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THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL, 



SCIENTIFIC AND RAILWAY GAZETTE. 



VOLUME XI. 



1848 



LONDON: 

R. GROOMBRIDGE AND SONS, 5, PATERNOSTER ROV\^; J. WEALE, 59, HIGH HOLBORN ; WILEY AND PUTNAM, 

NEW Y-ORK ; GALIGNANI, AND MATHIAS, PARIS. '^ ^ 



Printed and Published by WILLIAM LAXTON, the Proprietor, at No. 10, Fludytr Street, WhilehaU. 



?^ 



3^^y 



THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL. 



WROUGHT-IRON TUBULAR BOW BRIDGE. 

CWith an Engraving, Plate I.J 

In consequence of the tubular form becoming a favourite mode 
of constructing bridges of wrougbt-iron for railivay purposes, we 
are induced to give an engraving of a wrougbt-iroii tubular bow 
suspension bridge for crossing the Ouse river in Norfolk, designed 
by Mr. W. C. Harrison, who has had considerable experience in 
the construction of some large timber bow suspension bridges on 
some of tlie Norfolk railways. 

Mr. Harrison observes, — " The facility with which a how bridge 
of this construction, with boiler-plate, could be put together, ap- 
peared so eWdent, that he felt convinced of its practicability and 
usefulness for railway purposes, in crossing rivers and valleys, to 
almost any extent. A bridge of this kind could be easily put 
together, by the same kind of workmanship as in steam boilers, in 
a manufactory in any part of the country, and in certain conve- 
nient lengths of 10, 15, or 20 feet each, for the purpose of trans- 
porting to its destination, so that there will be but a few joints to 
ri^'et up when put in its place. The bow being hollow, and also 
the tie-beam, or string as it may be termed, gives the opportunity 
for a man to get inside to hold up the rivets for the workmen out- 
side to rivet the parts together. 

" The bow and string are to be made of plate-iron, of such a 
thickness as is most suitable to the size of the bridge intended to 
be constructed, and joined at the angles with angle-iron; audit 
will be perceived from the engraving how perfectly well connected 
the extreme ends of the tie-beam and bow will be by the manner 
shown, which is a plate extending over the tie and bow, firmly 
rivetted to each, thereby answering the purpose of an abutment to 
the bow, and gi\ing perfect security in a \ital part. 

" The elevation of the bridge shows both the suspending and 
cross-brace bars, being all of jilate-iron, from the facility of getting 
bars in this shape so easily made, and requiring so little workman- 
ship — namely, the rivet holes made in their ends. 

"The design is for a span of 170 feet and two lines of rails; 
consequently, there are three bows. Fig. 1 is the elevation of one- 
half the span, with the suspending bars a a and li h ; drt, the abut- 
ment plates, as they may be called; c, the cross-beams, which may 
be of iron or timber. Fig. 2, a view on the top of the bows, with 
some of the cross-beams, c, extending outside (as also seen at fig. 3, 
the end elevation), to receive the lower ends of the struts going up 
to the top of the outside of the bows, to give steadiness to the 
whole ; but these can be used or not. Fig. 3 shows the distance- 
pieces and cross-frames betwoen the bows. Fig. 4 is a section of 
the cross-beams or girders, which may also be made of wrought- 
iron plate and angle-iron, or wood, to carry the timber sleepers of 
the rail. Fig. 5 is an enlarged section of the bow and string, and 
the distance-piece between the suspending bars." 

Mr. Harrison proposes for a bridge of the span shown in the 
engraving, that the bow should be constructed of half-inch plate- 
No. 12-1— Vol. XI.— January, 1SJ8. 



iron, i feet deep by 3 feet wide ; and the tie-beam or stringer 
2 ft. 6 in. deep by 3 feet wide. 

Next month we will endeavour to offer some remarks on the 
construction of bridges of the tubular form, as to their applica- 
bility for railway purposes. 



A DEFLECTION OR VIBRATION GAUGE. 
By George Howard Fexwick, C.E. 

The accompanying engraving, fig. 1 
(drawn to one-tiiird the full size), is a 
gauge for registering the vibration or 
deflection of railway girders. A is a 
piece of wood or metal, made to slide in 
another piece, B, which is held in posi- 
tion by a slight pressure of two springs. 
G and F, as shown on plan fig. 2 (drawn 
full size). On the face A are two ar- 
rows at C, whicli can be moved to any 
of the holes at D for adjustment. It is 
supposed to be set at zero, and as it re- 
ceives the pressure from tlie girder E it 
is pressed down, thereby registering the 
deflection of the girder on a decimal or 
mechanical di\ided scale on B. This 
gauge may be applied by being sup- 
ported by a frame let into the sides of 
the walls which the girders span, and so 
made to travel to any particular place, 
such as the centre or springings; or 
may be placed upon a staff' for conveni- 
ence, similar to a levelling staff. 

G. H. F. 

[This simple and ingenious contriv- 
ance might, perhaps, be improved by 
fixing a vernier on the slide D, divided 
so as to indicate the hundredth parts of 
an inch; the side scales being divided 
into inches and tenths.] — Editor. 




^L- 



Fig. I EUvation, 



Fig. 2, Plan. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[.Tamahy, 



NOTES ON ENGINEERING.— No. VIII. 

Ry HoniKKSiiA.M Co.\, R.A. 

Oil the most Ecnnomicul Furms nf Sunpiiishm liriilges. 
Of all kinds of liritlj^es suspension liri(lp;es iiro cjipalile of being 
ronstruotod h itli the preatest span. Notwitlistandiiijj; tliis advan- 
fnjfe and tlie facility of constnution, tlie use of tliese structures 
lias been restricted t)y their flexibility and tendency to undulate. 
'I'hey have fallen into disrepute in the modern practice of enj^ineer- 
inp, on account of the difficulty (generally deemed insuperable) of 
making them sufficiently rigid for the )>urposes of heavy traffic, 
such as that upon railways. Anotlier, though less (divious, olrjec- 
tion is that tlie ordinary methods of calculating the jiroper form 
and dimensions of suspension bridges, and the different strains to 
which they are subjected, are exceedingly complicated. The in- 
tricacy of the investigations leaves a degree of uncertainty and 
distrust as to the actual strength which the several parts of a sus- 
pension bridge may be assumed to possess. 

The object of tlie present paper is to examine how far these 
difficulties may be removed, and to show what method of arranging 
the dift'erent jiarts of the structure secures the greatest amount of 
strength for tlie wliole. 

Suspension bridges may he distinguished generally into two 
classes: 1st., those of the ordinary form, that of a main chain or 
catenary, with the roadway suspended from it by vertical rods ; 
'ind., those in which the roadway is suspended directly from the 
abutments liy straight rods, the catenary or curve chain being 
altogether dispensed with. It will be shown, on strict statical 
])riiiciples, that the first method involves a great waste of material, 
and that, by a pro])er arrangement oi -strdight rods, a given amount 
of strength may be secured with a smaller quantity of iron, or a 
greater amount of strength with a given ipiantity of iron, than by 
the use of a main catenary. Of course, methods of using straight 
rods may be employed which involve greater waste of material 
than even the employment of the curved chain. The most econo- 
mical arrangement of straight rods is not a merely arbitrary mat- 
ter, but depends, like every other branch of engineering, on sound 
deductions from the laws of mechanics. 

Refore proceeding with the investigation, it may be as well to 
remind tlie reader that the object of these Notes on Engineering 
is to simplify the practical ajiplications of theory, and to exjdain 
them, as far as possible, in familiar, untechnical language. This 
important rule should be constantly remembered by all who teach 
and all who study the mathematics of engineering — tliat long fnr- 
mii/re are never j/iit into practiee. In practice, simple general prin- 
ciples are far more useful, because capable of being applied with 
far more certainty and facility, than the most elaborate results of 
scientific research. 

We now proceed to establish the following important general 

Proposition. — In a susijciifiion briilye the niateriut required to sus- 
tain a given had will be the least when each point of support in the 
roadway is directhj conneeted with a point of suspension in the nearest 
ahntnient by one independent straight rod. 

To begin w ith the simplest case, it will be first of all supposed 
that only two points of support in the roadway are connected with 
the point of suspension. Suppose that R (fig. 1) is the point of 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



suspension ; A and D the two points of support in the horizontal 
platform A C. Tlien it will be shown that to sustain a given load, 
the most economical arrangement of the suspensicm bars consists in 
connecting R with A 1) independently and directly by two rectili- 
near rods, AR and DR. If, however, as in fig, 2, the connection 
he indirectly made by suspension rods meeting at an intermediate 
point E, more material will be required for a given amount of 
strength. 



In order to prove this proposition, which has so important a rela- 
tion to the most usual methods of constructing suspension bridges, 
it is necessarv to ascertain tlie (|iiaiitities <if material in the rod 
A R and R D'(fig. 1), and the rods A E, D E, and R E (fig. 2), and 
to compare the aggregate annuint of material used in both cases. 
It is, of course, ])resupposed that the strength of the rods is pro- 
portioned to tlie strain upon them. In ascertaining the thickness 
to be given to the rods of a suspension bridge, the first point to be 
settled is the amount of strain which the material will bear on each 
square inch of the sectional area. For tlie purpose of mere cmn- 
parixon, it is indifierent what amount be assumed : it may therefore 
be supposed that the rods are to be calculated to bear a strain or 
tension of t lb. per square indi of their sectional area. Conse- 
quently, multiplying the sectional area of any rod by /, we have 
the whole strain to which it is subjected. Further, for )iurposes of 
comparison it is indifierent what be the load on the bridge, so that 
in both cases the weights at corresponding points of tlie platform 
be supposed the same : let it therefore he assumed that both in 
fig. 1 and fig. 2 the jioint A has to sustain a vertical weight ;/-, and 
also (for the sake of simplicity) that the point D in both figures 
has to sustain the same weight u\ 

It will (at first) be taken for granted that the jilatform contri- 
butes nothing by its rigidity to sustain the load ; that the whole 
weight is borne by the suspension rods, which are ke]it in their 
oblique positiiui by the connection of the platform. The amount 
of material requisite to support w at the point A will first be con- 
sidered. 

Commencing with the case of fig. 1, we have, since the rod A R 
sustains the weight w at A, the vertical component of tlie tension 
of A R equal to «;. Supposing the sectional area of this rod to he 
k square inches, its tension, by what has been already said, will 
be ki. 

, ■ T, ^ r. , B C W A R 

.-.«, = A/ smR AC =ht.^^; k=j.j^f,. 

Consequently, the mass of the rod = its sectional area multiplied 

by Its length = - g^ (1). 

Proceeding now to the case of fig. 2, and still confining attention 
to the suspension of the point A, by reasoning exactly the same as 

w A E' 

that for fig. 1, the mass of the rod A E := = — , (Ee being 

t IL e 
drawn vertical.) 

It is clear that the connection between the point R and the point 
E may be supposed to be established, not by a simple bar, but hy a 
compound bar of two or more parallel lengths. In fact, this 
method is that usually adopted in actual practice, the several links 
of the chain commonly consisting of se\eral bars or iron plates 
laid side by side, and connected at their extremities. Their relative 
thickness is a matter of indift'erence, provided that the total thick- 
ness be sufficient to sustain the strain. In fig. 2 the rod R E, pro- 
vided it have the thi<'kness necessary to sustain the united effects 
of the two weights at A and D, may be supposed to be made up of 
any number of parallel bars of any relative tliickness whatever. 
Now, supposing R E to be a compound bar, let A' he the sectional 
area or thickness of metal due to the eft'ect of the weight at A, 
kf' the thickness due to the weight at D : k' -\- hf' will be the total 
thickness of R E. 

Taking the thickness k' to be that requisite to sustain w at A, 
and k't the consequent amount of tension of that part of the com- 
pound bar, we have the vertical component of k't (= vertical com- 
ponent of tension along AE) = lo. Hence, if E/ be drawn hori- 

Bf . . , _ 'f ER 
ER' '' t Bf 

Multiplying this quantity by the length E R, and adding the mass 
of the rod ascertained above, we have the total mass of metal re- 

ae: ERn 

Ee + Bfi ^ > 

Hence subtracting the expression (1) from the expression (2), it 
will he easily found by some simple analysis, which is here omitted 
for the sake of brevity, that the mass required for the indirect con- 
nection A E R, fig. 2, exceeds tlie mass required for the direct or 
rectilinear connection, A R fig. 1, by a quantity 
(RC.E/ - AC.Ee) ^ w 
RC.R/./C ■ t ' 

which is positive in all cases. Hence, more material is always re- 
quired for the indirect than for the direct connection of A and R, 
The same mode of reasoning apjilies to the weight suspended at D. 



zontal. 



quired to connect A and H 



= ?{■ 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



The form of the analysis is such that it applies to this case as 
well as the last, and leads to a similar conclusion — that the indirect 
or bent connection, DEB, reciuires more material than the direct 
or rectilinear connection, D B. Now it is evident, that what is 
true of the several parts of the system individually, is true of the 
whole collectively — that if less material be required for each of the 
direct connections than for each corresponding- indirect connection, 
the total material reijuired for all the former will be less than the 
total material required for the whole of the latter. In other words, 
the St/stem of sm-jjension. in fiff. 1 m" the moxt economical. 

The same result might have been obtained by supposing B E a 
simple, undivided bar, and tlie amount of material given by that 
hj'pothesis would be the same as that on the liypothesis here 
adopted. But the method of investigation given above leads more 
easily to the general results for which we are seeking. It has the 
advantage of admitting immediately, and without any more mathe- 
matical analysis, tlie following important 

CoROLLABV. — The method of suspension (fig. 1) is more economical 
than the method (fig. 2), for any number of points of support in tlie 
platform. 

For the reasoning given above is not affected by supposing the 
rod B E to divaricate at E into three or more radial bars proceed- 
ing to as many points of support in the roadway. W'hatever might 
be the number of indirect connections by this method, eacli of 
tliem would require more material than the corresponding direct 
connection of fig. 1 : and therefore the total quantity of metal 
required by the former method exceeds the total quantity required 
by the latter method. 

We have hitherto considered, in the second or indirect methml, 
only one point of divarication, E : the inquiry will be completed 
by considering several other such points to exist — ^as at B, B', B ", 
B ", &c., fig. 3. 




Fig. a. 

The connection of A and D with B, by bars meeting at E, has 
been already considered. Less material would have been required 
to support the weight at A and D, if, instead of the method shown 
in fig. 3, there had been separate straight rods from A and D to B. 
In this latter case, B' (the next point of suspension) ivould be 
connected with the three points A, D, ft, by three straiglit rods, 
divaricating from the end B of a common rod B B'. 

The " Corollary" given aljove shows that this triple divarication 
involves a waste of material. Had there been in the place of it, 
three straight rods from A, D, and ft, to B', less material would 
have been required to support the corresponding weight. But this 
triple <livarication itself requires less material than the metliod 
shown in fig. 3. Hence, s, fortiori, the direct connection with B' 
would require still less material than the method shown in the figure. 
And so, by continuing the same mode of reasoning for the otlier 
points, B", B'", &c., we come at last to the general conclusion 
that, if all the points of support had been directly and indepen- 
dently connec4:ed with K (the ultimate point of suspension), less 
material would have been required to sustain given loads than by 
the method shown in fig. 3. 

This conclusicm is independent of the inclination of the rods 
E D, Bft, B ft', B ft", &c., and remains true when they are vertical. 
Hence, in the common suspension bridges, such as those at Chiuing- 
cross, HammersmitlL, &:c., with a main chain or catenary hanging 
between tlie abutments, and connected with the platform by xerti- 
C;il rods, there is a waste of material. The same conclusion applies 
to all suspension bridges having radial bars radiating from any 
point except the points of ultimate suspension at the abutments — 
and, therefore, hold with respect to the bridges on Dredge's jirin- 
ciple, some of which are erected in the Regent's-park, and of wliich 
one recently gave way and was destroyed near Calcutta. 

The amount of saving effected by connecting all the points in the 
platform with the abutments by independent straight rods, may be 
best shown by an example. The Hungerford bridge, at Charing- 
cross, may be taken as a familiar example — and we will, therefore, 



proceed to compare the material required for that bridge by the 
method actually adopted, and the quantity which would be required 
by the method here advocated. 

Tiie quantity of material required for suspending the bridge by 
a catenary and vertical rods will first be considered. The position 
of the centre of gravity of the half-span depends on the form and 
weight of the chain, and the manner in which the load is distri- 
buted along the platform. When the load is small compared with 
the weight of the chain, the centre of gravity of half the bridge 
and load will be nearer the abutment than the centre of the bridge • 
for the curvature of the chain, its increase of thickness near fhe 
point of suspension, and the increased length of the vertical rods 
all tend to make the weight preponderate towards the abutment' 
But wlien the bridge is supposed to be loaded with a breaking 
weight greatly exceeding the weight of tlie chain, and uniformlV 
distributed along the platform, it may be assumed, without sensible 
error that the iiorizontal distribution of the wei^j-ht of the whole 
system is uniform. In this case, tlie centre of gravity of the half- 
span will be midway between the abutment and centre of the 
bridge. 

At this latter point the tension of the catenary is horizontal. 
Let moments be taken about tlie point of suspension for the equi- 
librium of the half-span : then, since the horizontal tension in 
question acts below the point of suspension, at a vertical distance 
equal to the defiection of the chain, and since the weiu-ht acts at a 
horizontal distance from the same point equal to the quarter-span 
the products of each of these forces into the corresponding distance 
will, by the Principles of Moments, be equal. Hence, calling AV 
the total weight of the half-span (including tlie half-cliaiii), 'l^the 
horizontal tension, d the defiection, u the quiu-ter-span, — it follows 
that 



W a = Td: or T =; ^V 



.(1). 



That is, the horiz:intal tension — the weiyht of the half-span multiplied 
by the ratio of the <iuartcr-spun to the defection,- a simple rule, from 
which tlie horizontal tension of the chain of any suspension bridu^ 
loaded h itii its breaking weight may generally be calculated with 
sulficient accuracy. 

It has been assumed that the load is uniformly distributed, or 
that any portion of the weight is proportional to the length of the 
corresponding jiortioii of toe platform. It follows, that if any 
distance, j, be measured along the platform from the lowest point 

of the chain, the weight corresponding to that distance is W*- • 

2 a 
Also, if y be the vertical ordinate of the chain at the same dis- 
tance, a known principle which applies to catenaries of every form 
gives 

<!/ ^w^- ^T = ^^ (2) 

dx 2a T2« ^ ' 

By another known principle which also applies to all kinds of 
catenaries, the tension at the point (.c, y) is equal to 

■■■■(■+ a*- 

And since the sectional area of the chain at any point is supposed 
proportional to the strain at the same point, we have, if K and A' 
be sectional area at point (,r, (/), and the lowest point of the chain 
respectively 

The mass of each small portion of the length of the chain is the 
product of that element of length, and the corresponiling sectiomil 
area : hence it will be easily seen that the 

mass of the half-chain -z^ k I 1 1 4- - - \ d x. 

Jo ^ rf.i'V 

And this quantity by substitution from (2) will be found equal to 

2a/i; ll -|- ;r7rr). Fimilly, if the tension per square inch be /, 

and consequently T = k t, and if a be put ^ 1 70 feet, and d ^ SO, 
it will be readily ascertained that the 

mass of the half-chain =. X 1IS9-3. 

(which are almost exactly the values of those quantities in the 
Hungerford Bridge.) 

To obtain the whole quantity of material required for the pm-- 
poses of suspension, we must add to the quantity last obtained, the 

2* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Janiaby, 



mass (if tlie siisponsion rods. Tlic lengtli of these increases from 
tlie centre to t}ie almtmeiit, and is equal to that of the vertical 
co-ordinates of the catenary. 

The iiitCffi-ation of equation (2) g-ives the relation of y to .r, 
which M ill he found sudi tliat ///'' jinipotiion hetween any two vertical 
(•(i-ordinute.s is equiil to the sijitare of the projiortiiin Ijetireeii tlie corre- 
x/ii»u/iiiy horirotitd/ eo-orditidte/s — a very siin|de rule for deterniininjr 
the form uliicli the chain will nearly assume wlien subject to its 
hrcakiufT weii^ht. 

It folhjws from this rule, that when 

.r is .j'j th of the half-span, y is ,J|, th of the deflection 
■r -ibths „ y ^ths „ 

.r :,i,tlis „ y 105 ths „ 

■r ,1-,ths „ y ^Sths „ 

&c. „ &c. ,, 

Now, if we sup])ose the half-platform attached to the half-diain 
at every 20 tli of tlie lentftli of the former, we shall, by adding up 
all tlie/z's in the above scheme, get the total length of all the ver- 
tical roils together, which, therefore, is equal to 

^ (1 -I- 2' -f T- + 1' + + 19-) X deflection; 

and this by actual calculation is equal to the deflection X 6'175. 
Therefore, since tlie deflection is 50 feet, the total length of all 
\ ertical rods is :i08-75 feet. This supposes that the platform meets 
tlie chain at the centre, the value of y at that point being zero. 

Each rod sustains one-twentietli of the weight of the half-span, 
and therefore has a tension - 4«'. Therefore, if, as before, < be 
the tension per square inch of the sectional area, that area, by 

w 
principles already laid down = ^'^ -. The mass of all the rods equals 



this quantity X the length 308-75 feet, just obtained = ^ 
Adding this to the mass of the half-chain, we have finally 



15-4. 



the mass of the half-chain and its rods ; 



X 1204-7 (A). 



Next, let it be ascertained what is the quantity of material re- 
quired when the load is supported 
by straight rods exclusively. It 
has been sliown that if 7,(,u' be sus- 
tained at A by a straight rod A B, the 

, , , 1 «) A B = 

mass of that rod = —--- .,„ • 

This expression (since ABC is a 
right angled triangle, and therefore 
AB' = A C- -l" BC-',) is equivalent 




Fig. 4. 



20 



A(2<i)= 



A C is i'j th of the half-span, A C = 4o (2 a)' 
AC iliths „ AC* 

AC .l;ths „ AC' 

&c. &e. 

Adding up all the values of A C=, we get for the total mass of 
the rods 

i" {(1+2^ + .3^+ 19^)ilSc 



+ 19 BC 



:} = 



w f 

7 I 



6-175 ^i~}r + 19 Bc}: 



761-3 (B). 



20 

-i 6-IYi '„ „ , , . 

20 < (. BC J t 

Comparing the expression (B) with (A), we see that the material 
re(|uirod in one case is about j'^ ths of what is required in tlie other 
case. In otlier words, if <i .•.■i(.\/ieii>iifm ImiUje, of the dimensions of the 
Hungerford bridge, u-ere sustained hy independent oblique rectilineal 
rods, instead of n main chain and vertical rods, a saving of nearly half 
the material would lie effected. 

It will be hereafter shown, that great as is this advantage with 
respect to tlie )iower of the bridge to sustain a statical load uni- 
formly distributed, still greater advantages belong to the method 
of suspension here advocated, when the eff'ect of moveable loads is 
taken into consideration. 



TIIK OBLIQUE ARCH. 

On the Focus to which the Joints on the Face converge. 

Suppose a right-angled plane triangle formed of any flexible 
material, having its two sides respectively equal to L, the axial 
length, and ir r, the semicircle obtained by taking a section of 
the bridge jierpendicular to the axis. If the side L be placed along 
the top of the abutment of an obliipie bridge, and the triangle 
wrapped over the laggings, tlie hypo'dienuse will form a spiral line 
which is the intersection of tlie coursing joints and soffit. If a 
straight line move along the axis ot the cylinder, so as always to 
intersect it at right angles, and pass tiirougli the hypothenuse of 
the above triangle, it will generate the twisted surface jiroper for 
the beds of the stones. Mr. Buck was the first to show that the 
joints that ajipear on tlie face of the arch, pass tlirougli a point O, 
below the centre C, when the " section on the square," or section 
perpendicular to the axis, is a circle. A similar expression for the 
length of the line C O may be obtained when the sections of the 
intrados and extrados, made by a plane perpendicular to the axis, 
are similar ellipses. 




a, A 



Let the figure represent the elevation of an oblique bridge, cir- 
cular or elliptic " on tlie square" — if it be segmental, the ellipses 
must be supposed completed. Take the axis of the cylinder for 
the axis of y, and let the plane .»■)/ be horizontal. A, B ; a, b, are 
the semi-axes, major and minor, of the extrados and intrados re- 
spectively. A X E, a X E, the lengths of these semi-ellipses. 
S = arc A'P, where CN = A cos©; and « = arc up, where C j- = 
arc a']). L = axial length, n = acute angle between the directions 

AE 

of the roads. <]. — angle of extrados ; and, therefore, tan * = 

The equations to the extradosal and intradosal spiral are, respec- 
tively, 



X = 
Y = 



A cos ^ 

a'e« FO) 

3 J 



Z = B sin 



X = a cos 9 
L 

tTE 
6 sin e 



y = „-f/- • (2) 



"i 



z — 



and the equation to the face of the arch is i/ = .r cot 0. -\- d. (3) 

Let X' Y'Z', x' y' z' , be the co-ordinates of the points in which 
the corresponding extradosal and inti-adosal spirals meet the face 
of the arch. Then X' Y' Z', x' y' z' , are co-ordinates of a point in 
the face of the arch, and must satisfy equation (3). 



Y' 



X 



X' cot D. -\- d ; and y' — x' cot n -j- rf ; 

- X = (Y' - 2/ ) tan n = j; i^j^ - - j t^n n = 
A /S s\ 
\k~ a) 



, . , tan Cl. 
tan 4 

In order to determine the length of CO, it will be sufficient to 
confine our attention to the projection on the plane xz, of a straight 
line passing through X'Y'Z', x'y'z'. The equation to this projec- 
tion is 

y __Z' -Z' 

z — L — 



and if u- = 0, 



X' - .f' 

= CO, .-. co = 



(,r - X') ; 



' x' — z' X' 
X' - x'~ 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENCrNEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



B sin a cos B — f/sinO A cos 



Aa Vl-r sin {0 — 0) 



b cot n tan * 



sin (e 

~S~ 



A ,S 



[a- a) '■•'"'' 



(a a) 



b cot n tan 4, nearly, since the 



difference of and 9 is always very small. 

Hence, whether the "section on the square" be circular or elliptic, 
at the point b make the angle,/'iC = 90 — n; and at the point yj 
where 6./'meets Co, make the angle C./'O n ♦, the angle of the 
extrados ; the point O %i here. /O meets 6 C produced is the focus 
to which the joints on the elevation converge. C O = Cy'tan ^ = 
C B tan (90 — il) tan* = 6 cot n tan * 

If the section perpendicular to the a.\is be circular,/ will be the 
focus of the ellipse o'6o, and may be readily found by describing 
from the centre i, with radius Co, an arc of a circle which will cut 
Cn in./", the focus of the ellipse a'ba. If we had considered this 
case alone, the preceding calculations would have been much sim- 
plified, for then A = B = R ; a = 6 = r ; A E = ttR ; oE = irr ; 

S = Re ; s — re ; and CO = — r cot n tan * — j^ — . 

(0-e) 

The line/O may be readily and accurately drawn by setting off 
with any scale of equal parts fh — axial length, and erecting a 
perpendicular hk equal the semicircle or semi-ellipse in which a 
plane perpendicular to the axis cuts the extrados. 

F. Bashfobth. 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK. 
FASCICULUS LXXVII. 

'* I nnist have liberty 
Witlial, OS large a charter a" tlie winds. 
To blow on whom I please." 

I. I must confess to being completely disappointed by Hay's 
book on the "Laws of Harmonious Colouring;' nor at all the less 
so for its having reached a sixth edition, when had reviewers re- 
ported of it conscientiously at first, its futility for any purpose of 
real instruction would have been pronounced long ago. It is not 
to be denied that it contains some useful information in regard to 
the colours — that is the pigments, employed in house-painting ; 
which may ha\e caused a demand for the book among the opera- 
tives in that humble branch of art. But as to any direct insight 
which it affords into the theory and principles of artistic colouring, 
as one main auxiliary to architectural design and effect, it is alto- 
gether null. Or, at the very best, it merely affords a faint glim- 
mering here and there of something like approximation to the 
subject promised by the title-page. Possibly, Mr. Hay is fully 
capable of clearly explaining to others the doctrine which, it may 
be prestimed, he has satisfactorily established for himself. Never- 
theless, he has thrown very little, if any, light upon the matter. 
To say the truth, his book shows no disposition to communicate 
more than he can possibly help ; in which respect, however, he is 
by no means singular, there being many other books of a similar 
description, in which the information' is studiously concealed, — 
either evaded, or else wrapped up in oracular brevity, or in ver- 
biage overclouded by more than oracular obscurity. Had iMr. Hay, 
instead of theorizing so much, ins b/ane, as the Germans say, con- 
descended to exemplify harmony of colouring in decoration by a 
few positive instances — both such as were distinguished for the 
observance, and others which proved its value by showing the 
errors arising from neglecting it — he would have supplied his 
readers with some really useful lessons ; whereas now he leases 
them entirely to themselves to take their chance for making out 
what he, as their professed instructor, should have carefully ex- 
plained step by step Where he ought to have been most of all 
full and explicit, he is more vague and brief than elsewhere. On 
the other hand, he is somewhat loquaciously prolix in regard to the 
work done by him at Abbotsford, notwithstanding that it does not 
in the slightest degree serve to illustrate the Laws of Harmonious 
Colouring, the painting being there confined to the mere imitation 
of oak and wainscotting. In short, the book is a rather humbug- 
ing affair, for the light which Mr. Hay has thought proper to afford 
us amounts to no more than "darkness visible,""and there he leaves 
us to grope about 



II. The fresco scheme for the decoration of the Palace of West- 
minster does not, it seems, answer expectation, — at least so does 
not what has been done in the House of Peers, where the experi- 
ment has been first of all made, instead of the artist actjuiring 
proficiency in that mode of painting, by being employed in less 
important parts of the building before touching that which ought 
to display, not the efforts of " 'prentice hands," but the mastery 
acquired by matured jiroficiency. Among other defects and over- 
sights complained of, it is now discovered that, partly owing to the 
profusion of gilding and vivid colours of the other decorations, the 
frescoes do not produce the anticipated eft'ect, they being in a great 
measure overpowered and eclipsed by %vhat is mere embellisliment. 
Thus they are in a manner converted fi-om principal objects as 
works of art, into quite secondary ones as regards the general 
ensemble, — a serious defect, that will be further increased when all 
the windows shall have been filled with stained glass, whose bril- 
liant hues will ine\itably cause the frescoes to appear, by contrast, 
feeble and faded, more especially as the windows occupy so very 
large a proportion of surface. "The only remedy which is now left, 
is to moderate the scheme of colouring for the windows, by exe- 
cuting them nearly entirely in chiaro-scuro, with only a few touches 
of positive colour here and there. Yet even this would be unsatis- 
factory in another respect, because such sparing application of 
colour in the glass would be out of keeping with the showiness in 
regard to colour of much of tlie ornamental work. The fact is, 
the decorations of the " House" have been studied only piecemeal, 
and those employed upon them have considered no more than their 
own particular share, without at all calciilatiug tlie general effect. 
As far as the frescoes are concerned, it would surely have been 
easy enough to ascertain their effect beforehand, by filling in all 
the six compaitinents with the cartoons for the respective subjects. 
Yet, obvious and simple as such mode of preparatory trial was, it 
seems, somehow or other — perhaps owing to tlie fatality which 
hangs over all our public undertakings in art- — to have been over- 
looked. Bold as it may be thought to say so, a determined system 
of blundering seems to be established for them. Certainly not the 
slightest pains are taken to prevent blunder, by proper exjieriment 
previous to the work being actually commenced. On the contrary, 
the chief precaution taken is to keep matters entirely in the dark, 
until some irreparable mischief has been committed ; and the only 
satisfaction left us is to amuse ourselves by wondering that they 
should have been managed so perversely. 

III. Of so-called religious subjects in painting, some are auda- 
ciously profane, others the most trivial in matter, and one and all 
equally fabulous ; giving us only the fancies of artists for the re- 
presentations of historical e\ents. Religion may have been the 
patron of art, but art has been but a very questionable, if not posi- 
tively treacherous, ally to religion. It served Popery during the 
middle ages, for the impostures of the one were in keeping with 
the impostures of tlie other. But for pure Christianity, art can 
do just as much and no more than it can for the advancement of 
pure mathematics. There is a great deal of very palpable and 
maudlin cant afloat in regard to religious art. Hardly were any of 
the great masters inspired ; on the contrary, many of them w"ere 
anything but exemplary in their lives, and exercised their pencils 
on the lewd traditions of pagan mythology with quite as much 
gusto as they did on the traditions of the Church. Medijeval art 
has, besides, contributed not a little to that fundamental supersti- 
tion of popery, Monolatry, against which worship of the pretendeil 
" Queen of Heaven," the Salic law ought to be enforced amongst 
Catholics. 

IV. Notwithstanding their piddling and minikin pedantry, ar- 
chitectural writers are apt to be exceedingly careless in their lan- 
guage, frequently emjiloying expressions and terms after a truly 
nonsenical fashion. They will speak, for instance, of an order as 
being " of colossal /»-o^jo?'^jo««" .' the proportions being all the while 
precisely those which are generally followed for the particular 
order in question. Of course, they mean "dimensions" or "scale;" 
therefore, to use the other term, betrays strange confusion of ideas 
and the meaning of words. Nothing, again, is more common than 
the truly barbarous solecism — one for which a schoolboy would be 
corrected as a dunce— of employing the term " Intercolumniation, 
not in its own proper sense, but in that of " Intercolumn ;" which 
is nothing less than marring technical language, and doing away 
with those distinctions in it which are essential to its accuracy. 
If there be anything that can excuse such a truly vulgar blunder, 
it is the authority it receives from our architectural-dictionary- 
raakers, some of whom among their other qualifications seem to 
have been totally ignorant of the languages from which most of 
the terms of the art have been borrowed for our own. The con- 
founding together the terms " Intercolumniation" and " Inter- 



6 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Ja.vuabv, 



column" — or rather the rejectinn ot the latter altogethe:*, notwith- 
•tanding they are (luite distinct in meaiiinf; — is peculiar to Eii;;lish 
writers, those of other countries properly oljservins the ilistiuction 
Ijetween tlieiu. Just as well initfht we use " Columniation" in the 
sense of •■C'olMinn," and speak of a portico as consisting of so 
manv coluniuiations, as call " Intercolumns" '• Intercoluniniations" 
— the latter term signifying, not the actual .v/wccy hetween the 
colunms, but the )KOfl!t' <)/' .v/«;c»)j adopted for the columns. The 
inaccuracy of language here con-ected may l)e tln)ught a fault of 
no consequence; yet, as it is just as easy, it is surely just as well 
to employ terms correctly as not ; and tlie correctness thus recom- 
mended is surely also far less finical tlian that puerile affectation of 
snticiuated orthography, which insists u])on a final Ic in the word 
••Gothic," now invariably written " Gothick" by those who pique 
themselves upon their orthodoxy ; the A' serving as a badge of it — 
pcrliaps, like otiier badges, as a substitute for it. 

V. If Bunning's design for the new Coal Exchange be not wick- 
edly caricatured in a wood-cut of it that has been published, it 
must be a mortally ([ueer one, still more queer than the Gothic 
exhibited by him in tlie City of London School, the taste displayed 
in which can be accounted for only by supposing that Guildhall 
diffuses an architectural malaria throughout the whole of that 
neighbourhood — ^a supposition rather confirmed than contradicted 
by the specimen of Italian at the corner of King-street. — To keep 
to the Coal Exchange, it seems the design of some architectural 
coal-heaver. I say " seems," for though it is made to appear such, 
it may prove the contrary ; and that is all the more likely because, 
a.s has been shown, a good deal in it is utterly unintelligible. There 
i.s room, therefore, for suspecting that it has been greatly misunder- 
stood aud misrepresented. According to what, it is to be Imped, 
is a very gross caricature, Mr. Bunning's design is absolutely archi- 
tecture run mad — madder than any of Borromini's freaks. In 
short, it is impossible to believe that such extravagant uncoiithness 
and unmeaningness of forms as are there exhibited, will be actually 
perpetrated; therefore judgment ought to be suspended until the 
work shall have been executed. Still, it is difficult to conceive how 
such a degree of misrepresentation could have occurred. Surely 
the wood-cut in question must either have been taken from an e.x- 
ceedingly rough aiul random sketch indeed, or have been the work 
of some arrant bungler, 

VI. A story is told of a lecturer who was cut short in a long- 
winded rambling preamble, consisting of truisms and commoii])liice 
dressed up in liigh-tlown phraseology, by one of his auditory 
getting not only impatient, but also getting up and saying : •• You 
win excuse the interruption. Sir, but I must ])eseech you to bear in 
mind that we have not come provided with nightcaps !" This sally 
was succeeded by such a grand chorus of laughter, that before it 
had subsided the unfortunate lecturer had thought proper to vanish. 
Like many other so-called anecdotes, the above may be pure in- 
vention, it being, perliaps, too good to he exactly true. Its mwal, 
Iiowever, is a tolerably significant one, and deserves to be attended 
to. If it be not an IIibernia:iism to call that strange which is so 
generally practised, it might well be called strange that so much 
mere school-boy stuff should be served over and over again in lec- 
tures and written essays; sometimes to the exclusion of anything 
besides such frothy matter, it being poured in so unsparingly, that 
there is actually no room for what would be substantial and nutri- 
tious. Now, peo]ile may be excused for not kjiowing more than 
wliat is already familiju- to every one at all acquainted with the 
sul)ject professedly treated of; but there is no occasion for tliem to 
betray to others that such is really the case. It was not very long 
;igo that conversing with an acquaintance who had been to hear 
■some lecture upon architecture, he told me that little as he himself 
knew of the subject, he knew enough to be able to engage to pro- 
duce something infinitely more to the purjiose than what he had 
heard, it being utterly stale, and barren of the least fresh inf(u-iua- 
tion ; much of it consisting of mere meta])hysical moonshine, better 
calculated to mystify than to enlighten the auditory- 

VII. It may fairly be questioned whether .sculpture for the Jiedi- 
nient of the British Museum might not just as well be spared, in- 
.asmuch as such partial decoration will only serve to render tlie 
absence of ornanu'ut in the rest of the stru('ture all the more ])ain- 
f'ully striking. E\en without such addition to the main building, 
there is a most unartistic want ot keeping between that aud the 
wings, — a defect which it is now so utterly beyond tlie ])o«er of 
.any mere oruanjentation to remedy, that it is more likely to be in- 
creased by attempting it. At jiresent it is not so apparent as it 
will be when the old buildings, which serve in smne degree as a foil 
to the new ones, shall ha\ e been completely cleiu'ed away, and the 
<iiitire line of the latter become fully exposed to view. M/hat >n>^■^ 
of a toot eusemblc may easily enough be guessed, since it may evgu 



now be plainly foreseen. If there be arty doubt at all in regard to 
it, it is only because it atill remains to he seen how it is Intended 
to inclose the court from the street. Should it be done bv any 
such sort of palisading as that before the I'ost-office, the effect 
will be mean and tasteless in the extreme. Whatever it is to be, 
that and the sentry-boxes were probably not included in the model, 
which, it might reasonably he fancied, did not even so much as ex- 
liihit the wings, otherwise their incongruousness with the central 
structure could hardly have failed to be noticed and objected to by 
those to whom the model was submitted — at any rate, if they were 
at all qualified for -exercising any judgment in the matter. One 
question not wholly undeserving deliberate consideration there is 
which does not seem to have occurred to any one, namely, whether 
it would nut have been more advisable, instead of adiiering to the 
arrangement of the original edifice, to advance the new fajade up 
to the street or nearly so, thereby exteruling the plan, by taking 
in the court-yard. That would have provided the accommodation 
that will in a few years be required, should the collections continue 
to iucrease as they hitherto have done Much available space has 
also been thrown away elsewhere, since without entirely filling up 
the inner court, it was obviously practicable enough to occuj)v a 
portion of that quadrangle (3)7 and 238 feet) by one or more 
ground floor galleries within it, lighted from above, and not so high 
as to obstruct the windows towards the court, which are besides at 
a considerable height from the ground. Or the apartments there 
formed might have been on a somewhat lower level than the court 
itself. It will, perhaps, he said that should it be found requisite, 
this may still be done, but certainly not so well as it might have 
been, had it been j)laiHied at first, since it would call for some alter- 
ations in what is already built ; besides which, had it been thought 
of at first, the cost of the inner facades of the quadrangle might 
have been spared, since plain brick walls — quite shut out of view 
as they would have been — would have been just as well in such a 
situation as the present ones faced with stone. Even had the court 
been partly built upon below, the upper part of it — that is, as much 
of its sides as could be seen from within thi'ough the windows 
might still have been finished as at present, with the omission how- 
ever of the columns and antai, so tliat its general ajqiearance as so 
viewed would have been quite as satisfactory as it is now ; nor need 
buildings within the quadrangle have been at all visible from any 
of the surrounding galleries or other apartments. 

VIII. The plan of the National Gallery was in a great measure 
sacrificed to the unlucky and obstinately-persisted-in whim of letting 
St. Martin's church be seen from I'ail-Mall East. Since it has 
been thrown open by the removal of the Mews, that building, said 
the wiseacres, must on no account he shut out of sight again as it 
was before ; as if such would really have been the case were it not 
visible from I'all-Mall East, when it would have shown itself as 
well, or perhaps even better — more picturesquely than it does now 
from Cockspur-street and Trafalgar-square. IJut for that stupid 
whim, which prevented the architect from bringing his portico at 
all forwarder than he did, and also comj>elled Inm to set back the 
extremities of bis fafade very considerably, the building might 
have been nearly twice as much in depth as it now is, aud in some 
parts even more than that. It must be admitted that notwithstaud- 
lug the disadvantages forced upon him, W'ilkins might have iir- 
ranged it much better, there being at present a great deal of space 
thrown away, that miglit by a little contrivance have been turned to 
good account. As to the dome, I ha\e not a word to say in excuse 
of it, it being so decidedly bad. Excuse for \\'ilkins, upon the 
whole, there is much, for never, perhaps, was architect more worried 
and thwarted than he was in that unfortunate building. 

IX. "Eminent" must be an ejiithet of exceedingly doubtful 
meaning when we find it applied to an individual recently deceased 
who, as an architect, was of no note whatever. However eminent 
Mr. * * * may have been in the profes.sion, he was certainly not 
at all eminent uut of it, his name being totally unknown to the 
public. Rather was he eminently obscure, since so far from being 
quoted in evidence of his talent, not a single building by him has 
ever obtained notice at all. As a man, he may luive lieeu a very 
worthy character; so he miglit, had he been an •'eminent chee.se- 
monger," in which case eminence and obscurity might have been 
allowed to go hand-in-haud togetlier. Truly grievous is it that 
harmless nobodies should be so vilely daubed over as soon as they 
are dead. It looks too much like ttiauking them for going out of 
the world and lca\iiig their snug jilaces and aiqiointments for 
others. The professional life of tfie eminent arciutect alluded to, 
would, I fancy, form a more curious than interesting contiiuution 
to the biograpliy of artists. 



1848] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



BUCKINGHAM PALACE AND THE MARBLE ARCH. 

But one opinion has been expressed of this unfortunate Palace, 
for if it finds favour at all witli any, they have not the courafre to 
utter so mucli as a syllable in defence of it. ^Ve may accordingly 
spare oursehes further censure of what is actually done, our pre- 
sent purpose licing- to point out what might have been done, and 
doubtless would ha\e been, had aught like due or decent consider- 
ation been given to the matter, tije idea here submitted being so 
very obvious a one that it is difficult to conceive how it could have 
by any possibility been overlooked. Or if it was not overlooked, 
but purposely rejected, it becomes desirable to know on what 
grounds it m-hs set aside, since the reasons must have been more 
tlian ordinarily cogent ones to lead to its rejection. 

Looking at the Palace as it stood before the alteration was com- 
menced, no one would have ever imagined that the blocking it up 
by another building, merely in order to obtain additional rooms, 
and thereby depriving all the original portion of tlie l)uilding of 
those advantages of situation and prosjiect which in some degree 
atoned to its occupiers for its architectural deficiencies, would have 
been resorted to without all other expedients being first tried. The 
preserving the same view as before into tlie Park should lia\e l>een 
made a sine qua non ; instead of which Mr. Blore seems to have had 
a caHe blanche to do just as he pleased, and he seems to have studied 
nothing more than merely providing the extra accommodation re- 
quired, in an additional building merely tacked on to the first one. 
To say that he at all considered the circumstances of the ease — the 
opportunity which it held out for architectural improvement, would 
be to accuse him of downright incapacity. The most prudent ex- 
cuse for him is that he was called upon so suddenly to prepare draw- 
ings for the purpose, that he had no time to collect his thouglits, 
much less any ideas, those which he miglit else have had being put 
to flight by the expeditiousness imposed upon him. Whereas liad 
he been allowed to apply himself to the task leisurely and quietly, 
he would have devised some means of preserving the Marl)le Arch, 
and not only retaining it, but giving it increased value and im- 
portance, as the focus point of a new facade. 

General, vague suggestions of this kind, it will perha])s be said, 
are very easily made, but we here offer somewhat more than a 
mere shapeless, unembodied idea, by showing in the annexed cut 




how the Arch could have been retained and connected with the 
advanced line of new l)uildings. "VVe would have continued the 
stylobate and order of the Arch by two siveeping double colonnades 
(quadrant in plan). This would not only have given gi-eater privacy 
to the court-yard, the stylobate being 'suflSciently high to prevent 
its being looked into, but would also have given it gi-eater apparent 
space than before, when that space was so indistinctly defined by 
the palisading, that as seen from the Palace the Arch appeared to 
stand as quite a distinct and insiJated oliject in the Park. Ac- 
cording to the plan here shown, it would, on the contrary, ii.'^O"" 
nection with the colonnades attached to it, have formed a highly 
scenic piece of architecture, full of play of light and shade and per- 
spective effect, and admitting a view of the landscape scenery in 
the Park in the background. As an embellishment to the court 
there might have been parterres in the quadrant portions of it, 



with a fountain in the centre of each quadrant. To specify other 
matters of decoration not indicated in the plan — statues and can- 
delabra for gas-burners placed alternately in the intercolumns of the 
colonnades, and a colossal sitting figure of Britannia on the summit 
of tlie Arch, giving to the latter wliat it has all along wanted, a 
pyramidal teimination to its mass, would have produced a more 
than ordinarily striking architectural picture, wliether viewed Irom 
the Palace or the Park. As seen from tlie latter, it would have 
been a sufficiently effectual screen to the buildings within the court, 
and after the sun liad passed off from the east side of the Palace, 
would Iiave been continually lighted up bv its ravs striking upon 
some of the columns during the whole day'. In combination with 
additional buildings carried out to the' riglit and left in ex- 
tension of the original wings, such a cohmnaded centre might have 
been made to produce a facade not at all inferior to, perha])s even 
more picturesque, than tliat of any otlier royal palace in Europe ; 
whereas now — but we can hardly speak witli decent patience 
of the miserable and truly contemptible abortion which Blore 
has perpetrated, both tolas own disgrace, and the disgrace of those 
who employed liim. Had such a design for enlarging the Palace 
been sanctioned by AV^iUiam IV., though our mortification would 
have been the same, our surprise would Iiave been considerably 
less. His taste and feeling for art never extended beyond the 
figure-head of a ship. That it should have been ))erpetrated under 
the auspices — at least under the very nose of a Prince who affects 
the character of a connoisseur and patron of art, fills us not only 
with astonishment, but dismay. \\ e account for it only by sup- 
posing that he was overruled in the matter, he being no more than 
Prince Consort. 

To show, as we have, what might ha\e been done, when tlie op- 
portunity for doing it has passed away, may seem ungracious. Our 
reply is, it is no fault of ours that the op])o"rtunity was not afforded 
us, and not ourselves alone, but others also perhaps far more able, 
of making suggestions at a time when advantage might have been 
taken of them. At any rate, we hope that Buckingham Palace will 
now prove an eflScaeious lesson for the future ; and it is also some 
consolation to find that it is not only poor, but so desperately bad, 
that there is very little danger of its corrupting puiilic taste, be- 
cause it will be now more mocked, and more an oliject of general 
derision tlian ever. Admiration it will excite none whatever, that's 
certain; but then it is equally certain that it will excite a vast deal 
ot astonisliment. It will completely astonish the natives, and aU 
foreigners into the bargain. 

As the Marble Arch — which niiglit have been so easily retained, 
and not only retained but greatly "improved, and made the nucleus 
of an extended piece of decoration in the foreground of an extende<l 
line of fa^ade^is to be taken down, tlie question now is, is it to be 
destroyed, or re-erected on some other spot } Nobody except those 
actually in the secret, knows; though why it shou'ld be made a 
secret at all nobody can tell, unless it be because tlie intention in 
regard to it is so preposterous that were it divulged it would excite 
strong opposition. Our idea is that the street front of tlie Horse 
Guards would be a very suitable situation for it. It would there 
fill up w hat is now too much of a gap, and the two smaller arches 
would serve admirable as the recesses for the sentinels on horse- 
back. It has, indeed, been rumoured tliat both the Horse Guards 
and Admiraltj' are to undergo architectural transformation by Mr. 
Barry. But instead of that interposing any obstacle, it would 
rather facilitate such aiqjlication of the arch, since Barry would 
only have to bring it into his design, and treat tlie rest of the com- 
position in accordance with sucli feature. 



BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 

Sir — It seems not a little singular that none of the critics who 
are disposed to animadvert in such severe terms on the new front 
of Buckingham Palace, not even your lynx-eyed "Candidus" him- 
self, sliould have discovered that it is only a reduced copy (about 
two-fifths in length) of the Palace at Caserta ; so that the faults 
or merits, be they which they may, are not Mr. Blore's, but Vanvi- 
tetti's. In proof of which, 1 beg your acceptance of tracings of 
the perspective view of the front and of the plan, after Vasi. 

It is to be feared that the imitation will be confined to the part 
of Vanvitetti's design upon which he appears to have bestowed the 
least pains, that is the outside, and that there are but faint hopes 
of an equal imitation of the splendid staircase and vestibule. 

Vasi states the length of the north and south fronts of Caserta 
to be 918 palms (Neapolitan, I presume), which, at lOg inchesj 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Ja.v 



would dive fi73 ft. 10 in. for tlie length of tlip front. The east and 
west fronts, by the s:iine reckoninjr, would he (ilS ft. 10 in. ; and, 
as the lenjjth of Uuckinirhuni Palace is stated in the ./'(«)•»«/ at 
.S50 feet, the proportion is exartly two-tifths. The height of 
Caserta is 120 feet ; of Buckiiiifham Palace, 77 feet. 

I visited Caserta thirty years ajjo, in company with Mr. Woods 
and M. Soiss, the eminent Belgian architect, and the notes of that 
day are now before me. 

"The central passage or vestibule leading from the entrance is 
2i feet wide, and 2t feet high to the springing of the semicircular 
vault. The steps of the middle Hight of tlie stairs are 2'2 feet 
long, and the two return flights each 14 feet long (100 steps in all), 
and are of white and reddish variegated marble : there are statues, 
trophies, &c. The vestibule above is handsome, hut (in my eyes 
at that time) in bad style. The chapel (which is opposite to the 
staircase) has coupled columns, of Sicilian marble. The lower 
part of the chapel is lined with slabs cut from the Giallo Antico 
columns, removed from Purruoli," &c. &c. 

Let Mr. Blore give to the Palace a staircase at all resembling 
this, and the world will forgive him the faults of his front ; many 
f>[ which have, no doubt, been forced upon him, as ujjon his great 
predecessor, by the necessity of providing accommodation for so 
many people. 

I have read Mr. Elmes's Epitome of the Lives of English Archi- 
tects with great satisfaction, and beg to expi-ess my hope that he 
will carry out his " present intention" without delay. I would take 
the further liberty of suggesting to him that the illustrations he 
promises ought to consist mainly of unedited specimens, or at least 
of those of which the engravings are least accessible, or the works 
containing them least known. A list, referring to the books in 
which the most meritorious of each architect's productions are to 
be found, would l>e very valuable. 

It should be remembered that size is not the criterion of merit. 
How many of us country architects are forced to take the counsel 
of our excellent frienil, Percier, and in despair of executing large 
works, to bestow greater care upon lesser ones .'' 
I am, &c., 

Voric, Dec. 13, 18t7. Robert Sharp, Architect. 



COWPER'S INVERTED ARCH BRIDGE. 

Sin — In reflecting on the construction of Mr. Cowper's bridge, I 
think it is interesting to notice that the boiler plates are rivetted 
together, so that the pressure on the piers and abutments must now 
be vertical instead of oblique, as in the common suspension bridge. 

Hence, then, in principle it may be said to coincide with the 
(u-dinary girder bridge, but its alteration in form suggests an im- 
]iortant advantage, which it possesses ; for, in the girder bridge 
(and especially when dealing with long bearings), there must 
always be this objection, viz., that by reason of the gravity of the 
material itself, independently of any additional influence of a load 
placed upon it, it is constantly tending to assume a curved form, 
and such curved form not being the natural position of its particles, 
it is constantly tending to rupture ; but in the " inverted arch 
bridge" the material is thrown into that form (or nearly so) which 
it would take if perfectly fte.rihlc, and then is made perfectly rigid. 
So that, as regards its own gravity, there is no further alteration 
of form, of any practical importance, to be apprehended. 

With regard to the alteration of form which might result from a 
load being put upon it, Mr. Cowper has already pointed out the 
j)reventivc measure, viz., the giving to the vertical dimension of 
the plate such a magnitude as to bring the line of strain within 
the plates. 

I think the name might have been more aptly chosen : "Inverted 
arch" is suggestive only of form, and not of principle, and might 
(it seems to me) with eijual projjriety he applied to the ordinary 
suspension bridge. I am, &c., 

G. W. Richard. 

*,,* It is not cl^-ar that it would be practicable to make the 
'■ inverted arch bri<lge" so rigid as to exert only vertical pressures 
on the abutments, and to act as a curved girder. 

Suppose its span 200 feet and dejjth I feet, and that a weight of 
:iO tons (engine and tender) rests at its centre. Then, by the 
ordinary ))rinciples of statics which apply to girders, we may easily 
find the horizontal strains of tension and com]iression which this 
weight alone produces at the centre. Considering the half-structure 
as a separate statical system, the forces acting upon it have equal 
moments about the jioint of sn])port in the abutment : or half 
the weight X the half-span = the moment of the couple of tension 



and compression created at the centre of the bridge. The length of 
the arm of couple is indeterminate, but (since the total depth is 
■1 feet) it is a favoural)le supposition to take it at 3 feet. Hence, 
calling the horizontal strain P, we have 

P X 3 = 15 X 100, or P = 500 tons ! 

The metal must he tolerably thick to resist five hundred tons 
pressure on the upper, and tension on the lower, side of the bridge 
at its centre! This dithculty is formidable enough when the struc- 
ture is considered as all one piece, liut becomes insuperable when 
the efl'ect of joints is taken into account. It is not to be overcome 
by any system of rivetting and dove-tailing, however intricate. 

Though it be easy to calculate the amount of the horizontal 
strains at the centre of the curved beam, it is not easy to estimate the 
sectional or transverse dimensions necessary to resist those strains; 
for our knowledge of the transverse strength of wrought-iron is 
much less than of cast-iron. Some idea may, however, be (dttained 
from analogy. The "inverted arch," if it sustains itself by its 
rigidity as a girder, may, for all purposes of calculating the strength 
at its centre, be considered as a horizontal beam 200 feet long and 
4 feet deep, with an effective width of 1 foot to 1 foot 6 inches at 
the utmost. Now, the proposed Menai tubular bridge will be 450 
feet long, but its de])th will be thirtg feet, and width fifteen feet : 
also its upper and lower sides will be composed of several thick- 
nesses of metal, as the former will consist of two, and the latter of 
one, series of cellular compartments. The analogy between the 
Menai bridge and the inverted arch is complete in several respects : 
both are tubular, both are to be composed of rivetted wrought-iron 
plates, and both are designed for railway traffic. The sectional 
dimensions of the Menai bridge are suggested by actual experi- 
ment, and are never considered too great. Is it not, therefore, 
abundantly evident that a beam of |ths the span of the Alenai tube, 
hut with only an eighth or twelfth its depth and width, ivould not 
be rigid enough to sustain itself as a beam .' 

If suspended from, instead of resting upon, the abutments, it 
might perhaps be prevented from actually falling, but it would 
certainly bend. If the point of suspension he supposed to be at 
the upper edge of the end of tlie beam, the transverse strains of 
deflection will be somewhat reduced by the curvature of the beam; 
but it would be difficult to show that this advantage would not be 
far more than compensated for by the increase of length, and there- 
fore of material, wliich the curvature renders necessai-y. 

It is important to remark, that if the only requisite.i'or security 
were that the depth of the chain should "include any alteration in 
the curve of the strain," that depth should not be uniformly i feet. 
It should be nothing at the centre of the span and the point of sus- 
pension, and gradually increase up to some intermediate part. The 
highest and lowest points of a catenary may be always chosen 
arbitrai'ily. 

The argument that the chain would not be distorted because it 
is "of such depth as to include any alteration in the curve," is 
vague and inconclusive. It certainly cannot stand ground against 
deductions from the fundamental equations of statical equilibrium. 
The reasoning given above is a simple, ordinary application of the 
elementary principles of mechanics ; these are not to be opposed 
by a mere hypothesis, which is too subtle to be made the suliject of 
rigid investigation. All that can he said of this hypothesis is, that 
it is not neces.mrily true. A number of independent chains might 
be hung from the abutments, and to each might be given that form 
which it would, if perfectly free, assume of itself when the load 
at some particular stage of its transit hung from that chain. alone. 
Then it is clear that, while no connection existed among the se- 
veral chains, the load acting on each in succession would not tend 
to distort any of them, i. e. would not produce transverse strains. 
But it does not follow that this would be the case when all the 
chains were bound up together in one connected mass. 

The " inverted arch bridge" does not seem to be an advantageous 
compromise between the principle of the girder and the suspen- 
sion chain. An intermediate condition misses the advantages of 
both those structures : for if the inverted arcli be only partially 
rigid it is subject to needless and prejudicial transverse'strains; — 
if it be as rigid as a girder, why unnecessarily increase its length 
by curving it.? The idea of our correspondent that the curvature 
obviates its tendency to deflect by its own weight, seems to us un- 
founded ; for however much the structure was bent when lirst 
put' up, it would tend to bend still more when its ends merely 
rested upon the abutments. We cannot positively undertake to 
assert that the suspension of a curved beam has no peculiar advan- 
tages ; hut they have not yet been pointed out, and we are unable 
to discern them. — Editois. 



1818.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. 

It is extraordinary that we should ha\e liad to wait so long for 
the introduction of a system of electric telej^raphs, seeing that a 
century ago it was known that the electric fluid could be sent 
through a coil of wire two miles long, as was done in the experi- 
ments at Hanipstead, while a coil had also been carried across the 
Thames. Papin, too, in the beginning of the last century, had 
sought a means of communicating power and motion to a distance. 
Had, however, such a means of c(mimunication as that by the elec- 
tric telegraph been adopted, it would have languished in the then 
state of the roads, and the then state of society, for it would not 
have answered commercially, and its failure might have been most 
prejudicial. It has been reserved for our day to apply this inven- 
tion, and to give one to the many characteristics which make it 
an era of progress. Beside the locomotive, the steamship, and the 
daguerreotype, the electric telegi-aph may take its place ; and the 
day is perhaps not very distant, when our furthest islands will by 
the telegraph be brought under our immediate rule. 

Having been among the first in the field, and having by the 
Slough line proved the practicability of the system, we have allowed 
the Americans to get in advance ot us, for they had in 18i6 sixteen 
hundred miles in practical commercial working, w bile we can hardly 
be said, even at present, to have any great extent of telegraph in 
use, although we have a great length laid down. Next year will 
redeem us from this charge, for we shall have two thousand five 
huiulred miles, but it will not exculpate the government for having 
60 long neglected this admirable invention. It is some comfort 
that we are ahead of France and all the European kingdoms. In 
the want of machinery for exteiuling electric telegraphs we have to 
regret the neglect of the government in withholding the introduc- 
tion of railways in India, where the telegrajdi would be invaluable 
in governing territories so vast, and where the number of English 
functionaries is unhappily limited. 

We have now arrived at an era in the telegraph, for at the date 
of this jniblication, the metropolis has been brought into imme- 
diate communication with Liverpool, Manchester, and many of 
the great centres of trade and manufactures. The Electric 
Telegraph Company ha\e brought their ojierations to that stage 
that they can convey intelligence to sixty great towns, and this 
seems an appropriate time for laying some account of their pro- 
ceedings before the public, the more so as the full efl'ect of this ad- 
mirable invention does not seem to be so well appreciated as it 
might be in comparison with its vast capabilities, and the influence 
which it will exercise upon every class of the community, both 
morally and physically. 

The operations may be considered as having begun with Mr. 
Cooke and Professor Wheatstone, who, after labouring singly for 
some time, in 1837 took out their first patent. It is understood 
that Professor Wheatstone applied himself more to the purer philo- 
sophical experiments, and that Mr. Cooke has taken charge of the 
practical detail, and at last brought the invention to its present 
bearing. We say nothing of other parties who have laboured on 
this subject, for our business is now with the Electric Telegraph 
Company. Soon after Messrs. Cooke and AVheatstone took out 
their patent, they laid down a line nineteen miles long on the Great 
Western railway, between London and Slough, the working of 
which was most successful, although of course it did not satisfy 
those who thought the system might fail if extended to Liverpool or 
York. It took many years to urge the system forward, and it was 
not till 18+6 that a company was incorporated, called the Electric 
Telegraph Company, for carrying it out on a large scale. Con- 
tracts had however been made, and works carried on, so that before 
the act of incorporation the company was already in activity, and 
had by the end of 184-6 laid down 1000 miles of telegraph. At the 
same date Professor Morse, in America, had laid down 1600 miles. 
The system has been chiefly carried out in connection with rail- 
ways, because the value of the telegraph to the railway companies 
has induced the latter to adopt it, and to make advantageous ar- 
rangements for laying it down. The years 1846 and 1847 have 
therefore been chiefly employed in laying down the wires, and their 
working on a large scale has been retarded until now by the non- 
completrion of the wire between London and Rugby, on the North 
W^estern railway. On the 13tb November this link was completed, 
and the London prices were at once conveyed to Manches- 
ter. The new metropolitan station has likewise been partially 
opened, and by the new year the whole plan will be in full opera- 
tion. During the present year the metropolitan station has been 
in the Strand, and the working has been chiefly for government 
purposes along the South Western line to Gosport, although 



latterly much general business has been transacted. The organi- 
zation of a new system has called for the exercise of much labour 
and ingenuity in tlie engineering and the signals departments, the 
principal officers of which are Mr. Hatcher, recently of King's Col- 
lege, and Mr. A\'hishaw, author of tlie " Railways of Great Britain,' 
and the inventor of the hydraulic telegraph. In the standard work 
on the " Railways of Great Britain," Mr. ^Vhishaw proposed uni- 
formity of railway time, and a mode of communication between 
guard and driver, which with many other practical suggestions are 
now carried out. At a given time every morning a signal will 
he made from the central station, and the needle will be brought 
to the vertical indicating Greenwich mean time, by which all the 
telegraph clocks will be set. As this arrangement, most im- 
portant to travellers, w ill now be carried out over the country, we 
may observe that local clocks and watches can be made with a 
double minute-hand, so as to show local time and mean time. Al- 
though much controversy has been raised about mean time, and 
many eminent men have opposed it, it has received the sanction 
of the astronomer-royal, h ho has proposed the adoption of it for the 
great clock at the palace of Westminster, which is to be set by 
electric telegraph from GreenM ich. The system of codes adopted 
by the Electric Telegraph Company, has been, we believe, entirely 
constructed and arranged by the same gentleman. On account of 
the extent of the operations of the comjiany a great many mechanics 
have been employed in making the various apparatus and in laying 
do« n the wires, and many works of great nicety in their execution 
have been carried out. 

The ccmipany is not restricted to Messrs. Cooke and Wheat- 
stone's patents, but has power to avail itself of all inventions in 
which electric power is used. They have therefore purchased many 
patents and inventions, among the chief of which maybe mentioned 
Bain's electrical clock, an invention, the full value of which is far 
from being known. At the offices in the Strand is a model-room, 
w hich contains a large collection of telegraphs of various construc- 
tion, and of clocks. This model-room does great ci-edit to the com- 
pany, and is a museum of great value to the practical man. It 
will be recollected that at Sir John Rennie's conversaziones in the 
spring, among the many novelties which the learned president 
bi'ought before his guests, was a collection of telegraph apparatus. 
This was contributed by the Electric Telegraph Company, and 
formed not the least interesting contribution to the temporary mu- 
seum in W^hiteball Place. 

In the model-room in the Strand, the collection in v\hich will, 
we presume, be removed to the city, there is ex-ery thing neces- 
sary to illustrate the subject, though of course it does not contain 
every telegraphic invention. Several apparatus shoiv the improve- 
ments which have been gradually made in the needle instrument, 
so as to make it capable of working. Two ingenious telegraphs 
communicate by sound. One of these, the invention of Professor 
Wheatstone, strikes two bells of dissimilar sound, the combination 
of the two producing the letters, as in the double needle telegraph. 
Another, the discovery of a workman, gives a humming noise from 
a wire. The efl'ect is singular, and was a chance discovery. At 
present it is of no moment, but the preservation of a model by the 
company serves to encourage the spirit of discovery, while what is 
now merely trivial may become the germ of a valuable ajiplication. 
It is deserving of note that already the officers and ivorkmen em- 
ployed on telegraphs li;i,ve been the means of making many useful 
suggestions, and we ma)' anticipate the best results from an energetic 
body of employees, if the company are liberal. Notwithstanding 
all that has been said about railway impro\ements, it is well known 
to practical men that \ery great improvements have been efl^ected 
by railway officers, and that a large amount of talent is constantly 
and energetically directed to the perfection of the system. The 
names of George and Robert Stephenson, Brunei, Braithwaite, 
Booth, Gooch, Gray, Edmonson, are only a few as a s])ecimen of 
those who have contributed to the practical improvement of rail- 
ways. In a few years the Electric Telegraph officers will, we 
hope, have given equal proofs of zeal and ingenuity. 

The printing telegraphs in the model-room are illustrated by 
several apparatus of various forms, some for printing by letters, 
and others by signs. The company make use at their stations of 
the needle telegraph, but as the working of this is doubtful, and 
other telegraphs move quicker, it is quite open to them to change 
their instruments, as they have the wires laid down, and the wires 
are used under whatever system. AVhile adverting to printing 
telegraphs, which print their message in black, we may observe 
that it is perfectly competent to make a telegraph which shall use 
diflerent colours, and indeed a mode of shading was long ago sug- 
gested by Mr. Hyde Clarke. 

The business of the company in electric clocks will no doubt be 

3 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[.Fanuaby, 



very lar^re in the end, as they admit of such useful application in i 
piililic and jjrivate estahlisliinents. In tlie eourse of a short time ' 
111) piihlic ortiee will he witliout a clock dial in every department, 
and wlien tlie example has heen set wide enouj^h there will he i'ew 
private houses without a dial in every room. It is a small tliin};, 
hut it is no mean thin;; to increase hrdjits of jiunctuality in a popu- 
lation. Those wlu) have noticed in fiu-eifin countries the disreu:ard 
of tlie value of time amonf>- uiienterprisinf>- jiojiulatioMs, know the 
wortli of our f^reater luxury in time-pieces. The Electric Tele- 
frraph Company, liowever, will be satisfied with tlie pecuniary 
result, witliout' seeking; further as to the puhlic l)enelit they may 
effect. Tlie ])rice of a clock is at present of course ratlier liif^h, 
namely, sixteen guineas, and of companion clocks, ten ffnineas 
each. A great olijection to electric clocks at present is, that de- 
jiending- on the electric currents of tlie earth or on a battery, their 
regularity cannot be depended upon. 

The metropolitan station, designed by JMr. Hunt, is very well 
situated. It occupies what was lately Founders' Hall and the ad- 
jacent premises, liaving entrances in Lothbury from Founders' Hall- 
court, and in Moorgate-street. The doorway in Founders' Hall- 
court is handsomely carved in stone, and thiuigh small makes a good 
fa.ade. Tlie central hall or counting house is one of the hand- 
somest works lately executed. This station is within a few minutes' 
walk of tlie Bank, Stock Excliange, Royal Exchange, Lloyd's, 
the joint stock and private banks, assurance offices, in the heart ot 
business, and not far from the Corn Exchange, Commercial Rooms, 
L^oal Exchange, and the seat of the Manchester warehouses and 
colonial produ(-e warelunises. The newspaper offices are further 
removed, hut in the end means will he found of accommodating 
this class. The government offices, houses of parliament, courts 
of law, and places of west-end business are also at a distance, but 
the city is tlie district which will pay best, and it is impossible to 
provide for all at once. So far as tlie city office is concerned, the 
judgment of the managers has been well shown in its selection. 

The principle of Cooke and AFheatstone's telegraph is founded 
on tlie discovery of Professor (Ersted in 1819, that a magnetised 
needle has a tendency to i>lace itself at right angles to a wire along 
which a current of electricity is passing. By the movements of 
such a needle on a dial an alphabet is formed, which serves as the 
means of communicating messages. 

In the other forms of telegraph a disc is made to rotate, bearing 
on it letters or signs, and this is effected in virtue of tlie property 
soft iron has of becoming temporarily magnetised by an electric 
current being passed along a wii-e coiled in a spiral around it. The 
same principle is adopted in all tlie apparatus for ringing the 
alarum in order to give notice that the telegraph is in action. It 
is to be observed that the telegraphs in the United States, France, 
and Prussia, are on the disc system ; in Baden Highton's telegraph 
has been used. Most of the telegraphs in England are needle tele- 
gra])hs, that on the Smith Devon is a disc telegraph, and that iu 
the Box Tunnel on Nott and Gamble's plan. 

The disc telegraphs are wm-ked either by the voltaic battery 
or the magneto-electric machine, power being derived from a 
permanent magnet. With these telegraphs, two wires only are 
necessary, one for the telegraph and one for the alarum ; but the 
needle telegraphs, for commercial purposes, require three wires, 
two needle-wires for the telegraph and one wire for the alarum. 

As now laid by the Electric Telegraph Company, on their best 
system, two wires are employed for each principal statimi, the 
wires used being of iron, of No. 8 gage, and one-sixth of an inch 
diameter. These are galvanised, and come very cheap. The 
weight is about ;i8lh. to the hundred yards, or ISOlb. per mile. 
The wire is welded together in lengths of about a quarter of a 
mile each. These wires are fixed to standards, at distances vary- 
ing from 45 to 55 yards apart, and at each quarter of a mile is a 
stronger standard, where a connection is made. The wires are 
kept taut by a simple arrangement, which it is unnecessary to 
describe. In conse(iuence of this mode of suspending the wires on 
standards, which was first adcqited in 1812, a great economy is 
effected, and the system admits of a more extensive apjilication, as 
now it may be laid anywhere wherever the standards can he put 
up ; and as the population get accustomed to this invention, it can 
be put up as safely in the streets, or in the roads, as gas-lami)s are 
now left ; though of course it is premature to anticipate such ad- 
vancement at present. Under Brett and Little's system it can, we 
believe, be laid much cbeajier than now. 

The original method of laying the wires was to cover them 
with silk or cotton thread, and then with pitch, resin, cacuitchiuic, 
or some other non-conducting substance, enclosed in eartheiiw;ire 
tubes, in wood trunks, or in iron ])ipes. At that time, there were 
several inventions for laying the telegraph wires in asphalt. The 



great expense of the system was one of the obstructions to its 
extension at an earlier jieriod. Our readers will recollect that 
pipes were used on the tjreat Western and Blackwall llailways. 
One purpose in the pijies was to prevent any interference with the 
telegraph wires ; but this precaution is now considere<l unneces- 
sary. The connecting wires between Nine Elms and the Strand 
stations, and between Euston-square and the metropolitan stations, 
are laid in pipes (Mr. Freeman Roe being the contractor) ; but, 
as we have already observed, they will in tlie end be, in most 
cases, laid on standards in the streets. At the present moment, 
our main streets are filled with cast-iron pipes for gas, for water, 
and for electric telegraphs. Liquid manure is also to be laid on, 
and we believe Professor Wheatstone contemplated a sound tele- 
graph, which should play music. The professor contemplated the 
conduction of sound ; but waiting till that is accomplished, it is 
quite easy to play music at a distance by the, present resources of 
science. With a sufficient number of wires, a grand piano might 
be played in London and Liverpool at the same time ; ami nothing 
would'he easier than for one organst to play in two cathedrals, or 
to play a set of chimes in St. Paul's and in York Minster simul- 
taneously. Professor Wheatstone's bell telegraph, in the model- 
room of the Electric Telegrapli Company, gives the elements of 
such an apparatus. In Flanders, every town has its set o{ carillons 
or chimes, playing elaborate tunes, and having its carilloneur, who 
plays on Sundays. In time, the whole of these may he worked 
together, or perhaps the towns of England supplied with the 
luxury of cariUnns. Professor AV^heatstone, however, proposes to 
go beyond this, and to convey musical sounds to a distance. 

A great economy has already been effected in the luimber of 
wires used. In the earliest Slough instrument, five needles were 
used, and double wires for each. The application of the principle 
that the earth could he made to serve as half of the circuit, and 
its adoption by Mr. Cooke in his patent of 1842, at once abolished 
half the wires, and by successive improvements, the number of 
needles was brought down to four, to three, and to two, and, for 
some purposes, even one. Thus, where twelve wires were necessary 
in 1842 for one station, two are now sufficient, while the cost is 
decreased in a very much greater ratio by the wires being 
galvanised instead of wound in cotton or silk, and by their 
being suspended in the air instead of being laid in pipes. Perhaps, 
in the end, a lighter wire will be used, and the system will be in- 
definitely extended. It is impossible to consider the system as 
being otherwise than in its earliest infancy, and we may expect, as 
in railways, to see very great modifications. The locomotive, after 
being increased in size to the magnitude of the "Great A^^estern," is 
now likely to he brought down to the proportions of a steam- 
carriage. Nothing is so dangerous in new inventions as to pre- 
judge. 

The instruments used are Cooke and Wheatstone's, and are 
either single or double needle instruments. The latter is pre- 
ferred. They are both on the same principle, except that the 
latter is double the former. As seen from the outside, the double 
needle telegraph shows two needles suspended like clock-hands on 
a dial. Each of these needles is the duplicate of another within 
the instrument, and behind the dial, and which latter is the real 
needle. This needle is suspended in a light hollow frame of wood 
or metal, round which are wound two sets of fine copper wire, coated 
or insulated with silk or cotton. About 200 yards of wire, rjirt'i 
of an inch diameter, is used for these purposes. Tiiis coil is con- 
nected with an electro-galvanic battery. A great difficulty of 
the needle telegraph is to stop the oscillations or vihrat.ons of the 
needle when set in motion. This is attempted by giving a greater 
e.xtension and weight to the lower limb of the needle. 

On the instrument, below the dial, is a liandle, which is so 
foi-med as to turn on or break off the connection of the battery 
with the conducting wires, and so to transmit motion to the needle, 
which, according to the way in which the curi-ent is passed, may 
be deflected to the right or left. 

In the double-needle instrument, the alphabet is formed by the 
production or repetition of three combinations. The needles being 
placed parallel, the right-hand needle may be worked or the left- 
hand needle, the two together, or the two alternately ; accordingly 
as this is done once, twice, thrice, or four times, a large number of 
alphabetical or other characters is obtained. The double needle 
has this additional economy over the single needle, that in many 
combinations the two handles are worked together ; in other tele- 
graphs of a simpler construction the saving would be still greater. 

The needle being itself a magnet, is subject to disturbance from 
the free electricity of the atmosphere in particular states of wea- 
ther so that its working is very uncertain ; and although some 
modifications and improvements are made, this does not obviate 



ISIS."] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



IX 



the objections. To prevent the needle from traversing too far, it 
is confined by pins on either side. On a recent occasion all the 
telegraphs throughout England were deflected for so long a period 
that business was wholly stopped. 

It is to be noticed, that the communication is carried through 
the instrument, which is a part of the chain of connection. At 
each station used, must be an instrument ; but where the corre- 
spondence is small, several instruments may be used «ith the same 
wires ; but of course two stations cannot be worked together, — 
one only can use the telegraph at a time. ^Vhere there is larger 
correspondence, separate wires and instruments are used for each 
station. An objection at present is that one instrument being dis- 
ordered, which is not unfrequently the case, the whole set suffer. 

Where several instruments are i)ut on one set of wires, there is 
an advantage in sending a simultaneous message. Thus, in the 
case of the Queen's speech and proroguing Parliament next year, 
it may be sinuiltaneously communicated to sixty stations by one 
clerk in Lothbury ; and we may conceive the period when a public 
functionary may simultaneously convey instantaneous instructions 
to a thousand subordinates, thus surpassing all that the printing- 
press has ever yet accomplished. Already, the superintendents of 
railways, seated in their London offices, can give general instruc- 
tions every morning to their station-masters attending in the 
telegraph-rooms. For most of the ))urposes of the subscribers'- 
rooms, the whole system of telegraphs put in communication will 
allow of one message or list of prices or quotations being used for 
all, which is a great economy. Thus the price of shares at Man- 
chester, of cotton at Liverpool, of sugar in Mincing-lane, or of 
corn at Wakefield, will be simultaneously announced all over the 
country. 

The bell, or alarum, may be considered at present an essential 
part of the telegraph system. By setting the alarum in action, 
notice is given to the telegraph clerk that a message is going to 
be sent. We question, howe\er, whether the bell will in the future 
be necessary at large telegraph stations, where clerks are on duty 
day and night, and the instruments, perhaps, in constant use. At 
present, the alarum may be set in action from the telegra])h wire, 
or a separate wire may be used. The defect of the former plan is, 
that if the clerk, on finishing his message, does not leave his 
alarum in the circuit, the alarum cannot be set in action, and the 
only way to attract his attention is the chance of his seeing the 
needles working. As this contingency virtually neutralizes the 
use of the alarum, it is considered preferable to have a separate 
bell for the alarum. The alarum is a jiiece of clock-work, to be 
set in action by the connection or disconnection of two pieces of 
soft iron, formed into a horse-shoe magnet, and covered with a 
coil of fine copper wire insulated with silk or cotton. When this 
horse-shoe is magnetised, it attracts an armature of soft iron, 
which moves on an arbor, and lets loose a catch, which sets the 
clock-work in motion. Formerly, the magnet was made to act 
directly on the hammer of the bell. Lately, great improvements 
have been made in alarums by other inventors. 

The single needle telegraph is sometimes used for railway pur- 
poses, where a limited number of signals is required ; but for all 
others, the double needle is used, and the difference in price is not 
sufficient to justify the use of a less effective instrument. As, 
however, in the case of the double needle instrument, accident 
may happen to one of the wires, the clerks are taught the use of 
the single needle signals, so that communications may still be 
carried on. This is the more necessary from the liability to 
disorder. We may observe, that in case of injury to a particu- 
lar line of wires, as that on the old Manchester and Bir- 
mingham Railway for instance, the communication with Man- 
chester could still be carried on by forming a circuit with Slieffield, 
Leeds, Liverpool, or any other of the places remaining in connec- 
tion with it and the metropolis. Unless all the wires round a ttuvn 
be disturbed, the communication cannot be stopped, so readUy 
can a line of correspondence be formed ; and it is at present con- 
sidered of little importance to sentl a message round by any dis- 
t.ince, as no perceptible difference in speed or efficiency is found 
between a direct or a circuitous route in the transmission of elec- 
tric messages. Hitherto, all corresj)ondence with Manchester has 
been sent circuitously by Rugby, and over the Midland Railway. 
In a political, and even in a commercial point of view, this fact is 
of some importance, as it guarantees the stability of this mode of 
communication. It is to be noted, however, that the Electric 
Telegraph Company have hitherto worked their messages by relays, 
and this is the case on the South Eastern, which argues some de- 
fects. The company's telegraph is a failure on the South Devon 
line, and in the Summit Tunnel on the Sheffield and Manchester 



railway. Nott and Gamble's telegraph has also failed in the Box 
Tunnel. 

The mode of transmitting messages by telegi-aph has already 
been subjected to re\olutions. When the idea was put forward of 
spelling words, of course it was suggested that combinations might 
be formed of signals standing for words. This was not, hoviever, 
then found to work well, and the competent author of the article 
on electric telegraphs, writing in " AV^eale's Pocket Book," in the 
end of the year 18+0, says — " This method has been fully tried, 
and has been relinquished only upon a conviction of the greater 
certainty and eventual quickness of the literal communication." 
At the present moment, the company are again working by sig- 
nals or words, and with great success, upon JMr. Whishaw's 
system. It will strike every one who has given his attention to 
the subject, that each subject relating to shipping, to the stock 
exchange, to produce markets — will have its own technical 
language, in the cognate business of short-hand writing, called 
" arbitraries," and for which signs may be used as they are in 
short-hand. The merit of Mr. Whishaw's system consists in 
its special application, while the failure of the previous at- 
tempts was in tlieir generalization. All successful codes of sig- 
nals, or telegrajjh communications, have been special ; and the 
same may be said of short-hand arbitraries. A law short-hand- 
writer will find constantly recurring — " plaintiff, defendant, affi- 
davits, plea," and a number of other terms, which it would be a 
work of supererogati(m to write in full ; and so in each dejiartment ; 
but this has been left to systematization by the individual rather 
than made a work of science. Sea signals have been rendered very 
simple by their application to nautical purposes, though the at- 
tempts to apply them to more extended communications have 
faUed. 

In Mr. Whishaw's system for the Electric Telegraph Comjiany, a 
code of signals is applied to each class of communications. Thus there 
is a code for slii])ping intelligence, a code for racing, a code for share 
lists, a code for corn-market prices, and so forth. On the message 
being commenced, a signal is made what code is used, so that the 
clerk who receives the message is prepared for the nature of the 
signals. As the number of signals which can be made in a given 
time is limited, it is evidently of great importance to economise 
time by the adoption of arbitraries, instead of spelling every word, 
letter for letter. Indeed, if an expedient of this kind were not 
adopted, it would be impossible to carry on the correspondence 
between the great towns. As it is, it may be reasonably expecte<l 
that business will so far increase on the organization of the sys- 
tem, as to require the adoption of more than one line of telegraphs 
between the metropolis and such towns as Manchester and Glas- 
gow. ^Ve may note here, that it will be curious to observe 
whether the number of telegraph messages will bear any corre- 
spondence with the number of post letters sent to each town. 
There can be no doubt, however, that to give accommodation to 
the public new companies will be formed, as in other branches of 
enterprise. 

On a message being delivered in writing at the telegraph office, 
it is " translated" into telegraph language, transmitted by a tele- 
graph clerk, received by a telegraph clerk at the other end, re- 
translated there, and written out and given to a messenger for 
delivery. Each message is accompanied by preliminary signals, to 
call the attention of the clerk to be addressed, and to signify to 
him the nature of the message, and the code to be used. It may 
readily be conceived that it is of great assistance to the clerk to 
know the class of message he is going to receive, as he is thereby 
better prepared to understand its import. It is like a reporter iii 
the gallery of the House of Commons understanding the speaker 
whom he is following, and which enables him more fully to catch 
and express his meaning, than if the subject were unfamiliar to 
him. In time, no doubt, the telegraph clerks will divide among 
themselves the labour of transmitting the several classes of intelli- 
gence, and this will have a tendency to ensure greater accuracy 
and rapidity. In order to obtain more accurate delivery of a 
message, the company offer, on the payment of an advanced 
price, to have it repeated, so that there may be a security fvr 
its being fully understood ; and this is necessary, as errors must be 
expected to creep in from frequent imperfection in the instru- 
ments, from unintentional error on the part of the sender, and 
from misinterpretation on the part of the receiver. These 
kinds of messages will be peculiarly open to those " equivoques," 
now known as " errors of the press," in printing, where the 
insertion of one wrong letter alteis the whole meaning of a 
word or sentence. We may be prepared, therefore, for letters 
addressed to the great censor of the age, headed, " Shameful Alis- 

3* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



niana^ement of the Electric Telefria|)li Company," "Shameful | 
Oppression," " Shameful Ncirliycnce," '• Sliaiiieful .Monopoly," and 
so forth, in which the real or fictitious correspondents declare the 
dreadful sufferin<rs to which they have heen exjiosed hy tlie errors 
nnd delays of the" telegraph clerks— how " owls ' were _ordere(l for 
dinner, instead of " fowls,"—" pijreon " for " widj^eon," " veal " for 
"teal," "cats" for "skates," "swipes" for " Hnii)es," and many 
sundry ffrievances, which could not he com]>laiue(l alxput hitlierto, 
»s there were no tele^raj)!! offices lo he Uehihi.ured hy the ([uerulous, 
dissatisfied, and inconsiderate. The Udearaph tfrievauce will he a 
great safety-valve to the railways, for the fornu'r will so occupy the 
Times \m>\ I'lincU, as to leave no room for the last case of ncfflect 
by Mr. Hudson, or the last instance of lieiuL'- five miimtes behind 
time on the Eastern Counties. When telejrraphs come to be 
abused as well as railways, it will be a sifjn that they have done 
some service, and have merited well of the pulilic. 

The lowest eharife for the delivery of a message at present is 
half-a-crown, for which thirty words are sent thirty nules— thouffh 
it is to be hoped for the public accommodation that the prices will 
be reduced. The charge increases, of course, in the double ratio 
of the number of words ami number of miles. In many cases, the 
charire will not be greatly above that which was made a few years 
ago ifor general post letters for mercantile jiurposes; and, indeed, 
merchants will have heen relieved from the charge of postage, 
to give them a revenue for telegraph [uirposes. If there are any 
who doubt that the mercantile classes will lie ready to avail them- 
selves of the telegraph, they should be )iut in mind of the large 
sums formerly disbursed for postage, and, indeed, of the large sums 
still disliursed for Indian an<l foreign postage. 

The Electric Telegraph Company, as a matter of necessity, give 
notice, that they do not hold themselves responsible for the speed 
with which the messages are transmitted, nor for delay caused by 
the state of the weather or ajiparatus. At present, the state of 
the weather often affects the rate of working of the machines, 
and sometimes to a serious extent. 

The rate at which messages can be transmitted is rather lower 
than might be anticipated, "and this arises from using the needle 
telegraph. It is found that about six words a minute is as much 
as can be practically telegraphed at present, the words being 
spelled literally. The last Queen's Speech was sent seven words 
a-minute. By'using the codes, longer messages can of course be 
sent. The number of words wliich can be written by short-hand 
in a minute is seventy ; the number of words which can be read 
rapidly in one minute is' 280. The number of characters passed by 
Professor Morse is 117 as a maximum, 99 as an average. We may 
be prepared for the much greater rajpidity of the electric telegraph 
in other hands. Mr. Bain ])roiiiises, in the course of time, 1,000 
characters : but the present rate of speed is ample for all present 
purposes, though we have that faith in the extension of telegraph 
business, that we believe it must be shortly increased. By using 
well-trained clerks at the chief stations, and by fre(iuently reliev- 
ing them, the utmost use will lie made of the telegrajihs ; and they 
are likely to be worked night and day. For man)- classes of cor- 
respondence, all the words must be sitelled, and no arbitraries or 
codes can be used ; hut still a large mass of correspondence will 
admit of profitable abridgment. Professor Morse, and many tele- 
graphers, undertake to do a much greater number of words than 
those assigned by us as the present rate in England ; but what one 
individual can do in an isolated case, is very different from the 
working of a miscellaneous correspondence, through a public office. 
That the undertaking will turn out productive, we have no 
manner of doubt, because, in many cases, the company have not 
the property of the lines, which beiong to tlie railways, but work 
them at a toll, while the revenue to be received must be very 
great. A line between two principal stations will yield live thou- 
sand a-year ; and as the outgoings are chiefly in clerks, it will be 
seen that there must be a large surplus to pay the wear and tear 
of instruments, the cost of management and superintendence ; and 
after yielding a toll to the railway companies, atlord a very hand- 
some return to the Electric Telegraph Com]iany for all the capital 
they may be called ujion to emiiloy. They enjoy, too, the advan- 
tage of a ready-money business. A thousand a-year wtiuld, how- 
ever, yield a dividend. At present the company have not wires 
enough for the public business, and great complaints are made of 
the delay. 

The length of line laid down hy the Electric Telegraph Company, 
or in progress, is now, we believe, about 2,000 miles; and the fol- 
lowing is a list of telegraphs, with the date when laid down, and 
the length of line, though the materials from which we have com- 
piled it are imperfect. It will, however, in some degree, serve to 
»how the progress of the system : — 



1839 Great Western 

181.2 Blackwall 

1844 Yarnioiitli ;uid Norwich 
1815 South-Western 

„ Eastern Ciuinties 



South-Eastern , 



1846 



1847 

18+5 Norfolk Railway 

1847 

1846 Midland Counties 



York and North-Midland 

Hull and Selby 

York and Newcastle ... 



1845 Sheffield and Manchester 

1846 South Devon ... 

1845 London, Brighton, and South 

Coast ... 

1846 Preston and Wyre 

„ Eastern Union ... 

„ London and North-Western... 



London to Slough 



.. London to Southamji- 

ton 
.. Cidcbester line 
.. Cambridge do. 
.. Ilertlord branch do. 
,. Ely and Peterliorough 
.. "^I'liaiues Junction 
.. London to Dover 
.. Ilamsgate line 
.. Margate do. 
.. Maidstime do. 
.. Tunhridge and Tun- 

bridire \Yells 
.. Bricklayers' Arms line 
.. Deal do. 

.. Norwich and Brandon 
.. Lowestoft line 
.. Dereham do. 
.. Hugh)' and Derby 
.. Birmingham & Derby 
.. Derby to Normanton 
.. Nottingham and Lin- 
coln 
.. Sheffield line 

.. York & Scarborough 



Durham line 
Sunderland tlo. 
Shields do. 
Richmond do. 
Summit Tunnel 



Blilea 

19 

S 

20 

99 
51 

88 

7 
29 

3 
88 
30 

4 
10 

6 
6 

y 

38 
10 
13 
49 
41 
73 

41 

5 

23 

43 

40 
84 
2 
5 
8 
9 
3 
20 



London and Croydon 
Preston & Fleetwood 

Wolverton andPeter- 

borough 
Syston and Peterboro' 



Hull and Burlington 



1847 Midland 

„ Leeds and Bradford ... 
„ Manchester and Leeds 
„ York and North-Midland 
„ New<vastle and Berwick 
,, South Devmi Extension 

„ London and North-Western... London and Rugby 
„ „ ... Rugby to Newton 

„ „ ... Liverpool and Man- 

chester 
Crewe to Chester 



Bristol&Birmingham 



20 
17 

57 
40 
IS 
61 
27 
60 
27 
82i 
lll| 

siA 

30| 
60 
90^ 
46 



„ Southampton and Dorchester. 

„ Midland 

„ Edinburgh and Glasgow 
The length of line laid down previously to 1845, was not more 
than 45 ; in tliat year, about 500 miles ; in 1846, 600 miles ; and in 
1847, 1,100 miles. The total done and in hand is above 2,300 
miles. 

The towns to which communication will be made are above 
si.xty, including London, Manchester, Glasgow, Liverpool, Edin- 
burgh, Leeds, Slieffield, Birmingham, Bristol, Newcastle, Hull, 
VFolverhampton, AYakefiebl, Derliy, Leicester, Norwich, Notting- 
ham, Portsmouth, Northiun]iton, Bradford, Coventry, Dover, 
Canterbury, Halifax, Rochdale, Maidstone, Southampton, Glou- 
cester, Clieltoidiam, Yarmouth, Cambridge, Colchester, Ipswich, 
York, Darlington, Margate, Staflord, Barnsley, Hertford, Rams- 
gate, Deal, Folkestone, Rotherham, Tunhridge, AYinchester, 
Dorchester, Peterborougb, Huntingdon, Chesterfield, Wisbeach, 
Lowestoff, Chelmsfcn-d, Berwick, Scarborougli, Burlington, Stam- 
ford, and St. Ives. With Brislid, tbe comnniiiicatiou is circuitous 
round by Birmiiiixham and Glouirester, as the Great- Western, 
although first in I be field with the Slougii line, have neglected to 
apply the telegraph throughout, which seems to arise from dis- 
satisfaction witli the needle telegraph, for they have allowed par- 
tial a|)plications of two other systems. Every town in the country 
having above one hundred thousand people, is l>rought into com- 
munication with the metropolis ; and the only groat towns still 



184.8.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



13 



unsupplied are Plymouth, Cliatham, Preston, Exeter, Bath, 
Brighton, and Oxford. The number of shire towns brought into 
connection is near thirty ; all the chief seaports and seats of 
manufactures, and se\eral wiitering-places. 

Besides the places already enumerated, many considerable towns 
can be served, being already placed on the line of telegraph, as 
Worcester, Sunderland, Stockport, Kingston, Lichfield, Tunbridge 
VV^ells, Poole, Croydon, 'W^atford, JNIaldon, Droitwich, Thetford, 
Beverley, Braiiitree, Ashford, Newark, Alnwick, Dunbar, Lough- 
borough, Crewe, Wolverton, Leighton Buzzard, Driffield, Reigate, 
Romford, Bishops Stortford, Tliirsk, Northallerton, Market AVeigh- 
ton, &c. In fact, within a very short period, the company wiU be 
able to supply the prices of above a hundred market towns, if 
wii-es enougli are laid down. 

In the United States, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Balti- 
more, AV'a^liington, Albany, Newhaven, and Hartford, have the 
means of intercommunication, and a line of a thousand miles long 
runs to Quebec. • 

With regard to submarine telegraphs their practicability is indis- 
putable. Tlie great essay w ill be the line between Dover and Calais, 
when the two great cities of western Europe will have instant 
parley. Already the money markets of the two sympathise, the 
capitalists of the two cities are bound up with each other, and it is 
to be hoped these ties will be drawn closer, and the peace of the 
two great nations be maintained. A continuous line between 
London and Vienna is talked oiF as in progress ; at any rate, we 
shall soon have, by a telegraphic communication with Marseilles or 
Trieste, the means of abridging our East Indian correspondence. 
The value of such correspondence to the London houses engaged 
in East India business and expecting remittances would have been 
very great during the late crisis. 

If the steamboat threatens us with greater hazard of invasion 
during any future war, the telegrajih comes in good time to coun- 
teract any unfavourable influence, by giving us instant intelligence 
of any danger to our coasts, and allowing of immediate, and as it 
niav be called, personal communication between the statesmen of 
England and France, so as to allow negociations for peace to be 
carried on with more rapidity than by mean of envoys. 

To the Admiralty the electric telegraph offers the means of 
superseding the cumbrous semaphore, and of rapid intercourse with 
the naval stations. We consider the Admiralty greatly blameable 
in not having sooner availed themselves of the system, after the 
success of the Slough experiment. As it is, they have only a line 
to Gosport. There is none to Plymouth, Chatham, Sheerness, 
or Milford. We do not see why a submarine telegraph should not 
be carried out to the anchorage at Spithead, so as to allow of 
readier correspondence with the admiral or officers afloat. It is 
no testimony in favour of government management in England and 
France th;it the clumsy semaphores, useless at night and in a fog, 
and useable only for a fifth of the year, should have been so long 
persisted in ; but we entertain no doubt that so soon as the electric 
telegraph system is fully applied for public service, the govern- 
ments will liecome candidates for taking its control into their own 
hands, tir for interfering with it as they have with the railways. 

A submarine telegraph which will be of great use will be between 
England and Ireland, and nothing but the want of energy of the 
government prevents them from applying it in the present crisis, 
when it will be a means of economising money, and most probably 
of saving human life. Such a telegraph is properly a government 
experiment, and not a commercial experiment ; and for that reason 
it is not likely to be done until it cannot be put off any longer, and 
when done to be badly done. 

It is to be remembered that the telegraphic establishment will 
be a new post-office, operating almost instantanemisly, and with 
this ad\antage — that instead of the whole business being restricted 
to one fixed time, or to two fixed times, communication will be 
made at the moment desired by day or night. The way in which 
such an establishment must operate on society must be most bene- 
ficial. All those interested in markets, whether belonging to the 
agricultural interest or the mercantile interest, will, in every part 
of the kingdom, wherever they may be, know the state of all the 
markets open within a few minutes of operations being effected, 
while they will ha\e the means of making purchases or sales hun- 
dreds of miles oft', whereby transactions will be much quickened, 
and a general and uniform rate of prices will be established through- 
out the country. The charge for subscription is only two guineas 
yearly, and the subscriber, wherever he may be, has admission 
to the subscription rooms, in which are posted the shipping 
lists, the share lists from the London and provincial share ex- 
changes, the prices current, the prices of corn, live stock, and pro- 
duce, and every event of public or mercantile interest. No one con- 



cerned in any business can well avoid this payment, for it will in 
the end become de facto a tax, for no one will dare to be placed 
under a disadvantage to his neighbour. It will be as common as 
to read the newspapers. 

It will readily be seen that even the man of pleasure cannot 
escape contributing to the revenues of the telegraph company, for 
political intelligence and sporting intelligence will be recorded, 
and wherever he may wander he will always have access to in- 
formation. On going into the telegragh station he will see the state 
of bets atTattersaU's, and regulate his own proceedings accordingly, 
or learn who is the winner at Epsom or Newmarket. During the 
late general election, had the system been in full m ork, intelligence 
would have been sent of the state of the poll from sixty boroughs 
and thirty places of county elections, which are now' telegraph 
stations. A parliamentary division will be known within a few 
minutes all over the country, and the faction which triumphs or 
which falls at St. Stephen's will within a brief period be lu-ought 
under the comment of thousands of its supporters or oiijionents. 
Now the divisions are telegraphed to Liverpool and Manchester, 
and posted in the rooms. 

The sending of ]n-ivate messages must be most various in its in- 
fluence, and the effect of time and experience only can enable its 
bearing to be fully appreciated. New modes of doing business will 
spring up, new branches of business will be created, some perhaps 
be superseded, but that the result will be beneficial on the whole 
no reasoning man can doubt. AVhoever has a sick relative at a 
distance, in the hourly peril of death, with life quivering on a 
breath, in aU the agony of hope and fear, will know the value of an 
establishment which can give him frequent and immediate intelli- 
gence of the state of one whom he holds dear. After this example 
it is of little moment to picture the many ways in which personal 
interest will seek gratificaticui in a correspondence which extends 
the power of wealth and enterprise, and widens their sphere of ac- 
tion. A Rothschild, a Goldsmid, or a Baring, may rule by agents 
in London, in Paris, in Madrid, and in Lisbon at once ; but hence- 
forth their most distant affairs will be under their own guidance, 
and their personal influence will be made to act in cities they have 
never entered, and with men they have never seen. The confiden- 
tial agent or the junior partner will be a zero, and tlie means of 
safely conducting an available operation will lui longer be limited 
by the necessity of intrusting it to a subordinate. Indeed it is im- 
possible to contemplate, without excitement, the new world which 
is as it were opening before us, and to which the effects of railway 
and steamship intercourse, great as they are, are as nothing. 

To the press the electric telegraph will be a new arm of power : 
the money which is now si)ent in horses and expresses will lie ap- 
propriated in a large proportion to keeping up a greater nundier of 
agents and correspondence. It may appear at first sight that the 
telegraph rooms by affording so much intelligence will be curtailing 
the s])here of the newspapers, but they will only be interfering 
with them in some departments to give them greater facilities in 
others. The Electric Telegraph Company may announce that the 
mail steamer has brought to Liverpool the American ]iresident's 
speech, and its purport, but the special edition of the Tiiiics must 
give its words sent up by telegraph. Country meetings of im- 
portance will be sent up by telegraph, and it is not impossil)le that 
before long such arrangements may be made as to allow of the re- 
porter's notes being used for telegraphic transmission. The differ- 
ence in the number of signs between long-hand and short-hand 
(discarding most of the arbitraries), is as 275 to 170, or nearly as .5 
to 3 ; this gives a saving in favour of short-hand of two-thirds, and 
allows five hours' work to be done in three, for it is to be oliserved 
in telegraphic communication, the great object is to economise the 
time used at the telegraph. The short-hand system was tried on 
the South- Western and found to answer. 

It seems by no means improbable that an influence will be ex- 
erted on the jurisprudence and police of the countiy by the tele- 
graph system. Perhaps we ought to say that it has already done 
so. The arrest of Tawell, the quaker, for murder, and the arrest 
of so many other criminals has given a greater efficiency to the 
law ; the respite and afterwards execution of the coinict at Maid- 
stone, show the ready means of communication with the central 
authorities. But though a telegraphic message may be a sufficient 
authority to arrest for felony, it will be necessary to pro\ide some 
new process to make this establishment available in cases of mis- 
demeanour, and in the end it is likely to be applied in civil cases, 
in which already it is calculated to quicken many stages of pro- 
ceeding. It may hereafter not be uncommon to have a witness at 
Edinburgh examined by telegraph during a trial at Westminster 
Hall, and other evidence be sought for five hundred miles off'. It 
may cease to be necessary to bring up a prisoner to the superior 



u 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[JANVAnY, 



rourts on ordinary application?, when a correspondence may be 
made with him at any distance. 

As a means of railway administration the electric telefjraph has 
proved its elKcacy, and it is impossible to conduct single lines pro- 
perly without it. Already the convenience to passeiijirers has been 
very preat, and that to the companies cannot be undervalued. It 
extends the supervision of the central authorities, and allows the 
most effective action to take place on every emergency, whether of 
accident or otherwise. Lately, some half-dozen gentlemen were on 
business at a minor station on the Eastern C'ounties line, and being 
desirous of proceeding early to Cambridge, they made application 
to stop the next train, which would otherwise have passeil the sta- 
tion. The message was passed to the superintendent at Shoreditch, 
leave granted, and within half an hour the gentlemen were on their 
way to Cambridge, where it was of great importance they should 
arrive early. A lesser case, which happened on the South Eastern 
a month or two ago, nun- be worth notice. An old «dman proceed- 
ing from Minster to Tunbridge, or some intermediate station, after 
paying her second-class fare, in her hurry left her money on the 
counter. On arriving at Canterbury she found out her loss and 
wished to return to Alinster, but the superintendent persuaded her 
to go on, in the hope that she might be able to learn something of 
it at Ashford. On her arrival there she was told that the money 
iiad been found on the counter at Minster to the amount she de- 
scribed, and at the next station the sum was handed to her ; but 
though glad to receive the money, she could not repress her fears 
that tlie railway officers to whom she was indebted had dealings 
with the powers of evil. In the United States it is said that a 
marriage was contracted by railway between two parties hundreds 
of miles apart. Under the law of Scotland a telegraph marriage 
might, we believe, legally take place. Telegraph clerks are some- 
times however able to help themselves, and a case lately occurred 
of a superintendent, having to convey to a branch bank notice of 
stoppage, drawing out his own balance before he delivered the no- 
tice. 

In the progress of such an invention, and in its greater economy, 
its aj)plication must be very extensive. In the last session a tele- 
graph was worked between the House of Commons and the com- 
mittee rooms, and it is evident that it can be usefully employed in 
large offices and factories, where in time tlie telegraph wire will be 
as extended as the l)ellwire. The greater the extension the greater 
the prospect of improvement and economy to the public, and we 
can only wish, though we scarcely hope, that a system so valuable 
will be received in a favourable spirit on the part of the public, 
and meet with a greater degree of encouragement than is usually 
afforded to new inventions. 



ON THE LAP AND LEAD OF THE SLIDE VALVE. 

The slide valve is that part of a steam engine which causes the 
motion of the piston to be reciprocating. It is made to slide upon 
a smooth surface, called the cylinder face, in which there are three 
openings to as many pipes or passages : two for the admission 
of steam to the cylinder, above and below the piston, alternately ; 
while the use of the third is to convey away the waste steam. The 
first two are, therefore, termed the induction or steam ports, and 
the remaining one the eduction or exhaustion port. 

The slide is enclosed in a steam-tight case, called the slide- 
jacket ; and motion is communicated to it by means of a rod work- 
ing through a stuffing-box. 

The steam from the boiler first enters the jacket, and thence 
passes into the cylinder, thriuigh either steam port, according to 
the position of the slide, which is so C(Mitrived that steam cannot 
pass from the jacket to the cylinder through botli steam ports at 
the same time, or through the eduction port at any time. 

Case 1. — When a Slide has neither Lead ou Lap. 

Fig. 1 represents the cylinder face for a " Murray slide" without 
lap ; a and b being the induction ports, and c the eduction. 

Figs. 2, 3, and t, are similar sec^tions of the nosle, showing the 
slide in its central and two extreme positions. It occupies the 
mid-position, fig. 2, when the piston is at either extremity of its 
stroke ; the extreme position, fig. 3, when the piston is at half- 
stroke in its descent ; and that shown in fig. -t, when the piston is 
at half-stroke in its ascent. 

When a slide has no lap, the width of its facing, at/and^ (fig. 



2), equals that of the steam ports; the lap being any additional 
width whereby those ports are overlapped. 











a 1 




J 






c 


— 1 




e 




b 











r 




Fis, 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fie. 4. 

That the waste steam may have unobstructed egress, the exhaus- 
tion port c must be made of no less widtli tiian the steam ports ; 
and, for the same reason, the bars d and e should corres])ond with 
the slide face at / and g. The three ports, together with the bars 
between and beyond them, are therefore drawn of equal width ; 
the total length of the slide being equal to the distance between 
the steam sides of the steam ports. 

The distance through which the slide moves, in passing from one 
extreme position to the other, is called its travel ; which, in this 
case, equals twice the port. 

When the motion of a slide is produced by means of an eccen- 
tric, keyed to the crank shaft and revolving with it, the relative 
positions of the piston and slide depend upon the relative positions 
of the crank and eccentric. 

Demonstration. 

Diagram 1. 

Let ab, diagram 1, represent the 
crank ; then b being the crank- 
pin, and a the centre of motion, 
the larger circle represents the 
orbit of the crank, and its diame- 
ter b c the stroke of the piston. 
Supposing the cylinder to be an 
upright one, having the crank- 
shaft immediately aboie or below 
it, the connection between the 
piston-rod and crank being merely 
a connecting-rod, i\ithout the in- 
tervention of a beam, it is evident 
r that when the position of the crank 

is a b, the piston will be at the top of the cylinder, and at the bot- 
tom when its position is a c. The relative positions of the crank 
and piston, at any point of the stroke between the t«o extremes, 
depend upon the length of the connecting-rod : for the present, 
however, let us suppose the connecting-rod to be of infinite length, 
and therefore always acting upon the crank in parallel lines, so 
that when the crank is at d, e will be the apparent position of the 
piston, and / the same when the crank is at </ ; the piston being 
represented by the sine of the arc described by the crank from 
either of the points b and c, in the direction of the arr()W. 

The diameter h i, of the inner circle of the diagram, represents 
the travel of the slide, and its radius the eccentricity of tlie eccen- 
tric; or, regarding the eccentric as a crank, the radius may be said 
to represent that crank, as ab represents the main crank. The 
travel of a slide, without lap, being equal to twice the port, the 
two steam ports are represented by the spaces a h and a ?, but 
transposed, a i being the passage to the top of the cylinder, and a h 
that to the bottom. 

