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Full text of "The clan Fraser in Canada : souvenir of the first annual gathering, Toronto, May 5th, 1894"

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1367235 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



GE-H 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01232 2639 



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ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF THE CLAN ERASER, 

With thk Mai'le Leaf Entwinkd for Canada. 



THE 



CLAN FRASER 

IN CANADA 

Soupentr 

of tl?e 

^irst dnnual ©atl^erituj 



BY 

ALEXANDER FRASER 

(mac-fhionnlaidh) 



TORONTO : 
Mail Job Printing Co. 
1895. 



Prefatory Note 




1367235 

HE chief object aimed at by the pubH- 
cation of this Httle volume is to furnish, 
in a concise and inexpensive form, 
information regarcHng the Clan Eraser 
not readily accessible to clansmen in 
Canada. It is also hoped a perusal of 
the contents will strengthen the clan sentiment, and deepen 
the interest in the ancient clan bond and in the long and 
illustrious history of the Clan. But the book being essentially 
aii account of the first Annual Gathering held by the Clan 
in the Province of Ontario, it will be an interesting- 
souvenir of that pleasant event ; and probably the hope may 
not be too sanguine that its appearance will mark an onward 
step in the record of the Clan in the Dominion. 

The publication has been undertaken under the auspices 
of the newly-formed Clan Eraser in Canada, and the thanks 
of the editor are due to Professor W. H. Eraser, of Toronto 
University, and to Mr. Alexander Eraser (of Eraserfield, 
Glengarry), the Printing Committee of the Clan ; also to 
Mr. J. Lewis Browne, for the music to which the "Eraser 
Drinking Song," written by Mrs. Georgina Eraser-Newhall. 
has been set. 



A. E. 



Toronto, Eebruary, 1895. 



Contents. 



PAGE. 

Introduction 9 

Fraser's Highlanders J ' 

Seventy-First Regiment 15 

Fraser De Berry's Organization • • • 16 

Formation of the Clan Fraser in Canada 21 

First Annual Clan Dinner 22 

Toast of "The Clan," containing references to : — 

Origin of the Clan, Change of Surnames 3' 

Origin of the Name "Fraser"— The Norman-French Theory 37 

Mr. Skene's Position Criticised 39 

The Bond between Lord Lovat and the Marquis de la Frezclicre 40 

Scottish Origin of the Name 4^ 

Mr. Homer Dixon's Argument 43 

The Frasers in the Lowlands 45 

The Clan Fraser Established in the Highlands 49 

Succession of the Chiefs 5° 

Alexander of Beaufort 56 

Succession of the Strichen Family. • 58 

A Curious Prediction 59 

Reply to the Toast 62 

A Guest Honored 65 

Toast of "The Clan in Canada." 67 

" "Distinguished Clansmen" 73 

In Art 74 

In Science 7^ 

In Literature 8i 

In Theology 87 

In War 88 

In Politics 90 

Organization of the Clan 92 

Georgina Fraser-Newhall 93 

Fraser's Drinking Song 96 

Simon Fraser, Discoverer of the Fraser River 98 

Simon Lord Lovat, Beheaded on Tower llill 103 

Brigadier Simon Fraser 104 

Second Annual Dinner 107 

Constitution and By-laws of the Clan no 

List of Officers 112 

Illustrations : 

Frontispiece — Armorial Bearings of the Clan 

Menu and Toast List Card 23 

Alexander Fraser (MacFhionnlaidh) 2:1 

Robert Lovat Fraser 63 

Ex-Mayor John Fraser 75 

'William A. Fraser 79 

Georgina Fraser-Newhall 94 

Simon, Fourteenth Lord Lovat t 102 

Brigadier Simon Fraser 105 




Introductory 



jji(||fjHE Gael has proved himself not less a pioneer 
of civilization, and adaptable to changing 
conditions of living, than a lover of the tra- 
af ditions of his race, holding tenaciously by 
ancient usages and manners, and stirred pro- 
foundly by racial sentiment. As a pioneer he has 
reached " the ends of the earth," possessing the 
unoccupied parts of the world. As a patriot he 
h.is established not a few of his cherished customs 
in the land of his adoption. His love of kindred 
is probably his most notable characteristic ; it found 
embodiment in the clan system, under which his 
race achieved its greatest triumphs and enjoyed its greatest 
glories, and the bond of clanship, with its inspiring memories, 
the true clansman will never disregard. While the clan system, 
as such, would be impracticable in the British colonies under 
present-day conditions, even more so than in its old home in 
the Highlands of Scotland, its spirit lives, leavening the 
system of government and exercising no small influence in 
the fusion of heterogeneous elements into new and distinct 
peoples. 

These observations are applicable in a peculiar degree 
to Canada, where a very large number of clansmen have 




lO THE FRASEKS IN CANADA. 

found a second Highland home. Many of the forests which 
rang with the clash of the claymore in the struggle for British 
supremacy, fell afterwards to the axe of the Gaelic settler. 
His trail lies across the continent, from ocean to ocean, His 
energy and intelligence have been honorably felt in every 
walk of life, and his enterprise and skill have done much to 
develop and upbuild the Dominion. No body of people 
occupies a more distinguished place in this respect than the 
Frasers ; indeed, even among the clans, no name is more 
closely identified than that of " Fraser " with the early days 
of Canada. To tell of their services on the field, in govern- 
ment, in commerce, in the professions, would occupy a large 
volume, as would a similar story of other clans, and an attempt 
to do so, in an introductory chapter, would be altogether out 
of place, but there are a few events ot importance to the 
country in which the Frasers figured to which it will be 
well to allude with fitting brevity. 

Those who hold the Norman theory believe the first 
of the name of " Fraser " in Scotland, " came over with 
William the Conqueror," and they ask no better proof of the 
antiquity of the name. If the early connection of the Clan 
with Canada be any satisfaction to clansmen there, then it 
may be stated with truth that the first settlers of the name 
" came over with Wolfe the Conqueror," and their services 
were as conspicuous in the military operations conducted by 
the intrepid young General, who gave his life for his country 
on the Plains of Abraham, as were those performed by any 
brave knight, whose name may be found on the roll of Battle 
Abbey. 

The story of Fraser's Highlanders forms one of the 
most romantic chapters in the annals of the clans, and should 



FRASER S HIGHLANDERS. I I 

the time come when it is fairly and fully given to the world, 
it will prove a valuable addition to the history of Highland 
life and of early Canada. 

