(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Civil engineer and architect's journal, scientific and railway gazette"

M!i 



li^fti 



W' 



MniiifliH 



liilili 



p 



THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL 



SCIENTIFIC AND RAILWAY GAZETTE. 



VOLUME III.— IS 40. 



LONDONi 

PUBLISHED FOR THE PROPRIETOR : 57, KING STREET, WESTMINSTER ; 

II. HOOPER, PALL MALL EAST; GROOMBRIDGE, PANYER ALLEY, PATERNOSTER ROW; J. WEALE, 59, HIGH HOLBORN; J. TAYLOR, 

1, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND; J. WILLIAMS, 106, GREAT RUSSELL STREET, BLO0MSBURY 

WILEY & PUTNAM, NEW YORK. 



LONDON : 
THOMAS BURROWS, 57, KING STREET, WESTMINSTER. 



PREFACE. 



This year lias been less remarkable for great events than for the steady and gratifying progress which has been made in every branch 
of the two professions, to recording the labours of which our Journal is devoted. The financial embarrassment of the country, and the 
course of political events, have been far from favourable either to the promotion of existing undertakings, or the formation of new ones. 
With regard to architecture, it must have been gratifying to our readers to have witnessed the increasing interest which has been shown 
by the public of late years on this subject, manifested by the demand for competitions, and the extended discussion of architectural topics 
in the higher class of general periodicals, while a strong feeling seems to prevail as to the necessity of enlightening the public mind, and 
bringingit to bear upon this as upon other branches of the arts. Architecture has at last been recognized as a subject for collegiate 
education, by its introduction into King's College, and by the formation of architectural schools in the national dockyards. The Royal 
Academy has given signs of a more liberal disposition towards the profession, by the election of Barry, notwithstanding his known con- 
nexion with the Royal Institute— a step highly important. The Institute of Architects of Ireland has been established, and the royal 
patronage bestowed upon it. The Revival style, as we announced last year, has now gained a footing in this country, at the same time 
that considerable progress has been also made in internal decoration by Parris, Latilla, Owen Jones, and other artists of talent ; so much 
better disposition is now shown to unite this branch of the arts with architecture, that there appears every prospect of the Houses of 
Parliament being painted in fresco, although we hope not, as has been suggested, by foreign hands. The temple of EngUsh freedom 
should never be desecrated by strangers. 

We have not this year, as previously, to regret the loss of many great edifices, although York Minster has suffered considerably by 
fire. Among the ancient buildings in which restorations or improvements have been carried on, may be mentioned Westminster Abbey, 
the Temple, St. Aldate's, York Minster, Tliorney Abbey, St. Mary Nottingham, St. Michael's Basingtoke. Few buildings of any note 
have been completed, although many are in a satisfactory state of progress; we may, however, mention the Reform Club, the Club 
Chambers Association, the Princess's Theatre, and the Manchester Unitarian Chapel. Several fine railway stations have been erected, 
and cemeteries opened in London and different parts of the countr)'. The subject of a change in the system of prison discipline now in 
agitation, seems to promise, at an early period, extensive employment for the profession, as also the question of national education, and 
the construction of school-houses consequent thereon. The profession in Ireland has been largely employed in building union work- 
houses, some of which are on a large scale; a prospect also exists of similar employment for our Scotch brethren. It will be a matter of 
gratification to consider that the important question of the architectural and sanitory police of large towns is now attracting much atten- 
tion. Something therefore may be expected to be done. 

Among the architects whose loss we have this year to regret, are Sir Jeffry Wyatville, AlbertoUi, and Mr. Whitwell. 

The engineering profession although having greater obstacles to contend with than the architects, have shown rather more vigour, 
and will require therefore a more lengthened statement of the progress they have made. Engineering education is making still greater 
advances, a new faculty has been established at Glasgow, and the first Regius Professor of Engineering appointed, the other faculties 
have been improved ; at King's College the architectural instruction has been extended, and a lower school formed for elementary in- 
struction. To the Mining schools we shall hereafter have occasion to advert; we may farther mention the increased qualifications re- 
quired of enginemen by the Admiralty, the examination of officers on the steam engine, and the delivery of lectures at the Royal Naval 
College, the establishment of a College for Civil Engineers at Putney, and the project of a School of Practical Engineering at the Poly- 
technic Institution. While at this point we may mention that honorary degrees have been conferred by the universities, upon several 
engineers, and also upon Junius Smith, the great pnimoter of Atlantic Steam Navigation. The University of Edinburgh have ordered 
from Chantrey, a statue of Watt, being the sixth of that great man, and the Institute of Civil Engineers have this year offered premiums 
fur memoirs of eminent engineers; we regret however, to remark, that no disposition has been shown by the Government to bestow the 
same honours upon this as upon other professions. Prizes have been awarded by an Association at Glasgow, for improvements in safety 
valves. The local exhibitions of arts and manufactures have acquired this year still greater extension, and probably we shall not long 
wait for a national exhibition in the metropolis. 

The railway system has in several ways prominently attracted public attention. We shall first adveit to the number of lines which 
have been this year either wholly or partially opened. Among these are, the Great Western, Brighton, Blackwall, Eastern Counties, 
Northern and Eastern, North Midland, York and North Midland, Manchester and Leeds, Hull and Selby, Glasgow and Ayr, Glasgow and 
Paisley, Maryport and Carlisle, Preston and Wyre, Lancaster and Preston, Chester and Birkenhead, Chester and Crewe, Manchester and 
Birmingham, Birmingham and Gloucester, and Taff Vale. On nearly all the great lines most fearful and unprecedented accidents have 
within the last few months taken place without any satisfactory cause for their extent, they seem indeed to be the result of a similar 
mysterious visitation to that by which steam navigation was afflicted last year and the year before, and from which it has been this year 
free. Government have been as usual meddling this year, and we regret to say with greater success than before ; besides employing parlia- 
mentary committees and itinerant commissioners who have been employed on the Scotch and Holyhead routes, an act has been past for 
giving the Government an unprecedented control over the lines. Only one bill for a new railway passed last session. The system of 
leasing small lines to other companies, and of the union of lines has been much extended. Rope traction has now been shown on a con- 
siderable scale on the Blackwall railway, on which wire rope is proposed to be used, and a large experiment has been made of the pneu- 
matic system, on the West London Railway. Electric telegraphs have received some improvements, and their utility for railway pur- 



- ?^ 6 ? 



PREFACE. 

posps may now be considered as finally recognized. The French government have this year shown a better spirit as to the railways, but 
tlu'y make but small way, the Paris and Rouen projectors have however raised large sums in this country. The Russian government have 
sent an engineer to this country to prejiare for the formation of raihvaya in Russia on a large scale, and it may be observed that generally 
the European nations are making progress as to the introduction of the system. 

The use of wood pavement for the streets has greatly extended both in London and the provinces, and the use of asphalte also seems 
to be established. Measures are in progress for running locomotives on common roads. 

The appointment of commissioners for inquiring into the state of our coasts, has been a measure long called for by the mercantile 
interests of this country ; but whether the recent labours of the harbour commissioners will either prove satisfactory or useful, yet remains 
to be seen. During the year improvements have been made at Leith, Fleetwood-on-Wyre, the Bute Docks at Cardiff, Ramsgate, Rye, 
and Woolwich. In this latter establishment we may also call attention to the introduction of the steam machine fur making shot. At 
Granton a pier has been erected ; in the Downs a safety beacon on a new principle ; and this year we have seen the first application of 
the screw pile system to the erection of a lighthouse at Fleetwood-on-Wyre. Considerable attention has been devoted to the embank- 
ment of the Thames, into which subject Parliament has inquired ; the river works of the new Houses of Parliament have been completed, 
and hopes are entertained that either by the city or goverment, works will be carried on so as to improve the whole north bank of the 
river; an extensive embankment on the shores of the Thames and Medway has been made by Lord de Vesci. The propositions for 
draining the Lake of Haarlem, and for recovering land in Morecambe Bay and the Wash, have caused mauy engineers to direct their 
inquiry to improvements in draining, as far as regards the application of mechanical power to such purposes. The Chard and the Ulster 
Canals have both been opened, and some extensive works completed on the Hereford and Gloucester. The repairs of Blackfriars Bridge 
have been satisfactorily ended, while great progress has been made with those carried on at Westminster Bridge ; some majestic viaducts 
have been constructed on the railways. The application of Rendel's system of floating bridges has been extended to Portsmouth and 
Calcutta. 

The interests of steam navigation having been seriously threatened by the proposed application of stringent government measures, 
we considered it our duty to awaken the attention of the marine engineers to the subject, and we congratulate our readers on the success 
which attended our eflTorts, such a union of the profession having been organized, and such effective measures taken, as to compel the 
authorities to postpone the intended bill. The importance of steam ships as a part of our marine, has been shown by recent hostile 
events, when the agency of this arm, both in Syria and China, has been so exerted. The government have shown their sense of it 
by giving higher rank and privileges to the enginemen in the naval service, by directing schools for their instruction to be formed in the 
dockyards, and by making an acquaintance with the marine engine a part of the studies of the superior officers. The French government 
have greatly enlarged their engine factory. The investigation of the properties of the Archimedean screw has been continued, and its 
utility recognized, at the same time that the question of modes of propulsion has been the subject of extensive experiment. The appli- 
cation of propellers to sailing vessels, as in the Earl Hardwicke and the Vernon, has been successful. The introduction of steam navi- 
gation on canals, has also tended to direct attention towards propellers, and to the use of iron as a material for steam canal boats and for 
passage boats, of which the Lee, the Nonsuch, and the Alice are examples. Iron has been so extensively used as a material of construction 
for steam boats, as already to have given a great deal of employment to marine engineers. Abroad, iron steam boats have been introduced 
on the Danube and the Elbe. Iron has been applied considerably for constructing sailing vessels; it has also been used for a floating 
fire engine. The experiments continue on the application of electro-magnetic power to navigation, but with no tangible result. Steam 
navigation has, this year, been greatly extended; Fleetwood-on-Wyre has been added to the steam ports; the Mediterranean service has been 
more efficiently organized ; in the Atlantic the number of steamers to the United States has been increased, and a line to Boston established, 
communication with Madeira has been opened ; in the Pacific, steamers are now running along the western coasts ; in India, increased 
means of communication with England still occupy the public mind ; attention has also been directed to the capabilities of the Indus 
and its tributary streams. 

Mining is greatly advancing as one of the branches of the profession, or a branch likely to be promoted by the measures taken for 
giving instruction in it. The munificence of Sir Charles Lemon has established in Cornwall a special school for mining, and professorships 
also exist in King's College, London, and at Durham. Instruction in mineral chemistry, so much required, has been promoted by the 
establishment of the government school attached to the museum of economic geology, and by the courses delivered in several public 
institutions. The powers of Cornish engines have been the subject of serious discussion among our engineers, and the attention of the 
Dutch government has been directed to them to ascertain their applicability for economical draining. 

Among the engineers who have been this year lost, we have to mention with regret, Sir Robert Seppings, Lieut. Thomas Drummond, 
and Mr. Hazckline, an engineer employed on the Menai and Conway bridges. 

Having thus disposed of the interests of our readers, it remains that we should ask their indulgence while we recall to them the 
exertions we have ourselves made in fulfilling our duties towards them. For this we appeal with confidence to the volume just con- 
cluded, where they will find that our correspondence has increased in value and interest, and that no exertion or expense has been spared 
to render the work worthy of the increased patronage it receives. Our readers will find in it 432 pages, 21 plates and 214 engravings, 
forming a mass of informal ion which, for value and for cheapness, is not surpassed by the periodical works of any profession. Such have 
been our endeavours in our communication with the professions through the medium of these pages, but we have not hesitated, neither 
shall we, to exert ourselves for them, when and where we may have it in our power, by acting in a public capacity. Such we considered 
to be our duty on the steam navigation question, as we shall on every occasion where the interests of the professions require it, and our 
humble effoits can in any capacity be exerted in their defence. 



INDEX. 



Bilingual inscription, 
; tumulus at Bougon, 



-Bartholomew, A., 259, 



Air, passage of, through pipes, 300, 

Antiquities: — Egyptian, 12; St. Mary Aldermary; 

25; Perranzabuloe, 90; 

132; tombs at Cscre, 209; 

231. 
.\quecluct at Dijon, 398. 
.Arabesque decorations, 94, 
Arch, expansion of, 133. 

origin of, 354. 

pointed, 318. 

skew, 109, 116, 152, 179, 197, 230, 231 

232, 274. 

.Architects, vide biography 

301, 330, 365 ; Blore, E., 255, 257 ; Brown, 54 ; 
Cottinghara, C, 249 ; Donaldson,?. L., 2, 147, 
209; East, F., 322, 354; Francis, F., J. 337; 
Fripp, S. C, jun., 105 ; Godwin, G., jun., 210, 
217,249,258; Harris, \V., 179 ; Jones, Inigo, 3 ; 
Poynter, A., 94; Pugin, A. \V., 197, 215, 225, 
228, 257, 272; Tattershall, R., 2 ; Thomson, J., 
261,321; Tite. W., 223, 258; Walker, T. E., 
25, 39 ; Watson, J. B., 215 ; Wightwick, G., 254, 
272. 301. 352. 

table of, 112, 140, 147, 183. 

Architects, Royal Institute of, 09, 93, 130, 209, 
211, 248, 261, 285. 

Architects of Ireland, Institute of, 132. 

Architectural Society, 35, 248, 427. 

Architecture, vide I3uildings, Ecclesiastical, Archi- 



tects, Engineering, Stone, Iron, Timber, Arch, 
Competition, Ralph, Candidus, Rambles by Philo- 
musaeus, Medieval Architecture, Gardening. 

• Abbotsford, 3 ; Architectura Domestica, 



34. 

arch, origin of, 354. 

at home and abroad, 90. 

beauty of outline in, 329 ; Blenheim, 262 ; 

British Assurance Office, 225 ; Buckingham pa- 
lace, 156 ; buttresses, 365. 

Byzantine style, 219. 

Cambridge libraries, 32 ; Capitol, Wash- 
ington, 293 ; capitals, 373; churches, 75 ; church 
pews, 225. 

■ chronology of styles, 143 ; columns, 143, 



156,373; cornices, 250, 329 ; distinctive causes 
of Greek and Roman, 337 ; East India House, 
293; Edinburgh, 156; German architects, 91; 

Government school, 327. 

horizontal and vertical line, 137, 186, 



210,228; house decoration, 363 ; Italian, 156 
landscapes abroad, 4 ; landscape gardening, 52. 

history of Enghsh, 2. 

Liverpool, 356, 410 ; Mansion House, 



294, 399. 



•Medieval in France, 143,219; Municli, 



91 ; National Gallery, 3. 

origin of vertical line, 137. 

original composition, 261. 



Architecture, painted glass, 217, 249, 255, 258, 270, 
373; Pantheon, 293; Parisian houses, 310; pin- 
nacles, 365 ; pointed arches, 318. 

porticoes, 293, 356, 389. 

profession in France, 7; public walks. 



257. 



187. 



85. 

Reform Club, 75, 141,329; revival style, 

■ Romanesque style, 143 ; Royal Academy, 

■ Russian, 93. 

St. Genevieve, 293 ; St. Martin's, 203, 

294; St. Paul's, 227, 329; St. PaiU's, Covent 
Garden, 293, 373. 

shops, London, 43. 

simplicity of plan, 3. 

slate, 73. 

Soane museum, 155, 301. 

table of buildings erected in Paris in the 

19th century, 203. 

table of porticoes. 389. 

Vanbnigh, 262, 321. 

Vatican, 94. 

Whitehall, 3, 264 ; windows, 3. 

wire fences, 49. 

York column, 156. 

■ naval, vide Ship-building, Steam-boat, 



Boat. 
Armstrong, R., on Cornish engines, 4 ; on steam 



INDEX. 



figine technical terms, 89 ; on indicating power, 
Ijj. 

Artesian wells, 20, 51, 90, 118, 249, 2G4 ; absorb- 
ent, 118. 

Aspballe, artificial, 21.^, histon,- of, 427. 

Ualil, \V., on the Brooniielaw Wier, 415. 

Barrett, 11., on moving ijcacli, 19.'>. 

Ilcach, inovinj, 195, 237, 239, 258. 

Beam, tnisseil, Laves's, Kil. 

Beaufort, Dnke of, mansion, 22fi. 

Biagrapliv— .Vlbertolli, 147; Alison, Rev. A., 24 ; 
ArHirr', T., 249; U.azley, C, 147 ; BroHerip, C, 
112; Davy, Kev. II., 23 ; Driimmond, T., 164; 
Dudley, 390; Telford, 30; Gilljert Davies, 66, 
99; Johnston, F., 1S3; Lushington, E. L., 21; 
Muss, 217; Perry, Capt., 108 ; Pelerborongh, Bp. 
23; Pitts, T., 164; Prevost, P., 2 1 ; Prony, De, 
24 ; Uepton, 52 ; Rigaud, 23 ; Sannders, 24 ; 
Seppings, Sir R., 211 ; Telford, 30; Whiterell, 
211 ; Wyatvillc, Sir J., 130, 286. 

Bhsting, vide gunpowder. Royal George, 215 ; un- 
der water, Dresser's plan, 341; limestone rock, 
by Bald, 165. 

Blowing up Cannon-mills Bridge, 291. 

Boat, iron canal, 175. 

Boring, 198, vide Wells. 

Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, 173. 

Brick machine, BakeweU's, 160; Bedborough's, 175; 
V,"liite's, 184. 

Bricks, 144, 155, 160, 175, 180, 255, road, duty 
free, 255. 

Bridges, vide livdraulie, arcli Ardrossan, 29 ; Belleek, 
344; Blackfriars, 28C, 327; blowing up, 291 ; 
Broomielaw, 415; Calcutta, 398 ; Cliinese, 268 ; 
Enniskilleen,344 ; floating, Portsmouth, 215, 398; 
Gloster, 31 ; Ilann's, 31 ; iron, 101 ; Mcnai, 193, 
268; Portsmouth, 137; rope, 208. 

Suspension, Dredge's, 193, 286 ; Haslar, 384 ; theory 
of, 208; fall of, 345. 

Teignmoutli, 38; timljer, 358, 422; trellis, 152; 
trussed, Lives's, 161; Victoria, Bristol, 193; 
Westminster, 177; wire, 268; wood, 125, 161, 
175. 

British Association, 357, 386, 420. 

Budc light, 18. 

Building— Arch, 109, 116, 133, 152, 179, 197,230, 
231, 232, 274, 318, 354; beam, 161; cement, 
266; concrete, 120; covering roofs with plank- 
ing, 424; mica, instead of glass, 346; papier 
mache, 201; porcelain letters, 176; puzzolana, 
266. 

Buildings, vide Ecclesiastical, Architecture, Theatre, 
Ashton Court, 52 ; Assize Courts, Liverpool, 158, 
190; nank, London and Wesminster, 84 ; ditto, 
Rochdale, 255; ditto, Savings, Finsburr, 217; 
ditto. Union, 183; Bielefeld's w^orks, 8, 160; 
Blenheim, 202, 286 ; Capitol, Raleigh, 394 ; Chats- 
worth Picture Gallery, 286; Claverton Inn, 130; 
Cobham Hall, 53; Collegiate Institution, Liver- 
pool, 255; Courts of Law, 210; Elizabetlian 
shop fronts, 257 ; Fitzv\illiam Museum, 88 ; Hos- 
pital, Uedworth, 39 ; Jail, Petcrboro, 2" ; Man- 
sion House, 294, 399 ; Market, Llandovei-y, 39 ; 
ditto, Bodmin, 179 ; Merchant Seaman's Institu- 
tion, 251; Pantheon, 195; Pavilion, Brighton, 
53; Polytechnic Institution, 321 ; Reform Club, 
75,141,329,409; Redl.'ourne Hall, 257; Roval 
Exchange, 07,132, 199,210,224,399; South- 
wark lubtitution, 363 ; Theatre, Adelphi, 394 ; 
ditto. Princess, 394 ; Townhall, Ashtan-undcr- 
Lyne, 2.55 ; ditto, Helston, 179 ; Victoria Rooms, 
liristol, 411 ; Warwick House, Birndngham, 128; 
Woolwich Workhouse, 68. 
Calculating balance for engineers, 21. 
Canal boats, iron, 175, 31 1 ; Chard, 327; Erie,124; 
friction dynamometer, 381; Gloster and Here- 
ford, 1 78, 398 ; lockage, 384 ; lock valves, 396 ; 
Stafford and Worcester, 215 ; steam navigation, 
398; trafhe, 311, 376; Ulster, 344; Wyerlev, 
177. 
Candidus's Note Book, 3,75, 118,155,224,271, 

301,333,373,402. 
Cannon boring, 172. 

Carriages — Adams vertebrated, 50 ; break, 26, 175 ; 
Curtis's truck, 5 ; draught of carriages, 20 ; effect 
of curves on, 267 ; friction wheels, 291 ; resistance 



of, 169; screw jack, 386. 
Cement, 266. 

Chain cable, recovery of, 395. 
Chapels, vide Ecclesiastical Buildings. 
Chatterton monument, 105. 
Churches, vide Ecclesiastical Buildings. 

on rebuilding old, 190; Catholic, 197. 



Clarke, Hyde, on absorbent Artesian wells, 118, 
Coal, combustion of, 412; India. 216 ; properties 

of, 423. 
Coalfield, Forest of Dean, 34 7. 
Cotferdam, Neville, on pressure of water on, 78 ; 

new houses of parliament, 283. 
College for Civil Engineers, 57; King's, 68, 426. 
Column, Nelson, 178, 211, 327, 355, 379, 413. 
General Clavton's, 181. 



Colours, Nobili's, plate of, 207. 

Compass pivots, 422. 

Competition Designs, vide Exhibitions, 7, 61, 130, 
132, 158, 173,224,331,371, 378, 406; Bury St. 
Edmund's, 331, 371,406; Cardiff, 61; Ireland, 
378; Oxford, 378 ; drawings, exhibition of, 194. 

Concrete, patent, 120. 

Cotton gins, experiments on, 313. 

Curtis's railway truck, 5. 

Cycloidal paddle-wheel, 35. 

Dageuliam breach, stoj}]nng of, 106. 

Dock— Bute, 167; Chatham, 120; Liverpool, 362; 
Woolwich, 27, 37, 120, 362, 363. 

Draining, vide \A'ater, Hydraulic, Fleet sewer, 398 ; 
Haarlem lake, 327 ; Fiskerton, 362 ; Fairbairii on, 
412. 

Dry rot, 26, 27, 418. 

Dyer, C, Victoria Rooms, Bristol, 411. 

Earthwork in cuttings and embankments, method 
of computing, 334, 413. 

East, F., on the origin of alpliabetic writing, 403 ; 
on the horizontal line in architecture, 186, 228. 

Ecclesiastical Buildings, vide Architecture, Ashted 
church, 399; Aries, St. Trophime, 144; Ash 
church, 215; Attleborough church, 39 ; Athens 
cathedral, 220 ; Atherstone convent, 393 ; -Avig- 
non cathedral, 143, 144; Basingstoke cluirch, 339; 
Bedford, St. Paul's church, 288 ; Bethual Green 
church, 362; Birmingham church, 179; Black- 
heath church, 71 ; Boston Weslevan chapel, 399 ; 
Bow church, 200, 329 ; Caen, St. Peter's 329 ; 
Calcutta cathedral, 71 ; Camborne church, 171 ; 
Catholic churches, 228 ; City cemetery, 363 ; 
church pews, 225; convent, Birmingham, 215 ; 
Darlington church, 32 ; Dukinfield Unitarian 
chapel, 2; Falmouth church, 255; Flushing church, 
255; Freiburg cathedral, 329; Golden Hill church, 
327; Great Haywood church, 399 ; Guilsborough 
church, 254 ; I'landsworth church, 215 ; Hill Top 
church, 327; Horsham church, 255; Keswick 
church, 32 ; King's College chapel, 329 ; Lanncr 
church, 255 ; Lower Beeding church, 255 ; Lee 
church, 288; Liverpool, St. Barnabas, 71 ; Mess- 
ing church, 215 ; Mile Enil cluirch, 39 ; Monetes 
Keras, 221 ; Moscpie, Armedabad, 329 ; New 
C.itton church, 288; Nottingham, St. Mary's, 215; 
organ, 357 ; painted windows, 217, 249, 255, 258, 
276, 373, 399 ; Panagia Lycomido, 220 ; Ply- 
mouth, Trinity, 254; Poitiers, St. John's, 144; 
ditto, Notre Dame, 221 ; Portreath church, 255 ; 
Ravenna, St. Vital, 219; Ramsgate church, 303; 
Rome, St. Paul's, 179; Ryde church, 409; Rus- 
sian churches, 93 ; St. Bride's, 329 ; St. Dunstan's 
in the East, 330 ; St. Paul's, 227, 329, 330 ; Sa- 
lisbury cathedral, 329 ; Sancta Sophia, 220, 221 ; 
Salt church, 179; Scrgius and Bacchus church, 
220; Stone church, 318; Temple church, 255; 
Thornev abbey. 255 ; Tours, St. Martin's, 143 ; 
Westminster abbey, 249, 276, 302 ; Wolver- 
hampton church, 39, 71, 399 ; York Minster, 211, 
276. 

Electro-chemistry and metallurgy, 324. 
Embankment, !)H/e Hydraulic. Moreeombe Bay, 71 ; 
near the Medway,' 258 ; Thames, 258, 359, 383 ; 
Lough Foyle, 346. 
Engineering, vide Arch, beam, blasting, brick, 
bridge, canal, college, concrete, dock, gas, geology, 
harbour, hydraulic, lime, lighthouse, machine 
manufacture, mining, }>ave!nent, pier, jjump, rail- 
way, river, road, steam, surveying, wall, water. 



Alexandria, 39; .\mcrican, 123; arches, skew, 
109, 116, 152, 179, 197, 230, 231, 232,274; 
earthwork, method of computing, 334,413; pho- 
tography, 385 ; profession in France, 7 ; teachers 
of. One 'who has sull'rred, &c., 148, 189. 

Engineers, wV/e Biographv. Armstrone, R., 89,12"; 
Bald. W., 165, 197, 309 ; Barlow'] W. IL, 275 ; 
Buck, G. W., 197, 231, 274, 308 ; Coekerill, J., 
39; Curtis, W. J., 5, 70,129; llodgkinson, E., 
248 ; Hughes, S., 334 ; Mitcliell, A., 322 ; Ne- 
ville, J., 78 ; Nicholson, P., 230, 274 ; Parkes, J., 
282; Rennie, G.,25, 133; Rennie, J., 237 ; Sea- 
ward, J., 374 ; Smith, Junius, 400; Wicksteed, 
10, 282, 307. 

Engraving, galvanic, 148, 164 ; daguerreotype, 280. 

Exchanges, history of, 223. 

Exhibition, designs for Roval Botanic Garden, 173 ; 
Royal Acadeni^y, 187, 222, 257. 

Fairhairn, M'., on draining, 412. 

Fine Arts — Rouen, 39 ; Arabesque, 94 ; British 
Museum, 12, 84, 394, 404, 417; Chatterton 
monument, 105; Fresco, 226. 278; Soane .Mu- 
seum, 155, 301; Gallery of Arts, 132; glass 
painting, 217, 242, 255', 258, 276, 373, 399; 
Hampton Court, 164 ; School of Design, 164, 250; 
Huskisson statue, 86 ; July column, 250 ; painted 
window, 431; Napoleon monument, 327; Red- 
bourne Hall, 278 ; Rouen, 39 ; Oxford memorial, 
286, 393 ; stone and bronze, comparison, 355 ; 
statues, 394. 

Fleetwood-on-Wyre, 400. 

Fresco i)ainting, 226, 278, 

French historical commission, 171. 

Fuel, 134, 176; Edward's, 363; combustion of, 
412. 

Gardening, public walks, 85 ; landscape, 52 ; wire 
fences, 49; botanies, 173. 

Gas, vide Bude light. Antiquity of, 263 ; account 
of, 137 ; bituminous schist, 308 ; regulator, 386 ; 
Seguin's, 29 ; Val Marino's, 26. 

Geological Society, 68, 99. 

Geology, vide Harbours, Mining, Stone, Lime. 

Bcndable stone, 183; Bourne river, 103; 

Cornwall, 39 ; coal, India, 216; ditto. Forest of 
Dean, 347; earthquake, 71 ; economic, museum 
of, 380; encroachments of sea, 39, 64, 167, 189 ; 
fossils, Horsham, 255 ; landslip, 71, 216 ; London 
clay, 249; moving beach, 195, 237, 239, 258; 
petroleum oil well, 303 ; Sheppy, Isle of, 25, 189 ; 
solubility of silica, 282; Venice, 71; Vistula, 210. 

Gilding metals by electricity, 277. 

Glass, flint, manufacture, 316. 

Mica as a substitute, 346. 

Painting, history of, 217, 258, 276, 373. 

Great Western Steam-ship Company, meeting, 
158. 

Groundrope apparatus, 87. 

Gunpowder balistie clock, for proving, 21. 

Harbour, inde Lighthouse, Geology, Dock, Beach> 
Hydraulic, Tides. 

Aberdeen, 29; Ardglass, 146; Algiers, 

265; beach, moving, 195, 237, 239, 258 ; Beachy 
Head, 240; Brighton, 286; Broadstaiis, 237; 
Crane, 28 ; Cuxmere, 239 ; safety beacon, 345 ; 
Dantzick, 229 ; Deal, 195, 237, 25'9. 345 ; Dover, 
21, 146, 167, 195, 238, 240, 259, 321 ; Dublin 
Bay, 146; Fleetwood, 132, 181 ; Folkestone, 21; 
Hastings, 238, 259; Kiugtown,146; Leith,71; Lit- 
tlchampton, 240, 259 ; Lowestoft, 145; Margate, 
237, 240, 259 ; Newhaven, 239, 259 ; Pagham, 
240 ; Penzance, Palmer's Report, 2! ; Port- 
rush. 146 ; Ramsgate, 21, 195, 237, 259 ; refuge, 
Mr. Barrett, 145 ; report on South Eastern, 236, 
259,321; Rve, 238, 259; Sandwich, 237, 253 ; 
Slioreham, 38, 239, 259 ; Swansea, 21. 

Harvey and West's valve, 41. 

Hooper's letter weights, 88. 

Hydraulic Works, vide Harbour, River, Canal, Pier, 
Dock, Water, Pump, Drainage. 

Algiers, 2li5 ; aqueduct at Dijon, 398 ; 

balance gates, 42 ; colTre dam, Neville on pres- 
sure of water, 78 ; ditto, houses of parliament, 
283 ; Dagenbam breach, stoppage of 106 ; drain- 
ing. Fleet sewer, 398 ; ditto, Fiskerton, 362 ; ditto, 
Haarlem lake, 327; ditto, Lough Foyle, 346; 



I N^ D E X. 



embankment near the Medvvay, 258 ; ditto, More- 
eambe Bay, 71 ; ditto, Thames, 258, 359, 383 ; 
land-springs, 120; Lough Erne, 343; Louglis 
Fovle and Svvillv, 346 ; mortar, 266 ; piling, 29 ; 
puddling, 30. 
Institute of Civil Engineers, 97, 133, 211, 248, 282, 

314, 346, 384, 423. 
Iron, anthracite, Ystalyfera, 342. 

coach, 327; corrosion by water, 424. 

corrosion, Neilson's patent, 363. 

ditto, Wall's, 429. 

history of, 390. 

lower deck beams, 398. 

malleable, in Persia, 296. 

manufacture. Guest's improvements in, 396. 

—— pillars, experiments on, 248. 

schooner, 397. 

steam boats, 37, 69, 104, 177, 211, 212, 252, 

288, 292, 325, 348, 362, 388, 397, 398. 

strength of, for ship building, 388. 

-water and air, action on, 387. 

Jackson, G. B. W., on computing earthwork, 413. 
King's College, 426. 

Lardner, Dr., lectures on railways, 128, 168. 
Leeds, table of architects, 112, 140, 147, 183. 
Lighthouse, Wyre, screw pile, 132, 181, 229, 251, 

322 ; Ugbts for, 283. 
Lime, 176, 266. 
LimekUn, Menteath's, 176. 
Limestone, 309, 340; blasting, 165; in Ireland, 

198. 
Lough Erne improvement, 343. 
Locomotive Engines, vide Steam Engine, Carriage. 

. adhesion of the wheels of 18 ; 

alarum, 322 ; American, 289, 347; common road, 
254, 280; Great Western, 168, 178; Hancock's, 
280; Hull and Selby, 427; London and Bir- 
mingham, 315; manufactory, 32; power, 101, 
168 ; Rudge's, 364 ; wheels, 357 ; wheel, wood 
tyre, 386 ; ditto, metallic, 401. 
Machine, vide Steam Engine. 

Brick, 160, 175, 184 ; cannon boring, 172; 

draining, 412; gunpowder, proving, 21 ; ground- 
rope, 87; planing, 172,291 ; plough, steam, 160 ; 
propeller, 25, 49, 157, 292, 397 ; pump, 26, 273, 
363 ; refrigerator, 21 1 ; saws, 26 ; screw jack, 
50, 386 ; shot, 363 ; turbine, 420 ; washing, 28, 
90. 
Manufacture, — Gilding metals bv electricity, 277 ; 
glass, 217, 258, 276, 316, 346,'373; iron, 37,69, 
104, 177, 211, 212,248,288,292, 29G, 325,327, 
342, 348, 362, 387, 388, 396,397,398; lime, 
176, 266 ; papier mache, maps, 201, 286 ; paper, 
396; patent felt, 367. 
Memorial, vide Column, Statue. 

Chatterton, 105 ; Neale, 288. 

Mica, use of, instead of glass, 346. 
Mining, vide Geological Society, Lime, Coals, Iron, 
Stone, Gas. 

asphalte, artificial, 215 ; blasting limestone, 

165 ; burning coal mines, 179 ; coal, India, 216; 
iron, 390 ; lead, 284 ; limestone, 165, 176, 198, 
266, 309, 340 ; mines, 99 ; Persian iron, 297 ; 
raising water, 419 ; Rayas, 352 ; safety lamp, 36 ; 
slate, 73. 
Monument, Napoleon, 406. 
Monument, vide Memorial. 
Moorsom, Capt. W., on embankments, 406. 
Momay, A. A., on railway cur\'es, 15 ; on the theory 

of the steam engine, 59, 149. 
Neale testimonial, 288. 
Nelson column, 178, 211, 327, 355, 379. 
Paper manufacture, Martin's, 396. 
Papier mache maps, 286 ; ornaments, 201. 
Parliament, proceedings in, 69. 
Parris's, Mr., decorations, 278. 
Patent, Sharp's, 428. 
Patents, 27, 40, 72, 104, 139, 175, 180, 216, 256, 

292, 328, 364, 40fl, 429, 431. 
Pavement, wood, 67, 164, 215. 
Pedestal, Hyde Park Corner, 362. 
Peppercome, Mr., 256. 
Pier, vide Hydraulic. 

Aberdeen, 29 ; Algiers, 265 ; Granton, 324 ; 

Margate, 37. 
Planing machine, Rennoldson's, 291. 



Porcelain letters, 176. 

Pott's pict\ire hanging, 400. 

Power, improvement in obtaining, Poole's, 314. 

Poynter, A., on arabesque, 94. 

Pump, I'ide Valve. 

Gravel, 26. 

Rotatory, Sutcliffe's, 273. 

Stuffing box. Home's, 363. 

Puzzolana, 266. 

Railway, vide Locomotive, Carriage. 

Act for regulating, 381; American, 430 



Altona and Lubeck, 308; atmosplieric, 104, 253, 
259, 379 ; Belgian, report on, 288 ; Birmingham 
and Gloster, 38, 139,214, 289, 399, 406 ; Black- 
wall, 38, 178, 213. 290; bridges of timber, 358, 
Brighton, 38, 103; Bristol and Exeter, 213; 
Cheltenham and Great Western, 214, 254 ; Crov- 
don, 38, 137; curves, 15, 74, 128, 169, 385; 
curves, effect of, on carriages, 267 ; dial, 397 ; 
Dublin and Drogheda, 398 ; Dundee and Arbroath, 
70 ; Eastern Counties, 38, 290 ; economy of, 422, 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, 70, 179, 289; fares, 
278, 311, 376; friction dvnamometer, 381; 
French, 254; Glasgow and Ayr, 38, 215,290; 
Gloucester and Newport, 430; gradients, 168; 
Grand Junction, 38, 168 ; Great Western, 38, 71, 
103,168,178, 179,290; Great North of Eng- 
land, 71,231,254 ; Greenwich, 103, 430; ground 
rnpe apparatus, 87 ; Hull and Selby, 38, 70, 245, 
289, 290 ; Lancaster and Preston, 178, 215, 290, 
326 ; Lardncr's, lectures on, 1G8 ; Llanelly, 254 ; 
London and Birmingham, 71 ; London and Dub- 
lin, report on, 190; London and Norwich, 398; 
management, 414 ; Manchester and Birmingham, 
139, 178, 214, 290; Manchester and Leeds, 39, 
103, 399; Marvport and Cariisle, 70, 290 ; Mid- 
land Counties, 139, 179 ; North Midland, 38, 103, 
178,214,289; North Union, 326 ; Northern and 
Eastern, 214 ; Paris and Rouen, 215 ; pneumatic, 
164, 253, 398; power, employed upon, 6, 63; 
Preston and Wyre, 214, 256,' 290; Rangeley's 
322, 372, 388 ; report of select committee, 137, 
278; rope traction, 6,213,393; into Scotland, 
report, 241; screw jack, 386 ; Sheffield, and Man- 
chester, 6, 70, 178; sleeper, cedar, 346 ; South 
Eastern, 2, 39, 179, 430; South Western, 71, 
103, 215 ; speed on, 265 ; Taff Vale, 398, 430 ; 
telegraph, 279, 323 ; Thames Haven, 430 ; traffic, 
278, 311, 370; trains, stopping, 429; water, 
power on, 393; West Cumberland, 241; West 
London, 164, 253, 398; wheel, Dirck's, 401; 
working expenses of, 1 74 ; York and North Mid- 
land, 290. 

Ralph's Review of the Public Buildings of London, 
199, 227, 263, 302, 339. 

Rambles by Philomusaius, 4, 84, 155. 

Refrigerator, Davison's, 211. 

Report on harbours (South Eastern Coast) 235, 259, 
321. 

plans for preventing steam vessel acci- 
dents, 245. 

railways, 137, 278. 

London and Dublin, 190. 

into Scotland, 241. 

Belgian, 288. 



steam navigation, France, 360. 

Thames embankment, 382. 

Trafalgar-square, 255, 286, 304. 

Retort upon retort. 259. 

Reviews — Arcbitectura Domestica, 33 ; Bartholo- 
mew's specifications, 319; Bielefeld's papier ma- 
che, 130 : Brees's Railway Practice, 276; Brees's 
Glossary of Civil Engineering, 276, 393 ; brief 
description of plans for supplying water to the 
metropoHs, 203 ; Bruft"s Engineering Field Work, 
317, 354 ; Claxton's Memoir of a Mechanic, 31 ; 
Comic Latin Grammar, 34 ; Companion to the 
Almanac, 32; Cooley's Propositions, 130; Cooley's 
Euclid, 34; Cresy's Stone Church, 318; Creuze's 
Naval Architecture, 250, 277 ; Day's Parallels, 
250; Egerton's Mexico, 351 ; France's Geology, 
317, 394 ; France's Trignometrical Surveying, 34 ; 
Gandy and Baud's M'indsor Castle," 250 ; Gilks's 
Wood Engraving, 130 ; Hann's Theory of Bridges, 

' 29 ; Heath's Picturesque Annual, 131 ; Kittoe's 



Illustrations of Indian Architecture, 203; Lou- 
don's Arboretum, 102 ; Manchester as it is, 32 ; 
Musbet's Papers on Iron and Steel, 317, 390, 
414 ; Nicholson's Guide to Railway Masonry, 34 ; 
ditto, Treatise on Projection, 250 ; Ornamental 
Gates of the Parks, 34 ; Pamhour's Locomotive 
Engines, 415; Parkes on Steam Boilers, 100; 
Page's Guide to Ornamental Drawing, 130 ; Penny 
Cyclopedia, 203, 389 ; Practical Inquiry into the 
Laws of Excavation, 391 ; Radford's Construction 
of the Art, 174; Reid's Chemistry, 250 ; Rendel's 
Plymouth Railway, 393 ; Repton's Landscape 
Gardening, 52 ; Ricauti's Rustic .\rchitccture, 
207, 393 ; Richardson's Arcliitectural Remains, 
276, 320; Robert's Galvanism, 393; Rooke's 
Geology, 250; Royal Lodges, Windsor Park, 102 ; 
Scott's Practical Cotton Spinner, 393 ; Standish's 
Seville, 351 ; Tredgold's Elementary Carpentry, 
102 ; White's Harbours of Refuge, 102 ; Wight- 
wick's Palace of Architecture, 352 ; Year Book 
of Facts, 130 ; Y'oung's Practical Arithmetic, 174. 
River Erne, 343 ; improvement of, 284 ; Medina, 
37- New, 291; Shannon, 288; Severn, 31; 
Thames, 258, 283, 359, 382 ; Trent, 398 ; Vis- 
tula, 210, 229. 
Road, Perth to Elgin, 37 ; profile of, 385. 
Royal Society, 22. 69, 93, 207, 247, 281. 
Safety beacon, Bullock's, 345. 
Saws, circular, 26. 
Scientific Society, 426. 

Screw jack, tr.iv'ersing, 50, 3SG ; universal, 386. 
Sculpture, Newton's, copying machine, 429. 
Sea, depth of, 55. 
Sewer, Fleet, 398. 

Ship- building, ride Steam-boat, iron lower deck 
beams, 398: French, 277; sliding keels, 349; 
iron, 388, 397; mast carrying, 4,0; form of 
vessels, 421. 
Shot machine, 363. 
Smoke, consumption of, 356. 
Society of Arts, 10. 
Statues, stone and bronze, comparison of, 355 ; 

Huskisson's, 86. 
Steam as a moving power, 426. 
Steam Boat, vide Steam Engine, accidents, 103 ; 
Archimedes, screw, 192, 252, 325 ; Alice, iron, 
69 ; American, 117, 162 ; Atlantic. 37, 213,361 ; 
Australian, 397; Brigand, iron, 288; British 
Queen, 37, 15.3, 177, 213, 325; canal, 398; 
Clyde, 430; Courier, iron, 212; Cyclops, 36; 
Dover, iron, 252 : Duchess of Lancaster, 252 ; 
dredging, 430 ; Daldia, iron, 325 ; Eari of Hard- 
v\'icke, 325 ; East Indian, 286 ; Eclipse, iron, 292 ; 
Elbe, 212 ; Elberfeld, iron, 325 ; engineers, 69 ; 
engine, 73, 142, 153, 157, 159, 172,212,245, 
358, 374, 385, 386 ; Enterprise, iron, 37 ; Father 
Thames, iron, 362 ; Ferry, 398 ; fire, extinguish- 
ing, 357 ; Fire King, 251 ; France, report on, 
360; German, 213; Great Western, 3, 70, 153, 
158, 213, 398 ; India, :i25, 348 ; iron, 37, 69, 
104, 177, 211, 212, 252, 288, 292, 325,348, 362, 
388, 397, 398,430; ditto, durability of, 211; 
ditto and timber, comparison of, 348 ; ditto, test- 
ing of, 101. Junius Smith, 400 ; Lee, iron, 177 ; 
Liverpool, 213, 253; Mermaid, iron, 430 ; Mail, 
177; Monarch, iron, 430; Mongelielle, 398; 
Nemesis, 70, 137, 348 ; Nonsuch, iron, 3l4 ; 
Oriental, 253, 325; Orwell, iron, 37, 104,212. 
Paddles, Boulton's, reefing, 76; ditto, Hall's, reef- 
ing, 76; Peru, 287, 362, i98 ; Phlegethon, iron, 
252 ; Polyphemus, 397 ; power for long voyages, 
386; President, 70, 173, 176. Propeller, 397; 
propellers, experiments on, 25, 49, 157 ; ditto, 
new, 292, 430 ; Proserpine, 104 ; Pylades, 37 ; 
Queen Victoria, 212; Rose, iron, 397; Royal 
Mail, 253; Ruby, 251; sliding keels, 349: 
smoke, 170; Sons of the Thames, iron, 37, 
104, 177, 212; Swallow, iron, 235; Swedish, 
177 ; Thames floating engine, 325 ; Thistle, iron, 
397; tug, 287; United States, 173; Vernon, 
325 ; Warrington, iron, 430. 

Steam Engine, vide Fuel. 

boiler, Curtis's, 76 ; ditto, Poole's, 

175 ; ditto, proving, 430 ; ditto, Moindron's im- 
provement, 327; ditto, clothing, cedar, 346; 



INDEX. 



ditto, ditto, patent felt, 367 ; ditto, incrustation, 
397 ; ditto, water regulator, 291, 328. 

condensation, 358; Cornish, 4, 133, 

153, 282, 419 ; ditto, and Lancashire system of 
working, 4 ; Craddock's imnrovement, 39G ; East 
London Waterworks, 7, 05 ; epicycloidal, Clark's, 
87 ; explosion, prevention, 385 ; factory, French, 
400 ; fires, lighting, 3Gi ; friction, 375 ; fuel, 
134, 176. 

■ furnace, Moore's plan for feeding, 



162 ; ditto, smoke consumer, 216. 

Iluel Towan, 314 ; indicating power. 



127 ; manufactory, Fawcett and Co.'s, 172; Fair- 
bairn's, 32. 

■ marine, 73, 142, 153, 157, 159, 172, 



212, 245, 358, 374, 385, 386 ; ditto, Maudslay 
and Field's, 73, 157 ; ditto, trunk, Broderips's, 
142, 159 ; ditto, ditto, Humphry's, 142, 159 ; 
ditto, employment of expansive principle, 153; 
ditto, oscillating, 212 ; ditto, accidents, report on, 
plans for preventing, 245 ; ditto, temperature of 
condensation, 358 ; ditto, long and short stroke, 
374 ; ditto, power, 386; ditto, Alice, 385 ; ditto, 
Seaward's, 374 ; ditto, connecting rods, 424. 

• power, 28, 65, 100,127,170; ro 



tary, 397 ; ditto, Moore's, 158 ; safety valve, 
216, 251,359,385 ; smoke, consumption of, 216, 
356. 

• theory of, by Mornay, 59, 149 ; va- 



cuum, 164. 
Steam fire engine, 431. 
plough, 160. 



Steam shot machine, 363. 

solubility of silica by, 282. 

vessel inquiry, 85, 108, 163. 

washing machine, 28, 90. 

Stone, bendable, 183. 

new Houses of Parliament, 189, 309, 340. 

Talacre, 209. 

Storms, effect of fire in preventing, 39. 
Survey, trigonometrical, 366, 431. 
Surveying, azimuth cap, 315. 

calculating balance, 21. 

chain, llindle's, 310. 

change of pins, 379. 

computation scale, 324, 379, 405. 

copying drawings, 354. 

irregular plots, instrument for, 55. 

level, Browne's, 283. 

poles, Dempsey's, 108. 

railway curves, 15, 74, 128. 

roads, profile instrument, 55. 

Sang's hvpsometer, 403. 

Thames Tunnel, 216, 249. 

Theatre, Adelphi, 394 ; Hanover, 162; machineiy, 

Steplienson's, 363 ; Princess's, 394. 
Tide gauge, 342, 394. 
Tides of the ocean, 229. 
Timber, dyeing, 183; effects of worm on, 424; 

felling, 341 ; prevention of decay of, 26, 27, 328 ; 

white cedar, 346. 
Tottie, C, on the Napoleon monument, 406. 
Turning, 172, 175. 
Valve cocks, Topham's, 121. 



Varnish of dextrine, 25. 

Vessels, form of, 421. 

Voltaic engraving, 35. 

Walls, iron ties, experiments on, 41. 

Warming and ventilating buildings, 358. 

Water, vide Hydraulic, Steam Engine, Well, Pump. 

Bourne, 103. 

balance gates. East London Water-works, 



42. 



• company, new, 250. 

■ filter, 207. 

• plans for supplying the metropolis, 207. 

- power, application of 291. 

■ raising engine, Adcock's, 279, 299. 

Brighty's, 291. 

Cornish, 419. 

De rOsier's, 51. 

Fairbairn's, 412. 

Hall's, 128. 

Harvey & West's, 41. 

Jeffrey's, 386. 

- Thames, analysis of, 192. 

- Weir, Broomielaw, 415. 

• wheel, vertical, Curtis's, 129. 



Wells vide Artesian, 99. 

Whitworth on surfaces of metal, 421. 

Wickstecd on the supply of water to the metropolis, 
10, 45 ; and the balance gates of the East Lon- 
don Water Works, 42. 

Williams, C. W., on the combustion of coal, 412. 

Wire fences, 48. 

rope, 431. 



Ashton Court, 52. 

Balance gates, 2 plates, 42. 

Bank, London and Westminster, 1 plate, 73. 

Savings, Finsbury, 217. 

Union, 183. 

Beams, trussed, 6 cuts, 161, 322. 
Bielefeld's papier mache works, 8. 
Boidton's reefing paddles, 2 cuts, 74. 
Brick machine, Bakewell's, 160. 

White's, 8 cuts, 184. 

Bridge, Ardrossan, 29. 

East London Water-works, 2 plates, 42. 

iron, 102. 

James River, 1 plate, 125. 

Suspension, Dredge's, 1 plate, 193. 

Victoria, Bristol, 193. 

Buttresses, 4 cuts, 365, 366. 
Capitol, Washington, 293. 
Cathedral, Athens, 2 cuts, 220, 221. 

Avignon, 2 cuts, 143, 144. 

Freiburg, 329. 

St. Paul's, 2 cuts, 329, 330. 

Salisbury, 329. 

Chapel, King's College, 329. 

Unitarian, Uukinfield, 1. 

Cbattcrton's monument, 3 cuts, 105. 
Church, Aries, St. Trophime, 144. 
Bow, 329. 

Caen, St. Peter's, 322. 

Mone tes Koras, 221. 

Panagia Lycodimo, 220. 

Poitiers, Notre Dame, 221. 

St. John, 144. 



INDEX TO PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS. 

Church Ravenna, St. Vital, 219. 

St. Bride's, 329. 

St. Dunstan's East, 330. 

St. Genevieve, 293. 

Sergius and Bacchus, 220. 

—^— Stone, Kent, 8 cuts, 318. 
Tours, St. Martin's, 143. 



Cobham Hall, 53. 
Cofferdam, 7 cuts, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83. 
Column, General Clayton's, 181. 
Cornice, Reform Club, 336. 
Curtis's boiler, 2 cuts, 76. 

ground-rope apparatus, 3 cuts, 87. 

railway truck, 3 cuts, 5. 



Custom-house, Liverpool, 3 cuts, 410. 
Dempsey's surveving-poles, 3 cuts, 108, 
Dublin Bay, 146'. 

East London Water-works, 2 plates, 42. 
Electric telegraph, 323. 
Elizabethan shop front, 1 plate, 257. 
Embankment, Thames, 258. 
Fairbairn's draining machine, 412. 
Harbour, Ardglass, 14 6. 

Beachy Head, Dover, Foreness, 1 plate, 240. 

Kingstown, 146. 

Lowestoft, 147. 

Portrush, 146. 



Hooper's letter weights, 88. 

Iron furnace, Persian, 7 cuts, 296. 

ties in party walls, 2 cuts, 41. 

Lewis, 30. 

Merchant Seamen's Institution, 1 plate, 251 

Minaret, Armedabad, 329. 



Pantheon, interior, 1 plate, 195. 
Rome, 293. 



Pavilion, Brighton, 53. 

Piling, Telford's, 2 cuts, 29, 30. 

Polytechnic Institution, 1 plate, 293. 

Public road, 2 cuts, 54. 

Pump, rotary, SutcUffe's, 7 cuts, 273. 

valve, Harvey & West's, 1 plate, 41. 

Quay, Aberdeen, 29. 

Railway, atmospheric, 1 plate, 260, 4 cuts, 407, 
408. 

Rangeley's, 1 plate, 372. 

wheel, Dirck's, 5 cuts, 401. 



Reform Club, 141, 4 plates, 336, 409. 

Repton, portrait of, 52. 

Safety valves, 2 cuts, 251. 

Sang's hvpsometer, 4 cuts, 404. 

Ship-building, 5 cuts, 349. 

Slide valve cocks, Topham's, 4 cuts, 121. 

Steam-engine, Broderip's trunk, 2 cuts, 142. 

Clark's, 2 cuts, 87. 

Maudslay's Two Cylinder, 2 plates, 

73, 2 cuts, 157. 

-rotary, Moore's, 148. 



Surveyor's scale, new, 354. 

Traversing screw jack, 50. 

M'arwick House, IJirmingham, 1 plate, 104. 

Water engine, Adcock's, 3 cuts, 299. 

De I'Osier's, 1 plate, 51. 

filter, 2 cuts, 203. 

wheel, Curtis's vertical, 3 cuts, 129. 

Wire fences, 6 cuts, 48. 
Wyre Lighthouse, 182. 



DIRECTIONS TO BINDER. 



Plate 1. — Harvey and Vl'est's Patent Valves 
„ 2 & 3.— East London Water Works 
„ 4. — De L'Osier's Apparatus for Raising Water 
„ 5 & G. — Maud.slay and Field's Improved Steam 

Engine with two cylinders 
„ 7.— London and Westminster Bank 
„ 8. — Bridge over the James River in Virginia 
„ 9. — Warwick House, Birmingham 
„ 10. — Dredge's Suspension Bridge 



opposite page 41 
42 
51 



73 

84 
125 
128 
193 



Plate 11.— Pantheon, Oxford Street 

„ 12. — Harbours of the South Eastern Coast 

British Seamen's Hospital 
„ 13. — Shop front in Oxford Street 
„ 14. — Clegg & Samuda's Atmospberic Railway 
„ 15. — Polytechnic Institution 
„ *15 & 1(5.— Reform Club House 
„ 17. — Rangeley's Rotation Railway 
„ 18 & 19.— Reform Club House 



Opposite page 


201 


1* 


23V 


It 


251 


$f 


257 


'y » 


260 


f» 


321 


t» 


336 




372 




409 



THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL. 



PRESBYTERIAN (UNITARIAN) CHAPEL AT DUKINFIELD. 
Mr. R. Tattersall, Architect. 





l«M 



ECCLESIASTICAL EDIFICES. 

It is our intention under tins title to give illustrations and descrip- 
tions of such new edifices dedicated to religious purposes, respecting 
which we can obtain information. We hope that this may serve as a 
stimulant in directing public attention to this now neglected subject, 
and particularly in rousing the self-esteem of members of the esta- 
blishment. At present those entrusted with the erection of churches 
seem to consider it their first object to make as much pew room as 
possible, regardless of all otlier objects, on much the same principle 
as they would construct sheep pens — crowd the animals in, and care 
nothing for their comfort. Why does the church appeal so powerfully 
to the beautiful monuments built by our ancestors, why does she de- 
pend on that devotional feeling which the contemplation of our hal- 
lowed sites suggests, if she hei-self thinks it beneath her to keep up 
thediguity of tlie estate she has inherited. Oh! how eloquently can 
her ministers dwell on the solemn thoughts inspired by the long drawn 
aisles of our ancient cathedrals, how energetically can they remind us 
of our childish preddection for the ivy covered spire ! but when it 
comes to the expenditure of the vast sums under their control, how 
totally do they neglect their favoured dogmas, how selfishly do they^ 
consult their own interests at the expense of the establishment of 
which they are members ! Empirics are employed, the men who can 
do the dirty work cheapest, nothing is allowed for architecture, nothing 
for the decorative arts— the worthy pastors think they best consult 
the wishes of their flocks by making the sheep pens as numerous as 
possible. They totally forget that it is not their own money they are 
expending, but the produce of public grants or private benefactions ; 
that they are only trustees, and that they are not to look to their own 
interests only, but pay some regard to the purposes for which the sums 
were received, for surely it is more gratifying to the donors to see a 
handsome edifice rather than the barn-like structures with which the 
public have been of late so abundantly annoyed. A Union Workhouse 
would beat most of the new churches hollow in almost every point of 
its construction. We can only say that unless the members of the 
establishment reform their system, they will be beaten by the other 
religions, Jews, Catholics and Dissenters all surpass them ni elegance 
and costliness of construction, and surely their necessities are not less, 
nor their revenues more abundant. We regret indeed that one of our 
first examples, the Unitarian Church at Dukintield, should be the 
work of Dissenters, and a shame to the dispensers of the public money. 
Sure without any parliamentary funds, without any rich endowments, 
and with but a "small portion of the wealth of the nation, first rate 
talent has been employed, and a noble monument erected. 



No. 28.— Vol. III.— January, 1840. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[ J A N U A R T , 



DuKiNFiELD Chapel. 
This chapel is now erecting on the site of the former edifice, C«hose dilnpi- 
<latefl condilion and inadequacy in supplying room for the largo congregation 
asscmljling therein, rendered the erection of a new and more commodious 
building absolutely necessary,) from the designs of Mr. R. Tattersall of Man- 
cliester. 

The style of architecture which has been adopted for the structure now in 
lirogress, is that which prevailed at the commencement of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, when our architects began to add refinement in the details to the many 
beauties which characterise their works, and to introduce those changes in 
the early English style which immediately precede and ultimately form and 
distinguish the decorated style. 

The plan of the chapel is cruciform, with a lofty nave and transepts 
lighted by clerestory windows, the nave h.iving aisles lighted by lancet windows. 
Tlie cast and west ends of the nave project beyond the ends of the aisles ; in 
the west projection are the principal entrances with a children's gallery over, 
whilst the east projection contains the vestry and private entrance with a 
gallery over aflording ample room for a powerful organ and numerous choir. 
The principal elevation into which it has been thought advisable to intro- 
duce whatever decoration might be used, consists of two octagonal turrets 
flanking the west wall of the nave, strengthened by massive doub'e buttresses 
in three stages, the lower part terminating m weathered canopies, the middle 
having weathered offsets, and the upper being formed into niches, surmount- 
ed by canopies, uniting with the weathering of the turrets, and the parapet 
moulding of the west gable. The lower and upper canopies to the buttresses, 
are terminated by appropriate finials. At the termination of the buttresses 
the turrets become isolated and ^e continued in two stages to the base of the 
pinnacle, the lower stage having shafts at the angles with moulded bases and 
capitals supporting pointed arches, and in each face of the octagon is a nar- 
row slit or opening in the form of the ancient ballislraria, whilst the upper 
stages have plain shafts at the angles, with a narrow lancet opening, having 
the tooth ornament in the hollow surrounding the same, on each face of the 
turret. The turrets finish with lofty pinnacles having shafts at the angles, 
and terminating in finials, the highest part of which will be 73 feet above the 
surface of the ground. One of these turrets will contain a bell, and the other 
is to serve for the clock weights. The turret in which the bell is to be sus- 
]iended will contain a winding staircase for access to the clock-room in the 
roof the nave. 

Between the turrets to the west front are three doorways forming the prin- 
cipal and gallery entrances to the chapel. These are boldly recessed, the 
eentre door being much wider than the side ones, and are formed into one 
group by the arrangement of their shafted joints, moulded archivolts and 
the triangular canopies with which they are surmounted. The moulding 
over each canopy, unites with the hood moulding of each door, and termi- 
nates upon carved heads, whilst the apices of the canopies finish with carved 
finials, the centre one being quite isolated in the opening of the window over. 
Kach canopy is filled in with deeply cut tracery. In the hollows of the arched 
heads and between the shafts of the jambs, it is intended to introduce those 
Very effective enrichments, known as the ball flower and leaf ornament and 
the tooth ornament. The three doors will be of oak, relieved by the quaint 
and beautil'ul ramified iron scroll-work so characteristic of this style of archi- 
tecture. Immediately over the doors is a four hght window formed with 
shafted mullions and jambs, and filled in with the rich and elegant tracery, 
which we find immediately preceding the flowing lines of the decorated style. 
The ball flower and too h ornaments will be introduced into two of the 
hollow mouldings of the jambs and head, and the window will have a hood 
moulding terminating on carved heads. Above the window, and in the gable of 
this front will be placed the clock dial, wdiich it is intended eventually to 
make transparent. This is in the form of a multifoil surrounded with bold 
mouldings, and in the intervals of the cusps will be placed the figures of the 
dial. The gable of this front which is very lofty, (as are all the others owing 
to the high pitch of the roof), is surmounted by a richly carved finial, and 
in the mouldings of the parapet the ball flower ornament is again introduced. 
The whole of the plain ashlar to this front is to be neatly tooled, but the 
moulded work and dressings are to be rubbed or polished. The remaining 
fronts of the building are of a much plainer and simpler character, and are 
to be faced with neat hammer dressed walling stones, the dressings being 
tooled. All the exterior of the chapel is to be faced with the best Yorkshire 
stone. 

The sides of the aisles are divided mlo compartments by buttresses of an 
early character, having a single off-set, and uniting at the top with the 
parapet, which is supported between them by quaintly cut corbels, and 
finishes with a tablet or coping formed by the moulded cast-iron gutter. In 
each comj^artmcnt of the aisle are plain lancet windows, with neat hood 



moulds terminating on carved heads. The transepts project some little be- 
yond the sides of the aisles, and there e.>;ternal angles, as well as those to the 
east end of the nave, are flanked by plain buttresses of a s milar character to 
those of the aisles, and divided into three stages with plain off-sets. The 
three gables are covered by a plain coping, terminating in canopies at the 
lower ends. In the gables to the transepts and east end of nave are openings 
for light and ventilation to the roof, and the same kind of corbels are intro- 
duced to support the parapet as are used to the aisles. In the end of each 
transept are triple lancet windows united together by their hooii mouldings, 
the centre being higher than the side ones. The clerestory is divided 
into compartments by flat buttresses ranging with those to the aisles, sur- 
mounted by a parapet and coping of a similar description to those already 
mentioned. In each compartment are triple lancet windows having hood 
mouldings terminating on carved bosses. The principal entrance door opens 
into a porch or vestibule formed between the two staircases to the galleries, 
from which it is separated by screens ornamented with tracery, and having 
doors of communication. From hence, inner folding-doors open directly into 
the body of the chapel, which is divide<l as before described into nave and 
transepts, the former being flanked by aisles from which it is separated by 
light piers formed of clustered shafts, supporting on richly moulded pointed 
arches the clerestory walls, in which there is a narrow lancet window over 
each compartment. The aisles are also open to the transepts from which they 
are separated in like manner. The galleries will e-xtend across the west end 
of the nave over the aisles and across the transepts. The nave and transept 
ceilings arc to be groined throughout with moulded ribs on all the intersec- 
tions of the vaulting, and against the wjlls, springing from corbels formed 
by clustered, shafts affixed to the clerestory walls. The ceiling to the aisles 
is to be fonned into neat plain p.anels. A neat screen extends across the 
east end of the nave in a line with the ends of the aisles, separating the vestry 
from the chapel, against which is to be placed the pulpit, to be entered from 
the vestry through an opening therein. The pulpit will have a highly en- 
riched canopy or sounding board, and the whrle is made to harmoiuKe with 
the screen and the general character of the building. Around and beneath 
the pulpit, which is supported by a cluster of shafts, is the space allowed for 
the communion altar on a raised platform enclosed by a neat railing. Be- 
yond the screen and over the vestry is the organ gallery, and it is intended 
that the front of the organ-case shall be made to assimilate with the screen 
as much as possible. At the opposite end of the nave, and over the principal 
entrance is a gallery capable of containing upwards of seventy childre , 
leaving an uninterrupted view of the four light window in the west front. 
Vaults are tbrmed under the west entrance, and there is a cellar under the 
vestry for warming the chapel with hot water. 

The e.\treme length of the building will be 94 feet, and the width across 
the nave and aisles 50 feet, that across the transepts 61 feet. 
The chapel will contain sittings for 977 persons. 194 of which arc free. It 
s expected that it will be completed and ready for divine service towards the 
latter part of this year. The cost of its erection will be defrayed by sub- 
scription. 



HISTORY OF BRITISH ARCHITECTURE. 

Mr. Editor — Being anxious to make myself acquainted with the 
history of architecture in tliis country, I regret to find how inadequate 
are the records hitherto collected by writers on the subject, to enable 
one to form an accurate conception of the vicissitudes of the art in 
England. This has excited in me the desire to collect such materials 
on the subject, as may be useful to my professional brethren. I beg 
therefore to appeal Sir, through you, to all parties who may have any 
information to give of men of such standing as Vanburgh, Hawksmoor, 
Gibbs, Carr of Vork, Morris of Bath, Kent, Gandon, Taylor, Chambers, 
Dance. I shall feel much obliged either by being referred to sources 
of information, or by being furnished with the lists of the works which 
such men as these may have executed. I of course confine myself to 
no period ; on the contrary, I would wish to embrace the earliest, as 
well as the most recent, epochs of the history of English Architecture. 
I am, Sir, very faithfully, your's, 

Thos. L. Donaldson. 

7, Hart Slree/, Bloomsbitry Square, 
Dtcembtr 20, 1S39. 



Soulh-cnstern Railway. — The rapid progress of the works of the South- 
eastern Railway is giving quite a lively aspect to Folkestone. TliCibridge 
across the Canterbury and Dover roail is also completed; and the adviince- 
ment of the line on either side is going on in a highly satisfactory manner. 
— Dmcv Chronicle. 



IS40.1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 
FASCICULUS XII. 



" I must have liberty 
Withil, as large a charter as the winJs, 
t'o blow on whom I jilcase." 



T. From all the views and drawings I have ever seen of Abbotsford, 
lalvrays considered it to be a very trumpery specimen of architecture, 
but I was not before aware of the exceedingly whimsical taste of Sir 
Walter Scott, until I saw the view of the dining-room given in the 
ninth volume of Lockhart's Life of him now publishing. Will it be 
believed that that dining-room contains one of the oddest and most 
impertinent pieces of furniture imaginable for such an apartment? 
Had it been a Rumford cooking apparatus or something of that kind, 
its convenience might have excused its oddity and homeliness, but 
what shall we say to a four-post bedstead in a dining-room ? There 
certainly is no accounting for tcistes; and the idea is a sufficiently original 
one. Perhaps it was intended as a refinement on the Roman mode of 
lying recumbent at table upon couches. But I trust that no one will 
thintc of imitating Sir Walter in that particular fancy of his, or people 
will henceforth strip and get into bed, instead of sitting down, to table. 
At least that should be a privilege exclusively confined to persons of 
genius, — not extended to ordinary mortals, good reader, like you and 
me. Well, there certainly must have been comical doings at Abbots- 
ford, if such was the custom of the place; and we insignificant no- 
bodies may be very well content with dining-rooms without beds in 
them. 

II. The Abbotsford dining-room remhidsme of the Scott Monument 
at Edinburgh. How is that getting on ? — or how happens it that we hear 
no more about it ? Is it, like the Edinburgh Parthenon, the monument 
of a monument that was to have been ; or like the Nelson Mon\iinent 
in Trafalgar Square, altogether an imaginary, immaterial fabric, Certes, 
monuments are not things of mushroom growth. 

III. We are, now it seems, all at once going to be filled with ad- 
miration of Inigo Jones; which is passing strange, considering that 
they abound with the very faults that are found unindurable when they 
occur in modern buildings. With what consistency of taste, those 
who are shocked at the impropriety of half columns and broken en- 
tabljtures, can affect to see anv supereraineut beauty in his building 
at Wliitehall, which has the further impropriety of an upper order 
above a lower one, — it is for them to explain. Possibly, — since they 
cannot but allow that the circumstances just referred to are egregious 
defects in themselves, they will assert that there are merits and ex- 
cellences in his designs which amply atone for all their blemishes, — 
not to call them vices. That such is really their opinion must be 
taken for granted ; but then, wherefore do they not vindicate theiu- 
selves from the appearance of inconsistency, by plainly discriminating 
between the defects they reprobate and the beauties tliey admire, and 
informing us in what the latter consist ? Or are we to suppose, that 
they are of the sort of critics extolled by Sterne for being pleased they 
know not why, and care not wherefore ; — for which in ray opinion no 
very great power of criticism is required ? Perhaps Sterne was think- 
ing at the moment, only of the kind of critics he himself wished for, — ■ 
and there are otheis besides him, who look more to the quantity than 
the quality of the praise they get, but for my own part I would rather 
obtain the approbation of one critic who could tell why he bestowed 
it, to that of a scoreof others whose compliments seem to have no mean- 
ing, consequently carry with them no proof of sincerity. 

However correctly and exactlv general principles may be laid down, 
they can never be made to comprehend every specific application of 
them; but there will invariably be, more or less, something that, al- 
though based upon them does not obviously appear to conform to them, 
nay perhaps may seem at variance with them, on which account those 
who are not acquainted with the mysteries of art, becomes perplexed, 
and are at a loss to know whether they ought to censure or are at 
liberty to admire. It becomes the duty of criticism, therefore to elu- 
cidate such apijarent contradictions, and in every particular case, to 
explain how it happens that the disregard of certain established rules 
may have been attended with beauty, or, cice ivrsa, how the adiiereuce 
to them has failed to secure it: — again, to point out wherein frequently 
consists the very great difference between two buildings, very similar 
as to style and design, yet altogether uulike in regard to the impres- 
sion they make. 

IV. Very far more stress tlian ought to be, is generally laid upon 
simplicity of plan. For my own part, I very much question it being a 
merit at all, when I perceive that so far from conducing to any beauty, 
it generally constitutes a defect, inasmuch as it excludes all variety 



and combination, together with contrivance. While it leaves nothing 
to the imagination, it does not present itself to the eye as a beauty 
the entire plan not being seen at once ; nor do I understand what par- 
ticular pleasure can be afforded to the mind, by knowing that with 
regard to the distriliution and form of the several rooms there is no- 
thing more than what has been seen over and over again. Nay, 
I will not be quite sure that I understand what is meant by sim- 
plicity in such cases : yet if it be meant that the plan is such that 
any stranger can at once comprehend every part of it, by merely 
going over the building at a single time, should say that so far 
there would be very little to approve or admire; — certainly no 
evidence of skill or ingenuity, and very little of either picturesque 
effect, contrast or variety, because where they do not result almost 
entirely from accident, they are produced by a study which aims at 
something more than mere simplicity of plan. While the latter tends 
to make a large house seem smaller than it is, a certain degree of in- 
tricacy and complexity causes a moderate sized one to appear con- 
siderably larger, especially where the arrangement is such that rooms 
mav present themselves unexpectedly after we suppose that we have 
gone over the whole. Still there are limits to be observed: com- 
plexity ought not to be carried to perplexity ; but some degree of the 
former greatly heightens every other merit. 

V. Itis odd ; but now after the abuse throwTi upon the poor Nfi- 
tional Gallery, because the rooms are no bigger than closets, — dis- 
gracefully confined and mean, some one starts up and assures us that 
thev are utterly unfit for their purpose, because they are very much — 
too'large! So' at least says a writer in Blackwood's Magazine, who 
contends that spacious and extensive galleries, such as that of the 
Louvre are utterly unfit for showing pictures as they ought to be seen ; 
and that the collection should be placSd in small rooms, — not more 
than three or four paintings in each. This is surely running quite 
into the other extreme ; but there certainly can be no doubt that as far 
as enjoying pictures themselves, and not the display of a parade of 
them, is the object, it is best obtained by hanging them so that each 
when looked at can be distinctly seen and examined, with nothing to 
distract attention from it. 

VI. How people can reconcile themselves to windows without dress- 
ings in buildings where any degree of ornament or finish in other 
respects, is aimed a.t, is almost incomprehensible. Not even on the 
plea of economy h;is any one yet thought of entirely omitting capitals 
to columns, though it might be done with as much propriety and con- 
sistency ; for if a window will answer all the necessary purposes of 
one, whether it be a mere aperture in the wall, or one properly defined 
and finished by its own architectural border, — so also will a column 
answer its purpose equally well, whether the top of it be fashioned as 
an ornamental member of it or not. Nor would it, though certainly 
more remarkable, be more solecistical and contrary to architectural 
principle to introduce columns without capitals among dressed win- 
dows, than naked windows among well dressed columns. Or if there 
be any thing to render the latter, and more common mode less prepos- 
terous than the other would be, it is because the columns themselves 
are generally quite superfluous, therefore were their decoration 
to be omitteil, they might be dispensed with altogether. But then, 
on the other hand, so much the more absurd is it to have recourse to 
columns at all — at least for decoration, — under circumstances which 
forbid not only corresponding embellishment, but even ordinary finish 
in any other respect. Next to omitting window dressings entirely, is 
the fault of making them so poor and plain as to be hardly visible, as 
is the case in many of our modern Greek buildings, in which the 
dressings to the windows consist of a mere border distinguished by an 
insignificant moulding around it, so as to occasion equal sameness 
and insipidity. 



The Great Western Stemn-sJiip. — Tliis noble vessel, the pride of Bristol and 
the queen oi' the ucean, was Ijrought up the river on Saturday morning, 1st 
ult, and is now in Cumberland Basin, preparatory to her Ijeing placed in dock 
and undergoing various alterations, and tor general examination and repair. 
Durin" this week the puljlic have had the privilege of viewing the interior of 
(his splendid sieam-ship on the payment of sixpence for each person, the 
receipts to be equally divided between the General ILspital and the Infirmary. 
We understand thai nearly 2U00 ! ! persons paid to inspect the vessel on Mon- 
day, and miny hundreds on each following day. This is the first time she 
has entered the dock gales since she left tor London, to receive her sp'endid 
and powerful engines ; her paddle w h^^els have been removed to enaLile iier 
to enter the gates. Her approach to the basin at seven o'clock last Satur- 
day morning was announced by the discharge of cannun, &c. The recepta-.n 
she met with upon arriving (at the dock ga.es) was very enthusiastic, arising 
Irom the loud and deafening shouts which emanated from the persons assem- 
bled '• to do honour to her appearance.' It is intended for her to resume the 
station she has so ably and successfully filled, on Saturday, the 15th ol Fe- 
bruary, 1840. nhich will be the commencement of her twelfth voyage across 
ihe broad Allaniic. — Railway Magazine, 

B 2 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



RAMBLES BY PHILOMUS^US.— No. IV. 

LANDSCAPES ABROAD. 



:VER advantage foreipi nations may derive by the education 
e to beauty irom the contemplation of objects of art, it is 



WllATEV: 

of the eye , 

pretty certain tliat they will not easily surpass us in the scenes of na- 
ture. They may possess the same or liner outlines, they may bear 
the ])alia fo'r correct drawing, but it is to us they must concede the 
chiar'oscuro, and what disputes with drawing itself the magic touch 
(if colour. To carry out our artistical allegory, foreign landscape is 
of an Eginetan cast, severe and correct in its form, but destitute of 
that animation and finish which mark the later and more cultivated 
school. It is perhaps from the contemplation of our highly finished 
scenes, that our painters succeed in colour, and show such proficiency 
in landscape and cattle; that our poets excel in the descriptive; and 
that whatever is rural with us, is beautiful without coarseness or rus- 
ticity. 

An Englishman passes from the tertiary scenes of our beautiful 
south, to tlie assimilated district in the neighbouring country of France, 
he can recognize the same smooth slopes, the same gently swelling 
knolls, the same richness of soil, and the same softness of character, 
but he finds a tameness, a want of animation and relief both in broad 
features and in details, which tell him at once that he is in another 
and a foreign country. He glides down the beautiful Seine and from 
St. Germain to below Rouen he perpetually finds a country spoiled 
from want of care, and a district of great capability wearing the face 
of a comparative desert. None of the bright fields of his native land, 
none of its varied and picturesque timber, no beautiful cattle spread- 
ing over the distant scene, he misses the hedge and the hedge-row, 
and above all he misses the dispersed population, the pretty seat or the 
lowly cot. Instead of these he finds no houses but in villages, little 
meadows and no variety of timber. From St. Germain to near Havre, 
there is nothing hardly to be seen but poplar, alder and willow, miles 
in length of distant forest, or long lines of well drilled poplars spreading 
along the roads or the divisions of estates. Now the maypole-like 
poplar is just the very last tree to be paraded thus in single file. The 
scenery has all the uniformity of foliage of American landscape, and 
there is only beauty enough to cause the traveller to regret that the 
whole does not show to equal advantage. On approaching Elbeuf, 
however, the scene changes, green meadows make up the foreground, 
the mottled cattle swarm among the pastures, oak and other dark 
trees, firs and the coniferous tribes, throw shade into the landscape, 
and the traveller as he looks at the tree-clad hills and grassy slopes is 
glad to find himself in a land of beauty. 

In Flanders we find the same — long ranges of deformed limes and 
horse chesnuts making the straight roads more horrid, the brooks 
fringed with pollard willows, poplars like Cleopatra's needles running 
in lank rows as divisions of property, Scotch firs in patches to fertilize 
the land, and without meadows, water or cattle, one scene of stiffness 
and formality. The unhappy trees too are topped off' into mopsticks 
so as to render horror more horrid. 

The Dutch, however, if they have a poor country have a rich green 
sward, the weeping willow, and fine cattle ; and an Englishman if he 
finds little to relieve, tind no nakedness to distress the eye. 



CO.MPARATIVE EFFECTS OF THE CORNISH AND LANCA- 
SHIRE SYSTEM OF WORKING STEAM ENGINES. 

Sir, — As it is not now disputed by any one, that the Cornish or 
high-pressure expansive system of working the Boulton and Watt 
engine is more economical than that usually followed in the manufac- 
turing districts, it may probably be interesting to a ))ortion of your 
readers to have offered to their notice, an easy method of stating or 
comparinp; tlie duty or effects obtained by tlie two systems, for the 
purpose of shewing hereafter, the amount of saving that may really 
be expected by the adoption of the Cornish system; and also to have 
that saving expressed in terms that are generally understood and 
adiiiilted by practical men. 

The following cases are selected, because they have been recently 
laid before me for the purpose stated, by parties who are interested 
in having a careful examination of the subject, and who have also 
furnished me with the facts. 

The engine from which the data for the Cornish system are taken, 
is that lately erected for the East London Water Works Company. 
The cylinder is 8U inches in diameter, stroke 10 feet, speed lu strokes 
a minute, and doing a duly of 7- millions of pounds raised one foot 
high (or one bushel, or 'J4 pounds of coal, the steam being cut off at 



two-fifths of the stroke. The area of the cylinder, of course, i> 
80 X yo = 6,400 circular inches. The load on the piston is obtained 
by taking the counterweight which is 29 tons, or 64,9G<J pounds, and 
adding thereto half a pound per circular inch, or 3,200 pounds for the 
friction of the engine itself, making 68,160 pounds for the total gross 
load ; which gives 10*65 pounds per circular inch, for the average 
pressure of the steam in the cylinder. The velocity of the piston 
being 10 X 10 =: 100 feet a minute ; the pounds raised one foot 
high per minute, will be 68,160 X 100= 6,816,000, and the gross 
horse power exerted, is this number divided by 33,000, or 20G'54 
horses power. 

The Lancashire system is illustrated by a pair of double acting 
sister engines working in a cotton factory in this country, and attached 
to the same crank shaft. Each engine has a cylinder of 40 inches 
diameter and 4 feet stroke, and makes 25 turns in a minute. The 
gross consumption of coal at the factory is 46 tons a week, the engine 
running 69 hours in that time. That portion of this consumption 
used for other purposes than working the engine, is usually estimated 
at 30 per cent., which includes that for steaming the factory, getting 
up the steam every morning, waste during meal times, &c. (particu- 
lars of which are given in the new edition of my work on steam 
boilers,) leaving about 32 tons or 71,680 pounds for the net consump- 
tion of the engines alone. The area of each cylinder is 40 X 40 = 
1600 circular inches, the average pressure of the steam in the cylin- 
der as taken by the indicator is 10 pounds per circular inch, and the 
whole load on the piston is 1600 x 10 = 16,O0O pounds, which, of 
course includes the friction of the engine. The velocity of the piston 
is 4 X 2 X 25 = 200 feet a minute, therefore the pountls raised one 
foot high per minute, is 1,600 X 200 — 3,200,000 ; and the horse 
power exerted by each engine 96*96, or a total of 194 nearly. 

Comparative Duty. 



a. Pounds raised one foot high per 

minute ..... 

b. Gross horse power exerted . 

c. Consumption of coal per week of 69 

hours, in poumls . = d -)- 69 

d, = c -^ 69, ditto per hour ^ e -j- 60 

e, =r d -;- 60, ditto per min. = a -=- f 

f, = a -f- e. Pounds raised one foot for 
each pound of coals ^ g -^ 94 

= f + 94 Pounds raised one foot 

high for 94 of coals 
d -^ b. Pounds of coal consumed per 

hour, for each horse power 



Lancashire. 



g 



6,400,000 
194 

71,680 
1038-8 
17-31 

369,728 

34,754,432 

5-35 



Cornish. 



6,816,000 
206-5 

36,804-6 
533-4 
8-89 

765,957 

72,000,000 

2-58 



The letters in the above table indicate the mode of calculation, and 
it will be perceived that the results in the second column (except 
the two first lines and the two last,) are obtained by reckoning from 
the bottom of the column upwards. It must be borne in mind that 
the horse power exerted by the factory engines as stated above, in- 
cludes that required to turn the whole of the shafting, about one- 
third of the whole, which reduces the 7iet effective power expended 

194 
in turning the machinery to (194 — — s~) = 1294 horses nearly, or 

o 

64J horse power for each engine, and making the consumption ot 

5-35 
coal equal to half as much more as before, or (5-35 -| ^— ) = S-02 

pounds per horse per hour. What the net effective power of the 
Cornish engine is, of course, cannot be ascertained without measuring 
the water delivered, but it is not at all necessary for the purpose of 
this comparison. 

Should the above be considered a fair method of stating the sub- 
ject, and it is respectfully submitted to the correction of the advo- 
cates of either system, I shall be glad, with your permission, to go 
into the question of the cauets concerned in producing the great 
difference observable in favour of the Cornish system, and also the 
comparative cost or expenditure of fixed capital for the two kinds of 
engines when doing an equal quantity of work, with a view to test 
the propriety of adopting the Cornish system in cotton factories. 

I am, sir, yours, &c. 

R. Armstrong. 
Manchealer, Dec. 1839. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



CURTIS'S PATENT RAILWAY IMPROVEMENTS. 

RAILWAY TRUCK. 



Fig. 1. — Side elevation. 



Fig 2.— End elevation. 
O 




Fig. 3.— Plan. 



G^I -p K 




DE.SCRIPTION. 

Figure 1 is a side view, figure 2 an end view, and figure 3 a plan of 
the macliine, the same letters refer to the same parts of the machine 
in each figure, so far as the jjarts are thown in each. A is the framing 
of the machine, which is suspended below the axle in the usual way, 
B the hind wheels connected with the shifting frame C, whicli frame 
is held in its place by the bolts D D D D, or oy any other usual and 
suitable means. EE are two eccentrics hung upon the cross shaft 
F, upon one end of which shaft the ratchet G is hung, and upon the 
other the head I, into the holes of which the lever K is inserted, when 
it is required to turn the shaft F rounil, so as to bring the eccentrics 
into contact with the rails or otherwise. L is a windlass placed upon 
the front bar of the machine round which a rope coils, so that when a 
carriage is required to be placed upon the machine, one end of the 
rope is made fast the carriage, and the other end to the windlass, then 
a man turning the windlass round by means of the handle M, tlie car- 
iage is drawn upon the machine ; the machine is connected to the 
train by means of the coupling N in the usual way, and the diagonal 
bars are placed as shown, in order that the concussion of the train may 
be transferred to the main frame of the machine A. OO OO are the 
wheels of a carriage placed upon the machine, the body and carriage 
is omitted in the drawing, as It is not material to the explanation of 
the invention that they should be shown. 

The mode of operation is as follows : — when a carriage is required 



to be placed upon the machine, the eccentrics are brought upon the 
the rails and made to occupy the position shown by the red lines in 
figure ), the ettect of which is to raise the end of the carriage to which 
the shifting frame and wheels are attached, a space equal to that in- 
cluded between the shaded line X and the red line Y, and to support 
it whilst the frame C and wheels B are withdrawn, then the eccentrics 
are turned back until they occupy the position shown in the drawing, 
when the end of the machine is lowered to the ground and occupies 
the position shown by the blue lines Z Z. The carriage is then brought 
to the machine, the rope from the windlass is made fast to it, the fioor 
of the machine being formed into an inclined plane, the carriage is 
dragged upon the machine by the windlass with great facility, when 
placed upon the machine the eccentrics are again brought into the 
positions shown by the red lines, which raises the end of the machine, 
the shifting frame C and wheels B are connected with the machine, 
and made last by the bolts D, the eccentrics are then brought into the 
position shown in the drawing, riding clear of the rails ; the ratchet G 
and paul H are provided to retain the eccentrics in any position they 
may be placed in, the best way to effect all these operations is to place 
the machine upon a turn table, the fore wheels and the eccentrics 
being upon the table when the machine can be disengaged from the 
wheels and placed to receive the carriage in a very simple and easy 
manner, the same operations apply if the machine is employed for 
goods or cattle, or any other purpose. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



REMARKS ON RAILWAYS, 

WITH REFERENCE TO THE POWEK, &C. EMPLOYED UPON THEM. 

Sir — Tills subject has ocpupied mv attention for some time past, 
but I liave been more particularly led to address you by seeing the 
description of Mr. Curtis's endless rope apparatus in the last number 
of the Journal. 

It has often been a subject of surprize to me, that so few attempts 
have been made to limit the enormous outlay of money in forming 
modern railways. When almost every branch of^mechanics, manu- 
factures and tlie arts are receiving the attention of scientific men, and 
when patentees without number are enabling us to do that for six- 
pence vidiich used to cost us a shilling, ought we to be satisfied with 
expending all our ingenuity in examining the relative merits of brass 
anil copper tubes, or in ascertaining the best form for rails and chairs, 
I think not ; and though Messrs. Stephenson, who are unquestionably 
the first railway engineers, may tell us, that without locomotive en- 
gines, railways would be nothing, and though by this craft they have 
their wealth, yet nothing daunted, I will give you my ideas on the 
subject. We will suppose, for example sake, a railway is to be con- 
structed from one town to another, say from Sheffield to Manchester, 
where the country is so hillv as to require a summit of upwards of 
900 feet, and a tunnel 3 miles long, where the inequalities of the 
ground are such as to require embankments and cuttings in some 
places of 9 ; or 100 fi^et, and in many of 40 or 50, in order to make it 
at all suitable for locomotive engines to travel upon. We all of us 
know, that under ordinary circumstances, 50 feet per mile require the 
engines to be nearly three times as powerful as those which would be 
required upon a level, consequently, three times the weight of coke 
and fuel, as well as a great addition to the weight of the engine and 
tender, therefore, it becomes a question of some importance to ascer- 
tain whether a cheaper power cannot be adopted than locomotive 
engines. About ten years ago, Messrs, Walker and Rastric gave it 
as their opinion, that Mr. Thompson's plan of reciprocating ropes 
would be found more economical for the Liverpool and Manchester 
railway than locomotive engines. And be it remembered, this rail- 
way is uncommonly favourable for locomotives, compared with nearly 
all the others in England, with the exception of the two inclines. 
The only advantage gained by locomot've engines over the stationary 
system, since their report, is economy in the consumption of fuel, by 
having tubes instead of a large flue, and though this is a very great 
improvement, how is it that with a consumption of fuel not one- 
fourth of what was anticipated, we are told they cannot aftbrd to 
take goods so as to leave a reasonable profit. The only solution to 
this problem is, that the expense incurred in levelling and forming 
railways, so as to make them fit for locomotive engines, together witli 
the original cost, wear, and tear of locomotive engines, tenders, and 
rails, is such as to demand a larger toll upon the goods than can be 
afforded. Not to weary your readers by going into calculations, I will 
assert that the plan of endless ropes will be found in the case of the 
Sheffield and .Manchester railway, or any other railway, with one con- 
tinued rise to the smnmit of 35 feet rise to the mile, to be far more 
economical and efficient than locomotive engines. If we reject loco- 
motive engines, the f ice of the country will not want excavating or 
embanking, exceplingina vervfcw cases, which will save probably one- 
half of the original outlay, viz. i' 100,000., and the interest of this at 
!> per cent., which is £ ;0,000. per annum, will be saved to the share- 
holders ; other things being the same, and that other things are as fa- 
vourable must be our next business to prove. Any person acquainted 
with the country in question, will admit that reservoirs may be 
f irmed and water collected to almost any quantity, (of course without 
iajury to the mill owners,) at or near the level of the s\nnmit, for a 
trifling expense, which will furnish us with sufficient power without 
hiving recourse to locomotive engines. We will pass over the in- 
termediate steps of engine-houses, water-wheels, &c. from an anxiety 
to kee|) these remarks within reasonable limits, and not from an in- 
ability to go into them. The principal objections to the reciprocat- 
ing plan, or any other plan with ropes I have seen, are that the trains 
must all arrive together, stop at the stations to be hooked on and ott", 
and in some of them cross over to the other rails. We will not 
dwell upon these objections, but provide the remedy, which is to 
divide the line into lengths of one mile each, and to have a station 
at the end of each mile, these will be divided into two kinds, the 
first contain the engine, water-wheel, or whatever the power may be, 
and are placed evi'ry other mile ; we will call them No. 1, 2, &c. 
The second stations are, where the two drums, or large pulley wheels 
are placed, and occur every other mile, being placed halfway between 
the first mentioned, wo will call these A, B, &c. From one of these 
stations to the other, extends an endless rope of two miles long, or 
one mile from wheel to wheel ; one eed passing round one of the 
whcL'ls at the numerical stations, and the other round one of the 



wheels at the alphabetical, there being two wheels at each station, 
capable of working in concert, by means of which two endless ropes 
can be worked by one engine in both directions. It is not intended to 
work more than one at once by one engine, but onlv to give a signal to 
the man at the station No. 2, that he must set the engine or water- 
wheel going, and at the same time it is intended to couple them so as 
to ensure a uniformity of speed between the two ropes, before the train 
changes from one to the othf r, therefore one engine will be working 
at each ena for a short time, there being two endless ropes coupled 
together working between them. This system of signals to be ob- 
served throughout the line ; the object of it is to prevent any jerking 
or breaking of ropes, &c., as there are no stoppages at the stations, 
the first endless rope being liberated and the second taken when the 
train is at full speed. The way this is done is by a long iron bar 
fixed obliquely in the gronnd near the rope, nearly in the same di- 
rection, and as the first carriage passes over this bar, one side 
of the claws or holders of the rope, slides along the bar and is forced 
open, which liberates the rope ; the impetus of the train carries it 
forward to the rope at the second station, (twenty or thirty yards 
would be sufficient,) where another bar fixed in a manner similar to 
the bar alreadv described, again opens the claws, and a fork likewise 
fixed in the groimd under the rope by the same operation, throws the 
rope between the claws, they close upon the rojie and the train 
proceeds. The relative distance of claws, bars and rails being always 
the same, this part of the machinery can never get out of order, 
nor require anv superintendance. 

To elucidate the system proposed still farther, we wiU suppose a 
train is about to leave one end, when none of the ropes are in motion, 
it is first brought along the railway a little in advance of the station 
No. 1, then a pair of claws fixed on the first carriage, (which open 
by a lever and close by a strong spring,) grasp the ro^ie, but without 
injuring it. The water-wheel or engine is then put in motion, and 
along with it the drum or pulley-wheel, endless rope, and conse- 
quently the train. The speed is got up to the maximum, and thus it 
proceeds till it arrives within 2U0 yards of the station A, being the 
first half-way station. The man at this station by a conical coupling, 
spring coupling, or in any other manner, which will gradually elFect 
the same, connects the pulley-wheel of the first endless rope, or the 
one already described with the puUey-wheel of the second endless 
rope. The second endless rope is set in motion, and by this signal, 
viz. the moving of the rope, the man at the station No. 2, puts on the 
power, and before the train has got to the second rope, the speed of 
the rope is the same as that of the train. As soon as the man at the 
station No. 1 judges the train has left the first rope, he takes off the 
water or steam, and the first endless rope leaves olf running. It is 
not needfu' to describe the trains' progress forward, for the same 
thing occurs at every change. It is evident from the foregoing de- 
scription, that the going train always keeps to one side, and the 
coining train to the other, and as the rope is the propelli. g power, 
or means of power, one carriage can never overtake another. A car- 
riage to be taken up at any place on the line, may either be done in 
the manner described by your corresjiondent, or by an incline, to set 
the carriage in motion long enough to get up its speed before it is 
fixed to the train. In conclusion, I will make a few general remarks; 
upon considering the subject, two important facts force themselves 
into view ; — the first, that almost any number of undulations may 
occur in the line of the railway, provided there be no convex curves 
in the section of the ground in the space of one mile, (concave curves 
would not signify, for they would diminish the friction of the rope 
rather than a^ld to it.) The second is, let the country be as moun- 
tainous as the Simplon, railways may with advantage be made over 
it, provided there be a considerable traffic. The first of these will 
enable us to make railways at one-half the cost of the present system, 
the other to choose our own ground, and not be obliged to go in a 
particular direction or level, to suit locomotive engines, leaving large 
towns entirely out of view. 

Here we can have a railway at one-half the expense of the other, 
at one-half (he wear of rails, have no collisions between trains, and at 
no greater annual expense, but we won't have it; — and why? because if 
sncli a thing were attem])ted, Demetrius and the craftsmen, (and they 
are a very powerful body,) wimld run about the share-market and 
shout with a loud voice, " great is Diana of the Ephesians," and all 
the directors and shareholders in the railways already made, would 
stifle all argument with the cry of "great is Diana of the Ephesians," 
and at last, like poor sil'y sheep going to the slaughter, the projectors 
of and subsciibers to contemplated railways, would join in the cry, 
and louder and fiercer than any shout "great is Diana of the Ephe- 
sians — great is Diana of the Ephesians." 

Sk^Uld. Diogenes. 

(To be conlinucd.J 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



PROFESSIONS IN FRANCE. 

"They do these things better in France," has been echoed by 
Sterne's Starlings ahnost for the last century, and that we may enable 
our readers to pick out what good they can, and eschew the evil, we 
have thrown together some notes, based upon oflicial documents and 
upon the almanacks and directories. With regard to the directory, 
by the bye, it conies from the hand of an editor with many tails, and 
is dated'in the 3-2d year of the publication, and in the lUth year of 
our reign, or as it phrased X'' de la continuation par I'Edtttur actuel 
(Edtteur, usually means publisher.) ' 

We shall throw our notes together just as they come, and leave 
their connexion to the industry of our readers. One of the first 
things that strikes us, is a dealer in essence of mahogany (taunce 
d'acajoii,) though what that is, we do not know. The list of country 
architects is, to a great degree, filled up with surveyors, as they are 
there called geumttrts dii cadastre. Among the cement dealers we 
find Impermeable Mastic Powder of the Romans, Stone-coloured 
Mastic, Adialyte Roman Cement, Lucidonic Colour, Economic Bitu- 
minous Painting, (we presume tarring fences,) Hj'drofugic Mortar, 
Eydrophyluctic Mortar, &c. One brick-maker has an establishment 
for making moveable terra cotta letters for shop boards ; the master 
carpenters are formed into a body by a police ordonnance of the 9th 
December, 1&U8, for internal government, for inspecting the solidity 
of buildings, and for preventing pieces of carpentry from being 
placed so as to cause fires. Their tools must be stamped with a 
punch bearing their family name at full length ; no journeyman must 
work on his own account beyond two days, without a previous decla- 
ration at the Prefectore of Police. Oh, blessed state of affairs! when 
shall we have the advantage of protection from the authorities of 
Scotland-yard, and be under the enlightened directors of the nearest 
station-house. The masons and locksmiths enjoy the same privi- 
leges ; the paviors -Jso, by a police ordonnance, are prohibited from 
undertaking any work without being inscribed at the Prefectore, and 
having their tools stamped with their names. 

The number of well borers is ten ; designers of bronzes, carpets 
and ornaments, ten ; designers of paper hanging, twenty. There are 
several offices for doing specifications, drawings, measurements, esti- 
mates, &c. The gas fitters are twelve. Of engravers, there are in 
mezzotinto nearly a hundred ; architectural, twenty ; topographical, 
thirty; in wood, twenty ; for paper hangings, ten; of lithographers, 
fifty. The engineers are all government functionaries, dispersed over 
the provinces, except about thirty civil and practical engineers at 
Paris. The steam-engine makers are six-and-twenty ; the modellers, 
eleven; moulders of effigies, fifteen; mosaic factories, five; scene 
painters, seventeen; decorative painters, fifteen; painters of artifi- 
cial marbles and woods, thirty ; glass and enamel painters and gilders, 
thirteen; platina manufacturers, twelve. The surveyors are about 
two hundred and fifty in number. 

The next portion of our subject, will be the immense mass of go- 
vernment functionaries, one of the best tests of professional inde- 
pendence, whatever it may be of national encouragement. The first 
that comes in our vv'ay is the royal household, direction of crown 
buildings, with thirty-three architects of all grades. The next is 
the private domain of the king, with another board of architects. 
We then have the home department, directors of public buildings 
and monuments, with twenty-one employers of the general board, 
and a hundred and five district functionaries employed in different 
public works. The Prefecture of the Seine, almost equally ]jrolific, 
has about a hundred and fifty. The Prefecture of Police has also a 
number of good births — the division of architecture alone, sixteen. 

The engineers come oft' as well. In the war department, they are, 
of course, well provided for; but the ministry of public works, is 
their great support, there are to be found the names of fifty. In the 
Prefecture of the Seine, about as many. 



COMPETITION DESIGNS. 

Sir — You will perhaps favour me by inserting the following in an 
early number of your useful Journal. 

Derby, Your's respectfully, 

13th Dec, 1839. B. 

Two advertisements for designs have appeared in the "Times" 
this month, one for laying out 26 acres of ground near Ipswich, for 
which premiums of 30.'., 20/., and 10/. were liberally (?) offered; the 
designs to be sent in by the 30th of this month ! The other design 
required was for the Lincoln Diocesan School, to accommodate 2U0 
boys ; with a master's house attached, to have accommodation for 40 



boarders, which was to be furnished by the 17th of this month (!) the 
board to assemble on the ISth, to make their selection (!!!) A short 
time since, designs were requested for a gaol at Peterborough, which 
were to be sent in by tirelrt o'clock of the 30th November, ichtn the 
magistrates would meet to select the design! These last two cases, 
if the designs were really selected at the time announced, form a 
beautiful contrast to the dilatoriness of which Mr. Dionysius com- 
plains in the Sunderland AtlieuiEum committee. The gentleman, Mr. 
Billington, wdiose design is adopted by that body, is an architect, sur- 
veyor, and civil engineer, as well as joiner and builder, in Wake- 
field. 

It may be satisfactory to the "young architect" to know that ten- 
ders for the works were advertised for certainly three months since, 
as he may ascertain by reference to the " Leeds Mercury " of about 
that date. 

The exertions of the Manchester Architectural Society are entitled 
to great praise from the profession. It is their intention, with the 
concurrence of the competing architects, to exhibit the designs for the 
Lancashire Independent College, which were advertised to be sent in 
bythe 19th of October last. The building to cost £12,000. 

Of the favourable result of such exhibitions, I am very sanguine — 
as thev will awaken an interest in, and a taste for architecture among 
people in general; besides acting as a check upon the judges in com- 
petition. . , . , 

But what are the Institute and the London Society doing ? It 
is now three years since the first part of the first volume of the 
" Transactions of the Institute " appeared. Are we to have no more ? 
The non-appearance of part the second does not speak rohimes in 
favour of the interest of the communications that the Institute has 
received ; unless, indeed, the publication of the Transactions was a 
failure. As to the Society, as far as we provincials are concerned, it 
is perfectly barren. Why do not tky follow the example of the In- 
stitute, and throw open tfitir competitions to the profession at large? 

I consider that the Institute might exert itself very beneficially on 
behalf of the profession, by interfering in competitions. 

I suggest that a sub-committee be appointed, which might be called 
the Competition Committee, whose business it would be, when de- 
signs are advertised for, to direct the Secretary to obtain particulars ; 
and should they consider the time allowed too brief, or the premium 
too small, to urge upon the parties advertising the desirableness of 
increasing either. By thus bringing the matter home to the different 
bodies, I apprehend that the profession would be generaKy thought 
more respectable. The exertions of such a body, would be more 
likely to succeed than the isolated efforts of individuals. 

To parties about to advertise, if requested, the Committee might 
furnish manv useful hints. In addition to this, they might have ex- 
hibitions of the designs in remarkable competitions, and thus obtain 
some increase to the Institutes' income. 

If, following the example of the Useful Knowledge Society, they 
would appoint local committees throughout the country, they would 
have their trouble lessened, and would unite the profession more in- 
timately than it is. These committees, it is evident, may collect 
much useful information; as every provincial architect is not ^o- 
ionally acquainted with these metropolitans. It should not, 1 think, 
be considered essential that the local committee be members of the 
Institute, but provincial architects, of whose professional standing the 
council was satisfied, might be requested to act. Though these sug- 
gestions may not meet with approbation, I must regret that neither 
the Institute, nor the Society, have opened an exhibition of the Royal 
Exchange designs. The gods will not help them who will not help 
themselves, neither will the world assist an apathetic profession. 

It is to hoped that the Liverpool Society will exert themselves to 
obtain an exhibition of the Assize Courts designs ; though the non- 
exhibition of the designs for the St. George's Hall argues a great 
deal of inactivitv or apathy on their part. 

That competition seems "to have reached a satisfactory conclusion, 
For, though some may think that a better design might kave been 
selected, nobody will question the honourable conduct of the " Liver- 
pool gentlemen," 



COMPARATIVE POWER OF STEAM ENGINES. 
The following calculation by Mr. Wicksteed, the engineer of the 
East London W ater Works, exhibiting the saving of fuel to be eftected 
by using a single acting expansive engine and an overshot water- 
wheel, instead of a double-acting condensing engine of the ordinary 
kind will be found interesting. This was made at the request of His 
Excellency Edhem Bey, ambassador from the court of Egypt, upon 
his late visit to this country. 



8 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



A double-acting low-pressure engine of the ordinary construction of 
50 liorses power for spinning cotton, will consume from 10 to 15 Its. 
of coal per horse power per hour, say on an average 12 1ft. This is, 
however, a low estimate for Lancixshire, where the consumption is 
generally much greater, coal being there less expensive than in several 
other parts of England. If we allow 311 working days per annum of 
12 hours each, we shall liave the total consumption of the above en- 
gine for one year = 50 X 12 X 12 X 31 1 = 2,23;l,200n>. = 999 tons, 
12 cwt. 3 qrs. 12 tts., say 1000 tons at 508 * = £2500. 

A single-acting expansive engine on the Coniish plan of 50 horses 
power, if used fur raising water to turn an overshot water-wheel, will 
not produce a power of 50 horses available for working the cotton 
macainerv, since the effect of the water, when applied as a motive 
jiower, through the medium of the overshot water-wheel, will not 
exceed C'j per cent, of the power required to raise the water. Now 
()G : 100 : : 50 : 76 = the number of horses power of the engine 
which will produce the same mechanical effect by this plan as by the 
usual mode. 

A Cornish engine of 76 horses power will consume from 2 to 24 lbs. 
of coal per horse power per hour, say 24 Its. ; thus the consumption 
for one year will be equal to 76 X 2-5 X 12 X 311 =: 709,080 Itis. = 
316 tons 11 cwt., say 317 tons at 508. = £792 10s. 

COMPARISON. 

The cost of coal per annum by the common mode is £2500 
Ditto by the proposed mode . . 792 10 

Saving per annum = 68 = £1707 10 



The irregularity of the action of the steam in ordinary low-pressure 
engines is very nearly counteracted by the use of a fly-wheel ; never- 
theless, in some of the cotton factories, (for instance, that of Messrs. 
Lane, of Stockport) two engines are employed to work the same ma- 
chineiy, the cranks being fixed at right angles to each other, as in 
marine engines. Shis arrangement equalizes the action of the steam 
still more, yet the motion is not so regular as that of an overshot 
water-wheel, where the supply of water is uniform, as it would be in 
this case, the speed of the engine being regulated by the use of the 
cataract, to any given number of strokes per minute, and the delivery 
of water consequently uniform. 

It should be observed that no large quantity of water will be re- 
quired, as the same water may be used over and over again with very 
little loss. 

When this calculation was made, very little practical knowledge of 
the consumption of coals for a Cornish engine in London had been 
obtained, and although we have never disputed the reports from Corn- 
wall, yet many engineers of great experience had doubted the correct- 
ness of the accounts from Cornwall ; it has now, however, been proved 
that the great engine lately erected by the East London Water Works 
Company at Old Ford, does not consume upon an average more than 
2,% As. of coals per hour per horse power, and as the coals used are 
the refuse of Newcastle coals, the largest piece not being greater than 
J inch in diameter, we can have no doubt that Mr. Wicksteed's esti- 
mate of 24 lt)s. of coals per hour per horse power of large coals may 
be safely relied upon. 



T This is the price of coal in Egypt. 

BIELEFELD'S PAPIER MACHE WORKS. 







If fi '"^--"^--mim^ 







BIELEFELD'S PAPIER MACHE WORKS. 

A no less singular than conspicuous object, the building lately 
erected in Wellington Street, North, can hardly fail to attract notice, 
vet at the same time is likely to puzzle the architectural critic. It 
has idreiidy been spoken of both in the Companion to the Almanac, 
and in an article on Loudon Shops and Gin Palaces, in the December 
Number of Eraser's Magazine ; nor do we see reason to dissent greatly 
from the opinions there expressed. The defects of the design is that 
there is very little sort of agreement between the upper and the lower 
portion of the building, either as to style, cliaracter or material. 
While the latter is exceedingly plain and sober, the other is fanciful — 
not to say freakish in the dressings given to the fiist flour windows," 
which, uevertheless, du nut pussess the degree of richness, which would 
reconcile the eye to what, it nm.st be acknowledged, is outri' in man- 
ner, and which therefore required to be treated not with coldness, nor 
even sobriety. 

We do not object to an intermixture of stone and red brick ; on the 
contrary, we are of opinion that it might frequently be rendered pro- 
ductive of considerable effect ; but then we should like to see the two 
materials combined throughout, from the gromid upwards, and not, as 



is here the case, have a building look as if begun and carried up to a 
ce. tain height in stone-work, and then completed in brick with only 
stone dressings. Again, the piers below look narrow and weak com- 
pared witli those between the windows of the first floor ; — a fault that 
might have been obviated by arching the openings between them, and 
making the entresol windows in the heads of the arches. This would 
also have diminished the formality now occasioned by the numerous 
horizontal lines of those windows and openings, and unnecessarily in- 
creased by those of the horizontal rustic joints. 

In one respect, indeed, the whole possesses a certain merit, because 
there is hardly a possibility of mistaking what the building is intended 
for. Its aspect at once announces it to consist not only of a sh6p be- 
low but a manufactory in the upper stories. It likewise contains spa- 
cious show-rooms, relative to which and their contents we shall pro- 
bably be able ere long to give a more detailed account. The building 
stands at the corner of Wellington and Exeter Streets, the narrower 
front or end, being towards the former, the longer one towards the 
latter ; but in regard to this some liberty hits been taken in the cut, for 
though the whole of the South side of the building is shown, not more 
than the first two windows from the corner of Wellington Street would 
be visible in the direction here chosen, owing to the narrowmess of the 
other street. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



r> 



ON THE TESTING OF SURVEYS BY CALCULATING THE 

LINES OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Bv S. Hughes, C.E. 

In transferring to paper the measured lines of a large survey, it is 
always considered by the surveyor a nratter of great satisfaction if the 
lines prove or fit in to each other as it is called. 

That tlie meaning of this term may be understood by those who are 
not conversant with the practice of surveying, suppose three lines 
have been measured in the form of a triangle, A, B, C, and a fourth 
line B, D has been measured from one of the angular jioints to D in 
the opposite side. It is evident that the three sides of the triangle 
being given, the length of B D is determined, and ought on the ground 
to measure neitlier more nor less than the distance in a direct line 
from B to D. 




Now, if on laying down the above diagram on paper it be found 
that the distance between B and D either exceeds, or is less than that 
measured on the groimd, the presumption is that an error has been 
committed, and the work shouUl forthwith be examined in order to 
discover it. B D is called a proof line, and the above example is 
given to illustrate the nature of these lines. 

The object of this paper is to investigate a fe\y simple formulEe for 
determining the lengths of proof lines by calculation, in order to save 
the trouble of laying down at an inconvenient time the main lines of 
extensive surveys, and to guard against the danger of error in laying 
down the lines on paper. 

Pros. 1st. — Let a, b, c, be the three given sides of a triangle, it is 
required to determine the perpendicular A B from the vertex to the 
opposite side c, and also the segments into which the side is divided 




by such perpendicular. Put .r = one of the segments, and we have 
a-^—x'=:b-^—(c—,vy or a-'—x'^=b^—c-—x--\- 2 c .r add .»■', and a-=r 
b''—c-+ 2 c .1-; subtract^ 6» — c' and a^ — 6^4-c^= 2 c x: Divide by 

a'—b''+c2 'a^—b' , c 
2 c and ~ =.v or — • -f-=.i-the greater segment. 

Now the difference of two squares is equal to the product of the 
sum and difference of their roots. Let s and d be the sum and differ- 



ence of the two sides a and 6, then - 

2 



2c 



=: X the greater or less 



segment, according as the positive or negative sign is used in the 
fornnda. The perpendicular A B of course will bo y'a- — .r-. From 

the nature of similar triangles it is also=:— where x is the lesser 



xb 
segment, and ^ " — vvhere x is the greater segment. 

Suppose an obtuse angled triangle, then a' — (c+.f)^=62— .r' or a' — 




c' — x' — 2 c .r=6-' — ,1-2. Add ,i-' and a' — c-' — 2 c x^^b 
and a- — c" = 6- + 2 c r. Subtract 5- and divide by 2 c, 

- =:,r, or substituting as before the sum and difference 
^i c 



-'. Add 2 c*- 

, a- — 6- 
then ^; 



of (I and b we 



l);ive =,r, and the perpendicular here will be ^b' — x^. 

2c 2 

Api'lication I. — Given the three sides a 6 c of an acute emgled 

JS. 




triangle, also B D, and consequently D C the segments of the b.ise c, 
required the length of the proof line A D. 

Put BD=rf the perpendicular AP as found by the preceding pro- 
blem=^, and, the segment B P also found by the prublem=s, then 

Case II.— Let the triangle be obtuse as ABC, thou retaunng the 
same letters as above A^p'+(d — s)-— A D. 




Case III.— In the triangle ABC, the three sides are given, also the 
distances B A', B D' required the length of the proof line A'D'. 




B— p D 1' 

Through the point A draw AD parallel to a A'D', then B A' : BA : : 
BD' : BD and AD may be found as shewn in case I. Then we have 
BA : BA' : : AD : A'D' the length required. 

Or suppose the two sides B A, and B C arp given also B A', B D' and 
A' D' and the length of the proof line AC be required. Through A' 
and A draw A'P', and A P perpendicular to B C and find the length of 
A' P' by the problem. T hen B A' •. B A : : A' P' : AP find also the 
length BP, and then VAP^+(BC— B P)==AC. 

Corollary. By means of the formula in tliis case maybe determined 
also any proof line measured on the opposite side of the base line to 
that on which the triangle has been constructed. 

Thus let A B C be tlie triangle of which the sides are given, and of 




which one of tlieni A C has been Continued to D, and its extremity 
connected by the line D E, with another of the sides B C also pro- 
duced to E. Draw A F and G D perpendicular to B E, and find the 
length of A F by the pro blem, the n AC : CD : : AF : D G. Th e 
distance CG will then be= j/CD'-DG-. And ED=: vGD'+(BE- BG)' 



10 



TJII'J ( 1\JL ICiNCaNKLK AM) AllC'HITi:crS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



ON THE SUPPLY OF WATKU TO THE METROPOLIS. 

Obstrvatiuns on llw jktsl and prtnuit snpjjli/ of Wa/ir to lltv Mcliv- 
fulis. liii Tiio.MAS Wkk^tkkd, Ciril Engima: Jiail hi fore Ik 
Sodclij vj'./Jrh, jMaij 21, Is^.'j. 

[Tliis ]);i|)rr wliicli wc now present tmr ri'uders was oriifin.illy piili- 
lisjicil in till' TiMns;ic(i(ins of tlic Sncicly of Ails: ;i5 we coiisiilcr il> 
merits enlille i( Id a nunc exloiuled lirciilalicjn, «e lli>iLii;lil tli;il we 
conlil nol ilu ;i lu'tler service lu ils nnlliur ;iiul llie jiiiblir, ilinii (o l;ike 
tills ii|i|iorliniily of iMllint; atlcnlioii Id il.] 

I TAKK III!' liberty dI' [irefaeiiir; tlie Dl)ser\.UiDns I ;ini iil)DUl Id nuiKc- 
n|)Dn I he piist mv\ present su|i|ily of water to tlie Metropolis, liy staling 
thai it was at Ihe lepealeil recpiest of my vahieil frienil Mr. Aikin that 
1 was inihieed to think of attcmj)tinc; to amuse the Soeiety for an 
honr; anil, slinnlil I lie nnsuceessful in the endeavour, I trnst credit 
w ill lie given nu' for trying, at least, to make a return, however trilling, 
for Ihe pleasure and instruction 1 have derived from this yociely 
during the last twelve years. 

It will be my object to show Ihe great advantages the inhabitants of 
tills Metropolis derive from the abundant sujiply of good water which 
fliey now have, in comparison with the scanty supply in ancient 
times. 

Supply ijnviom lo a.D- 1230, by Rumiiiig Brooks. 

The inhabitants of London ami ils suburbs pre\ iously to the year 
12U<t, in the reign of Henry 111., were snpplieit with water not only by 
the Thames, but also by Ihe following sireams, namely, the River of 
Wells, Old-bourne or Hill-bmnnc, Wall-brook, and Lang-bouruc. 

The River of Wells, so called from its being forined by Ihe united 
streams from several wells in Ihe neighbourhood of the Charter House 
and .Sniilhtield, Mowed lo Holborn Bridge. The Old-bourne, <n- Hill- 
bourne, so calleil fnuu ils running down a lull ,rDse near Holboru Bars, 
and nniuiug west, joined the River of Wells at Holborn Bridgi'; from 
tlience tlio united streams Howed between the Fleet and Bridewell 
into Ihe Thames near lilackfriars Bridge. In 1307, at a Parliament 
held at Carlisle the 3.'ith of Edward L, Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 
complained that whereas I'orruerly the watercourse under the Fleet and 
Holborn Bridges was snliicicully deep and wide lo allow tenor twelve 
ships at once, loaded with merchandize, lo come up lo Holboni Bridge, 
but that in 1 1'.li', in the lirst year of his reign. King Joliu had granted 
io the Knights Teiuiilars ground to erect a mill upon, at Castle Bay- 
nard, and the whole of Ihe water in this w alercourse (vvhieli was aftcn'- 
waids called Turn Mill Brook) to work if; owing to which diversion 
chiefly, and also to Ihe lillh of the Tanners choking it np, and divers 
other impedimeuts, vessels could not now enter as they were winit ; 
he therefore prayed that the mayor and sherifVs of London might be 
directed to view the watercourse to substantiate his statenieiits. It 
was in consecpiencc cleansed, but was never again of the depth or 
breadth that it had formerly been. In 1502, the 17th of Heury VII., 
the whole course of Fleet Dyke, then so called, was ert'ectuallv cleansed 
so as to allow boats with lish and fuel lo navigate as far as Holborn 
Bridge. 

