atiooa. We will on Oif preeent ooouAna 
principally confine onreelvea lo Profenor Farndav's expoaition <f 
the pnuoiple of tbe 9>uservattun of foree, aud aliall reetrrc ew 
mnarka on theaubjeot to a future opportunity: ntertly obeaeviM 
at praMini. that If the principle bo admittM aa an ealabtiaheu 
*i£entt(tc hci, it will have an uiiiveewil applicatioD teaUbnacAd 
of phUoao|>by, it will being nioUpbyaica aud phyaioatt 




THE CIVIL EKOINGEB AND ABCUITECTS JOCttNAb 



108 



I nbUowUp, bkI will opm esuwli-a fl«Ua of aoqiilry to b* 
vnAad bjrIhaMilar thunew lig-ht. 

ViwltmM IWralav aa miaM cwl by ahowiiif tluU tk* Ion* of * 
yov ta«0BtiniMl Uttr tb» aftMa It prodooM twre Kpnmtjj 
•nJwL Tliiu, for •uajda. wImd k piM* of lead <■ tuttek with* 
lunner, ths omoI U IUt*Bnl, — mviI tint Mcna to b« oil Iha 
naolL MI in iwtidiKiBg th«(. fffoet, Ui« hlow nlao mBcraUa tiMt; 
aad I* «>MBpUfy thM ■oredMrlr, Pto&min- Fkndikj afplied (Jm 
ImJ M ft pire* of pboffihmrw, wbioh wm tniited bjr tho b«»l Uiiu 
wwlaoid. How, M rtfprdi haat, the pdoieiple of WBMrvatlon 
kM bM« w«U «l»bUdMd; for it ii Mlinltt«d that but U amr 
torn Mr iMiroy^i, b«t io diAucd or abwrbod, to b« ogTWii mado 
■■■IfaM M the MBMi wbsD ftBothor oxcitinf tamm tmarUM. Tha 
lallM«to oo — ct i oB, tr BM Uie idealitr, otboftt Bud meebuwal 
tant hm boaa giMnll/ admlttod, Bad tt ui • pnnlllDK opialoa 
tkaiomr* «n(Oi» of BMlwBlad power oxtitMtU •qaiviUrntof 
kaXi 00 tW if the beat prodnetd M ta«ftmn<.1 It mil lodicato tbo 
■iifriwtl of neebftotoal pvwor oxorM. Jt, tfawobro^ tho identJtj 
of b«ftt ftttd of nwcfciftMri feree bt ■dmitted, ftmd •!« tbe ioil»- 
•trvettbiUt/ of hofti, tb* priiidpla of eMutmtioB of fonw, to far 
u Ngwda ■ooh»aic»l fomt^ wonM bo aaiablbliad. Again, m til 
tonm an wi pyoae J to ba tOMwlj Bodiftntiom of oiv anil th« 
mtatt tbo aihiiiiMaoB of tlia iDdaatmetihility of hva appear* to 
lavolta tba principls of Um oooaomtion of nil foma, whi^h it 
Wia IV o f — or Fkrada^ooMtct to pron. H«ini|{bthBVepviMyded 
to donoiuUsto tii« pnuopla ia that nuaaar, leaving th« dilB- 
oaltMa iavolred ia partioalarooBritlontlaaa of tb« aotJoa of forot 
to be aflerwviii diapoood of ; and fcr » aatiahcM«7 aolntMQ of tba 
pnUuB loa Biud andieiua that would hart Men tho dtarart 
mod* uf daiaWniL But Tnttmoi Fanbdn; prefer r^oonaidniiif 
{■ tba ftnt piece the force of graritatieo, which appeaie to ba 
laaat reoooMlahle to the oosMrvatloD of mw^ teHag tbirt if tba 
priadple emild be eetabliahed in t]i«aelluaorgnTltatio«i,itiiiiuit 
De ai oace ^liniiMd aa applicable to all otfacr foreea. Tlii wna 
a bold lurilvud e( pvwTUig tbe prinaiile eootcoded fur; and no 
«faMbt if it ooold ban baaa aooovpliahM in the oowae of a ifngle 
ji0Ha «, it wwild hara baeii tba BnetrntithctorYMHliodofeatab- 
^MMtol tfae ooaeerratian of liiroe. Tli« remilt, liovnvM', did not 
^^^^Hthaleonnaafproeteding. Honvverhigliljrwamaycaliisata 
^^^^Hnr FkiBdaya abililie* >a a iMiunr aad a> aa inreetigator 
^^^^■MUe tnllis, w« oaonot aooonl to liim tlm merltof dear * 
^^Mbptu fa bla Icotarai tboee tuatten wbidi an uot ptvriouafy 
known to liii andWnee. Aa an a«««able leeturar and earefUl 
•xparinMnter. h* iawitbont an aifuL UeexpkioawitkufleiaBt 
abameaiv and with brilliani and wdt-^on tri red illaatmtiooa, 
deiealiaH part^bnt be faiie to pmdaoo a diatinot tmpraMton ef 
Ua avUect aa a whole; and ■• tbe ratJMdb of tnanyof hia aaperi- 
WmM ia wigipUiaad, any one not aoqualnted witb the anbjaet 
maM ba eoaa J wa bly mjMified by Boet of th* praheaoi'a Ucujw^ 
■at exoqiting thoae apeeialljr intended far a jaraaiU aadianoe, 
Ha baa alan a atrou tcaden«7 to entiv intn the inetaphjww of 
MJinaa, and to tndnlga In apeeulatloDa nliicfa nqaira more time 
ADd tkovgbt U> ooBprahead the b«aHn(p of than the delivery of 
• bobVB atfbrda. Under thaae dKntaetaaeea, it ia not MrprWng 
that Ur. Famdav Eailnl in hiaaacUavoiartontabllah thannneipla 
of lb« eoneervatwa of fome bj ita apnlieation to that kind of (oroe 
fai wbicbUialaaatmaiiHl Thita, Ibr inaunco, be tbraw bk 
aadjanaa Into a Kata of BTatLfioatiun iaan earlv part of hlalaotin* 
bjr tba tfartlinit annonoeaaeni, tbat oneof the lawa of gnvitaHoB 
ia inooBriatent with tha prindplo of the euuerration of (btce, 
wbilat he admitted tba eorreetoeaa of the law and ilia trutbof the 
prineipl*!. 

Ho law of pbTakal adenoe can be mora dearly eatabUahad 
(ban that tho force of attrartioo ia invanety t» tha aqoara of 
tbe diabuloe: and thi* Uv nmJica not only to gmntetaan, but 
la aa ^'iiriii oindilioii ot all (orov* emanating froB a oentriL 
NaraTthelMa, Hr. Faraday nid ihU law in iiioompraheonible, 
wbUetbe adniUed ita ralidilv: ami (bat it la OHitmllolory to 
tbe prndpla of tbe eaiuarvuion »f liiree, tliooKb Ib^t principle 
ha aflmed Lo be one anivvraally applicable. Thia panuloiical 
Bade nf pmMWidi&K tba qneatioa nndered ita eolotian morv 
dllBcMlt. aail tbctoore deBanded a apadally daar duoi<ta- 
tioii. In ai WB ptlag to mcooalle the IneoMlHiney, bowarrr, 
Ur. Fanday pinngad Into tha meUphyaloa of edanoa, and be did 
■at MtiWiwtarilv utrieata hi* tnXiirei fmin tliat Ubyrinth. He 
aMBWd indnoeJ aJmoat to take fiir nnuatBd th* tbiug to bo 
M*»l, and ibea, aauBiog that fbroo can be oeitber crefttod nor 
JBtr 1ft t, ha adiliMed tbe luroi of ^viutioa tnthar for tba 
fupaae «i abowing a aaeBJng oxofption to the rule, than aa an 



Illwtfntlon of tta applloklioB. Aa tbera oaa ba no oontndkAloa 
Inutor*, wbalU tnia in one OMe nuel be traa in alli theraftn, 
Ubiof Cor gnwtad tbe ptindple of tbe eonaemtioB of fcre^ if 
tbe lawa of |[iBntataoia Pt«MBt any eaatndiotiao to that prio- 
dpie, lh«y ouiaot be waO fiMBdad. PladaK a ball on the centra 
of a board, on which aevanl eqni-diatant eontantric drdea wan 
dnwn. be aaeomad it to be a aolilary globe, exerting altiaotive 
powvr in all diirctioni thronghoat epaoa^ A anoul ball, pnoad 
OB DOC of tho dr«uUr liaea, waa aaanmad to be aaotbar globe 
attracted by the finL Nuw, if thaae two ballL nttnetitig eadi 
Otbaral IbatillaUDoe with a oinaforw, wen tbaeolyottiecta iD 
qMuw, the nmoral of one of toOB to the naxteqniMliMBnt drdt 
woulil, aoeonting to Ibo law of graWtatioB, dtBlniah thaat 
natwJly attracttve foroca to ona-fbortb tbdr fbmar aBOoal^ 
The dimination and i^ipareut deetraetion of power tbna indicatMl 
waa, Ur. Fanday obeerved, eontradictoTy to tba priaeiple of tba 
conaorvatioB of lorotf and yei that prindple, if applicable lo ona 
kindofroroe,BtMUapp)iaibletoalL AKun.if tbcexittenoeafft 
dngla^abe ia apMB be BMOBed, tben eovM th«a be BO esartion of 
mrUadng powpr; bnl Immadlataly ob the intrndualJoa of another 
body, that power woald be ematcd, and tboa atmanBtly gira 
fiae to tba ptMoomeaan of the craUioB of forot, wliicfa would be 
eqMlly aa iiicnnodrable aa tbe ereatloit of matter, and wouU b* 
inoooautent with the priodple wbidi it wu hii ob^ to aMnb* 
li*b. 

Hr. Fhnday oombatad with tboM aaenned difBraltio in a 
varirtT of waya, bat ba did not enooead In vHn<{ubihin« tbcBi or 
at leaat, he biled lo nake it evident to bi« andienoe that ha bad 
done M. It nay bo obaerred, Indeod, that tba giant with wboB 
Mr. Faraday thna unavoceaaAilIy Ibn^t waa a taonxlar of hm 
own onatioD, fcr he not only atanBed a ataU of Ihinga which 
aerar eritttd, but wbldi, if suUtar eaaaot be ertatod. it i* im- 
peadbla oanid eitiRt— the iatroduetton of a aeeond alobe into tpam 
to hrine into opnratian the giavUatiDg force of the flrM, bdnc 
an axiinpUoin of what be taid tt ia iaDoonble to ooMoiva. TA 

iiai tiim in th* oocooiitcr. Ho »ociiiht tb* aid of Inertia, but that 




_ __. _ atrip' 

<uiitDie^ it aignifica tho idltnt** ^ vtaltrr, and Profeaww Faraday 
aaeBi to ngud this idleasM of matter aa laiaol fcrt*; and tboa 
— ia aome manaer not deariy dareloped— gra»il*linf force ia 
anppoaedtobe itond vp la idlaiaMwbcB H, apparMiUr, Maata to 
operate. If tbia doetrina be ndnllted, eone Bon iuli^ word 
ihan "in«rtin" muat bo aooght for to expreea the hidden power, 
nai tattHt fitr«i would be Bon appropriate than tha Ulmtmt^ 
matttr. Aa regard! tbe lav that ultnMition la inverady aa tbe 

Snare of the dStfauce. w* cannot aee that It preaenU any ooBtra- 
rthiB to tha prindpio of tlic conaerration of foroa. U ia aa 
iaIaUiglble whvD appli«l lo pnTltatitni, aa to light, or to any 
ffther OKO onunjilii^ frovn a oantrs. When one body ta rvnoved 
from anotlier, the inBuienoo of the mdialing aoiioni. on each other 
mual duniniah in tint ratio of the aqnarea of the distance; biit 
tliwe Infloauna on other bodlee an profMttiMany extaaded, and 
tbpre la no <liininutioB nor loaa of wne. 

HaviuK myitifinl hit aadiaaoe dniin^ a Urge portton of the 
lecture, vf iih tbe attempt to apply the principle of Inocouaervailoai 
offeree to graTHation, Froftaaor Faraday returned to iu llluatra- 
Uou in dltforenl modiflcntioDa of heat: and being thna on biaomi 

Sound, be prooetdHl much morf olenil/ and aatla&ctorily. He 
owed, that in tbe varie.1 ,wndttiona of heal. It at one time pro- 
duces duriug cberaical action with rine tbe oHccta of tbe voHaia 
battery; tliat the lattw roprodiicf* tlie h(«t io difTcnnl fbna^ 
either directly or indirwtlr, aud that In the tnaaiuiaaion of a 
wdlftio curreol their U an amount of hen* eisdt«l equivalent to 
that which U orolTtd in bringing Uie battery Into atdoo. Thle 
cffeol wna Bon dakriy deBonaimtrO br theaettoa of the u«nM- 
«Iuctric amngemealftn which the deotridty it csdted by tha 
direct application of heat, wbldi may br again nprodiiMd by Ua 
aotJun rf tlie cloetrioily. The Uw of definite nroportiona, by 
wbldi bodiea unite cbemlcally, waa alao addoced bi eapport of the 
prindple uf tlie oonaerrallon of ftiroe, without wbieh tbe definite 
prDporttoBt in diemlMl oonfainatiotia oonld not be maintained. 
Prvfew^ Pkradoy obMrred that th* higher we rw iu tbe ImpU- 
tttionof efrecta,theBore boiutirul And dittinctdoee the priadnM 
oftheoooeenrationof forMapiKMU", and ibeeatabliabBeatoftMt 
windple would be nll«nd«i) with linpnrMiit rtwilla ia aneatUM 
InvrMjgatkine, aa it wonld •em- lo dirwt inquiry la tbe aaarw 
after MUtm which have hitherto not b(«B Uwuebt of. 