For the part taken by the Clan in the uprising of 1745, 
Lord Simon was beheaded on Tower Hill and the Fraser 
estates were forfeited to the Crown. The Master of Lovat 
appeared at the head of the Clan on the Stuart side ; but, as 
he was young at the time and had acted by his father's com- 
mand, he was pardoned, and in 1757, in accordance with the 
wise, conciliatory policy of Mr. Pitt, he was commissioned to 
raise a regiment of his clansmen, of which he was appointed 
Lieutenant-Colonel commanding. In General Stewart's 
Sketches a brief but interesting account of this, the old 
Seventy-Eighth Regiment, is given, an extract from which 
will show the strength of the clan ties then existing, and the 
high character of the men who were raised on the Lovat 
territory. General Stewart says : " Without estate, money 
or influence, beyond that influence which flowed from attach- 
ment to his family, person and name, this gentleman (the 
Master of Lovat), in a few weeks found himself at the head 
of 800 men, recruited by himself. The gentlemen of the 
country and the officers of the regiment added more than 
700, and thus a battalion was formed of 13 companies of 105 
rank and file each, making in all 1,460 men, including 65 ser- 
geants and 30 pipers and drummers." All accounts concur in 
describing this regiment as a superior body of men ; their 
character and actions raised the military reputation and gave 
a favorable impression of the moral virtues of the sons of the 
mountains. The uniform was the full Highland dress, with 
musket and broadsword, dirk and sporran of badger's or otter's 
skin. The bonnet was raised or cocked on one side, with 



12 THE KILT IN CANADA. 

a slight bend inclining down to the right ear, over which were 
suspended two or more black feathers. 

The regiment embarked at Greenock, and landed at 
Halifax in June, 1757, and followed the fortunes of the war for 
six years. " On all occasions," says Stewart, " this brave 
body of men sustained a uniform character for unshaken firm- 
ness, incorruptible probity and a strict regard both to mihtary 
and moral duties." Their chaplain was a man of note as ot 
stature. His name was Robert Macpherson, but he was 
known in the regiment as An Caipeal Mor, being of large 
physique. He exercised the traditional authority of a High- 
land minister, and we are told that the men were always 
anxious to conceal their misdemeanors from him. 

The cold climate, it was feared, would prove too severe 
to the Frasers, who wore the kilt, and an attempt, kindly 
conceived, no doubt, was made to change the ''garb ot old 
Gaul " for the trews. The proposal aroused strenuous oppo- 
sition ; officers and men opposed the change and finally were 
successful. The strength of feeling awakened may be judged 
from the words of one of the soldiers in the regiment : 
" Thanks to our generous chief, we were allowed to wear the 
garb of our fathers, and, in the course of six winters, showed 
the doctors that they did not understand our constitution ; for 
in the coldest winters our men were more healthy than those 
regiments that wore breeches and warm clothing." A some- 
what amusing anecdote is related of how the Nuns of 
the Ursuline Convent, where the Frasers were quartered 
in 1759-60, endeavored to induce Governor Murray to be 
allowed to provide sufficient raiment for the kilted soldiers, 
but, of course, without success. 



MILITARY CHARACTER. 1 3 

At Louisburg, Montmorenci, Ste. Foye and on the Plains 
of Abraham, the Frasers distuiguished themselves greatly. 
One of the most eloquent tributes to their prowess was spoken 
by the Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau, the French-Canadian, at the 
inauguration in 1855 of the Statue of Bellona sent by Prince 
Napoleon for the monument erected on the famous battlefield. 
The French-Canadian historian Garneau, and other writers 
in whose veins courses the blood of the vanquished at Quebec, 
have borne generous testimony to their military bearing and 
good conduct. Garneau writes of the battle of Carillon, 1758: 
"It was the right of the trench works that was longest and 
most obstinately assailed ; in that quarter the combat was 
most sanguinary. The British Grenadiers and Highlanders 
there persevered in the attack for three hours, without flinch- 
ing or breaking rank. The Highlanders above all, under 
Lord John Murray, covered themselves with glory. They 
formed the troops confronting the Canadians, their light and 
picturesque costumes distinguishing them from all otht-r 
soldiers amid the flames and smoke. The corps lost the half 
of its men, and twenty- five of its officers were killed or se\erely 
wounded ;" and the genial Le Moine, half Highland and half 
French, says: "The Frasers of 1759 and of 1775 readily 
courted danger or death in that great duel which was to graft 
progress and liberty on that loved emblem of Canada, the 
pride of its forests — the Maple Tree. If at times one feels 
pained at the ferocity which marked the conflict and which 
won for Fraser's Highlanders at Quebec, the name Les Sait- 
vao^es d' Ecosse* one feels relieved, seeing that the meeting 
was inevitable, that the sturdy sons of Caledonia, in Levis' 

* It is but fair to state that Fraser's Highlanders showed no more ferocity than the usages of 
war justified. There were barbarous atrocities committed, undoubtedly, but for these, the Highlanders 
were not responsible. — A.F. 



14 THE FIRST SETTLERS. 

heroic Grenadiers, did find a foe worthy of their steel. Scotch- 
men, on the field of Ste. F'oye, in deadly encounter with 
France's impetuous warriors, doubtless acknowledged that 
the latter were not unworthy descendants of those whom they 
had helped to rout England's soldiery on the fields of Brange, 
Crevant and Verneuil." 

At the close of the war many of the ofificers and men 
settled in the Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, having 
obtained their discharge and grants of land in the New World. 
It was not long ago computed that the descendants of these 
Highlanders in the Province of Quebec numbered 3,000, but 
merged in the French-Canadian peasantry to such an extent 
that even the names have lost their original form. In Nova 
Scotia the name Fraser flourishes in every township of every 
county. There have been many accessions to the Clan since 
the days of the Seventy-Eighth and the Battle of the Plains, 
but at least four-fifths of those bearing the Clan name in 
Canada to-day, trace their descent from the victorious clans- 
men of Cape Breton and Quebec. 

On the outbreak of the American War the Royal High- 
laiid Emigrants were embodied, and in that regiment, com- 
manded by the gallant Lieut. -Colonel Allan MacLean (son of 
Torloisk), 300 men who had belonged to Eraser's regiment 
enlisted. In the interval between the cession of Canada and 
the American War, the Lovat estates were restored to the 
Master of Lovat, for his eminent services (the title was kept in 
abeyance), and he was asked to raise a regiment, the Seventy- 
First, of two battalions. This he speedily accomplished and 
soon foLuid himself at the head of a double regiment number- 
ing 2,340 officers and men. They behaved with the highest 
distinction throughout the war and earned Battering encomiums 



SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT. 15 

from the commanding officers. General Stewart, than whom 
no more competent authority has written of Highland regi- 
ments, and but few who have understood Highland character 
better, whose Sketches have furnished facts to all subsequent 
writers on the subject, speaks of the Seventy-First, Fraser's 
Highlanders, thus : "Their moral conduct was in every way 
equal to their military character. Disgraceful punishments 
were unknown. Among men religious, brave, moral and 
humane, disgraceful punishments are unnecessary. Such 
being the acknowledged general character of these men, 
their loyalty was put to the test and proved to be genuine. 
When prisoners, and solicited by the Americans to join 
their standard and settle among them, not one individual 
violated the oath he had taken, or forgot his fidelity or 
allegiance, a virtue not generally observed on that occa- 
sion, for many soldiers of other corps joined the Ameri- 
cans, and sometimes, indeed, entered their service in a 
body." The Seventy-First did not leave many behind as 
settlers, and the reference to it here is only permissible as 
illustrating the high character of the Clan, of which the 
Seventy-Eighth, which left its quota of settlers behind, 
formed an important part. General Simon Fraser's inti- 
mate connection with Canada, as commanding officer of 
Fraser's Highlanders (1757), and in other interesting 
respects, may suffice as a reason why a good anecdote of 
him may be here related. When the Seventy-First mustered 
at Glasgow, Lochiel was absent, being ill at London. His 
absence had not, evidently, been explained to his company, 
for they demurred to embark without their chief ; they feared 
some misfortune had befallen him. General Fraser had a 
command of eloquent speech and he succeeded in persuading 



l6 FRASER DE KERRY. 

them to embark with their comrades It is related that while 
he was speaking in Gaelic to the men, an old Highlander, 
who had accompanied his son to Glasgow, was leaning on his 
staff gazing at the General with great earnestness. When 
he had finished, the old man walked up to him and, with that 
easy familiar intercourse, which in those days subsisted 
between the Highlanders and their superiors, shook him by 
the hand, exclaiming '' Simon, you are a good soldier, and 
speak like a man ; so long as you live, Simon of Lovat will 
never die ;" alluding to the General's address and manner, 
which was said to resemble much that of his fadier. Lord 
Lovat, whom the old Highlanders knew perfect]}- 

The De Berry Or(;an]zation. 
We have now seen the origin of the Erasers in Canada ; 
they came in war, but the swords were readily turned into 
ploughshares, and the arts of peace cultivated with a con- 
stancy and success that equalled their intrepidity and valor 
on the battlefield. Years rolled on, the Clan multiplied and 
prospered, and, in the course of time, a project was entered 
upon for the formation of a new Clan Fraser on Canadian 
soil The leading spirit of the movement was the Hon. 
John Fraser de Berry, a member for the Legislative Council 
of the Province of Quebec. A meeting of Frasers was held 
in response to the following public advertisement : 

ERASER CLAN. 
The Erasers of the Province of Quebec are respectfully requested to 
meet at the office of Messrs. Thomas Eraser & Co., at the Lower Town, 
Quebec, on Saturday, the twenty-fifth day of January, 1868, at TEN 
o'clock A.M., to take into consideration the advisability of organizingf 
the " Clan " for the Dominion of Canada. 

John Eraser de Berry, A. Eraser, 

A. Eraser, Sr., A. Eraser, Jr., 

J. R. Eraser, Fred. Eraser, 

January 21, 1868. John Eraser, J. Eraser. 



MEETING AT QUEBEC. 17 

At this meeting preliminary steps were taken to further 
the object in view, and another meeting was held on February 
8th, 1868, of which the following report has been taken from 
the Quebec Mercury : 

At a meeting of the " Erasers " of the Province of Que- 
bec, held at Mrs. Brown's City Hotel, on the 8th February, 
1868, Alexander Fraser, Esq., notary, ex-Member for the 
County of Kamouraska, now resident in Quebec, in the 
chair ; Mr. Omer Fraser, of St. Croix, acting as Secretary. 
1. It was unanimously resolved : 

That it is desirable that the family of " Erasers " do 
organize themselves into a clan with a purely and benevolent 
social object, and, with that view, they do now proceed to such 
organization by recommendino' the choice of 

A Chief for the Dominion of Canada ; 

A Chief for each province ; 

A Chief for each electoral division ; 

A Chief for each county ; 

A Chief for each locality and township. 

2. That the Chief of the Dominion of Canada be named 
" The Fraser." and that he be chosen at a general meeting 
of the Erasers of all the provinces ; the said meeting to 
be held on the second Thursday in the month of May next, 
at ten o'clock in the forenoon, in such place in the City of 
Ottawa as will then be designated. 

3. That it is desirable that the Chief of the Province of 
Quebec and the Chiefs of the electoral divisions represented 
at said meeting be chosen forthwith ; and that the Chief 
elected for this province be authorized and empowered to 
name the Chiefs for such divisions as are not represented at 
present, the said selection shall, however, be subject to the 



1 8 PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION. 

approbation of the Frasers of the division interested, who 
will make the same known at a meeting to be called without 
delay, by the Chief of the Province of Quebec, with the view 
to proceed to the nomination of the Chiefs of counties com- 
prehended in the said division. 

4. That Chiefs of counties be obliged to convene also 
without delay, a meeting by which shall be chosen all the 
Chiefs of parishes or townships. 

5. That it shall be the duty of the Chief chosen for 
a parish or township to report to the Chief of his county as 
early as possible, the number of Frasers residing in his 
parish or township; and of the Chief of the county in his 
town, to report to the Chief of his electoral division, who will 
transmit it, together with his own report, to the Chief of his 
province ; the said report to contain the number of Frasers 
in his division, in order that the force of the Clan in each 
province may be ascertained on the 14th of May next, at the 
meeting at Ottawa. 

6. That it is advisable that the meeting at Ottawa, repre- 
senting all the Clan, be composed of all its divers Chiefs 
from the Chiefs of provinces, even to the Chiefs of parishes 
or townships inclusively, and any other Frasers who may 
desire to attend at the same. 

7. That the above resolutions and the nominations, which 
are to take place this day, or which may be made hereafter 
by the Chief of the province, shall be considered as prelimin- 
ary and temporary, as they are made with the sole object ot 
organizing the Clan, and not to bind in any manner whatever 
the Frasers, who will be at perfect liberty to reorganize 
themselves completely anew at the Ottawa meeting. 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION. 19 

8. That the Clan shall not be considered to exist until 
and after the next anniversary or Dominion Day, the first of 
July next, under such rules and regulations as will be adopted 
at the meeting at Ottawa ; the Erasers of this meeting 
protest energetically against any intention, which might be 
attributed to them, of dictating their will to their namesakes 
of this province ; they are simply attempting to organize and 
with a benevolent object, to adopt temporarily the above 
resolutions the better to attain that end. 

9. That the sister provinces of Ontario, Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick be respectfully requested to organize 
themselves, and to send delegates to the meeting at Ottawa, 
on the fourteenth of May next, that time having been 
selected because in all probability the parliament will still be 
in session, and the members may attend the session before 
dispersing. 