Supposing the piston to be at b (the top of the cylinder), the 
position of the slide will be that shown in fig. 2, the direction of 
its motion being downward, so that the jxirt a (same figure), or a i 
in the diagram, may be gradually opened for the admission of steam 
above the piston, iintilthe piston has arrived at half-stroke, when 
it will be fully open, as shown in fig. 3. The direction of the 
slide's motion is then reversed, so that when the piston has com- 
pleted its descent, the port /i, figs. 1 to 4, or a h in the diagram, 
will begin to open for the admission of steam beneath it, and ex- 
naustion will commence from above it through the port n, or a i, 
and exhaustion port c, the slide being again brought into its central 
position, fig. 2. 

Now the slide being at half-stroke, when the piston is at either 
extremity of its stroke, if we make ab the position of the crank, 
ak will be that of the eccentric; and the axis of the crank being 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



likewise that of the eccentric, they must necessarily revolve in 
equal times, and always at the same distance apart ; tlierefore, 
when the crank has readied the point d (supposing it to move in 
the direction of tlie arrow) the eccentric will liave advanced to /, 
and ed and im represent the positions of the piston and slide re- 
spectively ; showing-, that when the piston lias descended to e, the 
steam port a i in the diagram, or a figs. 1 to 4, will be open to the 
extent a m. Again, — when the crank is at n, and the piston conse- 
quently at half-stroke, a i will be the position of the eccentric, the 
port a i being fully open, and the slide occupying tlie extreme posi- 
tion shown in fig. 3. The direction of the slide's motion is now 
reversed, and the port is again gradually covered by the slide face 
until the positions of the crank and eccentric are a c and a o, when 
the piston will have completed its descent, and the port a i will be 
completely closed, the slide being again brought into its central 
position, fig. 2. The opposite steam port a k now begins to open 
for tlie admission of steam, and the direction of the piston's motion 
is reversed ; the port continues to open until the crank and eccen- 
tric reach the points p and /;, when the piston will again be at half- 
stroke, and the slide in its extreme position, fig. 4. Meanwhile, 
exhaustion from above the piston has been taking place, to the same 
extent, through the port a i. Finally, — the piston having com- 
pleted its ascent, the slide again occupies its original position, fig. 2, 
and, its course being downward, steam is again admitted into the 
cylinder, through tlie port a ; the jiiston tlien begins to descend, 
and, at the same instant, exhaustion ceases from above, and com- 
mences from below it, through the port h. 

It is sometimes urged against the use of the eccentric, as a means 
of actuating the slide, that the steam ports are opened and closed 
too slowly ; but it must be remembered that the piston does not 
move at a uniform velocity, as the crank does; for example, while 
the crank describes the arc h rf, the piston descends only from b to 
e, the versed sine of that arc ; and its velocity is gradually iucreaed 
as it approaches the middle of its stroke, where it is greatest, 
being equal to that of the crank. Again, — as the piston approaches 
the end of its stroke, its velocity is diminished in the same ratio as 
that in which it had previously increaseil, until the completion ot 
its stroke, where it remains stationary during the small space of 
time in which the direction of its motion is reversed. 

Now, it must be olivious that less steam is required to impel the 
piston at a slow rate than at a rapid one ; and a glance at diagram 1 
shows that the steam admitted into the cylinder, when tlie slide is 
actuated by an eccentric, is at all times proportioned to the velocity 
of the piston, the port being least open when the pistcm is near the 
end of its stroke, and fully open when it is at half-stroke. 

When an eccentric, instead of being set, as in the preceding case, 
so that the steam port shall only begin to open when the piston 
commences its stroke, is so placed that the port shall be open to 
some extent prior to the commencement of the stroke, the width 
of that opening is termed 

The Lead. 
The non-use of lead is disadvantageous, chiefly because at the 
commencement of every stroke, the steam has to contend « ith the 
whole force of that which had impelled the piston during its pre- 
vious stroke. But, besides obviating that disadvantage, the lead 
is of essential ser\ice in locomotive engines, " where it is found 
necessary^to let the steam on to the opposite side of the piston 
before the end of its stroke, in order to liring it up gradually to a 
stop, and diminish the violent jerk that is caused by its motion 
being changed so very rapidly as five times in a second. The steam 
let into the end of a cylinder before the piston arrives at it, acts 
as a spring cushion to assist in changing its motion ; and if it were 
not applied, the piston could not be kept tight upon the piston- 
rod." — Description of Stephenson's Locomotive Engine, " Tredyold." 

Case 2. — When a Slide has Lead without Lap. 

Diagram 2. Let a 1), diagram 2, represent the 

stroke of the piston ; c d the travel of 
the slide ; and efihe lead; then, sup- 
posing the piston to be at the top of 
the cylinder, e a is the position of the 
crank, and eg that of the eccentric. 
Following the course of the crank, in 
the direction of the arrow, we find 
the port erf fuUy open, not, as in the 
former ease, when the piston is at 
half-stroke, but when it has descended 
to the point h, — the arc a i, described 
by the crank, being equal to the -drcgd, 
described by the eccentric. Again, — 
we find the port re-closed when the 
piston has descended to »', at which point exhaustion commences 





from above the piston through e d, and steam enters below it through 
e c, for the return stroke, at the commencement of which the iiort 
ec is open to the extent el (equal to e/) for the admission of 
steam, while e d is open to the same extent for exhaustion. 

It is to be remarked, that the amount of lead is necessarily very 
limited in practice, its tendency being to arrest the progress of the 
piston before the completion of its stroke. The greatest possible 
amount of lead equals half the travel of the slide. The eccentric 
would in that case be set diametrically opposite to its first position, 
which would have the effect of reversing the direction of the pis- 
ton's motion. 

In the case of a slide having lead h ithout lap, the distance of a 
piston from the end of its stroke, when the lead produces its effect 
is proportional to the lead as the versed sine of an arc is to its 
sine, supposing the radii of the crank and eccentric to be equal. 
Demonstration. 
Diagram 3. Let a b, diagram 3, represent both tlie 

travel of the slide and tlie piston's 
stroke ; then c a and c b represent the 
steam ports. And let cd represent the 
lead; then ca and ce represent the 
crank and eccentric, the piston being at 
the top of the cylinder. Now, steam 
will enter the cylinder, below the piston, 
when the eccentric is utf, and the crank 
at g; for the arcs a eg, and ebf are 
equal. Again, — the arc g b is equal to 
h e ; therefore, ig is equal to k e, and i b 
to k h. Now, he IS the sine of the arc h e, and k k (equal to ; 6) is 
its versed sine : hence 

Rule I. — To find the distance of the piston from the end of its 
stroke, when the lead produces its effect : — 

Divide the lead by the width of tlie steam port, both in inches, 
and call the quotient sine; multiply its corresponding versed sine, 
found in the table, by half the stroke, and the product will be the 
distance of the piston from the end of its stroke, when steam is 
admitted for the return stroke, and exhaustion commences. Or, 

Rule II. — To find the lead, the distance of the piston from the end 
of its stroke being given : — 

Divide the distance in inches by half the stroke in inches, and 
call the quotient versed sine ; multiply its corresponding sine by 
the width of steam port, and the product will be the lead. 

Example 1. — The stroke of a piston is 48 inches ; width of steam 
port 2i| inches ; and lead ^ inch : required tlie distance of the pis- 
ton from the end of its stroke, when exhaustion commences. 

Here, 'S -;- 2-5 = "2 ^ sine ; and versed sine of sine '2 ^= •0202. 
Then, -0202 X 24 = -4848 inches. 

Example 2. — The stroke of a piston is 48 inches ; width of steam 

port 2-5 inches ; and distance of piston from the end of its stroke, 

when exhaustion commences, -4848 inches : required the lead. 

Here, -4848 -^ 24 = -0202 = versed sine ; 

and sine of versed sine '0202 =^ "2. 

Then, -2 X 2-5 - -5 — lead. 

When the lead of a slide is equal to the width of steam port 
multiplied by any number in the first column of the following 
table, the distance of the piston from the end of its stroke, when 
steam is admitted on the exhaust-si<le, will be eijual to half the 
stroke multiidied by the corresponding number of the second 
column. Or, if the distance of the piston from the end of its 
stroke, when steam is admitted on the exhaust-side, be equal to 
half the stroke multiplied by any number in the second column, 
the width of steam port multiplied by the corresponding number 
of the first column equals the lead. 



a; TT 

^ QJ 


r 0G25 
•09375 


from 
team 
■siiJe, 
plied 


'0019 
•0044 


c -^ 


■125 


= c '^ ^ 


■0078 


^^ "s 


•1875 


ilji 


•0176 


CT . 


■2IS75 


"E, ^ *>? ^ 


•0242 




25 

•28125 


O '" S OJ 


•0317 
•0403 


■3125 


■0501 




•34375 




■0(i09 


(u tn 


■375 


w — t: ^ 


■0730 


■^ <*- 


•40025 


ffl (J *- c3 


•0862 




4375 


lll'^ 


■1008 


? -c 


•4(.875 


c-:"^! 


■1166 


■i^ 


^•5 


P 5 .2 S-.S' 


^■1339 



IS 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL 



[Jaxuaby 



The Lap. 

A slide is s;ii<l to have hip wlien the width of its face is greater 
tliiiiithat of the steam ports, the ports heing thereby overhipped, 
«s ill fifl. 7. 

It is to he remarked that slides should have some degree of lap 
on lioth the steam aiul exhaustion sides of the passage, because, 
althouirh in theory an ajierture may he said to be completely closed 
when covered by \i bar of similar width, yet, in the construction of 
.-1 slide without' lap, we cannot insure such accuracy oi fit as to 
])reclude the possibility of steam entering or leaving both steam 
ports at the same time. 

Lap on the steam side has the effect of cutting off the steam 
from the cylinder, by closing the port before the coni|iletion of the 
stroke, the remainder of the stroke being effected by the expansion 
of the steam already admitted. 

Demnnstration. 

Case 3. When a Slide has Lap on the Steam side, 

WITHOUT Lead. 

Let a b and 6 c, diagram 4, represent the lap at both ends of the 
slide ; and let a d and c e represent the two steam ports ; then d e 
will re])resent tlie tra\ el of the slide, which, in this case, equals 
twice the steam purt, plus twice the lap. 

Diagram 4. 




Supposing de also to represent the stroke of the piston, and that 
the ])iston is on the top stroke, then hd and bf are the respective 
IHisitionsof the crank and eccentric; for the slide, instead of occu- 
pying its central position, when the piston is at the end of its 
stroke (as in Case 1), must be set in advance of that position to 
tlie extent of the lap, that steam may enter the cylinder when the 
piston begins to move. (See fig. 5.) 




When the eccentric has advanced from / to c, the crank will 
liave reached the point g ; the piston is therefore at a when the 
port ce is fully open, the slide being then in the position fig. G. 



Again, — when the eccentric has reached the point/;, thejiortcf 
will be re-closed (fig. .5), and i will be the position of the j)iston ; 
therefore, the distance of tlie jiiston from the end of its stroke, 
when the steam is cut off, is pri>))ortioned to the whole stroke, as 
ieis to de. 

When the eccentric arrives at fr, the slide will oc<-u])y its central 
position (fig. 7), and the piston will be at w, wliere exiuiustion 
commences from above it ; but steam is not admitted below it, for 
the return stroke, until the eccentric has reached the point n, 
where the port o (/ begins to open, the position of the slide at that 
moment being that shown in fig. 8. 

When the eccentric arrives at rf, the ])ort will be fully ojien, the 
slide being then in its extreme position, fig. i) ; and it will be re- 
closed when the eccentric arrives at (/, and the piston at p, where 
the steam is cut off, the position of the slide being again that shown 
in fig. 8. Again, — when the eccentric reaches tlie point r, exhaus- 
tion ceases from above the piston, which is then at .v, and com- 
mences from lielow it, the slide being then in its central position, 
fig. 7, and moving downward. Finally, — the crank having arrived 
at rf, and the eccentric at f, the piston will have completed its 
ascent, and the slide will occupy the position fig. 5, as at starting. 

The steam was shown to be cut off when the piston had de- 
scended frtmi d to ?, the crank having descrilied the arc d g H, and 
the eccentric the arc/e/j. Now, di is the versed sine ui'dgii, and 
ec is the versed sine of half _/>/*; and d g ii and felt are equal 
arcs. Hence 

Rule III. — To find at what part of the stroke steam will be cut off 
with a given ainoiiiit of lap : — 

Divide the width of steam jiort, by itself, plus the lap, and call 
the quotient versed sine. Find its corresponding arc in degrees 
and minutes, and call it arc the first. If arc the first be less than 
45 degrees, multijily the versed sine of twice that arc by half the 
stroke in inches, and the product will be the distance of the piston 
from the commencement of its stroke, when the steam is cut off. 

If arc the fii'St exceed 45 degrees, multiply the versed sine of 
the difference between double that arc and ISO degrees by half the 
stroke, and the product v\ ill be the distance of the piston from the 
end of its stroke when the steam is cut off. 

Rule IV. — To find the amount of lap necessary to cut off the steam 
at any given part of the stroke : — 

If it be required to cut off the steam before half-stroke, divide 
the distance the piston moves before steam is cut oft', by half the 
stroke, and call the quotient versed sine. Find the arc of that 
versed sine, and also the versed sine of half that arc. Divide the 
difference between the versed sine last found and unity, by the 
versed sine, and multiply the width of steam port by the quotient; 
the product will be the lap. 

If it be required to cut off the steam at a point beyond half- 
stroke, divide the distance of the piston from the end of its stroke, 
when steam is cut off, by half the length of stroke ; call the ipio- 
tient versed sine ; find its corresponding arc, and subtract it from 
180 degrees. Find the versed sine of half the remainder, and sulv- 
tract it from unity. Divide the remainder by the versed sine, and 
multiply the width of the steam port by the quotient; the product 
wUl be the lap. 

Example 3. — The stroke of a piston is 36 inches; width of steam 
port I5 inch ; and lap 6 inches : required the point of the stroke 
at which steam will be cut off. 

Here 1'5 -|- 6 ^ 7-5 ; and 1-5 -f- 7-5 = -2 = versed sine ; 

arc of versed sine '2 = 36° 52' (arc the first) ; 
and 36° 52' X "-i — 73° 44' = arc of versed sine, -7198. 
Then -7198 X 18 = 12-95 inches = distance of the piston from 
the commencement of its stroke when the steam is cut off. 

Example 4. — The stroke of a piston is 36 inches ; width of steam 
port l.i inch ; and extent of la|) If inch : required the point of the 
stroke at which steam is cut off. 

Here 1-5 -(- 1-25 = 2-75; and 1-5 -h 2-75 =: -5454 = versed sine 
of arc 62° 58' (arc the first). 

Then 62° 58' X 2 = 125° 56'; and 180° - 125° 56' = 54° 4' = arc 
of versed sine, '4131 ; '4131 x 18 ^ 7*43 inches ^ distance of 
the piston from the end of its stroke when the steam is cut off. 

Example 5. — The stroke of a piston is 36 inches; width of steam 
port 1"5 inches ; and distance of the piston from the commence- 
ment of its stroke, when the steam is cut oft', 12'95 inches: required 
the lap. 

Here 12-95 -f- 18 == "7198 = versed sine of arc 73° 44'; 
73° 4. t' -^ 2 = 36° 52' = arc of versed sine '2. 
Then 1 - -2 = -8 ; and -8-1-2 = 4; l-5x 4=6 inches = lap. 



1818.1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



17 



Example 6. — The stroke of a piston is 36 inches; width of steam 
port 1"5 inches ; and distance of piston from the end of its stroke, 
when steam is to be cut off, 7'43 inches: required the lap. 

Heie 7--13 -^ 18 = -ilSl = versed sine of arc 54° 4.'. 
Then 180° - 54° 4' = 125° 56' ; and 125° 56' -r 2 = 62° 58' = 
arc of versed sine '5454. 

1 - -545 !■ - -4546; and -4546 -f- -5454 = -8335; 
■8335 X 1'5 = 1-25 inches = lap. 

Exhaustion was shown to commence when the piston was at m in 
its descent, and at s in its ascent ; / and / being tlie corresponding 
positions of the crank at those times. Now d and/ were the re- 
spective startinff points of the crank and eccentric; and the arc 
<1 <jl, described by the crank, is equal to the arc/e/i, described by 
the eccentric. Therefore, r/ande/ are equal arcs. Hence, 

To find the distance of the piston from the end of its stroke 
when exhaustion commences, subtract arc the first (found by Rule 
III.) from 90 degrees, and multiply the versed sine of the re- 
mainder by half the stroke. The product will he the distance re- 
quired. 

E^rample 7.— Arc the first (Example 3) = 36° 52' ; and 90° - 
36° 52' = 53° 8' = arc of versed sine -4 

Then -4x18 = 7*2 inches, the distance required. 

E.ramp/e 8.— Arc the first (Example 4) = 62° 58' ; and 90° - 
62° 58' = 27° 2' = arc of versed sine -1092. 

Then -1092 X 18 = 1-9656 inches, the distance required. 

From the foregoing examples, it is obvious that whatever may 
be the relati\e i)r(q)ortions of the length of stroke and width of 
steam port, the lap must be some multiple of the port, that the 
steam may be cut off at any given point of the stroke. 

The annexed table exhibits a series of multipliers for determin- 
ing the amount of lap necessary to cut off the steam at any part 
of tlie stroke from g th to § ths, when the slide has no lead. 

Muttipliers. 
'Jtb 14-48 



Portion of the stroke 
to be performed by 
the piston before the- 
steam is cut off. 



Lf 



6-46 
3-7? 
2-41 
1-58 
1-00 
•54 



We shall next month proceed to examine the conditions of the 
slide valve with both " lead and lap." 

R. B. C. 



HEALTH OF TOWNS— THE GOVERNMENT AND 

THE PROFESSION. 

Now that the sanitary movement is likely to hear fruit, it will 
be well for our professional readers to turn their attention to the 
share which they are to have in the rewards, after having borne 
their part of tlie labour. While engineers, architects, and sur- 
veyors have been working hard in carrying out sanitary reform, 
in improving the drainage, in reducing the cost of sewers, in miti- 
gating the smoke nuisance, in warming, in ventilating, in the 
construction of dwellings, in the application of sewage mantires, 
and in many other ways, — medical men and members of j)arliament 
Iiave been making speeches, and claiming the honours of the cam- 
paign, as it seems they claim the emoluments. AVith what justice 
members of the constructive professions can be kept out of siglit, 
we do not know ; but there is a determined set on the part of the 
medical men to keep them out, and to monopolise the merit and 
the patronage. Of the five Metropolitan Sanitary Commissioners, 
two are medical men, viz.. Dr. Southwood Smith and Professor 
Owen ; and not one is engineer, architect, or surveyor. The com- 
missioners, at page 51 of their First Report, speak as follo\\s : — 

" It has appealed to be our duty to state, that we have had pre- 
sented to us ground of exception against one class of appoint- 
ments to these commissions, namely, that of surveyors, of architects 
in practice, of builders, traders, agents, and professional persons 
connected with building operations in their respective districts." 

We think the bias of this passage is readily to be seen, though 
it does not impugn the appointment of engineers, architects, or 
surveyors, as paid commissioners, such officers not practising. 
There is no reason given why an architect and an engineer should 
not be appointed on the Metropolitan Sanitary Commission in 
addition to the physician and surgeon, or naturalist. We will 



show afterwards what reason there is why the two former shotdd 
be appointed. 

The following paragraph of the Report contains an insinuation, 
well worthy of notice, for it has its object : — • 

" The more the investigation advances, the more is it apparent 
that the progressive improvement and proper execution of this 
class of public works, together with the appliances of hydraulic 
engineering, cannot be reasonably expected to be dealt with inci- 
dentally, or collaterally to ordinary occupation, or even to con- 
nected professional pursuits, but require a degree of special study 
which not only place them beyond the sphere of the discussion of 
popular administrative bodies, but beyond that of ordinary profes- 
sional engineering and architectural practice. In justification of 
this conclusion, and to show the evil of the perverted applications 
of names of high general professional authority, we might adduce 
examples of the most defective works which have received their 
sanction." 

The aim of this is, that the abuse shall he an argument against 
the use : because some architects have laid down expensive sewers, 
engineers, architects, and surveyors shall be excluded ; because 
Professor Donaldson and Mr. Joseph Gwilt approve of the old 
system, those who have fostered and executed the new system 
shall not be employed. This is what the commissioners mean, 
though they do not say it fully ; and we put it to the public 
whether it is fair to professions, which by their talent and their 
intelligence have so much contributed to the reputation of the 
country. 

It may be taken as a matter of course that Crown Commissioners 
recommend the em]>loyment of the government Caleb Quotem, 
" the Corps of Royal Engineers," to execute a survey of the metro- 
politan districts. This we conceive to be the finishing touch to 
the wrongs and insults which the Sanitary Commissioners have in 
this Report, and in their proceedings, heaped up'on highly honour- 
able professions. 

If it be needful to show that engineers, architects, and surveyors 
can be of some use, we shall appeal to the Report of the Sanitary 
Commissioners, the recommendations in which are based on' the 
evidence of Mr. Roe, the Surveyor of the Holborn and Finsbury 
District, Mr. Phillips, the Surveyor of the Westminster District, 
and other aide officers. In truth, as our pages would show, Mr. 
Roe has, by liis indefatigable exertions, already carried out mucli 
of the plans now advocated by the Sanitary Commissioners, and 
has only been prevented by the Commissioners of Sewers from 
doing more. Surely these officers are to be balanced against those 
who liave adhered to a practice which has only recently been 
opposed and condemned. AVhat do the commissioners tell us.-* 

" All the improvements which the public have yet obtained in 
this branch of public works, have been the result of the special 
and undivided practical attentions of well-qualified paid officers, 
and it appears to us that furtlier improvement must be sought by 
the same means, and that one of the chief objects of future ad- 
I ministrative arrangements must lie to secure, ))rotect, and encou- 
j rage the zealous, undivided attention and efficient labour of such 
officers." 

If engineers and surveyors have already effected " all the im- 
provements wliich the public have yet obtained in this branch of 
public works;" and if to them, as scientific officers, the public have 
to look for future im)irovements, we can see no reason for the slur 
cast on them by their exclusion from the present commission, by 
the announced exclusion from future commissions, and by the em- 
ployment of the Corps of Royal Engineers, of whom — with all re- 
spect be it said — the reputation is not European. M^e cannot hold 
the appointment of Mr. Austin to the secretaryship of the com- 
mission, nor the compliment paid to the executive officers of the 
Commissioners of Sewers as any alleviation of the intended slight. 
We hope Mr. Edwin Chadwick, as commissioner, and Mr. Austin, 
as secretary, both of whom have done well in the cause of sanitary 
reform, have had no part in the exclusive policy of the com- 
mission. 

We have the highest regard for the medical profession ; we have 
the strongest feeling of the good it has done in promoting sanitary 
reform ; but we cannot stand still while medical men arrrgate to 
themselves the merits, the honours, and the rewards of sanitary 
reform. Their agitation has done good, we admit ; their disin- 
terested advocacy of the cause claims the highest praise ; their 
evidence has given a body and strength to the movement ; but it 
is our professions which have worked while theirs have talked, — 
which have improved the forms of the sewers, and reduced the price 
— wliich have cleansed them by flushing, and which by a mass of 
individual labour have perfected and carried out plans of improve- 



IS 



Till-: CIVIL ENGIXEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January. 



iiieiit in every brancli of cniistnu'tioii, rniiiisteriiii; to tlio [mblic 
(■omfort, health, and lite. Our ])a2;es have had their share in these 
discussions, and we have co-operated with onr pi'ofessioual readers 
in carrying out a measure ot reform, which is already great. In 
the ILdhorn and Finsbury and Westminster divisions of sewers 
.nlone, a reform has been effected, such as has not yet t)een seen in 
Uiese luatters ; and we are ifi;norant of the .share the medical pro- 
fession have taken in carryinuf them out. 

Within a period not very distant, the new Sanitary Commis- 
sioners, or Commissioners of Sewers, will lay down works to the 
amount of half a million, perhaps a million sterlini;, upon the ad- 
vice, it is true, of competent professional officers, though under 
what competent supervision on the part of tlie commission, we are 
unaware. ^Vhen Mr. Roe proposes his plan for s|iendina; a quarter 
of a million in getting a new outfall, which of the commissioners 
will consider it his special dei)artment to examine the estimates, 
and share in their responsibility ? It will not be Lord Robert 
Grosvenor — it will not be Mr. Edwin Chadwiok, great as is his 
capacity as an administrator — it will not be Mr. Richard Lambert 
Jones, though he is Chairman of the Bridge Committee in the 
City — it will not be Dr. Southwood Smith or Professor Owen. 
The two latter will, we apprehend, be of little use in matters like 
these, and will take no part in them. Thus, a member of parlia- 
ment, a naturalist, a barrister, an auctioneer, and a physician, are 
to superintend the disbursement of hundreds of thousands of 
pounds in public works, and to appoint " well-qualified paid offi- 
cers" in the engineering and surveying departments; who are to 
have " a degree of special study which [shall] not only place them 
beyond the sphere of the discussion of popular administrati\e 
l)odies, but beyond that of ordinary professional engineering and 
architectural practice." 

The government have not thought it necessary to give a fair 
representation to the ])rofession in the new Commission of Sevvers, 
though the names of Mr. Robert Stephenson, M.P., Mr. Locke, 
M.P., Mr. George Rennie, Mr. Cubitt, and others, are well enough 
known at AVhiteball. 

The constitution of the Metropolitan Sanitary Commission is, in 
reference to the sphere of its future duties, more monstrous than 
that of the Railway Commission, where three parties, who know 
nothing of railways — a member of parliament, an East India judge, 
and an officer in the army — are entrusted to meddle with railway 
works and administrations. We have so many of these absurd 
appointments of late, that we have a strong impression that unfit- 
ness is adopted as the government rule for office, and have some 
ex])ectation of seeing INIonsieur Jullien prime minister. Why the 
engineering profession should be exposed to the contumely and 
neglect from which it suffers at the hands of the government, we 
do not know ; but the enumeration of the Railway Commission, 
the Tidal Harbour Commission, and the Metropolitan Sanitary 
Commission, is a sufficient proof that a degree of unfairness is dis- 
played, which demands immediate and effective opposition. Al- 
though the reputation of English engineers is well known to the 
world — although their professional skill is sought in every country 
— it may be that they are thouglit by the home government a body 
too inconsiderable and contemptible to withstand oppression or 
demand fair play. 

The misconduct of the government on this head has reached that 
height, that the professions, if they wish to maintain their public 
character, caimot do otherwise than take instant steps to obtain 
justice. They have no security at present for the appointment of 
competent commissioners, or efficient officers, or for the employ- 
ment of professional men at all ; there is no security that officers 
of the Royal Engineers, and other branches of the army, will not 
l>e appointed surveyors of the sevvers and other public works, the 
present officers being superseded. We think it is the duty of the 
Institutions of Architects and Civil Engineers to call meetings of 
their members, to memorialise the government, and send deputa- 
tions to Whitehall, and take every other necessary step to vindi- 
cate the rights of their mend)ers. Aggregate meetings of engineers, 
architects, and surveyors, should be held in the metropolis, and in 
provinces petitions sent to jjarliament, and memorials to the Trea- 
sury. 'l"he members of parliament intei'ested in the welfare of the 
professions, should be requested to take steps in parliament for 
obtaining ex])laiuitions from the ministers. Mr. Robei't Stephen- 
son, Mr. Locke, and Mr. Cubitt, would no doubt, on application, 
give their cordial sui)p(u-t to any necessary measure. 

While we urge tliese strong remarks on the injustice done to 
engineers by the Metropolitan Sanitary CNminiissioners, it must 
not be thouglit that we undervalue their Report on the practical 
points to whi<-h they ajqily tliemselves. We are glad to acknow- 
ledge it as a step forward in the right way. 



THE FAN BLAST. 

Series of Experimnntx relntive to thr Fan Blant, presented hi/ Mr. 
Buckle, o/'/Ae Sn/in Worlds, to tlf nnvtiiuj nf the Institute of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, Birmingham, May 17, and October 21, 18 17. 

(Paper No. 1.) 

The subject of this paper has reference to a portion of a series of 
experiments on the Fan Blast, — a subject which many members of 
this Institution are conversant with ; but it is hoped that hints 
here thrown out maybe serviceable in leading to such constructions 
of the fan as shall insure the greatest useful effect with the least 
expenditure of power. The fan has become an indis|)ensable ma- 
chine in smithies and foundries, it abridges time and labour, and is 
otherwise a great imjjrovement over the old system of bellows. 
The uniform stream of the former admits of no comparison, by the 
puffy blasts of the latter. By means of the fan the smith can heat 
his work with precision ; he can vary at discretion the size of his 
nozzle tweyere, without deteriorating the density of his blast. He 
can conveniently heat one piece of work while sliapiug another. 

In a well-regulated smithy, the main pipe from the fan is fur- 
nished with an air chest and with nozzle pipes, varying from one 
to three inches diameter. The pressure of the blast is made to 
range from four to five ounces per square inch. A nozzle pipe of 
l| inch diameter is found a suitable size for general engine 
forcings. ' 

The position of the fan in its chest, or the one preferred and 
generally made use of, is an eccentric position. The continual in- 
creasing winding passage between the tips of the vanes and the 
chest, serves to receive the air from every point of its circumfer- 
ence, and forms, as it were, a general accumulating stream of air to 
the exit pipe. The particles of air having passed the inlet opening, 
and entering on the heel of the blade, would retain the same circu- 
lar path were it ncjt for the centrifugal force of the air due to its 
weight and velocity, impelling them forward towards the tips of 
the vanes; and this continued action is going on, particle following 
particle, till they are ultimately thrown against the fan chest, and 
are impelled forward to the exit pipe. It is by this centrifugal 
action that the air becomes impelled and accumulated into one 
general stream. But, as will be presently shown, there is a certain 
velocity of the tips of the fan which best suits this action. 

An ordinary eccentric-placed fan, 4 feet diameter — the blades 10 
inches wide and It inches longhand making 870 revolutions per 
nunute, will supply air at a density of 4. ounces per square inch, to 
40 tweyeres, each being Ig inches diameter, without any falling off 
in density. The experiments herein detailed were made with a fan 
3 feet lOfw inches diameter, the width of the vanes being lOf and 
the length 14 inches; the eccentricity of the fan 1^'^ inches, with 
reference to the fan case, the number of vanes being 5, and placed 
at an angle of 6' to the plane of the diameter ; the inlet openings 
on the side of the fan chest 17i inches diameter, the outlet opening 
12 inches square ; the space between the tips of the blades and the 
chest increasing from g inch on the exit pipe to 3^ at the bottom, 
in a line perpendicular with the centre. To the blast pipe leading 
to the tweyeres a slide valve was attached, by means of which the 
area of the discharge was accurately adjusted to suit the required 
density. 

The guage to indicate the density of the air, was a glass gra- 
duated tube, primed with water, it being more sensitive and having 
a greater range than the mercurial one. 

These experiments were made with a view to ascertain what 
density of air could be obtained, with the vanes moving at given 
velocities, the outlet pipe being closed, and also at given velocities 
with the outlet ojien ; but its area varied at discretion. .\nd further, 
to ascertain the horse-power required to drive the fan under the 
varied condition. 

The horse-power was ascertained by an indicator, the friction of 
engine and gearing being deducted in each experiment. M'ith re- 
ference to the term Tlieoretical Velocity, as used in the table, it 
may be necessary to observe, that thereby is meant the velocity 
which a body would acciuire in falling the height of a homogeneous 
column of air e()uivalent to the re(piired density. Having given 
the necessary preliminary explanations of the blast above that of 
the atmosphere, we come to the experiments as recorded in the 
table, No. 1 a. 

Tiie first colimin is the number of experiments. 

The second is the numlper of revolutions of the fan per niii\ute. 

The third is the velocity of the tips of the vanes in feet per second. 

The fourth is the density of the air in ounces per square inch, as indicated 
by tlie gauge. 

The fifth is the area of the discharge pipe in inches. 

The sixth is Ihe indicated horse power. 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



19 



■ The mean 1-008 



By this paper it is intended to be shown that there are certain 
velocities witli wliieh tlie tips of the vanes of a fan should move 
according to the recpiired density of air, and that there are certain 
laws whidi p;overn these velocities. 

First. — W'ater is 827 times lieavier than air ; mercury is 13'5 
heavier than water: consequently, mercury is 1116+ heavier than 
air. A column of mercury, one inch in height, would tlierefore 
balance a column of air 1116+ inches, or 930-3 feet in heiglit. Let 
A be a column of mercury equal in height to any given density, 
and let B represent 930-3, and C 64.'' ; then V (A X BX C) = V or 
the velocity that a body would acquire in falling the heiglit of a 
column of air equivalent to the density. 

Scrotifl. — The centrifugal force of air coincides with the results 
obtained hv the laws of falling bodies, that is when the velocity is 
the same as the velocity which a body will acquire in falling the 
height of a homogeneous column of air equivalent to any gi\en 
density. To obtain the centrifugal force or density of air apply 
the following general rule. 

Having given the ^ elocity of the air, and the diameter of the 
fan, to ascertain the centrifugal force, — 

RrLE.^ — Divide the velocity by 401, and again divide the square 
of the quotient by the diameter of the fan. This last quotient 
multiplied by the weight of a cubic foot of air, at 60^ Fahrenheit, 
is equal to the force in ounces per square foot, which, divided by 
144, is ecjual to the density of air per square inch. Or, substituting 
the following formula, we ha\e 

D = N V X -000034 
where D is the density of the air in ounces per square inch, and 
N the number of revolutions of fan per minute, and V the velocity 
of the tips of the fan in feet per second. 

Let us now compare the results of the foregoing table. To do 
this, we will first take the velocity of the tips of vanes per second, 
and the power necessary to drive the fan. We will first take Nos. 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and' we shall find by inspecting tlie table that 
the corresponding velocities to these numbers are 236-8, 220-8, 202-1, 
185-2, 171-5. and 144-1, and the corresponding densities of air per 
square inch are 9-4, 7-9, 6-9, 5-G, 4-5, and 3-5 ounces. Tlie fan, it 
must be understood, is discharging no air ; the velocity of the fan 
is merely keeping the air at a certain density or pressure per square 
inch. Under these circumstances, it requires a certain \elocity of 
the tips of the fan to maintain a certain density of air, but not in a 
direct ratio. 

The law which governs the velocity of the tips of the fan ap- 
pears from tliese experiments to be -^ of the velocity a body would 
acquire in falling the height of a homogeneous column of air equi- 
valent to the density. This we have called the theoretical velo- 
city, and by comparing Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 experiments as 
above, that is, by comparing the velocity of the tips of the fan per 
second with ^ of the theoretical velocity, we shall find them to 
agree toleralily near. Thus, if the velocity of the tips of the fan 
per second be represented by 1, then ^ of the theoretical \elocity 
will be represented by 

1004 in No. 1 experiment, 

-986 2 

1-008 3 

•990 4 

•960 5 

1^0007 6 

But we shall not only find that the ^a. of theoretical veloei^j' go- 
verns the fan when it is not discharging air, but that the theoreti- 
cal velocity governs it also when the outlet ]iipe is open ; that is, 
that the maximum eifect of the fan is when tlie vanes nuive from 
the theoretical velocity to ^ of that velocity due to the density of 
the air, that tlie greatest quantity of air is discharged by the fan 
under tliese conditions with the least expenditure of power. To 
illustrate this more fully, let us refer to the table of experiments, 
and for our example we 'will take Nos. 9, 10, and 11 ; here the den- 
sity in each is six ounces. In No. 10 the velocity of the tips of 
the vanes is 213-33 feet per second, w hile the theoretical velocity 
is 211 feet per second, being nearly the same. The quantity of air 
discharged is 77-9 cubic feet per second, and the power employed 
in this case amounts to 12-5 horses. 

We take now No. 11 experiment. Here the velocity of the tips 
of the fan is 192 feet per second, and -^ of the theoretical velocity 
190 feet per second. Now these two experiments are in proportion 
to each other nearly, viz., in No. 11 the quantity of air discharged 
amounts to 35-7 cubic feet per second, and takes 6-4 horse power, 
while No. 10 discharges 77-9 cubic feet per second, and takes 12-5 

* The space which a gravitating body will pass through in one second is IByj feet; 
but by the principle of accelerating forces, the velocity of a falling body in any given 
time is equal to tivice the space through which it has passed in that lime, or the velocity 
is equal to the square root ol the number obtained by multiplying 64 by the height in feet. 



horse-power. Thus the discharge of air is nearly 2 to 1, and the 
horse-power emjiloyed in the same proportion. 

In the following examples we shall call the theoretical velocity 
per second uinty, beginning with No. 15. In this example we 
shall also call the quantity of air discharged in cubic feet per second 
unity, and also the horse-power. 



No. 





Theoretical 


Density of Air 


Velocity of 


Quantity of Air 


Horse- 




Velocity. 


per sq. in. 


tijS ot Fan. 


discharged. 


power. 


15 






5 02. 


-900 


1- 


1 


14 






5 


1-007 


2-34 


1-93 


12 






5 


1150 


2-67 


3-16 


20 






4 


900 


1 


1 


19 






4 


1-029 


2-4 


3-42 


18 






4 


1 133 


202 ■ 


3- nearly 


17 






4 


1-225 


2-30 


4 


16 






4 


1-280 


2 12 


4-27 


11 






6 


-913 


1- 


1 


10 






6 


1009 


218 


2 nearly 


23 






3 


1 050 


1-59 


2-53 


22 






3 


1-160 


2- 


3-56 


21 






3 


1-338 


1-47 


340 


7 


1-028 


1- 


1 


1- 


1- 


9 




950 


•857 


1 


1-203 


1-03 


12 




869 


-714 


1 


1-35 


106 


If. 




777 


-571 


1 


1-40 


1 11 



To give a further illustration of this part of our subject, we will 
take Nos. 7, 9, 12, and 16 experiments. Here tlie velocity of the 
tips of the fan is the same, which we shall denote unity. The cor- 
responding densities are 7, 6, 5, and 4 ounces ; we shall call the 
highest unity, also the cubic feet discharged per second, and the 
horse-power. 

Nearly all the preceding examples justify our conclusion, that 
the greatest results are obtained when the theoretical velocity and 
the tips of the vanes are nearly equal. It carries its own convic- 
tion that if we increase the velocity of the tips of the vanes, and 
only double the cubic quantity of air delivered, that it must take 
more than double the expenditure of power, the density of air re- 
maining the same. 

We shall now give examples of the data dictated by our table of 
experiments. And first, having given the density of air per square 
inch to determine the velocity of the tips of the vanes per second ; 
also the horse power requisite to drive the fan under these circum- 
stances, the fan not discharging air, but its velocity merely keeping 
the air at a certain density. 

Let D denote the density of the air in ounces per square inch, 
and A a column of mercury equivalent in height to that densitv. 
Then by the laws of falling bodies V (A X 930-3 X 64) = V the ve- 
locity acquired by a body falling through a column of air of the 
corresponding density. 

qo V T) 

Then =r P the number of pounds acting on the vanes, 

9 V V 60 P 

and ^- — ^ '- ^ H. P. or horse-power required. 

33000 '^ 

The constant number 38 is obtained by the following formula. 



H P X 33000 



P. Then 



PX 16 



; 38 



^ V X 60 ■ D 

Example. — Let D := 9-4 oz. per square in., and A =i 1-175 in. of 
mercury, to determine the velocity of the tips of the vanes per 
second, and also the horse-power. 

Then V (930-3 X 64 X 1-175) = 264-4, the theoretical velocity, 
^ of which is =: 237-96 = V, or velocity of tips of vanes per sec. 

qo V Q.J, 

Now ^^ — = 22-32 =: P, or pounds acting on the vanes of fan. 



Then- 



16 
237-96 X 60 



X 22-32 



:= 9-6 the horse-power reciuired. 



33000 

Having given the velocity of the air in feet per second (or as it 
has been termed the theoretical velocity) to determine the density 
of the air in accordance with the laws of centi-ifugal force. 

Let the velocity be 264-4 feet per sec, and the diameter of the 
fan 3-9 feet. Then by former rules we have 

264-4 ^„ ,66-2^ „„. 11169 X 1-209 _ 

= 66-2 and--— = 11169 = and —, = 

4-01 3-9 144 

9' ounces density, the answer required. 

Or by the second rule, take the velocity of the fan in feet per 
second, multiplied by the number of revolutions of the fan per 
minute, the product multiplied by -000034 — the density required. 
Here we must remark, that according to our table of experi- 
ments, that when the tips of the vanes are to move at .f-^ of the 
theoretical velocity, that not more than 220 lb.[of air are discharged 
per minute ; but this is without any. attenuation in the density. 

4* 



20 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



To determine the horse-power necessary to drive the fan wheti 
discharg-injj air, the velocity of the tips of the vanes not to exceed 
-jSj of the theoretical velocity, having given the density of air 
required, also the cubic feet. 

First find the hor.se-power, as directed in former examples, when 
the fan is not dischargintf air. 

IVicii nniltiply ^ part of the weight of air to be discharged by 
the fan per minute in pounds by -j% of the theoretical velocity, and 
divide by 33000. The quotient will give the horse-power necessary 
to discharge this quantity of air, which add to the horse-power 
necessary to drive the fan when not discluiryiuij uir, for the answer 
required. 

Example. — Let D be the density of air rc()uired = 4 oz. A, a 
column of mercury equal to the density ;= '5 aiul W = the weight 
of air to be discharged = 220 lb. per minute, and V ,?j the velocity 
of fau in feet per minute. 

:= 9-5 ^ P = the pounds acting on the vane. 



16 



Then by former rule, V 



9315-0 X 9-5 



= 2"67 horse-power 



33000 
necessary to drive the fan without efflux. 

Now a cubic foot of common air at 60° Fahrenheit weighs r209 
oz., therefore a cubic foot of the given density will be equal to 

,220 X 16 
1-511 oz., and - . _.— = 2330 feet = the cubic quantity 



1-511 



of 



discharged per minute. And 



220 
"60 



3-66 X 9315-0 



33000 ^ '■*' ^'"''- 

to discharge the given weight of air, and 
the total horse-power required. 



power necessary 
1-0 + 2-67 = 3-67 

When the velocity of the tips of the vanes is to move equal to 
the theoretical velocity, then we proceed as in the last examples, 
only we take -^ instead of ^ (as in former examples) of the 
weight of air discharged, which added to the horse-power requisite 
to drive the fan when no efflux takes place. 

We should here again remark, that when the fan is moving at 
this velocity, that it is capable of discharging 4.80 lb. of air per 
minute without any falling off in density. 

In a recent set of experiments, the inlet openings in the sides of 
the fan chest were contracted from Ui, the original diameter, to 
12 and 6 in. diameter, when we obtained the following results. 

First, that the power expended with the opening contracted to 
12 in. diameter, was as 2| to 1 compared wiih the opening of 
17^ in. diameter; the velocity of the fan being nearly the same, as 
also the quantity and density of air delivered. 

Second, that the power expended with the opening contracted 
to 6 in. diameter, was as 2g to 1 compared with the opening of 
17^ in. diameter ; the velocity of the fan being nearly the same, 
«nd also the area of the efflux pipe, but the density of the air 
decreased one-fourth. 

These experiments show that the inlet openings must be made 
of sufficient size, that the air may have a free and uninterrupted 
action in its passage to the blades of the fan, for if we impede this 
action we do so at the expense of power. 

(Papek No. 2.) 

In resuming the subject of the fan blast, I shall endeavour, as 
far as I conveniently can, to avoid detailed statements of the pneu- 
matic laws involved in its consideration, as they would occupy 
more time than would be consistent with the present occasion; and 
shall proceed to remark on the most important points connected 
with the construction of the fan, viz. : the adoption of such forms 
and proportions, as shall insure the greatest results with the least 
expenditure of power; and effect a diminution of the intolerable 
noise that generally arises from the working of the fan. And al- 
though I have not been able to carry out such leading principles 
to the fullest extent, I trust that I have furnislied materials that 
will be found of value to those members whose greater leisure may 
enable them to do so. 

From a contemplative view of the action and apparent effect of 
that very useful ajiparatus, a fan blast, it would appear tliat the 
air in the fan case is impelled by the vanes along the transit pipe, 
or channel, to the chest provided for the blast ; and that the con- 
tinuous rapid motion of the vanes, compresses air in the pipe and 
chest, to a degree that may be shown and accurately measured, by 
a water, or mercurial gage, attaclied to the blast chest. 

In my first communication, the principal investigation rested on 
a theoretical question, viz. : whether the tips of the blade should 
partake of the same velocity as a body falling freely a certain 
height, such height being governed by the density of air required. 
Recent experiments (the results of which accompany this paper) 



justify the conclusions then made, as will he seen on examining 
tables Nos. 2 «, 3 a, and 4 a. 

Having satisfied myself with respect to the velocity a fan ought 
to have, when a certain density of air is required, I purpose in this 
paper to examine the fan under other varied conditions, the object 
being to establish the best proportions of inlet openings in the 
sides of the fan chest, and the suitable corresponding length of 
vanes. For this purpose, I caused the iipeiiiugs in the sides of the 
fan chest to be made of a large diameter, and I was enabled to vary 
those openings, by fitting in rings of wood ; and I varied the fan 
by attaching to its arms, vanes of corresponding lengths. The 
experiments are classed in the follow iiig tables : — 
luble Nu. 1 Oy CotUiiiHS the tirst sut oi txpi-niueiiis. 

„ 2 a, Experiiuents made witli an iiilel opening 30 inches diameter ; 

the length of vane being redui-ed to 8 inches. 
„ 3 a, With an inlet opening of 2J| inches diameter, and the length 

of the vane 11 inches. 
„ 4 a, With an inlet opening of 20 J inches diameter, and the length 

of the vane 13f inches. 
„ 1 b, Shows the effect produced by narrowing the blades to 6 

inches, the length being 16 inches, with outlet to transit 

pipe 4 inches deep. 
„ 2 6, 3 b, i b, are experiments showing the effect produced by 

contracting the outlet opening. The inlet opening, and the 

length of vane, being the same as the table under which it 

is classed. 
In the concluding part of the first paper it was stated that, by 
impeding the free admission of air into the vane, it was done at the 
expense of power. Thus, by contracting the inlet opening to 12 
inches diameter, we expended more than twice the power. This 
led to an extension of the openings, the results of which will be 
seen on comparing the former state of the fan, in table No. 1 a, 
with the present tables Nos. 2 o, 3 a, and 4 a. 

In the first five experiments, no efflu.x of air takes place; and if, 
in these experiments, we take the mean of the density of the air 
and the horse-power, and call them unity, their proportions with 
the corresponding experiments represented in tables 2, 3, and 4, 
will stand thus : 

Table No. 1 1- Density of air. 1- Horse-power, 

2 -69 „ 1-21 

II 3 '° i» '9 If 

4 1- „ 1-10 

Here the results are in favour of the fan in its original shape, and 
similar results appear when the fan is discharging air. 

I will now proceed to e.xamine the inlet opening, and the best 
length of vane. 

From the experiments enumerated in the tables it will be seen 
that the longer vane possesses a preponderating power over the 
shorter one, in condensing air of the greatest density, with the 
least proportion of power. Thus, with a vane 14 inches long, the 
tips of which revolve at the rate of 236'8 feet per second, air is 
condensed to 9-4 ounces per square inch above the pressure of the 
atmosphere, with a power of 9-6 horses ; but a vane 8 inches long, 
the diameter at tlie tips being the same, and having, therefore, the 
same velocity, condenses air to 6 ounces per square inch only, and 
takes 12 horse-power. 

Thus, the density of the latter is little better than -S^ of the 
former, while the power absorbed is nearly 1-25 to 1. Althougli 
the velocity of the tips of the vanes is the same in each case, the 
velooity of the heels of the respective blades are very different ; for 
whilst the tips of the blades in each case move at the rate of 236-8 
feet per second, the heels of the 14 iiu-li blades move at the rate of 
908 feet per second ; and the heels of the 8 inch move at the rate 
of 151-75 feet per second; or, the velocity of the heel of the 14 
inch, moves in the ratio of 1 to 1-67, compared with the heel of the 
8 inch blade. The longer blade approaching nearer the centre, 
strikes the air with less velocity, and allows it to enter on the blade 
with greater freedom, and with considerable less force than the 
shorter one. The inference is, that the short blade must take 
more power at the same time that it accumulates a less quantity of 
air. 

These experiments lead me to conclude that the length of the 
vane demands as great a consideration as the proper diameter of 
the inlet opening. If there were no other object in view, it would 
be useless making the vanes of the fan of a greater width than the 
inlet opening can freely supply.* t)n the proportion of the length 
and width of the vane, and the diameter of the inlet opening, rest 
the three most important points, viz. : quantity, and density of air, 
and expenditure of jmwer. 

* The proportion a suction pipe bearg to a pump, Is an anagalous case ; for, if we 
drive the bucket at a greater velocity than the suction pipe will supply it with water, 
the consequence will be, that we shall not lift so much water, at the same time that we 
absorb more power. 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



21 



TABLES OF EXPERIMENTS. 



No. I, a.— With Inlet opening I'i in. diam.. 




No. 2 


, a. — With Inlet opening 30 in. 




No. 3 


a.— With Inlet openlne 243 in. 




No. 4, a.— With Inlet opening 20J in. 
dia(n. Vane 13| in. long, by I03 wide. 


aud Vanes L4 in. long, by 10^ in. wide. 




diam. 


Vane 8 in. long by lOj in. wide. 




diam. Vane 1 1 in. long, by lOJ in. 


wide. 




No. ol 
Fxpe- 
riintit. 


— m u ■*- O aj -o 
o C t . = J- e 

iii.i:i=p 




■Hi 

O q; ■- 

<i> a > 


U o & 

| = <2 






= £■3 

II. = 


-0 

ill 






5; u 


n « 

= £■- 

•S-S.S 


V V u 

3 2? 
.- ° t 

1 = i£ 






ll.s 


T3 

Si vC. 

3 E S: 

■-OS 

| = £ 


1 


ui;o 


236 8 


9-4 





96 


1I«0 


236-8 








11-92 




















2 


1081-6 


l'20-8 


7-9 





r-s4 




1(181-6 


220-8 


5-3 





10-6 




1000 


2'24-6 


58 





6-1 




1081-6 


220 8 


7-7 





8-40 
7-84 


S 


1000 


204 16 


69 





668 




lOoO 


204 16 


5 





7-6.1 




1000 


204 16 


5 5 





5 96 




11 1110 


204-16 


6-7 





4 


907-5 


ls5 28 


6-6 





6-36 




90O 


183 78 


43 





6-64 




900 


183-7 


48 





4-13 




900 


183 7 


6-6 





62 
4-45 


5 


840 


171 5 


4-5 





3-82 




706 


160 69 


3-3 





4-42 




80u 


163-3 


3 8 





3-9 




786 6 


160-5 


4-4 


Q 


6 


70.1-8 


144-1 


3-5 





2-21 






































7 


108«l> 


2al-8 


7 


37-6 


13 31 






































a 


lOKi-.-t 


2J7-09 


7 


38-12 


11-02 




























InOa 3 


21709 


7 


35 


10-7 


» 


1U8H ti 


?21-8 


6 


48-76 


13-81 




































10 


104S 


213.13 


6 


.'3-12 


12-54 




























1063-3 


217-09 


6 


42 5 


11-47 


11 


941-1! 


192 2 


6 


24-37 


6-43 




























9666 


196-68 


6 


6b 


10-07 


12 


in8fi-6 


221-8 


5 


60 


14-26 






































13 


1113.1 8 


211 5 


6 


65 


13-06 






































14 


9.'i0 


1939 


5 


62-6 


8 75 




1170 


238 8 


5 


30-62 


12-02 




1000 


2C4-1 


5 


31-8 


7-3 




966-6 


196-68 


5 


65 


14-04 


16 


855 


174-6 


5 


22 6 


4-53 




























8786 


179- 15 


6 


37*5 


7-3 


16 


l(J8H-6 


221 -8 


4 


693 


1419 




1160 


2368 


4 


63-7 


12-4 


























17 


1035 8 


21148 


4 


75 


13-3 




1081 6 


2-211-8 


4 


46-2 


1(1-4 




1063-3 


217 09 


4 


45 


7 




983-3 


200-7 


4 


79-6 i 19*7 


Id 


96^6 


l9i;-6 


4 


656 


9-5 




9066 


196-6 


4 


60 


11-2 




983 3 


200-7 


4 


56 


89 




870 


177-6 


4 


tifi 


9'9 


19 


870 


177-6 


4 


78-1 


11-3 




878-5 


179-1 


4 


40 


66 




886 


180-7 


4 


48-1 


6 17 




7733 


157-8 


4 


35 


6 7 


20 


760 


165-8 


4 


33-1 


3-3 






































21 


9833 


200-7 


3 


82 6 


10-15 




lino 


224 5 


3 


63-7 


9-23 




1100 


224-5 


3 


63-7 


87 














2.' 


88,1 


174-5 


3 


02 7 


10-6 




966-6 


196-6 


3 


9^-6 


10-25 




966-6 


196-6 


3 


70 


7-29 














23 


;73-.-i 


167-8 


3 


'89-6 


7-56 




878-5 


179 1 1 3 


68-7 


8-84 




870 


1776 


3 


82 


7-8 




870 177-0 


3 


103 6 


10-7 


24 


669-2 


134 6 3 


56-2 2-98 




780 


159 2 1 3 


575 


6-55 




786-6 


160-5 


3 


66 


676 




786-6 16(1-5 


3 


97-1 1 104:; 


No. 1, b.— With the Outlet opening contract- 


No. 2, b.— With the Outlet opening 


No 3 


b.— With the Outlet opening 


No. 4, b.— With the Outlet opening 
cond-acled to 4 in. deep. 
No Efflux 


ed to 4 in. deep, and 7 in. wide. 




contracted to 4 in. deep. 




contracted to 3i in. deep. 








Inlet opening 1.^ in. diameter. 






No Efflux. 






No Efflux. 








Vane [6 in. long, by 6 in. wide. 




900 


1 182-7 1 4-5 1 1 0-24 
With Efflux. 




826-6 


1 168-7 1 4 1 
With Efflux. 





2-75 




885 1 1807 I 5-5 1 [ 3 7 
Witb Efflux 


X r 








°2 


800 
886 


IBS-a 
180-7 


4-5 

57 






2-38 

2-89 




855 


1 180-7 1 4 1 40 17-5 




760 


1 121-8 1 3-5 1 


35 


24 




900 I 183-/ 1 4 1 40 1 G 9 


With 


the original Outlet opening, 


With 


the original Outlet opening. 


Willi the original Outlet opening, 
]'2 in. deep. 




780-6 


160-5 


4-0 


13-76 


2-9 




12 in. deep. 




12 in. d 


eep. 








JS M 


886 


180-7 


4 


-25 


4-76 






No Efflux. 






No Efflux. 








No Efflux, 


*i 3 


870 


177-6 


6 


10 


3-5 




900 


1 182-3 1 4-16 1 1 7-35 




813 


1 166 1 4 





3-46 




885 1 180-7 1 5i 1 | 4-. 1 


773-3 


1.17-8 


3 


37 5 


3-2 






With Efflux. 






With Efflux. 








With Efflux 




878-0 


1.19-1 


3 


35 


5-0 




885 


1 18-7 1 4 140 1 8-25 




813 


1 166 1 3i 1 


40 


3-98 




*■ 11,1.1 M-JLlAk4At 

885 1 180 7 1 4 1 60 7 1 9 3 



In the 14 inch blade, the tip has a vek(city of 2-6 greater than 
the lieel ; or, by the laws of centrifugal force, the air will have 2-6 
times tlie density at the tip of the blade that it has at the heel. 
The air cannot enter on the heel with more than atmospheric den- 
sity, but in its passage along the vanes, it becomes compressed in 
proportion to its centrifugal force. The greater the length of 
vane, the greater will be the difference of the centrifugal force be- 
tween the heel and the tip of the blade ; consequently, the greater 
the density of the air. 

Reasoning, tlien, from these experiments, I recommend for easy 
reference, the following proportions for the construction of the 
fan : — Let tlie width of the vanes be one-fourth of the diameter of 
tlie vanes. — Let the diameter of the inlet openings in the sides of 
the fan diest be one-half the diameter of the fan. — And, let the 
length of the vanes be one-fourth of the diameter of the fan. 

In adopting this mode of construction, the area of the inlet open- 
ings in the sides of the fan chest, will be the same as the circum- 
ference of the heel of the blade, multiplied by its width ; or the 
same area as the space described by the heel of the blade. 

The following tables gives the sizes of fans varying from 3 to 6 
feet diameter : — 









Table 


1. 






Dian^eter 


Width of 


Ler 


gthof 


Diameter of 


of Fan. 


Vane. 


Vane. 


inlet opening 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


It. in. 


3 








9 





9 


1 6 


3 


G 





m 





105 


1 9 


4 





1 










2 


4 


6 


1 


H 




U 


2 3 


5 





1 


3 




3 


2 6 


6 





1 


6 
Table 


2. 


6 


3 


3 








7 







1 


3 


6 





H 




H 


1 3 


4 








9J 




34 


1 6 


4 


6 





m 




H 


1 9 


5 





1 







6 


2 








1 


2 




10 


2 4 



I recommend the proportions in table 1, for densities ranging 
from 3 to 6 ounces per square inch, and for higher densities, viz. : 
from 6 to 9, or more ounces, the sizes given in table 2. 



The dimensions of the above tables are not laid down as pre- 
scribed limits, but as appro.\imations obtained from the best results 
in practice. 

In some cases, two fans fixed on one spindle would be found pre- 
ferable to one wide one, as by such arrangement, twice the area of 
inlet opening is obtained, compared with a single wide fan ; and 
they may he so constructed, where occasionally only half the quan- 
tity of air is required, that one of them may be disengaged by a 
clutch, and thus a sa\-ing of power effected. In a single fan of 
great width, the inlet opening must either be made too small in 
proportion to the width of the vane, or if it be made large enoiigli 
for the width of the vnne, the length of the vane becomes so short 
as to be quite incapable of producing air of the re(|uired density. 

It has been stated that the air from the fan diest is impelled by 
the vanes along the transit pipe, to the blast chest, &c. : I beg at- 
tention to the results of an experiment very recently made by me 
with reference to the admission of air into tlie tr;insit pipe, and 
which, I think, may lead to an important improvement in the fan. 
The experiment alluded to, was made to enable me to ascertain the 
result of varying the area of admission to the transit pipe, in pro- 
portion to the quantity of blast required for use; and I'effected 
this by adapting a segmental slide to the circular chest of the fan, 
as shown in the accompanying section, by means of which, I vary 
the width of the opening into the transit'pipe, from 12 to 4 inches. 

The object of this arrangement is, to diminish the transit pipe 
opening at pleasure, in proportion to the quantity of air required, 
and thereby to lessen the power necessary to woi-k the fan. The 
results will be seen by experiments inserted in tables 1 b, 2 b, 3 b, 
and 4 b. The inlet opening to the transit pipe having been con- 
tracted from 12 inclies to 4 inches deep, so that the tip of the vane 
and the bottom of the outlet opening were nearly in a direct Iiori- 
zontal line, nearly the same quantity of air was'impelled, as with 
the original opening; the noise produced by the fan had, however, 
nearly ceased. It therefore appears, that the less this opening is 
made — provided we produce sufficient blast — the less noise will 
proceed from the fan; and by making the top of this opening level 
with the tips of the vane, the column of air has little or no re- 
action on the vanes. 

With respect to the degree of eccentricity which the fan should 
have, with reference to the fan chest, ,'5 of the diameter of the fan 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[January, 



has been found in prai'tico ti) ansni'r well ; that is, the space be- 
tween tlie fan and the chest should increase, fnini i| iif an inch at 
the ti>p (if the inlet to the transit Jiipe, to ,', of tlie diameter of the 
fan at the bottom of a line perpendicular with the centre. The 
tunnel, or main pipe, from the fan chest may for short distances, 
















I 






a 


°4° 

« o 


o 


II 














p^^r-r-r-^ H 



varyinif from 50 to 100 feet in length, be made not less than 1^ 
times the area of the transit jiipe in the fan chest ; aiul in distances 
varying from 100 to 200 feet in length, U times the area of the 
transit pipe. The length of a tunnel maybe continued to 300 or 
more feet, provided it be made (jf sufficient dimensions to allow the 
air to pass freely ahjug it. The experiments accompanying this 
paper were made with ;>. tunnel 18 inches diameter and 160 feet in 
length, and no difference could be detected in the density of the 
air, wlien the gage was ap])lied at any part of the tunnel. 

Having investigated the leading characteristics of the fan, it may 
not be out of place to give a few hints respecting its mechanical 
construction. 

Fiivt. — It is one of the greatest essentials, that all parts main- 
tain a just and ])ro|>er balance. 

Second. — That the arms of the fan be as light as is consistent 
with safety: round arms are decidedly objectionable ; I have known 
instances when their centrifugal force has torn them from the cen- 
tre boss. I prefer the rectangular arm, about the pro])ortion of 2^ 
times the width, for the depth at the centre, with sufficient taper 
towards the tips. 

r/i»r/.— The bearings and journals of the fan spindle should be 
made of a length not less than four times the diameter of the necks 
of the spindle. 

Finiil/y. — The driving pulleys should be made as large as circum- 
stances will admit of, so that the strap may have sufficient surface 
to prevent slipping. 

The fan from which my experiments were collected, was made 
with these proportions. It has been at work nine years without 
any perceptible wear. 

The apiilication of the fan has hitherto been chiefly applied to 
smithies and foundries ; and in but few instances has it been ap- 
plied to the smelting of iron ore. I am aware that differences of 
opinion exist as to the applicability of the fan to that purpose. The 
principal reason urged against it beinif the limited density to which 
the blast can thereby be compressed, compared with the blast sup- 



plied by the cylinder. It remains, however, to be proved whether 
such high densities are absolutely necessary for the smelting of 
iron ore; whether we may not produce as good iron by a diffused 
soft blast, as by the strong, and generally apj)lied, concentrated 
blast. I hojie it will not be thought presumptuous on my part, in 
thus doubting long established practices. The old maxim of 
" there's no way like the old way," is not always based on unerring 
jnunciples. 

As I have before stated, the density of blast afforded by the fan, 
is limited to the force arising from the centrifugal motion of the 
air, in passing along the vanes of the fan ; the quantity not ex- 
ceeding what is due to its velocity and magnitude. But may not 
this density be increased by using a succession of fans, so con- 
structed and arranged, that the air may be passed successively 
through each ; the air from the first fan being made to enter the 
seccuid , the air from the second to enter the third ; and the bUust 
finally emitted of ade(piate density .'' 

I cannot here enter into a further investigation of this important 
subject ; neither are the limits and character of this paper suite*! 
to the miuutiie connected with the principles and practice of a 
smelting furnace ; but 1 ho))e that the observations which I have 
made, and the principles I have endeavoured to enunciate, wiU be 
the means of instituting further inquiry ; and, as the expense of 
constructing a fan can be no barrier, I trust that a fair trial will 
he made, where convenience is suited to its application for smelt- 
ing purposes. 



REGISTER OF NETV PATENTS. 



VENTILATION OF MINES. 

John Wilcock, gentleman, in the county of York, for " cer- 
tain Improvements in the ventilation of mine.i." — Granted June 12 ; 
Enrolled Dec. 12, 184.7. [Reported in the Patent Journal.'^ 

The patentee, in this specification, states his invention to be for 
the purpose of improving, and more effectually securing, the better 
ventilation of mines, and consists of elongating the upcast sliaft of 
the mine, by the addition of stacks, towers, or other similar build- 
ings, erected above, or in connection with such upcast shaft, by 
which the upper orifice of the upcast shaft is elevated very consi- 
derably above the upper orifice of the downcast shaft, proportion- 
ably to various circumstances — as the relative depths of the two 
shafts, the velocity of the .current of air through the mine, the 
nature of the gases, &c. The ventilation of mines is effected by 
the passing of a stream, or current, of atmospheric air through 
the various ramifications of the mine, carrying with it, in its 
course, the various noxious gases — as carburetted hydrogen, car- 
bonic acid, and also the vitiated air, in its course, and escapes 
through the upcast shaft into the atmosphere. This current is, in 
most cases, caused— or the velocity of it is increased— by the ap- 
plication of heat to the upcast shaft, either at the bottom thereof, 
or at the orifice at the surface. The patentee proposes, by his in- 
vention, to increase the velocity of the currents through the up- 
cast shaft, by erecting a stack, tower, or other similar building, 
above, or in connection with, the upcast shaft, which forms a con- 
tinuation of the shaft, and through which also continues to flow 
the current of air. The height to \vhicli, in most cases, it will be 
sufficient to raise the elongated portion of the shaft, the patentee 
states to be from 60 feet to 100 feet, though this will be go^•erned 
much by circumstances, varying in difl'erent mines. The patentee 
gives several drawings, descriptive of his invention, as applied to 
se\eral descriptions of mine shafts ; as, first, to its application to 
mines having only one shaft ; in this case, it is customary to make 
partitions down the shaft, thus forming downcast and upcast shafts. 
The patentee proposes leaving these arrangements as usual, but 
erecting over, or in connection with, the part of the shaft, a stack, 
tower, or other building, as a continuation of the upcast shaft. 
Secondly, to a mine in which the upcast shaft is also the working 
one; in" this case, the minerals and workmen pass out of the lower 
])art of the stack, or tower, by an aperture in the wall of it ; and, 
thirdly, to a mine in which the upcast shaft is only employed for 
that purpose ; in this case, a plain stack, or tower, is employed. 
In all cases, the patentee states, it is necessary that the sectional 
area of the stack, or tower, should be, at least, equal to the sec- 
tional area of the upcast shaft ; and that, when it is necessary to 
have any openings into the lower part of the stack, or tower, the 
sectional area of the upper part of the stack, or tower, above the 



1 848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



33 



apertures, must be increased by the size of the apertures, for 
the purpose of not interferinjj; with the upward current from tlie 
upcast shaft. The patentee, after describing his invention, chiims 
the mode, or modes, of elongating tlie upcast shafts of mines, for 
the better ventilation of such mines, as described in the speci- 
ti cation. 



CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES. 

Stephen Moulton, of Norfolk-street, Strand, Middlese.x, gen- 
tleman, for " Improvements in the construction of bridges." — Granted 
April 8; Enrolled Oct. 8, 184.7. 

The improvements are for constructing bridges in the manner 
shown in the annexed engravings. Fig. 1 is a side view of a bridge 




Fig. 1. 
constructed according to the invention. Fig. 2 shows two trans- 
vei'se sections thereof, by which it will be seen that the top rail B, 
and the bottom rail A, are combined togetlier by a series of diago- 
nal bars D, so that tlie bottom rail A, is 
suspended from the upper rail B, by 
means of such diagonal bars D ; and the 
rails, A and B, are kept apart by means 
of the uprights C, wliich uprights are 
not fixed to the upper or lower rails 
B, A, but simply come in between them 
as supports to retain the parts A, B, at 
the correct distance apart ; and in the 
event of the chain being formed to act 
unequally on any of the diagonal bars 
D, by driving in wedges, as shown at E, 
fig. I, the wliole must be correctly ad- 
justed. The diagonal bars I), proceed 
in opposite directions, and cross each 
other, as is shown, but they are not fixed 
to each other, they l)eing simply fixed 
at their ends by means of pins passing 
through them ; and the top and bottom 
rail, B, A, fig. 1, shows part of the side 
framing of the bridge. 

Fig. 3 shows the diagonal bars D, 
with the screw pins and nuts, by which 
they are attached to the rails A, B. The upper rail may be formed 
of two angle-irons, as shown at fig. 2, or in one double angle-iron, 
as shown at fig. 3, the diagonal bars D passing between the parts 
B B, and such parts will be held together by the pins and nuts J, 
as shown. The lower rail is composed of two 
bars. A, A, shown in fig. 2, and the ends of the 
bars D are placed between them, and held by the 
screw pins and nuts J, as shown. K, the beams 
for receiving the floor of the bridge. F, tlie caps 
which cover the upper edges of the two bars of 
which the bottom rail A, is composed. At the 
ends of a bridy^e it is preferred to use additional 
bars D*, D", as shown at fig. 1, and also holding- 
bars G, with adjusting screws and nuts, as at H ; 
but these may be dispensed with. There are 
opening through tlie uprights C, for the passage 
of the diagonal bars D, but these bars I) should 
be free and not confined in the openings through 
such uprights C. 

' ' the peculiar arrangement of the 





G) m 



Ml* 



r-.g. 3. 
It will be found by examinina 
parts tliat great strength with lightness are obtained by construct- 



ing Jiridges in the manner described, for it will be evident that as 
the rails A, B, are kept separated by the uprights C, which act as 
stretchers, tliey will be rendered stiff and secure from flexure Ity 
the diagonal bars D. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES AND RAILWAY CARRIAGES. 

^ George Taylor, of Holbeck, near Leeds, for " Improvements in 
locomotive etigiiies and railway carriages." — Granted June 3; En- 
rolled Dec. 3, 184.7. [Reported in the Mechanics' Magazine.'] 

The patentee states that his invention consists: Firstlv In 

certain improved arrangements of the steam cylinders of locomo- 
tive engines, and the parts which communicate the recijirocating 
motion of tlie pistons of the cylinders to the axle or axles of the 
driving-wheels, which arrangements have for their object to con- 
centrate the driving power of the actuated pistons, so as to com- 
municate an even rotating motion to the driving-wiieels, or to dis- 
tribute the moving power (before concentrating it), 'in an even 
and uniform manner to one, two, or more pairs of wheels. The 
advantages which the patentee states he believes to result from 
this part of his inventiiui are, diminished wear and tear of the en- 
gine, and the attainment, with safety, of a greater degree of 
speed, in consequence of the decreased amount of oscillation of 
the locomotives. The construction is as follows :— Above the 
boiler, and near the smoke-box, are placed, horizontalh', and in 
juxta-position, two steam cylinders of equal capacity, each having 
its piston furnished with cross heads sliding in guides supported bv 
the frame of the engine. The pistons are connected by rods to 
two cranks, m hicli are attached on either side to a wheel ha\ing 
cogs or indentations on its periphery, and whicli gears into another 
wheel fastened on the centre of tlie axle of the driving-wheels. 
The axle is placed above tlie boiler, and allows of the employment 
of driving-wheels of larger diameter (say from 10 to IJ "feet), 
with even a diminished amount of oscillation, in consequence of 
i the weight of the engine being brought near the line of rails. All 
j the wheels may be made to drive by being coupled in the ordinary 
j manner. In order that the cog-wheels may work properly, and 
I the bearing-springs of the engine act freely, the guides, in which 
I are supported the journals or axle-boxes of "the driving-wheels, are 
made slanting. Two modifications of the mode of connecting the 
piston-rods of the steam cylinders with the axles of the driving- 
wheels are specified by the patentee. The first consists in forming 
a slot in the centre of each of the piston-rods, in which works a 
short vibrating link, connected to a vertical frame on either side 
of the engine, which is made fast underneath the boiler by means 
of a pin, on which it vibrates — and in connecting each of these 
vibrating vertical frames by rods as is usual with the bosses of the 
driving-wheels, or in attaching one end of a connecting-rod to the 
outside end of the cross head of the piston-rod, and the other to 
the boss of the driving-wheel. Secondly — This invention has re- 
ference to the construction of an apparatus applicable to the loco- 
: motive, tender, and carriages, which serx-es toretard the progress 
' of the train when necessary, and to support, in the case oi the 
breakage of an axle, the vveight of the carriage. To eft'ect this, 
I two levers are made fast to the bottom of the carriage in such 
manner as to allow of their acting freely, and have each at the 
outer end a flanged skid placed directly over the line of rail. 
I These skids have on the under surfaces blocks of hard wood with 
, the grain placed vertically, and are moreover connected by a 
strong spring. From the centre of this spring rises a vertical 
shaft, consisting of two pieces joined by a threaded connection, 
whereby it can be lengthened or shortened, as required. The top 
of this shaft is forked, and has between the prongs at top and bot- 
tom two anti-friction rollers; between these rollers is a cam, fast- 
ened to a horizontal rod, which is made to rotate by apparatus 
brought under the control of the driver or guards, after any ordi- 
nary and well-known means. When the longest radius of the cam 
is brought to bear upon the lower anti-friction roller by means of 
the rotating of the horizontal shaft, it follows that the vertical 
shaft is forced downwards and the flanged skids thereby depressed 
on to the line of rail which they bite, and thus retard the progress 
of the train. The flanges serve to retain the carriages on the line 
of rails, and the skids to support the carriage in the case of the 
breakage of an axle ; but, in order that the vertical shaft may be 
relieved from the weight of the carriage, stops are inserted in the 
lower part thereof at the most convenient point, against which the 
skids catch. ThirfUy — The patentee proposes to divide the tender 
horizontally into two parts, using tlie upper or open portion for 
coals, and the lower to contain the water, and to pass the axle of 
the wheels through the water or above it, in order that the weight 



Si 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Januaby, 



of the tender, as in the case nf tlie lommotive hefore descrilitd, 
may he brought nearer the rails. Fdiirtlily — To em])hiy axles lor 
raif»av carriafjes composed of two jiieces, one solid and the other 
tubular, to slide over it ; one of a pair of wheels heinp; attached to 
each piece, so that they may revoh e independently of each other. 



VIBRATING PISTON-ROD ENGINE. 

G. V. GrsTAFSsoN, of 15, William-street, Repent's-park, late en- 
gineer, R.N. '■^ Improi'emeiitf! ill the xtniiii niyiiii;" 

The improvements relate, first, to " the mode of connectinsf a pis- 
ton-rod to a piston hy means of a hall-and-socket joint." The ad- 
vantajje of this plan over the old one (where the ]iiston-rod is con- 
nected to the piston hy means of straps and keys like the crank 
and connecting-rod) will easily he perceived ; a /niye hearing sur- 
face, its facility for ada|)ting itself in the centre of the piston, being 
bored and turned at the same time, and also the convenience for 
liolding a lubricating substance, such as oil or tallow, and thereby 
lessening the friction, and causing a less wear of the ball and socket. 
Secondly, " The manner of keeping the piston tight within the 
cylinder by the combined mechanical forces of steam and metallic 
S])rings." The advantage of this arrangement will also be perceived 
without difficulty: the skeleton of the piston is formed like a 
wheel ; the nave receives the end of the piston-rod, from which 
proceeds the arms, to the extreme ends of which a ring is attached, 
and to which ring is bolted the top and bottom cover of the piston, 
which for lightness should be made of wrought-iron ; within these 
co\ers, and at the outer periphery, are fitted two metallic rings of 
light construction, and kept in their jilaces by means of spiral and 
horizontal springs, but not necessarily steam-tight, as that will be 
effected by admitting steam into the chamber, which incloses the 
packing-rings by means of a double acting valve; this will cause 
a more uniform pressure on the packing-rings than could be effected 
hy springs alone ; it also requires very little fitting and grinding, 
onl)' the side of the ring nearest the cover : it has also another, 
though perha]is not very great advantage, of partially pu/liiig, in- 
stead of entirely piisliiiig the piston. Suppose the piston is moving 
upwards, a portion of the pressure trom under it will be removed 
to the upper cover, which is considerably above the centre of the 
globe ; hence the pulling property, which in such case is preferable 
to pushing : the same, of course, takes place on the down stroke. 
Thirdly, " The construction of a moveable apparatus to he adapted 
to the top or cover of the cylinder through which the pist(ni-rod is 
to slide, and at the same time vibrate." The advantage of this 
ap])aratus over the old slide-rest shaped one is, first, being curved 
as to present nearly a rertangiilar base to the different positions of 
the piston-rod, whereby the friction is considerably diminished ; 
secondly, having nflat bearing surface to act against, instead of the 
dovetailed edges in the old plan ; thirdly, and last, its facility of 
kee])ing in contact with the bearing surface, which is effected in 
condensing engines liy connecting the narrow chamber, between 
the two slides, with the condenser, wherel)y the slides are kept in 
their places hy the pressure of steam and tlie atmosphere : in non- 
condensing engines this chamber should be in communication with 
the atmosphere, which may he effected by causing the upper slide 
to hear in the middle oiihj, allowing a passage to the chamlier under 
it, whicli will also lessen the friction of the ujjper slide : it will be 
perceived that the slides are i)ortions of circles, and consequently 
easy of construction. And fourthly, " An a])paratus (or self-act- 
ing damper) for regulating the draught of the flues aiul furnaces, 
and thereby tempering the pressure of steam in the boiler, and also 
giving such due notice of the state of pressure in the boiler as may 
])revent accidental explosion." This being a distinct apparatus, 
may be used with or w ithout the other improvements, and is appli- 
cable both for land and marine engines. 

The inventor states that, "a |)lan, somewhat similar in principle, 
though ditt'ering in details, was tried many years ago, but in con- 
sequence of the ill-ada])tation of the slides — soniewliat like the 
slide-rent oi n turning-lathe — to the motion of the i>iston-rod, being 
at riijht angles to the latter only at the dead points of the engine, 
or top-and-bottom stroke, it was a very great defect." 

The three first imiirovements are shown in the annexed engi'av- 
ing of a vertical sccti<in of the steam cylinder, o, the cylinder • 
A, the skeleton of the piston, formed like a wheel for the purpose 
of rendering it of light construction ; <■, a hollow cast-iron globe 
fitted to the end of the ]iiston-rod and secured to it by a plug d, or 
it may lie cast on to the end of the piston-rod : in the centre of 
the piston is a hemisphei'ical socket, into which the globe c is fitted 



and secured to it by means of a cap e firmly bolted to the hemi- 
spherical socket ; the arms have strengthening flanges on their 
under s.des, and to tlie outer ring, at the extremity of the arms, is 
bolted the top and bottom covers //i/, which, for liglitness, may be 
made of wmught-iron. To render the piston steam-tight, two 




metallic rings are placed in the annular chamber between the 
covers y g^ and held in their places by means of vertical and hori- 
zontal springs, hut not necessarily steam-tight, as that will be 
effected by admitting steam into this annular chamber of the piston 
hy means of a double-acting valve, hy which a more uniform pres- 
sure on the packing-rings is obtained than could possildy be effected 
by springs alone : i is the cylinder cover, which is made spherical, 
with segmental pieces to complete the arc of a circle ; /■■ is a seg- 
ment slightly hollowed in the middle and bolted to the cylinder- 
cover ; / are slides attached to the cups m n. To keep the radius 
slides // constantly in contact with their bearing surface, the hol- 
low space should be in comniiinication with the condenser, which 
is effected by fixing a small tulie in any convenient place : in non- 
condensing engines this space should be in communication with the 
atmosjihere. 

It will be seen that as the piston ascends and descends, the 
piston-rod will be enabled, hy the lateral motion of the radius 
slides, to vibrate, and thereby act directly on the crank ; in conse- 
quence of the angular position of the piston-rod the wear of the 
cylinder would be greater on one side than the other, but this may 
he avoided by giving to the latter an inclined position. It will be 
perceived that this jieculiarity of the piston is of great advantage, 
especially for horizontal engines, as the u-eiylit of the piston would 
be supported by the jiressure, and consequently prevent an un- 
equalizing wear of the cylinder and piston, which in common hori- 
zontal engines cannot be avoided ; hence the vibrating piston-rod 
is particularly ailapt^'d lor the screw-propeller and locomotive en- 
gines. To prevent an unnecessary waste of steam, the sjiace 
between the ]iiston and the cylinder cover, where the former is on 
the tiq) stroke, as shown by the dotted lines, may be filled up with 
hard wood and bolted to the cylinder cover. 



PALMEKS IMPROVEMENTS IN GAS 



PLATE n. 




184,8.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 




BUNNETT'S SEWER TRAP. 

j\lr. Biuinett, of the lii-m of Bunnett and Corpe, of Lombard- 
street, has invented a ^'ery simple and cheap " Self-acting Effluvia 
Trap" which differs from all previous contrivances. The fault of 
the old invention was that they were so arranged that a very small 
quantity of water caused the pan of the trap to fall, and conse- 
quently during a shower of rain, or water falling upon it, the 
action was intermittent, continually opening a communication witli 
the sewer, and lialde to lie held open permanently by any light 
matter being caught by the rising of tlie pan. In Mr. Bunnett's 
improved trap this is avoided by introducing a peculiar mechanical 

arrangement of the le- 

i-J jfl" ~^~ verage connected with 
' ' ' ' the form of the move- 

able pan, and applica- 
tion of the weight, 
whicli admits, under 
ordinary circumstan- 
ces, of a constant flow 
of water through the 
grating into the pan 
of the trap and over 
the edge of the same 
into the sewer or drain, 
the lower part of the 
trap being immersed 
into the water, so as 
to form a most effec- 
tual water sealed joint, 
of sufficient depth to 
withstand the effects 
of evaporation from 
long drought, and should a stoppage be caused by a deposit of silt 
or other matter, the water will rise in the body of the trap, until 
it is about two-thirds full, at which point it raises the balance- 
weight, and obtains considerable leverage by the peculiar formation 
of the moveable pan, insuring a rapid discharge of a large body of 
water, which by its force most effectually cleanses the trap, and 
fluslies the sewer or drain, and instantly recovers its position, with 
sufficient water to form the joint again, resuming its former action 
till another stoppage occurs ; the form of the trap also insures on 
the commencement of a thaw the ready ejection of any ice that 
may liave formed therein. The annexed figure is a sectio nal view 
of "a street grating and gully hole with the trap, which is re])re- 
sented in its ordinary position, the water flowing from the grating 
into the body of it. and over the edges of the moveable part into 
the sewer or drain. The lower part of tlie body of tlie trap is 
immersed in the water which is retained in the moveable part b)' 
the counterbalance weight, thereby forming a perfectly sealed joint 
and effectually preventing any smell from rising. 

Another advantage attending this trap is that it can easily be 
fixed to any gull^' hole, and the price is very moderate, being about 
£l each. 



GAS IMPROVEMENTS. 

(With Engravings^ Plate ll.J 

George Holworthy Palmer, of AVestbourne-villas, Harrow- 
road, Middlesex, civil engineer, for "rt» improved method or mode of 
producing inflammable gnues of greater piiritg and higher illuminating 
power, ,.\c."— Granted April 17; Enrolled October 17, 18+7. 

The first part of this invention relates to an improved mode of 
setting and arranging the retorts in conjunction with additional 
vessels called " regenerators," so as to insure their being heated 
uniformly to tlie required temperature (as shown in figs. 1 to 6), by 
which method not only an increase of volume, but also an increase 
in the illuminating power of the gas is obtained. TJie heating sur- 
face of the regenerators may be further increased by the introduc- 
tion of metallic chippings, or by sheet iron partition's. 

By this arrangement, the gas passes direct from the retorts into 
the regenerators, where it receives a second dose of caloric, and 
then flows in the usual manner through the sealed pipes in the hy- 
draulic main, and then into the mechanical precipitator, to be next 
e.xplained. The patentee recommends the retorts to be kept at a 
bright cherry-red heat, and the regenerators at a dull-red heat, 
visible by dayliglit. 

The second improvement relates to an apparatus called a '• me- 
chanical precipitator," combined with a refrigerator (as shown in 



figs. 7 and 8), for the purpose of abstracting the vapours of tar and 
naphtha, as well as the gaseous ammonia and its compounds. 

The third impro\ement relates to apparatus called " ammoniacal 
filtering towers," through which the gas passes from the precipita- 
tor, being washed in its course by liquid ammonia, descending like 
rain through one or more ])erforated plates, as shown in Nos^ 1, 2, 
and 3, in figs. 9, 10, and 11. By this process a further portion of 
ammonia, contained in the gas, is absorbed without subjecting the 
gas to an increased pressure, and the liquid ammonia is increased 
in strength. 

The fourth improvement relates to an apparatus consisting of a 
series of steam cliambers and condensers, Nos. 4, 5, and 6 as shown 
in figs. 9 and 10, through which the gas passes from the filtering 
tower ; each of these chambers is to be charged with a ^•olume of 
ijure steam equal to the volume of gas. The crude gas with a vo- 
lume of steam, passes first into No. 1 steam chamber,^ and then into 
its condensing chamber, where the steam will be condensed into 
water, which in its descent will carry with it a great portion of the 
remaining gaseous ammonia and its various compounds ; after 
which, tlie permanent gases flow from No. 1 condenser into No. 2 
steam chamber, when the gas will be again saturated with steam 
and will again flow into its proper refrigerator, to deposit tlie steam 
charged with another portion of tlie product in a liquid form. The 
gas will then pass into No. 3 cliamber as before, and thence into 
No. 3 condenser, where is deposited the remaining ammonia and its 
compounds, together with a portion of sulphuretted hydrogen. AH 
these liquid products are to be made to flow, as fast as they are 
deposited in the condenser, into a suitable receiver, sealed by an 
hydraulic joint to prevent the gaseous vapours and gas from return- 
ing into tlie condenser. From this last apparatus the gas will pass, 
freed from impurities, into the " lime machines" or purifiers, 
charged with dry lime, where it is divested of the remaining dele- 
terious gases — viz., sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid, and 
proceeds thence to the gas holder, and lastly to the mains. 

The gas now purified goes into tlie gas-holder, and, in its transit 
to the mains, may be naphthalised if required ; for this purpose, 
apparatus may be employed similar to that described as the " am- 
moniacal filtering towers." 

The fifth improvement is for avoiding the inconveniences which 
arise on opening tlie purifiers and removing the refuse lime from 
the sieves preparatory to recharging them with lime, and which is 
to be effected by causing atmospheric air, heated or otherwise, to 
be blown through the material employed for purifying the gas, and 
discharged througli tlie furnace-bars or chimney-shaft, by means of 
a " centrifugal bellows" or other suitable pneumatic apparatus, the 
blast-pipe being connected to the exit pipe of the purifier ; thus 
blowing out the contaminated air, &c., through the pipe by which 
the gas enters the purifying ^■essel, an extra pipe and valve beings 
attached to the entrance and exit pipes for this purpose. 

Reference to the Engravings. 

Figs. 1 to 6 show the mode of setting and heating the retorts and 
regenerators: fig. 1, a sectional elevatiiui, and fig. 9, a front ele\ation 
—each figure shows one-half of a set of retorts ; fig. 3, a longitudinal 
section ; fig. 4, a plan of one of the retorts, showing the opening 
through which the flame rises; fig. 5, sectional plan of the top re- 
tort ; and fig. 6, sectional plan of the regenerators. — Similar letters 
refer to similar parts : — a, b, c, retorts ; d, e, f regenerators, show- 
ing the plates k to increase the heating medium, o^•er which the gas 
flows from the retorts ; g,g, the furnaces ; A, /, flues through which 
the flame rises from the furnaces, and, as indicated by the arrows 
between and over tlie retorts and regenerators, to the shaft, and /, 
the blow-holes. Tliere is one regenerator to each retort, of the 
capacity of about two-thirds the latter. 

Fig. 7 is a vertical section of the " mechanical precipitator," and 
fig. 8, plan of the same ; «, «, jierforated revolving fans, to agitate 
the gas in the chamlier b, b, — the shaft is stepped into the lower 
chamber and passed through an inclined plane, rf, rf, under wliich 
the gas blows through the tar passing from the pipea^ ; and adjoiu- 
ing is a chamber, p, containing a convoluted worm, or refrigerat- 
ing pipe, g, to cool the gas after escaping from the chamber b, 
through the cur\ed pipe, /I To prevent the gas blowing through 
the aperture in the inclined plane where the shaft passes, the shaft 
is inserted in a pipe sr, bolted to the inclined plane, being of an 
altitude sufficient to overcome the pressure of the gas ; and instead 
of the usual stuffing-box for the sliaft, an hydraulic seal t, is used. 

The pipe is kept cool by a supply of water passing througli tlie 
chamber p, by the pipe //, entering' at the top and disci'argiug by 
the pipe/. The pipes h and,/, together with tlie chamber e, form a 
sj'phon ; the legs or pipes, li and ;', are furnished «it)i cocks ;j, to 
admit or cut oft' the supply of water. An air-pump is used to re- 
move the small quantity of air that may be in the syphon ; it is 



36 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LJanuary, 



worked, as well as the a.ptatinp apparatus, by the descent of water 
flowiiifr from the loiiff le^ of the syiihon, which jrives motion to a 
small water-wlieel in connection witli tlie bevel wheel, f;:earintr, and 
band ; or they may be worked by a steam eng-ine or other ))ower. 
All tlie condensable products ccdlected in the asritatinif chamber 
and refriiieratinif pipe <j. How throutrh the ]dpe /i, into the chaml)er 
f and throujjh the opening r, at the level of the dotted line, into a 
receiver. 

Fig. 9 is a plan, and fig. 10 a sectional elevation, of the " am- 
moniacal filtering towers," steam chambers, and condensers, com- 
bined ia one apparatus. The gas takes the course indicated by the 
arrows in the towers 1, 2, and 3, entering each at tlie bottom and 
out at the top, and thence into the steam chambers 4, 5, 6, under- 
going the steaming ;md condensing before explained ; «, o, steam 
pipes, H-ith cocks to regulate the steam; h, the entrance steam pipe 
from the boiler ; c, c, c, separate condensers, with the entrance and 
e.xit i)ipes ; rf, the tank for the ammoniacal liquor, pumped up 
through the pipe i; ; the tank has two divisional plates/, /; iixed to 
the top and sides, and descending to within a few ijiclies of the 
bottom of tlie tanl\, and is sealed at the \e\e\ of the dotted line by 
the liquid ammonia. 

To insure the gas flowing from one tower to the other, each has 
a pipe, !)-, connected with the tank and rising in it to the height of 
the dotted line, at wliich level the ammonia flows through the pipe 
o, into its particular tower. 

Instead of the arrangement of the filtering towers, several per- 
forated divisional plates, n. as shown in fig. II, may be adopted, 
the gas flowing from the tower into the chamber tlirough the pipe 
711, in order finally to escape at the pipe y. 



REVixrws. 



All Essay on the Air-pump and Atmosplierio Railway ; containing 
formultf find rules for ca/cidatiny the various quantities contained in 
Mr. R. Stephenson' s report on atmospheric propulsion, for the Direc- 
tors of tlie Chester and Holyhead Railway Company. Uy A^^illiam 
TuENBiLiy, author of a treatise " On the Strength of Cast-Iron," 
&c. London : AMlliams. 1847. 12mo. pp. 96. 

The object of this excellent little treatise is a general exposition 
of the theoretical principles of atmospheric railways. That the 
leakage of the main tubes of tliese railways involves a loss of 
power, is obvious to every one in tlie slightest degree acquainted 
with the subject ; hut it requires much more than superficial know- 
ledge to estimate the precise amount of loss corresponding to a 
given rate of leakage. Mr. TurnbuU has addressed himself very 
successfully to the task of substituting exact principles for general 
notions respecting the mechanical defects of atmospheric pro- 
pulsion. 

The first part of this work comprises a history of the air-pump, 
and demonstrations of several known formidaj by which its effects 
are estimated. In the second part, these formul* are applied in 
detail to the case of the Kingstown and Dalkey Railway. Not- 
withstanding the imperfect success of the method of substituting 
stationary air-pumps for locomotive engines, the subject is one of 
permanent interest to the engineer, on account of the number of 
beautiful scientific and mechanical problems which it presents to 
his attention. Ccmsidered merely as an instructive exercise, the 
theory of atmospheric propulsion deserves to be thoroughly mas- 
tered by every student of practical science. It is this consideration 
which indu(ves fis to give a brief sketch of Mr. Turnbull's method 
of inrve^itigatiiui. j ', ■, 

Wlieji a t^-aili •o_n/tj>e atmospheric railway lias attained its uni- 
form velocit^y, it is oljvio'is that, if there were no leakatje, the 
pump-jiistoit and the train-piston must both describe tlie same 
space in a given time- — thfiA is, the void made by the one in a given 
time must be filled up by the otiier. For example, if the relative 
diameters of the main tube and pump were such, that ten feet of 
tjie lengtli of the former liad the same cubic capacity as one foot 
of the length of the lattfr, the train-piston would travel ten feet 
while the [mmp-pistou travelled one. Otherwise, if tlie puinp- 
fTiston tra\telled at ^ greater relative velocity, the degree of 
va«Tj.iirti iKiiihl be raised, and the train accelerated; if the pump- 
pistfoii t^-iiyeUcd Bl a smaller rehitive velocity, the degree of 
vacuum \ViJuld be diminisheil, and tlie train retarded : and either 
case is contrary to the hypothesis of uniform velocity of the train. 

The exact relation, however, between the uniform velocities of 
the two pistons only obtains on the hypothesis that there is uo 



b 



leakage. The principal problem is to ascertain the modification 
due to that detect ot tlie apparatus. Tlie requisite data for this 
investigation are obtained by the following experiment : — After 
the tube has been exhausted to a certain extent, the whole ap- 
paratus is suffered to remain quiescent, no train being dispatched. 
The leakage will then go on till the equilibrium of the air inside 
and outside tube be restored. By observing the rate at which the 
barometer-guage falls during the interval, we get — not the rate of 
leakage — but data from which that rate may be calculated. 

The density of air is proportional to the weight, and therefore 
height, of the column of mercury. Take 30 inches as the 
height of mercury ciu-responding to tlie atmospheric pressure ; 
then, if the barometer-guage of the exhausted tube show, for the 
pressure in it, a height equivalent to 10 inches of mercury (for 
example), the density in the tube would be to that of the external 
air as ll) : 30, or would be ^rd the ordinary density of air. If, 
after the leakage has gone on some time, the barometer-guage 
show a lieight equivalent to 20 inches for the pressure in tlie tube, 
the density will be ^, or |rds that of common air. Tlie difference 
between the densities in the tube at the two respective periods is 
frds-i^rd (=^rd) that of common air. Consequently, if the 
quantity of air which has entered the tube in the interval, be 
supposed to have diffused itself equably throughout the tube, that 
quantity is equivalent to the tube full of air at a density ^rd that 
of common ab, or, which is obviously the same thing, one-third 
the tulje full of common air. This reasoning applies generally, 
and gives this simple rule — that the cubic quantity of air admitted 
by leakage during any interval, is equal to tlie cubic capacity of 
the tube multiplied liy the fraction expressing the difference of 
densities during that interval. (The barometer-guage is so gra- 
duated, that for the words, "fraction e.xpressiug the difference of 
densities" in the above rule, we may substitute, " difference of 
gauge-heights divided by 30.") 

If this quantity of air were divided by the number of minutes 
of the interval, the result would be the rate of influx per minute, 
supposing that rate uniform. This method of inxestigation is, 
however, liable to an objection, which our author well states as fol- 
lows : — 

" We have calculated for the extreme indications of the vacuum gauge, 
and divided by tlie number of minutes that elapsed during the observatiou, 
for the average leakage per minute. Now this method would be perfectly 
just, on the supposition that the quantity of leakage is constant, or of tlie 
same amount in equal times ; but the idea of a constant amount of leakage 
is altogether incompatible with what we know to take place, when air of 
atmospheric density is allowed to Sow into a vessel containing air of a less 
density. Here it is obvious that the air in the vessel is continually ap- 
proaching to a state of equilibrium with that without, and consequently the 
velocity of influx is continually diminishing until the equdibrium obtains." 

He then proceeds to show, that in those experiments on the 
connecting pipe of the Dalkey line, in which the heights of the 
gauge were taken every minute, though the successive differences 
of those heights for successive minutes were nearly equal, they do 
not indicate a uniform rate of leakage, but lead to the directly 
opposite conclusion, that the leakage was far more rapid at the 
beginning of the experiment than at its conclusion : and he then 
makes the following important remark in reference to Mr. Ste- 
phenson's report : — " We are somewhat apprehensive that, by assuming 
a constant amount of leakage for the connecting pipe, some very er- 
roneous deductions must have been made." 

" But with regard to the valve tube the case is very different ; for it is 
easy to conceive that, as the longitudinal slot or aperture is covered with a 
flexible substance, this substance will readily accommodate itself to the 
pressure as the exhaustion goes on, and by thus diminishing the area of the 
aperture as the velocity of influx increases, a constant amount of leakage, 
or nearly so, may happen to be maintained : at all events, it is not incon- 
sistent with the maxims of accurate science, to admit that such may be the 
case, and it actually appears from experiment that the supposition is not far 
from the truth." 

If it be conceded that the leakage of the connecting pipe is an 
avoidable evil, and may therefore be assumed to be wholly reme- 
died, we have very simple means of calculating the effect which 
the leakage of the main tube has on the velocity of the train. As 
the assumption of uniform leakage in this tube is somewhat dan- 
gerous, let the leakage corresponding to any proposed- working 
vacuum lie ascertained by a separate experiment « ith the barome- 
ter-gauge. We have explained how to calculate, from the fall of 
the gauge, the ([uantity of external air which enters the tube per 
minute. It may be calculated liy very simple arithmetic what 
length of tube this quantity of air would by itself occu]>y, if dilated 
to the supjiosed working density. And that length of tube is the 
measure of the loss of speed of the train during the minute ; for 



184.8.] 



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2T 



if there had been no leakage, the train-piston would have advanced 
that lengtli further during the minute. 

This is a brief and imperfect sketch of Mr. TurnbuU's system. 
We must observe, liowever, that the results will agree only ap- 
proximately with actual practice. The fundamental hypothesis of 
uniform velocity of the train, is not unobjectionable : it is true that 
in calculating the motion of locomotive engines, the hypothesis 
will lead to results of specific value ; but, on atmosplieric railways, 
the distances performed with accelerated or retarded speed must 
bear so large a proportion to those performed with uniform speed, 
that the latter can hardly be considered the normal condition. 
There are otlier reasons for concluding that calculations of the 
motion of trains on atmospheric railways cannot be exact. How- 
ever, the partial application of sound theoretical principles to 
practical subjects, of which a perfect theory is unattainable, is a 
most important advantage. The skilful research exhibited in Mr. 
Turnbull's treatise, is the more welcome for being applied to a 
subject which has, in a pre-eminent degree, suffered the martyrdom 
of parliamentary and newspaper philosophy. 



A Guide to the Proper Reyulat'wit of Buildings in Towns as a 
means of Promoting and Securing the Health, Comfort, and Safety 
of the Inhabitants. By AVm. Hosking, Architect and C.E. Lon- 
don : Murray. 1848. 

This work of Mr. Hosking evidently contains so much practical 
and useful matter that we do not like to dismiss it with a passing- 
notice, but we intend to devote a little time to its consideration. 
Meanwhile, whatever opinion we may entertain with regard to 
some of its recommendations, we have seen quite enough of it to 
feel justified in i-ecommending it to our professional readers. 



EaHhwork Tables. By C. K. Sibley and W. Ruthebfobd. 

The authors have published an appendix to these very useful 
tables, showing how the tables may be applied to side-lying gi-ound, 
for which they give the following rule : — " Ascertain the ratio of 
the area of cross sections of the side-lying ground to the areas of 
similar cross sections, tliat is with same height on centre line, of 
level-lying ground, and multiply by that ratio the complete quan- 
tity furnished by the tables." 



The Antiquarian and Genwdogist's Companion. By AVilliam 
Downing Beuce, Esq., F.R.S.L. & E. 

This is a novelty for the antiquarian student, which will be very 
favourably received at the present season, as it contains many 
curious memoranda and an archaeological calendar for the year. 
The work is small — which may, perhaps, be an additional recom- 
mendation. 



LECTURES ON GEOLOGY 

By Professor Ansted. Delivered at King's College, London. 

On the Application of Geology to Engineering and Architecture, and the 
Supply of Water to Towns and Cities. 

Professor Ansted commenced his fifth lecture, by considering the ques- 
tion of drainage, more particularly with refcience to general engineering, 
which depended, in many cases, very distinctly on the geological structure 
of the rocks. And it did so naturally, as, for instance, in an ordinary road, 
properly made, where the drainage would ultimately have reference to the 
structure of the material and to the rocks in the neighbourhood. With re- 
gard to geological structure, it might happen that the beds which came close 
to the surface would have a strong inclination ; and, in that case, where the 
beds were permeable, the road would be drained naturally, and, where one 
part lay on an impermeable bed, and the other on a material which suffered 
the water to percolate through it, an attention to geological structure would 
enable them to carry off all the water very satisfactorily. This would illus- 
trate the applicability of geological knowledge, even to common road mak- 
ing ; but that knowledge was still more directly available in the case of rail- 
roads, v\hich, running through a long extent of country, involved the neces- 
sity of frequent and deep cuttings, in the execution of which drainage, as 
connected with structure and geological considerations, must always come 
in. Suppose, then, they were to take a transverse section of a railway cut- 
ting, similar to one of the diagrams exhibited — if the beds were horizontal, 
the two sides would he situated in a similar manner with regard to accidents 
arising from unequal pressure ; but if that were not the case, and the bank 



was composed of mud, clay, sand, or any slippery earth, in beds inclined to 
the horizon, some parts of the superincumbent mass would be more apt to 
slip down than others. Some strata would carry water, and others would 
allow it to drain through ; and if the road did not go directly on the strike, 
in which case there was no inclination as far as the purposes of the road 
were concerned, there would be a greater tendency to " slip" on the one 
side than on the other. Supposing the uppermost beds were composed of 
some heavy material resting upon a bed of sand, the rain, in draining through 
the sand, would wash it away gradually, and, a portion of the support being 
removed, the upper mass would naturally have a tendency to slide down 
upon the lower part. If once it began to slide, no matter how slowly— if 
the moveruent were only an inch per day, or an inch per month— any pre- 
ventive measures were too late, and there would be a slip sooner or later, 
and especially in heavy rains, or rains combined with frost. But before the 
superincumbent mass were set in motion, if by any means the water could be 
prevented from passing through the sand, it might be prevented. That was 
best done by cutting a drain on the other side, by which all the water which 
came on the surface might be carried off before it reached the sand. There 
would then be sufficient cohesion to prevent the upper part from being set in 
motion. 

A knowledge of geological structure, in making these cuttings, was ex- 
ceedingly useful, not only in preventing slips, but in reducing the cost of 
work. For instance, when the dip was in a certain direction, a shp was 
manifestly impossible, and in that case the slope of the bank might be very 
much steeper, and the expense of its removal saved. Cn the continent, it 
was not unusual in cuttings to make the banks in a succession of terraces ; 
but, in this country, that plan, though exceedingly useful, was scarcely ever 
adopted. It was, however, being partially iried at New Cross, a place where 
much mischief had been done by slips, and he believed with a prospect of 
success. That was, however, a plan which could not be carried out without 
a reference to geological science. 

On the subject of embankments the same principles of drainage were ap- 
plicable, though another elemeut of construction was brought into action. 
If a large mass of material were heaped in a particular way, it might be per- 
fectly safe, and answer the purpose intended very well ; while if it were 
placed in a different way, mischief would arise. The structure of embank- 
ments ought also to be regulated by the nature of the rocks on which they 
rested, as well as those of which they were formed ; and although, as yet, 
few accidents had arisen, engineers might find it worth while to pay atten- 
tion to this subject. Again, if an embankment was placed on a hill side, 
there ought to be particular adaptation to the way in which the beds lay. 
If a heavy pressure were put upon beds so situated, which had already a 
tendency to slip, that tendency would be increased, and, unless attention 
were paid to the drainage, serious accidents would inevitably occur. The 
kind of draining required was much of the character of that necessary in 
ordinary roads — namely, by cutting off springs which had a tendency to run 
between bands of impermeable rock. 

The subject of canals, and the way in which they were affected, introduced 
another element. Id making canals, the engineer would constantly have to 
cut across springs, and through some strata which allowed water to percolate, 
and through others which actually produced water. In going across a dis- 
trict where there was much leakage, it was necessary to have a perfect 
knowledge of the nature of those rocks which yielded water and abounded 
in springs ; and of those strata and substances which were impermeable. On 
such circumstances depended many great practical difficulties in the con- 
struction of canals. It was a remarkable fact, that Mr. William Smith, who 
flourished about a century ago, and who was called the father of Enghsh 
geology, was himself a mining engineer, and first observed the geological 
structure of the country, as it afTected the formation of canals. His life, 
lately published by Professor Phillips, his (the lecturer's) predecessor at 
King's College, would be found very useful and interesting, as it regarded 
the practical application of so much of geological science as was known at 
that day. In the Hfe of Smith would be found some account of the con- 
struction of canals in his day, then as important as raUways were now. They 
would see how he brought his knowledge to bear upon the problems at issue, 
and in that way they might themselves learn how to apply a great deal of 
that knowledge of geology which they might possess. 

Supply of Water. — The Professor next treated of the supply of water as 
an engineering subject, apart from the supply obtained from land-springs, or 
small Artesian wells, considered hitherto on a comparatively small scale, and 
rather with relation to agricultural purposes than engineering. The subject 
of drainage and water supply was, perhaps, connected as much with archi- 
tecture as engineering ; but, when he had discussed its relations to the one, 
it would scarcely be necessary to touch upon the other. 