In I5y0, in the 3!st of Elizabeth's reign, the Common Council of 
the city granted a tifteenlh for the cleansing of this brook, or dyke, 
and for this |iur|iose Ihe springs on Hanipslead Heath were c<illei'te(i 
into one head and c(jnvey(»l by means of a channel to Fleet Ditch, to 
scour it out ; but after spending a large sum of iiumey, the work proved 
a failure, and the banks falling in, the Ditch was ( hoked up nujre than 
ever. 

In 1GG8, in Charles the Second's reign, after Ihe fire of London, it 
was again cleansed, and a handsome canal was made with brick walls 
and wharfs on each side as far as Holborn Bridge, 2100 feet long, 40 
feet wide, and 5 feet deep at a middling tide ; but the expense of 
making this canal, wharfs, ice., (aniDunling to iR'arly i'2><,000,) and 
the annual cost of keeping it free from mud was so great, that in 1733 
the cilizens obtained ]iowers from Parliament lo fill up the ditch 
between Fleet Street and Holborn, and to build a market thereon, the 
act providing that two spacious arches, nf 10 feet high and li feet 
wide, should be made and mainlaiued as common sewers, to carry oil' 
the waters of the rivulets and sewers thai used to fall into the ditch ; 
and in I7li0, in George Ihe Third's reign, when Blackl'riais Bridge 
was built, the reinainiug part of Ihe Fleet Ditch, from Fleet Street "to 
the Thames, was filled in, and the sewer was extended. 

It would appear that Fleet Ditc h was the channel into which tin- 
River of Wells, from the east, and the Old (or Hill) Bourne from the 
west, flowed, and that the tide flowing up to Holborn Bridgi- made il 
navigable so far. That at one liiae it was c died Ihe River of Wells 
because that was the largest rivulet that ran into il ; aflerwards Turn 
Mill Brook, when if was rendered unnavigable by the erection of the 
Knights Teinjilars' Mill, and the consonnent diversion of its waters f 



afterwards, when (he mills were removed, and it wa.s cleansed again 
and rendered navigable, Fleet Dyke, so called because il was a water- 
course allowing many vessels or -.i Jlitl to pass up; — and afterwards 
Fleet Ditch, when Ihe imsnceessful atleinpl to scour it, by means of a 
channel (which channel is now also called Fleet Ditch,) from the 
Hanijistead springs, had been made. The Old (or Hill) Bourne is now 
co\ ered over. 

Wall-bidok derived ils name from the eircinnsfanee of its being the 
only running brook that passed through (lie City walls. 

It entered (be Cilv near to the east end of lielli'em Hospital, he- 
tweeu Bishojisgale and Moorgate, [lassed on to Lothbiirv, under St. 
Mildred's cluinh, Bucklersburv, Wallbrook Street, and Dowgate Hill 
into Ihe Thames. It is said to have been in ancient times navigable 
as far as Bnckleisbury. It is now arched over, and liouses are built 
over it in many (ilaces. 

Laiigliouriie-water was a long and gre, it stream of v\ater breaking 
out of the ground at the east end of Fenchundi Street, and running 
directly west, nearly to the end of Lombard Street, turned lo Ihe south 
and divided into seTeral rivulets, some falling into the Wall-broidc, 
and others running in separate streams to the Thames at Dowgate; 
(he division, or s/mnng, of the stream gave the name to Sharebourne 
(or Sherbourue) Lane. 

A watercourse intersected th« Strand at Salisbury Street, and 
another near Somerset House. 

Supply prtrioiis to a.D. 123(5 by Springs. 

Besides these running streams there were a great many wells and 
pools, namely, Holywell, in Shoreditch; Clement's Well, in St. Cle- 
ment's Inn ill the Strand ; Clerks' Well, near Clerkenwell Cluireli, so 
called from the parish clerks of Ihe City of London, who used formerly 
to meet there for Ihe jmrpose of representing certain parts of the 
Serijiturcs in a theatrical manner. "These wells," says Fitz Stephen, 
who was ill the service of the famous Thomas a Becket, and wrote a 
life of that celebrated |)relate, "maybe esteemed the jiriucipal, as 
being much the best freipiented, both by scholars from the schocils, 
and the youth of the City, when in a summer's evening they were dis- 
posed to take an airing." Xear lo Clerks' Well was Skinners' Well, 
where plays were in ancient times performed. 

More eastw aril, tow ards the Charter House, were Fagges-well, Tods- 
w ell, f.oders-well and Red-well, which, with another in Smithfield, 
called Ihe Horse Pool, united to form the River of Well.,. 

"Damc-Annis-the-Clear" Well, in Hoxton; and, somewhat west of 
this. Perilous Pool, now called Peerless Pool. 

Without Cripplegatc there was a large pool supplied by Crowder's 
Well, on the north-west side of St. Giles's cluirchyard. 

There was a fountain in New Palace Yard, Wesfininsler. 

There were two wells in .Shadwell, one of which, a fine and clear 
spring near lo St. Paul's clinich, gave this suburb ils name. 

Besides those herein eiminerated there were iiiany smaller ones, the 
siluation of which may still be discovered by the names of the streets 
and alleys or places in their neighbourhood, such as Monks' Well, 
Bride W>ll, formerly called Bridget's Well, &c. 

London siijipliid by Conduits stibseqiiinlly to 1230. 

Stow says, "The said River of Wells, the rinming water of Wall- 
lirook, the bournes afore named, and others the fresh wafers that v\pre 
in and about this City, being in jirocess of time, by eucroaclnuent for 
buildings and otherwise, utterly decayed, and (he numlier of citizens 
inightily increased, they were forced to seek sweet waters abroad, 
whereof some" i^prings, "at the request of King Henry the Third in 
Ihe 2 1st year of his reign, were, for the iirofit of the City and good of 
the whole Realme thither reiiairing, granted to the citizens and their 
successors by one Gilbert de Sanford, with liberty to convey water 
from the towne of Teiborne by ]ii))es of lead into their City." The 
Tybourne rivulet ran though Tothill Fields to Scholars' Pond, and 
thence info Ihe Thames; it is now a common sewer. The grant w'as 
made in 1230; the work was commenced in 12s5: the waters from 
Tybourne were conveyed by a six-inch leaden pipe to dialing Cross, 
and from thence to several conduits in the City, the first and greatest 
of wliiih was erected at the Cross in Clieapside, at the end of Wood 
Street, in 12^.5, the distance being about three miles and a half, and 
for the yirsl time water was conveyed by pipes into the City. 

lu 1101 the prison-house called the " Tun onCornhill, was converted 
into a cistern for the Tybourne water, and was afterwards called the 
Conduit oil Cornliill. 

hi 1123 water was brought from Tybourne to Billingsgate, Paul's 
Wharf, and to a cistern in the wall of St. Giles's church, Cripnlegate. 

In 1 130 w ater was brought to the Standard in Clieapside, near 
Honey Lane, 

In 1132 water was conveyed to the gaols of Newgate and Ludgate. 



18^0.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



TI 



In 1 1"3m water was brought from Tyl)OnniP to comluits in Fleet 
Strpot and Alilcrnianbiiry, and from Highbury to a concbut o])i)osite 
Cripplogat.e cliiirch. 

In 1 V.i'.) thp Abluit of Wpstminstor grantpd the City one hpad of 
wator, containing abont SUO sqnaro yards, or thp sixtli of an acre, fo- 
gptlipr with all its springs in the manor of Paddington, ;;ronc/i'/ the 
intended wurlc did not (Iraw the water from tlie aneient wells in the 
manor of llida; showing bv this proviso that fo\n- hnndred years back 
it was <liscovered tlial any great dranght from one well wonld be likely 
to leave the other neighbouring wells dry. This grant was contirmed 
by Henry the Sixth in 11-11 ; and other .advantages were granted by a 
writ of Frivv Comicil, to enable the citizens to bring water by means 
of leaden pipes \mder the ground for "above three miles" to a conduit 
in ('lieapsid(>, which was erected in ])lacp of the old one at the Cross, 
which Cross was also re-edified at the same time; and thi.s conduit 
was used as a reservoir for the supply of other conduits. The water 
was conveyed from the springs to cisterns at Tybourne, from tlience to 
Charing Cross, and thence to the City. 

In 1443 a new conduit was erected ncxr St. Paul's Gate, at the up[ier 
end of Cheapside. 

In tlie 0\A 13ailey, a little lower than the Sessions House, was a large 
cistern with divers cocks, which received the waste water from the 
prison of Ludgate, for the use of tlie neighbouring inhabitants. 

In 1471 a fresh supply of water was brought liy leaden pipes from 
Tybourne to a conduit erected in Fleet Street, at the end of Shoe 
Lane, and to other conduits, for the benefit of the])eo])le; viz. " for 
.the poor to drink, the rich to dress their meat." 

In 117s a cistern was added to this conduit to hold tlie waste water, 
and another at Fleet Bridge. 

In 1401 a conduit was erected in Grasse (o» Gracechnrcli) Street. 
In l4i>S a conduit was erected at Oldbouriie Cross, and was again 
new made in 1577 by William Lamb, citizen, who having drawn toge- 
ther several springs of water into a head at the up|)er end of Ued 
Lion Street, which was called Lamb's Conduit, conveye<l the same to 
a conduit on Snow Hill, by a leaden pipe 2IX)0 yanls long. 

In Ijll'.t a stone conduit was erected in the Stocks Market wdlich 
stood at the north comer of Wallbrook. 

Aljout the year la 13 a conduit was erected in Bishopsgate Street. 
About the year l.VJS a conduit was erected at LoniUm Wall. 
In l.'>3.j water was brought from Hackney to a conduit ere<teil in 
Aldgate. 

In 1543, notwithstanding the vast expense the citizens had been at 
in bringing water to, and erecting conduits in, the City, the supply 
was very ineUicient; and an Act was passed in theolst (d Henry Vlll. 
empowering them to bring water from Hampstead Heath, St. Mary le 
Bon Hackney, and Muswell Hill, upon their compensating the owners 
of laixl for damage done by digging or otherwise. 

In I54(> water was conveyeil in great abundance from divers springs 
Iving between Hoxtun and Islington to a handsome condtiit erected at 
tlie west em\ of St. Margaret's church, L(Hhbuiy. 

The Charter House was supplied from White Conduit Fields; 
Christ's Hospital, from Hie Devil's Conduit, north-east of Brunswick 
Square. 

Stow mentions amongst the remarkables in the City of London a 
well at Aldgate curbed with stone of a great depth, ami rising into a 
house two stories from the ground, wdiich is peculiar, "for I have not 
seen tlw like in all this City to be raised so high." 

There were other C(mduits of less note than those now enumerated, 
and wells witk buckets or pumps in Threadneedle Street, Leadeuhall 
Street, S;c. 

Sir John Evelyn writes that about the accession of Quv-en Elizabeth, 
in 1558, the waters of Dame-Annis-the-Clear Spring at Hoxtou were 
called to the breweries in London, at an expensi; of sou/, per annum ; 
and alHjut the same time wells were dug and pumps erected in every 
corner of tlie City and suburbs. 

Ifakr raised/mm tlie Thames hy Machinery. 

Ill 15tj8 a conduit was erected near the top of Dowgate Hill, w hich 
was supplied with Thames water by means of a giiiii, or machine fur 
raising water, fixed iifar the river, — most probably what is termed a 
horse-wheel. 

Tliis appears to have been the iirst machine used in London for 
raising water for Uie su|)ply of the public to a higher level than could 
be dcjiie by the common pump. 

Thus it ajipears that London was supjilied, first, hy running brooks 
and springs, and secondly, when thes<' failed, oy water brought from 
a distance through leadf^u pipes, the sources being at a sutiicieiit ele- 
vation to allow the wat<>r to run into the conduits. In a few instances 
ttie waste water from .these conduits ran into cistems adjacent to theWj 



for common or public use; but water was of too much value at that 
time to allow this to be done generally, and in cases of fire the supply 
was miserably deficient, which, togetlier with the ci.cuiustance of tim- 
ber being the common material used in the buildings, accounts for the 
number of destructive fires in ancient times. 

Although bringing water by means of pipes from distant sources 
was a great improvement, so far as respected an increased iprintity; 
nevertheless, the inconvenience and expense of carrying it from tlie 
conduits to each house still existed, and it was not until the erection 
of the Lonilou Bridge Water-works, in 15S-2, that this dilliculty was 
overcome, when the |irinciple of conveying water into dwelling-houses 
by means of small load-pipi's was adopted ; this, the greatest improve- 
ment in the mode of sup|ilying water, by substituting the power of 
machinery for human drudgery, has not been surpasseil, and is the 
plan now used, two centuries and a half after its first introduction; 
improvements have been made in the practice of it, — ^the principle 
remains unaltered. 

London Bridgi TVakr-ii'orks. 

In l.')Sl, or 1. '582, Peter Maurice, a Dutchman, obtained a lease of 
the City of the first arch of London Bridge, on the North side, and 
erected a water-wheel, to be worked by the tide, and a set of force 
]mmps to raise Thames water for the supply of the neighbourhood. 
The water was raised to the top of a wooden building I'Jo feet high, 
and passed from thejice through pipes to supply the dwelling-houses 
in Thames Street, New Fish .Sirei't Hill, and Gracechurch Street, as 
far as a Standard on Cornhill, wliic'h was erected in the middle of the 
street where the four ways meet. The water which was to spare, 
after supplying the beforenamed streets, flowed from the Standard 
through four pipes branching to Bishojisgate, Aldgate, the Bridge, 
and Wallbrook, which supplied Ills dwelling-houses in the neighbour- 
hood, and cleansed the gutters in these streets. The site of the Stan- 
danl was supposed to be the highest ground in the City. The (juantity 
of water raised was equal to about 3, 17o,0;tO imperial barrels per 
annum, or an average ipiantity of 2 Hi gallons per minute, or about 
5ths per cent, of the quantity raised by the water-works for the sup])ly 
of the Metropolis at present. There were 111 pumps worked by this 
wheel, each 7 inches diameter ami 30 inches stroke. Mr. Smeaton 
ascertained from registers that the juimps made 3025 strokes jier 
tide; and, as there are 70S titles per annum, (allowing one-fifth tor 
loss through the valves, according to Dr. Desagulier's statements,) the 
quantity raised may be calculated. Imin-ovemenfs, however, had been 
made before the above purticnlars of the pumps were imblished, and 
therefore the quantity given will be the extreme probable quantity 
raised in 15S2. 

In 15s3 or 1581 machinery was fixed in the second arch. 
Improvements were maile and the works continued in Maurice's 
family until l7ol, when thpy were sold, (after an engagement had been 
made with the (,'ity for a lease of the fourth arch,) to Richard Soams, 
citizen and gohlsmith, for 3i'>,000.'. Soams formed a company, and 
divided the property into 300 shares of 5U0/. each. In 17iil ma- 
chinery was erected in the third arch; in 17G7 machinery was erected 
in the lifth arch, and alsn in the second arch from the Surrey side lor 
the supply of the Borough. The large wheel erected in the firth arch 
by Mr. Smeaton was added in consequence of tlie reduction in the fall 
of water occasioned by enlarging the water-way under the bridge 
when two arches were" thrown into one. And aliiuit this time an at- 
nuispheric engine was eriM'tcd of tun horses' power to assist the wheels 
at neap tides," and as a safeguard in case of fire happening in the City 
at the turn of the tide, when the wdieels, of course, could not work. 

In consequence of the City being obliged to pen up the water to 
work the wheels, according to an Act passed in 175(1, in the 2'.lth of 
George 11., the blocking up of t"lie arches became such a nuisance to 
the navigation of the Thames, that an Act was obtained in 1822, the 
3.rd of George IV., for the removal of the London Bridge Water- 
w'orks, and they were removed accordingly, and the district was sup- 
lilied bv other companies, chieily by tlie New River At the time of 
the des'truetion of these works the number of tenants was 10,4 17, and 
the quantity of water raised by them was eq\ial to 39,481,000 barrels 
per annum, or 2704 gallons per minute ; showing an increase ecpial to 
twelve times tlie quantity liist raised in 1582 by Peter Maurice. 

In 1583 two conduits for Thames water were erected near to Old 
Fish Street Hill. 

In 1594, for the better supply of the City, Bevis Bulmar erected a 
large horse-engine and four pumps at Broken Wharf, to raise Thames 
water for the inhabitants of Clieap.si<lp, St. Paul's Churchyard, Fleet 
Street, &c., which, MaitlamI says, was removed previous to the date 
of his worl<^ 175H, on aceoimt of other companies being able to supply 
water at a cheaper rate. 



12 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



New Rirtr Head Wakr-mirks. 
Tli(> £;ri'atest and most splcmliil work tlva) was ever iinilertaken for 
\\\c su|i"iily of a iiioclern city with water was roniinenced in James the 
Kir-it's rfip;ii. 

Ill l(ior>, the oril of James the First, tlio sujipiy of water was fomiil 
t(i lie ina(lei|iiate to the waiit.s of an increased population; and as at 
lliat time the discovery of the steam-engine had not heen made, it 
was nocessaiT to seek abroad for more powerful springs of water than 
had hitherto been discovered, and at a sullicieiit elevation to allow the 
water to run to London: these were met witli in the neighlionrliood of 
Hertford, above twenty miles north of London, and the citizens con- 
ceived the vast plan of bringing these springs by means of a channel to 
Islington, and for that purpose obtained an Act of Parliament, em- 
)i(i\\ering them to bring a stream (d' water from the springs of Chad- 
well ■.iiiA Amwell in the county of Hertford, between the towns of 
llerl ford and Ware By this Art, ■3rd of James the First, they were 
I'liipowered to make a "trench, channel, cut, or river" ; the width of 
the ground to lie purchased, being limited to 10 feet ; and as thesa 
springs were situated in the valley of the river Lee, and, consequently, 
ran into the said river, they were bound to comjiensate, not only the 
owners of ])roperty througli whose lands the river was to be carried, 
but also, " all such persons as shall sustain any damage, loss, or hind- 
rance, in their mills standing upon any of the rivers or streams from 
which the water shall be taken through the said new cut, or river." 
That this was a proviso of great consequence may be supposed, when 
at the present day it is stated that one of the springs yields a quantity 
of water equal to about 3770 imperial gallons per minute, or i\ mil- 
lions of barrels per annum. 

Surveyors were employed by the City to jdan the execution of the 
work; but it was discovered that, as the Act limited the width of the 
property to be purchased to 10 feet, it would be impossible to convey 
the waters across the hills and valleys to London: the City therefore 
applied to Parliament again the following year for power to make 
tunnels, where necessary, either to be laid in the earth or formed upon 
arches, and an Act was passed accordingly in the 4th of James the 
First. Even with these additional powers the course of the river was 
extremely circuitous, being above 4U miles in length. 

Notwithstanding the powers which had been obtained, it appears 
that the work was not executed until some years after. 

In ItJOS .Sir Hugh Myddleton, citizen ;mil goldsmitli, offered at his 
own charge to carry the Acts of James into execution; and to this 
great and enterprising man were the inhabitants of the Metropolis in- 
debted for one of the greatest blessings that conld be conferred upon 
any city. 

In IblO the citizens, by an Act of Common Council, made over their 
powers to Sir Hugh Myddleton; and in 1G12 this Act was confirmed 
by an indenture. 

The work, however, appears to have been commenced in 1608, and 
was completed in 1(>13. 

Maitlan<l states that Mr. Henry Mills, the then engineer to the Com- 
pany, measured the length of the river accurately in 1723, and found 
il to be 3SJ miles and Hi poles, to which it was reduced by the con- 
traction of its sinuosities above two miles. 

That there were 215 bridges over il, and that it was carried over 
two valleys in wooden troughs lined with lead, one at Bush-hill, being 
GliO feet long and 30 feet high ; and the other at Ilighburv, 402 feet 
long and 17 feet high. He'fiirtlier says, "As this New River is in 
some ])laces wafted over hills and vales, so in others, mole-like, it 
forces its way through subterraneous pass;iges, and arriving at the 
place unjustly called its Head, in the neighbourhood of Islington 'tis 
ingulfed by 5s main pipes of bores of 7 incdies ; w herebv 'tis conveyed 
into the several streets, lanes, \:c. of the City and suburbs of London, 
to the great convenience and use of the inhabitants, who, by small 
leaden pipes of half inch bore, have the water brought into their 
houses;" the number of tenants amounting in I75(; to 3o,liOO. 

It was o|)ened and the water admitted into the basins at the Ne\V 
River Head at Michaelmas, 1013, with great (loiii]! on the day that 
Sir Thomas Myddleton, brother to Hugh, was elei ti-il Loril Mayor. 

In 11)19 a charter of incoporation was granted by James I. to Sir 
Hugh Myddleton, citizen and goldsmith, in conjui'iction with other 
wealthy citizens, and they were styled " the (jov'ernor and Company 
of the Xeu River Ijiought from Chadwell and Amwell to London." It 
empowered them to improve the river, to prevent nuisances being 
committed therein, vndtr ptnally of the King's dinyltdnmr, subject to 
the laws for the contenmers of the King's authority ; ■mu\, iiiidtr tlic 
samepinal/y, all other parties were prohibited bringing water for the 
supply of the Cities of London and Westminster, and the Borough of 
Southwark, without a licence from the Governor und Company of the 
Kew River. 



The King subscribed towards the undertaking, and was thereby en- 
titled to ;i moiety of the profits. The work was said to have cost 
500,00(1/.: the capital was divided into 72 shares, of which the King 
had 3li ; but so poorly did the scheme answer at first, from ignorance 
of the gre;it advantages that the Metropolis \vo\dd derive from this 
splendid work, that .Sir Hugh Myddleton, who had spent the whole of 
his fortune, was ruined, and the proprietors did not for 30 years di\ ide 
more than 5/. per share, or about Is. f>d. per cent. The King, how- 
ever, who was entitleil to a moiety, relinipiished his share, reserving 
only .500/. per annum out of it. Although the King's share was in 
private hands, they took no part in conducting the aHairs of the Com- 
pany. 

Previous to the year 1738 the supply from the springs was tound to 
be insufiicient, and arrangements were made w ith the trustees of the 
river Lee, to enable the New River Company to abstract water from 
the said river. This was done, first by pipes, ;ind afterwards by a cut 
and trough into the New River, the dimensions of which wen; ileter- 
mined by Act of Parliament, passed in 1738, in the 12th year of the 
reign of George the Second. 

This supply, however, was not found to be suHicient, although e(ju.d 
in the aggregate to nearly 17 millions of gallons per diem, or nearly 
172 milli(ms of barrels (ler annum; for in Is22, when the New River 
Company undertook to supjily the London Bridge Water-works dis- 
tricts, it was one of the conditions that they shoidd have a steam-en- 
gine to pump from the Thames, in case of failure in the supply of the 
New River, occasioned by frost or draught ; and a 100-horse power 
engine was accordingly erected at Broken Wharf. 

Objections having been made of late years to the water occasional I y 
raised by this engine from the Thames, and to the exposed state of 
the New River, ;illowing boys to bathe in it, ;ind other nuisances; the 
Company, upholding the character for enterprise which was bequeathed 
to them by the great founder of their works, are now applying to Par- 
lianu^nt for powers to improve their supply, by relinquishing their 
station on the banks of the Thames, and in lieu thereof, raising water 
from the river Lee; and also by fencing in the New River to jirevent 
nuisances being committed tlierein. 

( To be coiilinmd.) 



BRITISH MUSEUM.— No. V. 

(From the Times.) 
Egyptian Antiquities. 

The collection of anticpiities in the great saloon of the British Mu- 
seum, unconnected with the edifices of which thev formed part, to the 
artist are comparatively useless. The monstrosities they represent 
can neither excite his emulation, nor improve his taste ; while to the 
general visitor they are only regarded as matters of curiosity : he lin- 
gers round the mutilated blocks of granite, in vain endeavours to find 
the meaning of the strange and luieouth figures he sees so innumerably 
engraved upon them; on turning to the pages of the synopsis, he 
simply finds the nanu>s of Amenothoph, of Raineses, of llojith, of 
Shishak, or of Pthanenoph, and his curiosity remains unsatisfied. A 
short and more particular description of some of the most important 
may not be unacceptable. 

In the central room a c;ise has lately been opened, in which are two 
figures, apparently designed to represent a mother and daughter. In 
beauty of design and execution they are hardly surpassed, it equalled, 
by any in the collection ; they seem to belong neither to the temple 
nor the tondi, and, whatever they may he called, possess all the ap- 
pearance of family portraits. They are sitting on a couch, the legs of 
which terminate in lion's paws, ;ind possess more of the Greek than 
Roman fashion; the height of the elder figure is 5 feet inches, that 
of the younger 5 feet 2 inches ; in the right hand of the mother, which 
is extended downwarils, is the mysterious instrument resembling a 
key, called the "Ian," which is commonly a mark of the priesthood ; 
the other, which is singular in Egyptian sculpture, is placed upon the 
daughter's; the faces of both are handsome, that of the youngest 
miglit be lliought beautiful; the exjiression of innocence and modesty 
is finely pourtrayed ; the eyes are large, the lips Imve nothing of the 
Ethio))ian character, the mouth is beautifully shaped, the nose small 
and delicately formed, and happiness is thrown over the countenance ; 
the figure is slender, the shaiie of the bosom and shoulders perfect ; 
the hair, which is in u thousand curls, covers the ears, and on the fore- 
head is so arranged as to form a tiara ; the dress descends nearly to 
the ancle, and is intended to represent the finest muslin ; around the 
edges of which is m edging apparently of lace ; it is crossed over the 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



13 



breast, and passes through a ring, from which is suspended an amulet 
in shape like a cross ; the feet are bare, the hand and arm perfect. A 
great likeness is observable in the faces of both the figures, but the 
lips of the elder are thicker, and the nose and face are altogether more 
Egyptian; the hair of the latter is also curled, but is not so thick as 
that of the yovniger, and the ears are shown, in which are earrings ; 
the ilress, which is much shorter, is not so full over the person, but 
equally tine in the texture ; on the feet are sandals, the fastenings of 
which are nunutely executed, and are entirely diH'erent from the Greek 
or Roman style. Some remains of colours are to be observed on the 
dress, blue and red. There does not appear to be any hieroglyphical 
inscription on it. Innnediately under the columns which separate tlie 
saloons are two colossal lions which were given by Lord Prudhoe ; 
they are of red Egyptian granite ; on each are two tablets or car- 
touches, on which the learneil hare read the names of Amenothoph, 
the second and third; there are also on them two other tablets, the 
characters of which Ir.ive not yet been ilecipliered ; they were brought 
from Nubia, from Delphi, MO miles beyond the Cataract. The atti- 
tuile which is given them, although from the locality whence they 
wore removed evidently betokens their great antiquitv, is more true 
to nature than in the generality of similar figures of Egyptian (h^sign ; 
one is lying on the right, and the other on its left side ; the right fore 
leg in one is under the body, all but the [law ; the left is stretched 
across the chest, and the paw, tinned flat down, rests on that of the 
right, the under of which is turned upwards; thus the two paws meet 
like two hands when brought flat together : the eves are very long, 
and have nuich resemblance to those of Egyptian human statues. There 
are two small lion sphinxes which much resemble these ; they were 
found by Captain Caviglia when he uncovered the sphinx of the Py- 
ramiils, in a small temple, placed between its legs ; they are of soft 
calcareous stonc^ and have been painted red ; their length is about aU 
inches ; one has a head in the style of the sphinx, and on a plinth are 
some figures, which are no part of the original design, they are not 
hieroglyphics. Of the other, the lower part of the face is gone ; this 
has also a low head-dress, and a mane carved in lines down the breast, 
and wliat is singular, neither of them possesses much of the Egyi>tian 
character, though found in such a situation. No. 1 1 is the figure of a 
liawkheaded spliinx, which was found by Belzoni at Ipsamboul, The 
ram's head in this room, which formed the head of a colossal sphinx, 
was taken from the avenue at Carnac, and is of soft calcareous stone ; 
the face is 3 feet inches in length, and the horn in the curve 4 feet 
11 inches, the tip of which is broken off; on the top of the head is an 
oblong hole, 44 inches by 4 deep. From the spirit shown in the 
sculpture of this head, as also in those of the lions, it is to be seen 
that the Egyptians excelled far more in their delineation of animals 
than of the human form ; that hardness and inanimation, which is the 
characteristic of the latter, is not to be complained of in the other. 
What was the origin of the sphinx, and they are found in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, wdiat mystery was hidden in so strange a shape, ami 
still wrapped in obscurity, the general opinion of antiquaries, that a 
lion's head, united to a woman's body, was to denote the rise of the 
Nile, when the sun is in tlie signs of Leo and Virgo, will not suit those 
witli a male head or a ram's head. Winkleman thinks the Andro- 
sphinx typifies the male and female principles of worship united in 
one form, and it is so found in India; the (jreek sphinx was a female 
and a lion ; the Egyptian and Jewish, a lion with a man's head ; in 
Arracan, it is a female ; in Java, half a woman and half an elephant ; 
and in hidia the fourth incarnation of Vishnu is a man lion. Tliere 
are in this room two obelisks of black marble ; they are the only ones 
in the Museum ; the one on the right as you enter is that mentioned 
by Niebur in his travels; it has been broken into two pieces ; they 
are now together; the lower part, which is perfect, is about S feet in 
height ; it was found fixed into the side of a doorway of a house in 
Cairo, and the broken part ser\ ed for a sill ; the north side has a car- 
touche under the usual symbol of the goose and dise, and another per- 
fect, supposed to contain the name ; they are repeated on the oijjiosite 
side, and nowhere else ; the hieroglyphics on the north and south sides 
are the same; those on the east and west are different, but resemble 
eacli other ; the first are much better executed than tlie other ; the 
bird is perhaps one of the best specimens of sculpture found in Egypt ; 
the arch on which it is chisseled out is rounded with great skill ; the 
shadow thrown by the edges formed by the erasion in the stone, added 
to the shadow cast from the rounded pait on the deep incision, gives 
a line relief to the lighter and higher jiarts ; the feathers of the wing 
are also beautifully raised, and the eye is well delineated. The one 
opposite, which is about the same size, is not so well executed ; it has 
the same cartouche cut on the four sides ; the hieroglyphics are the 
same on both of these obelisks, but differently placed ; the sistrum is 
shown on both, and what is supposed to be the proper name on the 
Alexandrian sarcophagus, as also the pveuomen, is the same which 



appears on these. It was the opinion of Denon that obelisks and gate- 
ways which are often found insulated before the temples were votive 
orterings to the collective gods. The colossal head on which is the 
mitre, called the Teshr, was found by Bel/.oni at Cainac, east of the 
Nile; it is of red granite, and is highly polished, and of much larger 
dimensions than the one opposite, called the lesser Memnon; the face 
has much more of the Ethiopian character, and does not possess the 
softness which is seen in the other, and is evidently of an earlier date; 
the height from the top of the mitred crown is It) feet; the beard-case 
and left ear only are destroyed ; the colossal arm lying near it belonged 
to this statue, and from its being straight and in a falling position 
shows it must have been an upright one ; in the hand are the remains 
of a staff or sceptre. The cap is fastened with bands under the chin. 
From the position of the arm and head its height must have been at 
least 2(i feet, and it is observable in this, as in almost all the Egyptian 
figures, that the ear is placed too high on the head. 

The colossal figure marked 21 was discovered in the ruins of a 
temple behind the Colossi at Thebes, between the Memnonium and 
Medinet Abu ; it is an exact model of the great figure of iMemnoii at 
Thebes, the exact height of which is 7o feet; it is in a sitting posi- 
tion, and has a close-fitting cap on the head, on the front of which is 
the as|)ic serpent. The beard and lower part of the chin are broken. 
The stone is a breschia, and Uioks black, but it is a dark gray, and has 
bright yeUovv particles in it, and is the only statue of that kind of 
stone in the collection. The hair is curiously gathered behind, and, 
from a number of radii collected in a convex form, is gathered into a 
long tail ; it has a nether garment, of corduroy appearance, attacheil 
to a belt round the waist, and overlaps in parts on the thighs, on which 
are exteuiled the hands, which are b idly executed. At the back ot 
the throne is a S(|uare colunm, and the cartouches there inscribed con- 
tain, as we are told, the name of Amenothoph or Jlemnon, being the 
s;ime as those on the Thebau colossus. 

A colossal head of Jupiter Amnion, of white stone, marked 30, is 
finely executed ; it was in the collection of Mr. Salt, found by IJelzoni, 
at Carnac. Fart of tlie face is destroyed, but as it remains, the difi'e- 
rence of expression observed on viewing it is remarkable. In the iront 
it possesses the general character of Egyptian composure ; on the 
northern side it is grave and severe, and on the eastern it has the 
same smile as is seen on the face of the lesser Memnon. 

Another head of ei[ual size, on the left of the room as you enter, is 
the only Egyptian one in tlie Museum on which the beard is seen ; in 
all the others it is placeil in a sort of case, but here it is sculptured on 
the stone ; flat lappets descend on each side of the head, the breadth 
of which are of the same size as the fringy beard. The stone of 
which it is forineil is a brownish breschia, peculiarly diflicult to cut. 
The great sarcojiliagus on the left, near the entrance, given by Colonel 
Vyse in ls3'.1, is of red breschia, and is well deserving inspection. 
The hieroglyphic-i are highly finished ; they are not so numerous as 
those on the tomb of Alexander, or the one opposite called the Lovers' 
Fountain, but of better execution. It has a lid of circular form, which 
tits with a ledge; there is a band of hieroglyphtcs on each side : in 
each band are 12 figures 4 inches in length, all different, and divided 
from each otlier by a tablet of inscriptions; 11 of these figures are 
faced by one at the end, a band of hieroglyphics reaches halfway 
along the cover, another crosses this, and then there are G more, 3 of 
which are but half the length, to give room for 3 figures of mummies, 
of which there was probably 3 within the monument. Above this 
there is a face deeplv cut, the features of which are completely of 
the negro character.' It has the usual "oskh" or cunicular tippet 
worn round the neck. The length is 9 feet, and the breadth 3 and a 
half. The colour of the stone forming the top is much lighter than 
the lower jiart of the sarcophagus. No. lU, which is supposed to 
have been the tomb of Alexander, consists of a single block of stone 
ten feet in lei gtii, four in height, and about five in breadth. It is ;i 
particular kind of prismatic congloinerite, resembling that which is 
uiRler the second porphyry formation, and is entirely covered with 
hieroglyphics in lines. ' On his death, we are told by Curtius, his 
body was enshrined in golden chasework, over which was put a purple 
vestment, and then his armour: on his arrival at Alexandria it was 
there deposited, but whether in this sarcopliagus or not has been mat- 
ter of dispute. He was worshipped as the thirteenth god of the 
Egyptians ; three centuries after his death his body was seen by 
Augustus. Tacitus says the tomb was again opened by Caligula, and 
the brea'st()late taken out and worn by him. When the body was re- 
moved is unknown, but the Mahometans had always revered and con- 
cealed this sarcoghagus from the Christians till seized on by the 
Frencli. 

The engraved tablet of black basalt, called "the Rosetta-stone," 
the " criLV antiquarionim," contains three inscriptions — one in hiero- 
glyphics, one in the ancient spoken or enchorial language of Egypt, 



\4 



TFIE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Janvarv, 



ami the othor in (ireek. The lemniHi liave read, that Ihev record (lie 
scrvici's whii-h PlnhMuy V. li.iil rendered tu hi^ [•unntry, and that tlicy 
were engraved by (lie nrder of (lie prie.tthdoil assenihlCd at i\leinpiiis, 
tcir (he ]iiir|i(ise (if inveslinr; him wilh the ri'gal piiwer';. Till the clis- 
rovciy of this sdmi-, whieh was fmiiul liy (lie Knnich in digging (lie 
fomnhuion of Fui( St. Julian a( Uose(tii, iio(nitlistandiiig the lahonvs 
of Kireher and other*, (he iimumeralile inseriplioiis and (he monsd-nsi- 
(ies which are found engraved or p-,uii(ed on every reli(( of Egvpdaii 
aiitiipii(y remained matler of doiib( and wonder, anil were veiled in 
(he darkness of eoiijecfure. The arrival of this s(one was (herefore 
hailed wilh erpial joy by (he learned, as would (he reeoverv of the 
key of an unpiukahle Hraniali by its unhappy loser. Upon the en- 
graving of this block a wondrous system has been raised, wdiich, if i( 
is |)erfecled, is destined (o enlighten ns in "all (he wisdom of the 
lOgyptians," and lay open (o (he inquiring mind of the l')th ceiitnrv all 
(lie knowh'dge uliieli is thonght to be contained in (hose inscriptions, 
(he amoiiiU of which, taken Colleclively, would till 10,UOIJ volumes. 
.Some sliort account of the deciphering syslem pursued mav no(, in 
connexion with (lie whole of (he Egyptian monuments, be uuaccept- 
nble. 

The first author who meudons the writings of (he Kgv))tians says, 
they had two kinds of characters, one called sacred, and the other 
popular; but he does not say that (hey had any allini(y with 
each other. Diodorus Siculiis mentions the sauie, with (lie addition 
that (he first were peculiar (o the iiricsts, and (he odier was taught (o 
all. Concise as (his is, it is all the inforinalion (hese authors give. 
The next is the celebrated passage in (he works of Clemens Alexan- 
drinus, in which (he diirerent kinds of writing are given wi(h con- 
siderable precision. He says (here were three kinds — (he Epis(olo- 
graphic, the Hieratic or sacred, and (hinlly, the most complete of all, 
(he Hieroglyphic, which he (ells us is expressed by means of the Hrs( 
or iiiKial element of words, (hat is, by reference (o (he inidal sounds 
of words uhiidi deiiole (hese objec(s in (bespoken language of the 
country. I'pon this scanty foundation the most extraordinary theories 
have been built ; (he six folios of Kircher, according (o his interpreta- 
tion of (he hieroglypiiical inscriplioiis, which succeeded equalU' 
Wlielher he began a( the beginning, (he middle, or a( (he end of (he 
text, arc found to be tilled with (he cabalistic science and slrange fan- 
cies of a refined system ofDaemonism. The Abbe FInclie has disco- 
vennl that they are all astronomical, or expressive of (he doctrines 
connected with the science of asth)noiny, and the division of time in 
(he calendar ; and the author of a work entitled * L' Etude dcs Hiiro- 
gij/p/iiques, publislied at Paris in Is 12, found in the inscription on the 
temple at Dendera a translation of (he lOlKh Psalm of Daviil, a foreign 
language, which most likidy the inhabitants of the country never un- 
derstood. Count Palin has persuaded himself that the hymns of 
David are but Hebrew translations of (he consecra(ed rolls of Egypfian 
pa|iyrus. All these fantastic reveries have, however, given way to (he 
system of Dr. Young, the invention of which has been dispu(p.d by M. 
Chainpolliim ; he followed the idea of Warburton, (llal (he hieroglyphic 
or sacred ch.iracter, was not so called because peculiarly appropriated 
(o sacred subjects, but that they constituted a written language appli- 
cable to all the ])urposes of life, that (hey were not used to represeii( 
things or ideas, lm( (hat (hey represen(ed sounds or words, (ha( thev 
were al|dlabetical, and (hat they exhibited things (U- olijec(s, (he coin- 
mott names of which in the sjioken language began with (he sounds i( 
was wisheil to express. To make (his more intclligibli" we give the 
lollowiMg example : — If (here was no other manner of wriling (ban by 
pictunN, or symbols, and (he spoken language of England (lie same as 
it now is, and it was required to write the name of James, this name 
being a mere sound could not lie intimated (o any one by a picture or 
symbol ; but if it was nnderslood (ha( the key of this name was to be 
obtained by reference to a scries of picdires of familiar objec(s, the 
names of which in the spoken language begun with the sounds which 
were successively to be expressed, and which when taken togedier in 
(hat order mnde up (he name, (bus, for the soiinil now ex|iressed by 
(he letter J (he figure of a jug or jar was si'( down, for an A an ape or 
an accnn, for an .Vl a man or a mouse, and for an S a spear or a sjiur; 
the name of James wimld (hen by a sort of symbolic acrostic be inti- 
ma(t>d (o all who read the figures in the spoken language. This is (lie 
basis of (he principle of l_)r. Young, Do Lacy, and Cbampollion, and 
(he literati have proceeded upon this to decipher the Egyptian biero- 
glyphios. To what extent they have succeeded yet remains a ma((er 
of doubt ; but in consequence (lie visitor to the Museum, when passing 
on from viewing (he dilapiila(ed remains of Egyptian scnl])ture in (In' 
lower saloon, regretdug his ignorance of the strange writing and 
figures on all <if tbem eiigrayeil, is agreeably surprised when he enters 
tlic gallery above to recover his mistake; here li(> finds all is known 
and decipheve<l ; he reads these are the remains ofPefaakims siir- 
lll*nedO«kliouoiwn(ie, Aviditor of the Royal palace; that the next is j 



Panamoun, iiriest of Animon ; that a lady lying near is latsbabem, 
ilaugh(er of Pe(kons, portet of Ainoun, and born of lamaak, lady of 
the house; he is sfartled at the immorilKy; (hat another is I'ena- 
inaiim, an incense-bearer, son of Ohnolie, son of Hor and id' Ijaenrow, 
daughter ofSaklous; and he supposes that want of space has alone 
prevented a full account of (heir lives and acdoiis, easily to be read on 
(heir insi'riptions, from being given in the synopsis ; liiit lie will find 
on inquiry tha( serious objecdons may bo raisecf even to (he valiilKy 
of (he names adached, much more to any particular account of (heir 
oflices or actions. 

All (he modern expounders of hieroglyphics hare raised the struc- 
ture of (heir expositions on (he (rilingual inscripdon seen on (his 
Rose((a s(one, tuid jirincipally depend upon it. Dr. Young, (he most 
celebrated of them all, did not begin his researches till after its dis- 
covery ; he knew nothing of it, but from (he French accoun(, and it is 
upon that accounl alone (lia( the genuineness of the inscripdon de- 
pends ; it is true that some other s(ones with tri|)lica(e inscrijidons 
have been found, but (hat would be (he necessary consequence of (he 
first being made ; (he size and nadire of all of them evidently show 
lha( they were not in ancient times kept concealed, and if (hey are so 
ancient and genuine as we are to believe, why did not the Roman 
writers go at once to these inscriptions scattered about the country (o 
interpret that which they all regret was lost ? It may be said that it 
would be almost impossible to have forged the inscriptions on (his 
stone, it would only have made (he last or (ireek one, and when we 
look at the manufacture of ancienf E{ruscan vases and cameos in S(af- 
fordshire, the (ricks of the Parian marbles, (he manuscripts of Shaks- 
peare, (he copies of Raphael, and read (he as(ounding tale (hat Pro- 
fessor Hou((on, of the Aledico Hotanical Socie(y, produced a bulbous 
root found in the cranium of a nuiminy, in a situation in which it iiad 
probably lain 2,dO'.) years, (hat it germinated when exposed to the at- 
mosphere, though w hen discovered in a state of perfect dryness, and 
on being placed in the ground it grew wi(h readiness and vigour, and 
also know (hat mummies are inanufac(ured every day, and consider 
(he authority on which it rests, (he impossibility of this monument not 
being genuine is very diHiculf (o believe, hi Pompeii ardcles are 
Constantly buried to he found when wanted, and it has always been 
observed that the higher the rank of the visitor to those remains the 
more successful is he in his antiquarian sealch. There may be 101) 
Rosetta stones discovered, but the inore that are found the more difli- 
ciilt it is to account for the ignorance of Clemens and others on the 
subject. The plan both of ChampoUion and Young, of making many 
phonetic signs for one letter, will make them speak whatever (he ex- 
positor desires, and proves that arbilraiy figures which are not hiero- 
glyphics may lie made to give any meaning he may ])lease. If this 
inscription on the Uosetta stone is genuine, why did not Clemriis, 
who livc'd at Alexandria, go to it (o remove his ignorance, which the 
]iassage in his work on the subject proves, and why did not .Strabo 
also? They both could have read (he Greek, which the best Scodis 
can now hardly understand. But wliat more dearly proves tha( (he 
meaning of (he hieroglyphics was unknown in (he Roman times, is the 
fact, that one of the hrst emperors otrered a reward for the decipher- 
ing of those on an obelisk he brought to Rome. The ignorance of 
Diodorus, strabo, and Clemens is a pre{ty good proof that the inscrip- 
tions found on the trilingual stones are modern f.dirications, else why 
are so few found, and none on the temples and statues (hemselves? 
Whether the Fremdi scavaiis were the inventors and fabricators is 
cerlainly diflicuU to determine, but (ha( is far more likely (ban that 
the authors we have mentioned, and the Roman emperors, should have 
been ignorant whedier hieroglyphics were in use in their (ime or not. 
Neidier Sdabo nor Diodorus says tha( (he hieroglyphics were known 
in (heir day; yc( if diey had" been, why have not (hose authcu-s 
quoted (hem in (heir histories of the Egyptian mythology? It is 
more than probable that (hese inscriptions were never intended to be 
read bu( by (hose wllo had (he tradition of their meanings, and that 
the priests having been massacred in the Persian conrpiesl by Cam- 
byses, that (radidon was lost. The same W'ould have been the case 
with the tradidonary learning of (he Maxicans had not the Spaniards 
preserved it. Ijoth Dr. Young and Clmnipollion have found by (heir 
process (he names of Roman emiierors on the same monument with 
(hose of (he Pharaohs and Ptoloiuies, in situations where they could 
not have been erased. How can the)- account (or this ? If the names 
of Ptolemy and Cleopa(r;\, and (he Romans, are to be found on the 
buildings and obelisks wriden in hieroglyphics, of course they could 
not have been lost in (lie time of Strabo aiid Clemens, yet any one who 
at(eii(ively considers the passage in his work, and that passagi' is the 
foundation of all modern explicatiwi, must come to (he conclusion that 
the obscurity in which he has enwrapi)ed it was purposely done to 
conceal his ignorance of that whidi he pretended to descriVie. 

To the plan of Pr, Young and other learmnl expositor? of jeading 



isiu.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



15 



tlie liiciof^lypliics l]y .v|il>lying llio first Icltors oS ligy|)ti;in words of 
the iMinininii vorn;Hiil,ir tongue now in nse — viz., (lie Coptic — it would 
be- salisl'iiclorv to imply tluit it mnst always liave remained the same, 
or nearlv so. It is (rue, we are told nodiing changes in the East; bu(, 
no(wi(hs(anding, it is impossible not (o believe but (hat tongue, ad- 
niKd'd (o have always been the spoken language oldie eiiuntry,*l);^ss- 
ing through the crucible of conquest by (lie F.iliiopian, (lie Shepherd 
Kings, (he Israelites, the Persians, the Greeks, (he Romans, and the 
Saracens, during a period of 3,1)00 years, nuis( have been so dislocated 
and altered as to have rendered it impossible to read (he symbolic or 
liiemglvphic language of Sesosfris in the Coptic or the oldest Coptic 
books now extant. 



RAILWAY CURVES. 

I\ compliance wi(h (lie request of several members of the profes- 
sion, we nave carefully perused (he (Munninnications of our corres- 
pondi'n(s on the subject of railway curves, and, after a careful exa- 
minalion of (he various methods (herein |Ud]iosed, we cannot but 
concur in their o|)iiiiou, that the quesdon has not yet been satisfactorily 
seKled. We therefore engaged Mr. Arislides iMornay, a gentle- 
man well known for the accuracy of his calculations, to construct a set 
of (allies to facilKate the execudon of a jilan which we shall luesenlly 
explain, after having ottered a few remarks on the pro|iosals contained 
in the above mentioned coinmnnications, which were published in the 
Journal during the past year. 

In (he January number Mr. Murray, under the signature of " A Sub.," 
lunposes as an improTement upon (lie system of running directly from 
a s(raiglit line to a curve of Ih, -, or -'i miles radius, that a curve of 
y, 4 or .5 miles radius for a short dis(ance should be made use of to 
ooimect them. He adds that ludjectiles (where the resistance is 
equal) assume the parabolic curve, to which the plan he proposes is 
an ajiproxiniation. 

This observation about projectiles is projierly answered in the 
unmber for March, by "R. W. T.," who also justly observes that "if 
the curvature is not equable," which would be the case if Mr. Mur- 
ray's advice were followed, "some parts of it must be sliarper than if 
the same radius were used all through," 

In the Ajiril number Mr. Ely denies the correctness of " R.W. T.'s" 
statemen(, on the ground that Mr. Murray's object is to " begin curving 
sooner, and make the radii of portions of the curve ii-m/Zt/." This 
objecdon would onlyob(ain, if the object were, besides beginning vvidi 
a curve of greater radius, to terminate also with a curve of greater 
radius, which would join the straight continuation of the line farther on 
dian tile single curve of uniform radius originally su|iposed. This 
however was not Mr. Murray's iutendou, as is evident from his own 
iliagram and ilescription in the Noveinlier luiiuber. He has assumed 
a certain point to be arrived at, without considering diat the direction 
of die continuation of the railway is also determined before-hand. 
These two conditions being given, it is obvious that (he junction must 
either be ell'ected by means of an uniform curve of a radius deter- 
mined by the given circumstances, or by commencing the curve sooner 
w itii a longer radius, and terniiuatiug w ith another of shorter radius. 

Widi rl'spect to the queries of"" An Assistant Engineer," in the 
April number, it appears Mr. Brulf has not exactly comprehended the 
lirs(, or at least has not expressed hiinsclf very cleady. If the case is 
as represented in "An Assistant Engineer's" diagram, the solution of 
his problem is impossible : it woukl be necessary to use a curve of 



A" 



A 



B" 



greater, instead of less radius to join the two given curves. It would, 
however, be better, if those two curves are indispensable, to connect 
them by a tangent, as suggested by Mr. Bruff ; or, if the two given 
curves could be altered, it would be still better (o increase tlieir radii, 
so as to make tliem meet, and form an S curve together. We con- 
sider this far better tlian tire plan proposed by"R.W. T.," in the 
September number, for two reasons; Jint, because the line is shorter, 
and secondly, because the curves are not so sharp. If it were desired 
to begin one of the curves farther up on the tangent, as recommended 
by " R, W. T.," the distance to be gone uijon the tangent may be 
found much more easily, and with mathematical correctness by a 
method which would iratnediately suggest itself to any one at all con- 
versant \^ ith geometry. 



A' 



We now come (n the second query, the solution of which is (he 
main object of these remarks: viz. "Which is (he most correct mode 
of seldng out railway curves ?" Mr. Foster Charlton's method, re- 
commended by Mr. BruH', and extracted from " Weale's ScientiHc Ad- 
vertiser," is correct; but we do not think i( |nai'(icable, as it is neces- 
sary to construct a triangle of which the lengths of (he sides are 
given, which operation must be exceedingly ditlicult when two of the 
sides are several chains iii length. " B. W. T.'s" method, giviui 
in the May number of our journal, is incorrect, and is not sulliciently 
explained to enable any one to put it in practice. 

The mode described by " .Surveyor," in our June number is a correct 
one, and [lartly (he same as that we ju'opose ; but the measurement of 
the angle contained between (he two straight Hues to be connected is 
perfectly unnecessary, and he does not appear to have been pre[)ared 
with a practical mode of laying off the second tangent. 

The method ilescribed by our correspondent " Jl." in tlie.July num- 
ber, as that usually adopted, besides not being matlicmalically correct, 
must be attended with much dillicnlty in practice, on account of the 
necessity of coiistrncling triangles whose sides are given; but that 
proposed as a substitute, aldiongli perfectly correct, if the work is 
accurately performed, is nearly, if not quite as ditficult of execution as 
the former. 

It only remains for us now to explain (he method we propose for 
setting out railway cur\es, which we think will be found (o be appli- 
cable in all cases, and generally easier of execution than any other 
correct plan. The explanation is illustrated by reference to the accom- 
panying diagram. 

Let A" A be (he direction of the railway before curving, and A (he 
|)oint at wlii( h the curve is to conunence. Produce A" A to A', mak- 
ing AA' any convenient length, and at the point A' erect the perpen- 
dicular (A' B or offset) on the line AA', which is a tangent to the 
required curve, and make A' B (the oltset) equal to the length given 
in the column u of the accompanying tables ; B w ill be a point of the 
curve. In the figure we siqipose the radius of the curve to be a 
quarter of a mile, or 20 chains, and the tangent AA', 5 chains. The 
table gives A' B=l);5'.") links. Eroin the ])oiut A, measure on the tan- 
gent AA' a distance. AI3" equal (o the length found iu the colunni / of 
the table, v\hich is in (lie present case 2 chains .")4 links, and through 
the points B" and H (already found), draw the straight line B" B B', 
making 15 B', which is a new' tangent to the curve, equal to A A', or 
any other convenient length ; set off B'C at right angles to B B', and 
ecpial to A' B if B B' was taken equal to A A', otherwise equal to the 
length given in the column u under the length of tangent equal to BB'. 
C will be another point of the curve, and by proceeding iu the same 
manner we can determine as many ])oints as may be desired. By 
taking on anyone of the tangents, such as A A', a number of inter- 
mediate points, ((, n', a", so that Aa, Ao', Aa" shall be equal to 
lengths of tangents given in the table, the corresponding oll'sets, ali, 
u'li', <i"b", which are given iu the colniun o under the resjiective 
lengths of tangents, will uerve to determine as many intermediate 
points cd' the curve, h, h', b", situated be(v\een the points A and B. In 
the ligurc we have taken B B' eipial to A A', or 5 chains, but the next 
tangent, C C, for want of room, has been made only 3 cliaius long, so 
that the offset CD is only 22'ii links, as we find in the column v under 
the length of tangent 3 chains. The portions Aa, BP and Cy have 
been made each 2 chains, (ur which length of tangent we find the oll'set 
= 10 links, and the other distances Pc, P'c', P"c", &c. having been 
taken each ecjual to 1 chain, the tangents are 3 and i chains, and the 
offsets 22-G and -10- 1 links. 





'^^^ 



10 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



rjANUARY 

'- > 



TA13LE 1— 


-CURVE.S FROM 


5 CHAINS TO >sO 


CHAINS, OR ONE MILE 


RADIU.'^. 






■a 

o o; 

3 U 






Lkxgth ok the T. 


INGENT 


IN Ch.vixs. 










i 


1 


li 


2 


2i 


3 


3J 


4 


44 


5 


t 





I 


'\ " 


I 




Lks. 


/ 
Lks. 


, Lks. 


I 


1 " 


I 





t 


i ** 


t 
Lks. 


CI 


'"t ^ 





t 


u 


Chains. 


I jllks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


' Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


5 


25-1 


2-5 


50-5 


lO-l 


70-8 


230 


101-4 


• 41-7 


134-0 


67-0 


160-7 


100-0 


203-2 


142-2 


250-0 


200-0 


313-4 


' 2S2-1 


500-0 


5000 


(i 


25-() 


21 


50-4 


S-4 


70-2 


19-1 


103-0 


34-3 


131-0 


.54-0 


100-8 


80-4 


193-1 


112-7 


229-2 


152-8 


270-9 


1 203-1 


322-0 


268-4 


7 




1-8 


50.3 


i 7-2 


75-9 


10-3 


102-2 


29-2 


129-3 


40-2 


157-0 


G7-5 


187-0 


93-8 


219-7 


125-5 


254 8 


103-8 


294-4 


211-0 


8 





10 
1-4 


50-2 


0-3 


75-7 


; 14-2 


101-0 


25-4 


128-2 


40-1 


155-7 


5S-4 


184-3 


80-0 


214-4 


107-2 


246-3 


138-0 


280-7 


175-4 


•• 




5-0 


75-0 


. 12-0 


101-2 


22-5 


127-5 


35-4 


154-4 


51-5 


182-2 


70-8 


211-0 


93-8 


241-2 


i 12O-0 


2 75-0 


151-7 


11) 


•• 


1-2 


50-1 


; 5-0 


75-j 


11-3 


101-0 


20-2 


127-0 


31-8 


153-5 


4 01 


180-7 


03-3 


208-7 


83-5 


237-7 


107-0 


268-0 


134-0 


11 


.. 


11 




1 4-0 


75-4 


10-3 


100-8 


18-3 


120-0 


28-8 


152-9 


41-7 


179-7 


57-2 


207-1 


75-3 


235-3 


90-3 


204-5 


120-2 


12 




10 




4-2 


75-3 


9-5 


100-7 


10-8 


120-4 


26-3 


152-4 


38-1 


178-9 


52-2 


205-9 


08-6 


233-5 


S7-0 


261-9 


, 109-1 


13 
11 




1-0 




3-9 


75-3 


8-7 


100-0 


15-5 


126-2 


24-3 


1520 


35-1 


178-3 


48-0 


205-fl 


63-1 


232-2 


80-4 


200-0 


100-0 




•9 
■8 




3-0 


75-2 


8-1 


100-5 


14-4 


1260 


, 22-5 


151-7 


32-5 


177-8 


, 44-5 


204-3 


58-4 


231-1 


74-3 


258-5 


92-3 


Jo 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 






3-3 


7j-2 


' 7*5 


100-5 


13-4 


125-9 


21-0 


151-5 


30-3 


177-4 


41-4 


203-7 


54-3 


230-3 


09-1 


257-4 


85-8 


•• 


■8 




3-1 


75-2 


7-1 


100-4 


12-0 


125-8 


19-7 


151-3 


2S-4 


177-1 


1 38-7 


203-2 


50-8 


229-7 


04-6 


250-4 


80-1 


•• 


'7 


500 


2-9 


75-1 


0-7 


100-4 


11-8 


125-7 


18-5 


151-2 


26-7 


170-9 


1 30-4 


202-8 


47-7 


229-1 


60-7 


255-0 


75-2 




'7 




2-S 


75-1 


0-3 


100-3 


11-2 


125-0 


17-4 


151-1 


25-2 


170-7 


34-4 


202-5 


45-0 


228-6 


57-2 


255-0 


70-8 




'7 




20 


75-1 


5-9 


100-3 


10-5 


125-5 


16-5 


151-0 


23-8 


170-5 


32-5 


202-2 


42-6 


228-3 


34-1 


254-5 


07-0 




•6 




2-5 


73-1 


50 


100-2 


10-0 


125-5 


15-7 


150-9 


22-6 


170-4 


30-9 


202-0 


40-4 


228-0 


51-3 


254-0 


03-5 


21 
22 
23 




•0 




2-4 


75-1 


5-4 




9-3 


125-4 


14-9 


150-8 


21-5 


170-3 


29-4 


201-8 


38-4 


227-7 


48-8 


25.3-6 


00-4 




•0 




2-3 


751 


51 




9-1 


123-4 


14-2 


150-7 


20-5 


170-2 


28-0 


201-7 


30-7 


227-5 


46-5 


253-3 


57-6 




*5 




2-2 


75-1 


4-9 




8-7 


125-4 


13-0 


150-0 


19-0 


170-1 


20-8 


201-6 


35-1 


227-2 


44-4 


253-0 


55-0 


21 


■• 


•5 




21 


7.3- 1 
75-1 


4-7 




8-3 


125-1 


13-0 


150-0 


18-8 


170-0 


25-7 


201-4 


33-0 


227-0 


42-0 


252-8 


52-7 


25 
20 




'5 




2-0 


4-5 




8-0 


125-3 


12-5 


150-5 


18-1 


175-9 


24-6 


201-3 


32-2 


226-8 


40-9 


252-0 


50-3 




•5 




1-9 


751 


4-3 




7-7 


125-3 


120 


150-5 


17-4 


175-8 


23-7 


201-2 


31-0 


226-7 


39-3 


252-4 


48-3 


2 7 
2H 
2!) 




'5 




1-9 


75-1 


4-2 




7-4 


125-3 


11-0 


1 50-5 


10-7 


175-7 


22-8 


201-1 


29-8 


220-0 


37-8 


252-2 


40-7 




•4 




1-8 


75-1 


4-0 




7-2 


125-3 


11-2 


1 50-5 


161 


1 75-7 


22-0 


201-0 


28-7 


220-5 


30-4 


252-0 


45-0 




•4 




1-7 


75-1 


3-9 


100-1 


0-9 


125-2 


10-8 


150-4 


15-5 


175-0 


21-2 


201-0 


27-7 


226-4 


35-1 


251-9 


43-4 




•4 


•■ 


1-7 


75-1 


3-8 




0-7 


125-2 


10-4 


150-4 


15-0 




20-5 


200-9 


26-8 


226-3 


33-9 


251-8 


420 


.'il 




•4 




10 


75-1 


3-0 


, , 


0-5 


125-2 


10-1 


150-4 


14-5 




19-8 


200-9 


25-9 


220-2 


32-8 


251-7 


40-0 


.'i2 

;5:! 
.it 




•4 




1-0 


7J1 


3-j 




0-3 


125-2 


9-8 


150-4 


141 




19-2 


200-8 


25-1 


226-2 


31-8 


251-0 


39-3 




■4 




1-5 


751 
75-1 


3-4 




01 


125-2 


9-5 


150-3 


13-7 


173-3 


18-0 


200-8 


24-4 


2201 


30-8 


251-5 


38-1 




•-I 




1-5 


3-3 




5-9 


125-2 


9-2 


130-3 


13-3 




181 


200-7 


23-0 


220-0 


29-9 


251-4 


37-0 


3') 




•1 




1-5 


75-1 


3-2 




5-7 


125-2 


8-9 


150-3 


12-9 




17-0 


200-7 


22-9 


226-0 


29-1 


251-3 


33-9 




■3 




, !■' 


75-0 


31 




5-0 


,25-2 


8-0 


150-3 


12-5 




17-1 


200-6 


22-3 


225-9 


28-3 


251-2 


34-9 


.'i7 

as 

40 




■3 
•3 




M 




30 




5-4 


l25-l 


8-4 


150-2 


11-1 


175-4 


10-0 


200-6 


21-7 


225-8 


27-5 


251-1 


33-9 






1-3 




3-0 




5-3 




8-2 




11-8 




16-2 


200-6 


21-1 


223-8 


20-8 


251-1 


33-0 




•3 




1-3 




2-9 




5-1 




S-0 




11-5 




15-7 


200-5 


20-6 


225-7 


20-1 


251-0 


32-2 




■3 




1-3 




2-8 


.. 


5-0 


.. 


7-8 




11-3 




15-3 


200-5 


20-1 


225-7 


25-4 


251-0 


31-4 


■11 




•3 




1-2 


.. 


2-7 




4-9 




7-0 




11-0 


175-3 


15-0 


200-5 


19-6 


225-7 


24-8 


250-9 


30-0 


■12 

■i:i 
11 




■3 




1-2 




2-7 




4-8 




7-4 




10-7 




14-6 


200-5 


19-1 


225-7 


24-2 


250-9 


29-9 




"3 
•3 




1-2 




20 




4-7 




7-3 




10-4 




14-3 


200-4 


lS-6 


2250 


23-6 


250-8 


29-2 






11 




2-0 


' * 


4-0 




7-1 




1 0-2 




14-0 




18-2 


2250 


23-1 


230-8 


28-3 


■1.*) 
■1(1 
■17 
48 
4'.) 
50 




•3 




11 




2-5 


100-0 


4-4 




7-0 




1 0-0 




13-7 




17-8 


225-5 


22-6 


250-8 


27-9 




■3 




M 




2-1 




4-3 




6-8 


.. 


9-8 




13-4 




17-4 




22-1 


250-7 


27-3 




•3 
•3 
•3 




M 




2-4 




4-2 


.. 


6-7 




9-6 


1 75-2 


131 


, , 


17-0 




21-0 


250-7 


20-7 






10 




2-3 




4-1 




6-5 


1501 


9-4 




12-8 


200-3 


16-7 




21-2 


250-7 


20-1 






ro 




2-3 




4-1 




6-4 




9-2 


.. 


12-5 


, . 


10-3 




20-8 


250-7 


25-0 




•3 




1-0 




2-2 




4-0 




0-3 




9-0 




12-3 




16-0 




20-4 


250-6 


23-1 


51 

52 
5.'! 




"2 




1-0 


.. 


2-2 




3-9 




01 




8-8 




12-0 




15-7 




20-0 




24-0 




•2 




1-0 




2 '2 




3-8 




6-0 




8-6 




11-8 




15-4 


225-4 


19-0 




24-1 




"- 




•9 




2 1 




3-8 




5-9 




S-5 




11-5 




151 




192 


.. 


23-6 


.) 1 




'- 




•9 




2-1 




3-7 




5-8 


, , 


S-3 




11-3 




14-8 




18-8 


250-5 


23-2 


.Mi 




•2 




•9 




2-0 




3-0 




5-7 




8-2 




11-1 




14-0 




1 S-5 




22-8 






•9 




2-0 




3-0 




5-6 




8-0 


175-1 


10-9 


200-2 


14-3 




18-2 




22-4 






*^ 




■9 


•• 


2-0 


■ • 1 


3-5 




5-5 




7-9 




10-7 




14-0 


225-3 


17-9 




22-0 




'" 




■9 




1-9 


1 


3-4 




5-4 


, , 


7-S 




10-5 




13-8 




17-0 




21-0 


GO 




'" 




•8 




1-9 




3-1 




5-3 




7-6 




10-3 




13-0 




17-3 


250-4 


21-2 




*- 




'8 




1-9 


• • 


3-3 




5-2 




7-5 




10-2 




13-4 


, . 


170 


. , 


20-9 


01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
CO 
07 
OS 




"2 


.. 


•8 




1-S 




3-3 


.. 


5-1 




7-4 




10-0 




13-1 




16-7 




20-5 




•2 




•8 




1-8 




3-2 




5-0 




-•3 




9-9 




12-9 




16-4 




20-2 


:: 


*2 

"2 
•2 

•2 




■8 
•8 




1-8 

1-8 




3-2 
3-1 




5-0 

4-9 




7-1 
7-0 




9-7 
9-6 


•• 


12-7 
12-5 


•• 


16-1 
15-8 




19-9 
19-0 




•• 


■8 


•• 


1-7 




3-1 




4-8 


, , 


0-9 


,. 


9-4 




12-3 




13-3 




iir-3 






•8 




1-7 




3-0 


1250 


4-7 


. , 


0-8 


.. 


9-3 




12-1 




15-3 


._ 


19-0 


* * 


'2 
'2 




■7 




1-7 




3-0 


.. 


4-7 




0-7 


, . 


9-1 




11-9 




13-1 


250-3 


18-7 


0') 




,<> 




'/ 




1-7 




2 9 




4.6 


, . 


00 


, . 


9-0 


. , 


11-7 


225-2 


14-8 


.. 


18-4 


70 


' * 






•7 




1-0 




2-9 




4.5 


, , 


0-5 


, , 


8-9 


, , 


11-5 




14-6 


,, 


18-1 


* ' 


" 




■' 




1-0 




2-9 


.. 


4.5 




0-4 




8-8 




11-4 


, , 


14-4 


, , 


17-9 


71 

7'> 




•2 
•2 
•2 




:i 


•• 


1-0 


.. 


2-8 




4-1 


, , 


0-3 




8-6 




11-2 




14-2 




17-6 


73 

7 1 






1 




1-0 


.. 


2-8 




4-3 




0-3 


, , 


8-5 


, , 


IM 




14-0 




17-4 






•/ 




1-5 




2-7 




4-3 


, , 


6-2 




8-4 


,, 


11-0 




13-8 




17-1 


/ * 

75 
70 
77 
78 
79 
80 




,i> 




*7 




1-5 




2-7 




4-2 


, , 


0-1 




8-3 


.. 


10-8 




13-6 




10-9 




•2 
•2 




'\ 




1-5 




2-7 




4-2 




0-0 


, , 


8-2 


200-1 


10-7 


.. 


13-4 




10-7 






' t 
•0 
•0 
•0 
•0 


■• 


1-5 




2-0 




4-1 


, , 


5-9 


,, 


8-1 




10-6 




13-2 




16-4 








1-5 


.. 


2-0 


.. 


4-1 


., 


5-8 


, , 


8-0 


', 


10-4 


\\ 


130 


250-2 


10-2 


•• 


•2 


• • 


:: 


r4 

1-4 
1-4 


•• 


2-0 

2-5 


•• 


4-0 

4-0 


;: 


5-8 
5-7 


, , 


7-9 

7-8 


•• 


10-2 
10-1 


•• 


12-9 
12-8 




100 
15-8 


1 •• 


k. 




I.-L. 


2-5 


•• 


3-9 


•• 


50 


•• 


7-7 




10-0 


•• 


12-7 


■• 


15-6 



1S40] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



17 



TABLE II.— CURVES FROil 85 CHAIN'S TO 280 CHAINS, OR 31 MILES RADIUS. 



5 


Lkngtii ok thk Taxgext IX 


Chains. 






1 


o 


3 


•1 


5 


C. 


7 


S 


;) 


10 


' 1 « 


i 





t 





t 


■ 


/ ' 


t 





t 





i 





t 





I 


" 


Chains. 


Links. 1 Llvs. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


8.') 


500 i 0'6 


1000 


2-4 


150-1 


0-3 


200-1 


9-4 


250-2 


14-7 


300-4 


21-2 


350-6 


28-9 


400-9 


377 


451-4 


47-8 


501-7 


59-0 


'.Ill 






2-2 


150-0 


5-0 




S-9 




13-9 


300-3 


20-0 




2 7-3 


400-8 


35-G 


4.31-1 


45-1 


501-6 


55-7 


11.') 


.. i 0-5 




2-1 




4-7 




8-4 




13-2 




19-0 


350-5 


25-9 


400-7 


00' / 


451-0 


4-2-7 


501-4 


52-8 


101) 


. • i • • 




2-0 




4-5 




8-0 




12-5 




18-0 


350-4 


21-6 


400-6 


32-0 


450-9 


40-6 


501-3 


50-1 


11).-. 








1-9 




4-3 




7-6 




11-9 




17-2 




23-4 




.30-5 




38-7 


501-1 


47-7 


Ill) 








1-8 




41 




7-3 


250-1 


11-4 


300-2 


16-4 


350-3 i 22-3 


400-5 


29-1 


4.50-8 


36-9 


501-0 


45-5 


ll.'i 


. . 


0-4 




1-7 




3-9 




7-0 




10-9 




15-7 


. , 


21-3 




27-8 


450-7 


35-3 




43-5 


120 












3-H 




6-7 




10-4 




15-0 




20-4 


400-4 


26-7 


450-6 


33-8 


500-9 


41-7 


12.) 








10 




3-6 




6-1 




1 0-0 




14-4 




19-0 




25-6 




32-4 


500-8 


40-0 


no 








1-5 




3-5 


200-0 


6-2 




9-6 




1.3-9 




18-8 




24-6 


450-5 


31-1 




38-5 


13.-. 












3-3 




5-9 




9-3 


300-1 


13-3 


350-2 


18-1 


400-3 


23-7 




30-0 


500-7 


37-1 


140 








1-4 




3-2 




5-7 




8-9 




12-9 




17-5 




22-9 




29-0 




35-8 


IJ.^ 




0-3 








31 




5-5 




8-6 




12-4 


.. '16-9 


, . 


22-1 


450-1 


28-0 


500-6 


34-5 


l,-)0 








1-3 




30 




5-3 




8-3 




12-0 




16-3 




21-3 




27-0 




33-4 


1. '■>,-) 












2-9 




51 




8-1 




11-6 


, , 


15-8 




20-6 




20-2 


500-5 


32-3 


160 








1-2 




2-8 




5-0 


2500 


7-8 




11-3 




15-3 


400-2 


20-0 




25-4 




31-3 


165 












2-7 




4-8 




7-6 




10-9 


350-1 


14-8 




19-4 


450-3 


21-6 


500-4 


30-3 


170 












2-6 




4-7 




7-3 


, , 


10-6 


.. 


14-4 




18-9 




23-9 




29-4 


175 


. , 






11 








46 


. , 


7-1 




10-3 




14-0 




18-3 




23-2 




28-6 


180 










, , 


2-5 




4-4 




G-9 


, , 


10-0 




13-6 




17-8 




22-5 


500-3 


27-8 


185 


, , 










2-4 




4-3 




6-7 




9-7 




13-2 




17-3 




21-9 




27-1 


190 










, , 






4-2 




6-6 


, , 


9-5 


, , 


12-9 




16-8 




21-3 




26-4 


105 








1-0 


. , 


2-3 




41 


. , 


6-4 




9-2 




12-6 




16-4 


450-2 


20-8 




25-7 


200 




0-2 








J.. 




40 




6-3 




9-0 




12-3 




16-0 




20-3 


, , 


25-0 


205 












2-2 




3-9 




6-1 




8-8 




12-0 


400-1 


15-0 




19-8 




21-4 


210 
















3-S 




fi-0 




8-6 


.. 11-7 




15-3 


.. 


19-3 




23-8 


215 








0-9 




2-1 




3-7 


.. 


5-8 




8-4 


.. 11-4 




14-9 




18-8 




23-2 


220 
















3-6 


.. 


5-7 




8-2 


.. 11-1 




14-6 




18-4 




22-7 


225 


, , 










2-0 






. , 


5-6 




8-0 


, . 


10-9 




14-2 




18-0 


500-2 


22*2 


230 
















3-5 




5-4 




7-S 




10-7 


, . 


13-9 


, , 


17-6 




21-7 


235 












1-9 


, , 


3-4 


5-3 




7-G 




10-4 




13-0 




17-2 




21-3 


240 








0-8 








3-3 


5-2 


300-0 


7-5 


, . 


10-2 


, , 


13-3 




16-9 




20-8 


245 












1-8 






5-1 




7-3 




10-0 




13-0 




16-6 




20-4 


250 
















3-2 


5-0 




7-2 




9-8 


, , 


12-8 




16-2 




20-0 


255 




' 










3-1 


.. ! 4-9 




7-0 




9-6 




12-5 


450-1 


15-9 




19-6 


260 










1-7 








4-8 




6-9 




9-4 




12-3 




15-6 




19-2 


265 






0-7 








3-0 




4-7 




6-8 




9-2 




12-1 


, . 


15-3 




18-8 


270 
















, . 


4-6 




6-7 




9-0 




11-8 


.. 


15-0 




18-5 


275 


.. 


.. 1 






1-6 




2-9 


, , 


4-5 




6-5 




8-9 




11-6 




14-7 




18-2 


280 .. .. 1 










-• 




• 1 




6-4 




8-8 


•• 


11-4 




14-4 


17-9 



TABLE III.— CURVES FROJI 300 CHAINS TO 640 CHAINS, OR 8 MILES RADIUS. 



0) 


Length of the Tangent in Chains. 






2 


4 


G 


8 


10 


12 


11 


IG 


18 


20 j 


I 1 


i 





t 1 

_ 1 


t : 


t 





t i 







t ' 


t 





/ 





Chains. 


Links. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


Lks. 


300 


1000 


0-7 


200-0 


2-7 


300-0 


6-0 


400-1 


10-7 


500-1 


16-7 


600-2 


24-0 


700-4 


32-7 


800-6 


42-7 


900-8 


54-0 


1001-1 


66-7 


320 




0-6 




2-5 




5-6 


, , 


100 




15-6 


, , 


22-5 


700-3 


30-6 


800-5 


40-0 


900-7 


50-6 


1001-0 


62-6 


340 








2-3 




5-3 




9-4 




14-7 




21-2 




28-8 


800-4 


37-7 


900-6 


47-7 


1000-8 


58-9 


360 




.. 




2-2 




5-0 


400-0 


8-9 




13-9 




20-0 


700-2 


27-2 


, , 


35-6 




45-0 


1000-7 


55-6 


380 




0-5 




2-1 




4-7 




8-4 




13-1 




19-0 




25-8 




33-7 


900-5 


42-7 




52-7 


400 








2-0 




4-5 


. , 


8-0 




12-5 


000-1 


18-0 




21-5 


800-3 


320 


900-4 


40-5 


1000-6 


50-0 


420 








1-9 




4-3 




7-6 




11-9 




17-1 




23-3 




30-5 




38-6 




47-0 


440 








1-8 




4-1 




7-3 




11-4 




16-4 




22-3 


800-2 


29-1 




36-8 


1000-5 


45-5 


460 




0-4 




1-7 




3-9 




7-0 




10-9 




15-6 




21-3 




27-8 


900-3 


35-2 


, , 


43-5 


480 












3-8 




6-7 




10-4 


.. 15-0 


700-1 


20-4 




26-6 




33-8 




41-7 


500 








1-0 




3-6 


, , 


0-4 




10-0 




14-4 




19-0 




25-6 




32-4 


1000-4 


40-0 


520 








1-5 




3-5 


, ^ 


6-2 


500-0 


9-6 




13-8 




18-8 


. , 


24-6 


, , 


31-2 




38-4 


540 












3-3 




5-9 




9-2 




13-3 




18-1 




23-7 




30-0 


1000-3 


37-0 


560 








1-4 




.3-2 


, , 


5-7 




8-9 




12-8 




17-5 




22-9 


900-2 


28-9 




35-7 


580 




0-3 








31 




5-5 


, , 


8-C 




12-4 




16-9 




22-1 




27-9 




34-5 


600 








1-3 




3-0 


, , 


5-3 




8-3 




12-0 




16-3 


800-1 


21-3 




27-0 




33-3 


620 












2-9 




5-2 




8-1 




11-6 




1.5-8 




20-6 




26-1 




32-3 


640 




•- 








2-8 




5-0 




7-8 


•• 


11-3 




15-3 




■20-0 


•■ 


25-;i 


100l)-2 31-3 j 



18 



THE CIVIL EiNClNEEil AM) AUrillTKCTS JOURNAL. 



[J ANl' AR V, 



THE BUDE LIGHT. 

In coiiscqueiice of a strttPinent in uur Journal relative (o an accidciit 
at Messrs. Hancock ami Rixon's, Pall Mall East, causeil by tlit^ explosion 
of a bag of oxygen gas, a correspondent of the Timii sent to that 
pajier a letter, of which we subjoin a cojiy. 

T,) THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES. 

Sir — In the new nuiubrr of the Ciril Enr/incer and Arcltiircl'n Jntirnal^ 
tlicre is an accoaiit of a fearful cxijlosion of a hag of oxygen at the picinises 
of Messrs. Hancock ami Uixoii, t^w the 7th iilt., tlui'ing some cxiieriiiients <tn 
tlic IJiuIe lijvht. Everything in the room ai)[)cars to have been sliaticred to 
pieces, one pci.soa llung into the shop wiiulo^v. another projeetcil up .T stair- 
e.ise, ;nitl all present more or less injured. The cause of all this seems iu- 
\ohcd in mystery. It is tlierefoie important that luihlieity should he given 
t() the ntVior, that it may he tlinroughly investigated, j)articnlarly as it is pro- 
posed to adopt this light lor the Houses of ParUament. It may be recollected 
by some of your readerj that an explosion of oxygeu occuiTcd a few months 
.Tgo at the Lowihcr .\rcade, the c.iusc of which was not satisfactorily st.-.tcd, 
though it was conjectured to he owing to its being contained in a Mackietosh 
bag. 

Pure oxygen is considered by chcunsts to be pcifcetly iuexplosivc and un- 
inflammable. Faraday and (turney have said this in their evifienee on light- 
ing the House; therefore some other gas must have been accidentally mixed 
w ith it ; and what thai gas was, and how it got there, it seems at the present 
moment particularly importaat to ascertain. 

I remain. Sir, 

Limrlon, Your's obediently, 

Dcccmhrr 2. J. K. 

In reply to this (he foUowine; letter ap|iearefl on the next day in the 
same jiaper, from Mr. (jioklsworthv Gnrney, the Inventor and Patentee 
o{\\\CUud,: Lti^hi." 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES. 

SiB.. — Your paper of this morning contains an exaggerated statement of a 
gas accident at Messrs. Hancock and Rixon's, said to have been occasioned 
by the explosion ol" oxygen, during some (experiments on the Budc light. I 
beg most positively to stale, th.at the accident so erroneously noticed was in 
no way caused by the Budc light, neither is the cause involved in any mys- 
tery, as your correspondent supposes ; it was occasioned by common carbu- 
rettcd hydrogen gas. Oxygen used for the Budc light is not inflammable. 
Coal gas, oil gas, vr.pour (if naplha, or other intlamnialde aeriform bodies, 
mixed in certain projiortious with the atmosphere, which contains about a 
quarter part of ox\pen, or i)urc oxygen, becomes explosive ; in the IJude 
light no such mixture ever occurs. In those lamps in which an inlhanimable 
gas and oxygen arc both used, they are never allowed to come in contact. 
In the Budc light at the House of C'ommnns no intlannnable gas of any de- 
scription is employed, and exiilosion of any kind, therefore, as Adly borne 
out by the evidence taken before the cnuunitlce, is physically impossible. 

I am. Sir, 

lonihm, Your obedient scnant, 

Vccemder 4. Goi.dpwoutiiy Gurnky. 

It will ho seen that Mr. Goldsworthy Gurney's 19 a flat contradiction 
of (mr sl.itement, and we liave conse(|uently deemeil it advisable ta 
exandne into the ease more minutely and nnire critically than we 
otlu-rwise slu old have (hnie. Mr. Gurney might have been satished 
witli (MU' report, hut as lie has chosen to designate it an exajrgerated 
(uie, and to state that the accident was in no way caused by the " Hude 
l.iglit," we have to inform him that our statement was from an eye 
w itncss and snIVerer by the accident, whom we have again consulted 
on (he suhjeet, and who positively states that it is in no wise "ex- 
aggerated," exce]>ting that part which stated that one of the party 
was throw n " inlu the silioji iiiiidviv," it should have been iii/o the 
cuiiiiltiig hoiiM. The remainder of the statement he fully maintains, to 
be s(distantially correct; and we will now add a few more particulars 
to show Mr. Gurney that our information was obtained from a party 
present. So far are we from having exaggerated, it a|ipears tliat 
we have nnderrated; one gentleuuin was stunned, and did iKjt recover 
his senses for some minutes, another was so seriously bruised about 
the body lliat he was obliged to be taken to Ur. Stone in Spring (iar- 
dens — one of the .Messrs. Uixons was also considerably injured — one 
(d' the persons had his thigh cut, and indeed the wliole parly 
were either more or less seriously injured. The damage done to the 
|ireinises by the explosion was sin h, that a compensation has been paid 
to Messrs. ilancoek and Co. by the Insurance Ctmipany. 

We understand from one of the party that to the best of his recol- 
leeHon the accident occurred in the following inaiuier: — .-V. bag was 
lying on the floor ccnitaining oxvgeii gas, to wdiieh was attached a 
llexihle tube; astlie attendant w^as .i outto apjily the tube to the lighted 
lamp, he heard .^oiue (Uie s ly "Now put on the weight," but at the instant 
the tidie was being applied to lla- light, the accident look jdaee, as 
descri'ied by us last niuid,U. Hy the explosion, the hag, wliieh wss 
made of Macintosh's prepared cloth, was completely rent into pieces. 



Wo have al.so seen some of the other ji.irties who were present, and 
they all confirm our report of the accident, excepting as to the before 
mentioned error, that one of the party had been forced into the shop 
window. The whoh? alfair is so unsatisfactory that we nnist esrtainly 
express our mistrust as to e\ en the alleged causes of the accident. 

We shall now give a letter addressed to us hy Messrs. Hancock and 
Co., in w liicli the accident is iittrilmted to carburetted hydrogen. 

TO IHE EDITOR OF THE CIVIL EXGINEEr's JOUR.N.M. 

Sir — \Ve beg the favour of your inserting the following statement in your 
.Io\irn,Tl, ill reply to the exaggerated and incorrect account of the explosion 
which took iilaee upon our premises, and which appeared in the last month's 
nundicr, the cause of ^^luch was unwarrantaltly cast upou the Budc light. 

The facts are these: — a bag of oxygen gas was sent to us, which had prc- 
\iously been used for carburetted hydrogen, and which had not all been emp- 
tied out when the oxygen was put in, there heiug sutlicient hydrogen left in 
the bag to render it an explosive mixture. 

The Ibide light can only be jirodiiced by pure oxygen, which every one 
knows is not cxploiive ; and we hope that any stigma that may have been 
cast upou the Ilude light hy being the attributed cause of the accident, will 
now he rcniovcil. 

AVe are. Sir, 

Your most obedient servants, 
Hancock, Rixon & Dunt. 

After a careful perusal of this letter, can the public be satisfied 
without having a strict enquiry made into the whole affair .' Public 
safety is too seriously threatened to be thus trifled with. We should 
like to know how this bag came to be used previously for the purpose 
of holding Hydrogen Gas, — for we are very fearful that Messrs. Han- 
cock and Co. have been misled upon the subject. — witnesses ought to 
be brought forward who filled the bag with the carburetted hydrogen 
previouslv, and to state for what jnirpose it Iiad been used, and the 
(juantity that was likely to have been left in the bag- — at any rate it is 
undoubtedly a fact that oxygen gas is highly explosive, if it be slightly 
contaminated with carburetted hydrogen, the same as gunjiowder 
would be if a spark were applied. 

Having laid before our readers the above particulars, we will leRve 
it to them to judge xvhether we are liable to be impugned for the ac- 
curacy of our statement. < )ur own impressions are justified lioth as to 
the propriety «f demanding an enquiry then, and as to the necessity of 
its being made now. We entertain no ill will towards Mr. Gurney, but 
we are bound to jusHfy to the public any attacks upon our editorial 
character, at the same lime that it is our duty to protect the public 
interests. 



ON THE ADHESION OF THE WHEELS OF LOCOMOTIVE 
ENCilNES, by W. K. Casey, C. E., of the Umkd States. 

[We are indebted for the following communication to the kindness 
of its able author, by whom it was prepared for ihe ^dnurican Rail- 
rood Journal.] 

Pow"Ki!KOr, loC(nnotive engines will seldom be required for passenger- 
trains, and, lip to this time, the (piantity of freight carried over any 
railroad in the Cuion, as far as ! can ascertain, falls short of lllO,(XIU 
tons per annum, whilst the average, according to De Gersfner, is only 
l."),UOii tcnis, carried over each railroad in the (Mnintry. This is about 
the one hundredth part of what can very well be done on a well located 
railway with a single track. 

We may however confidently expect that railways will very soon 
be used for the transportation of freiglit on a scale sulliciently exten- 
sive to prove their capaeitv for this object. As yet there can be little 
danger in asserting, that theru is not a railroad in the country, which 
has been located, constnieted, and subsequently managed, so as to be 
even tolerably well adapted to the traiisptu-tation of a large quantity 
of freight. 'I'lie Heading railway will be first in the field to show the 
power of this new mear.s of coniinunieation, and it TTould he difficult 
to fisd a better (diampion for the cause (d' railroads. On the Heading 
road there is, however, no ascending grade in the direction of the 
greatest trade, and the common 8 or \) tons engine will easily draw 
I'lO to -UtJ tons on a level' — the greatest resistance oifered with the 
admirable grades of that road ; but, where inclinations of from 41J to 
(it) feet per mile are to be surmounted, engines of that weight are 
utterly inadequate to the task, wdiilst heavier or more powerful ones 
require a more substantial and consequently more costly superstruc- 
ture. 

The question then naturally suggests itself — cannot the power of 
llie engine be increased without an increase of weight ? which again 
iinniediatelv leads us to consider, what it is which limits the power of 
the loeomoiive steam engine. This is well known to be the friction, 
ur, as it is generally termed, "the adhesion" of the wheel to the rail 



IS^O.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEICU AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



19 



whii'h all good engines built during flie l;ist 4 or 5 years liave been 
able to overcome; tluit is, where the load was suflicientiv great, to 
make the driving wheels revolve without causing the engine to ad- 
vance. Strange as it may appear, no experiments have yet been made 
to determine this all important point, and the "friction of iron on iron" 
given in treati::es on mechanics, as equal to about ime-fuurth of the 
weight, has been hitherto used in all calcii'ativiis as the maximum, 
though numerous well authenticated pei/nrtnaiica: have shown, that 
the ratio of the adhesion to the weight must have been nuich greater 
than this. In a pamphlet written so late as year ISJ^S Messrs. Knight 
and Latrobe, speaking of a performance of the Stonington locomotive, 
which showed the adhesion to be equal to ^'jj; of the weight, sav " As 
this is greater than we have known in any other case, it is presumed 
that a portion of the weight of the tender was traid'erred to the engine, 
&c. ; but performances of the engines of Baldwin and Norris on the 
Philadelphia and Columbia railway, long before this pamphlet appear- 
ed, go very far beyond this. 

In 183t), engines built by Mr. Norris, not exceeding 8 tons in weight, 
drew loads equal to 400 tons on a level, which, if the weight on the 
driving wheels was correctly given, showed the adhesion to exceed 
one-third of the weight. Mr. Baldwin's engines have, however, since 
exceeded even this, and have drawn loads equal to above 7i)() tons on 
a level. Estimating the traction at 10 pounds perton, this will recpiire 
a force of 700U pounds, and the weight on the driving wheels of Mr. 
Baldwin's first class engines being stated at 12,ll!0 ])ounds, the adhe- 
sion must have been equal to -^}j^ of the weight, if this did not ex- 
ceed 12,120 lbs. or even adding 4000 pounds for the tender, equal to 
n'^ of the insistent weiglit. 

After making every reasonable deduction, it appears beyond all 
doubt, that the adhesion has been very much underrated, and, though 
this alone keeps the power of locomotives within their present range, 
I have never heard of a single direct experiment to determine this im- 
portant law. In the edition of 183 1 of Wood on railroads the adhe- 
sion is stated at one-twelfth, subsequently it is assumed by Mr. Knight 
at one-eighth, or " half the friction of iron on iron," w liich value was 
not determined by experiment but was merely deduced from the load ; 
so again in the pamphlet already referred to, as late as last year, -^'^^ 
is " greater than we have known in any other case." 

Since writing the above, I have seen the experiments of Mr. 
Rennie on friction, as detailed in the 5th vol. of the Journal of the 
Franklin Institute, 1830, and he there shows, that there is an increase in 
the ratio with the increase of weight, the surfaces in contact remaining 
he same. The extreme weights in 11 experiments, [p. 9,] are l"lj(5 
cwt. and 5 cwt. per square inch, and with these pressures, the ratios 
of the weights to the adhesion are respectively ;is 4 and 2-44 to 1. 
The results of the experiments are very irregular, and though in this 
particular case the ratio varies very nearly as the sipiare roots of the 
weights, there is nothing to point out the law of increase, so as to 
enable us to continue the table with any confidence. 

On the next page [10] it is stated that with ii'j cwt. Jier square 
inch, cast and wrought iron abrade, and the friction is to the weight 
as 1 to 2-3. Now, as the weight on the driving wheels is generalh' 
2i tons on each, as the friction of wrought iron ou wrnuglit iron is 
greater than on cast iron, as this difference is rendered the greatest 
possible Vjy the parallelism of the fibres of the tire and rail, and as the 
surfaces in contact can scarcely be one-fourth of a square inch, it is 
evident, that tlie power required to produce motion, when the pres- 
sure is 2i tons on a surface of much less than 1 inch s(piare, nuist 
be more than ^'^^ of the insistent weight. It is stated, [p. 10,] that 
hardened steel abraded with 10 tons per square inch, but the ratio of 
the power to the weight is not given. 

The laws of friction, are however, only applicable as long as no 
abrasion takes place, and this falls very far short of the case under con- 
sideration, w here the pressure is often sutilcieut to cause even hardened 
steel to abrade. Still these experiments and numerous performances 
of the engines of Baldwin or Norris would lead to the conclusion, that 
the adhesion is at least twice as great as that which Messrs. Knight 
and Latrobe designate as "greater than we have known in any other 
case." 

"The most interesting performances of locomotives which have 
fallen under my observation are those detailed in the Franklin Journal 
of June 1S3'.), wdiere an engine on S wheels, constructed by Messrs. 
Eastvvick and Harrison, started, on a grade of .7 feet per mile, a load 
of 2i)5 tons, subsequently overcoming with the same load, a rise of 35 
feet per mile. This took place on the bad and crooked road between 
Broad-street and the Schuylkill-bridge, where the traction must have 
been 10 pounds per ton on a levo', and the entire force exerted by the 
engine equal to 6000 pounds. In this engine there nre/utir driving 
wheels, on wdiich the weight was 18,059 pounds, showing thus, that 
the adhesion was equal to one-third of the weight even with the wkeli 



coupled. The weight on the driving wheels of Baldwin's eno-ines of 
the first class, is one-third greater than on ««e pair of driving wheels 
of the engines of Messrs. E. and H., and any sudden lurch of the engine 
which, Willi the ordinary construction, will throw more than half its 
entire weight on one wheel, will, with these engines, be distributed 
on two wheels, and there can be little doubt, that an engine with the 
usual weight on i driving wheels, will be more injurious than one with 
twice that weight on f)ur drivers, as arranged 'bv iMessrs. R. and H. 
Here is an engine which will with ease, draw 10;) tons n.'lt, up an 
ascent of GO feet per mile, and which requires, on M.;// inclination, a 
superstructure no more substantial than is required bv tlie lightest 
engines of Baldwin or Norris, on roads varying from a'level to'20 or 
30 feet per mile — and Una too witli aiitliracitc fiul. 

In the interesting pamphlets of Messrs. Knight and Latrobe, -already 
referred to, those gentlemen state that the Camden and AndKiy Coiu- 
pany " is now buildiiig, and have nearly completed, an engine' ujion S 
wheels, and having two cylinders of IS inches diameter°by a 3 feet 
stroke ; the wdiole supposed to weigh IS tons." **+'*" The 
adhesion upon the rails of all the S wheels, is to be brought into action 
by means of cog-wheels, &c." * * * * "This engine is designed 
to lead burthen trains at moderate rates of speed ; but must be viewed 
as yet in the light of an experiment." 

It is difficult to conceive howsucli, in other respects, keen observers 
could pass by with cool indifierence the most striking fact related in 
either of their interesting iiamphlets, and which, even without being 
completely successful, would be attended with results infiuitelv more 
important than the benefits resulting from all Americ;in improvements 
in railroads and locomotives imited. In illustration, not explanation, 
it may be proper to observe, that of all the engineers and machinists 
with whom I have conversed for the last two or three years on this 
subject, I have only found two engineers [the machinists would not 
listen to it] who had given the subject that serious attention to which 
it is, in my humble opinion, pre-eminently entitled. One of these 
gentlemen, Mr. H. R. Cam])bell of Philadelphia, showed me, nearly 
three years since an engine on S wheels and 4 drivers, which he was 
then building to burn anthracite coal, and which certainly bore an 
astonishing resemblance to the drawings of Messrs. Eastwick and 
Harrison's engine in the Franklin Journal, and to the advantages of 
which I have already alluded. 

We liave seen that with the 8 wheeled engine and 4 wheels coupled, 
the adhesion was ecjual to one-third of the weight on the propelling 
wheels, and if, with the 18 tons engme of Jlessrs. Stevens, we suppose 
the adhesion equal to only one-fourth of the weight, we shall have a 
machine capable of drawing lOOJ tons on a level, without greater in- 
jury to the superstructure than the ordinary 8 or 9 tons engines of 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York, Lowell," &c. An 8 wheeled en- 
gine, weighing 10 tons, acting by the adhesion of its entire weight 
distributed equally on the 8 w heels, will draw 9'J tons nett up an ascent 
of liO feet per mile, and there will be no inducement to lessen this 
weight, as it is on'y li tons per wheel, or the same as that on each 
wheel of an ordinary freight or passenger car, w hen loaded. 

It is well known, that the ra])id destruction of wooden rails is not 
caused so much by the natural decay of the timber conse((uent on its 
exposed situation, as by the crushing under the driving wheels of the 
locomotive, which destroys the lateral cohesion of the fibres of the 
wood and admits water, the grand agent of decomposition. Notwith- 
standing this disadvantage, the repairs of the wooden track of the 
Utica and Schenectady railroad, do not exceed the repairs of the best 
roads about Boston, (from 300 to 350 dollars per mile jier annum, the 
renewal of the iron being neglected in both cases) and if an engine of 
10 tons will not be more injurious to the superstructure, than an ordi- 
nary car, it may yet appear, that this improvement alone, will reduce 
the repairs and renewals of the common superstructure, below those 
of the best road in the Union, omitting the assistance wdiich may rea- 
sonably be expected from Kyan's, or some other mode of preserving 
timber. 

It has frequently happened, that horse power has been used for a 
short time after the opening of a road, by which the nice adjustment 
of the rails as received from the hands of the engineers, has been little 
if at all aU'ected. After the road has been travelled bv the engine, 
however, even for a single week, with the very same cars, depressions 
and inequalities will be found greater, as well as more numerous than 
those which would be produced by the action of the cars only in sis 
months or more. Timber as well as iron will bear a certain strain 
without the least injury, but a slight increase beyond this, produces a 
permanent set or deflection, hence, in reducing the weight from 
2i to \\ tons per wheel, the relative strength of the superstructure is 
not merely doubled, but is increased in a much greater ratio. This 
proportion will be affected by the dimensions of iron and timber, kind 
of wood, arrangement of parts, nature of earth, &c., but as a general 

D 2 



20 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



niU- it will be gn-ntpst where most needed — for iiistunce, when a light 
su|)eistniclure is lieddeil in clay, in a northern climate. 

'I'he (listribntion of (he weight ol the engine on S wlieels, instead of 
throwing three-lifths or more on 2 wheels, is therefore intimately con- 
neeteil \\ ith the conliiiuance of a cheap superstrnclure, which has been, 
ane will be, even with the present engines, extensively nsed in many 
parts of the coimtry, where capital and good mechanics are scarce and 
timlier and axe-men abnndant. Owing to the increased deflection of 
the wooden rail there will of coiu'se be a loss of power, bnt this, even 
now not verv important, will be reduced one-half by the distribution 
of the weight on all the wheels, besides which the only fear is, that 
full loads will only too seldom be obtained for the lightest class of 
engines, bnilt on this principle, even with grades of from 40 to GU feet 
per mile. 

I have been informed by my friend Mr. E. F. Johnson, (the other 
engineer alluded to in a preceding paragraph) that a trial of this new- 
engine has been made, and that it appears to work well. Time and 
ex])eriencc can however alone develop its powers, expose its defects 
and give unerring proof of its general and successful adoption. But 
sn])posing, what is most unlikely, that this experiment should lead to 
no useful result, we have still the S wheeled engine of Messrs. East- 
wick and Ihirrison (or Mr. H. R. Campbell?) which is capable of 
ih-awing \W tons nett up an inclination of GU feet per mile, and wliich 
will be less injurious to the su])erstructure than the ordinary S or '.) 
Ions English or American engine. 

An extremely interesting and still more useful experiment may very 
easily lie made with the engine of Messrs. E. & II., or still better, with 
that of the Messrs. titevens. Remove the couplings so tliat the engine 
may act by the adhesion of one pair of wdieels only, and ascertain the 
maximum load without slipping the wheels ; then couple 2 pair of 
wheels, repeat the experiment and the increase of load will show the 
value of the improvement of Messrs. E. & H. With the S wheeled 
engine, 4 such experiments should be made, by which the advantages 
of this mode of construction would be determined with considerable 
accuracy, and all requisite information afforded on this vital, and 
hitherto much neglected principle, of working by the adhesion of 
more than '2 wheels. 

The successful introduction of engines with the weight distributed 
equally on, and acting by the adhesion of 8 wheels, would form an era 
in the hisloiy of railways in tlie United States, second only, to that 
which determined the general question of the practicability of loco- 
motion by steara — in other words, that which gave its present im- 
portance to this unrivalled mode of comniunication. 



ON THE DRAUGHT OF CARRIAGES AND ON SECONDARY 
FRICTION. By M. Dupuit, C. E. 

(Translated from the French.) 

1. Draught of Carriages. 

By allowing wheels of diameters varying from 4 feet to 7 feet to 
run down an inclined plane, and by measuring the spaces run over on 
horizontal ground, by virtue of the fall, we find that they are propor- 
tional to the scpiarc roots of the diameters, and height of the fill, 
whatever may be the weight or breadth of the tire. From this we de- 
rive the four following laws : — 

The draught is proportionable to the jiressure; 

independent of the breadth of the tire; 

independent of velocity ; 

in inverse ratio of the sijuare root of the diameter. 
These four laws are the same as established by the author of this 
paper in his Essay on the Draught of Carriages, published in ls37, 
and which lie had found by means of a simple dynamometer. The 
three last are completely in contradiction to those whicdi M. Morin 
deduced from the experiments made with his <lynainometrical ap- 
paratus. 

2. Secondary Friction of Rolling. 

The resistance which opposes the rolling of a body is nothing 
more than the molecular action, wdiicli fakes place on contact. This 
reaction, always equal to the pressure, passes by the normal when the 
boily is at rest, and advances in front by a certain quantify 5 when it 
rolls; it therefore resists the rolling with a power marked F5. 

Following up this single property of solid bodies, of being an assem- 
blage of molecules in eipiilibrium, we arrive at the following expres- 
sion of the friction of rolling : 



which gives all the properties of this resistance in friction with one 
of them. If we follow up that of being proportional to the pressure, 
which is not denied by any one, we rediscover the three other laws 
pointed out above, wliiidi establishes a mutual confirmation of the ex- 
periments and the theory. The friction of rolling being an immediate 
consequence of the imperfect elasticity of bodies, we may, by its proper- 
ties, ascertain those of elasticity ; wdience we deduce the following: — 
When we subject the surface of a body to pressure, we obtain under 
this pressure a certain instantaneous sinking t', which reduces itself at 
last to a slight impression f, when the pressure ceases. This impres- 
sion f is proportional to the square root of the definitive sinking «'. 

g 

The friction of rolling is proportional in the relation of in such 

l/ ('• 
a way that it is determined by two coefEoients which define the elas- 
ticity of a body. For want of these two coefficients we may substi- 
tute two others. Knowing 1st, The friction of iron upon iron, and of 
iron upon marble, we may deduce immediately from it the friction of 
iron upon copper. Thus for twenty surfaces, forty coetlicients would 
be enough to determine 3S0 to which their combinations two by two 
would give rise. 

When two curved surfaces roll one ujion another, the result of the 
molecular action, eqnal to the pressure, no longer passes in the direc- 
tion of the normals, but parallel in the direction of the velocity, at a 
distance, proportionable to the square root of the product of the rays 
or radii of curve, divided by their sum or ditlerence, accordingly as 
they are both convex or one of them concave. 

This formula resolves all the problems relating to the calculation of 
the resistance to roUing, and it is capable of numerous practical ap- 
plications. 

3. Action of Wheels upon Roads. 

Although the draught is to a certain point the expression of the de- 
rangement of the materials of the road, it is quite inaccurate to con- 
clude therefrom that the degradation is proportional to the draught. 
By keeping the roads constantly •ven, which is always possible, the 
passages are divided uniformly on the whole pavement;* then the small 
displacements which they occasion destroy each other. Besides in a 
number of cases the result of the passage of a carriage is to produce 
an improvement. In a good system of road making, the roads are 
never degraded, whatever may be the traffic, they are only worn. It 
cannot be a question, in a road law, of having good or bad roads, but only 
of spending more or less for their maintenance. Every restriction of 
the freedom of a road is to the carriers a cause of increased expence, 
greater than the saving which might be made in the expences of keep- 
ing up the roads. 



v/ 



2R V«L4/2K/' 



PAPERS ON ARTESIAN WELLS. 

Obserralions undertaken for the purpose of estimating the height to which 
the IVaier might rise in the H'^ell lured in the Jjbattoir de Grtnelle, 
1)1/ M. Walferdin. lltad before the Academic des Sciences. 

The water w Inch springs up from Artesian sources does not always 
rise above the level of the soil, sometimes it is several yards lower, 
and in this case it is brought to the surface by mechanical means ; 
sometimes it reaches it ; and at other times it rises more or less above 
the surface. That as it is well known depends upon the dift'erence of 
height at wdiich the water arrives across permeable strata, between 
the impermeable strata which contain it, and that of the point at 
which they ascend. 

I have considered that in the advanced state of the borings at Gre- 
nelle, that it might be useful to compare the heiglit at which are 
filtered the waters which form the supply which is sought under the 
Paris basin, and that of the surface of the soil at Grenelle. 

If, by ascending the natural slope which the waters follow to the 
surface of the earth, we seek the chalk boundary in the southwest di- 
rection, we find it cease in the neighbourhood of Troyes. Then the 
gault marls and clays which the bore now crosses at Grenelle succeed 
the chalk, and at about eleven miles from Troyes, near Lnsigny, the 
green sand appears, and forms the orifices by vvhicli the waters begin 
to filter. 

The height at wdiich the waters thus penetrate the sands being near 
Lusiguv, 13:") or 140 yards above the level of the sea, and that of the 
surface at (irenelle'4U yards only, it follows that when the bore 
reaches the layer of water at Paris, that the water will rise sensibly- 
above the surface. 



* It must be remembered that M. Dupuit is talking of French roads. — Ed- 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



21 



CALCULATING BALANCE FOR ENGINEERS. 

BY M. I.KO LALANNE, C. E. 

(Tramlakdfiom the French.) 

It is often necessary to multiply by each other the terms of two se- 
ries, and to iliviile tlie sum of tlie products l}y tlie sum of one of llie 
series. Tllis calculution, wjiicli gives a kind of mean, is that used to 
iind the centre of gravity, to determine certain prohabilities, and to 
solve various questions, which occur in all the mathematical and phy- 
sical sciences. M. Lalanne has conceived the idea of jierformiiig this 
operation by means of a kind of Roman balance loaded witli different 
weights, and on which the quotients required can be reailnrt'ona 
scale, and obtained with that degree of approximation which allows 
the representations of numbers by distances and weights. 

The plan of tliis machine is' formed on the following considera- 
tions : — If we distribute on one of the arms of a balance weight, which 
are proportional to the terms of a series, and if we place them at 
distances from the point of suspension, which represent the terms of a 
second series, if on the second arm of the balance we suspend an equal 
weight to the sum of the weights already placed on the first arm, it is 
clear that the distance at which this total weight nuist be made to act 
for the equilibrium, will be the sum of the products of the op- 
posed weights, multiplied respectively by their distances from the 
axis, and divided by the sum of the weights. So nuich the more ex- 
actness will be obtained in this result if the weights and tlistances are 
more exactly proportional to the terms of the two series which are 
to be operated upon, and iis the balance is made more sensible. 

M. Lalanne intends his instrument principally to assist engineers in 
calc\ilating the mean distances of transports. We know that in these 
calculations we must take the sum of the products of the cubes to be 
transported by the distances which correspond to them, and divide 
the sum of these products by the total cube. If, then, we take 
weights which represent partial cubes, and if we place them on one of 
the arms of the balance, at distances which represent those of the 
transports ; if, at the same lime, we place a partial weight on one side 
of the balance, an equal one is placed in a scale suspended from a very 
precise point of the other arm, and this point may be moved about 
until equilibrium is effected, its distance from the axis of suspension 
will represent the mean distance sought. 

In M. Lalanne's balance, the upper part of the beam is divided into 
150 compartments, each two millimetres broad ; upon it are placed 
the weights — the distances thus taken from a hundred and liftieth 
part nearly up to (JUU metres. The volumes are represented by tlie 
weight, a cubic metre answering to five milligrammes, a total of 2U,0()U 
cubic metres, may easily be operated upon witli the approximation of 
one of these units. 

An experiment was made on the comparative duration of the times 
necessary to obtain a mean by this instrument, and also by ordinary 
arithmetical calculation — a calculation which required fifty minutes 
to execute once without verification, was done by the machine in 
twenty minutes, with only the chance of a very slight error. Thus the 
time necessary is reduced at least by two fifths, giving besides a security 
against great errors, and it would be reduced to a quarter if the ordi- 
nary arithmetical calculations had been verified. Although the in- 
strument can only give an approximation, and as in all grapliic oper- 
ations, we have not the exact figure of the result, nevertheless the 
saving of time is great enough to show the utility of it to engineers. 



BALISTIC CLOCKS, 

FOR ASCERTAINING THE POWER OF GUNl'OWDER. 

( Translakdfrom the Fniich.) 

These clocks were constructed in 1S3(), in the Arsenal of Metz, 
the Woolwich of France, by Messieurs Piobert and Morin, and from 
the nature of the experiments made with them, were formed so as to 
fulfil the following conditions: — 

1st The suspension of the cannon clock must be susceptible of 
receiving easily and at little expense, cannons and howitzers of every 
calibre. 

2nd The machine must be sufficiently light for its susceptibility to 
be great enough for small calibres, and small charges, and ne- 
vertlicless the recoils must not exceed certain limits in heavy 
charges. 

3rd The balistic receiver must be susceptible of receiving without 
injury, the shock of projectiles of all calibres, propelled with the 
greatest speed that powder can communicate to them, and be entirely 
constructed of metal to avoid tlie effects of hygrometricitv and the 
corrections which it necessitates for wooden clocks. 



4th The mechanical requisite of having the centres of oscillation 
on the line of fin' being absolutely necessary for all calibres, required 
easy means of effecting it. 

The detailed reasons which led the inventors to adopt forms almost 
totally different from those of the old productions of Huttou, and th(jse 
which had been estal)lished at the powder factory of Esquerdes, have 
been already published by them. 

From a summary description of the apparatus, M. Morin shows, by 
the results of experiments conducted by Captain Didion, Professor at 
the School of Application at Met/,, how great is tlie accuracy of these 
instruments. Thus, in the fire of asixteen-pounder, (about eighteen 
English,) loaded with a charge of 41b. Coz., of four shots fired with 
charges prepared with care, the speed given to the ball did not differ 
more than 2 feet 7in, ^ of its mean value, 4l)2-7 metres. 

Among other remarkable experiments, these instruments have been 
used by M. Didion to determine in an accurate manner the charge of 
powder, beyond which the velocity ceases to increase in 12-povmdeis 
(French), and which more than l7ilb., that is to say, much more than 
the weight of the ball. 

Besides, this extraordinary fire, the same apparatus has been used to 
measure results much superior, since by their means have been ascer- 
tained velocities of (KJO metres in a second, communicated by particular 
powder to a 24 pounder shot. 

In fine, by firing with a 12-pounder garrison gun, common shells of 
12 inch calibre, weighing 4.U10 kil., with a charge of (i kil., they ob- 
tained a velocity of 74j'3metres in a second, which is the greatest that 
man has ever yet been able to communicate to moveable bodies. 

The machines have satisfactorily answered the purposes for whicli 
they were intended, so that the Minister of War has had others made, 
which have just been set up at the powder works of Bouchet, near 
x\rpajon, and he has ordered a third set for that of Toulouse. 

In conclusion, the principle, and general arrangement, of these clocks 
has been applied by M. Morin to the construction of a wooden clock, 
of which the receiver closed with a wooden Ixirrel, five feet diameter, 
will receive the shock of a projectile fired at variable distances of 
5U, 100, or l.'iO yards to determine the effects of the resistance of the 
air. These experiments are already in course of operation by Cap- 
tain Didion, at Met/., and they afford positive data, and the bases of 
experimental balistics, so necessary for artillery practice. 



PENZANCE HARBOUR. 

Ez tracts from tlie Report on the improvement of the Harbour of Penzance, by 
Henry R. Palmer, F.R.S. 

Gkntlkmen, — In obedience to llic instnictiou of the Town Council, given 
to me throagli ticorge IJ. John, Esq., the Town Clerk, I have endeavoured, 
as far as lay in my power, to acciaaiut myself with all those circumstances on 
which the imiirovcniciit of your harbour depends ; and by a careful consider- 
ation of them to prciiare such suggestions as I trust may he coiifonnalile with 
your wishes. 

The principal oljservations which I collected referred to an undulatory mo- 
tion of the water which is invariably felt when the wind is high, and to an 
occasional " lifting" of the waters arising from distant causes. 

The undulating motion of the water is cxiierieiiced at the extremities of all 
hays, the beds of which form a gradual slope towards the shore, like that 
which is under consideration, and the effect can only be reduced by an alter- 
ation in the form of the surface, and by a protection from the action of the 
winds. 

It being obvious that the iinprovcinciit of the harbour must consist mainly 
in the erection of an addilioiml pier, I was anxious to have the opinions of 
the nautical men as to the best sitnatioii and form of the entrance ; and, 
also, upon the width of the opening. Upon the situation of the entrance 
southward and northward, there was no important difl'erence of opinion ; hut 
it was thought a<lvisahle to advance the entrance, if practicable, into deeper 
water than tliat at tlie head of the present pier. The relative positions of 
the pier head were discussed at some length; and there was a manifest dif- 
ference of opiuion on that point It is, indeed, one on which it is very diffi- 
cult to decide a priori. I am not acquainted with more than one pier har- 
bour, the entrance to which was so designed originally as to he in all respects 
satisfactory when carried into effect ; and in lajing down the plan, wliicli 1 
have now the honour to sul)mit to the council, I have thought it prmlent so 
to arrange the position of llic pier heads, as to admit of their lieiug finally 
adjusted as evperience acquired in tlie progress of the work may dictate. 

For the satisfaction of the council, I have deemed it advisable to lay before 
theiu plans of other pier harljours. By help of tliese, some comparisons may 
be formed witli that [iroposed for Penzance, not only in relation to tlicir ex- 
tent, hut also to their security. They ai-e as follow :— 

Rarasgate — Dover — Folkestone — Swansea. 

The harhour of Ramsgatc is entirely artificial; and is constructed on a 
shore directly opjioscd to the prc\ailiiig winds. Its security is tliercfore ex- 
clusively derived from the piers by which it is enclosed. The width of the 



22 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



cntiaiico was origiiiallj- 300 feet, and ojicii due. soutli. The exposure to 
vessels miioreil in the liarhoin', was swch as to iiichioo the necessity for an ail- 
illtional protection ; and the eit»tern jiier was extended as sliown in the 
drawing, and the width of the entrance reduced in 'JOG feet e\]i03eil directly 
to the south west, or tlie most prevak'nt winds. I'Vom this circumstance it 
nir.y he readily inferred, tliat, (hninj g.iles from the quarter last mentioned, 
Kamsgate harhonr offers hut little security. 

Dover harhour is less exposed than that of Ramsgate, but it is frequently 
rendered iiiaeeessihle iiy the accumulation of shingle, of which the beach is 
composed. The direction and position of the jiiers, which define the entrance 
to Dover liarbour, liavc been, for the most jiart, designed with a view to 
avoid tlie dilllcullies arising from the accumulation of the shingle, rather than 
as a jnotection .igainst the etfeet of the winds. The entrance is 150 feet in 
width, and is open near due S.E. 

Folkestone harbour has advantages over all the others on the s.ime coast, in 
reference to its position. It is the most easily accessible, and is well jiro- 
tected against the effect of tlie south-westerly winds. It is, however, ren- 
dered very imperfect, and the entrance to it sometimes ira|iracfirablo by the 
same causes, which so much deteriorated the value of Dover harbnur. It is 
frequently necessary to remove the shingle from the mouth of it by manual 
labour. But, in other repects, the position of the entrance in relation to the 
prevailing wind is very favourable. The mouth faces the S.E.E., and is 100 
feet in width. 

Swansea harbour is the most extensive artificial harbour on the British 
coast. It is situated in the Bay of Swansea ; and has the advantage of a 
river flowing tlirough it, by which a considerable portion of tlie bed is cleansed, 
and its <leptb preserved. The mouth is 300 feet in width, and is exposed 
nearly due S.W. The slope of t!ie bed is such as to occasion a considerable 
ground swell when the wind is strong from the prevailing quarter. 

The chief qu.ility of the entrance to Folkestone harbour is derived from 
the angles of the line of its mouth with that of tlie prevailing winds. The 
angle is about 39 degrees, which forms an angle 210 degrees with the line of 
action of the wind referred to. 

The wind agains iwliicb the most protection is required at Penzance is 
S.S.E. The angle of the line of entrance as drawn in the plan is 45 de- 
grees with that bearing, or 200 degrees with the line of force. As before 
observed, the positions of the pier heads are so arranged, that that angle may 
be increased, if by experience the necessity for so doing may be evinced. 

With reference to the width of the entrance of the intended hai'bour, the 
same latitude will be preserved as witli the direction of it, for it is imjiossible 
to determine beforehand with certainty, what width will, under all the cir- 
eunistances, he most advantageous. In the first place I have assuiiied 1 75 
feet. 