10. That all proceedings be respectfully submitted to the 
" Fraser " family, which is one of the most ancient, one of the 
most noble, one of tlie most influential, and one ot the most 
numerous families of the Dominion of Canada. 

11. That all the newspapers throughout the Dominion 
of Canada, who have subscribers of the name of Fraser, are 
requested to publish the proceedings of this meeting. 

After which the meeting proceeded to the nomination of 
the following officers, who were unanimously elected : 
I. To be the Chief of the Province of Quebec : 
The Honorable John Fraser de Berry, Esquire, one 
of the members of the Legislative Council of the said Prov- 
ince, etc., being the fifty-eighth descendant of Jules de Berry, 
a rich and powerful lord (seigneur) who feasted sumptuously 



20 THE OFFICERS. 

the Emperor Charlemange, and his numerous suite, at his 
castle in Normandy, in the eighth century. 

II. For the following electoral divisions : 

Lauzon, — Thomas Fraskr, Esquire, farmer, of Pointe 
Levis. 

Kennebec, — Simon Eraser, Esquire, of St. Croix. 

De la D^trantaye, — Alexander Eraser, Esquire, farmer, 
of St. Vallier. 

Lcs Laiirentides, — William Eraser, Esquire, of Lake 
St. John, Chicoutimi. 

Grandville, — Jean Etienne Eraser, Esquire, Notary. 

Green. Island Stadaco7ia, — Alexander Eraser, Esquire, 
Notary. St. Roch, Quebec. 

The meeting having voted thanks to the President and 
Secretary, then adjourned. 

ALEX. ERASER, 

Prendent. 

OMER ERASER, 

Secretayy. 

There was a good response to the call for the general 
meeting, letters having been sent broadcast over the Domin- 
ion. As chief of the Erasers of British North America, the 
Hon. James Eraser de Eerraline, in the Province of Nova 
Scotia, was elected. He was a scion of the Eerraline and 
Gorthlic families of the Clan. One hundred and eleven sub- 
ordinate chieftains of provinces and districts were elected and 
Mr. John Eraser de Berry was appointed Secretary to the 
" New C!lan Eraser," as it was called. Eor various reasons, 
chief among them being, probably, its elaborate constitution 
and the intangible purposes for which it was called into exist- 
ence, the organization did not make satisfactory headway and 



CLAN ORGANIZATION. 2 1 

in the course of not many years it failed to attract any public 
attention whatever, and ceased to exist. In its brief career 
it gathered some interesting information about the clansmen. 
In a report drawn up by the Secretary, De Berry, whose 
exertions on its behalf were unwearying, it is stated that 
there were then over 12,000 persons, men, women and child- 
ren ot the name Fraser, some speaking French, not one of 
whom was a day laborer, or "earning daily wages," but all 
in comfortable circumstances, many in positions of honour and 
trust. 



FORMATION 

OF THE 

CLAN FRASER IN CANADA 

Although Mr. John Fraser de Berry's scheme failed it 
was believed that there was room for a less pretentious and 
more practicable clan organization in Canada. There was 
little diminution of the clan feeling ; the desire of those having 
the same origin and name, the same glorious clan history, in 
common, to enjoy a friendly intercourse, was natural and 
reasonable, and at length it assumed a practical form. Early 
in the spring of 1894 a meeting was held in the office of the 
Toronto Daily Mail, at which there were present : Messrs. 
George B. Fraser, commission agent ; Robert Lovat Fraser, 
barrister ; Alexander R. Fraser, druggist ; Dr. J. B. Fraser, 
physician ; Alexander Fraser (of Fraserfield, Glengarry) 
Secretary to the Boiler Inspection Company ; W. H. Fraser, 
Professor of Languages at the Toronto University ; W. A. 
Fraser, civil engineer and contractor ; W. P. Fraser, clerk, 



22 FIRST ANNUAL DINNER. 

Dominion Bank ; Andrew Fraser, commercial traveller ; and 
Alexander Fraser, of the editorial staff of the Daily Mail. 
The last named, descended from the Clan Mhic Fhionnlaidh 
sept of the Struy Frasers, was appointed chairman of the 
meeting and Mr. W. A. Fraser, also descended from good 
Strathglass stock, was appointed vSecretary. All agreed that a 
clan organization ought to be formed and as a first step it was 
thought well to test the feeling of the clansmen at a family 
dinner, which it was decided should be held on May 5th, 1894. 
Those present formed themselves into a committee to make 
arrangements for holding the dinner and the chairman and 
secretary of the meeting were appointed chairman and secre- 
tary of the committee. Invitations were sent to every mem- 
ber of the Clan in Ontario, Montreal, New York, Buffalo and 
Detroit, whose name the committee was able to procure, and 
about three hundred replies were received, in which, without 
exception, an earnest hope for the success of the proposed 
organization was expressed. The dinner took place as had 
been decided upon, on May 5th, 1894, at Webb's Restaurant, 
Toronto, and an account of the proceedings will now be given. 



THE CLAN DINNER. 

Although the number that sat around the festive board 
was much smaller than had been expected, the elements 
requisite for a successful gathering were strongly in evidence, 
and, as a matter of fact, the inaugural dinner of the Clan 
turned out to be a most satisfactory event. Alany of the 
absentees had conveyed good reasons for their absence, and 
hearty greetings to the assembled company. From a large 



'Mor Fhaich" 




A cktiirm sgaoilte : chuatas an icol 

Aid sholas a'n talln nan triath. — OlSEAN. 



:r>oiip. 

Scotch Broth. 



5^^^?- 



Boiled Sea Sahnon from the Cruives of Lovat. 

Sgadan beag PoU-a-Roid. Pomme Natural, Anchovy Sauce. 

Bread and Butter Rolled. 

(£ntrees. 

HAGGIS 

PUNCH A LA ROMAIN. 

3oint5. 

Roast Beef. Spring Lamb. 

Degetables. 

Mashed Potatoes. Asparagus. French Peas. 

(Entremets. 

Eraser Pudding. 

Curds and Cream. Oat Cakes. Assorted Fine Cakes. 

Shortbread. Cheese. Biscuits. Radishes. 

Neapolitan Ice Cream. Nuts. Figs. Dates. 



SineofacJi Stratharaigeig : uisea;i an //;-/a//-." -Sean-Fhocai 



,0a0t 



Cbe Queen. 

" She wrought her people lasting: good. ' 

trf?e (£I?ief. 

" Tostamaid ar ceann a cinnidh ; 
Mac-Shimi mor na Morfhaich. 

" Master, go on, and I will follow thee 
To the last gasp, with truth and loyalty. 

Bagpipe Music — " Morar Sim." 

tri]e Clan. 

" I tell you a thing sickerly. 
That yon men will win or die ; 
For doubt of deid they sail not flee." 