With respect to the supply of water, the Professor thought he could not 
do better than give them a short outline of what had been done lately with 
regard to the large and most important town of Liverpool, which had been 
noted, for some time, as a place which was badly supplied with water, and 
had been more remarkable than any other town in England, for the pre- 
valence of fevers, the more than average illness of its inhabitants, and the 
short duration of hfe in the major part of it. The members of the corpora, 
tion appeared very anxious to do all in their power to remedy that which 
was certainly one source of those evils — namely, the deficiency in the supply 
of water. Accordingly, they resolved to obtain an Act of Parliament, em- 
powering them to adopt some measure, which should give the town a larger 
quantity of that important element. The town was situated on the new 

5* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[JANUARY) 



Bandstone, and had hitherto been supplied from wells sunk into that stratum, 
which consisted of a red sand rock, sometimes very soft, sometimes rather 
hard, intersected with occasional hands of marl, very much faulted with large 
and continuous veins, often filled up with clay, and many of them completely 
impermeable. Tlie new red sandstone rested upon coal measures, and cer- 
tainly contained a great deal of water, which was absorbed from the imme- 
diate surface, or drained into it from the hills in pretty large quantities, of 
which the actual limits were ascertainable, since they knew how much fell 
from the clouds, and how much was e\aporated ; and they could calculate 
how much was lost by drainage into the rivers. The supply thus obtained 
was found to be very insufBcient for the necessities of the town, and it was 
supposed that the quantity could not be materially increased from this 
source. This point, however, bad to be decided upon by reference to the 
structure of the district, and by calculating whether they got all the available 
water of the district, or only a part, and it turned out that the latter was the 
fact. The mode in which this water was obtained was by wells, with hori- 
zontal galleries at their bottoms, to allow the admission of a large quantity 
of water, which was then pumped to the surface. The water obtained from 
the new red sandstone contained oxide of iron and some salts of lime and 
magnesia, which made it exceedingly hard, and ill adapted economically for 
many useful purposes connected witli tlie manufactures of that neighboui- 
hood, and in all operations in which soap was required. It was very good to 
drink, but unfit for other domestic purposes. The question was, whether a 
sufficient supply, even of this water, could be obtained from the district ? 
The proprietors of the wells attempted to show that an increased quantity 
could not be obtained. It was to their interest that that should be the case, 
and they very naturally believed that it was so — consequently, they opposed 
all measures, the object of which was to obtain water from any other source. 
The corporation gathered all the information that could be obtained locally, 
and then called upon several scientific men for their opinion ; and it is a fact 
of great interest, as illustrating the present practical position of geology, 
that it was thought necessary to have the opinion of persons, more noted 
for their geological knowledge than for simply a practical acquaintance with 
engineering. Professor Phillips was first invited to give his attention to the 
suliject, but was prevented from doing so by his engagements with the Go- 
vernment. He (Professor Ansted) was then applied to, and after close ex- 
amination and full consideration, he came to the conclusion that a sufficient 
supply could not be obtained from the new red sandstone formation, he 
being of opinion that, though a somewhat larger quantily might be had of 
the water which fell on the district, yet that would not be nearly enough for 
the requirements present and prospective of a town like Liverpool. What was 
next to he done.' Then came in that admixture of engineering with geolo- 
gical science, now necessary indeed to every engineer, who wished to do his 
work satisfactorily, and with the consciousness that, whatever the result, 
every means had been adopted which the circumstances of the case would 
allow. The engineers looked about the neighbourhood far and near, their 
object being to discover where the necessary supply was to be found. One 
scheme, which met with consideralile favour at first, was to take the water 
from the Bala Lake, in North Wales, and convey it to Liverpool, a distance 
of 60 miles, by closed canals. Great natural obstacles, however, intervened, 
and it was found that this plan involved an enormous expense, with the 
chance of incurring still greater outlay in overcoming several of those natural 
obstacles, which could not be well estimated until the work was attempted. 
This scheme, after exciting much discussion, was at length abandoned, and 
the engineers began to look nearer home. After again considering the supply 
from the wells, and again convincing themselves of its utter inetficiency, they 
found they must resort to other means, and thus originated the somewhat 
celebrated Kivington Pike scheme. The Rivington Pike distiict presented a 
hilly surface of 17 square miles, admirably adapted by nature for such a 
project. The plan pursued in this case was to take the district and measure 
its area of drainage, then to estimate tlie quantity of water that could be ob- 
tained from it, and, finally, to consider how the water might be best accumu- 
lated. This was a beautifully scientific problem, perfectly practical indeed ; 
but one which had rarely, if ever before, been tried to the extent now pro- 
posed. First of all, they had to see whether the quantity of water would be 
sufficient; anil this was efTected by accurately marking 'the water shed, ob- 
serving where all the rills and streams coukl be caught conveniently, and, 
when caught, considering whether they could be conducted into some' sound 
and sufiicient reservoir. The model on the table, which was an accurate re- 
presention of the district, would show that all those points were readily at- 
tainable. The drainage was regulated by the shape of the country, and it 
might be seen eitlier by the Ordnance Map, a contour map, or a model. In 
this case, he was able to exhibit a model, which was the best; but the 
Ordnance Map was the guide originally used. Having then found the area, 
the question whether it would yield .-i sulficient quantity of water to supply 
the town of Liverpool was next to he decided. This calculation involved a 
considerable amount of knowledge of geological structure. It was easy to 
tell bow many inches of rain descended from the sky on a certain space and 
in a given time ; and they had only to multiply that by the whole area in- 
tended to he drained, and they would have the exact quantity which fell 
upon the whole. That was simple enough ; but they had then to ascertain 
what was the nature of the surface on which the water alighted ; for if it 
were permeable, as sand, for instance, it was obvious that a large proportion 
would be absorbed and lost ; or, if there were many hollows, the water 
would lie in them and evaporate. These and other geological considerations 
had all to be well considered; but geological science showed that the dis' 



trict, being composed of the bed of hard sandstone, called millstone grit, 
partially covered over with shaley beds belonging to the coal measures, the 
whole of it might, for practical purposes, be regarded as impermeable. The 
sandstone rock, oftentimes very soft, was here very hard, a good deal faulted 
but not open — so that it would allow almost the whole of the water to run 
off the surface. The consequence was, that almost all the rain that fell ran 
into the streams, which a further examination showed might be readily col- 
lected into two principal reservoirs on the side of the district nearest to 
Liverpool, which would be 2-1 miles distant. The natural valleys, in which 
it was intended to place these reservoirs, had, no doubt, held water before, 
as the bottoms were covered with fresh water silt. There were also beds of 
alluvial clay — an additional indication that a considerable quantity of fresh 
water had at some period been there. By means of two or three embank- 
ments, these lower districts would thus accumulate that water, which the 
structure of the upper districts allowed to run off. The whole of the rain 
which falls upon an area of 4 7 square miles would thus be collected, produc- 
ing a supply of '20,000,000 gallons per day, sufficient for the town of Liver- 
pool were it twice the size, and also for the supply of a more useful and 
economical article to the mills, bleach-works, and other works in the neigh- 
bourhood. Here advantage was taken of the peculiar natural circumstances 
of the district, to make the ruhumujn quantity of surface produce the ina.vi' 
mum amount of water ; but which could never have been accomplished, but 
for a distinct geological knowledge of the structure of the district. Had it 
not been for a practical application of geological science, that on a certain 
description of stone tlie whole of the water would run off, the selection of 
the Kivington Pike district would never have been made, and the probability 
was, that Liverpool would have remained for a much longer period suffering 
from the want of a sufficiency of so vital a fluid. This was a remarkable in- 
stance, in which a knowledge of structure had been applied to superficial ob- 
jects of this kind. 

The Professor dismissed the subject of draining by explaining the nature 
of the operation of a newly-invented draining pipe (Watson's draining pipe), 
which was remarkably effective. It was cylindrical, with a great number of 
longitudinal slits, which were wider inside than outjide, and thus counter- 
acted any tendency to clog. These pipes were most useful to insert in beds 
of clay, and, even after a considerable length of dry weather, might he seen 
giving out water very plentifully. This efficient draining caused the beds to 
contract and crack, and, by thus making openings for the water, rendered 
the draining perfect. To the proper use of these pipes a knowledge of the 
dip of the beds was indispensable. 

The next subject was connected with ina^ej-iafe as required for various 
engineering operations, and ustd for a vast numtjer of economical purposes. 
These he would divide in the same manner as he had divided the various 
rocks, and he should commence with the clays. 

Ctag was either mixed with limestone or with sand, in various proportions, 
and was a very important material. All clays contained alumina, hut a con- 
siderable number of materials existed, some known by the name of clays, 
and others, though belonging to the class, not recognised by the general ap- 
pellation. Of clay, properly so called, there were several distinct kinds. 
One was the clay found in the shape of subsoil, chiefly used for agricultural 
purposes. In this case it consisted, nut only of silicate of alumina, the base 
of all clays, but of limestone, magnesia, potash, iron, &c., and was none the 
worse for a little pbospliorus ; while it contained also a quantity of carbon. 
This admixture was indispensable for vegetation ; hut for " materials" clays 
were better without these foreign substances. The most common clay con- 
sidered as a material was known by the name of irici clay ; it was a silicate 
of alumina, with a certain amount of free sand in very variable quantities, 
which might, however, be easily determined by washing. A good brick clay 
should consist solely of these materials, without lime or potash, and if the 
free sand was not in sufficient quantities, it must be mixed with it to make 
it work; and, generally speaking, the purest, in the common sense of the 
word, was the best for making bricks. The clay derived from the decom- 
position of some of the old rocks was particularly valuable, and that derived 
from the decomposition of slate was generally most pure, and was useful, in 
certain distiicts, in the manufacture oi fire-bricls. The best kinds were the 
purest, and contained neither alkaucs nor salts, either of which make it run, 
in the great heat to which it was sul'jected in the furnaces. The presence 
of such substances helped the action of the fire, and the surface of the brick 
would he turned to glass. Pure clay and sand was thus the best for fire- 
bricks, and it was obtained, as he had observed, from slate. The London 
clay, one of the tertiary series, was for the most part tolerably well ada|ited 
for bricks — indeed, all London was built of it; but it was not well suited for 
the making of fire-liricks, though it possessed many separate portions that 
were so. The mischievous ingredients miglit indeed be separated, hut gene- 
rally it was not worth the Iroulilc and expense, as there was no great diffi- 
culty in olitaining clay for fire bricks. 

Pipe-clay m palters' clay, another of this class, was used in the manufac- 
ture of the rougher kinds of earthenware. This was a most useful material, 
and dhl not require to be so carefully selected as that used for fine potteiy 
and porcelain. It contained a considerable quantity of water, and it was 
unetious and soapy to the feel. It was necessary for the (purposes of the 
potter that it should contain a considerable quantity of water, which usually 
amounted to 18 per cent. It did not contain sand; but it usually liad about 
1 per cent, of oxide of iron, and a small quantity of lime. The chemical 
composition of materials of this kind, however, was not very accurately as- 
certained, as they were for the most part accidental mixtures, and were apt 



1848] 



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29 



to vary in different localities. Pipe- clay was obtained from beds situated in 
the midst of other clays, and they appeared to form a band of finer material 
associated with the coarser clays. There was a great deal of this clay found 
at Paris, where it was called argile plastique. The lower beds of the London 
clay were also described as plastic clay ; but they consisted, for the most 
part, of gravel or pebble beds, for which that was not at all a proper name. 
Still, some of them contained this material. 

Fullers' earth was another and a finer kind of clay, used in the fulling of 
cloth, on account of its power of absorbing grease readily from woollens. It 
contained an unusually large quantity of silica, as compared with the ordinary 
pipe-clay, the proportion of the latter being 43 per cent, of silica, and 33 of 
alumina; while that of the former was — silica, 53 ; alumina, 10; the other 
parts being made up of iron (about 9f per cent.), magnesia (1 per cent.), 
and water (24 per cent.). Fullers' earth was derived from the Weald clay 
at Nutfield, in the neighbourhood of Reigate, and from the lower part of the 
oolite rocks in Wiltshire. In each case there was a considerable variation 
in the colour, occasioned by the condition cf the oxide of iron ; but the 
texture was the same, and the colour was a matter of very little conse- 
quence. 

Porcelain clay was another important material. This was derived from 
decomposed felspar, obtained generally from gneiss, or granite. It was the 
purest of all the clay rocks, being a pure silicate of alumina, consisting of 60 
per cent, of sihca, and 40 of alumina. A large quantity (8,000 tons annually) 
of the finer kinds was obtained in Cornwall by artificial washing. Besides 
this, upwards of 25,000 tons of the coarser kinds was obtained from beds 
formed by the natural washing of the rains. The decomposed felspar was 
mixed with water in the artificial process, and moved along at a certain velo- 
city, when the whole was gradually deposited in the shape of porcelain clay. 
The coarser parts were deposited first, when the mass moved most rapidly ; 
next, the finer parts, as the mass moved slower ; and, lastly, the finest of 
all. 

There were other clays worthy of notice, as, for instance, the ochres, red 
and yellow, the colour being decided by the condition of the oxide of iron, 
which was present in them in considerable quantities. These, however, 
were not important as materials. 

From some clays, the substance called alion was derived ; but that, like 
the ochres, was not an important material, geologically speaking, although 
Interesting from the chemical process by which it was obtained. The talented 
lecturer concluded by briefly describing this process. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

Nov. 29. — A. PoYNTER, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the Report of the Committee appointed to examine 
the design submitted by the Cavalier Nicolo Matas for the completion of 
the western front of the Cathedral at Florence. The report expressed in 
general terms an approval of the design ; and stated that the architect has 
shown judgment in adopting the style of the other parts of the exterior — 
thus seeking to complete the noble edifice in one congruous character, in 
harmony with the Campanile and the Baptistery. By this unity of senti- 
ment, the design for the western front appears a consistent and integral 
part of the structure. 

A paper was read by J. Gwilt, Esq., entitled, " Some discursive Remarks 
on Pointed Architecture, in relation to its Symmetry and Stabilitij,'* 

The essay was of considerable length, and traced in a general way the 
origin of Gothic architecture. Mr. Gwilt stated that of a great number of 
writers on that subject whom he had consulted, he found tliat twenty were 
of opinion that it originated in Germany, fourteen that it was of Eastern or 
Saracenic origin, six tliat it arose from the hint suggested by the intersec- 
tion of Norman arches, four that it was the invention of the Goths, and 
three that it arose in Italy. lUr. Gwilt was of opinion, with M. Michelet 
(" Histoire de France"), that when the power of the Church diminished 
about the year 1200 under Innocent 111. the arts, particularly architecture, 
fell into lay hands to a considerable extent ; that the impetus thus given 
changed its character ; and that in the hands of the lodges of Freemasons 
which then arose Gothic architecture and all its developments were origi- 
nated and taught. By the aid of diagrams and drawings the gradual 
growth of the fine forms of Gothic architecture were developed and its 
principles explained; the leading fact seeming to be that the number of 
sides in the polygonal apsides of the cathedrals was the governing number 
for all the parts of the plan and even the details of the architecture. 
Many curious instances of these analogies were given. Mr. Gwilt corn- 
batted the " Vesica Piscis" theory, as well as the vagaries, as he called 
them, of the symbolists. 

A communication was read from E. I'anson, relative to some mural paint- 
ings discovered by him in the church of Lingfield, in Surrey. These 
paintings, fac-similes of which were exhibited by him, represented draped 
figures, about three feet in height, on a diaper groundwork, and appeared to 
have been executed in distemper. They had at some period been covered 



over with whitewash ; on which the Commandments and scriptural texts 
had been inscribed. 

Dec. 13.— S.Angell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
A paper was read " On the Principles and Practice of Building Sewers." 
By E. I'anson, jun.. Fellow. 

The intention of the author was to show that sewers might be effectually 
constructed with a moderate fall ; that no one form of section is applicable 
under all circumstances, but that no form should materially depart from that 
of the semicircular invert ; that all main sewers should be of sufficient al- 
titude to allow a man to pass through ; that no impediment should be offered 
to the contmuous flow by cross streams or accumulating deposits; and that 
cleansing by "flushing" is an eflicient means of removing the silt and other 
matters in the sewers. Mr. I'anson particularly alluded to the necessitv of 
all sewers being of suflicient, but not of more than suflicient, sectional area 
to contain the greatest quantity of water that may at one time have to pass 
off— or that, as in the case of districts below the level of high water, they 
may have at one time to contain. In reference to the idea of constructing 
sewers of small size and removing the contents by continued pumping, Mr. 
I'anson remarked, that as the pumping power should be at all times equai 
not only to discharge the average quantity of water, but also that of the 
greatest quantity which may at any time be required to be passed off, it was 
obvious that there would be an enormous continued waste of power at a 
cost more than commensurate to the saving effected by constructing the 
sewers of smaller size. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, LONDON. 

Nov. 10. — Thomas Webster, Esq.,.F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The Secretary read an address on the opening of this the 94 th Session of 
the Society. 

Mr. J. CuNDAi.L read a paper " On Ornamental Art as applied to Ancient 
and Modern Bookbinding." 

The author commenced by stating that the earliest records of bookbinding 
prove that the art has been practised for nearly 2,000 years ; previous to 
which time, books were written on strolls of parchment. Some inventive 
genius, however, to whom tlie Athenians erected a statue, at length found 
out a means of binding books with glue : the rolls of vellum, &c., were cut 
into sheets of two and four leaves, and were then stitched somewhat as at 
the present day. Then came the necessity for a covering, The first book- 
covers appear to have been made of wood, probably merely plain oaken 
boards, which were afterwards succeeded by valuable carved oak bindings ; 
these were followed by boards covered with vellum or leather, and specimens 
of such of great antiquity still exist. The Romans carried the art of book- 
binding to considerable perfection, and some of their public oflicers had 
books called " Diptycks," in which their acts were written. An old writer 
says that about the Christian era, the books of the Romans were covered 
with red, yellow, green, and purple leather, and decorated with silver and 
gold. In the 13th century some of the gospels, missals, and other service 
books for the use of the Greek and Roman churches, were covered in gold 
and silver; some were also enamelled and enriched with precious stones and 
pearls of great value. In the 15th century, when art was universal, such 
men as Albert Durer, Raffaelle, and Guillo Romano, decorated books. The 
use of calf and morocco binding seems to have followed the introduction of 
printing, and there are many printed books bound in calf with oaken boards 
about the 15th and beginning of the sixteenth centuries ; these are mostly 
stamped with gold and bhud tools: the earliest of these tools generally re- 
present figures, such as Christ, St. Paul, coats of arms, &c., according to tlie 
contents of the book. In the reign of Henry VIII., about 1538, Grafttrn, 
the printer, undertook to print the Great Bible, for which purpose he went 
to Paris, there not being suflicient men or types in England; he had not, 
however, proceeded far when he was stopped in the progress of this " he- 
retical book," upon which he returned to England, bringing with him presses, 
type, printers, and bookbinders, and finished the work in 1539. Henry VIll. 
had many books bound in velvet, with gold bosses and ornaments ; and in 
his reign the stamping of tools in gold appears to have been introduced. In 
the reign of Elizabeth, some exquisite bindings were done by embroidery, 
the queen herself working the covers with gold and silver thread, spangles, 
&c. Count Grolier seems to have been a great patron of the art on the 
continent, and all his books were bound in smooth morocco or calf orna- 
mented with gold. The style of the books of Maioli was very similar to 
that of Grolier, or those of Diana of Poictiers, the specimens done for her 
being among the finest ever produced, and were no doubt designed by Petit 
Bernard. Rogar Paine was the first Englishman who produced a really good 
binding, and some of his best works, such as French romances, were pow- 
dered with the fleur-de-hs. His books on chivalry had suitable ornaments ; 
on poetical works he used a simple lyre, and carried the emblematical style 
of binding as far as emblems ought to be used. The following bill of his 
for binding a work is a curiosity, and shows how moderately he charged : — 
" Vaneria prodiura Rusticum, Parisiis, mdcclxxiv. 
" Bound in the very best manner in the finest green mo- 
rocco, the back lined with red morocco. Fine drawing- 
paper and very neat morocco joints inside. Their was a 
few leaves staind at the foredge, which is washed and 
cleaned .. .. .. .. ■• 006 



30 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AKCHITECT'S JOUUNAL. 



[Januavt, 



" The sutiject of the book being ' Rusticum,' I have ven- 
tured to putt the Viae Wreath on it, I hope I have not 
bound it in too rich a manner for the book. It takes up a 
great deal of time do these Vine wreaths ; I guess within 
time I am certain of measuring and working the different 
and various small tools required to fill up tlie Vine wreath, 
that it takes very near 3 days' work in finishing the two 
sides only of the book — but I wished to do my best for the 
work, and at the same time I cannot expect to charge a full 
and proper price for the work ; and hope that the price will 
not only be found reasonable but cheap . . . . 18 0" 

Of the binders of the present century, the following deserve to be men- 
tioned with respect — viz., Mr. Mackenzie, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Bedford, and Mr. 
Hayday ; the bindings by the latter consist almost invariably of adaptations 
and modifications of ancient examples. Among the many splendid speci- 
mens of his work exhibited, that of " the Sheriffs of Shropshire," in impe- 
rial folio, deserves special notice, as being enriched with the armorial bear- 
ings beautifully coloured. The binding is of blood-coloured morocco, e.x- 
tending an inch and a half all round the inside of the cover, on which is 
stamped a bold, open border, tooled iu gold. 

The author, after alluding to the numerous specimens of modern bindings 
which have of late been produced to the public, and regretting their want of 
originality, concluded by urging the necessity of attempting something ori- 
ginal and suitable to the advancing and improving taste of the time. Then 
we may hope that ere long ornamental art in bookbinding will be wedded to 
our present perfect execution, and that the 19th century will be able, like 
the 15th, to boast of a stvle of its own. 

Mr. H. Cole, assistant keeper of the Public Kecords, exhibited a number 
of very curious and beautiful specimens of bookbinding, among which was 
one containing the deeds relating to Henry the Seventh's Chapel at West- 
minster, in which the monks undertake to pray for the soul of its founder as 
long as the world is. 

Noo. 17.— W. H. Bodkin, Esq., V.P. in the Chair. 
The first communication read was by Mr. Briant, on his " Plan for over- 
coming the difficulties of a Break of Gauge, and of Uniting the Broad and 
Narrow Gauge Railways." 

Mr. Briant commenced his paper by pointing out the difficulties which 
had arisen from the adoption of the two gauges in this country, and the 
objections which have been urged against the various plans — viz., the tele- 
scopic axles for the wheels; the shifting of the carriages from one gauge on 
to that of another; laying down double lines of rails ; &c. He then pro- 
ceeded to describe his own plan, which is as follows : — At the point of junc- 
tion of the two gauges, a platform is to be fixed in the centre of the rails ; 
the carriages are then to be placed upon wheels, the two ends of the axles 
of which are to be made as male screws ; on the centre of the axle a pinion- 
wheel is to be fixed, and under it attached to the frame of the carriage a 
lever, upon the upper side of which is a rack, and at the lower end an anti- 
friction roller. The nave of the wheels is to extend under the carriage in 
the form of a female screw, to receive the axles. By this arrangement, 
while the train is travelling on the narrow gauge, the wheels would be 
screwed up to the required width, the racked lever hanging loosely under the 
pinion-wheel, and the axle would turn with the wheels ; but when the train 
reached the point of junction, the lever would be caught up by the platform 
(which is to be 40 yards long), and with it the rack. The axle would thus 
be prevented from turning by the pinion-wheel and rack, and the wheels, 
from the weight of carriage, passengers, luggage, &c. pressing upon them, 
would immediately begin to unwind the screws, which, by the time the car- 
riage has reached the other end of the platform, will have extended the 
axle to the required width — the lever would drop and free the pinion-wheel, 
and the axle would then turn with the wheels as before. The wheels are 
kept in their position when unwound by coupling-rods. In backing the 
train, the screw is prevented from acting by means of a stop fixed to the 
carriage and blocking the axle. A working model was exhibited. 

The second paper read was by D. J. Hoare, Esq., " On a Railway Tele- 
graph and Alarum, to be used as a means of Communicating between the 
Guard and Driver of Railway Carriages." 

The plan proposed is that a series of rods should be passed through the 
carriages of a train, and united at their extremities by a telescope-joint, so 
as to allow of extension and contraction : the rods being made with a uni- 
versal joint, admit of a rotary motion, — the only motion which a railway 
train has not. At the end of the rod on the guard's carriage is a crank, 
which, when the rod is turned, comes in contact with a hammer, and causes 
it to strike a bell. A signal is then to he raised, indicating the carriage from 
which the signal is made ; the guard will then immediately ascertain whether 
it is necessary that the train should be stojiped, and if so, by turning the 
rod in the reverse direction to what the person signalling had done, will 
ring another bell at the driver's end of the train, or sound the whistle of the 
engine. — Mr. Hoare stated that it is immaterial what the curve of the rail- 
way may be, as the universal joint admits of the rod varying from a right 
line. It would also act in case a carriage got off the line, or even on to the 
buffers of the carriage preceding it. 

Nov. 24.— T. WnnsTER, Esq., F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair, 
The first communication read was on Mr. Ddtton's " Railway Communi- 
cator." 
Mr. Button proposes that a small metal pipe should be fixed in some 



convenient part of each railway carriage, and connected at its extremities 
with the carriage preceding and following it by means of a short length of 
vulcanized india-rubber tubing and a kind of bayonet fastening ; at the end 
of the tube, near to the guard's seat, a whistle is to be fixed, which will be 
capable of being sounded by the passengers on their blowing into a small 
branch tube, to be fixed in each carriage in connection with the metal pipe. 
A model was exhibited. 

The second communication was by Mr. F. Brothers, " On his plan for 
forming a Communication between the Passengers, Guards, and Drivers of a 
Railway Train." 

Mr. Brothers proposes, by means of a fly-wheel, to be worked by the 
rapid current of air passing through it, to set in motion a multiplying power 
which shall work a small air-pump, and compress air into a chamber in con- 
nexion with which two wliistles shall be fixed; one of these the passengers 
are to be capable of sounding, by allowing the compressed air to escape. 
The second whistle is to be of a different size and sound, and entirely under 
the control of the guard, and only to be used when it is necessary to stop 
the train. 

The third paper was by Mr. E. E. Allen, on his means of effecting a simi- 
lar communication. 

Mr. Allen proposes to make use of electricity as a means of sound- 
ing the steam whistle. Galvanised wires are to be carried along each of the 
carriages of a train, and the electric circuit is to be completed by the use of 
galvanised coupling chains, which, so long as the circuit is complete, mag- 
netises a piece of soft iron and holds a detent attached to the steam-cock ; 
but whenever the circuit is broken, the iron is demagnetised, and the detent 
allowed to go free, upon which the steam escapes, and the whistle thereby 
sounded. 

The fourth paper read was by Messrs. Brett and Little, on their method 
of forming a similar communication. — In this plan, as in Mr. Allen's, it is 
proposed to use an electric current, the circuit of which is to be completed 
by means of wires and chains, but is to act only when the circuit is com- 
plete, when a bell is rung. 

Dec. 1.— W. Wyon, Esq., R.A., in the Chair. 

Five specimens of " Painting on Glass," by M. De Ron, of Munich, 
were exhibited. — The Secretary stated that the colours used by M. De Rou 
are peculiar, and the method of preparing them known only to himself, and 
which colours are glasses of different degrees of hardness, care being taken 
in using them never to put a harder upon a softer metal. He also uses both 
sides of the glass, which enables him to obtain clearness and decision of 
colour. 

Mr. Hall offered some remarks on the history of stained glass, and ex- 
hibited several specimens of modern manufacture. 

Mr. S. Moulton exhibited a model of an " Iron Truss Railway Bridge," 
the invention of Mr. Rider, of New York. — The pecuUarities of this bridge 
are its simplicity, lightness, and strength. The directors of the New York 
and Harlem railroad have erected a bridge on this principle, the span being 
70 feet, and having a double track or roadway upon it ; the entire weight of 
metal used in its construction was 13 tons, while its cost was under jEdOO. 

A paper was read by Mr. Archer, " on Engraving with reference to 
Monumental Brasses and Incised Stones." 

The author commenced by referring to the very early period at which the 
art of engraving appears to have been known and practised by the lapidary 
and goldsmith, and the probability that those to whom the art was knowa 
were subject to a precise code of laws and connected with the priestly office, 
these laws having the effect of regulating the productions according to a 
given standard set up by the heads of their order ; thus giving a singular 
uniformity to the numerous examples of antique art, whether in painting, 
sculpture, or engraving. After alluding to the Egyptian, Etruscan, Greek, 
and Roman specimens of engraving, and their similarity and common origin, 
he proceeded to point out the various purposes to which the art of engrav- 
ing on brass was employed, such as the representation of geographical dia- 
grams. In the time of Herodotus, edicts and public records were sometimes 
inscribed on brass tablets, a striking instance of which occurs in the preser- 
vation down to the present time of tlie will and acts of the emperor Augus- 
tus. Having touched upon some few instances of the ancient practice of 
the caleographic art, the author proceeded to detail some particulars of that 
process as it appeared at the general revival of art during the middle ages. 
In the 8th century, by a law of Kenneth, king of Scotland, it was enjoined 
that a cross should be put on every gravestone — i. e. coffin-lid ; and this 
appears to have been done in three ways :— 1st. By the use of incised lines 
drawn around tiie object. 2ndly. By producing the form in low relief. 
3rdly. By a wholly excised figure. — The use of sepulchral brasses appears to 
have originated with the general revival of art in the 13th century, one of 
the earliest specimens being that of Sir Roger de Trompington, who died in 
1289. The brasses of the 14th and loth centuries contain, besides the effi- 
gies of warriors, churchmen, ladies, and civilians, many examples of beau- 
tiful decoration, derived from the architectural practice of the time. Diffe- 
rent combinations of the letters I.H.S., composing the sacred monogram, 
appear in the brasses of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries. In 
the 16th century, at the time of the Reformation, these sacred monuments 
appear to have become obnoxious, and were accordingly swept out of the 
churches with an unsparing hand — few (comparatively) having escaped de- 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



31 



stiuction : of some of these, however, the author produced rubbings ; and, 
having traced the history down to the 19th century, and referred to the 
latest of that period (prior to those produced under his own direction), he 
proceeded to urge the desirableness of possessing as a nation a complete 
collection of the rubbings of the brasses of this country, as illustrative of 
the costume and history of bygone times, and the propriety of such a col- 
lection being deposited in the British Museum. The author then concluded 
his paper by calling attention to the cartoons of several monuments recently 
executed by himself, by a new processs of working on brass, and which he 
promised to communicate to the Society at an early period. 

Dec. 8. — T. HoBLYN, Esq., in the Chair. 
Mr. H. Cole made some remarks in reference to Mr. Archer's paper on 
sepulchral brasses and incised stones, read at the last meeting. He observed 
that about ten years since the study of brasses re-commenced in this coun- 
try. During that period, however, almost all that is known respecting the 
brasses has been exhausted, and several works have been written on the sub- 
ject; so that there is scarcely anything to find out, unless the brasses happen 
to lay under pews or in parts of the churches which at present are concealed. 
The most remarkable have been published by the Cambridge Camden So- 
ciety, and on the walls are exhibited engravings from a book of great excel- 
lence by Waller ; others have also paid attention to the subject. The ordi- 
nary process of obtaining rubbings is as follows : — A sheet of paper is laid 
upon the brass, and kept in its position by weights ; it is then rubbed over 
with a composition known as heel-ball. By this means, the whole of the 
paper where the brass under it is not cut away becomes blackened, while the 
incised lines remain the colour of the paper. In some cases, a kind of 
bronze composition is used upon a black paper, and by this means as nearly 
as possible a facsimile of the brass is obtained. The most important brasses 
to be found in London are in Westminster Abbey, St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 
AUballows, and St. Andrew's Undershaft. Passing out of London, the 
nearest churches where any remarkable brasses are to be found are, Willes- 
den, Harrow, South Minns, St. Alban's, Broxbourne, Cheshunt, Roystead, 
Chigwell, Windsor, Stoke-Pogis, Taplow, Westerkam, Penshurst, and Cob- 
ham. 

Mr. Hall made some remarks relative to the history of copper-plate en. 
graving, and the probability that it grew out of the art of engraving monu- 
mental brasses. 

Mr. Slocum exhibited two ploughs, a scythe and cradle for reaping corn, 
a grass scythe, three spring tempered manure and hay forks , a cast-steel hand 
hoe, and an American axe. He stated the peculiarity of these implements 
to consist in their lightness, cheapness, and durability, thus enabling the 
agricultural labourer to accomplish a larger amount of daily work at a less 
cost. The implements he exhibited were such as are commonly used in the 
United States. — A letter was read from Mr. Love, of Manor House, Naseby, 
in which he states that the ploughs were tried on a clay soil, in rather a dry 
state, against Adams's Northampton plough, and one of Howard's Champion 
ploughs. Howard's, when working five inches deep by eleven inches wide, 
had a draught of 31 stone ; and Adams's plough, at the same width and 
depth, a draught of 30 stone; while the American plough, at five inches 
deep and fourteen wide, drew only 26 stone. " In justice to the American 
ploughs, 1 must say," observes Mr. Love, " that they cut up and cleaned 
their furrow quite as well as the other ploughs, and also turned the earth, 
completely breaking it, and putting the soil in capital position for drilling 
or dibbling ; they are the most simple, strong, light, and effective ploughs it 
is possible to conceive : other experiments were also made, and the draught 
tested by the dynamometer." — The cost of the ploughs Mr. Slocum stated 
to be £2 each. 

A communication was read from Mr. W. Taylor, F.L.S., &c., "on the 
Cultivation of the Polygonum Tinctorium, or Dyer's Tinctoria." 

" This plant," observes Mr. Taylor, " is a native of China, and was intro- 
duced into this country in 1776, by John Blake. It is used in China and 
Japan for the purpose of dying a blue similar to that of the finest indigo. 
The colour is obtained from the leaves of the plant, which are dried, pounded, 
and made into cakes. ' With these cakes,' Hunberger says, ' they dye 
linen, silk, and cotton.' When the cakes are boiled, they add ashes ; and 
the stronger the decoction is made, the darker is the colour. The plant 
grows best in this country on soils of a medium texture, which must also be 
well manured before the seed is sown, which is best sown in rows about the 
middle of April. Two pounds of seed to the acre is sufficient, but the plants 
may be planted out in rows from the hot bed, at the rate of about 16,000 to 
the acre ; and unless they are brought forward and planted out, they will 
not produce seed in England. The plant can be prepared for the market in 
three ways, viz. — 1st, it may be cut in a green state and sold to the dyer, in 
which case an acre would produce five tons of leaves and stalks, worth about 
f 30. — 2nd, if cut and placed in vats, so as to precipitate the fecula, or in- 
digo, the acre would produce 3 cwt. of colour, which, at Is. per lb., would 
be worth ^16 16s. — 3rd, the plants may be cut up, dried, and packed in 
bundles : the acre would then yield three tons of dyeing matter, and be 
worth about £21. The colouring matter may be extracted either by fer- 
mentation or scalding." Specimens of the plant and colour were exhibited. 
The last communication read was by Mr. W. Bennett, " o« some samples 
of Flax grown in Ireland in 1847." 

Specimens of the flax were exhibited, and Mr. Bennetf stated they were 
produced under every disadvantage possible, and in one of the most remote 



and destitute corners of the whole island, viz., the barony of Boris, county 
of Mayo, on the western coast, and under the superintendence of Mr. G. S. 
Bourns, the peasantry being wholly unacquainted with its mode of culture 
and preparation. The flax is of good quality, and worth from 6s. to 8s. per 
stone. The introduction of its culture has also afforded employment to a 
large number of poor women in spinning. The peasantry are also being 
employed to manufacture linen from looms erected in the stables of a clergy- 
man, in another most distressed locality, specimens of which were exhibited. 



ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

Nov. 8, 1847.— David Maclagan, M.D., F.R.S.E. President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were made : — 

1. On the first principles of Symmetrical Beauty, as developed in the Geo- 
metric Harmony of the Human Head and Countenance. By D. R. Hay, 
Esq. 

Mr. Hay commenced his paper with a quotation from Dr. Reid's " Intel- 
lectual Powers of Man," showing that it was the opinion of Ihat great philo- 
sopher, that, as taste might be true or false according as it was founded on 
true or false judgment, it must have first principles. He then observed, 
that by truth being properly investigated in the natural sciences, natural 
philosophy had arrived at its present advanced state, and its application in 
the useful arts had consequently produced the happiest results. But that in 
our search after truth in the science of aesthetics, a very different course 
had been followed, and that our ideas of beauty were clothed in mystery, and 
our attempts to produce the former in the various branches of art, depend 
in a great measure upon chance. This he attributed to the practice of ser- 
vile copying in our schools of art, instead of studying the first principles or 
teachable laws of beauty ; in short, that we study and imitate results without 
investigating causes. He asserted that there exist precise mathematical 
principles of a practical nature, by which the external form of the human 
head and countenance may be delineated, and by which the proportions and 
relative positions of the features may be arranged upon the facial surface so 
as to produce a primary species of symmetrical beauty ; and that these prin- 
ciples were identical with those which produce beauty in architecture and 
ornamental design. This he demonstrated by combining in a diagram the 
Platonic triangles and the curvilineal figures that belong to them, showing, 
at the same time, that those triangles were the root of all symmetrical 
beauty and harmony in geometry. He showed that this diagram corresponded 
in all its parts to the anatomy of the human head, and that the countenance 
thereby produced possessed the beau ideal beauty of the finest Grecian sculp- 
tures. Mr. Hay stated that he believed the principles he explained were 
known to the ancient Greeks, and were introduced by Pythagoras, and taught 
by Plato in connection with mathematics, and by Pamphilus as connected 
with art. The drawings by which Mr. Hay exemplified his principle were 
larger than life, and very numerous, and we understand it is his intention to 
publish them on a small scale. 

2. The Report of the Prize Committee, awarding the Prizes for Session 
1846-7, was read. 

Nov. 22. — G. Buchanan, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were made : — 

1. Suggestions for preventing Accidents on Railways. By J. Stewart 
Hepburn, Esq., of Colquhalzie. These suggestions have reference to the 
injudicious practice of mixing light with heavy carriages in different parts of 
thetrain,and to the injudicious applications of the break, and the order in which 
it is applied ; and propose the classification of the light and heavy carriages, 
and the working of the break from the rear to the front of the train. They 
have also reference to the permanent works of most railways as originally 
constructed, being too light and insufficient for the heavier loads and high 
Telocities which are now used ; and propose to give increased stability to the 
rail by a well laid pavement of heavy blocks of stone, along the outside of 
each rail. They have also reference to what is called "jumping," which is 
often the cause of carriages running off the line — to unequal subsidence of 
the roadway, and proposes Telford's plan for forming the embankments in 
concave layers, or thai; the earthworks should be allowed ample time to sub- 
side of themselves before the rail is used. Mr. Hepburn also proposes longi- 
tudinal supports under the joinings of the rails, which he considers their 
weakest part. The suggestions have also reference to the entanglernent of 
the buffers, and " riding" on each other ; and propose to enlarge vertically 
the surface of the buffer, by having in its place three elliptic springs on the 
lower frame of the carriage, and two on the upper part, each set connected 
with a horizontal bar of wood, and the whole covered with boarding. Mr. 
H. holds that this arrangement would prevent the carriage from turning up 
and rolling over each other when a collision takes place. 

2. Description of a Model of a Malleable Iron Railway Chair. By Mr. 
RoBB, Haddington. The advantages are stated to be greater strength, and 
thus giving additional security in passing sharp curves : the rails would fit 
much better from the chairs being all cut true to the pattern, thus securing 
a uniform bearing to the head of the rails : the superior manner in which 
the wooden keys will fit, and with less rigidity. Mr. Robb thinks they could 
be made cheaper than cast-iron chairs, and tliat they would be stronger, al- 
though one-half lighter, whereby a saving in cost of carriage would be 
effected to an extent of 50 per cent. 



32 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[JA^afARV, 



3. Description of a proposed Improrcmenf in Railway Switches. By Mr. 
NicoLL, Arbroath. These snitches are placed on iron chairs so constructed 
as to move along with the switch, whereby the motion of the switch is not 
prevented by its getting jammed with dust or rubbish ; and the chairs, from 
their peculiar form, push aside the dust and clear a way for the switch. Mr. 
NicoU also gives a description of the apparatus for opening and closing the 
switch, so as to prevent accidents by the motion of them by unauthorised 
persons. 

4. A Railway Alarum Communicator. By Mr. Moffat. The object is 
accomplished by a tube sunk in the roof of each carriage, and to connect 
these are tubes of India rubber with screws. Inside the tube is a wire, and 
attached to it inside of each compartment of the carriage are bell-pulls or 
knobs. At each guard's seat are bells and knockers, and the same at the 
driver's, fixed near the engine. A passenger wishing to give a signal, pulls 
the knob, by which means the whole bells are rung. The tube can also act 
as a speaking-trumpet, mouth-pieces being inserted in each compartment, 
and the same to the guards and drivers — so that a passenger having rung 
the bell, communicates to the guard and driver, &c., his reason for so doing. 

5. Description and Drawiny of an Alarum Rein for Railway Trains. By 
Mr. M'CoLL. The rein is attached to a whistle valve on the engine, and ex- 
tends along the whole train on the locked side ; so that any person, by 
pulling the rein, opens the whistle, and informs the driver that something is 
■wrong. 

Dec. 13.— G. Buchanan, Esq., F.R.S.E., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were made : — 

1. Description of the Overarch Suspension Bridge. By Mr. Milne. 
This bridge is so constructed that the roadway runs under the arch, and is 
connected to it by suspending rods, which are so disposed that a large por- 
tion of the arch sustains a small portion of the roadway, thus enabling the 
bridge to bear a concentration of weight at any point. The main rods of 
the arch lean against each other at the centre (where the key-stone of a 
stone bridge is situated), giving mutual support, which is continued towards 
each end of the arch by circular extenders, enlarging as they approach the 
piers. The pressure of the main rods against each other is tlius turned to 
the utmost advantage, and gives the greatest stability possible ; and from 
this construction the lee-side will resist a gale of wind with the full power 
of the arch. The model is twenty inches in length, on the scale of ten feet 
to an inch. The entire weight of iron is six ounces, and it safely bears a 
load of 561b. — nearly 150 times its own weight. 

2. Supplementary Explanations of an improved Railway Break. By J. 
Stewart Hepburx, Esq. This is an improvement of break submitted by 
the inventor to the Society last session. It consisted of a rubber block of 
wood attached to railway carriages by a moveable fiame-work ; and applied, 
not to the wheel, like the common break, but to the rail, by a gradual pres- 
sure capable of being increased to such a degree, on an emergency of danger, 
as to raise the hiud wheels from the rail. 

3. Improvements in Railways. By Mr. John Crane. The first improve- 
ment is for locomotive engines to ascend or descend steep inclines. It con- 
sists in laying along the incline a toothed rail, outside of the common rail, 
and keying on additional wheels with teeth on the shaft of the driving 
wheels of the engine, outside of the bearing vilieels, and working in the 
toothed rails, and the teeth of which are to work in the teeth of the rail; 
thus pulling on the train. — The second improveuKnt consists in making the 
wheels with double flanges, one on the outside of the rails, as well as the 
tisual one within them. Thus the wheels would be less liable to go off the 
rails. — The third improvement consists in laying the rails on longitudinal 
sleepers, connected together by cross sleepers, and forming a series of strong 
square frames. — The fourth improvement is for a break. Instead of pres- 
sing against the wheels, and thereby retarding them by friction, and eventu- 
ally locking them, the break falls down at once between the wheel and the 
rail, inserting itself between them like a wedge, and thereby locks the 
wheels, and, at the same time, ruhs upon the rail. Four weiigcs are required 
for ordinary carriages, one pair at each end ; each pair of wedges is con- 
nected by a bar of wrought-iron, in the centre of which a chain is fastened, 
which can be raised by the guard, and fastened by passing one of the links 
over a hook. When the chain is detached from the hook or button,. the 
break, by its own weight, and guided by a rod attachad to the carriage, falls 
under the wheels and prevents them revolving. The guiding rod to have its 
centre of motion eccentric to that of the wheel, and that centre to be a pin 
fixed on the axle frame of the carriage, a little above it, so that the wedges 
when raised may be clear of the wheels. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

Rmlwuy Precautions.— 'Mr. AFyndham Harding, in a letter to the In- 
stitution of Mechanical Engineers, recommends, as the most simple and 
best method of forming a communication between the guards and engine- 
drivers, " That the guards should have the means of readily getting along 
every train, whether a passenger or a goods train, to the enginemao. 
This (he observes) was the original idea in narrow-gauge trains, for the 
means are afforded of getting from one carriage to another, but the idea 
has been imperfectly carried out, inasmuch as a horse-box or a luggage 
van afford no facilities for getting past Ibera. Nothing is easier than to 



remedy this by holdfasts and a narrow foothold. In the case of flat trucks 
loaded with such goods as cotton, uprights at the four corners, and a rope 
from one upright to the other, would afford a hold for the guard, and 
would also, at the same time, tend to steady the load. In the vehicles 
which travel in passenger trains even such an addition as this would not 
be necessary. On the broad-gauge lines connected with the Great 
Western Railway, there is generally no facility afforded for getting along 
the train, but such facilities can with equal ease be afforded in broad- 
gauge trains as on narrow by trifling additions to the vehicles." Mr. 
Harding caused additions with this object to be made to the broad-gauge 
carriages ou the Bristol and Gloucester Railway when he had the control 
of that line. 

Commissions of Sewers. — The old commissions for Westminster, Hol- 
born and Finsbury, Tower Hamlets, and for the Kent and Surrey dis- 
tricts, were all in one week superseded, and a new commission, consisting 
of the following, were nominated for nil the districts, on the 6th ult. : — 
Lord Ebrington, Lord Ashley, Ur. Buckland, Mr. Hume, M.P., Hon. F. 
Byng, Dr. Arnott, Dr. S. Smith, Mr. R. A. Slaney, M.P., Sir J. Clark, 
Rev. \V. Stone, Professor Owen, Sir H. De La Beche, Mr. J. Bidnell, 
Mr. J. Bullar, Mr. W. J. Broderip, Mr. K. L. Jones, Mr. J. Leslie, and 
Mr. E. Chadwick. — Mr. L. C. Hertslet, Clerk of the Westminster divi- 
sion, and Mr. Staples, Clerk of the Holborn and Finsbury division, were 
appointed clerks of those districts provisionally ; and Messrs. Phillips and 
Roe were appointed surveyors provisionally, and Mr. Austin consulting- 
surveyor. 

Brussels Lace. — M. Blanchet gave an account of the serious conse- 
quences resulting from the process of whiteniug Brussels lace to the 
persons employed in it. In this process the carbonate of lead is used ; 
and a large jrortion of it is carried into the atmosphere, where it is in- 
haled, and thus produces a serious affection of the intestines. It is also 
very injurious to the sight and to the hearing. 



LIST OF NEAV PATENTS. 

GRANTED IN ENGLAND FROM NOVEMBER 30, TO DECEMBER 22, 1847. 

Six Months allowed for Enrolment, unless otherwise expressed. 



William Betts and George William Jacob, of Wflarf-road, City-road, for "Improvements 
in the manulacture of capsules, and in the appliealron of certain descriptions of surfaces." 
—Sealed Nov. .10. 

William Eaton, of Camberwell, engineer, for " Improvements in machinery for twisting^ 
cotton or other tibrous substances." — Dec. I. 

Gustavus Bloenck, ot Wellington-street, Strand, D.LL., for** certain Improvements in 
clocks and time-keepers." — Dec. 1. 

Thomas Chandler, of Stockton, Wiltshire, for " Improvements in machinery for apply- 
ing liquid manui-e." — Dec. 1. 

Frederick William Mowbray, of Leicester, paper dealer, for " Improvements in ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of looped fabrics." — Dec. 1. 

Samuel Neuington, of Frant, Sussex, M.D., for " Improvements in dibbling or solving 
seeds." — Sealed Dec. 7. 

John Scoffern, of Upper Holloway, M.B., for ** Improvements in the manufacture and 
refining of sugar." — Dec. 7. 

John Britten, of Birmingham, m.^chinist, for " certain Improvements in apparatus for 
cooking, preparing, and containing human food and drinks, and in opening and closing 
oven doors, parts of which improvements are applicable to other similar purposes." — 
Dec. 7. 

James Smith Torrop, of Edinburgh, newspaper proprietor, for *' Improved machinery 
for time signals." — Dec. 7. 

William Dakin, of 1, St. Paul's Church-yard, for *' Improvements in cleaning and 
washing colfee, in the apparatus and machinery to be used therein, and also in the appa- 
ratus for making infusions and decoctions of cotTee." (Communication.) — Dec. 7. 

James Sweetinan Eitfe, Esq., of 4'->, Lombard. street. City, for " Improvements in the 
manufacture of astronomical and other clocks, chronometers, and watches." — Dec. 7. 

John Hackett, of Leicester, for ** Improvements in the manufacture of pill-boxes." — 
Dec. 7. 

David William Wire, of 11, St. Swithin's-lane, London, gentleman, for " an Improved 
manufacture of candles and other like articles used for affording lights." (A communica- 
tion.) — Dec. lo. 

Henry Winter, of Webridge-gardens, Bark. place, Bayswater, Middlesex, for " Im- 
provements in the manufacture of rope, cord, line, aud twine." (A communication.) — 
Dec. 15. 

George Ambroise Michant, of Epieds, France, but now of New Bond-street, Middksax, 
gentleman, for " Improvements in the production aud application of heat, and in the 
maimfacture of coke." — Dec. 15. 

AVilliam Rlallbv, of Tredegar-square, lilile-end, gentleman, and Thomas Webb, of 
Mare-street, Hackney, gentleman, for '* certain Improvements in the manufacture of 
spirits from grain or other saccharine matters, and in the apparatus to be used tlierein." 
—Dec. l.'i. 

William Westbrooke Squires, of 3, Rue Chaveau la Garde, Paris, RI.D., for a mode or 
modes of producing a vacuum, which mode or modes may be applied to pneumatic, hyd- 
raulic, and hydrostatic apparatus, and to machinery for obtaining motive power." — 
Dec. 18. 

Richard Wrighton, of Lower Brook-street, Grosvenor.square, Rliddlesex, for "Im- 
provements in apparatus to be applied to railway carriages and engines." — Dec. 22. 

Charles Andre Felix Rochaz, of Paris, for " certain Improvements in treating zinc ores, 
and in manufacturing oxide of zinc." — Dec. 22. 

Pierie Augustus Puis, gentleman, of Paris, for ' Improvements in apparatus for raising 
and lowering heavy bodies in mines." (Communication.) — Dec. 22. 

Henry F. Baker, of Boston, Uniteil States of America, for " a certain new and usefu 
inil)rovement iu steam-boiler furnaces." — Dec. 22. 

Richard Baird, of Dundee, Scotland, for *' A new or improved method of communica- 
tion between the guards, engine-diivers, and other servants in charge of trains of car- 
riages aud waggons on railways, and also between the passengers and engine-drivers, and 
other servants in charge of such trains." — Dec. 22. 

Robert Stamp, of Chelsea, Middlesex, hatter, for " Improvements in the manufacture 
of fabrics to be used for covering hats, caps, aud bonnets, which fabrics may be used for 
other articles of wearing apparel." — Dec. 22. 

Charles William Siemens, of Manchester, engineer, for " Improvements in engines to 
be worked by steam and other fluids." — Dec. 22. 



AjRCUffiE* TIMBJBK, ^lAIDirCTS 



WILLINOTON t OUSE BURN VIADUCTS NEWCASTLE &. N" SHIELDS RAILWAY. 




CB 



1948.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



33 



ARCHED TIMBER VIADUCTS. 

fWith Engravings, Plates III. and IV. J 
(From papers read at the Institution of Civil Engineers.) 

The Arched Timber Viaducts on the Newcastle and North Shields 
Railway, erected by Messrs. John and Benjamin Green, of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. 

In the formation of the numerous railways which have been com- 
pleted within the last few years, perhaps that which has demanded 
the greatest exertion of skill, judgment, and varied ingenuity, is 
the construction of the bridges and viaducts, whether of stone, 
brick, iron, or timber. The excavation of a quantity of earth, or 
cutting through a hill to fill up an adjacent hollow to the required 
level, IS in most cases a work of little more than manual labour, 
unless some unforeseen extraordinary difficulties occur in the strata, 
which may require energy and promptitude in adopting such mea- 
sures> as will overcome them in the most eifectual and least expen- 
sive manner. But when rivers are to be spanned and ravines to be 
crossed, where there exist uncertain and variable beds, and, in 
many instances, in the vicinity of towns and populous districts, 
where houses, manufactories, and other buildings are on the imme- 
diate spot, the space required for filling up such ravines with a 
mound, (the base extending far on each side, beyond what is re- 
quired for the width of the railway) would, by the consequent de- 
struction of property, often involve such ruinous expenses, as to 
render the adoption of that method impracticable. Recourse must 
then be had to other and more scientific means, in the erection of 
bridges or viaducts, with piers occupying a small superficial area, 
built up to carry the necessary superstructure, and adapted to the 
locality in which they are placed. Various considerations are in- 
volved in fixing on a certain plan : yet the cost is that of the utmost 
importance, and invariably presents itself first in all great works of 
the kind. It will not be denied, therefore, that the great desidera- 
tum for the engineer, is the adoption of such means as will fully 
answer the purposes and the ends at which he aims, and to effect 
this without a waste of any kind of material; for every thing that 
is not fairly and usefully employed in adding to the staliility and 
strength of an erection, can only be considered as superfluous and 
injurious matter; and fitness and a skilful disposition of parts, com- 
bined with correctness of design, may be said to form the great 
merit of all structures. 

The cost of the construction of viaducts and bridges for railways 
generally forms so important an item in the gross amount of the 
cost of a railway, that the engineer is led to devise new means of 
completing his works in such a manner, as to possess stability and 
durability, without plunging his employers into unnecessary ex- 
penses. 

Stone has been generally applied as the best material for bridges ; 
in many cases, however, it cannot be used throughout, and in large 
arches, where the heights are too low for the spans, cast-iron is 
frequently adopted, and more particularly in forming trusses of 
various kinds, when the under side as well as the upper side of the 
platform is required to be horizontal, or nearly so, as in the case of 
a railway and turn])ike-road crossing each other, and only leaving 
space enough between the surface of each to allow of the free pas- 
sage of carriages ; but the cost and weight of these bridges is gene- 
rally equal to that of stone. A wood superstructure, however, 
effects much in this respect; provided a durable mode of construc- 
tion is adopted ; for the cheapness and strength of the material 
itself being so great, in proportion to its bulk and weight, the piers 
of a bridge or viaduct can be considerably lightened, and much less 
material be used in their formation than when the superstructure 
is to be of stone or iron. 

Almost all the wooden bridges that have heretofore been exe- 
cuted in this country are constructed with straight timbers, trussed 
and framed like the ordinary forms of roofing. On account of the 
shrinking, from tlie number of joggles, and the weight of the work 
itself, the roadway sinks, and the framing generally becomes bent 
or crippled, often to an alarming extent ; besides, such a system 
could never be carried beyond a certain extent, as the spans of such 
framing must be limited to what is usually practised in roofing. 

A new s)'stem of building timber bridges, composed of layers of 
deals 3 inches in thickness, turned over a centre, into the form of 
arched ribs, has been introduced and applied extensively, in North- 
umtierlaud and Durham, and in Scotland, by Messrs. John and 
Benjamin Green, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

This mode of constructing the laminated deal arch suggested 

No. 125— Vol. XI.— February, 1S48. 



itself to Mr. Green in 1827-8, when he was engaged in designing the 
bridge for crossing the river Tyne, at Scotswood : ivliere the depth 
of water, its rapidity during floods, and the uncertainty of th« 
foundations, would have rendered the construction of a number of 
piers, in the current, a very expensive operation, and Mr. Green 
was therefore induced to recommend to the company the chain 
bridge which is now tlirown across the Tyne at that place, as being 
the cheapest durisble structure, and possessing advantages over 
every otlier kind in such a situation. 

The subject of wooden arches continued to engage Jlr. Green's 
attention, and for his own satisfaction, he bad a model made of an 
arch 120 feet span, at a scale of one-twelfth of tlie real size, which 
so satisfied him as to the advantages and safety of that mode of 
construction, that in 1834, when the Newcastle and Carlisle Rail- 
way Company oft'ered a premium for the best plan of a railway 
bridge, for crossing the ri\er Tyne, above Scotswood, Mr. Gre«n 
submitted his model and design in competition, when they were 
approved of and selected by the directors, and obtained tlie pre- 
mium. 

This bridge was to consist of five segmental wood arches, each 
having two ribs of 120 feet span, which were to be erected upon 
timber piers of piles and framings, with stone abutments. Tlie line 
of railway could not allow a greater elevation tlian 21 feet above 
high-water level, and the platform was in consequence suspended 
with iron rods between the springing of the wood arch and the 
crown; tlie roadway was therefore partly suspended from and partly 
supported by the ribs. 

In 1833 Messrs. Green were concerned in projecting a railway 
from Newcastle to North Shields ; and afterwards being employed 
by the Comjiany for the bridges on that line, where, from the mag- 
nitude of two of them and the number that occur, the cost was a 
very important consideration, they were induced to recommend 
this plan of the laminated timber arch. Having made designs and 
carefully studied the details, these bridges were commenced in 
1837 ; one at the Ouse Burn in the eastern suburb of Newcastle, 
and the other at 'Willington, about four miles further on the rail- 
way. 

The OusE BrRN Viadvct is 918 feet in length, and 108 feet in 
height from the bed of the burn ; it has five timber arches of tlire« 
ribs each; three of the arches are 116 feet span, and two IH feet 
span ; there are two stone arches of -10 feet span at botli ends of 
the bridge, which were introduced to give length to the abutments, 
so as to prevent the mounds endangering them, by coming too close 
upon the steep banks of the ravine. There are five piers built of 
drafted and broached ashlar masonry, from the foundations to the 
full height, with spaces in the middle, leaving an average thickness 
of 5 feet of ashlar work ; all the spaces are filled in with rubble 
masonry, made solid by grouting. On the sides of each pier are 
buttresses projecting 2 teet 11 inches, and diminishing with oft'-sets 
up to the roadway. 

The greatest thickness of the piers at the springing is 15 feet ; 
that of the highest pier at the foundation is 20 feet 3 inches, and 
at the top, immediately underneath the platfoim, it is 6 feet 6 inches 
thick; its width, including the buttresses, is 33 feet 10 inches 
above the footings, and 20 feet across the last or highest ofl^-set 
underneath the roadway. 

The springing for the arched ribs is 40 feet down the piers, 
where large off-sets are formed with the inner splays or slopes, 
radiating from the centre. t)n these springing stones, cast-iron 
flanged plates or sockets, each weighing 15 cwt. for each rib, are 
bedded with oakum, into spaces which are cut 2 inches deep in the 
masonry, and secured w itli wrought-iron bolts run with lead, fas- 
tened down with nuts and screws on the outer surface ; the bolts 
are U inch diameter, and 1 foot 9 inches long. The ends of the 
rilis are inserted into these iron sockets as a springing and are well 
caulked. 

The two middle piers are built upon piles driven into the clay, 
to an average depth of 35 feet below the surface, and the founda- 
tions generally required great attention, for it was found that 
considerable excavations of old pit workings had been made around 
and immediately under the line of the bridge. From the extreme 
eastern pier, a coal seam had been worked out, extending beyond 
the east abutment; and in digging for the west pier, a pit shaft was 
discovered in the centre of the area of the foundation. It was 
fortunate that it was not so near as to endanger the stability ot the 
pier, and that the construction had not proceeded without its being 
observed. This shaft had been worked to a depth of 70 feet, and 
in order to render the structure secure, both it and the seam on 
the other side of the ravine were built up with weU grouted rubble 
masonry. All the timber used in the carpentry was of the best 

6 



34 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Febuvabt, 



(luality from the Baltic, and the whole of it was subjected to the 
process of Kyaii's patent. 

The arched ribs are shown in Plate III., figs. 1 and 2; and in 
detail, figs. 3 to 12. The spans of 116 feet, have a versed sine of 
33 feet, the radius being 68 feet. The ribs are constructed of 
Dantzic deck deals, 11 inches wide by 3 inches thick, dressed and 
cut to lengths of from 20 feet to 16 feet. The first course of the 
rib is two deals in width, bent over the centre, and tlie next is one 
whole and two half deals, and so on alternately until the whole rib 
is formed ; each rib consists of fourteen deals in thickness, exclu- 
sive of tlie weathering or capping on the top ; tlie ends of the deals 
throughout are butted against each other, and arranged so that no 
two of the radiating joints may come together. A layer of strong 
brown paper dipped in boiling tar, is put between all the joints to 
bed them and to exclude the wet. The whole of the deals are well 
fixed together with the best U inch oak trenails placed »• feet 
apart, and each treiuiil is of a suificient length to go through three 
thicknesses or the deals. The ends of the deals are all inserted 
into the cast-iron plates already described, bedded in patent felt 
and tar, and well caulked. 

Diagonal side braces 6i inches by 6,1 inches, (shown in fig. 2, 
Plate III.), are fixed between the ribs \vith wrought-iron bars l^ 
inch diameter, at intervals of aliout 29 feet apart, to bind and con- 
nect the whole together. From the ribs, a series of radiating and 
horizontal struts, are carried up in the manner shown in the en- 
gravings ; the ends of all the struts are doulile tenoned into proper 
mortices cut to receive them, in the timbers and ribs. A spandril 
beam 13,1 inches square, (figs. 3, 4, 8, and 9, Plate III.,) is placed 
about the middle of the spandril, inclining upwards to the crown 
of the arch, and butting against a horizontal piece of the same 
dimensions at the top. The struts below this beam radiate to the 
centre, and those above are perpendicular to the roadway. One of 
the radiating struts in each spandril, called in the drawings the 
spandril strut, (figs. 5 and 6, Plate III.,) is continued on from the 
rib up to the longitudinal beams, and is firmly connected by iron 
straps and bolts to them and the spandril beams, and the former 
are then secured down to the masonry with iron bolts, which run 8 
feet into the ashlar work. In considering this geometrical arrange- 
ment of strutting in the spandrils, it will be evident how much 
rigidity is produced : a weight coming upon one haunch of the arch 
is resisted on the opposite haunch, by the spandril strutting, and 
especially by the main strut, ccmnected as it is with the weight of 
masonry laid hold of by the bolts, from the main longitudinal 
beam. 

The longitudinal beams, 13^ inches square, are fixed and laid the 
full length of the structure, to the gradient of the railway, above 
which the joists, 13i inches by 6f inches, are laid 4. feet apart from 
centre to centre, and spiked down upon them. The ends of all 
the joists are rounded, and project about 2 feet 6 inches over the 
longitudinal beams, fig. 10, and the whole are then covered with 
planking, 11 inches by 3 inches, laid longitudinally, and properly 
spiked down and caulked ; this platform is then covered with a 
composition of boiling tar and lime, mixed with gravel whilst it is 
being laid on ; thus forming a coating completely impervious to 
the wet. At the meeting of the longitudinal beam and the crown 
piece, an iron strap is bound over them and the longitudinal beam, 
and it is then run through the rib, and screwed up underneath it. 
Another strap is put round the rib and the spandril beam, about 
12 feet further down on each side, and another at each of the 
spandril struts. An open railing, 5 feet high, is fixed alongside 
each side of the bridge, the upright standards are 8 feet apart, 
fixed to every alternate joist, and five horizontal rails, halved and 
spiked to them, run the full length. 

The total width of the Ouse Burn Viaduct, measuring within the 
railing, is 26 feet, from which a footpath is taken, 5 feet wide, 
separated from the railway by a line of railing on tlie south side, 
as shown in fig. 2. 

In constructing both the masonry and timber work of this via- 
duct, the scaffolding and the centering used were very light and 
simple. For the former, a temporary railway, 35 feet high, raised 
upon upright bearers, struts, &c., was laid the full length, on each 
side of the intended structure; and was afterwards raised, as the 
building proceeded, to within a few feet of the height of the finished 
platform. On this railway temporary cranes were placed, spanning 
from one rail to the other, connected at the top with beams of tim- 
ber, and fitted up with proper winches, blocks, chains, &c. &c. ; 
these cranes were generally worked by four men. The centering 
for turning the ribs and building all the timber work was exceed- 
ingly light ; it was composed merely of three ribs, weighing about 
18 cwt. each, or 2 tons li cwt. fur each rib. A whole centre could 



be removed in a day from one arch, and fixed in its place for 
another arch, by about twenty men, employing the travelling 
cranes. 

The WiLLiNGTON ViAnicT is precisely the same in construction 
and design as that at the Ouse Burn ; but diflfers in its dimensions, 
and although it is not so high, it is longer, and has two more tim- 
ber arches of greater span. The total length is 10 ju feet, and the 
height is 82 feet. There are seven timber arches and six stone 
piers, with two stone abutments; five of the arches are 120 feet 
span each, and two 115 feet span each ; the width between the 
railing on each side is 21 feet, being just sufficient for the double 
line of railway, as there is no footpath upon this viaduct. Two 
of the piers are built upon piles 36 feet long, at a depth of about 
50 feet below the surface, as there is a great extent of alluvial de- 
posit immediately on the site, which is frequently covered, during 
high tides or floods, by the river Tyne flowing up at the small 
burn. 

Both these viaducts span over numerous houses and manufac- 
tories. 

The method of building the viaduct at Willington was somewhat 
difl'erent from that adopted at the Ouse Burn, and perhaps not so 
unique ; inasmuch as there were no travelling cranes or temporary 
railway, and the removal of the centres was attended witli greater 
labour, for while at the Ouse Burn the removal of a centre occu- 
pied twenty men, with the cranes, only one day, the same work 
employed twenty men for ten days at A\'illington. The masonry 
of each pier was set with a fixed or jib crane, of a sufficient height 
to hoist all the stones, having the usual counterbalance at the 
opposite end of the horizontal beam. 

In this system of timber bridge building, the straight trussing in 
the main principle of support, is «lispensed with, for the spandril 
framing should not be looked upon as partaking of that character ; 
it is merely a continuation of the wood-work, to convey the weight 
coming upon the roadway, on to the simple curved rib, and all 
timbers in a state of tension are avoided, for when a weight comes 
upon the roadway, the whole of the structure undergoes compres- 
sion. 

It is not meant to advocate timber bridges on this or any prin- 
ciple in preference to stone, or other more durable material ; but 
it will not be denied, that the great saving of capital in the first 
instance is a very important argument in favour of their adop- 
tion. 

The actual cost of the Ouse Burn Viaduct, including all contin- 
gencies and extras, was: — for the masonry, 17,235/.; for the car- 
pentry, 7,265/. ; making together, 24,500/. 

The total cost of the Willington Viaduct, was : — masonry, 13,153/. ; 
carpentry, 10,349/. ; together, 23,502/. 

The piers, Mr. Green observes, are stronger than necessary for 
the weight of the superstructure, for the directors of the New- 
castle and North Shields Railway not only being sceptical as to the 
safety of this novel mode of construction, but having a desire to 
finish all the bridges on the line with stone arches, wished the ma- 
sonry to be made of such solidity and bulk as to bear stone arches 
if required, and the piers and abutments were, therefore, built 
accordingly. The additional cost for building stone arches, how- 
ever, <m a fair calculation, was found to amount to 9,000/. for the 
Ouse Burn Viaduct, which would have made a total of 33,500/. 
The centering « ould luive cost at least 3,000/. for each viaduct, so 
that at a moderate calculation tlie actual saving of capital is up- 
wards of 10,000/. 

Messrs. Green have just completed a large viaduct, on precisely 
the same principle as those of the Ouse Burn and Willington Dean, 
for his grace the Duke of Buccleuch, across the South Esk at Dal- 
keith, in connexion with the Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway, and 
for the transit of coal from the collieries of his grace in that neigh- 
bourhood ; it has only a single line of railway and a footpath. The 
total length of this work is 830 feet, the height is 87 feet to the 
platform, and the width across between the railing is 14 feet. It 
has seven arches, five of 120 feet, and two of 110 feet spiin each, 
with a versed sine of 30 feet. There are only two ribs, 8 feet 4 
inches apart, in each arch, and of a deal and a half (1 foot 4 inches) 
in width, and ten deals (2 feet 7 inches) in depth. Tlie longitudi- 
nal beams are half balks of timber, 13| inches by 6j inches. There 
are two stone abutments, each 40 feet long, and five stone piers. 
The largest pier is 91 feet high from the foundation, which is 5 feet 
below the surface. All the piers are 10 feet thick at the springing, 
12 feet 10 inches wide, and 5 feet 4 inches thick at the top, under- 
neath the roadway. The total cost was : — masonry, 3,617/. ; car- 
pentry, 3,358/. ; together, 6,975/., which is a very small amount for 
a work of such magnitude. 



AM.€HEm> TIlMlBflili yiAlDiTCITS , 



DtNTlNO VALE VIADUCT 



HALK tLtVATlON 



/%, ^, 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION 




C B 



1918] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



35 



The great height and length of this bridge, and the extreme 
lightness of its construction, render it an imposing object, spanning 
a beautiful and thickly wooded ravine near Dalkeith Palace, with 
the river Esk streaming through it, and appearing as a mere line 
of water in passing under the centre arch, which is the largest and 
highest. 

The system of arching with planks, may be carried to almost any 
extent, and in Messrs. Green's design for the proposed bridge 
across the Tyne, to connect the towns of Newcastle and Gateshead, 
at a high level, the largest arch over the middle part of the river 
was intended to have been 280 feet span, with a versed sine of 70 
feet, the total length of the bridge as designed was 1,220 feet, and 
the height 1 10 feet. 




Fig. 1. 



The annexed wood engravings show an oblique bridge on the 
Newcastle and North Shields Railway, crossing the Shields road, 
at Walker. The angle of the skew is 25°, and the span is 71 feet. 
Fig. 1 is an external elevation of one of the ribs and the piers, and 



r 






-J^ 


^^m'/^ 








^ 


^ 


b 




I 








i^^ 


Hi 




a 



Fig 2. 

iig. 2, a plan of the joisting and piers. The joists of the platform 
rest upon the longitudinal beams, which are suspended by queen 
posts and iron straps, from two arched ribs, one on each side of 
the railway, and stiifened by struts and braces. The ribs are formed 
of de lis 11 inches by 3 inches, dressed one deal and a half for the 
width of the rib, and nine deals in depth, as shown in figs. 3 and 4. 




Fig. 3. 

Th«y spring from cast-iron sockets, bolted to the ends of the longi- 
tudinal beams, on which they abut. An iron strap is also keyed 
over eacli foot of the ribs, for additional security. The width for 



the railway on the bridge is 21 feet 6 inches. In the centre, at in- 
tervals of about 7 feet, the platform is strengthened by 
trusses, which are marked h b, fig. 2, and constriicted in 
the manner sliown in fig. 4-, with wrought-iron bars keyed 
at the ends of the l)eams, and coming underneath, hav- 
ing three iron bearers in the full length. The cost of 
this bridge was about 1,300/. 



I 



Zl 6 



rvA' 



^my^^s^"'- , 77^>yu^lH/^ ' -iw i.>::;^^7wr:-:i1 7j.7':' 4 T^-~yK^AX^C;4^^H^^i^^^^ 




Fig. 4. 



The DiNTiNo Vale Viaduct, oj) the line of the Sheffield anrf Man- 
chester Railuiiy. By Alfred Stanistreet Jee, M. Inst. C.E 
(With an Engraving, Plate IK J 

This viaduct consists of sixteen arches, five of which are of tim- 
ber and eleven of brick, faced with stone quoins. The whole of 
the large piers, wings, outside spandrils and parapets, are of ashlar 
stone, of excellent quality, from the quarries in the neighbour- 
hood. The foundations of some of the piers are laid upon the hard 
shale, and of others upon a bed of wet sand of considerable depth ; 
in the latter cases masses of concrete were formed to receive the 
masonry. Several of the smaller piers are founded upon the marl ; 
also with beds of concrete beneath them. The piers for the large 
arches are built solid, up to the surface of the ground, and above 
that le\el they are hollow, nearly up to the impost ; the hollow 
portion having an inverted arch at the bottom, and being also 
arched over at the top. The iiortion above the impost in the 
large piers is solid to the top, (see fig. 3.) The smaller piers are 
cased with ashlar on the outside, and are filled in solid with good 
flat-bedded rubble, well grouted, and with through stones at inter- 
vals of 6 feet horizontally in each course. 

The smaller semicircular arches of brick, at each end of the 
viaduct, are 50 feet in the span and 3 feet in thickness, 
with stone quoins, and are built in a curve ot 40 chains radius'. 
The face of each ])ier is parallel to that of the next, the 
piers themselves being wedge-shaped, on account of the curve. 
The abutments between the large and the small arches are hollow 
and are arched over in the interior, to carry the roadway. The 
abutments and wings at each end of the viaduct, are also 'hollow, 
being com))Osed of longitudinal and cross walls, flagged over on 
the top. They are surrounded on the outside by the slope of the 
embankment, the material of which being clay, is kept out by a 
wall at the ends. 

The five large arches are each 125 feet span and 25 feet versed 
sine, of the best Memel timber, tlie whole of which has been im- 
mersed in a solution of the sulphate of copper, according to Dr. 
Margary's patent, for the prevention of decay. There are four 
main ribs in each arch, composed of planking 3 inches thick, laid 
longitudinally, with a layer of brown paper and tar between the 
planks, which are fastened together with oak trenails at intervals 
of 4 feet. These ribs are 4 feet 6 inches deep, and 18 inches wide, 
and are firmly stayed by diagonal and cross braces, screwed up 
tight, by means of wrought-iron rods, 2 inches in diameter, passing 
through and secured by nuts on the outside. The uprights and 
diagonals in the spandrils are also stayed by iron rods, and are 
morticed into the longitudinal beams which carry the cross joist- 
ing. These longitudinal beams are fastened down upon the piers 
by iron bolts, let 12 feet into the solid stonework, to resist any 
tendency of the arch to rise in the haunches, when the weight of a 
train comes upon the centre. The cross joists are placed 5 feet 
apart, from centre to centre, and are bolted to the longitudinal 
beams underneath. Upon them is placed longitudinally a half balk 
of timber, to which the rails and chairs are fastened, and also a 
guard rail to prevent tlie carriages getting off the road. The whole 
is covered over with planking 3 inches thick, and is coated with a 
mixture of lime, ashes, and sharp sand, which has set hard and 
does not crack. 

The centering used for turning of the arches is of iron, of light 
construction, and is shown in fig. 1. 

The total length of the viaduct is 484 yards, and its greatest 



36 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Febbuaby, 



hcJRlit fnim tlie brook-course to tlie r:iiU, is al)oiit 12.5 feet. Tlie 
roiidway is level tluoufj:lioiit. It was eoniineiiced early in 1843, 
and Has opened for traffic on the Stli of Auirust, lH4t. Messrs. 
liuxton and Clarke, of Slieffield, were the contractors, and great 
(H'edit is due to thcni for the very excellent manner in which they 
have com))leted the work. 

The area of the section of the valley crossed, between the level 
of the rails and the ground, is l.S.oaS square yards, which gives an 
average cost of about 2/. 1 t.v. ])er superficial yard, and as the viaduct 
is 8 yards wide, tlie cost per cubic yard is (iv. !>(/. 

Tlie following is a detailed account of the cost of construction of 
the Dinting Vale Viaduct, ou the line of the Sheffield and Man- 
chester Railway. 

£ s. d. 
7,881 cubic yards, excavating foundations Id. 229 17 3 

2,000 ,, concrete .. .. 3s. 6i. 350 

342,155 cubic feet of ashlar in the abutments 

and piers .. ..Is. \d. 18,532 7 11 

44,024 cubic feet of tooled ashlar .. Is. 3rf. 2,76110 

829 „ cornice .. ..Is. 6d. 62 3 6 

8,212 „ parapet walls .. Is. Iff. 444 16 4 

6,875 „ flagging over spandrils IQd. 286 9 2 

2,574 cubic vards of coursed rubble, in 

the small piers .. .. 10s. 1,287 

Puddling the small arches .. 37 13 

2,641 cubic yards of brickwork in the 

arches .. .. 15s. 1,980 15 

40,4 76 J cubic feet of Memel timber .. 3s. 6,071 9 6 

18,285 superficial feet of planking in the 

roadway .. .. 8(i. 609 11 8 

Centering .. .. .. 600 

Tans. Cwt. Qrs. 
32 4 1 wrought-iron .. .. £21 676 5 3 

31 2 cast-iron .. .. £8 252 

73,260 superficial feet of brown paper and 

tar .. .. .. irf. 152 4 

2,031 superficial yards of concrete on the 

roadway .. .. ., \s. dd. 152 6 

Patent felt .. .. .. 3 15 

Laying the permanent road .. .. 408 6 6 

Diverting the mill goit .. .. 110 16 8 

Interest and maintenance for 12 

months .. .. .. 240 19 8 



Total cost 



£35,250 6 5 



THE RIVAL PALACES, 

OB, Blobe's and Vanvitelli's. 

By Candidus. 

Neither Mr. Sliarp himself nor any one else will be at all sur- 
prised at mij taking some notice of the oversight imputed by him 
to those who liave spoken of Buckingham Palace, for not discover- 
ing that it is " only a reduced copy of the Palace at Caserta." 
Willing as I am to accept the compliment of " lynx-eyed," I think 
that in this instance it rather belongs to him, though at the same 
time I fancy his .?A«J7)-siglitedness lias o\'ershot the mark, and 
made that kind of discovery which is called finding out a mare's 
nest. ^Vhat appears to Mr. Sharp to be sucli jierfect similarity of 
design between tlie two buildings, that all the faults or merits of 
Mr. Blore's fairly belong to Vanvitelli, completely vanishes upon a 
critical e.\amination and estimate of them, nothing remaining but 
that general or generic resemblance of forms and features which 
they possess in common with many other buildings in the same 
style. Those who talk merely at random miglit perhaps liken 
Buckingham Palace to that at Caserta, for much stranger resem- 
blances liave been fancied ere now, — one traveller having likened 
the palace of Charles V. in the Alhambra, to Jones's \Vhitehall; 
and another, the great temple at Balbec to St. Paul's, Covent- 
garden ! But that an architect should he more struck by the 
resemblance, such as it is, than by the prodigious difference be- 
tween the two buildings in ((uestioii, is quite astonishing. 

Let us incjuire to what tlie resemblance amounts : — to nothing 
more than the general disposition of parts, botli vertically and 
horizontally, which surely is not sufficient to constitute such simi- 
larity of design or character as to justify our calling the one a 
c(i})y at all, much less "only" a reduced copy of the other. If it 
doejj, we should be warranted in setting down all the porticoes ever 
erected as only so man/ verbatim transcripts of one original ; or 



we might call — as perliaps Mr. Sharp does — the two terraces at 
Carlton-gardeiis a copy of the (iarde-meuble in the Place de la 
Concorde. In fact, it requires Fluellen's ingenuity in arguing to 
convict Mr. Blore of being, I will not say Vanvitelli's ape, but his 
Dromio. " There is a river in Macedon," says the Welshman, 
"and there is also moreover a river at Monmouth ; — and there is 
salmons in both." Even were Mr. Blore's elevation a mere re- 
duced draught of the other, as far as what actual resemblance 
there is between them extends, as a copy it could be received only 
as an exceedingly maimed and imperfect one, some of the most 
striking parts of the original being altogether omitted. One ex- 
ceedingly important accompaniment to the edifice at Caserta, and 
which gives it an air of completeness and consistently-kept-up 
stateliness in regard to emplacement, greatly surpassing that of any 
other royal palace in Europe, is the spacious oval piazza in front 
of it on its south side, where it forms an expanding amphitheatri- 
cal area, somewhat after the manner of the piazza before St. 
Peter's at Rome. Many other royal residences, on the contrary, 
are so disadvantageously located, as to have an air of meanness 
ubout them in spite of their own grandeur. 

One point, then, of the resemblance contended for is utterly 
wanting, since i\Ir. Blore's building has no architectural precinct 
or projierly defined enclosure before it, but is made to stand imme- 
diately in the Park, and moreo\er stands out ^ery awkwardly and 
abruptly from Nash's building behind, from which it appears quite 
distinct, except that it is tacked to it ; so that instead of making 
the entire mass look larger than before, it causes it to have a singu- 
larly confused and huddled-up appearance. Even taking the mere 
elevation of the front alone, there is a ])rodigious difference as to 
outline, the angles of the building at Caserta being carried up 
much loftier than the general mass, by the addition of a second 
order, comprisingtwo stories, and making the entire height there not 
less than one hundred and ninety English feet. My calculation is 
from the scale given in the large work containing plans, &c., of 
the palace, entitled " Dichiarazone dei Disegni del Reale Palazzo 
di Caserta, &c.," and which, strange to say, is not mentioned by 
either Milizia or Quatremere de Quincy. In the " Conversations- 
Lexicon fiir Bildende Kunst," which professes to give account of 
individual buildings of note, tlie Palace of Caserta obtains only 
three lines ! — one of which is to tell us that there is a picture by 
Mengs in tlie chapel. — With regard to Mr. Sharp's statement as 
to the length, there seems to be some miscalculation or else mis- 
print, since 918 palms (taking the palm at 10^ inches) give only 
790 feet. 

Now that so much fault has been found with his building, and no 
merit whatever discerned in it, ]Mr. Blore may possibly be disposed 
to acquiesce in the charge of ])lagiarism brought against him, in 
order to transfer all blame from himself to Vanvitelli. If he has 
copied or borrowed, he has at least, it may be said, gone to a noble 
model — one which is especially singled out by Air. Gwilt, in his 
" EncyclopcPdia of Architecture," as the most complete example of 
a royal palace. So far, however, from reconciling us to Mr. 
Blore's work, by what may be thouglit to afford sufficient precedent 
for one or two olijectionable points, Caserta — any comparison with 
or even mention of it— is likely to put us more out of conceit with 
it than ever. By diminishing the scale so very greatl)', iSIr. Blore 
has exaggerated the defects and entirely missed all the merits of 
his supposed original, transmuting grandiosity into insignificance 
and triviality. In the mere design of Caserta, there is little to 
excite particular admiration : it is one of those things of which a 
"reduced copy," however accurate, can no more convey the actual 
impression it makes than a life-sized copy of it can that of an 
enormous colossal figure. 

Caserta is especially distinguished by a union of qualities that 
rarely meet together in other edifices of the same class — namely, 
emphatic vastness of mass and uniformity of design throughout. 
Its mass is such, that were the several ranges of building which 
compose its exterior, together with those that separate tlie inner 
courts, placed beside each other on a single line, similar to the plan 
of the Tuilleries, they would form a facade full three times the 
length of that of the last-mentioned palace, or considerably more 
than three thousand feet in extent. AVliat enhances astonishment, 
although it adds nothing to the merit of the structure, is the ex- 
traordinary energy with which the works were carried on, the 
whole of the vast pile being conqileted in about half-a-dozen years; 
whereas many others, of far less magnitude, have either grown up 
piecemeal, or have occupied a long series of years ; so as not to 
have been begun and terminated by the same architect. 

From the nay in which iMr. Sharp has expressed himself, it 
seems to be bis opinion that— the similarity of design which he 
insists upon being admitted, — Blore's fojade BO fairly represents 



181S."] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



37 



Vanvitelli's (i. e. one of them), as to exhibit all its merits, not- 
witlistanding tliat it exliihits qualities precisely the reverse. Yet, 
surely littleness and magnitude are ^■ery different in effect ; or 
shall we say, that if he be similarly shaped and proportioned, a 
dwarf can gi\-e us a very satisfactory idea of a giant ? Those who 
hold such doctrine, ought to show their consistency by taking a 
sixpence as a very satisfactory representative of, and equivalent 
to, a shilling. Hardly can I bring myself to believe that Mr. 
Blore had any idea of palming upon us a Tom Thumb Caserta, 
because, leaving plagiarism out of the question — and in architec- 
ture plagiarism has ceased to be any demerit or disgrace — he must 
ha\-e been perfectly aware that he must fall so greatl)' short of 
Vanvitelli's standard, that likeness in other respects would, if 
detected, only produce ridicule. No, what kind of likeness there 
is between the two designs is merely a coincidence, and for j\lr. 
Blore rather an unfortunate one. Had it been intentional and 
"with malice prepense," — had Mr. Blore really fancied that he 
could reproduce Caserta, he would no doubt have avowed the 
imitation, have made it a merit, and have crushed criticism in the 
bud, by proclaiming that he was about to give Buckingham Palace 
a facade " after" that of the noblest royal residence in Europe.* — 
In such cases, be it observed, the after generally means a long way 
behind the prototype ; and the following comparison of the respec- 
tive measurements of some of the parts of the two buildings will 
show that Vanvitelli's afforded no precedent for the mesquinerie of 
Mr. Blore's. 

Caserta. 

ft. 

Basement or ground floor, mezzanine, 47 

Gateways through ditto ... ... 16 

Principal floor windows 6 

Columns 49 

Buckiiii/ham Palace. 

Basement ... .. 26 

Gateways: centre one, ... ... 13 

lesserones, 10 

Principal floor windows ... ... 4 

Pilasters 34 

After all, had its elevation been ever so much better, Jlr. Blore's 
building would still have been open to some of the strongest ob- 
jections brought against it now, viz., that it seems to encroach 
upon the Park in such a very awkward manner, as to appear a more 
lumpish mass than it otherwise might do, and that blocking uj) all 
tlie rest of that side of the Palace, so far from improving the main 
edifice, it has frustrated that opportunity for improvement which 
])reviously existed, and which, since alteration to such extent was 
determined upon, ought to have been made the most of. As a 
range of building the new facade is scarcely more effective than the 
neighbouring barracks in the Birdcage Walk, to which it may in 
fact be likened quite as correctly as to Caserta ; nor would that 
comparison be, though less flattering, quite so injurious as the 
other, inasmuch as it must then be admitted that, instead of there 
being any falling off, the model had been refined upon. 

One defect in regard to jiosition, now rendered very prominent 
by the building being brought so much forwarder into the Park, is 
that the Palace is not in the axis of the Park itself, but only of 
the Mall ; whereas, were Mr. Blore's structure planted at the other 
extremity of the enclosure, on the site of the Horse Guards, it 
would there show infinitely better in e^'ery respect, and, with some 
slight corrections, might pass for a handsome piece of architecture. 
As it is, it is altogether out of place, out of character, and the re- 
verse of satisfactory in effect ; nor can I agree with Mr. Sharp tliat 
were Mr. Blore " to give the Palace a staircase resembling that at 
Caserta, the world would forgive him all the faults of his front ;" 
because while those faults would be just as evident as ever, the 
public would have no opportunity of admiring the staircase. Be- 
sides which, it would require the architect to be the Bottle-Conjuror 
to get such a staircase into Buckingham Palace ; and even could it 
be effected, it would reduce all the rest of the interior to utter in- 
significance. — One other remark, and I have done : for what will 
perhaps be considered lengthiness and loquacity I have no pre- 
cedent in what Mr. Sharp's companion, M''oods, says in his "Letters" 
of Caserta, for he dismisses it with little more than a bare mention 
of it, — with a degree of chilling indifference that does not say m\ich 
for him either as an architect or a critic. 

* Une plus [grande conception de palais 



In. 

4 high 

6 wide ; 


ft. In. 

36 2 high 


wide ; 
high 


14 high 


high 
6 wide; 


21 Ohigh 


wide ; 


18 high 


6 wide ; 


11 Ohigh 


high 





* Quatremere de Quincy says of Caserta: 
a' existe point ea Europe." 



ON THE LAP AND LEAD OF THE SLIDE VALVE. 

f Concluded from page 17. J 

The Lead and Lap. 

Having separately investigated the two cases of a slide having 
Lead without Lap, and Lap without Lead, we now profeed to con- 
sider the eft'ect of botli in combiuation, together with that of lap 
on the exhaustion side. 

Demonstrafmi. 
Case 4. — When a Slide has Lap ox both the Steam and 

ExHAUSTIO.N sides, TOGETHER WITH LeAD. 

Let a I), and a c, diagram 5, represent the double lap on the steam 
side; af and «y, the same on the exhaustion side; 6f, andtrf. 

Diagram 5. 




the steam ports; and the line ed both the travel of the slide and 
stroke of the piston. Tlien, supposing c /t to represent the lead 
of the slide, ai will be the position of "the eccentric when that of 
the crank is a e; the slide occupying the position shown iu fig. 10, 
and the piston being at the top of its downward stroke. 




Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 

When the eccentric reaches the point k, the port cd will be fully 
closed (as shown in fig. 11), and the piston will have descended to 
/, the arc e m being equal to the arc i /.-. Again, — when the ecxren- 
tric arrives at n, the .slide being then brought into the position 
fig. 12, exhaustion commences from above the piston, which has 
descended to o ; the arc e to p being equal to the arc i U n. >> hen 



38 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



I Febrvarv, 



-To find the point of the stroke at which steam will he cut 



the eccentric arrives at 7, the port t e begins to open for tlic ad- 
mission of steam beneatli tlie piston (see fig. 13), which has then 
descended to r ; the arc c m .v heinff equal to the arc )' /r 7. ^^'hen 
tlie eccentric lias readied tlie ]i<niit t", opjiosite to !, the port !> e 
will be open to the extent of the lead A A', equal to c A, and the 
piston will have completed its descent. 

Steam continues to enter the port be during the ascent of the 
piston, until the eccentric reaches the point A', when the port h e 
will be reclosed (fig. 13), the direction of the slide's motion being 
downward, and the piston ha\ing ascended to /'. Exhaustion 
ceases from above the piston when the eccentric reaches the point 
t, the piston being then at «, and the slide again in the position 
fig. 12. AVhen the eccentric reaches the point 71', ojiposite to », 
exhaustion commences below the ])iston, the slide being tlien in 
the position fig. 11, and the piston at 0'. Finally, — wlien the ec- 
centric reaches the point f/', and the crank the point .v', opposite to 
*, steam begins to enter the port erf for the return stroke, at the 
commencement of which tlie ]iort cd will be open to the extent of 
the lead c A ; the crank and eccentric occupying their original po- 
sitions, ae and a i. 

It is here shown that four distinct circumstances result from the 
use of a slide having lap on both sides of the port, with lead, 
during a single stroke of the piston. These are — 

I<'irst : The cutting off the steam, for the purpose of exjiansion. 

Second: The cessation of exhaustion on the exhaustion side. 

Third: The commencement of exhaustion on the steam side. 

Fourth : The re-admission of steam for the return stroke. 

AVith regard to the first of these results, we found the steam 
port frf closed, when the crank and eccentric had described the 
equal arcs em, and idk. Now, erf, the steam port, is the versed 
sine of rf/c; and A rf, the steam port minus the lead^ is the versed 
sine of i rf. Hence, 

Rule V.- 
off:- 

Divide the width of the steam port, and also that width minus 
the lead, by half the slide's travel, and call the quotients versed 
sines. ¥\nA tlieir corresponding arcs, and call them arc the first, 
and arc the second, respectively. Then, if the sum of those arcs 
be less than 90 degrees, multiply the versed sine of their sum by 
half the stroke, in inches, and the product will be the distance of 
the piston from the commencement of its stroke, when the steam is 
cut off. 

If the sum of arcs the first and second exceed 90 degrees, sub- 
tract it from 180 degrees; and the versed sine of the difference, 
multiplied by half the stroke, equals the distance of the jiiston 
from the end of its stroke, when the steam is cut off. 

Example 8. — The stroke of a piston is 60 inches ; the width of 
steam port 3 inches ; lap on the steam side 2| inches ; lap on the 
exhaust side ^th inch ; and lead ij inch : required the point of the 
stroke at which steam will be cut off. 
3 
Here = -SUi = versed sine of 62" 58' (arc the first) ; 

3-5 

and =; -4545 = versed sine of 56° 57' (arc the second). 

Then G2°58' -1- 56° 57'= 119° 55'; and 180° - 119°55' = 60°5' = 
arc of versed sine, -5012. -5012 x 30= 15-036 inches = distance 
of the piston from the end of its stroke when the steam is cut off. 

Exhaustion was shown to cease, during the ascent of the piston, 
when the eccentric had reached the point /, and the crank the 
point ,r; the crank having described the arc dkx, equal to i'e< 
described by the eccentric. 

Now i' e is equal to arc the second (Rule V.) ; and e t is equal to 
90 degrees minus tt, or the arc of versed sine ef; and e/is half 
the slide's travel minus the lap on the exhaust side. Hence, 

To find the point of the stroke at which exhaustion ceases : — 

Divide half the slide's travel, minus the exhaustion lap, by half 
the travel, call the quotient versed sine, and add its corresponding 
arc, calling it arc the third, to arc the second. The versed sine of 
the difference between their sum and 180 degrees, multiplied by 
half the stroke, equals the distance of the piston from the end of 
its stroke when exhaustion ceases. 

Example 9. — The several proportions being as in the preceding 

example. 

Here 3 -}- 2-5 = 5-5 = half the slide's travel ; 

J 5-5 - -125 „ „ , , 

and — — = -9772 = versed sine of arc 88° 42'= (arc 

the third). 



Then 88° 42' + 56° 57' (arc the second) = 145° 39' ; and 180° - 
145° 39' = 34° 21' = arc of versed sine, -1743. -1743 X 30 = 5-229 
inches = the distance of the piston fiom the end of its stroke 
when exhaustion ceases. 

Exhaustion was shown to commence from above the piston when 
the crank and eccentric had described the equal arcs eA' 7;, and 
i dn. 

Now i rf n is equal to 180 degrees minus n j' ; n i' is equal to n' i ; 
and n'rf is ecjual to arc the third. Hence, 

To find the distance of the piston from the end of its stroke when 
exhaustion commences : — 

Subtract arc the second from arc the third, and multiplv the 
versed sine of their difference by half the stroke. The product 
will be the distance required. 

Example 10. — The proportions being as in the two preceding 
examples. 

Here 88° 42' - 56° 57' = 31° 45' = arc of versed sine, -1496; 
and -1496 X 30 = 4-488 inches, the distance required. 

Steam was found to be re-admitted, for the return stroke, when 
the piston had reached the point r in its descent, the crank and 
eccentric having described the equal arcs ek' «, and i dq. 

Now, irf^ is equal to 180 degrees minus 9 T ; f being diametri- 
cally opposed to i. And q f is equal to i q', the difference between 
arcs the first and second. Hence, 

To find the distance of the piston from the end of its stroke when 
steam is re-admitted for the return stroke : — 

Multiply the versed sine of the difference between arcs the first 
and second by half the stroke, and the product will be the distance 
required. 

Example 11. — The proportions being as before. 

Here 62° 58' - 56° 57' = 6° 1' = arc of versed sine -0055. 
Then -0055 x 30 = "165 inches = the distance required. 

RiTLE VI. — To find the proportions of the steam lap and lead ; the 
points of the stroke ivhere steam is cut off^ and re-admitted for the 
return stroke, lieiny known : — 

When the steam is cut off before half-stroke, divide the portion 
of the stroke performed by the piston, by half the stroke, and call 
the quotient versed sine. Likewise, divide the distance of the 
piston from the end of its stroke when steam is re-admitted for 
the return stroke, by half the stroke, and call that quotient versed 
sine. Find tlieir respective arcs, and also the versed sines of half 
their sum and half their difference. The width of the steam port 
in inches, divided by the versed sine of half their sum, equals half 
the travel of the slide ; and half the travel, minus the width of 
port, equals the lap. The difference of the two versed sines last 
found, multiplied by half the travel of the slide, equals the lead. 

When the steam is to be cut off after half-stroke, divide the 
distance of the piston from the end of its stroke by half the stroke ; 
call the quotient \ersed sine, and subtract its corresponding arc 
from 180 degrees. Divide the distance the piston has to move 
when the steam is admitted for the return stroke, by half the 
stroke ; call the quotient versed sine, and find its corresponding 
arc. Then proceed with the two arcs thus found, as in the former 
case. 

Example 12. — The stroke of a piston is 60 inches ; the width of 
steam port 3 inches; distance of the piston from the end of its 
stroke when steam is cut oft' 15-036 inches; and when steam is 
admitted for the return stroke -165 inches : required the lap and 
lead. 

Here 15-036 -^ 30 = -5012 = versed sine of arc 60° 5' ; 

and ] 80° — 60° 5' = 1 1 9" 55'. 

Then -165 -^ 30 = -0055 = versed sine of 6° 1'. 

119°55'-f 6-' 1' = 125° 56'; 119"55' - 6° 1' = 113°54'. 

125° 56' 

— ^: 62^ 58' ^ arc of versed sine -5454 ; 

— - := 56° 57' =: arc of versed sine -4545. 

3 -7- -5454 = 5-5 inches ^ half the slide's travel ; 

and 5-5 — 3 = 2-5 = lap. 

-5454 - -4545 = -0909 ; and -0909 X ^'^ = "5 inches = lead. 

To find the Lap and Lead by Construction. 

The stroke of the piston; width of steam port; and distances 
of the piston from the end of its stroke when the steam is cut off, 
and when it is re-admitted for the return stroke, being known ; 



18+8.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



39 



Let the circle (diagram 6) represent the crank's orbit, 
diameter ab the stroke of the piston, to some known scale. 



and its 
Make 



Diagram 6. 




oc equal to the part of the stroke performed before the steam is 
out off; and bd equal to the distance of the piston from the end of 
its stroke when steam is re-admittpd for the return stroke. Draw 
d e and cf at right angles to a fc, and mark the point g at the dis- 
tance /> e from ./". Bisect the arc o 7, and from the point of bisec- 
tion, A, draw the diameter li i, JMake I k ei|ual to be ; draw i m and 
k I at right angles to a fc ; and draw ;'/ and i 4 indefinitely. From 
the point m, set off m n equal to the width of steam port, full size ; 
from n draw n parallel to i m, and meeting i h , and also op pa- 
rallel to a 6, and meeting /i ? : then will sp equal the lap, and sr 
the lead. 

In all the foregoing cases, we have taken the versed sine of the 
arc described by the crank, from either extremity of the stroke, as 
the portion of the stroke performed by the piston ; but, as has 
been already observed, the relative positions of the piston and 
crank depend upon the length of the connecting-rod, which will 
be seen by reference to diagram 7, where A B represents the stroke 
of the piston, C D the connecting-rod, and D O the crank Now, 

Diagram 7. 




by supposing a rf to be the arc described by the crank when the 
piston has performed one-fourth of its stroke, and from the length 
of that arc, calculating tlie amount of lap required to cut off the 
steam at that part of the stroke, we appear to be in error — for, 
from the oblique action of the connecting-rod, the piston would 
have descended only to the point c. But the engine being double- 
acting, we have to take into consideration the position of the crank 
when the piston has performed one-fourth of its stroke in the 
opposite direction from the point B : and here we find, that by 
supposing the crank to have described the arc be (equal to arf), 
instead of the true arc b E, we cause the steam to be cut off when 
the piston has reached the point f; and the distance By' being 
precisely as much more than B F as A c is less than AC, tlie seem- 
ing error is self-corrective. 



A Table of Multipliers to find the Lap and Lead, when the Steam in 

to be cut off at ^ to \ths of the Stroke. 

The Lap must lie equal to the width of the steam port multiplied by Col. 1. 

The Lead must be equal to the width of the steam port multiplied by Col. 2. 



Hair-stroke. 


Five-E 
of the 


ghlhs 
Stroke. 


Three- F 
of the 


Durlhs 
Strolte. 


Seven-Eiyhri\a 
ot the Strdlie. 




1 


^ 


1 


2 


1 -z 


1 


2 


Lap 
2-41 


Lead 
-000 


Lap 
1 58 


Lead 
000 


Lap 
1-000 


Lead 
•000 


Lap 

540 


Lead 

•oou 


2 £5- •OOOOO 


216 


■145 


1-41 


•124 


•893 


•105 


•477 


•089 


•zlt •00'208 


206 


•198 


1-35 


•170 


•851 


•146 


•450 


•123 


-=;u -00416 


1-94 


•268 


1-27 


•231 


•795 


-200 


•413 


•170 


-•51 00833 


1-84 


■318 


1-21 


•276 


•754 


■240 


•385 


•204 


ass ^01250 


1-77 


•358 


116 


•312 


-723 


-271 


•363 


■232 


b'Zx -01666 


1-71 


•391 


1-12 


•342 


•691 


•299 


•344 


■257 


*=£ -02083 


1-65 


■420 


1-08 


•368 


•668 


•322 


•327 


■277 


= £ I -02500 


1-60 


•444 


105 


•391 


•644 


•343 


•313 


■296 


11= •02916 


1-56 


■467 


102 


•412 


•623 


-362 


•298 


•313 


"^Sl 03333 


1-48 


■,505 


•968 


•449 


■586 


•396 


•273 


•343 


%i% -04166 


1-41 


•540 


•921 


•480 


•554 


•425 


•251 


•370 


-S- -05000 


1-35 


•570 


•881 


•508 


-526 


•451 


•232 


•393 


^2= ■05833 


1-30 


•595 


•844 


•532 


-500 


-473 


•215 


•414 


g = :L -06666 


1-25 


•617 


■810 


•554 


•4 76 


•495 


•198 


•434 


-.£,= ^07500 


1-21 


•638 


•779 


•5 72 


•454 


•514 


•183 


•452 


^'^ ^08333 


117 


•657 


•751 


•592 


•434 


•532 


•160 


•468 


Sll -09166 
'^is -10000 


113 

1 


•674 


•724 


•607 


-415 


•548 


•156 


•483 



Example of its application. — Stroke 36 inches ; width of port 2 

inches ; steam to be cut off at half-stroke ; distance of the piston 

from the end of its stroke when steam is re-admitted for the 

return stroke, 1-5 inches. 

1^5 

— = 0833. Find that number, or the one nearest to it, in 
18 

the right-hand or last column, and take out the multipliers on tlie 

same line under the head Half-stroke. 

Then 2 x 1-21 = 2^+2 inches = the lap. 

And 2 X -638 = 1-276 inches = the lead. 

R. B. C. 



HEALTH OF TOWNS COMMISSION. 

We may seem to be rather late in noticing the first report of 
the Metropolitan Sanitary Commissioners, but the first nimiber of 
our new volume was so filled with other matter, that we were unable 
to do more than to call attention to the unfair way in which the 
profession has been treated by the commissioners and the govern- 
ment. Since then we are sorry to find that the design of employ- 
ing military engineers in making the survey of London is persisted 
in, and that at a time when numbers of experienced and well 
qualified surveyors in the metropolis are without employment. 

The first part of the Report is devoted to a consideration of the 
means necessary to resist the cholera. After a careful investiga- 
tion, they come to the conclusion, which appears to us to be well 
founded, that cholera is not contagious, and that the great means 
of lessening its ravages are to be found in improved sanitary 
arrangements, particularly in connexion with the sewage. 

To improve the sewage is their first step, and they have recom- 
mended and obtained the revocation of the old commissions of 
sewers. This is a measure to which we have already given our 
strongest advocacy, but we do not think that the commissioners 
have gone far enough. The Regent-street and Regent's-park dis- 
trict remains a narrow slip, running up from the Thames across 
the drainage of the Westminster and Holborn districts, and having 
a grand and deep sewer of nearly the capacity of the Fleet, whicn 
being employed as an outfall, would as we have before pointed out 
be immediately available in improving the drainage of a very large 
district. It is true that this is under the virtual jurisdiction of 
the Commissioners ot Woods and Forests, but the commission 
ought to be at once revoked, and the jurisdiction transferred to 
the new metropolitan commissioners. The maintenance of this 
commission by the government is a reason which will be used for 
the maintenance of the City of London Commission, which is like- 
wise left untouched, because, as the commissioners say, they have 
not had time to look into the case, but because, as we presume, Mr. 
Lambert Jones prevented it, and because the commissioners did 



40 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LFebbuaby, 



not choose to pet themselves involved in a contest with the cor- 
poration of London. 

The City t'ommission of Sewers has certainly been amon;; the 
best managed, and this, perha])s, for the reason that they have 
jdHays had a reffular corps of officers; but still there is no i-eas<jn 
why the city should not derive tlie benefit of an amalf^amation with 
the rest of the metropolis. Let the cor](oration choose a commis- 
sioner, and they will jret a share of the influence, control, and 
]iatr(inaj?e, as well as of the economy attendant on tlie new com- 
mission. If they do not accede at once they w ill not be aide to 
secure tlie few dinners which they receive, while they w ill lose the 
power and patronanfe. At present tlie street sewers i)f the city are 
imperfect and unflushed, the ffratiiisrs and jfully-holes untrap- 
ped, the courts and alleys undraineil, the footways and foot- 
])avemeuts not cleansed, the house drains and cesspools in a dan- 
gerous condition, wliile the sewers convey miasma into most of the 
liouses. The statistics of the city in the latter respect are most 
unfavourable, and show a. fearful influence on the public health. 

The commissioners have pven such evidence as to the necessity 
of consolidating: the districts, that on the streng^th of that evidence 
we call iipon them to complete their measure of amalgamation. 
They say — 

"Taking the works of cleansing as they now are, the preventive 
measure to whicli those works may be immediately ajiplied with 
the greatest advantage is that of flushing. But to the general and 
effectual application of this most important operation, tlie state 
and separation of the several districts under the district commis- 
sions, presents itself as an insuperable obstacle ; and, in fact, the 
operation of cleaning out the sewers by flushing them witli water 
is in systematic use in only one of the upper districts, the Ilolborn 
iind Finsbury district. 

" One district may flush its sewers, but the operation will be at 
many points only a removal of a portion at least of tlie refuse into 
the sewers of the adjacent districts, unless the operation be con- 
tinued tlirough the intermediate districts to the outfall. The lower 
districts complain of being encumbered by the flushing operations 
in the upper districts. 

" In the lower districts, which are flat, there are generally accu- 
mulations of refuse, and if in an upper district, which is under a 
separate jurisdiction, a part of tlie line of sewer is flushed to keep 
it free from deposit, the effect upon tlie lower district in which the 
flush exhausts itself, is to disengage more copiously the offensive 
emanations, for a time, by disturbing and adding to the deposit 
there, without removing it. Wliilst the sewers of one district are 
left unflushed, or uncleansed, the emanations are driven by the 
wind into other districts, particularly from the deposits at the 
moutli of se« ers in the lower to an upper district. ^V^hen the 
sewers in the Holborn and Finsbury division have been clean 
fluslied, it is stated tliat tlie inhabitants of that district, even up 
to the New River Head, have been annoyed by the currents of 
offen.sive gases up the sewers from the accumulations in the lower 
districts, where the same cleansing operations have not been car- 
ried on. For obxious reasons, additional supplies of water would 
require to be provided in the upper districts, and regulated, for 
application througliout the whole lines to the outfalls, without 
staying for separate and intermediate co-operation." 

One great evil of the present system, and a cause of fearful ex- 
pense, is the disproportion between the area of the sewage sent 
through sewers and the area of the sewers themselves. 

" Works to effect town drainage must be constructed for the re- 
moval of surplus or waste water from two sources; the natural 
rain-fall on the town area, together with water from the springs 
ilerived from sources beyond the area which may often require 
sepai-ate arrangements ; and tlie jiipe-water, brought into the town, 
and any refuse matter wliich it may have received in suspension or 
chemical combination. Setting aside for the jiresent the consider- 
ation of the house drainage, and taking in the first instance, the 
secondary sewers, we give the following cross section, fig. I, of a 
sewer draining two or three streets comprehending between one 
and two hundred houses. The depths of the ordinary run of sevfer- 
water when there is no rain, is only about tliree inches, and the 
depth of the increased run of water on tlie occasions of the greatest 
storms, just covered tlie invert. 

" The cross section, fig. 2, is a section of a main line of sewer in 
the Westminster district, draining about 90 acres of town area. 
The ordinary run of sewer-water does not cover the invert, and 
on the occasion of the greatest thunder storm of which tliere i.s 
.-:ny liistorical record in tlie metropolis, namely, that on the 1st of 
August, ItHti, the flow of water was only 2 ft. 3 in. deep. 

'-In general tlie flow of water in the collateral sewers of branch 
lines of street, even where all the liouses drain into them, are mere 



dribbles, and rarely rise above the invert of the wide bottomed 
severs as at present constructed, even in streets where all the 
luMises drain into tli« sewers. The following are tlie coiise(|uences 
which take place in various degrees in nearly all the collateral 
sewers of every form of construction, though the best is the egg- 
shape form. 

'■ Tlie flow of water, being impeded, by the extent to wliich it is 
spread, is retarded, and a deposit is created ; this deposit becomes 
indurated to a degree which prevents its being remo\ ed by the 
flow of water occurring in ordinary rainfalls, and is not often con- 
siderably affected by any otlier than the extraordinary storms 
which occur in intervals of several years. 

"The accumulations continue, and during the process, the de- 
posit from the house drains spreads on the sides, and decomposition 
ensues. 

" The accumulations in the sewers, as well as in the large house 
drains wliich communicate with them, are exposed to the action of 
much air, usually at such a temperature as greatly to facilitate 
decomposition. 

" The accumulations increase until the house drains are entirely 
stopped up, when the deposit in the sewers is usually removed by 
the offensive process of hand labour and cartage, leaving the de- 
posit in the house drains untouched." 

It is well observed that very small currents suffice to keep sewerg 
clear of deposit, if the inclination be good, and the flow be concen- 
trated and kept regular, for which it is considered tliat additions 
of small quantities of water would be suflicient at particular inter- 
vals and seasons. The commissioners therefore recommend the 
use as far as possible of glazed earthenware tubes. These were 
long since tried by Mr. Roe in the Holborn and Finsbury di^•ision, 
and afterwards by Mr. Phillips in the ^^^estminster division, and 
found to discharge the water more quickly and to keep clear of 
deposit. They also prevent the passage of rats from the sewers 
into houses, because they afford no hold, and do not, like the com- 
mon brick drains, allow them to make burrows. 

Mr. Roe and Mr. Phillips also made observations on the flow of 
water from the main and side sewers and drains, which the former 
began so long as five years ago. 

In Mr. Roe's experiments he ascertained the rate of flow of water, 
through the common brick drains for houses, as well as through 
earthenware drains of the same capacity, and with the same run of 
water. As a general result it may be stated that the rates of dis- 
charge through earthenware pipes are ^'ery much increased, some- 
times as much as one-third. In the application of water for flush- 
ing, this is an important consideration, as by the use of the im- 
proved drains, a great saving of water will lie effected. 