104 



TOE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCOITECrS JOURNAL. 



OS APPLIANCES POE FACILITATINO SUBMARINE ENGINZEIUNQ* 

B7 HuoR h: B. Subs. 




■am titv a( im lavnui ucain. 



Tbs sraad nrincipla Ih&t air in an «iidoMil uid larcnsd vtawl, 
pNaeDting ■ DoiizoDUl xirfikce, will reaiat Ui« «ntnooe of wkter 
tiito Ui»t t-rcKl, ptoviiUd Lbour b of (lie wnie deiuit; u tb« 
nUr, La tbv prii)ci|)le which Rrat (IvtmniDcd th« uao of the 
onUiikjj ili*iiw-b«U, mi inatruntDnt now no ofUn xueil in the 
pKoantioa afKiuuiilioii<« uid tlie xubsequeat erection of vrorlu 

Ib lonlitiM wlicrv the <»fr«nlaiu U inadDiIaaiblo, dtliar Ibroogh 
the oMtor difficulty of wmatructioD, the ovdiuiuT ■uapvndod Iwll, 
pOKlMit from a arriiigc M ibo Burface, ofibrdN the ii«c<iM«rjr 
to'wia for Mljiuting the work in such mauoer hi tbo engineer 
tnay doura. It hoa been (o^^utixl, too, to uita the orJlnar; 
■ubnwritM) armour or dreia for the a^juatineDt Jo place of the 
■tonca of a work, which liav« baaD previoiuly fitted at the siu^ 
ft«b 

lu tagSMtlng a now mode of openttooB, b.v wliicU eiiRpeDaory 
action laight be eulirely avoitlud, it would be impolitic to 
dnwiuiMUieinelbaila Jaatniiuliou»d,aa Wing bi-)iinil the aen, 
tihot each would uadinibtMlly biir« its mlvcicnt's, who frotu 
Bnetiod optrations would ockaovrlodcc tbo ndrauta^ dtrivinl 
bj ibi nae, and perbapa look unfavourably on ntiy iunurstiuu. 

The Dow breakwater ia an iuntaaoe of the thorough cSl- 
aaaey cf Hbe ordiaAir bell, jrel at tlie aanie time by lla ut« the 
ptwrrrM of the work baa be«i uacsaawi])' alow. 

TlM |)laa aubmitttd in thia pftpn- far ncoompUihtiif;, u it [a 
•oMifidaDtly aMarted, a larger amount of work in a gyvtn time, 
•amd at al«M «Mt than bj preacul ueona, {a not a iuen> bacy, 
braoght fcnracd 1*4 theory which caeuotirtaDd invtatigation nnd 
l)iBa|i|ilicatiaBof pncCicaIkiiowl*dg«Ui trat itamcriU; but it ii 
boldlj pboad balbn jrou, cballauKinK the moat rigttl iurm ligation 
«( ita (tualltMi to aocnre the deurcS adrantagee of cheapneui of 
MnMmctioit and aartiig of tiuie. 

The pciBdnlM involrad in tli^ BKChtnery now pmantcd tn 
, have all becu thwooghW and pncticnj^ tested; not in a 



Deoeaaar? in ao; lOUliiiiorv iuJ(>p#u<IcDl of aiupeiiaion,da]wDdiiiC 
on tW varbible prepotidnmin: of one or the other o( ihoae «i»- 
moota, that thme uowon ahould be tuider per&L-t and oomiJeta 
oootrol. The aubtlp Datum of tur requires careful nkanageoMM, 
and a perfect nduplation of jiarta to aocuro Ita ewtrd. 

The Kantiliia macbiur, which ia prMaoted to yon aa iba 
iaalrunent for ovareomiBg many of the diSooltiM fatberani to tbe 
Darare of aubaiiQeoiia operation^ cinanaMii amou Mfam the fct 
lowing qanlitiM: It la entirely fadepenilcait of aoapcMaon; iM 
moremonla an entiivly dvpondent on tbe will of ihoee wtthm it, 
and without reEMfmae Ui tbooe who may be atatioMd vlthoW; 
Upoasewea ^Mmwer of lUUngla^e weighty p» as, and at the 
aama tine ia panaelly nbk bv aominon owe, in ita apantticai^~ 
this lUlar the gn«tMt daridacatom of all. Tlieae advanti^M 
must, I think, strike nil, aa coaihiBtng tfacaa nN{ii)aitea of aDeaB 
which hnre been nlurnvB wuilmK in the ]mMat know* OMMM 
for oonatructitm worka under nal«r. 

The fonn of the oaehine is not arbitmrr, but dcpenda etttMy 
on the Dabim uf the work to he perfurmed, nihtptiuH ibwif to 
tbo vntioua circutnitniicrai niteiiding luiy ^nm poailioa. B* 
rrference to the annexed clinirnuu you will pMvuni that when ai 
rent, bcioK entirely eaclomt, ita diaplnoemaat at watw ba^ 

Snterthanltaown weight, it (DuatllaBt at iheaur6MaL EaUilaf 
rough a miui-hnln at thn (•'•p (wbioh la closed «iUicr (ran lb 
inaida or outside), you drwaiiO into the iaiariM- of tlie uacbiM 
portioM of which are walled off 041 aitb«r«id^faevilBgdaaaibMK 
theae ehamben va «onneoied at or near Hie faott^ni vl tlK fif* 
m a, which ^>ena by a oook fr, outwanla to th«eataii»l m 
iog wnwr. An openiui in the boUou of the raacbiae at 1 



you, 



fautanee, bat by montlia and yearn of oarefal inveetiga- 



Air fe&d water, tbe two oombined and powerful el«roetit«, are 
.h diffienlt and dan^roua to contcml with, Wnier, by iu 
^grarity carries ua downwani: air, by iu ligbtucM or buoyancy, 
arriea t» upwai^Ia or Iwepa ua nt the mir&oe: therefore it bKones 



diaiBunons ia cloaed by a dour or doors, smcen^Me ef bsilf 
opeaied or oloaed nt plananrsk The chamtwrn X, X. ar« Uk nwfaa 
couicoted U too by ft scnaller pipe cc, which opou thraob ifee 
top of the nuoniiie, and to which opening ia affixod a uiibk 
papa, with coils of wiiw apdrally enckaed. Stancbaa on tUa laMr 
pipe J J, nllow alwi comiuuiucatiou with the htxger or w iafcb^ 
chamber. 

At the euifree of tbe water, pla<ad on a float or r^mtl fv lbs 
purpoar, is a reeeiTsr of vanable <Iiiu«nBiona, to which ia '"-fft^ 
at oiie end a hollow drum or rsej, tutbe barret of which »i 
the other end of llie fiesihle pipe a. Irading to the lop of tb* 
Nautilus. At tbo otbor eud o( aiid in conaaotion «itb tbi 



TRE CITIL ENOINEEB AM) ABCHITECTS JOURSAh. 



lOfi 




aitiuu Til* or imi »nmii >im)i& 



> pgiwar ft il sUwib t^r-tomlanHiiig rracnn. Thin l:onlbi- 
*~'1lti tfa* NaatilumActiineiuitkiUptoil to cnginMriiif 

tpemtor, with hi* AKiatAiiU^ rat«n the mnclune tlirou^ 
y whkli !■ tlieo doMd To detcciid, the wat«r-w«k b ii 
, uui the cxtenwl watar flowa tntv th* dtMotwrs, X, X; 
NUBt tUu« R o>«k 1^ on » pipe opening fmm the efa«nb«n 
il«, is <»>pii«-], in ottler thn^ the air eaotinng, mi nnbter- 
iflow of mter iimj lake pfaoe iuto tlie ebaaibtiK. Tho 
Mod of wetgfct of mxw ommm k ilBatmctloii i>f buoraoay 
lUi|ihiMBMt hf th« main ttMlf, tuid Uio Nantiliugrartnatly 

Am •Ood U it i« birty amlpr valor, in order thnl tlio 
I vmj b» qniot and nilhout ahoclt, Ui« water-ooalc It, u 

The rcMiver at tbe iutEm^ boiog pivvjotuljr cliargcd hj 
■^MBip to a diNiiitj aoBiBwliat griAt«r than tliat of tha 
A III* d«ptli ptvpoMd to altain, on* of the Imtnclt cock* od 
r « <^ ooBMcting tbe obanbcn at to|\ ia ofmwd, and the 
\tn int/> the wtirkinjc chamber, gnduallv oonJenaitig vuiil 
ttr equl lA tbe denaitj of the watv without it attuned; 
' indmUd bf propfr air And watar goaoes, /,/ ThoM 
' III! ill lug, aqiiu pouiU, ahnwing the eqailibriiun of fbnoi 
t and WTlhls, tbe o/ven to the botttom, of, hjc ranoTvd 
tA, an<l ocatauDicatjoD ii h«ld with the bottom on wbich 
lotUoa U n^ng. In ord«r to niowe »t>ont in localltiM 
Udea or currenta do not alt^ o»aratio«», It ia only n««e*- 
at^ out nf tlia bottom of tb« Naatilna, and plnciiifc tha 
t^oM ita aid* tbe openUor nut; mora it (by j<uihini(1 in 
netiotL When eunvnta or tide*, however, unm KVATt 
mea ntreaairy to depend upon IiumI uolnta ttom wblcli 
h(M may ba made In iiny direction. This Is aoooniplMbad 
luin iM hotiomof lh«Nauti)Q«*iiiifiD)(-tH)iniif fMcnliar 
l^mn, li,k, tbroagt) which Able* ui»t jcum over iiulleys to 
jBdial aide, tbertoe up throUKh tnbni'(to preveut them from 
toni, to fwd ov«r oairillntiug or B«iu{;iiig pulley* ptamd iu 
IW of lb* em I re of gravity of thf Nan 111 u% and UieoMto 
Inta of aSliBiFnt mpectirriy. Tlie object to ba gained 
ing the awingins piiliry* in tne plane of oeotn of gravity 
Riaaa, la to bold ibe macbUie ateadv and to prevent 
too. Within tbe tnaditn*. and directly ovn- Ibe abova 
F-bMCaa, are wlndlnaata for vinding in the cabln^ By 
C tbwa wii>dlaa»ii tnnveinrbt may he edeoted, and of 
tta nnnber of Ui«*e oablea will d^od on tbe variable 



^Jol 



:bL zx.— Aran, \6ii. 



eharaetar of the ettnatioa to be ooenpaod. Ilavuig tba" tecnrH 
tha DMwiaof deaoendiag. oammnniaiting with the Di>tt<>ni, &nd »f 
monmeiit, tbe nvit point ia to aaoenil. Wia^t or vrnter hu 
oiused n de*tructfoD orbuovuioy at fint, and ooaatqnent linking; 
if, then, any portion of thin waiiir i« removed, an upward eflbrt 
wtn at oDoa b* nortod, esiutly proportlonala to tbe vrelgfat of 
watar thrown oft tie air in tlie rcoeirer at the earfiiM being 
oonatantly nuuutiuu^ at a higher di^nrity than that ortha water 
below, if' we open th# waier-eock 6, and at the muu« time open 
tha eock on tbe top pip* ce, thrnwiiig tlie ooudenacd lur tvom 
tha raodrer abova dimtly on the aiiTfao* of tha water In tbe 
ehitnibcra, niavumcat and oon>ei|iinil axpulaion of the wataf 
uiuat tftjie place, aud an upward niovemeot of tbe machine itadf, 
wliioh will riae to the asrekca. 

It ii evident that If, previoaaljr to tbe expnlaioo of the water, 
the Nautilus be affiiad to an object below, tha power a^artad in 
that object will be exactly proportionnta to lb* weight of wstvr 
expelled, and di* power will oontiuue inereaaing, until iber* 
beiUDO Airtherwclglit (o be thrown off, the nuuinnn elTeet Ii 
produced. To apply tbia power to tlftlngmaaaM of aton* or rock, 
proper arranmiUnta are nffixad to tha oentn of the n|M>nliig In 
the oottaoi, Gy which connection can be iumI* with the weight, 
admitting at tlie aame time tha twinging uound of tbe oUaot 
auapendM, ao iliat It may be placed Ta any T«quirtd pomtion. 
In tbe conatraetlon of iiermaneiit wnrke^ or tb* noveincnt of 
otyecti whoat waidit i> koom, or can be (atiBiatH, a wniar nr 
■o-oalled lifting tiiM !■ tdnoed on tbe aide of tbe water fhambor 
which indintea ibe lifUuc power exereited by tbe Naalilu* at 
any moment. Tlie ailvanbiM of thie gnage will be recoguianJ, 
fnumuch na (without it) the eloaaat attantlon of the operator 
working very c*iitJoaidy, would b* necoMary to deteniiine «1imi 
the weuht wm orcrcome; by Ita aid, however, tbe opamtor 
boldly throvra opcu all ibe vaJvw pefiniary to develop tbr pr>wnr 
of the N.iullloa, watching only tk* gnage. Tbe water having 
rMched the proytr leval iudlartiag the rf^slTwl lifting pn««T, 
bo know* the weight muat ba orereooia^ or n ii««rty so that tha 
valve or the oncka may be at onoa eloaed, in order that the move- 
meut may Uke phvoe horiamtally. A moment'* rcllodiiin will 
ahow, that if there wet« not an inilex of thia i.-han>rt(T, mrelea*- 
n«a* or Inaltentlou on tha part of tbe operator, bv leaving tbe 
cockaopcn too l(Klg,migfatdarel^pa power grentertlMnreqiilrad, 
and the Nautilua wotild itort anddculy apwai\t The expanaiva 

15 



106 



THE CrVIL ENGINEER AND AHCmTECTS JOURNAL. 