" N uair thig an cinneadh Frisealach, 
Tha fios gur daoine borb iad " 

Bagpipe Music — "Caisteal Dunaidh." 

£)ur Quests. 

" Sir, you are very welcome to our house." 

Bagpipe Music — " Aird Mhlc-Shimi." 

"Highland Fling," by Master Norman Fraser. 

^t)e Clan in danaba. 

" Kindred alike, where'er our skies may shine. 
Where'er our sight first drank the vital morn. 

Bagpipe Music — " Fhuair Mac-Shi 



■ ais an Oighearachd. 



Distinauisbeb Clansmen. 

" Of singular integrity and learning. 
Yea, the elect o' the'land." 

fa) In Art ; (it in Science ; fc) in Literature ; 
(dj in Theology ; (e) in War ; f/j in Political Life 

TLl}z Cables. 

" Disguise our bondage as we will, 
'Tis woman, woman, rules us still. " 



" And when a lady's in the case, 
'Vou know, all other things give place.' 

DeocI? an Doruis. 

Air (/hnn) " Cletnentifie." 

Deoch an doruis. deoch an doruis, 
Deoch an doruis, 's i tha ann ; 
Deoch an doruis, sguah as i, 
Cha'n eil ^[ac-na-Bracha gann. 



CTulb Cang Syne. 

The bagpipe music 



^cb Sare tfje Queen. 



ill be furnished by Mr. Robert Ireland, Pipe :\Iaior of the 
48th Highlanders, Toronto. 



FIRST ANNUAL DINNER. 2'] 

number of letters it would be difficult to make a selection for the 
reader and the demands of space would prevent it, although 
some of them are really worth reproducing. Of special 
interest were the letters from Messrs. O. K. Fraser, Brock- 
ville ; J<ihn Fraser, Wm. Lewis Fraser and Thomas Fraser, 
New York ; P. M. Fraser, St. Thomas ; Donald Fraser, 
Windsor; R. J. Fraser, Barrie ; R. M. Fraser, Goderich ; 
Rev. R D. Fraser, Bowman ville ; Rev. J. B. Fraser, M.D., 
Annan ; John Fraser, Montreal ; W. G. Fraser, Buffalo ; 
Hon. Christopher Finlay Fraser, and B. Homer Dixon, 
K.N.L., Toronto; the last named a Fraser on the maternal 
side and a gentleman deeply versed in the history of the Clan. 

The dining hall presented a very attractive appearance. 
The table was made beautiful with a tastefully arranged and 
selected display of Howers and plants, and appropriate to the 
occasion there were stags' heads on the walls, and the Fraser 
Clan tartan draped the pillars, doorway and windows. There 
were a number of articles of interest sent by friends, such as 
finely executed mezzo-tint pictures of Simon Lord Lovat, 
beheaded in 1747, and of Brigadier Simon Fraser, the hero 
of Saratoga ; and a water-color of the Clan arms, from 
Mr. B. Homer Dixon ; a map of Inverness-shire, showing 
the Clan possessions at various stages of its history, with 
the lands in the hands of cadets of the Clan, a life-size copy 
of Hogarth's picture of Simon Lord Lovat, the ''last of the 
martyrs," a life-size copy of an engraving of Sir Alexander 
Fraser of Phillorth, founder of the University of Fraserburgh, 
sent by the Chairman. 

The menu card, a copy of which has been reproduced 
for this volume, will be found to have been a clever effort of 
the artist, Mr. W. A. Fraser, Secretary of Committee. A 



28 LOYALTY TO THE SOYEREIGN. 

representation of the Falls of Foyers is given on the cover, 
and on the last page a Celtic armorial device surrounded by 
the names of a number of old Fraser estates. 

The Chairman was Mr. Alexander Fraser (Mac- 
Fhionnlaidh) ; and the vice-chairs were occupied by IMr. 
Robert Lovat Fraser, Barrister, Toronto, and ex-Mayor 
Fraser of Petrolea. A picture of the company is given 
on another page, which will form an interesting reminis- 
cence of the happy gathering. From the picture, the face 
of one who was present at the dinner is unfortunately 
absent, that of Mr. Henry Sandham Fraser, and that of 
Mr. Wm. Fraser, of whom a brief notice is given on 
another page, appears, although he was not present, as he 
would have been were it not that he was just then stricken 
down with illness, to which, not long afterwards, he suc- 
cumbed. The dinner was excellently served, and then came 
the toast list with the speeches. The first toast was that 
of: 

"THE QUEEN." 

The Chairman in proposing the health of the Queen 
said : — Our Clan has invariably been a loyal one, even in the 
rising which terminated so fatally on the battlefield of Culloden, 
the Clan Fraser took part, believing that they were striking 
a blow for the rightful king. I am sure we all agree that no 
sovereign has ever held sway over the British Empire who is 
more worthy of the regard of men of Highland blood than 
Her Majesty Queen Victoria. She who has given so many 
proofs of regard for the Highland people is beloved by them 
in return. Her volumes of her life in the Highlands, one of 
which has been well translated into Gaelic and the other 
indifferently so, bear testimony to the deep interest with which 



CLANSMAN AND CHIEF. 29 

she regards that portion of her ancient kingdom of Scotland, 
to which we Liy chiim as our native land. She has gone in and 
out among the peasantry and gentry with perfect confidence 
in their loyalty and in their attachment to her person. She 
surrounded herself by faithful Highlanders, and their ser- 
vices to her, whether in the household or in positions of 
public preferment, have been uniformly of a high character 
and invariable success. That she may long live and 
rule in the hearts of her people, no body of men can wish 
more strongly than this company that has given to her name 
its just place of honor at the head of the toast list. 
The toast was cordially honored. 

" THE CHIEF." 

The Chairman next proposed the toast of the Chief. 
He said : It is stated that a man of the name of Cameron, 
who had fought at the Battle of Falkirk with the Royal Army, 
his clan being on the side of the Prince, joined his kinsmen 
after the battle, but still wore the Royal uniform in the bonnet 
of which there was a cockade. Lord Kilmarnock, coming up 
and seeing an armed Royalist, as he thought, suspected 
danger to the Prince, and in an altercation he snatched the 
cockade from the soldier's hat and trampled upon it. This 
aroused the ire of the Camerons who saw their comrade 
maltreated, and they resented Kilmarnock's interference, say- 
ing, " No Colonel nor General in the Prince's army can take 
that cockade out of the hat of a Cameron except Lochiel 
himself." I mention this incident as affording a good 
example of the bond of fealty by which the clansman was 
held to his chiet". To him the chief was supreme in all 
things. He was not only the head of his famib', but the 



^O SIMON JOSEPH, LORD LOVAT. 