Having adverted to the first and most important point to be decided, I 
have now to describe the general design for the harbour. 

In the first place, I have endeavoured to include as great an area of ground 
as possible within the limits of the property of the corporation. The northern 
pier is drawn near about the line of low w.ater of spring tides. Its direction 
forms an angle of 20 degrees with that of the S.S.E. wind. — The capability 
of the pier to resist the action of the sea is therefore satisfactory. Tlie sur- 
face of the pier is proposed to be 30 feet in width, exclusive of the parapet 
wall. The pier is proposed to terminate at the northern extremity of the 
town property. 

The iiier is jiroposcd to be constructed with granite, and the interior be- 
tween the walls to be filled with the stones obtained by the excavation in the 
harbour. A consideralile lenglh of the northern portion of the pier need not 
he walled in tlie substantial manner required where it is more exposed, and 
in deeper water. Rubble work, laid with a long slope on the face in the part 
referred to, will not only be more economical, but will also form a better 
termination than a perpendicular wall, in as much as it will gradually divert 
and disperse the action of the sea. 

It being the opinion of many of the nautical men that some advantage 
would be derived by the extension of the southern pier ; and considering that 
the extremity of it m.iy rcijuire repair and supjiort, I have proposed an addi- 
tion to it of 50 feet. 

It may be proper here to remark that although I have inchtded hy the pro- 
posed pier the greatest area available within the limits of the eoi-poration 
property, the pier as designed will cost a less sum than wouhl have lieen re- 
quisite for a more limited inclosure in the northern direction. 

The whole area thus to be enclosed will exceed 10 acres ; and there ean 
be no doubt that such a work alone would be one of great v.ilue and iuiport- 
anee ; but still it woidd be deficient by the total recession of the tidal water 
from it. The area, however, is such as to allow of a portion being abstracted 
from it for the ]mrpose of a floating dock. In the plan I have represented a 
jiortion so abstracted to the extent of ten acres, a communication being made 
between the harbour and the dock, by means of a lock, capable of passing 
vessels of 500 Ions burthen. 

The division wall is represented near to a lane called Neddy Bettey's Lane. 
The lock is so placed as to enable vessels to be passed through conveniently 
and with safety. 

It is proposed to form a quay along the boundary of the dock, which will 
admit of the erection of warehouses, which being built upon arches, will not 
prevent the traffic of carriages along the quays. 

1 have not laid down any design for a quay along the front of the town, 
bnt, have represented by a dotted line what I conceive shoidil be tlie limits of 
« quay if su«h should hereafter be decided upon. 



At the southern extremity of the harbour I have represented a boundary 
line, including a space which appears to me to he peculiarly suited for a ship 
yard, in ps much as if will be a convenient situation for launcliing. 

In considering the various circiinistanees affecting the general design, I 
have had especial reference to the pr.acticable operation of executing it. — 
This is peculiarly important, where the work is exposed in its progress to the 
violent action of the sea; and I have no hesitation in slating distinctly that 
for the execution of the work, with due regard to economy, and to avoid 
damage to it by the sea whilst it advances, it will be iicces>iary to eommeuce 
at the northern extremity, and proceed regularly, making all its parts perfect 
as they are severally produced. 

This view of the case constitutes an additional, if not alone a sutTicicnt 
argument in favour of continuing the sea wall to the point mentioned. 

In conclusion, I must beg permission to state that the shortness of the 
time within which it has been necessaiyfor me to furnish myidan and report 
has not been permitted me to obtain and furnish them in so complete a state 
as they should have been presented in. 

Certain sections, soundings,aiidmeasurements, are necessary, and yet want- 
ing, and, indeed, before the subject can be continued beyond what is neces- 
sary for the Parliamentary jiroccedings, a comiplete survey made for the par- 
ticular objects in view will be indispensable ; and it will be equally important 
to obtain a scries of observations upon the tides, about which I have not yet 
lieen able to collect ant precise or valuable information. 

In forming an estimate of the expcuce of the works, I have been obliged, 
from the absence of sufticient accurate data, to assume a larger consumption 
of materials than I lielieve will he required, in order that the error may be on 
the safe side ; and hence, I can, with confid^'uce, state that the sums annexed 
will be more than sufficient for the execution of the w orks proposed. 

ESTIM.\TE OF EXPENCR. 

Erecting a northern pier, as represented in the drawing. Making 
an addition of 50 feet to the jircsent pier; and thus constituting 
a safe and commodious harbour i'2-1,000 

Erecting a cross wall for the construction of a floating dock of ten 
acres in area, with a ship lock, and tide gates, and swivel bridge, 
and forming qii.iys along the boundary of the dock 8,500 

Parliamentary and law expenses, engineering, &c., say 2,500 

-f 35,000 



ROYAI, SOCIETY.— THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The following is the address of the President (the Marquis of Northamp- 
ton), at the meeting of the Society on the 5th ultimo. 

Gknti.embn^A year having now clasped since you conferred upon me the 
highly honourable office of your President, it becomes my duty, in accord- 
ance with the example of my predecessors, to address you. The first and 
most agreeable part of my task is to express my feelings of gratitude to those 
(ientlcmen whom you were pleased to select as my Council. * * 

The past year has indeed been to that portion of the Royal Society which 
takes an active jiart in its affairs, one of more th.'m usual labour and exertion, 
— of labour and exertion, destined, as I hope, to produce rich and ample 
fruit. The great and marking peculiarity which has attended it, has been 
the sading of the Autarctic Expedition. The impoitance of following uj) in 
the southern regions of the globe the magnetic inquiries so interesting to men 
of science in Europe, was strongly felt by one of our distinguished Fellows, 
Major Sabine, ami by him brought before the notice of the British Associa- 
tion at their meeting at Newcastle, as he had also previously done at Dublin. 
That great assemblage of men of science, conciuTing in the views of Major 
Sabine, resolved to suggest to Her Majesty's Government the propriety of 
sending out a scientific expedition; and the Royal Society lost no time in 
warmly and zealously seconding the recommendation : and, in compliance 
with the request conveyed to us by the First Lord of the Admiralty, the 
Council tr.ansmitted to the Government a body of bints and instructions in 
difterent branches of science, which I trust are bkely to be of material use 
both to the principal and to the subsidiary objects of the Antarctic Expedi- 
tion. These hints and instructions would have been far less extensive and 
efficient if the Council had not been able to have recourse to the several 
Scientific Committees, of whose formation the Society is already aware. The 
Expedition has now sailed, amply provhled with the best scientific instrumeuts, 
ami furnished with ample scientific instructions : it is commanded hy oiiC 
well ac(iuaintcd both with magnetic imiuiry and nautical research. We may 
therefore hope that, with the blessing of Providence, it will return with a 
store of knowledge viiluable to the geographer, to the geologist, to the me- 
teorologist, and to bini also who stuilies the marvels of vegetable and animal 
life. In addition to all this we may hope, that the main object of the E.\- 
pedition will be accomplished by additional light thrown on the obscure pro- 
blems which still attend the magnetism of the earth, and that by such dis- 
coveries Cajitain James Clark Ross may not only add to his own reputation 
and bis country's glory, but also give to the adventurous mariner increased 
facility and security in traversing the jiathways of the ocean. The .\ntaretic 
Expedition was not the only measure recommended by the Uoyal Society and 
tiie British Association to ller Majesty's Government. Another important 
recommendation, which had previously been brought forward hy Baron Hum- 
boldt, was the cstablishmcut of fixed magnetic obsenatories for the purpose 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



23 



of making simullaiicous observations in rliffcrcnt jiarts of our colonial pos- 
sessions. These reeommendations have l>ecn readily acceded to, liotli by the 
Government and by the Directors of the East India Company, and probably, 
ere many months shall have elapsed, the observatories will be in full activity. 
I have stated, tientlemen, that your Council had recourse to the Scientific 
Comniiftees for assistance in drawing up instructions for the Expedition in 
different branches of knowledge; those romniittccs, who were named only 
two years ago, were at first apparently more a matter of form than substance ; 
t hey have now been found capable of doing excellent service. Not only has 
your Council consulted them on the questions already alluded to, but also, 
ol)serving that the several Committees arc composed of the most competent 
judges of the merits of the raentoirs in the respective departments of science 
communicated to tlie Society, they have, in general, referred the papers to 
them to report upon previously to coming to a decision regarding tlieir pub- 
lication. The Royal Society, from its character of pursuing every branch of 
phjsical science, is evidently in a different position from other societies pro- 
fessing some one science .ilone. It may be reasonably expected, that in the 
Botanical or Ocological Society, for instance, the whole Council should pos- 
sess a certain degree of botanical or geological knowledge. This, however, 
cannot he the ease with us. Our Council will comprise a few astronomers, a 
few zoologists, a few botanists, and a few persons well acquainted witli geo- 
logy and medicine ; but no single science can monopolize a large nundier of 
its members. In difficult questions we have therefore felt that it is more 
satisfactory to ourselves, and we think proliably more so to the general body 
of the society, and to those who have favoured us with ]iapers, that we should 
ask the opinion of a larger nundicr of men conversant with the immediate 
sciences in question. At the same time, the Council retains its responsil)ility 
for its acts, and the chief otticers of the society are officially members of each 
of the scientific committees. The Covnicil have derived a further assistance 
from these Committees in the adjudication of our medals. In naming these 
Committees, the Council has had both a difBcult and a delicate task. Con- 
vinced that bodies, when too numerous, are little adapted for business, they 
have also felt that the power of giving their attendance might be more im- 
|)ortant than .absolute superiority of scientific attainments. Some mend)ers 
have, however, been selected, though really non-resident, because it was be- 
lieved that their colleagues miglit wish to consult thcni by letter. With these 
objects and views, the Council have done their best ; but they have little 
doubt that some gentlemen have been overlooked and omitted, whose pre- 
sence in the Committees might have liecn very desirable- The Society must 
consider this as in some degree a new system, to be perfected and improved 
by experience alone. Another question has occupied a share of the time of 
the Council during the last year. We have felt that the testimonial of re- 
commendation for new Fellows has scarcely been sufficiently definite and 
precise in stating the grounds on which the candidate was recommended to 
the bodv of the Society. We have therefore thought it desirable to draw up 
forms of testimonial, some one of which may he adopted as most fit for each 
individual so recommended. We have tboiight this more fair, at the same 
time, to the meritorious candidate and to those electors who are otherwise 
left in the dark with respect to liis claims for their suffrages. We hope and 
trust that this new regulation will not stand in the way of any caudiilate who 
would be a desirable addition to our number. 

The vacancies in (he li.st of our Foreign Members have been supplied by the 
election of .\I. Savart of Paris, Siguor Melloui of Parma, M. Quetelet of Brus- 
sels, M. Hansteen of Christiana, Prof. Agassiz of Xeufchatel, ,and M. von Mar- 
tins of Milnich, as those Fellows who were present at their election will re- 
jnember. 

I have to announce to you, Gentlemen, with great regret, the retirement of 
Captain Smyth from the otHce of Foreign Secretary, in consequence of his 
leaving his present residence for one at an inconvenient distance from Lon- 
don. 

I have the honour, Gcnllenicn, to inform you that the Council have, by an 
uuanimous decision, awarded the Royal Med.als to Dr. Maitin Bariy aad Mr. 
Ivory, and the Copley Medal for the year to Mr. Robert Brown; and I shall 
now beg leave to address myself to those three Gentlemen. 

Dr. B.\RHV. — It gives me sincere pleasure to bestow this medal on a gen- 
tleman who has so well deserved it, by researches in a ilifticult and important 
portion of animal physiology. Your merits have been appreciated Iiy men 
much more e.'ipable of mnlerstauding the subject than I can pretend to be — 
by men selected by tlie Council of the Royal Society for their physiological 
science, who have felt the great value of the discoveries you have iiuide by 
accurate and diligent research, aided oy the skilful use of the microscope. I 
trust that the award of this medal will encourage you to persevere in the 
same course, and that future discoveries may add to your reputation and to 
that of the important profession to which you belong. 

Ma. Ivory — It is not the first time that you have been addressed from 
this chair, and it gives me great satisfaction to follow the steps of my prede- 
cessors. Sir .loscph Banks and Sir 11. Davy, by .again bestowing a medal on 
one who is an honour to the Royal Society, and pre-eminently distinguished 
for his nLtthematical attairiuients. The laho\irs of your life arc too well 
known to the scientific world to require any culogium from me, and I con- 
sider that in this tribute to your jiaper on astronomical refraction, we are 
rather doing an honour to ourselves than to you. 

Mil. Brows — In conferring the Copley Medal on yon for your v.alnable 
discoveries in vegetable impregnation, 1 am quite sure that the voice of scien- 
tific Europe will respond to the decision of the Council of the Royal Society. 



The Academic des Sciences has already pronounced on your merits, as also 
on those of Mr. Ivory, by electing you as well as that gentleman to a seat 
among their foreign members : and the University of Oxford has also, by an 
honorary degree, given you a similar testimonial. That you are one of our 
Fellows is to myself a circmnstance peculiarly agreeable, as it m\ibt be to the 
whole body over whom I have the honour to preside. Your discoveries in 
the particular botanical question, for which I have to give you the Copley 
Medal, ai'c so important, not only in a botanical, but also in a general scien- 
tific point of view, by showing the close analogies of animal and vegetable 
bfe, that the Committee of Zoology have felt it as much their province as 
(hat of the Committee of Botanj , to recommend that the Copley Medal 
should be bestowed upon yon ; and the Council have come to an unanimous 
resolution to give it, though at the same time other gentlemen were recom- 
mended by otlier scientific committees, with whom even an unsuccessful 
rivalry would be no mean praise. I liope, Mr. Brown, that you may long 
enjoy life aiul leisure to pursue researches so valuable to science and so hon- 
ourable to the country of which you arc a native. 

In drawing up the following notice of the losses wliich the Royal Society 
has sustained during the last year, in conformity with the practice of my pre- 
decessors, I have availed myself of the assistance of one of the Fellows, whose 
acquaintance with the labours of men of science peculiarly qualified him for 
the execution of a task which 1 could not myself have ventured to undertake. 
I therefore will not longer occuj)y your time by any fmther remarks of my 
own, but will conclude liy the expression of my pre.!ent wishes for the pros- 
perity of tlie Royal Society, and for its success in furthering the noble ends 
for which it was instituted. 

The Rev. Martin Davy was originally a member of the medical profes- 
sion, which he followed, during a greater part of his life, with no inconsider- 
able reputation. He became a medical student of Cains College iu 1 787, and 
was elected to a fellowship iu 1793, and to the mastership in 180.'!, the late 
illustrious Dr. Wollaston being one of his competitors. One of the first acts 
of his administration was to open his College to a more large and lilieral com- 
petition, by the abolition of some mischievous and unst.atutablc restrictions, 
which had been sanctioned by long custom, ami also by making academical 
merit and honours the sole avenue to college preferment : and he lived to 
witness the complete success of this wise and liberal measm'e, in the rapid 
increase of the number of high academical honours which were g.iined by 
members of his College, and by the subsc quent advancement of many of thera 
to the highest professional rank and eminence. Some years after his acces- 
sion to the m.istership, he took holy orders and comnuited the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine for that of Theology, and in later life he was coilaled to 
some considerble ecclesiastical preferments. Dr. Davy bad no great ac- 
quaintiince with the details of accurate science, but he was remarkable for 
the extent and variety of his attainments in classical and general litcr.ature ; 
his conversation was eminently lively aiul original and not less agreeable from 
its occasional tendency to somewhat paradoxical, though generally liarmless 
speculations. He died in May last, after a long illness, deeply lamented by 
a large circle of friends, to whom he was endeared by his many social and 
other virtues. 

Dr. llEunKHT Marsh, Bishop of Petcrboroug'i, and one of the most acute 
and learned theologians of his age, became a member of St. .lohn's College in 
the University of Cambridge in the year 177.'i, and took bis B..\. degree in 
1 7f 0, being second in the list of Wranglers, which was headed liy his friend 
and relation Mr. Thomas .loncs, a n\au whose intellectu.al powers were of the 
highest order, and who for many ye:irs filled the oitlce of tutor of Trinity 
College with unequalled success ami reputation. Soon after his election to a 
felIo^v3hip, he went to Germany, ^vbere he de\'oted himself ilin-ing many years 
to theological and gcm-ral studies, and first became known to the public as 
the translator and learned commcnt.ator of .Mich.iclis's Introduction to the 
New Testament. It was during his residence abroad that he pubbshed iu the 
German hinguage various tracts in defence of the policy of his own country 
in the continental wars, and more particularly a very elaborate " History of 
the i'olitics of Great Britain and France, from the time of the Conference at 
Pilnitz to the Declaration of War," a work which produced a marked im- 
pression on the state of public opinion in Germany, and for which he re- 
ceived a very considerable pension on the recommendation of Mr. Pitt. In 
1807. he was elected Lady ilargaret's Professor of Divinity in (he University 
of Cambridge, an appointment of great value and importance, which he re- 
tained for the remainder of his life. On the resumption of his residence in 
(he University, he devoted himself with great diligence to the preparation of 
bis lectures on various important branches of Divinity, interposing a great 
number" of occasional pubUcations on the CatboUc Question, the Bible So- 
ciety, and various other subjecis of political and theological controversy. In 
1S16 ho was .appointed Bishop of Llandaff; and three years afterwards he 
was translated to the see of Peterborough. * * Dr. Marsh was a man of 
great learning and very uncommon vigoiu' of mind, and as a writer, remarka- 
ble for the great precision of bis language and his singuhar clearness in the 
statement of his argument. 

Professor Rigauo. — The father of the late Professor Rigaud bad the 
care of the King's Observatory at Kew, an appointment whi^h proljably in- 
fluenced the early tastes and predilections of his son. lie was admitted a 
member of Exeter CoUege, Oxford, in 1 791, at the early age of sixteen, and 
continued to reshle there as fellow and tutor until 1810, when he was ap- 
pointed Savilian Professor of Geometry. He afterwards succeeded to the 
care of the Kadcliffo Observatory, and the noble suite of iuitrumcnts by Bird, 



24 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



witlt wliicli it \% furnishcil, was augmented, on his rcconinieiulation, li} a new 
transit and circle, so as to lit it for tlie most refined purposes of modern prac- 
tical astronom)" : and we venlurc to e:^i)ress a hope that it will sliorlly I)ecojne 
eipially etiicient and useful with the similar establishment which exists in the 
sister university. Professor lligaud j)nblishcd in 18.S1, the miscellaneous 
works and correspondence of UratUey, to which he afterwards added a very 
interesting gnpplement on the astronomical ])a])ers of Harriott. In 1838, he 
]>ublished some curious notices of the tirst jiuhlieation of the Principia of 
Newton ; and he had also projected a I,ife of llalley, with a view of resening 
the memory of that great man from much of the ohloipiy to which it has hecn 
exposed ; he had made extensive collections for a new edition of the mathc- 
uintical collections of Pappus : and he was the author of many valuable coni- 
innnications to the Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society, and to 
other scienlifie journals, on various sulijecis connected with physical and as- 
tronomical science. There was probably no other person of his age who was 
equally learned on all subjects connected with the history and literature of 
astronomy, lie die-i in London in March last, after a short but jiainful ill- 
ness, which he bore with a fortitude and resignation which might have been 
expected from his gentle, patient, and truly Christian cliaraetcr. 

Mr. Wii.kins, Professor of Architecture to the Koval Academy — (see 
Journal, Vol. II. page 388.) 

The Kev. AiiCHiHAi.D Alison, senior llinislcr of St. Paul's Chapel, Edin- 
burgh, was born in 1757, became a member of the University of (ilasgow in 
1772, and of Baliol College, Oxford, in l"7.i, and the degree of B.C.L. in 
1784 : he soon afterwards took holy orders in the English Church, and was 
presented to several ecclesiastical preferments by Sir William Pulteney, Lord 
Chancellor Loughborough, and Uisbop Douglas of Salisbury. In 1784 he 
maiTicd the daughter of the celebrated Ur. John Gregory of Edinburgh, with 
whom be lived in uninterruiited happiness for forty years of bis life. In 
1814, he published two volumes of sermons ; and at a later jieriod, a very 
interesting memoir of his accomplisheil friend the Hon. Fraser Tytler Lord 
AVoodhousIce. Mr. Alison was a man of very pleasing and refined manners, 
of great cheerfulness and equanimity of temper, of a clear and temperate 
judgment, and possessing a very extensive knowledge of mankind. He was 
habitually pious and bumble-minded, exhibiting, in the whole tenor of his 
life, the blessed inlluencc of tliat Gospel of which he was the ordained minis- 
ter. All his writings are characterized by that jjure and correct taste, the 
princijiles of wliich be had illustrated with so much elegance and beauty. 

Ed.viuni) Law Lisiiisgton was born in l/liG. at the lodge of St. Peter's 
College, Cambridge, of which his grandfather. Bishop Law, was master. He 
became a student, and afterwards a fellow of Queen's College in that Univer- 
sity, and attained the fourth place on tlic mathematical tripos in 1787. After 
practising for some years at the bar, he was appointed Cliief Justice of Cey- 
lon, a station which be filled for several years with great advantage to that 
colony, (^n his return from the East, he was made .Auditor of the Exche- 
(juer, and also received from his uncle Lord Ellenborough the appointment of 
Master of the Crown Olticc. He was an intimate friend of WoUastou ami 
Tennant ; and tbo\igb willidrawn by his jmrsuits from the active cultivation 
of science, he continued throughoul his life to feel a deep interest in its pro- 
gress. His acquaintance wiili classical and general lilcrature was unusually 
extensive and varied, and he had the happiness of witnessing in his sons the 
successful culiivation of those studies wliich other and more absorbing duties 
had compelled him to abandon. Mr. Lushington "was a man of a cheerful 
temper, of very courteous and ])lcasing manncis, tenijierate and tolerant in all 
his opinions, and exemplary in the discharge both of his public and private 
duties : few persons have ever been more sincerely beloved either by their 
friends or by the members of their families. 

Mil. Gkorgk Saunders was formerly architect to the British Museum, 
where lie built the Tow nley Gallery ; be was a diligent and learned antiquary, 
and the author of a very interesting and valualde )iaper in the twenty-sixth 
volume of the Archa:ologia, containing the results of an inquiry concerning 
the condition and extent of the city of Westminster at various periods of our 
bistoiy. 

The only foreign members whom the Royal Society has lost during the last 
year are the Baron de Prony, one of the most distinguished engineers and 
niatheniaticians of the age ; and the venerable Pierre Prevost, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Geneva. 

Gaspabu Ci.air Frax<,'ois Marie Kichi; dr Puonv, was born in the de- 
partment of the Rhone, in 1755, and became a pu])il at an early age, of the 
ficole des Pouts et Chaussces, where he pursued his mathematical and other 
studies with great application, and with more than common success. He was 
subsequently employed as an adjunct of -M. Perronet, the chief of that school, 
in many important works, and particularly in the restoration of the Port of 
Dunkirk ; and in 1 780, he drew up the engineering plan for the erection of 
the Pont Louis XVL, and was employed in superintending its execution. 
M. de Proiiy had already a|ipcarcd before the public, first astbc translator of 
General Hoy's ■' .\ccouiit of the Methods employed for the Measurement of 
the Base on Hounslow Heath," which was the basis of the most considerable 
geodesical o]icration which had at that time been undert.aken ; and subse- 
quently as the author of an essay of considerable merit, " On the Construc- 
tion of Intermediate Equations of the Second Degree," In 1790 and 1707, 
ajipcared his great woi'k in two large volumes, entitled Wotivcllc Architect iire 
JlydratUitjiie, which is a very complete and systematic treatise on Mechanics, 
Hydrostatics and Hydraulics, and more particularly on the principles of the 
steam-engine and hydravilical engineering. In 1 792 he was appointed to su- 



perintend the Cadastre or great territorial and ninnerical survey of Trance — a 
gigantic undertaking, the subsequent execution of which, during the revolu- 
tionary government, coinbincd with the establishment of the bases of the de- 
cimal metrical system, gave employment and developemcnt to so many a. id 
such important scientific labours ami discoveries ; among many other labo- 
rious duties the formation of the extensive tables devolved upon M. de Prony, 
who, in the course of two years organized and instructed a numerous body of 
calculators, and completed the inuiicnse Tattles dii Cndaxtrc, which are still 
jireserved in MSS. at the librarv of the Observatory in seventeen enormous 
foUo volumes. M. de Prony became Directenr-Gcneral des Fonts et Chans- 
sees in 1704, and was nominated the first Professor of Mechanics to the Ecole 
Polytcchnique — an appointment wliich led to the publication of many very 
important memoirs on mechanical and bydraulical subjects, and on various 
problems of engineering, wliich apiie.ared in the Journal of that celebrated 
school. lie declined the invitation of -Napoleon to become a member of the 
Institute of Eg)'pt — a refusal which was never entirely forgotten or par- 
doned. In the beginning of the present century he was engaged in execution 
of very extensive works connected with the embankments towards the em- 
bouchure of the Po, and in the ports of Genoa, Aneona, Pola, Venice, and the 
Gulf of .Spezzia ; and in 1810, he was appointed in conjunction with the ce- 
lebrated Count Fossombroni, of Florence, the bead of the Commissiotw de 
V A(jro Rnniano. for the more eft'cctual drainage and improvement of the Pon- 
tine Mashes. The result of his labours in this very important task, which he 
prosecuted with extraordinary zeal and success, was embodied in his Des- 
crijition Ifydro(/raplii(jiie et UistorUjue des Marnis Ponthis, which appeared 
in 1822, which contains a very detailed description of the past, present and 
prospective conditions of tliese pestilential regions, and a very elaborate sci- 
entific discussion of the general principles which should guide us, in this 
and all similar cases, in etl'ccting their permanent restoration to healthiness 
and fertdity. After the return of the Bourbons, M. de Prony continued to 
be employed in various im]iortant works, and more particularly in the forma- 
tion of some extensive embankments towards the mouth of the Rhone. In 
181 7 be was made a member of the liurenv des Lmiyitudes, and in the follow- 
ing year he was elected one of the fifty foreign members of the Royal Soci- 
ety : in 1828 he was created a Baron by Charles X., and was made a peer of 
France in 1835. He died in great tranquillity at Aonieres, near Paris, in 
July last, in the 84th year of bis age. The Baron de Prony was a man of sin- 
gularly pleasing manners, of very lively conversation, and great evenness of 
temper. He was one of the most voluminous writers of bis age, generally 
upon mathematical and other subjects connected with his ]irofessional pur- 
suits; and though we should not be justified in placing him on the same 
level with some of the great men with whom be was associated for so many 
years of bis life, yet he is one of those of whom bis country may be justly 
proud, whether v\e consider the extent and character of his scientific attain- 
ments, or the great variety of important practical and useful labours in which 
his life was sjient. 

Pierre Prkvost was born in 1751, and was originally destined to follow 
the profession of his father, who was one of the pastors of Geneva. .\t the 
age of twenty, however, he abandoned the study of theology for that of law, 
the steady pursuit of which, in time, gave way to his ardent passion for li- 
terature and philosophy : at tlic age of twenty-two he became private tutor 
in a Dutch family, and afterwards accepted a similar situation in the family 
of M. Delescrt, first at Lyons, and afterwards at Paris. It was in this latter 
city that he commenced the pubheatiou of his translation of Euripides, be- 
ginning with the tragedy of Orestes — a work which made him advantageously 
known to some of the leading men in that great metropolis of literatiu-e, and 
led to his appointment, in 1780, to the professorship of philosophy in the 
college of Nobles, and also to a place in the Academy of Berlin, on the invi- 
tation of Frederick the Great. Being thus established in a pesition where 
the cultivation of literature and jihilosopby became as much a professional 
duty as the natural aecomplisliiuent of his own wishes and tastes, be com- 
menced a life of more than ordinary' literary activity and productiveness. 
He died on the 8th of April, in the 88th year of his age, surrounded by his 
family, and deeply regretted by all who knew him. 



Use of Varnish of Dextri.ne in the Fine Arts. — In the sitting of 
the Academy of Sciences, Monday, 26tli August, Baron De Silvestre made 
the following remarks on the occasion of M. .\r.igo'5 communication on the 
preservation of photographic images. He observed that it would be inte- 
resting to try dextrine for this purpose, as he himself, for more than two 
years, bail successfully used this sulistanee for varnishing pictures newly 
painted in oil, water colour drawing, coloured lithographs, .and for the per- 
manent fix.ation of pencil dr.awiiigs. He had also obtained from dextrine a 
glue, which he found superseded with .iilvantages all other gluey substances, 
and particularly mouth glue. In these difl'erent iipplications dextrine is 
mixed with water in different iiroportions ; two jiarts to six of water for vai-- 
nisb, and in equal parts for glue. He observed that he always added one 
part of alcohol in the composition of the varnish, and half a part in that of 
the glue. The mixture should be .always filtered before being used for var- 
nishing pictures and fixing drawings, and in this latter case, a tine wet muslin 
should be s)n-ead over the drawing, before covering it with the mixture of 
filtered dextrine. The description of these jirocesscs, and of the results 
obtained, is given in the Bvllelin de la Societe d' EnQOuragement pour I'Jiidus- 
tr'w Nalionale, for the 2nd of August, 1837. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



25 



ANTIQUITIES OF THE CITY OF fcONDON, 

.'!iu — H;iving been calleil in by the Rector of Saint Mary .Alder- 
man/ and Saint Thomas the Apostle, to inspect the North Wall of the 
Church of Saint Mary Aklermary, WatUng-stroet, I was led to the 
follow iug conclusion, after a most careful examination, as to tlie anti- 
quity of jjortions of that wall, which may prove interesting to many of 
your readers. 

In rebuilding the church after the memorable fire of London, it 
seems that Sir Christopher Wren not only retained the original line of 
the north wall, but finding it unnecessary to puU it down entirely, left 
it untouched as far up as a string-course which formerly ran along the 
whole length of the church, under the sills of the windows of the north 
aisle, traces of it being perfectly discernible to an eye familiar with 
the remains of antiquity, from the north-east angle of the building to 
the north doorwaj'. There are also remains of the original basement- 
moulding, and the original buttresses still exist with the stringcourse 
profiled round them, they are five in number, and, in one or two places, 
the face of their ashlar is as perfect as when first worked. The 
original ashlar of the whole of this wall still remains from the level of 
the ground to that of the string-course before mentioned, and indeed 
a small portion of it is left some five or six feet above the string- 
course, immediately adjoining the easternmost buttress. The re- 
building is clearly defined by the rough masonry of this wall above the 
level of the string-course, which seems to have been intended at the 
time ;is a party-wall between the church ami the glebe-houses, not 
only on account of its not being faced, but also on account of the entire 
absence of openings for light. The north doorway, with its discharging 
arch in rough masonry is evidently an insertion in the original wall, 
the recesses over the doorway seem to have bceii left as cupboards for 
the adjoining house, as the masonry of their arches is coeval w ith that 
of the discharging arch over the doorway. Before the fire, I have no 
doubt, this wall was quite unincumbered by buildings, first, because 
the ashlar still remaining shows a fair face; secondly, because the 
buttresses still exist, showing also a fair face; and thirdly, because 
remains of the basement-moulding and the string-course, both being 
exterior features, can be clearly pointed out. There nmst therefore 
have been a space, originally, betw een the church anil the glebe, which 
seems to have been used as a burial-place, as human bones were some 
years ago found near the footing of tliis wall. This space, on account 
of Watling-street having been either widened at the time or removeil 
farther southwards, (212i feet were cut oft" from the glebe land in 
front towards the street, see Oliver's Survey, vol. -2, p. 155,1 was, by 
the Decrees of the Judges, made part and parcel of the glebe ; and 
this accounts satisfactorily for that wall having been, in the rebuilding, 
made a party-wall, and also for the right of way having been reserveil 
to the parishioners from the street, through the glebe, up to the north 
doorway of the church. 

I have made a careful drawing of these remains, which I shall be 
most happy to show to any one who, like myself, may take an interest 
in old gotliic buildings. 

Youi-'s, &c., 

Thos. E. Walker. 

2, Keppel-street, Russell-square, Dec. 3, 1839. 



ISLE OF SHEPPY. 
S[R — Having read an extract from the Cincpie Ports Chronicle in 
this mouth's journal, on "The Encroachments and Recessions of the 
Sea," in which the only reason assigneil for the former is the action of 
the sea in its ceaseless beatings against the shore ; I am induced to 
bring to your notice the Isle of Sheppy, where from another cause the 
sea is making a more rapid encroachment than perhaps any other part 
of England : so much so, tliat I think in a very few years the greater 
part of Minster Hill, the Station Houses at East End Lane, and Hens- 
broche will be swalloweil up by the sea. Indeed the extent of bank 
left at low water, particularly during spring tides, and the very great 
ilistanoe from the beach that the stone for cement is dug up, (1 be- 
licve the Rudis Helmontia) prove that the island was once of much 
greater extent than at present, and from my observation of the land 
slips that have taken place since I came here in Juno last, I should 
certainly say they were caused by underground springs endeavouring 
to find an outlet, and that by proper drainage much valuable land 
might be sa\ed. Indeed the shelving beach or strand caused by the 
former destruction of the island is now a strong natural protection to 
it, and that the present almost daily loss is owing to want of care in 
directing the numerous springs into a proper channel. 
I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

C. F. Parkinson. 
Captain 73rd Regiment. 



STEAM BO.\T PROPELLERS. 

Eijieriments by Georye Rennie, Esq., communicated to the Editor of tlie 
Railway Magazine. 

I HEREWITH send you the average result of a series of experiments I have 
made on the comparative merits of several instruments wliicli have i)ecn tried 
for propelling vessels through water, mider similar circiuustances. In order, 
therefore, to arrive .it this knowledge, three diftereut sets of experiments 
were tried : first, on a model wheel, of two feet in diameter, fixed in a trough 
of water, and moved by a weight falling through equal height ; secondly, by 
means of a boat to which the ditTerent kinds of ])ropcl!er were adapted, so as 
to render the circumstances sinular in even,- respect; thirdly, by means of a 
small steamer, of moderate dimensions, so as to enable the experiments to be 
made in still water, and tluis obtain more accurate results than could possibly 
be obtained in a tidal river like the Thames. The following are the results 
on the model — 



No. of 
Experi- 
ments. 


Diameter 

of 
wheel. 


Time 

in 

seconds. 


Area of 
floats im- 
mersed. 


Weight 

sus- 
pended. 


Area of 
one 
float. 


f Rectangu- 
\ lar floats, 
f Trapeiium 
\ floats. 


6 
6 


2 ft. 
2 ft. 


15-5 
151 


12 in. 
9 in. 


4 lbs. 
4 lbs. 


6 in. 
3 in. 



An experiment was then tried by immersing the rectangular floats to twice 
their depth. The result was to increase the time of the 41b. weight falling 
to 32 seconds, ordoul)le the resistance when immersed to the ordiu.ary depth 
of the float, while tlie trapezium-shaped float, doubly immersed, only required 
IG seconds for tjie 41b. weight to fall through the same space ; thus, proving 
the great defect of the paddle-wheel, .as apphedto all sea-going steam-vessels, 
so that when deeply laden with coals at the first part of their voyages, the 
engines can only make half their proper number of strokes. The Ilritish 
Qireen, for instance, the engines of which are frequently reduceil to nine, in- 
stead of seventeen or eighteen, the full number of strokes. These experi- 
ments have been repeated again and again, before competent witnesses, and 
always with the same results. 

Secondly— with dittercnt kinds of propellers attached to the same boat. 

The following are the comparative results i — 

Tntjle ill which are compared tlie Performances of the Screw. Propeller, 
Conoidal'Propeller, and Paddle-wheeh. 



Distance 
travelled 
in feet. 


Time 

in 

seconds. 


Revolu- 
tion of 
winch. 


Revo- 
lution 

of 
winch 
p. min. 


Speed 

of 

boat in 

milea 

p. hour. 


Conditions of Experiment. 


660 


2010 


140-7 


42-0 


2-2 


Screw Propeller, 17 in. dia- 
meter, 226 ins. area ; re- 
volved with a velocity five 
times that of the winch. 


600 


155-25 


108-25 


41-8 


2-8 


Paddle-wheel with 12 rect- 
angular floats, each float 
95 X 4; area of floats im- 
mersed 228-8 ins.; extreme 
diameter of wheel, 3 ft. 3 in. 


660 


155/5 


1-20-75 


46-5 


2-8 


Paddle-wheel, with 12 tra- 
pezium-shaped floats {obtuse 
endsdown),eachfloat9.V < 4; 
area of floats immersed, 103 
ins. ; extreme diameter of 
wheel, 3 ft. 6i ins. 


660 


1535 


121-75 


47-5 


-9 


Paddle-wheel, with 12 tra- 
pezium-shaped floats {acute 
ends down), each float 9 i x 4 ; 
area of floats innnersed, 107 
iivs. ; extreme diameter of 
wheel, 3 ft. lOJ ins. 


660 


135-5 


89-6 


39-6 


3-3 


Conoidal propellers, 17 ins. 
diameter; 144 his. area ; re- 
volved with a velocity five 
times that of the winch. 



N.B. — The above experiments were made with a boat such as is used in 
the whale fisheiT; its length was 27 feet, its breadth 5 feet, its depth 2 feet 
1 inch, and its weight, with ballast and persons on board, 2828 lbs., the area 

E 



'2i> 



THE CIVIL KNGINEEll AND ARCM1TECT\S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



III' ils iuiilslil|i^t'elion -183- Miiiaic iiiilu".. In each c.vpcriinciit llie wiiuli was 
ilrixcn Ijy two men. 

('iiiirliisiiiiis. — I'roiii tlie preeeiling talile il ajiiiears tliat tlie relative merits 
cif the serew |irii|ieller, tlie eoaoidal iiro]ieller, ami (lie ednimini and Irapezium- 
>liapeil iliiats are ]ireei.-elv in the order in which the\ stand in the talile; tliat 
the seiiM is infeiiiir to the eiininnm ]iadd!e-\\heel in the ratio of '^'^ to 2S, 
with the s]iear-pointeil paddle^ as 'l-'l to '2-'.l, ami with theeonoidal propeller 
as 2-2 to 3-3 ; tlial of (he trapezium-shaped tloals as 28 to 2-0, and that witli 
the ol)tuse angle down is ei|nal. It may he olijeotcd to these experiments, 
that the hoat lieiiig worked hy men, the rcsidts cannot he de]iciideil iipmi.on 
account of the irru:-;nlar, and, pcrliaps, over-zcalons netion of aiiinial )iower. 
nut, alicr a few trials, the action soon hecomes as rei^ular, and may he cal- 
tul,''.ted upfiU with nearly the same accuracy, as a steani-eniiine. 

'li.ii'Jly — liy means of a sleam-lioat. This hoat was kindly h nt hy the 
loiidun and Westminster Steatu-boat Company; ami is of the following- 
diiiien^ious ; — 

Length -u feet. 

Breadth C feel. 

Depth 3 feet. 

Power — two engines (vibrating) of .'i horse power — 3(! strokes 
per minute. 
Talh in ivhich are comparfd the Performances of Reclmiynlar and Sjiear- 
s/iaped Floats, with tite " I'ink" steamer, in the ll'est India Import Dnci-, 
in November, 1839. 









Revolu- 


Speed 




Distance 


Time 


Revolu- 


tions of 


of 




travelled 


in se- 


tions of 


cranked 


boat in 


Conditions of Experiineiits. 


in feet. 


conds. 


cranked 


sb.ift 


miles 








shaft. 


per. miH. 


p. bcur. 




1320 


1.38- 


Sl-O 


3G-.5 


C-7 


Wheels fitted with 10 rec- 
tangular floats 23 ins. ^ 
207 s. ins. ; area of floats 
immersed, G3.''i-G s. ins.; ex- 
treme dianieler of vvlieel. 


1320 


145'7^ 


87-0 


360 


C-34 


Wheels (itled with 10 tra- 
pczium-sbaiied floats (aeule 
.and doini), 18 x 1U = 103-5 
s. ins. ; area of floats im- 
mersed ■132-2.'j ins.; extreme 
diameter of wheel, 8 10. 



Conf/iisioiif!. — From the residts of these experiments we are justified in 
concluding that the trapezium-shaped float, containing only one-half of the 
surface of the eommon jiaddle, and one-third of its w idtli, will have equal hold 
of the water, and propel llie vejsel equally as favt, with a less expenditure of 
power ; hut its properties arc not only confined to this. 

In the first iilaec, they are less weight and first cost, by at least one-half. 

Secondly — 'I'liey present less surface the wind, |iarticularly against a head- 
wind. 

'I'birdly — They enter the water without lite shock and \ihratioiis which are 
experienced wilh the eoniuion wlieid, and without laising tin! cascade of 
water aiijiertainiiig to the old form of p.nddle. 

I'onrtbly — 'l'lie\ woik nearly as well when dec|ily immersed, with the ex- 
ception of the slight resistance arising from the edges of the amis. 

All which properties have been witnessed and tested hy competent judges 



C;,\S PRODUCED liY A NEW PROCESS. 

.■\.\ cxiierinieiit in gas-lighting by the Cimite de Val Marino was made on 
Thursday evening on a jiieee of waste ground at the hack of I'etter-latie, in 
the presence of :e\eral scientific gentlemen, who were invited to v\itness the 
result. A small gasometer vvasen-eted for the purpose, which was connected 
l)y tubes with a fiunaee hnilt of btiik, and roiitaiiiing thice ri'torts, one of 
which was supplied with water fjoni a sipbon, another was filled with tar, 
and both being decomposed in the tbii'd retort, formed the sole materials by 
which the gas was iiroduced. The process ;ippeaied In he extremely simple, 
and IbiMiovelty of the experiment consisted in the fact, (hat the principal 
agent rmployed to produce the gas v\as ennimon water <iiMiliijied with tar; 
but, aecordiii!-' to the tlief.r) of the iiiveiilor of this new species of gas, any 
sort of bituniiiious or fatty matter would answer the purpose ei|iially as well 
as pitch or tar. After the lapse of about half an hour employed in the ex|ie- 
riment, diiiiiig xvhii'h time the process was explained til Ihii company, the 
gas was turned inlii the hurncrs.and a pure ami jiowerfnl light was produced, 
perfectly free from smoke or »7iy uiiiilca.^.i.nt smell. The puilty anil inlensc- 
ncss of the flame were testeil iu ti very salinfuetory manner, and those who 
witnessed the experiuient apjiearcd perft/clly ^allblted with the result. The 
great advantage of this sort of gas over that produi'cd from coal consists, it 
■tvas said, in the cheapness of the materials employed in its production, the 
facility with which it is m.anufactnred, and the perfection to which it is at 
Onee brought, withotit (he necessity of its undergoing the tcdigns and expen- 



sive process of coiidettsation and purification; for in this instance, as soon as 
the iircliminaries were com|>leted, the Ught was produced in a jierfcct state 
vwthin a fi'w feet of the gnhomeler, which, allbougb of inferior si.'C, was said 
to he capable of ;ilfording light for 10 hours to at least .'>00 lamps or hurners. 
A\"itli regard to the coniiiarative expense, it was also stated that 1000 cubic 
feel of gas maunfaetured hy this jiroeess, could be su|iiilied to the public for 
about one third the price now charged by the coal-gas companies; and it 
was said to he cipially available for domestic use, and more safe than the 
common gas, inasmuch as small gasometers might, at a trifling exjiensc, be 
fixed at the hack' of grates in ]iriva(o dwellings, from which the gas could be 
conveyed in India-rubber bags to any part of the bouse, thereby ]ireveuting 
the many accidents which occur by (he use of tubes and pipes. The fViunt 
de \u\ Marino, who has eoni|Uered the diflicnlty hitherto experienced in 
bringing this spiTics of gas into use, superintcuded the arrangements, and 
evinccil a natural anxiety to bring bis experiment to a successful issue, lie 
has taken out a j>atent for bis discovery, and be has im])roved upon the 
burners now in use, so as to render the light jirodnced more ]mre and intense. 
For this inqirovement he is also secured hy a patent. How far gas of this 
descri[)tiou can he brought into general use, or whether in point of economy 
the public would he benefited by its ado\ilion, are questions which we have 
not the means of deciding, and, without liazarding any opinion on the sub- 
ject, vvc can only say that the experiment, as far as it was tried iu this instance, 
appeared to be quite successful. — Times. 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 
(From tlie Juiirnal of the Franklin Institute.) 

For " An imjirored Eccentric Brukc, for urrestiny the motion of Railroad 
Cars." Ephraim Morris, lUoomfield, Essex county. New Jersey, Scjit. 10. 

ISctween the two wheels on each side of a car there is to be a cam wheel, 
one pari of which is to he a segment of a circle, resendding the periphery of 
one of the wheels ; another portion of the periphery of the cam is in a straight 
line, ]irobably of two feet or more in length, and the cam may be made to 
roll round on its circular, or curved jiart, and to bring this slraight part upon 
(be rail, which, whilst it bears 0)1011 it, will lift the wheels, at one or both 
ends, Iherefrnm. The straight portion of the cams are furnished with flanches 
which embrace the rail. This iiart, by its friction ujion the rail, is to operate 
as a brake upon an inclined plane, or elsewhere. The claim is to the fore- 
going aiTangcment of the resiicctive parts. 

When it is desired to relieve the brake, this is ctfceted by backing the cars, 
when the ordinary wheels arc ni.ade to rest ui>on the rail, the lower side of 
the brake being then free from them ; there are, of course, some jiarticular 
devices described which we have not noticed, nor do we think it necessary, 
being apprehensive that the contrivance is not destined to be adopted. 

For "J Machine for cuttinij the Teeth of Cireular Saws." Tbaddeus Sel- 
lick, llavcrstraw, Rockland county. New York, September 19. 

One, two, or more, steel plates, prepared to have teeth cut upon them, are 
to be placed upon a vertical siiindle capable of revolving on its two ends. 
These plates arc to be made to beai' against a revolving cutter, consisting of 
an endless screw, the thread of which is in such form as to cut a saw tooth. 
A cutter two inches iu diameter and half an inch in thickness, has been used 
for the purpose. The revolution of the cutter will c.iuse that of the saw 
plates, which arc hin-ne U|i against it. It is remarked that the teeth of straight 
saws ma)' he cut by a similar device. 

" M'b.il I claim, is the cniiiloyuient of a circular revnlvhig cutter, having 
a thread or channel on ils |ieriphery, running in the manner of an endless 
screw, and so arranged and combined with tlie other jiarts of the inachiuery 
eiO|doyed, as to cause (he cutter to cut, and (0 feed (be |ilates to itself, by 
its oxvn action, the whole operating stdistantially in the m.iuncr above set 
forth." 

For " .//( Ini/irorenient in the mode of preserriny Timber." Edward Earl, 
Savannah, fleorgia, September 20. 

We iiublished in our last iiniuhcr, the specification of a patent for n similar 
puiiinse. the gentleinan above named being one of the patentees. The mode 
of iiroeednre in the ]u-eseiit case is like that deserihed in the former jutcnt ; 
that is, the timber is (o be boiled in (be sohidon by which (be preservadve 
(piality is to he eommuuieatcil, which solution is (o consist of sulphate of 
copper, (blue vitriol,) and sulphate of iron, (copperas,) dissolved in water. 
One jiart of snliib.ate of copper to three of sulphate of iron, are to be taken, 
and about three jionnds of the mixed salts added to every gallon of water. 
The timber after being bored through its length, is to be boiled, and after- 
wards sufl'cred (o cool in this solution. The claims made, are to " the boil- 
ing of timber as described, iu a solution of sulphates of iron and of copper ; 
apiilyiug this solution to the interior as well as the exterior of the timber, by 
means iif the central perforation when (he size of the timber requires it, as 
the most clh'ctnal mode of jirotecting it from the rav.ages of insects, and of 
rot. I do not claim the saturating of timber by a solution of sulidiates in 
water when aii|died cold, but confine my claim (o boiling it, as above set 
forth, in (hat solulion, during from two to five or six hours, or more." 

For " A Grncel Pnm;!." l.aura Rice, adnunistr.atrix of J. J. Rice, and 
Ebeaezer Rice, Salina, New York, August 15. 

" This pump, or machine, is inserted in a wcU, or shaft, which should be 



IS-10.] 



THSC VIML I:N(;1N 1:1:11 AND AIKIIITIXIS JOUKNAL. 



27 



propoiiy (ulied with cast ov shod iron, ur otlii_'r jiviipcr inuU'iial, witli si)acc 
(u iicntiil it to jiass icaiUly, and having a rope, ur cunls, connected with thi^ 
end of the piston, is worked in tlie manner of a pump nntil -snlliciently charged 
with the su))stance to I)e removed, wlien it i;^ raised liy a winilhiss, or otlier 
|")wer. It is partienlarly adapted to the c\ea\ation,s of sliafls for brine, and 
Avas diseovoreil wliilst excavating wells for that pnrposc, as no instnuneiit was 
Known wliicii wonhl readily raise the gravel from the hetis withont great de- 
lay and dillicnlty, and at the same time leave tlio sides of the well liare and 
|icr\ioiis to the transmission of lirine, tlie ordinary process of drilling merely 
crowihng the staves from the shaft, and rendering the sides of the well coiu- 
l)act, hard, and nearly evelnding the [lassage of small streams of brine into 
the well.'' 

The form of the exterior of the machine is that of two cylinders differing 
iii size, the smaller standing above tlie larger; tlie lower cylinder is to be 
aljoiit II or 12 inches in diameter, and 21 in litight; the upper one may he 
s;, inches in diameter, and 15 in height; they are connected liy an oiriet,are 
hollow, and made of cast iron ; the upper cylinder forms a pump chamber in 
w hieh a piston is to work. The lower eyiimler constitutes a receiver to re- 
tain the sand and gravel drawn into it by the action of tlie pump. In the 
tiottoui of the lower cyliiuler there is a round opening of si\ inches in diame- 
ter, and tlic ujiper and inner edge of this opening is surroumlcd by pieces of 
whalebone, or other elastic material, which rise from it so as to foim a cone 
somewhat like that of the pointed converging wires ill some rat traps; these 
may be six or seven inches long. They allow of the pass.agc of stones and 
gravel into tlie chamber, and prevent their return. This clastic material is 
surromided by a sleeve of cloth, w hich admits sand to p.iss u]i and around it. 

The claim is to "the manner of connecting and combining the respective 
parts of the above described machine, for the pur|iose of excavating wells and 
shiitts, and the removal of sand and gr.avcl thereffom ; that is to say, the 
coiubination of the exliaes.i.ig apparatus with the cylinder, the conical bars 
of whalebone or otlier material, and the canvas surrounding the same, con- 
structed and operating in the manner set forth." 



PRESERVING TIMBER 13Y LIME WATER. 

Specification of a Patent fnr an improvement in t/ie mode of preseri'iiii Tim- 
ber. Granted to Samuel Rini/yold, of Florida, and Edward liarle, of 
Savannah, State of Gcoryia, Any. 0, 183S. 

(From the Franklin Journal.) 
Tlie n.iture of our invention consists in applying heat, by boiling in strong 
lime-water, to the interior as well as to the exterior of timber, accoriling to 
the size and kind of timber, and the use in which it is to be empIo\i'd may 
admit, or rctpiire, for the destruction and prevention of worms in it. ami for 
the correction or removal of the corruptible sa|), and the occup.ation of its 
jjlacc by a jirescrvative substance. 

\Vc tirst bore the timber, if it he of a size siiliicieiit to admit of it, through 
the centre, making the perforation of a calibre projiortioncd to the size of 
the piece, say from half an inch to an inch and a half, or two inches. Then 
we boil it in strong lime water for a length of lime proportioiit'd to its size, 
.as four to six hours, if it be twelve inches sipiiire, and so in ]noportioii to its 
substance : and when the timber has had the heat and lliiid convc\ed through 
its whole substance, it is to he removed to a shed, wlicre. protected from the 
sun and wind, it may gradually dry. Finally, before it is used, the pcrfo- 
ratitm through the centre is to lie completely tilled with dry lime, or with 
pclroleuni, or coal tar, as the purpose for which it is iiitcmled may make 
preferable, and plugged by wood of the same kind, and prepared in the same 
maiuier. .Mso, if the use to whieli the timber is destined he such as to admit 
of it, the exterior may be payed, or coated with hot petroleum, or coal tar. 

What we claim as our invcution, and desire to secure by letters patent, is 
the boiling of timber in lime water, as above set forth. We ajiply the fluid 
to the interior as well as exterior of the timber, by means of the central per- 
foration, when the size of the tindier reuiiires it. as the most etfectual mode 
of preserving it from the ravages of insects, and from rot. Wc do not claim 
the saturating of timber by a solution of lime in water when applied cold, or 
when heated by that heat which is geiicrateil in the slacking of the lime, but 
conline our claim to the boiling it in lime water during one, two, three, or 
more hours. 

Remarks liy the Editor.— "Yhc plan of impregnating timber with lime, by 
soaking it in lime \vat;r, is ipii^e old, but we have never yet seen any evidence 
of its utility. This is an a,oi"ned effect, but one which, we believe, yet re- 
iiiains to be proved. Toe oaly substantial difference in the plan above pro- 
posed, and that foriiier'y assaye:', is in the boiling process, and this we think 
of a very doub.ful ul^li-y. Tin-'.er may be rapidly seasoned by boiling, the 
moisture within it being co.uerted into vapour, and consccpiently escaping 
through the pores, a condition not the most favourable to the entrance of a 
solution ; the allowing it to cool in and with the liiptor, might probably pro- 
mote saturation. There is another fact of some importance in the process, 
provided the thing itself is of any value, namely, that the colder the water 
the greater is the (piantity of lime held in solution, and of course more wonhl 
enter the pores in a cold than in a heated vessel. It is not worth wliilc, 
however, to extend our speculations upon the best mode of getting the lime 
in nntil wc have ascertained the fact that whdi it is th"rc it will proaicc 
some good result. 



IIEK M.\JESTY'S UOCIx-YARl), WOOLWICH. 

l'jXTfc;N;.tvK works are at present in operation at the west end of the yard, 
for the formation of a large giavingrloek, which is to allord accommodation 
to the tirst class government steamers. The site for the new dock is the 
south side of the basin m wet dock, which is principally used for tilting out 
steamers; the situation thus chosen allows of room for another dock of like 
dimensions being constructed to the eastward of it, in the event of sncli ex- 
tended accommodation being rccpiired. The works, which are contracted for, 
ami being executed by, Jlessrs. (irisscll and I'cio, under the direction of Mr. 
Walker, the engineer, are of gieat magnitude, comprising likewise the for- 
mation of a wall across tlic enlrauce to the old concrete dock, which was 
undertaken by Mr. Ranger, and constructed of bis patent concrete ; this ma- 
terial was not found sutHcient to keep down the land springs, and has, coii- 
se<iucntly, been reUiKpiished. For the formation of the new dock, a cotlcr- 
dam has been constructed in front of the proposed cntiauee, nearly a hundred 
feet in Icngtii, consisting of parallel rows of close iiiliug driven info the solid 
ground, as that portion of the basin wall vvilhin the collcrdam will necessarily 
have to be removed, great strength is retpiircd in the framing of the timbers 
for its supjiort, which appears to liave been amiily proviilcd for by the excel- 
lent arrangement of shoring adopted. Considerable progress has lieen made 
with the excavation foi' the dock, which has been taken out for nearly its 
entire surface, to a depth of from twenty to thirty feet below the cpiay level ; 
to prevent the slopes of the excavation from slipping, and likewise to save 
room, the whole .".rca of the (hick is Ijcing enclosed with sheet piling, which, 
as tlic masonry of the siile walls advances, vviU be removed if found advisable. 
The dock will be constructed of granite, eitlicr from the New Granite Co.'s 
(piarries, near I'lymoutb, or from the Uaytor ipi.arries in Ucvoiishire. A 
large quantity of stone is now upon the ground partly worked. The length 
of the dock will he 2ti."> feet from the semicircular bead to the inside of the 
gates, the width at top HO feet and at bottom 37 feet, the clear width at the 
entrance 05 feet, the ilcpth 2li feet from the ipiay level to the invert, being 
cfpnil to 22 foot dc|Kli of wafer at high water. Trinity standard ; the entrance 
gates and plan of working them will be according to the most approved con- 
struction. 

The sides of the dock will be formed in steps or altars, varying in height; 
from nine to sixteen inches, and in width from nine to liftcen inches, with 
the exception of one called the liroad Altar, about midway down which will 
be eighteen inches in width; the object of these altars is for the convenience 
of placing the shores against the hull of a vessel at any height, and for rest- 
ing the ends of spars for staging; that called the Broad Altar is made wider 
than the others, for walking upon in examining the sides of the vessel under 
repair; the curve given to the .altars is caleulatcd to suit nearly the form of 
a vessel, and likewise all'ords, as Iieforc stated, the opportunity of shoring at 
any height, which is precluded by the common form of docks where very 
deep altars are used, and they will also enable the workmen to get up ami 
down at any part of the dock with great facility, but for general purposes, a 
staircase of more easy ascent will be constructed at the head of the dock; 
slips for letting down and raising timber, iSve., will be formed at the head, 
and likewise on each side of the dock. The stones of the invert forming the 
bottom of the dock will radiate, as likewise the altar stones as high as the 
Broad Altar, the whole thus forming an arch to resist the upward pressure, 
and the masonry above, as likewise the coping, will be in stones of large 
dimensions, tlie whole backed with brickwork and concrete. The walls at 
top will be four feet thick, and at bottom 25 feet ti inches, and the total 
width of the foundations will be ti8 feet, under which a body of concrete 
three yards thick will be carried down to the gravel. The a]iron at the en- 
trance will be supported upon bearing piles, and protected in front with sheet 
piling made water-tight. As an engine and pumps will be required for emp- 
tying the dock, a pumiiing engine is now being constructed by i\Icssrs. Bolton 
and Watt, and will be fixed ready for working by the time the dock is finished, 
Large brick culverts, furnished with iirojier penstocks, will be formed for 
drainage to the engine-well, and also for filling the dock when required for 
floating a vessel out. During the works, the large area excavated for the 
dock will be kept clear of water by a temporary engine and pumps, which 
are in course of erection. From the above some idea may be formed of the 
magnitude and importance of the works now in progress at Woolwich Uock 
Yard, which, with other improvements now being executed under the direc- 
tion of Captain Brandrcth ami Lieut. Dcnnison, of which we hope shortly to 
give an account, will render this yard a vciy complete establishment for that 
miportaut department of Her Majesty's navy, the steam marine. We will 
endeavour, at some future opportunity, to give further particulars of these 
interesting works during their progress. 



Prierhiirn'. — The .lustiees fm- this liberty.' at their meeting on .Salurday the 
.3O1I1 u!t.. adopted the phuii of Mr. Dunlliuroc, of Hanover-street. Loiulcn. 
for the new gaol .about 10 be erected lor ibis liberty. Many very meritorious 
plans were sent for the insiieeticm of the.liisaes; and anioniAsi ibem. those 
of Mr. Sililey, ol tlreat D.inond-slieot. and Mr. Alexander, of Adam-,>treet, 
Ailclphi, London, and ol i\lr. \\"aller, of Cambridge, elicited ihe grralcst ap- 
prolatiou. Mr. Blore. «ho is crnmcuuslv stated by a cotemporary to have 
been the successful candidate, did nut send in a design. — SlainJ'i'rd Mercury. 

% 2 



28 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



ON THE l'0\\i:U OF THE STEAM ENGINE. 

At tlic last mcoling of I lie ('ornw.ill I'olylecliuic "Sooiety, Iiclcl .if Falinoutli, 
Mr. Snow Harris yc:u\ an abstract of an inlorcstini!; and valnalilc ])aiier on the 
Sleani-nigiiio, )iy Professor Moseley, lie^asset! a liigli eulogintn on lliat gcn- 
tli-Mian \vliose pajter, lie said, possessed a great deal of infciest to the wm'kiiig 
engineer and praelieal miner. The details of the paper wonhl, however, he 
too tedious to hringhefore aniixed audience, and he had tliercforc alistracted 
the principal |ioints which it was necessary to hring under their considertion. 
I'rofessor Moscley ajijjcared to think that the eflieieiicy of a steam engine 
could Ite nicasiu'ed only hy ohseiTations of the cylinder itself, hecanse tlie 
estiroafe at any other ]daee was less than tin; ai'tnal deficiency on account of 
friction and other canscs. Hence they conh! not U'U t'l /iriori of what the 
engine was capable. If tlicy had a good mcasurenieni of the ctliciency at the 
cylinder, and also of the work actually ])erfornied, they should then arrive at 
a true estimate of the power of the engine, and also of the loss hy friction, 
i\c., by subtracting one from the other, in the Cornish engines they had 
already the eflieieney of the working parts ; they rcquireil, therefore, the only 
observations at the cylinder. It was the dirt'erenee of these which was the 
efficiency for the pit work, and of so touch importance to the adventurer and 
engineer. Professor Moseley jiroposcd to arrive at the efficiency of the 
cylinder by connecting a seeoml smaller eylin<Ier with it. of aluint six inclies 
diameter, so as to allow of the steam acting u])on a sju'ing through the me- 
dium of a solid ])lng in the latter. Tlie writer thought the cft'cctive pressure 
upon this plug as indicated hy the (piantitatum measurement by means of the 
steel spring will be always equal to thai njion an equal area of the piston of 
the engine; so that knowing one of these pressures they coidd always deter- 
mine the other — namely, tlie eircctivc ))ressiire. The author proceeded to 
explain by diagrams a practical method of carrying out bis general principle. 
lie further thought that they not only wanted to know the eft'ectivc ])ressure 
throughout the whole duration of the stroke, but .also how much of the stroke 
was described under any given pressure. The author furnished methods for 
arriving at this important clement which were well worthy of attention, and 
were such as to apply either to a long period as a month, or a short ]ieriod 
of six hours. The Professor considered that the o>it as well as the in stroke 
should he registered, and he gave an arrangement for the purpose, and the 
results were registered iijion indicator diagrams, diflerent from those of M'att, 
and upon an area sixty times as great. There seemed but little doubt that 
the author of this paper, which must be considered as an extremely imjiortant 
one to the practical miner and engineer, bad succeeded in inventing methods 
for arriving at the efficient power of the steam engine. It was the mechani- 
cal details which rcquireil consideration. They must obtain very perfect 
sjirings calculated to yield through spaces proportioned to the jircssures. This 
was a vital affair, for should not such be the case the indications would be 
erroneous. The author thought th.at this property could be given to s]iiral 
sjirings, as well as to bow springs of a given form ; and that w ith due correc- 
tion for the friction of the small cylinder, the method might be m.ide practi- 
cally perfect. Mr. Jordan, with his iisu.al ability, had given a drawing of the 
indicator, and had contributed largely to its meeh.anical .advancement. Pro- 
fessfu* Moseley projiosed to call this instnnoent the pif vork counter, because 
it indicates, by eomi>arison with the counter in present use, the amount of 
the pit work. Mr. Harris concluded by observing that this was a brief ab- 
stract of the \ery valuable jiajier furnished by Professor Moseley, and he was 
only sorry that the time allowed him had not jiermitteil him to do Professor 
Jloscley more justice than he had on the present occasion. 



Steam Apparati's.— There is in the Oxford Union workhouse a steam 
apparatus by means of which the whole of the clothing and other articles 
used in it are washed, dried, and ironeil, in an incredibly short space of time. 
M'e have lately been atforded an ojijiortnnity of witnessing this useful jiieee 
of meebanism in o]>cratioii, on whicli occasion no less than 123.') articles of 
wearing .apjiarel, bed-clothing, &;c., were washed, dried, and ironed, in two 
da>*s. wilh the assistance of only eight v\<)men and two girls from the school. 
It is the invention of James \Va]ishare, V,f'\., of liatb, for which we under- 
stand he has obtained a jiatent, and was some time since erected in one of 
the wings of the Imilding solely devoted to the ])urposes of a laundry, at the 
cxjicnse of the chairman of the Board, the Kev. N. Hudson. The ajiparatns 
consists of a small steam boiler, with two pijies for the conveyance of steam. 
J!y the one pipe the steam is conducted to the coppers used for boding the 
clothes and supplying the washers with hot water, by the other the steam is 
carried to a closet in which the linen is to be dried. The exterior of this 
cJoset is a wooden frame covered with /.inc, within it is fitted uji with pipes, 
increasing in number ai'cording to the extent of drying ]iower required. 
These ]ii]ies are arranged horizontally one above another, resembling a turn- 
pike gate; excepting that the mils are connected at one end only by a bend 
or turn, thus finniing a continued duct for the steam. The steam is admitted 
at the upiicrpipe, and p.asses its conilensed water at the lowest. t)ii either 
side of tliis tier of pipes is a movable clothes horse, xvbich is drawn out to be 
hung with clothes. Ujioii the construction of these horses the ojieration of 
drying in a great measure depends. They are made close at the toj) of the 
box, so that no heat may escape over tlieiii, and the clothes arc so disposed 
on them as to form an entire sheet, completely enclosing the pijics, and ]ire- 
venting any escape of the heat radiating from the jiipcs, except by passing 
through the clothes to be dried. Tliis disiiositiuii of the clothes is easily 



accomphshed. but difficult of description. On the outside of the horses, or 
on that side which is not next the jiipes, a valve or oiieiiing is made on the 
top of the box', and a cmTCut of air being admitted at the bottom, the steam 
from the clothes is carrieil off as fast as it is generated. One set of these 
pipes, with two horses, would be sufficient for any moderate family. In an 
establishment so extensive as an Union house more is required, in the closet 
erected arc three ranges of pipes, and consequently six horses or two to each 
range, having an air space, with its valve between each set of horses. At- 
tached to the flue that suiTounds the boiler is a sm.ill oven for heating the 
irons, so that the whole operation of the laundry, as far as heat is required, 
is simultaneously effected by one fire. — Oxford llci'altl. [We insert this 
notice, not for its novelty, but for its ulility, and to show the a])])Ii<>ation of 
steam to domestic purjioscs, in the erection of extensive buildings intended 
to contain a large number of inniales. We cannot, from the above descrip- 
tion, ascertain what claim Mr. M'ajishare can have for a iiatent, as similar 
arrangements have been adopted many years past. — Eo. C. E. iV \. Jour.] 

Hakkoor Crank. — A crane eajtable of raising great weights at the har- 
bour having been found indisiiensahle, a considerable time since, Mr. Leslie, 
engineer to the harbour, executed a jilan for a machine cajiable of raising 
thirty tons. The merit of the design hasbeen very extensively acknowledged 
among professional men, and those who are initiated in mechanics. Mr. 
Peter Borric, the contractor for the work, has been eng.iged for sometime 
past in easting the diflerent ]'arls of the crane. The novelty of the design, 
and the magnitude of the work, evince the skill antl attention which must 
have been bestfiwed upmi its comjilction. The gross \\eight of the post, in- 
cluding the back and side tension-bars, friction collar, hoops, &'C., is no less 
than twenty-five tons, or within ten tons of the weight which it is intentled 
to lift. The pedestal for this crane is a beautiful piece of nmsoiuT ; and 
rising considerably above the quay, /it was ne<'essary to raise the post to an 
elevation of fifty-five feet before it could be put into its jilaee. This was 
done by two tackles and crab windlasses of great power — the upper blocks 
being fastened, at a height of sixty feet, to the apex of three shear poles. 
The whole time oceupieil in the transit of tl«' axle pole, and in raising and 
lowering it into the east-iron cylinders, did not exceed six consecutive hours. 
Ten men were found adequate to perform the whole ojicration of raising and 
lowering the ]iost, and adjusting it to its jnoper position in the cast-iron 
cylinder. The extreme length of the jiost over all is nearly forty-five feet. 
.\s the crane is not yet completed, we cannot speak of it as a whole ; hut 
there cannot be a doulit that it will be a great advantage to the large class 
of steamers, especially to our yet unrivalled I.omlon steamers. And we 
understand that as soon as it is ready, and disengaged (for the steamer Perth 
has secured the first turn), a very large steamer from a distance is to be 
brought to Dundee in order to get in new boilers. In this way, we have no 
doubt, an ample recompense xvill be olitained for the great aeeommodation 
now to be given for the shipping at the port. Much woik, auda consider- 
able amount of shore-dues, may, in eonsequence of the facilities afforded by 
the crane, be brought to Dundee, which otherwise would have been lost to 
it. The testing of this vast machine will be a process of some interest ; and 
we have no doubt the successful result will add to the well earned rcjiutation 
of Mr. Ueslie; and be highly creditable to Mr. liorrie, by whom the work 
has been executed. — Dutulcr Courier. 

Skgui.n's Ammai. Gas .Vpparaths. — In a memoir on the compression of 
gases, and on the reduction of vari.ible pressures into regular pressure, M. 
Segiiin gives the Academy of Sciences a description of a new |)um)), with a 
regulating apparatus, for the compression of gas for illumination obtained 
from the distUlation of animal substances. The pump is so .arranged as to 
give the maximum force at the moment of the course when the gas presents 
the maximum of resistance by the dimimitiou of its volume ; to work in a 
vertical jiosition without loss of gas, and without the jiiston being immersed 
in fluid ; and lastly to avoid, by means of a particular mode of transmitting 
power, the use of guides, which would cause a friction in the piston-rod, 

Articsiax Vkli.s. — M, ^'iollct b.as eommnnicated to the Academy of 
Sciences the residts of the experiments which be has made at Tours, to aseer- 
tiiin the quantity of water supplied by an .Vrtesian well, after some repairs 
imdcrtakcu for the purpose of remedying a considerable diminution which 
took place in the jiroduee. The repairs executed under the direction of M. 
Mullot had complete success, and the well now serves to supply motive 
power for the silk mill of M. Champoiseau. The well, which in July, 1834, 
immediately after its comiiletion. only supplied lOOfl litres jier minute to the 
surface, has since given the following results ascertained by gauging kept up 
from the loth to the 23rd of May last. 

0-JO metres above the surface 34S0 litres per iiiitiute. 

i-7^ . . . 1620 

5-7.'> . . . IMO 

The well having been put into .action, anil supplying its water from the 
23ril of .May from a new orifice, situated 5 metres above the surface, I found 
by gauging, on the 2iid of August, a jiroducc of 1702 litres per minute, in- 
stead of the IG20 only, which the orifice at A'7l> metres gave in the 23rd of 
May. The iiroiliice li.as, since then, still further increased, which progressive 
increase is attributed by M. VioUet to the alimentary channels being cleared 
by the rejection of the s.and brought to the surface by the water of the v\ell ; 
but it is imirartaiil, ,as it leads to the hope that the unfortunate diminution of 
siipiily will not again occur. [\Vc cannot entertain the confidence of M. 
Viollet, but must feel, to some extent, distrustful of wells sunk in sandy 
strata, which arc exposed to many incynvcnicnccs,— Eb. C. E. & A, Jour.] 



1S40.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL, 



29 



REVIE'WS. 



Theory, Practice ami Architecture of Bridget. The thonj hy James 
Hann, nf King's College, and the practical and archilecliiral treatises 
iy William Hosking, F.S.A., &c., Vol. I. London: John Weale. 

Our present remarks will be confined to Mr. Hughes's paper on the 
" Foundations of Bridges," as we have previously noticed most of the 
other articles. Mr. Hughes commences his paper by taking a review 
of various methods of laying foundations by mean of caissons, next he 
explains tlie manner of building liridges on dry land, the stream being 
afterwards diverted from its old course and made to pass imder the 
new bridge, — he then explains the method of building piers called by 
(ho French encaissemiiit, practised by Belidor. Afterwards comes the 
method of laying, in deep water, ioumlations of piers, bridges, &c., 
without the aid of a coffer dam. As this portion of the paper will 
best explain the talents and capacity of its author, we shall give a 
lengthened extract, accompanied by tlie wood engravings, liberally 
furnished to us by the publisher. 

The first work of the kind I shall describe was projected by Mr. Telford, 
aiul executed under the suiHriutcndence of Mr. David Ilcniy, at Ardross.in 
Harbour, in Ayrshire, N. I!. ; and as the mass of stones used in the founda- 
tion was tliere set in toleraldy regular order under water, without the aid oj 
coffer-dam, or caisson of any kind, there can be no douljt of the same system 
being equally jiracticahle in many cases of bridge foundations. 

The stones at Ardrossan were of veiy large superficial (hmensions, varjing 
from six to ten feet long, and tl\ree to five feet wide ; they were first held 
fast by an implement, technically called nippers or devil's claws, auti were 
then lowered by a crane through a depth of six or eight feet of water on to 
a hard and solid foundation. The lilocks were placed etui to eiul, the i)Osi- 
tion of the last stone lowered being found by jirobing with a slight iron rod ; 
and as soon as each stone was in its place longituihnally, the claws were (hs- 
cngagetl, and the stone allowed to rest upon the course Ijelow, as seen in fig. 
1. The com'scs were continued entirely througli tlie whole thickness of the 
l>ier; and when a sxifticient nunibcr had been laid to bring tiie work up to 
the height of low water spring tides, tlie whole heeadth was levelled, and all 
the mie<iual projections chipped off, in order to prepare a bed for the firs 
co\u-se of dressed masonry. The work then proceeded in the regular man- 
ner, consisting of alternate headers and stretchers of properly squared ashlar 

Fig. 1. 



Hiifft 



^iT-J— «=n 



I'-l.r L ii- 



I 



JMiiiii-*iiiiii ' iiiiui - mil I 



4 Wutir 




in front, with dry stone hearting of squared scapple dressed rubble inside, 
and in this way was carried up to the full height required. 

When the writer visited this work, in the year 1818, it had been advanced 
a consideraole distance into the sea ; and although parts of it had been ex- 
jiosed to some very hea^T storms, neither flaw nor settlement coidd he dis- 
covered in any part of this excellent piece of dry-hnilt masonry. 

From an account of some foundations similar to that described above in the 
recently published life of Mr. Telford, it may he seen that the practice has 
been much more extensively adopted, and a far holder attempt carried out 
by Mr. Gibb, of Aberdeen, than the one acted upon in the other work at 
Ardrossan. The pier at Aberdeen is extended into the sea, with a bicadth 
at the base of seventy-five feet, the bottom consisting entirely of irregularly 
shaped masses of stone, which having been conveyed to the spot in boats, 
were tumbled in by chance to the depth of ten or twelve feet. In the draw- 
ings composing the Atlas, which accompanies the hfe of Mr Telford, the low 
^^■ater mark is shown about foiuteeu feet above the bottom, and in the narra- 



tive of this work by Mr. Gibb, he states, that the bottom under the founda- 
tion is nothing better than loose saud and gravel, and that tlie front ashlar 
commences at about one foot under low water mark, and is carried up to the 
top of the iiier, which the drawing shows to be about thirty-three feet iu 
height from the bottom to the top. The rise of the tide is shown to be 
fourteen feet, the breadth of the pier twenty-eight feet, the sides carried up 
with a slope inwards. Fig. 2, describes the method adopted by Mr. Gibb. 



Pier at Aberdekx 




^^?Si§>^:>Sj$§5;?i5Sss:S5^^~ 



The author next proceeds to describe an economical method of 
building the foundations of a pier as practised by Mr. Telford at In- 
verness, to avoid the expence of erecting a coffer dam. This is well 
deserving of notice on account of its simplicity, particularly the part 
explaining the " lewis." 

At the site fixed upon for the intended jiier, the depth of water, at the 
lowest spring tides, was never less than foin- feet, and at ordinary low water 
five or six feet; the bottom a very hard gravel, uuited with clay. The whole 
length of the breast work was about one hundred and sixty feet, and through- 
out this distance the bottom was dredged out, to the widtli of eight feet, and 
depth of two feet, to receive the masonry. 

A simple system of piling was however driven previous to fouuthng the 
masonry. The piling consisted of two bearing piles, twelve feet long, and 
eight inches diameter, driven down at intervals of twenty feet ; and across 
the heads of these piles, and level with low water mark, cross pieces of elm 
planking twelve feet long three inches thick, .and one foot wide, were fasten- 
ed xvith trenails. On the top of these were laid longitudinal half timbers, 
one foot wide, and six inches deep, secured to the cross pieces and Ijcaiing 
piles by rag bolts, driven into each pile head. 

The accompanying sketches, figs. 3 and 4, will amply illustrate the forms 
and (Usposition of the timber work in the foundation. In addition to the 
bearing piles, a row of timber slabs, of inferior quality, was also driven down 
a few inches into the bottom, at intervals of about ten or twelve inches ; 
these had a spike driven through them, near their heads, and into the longi- 
tudinal logs of half timbers ; there were merely to answer the pmpose of 
guide timbers, to set the stones by, and to determine the guage or breadth of 
the work, and were afterwards removed. 

The bottom on which the pier was to be founded being now made as level 

Fig. 3. 




30 



THIC CIVIL ENGINEEll AND AlKIIITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



Kk;. 4. 





a~- possHilc by niraiis uf dredging \vit!i tlio coiiinion Iiag and spoon apparatus, 
the stones were brough to tlic place in lioats, and lowcreil 1)\ a crane, iiisnch 
a way that as soon as each stone was placed in its proper position the tciois 
cunhi be withdrawn without dillicnlty. 

This will be understood on referring to fig. 5, which represents the lewis 
fi\ed in a stone, ready preiiared 
for being lowered tlirougli the 
water into the foundation. The 
lewis eoTisisted of two pieces of 
iron 1! and I), and in older to 
use it a part of the stone must 
be cut out, sutlieieiitly wide at 
top to receive the base of the 
p.irt 1!, the base of thi' ojicning 
of the stone Iteing cipial to the 
luiitcd widlli of I) and U; A is 
the chain suspended from the 
arm of the crane,* and E a small 
rope or siring, of which the end 
is kept above w.iter, to ]inll 
out the rectangular part U of the 
lewis. 

It is easy to see the method of using this instrument : the piece B is first 
inserted, and 1) is then put in tosecm-e it, when it is evident that the heavier 
lh(; stone may be, provided it be strong enough, the more securely will it be 
held by the lewis when suspetuled from the crane. Coueeivc the stone now 
to have been lowered through the water, and carefully laid in its proper place 
in the founilalion ; the chain from the barrel of the crane is then loosened, 
and the part 11 of the lewis being slightly knocked with an iron rod from 
abo\e, is e.isily made to ilrop down into tlie vacant space C. It is evident 
that the fastening piece I) will then be loose, because between this and li 
there is a sp.ice left e(|ual to the ihtt'creiu'c between the base of li, and the 
base of the opening in the stone. D may therefore be drawn out by lueaus 
of the string E, and II will readily follow on pulling the chain A, and the 
lewis is again ready to be inserted in another stone. 

All the front stones of tlie foundation were laiil with a lewis of this kind, 
as well as the backing of scpiared stones, which were jireviously scapple- 
dresscd at tlie ([uariT. The whole of the stones in any one course, for the 
length of tlic jiicr, were Laid of equal thicknesses ; they ranged from four to 
seven feet long, and from three to four feet wide. As soon as one course was 
comiilete another w,is laid, and the length of each stone being marked on the 
longitudinal beams above the piling, it was easy to set them so as to break 
bond, ami the whole process of tlurs building under water was eti'ected with 
the utmost regularity, and with less dirticidty tlian could have been autiei- 
])atcd by the most s,anguinc advocates of the plan. 

When all the building was carried up ,is high as the sni-facc of the lowest 
water mink of a s)n-ing tide, any irregularity on the top was taken off, and 
the wlude surface carefully levelled, .iiid on it tlie ashlar masonry was com- 
luenecd and carried up with a vertical batter. This work consisted of stones 
with piclicd fronts and ehiscl-dranghts round the edges, the cmls, beds, ami 
face, pro]ierly squared. The backing was of good conunon rubble, and the 
whole being raised to three feet above the highest spring tides, was linished 
otf with a heavy coiiing, inoperly dowelled, cramped, and securc<I with lead. 



" It is (piite evident that by any oilier mode of suspending the stones ex- 
cepting that of the lewis, which could be diseii^atJed inider water, even an 
approximation to a close joint could never have U'cu eftcclcd iu the situatiun 
now UescribcJ, 



This work, from its situ.ition, is called the Thorn Hush Tier ; the dale of 
its coiislriictioM wa^ IKl.'i.and uji to the present time no ajipearance of failure 
or imperfection has been ol)served. 

Mr. Hughes then reverts to llie consideration of roller dams, and 
)Hiiiils o\it as good examples the eorter (l.\nis of the new Houses of 
r^irlianient, and the one constrncled at St. Katharine's Doi'k, IhiIIi of 
which, wc are liappy to say, liave beendescrilied in the first and second 
volumes of our joMnial, acconiiianied by the specifications. We con- 
sider the latter ontjlit at all limes, if possible, to aeconi])anv the draw- 
ings, as lliey at once convey to llie ))rofession the minntiie of the i-on- 
struction, and of the inalerials used. As we liave so fully explained 
to our readers the eonslruclion of the above works, we shall not avail 
ourselves of any extracts from the able eonnneuls of the author in the 
pajier now before us, but shall |iroceed at once to the otlier portion 
explaiuing the advantages of building inverted arches. The author 
reconiuiends, where the bottom is unsounil, to cover it entirely over 
will) cross sleepers of iMeuiel logs, and on them to lay a covering of 
planks closely jointed. In support of thisniethoil of construction lie idles 
an example of the late Mr. Ueiinie,who introduced it fur the foundation 
at the Albion Mills, close to Hl.ickfriar's Bridge. We cannot give our 
consent to this mode of building, being decidedly averse to the intro- 
duction of planking and piling, excepting for hydraulic works w hen 
both are constantly niuler water ; we would at all times risk a good 
bed of concrete over the whole surface as adopted at the WcstniinsUr 
Bridewell, or a broad fotindation as adopted by Sir Robert Sniirke at 
the Penitentiary, (he latter example is alluded to by the author in a 
subsequent part of the paper. The marshy nature of the land on which 
both those buildings were erected, and their jnvsent appear.uice in 
]ioint of stability clearly show that concrete may be used with safety in 
almost, if not all situations: we have seen such ill elVects of planking 
lor foundations of land buildings, that we dread tlic very name of it, 
not only is it liable to rot, but also to be crushed. We sliould think 
that the timber lonuiiig the bottom of the caisson upiui which the piers 
of Westminster Bridge stand lias been crushed full an inch ini thick- 
ness; here it was of no consequence, as the timber was always inider 
water, and remains to this day sound as on the day when laid down, 
but there are situations in which the crushing of an inch in thickness 
may he partial .uid cause considerable settlements in the building, 
particularly if tliere be many openings w ith arches in the superstruc- 
ture. Tlie foUowing observations relative to Mr. Telford are well de- 
serving tlie attention of the junior nieuibers of the profession. 

Mr. Telford in his i)r.actice as an engineer was exceedingly cautioiH, and 
never allowed any hut his most experienced and contidential assistants to 
have any thing to do with exploring the foundations of any buildings he was 
about to erect. This scrutiny into the (|ualilieatious of those employed about 
the found.itions extcudcil to the subordinate overseers, anil even to the work- 
men, insomuch that men whose general habits had before (lasscd unnoticed, 
and whose characters h.ad never been inquired into, did not esrajie Mr. Tel- 
ford's observations when set to work in operations connected with the founda- 
tions. He was accustomed to examine men so employed whom he thought 
unsteady, and, if necessary, would reprimaud the overseers for emidoying 
such men about the foundations in any capacity. It is evident from tliesc 
I)recautions that Mr. Telford was well convinced how dangerous it was even 
to receive a report of the strata from men of careless habits or inelHeient 
knowledge, and that he also knew the consequences which might follow from 
careless pile-driving, and, in short, from the absence of proper care in all the 
operations connected with the coinmencement of an important structure. 

In tlie third ilivision of this paper the author makes some judicious 
remarks on foundations of sand. Mr. Hughes then proceeds to ilescrilie 
a very strong «)tVcr dam for a river where there is a great depth of 
water, from this jiart of the paper containing some excellent instruc- 
tions, we take the following extract relative to " puddle." 

Considering only the two extremes of very hard and very soft plastic clay, 
it will be finind that the former of these, when broken np and thrown in be- 
tween the piles, will seldom or never form a perfect dam. On the contrary, 
vacuities will remain between the broken pieces, and it will be found exceed- 
ingly difficidt to be.at down clay of this kind into a body snihcicntly lirm, 
compact, .and solid to resist the eflbrts of the water to penetrate through it. 
If, again, clay of a very soft plastic nature lie introduced, it will jiartially dis- 
solve and combine with the water when thrown into it, so that the space be- 
tween the piles will be tilled with a kind of mud puddle almost in a lluid 
state, of no greater consistency and no greater capability of keeping out water 
than mud itself. It is evident therefore that either kind of da; liy itscV 
woidd not answer the purpose intended of forming a solid water-tight puddle. 
All the clays, when useil in a colter-dam, require a mixture of gr.ivcl and 
sand, or a portion of poundeil chalk will he found an excellent materkal to 
give solidity to the soft portion of the clay, and to fill the vacuities and in- 
terstices which may be expected to exist where the clay is of a hard and 
lumpy descriptisn. However general may be the opinion, it is certain that 
ouc more erroneous was uevcr entertained than that clay alone is a proper 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



31 



iiuiterial to make a good iiiuMle-clani. Clay liy itself is subject to great 
rlianges, according to "the alternations of heat ami cohl, drought and moisture. 
In very ilry weatirer, and when exposed for a time to the inlluenec of tlie sun, 
all moisture will lie extracted; and the clay will invarialdy crack and separate 
into a nmnher of irregular fragments, which will never afterwards unite so as 
to form an adhesive water-tight sulist.ancc. The ililhculty of compressing 
clay, when placeil in a dam of any considcrahlc depth, into a solid mass with- 
out ImUows has heen already noticed. If in addition to this olijection we 
consider the immense weight and i)ressure of clay so coniju'csscd against the 
jiiles forming the sides of the dam, and the consecpient strain on the piles, 
wliicli ought only to he employed in resisting the pressure of the water from 
without, we shall see sufficient reason to decide, on these as well as on othej- 
grounds, ag.ainst the in-actice of puddling entirely with clay. From the very 
iiest information which can he hrought to hear on tins s\dijeet, namely, that 
derived from long and w.itehful ex]ierience, accom)ianied hy the knowledge 
that he has himself, as a contractor, lost large sums of money on account of 
too great a faith iu clay jinddlcs, the writer is enabled to speak very positively 
on tlie nature of this material, and in achlitiou to the ohjections .already ad- 
vanced begs to add his own personal observations of the fact that puddles 
composed entirely of clay have usually bulged, given way, ami been foinid in- 
ap.alile of keeping out the water wUcji of considerable dci)tli, and that in 
^nv ease a puddle with an admixture of gravel, chalk, and sand will make a 
jafer water-tight dam than clay alone. 

The fourth division treats on the value of concrete as a substitute 
for stoiie or timber in foundations, and describes the various qualities 
of lime and sand, and their proportions in which they inicfht to be used. 
The author has given some remarks on the defective construction of 
jiart of Gloucester Bridge, from tlie settlement id' the wing wall on the 
Gloucester side which is fractured from its base to tlie top of the 
parapet, where, he states, there is an opening nearly three inches 
wide. We rather suspect that some other settlements have escaped 
the eye of Mr. Huglies, when we were at (iloucester about two years 
since, we observed some fractures over the arch which had been stopped 
up with cement, and instead of the wing walls only having gone down, 
we consider that the abutment on the (iloucester side has also gone 
down, or is forced a trifle from its perpendicular position in consa- 
ipienoe of the giving way of the wing walls, i.nd has caused the settle- 
ments we liave named. 

Mr. Hughes next explains the causes of settlements in the wing and 
abutment walls of bridges by using for the backing a |)uddle of clay ; 
he observes, that the cracks and iissures which attend the drying of 
clay, when much ex|H)sed, are so exceedingly dangerous, as atlbrding 
lodgement for water to press against the w all, that there is every reason 
to expect, at some time or other, fractures and dangerous settlements 
in walls which have been thus backed. We have heard of several in- 
stances of bridges constructed on railways, where the abutments and 
wing walls have been forced out of their places, although built with 
a considerable batter, to nearly perpendicular, owing to the backing of 
clay having swelled through additional moisture. Where it is re- 
quisite to build retaining walls in clay cuttings, it is nece.ssary if the 
strata have any dip to build the upper retaining wall thicker than the 
hiwer one, and also to give the slopes of cuttings on the upper sicU' a 
greater deolivitv than the lower one, as the clay is naturally inclined 
to slip on its bed. 

In the concluding portion of the paper Mr. Hughes has made some 
very able connnents on the principal clauses of a contract deed whicli 
the contractor is required to sign ; but as we have already so copiously 
extracted from the paper, we must, in justice to the publislier, resist 
intruding any farther. With his remarks oii the various clauses we fully 
concur, and we trust that it will not be long before a more equitable 
spirit breathes through tlie conditions of a contract. We feel con- 
vinced that it is the only way to obtain opulent and respectable con- 
tractors to undertake large works, the present stringent clauses throw- 
ing the whole on\is of the construction on the contractor, and removing 
all responsibility from the engineer, is a premium for ignorant ]ire- 
tenders to enter the profession, many of whom, probably, have obtained 
a line theinetical education, and are abie to make very pretty draw- 
ings, which they fancy entitle them to the initials C. K. at the end of 
their names, but wliich are very far from assuring a sound knowledge 
of construction. 

Before we close onr remarks we must allude to the "getting up of 
the work," the first volume contains 1 10 engravings beantifulTy exe- 
cuted, and posiessing considerable merit in jioint of construction, and 
as examples of bridge building. The letterpress contains 5 papers, No. 
I. Theory of Bridges, by Mr. Ilann ; II. Transl.itions from Gauthey ; 
III. Theoretical and Practical papers, by Professor Moscley ; IV.'A 
series of papers on the Fonnd.itions of Bridges, by Mr. T. Hughes ; 
V. Account of Hutcheson Bridge at Glasgow, by Lawrence Hill, 
Esq., and the Specification by Mr. Robert Stevenson, of Edinburgh. 
Most of these papers, as they appeared in numbers, we had eccasion to 



speak of witli the highest )iraise, and we feei much pleasure in tiiuling 
that the concluding |)art of the first volume is quite equal to the former. 
We have no hesitation in saying that it will be one of the most 
valuable publications which the profession can wish to possess. 



Henfh's Pictitrt^qiic ./in una I for 1840: Wiiuhur Cag/le. and its En - 
riioiisi, hy Lkitch Kitcmik, Esq., loilh Fifteen Engra rings. Lon- 
don : Longman and (Jo. 

We recommended the preceding volume of this annual, as eontain- 
ing among other illustrations of Versailles, several highly linisln-d 
architectural interiors, — a class of subjects all the more welcome, be- 
cause, although exceedingly interesting, they are very rarely treated 
by the pencil; ami the two views of the kiiiil here given, ntiinely, of 
St. George's Hall and tin- Waterloo Galler}', only cause us to regret 
that there should be none of any of the other apartments; not even 
one of the corridor, ov any portion of it, to convey some idea of its 
architectuiMl character, it certainly was not ow ing to want of subjects 
that the choir of St. (ieorge's Chapel — the architecture of whicli, by 
the by, is sadly disfigured by the barbarous design of the pointed win- 
dow over the altar, which looks just like Carpenter's Gothic ; — was 
selected as one of the three interiors; while the subject is very well 
known, having been given inPync's Royal Residencus, and other lutli- 
licatioiis. We certainly would very gladly have exchanged it fur 
something else. We pass over the other engravings, because although 
manv are executed witli great spirit and ability, they are chiefly of 
scenery in dift'erent parts of the Park, and are connected only nmotely 
with the Castle, which is removed farther olV than we could wish. Yet 
although architectural subjects generally may not be so jjopular as 
landscape scenery, we should imagine that like ourselves, most other 
persons would not have been <lispleased had tliere been a majority of 
the former class, on this occasion. We sliould have been grateful l(i<i, 
liad the editor in some degree supjdied this deficiency by treating at 
great length of Windsor Castle as it really is at the present ilay, and 
entered into some more exact description of the jirincipal apartnieul-^ 
their architecture ;uid decorations. However, as description (jf that 
kind does not appear to be by any means the editor's forte, there is 
less reason to regret that he has been so exceedingly sparing of it. It 
appears, however, from what is here said that we are likely to obtain 
a full architectural account of Windsor, it being stated — upon snlli- 
cient authority, we presume, that Sir Jeliery Wyattville himscdf is 
now preparing a series of drawings and other materials for the pur- 
pose. 

Tlie view of the Ruins at Virginia Water after a drawing by Hard- 
ing, is one of the most attractive of the landscape subjects, ipiite a 
poetical scene in itself — and one of which we have never behire met 
within any representation; and tlumgh the same cannot be said of the 
view of the Fishing Temple and Lake, that is a very (diarming conqio- 
sition bv the same tasteful artist, and admirably engraved. Most un- 
doubtedly we should have been better gratilied ha<l the illustrations 
been confined entirely to the Castle itself, and to the newer portions 
of the edifice ; but we must also admit th;it tlio proprietor had to con- 
sult the taste of tin' purchasers (jf Annuals. We hope, In.uever, lli.it 
he will yet bring out some graphic ]mblicalion expressly devoted to 
that cla.ss of subjects — namely, architeotural interiors, of which Ver- 
sailles and Windsor have furnished some specimens. 



Mnnoir of a Mtclimiic, king a Skitc/i of the Life of Timothj C/ei.rlon, 

ivritlen hi/ himself, logellier with JMiseelleimonti Papers. Boston, 

United States; (i. VV. Light, 18311. 

This, although )iiiblishej at the same time by a dill'erent author, is 
a kind of American version of the Hints to Mechanics, by Mr. Claxton, 
but although derived from nearly the same sources, is not quite so 
interesting. Boston, like Edinburgh, has dubbed itself an Athens, lias 
the same mania for lionizing, and the same want of philosophers for 
their academic groves. In this emergency they have laid hold of Mr. 
Claxton, and although they might find a mure majestic lion, a more 
useful one thev will not easily discover. Like the works of Franklin, 
it is a ])laiii, practic.d maniud of advice to the working classes, which 
instructs in the best way, thtit of example. 

It says nincli for the literary ajipetite of Boston that they can devour 
such a work, and it says still more for them that, knowing how thin- 
skinned their couiitrymen generally are, that they slioulJ have allowed 
Mr. Claxton to give free vent to some of his old country prejudices, 
which we know go so greatly against the grain. 



32 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[jANrARY, 



Companion to /lie Almanac fur 1640. Lomlmi : Knight & Co. 

A<; \is\ial this publicaficm contains a great doal of highly interesting 
architectural mailer, in the way both oT descriptions oi^ and comments 
upon, new buildings and other iniprovementu, illustrated with several 
clever wood engravings. Of these latter the subjects are, Mr. Wild's 
two churches at Blackheath and ,Southami)ton, tlie new church I\irk 
.Street, Bankside, the Club-house Clianibers, Regent .Street, and plans, 
Ulc. of iMr. Cockerell's new buildings at Cambridge for the Public 
Libraries, vVc. Among those buildings which, although not accom- 
panied w ilh any cuts, come in for a large share of notice and remarks 
are, Mr. Harry's Reform Club, and Mr. Tattersall's chapel at D\ikin- 
tield, as does likewise the new building in Wellington Street, for 
Bielefeld's Rapier Maclir Works. 

The counnents on the plan of the Cambridge Libraries are pertinent, 
—though, jierliaps, the architect may be disposed to prefix an im to 
that epithet — and judicious; for it certainly does appear that the 
building w ill be more irregular than even the awkwardness of the site 
reipures : nor that onlv externallv but internally too, because many of 
the piincipal apartments will be thrown quite out of square, one of 
them sloping off instead of being parallel to the opposite one. It is 
therefore to be hoped that that part of the jjlan will be reconsidered 
before it shall be actually began. 

\Ve shall quote only two of the minor paragraphs: 

KcKii'ick i'hitrch. Lately erected by Mr. Salvia, is a stone edifice in the 
early |ioiii1ed style, of about the time of Henry II, with a tower, burmomited 
by a low spire, and a small octagonal huilding, attaclu'd to the south side of 
the church, for a vestry room. This latter is covered l)y a very steep, or 
spirc-iliaiictl roof, and forms a very striking feature ill the design, to winch 
it imp.irls a great degi'ce of jiiclarcsiiiie variety. This church was corn- 
men ed by the late John Marshall, Jan., Ksq., and has been completed by 
his widow. It i:, ant capable of containing more than 412 persons, viz., 48 
in pews aod ."iljl in free seats. Cost, .I'tJ.'JHl). 

Dmimi/lon r7(«;-e/(, another work by the same architect, is very different 
in design, being a long and low but high-rnofed stnieture, of rather primitive 
character, with small and jdain jiointed windows, at irregular intervals, and 
a square tower (in whlcli is a jiorch) on the north side. It was built by sub- 
scriptions and dunatiims for the sum of i.'3,ii5t ; yet, although the cost is 
little more tlian iialf that of the ))rccciling laulding, it is cai»uhle of aeeoru- 
niodating more than doable the number of jiersons, viz., l.OltJ ; 1 10 in pews 
and GOO in free sittings." 

In a previous part of the volume is a section upon "Railways," 
containing much statistical iiiforniation on that subject. 



Mancltcster as H is, witli numerous S/ed Engravings and a J\Iap. 
Manchester: Love and Barton. 

Tins is a verj' useful and interesting little work, descriptive of all the pub- 
lic buildings, institutions, evhibitions, canals, warehouses aiul manufactories, 
in short it appears to contain all the infoi'matioa that a visitor may wish for 
as a gui<le to Manchester. We select the following extracts to show the 
nature of the work. 

STEAM ENGINE M.VKIXG, AND F.NGINEEniNG. 

One of the i)rincii)al establishments in Manchester, in these departments, 
is that belonging to William Fairbairn, Esq., situate in Canal-street, Great 
Ancoats-strettt. To jicrsons \mac(ptainted ^^ith the nature of working in iron, 
an admission into these works aftords, perhaps the most gratifying spectacle 
wbicli the town can j)rescnt of its nnmnfactnixvi in this metal. Consetiuently, 
abnosl e\t'ry person of tlistinction visiting the town contrives to jn'oeure an 
introduction to the proprietor before leaving it. In this establishment the 
lieuvit'st description of machinery is manufactured, including steam engines, 
water wheels, locomotive engines, and null geering. There are from r)50 to 
GOO liamis employed in the various dei)artnu:nts ; and a walk through the ex- 
tensive premises, in which this great niunber of men are busily at work, 
atlords a specimen of industry, and an evainple of lU'actical science, which 
can scarcely be surpassed. In every direction of the works the ntnmst xi/xfem 
prevails, and each mechanic appears to have bis iieeuliar description of work 
assigned, with the utmost economical sididivisiou of laliour. All is activity, 
yet without confusion. Smiths, strikers, moulders, millwrights, mechanics, 
boiler nnikcrs, pattern makers, appear to attend to their respective employ- 
ments with as nmch regularity as the working of the niachineiy they assist to 
construct. 

In one de]tartiuent mechanics are employed in building those mighty nut- 
chines \\bicb have augmented so inuneusely the mannfacturiag interests of 
tlrcat liritain, naujcly, steam engines. All si/.ca ami dimensions arc frequently 
under hand, from the dinunutive size of 8 horses power, to the enormous 
magnitude of 400 horses' power. One of this latter size contains the vast 
amount of 200 tons or upwards of metal, and is worth, in round nundjcrs, 
from .15,000 to .fC,000. 
The process of easting metal is 90n(lu«tc4 here on a very large scale, Cast- 



ings of twelve tons weight are by no meaus unconuuon : the beam of a 300 
horses' jiower steam engine weighs that amoiuit. Fly-wheels for engines, and 
water-wheels, though not cast entire, are inunense specimens of heavy cast- 
ings. .\ fly-wheel, for an engine of 100 horses' power, measures in diameter 
twenty-six feet, and weighs about thirty-live tons. In this establishnuait 
some of the largest water-wheels ever manufactured, and the heaviest luill- 
geering have been constructed ; one water-wheel, for instance, lueasuriiig 
sixty-two feet in diameter. The average weekly consnui]itioii of metal in 
these works in the process of manufacturing, owing to the (piantity of wrought 
iron used, and the unmcnse bulk of the castings, is CO tons or upwards, or 
3,120 tons anuuidly. 

The preparation of jiatterns, — wood fac-similes of the castings, — is a \ery 
costly process. Every piece of machinery, before it can be cast, nmst be 
constructed in wood; and these path-nu, Af, they are termed, arc made to 
form, in sand, the mould into which the liquid ore is pom-ed. Fifty men are 
daily employed in making patterns. The patterns, which are part of thepro- 
jirietor's stock hi trade, are worth many thousand pounds. .Vfter being used, 
the most important are |>Hinted and varnished, and laid carefully aside, in a 
dn room, to be ready for use when machiucs may accidentally get broken, or 
to ai<l in the construction of new ones. The patterns are made frequently of 
mahogany. 

A most curious machine is employed for the purpose oi plainiiy iron ; and, 
by means of its aid, iron shavings are stripped off a solid mass of metal, with, 
apparently, as nmch ease as if it were wood, and w ith the greatest regidarity 
and exactness. Not the least interesting department of these works is that 
appio|)riated to boiler making. Boilers, for steam engines, are composed of 
a nmnber of jdates of wrought-iron, about % of an inch in thickness. They 
are livetcd together, with rivets about J of an inch diameter, holes to receive 
whica are punched through the plates, by a ]>ovvcrful, yet simple, machine, 
with as much facility as if the resistance was mere air. 'The process of rivet- 
ing was, on the old nudlwd, an extremely noisy one ; hut a new jilaii, is 
adopted here, and by it the work is performed silently, and nmch more etli- 
ciently. .Some time ago about 50 boiler makers were employed by Mr. Fair- 
bairn. The " strnck," as it is termed, because their employer infringed, as 
they considered, upon their privileges, by introducing a few labourers, not in 
" The I'nion," to jierforni the drudgery connected with the work. On this 
occurring, Mr. l''ai.-bairn and Mr. liobert Smith invented a machine which 
superseded the labour of 1.'! ont of the 50 of his boiler makers. The work is 
performed by the machine much quicker, more systematically, and, as before 
said, without noise. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE .\ND TOOL-MAKERS. 

Uniler this head may be classed several extensive works, in and about 
Manchester.* One of the largest is that possesseil by .Messrs. N'asmyths, 
Ciaskell & Co., situated at Patricroft, four and a half miles distant from Man- 
chester, and innncdiately adjoining the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad, 
at that part where it crosses the liridgewater Canal, which great national 
work forms the boundary or frontage of the ground on which the above esta- 
blishment is erected, and w Inch, in consequence, has been named, " The 
liridgewater Foundi^." 

These works hiive a frontage to the railroad, as well as to the canal, to the 
extent of 1,051) feet ; which circumstance supplies every possible facility for 
conuuiuucation, either by laml or by water carriage. One of the " stopping 
stations" of all the second class trains being opposite, persons desirous of 
vishing these works, can he set down .at the entrance gate. The distance in 
titne, from Manchester, is only from ten to fifteen minutes. 

The above establishment is of very recent erection, having been in existence 
only about two and a half years. There are employed at present about 300 
men : the greater part of \vhom, together with their families, live in cottages 
which the proiirietors have elected for their aceonunodatioii. The situation 
of these works is not only most admirably adapted for the purposes forvshich 
they have been erected, but it also secures, in a great degree, good health to 
the inen employed ; for, being surrounded on all sides with green fields, and 
being, moreover, on the west side of Manchester, a very long lease of pure air 
is secured ; a circumstance of no small importance, as regards the health and 
conjfort of the vvorknu'n employed. 

The whole of this establishment is divided into departments, over each of 
which a foreman, or a responsible person, is placed, whose duty is not only to 
see that the men under his superintendence produce good work, but also to 
endeavour to keep pace with the productive powers of all the other depart- 
ments. The departments m,iy he thus specified : — The dr.iwing office, where 
the designs are made out ; and the working drawings produced, from which 
the men are to receive the necessary information. Then come the pattern- 
makers, whose didv is to make the patterns, or models in wood, which are to 
be cast in iron or' brass ; next comes the foundry, and the iron and brass 
monhlers ; then the forgers or smiths. The chief part of the produce of these 
two last named pass on to tlie turners and planers, who, by means of most 
powerful and complete machineiy, execute all such work on the various arti- 
cles as require cither of these operations; besides which, any holes that are 
required are at this stage bored, by a great variety of drilling machines, most 
of which are self-acting. Then come the fitters and filers, who, by means of 
chisels and files, execute all such work as requires manual labour, and pcr- 

* Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, & Co.'s, Messrs. Peel, Williams, & Co.'s, are 
among the first in importance. 



1840.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



33 



form such delicate adjustments as require tlie individual attention of tlie 
operative : in conjunction witli this department h a class of men called erec- 
tors, tliat is, men wlio put together tlie framc-work, and larger parts of most 
machines, so that the two last departments, as it were, hring together and 
give the last touches to the ohjects produced by all the others. A machine 
having passed through these departments, is now ready for a coat of iiainf, 
which having received, it is taken to pieces (after all the parts are marked, 
so as to enable its being i>ut together when it arrives at its destination), the 
bright parts are smeared with tallow, and, if lequired, placed in jiacking cases, 
which are then handed over to the foreman of tlie labonrers, who, by means 
of the crane or railroad, place them in the canal boat or railway waggon. 

With a view to secure the greatest amount of convenience for the removal 
of heavy machinery from one department to another, the entire estahhslmient 
had been laid out with this object in view; and in order to attain it, what 
may be called the straight line system has been adopted, that is, the various 
workshop* ai'e all in a line, and so jilaced, that the greater part of the work, 
as it passes from one end of the foundry to the other, receives, in succession, 
each operation which ought to follow the preceding one, so that little carry- 
ing backward and forward, or lifting up and down, is required. In the case 
of heavy jiarts of machinery, this arrangement is found exceedingly useful. 
By means of a railroad, laid through, as well as all round the shops,* any 
casting, however ponderous or massy, may be removed with the greatest care, 
rapidity, and security. Thus nearly all risk of those frightful accidents, 
which sometimes occur to the men, is rcmovcil. The railroad system is now 
beginning to be as much attended to, ami its advantages felt in concerns of 
this nature, as it is in the transit of goods and passengers. 

Nearly one uniform width is preserved throughout all the workshops of 
this extensive concern, namely, 70 feet ; and tli« height of each is twenty-one 
feet to the beam. The total length of shops on the ground floor, already 
bnilt, amounts, in one line, to nearly 400 feet. There are, besides, four flats 
of the front building, each twelve feet high, 100 feet long, and 60 feet wide. 
Into these rooms a perfect flood of light is admitted by very large windows 
on the side walls, as well as through sky-llglits in the roof. 

The Foundry occupies one portion of this building, namely, 130 feet by 70 
feet, in which great apartment or hall there is not a single dark corner: a 
point of vast impoiiance where the oj>crations are conducted with a black 
material, namely, the moulding sand. The iron is melted in one or more of 
four cupolas, according to the weight of the casting. The cupolas vary from 
three to six feet in diameter, and when all are in active operation, melt thirty- 
six tons of iron. The great cauldron, or pot, in which the metal is contained, 
' is idaced, during its transit from the furnace, on a carriage, which moves 
along a railroad in front of the four cupolas ; and thus any i)ortioii of melted 
metal can be received and conveyed, with the most surprising rapidity and 
ease, to any point of the surface of this great hall. These great pnts contain, 
at limes, each six or seven tons of melted iron, and, by means of a crane, 
whose arms sweep every part of the foundry, arc banded iVom place to jilace 
as if wlndly devoid of weight. The crane posts are two great cast-iron columns, 
around which the crane arm swings. The columns ssrve at the same time as 
supports to the roof, and by proper ties, the strain of such great weights is 
diffused over the whole building, and each brick made to share the load. The 
blast of air for the furnaces is supplied by a fanner, five feet in diameter, 
made to revolve at the rate of 1,000 revolutions per minute, the air or blast 
being conveyed under ground in a brick tunnel, from which it is distributed 
to each furnace by sheet-iron pipes, varying from three to nine inches, accord- 
ing to the si/.e of the furnace at work at the time. 

There are at present fifty-six turning lathes, of all sizes, at work in this 
establishment, several of which are what is called self-acting, t — that is, the 
work has only to be placed in the lathe, and the tool set, and the maehine 
does the remainder of the work with unerring accuracy and ease. 

Planing machines arc extensively used here. The immense power of one of 

* Abbreviation of " work-shops." 

T " Wu may here with propriety say a word on the subject of self-acting- 
tools, the more so because it is by means of these admirable adaptions ut 
human skill and intelligence that we are giving to the present age its peculiar 
and wonderful characteristic, namely, the triumph of mind over matter. 

•' Hy whom or when the slkh principle was first introduced we need not now 
enquire; suffice it to say that, by means of this prii ciiile, a most wonderful 
substitute has been found for tlie human hand in the fabrication of almost all 
parts of mechanism, whether the substance to be operated upon weighs tons 
or grains. The slide principle is that which enables a child, or the marhhie 
itself, to operate on masses of metal, and to cut shavings oil' iron, as if* it was 
deprived of all hardness, and so mathematically correct that even Kuclid 
himself might be the workman! It is by the slide principle that we are en- 
abled to tix a steel cutter into an iron hand, and constrain or cause it to 
move or slide along the surface of a piece of metal in any required direction, 
and with the utmost precision. By means of this priiKriple all the practical 
iliftieuUies hitherto encountered in the extending and improving of machinery 
generally, were, at one blow, cleared away, lly its means the formation of 
every geometrical figure became a matter of the greatest ease, and a princi- 
plo of absolute ;md unerring exactness took the j.lace of manual dexteiity. 

"The impulse given by the slide princi|ile, to the manufactures of this 
country, in the construclion of machines for forming other machines, can 
scarcely be imaginetl. On the application of an unerring principle to ma- 
chine-ma/dug machinery — whicli totls may be defmeil to be — the mechanical 
energy of Great Britain, sprang forward at unce to that supreme station 
which she now maintains, and which, if her artisans keep pace with the 
limes, she will ever retain." — Note l)i/ a Pruclieal Engineer, 



these macbines may he imagined, when it is considered that the amount of 
resistance against the c<lge of the knife which planes the iron is, in a large 
machine, as much as thirty tons. This fact leads to the consideration of the 
hardness of the instrument which has to encounter, for perhaps a day together 
without becoming inoperative, this immense resistance. By means of this 
admirable machine every variety of geonietrical figure can be jirodnced with 
the most absolute accuracy — such as the plane, the cylinder, the cone, and 
the sphere. And as all possible varieties of machinery consist merely of these 
figures in combination, there is now every facility for producing whatever 
may be required. 

Besides the manufacture of every description of engineers' tools, another 
branch of business for which this establishment has been erected, is that of 
locomotive engines, a branch of business which is rapidly acquiring great 
importance, and which will have few rivals as to magnitude. Lancashire 
appears to be completely taking the lead in this manufacture, which, frotn 
its very nature, can he carried on only on a large scale. 

The room occui>ied by the steam, in a locomotive boiler, is ordinarily 
equivalent to ten cubic feet. Ten cubic feet of water will proiUice in steam, 
when expanded to the density of the atmosphere, as much as would occupy 
18,000 feet of space. The steam is confined in the boiler by a pressure ihree 
times that of the atmosphere, so that, escaping from its confinement, it eX' 
pands to three times the space it there occupied. 



ArcMectttra Domestica, von Alexis des Chateauneuf. Lirgj t 
London : Ackermanii and Co. 

Recent circmnstances have given thii volume atJditional interest 
and recommendation, its author Itaving obtained the second |)reinium 
in the cofnpetition for the Royal Exchange, owing to which liis name 
is no lofiger a stranger to English ears ; and it may, perhaps, be wortli 
while to remark tliat it had actually appeared prior to that event, 
consequently it was not the distinction he had so obtained whiclt in- 
duced M. de Chateauneuf to bring it out in this country. \Vh;ttever 
may have been Ifis motive for publishing it here, we hope he will 
have no reason to rejient having done so, although we dare not flatter 
him by saying that he could not Itave selected a better market ; be- 
cause, if tife truth may be spoken, there is far less encouragement 
given to works of this class here in England than on the Continent. 
However, we liope that M. de C. will find that there are exceptions to 
the rule, and that his own case is one of them. Still, one inconveni- 
ence we suspect has been occasioned by the work havifig been got up 
here, namely, that the author has in consequence been obliged to 
trust too much to others ; and although as far as correctness and in- 
telligence of fortn go, he could not, perhaps, have employed a more 
able engraver than Mr. T. T. Bury, we must say that delicacy of out- 
line has been carried by him somewhat to excess. The breadth and 
depth, or rather the fineness of the lities, is so uniform as to produce 
a general faintness of effect ; whereas, variety of line would hava 
given not only greater vigour but distinctness, also to tnatiy of tlies 
plates. Mr. Bury would have done well to have looked at some of 
the architectural subjects in Penier's work on decoration; which, 
independently of thfeir intrinsic ititerest, captivate the eye at the first 
glance, by the ufiiou of firmness and delicacy, wliich gives adequate 
relief to every object. This tameiiess in the execution of the plates cer- 
tainly does not att'ect the designs thetuselvcs, otherwise than it exhibits 
them somewhat to disadvantage, atid sometimes is attetided with a 
degree of insipidity that may unluckily chance to be attributed to the 
subject, instead of the engraver's treatment of it. These retnarks, 
we think, are called for, even in justice to M. de Chateauneuf, for there 
are one or two designs, which, had they been better expressed, would 
have been considered of more importance than they are now likely 
to be. 

To come now to matter of the plates, we scruple not to say that 
although the designs display great inequality, on account of the very 
great difference of their subjects, some of the designs being for very 
small and unpretending buildings, while others afforded more than 
usual scope for invention — they give evidence of real talent and 
originality. Yet, being nearly all those of buildings executed for pri- 
vate individuals, the author lias, in all probability, been more or less 
checked or thwarted, if not directly by his employers, by circum- 
stances he was obliged to keep in view, and which prevented him 
from giving free scope to his own taste and imagination. What is 
most important is, that many excellent ideas and suggestions may be 
obtained from them. One of the happiest is that shown in plate 5 — 
namely, a perspective interior of a Holstein barn converted into a gar- 
den or rustic saloon, and retaining just enough of the original charac- 
ter to show what has been the arcliitect's motive. It might, perhaps, 
be pursued still farther, and thereby be found to lead to very much 
more ; especially as regards the form of the ceiling, which tiiight 
either througliout or in the centre compartment of such a room, 
be carried up higher than the walls, in two inclined planes, following 



34 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AHCMITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



(he s1o|)p of (he h\Tgc truss lirackcts suppditing the horizontal heaiiis 
<jf the ceiling. The style is holh well imaginecl and veil kept up, ami 
the wliolc is exceedingly jileasiiig, ronsistent, and liarnioniuus, tlio\igh 
(ibnoxious to olijeclion tVom (hose who would indiscrimiuatelv ])rciscribe 
every thing tliat is nut supported by actual precedent, aidiough indul- 
gent enough touartls all wliicli is so authorized, no matter how bad it 
may be in itself, (iranting the merit to be equal, or nearly so, in 
other respects, we should say that a design which brings forward 
Kome novelty is (lie belter suited for publication ; p.irficularly in 
works of «hirh (he object either is or ought to be to bring forward 
fresh ideas, and such mii/hxn of )>lan or decoraliun as may be turned 
to account, by being adopted as a liint, without being cither copied or 
even so treated as to lead at once to the source of it. This has not 
always been so well attended to as it ought to have been, else we 
shoulil not meet with so ni.niy piiblislied designs as we now do, which 
aflford no other instruction than what might just as well be obtained 
from almost anything else of the same kind. Such, we apprehend, 
will be found to be the case with the subject following the one we have 
just been speaking of; which consists of the jilan and perspective 
view of a villa erected near Lubeck, for Dr. Buekholtz ; but which we 
are by no means disposed to receive as earnest of what the author 
would be capable of producing, if at liberty to abandon himself freely 
to the impulses of his own taste. Most certainly will not bear com- 
parison with that of an Knglish house of the same size ; the arrange- 
ment is uniloubfedly sinijjle enough, but too simple fin' either conve- 
nience or eli'ect, and would, therefore, have, perhaps, been all the bet- 
ter, had some positive difficulty occurred, which it would have been 
necessary to combat. 