The house drains receive the water from small Ig-inch lead 
pipes from the kitchen sinks, and yet they are often made as much 
as 60 times the capacity of the pipes in the smaller houses. In 
these, square brick drains are put in, costing from 6rf. to llrf. per 
foot run, exclusive of digging, while in the larger houses brick 
bari'el drains of 9 or 12 inches diameter are put in, costing I*, id. 
or 1.?. 7rf. per foot run. As the bottom joints are put in without 
mortar or cement, the sewer water percolates through the drain, 
and infiltrates into the houses, while the solid matter, unwashed 
by any stream of water, festers at the bottom, and acts as a retort 
for supplying nauseous gases to the houses. It is true that the 
object in leaving the bottom of the sewers " dry," or without mor- 
tar, is to let in the land drainage, but the effect is what we have 
stated, while it is rare to find a house drain free from deposit. 
The rats, too, by burrowing in the drains, put them out of order, so 
as to require their more frequent repair, and the whole working of 
the drains is as unfavourable as can be conceived, and as far as 
possible from the designs of the builders. A common house drain 
cannot be considered otherwise than as a nuisance. 

A twelve-inch drain is an expensi\e nuisance, w bile an earthen- 
ware pipe of four inches diameter (or, proportional to the house, 
of from tliree to six inches diameter,) keeps perfectly clear, and a 
three-incli pipe is found quite large enough to carry away the 
refuse from middle-sized houses. In consequence of the adoption 
of this improvement, the cost of drains from houses to sewers in 
the Westminster division, wliich used to be from i^lO to £25, 
has been brought down to a charge of from £2 ISs. to £i 10s., and 
even this is considered too high. 

Nothing shows the error of the old system more strongly than a 
case given by Mr. Phillips of drains in Langley-court, Long-acre. 
An old small sewer, 18 in. wide by 2 ft. high, having a good fall, 
was nearly dean, while a new sewer, 5 ft. 6 in. liigh by 3 ft. wide, 
contained an average depth of three feet of soil, and the emana- 
tions from it caused the death of a poor man, and led to an in- 
quest. 



1818.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



41 



We tliink Mr. Pliillips fully justifiefl in stating [p. 30], that the 
sewers are bad in construction, but the house drains are worse. 
He states that in going along the sewers, he has often tried 
whether the currents of air were flowing into the sewers, or out of 
them into the houses. By placing the light which he had in his 
hand by the side of the house drains, he almost invariably found 
tlie flame carried into the mouths of the drains — showing that 
tliere nnist have been direct currents from the sewers through the 
house drains into the houses. Many of the gully drains showed 
an outward current into the streets, though some have a downward 
draught. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Mr. Phillips gives his support to the statement that some neigh- 
bourhoods are at times afflicted with more noxious effluvia from 
the sewers, than if there were no sewers whatever. He thinks the 
great remedies are to keep a constant supply of water in the 
sewers, and to circulate it through them ; and to carry all the 
outlets under the side beds of the river, to discharge into the main 
stream under low-water level. J\Ir. Phillips has found that the 
atmosphere of districts near the outlets of the sewers is liable to 
be affected with effluvia, when the wind happens to blow up tlie 
sewers. By carrying the outlets into the stream, he expects, more- 
over, to get rid of the filthy mud-banks, and the myriads of worms 
sweltering upon them. 

The Report notices the extended use of the egg-shaped sewer in 
the Holborn and Finsbury and Westminster divisions, but remarks 
that the new sewers constructed are generallv of the same internal 
capacity as the old forms, and therefore disproportioned to the 
extent of the drainage. A further great saving will conseiiuently 
be made in the new operations by reducing the size of the sewers. 
The commissioners observe, with justice, that the mere view of the 
ordinary run of sewer water in the sewers, or of the run of water 
on the occasion of heavy storms, might have led to some amend- 
ment in the construction of sewers without any gaging, had a view 
been taken of the flow in the lateral, as well as in the main lines 
of sewer ; but the sizes of all classes of sewers have been main- 
tained on the view of the main lines alone. Mr. Hertslet, the clerk 
to the AVestminster commission, well observes that he has been 
perfectly at a loss to conceive, in traversing the sewers, why such 
immense sewers should be built to carry off such mere threads of 
drainage. He has seen sewers 5 ft. 6 in. high by 3 feet wide, built 
where, even during heavy rain, a 3 or 4-inch JJipe would have car- 
ried off all the water. 

Mr. Phillips makes some curious remarks with reference to the 
size of current which would suffice to keep an ordinary sewer 
clean. In passing through the branch sewers, he has noticed that 
the currents of water are mere dribbles, and being spread over a 
flat surface are not strong enough to remove the soil. Looking at 
the currents, and comparing them with the extraordinary sizes of 
the sewers, it was easy to decide that the currents might be passed 
through pipes of from 3 to 9 inches diameter. Indeed, in a large 
number of the sewers, the currents have cut narrow and deep 
channels for themselves, leaving the bulk of the deposit untouched, 
but showing, as Mr. Phillips says, that nature was trying to remedy 
the faults of art. Sometimes it is necessary to cut such channels 
through the deposit, to allow of the flow of water. Acting upon 
this view, j\Ir. Pliillips proposes to improve the flat-bottomed 
sewers, Ijy bedding cliannel tiles along their bottoms, and filling 
them in behind with concrete. In the middle he would place a 
channel tile of say 1 foot diameter, having other flat tiles sloping 
down to it on each side. By this means, the currents would be 
concentrated on smaller sized channels, kept regularly in action, 
and therefore clean. 



Mr. Roe proposes to reduce the expense of sewage for one side 
of a sewer for a house of 17 feet frontage, which lately with 
upright-sided sewers was £9 ll.«. 3f/., and no%v is with egg-shapt<l 
sewers £6 Os. &d., — this he pro])Oses to reduce to ,£2 19*'. Grf. for 
first-class houses, and i'l 14«. for sixth-class houses. In these 
latter charges is included the su]iply of water. The bottom por- 
tions of the larger sewers Mr. Roe proposes should be of well- 
prepared clay, moulded in blocks tivo feet long, and well burnt ; 
the upper portions to be formed of radiated bricks, laid in blue 
lias mortar. The smaller sewers are to be likewise egg-shaped, 
but to be made entirely of brown stone-ware glazed. Mr. Roe's 
first-class largest sewer is 3 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 3 in., with an area of 
6-6 feet, and costing 7s. per foot run ; bis seventh-class, or smallest 
sewer, is 15 in. by 9 in., with an area of 9 inches, and costing 3*. 
per foot run. 

The greater part of the duties of the officers, Mr. Roe states, is 
taken up by attending to complaints of the stoppage of drains and 
sewers, and in superintending the removal of the soil ; when, with 
a proper system of sewerage and house drainage, nearly the whole 
of the duties in that respect may cease. We agree with him that 
it is far better that a staff' of officers should be constantly engagetl 
in making examinations, in order to pre^'ent filth from depositing 
and accumulating, than in waiting for it to collect and annoy the 
public with its noxious emanations, perhaps for weeks and months 
before complaint is made and steps are taken to remove the evil. 

We think a great deal may be done by Mr. Guthrie's plan, men- 
tioned in the Health of Towns Magazine. In this he proposes to 
separate the house drainage from the surface drainage. The house 
drainage being conveyed in tubes, as stated by Mr. Roe, would, 
under the pressure of water, be carried to tlie outfall, without 
gully holes or other communications with the external atmosphere. 
The surface drainage in the secondary streets could be conveyed 
by the kennels, and in the main streets be received by the large 
sewers. 

The commissioners come to no decision, at present, as to the 
use of chimney shafts, with currents of air created by heat, for 
ventilating the sewers and carrying off the noxious emanations, 
though they express their appro\al of the principle. 

In conclusion, we must again urge upon the commissioners the 
necessity of coming to some immediate decision respecting the use 
by the public of all sewers which have been built at the expense of 
the commissions, and at once abandon the extoi'tionate demand of 
lOs. per foot run on the frontage of a house, which, if it happen to 
be a corner house, may amount to the sum of £20, besides £i more 
for making the drain, for a fourth-rate building that cost only 
£200. Every facility and encouragement ought to be gi\en to the 
owners of house property to make drains into the public sewers, 
and so to abandon the pest of cesspools. 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK 
FASCICULUS LXXVIII 



*' I must have liberty 
Withal, as Urge a charter as the winds. 
To blow on whom I please." 



I. Some have acquired a reputation for having a style of their 
own, merely because they have repeated the very same ideas over 
and over again, on occasions the most dissimilar ; and, so far from 
improving upon them, that their latest applications have been less 
appropriate and judicious than their earlier ones. Such decided 
mannerism ought rather to be taken not so much for consistency 
of style as for sterility and inactivity of mind. He who at all de- 
serves the name of artist — and architects claim it by courtesy, at 
least — is always enlarging the stock of his ideas, and is always 
studying, throughout the whole of his career. Without copying 
others he profits by what they have done, both by shunning the 
faults they have committed, and into which he himself might have 
fallen but for such evidence of them, and by borrowing from them 
hints and motifs, — after a very different manner, be it observed, 
from the mere plagiarist. There is no merit in not availing our- 
selves of ideas thrown out by others, more especially if it has been 
done so very imperfectly and at random, that very much more than 
was at first thought of remains to be made of them. "He, says 
Reynolds, " who resolves to ransack no mind but his own, will 

7 



48 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LFebruaby, 



soon be reduced, from mere barrenness, to the necessity of cnpyiiiif 
Iiimself." — Unviiriod iiiiifurniity of ideas is not so much a sijifn of 
consistency as of limiteil pnwer of conce|ition and exi)i"i>ssioii, and, 
moreover, occasions not only wearisume reju'titiioihiit iru-i>nsisteiicy 
likewise, the same mode of treatment lieiajr rcsorU'd to upon occa- 
sions and for su1)jects totally dissimilar fmm each ntlier. 

II. "How many of us country architects," says Mr. Sharp, "are 
forced to talce the coun>cI of (uir excellent friend, I'ercier, and in 
despair of e.xecutint;- larffe works, to hestow greater care upon le.-.ser 
ones.''" Well was it that the remark was put interrogatively in- 
stead of affirmatively, for in the latter case it ouifhtto have been, not 
" How many." hut '' How few." Were Percier's escellent adiice to 
he followed by country architects — and for the m;itter of that, by 
town ones also, — did they invariably strive to make the utmost of 
the occasion offered them, however inconsideralile it may be in it- 
self, there would he far less of slovenly or else downright trumpery 
design than there unfortunately now is. Tlie "makings the most" 
of the occasion nuist not he misinterj)reted : it is not to lie under- 
stood as recommending- or consisting in amhitiiuis aim and |ireien- 
tiousness of design, and in niimickinglarger tilings, as is frequently 
very absurdly done now, but on the contrary, iu attem|)ting no 
more than can l)e thoroughly accomplished, aiul sn well accom- 
plished that for intrinsic merit of design and ca])tivating effect the 
work mav not only vie with. l)ut surpass many others of greater note in 
ordinary estimation — chiefly, perhaps, because their size alone ren- 
ders them conspicuous and imposing olijects. Were this to be duly 
considered and acted upon, we should have less of vulgar architec- 
tural swaggering, and far more of real study of design, tlian we 
find now. It is precisely because there is so little of the latter, 
and because architects do not know how to impart to small or com- 
paratively small buildings such character as shall be both striking 
and appropriate, that we have so much random copying, and inju- 
dicious imitation, which serves only to remind us of merits lielong- 
ing to the original that are altogether missing in the copy. — There 
is much more room for fearing and also for saying that, taken in 
general, our smaller provincial buildings show, if not ignorance of 
design, very great negligence of it — sometimes to a degree almost 
incredible, if we may believe what profess to be ])ortraits of them. 
Tlie Masonic Hall at Cowes, and the new Ipswich JMuseum, are so 
far from bearing out what Mr. Sharp says, as ratlier to prove that 
architectural taste must be at the very lowest ebb in those places, 
if not in any other parts of the country. Such doings in the provinces 
are, it must be confessed, kept in countenance by similar Peck- 
sniffian achievements here in town, one of the most egregious 
of them being the College of Agricultural Chemistry in Oxford- 
street, which, small as it is, is any thing but an architectural minia- 
ture, for it has neither the delicacy nor refinement of one, but is 
no better than a vulgar and coarse architectural daub. Exceptions 
there are ; and for one of them, we may ])oint to the elegant screen 
fa ade of Dover House; or, to take a quite recent one, there is 
jMr. Hodgkinson's newly-erected house in Park-lane, whicli affords 
striking evidence of what may be done within a very limited space 
— -how much beauty of composition and elegance of detail may be 
displayed in a narrow frontage. 

III. Music has, j)erhaps, been far more fortunate than Architec- 
ture, having escaped from the surveillance ami trammels of archaeo- 
logical pedantry, in consequence of no musical compositions of 
the ancients remaining. No doul)t they were altogether different 
in style from anything in modern European music; therefore, had 
they been ])reserved and foUoH'ed as wholesome precedents, would 
have checked rather than at all advanced the progress of the art 
in later times. To say tliat \v\d the architecture of the Greeks 
aiul Homans perished as well as their music, it would have been all 
the better now for the former art, would incur for me the epithet 
of ultra-reprobate, and would, besides, be doing violence to my 
own feelings. Yet it is sincerely to be wished that its examples were 
studied more, and aped less, — studied rationally and asthetically ; 
and then it would l)e perceiveil that admirable as they are in them- 
selves, and with reference to the purposes for which they were 
ei'ected, they are either ill-adapted to, or furnish but very little 
towards, such an enlarged and complex architectural system as we 
now require. For actual practice, they afford us little umre than 
a few varieties of column and entablature, arches, pediments, and 
such features, in regard to which we pique ourselves upon scrupu- 
lously adhering to the authority of some one particular antique 
example, although the structure to which they are apjilieil is in its 
composition and physiognomy the very reverse of antiipie. As I 
have said, I believe, more than once before, modern architects 
liave converted the orders into mere patterns, from which they have 
only to choose, without being put to the trouble of shaping out a 
fcingle idea of their own. So that as far as the orders are concerned, 



they neither are nor are called u[ion to act as artists at all ; and 
as to the nuu-it of truthful eojiying, that belongs rather to the 
ojierative stonemason tlian to themselves. There are many ancient 
examples that miglit be modified to greater or lesser extent, and in 
a variety of ways, witluxit losing sight of the character of the tj'pe 
so fidlowed. Nay, some might lie cousideralily improved upon, and 
more consistently finished up than thev appear to have been, unless 
they have been greatly mutilated. Take, for instance, the Ionic 
orrler of the Erechtlieum, — surely such an exceedingly simple and 
severe cornice accords very ill indeed with such luxuriantly rich 
cajiitals, which seem to demand a corresponding florid character in 
what is the corresnonding division of the entablature, and the 
crowning to the entire order. Together ivith want of keeping as 
to character, there is a falling off of effect where it ought, if any 
thing, to he increased rather than at all diminished. Obvious as 
this appears to mys^'lf, not one of those who have taken that ex- 
am|ile have ventured to depart from the exact letter of it, by sup- 
plying such a cornice as would complete and perfect it. Of the 
two, even an exaggeriited cornice is a more pardonable fault than 
a starveling one. The reproach of heaviness is preferable to that 
of poverty and meanness. 



AIR-TIGHT GRANARIES. 

Three conditions are essential to the process of putrefaction of 
grain, viz. : heat, moisture, and still air. With wind, moisture is 
carried off; with cold, the decomposing process is checked, as may 
be seen by the carcases of animals that lie through the winter in 
snowy mountains, and dry up to glue. Without air, everything is 
locked up and remains in statu quo; as reptiles have been buried 
for ages in blocks of stone or ancient trees, and then resumed their 
vital functions, unchanged by time. In direct opposition to these 
principles are the granaries of Great Britain and other countries 
constructed. Their site is generally the bank of a river, or the 
sea side. They are built of many floors, at a vast expense. Men 
are continually employed to turn the grain over, to ventilate it, 
and clear out the vermin ; and the weevil is naturalised in every 
crevice, as surely as bugs in neglected London beds, or cockroaches 
in West Indian sugar ships. It is the admission of air that per- 
mits this evil, that [iromotes germination, that permits the exist- 
ence ot rats and mice. In the exclusion of air is to be found the 
remedy. Granaries might be constructed under ground as well as 
above ground ; in many cases, better. They might be constructed 
of cast-iron, like gasometer tanks ; or of brick and cement ; or of 
brick and asphalte, like underground water-tanks. It is only re- 
quired that they should be air-tight, and consequently water-tight. 
A single man-hole at the top is all the opening required,, with an 
air-tight cover. Now, if we suppose a large cast-iron or brick 
cylinder sunk in the earth, the bottom being conical, and the top 
domed over; an air-pump adjusted for exhausting the air, and 
an Archimedean screw pumj) to discharge the grain, we have 
the whole apparatus complete. If we provide for wet grain, a 
water-pump may be added, as to a leaky ship. Suppose, now, a 
cargo of grain, partly germinating, and containing rats, mice, and 
weevils, to be shot into this reservoir, the cover put on and luted, 
and the air-pump at work, the germination would instantly cease, 
and the animal functions would be suspended. If it be contended 
that the reservoir may be leaky, we answer, so may a ship ; and if 
so, the air-pump must be set to work just as is the case with a 
water-pump in a leaky ship. One obvious cheapness of this im- 
proved granary over those existing is, that the wliole cubic con- 
tents may be filled, whereas, in the existing mode, not above one- 
fourth of the cubic contents can be rendered available. But many 
existing structures might be rendered eligible. For example : the 
railway arches of the Eastern Counties, the 15 lack wall, and the 
Greenwich. Reservoirs might be erected in farm yards, or in- 
asmuch as it is a certain thing that all farms must ultimately 
communicate with railways, by means of cheap horse-trains, or 
steam sidings, in tirder to work to profit, it would be desirable that 
the granary should be erected at some central railway station, 
where a steam mill would do the work of e.\hausting the air, dis- 
charging the grain by Archimedean screw when required, and 
grinding it into meal. No better purpose could be found to which 
to apply the atmospheric engines and stations of the Croydon 
Railway, with their existing air-pumps. Communicating with all 
the southern wheat-growing counties of England, and also with 
the Thames, no spot could he more eligible as a central depot. — 
Westminster Review. 



1818.1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



43 



ON WING WALLS OF BRIDGES. 

By R. G. Clark, C.E. 

As the drawing of wing- walls to railway bridfres oifers some 
difficulty when the embankments or cuttings are very high, to 
obviate this is the object of the present paper, which relates to the 
investig-ation of some simple formuliB to determine the angles 
made by the exterior lines of wing walls with the face of a bridge; 
the phine of projection lieing taken on a level with the rails or 
road, when the latter is level. 

There are two cases to be considered. — 1st. Mnien the coping of 
the wing wall makes a given angle w ith the face of the bridge, or 
is parallel to the abutment, as in the case of a skew bridge. — 
2ndly. M'hen the coping is perpendicular to the face of the 
bridge. 

1st. Let B H be the line of the face of the bridge on H B E D, 

the plane of projection as 
before mentioned ; C D the 
exterior top line of wall ; C e 
the given batter, perpendicu- 
lar to B D. The / H C D 
being given, or D C drawn 
parallel to B B', as in the case 
of a skew bridge, draw E D 
parallel to B II ; and BE, CF, 
respectively, perpendicular to 
E D. For the sake of sim- 
plicity, we will first determine 
the iCDB. 

Let the slope of embank- 
ment or cutting be as »h to 1, 
and the batter of wing wall 
as 1 to n ; height of slope equal h. Now. / C D E = Z H C D. 
Let Z C D E ^ e. Also, base of slope C F r^ m h ; and batter 

C e of wing wall = - A. 




r; 



D 



Then, by the right-angle triangle C F D, we have 

772 h 



sin e 



1 



^. = DC. 

sin e 



Also, by triangle C e D, right-angled at e, we have 



mh 
sin 9 



1 



sine 



nat. sin ZCDB (1). 



n mr. 

.-. ZHBD= /HCD or ZCDE - ZCDB. 

Eiample. Given the angle of obliquity H C D = 20°, slope 
1^ to 1, and batter 1 in 5, to determine the angle of wall H B D : 



By formula 



nat. sin 20' 



2 X -34202 



1* 



X 5 15 

therefore, Z H B D = 20° - 2= 



= -04560 = nat. sin 2° 57 1 



37^' = 17° 22' 30" required. 




2ndly. When the coping is perpendicular to 
the face of the bridge. 

Then sin e := 1 ; 
consequently, sin Z C D B = — . 



Hence, cos C B D := 



(2). 



Then nat. cos Z C B D = ^ = -2 : 



E.ramples. 
WTien the slope is 1 to 1, and batter 1 in 5. 
nat. cos of 78° 27'. 
When the slope is li to 1, and batter 1 in 5. 

Then ZCBD = 82° 20'. 
When the slope is 2 to 1, and hatter 1 in 5. 

Then Z € B D = 84° 15'. 
From the above it appears, that the actual height of the slope, 
and the batter in feet, &c., have no occasion to be taken into con- 
sideration ; but only their respective ratios, as above given. 



RAILWAY AND STEAM NAVIGATION DEFENCES. 

The course which the Duke of Wellington has thought fit to 
take, in furtlierance of tlie measure of increasing the army under 
his command, has given a new strength to the alarmist party. We 
say, advisedly, that the Duke's letter to Sir John Burgoy'ne can 
only be taken as the statement of an advocate, using e\'erV means 
to make out a case ; for there is evidence enough in that letter to 
show the impracticability ot an invasion, if it were consistent to 
suppose that a commander so experienced could countenance a 
scheme, which the youngest statt'-officer knows is in no way 
feasible. In considering the subject, we do not think it necessary 
to analyse the Duke's letter, because we do not look upon him as 
a believer in the invasion sclieme ; but we shall take up the ques- 
tion upon its own merits, which are certainly small enough, com- 
pared with tlie clamour which has been made by so many parties, 
and of which tlie Commander-in-Chief has so' skilfully availed 
himself, to further the \'iews of his own department. 

It is one of the consequences of thirty-two years of peace, that 
the present generation know little of war or of military affairs 
and it is therefore open to ignorant or restless oflBcers to impose 
upou them statements, which do not meet with the countenance of 
men well informed in tlieir own profession, and which are not con- 
sistent with liistoric proof. With the public an officer is taken as 
an aiithority in virtue of his epaulettes ; but, nevertheless, he is as 
an officer no more an authority on this question of invasion, than 
the most ignorant civilian. It is one of the misfortunes of the 
English army, that there is no guarantee for the qualifications of 
its officers ; and, notwithstanding the growing desire of improve- 
ment among military men, it cainuit be denied that it is much rarer 
to find a man w ell acquainted with his profession than otherwise, 
for there is no security, and it may be said no encouragement, for 
proficiency. In the navy, and in the artillery, an examination 
must be passed ; but, under the system by which the army is offi- 
cered, except the few C(dlege cadets, a man may be put in command 
of an army, whose only (jualification is that he can manoeuvre a 
battalion on parade. Neither is the service of the English army 
calculated to qualify an officer for European warfare, for the staff 
arrangements even of an Indian campaign will give no schooling 
for a war in tlie old battle-field of Flanders. One of the defences 
we most want is a good staff of officers, and money cannot be 
better laid out than in enlarging the military colleges, and en- 
couraging the studies of officers. In the meanwhile, we hope the 
public will not allow themselves to be frightened out of their wits 
by men who know no more of the organization of an armv of fifty 
thousand men tlian a drummer-boy does; and, at any rate, to 
accept with caution any statements which have not the support of 
common sense and historical evidence. 

It is very easy to start with the hypothesis of 50,000 Frenchmen 
on the Sussex coast, and to talk of the capitals of France, Austria, 
Russia, and Prussia having fallen into the hands of an enemy; but 
it is so difficult to conceive how a French army of 50,000 nien, or 
of any other force, could be brought to London, that any general 
being ofl^ered the command of such an expedition, would give it up 
in despair. In order that a French army may land upon the 
English shore, there must be no political disorganization in France, 
and there must be political disorganization in England. Our great 
protection hitherto against invasion from France, has been the 
political disorganization of that country by the League, the Pro- 
testants, the Camisards, the Girondists, or the Chouans, or by the 
irruption of Prussians, Spaniards, or Savoyards. Napoleon never 
hoped to be able to make an effectual invasion of this country, 
unless he could make a piditical diversion, by securing the neu- 
trality of parties in opposition to the government. How futile 
was that dependence is well known; and though some may, in the 
present time of calm, believe that political factions might here- 
after be brought to sympathise with an invader, yet such coalition 
flould become impossible when war shall break out, and the old 
feelings of bitter hatred be awakened. This is a disturbing in- 
fluence which cannot be readily overcome. There is nothing more 
difficult than to overcome a people in their own country, vvith 
whatever force, if united in resistance. France will give the ex- 
ample. If, in 1814 and 1815, the allies were able to make their 
way to Paris in the then political disorganization of the country, 
yet, in the early part of the war, under the Duke of Brunswick, 
though France was unprepared, the invaders were driven back with 
loss. 

The circumstances under which an invasion of England will be 
practicable are — the union of the French, High Dutch, and Rus- 
sians, the destruction of the naval power of England, our political 
disorganization, and the agreement of a large part of the people 

7* 



u 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fkbsu.iuv, 



to welcome the invader. This country has not yet had an enemy 
un its shores, and it is not to he judi^ed like France, Flanders, 
Holland, Italy, Germany, and Spain. 

Before coming to our own ]>articular view of the question, we 
have a few observations to make upon the military and naval part. 
The hyjiothesis of an invasi(ni must l)e under these forms : — of an 
army of 200,000 men, or of an army of 50,000 ; of an army witli 
cavalry, artillery, pontoons, provisions, and train, or of an army 
with light mounted artillery. Confining ourselves to an army of 
50,000 under either of the latter two conditions : such an army, 
witli 10,000 horses for cavalry, lOO or 500 pieces of artillery, liorses 
and carriages for artillery, ammunition, provisions, and train, 
would require greater steam accommodation, and take gi-eater time 
in landing. It would, consequently, defeat itself, by giving more 
time for the muster of forces against it. On the other hand, a 
mere incursi\'e light force of 50,000 men, would be defeated by 
want of means to overcome the usual o])stacles of delay. It would 
want cavalry to drive off the swarms of local mounted skirmishers, 
and to make its reconnaissances ; it would want means of crossing 
rivers; and wlien its brigades before concentration were brought 
in front of a regular force in position, it would want heavy cavalry 
and artillery. If the wounded men were picked up they would 
encumber the march, and if left beliind they would be massacred 
by the local skirmishers hanging on the rear ; so tliat the men 
would soon become demoralised. Three days' stay in a wasted 
country would leave such an army, even if concentrated, without 
provisions or ammunition, with its ranks thinned and dispirited by 
death and fatigue. If it attem])ted to fight, every man would be 
hutcliered. Indeed no worse fate can he wished for any man than to 
have the command of a brigade in an army of invasion of England. 

Persons who are ignorant or ill-advised, may say that we have 
no regular force and no military spirit in tlie country ; but those 
who take the trouble to calculate know tliat this country has at all 
times had great military resources, and at no time so much as at 
the present. Turn bacli the pages of the history of England, and 
watch the progress of preparation. The regulars in England are 
increased by scores of thousands at a time ; sixty thousand militia 
are embodied and used as regulars ; an army of reserve is called 
out ; local militia are brought into the ranks of the regular army ; 
tliree or four Iiundred thousand volunteers are enrolled ; and, in 
1808 for example, seven hundred thousand men are in arms in the 
islands, besides a vast fleet patrolling around. Since then, the 
population has doubled, and that seven hundred thousand men will 
become a million and a half, with the levy en masse to back them. 
England, without allies, can never be lost, if only true to herself, 
tliougli the nations of Europe should be poured on her sliores. No 
enterprise could be more dangerous than to land troops in a 
tliickly-peopled country, among a brave and warlike population, 
strengthened with all the resources of knowledge and wealth. 
For what would this to be attempted? To take the land, but to 
fin the shores of the Atlantic, and the waters of the deep, with a 
fierce people, who, as the Hollanders once threatened to do, would 
take to tlieir ships and seek a new country, whence they could turn 
upon their oppressors. 

It should be noted that it is an old regulation, always renewed 
in time of war, that in case of invasion, all corn, cattle, and 
people, witliin twenty miles of the shore, must be driven up the 
country, and tlie district wasted, and efficient means are ])rovided 
for efl'ecting this. England in time of war, aiul England in time 
of peace, are different countries, and it is certainly not matter of 
blame that tlie government, in the thirty-second year of peace, do 
not harass the country with the troubles of war-time. \Fhy are 
martello towers, shot furnaces, and batteries to decay upon the 
coast, heavy artillery to rust, and men to be taken from their shops 
and homes to the drill gi'ound, when all that is wanted in this way 
can be done when the time comes .■" 

As to sudden invasion at this moment, it is a bugbear ; but we 
are always ready to urge that a consistent system of preparation 
for war shall be carried on : but then in our opinion the means are 
simpler than those usually put forward, and are not to be sought 
in the army estimates, but more immediately within the scope of 
what are commonly called the engineering operations of the coun- 
try. We do not advocate an increase of the standing army; we 
have no faith in the fortification of Portsmouth, Plymoutli, and 
other towns, as strong places ; we do not tliiuk it necessary to lay 
down batteries on the coast, or to mount them witli heavy ai'til- 
lery , still less do we advocate the calling out of tlie militia. We 
may observe, that tlie government of tliis cimntry have always 
wisely shown an indisposition to put arms into tlie hands of tlie 
people in time of peace, because they are not under the bond of a 



feeling of hostile invasion, which in time of war prevents a mis- 
ap|)lication of arms to interference in the civil government. 

We consider that a due attention to railways, steam navigation, 
and tlie telegrajih system, will in time of peace be the most effi- 
cient means of jiroviding for the defence of the country. ^Ve are 
no longer in the position we were a few years ago, when the sudden 
growth of steam navigation threatened military and naval men 
with a new instrument of aggression, against which they had no 
means of defence. Then there might have been oc(-asion for 
alarm, had war broken out; but since then, the development of 
the railway system has provided an adequate power of resistance ; 
while, more recently, the estalilishment of electric telegraphs has 
thrown the scale of preponderance in favour of tlie defensive re- 
sources. We can no longer lie in dtmlit in wliat direction we are 
to apply our means and make pro\ision. Wu must avail ourselves 
of those three great branches of national enterprise which we have 
already named. Do not let any think us over-professional in 
taking this view of the matter, for this is the side on which the 
Duke of Wellington looks at it. He takes his case on a steam- 
navigation invasion, on this new development of scientific re- 
sources ; and the fair way to meet it is to consider what resources 
of such kind are available for tlie purposes of defence. Engineers 
and manufacturers have created the means of invasion, and they 
must provide us, to some extent, with the means of defence. 

Considered in reference to the defence of the nation, nothing 
can be more unwise than that legislative interference Hliich has 
restricted railway enterprise. Even were it true that tliere was an 
undue competition for railways, and that capital was diverted into 
this branch of investment, still, so far as the country is concerned, 
it is desirable that as many railways as possible should be made. If 
we are asked whence the capital comes for railway construction, 
we can have an answer which springs from the very matter now 
under discussion. In time of war, we keep a couple of hundred 
thousand regulars and militiamen, giving no productive return. 
In time of peace, we can employ two hundred thousand na\igators, 
or, in reference to our present means, four hundred thousand navi- 
gators, in making railway works. At present, out of an income of 
fifty-five millions, thirty millions are a mere transfer of cajiital, in 
the shape of interest on the debt ; the remainder is the effective 
drain upon the energies of the country ; and every addition of 
twenty thousand men to tlie military forces is a deduction of so 
many men, and of (me million yearly, of so much productive labour 
and capital rendered un]iroductive. AV^e can carry on such great 
railway works wliile other countries cannot, because France, for 
instance, keeps three hundred thousand, or four hundred thousand, 
men under arms, — doing no good, but, on the contrary, weakening 
its resources. 

Tlie less interference with railway legislation and management 
the better, for it results only in public inconvenience. Had it not 
been for this interference, we should now have had coast lines all 
round the island, and been pro\ided with sufficient converging 
lines from the great seats of population. As we stand now, the 
southern ct)ast line is incomjilete, the line to the west coast is in- 
complete, the eastern coast is neglected, and indeed tlie communi- 
cations are left in such a state, that in time of war they will 
require to he completed at the national expense. If erroneous 
views of policy had not prevented it, we should have had at 
present the following lines available for the south coast defence: — 
A line along the scmth bank of the Thames, to Dover, to Hastings, 
to Brighton, to Shoreham, to Fareham, to Portsmouth, and to 
Southampton, giving the means for pouring down troops most 
rapidly ; whereas, thi'ough the fear of competition, we are left 
with the present inadequate accommodation. If tlie plan of traffic 
estimates and investigations had not been followed, and parliament 
had not undertaken the futile inquiry whether a line would pay or 
no, we should have had lines enough made by those who are the 
best judges how to invest their money. It is, however, the conse- 
quence of the meddling policy, that it always reacts to produce 
serious inconvenience to the country, without doing the slightest 
good. 

Now that railway enterprise has been suppressed and knocked 
down, it liecomes the duty of the government to aid the companies 
in carrying out the necessary works. Among them are the Ijridge 
over tiie Tliames to connect the nortli and south railways ; the 
branch of tlie Brightcm railway from Croydon to Arandsworth ; 
the union of the Pcn-tsmouth and Gosport lines; and the extension 
of tlie Brighton and Hastings line through Ilye to Ashf'ord. Lon- 
don is the seat of a population which will afford four hundred 
thousand able-bodied soldiers, between fifteen and sixty, to be 
poured down to any point of tlie coast between Dorchester and 
Harwich ; and it is therefore necessary to provide accommodation 



1&48.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



45 



for brintring; this great reserve to bear upon any point attacked. 
Tlie metropolis also is the reserve for defending the whole of the 
northern and west coasts, in case of insufficiency of local force. 

It has been reconimeneled that the railway companies should he 
encourajjed to adapt their %vagons so as to carry heavy artillery ; 
but this is unnecessary, though they should have provision for 
carrying light artillery. This country, yielding more than one 
million and a half tons of iron yearly, can sujjply any number of 
heavy carronades to carry G8 lb. hollow shot or solid red-hot shot. 
In case of need, a thousand carronades could he cast daily. The 
coasts can be lined with heavy ordnance, and proxided with fur- 
naces for heating shot, the guns being worked by the local fencible 
artillery. If the enemy effected a landing, the guns would be 
spiked and left on the spot. Guns would likewise be brought up 
along the line of the enemy's march, and upon the fortified lines 
and cam))s, and as each position was abandoned the guns would be 
spiked. There would be no object in lugging about heavy pieces, 
and the enemy would not move spiked iron guns, if they had the 
train to do it. 

Every encouragement should be given to telegraph companies to 
lay down wires, for although we have got to a certain stage of 
advancement, the electric telegraph system in this country is far 
from being in a satisfactory state. It seems very desirable that it 
should not be left a monopoly in the hands of the Electric Tele- 
graph Company or the government, who, by inveterate adherence 
to one system, may check the course of improvement. The use of 
the needle telegraph by the company we believe to be fraught with 
great inconvenience, and indeed, in particular conditions of the 
weather, as the needle telegraph will not work, it may become 
useless either to announce an invasion or to communicate orders. 
It is to he observed that the electric telegraphs for the south coast 
are in a bad condition. The coast line is not completed, and the 
South Devon line is said to work imperfectly. The telegraph on 
the Soutli-Eastern is worked in a complicated manner ; there is no 
telegrajdi on the Brighton. There is a telegraph on the South- 
western ; but on the Great Western, none beyond Slough. AV'e 
say nothing about military communications with the inland sta- 
tions, or with Chatham, Plymouth, and Milford. All this requires 
looking to, so that ex'ery encouragement be given to complete the 
system ; and in case of need, the government must themselves lay 
down wires. 

The steam navigation resources of the country must be culti- 
vated by a prudent legislation. On this head, as on railways and 
telegi'aphs, private enterprise is ready enough to work without 
requiring any great expenditure on the part of the state ; but, un- 
ha])pily, legislation has generally been unfavourable to private 
enterprise, or so tardy, that private resources have been exhausted 
before public aid was afforded. The Great AVe^tern Steam Navi- 
gation Company was allowed to drop, when slight aid from the public 
would have given it an impulse, and we might had a weekly line to 
tlie United States before now. Mr. Waghorn is still urging upon 
the government the packet line to Sydney, and Mr. AVheelwright 
has not too much reason to congratulate himself on the aid afforded 
to Pacific steam na\'igation. From the tardiness of the govern- 
ment, the Great Western, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Bahia 
Steam Navigation Companies have been ruined, the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company has been kept in difficulties, and the Royal 
'Mail and Peninsular Companies long had to struggle amid depres- 
sion and neglect. 

The line to Australia should at once be authorised, as also one 
to the BrazOs. Already a steam marine has sprung up in Sydney, 
and it would be much extended under the impulse of a steam com- 
munication with the mother country, while a slight encourage- 
ment would fill with steamers the harbours of our possessions on 
the Indian ocean, and greatly augment their defensive resources. 

It is very desirable that examinations should be established for 
masters, mates, and enginemen of steamers, but accompanied with 
tlie distribution of such prizes for proficiency as should stimulate 
tlie acquirement of professional knowledge, and raise the character 
of the persons employed. 

With a population of fifteen or sixteen millions on sixty thou- 
sand square miles, and with vast material resources, nothing but 
the inibecilitj- of a government, or the treachery of a party, would 
make a foreign invasion possible ; and one great source of moral 
strength and confidence is a knowledge of those resources. What 
can be more desperate than the embarkation of landsmen in steam- 
ers and small craft, which, if the sea-force of England be annihi- 
lated, must still he landed on a hostile shore under a well-directed 
fire of red-hot and hollow shot and shells from heavy pieces. By 
the time a landing is effected, the local force is mustered, troops 
pour in from all quarters, the people, cattle, and corn are driven, 



the roads and bridges broken up, and the enemy would have to 
advance under the tire of mounted and dismounted sharpshooters, 
lurking in a country full of hedges, ditches, and enclosures. 
Every bridge and culvert would form an obstruction, every grove 
of trees near the roads be cut down for an idjattis ; barriers would 
be formed at the hamlets and villages, and guns mounted in the 
churchyards, mUls, and on tlie hill-tops. In the face of such ob- 
stacles the enemy would have to advance, each man carrying sixty 
rounds of ammunition and three days provision. Tirailleurs 
would ha\'e to be thrown out around the column of the mo\-ing 
brigade, and, after two or three miles* advance, more must be kept 
in the rear, as the skirmishers would get behind, in order to 
slaugliter the wounded, for it is well understood in such affairs 
that no quarter is given. The brigades landed at various points 
along the course, would have their communications interrupted by 
the deep and wide mouths of the rivers, and their progress impeded 
by gorges and steep passes in the chalk range, which would admit 
of a stand being made by the local forces. The brigades would 
not know whetlier their whole army had made good its landing, 
and would not in many cases know the fate of the brigades on 
their flanks ; while, at the points named for the concentration of 
the dix'isions, many brigades would not be able to get up, and 
movements would be necessary in flank and rear to extricate bri- 
gades which were cut off and surrouiuled. E\-ery hour lost to the 
invaders would be thousands of men added to the' protecting force, 
and if divisions could be got together for an advance, they would 
then have to carry entrenched camps and fortified positions, against 
a superior force well provided with cavalry and artillery, and 
knowing that the carrying one strong position x\as only shifting 
the field of battle to another strong position in the rear. When 
it is considered that in a broken country, swarming with skirmish- 
ers, a force weak in ca\'alry could not keej) up communications 
without moving such a body of men as could defend themselves 
and cut their %vay through, the demoralization of the invading 
force within twenty-four hours would be certain. A xery hard 
day's work would have to be done ; nothing would be known as to 
the fate of other portions of the force ; many of the men would 
have become the victims of the infuriated skirmishers; and a night 
would come on, when a large force would have to be detached for 
piquets and outposts, of which the sentries would be picked off on 
their guards, x\hile the outposts would be driven in by night 
attacks. The next morning would offer the choice of a surrender, 
a retreat, or an attack from a superior force ; and this without 
having got more than twenty miles from the coast. This is rather 
a different picture from that drawn by Lord Ellesmere, of the 
guards marching out of London ; but then it is the true one, 
which those %vho have had experience in such matters will recog- 



REGISTER OF NB'W PATENTS. 



PNEUMATIC SPRING. 

Moses Poole, of the Patent Office, London, gentleman, for " Im- 
provements ill. the construction of pneumatic springs." — Granted Jlay 
22; Enrolled November 22, 1817. (A communication from a 
foreigner.) 

The nature of this invention consists in applying the elasticity 
of atmospheric air, or any permanently elastic gas by means of air 
expanding and contracting chamber or chambers, made in one, two, 
or more parts, and connected togetlier by means of two or more 
belts of india-rubber cloth or other flexible or impermeable material, 
with alcohol or other liquid interposed, the more effectually to pre- 
vent the escape of the gas or air contained in the apparatus, and 
to aid in relieving the flexible connexion, and preventing its rup- 
ture from the action of the weight or force on the spring. 

This mode of connecting two vessels being applicable without 
the air to other purjjoses, such as hydrostatic presses, ike, by 
forcing the water into or between the two vessels. 

And the improvement also consists in providing this apparatus 
with one or more of what is denominated a respiratory chamber or 
chambers, attached to one or botli ends of the apparatus, and sepa- 
rated from the main chamber of the apparatus by a dia]ihragm or 
diaphragms perforated with holes, which will check the passage of 
the air, and thus relieve the apparatus from the injurious effects of 
sudden shocks. 

The manner in which it is preferred to construct this apparatus 



46 



THE CIVIL EXGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Febkvaby, 



is represented in tlie aocompiinyinir driiwinfrs, in wliich h, fifj. 1, 
is anu'tallic coiiii'al vessel, witli a concave 
plate or disc at bottom. The u|)per edije 
of this vessel is bevelled inwards around 
its circnmference to receive the edye of 
the belts./'and //. tlie inner e<lg'es of which 
are there secured by a )ilate c, depiessed 
or sunk in the centre, wliicli has a bevelled 
and jfrooved tlanch, so Unit when the |ilate 
e, is drawn towards the hotlom plate by 
four or more screw-bolts /i, the belts are 
g-riped and firnilyheld l)etweenthe ijrooved 
edge of the vessel ami. the l)evelled or 
frrooved llanch. Tlie outer edges of the 
are connected with and held by the cylindrical 
surrounds the vessel h, liavin;? space enough be- 




F'S I. 

belts / and 7, 

\essel «, which „,...... , , . , -, , 

tween the two for the working of the belts, which by the pressure 
of the contained air are alternately pressed against and sustained 
by the inner periphery of the conical vessel. 1 he belts are secured 
in vessel o, bv making its cylindrical part in two i)ortions. 1 he 
edges of these tM-o i)arts, where they come together, are bevelled 
.«- grooved to receive the outei edge of the belts, which are there 
griped and firmly held by drawing the two parts a and rt together 
liy means of scre'w-lmlts ;, that pass through the head of the vessel 
II, and a flanch in the part a. 

The connecting-belts /"and jr, are flexible hoops of india-rubber 
or other flexible sulistance impermeable to air, and the edges being 
firmly helil, the space j between the two is filled with alcohol or 
other" liipiid, which not only prevents all possibility of air passing 
through, but brings an equal jiressure on all parts to prevent rup- 
ture. 

The connexion of the two vessels a and //, by means of the belt, 
divides the apparatus into two parts or chambers a' and I,', the plate 
or diaphragm e being the division, the inner and depressed cir- 
cumference of which is perforated with holes to break the passage 
of the air, as the chamber «' is enlarged or contracted by the 
movement of the two vessels on each other ; this perforated plate 
is, therefore, termed a respirator, as it permits the passage of the 
air from one chamber to the other, and at the same time checks its 
too sudden passage, and therefore avoids to a certain extent all 
sudden jars in cars or other bodies having such springs inter- 
])osed. 

The motion of the two vessels on each other is guided by a rod 
k, attached to the head of the vessel n, which passes into a tube /, 
which tube arises from the bottom and centre of the vessel 6, ex- 
tending through the centre of the respirator or plate e ; or guide- 
rods may be applied outside. The vessel b, instead of being coni- 
cjtl, may he cylindrical, but the two vessels should be so formed as 
to present alternately a siijiporting surface to the belt, which in 
conse(pience of the pressure of the air in the chamber a', rolls 
gradually from one surface to the other, and is therefore at all 
times supported by either one or the other, or both of these sur- 
faces. 

Instead of one respirator or jierforated diaphragm two or more 
may be employed, the more effectually to ease ofi" the passage of 
the air as it is compressed or expanded, and tliis respirator may be 
of any desired form, and may be located in any part of the two 

chambers. Fig. 2. 

„ Instead of the double belt 
■^ above descrilied connected 
together at the edges, it is 
contemplated to place two or 
more single belts separated 
from each other, as repre- 
sented at fig. 2, with the 
licpiid in the space t ; the 
holes t, being made through 
the outer casing for the in- 
troduction of the li(piid and 
closed by a screw-plug. 
AVhen this apparatus is used 
as a hydrostatic press, the 
water is forced into the 
chambers a' and b', by any of the known means which forces apart 
the two vessels a and /;, in the same manner as in the cylinder and 
]iiston jiress, except that the friction of the moving part is avoided. 
Air is to he forced into the chambers when the apparatus is used as 
fi spring. 




MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 

Reginald Jamks Blewitt, of Llantarnam Abbey, Newport, 
Esq., M.P., for '•'• Jntiiriivrniriifx in themiinnfactnre iif malleable iron.' 
— Granted May 27 ; Enndled November 27, IHI.7. 

The usual mode of preparing pig or cast-iron fm- malleable iron 
is by melting such iron, or by mixing together and melting different 
qualities of ]pig or cast-iron with coke, in furnaces called refineries, 
and keeping it there in a state of fusion, at a great heat, with a 
strong blast ; and the produce, run into mimlds, is called refined 
iron, or metal plate. The patentee uses this, either alone, or 
mixed with different qualities of pig- or cast-iron, in the puddling- 
furnace, and subjects it to tlie after process of puddling, by which 
it is brought inio the first state of malleability. He states, he has 
discovered that a better <piality of refined iron, or metal, may 
he obtained from an air furnace — such as is commonly used for 
casting, or foundry purposes — than from the refinery, by which 
there is less waste of metal, and less ex|>ense of fuel, in the manu- 
facture, lie lights and heats an air-furnace in the usual manner. 
For each charge about four tons of pig or cast-iron is put in of such 
qualities as the manufacturer may think most desirable to produce 
the required quality of malleable iron, as has hitherto been the 
practice in using refinery furnaces ; and the charge, when fully 
melted and mingled together at the bottom of the furnace, is run 
into sand, or iron moulds, of any convenient size, and then sub- 
jected to the after process of puddling, which is conducted as if 
using refined metal produced from ordinary refinery furnaces. 
The fuel employed for heating the air-furnace is a white-ash, semi- 
bituminous coal of excellent quality, to which may be added, with 
good effect, 1 or 2 cwt. of charcoal to each charge. 



RAILWAY CARRIAGE AXLES. 

Samuel Benjamin Edward Bergeb, of Abchurch-lane, London, 
merchant, for '''' Iniprovenieiitti in the coiiatruction (if ruihriiy car- 
riages." (A communication.) — Granted June 3 ; Enrolled Uec. 3, 
184.7. [Reported in Newton s London Journal.^ 

This invention relates to a mode of connecting the axle-boxes of 
railway axles ^vith the framing of the carriage, whereby the axles 
will have a slight horizontal play, suflScient for them (when tra- 
velling over curves) to take a line parallel to the radius of the 
curve over which they may be passing. This is efi^ected by con- 
necting the axles to the carriages in the manner shown in the an- 
nexed engravings. For four-wheel carriages the apparatus i» 



Fig. 3. Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 4. 

shown in figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. a, a, is one of thetwo main side- 
beams of the framing of the carriage ; and as side case of the car- 
riage is similarly furnished for the support of the axles, a descrip- 
tion of the parts pertaining to one end only of an axle wUl suffice 
to explain the nature of the invention. 

a, a, are four arms or brackets, bolted, two on each side, to the 
beam a ; and at their lower ends they are coupled together, in 
piiirs, by a bolt or pin 6. These pins each carry two links, c, c ; 
and through their ends a coupling-pin is passed, and secured in its 
place by rivet-heads or otherwise, d, d, are two rods or bars, pro- 
vided at each end with eyes, for the purpose of being connected 
respectively at their outer ends by the coupling-pins of the links 
c, c, and at their inner ends, of being jointed together by the coup- 
ling-pins e, e, and intervening links /, /. These coupling-pins e. 



1848."1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL 



4.7 



which are secured in their places by screw-nuts, also pass throus;h 
the eyes of pemlant-links h, li, which pasi* throug-h the step or axle- 
box A:, and hold it in sus])ension. I is the bearinj^-spring^, composed 
of layers of steel plates, piled one above the other, and eniliraceil 
by the links /(, ft, which, when screwed tij<Iit to the axle-box by the 
nuts (shown in the drawing), cause the horizontal links /'to bind 
tightly upon the middle of the steel plates, and h(dd them securely 
together. It will now be understood, that wlien it is desirable for 
the axle to take a position other than a right angle with the side 
of its carriage, such movement will be ]>erniitted by the links c, c, 
being free to oscillate. In order, hone\er. to check an undue 
horizontal movement of the axle, aiul alloi\' of its adjustment only 
to a line parallel with the radius of the curve over which the car- 
riage is passing, elastic sto]i or check-pieces ;«, m, are provided, as 
shown at fig. 1 ; and placed in such a manner, as to allow of a free 
motion of about a j to ^ inch ; so that, whenever the axle mav 
have a tendency to sway too much, either forward or backward, 
tlie links c, c, will come in contact with the pieces m, and he pre- 
vented from moving further. This horizontal movement of the 
axle will only occur when the railway deviates from a straight line ; 
but when the carriage again pursues a straight course, the axle 
will regain its position at riglit angles to the length of the car- 
riage. 

Another modification of the invention, applicable to a six-wheel 
carriage, is also described in the specification, fig. 5 being a side 




Fig 5. 

elevation ; to allow the axles to move laterally, as well as in a for- 
ward and backward direction, in order that, in a carriage having 
three or four ]>airs of wheels, the hind wheels may fidlow the front 
pair, not always in a straight line, as they are now obliged to do 
(whereby a continuous abrasion ot the flanges against the rails is 
caused when jiassin^ curves), but that they may take a position on 
the rail suitable for compensating for the diiference in radius of 
the two sides of the curve of a railway, and jjermit the cone peri- 
pheries to work efficiently for that purpose. In this modification, 
the same or analogous parts are marked witli similar letters of re- 
ference. Instead of the four arms n, fig. I, forked arms a, are 
made to embrace the l)eam a ; and at the junction of the prong, 
filling-pieces are provided, and cross-rods are also employed, to 
insure the rigidity recpiired for the arms a. The lower ends of the 
arms a are hook-shaped, and are intended to receive respectively 
the shackles or links c, c, which, together with the coupling-hooks 
(■*, pendant from the bars d, perform the same office as the links c, 
in fig. 1. From tlie peculiar construction of this coupling, it will 
Ije seen that a lateral play or movement is allowed to the axle, 
entirely independent of the carriage-framing (no fixed point of 
vibration being employed, as at fig. 1) ; and, consequently, the ob- 
ject desired, viz., giving a lateral as well as a backward and for- 
ward motion to the axle, will be obtained. In order to limit the 
horizontal motion of the axle, the space for oscillation is contracted 
st X, J, (fig. 5). To guard against the danger which would result 
from the breakage ofeither of tlie shackles c, a block of wood is 
attached beneath the framing, which, in falling, will be caught by 
a block resting on the coupling-links of the bars d. g is a 
shield for pre\enting the step or axle-box k, from getting displaced, 
in the event of such an accident as above alluded to. 

The patentee claims the modes, herein described, of connecting 
the steps or axle-boxes to the framing of railway carriages, whereby 
the axles of such carriages are enabled to shift their ]Jositions, 
with respect to the frames of the carriages, for the purposes above 
set forth. 



MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 

William Vickeks, of Sheffield, for, " Improtvments in the manu - 
facture of iron." — Granted June 19; Enrolled December 19, 184.7. 

The improvements consist in melting pig-iron with wrought- 
iron, an<l running the melted mixture (when divided into streams) 
into water ; and then converting the product into malleable, or 
wrought iron, in the following manner : — Pig-iron is to be melted 
with scrap of wrought-irou or turnings, in any suitable furnace, (a 
cupola furnace is recommended) ; and the proportions of wrought- 
iron with pig-iron may vary greatly, l)ut that a very small addition 
of ivrouglit-iron to pig-iron, run into water, will he found to produce 
a great improvement in the quality of iron manufactured there- 
from. Sometimes the following proportions are employed : To 

30 parts of wrought-iron are added 70 parts of pig-iron, by weight ; 
and, although this ma}' not be found to answer for some purposes' 
it has l)een found to answer well. If, however, the iron should be 
intended to be made into steel, it will he necessary to increase the 
proportion of wiought-iron, by mixing with the pig-iron about 40 
per cent, of wrought-iron. In the manufacture of iron intended 
for general purposes, there may be used, with advantage, a mixture 
of 30 per cent, of scrap of wrought-iron, or turnings, with pig- 
iron ; and such mixture, when melted, may he divided into small 
streams, and run into water, in any convenient manner. For this 
purpose, the patentee states he lias used the following arrange- 
ment : — He takes a cast-iron tray, perforated with holes of half- 
an-inch in diameter, and this is lined about half-an-inch thick, 
with sand or composition, such as is used for stopping cujiola fur- 
naces with ; which is punctured with holes about a quarter of an inch 
in diameter — such punctures being immediately over the holes in 
the tray, and then the tray is placed about 15 feet above the level 
of the water in the tank (employed for solidifying the iron), which 
is of wood, and about 4 feet deep ; and the melted metal passing 
from the furnace, througli the perforated tray, into the water in the 
said tank, will be found therein in a divided state. This product is 
used in the manufacture of wrought-iron, and is treated the same 
as in the manufacture of wrought-iron from pig, or refined iron. 
The patentee adds, that he has used, with advantage, in tlie melt- 
ing of pig-iron with wrought-iron, from 3 to 5 per cent, of black 
oxide of manganese, which "he believes will he found to be advan- 
tageous. This may be added from time to time, by placing small 
pieces in the tuyere holes — the blast dividing it in the furnace as 
the mixture becomes melted. The patentee does not claim the 
melting of wrought-iron with pig, or cast-iron, nor the running of 
melted cast-iron into water, when separately considered ; neither 
does he claim the precise mode set forth, so long as the peculiar 
character of his invention be retained ; but wh;it he claims, is melt- 
ing pig-iron with wrought-iron scrap, or turnings, and then run- 
ning it into water, and using the product in the manufacture of 
wrought, or malleable iron. 



STEERING VESSELS. 

William IIenwood, of Portsea, naval architect, for " Improve- 
ments in prDjielliny i^etuscla, and in steering vessels." — Granted Way t ; 
Enrolled November 4, lfc;47. 

The first improvement in propelling and steering relates to scren - 
propelled ships or vessels, and consists in placing the screw-pro- 
peller at the aft-side of the sternpost, where the rudder is in ves- 
sels generally, and in applying the rudder on the fore-side of the 
screw-propeller, in the lower "and aftermost part of the run, and 
below the propeller-shaft, the rudder being substituted for the 
same part of the run of the vessel, as shown in fig 1. The lower 
end of the sternpost meets the keelson, or timber running under 
the shaft, at about the height of the centre of the shaft ; and the 
one may be united very securely to the other, by a flaiich or 
flanches on the shaft cylinder, let into and bolted to the sternpost 
and keelson. This keelson, or timber, should be large in siding, 
because of the hole through it for the rudder-head to pass through ; 
and it must have a rabbet to receive the bottom plank. 

The propeller is connected with the sternpost and vessel very 
firmly by a metal coupling-box o, which has a metal-frame b, at- 
tached to it for raising and lowering the propeller ; the coupling- 
box and hoisting-frame being formed with tongues, to slide in 
metal-faced grooves in the sides of the sternpost s, and the coup- 
ling-box having an interior collar, of the utmost requisite strength, 
fitted against a corresponding exterior collar round the propeller. 
The union of the propeller to the ship is thus made abundantly 
strong for pressing the shaft into the propeller, and "backing 



iS 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AUCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FEBBnARY, 



astern." An aftei--bearin;^ for the sliaft may be fnrmeil by the 
nietal-i-dil e, set up with a screw to tlie stern ; wliich rod wouhl 
also form an additional stop for the propeller on the shaft in back- 
ing astern. Or a rod nii^ht be attaclied to the upper and after- 
part of the lioistinii-franie, and set u]) with a screw to the vessel's 
stern ; and a small rod may be a|iplied at the aft-side of tlie hoist- 
in^-frauie, for iriscrtintt a forelock in the end of the sliaft, to secure 
the pr()i)eller iji I)ackiufr astern, which forelock would revolve with 
the shaft on the pin at ,r. The surface of tlie rudder may be as 
lar^e as that of the innnersed part of the common rudder, althoui;h 
!is the pressure of the water on such a rudder would be once and a 
half as great as on the common rudder, a nnich smaller surface 
would be sufficient for steerinjj, and the lower part might be re- 
duced. 




A large and very strongly formed rudder-band is fitted at the 
ui)i)er p.^rt of the rudder, with a large hole through it, of a square, 
hexagimal, or other form, into which the rudder-head r is fitted 
f(U- turning the rudder ; the lower rudder-bands might also he 
formed similarly, and the braces fitted with an internal ring, that 
tiie rudder-head being extended downward as a substitute for the 
rudder-pins, may revolve in the braces, whilst it is fixed in the 
rudder-bands for turning the rudder. The rudder-head above the 
upper rudder-baud is cylindrical, and ))asses through a metal cylin- 
der with a stuffing-box-'. It then surrounds the propeller-shaft so 
that the rudder may turn sufficiently in steering ; and it extends 
to any convenient height to receive the tiller. Slu)uld the rudder 
be carried away a temporary rudder could be applied, by taking up 
the propeller, using sails only, and liaving the temporary rudder 
prepared with braces to slide down the sternpost grooves ; by which 
it would be held securely to the ship, its lower end being secured 
with guys. 

The advantages to be obtained from this improvement are, the 
maximum effect of the screw-i)ropeller in pnipelling ; the avoidance 
of risk of serious damage from a vessel's grounding, and the pre- 
servation of the strength, aiul the form, and the displacement of 
the after-])art of a vessel. 

The claim is for the right of applying a screw-propeller and a 
rudder conjointly to a ship or vessel in the positions above-men- 
tioned, and' as shown in tlie engraving. The improvement in steer- 
ing vessels consists also in applying a similar rudder to a ship or 
vessel not jiropelled by a screw. 

Such a rudder could be either shipped or unshipped afloat, by 
attaching a water-tight hose or cylinder to the rudder-head cylin- 
der, so that the rudder-head r, with the rudder-pin or pins attached 
to it, may be drawn up in unshipping the rudder, or replaced in 
shipping it. The keel may extend under the rudder, as shown in 
the engraving, to protect it in grounding. 

The advantages of such a rudder are, much less first cost, inde- 
finite durability, through being abvays under water, being below 
the impulsi-s of waves, so that tlie steering would be uniformly 
steady, and without hazard to the helmsman, both when a ship is 



laden, and when she is light ; and it is quite below the reach of 
shot. 

Another improvement in propelling vessels consists in making 
that part of the immersed volume, which is abaft the vertical and 
transverse plane in wliicli the centre of gravity of the vessel is, of 
such a form, tliat the longitudinal staliility of the after-eud of the 
vessel may be jiractically equal to that of the fore-end : — in order 
that the pitching motion, so far as it may be caused by the form of 
the immersed volume, may be prevented ; and that there may be 
the least possilile resistance of the water to the propelling power. 
This is of especial importance in screw-propelled vessels, because 
pitcliing raises the screw above the waters surface. 

The equal staliility of the fore and the after-ends of a ship, is 
obtained by making the area of the load-water section abaft the 
above-mentioned vertical and transverse plane, eipial to the area 
of the remaining part of the same water section, on the fore-side 
of the same plane ; and the moments of those areas, from the same 
vertical and transverse plane also equal; and by forming the lower 
horizontal sections m- water-lines in a similar manner ; or so that 
the cubic contents of the immersed volumes, on eacli side of the 
same vertical and transverse plane, and the nujments of the same 
immersed volumes from the same plane, sliall likewise be equal, 
the one respectively to the other. A vessel of remarkably beauti- 
ful form may thus be produced. As the propelling power of the 
wind on the sails always depresses the fore-end of a ship, when it 
impels her onward, just as it depresses the lee-side, when the wind 
acts obliquely, it appears contrary to the dictates of reason and of 
science, that ships should have, as they commonly have, less sta^ 
bility at the fore-end than at the after-end. By nuiking the stability 
equal at both ends of a ship the pitching would be reduced to the 
least possible degree, the propelling power would produce greater 
speed, the decks or gnu-platforms would be kept more nearly in 
their horizontal positions, and the dangers and discomfort and ex- 
pense of " wear and tear," in rough weather, would be materially 
diminished. 

The claim is for making ships or vessels of the form above de- 
scribed, so that the longitudinal stability of the foi'e-end may be 
practically equal to that of the after-end. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

Thomas Russell CKAJiPTo>f, of Adam-street, Adelphi, engi- 
neer, for " Improvements in locomotive enyines." — Granted June 19 ; 
Enrolled Dec. 19, 181.7. 

The improvements relate to the construction of the locomotive 
engine. 

'riie first improvement consists in introducing two pairs of 
driving-wlieels, one pair to be placed behind the fire-box, and the 
other pair forward, in such manner that the weight of the boiler 
and machinery may be borne equally by each pair of driving- 
wheels. By this arrangement, the adhesion of the wheels upon 
the rails will be more uniform. The two pairs of driving-wheels 
are to be connected on the side by rods in the usual manner, or 
connected separately to the driving cylinders, or in any other con- 
venient manner. The mode preferred by the patentee is shown in 
the seventh improvement. If it be desirable to construct the 
engine with six or more wheels, the patentee proposes to ])lace 
them between the two pairs of driving-wheels, but recommends 
that they should bear but little of the weight, by the employment 
of light elastic springs. 

The second improvement is in the construction of the fire- 
boxes, for tlie reception of the axles of the driving-wheels, the 
driving-wheels of the locomotive engine being placed more forward 
than the back of the fire-box. If large wheels are to be used, a 
recess is to be formed transversely in the upper part of the fire- 
box for the axle ; and for smaller wheels, a recess is to be formed 
in the lower part of the fire-box : this latter arrangement divides 
the fire-bars into two parts. By either arrangement, the heating 
surface of the interior fire-box is increased, and the evaporative 
power of the boiler augmented. 

The third and fourth improvements consist in such arrangement 
of the various parts of the locomotive, that the axle of tlie fore or 
leading wheels may have outside bearings, and the axle of the 
drawing or after-wheels behind the fire-bo.x, inside bearings. 

The fifth improvement consists in placing the eccentrics for 
working the valves on the outside of tiie driving-wheels, by elon- 
gating the axle some distance through the boss of the driving- 
wheels ; the crank-pin, instead of being fixed to the boss of the 
driving-wheel, is fixed to a suparate crank fastened to the end of 
the elongated part of the axle, leaving sufficient space between 



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49 



the crank and the boss of the wheel for the reception of the ec- 
centrics upon the axle. 

The sixth improvement is for transmitting the power from 
the steam cylinders to the driving-wlieels, by introducing a vibra- 
tory shaft in the centre between the driving-wheels, as shown in 
the annexed figure. The steam cylinders a are fixed to the under- 




side of the boiler, with short connecting-rods 6, which act on 
cranks or levers keyed on to the central shaft c ; and on the ends 
of the latter are two arms or levers d d, which, through the two 
connecting-rods ee, cause the two driving-wheels// to revolve. 

LIGHTING BY ELECTRICITY. 

William Edwards Staite, of Lombard-street, gentleman, for 
" certain Improxtements in lighting, and in the apparatus or appara- 
tuses connected therewith." — Granted July 3, 18+7 ; Enrolled Janu- 
ary 3, 184.8. [^Reported in the Mechanics' Magazine.~\ 

This invention relates to a method of lighting by electricity, as 
shown in the annexed engravings. Fig. 1, an external elevation of 

Fig. 2 



the apparatus ; fig. 2, a sectional elevation on the line Wx (fig. 3) ; 
and fig. 3, a horizontal plan on the line y z (fig. 1). The patentee 
describes his apparatus as follows : — 

M, and N, are two cylinders of carbon, prepared as is afterwards 
described, which are used as the electrodes, that is to say, the cur- 
rent of electricity is passed from one to the other as tliey stand 
end to end, tlieir ends being separated by an interval of from less 
than one-twentieth to about half an inch, according to tlie power 
of the electric current used. The upper electrode, N, is passed 
vertically through a hole in the summit of the metallic support, or 
tripod, K, and fixed by binding screws. The lower ends of the 
legs of the tripod are passed through holes in the circular main- 
plate, A, of the apparatus, and secured in their positions by collars 
and nuts, but are carefully prevented from coming into metallic 
contact with the plate A, by means of washers a a, of some dry, 
hard, non-conducting wood. The legs terminate at bottom in set 
screws L L, which connect them with a conducting wire, which 
passes round tlirough tlie extremities of all the legs, and is con- 
nected with one end of the coil of the regulator R. The other end 
of this coil is led to a clamp B-, with a set screw fixed at one side 
of the square wooden basement B, on which the whole of the appa- 
ratus is built, and which is mounted on four short supports, bbb b, 
at its corners, to allow room for some parts of the appaiatus which 
project below tlie basement. The main-plate A is firmly attached 
to the basement B, by four pillars, cccc. C, and D, are cones 
which spring from opposite sides of the apparatus, their common 
axis passing at right angles through the centre of the main-plate, 
A which is bored out for the purpose. The apices of these cones 
are perforated, to admit the perpendicular central shaft, O, which 

Fig. 1. 





50 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LFEBBOJnV, 



has a socket for receivinfr and lioldiii^ the lower electrode 
M, at its iii)i)er eiul ; ami this socket is furnished with set 
screws for seciiriiii; the electrode in an ii))rif;ht position in 
its centre, even thoufjjh that electrode should hajipen to be 
of smaller size than the socket. At the bottom the socket 
is made of a conical form, in order to kee]i the lower end 
of the electrode steady and concentric, so that it may be 
properly adjusted by the set screws, (/(/. Tliis shaft O has 
a smootli straiffht part, below its socket, for a lenffth equal 
to the distance between the apices of the fixed cones, C 
and 1), which is equal to the amount of rise wliich the 
shaft admits of, to compensate for tlie wear or shorteuing 
of one of the electi'odes, while the li^iht is in action; this 
smootli part of the shaft nio\ iiifi- freely thrcuiffh tlie hole 
in the apex of the u])per cone. Below this smooth part 
the shaft is continued for an equal lenffth, screwed ; the 
threads of the screw {jivinar about one-twelfth of an inch 
of rise for every turn. This screwed part works through 
a nut c, which is set tijfht in tlie apex of the under cone 
D, and passes dow n the centre of a hollow cylinder or 
tube P, w hich is slotted internally (as shown at././' in figs. 
'2 and '.i). A little cross piece of metal, Q, is set tight on 
the bottom of the shaft (), by being screwed fast into its 
end, and tliis cross-piece Q (which is afterwards more par- 
ticularly ilescribed) fits across the tube P, taking into the 
slots or grooves on each side, so that it can slide up or 
down in them. Allien, therefore, the tube P is made to 
revolve, it carries the shaft O round with it, by means of 
the sliding cross-jiiece (}, and makes it to rise or sink by 
its screw working in the fixed nut p, so that the shaft C), 
carrying the electrode M in its socket, has a rotary motion 
combined with its vertical motion, for the purpose of 
equalizing the wear of the electrodes on all sides. The 
tube P turns on a pivot //, which works in the bottom of a 
circular box of metal H, which is screwed into a hole of 
sufficient size in tlie bottom of the brass-plate G, which is 
fixed to tlie upper surface of the wooden basement B. 
The touching surfaces at the pivot;/ are coated with sil- 
ver, as tliat metal jiresents a surface peculiarly fitted for 
receiving the current of electricity. The upper end of 
the tube P receives the outer p,art of the fixed nut e, on 
which the tube turns, and is steadied as on an axis. On 
the ujiper part of the tulie P, a worm-wheel S, carrying 
forty teeth, is attached, which is made to revolve by a 
horizontal double-thread tangent-screw T, the pitch radius 
of which is one-tenth of an inch. To one end of the 
screw is attached a crown-wheel U, carrying forty teeth, 
which is actuated by pinions V and W, on an upright spin- 
dle X. The pinions are at a somewhat greater distance 
apart than the diameter of the crown-wheel U, and gear 
into it from opposite sides, so that when the spindle X is 
raised a little, tlie lower pinion V (having eight teeth), is 
into the lower side of the crown-wheel ; but when the spindle is 
sunk, the lower pinion is thrown out of gear, and the upper pinion 
W gears into the u])per side of the crown-wheel ; and the spindle 
continuing to revolve in the same direction as before, imparts a 
reversed rotation to the crown-wheel. When the spindle is kept 
at a medium degree of elevation, neither of tlie pinions is in gear 
with the crown-wheel, so that it remains quiescent. This spindle 
X is kept in its position by working through a hole in the middle 
plate, F, of the apparatus, which plate is attached firmly to three 
of the pillars c. The upper end of the spindle works through a 
hole in the centre of the bottom of a circular brass box I, which is 
fixed to the side of the under cone D, or to the under side of the 
main-plate A. The box I contains a centrifugal regulator Y, which 
consists of a bit of watch-spring bent into the form of the letter S, 
carrying two little weights /; h at its ends, and fixed horizontally 
across the top of the spindle by the middle part of the spring, 
which fits into a cleft in the to]) of the spindle, and is secured by a 
small nut. When the spindle is made to revolve too fast, the 
weights at the end of the spring fly outwards by their centrifugal 
force, and begin to touch and rul> against the sides of the circular 
box I, which friction checks the motion. This description of go- 
vernor ))reserves the motion more uniformly than the ordinary sort 
of fly, which acts by the resistance of tlie air. Just below this 
centrifugal governor there is a cross-piece ), inserted through a 
transverse hole in the spindle X, so that when the spindle is at its 
medium degree of elevation, that is to say, when its two pinions V 
and W are neither of tliem in gear with the crown-wheel, the ends 
of the cross-piece i meet a stop /c, which may project from any fixed 
part of the apparatus, such as the cone D, and so stop the revolu- 




geared 



tions of the spindle ; while, as soon as the spindle is raised or low. 
ered, the cross-piece i no longer meets the stop k, but passes over 
or under it, amd allows the spindle to commence its revolutions 
just before one of the pinions gears into the crown-wheel. The 
spindle X is actuated and kept with a constant tendency to revolve 
in one direction by a toothed wheel Z, keyed on to it just below the 
middle plate F, and this wheel is driven by a train of wheelwork 
W', supported lietween the middle and bottom plates F and G, 
similar to ordinary clockwork, and which is driven by a spring in a 
barrel /, acting on a fusee vi, driven by a cord or chain ; or the 
wheelwork may have any other contrivance as its prime mover, as, 
for instance, a common barrel with a cord and weight. The wheel 
Z is of such thickness that the motion up and down, which the 
spindle X admits of, will not ungear it from the next wheel in the 
driving train. 

The mode in which the spindle X and its pinions are raised or 
lowered, so as to vary the motion of the crown-w heel U, and thereby 
of the electrode M, according to the exigencies ot the light, is as 
follows: — The bottom of the spindle X terminates just below the 
driving-wheel Z, and rests on a plate of ivory ji, which is supported 
on a short upright stem of brass o, w hich has its lower end screwed 
into a hole in the top of a solid cylinder of soft iron, p. This iron 
can move freely up and down in the central hole of a reel ij, round 
which a quantity of insulated copper wire is wound: one end of 
this wire is led to the binding screw B, as before mentioned, w hich 
connects it with the ])ositi\e wire of the galvanic regenerators, 
and the other end to the wire which passes through the binding 
screws L. The reel q of the regulator is fixed firmly to the wooden 
basement B, and a cap r of soft iron fits over it ; but the iron of 
the cap does not extend quite to the centre of the hole in it 



1848."] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



51 



(througli wliich the brass stem n passes), tlie central part of the 
top of the cap being' of brass soldered to the iron, of one-half of 
the diameter of the iron cap itself. The action of the electricity 
in tlie coil of the regulator 11 causes the iron centre p to rise or 
fall, according to the quantity of electricity passing, and in so 
doing, the spindle X, which rests on it, to rise or fall with it. 
There is a little eye attached to tlie bottom of the iron centre, to 
which is suspended a co>interpoise F' (an assortment of such coun- 
terpoises being kept for use), of such weight as to allow the iron 
centre to be just in equilibrium, or just ready to rise, when the 
distance between the electrodes is such as to allow the electric cur- 
rent to flow freely enough to produce a steady and certain light. 
There is also a little ledge .«, around the lower end of the iron 
centre, on which rests a disc t, of brass, of about the size indicated 
in the drawing, fig. 2; which (when tlie iron centre falls below the 
neutral point) becomes supported around its outer edge by a circle 
of brass u, and is left behind on it, when the iron centre continues 
to descend, thus relieving it of its weight ; while on the other 
hand, if the iron centre is disposed to rise above the neutial point, 
it has to lift the whole weight of the brass disc t. This arrange- 
ment gives the iron centre a tendency to remain stationary at the 
neutral point, which is that point at which the elevation of the 
spindle X enables the cross-arm i to come into contact with the 
stop A', and arrest the rotation, and so prevent unnecessary work- 
ing of the machinery, until the electric current has varied so much 
as to render desirable an adjustment of the distance between the 
electrodes ; which the iron centre effects, as before described, by 
rising or falling. 

The neutral position at which the iron centre p should rest, is 
when the top of the iron centre is as far below the top of the regu- 
lator reel as is represented in fig. 2. 

The brass ring u, which supports the equilibrium weight, that is 
the brass disc t, is secured at the proper height by being attached 
to a suflSciently stiff strip of brass ir, of a certain length, and which 
is fixed by its other end to the other side of the wooden basement 
B. The brass ring u can be adjusted to the requisite height e.\- 
actlv, after the apparatus is made, by a niilled-headed screw pass- 
ing thi'oiigh the wooden basement, and screwing down on the sup- 
])orting brass strip (not far from u), so as to depress it to the right 
position. 

The sliding- cross-piece Q, before adverted to, is constructed in 
the manner separately represented in fig. 4. A spring Q (of thin 
hard brass, for instance,) is attached to one side of the cross part 
by a small screw, so that when the cross-piece is placed in the slots 
of the tube P, the spring always remains in close though not forci- 
ble contact against the sides of the slots, so as to insure a good 
conductitm to the electric current which has to tra\'erse the shaft, 
aiul enter from the cross-piece into the slotted tube. 

The tangent-screw T is made not quite horizontal, hut inclined 
at an angle of one in twenty, because the lower pinion V is smaller 
than the upper one ; and therefore it is necessary that the lower 
edge of the crown-wheel U should be tilted nearer to the axis of 
the spindle X. The lower pinion is made smaller, in order that it 
may the better wind down the main shaft O, after it has screwed 
itself up, until the ends of the electrodes come into firm contact, 
le^t it should stick in that position. 

The screw No. 1, which fastens the stand 3 of the tangent- 
screw to the middle plate F, passes through a hole 4, enlarged side- 
ways in the stand ; so that by only loosening the screw 1, the stand 
may turn on the other screw 2, as a centre, so as to allow of the 
tangent-screw T being adjusted to the right distance from the 
centre of the wheel S, in order that it may work properly into its 
teeth, or, \i hen required, to throw the tangent-screw out of gear 
with it altogether. 

The thread of the screw of the main shaft O, should be of a 
square form, so that it shall work with as little friction as may be, 
when supporting the weight of the shaft and electrode. 

A cone of white glass or porcelain, E', is made to slip over the 
upper cone C of the main plate, and is turned up at the edges (as 
shown in figs. 1 and 2), to reflect the light better, and to catch any 
dust and ash which may be thrown off from the electrodes. 

A glass shade, which may be ground partially or not, as desired, 
fits oier the electrodes, M and N, and the stand K, and is screwed 
down to the main-plate A, by the brass circle E, into whicli its 
lower edge is cemented, whereby the electrodes are enclosed en- 
tirely from the outer air. As soon as they have exhausted the 
oxygen which is within the glass shade, they are no longer so rapidly 
consumed. When the electrodes, however, are composed of some 
inferior sorts of carbonaceous preparations they give light more 
steadily if a very small quantity of atmospheric air is continually 
allowed to enter; that is to say, just sufficient to burn away the 



I button of carbon which sometimes forms on the end of that elec- 
trode which is not undergoing decomposition by the electric cur- 
rent. \V^hen there are no holes in the glass shade to admit of a 
small quantity of atmospheric air, two light valves may be inserted 
in the main plate A, one opening inwards and the other outwards, 
which would provide for the varying pressure of the air when the 
temperature is altered by the presence or absence of the light 
within. 

The coil of insulated wire of the regulator R, should be composed 
of wire of such thickness as to conduct the electric current quite 
freely. For an apparatus of the size represented in the engravings 
it may be about three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter ; but if 
electrodes of a larger size are employed, the wire should be pro- 
portionally increased in thickness, and the regulator R, made as 
large as the dimensions of the apparatus will admit of, in order 
that the reel should take a sufficient number of turns of the thick 
wire ; for with wires too thin, considerable heat is evolved from 
them when transmitting the current. Two circular brass weights, 
an, fitone over the other around the iv(u-y top »», which carries the 
pivot of the spindle X ; their use is to enable an easier and more 
precise adjustment of the weight on the iron centre than can be 
effected by altering the large weight F', which is hung at the bot- 
tom of the iron centre. 

When it is intended to use small currents of electricity, the 
spindle X, and all its appurtenances, should be made very light, 
and the iron centre may for the same object be made hoUow with 
advantage ; its sides, however, should Jiot be less than one-twelfth 
of an inch in thickness. , 

The electric current may be obtained from a galvanic apparatus 
of any of the known sorts, or from any other convenient source; 
and it may be used of various intensities and quantities. A good 
degree of intensity to use, is such as would be afforded by one 
hundred cells in a series of the usual sort employed in galvanic 
apparatuses ; and the quantity of the current may vary from that 
evolved by the consumption of less than one-and-a-half grains of 
zinc per minute in each cell, to that evolved by the consumption of 
more than fifteen grains of zinc per minute. 

The wire from the positive, that is, the zinc pole of the gah-anic 
apparatus, is clamped with the binding screw at B-, which serves 
as the conductor through the regulator coil, and then up to the 
upper electrode N. The wire from the other, or negative pole of 
the galvanic apparatus, is to be clamped with the other binding 
screw at B-', whicli is connected by a slip of metal (copper) to the 
bottom plate G of the apparatus, so that the current passing from 
the lower end of the upper electrode N to the top of the lower 
electrode M, then traverses the central shaft O, passes through the 
cross piece Q, at its lower end, into the slotted tube P, and thence 
through its pivot at bottom into the metallic box or cavity H, 
which being in metallic connection with the bottom plate G, leads 
the current to that plate and thence by the slip of co])per to the 
other clamp, from which it passes in return circuit through the 
negative wire of the galvanic apparatus. The current, when first 
applied with the electrodes in contact, flows freely, and that causes 
the regulator (being properly weighted) to raise the spindle X, and 
thus put the apparatus into gear for screwing the centre shaft O 
downwards, and gradually separating the electrodes, whereupon 
the light begins to appear between them. 

The patentee then describes the method of preparing the carbon 
for his electrodes : — About equal quantities are taken of coal of a 
medium quality, and of the prepared coke, known as " Church's 
Patent Coke," and both reduced to a state of fine powder and inti- 
mately mixed together. The mixture is then placed in close 
wrought-iron moulds, which may be made either to give the mix- 
ture the form of a block, to be afterwards cut into pieces of the re- 
quired shape, or to give at once to the mixture the form of the in- 
tended electrode. In all cases it preferred to make the moulded 
mass of not more than 3 or 4 inches in its least diameter, for when 
larger it is liable to have fissures, and not to be of such uniform 
density. The mixture being placed in these moulds, is subjected 
to heat and heavy pressure until it becomes consolidated into a 
very dense and firm mass. And when the mass is in a heated state 
it is plunged into sugar, melted by beat (without the aid of any 
liquid,) and kept therein for a short period. It is then taken out 
and allowed to become cold, when it is placed amongst pieces of 
charcoal in a close vessel, which is gradually heated until it attains 
a full red heat, after which the temperature is increased to an in- 
tense white heat ; at which it should be kept for many hours, or 
even two or three days, according to the hardness and compactness 
desired. Or the mass may be a second time immersed in the melted 
sugar while hot, and the remainder of the process be again repeated 
as before. 

8* 



i2 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LFtBIiUAnY 



By coating the mass in t)iis way witli melted siipar, any pores 
that may be in it (on its external surface at least), are filled nji 
with carbonaceous matter, and any subsequent drying rendered un- 
necessary. 

The following the patentee states to be the best dimensions for 
the electrodes : — The lower electrode should be as long as can be 
conveniently manufactured (8 inches for instance,) when used for 
ordinary purposes, and it should be of a cylindrical form. The 
smaller' the diameter is, the better the liglit ; but the larger the 
electrode is (in cross section), the longer it will last with a given 
current of electricity. The upper electrode need not be of any 
great length ; it is well, however, to have it about one-tliird as long 
a.s the lower one, and of half the diameter. 

The patentee concludes his specification with the following ac- 
count of a method of employing currents of electricity to actuate 
apparatus for effectinij tlie speedy lighting up and extinction or 
obscuration of signal lamps in which oil, camphine, or other like 
inflammable fluid is the illuminating substance employed : — Sup- 
pose, for example, tliere are three such lam])s with diff'erent coloured 
glasses, say white, green, and red, which are required to be some- 
times lighted, and at other times extinguished or obscured, as is 
usual on railways, and not all at once, but in a particular order of 
sequence, or each under particular circumstances only, I efl'ect this 
in the following manner. The three coloured signal lamps are 
placed side by side, or they may be placed one above the other. A 
sectional elevation of one of these is given in fig. 5. A' is a bar of 




Fig. S. 

metal, having a drop bar B', attached to it. These bars are for tin; 
purpose of working three extinguishers, one to each lamp. The 
figure shows one of these extinguishers as applied to a lamp ; the 
dotted lines in the figure indicate the jjosition which it assumes 
when raised up. The drop bar B' is attached to a clockwork 
escapement, the detent of which is alternately retained and liberated 
by the passage of electric current, and by its mechanical force 
raises up the l)ar B', and causes the light, in whichever lamp it may 
be, to be put out. The three extinguishers are made to move to- 
gether, to save the necessity of each being provided witli a separate 
extinguishing mechanism. In the centre of the burner of each 
lamp is a ring«, of fine platinum wire, which is so contrived as to 
touch the wick of the lamp, and the current of electricity being 
made to pass tlirough tliis platinum ring, it becomes intensely 
heated, and tlierel)y ignites the wick of the lam]). I do not restrict 
myself, however, to the employment of platinum wire, as carbon 
for this purpose may be used, or any other difficultly-fusible mate- 
rial ; neither do I limit myself to the employment of a ring of any 
particular form. The wick may, for instance, be a flat wick, and 
in that case a straight piece of wire would be suitable for the ar- 
rangement. 



ARTIFICIAL FUEL. 

BoNDV AzuLAY, of Ilotherliithe, Surrey, printer, and AnitAiiAir 
Soi.oMo.vs, of London, mercliaiit, for ^^ Iniproremi'iitK in thf riiiiiiii- 
fiirtiire of rharaml (iiid otlirr fuel." — Granted June 10 ; Enrollcil 
"Dec. 10,"l8i7. 

This invention relates, first, to the manufacture of charcoal, 
to avoid waste caused by breaking it. This is effected by reducint; 
the waste to powder, and then compressing it, by an hydraulic 
press or other apparatus, in moulds, until the mass is reduced to 
from one-fifth to one-eighth of its original liulk. 

The second invention relates to making fuel of small coal, 
breeze, coke, and cinders, with or without charcoal, l)y pulverizing 
the whole, and then compressing the powder into blocks. 

The third invention relates to making a fuel for lighting fires, 
by mixing charcoal powder, small coal, breeze, coke, and cinders 
(all or any of them), with tar, pitch, resin, or other suitable in- 
flammable substance, and compressing the mixture in moulds; and 
when taken from the mould, the block is dipped in tlie tar, &c., 
and covered with saw-dust and wrapped in waste ))aper : a block 
so prepared will readily ignite on the application of a lighted 
match. 



M^\TER GAUGE. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane, Middlesex, 
mechanical draughtsman, for " Improivd iipparntiiK to be applied to 
steam-boilers." — Granted April 15; Enrolled Oct. 15, 1847. (A 
communication.) 

The principle upon which the apparatus is constr\icted is that 
of a percussive horizontal action of a flat surface upon a portion 
of the water to be gauged. One form of apparat\is on this prin- 
ciple is shown in the annexed engravings, figs. 1 and 2, lieing an 
external view and section, a, the steam-boiler; 6, a small cylinder 




Fif. I. 



Fit... 2. 



communicating therewith by two tubes c d, the upper one with the 
steam, and the lower with the water ; c, a piston, moving freely in 
the cylinder /;, aiul connected by a rod /, to a vibrating lever ij. 
enclosed in a (piadrant-shaped chamber. The pivot of the lever y 
passes through a stuffing-box _/', made at the small eiul of the quad'- 
rant, and carries externally another lever A, furnished with au 
index for iiulicating, on a graduated scale, the height of water ia 
the boiler. A rod ; is suspeiuled from the lever It, for enabling the 
atteiulant to raise the piston in the cylinder, and bring it down 
with percussive force on to tlie surface of the water, in order to 
ascertain its exact height. It will he at once understood that Uw 
same pressure of steam and water must exist in the cylinder and 
its (|uadrant case as in the boiler, and that the working of the 
apparatus cannot be afl^ected thereby. 



1818.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



S3 



ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF INLAND NAVIGATION. 

By Hon. & Rev. A. P. Perceval, B.C.L., 

Chaplain to the Queen. 

Chapter I. — On the Comparative Pronpective Value of Railways 
and Canals. 

In the month of December, 1844, while a party of travellers and 
traders were waiting: at the Crewe Station the arrival of the «p- 
train, and eajjerly discussinf!f railway matters, that mania being- 
then at its heiffht, they were startled from their ])ropriety, by 
hearing an individual in the room address them thus : " Well, 
gentlemen, I will hack the canals against the railways now ; I 
intend to invest wholly in them, and I ad\ise you all to do the 
same." If a jiistol had been discharged in the midst of the com- 
pany, it could hardly have produced a more striking effect. All 
stared ; and most, by movement or ejaculation, gave token of 
extreme surprise. Some looked with pity upon the speaker, a 
clergyman, as though the saying, " Ne .intor ultra crrpirinm" was 
passing in their minds, and they contemplated one about to ruin 
himself and his family by meddling in matters out of his sphere. 
But when he proceeded to propound, for the consideration of the 
company, his grounds for the opinion which he had expressed, none 
were found ready to gainsay the reasonableness of them. They 
were these : 

I. That the wear and tear on canals is so inconsiderably less than 
on railways, that the former, if projierly conducted, must be able 
to undersell the latter. 

II. That while lines of railway may he multiplied nd lihitiini, 
occasioning unlimited competition, and consequently unlimited 
reduction of profits, such multiplication of lines of water con- 
veyance is almost physically imposssible : consequently, that canals 
must always retain a comparative monopoly. 

III. " Remember, gentlemen," he said, "that human talent and 
ingenuity have been taxed to the utmost to bring all the appliances 
that science can afford, to promote locomotion on railways ; while, 
as yet, nothing, or next to nothing, of the sort has been attempted 
on canals." 

Three years ha\e elapsed since these opinions were expressed at 
('rewe : let us see what light can be thrown upon the soundness of 
them, by comparing, 1st, The present state of railways with its 
condition at that time ; 2ndly, The respective condition and pro- 
spects of railways and canals, tlien and at the present time. 

I. To take three old and well-established lines for illustration : 
The value of the under-mentioned was, in Dec. 'H ; is, in Dec. '17 

London and Birmingham ... „ 228 „ 150 

Great Western „ 157 „ 90 

London and South- Western „ 77 „ 50 

II. Let us take for illustration the Birmingham Railway and the 
Birmingham Canal : 

In December 1814, the Birmingham Railway furnished to the 
proprietors, not merely in actual dividends, the 10 per cent, (to 
which it had been sought by Act of Parliament to restrict the 
profits on railway enterprise), but advantages in new shares, Ike. — 
in general estimation certainly not less than another 10 per cent. 

We have now before us the Report of this company for the half- 
year ending Midsummer 1817 ; announcing in the plainest terms, 
that the second of the causes alleged at Crewe as a reason for 
regarding railways as offering doubtful security for investment, 
namely, the liability to unlimited competition, has begun to tell 
with fearful effect against the prosperity of this most prosperous 
of railway undertakings, which is no longer able to pay even the 
legal 10 p"er cent. The Chairman is stated to have said : " He 
hoped that before Parliament sanctioned any further extension of 
the principle of competition, or of reduced fares, they would hear 
in mind the inevitable results which must follow from pursuing 

such a course. They saw its effect upon their receipts now 

Competition might go on in consequence of rivalry and contention 
between different companies ; hut what would be the effect .'' The 
proprietors would interfere and force the directors to reduce the 
establishments of the two companies to the lowest possible point ; 
trains would be taken off, servants would be discharged, the whole 
machinery of the companies would be deteriorated, and what would 
become of the public safety > This would be the result of those 
doctrines of competition which had been taken up by the legisla- 
ture." — Here, then, we have the confession of the most intelligent 
of railway chairmen, at the head of the most influential of railway 
companies, avowing in the face of Europe that railways afford so 
insecure an investment for capital, that they cannot possibly be 



relied upon, unless in their behalf the doctrine of Free Trade, to 
which all mankind, to speak generally, have given in their adhe- 
sion, be repudiated ; and an artificial protection be afforded to 
them, which has been denied, not only to the inland navigation, 
but even to the agriculture of the country ! 

Meanwhile, how has the Birmingham Canal been faring.'' In 
December 1811, in consequence of the railway mania, it had so 
fallen in iiublic estimation, and apprehensive value, that projects 
for draining off the water, and converting the channels into rail- 
way beds, were seriously discussed. 

We have also before us the Report of this Company for the half- 
year ending Midsummer 1817 : from which it appears, that not- 
withstanding its operations have been impeded by a very question- 
able (in point of prudence) alliance which it has contracted with 
the Birmingham Railw ay, whereby it has placed itself, to a certain 
extent, under the control of tlie latter, on condition of receiving 
from it a guarantee, in perpetuity, of the customary dividend of 
£4, per share (a guarantee which it is dou1>tful whether the railway 
company would be able to make good, should the canal company 
ever be so reduced as to demand the fulfilment of it), and notwith- 
standing a " considerable pressure on the mercantile world," to 
which in common with the railway, it has been subjected, its affairs 
are in a state of unexampled prosperity. " The account for the 
last half-year," the Report says, " exhibits a considerable increase 
of revenue, the amount for the six months ending 30tli of June 
last, including rents, being £86,125 7«. 3}^ii. [being an increase of 
£21,192 above the corresponding half-year in 1816]. The balance 
of the accounts, after providing for the payment of the half-year's 
interest, and the usual dividend of £'2 per share (which the com- 
mittee now recommend to be ))ai(l free from the income-tax), shows 
a surplus of upwards of £9,000." 

In other cases, where the canal companies have not tied their 
hands from competing with rival railways, as the Birmingham 
Canal Company have done by their compact with the Birmingham 
Railway, the truth of the first of the reasons alleged at Crewe has 
had opportunity of being tested : and the result has been, to speak 
generally, to confirm and establish its truth ; and Lord Ellesmere 
on his waters, and the Birmingham and AVorcester C'ompany on 
theirs, to name no others, can tell the world that they have ceased 
to dread any evil effects from railway competition, through fear of 
which the former received (according to report) from £80,000 to 
I £100,000, by way of compensation ; and the latter unprofitably 
: expended several thousands in an abortive railway speculation. 
I It remains to be seen whether the third of the reasons alleged at 
Crewe in 1811, for preferring canals to railways for investment — 
namely, "that while human ingenuity has been taxed to the utmost 
to facilitate locomotion on railways, little or no attention has been 
bestowed upon the improvement of inland navigation," — is as sound 
as the others (apparently) have proved to be : in other words, 
" whether inland navigation is not caiiahle of very great improvement!' 
This shall he the subject of the next chapter: before entering upon 
which, let it be well-considered, by way of encouragement to turn 
attention to the sul)ject, that a very little improvement will suffice to 
bring upon the canals the whole or almost the whole of what forms 
the chief source of revenue on many railways — namely, the con- 
veyance OF LIVE stock. No grazier, or butcher, it is believed, 
will be found to affirm otherwise than that, if the choice were 
offered to him, he would choose rather to convey the stock that he 
has to sell, or kill, by water than by rail. 

Chapter II. — On the Improvement of Inland Navigation. 

When the mind has once been directed to devise means of ren- 
dering our lines of inland navigation more available than at 
present they are found to be for the commerce of the country, the 
small degree of attention which lias as yet been bestowed upon 
them is apparent at every turn. Of tlie matters calling for amend- 
ment, some are obvious to every passer-by; otheis require con- 
sideration to be noted ; others again require argument and proof. 
Again, some are in the power of the parties trading upon the 
waters; others in that of the i>roprietors or trustees of the waters; 
others again require either extension, combination, or the inter- 
ference of the legislature. 

I. Let those matters in which the %vant of amendment is mani- 
fest to all be first considered. Of such let these be named : — 1st. 
The style and condition of the animals usually employed in the traf- 
fic. Generally speaking, these are the worst of their kind, dis- 
abled, low in condition, ill-groomed, ill-fed, — a striking contrast to 
those employed in land carriage. — Sndly. The state of the trackways. 
Natural earth, mud, water, deep sand, slippery chalk. Contrast 
these with the roads and ways employed in land traffic. By the 
sides of other roads care is taken to keep the cattle from trespass- 



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I Febbuaby, 



iiifr ; hero notliinjj of the sort is attempted. On other roads, all 
(jates, except in eases of extreme necessity, and tlien witli some 
person to watch them, are carefully excluded. On these, there is 
usually u frate at the end of every field, the hcdfres ruiniinj; down 
to the' water: as if a premium had heen ort'cred for the multiplica- 
ti(ui of causes of ohstruction. — 3rdly. The iiltfinlniirc <it llic IocIiK, 
wliich correspond to the turnpikes on land roads. On land- 
travelliuir a turnpike-house is a necessary adjunct to a turnpike- 
fjate. as close as possihle. But where in water-travellinp do we 
(iiid lock-houses — or, if found, at what distance are they situated 
from the locks intrusted to the care of the occupiers? — 4thly. The 
rmistniet'mn of the bi-iiiges so low down to the water, as to leave no 
room between them and it for an ordinary load to ])ass. 

II. Amonn; the matters in which the necessity of alteration will, 
prohahly, he admitted as soon as pointed out, are these : — 1st. Tlie 
nii])Hviit'wn of artificial locomotive poirrr. In this respect, it must be 
ai'knowledifed that England is somewhat in advance of her neiixh- 
liours, f(u- she has attained to horse-power on trackways; whereas, 
in tlie inland naviffation of the ccmtinent, when the wind fails, the 
means of locomotion usually had recourse to are either shoving- 
with Itmix poles; or ropes made fast to posts and drawn in by direct 
hand draught; or men and women yoked like brute beasts, with 
broad belts over their breasts, upon which (even women's breasts) 
the weight of the draught appears to be borne, — a sight sickening 
and revidting. England is in advance of these, and for such brute 
labour has applied brutes instead of human beings ; hut still only 
fm- direct draught : the living horse has as yet not been applied to 
leverage in this service [as is used in Canada] ; nor have those 
cheapest and most obvious of all artificial powers, the water- 
wheel and the wind-wheel, been as yet a])plied for a purpose for 
which in so many cases they are so admirably adapted ; nor sta- 
tionary steam-engines, except in one or two instances. In a few 
rases, paddle-wheels have been called in, which, on many accounts, 
are the most undesirable of all for this particular service. — 2ndly. 
The construction of the barges: first, as to their material, which, in 
almost all cases, now is of wood, more expensive, less durable, 
heavier, and more bulky than iron, to a very consideral)le propor- 
tion ; secondly, so that the barge may float on the water, and not 
below its level, necessitating the drawing through it. ^Vhat the 
specific gravity of atmospheric air is, seems a point not easy of 
solution, seeing that the barometer exhibits a perpetual fluctuation; 
but the specific gravity of water is stated on good authority to be 
G2i5 lb. to the cubic foot. When it is considered that for every 
cubic foot of barge below the water-level, C2i lb. weight of water 
has to be moved at every inch, one would have thought the atten- 
tion of all concerned would have been directed to carry as much 
of the cargo above and as little below as possible. But, somehow 
or another, a diametrically opposite course is almost universally 
adopted : about three inches of the barge appears above the water- 
line, and all the rest is sunk below — so that the gi-eatest resistance 
which the case will permit is carefully secured. — .Srdly. The means 
of ascending or descending from one water-level to another. As yet, in 
England, we have attained only to the old lock, and that so con- 
structed as to afford the chief cause of detention in water convey- 
ance. The consumption of time, the strain upon the cattle, the 
wear and tear of tackle, now required in drawing a deep-laden 
barge into a lock, ai-e well known to all wlui have to do with inland 
navigation. Yet, apparently, it requires little contemplation of a 
lock, to see how (even without altering the construction of the 
barges, and still dragging the goods through the water) an immense 
saving of time and labour may be effected, by a slight alteration ; 
while the field for invention and experiment in perpeinlicular lifts 
and inclined planes is as yet almost unoccupied ; only our neigh- 
bours in the United States of America have lately adopted one 
species of the former, while those in China have of long time very 
extensively employed the latter — of which some account and draw- 
ings are to be found in Lord Macartney's Embassy.^tthly. The 
supjili/ of voter : both in the saving it at the change of levels, and 
in securing supplies in dry weather, all must see how much remains 
to be doiu' ; while, few, probably, who apply their minds to it, will 
consider any great difficulty to lie in the way of improvement. 

III. Of matters calling for improvement, which it reipiires ar- 
gument or experiment to establish, it will suffice to suggest one, of 
a inccliani(^al nature — which is, //«« jjoint of draught ; to which, at 
])resent, as far as apj)ears, no attention has heen paid ; hut which, 
it is hard to conceive to be a thing indlft'erent. But of this class, 
the most important is tlie jointed system of our lines of inland 
navigation — broken into short pieces, under distinct governments, 
like the turnpike trusts ; but attempting against one another a 
system of injury, which the trustees of turnpike roads have, appa- 



rently, never contemplated. Between London and Birmingliam, 
for instance, there are as many as four such, at least. It is in vain 
that one, two, or three of these concur in meeting the public 
convenience and their own general interests, by reduction of tolls 
or any other C(uubiued improvement, as long as it is in the ])ower 
of the remaining portion or ])orti(ms to profit by the reductions of 
the others, by either maintaining their own tolls at the unreduced 
rate, or even raising them in the face of the reduction of others ; 
both of which cases are found not unfrequently to occur. 

Chapter III. — On the Formation of Inland Navigation Conveyance 
Companies. 

The only apparent metluul of overcoming the last-named diffi- 
culty in the way of the im|)rovement of inland navigation — namely, 
that arising from the division of intei'ests at work u]ion all our 
chief lines (apart from direct legislative interference, which is the 
last and least-desirable remedy,) — is the formation of conveyance 
companies throughout a whole line ; offering to all the different 
navigation com])anies along the line, shares according to their mile- 
age ; and to all the parties already trading on those luivigations, 
shares according to the amount of capital already embarked in 
this employment. By tliis means it should seem not merely prac- 
ticable but easy to unite, for thecommon benefit of all, those interests, 
the confliction of which at present is found to be injurious to all. 

The writer, who is a clergyman, and who has turned his atten- 
tion to the improvement of this department of human industry, 
chiefly, or rather solely, with the view of making it subservient to 
the best interests, present and future, of mankind, has already in 
several quarters privately put forward suggestions for the forma- 
tion of such companies, which have hitherto been generally favour- 
ably received; — he now desires to submit them more extensively to 
the consideration of his fellow-men, based upon this condition, 
which he has in\'ariably exhibited — namely. That provision for the 
spiritual and educational wants of all the emptogi'es of such a company, 
and of all who are called i)ito Ijeing (hi/ the encouragement given to 
marriage J hg its prosperity — and also for their bodily wants, in sick- 
ness, accidents, and superannuation — shall form a first and necessary 
item of such company's expenditure to an extent not exceeding one- 
tenth of the whole. 

How extensively such a principle, if generally adopted by our 
great companies, would tend to the amelioration of society, and the 
comfort and well-being of all classes, drawing them together by 
the surest bonds of Christian faith ami love, there can he no need 
of words to demonstrate. The more each man contemplates it in 
his own breast, the more (the writer believes) it will be found to 
commend itself, alike acceptalile to God and ajjproved of men. 

Taking Birmingham as the centre of British industry, such com- 
panies may obviously m ith advantage be formed, respectively, on 
the following main lines, omitting for the present the considera- 
tion of the less important : — 1. Birmingham, Arorcester, Gloucester, 
and Bristol ; 2. Birmingham, Chester, and Liverpool ; 3. Birming- 
ham, Manchester, Leeds, Halifax, and Hull; 4. Birmingham and 
London; 5. Birmingham and Chichester. Again, (i. Hull and 
Liverpool; 7. Hull and London ; 8. London and Bristol ; 9. Lon- 
don and Chichester. 

To complete the line of inland navigation from Birmingham and 
the manufacturing districts to the British Channel, there needs but 
to connect the Grand Junction with the Colne, a cut of one or two 
miles, which falls into the Thames at Egham, from which the out- 
let is at Weybridge ; and so by Guildford and Arundel. This at 
present neglected, but surely most important, line from London to 
the British Channel, either into Arundel or Chichester — that is to 
say, Langston harbour — is quite complete. By it, if a proper com- 
pany were formed, and the commonest appliances brought to bear, 
goods discharged in either of those harbours could be landed at 
London-bridge easily within twenty-four hours, at a highly re- 
munerative charge of ten shillings per ton, covering all. 'fhus, in 
time of war, all the hazard to our merchandise which the Duke of 
Wellington lias ])rognosticated from French steamers in the little 
French ports, with the sun always on their backs, would be obviated, 
and the incalculable expenditure contemplated in the acknow- 
ledgedly-hopeless undertaking of making a Harbour of Refuge at 
Dover would be superseded. And at all times the risk of insurance 
from weather, the chief jiart of which from China to London is cal- 
culated on the passage through tlie Straits of Dover and round the 
coast of Kent, to say nothing of delays incalculable, would be re- 
moved. The present unoccuiiied harbour of Langston is of size to 
receive in safety the whole merchant fleet of the country. Again, 
by continuing the navigation of tiie Wey beyond Godalming in the 
direction of Alresford, and extending the navigation of the Itchin, 
with a cut of five or six miles to unite them, another line of inland 



.1848] 



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££ 



navigation from London to the Channel would lie com])leted ; and 
by continuinfT the navijration of the Test or Auton to \\'liitchiirch 
or Ash, with a cut "f five miles to the Basiiijfstoke canal, a tliird 
line would be com]>leted : and Lanf;ston, Arundel or Littlelianip- 
ton, and Southam])ton become the ports of London. 

On the other side of the Irish Channel, conveyance companies 
between Dublin and ^^'aterford (by the Barrow navif,ration, as 
thrivinir a water concern as any in the kingdom, and the receipts 
on whii-h last \'ear were greater than ever) ; and between Dublin 
and Limerick (by the Grand Canal, one of the finest in the kinar- 
dom, aud tlie Sliannon), obviously present tliemselves. A cut of 
three miles, or tliereabouts, connectini; the Slaney with the Barrow, 
would bring- Wexford witliin inland navigation of Dublin. A cut 
of about the same length from the Grand Canal at Ballinasloe, into 
one of the small rivers tliat run into Galway Bay, would connect, 
in the shortest line, the Atlantic with the Irish Sea. 

It is believed by tlie writer tliat every one of the twelve or fifteen 
lines here enumerated will be admitted by all practical men to pre- 
sent, if properly conducted, as safe openings for capital and indus- 
try as any in the kingdom. 



REVIE'WS. 



A Guide to the Proper Regxdation of Buildings in Towns, as a 
means of Promoting and Securing the Health, Comfort, and Safety 
of the Inhabitants. By Wm. Hosking, Architect & C.E. Lon- 
don : Murray, 184.8. 

Mr. Hosking's book may be taken as one of the signs of tlie 
times, and therefore we give our attention to it, and recommend it 
to our readers. The outcry for sanitary reform can no longer be 
unheeded ; it has led to a practical movement, which must go on. 
Tlie architects, engineers, and medical men, who created this 
movement, and have fostered it — and we rejoice that our publica- 
tion has l)een found among the earliest advocates — may feel justly 
gratified that their proceedings have at length received the coun- 
tenance and co-operation of the legislature. Those, however, who 
have held back, or thought that the agitation had no practical 
autliority, and was merely a noise ab«mt trifles, must now bestir 
themselves, or they will be left liehind by their more enliglitened 
compeers. Obstinate adlierence to old prejudices has already 
brought public ridicule on several men of standing; and reputa- 
tions which have cost scores of years to build up are at once knocked 
down, when it is found that tlie parties have for scores of years 
been wasting the public money, in the despite of every warning. 
The public are now awakened, and they require at the hands of 
architects and builders a degree of knowledge as to structural 
arrangements, which formerly was never thought of. For all the 
better class of buildings it is no longer enough to run up a set of 
walls and to line them, but the buildings must be made habitable 
otherwise than by being mere shelters against rain. They must 
have properprovision for lighting, warming, ventilation, and sewage; 
matters about which employers and builders thought very little 
some years ago. Tiie reports of tlie Sanitary Commissioners, the 
labours of Messrs. Roe and Phillips, the work of Mr. Hosking, are 
landmarks, whereby professional men may note the set of tlie cur- 
rent, and observe the disposition of tlie authorities to carry out to 
the full what used to be laughed at as the theories of sanitary 
reform. Mr. Hosking, of course, disclaims any official character 
for his book ; but his station as one of the Official Referees for Me- 
tropolitan Buildings, will, in the eyes of the public, give an official 
character to his book in despite of himself; and most of wliat he 
says is so reasonable, that it will work its way with the legislature, 
the public, and the profession, all of whom his book interests. 