provider and protector of the clan. His authority he 
derived from his position, his position he secured, some- 
times by the good-will of the clan, but generally on account 
of birth. The clansmen considered themselves as the child- 
dren of the chief, and the system demanded that they subor- 
dinate themselves to his rule. Without a chief or his 
substitute there could be no organized clan, and it is rightly 
understoDd how important was his position under the clan 
system. Chiefs of our Clan proved themselves to be worthy 
of the position, as a rule, and Simon Joseph, Lord Lovat, 
the young nobleman who now holds the chiefship. already 
gives promise of faithfully following in the footsteps of his 
forefathers. At the celebration of his majority, not long ago, 
there was a considerable gathering of clansmen and others to 
do him honor, and the manner in which he performed his pcirt 
as host on that occasion is an augury of a distinguished 
future. It is said that he shows a deep interest in the welfare 
of his people, that he is a young man of highly patriotic 
feelings, and, as his sphere of usefulness is a wide one, he, no 
doubt, will have ample opportunity of filling the highest expec- 
tations of the Clan. Following the traditions of his house he 
has entered the army, and, should he decide to follow arms as a 
profession, no doubt the military genius of his race, bequeathed 
to him through a long line of ancestors, will win for him hon- 
orable distinction as a soldier. I now ask you to charge your 
glasses and to drink to the health of our young chief with 
Highland honors. 

The toast was drunk with Highland honors ; the company 
singing " He's a Jolly Good Fellow," after which the piper 
played the Clan welcome, " Morar Sim." 

Mrs. Charles Gordon Fraser was at this stage introduced. 



TOAST OK "THE (LAN, 



and her little boy, Master Norman Fraser, attired in High- 
land costume, gave a spirited and clever execution of the 
Highland tling, for which he was enthusiastically cheered. 



THE CLAN, 



The Chairman proposed the next toast, that of the Clan. 
He said : — In rising to propose the toast of the evening, my 
first duty, it seems to me, is to express my sense of the great 
honor done me by my clansmen in asking me to preside over 
the first family dinner of the Clan in this Province. Many 
there be with us, who, from age and distinction and fitness in 
every respect, ought to have come before me, and who would 
have done greater honor to the position on such an occasion 
as this, than I can hope to do, even with your kind 
indulgence. The rather active part it has been my privilege 
to take in bringing about this happy gathering may have sug- 
gested your choice, and should I be right in this conjecture, 
that fact but deepens the feeling with which I regard the 
honor. But a still more arduous duty laid upon me was to 
give the toast of the evening, that of "The Clan." I can 
assure you it required all the courage I could muster to under- 
take the task. The motto of the Clan was held up to me, but I 
did not forget that Je suis prest ought to be the corollary of 
Paratus sum, and I fear that but few could step into the 
breach and do full justice to the great Clan Fraser. In 
assigning the toast, moreover, the request was made that I 
should give as much information regarding the Clan, as could 
well be packed into a speech, even if the limit of time should 
have to be extended over that which is usually allowable for 
an after dinner effort ; but, as I understand the information is 
intended for a wider circle of clansmen than is here. I feel 



32 THE CLAN SVSTE-M. 

assured of your patience and forbearance while I struggle 
through a narrative, the length of which under other circum- 
stances would have been an unpardonable breach of good taste. 

The clan system holds an intermediate position between 
the patriarchal and feudal systems. It is sometimes confused 
with the former, more rarely with the latter. The feudal 
lordship, in its genius and scope of operation, was diametrically 
opposed to the salient characteristics of the clan system. The 
distinctions need not be enlarged upon here, let it suffice to 
draw attention to the fact that clanship was a distinct form 
of government, under well recognized and applied principles. 
In modern literature we find the characteristic most empha- 
sized to be the loyalty with which the clansman followed and 
served his chief, as in the words of the quotation on our toast 
list, " Master, go on and I will follow thee, to the last gasp, 
with truth and loyalty." That truth and loyalty, however, 
was not born of a servile, l)ut of a highly patriotic feeling, for 
the bond which united chief and clansman was that of kindred 
and common interest, and not of hire and servitude. This 
explains why a people so highly sensitive, fiery and impetu- 
ous as the Celts, gave such loyal and perfect allegiance to the 
chief of the clan. 

Since the fact that we were to hold a clan gathering 
got abroad, I have been asked for information regarding 
the orio-in of the clans in the Hio^hlands. How these 
clans were first established authentic history does not 
record with clearness. We are left in the task of unravel- 
ling the origin of the clans to meagre allusions in classical 
writings, in genealogies which, to some extent at least, 
are mythical, and to tradition, ever changing with the progress 
of the centuries. There can be no question that many of the 




Ai.exani)1';k I'raskr { Mac^l'hioinilaidJi) 
Chaiuman. 



34 ORKIIN OF THE CLANS, 

clans grew gradually from the native population after the 
consolidation of the Scottish Kingdom. We know that tribes, 
some bearing names of modern clans, existed in what may 
be described as prehistoric times, in the ordinary acceptation 
of that term, in that part of Scotland north of the Forth and 
Clyde. Amongst these were the Bissets, the Fentons of the 
Aird, and others, whose names still survive in the County 
ot Inverness, and who must have to some extent merged 
into the Eraser Clan, by adopting the name of the lord 
of the manor. I do not like to quote John Hill Burton 
as an authority, prejudiced, as he manifestly is, and 
unfair, as a rule, when dealing with the Highlands and 
the Celts, but a passage from his unreliable Life of Simon, 
Lord Lovat, will show how a surname may impose itself on 
a community and how clans have been, to some extent, con- 
stituted. He says : "In some instances the foreign family 
adopted a purely Celtic patronymic from the name of the sept 
of which they were the leaders. In other cases, such as the 
Gordons and Frasers, the sept, probably absorbing various 
small tribes and admitting to its bosom many stray niembers 
owning strange varieties of Gaelic names, took the name of 
the leader ; hence we find the purest Gaelic spoken by people 
enjoying the Norman names of a Gordon or a Cumin. But, 
whether the imported lord of the soil adopted the name of 
the tribe or the tribe that of their lord, the unyielding influence 
of old national customs and peculiarities prevailed, and their 
families gradually adapted themselves m speech and method 
of life to the people over whom they held sway." This prin- 
ciple holds good in the case of the composite Fraser Clan, 
and a curious example is afforded by an extract from the 
Allangrange MS., with respect to the Rev. \Vm. iM'aser, of 



CHANGE OF SURNAMES. 35 

Kilmorack, published in that repository of Highland lore, 
the Celtic Magazine : — 136r2o5 

" Bishop Hay, maternal uncle to Agnes Lovat, carried 
away by Kenneth Mackenzie (a Bhlair), Seventh Baron of 
Kintail, when he sent away his first wife Margaret, daughter 
of John, Earl of Ross, advised Kenneth and the lady's friends 
that a commission should be sent to the Pope in 1491 to pro- 
cure the legitimation of their union. This was agreed to, and 
the following is the account of the commissioners : — 

" * To that effect one called Donald Dhu McChreggie, 
priest of Kirkhill, was employed. This priest was a native 
in Kintail, descended of a clan there called Clan Chreggie, 
who, being a hopeful boy in his younger days, was educated 
in Mackenzie's house, and afterwards at Beullie by the fore- 
mentioned Dugall Mackenzie (natural son of Alexander 
' lonraic ' VI. of Kintail pryor yrof). In the end he was 
made priest of Kirkhill. His successors to this day are 
called Frasers. Of this priest are descended Mr. William 
and Mr. Donald Fraser.' 