There is no doubt tliat such difficulty has mainly led to much of the 
beauty and variety.of plan observable in Dr. Abendroth's house at 
Hand)urg, built by the a\ithor between thi^ years l83'-!-(i, and which 
liere forms (lie principal subject of his volume, being ilhistrated not 
only by four plans, and elevation, and a section, Imt by two perspective 
views, (one of the staircase, the other of a semicircular apartment), 
lint also by several plates of details. The facade of this mansion or 
jiaUizzo is in what may be called a Grecianized Italian style, much of 
the detail being evidently of the former character, though the com- 
])osition and its general features stamp it as decidedly belonging to 
the latter. Although it is asliilar, or columnless, it is greatly more de- 
corated tlian almost any sjiecimens of (be class we have in London — 
much more so, in fac(,than two which are likely to be quoted as among 
the very few that can be named at all, viz., Sutlierland House, and that 
of the Duke ui Wellingtim ; since both of them are in an exceedingly 
cold and bald style of architecture, and with a remarkable poverty of 
feeling about them ; and extreme nieagerness and Hatnessof detail. It 
is, however, in the interior of this mansion that the architect has 
cheiHy manifested his talent, by much happy invention, contrivance, 
and taste ; and a careful study of the plans will show that there is 
a great deal of effect whicli is not very apparent upon a cursory in- 
sjiecticm of them. So far from conqilaining that this single subject 
occupies too many of the jilates, we conid have wisheil one or two 
more had been deviated to it, either as additional sections, or exterior 
views, one of which ought, of course, to describe the small oblong 
hexagonal cabinet, with a semicircular alcove occupying the side 
facing the ccn(re window; which unusual form — so pleasing in itself, 
and (browing so nundi variety into the suites of rooms, lias been occa- 
sioned enlirely by (he awkwardness of the site, and tlie disagreeably 
sharp angle, (be (wo fronts would else make at that corner of the 
building. The slair-casi- is exceedingly tasteful, and exhibits what 
we take to be iiltogether a novelty — having never before met widi, 
nor lieard of, any similar instance, namely, an internal pediment over 
the colonnade, produced by the ceiling being composed of (wo in- 
cliiK'd planes, each half of which, where lliey unite at their ridge, is 
glazed lo serve the |Mirpose of a sky-light. 

"The great saloon is adorned with casts of Thorwaldsen's frieze of 
the- triumphal en(ry of Alexander into liabylon, the more valiiabh^ 
because the greater part of the casts were taken from tlie clay models 
<d' the master. 

" Tlie colossal busts of (he divinities in the niches of the stair-case, 
are tlie work of Seigel. The images of the planets and lixeil s(ars of 
the painted glass ceiling are from the designs of Edwin Specker. 
The corner cabinet of tlie principal story is decorated willi arabes- 
ques, after designs by the same master, painted in encaustic, by 
JJlilde. Uiihtippily, it was too diHieiilt to represent such sportiv'e 
fancies in their forms and colours in these outline plates." 

Alter making some of the remarks we have done, it would be pre- 
posterous in us now to say tliat the volume ccmsists entirely of the 
author's best specimens; (linugli it contains mncli (hat is of great in- 
terest, we are persuaded (hat M. d(? Clieteaimcuf could render it 
more valuable ; and we hope that eitiier uuotlier edition, or anothe 



collection, will alVord him the opporlunity of prolitiug bv our criti- 
cism ; and if our praise has been somewhat qualified, wliere we have 
bestowed it has been sincere — and had there been less striking merit 
in some of the designs, we miglit, possibly, have thought better of 
others among them, than we now do. 



Euclid' g Elements of Plane Geomelry, nilh Explanatory Appcndir, and 
Siipplemailarij Propositions. By W. D. Cuolet, A. B. London : 
Whitfaker and Co., 1S40. 

Mr. Cooley, in producing this work, seems almost to wish to con- 
tradict his own motto, that " there is no royal road to geometry," for 
following in the steps of Playfair, he has considerably diminished both 
the volume of the work, as well as the labour of the student. He has 
carefully gone over the elements, and greatly reduced the amplica- 
tions and reiterations, which made former editions prolix, and he h;is, 
wherever it was possible, substituted the ordinary arithmetical ami 
algebraical signs. As he himself says, without in the slightest degree 
injuring tlie work he has reduced to r2(» duodecimo pages tlie Six 
Books of the Elements. 

Prefixed to the Elements are some remarks on the study of mathe- 
matics, as valuable for the elegance of their style, as for the correct- 
ness of their reasoning. The importance of departing from the ordi- 
nary school rate of teaching cannot be too strongly enforced. 

At the end of the work are some notes and exercises on the several 
books, in which Mr. (,'ooley gives his reasons for inserting a few fan- 
ciful definitions of Playfair. To Playfair we are much indebted, but 
it must not be forgotten that he was often led away by his turn 
of mind into mere \'erbiage, making distinctions without a dif- 
ference. 



Outline of the Method of a Conducting Trigonmetrical Survey, by Lieu- 
tenant FrOiME, Royal Engineer, F.R.A.S., and A.LC.E. London : 
Weale, 18 iU. 

This is the production of one of (he Professors in the Military Col- 
lege at Chatham, and supplies a great desideratum in professional 
literature. Lieutenant Frome is both, practically and theoretrieally 
qualified for this task, and has, therefore, produced a work valuable 
fur its own original merits, and for its careful collation of the best au- 
thorities. It shows very strongly the mischief of a government system 
that a man of such experience and capabilities should be only a Lieu- 
tenant, waiting like his less talented and less employed brethren for 
the Procrustean reward of a rise by seniority. 

The w'ork is well arranged, and of a high character going into the 
practical details of the sulijeet much more deeply than its modest title 
would induce the reader to believe. From a work of this nature it is 
difficult to make any selection, but we intend at some future period to 
extract two or tin-ee supplementary ])ortions. We must leive it, 
therefore, to our readers to take our word for the valuable character of 
Lieutenant Frome's work. 



Ornamental Gaits, Lodges, Pallisading and Rails of the Royal Parks, 
S)-c. Part 1, containing 25 Plates, Edited and Published by John 
Weale. 

The designs are iirinci|)ally the Park Lodges and Entrance G;ites of 
Ucgent's Park and Hyde Park — the elaboratuly enriched gates to the 
royal entrance of the New Palace, and the gates and railing to the 
entrance of (he Sultan's Palace, at Constantinople. There are also 
plans of St. James's Park, Kensington Gardens, and Regent's Park. 
The whole are very delicately and beautifully engraved in outline. 



The Guide to Railway Masonry, by Peter Nicholson. 

This work is a complete treatise on the Oblique Arch, and contains 
numerous engravings, illustrating the subject. The autliin' has de- 
voted considerable pains in giving every detail by which a working 
mason may be able to set out any part of the stone work of a bridge 
with faciiity. 



The Comic Latin Gramar has been sent to us, a work most admira- 
bly illustrated. Whether the design be jest or earnest we do not 
know, but it is likly to be an equal favourite with the elder as well a? 
the juvenile part of the tonimuiiity. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



35 



Voltaic Engraving. — Considerable: interest lias been lately excited in 
t'le seientitie world by Mr. Spencer's new process of copying medals and 
other works of art in copper, Iiy the agency of voltaic electricity. It is with 
great pleasure that we bear that tliis process is already beginning to be cm- 
ployed in certain of om* manufactures, ami that thus electricity will soon be 
numbered amongst the agents employed for practical and useful purposes. In 
our former account of Mr. Spencer's invention we spoke highly of the merit 
of the discovery, and the probable uses to which it miglit be appUed: the 
result has borne out our anticipations. In the manufacture of plated articles 
ami ornaments, it is often desirable to copy ornamental work, such as leaves, 
flowers, and arabesque mouldings ; this is both difficult and e.xpeusive, and 
from these causes often impossiljlc. Mr. Spencer's invention, however, 
affords a chca]i and easy method of performing what is retpiired, and thus, 
ornaments on rich ancient plate are copied with the greatest perfection and 
ease, and without injury to the original. The great advantage consisting of 
tlic means of olitaining, at very small expense, a fac-simile in copper, of the 
ornaments required to be copied, which may then be silvered or gilt. In 
another art, the voltaic process is, we arc informed, being successfully intro- 
duced. The makers of buttons often require to have two or three of a par- 
ticular pattern to comjdete a set of which they have not the die. To take a 
cast from the button is, for many reasons, inconvenient and objectionable ; 
and the voltaic process, at the cost of a few hom's and very little labour or 
expense, furnishes a perfect fac-simile of tlie button, which then only reqiures 
to be gilt. It has been said that there is a difficulty in obtaining perfect 
copies, and that the deposited copper is brittle, porous, and full of lioles ; bnt 
whoever will read attentively the process of Mr. Spencer and follow it, must 
succeed. Tlic cast of medals transmitted to us by Mr. Spencer, aitd also 
those made by Mr. E. Solly and Mr. J. Xewmau, and cxhibitcil lately at the 
meeting of the Society of Arts, were very pure ami compact copper, and the 
surface was as brilliant and jicrfect as could be desired. The process, indeed, 
is simple, and so far from its requiring, as is generally supposed, either ox- 
pensive and complicated apparatus, or deep scientific knowledge, nothing can 
be more easy, as the observance of a few rules renders the success of the pro- 
cess quite certain, and, as regards the expense of the api)aratus, the whole of 
it may be easily procm'cd for a few pence. — Atheyiicum. 



IiA'W PBOCSEDINaS. 



THE CYCLOIDAL I'ADDLE-WIIEEL. 

Ml'. CaUoiroi/n patent rights which has been disputed ever since the patent 
was (/ranted, leas brouyht on for trial in tlie Court of Comnton Pleas, on 
Friday and Saturday, November 29 and 30, before Lord Chief Justice 
TiNU.VL, and a Special J unj; it occupied tlie Court two days. 

GAI.I.OW.VY AND ANOTHER V. BLEADEN". 

The case on tlic part of the plaiutill's was that Jlr. Galloway had invented 
an improved paddle-wheel for propelling steam-vessels, for which heolitaiued 
a patent on tlie IStli of August, 1835. The invention consisted in a division 
of the floats into segments, and so arranged in a eycloidal curve as to cause 
all the five or six segments into which each float was divided to enter the 
water at the same time, and at such an angle as most diminished the shock 
occasioned to the vessel by each stroke of the paddle; \^■hilst the segments, 
when the float reached a vertical position iu the water, became joined to- 
gether as it were, so as to present an undivided surface to the water, and so 
increase the power of propulsion ; ami lastly, the float, when passing out of 
a vertical position, by becoming again divided, olVered less resistance to the 
back water, and, consequently, less retarded the speed of tlic vessel than if 
undivided. The action was brought against the defendant, as secretarj- to 
the Commercial Stcam-p.acket Company, for an infringement of this patent ; 
to which he pleaded, in addition to the general issue of not guilty, that the 
invention was not new, as it had already been discovered and used by Mr. Field 
in 1833; and that the specification was not sutlieiently intelligible to render 
tlic invention of general utility to the public. Several models illustrative 
of the alleged invention, were produced, and a comparison made bclwccn 
them and models of the wheels of two of the defendant's vessels, the Granil 
Turk and the Chieftain, to show that the latter were made upon the principle 
of (he plaintiff's specification. Witnesses were also produced to prove tliat 
workmen of competent skill could make the patent wheels from the informa- 
tion contained in the specification, and that the improvement in question was 
not known in the trade previously to the date of (be plaintifli"s patent. 

The defendant's counsel relied mainly on the ground that the invention 
had been discovered and used long before the date of Mr. Galloway's patent 
by Jlr. Field, of the firm of Maudslay and Field ; and that gentleman, being 
called as a witness, stated that in 1833 he constructed a Viheel on the im- 
proved principle now in question, which, upon application to the Lords of 
the Admiralty, he obtained a promise from them that he should have au op- 
portunity of trying upon the first vessel that came to be prepared ; that op- 
poitunity, however, was never afiorded him, but he made an experiment upon 
a steam-boat, called " The Endeavour," plying between London and Eicb- 
niond, by substituting one of his improved wlieels (of which a mode! was 
produced iu court) for one of the Endeavour's wheels. At the end of six 
weeks, however, the new wheel was removed and the old wheel replaced; 
because, according to the statcuient of the captain, the boiler was uot large 



enough for the luaehineiy to work it properly. Iu that same year he entered 
a. caveat at the I'atcnt-oifice ; and in 1835 be made a great number of expe- 
riments on the subject at his manufactory; but it was uot until the spring of 
1836 that be fitted up a vessel called the Dover castle with wheels upon the 
improved iiriiiciple, which were similar to the wheel tried upon the Endea- 
vour in 1833. 

The defendants, it was urged, bad twice acknowledged the plaiulilVs patent 
right, having on one occasion purchased their patent wlieels for one of their 
vessels, ami on another, in 1837, paid tbeiB 50/. for a licence to use theu- 
specification iu constructing wheels for them. 

The Lord thief Justice summed up the case to the jury, and left three 
questions for their ileeision ; namely, whether there had been any iiifriiige- 
mciit of the plaintiff's patent by the defeudaiits : w hether the iuventioii was 
new and unused at the date of the plaiutirt"s iiaient ; and whether the speci- 
fication was sufficient. With respect to the jiriueipal question, as to whether 
or not the invention was new, the mere fact of a scries of experiments having 
been prosecuted previously to the attainment of the olijeet to which they 
were directed, could not prevent another inventor from availing himself of 
the experiments, and then adding the final link which was necessary to bring 
them to a successful issue. If, therefore, the jury thought that up to the 
month of August, 1835, the date of the plaiiitilV's patent, all that Mr. Field 
had done rested in experiments, those experiments afforded no ground for 
disturbing the plaiutiff's patent, and in that case their verdict sboiUd be for 
the plaintiffs. 

One of the jury wished to ascertain whether the wheel tried ou (he En- 
deavour was on the principle of the eycloidal curve ; or, if the model of it 
were not iu evidence, whether it might not be examined and compared with 
the original by some competent person. 

This question gave rise to some discussion between counsel; ultimately, 

The learned Judge said that, as the person who had made the model was 
uot present, he could not allow it to go before the jury. 

The jury theu returned a verdict iu favour of the plaintiffs, with uomiiial 
damages. 



PROCEEDINGS OP SCIEKTIPIC SOCIETIES. 



ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

INSTITUTED A.D. 1831— SESSION 1839-1840. 

hth Nov., 1839. — William Tite, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

This evening's meeting, the commencement of the session, was devoted to 
a conversazione. It was very fully attended. The Secretary read the 
report of the committee. The President read a highly interesting paper " ou 
the sculptured writings found on the architecture of the Egyptians, with a 
notice of the discoveries which led to their being deciphered." 

■The attention of the meeting was directed to the several works of art 
which were about the room — noticing more jiarticularly various models iu 
terra-cotta, from Messrs. SoUin, Monton, and Co.'s cstablishnicnt, of the 
Strand ; also a model of an Egyptian obelisk in black marble, together with 
other models of buildings, iScc. Some origiual sketches by jilr. George 
-Moore ; portfolios of prints, by Uawkins and others. 

Report of the Committee, 

Gentlemen — This evening being the opening conversazione of the session, 
it may natnr.ally be expected by the visitors and members who have kindly 
favoured us with their attendance, that the Committee should state tlie views 
they, on behalf of the Society, intend to adopt iluring the present session, 
and at the ensuing evening meetings; and they trust that the suggestions 
which have been oll'ered, and which they propose to adopt for the further 
carrying out of the objects of the Society may produce an increased interest 
in their evening meetings, and may meet with tlie conetUTence and personal 
exertions of the members generally for their fulfilment. 

The Committee first remark that they have been successful in securing the 
assistance of iMcssrs. .\ddams ami E. AV. 15r.aley, jim., (as Frofessors) to deliver 
lectnrej.at the monthly meetings, and that on the intermediate evenings of 
meetings they ]ia\ e procured the iiromise, on the part of several of their own 
members, to ileliver lectures, or otherwise to read jiapcrs having reference to 
matters of architectural practice and interest, the subjects of which, iu 
all cases, it is proposed should be announced at the xirevious evening 
meeting. 

Secondly — the Committee considering that tliis mode of instruction (by 
lectures) is provided, more particularly for their class of .Student Members, 
propose, as a means whereby these advantages may be made the more avail- 
able to the interest of tli.it class, that the Student Members should take 
notes of the several Professors' lectures, and as a stimuhis to a due atten- 
tion to this portion of the benefits olfered to them by this instifutiou, have 
deterniinod tli.at the subject for the prize usually given for the best essay 
should be "Tlie best fairly transcri!)ed notes of the Professors' lectures." 

.\ud while on the subject of jirizes, the Couiiuittce have the pleasure to- 
anuounce that they li.avc received the list of the subjects fioni th.e Sketching 
Coiumitlee, for which the premiums w ill be awarded to the class of Student 
Jlembers, at the close of the present session. 

F 2 



36 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



The ])ri/cs to be .-iwavded are— in the first class, design, a pair of silver 
eoniiia.ises ; scroiid class, drawing, Cliamhers's Civil Architecture (tiwilt's 
edition) ; third class Tith vohnni? of Hiitton's Antiipiitics. licside these 
prizes, whicli arc given hy thr' Society, the Committee have the pleasure to 
announce that Mr. George Mair has signified his intention to award tlie 
usual prize, entitled tJcorgc Mair's prize, to he given to tliat student who pro- 
duces the greatest nnud)er of the most a|iproved skitches from gi\en 
suhjects; the sketches to be made in accordance with tlie directions of the 
Sketching Committee. 

FIRST PRIZE. 

The sulijcct for tlie design is a enncerf room, with the pufr.-ince. vestibule, 
ami cloak rooms— the length of the concert room to be 8I> feet, witli a gal- 
lery at one eml. The orchestra to consist of an isolated raised platform on 
the ground floor. 

Tlie sfvle to be either the Greek or Koman arcliitectme. 

The drawings to consist of plan, longitudinal, and transverse sections, 
front and side elevations, to a scale of l-(ith of an inch to a foot ; to be ac- 
compiinicd by a prespective view, and the drawings to be finished in Indian 
ink, or Sepia 

SECOND PRIZE. 

Tlie subject for the measured drawings is the colonade to Uuilington 

House. , r r i ^ 

Tlie drawings to consist of the plan and elevation to the scale of 1-Cth o 
an inch to a foot, with the plan and elevation of one compartment to thp 
scale of I an inch to a foot, and details of the order J the real size. 
The wliolc of tlie prizes will be inscribed. 

The Committee, not unmindful of the advantages and encouragement the 
Society receive from the Amateur Members, lieg to state they have deter- 
mined'to extend the privileges of that class of members, and that those gen- 
tlemen iiiav henceforth, in addition to their former jirivilcges, also h.ave re- 
ference to.'and the use of, the Society's library and documents at all times 
of the dav, without any restriction ; and flic Committee trust that tliis ar- 
rangement, which places their privileges on a level with those of the mem- 
bers themselves, so far as the use of the Society's rooms is concerned, may 
meet the views and wishes of that portion of their niemljers. 

In conclusion, the Committee have the pleasure to remark that during the 
recess several additions have been made, both to the liliran- and mnseiim, 
and it is hoped that, under the able counsel of their excellent President, the 
united co-operation of the members themselves, and the flattering support 
elicited from the attendance of the visitors, that the Architectural Society may 
have the gratification of finding that the meetings of this session may lie 
as advantageously and as satisfactorily concluded as those of its former 
sessions. 

\9fh Nov. — William Tite, Esi/., President in the Chair. 
Mr. Blyth read a paper on commemorative monuments. 
The President announced that Mr. John Blyth (Vice-President) had com- 
municated his intention to give a prize of the value of live guineas 
for the best drawing of a plaster east of the human figure, from some sjieci- 
men in the possession of the Society. The prize to he awanled at the close 
of the session, and to be described accordingly. 

At the solicitation of the student members, the President announced the 
subjects which had been ; selected for the prizes, and the resolutions 
passed last session, assigning the qualifications for the competitors for the 
prizes were referred to, and read as follows: — "That no studiMit shall be 
allowed to compete for either of the prizes awarded by the society, who shall 
have completed his articles, and that the society only award the prizes to 
students under articles." 

Also, " That the same regulation do apjily to any private jirize, which 
may be offered for the further encouragement of the class of student incm- 
bers." 

3rd December, 1839. — William Tite, A'vy., President, in the Chair. 
The President gave notice that the subject selected for Mr. lilyfh's prize 
was the figure of " the Atlas." The figure to be drawn IS inches high, and to 
he shaded in lines with pencil or ink. 

The meeting was then favoured by a very interesting and instructive lec- 
ture hy Mr. Ilemmiug, the subject of which was "Iron." * 
llth Decemlter, 1839. — William Tite, Esq., President, in the chair. 
The President gave notice that the Hon. C. Cavendish had given his assent 
for the students to measure the colonnade of Biirlingtou House; and that, 
hy the obtaining of which the coniniittcc were enabled to complete the list of 
subjects for the prizes to be delivered at the close of the session. 

■The President re.id the list of subjects as prepared by the committee, toge- 
ther with file rules and regulations to be observed by the students 
competing for tlie same. The list of subjects, iSic, was ordered to be 
be hung up in the society's room. 

The President announced a donation from the .\rcliutcctural Society of 
Berlin of the third volume of the Architects' Album, published by that 
body. 

Mr. Addanis delivered a lecture "On the strength of beams to resist pres- 
sure and impact." He referred to iron as well as wood ; and in the course 
of the lecture gave some excellent tables, whereby an easy cakulation 
might be made as to the weight any iron beam would carry. 



Mr. Pocock explained to the meeting a new material be had manufactured 
for the purpose of roofing in lieii of slating, &c., a specimen of which was 
lying upon the table. 



STEAM NAVIGATION. 



THE 'CVCLOP.S' STEAM ENGINE. 

On- Friday the Kith of December, this splendid vessel left her moorings at 
Blaekwall, for a trial trip down the river, and to proceed to Shecrness to 
t.ake in her guns and equipments. This being the largest steam frigate in the 
world excited much attention, and thronglioiit her passage down the river, 
WHS an object of great curiosity and admiration. 

The trial was made under the directions of the Lords of the Admiralty and 
their officers, several of whom \\ere on board, viz.. Sir C. Adam, the Secre- 
tary of tlie Admiralty .\lr. Moore O'Pcrrall, Sir E. Parry, Sir William Symonds, 
Captain Nutt, Captain Austin, fic. &-C. 

ller performance was most excellent, the speed was found to be about 10 
knots, or 11. I miles, her engines working 21 strokes; and it was universally 
remarked that there was an entire absence of the unpleasant tremulous motion 
so generally found in otiier steamers. 

After proceeding close to the Nore Light, she turned and met the " Fear- 
less" Admiralty steamer, which accompanied her down, and their Lordships 
embarked in tiiat vessel to return to Woolwich, while the "Cyclops" pro- 
ceeded up the Medway, and made fast to the buoy ofT Shcerness Dock-yard. 
This vessel was ]ilanned by Sir WilUam Symonds, and built under his im- 
mediate supeiinteiidanee at Pembroke dock-yard; she combines in a most 
eminent degree the qualities of both sailing and steaming, together with such 
improvements as have suggested themselves to her designer from the exiieri- 
ence of the " Gorgon." 

She is propelled by two engines of ICO horse power each, made by Meiirs. 
J. & S. Seaward and Capel, on the new princijile adopted by them, by which 
they dispense with the large cast-iron side frames and sway beams, the cross 
heads, side rods, &c., &e., and thus bring the weights of these engines to 70 
tons less than they would have been, had they been made on the common 
beam principle; and thereby also effect a very important saving of sjiace in 
the length of the engine room. These engines are fitted with a contrivance 
(which is protected by patent) for warming the feed water on its passage to 
the boiler, by causing it to jiass through a number of cojipcr jiijics around 
which the spent steam from the cylinder circulates, on its way to the con- 
denser ; by which means the teniperature of the feed water is elevated about 
60 degrees' above the usual temperature, at which it enters a boiler, and a 
saving effected in the consumption of fuel of seven per cent. 

There are four copjier boilers for supplying the above with steam, made 
entirely of copper, and ]ilaced in pairs, hack to back, with a fore and aft stoke 
hole; these boilers are clothed on the system first used by Messrs. J. and S. 
Seaward and Capel, and since introduced into the navy for Her Majesty's 
steam ships, for the jirevcntion of the radiation of heat ; the advantages of 
which were evident in the surprising coolness of the engine room. A baro- 
meter placed against the side of the boilers only rose to 68", and another in 
the stoke-hole to only 72' . 

The boilers are fitted with a patent apparatus for detecting and indicating 
the state of saltness of the water in the boiler; and also with a receiver and 
apparatus for blowing out, when the time for that operation has arrived; by 
means of which all danger from salting the boiler, or blowing out the wafer 
too low, is entirely obviated ; and the boiler may be worked as long with salt 
water as with fresh. 

There are coal-boxes placed on each side of the vessel the whole length of 
the engine room, and holding when full about 450 tons of coals. The con- 
sumption of fuel by actual weight (the coals being weighed during the trial) 
was 17 cwt. per hour, equal to 6 lbs. of coal per horse per hour. 

The " Cyclops" is commissioned by Post Captain Austin, l.nte of the Medea, 
being the only steam frigate in the navy besides the " Gorgon," of that rank. 
Her engine room crew will consist of four engineers, twelve stokers, and four 
coal trimmers. — The actual number of hands including officers and a lieuten- 
ant's party of marines, will be two hundred and ten men. 
Jler dimensions are as follows : — 

Feet. In. 

Extreme length 217 9 

Length of upper deck ..-..- 19.5 2 
Width across jiaddle-boxes - - - - -57 
Length of engine room - - - - - - 6'2 

Width of beam 38 

Depth of hold 23 

Engines — Diameter of cylinder 64 

Length of stroke ...-.56 

Diameter of paddle-wheel - - - - 26 

Width of wheel 8 

Weight of engines, boilers and water 280 tons. 
Weight of coals for 2.'j days consumption, 4.')0 tons. 

Draught of water with all her guns, ammunition, engines, coals and stores 
for six mouths, 16 feet 6 inches. 

Tonnage, 1,200 tons. — Power of engines, 320 horses. 
The armament of the "Cyclops" will consist of — on the upper deck two 98 
pounders; one at the stem, and one at the stern. — Eoiu' 48 pounders. 
On the gun-deck, sixteen long 32 pounders. 



1S40.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



37 



Ri-ssiAN AVAR Stkamkr, " Pvlades," axd "Thk .Sons of thk TuAMrs." 

Tins vessel is tlio last of throe which were ordered fnr tlie Russian govern- 
ment, and of wliieh the two others have already proceeded lu their destina- 
tion. .She went down the river on Wednesday the ISth nltimo. on an experi- 
mental trip to (iravesend. aecumpanied by the Riis.sian Coiisnl and a lar^ie 
party invited hy Messrs. Miller and Ravenhill, Die engineers Mio manufac- 
tureil her machinery, In witness this first trial of her engines, we repaired 
to Blackwall a little before 11 o'clock (ihc intended hour of deparluie). and 
found that the Pylades had not yet left the docks, and that some time would 
still elapse before she could be out into the river, in eoiisrtpience of a large 
vessel Iwingthen on Ihe poiict of entering the docks. This delay aflorded us 
an opportunity of observing the form of the steamer's hull, wh-eh was binlt 
by Mr. Pitcher, from drawings hy Mr. Ditchburn, to whose talent as a naval 
arehiteet, the model, if we may judge from the part which appears above 
water, docs great credit. 

During this time our attention was directed to a sm.all iron steam-boat, 
liuilt by Mr. Ditchburn, and fitted with a pair of engines of 28 horse power 
each, by Messrs. Mil'er and llavenhin. She was also going down to Graves- 
end on her first trial, and \\hile waiting for tlie Pylades she made several 
trips in front of the dock entrance to the admiration of all present. She was 
evidently going at a great speed, but seemed at the same time to cleave the 
i^ater with sueh ease as to cause no disturbance whatever in the lliiid for 
there was neither .spr.ay nor any perceptible wave against her bows, which 
speaks strongly for the correctness of the principles tollowed by Mr. Ditch- 
burn in laying oft' her lines. 

As .soon'as the Pylades could be got out of the docks, which was not until 
about 1*2 o'clock, we proceeded down the ri\er. but owing to some little ad- 
justments which it was discovered were still required to ije made in the en- 
gines, in order to allow them to workup It) their power, the performance was 
not so good as eould be wished, notwillistauding which the engines worked 
vcrv smoothly, causing little or no vibration in the vessel. The time of run- 
ning the measured mile at Long Reach was noted on our way down with the 
tide, but against a rather strong head wind ; the distance was performed in 
J min. '17 sec whicli gives a speed of nearly 10^ miles an hour over the 
ground. To a.'certaiii the rate through the w ater it would le necessary either 
to deduct or eliminate the velocity of tlie tide : but, as the engines were not 
working up 10 their speed, it was not considered worth while to make the 
experiment against the tide, so we went on to (iravesend. where we arrived a 
little before 2 o'clock, and found the " Sons of the 'Vhanies" waiting for us. 
As it had been arranged that the whole party should return to Blackwall on 
board that boat, she was brought along side of the Pylades, and took the 
company on hoard, ly which time it was 20 minutes past 2 o'clock; wo then 
started, the Planet, belonging to the Star Company, having loft the pier a 
quarter of an hour before. In the course of one hour we overtook her, and. 
having gone a li tie farther, we jmt about and returned some distance to take 
a gentleman on board, and passed the Planet again before we arrived at 
Blackwall. having in the mean time gone completely round her. It is calcu- 
lated tliat, in order to do this, we must have been going at the rate of 1.SJ to 
Hmilesan hour through the water. This comparative speeil with the Planet 
is the more astonishing as the ".Sons of the Thames'' lias two engines of 
only 2S horse power each, whilst the PI net has two engines of JO horse 
pow er each. 

It may not perhaps he generally known that the iron steam boat, the Or- 
well, now running between Limdon and Ipswich, which we believe equals, or 
even excels the '* Sons of the Thames " in speed, was also (itteil with I'ligines 
by Messrs. Miller, Ravenhill and Co.. ami built by Messrs. Ditchburn and 
Co., so that we may confidently look forward to the time (which we believe 
not to be far distant), when the speed of our steamers on the Thames shall 
not only come up to, hut even exceed that said to be attained in America. 
and that with a comparati vely small expenditure of power; for if it is not 
notorious, it is at least known in this country, that the power put into the 
American steam boats is most gigantic. 

\ciii Iron Steamer.— On Satur.lay the 7th ult., the iron steamer "Enter- 
prise," built and fitted out by Mr. Borrie. of the Tay Foundry, started on a 
trial trin to New burgli. The model of the hull is certainly beautiful, and at 
first siglit any one must be of opinion that the elements of forai calculated 
to promote rapid sailing are possessed by the " Knterprise " in a very eminent 
degree. The entrance and runs are very sharp, which, united with the great 
bearing in the floors render the vessel buoyant, and secure an easy passage 
through the water. The anticipations forineil other speed were fully realized. 
She seiiled a measured distance of four miles marked on the shore in Ihe 
space of 12 miuules. The tide was in her favour, and admitting it to have 
been running at the rate of four miles an hour (although it was under tliat 
rate) would make Ihe actual distance performed hy her over the ground at 
tlie rate of 16 miles an hour, a speed that has not hitherto been attained by 
any steamer, ll may be remarked that this speed is not .so much attributable 
to the great pow er of the engines as to the form of that pari of the hull im- 
mersed in the water ; and indeed Mr. Borrie states, that in making his cal- 
culation for procuring a given speed, he placed a greater reliance on lessening 
the resistance that would be experienced by Ihe vessel in passing through 
the water for obtaining a high velocity, than by dependence on great pro- 
pelling power. In this he has decidedly succeeded, as the result amply proves. 
The vessel measures 280 tons, and has two engines of .3.3 horse power each, 
which is a now er much less in projiorlion to Ihe tonnage than thai of many 
sleameis wliich would not sail 10 miles an hour, and at the same lime having 
a seetion-il area of resistance not greater than that of the " Knterprise." A 
striking feature in the " Enterprise'' is Ihe consumption of smoke. This is 
elfectert by a plain and very simple contrivance in the interior of the furnace. 
The furnace bars instead of being straight are curved on the upper surface, 
and are so adjusted in the furnaces as to form a veiy acute angle with the 
front of the boiler at the furnace doors, whilst towards the posterior extremi- 
ties they arc horizontal, in other respects lliey are similar to those in general 
use The fvirnace covers deflect ahout 18 inches into the furnaces, within 



two feet of the inner end. which forms a water chamber. The dislanee be- 
tween the upper surface of Ihe coals when the furnaces are fully charged, and 
the under surface of the dellector. is about six inches. The coals tor every 
new feed h ing dejtisited in the anterior part of the furnace, which is fully 
two-thirds longer than the posterior part or space behind the dellcclur. it 
follows that the coals liefcu'c requiting to be pushed back into Ihe space be- 
hind the deflector must h.ive become very highly ignited and the component 
parts w'hich cause the emission of smoke entirely disappear. Then Ihc pos- 
terior lire chamber being always charged with fuel w hich only emits a |)Ure 
and intense flame, the smoke arising from the coals in the anterior chamber 
having to pass umlerneath the dellector come immediately into conlaet with 
the flame in the posterior chaiuber, and having to pass through in us way 
to the flues is exposed to its most intense action, whereby it is immediately 
consumed. The dimensions of the " Enterprise" are,— Length of keel, 116 
feet ; breadth of beam, 21 feet ; depth of hold, 8 feet. — Dundee Courier. 

Steam Nnvif^ntiov aeYosa the Atlnntie. — Early next spring, and during the 
year, there will be placed on the several lines three new steamers to ply be- 
tween England and New York, and Mr. Cunard's steamers to Boston, by the 
way of llilifax. will go into operation. Two of the three, Ihe Ncic York and 
Presiiietit — the formenfor the Transatlantic Company, and the latter for the 
British Queen Association — are nearly ready for launching ; and the Nem 
York will jn'obably leave Englaiui in April or Ma\'. and the Presiiiet/t in Jun 
or .luly. The third is now building for the Great M'estcrn Company, andwil 
be construc'ed ol iron. .She will not be ready before next .September or Oc- 
tober. These, together with Mr. Cunard's, which will commence running in 
May next, will keep open a free communication with Europe without the aid 
ol " w indy '' vesseki. Together, they w ill form a line so that there will be two 
departures from England and two from the United States every monih. In 
adilitiim to thes!% the keel of another steam ship, to he of 1,4-30 tons, and 130 
horse-power, has already lieen laid fnr the Transatlanfie Steam Company, to 
run in eonneelion with Liverpool and New York. .She will not be finished 
before Ihe spring of 1841 : and also bv that lime there will be two large and 
splendiil steamers ready to start from ihe Clyde, and run across to New York. 
With steamers, as with sailing packets, the builders improve with every new 
vessels. It it said by those who have seen the plans of the new steamers, 
that the improvements adopted will ])laee them oil a par with our packet- 
shins in point of eomlort. &<■. The Atlantic will soon lie as thickly doited 
Willi steain-shi[is as with sailing vessels. — Xew York paper. 

Port of Fleetwood. — The commissioners from the Court of Exchequer, sent 
down for Ihe purpose of surveying and setting out the boundaries of the Port 
of Fleetwood, fini.^hecl iheir task ycslerday se'nnight. They commenced on 
the previous ^hmday to survey the coasts and creeks between Lancaster and 
Preston, and dotenniued the limits of the port as follow ; — To eominen<e at a 
run of water called Ihe Hundred lOnd. aliout two miles to Ihe west of Ilesketh 
Bank, continuing up to Preston, thence along the coast on the north side of 
the river to Lytham. round the coast to Blackpool, and on to b'leetwood ; 
thence to the river Broadfleet, four miles froai Sea Dyke, including both sides 
of the Wj re, and the river Broadlleet. — Prestoii Pilot. 

The British Queen is not intended to le started for New York on the first 
of .lanuary, as previously advertised, Ihe proprietors being of opinion that 
one very serious impediment to th • speed ol Ihe vessel is in the inferior con- 
struction of the paddle-boxes: anrl, acctirdingly, a new description oi padt.lle, 
called "The Rceflng Paddle," is about to be substituled — this new padille 
being the invention of the celebrated Mr. Samuel Hull. — Midland Counties 
Herald. 



ENGINEERING 'WORKS. 



The null Dock cotnpamj are ahout applying to Parliament for m.iking an 
extensive dock and entrance for the large class of steam ho.ats, &c. on the 
east side of the river Hull. 

Jl'oolirirh Doct-i/nrd. — In the Noveinlier lunnber, we inserted a p.aragi'aph 
from the " Times,"' stating that the new dry dock, making at \Voohvich, and 
other works, were under the charge of Lt. Deiinison ; upon enquiry, we find 
that the new dry dock now on hand at the east end of the yard, is being 
constructed under the direction and superiuteudance of Mr. Walker, by 
Jlessrs, Grissell and Peto. 

New Pier at Alarfsate. — This pier, which is intended to rival that of Rams- 
gate, as a refuge harbour for her Majesty's steam-vessels. Sec. is, we hear, 
to commence at flie ^\'ayland and Eulsam rocks, from the facility arising 
from their receiving the piers on a foundation of solid chalk, exiending 1000 
feet from the gateway to the sea at Wostbrook. The second point, opposite 
tlie fort, next the East Cliff, is intended to be .300 feet, leaving an opening 
for vessels to the extent of 400 feet. — Adeerliser. 

Cowes. — It is now expected that Sir .lohn Ronnie's plan for deepening the 
Medina will be carried into execution. A spacious town-quay will also he 
erected, and it is rumoured that !lio members of the Royal Yacht Squadron 
are about removing Iheir rendezvous from this 'place to ihe anchorage off' 
Norris. on which estate a splenihd club-house is to be built for the accommo- 
dation of its members. — Hampshire Teleffraph. 

Proposed new road from Perth to Elfin. — A meeting was lately held at 
Elgin on this important subjoel, when a number of piopriotors and gen- 
tlemen of the town attended, including Ihe Duke of Richmond. Mr. A. 
Mitchell, civil engineer, Pertli. attended with a report he had drawn up on 
the subject, as to the probable expense. &c. of the new line. The estimalos, 
framed on a minute survey he calculated would not exceed £23,000. The 
probable revenue to he derived from tolls, Mr. Mitchell estimated in all at 
£1530. After Mr. Mitchell's statement and report, the meefing pas.sed a 
series of resolutions, appointing a committee to prepare a memorial to Go- 
vernment soliciting pecuniary assistance, as also the aid of the members of 
Parliament connccled with the northeru counties and hurghs. 



as 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[January, 



Slmrt-hum Ifarhour. — Tlio iK'U' pier at Iho ontrancc of tlic Irirboui' has been 
carried a con^idtM-ahle (lislanro inio liie sea, and tlionjii it Mill d'Uiljlle'^.'i 
impriivc llie Iiarl)c)iir. it elueks tlic IruvrllintI on the Ijcacli Ijcluei'ii Brighton, 
and in case o^ liigli tides mtiy ueeasioii consideraljle iucoiivei;ieiieo. — Biii^htdn 
Herald. 

Trignmoulh Briilge. Devon. — It may l,e ficsli in the fecolleclien of our 
readers that a very coiisidi'raMe port on of this bridge suddenly fell iuJune 
1B3H. caused by tlio destruction of the timber piles from the ravages of the 
worm. 'J'lie restoration Avas only cnmmencod in the early part of the autumn, 
by direction oi Her Majesty's C'ummissioncrs for Kxcliequer Rill Loans, from 
ll'ie plans of Messrs. Walker ahd Iinrpes. If we mny jndi^e fioin the progress 
airciKly made, and the number of workmen emi'loycd. there is every pros|)cet 
of the bridge being agtiin made iiassaiile to the public in the course of a 
couple of months. We regret having omittrd noticing this work before, as 
ue attach .greater hiterest to works of this description (after failure) llian in 
the (irst construction. We hope a;jain to refer to this subject witli ;i more 
ilelailed account of the plans adopted. 



PROGRESS OF RAILViTAVS. 



Ciiiiiul Juiwticiii Itailirai/. — A coud deal of inconvenience and trouble h ere 
occasioned a few days ago to the passengers on the railway, and the servants 
of the company, hv " a slip" or tall of a great portion of bank, about seven 
miles on this side Birmingham. At that point there is a very deep cutting, 
the bank on one side of w liieh. liaving been loosened by the late incessant 
rains, was sliaken down by the passing of the six o'clocl^ train, on .Saturday 
morning last. The engine was partially covered by the mass of earth, but 
providentially no iiijury amis sustained by any of the passengers. Another 
on.;ine A\as oljtained to foj'ward the train. ui)ieli was. of c urse. delayed con- 
siderably beyond its usual lime, as were al.'O the other trains which followed : 
the jiassengers and luggage having to he transferred from one train to .another 
bi'fore they could proceed, both lines of rails being entirely covered A\ith a 
vast ((uanlily of earth. We understand that the line was not cleared so as to 
allow of the passage of trains until Monday. 

Great. Western RaUway.- — The A\'orks of this railv\av, between Diidast and 
Farringdon, are so fer advanced, that we understand the directors confidently 
e.xpect to open the line nearly thirty miles beyond Reading, about the same 
time as to that town itself ; in which case, upwards of sixty miles of the 
London division w ill be open for public use in the spring, and the line between 
Bristol and Bath at the same time. 

Nnrtli Mhlhniil RailiiHUi. — The contracts for the Eckinglon, Chesterfield, 
and .Soulli \\'ing(ield stations have been lot to the following parties : — Eck- 
ington, to Messrs. Smith and Brown, of .ShelTleld ; Chesterfield, to JTessrs. 
Leatlier and Waring; .South Wingfield. to Mr. Radford, of Alfreton. Total 
amount, j£7,000. The Helper contract is not yet let. — Derlni J!ej>iirler. 

Hull find Sclbjj Raihvaij. — On this line all the works continue to be prose- 
cuted as ttipidly as the very unfavourable weather allows. About two-thirds 
of the whole of the iron wiirk of the supcrstnieliire of the bridge over the 
nver Ouse. at Selby. are now on the spot, and the nu'n arc busily engaged in 
li.singit; the whole of the ironwork of the bridge over the river Uerwent, 
iiciir Wresscl Castle, has arrived there, and two of the ribs are fixed across 
llie river, the greatest portion of the entire length of therail'.\ay is ballasted, 
and the contractors are busily engaged in laying the permanent v.ay. We 
luidersland that it is highly probable llii.-. railway will be eomplete.l by Mid- 
siunoier next, and that in the course of the year, there will be a complete 
railway communication between Hull and London. — Mtillaiid Cimiit/cs Herald^ 

(ilasgow and Aijrshire Railway. — It is truly gratifying to find that the 
highest anticipations formed of the success of tliis railway, prcmiise to be 
fully rctdir.ed. as a fraflie on the limited p(U'tion of the line tilretidy ojiened 
s being created, far more extensive than the most san.guine etinld have ex- 
ipecled. Indeed, this undertaking atfords a more than ordinar)" illustration 
of the fact, that facility of eonununication srcures traflic lor itself. Before 
the line was opened to [rvine. tlie intercourse between these places was so 
very liiniled, that ijublic aceoinmodalion did ncd demand more than a one 
bor>e coach, thrice a Meek. Now, however, that railway coa(dies run to 
and from Irvine thrice a day, and there is a coach stationed at Irvine to 
(.iiry forward |)assengers to (dasgow, this route has become quite a thorough- 
i.ire. ;\nd well do the shareliokicrs of the (ilasgow and Ayrshire R.^ilway 
nieiil so Mattering a prospect of the success of a speculation fraught with 
sikIi unspeakable advanttiges to the west of Scotland. The recent return of 
the iiiunber of |>asscngeis that have travelled trom Ayr to Irvine, during the 
three months ending the .Tib current. (3li.S32) must give them great confi- 
dence, that when the entire line to Glasgow is opened, the trafiic upon it will 
;;reatly exceed the cslimtile laid bef re parliament. Indeed, we liclievc that 
the ]iaili;imentary proof went no further than to warrant i]io aiininil traflic in 
pa>engers of 32.000, 4,83'2 less th.an have already travelled in three months! 
The line from Irvine to Kilwinning being now on the eve of completion, will 
be opened in .lanuary next, when a large increase of trallic must necessarily 
follnw, from the surrounding populous districts, including the towns of Dairy, 
KiU'irnie, Beith, Stevenson, S.iltcoats, Anlros.san, &c. The entire line to 
i.las-.;ow, .as is now jireliy well known, is expected to be opened in June, 
IK 10.— ./;/!■ .Iilvertiser, 

Niirlh Midland Railway. — The Leeds station, or terminus, we understand, is 
to be let by contract to-morio.v. The Belper station, we hear, is to be built 
by Hugh M'Inlosh. b'.sq. The bridge for the turnp'ke ro.Td, near Diiflield, 
alreaily known as Moscow -bridge, is nearly completerl. Milford tunnel is 
eouipleted. the last brick remaining only to be bud. The enormous mass of 
masonry at Belper is rapidly progressing, and the tem[:orary bridge over the 
wide part of the Dervvent, called Bclper-pool, is taken up. iinil the permanent 
one, nearly 600 teet long, iiromises to be eomi)lctc before New \ etir's Day. 
The new bed for llicnvcr, ucar Amber-Biate, is proceeding with great aclivity ; 



and the immense briilge of live arches, at the same place, promises completion 
soon, as we ob.erve centres fixing for the arches, the greater part of two years 
having been spent, night and day, in getting in the foundations and piers. 
On the embauKments in this neighbourhood, great portions of tiio permanent 
way are laid. The difficult undertaking at Bull-bridge, m passing over the 
turnpike road and under the bed of the canal at the saine time, has been 
easily ncconijdished, and is all but finished. We observe here water and land 
piled four stories, one on the other, in a singular manner, thus: — there is 
first the river Amber, over which goes the turnpike road ; over this goes the 
North Midland Railway ; and over the r:dlway flows the Cromford canal. 
Such a eoiTiplication of bridges is seldom to be met with. At the station here 
(Derby) the grcatfst activity prevails; and there is every indication of an 
e irly opening of this line in the spring. A committee of directors, with K. 
Stephenson, Esq., arrived here by a special train on Monday last, to inspect 
the works. — Derby Reporter of Thursday. 

Crlnnrrster and Birmingham Railroad. — The works of this railway, in the 
neighbourhood of Cheltenham, contiiuie to progress most satisfactorily. The 
extensive range of buildings near the oilices ana lodge, already erecteJ, which 
are designed tor the engine-houses, workshops, S:c., of the depot, are in a 
\eyy forward state, and, unless retarded by the weather, will l)e ttU roofed 
over in the course of a few days, A powerful locomotive engine is now con- 
stantly empUiyed in removing ballast, &e., along the line between Cheltenham 
and Tewkesbury, which portion is so far ready for use, that it is the intention 
of the directors to make their first experimental trip along it some day next 
week. The ultimate prospects of this company seem to be most promising. — 
Bristol Mercury. 

Eastern Counties Railway Company. — The bridge built by this company over 
the brook leading from Brentwood to M'arley is now finished, and persons 
travelling that way will find the hill considerably lessened. — Clielmsfnrd 
Chronicle. 

Croydon Raihrai/. — The first six months from the opening of this line ter- 
minated on Ihe4tli inst. ; during that period 311.310 passengers have travelled 
on the railway, and the money received is ilT.GljS Il.s. Sd, — Sun. 

Blarhwall RaiUeay. — We understand that the Directors have determined 
upon fitting up an electro-magnetic telegraph along their line, similar to that 
which we recently noticed as having been ibr some time in successful opera- 
tion on the Great Western Railway. In addition to the facilities wliich such 
an arrangement will afford in the working of the railway, (an arrangement 
peculiarly adapted to this line, as w c shall take a future opportunity of show- 
ing.) the public will be benefitted in no small degree by its application to 
other purposes. For instance, a vessel coming up the river can, before reach- 
ing Woolwich, easily communicate by si.gnals with the railway terminus at 
Blaekwall. and the information being inste.ntaneously conveyed to the Fen- 
church-street station, in the immediate vicinity of the great seat of business, 
parties who are expecting the arrival of friends will at once be prepared to 
meet them in town, without the necessity of waiting fm- hours about docks 
and whar's; or, if so inclined, can join them at Blaekwall, almost as .soon as 
the vessel has reached that point. In the case of s eam-boats especially, tliis 
will be of great advantage as there can be no doubt that the « hole of the 
pas.^engers by these vessels will at once avail themselves of the railway to 
avoid tlie always teilious. and sometimes dtnigerous, navigation of the I'uol. 
We are glad lo find that the works of this short but most important line are 
proceeding with much vigour, and that the prospects of the Company are in 
the iiighest degree satisfiiclory. — Railway Times. 

London and Briglilmi Railway.— >ih;co. the opening of the tunnel on the 
Shoreham branch of the railw'ay, the cutting on New I'mgland Farm has 
made ra)>id progress; and judging from Ibe appearance of the works, we 
should suppose that two or three weeks wcmld be sullicient to complete iC. 
The remainder of the line, at the Shoreham end, w ill, we imagine, take even 
le s lime, as only a very fevf yards of embankment remain to be made, and 
the permanent rails are already laid on the level of the meadows immediately 
contiguous t,i Shoreham. A great number of spectators assemljle at New 
England daily, to witness the ingress and egress of the engine to and from 
the tunnel. The viaduct over tlie New England Road, for the London line, 
is nearly completed ; and tlie pro,giv.ss of the works there, is, we learn, equally 
rapid and satisfaciory with thato't the works on the Shoreham Br.anch, nearer 
home. — Br i fill ton Gazette. 

(Ireul Western /?f(//H'oi/.— The progress of lliis immense national undertaking 
is beginning now to be a work of admiration. Bclwixt Loivlon and Bristol 
there are many points of observance showing the wonderful daring results 
of science which our forefathers never could have antieip;vted. The won- 
ders of Egypt dwindle into nothing in the comparison. 'Inere are gigantic 
labours without use. the mimuments of pride and folly ; here n.sc, ornament, 
and durability seem to try lo surpass each olher.and their several excellences 
are so adjusted as lo show the foundation of future national prosperity be- 
yond all jiower of calculation— not only the prosperity of trade by the rapid 
conyeyance of merchtindisc. but intellectual prosperity, national progress as 
to mind, by bringing all parls of the empire into more frequent intercour.-fe 
wilh large towns, and especially with the metropolis. The most costly por- 
tion of the line will be the tunnel at Box. This will ever be in itself a mag- 
nificent proof of the skill and enterprise of the age ; but these can never be 
truly esiimalerl. wilhout a knowledge of the overwhelming dilfieulties en- 
countered in its progress. Uf these no evidences w ill be presenlcd by the 
work il.self, they will l.'C matters only of history. The compmy deserve high 
ap;,r drition if not nation,il grali;ude for their liberal ende ivour to iniike 
every point of observance tin additiontil Ixi.auty lo its locality. Even in Bath, 
Ibe most beaulirul cily in Kngland, where every thing seenn to harmonise in 
splendour, even here we find the line (d' works adjacent addiii'' to Ibe general 
lungnifieence. The centerings of the arch over the Wells-road, at the bottom 
of Hollow, ly, hivve been removed, and erected at the phice where the r.ailway 
will cross Claverton-strect. The arch and the two golhiit lowers are pro - 
noune.'d to be excellent specimens of workmanship ; ami the entire viaduct, 
from the taste cviucctl in its dcsimi, will form, when completcvl, 'luite an or- 



1840.] 



THE CIA^L ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



39 



iwmont tu tlie iieiKliljiHiiliooil. The ciilliji- ilam in tlie Avuii. in uliicli iho 
miildle siipporl of Ihc iiroposcil bridge will be eivcte.l, has not yet been cleared 
of water. Init every effort is being made to effect that object. At the tunnel 
near Ralhwick-terraee the workmen have commenced the formation of a per- 
manent wav ; and near llimpton-row great advance has been made during 
the last live or six weeks. At Hampton and the fields beyond, the cuttings 
and embankments are in a forward stale. Close by the stone bridge, between 
Hampton and Bathwiek, the works are also beginning to alter the face of the 
landscape. — Biitli Journal. 

South Enslerii Ilailma/.— The rapid progress of the works is giving quite a 
lively aspect to I'olkestone. The bridge across the Canterbury and Dover 
road is also completed; and the advancement of the hne on either side is 
going on in a highly satisfactory manner. — Dort'r Chronicle. 

Li'cih mill Manchester Ralhmji. — Uapid progress is making in the con- 
struction of the tunnel at the summit lietween Liltleborough anil ."<o Imor.lon, 
and it is gener.ally expected that the whole line will be conipleied in the 
autumn of the year 1 840. Tlio numlxM- of passengers now travelling in the 
railway carriages betv\'cen Manchester and Littleborongh is perfectly amazing 
and approaches nearly to 3,000 a day ; nor is this to be wondered at, « hen it 
is considered tiuit it is actually cheaper for a labouring man to ride upon the 
railroad than to walk upon the higmvav. as the journey of thirteen miles is 
performed in half .an hour by steam, which would require four h(}Urs for a 
foot passenger, and the fare for travelling in the stand-itp-carriages amounts 
only to one penny a mile. — Derby Reporter. 



rjE-W CHURCHES, &c. 



Warw'idcshlre. — A new Church is about to be erected at Attleborough, in 
the parish of Nuneaton, on a site the gift of the Earl of Harrowby. There 
.are upwards of three acres and a half of land, which it is his lordship's w ish 
should be laid out advantageously for the benefit of the clergyman, and it is 
in contemplation, reserving saflicient for the church, burial ground, parsonage' 
house, croft and schools to form a street of comfortable duelling liouses, the 
proceeds of which are to form part of the endowment. It is designed by Mr. 
Thomas L. Walker, in tlie early pointed style, with a handsome triple «est 
window, ami a small tower at the south west angle, containing a cloclc-room, 
belfiy, ringer's floor, and a staircase leailing to a west g.allery. At the east 
end is a semicircular apsis, on each side of which, against the east wall of the 
cliurch, the pulpit and reading-desk are placed. It is cruciform in plan, a 
i-obing-room and a porch forming the arms of the cross. The dimensions of 
the body, inside the walls, are 73 feet by 39 feet, and is calculated to accom- 
modate 472 persons, viz. 112 in pews, and 3G0 on benches. 

jill Saint's Church, Spicer Street, Mite End New Town.— On the 2M\ of No- 
vember this church, erected and endowed at the expense of the Metropolis 
CInirches Fund, was consecrated by tlie Bishop of London. It is designed 
in the Norman style by Mr. Thos. L. Walker, and has a tower, situate on 
the South side, tabled off and terminated in a neat square bell turret with an 
octagonal roof, llie body of the church metisui'es 74 ft. G in. liy 54 ft. (i in. 
in the clear inside ; the roof is in one span, with a queen truss ojien to the 
straining piece, it is slightly ornamented, and the timbers are chamfered ; the 
tie-beams are supported by brackets springing from ornamental stone corbels, 
Tlie pulpit, designed it is presumed to Imitate stone, by the details made use 
of, is rather inappropriately grained heart-of-oak ; it is chaste in style, open 
underneath to admit of an enuance into the re.ading-desk. The altar piece 
is cleverly managed, at a small expense, by arched recesses being formed in 
the brickwork,; wherein the Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, and the 
Belief, are written in appropriate but perfectly legible characters, the initial 
letters in red and blue, the rest in black on a stone-coloured ground. The 
chancel is lighted, not from the east as usual, but from the north ,and south ; 
by this means the ghire, which often proves distressing to the congregation, 
« hile regarding the preacher, is avoided, while the rays of light, falling upon 
the alt.ar table trom the south, during the greater part of the day, must tencl 
to produce a pleasing effect. Attached to the Church is a spacious vestry, 
24 feet by lli feet, w ilh a neat Norman tire-place executed in IJath stone, and 
is provided with coal -cellars, &c. Ther« is accommodation for 1110 
persons: the church and vestry were contracted for by Mr. West, of Can- 
non Street Koad, at £4095. 

New Churches in H'otverhanipton. — On Friday, 22 Nov., the plans for a ne\r 
church in Horsley Fields, one ot the intended three new churches in Wolver- 
hampton, were submitted to a meetnig of subscribers, in the large room in the 
Swan Hotel. The plans were 21 in number, and many of them very elegant 
designs: they were all ui the Gothic style. Five of them were selected for 
further consideration, and were exhibited to the subscribers at large, at the 
same place. — Stajfontshire Advertiser. 



FUBIjIC buildings, Acc. 



Warwickshire. — All extensive Hospital, or range of almshouses, is in course 
of erection at Bedworth. near Coventry, from the designs and under the su- 
perintendence ol Mr. Thomas L. M'alker. The main building forms three 
sides of a cloistered quadrangle, which sets back 90 feet from the street ; 
towards the street, on the right hand is a porter's lodge, and on the left a 
tenement to correspond, each with a neat oriel window, leavin"; the quad- 
rangle open to view, and an iron palisade, with ornamental brick piers and 
stone caps, complete the street frontage. It is calculated to lodge 40 pen- 
.sioners, 20 m.ale and 20 female, each h.aving a separate bedroom and pantry ; 
a sitting-room is provided for every two. In the centre of the quadrangle is 
a spacious dining-room for the governors of the charity, a committee-room, 
a steward's office, and a kitchen, with accommodation fur a nurse. The 



dining-room is in the form of the ancient halls, and Ii:is four bays attached 
to it : the porch occupies one, the butler's pantry another, and the two others 
are open to the room : an orniimental screen at the lower end parts off the 
passage leaihng from the porch to the committee-room, 8cc.; over the two 
front b lys are strong-rooms for deeds, one opening into the steward's office, 
the other is asceniled by a circular stone staircase from the hall itsidf. From 
the roof of the h;dl rises an ornamental bell turret, and clock-room in tlie 
form of an ancient Louvre. The whcde is designed in the la'e Gothic style, 
(he windows being square-headed, with niullions and transoms, except those 
of the hall, which are four-centre-pointed, with mullions and tracery. The 
whole is to be faced with red bricks, and to have stone dressings to the doors 
and windows and stone motings. Mr. .lohn Toone, of Ix'amington, is the 
contractor for all the w ork.«, except the hall r.iof and clock turret, at £8.51)0. 
rjanhwcri/, Carmartlicnshire. — The committee appointed to examine and 
rei'Ort upon the designs for a market, met in ticcor.lancc to an advertisem.'iit 
oIUm ing a premium tor the best design, have adopted the design of G. Clin- 
ton, architect of Cardiff. 



iaiSCEI.LANEA. 



EFFECTS OF LARGE FIRES IN PREVENTING STORMS. 
(Translated from the French.J 

M. Matteucci had pointed out the practice recently introduced into a 
parish of Koinagna of lighting large tires for the pin-pose of preventing the 
formation of storms, and remarked that during three years that this practice 
had been adopted, the parish, which until then had every summer been ra- 
vaged with hail, had been spared, while the neighbouring parishes had not 
escaped. 

M. Arago, when quoting tlils fact in his notice upon thunder, {Jmiuaire 
(III, Bureau des Longitudes, 1839^, remarked that such short experience 
would not allow us to consider the residt conclusive, and added that more 
exact data would doubtless be obtained on this subject, by comparing with 
those of the neighbouring agricultural districts, the meterological observa- 
tions of certain districts in which high chimneys and large factor}' tires arc 
used are very numerous. This comparison, said he, had been already made 
in England, but the results although in favour of the preservative influence of 
large tires, did not show this influence free from doubt. In fact high fur- 
naces in Euglaiul are particularly numerous, where there are many mines ; 
tlie rarity of storms therefore in these places may just as well be attributed 
to the nature of the soil as to the action of the large fires, which are required 
for the reduction of the minerals. 

M. Matteucci has now pointed out another locality in which this influence 
of metallic veins is not mixed up \ritli that of large fires. While travelling 
in the .Apennines, he found that those districts in Hhich charcoal and sulphur 
are prepared, are not much subject to storms, and are free from hail. He was 
told that about five years ago a hail storm burst over the piu'isli where the 
sulphur furnaces are, but the place where they arc established was preserved. 
The place mentioned here is Perticaja, near Rimiuo, where there is a number 
of these furnaces. 

Mr. CocJcerill's Manufactory. — Advices from Liege state that Mr. John 
Cockcrill has set out for St. Peter.-iburgh, taking withhim one of the chief 
persons employed at h s works, and three engineers. The I'auperor Nicholas, 
it is added, has advanced Mr. Cockcrill 10,000,0001'. at 5 per cent, secureil on 
all his establishments in Belgium, Russia engaging to purchase tinnually. to 
a certain amount, machinery to be manufactured in them, which is to uimi- 
ni.-.h annually, as the Kmperor, assisted by Mr. Cockcrill, shall ha\e created 
similar establishments in his own dominii ns. — Midland Counties Herald. 

Rouen. — A design li r a tonil) to receive the heart and statue of Ivichard 
C'o'ur de Lion, in the style of the 12th century, has been prepaicd by M. 
Deville, conservator of monuments in the Cathedral of Kouen. It is proposed 
to place it in the Chapel of the Virgin in the cathedral, near the tomb of 
Cardinal d'Aniboise ; and it is supposed that the execution of it will begin 
bef(pre the end of the present year. — French paper. 

Encroachment of tlie Sea. — The sea, it is said, is encroaching upon every 
part of the Cornish coast. In the memory of many persons still living, or 
but lately dead, the cricketers were unable to throw a ball across the Wes- 
tern Green Ijel ween I'enzance and Newly, which is now nut many feet in 
bre:idth, and the grandfather of the late vicar of Madron is known to have 
received tithes from the laud under the cliff of Penzance. At a very remote 
period, we are assuri .1 by tradition, that a considerable part of the pre.sont 
bay especially that comprehended within a line drawn from near Cudilon 
Point, on the east siile, to Mousehole on the west, was land covered with 
wood, but which, by an awful convulsion and irruption of the sea, was sud- 
denly swept away. There is a letter extant, written in the reign of Charles II., 
to the then proprietor of an estate, which included part uf the Western Green, 
and that part is there estimated at 3H acres of p.isturage,— Pe«x«Hcc Gazette. 

Egypt.— Machmes have been brought from Kngland to drain the marshes 
at Alexandretta, where the stagnant waters fill the country wiih malaria. The 
same cause propagates fever in the Egyptian army at Jlarasch, Adana, and 
other places, 'ihe hospital service is very badly arranged. 

Royal Beli^ian Steamers.— The Belgian Government, in the budget of the 
Minister uf 'Public Wo:ks, alluding to the marine, notifies that "a separate 
project will be submitted to the Chambers to meet this expense, whether by 
nietins of a transfer, or by m/ans of a special cr.'dit, destined to complete the 
system of the railroad by some steam-boats." This measure of M. Nothumb, 
which is considered, even by the leaders of the Opposition, to be the ablest 
one projected since the .settlement of the country, is the favourite of M. de 
Tlieux, and said to be impressively sanctioned in the highest quarter. 



40 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



tlST OP NEVr PATENTS. 

r.RANTKl) IN KNCI.AXD FROM 2nD DECKMBKU TO 24tiI DKCEMBEIl, \S'.W. 

fii;oii(ii: Davky, of lilandiulno. County of Carnarvon, Mining Agent, for 
" rt« Improvrd nioilr of applying irulcr-pmrer." — Sealed Uecember 2 ; six 
montlis for enrolnie)it. 

LttKK HKnKRT, of Iiirmlnq:liani, l*atent Agent, for ^^ improvements in thf 
mec/ta/iiym ami procesn of packinij tnid prefiahtti vnrions artinles of commerce." 
Coniinuiiicatcd by a foreigner residing a)iroad. — December 2 ; six months. 

Miles Uerhv, of Chancery I.anc. Patent Agent, for " cer/aiti iiiiprore- 
vieiifs hi iiiachlnfry or oppardfim for mftking or iiianufnctnrhuj phis and 
slicking them in paper." Communicated l)y a foreigner residing abroad. — 
Ueccml)cr 2 ; six montlis. 

CoDFRi'.Y Anthony Ermf.n, of Manchester, Cotton Spinner, for " certain 
improremen/s in machinery or ajtparatns for .sjtiiniing, doubling, or tirisfing 
cotton, far, wool, silk, or other filjrons materials, part of which improve- 
ments are applicable to rnachinerg in general." — December 2 ; six niontlis. 

John Evans, of Birmingliani, Pa[)er Maiver, for " improvements for che- 
vncallij preparing and cleansing of felts used bg paper manufacturers." — 
December 2 ; six niontlis. 

Henry Duni.ngton, of Nottingham, Lace Mannfactnrer, for " improve- 
ments in mae/iinerg emploged in making frame work knit, or stocking fabrics." 
■ — December 2 ; six months. 

J.\MEs Guest, Junior, of Birmingham, Merchant, for *' improvements in 
locks and other fastenings." — Deceml)er 2 ; six monllis. 

Georoe Saunders, of Hooliuorton, Clerlv, Oxford, and James Wii.mot 
Newricry. of the same ])]ace. Farmer, for "improvements in machinergfor 
dibbling or setting wheat and other grain or seed." — December 2 ; six months. 

Henry Trewhitt, of Newc.astlc-on-Tyne, Esq., for " certain improve- 
ments in the fabrication of china and earthetuvare, and in the apparatus or 
machinery applicable thereto." Communicated by a foreigner residing aln'oad. 
Dccendier 4 ; six moutlis. 

Christopher Nicki.es, of York Road, Laml)cth, Gentlemen, for "im- 
provements in propelling carriages." Communicated l>y a foi'cigner lesiding 
abroad. — Decendjer 4 ; six monttis. 

Pierre N'arcisse Cronier, of Fricourt's Hotel, Saint Martin's Lane, for 
^' /mprovernents in filters, and in the means ef clransiag the same, and for 
separating, colouring, and tanning matters for filteralion. and for improvements 
in employing such tanning matters hg filteratiun." Partly communicated by 
a foreigner residing .ibroad. — Decenilicr 4 ; six months. 

James Mayer, of Ashley Crescent, Saint Luke, Gentlemen, for " an im- 
proved machine for cutting splints for mntclies." — December 4 ; six months, 

Gkorc;e Lowe, Engineer to the Chartered Gas Company, and John 
KiRKHAM, Engineer to the Imperial Gas Company, both of London, for " im- 
provements in the manufacture of gas for purposes of illumination." — Decem- 
ber 4 ; six months. 

James Nasmyth, of P.itricroft, near Manchester, Engineer, for "certain 
improvements applicable to railway carriages." — December 4 ; six months. 

John Heaton Hall, of Doncaster, Chemist, for " improvements in pre- 
senting and rendering woollen, and otlicr fabrics, and leather waterproof." — 
Dccendier 5 ; six months. 

Harroi.d Potter, of Manchester, Esquire, for "certain improvements in 
printing calicoes, 7nnslius, and other fabrics." — December 9 ; six months. 

Samuf.i. White, of Charlton, Mai-shatts, Dorset, Esquire, for "improve- 
ments in preventing persons froai being drowned." — December 9 ; six months. 

Moses Pooi.e, of Lincoln's Inn, Gentleman, for '* improvements in the 
manufacture of caustic, .toda, and carbonate of soda." Communicated by a 
foreigner residing abroad. — December 9 ; six montlis. 

Thomas RiciiARnsoN, of Newcastle, Chemist, {or " a preparation of sul- 
phate of lead, applicable to some of the purposes for which carbonate of lead 
is now applied." — Deecmber 9 ; six months. 

John Leslie, of Conduit Street, Hanover Square, Tailor, for " (/H/irow- 
ments in measuring the human figure." Communicated by a foreigner resid- 
ing abroad.— December 9; six months. 

John Juckes, of Shropsliire, Gentlenuan, for " improvements in furnaces 
or fire-places for the better consuming of fuel." — December 9 ; six months. 

Pierre FKEnKiiicK GoNiiY, of Tavistock Street, Westminster, Watch 
Maker, for "an improvement iu clocks, wotc/tes, and ot/ier time-keepers." — 
December 11 ; six months. 

Robert 1Ier\'Ey, of Manehestcr, Drysalter, for " certain improvements in 
the mode ofprejiaring and purifying alum, alumina, aluniiuous mordants, and 
other aluminous combinations and solutions, and the application of such im- 
prorements to the purposes of manufacture." — December Ki; six months. 

Roiiert Gill Ransom, of Ipswich, I',iper Maker, and Samuel Mill- 
uouRN, foreman to the said R. (1. Ransom, for " improvements in the manu- 
facture of paper." — December l.'l; six months. 

Angier March Perkins, of Great Coram Street, Civil Engineer, for 
" improvements in apparatus for transmitting heat by circulating water." — 
December 13 ; six montlis. 

Jacob Brazill, Governor of Trinity Ground, Deptford, for "improve- 
ments in obtaining motive power." — December 16; six months. 

Henry Seymour Moore Vandellur, of Kilrush, Ireland, for "im- 
provements in paving or covering roads, and other ways." — December Ki; 
six months. 

Samuel Walton Faxton, of Park Village East, Regent's Park, Surgeon 



for " au apparatus to be applied to the chimneys of gas and ottier burners, or 
lamps to improve combustion" — December 16; six months. 

■MoNNiN Jai'Y, and Co.nstant Joufi'roy Oumery, of George Yard, 
Lombard Street, Geatleinen, for " improvements in rotatory engines, to be 
act Hated by steam or water." — December 16; six months. 

Daxii) Morison, of Wilson Street, Finsbury, Ink Maker, for " imy^roff- 
men/s in printing." — December 16; six months. 

Damu Navmir. of Copley Mill, Halifax, Manufacturer, and John Crioh- 
TON, Junior, of Manchester, Machine Maker, for " certain improvements in 
machinery for weaving single, double, and treble cloths, bg hand or jiower." — 
December 16; six months. 

George Wilson, of Salford, Machinist and Engineer, for " certain im- 
provements in steam-whistles adapted for locomotive engines and boilers, and 
other purposes." — December 16; six mouths. 

John Robinson, of North Shields, Engineer, for " an improved steering 
apparatus." — December 16 ; six months. 

John Wood, of Burslem, Stafford, Manufacturer of Mineral Colours, for 
'* a new method or process in the applieation and laying on of the substances 
used in the printing, colouring, tinting, and oimamenting of china, porcelain, 
earthenware, ami other v^ares of tfie same description, by which such icares 
can he printed and ornamented with fiowers and other devices in a much 
cfieaper and more simple and ejpeditious manner than by any process now iu 
use, and colours of all or any variety may be printed, shaded, mixed, and 
blended toyettter in one of and tlie same design or pattern, and hardened or 
burnt into the substance of the aforesaid wares by a sinyle process of firing or 
hardening iu the enameliny kiln." — December 16 ; two months. 

James William Thompson, of Turnstile Alley, Long Acre, Upholsterer, 
for " improvements in lite construction of bedsteads, which improvements are 
particularly applicable to the use of invalids." — December 16; six months. 

William Newman, of Birmingham, Brass Founder, for " certain im- 
proved mechanism for roller blinds, which it is intended to denominate Simcoj' 
and Company's patent blind furniture." — December 10 ; six months. 

Joseph Giuus, of KciHiington, Surrey, Engineer, for "an improvement or 
improvements in t/ie machinery for preparing fibrous substances for spinning 
ami in the mode of spinning certain fibrous substances." — December 21 ; six 
months. 

George Lindsay Young, of Hackney, iu the county of Middlesex, Gen- 
tleman, for " an improved surface for paper, mill or card board, vellum and 
parchment." — December 21 ; six months. 

Henry Francis Richardson, of Ironmonger Lane, Gentleman, for " i(«- 
provements in omnibuses." — December 21 ; six months. 

John Cutts, of Manchester, Machine Maker, and Thomas Spencer, of 
the same place. Mechanic, for " certain improvejnents in tlte machinery or 
apparatus for making wire cards for carding cotton, silk, wool, and other 
fibrous subslances."~Decemhcr 21 ; six months. 

Laurence Wood Flbtcher, of Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Manchester, 
Machinist, for *' an improvement or improvemejits in t/ie manufacture of 
woollen and other cloths, fabrics, and in tlte application of such cloths or fa- 
brics to various useful purposes." — December 23 ; six months. 

Thomas Firmstone, of Newcastle, Coal Master, for " improvemenia in 
the manufacture of salt." — December 24 ; six months. 

Alexander .Mac'Rar, of the London Cotfee House, Ludgate Hill, Lon- 
don, for " improvements in machinery for ploughing, ftarrowing and other 
agricultnral purjMses, to be worked by steam or other power." — December 
24 ; six months. 

Thomas Hardeman Clarke, of Birmingham, Cabinet Maker, for " cer- 
tain improved fastenings fur window sashes, tables, and such like purposes," — 
December 24 ; si.\ mouths. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



R. H. — Till' Marquis of Tweeddale's brick and tile-making machine is patented, 
and lirenrcs are. granted for using it in various parts of tlie kingdom. 

The eummuuivatiou of M. N. 0. will appear ne.rl month. 

A Catliolir must e.rcnse us fur not publishing his last eoininunieatinn. 

The Kpgryeloidal Motion fur a Steam Engine is not new. 

A lithogi'aphic drawing of a Chureii was rereivetl from Norwich by our pub- 
lisher, but uufiirttiuatehf it huis been mislaid, we were charged 2s. Sd./ur carriage 
and porterage fur it, we t'-uat that uur eorrespuiideiit will not iu future put us to 
that i'.tpntce. 

If'e have been obliged to postpone some important Eugraviugs, which we could 
nut get ready in time, until next month. 

Cummunications are requested to be addressed to "The Editor of the Civil 
lOngincer and Architect s Journal," Ko. \], Parliament Street, tl'est minster, 
or to Mr. (Irooinbridgr. Pauyer Alley, Paternoster Rutv ; if by post, to be di- 
rected to the former place ; if by parcel. In be directed to the nearest of tlte two 
places where the eoaeh arrives at iu I.oudau, as we are frequently put to the 
ejpeuee of one or two shillings for the piirterage only, of a eery small parcel. 

Books fur review must lie sent early in tlte mouth, eommuuieatiuns on or before 
the 20th (if with wood-cuts, earlier), and advertisements on or before the 25th 
instant. 

The First Volume mav be had, bound in cloth and lettered in gold 
Price 17s. 

*,* The .Seconb Volume mav also be had, Price 20*. 



eitae.,1. 



//ff/irr & West's 



Fafe^il Pftuip Vahe 



affl i!iiiJi 






\l 






Fi^.7. 




ti 4 e 



F^.8. 



J ^ 


L* *l 


<. 




h 




c 








\ ''■ 1 


1 

A 


4 


1 c 


v^ 


^ 


^_. ,1^1 1,1 



Fu/.M 





,f Je '/,/,*,>.,, /Cf/jt/'M (itf/r 



eiaU . i' 



EAST LONDON WATER WORKS. 



Irujsuw H'cfA tAe /'lankijia rejin 



ffer/l of the Ttbatif/i Sridge^. 




intranet, to I'vmpgnaution .Seseryoir. 



FroTff Eifyafton 







Fuf.4 




o J 



4s J0 ssfeec 



f /f '.MrW.* hh/i>t'> C'^ur 



1840.] 



THE CIA IL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



41 



HARVEY AND WEST'S PATENT IMPROVED VALVE /o; 

MacJiitics for Raining Water and other Liquids. 

SPECIFICATION. 

Now know ye, that our iinproveii valve resembles, in appearance, 
a valve known bv the name of the " ilouble beat valve," used in certain 
steam engines ; our improvement consists in making the same self- 
acting, so that it can work without the aid of machinery for opening 
and shutting it, and tliereby is applicable to machines for raising water 
and other liquids. 

In our improved valves the area of the u])per part of the seat, on 
which the top of the valve beats, is made less than the area of the 
lower part of the seat, on which the bottom of the valve beats, the 
valve being made of course to correspond, and the difference in area 
between the two must be such that, when the valve is used in the 
place of the lower valve in a pump through which the water passes 
into the pump barrel, tlie pressure of the atmos))here upon the under 
side of the valve (brought into action by creating a partial vacuum 
upon the upper side of the valve when motion is given to the piston, 
bucket, or plunger-pole of the pump,! shall be sufficient to overcome 
the weight of the valve, and cause it to rise, and when the valve is 
used in place of the upper valve, through which the watei- is forced 
out of the pump barrel, or when used in lien of the valves upon the 
pump bucket, the difference in area must be such that the pressure 
upon the under side of the valve, (caused by the motion of the piston, 
bucket, or plunger-pole forcing the liquid through it,) shall be suffi- 
cient to overcome the weight of the valve, and cause it to rise ; the 
opening in the top will be less than the opening in the bottom of the 
valve, and the surface of the ring upon the top of the valve, which 
will be equal to the difference between the area of the two openings, 
must be made proportionate to the weight of the valve itself, the ac- 
tion will be more fully understood by reference to the drawings and 
explanation thereof hereinafter given. 

The advantages to be obtained by the use of our improved valve, 
are 1st, That as the area of the valve exposed to the pressure of the 
column of water, or action of the piston upon its return stroke, is con- 
siderably less than in the ordinary circular, hanging or butterfly valves, 
the blow and consequent vibration caused by the shutting of the valves, 
is considerably diminished, and less costly foundations are therefore 
required. "2d. The loss of water upon the shutting down of the valve 
is considerably diminished. Our improved valves may be used for 
the upper and lower valves of all varieties of pumps. 

In order to explain more clearly the construction and action of our 
improved valve, we will now refer to and describe the drawings, re- 
presenting plans, elevations, and sections of it. The same letters of 
reference are marked upon all the figures. 

Figure 1 is an elevation of the valve and its seat, the valve being 
shut. Figure 2, a top view thereof, the valve being open or shut. 
Figure 3, a vertical section through the valve and seat, the valve being 
shut. Figure 4, a vertical section through the valve and seat, the 
valve being open. Figure 5, an elevation. Figure ti, a plan. Figure 
7, a vertical section of the valve detached from its seat. Figure b, an 
elevation. Figure 9, a plan. Figure 10, a vertical section of the seat. 
Figure 11, a horizontal section of the ribs tlirough the line a b, in fig. 
10, and plan of the bottom or lower beat; cc c c the seat made of cast 
iron or other metal, upon which the valve del works. The valve may 
be made of cast or wrought iron, gun-metal, brass, copper, or other 
metal, according to the size, the quality of the water, or other circum- 
stances. The rings e' e' ee are faced, that is are turned true, and when 
shut, fit accurately to the beats/'/' and //upon the seat c'ccc; 
//is the lower beat, and/'/' is the upper beat. In fig. 7 e' e' is the 
top opening of the valve, and ee the bottom ; the beats may either be 
formed by a raised ridge cast, or wrought npon the seat, and faced or 
turned true, or by introducing into circular grooves, cast in the seat, a 
ring of wooden wedges, or of soft metal; the top surface in either 
case to be faced or turned true, to receive the valve — we prefer wood 
or soft metal; ^g represents a circular groove cast or wrought, on 
the under side of the seat, into which leather is introduced, so as to 
prevent leakage when the seat is bolted down in its place. A A is a 
cylinder cast upon the seat and turned true, so as to form a guide for 
the valve to work upon, and to keep it in its right place, j i is a me- 
tallic featlier attached to the cylinder, and projecting into a groove 
formed in the valve, to prevent any circular motion in the valve ; and 
A: A is a cap bolted upon the cylinder to prevent the valve rising be- 
yond a given height, or being displaced. The dotted lines / //, ///, 
fig. 4, represent the direction that the water takes when the valve is 
opened, m m represent the surface of tlie valve that is exposed to 
the pressure of the atmosphere, or force created by the motion of the 
piston, and wliich when proportioned as hereinbefore described, by 
No. 29,--Voi., III.— February, 1840. 



making the difference in area betvi'eeu the space by the rings circum- 
scribing the top and bottom openings of the valve, sufficiently great to 
allow the force applied to overcome the weight of the valve, will 
cause it to rise. 

Having now described our improved valve, and in doing so, having 
also described certain contrivance and constructions, which we do not 
claim as our improvement, but the description of which was necessary 
to elucidate our improvement; we hereby declare that we claim as 
our improvement that part of the contrivance only which makes the 
valve self-acting, by making the area of the top opening of the valve 
less than the bottom, and making the seat to correspond thereto, which 
area must be varied according to tlie size and weight of the valve, 
and must be proportioned thereto. 



IRON TIES THROUGH PARTY WALLS. 

Experiments tried at Chatham on the dth of December 1839, in res^ 
to iron ties passing through party leal/s to form a continued bond for the 
floors of adjacent houses. 

In the course of practical architecture taught to the junior officers 
of the Royal Engineers of Chatham, the floors of two adjoining houses 
are connected by ties, each consisting of a strap of iron jiassing through 
a party wall, and bolted to the sides of two girders, in the same alline- 
nieut, which sort of tie-bond maybe supposed to be continued throuo-h 
the whole extent of a range of barracks, or of a row of houses, as was 
done by Messrs. Baker in their new houses on the north side of the 
Strand, near Exeter Hall. 

The utility of tliis sort of continued bond could scarcely be doubted, 
but a query having often suggested itself, whether the destruction of 
the floors of one house by fire, might not heat the iron-lies passing 
through the party walls, on each side, so far as to endanger the floors 
of the two adjacent houses ; Colonel Pasley directed Captain Williams 
to try the following experiment, which must be considered conclusive. 

In the accompanying figures, w is a 9 inch brick wall, (j courses high, 
representing a portion of a jjarty wall between two adjoining houses. 
For tlie convenience of applying the fire, it was built upon the hearth 
of a smith's forge. The 4 inch walU,f, were added merely to enclose 
the fuel, and to increase its heat. These walls were built the day 
previous to that on which the experiment was made; and as common 
lime mortar would have required considerable time to dry, cement 

Fig. 1. Plan. 



-JM. 



C§-^ 



HH 



Fig. 2, Section. 







"^Vl 


nn 








\ 1 






\ 


ii 








\ 1 Id 


—1 - 














J-^i^^-T 


^u 


\ 




li^iB: 




1 ^^ '"' 




1 


I 


• 










r/ 








G 



JjScI 



p six pigs of iron ballast, each 50 lbs. to prevent the brickwork separating 
by the heat. Ii Hood. G. L. Ground Line. 



42 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Februart, 



mixed witli sand was used instead of limo ; g- is a piece of Memel 
timber, 3 feet long, 6 inches wide, and 1 1 inches deep, representing 
part of a girder, having an interval of one inch between the end of it 
and I lie partv wall ; ; is the iron strap, 3^ feet long, 25 inches wide, 
and ' inch thick, bolted to tlie girder g, and passing throngh, and ex- 
teniling beyond the wall to within one inch of the no/zle n, of the tew 
iron iilMlie'bellows. One foot fonr inches of its lenglli was exposed 
to (he lire, which was lighted at ten o'clock a.m. 

Bv eleven o'clock the" tire was in good action thronghont ; the coals 
were well heajied over and about the iron strap to witliin ."> or U inches 
of the top of (lie wall, and the heat was kept up to the greatest prac- 
ticable intcnsitv, bv (he miinterrnpted action of the bellows, till four 
o'clock P.M. 

It was one o'clock before that part of the iron strap in contact with 
the girder became too warm, even close to the wall, to render it ne- 
cessaiy to withdraw the hand from il, and even at fonr o'clock, by 
wliich time 5 inches of the end nearest the tew iron were burnt com- 
pletely away, there was not sulheient heat in any part of it outside the 
parly wall, either to discolour dry wood shavings or paper, or to ignite 
naptlia. At G inches from the wall the hand could be continued on 
the iron without inconvenience during the whole period the experi- 
ment occupied, and at no time was the party wall red hot. 

There can be no doubt but that the lire 'might have been kept up 
long enough to consume the whole of the iron sniTOunded by it, with- 
out snflicient heat being communicated to the girder to set lire to it. 

The bulb of a thermometer (hat happened to be at hand, was ap- 
plied to the iron, where it entered the party wall, but the degree of 
heat couhl not be determined, as the tube extending only to US 
degrees of Fahrenheit, was very soon filled by the quicksilver, and was 
then willidrawn to prevent it from bursting. 

The cement mortar in the joints of the brickwork nearest to the 
lire was reduced to dust. In this state. Colonel Pasley oidered some 
balls of it to be mixed up with water, into the consistency of a stiflish 
paste, which set rather slowly, but in the course of a few days became 
extremely hard, in consequence of the cement having been calcined 
by the fire, and thereby restored to the same state, in which it had 
been received from the manufacturer. 



BALANCE GATE.S. 

Erected at the JForks of (he East London Water WorU Company, 
Old Ford. Exgixeer, Thomas Wicksteed, Esq., M. Inst. C.E. With 
two Engravings, Plates II. & III. 

In (he year 1633, the East London Water Works Company made 
very considerable alterations and additions to their works, by cutting 
a canal for the purpose of bringing the water from a higher part of 
the river Lea, near the Lea Bridge Mills, to their works at Old Ford, 
and to guard against any deficiency of water for the working the mills 
on the river Lea, and to satisfy the owners of the mills, the Company 
agreed, in the Act of Parliament authorizing them to make the altera- 
tions, to form a large compensating reservoir covering about 1*1 to 15 
acres of land, with two entrances, one at the south-east corner of the 
reservoir, near to Old Ford Lock, where there is erected a pair of 
tide or flood-gates, for the admission of water only as the tide rises, 
and another entrance at the eastern corner of the said reservoir upon 
the banks of the river Lea, above the City Mill Point, consisting of 
three openings with six balance gates, for the admission of water from 
the river, and for discharging the water 'out of the reservoir into the 
river for the use of the millers. As the tide flows up the river it fllls 
the reservoir, and when the tide ebbs, if required by the millers, the 
water is allowed to run out into the river, anil thus compensate them 
for any quantity of water that might be abstracted from the upper 
jiart of the river for the purposes of the company. 

It is our present object to confine ourselves to the description of 
the Balance Gates, which are well deserving of notice by the jirofes- 
sion, and to point out where they difler from the Dutch system of 
construction. 

As the neap tides at the point of delivery rise only, on some occa- 
sions, a few inches, and as consequently a very large quantity of water 
might have to be delivered in a very short space of time, with so low 
a head or pressure, a great width of outlet became requisite ; if the 
ordinary sluice gates had been erected, the time required to open 
them would have been above an hour anil a half, and consequently the 
whole of the water might not have been returned into the river before 
the preceding low water; whereas the balance gates, as we can bear 
witness to, are easily opened or closed in ten minutes, against a pres- 
sure of water. 



The essential diflerence between the gates designed by Mr. Wick- 
steed, and the old Dutch balance gates as described in Belidor's 
Architecture Hydraulique, is this — the old gate is larger in area on 
one side of the centre than the other, on the largest side a sluice gate 
is introduced, which when opened reduces the area of the largest side, 
so that it becomes less than the other, which was before tlie sluice 
was opened, largest; by this arrangement when the sluice gate is shut 
the pressure of the water iqion the largest area causes the gate to re- 
main closed, but when the sluice is opened the greatest pressure is 
upon the other side (or ha!/) of the gate, and causes it to open hut 
not cunrplttely, and tackle must be made to open it wide. In Mr. Wick- 
steed's gates the sides are of equal area, and they are made to open 
at once by a toothed quadrant and pinion; two gates are also intro- 
duced in eacli opening, and set at an angle which gives strength to 
their construction and saves masonry. When the gates are closed, by 
the application of a very ingenious contrivance, consisting of a verti- 
cal iron shaft fixed in the hollow quoins, with three eccentrics or cams 
upon it, they are made to close against each other, and against the 
cills and recesses in the side walls, so that no leakage whatever takes 
place. 

These gates are, we believe, the only ones of the kind erected in 
the kingdom, and when we were favoured with a view of them, they 
had been in use for six years and in excellent working order, they had 
not been repaired since they were first erected by Messrs. Hunter and 
English, of Bow, whose reputation as millwrights is so well known, 
that they needed not this accession to their fame. 

The cost of the gates we could not ascertain, as tliey were done in 
conjunction with other works by contract, but we can easily give credit 
to Mr. Wicksteed's statement that the expence was not more, if so 
mucli, as common sluice gates with their elevating machinery, founda- 
tion, &c., when it is considered how many sluices there must have 
been to insure the same width of opening. 

These gates are different in construction, and are used for a different 
purpose to those erected some years since at Lowestoff; w'ith the ex- 
ception of these two instances, we are not aware of any other gates 
erected upon the Dutch principle in England, but we think there are 
many cases in engineering where their introduction might be advan- 
tageous. 

The following additional particulars we select from the contract 
and specification of the work, which will together with the engravings 
give an accurate view of their construction. 

" They (the Balance Gates) ai-e different in coustruction to the common 
flood-gates ; a description of one gate will answer for the whole : the gate is 
made to work upon a vertical shaft as a centre, and is equal on each side 
thereof. One gate, when closed, shuts against another gate on one side, 
while the opposite sides close against a recess in the piers or side walls. It 
mil appear evident, upon an inspection of the plans, that the gates being 
equal on each side of the vertical shaft, which is the centre of motion, what- 
ever pressure of water may he against them, that there is as great a tendency 
to keep the gate closed as there is to open it, and that being, under any cir- 
eninstances, eqcially balanced, a very slight exertion of power (suflicicut to 
overcome the friction of the working parts) will either open or close them. 
When the gates are closed, and it is desirable to retain the water in the 
reservoh, to destroy the effect that any vibration might have upon them to 
cause a leakage, a shaft is introduced upon which three eccentrics are cast, 
which, when applied to tlie gates, pinches them against then- abutments, and 
thus jirevents any leakage that might by possibility occur. When it is de- 
sired to open the gates to discharge the water of the reservoir into the river, 
the eccentric is first to be worked so as to take off its effect upon the gate, 
and then the quadrant and pinion must be worked to open the gate, whieli, 
as the pressure of water is equal iu its action iqion both sides of the centre, 
will be a matter requiring hut a small exertion of power. 

Description of the JJ'oi-k. — The framing of the balance gates is to be of 
good EiigUsh oak timber; the planking to be the best Memel plank. All 
the joints are to be made sound and good ; the mortices to be cut oat square 
their whole depth, and the tenons to he made so that they shall fit equally 
over even,- surface; the hutfing joints to be squared so as to tonch and bear 
equally over the butting surface. Wherever the timbers are framed into the 
iron-work, the iron-work shall be made true and good to receive it, so that 
it shall bear equally on all the surfaces ; and wherever VM-ought iron straps 
ai-e let info the timbers, they shall he fitted accurately; no packing will be 
permitted, but the iron must fit fairly and strictly to the wood. AU keys 
and bolts for straps, and cast iron work must be made to fit accurately, so 
that the holts fill up the holes made for their reception, without shaking or 
depending, upon the friction of the head and nut. 

The timbers are to he rebated for the reception of the ends of the 2-iiich 
fir planking, so that when tlie planking is introduced, the surfaces of the 
planking and timbers shall be flush — the planks are to be 2 inches thick and 
!) inches wide, to be laid diagonally, as described in the drawings ; at the two 
ends, and wherever there is a cross or diagonal timber, the plank shall lie 
fastened thereunto by means of 2 screw bolts at ereiy bearing, and wherever 
iron intervenes between tlie planking and timber, it shall be drilled, and the 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



43 



bolt siiiiU fit accurately, iron to iron — the screw bolts ai'e to be 5-8tlis of an 
inch diameter, and 5 inches long, with square heads, and a neat iron collar 
under each head and nut, excepting where iron iuterveues, when the bolt 
shall be as much longer as the thickness of the iron, so that every bolt shall 
have a screw of 3 inches deep in the timber. The joints of the planking 
shall be shot straight, fitted close, and caulked, so as to render every joint 
perfectly water-tight. 

The pivots on which the gates revolve are to be cast hard, and fitted accu- 
rately to the hollow bearing in the vertical shaft. 

The gates are to be made accurately at the meeting posts. At the sides 
which abut against the piers and walls, and at the cills and wherever iron 
intervenes, it shall be chipped and filed so as to fit flush with the timber, so 
that no water shall escape at the joints— the pivot and step are to be so 
made that the least possible leakage shall take place. 

All the cast iron bearings are to be accurately turned, so as to work truly 
and easily, and iu every case where iron works in iron, either the shaft or 
bearing is to be east hard, as may be deemed advisable by the Company's 
engineer — the upper bearings to liave set screws and keys for adjustment, as 
described in the drawings. All the wheel work is to be fitted accurately, 
and if required by the Company's engineer, the teeth are to be cliipped and 
filed. 

The same directions that are given hereinbefore for the joints in the 
timber and connecting straps and bolts, are to be observed in the construc- 
tion of the trussed foot-bridge, which is to be wholly of the best Memel fir. 

Reference to Engravings. — Plate II. 

Fig. 1. — Plan of the Balance Gates, Sills, Inverts, and Piers. In 
"Invert No. 1," the sill pieces are shown, and the iron pivots upon 
which the gates are to turn. In " Invert No. 2," the gates are sliown 
at an horizontal section through the timbers and planking, and vertical 
shaft; the eccentric shafts are also shown. In "Invert Xo. 3," the 
top view of the gates is exhibited with the quadrant and pinion for 
working the gates, and the wheel upon the top of the eccentric shaft. 

Fig. 2 is an elevation of the work described in Fig. 1. The gates, 
however, are shewn m jjwjectwn, or as they will appear wlien closed; 
the trussed foot-bridge for tlie support of the upper bearings of the 
shafts upon which tlie gates turn, is also shown in elevation and 
section. 

Fig. 3. — A transverse section through C D (Fig. 1) of the gate and 
trussed foot-bridge, and an elevation of one of the piers and section 
of the invert, sill, and apron. 

Fig. 4. — Transverse section through A B (Fig. 1). 

Fig. 5 is a plan of the trusseil foot-bridge, a portion of it planked 
as it will appear when linishcd, and another portion as it will appear 
before the planking is laid down, exhibiting the trussing and cast iron 
frames for the support of the upper bearing of the vertical shafts. 

Plate III — contains enlarged views of the gates described in 
Plate II, which may be sulficiently understood by reference to the 
drawings. 



LONDON SHOPS. 

[A very able and interesting article on "London Shops and Gin 
Palaces," by Candidus, appeared in the December Number oi Frasi/'s 
Magazine, from which we select the following extracts.] 

We need not speak of the very superior mode in which shop-win- 
dows are now fitted up, not merely as regards the large squares of 
glass, and the more than atlas folio sheets of plate-glass, which have 
of late become almost so common as to cease to excite astonishment, 
but also in respect to the framework of the windows, the polished 
brass-work which covers the w indow-sill. One contrivance, however, 
which has been but very lately introduced, will, when it comes to be 
more generally adopted, greatly enhance the appearance of the shops 
after dark, — we mean that of throwing a very powerful light upon the 
goods at the window, the first experiment of which was made, we 
believe, on the east side of Temple Bar, viz. at the splendid new shop 
opened in St. Paul's Churchyard by Hitchcock and Rogers ; which, in 
point of extent, has scarcely a rival in any other part of the town. The 
proprietors appear to have spared no cost to render their establish- 
ment as attractive as possible even to the very labels or tickets at- 
tached to the goods, which, instead of being merely written, are taste- 
fully emblazoned on large card-boards, ia gold, azure, and other bril- 
liant colours. Still, when we come to consider this, and some other 
shop fronts of the same class, architecturally, we cannot help being 
ott'ended at a defect which is here carried a t'outrance, to a much 
greater degree than any where else. In fact, the whole of this un- 
usually extensive shop front presents to the eye nsthing but glass set 
in very slender upright brass styles, or bars, without any apparent 



support whatever — without even jambs to the doors — so that the 
house itself, over the shop, has the look of being miraculously sus- 
pended in tlie air, after the fashion of Mahomet's cothn; and this not 
particularly agreeable appearance is strikingly increased by its return- 
ing on the west side, without any indication of pi'op or stay of any 
kind beneath the superincumbent angle of the upper part of the struc- 
ture, which is actually suspended over that corner. There is no doubt 
that sufficient precaution has been taken to ensure security ; and so 
far we are at liberty to admire the skill shewn by the biulder in achiev- 
ing what is certainly a momitrpiece, if not a masterpiece, in construc- 
tion. His task may have been exceedingly difficult; yet we are 
tempteil to say, with Dr. Johnson, that we wish it had been impossible. 
It will, perhaps, be argued, that what we hero behold is, after all, not 
a whit more contrary to sound architectural taste than a geometrical 
staircase, where the steps are attached to the wall only at one end. 
The two cases, however, are not perfectly similar; because, in the 
second instance, each step is no more than either a balcony or large 
bracket inserted into the wall, whereas, in the other, the bressuraers 
of the floor, above the shop, have to support all the upper part of the 
front, while they themselves seem to rest upon nothing except the 
slight frame in which the glass of the shop window is fixed. As far, 
therefore, as the general aspect of such front is concerned, the etl'ect 
is disagreeable; while, as regards the lower part, or shop itself, taken 
distinct from the rest, it is exceedingly insipid and ))Oor — very little 
better than what would be produced by the same space of unglazed 
opening for the display cf goods; the chief dift'erence being, that 
instead of Oeing exposed to injury, the articles so exhibited are pro- 
tected by the glass. 

No doubt, every tradesman is anxious to make as attractive a dis- 
play as possible of the articles he deals in ; but it is, nevertheless, a 
great error to suppose that this is best accomplished by making the 
shop-window as large as the width of frontage will permit, and then 
to put up at it as much as it will contain. In fact, this mode — the one 
now almost invariably resorted to, and in many cases carried to an 
extent cpiite preposterous — rather defeats the object aimed at, because 
it utterly excludes all variety of design, or rather excludes design 
itself — reducing tiie whole front of eacli shop to only so many feet 
superficial of glass. Hence there is nothing to distinguish any one 
shop from the rest — nothing to mark it out to the eye from any dis- 
tance. If strikingness of character be at all an object worth attending 
to, it might be far more easily and more satisfactorily accomplished 
by adopting a contrary system to that now in vogue, dividing what is 
now a single window into distinct compartments, the spaces between 
w liich would afford room for decoration, together with ample scope 
for invention. It is true that, as far as mere quantity goes, the ilisplay 
would be less than at present ; but then the show of goods might fre- 
quently be rendered more striking, and nught be every day made a 
fresh one, by some of the articles being changed. The great deside- 
ratum, it may be presumed, is to render the shop itself a conspicuous 
object — one that cannot fail to arrest the attention of every one who 
passes ; and this, we conceive, would, in most cases, be better accom- 
plished by making it a catching architectural "frontispiece" — no 
matter how much the space now allotted to a window might be trenched 
upon for such purpose. * * 

Even at present we have one or two things, which, although they 
do not exactly exemplify the mode of design we could w ish to see 
adopted, may be quoted as instances of very superior taste, and wdthal, 
of more originality and study than are to be discovered in buildings of 
far greater importance. Among these, we do not hesitate to say that 
i\ie/aci/e princejjs for recherche eleganee of design, for j)urity of taste, 
for happiness of invention, in the whole composition, together with 
admirable beauty of finish, is a small shop front, or, rather, a small 
fa9ade, in Tavistock Place. It is an exquisite architectural gem — at 
least every professional man and real coimoisseur nuist at once recog- 
nize it as such — although its beauties and merits are of that kind 
which are not likely to ensure it particular attention from persons in 
general ; because in such matters the million are apt to form their 
estimate according either to size or to gaudy showiness. No man 
who understands architecture can look at it without feeling that the 
worthy George Maddox here worketl up his ideas cun amore, with the 
relish of one enthusiastically devoted to his art for his art's sake. The 
wdiole of this front — for we ought to observe that the design is not 
confined to the lower part or shop alone — is in perfect keeping: we 
do not find merely a very good bit in this place, a very nice piece of 
ornament in another ; something happy there, and something not amiss 
here, but the ensemble is complete ; the same taste pervades every 
part : nothing can either be added or taken away without detriment 
to the whole. What simplicity in the general character of this little 
facade! yet so very far is it from partaking of any thing like poverty, 
that it is particularly remarkable lor the unusual care bestowed upon 

C2 



44 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



all its details. Iiuleetl, (here ai'e only one or two buildings in the 
whole metropolis that can stand the test of comparison with it in that 
respect. I'lxamine the capitals and entablature of the order that 
forms the sliop front itself, and you must allow them to be no less 
beautiful than novel, that is, supposing you are competent to appre- 
ciate the origiualilv and tnste then' manifested. After all, it must be 
allowed to have (jue unpardonable fault : how great soever may be its 
merits in point of design, it wants magnitude — at least to give it suffi- 
cient consequence and importance in the eve? of ordinary beholders. 
Truly it does ; and so, also, does that beautiful little architectural gem 
of antitpiity, the monument of Lysicrates, which, in regard to size, is 
little better than a mere model, or toy. To be sure, the one example 
is at London, the other at Athens; and that, it must be acknowledged, 
does make a vast dilierenee in the o[iinion of the vulgar, both learned 
and unlearned. Most certainly, there is no denying that Tavistock 
Place is not Athens, any more than that Satfron Hill is not Mount Hy- 
mettus. 

The only thing that can fairly enter the lists with the facade we 
have been sjieaking of, is the one No. 2-, Old FJond Street, which is 
likewise singularly beaidiful, and treated throughout vvitli true artis- 
tical feeling. It is the production of the Messrs. hnvood, or of one of 
the Ijrothers, and it certaiu'y displays more invention and taste than 
all their other designs put together, if we except the columns and 
doors in the portico of St. Fancras Church ; the former of which, how- 
ever, are merely copies from those of the triple temple on the Athe- 
nian Acropolis. These tw'o are almost the only instances in whicli 
the whole of such a front is consistently designed and ilecorated 
throughout, so as to be altogether of a piece from bottom to top ; for 
the shop and the house above it are, we may say, invariably treated 
as distinct from each other, instead of being combined, as far as their 
inevitable dilference of character will permit, into one uniform com- 
))osition. This is more or less the case, even wdiere architectural em- 
bellishment is liberally bestowed on the n])per part of the front, the 
superstructure having so littie architectural connexion with the base- 
ment on w liich it stands, that the etiect is cpute incongruous. (.)f this 
we have notable proof in a shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, already 
spoken of; since, so far from there being an apparent connexion be- 
tween one part and another, we might fancy that the ujiper portion, 
with its Corinthian pilasters, hail been taken olf from a rusticated 
Ixisenient, and sus|ieuded upon the huge glass case beneath it, wdiich 
it threatens to crush. A greater architectural antithesis than the one 
thus produced can hardly be imagined, the whole of the lower portion 
luesenting the very minimum of strength, an appearance of unusual 
weakness and fragility, wliile the upper has a more than usual charac- 
ter of solidity, owing, among other circumstances, to the breadth of 
the piers between the windows ; that is, however, of solidity when it 
is considered apart from its baseless position, because that exceedingly 
lalse position gives it the appearance of being particularly insecure, 
and in imminent peril of performing an aplomb. 

Perha|)s, of tlie two inconsistencies, it is the lesser one where, as is 
almost the general rule, architectural expression is confined to the 
shop-front itself, all the rest being left quite unpretending and plain, 
even to nakedness. It must be "admitted, that the other mclhod is 
greatly preferable, as far as the general appearance of a street is con- 
cerned, inasmuch as it conduces to its architectural dignitv ; yet, as 
regards the iiouscs indivitlually, it is better that the shop-front itself 
should be made exclusively the feature on which architectural design 
is bestowed, unless, indeed, it can be consistently carried on upwards. 

Although frequently no other ecoivimy tluin that of space seems to 
be regarded, it cannot be alhrmed that much eitlier of invention or 
taste is displayed in our Loudon shop-fronts, of which carpenters seem, 
for tlie most ])art, to be the designers; yet here and there one may 
meet with a clever bit, — gooil both in regard to ornament and compo- 
sition. These, however, form merely the exceptions ; for the taste 
usually displayed is most flimsy and frippery, and full of inconsistencies. 
At the best, things of this kind can be little more than mere bits ; be- 
cause, owing to their want of size, they can hardly produce any eH'ect 
in a general view, or until approached and examined ; yet that is no 
reason wherci'ore they should be undeserving of examination, and bits 
of tawdry trumpery in lliemselves. On tlie contrary, if they do not 
aiford much l.ititude for the <lisplay of design and invention in any 
other respect— an opinion, however, to which we outselves are strongly 
opposed — they most incontestably olVer ample scope for experiment- 
alising in the way of columns and entablatures. Nevertheless, so far 
from any advantage being taken of this, we scarcely ever find any 
novelty wdiatever of decoration attempted in regard to such features, 
which are no other than copies from Stuart's plates. However anti- 
classical, gimcrack. Cockney, every other part of such design may be, 
we behold Grecian Doric and Grecian Ionic copied with most super- 
stitious exactness, and repeated «y(/«c ad naitisecnii. The Athenian 



Doric of the Parthenon, and the Paestau example of the same order, 
are most ridiculously minified, and applied when they are most offen- 
sively out of place, putting us out of conceit both wdth them and with 
what but for them wmild have been honest, unsophisticated. Cockney 
carpenters' work. Away with the worse than schoolboy — the dull 
schoolmaster vapouring, about the intrinsic beauty of form and pro- 
portions belonging to the ancient orders, as if they possessed an inde- 
feasible charm adhering to them under any circumstances. At that 
rate, it would be excellent taste to convert the legs of a table into 
four pigmy columns, Doric or Ionic ; or if the mere models of such 
tilings possess in themselves a magic charm for the eye, neither could 
they fail to please were they dragged in any where else for the nonce, 
even should it be into a Gothic building. The truth is, no such kind 
of beauty exists either in them cm' any thing else: a tine arm and hand 
arc very beautiful in a fine woman, or, for the matter of that, even in 
a plain one ; yet how they could be made to add to the beauty of a 
horse, we certainly do not see. Of all the styles, the one least suit- 
able for purposes which require it to abandon more or less of its ori- 
ginal character, is the Grecian Doric, whose sternness and severity, 
apart frcjm the imposing grandeur attending magnitude of dimensions, 
are apt to degenerate into frigidity and hardness when the order is 
exhibited upon a tiivial scale. Instead of attempting to counteract 
this defect, which lU'edominatcs in most modern imitations of that 
style, we increase it bv omitting all sculpture and other decoration, as 
nut included in the idea of the architecture itself, although it is essen- 
tially indispensable to its effect. i3y the chilling bareness thus occa- 
sioned, a style naturally stern in itself becomes aggravated into dis- 
agreeable harshness ; more jiarticularly when reduced to more than 
ordinary insignificance of size ; for all dignity of expression is lost, 
and in lieu of it we obtain poverty of style, with an affected heaviness 
of form, — something nearly as grotcisque as a little Cupid proportioned 
after the brawny form of the Farnese Hercules. 

Yet such is the style upon which, at least, one-half of our modern 
shop-fronts are modelled. As far as the columns alone go, they are 
tolerably accurate, and intolerably dull fic-similes of the different ex- 
amples measured by Stuart and others ; but there all resemblance ends. 
The frieze — shoulil there happen to be any such mendjer in the en- 
tablature — is as plain as the architrave ; nevertheless, such disregard 
of authorities is a trivial fault, in comparison with the wholesale dis- 
regard of the genius of the style itself. Vet so it is: over- exactness 
as to certain particulars goes hand in hand with the most fantastical 
licentiousness — if that can be called fantastical which manifests not 
the slightest aim at fancy. It is, however, not so much the deviation 
from precedent that we censure in such cases, as the awkward and 
absurd adherence to it, or rather the affectation of adhering to what it 
is impossible to follow consistently as a model. Even supposing that, 
in regard to the architecture itself, the style could be sufficiently well 
kept up, still it would very ill assort witJi the display which it is in- 
teniied to accompany. Fancy goods and Faestan columns — plumes, 
velvets, artificial flowers, and Doric pillars — do not harmonise well to- 
gether, nor seem to be suitable company for each other. A striking 
instance of such disparity between the richness of the stock it contains 
ami the shop itself is Ihiliues's shawl warehouse, in Regent Street ; 
where, notwithstanding the splendour of the coup d'(eil of its interior, 
the exceedingly massive, not to say rude, Doric columns supporting 
the ceiling look most uucouthly lumpish amidst all the costly finery 
around them. Surely, a lighter style would have been far more in 
character: or, if pillars of that bulk were irbsolutely required, they 
might easily have been enriched. It is true, they might then have 
lost all reseiublance to L)oric columns ; yet of what conseipience would 
that have been, or rather it would have been so much the better, sup- 
posing them to be ;ippropriate and pleasing in themselves — that is, 
successful inventions; and if we dare not venture upon any experi- 
ments in architectural design on such occasions, we are not likely ever 
to make them, when the question is to erect a building ol magnitude, 
where every thing is expected to be perfectly ntciindini artem, and 
where, of course, nothing can be admitted that might possibly be 
sneered at as a rash innovation — a startling new idea. 

Perhaps it would be siuue step towards improvement, were such 
style of design adopted for the decoration of shops as would in a cer- 
tain degree accord with the stock itself and the particular business 
carried on. Attenti<jn to congruity of this sort would, doubtless, have 
suggested for the one just referred' to above, a style altogether different 
from w hat we actually behold — something liglit, fanciful, luxuriant ; 
and, if not professedly in the Oriental taste, that is, after an express 
pattern of it, yet more or less approaching to it. Characteristic pe- 
culiarity of this kind, however, would of necessity be chiefly limited 
to those cases — at present exceedingly rare ones — where the interior of 
the shop itself is fitted up, like some of the Parisian ones, with regard 
to ert'ect as an architectural eiiumbk, so as to have more the air of an 



1S40] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



45 



apartment furnished with certain articles there displayed, than of a mere 
wareho\ise where they are stowed away on sheh-es that entirely line the 
walls. The same diversity could not very well be extended to the ex- 
teriors, or shop-fronts themselves ; because that would be apt to occa- 
sion a very disagreeable medley of all sorts of styles in our streets, and 
give them a most motley appearance. To be convinced of this, we 
need but look at Saunders and Woolley's shop-front in Regent Street. 
Whatever may be thought of the particular taste of embellishment — ■ 
the so-called Louis Qiuitvrze — there displayed, it is svfficiently signi- 
ficant ; and we have no doubt that, as a design upon paper, shewn 
(|uite bv itself, without any accompaniment, it uiade a striking and al- 
luring appearance ; yet, as actually beheld, it is as much of a blemish 
as a beaulv, — no improvement to the street, except as affording a very 
showv display of window and costly articles of upholstery; and de- 
cidedly injurious to the facade where it has been introduced. The 
style itself is, moreover, by far too exotic and anomalous to be at all 
ada|ited for exterior architecture, even were an entire front to be 
designed in it so as to form a consistent composition. The Gothic 
style, however, that is, some varieties of it, might occasionlly be re- 
sorted to both with propriety and effect ; although we are not aw'are 
(if its having been hitherto applied to such purpose, except at Fairs's, 
in Mortimer Street, an exceedingly small, at least very narrow, upright 
strip of Elizabethan architecture, clever, and not a little picturesque. 
That the pale bronze hue given to that pretty architectural facade is 
attended with other advantage than that of rendering it more conspi- 
cuous, is what we will not imdertake to decide : since greater variety, 
and quite as much propriety in regard to colouring, niiglit have been 
obtained, imitating the weather-stained tints of stone and brick, with, 
])erhaps, some of the mere ornamental parts in imitation of bronze, or 
other metal. 

Our catalogue of shops, would be longer than Homer's catalogue of 
ships ; and, we venture to say on our part, not very much more inter- 
esting, were we to note all that aim at being remarkable as well as 
fascinating. There is hardly a street of them at the west end of the 
town, in which one or more will not be found affording evidence of a 
desire to attract observation by something more than the show of goods 
behind the glass; but we cannot say that many of the designers have 
displayed much fancy or taste, or greatly taxed their invention for the 
benefit of their employers. In almost all of them we ])erceive some 
little, and but very little, aim at originality — a mere beginning towards 
it — in scarcely one instance a complete developement of a novel idea ; 
consequently, there invariably seems to be more pretension than actual 
performance. Colnaghi and Puckle's new shop-front, in Cockspur 
Street, presents some novelty of style and detail, and is remarkable 
for the great projection of the cornice, whicli is brought forward as 
much as the half-octagon bay in the upper part of the house. The 
style itself partakes of both the Rinaissntice and the Elizabethan; and, 
independently of the panels with which they are embellished, the ex- 
treme piers assist the design very much, both by giving an air of sta- 
bility to the tnsimble, and a suitable termination to it. Cowie's, in 
Holies Street, is singular, chiefly on account of the window shewing 
itself somewhat like a glass-case inserted in the front, and being dark 
brown relieved with gilding; while the door, which is detached from 
it, has enormous white consoles, enriched with gilt mouldings, though 
all the rest are of very dark hues ; a contrast of colours more traii- 
chatit and striking than tasteful. In the adjoining str"et, viz. Henrietta 
• — Marshall and Stinton's makes a quiet sort of display with its four 
three-quarter Ionic columns, between which are three arches, of which 
the two forming the windows are each filled in with a single sheet of 
]ilate glass ; which species of luxury is not rendered less singular by 
the extreme plainness of the windows themselves. We should re- 
commend some liberal decoration in the spaces between them and the 
columns. 

The new front of No. 76 in the Strand, now the " Foreign Marble 
Warehouse," may be cited as almost the very reverse of the preced- 
ing, being as studiously embellished as the other is studiedly kept 
plain. W'hat little design there is in the shop itself, has neither much 
novelty nor much taste ; it is the elevation above, and in a maimer 
distinct from it, which presents a sample of an unusual mode of em- 
bellishment, it being liberally, yet not too liberally, decorated with 
medallions and figures in relief between the windows ; and but for the 
disagreeable heaviness of the odd-looking cornices to the windows of 
the first floor, would be an agreeable composition, though susceptible 
of improvement in other respects besides the defect just pointed out. 
Had the exterior of the adjoining house been added to the design, so 
as to give greater width to the elevation, the effect would have been 
increased in more than arithmetical progression. 



ON THE SUPPLY OF WATER TO THE METROPOLIS. 

Observations on the past and present supply of Water to the Metro- 
polis. By Thomas Wickstekd, C'iril Engineer. Read before the 
Society of Arts, J\Iay 24, 1835. 

( Continued from page 12. J 

During the next two centuries, namely, from a.d. 1000 to a.d. ISOO, 
were established several water-works of minor importance, as follow: 

To the Merchant Water-works belonged three engines lor raising 
water; one a windmill in Toltenhain Court Road Fields; and two 
overshot water-wheels, worked by the water of a common sewer in 
St. Martin's and Hartshorn Lanes in the Strand ; there were three 
mains of G and 7 inch bores to supply the respective neighbourhoods. 

The Shadwell Water-works, erected about 1660, had first a horse- 
wheel, and afterwards tw'O atmospheric engines, which supplied tlie 
neighbourhood with Thames water through two mains of or 7 inch 
bores. 

In 1691 these works, which had previously belonged to the family 
of Thomas Neale, Esq., were vested in a company of proprietors, who 
w ere incorporated by an act of Parliament 3rd and 4th of William and 
Marv. Two engines, of Boulton and Watt's manufacture, were after- 
wards erected ; Ihe first was one of the earliest engines made by them. 
When the London Docks were made, the district was much reduced 
in consequence, and the works were purchased by the Dock Company ; 
and afterwards an act was obtained in ISOS by the East London Water- 
works Company to enable them to (lurchase these works, which they 
did. The works were in play for a short time afterwards, but were 
eventually given up, the supply from the Company's new works being 
superior. 