I 
I 



power of kir, acUnK npora Ui« inccmpnMiUe fluid wkwr, through 
iIm opMiiiig in the IwWan, givM « moBwatnn, whlcb hy ru««w- 
■ire dev«lopnenU of upauJoa in tli« worldog dwinlw, if oob* 
•tantlf iaOTMiIog the Telocity of th« Naatiliu upwsrdM, nnlil ia 
ftaj eoDBileMblc <Upth of water, tb« rcault would be ucdoabtedljr 
of ft TOfT Mfioiu ehonbcCer. Tkk« for ntmpllflcaitloa Um Nau- 
tUu in 33 f««t of waur, the bottom cover* iMMVwl, ud an 
•qoUibriiUB &t IS poomU to Ibo iitdi tziMii^ bftWMsn tha tur 
and Um w»Ur at Uw level of the bottom of Ui« nuchioe. 
Upward momoioit ii comroiiaic&tod tlie inataut lite machina 
RM> in tbe ■lu[btMt degree, ths ailatlng •quilibviiun i> deetnj«d« 
and the higuy elaatio qadillM of air aMuue pnpotid*m)c«, 
axartlng frmn tho rigid larftca ot «at«r below, lui iuipulmve 
•itbrt Qpwanl in the dinotion of leait rrnalancvL At encb euo- 
eaauva moment of npwani maremeat, tbu impelling power 
inerenaei, owing to tha io er eaied diaparit; between tlie pnuiaare 
of &ir witbln alragglingtbr •aoap^ and tlie water without pr*- 
veottng that «eo»p*. lb BMMitM thne iltnatad beoomoe a 
marine rocket (m roUi^), in which tlM> propelling pov«r ia 
•xbaoetod ciily when the auHJwe i« nMuhed, and a new equili- 
brium U oblaiiied. It will nadilj be aMii, (hat wer« thia dilfl* 
ottltj notoTcnMoie, it would beimpoMfblotogureru the Kantilua; 
for, rifting with great Talocilf to tha ■arhco, the luachiue ia 
carri'xl nbovo Iti unlinory flotation or water-line; a littlo more 
air eaaipea owins to the dimiuiahed naialanoc^ aa that level ia 
pawed; the recoil, or •uisi&g downwardly caoaea a oondMuatien 
of til* air raeMdalng in the coamtMr; a portlom of the apace pra- 
eioiMljr oocapied bjr ur i> naiuaiod by water, the bunjaiU jtower 
bicomea loa, the machine etUlc* elitffatljt more bv condi^amtioa 
of the lur, • larger apoM ia ooetipied bj water, and the Naulilua 
redeaoendi to the bottoen with a ooutauUr aocelerUlng movo- 
Bseatt eerioualj lueoovenieaaing the oMraton \>y filling more or 
leaa with water aeojrding to the deptb. For mimj luootba the 
dlfflouItiM juat ennmeratnl baded all attroipta at control. A 
might attaobed eodd b« lifted, but the betAnt it wm entinly 
anapended, befbra die valvea ooald be oloaed, npward movement 
wu comBimkKted enlinljr beyond ooalrol. Thia dUHeultj, ao 
fctal, baa been ovetoome br an arrangement of the bottom of the 
Kaatila^ with chonnela whioh rulinte Crom the ojiDiiiag to an 
itMSUae direction, debouching at tlie aidce of the aukchiue. The 
BUffMiit thca, that the »ir, hj lUt expanaion from dimiuiihod 
wiatBnce, or bjr tlie tntroductioti from abov« of a greater volume 
Ihaa oaabe aualAined by the water below, reachee in ita down- 
mrd pM*Mr, the level of thcao clijunbet^ follawine tlie dii'ccLioQ 
of Uaet Kautance, il paaaea through theae ohauneb ruid eanpca 
into the eurroiuidiDg water, without of ooiuaeaflvcliug the inove- 
ment of the maohlne^ I have thua, I truat, abown the f'rinelple* 
on whlich the engioMriiig fiwilitie* of the Nautilua dajxud. 

FLnt, on natural pnndplea, from cotuttrootion, it muat be 
independent ofeHepeuBiuOi oud here allow aw to bring foreiblj to 
jrour miuda the diatlnctlon between a maokine which, bv im own 
pomtr, m^ daaoend, aaoeod, move horiaoulaUj, lift welgbte, and 
tranaport them bv ilwlf (for I aaaume the operator to ^ a iiart 
OT the raarhiuc^, n.ud Uie uriiuniT diring-bcll to long naea, bv 
which wo are L'i)abli.-d to jMrfurui the tame operational after mui^ 
time i;<eat iu Ibo preparation of piling, platfortne, eoalToldiDg, 
oarriago-wnj, &e,; aod where nil Docoaaary movemeota In the 
pfOMcati'-a of the worli mu>t be mjide at tlie rarfMe through the 
interrention of eigoali, whic^h ia nil caeca mnat be more or loaa 
liable to orror and uiiBUiiJerstaudiug- 

Suppocing tbv tame aVilloil Mid car«fu1 men to be placed nuder 
both cooditlutie, tlie ono time in the ordinary diving-bell, where, 
whco tbay have determined on tbo noocaaary mnvoiDenle to be 
nad^ they aifital to the autfiwc. aud await, fitst the proper nnder- 
■taoding of tneir wi^ea, aud llieu mibeequentlj, their execution 
hj Ihoee who cannot know pnwiM'ty the amount of aaeiataiK« 
re<TDind: or another time, in a nachfue poaawriug the capabill- 
tiaa herelofors etiameratod, bj which tbe openitor, having hie 
woilt iliroctly before bim, watchingatl theToryinffdrcamalJuiooe 
whicti await hie progr««a, foreeee* and tqtpllet mneelly bie own 
hand to the work, govcrntog and directing In penon thoee opera- 
tioiM which 1m roquirta to he perfonaod— certainly the bolauco 
m«at be nil in brour of the latter poeltion. 

Another thing in the caae of the ordinal^ divins-bell, much 
time ia conanmcd in making; the ne«e«»U7 pTepantaona to oom- 
meaoe the uae of the maclituoi la th* other taM, when on«e 
arrived at the epot reqairod fif iu the wata^, it ia randf for Im- 
DCillale atrrice, either to examine the bottom prenotu to the 
loeatioD, or to oommenoe the fuoodationa at once. 




To apeole now of that portion of the naeUiusT wbkh 
at the eurftoe : It ie neceaaary in order to rapid moramen^ i 
the aapply of air which, acting on the water In the «1 
ehamben, rnujwa the devalopnent of the UftJag power of tha 
machine, ehould be in anffident qoantitv, ao that no del^ mav 
ariae and that a coaAaot eupply may be oontionallT admded, 
that there may be no diminution of deueiiy ta the reo^tver. It ia 
aUo nipanary that tha density of the air in tbe reeeirar alioaU at 
all Umra be greater than that of the wnUr at the depth to whiah 
the machine daocEiida, ao that the aupcrior pnaaore of the air 
Bwj predtioe instantaneoua movement of tbe water. A ptopw 
proportion of denaity in a reeeiTer would be about ooMuid 
greater than that of ilie wat"^. 

The amount of nir cr>ntiQua1ly requinyl for tbe re a pim t oey 
porpoaee of tbe operatcra, and nlao br tha pnrpoae of lifting 
weights, demancle a larin iiUD[ily, wUch ie ODlahud frMn the 
ateam-ooodenalDg pump directly to tlie raoriver. Th« alr-poam 
are eonatrocted to throw any reqnirad amount of air, eiic}i aoS- 
dent if roquirod, to work two or three, or even mora maohioea 
Kungcd in lifting beA.vy wtighla. 

There ia uo heatbg, owing to tbe npid eondeaastaon of air at 
high deneity. The pumpe will woik contiuuoiialy at tha hlghaat 
donalty, wlthngt any peroeptible inoreaaa of teenpemarei TIm 
economy of workini; Mveml maehinea from the aama or dilfiuaBt 
reooiroTi, auppUod by one pnmp^ ia great, a« tbeaavingof laboor, 
fuU wear and U«r, m one engine over ae<reml, ia quite app»r(fK( 
whioh economy ia due In part to the independence of muptaMlxn, 
allowing the receiver to be placed at any eonveoieeit point, •*«■ 
quite dietant from the Nantilua, in^uiach aa tbo ptpe maj be 
eupportcd on tbe anrfaoo of tbe water to tbo point over tha 
work itselt 

Ravine the powerv of air and water then at control, to obeiata 
the nae (? platforma, tnickx, and oarriw»-way, to lo««r atoaaa 
into place, ao that they may be propeny dopneiud, yon may 
readily aee that a eaiiaon or float, properly anuig«d with ngara 
to the relative ceotrea uf mvity and buoyancy, nay ba imovad 
overor near tlie w>>rk, A Toadof alane, according to tha capacttj' 
of the citiaaon, may be plaoad UDon it Hai'lng this eabaoa ao 
arrangnd by diviaion into chnmlwrm, Ibat the water canuot Bow 
from Bide to aide, and conatructoil with water valrea and a con- 
nection wHh the receiver, when the land ia properly olaoed npoa 
it, and the waler-*nlvf« opened, it will oummeuoe to sink. B«K*- 
laling ite descent elnwly by the aame utocaaa aa tbe Mautuaa 
itaol^but goT«med from above, it may Da plaoad in {iropar peai- 
tion, no that the leaat poguiblo dialAOce will be roquiml to be 
paaicd over, in removing tho stosee lo loveml to their ultimate 
poailion of pennautncy. Aa the Weights are removed, 1 1 ie obrkna 
that more water will be required to be admlllcd, in order to 
rataln the caiaaou at tha bottom or on the work. Tli* whole 
load being remored, to retnni to the enr&ce, it will be aumiy 
ncceiwary to throw from the reoeiver at tbe eiir&oe a porlaoa of 
oondenBod air, to cnutw it to rue prepantory to ita receiviag a 
new load. 

The comparative coat of lowering away atflnn in thia miaaiitri 
ae oontnuted with the ordinary crane, can hartUy be donbtod aa 
being fitvourablc to tbe £nt method, inaatnuch aa water is vnlae- 
leaa, and the anpply of air required to eipe) that water, aa 
delivered from the oondaaaing pump, oan bear but a alight ratio 
of cn«t to the labour required to work tho ctanat. Tbe eoat of 
working a steam-condeosing pump luSicionl to lower aa Bianj 
stones aa would supply Iwo macbiuee, aa well aa woikii^ tka 
madiiufB theuselres, would not be more than thirty ehilliuga pet 
diem. 

Where wator tnuispnrtatJon of material Juaflbrdod, thacwaaooa 
tliemselvee may be used aa the mcAna of traneportatuin of the 
stone frum the qiutrnr to the eite of the worlc; aud tbeu folfiUinf 
their real putpme, of depoaltingtheirload la the bottom. A gnat 
bdlity afforded by tliia pruoMa is, that tliem ainet alwaya m n 
annpfy of material below, in advani?e of the miiiirrmiiata of iIm 
adjusting macbinoi, ao that no delay can aiiao by waiting tar 
materiala. 