" The author of the Ardintoul MSS. gives a slightly 
different version, and says: 'To which end they sent Mr. 
Andrew Fraser, priest of Kintail, a learned and eloquent 
man, who took in his company Dugald Mackenzie, natural 
son of Alexander Inrig, who was a scholar. The Pope enter- 
tained them kindly, and very readily granted them what they 
desired, and were both made knights to the boot by Pope 
Clement VIII., but when my knights came home they 
neglected the decree of Pope Innocent III. against the mar- 
riage and consentricate of the clergy, or, otherwise, they got 
a dispensation from the then Pope Clement VIII., for both ot 
them married. Sir Dugal was made priest of Kintail and 



oO chanc;e of surnames. 

married Nien (daughter) Dunchy Chaim in Glenmoriston. 
Sir Andrew likewise married, whose son was Donall Dubh 
Maclntagard (Black I^onald, son of the Priest) and was 
priest of Kirk hill and chapter of Ross. His tacks of the 
Vicarage of Kilmorack to John Chisholm, of Comar, stands 
to this day. His son was Mr. William MacAhoulding, alias 
Fraser, who died minister of Kiltarlady. His son was Mr. 
Donald Fraser. who died minister of Kilmorack ; so that he 
is the fifth minister or ecclesiastical person in a lineal and 
uninterrupted succession, which falls out but seldom, and than 
which, in my judgment, nothing can more entitle a man to be 
really a gentleman ; for that blood which runs in the veins of 
four or five generations of men of piety and learning and 
breeding cannot but have influence, and it confirms my opinion 
that the j^resent Mr. VVm. Fraser (who is the fifth) has the 
virtues and commendable properties of his predecessors all 
imited in him.' " 

We see here the ease with which a MacCreggie could 
become a Fraser, and, bearing in mind the principle noticed 
by Hill Burton, there is no difficulty in accounting for the 
origin and growth of our Clan in the Highlands. \Miether 
we can tell the day of the month and the year on which Andrew 
or Simon Fraser first gazed on the winding Beauly or not — 
and the date can be approximately fixed — we, at all events, 
have no deep, unfathomable problem to solve as to the forma- 
tion of the Fraser Clan. We know that the founder of the 
name in Inverness-shire arrived there as the head of a power- 
ful Lowland house, that he settled among the natix-e Cale- 
donians of the country, assumed possession of the lands then 
forming his estate ; that the people, who were as Celtic as 
those in any portion of the Highlands, bearing such names 



ORIGIN OF THE NAME. 37 

as Gille-Criosd, Mac-Killweralicke, Gill' Aindrea, etc., rallied 
around him, accepted his authority, became his followers, and 
gradually adopted the name. As has been remarked, some of 
those who were thus absorbed were the Bissets and the Fentons 
of the Aird ; there were also the Haliburtons, the Corbets, and 
the Graemes of Lovat, whose estates fell into the possession of 
the Fraser family. From this beginning it is an easy matter to 
follow the fortunes of the Clan down the centuries from 1296, 
or thereabout, until the present day. But it is not as easy, nor 
is it as important, although interesting, to deal with the origin 
of the name and the ancient seat of those who bore it long, 
long ago. Yet the theories respecting the origin of the name 
must be taken notice of as traditions of interest, at least to 
the Clan. 

We meet the name of " Fraser " in various spellings 
in Ragman Roll, which dates A.D. 1292-97. Seventeen 
gentlemen of the family are on the roll, and the spellings 
given are : Fraser, Fresar, Frisel, Frisele, Freshele, de Fraser, 
and de Frisle. Whence derived ? A Norman-French and 
a Celtic origin have been ascribed to it. 

The Norman-French Origin. — Skene settles this 
theory in a summary fashion. He accepts it as indubitable, 
and had he refrained from giving the grounds upon which he 
bases his opinion, his deservedly high reputation as a Celtic 
historian might have satisfied the general reader as to the 
truth of his ipse dixit. But the two reasons he advances are 
absurd. From his own words you will learn how he disposes 
of the origin of the Clan : " Of the Norman origin of the 
family of the Frasers it is impossible for a moment to enter- 
tain a doubt. They appear during the first few generations 
uniformly in that quarter of Scotland which is south of the 



38 THE NORMAN-FRENCH THEORY. 

Firths of Forth and Clyde, and they possessed at a very 
early period extensive estates in the counties of East Lothian 
and of Tweeddale ; besides the name of Frisale, which is its 
ancient form, appears in the roll of Battle Abbey, thus plac- 
ing the Norman character of their origin beyond a doubt." 
Mr. Skene's first reason is that, " they appear during the first 
few generations uniformly in that quarter of Scotland which 
is south of the Forth and Clyde." Had this part of Scotland 
been at that time inhabited by Normans, Mr. Skene's position 
would not seem so surprising as it does ; but, as a matter of 
fact, at the time when the Erasers, according to Skene him- 
self, flourished in the south of Scotland, the population there 
was Celtic, and his plain reasoning is : " The Erasers first 
appear in Scottish records as part of a Celtic population ; 
therefore they must be of Norman origin ! " Mr. Skene's 
second reason, while not so manifestly absurd, is equally weak. 
It is : " The name of Frisale, which is the ancient form of 
" Eraser," appears in the roll of Battle Abbey, thus placing 
the Norman character of their origin beyond a doubt." And 
it is on such grounds as these that Mr. Skene proceeds. 
Why, the ingenious Senachies, skilled in genealogy, if not in 
the unravelling of charter deeds, could give an infinitely more 
plausible statement of a continental descent. In the first place, 
it is now impossible to authenticate the genuineness of the Roll 
of Battle Abbey ; and in the second place, if the roll were 
beyond question, there is nothing to show that the Frisale 
whose name appears on it was the progenitor ot the Scottish 
Erasers. Mr. Skene does not pretend to prove that he 
passed from England to Scotland and founded the family 
there. But althouQ^h he does not Qrive us details, Mr. Skene's 
theory can be nothing else than that Frisale, the follower of 