The York Buildings Water-works, in Villiers Street, Strand, were 
established in 1691. The Thames water was raised for the supply of 
the neighbourhood, first by a horse-wheel ; afterwards previous to the 
year 1710, they had one of Savery's engines; and a few years after- 
wards one of Newcomen's. Mai'tland says in his work, published 
17n6, that "the directors of this Company, by purchasing estates in 
England and Scotland, erecting new water-works and other pernicious 
projects, have almost ruined the company. However, their chargeable 
engine for raising water by fire being laid aside, they continue to work 
that of horses, which may in time restore the Company's affairs." 
This was true for a time, as it appears that from 1789 to 1804 this 
Company paid good dividends, but afterwards, in consequence of the 
ruinous competition that arose at that time, and for some years subse- 
quently, a new engine was erected of 70 horses power, iron pipes laid 
down instead of woo<l, and no more dividends were paid, excepting 
V. per share for two years, out of the capital ; and in 1818 the Com- 
pany was ruined, the establishment broken up, and the district was 
supplied by the New River. 

In 177o Mr. Watt mentions an engine of Newcomen's at the York 
Buildings, and Mr. Farcy calculated its power at about 26 horses, 
working 7 hours per diem, and raising during that time about 356,000 
gallons to a height of 1112 feet, or 3,137,000 barrels per annum. In 
IS Ut the quantity raised at these works was only equal to 178,200 
gallons per diem', or 1,541,100 barrels per annum. In ISIS, before the 
breaking up of the establishment, the quantity raised was 762,588 
gallons per diem, or 6,i;09,252 barrels per annum; which supplied 
about 2636 tenants. 

The Chelsea Water-n'orks were established in 1722 by an act of 
Parliament, in the Sth of George I., for the better supplying the city 
and liberties of Westminsier, and parts adjacent, with water. 

The Thames water was raised from settling-ponds, in the first in- 
stance, by a water-wheel, which was worked by the water collected 
in large ponds as the tide rose, and kept in until the water in the 
river lowered, when it was let out and worked the wheel : afterwards 
two of Newcomen's engines were erected, and in 1782 one of Boulton 
and Watt's engines, — one of the earliest erected in London. 

The West Ham Water-works were set on foot in 1743, and a com- 
pany was established by act of Parliament the 21st of George II., in 
1747. The water was raised out of one of the branches of the River 
Lee by a fire-engine of about 6 horses power ; these works were after- 
wards purchased by the East London Water-works Company, at the 
same time that they purchased the Shadwell works ; and the power 
now used is a water-wheel of about 16 horses power. 

Previous to the year 1756 there was a horse-machine for raising 
Thames water through a 7-inch pipe in Southwark, called the Bank 
End Water-works. A company was formed in 1758, under the name 
of the Old Borough Water-vvorks Company, which, together with 
the London Bridge works, supplied Southwark. A steam-engine was 
erected afterwards ; and in 1823, upon the removal of the London 



46 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FEBRirARY, 



Bridge wator-wlieels, the two works were consolidated, \inder the 
ii;mie of the Southwiirk Water-works, and became the properly of 
John Edwards, Esq. 

Previous to 175(3 works were established at Rotherhithe, The 
water was raised by a water-wheel, which was worked by tide water, 
collected in the ditches and ponds in the neighbourhood, and kept in 
until the falling uf tlie tide, when it was let out again into the river, 
and in its course turned the water-wheel ; it supplied the neighbour- 
hood plentifully through two li-inch mains. 

Previous to the year 17lj7 works were established at Lee Bridge, 
ujion the river Lee, worked by a water-wheel, for the supply of Hack- 
ney and Clapton ; they were called the Hackney Water-works, and in 
182it, after which period they became the property of the East London 
Water-works Company, they raised about 6UU,UU0 barrels per annum 
for the supply of about t5UU families. 

In I7S5 the Lambeth Water-works were established by act of Par- 
liament 25th of George IIL, to supply the district upon the south side 
of the Thames, exclusive of the parishes of St. Georgg's and St. Sa- 
^■iour's Southwark. The water was raised from the Thames near 
Waterloo Bridge by steam-engines. 

From the year 18UU to the present date, the following works have 
been established : 

In 1S05 tlie South London Water-works were established by act of 
Parliament' 45th of George Hi., to supply the district on the south 
side of the Thames not already supplied by the Lambeth and South- 
wark Water-works. The works are at Vauxhall. 

In ISOti the West Middlesex Water-works were established by act 
of Parliament 40th of George III. The works are at Hammersmith, 
and they supply Hammersmith, Kensington, Paddington, and Mary- 
lebone. 

In 1807 the East London Water-works were established by act of 
Parliament 47th of George III. ; they have works at Old Ford, which 
is iheir chief station for the supply of the eastern parts of the metro- 
polis. They have purchased the Shadwell, West Ham, and Hackney 
Water-works, and have works and machinery for raising water at 
.Stratford and Lee Bi'idge. Objections having been made in 1828 to 
the source from whence they raised their water, it being asserted that 
as the tide affected the river Lee in that part, the water " partook of 
the nature of Thames water," the Company, to remove all doubts, 
obtained parliamentary powers in 1S20 to change the source of supply, 
and, according to the powers granted, they have, at an expense of 
nearly 8U,U0Ci/., constructed reservoirs and a canal for the purpose of 
bringing water from a jiart of the river Lee which is far above the 
influence of the tide ; so that now the water raised at Old Ford is Lee 
IValcr only. I mention this more jiarticularly because it has been 
erroneously asserted that Thames water is supplied by this Company. 

In IblO the Grand Junction Water-works Company was esfablisheil 
by act of Parliament the 51st of George III. This Company first sup- 
])lied water from the Grand Junction Canal ; this supply was not only 
limited, but was also objected to by some of the tenantry, who pre- 
ferred Thames water : the works were accordingly rcnio\ed to the 
banks of the Thames at Chelsea. This Company together with the 
West Middlesex and Chelsea Water-works Companies supply the 
western parts of the metropolis. 

It appears lliat, in the Jinl instance, when it was necessary to bring 
water from a distance, the Corpoi-ation were the chief promoters of 
all schemes for better supplying London; and never more so, than 
when they granted a lease of the London Bridge arches to Peter 
M-aurice at a nondnal rent; but it is probable that this supply never 
exceeded six millions of imperial barrels per annum — not 2 per cent, 
of the present supply. 

Afterwards Sir Hugh Myddleton executed the plan for bringing the 
greatest supply to London ; he was, however, ruined, the undertaking 
being too extensive for an individual. 

And at last several wealthy men joineil together, and subscribed 
money sufficient to execute large plans for eflieiently supplying every 
portion of the metrojjolis, which is now most abundantly supplied w ith 
good water at the rate of |ths of a farthing for an imperial barrel, or 3() 
gallons, which is the amount received by the Water Companies for 
every barrel they distribute, according to the parliamentary returns. 
This abundant supply is continued through the night, to be used in 
case of tires happening. 

In some of the suburbs of London water is still supplied by carriers. 
Where it is carried in buckets from wells, it is sold at the rate of brf. 
per barrel, or 42 times as nuich ;is when supplied by machinery ; and 
when it is carted from the river, at -Irf. per barrel, or 21 times more 
than machinery. As it is more than probable that it could not be sold 
at a cheaper rate in ancient times, the advantages obtained by the 
introduction of machinery will appear very great. 

hx uddition to the works before mentioned, there are the Kent and 



the Hampstead Water-works. The Kent Water-works are situated 
ujjon the River Ravensbourne at Deptford. The machinery consists 
of a water-wlieel and two steam-engines. The water from this river 
is supplied chiefly to Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich and Rother- 
hithe : these works are scarcely considered metropolitan. 

The Hampstead Works are small ; they are the same that have 
been mentioned before, and are the most ancient of any of the existing 
works. In 1803 the New River Company supplied the tenantry. 

Present SnpiAy of Water to the Metropolis. 

According to the report of the Select Committee of the House of 
Commons in 1834, the cjuantity of water raised by the eight metro- 
politan water-works in the year 1833 was equal to 3.57,288,807 im- 
perial barrels ; the number of houses supplied was 191,0G(J, and the 
average daily supply was above 35 millions of gallons, or 183 gallons 
per house upon the average. 

Tlie following detailed accoimt is taken from the Parliamentary 
Reports : 

The New River Water-works supplied in 1833, 171,975,000 im- 
perial barrels of water, 21 millions of which were raised by machinery 
GO feet above the level of the New River Head, the remainder sup- 
plied by the river, which is 84 feet above the level of the Thames, a 
sufficient elevation to supply Jths of the New River district without 
the aid of steam or other power. The number of houses supplied 
was 70,145; the capital expended from the commencement of' the 
works has been 1,11G,0G4/. ; the rental received from the houses sup- 
plied with water amounted to 98,307/., and from lands and houses 
GGOl/., or a total income of 104,909/.; the expenditure was G],1G3/., 
leaving 43,74G/. to be divided, or not quite 4 per cent, upon the 
capital. These works supply the greatest number of houses. 

The East London Water-works rank next to the New River Water- 
works ; the quantity of water supplied by them in 1833 was equal to 
56,715,890 imperial barrels, all raised by machinery, under an average 
pressure of about 110 feet: the ninnber of houses supplied was 
4G,42 1 ; the capital expended from the commencement of the works 
has been 594,988/. ; the gross rental was 53,0G1/. ; 22,1GG/. was di- 
vided, not 3? per cent, upon the capital. 

The Lambeth Water-works supplied 17,997,903 imperial barrels in 
1833, all raised by machinery ; the number of houses supplied was 
1G,G82 ; the capital expended from the commencement of the works 
has been l!52,553/. ; the gross rental was 11,808/. ; and 3,840/. was 
divided, not 2i per cent, upon the capital. 

The West MidiUesex Water-works supplied in 1833, 30,000,000 
imperial barrels, all raised by machinery ; the number of houses sup- 
plied was 1G,000 ; the capital expended from the connnencenient of 
the works has been 404,2G3/. ; the gross rental was 45,500/.; their 
shares are valued at GS/. 8s. dd., and 3/. per share was divided, less 
than 4i per cent, upon the shares, but more than G per cent, upon the 
capital expended. 

The Chelsea Water-works supplied in 1833, 23,629,500 imperial 
barrels, all raised by machinery ; the number of houses supplied was 
13,892 ; the capital expended from the commencement of the works 
has been 271,311/. ; the gross rental was 22,906/.; 4,800/. was di- 
vided, or 1 j per cent, upon the capital. 

The South London Water-works supplied about 12, 1G6,GGG imperial 
barrels in 1833; the number of houses supplied was 12,016; the 
capital expended from the commencement of the works lias been 
245,306/. ; the average per share was about 245/., and they were last 
sold at 85/. per share ; the gross rental was 8,839/. 

The Grand Junction Water-works supplied 32,553,850 imperial 
barrels in 1833 ; the number of houses supplied was 8,780 ; the capital 
expended from the commencement of the works has been 331,174/.; 
the gross rental was 26,154/. ; dividend rather more than 4 per cent. 

The Southwark Water-works supplied 12,250,000 barrels in 1833; 
the number of houses supplied was 7,100; the capital expended since 
1823, when the Old Borough and London Bridge works were consoli- 
dated, has been 25,000/. ; the works belong to private individuals, 
who state that the Borough Wafer-works did not pay 1 per cent, and 
the London Bridge never more than 3 per cent. 

The whole capital expended since the establishment of these water- 
works has been 3,171,559/.; and the amount of dividend upon this 
capital in 1833 was between 3 and 4 i)Cr cent. All of these were for 
many years without any dividend, and frequently much lower than 
that before named, — seldom higher. 

I think the foregoing statement will prove that tlie profits of the 
public Water Companies have not generally been very exorbitant; 
and that, whatever objections may be made in particular cases, great 
credit is due to the enterprise of those who have, for a trifling gain, 
risked their property for the public good. 

I cannot proceed fwtUer without remarkingi that in the observations 



1S40.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



47 



I have made, and am about to make, I am not advocating any particu- 
lai- interests, but merely expressing my individual opinion of a great 
public good ; nor do I tliink the circumstance of my being at present 
connected professionally with one of the largest of the Water-works 
Companies should be any bar to the expression of an independent 
opinion. In the following observations, I can only regret that others 
more competent have not taken the task in hand, knowing, as I do, how 
many there are connected with this Society infinitely better able, from 
age and experience, to do justice to the subject. 

That Great Britain stands pre-eminent amongst nations is not only 
on account of the valuable minerals in which she abounds, and which 
is accidental, but also on account of the industry and perseverance of 
her subjects enabling them to overcome the greatest difficulties, and to 
avail themselves to the fidlest extent of the resources Nature has 
blessed the islands with. 

The chief reason that there are larger and nobler establishments for 
the public good is, that in England, instead of the Government exe- 
cuting and controlling the large public works, enterprising individuals 
join together, and, each s\ibscribing a portion of his property, execute 
the largest and grandest works. The only inducement is the fair ex- 
pectation tliat the money subscribed will yield an equitable return for 
the risk incurred. This return is made by that portion of the com- 
munity wdio derive advantages from the undertaking, — advantages 
which could not be obtained excepting by joint subscription. If any 
work is undertaken which, although benelicial to some portions of the 
community, is not to others, that only which derives the benefit pays 
for it ; whereas, if it w'ere undertaken by Government, in many in- 
stances the whole would have to pay for the part enjoying the benefit, 
or no works ujjon a similar plan to those which, until of late years, 
were peculiar to Great Britain, would be undertaken, as the acquies- 
cence of the majority must be obtained before a wise Government 
would embark in any hirge undertaking. 

This system, as every other, may be abused ; but I am speaking of 
the system when it is jjroperly worked, not otherwise. 

The case of Sir Hugh Myddleton is one showing directly the neces- 
sity of many individuals joining together; the undertaking was too 
large, and the risk too great for one man, to ensure a safe return ; he 
therefore was ruined. If in the first instance others had joined with 
him, a portion only of his fortune would have been lost. It is not to 
be expected that Companies can be formed without a fair chance of a 
return for the money risked: and as the benefit derived from great 
public works cannot be obtained otherwise, the nation, while it is doing 
right to guard against abuse, nuist, on the other hand, be cautious that, 
by requiring too much, it does not render the article too costly, and 
thus put a stop to the system. Every Company, as every individual, 
expects and ought to be remunerated, otherwise there is an end to 
companies. 

There have been many abuses of the system, and a consequent sus- 
picion of it ; individuals not unfrequently most honestly undertake to 
expose these abuses, — it is a difficult task ; care must be taken that 
in attempting to cure a limb the whole body is not, through ignorance, 
destroyed. 

In determining upon the supply of water to a large district, the chief 
points to be attended to are, first, whether it is to be obtained at such 
a cost that those who risk their money to obtain it can supply it at an 
unobjectionable price, and at the same time be fairly remunerated ; 
second, that the quality be good ; and third, that the quantity be 
abimdant. 

On the first I have to observe, that in London, with the exception 
of the greatest portion of the New River supply, the water has to be 
raised by the power of steam to dwelling-houses situated above the 
source ; and by the same power it must be forced through pipes, so 
that each inhabitant shall have a supply : to preserve and continue 
this power is the greatest source of expenditure in water-works. If 
water cannot be obtained in the neighbourhood at a sufficient elevation 
to run into the houses of the inhabitants, recourse must be had to me- 
chanical power, or the plan of carrying water front a distance by human 
labour must be readopted. The power necessary is in proportion to 
the quantity of water required and the height to which it has to be 
raised. If the elevation is lOU feet, it will require double the power 
that it would if it were only 50 feet ; if, therefore, the rivers near 
London are discarded, and deep springs are resorted to, the height to 
which the water vfill have to be raised will be at least lUU feet greater 
than the height from the rivers, and the expense will be proportion- 
ately increased, which must be met by increased payment for the 
water. To raise the present supply of London 100 feet high, without 
considering friction, a power equal to about 1480 horses will be re- 
quired, working 12 hours per diem. 

In addition to this, as the water supplied by the New River Com- 
pany is now delivered by their river at 84 feet above the water of the 



Thames, taking the average pressure at 60 feet, an additional power of 
430 horses, working 12 Tiours per diem, would be required, or a total 
increase of power equal to more than IDOO horses. To establish and 
maintain this jiower would require an investment of capital eepial to 
about 1,500,000/. The same reasoning will apply to filtering the whole 
supply. 

This fact must be borne in mind, that if more capital is laid out in 
what is, often erroneously, termed impioiing the supply, higher rates 
must be paid ; antl if those who pay for the water are not satisfied, and 
are willing to pay higher rates, they can have a more costly article ; 
and that if any alteration is made" in the general su;>ply of water, 
which leads to increased expenditure, whether tliis is made by the 
Companies already established, or by new Companies, the case is the 
same, — higher rates must eretitually be paid, whatever is done in the 
first instance ; and this appears to me a statement wliich no unpreju- 
diced individual can gainsay; — I am speaking of the ^cj(errtZ supplv, 
not of any particular cases. 

And this brings me to the second point, namely, quality. From the 
parliamentary inquiries lately made, it appears that owing to the im- 
proved drainage in London consequent upon the abundant supply of 
water which has of late years flowed into the sewers, the water of the 
river Thames had in that portion in which the drainage took place 
become inferior in qualitylo what it had been before. The strongest 
evidence upon this subject was that of Dr. Bostock, a gentleman of 
well known experience in the analysation of waters; he stated dis- 
tinctly that the impurities of the water were mechanical, and might 
be separated by filtration. It would also be well to notice what pro- 
portion of the supply of London comes from this objectionable source : 
about 65 per cent, of the whole supply is;(o/ Thames water; about 22 
per cent, is either taken above Hammersmith Bridge, beyond the in- 
fluence of the London drainage, or is filtered ; and as to the remaining 
13 per cent., powers are, or are about to be obtained forthwith to 
change the source of supply. In the latter case delay has been occa- 
sioned by a belief, justly founded, that Parliament would have proposed 
a plan for their supply ; and in fact, powers were refused the parties 
until it was detern>iued whether this would be the case or not. 

For drinking, spring water is the pleasantest ; and although it may 
contain certain salts, which render it hard and unfit for domestic pur- 
poses, it is not in the slightest degree injurious to health. Few would 
prefer river water to drink, if they could obtain spring water, as the 
very quality of softness which renders river water so valuable for 
general purposes, is that which renders it flat and unpalatable, namely, 
the absence of salts, which causes the water to be hard. 

Thirdly, as to quantity ; that this is a point of very great importance 
may easily be proved. In 1S33, 191,066 houses were supplied with 
waier; the quantity of water raised was 35 millions of gallons daily. . 
Supposing each house required 9 gallons per diem for drinking in the 
simple form, or otherwise, this would amount to TiVth of the whole 
quantity, or 5 per cent.; and the remaining iilths, or 95 per cent., is 
required for washing, cleaning sewers, watering gardens, and running 
down the channels in the public streets, and a portion for manufacturing 
purposes, and for fires. 

The Water Companies are bound to give an abundant supply in 
case of fire ; and during the time that the cholera morbus raged, a 
gratuitous supply was given, and the water was allowed to run out of 
the mains down the streets, alleys, and courts whenever required; — in 
the first instance insuring the lives and property of the public against 
fire ; and in the second, preventing the sjiread of ilisease by rendering 
the whole, but especially the thickly populated parts, of "the Metro- 
polis healthy. 

If, therefore, so small a quantity is required for drinking, and so 
large a quantity for other purposes, it would be a very imperfect 
scheme which sacrificed the latter for the former. 

If a purer water can be obtained, and is required, either from deep 
springs or by universal filtration, as this cannot be done excepting by 
an enormous outlay of capital, and a proportionate increase of rates, 
which is preferable, — that tlie whole 35 millions used for all purposes 
should be filtered; or that for a short season every year, when the 
rivers are discoloured, eacli inhabitant should have a portable filter, 
which may be obtained for 2Us., and filter the twentieth part? That 
the latter would be the cheapest to the consumer I am quite satisfied. 
I am of course speaking now of that portion of the supply out of the 
influence of the London tirainage, and which is only mechanically 
affected in rainy seasons, at all other times being clear and free from 
mechanical impurity. I say mechanical impurity, in contradistinction 
to chemical impurity : the first may be got rid of by deposition or 
filtration; the second cannot be got rid of but by changing the source. 
The evidence, however, given before Parliament shows that none of 
the water supplied to Loudon is so ckmicuUij impure, as to be in the 
least degree injurious to health. 



48 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



TlKit all inquiries into alwiscs are good and desirable tlierc is no 
denying, but it appears to nie that exaggerated statements liave been 
made ol the abuses in Water Companies, and that it is not generally 
borne in mind that if any increased outlay is necessary it may be 
efVected at much less cost, eventually, to the tenantry, by those whose 
works are established and whose experience is great, than by others; 
and the fact that great works liave lately been executed by some Com- 
panies, and that more ore about to be undertaken by others, without 
increasing the rates, shows a disposition on the part of those engaged 
in them to make the good of the public their first object. That some 
are obliged to increase their rates, upon a greatly increased expendi- 
ture, arises from the dilKculties being so great tliat the Company could 
not be carried on without it, and unless other parties will undertake, 
and be bound iinckr >iiij/:cttiit sicitriUea, (to be determined by Parlia- 
ment,) to supply such districts at lower rates, an increase should not 
be objected to. 

I am fearful I have too long occu])ied the time of the Society in ob- 
servations which, as they are those of an individual only, cannot be 
of much importance ; but thanking them for their kind intention, I 
will conclude by an explanitiun of the mode in which a town is sup- 
plied with water according to the present system. 

If any town be so fortunately situated tliat a supply of water may 
be had from springs in the ntighbnurluiud, of good (pialily, abundant in 
quantity, and at a sullicient elevation to overcome the friction created 
by the passage of the water through the pipes, and to allow it to run 
into the upper stories of the dwelling-houses, the arrangement for the 
supply will be simple, and the annual expense beyond the interest of the 
capital expended will be trifling. Jt is, however, but seldom that such 
is the case. 

In general the water has either to be raised from the rivers in the 
iunnediate neighbourhood at a great and continual expense of power; 
or, where lhei(> are no fresh-water rivers w ithin a pr.icticable distance, 
from deep wells; in which case the necessary power will be doubled ; 
or, lastly, should there be a river in the neighbcjiuhood, and it should 
be desirable to avoid the continual expense of steam ])ower, it may be 
effected by bringing a cut from such ))art of the river that the eleva- 
tion obtained by going a considerable distance up the stream produces 
a sutiicient head without the aid of machinery, as in the case of the 
New River. The head is obtained thus: the natural fall of the river 
from whence the water is taken is so much greater than is necessary 
to produce the required velocity for the water through the canal, that 
the difference in levels makes the required head. 

If an ojipoi-tunity is alfbrded of adopting citlier the mode of bringing 
it from a distance by means of a canal, or by jmmping from the river 
by steam power, tlie choice will be determined by Uie result of the 
estimate of the cost. The canal will cost more than the steam power 
in the first instance ; and to determine which is the least expensive, 
the interest of the capital expended added to the annual expense of 
keeping the canal in repair must be compared with the interest of 
capital expended for the steam power added to the annual amount for 
repairs, and the cosf oj'futl and wear and tear of Hit steam pon'ti: 

In small towns one line of pipes communicating with the source 
passes tlirough the streets, and each inhabitant is supplied at the same 
time. In larger towns, wliere the number of houses to be supplied is 
great, and the distance that the water has to travel is also great, re- 
course is had to the following contrivance : in the principal streets 
mains are laid, which convey the water from tlie source ; and branch- 
ing from these mains, other smaller-sized pipes are laid, called ser- 
vices; at every point where the services branch from the mains a cock 
is attached, by means of which the communication with the main is 
either opened or shut off; from the services small lead pipes branch 
to each dwelling-house, anil wlienever the conununication is opened 
with the mains, which are always charged, the houses whose lead pipes 
are joined on to the service receive a supply of water. 

The necessity for such an arrangement will be made obvious by the 
following statement : 

When water is forced tln-ough pivies either by a natural or artificial 
head, or by steam or other power, friction is created in proportion to 
the velocity of the water and length of the line of pipes. As the dis- 
tance increases, the power must either be increased or the velocity re- 
duced ; the shorter the distance, the less the power required to over- 
come the friction ; if, therefore, it is necessary to exert a great power 
to force the water to the extremities of an extensive district, that they 
may be properly supplied, it is very evident that the power which is 
exerted near to the source, not being required to overcome so great an 
amount of friction as at the extremities, must be applied to increase 
the velocity of the water through the orifices near the source ; and if, 
therefore, such an arrangement as the one herein before mentioned were 
not adopted, the effect would be that those houses whicli were near 
the source would have a superubiindantsupply," while those at a dis- 



tance would have a very small s\ipply, if any; but, by means of the 
system mentioned, when the inhabitiuits near the source havi' received 
their supply the cocks on the services are shut down, and the water 
in the mains passes on to supply the services at the extremities, 
wduch will have a sufficient supply, because the water, not being used 
before, must pass on to the extremities. That each may have an 
niuaJ supply, those that are near the source have the communication 
opened with the main for a sliorter time than those at a distance, in 
]H'oportion to the velocity with which the water is delivered. 

in addition to this, on every line of mains and services orifices of 
about 2 inches diameter are made at certain distances, which are filled 
up with what are termed "fire plugs," being nothing more than wooden 
spigots made to fit the orifices; these are easily fitted and as easily 
removed, and in case of a fire they are started, and a supply is given 
directly. The strength of this supply is regulated by means of the 
system before mentioned ; thus, by closing the service cocks in the 
other parts of the district, the whole force of the water may be con- 
centrated in that part where the fire has occurred. 



WIRE FENCES. 




1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



49 



WIRE FENCES. 

(From the Gardener's Magazine.) 

At an ordinary meeting of the Horticultural Society of London, tlie follow- 
ing letter to the secretary from Mr. W. B. Booth, was read, upon the mode 
of constructing wire fences for training espalier fruit trees upon, and for other 
purposes. 

" CarcleWj January 29, 1839. 
" S:r, I heg to hand you the following particulars respecting some wire 
trellises lately erected here, which you may, probahly, not deem unworthy of 
submitting to the notice of the Horticultural Society. 

" The object for which they are intended is the training of espalier fruit 
trees ; and it occurred to me, in the course of erecting some wire fencing to 
divide a portion of the park, that a similar kind of erection might be advan- 
tageously introduced into the kitchen-garden, which would answer the same 
piu-pose as the expensive wooden or cast-iron trellises usually met with in 
those places where the espalier mode of training is adopted. I accordingly 
submitted the plan to Sir Cliarlcs Lemon, who has since had it carried into 
execution to a considerable extent. 

" Wire erections of the kind I am about to describe are not uncommon, I 
believe, as fences, in some parts of the kingdom ; but in Cornwall it is only 
within the last few years they have been introduced. Mr. Gilpin, in his ex- 
cellent Hints on Landscape-Gardening, p. 217, has noticed the wire fence as 
being best suited for those parts near to the house, or to the approach, but 
he has not shown the manner in which it may be erected. The accompany- 
ing sketches and details will, I trust, supply this deficiency, and enable any 
one who may be desirous of erecting a wire fence or trellis to do so, with the 
assistance of a mason and blacksmith, at a very moderate expense. The wire 
used is known as No. 32. It is about a quarter of an inch in diameter, and is put 
up in large coils. Each wire measures from 115 ft. to 120 ft. in lengtli. The 
main upright posts fig. 153 a a are of iron, 1^ in. squax'e, and from 5^ ft. to 
6 ft. high, with holes 6 or 7 inches apart for receiving the small screws and 
nuts, to which the wires are attached in the way shown at fig. 152. At the 
opposite end the wire is secured by being bent a little at the point, and having 
a small wedge driven over it in each of the holes of the upright. Both tliese 
main posts are i\ ft. above the level of the ground, and are fixed beneath the 
surface in large rough blocks of stone d e, with iron wedges, which are more 
convenient, and answer the purpose quite as well as if they were run in with 
lead. The stay-bar is round, and 1^ in. in diameter. It varies in length ac- 
cording to the inclination of the ground, but when the latter is nearly level 
it is about 7 ft. long. The up|ier end is flattened, and beveled, so as to 
square with the upright, to which it is fixed by means of a screw at,/". The 
lower end is only a little bent, that it may fit into a somewhat smaller lilock 
of stone e than the one at d. The connecting bar c is square or round, and 
need not exceed an inch in either ease. It will also vary in length, accord- 
ing to circiunstanees. On a nearly level surface it must be about 5 ft. long, 
and have an eye at each end large enough for the end o€ the post and stay to 
go through. In addition to this, there are uprights of one-inch flat bar by 
half an inch in thickness fixed in stone, at 30 or 40 ft. apart, or even nearer 
if necessary, for the purpose of stifl%ning the trellis. 

" In the erection of this kind of trellis, it is requisite to have an instrument 
for drawing the wires Uke the one represented at fig. 151 to the scale of an 
inch to a foot, wliich may be made without much difficulty. The one 1 have 
sketched was constructed by our own blacksmith, and is a very eflicient con- 
trivance for the purpose. After the stones are bored and set in their places, 
with the earth firmly rammed around them, the next thing to be done is to 
fix the main post a, and wedge it tight. It ought to lean about an inch back 
from the perpendicular, to allow for its giving a little when the whole strain 
of the wires comes upon it, which will bring it upright. The connecting bar 
c is then slipped down over it, wliile the lower end of the stay-bar b is put 
through the other eye and into the stone e, and the upper end screwed to the 
main post at/. The triangle from which the wires are to be stretched is then 
complete. A similar triangle must be made at the opposite end, and against 
the main post of which p the instrument above noticed is to be placed for the 
pm-pose of drawing the wire. This is done with great facility by means of a 
double piece of rope-yarn twisted several times round the end of each, and 
hooked, as shown at h. The screw g is then worked until the wire enters its 
proper hole in the post^, when it is bent and secured by a wedge, as already 



stated. The nuts on the bolts fig. 152, at the end from which the wires were 
drawn, are then screwed up a little, so as to make all tlie wires as tight as 
possible. The cost of the whole averages from Is. (>d. to 2s. per yard. 

" I have been thus minute with the details of the trellis and the mode of 
erecting it, in order that those who approve of it may be al)le to have others 
erected on the same plan, for either of the purposes to which it has been 
successfully applied at Carelew. 

" I am. Sir, your very obedient servant, 

" Wm. B. Booth." 



STEAM BOAT PROPELLERS. 

Sip, — Whatever effect tlie experiments of Geo. Rennie, Esq., on 
steam-boat propellers, may have on the public generally, allow me to 
say, that I consider conclusions more erroneous were never before 
formed from any experiments, and with your permission I will attempt 
to prove, that the assertions relative to the superiority of the spear- 
shaped paildles are utterly without foundation. And what are these 
assertions, and what are we called on to believe? Why, that the 
floats of a paddle-wheel, when made in the shape of a trapezium, 
(with tlie acute ends down,) present double the resistance to the com- 
mon rectangular floats with three times the width and equal area! 
A most important discovery certainly ; and pray how is it that all our 
writers and experimenters on practical hydraulics have neglected to 
make known to us this peculiar but important property of the trape- 
zium ? Is it not for this simpk' reason, and this only, that they never 
could have discovered that such a property belonged to it? Indeed, 
it is a most glaring inconsistency to imagine that a flat surface, 
fashioned into a trapezium, can present double |the resistance to a 
rectangular s\wface of equal area : we say that there is no authority 
whatever for the assertion, and happily for us Mr. Rennie has placed 
the proof within our reach. 

We find, in the second table of experiments, (p. 25 of the Journal,) 
that a paddle-wheel of 3 ft. 3 in. diameter, with rectangular floats 
'••4x4 in., the total area of floats immersed being 22S-8 sq. in., pro- 
pelled the boat at the rate of 2'S miles per hour, with -11-S revolutions 
of the winch per minute. Also, that with trapezium-shaped floats, 
^4x4 in. (the acute ends down,) and immersed area 1ij7 sq. in., with 
a wheel 3 ft. lo| diameter, and 47'.5 revolutions per minute, the same 
boat was propelled at the rate of 2-0 miles per hour. 

In the first case, i. e. with rectangular floats, we shall find on calcu- 
lation, that the centre of pressure, (assuming it in each case to be the 
centre of the floats,) travels at tlie rate of 3s2'0 ft. per minute, or 4-35 
miles per hour, and the velocity of the boat is stated to be 2-8 miles 
per hour; the diflerence between these two quantities (4-35 — 2-y) = 
1-5.5 miles per hour : this is the rate at wdiicli the floats, with an area 
of 228'S sq. in. recede in the water, to obtain resistance sufficient to 
propel the boat at the rate of 2-8 miles per hour. 

In tlie other case, i. e. with trapezium-shaped floats, we sliall find, 
in the same way, that the centre of pressure travels at the rate of 
4(i(;%3 ft. per minute, or 5*3 miles per hour, and tlie velocity of the 
boat being only 2-'J miles per hour, shows that the floats, having an 
area of 1U7 sq. in., recede at the rate of 2'4 miles per hour, to produce 
an equal resistance, (or nearly so) to the rectangular floats. 

A writer in that excellent and useful publication, the Mechanic's 
Magazine, states the propeller to be "an important modification of the 
old paddle, being an ingenious application of a most simple and beau- 
tiful principle in nature," and mentions also the observation of the 
talented inventor, Mr. Rennie, " that nature never attains her ends but 
by the best and most efficacious means," meaning, of course, that the 
propeller in question is "the best and most etHcacious." As Mr. 
Rennie seems to have followed nature so closely in his invention, it 
seems passing strange that he should have overlooked another of her 
principles, equally simple and important, viz. that of the resistance 
opposed to the motion of a body through mater being as the square of the 
rtlocity : had he tested the perfonuLuice of his floats by this simple 
law, he would have seen at once on which side the efficiency rested. 

With the rectangular floats, we have seen that the recession, or the 
velocity of the floats through the water, is 1-55 miles per hour; the 
square of this is 1-55 x 1'55 = 2 4025. 

The recession of the trapezium-shaped floats is also shown to be 
2-4 miles per hour, the square of which is 2*4 x2'4^ 5'7G. 

The area of the immersed floats necessary to produce an equal 
resistance in each case, is of course inversely as their velocity; 
and taking the area of the rectangular floats moving through the water 
at the rate of 1-55 miles per hour, at 229 sq. in., we find, by simple 



50 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



proporlion, tlip area of the sunn yorl nfjloat, necessary to produce an 
equal resistance when moving llirougli tlie water at the rate of ■2'1 
miles per hour, to be only OJ'T) sq. in. for rr'li ; 2'1()2.J ; ; 229 ; 95-5. 
Hence we see plainly, that had the nclaiigulnr floats been of equal 
area oiili/ with the trapezinni-shaped lluafs, and Iraixlkd at the aamt 
rctocitii, tlie resistance would have lieen quite as great, if not greater; 
for the area of the immersed trapezium floats is slated to be l(i7, and 
the calculation shows that 9.5'o sq. in. would have been sulficient with 
rectangular tloals. 

But "we have no occasion to stop hero; Mr. Rennie has tried the 
merits of the two kinds of floats on a larger scale, (viz. with the 
"Pink " steamer,) and we shall be able to show, that instead of being 
superior, the trapezium-shaped floats prove themselves to be infinitely 
inferior to (he rectangular, as the experiments are made on a larger 
and fairer scale. 

Pursuing the same method of calculation, we find that in the wheel 
with rectangular floats, the centre of pressure travelled at the rate of 
7a4'S ft. per minute, or 8-5(3 miles per hour, whilst the boat only 
travelled at the rate of 6-7 miles; then S-5(i — (>7 =: PSll, for the re- 
cession of the rectangular floats with (iSirO sq. in. surface. The centre 
of pressure of the trapezium-shaped floats travelled at the rate of 829 
ft. per minute, or 9- 11 miles per hour, and the boat ti-Sl ; then 9-41 — 
6'31 =3*07 for the recession of the trapezium floats per hour, having 
a surface of ■f32-25 sq. in. The square of l'S(J = 3--J59t;, and the 
square of 3'(l7=: 9-5219, then 9-5219 : 3-1590 : : G36 : 231 sq. in. 
Here we again see, that had the rectangular floats had an area of only 
231 sq. in., and trarel/ed at tlit. same nlotitij as tlie trapezium, the re- 
sistance wovdd have been equal ! Whereas it appears by the experi- 
ment, that the area of the immersed trapezium-floats, was 432 sq. in., or 
(432 — 231 = ) 201 sq. in. greater than would have been necessary 
with rectutiguhir floats. 

Thus far, then, we think we have proved all that we attempted, 
and now let us ask, what are the other advantages besides a reduced 
area, which are said to be derived for tlie use of the trapezium-shaped 
floats? A reduction of two-thirds in the width of the paddle-wdieels 
and boxes. Having clearly shown that no advantage whatever is 



gained as far as the area of the immersed floats is concerned, but rather 
loss of power incurred ; what authority is there for asserting that 
])lacing the floats endwise is advantageous ? On the contrary, iTo not 
the experiments prove this modification to be as good ;is disadvan- 
tageous? for we see that when the obtuse luigle was down, a surface 
of only 103 sq. in. w as suflicient to propel the boat at the rate of 2-8 
miles per hour, with only Hi- J turns of the winch, and a 3 ft. Gi in. 
wheel ; but when the acute angle was down, the velocity was only 
2-9 miles, with 47-5 turns of the wincli per minnte, and a 3 f(. lUi in. 
wheel. In fact, there is just as much authority for stating, and I make 
bold to say, that (he results would be found equally as favourable, were 
the common rectangular floats also placed endwise, as the trapezium 
floats are when in that position. 

The disad\antages of the common paddle-wheel are universally 
acknowledgetl, and it would therefore have been much fairer, had Mr. 
Rennie compared the etfects of the trapezium floats with the cycloidal 
or the vertically-acting paddle. 

Above all, it may not perhaps be rude to ask, who are the compe- 
tent judges and witnesses who are said to "have seen the experiments 
repeated again and again and testeei them?" I think I may venture 
to say that Professor Barlow was not one of them, though he is said to 
approve of the ])lan t/ieoret/catli/. 

In sending you my views on the subject, I trust I shall not be accused 
of any motive unworthy of the subject, or of endeavouring to cast a 
slur over the efforts of the talented inventor; but Mr. Rennie should 
recollect, that assertions coming from so high a quarter, are much 
more likely to mislead than when made by an obscure individual. If I 
am wrong in my views and calculations, it will be easy to discover the 
seat of error and thus elicit truth, and I shall then be the first to 
acknowledge it ; but should this letter be the means of preventing 
a needless expenditure of money, I trust that those interested will 
consider that, instead of inflicting an injury, I have conferred on them 
a benefit. 



Yemsleij, 

Jan. m, 1840. 



I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
J. L. 



TRAVERSING SCREW-JACK. 



Fig.l 




TRAVERSING SCREW-JACK. 

FiGuuES I and 2 exhibit the screw modification. The screw- 
jack a is bolted to the plank c ; at the other end of the plank is fixed 
the rack g, in which the toe of (he strut/ advances as the screw Ij is 
elevated ; the strut works in a joint in the follower k : the position of 
the strut when (he screw is depressed is shown by the dotted lines. 
The object of this strut is to relieve the screw of the violent cross 
strain to which (lie apparatus is subject, when the engine or carriage 
IS pulled over by the lever; which strain is entirely transferred to the 
strut, and the screw has merely to carry (he load. 

The operation of traversing the jack is as follows ; by hooking the 



link i upon (he hook of the lever f, the toe of the lever being inserted 
into a ratch of the rack A of the lower plank, when a man, bearing 
down the end of (he lever, drags the apparatus and engine or carriage 
towards him with great facilKy; the same lever is used to (urn the 
screw, and to produce the traverse motion. By this apparatus an 
engine of IG tons weight has been replaced upon the rails in five 
minutes by the engineer and stoker alone ; thus those delays which 
are the subject of so much annoyance and loss to railway proprietors 
and the pulilic, need not happen in future ; the apparatus is exceed- 
ingly jiortable and cheap, and no train ought to be allowed to go out 
without its being sent along with it; it may be carried either upon 
the lender, or upon some other f lace which may be selected for it. 



EAST LONDON WATER WORKS 




Top Vc€.H- of iia^j^. 




Mo/'i^ont€il Seeiton thfot/^Ji Ga^e. 




n 



JBrfuJiff for sttpportin^ struxU^ 
PUtjn^ti' Bfoc/e for ^Kadrcuet 




gt^.if^;^.<i<lt>^S^J:-.i^^ 




Plan of Bottom ofiificte. 



T,lt.,ro»tit/ni. HarittrA Cr>ur< 




^d 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



51 



APPARATUS FOR RAISING WATER. 

Patented by M. De L'Osier. 
accompanied by an engraving, plate ii. 

Extract from Specification. 

Figure 1, plate 2 is a vertical section of the apparatus, figure 2 is 
a plan of figure 1. A is the tube leading from the steam boiler, B is 
the stop cock to shut off the steam when not required. C the tube 
which I call the vacuum tube. D and E tubes through which the air 
flows. F the tube into which the steam passes in its escape to tlie 
chimney or into the open air, it is also througli this tube that the air 
passes ; a represents the openings for the steam in the pipe. F, 
shewn in section at figure 3, two of these openings a e circular, paral- 
lel and concentric ; the two others are plain, and their direction tends 
to the common centre of the circles, generating from the two others. 
The sectional form of the tubes may be varied to any form required. 
The interior diameter of the tube D is equal to from 14 to 15 of that 
of E, and the diameter of E of 15 to 18 of the tube F. 

The size of the opening at a is about one-tenth of the size of tube 
F, these proportions may be varied, but I have found them produce 
good results in working with a jjressure of steam equal to five atmos- 
plieres. The pressure may be increased or decreased by the regula- 
tion of the opening a, XX are the cylinders containing the principal parts 
used in the apparatus. K is a vacuum chamber, 1 1 pipes communi- 
cating between the receiver K and the cylinder X X ; M the cock in 
the pipe C, S T are gauges to ascertain the state of the rarefied air. 

Having described the parts, I will now show tlie manner of putting 
it into operation. Steam being generated at a pressure of five atmos- 
pheres, the two cocks B and M being closed, on opening the cock B 
the steam will flow through the opening a, its continued passage 
through the tube F carries away the air in the cylinder X X, and pro- 
duces a partial vacuum in K, the mercury of the gauge T will rise to 
the height of 50 or 55 centimetres above the cup, then on opening 
the cock M, the air in the pipe C will rush through the pipes D E 
without materially altering the state of the partial vacuum in the cy- 
linder X X, and of the chamber K with which it is in communication, 
and the mercury in the gauge T instead of being depi'essed will rise 
some centimetres higher, the state of the vacuum will be indicated 
by the mercury at 3U centimetres above the cup. With this appa- 
ratus you can maintain a constant partial vacuum or removing of air 
in any recipient. I will now proceed to describe another modification 
of the apparatus, there being two vacuum vessels used in place of one. 

Figure 4 is a vertical section, and figure 5 a plan of the same. A 
the tube leading to the steam boiler, B the cock to shut off the steam 
when not required, C the pipe communicating with the apparatus 
from which atmospheric air is to be withdrawn, D and E tubes through 
wdiich the air flows, F tube into which the steam flows, and it is also 
through this tube that the air from the tubes D and E flows with the 
steam, a is the opening for tlie escape of the steam shown full size at 
figure B, G tube into which the steam and the air come from the part 
of the apparatus to be now described ; R R is a tube leadiug to the 
vacuum chamber O, Q conical tube communicating with the chamber 
O, through which the air passes into the tube G by the pipe R, H 
is the escape pipe for the steam and air into the atmosphere, K and L 
are the air vessels or receivers, 1 1 and Y are pipes connecting tlie re- 
ceivers K and L to tlie cylinders X and P, S T and U are the gauges 
indicating the different states of the rarefied air, X X and P are the 
cylinders. 

The operation of this apparatus is as follows: — The steam being 
generated to a pressure of five atmospheres, and the three cocks B M 
and N being closed, on opening B the steam will flow through the 
orifice a, by the continued action of the steam through the tube the air 
withdrawn from the cylinder X and the chamber K, and the mercury 
will rise in the gauge to 50 or 55 degrees above the cup, and 
there remain. On opening the cock M a constant withdrawing of air 
will take place with considerable velocity, at the same time the state 
of vacuum in K X will not be materially altered, and the mercury 
in the guage T will be raised higher, the continued action of the steam 
and air through the tube G rarefies the air in the receiver L, and in 
the cylinder P, and the mercury in the gauge U rises to 40 centime- 
tres above that of its cup, and is kept there on opening the cock N, 
the air issuing from the chamber in connection with the tube R will 
flow through the conical tube Q into the tube G, the state of the air in 
the receiver L and the cylinder P is not at all changed, but the mer- 
cury in the gauge S wiU rise 3U centimetres, fresh supplies of air can 
be admitted as explained in the description of figures 1 and 2. A 



third air vessel may be used in a similar manner to the second when 
required, by admitting the atmospheric air through the pipes R R. 

Figure 6 is a iilan of the apparatus suitable for raising water from 
one level to another when worked by either of the apparatus shown in 
figures 1 to 5. Figure 7 is an elevation of the same, these having 
been previously described in the preceding drawings, I have not 
thought it necessary to repeat the description. Figure S is a vertical 
section of the exhausting or draining machine, from a line drawn froni 
P to Q shown at figure "O. Figure 9 is a plan of the stage No. 1, as 
shown at figure S, from a line drawn from N to O ; S S S are the re- 
ceivers placed i.ne above the other at equal distances. T T T are 
the ascending tubes terminating in the receiver S ; the lower part of 
the tube T of the stage No. 1 is placed on the well or other source of 
water Y Y, and the lower parts of the other tubes are placed in the , 
receivers S. The number of these stages may be increased or de- 
creased according to the height that the water is required to be raised. 
At the top of each of the ascending tubes T there is a valve Y ; Z is the 
tube through wliich the air is withdrawn, the lower end of the tube is 
open and plunged in the water of the well Y Y, it is connected with 
the pneumatic apparatus by the tube K, and with the recipients S SS, 
by the small tubes U U U ; X X X are the floats, and V V V are the air 
valves. In the top of the upper receiver S is attached a bent dis- 
charge tube W, closed by a valve W'; R is the reservoir for the water 
wdien raised, M shows where a pipe may be fixed to conduct the water 
to any place required. 

To put this machine into operation, the cock E, figures 6 and 7 of 
the apparatus, is to be opened, the air and steam flowing into the 
atmosphere by the lubes F F, and the mercury of the gauge I will rise 
to 50 or 55 centimetres above its cup. The cock L is then opened, 
and the air contained in the interior of the exhausting machine will 
flow through tlie tube K across the pneumatic apparatus v»ith great 
speed, at least 200 centimetres per second, and will flow into the 
atmosphere with the steam. The discharge of the air across the ap- 
paratus does not in any way aftect the state of the vacuum, as may be 
ascertained by the mercury in the gauge I always remaining at the 
same height. The height of the mercury in the gauge M will always 
indicate the state of the air contained in the exhausting machine when 
it is about 31 or 32 centimetres ; the receiver S of the stage No. 1 is 
full of water drawn from the well Y Y, the float X will then raise the 
small valves V V, and close the orifice U for the discharge of the air 
against which it will be held fast, the atmospheric air being admitted 
through the small openings of the valves V, the valve Y closes, and 
the pressure on the water in the receiver forces it up into the receiver 
S of the stage No. 2. The same operation is performed in the stages 
No. 2 and 3 as that described with regard to No. 1, it is not therefore 
necessary to repeat the description. The air valves of the stages No. 
1 and 3 are opened by their floats at the same time that they are closed 
in the stage No. 2, they will then be restored to their original position. 
The water when raised to the upper receiver at the stage No. 3, flows 
through the tube W into the large reservoir R, and the valve W is 
raised to allow it to pass freely, during this time the water again flows 
into the receiver of the stage No. 1. Besides this tube W in the re- 
ceiver S of the stage No. 3, there is another which is not shown in the 
drawing, the object of it is to regulate the opening of the valve by 
means of a screw, in order to regulate the flow of the water in such 
manner that the float X shall press against the air escape pipe, at the 
same time that the float of the stage No. 2 raises its air valves, and 
the float of the stage No. 1 presses against the opening of the air 
escape pipe. In order that the floats should properly perform the 
functions thit are assigned to them, they must he so constructed that 
the power which they require by the quantity of water displaced, will 
be sufficient to raise its proper weight, and to overcome the resistance 
which the pressure of the air exercises upon the air valves, and the 
weights of these same valves, and also that when the receivers are 
empty, their weight allowing for the part which is sustained by the 
water in the tube in which they are placed, will be sufficient to over- 
come the resistance of the pressure of the air, which keeps it pressed 
against the opening of the air escape pipe. The air escape pipe Z Z 
is placed in the water of the well Y Y, in order that if the water in 
the receiver (S S S) slioidd flow into it through the tube U U, it may 
fall down into the well. This machine may also be worked by using 
any number of air vessels that may be required. 



Artesian Well. — The boring instrument now at work for the Artesian 
well in the abattoir at Grenelle has reached the depth of 508 metres, or 1,666J 
feet. The earth brought up is still a greenish clay. It requires 4 horses and 
12 men to keep the apparatus in action; and it is daily hoped to see water 
bui-st up. The temperatui-e increases a degree ia warmth for every 30 yards 
penetrated downwards. 

H2 



52 



THE CIVIL ENCINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[FKBRtrARY, 



REVIEWS. 

Rf])ton's Landscape Gardeninr/ and Landscape Architecfiire, a New Edition. 
By J. C. Loudon, F.L.S. Lomlon : Longman and Co., 1840. 




'laijii/ ruiiiii 



HUMPHRY REPTON. 

IIiini))liiy Rcpton was born at Bury St. Edmond's, May 2d, 1 "r>2, of a 
respectalde family, and w.as originally intended for trade. At an early |ieriod 
lie was thrown into contact with the Hopes of Amsterdam, a circmnstance 
which perhaps decided the natural bent of his mind, and confirmed tliat love 
for the arts which forbade any other pm-suit. After a long contest against 
his favourite studies, about 1 788 he decided upon adopting the profession of 
a Landscape Gardener, a title which lie created and maintained against those 
who decried its novelty. What was his success iii this career it is uuneces- 
saiT for us to mention,'Englaud abounds with bis works, and he has left be- 
hind him a name which will live when the tr.iccs of his labours have vanished. 
His personal character powerfully influenced him in his artistical career, mild 
and amiable in his disposition, the same feelings seemed to influence bis de- 
signs. Cirandeur perhaps he rarely attained, but in producing scenes of culti- 
vated and placid beauty, speaking at once of comfort and of wealth, he stood 



without a rival. He seemed as it were the genius born for cultivating the 
gentle slopes, aud verdant meads of the sea-girt island, ever inspired with that 
love of the beautiful in nature, which marks the English character, fertile in 
expedient, he waged perpetual battle against the rude and unpicturesque, and 
powerfully contributed towards promoting that taste in landscape which has 
rendered this country the model of surrounding nations. 

Repton's works consist of an agglomeration of fragments dispersed over 
one folio and three quarto volumes, now, however, collected by Mr. Loudon 
into one volume octavo. The service which Mr. Loudon has rendered by 
this task, cannot be too highly appreciated by the public, for he thus codified 
(as Hentbam would have called it) the most valuable materials on the theory 
and practice of the art. Tlu-onghout these works a continual flow of origin- 
ality of thought and beauty of idea seems to run from the pencil and pen of 
Mr. Repton, while the manner in which he exhibits its own personal interest 
in the subject give such a tone of identity as to resemble rather the warm 
breathing words of a professor than the cool notes of a closet WTiter. Repton 
is always present before us, and yet, instead of charging him with egotism, 
we receive him as a kindly guide and instructor. There are few portions of 
Milton more interesting than that where alluding to his blindness, we are 
personally introduced to an author whom we admire. Thus Repton alludes 
to some of his grievances. 

'* I cannot help mentioning, that, from the obstinacy and bad taste of the 
Bristol mason who executed the design, I was mortified to find that Gotliic 
entrance built of a dark blue stone, with dressiTigs of white Bath stone ; and 
in another place, the intention of the design was totally destroyed, by paint- 
ing all the wood-work of this cottage of a bright pea-green. Such, alas ! is 
the mortifying diflference betwixt the design of the artist, and the execution 
of the artificer." 

" Such is tlie horror of seeing any building belonging to the offices, that, 
in one instance, I was desired by the architect to plant a wood of trees on the 
earth winch had been laid over the copjior roofs of the kitchen offices, and 
which extended 300 feet in length from the house." 

To show the judicious observations of Mr. Repton relative to the architec- 
ture and alterations of old buildings, we select the following extracts from 
different parts of the work before us, and through the liberality of Mr. Lou- 
don, we are enabled to give a few of the valuable illustrations. 



FIG. 2.-ASHT0N COURT. 




S-^S.^^^G?'-"*^'"^ 



The old part built in the reign of Henry VI. 



The new part added in the reign of George HI. 



" The annexed engraving of Ashton Court, fig. 2, furnishes an example 
of m.iking considerable additions to a very ancient mansion, without neglect- 
ing the comforts of modern life, and without mutilating its original style and 
character. 

" This house was built about the reign of HcniT VL, and originally con- 
sisted of many different courts, surrounded by buildings, of which three are 
still remaining ; in all tliise the Gothic windows, battlements, and jirojecting 
Ijuttresses, have been preserved; but the front towards the south, 150 feet 
in length, was built by Inigo Jones, in a heavy (irecian style ; tliis front was 
designed to form one side of a large quadrangle, l)ut, from the unsettled state 
of public affairs, the other three sides were never added, and the present long 
front was never intended to be seen from a distance : this building consists 
of a very fine gallery, which has been shortened to make such rooms as mo- 
dern habits require ; but it is now proposed to restore this gallery to its ori- 



ginal character, and to add in the new part, a library, drawing-room, eating- 
room, billiard-room, with bed-rooms, dressing-rooms, and a family apartment, 
for which there is no provision in the old part of the mansion. It is also 
proposed to take down all the ruinous offices, and rebuild them with the ap- 
pearance of antiquity, and the conveniences of modern improveineiit. 

" A general idea prevails, that, in most cases, it is better to rebuild than 
repair a very old lionse ; aud the architect often finds less difficidty in making 
an entire new plan, than in adapting judicious alterations : but if a single 
fragment remains of the grandeur of former times, whether of a castle, an 
abbey, or even a house, of the date of Queen Elizabeth, I cannot too strongly 
enforce tlie propriety of preserving the original character of such antiquity, 
lest every hereditary' mansion in the kingdom should dwindle into the insig- 
nificance of a modern villa." 



l-ff,ff 4 




J K <Jiyf'hint, Unf^i^-f^a Caure 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



53 



FIG. 3.— WEST FRONT OF THE PAVILION. 







Application of Indian Architecture. 

" Having already shown the difficulty of adapting either the Grecian or 
Gothic styles to the character of an English palace, this newly discovered 
style of architecture seems to present a new expedient for the piu'pose, in the 
forms made known to this country by the accurate designs of Mr. Thomas 
Daniell, and other artists, which have opened new sources of grace and 
beauty. 

" To the materials of wood and stone we have lately added that of cast- 
iron, unknown in former times, either in Grecian or Gothic architecture, and 
wliich is pecuharly adapted to some light parts of the Indian style. 

" In Grecian architecture, the artist is confined to five (or, rather, only to 
three) different orders of columns, so restricted in their relative proportions, 
that they are seldom used externally, with good effect, in modern houses, and 
are generally found too bulky for internal use. Indian architecture presents 
an endless variety of forms and proportions of pillars, from the ponderous 
supports of the cavern, to the light, airy shafts which enrich their corridors, 
or support their varandahs. This alone would justify the attempt to adapt 
a style, untried, for the purpose to which other styles have been found inap- 
plicable or inadequate. 

" It is difficult for an artist at once to divest himself of forms he has long 
studied : this will account for the confusion of Grecian and Gothic in the 
works of John of Padua, Inigo Jones, and others, about the same date, which 
occasioned that mixture of style, condemned in after-times for the reasons 
already assigned. The same thing may he observed in the first introduction 
of Gothic, mixed with the Saxon and Norman which preceded it : and the 
same will, doubtless, happen in many instances, during the introductory ap- 
plication of Indian architecture to English uses, while a false taste «ill both 
admire and condemn, \vithout any true standard, the various forms of novelty. 

" If I might humbly venture to suggest an opinion on the subject, I should 
recommend the use only of such Indian fonns or proportions as bear the 
least resemblance to those either of the Grecian or Gothic style, with which 
they are liable to be compared. If the piUars resemble Grecian columns, or 
if the apertures resemble Gothic arches, they will offend, by seeming to be 
Incorrect specimens of well-known forms, and create a mixed style, as dis- 
gusting to the classic observer as the mixture in Queen Elizabeth's Gothic. 
But if, from the best models of Indian structures, such parts only be selected 
as cannot be compared with any known style of English buildings, even those 
whom novelty cannot delight, will have little cause to regret the introduction 
of new beauties. 

" On these grounds, therefore, I do not hesitate to answer the question, 
concerning which I am commanded to deliver my opinion, that the Indian 
character ha\-ing been already introduced (in part) by the large edifice at the 
Pavilion, the house and every other building, should partake of the same 
character, unmixed either with Grecian or Gothic ; and without strictly copy- 
ing either the mosques, or the mausoleums, or the serais, or the hill-forts, or 



the excavations of the east, the most varied and graceful forms should 1) 
selected, with such combinations, or even occasional deviations and improve- 
ment, as the general character and principles of construction will admit." 

Concerning Cobham. 

" Whether we consider its extent, its magnificence, or its comfort, there 
are few places which can vie with Cobham, in Kent, the seat of the Earl of 
Darnley; and none which I can mention, where so much has been done, both 
to the house and grounds. Under my direction, for so long a series of years ; 
yet, as the general principles in the improvements originated in the good 
taste of its nol)le proprietor, they may be referred to, without incuiTJng the 
imputation of vanity. 

" It is now twenty-five years since I first visited Cobham, where a large and 
splendid palace, of the date of Queen Elizabeth, formed the three sides of a 
quadrangle, the fourth side being open to the west. The centre building had 
been altered by Inigo Jones, who had added four pilastres without any atten- 
tion to the original style, and without extending his improvements to the two 
long sides of the quadrangle. 

" The interior of tliis mansion, like that of most old houses, however 

Fig. 4 — Entrance and north front of Cobliam Hall, Kent. 




-^^^^ 



54 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Frbruart, 



adapted to the customs and manners of the times in which tlicy were l)uih, 
was cold and comfortless, compared with modern houses. A large hall, an- 
ciently used as the dining-rooin, occupied more than half tlie centre ; and 
the rest helonged to the huttcry and offices, in the manner still preserved in 
old colleges. The two wings contained rooms, inaccessible, hut liy ])assing 
through one to the other; and the two opposite sides were so disjoined hy 
the central hall, that each was entered hy a separate ])orch. 

"The great hall at Cohham has been converted into a music-room, of fifty 
feet by thirty-six, and thirty feet high ; and is one of the most splendid ajid 
costly in the kingdom, T)ie rest of the ccjitral building forms the library, 
or general hving room ; which, instead of looking into an entrance-court, as 
formerly, now looks into a flower-garden, enriched with marljle statues and a 
fninitain, forming an ai)propriate frame, or foregrouml, to the landscape of 
the park. The entrance has been removed to the north front, under an arch- 
way, or parte coc/iere, over which a walk from the level of the picture gallery 
(wliich is up stairs) crosses the road, in the manner described by the annexed 
sketch, tig. 1, representing the north front, as it has been restored to its 
original character. In this view is also the bastion, by which the teiTaec- 
walk terminates with a view into the park." 

We cordially agree with Mr. Repton in the following observations " Con- 
cemhiff improvements." 

" I have frequently been asked, whether the improvement of the coimtrv, 
in beauty, has not kept pace with the increase of its wealth ; and, perhaps, 
have feared to deliver my opinion to some who have jmt the cpiestion. I 
now may speak tlie truth, without fear of offending, since time has brought 
about those changes which I long ago expected. The taste of the country 
has bowed to the shrine which all worship ; and the riches of individuals 
have changed the face of the country. 

" There are too many wiio have no idea of improvement, except by in- 
creasing the qnantity, the quality, or the value of an estate. The beauty of 
its scenei7 seldom enters into their thought : and, Mli at will it cost .'"or. 
What will it jield ? not. How will it look .' seems the general object of in- 
quiry in all improvements. Formerly, I can recollect the art being compli- 
mcnti'd as likely to extend it« influence, till all England would become one 
landscape garden ; and it was then the pride of a conntry gentleman to show 
the beauties of his place to the public, as at Audley End, Shardeloes, ami 
many other celebrated parks, through which i)ublic roads were purposely 
made to pass, and the views displayed by means of sunk fences. Now, on 
the contrai-y, as soon as a purchase of land is made, the first thing is to seciu-e 
and shut np the whole hy a lofty close pale, to cut dowm every tree that will 
sell, and jdough every inch of land that will jiay for so doing. The annexed 
two sketches, figures 5 and G, sen-e to show the effect of such improvc- 



IHg. 5— View from a public road which passes tlirong-h a forest waste. 




mcnt ; they both represent the same spot ; formerly, the venerable trees 
m.arked the property of their ancient proprietor ; and the adjoining forest, 
waste, or common, might, perhaps, produce nothing liut beauty; now the 
trees are gone, the pale is set at the very verge of the statute width of road, 
the conmiou is enclosed, and the proprietor boasts, not that it produces corn 
im man, or gi-ass for cattle, but that it produces him rent : thus money su- 
persedes every other consideration. 

This eager pursuit of gain has, of late, extended from the new proprietor, 
whose habits have been connected with trade, to the ancient hereditary gen- 
tleman, wiio, condescending to become his own tenant, grazier, and butcher, 
can have little occasion for the landscape gardener : he gives up beauty for 
gain, and prospect for the produce of his acres. This is the only improve- 
ment to which the thirst for riches aspires ; and, while 1 witness, too often, 
the alienation of ancient family estates, Oom waste and extravagance, I fre- 
quently see the same effect produced by cupidity and mistaken notions of 

sordid improvement, rather than enjoyment of property, Jiut, to whatever \ 



cause it may be attributed, the change of property into new hamis, was never 
before so frequent ; and it is a painful circumstance to the professional im- 
prover, to see his favourite plans nipped in the bud, which he fondly hoped 
would ripen to perfection, and extend their benefits to those friends by whom 
he is consulted. 

" In jiassing through a distant county, I had observed a part of the road 
where the scenery was particularly interesting. It consisted of large spread- 
ing trees, intermixed with thorns : on one side, a view info Lord * * « * 's 
l)ark was admitted, by the jiale being sunk; and a ladder-stile, placed near an 
aged beech, tempted me to explore its beauties. On the opposite side, a 
bench, and an umbrageous |)art of an adjoining forest, invited me to pause, 
and make a sketch of the spot. After a lapse of ten years, I was surjirised 
to see the change which had been made. I no longer knew, or recollected. 



Fig. 6- 



-View after the forest waste had been enclosed, and the ground sub- 
jected to agricultural improvement. 




the same place, till an old lahourer explained, that, on the death of the late 
loi-d, the estate had been sold to a very rich man, who had improved it ; for, 
by cutting down the timber, and getting an act to enclose the common, he 
had doubled all the rents. The old mossy ami ivy-covered pale was replaced 
by a new and lofty close paling ; not to confine the deer, but to exclude man- 
kind, and to protect a miserable narrow belt of firs and Lombardy poplars : 
the bench was gone, the ladder-stile was changed to a caution against man- 
traps and spring-gims, and a notice that the foot-path was stO])ped by order 
of the commissioners. As I read the hoard, the old man said, — ' It is very 
true, and I am forced to walk a mile further round, every night, after a hard 
day's work.' This is the common consequence of all enclosures : and, we 
may ask, to whom are they a benefit .' 

" ' Adding to riches an increased store. 
And making poorer those already poor.' " 

Mr. Repton gives the following interesting testimony to his predecessor 
Browni, whose example he prided himself in following. 

" Mr. Brown's fame as an architect seems to have been eclipsed by his 
celebrity as a landscape gardener, he being the only professor of one art, 
while he had many jealous competitors in the other. But wiien I consider 
the number of excellent works in architecture designed and executed by him, 
it becomes an act of justice to his memory to record, that, if he was superior 
to all in what related to his own peculiar profession, he was inferior to none 
in wliat related to the comfort, convenience, taste, and propriety of design, 
in the several m.insions and other buildings which he planned. Having 
occasionally visited and admired many of them, I was induced to make some 
inquiries concerning his works ns an architect, and, with the permission of 
Mr. Holland, to whom, at his decease, he left his drawings, I insert, the fol- 
lowing list : — 

'• For the Earl of Coventry. Croome, house, oflices, lodges, church, &e., 
1751. 

The same. S|)ring Hill, a new place. 

Earl of Donegal. Fisherwick, house, oflices, and bridge. 

Earl of Exeter. Burleigh, addition to the house, new offices, &c. 

Ralph Allen, Esq., near Bath, additional building, 1765. 

liOrd Viscount P.almcrslon. Broadland, considerable ailditions. 

Lord Craven. Benham, a new house. 

" Robert Drummond, Esq. Cadlauds, a new house, offices, farm build- 
ings, &c. 

Earl of Bute. Christ Church, a bathing-place. 

Paul Methuen, Esq. Corshara, the picture gallery, &c. 

Marquis of Staft'onl. Trentham Hall, considerable alterations. 

Earl of Newbuiy. House, offices, &c., 1762. 

Rowland Holt, Esq. Redgiave, large new house, 1765. 

Lord Willoughby de Broke. Compton, a new chapel. 

Marquis of Bute. Cardiff Castle, large additions. 

Earl llarcomt. Nuneham, alterations and new offices. 

Lord Clive. Clermont, a large new house. 

Earl of Warwick, Warwick Castle, added to the entrance. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



55 



Lord Cobliam. Stowe, several of the buildings ill the gardens. 
Lord Clifford. Ugbrooke, a new house. 

" To this list Mr. Holland added : ' I cannot be indifferent to the fame and 
character of so gi'cat a genius, and am only afraid lest, in giving the annexed 
account, I should not do him justice. No man that I ever met %rith under- 
stood so well what was necessary for the haliitation of all ranks and degrees 
of society ; no one disposed his offices so well, set his buildings on snch good 
levels, designed such good rooms, or so well provided for the approach, for 
the drainage, and for the comfort and conveniences of eveiy part of a place 
he was concerned in. This he did without ever having had one single diffe- 
rence or dispute with any of his employers, lie left them pleased, and they 
remained so as long as he lived ; and when he died, his friend. Lord Coven- 
try, for whom he had done so much, raised a monument at Croome to his 
memoiy.' 

" I will conclude this tribute to the memory of my predecessor, hy tran- 
scribing the last stanza of his epitaph, written by Mr. Mason, and which 
records, with more truth than most epitaphs, the private character of tliis 
truly great man : — 

" ' But know that more than genius slumbers here ; 

Virtues were his which art's liest powers transcend : 
Come, ye superior train, who these revere, 

And weep tlie christian, husband, father, friend.' " 

In these last words Repton has written at the same time liis own epitaph, 
so admirably do they dcscrilie him as an artist and a man. At the head of 
this article is a profile of him, with a diagram illustrative of his doctrine of 
the theory of vision. He died as he had lived, quietly on the 2-lth of March, 
1818, at Harestreet in Essex, his residence diuing latter years. 

The following extract from his description tells in a few words the man 
and his character. 

" Twenty ycais have now passed away, and it is possible that life may be 
extended twenty years longer, but, from my feelings, more proliable that it 
will not reach as many weeks ; and, therefore, I may now, perliaps, be writ- 
ing the last Fragment of my labours. 1 have Uved to see many of my plans 
beautifully realized, but many more cruelly marred : sometimes by false 
economy ; sometimes by iiijucUcious extravagance. I have also Uved to reach 
that period when the improvement of houses and gardens is more delightful 
to me than that of parks or forests, landscapes or distant prospects. 

" I can now expect to produce little that is new ; I have, therefore, endea- 
voured to collect and arrange the observations of my past life : this has 
formed the amusement of the last two winters, betwi.xt intenals of spasm, 
from a disease incurable, during which time I have called up (by my pencil) 
the places and scenes of wliieh I was most proud, and marshalled them be- 
fore me ; happy in many pleasing remembrances, which revive the sunshine 
of my days, though sometimes clouded by the recollection of friends removed, 
of scenes destroyed, and of promised happiness changed to sadness. 

" The most valuable lesson now left me to communicate is this : I am con- 
vinced that the delight I have always taken in landscapes and gardens, with- 
out any reference to their quantity or appropriation, or without earing whether 
they were forests or rosaiies, or whether they were palaces, villas, or cottages, 
while I had leave to admire their beauties, and even to direct theii" improve- 
ment, has been the chief source of that large portion of happiness wliich I 
have enjoyed through life, and of that resignation to inevitable evils, with 
which I now look forward to the end of my pams and laboiu's." 

The few extracts and illustrations we have given, justify us in saying that 
the mere collation and condensation of such a mass of materials as are con- 
tained in the work before us, would be alone sufficient to confer honour on 
Mr. Loudon, but liis merit is still farther enhanced by the admirable manner 
n which the whole work has been illustrated and improved. 



AN INSTRUMENT FOR ASCERTAINING THE AREA OF IRREGULAR 

PLOTS. 

The Committee on Science and the Arts constituted by the Franklin Insti- 
tute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, 
to whom was referred for examination an histrument for ascertaining the 
area of irregular plots, invented by Thomas Wood, M.D., of Smithficld, Ohio, 
Report : 

That they have examined the instrument invented by Dr. Tliomas Wood, 
and believe it to be novel and ingenious, and very simple in its constniction. 
It consists of two plates of plain groimd glass with theii' inner surfaces fixed 
in a frame, so as to be parallel to each other, and only so far distant as to 
permit a piece of drawing paper to slide easily between them. They are of a 
rectangular form, fastened on three sides in any manner which shall leave 
the siurfaces parallel. The fourth side being open, the space within is partly 
filled with pure quicksilver. By means of a slip of drawing paper, the outer 
edge of the quicksilver is made straight and rectangular with the sides. Its 
position is then marked. This may be done by noting on the paper used, its 
distance from the outer and open edge of the glasses. 

The plot of any irregular plot made from field notes or otherwise, is then 
moved in till the quicksilver extends to that point of the plot vrbich is nearest 



the outer and open edge. The outer edge being now parallel to the former 
edge by the manner in which the paper containing the plot is cut, its distance 
from its former edge is measured or mai'ked on the same paper, and the area 
of the irregular field is thus found to be the difference of the areas of two 
given rectangles. 

The committee see no reason why such an instrument should not, when 
constructed with proper care, give results as accurate as those ol}tained l)y 
the common melliod of plotting, and dividing into right angled triangles by 
the dividers and plane scale. Tlie area of the rectangle of any irregular plot, 
when once completed, may thus l>e formed in five minutes, and all danger of 
mistake from errors in the entries or in summing up the partial areas is com- 
pletely obviated. — Franklin Journal. 



DEPTH OF THE SEA. 

Dr. Patterson read a paper at the American Philosophical Societt/, by Pro- 
fessor Charles Bonnycastle, of the University of Virginia, containing Notes of 
E.rperiments, made August 22d to 2olh, 1838, with the view of determining 
the Depth of the Sea by the Echo. 

The appar.itns, which is fully described in Mr. Bonnycastle's paper, con- 
sisted, first, of a )ietard or chamber of cast iron, 2\ inches in diameter and 
5J inches long, with suitable arrangements for firing gunpowder in it under 
water; secondly, of a tin tube, 8 feet long and IJ inch in diameter, teruii- 
mited at one end I)y a conical trumpet-mouth, of wliicli the diameter of the 
base was 20 inches, and the height of the axis 10 inches; thirdly, of a very 
sensible instrument for measuring small intervals of time, made by J. Mou- 
tandon of \Yashington, and wiiich was capable of indicating the sixtieth pait 
of a second. Besides these, an apparatus for hearing was roughly made on 
board the vessel, in imitation of that used by CoUadon iu the Liike of Ge- 
neva, and consisted of a stove-pipe, 4 j ijiches in diameter, closed at one end, 
and capaljle of being jilunged four feet in the water. The sliip's bell was 
also unhung, and an arrangement made for ringing it under water. 

On the 22(1 of August, the brig left New York, and in the evening the ex- 
periments were commenced. In these, Mr. Bonuycastle was assisted by the 
commander and officers of the vessel, ami by Dr. Robert M. Patterson, who 
had been invited to make one of the party. 

In the first experiments, the beU was plunged about a fathom under water 
and kept ringing, wliile the operation of the two hearing instruments was 
tested at the distance of about a quarter of a mile. Both instrnments per- 
formed less perfectly than was expected ; the noise of the waves greatly 
interfering, in both, with the powers of hearing. In the trumpet-shaped 
apparatus, the ringing of the metal, from the blow of the waves, was partly 
guarded against liy a wooden casing ; but, as it was open at both ends, the 
oscillation of the water in the tube was found to be a still greater incon- 
venience, so that the sound of the bell was better heai'd with tlie cylindrical 
tube. At the distance of a quarter of a mile this sound was a sharp tap, 
about the loudness of that occasioned by striking the back of a penknife 
again an iron wire : at the distance of a mile the sound was no longer audible. 
In the second exjieriments, the mouth of the cone, in the trumpet appa- 
ratus, was closed with a plate of thick tin, and both instruments were pro- 
tected by a parcelling of old canvas and rope-yarn, at the pari; in contact with 
the surface of tlie water. In these experiments the cone was placed at right 
angle.<i to tlie stem, and the mouth directed toward the sound. The distances 
w ere measured by the interval elapsed between the observed flash and report 
of a pistol. At the distance of 1400 feet, the conical instrument was found 
considerably superior to the cylindrical, and at greater distances the superiority 
become so decided, that the latter was abandoned in all subsequent experi- 
ments. At the distance of 5270 feet, the hell was heard with such distinct- 
ness as left no doubt that it could have been heard half a mile further. 

Tlie sounds are stated in the paper to have been less intense than those in 
air, and seemed to be conveyed to less distances. The character of the souud 
was also wholly changed, and, from other cxperimeuts, it appeared that the 
blow of a watchmaker's hammer against a small bar of iron gave the same 
sharp tick as a heavy blow against the large ship's bell. It is well known 
that Franklin heard the sound of two stones struck together under water at 
half a mile distauce ; yet two of the boat's crew, who plunged their heads 
below the water, when at a somewhat less distance from the bell, were unable 
to hear its sound. 

On the 24th of August, the vessel having proceeded to the Gulf Stream, 
experiments were made with the view for which the voyage was undertaken ; 
that is, to ascertain whether an echo would be returned, through water, from 
the bottom of the sea. Some difficulties were at first presented in exploding 
the gun under water, but these were at length overcome. The hearing-tube 
was ballasted so as to sink vertically in the water. The observers then went, 
with this instniment, to a distance of about 150 yards from the vessel, and 
the petai'd was lowered over the stem, about three fathoms under water, and 
fired. The sound of the explosion, as heard by Mr. ro::nyeastIc, v, ,ns two 
sharp distinct taps, at an interviil of about one-thii'd ox a second. Two 
sounds, with the same interval were also clearly heard on board the brig ; 
but the character of the sounds was different, and each was accompanied by 
a sUglit shock. Supposing the second sound to be the echo of the first from 
the bottom of the sea, the depth should have been about 160 fathoms. 

To ascertain the real depth, the sounding was made by the ordkiai7 method, 
but with a lead of 75 pounds weight, and bottom was distinctly felt at 550 



53 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[February, 



fiitliDiiis, or live furlongs. The second sonnet conld not, therefore, have been 
the echo of the first ; anil this was proved, on the following day, by repeating 
(he experiment in fonr fathoms water, when the double sound was heard as 
before, and with the same interval. 

The conclusion from these experiments is, either that an echo cannot be 
heard from the bottom of the sea, or that some more effectual means of pro- 
(hicing it mnst be eni])loyed. 

Dr. Hare snggosted the expediency of employing the Galvanic fluid to fire 
gunpowder Ijelow the surface of water, in experiments similar to those of 
I'lofessor Boiinycastle. — Franklin Journal. 



THE SAFETY L.\MP. 

.\t a late meeting of the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, ilr. Charles Morton ])laced on the table a variety of 
safety lamps, and proceeded to make some observations and cxjieriments 
upon them. He called to the recollection of the members the attendance of 
Mr. Fletcher, of Bromsgrove, at one of the former meetings, when that gen- 
tleman produced ami described a safety lamp constructed on an imjiroved 
lirincijilc. Mr. Fletcher had since modified his lamp in accordance with the 
suggestions thrown out at that meeting, and the lamp which Mr. Morton 
exhibited had been sent to him by the inventor for trial in the coal mines. 
T)ie novelty of the apparatus consists in a door or damper at the top, which 
s held op by a string tied fast to the lower part of the lamp. If this stiing 
be cut or burnt, the damper drops down and extinguishes the light, in the 
same way as the shutting of the damper on the top of a furnace chimney 
puts cot the fire beneath. When, therefore, the lamp is introduced into an 
inllammablc atmosi)herc, the combustion of the fire-damp inside burns the 
thread, and the damper dropping down destroys the flame. Mr. Morton 
tliought the damper would give rise to so much trouble, that the coUiers 
wdidd not use it. Tlie string is not very readily adjusted, and it passes so 
near to the wick, that a slight inclination of the lamp, or waving of the 
flame, liurns the string, and the falling of the damper leaves the collier in 
darkness when he neither expects nor desires such a result ; and to get rid 
of this annoyance he would prop up the damjjer, and effectually prevent its 
falling, even when it was desirable that it shoidd do so, i. e. when it happened 
to lie in a fiei-y part of the mine. In other respects, this lamp is much like 
the one invented by Upton and Roberts. The air for feeding the flame 
enters through the holes beneath, and is brought into immediate contact 
^^ith tlie wick by means of a brass cup. The sides of the lamp are partly 
glass and partly brass, fitted together so as to prevent the admission of air. 
In Upton's lamp there is a wire gauze cylinder inside the glass, but in Mr. 
Fletcher's there is none. By this omission the light jiroduced is much 
stronger, but the safety is materially lessened ; for if the glass of Mr. F.'s 
l.impwere accidentally broken, the naked flame would be exposed to the fire- 
damp, and an explosion would ensue. Mr. Morton stated that he had sub- 
mitted this new lamp to a variety of experiments, both in and out of the coal 
mines, and he considered it deserving the attention of this society. He 
tliought the inveiit'jon was still capable of considerable improvement, and 
boped that Mr. Fletcher (though a gentleman entirely unconnected with 
mining inirsuits,) would devote more of his time and talents to the perfection 
of an ajiparatns, the ingenuity of which had already entitled liim to tlie 
thanks of the public. Mr. Morton remarked that the necessity of attempting 
to improve the safety lamp would become more generally manifest, if it were 
universally known that Davy's lamp is no/ safe under certain circumstances. 
When " the Davy" is introduced into an inflammable atmosphere, al rest, it 
may be said to be safe ; but if the lamp lie in motion, or if a current of fire 
daraj) be directed upon it, there is great danger of explosion. By means of a 
gas jet on the lecture table, Mr. Morton caused the flame of "the Davy" to 
pass from the inside (o the outside of the wire gauze cage; and he contended 
that, under similar circumstances, an explosion must inevitably ensue in a 
fiery coal mine ; and he had no doubt some of the dreadful catastrophes that 
have occurred in the pits were occasioned in this manner. Mr. Morton said 
that the over zealous admirers of Davy bad attributed a quality of infallible 
safety to an instrument which its illustrious discoverer never ventured to 
claim for it. On the contrary, this distinguished philosopher, in a treatise 
wliieli be published more than twenty years ago on the subject of the safety 
lamp, distinctly points out its nnsqfety \\lien introduced into an inflammalile 
atmosiibcrc in rapid motion ; and he warns his readers against using " the 
Davy " under such circumstances. Mr. Morton was of opinion that if the 
notion which generally ju'cvails about the absolute and certain safety of " the 
Davy " were dispelled, it would have a tendency to produce greater care 
and caution among miners. Mr. Morton, in conclusion, directed attention 
to an apparatus contrived by Mr. W. S. Ward, of Leeds, which lie thought 
might be used for giving light to fiery mines, or in operations with the diving 
bell. The a|iparatiis consists of a small gas-hohler, containing a compressed 
mixture of coal gas and oxygen. To this is attached one of Ilemming's safety 
tubes and a common jet, at the point of which is placed a ball of (juick lime. 
The kindled flame of gas being directed upon the lime ball, a brilliant light 
is produced, and as the light is covered with a glass jar, the flame is rendeied 
safe by being completely insulated or cut off from the external atmosphere.— 
Midland Counties Herald, 



Wi.NDsoR Castle. — .\bout five or six weeks since a fissure was observed 
in the wall at the north-western extremity of the North Terrace, close to the 
Winchester Tower, the residence of Sir Jeffrey WyattviUc. The opening on 
the northern side extended from the top of the wall to the surface of the 
earth on the outer side, a distance of some 20 or 30 feet ; and on the western 
side, from the tmTcts down to the archway entrance to the vaults bcneatli, 
which extend under the whole length of the terrace. As soon as the fissure 
was discovered, workmen were employed to fill up the interstices (or " point" 
them) with mortar, in order to ascertain if the cracks would go on increasing. 
M'ithin a very short period after this had been done, the opening not only 
widened, but extended along the lower pathway, parallel with the Winchester 
Tower, to a distance of 14 OJ 15 yards. The fissure now extends to a dis- 
tance of upwards of 25 yards. Air. Whitman, the clerk of the works, upon 
perceiving the dangerous state of the wall, lost no time in communicating 
with Sir Jeffrey Wyattville, who was then in London, on the subject, by whom 
the necessary instructions to proceed in such an emergency were inimediately 
forwarded. Upon entering the vaults underneath the teiTace, two large 
cracks were observable commencing from the bottom of the wall on the north 
side, extending completely across the arch, and terminating at the commence- 
ment of the outer wall of the Castle. These fissures were ordered to be 
" pointed" in the same manner as those on the outer wall, and with the same 
results ; for after a few days the openings were found to be considerably en- 
larged. The first step determined upon was to ascertain how far from the 
foundation of the wall the injury extended, and workmen are now employed 
in digging a shaft within the arched vaults on the' northern side for this pur- 
pose. As far as they have yet jiroceeded, so far extends the opening. It is 
feared, unless some plan be devised before the breaking up of the frost, to 
secure the immense mass of stonework which is now in so threatening and 
dangerous a state, that not only will a large portion of the terrace fall down 
the steep slope by which it is bounded on the north side, but that it will 
can7 with it some thousands of tons of earth into the vale beneath, where is 
situateil some stabling belonging to the canons of Windsor, and close to which 
is the extensive brewery of Messrs. Reid and Co., late Mr. Ramsbottom's. 
Some 12 months ago a deep trench or ditch was dug close to the New Ter- 
race-wall, by order of the dean and canons of Winder, (to whom the slopes 
and a large piece of land on this side belong), for the purpose of receiving 
the water which runs off the terrace (after rains, &c.) through small gratings, 
and which, previously to this being dug, ran down the slopes upon their land 
below. The trench was intended to have turned the course of tliis water in 
another direction; but, instead of doing so, it remained in the ditch, where 
soaked into the earth, and thus, as it is generally supposed, sapped the very 
foundation of the wall itself, and thence the dangerous state of this part of 
the terrace, which was erected as long since as the reign of Charles II., who 
extended it westward upwards of 100 yards. — Daily papers. 



Adams's Vertebrated Carriage. — On Monday, 10th December last, 
a vertebrated carriage, constructed according to the patent plan of Mr. 
Adams, with bow-spring bearers and buffers, for the Birmingham and Glou- 
cester liaihvay Company, left the station at Euston Square with one of the 
trains for Birmingham. Much speculation had existed as to its action on the 
rails, owing to the various peculiarities of its construction, and especially 
from the circumstance that all four wheels were loose on the axles, in adcUtion 
to the axles running as usual in the ordinary bearings. It has been hitherto 
found that carriages with loose wheels are apt to run off the rails at slight 
curves, but such proved not to be the case with the vertebrated carriage, 
which adapted itself to all curves with the greatest facility. In fact, it seemed 
almost impossible for the wheels to run off the rails, as the axles always dis- 
posed themselves at right angles to the hue of traction, and the lateral yield- 
ing of the springs prevented any friction against the flanges of the wheels. 
Another objection which had been raised against the carriage, by persons 
connected with railways, was, that though it might be drawn forwards in a 
train, it conld not be propelled, as the joi*it would yield, and the wheels go 
off the rails by an angular thrust. This opinion also proved fallacious, as the 
carriage was found to go equally well either VTay. The facility of draught 
was found far greater than that of carriages on the ordinary plan, though 
much larger than common, consisting of four bodies instead of three. The 
facility of its movement was strikingly illustrated at the Euston Station, 
where two of the wheels got off the turn-table, and escaped from the rails. 
The usual course in such cases is to raise a common carriage by means of 
screw-jacks, but owing to the action of the joint, and the free movement of 
the wheels, the vertebrated carriage was rolled upwards by the labourers with 
little ajiparent difficulty, without resorting to mechanical aid. We under- 
stand that it is intended to run the carriage between London and Birminghani, 
previous to the opening of the Gloucester Railway, and judging from its satis- 
factory performance in remedying various railway evils, there seems to be 
little doubt that this plan of carriage will come into general use. We uinler- 
staiid that another improvement by Mr. Adams will shortly be brought for- 
ward, consisting of a more perfect lubrication of the axles by means of oil 
instead of grease, and without the usual waste, so that a carriage will proba- 
bly run a week with only once oiling. We apprehend that the saving of 
friction on the wheels, owing to the free revolution independent of each 
other, will materially increase their durability.— yjaiftfoy Times. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



57 



COLLEGE FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

In the year 1838, our attention was aroused to a correspondence 
which had crept into the Times and AthenEeum, attempting to lower 
the character of the profession in this country, and to set up a foreign 
standard. We rightly surmised that this was a coming event, which 
cast its shadow before it, that it was the wish father to the thought, 
which was to usher in some expedient to correct the assumed abuse, 
and introduce the new doctrine. Accordingly we hastened to attack 
the ncw-liurn hvdra, and on repeated occasions expressed our senti- 
ments relative to their new school of error. Remarks upon this sub- 
ject will be found in volume the first, page 3G9, and volume the 
second, p;iges 13, S(i, l'2-l, 152, and 351. On account of this solici- 
tude for tbe interests of the profession, we were assailed in a violent 
manner by the advocates of the projected College ; what they gained 
by the attack our readers know.* In the meanwhile, the plan has 
been brought to light, a scheme of operations organised, and active 
preparations made for carrying them into effect. While tlie inten- 
tions of its managers were not publicly declared, and while they had 
yet the opportunity of adopting a sane course, and according to the 
wishes of the profession, we left them to carry on their designs in 
peace. Now that the mask has been lifted — now that war has been 
delared against the whole profession, and that an open attempt is 
made to poison the public mind with error, we feel it our bounden 
duty to call the serious attention of our readers to the mischievous 
and fallacious objects, which it proposes to effect. In this investiga- 
tion, we shall enquire, first, as to the mode of education required by 
the profession; secondly, as to liow far this is supplied; next, as to 
the merits of the proposed plan; fourthly, how it has hitherto suc- 
ceeded, and what are its future prospects ; and lastly, how far it 
might be rendered useful. 

We have, on previous occasions, already defined engineering,!' as a 
profession requiring two distinct faculties, the theoretical and 
practical, the inventive and the constructive. This is a view sanc- 
tioned by the highest authorities. The Report of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers for 1837,11; describes the engineer as a mediator 
between the philosopher and the working mechanic. In their Report 
for 1838,^ they say, "The objects of the Civil Engineer are defined 
by your charter, and the council considering that the success and 
permanency of the Institution must depend, in a great measure, on 
the care exercised in admission into this class, have repeatedly con- 
sidered this subject with the view of presenting some definite rules 
for the guidance of themselves and others. It has appeared that 
they will be aided in this difficult task by adhering as much as possi- 
ble to the two following conditions; either: — " 

"He shall have been regularly educated as a civil engineer, accord- 
ing to the usual routine of pupilage, and have had subsequent em- 
ployment for at least five years in responsible situations as resident 
or otherwise in some of the branches defined by the charter as con- 
stituting the profession of a civil engineer ; or, he shall have prac- 
tised on his own account in the profession of a civil engineer for five 
years, and have acquired considerable eminence therein." 

" It is thought that the first condition will include those who by regu- 
lar education have done their utmost towards themselves for the 
profession, and that their subsequent employment in responsible 
situations will be a guarantee that they have availed themselves of 
the opportunities which they may have enjoyed." 

" In the earlier days of the science of the civil engineer, such a con- 
dition would have been inapplicable ; then the force of native genins 
sufficed to place the individual in that position of professional em- 
inence which commenced with a Brindley and a Smeaton, and was in 
our own time exemplified in a Rennie and a Telford. To such, of 
whom there are many illustrious examples amongst us, the second 
condition is strictly applicable." 

The profession, particularly in its present infant state, is ever called 
upon to provide for unexpected contingencies, to make new pre- 
cedents, and supersede old processes. The last ten years has seen 
a new and imjjortant branch created, and scarcely established, before 
it found itself, by new improvements, obliged to abandon all its 
former calculations, and follow new models. The profession, there- 
fore, is well defined as of two classes, and as uniting two branches of 
instruction. The accessory portion of instruction is one common to 
most practical pursuits, and a part of higher education at the same time, 
consisting as it does, of the mathematical and physical studies, it 
needs no excathedral inculcation, but admits of being attained by 



* Vol. ii. p. 124. 
+ Vol.i. p. 369, and Vol. ii 
{ See Journal, vol. i. p. 
§ Vol. ii. p. 73. 



. p. 124. 
138. 



private study by those engaged in the practical department. Like 
literature, like the arts, it necessarily follows, that its greatest names 
are not recruited from apprentices to the system, but from every class 
of society, it admits the collegian and the mechanic ; every man, who 
feels himself called upon by the divine voice to a destined pursuit. 
Who have been our greatest engineers ? not students from a college, 
or an apprenticeship, but the stone mason and the blacksmith, the 
labourer and the millwright. Engineering is not like law, boimd up in 
an endless mass of precedents, admitting few new cases, and fearful 
of diverging from established rules, but it is ever new, ever changing, 
ever supplanting the past, by anticipations of the futiu-e. It does 
not, like medicine, require the study of a complicated and little 
known machine, nor a special application of many difficult sciences 
to its own objects, it does not require mere judgment to apply old 
rules, but it perpetually encounters new cases, and applies new re- 
medies. The records of its operations are hardly published when 
thcv become useless and superannuated ; many branches are hardly 
sufficiently advanced to have any literature at all ; consequently, for 
those seeking practical instruction, the workshop and the field are the 
only schools; the house cannot be judged by a brick, the sea cannot 
be measured by a bowl of water, nor can the operations of the engi- 
neer be taught on any other scale of truth than on that of the works 
themselves. The lawyer and the surgeon find no college allsuflficient 
for their instruction, they find not even the court house or the hospital 
alone efficient, but under the care of the acting practitioner, they are 
obliged to seek the basis of their education. It is remarkable indeed 
that a departure should be attempted in this sound course, when other 
professions are even carrying it to a greater extent; so distrustful 
are the medical authorities of oral instruction, that they now require 
at their examinations practical dissections and manipulations. 
Engineers may be classified under the following heads : — 

1. Civil Engineers— Roads and Railways.il 

Canals. 
Bridges. 

2. Mining Engineers — Mines.5 Draining. 

3. Marine Engineers** — Ship Building. 

Harbours. 
Docks. 

Light-houses. 
Dykes. 

4. Military Engineers. 

5. Practical Engineers — Land Engines. 

Locomotive Engines. 
Marine Engines. 
Manufacturing Engines. 

Subsidiary to these are Surveyors, Working Engineers, Locomotive 
Engineers, and Steam Vessel Engineers. The instruction required 
for these classes, we consider to be a practical acquaintance with the 
details of the technical portions, to be acquired under the guidance 
of practical men in actual operations, and a study of the accessory 
sciences connected with their pursuits. Ample instruction in the 
former department is to be obtained from the existing engineers; 
and with regard to supplementa'y education, numerous institutions 
exist, independently of the amount of knowledge communicated by 
mechanic's institutions and other sources. The Institution of Civil 
Engineers, and the Universities of London and Durham, and the 
Military Colleges grant degrees, and classes are formed in London at 
University and King's College, in those of Norwich, Chatham, Sand- 
hurst, and Addiscombe, and Hanwell Collegiate School ; in the Pro- 
vinces, in the Colleges of Durham and Bath, the Cornish Mining 
School, the Scotch Naval and Military Academy, at Edinburgh, the 
Royal Dublin Society's School, at Dublin, the Agricultural School, at 
Templemoyle, King William College, Isle of Man, and Elizabeth 
College, Guernsey. The elements of surveying are taught in many 
of the schools for the middle classes. 

We have now to consider the proposed plan of the College for 
Civil Engineers, which assuming different principles, calculates upon 
supplanting the existing modes of instruction. These are given 
to the public in a pamphlet, the confusion and ridiculousness of which, 
for the present, we pass by unquestioned and unremarked. _ This 
prospectus boldly asserts, that with regard to the demand for efficient 
practitioners in civil engineering, not one of our Universities or 
public seminaries has kept pace with this want of the age, and 
afforded a suitable education for the aspirants in that new profession; 

the best answer to this is to be seen above. What they mean by 

the following, they themselves can best explain. " They are, in a 

II Ingenieurs des Pouts et Chausees, French. 

II Ingenieurs des Mines, French. 

*" Ingenieurs des Travaux Mari times, French. Water Staat, Dutih. 



5S 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FEBRrARY, 



gri'Lit measure, responsible for the profits on our internal industry — on 
till" average of wliicli (le|)enil agricultural returns, and also by re- 
action, an increased demand for labour." The fundamental basis of 
operations is that the whole instruction, both theoretical and prac- 
tical, shall be given in I lie College. This, according to the account 
of its managers, includes the structure of railways, roads, canals, 
docks, locks, and harboins, improvement of rivers, clearing mines of 
water, and their necessary ventilation; the whole structure of the 
steam engine, land and water transport, architecture and general con- 
struction, naval architecture, ndning, drainage, embanking, reservoirs, 
light-houses, arsenals, surveying, levelling, ndneral boring, modelling, 
casting and forging, turning and boring. And what is to feed this 
multitude ? — two loaves and five small fishes — a few professors of 
matliernatics, drawing and latin, an architect, and some acres of 
ground at Hampstead 1!! Is there any one so insane as to attempt to 
carry out such a scheme ? — is there any parent so wasteful of his 
own monev, or regardless of the interests of his child as to entrust 
him to such a school '. hi an arena, scarcely fit for a cricket match, 
are we to see exemplified the wonders of British art ; here, by magic 
processes, are to be reproduced (id iiijiinliim the Grand Trunk Canal, 
the Eddystone Light-house, the Steam Engine, the Menai and Water- 
loo Bridges, and IMrmiiigham Railway, with its vallied cuttings, its 
Kilsby tunnels, and its hilly endjankmcnts. The Clifton Bridge would 
spun the ground, the Camden Town Embankment, swallow up the 
soi', and the cutting to Euston Square take in the vvliole estate. 
"Fhilosophy in sport, made science in earnest." We are either to 
believe these delusions, or wc nuist recognise the sad reality, children 
mis-spending their fither's money and their own time on mimic rail- 
wavs, and gutter canals ; expert in all the verbiage which a well dis- 
ciplined memory can retain, and going out into the world the children 
wbiidi fhev came into the college. If this be the ollspring of the 
Polytechnic School, an Institution which has Honrished under some 
(d' the noblest men in France, we believe that, with indignation, they 
will disavow their bantling; if it be an imitation of Russia, it is an 
inntation rather of the barbarism, than of the grandeur of that 
nation; we know that no example in favor of it exists in any other 
country. In the workshops, South Wales, Birmingham, (ilasguw and 
Newcastle are to be united; the steam engine is to be wrought, by 
boys, from the native ore into all its wonderful applications as a 
motive power. What more they profess to teach we know not, w'e 
know that all these things, even if practicaljle as toys, will fail to 
make engineers such as England has and England wants. The ignorance 
of the ])rojectors is only equalled by their absurdity ; the manner in 
which the design is to be carried out, is expressed by a synopsis of 
the courseof instruction extending over a peaiod of five years, in the first 
two years of wdiich the pupils learn nothing of engineering, exceptsur- 
veying and levelling, their jirincipal acquirement being caligraphy ; 
in the second vear we find these branches are taught in conjunction 
with mineral boring and draining, and the jirinciples of Civil and 
Navaf architecture. No progress has yet been made in engineering 
fjul never mind, we can wait. The third year advances to shaded and 
coloured drawing, drainage, embanking, and conduct of running 
water, and the construction of roads; leaving, consequently, the 
wliole instruction for the last two years. In this course, we find that 
the principal engineering works (i, e. treatises) of the English, French, 
and Germans are to be read. What those French and (iennan works 
are we should very ranch like to know ; — to the best of our know- 
ledge very few works exist, except translations from the English. 
Among the magna opera of the last year, we find such terms as " a 
grand ilrawing, with plans, sections, and parts in detail;" "grand 
project for internal transport by land or water, with estimates ;" "a 
memoir on some important question of civil engineering." The pen- 
nyworth of bread to these gallons of sack, is the examination and 
explanation of public works on the works themselves. The "lucidus 
ordo" of the synopsis must be evident to the most unsystematical ; 
drawing and caligra]iliy interpolated between mechanics and hydro- 
graphy ; architecture between hydrography and physics, and the 
same impartial systen\ is carried throughout. As to the work- 
man's class, for which twelve guineas a year is to be charged, the 
paltriness and inadequacy of instruction given exempts it from notice. 
The pu|)ils may be admitted into the high school at fourteen years, 
and on going through the prescribed course of instruction, as any 
youth of moderate abilities and suflicient memory is sure to do, is 
turned out on reaching his eighteenth birth-day, a duly qualified suc- 
cessor of Brindley, Smeaton, Rennie, Telford, "avid Watt. 

This system, we may obsei-ve, is a clumsy imitation of the Poly- 
tejchnic School, and other similar Institutions abroad, which are 
adopted in tlie imperfect state of instruction, to supply the want of a 
more practical coui'se. In the I'olytechnic or Gwerbe School, the stu- 
dent finds those models which he can find with difficulty elsewhere, but 



under the guidance of a Stephenson or a Maudsley, he learns in that 
school, w hich is the model to all Europe. In our pages * will be foinid 
an account of the state of engineering abroad. Wliat it is here all 
Europe tells; we boast the names of .Middleton, Worcester, Hooke, 
.Savery, Newcome, Brindley, Milne, Smeaton, Bell, Edwards, Ark- 
wright, Uennie, Macadam, Bramah, Huddart, Trevithick, Telford, 
Woolf, and Murdoch ; and among the engineers of the present day : — 
Walker, Ste|dienson, the two Uennies, the two Brunels, Cubitt, I.ocke, 
Maudsley, Tierney Clarke, &c., many of whom enjoy an European 
reputation. Such are the fruits of a defective system ; what has 
Europe to show against it? The same defective system prevails in 
the tfnited States, where gigantic works of the engineers measure 
the continent from one end to the other. 

As to what must be the result of the proposed system, we fear w'e 
can augur nothing very good, on one side they are deficient in strength, 
ai.d on the other side they have to compete with powerful rivals. 
The plan of the College itself, and its details, liave been rendered 
ridiculous by fantastic absurdities; the very first page of their pro- 
spectus is calculated to excite laughter; — a College for Civil Engi- 
neers, plastered with the names of a set of Eton schoolmasters, as 
honorary members ; unknown foreigners, as corresponding members; 
the prospectus is dashed throughout with unmeaning italics; the dis- 
tinguishing absurdities of the Hone and Black Dwarf School ; the 
vice of those, who wanting strengtli of thought, make it up by variety 
of type. One of the professorships is to be held by a clergyman of the 
church of England, another is the cliaplain, and sectarianism is 
openly proclaimed in a building devoted to the national pursuit of 
science. Of what religion were the Marq\iis of Worcester and 
Watt? "The College is based upon the principles of the established 
Church." Church of England railways. Catholic steam engines, and 
Presbyterian canals, whoever heard of such things? Could not the 
moral and religious instruction of the students be provided for with- 
out injuring the feelings of large masses of the population, by giving 
a preference to a minority ? The food of the boarders will be of the 
best description, and every care taken of their health ! — shades of 
Brindley, Arkwright and Rennie, whoever heard of such superfluous 
nonsense 1 " No pupil can be admitted without a certificate that he has 
had the small pox, or has been vaccinated; and has no particular in- 
firmity or contagious malady." " lie must be able to read .' and 
write 1 fluently, and be master of the first four rules of arithmetic!!" 
"Corporal punishment will not be permitted in the establishment I" 
— " Suppose a gentleman designs one of his sons, at the age of five 
years!!! to be a civil engineer." 

As to the supporters of this College, we find many men of high 
title, but we look in vain for the support of any of the great men, 
who, by tlieir engineering works, have contributed to their country's 
glory. Only three names are to be found qualified as engineers, 
none of whom are suflicient to attract of themselves public support. 
As to the professors, of whom, by the bye, there are none for engi- 
neering, it is saying enough for them to mention, that many of the 
names are resiiectable. 

We now come to another question of the deepest interest to those 
jiarents, who are so ill advised as to send their children to this 
riekety College, that is, what is to become of the lads when they 
have got their diplomas? Will they be employed by the present 
engineers in jireference to their own pupils? — will they have greater 
weight with the public, than men of acknowledged eminence ? — will 
they be supported by the public like those who have received a 
practical education under first-rate men? Our impression is, that 
they will not, but that the lads will, after their five years of College 
education, and an expenditure of several hundred pounds, be obliged 
to pitch their diplomas into the Thames, and article themselves to 
those who know sometliing of the profession. We earnestly call on 
all wdio may be tempted by the luring proposals of destining children 
from the cradle, and hatching engineers with more than an Eccaleo- 
bion power, to ])ause and reflect on the waste of time and money 
which they must incur from any failure of this kind, and to hesitate 
before they become the victims of a few deluded theorists. So san- 
guine are the projectors, that they talk of entrapping hundreds of 
lads, and think nothing of a hundred engineers as the average pro- 
duce of a year. This, according to our reckoning, would of itself 
produce three thousand engineers, besides those educated in other 
establishments ;!• and what is to become of the raw and ignorant 



* Vol. i.p. 3G9. 
I As to how they are to suppuri llic competition of the engineers 
.".nd cxisliug colleges, its mai.agers may kn<iw lictter th;m we prelej.d to ilo. 
They «dl be ahl tu solve wliedier Kverett, Wchsler, Wallace, and KImes 
are eipial to De Moran, Silvester, L.arilner, ;inil (iraham, or to Hall, Mu^e- 
Icy, Dauiell, Wheatstone, WiiUips, BracUey, Cooper, and Tennent, 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



S9 



youths ?— those best will be able to decide, who can^ coolly give 
itteraiice to such preposterous delusions. 

As to the manner in which they are supported by the profession, it 
may perliaps be sufficient to refer to the men connected with it, but 
we have farther public testimonials in the declarations of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers. The liberality of their opinions we have 
already shown, so that anything emanating from them, carries with it 
the whole vpeight of their character, and is free from the imputation 
of interested motives. Their Report for 1S37,* while advocating 
the necessity of supplementary instruction, states that nuich has at 
times been said respecting the establishment of a School of Engi- 
neers, and many comparisons have been drawn betwixt the advan- 
tages possessed by this and other coimtries in this respect, but not 
for an instant to enter on the great question of the nature of a com- 
plete establishment under that name, it may with confidence be 
asserted, that this histitution is in itself a School of Engineers- 



school not in the sense of the term wli 



knowledo-e is forced upon 



the imwilling student, but one where the attentive student ])ossesses 
remarkable opportunities of self-improvement by study and mutual 
intercourse. In the speech of the President, on opening the Session 
of lS39,t he calls upon the members to improve themselves, not by 
collegiate instruction, but by mutual improvement; he says, "there 
is now upon the table, a prospectus for tlie establishment, on a large 
scale, of a College for Civil Engineers," leaving his hearers to form 
their own opinions upon the merits of such proposition. 

That there is room for the establishment of a school of engineering 
on sound principles, it admits no question; but its sphere, although 
extensive, is very dilferent from that contemplated by the present 
plan. Its advocates jump at once to conclusions, inspired by (he 
ardent hope of obtaining large premiums, they jumble everthing 
together, and mix up the practicable with the impracticable. Ste- 
phenson or Brmiel carry on no trade in jn-emiums of live hundred 
guineas, it would make little diminution in their incomes, if they 
had no pupils at all, but young men are sent to them because from 
their emj)loyment in large works, they have great facilities in artbrd- 
ing instruction, and ample means of employing them afterwards. If 
the council of the College want to know what to do with their 
establishment, we can tell them how it may be made useful to the 
public, and profitable to themselves and their pupils. Let them re- 
quire that every pupil in civil mining, marine or practical engineering 
shall be articled to a practitioner, and let them like Universitj', King's, 
and Durham Colleges, limit themselves to teaching the theoretical 
branches. Form a special class for instructing steam vessel engi- 
neers, and they may claim a government grant and a c'ass for locomo- 
jive enpineers, and raihvay companies would probably contribute. Edu- 
cate surveyors, and instruct them in the higher branches of geodesiacal 
operations, not as planned by the College, merely the rudiments of iis- 
tronomy, but its application in trigonometrical surveying. Give sup- 
plementary education to mining engineers, and train up mineralogists 
and assayists. Teach like King's College, the literature of manufac- 
tures and machinery, but let the pu)uls study in the factory instead 
of the toy-shop. Do the same for the manufacturing chemist, 
London has establishments enough for his practice. Let the Univer- 
sities or the Institution give the diploma, and limit the College to 
teaching, and still will be done more than enough for a beginning, 
and what will amjily pay for all expenses. 

In concluding these remarks, we cannot too strongly repeat, that 
parents should hesitate before they compromise the interests of their 
children, by sending tliem to this establishment, anfl we call on its 
managers to pause in their career, before they have yet excited the 
open hostility of the profession, and to devote their energies to a 
useful and rational purpose, before they arc crushed by a powerful 
opposition. We have been influenced by no prejudice against the 
College or its objects, but we feel that we have best done our duty 
both to it and our readers, by unsparingly denouncing what we con- 
sider an erroneous and ineBicient system of education, and a certain 
delusion to those who have the misfortune to be its victims. 

"'See vol.i.p. 138. 
t See Vol. ii. p. 3. 



Oxford Viiiversiti/. — Feu' persons are aware that 100,000/. was loft to the 
University of O.xiord by Michael Anpjelo Taylor, to build a picture gallery 
and lecture rooms connected with science anil arts. A dispute having arisen 
between his relatives and the trustees respecting the will, the latter, rather 
than risk a suit in Chancery, have agreed to take 7.5,000/., and have bcgiui 
clearing the foundation fcr the buildmg. They have removed the old houses 
at the corner of Beaumont-street, St. Giles's, nearly opposite St. John's col- 
lege, which J5 the most central they could meet with. 



GENERAL THEORY OF THE STEAM ENGINE. 

By Aristides A. Mornay, lisii. 

No. V. 

On the Action of the Steam in (he Cylinder (continiKd.) 

In our last numberwe demonstrated that the pressure exerted by the 
steam against the piston may be assumed in practice as equal to its 
full elastic force ; we intend in a future paper to enter into an investi- 
gation of the elastic force of the steam at difierent instants during the 
stroke of the piston, preparatory to which it will be necessary to in- 
qviirc into the eHects of an arrangement, which exercises a material 
inttucnce on the elastic force of the steam during a portion of the 
stroke of the piston when it is adopted : we allude to the lead of the 
slidt, which is considered indispensable in Locomotive Engines. 

The lead is the advance given to the motion of the sliile, by which 
it is caused to shut the eduction port, and open the steam port a little 
before the commencement of the stroke, and to sliut the steam port 
and open the eduction port a little before the end of the stroke. 

In order to explain the reasons assigned for giving a leatl to the 
slide in locomotive engines, we think we cannot do better than quote 
the following from the description of Stephenson's Patent Locomotive 
Engine, in Wcale's splendid edition of " Tredgold, on the Steam En- 
gine," pages lot) ami 4.51 of the Appendix. " It is found necessary 
to let the steam on to the opposite side of the piston before the end of 
the stroke, in order to bring it up gradually to a stop, and diminish 
the violent jerk that is caused by its motion being cliauged so very 
rajjidly as five times in a second. The steam, let into the end of the 
cylinder, before the piston arrives at it, acts as a sining cushion to 
assist in changing its motion, and if it were not apjilieil, the piston 
cotdd not be kept tight upon tlie piston rod. A little lead of the slide 
is also necessary that the steam may be admitted through the port 
into the cylinder, and be completely ready to begin the next stroke 
when the piston is at the end of the cylinder; but so much is not ne- 
cessary for this. 

"The principal advantage gained by giving lead to the slide is in 
beginning to get rid of the waste steam before the commencement of 
the stroke; so that when the piston commences its stroke there is but 
little waste steam before it to resist its progress, the steam beginning 
to be let out of the cyliniler before it has driven the piston to the end 
of the stroke. This is a very important point in a locomotive, as the 
resistance or negative pressure of the waste steam upon the piston is 
very considerable ; from the rapidity of the motion, which allows very 
little time for it to escape, and from the use of the blast pipe, which 
obstructs its passage. The area of the extremity of the blast pipe is 
only five square inches, while that of the steam port is eight square 
inches, requiring the velocity of the steam in the blast pipe to be con- 
siderably greater than in thecylinder. The average negative pressure 
of the waste steam throughout the stroke is G lbs. per square inch 
when running at the usual rate of 25 to •2s miles an hour ; and at greater 
velocities the negative presstire has been found to increase to double 
that amount and even more." 

From the first reason the evil it is intended to remedy by the lead of 
the sliile appears to be, the tendency of the piston to become loose on 
the piston rod, through tlie violent jerks caused by the motion of the 
piston being changed .so very frequently as 5 times in a second. We 
have to ascertain first, the immediate cause of the jerks, secondly, the 
manner in which they occasion the piston to work loose, thirdly, their 
force, and lastly, in what manner and to what extent this is diminished 
by the lead of the slide. 

In order to accotmt for the production of these shocks or jerks, we 
will consider what passes in the cylinder of a locomotive engine, and 
first on the supposition that the steam acts on the piston with its full 
pressure to the very end of the stroke, and that it is then shut off and 
immediately begins to press with its full force on the other side of the 
piston. 

On this head it is necessary to observe that, under tlie circumstances 
here assumed, the steam could not, at the instant the piston commences 
the stroke, press upon it with its full force (that is, with the same 
force as in the middle of the stroke), on account of the necessity of 
first filling the steam passage and waste space at the end of the cylin- 
der. But, since the pressure of the steam remaining in these waste 
spaces does not sensibly exceed that of the atmosphere, while the fresh 
steam admitted into them has a very great excess of pressure, say 50 
poimds on the square inch, the time required to fill them is certainly 
very much less than that requited to fill one huntlredth part of the con- 
tents of the cylinder, during which time the steam is pressing upon the 
surface of the piston with a force increasing iVom the atmospheric 

12 



GO 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



pressure to the maximum pressure attained during the stroke. With 
respect (o tlie gradual opening of the port, tliat would not of itself 
a(Tpct the ]iressure of the steam in the cylinder in any degree, since 
the degree of opening is constantly proportional to the velocity of the 
jiiston, liy which means the supjily of steam is always equal to the de- 
niand. This is ccpially true while the steam-port is being closed in 
the last half of the stroke. We may therefore be permitted to assume, 
as above, that tlie steam presses on the piston with its full force during 
the whole time tliat the steam-port is open. 

We may also, for the sake of simplicity, assume the motion of the 
crank to be strictly uniform; for the variations of power are so ex- 
ceedingly slight in comparison witli the energy of the moving mass, 
on account of the arrangement of the two cranks, that no sensible va- 
riations in the velocity of the engine can possibly result therefrom. 

I'nder these circumstances, when the piston has just arrived at the 
middle of the back stroke, its motion may be regarded for an instant 
as uniform, since it is changing from an accelerated to a retarded mc- 
tion; the strain on the key «diich connects the piston to the piston- 
rod is therefore equal to the effective pressure of the steam on the 
piston 7>ii)iiis the friction of the latter against the surface of the cylin- 
der. But as soon as the piston has passed tlie middle of its stroke, its 
motion begins to be retarded, and since the retarding force lias to be 
transmitted from the piston-rod to the piston through the medium of 
the key which connects them, the latter has to bear the strain of this 
force in addition to the pressure of the steam on the piston, which it 
liadtobearin the middle of the stroke. This retarding force must 
evidently increase from the middle to the end of the stroke with the 
rate of retardation of the )iiston's motion. The strain at the end of 
the stroke will therefore be equal to the effective pressure of the 
steam on the surface of the piston, mimis its friction, plua the greatest 
retarding force, since the retardation is then the most rapid. At the 
commencement of the fore stroke, the pressure of the steam is equal 
on both sides of the piston, and there is consequently no power to 
move the piston but such a portion of the momentum of tlie engine as 
is snfKcient to overcome the inertia and friction of the piston. The 
former requires a force precisely equal to the retarding force at the 
end of the stroke, so that the strain is suddenly diminished by the 
cHective pressure of steam on the piston minus twice its friction; and 
the remaining strain is gradually, though quickly, taken off by the 
escape of the waste steam allowing tiie steam on the other side of the 
piston to exert sutiicient force to accelerate its motion. From the 
moment when this is the case all the pressure is borne bv the conical 
end of the piston-rod, until it arrives at tlie corresponding" point of the 
back stroke, from which the strain on the key increases gradually until 
it attains its maximum at the end of the stroke, as we have already 
explained. 

In locomotive engines, wdiere the steam is used at very high pres- 
sures and the pistons are light, the strain due to the retardation of the 
motion of the piston is very inconsiderable in comparison with that 
due to the pressure of the steam, as we shall presently prove, when 
wc calculate the intensity of the retarding force; so that comparatively 
very little increase of strain takes place during the last half of tlie 
stroke, this increase being due to the retardation of the piston alone, 
while the increase during the first half amounts, as we have already 
mentioned, to the whole effective jiressure of the steam; for by the 
time the piston has passed through the first half of the stroke, the 
pressure of the waste steam must be reduced very nearly to that of the 
atmosphere. 

The shocks comjilained of appear therefore to be due, not to the 
inertia of the piston requiring a considerable force to change its direc- 
tion, but to the alternate action of the steam on the two sides of the 
jiiston producing a strain on one side of the key which reaches its 
maximum at some point of the back stroke, and is taken oft'cntirely 
during tlieyorestr<ike. 

The mode in which this intermittent strain on the key may cause it 
t» work loose is evidently by the alternate compression and relaxation 
of its'substance ; but the effect of this might be prevented by securing 
the key with a screw in the same maimer as the key at the crank end 
of the connecting rod. 

We have said that the chief part of the strain on the key of the 
piston is due to the pressure of the steam; this investigation would 
however be inconi|)lete without a calculation of the strain due to the 
inertia of the piston in consequence of the great variations in its velo- 
city. This strain is evidently equal to the force wdiich would be re- 
quired to produce a certain acceleration or retardation in the motion 
of the piston, and an accelerating or retarding force is proportional to 
the rate of acceleration or retardation which it produces. 