For removal of roclu: the facility that is afforded by going 
down directly on the bed of tho rock, there drilliax a sartaa^ 
holes, eubaoqueotlj chatging tbcm, nod then explo^liug Unoi 
connectedly, would aoem to Iw almcat eqnal to that of the quatry. 
If large inriaaei be detached, eanidik inflated or ehatf^.l frnn the 
teceiveia, may be affixed to them (IT too larva for the NantOaa 
Itself), and when lined, towed to tlie place of dapoail, aud thara 



THK CIVIL £NOIN£EB AKD AACHITECTS JOUBKAL. 



un 



*i 



•4Imu) Uboitr akiM out aow b* and W»» «a«n br itCMii 
Mir fi«ki rebttilMlfc oaaiMt b* pwaMl through ae gnat « Uujgth 
nt hoOTt Mxi tbmgli tutuik t«Bi)ia»tai«, m u ■•ocmhj, wiUi- 
cM «cw4tiw»tioin Mt Mr doc* not diuifn it* danal^ bjr piMug 
Ifciwgli gnM ii»t»u»eik or bjp « mnteraU chft^« cf taniNimiur& 

B»ruigftHpply«f •lr»tth« nieaMtry dMaity for a notlvo 
power, it Buy than ha tmi w aueh, to propxl tb« Mcenkrv drilb 
iw faanng t^^ka, fajr harisf th* nropM' otfiiiiM pbwvd witbiu tbt 
MiMiiliM, uil «xhMMiiBg to tM ■lu&ML Air b«iBg M tb« 
Mna d w Ul ty m atMai, ud ooolaiMd withm lite notivan^ wluoh 
ac* ■bBMpbwio boikra, -m lu&y opplj tb« pow«r* of air below. 
th> WDM •• MMiii to tho ■urfaofy to tiM jmtanauMndiaif 
■■hour which nuy bo raiaind, T\>nv a do lUfffrHua bitlWim 
titimi MoMH at the HuiMdMiwty in U>giriLppliaklMB,utotiptlhat 
In tfa* OM of air, wbicb ia a luon lubtla fluid tbkn ■Icmd, wo 
mni o w pc iio idd ll ioual oare la lfa< anwiganeot of nlvea, &a. 
n«pow«n<if lur wfaiobcanbadovaloiMd M tfaa •wikee in but 
raqairoil uaount, ar« not oul^ applinbl* to tho working ot drilu 
tat boftng look, but the mwiim (yfTof pilo* in tha pgrapantion ot 
fomtAu'iODM, and for &[iy iilliiT piirpoM wfaa(« tho ajipliAtkm of 
n — ■! labour at oonipaiativalj high coat, ahould if poaaibl^ be 
obviaud. 

Ti> aftW off pilM for fooudatMna. If oao pile ha driTca or cut 
off at the nquaite lev«l, the Nantilna, whiob by eMiatniction 
TCtaiM ita lowtr aurboe in a Iwriuiital pmitiou. reating on that 
pU^ and voiUag a aaw In the pLaae oc that lower horiaontal 
munet, will of tiaoaadty. ont all tha pjla* with which h nar bo 
branghl in eontaei in the aana plana, tli«n preparing llt«j|rUlage 
Mid planking BooeaMUy, whan kiwMvd, tho NanliliM peaunc orar 
itnan oaoaa it to be aeourely affixed to tho henda ol the puea ao 
MtoK 

JUa PMoilMt that, unloaa Tory cnrafullyairaoged, any aubmMgfd 
Mad l i aa w p d i ng nipidlr, and atnkiug on any projaetlng ohjaot, 
wootd be li^la to be thrown from ita horiaootal podtlon, and to 
beoTerlnrnad. AaauiiM that theordinarrbdl iadaooMidiaf.aBd 
aMkaa on a projacttug or abelviiig rock, lowering awnv b^ Lba 
MlfiMei nnliM tha iigual* are diattoctly tiiiileruood. ibe chaaoM 
would bo TOry gnat of an ot-ertam, reaolting in gnat daagor to 
thowwithiu. 

In the okae wli«ro no mapeneioa exiati^ it beoomaa nam wary to 
Drvaroame any aueh teodeucy to daugtrr, wliieh ia dona by ao 
biraonlaing the otatraaof Inioyanoy aud of i^nvity, that under 
■a oJrewBWfaoaa oan thara be bnta rery aligbt deflMtiua bom a 
hwiftintal pnitkm. titariljr acta downwiuda and boflrasey 
npwanlot both iu rertioal hnaa. Conatruct a mnchma ayin- 
■Miilaally. then, with the eeotraa of gravity and baoTanor in tlw 
aame vertloal line, tha mia near the bottom, on aooount a( weiaht, 
Um oUmf by peeotiMity of eoaatmcthio, aa tu rviouvoil an pooiilile 
&vwitbo&f«t,ora«nMrthetapaBBiayb«L IC, byany neaaaibe 
beiiaouial poaiticn aboold be dotroyod, both foroM at oooa 
aat to naion ita original or eonoot elnta^ vrnvity downwanla. 
bwD^Micy apwanla; and thn power or c^tive lover whioh 
taOiU lo mUm it to thia htiriaootal atato, will depend on 
the cliaianw apart of th«M two eaoiraai tharafore I may lar, 
in a pcupciiy oonMractod nuwliine an orwtam could aonr be 
axpaiieoced, 

TUo ia n nay imporlant eabject to l<e oooaldered, for a* there 
iaaoolu^u or rupa to enitur return to tht aurfoo^ nuluaa thia 
paint were thoroughly Kuardcl then would be no aafety at all, 
•tnoe if Ike Nautiloa oaoe r«iceir«d an inclination by thoaecapo 
of air froia the iipfwr tide and outnuico of water on the lawvr 
•hbt the noTomeat would Incraww until the whole might be 
Ofwrtnmed. 

b woi Jd be nnadTiaabI* to (ay that any givan amount of wnrk 
conliJ bv pcrfonned by the NauCilna oiaiihine in a ^vsn timo 
oHlar all draimManoea. llie power of the machine ■* poeitive, 
■nd am b* eortainly roUed on; but it may Botalw»a be poadble 
to ««•(* that power to ita full axient. Thelangtli of^tima requind 
•nniikiBergea &nt<la» micbiur. lifting Stona^ will bo two Mid 
■-half Bitnutoa. tioanii ilbwn aluwly, flO feat par lainnu may 
be allainad. While Uie niMiliiiiE ia deaowdiag, the wcnkint! 
chunbar nay be flUed with air t4 tlie proper denalty to naiat (he 
■ntnnoe of water whtn the buttom aoT«q- ia ratuoved. Two 
aalnllUa are luAeient to uncUnp and nit* the covpra. If tha 
sl|tia( to beiMaedlieimiDntiiLtclTlH.-ui'alh.iuMMm^theucocMary 
BMMWetiwiia oaa be luaite, the irntrr oi-cka are oponed and theair 
la thrown Into llw wnter olianabeia, which cut be eotirelv 
■Bptiad giving lu full lifung ei^iadiy of 6 ton* in one and a-hau 
matxu. 



^^aina 



Aa to Riovaaiant horisontally. — Ever^ practioal mind <nn form 
iU own oonelDaiuua aa to the niiidiiy with whWh tMh a Uioyant 
maaa oouM bo lUDTcd throUKo the wat«r. An estnuA from 
the report of Mr. Gay, Chief KngiBw*. VA. Navy, to th« 
Buraau of I>odia and Yardt, will rnify the statoBienla 1 bav* 
isado?— 

"Wlih tha awiala tiw of two wpKi w aeJ pwecaw, I d Mn adad 

In the UD to about 80 IttM below tha (wAoa of tha walar. Tba Ihn* 
ocoupied to pnp«n IktUltai rwoh (he bottom wai abnit An etiMMa 
•nd (Iwty M«Midik and about a nhiDte aad a- half (o rMvn to lb* niffato 

One of aaTamI Uodu «f graoila, wdgUng alieut Ibnr (on* «aA, ' 

had beoi firaviowily pnpated, and pbeol eo Iha batum: tho beU «aa 

attachidto (U* alone b; a ' bwia.'. The time OMupM In teouhiK 

the Mopaaad oeming «p waa about three miautee I J«ee«ni«d 

widi the Itmt, and, by the aid of («o mM, IniMportad it aevtnl foel 
taunlly, with aa oia<A«MaaaHeaiild hale Wan dose w«nHaomend*4 . 
upow a'oMa, a^th (ha adfaMagc of flaeiag Itat any point er m any 
derired portion.' 

Bv skilful and praetiaed mantpolatioB, Uw povera of ny 
mnehiueTymnitbedondopedin agrtntordegrealaaiibjnnakilfi^ 
liandlin^. Id aoauiring tlte nmemary aktll, the n m iat r y length 
cf timenqoIrcddepaiMamn^oB tbaooaplioatioaof tlie prtif 
clfto Inrdrad. ortba dalaila by whidh tha loaulta are obtained. 
In working the Nautilui it ia not neceamry that the otieralor 
•bonldboaKMatificmanorDnotiaaliDechauio. Byiheabaolttta 
control of natural elemenU^ tJM will of tha opmtor aa it wora^ 
dlractaand govema the moreuentaof the ratebinK It b thaa 
tbaopetntioaiaof tbtnwchinoaraoouspanttvelyinaxpennr^KnM 
von an m^nirad to pay for labour nloacb, and not to eorapenaal« 
for the goniDa to oouprchend or tho akiU tooootrolnocanpUoalod 
anil dolioate inatmimnt. 

In any paper deecriptlon of a now «y«t*m, of wbateror antute 
It may My It U Impoaalble to ontor into anmaeDt detail to eoabU 
tha mind at a aln^e ^anca, or by a nngle bearing to fiillyoom- 
nrehonil all or eren moat of tho adnntagea dainied, or of ih* 
dimdrantagea whioh nuiy be found nppareoL lutheaaMbowevar 
of the ajHiem which 1 have the honour of preaantiug to yon, aa 
applied to aubraariae engloaaiing, baaad aa It ia on purdy natural 
pnndplasi wboae partial application hcfetofarehaabeenDttcDded 
with a d^Toe c^cucoaatt certainly of a latiafoMiry cbara««er, tli« 
principloa laid down I tnial arc k> eaaily undentood, that Boooe 
mo foil to admit that, eortainly if tha prindplea in thdradapbt- 
tion in the Nautilua, u« governed aa laortaoniod, the value of 
the Iniprorementa time made muet bo oi grant nmctical impor- 
taaoe to Uw OBgjnear, hjr raodoring hia labours Bee b%ua much 
aniirtty. and enabling him with confidence to undertake worka 
of pcculiitrthnrscteriatioB of podtion, which previowdy oooaideiudi 
would have acciunl baaardoua. 

I Huuot flatter luyaelf that In thia eyatam, a aovarciga pauaew 
baa been dieoowad for all tho dangarotu eymptoma whidt ihe 
wigiimr mceta with in the pnoliee of hia prafemion under water; 
but 1 truat you will admit, that certainly hia tolla uuy b* 
renttered light«r, hia riakadSmuiahed,luaeipeDdltur«aourt«d«d, 
hia lime aaTtd by tUa p r ooeaa. 

A dtetob of th* oonairuotloD of a work, by praaont nroeeea, 
and by Uie um of the KautUoa, may be pennittoJ me. We will 
■uppdae tho locntion Micctcd, and that the impniciiiaability of 
oooatruDling a eotfenlAiu bu reuderod ncceeaary tha nae of the 
orJioarr diring-bell, whidi w« will alao anpfioae la already vn- 
Blniot«d and rtMy for uia. 

The firat atep will bo to oannii>»o» driving thepilaa upon wbkli 
tbeacattildii^ » torMt; theacMffDldingmnatthea booonalniatod; 
tba nila nuat be kid for the poaawe of tho anqModing IriKka; 
theae truoks mnat then be plooed ia podtloo and pnf »nd fbr 
uao. Tho bell ia then anapended, and we will aupjwaeia ready for 
work.a mnsfdemble amount <f time baTing bora oxpendrd hi lUa 
prtparation. The Ull ia r^iatd ont of the water, the maaoaa 
entnr, and am lowcmcl nwny. The doaeent maat be dow, for tha 
weight ia great, the chaiiu imiiifT, andmanaal labour ia rw[idred 
to overocme thne difli«iiliie«. Thru too, bdngopen at thebottom, 
loareriiig away can be eOectad fnly aa &«t aa dr la aupfJiod by 
Uiepuiu)itfroiaaboretorMiattha«ncroochKieat of water. Tho 
boltTini ia ruichai Dili] work iaaomnieaeed. Uovrmentia neconary 
— dgnoU are mnile by Mtiwa on the ddo of the beU, or by Ui'e 
aigiial card — ot the aaiuo time the aignal in made and unitenilood 
a( (bo Biirface, (hey conmenae to mov« the whole aptnraiiia aa 
din>oled; the tradi nt ilie aurfaoe and the bdl beww mova 
togetbar. It ia dMirod to atop; bafora doing ao, now riguala at* 

' reatrietedii • ■ - ■ 



neceaanry, morauauta tidow batog i 



fin their tmoeneytr 
14* 



108 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEfi AND AHCHTTECTS JOURNAL. 



I 



th« pmpar nnderaUaitW of ■isokU. Yoa widi to mov* ali^Uy 
odIj, you are cmtIhI to £r uuf miut TcUim. 

Id tU« pr<*p)ustiDU of foanialious *li«n lu muijr «■••■ U ii 
r>qtui*d 10 iDora oHan ft«iB point to poLnl la esantiiw OCT U«il- 
lin^ thli d«Uf baojiBH ItDporUnt. Tbo loiiDd«Uaiw, iiowBvar, 
an ptenmJ, uid tlio •upontruclurc U oomnieaood. A ■toao m 
lowcnd. Tbe bell b; i^fiul b iuovmI orcr it, mkI tliejr u« o»n- 
iMqt«<li— algiul to ths nifMa^ and tJw wtiglil of iho b«ll »iid tiM 
rtocw ntiat M railMd togetlier;— tanial agam to atop liulittug^- 
tifcmX to nov* ui or ont, right or hft;— movtaiatil u nutde; — th« 
■pM M ntteh«d, am] the aloce muat be depMitod pfodaaly. Th« 
Iinaon aaj* — • liitlc to ibe ritcht, but be oaaiiot mj liow manj 
loohiM, auil gcUIoo br; ili«u Lj sucoetBlvv inorementa bj^ ligiul 
he it acoumtMr placed aod lawurud away. 'Hea to place auoihur 
■tone bo gooi Uiroagb the eaoat prnote*. Mark the time oonauined 
herefroQi waat of indopeDdeuoe. Jlcaooe the atane; belEDoweiC 
muet go then, in ihnl spot, bat be cuaaut Iiimaclf exorciao the 
power neotaary (■> pl.ior it tbew, but wiml wait llit- jiloa*uro auj 
nadentaDdiiwar hiedlractlonsbjr oU)»n,wbuof ooitraacauoulf 
haTeaniMralliloaofhUwbhDe. 