Although it is perfectly true tliat the improved system of struc- 
tural arrangements has arisen mostly from the labours of architects 
and engineers, yet it has not been fostered so generally among the 
profession as is desirable. Indeed, the public at this moment are 
ahead of architects and builders — a state of ail'airs which cannot 
long continue with comfort to the latter. This arises, we fear, 
from a want of appreciation of tiie value of professional literature, 
and therefore the want of a laudable spirit of investigation and 
information. If it be remembered that until our Journal \va.s esta- 
blished, no architectural periodical had been able to maintain 
itself, this will show what the state of affairs formerly was ; but 
though the number of years which this Journal has existed is a 
proof that we have effected a change for the better, we cannot but 



be sensible that architects are not so much alive as they ouffht to 
be to the culti\ ation of professional learning. To advert, as an 
instance, to our own publication, we feel well assured that by a 
great number of our readers our earlier remarks on sanitary and 
structural arrangements were passed over as being of no interest, 
or as not being immediately practical, because tlie reader did not 
take the trouble to investigate and search out feu- liimself the truth 
or justice of our arguments. The consequence has been that many, 
instead of being gradually led and prepared to a jiractical appre- 
ciation of the subject, wake up as it were suddenly to a conscious- 
ness that they liave got to learn a great deal immediately and with 
some trouble, which they might have learned slowly and easily. 
M'e have sometimes met witli remonstrances because we liave given 
attention to questions whicli were thought the whims of the day, 
but the importance of which is now recognised by all, tliough 'it 
should be remembered, that a periodical like our's is a liutw be- 
tween tlie public and professional men, for those of the public who 
feel an interest in professional pursuits, or seek for information, 
naturally apply themselves to such a recognised source. Hence 
we have lieen enabled on many occasions to forward professional 
interests, and to awaken attention among the public, so as to in- 
sure co-operation in carrying out measures which were desirable. 
In reference to the present question of sanitary reform, Iiowever. 
it is particularly incumbent on professional men to apply them- 
selves to it, or otiierwise medical men and others will put them- 
sehes forward to secure, if they can, some greater sliare than 
fairly bekuigs to them in the new arrangements. 

Mr. Lloskiug's book must be read by the architect and builder, 
because it is just the kind of book which will be read by the em- 
ployer. The committee of a club who desire a superior house, the 
gentleman who wants a comfortable mansion, the merchant who 
requires a safe warehouse, the board of guardians who ad\ertise 
for a healthy workhouse, are likely to look into the work before 
us, as a guide to the best modes of securing the health, comfort, 
and safety of a building. Perhaps Jlr. Hosking has a leaning in 
favour of timber and against iron, and in favour of brick and 
against stone ; but we hardly like to say this, for there is so much 
candour in stating tlie case, and so much practical knowledge dis- 
played throughout, that we believe Mr. Hosking is about as fair a 
guide as we have yet had upon structural arrangements. There 
is very little of his book which is new, and it is hardly likely tliat 
there sliould be ; but \\hat there is new, is the careful and close 
consideration of what is the best and most practical mode of reach- 
ing any given end : and tliis may be called new, for we fear it is 
too general to run up buildings without the least consideration of 
their fitness for the purposes to which they are applied. It may 
be said sliortly that the houses of the metropolis are made dan- 
gerous to life from their combustil)ility, and to health from their 
want of ventilation; while the sewers are so made as to form an 
elaborate machinery for poisoning the population, for cutting ofT 
the infant in its cradle, and taking years away from tlie life of 
every inhabitant of tliis immense aud thickly-peopled city. 

We have said that Mr. Hosking is unfavourable to the use of 
iron under some circumstances, and it will be useful to lay before 
our readers his remarks upon the subject. He says — 

" There is no kind of economical structure that resists the action of fire so 
perfectlj as brickwork does, and any structure wholly of bricks, set in and 
combined with proper mortar, may be deemed for all econoiuical purposes a 
fire-proof structure. But floors and roofs, or roof coverings, cannot be 
formed in brickwork alone, without the sacrifice of space and materials, to 
so large an extent as to render such a mode of structure inconsistent with a 
due regard to economy in those important particulars. Means are to be 
sought, therefore, by which brickwoik may be rendered available, to the 
greatest extent possible, consistently with economy of space, and, if it may 
be, of materials also. For this purpose iron presents itself as a substance 
wholly incombustible, and capalile, in the form of beams and girders, of 
bearing over space horizontally, and so as to leave, for economical purposes, 
a large proportion of extent in height, which brick vaulting would absorb ; 
and, requiring no such absorption of space as brick vaults require for their 
lateral abutments, iron, employed as a means of vertical support, in columns 
or story-posts, will give the requisite strength to that effect in far less space 
within an enclosure than brickwork requires in piers or pillars to give the 
requisite bed to the springings of vaults, and to carry the weight of brick 
vaulting. But iron, although incombustible, is fusible under (he action of 
intense heat, and is, in its more economical condition, frangible if suddenly 
cooled when hot ; without reference to its generally brittle character, or to 
the uncertainty which attends its manufacture, when applied in that condi- 
tion. Beams, girders, and columns or story-posts, of wrought-iron, if suth 
things could be produced in wrought-iron economically, would bend when 
exposed to a high degree of heat, and let down any structure that bad been 
made dependent upon them ; whilst beams or girders of cast-iron break 
when dashed with water ; and columns of the same substance are liable to 



56 



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[Febeuabv, 



soften and yield, as well as to snap ; in either and in any case, involving the 
rnin of lliu ImiUlings, the destruction of the property conlHled to tliem, and 
danger to the lives of firemen or others within reach of the ruin. 

So great is the danger apprehended front the treachery of cast-iron in 
buildings on fire, that the men of the London fire-engine estahlishment, who 
go unhesitatingly, in the execution of their duly, into burning buildings, are 
prohibited from going into parts or places which depend upon supports of 
cast-iron, whilst they are allowed to trust themselves to burning timber 
almost at their own discretion — a quality for which they are not, indeed, so 
remarkable as they are for headlong and gallant daring. 

Cast-iron is constantly recurred to, neverilieless, as a means of economis- 
ing space in the formation, and largely also in the support of the floors of 
buildings which it is desired to render proof against fire ; and it is certain 
that the use of beams, girders, and story-posts of cast-iron tends to that 
effect : that is to say, the liability of the building to take fire is lessened by 
the use of iron in place of wood, hut for the purpose under consideration — 
power of resisting the action of fire when it occurs to matters stored in a 
building, and is fed by such matters independently of the substances em- 
ployed in the structure of the building — iron requires to he itself protected 
from the action of the fire." 

Mr. Hosking goes on to suggest the mode in which iron can he 
safely used for floors and ceilings ; hut he adheres to the opinion 
that if pillars must he used, they should he of brickwork. 

We ourselves have witnessed the danger of using cast-iron in 
exposed situations in buildings. We recollect, within the last four 
or five years, the fire at Fenton's wharf, London Bridge, where the 
warehouses were supported upon cast-iron hressummers, and which, 
through being heated by the fire, and the cold water of the engines 
falling upon them, were cracked, and in consequence the super- 
structure was obliged to he taken down. In other situations, we 
have seen the fronts of houses erected on timber hressummers which 
have withstood the ravages of the fire, an external coating of about 
an inch in depth of the timber being only injured by the flames. 

The preservation of life from fire is an object in which Mr. 
Hosking deservedly takes great interest, and he has brought to 
bear the results of his remarks on buildings at Paris, which we wish 
we could transfer at some length to our own pages. After recom- 
mending that party-walls shall be reduced to one-brick thick, on 
condition of cross-walls or partitions being built throughout the 
house of one-brick thick, and after stating the danger of the hollow 
quartering partition generally used, he describes the system he 
observed in Paris. 

" The plan referred to is, to frame and brace with timber quarterings much 
in the manner practised in England, except that the timber used in Paris is 
commonly oak, and is very generally seasoned before it is applied in building 
in the manner referred to; and that, as before remarked, the carpenter's 
work, or carpentering, of the French is not so good as that of the English. 
The framed structure being complete, strong oak batten-laths, from two to 
three inches wide, are n;iiled up to the quarterings horizontally, at four, six, 
or even eight inches apart, according to the character of the work, through- 
out the whole height of the enclosure or partition ; and the spaces between 
the quarterings. and behind the laths, are loosely built up with rough stone 
rubble, which the laths, recurring often enough for that purpose, hold up, or 
prevent from falling out until the next process has been effected. This is, 
to apply a strong mortar, which in Paris is mainly composed of what we 
know under the name of plaster of paris, but of excellent quality, laid on 
from or upon both sides at the same time, and pressed through from the 
opposite sides so that the mortar meets and incorporates, imbedding the 
stone rubble by filling up every interstice, and with so much body on the 
suriaces as to cover up and imbed also the timber and the laths ; — in such 
manner, indeed, as to render the concretion of stone and plaster, when 
thoroughly set, an independent body, and giving strength to, rather than re- 
ceiving support from, the timber." 

The same plan is applied in Paris to the stairs, and Mr. Hosking 
recommends it for adoption here. He likewise gives a detailed 
account of the French mode of making ceilings and floors. 

" But the French render theirfloors also so nearly fire-proof as to leave but 
little to desire in that respect, and in a manner attainable with single joists, 
as well, at the least, as with joists framed into girders. According to their 
practice, the ceiling must be formed before the upper surface or floor is laid, 
inasmuch as the ceiling is formed from above, instead of from below. — The 
carpenters' work being complete, strong batten-laths are nailed up to the 
under sides of the joists, as laths are with us; but they are much thicker 
and wider than our billis, and aie placed so far apart, tliat not more, per- 
haps, tiiaii one-half of tlie space is occupied by the laths. The laths being 
aftixed — and they must he soundly nailed, as they have a heavy weight to 
carry — a platform, made of rough hoards, is strutted up from below parallel 
to the plane formed by the laths, and at about an inch below them. Mortar 
IS then laid in from above over the platform, and between and over the laths, 
to a thickness of from two inches and a half to three inches, and is forced in 
under the laths, and under the joists and girders. The mortar being gauged, 
as our plasterers term it, or rather, in great part composed of plaster of paris, 
it soon sets sufliciently to allow the platform — which, it will be readily un- 



derstood, has performed the same office to the mortar which centering per- 
forms to the parts of an arch or vault — to be removed onwards to another 
compartment, until the whole ceiling of any room or story of a buildine is 
formed. The plaster ceiling thus formed, is, in fact, a strong slab or table, 
in the body of wliicli the batten-laths which hold it up safely in the air are 
incorporated, and in the back of which the joists, from which the mass is 
suspended, are imbedded. By the process, the under surface of the plaster 
table has taken from the rough boards of the platform the roughness re- 
quisite to facilitate tlie adhesion of the finishing coat of plastering, which is 
of course, laid on from below. 

Wheiher the eventual surface is to be a boarded floor or not, however, 
the flooring joists are covered by a table of plaster above, as completely as 
they are covered by a plaster ceiling below. — Rough battens, generally split 
and in short lengths, looking like ends of oak pales, stout enough to bear, 
when laid from joist to joist, the weight of a man without bending, are laid 
with ends abutting upon every joist, and as close together as they will lie 
without having been shot or planed on their edges, so as to joint them. 
Upon a rough loose floor thus formed, mortar of nearly similar consistence 
to that used for ceilings, but not necessarily of the same good quality, is 
spread to a thickness of about three inches; and as it is made to fill in the 
voids at the ends and sides of the floor-laths upon the joists the laths be- 
come bedded upon the joists, whilst they are to some extent also incorpo- 
rated with the plaster, and the result is a firm floor, upon which, in ordinary 
buildings, and in the public and commoner apartments of almost all build- 
ings, paving- tiles are laid, bedded and jointed in a tenacious cement to form 
the working floor. 

It may be added in explanation of the statement, that in Paris the practice 
of forming a table of plaster over the joists when tiles are to be used as the 
flooring surface, is employed also when a boarded floor is to supervene, — 
that as the surfaces of the true joists lie under the mortar or plaster table, 
a base is formed for the boards of what English carpenters would call stout 
fillets of wood about 2 J inches square, ranged as joists, and strutted apart to 
keep them in their places, over the mortar table, to which they are some- 
times scribed down, and that to these fillets, or false joists, the flooring 
boards are secured by nails ; so that in truth the boarded floor is not at all 
connected with the structure of the floor, but is formed upon its upper coat 
of plaster. The wooden floor thus becomes a mere fitting in an apartment, 
and not extending beyond the room nor over the passages and landings to 
the stairs, the floor in any room might burn without communicating fire to 
the stairs, which, in their turn, if they could burn, could hardly endanger 
the immediate safety of any inmate of the building, because of the complete 
separation which the tiled and plastered floor of the landings effects between 
the wooden stairs and the several apartments." 

The author remarks that a similar floor is used at Nottingham, 
where the houses are said never to he burnt, and are free from 
damp and vermin. 

Mr. Hosking objects to timber being laid hedwise in walls, or 
joists being let into them, but recommends that the rafters be let 
in and properly secured against fire. 

We may observe, upon a note of Mr. Hosking's as to Flemish 
bond, that he says he never saw Flemish bond in Flanders, at 
Rotterdam and the Hague, Antwerp, Brussels, Liege, Cologne, 
Mentz, and Frankfort. Now there is only one of these towns in 
Flanders, and this is no proof that J'lemish bond is not to be found 
at Ghent, Bruges, Courtrai, Ostend, Ypres, Dunkirk, Lille, or 
other towns in Flanders. 

Of French carpentry, Mr. Hosking says that it is much behind 
our's, so that in framing the floors no important bearing is, or in- 
deed may be, trusted to the framed joint, dognailed stirrup-straps 
of iron being always brought in aid. He says, however, that their 
boarded floors are always tongued in the joints, and almost always 
parquetted, and so resolved into compartments of various figures, 
and being tongued and edge-nailed, no nail or bradheads appear 
upon the surface to dot over and disfigure the floors, which being 
for the most part of wainscot, are far more sightly than the best 
executed deal battened floor with us. 

With regard to Parisian masonry our author states, 

" It is by means of the girder bearing upon the solids of the walls, though 
with bad carpenters' work, or carpentering rather, that the French are aide 
to carry up their soft stone rubble walls to heights that would frighten even 
a London builder, and that would certainly be unsafe if the walls were 
seamed with wooden plates, and shaken by floors of single joists. The 
author, being at Paris in 1846, measured the thickness in the ground-floor 
story of a newly-built coursed-rulihle party-wall, in the Rue de la Banque 
(the Gresbam Street of Paris), and found it to be exactly 18 English inches 
in that part, whilst the total height of the wall was not less than 8o feet. 
The wall ran up of that same thickness through six stories, a height of not 
less than 65 feet, and was terminated by a gable of from 12 to 15 feet high, 
of the same kind of structure ; and there was besides a vaulted basement 
story, throughout which the wall might have been 20 inches thick, as other 
similar walls then in progress to neighbouring buildings proved to be. And 
it is by means of the solidity given to the floors by the girders, and the solid 
bearings which the girders obtain, that the floors are able to carry the dead 



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57 



weight of matter v\liich renilers tliem practically fireprnnf, in addition to I'te 
moving weights to which the floors of buildings are necessarily exposed to 
use." 

Among Mr. Hosking's ohjeotions is tliat to the use of concrete 
as a mere footing for walls, from the notion that a foundation is 
thus rendered strong by depth ; whereas he advocates the use of a 
thinner layer of concrete over the whole foundation, so as to gain 
strength by an increase of base. 

Another objection he entertains is to the wooden skirting-board, 
which causes filth, discomfort, and danger, as it is often too close 
to the chimney flue. He also considers that tlie deep boxings for 
window sluitters gratuitously make a house more inflammable, and 
he reconnnends metal roller-blinds instead. 

We do not think yir. Hosking dwells too much upon the pre- 
cautions to be taken against fire ; and if any of our readers do, we 
recommend to them the following justification : — 

" It appears from an estimate appended to a Report liy Mr. Fairhaim on the 
Conslruclion of Fireproof Buildings, with Introductory Remarks hv Mr. 
Samuel Holmes, pulilished at Liverpool in ISJ-I, that the insuranre-offires 
paid for losses by fire in Liverpool alone, in the ten years ending December, 
18-12, the suna of 1,121,427?. This sum does not, of course, include the 
losses of, and other injuries to, the poor who do not insure, hut who are 
always great sufferers in cases of fire ; and some of the fires which occasioned 
the losses were extensive conflagrations, in which lives were lost in the 
attempts made to subdue the fire; nor does it include a probably large 
amount of property not sufficiently insured to cover tlie losses. 

Urged by successive calamities by fire, and by the high rates of premium 
which tlie insurance offices were compelled to exact to enalde them to meet 
the losses, the people of Liverpool applied to Parliament at length, and ob- 
tained, in lS-13, an Act to compel themselves to abide by certain wholesome 
regulations, as it regarded the security of buildings from fire. The effect of 
this Act, 6 & 7 Vict. c. 109, and the provision of a supply of water available 
in case of fire, has been to reduce the rates of insurance considerably; but 
the protective measures are estimated to have cost from 200, OUO/. to 300 000/., 
which being added to the losses above stated, with a tnfiing addition for the 
hisses not included in the estimate, will show an annihilation of property in 
one town alone, and within ten short years, to the enormous amount of a 
million and a half of money." 

The author is not quite clear upon the subject of ventilation — 
but then it is in its infancy : still his remarks are well worthy of 
perusal. 

In conclusion, we may observe that Mr. Hosking has rendered a 
great service to the profession by the publication of this book, as 
a useful work of reference, and as a vindication of tlie practical 
claims of the architectural profession to their proper share in 
structural arrangements. 



Rnihmti Practice. By S. C. Brf.es, C.E. London : AV^illiams 
and C'o., 184.7. Third and Fourth Series. 

These are two large volumes with a profusion of plates, forming 
the third and fourth of the series of railway practice. They are 
translations from the Portefenille ck.s Clicmbt.s- de Fci\ by Messrs. 
Perdonnet and Poltinceau, but derived from English materials. It 
is a curious thing that we should be indebted to the French for the 
description of our own railway works, and that there should be a 
want either of enterprise or zeal to publish an original account. 
So it is however that we are particularly deficient in accounts of 
our great engineering works, and this from three causes : that our 
great engineers ha\e no time to write, that our young engineers 
have no ability to write, and that engineers generally do not buy 
nor read works when published. Thus we are often served at 
second-hand with accounts of our own works by Frenchmen, Ameri- 
cans, Germans, or Russians, and after the experiment lias been 
made abroad, we get confidence enough to make a trial here. We 
are, perhaps, the more indebted under such circumstances to tliose 
who, like Mr. Brees, take the trouble and the risk of making us 
acquainted with our own works. In tlie present instance, we have 
from Mr. Broes two volumes, irhich will be found invaluable as re- 
cords of the best practical examples of railway engineering. If 
we have any fault to find it is that he has not suiKciently reduced 
the French measurements, a labour which if ])erformed by him or 
his assistants would have saved that of his readers. 

The third volume is devoted to earthworks, permanent way, 
blocks and sleeper.s, rails and chairs, with turn-tables, sidings, and 
switdies. The fourth \olume describes stations, carriages, trucks, 
water cranes, and station plant. 

When we say that there are more plates than te.xt, we think we 
offer a very strong recommendation of the work to the practical 
man. These ])lates too are filled with details, so that nothing is 
wanted to give a correct idea of everything described. 



Among the plates are :— The forms of every kind of rail in use 
in England and elsewhere ; machinery used for making rails; na- 
vigators and platelayers' tools ; .sw'itches on various plans by 
Robert Stephens<in and others; turntables of the London and 
North M'estern, Midland and Great Western railways; locomotive 
turntable ; weigh-hridge ; level crossings and gates ; double and 
single hoist bridges ; crossings for temporary works ; eartliwagons 
of the Lmidon and North \\'estern and Great 'Western; Mr. Jee's 
Garton station on the Manchester and Sheffield ; bridges over the 
Wear, Clyde, and Meuse; viaducts on the Manchester and Sheffield, 
and Manchester and Leeds ; culverts on the London and North 
Western. Among the carriages are those of the London and North 
Western, Birmingham and Gloster, Great \restern, of French, 
German, and Belgian railways, with details of the w'heels, axles' 
frames, buffer-springs, and breaks. These plates of carriages in- 
clude passenger and mail carriages, horse-boxes, trucks and goods 
wagons. This part is of particular value at a time when the in- 
fluence of the carrying stock on the structure and working of a 
line is the point which most affects the engineer. As the plant in- 
creases, and tlie necessity for economy in the working becomes 
greater, tlie attention of the engineer is well bestowed on a know- 
ledge of the best construction of carriages, and the most efficient 
means of improving them. Hitherto \ery much attention has 
been given to the locomotive, and to systems of atmospheric trac- 
tion, but a more immediate reference to the load to be carried is 
the point to which the engineer will for some time have most to 
direct himself. The establishment of lighter engines and smaller 
trains will call for a great deal of ingenuity to provide plant suit- 
able for such a different system of traction. 

Mr. Brees gives many examples of large stations and their de- 
tails. Among them are the South M'estern at Nine Elms, the 
Euston-square terminus, tlie Birmingham terminus, the Nordbahn 
station at Vienna, the Brunn station on the latter line, stations at 
Versailles and Pecq, the terminus of the A'ersailles line at Paris, 
the Dublin and Kingstown terminus, and the Leeds statimi. Be- 
sides these leading termini and stations, plans are given of inter- 
mediate stations, as Tring, A\'atford, ^Volverhampton, Newton, and 
Coventry, on the London and North AVestern ; Thames Ditton, on 
the South Western ; Reiiding and Slough, on the Great \\'estern. 
and numerous places on foreign lines. Many of these stations, 
as those on the Paris and Rouen, are the work ofEnglish engineers, 
and it is gratifying to perceive that many details introduced by 
them have served as an example to their' foreign brethren. The 
study of the foreign plans by English engineers will enable them 
to return the compliment, because the experience and ingenuity of 
the many men of ability employed abroad cannot fail to be pro- 
ductive of many valuable improvements. 

In conclusion, we can only repeat what we have said in the be- 
ginning, that Air. Brees's work will be found most useful to the 
engineer. It is a rejiertory of every practical detail connected 
with railway works, and it lias the advantage of presenting copious 
examples under every head of reference. With these words we 
commit the work to the hands of our readers, being fully satisfied 
that it is well worthy of their support. 



Designs for Schools and School-Houses, Parochial and National. 
By H. E. Kendall, jun.. Architect. London : AVilliams and Co., 
1847. Folio. 

Next to churches, schools are perhaps the class of buildings 
most in request, owing to the necessity that is felt for pi-oviding 
education for the poorer and humbler ranks of society. Numer- 
ous buildings of the kind have accordingly been founded and 
erected of late years, yet very few are so satisfactory in point of 
design as they might have been rendered, at the same, or very 
nearly the same cost, merely by the application of a little study 
and judicious taste. Or if it be deemed of no moment of what 
kind the taste shown in such structures be, it is safer as well as 
more economic to attempt nothing more than what utility abso- 
lutely demands. Wo agree with Air. Kendall when he says, 
"although some of the national schools lately erected are very 
creditable to their respective architects, the general i-esult of the 
great movement apparent in the building of churches, schools, &c., 
redounds rather to the honour of resuscitated zeal than to that of 
architectural talent. So great is the tameness, and so apparent 
the mediocrity of conception, both in arrangement and style, in 
many of them, that were it not for the good they effect, we should 
regret their very existence." As regards the utter tastelessness 
frequently shown in things of the kind, blame rests as much with 
the employers as with the employed, since it is the ignorance of 



66 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fkbkuary 



the former — -their incompetency to juil^e of (lesiiriis sulimittcd to 
them, tofjetlier witli tlieir chililish iletermin;itioii to exercise tlie 
privilcfre of pleasini; themselves witliout beiiiff accouiitalile to iiny 
one for \vli;it they do — that encourages so miidi paltry design. 
The tel est iiiStiv pliiixii- will not excuse deformity in the eyes_ of 
others, who will in turn exercise tlieir own privilege of expressing 
censure and ridicule where they are deserved — a consideration that 
ought to he seriously taken to mind by those who have the direct- 
ing of far more impcu'tant edifices than school-houses. 

"Something of external comeliness" — we again i|uote from the 
preface — " should be assigned, as matter of course, to the humblest 
of sucli erections ; and, under the direction of good taste, useful- 
ness of purpose and beauty of design may be made mutually to 
subserve to each other, even when the latter is but a secondary 
consideration." It may be further obser\ed, that it is not so much 
positive lieauty as well-marked character and effectiveness of 
ensenMe, that o\ight to be studied for buildings in which a certain 
degree of Iiomeliness is no more than becoming. And this has 
upon the whole been well accomplished by .Air. Kendall — though, 
as was to be ex])ected, more happily in some instances than in 
others. The collection consists of both executed and unexecuted 
designs, each of which is shown in a perspective or pictorial view 
of it, as well as by a [dan and elevation ; and there is also letter- 
press to each subject, containing remark as well as mere explana- 
tion. The unexecuted designs are five in number ; the others are 
those of the following buildings which have been erected by tlie 
author : C^hilderditch School, Essex ; the Poor Boys' School, the 
Poor Girls' School, and the Commercial School, all at Bury St. 
Edmund's; the building for the Battle and Langton National 
Schools, at Battle ; Willesden School; and the Infant School at 
Stanmore, which last is said in the account given of it to have 
been erected in 1845, "at the sole expense of Miss Martin, a lady 
distinguished during her residence in that beautiful village for her 
benevolence and extended charities." 

All the designs may be designated Old English in style, although 
it is not that of one and the same period ; nor do they all show the 
same mode of construction, some of them being in imitation of 
the " lialf-timbered" houses, others of red l)rick with stone dress- 
ings and (juoins. Tlie Elizabethan style has been applied very 
happily in what strikes us as being the best design of all — namely, 
the school buildings at Buttle, in wliich, while the character of the 
style itself is not only well kept up but expressed witli gusto, the 
cluiracter of the particular kind of building is most unmistakenably 
])ronounced. Althougli perfectly regular, both in the arrangement 
of its masses and the features of its elevaticui, the whole composi- 
tion, as shown in the perspective view, is pleasingly varied and 
higlily picturesque, yet sufficiently sober withal. Thie last subject, 
design No. 5, simws a rather extensive and complex group of 
buildings in the Tudor style, and in perspective makes a \ery pic- 
turesque composition. Independently of the interest and merit of 
the designs themselves, the artistic skill displayed in the pictorial 
representations of them cannot fail to excite admiration. Tliey 
are very superior productions of their kind, — studies of trees and 
figures as well as of l)uildings. Owing to which, to the subject 
itself, and to tlie tasteful manner in which tlie work is got up in 
every respect, we may anticipate for it a highly-favourable reception 
even among tliosewiio liardlymake any pretensions to amateurship 
in architecture. 



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 

We have received the following communications in reference to 
Mr. Elmes's papers, and wliich we lay before our readers : — 

Sib — In your Jmirnal for November last, page 338, there is a 
statement which, I fear, may lead some of your readers into error. 
In the life of Stuart it is said, " Preparation-> for his works were 
made with siu^h rapidity, that in 17(j8 they were jiresented to the 
public under the title of 'The Antiquities of Athens, iVc. &c.' 
4 vols, folio, 1768." Now, the First Volume was pulilislied, as my 
two original copies show, by IIaberk(U-n, in ITfi'i, and nothing is 
said in tbe title-page of four volumes (althougli in tlie body of tlie 
work two more volumes are referred to, and tim) only) ; it is dis- 
tinctly marked Vol. the First. Vol. II. was iiulilislied by Nichols, 
in 1787 ; Vol. III. also by Nichols, in 1794 ; and Vol. IV. by Tay- 
lor, in 1816 — that is, not till 48 years after the time above referred 
to. 

In page 340, in the life of Sir Robert Taylor, i.s one of those 



commonplace and sweeping attacks so const vntl/ direrted against 
the late IJuildiiig .-Vet, and in which I never did, and do not now, 
join. That it had some defects, as well as some omissions, I am 
free to own, as well as that in these respects it reipiire 1 alteration 
— perhaps in no respect more than in its pi'ovision for tlie jiayment 
of expenses of party-walls by the owner of tlie improved rent, a 
term which tlie result proved to be alike uncertain and unjust. 
But that it was infinitely better as a whide tli;in its successor, is, I 
believe, now almost universally admitted, and I could wish those 
who so hivisly condemn the late Act in the bulk, would condescend 
to explain more fully those particular parts of it against wliich 
their attacks are directed, or to which they object. 

A Constant Kkadeii. 

Sir — The series of articles entitled a " History of Architecture 
in Great Britain," contains some opiiii<uis and remarks that ajqie r 
to have been uttered rather hastily. I hope, therefore, you will 
allov/ me to animadvert <ui what ought not, for the interest of art, 
to be suffered to ]kiss uncontradicted. 

To begin by correcting some of the mistakes : — The design of 
the India-House is attributed to Jupp, the Company's surveyor, 
who was only emphiyed to execute the works, the design itself 
being by Holland, as is explicitly stated in the biographical article 
on the latter in the Sujiplement to the " Penny Cychqii^dia." 
Jupp certainl)' does not ajipear to haxe been of any note at all in 
his profession, therefore it is not very likely that he was the real 
author of the edifice ; or at any rate, if such claim was to be sub- 
stantiated for him, that of Holland ought to have been not over- 
looked but formally set aside. — In speaking of the College of Sur- 
geons, Air. Elmes describes in the present tense the original front, 
or rather the portico as it originally existed previously to the front 
being extended and re-modeUed by Mr. Barry, who, he says, added 
two columns to the portico ; were which the case, it either must 
have been at first only a tetrastyle, or would now be an octastyle 
one. The fact is, that instead of adding, Barry merely transposed 
two of the columns, taking them from the west end of the piu-tico, 
and putting them at the other, thereby making what had been the 
first intercolumn from the east, the centre one, and so bringing it 
into the axis of the lengthened faf ade. He also fluted the sliafts of 
the columns, and carved the bed-mouldings of the cornice. The 
writer's opinion of the College of Surgeons in its original state, 
appears to be infinitely moi"e favouralile than discriminating, he 
being pleased to refer to it as an " example of the genius of this 
tasteful architect," viz. Dance, — whereas, as designed by him, the 
whole front was a most barbarous and vulgar parody of the st)K> 
affected for it. So far from the columns being " tastefully adapted" 
to the building behind them, there was no sort of adaptation at 
all, nor the slightest coherence in regard to character between the 
main building and the portico. Many may be unable to recollect 
what sort of figure the original front cut, but views of it are in 
existence, which assuredly strongly contradict the praise which 
Mr. Elmes has implicitly bestowed upon it. 

With regard to the frimt of Guildhall, by the sanu^ "tasteful 
architect," we are told apologetically that it " is amenable to no 
laws." That, notwithstanding its aiming at Gothic or something 
of Gothic character, it is so far from conforming with as to violate 
its leading princijiles. Yet that might have been excused, had but 
consistent and artistic expression of its own been imparted to the 
facade. Tluuigh evidently very reluctant to admit anything tii 
the disparagement of Dance, even Mr. Elmes is obliged to abandon 
the exterior of (Jiiildhall to unmitigated censure and ridicule, and 
remark that its " faults are nioi-e than compensated for by bis well- 
pro]iortioned, original, and elegant chamber for the Common- 
council, i!v-c." Ailmitting that tlie latter were very greatly supe- 
rior to what it actually is, it would not indemnify fiu- the positive 
and striking ugliness of the exterior, which of course stamps the 
character of the building in general ojiinion, and is so radical a 
defect that it admits of no cure short of an entirely new fa,-ade ; 
whereas any de'Rjct or falling-short internally in such an apartment 
as the Common-OQuncil-room might have been easily remedied at 
any time. \ 

in his quality of Mstorian the writer has fallen into a most 
glaring mistake when he says that Jeffrey Wyatt was selected by 
William IV., as his chief architect, to enlarge and embellish 
AVindsor Castle, it being notorious to every one, that he was em- 
ployed by George IV., at the time of whose decease the works were 
advancing towards completion, for he had begun the new a]iart- 
ments. Equally notm-ious is it that it was tieorge, not 'William, 
who changed the architect's name to that of ^Vyattville. 

Wilkins is not treated very indulgently by the historian ; on the 
contrary, is spoken of with a degree of asperity that contrasts 



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59 



rather strongly with the evident disposition to touch as gently as 
possible upon the delinquencies of many other architects Thouf;h 
the general estimate of the abilities and taste of 'Wilkins may lie 
acquiesced in, it seems to have been dictated by the determination 
not to spare him. Tliat he was more of the scholar and archaeo- 
logist than the architect — far more of the " bookisli student" tlian 
tlie artist — is not to he denied. As to Wilkins' pedantry, that 
charge against him is, no doubt, founded mainly upon his having 
written and pul)lislied so much as he did ; whereas, had he never 
taken up the pen at all, lie might have been equally pedantic in 
practice, without incurring the reproach of pedantry. Downing 
and Haileybury colleges may be abandoned to censure, as equally 
frigid and tasteless in jioint of design; but an exception irom the 
general sweeping condemnation ought assuredly to have been made 
in favour of the London University College, which exhibits lioth 
classical and artistic cliaracter, and very efl'ective play of outline. 
Undeniable it is that it has, even in its present imperfect state, 
obtained the meed of almost unqualified — not to say exaggerated 
— admiration from AVightwick and other professional men. K\en 
Mr. Elmes himself did not always entertain so mean an opinion of 
that work of Wilkins as at present ; or if he did, he thought pro- 
per to keep it to himself, for speaking of it about the time it was 
erected, he says: "The council obtained designs from several ar- 
cliitects, and after due deliberation, finally adopted that of Wil- 
liam ^\'ilkins, Esq. K.A., a selection in which their own judgment 
coincided with that of almost every proprietor who inspected the 
drnwings." This goes far to prove that, at all events, the choice 
was not a hastily, inconsiderate one, or managed with suspicious 
secrecy. Neither is there a single remark of the writer's expres- 
sive of dissatisfaction with it. Yet he now speaks not a little con- 
temptuously of the building, without condescending to specify 
other objections than what is meant to he so overwhelming a one 
as to outweigh all beauties and merits, namely, that "the portico 
is, from its situation, but of little use" — nay, " a useless applica- 
tion, stuck up for the admiration of gazing cabmen and hackney- 
coachmen, whilst loitering on their stand." AVith what sort of 
reason is the loggia at the south-west angle of the Bank so highly 
extolled immediately after Wilkins' portico being decried ? it being 
nothing more than a ])iece of decoration which does not even carry 
with it any senililance of usefulness. 

Of M'ilkins' style it is said that it was "the very mummy of the 
art ;" yet, if it was, he unbandaged it when he designed the build- 
ing in Gower-street, for even in its present imperfect state it 
displays no ordinary merit in regard to grouping and the fine 
focus produced by the central mass. As an example of a decastyle, 
the portico is unique among those in the metropolis, — a circum- 
stance which an impartial and unprejudiced critic would at least 
have noticed ; — and it acquires additional expression and stateli- 
ness from being elevated on a substructure that forms flights of 
steps leading up to it, which are very picturesquely disposed. In 
this latter respect, too, the composition may be said to be unique — 
certainly is very striking and artistic. As to the dome, it is of 
most elegant contour and design; and if it be objected to tliat 
it is a feature unknown to pure Greek architecture, the objection 
is a proof that those who make such futile objection are still more 
straitlaced and pedantic in their notions than Wilkins himself. 
The value of it in the composition is such that were it removed the 
whole would become comparati\el)' tame and spiritless. The por- 
tico in the east fro)it of St. George's Hospital afi'ords another proof 
that the "mummy" was occasionally unbandaged. That square- 
pillared tetrastyle partakes more of architectural heresy than 
pedantry. Still the heresy, if such it be, is a welcome one, and it 
has been welcomed by being adopted in the facade of the new Law 
Courts at Liverpool, wliere the columniation is carried on, on each 
side of tlie central portico, in square pillars ; therefore producing 
contrast and variety, at the same time that continuity of design is 
kept up. 

It begins to be time to bring to a close this long letter, where- 
fore I will be somewhat brief in regartl to what is said of Soane. 
As criticism, it is far more indulgent than discriminating, or in some 
respects even intelligible. At any rate, it is somewhat puzzling to 
make out what is meant by his buildings at Chelsea Hospital, and 
the National Delit-olfice, exhibiting " a wild exuberance of no- 
velty," since so far from any thing like exuberance, they exhibit 
only very unequal and fitful attempts at it. His building at the 
Treasury, the Royal entrance to the House of Lords, and " some 
others o{ hia earlier works" — though the two just mentioned were 
almost his very latest — are said to show " exuberance of fancy"— a 
mere complimentary phrase, for his fancy was in reality exceed- 
ingly limited It exercised itself only on one or two piecemeal 
ideas, which he dragged into all his designs, without making any 



thing more of them at last than he had done at first. Soane ha'' 
no consistency of style, — did not even attend to keeping, but often 
jumbled together the most finical ornaments and the plainest 
features. In his building at the Treasury, the windows were as 
ordinary, bare, and frigid in design, as the order was rich. There 
was not a single touch of Corinthianism in them. 

In speaking of the Lothbury Court at the Bank, Mr. Elmes 
again falls into inaccurac)-, describing it not as it is, but as it was 
intended, for instead of their being two loggias there is only one, 
what was meant for the west one being left unfinished — a mere 
open screen of columns, if that can be called a screen which ex- 
poses to ^iew most unsightly naked brick walls and mean, ugly 
windows. Even the opposite finished side of the court is very un- 
satisfactory, the interior of the loggia, though pretty enough in 
itself, by no means corresponding to the sober richness'and dignity 
of the order. As to the Rotunda, it is most vilely disfigured by 
the equally barbarous and nonsensical wavy lines around the arches 
of the recesses, which seem to have been made by a stick upon some 
soft material while it was moist. It is admitted that the centre of 
the south front of the Bank "is by no means the happiest ofSoane's 
designs," and that is treating it tar more tenderly than it deserves, 
for it is such a decided failure and abortion that it ought to be 
subjected to the same process of rifacciamento as his Treasury 
building has been. 

Zero. 



DISSERTATION ON TORRENTS.— By Guolielmini. 

Translated bi/ E. Ckesy, Esq., in his Evidence before the Metropo- 
litan Sanitary Coiiiniissioners. 

I come now to the projiositions of Guglielmini, in which he pre- 
tends that a body descending an inclined plane, will not ac(iuire a 
velocity greater than it would have acquired by descending per- 
pendicularly the height of the inclined plane. 

This is most true as respects sftlids. The elements of a solid 
being bound and tied together, form a heavy mass, the (larts of 
which press each other, reciprocally, and the pressure on the plane 
on which they rest is likewise single, as also is the direction ; one 
velocity, one energy, and one action being common to all the parts. 
On the other hand, a fluid is a mass composed of lesser solid ele- 
ments, but free, and not bound together by any ties, each of which 
can, so to speak, move in diflFerent directions and with varying 
velocities, press upon each 'other and oscillate freely. AVhence the 
highest ])arts press upon the lower, oscillate, and are easily dis- 
placed wlien there is no impediment. When solids descend by a 
plane, tlieir individual gravity alone operates ; which being less 
than their absolute gravity, generates, at each instant, a degree of 
velocity less than that which their absolute gra\'ity would have 
generated, wherefiire solids require a longer time to descend by the 
inclined plane than by the perpendicular, the length of time mul- 
tiplies the action of the individual gravity, and compensates for 
the defect of tlie velocity. Wherefore a solid descending by an 
inclined plane, has a velocity equal to what it would have, falling 
the same height directly. Hence the product of tlie action of 
the individual gravity, by the time of the descent by the inclined 
plane, being e(|ual to the product of the absolute gravity, by the 
time of the fall along a perpendicular, their velocities must neces- 
sarily be equal. But in fluids the case is difl'erent. Besides the 
properties wliicli they possess in common with solids, they have 
another, to wit, the pressure exercised by the upper on the lower 
part of the fluid, the which being added to the impact, increases 
the motion also, and hence generates a greater eff'ect than a solid 
would. Neither is it absurd to suppose that the gravity of a fluid 
generates a greater \'elocity on a plane, than when acting perpen- 
dicularly, since this generates in greater time, and with a portion 
of gravity which in a solid which falls remains, so to sjieak, idle, 
but, in the case of a fluid, becomes active. John BernouilH, in his 
works, gives a prolilem to find the velocity generated l>y a body 
sliding on the hvpothenuse of a triangle, whose base is sustained 
by a smootli horizontal plane, free from any sensible friction, and 
moving in the direction of the base. He decomposed the force 
pressing tlie hypothenuse, or inclined plane, into two jiarts, one of 
which is employed in gi^'ing motion to the triangle, and sliding it 
forward ; whilst the body descends on the plane, advances the tri- 
angle, and communicates thereto a certain rate of velocity ; the 
descending body thus requires a velocity equal to that which it 
would have in fiilling jierpendicularly, and the triangle lias another 
force generated by that which presses it, whence it results that the 



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[February, 



sum of the two motions is greater tlian tliat which a body would 
aocjiiire by its simple descent. \V'lierefore, since the aforesaid 
force liy ]iressinfjf, generates veh)city and motion distiiu't from tliat 
whicli a body, in descending, generates ; in like manner it is ap- 
plicalde to water pressing on the lower films, and by jiressing, com- 
nmnicating additional force to them. Besides, there are other 
reasons corroborative of this truth, among whidi is the fact, that 
it is necessary to spread the accelerated velocity <if water passing 
from a larger to a narrower section over a mean of pressure. 

Galileo says, " I have been carefully considering and going 
through various problems to investigate the acceleration of water 
having to pass through a narrower channel, also whether it has the 
same declivity in both." The greater nund>er of authors sidve the 
lioint by increasing the height of the water, and lience the pres- 
sure, thus generating a greater velocity. Eustace Manfredi thus 
expresses himself :^ — " The same water passes through a lesser as 
through a greater section, wherefore it is forced to pass with a 
greater \elocity, precisely as will be the case in a vase in which 
the surface of the water maybe at a certain height above the sum- 
mit of the aperture." Guglielmini, to the same effect : — " The 
Tipper parts press the lower, and oblige them to receive a force, 
wliich being compelled to act, produces the same degree of velocity 
which the descent winild have given them." VVe might quote 
other authors, who account for the increased velocity in narrower 
sections by having recourse to the pressure generated by the height 
of the upper parts, only they are in doubt on this subject, whether 
to attain so great a velocity it be necessary that the upper w ater 
should increase in height till it becomes stationary; not being able 
to believe that the upper water which is in the act of running is 
capable of producing a new increment of velocity in the lower. 
But experience teaches us that if the breadth of a section be 
diminished one-half, the water will not rise that half, as would 
appear necessary ; if the velocity does not increase, it increases 
at least very little, either in section or at the base, where the re- 
duced sections are of the same breadth, since the water retained 
by the narrowing of the piers of a bridge is but slightly raised. 
Wherefore it is necessary that the velocity increase without having 
regard to any new inclination, which is always the samc\ but only 
by an increase of height, which causes a pressure on the lower 
water which is in the act of running ; wh^ice I deduce the argu- 
ment to strengthen my opinion in the ease in which the velocity, 
arising from the inclination, is equal or greater tlian that which 
might have been generated by the pressure. Let us take two cases, 
one which allows the same measure of water to pass through mie 
section twice as little as the first, preserving the same inclination, 
the other in which the \ elocity increases till it becomes twice as 
much. 

But whence comes such an increase of velocity .'' what is the 
principle, what the nature of it ? To say with Gennete, that twice 
the quantity of water doubles the velocity, is not to adduce a proof 
but to advance a mere assertion, which either supposes or requires 
it. I do not think that a true philosopher w ill jiereeive in the in- 
crement of so nmcli water the principle of so great an acceleration. 
It behoves us to examine the genesis of such a plienomeuon, and 
to observe the mechanism wliich nature ado]its therein. And, 
firstly, two epochs of time are to be distinguished, one the first 
perceptible moment in which the section is reduced to half. Now, 
at this first instant, the water must swell and rise much above its 
first leveL, in which rise it generates a proportional velocity. But 
in the very act in which such a velocity is generated, the water 
begins to fall, wlierefore the present case holds good, that the sec- 
tions are in reciprocal projiortion with the velocity. The water 
does not fall in this manner, wherefore it returns to its first level, 
or a little higher, there being a cimstant princijile which compen- 
sates for a portion of the ^•elocity destroyed by successive obsta- 
cles. AVater in its course meets w ith continual resistance which 
diminishes its force, wherefore there remains in the water a con- 
stant jiriiiciple whicli supjilies and renews any decrement of velo- 
city wiiicli tlie resistance may produce. Now this principle is, that 
whatever small increase of height above the (o-igiual level causes 
pressure causes also velocity. Arrived at which point the water 
m/iintains the same height, which I have elsewhere designated 
equilibrium and constant state. Observers have not paid attention 
to the first epoch in which the water swells, is agitated, balances 
itself, but only have considered the other in which it acijuires equi- 
librium, state, law. All this takes place so quickly tliat the swell- 
ing, sinking, and equilibrating hardly are evident to our percep- 
tions. U\ as 1 believe, tlie experiments of (iennete were true, 
according to which a river doubles or triples its water without 
raising its level, then it would be correct to say that it was free 
from any sensible resistance. This might be the case in an artifi- 



cial river of short length, over a level bottom witli smooth sides, 
and furnished with clear water. But in a natural and turbid 
stream, ivhere the resistance, and that considerable, will never be 
wanting, it is not likely that when reduced to half its original 
section, it preserves its former level. This being determined, to 
come to the ipiestion above jiroposed, I residve it thus : — Either 
the velocity begins to increase by the water lieginning to swell, or 
the whole mass increases. If the first takes place, then the height 
being small, and hence the pressure being likewise small, the velo- 
city generated will be also small. It is not that so small a velocity 
is added to so great, which it derives from an inclination, contrary 
to the sentiment of S'Gravesand. If the second takes phu-e, it 
being then the velocity which increases, is eipial to, or is less than 
that which results from an inclination, and not having any other 
generating principle than the pressure, it is clear that it acts when 
the velocity which generates itself is less or equal to that which 
was before generated by the inclined plane. Now I repeat, there- 
fore, that the water as it strikes the bottom presses the lower films 
which run, sjiread out upon it, by which the pressure is communi- 
cated from abo\'e downwards. I agree with what Manfredi says, 
that " all the low er strata of water may be regarded as so many 
bottoms, or actual planes, with regard to the upper planes which 
run upon them. Hence these fluid planes are sensible of the same 
pressure of running water which they would sustain if it were sta- 
tionary at an eipial height." To me it appears an incontestable 
truth that water which presses the bottom should press all that 
portion by w Inch the pressure is communicated, otherwise if it does 
not press all that which forms the middle, it will never arrive at 
the bottom of it, which is contrary to all experience. If this bot- 
tom be of a cur\ ed form, concave towards the water, the pressure 
will have the action of a centrifugal force, the « Inch conspiring 
with the former, will increase the momentum, and thereby its 
energy and velocity. 



FROCBEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

Jan. 10. — Charles Fowler, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Many presents were announced. Among them were drawings from .\Ir. 
B. Peny, of tlie Town Hall uf Mor()etli, supposed to be by Vanbiugli, and 
a work on church building by M. tie Lassaulx of Coblentz. 

Mr. Layard, the explorer of Isiiieveh, was then introduced by Mr. Tite, 
and at the request of the Institute, made son.e remarks on the ruins of that 
city. Of the external architecture, or of the date of the ruins, he could 
ssy little, as hardly a fragment remained to guide the judgment, though no 
doulit of their great antiquity could be entertained. One proof he could 
give was, that though the earliest ruins were buried in the soil, graves had 
been dug in these by a people who lived 700 years before the coninion erii. 
He was inclined to believe that some of these buildings might be three thou- 
sand years old. The rooms were covered with marble sl.ilis, sculptured in 
low relief, like those in the British Museum, and they were joined together 
hy double dovetails of iron, and the doorways were flanked by tall winged 
fiuures, higher tlian the side slabs. Ihe figures were all marked with blood, 
as if it had been thrown against them, and left to trickle. The walls whicli 
back the slabs are of sun-dried biieks, and, where they show above the 
slabs, are plastered over and painted. Such beams as remain are found t(» 
be of niulheiry. How the slabs have been preserved is a matter of mysleiy, 
but is perhaps to be exjilained by their lying under the crumbled remains of 
the bricks, which have returned to earth. Mr. Layard noticed ihat the 
buildings were pro\ided with a system of sewage, a drain running from each 
room to a main sewer. In a small cliamber which he bad discovered anieng 
Ihe ruins, he hail seen vaulting of bricks regularly arched. The date of the 
destruction of Nineveh wiis 700 years B.C., while the bas-reliefs belong to 
earlier dates. In many cases the slabs have been used before ; one slab was 
found wilh the sculptured face turned to the wall, and the back re-worked. 

Mr. BoNOMi observed that in Egypt the cramps were of wood, and he 
thought it exlraordinary that at Nineveh tliey should be of iron. 

Mr. Donaldson remarked that those ol the l^aitbenon were of iron, and 
oroceeded to otter his tribute of tlianks to Mr. Layard for his communica- 
tions. He thought that gentleman the nioie deserving of praise, as so mm h 
of what lie bad dune was by his own labour and expense, and yet he had 
successfuUv comjieted with the explorers sent out by the French govern- 
ment. Mr. Donaldson wished to inquire whether the external face ot the 
sun dried bricks were covered with plaster to keep out the wet. 

Mr. LaVaRD hail not observed this. The internal face was partly coloured 
and enamelled, and decorated with human figures and other ornaments. As 
to the vaulted chamber of which he had spoken, it was covered with an 
arch of 12 or 14 feel diameter, very nearly a semi-arch. As to the sewers, 
ihev were not arched. 



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61 



Mr. I'anson, in correction of a statement at a former meeting, said the 
new sewprs at Hamburgh were not oval, hut egg-shaped. 

Mr. I'oTNTER read n paper on " Leather Hangings," illustrated by a num- 
ber of specimens sent hy Mr. Pratt. — The author nientioiieil examples of 
leather emhossing among the Egyptians, and in the middle ages, and also of 
its extensive use in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, after ils revival. 
The leather used was fine, and was either embossed or simply painted. It 
was chiefly brought into this country from Flanders and France, and theie 
did not seem to have been any manufactory of it here. Some thought that 
the process had been fiist revived either at Venice or in Spain, I'lit this is 
still matter of doubt, though at Venice embossed leather hangings were in 
general use in the seventeenth century. The first stage in the process was 
to join the skins, and then to silver the whole surface. Paris to have the 
appearance of gold were varnished with coloured varnish. After silvering, 
the leather was stamped with cut blocks under a press. The l)orders and 
more delicate work were executed with metal tools, like those of honk- 
binders. ^A'hat is called the Titian Gallery, at Blenheim, has paintings on 
leather, but they are not by Titian. Mr. Poynter exhiliited some line exam- 
ples, one he'wi Antony and Cleopatra, from a series formerly helmiaing to 
the great Lord Clarendon. He recommended such specimens as suitable for 
museums of niedia;val antiquities. 

Mr. Grace stated that p'aster moulds are used at Paris to emboss the 
leather, ami that much flock is workeil up to ornament the face. 

The Cliaiiinan brought to the notice of the meet'ng the loss they had 
sustained in the death of two members of the profession. Mr, Kay, a mem- 
ber of the Institute was the first whom he should name, one whom they all 
kiifw and respected, and who had taken an active part in the establishment 
of the Institute.— Mr. Lonsdale Elmes was not a mcniher ol the Insiitute, 
but a most promising architect, whose works at Livei pool reflected the great- 
est credit upon him. A slight fall in getting out of a carriage was the more 
immediate cause of death, hnt he was sufl'ering from disease which would 
otlierwise have cairied him olf. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Jan, 11. — Sir J. Rennie, President, in the Chair. 

The first meeting of the session was held this evening, when the following 
papers were read : — 

Mr. Frederick R.\nsome*s ^* process for maUing Artificial Stone." 

The modus operandi appeared to be very simple. Broken pieces of silica 
(comnion tlint) being subjected for a time to the action of caustic alkali, 
boiling, under pressure, in a close vessel, formed a transparent silieated solu- 
tion, which was evaporated to a specific gravity of 1*600 (distilled water 
being l-OOO), and was then intimately mixed with given proportions of well- 
washed sand, broken granite, or other mateiials, of different degrees ftf hard- 
ness. Tlie paste thus constituted, after being pressed into moulds, from 
which the most delicate impressions were readily received, were subjected to 
a red heat, in a stove or kiln, by which operation the free or uncombined 
silica of the raw materials united with the excess of alkali existing in the 
solution, thus forming a semi-vitreous compound, and rendering the artificial 
stone perfectly insoluble. This production most evidently be adaptable to 
a comprehensive range of objects for decorative art, and for arcliitectnral 
purposes ; busts, vases, flooring tiles, steps, balustrades, moiddinps, capitals, 
shafts, and bases of columns, &c., even grinding stones ami whetstones for 
scythes, have been made ; and, in fact, from the beauty and variety of the 
specimens exhibited, there would appear to be a vast field opening for such 
a production. It was stated to be already extensively manufactured at Ips- 
wich, and it was allowed to admit of extensive application where elaborately 
carved stone would be too expensive. 

Mr. Richmond, of Bow, exhibited and explained " anEngine Counter" ma- 
nufactured by him on an improved principle. The counters in ordinary use 
were described as either somewhat inefiicient machines, liable to error, or of 
too expensive construction to be generally employed. This counter differed 
from others chiefly in its simplicity and its accuracy, whilst, at the same 
time, its low price of 11. brought it within the reach of every one. With 
this machine the number of strokes made by the engine or other machine 
could be read off at one view without calculation. The leading or unit band 
traversed the entire circumference of the large dial, and those of the three 
small dials revolved in the same direction. The first motion was described 
as being given by a sliding bar and fixed spring, instead of by a double pallet, 
so that the first wheel could not be thrown more than one tooth by one 
stroke of the engine. The hands were all moved by a train of wheels and 
pinions, without skip-wheels, so that the motion was regular and progres- 
sive. These were admitted to be advantages, and in the discussion upon the 
machine its merits appeared to be shown very decidedly. 

Jan. 18. — Sir J. Kennie, President, in the Chair. 

The annual general meeting of the Institution was held this evening, when 
the following gentlemen were elected to form the council for the ensuing 
year ; — 

President — Joshua Field. 

Vice Presidents — W. Cubitt, J. M. Rendel, 1. Simpson, and R. Stepheii- 
Bon, M.P. 



Members—}. F. Bateman, G. P. Bidder. I. K. Brunei, J. Cuhitt, J. Locke, 
M.P., J. Miller, \V. C. Mylne, T. Sopwith, J. R. M'Clean, and C. May. 

Associa'es of Council — J. Clntton, and T. H. Wyatt. 

The report of the council continues to be very encouraging, and shows 
that the progress of the society is steadily good. 

Telford meilals were presented to Messrs. Jackson, Richardson, Murray, 
Glynn, and Frodsbam, and to the two former gentlemen council premiums 
of hooks wire added. Telford premiums of books were also awarded to 
Me-srs. EUioit, Heppel, Shears, and Maaters, for the communications made 
during the past session. 

.Memoirs were given of the deceased members and associates, Messrs, 
Thnm, Giles, Lipkins, Mushet, Reynolds, Holtzapffel, Evans, Watkins, and 
Ball. The career of several of these gentlemen had been so varied, and pos- 
sessed such points of interest, that the memoirs were necessarily extended 
beyond their usual length. The report noticed the increased attendance of 
members and visitors as evidence of its advancing career, and of the interest 
felt for the science of civil engineering. A pressing appeal was made to mem- 
bers of all classes to contribute papers, to induce animated discussions, which 
are the distinctive feature of the meetings of the society. The principal events 
of the past session were touched upon, and several private matters relative 
to the internal management of the Institution were fully discussed. The 
council then explained the changed form of the balloting papers, necessitated 
by the new bye-laws, and the retirement of Sir Jtihn Itennie from the post 
of president, which he had filled with such credit to himself and benefit to 
the society for the last three years. In conclusion, the repitrt said, "Let 
the civil engineers remember that ' union is strength ;' and that, if they are 
true to each other, and use the Institution as the common centre and bond 
of unity, they may set at nought all efforts to dislodge the civil engineers of 
England from the proud eminence where their talents, their practical skill, 
and their probity have placed Ibein." 

Before leaving the chair. Sir J. Kennie, president, addressed the meeting 
on the selection of the president, and impressed upon them the claims of 
Mr. Field; not only as one of the founders of the Institution, and who had 
filled for many years all positions in the society, nor because be was univer- 
sally respected and esteemed as an upright, honourable, kind-hearted man, 
but chiefly on account of bis acknowledged celebrity as a mechanical engi- 
neer, particularly in that most imi>ortant department — steam navigation ; 
and, because his election would unite more firmly the two branches of the 
profession, wiiich, to ensure general prosperity, must ever go band in hand, 
as they bad hitherto done in the Institution, in spite of all attempts to make 
it appear otherwise, lie then reviewed the position of the Institution during 
his presidentship, offering bis best thanks to the vice-presidents and the 
members of council, and to the secretary, for the support and assistance 
afforded him ; and then examined, with much candour, the relative positions 
of the civil engineers, and of the government boards and commissions, which 
had appeared to clash more than was desirable. This he showed not to rise 
from any of the acts of the civil engineers, who had ever been ready to affoid 
their best assistance to the government in any capacity ; and further, that it 
would be the interest of the government to take advantage of the talent, 
energy, and practical skill of the civil engineers, by whom they had ever been 
well served, rather than incur the hazard and the expense of forming a corps 
that would require more time for educating than could be afforded in these 
active limes, when even hesitation was perdition. 

This address w as responded to very warmly by the meeting ; and a vote of 
thanks to Sir John Kennie was received with cheers. Thanks were also 
voted to the council and the secretary of the Institution for their services. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, LONDON. 
Dec. 15. — P. Le Neve Foster, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read a paper, by Mr. A. G. Findlay, M.R.G.S., " On the 
various descriptions of Lighttiouses, Beacons, and Light-vessels, tfieir Con- 
struction, and the metfiods of Jltumination employed tlierein." 

Mr. Findlay commenced his paper by alluding to the vast importance to 
a maritime nation like England of having a durable and efficient mode of 
constructing and illuminating lighthouses, light-vessels, &c., and proceeded 
to point out the general uses of lighthouses. The oldest structure upon 
record is the celebrated Pharos of Alexandria, which served as a guide to 
ancient mariners during a period of nearly 1,600 years. Pliny says, " It 
was square, of white stone, and consisting of many stories, and diminished 
upwards till it attained the height of 547 feet." The most ancient structure 
known to exist in this country is the Roman pharos at Dover castle, and 
this would still answer its intended purpose, after a lapse of 18 centuries. 
The celebrated Cordouan Tower, in the Bay of Biscay, is another instance 
of stability, having been built in 1611. The Eddystone lighthouse has 
attracted more of the attention of the public than perhaps any other. The 
first of these edifices was of wood, and built by Mr. Winstanley in the year« 
1696-8 ; but, owing to the sea washing over the lantern, it was subsequently 
raised to a height of 120 feet. In November, 1703, the entire structure 
was washed away, and in 1706 sanction was obtained for its being rebuilt, 
which Was accordingly done by Rudyerd, but which was destroyed by fire 
in 1755. The present tower, one of the artificial wonders of England, and 
built by Smeaton, is 100 feet high, and has given good proof of its capa- 
bility of resisting the force of the waves. The Bell Rock lighthouse i» a 



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[Febbuarv,' 



similar struftnre to tlie E'ldystone ; it was Ijuilt by Stevenson at a cost of 
4,'C0,(l00. The most recent erection of this description is on tlie Skerryvore 
rock, wliicli cost .€90,700. 

Tlie iiiithor next alluded to the difficulty of constructing permanent light- 
houses in exposed situations, and the advaiitay;es of thetn over floating lights, 
as well as the much smaller annual expenditure requited to maintain an effi- 
cient light. The fitst floating light was the well known .Nore light-vessel, 
moored in 173 1. In order lo insure slahilily in a lighthouse, Mr. Findlay 
slated that it is necessary that the structure should he capahle of afl^urding 
resistance to a pressure of not less than 6,000 Ih. to each square foot of 
surface exposetl to the action of waves. This assertion was founded on 
experiments made hy Mr. .\lan Stevenson, who ascertained and registered 
the force of the waves at the Skerryvore rock, on March 2.>tli, 184.i, during 
a westerly gale, when it was found to he C08i Ih. per square foot ; this, the 
greatest force hitherto registered, was ciied with many others. He next 
proceeded to point out the inapplicability of iron to the construction of 
lighthouses wliere the metal was immersed in the sea water, which has the 
effect of reducing it to a hndy similar in its chemical properties to tdack- 
lead ; and instanced the ettects produced on a caiuiou-hall taken from the 
Mary Hose, after having been sunk oil" Spithead for a period of 150 years : 
the iron shot upon being exposed to the air gradually became red hot, and 
then fell into a red powder resembling burnt clay. — The author next de- 
.scribed the methods which have been suggested (or overcoming the difficulty 
of exposing large surfaces to the action of the force of the waves, and also 
for obtaini;.^ a firmer foundation on a sand, and especially Mr. Alexander 
Mitchell's screwpilc lighthouse erected on the Maplin Sand, and Dr. I'utts's 
method of driving piles by atmospheric pressure, as applied at the South 
Calliper beacon on the Goodwin sands, in 1847, and to other beacons on 
various slinals at the mouth of the Thames, as on the Blyth saiul, and on 
the shingles in the Prince's channel. Another plan for the erection of 
lighthouses has been carried into effect at the Point of Ayr by Mr. Walker; 
it consists in constructing hollow cylinders, which are filled with concrete 
and then sunk, and from them the piles rise. Capt. Sir S. Brown has also 
proposed a plan for the erection of lighthouses in deep water upon bronze 
standards, and a modification of bis plan was adopted by Captain Bullock. 
The author further alUided to Mr. Bush's Light of all Nations, atid to Mr. A. 
Gordon's iron ligbtbuuses at Jamaica and the Bermudas, in which the cases 
are filled with a solid mass of concrete ; and alluded to the fact that Rennie 
had proposed iron for this purpose as early as the year 180.') for the Bell 
Rock. 

Having thus shown the difl^erent methods employed in the construction 
and erection of lighthotises, Mr. Findlay proceeds to remark on the various 
plans of illumination which have been eiuployed : of these the earliest was 
the coal fire and the Cordouan billets of oak. In 1752 the South Foreland 
lighthouse, previously illuminated v\ith an open coal fire, was covered with a 
lantern with large sash windows, and the fire was kept bright by means of 
large bellows; the lantern was subsequently removed, and afterwards, at the 
commencement of the present century, fifteen large lenses with separate 
lamps were placed in it. In 1790, the only exception to the coal fire was 
the Eddystone lighthouse, which had a chandelier with 24 wax candles, and 
the Liverpool lighthouses with oil lamps and rude parabolic reflectors. An 
interestitig historical fact was then metjtioned — viz.. that parabolic reflectors 
were used at the Liverpool lighthouses (huilt in 1763), as Mr. W. Hutchin- 
son, in his " Practical Seamanship,'' published that year, describes the appa- 
ratus then in \!se — the larger reflectors of wood lined with small pieces of 
looking-glass, the smaller of polished tin : this was the more curious, as it 
had been claimeil by the French for M. Teulere in 1783, and first used in 
Scotland in 1780. The parabolic reflectors, of which some beautiful speci- 
mens were shown to the meeting, are now constructed upon the formula of 
the celebrated Captain lluddart. Having explained the catoptric or reflect- 
ing principle of illumination, which received so great an improvement in the 
invention of the Argand lamp in 1780 or 85, several other lights were ex- 
hibited and described — viz., the Drummond light, the voltaic light, and the 
causes of their inapplicability. The present mode of lighting is from lamps 
constructed on a modification of the Argand principle. A first-order pneu- 
matic lamp with four concentric wicks, showing a most powerful light, was 
exhibited. The dioptric principle, in which the rays of light etnanate from 
a central lamp, atid are controlled and directed liy a series of lenses placed 
before atid around it, next occupied attention. The author claims the 
priority of its suggestion for an optician in Loudon, as tuentioned hy Sinea- 
tun, who proposed, in 1759, to grind the panes of the Eddystone lighthouse 
into a sphere of 15 feet diameter. The present form of lens, generally 
known as Fresuel's, was fiist suggested by the celebrated Buffon, to whom it 
is probable the catoptric system owes its origin. Sir David Brewster, in 
1811, showed the prarticability of constructing a lens of separate pieces, 
and this was first used in France by Fresnel, and has since become universal 
in French lighthousps. A comparative view of the catoptric and dioptric 
systems is aft'orded hy the fixed lights of the South Foreland, the higher 
being from the dio|)tiic principle and the lower from lliidriart's reflectors, 
which to a distant observer appear equally bright — the only test of their 
efficiency. The cata-dioptric principle was illustrated by a beautiful fouiih- 
order apparatus, lent by Messrs. Wilkins, in which, above and below the 
light, a system of totally reflecting prismatic zones is arranged, the sugges- 
tion of Mr. A. Stevenson. Mr. Alexander Gordon's cata-dioptric system, a 
union of the reflector and refractor, was also described. — Some particulars 
respecting the power of light in penetrating mist were also brought forwaid. 



During fogs the attendants of light vessels sound a bell at intervals, or, as 
now used by the Trinity Board, a Chinese gong. Instead of this, Lii ut. 
Sheringham, R.N., proposed, in 1842, to use a whistle wurked by bellows, 
and Mr. Gordon priiposeil to place the whistle in the focus of a parabcdic 
reflector, to direct the scmud. Mr. Findlay concluded bis paper by suggest. 
ing the use of Mowbray's chemical whistle, which was exhibited and Oc- 
scribed. 



ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

Jan. 10. — GiiORGE Buchanan, Esq., F.R.S.E., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were tuade : — 

1. Descriji/ion wi/h Draiohif/s of a Porlahle Cofferdam, a(lnpti A specially 
for tlie use of Harbour and other Marine Works m exposed situations. By 

Thomas Stevenson, Esq., C.E. 

This coflferdam was used at Ilynish harbour works, Argyllshire, for exca- 
vating rock which was seldom left dry by the tide, and was covered with 
two feet of sand. It was found impossible to form a comiuon cofferdam, 
owing to the shallowness of the sand, which could not afl'ord any suppor'; to 
piles, and to the violence of the sea, which would in a single tide either 
wholly break it up or render it leaky. The cofferdam aihipted being porta- 
ble, was moved from one compartment of the cutting, when firdshed, to 
another. It consisted of two dnuble frames of timber, each complete in 
itself, being bound together with iron rods, forming a dam about 10 feet by 
14, and 3 feet high. One of these double frames (being somewhat less than 
the other) was placed inside of the larger, so as to admit two piles being 
driven between thetu. In this way the piles could, from the depth of the 
frames, be driven perfectly straight, and were also quite independent of sup- 
port from the sand. As eacbcoiupartment of the excavation was completed, 
and before the dam was removed, one row of piles was driven liown to the 
bottom of the pit and left standing, so as to be a guide for again super- 
imposing the frames over them, and in this way it was impossible for any of 
the rock to escape being removed. The peculiar advantages are its porta- 
bility — its ready adaptation to a sloping or to an irregular bottom — the ease 
and certainty with which the partitions between each section of the rock 
were removed, and the double-framed walings that supported and directed 
the diiving of the piles. Whenever excavations require to be made in i: 
rocky beach covered by a stratum of sand, however thin, this form of dam 
may be used, as there is no kind of lateral supports such as shore wanted, 
the structure containing within itself the elements necessary for its stability. 
It possesses, indeed, the properties of a caisson, with the additional advan- 
tage of accommodating itself to an irregular bottom. 

2. Description of a Cast-iron SItnii Bridge, of two arches — of Wf) feet 
span each —now being erected to carry f/ie Leeds, Dewsbury, and Manchester 
Railway, over the River Colder at Ravenswharfe, near Dewsbury. By 
Thomas Grainger, Esq., C.E. 

This bridge is a skew at an angle of 56 deg., and consists of two arches of 
100 feet span, with a pier about the centre of the river ; each arch is formed 
with six cast-iron segmental ribs, having a rise of 12 feet, — each rib is cast 
in five pieces, having flanges or lugs at the joinings, and bolted together 
with 2-inch bolts ; the section of the ribs at the aliutments is 3 feet ileep, 
the web 2^ inches thick, the top and bottom moulding or flanges 8 inches 
by 3 inches, presenting an area of 123 inches; the section at the crown is 
2 ft. 9 in. deep, and otiierwise the same as at the abutments, and presents an 
area of 1 15^ inches. The spaudrils are cast along with the ribs — the joints 
being formed at the uprights instead of at the intermediate spaces, as shown 
on the model. The ribs have dovetailed sockets cast upon them to receive 
the cast-iron braces which are keyed into them ; these braces, 10 in number, 
stretch across the bridge at right angles to the ribs ; there are also 8 wrought- 
iron tie-rods, 2 inches diameter, placed parallel to the line of the abutments, 
to connect the whole structure together. The ribs abut against and are 
keyed into massive iron bed-plates sunk into the stone-work of the a'uit- 
raents. The roadway is supported by transverse timber beams 12 inches hy 
9 inches, bolted to the top of the spandrils at intervals of 3 feet from centre 
to centre ; the planking is 3 inches thick, and is laid diagonally across tliese 
beams, and spiked to them with 6-inch spikes; and over the planking a 
coating of asphalte is to be laid. The outside ribs are surmounted by a 
cast-iron cornice to correspond with the luasoury. and having a cast-iron 
railing on tlie top. The eslimated weight of the cast-iron in the bridge is 
603 tons 4 cwt., ami the expense of fitting up the iron and timber work has 
been contracted for at 8,598/. 

3. Observations on the means hy which Time may be communicated by 
Signal Balls from one Station to anollier. By John Adie, Esq., F.U.S.E. 
The author of this paper remarked, that the distance of the Nelson Monu- 
ment from Leith, and more so from Leitb Roads, would allow a time-ball 
placed on the Monument to be distinctly seen only in very clear weather, 
which is confined to a liiniled number of days, rendering it of little use to 
the shipping in the Frith of Forth. He ne.xt described a method by which 
the ball on the Monument, and one at Leith, might be dropped at the same 
second of time, by a person in charge at the Royal Observatory, Calton Hill. 
This he proposed to do by making use of the great force induced on artificial 
iron magnets, the wires surrounding these magnets being brought into con- 
tact with the poles of a galvanic battery placed in the Ubservatory, and em- 



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ploying tliis force to draw lu.lts or catches to free tlie balls aiul allow tliem 
to (irop ; a niimtier of ma^'iiets in cnmmutiication will develop tlieir furces at 
distant stations at tlie same moment, and allow balls at several stations to 
indicate tlie same second. 

4. Description of a Safelij- Wheel Jiini/- Revolver, to prevent Wheels of 
Carriagen from flying off the Jiles. By Rev. Graham Mitchell, A.M. 

The ohjpct of this invention Is to prevent disasters, hy rendering it im- 
possihle for any wheel fiyine off the axle, whether from tear and wear, or con- 
cussion. Independently of all former contrivances of security for luiiiian 
life, there is here superadded a Irass or iron ring attached to the wheel be- 
hind the hush, which apart revolves along with the large wheel itself round 
a nitch cut in the axle of the carriage, and which is designed to act ai a 
preventive against a wheel ever Hying off, whatever be the velocity of levolu- 
tion. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS OF IRELAND. 

Dec. 14. — Col. II. D. JjNES, President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

** Description of a Clock with a Ref/istering Machine attached." By Mr. 
Sharp. — An ordinary cluck was exhibited, with the addition of a certain 
number of projecting pins on the dial ; the interval between every two pins 
expressed a certain portifni of time, being that which elapsed while the hour 
hand of the chick, in its ordinary motion, passed from one pin to another; 
a lever was attached to the liack of the diji, by means of which the hour 
band ciiuhl be pushed in at any time against the face of the dial, and, by 
coming in contact with one of the projecting pins imnediatelv under it, 
push it in also, and the pin so puslied in woidd register, within but a few 
minutes, the exact time the hand was brought in contact with the dial. Mr. 
Sharp explained how, by means of a sufficient number of |)ins on the dial, 
very small intervals of time might lie registered. This invention he con- 
ceived could lie used for all the purposes of a noctuary, ami might, by 
means of an additional mechanical contrivance, be made to register tlie 
times of the arrival and departure of the traitis, by means of the trains 
themselves. He also explained how the movement of the clock was not in 
the least injured by this addition, and that this means of registering might 
be also applied to clocks already constructed. 

*' -^ short account of the Fall dnnng a violent storm, of part of a Roof 
in progress of erection over the Dublin terminus of the Midland Great 
Western Railway." By Mr. Hemans. — The total length of the roof of this 
building is 475 feet, and the width 120 feet, divided into two spans of 60 
feet each, the roof resting on walls at either side, and on columns in the 
centre. The centre columns are C2 ft. 6 in. apart, and are connected by flat 
arches and gutter-plates. The whole structure, with the exception of the 
columns, gutter-plates, tie-washers, and sockets, is composed of rolled iron. 
The principal, wiiich are the only rafters, are 38 in number to each half-roof, 
and are 12 ft. 6 in. apart. They are formed of what are called "deck 
beams." The cover of the roof is of corrugated galvanised iron, and con- 
nected by bolts and rivets similarly galvanised, and provision is made for 
expansion and contraction. Twenty-five of the principals were erected on 
each side, and the whole centre line of columns and arches complete, when 
the storm, the cause of the accident, began. The principals not being con- 
nected together by temporary diagonal braces (none would be required when 
the corrugated covering was fixed), were exposed to the powerful action of 
the gale in the direction in which no temporary provision had been made to 
withstand latend pressure ; and the consequence was, as might naturally he 
expected, that the greater portion of them were blown down one over the 
other, like a pack of cards ; and the whole of them had snapped their 
sockets. 

Several members expressed their satisfaction at Mr. Hemans having placed 
on record this failure through inattention to the necessary precautions in the 
execution, which would prove an useful lesson. 

" An account of the removal of a Mill at the Cults, near Coleraine." By 
Col. H. D. Jones, President. — The paper was accompanied by several draw- 
ings explanatory of the subject, and detailed the mode adopted for the re- 
moval of a large mill, the height of which, to the eaves, was 05 feet, and 
the walls were of proportionate thickness, being three feet at the level of 
the ground story. The execution of the works in connection with the 
drainage of Lough Neagh, rendered the removal of this mill necessary, and 
the use of gunpowder was considered the most economical means of effect- 
ing this object ; but the contiguity of the mill to several houses by the 
roadside rendered it necessary to guard against accident, by limiting the 
charge of powder. A detailed account was given of the quantity of powder 
used, the mode of applying the charges, and the effect produced, and very 
satisfactorily proved the economy of the measure. This work was conducted 
under the superintendence of Mr. C. S. Ottley, the district engineer for 
Lough Neagh drainage. — The President stated that he had used gunpowder 
with much advantage, both as regarded effect and economy, in the removal 
of large buildings, but especially in the removal of a large storehouse at 
Flushans. 

Mr. M'Mahon stated the great advantage of adopting the plan which 
had been so successfully tried in the present instance. 

Mr. Clarendon described the mode by which the hish dock wall bad 
been removed at the site of the Dublin and Drogheda railway terminus in 



Amiens-street, which had been effected expeditiously and economically, and 
without the use of cnnpowder. 

Mr. Dean called the attention of the Institution to the inctfioient state of 
the sewerage of Dulilin. 



HINTS TO PLANTERS. 
A correspondent of the Gardeners' Chronicle says, " In rambling throuL'h 
the New Forest, I have been much struck by observing how much the beauty 
of natural woods depends upon the open glades, or intervals hare of trees, 
which there so frequently occur, and have often wondered why the land- 
scape gardener so seldom imitates nature in this respect. In the disposition 
of Ihe open and the woodrd spots, it may be observed that nature commonly 
fills up the valleys with wood, and leaves most of the brows ami eminences 
bare, and in an undulating country, nothing is more pleasing to the tye than 
thus to see the woods creeping up the hollows and gradually feathering off, 
and dis.ippearing as they approach the summits of the hills, which rise bare 
of trees above them. The landscape gardener almost invaiiably does the 
reverse. He commonly jdanls all the eminences (probably from the notion 
of making a more conspicuous show at a distance), leaving his vacant spaces 
in the valleys and lower grounds. By this means (putting appearance out 
of the question) he subjects his trees to the doulile disadvantage of a more 
exposed situation, and a shallower soil ; consequently his trees grow incom- 
paratdy slower than they would do in the deeper soil and more sheltered 
situation of the lower grounds. Trees differ so much in the soil and situa- 
tion suitable to the different kinds, that it is of the utmost consequence to 
the planter that the one should be adapted In the other; and if planters 
could be induced to look after these thinirs themselves, instead of entrusting 
them to the nurseryman, one would not so often see plantations fiUid with 
such worthless trees as beech and sycamore, where more valuable sorts, such 
as elm, ash. and cbesnut, would flourish equally well. With this view, I 
have thrown together a few observations on the sorts of trees commonly 
planted. The larch would, no doubt, be the most valuable tree that can be 
planted, were it not unfortunately subject to that peculiar disease, called the 
heart. rot, which, I believe, is not known to affect any other kind of tree. 
After growing vigorously for twenty or more years, the heart of the tree up 
to a considerable height becomes entirely rotten, without any apparent ex- 
ternal decay. The cause of this singular disease is as yet unknown. I am 
myself inclined to believe that it usually arises from too great dryness in the 
soil. In Switzerland the native habitat of the larch is in situations abound- 
ing in moisture, viz., the sides of slaty and granitic mountains ; and the 
plantations in which, in this kingdom, it seems to flourish best, are in similar 
situations in Scotland and Wales. In England it has principally been planted 
on dry sandy heaths — a situation which affords tlie greatest contrast to its 
native baliitat, and which the prevalence of the heart-rot shows to be uncon- 
genial to its nature. In point of beauty little can be said in favour of the 
larch ; it never forms a handsome mass of foliage ; and the spiky outline 
even of the oldest woods always has a poo*", unpleasing effect. It must, 
however, be acknowledged that a single tree of larch often has an elegant 
appearance. The Scotch fir is of so hardy a nature that it will flourish in 
almost any soil or situation. It is in very bad repute as a timber tree when 
grown in England, which is a very singular fact, as it is well known that the 
same species of pine, when grown in the north of Europe and the highlands 
of Scotland produces Itiat excellent timber known as the red deal. Different 
causes are assigned for this extraordinary difference in the timber grown in 
England and grown abroad. Some persons suppose that the home and 
foreign grown fir are different varieties of the same species, one of which 
always produces hard and the other soft wood ; some suppose that the colder 
climate and slower growth of the Baltic timber is the cause of its superiority ; 
and any one who will take the trouble of counting the number of annual 
lings in Baltic timber must see that its growth is in general excessively 
slow; others consider that age alone is wanting to render the timber good, 
and that if we were to allow English grown fir to attain the age of one or 
two centuries, as is the case with the Baltic grown, our timber would be 
equally valuable. That English fir timber does improve as ihe trees grow 
older, is a fact well known to timber merchants ; and I can instance the roof 
of the house in which I am now writing, which was framed of English fir, of 
very large scantling, about forty years ago, and which to all appearance is 
now as sound as the day it was put up. It must also be observed that Ihe 
English fir is commonly cut down of small dimensions, and full of sap wood, 
while most of the sap wood is cut away from the Baltic balks before we get 
them. But there is still one point, which I have never seen noticed, which, 
perhaps, may go far to account for the difference of quality. I mean the 
season in which the timber is felled. It has never yet been ascertained that 
resinous trees ought to be felled in winter, as is the universal practice in 
England, and it is not unlikely that the resinous juices with which firs abound 
in summer may tend to increase the durability of the timber felled in that 
season. I would strongly impress on those who have the opportunity, how 
desirable it would be to institute experiments on tkis point. It is stated, on 
what appears to be good authority, that both in Norway and the rest of the 
north of Europe fir trees are always felled in summer. In Switzerland, as in 
England, the timber of the Scotch fir is reckoned of very liltle value. As an 
ornamental tree the Scotch fir is gone much out of fashion, yet when allowed 
to attain a sufficient age its rounded top and red-coloured bark and contorted 



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[Febbvar'^', 



limbs produce a gram! aiiH picturesque effecl in the landscape which scarcely 
any kind »f tree can surpass. The spruce lir deligltts in a light snil and a 
very moist situation. In such situations, when not crowded by other trees, 
so as to have plenty of light, it forms a beautiful mass of thick foliage, 
towering to a great height. It is quite usrlfss to plant it in very dry, shal- 
hiw, or rocky soiN. I have seen young spiucc tlrs flourishing in stifl'clay, 
though I l)eli"vp ultimately such soils do not suit it. It often deceives the 
planter by growing vigorcuisly for 15 or 20 years, and afterwards becoming 
stunted, exhibiting nothing but a few ragged leaves on the ends of the 
!)ranches, being then one of the most unsightly objects in nature. It is sin- 
gular that a native of Norway should seem in our climate not patient of 
wind or frost. It afl'ords a soft wood, useful for many purposes, but always 
very full of knots, unless it has either been severely pruned, or grown in 
»uch close woods as to lose its side branches by natural process of <iecay from 
want of light. The silver tir flourisbes in sliti' wet clays, and throws up its 
tall head quite perpendicularly, even in the most exposed situations, appa- 
rently uninjured by the utmost fury of the wind. It is a tree which the 
landscape painter never thinks of introducing in a picture ; yet it is not with- 
out a peculiar beauty of its own, and often produces a grand effect, either in 
the stiff formal avenue, or when seen towering above other trees. Its tim- 
ber is much like that of the spruce fir, but of rather better quality." 



OBITUARY. 

MR. HARVEY LONSDALE ELMES. 

It is scarcely surprising that the death of Mr. Harvey Lonsdale Elmes 
eliould have produced such a strong feeling of regret, as ha« been manifested 
at Liverpool by so many of its leading men, for the death of a man of genius 
in the early prime of life is well calculated to awaken sympathy, and most 
in a town adorned by noble monuments of his taste, in his devotion to 
which he hastened the progress of disease and death. Our readers will 
think that such an artist deserves at our hands a more lenythened notice 
than he has yet received, for there is always a sentiment of personal interest, 
which attaches to the career of one so young in life, and so rieh in endow- 
ments. Harvey Lonsdale Elmes was born in 1813, we believe in London, 
and was the son of James Elmes, Esq., the surveyor of the Port of London, 
and himself distinguished as a large contributor to arcliitectural liter;iture. 
With him lie was brought up, and the natural abilities he early showed were 
fostered by association with the many men of genius with whom his father 
was intimate, or in connexion. Young Mr. Elmes's talents were decidedly 
of an artistic tendency, hut chiefly directed towards architecture and music, 
and he showed a peculiar delicacy of mind, stimulated perhaps by delicacy 
of physical organization. His zeal was ardent, and bis powers of application 
great, while his love of fame gave him the stimulus for great exertion. With 
Buch qualifications Mr. Elmes began under his father's care bis architectural 
studies, which be afterwards pursued under Mr. Elger of Bedford, and Mr. 
II. E. Goodridge of Bath. He was likewise employed by Mr. John Elger, a 
builder in London, until he acquired the charge of works of bis own. — In 
1836 or 1837, when Mr. Elmes was in his twenty-fourth year, the Liverpool 
Committee advertised for designs for St. Geoige's Hall, which was then in- 
tended to be a separate building. The advertisement was put into Mr. 
Elmes's bands by a Iriend, as being worthy of his notice, and he took it to 
the late Haydon, one of the earliest friends of his youth, to ask his advice 
whether he should compete, as Haydon knew many persons at Liverpool, 
having received commissions for pictures from the Blind School and other 
institutions. "By all means, rny dear boy," said Haydon; "they are noble 
fellows at Liverpool. Send in a design, and mind, let it combine grandeur 
with simplicity. None of your broken-up and frittered abortions, but some- 
thing grand." Following this exhortation Mr. Elmes set to work, and when 
he had made his first sketch, took it to a friend's house, where a trifling 
incident gave him the augury of success, for a little boy looking at the draw- 
ing very gravely, threw it down, saying emphatically, " Very good, very 
good, indeed ; it's worth five hundred pounds." When the design was sent 
in, it was successful against eighty-five competitors, and Mr. Elmes received 
the premium of five hundred pounds. Afterwards he carried ofl" in other 
competitions the premiums for the Assize Courts at Liverpool, and for the 
Collegiate Institution there. He was likewise the winner in a competition 
for the Assize Courts and St. George's Hall combined. These several vic- 
tories gave Mr. Elmes the prestige of a reputation, which his own attain- 
ments were calculated to support. Entered upon a new career, he now de- 
voted himself zealously to carry 0!it in detail the several designs on which 
he was engaged, and his professional business greatly increased. He ob- 
tained the prize for the County Lunatic Asylum, at West Derby, in Lan- 
cashire, and was employed in erecting mansions for Mr. George Hall Law- 
rence, late Mayor of Liverpool, for Mr. Hardman Earle, and Mr. Hugh 
>iornby. 

These labours, borne by a weak frame, at length brought their own end. 
In the early part of last summer Mr. Elmes showed such strong symptoms 
of consumption that change of climate became necessary. He wished to go 
to Italy to study the monuments of his art in that country, but his health 
was so much shaken that Dr. Chambers urged him to go immediattly to tbe 
West Indies, and travel from island to island. Before he left he made 



rrangements with Mr. Cofkerell to superintend the architectural detail of 
St. Georpe's Hall, for which he had finished the whole of the plan". 

In 1841 Mr. Elmes bad married the daughter of C. D. W. T.'rry, Esq., 
and accompanied by tb.it lady he set out on that journey fiom which he was 
never to return, for be died at Spanish Town, Jamaica, on the 2Gth of No- 
vembcr last, aged lil, b-aving on* child. 

Thus he was cut otf in the prime of bis life, and when only heginnin? t > 
etijoy the honours and rewards due to his exertions. When Prince Allieit 
visited Liverpind, he was so delighted with St. Georiie's Hall ib;it he sent a 
gold medal to Mr. Elmes, and the architdt only awaiU'd the completion of 
his work to receive plaudits on every hand. As it is, those honours niust he 
paid to his tomb ; and indeed the Town Council of Liverpool on the announce- 
ment of bis death, gave a public expression of their strong feelings of regret 
for what they felt to be a heavy loss. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

GftANTED IN ENGLAND FROM DECEMBER 30, TO JaNUARY 20, 1848. 

Six Months allowed/or Enrolment, unless otherwise expressed, 

Thomas Hancock, of Stoke Newineton. Middlesex, and Reuben Philpps. of Inllri^ton, 
Rliddltfsex. clifmist, fur " Improveinetits in tlie treating- or ir.anufatture of gultu percba, 
or iiny of the varieties of caoutchouc." — Sealed December ;in. 

Felix Edwards Pratt, of Fenton Potteries, Stafford, earthenware manufacturer, for 
"Improvements in manufaclurinj? articles composed of earthenware or ctiiua." — Dec. 
31. 

Mary Jenkins, of Atton, Warwick, widow, for "Improvements in the aianufactiire of 
pins, hooks, eyes, and other fiistenines." — Dec. 31. 

Edward Humphrys, of H'llUiid-street, Surrey, engineer, for "certain Improvemen's 
in steam engines, and in engines or apparatus for raising, extjausting, and forcing liquids ** 
— January 4. 

William Fromle, of Darlington, Devon, civil-engineer, for " Improvements in the 
vulves used in closing the tubes of atmospheric railways." — January .'». 

Read Holiday, ot Hudderslield, manufaclunng chemist, for *' Improvements in lamps.' 
— January 5. 

Charlrs De Bergue, of Arthur street west, city, engineer, for " Improvements in car- 
riages used on railways." — January 5. 

Alexander Robertson Arrott, manaper of the Union-place Glass Works, St. Helens, 
Lancaster, for " Imiiroveincnts in manufacturing common salt." — January 5. 

Charles Lambert, of Two-HIile Hill, St. George's, near Bristol, pen^maker, for "cer- 
tain Improvements in machinery for making nails." — January 5. 

Josiah George Jennings, of (Jreat Charlotte-street, Blackfriars-road, for " Improve- 
ments in cocks or taps for drawing off liquids and gases." — January ft. 

George Bell, of the city of Dublin, merchant, for " certain Improvements in the ar- 
rargemetit of wheels and axles for steam and other carriaj;es, which facilitate travelling 
on ryilw;iys ;iii>i comtnon roads, parts of which nnprovemfuts are applicable to other mA- 
chinery."— January 7- 

James Montgomery, of Salisb-iry-s'reet, Middlesex, for "certain Improvements in 
piauofortfs and other simdar linger-keyed instruments." (Being a communication ) — 
January 11. 

Alfred Augustus de Reginald Hely, of No. 11, Cannon-row, Westminster, and Joseph 
Emmett Norton, of Saint Maiy-le-Strand-place, Kent-road, Surr. y, wine-merchant, tor 
" certain Improvements in bottles or vessels for containing liquids, and in the mode of 
and machini ry or apparatus for ti ling and stopping the same."- January 11. 

Gardner Stow, late of King-street, Cheapside, but now of New York, gt»ntleman, for 
<' Improvements in a;>parai,us for [jropellinij ships and other vessels."— January 1 1. 

William Thorold, ot Norwich, engineer, for " Improvements in tura-lables." — January 
13. 

Robert Wiliam, M.A , Greenock, for " Improvements in certain kinds of rotatory en- 
gtnes worked by steam or other elastic fluids, part of which improvements are api)lic!tl'le 
to rotatory engines worked by water, or by the wind; also, an improvement in sately- 
valves for steam boilers." — January 13. 

Sydney Edwards Morse, of Ampton-place, Gray's-inn-road, for " Improvements in the 
manufacture of plates or surfaces for printing or embossing," — January 13. 

Kenjamin Mitchell, of Huntingdonshie, farmer, for "Improvements in the manufac- 
ture ul manure." — January 13. 

Robiirt Heath, of Heathtield, Manchester, gentleman, for "certain Improvements in 
the method of applying and working friction brasses to engines and carriages used upon 
railways." — January L^. 

Job Culler, of Spurk Brook, Birmingham, civil engineer, for " certain Improvements 
in welded iron pipes or tubes to be used as the flues of steam boilers.*' — January 13. 

John Gilmore, Lie itenant in the Hoyal Navy, for " certain Improvements in ventilat- 
ing ships and other vessels." — January 17. 

Charles Crane, of Stratford, Essex, manufacturing chemist, and James Thomas JuUion» 
of the same place, analytical chemist, for " Improvements in the manutacture o cert.iin 
acids and -alts, and a new appuratus applicable to the said improvements."— January IH, 
Four months. 

Samuel Canliffe Lister, of Manningham Hall, in ihe parish of Bradford, esq., for " Im- 
provements in sioppmg railway tr. tins and other carriages, aud generally where a lifting 
power or pressuie is lequirtd.'* — January IS. 

John Hickman, >if Birmingham, for " Im| rovements in the means of constructing and 
connecting parts nf bed.^tetids. couches, and other articles of furnitur- to which such im- 
provements may be appticalde, and also in the means of attaching knobs or handles to 
drawers, doors, and other parts of ft.rnituie." — January Irf. 

William Newton, ol (Jii. Chanct-ry-lrtue, Middlesex, civil engineer, for "Improvements 
in the maoufactine of sugar from the cane." {Being a communication.) —January IS. 

John Frederic Bateman, of Mamhester, for " certain Improvements in valves or plugs 
for the passage of water or other fluids."— January IS. 

Thomas Robert Sewell. of Carrington, in the parish of Basford, Nottingham, cbemlsl, 
for " Improvements in preparing fljiir."— January IS. 

Joseph Clinton Robertson, of Ififj, Fleet-stteet, London, civil engineer, for "certain 

Imtiruvemenls in the manufacture of textile fabrics, stufl's, and tissues, and of certain new 

products obtained by tlie aid ot such improvements." (A comiuunication.) — January 19. 

John Duncan, of Urentwood, Essi-x, gentleiuan, for " certain Improvements in tanning 

of hides."— January 20. 



1848.1 



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65 



CANDIDUS'S NOTE-BOOK 
FASCICULUS LXXIX. 



" I must have liberty 
M'itlial, as Urge a charter u- the winds, 
To Mow on whom I please.'* 

I. There is reason for conclutlinop that the peripteral temples of 
the Greeks were so planneil rather for the sake of architectural 
dignity and effect, than, as is jrenei-ally supposed, for that of 
any particular convenience or advantajje. The cella itself being 
narrow, colonnades along its sides served to give greater importance 
to the edifice by enlarging its entire bulk, its ends or fronts being 
increased from tetrastyle to hexastyle, or from hexastyle to 
octastyle, if the latei"al colonnades consisted of only a single range 
of pillars; or if the columniation was of the kind called dipteral, 
increasing the widtli of the fronts by four more columns beneath 
their pediments : thus, a cella, with a tetrastyle in front of it, would 
acquire an octastyle portico, by having dipteral colonnades erected 
along its sides. This last-mentioned mode (the dipteral) certainly 
does provide a greater sheltered-in space on the sides of tlie 
edifice; still, hardly sufficient for any real use of it as an ambula- 
tory — at least, not for a number of persons. Such purpose was far 
better accomplished by the pseudo-dipteral plan, in which the 
middle row of columns, or those between the external ones and the 
walls of the cella, were omitted, whereby a clear space was ob- 
tained equal to the width of two intercolumns and one column. 
Yet, if much was thereby gained in point of convenience, not a 
little was lost in regard to effect and richness of character ; and 
the body of the temple showed as a comparatively diminutive 
structure, standing within an open though covered colonnaded 
inclosure. As to the single peripteral, its colonnades must have 
been more for show than for real service, since they were very ill- 
calculated for accommodating a multitude of persons. Even in 
the Parthenon, the clear space between the external columns and 
the walls of the cella was not more than six feet wide; consequently 
a mere jiassage, rather than either an ambulatory or a shelter for a 
large concourse of people. 

il. AVith regard to the Parthenon, a most extraordinary error 
occurs in the English edition of Gailhabaud's "Ancient and Mo- 
dern Architecture" (second series), it being there stated that " its 
length, measured on the top of the steps, is 114. feet, its width 
51 feet;" according to which, the area of the building is not above 
one-fourth of what all other accounts make it, for they make it 
both twice as long and twice as wide ! To puzzle us the more, tliere 
is a foot-note calling particular attention to those measurements, 
from which it would seem that pains had been taken to insure 
more than usual accuracy, they being there said to be upon the au- 
thority of a " recent" — and therefore, it is to be presumed, a more 
correct — measurement by Mr. Travers. Yet, no notice is taken of 
the enormous disci-epancy between them and the usually-reported 
dimensions, or of the equal discrepancy from the plan and its 
scale given in the work itself. The scale being in metres — to 
which one in English feet should ha\e been added to the plates in 
the English edition — the contradiction between the text and en- 
graving is not so immediately obvious as it would else be ; but, on 
applying compasses and calculation, we find the length to be 
69 metres and the breadth 51, which converted into English mea- 
sure, give 226 and 101 feet respectively, or double wliat is stated 
in the text ! Had either the English writer or editor compared 
the description and plan together, their total want of agreement 
must have been discovered, which done, Mr. Travers's measurements 
would perhaps have been discarded as quite untenable. Some as 
strange or even stranger mistake perplexes us a little further on, 
where we are told that the external columns are three feet in dia- 
meter (or only half what they are usually stated, viz., six feet and a 
fraction), yet thirty-four feet four inches high, which would make their 
height between eleven and twelve diameters ! and how sucli ex- 
traordinary proportions could have escaped notice when the proof 
was read over is incomprehensible. Neither does error terminate 
there, since, besides the palpable contradiction in regard to the 
diameter and height assigned to the columns, the latter measure- 
ment and that of the entablature (10-10') renders the entire height 
of the order 45 feet ; which, though in itself it may be correct, is 
altogether irreconcileable with the width of the front being only 
51 feet, or little more than a square in height, — the proportions 
not of an octastyle but a tetrastyle, and such as it is impossible to 
give to the former. Here, then, we ha\e a pretty complication of 
blunders, and those of the most serious kind, in a publication 
which ought to be scrupulously accurate in regard to the measure- 
No. 12G— Vol. XL— Mauch, 1S4S. 



ments which it gives of buildings. Tliere is what looks like suf- 
ficient pledge for editorial responsibility and carefulness, the title- 
page assuring us that "the translations are re\ised by F. 
Arundale and T. L. Donaldson, Prof. Arch., Univ. Coll., London;" 
therefore, to those gentlemen may be left the task of accounting 
for or explaining away the egregious mistakes here pointed out, and 
which comprtmiise the credit and character of the work to such 
degree as to demand correction— if in no other way, by cancelling 
the pages where they occur. Not the least awkvvard'part of the 
matter is, a detection of the kind naturally excites mistrust as to 
other articles, where mistakes either of a similar or different kind 
may have escaped the English revisors. In that very article on the 
Parthenon, one paragraph that ouglit to have been omitted, was 
unluckily sufi^ered to remain — namely, that which says : " We 
give with this notice a splendid specimen of polychromatic archi- 
tecture of tlie Parthenon, being a perspective view of the entabla- 
ture and capitals, restored with the utmost care by Mr. Travers 
from traces which he discovered in the monument itself." There 
is, however, no such plate in the work — at least, not in theEnglish 
edition, although it would have been particularly acceptable, and 
far more valuable than all those of such unarchitectural subjects 
as Cromlechs and Celtic monuments, ])ut togetlier. Of thetn^ two or 
three specimens at the utmost would have sufficed : still better 
would it have been had they been excluded altogether fi'om a work 
which, were it to be extended to a hundred volumes, could not pos- 
sibly illustrate all that is worthy of notice in " Ancient and 
Modern Architecture." 

III. It is not only with regard to the notion of Blore's facade to 
the Palace being a copy of that of Caserta, that Mr. Sliarp and 
myself differ materially, my opinion of Elmes's " History of Archi- 
tecture in Great Britain" being so \-ery dissimilar from his, that I 
think the Editor has very great reason to complain of such a care- 
lessly-executed and inaccurate performance being passed-off upon 
him under the res])onsibility of Mr. Elmes's name. While there is a 
great deal of mere garrulous filling-up anecdote, quite out of place in 
an historic outline, and out of all proportion to the brevity and 
rapidity of the record itself, there are not a few omissions, and 
some of them truly unaccountable ones. Both Kent and his 
patron, the Earl of Burlington, may be said to be passed over in 
silence, since they obtain no further notice than the complimentary 
mention of their names as " two accomplished architects of the 
Anglo-Palladian school," without a syllable about any of their 
works — eitlier the " Holkham" of the one, or the " Chiswick" of 
the other. The name of '' Holkham," indeed — and it is the name 
only— occurs elsewhere, but wrongly, for the credit of that palatial 
mansion is taken from Kent, and assigned to Brettingham, who 
merely published the designs of it, with his own name on the title- 
page. It would seem, then, that " accomplished" architects as 
they were, Kent and Burlington are not entitled to figure at all 
in a history which brings forward such a mere nobody as John 
Yenn. Neither is any mention made of Carr, of York, although 
he was of considerable repute in his day, and erected many im- 
portant mansions and other structures in the northern counties. 
Harrison, of Chester, too, is similarly passed over without being 
so much as named ; and to him may, among others, be added 
Porden. Besides omissions of tliat kind, there is, with just here 
and there an exception, the general and pervading omission of all 
attempt at satisfactory critical estimate of the arcliitects and 
buildings that are recorded. So little real substance is there in it, 
that Mr. Elmes's " History" amounts to very little more than a 
dry catalogue of names. What is worse, it is not trust-worthy ; 
on the contrary, is so full of obvious mistakes as to excite general 
mistrust, for notliing is to be depended upon it which the reader 
cannot verify for himself. The Royal Exchange at Dublin, which 
"everybody" knows to be by Cooley, whose talent and taste are very 
happily displayed in it, is erroneously attributed to Cliambers. 
Gandon is misnamed, for he is called William instead of James, — 
a mistake, perhaps, of no very great moment, but which, coming 
along with so many others, evinces the writer's habitual careless- 
ness. It would, too, have been as well to have stated, that a 
" Life" of Gandon — such as it is, was published about a twelvemonth 
ago. Connected with Gandon, there is another mistake, for 
after he had been spoken of as having edited the two last volumes 
of the " Vitruvius Britannicus" (viz., the 4th and Sth), we are told 
that " Colin Campbell published his useful work, the ' Vitruvius 
Britannicus,' in four consecutive volumes, between the years 1715 
and 1771" — therefore, the last of them about forty years after his 
death — " to which, Woolf and Gandon respectively added supple- 
mentary volumes of equal skill and correctness." This is so 
ambiguously worded, that it seems to say, each of the two latter 
editors separately added more than a volume to the original work, 

10 



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[ M^VECU, 



instead of bringing; out conjointly two other volumes to accompany 
tlie three that had been ]iiiblislie(l by Campbell. When he was 
mentioning that collection of designs, Mr. Elmes might as well 
have observed, that it is by no means so com)ilete as it ought to 
have been; for wliile it is made to contain severalverydull andun- 
interesting subjects, others are omitted whicli are either of con- 
siderable celebrity or merit, — such as Lord Burlington's Casino, 
at Chiswick (since altered bj' Wyatt), and St. George's, Blooms- 
bury. 

IV. In speaking of ■^Vyatt's Pantheon — of which greatly, if not 
extravagantly, admired structure, it is equally matter of surprise 
and regret that no engravings were given, either in Gandon's last 
volume of the "Vitruvius," or in the subsequent worl-c by llicliardson, 
— IMr. Elmos sadly neglectsbis proper duty as an architectural his- 
torian, to gossip very provokingly about Lunardi's balloon, instead of 
entering into any description of tlie edifice itself, which he merely 
calls a "fine work," with(nit particularizing any of its beauties 
and merits. The onl)' [jart of it on which he makes any remarks, 
is that which least of all required notice — namely, the front ; it 
still remaining ])retty nearly what it was at first. He speaks, 
however, of the portico as having been of the Ionic order ; and if 
so. the Doric one, which existed before the building was converted 
into a bazaar, cannot luive been that which Mr. Elmes alludes to, 
altluiugh he does not say as much. In what is said of that front, 
the term " wings" is not very correctly applied, the whole of it 
forming only a single general mass, without such subdivision into 
distinct collateral masses as properh' answer to the denomination 
of " wings," which Mr. Elmes elsewhere applies equally vaguely, 
as when noticing the " Trinity House," and the " Society of Arts" in 
the Adelphi. Another instance of his indefiniteness in what 
ought to be exjilicit technical phraseology, is his very untechnical 
mode of describing a recessed portico or loggia, calling it some- 
times an " in\erse" portico, sometimes a " retrocessed" one, or by 
some other more fantastical than intelligible epithet. 

V. The admiration professed for what is Soane's liappiest piece of 
composition has not extended itself beyond words. We may say 
of it liiitdutur at alget^ since no one has testified his estimation of 
it by borrowing an idea from it, notwithstanding that similar 
striking effect and picturesque expression might be obtained 
without falling into direct imitation. Nay, Mr. Elmes would 
make out Soane himself to ha\e been there only an imitator, — at 
least, to have " had in his mind the semicircular porticos of the 
transepts of St. Paul's," as if, without them, the idea would not 
have emanated, as no doubt it immediately did, from his 
studies of the Temple at Tivoli, whose order — an equally beautiful 
and peculiar example of the Corinthian, tliat had previously been 
ignored by all modern architects and all the systematisers of 
the Five Orders, — was adopted by him at the Bank as a decided 
no\-elty, with unimpeachable classical authority for it. Still, 
though he adopted it, even Soane himself does not appear to have 
comprehended its diaracter, for it is only at that angle of the 
Bank that he has exhibited it entire, having in the other parts of 
the building employed the columns only, without the entablature 
which belongs to them, not only in conformity with the original 
example, but in conformity with the laws of aesthetic design. By 
supi)ressing — as if such cliange was of no moment at all — the rich 
embossed frieze, which is alisolutely necessary for keeping up 
harmony and perfect agreement in the eiu-emhle of the order, he 
converted the entablature altogether into one which contrasts 
rather than at all agrees with the columns themselves. Their 
fluted shafts become too rich, and their capitals look too heavy, 
in comparison with the emasculated entablature. The energy of 
expression, as well as the degree of decoration assumed for the 
columns, stops short with them, instead of being carried on con- 
sistently, and extended to the horizontal division of the order, 
wliere, if anything, increase rather than diminution of decoration 
is requisite, since otherwise, a most disagreeable falling-off takes 
place: anijilwrd cwpit iiistitin, — ttrceus exit. If decoration is to be 
moderated at all, it sliould at least be done consistently, and so as 
not to tlirow one part out of keeping with another ; the doing 
which — and it is by no means uncommon — betrays either down- 
right ignorance, or wilful and most unpardonable disregard of both 
precedent and principle. What is not least of all extraordinary 
is, that those who are gifted withsuch \ery microscopic vision astobe 
struck by the profile of a mere moulding in a cornice, or some 
equally minute detail, take no notice of such wholesale omissions as 
the suppression of sculi)ture on a frieze amounts to. In some por- 
tions of the Bank the frieze is not, indeed, left entirely blank, it 
being ornamented witli a Vitruvian fret ; which, however, has a 
tame and insipid look in compariscin with the boldness of the 
capitals. If deviation from the original there was to be at all, it 



would not have been amiss, perhaps, to increase the cornice, and 
also give it stmiething of richness ; thereby i-endering the entabla- 
ture ecpiivalent in force of expression to that of the ccdumns. 

VI. \^'ith regard to that particular feature in the architecture 
of the Bank which has given rise to the jireceding remarks, it 
has obtained more of professed admiration for its striking effect 
than of inquiry into the cause of that effect. For such inquiry, 
perha])s, there is no great need ; becaiise no one who has any eye 
at all for the picturesque in architecture, can be at a loss to deter- 
mine in what the peculiar piquancy of that composition consists. 
Still, it is necessary that its merits, in that respect, should be dis- 
tinctly pointed out, if only in order to force such earnest attention 
to them as might lead to similar happy results in composition. 
Precisely the same columns are used in other parts of the build- 
ings, yet nowhere with anjthing at all approaching the same 
effect ; and why ? because here the composition is such as to be 
unusually productive of those " accidents" which gi\e life and 
spirit to architecture — namely, \igorous cliiaro-sciiro, play of per- 
spective, and richness of combination. There is not merely 
light and shade in a greater than cudinary degree, but variety of 
it — deepening shadows and brilliantly-touched lights when the sun 
begins to strike upon that angle of the building. Of perspective ap- 
pearance, also, there is great variety, owing to the apparent changes 
of position between the external columns and the inner ones, and 
also to the contrasted disposition of them, the former being upon a 
curved line, the latter on a straight one. There is also another 
point of contrast between them which is equally judicious and 
happy, the outer columns being fluted and the others plain. This, 
while it adds to the variety of the composition, prevents confusion ; 
and such is the value of the two inner columns, that without 
them the wln)le would be many degrees less admirable. They are, 
besides, both nioti\'ed by and serve to warrant the mode in which 
the attic is carried across the loggia in a straiglit line. The only 
exceptionable thing is the door, or rather the appearance of door, 
when there can be no entrance from without, and where therefore 
a window or window-door — even had that also been only in ap- 
pearance — would have been less of an impropriety. But a statue 
of some sort, sufiiciently important in size, would not only have 
been an interesting object of itself, but have done away with all 
necessity for appearance of access into the loggia, since the latter 
would in such case have had an ostensible purpose as a piece of 
decoration. 