Let V = the mean velocity of the piston in feet per minute, I = the 
length of its stroke, !>= its velocity at any given instant, A = its dis- 
tance from the end of the stroke, a =; the angle contained between 



the crank and the direction of the stroke, and .r = the rate of retarda- 
tion per minute, at the given instant. 

Supposing, for the sake of simplicity, that the motion of the crank 
is strictly uniform (which is very nearly true in reality), and that the 
connecting rod is infinitely long in comparison with the crank, the cir- 

ir V 
cuinferential velocity of the crank pin will be — — ■' and we shall have 



TT V 



■sill, f, 



whence we obtain by differentiation 
a V ^= — r- 



COS ad a. 



The actual distance to be passed through by the crank pin before it 
arrives at the dead centre is - o, which divided by its velocity--^ 
gives for the time required to travel that distance 

'- ,rV' 



whence 



da= — — d I. 



Substituting this expression in the value of d r, and dividing by d I, 
we obtain 



d V 
dt' 



t' V2 cos a TT^ V2 (;— 2 A). 



2 1 IP 

And since this quantity expresses the retardation of the piston per 
minute, we have also 

TT- V= (/— 2 A) 
^ = 2F 

The retardation per minute produced by the force of gravity is 
about 1 15,884 feet, which if we call G, we shall have 

a: _ IT- V (/— 2 A) 

G~ 2317687^' 

If then we call n> the weight of the piston, and W the pressure due to 
the retardation x, we shall evidently have 

W _ .r _ ttz V» (/— 2 A) 

w ~ G " 23I7ti8 i-' ' 

or the strain on the key of the piston is equal to the weight of the 

piston multiplied by the quantity — "i^^yj. . ,; • 
As an example let V zi; 500, / = 1'5, and A : 



1 

48' 



. Supposing the 



driving wheels of the engine to be 5 feet in diameter, the speed under 
these circumstances would be 2lV7r) miles per hour. The strain W on 
the key of the piston is required, when the latter has arrived at a 
quarter of an inch from the eiu) of the stroke, which is the lead usually 
given to the slide in locomotives. By the preceding equation we 
have 



W 



3-1415' X 500-' X 

) 

23I7G8 X l-5= 



= 6-9 w. 



On inspecting the general equation given above, it will be evident 
that, all other circumstances remaining the same, the value of W varies 
as the square of the velocitv of the piston, and that it increases as the 
piston apjiroaches the end of the stroke, the strain at the very end 
being equal to the weight of the piston multiplied by the quantity 

„, , ^ . , , . Under the circumstances assumed in the above example 
2dl/bb t:- 

we should therefore have at the end of the stroke 

W = 7 w. 

It likewise appears that, with various lengths of stroke but the same 
velocity, the strain is inversely as the lengtli of the stroke, when the 
piston is at proportionate distances from the end. 

The same calculation applies, of course, as well to the first as to the 
second half of the stroke of the piston, and is improperly omitted in 
the cousideration of the unequal action of the steam on the crank and 
the effect of fly-wheels ; but in these calculations it is not only the 
weight of the piston, but that of all the alternatin^parts of the engine, 
that must be taken into account. In the same manner the strain on 



1840.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



61 



the key which connects the piston-rod with the cross head is a mul- 
tiple of the weight of the piston and piston-rod, and so on for the other 
joints. It is, however, necessary to deduct first in each case the fric- 
tion on the piston and other parts which may intervene between it and 
the joint under consideration. 

Since the strain calcuUited by the preceding method is due simply 
to the inertia of the piston, it is clear that, in oriler to find the whole 
strain, it will be necessary to increase the former by as much as the 
pressure of the steam against the surface of the piston may exceed 
that of the waste steam on the opposite side. 

We have now to examine the maimer in which the force of the 
shocks is diminished by the lead of the slide, and to what extent this 
remedy is effectual. 

We shall confine our reasoning on this subject to locomotive engines, 
in which, as we have already observed, the strain brought upon the 
key of the piston by destroying the momentum of the latter, is very 
slight in comparison with that which results from the pressure of the 
steam on the piston, and which the key must necessarily bear during 
some portion of the stroke ; for, supposing the effective pressure of 
the steam to be .50 pounds on each square inch of the piston, the area 
of the latter being upwards of 113 square inches when its diameter is 
one foot, the total pressure of the steam on its surface is more than 
5G00 pounds, while the strain due to the inertia of the piston, being 
under seven times its weight ; if we suppose this to be 70 pounds, 
(which we believe to exceed the truth) is less than 490 pounds, or less 
than one-tenth part of the strain due to the resistance of the load, de- 
duction being made for the friction of the piston. The connecting 
key of the piston must therefore unavoidably bear a strain of more 
than 5000 pounds while the steam is acting with its full force, besides 
that due to the inertia of the piston, which amounts, at one quarter of 
an inch from the end of the stroke, to 69 seventieths of the maximum 
strain due to that cause ; and, since this is less than one-eleventh of 
the total strain at the end of the stroke, when no lead is given to the 
slide, the greatest amount which can be saved by cutting otl'the steam 
and admitting it on the opposite side of the piston at a quarter of an 
inch from the end of the stroke, is no more than one-seventieth of the 
strain due to the inertia of the piston, or less than one 700th part of 
the total strain at the moment of cutting off the steam. 

It is therefore evident that the sudden jerks experienced by the key 
which connects the piston with the piston-rod, in consequence of the 
rapid changes in the motion of the piston, in as far as they are due to 
the inertia of the latter, do not afford a sufficient motive for giving a 
lead to the slide ; and that this remedy is entirely ineffectual in 
diminishing them, in as far as they are due to the alternate action of 
the steam on the opposite sides of the piston, which is the immediate 
cause of nearly the whole amoimt of the evil; so that, if the piston 
could not be kept tight on the piston-rod without the lead, neither 
could it be with a lead of a quarter of an inch, when the length of the 
stroke is 18 inches. 

Regarding the second reason, namely, that the steam may be ad- 
mitted into the cylinder, and be completely ready to begin the next 
stroke when the piston is at the end of the cylinder, we are of opinion 
that nothing at all is gained in that respect by meiins of the lead, but 
that, on the contrary, it is attended with a slight disadvantage. Near 
the beginning of this paper we observed that, without any lead, a 
loss of pressure during a very small portion of the stroke ensues 
from the necessity of filling the waste space at the end of the cylinder 
with steam at the beginning of the stroke; but this loss is of very 
trifling amount. By a lead of one quarter of an inch this loss of pres- 
sure is avoided, for this gives sufficient time for the waste space to be 
filled with steam at full pressure by the commencement of the stroke ; 
but by this means the resistance on the opposite side of the piston is 
increased, during the last quarter of an inch of the stroke, by whatever 
pressure the steam has acquired at every instant of that portion of the 
stroke. The amount of resistance so produced is greater than the 
loss of pressure at the beginning of the stroke resulting from the above- 
mentioned cause when there is no lead. We do not, however, attach 
any importance to this circumstance, as tlie whole amount of loss either 
way is perfectly insignificant ; we only mention it to show that the 
lead of the slide is not requisite, nor even advantageous, for the second 
reason assigned by the author of the paper above quoted. 

With respect to the third reason, we do not think that so ranch can 
be gained as the author appears to suppose, yet, if there is any advan- 
tage in the lead, it is probably in beginning to get rid of the waste 
steam before the commencement of the stroke, so that, when the piston 
commences its stroke, there is but little waste steam before it to resist 
its progress, the steam beginning to be let out of the cylinder before 
it has driven the piston to the end of the stroke. Now there is clearly 
tliis advantage in beginning to let out the waste steam before the end 
of the stroke, that, supposing the time occupied in getting rid of the 



vvfhole of it to be the same as without any lead, the portion of the 
stroke traversed by the piston during this time is less, because its 
velocity is on an average less : besides which, the resistance of the 
waste steam during the first portion of the time, namely, at the end of 
the previous stroke is thereby avoided, though at the expense of a 
part of the useful effect ot the steam in the latter part of the stroke : 
indeed, by as much as the pressure of the waste steam at the beginning 
of the stroke has been diminished by the eduction port having been 
already some time open, by so much must its efiective pressure have 
been reduced at the end of the previous stroke. We have also already 
mentioned the resistance of the steam let on to the front of the piston 
before the end of the stroke, which of itself nearly compensates the 
saving of part of the resistance of the waste steam at the beginning. 

The preceding reasoning is only intended to prove that there is 
little or no reason, and certainly no necessity to give a lead to the 
slide in locomotive engines ; for-other descriptions of engine it is need- 
less to say any thing, as no one would ever think of giving a lead in 
any but a locomotive engine. It might however be advantageous to 
give a lead to the eduction only, as by that means the saving of re- 
sistance at the beginning, would not be counteracted by the additional 
resistance of the steam admitted into the cylinder before the end of 
the stroke. 

To return to the action of the steam in the cylinder. The whole 
effect produced during an indefinitely short period of time is equal to 
the pressure of the steam on the whole area of the piston multiplied 
by the distance travelled by the piston during that time, the pressure 
of the waste steam being considered as a part of the resistance, or 
total effect. This is true, although at some moments the resistance 
may apjiear less than the pressure of the steam, and at others infinitely 
greater ; for the compensation is perfectly made by the momentum of 
the moving parts, which serve as reservoirs of power, absorbing, as it 
were, the excess at one time by receiving an increase of velocity, and 
giving it out again at another time, when the pressure of the steam is 
inferior to the resistance. But although the pressure of the waste 
steam is strictly a part of the resistance, yet we shall, in the following 
investigation, deduct its amount from the gross power of the steam, 
and consider the balance as the gross power of the engine, which will 
then be equal to the useful effect, ^/«s the friction and other resis- 
tances ;;( the engine. In our next paper we shall commence this inves- 
tigation with the low pressure condensing engine, for which the cal- 
culation is the most simple, and then extend it to the other varieties 
of engine. 



ARCfflTECTURAL COMPETITION. 

Sir, — The subject of Architectural Competition is one, which at 
this moment, should be more than usually interesting to members of 
the profession. I do not, therefore, hesitate to request your inser- 
tion of the following correspondence, which I think, it will be con- 
fessed, exposes as unsatisfactory a case as any of those recently so 
nuich commented upon. 

In the early part of this year, a committee formed for building a 
new church at Cardiff, advertised for plans, offering premiums of 20/. 
and 10/. for the first and second best designs. In conjunction with 
my partner, Mr. Brandon, I submitted plans, with a specification and 
estimate. On the 11th June, we received the following letter: — 

Cardifl' Vicarage, 10th June, 1839. 
Gentlemen, — The premium of 20/. offered for the Ijcbt plan and design for 
a churcfi in this town, having been awarded to you, I have great pleasure in 
forwarding you from the committee, an order for that amount on the Loudon 
and \\estimnster Bank, of which I shall be obUged by your acknowledging 
the receipt. 

I am. Gentlemen, your very obedient Servant, 

T. Stacev. Hon. Sec. 

In the course of two or three weeks after the receipt of that letter, 
we heard it rumoured that a Mr. Foster, of Bristol, was to be em- 
'ployed as archttct to this church. Being at a loss to reconcile this 
statement with the announcement that our's was "/fc best plan and 
design," we wrote to say, that if their subscription fell short of the 
contemplated amount, we should be happy to submit sketches for a 
building on a reduced scale. On the 'JSth June, we received the fol- 
lowing Tetter. 

Cardiff, 24th June, 1839. 

Gentlemen, — I fear I have been gudty of an omission in my last commu- 
nication, that has occasioned yon some misconception relative to the pro- 
ceedings of the committee for building the new church here. Had it 



02 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



occiirri'd to luc, tlie most obvious moile of putting you in possession of their 
intentions, would liave been to scnil you a copy of the rcsohitions adopted 
at the meeting at wliicli the tirst lU'emium was awarded you. And no better 
mode occurs to mc now. 1 therefore beg to subjoin a cojiy of that resolu- 
tion : — 

" It was unanimously resolved, that the premitun for the best plan he ad- 
judged to Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, and that the plan and design of 
Mr. roster, of Bristol', be adopted by the committee for those of the new 
churcli," &c. i^c. 

Whilst, therefore, the committee ailjndgcd your design to he the best 
ncconthi;/ lo the ciiiverliscment, they thought it iireferahle to adopt one fm-- 
nished by a Mr. Foster, of Uristol. I feel now, that this should have 
formed i>art of my last letter, but at the moment I wrote, it seemeil to me 
/hat mil silence voiild haee been inlcr/treleil hij i/ou as iiuliealive of Ike reso- 
latiom of the ifieetiwj. 

I remain, Gentlemen, your very obedient Servant, 

T. Stacey, Hon. Sec. 

Why Mr. Stacey slioidd have imagined llial from " U» silaict," we 
were to suppose the committee liail resolved \ipon this unusual 
course, I am unable to guess. We, liowever, addressed him on tlie 
2oth iis follows : — 

Su', — We have to acknowledge the favor of your letter of the 2 1th inst.> 
and to state the fact of our having misconceived the purport of your former 
letter. Wien you announced that the committee bad adjudged us the 
"Jirst premium for the best plan and desirjn," it never for a moment oc- 
curred to us that the committee would take the unusual, and as we cannot 
help feeling the mijust course of emjiloying another architect. Either our 
design was the best, in accordance iri//t your instructions, or Mr. Foster's 
was. If his accommodated 2000 persons, and was most apjilicnlile to your 
olijects, we think you did him an injustice in calling our's the liest. If, on 
the contrary, our's was really tlie Ijest, why not have done us the justice to 
believe that we were capable of altering that design, or producing another 
quite appUcalite to yoiu' wants ? We cannot but think the resolution of the 
committee must have passed in forgetfulness of general custom and of the 
injurious elfect it nnst have in ODnipetition generally. Surely, no architect 
of respcctaliility would lie fouud to expend time and money in designs 
w bore " the premium " was the only reward, and certainly not in a case 
wlicre the amount of such premium is insuHicicnt to cover the actual outlay 
ill preparing tbo^e designs. It is only the snperintendanee of a building, 
which offers credit and remuneration to the architect jiroportionate to the 
thought and the anxiety expended on a meritorious design. * * * 
We beg to assure the committee, that these remarks are not written in a 
spirit of dictation, for to their decision we must, of course, bow; but it is 
not the less our duty to call ,'ittention to that which unexplained, implies 
either injustice on their side, or a stain on our professional character, for 
whilst it ap|iears to the public that we have submitted " the best plan and 
design " you have received, they learn that our future services are declined, 
and an architect employed, whose desiyn was neither the jirst or second best. 
We trust, therefore, that the committee will at least alter the wording of 
their resolution. 

We have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient Servants, 

Wyatt and Brandon. 

The following letter acknowledges the receipt of our's of the 25th, 
and affords tlic satisfactory information that Mr. Foster is selected for 
the higliist pnmiam the committee coidd give, namely, their employ- 
ment, because his " plan and design were not in accordance with the 
terms of the advertisement." Tins, certainly, is a curious specimen 
of justice, and will, no doubt, tend to impress upon the minds of 
future competitors, the advantages of strictly adhering to the in- 
structions issued by committees. 

Cardiff, June 27th, 1839. 
Cicntlemen, — I have had the honor to receive the favour of your letter of 
the 2.'>th,.and will not fail to lay it before the committee at their next meet- 
ing. But as it is not likely, from the progress of things, that I shall soon 
have an oiiportunity of doing so, 1 beg to state at once, and from myself, 
tliat the reason why Mr. Foster's plan and design were not awarded the first 
premium was, that tliey were not in accordance with the terms of the ad- 
vertisement, and therefore it was, that your's were assigned the premium. 
I have the honor to be. Gentlemen, 

Your very obedient SeiTant, • 

T. Stacuy. 

(.)ne or two other letters passed, in continuation of this subject ; 
that from Mr. Stacey, assuring us that the committee had not the 
least intention of "offering any mark of disrespect, or want of due 
lonsideration to the design of Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, the merit 
of which they highly appreciate." On the 3uth July we addressed 
Mr. ^jtacey■ 

Sir, — W'c have to acknowledge the receipt of yoiu- favor of the 29th inst., 
communicating the content!) of a resolution passed by the Cardiff Church 



Gonnnittce. We regret the necessity of again troubling you upon this sub- 
ject, but we must, for the last time, repeat our sense of the injustice done 
us ; which, however unintentional on tlie part of the committee, is not the 
less apparent. It is only on the understanding that all the designs sub- 
mitted shall be tested by the terms and conditions inijiosed by the adver- 
tisement, an<l that those designs which do not comply with such instructions 
shall he rejected, that architects compete. Unless all the competitors start 
from the same point, it is impossible that the race can be a fair one. Mr. 
Foster's plans, it seems, were sufficiently informal to disentitle him to the 
]ircmium of 20/., and yet these informalities are made to disajipear, and he 
is awarded the frst premium, the snperintendanee of the hiiildinij. And the 
only premium, which in this case, was wortliy struggling for. Surely this is 
not fair play ! It was only on the faith, that the architect who received the 
first premium, would he employed to carry into execution any work the com- 
mittee might erect, that you received jilaiis at all. It is (miless specially 
excepted, as in the case of the comjietition for the K<iyal Exchange now 
going on,) the basis of all understanding between committees and com- 
jietitors — once destroy this, and you put an end to competition. In the 
case of the Koyal Exchange, the premiums ofl'ered arc 300/., 200/. and 100/., 
with tlus clause, "That if the architect who receives the first pieniinm 
should not be entrusted ivitli the budding, be shall receive an addiliunal sum 
of .500/. if his designs are carried into execution. The committee having 
power to retain the drawings for which the prcnnum is awarded." Now 
liere there is no understantUng, and the fact of their considering it necessary 
to make these conditions, implies that without them architects should not 
be inviteil to compete. Under the circmnstances of the case, we have no 
desire to retain the premium thus awarded us, and are prepared to return it, 
upon being informed to whouj it should be paid. 

We have also to request you will give directions for our drawings being 
returned; under any circumstances, they are not the ]iropcrty of the com- 
mittee, and as they are goinij; to liuild on Mr. Foster's [ilan, our design can 
be of no service to theni, unless for the jiurpose of adopting any arrange- 
ment or featme of merit they m.ay be thought to possess ; a ]noceediug 
which we are unable to suppose a committee of gentlemen would sanction. 
We have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient Servants, 

Wyatt and Brandon. 

To this lette/, on the 28th November, we received the following 
reply :— 

Canlitf X'icarage, 27th November, 1839. 

Gentlemen, — I beg to forward yon the following copy of a resolution of 
the committee appointed for the erection of a new church at Cardilf, passed 
on Monday the 2.5th instant. 

The secretary having laid before the meeting a letter from Messrs. AAyatt 
and Brandon, commenting again on the adjudication of the premium for 
the best jilan, it was resolved : — 

" That the secretary be directed to return Messrs. \\'yatt and Brandon 
their plans as they desire, and to infonn them that the amount of the first 
premium awarded them, which they decline to retain, may he. paid into the 
London and Westminster Bank, to the credit of the treasurer of the Catditt' 
New Church Budding Fund." 

In pursuance of the foregoing resolutions, I forward your plans by this 
days' mail, carriage paid. I desire you should understand tliat the com- 
mittee meeting of the 25th, was the first that has been held since the 
receipt of yom letter of the 30th July, otherwise it would have been replied 
to earlier. 

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient Senant, 

T. Stacey, Hon. Sec. 

Here closes the correspondence. We have received our designs, 
and the premium has been returned. Mr. B. Ferry, to whom the 
secotid iiremium was awarded, viewing the matter in the same light 
that we did, remonstrated by letter, against this act of the committee, 
and informs me, that the replies he received as to the grounds on 
which Mr. Foster is employed, were "equally inisatisfactory" with 
our own. It is always difficult in cases where one's own interests or 
feelings are concerned, to take an impartial and correct view. And 
possibly this case, which to any eye presents an incumistent, if not an 
unjust appearance, may have occurred before, and may not be 
thought to call for the remonstrances we deemed it right to make. 
Its consideration, however, can do no harm to those who may here- 
after engage in competitions, and if, by the course adopted we have 
tended in however slight a degree to assert the indepentlence and 
correct feeling of our profession, the end we had in view will be fully 
realized. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

Thomas Henry Wvatt. 
7-5, Grcal Russell Street ,January 1840. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



63 



REMARKS ON RAILWAYS, 

WITH REFERENCE TO THE POWER, &C. TO BE EMPLOYED UPON THEM. 

( Conlimted from page <j.) 

Having in tlip last number of the journal disposed of railways 
unfavourable to lucoiuotive engines, we will proceed to examine level 
railways, with reference to the power to be emijloyed on them, as in 
the former case. I will take an example lest it be said I make the 
case suit the ]irinciple, instead of making the rule apply to the case. 

Tlie Sheffield and Rotherham Railway has been completed about 
eighteen months; it will elucidate my views as well as any other, and 
because I am better accjuainted with it than those at a distance, I will 
therefore take it as our example. As truth is what I wish to elicit 
by these remarks, perhaps it will be the clearest way to say at the 
commencement what I intend to prove ; by so doing your readers will 
be enabled to judge how the arguments which I bring forward bear 
on the case. 

It is that in the example we have taken, and in any similar one, we 
can have a cheaper, more efficient and belter railway by having endless 
ropes, and stationary engines, than by locomotives. 

To prove this, it will he necessary to go into calculations; but to 
make them as short as possiljle, I will only give the results, reserving 
to myself the opportunity of giving them at full length, should any of 
your readers deny their correctness. First, as to " cost of the rail- 
way." It is said the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway has cost 
already £110,000, about £80,000 of which would go for constructing 
the railway, vi/., embankments, excavations, cS-'C, and for permanent 
rails. It will not, I think, be disputed that the embankments and 
excavations on this comparatively level country have been made at a 
cost of at least £33,00:.) more than they would have done had fixed 
engines been the moving power; and as some of the engines upon 
this railway weigh 16 tons, we may safely take oft' £7,000 from the 
first cost of the rails and chairs, making, with the sum first mentioned, 
£40,000 or the railway, would have cost £40,000 less than it has done 
had fixed engines been the power contemplated. The interest of this 
sum, at 5 per cent., is £2,000 per annum. So much for the cost of the 
railway. 

We will now go to the second part of our subject, viz., " more effi- 
cient." An engine and tender will weigh about 20 tons; suppose we 
call the engine oO horse power, we shall have, at 30 miles per hour, a 
power of 121 X 50 = (525 lbs., which will take, on a level railway, 
nearly 56 tons, 20 of which is taken up by the engine and tender, 
leaving 3G only conveyed by an engine of 50 horse power at 30 miles 
per hour. 

To convey 3G tons by the stationary system, it will require a rope 
3J inches circumference ; 2 miles of it would weigh about 4,000 lbs. 
Messrs. Walker and Rastric take the friction of the rope to be ^^ part 
of its weight; I see no reason to vary from their estimate; but as 
Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke, whose bias would be 
against stationary engines, take it as -Jj of the weight. I will, in 
deference to the opinion of these latter gentlemen, take it to be -jV, 
which is about half way between the one and the other ; Vj of 4,G00 lbs, 
is 305 lbs. The friction of the train is 403 lbs., together 709 lbs. which 
divided by 124, the power of a horse at 3o miles per hour r= 5G horse 
power, or G horse power more than the locomotive. But the locomo- 
tive would have to get its steam up before working, and there would 
be fuel in the fire-box when it had arrived at the end of its journey; 
I shall take it working 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after, which 
will make, with the 15 minutes in performing the journey, 25 minutes, 
or what is about the same thing, 83 horse power for 15 minutes. 

Though the stationary system requires an engine 56 horse power, 
yet, as tiie 72 trains per day, 36 tons at a time would only occupy, in 
the two miles worked by each engine 24 minutes per hour, it would 
only be needful to have them 3G horse power. The distance from 
Sheffield to Rotherham, G miles, is divided into 6 stages, requiring 
an engine at every other stage ; but as it would be more convenient to 
have one at each end, it will require 4 engines. These 4 engines are 
employed the whole of the 12 hours, without any intermission, in 
pumping water out of one reservoir into another fixed 40 or 60 feet 
above it; the water in the upper reservoir is allowed to I'un over a 
water wheel as it is wanted to move the trains, which, as before 
stated, is about 24 minutes in every GO, by which the 3G horse power 
engine becomes increased to 90 horse power, or there will be as much 
water pumped in the GO minutes by the 3G horse power engine as 
would supply a water wheel of 90 horse power, if there vpere no 
waste ; but the loss from this cause, and from friction, will be 33 per 
cent., which will reduce the engine to GO horse power, or 4 more than 
is required ; it appears, then, we only require engine power of 144 



horses. It is hardly likely that 3 trips per hour each way, for 12 
hours, would be made by fewer than 6 locomotive engines kept ready 
all the time, which would be equal to 300 horse power than twice as 
much as the stationary, and certainly more than four times the ex- 
pense in fuel, and by using coke instead of coals, and being high pres- 
sure instead of condensing engines. 

We think the second part of our proposition " more official" — is 
clearly made out. There remains now the third, viz., " a better rail- 
way ;" this will be more difficult to prove, it is such a comprehensive 
term ; but we don't fear being able to do so. 

If we can travel as fast, or faster, at a smaller expense, injure the 
rails less, be less liable to accidents, either to the machinery or rails, 
have no more stoppages from the machinery getting out of order, and 
have such stoppages as do occur, shorter, and sooner remeilied. If 
we can insure all these at about half the annual expense in repairs, are 
we not justified in saying we could have a better railway, I will begin 
with " speed;" in wet weather, on the Sheffield and Rotherham Rail- 
way, it is the practice to put sand on the rails, where there happens 
to be a slight inclination, to make the wheels bite, and so much are 
the wdieels in the habit of slipping on all railways, that Mr. William 
Vickers, a merchant in Sheffield, who has a good knowledge of me- 
chanics, and is pretty well accjuainted with the working of railways, 
has been induced to take out a patent for the plan of connecting all 
the wheels together by means of a belt or strap. If they slip they 
must lose speed, and injure the rails at the same time. With 
regard to the speed of the stationary ))lan, it depends upon the speed 
of the engine, and is only limited by the slrength of the materials of 
which the rope, pulleys, engines>&c. are constructed ; and were there no 
such thing as resistance of the atmosphere there would be hardly any 
limit to it. Then comes the relative expense at which this can be 
done. If we increase the speed of the locomotive, the engine and 
tender will form a much larger proportion of its load than at present, 
because it will require a greater quantity of fuel and water on account 
of the increased power of the engine. The engine would have to be 
made stronger and heavier to take the same load. The rails, chairs, 
and every tiling connected with them would cost more in repairs, be- 
cause of the increased speed and weight of the engine, and the engine 
itself would be sooner worn out. While, on the stationary plan, the 
only difference would be an increase in the power of the engines, 
greater strength, of rope and pulleys, and an additional wear in the 
two latter, the rails, chairs, &c. remaining the same. 

I find I am getting unnecessarily into the minuliee of the subject. All 
these things are imjiovtant, no doubt, but will, be wearisome to your 
readers to go through. I will therefore confine myself to tlie compara- 
tive safety and annual expense of the two systems. The greater the 
weight in motion, the less it will be influenced or impeded by obstruc- 
tions, and this will i-ender it more liable to get off the rails at the 
curves, and make it more difficult to stop. It appears that locomotive 
trains will always have 20 tons more weight, as already stated, than 
the stationary system, the conclusion is obvious. The large wheels of 
the locomotive engine would have a tendency to run oft" the rails, the 
ropes of the stationary plan would tend to keep the carriages on. The 
engine and train being independent of any other, would be in danger 
of coming in contact with other trains, unless those trains were at a 
considerable distance, and every collision without great care would 
throw carriages in the train of one or both of them off the rails, and 
occasion great delay to say the least of it. The stationary plan might 
have a hundred trains, a hundred yards of each other, and they would 
never approach nearer, this needs no conunent. In comparing the 
annual expense of the two, it will not be necessary to ascertain the 
expence of each, but only where they difter, to estimate the amount of 
each. The locomotive engines cost about £1,300 each, and if Ihey 
are fully worked will cost £300 per annum in repairs, or if half- 
worked £150. (Let Demetrius and the Craftsmen deny this if they 
can.) We will take them to be half-worked, there would then require 
5 engines and one spare engine, making 6 engines in constant work, 
so that the cost per annum vi'ould be 6X 150=:£900 for repairs. 
The engines will last not more than nine or ten years. We will take 
them at 13 per cent, on G engines, which will be £1,014; the fuel we 
will estimate at U per ton per mile, including waste at each end, we 
shall have to reckon 50 tons moved in this case and not 3G, but as the 
coke and water is consuming, I have reckoned 50 tons, 72 times 6 miles 
for 312 days, which amounts to 6,739,200 tons conveyed one mile, 
U lb. per ton on this will be 3,760 tons of coke, which is I4s. per ton, 
the amount of this will be per anmmi £2,G32. I shall take the engine- 
men, firemen, &c., to be the same in both systems, therefore need not 
take them into account ; the expence, then, of the locomotive system 
from these three items will be £4,54 G yearly. 

The stationary plan has 4 engines ot 36 horse power each, on the 
same principle as those in Cornwall, viz., work with 50 lbs, steam, and 



64 



THE Cn^IL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



cut oft' tlie stp«m at one-tiftli of the stroke, these engines consume 
2ilbs. ]ier luiur foi' liorse-pouer ; 12 hours per day, 312 flays, it will 
give per annum about GU2 tons at .)S. per ton, or i£150 Ms. 

The ropes will not require renewing ofteuer than once in twelve 
months because there are not jerks or stoppages at the stations, the 
cost of this, after deducting the value of the old, will be £525. The 
four engines, engine-houses, and machinery, would cost £'8,000, at 
fij per cent, would be £520. The annual repairs to boilers, engines, 
and machinery, taken as by Messrs. Walker and Rastric, including 
hemp, oil, and tallow, at 14.s'. Sd. per horse power, will be £ loij ys. 
The interest, wear and tear of pulleys would be ,£300, oil to ))ulleys, 
and men to grease them, £144, all which sums amount to £1,745 ISs. 

The whole yearly expense of the stationary system amounts to 
£1,745 Is.v. The expence of the locomotive system, £4,540, making 
a difterence in favour of the stationary of £2,S00 2s., which sum, 
added to the £2,000 per annum saved in the first cost of the railway, 
amounts to £1,800 2s. If the saving of £4,800 per annum does not 
speak to the ])ockets of the shareholders, nothing I can say will do it. 
If gentlemen of fortune wish to have railways, let them have locomo- 
tive engines upon them by all means to show to their wives and 
daughters, but if men of sense and men of business wisli to have their 
shilling's worth for a shilling, let them search and see if these things 
are so. 

Diogenes. 
Sheffield. 

( To he concluded.) 



ENCROACHMENTS AND RECESSIONS OF THE SEA. 

It appears that the tendency of "/7/e sea to pnserre its paralltl," has 
been pointed out in No. 27 of the Journal as the origin of the encroach- 
ment and recession of the sea, and that the action of the influx of 
water is increased in bays in proportion as the projecting point to the 
westward is greater, while it is assumed that the filling up of bays 
and cutting of headlands are equal. The meeting of the tides from 
the Northern and Southern Channels to the eastward of Hastings, 
renders a reference to the geological facts to the westward most ad- 
visable. 

The beds of sand, sandy rock, and clay, denominated the Wealden 
formation, are supposed to dip from Hastings to Beachy Head, and to 
disappear under the chalk at that point. Tlie outcrop of the highest 
sand-rock bed is visible from thence to the Sea Houses, East Bourn, 
but in the interior, the height of the beds above the sea level seems 
in some proportion to their hardness. Pevensey Castle is placed 
towards the end of one of these low ridges, so formed, and Pevensey 
Level consists, judging from the drains, of the outcrop of the clay 
beds, and not of the detritus of the chalk clitfs to the westward. 
Romney Marsh is sometimes considered as a more modern deposit of 
silt; its position, in some geological maps, is in front of that part of 
the Hastings sand, dipping easterly from the anticlinal line near Has- 
tings; it is said to have successive ranges of beach banks, of a form 
nearly corresponding with the present coast line. If these opinions 
are correct, it differs essentially in its formation from Pevensey levels, 
where, 1 believe, a small extent only of beach, covered with grass, 
exists at the eastern end. The accumulation of beach at Langney 
point, perhaps amounting to 1000 acres, is at a lower level, and is 
almost as bare of grass as the shore on which the sea now beats, while 
its character is similar in all points to the mass of beach at Dunge- 
ness. 

It has been most distinctly proved, that an ancient raised beach 
exists around the coast of Cornwall and Devon elevated in diflferent 
sites from 5 to 30 feet or more, and covered with a Grauwacke de- 
tritus termed alluvial by Dr. Buckland. 

At Brighton there seems an equally distinct trace of an equivalent 
raised beach covered by a diluvial chalk detritus, as due to a similar 
cause in different sites. Perhaps the grass-covered beach banks of 
Romney Marsh and Pevensey Level, are due to the same geological 
epoch, and the accunuilations of beach at Langney point and Dungeness 
belong to the present era. 

Previous to the admission of any arguments derived from the beach 
at Hastings Bridge, it must be proved to be a portion of the present 
sea beach, as its site and height above the sea would suggest the idea 
of its forming a part of a raised beach of a former geological period. 

In reference to the question of equal cutting and filling, it has been 
shown by geologists, that the waves are the cutting agents of the sea 
in the destruction of clitts, and that the tides or currents sweep the 
finer particles into deeper water, and leave the harder part on the 
shore, which are rounded into beach ; the whole coast, wliether liigh 



or low, is] fringed with a variable quantity of beach, which is driven 
along the coast in proportion to the diagonal blow of the waves, and 
consequently tlie mass is in motion eastward, as due to the mean 
excess of the westerly over the easterly waves. 

The effect of groins is easily seen ; the beach is collected on the 
weather side, while the lee side becomes bare ; hence equal waves 
have a greater cutting eft'ect on the softer materials of the exposed 
shore or clill', and less on the side protected by the accumulation of 
beach, and in their construction, the principle to be regarded is the 
retardation of the exact quantity of beach requisite for the protection 
of each spot, allowing its regular passage either way ; the groin 
referred to at Hastings is probably either too large, or too high at the 
outer end — the result is inevitable, the shore on each side will be 
overprotectcd, or overbared, alternately, according to the direction of 
the wind. 

My object has been rather to question the data assumed than to 
attempt to elucidate this subject by a reference to the numerous ele- 
ments essential for that purpose, partly with a hope of inducing civil 
engineers, to measure and recoril clearly the geological facts which 
may happen to come under their notice in the course of their pro- 
fessional labours. 



ON THE COMPARATIVE POWER OF STEAM ENGINES. 

Siu — Though I have read with great pleasure tlie communication of 
Mr. Armstrong on the comparative effects of the Cornish and Lanca- 
shire system of working steam engines, yet I must object to the ac- 
curacy of the estimate of the gross horse power of the East London 
Water-works engine, and I trust the following observations will induce 
others to take into consideration the propriety of confining the terra 
Duty to the distinct and definite meaning in which it has been 
employed in a large mining district for a longer period, than the 
existence of factory steam engines. His paper is entitled, "On 
the Comparative Effects," the table is headed "Comparative Duty;" 
the pounds raised one foot high per minute -^ 33,000 are termed 
"Gross Horse Power," while this same quantity 194 is termed " Net 
Effective Power," previous to the deduction oif one-third for the re- 
sistances of the shafting ; yet each is actually derived from the same 
elements, viz., the average steam pressure taken by the indicator in 
the Lancashire engine, and the supposed gross load + an allowance 
for " friction of the engine itself," in the Cornish engine X in each 
case by the space in feet per minute for gross horse power. The 
gross pressure of steam whether observed or calculated, is equally 
capable of being referred to the variable time of the consumption of a 
bushel of coal (114 pounds), but then such a word as Efficiency would 
be useful in distinguishing it from Duty. See Phil. Trans., 1S27. 

Duty as introduced by Watt, and retained iu Cornwall, is founded 
on different elements, viz. the nett work performed clear of pitwork or 
shafting resistances, X by the space of motion per bushel of coal, it 
is always calculated, but if the water was measured or weighed, it 
might be called active duty: the usual mode of obtaining the load in 
the shaft is by squaring the pump diameter in inches, X by the lift in 
fathoms, X by 2-0454 pounds, the weight of a cylinder of water one 
fathom in length and one inch in diameter : the omission, however, of 
the two last decimals, only attects the three last figures of the duty in 
millions. 

Duty and gross power are hence the extremes, while gross power 
minus engine resistances, and duty plus pitwork or machinery resist- 
ances become respectively nett power, =: engineer's horse power, and 
gross work performed, and these on a statical view are equal to each 
other — the word effect will be found a convenient term to distinguish 
gross work done from duty, It has always been necessary to ascertain 
whether the beam leverage is equal, if not so, due allowances must be 
made for the differences ; it will be .dso convenient to use the word 
pressure as equivalent to force, and force X space as power, while 
gross and nett load become respectively effect and duty. 

In the arrangement of the East London Water-works engine, a 
weight of 29 tons is lifted at the outer end of the beam during the in- 
door stroke, but not without some packing friction, as well as a column 
of water on the lower valve of a diameter equal to that of the plunger 
pole — together, these form the gross load on the in-door or acting 
stroke. During the out-door stroke the weight returns and lifts the 
water above the lower valve, overcomes friction, &c. &c. As friction 
increases in bad pitwork, at least, as fast as the deficient water delivery — 
while the reverse takes place in good, the calculated duty of pumping 
engines probably ,bears a closer approximation to the whole work done, 
or effect, than might be expected. 



1S40] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



65 



In all cases I am inclined to think the pitwork resistances exceed 
the decrease due to deficient water delivery. There are no data for 
duty calculation, except by valueless approximations. I shall how- 
ever submit to public opinion the following estimate of the gross power 
of this engine, in comparison with that derived from the " Average 
Steam Pressure, taken by indicator," in the Lancashire factory engine. 
I conceive the allowance of half a pound per circular inch for the 
" friction of tlie engine itself," a quantity scarcely sullicient to over- 
come tlie steam or vapour pressure due to the temperature of the 
water in the condenser. 

Weight in-doors 29 t(jn - - = 04,9(30 lbs 

.Stulling box friction, say - - z= 501 

412 i,„.i,es X 1 fathoms' X bv ■2-01.54 lbs = 3,439 



Gross load in lbs. 
Quarter of eft'ect load ;= 
gross power 



l-5th 



= 68,900 load for eft'ect. 

:= 17,224 engine's resistances. 



=: 80,124 lbs. 
Gross steam pressure on the shaft. 
In a recent communication by Mr. Wicksteed, relative to the suc- 
cess of the Harvey's and West's patent double beat valve, the pump 
stroke is stated to be nine feet, and consequently 90 feet of motion at 
10 strokes per minute. Taking the gross pressure in the shaft at 
80,124 lbs. X 90 feet, = 7,751, IGO lbs. one foot high, we have 
7,751,100 

—rjr- =: 23.J gross horse pow er. 

33,000 ^ ^ 

In consequence however of the prevalence of the method among 
practical engineers of deducting the resistances due to vacuum, im- 
])erfections from the observed average indicator pressure, and calling 
the result average steam pressure (a quantity I should feel disposed 
to term a worthless mean between gross and nett power of no practi- 
cal value, and absokitely injurious in tending to mislead in estimates 
of pounds of water used in the cylinder), it would not be fair to con- 
trast that which is proposed to represent the gross povver of a good 
Cornish engine, until it has been ascertained whether the observed or 
calculated gross steam power in the Lancashire factory engine has 
been given. 

The error will be in its favour if an allowance is added of -^rj, 
perhaps, for this practise, while the engine's resistance, ought perhaps 
to be taken higher than one-fifth of the gross power to allow for the 
greater friction of smaller cylinders working at a high power, if re- 
quired ; it appears to me that the one-third allowance should be de- 
ducted from the nett power thus obtained, for a duty estimate, giving 
20 millions as a rough approximation. 

34,754,432 
One-twelfth .... — 2,890,202 



One-fifth engine resistance 
One-third shaft-work - 



37,050,031 
; 7,530,120 

30, 120,508 
: 10,040,109 



Duty = 20,080,339 

My object is to recommend tlie simple classification here used, sub- 
ject to any corrections of engine or pitwork resistances, conceiving 
if attention be called to this subject, it will soon lead to the adoption 
of correct methods, which will facilitate the connection of theoretical 
and practical views of steam engines. 

I am, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

John S. Enys. 
January, 1810. 



Discovery of a Cnt'cru. — As the workmen were employed in blasting the 
rocks near the foundation of one of the Clifton suspension bridge piers, a day 
or two since, they discovered a small uj)cning. On i(s being examined, it was 
found to lead to a small cavern extending tilty-scven feet below the surface 
of the gro\md, nearly in a perpendicular direction. The exploration was 
made by Dr. Fairbrothcr, with the assistance of one of the workmen. 
There were several chambers at intervals, but the descent is diflicult, and 
can only be made with the assistance of ropes. The air is tolerably pure, so 
that the candle burnt freely during the whole of the tiinc (nearly two hours). 
At the bottom, the air was found to be excessively hot, so that the perspira- 
tion flowed freely. In other respects the cavity presented nothing remark- 
able, beyond the ordinary appearance of fissures formed by the raising of 
the strata of lime-stones by some extraordinary convulsions of nature. 



THE CORNISH ENGINE, 

AT TtiE E.\ST LONDON WATER WORKS. 

As tlie above engine is likely to become an object of considerable 
interest to engineers, we determined upon paying a visit to the Water 
Works at Old Ford, for the purpose of obtaining correct information 
as to her dimension and mode of working. (Jn our arrival ;it the 
works, Mr. Wicksteed, the engineer to the Company, immediately 
granted us permission to inspect the engine, and kindly ofiercd to 
afford any infcn-matiun we might require, and for this jnirpose, accom- 
panied us on our view, and readily answered every enquiry, explain- 
ing at the same time, the general working of the engine. Before 
])roceeding to the detaiLs, we must offer our congratulations to the 
directors of the Company, on the successful performance of the 
engine, and we feel happy to find that the very large pecuniary 
saving in fuel annually, by the adoption of the CornisTi engine, will 
amply repay them for the spirited manner in which they came for- 
ward to support their engineer against the almost unanimous opinions 
of the London engineers, who generally pronounced the boasted per- 
formances of the eugines in Cornwall to be preposterous. Through 
the kindness of Mr. Wicksteed, we are now enabled to lay before 
our readers practical data of the economic working of the engine at 
the East London Water, Works, which we believe, is the first and 
only Cornish engine that has been yet erected in the metropolis. 

The engine was originally intended for a Cornish mine, known by 
the name of the "East Cornwall," it was designed by Mr. West, a 
member of the Institution of Civil Engineers; it is upon the same 
principle as the one designeil by the same gentleman, erected at the 
Fowey Consols Mines, which has for several years past clone more 
duty than any engine in or out of the county of Cornwall, and manu- 
factured by Messrs. Harvey and Co. of Hayle ; it was purchased liy 
the East London Water Works Company in 1837, and removed to 
London and fixed in its present situation by Messrs. Harvey and 
West, who have, by the superiority of the working of this engine, 
and the faithful execution of their contract, given most unr|ualified 
satisfaction both to the directors and to Mr. Wicksteed. 

Dimensions of ilie Engine. — The diameter of the steam cylinder is 
80i inches, and length of stroke, 10 feet 3 inches ; the steam is 
generated in the boilers, under a pressure of 351b. on the square inch 
above that of the atmosphere, antl cut oft" when the piston has per- 
formed about one-third of its stroke, it then expands during the re- 
maining two-thirds, and in the suceeeding stroke is condensed to 
form a vacuum on tlie opposite of the piston, to wdiich it passes 
through the equilibrium valve in the return stroke, the engine being 
single acting. 

By the use of the apparatus called a cataract, the engine can be 
made to work from one (or less) to ten strokes per minute, as may be 
required. According to the calculations of Mr. Armstrong in our 
last Journal, the power of the engine is equivalent to 200l horses, 
and by the statement of Mr. Enys in the present number, 235 gro^s 
horse power. Mr. Wicksteed, however, informs us that the actual 
weight lifted is 66,443 lbs. an average height of 9 feet each stroke, 
which is equal to 18" 12 horses' power when the engine works one 
stroke per minute, or 181*2 horses' power at 10 strokes per minute, a 
velocity which Mr. Wicksteed deems the greatest this engine should 
be worked at. 

Dimensions of the Pump. — The diameter is 41 inches, length of 
stroke 9 feet 4 inches, quantity of water lifted at every stroke S2*5 
cubic feet, or about 14i imperial barrels, which is a week's average 
supply for a house. The plunger-pole of the pump, is loaded 
with about 29 tons over and above the other end of the beam, and 
this is the weight the engine has actiwlly to lift at every stroke. 

We were very much pleased with the quiet action of Messrs. 
Harvey and We.st's patent valve, there we felt any perceptible vi- 
bration, although we stood close to the pump ; we have given the 
drawings and specification of the valve in another part of the Jour- 
nal. 

The steam is generated in four cylindrical boilers, 27 feet 8 inches 
long and feet 5 inches diameter, constructed on Mr. West's 
Cornish plan ; the tops of the 4 boilers are covered over with fine 
ashes, to prevent the loss of heat by radiation. The area of the 
boilers exposed to the action of the flame and heated air, is very 
great ; and the furnaces are constructed with a large surface of fire 
grate, in jn'oportion to the coals consumed, for the purpose of adopt- 
ing the principle of slow combustion, wdiich is here carried out to its 
fullest extent, so much so, that when the furnace doors are opened, the 
smoke at times comes out of the furnace doors into the stoke-hole. 

We must also state that the steam cylinder is surrounded wdth a 

K 



66 



Tilt; CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[February, 



jacket, wliicli is filled with stoain from the boilers, and there is 
another jacket, or casing of boards, the interval being filled in with 
ashes, 17 to IS inches in thickness; all the steam-pipes are also well 
cased with patent felt, or ashes in boxes. 

The following particulars will show the working of the engine for 
I'A weeks, dining «hich period it worked 2,'Jil3l hours, and made 
1,U12,3J3 strokes, at the average rate of 5-77 per minute, it raising 
i:),'.ls-2,'.142 barrels of water, (of 360 lbs. each barrel,) 112 feet 
inches high, with the consumption of 301 Ions, la cwt., 1 qr., 
(^ S10,3-islbs.) of coal of inferior quality, being the refuse or screen- 
ings of Newcastle coal, which has passed through a screen of |-inch 
thick mesh. By adopting the method of slow combustion, they are 
thus enabled to use the screenings, which costs only 17s. per ton de- 
li\«red, whereas the superior coal required for rapid combustion, 
would cost 23s. or more. 

During the same period, a condensing engine of the ordinary con- 
struction made by Boulton and Watt, with a cylinder 80 inches 
diameter and stroke 8 feet, with a pump 27J inches diameter and 
stroke 8 feet, worked 1,345^ hours made 1,152,424 strokes, raised 
S,416,3S5 barrels of water, and consumed 275 tons, 17 cwt., 3 qrs., 
(= tj 17,988 lbs.) of coal as above. 

The Cornish engine works constantly under the same pressure, 
while the pressure in the Boulton and Watt engine is constantly vary- 
ing, never exceeding the former, but on the average, less. 

The Cornish engine worked night and day during the above 
period, with occasional stoppages, while the ordinary engine worked 
by day only; but the work of two other engines, on Boulton and 
Watt's construction, which worked night anil day during the cor- 
responding weeks of the previous year, was as follows : — They 
worked for 2,9381 hours, and made 2,U08,43Ui strokes each; they 
raised together 9,309,362 barrels of water, and consumed 568 tons, 
1 cwt., (= 1,272,432 lbs.) of bent coal. 

Before the Cornish engine was erected, the East London Water 
Works Company had, in addition to the water-wheels at their Strat- 
ford and Lea Bridge Stations, four steam engines, besides an extra 
one, which worked during the summer months : — viz. two engines of 
30-horses power each, which worked 24 hours ; and two of about 95 
horses power, which worked, upon an average, 12 hours per dwm, 
the extra one was of 70 horses power, and worked occasionally in 
the sunnner. The consumption of coal amounted to 3,426 tons per 
annum, which was about i,'3,700., while the present engines, viz. one 
Cornish engine, working 24 hours per day, and averaging six strokes 
per minute, and one large Boulton and Vatt engine, working 60 hours 
per week, calculating from the IS weeks' consumotion for both engines, 
the annual consunqjtion will be 1,941 tons, whicTi cost l7s. per ton, or 
.t' 1,649. 17s., thus effecting a saving of i'2,050. per annum. 

if 6(),4431bs. be taken as the actual weight lifted at each stroke, 
(independent of friction and resistance of the engine,) and multiplied 
by 9 feet, the average length of the stroke of the pumj), it will give 
597,987 lbs. lifted one foot high at every stroke, if this quantity be 
multiplied by the number of strokes, the engine performed during 
the eighteen months, and divided by the consumption of the fuel 

during that period, it will give : (i^i^^^-Mlr^^-?!) 747,054 ibs., 

8 lU,o48 
us the useful tffecl, raised one foot high by 1 lb. of coal or 70,223,0761bs., 
by one Cornish bushel of 9 libs, of coal. It should be observed, that 
the amount of coals herein given, includes the coals used to keep up 
the steam whenever the engine stopped during the period men- 
tioned. 

In order to secure themselves against receiving inferior coal, the 
Directors have entered into a very peculiar contract (which we would 
recommend to the notice of other companies) with their coal merchant 
to supply them with coal of the same quality throughout the year, he 
guaranteeing that above 73 million poiuids of water shall be raised 
one foot higli by the consumption of 94 lbs. of coal, which is equivalent 
to about 24 lbs. [ler horse power per hour; or in case of the average 
duty of the coals not amounting to so much, a proportionate reduction 
is to be made in the amount to be paid to him. 

We trust the foregoing statement will prove interesting to the 
readers of our Journal. We should have been pleased if we could 
have presented engravings of this engine to our readers, but we do 
not so much regret the want of them at present, as we should if Mr. 
Wicksteed had not informed us that he intends to present complete 
drawings of the engine and boilers to the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
with a report, as soon as he has obtained some f irther facts which he 
deems of the utmost importance, namely, the actual quantity of water 
evaporated by a given weight (jf coals, the (piantity of water passing 
through the cylinder in the sliape of steam to produce the eii'ects stated, 
and in addition also, the same facts as regards a Boulton and Watt 



engine, that a fair comparison may be made between the two systems 
of expansion and non-expansion, and also to prove liow much is due 
to the superiority of tlie boilers (if any), and how much to the mode 
of uxtng the steam when generated. 

The system adopted in Cornwall of reporting to the public every 
month the duty of the engines, has, we have little doubt, led, by 
exciting emulation, to the perfecting of the expansion engine, and if 
in other parts of England the same system were adopted, there is no 
doubt the public would benefit, as well as those manufacturers whose 
desire it is to make the best engine, and we therefore offer to those 
interested in the subject to pul)lisli in our Journal the reports forwarded 
to us. We have little doubt of having a monthly report of Iht Cornish 
engine, and we should like to have reports of others to compare 
with it. 



MEMOIR OF DAVIJvS GILBERT, ESQ. 
(From the West Britnn.) 

Davii;s Gilbert, E.sij.. D.C.L., late President of the Royal Society, was 
Hon. F.K.S.E., F.A.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., President of the Roj al Geo- 
logical Society of Cornwall, Hon. Member of must of the iirovincial societies 
in llie Kiomlom, and of many on the CVinlincnt; lie was also many years 
Member of Parliament for Bodmin, our county to« n, and was truly known 
as the Father of liiilish Science. He was the only son of the Rev. Eilwaril 
Gidcly, of St. Erdi, the representative of the vesjicctutile family of (Jidily, of 
Nanteavallan, by Catherine, only daughter and heiress of Henry Davies, 
Esq.. of Tredrea, only survivor of the ancient house of Davies. throuKli 
whom he was connected with the noble family of Sandys, and that of Noycl 
of which the well-known Attorney-Genera! was a member. 

^VIlen a child, his precocious t'llenis were the theme of the extensive circle 
uilh which his tathcr, as chairman of Quarter Sessions, associated. His 
preliminary education was conducted at home; and at a very early age he 
cuntractccl an intimacy, which continued until death, with the Rev. Malachy 
llitchcns, vicar of , St. Hilary, a gentleman of high and well-ileserve.l cele- 
Ijrity as a niathcmalieian and aslroncjmer, and as editor of the "Nautical 
Almanac." This adiuiiintance, without doubt, materially added in dcter- 
minini; his mind to mathematical pursuits, in which he was afterwards so 
greatly distinganshed. His aca^lemic education was received at Pemlirukc 
College, 0.>;ford, to the funds of which he has been a liberal donor. 

The introduction of Mr. Watt's celebrated improvement in the steam-en- 
gine into the Cornish mines, and the disimtcs between that great mechanical 
philnsopher and the late Mr. Jonathan Hornblowcr, of Penryn, as to the 
economy and mode of applying the principle of working steam expansively, 
and which has since been carried to greater extent, and with a more remark- 
aide economy of fuel in this county than any where elst^ early attracted 
Mr. Davies Gidcfy's attention ; and the various subjects embraced in its per- 
fect development formed a noble field for the employment of his rare mathe- 
matical attainments. The e.\pansive action was employed by Mr. Watt in a 
single cylinder, but Mr. flornblower used two. It was, hoivever, far more 
readily made out in theory than it was acknowledged in practice, that by 
the use of one cylinder only the same mechanical advantage is obtained, 
avoiding )he additional friction which a second cylinder would entail. The 
])lan of Mr. Hornblowcr was, after a silence of several years, revived by Mr. 
Woolf: but it seems by general consent and experience, and by universal 
practice, to be now admitted that Mr. Watt's is the prel'eiable mode. 

Mr. Davies Giddy was solicited by the county at large to take an active 
part in the determination of the duty performed by Mr. Watt's engines — a 
task for w hich his genius and inclination peculiarly fitted him ; and in con- 
junction with the late Captain 'William Jenkin. of Treworgie, he made a sur- 
vey of all the steam-engines then working in Cornwall. 

An indifference to the labours of anthorship, provided the results of his 
inquiries were available to the public without appearing in print, prevented 
the investigations of these most important subjects from seeing the light in 
an authentic form until lately ; the first iti them appears in the Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society in 1827— the second still more recently. 

One ol the most laborious and practically useful works which has distin- 
guished that rich storehouse of intellectual wealth, the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society, is a paper by Mr. Gilbert, " On the Properties 
of the Catenary Curve." This fine example of mathematical inquiry was 
published whilst the celeLrated engineer Telford was preparing his materials 
for the construction of that stupendous national work, the Menai bridge; 
and it affords one of the finest tributes on record to the labours of the philo- 



Ifi40.] 



THE Cn^L ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



67 



soplicr in his rloset, that after the appearance of Mr. Gilbert's memoir, the 
engineer caused the suspension chains whicli had been prepared and coin- 
plete.l to be again lalicn in lianj and lengthened by about thirty-six feet. 
The manner in «hieh this magnificent structure has stood, proves that the 
principles on which it was constructed are perfectly accurate, but that its 
weight is insufficient to stand the storms to which it is exposed, without a 
vibratory inotion, which is injurious to its stability. 

One of the most remarkable incidents in Mr. Gilbert's life was his disco- 
vering, patronising, and encouraging the early struggles of Davy (afterwards 
Sir Humphry), whose introduction to public life, and to other friends, who 
brought him, liis genius, and .abilily into notice, was due to his active and 
unvarying fiiendahip. This is, however, matter of history, and most of our 
readers are acijLiainted with it. 

In 1S28 Mr. Gilbert was, by acclamation, calleil to that pre-eminently ho- 
nourable station, Ihe chair of the Royal .Society, to which his profound 
learning and sc-ientific researches, no less than his distinguished personal fit- 
ness, recommended him Ijeyoud every other person as the proper successor of 
Davy in the chair of Newton. This conspicuous place, at the head of British, 
and we may say European, science. Mr. GilbiTt held, for about seven years, 
witli the highest honour to himself, and tlie greatest utility to that learned 
body. It is a case without par.allel, and one of which, as C'ornishmen, we 
are justly proud, that we have furnished two succeeding Presidents of the 
Roy.al .Society. During liis Presidency, Mr. Gilbert was a liberal donor to 
the society's funds, and he extended a large and an enligliteucd patronage to 
every object worthy of the illustrious body over which he presided. He re- 
signed the chair in favour of his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, who is 
now succeeded by the courteous and learned Marquis of Norlhampton. 

In his native county, to which he has ever clung with most tenacious af- 
fection, in 1814, Mr. Gilbert founded the Royal Geological Society of Corn- 
wall, (with a single exception) the oldest provincial philosophical society in 
Kngltind, and continued to preside o\er it until his decease ; conferring on it 
an importance which it would not have otherwise attained, and extending its 
utility where, without him, it would have been unknown. To the other phi- 
losophical, literary, and charitable institutions of Cornwall, he was equally 
a liberal and enlightened patron. 

The last literary labour of Mr. Gilbert's long, honourable, and usefid life, 
was editing the " Parochial History of Cornwall." originally commenced by 
Mr. Hals, and continued by Mr. Tonkin. This w ork appeared but a year or 
two since, with copious addenda by the editor, and geological notes by Dr. 
Boase. It contains a vaist mass of curious and v.aluable antiquarian research, 
and rich disquisitions on many suljjects of the highest local interest, its 
effect has, however, been impaired by typographical inaccur.acies, which tlie 
printer's carelessness has overlooked. 

The rare talents, abilities, and application of Mr. Davies Gidily, at an early 
period of his hie. recommended him to the .acquaint. nee of the leading scien- 
tific men of the age, and the principal mluabit.ants of the county ; among 
these was the late Lord De Dunstanville. a nobleman as much dislingui.shed 
by his discrimination as by his barge and munificent liberality. Through his 
lordship's instrumentalily, Mr. Giddy was returned to Parliament for the 
borough of Bodmin, in 1807. after having sat as member for Helston ; and 
the distinction thus conferred on huu through, wdiat hc may not improperly 
term, extraneous means, was continued from an honourable appreciation of 
his own ability and worth, until the passing of the Reform Bill, in 1832. 
when h s advanced age and increasing infirmities rendered him desirous of 
avoiding the turmoil of public life, and of retiring into the pe.ace and tran- 
quillity of his domestic circle. 

Whilst in Parliament, tliere were few members more regular and assiduous 
in their attendance, than Mr. Gilbert ; he generally, though not uniformly, 
supported the Conservative side of politics, but he seldom spoke, and was by 
no means an active partisan. His great learning and habits of business, re- 
commended him to all parlies ; and lie acted as chairman of a committee on 
the financial system, in the critical and dilliiult period when Lord Castle- 
reagh was the ministerial leader in the C mmons. The rectification of the 
national standards of linear dimensions .and capacities, w hich w.as made a few 
years since, was undertaken on his motion for an address to the Crown on 
the subject. The bounty on the export of pilchards was long continued 
through his active interposition ; and, indeed, every subject which in any 
way afT'ected the interests of his native county, when it came before Parlia- 
ment, ever found him at his post, an active, ready, and indefatigable advo- 
cate of her interests. 

^Ve have now seen him an illustrious philosopher, a learned historian, and 
.an enlightened legislator; but the most distinguishing (.and if we may use 
the language without charge of alieclation), the most endearing character 
we have yet to mention, for it w ould be vain to attempt to describe it— his 



conversation; it was not brilliant — it was something infinitely beyond and 
better than mere display ; it was a continued stream of the most profound 
learning and most exalted philosophy, adapted with exquisite taste to the 
capacity of his auditory, and enlivened wilh anecdotes to which the most 
listless could not but listen and learn. His in.anners were most unaffected, 
child-like, gentle, and natural. As a friend, he was kind, considerate, for- 
bearing, patient, and generous; and when the grave was closed over him, 
not one man, woman or child, who was honoured with his acquaintance, but 
will feel that he has a friend less in the world ; enemies, he cannot have left 
a single one. A Cornishman he was in every good sense of the word ; the 
mention of a Cornish custom, of a provincialism familiar in his youth, would 
make tlu> aged m:in young again ; the scenes of his early years, tales of times 
long gone, were piuired forth in debghtlul glowing language, the more 
touching from its hearty, e.arnest, unatVeclerl, and simple elegance. 

M'iihin a few years of 1810, Mr. Davies Giddy was married to Mary, only 
child and heiress of — Gilbert, Esq., of Eastbourne, and took the n.ame of 
Gilbert, instead of his patronymic of Giddy. This .alliance brought a con- 
siderable accession of fortune to his ;ilrcady considerable paternal inheritance. 
By this lady, who survives him, he has had several children, but four only 
are now alive : — a son, John Davies Gilbert, Esq., a daughter, married to 
J(din S. Enys, Esq., of Enys, in this county, and two other daughters yet 
unmarried. Mr. Gilbert's age was, we believe, about seventy-four, and his 
long, honourable, and himoured life, crowned with peace. riches, and distinc- 
tion, w as in the bosom of his family. 

" QHOT NOTOS, TOT HABUIT AMICOS." 



WOODEN PAVEMENT. 

Extract from Leltch Ritchie's " Glance at Russia in IBS.')." 
The wooilen pavement is, I believe, pecidiar to Si. Petersburg, and merits 
a description. It consists of small hexagons sawed from a piece of resinous 
Wood, .and laid into a bed of ciushed stones .and sand. These are fastened 
laterally into each other with wooden pegs ; and w hen the w hole bu'ms a 
plane surface, the interstices are filled wiih fine sand, and then boiling pilch 
is poured over all. This pitch, from the porous nature of tlie wood, is speed- 
ily absorbed ; and on a quantity of sand being strewed above if, the operation 
is complete, and a pavement constructed which is found to be extremely 
dur.able, and which seems to me to sull'er much less injury from the frost 
than the stone causeway. The honor of the invention is due to Mr. Gourief, 
and I have no doubt he will ultimately see it adopted in most of the great 
towns towards the north. It is the custom of the peasantry to cut down the 
trees at some distance from the root, and thus a great deal of woml w ill be 
turneil to a useful purpose, which would otherwise only encumber the ground. 
Everv peasant, besides, by means of his axe alone, is able to constnfct sucli 
a pavement ; and in Russia, hands are both plenty and cheap. 



THE NEW ROYAL EXCHANGE. 

In the Court of Common Council, on the 23rd ult., Mr. R. L. Jones brought 
up the report of the Royal Exchange Committee, which w.as as follows: — 
•'To Ihe Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons 
of the city of London, in Common Council assembled. 
" We whose names are hereunto subscribed of your committee in relation 
to the Royal Exchange and Gresham trusts, to whom on the (ilh day of Au- 
gust, 1831, il Wits referred to carry into execution the Act of Parliament for 
improving the site of the Royal Exchange, in the city of London, .and the 
avenues adjoining therein, anil to report our proceedings from time to time, 
do certify that we immediately proceeded to carry the provisions of the said 
act into execution, and directed several notices to be given to the several 
parties inferestetl for the purchasing of their properly required lor the site of 
the new E.vchange. and, having received the claims of the respecfiv.' parties, 
we duly considered the same, and have great ple.asuie in being able to report 
that the whole of such claims, with two exceptions only, have been adjusted ; 
and, for the further Information of this Hon. Courl. we have caused a state- 
ment to be hereunto annexed, setting forth the .sums claimed, and the amounts 
paid or agreed to be paid, for the purchase of the several premises, including 
the loss and damage incurred by removal, together with the manner in which 
each claim was seitlcd ; all wdiich we submit to the judgment of this Hon. 
Courl. D.ited this 23rd day of January, 1840. 

" Richard L. Jones. Edward Hickson. 

B..STiaimNG, Henry J. Elmes. 

W. Richardson. Thomas Cornev. ^ 

K. OuuAHD. Thomas Burton. 

J.iMES Frisby. William Croucher." 

The follow ing is the slatinient alludeil to : 

Buildings purchased for the new Royal E.Kchange and avenues. Estimate 
l.W.OOO/., for whicli there were 51! claims. 
42 cases claimed . 69,283 — .Settled by committee at . 38,852 
8 ditto for freeholds 107.081 — Referred to surveyors,, and 

settled at . . . 04.136 
i cases claimed . 37.065— Settled by verdicts at . 12,284 
2 ditto not settled . .0,508 



£219,817 



£115,272 



K2 



08 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[F 



KBRUART, 



UNION WORKHOUSES. 

Sir — On my road from W'oolwicli to London, the other day, I was much 
struck witli the CNtensivc a])]iearance of tlie loiig-talked-of new work- 
Jioube for tliis union, which was to he t)ie ^' lari/i^st ami bfi^t housp^' under 
tlie comniibsinn. I walkeil over the whole estabhslnuerit, and certainly it is 
the largest antl best built house I have seen under the Poor Law Commission- 
ers — the main building being iipwards of A'iO feet in length, by about 4.'i feet 
in depth — in height three floors (witli basement under about half), ami the 
ground floor well kept up, standing in an enclosed square acre (of lower 
buildings ami work-sheds) about, .jOO feet x 400 feet, witli an old looking 
buililiug in front (north), for board-room ami offices ; large range of buildings 
at ));uk (south), for hospital, infirmary, fever wards, &c. ; and work-sheds, 
wash-imusc, laundry, &e., at ends; U]>ou the whole, presenting rather an 
imposing aiiitcarauce — also an imjiroved one — in comjtarison with the beg- 
garly looking things erected by the Union generally. Mr. Browne, of (Ireeii- 
wieli, is the architect, as in all the other houses (or some parties for him) 
fretted away the interior of this otherwise noble establishment with a great 
number of little, low, nari-ow rooms, called wards, which, were it not for a 
gallery on each floor, running the whole length of the building (near 420 
feet), would be exceedingly inconvenient and unhealthy too — uotwitlistand- 
ing the great care that has been bestowed in the arrangement of the ventila- 
fi(ui, the supply of water, and the drainage, to tlie whole establishment, 
which jppears to me to have been very earefidly studied and well executed — 
as well as the water-closets and other internal arrangements generally. Upon 
the suggestion and under theablesviperintemlaneeof Mr. J.eakc, the Guardian 
Clerk of the Works, unto whom — one of the Guardians of the Hoard informed 
me — they were nnich indebted for his constant attention, great building tact 
and skill, and the full exercise of his first-rate mechanical and constructive 
capacities in their service : he is evidently a ntan very superiorly calculated 
to conduct large masses of work, as well as their detailed arrangement, and 
appears to be ipiife at home in this department of the business. The ground 
is on an inclination, with gravel bottom and good water ; hut the site stands 
awkwardly v\itb the road, seeing the hack of the f]'ont Ijuilding befoi'e you 
see its front elevation, which might have been easily remedied, notwithstaml- 
ing the depth of the ground ; however, considering the house is built for 
about ll.'iO inmates, at an expense of less than a;'24,000. It reflects infinite 
credit both on Mr. Urownevvho has had nnich ti'ouble and 0]}position to con- 
tend with ; Wr. .fay of Lomlon \\'all, who has done himself credit in the exe- 
cution; the Board of Guardians for fhcii' spirit in giving an impetus to the 
large bouse yet to be built, and all parties concerned in the erection of those 
truly National Establishments. I would have given you a detailed account 
hut time presses on me, so beg the insertion of this brief notice. 

M. N. 0. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Thf. first meeting of this society for the session was held on M'cdnesday 
evening, the Gth Movcmbcr. 

Rev. I'rofessor Buckland, D.D., President, in the chair. 

The following conmiunications were read : 

/t nottcp of Shovern nf Aalwn which fell on hoard the Ho.ihiiri/h, off the 
Cape fie Verd ixlandx, in Fehvtianj last, hij the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

On Tuesday, Fchrnary 4th, the latitude of the ship at noon was 14 deg. 
?i\ min. norfli, longitude 2.i deg. 10 min. west. The sky was overcast, and 
the weather thick and insuflVrably ojipressive, though the thermometer was 
only 72. At 3 ]i. ni. the wiml suddenly hdled into a calm, then rose from 
he south-west, ,iceonii>anied by rain, and the air appeared to he filled with 
dust, vvhieh affected the eyes of the passengers and crew. At noon, on the 
."ith of February, the latitude of the Iloahim/h was 12 deg. .30 min. north, 
longitude 2 1 deg. 1.'! min. west ; the thermometer stood at 72, and the baro- 
nu'fcr at 30 — the height which it had maintained during the voyage from 
England. The volcanic island of Fogo, one of the Cape do Verds, was about 
forty-five miles distant. The weather was clear and fine, hut the sails were 
found to be covered with an impalpable reddish-brown powder, which Mr. 
Clarke states resembled maiiy of the varieties of ashes ejected from Vesuvius, 
and evidently was not sand Idowu from the African deserts. The author also 
mentions the following instances of similar ))henomcna, chiefly on the autho- 
rity of the officers of the Ro.iharyh. In .lune, 1822, the sliip Kinyston, of 
Bristol, bound to Jamaica, while passing near Fogo, had her sails covered 
with a similar browiMsh jiowder, which, it is said, smelt strongly of sulphur. 
In the latitude of the Canaries, and longituilc S,') deg. west, showers of ashes 
h.ave been noticed two or three times. At liondiay, dust, on one occasion, 
fell on the decks of the vessels to the depth of an inch, and it was supposed 
to have been blown from Arabia. In January, 1838, dust was noticed by the 
crew of a ship navigating the (;hina Sea, and' at a considerable distance from 
the liashee islands, one of which had been previously seen in eruption. In 
1S12 ashes fell on the deck of a jiacket bound to the Brazils, and when lOOO 
miles from laud. 



./ letter from Mr. Caldcloin/h, dated Santiago de Chili, Febriiari/ ISth, 
1839, containing the ileclaration of the master and part of the crew of the 
Chilian brig, Thilij, of the discovery during the evening of the 12th of Fe- 
bruary, of three volcanic islands about thirty leagues to the east of Juan Fer- 
nandez. The island which was first noticed, appeared, at the time of its dis- 
covery, to he rising out of the sea. It afterwards divided into two pyramids, 
which erundded away, but their base remained above the level of a violent 
surge, and in the course of the same evening, the height of the islaml was, 
for a time, again considerably increased. The other two volcanic islets bore 
further southwards. During the night the crew of the Thili/ noticed, at in- 
tervals, a light in the same direction. 

A letter addressed to Mr. Lyell, by Mr. Buddie, of Newcastle, On Depren- 
sioris produced on the Surface of the Ground hy the Ejccavaliom of Hedn of 
Coal, 

The effects described in this jiaper are stated to depend on the fiuir fol- 
lowing conditions: — 

1. The depth of the seam of coal below the surface. 

2. The thickness of the seam. 

3. The nature of the strata between the seam of coal and the surface. 

4. Whether the jiiUars of coal are wholly or partially removed. 

If the depth from the surface does not exceed thirty fathoms, and s.ind- 
stone forms the greater part of the mass overlying the seam, the sulisidence 
is nearly, if not cpiite, equal to the thickness of the coal removed ; hut if 
" metal stone" or shale constitute the bulk of the beds, the hollow pmdneed 
by the settUng of strata is less. This rule, depending on the nature of the 
intervening mass, is said to be maintained at all depths. Of the proportional 
effect i)rodnced on the surface, .Mr. Buddie Ims not been able to obtain any 
accurate information — the amuunt depending on the four conditions enmne- 
rafed above; hut the depth of the depression de])ends less on the thickness 
of the seam than on its entire removal. In the Newcastle jiits, where large 
l)illars of coal are left in the first instance, and when these are subsequently 
removed, blocks or "stooks" of cousidera))le strength are suffered to remain, 
for the purpose of protecting the colliers from the exfoliation of the roof, the 
sinking of the superincundjeut mass is retanled, and several years sometimes 
elapse before the excavation is completely closed, or the overlying strata are 
finally settled down. In the Yorkshire system, by which all the coal, with 
the exception of small temporary pillars, is removed in the first instance, the 
roof being sujiijorted hy wooden i>resses and stone pillars, the overlying strata 
sultside immediately after the coal is removed. 

If is only where water occurs on the surface, or a railway traverses a coal- 
field, that the amount of depression can be accurately ascertained. In one 
instance, the removal of a bed of coal six feet thick, one-fourth having been left 
in " stooks," the depth being 100 fathoms, and the overlying strata princi- 
pally sandstone, a pond of water accumulated to the depth of rather more 
than three feet, by the settling of the strata. In another instance, where a 
railway crossed a district from beneath which three beds of coal had been 
successively renmved, it had been found necessary to restore the level of the 
railway three times. The aggregate thickness of the seams of coal was nearly 
fifteen feet, and the dejith of the lowest 107 fathoms, of the highest seventy- 
three, and the mass of the overlying strata consisted of shale. The extent of 
each settlement w.is not measured, but the total was 5 feet inches, and this 
comparatively small amount Mr. Buddie explains hy the railway passing near 
one end of the excavated tract. A still higher seam is now in progress of 
being worked, and it affords an excellent opportunity for ascert.aiuing the 
cftcets i)roduced by the pressure of the superincumbent mass. Innumerable 
vertical cracks pass througli the seam, as well as the pavement and roof, or 
the beds immediately above and below it, but they are perfectly cUise except 
around the margin of the settlement. Along this line the seam is splintered, 
the pavement and roof are fissured and bent down, and the cracks are fre- 
quently open. Within the area of the settlement, the pavement, on the con- 
trary, is as smooth as if it had not been disturbed, the cracks are close, and 
the coal is not splintered, but rendered tougher, or, in the language of the 
colliers, more " woody." This effect Mr. Buddie ascribes to the escape of 
gas by the cracks, ami the same changes are sometimes produced by other 
causes, when the coal is said to be winded. 



KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

Bepartment of Civil Engineering and Science applied to the Arts and 
Manufactures. 

Regul.\tions in respect to Certific.vtks. 

1. The certificates of the second and third years will be of two forms — 
ordinary certificates, and certificates of honour. 

2. No certificate, whether ordinary or of honour, will he granted, which, 
among the signatures affixed to it. does not include those of the professors 
of mathematics, mechanics, an<i chendstry. 

3. A certificate of the second year will he necessary to obtaining one in 
the third. 

4. Any student to whom a certificate shall have been refused at the Mid- 
summer cxanunation of any year, may apply for it at the examination of the 
following Christmas. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



09 



,5. Every student, desirous of obtaining a certiticate in science applied to 
the arts and manufactures, will be requii'ed to present to the examiners the 
detailed description of some process of manufacturing art, accompanied by 
the drawings necessary to the explanation of it. This exercise is to bear a 
certiticate of approval from the lecturer on manufacturing art and niachincr)- ; 
and the subject of it is to be appointed by him at least three months before 
the day of examination. 

The certificate of honour will be granted only when this exercise shall have 
been approved by the lecturer, as the exercise of a candidate for that cer- 
tificate. 

G. Every student applying for a certificate in civil engineering, whether of 
the first or second years, will be required to present to the examiners finished 
drawings of the plan, elevation, and section of a macbiue, made muler the 
eve of the teacher of drawing, and bearing his certificate of approval. 

For the certificate of the third year these drawings are to be accompanied 
by others, showing tlie details of the machine, drav\n in isomctrieal projec- 
tion, or in common i)ersi)ective. 

For tlie certificate of honour in the third year, each candidate will be re- 
quired to ju'oduce, in addition to the aljove, tlie geometrical constructions of 
at least six )n-oblems in descriptive geometry. 

1. On the intersections of surfaces. 

2. On tangent jdanes. 

3. On developable surfaces. 

4. On projections of the circles of the sphere. 

7. The diploma of associate in the department of civil engineering and 
science applied to the arts and manufactures, will be granted to such students 
only as shall have received the certificate of the third year. 

8. Only such students as may have received certificates of honour in the 
third year will be admitted candidates for the diploma of associate of the 
first class. 

9. The examination for the diploma of associate of the first class, w ill be 
held at the Christmas which follows the examination of the thin! year. 
Every candidate for the diploma of associate of the first class, will be required 
to present to the examiners, in writing, on the day of examination, the origi- 
nal project of some ]mblic work or mecbanical contrivance or process of 
manufacturing art, accompanied by the calculations, drawings, and descrij)- 
tions necessary to its actual execution, to bo specially approved by the lec- 
turer on mechanical art and machinery as the exercise of a candidate for the 
diploma of associate of the first class, and to bear his certificate to that effect. 



ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Dec. 12.— Major Sabine, V. P., in the Chair. G. L. Roupell, M. D., was 
elected a fellow. The following papers were read ; — 

1. " On the nerves of the Grai'id I'lerus," by R. Lee, M.D. 

2. ** Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope, la the year 1838, with 
Bradlei/'s Zenith Sector, for the verification of tlie Amplitude of the Abbe de 
la C'aille's Arc of the Meridian." 15y T. Maclear, Esq., communicated by 
Sir John Barrow, Bart. 

The author gives an account of the precautions taken in putting together 
the different parts of the zenith sector, which he received on the 9th of De- 
cember, 1837, in erecting it in the central room of the Royal Observatory, 
at the Cape of Good Hope, and in afterwards transferring it to the southern 
station of La Caille, in Cape Town. He then proceeds to descril)e La Caille's 
observatory, and the particular circumstances of its locality, with relation to 
the object in view — namely, to determine the influence of Table Mountain 
on the direction of the plumb line. He next relates his progress to Klyp 
Fonteyn, where he arrived on the 28tli of March, 1838; and describes the 
operations resorted to for erecting the sector at that place. He then enters 
into the details of observations made at different stations, and especially with 
comjiarative observations at the summit and foot of the mountain of Pequet 
Berg. The instrument was, lastly, conveyed back to Cape Town, anil again 
examined, and the observations made with it repeated. The reduction of the 
labours occupies the remainder of the paper ; and, in conclusion, the author 
remarks, that, although these labours have not altogether cleared up the 
anomaly of La Caille's arc, yet they show that great credit is due to that dis- 
tinguished astronomer, who, with imperfect means, and at the period in 
which he lived, arrived at a result derived from sixteen stars, almost iden- 
tical with that from 1139 observations on forty stars, made with a celebrated 
and powerful instrument. 

Dec. 19. — Major Sabixe, V.P., in the Chair. 

Henry Dninimond, Esq., of Albany Park, Surrey, was elected a Fellow. 

A paper was read, entitled " An Account of Experiments made irith the 
view of ascertaining the possibility of obtaining a spark before the circuit of 
the Voltaic Battery is completed." By J. P. Gassiot, Esq. 



ROYAL INSTITUTION OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

At an ordinaiy General Meeting of the memliers, held on Monday De- 
cember ICth, 1839, George Basevi, Jun. V. P., in the Chair, numerous 
donations were announced as having been received since the last meeting. 



Mr. Cottani delivered a discourse on the man\ifacture of bricks by ma- 
chinery, illustrated by models, and drawings of the Marquis of Tweeddale's 
machines for making of bricks and tiles. 

January 6. — Thomas C'hawner, Fellow, in tlie Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected : as Fellow, James Penythorne, 
,-Vrchitect, of 2, Queen Square, Westminster ; as Associate, James Bell, of 
Wandsworth. 

Mr. Donaldson read a paper on the life of Ammanate, Architect of 
Florence. 

January 20. — Edward Blore, V. P., in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected : as Fellow, John Crake, Archi- 
tect, of Old Quebec Street; Associate, F. Ashtun, of No. 2, Pelbain 
Crescent. 

Several donations were announced as having been received, among which 
was a donation of lO;., by Thomas Chawner, Esq., Fellow. 

A highly interesting |iiipcr of deep research was read by Edward I'Auson, 
Jun., oil the Temple of Vict(u-y, Apteros, at Athens, accoiiipanied by draw- 
ings illustrative of its state of restoration in the Spring of 1836. 

Mr. Donaldson read a iiajiiM- by llerr llallemann. Architect, from Hanover, 
on the History of Grecian and Russian Ecclesiastical Arcbitccture, illus- 
trated by examples, and an original design 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES IN FEBRUARY. 

Institution of Ci\il Engineers, 25, Great George Street, every Tuesday at 8. 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 16, Grosvenor Street, Monday 3rd 

and l'7tli, .it 8. 

Architectural Society, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Tuesday the 25th, at 8. 
Society of Arts, Adelphi, every Wednesday at half-past 7. 
Roval Societv 



Society of Antiquaries 



-1^ 
s J 



Somerset House, cverv Tuesdav at 8. 



PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT. 

IIOUSK Ob' COMMONS. 

.TaniKiry 17. Petilinns fvr Bills presented. — Arbroath and Forfar Rail \i ay ; 
Sheffield .'ind Ro In'ili.iin Railway Act Amendment; Lancaster and Preston 
Railway Act Amcnrlment; Chester anil Birkenhead Railway; Tall Vale 
Railway ; North Union Railway. 

Jan. 20. — Ivlinburgb and (il:is;;ow Railway. 

.Tan. 21. — (Jreat Level of the Uasli Inclosure. 

Jnn. 22. Petitions n'/cm-d to thr Select Committee on Petitions for Private 
Bills. — Arbroath and I'orfar Railway ; Slicffield and Roiberham Railway 
Act Amendment, ri'lerred to Select Committee on Petitions for Private Bills ; 
Lancaster and Preston Railway Act Amendment, petition ; Chester anil 
Birkenhead Railway; TalV Vale Railway; North Union Railway; l'".din- 
burgb ;iiid Glasgow Railway; (ilasgow. Paisley. Kilmarnock, and Ayr 
Railway. Railway Conimvinication. — Select Committee a[ipoin1ed. " to in- 
quire into the state of communication by railways, anti to report tlieii ob- 
servations thereupon to the House :" Mr. Laboiicbere, Sir Robert Peel. Lord 
Granville Somerset, Mr. Thorneley. Lord Sandoii, Mr. Loch, Mr. Fresbfield, 
.-ir John (iue^t, Lord Stanlev, 'Mr. (ireeiie. Sir Harry Veiney, Mr. Henry 
Baring. Sir James (irahiim, Lord Seymour, Mr. Easlborpe. Mr. Kmer.son 
Teiinent, and Mr. Freiicli : — Power to send for persons, papers, and rec irds 
five to be tlie quorum. 



STEAM NAVIGATION. 



Steam Navigation. — Vi'e are much gratified to perceive the improved condi- 
tion of seamen generally, .and to bear congratulatory accounts on all sides 
respecting this desirable event. The infusion of young blood of the right 
quality, in the persons of upwards of twenty-four thousand apprentices, 
within the last five years, has h id a marked ellect upon the mass ; lor some 
thousands of these having com|ileted their apprenticeship, are now become 
active able seamen. The iuiuiIkt of ap|irentices reared in steam-vessels — 
(the General Steam Navigation alone maintain upwards of fitly, principilly 
selected from the Naval .Schoo's at Greenwich) — will become a most valuable 
class of men ; and we have heard that the highly respectable firm of Seward 
and Co., so celebrated for their success in the manufacture and improvement 
of steam-engines, have Imw ujiwards of three liundred youths indentured as 
apprentices, with the view of their becoming eng neers and assistant en- 
gineers in steam-vessels, and lully competent to repair any casualty in the 
engines that is practicable at sea, without the necessity for returning to port 
or laying up the vessel. — Naval and Military Gazette. 

Improved Marine Enirines. — A fine new iron steam boat, the property o 
Jjord F. Kgcrton. or in other words of the Bridgevvater Trust, was recently 
launclied from the yard of Messrs. Page and Grantlnim. She was named the 
Alice, after Loi'd F'rancis F.g, rton's eldest daughter, is about 170 tons burden, 
old measurement, is neatly fitted up, and is a handsome lively looking boat 



70 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fkbritart, 



en dip \v:itcr. Willi tlio wlioli- of licr mtidiinery. fuel, ikic. on lin^iril, lipr 
draft of water is only four feet six inches. Slie has two enp;ines of 30 horse 
power each, nwule i/y >h'ssrs. IX-vonjiort anil Grinroil. of the Caledonian 
I'ounihy in this to« n, Ojiun a novel anil iniindvc 1 e(jnslniulion. their |K'rii- 
liarity consists in llie fixing' of the cvtinilers on :m an^Ii' of 'Ij dr^rees in the 
form of a rectangle, with the hypothenuze at the hase, so that they act as a 
j.tay and snpport to each other. No side lever.smr required or roiiiiter bnlanrps: 
;inil the working parts Ijeing fewer than in ordinary engines, thev arc less 
liable to derangement, and not so nnudi ex|)osed to wrar :;nd /ei:r. These en- 
"ines are exceedingly compact, and have realized ; II that was contemplated 
by tile ingenious maker.s— ample po.ier— ease in working, and great strengtii, 
eondiined'^wilh unusual lightness. At twelve on Saturday night several gen- 
tlemen \irnceeded in the vessel from tlie Clarence Dock on a short experi- 
mental trip on the river. New engines are necessarily stilt, and it reipiires 
M.nie time to ascertain their prop'er adjustment, M'ith all disadvantages, 
iuiwever, the ///«r performed her work admirably, from the moment she 
U'll the linik. A very short trip oidy w.is intenileil on the first occasion ; 
but the speed of the vess(d was so Ealisfaetnry, and the gratification of all on 
board conseiiiiently su great, thai she iirneeeded up the river a distance of 12 
or 11 miles and back— accomplishing the trip "out and home" in about two 
hoi.irs. Cn her way np she beat several very powerful steamers, and on 
comin" down sneeessivelv headed two of tlie Runnora packets in gallant 
style. 'The strokes of ihe'engine averaged thirty-two per minute, but when 
at her ftdl power they will make thirty-five. — Liverpool Sta)i<l(ird, Dec. 21. 

HALL'.S RKKFING PADDLES. 

"Tut: inventor isMr. Hall, the ingenious deviser of the condenser which 
goes by his name. By a contrivance of the tilmost sim[.lieity, all the fioat- 
l.onrds'of boili p:iddle-H heels of a steam-boat, (jr either of them, can at any 
lime, or in any »eaiber, be 'reefed' in a few minutes; or. in other words, 
till' liiameter of the paddle-wheels be reduced from their extreme size to any 
oilier di^iineler. The advantages which will follow this conlrivance arc well- 
known to all per.'ions « bo have atiended personally to .steam navigation ; but 
a few words on this point will perhaps not be unacceptable to those wlio may 
not have had opportunities of studying the subject afloat under varied cir- 
cumstances. ,-,,,.,, 

lOverv one can nndcrstand that, when a stcam-vesselislo.ided with a lieavy 
cargo, or has a full supply of coals on board, the |iadille-\\ heels will be sunk 
til nn'inrnnvenient ilepth'in the water, and that, in order to enable them tu 
v.iirk villi advantage, the float-boards require to be unscrewed and shifted 
nearer to Ihe centre of the paddle-wheel — an operation of some trouble, and 
oflen reipiiring much time. This adjusiment may, of course, be made at ihe 
beginning of a voyage, aecmding tu the draught of water, but it may become 
fiifiv as necessary to shilt Ihe paildle-bn.ards during the voyage, either larther 
liiit'or farther in. If the vessel, for instance, by the expenditure of her coals, 
beenmes li'diter, the (loat-boards should be rnoved out ; or, if a gale comes 
on a-heaib^tbey have to be moved in; which oper.atinns. if they have to be 
done in bad weather, are both tedious and ditiicult. .So that any invention 
wliiili shall give the power of shifting the float-boaids easily and quietly, 
must be of great practical utility, especially on long voyages. 

" ft is well-known to those who have attended to the subject that no steam 
vessel can be said to work to the full extent of her power unless her engines 
make a given number of strokes in a given time— say in a minute ; the elas- 
ticity of the steam being supposed to continue uniformly of a certain deter- 
minate strength. Now occasions constantly arise when, in consequence of 
the paddle-wheels being too deeply immersed, or that the sea is high, the 
Hunt -lioards are made to impinge oii the surface atsuch an unfa vouraiile angle, 
.and again on leaving it, that a considerable portion of the power is lost in 
production of what is called back-water. The cimscouence is, that the p,ad- 
dle-wheel is virtually so over-loaded, that Ihe steam though generated of the 
proper degree of elasticity is not .adequate to turn them round Ihe given 
number of limes. When 'this ha]i]iens, as the engine does not make the 
nunil er of strokes per minute which it oughi to do when working at its 
maxinium speed, one ot two things must happen, either steam must be 
blown oil and power wasted, or the fire must be low ered in order that no 
more steam may be generated than the engine, at its reiliiced number of 
:j|rukes, can consume. In consequence of this state of things, it happens 
nut unfrcqiiently that vessels whose paddles are too deeply immersed, ihoiigh 
carrying a high nominal power, are obliged to work witlia power really 
much inferior. — Vnileil Si-rvire Journal. 

Thr (h-eal H'rxlrrn. — We are happy in being idde to .say that the examina- 
tion of ibis noble vessel since her laying up shows thai liiere is neither spot 
nor blemish in her, that she does not require caulking or coppering, beyond 
a few sheets to rejil.ice those which hive been rubbed olV by the coal vess(ds. 
or have licen removed for the purjiose of a thorough eNaminalion. All the 
pails of Ihe engines which are not fixtures have been taken out and thoroiiglily 
evamineil, imd are now in progress of replacement. Thr |)1 in of the dircclors 
i.i to overhaul her coin|ilelely once a year; andweshould s;iy after 3').000 
n.inlieal miles steiuning per annum, an almost indisi ens.-ible one, it confi- 
dence is to be m.dnlained wilh the public. M'e understand that the poop 
deck is to be Icnglheneil 1 (i feet ; and tliat Ihe whole of llieoflicers. engineers, 
sinker.-;, and ser\;ints. wliose berths below were a great inconvenience and 
annoyance to !lie hire cabin passengers, arc to be aecolnlnodal^d on deck ; 
.also that the fares are to be all equal in the fore and ;dtcr accommodalion, 
the fore slate rooms having been consider.ibly enlarged. Mie will sail on the 
2Ulli of I'uhrwmy ■— Ilrislul Mirmr. 

'J'he J'rrsidrul Siniui-.shiii.—Oa .Sund.iy the .'ih ult., Ihe Knyal William 
steamer, on her pass.i^e bum Linidon to I'lymoulh, li'll in with, oil the 
Start, Ihe magnificent steamer President, on her voyage frmn Linidon to 
Liver|ionl,(lo lake inhcnnacliiiiery), in quite an unman.ige.ilile sl;ite, having 
rollid away her foremast, maintopniast. ite. The Kiiy:il W'illi.am took her 
in tow, ami brought her iulo the .Sound during Sunday night. On Tucsikiy 
she was towed up to the dockyard by Her Majesty's ste.amev Carron, and the 



same evening one of the directors of the British ;ind Amerienn Navigation 
Company, for whose service she is built, arrived from London to suiierintend 
her refitment. — Phjmoulh Journal. 

The Armed Steamer, A'emesi.w — Tliere is now lying in the Half-tide Basin 
of the Clarence Docks, (ireenock. a very be:uit!ful iron steamer, cnnslrueted 
hy Mr. .lohn Laird, of North liirkenhead, bearing the above name. She is 
fitted up wilh one engine of 121) horse power, and armed with two 32-pound 
caiTunades, the one fore and the other aft. which move on Solid swivel car- 
riages. Her draught of water is umier four feet. Her crew will consist of 
40 men. She will, it is s:dd, clear out for lirazi', lr.it her ullimale destina- 
tion is conjectured to be to the l'',;istern and Chinese seas. On Monday last she 
made an excursion as far as tlic Floating Taght, for the pnrpn.se of trying 
her machinery, which was found to work admirably. — EdinhurgU Oh.wn'er. 

T.eitli llnrhmir and Dorks. — Messrs. Walker and Cubitt have given in their 
reiiorl. and the Tre;isury have decided on adopting Mr. Walker's pkin. 



PROGRESS OF RAILVTAVS. 



Sheffield and Manehester Raiheai/. — Mr. Vignoles lins resigned his ofTiee as 
engineer-in-ehief, and Mr. L- eke has been appointed to sueeecd him. The 
directors, we understand, intend pushing forward wilh all possible vigour the 
works between Cdossopand the Manchester terminus, so as to be able to open 
in the first instance through that very populous and productive district. The 
works at the summit tunnel are making very satisfactory progress. — llailwaij 
Times. 

Hull and Selhy Railwni/. — Vte understand that Mr. Walker, the companj's 
chief engineer, lias been in Hull this week, and after examining the various 
Works on the line, has reported very favourably as to the progress which is 
being made in them ; the bridges over the rivers Ouse ;ind DL-rwent are in an 
advanced state of forwardness, and will both be completed in a few weeks ; 
nearly the whole of the line is liallasled, and several miles of the permanent 
single way, on longitudinal bearers and cross sleepers, are already laid ; large 
fiuantities of these are being conslanlly forwarded to the various portions of 
the line. The depot- and other buildings at .Selhy are in a verv advanced 
state ; this is also the case w ith those at the Hull terminus ; .and, although 
the past seasint Ins been a most unfavourable one for all railw.ay works, it is 
still hoped that ibis underiaking will ho ready to be opened fair the whole 
length ah ut Midsummer next. With respect bi finances, we understand that 
the whole of Ihe amount to be taken npuii loin has been obtained without 
.advertising, and Ihe last call, notwithstamling the pressure upon the money 
market, has been remarkably well paid. We may congratulate our townsmen 
especially, and the inhabitants of the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire 
and Lancashire generally, on the prospect of speedily being enabled, by 
means of the Hull and Selhy Railway, (connected as it is with the Leeds and 
Selby, the York and North Midlaml Counties, Manehester and Leeds, Man- 
chester and Liverpool, Grand ,Iunction, and London and Birmingham Rail- 
ways,) to travel by this cheap, safe, and expeditious mode to all tlie principal 
towns in the kingdom. We are h;ippy to learn ihal the price of shares in the 
Hull and Selby Railway is rapidly advancing in the market, and that before 
the opening of the line, as above stated, tliey arc likely to be at par. — Eastern 
Counties Herald. 

Edinburgh and Glasgow Rnilwai/. — M'e are gl id to learn from a correspon- 
dent who lately visited the Kdinburgh ,anii Gl.isgow Railway works, now in 
progress, especially those through the Almond Valley, about eight miles from 
Kdinburgh, under contract by Messrs. John Gibb and .Son. on wliiidi there is 
one bridge of tiiirty-six arches, of fii"ty feet span each, besides numerous 
smaller bridges, extensive earth-cutlings. S;e.. that these gentlemen contem- 
plate employing on these works, early in the spring, a vast number of masons, 
quarriers, earth-workers, and waggon-drivers. We have no doubt that this 
will be good news to many, especially as trade in the manufacturing districts 
is in such a depressed state. — Aberdeen Journal. 

Dundee and Arbroath Rnilwai/.— This great public nndert;iking is nearly 
completed, the embankment lias been formed up to the Gas Work, and in 
the cour.se of two or three weeks the eml):nikments from the east and west 
will have neiirly met. As an arrangement has now. we believe been made 
with the Harbour Tiaistees, the public will soon have tlie full benefit of this 
conveyance from Trades-lane to Arbroalh, ;ind the inconvenience and trouble 
occasioned by the omnibuses will be avoided. It is said there will be a grand 
opening on the completion of the line ; .and it is not indikely that Lord Pan- 
mnrc. who has all along m:inifesled Ihe greatest interest in ihc work, will be 
present. There are four vessels in a dangerous situation, as they will be 
closed in unless they get launched at the next stream tide ; the parties will 
have themselves to lilame if such an event takes place, the vessels being ah 
ready fur lauiudiuig. — Dundee Courier. 

Maryjmrt and Carlisle Uaiheay. — At a meeting of the directors of this rail- 
way, held iiu Satuiday last, there was a repnri, iqain the stale of the works, 
&c.'. 1-7 .lohn Blaekmiire. Ksij., lalely appointed engineer to the company. It 
appears that about seven miles ot tiie radway will be re idy for the carriage 
ot coal and lime .about the first week in April ne.\t. Arrangements were en- 
tered into wilh parliesdesirons ol taking coals along the line lor sluiiment at 
Maryport, from which it is evident iliat an income will at once be reidlzeil 
suihcient to pay ten per cenf. U|niii the amount of capital tluit will then have 
been eipended. and this withuiit taking into account any other source of 
tralTic or the i;icre;ise of coal that will undoubtedly t;ike place. While upon 
lliis subjecl we beg leave to warn those shareholders, \Mr( cularly the distant 
ones, who have not the opportunity of gaining correct informaiion about the 
proceedings of tlie company, ag.unst a practice that has lately become too 
common of parties who ealumniale and depreciate the value of property of 
the above description for the purpose of getting shares from the timid or 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



needy at very recUneil iniccs. The engineer has commenceil (lie necessary 
smvcys Tor scttini; out the work on (he remaining f.venty miles, from C'arhsle 
to As|)alria, and i'ur enabUng the agreements to be made for the land rccjuircd. 
— Carlisle Piitriat. January 11. 

Grail. North of England Railwaij. — T«o first-class railway carriages have 
just been iilaced on the line o'- the' Great North of England Railway, at ihe 
Darlington Station. Tlie carriages, which are Irom the manufactory of Mr. 
C. Burmip, of tliis (own. are of the most splendid description, and combine 
every improvement that has hitlierto been introduced. The interior arrange- 
ments are exceedingly comfortable, and the exterior decorations are beautt- 
fully e.Necuted, each door panel bearing the united arms of Newcastle, Dur- 
ham and York, supported by the Northern Kagle. The carriages have since 
been inspected liy several of the directors and engineers, who all express their 
entire salisfaclicin and admiration of their beauty and nseful construction. 
It is expected that the portion of the line between Dirlington and York, will 
be opened to the puidic in (he co'.irse of (he ensuing summer. — Newcastle 
Journal. 

Lomlon and llirminghnm Raihvni/. — ,Sa(urday evening a considerable sub- 
sidence took place at the Blisworth embankment, half way betH een the stiitiim 
anil (lie bridge over (he canal. Tlie earth having become thoroughly satu- 
rated by the late rains, gave way at (he bottom, and (he surface in conse- 
quence gradually sunk. a( one point several feet. Since then it has continued 
to subside at (lie rate of about a foot an hour, and on one occasion between 
two and six in the morning, when (lie men ceased to work, it sank eight feet. 
A large force of men w ere'coilected (he moment the slip was discovered, and 
employed day and night replacing (he siiil (hat had given way with ballast, 
the trains in (he mean (ime passing slowly over the spot. The gaji isahvays 
filled ui> by (he arrival of a train, and (he precanlions (aken are such as (o 
do away with all idea of danger. The ballast is brought partly from Bug- 
brook, "but chielly from Hillmurton, about 16 miles distant. — Northampton 
Mfrcuri/. January 11, 

Railwai) Speed. — Last week we referred to the facilities atfordetl by the 
Great \Vestern Railway in the conveyance of newspiper expresses from i\Ion- 
moiith. and noticed the great rate of speed at which the special trains on 
these occasions had run. 'Vhe Dispatch (Sunday piper), in alluding to one of 
its own expresses, stales (hat the .Enlns engine performed (he first ten miles 
in seven minutes, and Ih i( if the engineer had not been compel ed to slacken 
his speed in consequence of a (rain having started a short time jireviously, 
(he whole distance of 31 miles could easily hue been accomplished in 25 
minutes. This is at (he rale of 74: miles an hour ! — Railway Times. Jan. 18. 

London and Soulh-Western Railway. — The whole of the rails being now laid 
down between the temporary terminus at Northam and the terminus on (he 
Marsh, the engine has several tunes been along the whole line. The bnildhig 
on the Marsh is also completed, and rising, as it docs, higher than any of the 
adjacent edifici'S, forms a very consiiicuous object, especially when viewed 
from the water. Workmen are actively engaged on the yet unfinised part of 
the line between Winchester and IJasiugstokc, and though the late unseason- 
able weather has impeded their progress in a great degree, little doubt is en- 
tertained of their completing it by the 1st of May. when the good folks of 
Southamptoir will be enabled (o reach (he meirupolis in three hours. — South- 
ampton paper. 

Morecombe Bay. — By (he intended enclosure of Morecombe Cay and the 
Duddon .Sands, ,52,000 acres of land will be reclaimed, which will form (wo 
of the most beautiful valleys in the bike district of 83 square miles. The 
sands, being composed almost entirely of calcareous ma(ter waslied from 
the surrounding limestone, are capable of being formed into the most fertile 
soil for agriculture. The land proposed to be reclaimed, will form an area 
half the size of Rutlandshire, and, calculating one individual for two acres, 
will accommodate a population of 26,000. being about half the number of 
the present p'opulation of the counties of Huntingdon and Westmoreland, 
and, 5,000 more than that of Rutland. It would be about eqiual in popula- 
tion and extent to Lonsdale North, which is a peninsula lying between the 
two bays of Morecombe and the Duddon, on which stand the ancien( ruins 
of Furne.ss Abbey, and is also a rich agricultural and manufac(uring district, 
abounding with slate, iron, and cop)ier mines. By the reclaimed land being 
added (0 it, Lonsd.alc North would foiTn one of the most pleasant and com- 
pact counties in the kingdom. — L-".rfst'^r Gnardian. 

Maidenhead /?■ id-^e on the Great /'". •■7' en H-.'hray, — A corresjiondent informs 
us that during the hurricane of Friuay , t^ie I'-nh ult., the timber centerings of 
the bridge, which had been left standingjtaoer the arches for some lime past 
as a precautionary ineasure, were completely carried away by the force of the 
wind and the timbers scattered about the river in all directions. This event 
will now decide whetlier the bridge will stand or no( without (he aid of (he 
centres, it is very evident (hat the brickwork of the arches was not supported 
by (he centres, as some have suppose!, tor if that had been the case, they 
could not h^ve been so easily carried away. 



NE'W CHURCHES, &c 



Blacliheath. — A new church intended for (lie accommodation of about 1100 
persons is in progress of eieciion at Lee, near Blackhea h. It is designed in 
(he first pointed or early EnglkTi style, adopting as a model for the component 
jiarts of the exterior, Ihe Lady Chapel of .Salisbury Cathedral. At the west 
end placed centrally rises a bold ti Mcr, which is surmounted by an octagooal 
belfry and spire, reaching to the licighi of 130 feet. The interior is divided 
into a nave and aisles by tw o ranges of clustered pillars, from which spring 
molded arches supporling the root, the latter is of a triplex form llie central 
division rising from nearly the same level as the sides, so that there is no 
clerestory. The ceiling is to be finished in a style posterior to that of the 
building generally, it will consist of plane surfaces divided into principal 



compartments by hammer beams or arched ribs, and these compartments 
subdivided into panels by smaller ribs, having hoses at their inlersecdons. 
A gallery is to be placed at the west end of (he churcli. occupying Icngdnvisc 
its entire width, and one bay or intercolumniation in depth. The whole area 
of the building has been excavated and a vau'ted crypt formed, which is lobe 
divided into numerous compartments, (o be appropriated as family vaults. 
The external dressings throughout, (ogeiher w ith the whole of the bellry and 
.spire, as well as (he pillars and arches of (lie interior are executed in stone. 

Wolverhampton. — The erection of the new church in Horsley Fields will be 
commenced as soon as the necessary legal forms are completed. The build- 
ing, as before s(a(eil, will be in the gothic style, and according to the <lesign 
sent m by Mr. Harvey F.ginlon. of Worcester. Twenty-five plans were sent 
in, but sever<al of them were unavoidably rejected on account o( (he cost of 
Ihe proposed buildings exceeding the funds at the disposal of the commitlee. 
The structure will be eighty feet long and fifty-six feet wide, and is to be 
surmounted bv a tower eighty-four fee! high, in the style of the lime of 
Henry VIL I't will contain sittings for L'^00 persons, one-third of which are 
to befree. — Wolverhampton Chronicle. 

Calcutta.— 'ibc Bishop of Calcutta has propo.sed building a cathedral church 
at Calcutta, in the Gothic style of archiiccdne ; unencumbered with galleries; 
with an ample chancel or choir; with north and south transepts or entrances; 
and capable of seating about 800 or 1,000 persons, its dimensions being pro- 
bably somewhere about 180 or 200 feet, by 55 or 60 ; and 50 or 60 feet in 
height. In correspondence wi(h (his necessary magnitude of the body of the 
edifice, it is designed that (he exterior of the building should bear some re- 
lation in i(s architectural character to the interior; and that an appropriate 
spire, somewhere about 200 feet in height from the ground, shoulil be adiled, 
to give the whole a becoming and customary ecclesiastical aspect. It was, 
indeed, (he unavoidable extent of a building winch eiaild at all meet the actual 
wants of the case in a climate like Bengal that first suggested Ihe idea of 
erecting it in an open and beau iful spot, and of such a style of architecture 
as (o form a prominent object from every iioint of view on the esplanade, 
wilhin Ihe fine panorama of Calcutta, and thus constitute (he grea(est orna- 
meiil rif what has not been unfitly termed the City of Palaces. And it was 
thought there are few who would not wi lingly make an tidditional eilbrt — if 
we once deternvne to build a new and large church— to give it all the advan- 
tages which the progress made of late years in sacred architecture can secure, 
so'as to render it fitting to be (he first Protestant cathedral erected to the 
honour of (iod in India. 

Liverpool.— iht: first stone of a new churi h, to be called after St. Barnabas, 
to be erected on a plot of land between Parliament-street and Greenland- 
street, a few yards from the Queen"s Dock, was laid on Tuesday, December 
17. St. Barnabas' church will be a handsome structure, in the early English 
or Lancet style, and a decided ornament to that part of ihe town. The prin- 
ciiml elevation will be towards Parliament-street, and from the centre there 
will rise a beautiliil tower and spire to the height of 135 feet. The former 
will be finished with a pierced battlement on four sides and shafts with pin- 
nacles a( the angles. The whole will be faced with red stone in large courses. 
The inlerior will correspond with (he gcner.il style. 1( will have a nave se- 
parated from the aisles by moulded stone piers and arches, supporting a clear 
story in which there will be windows of three lights. The ceiling is to be 
ribbed and pannelled, and the ribs will be painted to resemble oak. It is in- 
tended to furnish 1200 sittings ; on the ground lloor there w ill be 471 sidings 
and 236 free sittings, in the gallery 346 sittings and 147 free, making 1200, ot 
which 383 will be dedicated lo the use of (he poor for ever. The cost will be 
upwariis of .£1800. The architects are Messrs. Arthur and George Williams, 
of No. 2, Tarleton-street,and Mr. William Morrison, of Toxteth-park, is the 
contractor. — Liverpool Standard. 

The new ehnrch at Doughton, in (his county, which has been built upon aw et 
loose soil, has been some time subsiding, but the late rains have so impaired 
the foundation lliat the tower at the w'estern extremity first sunk, and then 
fell to the ground, and (he other appears also lo be sinking very fast. Of 
course the whole presents a very ruinous appearance. — Kent Herald. 



GSOLOGY. 



Geohgii in Devon.— \h: Buckland and Mr. Convbeare have both hastened 
to visit the late landslip on the coast of Devon, which, we understand, oilers 
some very curious pbenimiena to the geologist both inland and out at sea, 
where, at a considerable di tance from the shore, a new solid ridge has been 
thrown up by this convulsion of nature. — Naval and Military Gazette. 

The Lagoons.— A Vienna correspondent of a Paris pa; er s(a(es (hat accounts 
had been received from Venice of the di.sappearance of a little island of the 
Lagoons in the waves of the Adriatic. 12 persons who were on it having been 
buried in the waters when the iland was overnhelmed. fhe Archduke, 
Viceroy of the kingdom of Venetian Lombardy, had gone from Venice to 
Padua to inspect the ravages caused by (be la(e immdalions, and the clergy 
of Milan and (.remona were exciting themselves to relieve the sufllerers. 

Earthquake at San Salrador.—W'e have been favoured with (he following 
extract of a letter from San Salvador, dated the 5(h of October, 1839 : — " On 
(he 1st instant, at 2 a.m , we experienced a strong shock of an earthquake, 
and at 3 a.m., an hour after, a concussion which has nearly destroyed the 
(own. The shocks condnue, and yesterday we had 15 tolerably smart shocks^ 
Many people have left the place, and I'fancy the Goveinn.ent will leoiove 
to Cojntopeque, as this town is not safe. The evil is under our feel ; for at, 
places five or six miles o(f nothing lias occurred. The houses are nearly 
unroofed, and the walls ; re so tottering that we all s!eep in the court-yard or 
the great square, under hide coverings, which is pleasant enough in the rainy 
season, and sit in the day time in the corridors ready for a start into the 
yard, as it will not do to wait a moment when the shock comes,"; 



72 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fkbruary, 



LIST OP NE^W PATENTS. 

GRANTED IS BXGI.A.ND FUOM 1 ST TO 28tH JANIARY, 1810. 

John Leo Nicolas, of (lie parish of Clifton, lUistol, {iciitlcinan, for 
•' certain improvements in the met/ioil of comi ructiny riiitl jirdjiellini; ciirriaffen 
on rnilvays or common ronilx, anil tliroiigh ficlih for ar/ricnltural jinrjjoscs." 
— Scaled, Januarj I ; six montlis to s|iecif)'. 

Samuki. Lawson, of Ijecds, and John Lawson, of llie same jilaee, En- 
piiieers, and Co-]iartners, for " improremen/x in mnc/iinrri/ for .ipinninr/, 
itiinlilini/, and tvis/ini/ fla.r, wool, silk, cotton, ami oilier Jiliroiis siihstances." 
('(ininiiinicatcd Ijy a foreigner residing abroad. — January 2 ; six niontlis. 

Chaiu.es (i'reenway, of Douglas, in the Isle of .Man, i;s(|., for "certain 
improrements in reilucini/ friction in vheels of carriaijes, u-hicli improvements 
arc also ajiplicable to bearinx/s and journals of machinery." — January 3 ; six 
inoTilhs. 

John Francois Victor Fabien, of King William Street, in the city of 
London, Gentleman, for "improvements in pnmps." — January 7; six months. 

Datid Low, of .Vdam's Court, Old Uroad Street, Merchant, for '•improve- 
ments in machinery for crnsliiny, prepariny, and combiny far, hemp, phor- 
mimn tetiax, and other flirovs substances." Communicated liy a foreigner 
residing abroad. — January 7 ; six months. 

Moses Poole, of Lincoln's Inn, Centleman, for "improvements in obtain- 
iny poirer." Communicated hy a foreigner residing abroad. — January 7 ; 
six months. 

John Ridgwat, of Cauldon Place, Stafford, China Manufacturer, for 
" an improvement ill tlie moulds used in the manvfacture of earthenware, 
porcelain, and other similar substances, vliereby such moulds are rendered 
more durable." — January 11; six months. 

John RincwAT, of Cauldon Place, Stafford, China Manufacturer, and 
Ceoroe Wall, the younger, of the same jdace. Gentleman, for " certain 
improvements in the manufacture of china and eartheinvarc, ami in the appa- 
ratus or machinery applicable thereto. — January 11 ; six months. 

John Kidgway, of Cauldon Place, Stafford, Cliina Manufacturer, and 
Ckorge M'all, the younger, of the same place. Gentleman, for " certain 
improremcnts in the mode if prepariny bats of earthemcnre and porcelain 
clays, andforminy or shnpiny them into articles of carthemrare and porce- 
lain, and in the machinery or apparatus applicable thereto." — January 11 ; 
SL\ months. 

RoHERT Montgomery, of Johnstone, in the county of Renfrew, Gentle- 
man, for "an improvement or improvements in spinniny machinery, ajiplicable 
to mules, jennies, slubbers, and other similar mec/ianism." — January 1 1 ; six 
months. 

Christovher Edward Dampier, of Ware, .\ttorncy-at-law, for " an im- 
jiroi'ed weiyhiny machine." — January 14 ; four months.' 

Hezekiah JIarshall, of tlie city of Canterbury, Arcliitect, for " improve- 
ments in window .wshes and frames, and in thefasteniny of window sashes." — 
Jannai7 14 ; six months. 

Arthur Eldred Malker, of Melton Street, Euston Square, Engineer, 
for " imjirovements in enyrariny by machinery." — January 14 ; six months. 

Charles Mheatstonk, of Conduit Street, Hanover Square, Esq., and 
M'lLLiAM Fothergill Cooke, of Sussex Cottage, Slough, Esq., for "im- 
provements in yiviny siynals and soundiny alarms at distant places, by means 
of electric currents. — January 21 ; six months. 

Samoel Drown, of Finsbnry Pavement, Civil Engineer, for " improvements 
in makiny casks and ressel.i, of or from iron, and other inetak. — January 21 ; 
six months. 

Joseph Rock Cooper, of Birmingham, Gun Maker, for " improvements in 
fire-arms, and in the balls to be vsed thcreii-ith. — January 21 ; six months. 

William Stone, of Winsley, Gentleman, for " improvements in tlie manu- 
facture o/')crac."— January 21 ; six months. 

James Hall, of Glasgow, Upholsterer, for "improvements in beds, mat- 
trasses, and apparatus applicable to bedsteads, conches, and chairs. — January 
21 ; six months. 

Arthur lIowB IIoldsworth, of Brookhill, Devon, Esquire, for " im- 
provements in preserviny wood from decay."— January 21 ; six months. 

M'illiam Coltman, of Leicester, Frame Smith, and Joseph Wale, of 
tlie same place. Frame Smith, for " improvemnils in machinery employed in 
makiny frame-ivork, knittiny, or stockiiiy fabrics." — January 21; six months. 

Samuel Wilkes, of Darlston, Iron Founder, for " improvements in the 
maunfnctnre of hinyes." — January 21 ; six months. 

George Wilson, of Saint Martin's Court, Saint Martin's Lane, for " an 
improved 2)aper-cut tiny machine." — January 21 ; six months. 

Charles Rowley, of liinningham. Stamper and Piercer, and Benjamin 
Wakefield, of Bordesley, Machinist, for " improved methods of cnttiny out, 
stampiny, or forminy, and pierciny buttons, shells, and backs for buttons, 
washers, or other articles, from metal plate, with improved machinery and 
loots for those purposes. — January 21 ; six months. 

Edward Halliley, of Leeds, Cloth Manufacturer, for " improvements in 
machinery for raising pilt on woollen and other fabrics.— ld.miis.ry 21 ; six 
months. 

William Hunt, of the Portugal Hotel, Fleet Street, London, Manufac- 
turing Chemist, for " improvements in the manufacture of potash and soda, 
and their carbonates." — January 21 ; six months. 



Miles Berry, of Chancery Lane, Patent .\gent, for "certain imjirove- 
ments in the manufacture of priissiate of potash aiul prvssinte of soda.^* 
Communicated hy a foreigner residing abroad. — January 21 ; six months. 

Jules Alphonse Simon de Gournay, of Bread Street, London, Gentle- 
man, for " iinprovements in the manufacture of horse-shoes." Communicated 
I)y a foreigner residing abroad. — January 21 ; six months. 

George Clarke, of Manchester, Manufacturer, for "certain improvements 
in the construction of looms for weaviny." — January 21 ; six montlis. 

Alexander Helt, of Gower Street, Bedford Sipiare, Surgeon, for " cer- 
tain imjirovements in the arranyement and conslriiclian of fire-yrairs, or fire- 
places, applicable to various purposes." — January 23 ; si\ months. 

James Bingham, of Shertield, Manufacturer, and Joii.v Amory Boden, 
of the same place. Manufacturer, for " certain improved compositions, which 
are made to resemble ivory, bone, horn, mother-o^ -pearl, and other substances, 
appli able to the manufacture of handles of knives, forks, and razors, piano- 
forte keys, siiiiff-bo.rrs, and various other articles." — January 25 ; six months. 

James Smith, Junior, and Francis Smith, of Sjiital AVorks, near Clics- 
tertield. Lace Manufacturers, for " certain imjirovements in machinery for t/te 
manufacture offiyured bobbin-net, or lace. — January 28 ; six months. 