In thu waf the work b carried on. Other diScultiee are how- 
erer, la llie wajr. The bell loajieDded below ie a peudultun of 
nHable length; if the wuler be ruu^ at the eiufroe, a awaying 
or oeciUatlng EDOvemeDt la givtfii to the peDduIatn, which, iu Ita 
oedUation however ellglii, diatitrbe the horixnnbil equilibrium 
between ibe air and the water, aod tbp air ea^pea frum iho upper 
aide, and water eaten od the lower aide. The pamo oiuiit theu 
be algnailed to work, to restore the volume of air and drivo back 
the w%i«r. OulIlatJon too ia ilaugerou^ if at all of a aerioua 
character, for the tonaona may be ii^ared tDthelrliDibeifetauding 
on the botloiQ with the bell auajwDdod. Tbe nuuou kuowa, too, 
that if the chain, on whieh tvaU bi> entire hope ofulety, abould 
break, tbe cbauoea are almost iLiiliriputabt« that hla fife ia tont 
^BiUDoroaa inatanoee hare attetil<U thie latter poiut); tbo w(>ii(ht 
u too great Ibr him t« attempt to rsi*e It, aod hi* workuhop 
furaiahea him with a tuatallic cefflu. Il 1* cridont that no laaa, 
however daring lie may be, can work with eo mueh vill where 
tfca ehauo«a or daoger, bowerer reiui<t*^, are bdewiuluut of 
hia owD power of gnvumaneei aa he can where he feeia that hia 
OWD will can at any mooMat retnove Uu ftoot tbe poMibility of 
dasgar. 

In rcaaesndiiig to the earfoee after the coRipletiou of duly 
bdow, the movomout murt DQCoui-ily be rery slow, owin^t to 
tbe aame reaeoiia previoualy eiiuiu<riiil«l in luweriut; awar. 
If the ehaia break while aacetiiliug, where would be the lalwumi^a 
cbancef 

Enou)^ of the diRieultiea below. There ore itill dan^en 
and diffioultiea at the (urfaoe^ A atonn ariMe~tli« work ia ia 
an eipoaed aituatiuu— and a portiou it weakened, perhap e carried 
away. Tlia neceeaary time muat bv tikketi to etreugtheu or reeou- 
Btract the damaged pordoua. Thi* iuruWM time, It luvdvea 
exMoae. 

We will now eappoae a poeition, ae the remoralof a rock, or 
the eoiutTUL'tiou of a pier foiuidAtiOD, &C., wherv it is impraoticabte 
laoMutruut platfurmaatjdalaginga. A buatfroui wbicb to eue- 
Mod a bell iniiat be need. Auy motion coniuiuiiiuibvl to thte 
boat at ttia aorfaee, muat eanic the oaoillalion below whidi I Lave 
ptVTiooaly ipokeu of ae greatly trtanliug or eotiirly put^g a 
etoj> to opetatiOiiu while auch dioIiud in FX)ieHviK)0(l. 

Take imw t)i« lucatiua whera thu cofferdam U aJoptcJ. The 
fint it^p la to cnnatruet tbo dain, which lea work of time, wliich 
ia an etpeoaeL The dam however beii^ completed and fme fruin 
laakaM of ooanM tho work eaii thca be carried ou with gnat 
ntpEdity: bat iheraoredilBDaltieaeveiihereiaprUigeiDeutnecaeee 
caoae oifBaalUaa; laaka too, ariaa. A atom, by weakening a por- 
lica of tli« dam, may cauaa a daht^ for npaita, or even may 
dainand aa eiilirc maxulructioD. Ofeoone tothucuitii] of uvory- 
o«ia nreaent thia ia hut a auggcalion cS eoiue of the diffiuulUea 
whlea la all oMee^ in a greater ur lata d<gM«, altaod the cooatruo 
cJoa of tUa cUae of worka. Tliere la no need of bringing thtta 
fcirwanl fii(i>pit<i plaM them In coatraat with any meana which 
■uaj iitiliKatu (heir action in whole or io (lart. 

ToaoatnuttheaetionoftlieNautilaaaadta teehowfarbyite 
•oUoD, ae previoualy deeoribed, theatt dilUoultlee tt»y b«uVi-rcoine, 
X wit] euppoM aa in the oaae of Ibe ordinary bell, ike looatiuu ia 
d«eid»loa. And liret, before a deuaion apoa that point taarriviHl 
at,yD« will andoabtedlv racogniee tho facility whiclitbe engineer 
poMeaaee by iteuae in deaceniainghinieelCaud by aoeiirate eurvey 
detonuning the moat &rouraUa portion Air eudiloniioB. The 



natoTD of tbe fonudatioti roqoirod being detetmined, lie pc«paA> 
tioo may be at onoe eomiaeneed, aiixr, towing tbe Naatiloa t« 
Ibe Bpot, year wocfcaaea an ready at once to ooiaiBeaiDe worii at 
tbe aani« tiua that, In tlw otkar aaaa^ tbi^ caMSMtkce the drietng 
|Hlea br the ecafibhliog. WhU* Ifao eoatnUa an beiog Hweta^ 
It ia but fair to auppeea that great [iingiioi may have been nada 
by tho Nooiilua in iheeonatnHAian of the work tieel£ I * 
prurioualy ahuwa ihatt being iu pedtieo, bat a vary few omi 
aia ro^airvd for the worluoeu to raacb the bottoon. ^tey 
eoe thetr work, aod are ready to proaacuto iL No aagaala fcr 
tnoVDinaDt an noceaiary: they wish to nioTaaniiMh,afiMit,ar«d, 
it u done at ouce; tliere ia no raateaiainic iafloenee which ia aot 
aubjectto their own will. When their Uloura an anded they 
theuuelvM ntum to the eiu&M^ aa npidly or ae alowly aa they 
pleue. 

The foandationa batng prepared to carry on theenpaiatraetaret 
the atanca oeoaiaary aio lowenid dowa b v any oNaae, itilMr by 
cruiea or boate ka the purpoae, or by Uie auaaon OMtliod pf«- 
vioualy daeoribad. Tlkey will bedepoeltwl In a givea peeHion eail 
lowered in the order In which they will boreqnired in tba work. 
The rhinf maarn or opoiutor thon, knowiog the nredae podtiaa 
of Uepcai^ which of comae will lieu near the ultimate pooitkB 
of pennanen^ a* pooiible, will ao arrange hia beilitlee of mtm- 
iseal aa to paa» la a direct Una to and men what flkay be etyled 
hie quarry or plaoa of delivery. He afflaea to atoae No. 1, and by 
tho power of DIB machine he ■iiapnnda it, thou novea it, and 
depoeila iL la it not evident tlial with the great powerofliftiag 
in eo npjd a maaner, and the muvenieut dejieadeDt oa bia own 
wilt, and the aubaequent ellght moveinvnt of adjoetmeDi la po^ 
tioo, that the whole operation could be perfomied in very mmAf 
tlio aaoie titoe that the tmokauapending the on! itiarT bell, niorni| 
by aignala, coold be placed over Uieatone ready forlifUogl The 
aiouc being phtoed, Ibe Nauiilui letnrua to the onarry for Net fl. 
Nu delay laeaperieaotd, but tlwaotionlalfluneaiiitelypeTfannedt 
aineeall thou^t neeeasary ia previvoaly eMrnaeiL No. 2 fbllowm 
No. 1, No. 3 Xoi. i, and ao am; the exact meaaunof jiutapeaitiaa 
having Ijooo hud down before the machine i« called into nmaMi 
tioo, and the metBonndua of ladk detaU being ia hand. 8a 
long aa the quanr ia aopplled, aa Gut oa tbt VMiooe powen «l 
Um> maohiiie can M eaUedinto play, the opwadoManat eaotiaoa 
uu interrupted. 

The Ruaou or workman frela no amaatioa of danger. If hie 
■ingle coanoelioo witli tho aiirfaee which aupplioe hia power, be 
ruptured, he roturoa to tba lurtki-e to make a rcoouncotion. Ha 
ie reatniued for the time beiug. from exeretaLngaay lifting powv, 
hot hia aafety la unimtuired. LTaetonebreak looeaitaoonMctloaL 
begoea to tbeear&aeiuidtlMraniBaiuaantil hediocaeatudeMana 
to uako a reoonnoetion. So long aa hia eapuly of air ia onia- 
lernip(eii,hacnreanot ibr the enrAcecr what >a going CO then; 
out ou ilia supply of air, he kaowa It and lakee hia own toeaaarea 
•ad precaution. While the aurflice of the water la agliatad,ni>laaa 
OMf the eurftce, it Joea not intcrfon with hu opetationa, oteea 
there being no ouapenaiou and a aufficient quantity of p«pe eol^ 
merged, or anchored below tho aurlace, no aotioa <4 the wataroa 
iinpeile hiamoveuieula, aa thereia no oaoillaliou. The attamlhlg 
lliiaia may l» toaaotl at the plaaaun of the wavea, ao loog 
aa ihey >'«n ride at their anohon or mooriag blodia. Sfaoola 
however, tho water booamo too rongh to operate, tbe Nantilaa 
retui'ua to Uie aarlace, and bring eonftned by ita aaefaon, aod 
being u life-boat in itaelf, no damage can arioe by learlag It fai 
piMiliou; ur the whole afterwards may be (owed to a poiitaoa of 
aafiiij, and Uiera await tlie Meantion of the ptereciting aaeeef 
openktiona. The moment ihoee cauaee have b««n Kro<>v«d,ofiei«> 
liooa may be reautucd at once; einee no part of tfaeapparaiua or 
ftxturea baa heea expuwd to deteiioration or loea. 

The aaiao uuniber of men woold be iv<)uiredon the NaotUoaai 
in thaonIiuaiybell,attbesaiiMfricaeforUbOBr. Theattandut 
laboarota at the auriace required m the morelBenlaDdaaapeBdinf 
the onUaary bull wuuld ba diipeoaed with, eonaeqneaUy the ao« 
of prodndnglbe aiuuH auiuunt of work wouldbe Moa la thaoM* 
of the Nautilua But I tmat that the bcUmae bentn d«aM» 
atnttad bave^owQ thattheselfHWtiogpow«n of the ftendo^ 
directly at the ooutfol of the operator, afford the bcilitiea Im 
purfurniiog a graater amount of work in a given tiate than bC 
orduaary nieaaa, and aa the aatouat of labour ia laaa, than aaM 
be a aaviuj; of tMth tinx Md Bcoey. There an other ntoa^ 
auah aaciiueou* for ooiutnKAlng portiona of maaoniy which «• 
■utMoqucntly plauedia poaitioa.apoa which I need not espatiala 
Tlioir nio ia confined to particular toealltiea, and ihry mtt Boiaii» 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AECHITECrS JOORNAL. 



100 



oapUU* of gHUnJ appttert ton 1b tba wi l r ac tioit oT whriiMiBii 

In Uiii pttpar m<r pnrpeas Im« bMD, not to mftke lavliJiaas db- 
itawioBi baCvMn tiw i)Tiliii»i7 ttiTing-btU now ta um u>d tb» 
NaatUiia, ■hicb ooeapLoi «>|mniiii«at»p(Mltfa)B iMraiD, but l« 
hriag torwtrd Um oMriU Mid datMUMtlM whokqraUnt, atnl 
plBN llMm in ooBtfMt with tbo BiMhiotrr wbteh ho* denlopeJ 
, wkiob, in Mm opiuioo of niupeieiit>nFDlilicmiDdi,or*t^ 
nwaj «f Uieiliffi««ltiwuw<!llM(Uii^n irIiiclib*Te lieivto- 
■T«io])«d the •dcueeof aubuurlne eii)[iDeenii({. 