VII. We get architectural criticism — as far as we do get any of 
it at all — merely by a mouthful of it at a time. A\'hat professes 
to be such is sekbmi more than a single condensed opinion expressed 
in the lump, wrapped up perhaps in a mass of cumbersome verbiage, 
or else enunciated in a tone of oracular decisiveness, intended to 
awe into silence and stifle inquiry and discussion. Even Horace 
Walpole's critical verdicts, albeit they were sometimes turned 
epigrammatically enough, were both flimsy and unjust, shallow and 
superficial. Wliat he says of the campanile of St. George's, 
Bloomsbury, amounts to a mere sneer, and convicts him withal 
of being quite obtuse to picturesque effect in composition, and 
other architectural merits. As to Gothic architecture, Horace 
disqualified himself for setting up as a judge of that by his own 
precious Strawberry HiU, which would liave absolutely horrified 
him had he possessed the slightest feeling whatever for that style. 
Yet, even \ile as it is, Strawberry Hill has been deliberately 
praised by another discei-ning critic and writer on architecture, 
who says that the connoisseur would there find "all that is fas- 
cinating in the Gotliick style." All that is fascinating with a ven- 
geance ! ^V'ere it possible to conceive that DaUaway was there 
merely joking, we could account for such praise as being con- 
demnatory irony ; liut he seems to have been quite serious, and 
must accordingly have been exceedingly stui>id also. In what its 
fascinations consist he does not say, althougli if any such merits 
there were, it behoved a critic to point them out, and to do so in 
such manner as so fix attention upon them. The comfort is, we 
lose very little by Dallaway's confining himself to only very 
hurried and superficial remarks on nu)dern English buildings and 
architects, since what he does say, indicates but very mediocre 
critical talent and taste. AVhat sort of an architectural critic 
Allan Cunningham was, — how well qualified to undertake the 
"Lives of British Architects,"^ — may be judged from the censure he 
passes upon the large open arches and loggias above them in the 
river fayade of Somerset Place, — the most striking features, or 
rather the only Striking ones, in that composition. In a fit of 
hypercriticism, Allan affects to be shocked at those very picturesque 
parts of the structure, as being quite contrary to all architectural 
principle and propriety, he asserting that the columns over the 
void of the arch produce " an appearance of insecurity that is al- 



1848.] 



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67 



together intolerable ;" which is as much as to say, that instead of 
suggesting the idea of strength and perfect security, ^he arch 
loolis unequal to the due support of the columns. Nevertheless, 
it is certain that those arches are capable of safely bearing the 
weight of the columns, and can also safely bear the weight of 
what is much heavier still — namely, Allan's own leaden criticism. 

V^III. Very great pity is it that St. Martin's Church stands just 
where it does, because it was in consequence allowed to interfere 
very injuriously both with the National Gallery and Trafalgar 
Square. Owing to its being obstinately insisted upon as a sine qua 
non, that the portico of the church should be exposed to ^iew from 
Pall-Mall-East, the front of the Gallery was obliged to be set fur- 
ther back than it otherwise needed to be, and the site of the 
building — at best a very cramped-up one in its rear — consider- 
ably reduced in depth ; in some parts, to little more than half. 
Hence, the interior of the structure does not at all realise 
the promise made by its extent of fa?ade. Admitted it must be, 
that the arcliitect did not economise what space he had so well as 
he might hdve done ; still, that does not excuse those whose 
capricious whims thrust difficulties upon him where, without such 
addition of them, there were many to contend with. — On the other 
hand, as regards the " Square," its symmetry and rectangularity 
have been sacrificed for the sake of keeping its east side in a line 
witli the portico of St. Martin's, which would still have shown 
itself, even had it not been made to come actually into that corner 
of it. After all, does the church display itself to such advantage, 
as to reconcile us to the inconveniences and deformities which it 
has been allowed to give rise to ? The reply will be : " Hardly." 
Thrown open to view from such a distance as it now is, that por- 
tico is not so impressively striking as it formerly was. As it stood 
originally, the situation seemed altogether unworthy of it, owing 
to its being much too confined, and to the meanness of the houses 
hudtUed-up round the church — a species of contrast more pictu- 
resque than becoming or agreeable. Nevertheless, as it was then 
seen, the portico showed imposingly ; and all the more so, because 
the view was confined nearly to that — the steeple not being seen 
unless it was directly looked up to ; whereas now, as seen from a 
distance, the entire structure, that is, both portico and steeple — 
the latter of them anything but a graceful and well-composed 
object of its kind — are seen together ; owing to which, the portico 
loses considerably, and the classical character that would else stamp 
it, when beheld at such a distance that only its exterior or columns 
are visible, is greatly interfered with, if not altogether forfeited, 
by the uncouth appendage which rises up immediately behind it. 
By no means is the view of the portico from Pall-Mall-East a pre- 
possessing one. — Trafalgar Square itself falls very far short of 
what was only reasonable expectation for it. Strange perversity 
of judgment, bungling, and disregard of architectural disposition 
have been allowed to manifest themselves in it. Although the 
area itself seems to have been expressly planned for the reception 
of the Nelson monument, the column is, after all, not placed 
within it, but is pushed just out of it. The only assignable reason 
for such dovenright preposterousness is, that had it been erected in 
the centre of the area prepared for it, so lofty an object put just 
there would have had an unfavourable effect upon the front of the 
Gallery. Very true ; but then that consideration ought to have 
been a raison de. plus, and an all-sufficient reason in itself, for not 
adopting a column, more especialy as there was another thing of 
tlie same kind just by. 'There were many other designs which, 
besides being sufficiently well adapted to the situation, were far 
more original and artistic. It was, therefore, to be presumed that 
the secoud competition was for the pui-pose of enabling the com- 
mittee to retrieve the error of their first choice ; when lo ! to the 
amazement of every one, the result was just the same as before, — 
which was only making matters worse than before. Far better — 
far more honest and honourable would it have been to have abided 
by their decision, than to make such show of intending to retract 
it. The least they could in decency have done, would have been to 
justify by some show of reason for it, a choice so strangly persisted 
in, and so strangely acquiesced in by those who had been trifled 
with. The best that can be said of the humdrum Nelson monu- 
ment is that it serves to render the facade of the National Gallery 
perfectly satisfactory in comparison with it. 



RAILWAY SECTIONS IN SIDELONG GROUND. 

On Tables for Setting out the Width of Cuttings and Embankments 
on Sidelong Ground ; and also Formulce for Computing the Area of 
Vertical Section. 

By R. G. CL.iRK, C.E. 

The object of this paper is to investigate some simple formula?, 
and from thence to construct some tables, to enable the assistant 
engineer or contractor to set out the widths of cuttings and em- 
bankments on sidelong ground; and also to calculate the solid 
content of any portion of the ground. The subject may be re- 
solved in the following proposition: — 

Given the / of inclination of ground, the depth (from field- 
book, &c.) of ground to the centre of balance or formation level, 
and tlie ratio of the slopes ; to determine where they will meet the 
ground at surface. 

Let HAFBD (fig. 1) be a vertical section of the ground; 
A B the formation line, represented by 2 i ; the given angle of in- 
clination of ground H D with the horizon by e ; tlie given depth 
O F from the stake O perpendicular to centre of formation level 
denoted by a. 




F B 

Fig. i. 

I. We will proceed first to determine a formula for O D Let it 
be. r; draw DK perpendicular to A B produced ; O /' parallel to 
A B K Let D B be the given slope m base to 1 perpendicular ; 
draw the vertical B C. 

Let D/= y; then Oc = FB = 6; ef= my; also by similar 
triangles, C e ;= m a. .■■Of=b + ma + mg. 
Now, by triangle O/D, right-angled at/, we have 
I : x :: sin e : y. .■ .g =:x.sia0. 
Again, 1 : x :\ cos e : b + 7na + my. 

. -.x. cose =z b -{■ ma -\- my. 
Eliminating y, then x (cos e - msiae) = b + ma ; 
b -\- ma 



therefore, a? = 
1 



(1) 

of the above formula, the Table 



From the factor, — 

cos 8 — m sin f 

No. I. is computed from 5° to 20°. 

2. To find an expression for O H measured from O on the 
descent. 

Draw H M (fig. 2) perpendicular to A B produced. Let H A be 



r 











^g0f^ 






5 



Fig. 2. 

the given slope, ratio as before. Let H M = ?/' ; then will A M =: 

m y'. Therefore, H G = N F = 6 -(- nj «/' ; also O g ^ a — y'. 

By the triangle H ^r O we have 1 '. jc' W sin B ; a - y' ; 

therefore, a - j/' := a;' . sin e ; and ^' = a — j' . sin B. 

Again, 1 x' : ; cos 9 ; b -\- m y'. 

Eliminating y, we have x' (cos fl -J- m sin e) ■= b -\- ma; 

therefore, x' = ^4- ; — (2) 

cos B -)- m sin fl 

From this expression, Table No. II. is calculated by the factor 

1 

cos e -|- TO sin fl' 

10* 



(iS 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LMahch, 



3. We shall iKiH 
vertical section ; tli 
mitiiiii kvel, and le 
all given. 



investig.ite an expression for the area of the 
e inclination of pround, depth, breadth of for- 
ntrtlis .(, .(', and also the ratio of slope, being 




Fig. 3. 

Through centre O (fiff. .3), draw Pe parallel to A B ; then P O 
— b+ma. . • . area of trai)ezoid P A B e = (2 4 + m a) « ; 
area of triangle P O II = i sin e.x' {b + m a) ; 
and area of triangle D () e = l^sin .r {b + m a). _ 

Consequentlv, the whole area of trapezium or vertical section _ 

area P A B e + area triangle DOe - area triangle P O hl_ 

(26 + ma) a + ^,{b + ma) {x - y)sin8 (3) 

The first column of the table gives the angle of inclination of 
the ground, and the adjoining column the nat sines to three places 
of decimals, to facilitate working out the area, as in equation (3). 
We shall now commence with the following Rules. 

I To find thf. two lengths O D and O H :— Rule. Add the half- 
breadth of formation level to the product of the slope and given 
depth • then multiply this sum bv the corresponding tabular num- 
ber, then will each product be equal to each length required. 

II. To find the area of section H A B D :— Rule. 1st. Add the 
formation level to the product of the ratio and depth, and midtiiily 
this sum by the depth. 2ndly. Add half the formation level to the 
product of ratio and depth ; multiply this sum by the difference of 
the two lengths, and again by nat sine of angle. Add these two 
products, and their sum will be the area. 

E.ramp!e 1.— Given the angle of inclination of ground 18°; slope, 

1 to 1 ; depth, 45 feet ; and breadth of formation level, 30 feet. To 
find distances of centre stake, area of section, and cubic content, 
when 100 feet in length. 

Here ft -I- a m = 15 -H 45 = 60 ; m = 1 ; 6 = 18°; its nat sin = -309 

. • . 1-557 X GO = 93-429 = O D. -799 X 60 = 47-940 = O H. 

By formula (3) we have (30 + 45) 45 -t- i (15 -(- 45) (45-48y309 

= 75 X 45 + 30 X 45-48 X '309 = 4099-5 area required. 

Cubic content = 409950-0. 

Example 2.— Given angle of inclination of ground, 20° ; slope, 

1| to 1 ; depth, 50 feet ; and breadth of formation level, 30 feet. 

To determine distances and also area. 

Here a = 50 ; 6 = 15; m- l^ = * ; fl = 20° ; its nat sin = -342 

. - . 6 -f a m = 15 + 75 = 90. 
Xow, 2-344 X 90 = 210-96 = O D. -781 X 90 = 70-29 = O H. 

By formula (3) for area we have 
(30 -I- 75) a -f- 4 (15 + 75) (140-67) -342 = -7174 area required. 
Example 3 — Given the inclination of ground, 18° ; slope to be 

2 to 1 ; depth from field-book, 20 feet ; breadth of formation level, 
30 feet. To find area and distances. 

Here 6 = IS ; a = 20 ; fl = 18 ; m = 2. . • . 6 -j- om = 55. 
55 . X 3-000 = 1 65- = O D. 55 . X -641 — 35-25 = O H. 
By formula (3) we have 
(30 4- 40) 20 -f ^ (15 -f- 40) (129-74) -309 = 2505 area required. 

Remark. — If the ground should ascend and descend, as in the 
adjoining diagram (fig. 4), then Table No. II. is to be used to find 
the distances. Table No. I will in like manner be required for 
ground descending from centre, as in fig. 5. 





Fig. 4. 



•Fig- -I- 



The Tables will likewise do for embankments — No. I. for the 
TRscent from centre stake, and No. II. for the descent. 

We shall now discuss the equations (1) and (2). Put them 



respectively under the following forms. T, T', being tabular num- 
bers, A = 6 4- m a. 

X = T . A ; and X' = T' . A. 

Divide by T, T', respectively ; then y„ = 'f^, A being eliminated. 

Therefore the two distances, ,r and .r', are to each other as their 
respective tabular numbers; consequently, the distances can be 
proved by a second operation. The Tables might have beeii car- 
ried up to 45°, but then they would r.^|uir<; a greater uuinber of 
places of decimals to insure greater accuracy. 




In taking tlie angle of inclination, the climmjter or common 
theodolite might be used ; but if the spirit-level should be used, 
then we have only to measure from O downwards nn^distanoe. Or, 
(fig. 6), and then take the height with instrument ; and then will 

,. . I,.. ,. •/-., r\ 1 height 

the sine oi angle ot inclination U as = rUa = t^ — ~ — . 

distance 







TABLE 


No. I.-ForOD. 


TABLE 


No. II.— For OH. j 


Aiii-le. 


Nat. Sin. 


1 to 1 


l^to 1 


2t0 1 j 


2 to 1 


1^ to 1 


1 to 1 


5° 


•087 


1-100 


1-156 ' 


1-217 ! 


•854 


•881 


•926 


6° 


-105 


1-124 


1193 


1-273 


•832 


•868 


•910 


7° 


-122 


1-148 


1-230 


1-323 


■802 


•851 


•895 


8° 


-139 


1-175 


1-2S0 


1-404 


•780 


•835 


•885 


9° 


•156 


1^203 


1-328 


1-496 


•761 


•820 


•873 


10° 


•174 


1-233 


1-380 


1-570 


•752 


•804 


•856 


11° 


•191 


1-265 


1-437 


1-666 


•736 


-780 


•850 


12° 


-208 


1-279 


1-500 


1-778 


•700 


•780 


•844 


13° 


•225 


1-330 


1-566 


1-902 


-705 


-763 


•841 


14° 


•242 


1-372 


1-655 


2-055 


-696 


•752 


•826 


U° 


•259 


1-414 


1-731 


2-230 


•676 


•740 


•818 


16° 


•276 


1^459 


1-825 


2-463 


•663 


•727 


•800 


17° 


-292 


1-506 


1-930 


3-600 


-645 


•717 


•801 


18° 


•309 


1-557 


2-050 


3-000 


1 -641 


•710 


-799 


19° 


•S26 


1-613 


2-186 


3^040 


\ -630 


•698 


•787 


20° 


■342 


1-673 


2-344 


3-913 


■611 


•680 


•781 



Erratum, — The diagrams, figs. 2 and 6, in the aboi;e article, are 
transposed, for which oversight the printers are accountable ; but 
beyond such transposition the error does not extend. 



REVIEWS, 



The Port and Docks of Birkenhead ; irith Maps, Plans, Sections, 
and Tidal Diagrams, and an account of the Acts of Parliament re- 
lating to the Mersey and Dock Estate of Liverpool. By Thomas 
Webster, M.A.. F.R.S. London : Chapman and Hall, 1848. 

Birkenhead lias been a wonder, and has had its nine dajs, and very 
many are quite ready to believe that we have had enough of it. 
The announcement of sucli a town springing up in England was 
calculated to creiite as much astonishment as that of Aladdin's 
palace fresh coined by liis wonderful lamp. It is not so easy to 
create great wonders in an old and settled country like this : cities 
of whitewash and timber-framing, metropolitan centres of slab- 
houses and log-huts, we leave to the far west of the States, or the 
sandy regions of Australia ; and we should be no more surprised 
by the flourishing account of a Babylonian capital newly hatched 
in California, than by the siglit of the three last joints of the sea- 
serpent's tail, or the repudiation of a fresh batch of Pennsyhanian 
bonds. Towns grow in the \irgin soils of the new world ; they 
are a natural production — or at any rate they can be planted as 
easily as cotton, or what the Americans dignify with the name of 
corn. We can reconcile ourselves to such creations as Fleetwood, 
or Kingston-upon- Rail way, Wolverton, or Swindon, — the resuscita- 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



G9 



tion of Folkestone ia a piece of the legitimate drama ; but the 
public were truly struck with wonder to hear of tlie production 
on the shores of the Mersey of a g-reat town, of the most solid 
construction and of the most magniiicent proportions, pro\ided 
with all the requisites of a perfect sanitary condition, with its 
labourers' houses, its park, schools, and market, — and this not a 
mere city of stone and Roman cement, but jirovided with such vast 
apparatus for commerce, that the en\y of the London merchants 
was excited, and Liverpool gave signs how much she feared so 
great a ri\al near her throne. This, certainly, was a new pheno- 
menon in England, for though we can add to London in one year 
a population equal to New York, or enlarge Liverpool with an ad- 
dition as big as Albany, yet we do not throw our strength into 
new civic creations. 

Since Birkenhead burst so suddenly on the public gaze the 
novelty has passed away, — and still more, from fortuitous circum- 
stances, its glories have been dimmed, and its growth has been 
cramped ; sr) that the interest it has excited has much worn oft', 
and we shall be suspected of parading before our readers a stale 
subject, when we mention Birkenhead ; but as we are not going to 
describe Morpeth Buildings, nor to investigate the statistics of the 
trade of the Mersey, nor to recommend the Liverpool merchants 
to give up and settle at Birkenhead, we may, perhaps, meet with 
a little attention, for Mr. Webster's book on Birkenhead gives us 
the opportunity of examining the plan as concerns its hydraulic 
features. Though Birkenhead may be a gi-eat town, and the 
docks a great speculation, yet thei-e are scientific considerations 
involved in the harbour plan, which must render it a matter of 
permanent interest to professional men. If Birkenhead itself 
bears experiment, the walling of AVallasey is one of not less im- 
portance. 

To make a dock is, in the hands of some engineers, a very 
simple operation ; they scoop out a certain space on the shore, they 
run out jiiers into the water-way, or take in so much of the 
strand, and they are satisfied — though, for anything they know or 
care, the mouth of their docks gets choked up with sand, or the 
water at the entrance of the harbour is lessened, and a dock made 
for ships drawing eighteen feet will not take in those of fifteen. 
They have a great idea of dredging and sluicing power; and 
besides making a dock or harbour which fails in many of its es- 
sentials, they burthen it with a permanent establishment for 
getting rid of the silt which they have let in, and the sand-banks 
they have created, for it is surprising what very stupid and very 
careless people can do without knowing it. Mr. Rendel, when he 
was called in to make a j)lan for VV^allasey Pool, thought it his 
duty to survey the whole water-way of the Mersey, and to make 
himself acquainted with the action of the currents and tides, so 
that, in laying down a deep-water dock at Birkenhead, he might not 
be shutting the outer gate to seaward — the Victoria Channel. 
Nothing is more common ;miong seafaring men than to hear them 
complain, and complain with justice, that in consequence of 
new engineering «orks in some harbours, the depth of the water 
in the channel has been reduced, some dangerous shoal extended, 
some fixed bank made into a quicksand, or a bar which was 
troublesome enough before made a greater stumbling-block. If 
there be any up-navigation, that is sure to suft'er when the jioint 
of discharge into the sea is injured, and the lighterman complains 
that the channels are dioked, that the tide does not run up so 
high, or that he has less tide to carry him up ; and the wharfinger 
finds that his frontage is stopped with sand and shingle. There is 
"more bungling under the name of hydraulic engineering than 
j)€rhaps in any branch of the profession. It is the opprobrium of 
engineering, that after hundreds of thousands have been spent on 
!Ui hydraulic work, it is a complete failure ; harbours are choked, 
piers pushed out only to push bars or shingle further seaward, and 
sea-walls are made with the most solid masonry and with the 
very smallest modicum of expense or capacity, so that they topple 
down before the walls are well set. So little is this branch of 
engineering appreciated by the public, that large tracts of avail- 
able land — two new shires in fact^ — are left unsecured on the east and 
west coasts of England, when they ought long since to have been 
embanked. There is scarcely a river or water-way in the country 
which is not kept in a state disgraceful to the engineering 
science of England. Let any one leave the metropolis, and look 
at the shores of the Thames and Medway : marshes badly drained, 
or not drained at all ; river walls made so steep that they are 
yearly cut into or undermined ; and stones put year after year to 
be washed away, because they are put where they ne\er ought to 
have been. 

We do not know whether the government ought to take in 
iiand, as in Holland, the care of our water-ways, for we place no 



confidence in what the government does. The constitution of the 
Tidal Harbour Commission is not such as to inspire any great 
hopes from government interference, for while that commission is 
ornamented with a military engineer in due course, there is not 
one civil engineer upon it. The one great remedy is by the 
exertion of the members of the engineering profession to improve 
the state of hydraulic engineering, and particularly to execute 
carefully whatever duties they undertake. This, we think, Mr. 
Rendel has done; and though we differ from him in some points, 
we have no doubt that he has carefully, conscientiously, and la- 
boriously exerted himself in this survey for Birkenhead. 

It is tolerably well known that Liverpool is one of the worst 
harbours in the country, with long and tortuous channels, among 
dangerous banks, and all the doubts and uncertainties of a bar- 
harbour, so that its very continuance as a harbour is precarious, 
and has, before this, been endangered. A\'hile Liverpool is a bad 
harbour, it is a bad harbour on a large scale ; and those resources 
of science which are available for the improvement of small har- 
bours can do very little on miles of sea-channel and acres of sand- 
bank ; — still they can do a little, and it becomes of great import- 
ance, that in any operation within the estuary, all care shall be 
taken to prevent injury to the outer channels. Mr Rendel has 
tried to improve them. 

The form of the Liverpool estuary is peculiar. It is wide above 
and nai-row below, so that it has been compared to a bottle with 
the neck seaward. It is, however, outside the neck of the liottle 
that the sea-channels and banks are stretched out. Perhai)s we 
may improve \ipon the bottle simile, by calling the estuary a 
curved poivder-fiask. Liverpool lies on the neck, on the concave 
side, and Birkenhead opposite, on the convex side. The wide ])art 
stretches up to Runcorn. Liverpool formerly had an inlet called 
the Liver Pool. This has been dammed up, and built upon ; by 
which so much has been taken from the breakwater. The whole of 
the docks of Liverpool have likewise been taken from the break- 
water, being constructed upon the strand. Thus the neck of the 
bottle has been narrowed \ery much more than it was originally. 

Just above Liver))ool a bank and slielf, called Phickington 
Bank and Shelf, have been formed, which are not very advantageous 
to the docks before which they lie. 

The Birkenhead shore has been untouched. It has a large 
inlet running up, named Wallasey Pool, and this has shown a ten- 
dency of late years to silt up. Indeed, considering Wallasey 
Pool, Pluckington Bank, and the general evidence, we should say 
that tliere is a decided action unfavourable to the good condition 
of the harbour. 

The deepest water lies on the Birkenhead shore, so that it has 
a depth below the lowest dock-sills on the Liverpool side. 

It will be seen, that whatever works are undertaken at Birken- 
head, they may act upon the upper part of the flask, upon the 
neck and so affect Liverpool outside, and so operate upon 
the Victoria Bar and Channel. AVhether this action was to be 
for good or evil very much depended upon Mr. Rendel ; and he 
might have done as others have done — made his docks, and cared 
no more about it : but he has w isely taken a wider view, and tried 
to do all that was possible to improve the state of the harbour. 
This was done wisely, because the continuance of Birkenhead de- 
pends upon the good condition of the Victoria Channel ; and if 
vessels cannot get over the bar outside, they will never be able t^ 
get into docks either on the Liverpool or Birkenhead side. Mr. 
Rendel's plan, therefore, is not one merely for making the Birken- 
head docks ,but lor improving the harbours of Liverpool. 

AVallasey Pool has a wid« mouth, and runs, narrowing as it goes, 
about two miles inland, taking the drainage of a small district. 
This Pool is mostly dry at low water. The opening of this Pool is 
perhaps a mile across. 

This Pool may be taken as two parts, the mouth or funnel, and 
the upper part. Mr. Rendel's plan is to take advantage of a ledge 
of rock which runs across the neck, and shut off the upper part bv 
a great dam with lock-gates, and having a line of sluices as here- 
after described. 

The upper part constitutes a float of 150 acres, kept up at high- 
water mark, and on the sides of which docks, wharfs, warehouses, 
and building-yards may be formed, .'\round this float a river-wall 
is to be built as frontage to the wharfs. 

The mouth of the Pool is to be embanked, except a low-water 
basin of 37 acres open to the Mersey. 

The sluices in the dam are to be so arranged as to be near the 
bottom line of the outer low-water basin, so that on being run out 
they shall sweep the bottom of it. This they are to do during a 
part of the tide only, so as to concentrate the action, to keep the 
basin and its mouth free from silt, and to send the water down to 



TO 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Mabch, 



the Victoria Bar at the best time for action on it. By the con- 
struction of the sluices, the «ater, instead of l)einff pouretl down 
to tear ii]> the bottom of the basin, will be sent alonjj in a sheet, so 
as to prevent the silt from depositing itself. This sheet will lie 
sent below the water in tlie basin, and Mr. Rendel thinks it will 
act to sweep the silt 2,000 feet. 

It will be seen tliat by blocking up the Pool and inclosing- the 
greater ])art of the strand, a considerable body of tidal water is 
dis]jlaced. 

Mr. Rendel expects by straightening the shore on the Birken- 
Iiead side that the access of the tide to the upper Mersey will be 
improve<l, and that the scour being increased Pluckington Bank, 
on the Liver|iool side, will be reduced, a better entrance will be 
made to AVallasey Pool, and a more favourable action will be 
exerted on the Victoria Bar. 

The plan seems open to the objection that injury must ensue 
from the tidal displacement at Birkenhead, particularly as by the 
construction of new docks on the Liverpool side a further displace- 
ment takes place there. 

Mr. Rendel says that this is of no importance in the case of the 
Mei-sey. If the river were of a funnel shape an obstruction below 
would impede the passage of the tide up, and diminish the quan- 
tity of water available for scour. He allows that injury %vill ensue 
if an obstruction takes place in the up])er Mersey, because 
there will be less room for the water to accumulate ; and there- 
fore there will be a less body to scour down on its ebb. He 
contends, however, that the displacement on the neck of the flask 
is of less importance, as the water there is of less power for 
the scour than the water returning from the upper Mersey. Tlie 
tide will always have time and power to force its way up the neck 
to supply the reservoir in the upper Mersey ; and the state of 
the channels in the neck is determined by the state of the upper 
Mersey, and not of the neck. He contends on the ground of the 
improving state of the Victoria Channel, and, notwithstanding the 
dlsjdacement by the docks at Liverpool, that operations at the 
neck cannot injure the Victoria Channel. Pluckington Bank, he 
affirms, is formed by the set of tlie current on the irregularly- 
shaped shore of Birkenhead. By sti-aightening the Birkenhead 
shore, and making it parallel with the Liverpool shore, the neck 
will be made more efficient, the tidal body passing up will deepen 
it, and Pluckington Bank will be worn down, though he does not 
say it will sweep it away altogether. 

Tills is really a summary of the harbour question; and we 
believe we have put it with sufficient succintness and clearness 
to enable our readers to exercise their judgments upon it. 

The arguments and researches of Mr. Rendel in support of his 
case are well worthy of perusal, for they exhibit very able treat- 
ment and high powers of mind. It is in the preservation of these 
that the ]iractical value of Mr. Webster's book consists; and it is 
fortunate that the editorship fell into Mr. Webster's hands; for 
as it is chiefly an abstract of the evidence, a mere lawyer would 
have got rid of the practical points, and the book would not have 
been of the least service to engineers,-^whereas it is one which 
will be usefully added to the library of every member of the pro- 
fession. 

The formation of a liarbour at Birkenhead is not new to en- 
gineers, for, in 1828, Telford, Stevenson, and Nimmo were em- 
ployed on a plan by Mr. Laird, sen., and Sir John Tobin, and re- 
commended the formation of a canal from Wallasey Pool to the 
Dee at Hilbree island, near its mouth, so as to get another access 
to the sea. This is a resource which Birkenhead still has, and 
which with its progress it will avail itself, but which will not 
checkmate Liverpoid. Liverpool has, by the plan proposed for an 
out-harbour at Formby Point, a cheap means of providing more 
efficiently for all that could be done by a new sea outlet to Bir- 
kenhead. Formby Harbour could be made cheaply; while two 
short cuts to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and to the Liverpool 
and 6outh])ort Railway, would allow of goods being carried 
cheaply and quickly into the Liverpool docks; and for steam traffic, 
Formliy Harbour would beat the Hilbree Canal. Mr. Rendel'splan 
may be considered as novel in its whole arrangements and treat- 
ment. Mr. Telford in looking at the Mersey is reported to have 
said : " Tliey have built Liverpool on the wrong side of the river." 
We shall now take some stray gleanings from Mr. Webster's 
book. Lieut. Walker, R.N., says that Pluckington Bank is caused 
by two opposing tides or eddies from Wallasey Pool meeting and 
causing tlie silt held in suspension to deposit itself. The 
straightening of the Birkenhead shore would remedy this. 

Birkenhead, we may note, besides being the deep-water side, 
has the advantage of being the weather-side ; while the docks on 



the Liverpool side, most exposed to the waves breaking over the 
sand-banks, are the most liable to silt up. 

The area of the float at a high tide is 208 acres, the frontage 4^ 
miles. In the dam, .Mr. Rendel proposes a pair of tide-gates of 70 
feet o])eiiing, the level of their sills being the same as tliat of the 
Prince's dock, at Li\'eriJool. This float would allow steam-tugs t») 
enter, which is not the case at Liverpool. Mr. Rendel calculates 
on the movement of the steamers likewise in keeping his channels 
clear. Besides the tide-gates of the great float, Mr. Renilel pro- 
poses a lock of 50 feet wide and 200 feet long, which could be 
worked during ten hours out of every twelve, in a spring tide, for 
vessels drawing 17 feet water. 

We shall give in Mr. Rendel's own words his plan of sluicing: — 

" It is proposed to run down daily any quantity of water between the 
level of the tide of the day and that which may be considered best as the 
permanent level of the water: so tliat, supposing the water were retained at 
a permanent level of thirteen feet above the old dock datum, ihe average 
high-water of spring tiiles being IS ft. 3 in. above that level, there would 
be 5 ft. 3 in., the difference between the permanent level and the tide of the 
day. The running off the water is a very important feature in the plan: 
the idea is to make sluices, or apertures, under the great gates and the tide- 
gates, passing out near the level of the bottom of the great basin, ami con- 
sequently under the whole of the gates. The openings for the discharge of 
the water will be between the bottom of the basin and the level of the sills of 
the tide-gates and of the locks, as low as we can conveniently get them ; say 
for argument sake, ten feet below the level of low water of average spring 
tides. The sluices will be so formed as to be five feet square at tlie top on 
the inside, and they will be gradually widened in horizontal dimensions, so 
as to produce a kind of sheet of water within two feet of the bottom of 
the great basin, and inasmuch as the separating piers of those apertures 
will only be at the point of outfall about two feet thick, the effect will be 
to have one wide sheet of water of the width of the basin ; the consequence 
of that is, that we shall be able to operate upon the bottom of the basin, not 
in the usual way of a large bore of water tearing up everything before it, 
but a sheet of water which we can regulate to any degree of force which 
we like, by the sluices on the inside. I should also say further, that we 
have the sluices there, because they will operate most efficiently upon the 
straight part of the basin ; we propose to have the same kind of sluices be- 
tween the little dock which we have called the Bridge End Dock, and 
the arm of the basin running up to it, operating in the same way precisely. 
I wish it to be distinctly understood, that we do not propose to run those 
sluices in the ordinary way of sluicing. I want to give the water, which is 
to be discharged out of this great basin, more the effect of a river passing 
through with a gentle current, than a great body of rushing water, and I 
arrange the sluices with this view. It is also manifest that a basin of such 
capacity as this basin, will have lying in it a number of vessels, say of from 
six to ten feet draught of water ; those very vessels will be the means, with 
a gentle current, of keeping the basin clear with the daily operations we 
shall employ in running off this water. 

If the basin were unoccupied the effect would not be so great as it will 
be the basin beinj^ occupied. If the l>asin were formed at the level of low 
water, or if it were not occupied, the effect of the sluicing would not be so 
great as it will be from the fact that vessels are floating in the basin, whe- 
ther in large quantities, or small ; if the quantity of vessels is small, I 
would then give the water a greater current ; if it is large, I would then 
give it a gentler current, so that we can command that kind of current 
passing under those vessels from their being afloat, which wUl keep the 
Ijottom clear of the daily accretions. 

Also we can run off the water at those periods that experience will dictate 
to be the best. We are not bound to run it off at low water, or any par- 
ticular period of the tide : that would be regulated by a regard to all the 
circumstances of the case. 

I know from considerable experience, that many harbours are kept open 
entirely by the vessels lying in those harbours ; the river is forced to pass 
under their bottoms, and in that way the water is kept at a proper depth. 
I believe that is notorious." 

There will be the power of running off 1,600,000 cubic yards 
of water at spring tides, which will be available for scouring. The 
most available water for scouring now passing out of Wallasey 
Pool is 1,390,000 cubic yards; that is to say, the water passing off 
after half-tide. 

Mr. Rendel's estimate is, for cofferdams and other temporary 
works, £15,323 ; excavations, j£80,4.70; masonry, £198,513 ; gates 
and bridges, £21,268 ; draining, £22,572; land and contingencies, 
£53,379. Total, £391,908. 

The peculiarity of Mr. Rendel's plan is the damming- up of the 
upjier Pool, so as to make a float. Messrs. Mawdesley and Smith 
had proposed simply to deepen and wall the Pool, wliieh was sup- 
ported by some of the opposition parties. Mr. Rendel affirmed 
that this would do no good, but leave the Pool even more liable to fill 
up, as it would receive the water at an earlier time of the tids, 
when charged with a larger quantity of matter. 

Mr. Rendel's researches on the tidal actions of the Mersey 



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were very minute ; but to be fully understood require the expla- 
natory maps and sections accompanying Mr. Webster's book. We 
shall, howe\er, attempt to give an abstract of Mr. Rendel' 
evidence in the House of Lords : — 

" The estuary of the Dee, and the estuary of the Mersey, and the character 
of the two rivers are manifestly wholly different — their forms are different. 
They are ditferent in this respect ; the Dee is for the whole extent of it a 
shallow estuary ; the Mersey, from the contraction at its mouth, has an ex- 
ceedingly deep channel opposite Liverpool, containing an enormous mass of 
water, but immediately that it widens out in the same form as the Dee, it 
loses its depth and becomes a shallow estuary ; therefore, suppose the tide 
to come up, as I describe it with reference to the large chart, as at present 
— and nothing in our works can prevent that, for the worlis are within the 
gorge — it conies up in a large body, presenting to all intents and purposes, 
the head of a werlge, and it gradually tapers out, losing its solid and com- 
pact form as it advances up the estuary. It is manifest that if we can make 
that wedge into a uniform column, as we shall do by these works, we shall 
perfect the efficiency of the channel after these works are made ; the part 
outside Seaconibe is perfectly untouched ; we do nothing to that. Then, 
in order to ascertain precisely the whole economy of this tidal action in the 
estuary, and to satisfy my own mind, and in order to give evidence before 
jour Lordships, I had tidal observations taken at Formby, which is, in fact, 
the headland on the Lancashire shore ; observations were siuiul'.aneously 
taken at Prince's dock, \\hich is the narrow part of the gorge of the estuary ; 
also at New Brighton, Fiddler's Ferry, and Warrington Bridge, so that I 
have been able to trace the relative heights and the relative times of high 
water of the same tides at all those points, and I have done it at spring 
and at neap tides. The results I will give from the diagrams I have 
before me. 

The width of the river at Egremont — the point which corresponds with 
the north end of the Liverpool docks — at high water, is 4,030 feet; the 
sectional area of the channel at that point at high water spring tides is 
236,449 square feet. At Seacombe, only 3,000 feet within that point, the 
width is reduced to 3,000 feet, and the sectional area to 184,622 feet ; it is 
altogether a gorge at that point ; it is completely the gorge of the estuary, 
which has been defined by the works of the dock trustees on the one side 
and the natural rock of Seacombe on the other. At Wallasey Pool the 
width is 6,040, it will be reiluced by building the wall to assimilate with 
the other sections, namely to 3,350 feet. At Woodside pier, the width is 
3,500 feet, therefore the tftect of the wall is to make the shores parallel, 
and consequently to takeoff this great width which Wallasey Pool occasions. 
That wall, when made, v\ill in my opinion, improve the channel and course 
of the river ; it will directly accomplish that object, and one immediate 
result likely to follow is the taking away of Pluckington Bank formed by 
the tide setting into Wallasey Pool and occasioning an eddy. The consequent 
good effect will be, that the quantity of water at the least, if not more, 
which now goes into Wallasey Pool, would go up into the estuary, and by 
going up into the estuary it must necessarily be of greatly more value to the 
maintenance of the estuary and the scouring power of the river than 
passing into the pool. There will be nearly 300 feet greater width opposite 
our works than at Seacombe. The minimum section of the river being at 
Seacombe, the next smallest section is at Woodside, and the next at 
Tranmere. The sections at Seacombe and Woodside will continue the 
smallest sections after the works are completed. If Pluckington Bank be 
swept away, it will make a difference greatly in favour of the narrows as 
they exist at present ; it will make a larger section, and improve the estuary 
above. After Tranmere, the estuary becomes very wide; after you get 
above the bulb the bottle commences. 

This section is the profile of the river ; it is on an exaggerated scale as to 
height compared with length. Here is the Victoria Car, then the Crosby 
Channel fall into this enormous cavity ; here we have Seacombe, which is 
the narrowest part of the river ; the bed rises up again opposite Gaiston to 
the level of low water. The river has excavated for itself within these 
narrows, within which it has been confined, a channel quite down to the rock 
in this particular place. The greatest depth at Egremont at low water 
spring tides is 67 feet. The greatest depth at Seacombe, which is deter- 
mined by the rock, for it is scoured down to the rock, is 52 feet; the 
greatest depth opposite Wallasey Pool is 62 feet ; opposite Woodside the 
greatest depth is 64 ft. 7 in., this is at low water spring tides. At Tran- 
mere, we get 61 ft. 4 in. according to our soundings. It would appear that 
except in hollows in the rocks the sand has been scoured down to the rock, 
but as the current passes in and becomes impaired in efficiency by those hol- 
lows or irregularities on the shore, there are parts where banks have begun 
to accumulate, and it is only in certain parts that we can detect rocks by the 
plummet. The Mersey presents the character of a deep narrow channel 
supplying the estuary above ; it presents tne character of a narrow artificial 
gorge supplying a shallow e.\tensive estuary. 

According to the observations I have made there can be no doubt that the 
supply of water into the estuary above, depends upon the momentum 
generated in those narrows. The bulb at Wallasey Pool detracts from the 
momentum. The straightening the wall in the manner described would im- 
prove the current and increase the momentum, inasmuch as the present ir- 
regular shores make irregular currents; those irregular currents act upon 
each other and impair the general effect. If they can be made direct they 
are made more efficient, and consequently they will send a larger body of 



water up into the estuary, or at all events they will send that water up into 
the estuary which now runs into Wallasey Pool. 1 am as great an enemy as 
any one to the general question of abstracting water from estuaries, but 
there is pecuHarity in this case which takes it out of the general class of 
causes of the abstraction of water from estuaries. 

To ascertain the strength of the currents, I had accurate observations 
(with watches adjusted) at Egremont, Seacombe, Wallasey, Woodside, and 
Tranmere, and having a fleet of boats and a steamer to attend us, we put 
down floats, so far submerged that the wind could have no effect upon 
them, in the centre of the stream and on either side, far enough from the 
shore to feel the strength of the current, and the floats were observed as 
they passed each of the lines of the sections at the above places. The 
distances were great enough to give as accurate a result as could be ob- 
tained by any experiment of the kind, none of them being less than 2,600 
feet, and the greater part from that to 3,000. The mean velocity of the 
tide upon the flood from Egremont to Seacombe was 6173 feet per second, 
from Seacombe to Wallasey it was 7'211 feet per second; which expresses 
this, that the tide heaps up on the seaward side at Seacombe Point faster 
than that section can pass it through, so that it runs faster to relieve itself 
on the inside cf the Seacombe Point than it does from Egremont to Sea- 
combe. You have that increased velocity by the increased head outside 
Seacombe. From that section to the section at Woodside, the velocity is 
reduced to 5'891 feet per second. That arises from the current being im- 
paired by passing into the bulb ; it has, in fact, the efTect of cross currents 
and eddies, as 1 have described. From Woodside to Tranmere the velocity 
is 5-33 feet per second. The ebbs are the very reverse. It will be observed 
that on the flood the tide was strongest from Seacombe to Wallasey Pool; 
upon the ebb, the strongest current is from Seacombe to Egremont ; there 
the velocity of the ebb tide was 6';03 feet per second ; the velocity of the 
ebb from Wallasey to Seacombe was 6'139, and from Woodside to Wallasey 
5-49. These are ordinary spring tides. Tlie velocity of the ebb from Tran- 
mere to Woodside was 5-54 feet per second, which proves that the water is 
heaped up by the tide at Seacombe Point faster than it is vented ; anything 
\\hich can be done to improve the channel of the estuary between those 
narrows and the upper narrows must necessarily tend to vent that quantity 
of water with greater facility. Those were the results of actual observation, 
the theoretical results on a comparison of the sectious agreeing with them 
as nearly as can be expected. 

The object of these tidal sections is to show how the tides flowed on the 
days of observation. At the time stated it was high water at Formby, 
which is quite at the mouth of the estuary. At the same time, if you carry 
on your eye to the Prince's dock you find that the tide is heaping up, 
actually rising up, at the Prince's dock. Then if you go on to EUesmere 
Port, you find that the tide is still rising; although at the time it is rising 
there it has fallen at sea; and so, all the way on to Uuiicorn and Fiddler's 
Ferry ; and you get the profile at all the points by the diflerent lines laid 
down here, which in words is this : that inasmuch as the tide had by flowing 
into the estuary .attained a velocity in passing through these narrows at 
Liverpool, its own acquired velocity or momentum carried it forward, and 
heaped it up in the estuary according to all these lines, for it would be im- 
possible if that were not the case to account for the fact, that the tide does 
so rise; and it is just this — 1 will suppose the fluid to be a solid ; if a solid 
has acquired a given velocity, we know perfectly well in mechanics that 
unless some force interposes to stop the velocity of the body it will be 
carried on ; and it is precisely so in this case, the water flows on by the im- 
pulse that it has received at that narrow gorge, and it rises above its level. 
If the elevation were due to nothing more than statical pressure, which is 
merely the pressure of the head without the velocity, it would terminate 
its course, for there is no law of nature to make it go further. What 
would be the state of things in an estuary like the Dee, would be deter- 
mined by the form of the shore and other questions, but here you have the 
peculiarity so strongly marked, that you cannot mistake the cause. The 
effect there would be, that as the mouth of theDee is wider than its head, it 
would receive a larger wave than would be due to the upper part of the 
Dee, and, therefore, if it had acquired suflncient velocity, the water would 
accumulate up the Dee to a certain extent ; but inasmuch as the extent to 
which it would accumulate is due to the velocity of the stream, it could not 
attain the same head in the upper part of the Dee as it does in the Mersey; 
it depends on the velocity. 1 should say this, that inasmuch as the profile 
represented is that which is due to the statical pressure (which is no- 
thing more than liead without force or velocity) ; all that is above that 
must be due to impetus : for we see here in the Mersey what we see in 
every river, and what we see in the Dee : instead of the narrow part being 
at the top, the narrow part in the Mersey is at the mouth ; therefore, so far 
as is due to momentum, if you could make the Mersey and the Dee at all 
agree, it would follow, that you would in the Dee have an enormous heaping 
up compared with what you have in the Mersey. If you could by any pos- 
sibility give to the water entering the Dee the same velocity as the water 
entering the Mersey, keeping the section the same, it would heap up here 
quite in the same way as it does in the Severn ; but it cannot have that 
velocity, because there is not the same cause to excite it, namely, the con- 
traction. 

For determining how much the tide has risen up the estuary above its 
level at the gorge, 1 lake the level at Prince's Basin, which is in the gorge. 
I will take the tide on the 1st of June, which was a spring tide. Suppose 
we start with the tide at high water at Prince's dock, which is in the gorge 



72 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Mabch, 



at Livcrpnnl, it nould lie 1 ft. 1 in. liiglier at high water at EUesmere Port, aii<l 
lifteeii minutes later in arrivine at that point; 1 ft. 10 in. higher at Runcorn, 
an<l would be thirtv-five minutes later than at Liverpool ; it would be 1 ft. 
U in. higher at Fiddler's Ferrv. one hour after it was high water at Liverpool ; 
it would be 2 ft. 3 in. hiEher'at Warrington bridge, 1 hour 25 minutes after 
it was high water at Liverpool. Without going through the details of each 
observation, the mean of three sprinci tides was 1 ft. 1 in. higher at EUesmere, 
1 ft. 10 in. at Runcorn, 1 ft. 8 in. at Fiddler's Ferry, 2 ft. 3 in. at Warrington. 
On the mean of the three neap tides, of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of June, 
there was still an elevation, hut it was reduced on account of the stream not 
heing so strong at the gorge, to .5 inches at EUesmere Port, 11 inches at 
Itiincnrn, 10 inches at Fiddler's Ferry, and only 9 inches at Warrington ; 
these differences are due to the differences of the neap and spring tides, or 
in other words, the differences of the velocities through the gorge are as 
8 inches at EUesmere Port, 11 inches at Runcorn, 10 inches at Fiddler's 
Ferry, 1 ft. G in. at Warrington ; and it folU.ws, that anything that would 
strengthen the velocity through tlie gorge at neaps, would necessarily tend 
to make the approximation nearer between the elevations at those different 
places at neap tides, as compared with springs. 

The diflerence in the quantity of water which passes up the estuary at 
springs and neaps, I have taken from Captain Denham's survey ; and if you 
could get the water at neap tides to stand at all ttiose diiferenl points with 
the same differences above the Prince's dock as it does at springs, you would 
pet an increased quantity of water (18,000,000 or 20,000,000 of yards) up 
the estuary; any increase of the momentum in the gorge would tend to in- 
crease the'quantity going up. The observations led me to that conclusion, 
and I come to no otlier from the phenomena; at all events I am perfectly 
convinced that all the water that now passes into Wallasey Pool, would go 
up into the estuary. It is a mathematical question which I am not going to 
touch, whether more would go up; but philosophers have endeavoured to 
show, that a bulb upon a pipe (all other things being equal) would prevent 
the same quantity of water being discharged as would be discharged in the 
same time if the pipe were parallel, and this is a similar case, but I am not 
going into that question." 

Rrindnm Hints on Railways and Railway Legislation. By Alex- 
ANDKR DouLi., C.E., Assoc. Inst. C.E. London : Weale, 184.8. 

Tliis is a timely warning against the hill of the Railway Commis- 
sioners, particularly addressed to the engineering profession. It 
is so clear and practical, that we hope it will not be without its 
))roper effect; at any rate, Mr. DouU deserves the warmest thanks 
for this exposure of the mischievous measures of the commis- 
sioners. 

After showing the inconsistencies of the standing orders, and 
explainintr the process adopted in preparing a line of railway for 
parliamentary examination, Mr. DouU goes on to analyse the 
.amended hill. The chief amendment is the lowering the deposit 
by way of security from £500 to £'200 ; but which for a line of 
200 miles, would still leave the enormous sum of £40,000 in the 
hands of the Railway Commissioners, to be fooled away in such 
manner as they may'think fit, — but which, at all events, is a seri- 
ous impediment in the way of all new lines of railway. Mr. DouU 
very well observes, that the commissioners are quite ready enough 
to do work for the money, — indeed, the vvay in which they make 
work would deserve credit for its ingenuity, if it were not so ob- 
jectionable from its decidedly mischievous tendency. 

As is very well known, a preliminary survey, often extending 
over miles in breadth, is necessary to select the line which is to be 
surveyed in detail. No provision, howe\er, seems to be made for 
this, or the bill is inconsistent with its performance. Most proba- 
bly, Colonel Brandreth and Sir Edward Ryan are unaware how the 
survey of a railwiiy is carried out. Tiie fourth clause of the bill 
requires that " the promoters of any proposed railway shall apply 
to the commissioners for authority to make the surveys necessary 
to enable them to determine the line and level of such railway," 
&c. ; but the fifth clause requires that " ten clear days at the least 
before making such application, the said promoters shall give 
notice by advertisements, each in the same words and form, in the 
London Gazette and in some newspaper published or circulating in 
each county through which the railway is proposed to pass, such 
intended application specifying the course of the line of such rail- 
way, " ^c. 

Of course this cannot be done without a preliminary survey, and 
how is this to be effected ten clear days before the engineer can 
apply to the commissioners for leave to go over the ground ? 

Again, if this notice and this permission be as a protection to 
the occupiers, it is difficult to conceive how a notice is to be framed 
to cover the wide extent of country over which it is necessary for 
the engineer to go, if he is to choose the best line of railway. 

It is evident to all practical men that a very large expense must 
be incurred for advertising voluminous notices (drawn uj) liy law- 
yers) in the Lomlun Gazette and a number of country newspapers. 



It will be worth the while of the enterprising proprietor of the 
Snrrey Times to publish it all the year round, instead of bringing 
it out as now for the occasion of the advertisements of intended 
applications to parliament for rail-.vay bills.. 

Mr. DouU thinks from the sixth clause that the permission to 
snrvey only extends to the very lands through which the proposed 
line of railway is to pass. If so, a large sum of money has to be 
paid down, much time has to he wasted, and a cumbrous process to 
be gone through, for a permission which is worth very little. 

The tenth clause, regulating the return of any remaining portion 
of the £200, provides that " one month after the bill for giving 
power to make the railway, in respect of which such deposit was 
made, shall have passed or been thrown out or withdrawn by leave 
of either House of Parliament, the commissioners shall by a draft 
or cheque signed by two of the commissioners order the balance 
standing to their (the depositors) account, in respect of such de- 
posit, to he paid to the i)romoters by whom the deposit was made." 
— Mr. DouU observes, that the framers of the hill do not appear to 
have contemplated the return of any portion of the deposit to 
those promoters who may not advance so far as the threshold of 
the legislature. AVe may add, that there is an opening for litiga- 
tion, in case of any dispute among the promoters of a new com- 
pany, such as has hajjpened before, and snch as may happen again, 
under the auspices of Mr. Spackman and others. If Mr. Spack- 
man should give notice to the commissioners not to return the 
remaining deposit to the committee of the railway company, the 
commissioners may be very well disposed to act upon the hint, and 
wait for the direction of a court of law. 

The thirteenth clause provides that "before the said promoters, 
or any of their officers enter upon any lands to survey the same, 
or to mark out the line of their proposed railway, as hereinafttr 
mentioned, they shall give to the occupying tenant thereof not less 
than two nor more than seven days' notice in writing of their in- 
tention to enter and survey the lands." The object of giving not 
less than two days' notice explains itself, but the restriction as to 
not giving more than seven days' notice must often be most incon- 
venient to surveyors and engineers, for within seven days many 
circumstances may occur to delay the survey, while no inconveni- 
ence can accrue to the occu]iying tenant from any length of notice. 
Under this clause, it might frequently become necessary to serve a 
fresh notice, the finst seven days' notice having expired. 

Mr. DouU contends, and with justice, that the number of occu- 
piers who would require to be noticed previously to commencing 
the survey or levels, would be considerably more than tlie number 
at present necessarily iiK-luded in a railway book of reference, even 
supposing the survey to extend only to the usual breadth of 20 or 
30 chains. It would therefore be necessary to get up a reference- 
book before commenoiug the survey ; and this would be attended 
with very great expense, besides the risk of some occupier being 
left without a reference. 

The fourteenth clause is in keeping with the rest. It enacts, 
that " the said jiromoters shall mark out the line of the propose 1 
railway by means of stakes fixed in the ground not more than thirty 
yards apart, and in such manner as clearly to point out the pro- 
posed line of such railway ; and they shall put up posts along the 
line, so marked out at convenient distances for the purpose of 
showing the level of such line, and shall mark on such posts in 
legible characters the number of feet and inches at which the 
rails are proposed to be laid above or below the surface of the 
ground." 

Our readers will agree with Mr. DouU, that staking out a line 
of railway, and exhibiting the levels in feet and inches along the 
line, is a very difficult and complex operation. He estimates that 
it would double the expense of preparing parliamentary plans and 
sections. A higher class of surveyors would have to be employed, 
and a number of devices must be resorted to and superior instru- 
ments used to stake <iut curves of given radii with accuracy, in the 
face of the numerous obstacles to he encountered, and of the 
variety of circumstances to be met with, on an extended survey. 

As more damage must he done by staking out the line than by 
an ordinary survey, another ch.arge will he imposed on the compa- 
nies, and further claims for compensation be given to the land- 
owners and occupiers. 

A new set of parties must be employed in painting the leveU 
posts. 

What good is to be got from stating, in "inches," a level which 

will differ whether the land be (iloughed or unploughed, whether it 

he trenched or in grass, we do not profess to see. It can only 

cause a serious expense without answering any useful purpose. 

At present, staking out is delayed to the period when it can be 



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73 



undertaken for a purpose of practical utility, and when it can be 
conveniently performed. 

As landowners and occupiers can now refer to the plans without 
having the line staked out, and as engineers can check the levels 
of ri\al lines from those plans, going over the ground with the 
plans in their hands, it does seem very hard upon the companies 
tliat they should incur such ex])ense for the officers of Royal 
Engineers, who are to be employed to inspect the line. In fact, if 
such parties cannot go over the ground without having the line 
staked out, they must be utterly incompetent for the discharge of 
tlie duties properly belonging to their own profession, and to the 
performance of which it is desirable they should be restricted. It 
will be open to a factious opposition to cavil about every one of the 
posts ; and the military engineers and the whole party may be em- 
l>loyed in ascertaining that the post is wrong by two inches above 
or below the line. 

Clause 21 provides that the plans are to be deposited and in- 
spected. The inspector, who knows as much aboiit civil affairs as 
he does about civil engineering, is to hold courts along the line of 
the proposed railway " for the purpose of receiving information or 
suggestions from any persons interested in such proposed railway, 
either as the promoters thereof, or as the owners and occupiers of 
lands on or near to such line or otherwise," A very chea]) way of 
mmoying the companies and putting them to expense, will be by 
tlie landowners and farmers attending the inspector's court, and 
occupying the time of the staff by raising all kinds of objections. 

The twenty-fourth clause is an ambiguous one, giving the com- 
missioners power to allow the promoters to amend their plans after 
inspection. 

Clause 25 provides that a second deposit is to be made ; and this 
is followed by another ambiguous and inconsistent clause. 

Mr. DouU thinks that Clause 32 contemplates a second inspec- 
tion of the line of railway. 

It behoves engineers to be on their guard against this most 
tyrannical, mischievous, and vexatious measure, which will place 
them under the inspection of their inferiors, the military engineers, 
in every operation of a survey ; and they are to be subjected to the 
judgment of these latter, whether a level be rightly taken or a 
curve properly laid out. 

It will be seen that this bill subjects railway projectors to the 
following new extent of unprofitable expenditure : — 

The depositing of £200 per mile with the Railway Commission- 
ers. 

The advertising of the intention to survey. 

The preparing a reference book for the survey, and the serving 
of the notices on the occu])iers. 

Staking out the line, marking the levels in feet and " inches," 
and setting out the curves 

Making two deposits of the plans. 

Preparing amended plans. 

Attending the inspector in his inspection of the line as staked 
out ; and fighting for the accuracy of the line, and against the 
objections of the local parties. 

After all this has been done, the old preparations for encounter- 
ing the ordeal of standing orders have to be made ; for the new 
regulation of the Commons, providing for notices being sent 
through the post is quite inoperative, as service has to be proved, 
and the Lords require the old mode of service. 

Our readers will agree that any system of legislation more dis- 
graceful to a country than that by which railway companies are 
harassed, was never attempted or perpetrated. 

Ancient and Modem Art, Historical and Critical. By George 
Cleghorn, Esq. Second Edition. Blackwood, Edinburgh and 
Ltmdon, 1848. 

It is stated that the object of this work is to present, in a popu- 
lar form, a brief sketch of ancient and modern art ; and to avoid 
the faults of other publications, which are of no use to the ordi- 
nary reader. By way of carrying out this pledge, the two volumes 
are filled with long passages from the French and Italian, and 
snatches of Greek and Latin, which are not likely to be very well 
understood by the public, which are not needful in themselves, 
and which do not even prove the learning of the author. As to 
the execution of the work, without being original, it is loose 
and unsatisfactory ; there is a hash of the opinions of foreign 
writers on art, and the only novelty is the criticism of the author 
om English writers and reviewers. It especially fails in giving a 
clear idea of any one work, school, or style, and a reader taken 
from the public would acquire the smallest amount of definite in- 
formation from its pages. It is a very difficult task to give an 



abridged view of an extensive subject, so as to communicate 
exact ideas ; indeed, an abridgement requires as high a degree of 
ability as an extensive work. It is not surprising, therefore^ if Mr. 
Cleghorn should utterly fail in this attempt. As from some petty 
provincial feeling, there is more space devoted to tlie buildings, 
sculpture, painting, and painters of Edinburgh than of any otlier 
place — indeed, a large part of the two volumes — the public who 
buy this book on its title, will have no more reason to be satisfied 
with the quantity tlian with the quality. The work has such 
small merits, that we should not feel called upon to notice it, if it 
were not that it is likely to be taken for a popular %vork, as being 
a second edition emanating from publishers of reputation. 

A popular manual of art has yet to be written and is much 
wanted ; but it must convey definite information and descriptions 
suited to practical men, and less general criticism of aitists and 
works unknown to the public and not jiarticula^ised. Mr. Cleg- 
horn's account of the Munich school is the best that he has given 
us, but it is (|uite inadequate ; while a proper account of what has 
been done and is doing there is one of the best incentives to tlie 
encouragement of art here. 

We must do Mr. Cleghorn the justice to say, that so far as his 
abilities go, he is sincerely desirous of promoting the interests of 
art. It may be some excuse for his defects that the present work 
is the offshoot of a pamphlet in favour of the imitation of the 
Parthenon on the Calton Hill at Edinburgh, under the name of a 
National Monument for Scotland. He is, therefore, a partisan of 
pure Greek and what he calls idealism ; he allows of Gothic ; but 
seems to hanker most after Italian. If it were not for the meta- 
physical bent which effects all who are born north of the Tweed, 
and leads liim into the discussions about idealism, he would be 
catholic in his artistic predilections. His idealism is, however, 
more confused than that of any German, because he is attached to 
the study of nature ; and while holding up the imitation of nature 
as the great end of art, he cannot make out how to reconcile it 
with idealism. He has been born in the faith of idealism, — and 
though his convictions are starting arguments constantly against 
his faith, and though his practice is opposed to it, yet idealism he 
persists in maintaining. What it is he has not been successful in 
describing ; in one place it seems to be the genius and imagination 
of the artist which constitute idealism : but this again does not 
agree with statements elsewhere. The late Haydon, although 
he talked very much about it, could never make himself understood. 
The upshot always was " Nature and the Elgin marbles." Mr. 
Cleghorn is strenuous in his abuse of what he calls the sect of na- 
turalists, but without producing any arguments except in their 
favour. 

He seems to be much more successful in reproducing M. Quatre- 
mere de Quincy's definition of imitation. This is a fitting intro- 
duction to a treatise on artistic criticism. Imitation in the fine 
arts, says M. de Quincy, is the production of the likeness of a 
thing, but in another thing which becomes its image. It is not a 
reproduction of the thing, it is not its exact likeness, which can 
only be the result of a reproduction ; but it is ths image of a like- 
ness, to be animated by the mind of the observer. Hence, an at- 
tempt at illusion fails because the artist takes on himself to per- 
form the functions of the spectator, and leaves the latter little or 
nothing to do. The originals of most of the figures of Raffaelle, 
Rubens, or Murillo would produce much less interest than the 
paintings : they would often excite the reproach of being ugly or 
clumsy women. The best illustration of this fundamental princi- 
ple of the fine arts, but one which Mr. Cleghorn has not adduced, 
is that derived from the drama. On a small stage, and in a short 
time, we are made to see the greatest men of antiquity, the revolu- 
tions of years, and the consummation of the most important events 
— the actors being men familiar to us even through the disguise of 
costume. The mind, however, takes its part with the actor, and 
shares in the realization. We do not want 

•* A klDgdom for a stape, princes to act, 
And moiiarchs to behold the swelling scene." 

These accessaries are useless when the audience can supply their 
absence. The great dramatic poet explains the theory of imita- 
tion well, when he says to his audience : 

«' 'Tis your thoughts that now must deck our kings. 

Carry them here and there ; jumping o'er times; 
Turning the accomplishment of u-.any years 
Into an hour glass.'* 

As a perfect illusion is not necessary, but hurtful, so there are 
bounds placed to limit the extent of art, and to limit the extent of 
each department of art, — bounds best observed in the greatest 
height of art, and soonest overstepped in its decadence. 

On the legitimate application of imitation all the fine arts de- 
pend, ai»dthis is their bond of union; it is only in the vehicle 

11 



T4 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LMabcii, 



used, or the sense addressed, that they differ. AVe are now agi- 
tatiiifj for the catholicity of tlie three arts of design — painting, 
sculpture, and architecture , hut we cannot expect a perfect de- 
velopment of the fine arts, unless their three other hranches — 
music, the drama, and poetry — he likewise cultivated. The attempt 
to sever single arts, which has failed, is a ground for want of con- 
fidence in any system which steps short of completeness. In what 
do all our complaints and all our inquiries as to the low state of 
art end ? In a conviction of the low mental condition of the pro- 
fe.ssors of art. When the painter has once taken his hrush in 
hand, the sculptor his chisel, and the architect his compasses, he 
hids farewell to education and enlightenment, he gives himself up 
to what he calls his art, and narrows and cramps his mind just at 
that time when it should he freest in its expansion. Precisely for 
the reason that the artist has no education, the scholar has no 
knowledge of art ; and art is kept hack from this state of affairs, 
and not from the want of manual capacity in our artists, or of ade- 
quate encouragement from the public. There have been oppor- 
tunities enough lately, but they bring forth only Buckingham 
Palace or Trafalgar Scpiare, art-union pictures or pigtail mon- 
strosities. The schoolmaster has been sent abroad ; but till our 
artists are better educated men, and more on a level with those of 
Greece and Italy, art can have little hope. We do not want 
academies of art so much as we want schools, liberal training, and 
the power of reasoning justly. 

Among the six fine or imitative arts, there are marked distinc- 
tions. Painting or design, sculpture, and architecture are mate- 
rial in their production ; poetry, the drama, and music are 
immaterial, and the latter two in their performance are transient 
or lleeting. The three latter have, however, the power of repro- 
duction of the model work to such a degree as materially to ex- 
tend their social influence. Painting by the means of engravings, 
and sculpture by means of casts, have this power of reproduction 
in a less or more modified degree, but the progress of science pro- 
mises to give these arts greater resources; and although some look 
unfa\oural)ly on the machinery of copying and piracj', we cannot 
but believe that the ai-tist will gain by being brought into com- 
munion with a greater mass of the public. The artist and the 
public must work together, they must feel for each other, they 
must join to produce the wished effect. Shakspeare working for 
the public of his day, and Dickens for the public of this, are under 
a stimulus which the artist at the present time too rarely feels. 
Tlic incentive to immortality, the conscientious discharge of a 
patriotic duty, the inspiring influence of the goodwill and fellow 
feeling of applauding millions ought to operate on the artist as 
they do on the statesman, the general, or the poet, and ought to 
produce greater results than the grovelling selfishness which yields 
up its task on the payment of the stinted and allotted price, care- 
less of anything but the money reward and tlie personal gratifi- 
cation. 

Architecture has for its province the execution of single and 
isolated monuments. It is not easy to reproduce the Parthenon 
or St. Peter's, anjl the architect has every inducement to devote 
himself to the production of works the merit of which he will not 
divide with the copyist, the printer, or the engraver, — which he 
wants no translator to make known to other nations, but which 
are felt and understood by people of all countries and all ages. 
Architecture has, too, this distinction, that it has an immediate and 
an obvious utilitarian character. The painter, the sculptor, and 
the musician minister indirectly to the uses of society ; the poet 
and the dramatist may propose a moral end, hut it is not needful 
they should do so ; whereas there are few woi-ks of architecture 
which do not bear the stamp of usefulness. It may be thought by 
some enough to appeal to this sense of usefulness, but until the 
architect can satisfy himself that Newgate or Bedlam engrosses the 
favour bestowed upon Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, he will 
do well not to be unmindful of the artistic relations of his profes- 
sion. As the mighty dome of St. Paul's is seen from so many 
p'6int.s towering over London, how well does it mark the wide ex- 
panse of ])(ipulation crowding below. There is a greatness in the 
sight which cannot pass unacknowledged, while the statesman and 
the moralist knows too well the influence of great thoughts and 
great associations on the public mind to neglect those means by 
wliicli tliey can be awakened and upheld. Athens, it is true, sank 
with the glories of the Parthenon untarnished, but not until the 
living spirit of art had been quenched. 

The imaginative or creati\e power of the artist is what is not 
allowed for in Mr. Cleghoru's theories. His idealism resolves 
itself into the study of nature and the adaptation of the fine 
jrart of one individual to the fine part of another to constitute an 
ideal or perfect whole. He quarrels with Ilaislitt for alHrming 



that the ideal is the preference of that which is fine in nature to 
that which is less so; but he does not set up in its place anything 
which is clearer. Perliaps there is no difference. The naturalists, 
as represented by Mr. Hazlitt, say, "There is nothing which is 
fine in art, but what is taken immediately, and as it were in the 
mass, from nature." Mr. Cleghorn, for the moderate idealists, 
does not traverse this, but says, that " Ideal art is finer than 
nature ;" though from what we can make out, ideal art is only 
selected nature. 

As to the question whether it is better to represent individual na- 
ture with individual defects, accidents, and peculiarities,orto repre- 
sent Jupiter with some of the features of the lion, and Hercules with 
the neck of a bull, to say nothing of fauns, satyrs, and centaurs, — 
this seems to us a question which, if solved in favour of the latter 
side, does not give any valid support to the idealists. Indeed, 
there is nothing which has ever yet been brought forward which 
shows that the Greeks owed their excellence to anything but the 
study of nature, or that there is any other mode of attaining ex- 
cellence in art. We are therefore the more hopeful of the future 
of English art, as at any rate we have the groundwork of a study 
of nature ; and this, supported by a prudent reference to the old 
masters, as confirmatory of the course of study, will, with a more 
liberal education and a more catholic feeling of art, give us artists 
of whose works we shall not be asliamed. 



Railway Engineering ; containing a General Table for the Calcula- 
tion of Earthworks. By T. Bakeb, C.E. London: Longman, 1848. 
8vo. pp. 64. 

We regret to perceive that Mr. P. Barlow has permitted this 
hook to be dedicated to him, for we are sure that he was ignorant 
of the dubious character of the honour conferred on liim by the 
unscrupulous author. There need not be the slightest delicacy or 
hesitation in affirming that the whole performance is a collection 
of gross plagiarisms. The formula for the super-elevation of the 
outer rail of a railway curve is taken from De Pambour. Methods 
which have long been puldished for setting out curves, the author 
claims as his own, on the plea that they were privately communi- 
cated to his i)upils, and that some years ago he sent to the " Gen ■ 
tleman's Diary' a paper on the subject, which teas rejected. 

The " General Table for the Calculation of Earthwork on Rail- 
ways, &c." is a direct copy from the "General Table for facilitating 
the Calculation of Earthworks for Railways, Canals, &c." by Mr. 
Bashforth. There is not even a colourable variation from the 
original in the copy, — it is an exact reprint, line for line and figure 
for figure; with a few additions, but not a single omissinn. Every 
one of Mr Bashforth's tabular numbers re-appears in Mr. Baker s 
table. We had intended, in order to render the plagiarism pal- 
pable, to print a column from one table by the side of the corre- 
sponding one in the other table; but after getting halfway through 
the labour of copying the figures, we found that there was not a 
single alteration or omission, and therefore abandoned the task as 
useless. 

A general reader, not familiar with the character of earthwork 
tables, might deem the similarity accidental or inevitable — just as 
if two persons published different tables of common logarithms 
or square roots, the tabular figures must coincide where both are 
correct. The slightest consideration, however, wiU show that the 
present is not an analogous case. A great number of earthwork 
tables has been published, but none except Mr. Baker's has the 
same figures as Mr. Bashforth's : and for this plain reason, — that 
other tables, such as Mr. Bidder's or Sir John MacueLll's, ape 
applied by methods, and for purposes, entirely different. Sir John 
Macneill's, for instance, are not general, but have the results for 
particular slopes and bases, worked out ready to the engineer's 
hand. Mr. Bidder's table, on the contrary, is general, and con- 
siders the prismoid in three separate portions. Mr. Bashforth's 
is also general, but considers the prismoid in two portions ; one of 
which has no real existence, but being merely assumed for facility 
of calculation, is ultimately subtracted. Now considering the 
perfect independence of these mctliods, it is clear that tlie tables 
founded on tliem, though entirely different from each other, may 
lead to identical results. But the only person who has adopted 
Mr. Bashforth's very original plan of considering the slopes to be 
hypotlietically continued till they meet in an apex, is Mr. Bakei;. 
He therefore is the only person ivho could use the same figures. 

AVe have too much confidence in the right feelings of engineers, 
to suppose for an instant that this attempt to take the fruit of high 
talents and unweared toil from the lawful owner will prove suc- 
cessful. In our apprehension, the literary offence is much aggra- 



1848] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



75 



vated by tlie attempt made in the work under review to throw 
dust in the eyes of the reader, by abusing- the author whose tables 
are copied. The attacks commence in the preface, and are con- 
tinued at intervals to the end of the book, with all the emphasis 
wliich italics and capitals can give them. For example, speakina: 
generally of other previous tables, our author allows that "none of 
them are accompanied with directions for finding the contents 
from the sectional areas, which is the most important part of such 
tables, except JMr. Bashforth's ; but his jiiethod of applying them is 
arrmieous." Now, the assertion, which we have given in the au- 
thor's own italics, is not only untrue, but it would not be un- 
cSiaritable to assert that it is put forth to disguise the real relation 
<£ his own method to i\Ir. Bashforth's. The supposed error refers 
to the calculation for side-long ground (or cuttings or embank- 
ments on the side of a hill, where the height of the slopes is un- 
equal), and is established by taking a perverse and preposterous 
example — that of two sections, 4 chains apart, of the areas 10,321 
feet and 400 feet, respectively. As if in a length of 4 chains, no 
intermediate sections would be taken where the first section was 
more than twenty-five times the last ! 

Setting aside the extra\agant nature of the case supposed, Mr. 
Bashfortli's method, even if so applied, is just as likely to give a 
true result as that which Mr. Baker ivould substitute. We are 
told, that by neglecting the area of the triangle, the former 
nrethod gives a result 7^ per cent, too small : but it is just as 
likely that the substituted method gives the result as much too 
great ; for the ground may undulate so much, that the error may 
be either in excess or diminution. In a case like the present, 
is-here the ground falls so much in the direction of length, that 
tlie heights of one end-section are only one-fifth those of the 
other end-section, great irregularities of surface must be supposed to 
intervene. For instance, suppose a valley or deep hollow occurred 
somewhere in this length of four chains of cutting, Mr. Baker 
would tell the contractor that he had to remove all the contents 
of the vallcj', which, in reality, nature had already excavated for him. 
There is no guarding against such errors, except by the precaution 
which every reasonable engineer adopts where the ground varies 
considerably — which, in the present case, would be practically 
inevitable — and which Mr. Bashforth's method supposes, — that of 
taking frequent sections. 

Our worthy author has not borrowed his predecessor's table of 
Proportional Parts, — which, as we explained in a former review, 
is printed on card, with a moveable index of wood sliding in a 
groove. It is estimated that by this ingenious contrivance, the 
table is made to contain all the calculations which, extended, 
would occupy a surface 42,250,000 times its present area. To 
kave adopted this table also, would have been too palpable a 
plagiarism ; Mr. Baker, therefore, contents himself with copying, 
figure for figure, the first twenty-one lines of it, which constitute 
te(!) " 'fable No^2 ;" 

cases wl 

the calculations for himself. 

It is not to be expected that every practical person who calcu- 
lates quantities for contractors, should understand the mathe- 
matical principles on which the particular tables which he uses 
are based. But it is within the simplest comprehension, that the 
two methods under comparison — and they alone — proceed on the 
assumption that the slopes are hypothetically continued to their 
intersection. It is also not a matter of reasoning at all, but 
one of mere eyesight, that Mr. Baker has re-printed Mr. Bash- 
forth's calculations identically. The only differences are these — 
Mr. Baker's table is printed in a less distinct manner ; to Mr. 
Basfortb's table of 65 heights (reprinted without a single omission) 
se^'en more heights are added : lastly, of the table of Proportional 
P^rts, the first twenty-one lines are reprinted , and as to the 42 
millions and odd remaining calculations, Mhich the sliding index 
ingeniously efi'ects — why, the reader is left to calculate them for 
himself. 



" Table No. 2 ;" and the reader is informed (p. 48), that in 
vhich this " Table No. 2" does not include, he must work out 



The Steam Navy. — Mr. Edward Whitley Baker has been appointed by the 
government to go out with James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak. Mr. 
Baker is attached as engineer to the Mseander frigate, and is to have charge 
of a steam launch, to be used in getting up the small rivers and creeks for 
surveys and in search of pirates, and is to be at the service of the Rajah in 
Sarawak and Labuan as mechanical engineer. We are glad to see from this 
appointment that the Admiralty are really desirous to improve the engineer- 
ing service of the navy, by employing efficient practical men like Mr. 
Baker. 



REGISTER OP NE"W PATENTS. 

BALANCE BRIDGE. 

John Harvey Sadler, of Holheck, Leeds, iron merchant, for 

" Improvements in constructing bridges, aqueducts, and similar struc- 
tures r—Gvanie A July 7, 1847; Enrolled January 7, 1848. 

This invention relates to the construction of cast-iron girders 
for continuous bridges, viaducts, or aqueducts, and other improve- 
ments relating to railways. Fig. 1, is a side view made according 
to this invention of cast-iron girders c, strongly jointed and bolted 
together at a, standing upon piers of stone or brick b b b, each 
girder c, being cast from one and the same pattern, or where no 
very great length is requii-ed, two parts c c', may be cast as one 
piece ; in either case from the points d, will constitute one girder, 
which is from centre to centre of two arches, and the two parts on 



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either side of a bar ft, will balance each other, consequently, there 
is no weight or sway comparatively speaking in the centre of each 
arch. It will be seen that each girder is loose and at liberty at the 
centre of each arch rf rf, and though strongly jointed together by 
means of plates on each side, they will allow for any contraction 
or expansion required by change of the atmosphere ; and fig. 2, is 
a transverse section of this joint, showing how the toothed-plates 
fit into similar teeth at the ends of each girder where they meet at 
the centre. Fig. 3, is a plan of the cast-Lron flooring for bridges, 
&c., consisting of plates of cast-iron. Fig. 4, shows these plates 
upon an enlarged scale, the underside uppermost and not closed 
together, the better to explain how strength may be given t'o 
these plates to bear the rails and any weight required to pass over 
them ; and fig. 5, i^ a transverse section, showing how these plates 
are fastened togetJier, and bolted to the girders by the brackets 
i i. The covering or flooring-plates e and /», are shown to be a 
foot in width, and of the length from girder to girder correspond- 
ing to the width required for the raUway. 



76 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrs JOURNAL. 



[March, 



The ]ilate iipon which the chairs are securely bolted is seen 
to have three ribs or flanches cast upon the underside in order to 
give the requisite strength, and also holes cast through it for bolt- 
ing and securely fixing the chairs for holding the rails. There 
are studs about an inch square cast upon the sides ot each plate, 
and each plate has holes cast of a size exactly to fit and receive 
these studs, (see A, fig. 5, which is a side view of these plates,) it 
will therefore easily be understood that if these plates were shut 
or closed together, these studs would enter into the holes cast in 
each for that purpose, clearly showing that the whole covering or 
flooring will be so united and securely fastened, so as to form one 
general mass of support to the rails and the weight passing over 
them. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES AND BREAKS. 

Geohoe Taylor, of Holbeck, near Leeds, Yorkshire, mechanic, 
for " Improvements in the construction of engines and carriages to be 
used on railways." — Granted June 3 ; Enrolled December 3, 1847. 

This invention relates, firstly, to improved arrangements of the 
cylinders of locomotive engines, and the parts which communicate 
the reciprocating motion to the driving-wheels, for the purpose of 
concentrating the driving power of the actuated pistons, so as to 
communicate an even rotating motion to the axles of the driving- 
wheels, and also to distribute the moving power (without first con- 
centrating it) to one, two, or more pairs of driving-wheels in a 
uniform manner. Secondly, this invention refers to an improved 
break, for stopping the progress of carriages along the line of rail- 
way ; such a]iparatus being also suitable for sustaining its carriage 
on the rails, in case of the breaking of an axle. Thirdly, this in- 
vention relates to an improved arrangement of tender. Fourthly, 
to certain improvements in mounting the wheels of railway car- 
riages. 

The improved arrangements are shown in the annexed engrav- 
ings. Fig. 1 is a side elevation, and fig. 2 a plan, in which the 

Fig. 2. 





Fig. U 

motive power, communicated to the pistons of the working cylin- 
ders, is concentrated in a line drawn longitudinally through the 
centre of the plane of the engine, o, a, are a pair of cylinders, 
placed over the end of the boiler b, nearest to the smoke-box ; 
c, are the piston-rods, with cross-heads, which slide in guides fixed 
to the outside casing of the boiler ; d, d, are rods for connecting 
the piston-rods to the cranks c, which cranks are attached one to 
either side of a central wheel/. The periphery of this wheel is 
provided with cogs, for gearing into or driving a wheel ^, keyed to 
the axle of the driving-wheels /*. In order to insure the proper 
gearing together of the wlieels / and p, and allow of the play of 
the bearing-spring, the guides, in which the axle-boxes or journals 
of the driving-wheels h slide, are made at an angle, as shown at i, 
fig. 1. By referring to the figures, it will be seen that the axles 
are placed above the boiler, and, therefore, wheels of large diame- 
ter (say from 10 to IS feet) may, if required, be employed with 
safety ; the oscillation of the engine being, in great part, avoided, 
by the central and uniform driving of the axle of the wheels h, and 
the weight of the engine being near the ground. 'Wlien it is de- 
sired to make all the wheels driving-wheels, their shafts may be 
connected together by rods and crank-pins, as now generally em- 
ployed. 

The specification describes two other arrangements of mechan- 



ism, for communicating the reciprocating motion of the pistons to 
the axles of the driving-wheels. 




yl^. .'Msss^^^K.iz^ 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. 



The improved apparatus or break for retarding and stopping the 
train is shown at fig. 3, a side elevation of a tender, with the appa- 
ratus attached thereto ; and fig. i being an end elevation, a is one 
of two levers, attached to the bottom of the carriage, and intended 
to vibrate slightly upon centre-pins h. At their outer ends these 
levers are connected together by a eross-rod c, and are thereby 
caused to move simultaneously when any motion is communicated 
to them, rf, d, are flanged skids, attached to the outer end of the 
levers a ; and they are provided, at their under surface, with a block 
of wood, the grain of which is vertical. These skids are intended 
to be depressed on to the rails, when the speed of the train is to be 
ckecked ; and the flanges, which are formed on the inner side of 
the skids, will act as guides and keep the carriages on the line of 
rails, in case of the breakage of an axle, e is a strong spring, 
stretching across from one skid to the other, and taking into slots 
or openings formed in the upper part of the skids. This spring is 
embraced, at the middle of its length, by a hoop/ which is jointed 
to a vertical shaft g, composed or two parts, and capable of being 
adjusted, in its length, by a threaded connecting-piece h. The 
upper end of the shaft g is forked, and between its prongs two 
antifriction rollers ?, f, are mounted. In the sides of these prongs, 
and between the centres of the rollers i, longitudinal slots are cut, 
for the purpose of receiving the axle A', of a cam /, which is in 
contact vvith the peripheries of the antifriction rollers. The axle 
k is mounted in bearings affixed to the end of the tender, and to 
its outer end a worm-wheel m is keyed. This wheel gears into a 
worm ?7, mounted on one end of a shaft o, which turns in bearings 
at the side of the tender ; and at its other end a hand-wheel p is 
ke)ed, for the purpose of giving it a rotary motion. Let it now 
be supposed that the skids are required to be let down on to the 
rail, — the hand-wheel p is turned, in order, by means of the worm 
n, to move round the wheel vi and its axle, which carries the cam /; 
the larger radius of this cam being now brought into contact with 
the lower antifriction roller, it will depress the vertical shaft g, and 
communicate, through the spring e, an elastic pressure to the skids, 
whereby they will be made to bite the rails, and retard the progress 
of the train. 

The third improvement consists in carrying the axles of tenders 
through or abo\e the water-tank, whereby the weight is brought 
near the rails, in a manner similar to that of the engines. By this 
arrangement larger wheels than usual may be employed with 
safety ; tlie weight of the load which the tender carries being 
brought much nearer tlie rails, whereby the oscillation is in great 
part pre\ented. 

Tlie fourth part of the invention relates to improvements in 
mounting the wheels of railway carriages, — the railway axle being 
composed of two parts, one being solid and the other tubular. The 
solid axle is made to carry one of a pair of wheels, and the tubuLir 
axle, which is slidden over the solid axle, or otherwise placed over 
it, receives the other wheel. The advantage of mounting wheels 
in this manner is, that they will be allowed to turn independently 
of each other. In applying tlie improvement to axles, as now con- 
structed, one boss is turned down, and a collar merely is left ; the 
axle is then coated with " Paris white," or other suitable substance, 
and afterwards heated in a furnace to a dull red heat. AVhen in 
this state a tulie or hollow axle is cast around it, — the ends of the 
hollow tube being inclosed between the boss and the collar of the 
inner axle. On the contraction of the metals, the inner and outer 
axles will, by reason of the intermediate filling substance, be en- 
abled to revolve independently of each other, but will be in no 
danger of separating, as the collar keeps them securely together. 
When, therefore, the wheels are respectively secured in their 
places by the ordinary means, they will be free to revohe inde- 
pendently, and be as little liable to derangement as if mounted on 
one solid axle. 



J8t8. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



77 



SANITARY IMPROVEMENTS IN THE SEWAGE. 
( With Engravings, Plate V.J 

The importance of the sanitary question increases every day, 
a-nd t}ie large extent of works which will evidently he carried out 
to ohtain a perfect system of sewage make it of great consequence 
to engineers to he well informed of the most approved modes of 
construction. For this reason Me have given copious extracts 
from the evidence of Mr. Austin and Mr. Phillips, before the Me- 
tropolitan Sanitary Commission, and to which we beg leave to 
direct the particular attention of the profession. , 

H. Austin, Esq., C.E., at the request of the commissioners 
nrade a survey of the Surrey and Kent district of sewers, and gave 
the following evidence relative to the flat district of Lambeth, the 
Borough, and Rotherhithe, as shown in the plan, fig. 1, Plate V. 

" There is little doubt that much improvement might be efl'ected 
in the present system of sevrage, but it could only be carried out 
Ht vast expense ; and to extend this system over the whole district, 
so as to render it general and complete, even under such improved 
arrangements, would not only be ruinous in cost, but the great 
evils after all would only be lessened, not removed. With a dis- 
trict so situated, nearly flat, and for the most part several feet under 
high-water mark, all attempts at providing an adequate natural 
drainage, direct into the river, must end in failure. Do what you 
will, it must be a cesspool system still. A small additional current 
of two or three feet may certainly be obtained in some cases by 
lowering the outfalls to low- water mark, but the advantage of this, 
carried over a distance of two miles or more, would scarcely be 
appreciable, and could be carried out only at immense expense. It 
appears to be absolute that tliis artificial state of things should be 
treated artificially, and mechanical appliances brought to bear to 
lift and discharge the refuse constantly as it is produced. Inter- 
mittent drainage is somewhat more barbarous than intermittent 
water supply. It does seem extraordinary, that with the steam- 
engine applied in almost everv' useful relation of life, its adaptation 
to this great purpose for the relief of flat districts of towns of its 
refuse and water should never have been attempted. It was very 
satisfactory to me to find, on proposing tlie system to Mr. Chad- 
^vick, that the idea of its practicability had already been impressed 
an his own mind, from observation as to the eflicieucy and small 
expense of pumping, for the purpose of agricultural drainage. We 
have ample experience as to the facility with which refuse may be 
pumped, in its application, in several instances, to agricultural 
purposes. It only remains a question as to the best arrangement 
of the drainage to realise the object in the most efficient and eco- 
nomical manner. 

The district to be drained should be apportioned into convenient 
eections or divisions, the drainage of which would be totally inde- 
pendent and distinct, converging to the centre of each division 
with any desired current, and f'rom these centres the liquid would 
be raised by steam-engines, placed at any convenient point in con- 
nection with them by pipes. The skeleton plan (fig. 1, Plate V.) 
of the populous part of the Surrey and Kent district will best ex- 
plain my meaning, it being understood that the divisions of the 
district there represented, the position of the centre points or 
wells, and the situation of the engine power, are only assumed for 
<|ie purpose of illustration, without at all presuming that they 
would be the most desirable to adopt. These are matters, the cor- 
rect determination of which would demand much consideration and 
study of local circumstances and arrangement. Beyond the con- 
sideration of these circumstances, the extent of each division 
would be limited only by the amount of fall that it would be ne- 
cessary to preserve to allow of a certain maximum size of drain, 
and the depth of digging that might be thought desirable. 

The most important consideration appears to be the size and 
material of the drains, and I have founded my calculations on the 
basis that the maximum size of the main outfall drains should not 
exceed a dimension that would be conveniently manufactured in 
pottery clay, so as to allow of the establishment, throuyhout, of a 
complete system of pipe drainage rather than of brick sewers. I there- 
fore fix the limit of the largest drain at 2 feet diameter, that being 
a practicable size to manufacture. Taking then a perfectly flat 
frrea — which is the worst case for calculation — assuming a total fall 
of 15 feet from the extreme points to the centre, upon an area of 
half of a square mile or 320 acres, this will give a current of 1 in 
£50 as a minimum, and a 2-feet drain, with that fall, will be more 
than sufiicient to discharge the whole refuse of the densest popu- 
lation upon that extent of surface, with an improved constant sup- 
ply of water of 100 gallons per day per house. "With such arrange- 
ments, there would have to be discharged from each division of 



half a square mile nearly one million gallons per day ; but as by 
far the largest quantity is used in the busy time, from nine to one 
o'clock, I calculate a capacity sufficient to discharge the whole 
quantity in that time. 

It would be essential that these drains should be capable of re- 
moving also the whole external refuse of the streets and houses. 
I assume, therefore, that the system should be capable of accom- 
modating a fall of rain equal to an inch and a-balf in 12 hours, a 
good soaking quantity that would soon cleanse the whole surface 
of the streets and houses, and convey away the refuse. This 
amount being added to the house sujiply of water, the total quan- 
tity produced at such times in each division would be 200,000 cubic 
feet per hour. 

The only question for consideration as to fall, would be to fix a 
safe limit for the total inclination of those continuous lines of the 
drainage that %vould have to convey the water from the extreme 
points to the centre. Having decided upon that, the rate of in- 
clination should be graduated from one end to tlie other ; because 
the accelerated velocity of the stream, as it would approach the 
centre outfall, would admit of considerably less inclination of the 
drainage than at the commencement ; or, on tlie other hand, would 
admit of a great reduction in the size of the pipes. All the col- 
lateral or intermediate branch-drains, it will be seen, would have 
so considerable an amount of fall, as to afford the opportunity of 
putting them all in of a very small size. 

The engines may be fixed in any spot most convenient and ad- 
visable, and there need be only one pumping establishment for the 
whole district (as shown in the skeleton plan, fig. 1), to which 
main pipes would lead from the several centre wells, precisely as 
would be practised in raising so much water from a well at a dis- 
tance. From the engines, one or more discharge-pipes, to convey 
the whole refuse, would lead to the most convenient outlet in the 
river, as shown by tlie double dotted line. The arrangement here 
submitted would offer this great advantage, that the pollution of 
the whole southern bank of the river would at once be avoided, as 
the liquid refuse could, with equal facility, he discharged at any 
spot lower down the ri\er, where no inconvenience would arise 
from it. Bv-and-bye, wlien the public mind is brought to appre- 
ciate the value of this material, and to apply it to its legitimate 
purpose, instead of throwing it away, there w ould be nothing more 
required than to lay down the distributing-pipes from the engines 
in the direction of the demand. The discbarge pipe would then 
serve its proper purpose of a waste-pipe into the river, «lien tlie 
supply of the liquid exceeded the demand for it, or it would lead 
into depositing reservoirs. 

I calculate that it would be necessary to provide four times the 
amount of steam power for the removal of the refuse during wet 
weather that would be necessary on dry days, and this is the very 
amount that would probably be necessary to raise the refuse the 
additional height required for its application to agriculture. 
Thus, in wet weather, when there would be no demand for the 
sewage manure, the whole power of the engines would be em- 
ployed in raising the greater quantity of liquid sufficiently high 
only for its discharge from the district ; and in dry weather the 
full power would be engaged in raising the smaller quantity the 
additional height necessary for its intended application to agricul- 
ture. The system would so work together very satisfactorily as a 
perfect whole. 

The cost of this improved system of drainage will not amount 
to more than one-fourth of the system now pursued in the Surrey 
and Kent district. This commission has recently given notice of 
the intended execution of works, involving an outlay of £100,000, 
to be expended in a few main lines of drainage, which, for the real 
and important purposes of sewerage — the removal of the liquid 
refuse from the houses — will be of no earthly benefit to the inha- 
bitants, but will serve only to obstruct future improvement ; 
whereas the outlay of this amount on tlie plan proposed would 
actually suffice for the construction of the entire street drainage, 
including every court and alley, of more than one half of the most 
populous part of the district comprised within an area of four 
square miles immediately south of tlie river. The perfect drain- 
age of the most crowded district on this system would cost on the 
average £2 per house, with an annual charge of 2*. per house, for 
annual expense of engine power. To repay in 30 years, with in- 
terest, the whole cost of the public or street drainage, together 
with complete private or house drainage, with stone-ware water- 
closet basin, and including the above annual charge for entrine 
power, would involve a rate of 7*. per annum, or about a third of 
the annual cost of emptying a cesspool, where at all decently 
kept." 



78 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



MAuni, 



Mr. PiiiM.ips, C.E., e:ave the following evidence as to the system 
of sewafie iidojited by him : — 

'•Solidity of execution in construction, economy of niiiterials and 
liihoiir, coniliiiied «itli ^^trenjrth to hear the latenil and vertical 
)Fressures of the j^round, and efficiency in atfordinjj;thehest channel 
fur ijuickly convcyinf; away the seivape, are the essential reiiuisites 
fur a sewer. The circle affords the most capacious area of all 
plane figures havin-r the same circumferciu^e, and conversely its 
I'ircuiiiference is less than any other tiijure of the same capacity. 
It, therefore, sup]ilies the greatest capacity for receiving the 
water, w itli the smallest frictional surface, and the least consump- 
tion of materials. As regards strength : when the ])ressure from 
t]ie ground around a circle is the same, it is equally distributed 
throughout the entire thickness composing the arch ; for, as the 
extradosal length is greater than the intradosal length, the arch 
is necessarily made up of a series of wedges all pointing to the 
centre of the circle ; hence the circular form prevents the earth 
outside of it from forcing it in, and from disturbing it, provided 
the pressure be e(i\ial, while upright walls in tlie same circum- 
stances would most probably be unable to withstand tlie pressure. 

The removal of sewage and prevention of deposit of matter in 
sewers are entirely dependent on the tpiantity and velocity of 
the water running through tliem. In order therefore to keep them 
well washed out and cleansed, the utmost scouring force should be 
imparted to the streams. A semicircular, or still narrower and 
deeper-curved channel of a semi-elliptical or catenarian form, 
concentrates the flow on a small area of friction, heaps it up, and 
so increases its velocity, and makes it more powerful in lifting, 
holding in suspension, and carrying away all matters which may 
find their way into the sewers, than a wide and flat channel. A 
sewer, therefore, having an arched crown, curved side walls, and a 
narrow and deeply-curved bottom, which, combined together, give 
Uie shape of an rgg irith the i-imill end phiced dnwiiwcirds, is, in my 
opinion, the best and most efficient form for all branch sewers. It 
would ai)|)ear liovvever from what has been stated, that the circle, 
from ha\ing a more capacious area and less rubbing surface than 
any other ligure, is the best shape for all sewers. But this is not 
the case ; for although the surface of contact of the egg-shaped 
sewer is somewhat greater than a circle of the same area, yet by 
contracting the channel and so raising the height of the stream, 
the ratio of velocity and consequent power to scour is increased 
thereby, as will be evident on experiment being made. It is the pre- 
rogati\'e of the egg-shaped sewer, therefore, to combine in its 
form, capacity, economy, sti'ength, and efficiency. 

For the short collateral branches of the sewers in street, courts, 
&c., the smaller tliey are, (provided they be large enough to 
recei\e and carry off storm waters in addition to the ordinary run), 
the less chance will there be for them to choke up. In the course 
of my experience I have examined hundreds of drains, and I have 
always found small drains and sewers which had a moderate fall, 
and anything like a good supply of water, quite clean and perfect 
in that respect. I anticipate, indeed I confidently entertain an 
opinion, that with a combination of the water supply and a tubular 
system of sewerage and house-drainage, the whole of the annoy- 
ance now experienced by the public from defective drains and 
sewers may be made to cease. 

If constant currents of water be carried through the drains and 
sewers, though the currents may he small, yet provided they be 
constant and concentrated on very narrow and smooth bottoms, 
they M ill keep the sewers clean. Where the supply is intermittent, 
tlie matter discharged from the house-drains, meeting with no 
<'urreut, accumulates. In order to prevent deposit in drains and 
fcewers, there must be a certain degree of velocity and force given 
to each current, so as to produce agitation equal to, or rather 
gi'cater than the ins inertiip, or weight, mass, figure, and superficies, 
of the sand, silt, mud, and other substances, to be lifted, and kept 
always moving, or united and incorporated with the running 
water, added to the friction of the bottom and sides of the channel. 

The chance of any sewer keeping itself clean is dependent on 
four things, — namely, its capacity, its ft>rm, its fall, and the 
quantity and force of the water running through it. It is only from 
oltservation and experience, and the application of rules deduced 
therefrom, to the proportioning the capacity, the form, and the 
fall, as also the quantity and force of water requisite to prevent 
deposit, that we can ho])e to arrive at perfection in sewerage. 
From observation and experiment, I fiiul that it requires a con- 
stant velocity of current to be running through the sewers equal 
to about 2ij feet per second, or l| mUe per hour, to prevent the 
soil from depositing within them. 

There is less water ruaning in the sewers on Sundays than on 



other days of the w cek ; and most on Saturdays. The height of 
the flow every day goes on increasing from an early hour in the 
morning until about noon, when it is highest; it tlien gradually 
subsides to its lowest level. The period of the greatest flow es^ry 
day is between 11 a. m. and 1 p. nu 

The fall of sewers should be proportioned to the quantity of 
water that is to pass through them. For, with the same fall, the 
greater the body of water the greater will be the velocity ami 
scour ; and conversely, the less the body of water the less will lie 
the velocity and scour. Again, a large body of water will, with a 
little fall, run with the same velocity as a small quantity will with 
a great fall. Hence the recipient of many branch sewers may hav« 
less fall than the branches themselves. A fall of a quarter of an 
inch in 10 feet has been considered the least fall that should be 
given to branch and summit-level sewers; but this fall is not 
enough to keep the sewers clean. No ; such sewers should, in my 
opinion, have not less fall than half an inch in 10 feet. In some dis- 
tricts it is found impossible to get even so much fall as a quarter 
of an inch in 10 feet. In districts where proper fall cannot he 
obtained, it is necessary to resort to flushing to keep the seivers 
free of deposit and clean. 

"When a main stream receives a branch stream, the united 
body of water causes the height of the main stream to increase, 
consequently the surface rises somewhat higher than the surface of 
the divided streams; hence the water flows back, producing tie- 
posits of heavy substances about the junctions, which deposits 
draw back and impede the flow of the two streams. Now, in 
ortler to remedy this evil, the bottom of the main sewer, immedi- 
ately below the junctions should be made some inches deeper than 
the bottoms above the junctions. By this mode of forming the 
bottoms, the surface of the main and branch streams w ill ha^^e a 
uniform inclination, and the acceleration of this fall will prevent 
regurgitation and deposit, and the united streams will flow on- 
wards with increased speed. 

In order to determine the depth below the junctions, it is ne- 
cessary to calculate what height the body of water falling from 
the branches will increase the stream in the main. Tlie capacity 
of the united stream is very much less than the sum of the) 
capacities of the divided streams, and the velocity in the former is 
considerably greater than either of the latter. The ratio of 
increase of velocity follows the ratio of decrease of capacity. It 
follows, therefore, that a graduallj' accelerating velocity takes 
place immediately below the confluence of the sewers throughout 
the ramified system from their sources to their outfalls, and such 
I have found to be the case. 

Egg-shaped sewers, varying in capacity according to the area, 
the number of houses to be drained, and the quantity of water to 
be discharged, from 9 inches wide by 1 ft. 3 in. high, to 1 ft. 6 in. 
wide by 2 ft. 6 in. high, would suffice for sewers on summit levehs, 
and also for branch or collateral sewers which had to receive the 
drainage of from one to twelve or more ordinary-sized streets. 
Of course the secondary mains which would have to carry off the 
water from these branch or collateral sewers, as well as the prin- 
cipal main lines into which the secondary ones would discharge 
themselves, must be larger in proportion ; but under a proper ar- 
rangement, fewer principal lines would be required. 

Instead of discharging a large body of water uselessly, as t» 
any power of sweep, I would, under the system of constant and 
concentrated supplies and smaller sewers, economise the water by 
using it to scour several small sewers instead of one large one. 
For this reason I would prefer having more outlets, or at least 
more catch-water sewers, instead of discharging all the drainage 
by one large main sewer throughout, although at or near the 
outlet, I might probably be obliged to lead the whole of the water 
into one main line ; but I should not like to part with it into a 
main line until I had made it serviceable in sweeping as many 
sewers as possible. As the keeping of all sewers thoroughly 
washed out is necessarily dependent upon an abundant supply of 
water, the principle which I have thought it best to follow for that 
purpose is to tie and connect all the sewers together upon a uniform 
system of levels so as to use the water running along sewers on 
high levels for washing out those on low levels. For this purpose, 
as will be seen by the plans, (Plate V., figs. 2, 3, and t), I would 
connect the heads of adjoining sewers below with the superior 
sewers above them, and arrange the connections so that, as the 
currents of water running along the latter sewers arrive opposite 
the connections, they may divide and subdivide themselves by the 
ridges or groynes formed by the meeting of the inverts. By this 
means the water would traverse from one sewer to another, and a) 
keep up a perpetual flow throughout the entire system. There 
can be no doubt that with much smaller sewers than those now i4i 



184.8.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrs JOURNTAL. 



76 



use, and a more regular and abundant supply of water, the sewers 
would, by this system of arranging them and economising tlie 
currents, keep themselves thoroughly clean. 

All head sewers, horn want of backwater, have a tendency to 
choke up, and their ventilation is also very bad, consequently there 
^ould be as few of them as possible. 

The general surface of the metropolis, on the north side of the 
Thames, is most admirably situated for being efficiently drained, 
as the ground continues to rise with an easy acclivity from the river 
to tlie hills some miles to the northward. The surface is divided 
into several natural areas, each of %vhich has its main outfall sewer 
nmning through the lowest level of the valley, and discharging 
into the Thames, and into these main or valley sewers the whole 
of tlie sewers on the sides of the declivities discharge themselves. 
This mode of drainage is a very objectionable one, and should 
never be resorted to if it be possible to avoid it. The declivities 
of ail natural areas are generally in two directions, namely, trans- 
versely towards the valley line, and longitudinally towards the 
outfall. Now, if attention be paid to the levels, and the sewers 
on the sides of the declivities be judiciously arranged, a perpetual 
circulation of water may be kept flowing throughout the whole of 
them from the sewer on the summit at the head of the natural 
area to the outfall in the river ; that is to say, a system of col- 
lateral or concentric sewers should rise one al)Ove another from 
the valley line to the ridge or water-shed line of the district ; each 
collateral sewer skirting tlie entire area, and discharging itself 
into the river by a separate outlet, or in the manner previously re- 
ferred to. It will be seen that, when the sewers running trans- 
versely are connected at their upper and lower ends on the same 
levels with those running longitudinally, a facility is afforded for 
the drainage to circulate from the highest sewer to the one imme- 
diately below, from this to the one next lowest, and so on through- 
out. 

Mr. Phillips proposes fourteen graduated forms of branch se- 
condary and principal main lines of sewers of the egg-shape for 
the di-ainage of a district in which the sewers and the water supply 
are under one and the same authority. Fig. 13, Plate V., shows the 
form of one of the sewers together with the radii of the several 
curves. 



No. 


Height. 


Width. 


No. 


Height. 


Width. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


1 


6 8 


4 


8 


3 9 


2 3 


2 


6 3 


3 9 


9 


3 4 


2 


3 


5 10 


3 6 


10 


2 11 


1 9 


4 


5 5 


3 3 


11 


2 6 


1 6 


5 


5 


3 


12 


2 1 


1 3 


6 


4 7 


2 9 


13 


1 8 


1 


7 


4 2 


2 6 ' 


14 


1 3 


9 



Much caution is required in the building of sewers in a clayey 
soil ; otherwise, from the treacherous character of this ground — 
its liability to expand and slip, — the sewers may be forced in. 
The tliickness of a sewer should be proportioned to the nature of 
the ground and the pressure it has to bear ; but its stability is very 
mudi dependent on the goodness of the workmanship. A half- 
hi-ick sewer, under ordinary circumstances, will, if executed well 
and soundly, the joints made thin, and the sewer worked true to 
the curve, be quite strong enough, and would be found to answer 
eva-y required purpose. The thicknesses depend upon the ma- 
terial and strata. The equilibration may be altogether destroyed 
by a want of uniformity in the working of the curve. The greatest 
pressure of the ground acts laterally from the sides downwards. 
Much of this pressure may be prevented by leaving in the trench 
from the surface downwards short lengths of earth, say of 10 to 
'iO feet, and about 50 to 80 feet apart, to be tunnelled through for 
the sewer to pass. These benchings, as they are termed, will keep 
the sides of the trench from sinking and slipping, and so from 
jM-essing against the sides of tlie sewer. 

The smootJier the surface the less will be the friction, and con- 
sequently the greater will be the velocity and discharge ; and the 
friction in a glazed pipe must be considerably less than in a brick 
drain, as commonly built. I am not prepared to say that the 
friction would be diminished so much as one-third ; I think not so 
much. The smoothest glass pipes throw off traus^'erse motions 
which greatly impede the flow. There is a difference in the flow 
•f pure clean water and of sewage water ; the latter moves more 
sluggishly. This is caused by its being thicker and more viscid. 



from having matter chemically combined and mechanically sus- 
pended in it. 

As the velocity increases, so does the transverse section of tlie 
area occupied by the stream decrease. This is a natural law ob- 
servable in all moving streams, for we see that in a mo\ing mass 
of water the discharge is the same, whatever form and size tlte 
channel may assume, the velocity being greater where tlie channel 
is narrow and deep, and less where it is wide, flat, and irrcguliir; 
but the exact ratio of decrease of area, from decrease of friction 
aud increase of flow, can only be determined by actual experiment 
and by taking into account all the attendant circumstan«es which 
influence and govern the motion of the stream. 

Have you at all considered the capacities of sewers necessary for 
draining different areas of ground? — Yes, I have given the subject 
much attention. If the consideration of the sizes of sewers was 
confined solely to the carrving off the water supplied by the several 
water companies, then I apprehend that pipes somewhat larger in 
size than the siip])ly-pipes themsehes would suffice ; but provision 
has to be made for receiving and conveying away the waters of 
heavy rains. In London continuous heavy falls of rain are not of 
long duration, lasting seldom more than from one to four hours. 
About one-fifth of the quantity that falls is absorbed partly by the 
dryness of the surface of the roofs, the paving, and the ground 
and partly by the porosity of the ground itself. A farther propor- 
tion is also prevented from ffowiiig to the drains and sewers at all 
by hollows in the surface, and again reascends into the atmosphere 
as vapour. There is also a small quantity that enters into the 
composition of animal and vegetable bodies. Then there is the 
resistance the flow experiences from the friction of the entire sur- 
face, being accelerated or detained in proportion as the surface is 
more or less inclined. To provide for the discharge of a fall of rain 
of two inches in depth has been considered by Mr. Hawksley, C.E., 
the extreme datum upon which to proportion the capacities of 
town sewers generally. Now I believe that, practically, the sizes 
in his table, although they may appear theoretically correct, are 
(excepting for the smallest sizes) too large for sewers in London. 
It is extremely violent rains alone that produce a depth of two 
inches per hour, and such rains occur only once in four or five 
years, if so much. I am of opinion that it is unnecessary to pro- 
portion the sizes of the sewers to meet an extraordinary occurrence 
that may probably happen only once in so many years. My reason 
for not fearing any serious damage from an excess of rain at remote 
intervals being provided for in surface channels, excepting, pei»- 
haps, in situations peculiarly liable to inundation (for instance, at 
the foot of a long or steep declivity, or where the waters may, 
from any cause, be suddenly congregated at one focus) is, that I 
have obser^•ed, that in towns entirely destitute of undei-gi-ound 
drains, no such inconvenience is felt as would justify the formation 
of enormously large sewers, or the e.xpenditure ot large sums of 
money to provide against it. In August 1846, a most extraordinary 
fall of rain occurred in London. The storm lasted nearly two 
hours, and from the best information I have been able to obtain, 
the depth of rain amounted to about four inches. Much damage 
resulted therefrom, by the water in the principal main lines situate 
in the valleys flowing up the drains and branch sewers, and inun- 
dating the rooms and cellars below its level by the influence of its 
pressure. The inundation of lands and the damaging of property 
in the valleys could not happen if there were parallel catch-water 
lines of sewers on the sides of the declivities to convey the drainage 
into the river by separate outlets. The average fall of rain in 
London is about 22 inches in a year, or about 2i inches in depth 
per thousand hours. Now after observing and calculating the 
depths of different falls of rain in London, it appears to me that if 
the sewers were of sufficient capacity to receive and discharge, as 
fast as it falls, a quantity of water equal to the produce of a full of 
rain of one inch in depth per hour, they would be found large enough, 
and that more particularly if they were built on the intercepting 
or catch-water principle, and so as to communicate with each other, 
and all be filled with running water at the same time. The steps 
to be taken to proportion the capacities of sewers to receive and 
convey away the waters of heavy rains should, I think, be as fol- 
low, although I fully admit our present knowledge of the subject 
to be very elementary : — 

To ascertain the number of superficial yards or acres to be drained 
by each sewer separately ; progressing in a uniform gradation frofl-i 
the entire natural area to be drained by the largest outfall sewer, 
to the small tract of land to be drained by the least sewer on the 
summit. Taking the hourly fall of rain, therefore, upon one acre 
at one inch in depth, we must provide for the discharge of a quan- 
tity of water (•'-?^#i') =: 3630 cubic feet per hour, or one cubic foot 
nearly per acre per second. Then taking into account the loss 



80 



THE CIVIL ENGINEKR AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[^Mabcu, 



from absorptiiin, t]ie detention from friction, and otherwise, that 
(luaiitity mifrht lie reduced to four-fifths of a culiic foot, but as the 
cjirryiiii,^ off the waste water of the entire of London must be pro- 
vided for at the same time, one cubic foot may, I think, be con- 
sidered as tlie datum upon which to calcuhite the capacities of 
sewers sufficient for conveyinf; away that (piantity of water per 
second multijilied by the number of acres to l)e drained. The 
quantity of rain-water draininff from an acre of frround in one 
second of time may be determineil by first ascertaininf; the exact 
area of surface ilrained by some lartre main sewer; and, secondly, 
during the time of the storm, the quantity of water passing through 
the sewer in one second ; then the number of cubic feet of water 
discharu;ed, divided by the number of acres drained, will give the 
number of cubic feet of rain draining from the surface of each acre 
per second. 