Tho.mas Aitkex, of Chadderton, Manufacturer, for " certain imjirove- 
ments in the machinery or apparatus for draiviny cotton and other fibrous 
substances." — January 28 ; six montlis. 

William PoNTiFEX, of Shoe Lane, ill the city of London, Coppersmith, 
for '* an inijiroveineiit in treatiny JIuids containiny colouriiiy matter to obtirin 
the colouriny matter therefrom." — January 28 ; six months. 

Henry Citrzon, of the borough of Ividderminster, Machinist, for "certain 
imjirovements in stcam-enyines." — January 28 ; six months. 

John WiiiTEHousE, of West Bromwich, in the county of Statford, Iron 
Master, for " imjirovements in prepariny and rolliny iron, and other metals, 
or metallic alloys, for the manufacture of certain articles of commerce." — 
January 28 ; six months. 

William Mottershaw Forman, of Sheeiishcad, in tlic county of Lei- 
cester, Frame Sinitli, for " certain imjirovements in stockiny frames, and ma- 
chinery used in frame-work knittiny," — January 28 ; sL\ months. 



TO COKRESPONOEMTS. 



Ju couscquntce of the great adrantagrs tii enrrfspnudeucc hy tliv universal 
iutnidur/iau of tlie penny jiost throiighintt tlie United Kingdimi, ire hope flint our 
readers will do us the favour to forward aeeouiits oj all new huiltliugs, public 
works, new inventions and discoveries, rcjiorts of scientijic mtctings, nciv engines, 
.tteaiu hoat~i, dorks, canals, harbours, ^e., if a tithe of our readers will only take 
the trouble to forward a dozen lines monthly, it will be the means of a/fording 
such a mass of information, that ronlil not fail to be most valuable to the profession. 

We Ihauk our correspondent at Moulreat far his letter, we Ihinic that he ami his 
professional brethren might obtain the Joiirmd in afar more direct manner, than 
through the eirruiiinis and erjieusire ehuiinei of New York. iVe. advise him to 
consult a respectable bookseller, or some agent who is iu constant corresjiondenee 
with England. We shall be happy to reeeiee the information lie proposes. 

If'e feel particularly obliged to our correspondent ^Ir.Vt' .\{.i-'}ibey of New Yorki 
for his valuable eoiitributions, we hojie to have a continuation of them. 

A corresjiomlent reijuests us to jmblish the description of the Epieycloiilal motion 
fur a steam engine which we stated was not new. We will, ij we can find room, 
do so ve.rt mouth, ro refer him to ivorks and places lehere it may be .fcen. The 
last time we visited the Arsenal at Woolwich, we saw the motion ajijilieil to the 
workiiiij of a jierjieiidieular saw for cutting timber. 

K. W . T.\s' last letter we will answer next mouth. Ills former communication 
was received, wr did not insert it as we were desirous of avoiding the insertion of 
any further articles on railway curves, 

l)iop;enes' apparatus for stopping carriages on railways will ajipear ne.it month, 
will Dioyencs be .10 good as to inform us if it be the same apjiaratus as Thompson's 
alluded to in his jiajier in last month's Journal. 

T. /.'s drawing for a paddle leheel with reejing jxuldles, coustrneted by Boulton 
and Watt, in 1815. will ajipear ne.vt month. 

11. B.'s syphon for a high pressure steam gauge we will notice if we can sjnire 
the room next month. 

We have this month made an alteration in the Journal by the introduction of 
engravings iustead of wood cuts ; this plan we shall occasionally adojit when the 
subjects for illustration are of a luivnle character. At the end of the year, when 
the numbers are bound up, the plates will be placed ojiposite to the lefterjiress 
referring to them, 

Comiiiunieotions are requested to be addressed to "TlieKditor of the Civil 
Kngincer and Architect s Journal," No. ]\, Parliament Street, Westminster, 
or to Mr. Clrooinbridge, Panyer Alley, Paternoster How ; if by post, to be di- 
rected to the former j)laee ; if by parcel, to be directed to the nearest of the two 
places where the coach arrives at in London, as we are freipiently put to the 
exjienee of one or two shillings for the porterage only, of a very small parcel. 

Hooks for review must be .tent early in the month, eominunieiitions on or before 
the 20th ( if with wood-suts, earlier), and advertiseinruts on or before the 25th 
instant. 

The First Volume may be had, bound in ci.oth akd leiteked in cold> 
PsicE 17s. 

',* The Second Volume may also be had, Price 20s, 



Tj'jnA.t<yi^^iM(a'»i^ (/^^fi-f u^^^ii<Hf ^>uu<^e.(^^. 




1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



73 



IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF MARINE 
STEAM ENGINES. 

WHICH ARE PARTICULARLY APPLICABLE TO STEAM ENGINES OF THE 
LARGEST CLASS. 

With two Engravings, Plates V and VL 

Specification of a Patent granted 7th Maij, 1830, to Joseph Mauds- 
ley and Joshua Field, of the firm of JMaudsky, Sons and Field, 

Engineers of Lambeth. 

These improvements in the construction of marine steam engines 
are particularly applicable to those of the larger class, and are designed 
principally for the purpose of producing and applying a greater 
amount of steam power, than has heretofore been available within a 
given space or area on shipboard. This is effected by different con- 
structions, arrangements, and proportions, of the parts of low pressure 
engines, allowing a more perfect application of the expansive force of 
steam without increasing the weight of the whole machinery. 

The first feature of these improvements consists in adapting two steam 
cylinders to one engine, in such a way that the steam shall act simul- 
taneously upon both pistons, in order that they may be made to rise 
or fall together, the piston-rod of each being attached to one hori- 
zontal cross-head, and thereby the combined action of both pistons 
applied to one crank, of the paddle-shaft. 

The second feature of these improvements applies more particularly 
to engines for river navigation, and consists in the adaptation of a 
piston with two rods, working in a steam cylinder of large area, both 
piston-rods being connected to one cross-head above, which gives 
motion to the crank below it, by a single connecting rod. 

The third feature of these improvements consists of a method of ad- 
justing the expansion valves of combined engines, by which the period 
for shutting of!" the steam at any part of the stroke may be regulated 
in both engines at once by a single movement, whilst the engines are 
working. 

The fourth feature of these improvements is the peculiar construction 
of the main beams of the framing that carry the plummer blocks of 
the main crank shaft, to which the paddle-wheels are attached. 
These beams are formed as hollow trunks, by the combination of 
wrought iron plates attached to bars of angle iron, in the same way as 
ordinary boilers are made, and we are enabled by that means to con- 
struct beams of the largest dimensions of unlimited strength and of 
comparatively small weight. 

These improvements will be more fully understood by reference to 
the accompanying engravings and the following description thereof, 
in which Fig. 1 is an elevation taken longitudinally, representing an 
engine with two cylinders, constructed upon the plan described as the 
first feature of the improvement. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of tlie 
same, taken through the cylinders. Fig. 3 is a horizontal section of 
a vessel, in which the situation of the engine shown at Fig. 1 is seen 
as it wouUl appear when looking ujion it from above ; and Fig. 4 is 
a conesponding engine placed at the other side of the vessel, but 
represented in section cut liorizontally through the cylinders. Fig. 5 
is a vertical section taken transversely through a steam vessel, show- 
ing the positions of two engines, as in Figs. 3 and 4, the one engine 
being in section, the other an external view seen upon a plane in 
advance of tlie former. And Fig. 6 is a plan or horizontal view of a 
portion of the steam-vessel, with the engines and their appendages, 
and also the framing by which the crank -sliafts of the paddle-wheels 
are supported, similar letters referring to the same parts of the ma- 
chinery in all the preceding figures. 

The two connected working cylinders are shewn at a a, their pistons 
at b b, and the piston rods at c c, the upper ends of which rods are affixed 
by keys to the cross-head d. Four vertical rods e e e e, afhxed at top 
to the cross-head d, are connected at bottom to a slidery", which slider 
is enabled to move up and down on the guide-ribs g g, formed on the 
outer surfaces of the cylinders. To this slider / one end of a con- 
necting rod /( is attached, the other end of that rod being attached to 
the crank i of the propelling shaft. 

From this arrangement it will be perceived that, by the simultaneous 
ascent and descent of the two pistons b b in their working cylinder a a, 
the rods c a will cause the cross-head d to move perpendicularly np 
and down between its guide bars/ ;', and in so doing to raise and de- 
press the slide/, with the connecting rod /;, which rod will, by that 
means, be made to give rotary motion to the crank i, and thereby 
cause the paddle-wheel shaft k to revolve. A rod /,"connected to the 
slide /, will at the same time work the lever m, to which the rod of 
the air-pump n is attached. 

The mode of adapting the steam-valve of the combined cylinders 
a a, is best seen in Figs. 3 and 4. The steam is admitted to, and with- 
drawn from, these cylinders, by one slide valve common to both, 

No.|30.— Vol. III.— March, 1S40. 



through a pipe n, seen in Fig. 5. From this pipe n the steam pro- 
ceeds, through a slide valve u of the ordinary construction, and through 
the curved passages or tubes p p into both cylinders. There is also 
a narrow passage of communication always open at q, by which the 
steam is allowed to pass from one cylinder to the other for the pur- 
pose of keeping the pressure equal at all times in both cylinders. 

The expansion valve is on the steam-pipe n, at the entrance to the 
slide valve. The slide is moved by an eccentric in the ordinary way; 
and the expansion valve is regulated by the means described hereafter 
under the third feature of the invention. 

The advantages proposed by this arrangement are, simplicity of 
construction, nH)re direct action on the crank, saving of space and 
weight of material, offering every means of giving larger area of cy- 
linder, whereby a given amount of steam can be used more expansively 
than in former arrangements, and consequently yield more power and 
economize fuel, with the further advantage at sea, that when the 
engine is reduced in the number of its strokes by deep hnling with 
coal, as at the commencement of a voyage, or by head winds, more 
steam may then be given to the cylinders, and, under such circmn- 
stances, more speed to the vessel, all the steam generated in the Ijuihu' 
being usefully applied. 

The second feature of this invention, viz. the improved construction 
of steam engine having two piston rods working in one cylinder, is 
represented in the accompanying engravings at Figs. 7, 8, and 9. Fig. 
7 is an elevation of the engine. Fig. 8, a section of the same, taken 
vertically through the cylinder, with the crank and shaft of the paddle- 
wheels ; and Fig. ',) is a horizontal view, as seen from above, of the 
two engines and their appendages, the same letters of reference point- 
ing out similar parts of the machinery in all the three last mentioned 
figures. 

The cylinders of large area are shown at a a, and b are their pis- 
tons; c e are two perpendicular rods inserted into each piston, and 
working through stuffing boxes in the lid of the cylinder; d is a cross- 
b.ead, to which the two piston-rods are keyed at top, and e e are the 
guide-rods, fixed on cast iron supports, upon which rods the cross-head 
d slides up and down. The connecting rod /is attached above to the 
cross-head, and below to the crank g g on the paddle shaft. The 
other parts of the engines will appear so obvious from inspecting the 
drawings, as not to requiie any further description. 

It will be perceived that by this arrangement of the parts of the 
engine, motion is given to the crank-shaft below the cross-head, by a 
single connecting rod. 

The advantages resulting from this improvement are, that a paddle- 
shaft, placed at a given height from the bottom of the vessel, will be 
enabled to receive a longer stroke of the piston than by any other 
arrangements now in use, a more compact and firm connection of the 
cylinder with the crank-shaft bearings is effected, and a cylinder of 
much greater diameter may be applied, by which the principle of 
working steam expansively may be more fully carried out, and a more 
direct action of the steam power on the crank obtained, with a less 
weight of materials and a greater economy of space than has hereto- 
fore been attained, by any of the arrangements of marine engines in 
use. 

The third feature of the invention, viz. the method of adjusting the 
expansive valves of combined engines, regulates the flow of the steam 
into both engines at once, by one simple movement of the spindle and 
pinion, and without interrupting for a moment the working of the 
engines, such a means of adjustment being highly important in bring- 
ing into operation the full effect of steam applied upon the expansive 
principle, in economizing fuel, and adapting the power of engines to 
the varying circumstances at sea, between light and heavy lading, and 
between strong head-wind and scudding before the gale. 



Extensive Use of Slate. — Slates are now applied to purposes unthought 
of till lately ; and when deposited in drains, ;is the bottoms of tiles, are found 
as efficacious in keeping the land, as houses, dry. Compared to dressed free- 
stone, or liat tile, they are at once lighter and less expensive ; ease in hand- 
ling is a great advantage, and equally, or more so, the alleged property of 
" lasting for ever." Mr. Laurie, Terregles-town, was foremost in trying the 
experiment in DumCriesshire.and his expectations have been so fully reahzed 
that his example will be very generally loUowed wherever drains remain to 
be cut, and that is secuonally, at least almost everywhere. Of the article in 
question he has imported from Bangor 200.000 bottoms or pieces, (^nd may 
have occasion to commission further cargoes. The first imported measured 
six inches by five : but as these were lovuid a kcnnan too small, the size has 
been increased an inch each way — that is seven by six. The price put on 
board is 7s. per thousanil, and, as wares every way so equable jack as beauti- 
fully as herrings in a barred, we presume, although we do not know the fact, 
tliat freightage from Wales will not greatly exceed Is. additional. — Glasgow 
Courier. 



74 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[MARon, 



RAILWAY CURVES. 

Ox reconsidering (his snlijocf, we tliink, as our correspondent R. W. 
T. SMSfiTests, t,li;i( tlie cngini'er wlio has (o set out the line of a railway 
upon the gronnd sliouM, in general, confine liinisell' (o the curves, and 
in every respect to (he line laid down upon the plan, in whicli case no 
such f|nestion as that proposed by " An Assistant Engineer," conlil 
occur. But, since a devia(ion from the plan may in sonio instames 
bo allowed, as "An Assistant Engineer's" question ])roves, we shall 
endeavour to solve R. \V. T.'s dillicnlty; and (or (his we must first 
consider what may have been the cause of (he failure. Now there 
are two cases: cil/ier the curve has been commenced at a wrong point 
of the tangent, or (lie operadon of setting it out has been iiraccurately 
))erlormed. In tlic first case (he error can be rectitied by referring to 
the plan and ascertaining the right point uf contact, and then setting 
out (he curve afresh. This method would, no doubt, be exceedingly 
troublesome, and it appears to be (he object of "An Assistant Engi- 
neer" to dispense with tlie lalio\n' attending such a proceeding; the 
quesdon tlien is, wliat is tlie best method of getting over the difficulty 
without returning to the plan laid down, when a deviation from the 
laKer is allowable. Now when two curves wore intended to meet and 
form an .S, and the engineer employed to set tliem out has not suc- 
ceeded in efi'ecting their pmction, there are two cases: ei/kr the two 
curves intersect each other, or they do not. In tlie first of these cases, 
it is (rue, (he two curves may be joined by a third, tangent to the two 
loriner, and of less radius than (lie one which it touches on the con- 
cave side, though, in onr opinion, it would be preferable to correct 
the curve in accordance with (he plan. Now there are an infinity of 
circular arcs which will satisfy the condition of being tangent to (he 
two given curves, so that another cfmdition must be imposed before 
the connecting curve can lie determined ; it may therefore be required, 
either (hat (his curve shall touch the concave or the convex curve at a 
given i)oint, or tliat its radius should be of a given length, which la(ter 
is the O(pnili(ion ;issuined by " An AssistantEngineer." We shouhl 
recommenil solving the problem on the plan, and not on the ground, 
believing (he former mode (o be much more facile (han the latter ; 
we shall (herefore adapt onr solution to (hat inetitod. 

Fig. 1. 




Let A n and C D, (fig. 1) be the two given curves fsay of 130 chains 
radius), an<l let it be reipiired to unite them by a third curve of less 
radius, tangent to A H on its concave, and to C D on its convex side. 

1st case. Tlie required curve is to pass through the point G of the 
curve A Li. 

Erinn I', the centre of A B, and (hrough G, (he required point of 
contact, draw the straight line F (t H, equal to the sum of the radii of 
(he two given curves, or twice the railius I' G (both curves being sup- 
]iosed to have the same radius); from H draw the straight line H <) 
lo the ceuire of (he curve C D ; and from K, the miildle point of H O, 
draw the perpenflicular K (j, intersecting the straight line 1' H at (he 
point Q. (j will \h: the centre of the required curve, and its radius 
\vill be equal to Q G. .Toin tj (), and the jHiint E, where Q O inter- 
sects the curve C 1), will be its poiiil of con(act wi(li the required curve. 

For, the right angled triangles H K Cj, tj K () being eepial, tj H = 
Q i) ; and, if from these c-cpials we t;dve the eipials (j H and E O, the 
remainders (,) G, tj E will also be equal; and, since they are situated 
on normals to the given curves, the circular arc G E will be tangent to 
both these curves. 

2nd case. The required curve must pass through the point E in 
the curve C D. 

From the cenfre O, and (hrough (he given point of contact E, draw 
the straight line () K (j ; and froiu (lie cende F draw P L parallel to 

U (^ and equal to the smn of the radii of the given curves i from P as 



a centre, and with a radius equal to P L, describe ;ui arc of u circle in 
the direction in which the connecting curve G E is expected to meet 
(he given curve A B, and from L draw the straight line L () H, inter- 
seciing (hat arc at (he point II; join HP. The point Q, where 
11 P intersects () Q, will be the centre of (he reqinnul curve, and the 
)ioint G, where it intersects the curve A D, will lie (he point of con- 
(ac( of (he required curve with A B. 

For, since O Q is parallel to L P, the triangles O H (J, L H P are 
similar; and consequently, L P being equal to P H, <) Q = (^ H; and, 
if from these equals we take (he equals E O, (i H, the remainders 
(j G, Q K w ill also be e(|ual. And an arc of a circle passing through 
(he p()in(s G and E, and having Q for its centre, will be tangent (o the 
two given curves, as we ]u-oved for the first case. Or after having 
drawn O Q an<l L P, construct the isosceles triangle O L ]\I, of which 
the side O M=M L; then from Pas a centre, and wi(h a radius =M L, 
describe an arc of a circle, in(ersecting O Q at the point (j, which will 
be the centre of the required curve, as before. 

For, if (hrough (he point <.j wo. draw (he straight line P H ecpial to 
P L, we shall ha\e, by reason of the similar triangles H Q O, H P L, 
(^ H=Q O ; and, taking away the equals G H, E O, we have Q G = 
Q E, as before. 

3rd case. The required curve is to have a given radius (say 100 chains). 

From (he point O as a centre, and wi(li a railius eipial to the sum of 
(he radii of (he given curve C t) and of the required connecting curve, 
describe an arc of a circle in the direction in which the centre of tlie 
latter is expected to be found, and from the centre P, with a radius 
etpial to the difl'erence between the radius of the curve A B and that 
of the required curve, describe anotlicr arc, intersecting the former 
Q. Q will be the centre of the required curve. 

For, drawing the radius P G through the point Q, the part Q G is 
equal to the radius of the connecting curve, since P t^ is the difference 
between (hat radius and P G ; also Ij E is equal to the radius of the 
required curve, because O Q is equal (o tha( radius, plus the radius 
of the curve C D, which is equal to the part O E, (herefore the re- 
maining part Q E is equal to the radius of the required curve. And 
it mav bo proved, as in the former cases, that the arc G E, described 
with that radius and with the centre Q, will be tangent to both tlje 
given curves. 

In the case when tlie two curves intended to liax e met do not inter- 
sect each other, we should certainly recommend connecting them by a 
tangent, if it should not be required to make thera meet, as in the plan. 

Fipr. 2. 




Let A B, C D (fig. 2) be the given curves, tlie former being tangent 
to tlie straight Hue 1 A at the point A. To draw' a common tangent to 
the two given curves. 

Join (on the plan) their centres () and P by a straiglit line, and on 
O P as ii diameter, descrHie th(( circumference O H P K; than from 
t) and P as centres, and with radii I'qual to (he sum of (he radii of (he 
(wo given curves, describe two arcs uf circles intersecting the curcnm- 
ference O H P K in the poiuls M and K respeclively ; draw the radii 
t) H and P K, and the ])oiuts L and M, where they intersect the given 
curves, will be their points of contact with the tangent, that is (o say, 
a s(raightliue L M, drawn through these points, will be tangent to both 
the given curves. 

F(U' O H and P K are parallel, and L H=P M ; therefore, joining 
P H, L M :uid P H are equal and parallel ; but P H is perpendicular to 
O H, therefore L M is perpendicular to the radius O L, and coiise- 



1S40.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



75 



'luently taiitjoiit to tlie arc C D. In the same manner it may be proved 
'o be tangent to A B. Therefore L M is tlie common tangent required. 

If, on the other hand, it be reqnired to move the curve A B along 
the tangent I A, from which it springs, until it comes in contact with 
the curve C D. 

From the centre P draw P F paraUel to 1 A, wliich protkice in the 
direction A G ; and from O as a centre, imd vvitli a radius equal to the 
sum of the radii of the given curves, describe an arc of a circle inter- 
secting P F and Q. Tlie point tj will be the centre of the curve which 
will touch the curve C D and the straight line T G -/and, if we draw 
O Q and Q G, the latter perpendicular to AG, the points E and G, 
where these two lines cut the curve C D -and the straight Hue A G, 
respectively, will be the points of contact, and tlie arc E G will be the 
reqnired curve. 

For {j G and Q E are each e((ual to the radius P A, and the former 
is perpendicular to AG, and the latter to the tangent to the curve CD 
at the point E. Therefore EG is the [losition of the requin:d curve. 

We have thus far only considered the c;ise where the failure has re- 
sulted from making one of the curves spring from the wrong point of 
the tangent. In the other case, that is, when the operation of setting 
out one or both of the curves has been inaccurately performed, there 
is no remedy but to set it out again with more care. 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 
FASCICULUS XIII. 



" I must have liberly 
Withal, as large a cliarter as the winds, 
To l;lo\v on whom 1 please." 

I. Let B. of Derby be whoever he may, his remarks on Competiti(in 
Designs are very much to the purpose ; and he not only hits the right 
nail on the head, but gives it a clincher, when lie hints very broadly 
that the profession have to thank themselves for the abuses which 
now prevail with respect to competition. If instead of merely shrug- 
ging their shoulders with a most Turk-like resignation, they were to 
apply them heartily to the wdieel, they might extricate theinselves 
from a position they affect lo deplore. Surely if the Institute were to 
set about doing so iu downright earnest, they might both de\ ise and 
enforce a greatly better system of competition than the hollow, shuf- 
fling, delusive one now practised. Undonlitedly there are many diffi- 
culties to contend with, — first and foremost, their own apathy, indif- 
ference and want of unanimity of purpose. Souie among them are 
notoriously opposed to comiietition altogether, and perhaps that the 
bungling and blundering now so rife in it, w ill sooner or later cause it 
to be abandoned entirely. <!)thers seem to be afraid of making any 
stir about what does not immediately concern them as individuals. 
On that very account all the more imperative is it that the Institute 
as a body ought to consult the interests of the profession generally. 
And if competition be not a case wherein it ought to interfere with 
all its authorit}', — be not more especially one which calls for hearty 
co-operation, I should very much like to know where co-operation can 
at any time be of positive service. Were the Institute a private Club, 
it might be left to do as it pleased : liut it is — and it may be presumed, 
■wishes to be considered in a very ditferent light, — to cut a figure iu 
the eyes of the public. 

il. Whetlier any one will agree with me or not, I incline to the 
opinion that so far from being at all calculated to improve architectural 
taste, such a work as Nash's Mansions is likely to flatter a very corrupt 
one, and to create a prejudice in favour of a style that taken apart 
from the associations and accidents, is characterii^ed by fantastic tlull- 
iiess, by incoherent caprices, by expensive ugliness, and by a grotesque 
combination of extravagant embellishment and offensive meanness. 
What then, am I insensible to the charm which the mastery of tlie 
artist's pencil has communicated to the series of architectural subjects 
above-named ? Certainly not, because it is precisely on account of 
the fascination with wdiicli he has invested them, that I hold them to 
be dangerous, and apt to seduce, and mislead those who have not the 
power of discriminating between the architectural deformity of many 
of the scenes, and the pictorial attractiveness with which they are 
represented. Undoubtedly many of them are highly picturesque in 
themselves, and rendered still more so by the manner in wdiich they 
are treated, and by the adventitious interest arising from costume and 
figures. Still as architecture, they are for the most part naught, — > 
absolutely frightful. Were equal witchery of effect put into it, not 
the homeliest merely, but nearly the most insipid subject of the kind 
might be rendered captivating, — an old barn, a village carpenter's 
sliop) or the kitcUen of a cotuUiy iuuf The chief differenve would be 



that in such case persons would not be similarly imposed upon, but 
instead of attributing any beauty to the scene itself, or being at all 
blinded to its \incouthness, would perceive that the pleasure it affords 
arises entirely from the charms with which the pencil has arrayed it, 

lil. I should very much like to know if, among the numerous 
churches which have been erected of late years, there be a single one 
whose interior possesses, or even approximates in any degree to so- 
lemnity of character, wdiich (piality, it may be presumed, is perfectly 
appropriate and becoming, or, in fact, to be considered indispensable, 
to a place of worship. Among all the new churches I have seen, I 
have certainly not beheld one possessing internally any thing liku 
solemnity in its general effect ; on the contrary, ditl'or how much they 
may as to all other circumstances, they agree as far as the absence of 
that quality goes. Some are dismal and mean enough, others, if not 
|)articularly tasteful, smart enough, just the very places for a fashion- 
able congregation, wliom the architect generally takes care to arrange 
so that they shall make as goodly a show as the audience of a theatre, 
and be able to reconnoitre each other without obstruction. In fact, 
there is, so far, very much more of the play-house than of the house 
of prayer in such buildings — nothing calculated to inspire feelings of 
reverence. Neither does it make much diflt^rence what style be em- 
ployed, since the interiors of our modern Gothic churches have no 
greater air of impressive solemnity than have those in any other stylo. 
In only very few instances is there any attempt to keep up the mere 
corporeal semblance of the style; all its spirit, all its attractions, are 
gone. Richness seems to be quite out of the question, and soberness 
almost equally so, for notwithstanding tlie excessive parsimoniousness 
which betrays itself, there is also a good deal of vulgar jauntiness and 
spruceness, bad enough in itself, and thus rendered doubly odious. In 
some of these buildings a tawdry organ-case is the principal object, 
all the rest consisting only of base, coldly glaring wdiite walls, pews 
and galleries, the altar itself being hardly noticeable, except on ac- 
count of the meanness it displays. In short, it is to be feared that our 
new churches, taken generally, are not calculated to impress foreigners 
w itii any high opinion — I do not say, of our taste, but of our religious 
ardour, if the latter may be judged of from the externals of public 
worship. 

IV. The Reformers have completely discomfited the Conservatives, 
if not in politics, most certainly in architecture. The poor Conserva- 
tive Clubhouse now looks sulkier than ever, now that the rival edifice 
proudly displays itself in its full majesty. I gladly hail the Reform 
Clubhouse, as an auspicious omen of reform in architecture ; it being 
likely to disgust with that vapid and poverty-stricken so called clas- 
sical style, which at the best has given us little more than scraps and 
bits of "Grecian architecture, and that chiefly as regards columns alone, 
since any thing with a shelf on top of it will, we find, do for an en- 
tablature. Gooil lack, my old friend Classicality, how strangely hast 
thou been cockneyfied since thou took up thy abode among us! It 
grieves one to think of it, and yet one cannot help laughing, either, at 
the grotesque figure thou niakest in thy present costume, and what is 
the worst part of the business is, thou hast been thus fantastically 
tricked by those who all the while have professed the utmost respect 
for thee. 

V. I was pleasingly surprized the other day by the sight of a very 
great rarity, naniely, an architectural volume both amply and beauti- 
fully illustrated with engravings, though only a very few copies of the 
work was printed for distribution among the author's friends. The 
work appears lo ha\"e been got up without the least regard to ex- 
pellee, and so far forms a most complete contrast to the bhmdering, 
ostentatious, niggardness manifested in the " )n-ivately printed" yet 
tolerably well known volume of Sir J. Soane's, containing a set of 
coarse and almost caricature prints, intended to show different parts of 
his own house. On such occasions there is no excuse wlKitever for 
stinginess, or anything like it, because a man had better keep his 
money in his pocket, than fling it away in purchasing for himself the 
reputation of being an extravagant hanks and a miserly spendthrift. 

But I have not mentioned tlie name of the liberal-spirited individual 
who, iu the work first alluded to, has so worthily illustrated the interior 
architecture of his paternal residence at Great Yarmouth— W. F. 
Palmer, Esq., F.S.A. Such an example ought to be made known as 
extensively as possible, for if there were a few more of the kind, it; 
would not be amiss. If it be said it argues a mere mania, it is to be 
hoped that a mania of this kind will prove quite as catching as that; 
which induces peojile to fling themselves off the Monument, to the 
extreme horror of those philanthropists who would read of their jump- 
ing into the Thames quite unconcernedly. Yet it is rather to be ap- 
prehended that architectural mania, amateur-mania, will never prove 
infectious in this country. The truth is, John Bull is likely to stick 
fast to his old inouymaniu, which, in plain English, is literally a 
moiwij' mania, 

L 2 



76 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



REEFING STEAM-BOAT PADDLES. 

Fig. 1. 




Fig 




V.W, Pivot wheel. S, Sli:ilt. 

Sir — Obseiviiig by sumc of tlie public jounr.ils that the rcpfing of 
ste:iin-bont jjaddlos is buc-uiniiig a matter of interest, I take the liberty 
of sending a rough copy of a sim]ile method executed by Messrs. 
Boulton, Watt & Co. for a vessel on the Tyne in the year 1H15 (whose 
drauglit was variable,) it was found to answer well. 

The extreme diameter when the boards were out, was II ft.; by the 
mode adopted, they could be drawn in 7i in., reducing the diameter 
to U ft. 9 in., which was considered sullicient for a vessel of only 5 feet 
immersion. 



By the application of a lever, the whole of the boards were moved 
at once, and fixed in the required position Ijy a screw pin ; this in- 
volved going into the paddle-box to make the adjustment previous to 
starting, but the operation is capable of being performed by a pinion 
working into the internal circumference of the pivot wheel (shewn in 
the small side figure), while the rpiantity of reefing may be carried to 
all necessary extent by enlarging its diameter. 

It was the fashion in those early days of steam navigation to fit the 
wheels with shrouding, which, although not necessary to the scheme, I 
have chosen to show it as executed at that period. Should you con- 
sider this worthy of insertion, you will oblige. Sir, 

Your constant reader, 

London, 20lh January, lb40. T. Z. 



PATENT IMPROVED BOILER OR APPARATUS FOR 
GENERATING STEAM. 

The first part of my invention consists of an apparatus (after de- 
scribed) for causing water in the state of dew, or divided into very 
minute drops or particles, to descend slowly through the interior of 
the boiler or generator, upon the heated surface of which, so much of 
it as is not converted into steam during its descent, ultimately falls ; 
by which means a less quantity of heat is abstracted during any given 
time from the heated surface, than if such surface were covered with 
a continuous sheet or film of water, or witli a boily of water, as in the 
common boiler. And by the means I adopt, I do not merely raise 
steam, by wetting the heated surface, but the boiler or generator when 
at work is filled by dew or water in a state of minute division, w'hich 
in its descent, becomes partially converted into steam, by the heat of 
the atmosphere or vapour within the boiler itself. 

I find that a temperature of 50(1" or thereabouts, of Fahrenheit, in 
the body or substance of the boiler or generator, is that best adapted 
to the purpose of raising steam. 

Another part of my invention consists of a self-acting apparatus, 
(afterwards described) for regulating the supply of water to the gene- 
rator or boiler, according to tlie condition of the heated surfaces, and 
the consequent force of the steam wdthin the boiler, that is to say, that 
if the boiler contains a greater body of steam, or of greater elastic 
force, than is necessary for the wants of the engine or other purpose 
to which it may be applied, then by the self-acting apparatus before 
referred to, the stroke of the force or supply-pump is shortened, so 
that when the steam is high in the boiler, the quantity of water in- 
jected becomes proportionably less; by this means, if by any chance 
in consequence of the boiler becoming heated to redness, or to any 
other degree of heat which would be highly dangerous in other boilers, 
or from any other cause, steam of a violently elastic force be produced, 
its etfect is, through the medium of the above regulating apparatus, 
to shorten, or totally shut otl", the supjily of water, until the surface 
becoming cooler, or producing steam of less elastic force, the pump is 
again allowed to act; such a case, however, can never happen, ex- 
cepting after the engine has been standing still for some time, and 
when, by neglect or design, the usual precautions and attention be- 
stowed upon other boilers have not been observed, as the damper 
regulator, which is somewhat similar in efit^ct to those in present use, 
will always prevent the fire being in advance, or more powerful to 
heat the surfaces, than the water to cool them. 

In applying this invention, it will be generally found desirable to 
keep that part of the surface of the boiler, ex])osed to the immediate 
and corrosive action of the fire, covered with water, by wh.ieh means 
it \\ ill be prevented from burning, and another part of my invention 
consists in a self-acting apparatus adapted to attain this object. By 
this apparatus (which is hereinafter described) the water is prevented 
from accumulating in the boiler beyond the quantity found best in 
practice, and which, in the boiler I generally use, is from three to six 
inches in depth over the fire ; this apparatus, at the same time that it 
prevents the water rising in the boiler beyond a certain limit, acts 
upon the force-]nunp in a way which will bo presently described, so 
as to reduce the quantity of water injected, if necessary. 

In a]iiilying my invention, I employ n)eial flues, by which means the 
fire is not only kept longer upon the surface, but the flues become 
carriers or depositaries of heat, and by radiation iuqjart a certain por- 
tion of the efl'ect of the fire upon them to the boiler, and thus econo- 
mize fuel, besides adding to the strength of the boiler itself. 

Another ])art of my invention consists in forming ridges in the in- 
terior of the boiler, by which the descent of the water over the sur- 
face is retarded, but which, although a great improvement to the 
action of the boiler, is not absolutely essential to it. 

The external figure or shape which I ha^e generally adopted as the 
best in practice, will be seen by the accompanying figure; but any 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



77 



convenient form may be employed, and the tire may be either external 
as shown in the figure, or internal according to the system usually 
adopted in steam-vessels. 

Figure 1 exhibits a cross section of the boiler, pump, and water- 



Fig. 1. — Cross section. 



^^-^ 




valve, with a representation of the water-regulating apparatus. A is 
a boiler, made of cast iron or other metal, around which is cast the 
spiral flue 13, and having its interior formed into ridges or corrugated, 
which ridges increase in width as they approach the bottom of the 
boiler. B is the tire-place, C the brickwork in which the boiler is 
set, D the water-pipe, by which the water in the boiler flows oft' as 
soon as it has risen to a level with the mouth of the pipe ; the water 
then descends through the pipe e e, to the water-valve box /, and 
would pass out into the cistern F if not kept back by the valve g ; the 
valve g is loaded with weight /, and lever //, so that it resists the 
pressure of the steam, in the same way as the safety-valve 10 ; but 
when the water accumulates in the descending pipe e, so that there 
shall be an altitude of water above the surface of the valve of from 
four to six feet, the valve will be unable to sustain the additional 
pressure of from two to three pounds per square inch upon its area, 
and it will lift and let out the water, until the descending column 
balances the weight of the valve ; the cock / is for the purpose of 



blowing out any sediment which may have accumulated in the valve 
box, this is done by depressing the rod g g, attached to the lever g', 
which is fixed on the plug of the cock. 

Another mode of self-regulation for marine or other engines, when 
there would be an objection to the length of the pipe e, is as follows 

Fig. 2. — Water-regulating Apparatus. 




a pipe descends, and is connected with the suction-pipe of a pump, 
which may be either a bucket or force-pump ; the exit valve or 
clack, is loaded by a weight and lever, like a safety-valve, with the same 
object as the water-valve already described, viz. that it may counteract 
the pressure of the steam in the boiler. When the pump is full of 
water, the action of the plunger will force out of the pump us much 
water as it displaces in its descent, and draw into the pump from the 
pipe a corresponding quantity of water, thus emptying the pipe, 
and preventing the water rising above its proper level in the 
boiler. 

A glass tube is employed at t ', by which the state of the water may 
always be observed, and the usual brass mounting is attached, for the 
purpose of cleaning either the lying or vertical pipes ; C is the force 
or supply-pump, the suction-pipe K' draws its supply from the cis- 
tern F, so that the hot water escaping from the boiler is used over 
again and no heat lost ; k is the injection pipe of the pump connected 
with the nozzle m; at about one-third its length from the bottom, the 
nozzle is perforated with a circle of small holes, drilled so as to dis- 
charge the water in a direction slanting upwards, or in such a direction 
that it may be reflected upwards from the sides of the boiler or gene- 
rator, (any number of holes in any figure which experience may sug- 
gest may be adopted), the best pUui I find is to make them about a 
quarter of an incli apart, anil about the hundredth part of an inch in 
diameter, and drilled in such way that they may be largest outside, 
by which means they will be less likely to be clogged up ; the ends of 
the nozzle are loose, the upper end screws into its place, and the 
lower end is made a good joint and ground in, so that when the bolt 
which passes through it, and the upper end is screwed with a nut and 
spanner from the top, the nozzle becomes perfectly closed, and no 
water can escape excepting through the small perforations in the 
sides ; it is necessary to form the ends loose, or provide some 
other adequate means to discharge the sediment, which may from time 
to time collect in the nozzle ; tin's adjustment is easily made by merely 
taking out the plunger s, and the perforated plate s', when a spanner 
can be introduced into the boiler, and the nut or upper end unscrewed 
as may be required ; sometimes the nozzle is formed in a circle with 
jets like a gas burner, but the above described method I have fomid 
to be the best. 

The action of the injected water is clearly seen by the dotted and 
prolonged descendieg lines, the water impinges violently against the 
sides of the vessel, and is then thrown off at an equal angle in an op- 
posite direction, after which it descends in a vertical shower as shown, 
it is not necessary that this mode should be always observed, any mode 
is good that minutely divides the water, and then allows it to descend 
slowly upon the heated surfaces may be adopted to my invention ; but 
it is essential that the water should be first discharged upwards, either 
in an inclined direction or perpendicularly, or that it should be dis- 



IfB 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[IMarch, 



cliarj^i'd in siirli a direction that it may Iw reflected iipwurds, or slanting 
upwards Irdiii llie sides nf tlie l)oiler. 

Tlie |)luiiger of the pipe C is connected liy tlie link ii with the lever 
o, this lever is worked hy the cam p, fixed on the shaft r, which shaft 
is driven by any of the usual and suitable modes from the engine, or 
any other ecpiivalent mmle of lifting the lever may be adopted; to the 
end opposite to that on which the cam acts, is suspended the weight 
(J, so that the cam lifts the ])lungc'r ami the weight gives the stroke, 
producing a sudilen and violent rush of the water through the holes of 
the noz/.le m which very materially alFects that minute division of the 
water which is necessar)' to the jierfect action of the boiler, s is a 
plunger or jiiston working through a stalling box, upon the top of the 
boiler connected by the link /, with the lever », which lever works 
upon the centre r, to the end next the chimney is attached the rod of 
the damper dd, and to the other enil the weight c, and the rod «), thus 
vvlie]] the sleam rises, it acts upon the phnigcr or pislmi s, this raises 
the end of the lever )(, vipon which the weight r is suspended, and the 
rod w attached, and depresses the other end to which the damper is 
attached, thus damping the fire as in the usual way, the lever ii in the 
act of rising by the increasing elasticity or volume of the steam lifts 
the rod «', and likewise the end of the crank or lever .r, to which the 
other end of the rod w is attached, this crank or lever is fixed upon 
one end of the cross shaft y, and to the other end of tlie shaft, and at 
right angles witli the crank .r is fixed another and shorter crank z, 
thus when the crank x is raised vertically by the action of the steam 
plunger s, it causes the shorter crank z to move horizontally forwards, 
this horizontal movement is continued through the niedinm of the rod 
or bar z' ,connected with the short crank z at one end, and the other 
end with the wedge 2, thus pushing the wider part of the wedge under 
the pump lever, and by this means sliortening the stroke or descent of 
the ]uun)) plunger, this movement may be also efTected by a rack and 
)iini(ni, or by a screw and |iijiion, or by other means. 

I do not claim the plunger or piston as new, to regulate the damper, 
an analogous contrivance, liaving alreaily been made ; that part of my 
invention which I have before referred to as a self acting apparatus 
for [ireventing an undue accumulation of water in the bottom of the 
boiler, is as follows ; to the extreme end of the lever /(, of the water- 
valve, is fixed a slight bar, wire, or chain, S; the other end of the 
■wire or chain is connected to the .short horizontal crank 7, fixed upon 
the short cross shaft 3; to the longer arm 5 of the horizontal crank, is 
suspended the weight (i, which weight, when the wire or chain is 
slackened, descends, and descending, produces motion in the shaft 3, 
to which the crank is fixed, and also in the short crank 4, fixed n])on 
the other end of the cross shaft 3; thus as the weight descends, the 
crank 4, by means of the rod 4', connected with it, and the wedge 1, 
draws the wedge 1 forward; by the wider part being thus drawn or 
introduced under the lever o of the pumii, the stroke of the pump is 
shortened, and the supply of water consequently diminished. 1 do not 
confine myself to the particular modification of machinery here de- 
scribed for ellecting this object, but any other adapted to the pur- 
pose may be used; thus for instance, another mode of regulating 
the action of the pump, is by forming the descending tube about S or 
10 inches internal diameter, and placing therein a float, which shall 
rise and fall willi tlie water in the tube in the same way as the float 
in the 'ieed head of a conunon boiler regulates the damper, then a 
wire p assing through a stufling box in the upper part of the pijie t, 
and communicating with the crank 7, in the same way as the wire 8, 
the same movement will take place in the wedge 1, as has been before 
described ; in the case of a locomotive where the pump plunger is con- 
nected with the cross head of the piston rod, anil works very fast ; the 
method to be adopted to reduce the stroke of the pump, will be to 
make the barrel of the pump moveable, then by means of a screw fixed 
to the end, and causing the nut in which the screw works to be acted 
uiion either by the steam plunger or the lever of the water valve, and 
thus uuiking the barrel of the pump advance towards, or recede from 
the i)lunger, the same regulating process will be easily a))plicable ; it 
will be merely necessary that the suction and injection pil>e should 
work in stuffing boxes, or by making them elastic to allow for the 
variation; 9 is the pipe and cock for sup|)lying the water cistern with 
water, V is the ball-cock which kee|)s the water to its level, lU is the 
safety valve, 11 the steam l)ipe, 12 the steam casing in which the 
;)lunger works, the lower part is covered with a plate perforated with 
lolos, so thai the steam plunger may work more steadily, and not be 
acted upon so suddenly by the steamj as the steam befm-e" acting upon 
the plunger will jiass through the holes of the plate, and thus a certain 
regularity of action w ill be preserved, which could not be ensured 
without it. 

A boiler upon this construction, but made in a very rude manner 
lor the purpose of experiment, 2 ft. deep, 1 ft. over at the bottom, 
wid 2 it, wide at the widest point, was at mtk I'w seme time drivijig 



I 



a G horse condensing engine at Messrs. Burton & Sons, engineers, 
Bankside, but now of Holland Street, Blackfriars Road ; the ;irea ex- 
posed to the fire was about 8 ft., and this drove the engine fully 
loaded, the steam blowing olVduriiig the greater part of the time; it 
had no tendency to get red hot, and uj)on several occasions, for the 
mere purpose of the experiment, the engine was stopped, and the 
boiler purposely made red hot, when the only result that followed was 
a rapid generation of steam whilst the water was pumped into the 
boiler; bv this a|)paratus the great desiileratum of a powerful, port- 
able, and safe boiler is obtained, and I feel certain that in a properly 
constructed vessel, a velocity of 2U miles per hour through the water 
can be easily accomplished. 

Stam/vrd Strut, W.J. CURTIS. 

Blackfriars Road. 



ON THE PRESSURE OF WATER AND THE STRENGTH 

OF COFFER-DAMS. 

By John Neville, C. E. 

The following prepositions are intended to furnish rules for calcu- 
lating the dimensions of coffer dams from having the depth of water, 
and the specific gravity of the materials to be used in the dam given. 
The construction of the coU'er dam is supposed to be that generally 
adopted, namely, two or mm'e rows of piles having the spaces between 
filled with clay, ox a mixture of clay and gravel, the whole united into 
one mass by walings, bolts, &c. And it will be seen that the dimen- 
sions found from the investigated formula do not diller materially from 
those adoptetl with success by many celebrated engineers. 

The pressure arising from mere depth of water is not the only force 
to be prepared against in constructing a coU'er dam, as moving water 
or an exposed situation nuist also be taken into consideration. These 
latter I have not cakailated for in the following problems, as I consider 
they are sufficiently provided for by the resistance of the piles pene- 
trating the bottom, w hich assists tlie solidity of the dam ; and by the 
auxiliary aid of stays and braces, and have determined the dimensions 
of the dam itself as only sufficient to resist the pressure of an outside 
depth of dead water. 

Problem I. 

To dttcrmine the amount of pressure against a coffer dam or obstruc- 
tion, the diplh of wall r being given. 

Put c for the depth of w ater in feet. The pressure on each point 
of the dam is as the depth of that point from the surface of the water ; 
the whole pressure for the depth c is therefore repieseuted by the area 
of a right angled triangle having the base and perpendicular each equal 



to c, 



or by -^. The weigiit of a cubic foot of water may.be taken 



for tlie pressure on each 



atG241bs. ; hence we have G2iXo= — s~ 

^ 2 

foot in length of the dam in lbs., which, multiplied by the length, will 
give the whole pressure required. 

Example 1. — What is the pressure on each foot in length of a cof- 
fer-dam, the water inside lieing exhausted, and the depth of water 
outside being equal to 15 feet? 

TT 1- ,125c- 125x15x15 . ,, ,, 

Here crrlo and —5-= =:110J2i lbs., the pressure re- 

quired. 

Exam})l(: 2. — What is the pressure against J coft'er dam whose girth 
is tiO feet, the depth of water outside being 20 feet? 

J25 V 20 X ^0 
Here we have i-^:=25000lbs. for the pressure on each 

foot in length, therefore 25,000 X GO^ 1,500,000 lbs. is the pressure re- 
quired. 

PROULliM 11. 

To find th effective pressure against a coffer dam or lock gate; the 

depth nf mater outside being ginn : a given depth of water being inside. 

Put c for the outside depth of water, and d for that inside, we then 

. 125c- I25i'^ 125 (€■—«;•-) i25y.{c-\-d)y.{c—d). ,, 
get — :=:— . — 1- '=:: ^ — ^^— ^ lor the pres- 

sure on each foot in length, when the inside and outside girths are equal; 

putting therefore g for either girthj we get " •• -■ ■ 

fvr the piesiSMe required. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



79 



Example 1. — Given the dejith of water on the outside of a dam 
equal 20 feet, that inside equal 6 feet, and tile giitli GO feet, what is 
tlie cirecti\'e pressure against the dam ? 

We have c+(i:=2G, c — d-=.\i, and ^=G0 therefore 

l-25x(e+^)X(c-i)Xg^l25x2Gxl4xGO^^^^^^^^^ 14x30 

=45,500x30=T,3G5,00011)s. for tlie pfFective pressure. 
When the inside and outsiiU' girths dilter, by putting g fur tlie out- 



side girth, and ^' for that inside, we get in this case 



125(c-g— i'g') 



for the effective pressure. 

Example 2. — Given the height of water on tlie sill to the upper 
gates of a lock above, 10 feet and girth 21 feet; below 4 feet and 
girth 25 feet — what is the effective pressure on the gates? 

„, . , ]25fc=g— rf=g') 125(100x24—10x25) 
The pressure is equal • ^ — -S~'z= i 

=rl25(100x24— 8x25)= 125x1000= 125,0001bs. the pressure re- 
quired. 

Example 3. — Find the effective pressure against a coffer dam, the 
exterior depth and girth respectively being 2/ and 120 feet ; and the 
interior depth 5 feet, and girth 100 feet. 

„ , ,, , , 125(27x27x120—5x5x100) 
Here by the formula; ^ = 

' 2 

125(729x00— 25x50)=:125x424,90=5,311,250 lbs. the pressure re- 
quired. 

Problem III. 

To Jind the centre of pressure in a given depth of water : or iliat point 
where the force of the whole pressure is equal to the sum of the forces 
arising from the pressures at different depths from the surface. 

The whole pressure (problem 1) is represented by a right angled 
triangle having its base and perpendicular each equal to the depth of 
water, and as the pressure at each point along tlie depth is propor- 
tional to the depth of sucli jioint from the surface, or which is the 
same thing to a line parallel to the base at that point meeting the 
hypothenuse ; the centre of pressure is evidently on the same liori- 
zontal line with the centre of gravity of the triangle. But the latter 
is at one third of the perpendicular from the base, uierefore the centre 
of pressure is at one-third of the depth of water from the bottom, 
or ic. 

Examples. The centre of pressure in 15 feet of water is 5 feet 
above the bottom : in IS feet of water at 6 feet above the bottom : and 
in 30 feet of water at 10 feet above the bottom. 

Problem IV. 

To find the centre of pressure mhen given depths of water are inside and 
outside a coffer-dam. 

By putting as before c for the depth outside, and dior that inside, 
we find the outside pressure acting at the distance ^c from the bottom 

125c- 
equal — — — (problems 1 and 3), and the inside pressure acting at the 

u 

d 125(/^. 

distance 5 equal -^ — The centre of pressure is now therefore in 
tj 2 



the fulcrum of a lever, whose length is — ^— i which lever is acted on 

i— - — '■ — — — the distance 



125c' 125^^ 

at its ends by the two pressures -=- and — —. To find this point 



125c^ , 125d 
we have —^ + — ^ 



c—d . . 125<;' 
3 • ■ 2 



3(c■■^-<^■ 



of the fulcrum from a point corresponding to ^c, tlierefore =— . 

o, . I ,0- - — o, o I J..-. — — o. .. I ..., • The distance of the point 
3(o-fa-) 3(c=+rt-) 3(c +rf') "^ 

required from the bottom of the water frsm which w'e deduce tlie fol- 
lowing rule : — 

Divide the sum of the cubes of the inside and outside depths by 
three times the sum of their squares, the quotient will be the distance of 
the centre of pressure from the bottom of the mater. 

£»»)»?/?,— Take i=^2Q and d~V) we then have 



0000 



: 6 feet for the distance of the centre 



20'-f iO' _ S000+1000_ 
3(20^+10')" 3x500 ~1500' 
of pressure from the bottom. 

Prodlem V. 

To find the centre of pressure in a depth of water lying between the 
depths c and d below the surface. 

Let c be the greater depth, and put .r for the distance of the centre 
of pressure in the depth c — rf, from the centre of pressure in the depth 
c ; we then have from the properties of the lever 



.rX 



V25(c'—d^)_2(c- 



-d) I25d' 
— X— r-, 



from which equation by an easy reduction we find, 
2d- 



■2d- 



there- 



fore — 

3 3(c+f/) 



of the depth c, and — + 



3(c+d) 
is the distance of the point required from the bottom 
2d' 



3{c+d) 



its distance from the surface of the 



water. 



Example 1. — In 15 feet depth of water what is the distance of the 
centre of pressure of the lowest 5 feet from the bottom ? 



Here 



:5 and 



2d- 



2x10- 



3(c+rf) 3X( 15+10)" 



200 8 , , , 

z-—--^- leet, therefore 



-=5 — -=- feet the distance required. 
00 



3 3(c+rf) 

Example 2. — Two stays support a coffer-dam at depths of 20 and 
10 feet below the surface of (he water, and it being found necessary to 
place another between these, at what distance shall we place it from 
the lower stay, so that it may afford the greatest assistance possible ? 

It is easy to see that the third stay must be applied opposite the 
centre of pressure. To find this point we have c:=20 and rf=;10, 



e ^ 2d- _20 2xlCr- _20_200_20 
therefore g a^c+f/) - 3 3(20+10) ~ 3 90 ~ 3 ' 

40 44 ^ 
=:-„-=.- feet, the distance required. 



20 

■ 9" 



60—20 
9 



A proper knowledge of the position of the centre of pressure will 
enable us to place our stays with advantage and economy, particularl)' 
in those cases where a coffer-dam is surrounded with water. If the 
top and bottom of such a coffer-dam (fig. 1) are Ijept from approaching 

Fig. 1. 




each other, the next best point to secure is evidently at the centre of 
pressure of the whole depth of water, or using the same notation as 
before at ^c from the bottom. If more stays are necessary, the most 

7c 5 c 
important points to be secured are those at the distance — and —- 

from the bottom, or in other words at the points corresponding to the 
centres of pressure in the lower and upper portions of the depth 

c , 2c 

Problem VI. 

To find the dimensions of a coffer-dam fig. 2 suflScient to resist the 
pressure of a given depth of water when the section is rectangular. 



80 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



Fig. 2. 




Put s for tlie mean weight in lbs. of a cubic foot of the materials in 
the (lam, h for its height, in feet, d for its width in feet, and c for the 
deptli of high water in feet. We then have b d s equal the weight of 
one foot in lenght. It is evident that the dam fails only when the 
force of the water is able to turn it round the point D, and as the 

d 
weight hds acts at the distance - from D in the figure its force is pro- 
perly represented by bds X - =; — — . The pressure of the water 

125c- c 

is equal — — - (problem 1,) which acting at the distance ^above D 
2 o 

125c" c 125c' 

(problem 3) has its force represented by -— — X-^: . Therefore 

2 3 6 

in case of equilibrium we have =: — — from which equation we 



find d- 



125c^ 
367 



and d: 



V125c' 
36i" 



From this proposition it is clear 



tliat when h^c, tlie width d of the dam is proportional to the depth of the 
teutcr, and that the power of water to overturn a clam is as the cube of its 
depth. The value of s will depend on the nature of the puddle used 
in the dam, and the proportion it bears to the quantity of timber and 
iron in the width d. In the examples to this and the following jiro- 
blems, « is supposed to be equal to 90 lbs., which in most cases may not 
be far from the true value, except in those cases where the water 
penetrates under the dam when it must be reduced to about one-third, 
or to 3U lbs. nearly. , 

F,g. 3. 




Example 1.— Find the width of a cofier-dam sufficient to resist the 
pressure of 17 feet of water on the outside, the height of the dam 
being 19 feet. 



Here we have 



d=^ /l^- K /i!5M.^ -^ /lilil^=V116-4=10-8feet. 
-V 3 6s~'V 3X 19X90"" -V 5130 

/125 
-— r=ll-Gfeet. Ifwe suppose from 

want of proper precaution the water to penetrate under the dam, s is 

s s 

reduced to about - for the height c, say -, we then get 



« d 125c' 
(J — c) rfs-fc«?X-X-= — r^ for the equation of equilibrium from 



which we find d-X (3 m6s+3cs 
125hc' 



3 ncs) := 12 5 c'h and 
When ;!=3 as would be nearly the case 



d- /__J^^nc^___ 
A/ 3n6s-|-3cs — 3!(cs' 

V125c' 
■Xr36— 2 1 ' ^-^ "^'"^ ^^^^ numbers in example 1, 

we get by this formulae 

d=. /Zi1!HI!L:= . /^^=^296-7=17-2 feet,shewing 
/y 90 X (57— 34) ■V 2070 ^ ^ 

under these circumstances a necessary increase of nearly six feet in 
width. 

Example 2. — What width of dam is sufficient to resist the pressure 
of 17 feet depth of water, the dam to rise 4 feet above the surface, 
when the bottom is porous gravel communicating with the water. 

In this case we have 



d— /__^^^___ / 125 X 17' _ /G14125_ 

'V 90(3 6—2 cf 'V 90 X (1^3— 34) '\/ 90 X 29~" 



V 



614125_ 
2610 " 



:V235-3=15-3 feet. 



Problem VII. 



To find the strength of a coffer-dam (fig. 3) sufficient to resist the 
pressure of a given depth of water so that by the intervention of stays, 
&c. the coffer-dam could only fail by the failure of the point D. 

Put k for the distance E D, rf for the distance E F, and by using the 
same notation as before for the other dimensions, we get by the pro- 



perties of the lever bds')(.(--\-l{)z 
brium, and by reduction d'--\-2 kd- 



12 5c^ c 
- Xq for the equation of equili- 

125c' 



36s 



from which we find 



V123c' 
368 ^ 
Example 1. — Find the width d when fc=18, c=17, and 6=21 feet, 

, /l25e' , / 125X17' „ 

'"'■^ y-Sb^ +' '-'= V 3^X21X90 +^S'-18= 

V 614125 

-g^J7^+32-4— 18=1/649— 18=25-5— 18=7-5 feet=rf. These 

were nearly the dimensions of tlie coffer-dam for building the river 
wall at the New Houses of Parliament (see Journal, vol. 1, page 31). 
But this coffer-dam was still held more firmly on its base by the re- 
sistance to the piles penetrating the silth and clay substratum requiring 
a considerable force to overcome it, over and above that which was 
already sufficiently resisted by the upper portion of the coffer-dam. 

When d is given we find from the equation d--\-2d/c^-^. — , 



i = 



125e^ 
Gbsd 



d 
"2* 



Example 2. — At what distance from the imier sheet pilcing of a 
cofier-dam 10 feet wide shall we place the brace pileing D, so that 
when properly braced the dam shall resist the pressure of 30 feet depth 
of water outside. The dam rising 4 feet above the surface. 

„ , 125X30'i 10 3375000 ^ ,^ _ ^ ,o . r . 

Here A= = 5=18'4-5=13'4 feet 

ex 34X90X10 2 1B360 

the distance required. Ifsi=30as would be nearly the case if the 



1840. J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



81 



bottom was porous, k should be increased to about 3X1S-4 — 5 = 
55.2 — 5=.'iO feet. This shows the importance of securing the bed of 
the dam from water b)' dredging, or otherwise clearing away all porous 
materials. 

Problem VIII. 

To find the strength of a dam (form fig. 4) sufficient to resist the 
pressure of a given depth of water. 

Fig. 4. 




By using the same notation as before, putting/ for EK, and k for 

d, k 125r" c 

DE, we get »hdy,{--\-k)-\-skf'X.-=——- X- for the equation of 

2t Z id o 



equilibrium from which s 6 (l--\-2 s bdk-\-s/k- ■■ 



12 5e^ 



This equation 



, , „ , 125c3 k-'f . ,2hd, 125c3 bd"^ „ 
gives us cZ-+2fZA=-:rT -• and k"-\ -^k=-x — -, j- . From 

these we find a=v}^+ ^''~{K ~k (1), and 
36s 



i^^^^JlljJ'l^J'J:.. (2). From these values for d and * 
3»/ f f- b 
we can fiud one when the other is given. 

Example \. — Having given *=4 feet, /= 10 feet, i = 21 feet, and 
c=n feet, to find the value oi di 

/125c3 {i—f)k^ 7014125 Vt'Q , 

Bj^equatio,, (i) ,=V^ +L_Z_ _,=^__+___4 = 

V 108-3+8-4 - 4 = V 1 IIJ'^ - 4 = 10-S - 4 = G-S, or 7 feet nearly, the 

value required. 

Example 2.— Suppose *=10 feet, f~\7 feet, i=33 feet, and c=30 

feet, what is the width {d) equal to? 

„ , T25X3U' ItiXlU ,,^ , 1250U , IGOO , 
Here d=./ ■ -L ^r 10=V- — -l - 1(J = 



3X33X90 



33 



33 



33 



V 



141U0 
33 



-10=v/427-3-10=20-7-10=10'7 feet, the width re- 



quired. 

Example 3.— To find tlie value of k wheud=6 feet, the otlier 
dimensions remaining the same as in Example 1. 

Frpm equation (2) *=V!!!f!_i^+^_*-i= 
38/ / +/•-' / 



V 



614125 756 , 15876 126 



jyy--^=V227-5-75-6+158-8-12-G = 



2700 10 
V310-7— 12-6 =17'6— 12-6 =5 feet, the value sought. 

Example 4. — To find the value of k when (^=10 feet, the other 
dimensions remaining the same as in Example 2. 

Here t=:/\/ ^^^^^O' 33X10^ 33nU'^ 33xlO_^ 
3X90X17 17 ^ 172 17 "^ 



V 



12500—3300 . 108900 330 



==V&4 1-2+37 G-8— 19-4 = 



17 ' 289 17 

V918— 19-4 =i3Q-3— 194 *10-9 feet, the value sought. 



Probiem IX. 

To find the strength of a coffer-dam fig. 5, sufficient to resist the 
pressure of a given depth of water. 

Fig. 5. 




Here, by putting i-' for F E, and/' for K F, we have 

(I' + <^ ) X sk'f + I X s.i6 =i^' X g. 

for the equation of equilibrium by disregarding the vertical pressure 
of the water above K G, and thence s&'^/' + 28 dk'f -\-d-sb — 

; from this equation we get 



3 



b 36s 6 

125 c' d- b 
and /i" + 2^*" = -^ — -:; — -77-; these equations give 



A/ 386 6 ■'' 6^ 6 

„„ I 1, /l25c' bd' . ,, J 



(!)• 



(■2). 



Example 1. — When k' is equal 4 feet, what is the value of d, tiie 
other dimensions being the same as those in example 1, problem 8. 



From equation (1) rf= ^ / X ^.Y^^V _ fXU) 10^x1 
V 3x90x21 21 ^ 21^ 

C4 _ /g 14, 125 IGO 1600 _ 40 

t "y 5G70 ■ 21 "^ Hr 21 



lOxj 
21 



= y/ 108-3 — 7-G + 3-G — 1-9 — v'i04-3 - 1-9 

= 10-2 — 1-9 = 8-3 feet. 

Example 2. — Using the same dimensions as in example 2, problem 
8, what is the value of d ? 



d = / 125x30' _ 10^ X 17 10- X 17' 
a/ 3x33x'JO 33 "*" 33- 



10x17 
33 



V 



1-2,500 — 1700 28,900 
+ 



• 5-2 = 



33 ' 1080 

V327-3 + 2G-5 — 5-2 — V353^ — 5-2 = 18-9 — 5-2 = 13-7 feet. 
Example 3. — Using the same dimensions as those in example 3, 
problem 8, what is the value of i? 



From equation (2) h := 



V125: 
3xi 



Xl7' 

90x10 



21x6' 
ItT 



+ 6' 



= t/ 227-5 — 75-6 + 86 — 6 = ^ 187-9 — 6 = 13-7 — 6 = 7-7 feet. 
Example 4. — Using the same dimensions as those for example 4, 
problem 8, what is the value of k' ? 



,^ /I25x30^_10;;x^3 
V 3XWX17 --^[7—^ 



*' = 



M 



82 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



=v^ 



•2,500 — 3300 



17 



+ 100 



/9200 



+ 100 — 10 



= V511-2 + 100 — 10 = 25-3 — 10 = 15-3 fee(. 

If we t;ike into consideration the weight of the water above K G, 
the vahics found for rf and X- in the examples are too high; but the 
gravity of tlic materials in the dam being to the gravity of the water 



28 



as 8 to G2i, if we substitute /' + c — / x — , or /' + c — / ' x § 

(nearly), for/' in the general equations (1) and (2), we will find cor- 
rect values for d and /. Thus in examples 1 and 3,/' = 10-]- 17 — lo 

X S = Vi =""1 '" examples 2 and 4, /' =: 17 + 30 — 17 x § =:y ; 
using these values ofy we would find in 

Example 1. — d= 7-4 feet ; 
Example 2. — d= 11-2 feet ; 
Example 3.—*= 5-9 feet; 
Example 4. — i= 11-4 feet ; 

all of which are intermediate between the former values and those 
found in the examples of problem 8. It appears therefore in these 
examples that fig. 4 is to be prefered to fig. 5. If we wish to have 
equal strength in these two forms, we get by equating the general 
equations in problems S and 9, s bd" + 2 s bdi -\- a /c''/=^ ^ 1^''/'+ 
2 s di'f + d''8b, and thence 2 A rf * + F/:= *'-/' + 2 di'f, which 
equation will furnish the value of any of the quantities when the others 



are given. By substituting/' 



2c-2/' _ 2c+/' 



for/', we take 



into consideration the weight of v^ater over K G ; in assisting the 
stability of the dam Fig. 5, this substitution gives us Gbdi -\- 3 Wf 
^■2c li"' -\-4cd h' + (It' + 2 ri ''')/', for a general equation of equal 
strength in both forms. 

The subject we have now been considering, is closely connected 
with the consideration of the comparative strength of buttresses and 
contreforts to retaining walls. If we put n for the weight of a cubic 
foot of earthwork or filling, and s for that of masonry, and substitute 



/'X 



c—fy.1 



for/' in the equation 2 6rf/t + *'/=; 2 rfA'/' + /t'2/', 



we get 2 hdsk + k'-fs = {k'-^ + 2 dk') X »g + (s »)/' ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^1 

equation of equal stability between buttress and aontrefort, by which 
we may with ease determine any of the dimensions by having the 
others given, as none of the quantities rise higher than the second 

power. The quantity — ^ is the height of a prism of masonry 

equal in weight to a prism of clay whose height is c — /. This prism 
acts with the clay or filling in moving out the wall, and also, from its 
weight on the cnntrefort, gives the latter greater stability. This 
double action often seiiarates the contrefort from the main wall when 
both are not well bonded into each other. 

Having pointed out the method of taking the weight over K G, 
Fig. 5 into account, where considered necessary, we will neglect it in 
the examples to the following problem, though the formulae are general 

2c+/' 
by substituting — —— for/'. 
o 

Problem X. 

To find the dimensions of a coffer-dam. Fig. G, sufficient to resist 
the pressure of a given depth of water. 

By observing the same notation as in the former problems, we get 
from the principles of the lever, 

*/A-' + (k + d + '^) +shdx (A + |) + sfkxl " -^^ ^'3 
for the equation of equilibrium, and by reduction we find 2 k k'/'-{- 

IOC «3 

2 k'f d + k'-f -\-2kdb + bd'--]-fk-:= i^ = m c' by putting 

125 
in = -5—. From this equation we find 

,. , 2k'f' + '2.kh me—'xkvf—yf'—k-'f 
a- -Y ^ Ad „_ ; 



Fit,', (i. 




A B = rf 
B H = A 
CE = c 



IH=/' 
H D^* 
FE = *' 



KE=/. 



/t2 J_ 2&rf-t-2/^'/' _ m e — 2/ d V — /' V — bd- 
f " / 



and X-2 -f (2 (i + 2 /^) k' = 



ne — 2bdk—fk-—bd- 
f 



From these equations we find, by quadratics, the following general 
values for d, k and k'. 

d ^ fme-%k k'f^' W^flc ^ ^f + ^fc V:_ k'f + k b ^^^^ 

j,^ / liK^2df'k'~f'k"—bd- bd+yy^ M-fA-/' ^,, 
V / "^ —7—1 "~7=~(^*- 

^,__ / mc' — 2 bdk —fie — bd- 



/' 



+ rf+7l= — 3. — k 



(3). 



When f^=f', as is generally the case in practice, we get by a 
simple reduction. 



'=\/'^^ 



■fy-ik+k'^) , *'/+ 



+ 



Jl^= 



k'f+kb 



(4). 



/ mc^ — (2 rfA -^ A-a)/— bd - ba + k'f ] 
V ft +6 



bd + k'f 



k'-- 



■{b—f)XSdZ±^dk) 



■d — k 



(5). 



(6). 



from which equations, by having any two of the widths a, k, and k' 
given, the other may be found. 

Example 1. — Required the width of the main dam in Fig. 6, the 
depth of the water to be resisted being 30 feet, and the other dimen- 
sions as follows, viz./=/' — 17 feet ; A = 7 feet ; *' =r 10 feet ; and 
6 = 33 feet. 

By equation (4) we have 



^=a/" 



X SO'— 17X 17= 



33 



I 10 X 17 -f 10 X 33"] 
33 I 



10 X 



17 -^ 7 X 33 _ / 12,500 — 4913 4oT|° 401 ^ 

~33 ~ '\/ 33 33' 33 



t/229-9 + 147-6 = 12-2 = V377-5 — 12-2 = 19-4 -- 12-2 = 7-2 ft. 
which nearly corresponds with the width of the principal dam in the 
coffer-dam iissd by Telford^ for bHilding St. Katherine's docks, the 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



S3 



other dimensions being taken from the transverse section given 
Journal, page 433, Vol. II 



in the 



Evample 2. — Other dimensions remaining the same as in the last 
Lample, what is the value of * when d and k' are each equal to 7 ft. 



exam 

From equation (5) 



/.■ 



= V- 



12,500— 17x (2X 17x 7 + 7=) — 33x7^ 7x33 + 7x171^ 



17 



7x33h 7x 17 
17 



V- 



.12500-2499-1617 350 



17 
350 



V'493-2 + 424-3 — 20-G = V/ 917 



17 17 17 ~ 

■ 20-G = 30-3 — -20-6 = 9-7 feet. 

E.i-ample 3. — Other dimensions remaining the same as those in ex- 
ample 1, what is the value of i' when d= 7 feet and *= 9 feet ? 



From equation (6) we have k' =: V 
IG 



12500 • 



16 X (7= + 126) 



— 9 = V- 



12,500 — 2800 



17 



V- 



,9700 



17 



17 



■16= v/ 570-6— 16 



23-9 - 16 = 7-9 feet. 



When/=/' and also i=i', we find from equation (4) by a few easy 
reductions 



d—^' 



m c3 (6-y)AV (/ + 6) X /' 



(')• 



6 6 6 

also from the general equation of equilibrium, 2A^/+ 2k/d + h\f 

+ -2kdb + bd'- x/i-2 = OTC^ = 4A=/+ 2h/d + 2hdb + bd^, from 

bd- 

, and by quadratics, 



, . , , bd + db mc 
which /i- + — k = 



2/ 



4/ 



'-^Tf + 47 — 



(i f)d 
4/ 



(8). 



Example 4. — Required the width of the main dam in fig. 6, the 
depth of water being 30 feet, and the other dimensions as follows, viz. 
t'=*=8 feet,/=/'= 15 feet, and 6 = 34 feet. 



,12,500 , (34 
From equation (7) a ■=z v „ + 



15)11= (34 + 15) 8 



34 



34 



1'2,500 23,104 



392 
34 



= V367-7 + 20—1 1-5 = V387-7 



— 11-5= 19-7 — 11-5 = 8-2 feet, the width required. 

Example 5. — What is the value of i=i' when the depth of water 
is 27 feet/= 15 feet, 6 = 30 feet, and i=6 feet? 



From equation (8) A =: V- 
9 



M X 27' 30 — 15 X 6> 45 x ' 



,91,125 
= ^-600" ^ 4 



60 60 

4-5 = V 15 1-9 + 2-2— 4-5 : 



60 
VIsFl 



— 4-5 = 12-4 — 45 = 7-9. 



Example 6. — What width shall vpe adopt for the main dam, the 
depth of the water being IS feet, when /{•= i'= 5 feet,/=/'= 12 feet, 
and 6 = 21 feet? 



d=^-- 



r= 18^ (21— 12)X5> (21 + 12) x 5 



21 



21 



21 



,2700 



2JJ25 
iTl 



165 
IT 



= Vl28-6 + 4-6 — 7-9 = V 133-2— 7-9 



= 3-6 feet, the width required. If s = 80Itjs., we would find d = 
4-3 feet ; and if s was still farther reduced to GO His., d would require 
to be increased to 6-1 feet. 

It appears that the value of s in the foregoing formulae greatly 
operates on the result in finding the width of the cofier-dam under its 
different forms. Unless where otherwise mentioned it has been taken 
at 90 lbs. in the examples given, but this value may be much reduced 
if water presses under the dam, and the reduction will be in proportion 
to the quantity of the, bottgin surface pressed upon, or exposed to the 



action of the water. As the construction of some forms of coffer-dams 
are more liable to admit water underneath than others, s may proba- 
bly in such cases have to be reduced so low as 60 lbs. 

The dimensions in the last example are nearly those of the coffer- 
dam used by Simple for constructing the piers of Essex Bridge, in 
Dublin, in 1753, the depth of water varying from 13 to 2l) feet along 
the line of the coffer-dam. This coffer-dam deserves particular atten- 
tion as being probably the first constructed in the kingdom, at that 
time, for such a depth of water ; and from the difficulties the engineer 
had to encounter in the execution of the work, and overcoming one of 
the prejudices of the time then supported by the authority of a 
Labylye. 

Figs. 7 and 8 show a plan and section of the coffer-dam taken fiom 
Semplt's Treatise of Building in Wakr, which the author acknow- 
ledges to have taken from Belidor'i Hydraulic Architecture. The 

Fig. 7. 




Tig. 8. 




piles are about 6 inches square, placed at 4 feet apart along the line of 
the dam, and sheeted along the inside with, apparently, inch boarding. 
B high-water mark, A low-water mark, D bed of river, C C occasional 
braces, f, g, and e, auxiliary braces, and P pudling. The width be- 
tween the sheeting from out to out is 15 feet, and the main dam is 5 
feet wide. This construction is however far inferior to that of con- 
tinuous sheet piling as adopted at St. Katherine's Docks, and at the 
New Houses of Parliament ; as the resistance, offered by the depth of 
bed penetrated by the pileing, is trifling in the former plan compared 
with that in the latter, but on the other hand the quantity of timber 
employed is less in the former. 

It may be necessary in conclusion, to remark that the depth of water 
ought to be taken from the surface to the bottom of the exposed coffer- 
dam, inside ; for though that depth may not be on the outside, yet the 
water generally forces its way down so far ; or if not, forces the bed 
with nearly an equivalent pressure against the coffer-dam. 



Ancient Greek Mwuiseript.— An important discovery has been made by M. 
Didron, during his recent archaeological tour in Greece and Turkey, of a 
Greek manuscript, about 900 years old, containing a complete code of reli- 
gious monumental paintings. This document, found at Mount Athos, gives 
lull instru tions concerning all the subjects and persons that ought to be 
painted in chnrclies, with the age, costume, and attributes that each fi.gure 
ought to have. A copy of this manuscript is making at Mount Athos \villi 
the greatest care. Another mrinuscript, containing a similar code on religious 
architecture, is believed by M. Didron to c.-dst at Adrianople, and he has 
some hopes of obtaining it. — French paper. 

M 2 



84 



THE CIVIL EN(JINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



LONDON AND WESTMINSTER BANK. 

WITH AN ENGRAVING, PLATE \1II. 

'CiiK !ircoinp;inving Piigraving originally appeared in tlio AHnn, from 
nliicli alsowu are enabletl to give the following description of tile 
building. 

Tliis new liKJlding for the city estahlisliment of tin' London and 
Wi-stininstrr Bulk, which was completed in the latter part of 183s, 
under the joint professional superintendence of Mr. (J. U. Cockerell 
and Mr. Williani Tile, architects, is situated iuLothhury, immediately 
opposite to Ihe Himk of England. The whole structure- occupies a 
site of nearly eighty feet in frontage, and ninety in <lepth. The en- 
trance front possesses, not only from its extent, hut from its architec- 
tural treatment, a bold and imposing character. It displays, indeed, 
no ciilmnir.u- decorations, no hundredth edition of an apjuuvcd portico; 
but its comjiosition has the much greater merit of strict appropriate- 
ness, simplicitv in general forms; such simplicity, w'c mean, as con- 
duces to unity", together with a jjerfect expression of purpose ; an air 
of solidity and strength, and a judicious erpudity of decoration. The 
facade consists of one general plane or face, broke only by an advancing 
pier at each end. It lias seven apertures in the length, and three tiers 
(d'lliem in the height; the two lower tiers, comprehending the open- 
ings on the ground and one-pair lloors, are included in one architectural 
slliry, or order, if such it may he called; the upper tier, which con- 
sists of the windows of the tvvo-pair floor, being contained in an attic 
story. The whole of the front is of Portland stone, w ith the exception 
of the plinth, which is from the Bramley-fall quarries. To describe 
the front rather more in detail, we may state that the substructure is a 
stylotjate, or continuous pedestal, resting upon a deep rock-faced 
plinth. From this stylobate rise broad pilasters, or rusticated jiiers, 
in courses (if alternate widths; the whole including, as we have said, 
two tiers (d' openings, and snrmountcil by a regular entablature, the 
cornice of which is enriched with luodillions. Of the seven compart- 
ments into wliich the front is divided, the central one is somewhat 
wider than the rest, and displays, on the ground floor, a handsome en- 
trance doorway of large proportions, and deeply recessed, approached 
nv several steps externally, and having the flight continued within. 
The remaining intervals aflbid six large windows, each being so wide 
as to admit oi subdivision by two niullious and a transuni of cast iron, 
of elegant design and novel structure ; the isolated niullion partaking 
of the character of an antique candelabrum at the base, and tinishing 
with a scroll or console at the top : very wide and lofty Venetian win- 
dows are thus obtained, without allecting the real or the apparent 
solidity of the fabric, and the great and important problem (as applied 
to the City of London), namely, to obtain the largest possible admis- 
sion of light, with the smalles't obstruction of solids or piers, is most 
etlcctually, and, at the same time, architecturally attained. These 
windows are fuinished with Bunnett and Corpe's iron shutters. The 
•windows abuve, upon the one-pair story, are narrower than the former, 
and conse(|uciitly leave, on each side between the rusticated piers, in- 
tervals available for decoration: these are sculptured alternately with 
cadueei, the invariable commercial symbol, and with the bundle of 
slicks, expressive of the tvs iinitafortiin; so appropriate to the union, 
or joint-stock association, of this establishment. In consequence of 
the advance of the two end jucrs in the princip;d order before-men- 
tioned, there is gained in front of the attic story, whic h is not similarly 
broken, sullicicnt s])ace for the display of two statues of seated female 
figures, emblematical of the commercial interests of London and West- 
minster, and having shields charged respectively with the arms of 
those cities; a mode of applying statuary to tlie purjioses of external 
decoration, enlivening and appropriate to the general structure, and 
etrective as regards the proper development of the subjects themselves. 
These figures are designed (and one of them— that of London — we 
understand to have been modelled) by Mr. Cockerell, and executed by 
Mr. Nicholl. 

But it is time that we pass to the notice of the interior. The en- 
trance vestibule or avenue has, on each side, a line of four plain Doric 
columns, with appropriate entablature and decorative mouldings. Its 
ellcct is, however, unavoidably impaired by the interference of two 
pairs of screen doors, tliough these are panelled and surrounded with 
plate glass, to obviate the objection as tar as possible. Krcun this 
anqde vestibule, access is gained on the right to tlie country bank, the 
jnincipal staircase, and some olficial apartments ; and, directly in front, 
to the ])riucipal, or town bank. The latter apartment is not only by 
far the most considerable in the buililiiig, but is unequalled in import- 
ance by anything of the kind in London, except iu the case of some 
otlices of the Bank of England, and in altitude it exceeds even them. 
Its general form is a square of about 37 feet, whose height is that of 
the entire building — namely, 63 feet G — and is extended by latera 



additions, east and west, to a portion of this height. These additions 
or aisles are divided from the centre, on each side, by an arcade of 
three arclics, springing from Doric columns of the same size and order 
with those of the vestibule, with cornices. The columns themselves, 
in common with all the other features of the design, display a sober 
and subdued stvie of decoration or enrichment, being fluteil only at the 
upper and lower extremities, and elevated upon plain flat plinths. The 
surrounding walls are channelled in rustic courses to the height of this 
order. The aisles or extensions are sufficiently lofty, by tlie arches 
raised upon the columns, to allow of the introduction of a gallery on 
each side, tinished in front by a balustrade. Above this, the arches of 
the arcades run across over the aisles, and are intersected by a con- 
trary vaulting, producing a system of groins as ceilings to the galleries; 
they are also advanced over the main body of the buililiiig, and treated 
as a series of half groins, so as to afllird support to an upper |iri>jectiug 
gallery, which passes quite round the principal s<piare. The verge uf 
this upper gallery is guarded by a simple, but handsome barrier, coii- 
sisting of a double horizontal rail, sustained at intervals by ornaments 
of scroll foliage. Over this gallery the lines of the cubical form below 
are continued through, and gathered up, by means of pendentives, into 
a domed tigure, exhibiting nearly that portion of a hemisphere cut oli' 
by planes raised upon the sides of a square inscribed within its cir- 
cumference. The top of tills dome is pierced by a large circular 
oiiening for a skylight, the margin of which is covere<l, and addition- 
ally ornamented with mouldings and lions' masks. Light is also ob- 
tained by trijde windows, occupying the flat semicircular spaces left 
by the pendentives of the dome, on the three sides which are exposed 
to the view of a person entering, in the manner of the imperial Roman 
baths : these windows are filled with glass in geometrical compart- 
ments, alternately ground and ])olished. Smaller semicircular windows 
are introduced likewise in the three arches on the north side, which 
form a continuation to those of the lateral arcades, so that a very sulli- 
cient light has been contrived thronghout this vast apartment, sur- 
rounded as it is with lofty and close buildings on all sides. .Such is a 
general description of this apartment, the composition of which dis- 
plays considerable novelty of adaptation, magnitude of proportions, 
and felicity of eft'ect. The general forms arc very happily divcrsilicd, 
and the decorative details distributed with equality; except, indeed, 
that the eye would have welcomed the application of some enrichment 
to the large expanse of the dome, which is left entirely plain. The 
fittings up are in a style of appropriate completeness; comprising 
handsomely finished and extensive ranges of counters; a massive cen- 
tral stove, of consistent design, being a bee-hive, round which the arms 
of London and Westminster, and the guardian of British commerce, as 
well as of govermeiit — the lion — are ranged with taste and propriety ; 
an hydraulic apparatus, by which plate chests and cash boxes may be 
lowered into the basement story for security, or brought up with great 
facility, and other minor appurtenances. 



RAMBLES BY PHILOMUSJEUS.— No. V. 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

Aftkr this establishment lias been partially closed for months, its 
directors have felt themselves compelled to show the public that at 
least they have not run away with the collections. They still keep the 
long gallery closed, and have thrown open two new galleries, in which 
a few unnamed articles are placed in undescribalile confusion. Wo 
have seen representations id' the plunder oi" a wreck by a crowd of 
savages, one with a pair of breeches in his arms, another with a coat 
matted round Ills waist, running from one package to another, ran- 
sacking their contents, and then throwing them about in confusion^ and 
such is the state of the Museum. Egyptian coffins in one place, 
Etruscan tombs in another, all in most admirable disorder, the passages 
choked up, the rooms encumbered, and packages covered with the 
dust of months, accusing the ineHiciency of the officers of the establish- 
ment. Nothing, perhaps, more nearly resembles the Spectator's de- 
scription of a monkey in an Egyptian temple, ranging about not 
knowing what to do, and then establishing himself in a corner. That 
this insliliitiiin has tlie active services of many men of the highest 
ability we fully recognize ; we do not complain that there are not 
enough men of talent, we only call for the ein])loyincnt of more rou- 
tine-working men. We are sure there are numbers of young men, 
sufficiently qualified, who, for a small remuneration, and many indeed 
for none at all, who would, under the superintendence of the officers, 
be competent to ;\ssist in the classification, without requiring a per« 
manent employment in the establishment. We know that tiiere is a 
great want of room, that the architegtural department is sadly cramped. 




^ 



M 









1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



85 



but we are convincetl, noUvithstancling, tliat there is ;\ want of energy 
on tlie part of the ofTicers, which throws the business into arrear, anil 
paralyses the wliole operations. 

Tlio Long Gallery has now been closed nearly a year, and the pub- 
lic thus shut out from the Portrait Gallery, the geological and niine- 
r.ilogical collections. At the same time we know that Dr. Mantell's 
collection of nearl}' thirty thousand specimens has been purchased, 
and ought long since to have been arranged. The Etruscan collection 
has remained in its present stale during the whole of the last year, 
and thus has it been rendered totally useless. The Egyptian collection 
is, on the lowest estimaleT two years in arrear, and the Vase Room 
good for nothing. As to the mammalia, their condition has been a 
subject of ridicule many years, and every month, by increasing the 
collection, renders the absurdity but more manifest. The managers 
of this department certainly deserve the highest praise for their com- 
pressive power, in which, doubtless, they have hardly yet met with 
a rival. An old bachelor's travelling portmanteau is nothing to it; 
cats crouching under lions, deer striding over wolves, the cases, cram- 
med even into the crevices with stuffed animals, show a crowd of im- 
prisoned and confused creaturesj which even the ark of Noah could 
not equal. 

With regard to what has been done, it has been little indeed. The 
arrangement of the ^Egina marbles has been completed, the Fhidian 
and Phigalian Saloons have been painted of a red granite colour, 
which, it is to be wislied, may be continued throughout the whole 
house. The collection of lish, saurians, and batrachians, has been ex- 
tended, and the insects and corallines removed. At Paris, a much 
greater number of entomological specimens is exhibited to the public, 
and so far is the respect even for vulgar curiosity carried, that tlie 
whole of the papilionaceous tribes are shown, forming a sight of natu- 
ral beauty which is well calculated to strike the spectator with emo- 
tion. It is a national disgrace, that, ruling over one hundred and forty 
millions in India, we have no good collection of oriental objects, the 
illustration of our own antiquities is equally defective, and nrany de- 
partments flourishing in coimtries of less resources, are here totally 
neglected. 

As to the catalogues of public collections in this country, with the 
exception of a portion of that of the British Museum relating to 
natural history, they are miserably defective, and inferior to what is 
done abroad. The catalogue of the National Gallery is a gross im- 
position, charging one shilling for a book which contains about one 
jiennyvvorth of print and paper, and scarcely one farthing's worth of 
information. The catalogue of the Louvre, although necessarily 
restricted, gives much more detail, the name of the painter, of his 
master, the period at which he lived, the school to which he belonged, 
and a description of the subject. That of the National Gallery gives 
tlie name of the painter, ancl the date of his birth, and only the name 
of the picture, giving such references to the people as to a story in 
Tasso, and limiting the descriptive matter to a history of the picture, 
which, as many of the works are spurious or contemptible, is of no 
value. The catalogue of the antiipulies in the Britisli Museum is of 
no use, eilher to the artist or the public, giving the name of the st;due, 
and barely that! No — a Mithraic sidijectl Who knows what that 
means, or who can tell where to find out. The catalogue of the Paris 
Museum of Antiquities, under the same circumstances, gives a page or 
two of small type to an account of the Mithraic rites. That catalogue 
gives, in every case, the name of the subject, extent of iruitilalions or 
restorations, history, stone of which made, height and breadth, and a 
fnl! antiquarian and artistical account, with reference to the authorities 
of any peculiarity to be observed in the statue. To such an extent is 
this carried, that the catalogue is a complete encyclopedia of Greek 
and Roman costume, having the author's name attached to it, and in- 
valuable to the student. 

THE PUBLIC WALKS OF LONDON. 

Much is said about the public gardens and walks of Paris, nothing is 
said of those of London, except by foreigners whom they never fail to 
strike with admiration. The Tuileries, the Champs Elysces, the 
Luxemburg, the Jardin des Plantes, and the Quais have great and in- 
contestable merits, they possess features which we cannot rival, but 
those of London again are unexcelled in their own department. Each 
style is suited to its respective nation, perhaps it is a consequence of 
their several characters, perhaps a cause. We see at once the French- 
man in the classic statues, in the ordonnanced foliage, the imprisoned 
orange trees, and the straight walks. The Englishman seems to im- 
press his own character in the grassy slopes, luxuriant timber, anti 
placid waters of the scenes in which he epitomizes his beloved isle. 
The Frenchman knows no paradise without artifice, the Englishman 
none without nature, the American hates even the sight of a tree. 
That of which we have to complain is neither the graiKie,ur nor extent 



of our public walks, but their unequal distribution. The parks were 
truly named the lungs of the metropolis, they are so, to the over- 
worked mechanic they are receivers from which he obtains fresh 
breath to carry on his life-shortening labours. Yet as in the human 
being if we had an unequal distribution of the respiratory organs, we 
should find an atrophy of the body, so in the immense metropolis an 
insufficient provision of these necessaries of life causes an immense 
loss of human existence. The southern portions of the metropolis 
between Greenwich and Kew are miserably unprovided, but it is 
among the impoverished population of the east that the want is felt in 
all its severity. So great indeed is the difference between the average 
value of life in the east and the west of the metropolis, that whereas 
in the latter it is 2-1 per cent., in the former it is 3-2, and in White- 
chapel it is so low that one female in twenty- four dies in a year, an 
awful mortality, scarcely perhaps equalled by Portugal or any other 
misgoverned country. 

The walks of London may be divided into two classes, public and 
corporate, antl the former again into special promenades and into 
thoroughfares and micellaneo\is sites used for this purpose. 

Among the special promenades are to be reckoned .St. James's Park, 
collection of curious birds, military monuments and music ; Green 
Park ; Hyde Park, military exercises and Kensington Gardens, mili- 
tary nuisic; Regent's Park ; Greenwich Park ; Kew Gardens; Draper's 
Gardens, Throgmorton-street ; Artillery Ground, City Road, military 
nuisic ; "Tower Hill, recently planted ; Lambeth Walk ; Cheyne Walk, 
&c. 

Among the other ]daces used for walks are the old commons and 
greens as Islington and Kennington; Chelsea Hospital ; the Cemeteries 
at Kensall Green, Highgate and Norwood ; the Docks, &-. 

We have not a line of tjuais as at Paris, and we should be sorry in- 
deed if we had, but we have points on the river allurding unrivalled 
views : — the Dock Wharfs, Tower W liar I, Custom-house YVIiarf, Tem- 
ple Gardens, Waterloo Bridge, the Adclphi Terrace, Huugerford 
Stairs, Millbank, Cheyne Walk, the Bishop's Walk tLambcthj, and the 
Terrace of Greenwich Palace. 

Coming to the second class walks belonging to and used by coui- 
inunities, we have the unrivalled squares, the gardens of Lincoln's Inn, 
Gray's Inn, the Temple, Charterhouse, i&c. 

These many establishments place London almost without a rival in 
the provision for this departiiient of public health, and in the beauty 
of many of the establishments and their accessaries, as well as in the 
splendour of the views which they afford, — unique prospects of one 
of the largest cities and ports in the world. 



GOVERNMENT MEASURES FOR STEAM VESSELS. 

It was with regret that we learned that on the first day of the 
session the government gave notice of their intention to bring in a bill 
for carrying out the recommendations of the Steam Vessel Inquiry 
Commission. This report has now lieen long published, and so far 
from attracting the support of those w ho have examined it, it has ex- 
cited cither open hostility or silent contempt. We had occasion on 
its appearance to call the attention of our readers to its provisions, we 
jiointed oid the meanness and paltriness of the means by which it was 
attempted to be supported, and the injurious results which must in- 
fallibly ensue from the enactment of its provisions. A case of grosser 
jobbery, or more iniquitous misrepresentation than is presented by the 
report was never hardly brought before the public. Had indeed the 
necessity of inquiry been so great as to require investigation only to 
ascertain the extent of injury, a case would at once exist for the ap- 
pointment of a commission, but when no such necessity existed, when 
no evils prominently called for redress, it was but a gross mockery of 
public credulity, and an arbitrary exercise of delegated power to in- 
vest men of whatever standing with authority, which they received as 
it were with permission to direct for their own personal advantage. 
What was it but calling on the commissioners to make out a case not 
only to justify their present employment, but to give them occupation 
for the future, to do as they have done in this case, to use every 
artifice of an accuser to overwhelm the object of pursuit? Has 
even common respect been paid to the judgment of the public, com- 
mon justice been shown to the victims of this perseculion ? facts of 
trivial insignificance have been overrated and overstated, a judicial 
investigation has resorted to absurdities to bolster up a false c.uise, 
popular prejudices have been appealed to, insufficient and untried 
examples have been enforced as of authority and example, in fine the 
dignity of the government and the people has been outraged, the pros- 
perity of the country threatened, and the vested interests of property 
attacked. And for what purposes but the grossest.' To furnish new 



m 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



places at the expense (if the best interests of the country, to subject 
the genius of its inventors and llie cliaracters of its manufacturers to 
an inspection more servile than degrades even a Frendi police; to 
stifle ingenuity, to give a monopoly to ignorance and indolence, to 
crip|>le the energies of the nation, and in striking at one branch, to 
prepare a chain for all. 

We have on previous occasions exposed the misrepresentations and 
fallacies of this report with an unsparing hand, and therefore refrain 
from enforcing on our readers arguments, of the truth of which they 
are well persuaded. We may observe that admitting all the state- 
ments of the commissioners to their fullest extent, they are but argu- 
ing from the abuse against the use, they are seeking to upset the great 
jirinciples of English administrations, and to foist in foreign degrada- 
tions; they are endeavouring to substitute for the grand principle of 
jirotecting the mass against the errors of a few, that of sacrificing the 
whole body to correct trifling abuses, a system whicli while it is being 
abandoned abroad, is endeavoured for the first time to be introduced 
here. Founding their claims upon untried or inefficient precedents, 
they call for powers greater than even these examples authorize, and 
make up by boldness of demand for the weakness of their cause. They 
rely upon the examples of the United States and of France, they dare 
to bring forward that of Belgium, they conceal that other circumstances 
prevail in the States, that the lavi's of France are inefficient and unob- 
served, and that Belgium has no vessels for which to legislate. 

This measure ought not to be, cannot be, carried ; its results are too 
evidently mischievous to allow us to believe that the parties affected 
can be so deaf to their own welfare as to allow it to be carried into 
cflect witliout resistance. We call upon them, therefore, to unite, to 
meet together and concert measures for the defeat of a project so 
odious and so ruinous ; it is only by union that this can be eti'ected ; 
it is thus the aggressions of government have been successfully resisted 
by the railways and other interests. We earnestly advise, therefore, 
that immediate steps should be taken for calling a meeting of the 
boat-builders, engine-makers, and steam-boat captains, and of all those 
who have property embarked in this large and increasing branch of 
the sliipping interests. 



THE STATUE OF HUSKISSON. 
By John Gibson, R. A. 

[We are indebted for this able paper to the kindness of our eminent 
and talented correspondent at Rome, whose love of art is only equalled 
by bis knowledge of it. — Editor.] 

We have much pleasure in announcing that Mr. Gibson is engaged 
in executing anotlier statue of Huskisson, which, we understand, 
is to be placed in the Custom-house, at Liverpool. This statue differs 
in some respects from the former one executed some time ago, in as 
much as that, the attitude is difterent, and we think that it is more 
dignified, and seems to breathe the true Attic spirit of a great orator, 
both statues however partake of the character of the Demosthenes of 
the Vatican, and the Aristides* of Naples. The latter was so famous 
that Demosthenes accused his rival Eschincs of imitating if, or an 
antique statue that resembled the Aristides, by folding his arm in his 
pallium when he addressed the public from the rostrum. 

As the former statue of Huskisson was sacrificed from the fact of its 
having been placed in a temple of too small dimensiuns, we therefore 
shall offer a few observations, lest the one we now are about to describe 
should share the same fate. The first statue was com])Osed in such a 
manner as to allow of its being seen in any point of view, and it ne- 
cessarily followed, that the temple should have; been of that magnitude, 
to have enabled a spectator to have encompassed with his eye the 
entire figure on walking at a sufficient distance aruiuul if, whereas it 
was found necessary to ])lace it with its back to the wall. Thus it is 
that the skill of the sculptor displayed in the com|)osition has been 
miserably defeated by the ignorance of the architect; in consequence 
of which the statue can only be seen in one point of view, and that, the 
most unfavourable, remaining enshrined in stone, hid from vulgar eyes, 
like the oracle of Delphi. The height of the statue should have given 
the architect the scale of jiroportions for his tem|)le. Arrian's de- 
scription of the Pontus Eurinus, says that thestatues anil images placed 
in a sacred edifice should always be in proportion to if, as being a part 
of it. "Quod enim ad membra sacrarum Ecdium etiam status earum 
atque imagines pertineant, docet nos Arrianus in ipso statim invitio 
peripli ponti Euxini." The proportions of temples with regard to 
the statues which were to be placed in them was strictly observed by 

* From some very recent discoveries wc believe that this statue called 
Aristides, is Kschiues himself, 



the ancients. The Emperor Adrian objects to the statues of Mercury 
and Fhilesius in the temple of Trapesuntia, as being less than the 
just proportions which the temple required. " Ibi enim Adrianum 
Imper: certiorem facit Mercurii ac Philesii statuas in Trapesuntiorum 
templo minores esse, quam pro ipsius templi ratis debeant." Bad 
artists place small statues upon large pedestals, thus showing their own 
ignorance. Vitruvius says* all the parts of a sacred edifice must agree 
in each single part with the general height of the whole. 

Trusting this second statue will not share the same fate, we will 
now proceed to describe it. The statue, like the first one, is colossal, 
Huskisson is represented standing in an easy and dignified attitude, 
the right leg a little advanced, his arras are naked, and the left one is 
raised towards his face, whilst the right arm hangs by his side, and in 
the hand he holds a scroll. The breast is naked, while the drapery 
falls within a short distance of his feet, and is brought over the left 
shoulder. The attitude is becoming the senatorial dignity of a great 
statesman, and is at once quiet and impressive ; from the stern and 
meditative air it might be almost imagined that he was about to sum- 
mon up to his bidding all the resources of his gigantic mind, and that 
he had grown a colossus in power, — that Demosthenic eloquence was 
about to burst from his lips. The head which we believe is a faithful 
portrait, has all the artistical attributes which are indicative of genius, 
approaching to the beau ideal of a philosopher, the expression of the 
face is severe, and the features are vigorously pronounced, the cold 
marble is made to breathe with a soul, nay almost with human intelli- 
gence. The nude is true to nature, yet all traces of mechanical art 
and vulgar impurities have been effaced by the magic touches of a 
chisel directed by the master hand of another Phidias, it has made the 
marble start into immortal life. The entire figure would seem to have 
been cast in that mould in which the Greeks were wont to form their 
heroes and their gods. The drapery is consonant with the subject, 
masterlike in style, easy and flowing, it is in fact the Greek pallium, 
consequently classic, and hence suitable to assist at the apotheosis of 
a great statesman. Huskisson like another Aristides,-!- has now had a 
statue laised to his memory for having caused by bis eloquence the 
embellishment of that city which gave him political fame during life, 
and immortality after death. He is fortunate too in having for his 
artist a fellow-citizen so distinguished. In the drapery of Gibson's 
figure we find that it is disposed with judgment, while the skill shown 
in the arrangement of the folds gives a rich effect, and the harmony of 
the lines serve to preserve a proper balance of light and shade. We 
-also remark that the angular creases, and the spirited touches of the 
details contribute to the grand ett'ect of the whole. To arrange ilrapery 
is one of the most difficult branches of the art, sculpture cannot as in a 
painting, imitate the nature of the stuff, and give the various shades 
of colour which have their origin from the reflection of light and 
shade. 

Quatremere de Quincy observes, " that ancient clothing is emjiloyed 
by art, not as ancient but as natural, not because it was adopted by the 
Greeks and Romans, but because no other can be employed in imita- 
tion ; and further not even so much because it is accordant with the 
metaphorical style, as because the modern costume is anti-imitative. 
This being the case, the interest of every nation requires that in con- 
fiding to the sculptor the task of perpetuating its exploits, and its 
great men, it should watch over the taste and the style of imitation in 
works, which while they inspire respect for the images so enshrined, 
may bear favourable testimony to future ages of the period at which 
they were upraised." 

No reasoning can be stronger than this, and we think the observa- 
tions of the above cited learned author irrefutable, but we will repeat 
that the modern style of dress is wholly inconsistent, and quite un- 
worthy of the dignity of sculpture, and we shall find that whenever it 
has been attempted, whatsoever might have been the style of dress 
of the period, classic taste has been outraged and every jjrinciple 
violated which is the characteristic of beauty in art. The object of 
sculpture is not to give an individual portrait dressed up in the whim- 
sical or the ephemeral fashion of a day, but to perpetuate the memory 
of persons by investing the lasting marble with the attributes of that 
classic style of art, which has been handed down to us by those whose 
works yet stand omni]iotent, and have outlived the wreck of time. 
Scul|itural portraiture in fine was considered by the Greeks and Ro- 
mans as a convention, at once allegorical and imaginary, sometimes it 
represented the metamorphosis of the gods, or the apotheoses of 
princes, warriors, orators, poets, and philosophers. The statues of 



* Vitnivius, lib. 3, cap. 3. 

f ^^'hen Smyrna was ilcstroyed by an earthquake, Aristides wrote a letter 
so pathetic to M. Aurelius that he ordered the city tolje immediately rebuilt, 
fur i\hich intercession a statue was in consequence raised to the orator. 



1S40.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



87 



Alexander, Adrian and Antinous are naked, and wore made ideal gods, 
they like the statue of Pompey, seem to have a mystic life, there is a 
very language in those cold, stem, and colourless stones, which breathes 
an air of truth and creates on our minds more interest than their names 
in tlie pages of history. The statue of Napoleon,* by Canova, is 
naked, and is an apotheosis; it is confessedly, grand, imperial, and 
collossal ; it has immortalized the hero, as well as the artist, and when 
we consider that Canova and Gibson were the first to set so good an 
example to their country, we must say that their statues will ever 
stand pre-eminent over the barbarous objects which disfigure some of 
our public monuments. 

We would ask is there a person capable of reflecting who has paced 
the vast sculpture gallery at Versailles, and not smiled at the absurd 
dresses of some of tlie marble effigies ; in days gone by they were ad- 
mired, and the persons they represented were doubtless, much venerated, 
but alas ! how changed, they now excite our contempt, and we feel in- 
clined to laugh outright at their antiquated costumes. The time will 
come, and it is not far distant, when the vagaries of our sculptors will 
share the same fate, and become also objects of ridicule. It is an 
opinion held by some artists that all monuments should have the figures 
executed in the style of dress of the period in which they were erected, 
but we feel sorry to observe that it is only interested and inferior 
artists who advocate this opinion, and it is because they find that to 
model drapery and the naked proportions is excessively difficult, and 
often beyond their capacity, they are therefore contented to please the 
ignorant multitude, who for the most part, like the cobbler could only 
criticise the sole of the shoe in the picture of Apelles, for which reason 
persist in perpetuating the fame of our generals and admirals in all 
the glorious absurdity of modem tailory — epaulets and cocked hats, 
boots and spurs. Of what possible consequence can it be to us that 
antiquarians should discover in after times that pig-tails were com- 
monly worn in the reign of George the Third ? and moreover, that it 
was a most singular custom with their ancestors to represent great 
warriors in a mutilated state, having only one arm, and sometimes 
wooden legs. This they would conjecture was done to bring to the 
recollection of the public that they had lost their limbs in the service 
of their country. Lest the time may arrive when even the name of a 
Nelson should be blotted out of the page of history, we would recom- 
mend that his amputated arm be placed by his side, to convince future 
ages that he was once a perfect being, and furthermore to satisfy the 
public who ever crave after monstrosities,!" the arms and legs of his 
brave comrades might be piled up in a group as monumental trophies 
of their valour ! Non eadera miraniur ! ! 

Felagrio. 

RoTne, January 18, 1840. 



Side View. 



DIOGENES'S SELF-ACTING GROUND-ROPE APPARATUS, 

FOR TAKING UP THE ROPE. 

Front View. 




* This fine statue of Napoleon is in the possession of his Grace the Duke of 
Wellington, at Apsley-house.— Ed. 

t We liavri ilogmrilical proofs tliat the French have outyeneralleil us in 
sculptural atrocities, for in the triumphal arcli of Napoleon at Marseilles, 
there are poodle-Jogs, and a whole legion of amputated urms and legs.^ 





REFERENCE TO THE LETTERS. 

Claws or holder for the rope. 

Bar for forcmg open the claws, in order to liberate the rope, or pre- 
vious to taking hold of it. 

Lower part of claw s, which works against the bar B. 

Small wheel (ixcd upon fore axle of carriage to elevate the fork. 

Lever over which the wheel D passes, and forces it down. 

Fork fixed on the same axle as the lever just mentioned ; but by being 
on the opposite side, it is raised as the lever is depressed; it is 
pulled down again by a spring It is to raise the rope to the level 
of the claws ; were the claws fixed lower, they would catch against 
the pullies. It should be observed that the fork is not raised until 
the claws have passed it. The rope is liberated hy a similar bar, 
only the fork for lifting up the rope is omitted. 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL STEAM ENGINE. 

[We have given this communication at the request of some of our 
readers, although it is not new, as we stated in our notice to corres- 
pondents. The motion will be found described in the second volume 
of Gregory's Mechanics, and the author there states that it was intro- 
duced in an engine erected at Bermondsey. It may be seen as we 
before stated at the Saw Mills in the Arsenal at Woolwich.] — Ed. 

Sir — I am happy to communicate my improvement Jon'^the steam 
engine. 

In all engines now employed the motion of the piston rod is com- 
municated by a connecting rod to the crank. This rod, by the nature 
of the motion always works obliquely. The obliquity of action is 
certainly objectionable, as it evidently occasions a loss of power. 



88 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



Accordingly, the connecting roil is always made as long as may be, 
within limits fixed by other circumstances, for thereby the oliliquity of 
its action is diminished. A method of communicating the motion of 
the j)iston to the crank, without loss of power by such a cause, has 
therefore been a (hsidiiatnin. 

The fundamental princiiile of my contrivance is, that the epicycloid 
generated by any point of the circumference of a circle rolling on the 
interior of tlie circumference of another circle of twice its diameter, 
is a straight line, tlie same point always describing the same straight 
line. Tluis, the circle A B F, fig. 1, rolling on the circle AC A', in 
the above-mentioned circumstances, any point, A in it, moves up and 
down A A', a diameter of the larger circle, It is easily inferred too, 
that the centre E, of the inner circle describes a circle EG, of equal 
radius concentric with the larger circle ; so tliat, were E and F con- 
nected, the connection E F would move round F, in the manner of a 
crank. 





Now, let A A' and A F, fig. 2, be tlie primitive diameters of two 
teethed wheels, in which the teeth of the larger one on the interior of 
the circumference, and those of the smaller on its exterior, so that they 
may run into each other. Let G be the extremity of a shaft concen- 
tric with the wheel A A', and carrying a crank GE, of which the pin 
at E is also concentric with the smidler wheel A F. Then, when G 
revolves, it carries the wheel A F with it, which runs on the crank |)in, 
its teeth at the same time taking into those of the wheel A A', and 
the point A of the wheel A F describing the path A A'. Reversing 
the mode of action, suppose the large wheel to be fixed ; then if the 
piston rod of a steam cylinder of which the stroke is eciual to A A', be 
jointed to a pin standing on the primitive circumference of A F at A, 
for example, the machine, with a fly on the shaft G, will work, so as 
that this shaft will have a continous rotatory motion. 

In this method there is neither connecting rod nor parallel motion. 
The ))iston rod is connected immediately with the pin on the wheel 
A F, and is led up and down rectiliueally by the very nature of the mo- 
tions. 

Now, the fact that no special parallel motion is recpured, proves 
that none of the power is wastefully exerted. To be more minute, 
however, suppose the crank in the position F E', fig. 2, A' A" will be 
the ])iston rod, jointed at A" to the wheel. Producing F E to B, this 
will be the touching point of the two circles. Draw A" B, A"E', and 
drop the perpendicular E'C upon A" B. Then A" E' B must he con- 
sidered as a crooked lever of the second kind, in which B is the ful- 
crum, and E' and A" respectively, the points of application of the 
resistance and power. Now, in the triangles F E' A'', A" E' B, the 
angle E' F A"+E' A" F (or 2 E' A" F, 5. 1. Euclid) =2 right angles— 
F E' A"; and E' A" B + E' B A" (or 2 E' A" B, 5.1. Euclid)=2 right 
angles— A" E' B (32. 1. Euclid). And taking the half sum of these 
ccpiations, we have E A F+E A B =2 right angles— (F E' A"-|- A" E" B) 
= 1 right angle, that is. A" B is perpendicular to A' A'', and therefore, 
A" B is the leverage of the power acing in the line A' A''. C B is 
also the leverage of the resistance acting in the line E' C ; and it is 
easily seen that A B=2 C B ; so that, as this demonstration applies in 
every position of the crank, putting the angle A" F B' = Z, and FB = 
1, we conclude, in general, that, 

1. The leverage of the power =sin. Z ; 

sin. Z 

2. resistance = — — \ 

3. The line of action on the crank is always parallel to the piston 
lod. Now, as could easily be proved, by this mode of action, namely, 
the parallelism of the impulse on the crank, the whole power of the 
piston is communicated to the main shaft ; and thus is my object 
proved to be attained. 

Besides the advantage already stated, this engine possesses two 
Others, simplicity of construction, anJ smaliness of bv>lki It differs 



from the common ones in this also, tliat with the same sweep of crank, 
it has twiiu> the length of stroke; and accordingly, as we see from the 
above two fixed conclusions, the leverage of the power is twice that 
of the resistance. 

I am, Sir, your obliged servant, 

Daniel Clark. 
Glasgnw, Dec. 19, 1S39. 



HOOPER'S POST OFFICE LETTER WEIGHTS. 

The accompanying engraving represents one of Hooper's peculiar 
letter balances, the merits of which are its simplicity and accuracy ; a 
grain in ert'ect would turn the balance either way. Although numerous 
devices have been inlreduced for this purpose, none that we have 
seen surpass this in utility, in which it is as much before its compe- 
titors, as it was in priority of introiluction, 




TilK FITZWILLIAM MU.SF,UAf. 

TiiF. FitzwiUiam Syndicate have reported to the Simatc : 

" That Mr. Easevi has corliliea to the Vicc-Clianci'Uov that Mr. Baker has 
cxcculeil works in tlie IjiiililiuH of the FitzwiUiam Museum to the value of 
£34,00(J or thereabouts ; and Mr. Basevi has tliereuiuin retommended that a 
sum of £5.000 be now paid to Mr. liaker on ncciiuiit of tlie saul works in ail- 
dilion to the sum of £25,500 already paid to liim on that account. 

" Tliat although the above-mentioned sum of £5,000 exceeds the instalment 
which Mr. Baker is at present entitled to demand according to the terms of 
the contract; the .Syndics, under the cireumsttuires stated in 'Mr. Basevi 's 
certificate and letter, bcL' leave to recommend to tlie .Senate that the Siiid 
sum be paid to Mr. Baker, provided Ibat be is willing to agree .'hat the 
balance to he retained by the Vice-t'hancellor until six months alter Mr. 
Basevi shall have duly certified the entire cimipletiun of the works, shall ae- 
coiding to the terms" of the enntiaet, bu not less than 10 per cent, upon the 
w hole amount of the contract ; and that Mr. Baker's sureties are willing to 
agree thiit the payment of the sum of £5,000, as above proposed, shall not 
atlect or imiiair their present liability under the contract." 

The .Syndics further recommend ; 

" That Mr. Basevi be authorized to order the execution at a cost not ex- 
ceeding £1,000, of certain works at the FitzwiUiam Museum not included in 
Mr. Baker's contract ; it being advisable that such works should be completed 
previously to making any further contracts for the linishing of the building. 
R. T.VTHAM, I'icc-Clmncellor. 

\V. French. O- Peacock. 

G. AirosLuc. J. H.vvii.ANn. ^ 

J. Graham. H. PHii.Port." 

At the Congregation this day, a Grace will be oftcred to the Senate to 
confirm the above Report. 



■ Mr. Basevi's certificatg and Utter will be laid on the Registrar's table,— 
CmnbrUlge Advertiser, 



1«40.] 



THE Cn^L ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



89 



EXPLANATION OF SOME TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN 
STEAM ENGINE CALCULATIONS, 

WITH REMARKS ON THE CORNISH QUESTION. 

Sir — The full and satisfactory account you liave given in your 
February number, of the new engine at the East London Water-works, 
must not only be highly interesting to those of your readers who are 
attached to pursuits connected with the steam-engine, but also to 
those who value truth for its own sake, inasmucli as it will very soon 
settle the long-disputed Cornish question, besides being of the greatest 
practical importance to the proprietor of mines and other targe works 
in all parts of the kingdom. 

It now appears that in my comparison of the Cornish and Lancashire 
systems in your number for January, I had, as indeed I wished to do, 
rather over than under-rated the power of the engine above referred 
to, and when I have all the data for going into the commercial part of 
the question — the comparative expense — I am afraid it will be found 
that the advantage of the Cornish system has been somewhat more 
largely overrated by others, especially with reference to the propriety 
of adopting that system in cotton factories. At any rate, when the 
proper corrections are made in my table of comparative duty, from 
the statement you have furnished, I think no one will be found to con- 
tend thjit/our, five, and even six times more work (as has been often 
asserted) is performed by the steam-engines in Cornwall than in the 
north of England for the same quantity of fuel of like quality. Indeed, 
the excessive degree of perfection hitherto claimed for the Cornish 
engine is much to be regretted, even if true, as it carries a certain 
degree of aVjsurdity on the face of it, that has not a little indisposed 
engineers on both sides of the question to a fair and dispassionate 
inquiry. With a view to expedite the settlement of the most im- 
portant parts of the question, and prevent that divergence from the 
main point at issue which is liable to occur with tlie best-intentioned 
disp\itants, I have made the following attempt to define certain tech- 
nical terms which prevail in this district, and it will be of use, per- 
haps, to some engineers both in and o\it of Cornwall. I am also 
induced to submit these definitions to the approval of your readers, 
because I observe, in Mr. Enys' remarks in your last number, a few 
slight misconceptions of my meaning, which, together with perhaps 
a want of strict accuracy of application in some of the expressions 
used by me, have led that gentleman to underrate the comparative 
duty of the Lancashire engine ; there are also errors in his statement 
that go to the disparagement of the Cornish system, which I am sure 
must be quite obvious to that gentleman, as well as the rest of your 
readers, on the slightest reconsideration of the subject — I more par- 
ticularly allude to the concluding portion of Mr. Enys' communication. 
No guess work allowances are at all requisite either for "vacuum 
imperfections" or engine friction and resistance in my estimate of the 
Lancashire engine, as the load on the piston of 10 His. per circular 
inch was not the calculated, but the obserred, steam pressure taken by 
the indicator, as I distinctly stated, and it of course includes the fric- 
tion of the engine, shafting, &c. The average steam pressure acting 
on the piston of the pumping-engine, was, on the other hand, not ob- 
served, but calculated to be 10-l)5 lbs. per circular inch, which would 
be the difference of pressure between one side of the piston and the 
other, due to the given load on the other end of the beam, including 
of course a small allowance for the friction of tlie engine itself, as was 
required to render it equivalent to the indicator pressure ; but no 
allowance was required in this case, any more than in the othf r, fur 
"vacuum imperfections." I purposely chose this method of avoiding 
the risk of making erroneous deductions from what I think is properly 
termed the "gross horse power," so that a more just comparison of 
the two systems might be obtained. Possibly some allowance may be 
required for pit-work friction, but as Mr. Enys seems to think that 
nearly equivalent to deficient water delivery, the omission cannot 
make much difference. 

From the corrected data now given by Mr. Wicksteed, it appears 
that the load in the shaft, 66,443 Bs. must be reduced for the leverage 
of the beam in the proportion of 10 ft. 3 in. to i1 ft., or to r)8,39S tbs. 
and this sum, jilus an allowance for friction, is the gross load in the 
cylinder, instead of 68,160 His., which I had before assumed from the 
data then furnished to nie. The jiroper substitutions corresponding 
to this correction being made in my tatile of " Comparative Duty," 
it will be seen that the latter will be materially altered in favour of 
the Lancashire system. 

For the purpose already stated, and also in order that a clear under- 
standing of the meaning intended to be conveyed in future, when com- 
paring the power or economy of steam engines, it seems necessary 
that some teclmical terms commonly used by engineers and others 
should be strictly defined. The following are dehnitions of such as 



are used in reference to the power of the factory or cotton mill engine ; 
and I trust that some of our Cornish friends will favo\u- us with a simi- 
lar elucidation of the equivalent terms that obtain in Cornwall, such 
as " duty, efficiency, &c." 