ON CtVa CONSTBUCTION.* 
By CtLpL FawK^ KB. 

lutnn of Ik* balldlng imiImUU 1b ooaimon ow In dlBweat 
lof Um world tiu •Iwbjt* •iiH«Ia«l «i Imfiortut indumoo 
'~ia ohMMitcr mnil lutura of tlio eoBttmotioi^ of irliich tbnj 

k|nrt, M> much m m, in Gkct, tu ioBiMtiM in ft grcAt (U^i'«: 
I ud BhtUm of nBlloud Breliit«etun; wa tnat ws bavo 

) ologBBOoof Rom«— «irUi«oaHiriBffof ■ hard, eoduriBg 

,mar» or Uu flabbora nndor tfeo cUmI ui>1 buiIIoL TIw 

tmuBgeaUe Dwterial* in tuo in the middls Bgea were 

" ' inMnunenCal in poroditdng m eliuige in tbo nature of 

^ tloo* of tl)e poriod, ami |>robabl7 to nek eeciduota 

' flBeo aad <JroaBiebno* m« wb indebted fbr nuoT of tboM 
"ilaadfitnlMticforau wiiiehddlglitiuM muoh b^ tlidr 
J at execnliot), «• by their hnrdlhood of donpv and in 
the arcbiltfot, aiiaptiiig hi* work to the inaloriBU at 
Nal, baa atooitd for kia depMlure from the severe oot- 
_ 1 impoeing uaaeee of claHie anthil«ctiire, by tlia inlroduo- 

tlaa of a oliam to wbtcli bii xumer predewMow ware atnuifon. 
luoor own lime, iu ncvly MlUod oaunlrieih aikeb bb AmericB 
Bad maar of our ootoniea, whero wood ia abuiidenl, and aUme ia 
etifaar dtSkuIl to be obUioed or eipeiuive from the aoarcity of 
UHrUTt we Sod BdUareatkindafcouBlrnciioaaprlnging u|ivoft«u 

CstBraac|iM in apMBtaoee, and axhlbilLug Binab talaut in d(«ign, 
lit Bipacially anditabla for i(a aluididl; and ready adaputiona; 
M tha auiM tiow lU ephemcnl and Uiapgrary ohorncter CBonot 
fril to pre it BorDor Imiui alri>f iuaocontjaadwuitoratreaiifth, 
buwever uiuueriteJ. Fitinll.T, wf rome to that period which hoa 
with iiuth bMU called the age of iron, ta wbi«fa a total eliADge of 
laatarial haa ellbelad aa great an aluratlon In tho oaBrtractioos 
Into whiab iteoiar^ rennertag timplo,fnatsof conatmeUoowki^ 
It wonh) ha*a been Mir to have nitcmpled in anrof theprerioua 
part«dai and of U*e facilllice wliieb are atTodMd hj the um 
i^tUa material for ooreriog lane anaa with eoonoBiy andqslctt- 
•Mi^ oo bellM- lUoaUtlon caa b* given than the bnildSagt wbleh 
hava beaa eiwtod l>ir the two great Exhihiljooa of Lotulon and 

ffaiUinj Stontt. 
Wanee ii extreinelr rich in thin tnatprinl, and moch of the 
Uteetaml beantj f^ Pane i* uudoubledlf to bi^ AMwauted for 
Uie puaeMioa of iiieihaiutible ijaarrieeof a beautiful building 
BB, i^un eitreineiy enduring qiialitr, and at the tanie iIiim eo 
I of toxtnn aibJio easily vmiight.'ubibeeapablo of receiving 
7 variery of oTDAncnt. Thn building ilonoa of NornmQdy 
alao jusUf renownol, and Hrend of the moat mlabnilcd 
I of Cnea are repr««eiii«il at the Bihibltiou lUiJer tho 
I of PoDlen.iy ■iaui<, Aiibifnr tlau^, &0., and atrange t^ wf, 
I beat apadnwii ot tbit niitUirtal, vis. C^d awiie, la eibibited 
,r an Etijjjiah Arm, Moavm ' iatoi and George, who have wiit an 
tkmidiM carrad altar, rerulo*, and donrwaf, which do credit to 
tbdr watkntanddm aud at theaametimeaerveaaadniimbleUtiu- 
ttBllnna of the npablUtiM of Chen atona (br the more dellnte 
dwoSptioBi of oarvlBg^ apperUInIng more eepecially to work* of 
a BMoWval olianrier. A good aainple of a pVL-uIiarlv hnnl red 
HBKlitoae Etmb ttMdapartiuent of the Voegai,ii found in ih^diulo 
which forma the lower uwt of the external wallii of ili« Puluie de 
riuduatrie, ^*i« !l* eoeoBr la Lntroduoed with guud elfuut iii <:on- 
traet to tlie paUr Pnriiian alone with whicb the reniBluing p*rU 
«f the buildiav are ooD*tr«et«d. 

Tlu-re at^ onridw. b«tv#cu twenty and thirty dilTereateihibi* 
lore uf iloae, nuu-ble^ aud alnte. from all parte of Fnnoa and 
Ugeria, b^fikr the greater number of wbum wutHbiite tiiarblra 

AMnn -4 Kffwt U Ikt TiwUiel <4 Ob Bwid ot Tnda. <u Uu IVia Cnl- 




Ut ehber roach blocka or worked op Into omamantal artklia or 
fonnB. Booing tlalea are alao aent lif many penooa, alnoM aU 
the rpfdnuna Mog reij ibimIi Uiinner than thuaa made uae of in 
thu cotinti^ where this kind of ooreringii more popaUr than la 
Fraaee; in laet, the mateat objeotion nude by Prandi bnndera 
to the ampJinBieRt of elate a* a oovering ia, thai it will not bear 
the weight of any workman who niay ba aent oo the roof for tlio 
pnrpoaeofrepalr.andUiiaol^liaB. which appeanat Bnt aigbt 
abanrd, ia ouilv iiiHlcrrtood when the umplea of FVtncfc loong 
•late an examined. Tlic rsry geacral «np)oyaieal of lUce, ana 
more recently of xiue, bw however diveated the elata tnile ia 
Fhuioa of the Importaat plaoe which It holda in tUa country 
aaoo^anaappertalBbigloaonatraelioa. IntbeuumberteMifDnna 
in which wa m« elate now naid tu England, Mck aa in flooring^ 
cialenu, the flttingaapof watar^oaela and other ooBvenleiwea at 
railway Waliona, Jbi, it aeetna almoat if not totally nnkaown ia 
FtaaDSk and aeoM date ahtba for pavea>eDt, (br IIiMt^ a bilHanl 
taMe, and a gardes aeal of the auna material tnm Anger*, an 

rile novnitie* to the ParUaa aMiatrocUnL while a alair with 
te tnsodi exhibited by Meavs. Valiniir and Or, U looked upon 
as a diaoorery. Same <rci7 5ii« coUectioae of Um maibUBOf 
diSbreut diatncte uf Fnnco are eeeu in the Aanaxev bat all of 
each rery ataall bImil and eet ta aucha way thai no ojunion an 
be Hvmed of BltlMr their general oharMlar or the dimeodooi of 
which they can be vbtainM In the Algerian eoUeetion anpeata 
a eery bandeotue cbim ney- piece, na wall aa ■■>iDe delated elafaaof 
an eaoeedJaKly die.ioa(cly autltod and beaniifuIlT tinlad Oriental 
ahbaatar', llie pttNhioc of thaV colony, and aoaia Blmikr tpedmcoi^ 
but bferlor In bIm and «»!our, anioiic the Tuilieh prodnctlona. 
ThiaheautifU wliite Cratikluoent nurble '.» oaarricd in ibe pro* 
TinaeofOran iu Algeria, at aiiiktaoooof only twomileefivntlia 
aia, and aa it ow he ubtAia«l in blocka of contidenblB Bin, and 
dellrend at the au*t at fruni IT*, to iil*. tlie nibic foot, we may 
hope era long to ea* It brought into u*a a* a malarial for internal 
deeaeatioB. Algeria ehnwa aeraial other kinda cf marble, 
alabaalM', porphyry, anil graoito, and of ibeee many are aald to 
have the advanl^ of being found eloae to the eoBaa. EVom 
Tmcaoy we barcv ftnu the ooUeciioii of the Royal Polytednie 
luKitutioD of noreooe, BMciinaM of the inarbloa tor which ah* 
haa lon^ been bmona, Bitch aa the yalbw aieooa, tlie tnecttiae, 
the maotguo) and other wall-kDowanamea. And OPBeoe alao mada 
■a aama of hitr anoieatly taaowned Penteticoo, green porphyrji 
and " Tonga antique." 

The moei perfect and oomulele oolleetioa of building atonei la 
the Exhibition la uiidoiibteilly tliatMBt by Wagner arStnllfard, 
and exhibited amone the Wurtamburg raw puDdnoa; theyareeat 
in neat btoeka, ana arnuiged like au uotaj^aia] p^lepoat, and in 
tbo ord«r of their geolojpcal formation. They are aooompanled by 
a deaoriptlon of each apeoinien, wbioh adda mutb to iheir value 
Among them an a B&udetoae from the auperior ebnia (called 
StabouniiateiiO ooane grain, from Sehlaydiirf^ near TlUugca, 
6rA quality, and a wuidatooa from Siattgard. TheiM two 
ooaiiT m bloeke of very targe •ixo, but nuely in dan ThooMCt- 
iug of German architecta, in lasj, proaotineed uia laat oanad 
Rlnne to b« one of the beat naterlala known for hall J tag porn oara. 
The ex Urior walla, MB well aa moat of tho BonlptarwoT CoMpi* 
Uathdml, are of thia stane, great qnantitio* of whicb are atiU 
tntneporled Uiere on Uie Nuebkr and Hhine. Thia atone aenr 
dMoinpiaee, nor iIom any vegetal ino grow on ItaBur&oekaaltiloea 
nut ri^iitAio any earthy ninttpr: it nutnialns Ita light fpvy eolonr, 
miaia the heat and oold, hear* a heavy weight, and u eauly cat 
wiUi'Hit injuring the hnUih of tlic workmen. Several charchea 
built of iheeauicitoiie iu the tliirtcenlh oeutuiy are nffw in good 
preeervaliou, thu* jirovliig ita power of nelating ibe deelruetivB 
inSueiinf of time. It Ihui vhun-i oil the ademntaaea of grantta. 
Tti« licut quality U Pniiid In t)>e neicbbourhocHl of TObingeD aad 
NQKiugen. It la nlao umhI fur dLffervnt lorU of uiilktMiM, ao- 
eonliiig to the GiKn»a of Iho grain. It enrpBeaca the tjngliah 
atoneauaed tr husking rice, audinakesoxoellentgriudatoaea. Ita 
■ptxrillc KravUy in i-Qi, .iu<) ita )K>wer of teaieUnoe to a oraahing 
witi:;(ht -ixOa lb. on a enbic iiicb. 

Them iaalao a lim*>>b>ne, fre*h-watM- ilpp«itafromOeia1iBgen, 
roBuu-kntilc for itt lijchlueu lui.l mnt miiiAiicv Ui the tuflueooe 
of the air. When linit qiiun'inl il ii nwn with a vuniiuou hand- 
saw: It hanleuton ex|>»>urv tu the nir, and benraalworyweight. 
Tlie stone hiuibt*ti cniplDyed tn lraIldI»grei7highohiiTehBpue«h 
for the ar«>hea of ratlwny viaducta, nnU fcir fi^UflcatioQ*. Ita 
■peeille gravity ia only 1'48, and ita (wwer of ra*iilanee to a 
cmabing weight traux olo lb. to 1000 IL per oubie inch. 



h 



no 



THE CIVIL ENOIKEEB AND ABCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



BmMm Ui« abon tbore t>n mmti of the GniolB ami other 
orauDMiUl work Intended Ibr Oologna Oktbednl la 111* sr«at oava, 
flikh Bboir in k rauikabU dagiw th« bwit^ ol the 9tobMi- 
MDaulit; il apptkn to Uke aa oxttoody uliarp arri% aad lo wwk 
with cn>t «Me inU ths most slftlMnae forma, uidthweqmlitiM, 
Ui^tliar wllb it* ileliuM tint of ctnr whiliah grV) wnicb It ia 
■ud to fcoop for aaj Ituj^h of tiiu«^ soeui U> rcndar U laoat vain- 
aUb fur eonatnMtiTo purpcwea, mora ao appnMiitl; tliaii aay atoaa 
wUk wUdi we an ixqpaLDMd 

8«vcral apediMna of marbU and atooe (ram BelRitini an 
•xhlUtod, will ID the mvr abtCe and alao «iDaght into <rariuaB 
oraanwital aitiolM. aa tablo Uipa and ohimiuy-plMe*, tu. Tbu 
pricttof aoou of tli« Bol^aa aarbla ditniiwjr^lMM ar« no lav 
u to dtty all eomMtilioii bom tbia oouDttjr, wbena tli« MCMMtrj 
labour uboe could not be obtiuD«d fur the aoni demanded fer tM 
flniabod article; tbe workuuialitp and Snieb of tbeoe cheap 
Mtidci U taaBlfeatly rer; loferiM-.uidnuioberlaeairiokBor tmle 
(audi, for JAaUtnoe, aa gettlDg np the anrftei b^ Fraoch poliablDg) 
are aaid to be r«Mrtod to. AmoDg the vuiettea an a good btadi 
marble ftooiNajiiur, vltile marble and radmorUo from llainatilti 
•11 ia the form of ohininqr-ineoe*. uid a grcAt alab of dark alat» 
colourad or blaofc marble about 14 tmhj S feet, bBviaaiUMrfteB 
oorered with handdic ornament in ba^nlief, but ft>r what pnrpoee 
It ia intended it i* impoeeible to form a ooojeclura^ 

Befure qaittinf ^e anbtect of buildins aloco^ it Binrt not he 
omitted to oMJm the etono of wbicb tlio Palate de I'liirlatitrie 
ilarir ieeoHtnioted.andirliioh wwi quarried in the neiKhbour hood 
of SoioKJOi^ ahoui 70 milaa front Paria; it beam the name of 
Villan-la-FoeH!, firvm tlie ijoany froui ntiioh it la eitnteteil, and 
haa been employed largely in the oanetruction of thp ne-n giUUriea 
of the Louvre, Cd the repaiiaoftbe Palace of the Elyico Nopd&n, 
and eeTend other public wurka, and aeenia tiholjr to beooma 
popular with tbe architeota of Paria, aa from the quarriee being 
vilhin three or four niilee of the river Aisna, a branoh of the 
OW, aotlalKi within a tolorably ea^dtataaoeof the Cbenin da 
for du Nunl, it otn be brought to nria eaaily and cheaply; ila 
priae in the quarnr U Id. uer cvbio bot for blooka not Moe«ling 
80 inobee cubei M. par oubia foot for bloclu uotolDlnobMCube; 
Bid. pereuhie foot up to 60 inchea oubei and 11 Id. par oubio 
foot Dp to 60 inehea cube; at PaHa tlie bial-mentioiied etoiie ia 
above U. 7J. the cubio fuol; ita eapohilicy of raabtanoe t^ ciiuhin^ 
U vei7 grtiti; iu ouuie ex|ieriment« it baving home a> much m 
31 toiiaiiu tlie eijuare Inoh. for wbiah reaaouit iaingrcat repnta 
tor fonadaliooaaud eubetruottuua. 