The area of surface that a sewer will drain, and the quantity of 
water that it will discharge in a given time, will be greater or less 
in proportion as the channel is inclined from a horizontal to a ver- 
ticiil position. The ordinary or common run of water in each 
sewer, due from house drainage alone, and irrespective of rain, 
should have sufficient velocity to prevent the usual matter dis- 
charged into the sewer from depositing. For this purpose it is 
necessary, as I ha\'e previously observed, that there should be in 
each sewer a constant velocity of current equal to 2S feet per 
second, or if mile per hour. The. inclinations of all rivulets, 
brooks, streams, and rivers gradually and proportionally diminish 
as they progress from their sources to their outfalls. In propor- 
tion as the inclinations diminish so does the quantity of water in- 
crease. If the inclinations were the same throughout, the velocity 
of the united stream at each confluence would increase in nearly 
the same ratio as its quantity, or equal to the sum of the previous 
velocities of the recipient and the feeder, and thus would the velo- 
city ultimately become so very impetuous as to tear up and sweep 
away the materials of its bed, and cause destruction along its banks. 
If the force of the waters of the river Rhone were not absorbed by 
the operation of some constant retardation in its course, the stream 
would have shot into the Bay of Marseilles with the tremendous 
velocity of 210 feet in a second, or let miles every hour ; and even 
if the river Thames met with no system of impediments in its 
course, the stream would have rushed into the sea with a velocity 
of 80 feet per second, or 54A miles in an hour. The result, how- 
ever, of the operations of nature is a compensation for the increased 
body of water by a diminution of the inclination of the bed, and so 
an economising of the force of the gradually accumulating current. 
The inclinations of the sewers of a natural district should be made 
to diminish from their heads to their outfalls in a corresponding 
ratio of progression, so that as the body of water is increased at 
Cflch confluence, one and the same velocity and force of current 
may be kept up throughout the whole of them. 

In some situations I would build side entrances to a tubiJar sys- 
tem of sewers ; but I believe their use, in some degree, might be 
superseded. Means of access to the sewers, so as to be able to get 
at and remove accidental obstructions, would readily suggest them- 
selves. A shaft, having a strong moveable grating on top, could be 
built over the sewer, with ladder-irons built in the angles, to admit 
a man to go down and up, with a recess at the bottom on one side 
to give room. This shaft may be also made to serve as a ventila- 
tor. (See figs. 6 and 6, Plate V.) 

Giilli/ Drains. — I have constructed gully drains with terro-me- 
tallic and glazed stone- ware pipes of 6 inches and 9 inches diameter, 
a.s shown in figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10. I was led to recommend the 
adoption of this mode of construction from the following causes : — 
111 passing through the sewers I found lying opposite the vents of 
a large number of the gully drains heaps of stones, and all kinds of 
streets refuse, which it was utterly impossible for the water to re- 
move. The dams thus formed caused the sewage to accumulate 
behind them, and the noxious effluvia evolved from the decompos- 
ing matter escaped into the streets by the gullies, and occasioned 
much of the annoyance felt by passengers. The best remedy for 
this evil appeared to me to be to prevent the stones and street re- 
fuse from passing into the sewer.s, t ■ build the drains so that they 
woTild not choke up, and to prevent the emission of foul air from 
the sewers into the streets by the gullies. We have accomplished 
the.se things most perfectly, by reducing the width of the spaces to 
I inch between the bars of the guUy grates, by constructing the 
drains of the form shown by the section from the gully to the 
sewer, and by fixing at the vent an air-tight cast-iron valve or flap, 
hung with shackles, as shown in figs. 11 and 12. A grating of 
trellis-work or cullender is placed under the top grating, at the 
bottom of the box, for the purpose of catching small stones and 
rubbish that may pass between the bars of the grate above, and so 



to prevent them from falling into and choking up the sewers. I 
have not, as yet, mtule use of the lower gr.itiug, but probably, I 
should be induced to do so in connection with a tubular system of 
sewers, as it is important to keep large and heavy substances and 
refuse out of the drains and sewers. I may state that as a proof of 
the efficacy of the foregoing mode of constructing the gully-drains 
with the improved grate, the labour and expense of cleaning, not 
only of the gully-drains, but of the sewers as well, is now, com- 
paratively speaking, nothing compared to what they used to be, 
and I confidently entertain an opinion that the labour and expense 
will be still less and less." 

Mr. Phillips has just produced his report on the improvement of 
the drainage of Westminster, and which has been printed. This 
document is of great importance, and we are pleased to see that 
most of our suggestions on this subject have been adopted, parti- 
cularl)' with reference to turning part of the drainage into the 
Regent Street Commissioners' Sewers. Mr. Phillips proposes to 
divert the high level streams to a station at the east end of Dun- 
cannon-street in the Strand, to bring the AVestminster drainage to 
the same station, and to apply the natural power thus to be ob- 
tained to work two water-wheels of the most approved construp- 
tion, with revolving buckets and plunger-pumps attached, to lift the 
drainage from the well or receiving reservoir below, and dischai^e 
the same into channels communicating with the upper stream on a 
level with high water, beyond the tail of the wheels. The sewage 
wUl then be carried under the side-bed of the river into low-water 
stream. 

Below we give a summary of Mr. Phillips' estimates, which make 
a total of £28,874 lis. 







Summary 


of the Estimates. 






Feet Run. 


Class 


Internal 


Sectional i Price 


Totals. 1 




No. 


Diameter. 


Area. per Foot. 










In. In. 


leet 


8. d. 


£ 


8. d. 


8,118 


1 


50 X 30 


8-19 


14 


5,682 


12 


4524 


2 


40 X 24 


5-23 


10 


2.262 





2,086 


3 


30 X 18 


3-64 


6 


625 


16 


9,599 


4 


20 X 12 


1-31 


4 6 


2,159 


15 6 


18,709 


5 


174 X lOi 


1- 


4 


3,741 


16 


53,284 


6 


15 X 6 


0-73 


3 3 


8,658 


13 


7,699 


7 


12 X 74 


0-56 


2 6 


962 


17 6 


9,742 


8 


9x6 


029 


2 


974 


4 


113,761 


( = 


4s. hd. per foot 


run, nearly.) 


£25,067 


14 



Estimate for building a Gully Drain, average length 20 feet. 

& s. d. 

Six cubic yards Digging, itc, at Is. 6d. .. .. 9 

Twenty feet run of 4 in. Pipe, at 84d 14 2 

Gully Grate (about \\ cwU) including bedding and 

fixing .. .. 16 

Total .. .. £1 19 2 
About 400 Gully Drains will be required, which at, say 11. each, amounti 

to £800 

Estimate for building a Sewer along Pall-Mall-East, Trafalgar-square, Dun- 
cannon-street, Strand, and Villiers-street, for diverting the Western and 
Eastern branches of the Hartshorn-lane Main sewer, — being a length of 
2,230 feet, at 18s. per foot £2,007 

Estimate for Two Water Wheels, with complele Lifting Machinery 
attached, and including all necessary work. 

£ I. d. 

Brickwork— say 40 rods at 10/. 400 

Two Water Wheels, at 200i 400 

Lifting Machinery — say 200 

Total .. £1,000 



REFERENCE TO ENGRAVINGS, PLATE V. 

Fig. 5.— Section of Shaft on A A. 

Fig. 6.— Plan nt Shaft. 

Fig. 7.— Section of Gully Drain from Grating to Sewer. 

Fig. 8.— Plan of Gully and Grallng. 

Fig. 9.— Transverse Section of Gully and Grating on A B. 

Fig. 10.— Longitudinal Section of Gully and Grating on C D. 

Fig. 11.— Section of Drain and Flap at Vent. 

Fig. 12. — Front View of Flap. 

Fig. 13.— Mode of Striking ttw Curves. 



f LAli. V 




I 



1848. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



81 



ON THE MOTION OF WATER.— By Guido Grandi. 

Tran.shited bij E. Cresy, Esq., in his Evidence before the Metrnpo- 
Utan Sanitary Commi.inioiwrs. 

Our author has taken considerable pains to construct a paraliolic 
table, siven in his work (Book 2, cap. 5) ; by a reference to which 
much labour will be saved by those who desire to make similar in- 
vestigations ; he thus describes it :• — 

" This table is divided into three columns. The first containing: 
a natural series of luimbers from 1 to 1800, representing: equal 
parts, as inches or other measures. These numbers are the heights 
from which tlie water falls. The second column contains the roots 
of the opposite numbers in the first, and expresses tlie velocity of 
the water, corresponding to the height in the first column, in inte- 
gers and decimals : when the root is somewhat greater than the 
truth, the sign -|- is prefixed, and when less -. The third column 
contains the product of the first and second, and must be read off 
as exceeding or falling short of tlie truth, accoi'ding as tlifi sign -|- 
or — is jirefixed to its second factor. 

It is clear that if the numbers of the first column express the 
height of a jiarabola, the numbers in the second will be its ordi- 
nates wlien its latux rectum, or parameter, is 1 ; or at least, they 
will be proportional to the ordinates in subduplicate ratio of unity 
to the hittis rectum of a given parabola, and the numbers in the 
third column will be the rectangles circumscribing the parabola 
wMch has unity for its latus rectum, and will be moreover propor- 
tional to the area of the parabola, H'hich is always |rds of the cir- 
cumscribing rectangle. 

If the parabola lias 2j for its latus rectum in terms of the first 
column, all its ordinates are to the ordinates of the parabola of 
the same height, having 1 for its latus rectum, in subduplicate 
ratio of 2^ to 1, that is, as li to 1, or as the circumscribed rect- 
ann:le to the parabola, it is clear that the jiarabola whose latus 
rectum is 2^- wiU be equal to the rectangle which circumscribes the 
parabola wliose latus rectum is unity ; but such a rectangle is equal 
to the product of the base by the height, which is the number 
opposite in the third column, therefore the numbers in the third 
column express the area of a parabola whose latus rectum is 2j, and 
is proportional thereto when the latus rectum is any other quantity. 

Moreover, since the numbers in the first column express the 
height of water standing in a vessel, or the distance of each par- 
ticle of running water above its base, and the numbers in the 
second column representing the velocity caused by such a height, 
the numbers in the third column express the quantity of water 
which will issue through such a width in a given time, through a 
hole or section whose height would be equal to the whole distance 
from the surface of the water or origin of the river, and the base 
of such a section as the number in the first column. 

The difference of numbers of the third column will be the 
quantity of water which escapes in an equal time through a hole 
or section of equal breadth, and of a height equal to the difference 
of the corresponding numbers of the first column. 

By adding two or more numbers together of the third column 
we shall have the sum of the quantity of water carried in a given 
time through several canals of the same width, whose sections corre- 
spond to the numbers of the first column ; and in the aggregate 
of such numbers, or the nearest thereto, in the third column will 
correspond to that number in the first, which indicates a height 
capable of comprising the channels united, as will be better under- 
stood by the following examples : — 

1st. Given two streams, the breadth of the first of which is L =r 
760 feet. The velocity of the surface B E corresponding to the 
fall A B of 1 foot (which, according to Guglielmini's table is equiva- 



M 




lent to 216 feet 5 inches per minute, that is, 3J feet in a second, 
or 2J miles per hour), the height of the surface B C = 30 feet, 
whence A C 31 feet ; then the whole parabola A E D C, according 



to the third column of our table opposite 31 feet, will be found 
7175'88, from which subtracting the parabola A E B, wliich is 
found in our third column to be 4.1 '52, tlie parabolic trapezium 
B E D C will be 7134'36, and this will be the scale of the velocity 
of the section B C, wliich multiplied by the breadth L gives a 
quantity of water = 512211360. 

The second stream ha\ing a width M = 139 feet, its superficial 
velocity will be G K, depending on the height F G, 8 inches 
(which gives, by Guglielmini's table, a velocity of 176 feet in a 
minute, rather less than 3 feet in a second, and 2 miles 56 perches 
in an hour). The height of its surface G H is 11 feet, and con- 
sequently F H 1 1 feet 8 inches, corresponding in our third column 
to the value of 1656'20 for the parabola F K I H, from wliich sub- 
tracting the parabola F K G, which our table gives opposite 
8 inches as 22-64, there remains the trapezium GK I H 1633"56, 
which is the scale of the velocity of the second stream, which, 
multiplied by the width M, gives the quantity of water passing in 
a given time tlirough this river ^ 227064'84 ; whence the two 
quanties carried by both tlie rivers will be 5649178'44. Supposing 
they flow together, without increase of velocity, B E ^ O R ; and 
let the height O P, at whicii the united water runs, be the unknown 
quantity, then since O N =; B A through R, and with the axis 
N P, describe the parabola N R Q P, the truncated parabola 
O R Q P will be the scale of the velocity of the united rivers, 
which multiplied by L ^= the sum of the two quantities =z 
5649178-44, which divided by L gives a quotient 7433-13 = the pa- 
rabolic trapezium O R Q P, and adding the parabola N R O = 
41-52, we shall have the parabola N R Q P = 7474-65, the nearest 
number to which in the table is 7464-28, corresponding to a height 
of 31 feet 10 inches. This number sought being rather more than 
the tabular value, it will be found bv proportional parts that ^ 
must be added. Therefore N P = 31 feet lOi inches and O P = 
30 feet 10^ inches ; therefore the union of the streams raises the 
level B C 10^ inches. 

But if, at the conflux of the rivers, the velocity B E augments, 
becoming O R, so that the height N O depending on it exceeds 
A B by 1 inch, the parabola N O R, corresponding to a height of 
13 inches, will equal 46-93, which, added to the trapezium R OPQ, 
found previously to be 743313, we shall have the total parabola 
N R Q P = 7480-06, the nearest number to which, 7464-28, corre- 
sponding to 31 feet 10 inches ; but since this is rather too little, we 
must add ^ for the proportional part of the difference, wlience N P 
= 31 feet 10^ inches ; from which N O = 1 foot 1 inch being sub- 
tracted, there remains O P = 30 feet 9i inches, making the total 
increase in this case 9^ inches. 

But if we suppose "with Guglielmini, and which is not impro- 
bable according to actual observation, that the scale of a velocity in 
a given section is an entire parabola and not a truncated one, the 
velocity, as in the case of vessels depending only on pressure, 
whence the surface alone acquires velocity when it is communicated 
by the lower water which transports it, tlie calculation will then be 
more quickly effected. Wherefore A C = 30 feet, the height of 
the first river, and F H = 11 feet, height of the second. The 
parabola A E D C = 6829-20, in our table, which, multiplied by 
the width L 760 feet, gives for the quantity of water 5190192-00, 
and the parabola F I H = 1516-68, which multiplied by the width 
M = 139 feet — 210818-52, whence the sum = 5401010-52, which, 
divided by the width L, gives, when the velocity of the surface is 
not increased, the parabola N Q P = 7106-59, corresponding to a 
height of 30 feet 10 inches, corresponding in the table to the number 
7118-80, which is rather more than the preceding; wherefore 
the rise will be 10 inches. 

Then if the velocity of the two rivers increases at their con- 
fluence, the height will be reduced in the reciprocal ratio of that 
velocity ; so that if the velocity be increased t^, the height will 
be reduced to 30^ feet, that is, the increase will only be about 
6 inches ; if the velocity increases Wr, the height will be 29 feet 
8 inches ; so that the height, in place of increasing, will actually 
be reduced about 4 inches by the union of the two streams ; so 
likewise the height 30 feet, will remain precisely the same when 
the velocity is increased by ^, since 37 : 36 ; ; 30 feet 10 inches ; 
30 feet. 

Example 2. — The influent C B D R in a given point of its bed 
has the height O H, having a free influx into the recipient R M, 
when it is low, and its superficial velocity in H is what would 
correspond to a height A H of 4 feet. Then, raising the level N S 
of the recipient, regurgitation follows through the level of the 
influent. It is required to find the increase in the height O H = 7 
feet } Suppose it to increase as far as Q, draw the parabola A K R, 
with its ordinates H Y, Q K ; let O S, cut off by the prolongation 
of the level of the recipient, = 3 feet ; the whole height A O will 

12 



82 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



LMabch, 



be 11 feot, and by tlie table t!ie parabola A O R = 1516 68 ; the 
other, A II V, 4 feet bij.^li, will be 332'6t; whence the trapezium 
H Y R () will be the scale of the velocity, ami tlie ((uaiitity of 
water passim; in a yiven time t'irou:;h the section II () ^ IlKt'Ot. 
if the parabola S I' () be .'5 feet liigh, its value in the table = 
216'0U; then the parabolic trapezium t^ K Y H, beina: eciualtothe 
aforesaid parabola S 1* t), will be SIO'OO, which substituted from the 
total value of A H Y, there remains the parabola A Q K = 116-61.. 




I his numl)er not beina: precisely to be found in our table, find the 
ne.\t highest, =: U7-60, wliich corresponds to a height of 2 feet; 
whence we arrive at tiie conclusion tliat the regurgitation at the 
point O has raised the water 2 feet more than the first, supposed 
to be 4 feet." 

To facilitate the practical application of the principles con- 
tained in Grandi's proposition, the following rules will be found 
convenient : — 

The height and width of the section of both the influent and 
the recipient being given in each case and their velocity being equal. 

1. When the velocity of the united streams is the same with 
that of each separately, to find the increased height of the united 
section. 

Find in the table the parabolic value in the third column corre- 
sponding to the given height of the recipient in the first. Multiply 
this value by the given width. Perform the same operation for 
the influent, we shall then have obtained the quantity of water 
brought down by each. Add these two quantities together. Divide 
their sum by the width' of their united section, which may be 
either that of the influent, or of the recipient, ot greater or less 
than either. Find the quotient obtained by such division in the 
tlurd column of tlie table, opposite to it in the first will be found 
the height of the united sections. 

2. When the velocity of tlie united streams is increased, to find 
the height of their united section. 

Divide the height found by the preceding rule by the number of 
times by which the velocity is increased, the quotient is the height 
of the united sections. 

3. When tiie velocity of the united streams is diminished, to 
find the height of their united section. 

Multiply the height found by our first rule by the number of 
times by which the velocity is diminished, the product gives the 
required height. 

4. When the height of the united streams remains the same, to 
find their increased velocity. 

Divide the height as found by the first rule by the original 
height, the quotient will give the increased velocity. 

5. When the height of the united streams is increased, to find 
their velocity. 

Divide the height found by the first rule by the increased height, 
the quotient gives the diminished velocity. 

6. AVhen the height of the united streams is diminished, to find 
their increased velocity. 

Divide the height found by the first rule by the diminished 
height, the ipiotient will be the increased velocity. 

To exemi)lify these rules a small table is subjoined, constructed 
from Grandi's data, that is, supposing a stream 760 feet wide and 30 
feet high to receive successively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
similar influents. The first column contains the number of influ- 
ents ; the second, the height caused by the addition of these suc- 
cessive streams as calculated by our first rule, that is, supposing 
the velocity to remain the same ; the third column shows the in- 
creased height found by Gennete, the original height, 20 feet, being 
here increased by the addition of ,j, ,1, fj, &c. The fifth column 
shows the increased velocity requisite to produce the height shown 
in the third ; thus supposing a stream 760 feet wide and 30 feet 
high to receive two other similar streams, the increased height, 



according to Gennete, will be 30 feet 7'6 inches, and to produce 
such a height the required velocity will be r97233. Either of 
these numbers is deducible from the other by one of the preceding 
rules; thus, sujiposing the height 30 feet 7 '6 inches to be given, 
and the velocity to be required, by Rule 5, dividing 62 feet i'G 
inches by 30 feet 7-6 inches we obtain a quotient of 1-97233. 
Suiiposing, on the other hand, the velocity 1-97233 to be given, we 
olitain the height by Rule 2, since 62 feet 4-6 inches -;- 1-87233 
= 30 feet 7-6 inches. The fourth column shows the increased 
velocity required to maintain a constant height of 30 feet, and is 
found bv Rule 4. 



No of 


Increased Height 


Height as given 


Velocity to 


1 
Velocity to pro- 


Sireains. 


tor a Constant 


by 


mainiain a Con. 


duce Genneie'a 




Velocity. 


Genuet^. 


staot Height. 


Height. 




Ft. In. ' 


Ft. In. ■ 






1 


30 


30 




• • 


2 


47 7 6 


30 3 9 


1-58475 


1-34203 


3 


02 4 6 


30 7 6 


2-07'JlG 


1-97233 


4 


75 8 


31 3 


2-52222 


2-42133 


5 


87 8 


31 10 6 


2-92222 


2-75032 


e 


99 1 


32 6 


3-:tU277 


3-04897 


7 


109 10 


33 1 6 


3-60111 


3-31572 


8 


120 


33 9 


4-00000 


3'55d55 


9 


12'J 9 


34 4 6 


4-32500 


3 77454 


10 


139 2 


35 


4-63888 


397618 


11 


1J8 5 


35 7 6 


4-94722 


4-66081 


12 


157 3 


36 3 


5-23333 


4-33793 



It is found that the several increments of either height or velo- 
city are as the ordinates of a parabola whose axis is divided into 
the same number of parts as there are required velocities. Hence 
an elegant method of finding the intermediate heights or velocities 
when the two extremes are given. Suppose, for example, w-e 
require to find the several heights indicated in our first column. 
Find tlie height required for twelve streams by our Rule 1, Draw 
A B, and from a scale of equal parts set oS' 157 feet 3 inches from 




A to C, at A erect a perpendicular A D to A B, and set off twelve 
equal parts thereon, and draw through the points I, 2, 3, &c., 
lines parallel to A B, on the parallel I E, set otf the first height 
30 feet from the same scale as A C. Then by Rule 1 find the 
height of any one of the intermediate streams, as 6, and set it oflF 
from 6 to F, then through the points E, F, C, describe a parabola, 
the portion cut ofi' on each ordinate by the curve will be the 
several numbers given in the table as measured by the scale from 
which I E, 6 F, and A C were taken ; the abscissas 1, 2, 3, &c., 
may be set ofi" by any scale, providing they are equidistant, and 
according as they are wider or narrower, will the parabola in- 
crease or diminish its curvature. It is evident that in the case of 
100 additional streams the labour of calculation will be materially 
shortened, as no more than three values need ever be found arith- 
metically. 

In like manner either of the other values shown in our table 
may be represented parabolicallv. Column 5, for example, by 
setting otf 1-34203 on I E, 4-33793 on A B, 3-04897 on 6 F, and 
describing a parabola through those points. 



1848.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



83 



BLACKWALL RAILWAY MACHINERY. 



Description of the Machinery erected by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons, 
and Field, at the Minories Station, for um-king the London and B/ack- 
viall Railway. By Andkew John Roblrtson.— (Read at tlie 
Institution of Civil Engineers). 

The London and Blackvvall Railway is about 3f miles in length, 
and is worked by stationary engines of the estimated force of 
448 H. P. and 280 H. P.,* at the London and Blackwall termini re- 
spectively : the carriages being attached by grips to a rope, which 
is wound' oif and on to large drums situated at each extremity of 
the line. The greater power is required at the London station, in 
consequence of tliere being a total rise in the railway, in this direc- 
tion, of between 60 and TO feet (average 68 feet) ; the steepest in- 
dination being 1 in 100. There are seven intermediate stations on 
this line; the Poplar, West India Docks, Limehouse, Stepney, 
and Shadwell stations, communicate witli the Fenchurch-street 
terminus ; whilst those of the Minories, Cannon-street, Shadwell, 
and Stepney, communicate with the Blackwall terminus. This 
arrangement is effected by appropriating a separate carriage from 
the termini for each intermediate station, communicating with the 
same; these are detached whilst the trains are moving, and by 
means of breaks they are stopped at their respective destinations ; 
as soon, however, as the terminal train arrives at either end of the 
line, and the rope ceases its motion, these intermediate carriages 
are attached to the rope, whilst it is in a state of rest ; so that 
wlien the engines are again started, the carriages are also simul- 
taneously set in motion, and arrive successively at the termini, in 
the order and at intervals corresponding with the position of the 
places from whicli they started ; as they arrive tliey are released 
from the rope, though in motion, by the sudden withdrawal of the 
grip iron, and then their momentum carries them forward to their 
proper places in the station. It will be percei\ed, that the inter- 
mediate traffic is by this means provided for, without causing any 
detention to the through trade. 

The peculiar mode of working the line, nnd the circumstance of 
so many carriages being attached to the rope at different places, 
rendered it absolutely necessary to provide some quick and certain 
system of signals between the termini and the intermediate 
stations. These objects being deemed attainable by means of the 
electric telegraph, that system was adopted, althougli it w\is of 
greater extent than any which had been previously tried, and it 
was executed by Mr. Cooke, one of the patentees. The telegraphic 
wires are inclosed, for security, within \\ elded iron pipes, witli 
screwed joints like gas pipes ; there is a duplicate set of such wires 
and pipes, in case of one set being accidentally fractured. One 
pipe runs along each side of the railway throughout its length. 

The machinery at the London end, for working the railway, is 
situated at the Minories station. The carriages in coming towards 
Lpndon are disconnected from the rope, a little before they arrive 
at the Minories, and they perform the rest of the journey to the 
terminus in Fenchurch-street by their momentum. The upward 
inclination of the rails at this place is 1 in 150. 

When the down-train leaves the terminus in Fenchurch-street, 
it descends the incline to the Minories by its gravity, where it is 
stopped by the breaks, to allow of the passengers being received at 
that station, and to permit the attachment of the rope ; there tlie 
train remains for a shorttime, until signals havebeen received by the 
edectric telegraph, from each of the intermediate stations, that the 
carriages are ready for starting, and are properly attached to the 
rope, in the manner already described. It being thus known at 
the Minories that all is ready, the signal for starting is sent from 
thence to BlackwaU ; the engines there are then put in motion 
and begin to draw the rope with all the carriages towards Black- 
w^l. 

At the same time that the down-train leaves the Minories, the 
up-train leaves Blackwall, the arrangements being similar to 
those above described. The train runs by gravity from the Black- 
wall station to beyond the engine-house, where it is stopped by the 
breaks, in order to attach it to the rope, and as soon as signals 
have been received at Blackwall, from each of the intei-mediate 
stations, that all is ready, the signal for starting is sent from 
Blackwall to the Minories, and the engines there are put in motion, 
and begin to draw the rope and all the carriages towards London. 
The machinery at the Blackwall end is situated a little way along 
the line from the terminal station ; the distance from thence to 
the place where the carriages going to Blackwall are disconnected 
*i — — ^ . ■ 

• 1 he uuminat power of Ihese engines is, L2-1 lioise- power lur eath j air at the 
Minories; and 140 torse-power for each pair at Bliicltwail. There are duplicate 
engines at each station, making 448 horse-power at the Jlinories, and 2SU horse power at 
.BUiUiWiiU. 



from the rope, being somewhat farther from the station than the 
engine house, and the carriages run that distance by momentum, 
in the same manner as at the London end ; the rise towards the 
Blackwall station being there also 1 in 150. During the winter 
the railway is worked from half-past eight o'clock in the morning 
until nine at night ; and in the summer, from eight o'clock in the 
morning until ten at night. A train leaves each end every quarter 
of an hour (giving in winter 51 trains, and during the summer 
57 trains per day). The whole time occupied in passing between 
the termini is thirteen minutes ; but tlie engines are at work only 
from eight to nine minutes. The engine-house at the Minories is 
situated beneath the railway. It is 48 feet long by 72 feet wide, 
and the extreme length, into the recess in front of the drums is 
69 feet. Tlie rails are carried over the machinery on cast-Iron 
girders, which are supported at two intermediate points by cast- 
iron pillars. The flooring over the engine-house is carried in like 
manner upon girders. 

Beneath each line of railway there is a large drum for the rope, 
and on the axes of each drum is a mortice spur-wheel, which 
is driven by another iron spur-wheel of larger diameter, on a pro- 
longation of the axis of the cranks of the steam engines ; the pro- 
longation forming a line of shafting which extends all across the 
engine-room, with a pair of engines at each of its extremities. 
Only one pair of engines is worked at a time, the other pair being 
disconnected at the cranks. Under ordinary circumstances, one 
pair is worked for about six weeks, and then the other pair for a 
similar period ; the object being to secure the traffic from interrup- 
tion, by having a duplicate pair of engines always ready to be con- 
nected at aU emergencies and in case of any accident happening to 
the other pair, as well as to give time for the ordinary cleaning 
and repairing of that pair of engines which is not at the time in 
use. When one pair of engines is connected to the axis of the 
two larger spur-wheels, the other part must be disconnected from 
it. This is done by removing the pin of the crank on tlie extre- 
mity of the said axis, and also removing tlie drag-link, by which 
that pin is connected with the pin of the engine-crank, on which 
latter pin the connecting-rod is jointed. The rope on one line 
must be wound up round its drum, whilst that on the other line 
is allowed to unwind from off its drum, so that the two drums will 
revolve in contrary directions. The trains travel alternately 
backwards and forwards on the same line of rails, instead of one 
line of rails being always tra\elled over in one direction and the 
other line in the contrary direction, as is the ease on other 
railways. For instance, if the first train in the morning goes 
down from London to BlackwaU along the north line, the second 
train down in the same direction will go along the south line, and 
the third train down along the north line, and so on. One end of 
each rope is wound around one of the drums at the Minories, and 
the other end of the same rope around a corresponding drum at 
Blackwall ; and whenever one of those drums is turned round by 
its engines for winding up that end of the rope, the drum at the 
other end of the same rope must be disconnected, and left free to 
turn round as the rojie is pulled off it. This requires some ready 
means of disengaging either of the drums from the engines, 
which is done by withdrawing the pair of spur-wlieels from each 
other until their teetli become disengaged. The plummer-blocks, 
in wliich the two ends of tlie axes of each of tlie drums revolve, 
are mounted on rollers, and are capable of being moved horizontally 
by screws, until the spur-wheels are out of gear. The t^^•o screws 
for the plummer-blocks of the same drum, are moved simulta- 
neously by gearing, worked by a handle on the platform in the 
recess "in front of the drums; so that a man by turning that 
handle, either connects or disconnects the geai-ing, as may be re- 
quired. ^ 

The main axis upon which the two large spur-wheels are 
mounted, may be considered as a single axis, but is, in fact, two 
lengths of shaft, connected together by cranks and drag-links at 
the mid-length of the prolonged axes, which two lengths can be 
disconnected at pleasure, by "remo\ing the drag-links and crank- 
pins. Hence there are two sets of machinery exactly similar, and 
capable of being connected and disconnected in such manner, as to 
admit of either of the two drums being worked by either of the 
two pairs of engines, wliilst the other drum is wholly disconnected; 
each line can thus be worked by either pair- of engines, indepen- 
dently of the other line or pair of engines. The engines always 
revolve in the same direction, causing the drums to wind up the 
ropes around them ; but when the drums turn round in a contrary 
direction for unwinding the ropes, they are disconnected from 
tlie engines. A wheel is attached to each drum for the purpose 
of being acted upon by a break, not only for stopping tlie motion 
of the drum, after the arrival and stoppage of the down-train at 

a2» 



84 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Maucu, 



the Blackwall end of tlie line, but also for maintaining a suitable 
dcffiee of tension on tlio ])art of tlic rope behind the train, wliilst 
it is in motion. The object of keepin^^ the tension on tlie rope is 
to |)rc\ent it from beinp unwound from off the drum faster than the 
train proceeds, and to secure the ro]ie against tlie risk of breakaj,'e, to 
which it would be liable, if it were allowed to become slack and 
then to he suddenly ti^rbtcned, by the acceleration which takes 
place in the motion of the train, after it has commenced the 
descent of a steeper gradient than that on which it was previously 
travelling. 

The engines beinp: only worked for eight or nine minutes out 
of every ijuarter of an hour, the vacuum in the condenser might 
during the remaining si.\ or seven minutes become ini])erfect from 
leakage, or from air contained in the injection water ; in which 
case the restarting of the engines would be difficult, except by pre- 
viously blowing steam through the condenser, to displace the air, — 
for the greatest power is re([uired at starting, when the machinery, 
be drums, the rope, and the train, have all to be set in motion 
from a state of rest, and tlieie must be a good vacuum in the con- 
denser to enable tlie engines to start promptly. For this object an 
engine of 12 horse-power is provided, and constantly works two 
auxiliary air-iiumjis, wliich maintain the vacuum in the condensers 
of the large engines, independently of the action of their own 
air-pumps. 

In the arches upon which the railway is carried to pass over the 
engine-house, eiglit mttfr-tnnks are placed, all connected together 
by pipes. The overilow of waste water from the hot cisterns of 
the engines, is conducted from the usual overflow-pipe into the 
most distant of the eight tanks. From that tank the water passes 
into the next, and tlien to the next, and so on to the last of the 
eight tanks, in which it is mixed \vith fresh cold water, and the 
mingled water is then conveyed into the engine-room, for supply- 
ing the injection cocks of the engines. The surface of the water 
in the eight tanks is exposed to the atmosphere, and the hot water 
thus becomes cooled in passing through them. At first there were 
only three tanks, in which, as they exposed a large surface to the 
air, it was expected the cooling of the water would proceed with 
sufficient rapidity to render it fit for injection upon arriving at the 
third tank, and being there mixed with fresh cold water ; but, as 
it was found tliat there was not a sufficient cooling effect, five more 
tanks were added, and the eight tanks novv in use are scarcely suf- 
ficient for cooling the water to the extent required. The supply of 
cold water, for mixing with the water in the tanks, is pumped by 
the 12 horse-power engine from a well in the adjoining part of the 
building, and, in addition to this supply, a small pipe is laid on 
from the main of the New River Company. The temperature of 
the injection water in summer is about 80°, and often higher, and 
the vacuum then obtained is about 21 inches of mercury ; in winter 
there is no difficulty as to the temperature of the vvater, and the 
mercury stands at from 27 inches to 28 inches. Each of the tanks 
is 21.^ feet square and G feet deep, so that the capacity is 3,600 
cubic feet, and the surface of water exposed is 600 square feet in 
each tank. 

The steam-pipe from the boilers passes through the wall, and is 
carried inside the engine-room to the right and left to each pair of 
engines, with a valve-box, from which two branches proceed to 
supply each engine. The valve in the box is opened and shut by a 
screw, worked from below by a handle, by which the engineman 
regulates the speed of the engines. 

The governor is placed beyond the outer frame of the pair of 
engines, and the number of its revolutions is to the number of 
strokes made by the engines as 3 to 2. It is worked from the 
crank of the engines by a pair of bevil wheels on a small axis 
passing through the outer frame. The governor acts upon a 
throttle-valve placed in the steam-pipe, immediately beyond the 
shut-off valve. The resistance the engines have to overcome 
varies so much, that the governor was found not to be capable by 
itself of regulating the speed, and therefore it was assisted by the 
man dosing the shut-off valve by its screw handle; but latterly 
the governor has lieen disconnected, and is not now used. 

T" avoid snatching the rope, by which it might be broken, great 
care is taken to start the engines as gradually as possible, in order 
that all the slack of the rope may he gathered up around the drum, 
and then the train he started slowly, and gradually accelerated to 
the full speed. The valve is therefore only partially opened at 
first, and is afterwards opened fully by degrees ; as the engines 
acquire speed, the valve is closed again gi-adually, to restrain the 
speed, as the carriages arri\e one after another, and the resistance 
diminishes. 

The Bviti-rs. — The boiler-house is beneath the railway, the five 
boilers being placed under the arches on which the continuation of 



the railway is carried beyond the engines. Two of them are 
square marine-boilers, with the ordinary internal furnaces and 
rectangular dues ; the other three boilers are constructed on the 
Cornisli system, being (urciiUr, with two internal tubes through 
their entire length, and the furn»<-es in the front ends. The two 
marine-boilers, which are equal in power to the three Cornish 
boilers, are ca]>able of sup])lying steam for one jiair of engines. 
The two marine-boilers, or the three Cornish boilers, are worked 
together as a set, the two sets being used alternately in the same 
manner as the engines, but for about three months at a time. 
The chimney is situated between the two sets of boilers. The 
flue from each separate boiler, enters into a main flue, which ex- 
tends along the back of each set to the base of the chimney ; 
each is provided with a separate damper, and there is another 
damper at the end of each main flue, where it joins to the base of 
the chimney. 

On tlie top of the steam-chest of each boiler is a shut-off valve 
box, joined by a branch to the main steam-pipe, which leads to the 
engines. By these valves, any boiler may be shut ofl' from the rest, 
in case it is required to be cleaned whilst the others are at work. 
At the mid-length of the steam-)ii])e are two safety-valve boxes, 
each having an aperture of 12 inches diameter ; they com- 
municate with each other, and from one of them a discharge-jiipe 
proceeds into the chimney ; one of these safety-valves is out of 
the control of the men, but the other may be lifted by means of a 
lever worked from below, in order to discharge the steam at the 
end of the day's work. 

The feeding of the boilers is efl^ected from a tank situated above 
the arches, at the side of the chimney, at such a height as to give 
the column of water entering the boiler a greater pressure tiian 
that of the steam. This feeding-tank is 10 feet in diameter, bv 6 
feet high, and is capable of holding 471 cubic feet of water. 'I'he 
water is raised into this tank by the pumps of the engines, and 
feed-pipes proceed from the tank to the feed-cocks in the pipes, 
at the front of the several boilers. During the time the engines 
are at work, no water is admitted to the boilers, but as soon as 
they are stopped, the feed-cocks are opened, and the water is al- 
lowed to flow in until the proper level is restored. At the same 
time a fresh supply of coals is thrown on the fires, to raise the 
steam for starting. This is so managed as to waste very little 
steam by blowing away at the safety-valve. 

The diimnri/ is 6 feet square inside, at the base, and 4 ft. 3 in. 
diameter at the top, and 161 feet high from the foundation. The 
draught is exceedingly good. The sjtaces opposite to the row of 
furnaces of the five boilers are stores for coal. Beneath the centre 
of the passage, in front of the row of furnaces, is the drain for 
carrying off the waste water. 

The steam-enguiet) o( 112 horse-power (nominal power) are on 
the marine construction, with side levers, the same as Messrs. 
Maudslay, Suns, and Field made for steam-vessels a few years ago. 
That construction was adopted, as it was requisite that the centre 
of the shaft should be elevated. Tlie diameter of the cylinders 
is 56 inches ; the length of stroke is 5 feet ; and the average 
number of strokes 22 per minute. The motion of the piston is 
therefore 220 feet per minute. The plunger feed-pump is 6A 
inches diameter, and 2 ft. C in. stroke ; only one pump is workea 
at a time. The cranks are all of cast-iron, with axes of wrought- 
iron, 12 inches diameter in the bearings. 

The /uriie xpur-wheet on the main axis is 1 7 feet in diameter at 
the pitch line, with 120 teeth ; the pitch of the teeth is 5j inches, 
and their breadth is 23 inches. The centre boss of this wheel 
consists of two circular pieces bolted together externally, including 
between them, and closing over the roots of the arms, which are 
eight in number, cast separately, and bolted to one another, and 
to the boss. The rim is in eight segments, each having 15 teeth, 
and the junctions of the segments are made at the ends of the 
arms. The weight of the wheel is 16,j tons ; that of the rim by 
itself being 8 tons 13 cwt. The drum is 23 feet in diameter out- 
side, and 10;L feet in diameter at the bottom of jtbe V-shaped 
groove, wherein the rope is coiled. The w idth of this part, at the 
bottom, is 1 ft. 6 in., and at the top 3ft. 2 in.; when all the 
rope is wound on it, the diameter of the outside coil of the rope 
is 20 feet. 

The limak-wheel at the side of the drum is 14 feet in diameter, 
and 1 foot broad. 

The nmrticc sptir-whcc/, on the axis of the drum, and at the same 
side as the break, is 11 feet in diameter at the pitcli line : it has 
78 cogs, which are also 23 inches bi'oad. 

Although the drum, the break-wheel, and the mortice-wheel, 
have hitherto been mentioned as separate, they are in fact all 
framed together so as to form one coaihination. The tot;J weight 



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THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



SS 



is 30 tons. The axis of the dnim is of wroupht-iron, 12 inches 
diiimeter in the bearings. The cogs of tlie mortice-wheel are 
marie of hornbeam. 

The break is formed of two straps of wrought-iron, side by side, 
each 5 inches wide, to which are rivetted plates of copper in 
lengths of 3 feet each, 12 inches wide and | inch tliick ; tlie copper 
applies to the lower half of the circumference of tlie break-wlieel. 
One of the extremities of the break is suspended by rods from 
the girder above, and the otlier end is connected to the hoop 
around an eccentric-wheel, tlie axis of which is mounted in a frame 
fixed to the girder. On the axis of this eccentric-wheel is a spur- 
wheel, into which a pinion works, and on the axis of the pinion 
is a ratchet-wheel, to be worked by a lever-handle and click, by a 
man standing on the platform over the engine-room, the handle 
end of the lever passing up through tlie platform. The length of 
this lever-handle is 6 feet; the diameter of the pinion is 11^ 
inches, and that of the wheel is 16 inches ; the eccentricity of the 
eccentric-wheel is 2| inches. Hence the force of the man's arm 
applied at the upper end of the lever-handle is multiplied about 

36 times ( = 3G-4,| when the leverage is the least — 

\2'75 X 11-5 '/ ^ 

namely, when the eccentric-wheel has made a quarter of a revo- 
lution ; but for obtaining a greater power on the break, a piston 
is fitted into an air-cylinder 10 inches in diameter, which is fixed 
under the girder ; one end of the cylinder is open to the at- 
mosphere, and the other is closed, but communicates by a pipe 
with the condenser of the steam-engine below. In this pipe is a 
cock, wliich can be opened by the lu'eaksman when necessary ; a 
chain connected to the rod of the piston of the air-cylinder, is 
carried round the spur-wheel and fastened to it. If the breaks- 
man opens the cock to establish a communication with the con- 
denser, the air is exhausted from the air-cylinder, and the pressure 
of the atmosphere on the area of the piston acts by the chain on 
the circumference of the wheel. Supposing the vacuum to be 27 
inches of mercury, this pressure is l,060lb., equivalent to about 
lOOlb. applied to the upper end of the lever-handle. 

Each of the moving plumnier-blocks, in which the drum-shaft 
revolves, is mounted on six rollers ; three on each side. Beneath 
the plummer-blocks and attached to it, in the space between the 
rollers, is a long nut in which a screw 3 inches in diameter works ; 
the pitcli of this screw is such as to move the nut and the 
plummer-block 3 inches by seven revolutions. The axis of the 
screw is prolonged by a sliaft to reach the platform, and this pro- 
longation has on its end a bevil-wheel 2 feet in diameter, into 
which works a bevil-pinion 6 inches in diameter ; the cross axis of 
this pinion extends across the breadth of the drum, parallel to its 
axis, and carries another such bevil-pinion of 6 inches diameter, 
which acts in another bevil-wheel of 2 feet diameter, on the pro- 
longation of the axis of another screw beneath the plummer- 
block, for the other end of the axis of the drum. By this con- 
nection both screws are turned round simultaneously and act on 
both plummer-blocks alike. On the cross axes of the two bevil 
pinions is a cog-wheel 2 feet in diameter, into which works a 
pinion 16 inches diameter, on the axis of which is a winch-handle, 
so that to produce one revolution of the screw, the winch-handle 
must make six revolutions. Tlie thread of the screw making seven 
turns in 3 inches, and the winch being 10 inches long, the pressure 
applied to it is multiplied 868 times. The winch is worked by one 
man, and the time occupied in disconnecting one drum and con- 
necting the other, is little more than a minute. 

The rollers on which each plummer-block moves, are made of 
wrought-iron, case hardened, 3^ inches in diameter, and 2g inches 
broad. At first, the rollers worked against the cast-iron surfaces 
of the frame and of the plummer-block ; but after having been at 
work two or three years, the pressure had caused so much inden- 
tation into the two surfaces of cast-iron, as to render it difficult 
for a man to connect and disconnect the large spur-wheels. To 
remedy this defect, a strap of steel was let into the frame and 
another into the underside of the plummer-block for the rollers 
to act against, and no inconvenience has been since found. The 
weight upon each of the rollers is about 5 tons. The weight of 
the drum, break-wheel, and mortice-wheel being 30 tons, and of the 
a.xes 3 tons 7 cwt., the rope remaining on the drum when unwound 
1 ton, and the additional weight of rope wlien the whole is wound 
an, 23'10 tons, makes a total weight of 57-17, or 58 tons, to be 
sustained on the twelve rollers beneath the two plummer-blocks; 
and, therefore, supposing each set to bear the same weight, each 
roller has to carry neai-ly 5 tons ; each end of the axis of the 
drum being 12 inches diameter in its bearing, the breaks must 
sustain 29 or 30 tons. 



Power. — Wlien all the train is in motion, the engines making 
22 strokes per minute, the pressure of the steam on entering the 
cylinder being 2^ lb. above that of the atmosphere, and the mean 
pressure 9-95 lb. per square inch, the power for the engines, rope, 
and train, is 323-74 horse-power. 

When the rope, without any carriages attached to it, is drawn 
by the engines making 2t revolutions per minute, the pressure of 
the steam being 6 lb. above the atmosphere, and the mean pressure 
7 lb. per square inch, the power expended on the rope and ma- 
chinery is 25076 horse-power. 

When the drum is disconnected from the engines, and they are 
allowed to make 22 strokes, the pressure being 13i lb. abo\e the 
atmosphere, and the mean pressure 8lb. per sq'uare inch, the 
power expended on the friction of the engines unloaded, is 26-09 
horse-power. 

Since the power expended on the engines, rope, and train, is 
323-74 horse-power, and on the engines and rope, 250-76 liorse- 
power; the difference, namely, 72-98 or 73 horse-power is due to 
the train alone. 

The number of revolutions made by the engine-shaft per minute 
being 22, the number made by the drum in the same time is 33-84. 
The circumference of the drum w hen the rope is oft', is 52 feet ; 
when all the rope is wound on, it is G3 feet, the velocity of the 
rope will therefore vary from 1,760 feet per minute, to 2,i32 feet, 
that is, from 20 miles to 24 miles per hour. 

TheRope. — When the railway was first opened, the rope employed 
was of hemp, 5| inches in circumference, or if inches in diameter. 
After it had been in use for a very short time it broke, and con- 
tinued to do so frequently ; in consequence of which, a wire rope 
was substituted. This rope 3g inches in circumference, or 1^ inch 
diameter, is formed of six strands, each composed of six wires, or 
thirty-si.x wires in the rope. It is covered over vvith small hempen 
rope or tarred yarn. The breakages of this rope are much less 
frequent than with the hempen rope, but still they do occur occa- 
sionally. In order to make the rope wind evenly on the drum, it 
is guided by two levers mounted on one centre pin, and crossing 
one another in the form of a pair of scissors, the levers having 
rollers on their inner side. These levers are worked by a man, 
standing on the platform below, and he guides the rope by pressing 
them alternately against either side as his eye directs, so as to 
wind the rope evenly around the drum. 'The weight of the 
hempen ro])e was 8 lb. per yard, tliat of the wire rope is 65 lb. per 
yard ; therefore, the weight of the rope lying on the railway was, 
in the former case, 19,; tons, and in the latter, 16^ tons. Swivels 
are introduced at inter\als in the length of the rope, to allow it to 
twist and untwist itself in working. The weight of the rope is 
sustained by bearing-sheaves, disposed at intervals along the line, 
in the middle of the space betw een the rails ; some of them being 
laid at angles to suit the curves of the road. 

The auxiliary engine. — The cylinder of the 12 horse-power 
engine is 20 inches in diameter, the piston makes a stroke of 
3 feet, and 34 strokes per minute. The two air-pumps which are 
worked by it are 13 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 10^ 
inches, and are placed one on each side of the centre of the main 
lever. 

The air-pumps of the large engine are 31 inches in diameter, 
with a length of stroke of 2 ft. 6 in. ; so that the capacity of the 
stroke of each pump is 13-1 cubic feet, or 26-2 cubic feet for the 
pumps of a pair of engines ; therefore, the capacity per minute, 
is S6-2 X 22 strokes = 576-4 cubic feet. In like manner, the ca- 
pacity of the small pumps, per minute, is 55 cubic feet, or nearly 
iTjth that of the large pumps in the same time. 

The well, from which cold water is obtained is 10 feet diameter 
inside, and is steined partly with brick and partly with iron. In 
this well are two sets of three-barrelled pumps, but only one set is 
worked at a time. The barrels are each 7 inches in diameter, the 
stroke is 18 inches, and they make twenty strokes per minute ; so 
that the quantity of water raised by one set, per minute, is 150 
gallons. 'These pumps are worked constantly throughout the day. 

The marine-boilers are 10 ft. 3 in. wide, 10 ft. 8 in. high, and 
24 feet long ; the steam-chests are 5 feet in diameter and 4 ft. 
10 in. high; each boiler has three fires within it. 

The circular boilers are each 7 ft. 6 in. in diameter, by 24 feet 
long ; the two circular flues, through their whole length are 2 ft. 
6 in. diameter. The steam chests are 3 ft. 9 in. diameter, and 4 feet, 
5 feet, and 6 feet high respectively. The average consumption of 
fuel, is, per day, for the two marine-boilers together, 7g tons, and 
for the three circular-boilers together, 8 tons. In these quantities 
is included what is required for getting up the steam in the morn- 
ing. 



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The time of working, corresponding to this average is 13 hours. 
The weight on the safety-valve is 44 Ih. per square inch. 

Tlie engines and machinery at Bhickwall are similarly arranged, 
hut on a smaller scale. The railway there passes hy the side of 
the engine-house on the ground, and therefore the ropes are 
gathered on at the lowest part of tlie circumference of the drums, 
instead of at the highest part, as at the Minories, where the 
railway passes over the engine-house. The engines, constructed 
hy Mr. Barnes, are of the marine side-lever form, of the nominal 
forces of 70 horse-power each, the pistons are 45| inches diameter, 
vflth 4 feet stroke, and their average speed is 25 strokes per 
minute. The large spur-wheels are 17 feet diameter to the pitch 
line, with 120 teeth, 5^ inches pitch, and 14 inches hroad, working 
into mortice spur-wheels on the axes of the drums, 10 ft. 10 in. 
diameter, witli 80 wood cogs. The drums are 16^ feet diameter 
when empty, and 22 feet diameter outside. The small steam- 
engine for working the air-pumps, is 8 horse-power ; it was con- 
structed by Messrs. Miller and Ravenhill. 

Remarks made at the Meeting after the reading of the above Paper. 

Mr. Farey stated that the wire rope consisted of six strands, each of sis 
wires, coiled round a hempen core, and the whole of the strands were also 
laid round one centre core of hemp. Wherever the wires were in actual 
contact with the core, corrosion appeared to take place, which of course 
augmented the rapidity of the destruction of the rope. It was, however, 
now merely a question of expense, as, since the adoption of the wire rope, 
hi-eakage seldom occurred. He thought that the old hempen rope had fre- 
quently been broken by the undue strain which was suddenly brought upon 
it, by its slipping on the drum. He imagined that a modification of the 
method used in cotton spinning for regulating the coiling of the filaments, 
might be adopted with advantage, instead of as at present coiling it by 
hand. 

Mr. Bidder said he had noticed the peculiar tendency of the hemp rope 
to twist, which caused its frequent fracture. The first rope was 5^ inches in 
circumference, with a lay of 41 inches ; this was soon diminished to 3 inches, 
and it broke continually. It was replaced by a rope from which the tar had 
been expelled hy pressure; that was soon worn out, and the fibie appeared 
completely destroyed. Wire ropes of various kinds were then tried ; and at 
last, by the introduction of swivels, and recently by an improved construc- 
tion of them, the bad effects of the twisting were obviated, although it still 
took place. la spite of the rapid destruction of the hemp rope, he was of 
opinion, that as a mere question of cost, it would be found cheaper than 
wire rope, as, when partially destroyed, the former had still a certain value, 
but the latter was comparatively valueless. 

Mr. R. Stephenson stated tiiat he was unable to account satisfactorily 
for the twisting of the rope. He imagined that it might be caused, in some 
degree, hy its being coiled over the drum at the Minories end, and under the 
drum at the Blackwall end of the railway. The lateral action of the groove 
of the inclined guide pulleys might also influence it, particularly on the 
sharpest curves. Ropes composed of lengths, with a right-hand and a left- 
hand lay alternately, had been tried, but inclTectually ; the twisting still con- 
tinued, and the bad effects were only counteracted by the swivels. It might 
have been imagined that the rope would have untwisted, and thus have length- 
ened; hut, on the contrary, it became more tightly twisted, its diameter 
diminished, and still its length increased, apparently from the pull of the 
engines upon it. It was evident from the appearance of the fracture, when 
one occurred, that the material was wrenched asunder by a twisting action. 
The breakages occurred, however, very seldom at present; not oftener than 
once or twice in a month, during which time nearly three thousand journeys 
were made, and then they arose generally from the carelessness of the 
hreaksmen, who, it must be remembered, received their instructions from a 
distance of three miles, by the electric telegraph. The were six swivels in 
the rope, one at every half-mile. The destructive effects of the twisting 
would probably he diminshed by a larger number of ss\'ivels, hut they were 
very objectionable, in preventing the regular laying of the rope upon the 
drum. On the inclined planes in the north of England, where ropes had 
been used for many years, this twisting was not ohserved ; hut there the 
engines were at one end only ; whereas, on the Clackwall railway, the en- 
gines at both ends working simultaneously, might probably have a tendency 
to cause the twisting. Twenty years ago he had tried, in the North, ma- 
chinery similar to that suggested by Mr. Farey, for laying the rope on the 
drum ; but in consequence of the general diminution of diameter of the rope 
from the stretching, and the inequalities occasioned by the splices, the ma- 
chinery was constantly put out of order, and was eventually destroyed. On 
the Blackwall line, the men had acquired considerable dexterity in directing 
the rope with the levers or shears, and he thought it would scarcely be pos- 
sible to improve that part of the system. — Some difficulty had been appre- 
hended from the use of condensing engines, on account of the lime required 
for forming the vacuum; it had, however, been met by having a small engine 
constantly working to keep up the varuuni and to pump water. High- 
pressure engines were generally used with rope traction, in order to avoid 
this difficulty. He, however, preferred the use of condensing engines, with 
a small supplementary engine, and believed them, at the same time, to be 
jQve economical. 



Mr. A. WiGBTMAN stated that the wire rope was manufactured by Messrs. 
Newall, of Gateshead, The wire was unannealed, and the weight of the 
rope was 10 lb. per fathom, except two lengths of half a mile each, which 
weighed 12 lb. per fathom; these lengths were so placed, that the main 
trains to or from Blackwall, were always attached upon them. The swivels 
were at first rivetted into the rope, but it was found that at least two-thirds 
of the fractures of the rope occurred where the first rivet was inserted. In 
order to prevent this, the swivels were spliced into the rope; this was done 
hy unstranding about a yard and a half of the rope, passing the strands 
tlirough an eye in the swivel, and then splicing them back into the rope. 
Swivels thus inserted would last three months without renewing, and the lay 
of the rope had been preserved ijy them. Breakages, however, still occurred, 
hut (except from carelessness), they rarely, if ever, took place in a rope less 
than a year old ; after that time the rope began to lose its strength, from 
the oxidation that took place, wherever the strands came in contact with 
the hemp core, and although a rope might appear sound after it had been 
in use for a year and a half, yet on opening it, a considerable extent of oxi. 
dation would he discovered. The rope-makers in the North attributed this, 
in a great measure, to the serving of the rope with spun yarn, which bad 
been adopted on the Blackwall railway, chiefly to prevent the noise occa- 
sioned by the rope passing over the sheaves. Experiments were in progress, 
with a view to doing away with the serving of tne rope, by covering the 
sheaves with hard leather, which, if successful, would be the means of saving 
the company a large expense in keeping up the serving, and would take a 
weight of about 12 tons off the engines, and reducing also the cost of fuel. 
With regard to hempen ropes, both tarred and white ropes had been tried, 
but they had totally failed, some of them not lasting more than two months. 
These ropes had a great tendency to twist, and from their bulk it was very 
difficult to counteract it by the insertion of swivels. The wire ropes were, 
consequently, the cheapest ; for although there was a difference in the ori- 
ginal cost, as also on the return for the old ropes, yet the duration of the 
wire rope was so much greater, that it more than compensated for the in- 
crease in price. 

The charges for the motive power, for the year 1845, amounted to 
±"11,302 Is. Id.; during that time there were run 105 trains per day, 
3J miles each, or 38,325 trains per annum, at an average cost of 5s. 10|<i. 
per train, or Is. d^d. per mile. 

Although the present cost of working the line by the rope system was 
high, yet by no other system had they been able satisfactorily to effect the 
accommodation of stopping at the various stations, without iuterferiug with 
the " through traflic." 



FOSSIL FOOTMARKS IN THE COAL FORMATION. 

Mr. Lyell delivered a lecture at the Royal Institution, on February 4th, 
" On the Fossil Footmarlts of a Reptile in the Coal Formation of the Alleg- 
hany Mountains. 

Mr. Lyell began hy observing that, notwithstanding the numerous re- 
mains of land plants in the carboniferous strata and the evidence they afli'ord 
of the existence of large tracts of dry land (the exact position of which is 
often indicated by seams of coal and buried forests), no monuments of any 
air-breathing creatures had been detected in rocks of such high antiquity 
until Dr. King, in 1844, published his account of the foot-prints of a reptile 
occurring in sandstone in Pennsylvania (see Silliman's Journal, vol. 48, page 
343). These fossil tracks were found in a stone quarry five miles south-ea»t 
of Greensburg, and about twenty miles east of Pntsburgh, appearing on the 
under surfaces of slabs of argillaceous sandstone extracted for paving. They 
project in relief, being casts of impressions formed in a subjacent layer of 
fine unctuous clay, and they are accompanied by numerous casts of cracks of 
various sizes, evidently produced by the drying and shrinking of the clayey 
mud. These cracks occasionally traverse the foot-prints, showing that the 
shrinkage took place after the animal had walked over the soft mud, and 
before it had begun to dry and crack. Mr. Lyell exhibited a slab which he 
had brought from the quarries, having visited them with Dr. King; and 
then proceeded to point out the differences between these foot-prints and 
those of the European cheirotherium found in Saxony and in Warwickshire 
and Cheshire, always in the upper part of the new red sandstone or trias. 
In the European hand-shaped foot-marks, from the form of which the ani- 
mal was called by Kaup, cheirotherium, both the hind and fore feet have 
each five toes, and the size of the hind foot is about five times as large as 
the fore foot. In the American fossil the posterior foot-piint is not twice 
as large as the anterior, and the number of toes is unequal, being five in the 
hinder and four in the anterior foot ; as in the European cheirotherium the 
fifth toe stands out nearly at a right angle with the foot, and somewhat 
resembles the human thumb. On the external side of all the Pennsylvanian 
tracks, both the larger and smaller, there is a protuberance like the rudi- 
ment of another toe. The average length of the hind foot is bjg inches, and 
of the fore foot 4j. The fore and hind feet being in pairs follow each other 
very closely, there being an interval of about one inch only between them. 
Between each pair the distance is six to eight inches, and between the two 
parallel lines of tracks there is about the same distance. In the case of the 
English and German cheirotherium, the hind and fore feet occur also in 
j>airs, but they form only one row, in consequence of the animal having put 



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its feet to the ground nearly under the middle of its body, and the thumb- 
like toes are seen to turn to the right and to the left in the alternate pairs; 
while in tlie American tracks, which form two parallel rows, all the thumb- 
like toes in one set turn to the right, and in the other set to the left. Mr. 
I.yell infers, therefore, that the American cheirotherium belongs to a new 
genus of reptilian quadrupeds, wholly distinct from that which characterises 
the triassic strata of Europe ; and such a generic diversity, he observes, 
might have been expected in reptilian fossils of such different ages. The 
geological position of the sandstone of Greensburg is perfectly clear, being 
situated in the midst of the Appalachian coal-field, having the main bed of 
coal, called the Pittsburg seam, a hundred feet above it worked in the neigh- 
bourhood, and several other seams of coal at lower levels. The impressions 
of lepidodendron, sigillaria, stigmaria, and other carboniferous plants, are 
found both above and below the level of the reptilian footsteps. Mr. Lyell 
then adverted to some spurious fossil foot-prints of dogs, hoofed quadru- 
peds, birds, and other creatures seen on the surface of ledges of a soft 
guartzose sandstone in the neighbourhood of Greensburg, which had been 
confounded with the fossil ones. He pointed out the proofs that these had 
been carved by the ancient inhabitants of America, whose graves are seen 
in the vicinity ; and that the Indian hunters had sculptured similar bird- 
tracks, together with human foot-prints, in solid limestone of the State of 
Missouri, — the true origin of which was first explained by Mr. D. D. Owen, 
of Indiana. 

To illustrate the mode of interpreting fossil foot-prints in geology, Mr. 
Lyell gave a sketch of the discovery of three distinct species of cheirothe- 
rium in Europe, — and explained bow, after it had been conjectured by Link 
that they might belong to gigantic hatrachians, Mr. Owen found, by exa- 
mining the teeth and bones of reptiles of triassic age, that three different 
species of air-breathing reptiles of the batrachian order, referable to a new 
genus, labyrinthodon, had existed, both in Germany and England, at that 
period ; their fossil bones indicating that they were air-breathers, and there 
being as great a disparity in size between the bones of their anterior and 
posterior extremities as between the fore and hind foot-prints of the several 
cheirotheria. To account for the sharpness of the casts of cheirotherium 
on the under surfaces of slabs of sandstone, Mr. Lyell adverted to the man- 
ner in which he had seen, on the sea-beach, near Savannah in Georgia, a 
cloud of fine sand drifted by the wind filling up the foot-prints of racoons 
and opossums, which, a few hours before, bad passed along the shore after 
the retreat of the tide. Allusion was also made to the recent foot-prints of 
birds called sandpipers {Tringa minuta), which Mr. Lyell saw running, in 
1842, over the red mud thrown down every tide along the borders of estua- 
ries connected with the Bay of Fundy, in Nova Scotia. These consist both 
of impressions on the upper surfaces and of casts in relief on the under sides 
of successive layers of red mud (see Lyell's " Travels in North America," 
vol. ii. p. 166), — of which he has presented a specimen to the British Mu- 
seum. The ancient foot-prints of more than thirty species of birds found 
fossil in the new red sandstone or trias of the valley of the Connecticut 
river, in Massachusetts, were stated to be analogous to these modern bird- 
tracks ; and the size of the largest, although they indicate a biped more 
huge than the ostrich, is exceeded in magnitude by the gigantic deiuornis of 
New Zealand — of which nearly the entire skeleton has just been found fossil 
by Mr. Walter Mantell. The absence hitherto of the bones of birds in the 
ancient American strata of the triassic period appears to Mr. Lyell quite 
intelligible; for the circumstances which combine to cause foot-prints of 
landpipers in the recent mud of the Bay of Fundy, repeated throughout 
many superimposed layers, have no tendency to preserve any bones of the 
same birds, — and none have yet been ever observed in cutting trenches 
through the red mud, where it has been laid dry by artificial embankments 
and drained. 

In all the cases of foot-prints, hoth fossil and recent, and whether made 
by quadrupeds or bipeds, the lecturer insisted on the necessity of assuming 
that the creatures were air-breathers, for their weight would not have been 
sufficient under water to have made impressions so deep and distinct. The 
same conclusion is borne out by the evidence derived from the casts of 
(racks produced in the same strata, by shrinkage, and so generally accom- 
panying the impressions of feet ; and it was remarked that similar effects of 
dessication are observable in the recent red mud of Nova Scotia, where 
thousands of acres are dried by the sun in summer, between the spring and 
neap tides. The ripple mark also so common in strata of every age, and 
among others in the coal measures, and new red sandstone of Germany, 
England, and America, exemplifies the accurate preservation of superficial 
markings of strata, often less prominent than those caused by the tread of 
reptiles or large birds. As the discovery of three species of cheirotheria 
was soon followed by the recognition of as many species of labyrinthodon, 
so the announcement by Dr. King, in 1844, of reptilian foot-prints in the 
coal strata of Pennsylvania, has been followed by the news lately received 
from Germany, that in the ancient coal measures of Saarbruck, near Treeves, 
the antiquity of which is vouched for by Von Dechen, Prof. Goldfuss has 
found the skeleton of a true saurian. Dr. Falconer, after a cursory exa- 
mination of the original specimen, has stated his opinion in favour of its 
reptilian character, and although the evidence has not yet been rigourously 
tested by the most eminent comparative osteologists of Europe, Mr. Lyell 
believes that the opinion of Prof. Goldfuss and Dr. Falconer will be con- 
firmed. Such facts should serve to put us on our guard against premature 
generalizations founded on mere negative evidence, and caution us not to 



assume the present limits of our knowledge of the time of the first appear- 
ance of any class of beings in a fossil state to be identical with the date of 
the first creaiiiin of such beings. 



FROCSBOINGS OF SCIEiWTiriC SOCIETIES. 

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

Jan. 2C.— J. E. M'Connell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The first annual general meeting of the raeinbers of this Institution took 
place at Birmingham, in the theatre of the Philosophical Institution, for the 
purpose of receiving the Report of the Council and for the general trans- 
action of business. There were present nearly 100 members. 

Mr. M'Connell said that as this was the anniversary of the establish- 
ment of the Institution, he would content himself with referring to the 
Report about to he read for the confirmation, he might say, of the mors 
than realised hopes of the most sanguine promoters of the Institulion. lU 
was gratified to see so large a meeting, and regretted the unexpected abseiic* 
of the President. 

The Report of the Council was then read. It contained a brief outline of 
the proceedings of the Institution for the past year: — The desirableness and 
importance of founding a society such as this was known to have been long 
and extensively felt by the engineering and mechanical profession in all parts 
of the kingdom, and it is not too much to venture to say, that the best 
expectations of the active and zealous promoters of the Institution bav« 
been fully realised, and a great amount of scientific and valuable information 
has been beneficially and mutually interchanged and diffused amongst tlis 
members. In reviewing the matter and subjects brought under the notic* 
and discussion of the members, as recorded and detailed in the minutes and 
proceedings of the Institution, the Council felt it their duty to acknowledge 
and particularise the following valuable aid : — the two papers on the " Fan- 
Blast," by Mr. Buckle ; on a " Self-Acting Break," by the President ; on an 
"Inverted Arch Bridge," by Mr. Cowper ; on "Locomotive Engines," by 
Mr. Beyer; on a " Turn-Table Lathe," by Mr. A Slate; on "Jones's Gas 
Exhauster," by Mr. Clift ; on a " Direct Action Steam Helve or Hammer," 
by Mr. H. Smith. 

The following recommendation of the Council was then read : — 

" The Council, having had under their consideration the question of the 
number of the members of the Council, have resolved to recommend to ths 
members of the Institution to authorise the Council for the present year Co 
add to their number, so as to place one member of Council, or more, as may 
be considered desirable, in each district where such may be advantageous to 
the interests of the Institution." 

A resolution to the above effect having been proposed, was carried unani- 
mously. 

The officers for the ensuing year were then re-elected, viz. : — Mr. G. Sts- 
phenson, President ; Mr. C. Beyer, J. E. M'Connell, and J. Mdler, Vice- 
Presidents ; Messrs. W. Buckle, E. A. Cowper, B. Fothergill, E. Humphreys, 
and A. Slate, Council ; Mr. C. Goocb, Treasurer; Mr. A. Kintrea, Secretary. 

After the conclusion of the business connected with the annual general 
meeting, the following papers were read : — 

HYDRAULIC LIFTING JiCK. 
" Description of a New Hydraulic Lifting Jack." By Mr. Ald. Thork- 

TON. 

The principle of this jack is the same as that of the hydraulic press, but 
not having been before applied to a lifting jack, it is thought that the present 
application of it will be useful for a variety of purposes. Its advantages 
are, the ease and steadiness with which a great weight can be raised by one 
person ; the facility with which the lowering of the weight can be regulated 
without labour, and from there being no circular motion of the handle, there 
can be no tendency in the jack to twist from the position in which it is 
placed ; also by the use of strong wrougbt-iron tubes for the cylinder and 
ram, the weight of the jack is less than others now known. This jack can 
be used in all cases where others are available, and in some where others 
are not so, for the motion of the lever being vertical instead of lateral, it 
can be used wherever there is sufficient width to place it. With a jack of 
the size shown one man can lift from 15 to 20 tons weight. Mr. Thornton 
said although the jack was not new in principle, one of its great advantages 
was to be found in the additional power which it gave to one man to raise 
so great a weight. 

The Chairman said he presumed they all understood the description 
given by Mr. Thornton. The jack displayed itself by its own appearance 
and the drawing. So far as the trial he had had with it went, be had every 
reason to be satisfied. It was very simple, acted very nicely, and he thought 
it was a very ingenious improvement. 

Mr. Crampton wished to know if it had ever tumbled down ? 

Mr. MiDDLEToN said all persons acquainted with such things must be 
fully aware that they could not get a jack boxed up. Until, however, an 
alteration could be made in the handle, it could not be considered a good 
thing practically. 

Mr. Slate observed that though a jack might not be practically good 
when placed in atumbling position, it might be good in other cases. A jack 



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[MARcn, 



like the one now before tliem miglit l)c useful in lifting a great weight, where 
the ordinary one would not he sufficient. 

Mr. liucKLE thought that the jack was an exceedingly useful instrument. 
An orilinary jack would be much more liable to be put out of order than 
the one before them; besides, it presented greater facilities for lowering 
weights. 

Mr. MiLNEB was of opinion that as it was it could not be generally 
useful. If it was thrown from a tender to the ground it would be destroyed, 
and their endeavours iliould be to prevent it, if possible, from capsizing. 

The Chairman said Mr. Thornton's object in introducing it was to have 
the benefit of their experience. 

Mr. FE.A.COCK said, that for locomotive purposes it was not equal to 
Heeley's jack ; still, if in other respects it possessed advantages over ii, tliey 
ought not of course to condemn it. 

In answer to other questions by various members, Mr, Thornton said it 
would lift 20 tons; it weighed about 65 lb.; and its price was 12 guineas. 

Another member said he sliould give the preference to Heeley's jack. 
Lifting jacks when laid aside, like fire-engines in a country town, not being 
generally required, get out of order, and he was afraid that the one before 
tliem would be much more liable to injuries of that kind than the ordinary 
jack. 

The Chairman said, it appeared that it was objected against the jack, 
that it was liable to get out of order, and that it had not the advantages of 
Heeley's jack in lifting from below, but from the top; at the same time it 
would be admitted that it was steady in action, and that in lowering weight 
it was necessary to have power and command, so as to do it slowly and 
easily. There was one important point in which it had not the advantage, 
and that was in price. In articles of that kind, the price was a considera- 
tion. 

Mr. Henderson thought that the jack possessed advantages where there 
was a great weight to lift, and only one man to work it. Another advantage 
was the steadiness of its action. The great objection against it was its 
liability to get out of order. If they wanted a jack to raise 20 tons, he was 
not aware that they could get any other to do it with the same degree of 
steadiness. 



CYLINDER-BORING MACHINE. 

" On the Fitling-up of Ci/linders for Locomotive Engines, and a Descrip- 
tion of a Mactiine for Boring them." By Mr. C. Beyer. 

The desirableness of having all the cylinders of every class of locomotive 
engines perfectly alike, so that they may, at any time, be changed in case of 
accident, or be replaced by spare ones, it is presumed will he admitted by all ; 
the difficulty of accomplishing this with the tools hitherto employed, will be 
known to most who are engaged in this branch of the business. These con- 
siderations, and the defect of cylinders, the author, from time to time, found 
necessary to have rectified before passing them to be used, induced him, in 
1843, to direct his attention to the boring-machine. 

The conditions which a good cylinder boring-machine should fulfil, may 
be stated as follows: — 1. That it should make the cylinder perfectly round 
in its diameter, and parallel in the direction of its axis. 2. That the bored 
inside should be perfectly concentive or parallel with the outside of the 
barrel. 3. That the projections beyond the flauches, if there be any, should 
be true with the internal bore. 4. That every strain or pressure upon the 
barrel of the cylinder whilst boring should be avoided. The boring-machine 
hereafter to be described has been found, during several years' practice, to 
have answered these conditions. 

Messrs. Sharp, Brothers & Co. cast their cylinders from wood patterns in 
green sand, and commence the process of fitting-up by describing or gauging 
off a circle upon each end of the cylinder, concentive to the barrel, and 
having formed this circle the ends are bevelled inwards by chipping to an 
angle corresponding to that of the plates of the cone mandrill. The cylin- 
der being fastened to the mandrill is put into a two-foot slide lathe, with 
facing motion, and has its ends faced to a gauge, and its projections turned 
to a gauge, and cut to a length to gauge. There are further two uotches cut 
out of two cone discs, so as to allow of applying an internal gauge for the 
cmt-and-out length of the cylinder. Thus prepared by turning, it is removed 
to the boring-machine, inserted between two plates, the faces of which are 
planed, and the holes for receiving them bored from the boring-bar in their 
places ; it is at once perfectly concentive with setting, and needs nothing but 
clamping to the plates by headed bolts or clamps by its flanches to be ready 
for commencing boring. For placing the tops of the steam-chests and valve 
facings the turned ends are again made use of for setting, by placing upon 
the planing-machine table brackets placed on their faces and bored out to 
the same gauge ; the cylinder is turned to, in order to insure the parallelism 
of these parts with the axis, as for similar reasons the inside of the cylinder 
could not be otherwise than concentive with the outside of the barrel. The 
author prefers making a separate set of gauges, tackling, &c. for each size of 
cylinders rather than economise by making one do for many, and risk the 
chance of mistakes ; and he believes that the plan here described, to work 
always from the same point, is most likely to insure accuracy, as the faults 
made by neglect of the workmen are not multiplied by subaequent opera- 
tions. 

The boring-machine bores by two cylinders at the same time, and is ar- 
ranged to bore cylinders of 2' G" strokes and from 10 to 20 inches diame- 



ter. The bed is that of a common slide lathe, suffi 'iently long to carry a 
double set of driving gear, and admits of a sufficient traverse of the boring- 
carriage. The boiing-bar is supported by three bearings, the former of 
which is stationary anil firmly fastened to the bed to resist tlie end and 
pressure of the cub when boring ; the latter are fixed upon the carriage 
and travel with it along the boring-liar, and serve for securing the cylinder 
during boring, as will be shown hereafter. To cause the boring-carriage to 
move endways, a train of wheels descends at the back of the machine to give 
motion to the shaft, and is transferred by means of a feathered worm to the 
worm-wheel and pinion, both of which move loose above the fast stud of 
the carriage. This same stud serves as a fulcrum for the lever, carrying upon 
opposite projections the intermediate pinions, which gear into the stud 
pinions. It will be clear, therefore, that hy setting the lever in such a posi- 
tion as to bring one pinion into gear with another pinion fast on the rack- 
pinion shaft, motion will be given to the boring carriage in one direction ; 
and in an opposite or contrary direction by moving the lever so as to bring 
the pinions to gear with each other; and this carriage will be stationary or 
independent of the driving gear altogether, by keeping the lever in its 
middle position. The rack pinion shaft is extended towards the front of 
the machine, to work the ca,-riage by hand when putting in or taking out 
the cylinder. A provision is also made in the train of wheels for varying 
the traverse of the carriage by changing the pinion. 

To hold the cylinder while boring, the top of the carriage is formed into 
a kind of square frame, by means of two plates, planed on the inside and 
fastened to the sides of the bearings or standards and two cross stretchers. 
These latter are also placed upon their inner faces and are secured to the 
sides and top of the boring-carriage, and have holes bored in them when 
secured in their places, by means of the boring head upon the bar corre- 
sponding in diameter to the turned projecting ends of the cylinder to be 
bored. It will be seen, therefore, that if the figure of the cylinder to be 
bored be turned to the same gauges as the holes are bored to, it needs only- 
inserting and clamping fast by the T bolts to be ready for boring without 
requiring any setting in its pan whatever. One of the cross stretchers is a 
fixture, whilst the other is removed every time a new cylinder is to be fixed. 
The boring head is a fixture upon the bar, and has only one plain square 
tire for boring, ground to cut either way. This tool fits into a planed recess 
made slightly dovetailed, and is held fast by a set screw, and easily adjusta- 
ble to any diameter by another of these machines. We employ three of 
these machines — ^two double ones and a single one, and one man attends to 
these and the lathe for facing and turning the ends of the rough castings of 
the cylinders. The cylinders are cast as hard as we are able to cut them 
with the best cutting tools we can make, and we find it more advisable to 
complete the boring in three cuts; the first is often as much as J inch in 
depth, the second we leave about ^ inch, and the third can hardly be called 
cutting, but is merely dealing up or finishing. The advance, or traverse, we 
rarely change, and is set to -^ of an inch for each revolution of the boring- 
bar ; or is, for quickest speed of the bar, 3 revolutions per minute ; in the 
second, 1"8 revolution per minute; in the third, or lowest speed, 1'2 revolu- 
tion per minute. For boiing 15 inch cylinders — for roughing out, TS revo- 
lution per minute, or cut at 7 feet per minute ; for boring, 3 revolutions per 
minute, or cut at ll'78feet per minute; and for finishing, 1'2 revolution per 
minute, or cut at 5-65 feet per minute. 

Mr. Crampton said they should be doing very great injustice to the very 
valuable paper they had heard read were they to discuss it at that late hour, 
and he should propose that the further consideration of it should be ad- 
journed till the next meeting. The suggestion was adopted and the meeting 
terminated. 



JACQUARD PERFORATING MACHINE. 

" Description of a Perforating Machine," made for Mr. Evans, the con- 
tractor for the iron tubular bridge which is to carry the Chester and Holy- 
head Railway over the river Conway. By Mr. Fothebgill. 

This machine is employed to perforate the plates for the above-named 
bridge, and is at present adapted to punch such pitches only as that work 
requires, viz., 3 inches and 4 inches from centre to centre of rivet holes, with 
latitude for departing considerably from those (general) pitches in the lateral 
rows of the holes. This machine is constructed to perforate, at each stroke, 
a row of holes across a plate 3 ft. 5 in. broad ; but, by employing a series of 
card plates (similar to the cards used in the Jacquard loom), any number of 
punches may be put out of action at pleasure ; and by meaus of a blank 
card at the end of the series, the machine is put out of action at a point 
where no obstacle is presented to the taking out of the perforated plate and 
putting a blank plate in its stead. The operation of changing plates, 
weighing six or seven hundredweight each, is performed by half a dozen 
men in less than one minute, and whilst one plate is being punched, these 
men get another ready to put into the machine. As these machines take 
eleven to twelve strokes per minute, it follows that (with a 4-inch pitch) a 
12 feet plate may be punched in less than four minutes, and consequently 
that (allowing one minute for changing) it may perforate twelve such plates 
per hour. Many of the plates in the bridge are 12 feet long, 2 ft. Sin. 
broad, and J inch thick, and are punched for rivets I inch in diameter. As 
there are but few engineering concerns where such a perforating machine as 
that at Conway could be employed more than an hour or two per day, it 
appears to be very desirable that ironmasters should have them, and that 



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THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



S9 



they should also have machines for straightening and bending plates ; by 
•which means they would be enabled to supply their customers with plates in 
a fit state for being rivetted together. Were this system brought into prac- 
tice, engineers would turn their attention to adapt their work to the capa- 
bilities of the perforating machine, and thus great perfection, dispatch, and 
economy of construction would be the result. A drawing represented a 
machine (similar in principle to that already described) adapted to perforat- 
ing paper and thin sheet metal, such as sieves and window-blinds are made 
of, in which plain perforations, arranged in squares, may be made by a single 
row of punches ; and perforations, arranged quincuncially, may also be made 
by a single row of punches, by giving to the plate a lateral alternating 
motion ; but a double row of punches, arranged intermediately to each other, 
is preferable. Each of tliese arrangements admits of a great variety of fancy 
patterns by the application of the Jacquard principle. A large class of pat- 
terns may be produced by punches of various forms and sizes, which shall be 
so grouped together as to give to the work a columnar effect ; and the range 
of this class maybe extended by giving the plate a zig-zag or waved motion, 
and still further extended by combining it with the Jacquard. Another class 
of patterns may be produced by employing two distinct sets of puncbes of 
different size or form, and with each set a Jacquard, to bring punches of the 
one or other set into action as required, and thus be made to produce repre- 
sentations of figures, landscapes, &c., at pleasure. A further variety of pat- 
terns might be produced by the introduction at intervals of punches contain- 
ing set patterns, such as sprigs, flowers, &c., and perforating the ground 
■with small punches. 

The foregoing is but a brief description of the capabilities of the Jacquard 
Perforating Machine, which in good hands would be found to be nearly co- 
extensive with those of the Jacquard loom. Another drawing represented a 
double-acting machine for shearing (at the one side) and punching (on the 
other), at the same time, plates of iron J inch in thickness with holes li in. 
in diameter, and to perform both processes to the extent of 18 inches from 
the edge of the plate. 

The Chairman said it was a machine represented as peculiarly adapted 
for perforating plates used in ship steam-boilers, girders, &c. But, from 
the description, it appeared to him to be a very useful machine for steam- 
boilers generally. Seeing the great accuracy with which the punch is made, 
it would be rather interesting to follow out the applicability of the ma- 
chine. 

Mr. Ald. Thornton asked if the machine punched in any other than a 
straight direction .' — Mr. Fothergill said it did, and it would punch twelve 
holes at once. 

Mr. Beyer thought it was a very excellent punching machine, and it 
might be applied to a great extent, and to all ordinary-sized boilers. 

In answer to questions by various members, Mr. Fothergill said, all the 
punches acted upon the plate at the same time. 

In order to give an idea of the nature of the work to be performed by 
this machine, we subjoin the annexed diagram and description, taken from 
the Manchester Guardian : — 

" The diagram represents a portion of a wrought-iron plate, which we will 
assume to be, when entire, 12 feet long by 2 feet wide, and | inch in thick- 
ness, and requiring to be perforated, along each sides and ends, by a row of 
boles exactly four inches asunder from centre to centre, and each an inch 
in diameter; as well as by certain intermediate holes of the same size, the 
situation of which will be best understood from the diagrams. 



" On looking to the left hand of the diagram representing the entire end of 
the plate, it will be seen that there is vertically a row of seven dots, repre- 
senting seven perforations. or rivet-holes. These perforations the machine 
makes at one moment, by bringing down with immense force seven punches 
of tempered steel, upon that part of the plate which at the time rests 
upon the same number of dies, also of tempered steel. These perforations 
being made, the punches are lifted clear of the plate, which is then moved 
forward longitudinally, exactly four inches ; and then the striking peculiarity 
of the machine comes into play. 

" It will he seen on looking carefully at the diagram, that the second row 
TCrtically of perforations, counting from left to right, instead of seven eon- 
tains only two, one at the upper and the other at the lower margin, 
each forming a part of the two side rows of rivet-holes. These two holes 
the] machine perforates also at one blow ; but as there are seven punches, 
and only two are required, the five intermediate ones are thrown out of use 
by a contrivance exactly similar in principle to that of the Jacquard loom, 
by which figures are produced in silks and other fabrics. The third vertical 
TOW of holes, still continuing from the left, consists of four, the fourth 
again of two, the fifth of three, and so on, the number varying through the 
whole length of the plate ; and, in each case, the machine itself, without the 
slightest interference of the workman, moves the plate on to the required 
distance, selects the proper number and right situation of the punches, makes 



the requisite number of perforations, and throws itself out of action when 
the plate is completed. Those who are aware of the force necessary to per- 
forate an iron plate of moderate thickness, even with a single punch of small 
size, may form some judgment of the enormous power required to impel 
seven punches, each an inch in diameter, through plates three-quarters of an 
inch thick ; and it is a little singular to see this enormous power regulated 
in its operation by the identical means employed in producing figures in the 
most delicate fabrics. The machine is calculated to make, when necessary, 
twelve perforations by one stroke, and to produce any requisite combination 
of twelve or any Bmaller number of punches, at distances of three or four 
mches from each other. The speed with which the work is performed may 
be understood from the fact, that it regularly completes the perforation of 
one plate of the size above described,— namely, 12 feet long and 2 ft. 4 in. 
wide,— in four minutes; and if the plates were so quicklv supplied as to 
prevent any loss of time, which might easily he done, it Would complete 
them regularly at that rate. As it is, fifty have been completed in four 
hours. But the facility and dispatch resulting from the use of the machine 
are not, perhaps, its greatest merits, so far at least as tlie coustruction of 
tubular bridges and beams are concerned. In such cases, the strength of 
the fabric depends in a great degree upon the whole of the rivets completely 
filling the perforations, retaining a regular cylindrical form, continuing per- 
fectly straight, and being, throughout then: length, exactly at right angles 
with the faces of the plates. As each of the perforations represented in the 
diagram is intended to correspond with a similar perforation, either in 
another plate, or in an angle or T iron, it must be obvious that deviations in 
opposite directions of a sixteenth of an inch in each, would prevent them 
fitting each other by an eighth of an inch altogether; and, whatever might 
be done by enlarging one or both of the holes, to bring them a little nearer 
each other, the firmness and strength of the work must be impaired by he 
direction of the rivet being rendered in some degree oblique, instead of being 
exactly at right angles with the plate ; whilst, in the work perfoimed by the 
machine, the perforations are set out with such accuracy that they always 
correspond precisely, and the rivets retain their proper form and direction.'' 

The Dinner. — In the evening the members and friends, amounting to 
about 100, dined together at the Queen's Hotel— Mr. M'Connell presiding. 



ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

Jan. 24. — Mr. Charles Fow»ler, V.P., in the Chair. 

The donations included a number of works by the celebrated archsologist, 
M. de Caumont, of Caen, a corresponding member of the Institute. Mr. 
Wallen sent a portion of the mosaic pavement found nine feet below the pre- 
sent level, while digging the foundations for the new warehouses of Messrs. 
Morley, at the corner of Gresham-street and Wood-street. Mr. Wallen 
thought a Roman temple formerly stood on the spot. 

Professor Donaldson read a paper on " Caen, its Quarries and Buildings, 
with a few words on Arras." This paper we have given in full in another 
part of the Journal. 

Some very high compliments were paid to Mr. Donaldson on this valuable 
paper. 

Feb. 7. — Mr. Angell, V.P., in the Chair. 

Among the donations reported were Canina's work on Etruria, sent in the 
name of the Queen of Tuscany ; Mr. Sharpe's " Architectural Parallels ;" and 
eleven volumes of the " Ban Zeitung," the architectural journal of Vienna, 
edited by Mr. Forster; and parts of Billings' " Antiquities of Scotland." 

Mr. Wright sent a set of drawings illustrative of the ceiling at Carpenters' 
Hall, London-wall. 

Mr. G. L. Tavlor read a paper in reference to the New Western Gas 
Company, entitled " Some observations on Gas-works, and the details of the 
Manufacture of Gas ; with the view of showing that it is capable of being 
rendered so Pure as to be introduced beneficially throughout Houses, Manu. 
factories, and Public Buildings," 

Mr. Burn observed that formerly he resided at Edinburgh ; that he had 
twice as many burners as he now has in London, and paid at a much higher 
rate, being 9s. per 1,000 cubic feet. The gross charge at Edinburgh was 
however only one-half of the London gross charge, arising from the superior 
illuminating qualities of the Edinburgh gas. It is true, the latter is made 
from Cannel coal ; but there is an unfortunate temptation to gas compa- 
nies to deteriorate the quality of gas, in consequence of the charge being 
made on the quantity. He further observed, that though the Edinburgh gas 
is superior in illuminating power, it is not free from impurities ; in proof of 
which he said all the book-binding and leather furniture of a new club-house 
at Edinburgh had been destroyed by tlie gas, as the book-binding of the 
Athenaeum club-house, in London, has likewise been injured. 

Mr. Palmer dwelt upon the importance of the purification of gas, and 
said that the new plan showed its practicability. 

The Western Gas Company have their works in a building at Kensal- 
green, 166 feet in diameter. They propose to use Cannel coal, and supply 
gas at 6s. per thousand feet, which they say is as cheap as common gas at 4s. 
per thousand. 



13 



00 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[March 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Feb. 1. — Joshua Field, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The President, in taking the Chair for the first time since his election, 
addressed the memhers at considerable lengtli, dwelling chiefly on the inti- 
mate connection between the civil and mechanical engineers, their depend- 
ence upon each other, and the importance of maintaining that union between 
the two branches of the profession that had ever been one of the main 
objects of the Institution. He showed, that originally engineering was con- 
fined to the constructive or mechanical branches; raising heavy weights, 
building mills, draining mines, and all the primitive wants of mankind ; 
by degrees, as civilisation extended, the exigencies of the world became 
greater ; luxuries were required, that could only be supplied by greater ex- 
ercise of talent and skill ; manufactories were multiplied, manual labour 
could no longer suffice, the steam-engine was generally employed, and the 
consequence of this increase of production was, that the roads required to 
be amended, rivers and canals to be cut, for carrying this abundance of mer- 
chandise and passengers, whilst docks and harbours required extending, for 
the reception of the shipping for the increasing export trade. These wants 
called into being another class of men, who, with great mechanical skill, 
combined more than ordinary theoretical knowledge and business habits, to 
enable them to combine and use the powers of all other classes. These men 
were termed civil engineers, in contradistinction to military engineers, whose 
education and experience fitted them solely for the art of war ; and by these 
men. Great Britain had been placed first in the list of the civilizers of man- 
kind. Mr. Field, as the first president elected from among the mechanical 
engineers, dilated, at length, upon the immense strides made within the last 
century in the production of the mechanic arts and in public works, under 
the combined efforts of the two classes alluded to. lie then entered more 
minutely upon tlie subject of steam navigation, to which he had principally 
devoted his personal attention, and gave most interesting details of the sub- 
ject, ending by apologising for occupying so much of the time of the meet- 
ing by saying, that be must be permitted to feel more than ordinary pride in 
being elected the president, when be looked around bim, and saw that the 
association of six young engineers, who, in 1818, met occasionally to chat 
over mechanical subjects, had extended, in the course of twenty-nine years, 
into a society consisting of upwards of 600 members, and comprising within 
it almost all the engineers of eminence in Great Britain. — The address was 
vehemently applauded, and the president was requested to allow it to be 
printed in the minutes of proceedings. 

The discussion was then renewed upon Mr. Ransome's paper, " On the 
Manvfacture of Artificial Stone." 

The Dean of Westminster, Sir Henry De la Beche, Mr. John Phillips, 
Dr. Garrod, Mr. Barry, and other visitors, took part in the discussion with 
the principal members of the Institution. The remarks turned chiefly upon 
the chemical and physical properties of the material, and the cost of its 
production in the moulded form as compared to that of carved stone. In 
its chemical properties it was shown to be at least equal in purity to the 
production of Nature ; for, on the statements of the eminent chemists who 
had subjected it to severe tests, it was proved to be totally insoluble in boiling 
water, however Ion;? immersed, and also to be capable of resisting the action 
of mineral acids. In this respect it differed from glass, which always yielded 
a portion of its alkali to the action of water. It was further stated, that it 
had perfectly resisted the action of frost, vases filled with water having been 
repeatedly frozen without their sustaining any injury. Satisfactory state- 
ments were adduced as to its strength and other physical properties, and 
some very interesting remarks were made on the subject, comparing the 
substance produced artificially with certain sandstones found in this country, 
which, by the action of compression and heat, bad attained a degree of hard- 
ness equal to quartz. The experiments of Hall and Watt on the production 
of artificial stones were also alluded to as bearing upon the question. Ex- 
periments made on the strength of the artilicial stone proved it to be superior 
to those natural stones with which it had been tested — viz.: Caen, Bath, 
York, or Portland stone. Nnmerous specimens were exhibited to the meet- 
ing, showing its universal applicability to constructive and decorative pur- 
poses ; fractured pieces were shown of every variety of texture, from the 
porous sandstone to the most compact granite. The price of the material 
was stated to be such as to render it available for all useful and ornamental 
purposes. 

Feb. 8. — Joshua Field, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read was " An account of the recent Improvements in the 
Drainage and Sewarje of Bristol." By Mr. James Green. 

From this account it appears, that for many years past, great reformation 
had been requisite in the sewage of several parts of the city of Bristol, and 
more especially in the localities adjacent to the course of the River Froome, 
whose channel had become a large cesspool, spreading miasma and disease 
all around. This river formerly emptied itself into the River Avon, in the 
city ; and then all that was brought down by the stream was carried away 
by the tide ; but, when to form the floating harbour, the old course of the 
Avon was dammed across by lock-gates, and a new cut was made for carrying 
oflT the contents of the sewers emptying themselves into the Froome, a nuis- 
ance of the most serious character was created, and the bed of the river 
became permanently affected. Mr. Mylne, some years since, constructed a 
lateral culvert from the embouchure of the Froome, debouching in the new 
cut ; this did partial good ; but still the general state of the river remained 



unimproved ; and, in deference to the universal demand for sanitary reform, 
the authorities of Bristol employed Mr. Green to devise and execute plans 
for the improvement of the sewage of the part of the city most demanding 
it. He laid out comprehensive plans, but the estimate of their cost exceeded 
the funds at the disposal of the council ; so he modified them, and the result 
had proved most successful. The proceedings were to bring the channel of 
the river into an uniform width, by building side walls, with gutters in the 
upper slopes, conveying the sewage into the stream, obliterating the shoal, 
and cleaning up the bed, thus bringing it to an uniform inclination ; remov- 
ing the obstructions caused by the pier of the Castle Mill-street-bridge ; 
lowering the height, and extending the length of the Wear at the castle 
moat, with new flood-gates, &c. ; deepening the bed of the upper part of the 
stream, and thus making convenient arrangements for cleaning out and flush- 
ing the channel, and passing off the products through Mylue's culvert into 
the new cut, whence it was conveyed away by the tide. The Dock com- 
pany's culvert was also cleansed and repaired at the same time, and brought 
again into operation. Many difficulties attended these proceedings, but they 
were skilfully combated, and the result has been most complete success ; and 
it is to be hoped, that the further ameliorations of which the general sewage 
of the city is susceptible, may be equally successful under the control of Mr. 
Green, who has so ably conducted them upon a modified scale. For, as the 
actual expenditure was not more than f 4,537, as stated in the paper, and 
such beneficial effects have been obtained, there can be no reason why any 
proper measure of sanitary reform should not be carried into effect. 

In the discussion which ensued, several very able men took part, bearing 
testimony to tlie satisfactory nature of the improvements made by Mr. 
Green at Bristol. The conversation then turned upon the employment of 
the contents of sewers for agricultural purposes. The system proposed by 
the various companies were detailed and canvassed. The lands which had 
been rendered fertile by the application of liquid manure, near Edinburgh, 
and near Mansfield, were quoted as examples of the efficacy of the system ; 
but, on the other hand, it was shown that these were not fair examples, as 
the localities were peculiar ; the cost of the establishing was much larger 
than could usually be borne ; and that, in general, if the distribution of the 
contents of the sewers was to be made by pipes and pumping, the returns 
would never repay the outlay. 

Feb. 13. — The discussion upon Mr. Green's paper, was renewed, and con- 
tinued throughout the evening, to the exclusion of all other business. The 
main object of the paper appeared, unfortunately, to be lost sight of by the 
speakers, in their anxiety to bring forward, or to defend, the positions as- 
sumed by various companies, which had been formed at different periods for 
using the products of the sewers for agricultural purposes, hut which, in the 
former part of the discussion, had been somewhat impugned upon commersial 
grounds. The statements made at this meeting were only repetitions of 
what has been repeatedly printed in reports, and in evidence before the 
sanitary commissions ; and the whole evening may have been said to have 
been wasted, in spite of the attempts of some of the members to bring the 
discussion to the real question of the best modes of laying out a system of 
sewage for large towns, the forms of the sewers, based upon the laws go- 
verning the conveyance of fluids — which, it had been stated in some of the 
" blue books," were not understood by civil engineers, a statement which 
was shown by some of the speakers to be not consonant with facts ; for that, 
if the selected, rather than collected, evidence given before the Health of 
Towns Commission were analysed, it would he seen that the exploded 
dogmas of the older writers on hydraulics had been received and adopted, 
rather than the formulfe of modern writers, or the actual practice of civil 
engineers of eminence, whose experience on such subjects was necessarily 
great. It was true, that liitherto, in consequence of the absorbing topic of 
railways, eminent engineers had not efevoted themselves to the subject of 
sewage to the extent they might have done ; but, when the time arrived for 
their doing so advantageously, or the exercise of their skill was demanded by 
the government, or by private enterprise, they would be found quite prepared 
to devote themselves to the work. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, LONDON. 

Jan. 19. — William Fothergill Cooke, Esq., in the Chair 
The Secretary read a paper by Dr. Harding, " On some ancient Greek 
Vases, excavated by him from Tombs near IIe.v.7mili, in the Isthmus of 
Corinth^' 

" In the autumn of 1840, having obtained by private influence, an order 
from the prime minister, permitting me to excavate for antiquities, I pro- 
ceeded (observes Dr. Harding) to Corinth, and hearing that the peasants 
frequently found ancient tombs, containing vases, under the village of 
Hexamili, I proceeded thither with a party of labourers. Hexamili lies 
between Corinth and its ancient port of Chincre, within three miles of 
the spot where the Isthmian games were celebrated. The ground about 
Hexamili is, for the most part, rudely cultivated, and grows good crops of 
wheat ; ancient quarries also abound. The plan adopted in searching for 
tombs is that of boring the ground with augers, seven feet long, till the in- 
strument meets with some obstacle to its further progress, when it is with- 
drawn, and the ground is again pierced in other directions, to ascertain the 
size and nature of the obstruction ; this is also tested by the sound of the 
instrument striking against it. When a tomb is discovered, and this is 
generally at a depth of about four feet, the earth is excavated in the usual 



1848.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



manner in which graves are dug in England ; and as soon as sufficient of 
the covering of the tomb is exposed, a man sits down with a heavy hammer 
(such as is used by masons), and with this a hole is made in the lid or 
covering to the tomb. A hand is then carefully inserted, and human bones, 
vases, &c., are generally extracted. The greatest number of vases I found in 
any one tomb was fourteen, and children's tombs had proportionally small 
vases. Having in three days collected enough to load one of the small 
horses of the country, I got them to Corinth, whence they were sent to 
Athens, and afterwards by sea, via Malta, to London." 

Mr. Birch, of the British Museum, was in attendance, and stated that he 
v?as unable to give any account of the chemical constituents of the vases, 
or the particular manner of their fabrication ; still he should be glad to 
offer a few remarks in reference to the specimens exhibited. It is only 
of late years (he observed) that the conclusion had been come to that 
large manufactories of vases existed in Greece ; they had always been sup- 
posed to be of Etruscan produce. The fictile art had been supposed to be 
confined almost exclusively to Italy, although numerous excavations had 
been made at Athens, and a few at Corinth, which had produced spe- 
cimens similar to those exhibited, and which he divided into classes. The 
most ancient vases (and which are distinguished from all others by the 
material of which they are composed) are of a light yellow clay, and have 
figures and animals painted on them in a maroon colour. Their date is sup- 
posed to be about 616 years before Christ. About this period the fictile 
art is reported to have been introduced among the Etruscans by the Greeks. 
The second class of vases are of a pale red clay, and the figures, instead of 
being of a maroon colour, are traced in black, in order to show the details 
more distinctly. This style appears to date from the fifth to the middle of 
the fourth century before Christ. The third class is one in which the 
colour was laid on by means of a reed. But perhaps the highest style, and 
one which is peculiar to the vases found at Athens, is that in which the outline, 
&c., is traced in white paint, or a sort of carbonate of lime. The vases 
exhibited he thought peculiarly interesting, as deciding that the vases of 
Italy may he considered to be the manufacture of Greeks settled in Italy, 
and not imported from Greece into that countrj-. 

Dr. Harding stated that the tombs at Ilexamili seem to have been 
scattered in irregular patches; but the cemetery appears to have been very 
extensive, measuring nearly halfamilein each direction. No inscriptions or 
marks whatever are visible on the stones of the tombs, nor is there any 
other apparent difference externally than that of size. The bones in them 
were tolerably perfect, and the skulls nearly entire. He found but one piece 
of metal, apparently part of a large bronze needle or bodkin. Generally, the 
contents of the tombs were in a wonderful state of preservation, considering 
that they were, in all probability, at least 2,000 years old. 

Jan. 26. — George Moore, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The Secretary read a letter from Mr. Dwyer, in which he states, as the 
Society is to meet for the purpose of investigating the forms of Ancient 
Fottery, he begged to present for its acceptance a series of sketches, believ- 
ing that they might prove of sorae utility in assisting its researches. He 
says that having observed that ancient art generally originates through the 
imitation of natural objects, he was led to infer as highly probable that the 
beautiful outlines of the Grecian vases emanated from similar sources; and 
proceeded to point out the exquisite forms of leaves and fruits, suggesting 
the probable manner in which they had been used to give character and 
beauty of outline to those manufactures. 

The second communication was from Mr. W. T. Griffiths, and accom- 
panied a copy of his work " On the Natural System of Architecture." 

The communication alluded to the work as pointing out the geometrical 
proportions of the temples of Greece, and calling attention to the applica- 
bility of geometrical design to domestic architecture, and as also affording a 
ready means of obtaining beautiful patterns for oil cloths, carpets, &c. The 
author then proceeded to point out the improbability of the ancient Greek 
vases being constructed on any other than pure geometrical principles, as is 
proved by analysis ; and concluded by alluding to the mistaken but very 
prevalent notion that to produce a beautiful building, it is necessary to over- 
load it with meretricious ornament, — instead of feeling that the more sim- 
ple is often tbe more beautiful design. 

Mr. Varlev made some remarks in reference to Mr. Dwyer's communi- 
cation, and stated that although we have many artists of highly-cultivated 
taste, still they have not the necessary knowledge to enable them to produce 
good art. In reference to a leaf having given rise to the forms of the Greek 
vases, he would observe that a leaf in itself is a pendant body, and as such 
is very beautiful : but no single leaf would stand upright. We might take 
some pendant fruits, such as the apple, — which might be said to have a 
base, and some vases might be compared to it ; but he did not think that 
they gave rise to the forms of the Greek vases, although he must admit that 
Nature was the first teacher of everything that is beautiful. There are cer- 
tain rules, Mr. Varley said, which Nature suggests, and which we find the 
Greeks used ; and he proceeded to point out the following method which 
might be used for producing agreeable forms, such as the bodies of the vases 
exhibited — viz., by taking one-quarter of an hyperbola, parabola, or ellipse, 
according to the outline desired; and by rotating it on its axis at any given 
angle, it would be made to produce the figure desired. Similar simple 
methods for obtaining the necks and stands for vases were also described. 

The Secretary made some remarks on the forms of vases, and stated 
that if beauty consisted in the imitation of Nature, as suggested by Mr. 



Dwyer, a man would have nothing to do but to take the first leaf of a tree 
as soon as he came to it ; instead of which, discontented with the first fifty 
leaves, he goes on seeking and seeking, till at last he finds one which pleases 
him, because it comes up to the ideas in his own mind, and which he had 
preconceived as the standard of beauty. 

Mr. Wyndham Harding considered that the effect of vases and other 
domestic utensils, as well as the architecture of everyday life, should pro- 
duce on the eye an effect equally pleasing with music on the ear ; and that, 
as in order to obtain harmony in music it is necessary that the cords or 
wires should each vibrate a proportionate number of times, so should the 
proportions of one part of a vase bear a given relation to those of another. 
In relation to architecture, several persons have considered that certain nu- 
merical simple proportions can be traced as existing in the various members 
of ancient Greek temples, and Mr. Donaldson had stated that he has revived 
the means of determining the precise proportion of various parts of all 
Gothic buildings : and these geometric and harmonic relations must have 
been known to the Greeks in the formation of their woiks. 

Mr. Smith stated that he did not consider that geometry was used by the 
ancients to the extent which is generally attributed to them, hut rather that 
their works were the result of a practised eye and hand, guided by a highly, 
cultivated taste. 

Feb. 9. — Baron Goldsmid, V.P., in the Chair. 
The Secretary introduced the business of tbe evening by some remarks on 
"Fohjgonar Decorations," as follows. 

The discussion on the construction of ancient Greek vases, which had 
lately occupied the meetings of the Society, had occasioned several treatises 
to be written and a great amount of attention to be paid to the subject. It 
is continually alleged as a fault of the art in our day, that instead of boldly 
creating forms and trusting to our own minds, and carrying out those feel- 
ings according to what we consider the enlightened principles which we have 
struck out for ourselves, we are contented to take for granted tliat the an- 
cients were artists truly unapproachable, and such we can never hope to 
equal, much less to excel ; and, therefore, the best thing that we can do is 
to abandon altogether originality, and give ourselves up to tbe study and 
copying of the antique forms. The Secretary then pointed out the effect of 
a design upon the mind and senses in the case of polygonar art, and called 
attention to the effect of such a combination of colours and forms as shall 
produce upon the mind the effect of a design standing out from the wall or 
pavement, hut which, if felt by the hand or foot, is perfectly flat. He next 
proceeded to point out the forms of the tesserse and geometric figures which 
had hitherto been used in combination to produce design, and pointed out 
the beauty and variety of design whioh might be obtained by the combina- 
tion of a form of tessera, which, although not new, had not up to this time 
been used as the base of a pattern. The figure which was pointed out as 
most applicable to mosaic decorations was the triangle of Plato, any num- 
ber of which might be arranged round a point and made to cover an entire 
surface, forming bands either horizontally, diagonally, or any variety of dia- 
mond figures, as the fides of the triangle bear a peculiar ratio, namely, 30, 
60, and 90 degrees ; whereas, where figures of inharmonious ratios are used, 
the same variety cannot be obtained. 

Having thus pointed out the applicability of geometric figures to the pro- 
duction of beautiful forms, the Secretary gave several extracts from a paper 
on the " Beau Ideal Head," by Mr. D. R. Hay ; from Mr. Blashfield's paper 
on the " Construction of Fictile Vases ;" Dr. Wampen's communication on 
the " Geometrical Proportions of the Human Figure ;" and Mr. Digby 
Wyatt's paper on " Ancient Tessera; ;" also a letter from Mr. J. Jopling, as to 
the improbability of ancient vases having been construoted on any other 
than purely geometrical principles. 

Dr. Harding made some remarks as to the uses to which the various 
cups and vases excavated by him had been applied, and gave the following 
quotation from an ancient Greek play, as illustrating the purpose to which 
the Lecythe had been applied. The play is one in which a young man is 
represented as jeering an abandoned old woman, and is saying — 
"But you old wretcti, I greatly dread your lover." 
"Who?" 

" Why, that first of artists." 
" Who is that?" 