The "nominal power" is what an engine is called by its maker, 
and Mr. Watt's standard, it is w'ell known, was that due to an eli'ective 
pressure of steam in the cylinder of 6 His. per circular inch, and a 
speed of "220 ft. a minute for each horse power. The " gnms power" 
is the total power exerted by the steam in the cylinder, including that 
required to work the engine itself, or to overcome what are called the 
friction ami resistances of the engine, and is ecjuivalent to the whole 
force of the steam acting on the piston against a vacuum more or less 
perfect; or, in other wiu'ds, it is the force resulting from the average 
difference of pressure between one side of the piston and the other ; 
this average is that obtained by the indicator, and it is in general 
sufficiently correct for all practical purposes. The indicator pressure, 
it will be observed requires no correction or allowance for what are 
called vacuum imperfections, such allow'ance only being rei|uired 
when, for want of iuilicalur experiinents, the steam pressure in the 
cylinder can only be estimated from that in the boiler. The "cffe-clive 
power" is the total power exerted l)y the engine, or delivered at the 
crank shaft, after overcoming its own friction. This friction, of course, 
not only incluiles the friction, properly so called, of the piston, pump 
buckets, stulfing boxes, &:c., as well as all the bearing parts of the 
engine, but it also includes the resistances due to the water lifted by 
the engine pumps, and is a quantity that varies in dill'ercnt engines 
according to the dilVerent degrees of excellence in their workmanshij), 
situation, and other circumstances. In general it is found to be equal 
to from one to two pounds per circular inch on the area of the piston 
in the best mo<lern engines, but in a much less ratio in large engines 
than small ones. When an engine can be unconnected with the sliaft- 
ing, its own friction can be readily ascertained by the indicator; this, 
however, would only be what M. Pambour properly calls the "unloaded 
friction," fur, of course, the friction of nearly all the bearing parts of 
the engine uuist increase with the load in some ratio corresponding to 
the goodness of workmanship. This loaded friction is variously esti- 
mated by different engineers, at from one fifth to three tenths of thi^_ 
gross load ; and Tredgold estimates it at about -23^^ of tlu^ whole of 
the force of the steam in the boiler, or with the resistance to the steam 
in the passages, tlie loss of power by cooling, &c., included, he calls it 
•368 of that force (see Tredgohl, new edition, page i;)6). Although 
the unloaded fricti»ii of t\\e engine, when the speed of the latter 
admits of being easily regulated, is capable of correct ascertainment, 
as I have already stated, yet it is rarely so obtained in factory engines 
separately from the friction of the shafting; but when so obtained and 
deducted' from the gross power, the result gives a certain amount 
larger than the real effective power, by so much as the loaded exceeds 
the unloadetl friction of the engine. This result has been proposed 
to Ijc termed the "effective indicated power." 

The "net effective pontr," or available power of an engine, is usually 
understood to be the power delivered at the machine pulleys, or that 
which is eifective or available in turning the machinery, exclusive of 
that required to turn the shafting, the straps, and the loose pulleys- 
The friction of the shafting, when ascertained by the indicator, (the 
machine straps being thrown on the loose pulleys) is of course the un- 
loaded friction, and as in the case of the unloadeil engine friction 
when deducted from the effective power, leaves a result for net 
effective power somewhat greater than the truth; this result, however, 
has been proposed to be denominated the "net effective indicated 
power." This last is what is meant when the number of hoises 
power required to turn any given portion of uiachinery is said to be 
ascertained by the indicator. It is ahvavs understooil to include so 
much of the friction of the engine and shafting as is due to the in- 
creased load, ami is comraonlv, and I think properly, termed the 
" indicated horse power of the metchinery:' It is also sometimes called 
" available " power, but evidently without due consideration, that term 
being only strictly applicable wli'eu used to signify the net effective 
power, and which may be ascertained in many cases independent ol 
indicator experiments. 

Should it meet with your approbation, I shall be glad to furnish you 
with practical illustrations of the above remai>ksby indicatcn-, diagrams, 
and calculations taken from engines now at work in this county, pre- 
vious to going farther into the consideration of the question of thR 
economy of the Cornish system. 

I am. Sir, 
Manchester, Your obedient servant, 

Fti. nth, 1840 R. Armstrong. 



N 



90 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



STEAM APPARATUS. 

Sir — Having had my attention drawni to tlie notice of my lining madiine 
in your Journal of this month, page 28, and conceiving that your editorial 
remarks is calculated to \rithdraw attention from it, I beg to trouble you 
with the following CNiilanatiou : — 

The application of steam heat to the purposes of drying is very common, 
as every one knows; but, in aU cases that I am acquainted with, its direct 
application is fn the air in which the goods intended to be dried are exposed 
— that is, they arc hung up in a heated air. Ventilation is essentially neces- 
sary in everv' operation of drying; but the ventilation which carries otT the 
moisture evaporated from the wet goods, carries off also, a portion of the 
heated air before it is saturated with moisture. There is, therefore, a waste 
of caloric, or heat, in all systems of diyiug with wliich I am acquainted. My 
object has been to avoid this — to prevent any particle of caloric generated 
from escaping without performing its duty. The mode adopted in this ma- 
chine, is not to heat the air, but to bang the drying goods close to the pipes 
wliicb generate the heat, and in such a manner as shall form an entire sheet, 
clositiff in and coverim/ the pipes. In this case it is evident that no heat can 
escape vithont paasinff tJtronffh the wet (jnodft, for the heat is on one side only 
of tlie drying material, which on the other side is a current of air which 
carries off the moisture as fast as it is expelled. It is by this economy of 
lieat that we ai'e enabled to dry 150 sheets in an liour in the small machine 
at Abingdon. 

The principle may perhaps be better understood by any one acquainted 
with the common mode of (Irving woollen clothes in stoves. It is well 
known that the usual length of a piece of cloth is about 40 yards, and that 
the rack on which it is hung in a stove is doubled in two parallel lines 6 or 7 
inches apart, to avoid an extreme length of building. The cloth when hung 
is stretched on this rack, so forming a double line with an interval of 6 or 7 
iuches ; into this interval or between the doulde rack, pipes are introduced, 
the top of the interval being closed by a piece of board connecting the double 
rack. 

It is thus clear that the heat generated from the pipes can escape only by 
passing through the cloth. So effectual is tliis mode found in the extensive 
manufactories of Messrs. Wilkins and Co., near Bath, that a cloth which used 
to be fom hours in dr)'ing, is now dried in three quarters of an hour, wliile 
the fuel is diminished two parts out of three. It follows also, of course, that 
from the rapidity of the changes, one-fourth of the space formerly required 
is now sufficient. 

As applied to the dicing of wool the same advantage is discernable. In 
this case the i)ipes are laid under a perforated floor, and the wool so disposed 
that the ascending heat may pass through it. By this means two rooms are 
found to dry more than was formerly done in six. 

I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

James Wapshare. 

1, Great Bedford Street, Bath. 
January 29, 1840. 



A PARISH CHURCH BURIED IN THE SAND FOR 700 YEARS. 
LATELY DISCOVERED. 

(From the Churchman.) 

Of the many objects to which the attention of your readers is drawn, in 
the various departments of your paper, there is not one which can exceed in 
interest the following account of the church of Perranzabuloe, or St. Peran, 
in the hundred of Pydar, in the county of Cornwall. For more than seven 
Inuulrcd years it had been imbedded in the sand, from which it was rescued, 
in tlie year IS.I.'i.by the persevering exertions of a private gentleman, Wil- 
liam Mitchell, Esq., of Comprcgny near Truro ; and there are many conside- 
rations which remlera description of the church, in the state in which it was 
found, very o))portuue and seasonable at this moment ; for its jiresent state 
affords presumptive and internal evidence of the fallacy of some of those pre- 
tensions in wliieli the nicmliers of the Uoniisb comnamion indulge, as to the 
antiquity of tlie cliiireli, and the pomp and splendour of tlieir services. It 
wouhl be no ilidiciiU matter to prove, by authentic documents, tliat the first 
three centuries furnish not the slightest authority for those pompous cere- 
monies, and those pneiilc observances which were introduced, and wliich 
still continue to outrage the simplicity of the primitive worship. With 
respect to this particular church, the sand has been accumulating for many 
hundred years, but when completely removed, the church was found in the 



most perfect state; and it is a very singular circumstance, that the interior 
contained none of the modern innovations and accompaniments of a Romish 
place of worship, from wliich the evidence is clear and indisputable, that it 
must have been built at a period anterior to the introduction of the numerous 
corruptions, lic, of the Papistical communion, and gives sanction to the well 
authenticated fact, that, in the first three or four centuries, not one of those 
l)uerilitles and observances, borrowed either from Pagan idolatries or the 
Jewish ritual, were known ; for the truth is, what we see in Romish places 
of worship, is nothing but a transfer of what we read from the synagogues of 
the Jews, or the temples of the Pagans ; and which outvie in particular, in 
splendour and magnificence, the sacerdotal vestments with which those were 
apparelled who ofBciated either in the one or the other. The whole of their 
service is an appeal more to the external sense, than an address to the under- 
standing and the affections. There was no rood left for the hanging of the 
host, nor the vain display of fabricated relics, no latticed confessional, no 
sacring bell (a bcU rung before and at the elevation of the host,) no daubed 
and decorated images of the Virgin Marj' or of Saints, nothing which indi- 
cates the unscriptural adoration of the water, or the no less unscriptiual 
masses for the dead. The most dUigent search was made for beads and 
rosaries — pyxes and Agni Dei — censers and crucifixes. Strange that this 
ancient church, in which it will be borne in mind, everything was found as 
perfect as at the time in which it was first imbeddeil, should so belie the 
constant appeal to antiquity — to the faith of their forefatliers — to the old 
religion, as it is falsely termed, as if that were religion which has not a par- 
ticle of the simplicity and purity of the primitive church, to sanctify and 
identify it as a branch from the true apostolical tree! At the eastern end, 
in a plain, unornamental chancel, stands a very neat but simple stone altar, 
and in the nave of the church are stone seats, of the like simple construction, 
attached to the western, northern, and southern walls. With such humble 
accommodations were our fathers, who worshipped God, in simplicity and 
truth, content ! 

From the amiable and intelligent historian of the past and present con- 
dition of Perranzabuloe — the Rev. C. T. Collins Trelawny, a descendant, on 
the maternal side, of the good Bishop Trelawny — a name of which he may 
well be proud — one of the seven of the glorious company who preferred the 
gloom of a prison before submission to the mandates of an arbitrary papistical 
tyrant, — I have had an interesting letter, in which, in answer to my inquiry 
as to the present state of the parish cluuch, he informs me that it is not in a 
condition to admit of its being used for any purpose whatsoever, as it is 
already again entombed in the sand ! It was with extreme regret that I 
received tliis communication ; for so much bad my interest been excited by 
iMr. Trelawny's narrative, which is beautiful and will well repay many a 
perusal, that I was on the point of fulfilling arrangements I had made for a 
sunnner visit to the venerated spot ; but I hope that the same enterprising 
spirit l)y which it was five years since resuscitated as it were, and recalled 
into being, will be again interposed to rescue it from its present entombment, 
and be a temple yet appropriated to the serricc of the living God ! 1 know not 
the locaUties ; but who in such a w isb does not join .' and where is the man 
whose piety would nut grow warm as he worshipped within the hallowed pile 
of Perranzabuloe, as much as it would within the mouldering ruins of loua ? It 
may not, perhaps, be unimportant and uninteresting to add, that the tutelar 
Saint of Cornwall was Peranus, or St. Perrau, after whom the imbedded 
church was named, and that the memory of this saint is still cherished with 
fond veneration by the people of Cornwall. His anmual commemoration is 
celebrated on the '5th of March. Christianity was first preached in Cornwall 
by Corantinus, by whom the whole of the population was rescued from 
Pagan idolatry, and converted to the Christian faith, at the end of the third, 
and at the commencement of the fourth century. 

J.\MES RCDGE, D.D. 

Ilau-kchurch Rectory, ISth Dec. 1839. 



ARCHITECTURE AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

[M'e select tlie following remarks on arcliitecture from an interesting paper 
which appeared in the last Foreign Quarterly Kevieii'.'] 

Owing to the great impulse wliich has been given to building, since the 
peace, we have now, throughout the country, a show of very respectable bits 
of architecture — things of rather ambiguous or negative merit ; — Gothic made 
neat, Grecian made homely, Italian softened down to insipidity. In art our 
ambition is of a staid, modest, and reasonable kinil. Among all our recent 
works we have few of monumental character, that is, such as testify honour- 
ably to the power and taste of the age in which they were produced : scarcely 
any thing that is really imposing in point of scale, and not less imposing and 
dignified in style. Our classical school is mechanically correct, frigid, an 
mannered : we must not look to it for genialty of conception, masterly origi- 
nality, or happiness of invention. What beauties it gives us ai-e almost alto- 
gether borrowed ;— transcripts of good originals as regards individual features, 
which are, however, seldom more than merely put together, instead of being 
so combined as to produce an ensemble with one and the same spirit pervad- 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



91 



ing every pai-t, a kindred feeling dift'using itself throughout. Omng to an 
unfortunate Uttleness and feebleness of manner, buildings large in themselves 
do not make an impression at all proportionate to their size, but are reduced 
to the minimum of elfect. For grandeur and majesty of aspect Buckingham 
Palace will hardly bear comparison with that lately erected at Brunswick ; 
and which though by no means unexceptionable, proves Ottmer to be as 
superior to Nash, as Brunswick is inferior to Great Britain. What the former 
looks like, or rather does not look like, we all know too well ; but the other 
has a princely au' that bespeaks the residence of a sovereign. 

Contrasts of this kind are Ukely to pass for invidious, more es{)ecially when 
they happen to be unfavourable to ourselves ; yet the best way of preventing 
such is by taking a salutary lesson from them for the futiu'C, and endeavour- 
ing to be first where we now stand almost last. If, however, only to show 
that we wish to be impartial, and do not blindly defer to the authority of 
names and reputations, we shall here bestow some notice on the Konigsban, 
or new palace at Jlunidi, numerous plans and other engravings of which may 
be seen in the Bauzeitung for 1837. We need scarcely disavow any prejudice 
agaiiKt Klenze, for we have been charged with being much too favourably 
disposed towards hira our comments, therefore stand a chance of being re- 
ceived as free from bias either way. 

The principal, or indeed, only facade, namely, that forming the north side 
of the Max-Josephs-Platz, extends in a perfectly unbroken line for the length 
of 406 feet (English). It is G5 feet high, except in the centre, where the 
height is increased to 95 by the addition of another order, for the extent of 
eleven windows, or somewhat more than half the length of the front : there 
being twenty-one windows or apertures in each of the other stories. So far 
there are the elements of grandeur — length, continuity, loftiness ; and when 
we add to these, massiveness, both with regard to the relative proportion of 
solid and void, and that arising from the character of the style employedi 
namely, the older Florentine, it wiU be taken for granted that it is not at all 
deficient in greatness of character and the qualities allied to it. Nevertheless 
we are dissatislied, less for what it is than for what it is not. Scarcely any 
pretension whatever is made to originality ; the whole is too dii'ect and close 
an imitation of the Palazzo Pitti; the character also is palpably borrowed and 
assumed, with this additional drawback of being altogether exotic, and not 
at all in unison with any tiling else. As a monument, the oiiginal is a highly 
interesting and impressive work of architecture ; as a study, most valuable ; 
as a model, most unfit, — that is, for a palace in the nineteenth century. Re- 
com-se might have been had to the same style, but it ought we conceive, to 
have been differently treated, — in many respects considerably modified ; and 
required a livelier and more captivating expression imparted to it. Instead 
of this, the physiognomy given to the edifice is by far too repulsive and stern: 
simplicity has been carried to severity, uniformity pushed to monotony, and 
to the exchision of play or contrast of any kind. Moreover, its close general 
resemblance to the Palazzo Pitti is apt to provoke a disadvantageous com- 
parison, because after all it falls considerably short of that edifice in its mass ; 
at the same time that it is deficient in the powerfid contrast produced in the 
other by the greater solidity there of the lower pait. We do not approve of 
architectural duplicates, more especially wlien an opportunity offers for a 
masterly and original production. Such opportunities are far too precious to 
be neghgently thrown away, and ought to be turned to account by creating 
somctliiDg that shall carry art onward, and, if possible, give it a new and 
invigorating impulse. 

These objections are no way diminished when we discover that instead of 
the facade preparing us for the interior, it is quite in opposition to it ; the 
decorations tliroughout the latter, both architectural and pictorial, being 
scrupulously, not to say affectedly, Grecian, both in style and character. By 
Wiegmann, Klenze has been reproached with inconsistency for having in the 
Glyptotheca employed vaulted ceiUngs and other forms of Roman architectiu-e 
witliin a building externally professing to be piu-ely Grecian : — this, we must 
say, savoiurs rather of hypercriticism. But in the case before us there is a 
positive clashing of opposites, because though the apartments are in every 
other respect perfectly Greek in style and taste, their circidar-headed windows 
contradict it, and disagreeably remind the spectator of the still more decided 
difference between the taste of the exterior and that of the interior. Tliis, 
however, is a trivial blemish compared with one vei-y serious and pervading 
efect ; namely, that of the plan altogether, which so far from presenting any 
kind of beauty, any originality, contrivance, variety, contrast, or play, is ex- 



ceedingly commonplace and monotonous, and is inconvenient withal as can 
well be imagined. It is divided on each floor into two enfilades of rooms, ail 
rectangidar, either square or oblong, without any intermediate communication, 
except one part where there is a narrow passage for domestics. As far as 
arrangement goes, not the shghtest attempt has been made at effect. Not 
only are the principal rooms nearly of the same form, but nearly all of the 
same size, and so cUsposed as to occasion inconvenience, and exclude effect 
also. This will hardly be disputed when we say that the centre of the enfi- 
lade in the front of the building divides into a series of small rooms, having 
only a single window each ; and being appropriated as the king's and queen's 
bed-rooms, dressing-rooms, &c., entirely cut off all communication between 
those on either side of them. Thus, so far from any climax being produced, 
all sort of focus and centralization is destroyed, and the parts are disunited 
and scattered. In fact the whole of this floor can be considered as consisting 
only of private apartments, notwithstanding that both on the king's and 
queen's side there is a throne-room preceded by two or three ante-chambers. 
With the exception of the rooms at either extremity of the front, all the 
others must be inaccessible to those whose immediate personal attendance on 
then- majesties does not give thera the privilege of passing and repassing as 
there may be occasion of doing. 

We will not be quite sure that fresco-painting, when employed to the ex- 
tent which it is throughout Munich palace, is altogether the very best mode 
of decoration, or calculated to give the greatest importance to the architec- 
ture. For particular rooms and in certain situations, it may be suitable 
enough ; but it is hardly so for sitting rooms, where paintings upon such a 
scale are apt to become too obstrusive, and by their subjects forming too 
harsh a contrast — sometimes perhaps almost a ludicrous antithesis — to the 
famiUar details of social life : the opposition becomes that of poetry to prose. 
A mere picture does not force itself so conspicuously upon the attention ; it 
may be gazed at or not, studied or overlooked ; but paintings which consti- 
tute, so to say, the local scenery of the whole space, put forth a too du-ect 
claim to notice ; and though they may be interesting to the casual visitor, 
cease to make so much impression after constant famiharity. A great deal 
may certainly be said on both sides ; we shall therefore only observe that as 
decorations for the walls of sitting rooms, sulijects in fresco ought, w'e con- 
ceive, to be employed with some reserve, and not suffered to occupy too great 
a space of surface. In tliis opinion we are borue out by one who must be 
admitted a competent authority on the subject, and who has not scrupled to 
question the propriety of some of the most noted works of the kind. " The 
fai--famed Loggie of the Vatican," says Hessemer, " which ever since they 
first existed, have been extolled as the greatest models of decoration, are in 
fact not decoration at all, but a series of paintings covering the surface of 
both walls and ceihngs. As a whole they possess no architectural character ; 
and if the separate pictures, allegories, &c., have very little intimate connec- 
tion with each other, they have, as such, still less with their situation and 
with the building itself. As ottering an instance of the greatest contradiction 
between locality and decoration, may be mentioned the works of Giulio Ro- 
mano in the Palazzo del TV at Mantua, with regard to the pictorial but non- 
decorative merits of which I forbear to make any fm-ther comments." 

After our animadversions upon the Konigsbau we can hardly be charged 
with being indiscriminate partisans of the " Bavarian Ictinus ;" nor is it with- 
out concern we are compelled to admit that the talents of Klenze have not 
always been in proportion to the opportunity aii'orded, or in correspondence 
with the generous ardour of his royal patron. For the faults we have pointed 
out we are not indebted to his opponent Wiegmann : since he bestows no 
notice on any of Klenze's buildings, except merely en jjassanf, with brief and 
general censure, and without entering at all into particular criticism. So far 
his pamphlet has disappointed us, for though the title makes no specific pro- 
mise, we did expect that, whether for eulogy or the reverse it w'oidd fm'uish 
— if not a biography, yet something hke an account of the architect's profes- 
sional career. Instead of this, the writer confines himself almost entirely to 
the consideration of Klenze's principles and theory, as illustrated in his col- 
lection of designs for chmclies, entitled " Christiche Bauart." Of that pro- 
duction we cannot trust ourselves to speak, not having the volume by us to 
refer to, nor now recollecting more of it — after a single inspection — than that 
we considered the designs of rather mediocre quahty, and betraying a want 
of study. The specimens there given of Greek architecture as applied to that 
class of buildings appeared to us by no means happy models, nor calculated 

N 2 



92 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AllCHlTECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



to iiiilnicl, as they might liave done, hail the motives of each sulyect heen 
cxjilaiiicii. As little are wc able to say whether the severity of Wiegmaun's 
rcinarks, — his fastiiliousness aiul caiiliousiicss arc juslilieil by anything he 
himself has done, or by greater snceess attending his own princiijlcs ; to con- 
fess the truth, it is not very clear to us what the latter really are, or what at 
times he means to say. AVe may however venture to assert that several of 
his remarks come home to others besides Klenze, and who, equally bigottcd 
in favour of Creek architecture, are still more cold and pedantic in their ap- 
plication of it ; formal copyists, who do not even attempt more (hau a mere 
rcilection of (he anti(pic, and that only in particular features; and while cer- 
tain forms arc scrupulously imitated, fulcUty as to the genius and real spirit 
of the style affected is usually lost, — perhaps held matter of no account. The 
consequence is that the things so produccil arc more of less failures — neither 
anticpie nor modern — not a skilful adaptation of both, but a harsh aiul dis- 
agreeable conflict of ojjposing elements and contradictory ideas. Little does 
it avail for an architect to eiLhibit the most perfect Grecian portico or colon- 
nade, if lie at the same time lets us see that he has trusted to that alone ; — 
that so far from being a necessary portion of his structiu-e, it is a mere ad- 
junct which, (hough certainly not so intended, chiefly forces us to feel its 
own vast superiority over all the rest ; and the ditiiculty, if not impossibility, 
of making that which ought to be principle harmonize with, or even seem 
worthy of, what is engrafted upon it. Almost invariably do architects forget 
that by such adoptions they tacitly bind themselves to raise every other par* 
in the same spirit, and to display such powers as shall excuse their ajipro- 
priating the merit of others to themselves, by making it truly part and parcel 
of their ow n work. 

Unless this last can be efl'ected with ability, the antique forms will seldom 
be more than something hung aoout a modern building, — extraneous parts ; — 
not a consistent dress in which the whole is attired, but mere trimmings and 
appendages ; iutcnilcd to jiass for arehitectmal style, but oflcner making it 
all the more manifest, bow deficient the building itself is in character, and 
destitute of all that conduces to style. Nay, if, on the one hand, columns and 
other Greek decorations display the great superiority uf classical taste, on the 
other, they lose much of their original value and charm, by being associated 
with what but ill accords with them. Many a modern soi-disaut Greek 
building reminds us of Cicero's witty question to Lentulus : " Who has tied 
you to that great sword ?" — for with us the question might frequently be : 
MMio has tied that plain and insignificant building to that classical portico ? — 
It also generally happens that such feature is itself impoverished, iu order 
that the contrast betnesu it and the rest may not be too riiliciUously glar- 
ing. 

Diainctrically opposed to KleiEC, who considers Grecian or Greco-Roman 
architecture — for he docs not reject the Roman arch — to be the only style 
.•ulaptcd for iniiNcrsal aiqilieatiou, AViegmanu contends that the ailhereuec, or 
the altcmpt to adhere, to pure Greek forms iu our present and totally dif- 
ferent system of construction, is no better than pedantic afl'ectation ; and 
that they ought no longer to be retained by us as models. He further asserts 
that there can be no such thing as a permanent and unchangeable style in 
architecture, and that the endeavour to revive at the present day any by-gone 
blyle whatever is an absurdity, aud very much like trying to force a stream 
to flow back to its source. According to him, only that which is perfect 
matter of indili'erence in itself, and has nothing to do with style, can be in- 
discriminately adopted as suitable to all limes and all occasions. In this 
there is a certain degree of truth, but somewhat of perverscness also ; for a 
style based upon (ircek architecture must upon the whole be allow e<l to run 
more in unison with modern taste generally, and prove more capable of ap- 
plication to every diversity of purpose, than any other wc arc acquainted with. 
At all events Wiegmann himself has not even attc nipled to point out how we 
arc to extricate ourselves from the perplexities of his doctrine. He is not one 
of those who would discard Grecian in order to make way for Gothic, because 
lie rejects the (Uic just as much as the other. Neither do we exactly know- 
how far he really objects to the Greek style, or under what linutalions he 
cinisiders its adoiitioii allowable or even beneficial. That he admits the latter 
to be possililc, is, however, apparent from the commendations he bestows 
upon Sehinkel, observing : 

" He is an inspired venerator of Grecian art ; but instead of adhering to its 
''.xtcrnals alone,— to what was more or less conventional in it, and arose out 
^i the c.rcuwstances of the timss in which it noiuishcd— he has actually 



penetrated into its very sjiirit, and iu more than one of his works has shown 
that the rationality and beauty arising out of construction, — which stamps 
the works of the Greeks as superior to all others, may be made to ilisplay 
themselves even at the present day ; and that notwithstanding the great dif- 
ference between them aud the structures of antiquity in regard to many par- 
ticulars of design, such works partake infinitely more of the same spirit than 
do the ill understood and lifeless imitations of which Klenze has furnished us 
so many," viz. in his Cbristbche liaukunst. 

How the above passage can be very well reconciled with the apparently 
uiKpialified rejection of Greek architecture even as a type for us moderns, is a 
point we must leave to Heir Wiegmann himself to explain. In admitting 
that it is possible to catch the true spirit and genius of Grecian architecture, 
and to infuse them into buildings adapted to widely different purposes from 
those of antiquity, he admits that all we ourselves contend for; and in fact, 
so far advocates the very coiu'se we ourselves wotdd uphold ; — since few can 
be more strongly ojiposed than ourselves to that cold, fonnal, lifeless imita- 
tion of Greek models, which amounts to nothing more than the most servile 
and tasteless species of copying, — slavishly correct as to certain particulars, 
but egregioiisly ineoirect — absolutely lieenlious, in all that regarils taste and 
feeling. We ccrtauily should have been far better satisfied had Wiegniana 
explained himself so fully as to remove all apparent contiailietions, and to 
leave no room whatever for doubt ; still more, had he confined himself more 
strictly to architecture, instead of entering into vague metaphysical inqmries 
w ith regard to the nature and power of art generally, while he is so brief and 
obscure in regard to many points connected with the former, and which it is 
highly desirable that either he or some one else should render perfectly clear. 
What he chiefly proves is, not that Grecian architecture is altogether inappli- 
cable at the present day — such doctrine being wholly at variance with the 
very high commendation bestowed upon Sehinkel for the happiness with 
which he has in many instances made use of it ; — but that the designs in the 
Christhehe Baukunst are nearly all more or less defective, notwithstanding 
that they were put put forth as models for the instruction of others, nor was 
their author at all fettered in his ideas by any of those circnmstanees which 
generally interfere in the case of actual buildings. After all, therefore, the 
more important question is left poised in equilibrium, as much being conceded 
on one hand as is denied on the other. Very little notice, again, is bestowed 
on the buildings actually erected by Klcnzc, notwithstanding that many of 
them— not only the I'uiacotbeca and Neue Residenz, Init Prince MaximiUan's 
i'alace, Kriegsmiuisteriimi, Post Office, &c., are almost enturely iu the Italiaa 
and particularly iu the Florentine style ; yet whether the Munich arcliiteet's 
practice is on that account to be considered much move sound than liis theory, 
we are not ex|iUeitly told, but left to guess it as well as we can. Now this 
inilistinctness and indecision are to us liighly chsagreeable ; If Wiegmann 
thought he could even demolish Kleuze altogether and give the death-blow to 
bis theory in recommendation of Greek architecture, he should have showa 
himself more in earnest ; and instead of saying a ven* great deal that amounts 
to nothing, should have stuck to the main point, and there battered away. 
If he wishes to have it understood that Klenze is little better than a charlatan 
iu art, he should have put — or tried to put the fact beyond doubt, — should 
have left us no middle comse, but have cither compelled us to adopt, or called 
upon us to refute his arguments. 

Wc are, indeed, favoured with opinions as to one or two of the structures 
erected by Klenze at Munich ; yet mere opinions are very ihtfereut from aigu- 
ment and criticism : they may be correct or erroneous, just or unjust, but, if 
received at all, must betaken entirely upon trust, at least by those who have 
either not the means, or else not the ability, judging for themselves. Thus, 
Wiegmann dispatches the Kiinigsbau very summarily, caUing it a " verball- 
hornten Pallast Pitti;" and again, condemns the Glyptotheca as an unhappy 
combination of a pure Greek temple with a prison-like mass of building. If 
it is the absence of windows that constitutes the prison-like character coiU/. 
plained of, the same conqiarison may be extended not only to the temples, 
but almost all the other public ecUliees of the ancients, that are remaining . 
while if some other circumstance produces this eft'eet, it might not have been 
amiss to explain it to us. Is Wiegmann of opinion that the wings of the 
fai;adc are too low for the portico ? — that, instead of rising above the rest, 
the portico would have appeared more of a piete with it, if merely stuck ou 
to the building, and made to jut out fi'om it, the whole front being kept of 
the same height throughout,^ U«' docs he think that some windows boll* 



1840] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



93 



within the portico and on each side of it would have iniinoved the wliole, — 
have mitigated tlie too temjile-like character of the one, and tlie too prison- 
like aspect of the other ? This is what lie does not care to inform us ; neither 
docs he afford the least clue as to what he considers a more harmonious 
combination, hy referring to something else as an example of it. Tlie most 
therefore, that we can say in his excuse is, tliat he is kept in countenance h 
a great many others who seem to think that the mere expression of praise or 
blame is sutBcient for architectural criticism. 

This last remark applies far more strongly than we could wish to the AU- 
gemeine Bauzeitung, where of the various IniikUngs that have been repre- 
sented and described, scarcely one has had any comments made upon it. Yet 
this suppression of criticism can hardly have been occasioned by overstrained 
delicacy, because several would have afforded opportunity for descanting 
upon the merits of theii' design. Among these arc the liuclihiindler Borse at 
Leipsic, erected by Geutebriich, the architect of t'lie Augustcum, 1834-6 ; and 
Dr. Iliirtel's house in the same city, by Waldeiuar Ilcrrmaun of Dresden. 
Both are in a rich Italian style ; and of the two the latter has somewhat the 
superiority as to extent of facade, its front being 112 feet (English), in lengthy 
while that of the other is 108. Besides which it has very much the air of a 
public building, as there is only a principal floor with an open Corinthian 
loggia of five intercolninns, above the ground-floor or basement, while the 
loggia itself is decorated with compartments in fresco. As far as style and 
beauty of external architecture go, there is scarcely a private mansion in all 
London that can compete with it, certainly not one of recent date ; for even 
Sutherland House is but a very plain and frigi<l piece of design in compari- 
son ; and both Norfolk House in St. James's Square, and Ikickingham House , 
Pall Mall, are absolutely homely. To say the truth, it may fairly^challcnge 
almost any one of our Clubliouses, — at least of those already erected, — for 
we must not as yet include the Reform Club, whose facade promises to eclipse 
all its neighbours. M'e call attention to this example all the more, because 
we have nothing similar at home : on the contrary, so far from any stimulus 
having been given of late years to architectural display in the town residences 
of our nobility and persons of fortune, it w ould rather seem that the trumpery 
show and flaring tawdriness of the Terraces in the Regent's I'avk, and other 
barrack-like ranges of buildings of that class, have brought the system into 
disrepute ; and it certainly must be acknowledged that the plain and perfectly 
unassuming brick fronts of houses far more costly and spacious than those 
just alluded to, have a far more aristocratic look than the others, whose 
grandeur is nothing more than overgrown littleness, and meanness tricked 
out in the coarsest finery : truly they may be described as the very Brumma- 
gem of arcliitecture. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Dec. 19. — Major Sabine, R.A. V.l\, in the chair-. 

A paper was read, entitled, 

" An Account of Experiments made vith the view of asccrlainivij the Pos- 
sibility of obtainini/ a Spar/i before the Circuit of the Voltaic Battenj is Com- 
plefed,"'hy J. P. Gassiot, Esq. 

The author of this paper adverts to the fact, of a spark invariably appear, 
ing when the circuit of the voltaic battery is completed ; an eli'cct which Dr 
Faraday has shown can be easily produced, even with a single series, lie 
then refers to the experiments of Jfr. Children, Sir llumiiliry Davy, and Prof. 
Daiiiell, recorded iu the Pliilosophical Transactions ; in which experiments, 
when more powerful and extended series were used, the spark was obtained 
before contact took place. In order to ascertain, not only the fact of a spark 
being obtained, but also the distance through which it may be passed, the 
author had an instrument prepared, which he denominates a Micrometer 
Electrometer, and by which an appreciable space of one five-thousandth of an 
inch could be measured with great accuracy. He dcscrilics this instrument ; 
and relates several experiments which he made vitli a view to test the cor- 
rectness of its action. He first prepared 160, and then 3'20 series of the con- 
stant battery, in half-pint porcelain cells, excited with solutions of sulphate 
of copper and muriate of soda ; but although the effects, after the contact 
had been completed, were exceedingly brilliant, not the sUghtest spark could 
be obtained. He was equally unsuccessful with a water battery of 150 .«cries, 
each series being placed in a quart glass vessel : and also with a water battery 
belonging to Prof. Daniell, consisting of 1,020 series; but when a Leydcn 

tattery of nine jars >vas intrgiluKetl into the circuit of the latter, sparks passsU 



to the extent, in one instance, of six five-thousandths of an inch. The author 
mentions his having been present at the experiment of Prof. Daniell, on the 
16th of February, 183'J, when that gentleman had 70 scries of his large con- 
stant battery in action ; and having been witness of the powerful eli'ects ob- 
tained by tills apparatus, he was induced to prepare 100 scries of precisely 
the same dimensions, anil similarly placed: but although this powerful appa- 
ratus was used under e\ery advantage, and the other cft'ects produced were 
iu every respect in accordance with the extent of the elements employed, 
still no spark could be obtained, until the circuit was completed ; citeii n single 
fold of a silk handkerchief, or a piece of dry tissue paper, was sufficient to 
insulate the power of a battery, which, after the circuit had been once com- 
pleted, fused titanium, and heated 16 feet 4 inches of No. 20 platinum wire. 
The author then describes a series of experiments made with induced cur- 
rents. 1,220 iron wires, each insulated by resin, were bent into the form of 
a horse-shoe. A primary wire of 115 feet, and a secondary of 2,268 feet, 
were wound round the iron wires. With this arrangeiueut he obtained a 
direct spark (through the secondary current), sufficient to pierce paper, to 
charge a Leydcn jar, &c. Several forms of apparatus employed by the author 
are next described, and also a series of 10,000 of Jacubone's piles. With 
this arrangement he charged a ijcyden battery to a considerable degree of in- 
tensity, and obtained direct sparks of three-fiftieths of an inch in length. He 
ultimately succeeded in obtaining chemical decompositions of a solution of 
iodine and potassium : the iodine appearing at the end composed of the black 
oxide of manganese. 

Jan. 9. — J. M'. Lubbock, Esq., V.P. and Treasurer, in the chair. 

A paper was read, entitled, 

" On the Const met ion and Use of Single Jchromatic Eye-Pieces, and their 
Superiority to the Double Eye-Piece of Huyyhens." By the Kev. J. B. Reade, 
M.A. 

The author obsen-es, that experience has shown it to be impracticable to 
make a telescope even approach to aehroiuatism by employing the same 
oliject-glass witli an astronomical, as with a tcrrcstial eye-piece ; for if the 
focus of the blue rays from the object-glass be tlu-own forwards, as it must 
be, in order to make it impinge upon the focus of the blue rays upon the 
terrestrial eye-glass, then there will be produced a great orer-correction for 
the astronomical e>e-glass, and tiice versa. Hence it ajipcars that the appli- 
cation of lluygheuian cyc-picces to refracting telescopes are incom]iatible 
with the conditions of achromatism throughout the entire range of niagni- 
fyiug power : and that, in reflecting telescopes, they arc incompclcut to cor- 
rect dispersion, because tlncy arc not iu themselves achromatic. These de- 
fects the author iirojioscs wholly to obviate by sulistitutiiig, for the lluyghe- 
uian eye-]iicces, single achromatic lenses of corresponding magnifying jiowcr, 
consisting of the well-known combination of the crown, and its correcting 
flint lens, having their adjacent surfaces cemented together ; thus avoiding 
internal reflections, and enabling them to act as a single lens. The achro- 
matic eye-])ieces which he uses were made by Messrs. TuUy &. Ross, and are , 
of the description usually termed single cemented triples. 

" Meteorological Observations made between October, 1837, and .Ijirit, 
1839, at Alten in Finmnrken. By Mr. S. H. Thomas, Chief Mining Agent 
at the Alten Copper Works ; presented by J. K. Crowe, Esq., H. B M. Consul 
at Finmaiken ; coniinnuieated by Major E, Sabine, R. A. V. P. This memoir 
consists of tables of daily observations on the barometer and thermometer, 
taken at 9 a.m., 2 p.m., and 9 r.M., with remarks on the state of the weather 
at Kaafjord, in lat. 69' 58' 3" N., and long. 23° 43' 10" E. of Paris. 

J. \\'hatmau, Juu„ Esq., was elected a Fellow. 



ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

Jan. 20. — Edward Bloue, V.P., in the Chair. 

A paper was read, 

" On tlie History of Cra'co-Uussian Ecclesiastical Architecture." By Ilerr 
Hallmann, architect, from Hanover. 

Before examining the existing Russian chmches, the author thought it 
necessary to take a hasty glance at the origin and history of Christianity in 
Russia, or what amounts to the same thing, at the histoty of those churches. 
One of the first Christians in Russia was the Princess Olga, who caused her- 
self to be baptized at Constantinople iu the year 964 ; but the era of Chris- 
tianity in Russia did not eommcuce before the reign of Vladimir the Great. 
The fi'rst church which he caused to be built was that of Cherson, and, a year 
afterwards, be ordered the construction of the Cbiu-ch of St. Basil, which 
was, as well as the other, of wood. He sent an embassy into Italy, Arabia, 
and to Constantinople, to exanime the various rcUgions, for the M'cstcrn and 
Eastern cluirches were already separated from each other ; ami rriuce Vladi- 
mir, embracing the Greek religion, ordered the baptism of the wliole of bis 
people, and was the first to coniniencc destroying the ancient idols. Vladimir 
built the church of the tithe at Kief; and it is said that, at tlie time of his 
death, there were already 500 cluu-chcs at Kief. Prince Yaroslaf turned his 
attention still more than Vladimir to the construction of religious edifices ; 
he founded the churches of St. Sopliia, at Kief, and another, of the same 
name, at Novogorod : — they exist, iu part, to this day. He also erected the 
convents of St. George and St. Irene. In 1075 was liuUt the celebrated con- 
vent of f etchersky, i)t Kief, since wliich time the Pu«iau nietroiiglitaus re- 



94 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



maiiicil subordinate to the metropolitans of Constantinople. C'liristianity 
made rai)id progress ; there remained an uninterrupted communieation be- 
tween Constantinople and Kief, and various marriages between the two reign- 
ing houses of the two countries were celebrated. About the year 1121, a 
great tire destroyed COO churches and monasteries. In the civil war under 
Yisaslaf, Kief was taken; it was set on fire: and finally, nearly at tlie same 
time that Constantinople was taken by the Venetians, the city of Kief was 
ravaged and destroyed a second time, never again to realize its former splen- 
dour. Moscow is first mentioned in the year 1154, and at that time it was 
hut a miserable village. Daniel of Moscow added to it greatly; and, in the 
year 1304, under John Danielowitsh, the city was chosen capital of the em- 
pire, where, on the 4th of August, 1326, was laid the first stone of the church 
of the A55um])tion of the Virgin, in the Krimlin. Under Dimitri Donskoi, 
the palace of the Krimlin, until then of wood, was erected in stone ; and 
miller the reign of Basil the Blind (1425-1402), the church of Russia ceased 
to be dej)endant on that of Constantinojile, after the taking of that city by 
Mahomet II. In the year 1487, a palace, known by the name of the Granite 
I'alace in the Krimlin, was built, and in 1499 the Belvedere I'alace. Ivan IV. 
did much for the arts (1534-1584). lie likewise renewed the laws for exactly 
imitating the ancient painting in new churches, whence the reason why all 
the paintings are so much alike that it is imjiossible to judge of the epoch, 
but they may be regarded as a sure type of the earliest Christianity. About 
the year 1600 the Tzar Boris caused the erection of the magnificent elock- 
tower, Ivan VaUki, at the Krimlin ; and at this period Moscow reckoned 
400 cluirchcs, of which 35 were at the KrimUn alone. From the time of 
I'eter the Great, and particularly at Petersburg, a change of style took place, 
and the tj-pe of the ancient church was replaced by the absurdities of the 
rococo. 

After this general view of the progress of Christian art in Russia, the au- 
thor turned to the consideration of the Russian church itself, and for this 
purpose he chose for liis examination the cathedral church of the Assumption 
of the Virgin, at Moscow, as holding the middle rank amongst the existing 
churches, both as to form and time of eonstnietion. (1326.) The plan of the 
church forms an oblong square divided, and the vaults of which are supported 
by six equal columns in the interior. Upon a first glance, the form of the 
Greek cross is not noticed, but it is indicated by the arrangement of the 
cupolas. The more ancient churches often form an exact square preaeded 
by a porch, but here the porch is united with the interior of the church, and 
the arches of the cupolas are placed as if the church still retained the primi- 
tive form. The six columns divide the church into four jiarts from east to 
west, and three from north to south. On the eastern side are seen three 
apsides, only divided by the width of a pillar. The middle apsis is bigger 
than the side ones; this arrangement is found in nearly all the Greek chiu*ches, 
and these apsides indicate the situation of three altars, which are met with 
cveryvN'here except in small chapels. The altars are not visible to the public ; 
they are covered or concealed by the iconostasis, an arrangement peculiar to 
the Greek church. This iconostasis (or image-bearer) is merely a kind of 
colossal skreen, occujiying the whole width of the church, thus dividing it 
into two different parts. The iconostasis has three doors, a priueiiial one in 
the middle, and two smaller ones on each side. Behind the lateral doors 
there is a more particular distribution, which is, that on each side stands a 
second little iconostasis, occupying only the width of the little apsis, but the 
arrangement of which, with tlu'ee doors and an altar behiml, is analogous to 
the great one. This is what is met with in the ancient churehcs ; in the 
more modern, an alteration has been made, so that at the farther end of the 
edifice are seen, upon the same line, three different distinct iconostasis. Be- 
tween the princii>al door and the lateral ones, there is, in front of the iconos- 
tasis, on each side, a place for the choristers. Aliove and before the iconos- 
tasis always rises the i)rincipal cupola, and in the cathedral churches, at the 
foot of the ajjsis, opi)Osite the iconostasis which sujtpcjrt tlie cupola, are seen 
on the left a baldachin for the emperor, and, on the right, another for the 
metropolitan. As to the situation of the cupolas, there is generally one 
principal cupola in the midst of four smaller ones which surround it, and the 
small ones are nearly always at the four angles of the (ireek cross. In every 
church, the iconostasis is the principal part, which ought to be a represen- 
tation of the celestial empire ; it is eomjiosed of four or five different tiers, 
four of which are indispensable. Each tier is composed of an unequal num- 
ber of jiictures of saints, painted on tablets or long scjuare siu'faccs, the place 
of whicli is rigorously fixed. On the first tier arc the three doors; the mid- 
dle <loor (in two foldings) ought to be ornamented with the Annmieiation of 
the Virgin— tlie Virgin on one of the foldings, and the Angel on the other — 
accompanied with the heads or emblems of the four evangelists ; on the right 
of the door is the effigy of Christ, on the left that of the Madonna ; on the 
right, after that of Christ, is placed the picture of the saint or of the festival 
of the eliurch : then come the little doors ah'cady mentioned, but they ought 
only to 1)0 single doors ; above the little doors is placed, on the left, the 
Greek cross, on the right the cross of Moses, symbols of the New and the 
Old Testament. Such arc the indisjiensable arrangements of the first tier. 
The ground of the whole iconostasis is gilt. On the second tier, in tlie mid- 
dle, is Christ on a throne ; and on the right is St. John the Baptist ; on the 
left the Madonna (without the child) : after that appear, on each side, two 
archangels and six apostles. On the third tier, in the middle, is seated the 
Madonna, holding the infant Jesus on her knees ; on each side of her are 
seen the eSigies of the prophets. On the fourth tier is placed God the Father, 
on a throne, with the iufant Jesus ; oa each side the pictures of the patriarchs 



of the church. Sometimes there is a fifth tier, upon which are seen repre- 
sentations of the history or of the passion of the Saviour. The other parts 
of the church are ornamented with paintings on a gold ground. The forms 
of the exterior are very siin])le ; with respect to the upper part of the edifices 
the adoption is nearly general of the oriental manner of the eleventh ami 
twelfth centuries — namely, the entire rejection of the horizontal line of a 
cornice, as the crowning of the building for the substitution of arched, or 
pointedly arched forms — determining the extrados of the vaults. This cy- 
lindrical covering is well known in the east, and is even to be seen in Italy 
at tlie present day, in the environs of Naples. These extrados are painted in 
all colours. The Russian churches derive a peculiar aspect from the cupolas 
which rise above the roof. On beginning to build churches in the eleventh 
century, the prevalent manner in the east was natiu'ally imitated — that is to 
say, such cupolas were not employed as are seen, for example, at St. Sophia 
at Constantinople, or at Venice, but such as are to be met with in the churches 
of those times in Greece. The form of the cupolas themselves, which are 
generally placed on an octagonal drum, are extremely various, some having 
the form of a half globe, others of a flat onion, a bud, or a long pear, &c. 

Mr. llallmann next drew a parallel between the Russian, the original 
Greek, and the western churches w liich bear traces of Greek influenee. The 
first Christian temples under Constantine in the east, and even at Rome, were 
eircidar or octagonal, and were surmounted by a single dome : afterwards the 
same disposition we find in the interior of the chm-ehes, with few variations, 
but the exterior assumes the square form, as in the church of Sergius and 
Bacchus, and St. Sophia at Constantinople. This latter church already 
evinces in the interior the form of a Greek cross, and may be regarded as the 
basis of the Russian churches. At the end of the seventh century began the 
difterence of dogmas between the iconoclasts and iconolaters, which ended in 
the rupture between the churches of the east and the west. From this time, 
probably, may be dated the custom of not allowing carved images or statues 
in Greek churches, except statues of angels ; wherefore we see vieUo.i upon 
bronze doors of Greek origin, even in Italy, as at Monte St. Angelo, at Canopa 
in Apidia, and at Amalfi, &c. Another diflferenee, proliably one of the conse- 
quences of the schism, was the establishing, at each side of the grand altar, 
a secondary one ; not, as in Roman CathoUc churches, at the ends of the 
transept, or in side chapels, but at the extremity of the church, in the same 
direction as the grand altar. Their place is always indicated by a niche or 
apsis. In the Russian churches wiiicli commenced in the same century, it has 
been shown that this disposition became typical, and that it is quite con- 
formable to the division and subdivision of the iconostasis. This disposition 
is to be met with in nearly all the churches of the eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth centuries, at Bari, Trani, Malfetta, Otraiito, &c., where the Greek 
worship then prevailed. This situation of the altars is seen even where the 
churches are Roman Catholic, as at Palermo, in the chapel at Martorana and 
Monreal, and even at Amalfi and Ravello. Considering that this disposition 
is found in churches of an earlier date, as St. Parenze in Istria, at St. Fosca, 
&c., and that perhaps even the form of the ancient basilicas might have given 
rise to this disjiosition ; it may he very possible that the Greeks preserved 
this form as an ancient custom of the Church, and that it v\as the Roman 
Cathohcs rather who departed from it. This observation is corroborated, if 
we observe that the ancient writers tell us that there was, on the left of the 
altar, a place for the deacons of the church, afterwards called the sacristy, 
and, on the right, an altar for the consecration of the bread and wine for the 
communion. In Roman Catholic churches, we always see a sacristy at the 
side of the church, but, in the Greek Church, the priests always robed them- 
selves behind the iconostasis ; and, up to the present day, there is an altai' at 
the side of the present one for the preparation of wine and bread. Another 
very remarkable difterence in the Russian churches is the not having separate 
places for the women, and there is not a single remnant of a tribune or gyne- 
ceum — a circumstance the more astonishing as this disposition is met with 
not only in the East, but also in nearly all the churches on the coasts of the 
Adriatic Sea, at Bari, cic. The author concluiUng by passing in review the 
modern churches erected after Peter the Great, especially at Petersburgh, and 
by exhibiting and explaining an original design for a Gra^co-Russian church 
exquisitely drawn, and embelhshed with all the attractions of that gorgeous 
coloiuring, which is so pccidiar a feature in those eiUfices. 



REMAllICS ON ARABESQUE DECORATIONS, AND PARTICULARLY 
TlIOSi; OF THE VATICAN. 

Jli:ad nl the hisliliile of ISritish Architeets, Fdi. 3, 1840, 

By A. PoYNTER, Esq., one of the Secretaries of the Institute. 

It is an observation which has been very frequently repeated and very 
variously expressed, that the proper use to be made of the study of the an- 
cients in their works of art, is not to copy, but to endeavour to think like 
them. Among the principles which guided them, none is more important, or 
has exercised a greater inllui'nce in bringing ancient art to perfection, than 
that whicli has been so well condensed into one line by Pope, that 

" True Art, is Nature to advantage dressed ;" 
and if Hc wish to rival the ancients in the productions of wliat is at once ex- 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



95 



cellent and original, we imist like them seek for original types in the works 
of nature. 

That such a course of study would be analogous to the practice by which 
the ancients themselves attained so high a reach of perfection, we have suffi- 
cient proof. Nothing in art can be imagined more conventional than the 
orders of architecture, and yet Vilruvius endeavours to derive them all from 
simple principles. Vitruvius sufficiently indicates it to have been a received 
principle that the m6st conventional forms — and a more conventional form 
than the Corinthian capital it would be difl!ic\ilt to point out, were supposed 
to have been originally suggested by the forms and accidents of nature. 

To follow up the subject of these remarks, would open a boundless field of 
inquiry. I offer them in the present instance merely as prefatory to a few 
observations on the arabesque style of decoration, illustrated by a short re- 
view of the arabesques in the Loggia of the Vatican, of which the engravings 
are liefore you. I propose to inquire how far the artists who designed and 
c-\eeuted these arabesques have been indebted to the antique, and how far 
they have modiiied the hints derived from that source, so as to adopt their 
compositions to the purposes they are destined to fulfil. 

In speaking of these sorts of compositions as arabestiues, I of course adopt 
the term as it is commonly understood, and need not explain that we disre- 
gard both the etymology and the meaning of the term in applying it to the 
paintings and stuccoes of antiquity, which represent not only foliage and 
fruits, but also beasts of every species, and imaginary creatures combined and 
interlaced together. These decorations have also acquired the name of gro- 
tesque, from the grottoes or underground buildings in which they have been 
found — a term we have perverted still more from the sense in which the 
Italians invented it. 

It is remarkable, that the only mention Vitruvius makes of this style of 
decoration is in^reprobation of it — but he describes it so accurately, that the 
passage is worth repeating, if for no other reason. After pointing out and 
classifying what he considers legitimate objects for painting walls, such as 
architectural compositions, landscapes, gardens and sea pieces — the figures 
of the gods, and subjects drawn from mythology, and the poems of Homer. 
He proceeds thus, " I know not by what caprice it is, that the rules of the 
ancients — (observe, that Vitruvius looks up to the ancients in his day, that 
is to say, to the Greeks) — who took truth for the model of their paintings, 
are no longer followed. Nothing is now painted upon walls but monsters, 
instead of true and natural objects. Instead of columns we have slender 
reeds, which support a complication of flimsy stems and leaves twisted into 
volutes. Temples are supported on candelabra, whence rises, as from a root, 
fobagc on which figures are seated. In another place we have demi-figiires 
issuing from flowers, some with human faces, others with the heads of beasts, 
all things which are not, never have been, nor ever can be. For my own 
part, I hold that painting is to be esteemed only so far as it represents the 
truth. It is not sufficient that objects be well painted — it is also necessary 
that the design be consonant to reason and in no respect ofl'ensive to good 
sense." Pliny also laments that in his time, gaudy colouring and quaint 
forms w^ere held in greater estimation than the real beauties of art. But w ith 
all deference be it spoken, there is another side to the question, which these 
great authorities seem to have overlooked. Conventional decorations of this 
kind were within the reach of thousands to whom paintings in the higher 
branches of art were inaccessible, and a more general diffusion of taste must 
have been at once the cause and eff'ect of their universal adoption— how uni- 
versal, the remains of Pompeii reveal to us. If we examine the ancient ara- 
besques independently of these prejudices, we shall find endless beauty, variety 
and originality ; graceful details combined in consistent and ingenious mo- 
tives and analogies, and great skill and freedom in the mode of execution. 
We shall also find reason to doubt whether the introduction of the ar.ibesque 
style really had the effect of discouraging painting of a higher class, since 
even at Pompeii, poetical compositions of great merit are frequently combined 
with the lighter ground work of the general decoration. 

However fanciful and capricious the arabesque style may at first sight ap- 
pear to be, there can be no doubt that it may be treated according to the 
general fi.xed principles of art, and that the artist will be more or less suc- 
cessful as he keeps these principles in view. A due balance of the composi- 
tion is essential, so that the heavier parts may sustain the lighter thiough 
every gradation, and there must be such a disposition as not to cover too 
much or too little of the ground. Unity of design is to be studied in a con- 
nexion of the parts with each other, and in the harmony of the details and 
accessories, which ought as much as possible to tend so some general aim. 
It woidd lead us much too far to enter upon the subject of colour — but it may 
just be observed, that in the ancient decorative painting, the balance of colour 
is strictly attended to. Their walls usually exhibit a gradation of dark pian- 
nels in the lower part— a breadth of .the most brilliant colours in the middle 



and principal division, and a light ground thinly spread with decoration in 
the upper part and in the ceiling— an arrangement dictated by the natural 
effects of light and shade, and reflection. As lightness and grace are the pe- 
culiar attributes of arabesque, the foliage which forms its most fertile resource 
should never be overloaded; its details and modes of ramification ought to 
be drawn from nature. The poems of Schiller and other Gennan authors 
have lately been published with a profusion of arabesque decoration in the 
margin, which are well worthy of attention, both for the ingenuity with 
which they are rendered illustrative of the text, and for the accuracy, the 
botanical accuracy, with which some of the foliage and flowers are represented, 
and which form one of the greatest charms of these clever and original com- 
positions. 

Although the paintings in the Loggia of Vatican pass under the name of 
Raflaelle, it is not pretended that they are the work of his hand, nor were his 
designs. He was indeed the originator and director of the whole, and tlie 
character and influence of his taste is visibly stamped on every part. But 
his coadjutors in the work were artists whose names are inferior to none in 
the Roman school but his own, such as Guolano Romanino, Perino del Vaga, 
Benvenuto Tisi, and others, who were occupied not only in the execution but 
the invention of the details. Francesco Penni, and Andrea da Salerno are 
particularly noticed as being employed for the figures. Giovanni da Udino 
for the fruits and flowers, and Polidoro Caravaggio for the releivos. It may 
be worth digressing to mention, that M. Quatremcre de Quincy is of opinion 
that the sculptures of the Parthenon were produced by similar means, Phidias 
there peiforming exactly the same part as Raffaelle in the Vatican — and it 
IS indisputable that the combination of unity of design, with variety of detail 
which characterizes gothic architecture, could have been produced only by 
the same system, and by employing the minds as well as the hands, of those 
Ijy whom the decorations were executed. When we see perfection attained 
in three distinct styles of art, in three distinct ages, by means precisely simi- 
lar, it is not too much to assume that these means are probably the right 
ones. 

The Loggi ofa Raffaelle. as you will see by the large section w hich forms one 
of the permanent ornaments of this room, is an arcade in thirteen compart- 
ments. The arches are open, or at least were so originally, toward the court 
of which the Loggia forms one side. The opposite side, that namely which 
is represented in the drawing before you, is a wall pierced with windows, one 
in each arch, giving light to the suite of rooms which contain the great 
frescoes of the prince of painters. The ceiling of each compartment forms a 
square cove, on the sides of which are the pannels containing the series of 
scriptural paintings, the engravings from which are known as Rartaelle's 
bible. These are his own designs, and some are known to have been touched 
with his own hand. Both the lateral and cross arches are supported by 
pilasters about 16 (feet high, panelled, and decorated with coloured arabes- 
ques on a white ground. It is to these pilasters the present remarks will be 
confined. Each pilaster on the w all side is flanked by a half pilaster, in w hich 
the arabesque is carried through on a smaller .scale of composition. 

The description of these pilasters will be taken in the order in which Vol- 
pato has engraved them, that is to say, beginning on the side next the wall. 
I. Notwithstanding the great variety in the composition and details of these 
works, we shall find a general unity of design pervading throughout, with 
the exception of the last five of the series, which will be particularly noticed 
in their turn. Whatever form the composition may take, it is rendered sub- 
servient to the introduction of four medallions, or tablets relieved from the 
back ground in stucco, of contrasted shapes — one like an antique shield — the 
next circular — the third rectangular — and the fourth spindle-shaped. These 
medallions occupy the upper part of the pilaster to the extent of about one- 
third of the w hole panel, whde the lower part, to the height of the dado, or 
somewhat higher, is generally filled in such a manner as to afford a weight 
nf colour, sufficient to support itself by the side of that member of the archi- 
tecture, and the marbles introduced into its panels, following in this respect 
the practice of the ancients. These medallions might appear to violate the 
due balance of the arabesques if they were identified with them— but the com- 
position is rescued from that fault, by the separate character given to the 
decoration of the medalhons, and by their being detached, and hung as it 
were, independently upon the back ground. In the general arrangement of 
the whole, these medallions perform a most important part, connecting the 
pilasters with the panelled stuccoes adjoining, by their relief, and by means 
of an accordant style of decoration and a similarity in the subjects repre- 
sented upon them, neither of which could have been well embodied in the 
arabesque itself. 

It must be admitted that these compositions considered separately are 
somewhat unequal, and the examples to be first passed in review are by no 
means the best, but instruction may be derived from a consideration of their 



m 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



ilulV-cts. Tlie lUislei's of natural fruit anil loliagc wliicli siinouml the wimloMs 
are conlimieil t!irmif,'linut the series of arches, ami are nrL'-itly varieil in de- 
tail. Ilimi(;li [H-ecisoly similar in oompiisition. 'I'liero is nothing conventional 
in these festoons— the clusters are simply connected toKether by a sirinf;. and 
are composed of the most familiar ohjeds rendered with perfect truth. The 
melon, the orange, the ehesnut, the tomata, the olive, grapes of dill'erent 
kinds, pomegranates, gourds of every description, pine and cypress cones are 
those which most frequently recur, with their foliage and blossoms. Tlie 
artist has not even disdained the cahhage. cucumber, and the onion. This ex- 
ainplc may leach us that objects for decoration may be sought throughout the 
whole r.inge of nature's works with hopes of success. 

Unity is again lost sight of in the design No. 18. but the different objects 
wliich compose it, are harmonized upon a totally different principle from any 
which have been hilherto examined, aud the eOi-ct is rather clupendant upon 
colour than on form. The panels contrast brilliantly with the white back 
ground, and are relieved and rescued from heaviness by the sharp dark lines 
which surround them ; this is quite antique. 

Having now completed the review of tliis series of arabesques, it is not my 
hilention to detain you by any lengthened observations upon them, such as 
occurred, having been expressed on the immediate occasicms on which they 
arose. In the resources which the decorative artist can call to his aid, the 
moderns have greatly the advantage over the ancients, since we possess their 
materials and our own also. For as long as ancient authors arc read, and 
ancient art appreciated, so long will allusions to the manners, customs, poetry 
and religion of antiquity be familiar to us. and the symbols to wliich they 
gave rise be universally understood ; indeed numberless allusions of this kind 
are constantly before us, and are so familiar, that we forget to inquire their 
origin. In personification, and the embodying of .abstract ideas, the field is 
as open to us as to them, and we see to what advantage it may be turned by 
the examples we luive just |iassed in review, and if we add to all these objects, 
those derived from the useful arts and sciences which miy be turned to ac- 
count in the hands of the skilful decorator, bis resources may be consi.Iereil 
boundless. For as we have seen in these examples, it is not the familiar 
aspect of any object which should banish its representalion from works of 
fancy. Every thing ilepends upon its proper application. The ancients made 
the best use of whatever they considered most appropriate, and we must en- 
de.ivour to do the same. Thus on the pedestal of the c(}lumn in the Place 
Vendome, which is a professed imitation of that of Trajan, modern arms and 
habiliments occupy the place of those of the Roman period, sculptured on the 
original. Whether this translation be as well executed as it might be, is not 
now the question— I merely notice it as being right in principle. One fertile 
source we have totally unknown to the ancients, from which materials may 
be drawn for decoration. Carrying w ith them the invaluable quality of being 
in all cases significant as well as oni>amental— 1 mean the science of heraldry 
— I cannot help Ihmking that the Greeks who used so much diversity of 
colour in their architecture, would have availed themselves liberally of the 
tints of heraldry in their decorations had they been accustomed with it. From 
the personal allusions it conveys it might be made a much more important 
feature than it even now is in the decoration of private as well as public 
buildings, and we have only to study tlie works of the middle ages for invalu- 
able hints for the work in which it may be applied. The mere display of 
shields of arms is but one. We shall find heraldry intimately woven into the 
ornaments of our gofhic buildings, and he who can read its language may 
often understand an allusion in what may appear at first sight a mere de- 
coration. Thus one of the mouldings of the loinl) of Uumfrey Duke of Glo- 
eester, at St. Alb.ans, is filled with an ornament, which on examination 
resolves itself into a cup containing flowers, a device assumed by that prince, 
says a M.S. in the College of Arms, as a mark of his love for learning. 
Heraldry has not been neglected in moilern Italian art. and 1 remember in 
particular a very well imagined .arabesque in the Towu-liall at Folisno. The 
ceiling is covered with foliage, spreading from the centre. 

In the pilaster No. 3, many of the details are in the true spirit of the anti- 
que — Ihc single figures are less so. An ancient painter would not have 
placed them on a scrap of earth. In the Pompeian decorations, the detached 
figin-es — 1 do not speak of such as are inclosed in frames — but the ih'lacherl 
figures, partake of the artificbal character of the style to which they are 
■adapted, and if they are not represented as floating in the air, they stand upon 
a bracket, or a mere line, or on any thing l)Ut the natural ground. 

My olijection to some of the terminal figures is, that tliey are improb.able. 
lm]irobabli' I mean upon certain postulates, which it is necessary to assume 
before we can reason upon these imaginary compositions at all. The mytho- 
logy of the ancients has peopled the elements with lieings cimipi^unded of the 
human and brute creation j their intelligence being indicated by the first, 
and their fitness for the region they are supposed to inhabit by the second. 



There is nothing in ancient art in wbicli greater taste or judgemeiu is dis- 
played than in some of these combinations. The animal functions appear in 
nowise compromised by the mere interchange of corporal members, between 
different species. Such combinations therefore, as long as they involve no 
glaring disproportions, present nothing repugnant to the mind, and we art> 
so f.amiliarized to them, that we pronounce upon the success of the repre- 
sentation of a triton, a satyr, or a centaur, with as little hesitation as we 
might upon that of any of the animals of which they a\e compoumled. We 
are equally ready, or perhaps owing to a stronger association of ideas, more 
re.ady to admit of aerial beings, supporting themselves on wings, floating in 
the ether, or alighting upon a flower without bending the stalk; tlujugh 
these are, in fact, less prnljable than those born of the ocean or the earlh. 
Tietween animal and vegetable life there is also a sufficient analogy to attach 
some probability, or at least to afford an apology, for the graceful combina- 
tiuns between these two kingdoms of nature, invented by the ancients, and 
adopted to a very great extent in the compositions before us ; but, when we 
come to combine animal life with unorganized matter, the probabi:ity ceases, 
and ff. as in the case before us, the unorganizeil portion is something artifi- 
cial, and totally out of proportion, besides the combination becomes intoler- 
able. Thus we acquiesce in the met.amorphoses of Ovid or the Arabi.an 
Nights, as long as certain analogies are observed- but the transformation of 
the ships of Kneas into sea nymphs, is a violation of probability to Hhich 
nothing can reconcile us. 

No conventional form lias been more abused than the terminus ; intelli- 
gence and immobility arc the attributes which the ancients intended it to 
eniljody, but their apposite creation is totally different from anomalous com- 
p isition like this into which it has been tortured. 

In No. 5 we arrive at a superior composition, for it must lie repealed j we 
are examining the decoration of a single member of an extensive wlmle, and 
that, however beautiful each may be, unity is a beauty in addition. No ob- 
ject in decoration has been so extensively used as the scroll. The ancients do 
not appear to have been alhicted w ilh an unhappy craving for novelties, nor 
to have been haunted with the apprehension that beautiful forms of com- 
position would become less beautiful by repetition. When the most appro- 
priate forms ni architecture and decoration were once ascertained, they 
were continually repeateil, but marked with a fresh character, and stamped 
with originality by those refined and delicate touches which wers all- 
sufficient when they were properly appreciated. In the same manner willi 
regard to the ever-recurring form of the scroll, as long as the foliage and 
ramifications of nature are unexhausted, so long will it be capable of assum- 
ing an original character in the hands of the skilful artist. A striking illus- 
tration of this position ni.ay lie drawn from the ar.alicsques in the p.alace of 
Capsasola, where the pilaster of the Loggia are decorated with scrolls, all 
similar in composition, but each formed of a different species of natural foliage 
without the intermixture of any thing conventional except the regularity of 
the convolutions. 

For the magnificent scroll before us we are indebted to the antique; it is 
an imitation of the well known frieze of the Villa Medici, but the artist has 
made it his own by tlie skill with which he has adapted it to his purpose, 
both in proportion and colour. Nothing can be more happy than the manner 
in which the upper part grows from the original design. I would jiartieularly 
call your attention to the .animals — the squirrels, the mice, the lizards, the 
snake, the grasshopper, aud the snail, dispersed about the branches, so well 
calculated to fill the spaces they occupy, and at tli,e same time producing a 
variety which woidd have been wanting, had the fotage only been extended 
with that object. To the scroll in the half pilaster it is to be objecteil that 
it is a repetition in small, of that in the principal compartment — but if ex- 
amined separatelv, it will be found lull of instruction from the union it dis- 
plays of natural objects with conventional forms. The spiral line of the 
anti()ue scroll is evidently drawn from the natural course of climbing plants, 
— it is conventional in its openness and regularity. The involucra of plants 
furnish the hint for the base from which the antique scroll is made to spring 
and the sp.atbes of the liliaceous tribe fur the sheaths, of a conventional re- 
petition of which, the ancient sculptured scrolls principally consist. Thus 
far for the general elements of the antique scroll, which the artist has impli- 
citly followed in the example before us ; but he has enriched his composition 
without disturbing its unity, by making every sheath proiluce a different 
branch, drawn immediately from nature. The birds present an equal variety, 
and ;u'e occupied according to their natural habits, in feeding on the berries 
and buds, or on the variety of insects which are also introiluceil. The ara- 
besques in the side panels arc to be particularly noticed in this example. 
A Motion, however slight, is always to l)e desired, and here we see a very 
graceful ono in the two winged boys who dip into a vase-like fountain. The 
winged bear which occupies the medallion may be noticed as a violation of 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



97 



Iirobability. A being tci cleave the air shoiikl not be seleeteil from tbe most 
heavy and a\vk» avd of animals ; it is undoubtedly intended for a jeu ti'vspril' 
and is quite in the spirit of the antique. The ancient frescoes are full of such 
whimsical combinations, but always as in the present instance, occupying a 
subordinate place. 

No. 7, is one of the most remarkab'e of the series. In this the artist has 
ventured, and with the most perfect success, to discard every thing conven- 
tional, and to represent a natural tree, balancing its irregularities of rami- 
ficalu>n and foliage by the numerous birds which occupy the branches, when 
they may be suppo.scd to have been collected l>y the call of the Iiird -catcher, 
who is concealed in the underwood with his bird-call in his mouth. One 
bird, fettered by a limed twig, is about to fall into his liuids. It is impossible 
to admire too much the skill with which this simple motion is w'orkeil out. 

It may be observed in reference to Nos. 4 and U. that folds of drapery are 
too broad and heavy to be successful in arabesque — its efl'ect is seldom pleas- 
ing. I must also protest against the birds which crown this composition. 
Nature has provided a variety wdiich makes it quite unnecessary to seek 
novelty by combining the neck of one species and the tail of another with 
imaginary wings. The first impression is, that these birds are meant for 
swans ; the second, and abiding one, that the artist did not know how to 
draw a swan ; he has not mended them by dressing them in trowsers. 

In No. 15. the artist has chosen the apparently incongruous subject of fish 
to comljine with his foliage. In a painting by Hogarth, we see in the fash- 
ionable furniture of one of his scenes, a composition of foliage inhabited by 
fish instead of birds, although this absurdity be intended as a caricature of the 
talk of the day, it is no great exaggeration of the fact. In this design, the 
foliage and the fish are brought together without the slightest violation of 
probability ; the fish have been hung to the branches — the variety of their 
forms and cohuu's produces an admirable efiect, and above all, they are per- 
fect in the condition, more especially indispensable in objects not intrinsically 
graceful or pleasing, of being represented with the most absolute truth to 
nature. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

SESSION 1840. ANNUAL REPORT. 

TuF. Council of the Institution of Ciril Engineers, on resigning the trust 
confided to them by the last annual general meeting, solicit the attention of 
this meeting, and of all those who are interested in the welfare of the Insti- 
tution, to the following report on the proceedings and on the state and pros- 
pects of the Institution at the close of this the twenty-first year of its exis- 
tence. At the last annual general meeting, the council of the preceding year 
had the gratification of congratulating the Institution on its then assembling 
in its new premises under circumstances which furnished so advantageous a 
contrast with the condition of earlier years, and such convincing evidence of 
the steady progress and success which had attended the labours of the Coun- 
cil and the co-operation of the general body. And though the year which is 
now closing upon you may not have been marked by events of so striking 
a character as the preceding one, the council nevertheless experience the 
highest degree of satisfaction in reviewing the proceedings of the session of 
the year so auspiciously commenced. Aware of the more extensive duties 
and increased responsibility entailed upon them, the council have cndeavotired 
so to direct the alTairs of the Institution as to kcej) pace with its growing 
importance ; and they can with confidence assert, that the jiroceediugs of the 
last session have not been inferior in interest or importance to those of any 
preceding session ; whilst the attendance at the meetings, and the anxiety 
which is evinced by strangers to become acquainted with the proceedings 
and objects of the Institution, show the estimation in which it is held both 
at home and abroad, and fully warrant the most sanguine anticipations of its 
future and continually increasing success. 

The attention of the last annual meetiug was directed to the expediency of 
some alteration in the existing laws, particularly with reference to the elec- 
tion of otficers and the number of the council. It was suggested that the 
annual election of the council should be conducted in a somewhat different 
manner from that hitherto pursued ; that a greater number than that consti- 
tuting the council should be nominated, and that, consequently, eacli person 
at the annual general meeting, instead of, according to the then existing 
practice, erasing one name and substituting another, should erase as 
many names as the number on the balloting list exceeded the constituted 
number of the Council. It was also suggested, that it would be for the ad- 
vantage of the Institution that the council shoidd be increased by the addition 
of two members : that as some members of the council are frequently pre- 
vented by professional engagements from regular attendance, the council 
should be enlarged to as great an extent as might be consistent with the tnie 
interests of the Institution. These and some other suggestions for the better 
regulation and stability of the Institution, were subsequently submitted to a 
general meeting of the members, and now constitute part of the bye-laws of 
the Institution. 



The practice of other societies in publishing' their transactions in parts, 
containing such communications as were ready at frequent and short intervals, 
was briefly touched upon in the last report, and was discussed in considerable 
detail at the last annual meeting. Such is the nature of some communica- 
tions, that delay in their publication may be considered not only as a positive 
injustice to the author, but as detrimental to the cause of practical science, 
and the best interests of the Institution ; and if the publication of such papers 
be delayed until a whole volume is ready, authors will inevitably avail them- 
selves of other channels for bringing their labours before the world. Add to 
which, when a wdiole volume containing many valuable plates is to be pub- 
lished, the sources of delay are numerous, and such as cannot be avoided. 
The council conceive that the experience of the past year has fully borne out 
the precetUng views, and shown the great importance and value of prompt 
publication. Early in the session the Institution received a most valuable 
communication from your member, Mr. Parkes. It was considered desirable 
that the publication of this comnumication, forming, as it did, a continuation 
of his researches already published in the second volume of the transactions, 
should not be delayed. No other coiunumications being then ready for pub- 
lication, the council resolved to publish it at once as the first part of the 
third volume. This has now been for some time in the hands of the public, 
and the number of copies which have been disposed of shows the gre,at de- 
sire e^^nced to obtain these jiapers as soon as published. The council have 
also had still further proof of the importance of this plan. The Institution 
received, during the last session, several communications well suited for pub- 
lication in the Transactions, and among them, the continuation and con- 
clusion of that already mentioned by Mr. Parkes. Preparations were made 
for the iiumediate iniblication of these papers in a second part ; ditficulties 
and delays wdiich could not have been foreseen or prevented, occurred in the 
publication of some of them, and thus the second part contains but two 
instead of the nine commimications originally destined for it. The greater 
portion of the remaining seven papers are already printed and the plates en- 
graved, so that the third part will be in the hands of the Institution in a very 
short time. There are several other valuable communications in the posses- 
sion of the Institution now in the course of preparation for pubhcation, and 
which will appear as soon as circumstances will permit. 

The minutes of proceedings have been printed at such short intervals 
during the session, as the abstracts of papers aud minutes of conversation 
would furnish suflicient materials. The council conceive that great advan- 
tages may, and indeed have, resulted from a publication of this nature. An 
authentic account of the communications is thus immediately furnished, at- 
tention is continually kept alive to the subjects which are brought before the 
Institution, and the statements there recorded have elicited very valuable 
cotumunications, which otherwise would probably never have been brought 
forth. No one can turn over the minutes of the last session without remark- 
ing the number and the diversity of the facts and opinions there recorded, 
very many of which were elicited by the statements contained in some written 
communication, or casually advanced in the course of discussion. 

The council cannot omit this opportunity of insisting on the impoi-tance 
of these discussions in promoting the objects which the Instituion has in 
view. The recording and subsequent publication of these discussions are 
features jjeculiar to this Institution, and from wdiich the greatest benefits 
have resulted and may he expected, so long as the communication of know- 
ledge is solely and steadily kept in view. It would be easy to select many 
instances during the last and preceding sessions, of some of the most valuable 
communications to the Institution owing their origin entirely to this source. 
The first communication from Mr. Parkes arose entirely out of the conver- 
sations which took place on the superior evaporation of the Cornish boilers 
being referred to as one cause of the great amount of the duty done by the 
Cornish engines. The communication by Mr. Williams on peat and resin 
fuel owes its origin to his being accidentally present at the discussion on the 
uses of turf in the manufacture of iron ; whilst that by Mr. Apsley Pellatt, 
on the relative heating jiowers of coke and coal in melting glass, arose en- 
tirely from the discussion of the facts stated by Mr. Parkes respecting the 
superior evaporation jji-oduced by the coke from a given quantity of coal than 
by the coal itself. And lastly, the extremely interesting and highly valuable 
discussions at the commenceiuent of last session on the uses and applications 
of turf; and on the extraordinary coincidence between the results obtained 
bv Mr. Lowe, Mr. Parkes, Mr. Apsley Pellatt, and Marcus Btdl, of Phila- 
delphia, experimenting as they did with totally different riews, and under 
totally different circumstances, must he fresh in the recollection of all 
present. 

But, besides the positive advantages which have thus resulted, and may be 
expected, from a steadv adherence to these practices so pecnhar to this In- 
stitution, there are others of the greatest value to those engaged in practical 
science. By this freedom of discussion statements and opinions are can- 
vassed, and corrected or confirmed, as soon as promulgated, the labours of 
authors and claims of individuals are made known and secured as matter of 
history— and attention is continually kept alive to the state and progress of 
knowledge in those departments of science which it is the especial object of 
this Institution to promote. The council trust, therefore, that those indivi- 
duals who have stored up knondedge and facts for many years past, and de- 
voted themselves to some particular branch of science, will consider how 
much they have in their power to contribute, and how great is the assistance 
which the'v can render to the labourers in other branches, and, above all, to 
those who' are ambitious of following in their steps, by freely communicating, 



08 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[March, 



either ornlly or in writing, tlie knowledge which they have collected; so that 
the records of tlic lii!,tiliiliiin may be unjiaraUuled for tlie extent and correct, 
ncss of the information whicli tliey contain. 

The conncil have cndeavonred from time to time to direct attcjition to 
snlijccts on whicli it was conceived comrannieations were needed or desiralilc, 
hy proposing snclisnlijects as objects for the preminms, placed at the dis|>osal 
of the council by the nnniificence of tlie late president. The commiinications 
.sent in compliance with this invitation have not been nnmcrons. Two, liow- 
ever, — one by your associate Mr. Jones, on the AVestminster Sewage, and the 
other hy Mr. Hood, on M'amiing and Ventilating, — seemed to call for some 
r.ppcial mark of distinction. 

The comiiiiinicalion liy Mr. Jones is of the most elahorate and costly descrip- 
lion. (See ,/onrnn/, vol. 2, p. .31 1). The council conceived tliat, in awarding 
to Mr. Jones a Telford medal in silver .and 'Jll guineas for this laborious com- 
munication, they were bestowing a suitable mark of approb.ition on the author 
of a record which is nearly unjiaralleled, and must be of great value as a 
source of information in all future works of this nature, when other, and par- 
ti'-nlarly foreign, cities carry into efl'ecl a system of drainage, in which they 
are at present so delieient. 

The conncil cannot pass from this subject without expressing the obliga- 
tions which the Institution is under to the cliairman and the commissioners 
nf the sewers of the Westminster district. On its being intimated to them 
that tlie council wished some account and record of the work over which 
they preside, permission was immediately given for any person desirous of 
preparing such account to have free access to all the documents in their pos- 
session relating to this subject, and to make such extracts or copies there- 
from as could in any way contribute towards this object. 

The communication by Mr. llnod contains a detailed account of the prin- 
riples on which the salubrity of the atmosphere in crowded rooms depends, 
and the various methods which have been adopted for warming ami ventila- 
tion. {See Journal, \ol. 2, \). -iCiO). The importance of ventilation, and the 
success which has attended the adoption of mechanical means in the manu- 
facturing districts, are subjects worthy the attention of all who study the 
lieallh of those who, from choice or necessity, arc exposed to the generally 
iinwholesoine atmosphere of crowded apartmenls. This subject is of the 
highest imjiortance to tin; manufacturing poor of this country, who are com- 
pelled to work in crowded rooms at high temperatures. The council are 
aware that much has been done towards this object in some of the large cot- 
ton works of tireat I3ritain, and they hope ere long to obtain some detailed 
account of the means hy which this has been accomplished, and the results 
which have ensued. 

The conncil have also awarded a Telford medal in silver to your associate, 
Charles Wye Williams, for his communication on tlie Properties, Uses, and 
Manufacture of Turf Coke and Peat Uesin Fuel j and to Mr. Edward Woods, 
for his communication on Locomotive Engines. 

The various applications of peat as a fuel had been repeatedly the subject 
of discussion at the meetings of the Institution, and this communication may 
(as has been already noticed) be attributed to the discussions then going on. 
{See Journal, vol. 2, p. Hi). 

The communication by Mr. Edward Woods, published in the second volnine of 
the Transactions, willahvaysbearaprominent place among the records of practi- 
cal science, as one of the earliest and most accurate details on the actual working 
of locomotive engines. Tlic first communication was received early in the 
session of lrt?,S. (See Journal, Vol. 1 , (i. l.'')9.) The author was tliouglit capa- 
ble of adding so much to his already valuable communication, tliat the coun- 
cil referred it back to him for this jinrpose, and it was not received in the 
form in which it appears in your Transactions till after the premiums for that 
session were avvanled. lint Ibis communication (notwithstanding the interval 
since it was laid before the meeting) will prob.ibly be fresh in the recollection 
of most lU'escnt, from its giving an accurate account of the jirogrcss of the 
locomotive engines on the Ijiverpnol anil Manchester Railway from the open- 
ing of that important work. The experience of engineers had at that time 
furnished them with but little knowledge as to what were the most essential 
requisites in railway engines, and the advance of knowledge, as slnnvii by the 
history of the locomotive engine on this railway, is a most interesting and in- 
Etructive lesson to every one who would study the progress of practical science 
and improvement, (ircat alterations were found necessary in the strength of the 
jiarts, in the weight of the engines, in the road, and the number of wheels. 
The first engines were grailually ailapted to the necessities of the ease, and 
the arrangements then resorteil to as necessary expedients have now been 
adopted into the regular and uniform jnacticc. Ilesides the extreme interest 
of that which may be termed the history of these improvements, the eomiiiu- 
nieation is replete with theoretical principles as to the working of locomo- 
tives, and the advantages ami disadvantages incident to peculiar practical 
adaptations. It would exceed the limits of this rcjiort to ilo more on the 
present occasion than brieHy to state that this paper contains extended re- 
marks on the relative advantages of four or six wheels, of inside or outside 
framings, of crank axles or outside crank pins, of coupled or uncoiiided en- 
gines. The council would point out this paper to the junior memlicrs of the 
profession, as an example of how great a service may l)e rendered hy simply 
recording what passes under their daily observation and experience. 

The council have also adjudged a Telford medal in bronze and books to the 
value of three guineas to Mr. It. W. Mylne, for his communication on the 
Well sunk at the reservoir of the New River Company at the Hainpstead-road, 
{see Journal, yol, '2, p. 311); to Lieutenant Pollock, for his drawings and 



description of the Coffer Dam iit M'estminster Bridge, (see Journal, vol. 2, p. 
.111); and to Mr. Redman, for his drawhigs and account of How Uridge. 

Among the other communications of the session, the council cannot, on the 
]nesent occasion, omit to notice those of your inenibcr, Mr. Parkes. His 
communication on tlie E\'aporation of M'ater from Stc;im Hollers, (see Jour- 
nal, vol. 1, p. 1 70), for which a Telford medal in silver was awarded during the 
ineceding session, and the interesting discussions to which it gave rise, are 
too well known rcipiire further comment. But gi'cat as were the benelits 
conferred on practical science by the facts there recorded, they have been 
much surpassed by the subsequent labours of this author. In continuation 
of his subject, you received early in the session the first part of a communi- 
cation on Steam Boilers, (see Journal, vol. 2, p. 22.')) ; and at the close of the 
session, the second |iart, treating of .Steam Engines. Before Mr. Parkes was 
induced to turn his attention to the preparation of these conimunieations, no 
attempt had been made to bring together, in one connected view, the various 
facts which had been ascertained. The economy of the Cornish system was 
indisputable ; but to what it was to lie referred was involved in some ob- 
scurity. It was reserved for this communication to call attention to certain 
quantities and relations which exerted a peculiar intlncnce over the results ; 
and which, lieiiig rightly ascertained, were at once indicative or exponential 
of the character of the boiler. If it be found that, in one class of boiler, the 
same quantity of coal is burnt eight times as rapidly as in another class — that 
the quantity consumed on each square foot of one grate is twenty-seven times 
that on the grate of another — that the quantity of water evaporated bears 
some definite relation to the quantity of heated surface — and that there is 
twelve times more evaporated hy each foot of heated surface in one class of 
boiler than in another — and finally, that the quantity of water evaporated by 
a given weight of fuel is in one class double the quantity evaporated in 
another, — we have arrived at some definite relations whereby to compare 
boilers of dift'erent kinds with each other. To these definite quantities and 
relations, the author, with apparent propriety, assigns the term ■' exponents ;" 
and these being compared together for different boilers, their respective merits 
as evaporative vessels are readily perceived. Mr. Parkes has also called the 
attention of engineers to the effect of the element time, that is, the period of 
the detention of the heat about the boiler. The importance of attending to 
this cannot be too strongly insisted on ; as it would appear from these state- 
ments, that boilers being compared with each other, in respect of their eva- 
porative economy, are nearly inversely as the rate of combustion. Attention 
is also called to the fact, that there are actions tending to the destruction of 
the boiler entirely independent of the tenqieraturc of the fire, and which may 
be designated hy the term " intensity of calorific action." Of their nature wc 
know nothing, but the durability of different boilers, under different systems 
of practice, affords some means of comparing the intensity of these actions. 

Mr. Parkes having, in the first part of the subject, thus pointed out the 
distinctive features of the ditferent classes of boilers as evaporative vessels, 
proceeds, in his subsequent and concluding communication, to consider the 
distribution and practical apjilication of the steam in different classes of 
steam engines. And for this jmrpose, he is led to consider the best practical 
measure of the dynamic efficiency of steam — the methods employed to deter- 
mine the power of engines — the measures of effect — the expenditure of 
power — the in'oportion of boilers to engines- — the standanl measure of duty — 
the constituent heat of steam — the locomotive engine — the blast and resist- 
ance occasioned by it — the momentum of the engine and train, as exhibiting 
the whole mechanical etfort exerted by the steam — the relative expenditure 
of power for a given efi'ect by fixed and locomotive non-coudensiiig engines. 
This hare enumeration of the principal matters in the second communication 
will give some, though a very inadequate, idea of the magnitude of the task 
undei'taken by Mr. Parkes, for the communication is accompanied by elaho- 
rate and extensive tables, exhibiting the results of th« facts which he has 
collected and used in the course of his inquiiy, and it may confidently be as- 
serted that a more laborious task has rarely been undertaken or accomplished 
by any one individual than the series of communications thus brought before 
the Institution. 

It will be one of the earliest duties of the succeeding council to consider 
in what manner the sense of the great benefits conferred on this department 
of jiractical science can most a|ipi"0)n'iately be testified. 

The council also received, at the close of last session, from your member, 
Mr. Leslie, a most valuable communication on the Docks and Harbour of 
Dundee. This is one of the records on which the Institution sets the highest 
value, being the detaileil account of an executed work of great extent. It is 
not, in its present form, well adapted for being laid before the meetings; hut 
on its publication, which will take jdace very shortly, the Institution will 
have an 0|)portuiiity of judging of the high value which it possesses. 

In acknowledging, with gratitude, the numerous and valuable iirescnts 
made to the Institution during the past year, the council would call the at- 
tention of the members generally to the want still existing in the library of 
works of reference on general scientific subjects not immediately connected 
with engineering, and express a hope that such wants may be sup|)lied by 
that liberality to which the Institution is .already so deeply indebted. The 
collection of models also requires many additions to render it as complete as 
the council could wish, and it is only by the wants of the Institution being 
const.antly borne in mind by all who arc i nterestcd in the subject, that such 
a collection can be formed as shall be worthy of the Society. 

Several societies have made an exchange of Transactions with the Institu- 
tion, and from the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Philosophical Society of 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



99 



Manchester, the Royal Irish Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society, 
sets of Transactions, "as complete as could he made np, liave hceii received 
The Master-flencral of the Ordnance, tlie Lord-Lientcnant of Ireland, and 
Colonel Colhy, continue their liberal presents of the English and Irisli Sur- 
veys; and Captain Beaufort ami the Secretary of the Admiralty have con- 
tinued the present of the series of Admiralty Cliarts. The Institution is also 
iudchlcd to Mv. Vignolles for the Busts of Locke and Ur. llutton; to Mr. 
I'ichl, V.P., for a Bust of the late Henry ilaudslay; and to Mr. Rivers, for 
tliat of Dr. Karaday. 

The council would wish to take especi.al notice of the large collection of 
works of the late eminent philosophei-. Dr. Yonng, now deposited in your 
lihrary. For this great acquisition, the Institution is indebted to the kind- 
ness and lilierality of his brother, Mr. Robert Yo\uig, who conceiving most 
justly that every thing connected with so great a benefactor to practical 
science must be highly valued by this Institution, has made it the depository 
of these books from the library of his distinguished I'clative. The council, in 
tluis jmblicly recording their sense of the kindjicss and liberality of Mr. 
Ivobcrt "loung, would earnestly press upon others the importance of following 
so noble an example, and of presenting such works as are at their disposal, 
and of which the hl)rary of the Institution is particularly in need. 

It is announced thro\igli the mediunr of the last Annual Report, that the 
monument of Telford was nearly finished, and that a site had been selected 
in Westminster Abbey. The council have now the satisfaction of amiouncing 
that the monument is fixed in the place destined for it, and they are confident 
that all who enjoyed the accpiaintance, or knew the merits, of the late dis- 
tinguished president of this Institution, will rejoice that the memory of one 
so eminent and so highly deserviug has met with so proper and just a tribute 
of respect; whilst all, no less than those liy whose liberality the monument 
was erected, will feci that he has a name which will endure so long as there 
exists a record of tlie triumphs of tlic British engineer. 

It would be vain to expect that an annual meeting should ever recur with- 
out the council having to lament the removal liy death of some who, by their 
actpiiremcnts, or by their associations of friendship, were endeared to the In- 
stitution. On the present occasion the council have to lament the death of 
\o»r members, Mr. David Logan ami .\lr. Henry Ilabbciley Price, and of 
your hoi\orary member, Mr. Davies Gilbert. The records of the Institution 
contain several eommmiications from Mr. Logan, particularly one on the new 
Graving Dock at Dmidee, and Mr. H. II. Price was, when in tow n, a constant 
attendant at the meetings, and look a lively interest in the proceedings and 
success of the Institution. Mr. Davies Gilliert was, by his writings and his 
influence, a great benefactor of practical science, and the Transactions of the 
Royal Society, over which he presided for three years, contain several papers 
of great value to the practical engineer. lie took great interest in the in- 
troduction of Mr. Watt's improvements in the steam engine into the Cornish 
mines, and in the controversy betwixt Mr. Watt and Mr. Jonathan Horn- 
blower respecting working steam expansively, the former employing one cy- 
linder only, the latter two cylinders, in the manner afterwards revived by 
Woolf ; the theoretical elKciency of the two methods Ijcing identical, hut 
simplicity and mechanical advantage being greatly in favour of the former, as 
its present universal adoption testifies. Mr. Davies Gilbert introduced into 
jiraetical mechanics the term " efficiency" as the product of the applied force 
ami of tlie space through which it acted in contradistinction of the term 
" duty," as indicative of a similar function of the work performed. His at- 
tention was also directed to tire theory of suspension bridges, when the plan 
for making such communication across the Menai was submitted to the com- 
missioners appointed by paiUament. It appeared to him that tlie proposed 
depth of curvature of the catenai-y was not sntlicient, and his well-known 
theoretical investigation of this subject was undertaken with the view of as- 
certaining this fact ; and in consequence of these investigations, the interval 
between the points of support of the chains and the roadway was increased 
to the height which appeared to him requisite for works of this natm-e. The 
labours of this distinguished individual for the |H-omotion of science were un- 
remitting. He was the founder of several societies; he was the discoverer 
and early patron of the talents of Davy ; and wliile in parliament he laboured 
most assiduously in the advancement of all the public works. Regret for 
such a man, exerting the power of bis mind so advantageously and through 
so many years, must tlvvays he strong and sincere ; but having attained the 
ordinary limit of human life, he sunk into the grave amidst the resjiect and 
esteem of all who knew him, and has left behind him a name which will ever 
bear a prominent place amidst the names of those whose lives and talents 
liave beeu devoted to great aud noble purposes. 



GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

On the relative Jyes of the Tertiary and Posl-Tertiary Deposits of tits 
Basin of the Clyde, by James Smith, Esq., of Jordan Hill. 

Ill former communieatious Mr. Smith showed that deposits in the basin of 
the Clyde had been elevated above the level of the sea during very recent 
geological epochs, aud that some of these beds contain tcstacea wliieh indi« 
cate the prevalence, during the period of their accumulation, of a colder 
climate in Scotland than exists at present. In this paper he confines his re- 
marks to subsequent observations, which afford most satisfactory evidence 

that these eouiparatively mailera deposits are divisaWe iutg two distinct 



formations, dift'ering in their fauna, and separated by a wide interval of time. 
In the older of these formations Mr. Smith has found from 10 to 15 per cent, 
of extinct or unknown species of tcstacea ; but in the newer only such shells 
as inhabit the British seas. He accordingly places the former among the 
newest pliocene or pleistocene deposits of Mr. Lyell, and the latter among 
the post-tertiary series. Both of these accumulations, be, nevertheless, con- 
siders to be older than the human period. In the lowest part of the pleisto- 
cene formation of the basin of the Clyde, Mr. Smith places the unstratified 
mass of clay and boulders, locally called " till," and in tlie upper, which rests 
upon it, the beds of sand, gravel, and cliiy, containing marine shells, a portion 
of which arc extinct or unknown. He is of oiiiiiion that some of the similar 
accumulations in the basins of the Forth and the Tay, will probably prove to 
lie of the same age, as well as the elevated terraces of Glenroy, recently shown 
by Mr. Darwin to be of marine origin. He is also convinced that a very 
great jiroportion to the superficial beds of sand, gravel, and clay will be as- 
certained to be tertiary, although the absence of organic remains must rentier 
it difficult to obtain, on all occasions, satisfactory evidence. During the post- 
tertiary epoch, or while the beds containing only existing tcstacea were accu- 
mulated, changes of level in the liasin of the Clyde must have taken ]ilaec 
to the amount of forty feet; but during the human period no change appears 
to have occurred. 

The paper concludes with a list of the fossil shells obtained by Mr. Smith, 
and not found living in the British seas, or of doubtful existence in them. 
The mindicr of the species is twenty-four — six of which occur in the crag of 
England, three in the most recent tcrtiar-y strata of Sweden, and seven in a 
living state in the North seas. 

On the noxious Gases emitted from the Chalk and ovcrlyinrj Strata in sink' 
inij U'ells near London, by Dr. Mitchell. 

The most abundant deleterious gas in the chalk is the carbonic acid, and 
it is said to occur in greater quantities in the lower than the upper division 
of the formation. The dislrilmtion of it, however, in that portion of the 
series is very unequal, it having been found to issue in eonsiderahlc volumca 
from one stratum, while from those immediately above aud beneath none was 
emitted. Sulphuretted hydrogen and carburctted hydrogen gases sometimea 
occm- where the chalk is covered with sand, and London clay, as well as in 
other situations. In making the Thames Tunnel they have been both occa- 
sionally given out, and some inconvenience has been experienced by the 
workmen, but in no instance have the ctfects been fatal. In the districts 
where sulphuretted hydrogen gas occurs the discharge increases considerably 
after long-continued rain, the water forcing it out from the cavities in which 
it had accumulated. The paper contained several cases of well-diggers hav- 
ing been sullbcated from not using proper precantions. 

The tables of the Meeting-room and the Library were covered with dona- 
tions of specimens and books. 

Wednesday, November 20. 

Four communications were read. 

An extract from a letter addressed to Dr. Andrew Smith by Mr. A. G. 
Bain, dated Graham Tomi, Cape of Good Hope, Feb. 2\sf, 1839, announcing 
the discovery of the skull and piths of the horns of an ox in an alluvial de- 
posit on the banks of the Jlodder, one of the tributaries of the Orange River, 
and forty feet below the surface of tiic ground. The piths measured, in the 
direction of their cunatnre, and including the breadth of tlic os frontis, 
eleven feet seven inches, but it is calculated tliat about five inches had been 
broken oft' each point. Their cu'cumference at the root was eighteen inches, 
and tlie orbits are described as situated immediately under the base of the. 
born. Other portions of the head, and five molar' teeth, were found at the 
same time. 

On tlie Oriyin of the Vegetation of our Coal-Fields and Wealdeyis, by J. T. 
Barber Beaumont, Esq. 

The author of the communication is of opinion, that the jilants discovered 
in the coal measures were not drifted into large estuaries and there sunk, but 
that they grew where they are found, and that the districts now forming our 
coal-fields were originally islands. The principal objections advanced in the 
paper, against the theory of the transportation of the plants by great rivers, 
are, that such bodies of water would have requii-ed for then- existence exten- 
sive continents, of which there .-ue no traces ; that, as the coal strata near 
Newcastle are 380 yards in thickness, the depth of the estuary must, in that 
case, have exceeded six times the mean depth of the German t)cean ; that the 
formation surrounding the coal-fields are of marine origin, aud bear' no traces 
of having been dry land at the same time the coal aud its associated strata 
were accumulated ; and that the freshness of the plants is opposed to the 
view of their having been drifted from a distance, and sunk in a deep estuary 
— a process which must have been accompanied by a certain extent of decay 
in the plants. Mr. Beaumont then briefly proposes the following, as a pre- 
ferable theory to account for the production of the coal-fields : — He supposes 
that they were originally swampy islands, on which plants flourished, and in 
part decayed ; that the islands, during the settling of the earth's crust, were 
submerged, and covered with drifted clay, sand, and shells, whicli buried the 
plants; that these accumulations gradually raised the surface of sunken 
islands till it again became dry land, and adapted for the growth of another 
series of plants ; and that these processes were repeated as efteu as there are 
alternations of coal and strata of earthy sediment. 

2 



100 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[M. 



On llii: Fossil Fishes iif the Yorkshire and Lancashire Coal-Fiehls. by Mr- 
AV. C. 'Williamson. 

AVithiu the last four years tlio coal measures of tliese countries Ijave as- 
Miiued a zoological inii>orlance. wliicli previously they were not sup|ioseil to 
])Ossess. In Lancasliiru ictliyolites have been lately found to jicrvadc the 
whole of the series from the Anhvick limestone to the uiillstone grit, and in 
Yorkshire they liave also been obtained in great abundance. On comparing 
the specimens procured at Middleton colliery, near Leeds, with the fossil 
fishes of Lancasliire, the author detected the following as common to both 
coal-fields, viz. ; — Viplothia f/ihhosus, Ctenoptyehits pectinatits, Mfijalicfhys, 
lUbberlii, Gi/rardiilhiis fornwsiis : also, remains of api)arentl)' species of 
Holoptycliub and Platysomus ; but he has obtained some ictliyolites in the 
Yorkshire field which he has not seen in the Lancashire, and he is of npini(m 
that tlie latter deposits are characterised by the greater prevalence of lepidoid 
fishes, and the former by sauroid. These remains, excejit in the case of the 
Ardwiek limestone, always occur in highly bitundnous shale, anil they are 
most abundant where it is finely grained, and in general where jilants are 
least numerous. This distinction in the relative abundance of ictliyolites and 
vegetables, Mr. AVilliainson conceives may throw some additional liglit upon 
the circumstances under which the coal formations were aeeumidated. The 
tislies are found chiefly in the roof of the coal, rarely in the seam itself, and 
not often in its floor. .Mr. Williamson, in conclusion, makes some remarks 
on the manner in which ictliyolites are associated with the otlier fossils of 
the coal measures. .\.t Burdiehouse they occur in the midst of freshwater 
shells and Cypris ; at Coalbrook Dale with marine testacea ; in the lov\ er coal 
measure of Lancashire, not far from the beds containing Gonialites IJsteri, 
and Pecten popiiraceiis ; higher in the same field, and in Yorkshire, they are 
associated with freshwater shells ; at Middleton with Lingula; ; and at the top 
of the series in Lancasliire and Derbyshire with Mytili and Melaniic. 

-'/ paper on the Geoloffi/ around the Shores of Waterford Iluren, by T. 
Austin, Esq. 

As the object of this communication is to describe topogra])hically the 
structure of the shores of Waterford Haven, its details do not admit of 
abridgment. The formation composing the district are mountain limestone, 
a conglomerate, clay-slate, and trap, the limestone and conglomerate consti- 
tuting the greater portion of the east side of the Haven, and the conglom- 
erate the opposite. 



REVIE'tVS. 



On Steam- Boilers and Stiam-E7ighits. By Josiah Parkes. Trans- 
actions of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol 3. London : J. 
Weale. 1840. 

PART II. . — ON STEAM-ENGINES, PRINCIPALLY WITH REFEREKCE TO 
THEIR CONSUMPTION OF STEAM AND FUEL. 

In our Number for July last vpe noticed the part of tliis investiga- 
tion, which treated of the cjualities of steam-boilers, and of the influ- 
ence exercised over evaporation by their proportions and practical 
nianagemenf. Of that part we considered the only value to consist in 
the/acts therein recorded. 

In the introduction to this part the autlior makes the following very 
sensible observation : 

" The generation and application of steam are distinct jiroblems; 
they rerpiire to be separately treated, and their results to be separately 
stated. It is the economy of steam whicli constitutes the dynamic 
perfection of an engine ; it is the ecunomy of heat in supplying 
steam to an engine ; which constitutes the evaporative Derfection of 
a boiler ; and it is only by distinguishing the effects of e cli, that the 
valui- of any change of |u-actice, in cither department, can be correctly 
ascertained." 

Now, although there may be few, if any practical e ineers, who 
would be disposed to doubt the truth of this remark, yet we are per- 
suaded that it is not in general duly appreciated, or at least, that very 
little attention is paid to it by them. 

The author has divided this part into two ])ortions : in the first, 
which occupies about one-fourth of the whole, he has mvestigated the 
atmospheric, the stationary non-condensing, or the high-pressure, 
the low-pressure condensing, and the Cornish high-pressure expan- 
sive pumping etigines. The facts established on these four varieties 
are collected and exhibited in a comprehensive table, (table i>.) The 
last three-fourths of the work are dedicated solely to the locomotive 
engine, the chief part tending to prove the inaccuracy of all the esti- 
mations which have hitherto been made of the several resistances 
which have to be overcome by that variety of engine. Tlie author 
has, liowever, also developed ■.I'ncw Ihury «/ Ik hcomotirc (iigim, the 
fallacy of which will be at once evident to the scientific reader; but 
its plausibility might induce the practical man (who has not the 
means of detecting theoretical errors,) to put implicit faith in its cor- 



rectness. For his sake, therefore, we shall feel it necessary to take 
more notice of this new theory than we sliould otherwise have done. 

The two sections in which the author treats of the methods e m- 
plot/id til diltrniine Ihe j-vKer of ingints, and »/ the mdinnren of ijf'tcl, 
present nothing worthy of notice ; but in the next section, which 
treats nf l/ie expendtlnre ti/pon'er, we have to ])oint out an error, which 
we thought to be already so thoroughly eradicated, that it could 
never more find its way into any work having the slightest ])retensions 
to science. This section coniniences thus: 

" Tile ponderable element of steam is water: its consnnijjtion by an 
engine is appreciable ; and it is now assumed, almost universally, that 
the sum of its imponderable element, heat, is a constant quantity, in 
steann of all specific gravities. The elastic force of steam is also ge- 
nerally assumed to be proportional to its density ; thus, ei)ual amounts 
of heat and water are expended in the generation of equal power, at 
wdiatever pressure steam be used by an engine." 

We adtnit the first assumption, that the quantity of heat contained 
in a given weight of steam is a constant quantity, whatever may be 
its density ; but it is not a fact, as Mr. Parkes assests, that the elastic 
force of steam is also generally assumed to be proportional to its den- 
sity : indeed a comparison of the numbers given in the table, (page 
122,) which he himself took from M. de Pamhour's Ki/r T lieu nj of tlie 
SUetm Engine, would have convinced him at once that that assertion 
was not well founded. For we there find the volume of steam formed 
from a volume of water equal to unify is equal to 2427, when gene- 
rated under a pressure of lUlbs. on the square inch ; and G"?, when 
generated under a pressure of 4(Jlb. We ought, therefore, to have , 
since these volume are inversely proportional to the density of the 
steatn, 

10 : 40 : : G77 : 2427, 

which would give, by making the product of the means equal to that 
of the extremes, 

24270 = 27080, 
which is absurd. The conclusion drawn from this law is therefore 
also false ; wherefore equal amounts of heat and water are not ex- 
pended in the generation of equal power, when the steam is used 
at different pressures. 

In tliis same section, (page f),"!,) the author tells us that 

" By knowing the evaporation from the boilers, and consequeutly, 
the weight of water as steam which passes through an engine, we 
grasp the principal fact of practical consequence to the engineer ; a 

fact which is free from all uncertainty in its nature ; 

and the weight of water, which has passed from the boiler in that 
state, and produced a given effect, appeals conclusively to the under- 
standing as indicative, in a comparison of engines, of their respective 
economy in the expenditure of power." 

This does not seem very consistent with what he says on the sub- 
ject in the first section, (page .■J2,) where, speaking of this method 
of determining the power of engines, he observes, that " as its 
value deiiends on a perfect accordance between the results of experi- 
mental and practical seience — an accordance yet unascertained, — and 
since many precautions are requisite to secure true results from this 
test, it has been seldom resorted to by practical tnen." 

The discordance between these two cjuotations is most remarkable, 
and the ivaragraph which follows the latter leaves no room to doubt 
that the basis of the method there alluded to is the identical fact 
which he says is/ree/roni all uncertainty in its natnn, Ike. 

In the table already alluded to, (table G,) will be found many results 
computed from the data furuisheil by experiment, which, if correct, 
will be of great jjractical utility to the engineer. Among these may 
be mentioned the weight of water as steam equivalent to the produc- 
tion of a horse power in each engine, and also, the duty effected by 
one pound of steam. " These sums, (cohnnns U and IG,") the author 
observes denote the positive and relative efficiency of sleam in the 
different " engines ;" and here we recognize the pen of Mr. Parkes in 
the signification he gives to the word relative, it being liere used to 
express the inverse of positive. Thus the relatirc efficiency of the 
steam decreases in ]irecisely the same ratio as its yjos//;r£ efficiency 
increases, which we finddillicult to comprehend with our ])reconceived 
notions of the meaning of the word relatin. We should have thought, 
for instaifce, that ii' lUe jjostli re eflicieucy of the steam in a given 
engine were equal to a, and in a second engine to b, its relative effi- 
ciency in the first in comparison with the second would be -, and 

that if, the positive efficiency b, remaining the same, that if the 
engine were increased from a to 2 a, its relative efficiency would also, 



be increased from - to 
b 



, or in the same ratio as its 2}osilive effici- 



ency, The true nlative efficiency both of the steam and of the fuel is 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



101 



however, given in columns 21 and 22, under the head Comparative 
fcoiiomical results. 

The next section, which treats of t/ie proportion nf boilers to engines, 
in our opinion serves ratlier to confuse and perplex tlie reader, and 
to deprive him of confidence intlie numbers set down in the table, than 
to render him any assistance in drawing practical conclusions from 
them. We had intended to make a few observations on particular 
parts of this section; but having vainly endeavoured to follow the 
intricate reasoning of the second phragraph, and finding nothing of 
any importance in the rest, we shall merely direct attention to column 
20, which will appear on the slightest examination to throw no light 
whatever on the economical qualities of either boilers or engines. 

In tlie observations on the exptrinitnts and t/uir results, which follow 
this section, there is nothing worthy of notice before the Gist page, 
from which we quote the following paragraph, in order to shew how 
necessary it is to sift with the utmost care all the results tabulated in 
this work. 

" It is necessar}', also, to guard against conclusions which might be de- 
duced, from a comparison of the effects of the Cornish engines in the table, 
with the pressures on the piston and degrees of expansion, set down in 
columns 5 and C. The pressures given were not ascertained by any instru- 
ment, (excepting at Huel Towan,) and must he considered only as estimations, 
not as facts. The pressure upon the piston during the interval which occurs 
between the first admission of steam into the cylinder, and the instant of 
shutting it off, may be very variable ; that it was so, in several engines to 
which Mr. llenwood applied the indicator, is evident from the diagrams he 
has given, annexed to his paper. (Trans. Inst. C. E. Vol. II.) At the lluel 
Towan engine, when the steam in the boilers was at a pressure of t/'l lbs. 
above the atmosphere, it varied from 12-3 lbs. to 7-3 lbs. per square inch on 
the piston, during its admission into the cylinder ; which latter was its elastic 
force, at the instant of closing the steam-valve. 1 adduce tliese facts, with 
the view of showing the impossibihty of determining the precise amount of 
prssme on the piston, from the degree oi irire-rlrmr'mg the steam ; and as a 
caution against expectations of deducing any valid theory of the action of 
the steam, in these Cornish engines, from the particulars of pressure and ex- 
pansion, contained in the table, which are only approximations to the truth." 

Mr. Parkes does not seem to have compared the numbers contained 
columns (> and 14, otherwise he never could have considered the 
above caution necessary ; for the anomalies which would be found to 
result from the adoption of the numbers there set down are so striking 
that it would soon be discovered that either the pressure of steam on 
the piston, or the consumption of water as steam is incorrectly given; 
and it would certainly not occur to any one to deduce any theory of 
the action of the steam from such conflicting data. A superficial exa- 
mination of experiments 7 and 9 will give an idea of the confidence 
whicli can be placed in the numbers contained in the table. 

The diameters of the cylinders of these two engines are equal, but 
the latter has four inches greater length of stroke ; the steam is also 
admitted into the cylinder of the latter during one-fourth of the 
stroke, while in the former it is cut oft" at one-fifth; but, since the 
latter only makes 4*29 strokes per minute, while the former makes 
5"35, the volume of steam consumed in an hour should have been 
about equal in the two experiments. Now the ]n'essure of the steam 
before the expansion is given as 7-3 lbs. per sqirare inch in the former 
case, and 27 lbs. in the hitter case, above the atmosphere, and the 
volume of steam generated from a given volume of water under these 
two pressures is respectively proportioned to the numbers 1 173 and 
Go3 ; the consumption of water as steam must therefore be nearly 
inversely as these two numbers, and taking the consumption per hour 
in the former experiment at 2ir)G-21 lbs., as in tlie table, the consump- 
tion in the latter experiment ought to be about 3s73-2r> lbs., whereas 
it is given in the table as only 972"G2, or very little more than one- 
fourth part of what it ought to be. We conclude from this that the 
numbers set down in column G are of no value whatever, as they do 
not appear to represent the true pressure on the pistons : nor indeed 
is it probable that the steam should lose so much as 42 lbs. of its 
pressure in passing from the boiler to the cylinder, as in the case of 
the Huel Towan engine, experiment 7. (See columns G and 7.) If 
wire-drawing is really carried to such an extent in the Cornish en- 
gines, it is a proof of sad mismanagement ; for, if it is necessary to 
throttle the steam to such a degree, in order to reduce it to the desired 
pressure in the cylinder, it is very evident that the load on the safety- 
valve might be diminished, and the steam thus generated at a lower 
temperature, the advantages of which are too obvious to need point- 
ing out here. 

Jlr. Parkes does not seem very confident of the advantage of the 
Cornish (expansive) system of using steam in manufacturing engines 
requiring uniformity of motion, and seems to approve of the method 
recommended by Mr. Wicksteed in such cases, — (see the Journal for 
January,) namely to employ a Coraish engine to raise water up on a 



wheel, and thus transfer its power to machinery. Now, although the 
momentum of such machinery is but trifling, an equivalent is easily 
found in a fly-wheel, and the want of uniformitv in the action of the 
steam is probably not so great as may be supposed. 

We agree with the author that the pound of water as steam con- 
sumed by an engine is the most convenient and correct standard of 
duty which can be adopted, provided we know the true quantity of 
water which passes through the engine in the form of steam. 

The first division of this work is concluded with a chapter on the 
Constituent Heat of Steam, \n which the author describes a series of 
experiments made by himself, the results of which confirm the already 
generally admitted law, that eqiud weights of water absorb equal 
quantities of heat in passing from the liquid to the elastic form, under 
all pressures. 

The remaining portion of this work, which treats of the Locomotive 
Engine, being very long and perplexing, we have not sufficient leisure 
to enter into a detailed examination of all the difficulties and doubts, 
opinions and arguments contained in it ; we must, therefore, content 
ourselves with a few general remarks. 

The greater part is occupied by an examination of the experiments 
of M. de Pambour, Mr. Robert Stephenson, Mr. Nicholas Wood, and 
Dr. Lardner; the object of this examinution being apparently to con- 
vince the reader of the inaccuracy of some of the results of experi- 
ment, and of alt the deductions hitherto drawn from them, and to pre- 
pare him for the reception of a we/y //if ori/ of his own, which he lays 
down in a separate section near the end of the work. 

It is very certain that the experiments hitherto made on locomotives 
are too few in number, and too imperfect in their nature to allow of 
any certain theory of their action being as yet deduced from them ; 
but on the other hand we have no doubt that a careful investigation 
of Mr. Parkes' objections would bring many fallacies to light, which 
might otherwise have the eft'ect of unjustly shaking our confidence in 
the results previously obtained and published by other authors. As 
an instance we shall merely cite the comparison he has instituted be- 
tween two of M. de Pambour's experiments, (pages 9a and follow- 
ing,) wliich were made with the same engine (AtlasJ at two different 
speeds, and with corresponding loads. Mr. Parkes, in his detailed 
calculation of the ettects produced in these two cases, omits, without 
assigning any reason for so doing, to include the pressure on the 
back of the piston, which is undoubtedly a part of the resistance, and 
therefore the power expended in moving this resistance at the ve- 
locity of the piston, is a part of the gross power of the engine, or of 
the total effect of the steam. With this omission Mr. Parkes finds the 
absolute (or gross) power of the steam equal to G7'1I horse power in 
the first case, where the velocity was 20-34 miles an hour, and 59' 50 
in the second, where the velocity was 27-09, (See page 9.5.) 

In these two experiments M. de Pambour gives the same effective 
evaporation, namely, -77 of a cubic foot of water per minute ; and it 
is to prove the impossibility of this fact that Mr. Parkes made the 
above comparison; for he observes (page 99) ; "To be consistent, 
however, with his own (M. de Pambour's) rule above quoted, viz. 
that ' the weights of water consumed as steam are to each other as 
the resistances against the piston,' it is obvious that if, in the first 
case, 302(i lbs. of steam passed through the cylinders in an hour, 
2 IGG lb. only would have been expended in the second case." Now 
this assertion is not even justified by his own calculations, for M. de 
Pambour evidently did not, nor could he mean to say that the weight 
uf steam which passes through the cylinder in a given time is propor- 
tional to the resistance, whatever may be the speed of the engine, which 
would obviously be absurd, but that the density of the steam, and tliere- 
fore the weight which passes through the cylinder in a given number 
of strokes, or which is the same thing, in travelling over a given 
distance, is proportional to the resistance. The consumption of water 
in a given time would thus be directly as the product of the resistance 
by the velocity, or the gross power of the engine ; so that, if