Arllficial Slorte. 

Tbe lorm nrtlGolal ati-ue ia uatd in conneetlon with the many 
diffierent kind* of eoiuiuiiA and oouapouudji that liave been from 
line to Ume brought forwanl u MbeUtutea lor alone aa n build- 
ing untirial, and mart eapeaiallr with a viav to Iheaavingof the 
ooally labour neoeaiar* la r«dnaiii[[ the nw malerial to the oraa- 
inoDtal brau roqoirad for arabiteouual deooration; many of tbe 
•uUuuiON known by that name differ from oecneuta only iu their 
apfilioatian. and in lioing moulded beforehaod, and umvI' in build- 
ing in bloeka in a hurd vlatc, and they may bo taiil to bo dia- 
tiHKoUied from tbekiiij of ui.iterial known an i«rni-<uctain being 
a cheuii<sl oouibiiiatlou oS (li« iugnHlimia uf which (hey anmm- 
poeed eObclcd wiUinitt tht aid of heaL In oueau^ indeed, which 
U reprearated in the Eihibitioa under ilie epithet of artificial 
aUne, heat baa bceu emplored to a mat oxlent, uamulv. in the 
grent Uo«k of •eivi-vitriiSedbHok or Sinker, contribuiod by M. 
Benuiil, and won fully deaoribed further on. Ami ia tbe cam 
of Mr. IhmaoiDo'a artllleial atone, which in, p«r(u(», ihr oao 
that ukM oS all thu rarioua alteupta r«aUy deaarvee llii* epithet, 
the cbenikal ooubtnatiou can only ba etfecled by the aid of great 
btat 

The neaitat aoproaoh to Mr. Ranaome'a prooeu in the Rihi- 
bltion aeeuM to be that ofM. Kuhlmano, who exliibiia >ued[u«t)a 
of his method of Mluntine »oU and friable eiooea with allieaia 
of jMitaUi, eo aa to render thorn bard and pmnaneot, and not only 
t<> iiiij-iKVo ill Uiifl rHpect the building etonwi iln-aily io uae, but 
to niiiUo what hoa bilharto bean thrown aaldc u qu-irry robbiab, 
from ita ■(•nnou, to be nnade uaeof iu aetate in which it i> harder 
and li."M liable to dolorioration than the aaturallyGmierand von 
valuable beda Another obviona advantage attaoding the eniplov- 
meut ot thia prootat, ia that the aofteet aionn may Iw wrought 
into tbe moal dalical* forma, and then aabmittad to tbe aolion of 
the eilioftla of potaanum, tboe Raring the expenae of the labow 
in outtiuj;, which the hudwqoatitieaneoeealute. Serendnperi- 



menta that hare already been made on th(e pr oae ae an mU 1m 
have been attandad (as Gv aa ean ba judged of without tlie edbet 
of time) wHb «nlm auoeoM, and the coet of nlimiluing Iha 

(aoeof a wall ia ilali il ii I I 1 fi iiii Iif m Tlif lliii iiijiiiliitil 

foot. The operation ooDaiatB iu eimply ntoratbg the awae «ilb 
the liquid made nae ofuntil it la do longer triable of ImblUig 
moiatnre, and the ootew, althoi^ M Ant mtth cbangad, ■ 
eventaally net Iqjared. 

Affloiv the many oxhibttora of artifirial atone who appear ia 
the French wctlon (and, indeed, Frwoe ia the only eoombolM 
tinder thia bead), a M. I>uiii)««iiil. socompantM eomeblocknof 
anl&cial etdue with a kind of mtimata of tbeeoenparulveaz- 
paneea of conalruetioD vith brick, rubblo, and aahUrmaaoary, 
and alao with hia artifidal eUnie, which he makes oat lobe in tM 
following proportion* >— 

Front exterior, complete in aaUor nuiKnu7 /Ilt4 

Tbe aane elevation tnbilok 8S7 

The aame tn mbble maaoDiy ., ABO 

The Runo in nrtificini iitc<ne 480 

No data ant pvon ou which theee (uma are founded, and kiov* 
iuj; the eitrcinnly Etrounible eye with which iattotota an apt to 
repnl tlioir uwo iuveotione, Uicy would uf ooune be received 
with cautioui hia roannfaoture haa, It la eald. btao iu una with 
•omo iiuccoM braitvcralf«are; it eeetna to bo principally Dompoaed 
of phutor of Pane, and ■■ coat in mould* into any ahapa. 

U. Coignet oxhibita a block uf the cuucrrtp which be has need 
in the ooualraotion of a bouae near du Denia, and whlcb hM 
exdted oonaiderable intertat in Parte. M. Coignet baa, aa tha 
rciilca of aeeriea of cxperimonta, Kiveo uatha roeipcafiir makiDg 
twi> kiada of ooncnte euitablo for houae buUdin^ which be dia- 
tinuuiahca bj the epitbota of economio concrete) and hard and 
aolid ooncreto. The lint in oompuaed of — 

Sand, gravel, and pebbhie , 7 parte. 

Ai^llnoHMia earth „ _. % parta. 

Quick lima 1 parb 

Thia concrete, li* aaye, properly beaten up and mixed, haa ^rea 
walla n{<arly aa hard aa the ooumoa auft rubble maaonry lucd tn 
hrisi ia priee it eemiMles with ordinary pi*< work, cr«r wbieh, 
howerer, it baa the advantage of beUig able to raiat ~ -'-— ' 
The hard concrete la compoeed of— 

Sand, gravel, and pebble* 8 

Common earth, burnt and powdered _ t . 

CloJera, powdereil 1 part. ^ 

Uoalnckcdbydisulicliuw..... 1} part. 

The mnt^naln lo bo perfeotly beaten up together. Their nixtan 
givoi a cixicrotowhich aetaahnoet immediately, and beowBas ia 
a few iljLye extnunelv hard and aolid, which ptoper^ n^ be 
atill furtlisr laoreaaed by the sdditiim of a email iiaaatity, a^r 
one part, of cement; uid tlie price. de|wudiug priudpaliy on that 
of Iho time luid labniir, wim, in Pari*, undor unmvourabla oireBB^ 
■tancoi, .tW. to id. per cubic foot; with mors hvotmbla eoo- 
dili'ina, id. per cubic foot. A bouee^ three itoHua iu height, 
65 feet X ^^ r«!ti atandiuu oo a termoe having a twrpeudicniu 
ni(4un1ug wtkll SCO fi^t In length and SO feet high, boa beta 
Kctiialty coiiHiructfd, with avei; |iart. indodlug fciuoilatJeui^ 
vault* of oellan, niaining val!, all walla axtarior and intetiur, 
without exception, of thii liat\] caoerete (Bctou Ihn), aa wtU ae 
the oi>rDice, mouliUng^ etringuDuraaR, haluatndce, aitd pantpeli. 
and without bond lion, lintela, or wood tlirougbouti the nae at 
pIoMtxr in the Interior la aleo avoided, aa tlie ooucnto taken a 
■urfibx (ufficiently Goo for papering. Tha ntaialag wall 
moiuurrs •iAyim cubic foot of mnaaory, and oonatrooted of Faril 
hard riibbte (mauti^rea) oraahlar, it would have ooat from lAWL 
to lACNi/. and In eommou acA rubble (m-jvUooa) and atone oDfaaft 
from B-fiK to TOOt; on M. Coignet'a principle it haa ooatr— 
S2,7Cu cuble GMt of ooncrate kkl at SdL per cable £ 

foot 180 

Baluetrade in moulded concrete. IB 

Total SIM 

The entire house, VL Cygnet Mva, only coat 40CML, and he 
furthvi' ilAini that to build one aUnilar of aahhw It would haie 
ooet probably live tinea that amount; the eaue peraoa bat alai 
coum t-ii^rted auliemio&l miuiuliwtorir at 9L Dtiiie, in whicji walh^ 
diaina, and water-pipee are all uf thia material, ai aleo'the foua- 
datinu of a 3Q.horaa eughie. If all iheae eUteueuia a« to ooA 
&c, are correct, the material of AL Coignet would appear ««Mk|r 



i 





THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AKCHITECrS JODRNAL. 



Ill 



; futiiwr lB<iiUrBil into, w [t wovld ■Mm to aflbrda bmoi 
BctioB Bt » priM UUmtIo nnbMrd of. 

■ dwcriMM* of MtiAcial alaiM, a Urga block of whieb 

liud by H. Becmnd, eoniM ntli«r Bailor tike bead of 

I artiMal Moo*, u it U prooiuod bjr th» amUMtloB of 

', Mid ii, in hot, rispl; aa eaonaoiu ibmo of briok; U b pro- 

', M a aubMiMto br ctoiM to aea waila and otbor siaritiiiM 

JoaiV «b»r* Um auporior lianbilit;^ of vitrifiod autoiwl 

t it aa advantaM a*«r ooaontaa tiukla with lino or 

I oMieiita; it ladia ■■ the aas* elaai of mawriah wiUi 

I oaal iolo blocks siid propMod m a buUdlng material \tj 

mat, of BirmlngbiM, ua It U mucli to b« ngiwttad that 

I Im anil iir. Buaonii ■hould haw alMtaliiad ttea ailiibiUiijK 

this olsas, M tbs Bitiaeial stotw of th« laUsr maUoouui is 

ilj hr cnperior to anfthuig of the kiaJ in the £ihibitiaa. 

Ctmmlt and Limet. 

Tho lims whkb wiu taat hvonnbU- mootioiMd was a now 
jkuowti b7 tha nonwof Chnox A'Ti^mty, Ui* BaaniaehBro of 

. Janiiil Kom, of Angoolime, sad of wUth Ills foUowing 

-iymM is pveu : 

Carboaate of limo „ 80*0 

OtfboHale of laagiMma 364 

OuboBsts of protoxlds of Ireo A'8 

Alkali \i 

tynvm W 

day - - 14*0 

Kt(uii«ti 100 



lOOOV 



is mid %A be viiatfecl«d hj tho action of salt water, but of 
tliia sooiH tSoie ii tuammrf to Jndgs. 

n«^nt Tiim. 
The asTwal deKripliocul nf neGng iUm shown, almost all of 
hioh are (t<nu frauoc ilwU^ m*J bo coosiileTiMl as b«loiu|ing (u 
of fin diSsrMt niaisw, tlis flnt or which includes ths 
flst Ills, the aiamplss of whiult 'litTsr manl; \a iIm 
o[ which diiey ars oanipossd, and iu their grcalor or less 
aikd weight, govsrusd ia grsnt awasurs b; such 
The other four cimifp or gcneml fornu uf tilo are th« 
of di&rait aUeaipU wbioh hare butiu mode Troiu tinis to 
to ottriale tbs grast oMsvUun U> th« eiaplo/nisnt of flat 
ptUss— wunelr, Um uscetslij of lAjrio^ ilMto so thai tha r<M)f )• 