" He who for dead men paints the Lecythe." 
Another quotation as pointing out the use of these vessels, is as follows : — 
" You left rae like a corpse laid out; ouly uncrowned and with no Lecythi^s on me." 
After alluding to tbe probable purposes to which the several other specimens 
of vases were applied, Mr. Harding stated that what had been said by Mr. 
Birch at a former meeting (as to the manufacture of vases having been in- 
troduced into Italy by Eueheir and Eugrammus, artists who had fled from 
Greece), was a myth, and could not be received. Corinth, he observed, has 
been celebrated at all times, according to Strabo, for its politicians and for 
the promotion of the useful arts, both graphic and plastic, and for every 
species of useful application of them ; also for some beautiful, but not nu- 
merous, specimens of objects connected with sepulchral rites. 

ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 
Jan. 24.— George Buchanan, Esq., F.R.S.E., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were made : — 

1. Description of a Marine Hydrometer, adapted for ascertaining the 
comparative Saltness and Freshness of Sea and River Waters. By George 
Buchanan, Esq., President. 

13* 



9^ 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



LMxBtB, 



This is an instrument which Mr. Buchanan stated he had found extremely 
useful in inquiries connected with the prevalence of sea and river water in 
different estuaries, and therefore he thought a short notice of it might not he 
uninteresting to the Society. In the great question connected with the 
salmon fislieries in regard to the respective limits of the river and the sea, 
the prevalence of fresh or salt water had been considered an important ele- 
ment ; hut finding the usual methods of measuring the specific gravity by 
weighing the waters in a delicate balance, not very applicable where nume- 
rous specimens were required to be tried on the spot, it occurred to him 
that something on the principle of the hydrometer might be used, and this 
was the iusirument which was exhibited, consisting of the bulb of a spirit 
hydrometer, loaded so as just to sink the bulb in salt water, and having a 
long stem attached, which, in fresh water, becomes almost wholly immersed. 
Some difficulty was found at first in adapting the scale, as it must not only 
be thin but liglit, otherwise it tends to overbalance the instrument. A slip 
of whalebone or ivory answers sufficiently well, and several instruments were 
shown of this description, and one entirely of brass. The use of the instru- 
ment was clearly exhibited in several experiments with fresh water, and 
with the waters of the Forth, some from Granton Pier, some from Queens- 
ferry, and some from Alloa. From Granton Pier the water, even at low 
tide, has a very little impregnation of fresh, as compared with the German 
Ocean, which he had found, along the eastern shores of Scotland, seldom 
to exceed the specific gravity of 102G, fresh water being 1000. At Granton 
Pier the average of high and low water was found 1024i, or about one part 
fresh in sixteen salt. At Queensferry it was found 102a, or about one part 
fresh in eight salt. At Alloa the waters at low tide are almost quite fresh ; 
and at high water the specific gravity was found nearly 1012, or nearly half 
fresh, half salt. A considerable difference is found between the surface and 
bottom waters. The specific gravities of different seas were then stated. 
The .\rctic ocean 1027; the waters under the equator 1028; and the 
Mediterranean, which is nearly the saltest of any sea, 1029. But the 
heaviest ot all waters are those of the Dead Sea, which are strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphurous and bituminous ingredients, as well as with salt, 
and have been found about eight times heavier than sea water as compared 
with fresh, having the extraordinary gravity of 1211. By the use of this 
simple instrument, many interesting observations might be made by voyagers 
in different seas. 

2. Description and Drawing of a Glass- Blowing Apparatus, being a new 
invention in the Blowing of Glass. By Mr. William Cooper. 

This invention consists in efl'ecting the blowing of glass by means of 
double bellows placed under the floor, acted on by the foot of the glass- 
blower, and the air is carried to the blow-tube by means of a flexible tube, 
easily attached and detached from the nozzle of the ordinary iron tube. 
The advantages are stated to be, that larger articles can be blown, that the 
glass is freer from " cockle," and that the lungs of the workman are saved, 
and his muscular energies not being so severely taxed, he will be able to 
produce a great deal more manufactured goods in a given time. The air 
blown by the bellows being of a much purer quality than that from the 
lungs, produces a better article. That larger sizes and a thicker substance 
of blown plate may be obtained by this new process, and the sheet-glass 
manufacturer will be able to compete with the cast plate-glass monopolist. 
That " carboys" to contain twelve and sixteen gallons have been successfully 
blown by this process. Mr. Cooper then recommended that this process 
should be adopted in Edinburgh and Leith, where coal is cheaper than in 
Staflfordshire by 4s. per ton, and where living and house-rent are about one- 
fourth less ; the workmen all preferring Leith, from its healthy situation, cheap- 
ness, and family conveniences. Locahty, he stated, is now looked at ; 
economy in carriage is itself a profit to the manufacturer, now that the 
duties are removed, and all the English manufacturers circumscribing their 
connection. 

3. Description of an Elevator, for raising Building materials or other 
bodies, — and capable of being used as a Fire-Escape — containing a new ap- 
vlication of the Pulley. By Mr. Robert Davidson, Engineer. 

Mr. Davidson stated that this machine or elevator was applicable as a fire- 
escape, and well suited to the raising of small weights to great heights, such 
as in mills and factories ; or in the raising of scaffolding for workmen, such 
as painters, plasterers, masons, &c. It consists of a number of sliders, 
moving within each other by means of a fixed pulley attached to the top of 
a fixed upright, which is hollow, containing all the other sliders, which are 
hollow also, except the last one, which may be solid, the top of which con- 
tains a platform enclosed by a railing. There is a chain or rope fastened 
to a hook in the bottom of the top slides, passing over a moveable pulley, 
made fast to the top of the next slide, and passing down the outside of it 
and made fast to the top of the next slide following, on the top of which 
is also a moveable pulley, over which passes a rope or chain made fast to a 
hook in the bottom of the slide immediately preceding, the other end of 
which is made fast to the top of the fixed hollow upright, on the top 
of which is placed a fixed pulley, which guides the chain whereto the 
power is applied ; t(ie one end being made fast to a crane barrel, and the 
other end attached to the bottom of the slide next adjoining, which compels 
a simultaneous movement of the whole machine. 



£ s. 
82,054 19 



139,185 7 10 
453,648 12 



NEW PALACE OF WESTMINSTER. 

Return {dated December 20, 1847) of the Aggregate Amount already 
paid, or agreed to be paid, to Contractors and other Persons for the Purchase 
of Land and Houses for the Erection of the Palace of U'estminster (or 
Houses of Parliament). 

1. The cost of the purchase of the lands and heredita- 
ment . . 

2. The cost of the wharfing, terrace, and foundations 
fur the building.. 

3. The cost of the carcase or shell already executed 
(exclusive of alterations as under) .. 

4. The cost of the principal alterations made from 
time to time. These alterations (involving changes in 
the original plan) consist of official residences for the 
librarian and clerk of the House of Commons, accom- 
modation for the law courts, alterations of the Victoria 
tower, offices for the clerk of the crown, and works con- 
tingent upon the warming and ventilating arrangements, 
&c., which were severally reported to her Majesty's Com- 
missioners of Woods, &c., and sanctioned by parliament 
in March 1843. Also, of an increase in the size and 
height of the Victoria hall, sanctioned by her Majesty's 
Commissioners of Woods, &c. 

5. The cost of interior finishings 

6. The cost of the internal decorations of the House 
of Lords and its adjuncts, as far as they have been com- 
pleted (including preparations for lighting) . . 

7. The amount of commission and other charges paid, 
or to be paid, to the architect on account of works and 
services already executed' 

8. The amount paid to surveyors, valuers, clerks of 
the works, and all other persons who have been em- 
ployed, and not included in the architect's or builder's 
charge 

The amount of the whole expenditure of every de- 
scription, under these principal heads, for pur- 
chases made and work done at the Palace of 
Westminster, and its appendages, up to 31st day ^-^— ^— — . 
of December, 1846. .. .. .. £833,268 13 3 



Estimate /or the Sums which will be required to pay for such other Lands 
a)id Hereditaments intended to be purchased for the completion of the Palace 
and the Approaches thereto ; of the Sum required to finish the Houses of 
Lords and Commons and their Appendages ; of the Sum necessary for the 
Victoria Toioer, and all other Works proposed to be executed to finish the 
Palace. 



25,469 
74,134 



21,600 



26,315 2 11 



10,861 S 8 



a 



1. The cost of lands and hereditaments intended to £ 
be purchased 2 .. .. .. .. .. — 

2. The cost of the completion of the terrace and foun- 
dations of the buildings .. .. .. .. 18,747 

3. The cost of the carcase or shell yet to be executed 356,328 

4. The cost of the principal alterations. None pro- 
posed . . . . . . . . . . . . — 

5. The cost of the interior finishings .. ,, 172,648 

6. The cost of the internal decorations of the House 
of Lords and its adjuncts (including lighting and furni- 
ture) .. .. .. .. .. .. 20,044 10 

7. Amount of the commission to be paid to the archi- 
tect:'.. .. .. .. .. .. — 

8. Amount to be paid to surveyors, valuers, clerks of 
works, and others, not included in the architect's or 

builder's charge . . . . . . . . . . uncertain 



Brought forward , . 



567,767 10 
833,268 13 



Total Cost .. ..£1,401,036 3 8 

The total cost of works executed, and estimated cost of the works to be 

executed to finish the New Palace of Westminster, is thus £1,401,036 3 8; 

but which is exclusive of extra finishings, works of decoration, fittings ia 

libraries and refreshment rooms, &c. ; fixtures, furniture, and upholstery ; 

J Tflia amount includes (besides tlie prot'essioniil remuneration to the architect on 
account of woiks executed to the general building) the commiasion upon works to the 
cofferdam, river wall, &c., aud the sum paid for a detailed estimate, in accordance witll 
the approved design. 

2 It is proposed, under Treasury authority, dated November 28th, 1842, to obtain pos- 
session eventually of the buildings on the south side of Bridge-Street, Westminster: the 
probable cost of these buildings has not been ascertained. 

3 By Treasury letter, doted February 2.'i, 1839, the sura of .^25,000 was directed to b« 
paid to the architect as professional remuneration for superintending, directing, and 
completing the Houses of Parliament in conformity with the original design and esti- 
mate, (It is right to state that the principle of this arrangement has never been acceded 
to by Mr. Barry). The remuneration to the architect on account of works not included 
in his original estimate, but subsequently authorised, has not yet been the subject of 
consideration. 



184.&.1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



93 



warming, ventilating, and lighting, &c., except so far as such works are 
already executed in the finished portions of the building ; also, of the re- 
storation of St. Stephen's crypt as a chapel, if it should be so determined ; 
the formation of landing-places towards the rirer, the paving of the several 
courts, &c., of the building, the altering of the levels, and the re-paving as 
well as lighting of the streets in its locality, &c. Sec. The cost of which 
must depend on the nature and extent of the works ordered. 

In this amount there is a sum of Je52'4,099 6s. for charges upon the puf- 
chase of lands and hereditaments, the cost of the river wall and embank- 
ment, the warming and ventilating arrangements, and the contingent fire- 
proof construction ef the building throughout; the additional residences 
and other accommodation ordered from time to time to be incorporated in 
the building, the increased depth of the foundations of the entire building, 
the main sewers for the drainage of the building and its locality, the various 
modifications of plan suggested and recommended by committees of parlia- 
ment and other authorities, and for miscellaneous works ; all of which formed 
no part of the original design and estimate." 

Miscellaneous Expenditure connected with the building of the New 
Palace of Westminster, not being for Purchases made or Work done at the 
Neto Houses of Parliament, or included in the Architect's Estimate for the 
same, but defrayed met of Grants voted by Parliament for that service. 

Preliminary Measures. £ s. d. 

Premium and expenses connected with competition 
designs ; the expense of a tour of inspection, and of ex- 
periments made with reference to the selection of the 
particular description of stone to be used in the build- 
ing ; also payment to engineers for surveys of the bed of 
the river .. .. .. .. .. 4,902 3 19 

St. Stephen's Chapel. 

The expense of making drawings in detail of the 
chapel previous to its being taken down, and engraving 
the same for publication.^ .. .. .. 2,712 12 

Government Wood Carving Works, Thames Bank. 

These premises were taken to facilitate the progress of 
the interior finishings of the new buildings, by the erec- 
tion therein of carving machines, and the employment of 
carvers and other workmen in tihe immediate pay of the 
Department of Woods, and under the supervision of su- 
perintendents appointed for this service, and direction of 
the architect. 

The expense of erecting additional buildings to afford 
the necessary accommodation for carrying on the works, 
supply of water, precautionary measures against fire, 
rent (to the crown), rates, lighting, &c. " .. .. 11,191 3 6 

The expense arising from damage done or re-instate- 
ment made to adjoining property during the progress of 
the works .. .. .. .. .. 1,522 5 4 

Payments on account of frescos . . . . . . 538 19 9 

Experimental Ventilation, 6fc. (Dr. Reid's system). 

The expense of works, apparatus, salaries, and allow- 
ances in experimentally carrying out Dr. Reid's system of 
warming, ventilating, and lighting at the present tem- 
porary Houses of Parliament, with a view to its adoption 
in the new building .. .. .. .. 8,328 7 3 

The expense of inquiry and reference as to the appli- 
cability of Dr. Reid's system of warming and ventilating 
to the new Houses of Parliament . . . . . . 946 13 6 

Minor expenses .. .. .. .. 97 12 6 



£30,239 17 8 



Statement of the Amount of each Original Contract, and of every 
Alteration or Deviation therefrom, and the Amount paid, or to be paid, for 
each Contract and Alteration, and tender what Authority such Alterations or 
Deviations have been severally made. 

Contract, No. 1 (in Gross). £ s. d. 

For the river wall, and a part of the foundations of 
the river front of the building .. .. .. 74,373 

Additional works in the river wall, reported to her 
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, &c., and sanctioned 
by parliament .. .. .. .. .. 2,104 13 9 

£76,477 13 9 



4 A credit m aid towards defraying the above total estimated cost will arise from the 
Bale of old materials, estimated to produce 14,000 I., and also from the sale of the mate- 
rials of the cofferdam, when it has served its present purpose. 

5 A credit will arise under this head from the sale of the publication. 

6 As these premises will, after they have ceased to be used as at present, be available 
for other public purposes, and the additional buildings will permanently enhance the 
value of the crown property upon which they have been erected, this expense Is not 
wholly to be considered as a charge on account of the New Houses of Parliament. 



(Contract No. 2 (at Prices). 

For the remainder of the foundations of the river front, 
main sewers, &c., estimated at 

Subsequent estimates and accounts reported to her 
Majesty's Commissioners, &c., and sanctioned by parlia- 
ment . . 



£ s. d. 

7,442 1 9 

4,720 16 4 

£12,162 18 1 



Contract No. 3 (in Gross). £ s. d. 

For the carcase of the river front, and a portion of the 
north and south fronts .. .. .. .. 157,615 

Change of stone, 8,500/. ; fire-proofing, 7,200/. ; 
warming and ventilating works, 10,150/. j reported to her 
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, and sanctioned by 
parliament: Total .. .. .. .. 25,850 

Additional cost of fire-proof floors, roofs, &c., and for 
warming and ventilating arrangements executed under 
the general authority of her Majesty's Commissioners of 
Woods, &c. to the architect to comply with Dr. Reid's 
requirements .. .. .. .. .. 15,275 

Cost of stone carving upon the arrangement authorised 
by her Majesty's Commisioners of Woods, May 13, 1841 23,829 14 

Miscellaneous works ordered by the architect, under 
the general authority given to him to carry out his plans 6,000 



Contract No. 4 (at Prices). 

The foundations of the central masses of the building 
from north to south, including the Houses of Lords and 
Commons, and their respective lobbies, corridors, and 
contiguous offices and apartments, and the foundations of 
the Victoria and other towers, estimated amount 

Subsequent estimates and amounts reported to her 
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, &c., and sanctioned 
by parliament . . — 



£228,569 14 



17,822 1 6 



25,312 16 8 
£43,134 17 8 



Contract, No. 5 (at Prices). £ s. d. 

For the carcase of the superstructure above the foun- 
dations comprised in Contract, No. 4, estimated at .. 219,969 

1. Change of stone, 9,460/.; fire-proofing, 8,400/.; 
warming and ventilating arrangements, 14,616/. ; re- 
ported to her Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, &c., 

and sanctioned by parliament : Total .. .. 32,476 

2. For slating to flats and roofs, asphalting walls, 

lengthening sewers, &c. ; reported to the Office of Woods 4,299 14 8 

3. For floor plates and other structural arrangements 
required for ventilation, executed under the general au- 
thority given to the architect to comply with Dr. Reid's 
requirements; not yet brought to account and reported 12,180 

4. For iron roofs and additional cost of girders and 
arches rendered necessary by the warming and venti- 
lating arrangements, and reported to her Majesty's Com- 
missioners of Woods, &c... .. .. .. 26,500 

5. For cost of stone carving, under the arrangement 

sanctioned by her Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, 21,137 17 9 

6. For miscellaneous and contingent works ordered by 
the architect under the general authority given to him 

to carry out his plans .. .. .. .. 15,000 

7. For the official residences for the librarian and for 
the clerk of the House of Commons, accommodation for 
law courts, alterations of Victoria tower, enlargement of 
Victoria hall, increased height of Victoria hall, offices of 
the clerk of the crown, and works contingent upon the 
warming and ventilating arrangements, reported to her 
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, and sanctioned by 

parliament .. .. .. .. .. 25,469 



£357,031 12 5 



d. 



Contract, No. 6 (at Prices). £ 

The foundations and carcase of the superstructure of 
St. Stephen's hall and lobby, and the public approach 
from Westminster hall and St. Margaret's-street ; esti- 
mated and reported to her Majesty's Commissioners of 
Woods, &c., at . . .. .. .. .. 57,631 

For change of stone, 4,040/. ; and warming and venti- 
lating arrangements, 3,234/. ; reported to her Majesty's 
Commissioners of Woods, and sanctioned by parliament 7,274 

For iron roofs and other warming and ventilating ar- 
rangements, executed under the general authority given 
by her Majesty's Commissioners of Woods to the archi- 
tect to comply with Dr. Reid's requirements . , • • 5,000 



a* 



THE CIVIL EXGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



LMabch 



£ s. A. 
Brought forward.. .. .. G9,905 

Estimated cost of the stone carving under the arrange- 
ment sanctioned by her Majestv's Commissioners of 
Woods, &c., May 13, 1841 '.. .. .. 3,520 



Contract, No. 7 (at Prices). 
For interior finishings : Amount . . 



f73,425 



jE21,407 6 



Contract, No. 8 (at Prices). 
For interior finishings : Estimated amount.. .. dE165,37o 



A Copy OF THE Okioi.val Estimate (1S37). 
River Front and Returns 
King's Tower 
Clocl< Tower. . 
Old Palace Yard Front . . 
New Palace Yard Front 
Puhlic Entrance Approaches 
House of Lords 

Offices, Approaches, &c., to ditto 
House of Commons .. 
Offices, Approaches, &c., to ditto 
Law Courts . . 

£707,101 



211,047 19 





79,§44 15 





18,013 19 





50,491 1 





36,112 12 





82,617 4 





31,140 15 





02,906 6 





35,306 9 





48,614 15 





51,408 5 






ON CAEN STONE. 

Frmn a paper read at the Royal Institution of British Architects, 
onJuniiarii 2ith. By T. L. Donalbson, Esq. 

Being about to employ a large quantity of Caen stone in a work 
■which is on the point of commencing, I was anxious to malce 
myself fully acquainted with its properties and varieties, and the 
quantity of well-seasoned blocks that might be available in the 
market. I therefore determined to go to Caen itself, and visit the 
quarries. A few hours carries one o^er to Ha\'re from Southamp- 
ton, and a steam-boat conveys passengers from Havre to Caen 
in four hours. The last hour is occupied in mounting the river 
Orne, which, in its course from the sea to some distance above 
Caen, has a flat country on the left bank of the ri\er, but, on the 
right, generally a lofty bank, at times immediately overlianging 
the stream, at others receding from it, but again joining it. Not 
far from the mouth of the Orne, at a place called Ranville, 
quarries are worked in the face of this bank. It is a liarder 
and coarser variety of the same stone as tluit near Caen, and 
of more open texture, witli a more crystalline character, lience 
more adapted for hydraulic works than for buildings. I am in- 
formed Ijy our friend, Mr. H. C. Smith, that tliese coarse varieties, 
which doubtless are very durable, resemble in several particulars 
the stone from ^Veldon, in Northamptonshire, of which the oldest 
buildings at Cambridge are constructed. 

The material generally known to us under the appellation of 
Caen stone is of tlie oolitic formation, presenting a close analogy 
in its general, and e\'en in some of its minor divisions, witli the 
rocks of a similar kind in tlie soutli of England. The quarries 
whence it is derived are situated at Allemagne, a parish and village 
on the right bank of the river, at the distance of about a mile and 
a half, or two miles, above the city. The quarries heretofore 
worked occupy a superficial area of about four square miles. 
Some are worked by means of shafts, which afford access to the 
quarries under ground, braiu'hing ofl' on all sides in long galleries, 
or multiplied by chambers, which are about 18 feet wide, and the 
ceiling-bed upheld by massive rude piers, wliich are left 9 feet 
square and 18 feet apart, the height being about IS or 20 feet. 
These (juarries, which are immediately on the I)ank of the river — 
here abruptly rising from the water — have an access from the side 
of the liank, and arc ajjproached by inclined roads, leading from 
the summit of the bank abo\'e and from the water's edge below. 
The openings to these dark and gloomy ca\erns have a very pic- 
turesque effect, and a continued series of them present themselves 
one after the other. The galleries penetrate to a considerable 
distance. The extraction of the stone is done by contract or task 
work, at so much per cube, the quarrymen removing tlie blocks 
and dressing them, and another set of men contracting for their 
carriage from the (piarry to the quay at Caen. 

Immediately under the soil there are some thin courses of hard 



coarse stone and rubble, but the immediate ceiling-bed is called 
the htnic c/outier, and is about 2 ft. C in. thick. It is of a hardish 
quality, but is not ajijilicable for building purposes, as it contains 
a great quantity of pebbles, which offer great difficulties in the 
sawing and working. There ai-e about six beds of goiul building 
stone, the five uppermost ones calculated for outside work, the 
lowermost adapted only for inside work, as it has soft portions, 
which do not well resist the atmosjihere.'' Much of this is used in 
the interior of the new Parliament buildings. Tlie aggi-egate height 
of tliese six lieds is from 22 to 23 feet. It is to be observed that 
aU these beds are not to be found in every quarry, one or other of 
them disappearing and re-a]>pearjng in the same manner as in 
England. The names which I am about to give do not obtain in 
all parts of the district ; and some of them have various designa- 
tions given to them by the quarrymen. The uppermost bed is 
called the banc pourri, about 3 feet thick, whicli is a very good 
quality of stone ; but occasionally it has in some portions the hard 
pebbles, previously alluded to, as prevailing to so gi-eat a degree 
in the banc cloutier, and therefore it is not so much esteemed for 
finer building purposes as the lower beds. The gron banc is the 
next bed, and has an average depth of 5 feet, but as it is inconve- 
nient to work to that large size, it is generally split into two, in 
heights of 3 feet and 2 feet ; and the smaller one is called the 
banqueret of the ijros banc. La picrre franchched comes next, about 
3 feet deep, which is of a harder quality, and well adapted for 
cornices, sills, copings, and the like exposed positions in a building. 
Next to this is the banc de quatre pieds, a very fine bed, which has 
the same appellation, and depth of 4 feet, in all the quarries, as 
also the next bed, called /a yj/ove f/e ?rc((?f//o»ces, being 30 inches 
deep, a good hard bed of stone, and forming the lowest of those 
fit for outside purposes and exposure to the weather. Tlie sixth 
and lowermost lied of the building-stone is termed the franc banc 
and has a total dejith of from \ feet 6 inches to 5 feet, but this 
being, like that of the gros banc, an inconvenient depth, it is di- 
vided into a lower thickness of 3 feet, and an upper banqneret of 
20 or 24. inches deep. The whole of the stone of these beds is soft 
and tender in the quarries, and the blocks are extracted with great 
ease. They are produced of regular size and squareness. AMieii 
taken to the outside, and exposed to the atmosphere, they gradually 
part with much of their humidity, and harden ; and, if exposed 
on the quays during the winter, they are co\ered over to protect 
them from the frost. They saw freely with a common peg-toothed 
saw, without either sand or water, and are easily worked for 
building purposes ; and, being of a compact fine grain, they pro- 
duce very sharp arrises, and receive a very smooth surface on the 
face. 

During the winter little work is done in the quarries in regard 
to extracting blocks of stone ; but the men occupy themselves in 
sawing and squaring slabs about 12 or 15 inches square, and from 
an inch to an inch and a half, or more, thick, wliich are used for 
paving halls, galleries, and even some rooms inside their buildings. 
But the most extraordinary use to which 1 have seen these square 
slabs applied, was in the church of the Trinity of the Ahbaye aux 
Dames. Two of the openings between the piers have been closed 
up, for the purpose of some repairs going on. I passed tlirough a 
door in tlie partition or inclosure, both of which appeared to nie 
of the same thickness. My surprise was great, and I examined 
the edge of the ojiening, and found it of stone, and discovered, 
upon closer inspection, that the opening, about 10 feet wide by 
20 feet high, was inclosed by these square thin slabs, aliout an inch 
and a half thick, placed on edge, put to gether with plaister, suffi- 
ciently stalile to allow a door to work in its aperture. I subse- 
quently was t(dd, upon inquiry, that the inside partition in rooms, 
10 feet high, are formed of the same material, and secured by oc- 
casional upright studs, 10 feet apart. These partitions are admi- 
rable, for they are very light, occupy little space, and form an ex- 
cellent ground to receive the plastering on the surface. 

The general. character given of the Caen stone is, that all the 
Vieds are of the same quality, and all equally adapted for building 
purposes ; but evidently, from the infoi'iuation w liich I collected 
on the spot, and subsequently in London, from Messrs. Luard, tliere 
are modifications in each bed, as may be reasonably supposed, and 
as experience teaches us in the quarries of other oolitic stones in 
Bath and Portland. V^irious veins traverse the beds in all direc- 
tions, and have a white apjiearance ; this white substance is equally 
hard w ith tlie stone itself, and if a stone be laid w ith its bed 
parallel w ith the direction of tliese veins, it is of little consequence, 
but they, of course, indicate a certain unsoundness or division in 



* This is also the case with all the oolitic quarries in England. The uppermost beds 
are hardest to ivork, hut most durable ; the lower beds are soft, aud will not stand the 
weather so well as the upper ones. 



18+8,1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



9S 



that part ; and if the stone he laid with this vein in a vertical di- 
rection, the block will run the chance of being fractured by a 
weight, or, if near the surface, it probably may adniit tlie wet. 
These veins are not like those in tlie Batli stones, which are hard, 
consisting of crystallized carbonate of lime, and running always 
in a vertical or inclined direction, and not liable to separation. 
In general it is considered that the blocks of Caen stone may be 
placed in construction in any du'ection, except when the wliite 
veins are perceptible. It is said that the most experienced eye 
can hardly detect the different qualities of the stone in the block, 
when once they have been removed from the quarry, as the action 
of the quarryiiian's tool on the surface hardly offers any indication ; 
and there is no appreciable difference in the appearance of the 
^■anular formation. 

There are in the vicinity of Caen, even to a considerable dis- 
tance, many beautiful varieties of tliis formation. At Falaise, 
about 20 miles off, higher up the Orne, is a fine compact stone, 
mucli harder than tlie Allemagne. Its texture is beautifully equal, 
and fine grained. Its price is one-third more than that of Caen 
stone, and, of course the labour upon it is considerably increased. 
It is well adapted for exposed situations, and is used, I believe, in 
the quays and dock basin now constructing at Caen. 

I was, of course, anxious to ascertain whether the magnificent 
and ancient buildings in the city could be relied upon as proofs of 
the quality of tlie stone in the Allemagne quarries, of which there 
is a traditional report lianded down from one generation to another, 
that they are constructed. And, certainly, the lofty pinnacles 
and spires, and the solid liigli square towers, which rise up in 
clouds, defying the fury of tlie elements, for many years exposed 
to storms, hail, rain, snow, and frost, acted upon by all the alterna- 
tions of heat and cold, wet and dry, present a sliarpness of arris 
and smoothness of surface, as seen from below, that prove a con- 
siderable degree of hardness in the stone of which they are con- 
structed. Less reliance can be placed upon the indications on the 
parts within reach, for exposed as tliey have been to the Vandal 
wantonness of the revolutionary phrenzy of destruction, and tlie 
Cah'anistic zeal of misguided religious feelings, tliere are many of 
the lower parts broken away and considerably worn. But the 
attenuated and refined details of some " renaissance" finials, pin- 
nacles, and flying buttresses, in the lady-chapels and apsidal altar- 
ends of the churches of S. Pierre and S. Sauveur, and S. Sauveur- 
le-Marclie of the beginning of the sixteenth century, more 
minutely enriched and elaborately carved and subdivided than even 
the most refined details of tlie flamboyant parts near them, are 
as fresh and sharp as if executed within tlielast fifty years. Time 
and weather have not liad, on the monuments of Caen, the same 
corroding hideous influence as on the edifices of Chester, Coventry, 
or Oxford. Tlie graceful spire of S. Pierre, the summit of which 
is 250 feet above the market-place, and itself more than 100 feet 
high, does not appear to be thicker than 9 inches in the lower part, 
and is reduced, it is said, to + inches thick at top. Tlie immense 
weiglit and exposed situation do not seem to ha\"e affected it in 
tlie least degree ; and it may be quoted, if not for size, at all 
events for its grace, daring construction, and state of preservation, 
after 540 years' trial, with its sister spire of our own Salisbury, 
erected at the same period. 

At the same time, I am not prepared to assert whether the stone 
employed was all taken from the Allemagne, or from some other su- 
perior quarries ; but the appearance of the stone justifies the tra- 
dition of its origin, and I know not how to question it. 



CONAVAY TUBULAR BRIDGE. 

Ejcperiments on the Completed Structure. 

Wn are glad to be able to quote from a contemporary an ac- 
count of the experiments on the tubular bridge just completed, 
as gi^-en by Mr. Fairbairn himself, in a letter to a friend : — 

" We liave solved an important problem in practical science; and, uespite 
the prognostication of some eminent mathematicians, tlie wliole of my ex- 
periments at Millwall have been more than realised. On Wednesday last, 
the tube was suspended upon temporary piers, 400 feet span ; and with its 
own weight (1,300 tons), the deflection did not exceed, but was under, 
8 inches. With 300 tons of loaded trucks, the deflection was increased to 
11 inches — being, as near as possible, in the ratio of 1 inch to 100 tons of 
load. The computed breaking weight of the tube is 2,200 tons equally dis- 
tributed, exclusive of its own weight; and, having its perfect retention of 
form and great rigidity, I am of opinion that it would sustain 3,000 tons 
before fracture took place." 

It appears from this account, that the deflection under a load of 
300 tons, is less than one foot — an amount which Mr. Fairbairn 



considers so small as to demonstrate the successful issue of the 
undertaking in which Mr. Stephenson, with the able co-operation 
of himself and Mr. Hodgkinson, is engaged. Certainly, wlien we 
consider the length of tlie structure, the multiplicity and complex- 
ity of the component parts, and the number of joints and rivets 

the accuracy of adjustment, and the extreme nicety of workman- 
ship which efl'ect the result stated, must appear wonderful ; and 
the superintendents of tliis great work, who have concerned them- 
selves in its minutest details, and therefore have the fullest sense 
of its difficulties, must naturally estimate this amount of success 
more highly than comparatively uninterested persons can do. 
But iron, even of the best quality, is not perfectly elastic; bolts 
and rivets, though ever so carefully formed, are not mathematically 
true ; and, therefore, it may reasonably be asked, if the structure 
sink one foot now, liow much will it sink when the bolts liave been 
worn, the bolt-hides enlarged, and the plates strained by the wear 
and tear of six months' railway traffic ? 

It is to be remembered, also, that the dynamical effect on the 
structure of a load in motion, is much more" than the statical effect 
of a load at rest. In the case of a jointed structure, of which 
the elasticity is imperfect, the dynamical strain and deflection 
would be certainly double the corresponding statical eflect. 

These remarks are not intended as forebodings as to the ulti- 
mate success of this magnificent undertaking. All that we wish to 
do is to point out how much of the problem is solved, and how 
much remains in doubt. Considering the question abstractedly, 
we cannot deny tlij possibility of making the structure strong 
enough to bear its load. Theoretically, a tubular bridge may of 
course be made strong enough to bear any assignable load what- 
ever — ton after ton of metal miglit he added till the requisite 
strength would be obtained. For as each ton of metal would be 
disposed so as to bear something more than its own weight, we 
should, by continuing the process of increasing the thickness of 
the plates, arrive ultimately at a point where the strength was suf- 
ficiently in excess to sustain any load assigned. 

But the question is, not wliether the bridge may be made strong 
enough, but whether it be made so at the least expense of material. 
It is to this point our doubts refer. Jlr. Fairbairn says, that his 
experimental results contradict the conclusions of some eminent 
mathematicians ; and, except for the laudatory epithet, we should 
be disposed to tliink that he refers to investigations wliich have, 
from time to time, appeared in this Journal^ in which alone, we 
belie\'e, the mathematical principles of tlie tubular bridge have 
been discussed on an extensive plan. But leaving the personal 
question, it is enough to explain that we call in question not the 
effect, but the means ; not the sufficiency of the structure, but its 
economy. It has been already shown (Vol. IX. for 1846, p. 300), 
that straight tension rods, proceeding in right lines from high 
suspension towers to several joints along the tube, would act with 
the greatest possible efficiency. It is not even now too late to 
apply tlie suspension rods to the bridge : only let it be by recti- 
lineal rigid diagonal bars — not by flexible or catenary chains. 
Comparing equal quantities of metal disposed — first, in increasing 
the thickness of the tube — secondly, in diagonal bars, acting 
eitlier as struts beneath the tube, or as tension rods above it, — it 
has been mathematically demonstrated that the efficiency of the 
metal may be trebled by the second method. AVere it not dan- 
gerous to prophesy on a subject so novel and so difficult, we should 
be inclined to predict that this second method, in one or other 
of its forms, of diagonal tension rods or diagonal struts, will be 
found necessary after the structure has been some time in use. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

TAe Tabernacle. — Among the interesting exhibitions now open is that of 
the Tabernacle of Israel, at 58, PalliVIall. The Rev. R. W. Hartshorn, a 
clergyman of the University of DubUn, feeling an interest as to the form 
and structure of the Tabernacle, has had a model made, with all the details 
elaborately executed, as gohl and silver candlesticks, brass sacrificial instru- 
ments, and embroidered curtains. The models are two in number, and are 
executed in strict conformity with the texts in the bible, which describe the 
arrangement of the original Tabernacle of the Jews. The first of these 
models represents the Jews encamped in the plain of lloab, with the tribe of 
Levitts and the Tabernacle in the centre. The tents of Ephvaim are shown 
in the distance, and afar off the Dead Sea and the mountain range. This is 
a most interesting tableau. The other model is devoted to the illustratioa 
of the court of the Tabernacle in greater detail. Here are shown the sixty 
pillars, the altar of burnt offering, the embroidered curtains, and all the ac- 
cessaries of the place of worship. Tlie water-vessels are copied from au- 
thorities in the British Museum ; the pdlars are gilt, the candlesticks and 
vessels are of gold and silver, and the model of a high priest stands at the 



d6 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Mabch, 



altar, superintending a sacrifice. .This exhibition is an extraordinary exam- 
ple of the practical illustration of a text, and is likely to excite very great 
interest, from the nature of the subject and the mode in which it is carried 
out. 

Sewage Pipes. — Glazed-ware pipes for sewers have become a large article 
of manufacture since the late sanitary agitation. 

Water Works. — In the new sanitary bill, provision is made to enable the 
new commissioMprs to set up water and gas works. 

Death. — Mr. Charles Dyer, a member of the Institute of British Archi- 
tects, has died of paralysis. His works are chiefly at Bristol ; and include 
the Victoria Kooms, with a large Corinthian portico ; the Bishop's College, in 
the Gothic style ; Christ Church, Clifton ; Bedminster, New Church ; and the 
Female Orphan Asylum. 

Nexo Theatre. — The Royal Polytechnic Institution has been nearly doubled 
in size by the erection of a very large tlieatr^, capable of holding a great 
number of persons. 

Decoration. — Regular courses of lectures are now being given at the 
School of Design, Somerset House. 

New Gallery, — In consequence of the gift of the Vernon collection, the 
government have obtained a committee of the House of Commons to inquire 
into the accommodation at the National Gallery, and what provision ought 
to be made for the national collections. This will result in a new building. 

Builders' Foremen. — The Institution of Builders* Foremen has reached its 
third year. Its first investment of ^100, 3^ per cents, has been made. 

Windows. — An agitation is being carried on to get rid of the window tax, 
and as it is supported on sanitary grounds it is likely to be successful, though 
the government have refused to do anything this year. 

Death. — The newspapers announce the death of Lieut. Col. Henry Brand- 
reth, R.E., one of the paid Railway Commissioners. He was a very dis- 
tinguished member of the Corps to which he belonged. His death was 
sudden. 

Dividends. — The railway dividends declared at tne half-yearly meetings 
have been more satisfactory than was expected ; while a conoplete denial 
has been given to the charge that dividends have been paid out of capital. 

Broad Gauge. — The course of litigation has been latterly in favour of the 
broad gauge, and it is expected the Great Western will be left masters of the 
Birmingham and Oxford line. 

Telegraph.—'MT. Wishaw is, it is stated, engaged on an hydraulic tele- 
graph, of which system, as is well known, he was the inventor. He organised 
the establishment of the Electric Telegraph Company. 

Colonies. — Colonial railways are quite at a stand-still : the Demerara works 
are stopped, the new Jamaica lines given over, and the Trinidad and Barbadoes 
Companies defunct. 

Survey. — The ordnance surveyors have begun the survey of London, for 
fear they should be stopped. Mr. Wyld gave some opposition in the House 
of Commons, but the surveyors have been so supine, that the government 
have been able to carry out their own system. 

Blackburn. — ^nthe 18th ult., a new market-house was opened at Blackburn. 
It ia by Mr. Terence Flanagan, C.E., and is 181 ft. 6 in, long, and 109 ft. 6 in. 
wide. The roof is in three spans. The tower is 18 feet square, and rises 
90 feet high. The material is Longridge stone, and the cost £800. 

Flaxman. — A collection of 150 works of Flaxman has been presented to 
the University College by Miss Denman, his executrix. 

Saltash Bridge for the Cornwall Railway. — The estuary of the Hamoaze 
at Saltash Passage, is, at high water, about three-quarters of a mile 
wide, 10 fathoms more or less deep, and, from its narrowness compared to 
other parts, the stream runs there with a most powerful force. It is designed 
to carry over the river, at this passage, a bridge of three arches, 95 feet 
above the surface of high-water spring tides. To aid in the accomplish- 
ment of this great object, the Cornwall Railway Company have purchased 
two 14-gnn packet brigs — the Pigeon and Magnet — of 300 tons each, and 
have moored them at the passage about midway. By a series of moor- 
ings, it has been ascertained that the bed of the river is covered with mud to 
depths varying from 18 inches to 15 feet. On the Cornwall side, a stage 
being moored 20 feet from the beach at low water, and a 30-bar ladder 
with weights attached, let down to rest on the ledge of a steep rock, a 
diver had yet to descend 9 feet before the bottom was obtained. On the 
Devonshire side th'ere is not so much declivity. The company have just 
received from Bristol, by Bristol and Exeter and South Devon Railway to 
Totness, and thence by sea, an immense cylinder, weighing 23 tons, 85 ft. 
9 in. long, and ft. 3 in. diameter. It is designed to let this cylinder down 
perpendicularly between the two brigs, when it will be about 25 feet out of 
the water, and in that position to moor it with hemp cai)les, fastened to four 
or five anchors, some of which weigh 1 ton each, purchased expressly from 
her Majesty's dockyard. An effort will then he made to pump the cylinder 
dry, by steam-engines to be fixed on board the brigs. Should the experi- 
ment with this cylinder prove successful, it will have to give place to one of 
much greater magnitude, weighing 130 tons, of the same length, but having 
a diameter of 30 feet — thus providing an area of sufficient extent to lay 
foundations for the piers of this formidable work. At the present season 
there are not more than about 30 men employed at Saltash ; but a far 
greater number will shortly be employed. They are under the control of 
the resident engineer, Capt. Donee, who is aided by Mr, Pope, the gentleman 
who 80 ably assisted in floating the Great Britain steani-packet. 



XiZST OF NE\V PATENTS. 

GRANTED IN ENGLAND FROM JANUARY 22, TO FEBRUARY 23, 1848, 

Six Months allowed/or Enrolment, unless otherwise expressed, 

Htnry Heywood, of Blackburu, Lancashire, for "csrtaia Impromnents in looms for 
weaving.'*— Sealed January -*2. 

William Hudson, uf Burnley, Lancashire, machine. maker, and John Dodgeon, of 
Burnley, same county, overlooker, lor " certain Improvements in looms for weaving."— 
January '2'2. 

Henry Hornblower, late of Dalgleish>place, Commercial- road, Middlesex, hut now of 
Devon's-lane, Bromley, engineer, for "lertaiu Improvements in machinery for exerting 
motive power, and for raising and forcing fluids."— January 25. 

Thomas Topham, of Ripley, Derbyshire, manufacturer, for " Improvements in the 
manufacture of time-tables." — January 25, 

George Fergussou Wilson, of Belmoat, Vauxhall, gentleman, for " Improvements in 
treating and manufacturing certain (atty or oily matters, and in the manufacture of 
candles and night-lights." — January 2<k 

Henry Highton, of Rugby, master of arts, and Edward HJghton, of Regent's Park, 
Middlesex, for '* Improvements in electric telegraphs." — January 25. 

James Barr Mitchell, M.D., and Thomas Best Woolryche, chemist, for *' Improve- 
meats in the manufacture of soiia, and in treating products obtained in such manufac- 
ture."— January 25. 

John Collins, of Leominster, in the county of Hereford, architect, for '* certain Im- 
provements in furnaces, stoves, grates, and tire-places, and in kilns and other apparatus 
for preparing vegetable and other substances, and the generation and application of beat." 
January 27. 

Thomas Robinson, of Coventry, ribbon manufacturer, for " Improvements in looms for 
weaving ribbons and other fabrics " — January 27. 

William Watson Pattinson, of Felling, near Gateshead, Durham, chemical manufac- 
turer, for " Improvements in the manufacture of soda." — January 27. 

William Henry Barlow, of Derby, civil engineer, for "Improvements in the manufac- 
ture of railway keys."— January 27. 

William Russell, of Lydbrook, in the county of Gloucester, iron master, for " an Im- 
provement in the preparation of such bar-iron as is used in the manufacture of certain 
kinds of rod-iron."- January 29. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancary-lane, mechanical draughtsman, for " Improved 
machinery for manufacturing shot and other bails." (A communication.) — January 31. 

James Blackwell, of Winsford, in the county of Chester, salt proprietor, for "certain 
Improvements in evaporating furnaces."— February 2. 

Robert Fowles, of North Sliielda, Northumberland, gentleman, for "certain Improve- 
ments In propelling." — February 8. 

James Bird, of the Cwm Avon Works, Taibach, Glamorgan, gentleman, for " certain 
Improvements in propelling."— February 8. 

Godfrey Anthony Ermen, of Manchester, cotton spinner, for " certain Improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for twisting cotton and other fibrous substances."— February 8. 

Richard Claike Burleigh, of Featherstone-buildings, Middlesex, gentleman, for " Im- 
provements in burners for obtaining or producing light and heat, and in apparatus to be 
used therewith."— February 8. 

Jacob Brett, of Hanover-sqiiare, Middlesex, gentleman, for " Improvements in electric 
printing and other telegraphs." — ^February 8. 

William Heywood, glover, of Stone Bridge, Chester, chemist, for "Improvements in 
the manufacture of oil from blubber." — February 8. 

William Sangster, of Regent-street, Middlesex, for " Improvements in umbrellas and 
parasols." — February 8. 

Jean Napoleon Zermen, of Greenwich, Kent, captain in the French navy, for "Im- 
provements in ships and other vessels."— February 8. 

Luke Hebert, of Ryde, Isle of Wight, civil engineer, for " Improved mechanism for 
reducing, grinding, aud sifting bark, sugar, coffee, seeds, and other substances."— 
February 8. 

William Peter Piggott, of Oxford-street, Middlesex, and Wardrobe-place, Doctors* 
Commons, city, for "certain Improvements in nautical instruments, and in the manu- 
facture of cases for containing instruments, goods, or merchandise." — February 3. 

Jean Marie Magnin, of Ville Granche, (Rhone,) France, avocat, for " Improvements in 
machinery for sewing, embroidering, and for making cords or plaits." — February y. 

Gustav Adolph BuckhoU, of Forston-street, Middlesex, gentleman, for " Improvements 
in obtaining motive power. "^February 9, 

Felix Douclia, merchant, of Rouen, France, for "certain means, processes, and appa- 
ratus used for saving aud applying the lost heat in general and sometimes direct heat, to 
many useful purposes.*' (A communication.) — February 10. 

William Jeary Cannon, of Cambridge, solicitor, for " Improvements in the construction 
of carriages for the conveyance of sheep and other animals on railways." — February 11. 

The Right Hon. Thomas, Earl of Dundonald, Vice-Admiral of the White squadron of 
Her Mnjesty's fleet, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Hon. Order of the Bath, for " Im- 
provements in marine steam boilers and apparatus connected therewith." — February 11. 

Horatio Black, of the town and county of Nottiogham, Ince-maker, for "Improve- 
ments io evaporation." — February 14. *■ 

John Watson, merchant, and Edward Cart, gentleman, both of Hull, for " Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of gas." — February 14. 

James Timmins Chance, and Kdward Chance, of Birmingham, for " Improvements In 
furnaces, and in the manufacture of glass." — February 14. 

William Tottie, of Crosby-square, London, merchant, for " Improvements in distil- 
ling." {A communication.) — February 14. 

John Weston, of Portland. to\vu, Middlesex, majhinist, for *' certain Improvements in 
obtaining and applying motive power." — February 1'!. 

Joseph Barber Haxby, of Dewsbury, for " Improvements in making communications 
between the guards, engineers, and other servants in charge of railway carriages, and also 
between the passengers and such servants, which improvements are applicable generally 
where speedy and certain communications are required." — February 16, 

Edward Massey, of Middleton-square, Middlesex, watchmaker, for " Improvements iu 
logs and sounding apparatus."— February 18. 

Edward Duncnmbe Lines, of Chelsea, and Samuel Luiz Freemont, 'of Love-lane, City 
gentleman, for " Improvements in the manufacture of colours, oils, and varnishes, and in 
the manufacture of charcoal, and also in treating vegetable substances for, and in ob- 
taining extractive matters therefrom." — February 18. 

William living, of THgon-road, Kenniogton, engineer, for " Improved apparatus for 
cutting or carving ornamental forms in wood, stone, and other materials." — February 23. 

James Nasmyth and Holbrook Gaskell, both of Manchester, engineers, for "certain 
Improvements in machinery or apparatus for forging, stamping, and cutting iron and 
other substances." — February 2;{. 



1848.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



9r 



CANDIDUS'S NOT E-BOOK, 
FASCICULUS LXXX. 

" I must have liberly 
Withal, as Urge a charter a= the winds, 
To blow on wliora I please." 

I. Caryatides completely contradict Vitruvius's conceit, as to Ionic 
and Corintliiiiii columns being proportioned respectively after Gre- 
cian mammas and misses, for tlie real feminine or lady-like pillars 
are far more bulky and robust than even the most masculine ex- 
amples of tlie Doric order, — to such degree, in fact, that tliey would 
be positively clumsy were they mere pillars, whereas variety of 
form and play of outline entirely dissipate the heaviness which 
would attend simple masses of stone of the same bulk. Of the 
effect and value of Caryatides in architectural composition scarcely 
anj'thing is said by architectural writers, altliough it is that which 
chiefly demands their consideration and remark ; for as to the 
origin or first introduction of such figures to perform the office of 
columns, that in reality matters not a rush, notwithstanding it is 
what exclusively occupies the attention of those who speak of them. 
The current legend respecting the adoption of them into Greek 
architecture, may be true or may be false ; but at aU events it is 
not necessary in order to account for pillars being shaped to re- 
semble human figures, such figures being frequent in the Egyptian 
style, — of course with very wide differences as to taste and de- 
sign, the fundamental idea being nevertheless one and the same. 
Far more to the purpose is it to consider the aesthetic effect of 
such statue-columns, and their value in architectural composition. 
That while they greatly extend the resources of the latter, there is 
direct classical authority for them, and that in an example fraught 
with the most exquisite taste, is undeniable ; notwithstanding which, 
the propriety of the taste so displayed has been called in question, 
or rather has been peremptorily condemned. It is contended that 
such figures both suggest painful ideas, and partake of the prepos- 
terous. With regard to the first of these objections, it is difficult 
to understand wherefore statues performing the office of pillars 
should excite any idea of pain if they themselves express no such 
feeling — which of course they ought not to do — Imt stand calm, 
immoveable, and indicate perfect ease and tranquillity. As to the 
preposterousness of employing human forms for offices which living 
human beings could not possibly perform, if there he absurdity in 
that, it is of a species which extends itself — or I might say, incor- 
porates itself — with a very great deal of both architectural decora- 
tion and ornamental design generally. It has been said that what- 
ever is contrary to common-sense is contrary also to good taste. 
The validity of such dictum depends very much upon the latitude 
allowed to the term " common-sense." If we are to understand by 
it merely the knowledge based upon actual experience, a very great 
deal that has hitlierto been regarded as manifesting refined taste, 
must be set aside altogether, and pronounced to be in very false 
taste. If Caryatides are to be condemned as inconsistent with 
good taste, because they represent the human form contrary to 
what we know by common-sense it is capable of, tlie same autho- 
rity of common-sense must pronounce statues employed as pinna- 
cles and acroteria on pediments or elsewhere to be equally repug- 
nant to good taste, they being placed for a continuance wJiere real 
persons — if they could stand there at all — could remain for only a 
few minutes, and that at the peril of their necks and limbs. 
Again, how can we reconcile with plain common-sense such 
classical monstrosities as arabesques or human and animal 
figures terminating in foliage .-' Nay, is there anything of common- 
sense — that is, of plain, honest, matter-ot-fact common-sense — in 
the cramming a crowd of figures into a pediment, where half of 
them are, perforce, crouching down ? Or what shall we say to 
such conceits as corbel-heads, or to statues fixed in between the 
mouldings of the head of an arch, in such manner that some of 
them are nearly in a horizontal position .-' If common-sense is not 
startled by them, it may surely excuse what are less at variance 
with it — namely. Caryatides, which last are at once so picturesque 
and elegant in effect, that their being so rarely employed may well 
excite our wonder. Their being frequently employed" is not to be 
looked for, on account of their expensiveness as' compared with 
other pillars of the same dimensions ; still what prevents their be- 
coming too common by being applied on ordinary occasions, should 
operate as a strong reason for introducing them where magnificence 
is affected, and cost becomes a secondary consideratk)n. 

II. From what Mr. Gwilt says on the subject, in his Encyclopse- 
dia, it would seem that Caryatid figures are by no means uncom- 
mon features in architectural composition, for he tells us that "the 
No. 127— Vol. XI.— Aphil, 1848. 



variety in quest of which the eye is always in search, and the pic- 
turesque effect which may be produced by the employment of Carya- 
tides, leads often to tlieir necessary employment." How he recon- 
ciles the epitliet " necessary" with the opinion uttered by him just 
before, viz., that the purj)ose of support can be not only as well but 
even better accomplished by a small order, — must be left to himself 
to explain, whicli it would, perhaps, puzzle him to do ; and ])uzzle 
him also it would to justify the expression " Often " by enumerating 
examples. On the contrary, they are exceedingly rare indeed, in 
this country more especially, for I can call to mind only one in- 
stance of the kind in the metropolis, namely, that affoi-ded by the 
church of St. Pancras. Yet, though he evidently entertains no par- 
tiality for Carj'atides, Mr. Gwilt appears to regard with favour 
Inigo Jones's idea for the circular court in the palace of Whitehall, 
which was intended to have two orders of colossal figures, answer- 
ing to two entire stories of the edifice, which enlargement of scale 
for figures of the kind is certainly no improvement upon the taste- 
ful Athenian example. 

III. It would be well were we to ask ourselves what is likely to 
be the result of the present system of architectural copyism and 
mere reproduction. The works so formed and fashioned will, by 
and by, come to be looked upon, at the best, only as so many clever 
counterfeits and imitations of what were previously living styles 
of the art, fraught with vitality and with the actual impress of the 
period when they respectively flourished. Just now, while we are 
imitating, our imitations may interest ourselves, but they will be 
of no interest or value to those who come after us. Historic int&- 
rest they will have none, except as testifying to our skill in me- 
chanical mimicry, and our utter want of inventive and creative 
power. Do what we will, imitation of something done before there 
always must be in architecture; yet, as if that were not sufficient, 
we affect and pique ourselves upon direct and express imitation. We 
must always have " something after somebody,' or after something 
else. And this of itself constitutes a prodigious difference between 
the art at the present day and in former jieriods, our own being 
little better than a blank with regard to original ideas. So that 
with all our reverence — real or pretended — for i)recedent, we refuse 
to recognise the artistic liberty to which we are indebted for those 
styles and examples of them which we now cry up as patterns of 
excellence. 

IV. The free exercise of invention in design is not to be con- 
founded with mere arbitrary innovation. The inventive power for 
which such freedom is claimed must, however, be of a legitimate 
kind, — that is, be directed by sound principles of art. With them 
and a cultivated taste for his guidance, he who has the spirit of an 
artist in him may safely be trusted to his own impulses and ideas ; 
whereas he who has no insiglit into artistic principles, who has 
never applied himself to aesthetic study, cannot be trusted at all 
beyond the limits of the most ordinary common-place and jog-trot 
design, for if there be a possibility of blundering he is sure to do 
so. No matter in what style he attempts to disguise himself, his 
vulgarity is certain to betray him, and his irrepressible Pecksniffism 
breaks out, without being at all suspected by him, or it being in 
his power to guard against it, for the simple reason that it is his 
nature, and he has no idea of what he ought to guard against. 
Daily experience confirms the truth of this : how many atrociously 
vile and vulgar copies — or rather parodies and caricatures, although 
intended for copies — do we see of styles and modes of design and 
composition that happen to have been brought into vogue — as, for 
instance, the astylar " Palazzo" fashion introduced by Barry, which 
has in many cases been either positively vulgarized, or else treated 
in the most prosaic manner, — as if the intention were to prove 
what miserable taste may be displayed in things that affect to con- 
form to precedent and to be perfectly free from caprice. 

V. As to caprice, tliat term is frequently applied ^•ery unmean- 
ingly. It is very common for people to set down at once for 
caprice whatever deviates fi-om general rule and usual method ; 
thereby perplexing that ordinai-y and petty criticism which has no 
other standard of judging than established routinier precepts, in- 
terpreting them, moreover, to the very letter. Such criticism is 
unable to discriminate betvveen what is mere caprice and what is 
not, — wide as is the difference between them. The capricious is 
that for which no satisfactory reason can be assigned by the author 
of it ; but, however contrary it may be to usual practice, that is 
not caprice which is done with deliberate intention and well- 
studied aim at effects previously untried. And if to do well 
merely according to precedent be meritorious, much more so must i 
be to do so and at the same timegobeyond actual precedent, creating 
what in its turn will be recognised as valid precedent and authority. 
It is proper enough to be perfectly well acquainted with precedent, 
but to be tied down to it — to be made a slave to it, is ul. Those 

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[Apbiu 



who are iiicap.'ilile of tliinkiiiu; for thcmselvs, take rcfufre in pre- 
cedent, and make it tiieir stronghidd, since it enables them to as- 
sume a tone of authority, and to decide dogmatically without any 
trouhle of thinking'. 

VI. Careful observance of rules will enable any one to avoid 
))ositive faults ; but between them and positive merits tliere is an 
immeasurable distanre — one which defies calculation. In art, it is 
very possible to be ;it once faultless and valueless — without any 
siiecific fault, but also without any interest or any charm, — in a 
word, to be altoj^ether humdrum. Perhaps it is rather unfortu- 
nate than not for architecture, that a gi-eat deal of humdrum is 
of necessity tolerated in it : however %vorthless or unworthy they 
may be as producti(uis of architecture, buildings may as buildings 
comjiletely answer the jmrpose for which they are erected. Besides 
whicli, they must, when once erected, remain indefinitely, to the 
discredit of the art and the corruption of public taste. Humdrum 
poetry becomes serviceable as waste-paper ; humdrum pictures find 
their way into lumber-rooms and garrets; but buildings of the 
same or even worse quality cannot be so got rid of, or put out of 
.siglit ; otherwise a good many that might be mentioned would now 
disap]iear. 

\'il. There is something startling, perhaps diverting also, in the 
decidedly opposite opinions entertained by two of our architectural 
professors with regard to Vitruvius. While Professor Hosking 
speaks of him, in his Treatise on Architecture, in the most un- 
qualified terms of contempt, Professor Cockerell venerates him ; — 
as to vindicating him, that is quite a different matter, anil what 
he does not even so much as attempt, but leaves altogether un- 
noticed the highly depreciatory remarks thrown out against his 
idol, not by Hosking only, but by the author of the "Newleafe 
Discourses," both in that publication and elsewhere. The ignoring 
them may he prudent enough, but assuredly does not show much 
of either courage or ingenuousness, keeping quite out of sight as it 
does the fact that Vitruvius has of late years been violently im- 
pugned by professional writers in this country, and his work de- 
clared valueless to the architectural student ; — nay, not only 
valueless, but in some degree mischievous also, by filling him with 
absurd and idle notions, and affording him no insight whatever into 
his art, — as art. If Vitruvius has been unjustly aspersed aiul 
vilified, it was for Professor Cockerell to defend him — if he could ; 
instead of which, in his closing lecture this season at the Royal 
Academy, he gave liis hearers reason to suppose that the chief ac- 
cusation brought against him had been by his German editor, 
Schneider, on the score of his Latinity. Schneider, it seems, was a 
mere philologist, and honestly avowed his ignorance of the subject- 
matter of Vitruvius's writings, which I take to have been rather in 
favour of his author than the contrary, because, had he been ca- 
pable of judging of the value of the matter also, hardly would he 
have entertained a higher opinion of him. The name of 
Vitruvius is, undoubtedly, one of great traditional fame — one 
sanctified by inveterate prejudice, partly or even principally be- 
cause his books De Arcliitevturu represent to modern times all 
that remains of similar writings by the ancients. That mere ac- 
cident has conferred upon him a monopoly of reputation, there 
being no one to share it with him ; and it has been too lightly 
taken for granted, that, writing in classical times, he must him- 
self have been a competent judge and expounder of classical 
architecture. He shows himself, however, to have been at the 
best of a very plodding turn of mind — notwitstanding his pompous 
and priggish proems, and to liave been what would now be called a 
mere " practical man," acquainted only with matters of routine and 
the technicalities of his craft. While there is a very great deal in 
nis woi'k which is utterly irrelevant, it being only in the remotest 
degree connected with the professed subject, there is absolutely 
nothing whatever that gives evidence of the artist or the festhetic 
critic. There is not so much as any attempt to lay down and ex- 
plain principles of correct taste in architecture. There is neither 
argumentative criticism, nor reasoning, nor remark ; but every- 
thing is treated in the dryest manner conceivable, and for the most 
part very obscurely also. Wliat is to us his obscurity may partly 
be laid to the charge of our own ignorance — our not being better 
informed as to various matters that were suflficiently well under- 
stood by those to whom he addressed himself, but which, after all 
attempts to explain tlicm, can now only be guessed at. The 
question then, is, of what value is Vitruvius to us, especially at 
the present day, when by means of various ancient buildings and 
examples that have lieen fi-om time to time discovered, explored, 
and delineated, we have obtained a far clearer insight into the 
principles and practice of the architects of antiquity than can 
possibly be derived from the writings of Vitruvius .'' In some 
instances, obscurities in his text have been explained by what has 



been observed in extant monuments ; yet that only proves that the 
latter are infinitely more intelligible instructors than \'itruvius. and 
that accordingly he may now be dismissed by us, for any real advan- 
tage to be derived from the study of him. Such study will, indeed. — 
if that be any advantage — enalile the architect to talk learnedly, 
but will not help in the least towards making him an artist ; rather 
will it be apt to render him a pedant, and obstruct the advance he 
might else make in his capacity of artist, by withdrawing his at- 
tention from what is his proper study as such ; as has too fre- 
quently been the case. Many would have been far greater profi- 
cients in their art, if, instead of poring — perhaps stupifying them- 
selves also— over Vitruvius, they had thrown him entirely aside, 
and exercised their own powers freely in comjiosition and design. 

VIII. The subject of the invisible — perhaps altogetlier imaginary 
— curves in the lines of the Parthenon has been again brought for- 
ward before the Institute, though it was to be hoped we should 
hear no more of it. Matters of far greater immediate importance 
than such nugce difficilcs and refined subtilties and s])eculations, 
claim our attention, ere we advance so far as to be able to appre- 
ciate such exquisite niceties in architectural optics as those attri- 
buted to the Greeks. Little less than ludicrous is it for us to pre- 
tend to interest ourselves with them, when we complacently tole- 
rate the most crude and spiritless school-boy imitations of classical 
architecture, which chiefly show how very ill the pretended origi- 
nals have been understood. So long as we shut our eyes to the 
glaring barbarisms in taste, and the liarsh contradictions with re- 
gard to style, that are allowed to manifest themselves in copies of 
that clasa, it is in vain to expect that we shall e\er open them 
wide enough to discover such philosophically-studied minutia; as 
are the curvatures in cpiestion, which certainly! vvere not even so much 
as suspected till very recently, notwithstanding the diligence with 
which the Parthenon has been examined, not only by Stuart, but 
by many others since his time. It has been ascertained beyond 
contradiction, that Polychromy was — to a certain extent, at 
least — employed as an effective and legitimate mode of architectural 
embellishment, both for the Parthenon and other Greek structures; 
and yet even that discovery has been altogether useless to us in 
practice, inasmuch as we have not attempted to avail ourselves of it 
on any occasion : and if we forego a trait of Grecism that would be 
plainly perceptible to every one, hardly is it to be supposed that 
we shall ever think of making any use of refinements in optical 
effect that would not be perceptible to one person in ten thousand. 
Let us provide the shirt before we think of the ruffles for it : when 
we can show that we are capable of fully entering into the charac- 
ter of classical architecture with genuine artistic sentiment for it, 
it will be time enough to think of those exquisitely subtile and deli- 
cate touches which are now imputed to the Parthenon. For us, 
%vho show ourseh'es so obtuse as we do to many e^'en tolerably pal- 
pable qualities in Greek design, to concern ourselves with its finest 
imjierceptible workings, is nothing less than absurd. Besides 
which, Grecian architecture has of late fallen into discredit with 
us, we having at last found out that, as our buildings are necessa- 
rily constituted, it is nearly altogether inapplicable by us in actual 
practice. Copy Greek orders we may, but we cannot keep up— 
except in very particular cases indeed — anything like the genuine 
Greek physiognomy; so that the degree of resemblance aimed at 
and obtained, only serves to reruler the departure from the original 
style the more evident, particularly if the order be the Doric, 
since that refuses to accommodate itself to any other purpose than 
a simple colonnade. 

IX. So very far are we from studiously calculating optical 
effects with mathematical precision, that we do not seem to under- 
stand — at least, not to be able to foresee — that difference of appear- 
ance which takes place between a geometrical elevation, in which 
every p.art shows itself equally distinctly to the eye, and the building 
executed from it, in which last it is perhaps afterwards discovered 
that much of the detail does not tell at all. Seldom is any calcu- 
lation made with reference to the actual locality, and the distance 
from which the structure itself will generally be viewed. Hence, 
when erected, it is sometimes discovered that a building can be 
seen only so far off that its lesser features are scarcely distinguish- 
able at all, or else only from so close a point of view, that aU the 
up])er part of it becomes so greatly foreshortened as to become 
quite distorted, and altogether a different object from what the 
geometrical design promised. It is not uncommon, again, to find 
that while those parts which can be but imperfectly seen — or at 
the best seen only in their geneial forms — are elaborately decorated, 
those which being almost close to the eye show themselves dis- 
tinctly, are comparatively neglected and treated as subordinate 
ones ; — and so they may be with regard to the design as seen upon 
paper, but not as it is seen in the building itself, lu many cases, the 



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merest indication of detail and finish would answer the purpose just 
as well as that degree of the latter which is now deemed indispens- 
able, although the parts to which it is applied may he out of sight, 
or nearly so. Therefore, I cannot help taking the river front of 
Uie new Palace of Westminster to he a very great mistake, anda very 
costly one also. However exquisite may be its beauties of detail, 
they are valueless if, as really is the case, they are invisible, and 
cannot be enjoyed by being admired. 

X. AVhat is or is not a palace seems to be difficult to say, when 
we hnd among the examples referred to under that designation, in the 
index to Cresy's translation of Milizia's Lives, not only Barbers' Hall, 
tlie Horse Guards, Heriot's Hospital, and other buildings which do 
not seem to belong at all to that class, but also the Monument on 
Fish Street Hill ! We may therefore congratulate ourselves on 
having besides that, two more palaces which we have not reckoned 
before — namely, the Nelson and the York Palaces. A most agree- 
able surprise must it be to Mr. Railton, to find that he has erected 
an entire palace when he attempted only to stick up a single 
column. 



THE HOTEL DE VILLE, PARIS. 

Hotel (le Ville ds Paris, Mesure, Dessine, Grave, el Publie, par 
Victor Calliat, Architecte ; avec une histoire de ce monument, par hE 
Roux DE LiNCY. Grand folio. Paris, 1844. 

As the seat of the Provisional Government of the new French 
Republic, this edifice has recently acquired a degree of interest 
even with those who would be wholly indifl'erent to it as a work of 
architecture. Of course, it is as the latter alone that we notice it, 
and had the same means of doing so been afforded us, should have 
done so before. Still, late as we are in our notice of the splendid 
architectural publication whose title heads this article, we are not 
at all behind others, for we are, we believe, the very first to make 
mention of it in this country. It may sound oddly to say that we 
hn.iten to give our readers some account of it ; nevertheless such is 
the case, because, anxious to speak of it without further delay, 
just at the moment when circumstances give the building an inci- 
dental importance, distinct from that which it possesses as an ar- 
chitectural subject, we are at j)resent prepared for reporting only 
of the graphic part of the work, having no time to examine the 
literary one. The latter is, in fact, so exceedingly copious, and 
contains such a vast mass of historical matter, as to require very 
patient study, more especially as the form in which it is given is a 
highly inconvenient one for either perusalor reference. In our opinion, 
it would have been greatly better to publish the plates by them- 
selves, or with only so much letter-press as was requisite for ex- 
plaining them, and describing the present edifice architecturally ; 
tlie history being made to form a separate octavo volume, either 
as a distinct work or not, as might be deemed expedient. Had 
that been done, both the folio volume or atlas of plates, and the 
octavo of text, would have answered their respective purposes much 
better than is now accomplished. The former would not have 
been so inconveniently bulky ; the other would have been a read- 
able volume, whereas now, however readable the matter itself may 
be, hardly can it be said to be in a readable shape ; whence the pro- 
bability is, that very few will encounter the fatigue of reading it 
at all. The perusing the text continuously in its present shape 
would, to ourselves at least, be a formidable task ; yet, fortunately, 
we are not particularly solicitous about matters of mere historical 
record, — events and transactions which have no other relation to 
the edifice itself than what is derived from the latter having been 
the locality where they occurred. 

Leaving M. Le Roux de Lincy's portion of the work, we shall 
confine ourselves to M. Victor Calliat's department of it, who, we 
should observe, holds, or lately did hold, the office of Inspecteur of 
the building, and who employed five years in carefully measuring 
and delineating the various parts of the structure, having, besides, 
free access to the designs of MM. Godde and Lesueur, the archi- 
tects employed for the new work. Until the recent amplification 
and alterations, which have rendered it one of the most important 
monuments of the French capital even in its present greatly im- 
proved and embellished state, the Hotel de Ville was of little ar- 
chitectural note, except as a souvenir of old Paris. The style of 
it had been voted " Gothique" and obsolete ; and the actual design 
showed much more of the grotesque than the beautiful. All that 
Woods says of it in his " Letters, " when speaking of the buildings 
of Paris, is : " It has a certain richness of appearance, although it 
is not in a style of architecture capable of great merit (?) and even 



not one of the best examples of the sort. It is, however, as good 
as our Guildhall." As good as our Guildliall ! — as well might he 
have called it at once intolerably bad. 

The original edifice that forms the nucleus of the present 
greatly extended mass, was commenced in the reign of Francis I., 
viz., in 1533, after the designs of Domenico Boccadoro, or Boccardo, 
otherwise called Domenico di Cortona, assisted by Maitre Jehan 
Asselin, and the fatade and the " Cour d'Honneur," now the middle 
one of the three courts, were completed in 1541 ; and much was 
subsequently done from time to time. At the period of the first 
Revolution, the edifice suffered greatly ; many sculptures and em- 
bellishments that were obnoxious to the enlightened populace 
were destroyed; among others, a series of portraits from the 16th 
century, and a number of large paintings by Porbus, de Troyes, 
Largilliere, Mignard, Vanloo, and other masters, — or if not actually 
destroyed, removed, nor is it now possible to ascertain what has 
become of them. 

During the Empire and the Restoration, the edifice underwent 
some partial alterations ; but it was not until 183G that it was de- 
termined to undertake improvement upon a comprehensive scale ; 
and great as it was, the scheme has been carried out so successfully 
that the Hotel de Ville may be placed foremost among the ar- 
chitectural monuments that mark the reign of Louis Philippe. 

If not particularly remarkable in itself, remarked it may be, that 
this edifice, which is, in some degree at least, similar in purpose, is 
also contemporaneous with our own new Palace of Westminster, 
except that it is already completed, whUe the completion of the 
other cannot at present be calculated upon. Further, being in 
the Renaissance style, it shows vvhat might have been made of our 
our own building at Westminster, had the stipulated-for Eliza- 
bethan or Anglo-Renaissance style been adhered to, but at the 
same time treated with the same freedom and refinement as are 
shown by MM. Godde and Lesueur, in their rifacciamento and 
enlargement of the Parisian Hotel de VUle. Among the improve- 
ments which the structure has received from them, not one of 
the least is that whereas it before showed only a single front — that 
towards the Place de la Greve — it now forms an entirely insulated 
mass (405 feet by 272), with four regular facades, the original or 
west one (now greatly extended) towards the aforesaid Place, the 
corresponding or east one towards the Rue Lobau, and of the two 
shorter ones, that facing the north towards the Rue Tixerandie, 
and that on the south facing the Quai de la Greve. So far, if in 
no other respect, it has greatly the advantage over our Palace of 
Westminster, one side of which, and that which according to the 
design is the principal facade, is altogether inaccessible, so that 
its elaborate decoration, requiring as it does the closest inspection, 
is completely thrown away. 

The former west front, or that towards the Place — which was 
all of the edifice that then showed itself externally — was not quite 
200 feet, but is now extended to upwards of twice that length, by 
the addition of two more lofty pavilions, similar in character, but 
somewhat varied in design, from the original ones. Hence, the 
general composition is now increased from three to seven divisions 
or compartments, two of them being the intermediate corps de 
bdtiment connecting the two pavUions (the old and the new one) 
on either side of the centre. We may refer our readers to two 
difi'erent views, which they will probably be able to turn to at 
once, one of them being in Pugin's '^ Paris," the other in Allom's 
" France ;"* for from them they will immediately perceive how 
great is the improvement as well as change that has taken place. 
That fa9ade, however, is not the one which best satisfies us, there 
being in the original portion of it a good deal in a rather mesquin 
taste, to which the architects were obliged to conform for the rest ; 
whereas in the three other fronts, and also the inner courts, they 
have, instead of allowing themselves to be tied down to precedent, 
given artistic scope to their ideas, seizing on the better spirit of the 
style by which they were to be guided, and refining upon it by 
preserving all its really valuable characteristics and motifs, and 
avoiding its uncouthnesses, its harshnesses, and its mere eccentri- 
cities. Compared with the other principal front — the eastern one, 
facing the Rue Lobau — the original one has, in spite of all im- 

* Pugin's representation of the building is 80 excjedingly poor as to be scarcely intel- 
ligible; all the features being so very rudely expressed, that it is impossible to make out 
more than the mere general design. Allom's, on the contrary, is tastefully touched, and 
shows as much as can be expected in a general view of the whole front in so small an en- 
graving; at the same time, there are inaccuracies in it which ought to have been guarded 
against. That so able an architectural artist as Wr. Allom is, should have given only a 
single exterior, and not so much as one interior view of so important a public monument, 
is to be regretted. Perhaps he himself, or his publishers, regret it now that circum- 
stances have given a particular interest to that particular building. Let us hope then, 
that Mr. A. will visit the French capital once more, and give us a " Paris after the Third 
Revolution," since he may there liud many subjects for his pencil which he had passed 
over;— among others, the Church of St. Vincent de Paule, and the Kcole des fieaux 
Arts, both of which would require to be illustrated by more than one drawing. 



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provenient, a cnnfused, crovrded-up look, and shows not a few dis- 
fin-rei'able inequalities of taste. The new facades, on tlie contrary, 
exliibit not only greater simplicity, but greater richness also. 
There is iniinitely more of homogeneousness of character, the 
cliaracter itself of the style adopted being purged from its little- 
nesses of manner and other defects. The arcliitects — or perhaps 
we should say M. Godde,* for the other appears to have been only 
his mljoint in the execution of the works — may be said to have 
given us the ideal of Renaissance — that is, French Renaissance, 
modified so as to be applicable at the present day. 

Previously to its assuming its present shai)e and greatly ex- 
tended dimensions, the Hotel de Ville had only a single inner 
court — a trapezium in plan, whose eastern side, or that facing tlie 
entrance, is consideralily wider than the latter. Besides this, which 
is (leiu)niinated the "Cour d'Honneur," there are nowtwo other more 
spacious ones, that on the south side being the " Cour du Prefet," 
mid on the north the "Cour dcs Bureaux." Yet, in the letter-press 
a<:cuunt — description it can hardly be called — of the building, in Al- 
om's "France," no notice is taken of this very material enlargement 
of tlie plan, but we are left to understand that there is only a single 
court, — "a spacious (?) quadrangle, entered through the lofty 
arches in the principal front ;" wliereas those entrances lead into the 
two separate new courts. The letter-press writer, the Rev. G. N. 
M'right, M.A. — don't let us forget the M.A., though it does not 
mean Master of Architecture, — is one of those ready writers who 
pay more attention to quantity than quality ; for he gives the 
credit of the present structure to JMolinos, an architect who was 
only employed on some additional constructions to the building in 
the time of Napoleon, which have since been entirely swept away. 
He also assures us that all the additions have been made "in the 
most exact and complete harmony" with the original fa. ade, which, 
as far as it means anything at all, means that they are little more 
than a mere copy of it. 

Altliough not very spacious, the inner courts are not the least 
beautiful pai'ts of tlie structure; it is, however, easier to judge of 
their design than their effect, for they are shown only sectionally, 
whereas subjects of that kind require to he represented perspec- 
tively also. For an external facade — more especially if it consist 
of little more than a single general plane of frontage, without ad- 
vancing or receding parts — a geometrical elevation may he suffi- 
cient ; but where several facades or sides — be they those of a room 
or of a cortile — are seen in combination with each other, the aid of 
perspective becomes requisite in order to convey an idea of the 
actual appearance. There ought, in fact, to have been a perspec- 
tive view also of at least one of the facades, and it should have 
been of that facing the Rue Lobau, it being the finest of them all, 
and moreover distinguished from the others by a circumstance 
that is likely to escape notice in a geometrical drawing, more es- 
pecially one merely in outline, where there are no shadows to ex- 
jiress the various degrees of relief : — the distinction we allude to 
IS that in that front, instead of being engaged ones, the columns 
of both orders are completely detached from the wall behind, at 
least along the whole of the central portion of it (extending to 
fifteen arcaded intercolumns in its length, and having a large and 
highly-enriched lucarne over each alternate intercolumn). 

From the exterior alone, a very imperfect idea is to be obtained 
of the magnificence of this noble pile of building, which may be 
one reason for its not having obtained the notice, or anything like 
the notice, which it may justly claim. Truly palatial in outward 
appearance, it is equally so within, containing as it does, besides 
a very great number of various offices and other mere business 
rooms, no inconsiderable number of state apartments for municipal 
r, unions and entertainments, which are not only spacious and 
handsome, but even truly splendid ami sumptuous, and withal 
Jtfford an unusual variety of scenic effects in architecture. Yet, 
of all of them, only one, and that by no means the most remarkable of 
them as a room, is pointed out by the JNI.A. description-writer in 
Alltmi's " France" — namely,the "Salle duTrone,"wliicli is in theori- 
ginal portion of the building towards the Placf.f Of the new apart- 
ments, nothing whatever is said in that puldicatiun ; not even tlie 
" Galerie des Fetes" itself is so much as mentioned, although that, 
and the approaches to it, constitute a group of varied and well-com- 

* From what is said orhiin in Nngler'a " KuiistlLT-I.exicon," welimt tbat ttiisort'tiittct 
(ivlio was born in 17H1) vvus enipluytd, ainon^ ottier wurks. on tlie rcstomliona (i( the Ca- 
tlloUral of Auieins ; and that while lit was liispecteur en chef ile la 2niv section des Tra- 
vaux l*uhlic. he made plans, elevaiimis, j-ikI sections of vatioua clitirches at Palis, 
ttniountiny in all to about three tlunUied diuwin^s ; yet whether tliey were ever published 
is not slated. 

t It is mentioned ctiicfiy for the purpose of itiformlriB us that It was from the central 
window, l.ouis XVI, addreasfd tile people with the cap of Liberty on ills head; and 
J.OHis Philippe altcrwards adilressed tliciii. wlien Lafayelte told them, that in him they 
lii>hel'1 " the best of nil Kepublico !" — words whicU the present llevoiulion aud the ll*\if 
Be|iubltc wiU probably verily most disastrously. 



bined architectural beauties, that taken altogether has not it.-* 
equal in any royal palace of Europe.* 

To give — wliiit is no easy matter — something like an adequate 
idea of this part of the interior : — from the lower vestibule is 
seen extending to the right and left (or north and south) a mag- 
nificent staircase, consisting of two wide successive flights of steps, 
carried in a straightforward direction, between arches supportetl 
on marble columns in the upper part of it, where there are gal- 
leries or open corridors along its sides. On ascending to the upper 
landing, a highly enriched dome, though one of moderate dimen- 
sions, presents itself; and through this, and three ornamental com- 
partments over the stairs,t tlie staircase is lighted. On looking 
back from that upper landing, a most striking architectural coup 
d'asil presents itself, — an exceedingly rich perspective vista 
through an open sahiou (the " Salle des Cariatides," over the vesti- 
bule below), into the other staircase.:]: It is, therefore, not with- 
out just reason that the staircase is spoken of in the text as a 
chef-d' ceuvre of its kind. Even admitting that either of the stair- 
cases, in some respects, and among others in spaciousness as to 
width, yields the palm to the one in the Bibliothek at Munich, 
the ememb/e produced by the two greatly surpasses it ; for as her.; 
managed, it is far more striking than it would have been, had the 
entire space been thrown open from end to end. In one respect, 
these staircases have a decided advantage over that at Municli, 
they being lighted from above, in the manner described, — conse- 
quently more picturesquely. Besides which, the Munich one leads 
architectunillv speaking, to nothing, there being merely a number 
of plain shelved book-rooms, after all the extraordinary parade of 
approach to them. 

Such highly-disappointing falling-off, both with regard to ptir- 
pose and effect, is most assuredly not experienced in the Hotel de 
Ville, when on passing from either staircase through a noble 
ante-room, the "Galerie," with its thirty-two fluted Corinthian 
columns, profusely enriched pendentives and plafond, and other ela- 
boratedecorations, expands itself inallits magnificence. Thisapart- 
ment, which comes in the centre of the Rue Lobau front, is 160 
feet by 42, and 40 feet high, with thirteen intercolumns on eacli 
side, and tliree at each end. The cove is divided into arcs-dou- 
bleaux anil lunettes ; of which last, the thirteen on the side facing 
the windows are open, so as to foi-m a gallery or series of tribunes 
for spectators, who, through open arches, have a view down into 
the "Galerie" from the "flat" or roof above the staircases, which 
space glazed all over, and having pillars along its sides, is thus ingeni- 
ously turned to account, and made to produce much novel effect. 
A similar view is there obtained into the " Salle des Cariatides," 
through similar openings and the gallery carried around the upper 
part of that room, to which they afford access. The room just men- 
tioned — which derives its name from eighteen caryatides resting 
on its cove, so as to foi-m the gallery in its upper part, and support 
the plafond—comes in between the " Galerie des Fetes" and the 
" Salle du Conseil Municipal," as well as between the two staircases ; 
so that from this point — a most happy '■'■episode" in the plan — 
a striking architectural pictui-e presents itself in every direction, 
whether we look towards the " Salle du Conseil" with the " Cour 
d'Honneur" beyond it, or towards the " Galerie," or towards either 
of the staircases. In fact, this part of the plan is eminently re- 
plete with piquant complexity — or what seems to be complexity — 
and variety of effect ; aiul it is all the more striking, because it 
unexpectedly opens a vista branching out from one side of the 
"Galerie," and which, therefore, breaks up that excessive same- 
ness of arrangement which, so dull and unartistic in itself, is 
so prevalent — we might say so uniformly a defect in continental 
buildings. 

There is, besides, a more than usual degree of variety and play 
in other parts of the plan ; for instance, in the several saloons in 
connection with the "Galerie" at either end of it. One of these 
bears the name of the " Salon Louis Philippe" — an appellation, 
that will now, doubtless, be refurined ; another that of the "Salon 
Napoleon." Then there is the " Salle des Banquets," respecting 
which, however, no information is afforded, nor does it show itself 

* After all, such omission on the part of the letter-press was perhaps judicious, be- 
cause to have spoken of those parts of ilie inleiior as they deserved to lie, would have 
been accusing the artist of tiiipiible ouiihsii,n on his part, in not describing any uf them 
with his jiencil, more es|iecijiily as his lorle lies in interior subjects. 

t From tile perspective view of the staircase, it appears tliat these con-.pnrtri.ents In 
the vaulting i-f the ceiling are not exactly what we siiould call skylights, but ornamental 
panels lilled in with bgur^^d ^:lass, eillier coloured or phdn, in the same plane as ihe other 
panels. 'Phis ought to have been explained in the letter-press, as likewise ought inatiy 
other particulars with respect to decoration -colour included — which are now left to be 
conjectured. 

t Thus, in regard to mere general disposition of plan, these staircases are somewhat 
simii.'rr to those in our National (iailery, but other resemblance there is none. In all 
other respects the diflereuce is iimaiingly great, nor need we say ou which side the mai keU 
superiority lies. 



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101 



in any of the sections ; antl a prand saloon of reception on the 
south side of tlie buildin<r, nliich foi'ms altogether a space of 80 
feet by 50, but is so disposed as to assume the appearance of three 
rooms thrown open to each other by means of three large arches 
on two opposite sides of the central one. This saloon and the 
" Galerie ' form the subjects of two most exquisitely-elaborate 
perspective views, replete with a multiplicity of the richest and 
most delicate details, all rendered with a precision truly marvellous. 
The other perspectives are, a view of one of the new staircases look- 
ing from the upper landing towards the " Salle des Cariatides," and 
one of the old Staircase as seen from below. There is also a de- 
tailed elevation of one end of the " Salle du Trone," showing 
one of its chimney-pieces and the large caryatid figures, between 
which is placed tlie spacious mirror over it. Unfortunately, we are 
left to desiderate a perspective of the " Salle des Cariatides," which 
would have been highly welcome, because, althougli it comes into 
two several sections, it is on such a scale, that little more than 
its general architectural design can be made out, and the effect — 
which is of a peculiar kind — is left to the imagination. JNIany of 
the plates are occupied by details and ornaments of both the old 
and new portion of the edifice, and show how elaborately it is 
finished up. 

One important apartment and architectural feature in the build- 
ing, which we have not yet mentioned, is the " Salle des Elections." 
This is on the ground-floor, immediately beneath the " Galerie 
des Fetes," and of the same dimensions, except that it is somewhat 
shorter, and, as may be supposed, considerably less lofty. The 
columns here are of the Doric order, and are brought forward to a 
greater distance from the walls than in the upper " Galerie." We 
will now conclude this account — after all, but an imperfect one — by 
saying, that not only is the edifice itself a most noble and tasteful 
monumental work, but M. Victor Calliat's publication illustrates 
it — if not altogether so completely as could be wished — witli ad- 
mirable diligence and taste. We have no English work of the 
kind that can compete with it, or with the similar splendid one by 
Joly, on the " Chambre de Deputes" (1840). We ha\'e got a Royal 
Institute of Architects, but architectural publication does not 
thrive under its fostering auspices. And so wretchedly low is tlie 
remuneration of architects in tliis country, that even those who 
are most employed cannot afford to risk any of ther earnings in 
endeavouring to promote architectural study and taste. We can 
— or rather we will only say : Fuldc dejlendum est ! 



ARTS MANUFACTURE EXHIBITION, 

AT THE SOCIETY OF ABTs' KOOMS, ADELPHI. 

The Exhibition at the Rooms of the Society of Arts deserves 
particular notice, because it shows that the workmen of this 
country have taste and artistic skill, as well as mechanical profi- 
ciency. This is the second exhibition of the kind, and it shows 
very great progress, while it is most remarkable in this very good 
feature — that whereas before, manufacturers had to be begged and 
sought to send tlieir works, they have this year sent them freely 
and with good will. This is going forward in the right path, for 
it shows that the manufacturers now feel an earnest in the cause, 
and that gives us another body of yoke-fellows. The artists and 
workmen have likewise shown their feeling, by the greater care and 
skill they have bestowed ; w hich is the more pleasing, as it is an en- 
couragement to all those who have come forward in behalf of manu- 
facturing art. 

We cannot however help saying, that so much has not been 
done as ought to have been done in this w ay, and that still more 
remains behind. It is pleasing to witness the skill which has been 
shown ; but we are yet far from the goal, and leave foreign nations 
ahead of us, while we have not means enough to enable us to beat 
them. We are not yet even with the old Schools of Design in 
France and the Gewerbe-Instituten of Germany, which we set 
out to follow, while of late years they have made further way. 
We call the Central School of Design a mockery ; and as for the 
others, they are only good drawing-schools. The whole is a failure 
as to quality and extent ; and we might just as well think to beat 
the hosts of Prussians with the Lumber Troop, or set Tom Thumb 
againt the Spanish giant, as to meet the French, Prussians, Bel- 
gians, Swiss, and Italians with the paltry staff we have. Drawing 
must be taught in all schools to the sons and daughters of working- 
men ; there must be a high school for drawing in every town, and 
there must be good schools of design in the great seats of manu- 



facture. The buyers at home must be taught as well as the sellers ; 
we must have our people brought up to a knowledge of art, and 
then we shall be able to go into the markets abroad on a fair 
footing. 

This question of teaching design is one of trade more than of 
anything else : we were pinched in our pockets before we thought 
of bestirring ourselves. It was only wlien we found out how much 
we were giving to the French for silks, flowers, fancy paper, 
bronzes, and paper-hangings, — to the Prussians for iron castings and 
embroidery patterns, — and to the Italians for objects of art, that 
we began to set up schools for giving our workmen knowledge of 
design. The tax we pay to foreigners for our lack of knowledge 
is so great that it would hardly be believed ; we spend millions 
yearly for goods that we ought to be able to make as well : nor does 
the evil end here, for as we cannot make for ourselves, so neither 
can we meet the foreigner in tlie market abroad. This loss falls, 
too, upon those who have no need of a knowledge of design. 
Because the French can bring out silks, satins, muslins, cottons, 
and shawls with better patterns, the English spinner and weaver of 
plain goods, the machinist, the drysalter, and tlie merchant, lose a 
very large share of employment. 

It isgoodtliatit should be so, that there shouldbe a tiebywhich all 
are bound to woik, for otherwise there would be no getting any 
change, for many would give no help to bring it about^ Nothing 
is easier than to show that the machinist, who deals with hard 
and stiff forms, and who thinks taste is as much beyond as 
beneath his care, — nothing is easier than to show that even 
he, working largely for the manufacturers of this country, has a 
share in the welfare of art. If more silks and cottons, fancy and 
stained papers, carpets, shawls, furniture, and glass can be' sent 
abroad, more machinery must be wrought for "their production. 
Mr. Fairbairn and his brethren at Manchester, the machinists at 
Glasgow, at Belfast, and in every manufacturing town, must and 
ought to know that they have a fellow-feeling in the right growth 
of the arts of design. If a School of Design be good for anything, 
it ought to be good for making the trade of the town in w'hich it 
is greater : it ought not only to better the goods now made, but it 
ought to enable the town to send out goods such as we now take 
from the foreigner, or such as we cannot now send abroad. 
Therefore, we say this has as much to do with the machinist as 
with any one ; but we say that art has to do with all. 

Pleased as we were with tlie Exhibition now open, we cannot 
but see that what has been done as yet has not carried art down 
among the people. The works in the Adelphi are either for the 
higher or middling classes, those who are already cared for — and not 
for the people. W^e have always held, from tlie first time that we 
undertook to write about it, that art must not only bring fortli 
good works, but cheap works ; that it must show itself in the 
dwelling of the working-man, as well as in the drawing-room of 
the rich. The eai-thenware, the glass, the paper-hangings, the fur- 
niture in the smallest cot may be as well made as those in the 
abode of a king, — while taste shown in them will do much more 
good. If knowledge be power, it is so in the arts as much as in 
anything else ; and we cannot have a people powerful in the ai-t, 
unless they be well taught. The Society of Arts have the chance 
of leading in this path — indeed they have given a few prizes ; but 
we call out again, that more ought to be done. Many working 
men and women and their children will, no doubt, see this Exhibi- 
tion, but they wiU go away with the thought that such things are 
not for them, and that the rich only are happy in being alile to 
glad their eyes with such sights. Thus, the great teaching of the 
Exhibition will be thrown away; for we hold that working-men 
will have a greater feeling for the arts of design, as gi\ing a 
charm to their own dwelling, than as a mere means of livelihood 
at the will of the rich. 

Felix Summerly has taken upon himself a task which is truly 
worthy in tliese days ; but we want a Felix Summerly for the 
kitchen as well as the drawing-room : and we hope if he does not 
take this further task upon him, that some one else will. Mr. 
Cole, as Felix Summerly, by choosing this path in art, has made 
himself a good name, as jMr. Hay has by choosing house-painting ; 
and we wish that other men wlio have taste and skill would follow, 
and take each some branch in which he can make his artistic 
knowledge useful. !Sir Walter Scott spoke most wisely when lie 
led Mr. Hay to follow house-painting instead of high ai-t ; for 
although Mr. Hay's powers of mind cannot be doubted, we could 
much better have spared a Landseer or a ^V^ilkie, than one who 
by his works and his writings has done good to a whole trade, and 
has taught hundreds of workmen that they may use their heads 
ajid eyes as well as their hands. 

In the late free-trade speeches in the House of Commons, we- 



103 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Apnii,, 



wei'e much struck by what Mr. Wilson said, that the only goods 
sent out in 18t7, on which there was no fallini; off, but which were 
more in wurth, were silks sent to France, a trade which has frrown 
very nincli, and which some few years ai>:o would hardly have been 
believed. If we try we can push the French home, but then we must 
set about it in the risrht way, not narrow-mindedly as we have 
liitherto done, but boldly and skilfully. The workman must be as 
well taught here as he is in France, or he will do no good. \Ve 
must not have him kept back for fear he should turn out a painter, 
and come in the way of some Royal Academician hereafter ; but we 
must have liim as well taught as the Royal Academician. The 
groundwork of art is one and the same, whether for a paper- 
lianger or a weaver, a Landseer or a Gibson ; and we believe that 
often, more taste is shown in a glass jug or in a common shawl, 
than in the many landscapes and Art-Union paintings which deck 
the walls of the Royal Academy. So sorrily has the School of Design 
been managed by the Board of Trade, that we are still no better 
off tlian we were eight years ago ; nay, we believe that tliere was 
a better and a stronger feeling for the arts of design then than 
iu)w. Since Somerset House lost the spur of the Society for Pro- 
moting Practical Design, in Leicester-square, it has gone on but 
slowly, and it has done nothing for spreading a knowledge of the 
arts of design among the people. 

The Board of Education is as much behind-hand. Though 
drawing is as useful to the child of a working-man as reading 
and writing, and though Mr. ^Vyse has for years brought this 
before them, masters and mistresses in National and British and 
Foreign schools know next to nothing of drawing, and do not 
teach it. The few who do, teach drawing only to a small number 
of the elder boys, however willing the younger ones or their 
fathers are that they should learn. 

Little or nothing'too has been done to teach drawing to girls, 
so as to fit them to earn a livelihood in many trades where a know- 
ledge of it is of use. When we bethink ourselves how few trades 
are open to women, we feel how very needful it is that every 
means should be taken to enable them to earn their own bread ; and 
nothing seems so likely to forward this, as by giving them a 
kind of knowledge which is so much wanted in England. The 
tr.ule of flower-making, which is a new one, and in which in 1811 
tliere were a thousand women at work, has now grown very much ; 
but still, many thousand pounds' worth of these flowers, which are 
better made, are brought over from France. 

It is hardly fair to say anything about the Exhibition without 
speaking of the Catalogue, which will do as much good as the Ex- 
hibition itself. It not only tells us what the Society of Arts did 
last year, and what is shown this year, but it lays down a plan for 
spreading wider the good the Society is now doing. Tiiis plan is 
two-fold : first, to send round to the country Schools of Design the 
objects shown in London each year, and thei-eby to bring it to bear 
upon the scholars and workmen throughout the country ; and 
second, to have a great show every three or four years, to be held 
in a building raised at Charing-cross. Altogether, there is such 
earnest shown to uphold the arts of design, that we feel truly 
thankful to the Society for the work they have done, and we hope 
they will ha\e the help of the Board of Trade, and of the Board 
of Works, in carrying out the two plans. Indeed, the former Board 
have already made known their goodwill towards it. 

There are so many things worthy of being named, that we are 
almost kept back from saying anything, because we cannot speak of 
all. 

The bronze and iron castings show that we have made way ; but 
we must not hold till we have got beyond the Prussians and the 
French. The iron castings from Coalbrook Dale, from Messrs. 
Stewart and Smith, and Mr. Messenger, are very good ; and the 
la.st has sent some good bronzes, as Mr. Hatfield has likewise done. 

Messrs Leighton, the book-binders, have sent a few designs by 
Luke Limber (John Leighton), and some book-covers in papier- 
mache, which are very ably done, and show that their trade is not 
behind-hand. Indeed it is perhaps doing more than others to spread 
taste among the people. 

The carvings in wood by Mr. Jordan's machinery are truly won- 
derful. They are as good as those of Grinling Gibbons, or of any 
of his school. There is a freedom about them which shows the 
hand of a master, rather than of a machine. 

Mr. Drayton, it will be seen, has brought forward his new way 
of silvering glass, by which he can now silver the inside of cups 
and bowls, plain or carved. 

The cartoon decorations by Mr. W. B. Simpson are sure to 
strike the looker-on, for there is a power in them beyond what 
has been before seen in decorations. The cartoon of "Loyalty," 
from Mr. Redgrave's fresco in Westminster Hall, is so good, that 



it seems the handiwork of a skilful painter; and we can hardly 
believe that it is not so, for it is so unlike what we see in the gene- 
rality of decorations. 

We think this new process very likely to spread a knowledge of 
art among the peo])le. Tliere are many places where it can be 
used, and many joint-stock undertakings which will give it their 
help. For first-class waiting-rooms in railway stations, for board- 
rooms, for the counting-houses of banks, assurance companies, and 
docks, it might be well ajijilied. These great undertakings would, 
we are sure, willingly lay out a little money in what would please 
the public, and do credit to themselves. A set of likenesses of 
engineers would fit a waiting-room well. We would name VVatt, 
Trevithick, the two Stephensons, Brunei, and Locke. Many 
paintings bearing on trade might be shown, as Mr. Lee finding out 
the stocking loom ; Queen Elizabeth giving a charter to the East 
India Comjiany ; Drake teaching ship-building to Prince Henry in 
the Tower; the Alarqnis of Worcester likewise in the Tower making 
a steam-engine ; King \Villiam giving a charter to the Bank ; the 
Duke of Bridgewater and Brindley ovei'looking the woi'ks of the 
Bridgewater canal ; Arkwright and the spinning jenny ; \Vatt and 
Dr. Robison making experiments on the steam-engine; Don Ricardo 
Trevithick directing the putting together of a steam-engine in 
Peru; Peel, Huskisson, and George Stephenson witnessing the 
starting of a locomotive on the Liverpool and ^Manchester railway. 
Some of these have been already painted, and there are many other 
subjects shown in Westminster Hall which might be chosen by Mr. 
Simpson, as an early English trial by jury, Alfred manning his 
ships. King John signing Magna Charta. 

"The inlaid work from Messrs. Holland and Sons shows that in 
this branch the French and Belgians are not before us, and give 
hopes that we shall in time drive them out of the furniture trade 
to America. The taking the duty off foreign woods now allows 
our cabinet-makers to send goods abroad. The only fault we find 
is with the centres of some of the tables, which in Nos. 7 and 8 
are very ugly. 

The copy of an antique shield (No. 10) is a favourable specimen 
of iron casting. 

Nos. 11 and 12 are a very good application of papier-machd to 
picture frames, by Mr. Bielefield. 

The papier-mache cheval screen by Jennens and Bettridge has 
been got up with great labour. It is called in the Alhambra style 
and decorated with Arabic inscriptions, but we neither like the 
style nor the composition. We think the labour misapplied. The 
colouring of the frame, gold upon a warmish white, looks tame 
without being rich. 

Most of the encaustic tiles by Minton and Co. are dull in colour, 
which arises from the attempt to apply all colours, instead ot 
sticking to those which do best. Mr. Minton has been happier in 
glazed tiles. We cannot but wish that the old Flemish glazed 
chimney-tiles, or something like them, were brought out again. 
An old chimney-corner, with its set of bible tiles or Flemish land- 
scapes is a story book in itself, and pleasing to old and young. 
TUes for walls, with drawings of interesting objects, or with maps, 
would be welcome in schools and many other buildings. 

Mr. Copeland seems a worthy follower of Wedgewood. His 
works in earthenware are among some of the best in the Exhibition. 
The taste and care shown in them cannot be gainsaid, and they 
keep up our fame in this trade, which is worth so much to us. The 
English earthenware is now the best in the world, and much of it 
is sent abroad. Indeed, it is a great staple, and worth the more to 
us as the work and the ware are all our own, only some of the 
colours being brought from abroad. By the care given to the higher 
kinds of porcelain, we shall in time be able to put down foreigners 
in that branch of the trade likewise. 

There are so many good works of Mr. Copeland's that we can 
name very few. An earthenware wash-stand (No. 37) is a very 
good design. It has a blue ground and white borders tastefully 
drawn. There are many other jugs and bowls well worthy of praise. 
The wash-stand No. 88 we do not like so well ; its effect would de- 
pend wholly on the hangings which might be used in the room. 
The enamelled porcelain cups and saucers, Nos. 139 and 140, show 
the resources of the establishment in decoration. 

The chimney slabs show the jirogress which has been made in 
the application of porcelain and painting for this purpose. The 
lock-furniture and bell-lever, likewise in porcelain (No. 170), are 
richly ornamented with gold. Porcelain is now being much used 
by builders, as is likewise glass for ornamental purposes. 

The large collection of works and groups in statuai-y porcelain 
shows Mr. Copeland's power in what may be considered a more 
purely artistic department. This material has been employed by 
the Art-Union for prizes, and promises to be very usefiil in spread- 



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103 



(No. 
(No. 



ing a knowledge of the works of our best sculjitors, for in effect it 
comes near marble, and in ebeaimess near plaster. It takes a 
middle place between marble and plaster, and being more lasting 
tlian the latter, is likely to be very much used by the middle classes. 
We fear, however, that it will give us in sculpture a school of 
statuettes, as we have in painting a school of cabinet pictures, and 
BO far draw away the public mind from high art. Still, we welcome 
the statuary porcelain and the Parian as a good beginning, and we 
can take the evils when they come with the less remorse, as now 
sculpture is far from being in the most palmy state. This kind of 
copy promises likewise a better reward to the artist, for marble is 
a material costly in itself and hard to work, and therefore the 
sculptor gets few orders for a good study, and few are fond of 
casts. Now, a small gallery of groups can be had for a very small 
sum, and no one need be ashamed of ha\ing such works in his 
drawing-room. Among Mr. Copeland's productions we would no- 
tice the Narcissus, after Gibson (No. 209) ; Innocence, after J. N. 
Foley (No. 210); Paul and Virginia, after Cumberworth (No. 211); 
the Return from the Vintage (No. 212); Apollo, after Wyatt (No. 
214); Cupid chained (No. 218) ; and. Ondine, after Pradier (No. 
219). The busts do not tell so well. 

The Cupids holding a Tazza (No. 182) is a very good design for 
a flower-stand, in statuary porcelain. 

Mr. Copeland is very successful in the Portland jug (No. 202), 
of the same material. 

Another work of his we shall name is the Armada bottle 
217). We are likewise pleased with this vase after Cellini 
223). 

iNIessrs. Chamberlain, of Worcester, have sent some very gorgeous 
porcelains, gilt, painted, and enamelled. 

Mr. Magnus, of the Pimlico Slate Works, has sent slate chimney- 
slabs, likewise table tops, which are worthy of notice by builders. 

Mr. Pratt's Anglo-Etruscan vase, in the Great Room, is very 
praiseworthy. 

The prize candelabrum must be the work of an architectural 
student, and have been chosen for the prize by an architect. It is 
what some architects call classical, and what other people call 
tame, stiff, and bald. AVe think the prize is thrown away, and we 
should have been much more pleased with a copy of one of the 
candelabra in the British Museum. 

The prize lamps are not much better. They may catch some 
eyes, being in silver, but are poor and common-])lace. We wish 
there had been more designs for silver-plate. One very good is 
No. 348, an adaptation of the trumpet lily for a dessert-stand. 

The papier-mache productions to our mind show much more 
splendour than taste. They are too much in the gewgaw and 
Vauxhall way. 

The " Repose" ann-chair (No. 242), is very unluckily named, for 
there is no repose in its composition, and there can be none within 
its arms. Mr. J. C. Horsley is the designer, hut his skill is quite 
thrown away, for the reliefs have no effect. The terminal figures, 
in whatever material they may be finished, will be indistinct. 

Mr. Nicholson has shown a very elaborate shell cameo (No. 258), 
but the subject is too complicated, and therefore indistinct. Miss 
M. A. Nichols has sent five imitation cameos. Cameo cutting is 
worthy of care, for in Paris it gives work to many hundred men. 

The glass works (Class XII.) are so very good that we hope they 
are an earnest of our making a great trade in glass, and becoming 
free from the Bohemians and Germans. 

The Decorative Art Society is doing so much good, that we look 
forward to see some other society raised which shall take in a lower 
class of workmen. There is room for a great deal to be done, and 
we feel very strong hope from what we call the small exhibition of 
the Society of Arts — small because we are sure we shiill soon see 
much larger exhibitions held under its care. 



INDIAN RAILWAYS. 

Indian Railways and their Probable Results, with Maps and an 
Appendix, containing Statistics of Internal and External Commerce of 
India. Bv an Old Indian Postmaster. Third Edition. London : 
Newby, 1848. 

We are now in 1848, and Indian railways remain where they 
were, though the East India Railway Company has got a guarantee 
and leave to begin. This is a hard lesson, but one which is of no 
good so far as the present is concerned, and will, we fear, be found 
little better in the future. Governments are not ready scholars, 
even in the matter of revolutions. We have always upheld the 



freedom of joint-stock undertakings, as the best safeguard against 
speculation and the want of it. The East India government were 
fearful in 1845 of the gambling madness of the times. Scheme 
after scheme was brouglit l)efore them, money was held out freely, 
but they drew back frightened, and set themselves down in what 
they held to lie a quiet and orderly way, to lay down rules on which 
railways should be carried on and shareholders sliould pay their 
money. Following in the path of the Board of Trade here, they 
sent out to India a railway board, with Mr. Simms at its head. He 
did his work as well and carefully as he could, and sent home some 
long blue-books, from which, however, we are sorry to say, ive 
have learned no more than we knew before, so that they have in 
no way put railways forward one inch. Everything has to be tried 
still ; JVIr. Simms has given us no answer as to embankments in the 
valley of the Ganges, long bridges over the streams, how wood will 
serve for sleepers, how works are to be carried on, nor one single 
point in engineering has he settled, — and from no fault of his, be- 
cause experience is the only guide and judge. Therefore, three 
years have been lost on this head, and instead of beginning with 
three or four years' experience, we are as far behind-hand as we 
were before. It is during the first three or four years that the 
greatest changes are made, because it is the time of experiments ; 
every day shows something, and instead of trying to settle the 
engineering of India before-hand, a wise man would wait for prac- 
tice to guide him in fixing any lasting system. 

India has needlessly lost so many years of railway transit ; by 
this time the trafiic of the Ganges would have had some small help 
from railway works. Perhaps a couple of hundred miles of railway 
would have been open ; and if only so much, or even less, still 
the results would have been great, because each hundred miles of 
railway is the saving of a day in the communication with the up- 
land. The opening of a railway would have been felt by the steam- 
boats, and more of them would ha^■e been put on the river, while 
branch roads would have been laid down to reach the railway. 
The making of a railway is, as is well known, only a small part of 
the good which is to arise. The railway will be the trunk towards 
which steamboats will run, and roads be made. The ti'affic will be 
always growing, so that at each step food for new railways w ill 
be found. The steamboats have shown this, though not so much. 
At first six small steamboats were run, sometime after six more, 
and latterly six large steamboats have been put on, and there is a 
call for more. All are paying well, though there is more than four 
times the power that was in the first instance held needful. We 
have heard of railway carriages carrying their own railways with 
them, but it may be said of Indian railways that they will carry 
their own traffic with them. 

When we come to the money part of the question, and say that 
three years have been lost, we do not give a right idea of the evil 
which has been done. Time in the share-market cannot be trifled 
with, and canuot be got back again. The fatal event of Louis 
Philippe's death or fall has been long hanging over us ; it was 
known that it must happen, and th.at when it did the share-market 
would be utterly upset. Never was it so needful to make hay 
while the sun shone ; the storm was hanging about, it was looming 
in sight, and there was no time to be lost. In the years 1845 and 
1846, any money could have been raised ; in the years 1847 and 
1848, no money can be raised, — and who dares look forward with 
hope .'' 

If the share-market were as law-makers wish it, and as they 
have tried to make it, it would be very well ; but unhappily it is 
not so. It does not work so smoothly as they think it may ; it 
has its ebbs and its floods; sometimes setting in with a full tide, 
whirling and eddying round, the waters rising to the top of the 
flood, then the stream pouring out with a quick rush and leaving 
all bare. People were wonder-stricken that there should be gamb- 
ling in 1846, as if there never were before ; and though they were 
quite ready to say that a heavy fall would follow, they did none 
the more wisely. Time has shown that while share-gambling is 
going on, railway-making is going on ; and when share-gambling is 
at an end, money cannot be