■F 

■ lai 



aSTSrod at svvry pari of its MTvioe witli thres thicknasieii of tils, 
•ad lbs oooswfiMul enonDom weight of this dsacriptioti of 
erinK, an evil so graU as to h>va almost oolirely tjauiabed it 
all lar^ moiLeni struciunst in this wuatry, as mun thsu 
iMangltsUDdoubtsdaivlgrsatadvantagBsofdurabilitj, 
jwil straagtb, rssislsnes to lbs action of ttis wind, obssposss. 
■Bid pschafia tha nost importaul of all, tha &et of its beii^ so bad 
% coDdiietor of boat ft* to randsr Uie altios of buildiui thna 
■arend, Isaa asosihle of the eitrwiMs of best atuL eold, wUeh ars 
■nndi fiU whssv melal or sivu akt« is suiiJoj'siL 
Tbs b«al sfiscitDSBs uf \ho RaX or Bdrgiindinu tiles (■• thsf an 
Isi litsil in rraaoe), in th^ Kiliibitiou arc psrhspa those of Ummb. 
Osnot aaH Co^ to whicb tb«v am Uts iiaice of griia Feranie. In 
appMnnoe tbie^ ai« alnosl uke ftos giaiixd Knuiite, wiili a 
TT Bit's lH" niA sxtrsnslj thia and light, and iio doubt of 
mat Mrsagth and dnrsbilitj. A soniawhat siaiilsr tils, from 
tM bcbiry of U. BouLuiKor, of Aaneiiil (Uisc), if BnyLhiD^ lur- 
fsssss the Grsl^aunnl in LfaiuDess uid linchtiiees; in botb, Lhe 
daj ia oo«npJet«lj TJlriged, SAd It is a pily tbatsome Mutlculan 
as to wslgbt, priuv, ,tt, of such a r«iimrk;ibl<) matsHaJ Iwvs tkot 
ben seat wiui tliem. It mny be mniitiiiiial hsn tbat Mtairs. 
OaDot sxhiUt draiDioK tlloa and pipes of the same exoellcat 
BSlsriaL The nversKc weight of Bat tiles Bisy be t&ken at 
Bpwanls of 90(K> lb. thu tboiuand. 3S0 tUs* to the wiii&ru of 
roo6oa, which thus waigbtfrom 1^00 to8CKN>ib. in this miLUrlal. 
Tbs Bat tile i* kept in lis plaes b^^tw^ or naiUdrirea ihmngli 
boiss in its iiipprr nart, nnd sack tile )■ hj this kihui* atUi^lied 
to lbs lath witbo'itWuifilepeiidoatou its oeigbbaun for aupt'ort; 
the «ms role sjipitus to the aext class, wlilcb i*. as wull ss the 
first, flat, aad altadiwl ia the muii« waj, aud iu whioh tbe 
alUnapt to isduos tbe woicbt eoaaau mervlj' iu cutting nwaj 
thoss parts cf the tQs whi^ arc concoaled wDcalh otluT^ nnd 
ia (DtDo easss also in roattdinff off or |v>inting the eipoaod part, 
so M at tbe same time to contribute mors or leaelo Its onMunenlal 
diBiacter, tbs naull is a tils soatewlul in tbe shape of tfas blade 



of a ahoT«i flaWmsdt and lasonecBBea approaahing tbs form of 
a spads pip oa eards, and wbicb is {sstansd, as in the lUt tile, 
bj a p«g dri«wt thrwub a hols to the shost stalk or handle st 
its upper cxtrBmitv: these tiles are Otrtbsr omamsntsd in ibsbj 
OMBs by the intncMstion of Agnrss or psUsna in rstisf en tbw> 
sur&oei the/ tuveihsadTBBtaae of bsisg easily fixed, and Kgbtrr 
than tbs plain flat tile, but still ucocsdiate a vary high piuh ctf 
iDof to sfwUs tbs bqis to bo perfeciiy wmlhei^preot liie first 
departure from tbs onKnarr Biir)(U[idiui paltBro is lDnstrat«d 
by the tiles exhibited by iL Bluadesu, which ars msrely (h« 
former with tbe lower eornsts rmndsd <X, and a litUs aoosip at 
esoh sUe tdcsn out of lbs part wbteh is hidden by tbe BOperposed 
tilsL Some of thsss tilss are more or le« oroameoted ut reliet 
on the BDHbee, and vbsn fixed bave a rery pretty cAei Tbey 
Mopear to bare been mdnsUy parad away by dmsnat mskera 
till tbsy bars ssaunksd the ft«D dsscribsd abovs as that of lbs 
qiads pdp oB a oard, which sssms to be tbe one geuemlly in 
nijnis amung tbs Frenoh and Belgian makers. Belgium seniUi 
by tf. Joann, of Antwerp, some good examples of Uiia daw of 
tUe, the weight of wliioh Is stelsd to be 3740 Ik, and tbs cost 
93*. per thousand; SSO of thsss tilss cover a v{aM» of roofing, 
ths "siejit of whieb ia tborefon 812 lb., wbiuh gives a remark- 
ahle difliiTenae In their ihroar in oompariug tliem with the 
Borgnndian tOs; their price in BehKam is 80*. tbe thonaand, ot 
SO*, the aguare, fixed. Similar lliss srs sxMbltsd br nwDy 
French iwuterBi amoaK thorn may be noUeed those of U. vauttna, 
wblofa only sshd to differ (nm those described above in being 
larger and chos{>er, the tiles costing from !Ak to ) 10*. per tbov- 
aand acoording to uze, the squan taking biit 110 of tbe larstr, 
and oosting only 13>. M. Martin, of BonrtmBiM les Baiu^ ijBO 
exhibited speoiniens of a HiniiUr tile, but of which no partieolan 
as to price or we^bt are dven. 

7%s dsijre to nmodr the obvious dindvantage* retnlUng tnm 
lbs long OTM-Iapning jobt and high-pitched roo( ths asoesMUj 
eonsequenote of the two descriptlans <A tile just meatiotisd, bM 
iudoccd mniten to resort to tiis ooastmotion of several varietiss 
of tile, tbe esDORKl principle of which is to substitute fur tbe btp b 
short vertical joint rendering tbe lap and higb jiilch unnecesnry, 
and st the same Ume eouaeetiog tbs UUs so flnnly tOMther that 
tbey arc not whollr dependMtontheirholdonthebttisferbdBg 
ke|rt in their positiau; these objocuarsattainsd IndilftrHit wny^ 
which, however, all unite In ths amployni«(it of lilt* having their 
edges lunied tdteninUlv up and down, so sa to form vsvtiotl 
ioints at their junction, instead of only overinppiug (aeh Mberaa 
in the first two oases inst deaeribed, and thr renialnlsg clanes 
merely dlflivin the modecf sarryliiR out ttiUimprovnmsutiand, 
fint <yrall, wehave whatmaybeolicdaibinlelasiintbaeoinnMa 
pentile i»r> much nsed in London, wbioh is made in sikIi a Ibnn 
that the tilss tn each iwpnmie course nukesuob aJointwIlbeBdl 
other, but without Kfrmn.'e to the course Immeillately ali^v* or 
betow them; this mode gpu rid of tin difficulty «f prnvl.linc ■ 
great amount of bp for tbe longitndtnal joint*, but tiwvcs Uie 
nmiiontsJ stiU nntoncbsd, sad still thenRire neooMatalcs a oon- 
sidsrable ovsrlap sad a higb pitch ef roof. 

Ia dis fiiBrtb olaaa w« have tbe edges inelcaInK ons angle of tha 
tile ttiroed op, and tbe lemainbg two down, ■uid lbs tU* Uld so 

that the an^^e II(Bt< 
mentionod shall lie 
up^ieniuist, sDil that 
tbs joints shall roa 
in a dlagoe«l (lime- 
1MB. by tbia bwmw 
CDntinniag the verti' 
cnl bip all mnnd the 
tile, which ihus en> 
nblm it to bs om- 
ploTvd si s much Imb 
tniJiDBtion, and wiih 
so little nrerlap ss to 
have only otie-slMh 
of ths surbee biddsn 
or uislssa for pur- 
poses of actanl cover- 
ingi in tbia tile lite 
peg is also dispensed 
with OS a method of 
fiMteminfi, tbe tile having n small prqjeetioe on the hsek at Its 
upper iwri, by whieb it is allacbw to ths Uih, n vrrv slij^t 
incrense of pKJ»ctIoa in ths lodge at tbs lower angle, wbieh bis 




h 



i^^^rifa 



THE CmL ENGDiEKR AND ABCIIITECTS JOURNAL. 



Into K Bow Mp oading doprtMioB (a Uw tD« atxt ImIow, Mrricg 
•till fbrtbtr to Mcai* aadi i& lU plaev. Tlii* cIium tiikj be rab' 
divided tnio meb tiki u wn aqfin, and tho» th^t are Iomum- 
•twpcd: of tli«M, tbefiwBicr, known u tiietile OourtotefroiDtlM 
lUkne of iU inrcntor, b perhap* (hv mual nin|ilCb whU« tfa« 
lowi^;e-dik|)« sir** nan mum farUM introdurliuD nfoniAaetit; 
th*Kinu« tllelittalM tbiadTUttgaof hnviDi; ■ Icaa loogtb of 
joint m pn>f>ortioB to iti longdl, ud convoqucntlj' of tiavliig 
ntlicr iDor* of ita Mir&M upMcd Uiui the losonge. 

£ach one of lli« tile Courtols w«lgha *S Ib^ uid 1 SO uf thrm 
Bra reqitEred G>r a aqiiare of 100 Mi|i*Ttldal t«»l, aa that tho 
w«l^t of Uili uiount ofcovoriag would be tiK'lb^ aud ita 
coat 44e. 

One of the prindp*! esbibiton of tbe logeetiKe tile of tliie clew le 
H. Bnidb, or l^ot, wboae tdle in MreagtliHuad bj e ■light rib 
•long Ita omtre, whiob kdda malcrlallj t« ite ornemeotal epfieep- 
auoe, ead eniibl«e It to be made extrMDel^ tbio ud light, the 





nan *i>*. kid tii*. 

anmre of this deacriptioD of tiling sot luiHianiinR to noro thAn 
770 lb., and the nnjclo tile being A'l lb.; it it Rhuwn id (Jihn 
dineoaiena, niuning lOO, UO, and 3W til«M to tlie iH|uare, ud 
ooeting n«fie(TtIv«ljr &., 31. 13*. Sd„ and 3l. -U. Die tlinunatid tilea, 
«r foe the flrat t-na. im. the Minarf, Bad for No. 3, If. 3«. 64. 
Aonther Doeker, a M. Oeillnrd d« Boooatiat, ttlun from Io'"ni, 
exhibiu a tile idcatieal in principle wilh ihnt jait (t»irrib«l, but 
with greater preletiaiona in the waj of bmanieat; id iliii tilr the 
■bbU atrenstheniim fillet ia deTeloped iuto a (irotcequc bini'a 
beed, •oneiiilng apinxMcblDg to tbegrol<equi-KiirgO}'k'ai« uftau 
Men In ntedlnral etruetuna^ vliloh le reuarluiblj' pretty 1b the 
biutd, err wben eeeD doae, but ie altogether ao in^gniflcast in «i»e, 
■ad eo 'wmating in boldaeae, a* to be iittorly thrown nvairatoTan 
tbe lowcel height of a Toof iu actual conatmctioD: ibon Ules ore 
•howB aa leld alternaleir, white and red, and althiiugh, ae befon 
DMBtioDed, the oraatiMuii inn*t be oooaldered aa ao Bmob waete, 
Ttt the vhiole *4ect iu a roof miMt be pleasing and light. 

Hie Sflil daea nf tllea may be ooDaidfTecl ns onlv differiog la 
priittipla (rem the tilo Cotirtina in having the tilea laid willi Uieir 
Jointa horinTiTal and vcrtioJ inaleed of iHacDnallv, and coa< 
■equently bai-iDg the tunied-up edge eanied ^otig ibe top and 
one lidfy anil that turned dovn unng the other aide and tbe 
biAtoai: but ao many mmlMIcatlone hne beea iulroiluce<l, that 
in mfuiy of itinwirxhibitnl tli<- orifpnalorgoreniin^ferm i> wiih 
diffionllT di>eoTcrc<l. Tliii cla», u well •■ the laat, uinT be unid 
to ooiMiit of two NubdiviBioiiii. diDvriui( in the manaer lu vhiob 
the lilee are laid; thtit Ih, whirthfT the vertind Jolntt cf tbe tiUe 
in dlftnmteonnea ooinoide, or wholber tbry are laid eo ae to 
what ia teebnicelly called brmk joiut-, the fottncr aortne to bavo 
tbe adnmtage in pennittins the li-dga or flange to be ouried 
uniBteRupteilly aloag the upper luid lower tdgea of tbe tiU:. 

Aneae the eumplee of rectengnlar tilea of the fitUi claaa, 
tboaeef H. PegtuMt (department cAte dW) approach, perbape, 
Deaveat to tbe tile Coiirt<nB in form. Hiev ei« ahown of all 
eoJoaia— red, bbck. white, beown, rtllow, hlue, anil greeD, and 
wedietlngniehed ftvm lucitil otbrm in the bnlldiug bvbdugDlaud 
oa the upper aurfim. In the tilwi of M. Gilnn^'Dl of AlUcjrch, 
who U aaitl to bo the ori^nator of ihia <^Uiii> '>f tiU-, a centre pro- 
jeotioii oreorragolioa inntrodimd, by whidi tho tile ii utrrngih- 
wied anlGdently toeimble it to btuir the wi-i^ht of a workman on 
theraol^aiid atlheaame tiuie to be of great lighln«Hi; 140 of 
tlteae tllee cover a iqnan, which ooata froia lb. to \3*. 

But, periMM, the bnt and nent cefiii>lct<> exhibition c^ roofing 
tilee ii that ofMeeen; K. MDllrmind (i<., of Pnn'i, who pnmng 
not mcTvly for a eovering, but also give lli« niciuia of iiitruhicing 
•kyl>]{hte, eitbertoOpeDorfimI, irentlb(ioutitn,aiHlorFio|iloying 
lilea u lUnliiiig nuid chimoeyi^ and in aimUar BltuaiiwDa. The 




farm of the tile eeema a little compUcnled, bnt not at all eo « to 
noder It more dllficoli to be &XM, or to requin a a>or« akilM 
deacripUoo o