MR. SKENE S POSITION. 39 

William the Conqueror, was the same who received the lands 
held by the family in 1 109 in the south of Scotland from the 
Scottish monarch. Let us see how this theory will bear exam- 
ination. One sentence disposes of it completely and forever. 
There were Erasers in possession of estates in the south of 
Scotland before the Battle of Hastings, and from them Gilbert 
F'raser, who figures in the Cospatrick Charter of 1 109, was 
descended. Long before 1 109 the family had possessions in 
the Lothians and Tweeddale and farther to the north. It 
requires no more than this statement of fact to dispose of the 
Roll of Battle Abbey and the P>isale whose name furnished 
the late Historiographer Royal of Scotland with an easy outlet 
from an apparently difficult position. But supposing we allow 
for a moment the prior occupation of the Erasers to disappear 
from view, and with Skene begin at 1 109 with Gilbert Fraser. 
Even then the case for Erisale would be hopelessly weak. 
The Battle of Hastings was fought in 1066. E'rom 1058 to 
1093 Malcolm Ceanmor sat on the Scottish throne ; he it 
would be, according to Skene, who gave Erisale the grant 
of the extensive estates of the Tweeddale Erasers. But 
he was the bitter foe of William the Conqueror, who supplanted 
Edgar Atheling, whose sister Margaret was Malcom's Queen, 
and whose nephew, also named Edgar, reigned in Scotland 
until 1 107. Is it credible that Malcolm or Donald Bane, or 
Duncan, or Edgar, would strip their own nobles, in times of 
very uncertain warfare, of their lands, in order to bestow 
them upon aliens, and these aliens the feudal vassals of their 
turbulent, warlike enemy ? No careful reader of that period 
of Scottish history can believe that to have been possible. 
If it be said that Alexander I. and David I. favored Norman 
courtezans with grants of land on feudal titles, the answer is 



40 THE KREZELS OF FRANCE. 

that Alexander mounted the throne not earher than [107, 
when the F^rasers had already achieved historic prominence. 
While these remarks may suffice to indicate how valueless 
are the reasons put forward by Mr. Skene, they do not touch 
other theories pointing to a French origin prior to the reign of 
Malcolm Ceanmor. But these other theories having been 
rejected by Mr. Skene and his school, we may conclude that 
they rest their case on the statements just alluded to and 
disposed of. 

Annalists and Clan historians have, however, gone into 
particulars of the Norman- French theory. According to some 
the name was derived from \.\\(tf7'aise or 'strawberry' leaves in 
their arms, and it was related that they sprang from the Frezels 
of France. Others give different origins ; but, before laying 
before you the serious objections to the Norman-French 
theory, it is right that I should repeat what has been in many 
quarters regarded as strong circumstantial evidence in its favor. 
I refer to the bond entered into, as late as the first part of the 
eighteenth century, between Simon Lord Lovat (who was 
beheaded) and the Marquis de la Frezeliere. Lord Lovat 
was a fugitive in France at the time, and he was befriendtid 
by the Marquis. He wrote his life in French, afterwards 
translated into English and published in 1796. In it he 
makes the following statement : — 

" The house of Frezel, or Frezeau de la Frezeliere, is 
one of the most ancient houses in France. It ascends by 
uninterrupted filiation, and without any unequal alliance, to 
the year 1030. It is able to establish by a regular proof sixty- 
four quarterings in its armorial bearings, and all noble. It 
has titles of seven hundred years standing in the abbey of 
Notre Dame de Novers in Touraine. And it is certain. 



J.H, 



Jno. 



jAlBfANq 




40 



THE FREZELS OF FRANCE. 



that Alexander mounted the throne not earher than 1107, 
when the Phrasers had already achieved historic prominence. 
While these remarks may suffice to indicate how valueless 
are the reasons put forward by Mr. Skene, they do not touch 
other theories pointing to a French origin prior to the reign of 
Malcolm Ceanmor. But these other theories having been 
rejected by Mr. Skene and his school, we may conclude that 
they rest their case on the statements just alluded to and 
disposed of. 

Annalists and Clan historians have, however, gone into 
particulars of the Norman- French theory. According to some 
the name was derived from {.he /raise or 'strawberry' leaves in 
their arms, and it was related that they sprang from the Frezels 
of France. Others give different origins ; but, before laying 
before you the serious objections to the Norman-French 
theory, it is right that I should repeat what has been in many 
quarters regarded as strong circumstantial evidence in its favor. 
I refer to the bond entered into, as late as the first part of the 
eighteenth century, between Simon Lord Lovat (who was 
beheaded) and the Marquis de la Frezeliere. Lord Lovat 
was a fugitive in France at the time, and he was befriende.d 
by the Marquis. He wrote his life in French, afterwards 
translated into English and published in 1796. In it he 
makes the following statement : — 

" The house of Frezel, or Frezeau de la Frezeliere, is 
one of the most ancient houses in France. It ascends by 
uninterrupted filiation, and without any unequal alliance, to 
the year 1030. It is able to establish by a regular proof sixty- 
four quarterings in its armorial bearings, and all noble. It 
has titles of seven hundred years standing in the abbey of 
Notre Dame de Noyers in Touraine. And it is certain, 



/ 









1 

W - ^ ,^ ^ 

J.H.FraserI ChasTraserJ AW -FraserJ Norman FraserJ Andrew FraserI "' 

jJno.JFraser^^ Elisha A .FraserB, Dr Mungo Fraser^ Dr.J B.Frase r^ A R Fraser I 






Alb^ander Fraser John Phaser * Alexander Fraserl^ Rosr.L Fraser W P Fraser j 




IWiLLiAM Fraser f HughMiller j W.H.Fraser | Geo.B.Fraser ^ Jas. Fraser t 



THE " liOND OF AFFINITY. 4I 

that, beside these circumstances of inherent dignity, the house 
de la Frezehere is one of the best alhed in the kingdom. It 
numbers among its ancestors on the female side daughters of 
the families de Montmorenci, de Rieux, de Rohan, de Bre- 
tagne, de la Savonniere, de la Tremouille, de la Grandiere, 
and de St. Germains. Through the houses de Montmorenci, 
de Rieux, de Rohan, and de la Tremouille, to which the 
Marquis de la Frezeliere is nearly allied, he can trace his 
filiation through all the French monarchs, up to Charlemagne, 
King of France and Emperor of the West. Down again 
through the various branches of the illustrious house of 
France, M. de la Frezeliere may, without impropriety, assert 
his alliance to all the royal houses and almost all the principal 
nobility of Europe. 

" It is demonstrated by various historians, by the tradi- 
tion of the two families, and from letters written from time to 
time from one to the other, that the house of Frezel or 
Frezeau de la Frezeliere in France, and the house of Frezel 
or P>aser in Scotland, were of the same origin, and derived 
from the same blood. The Marquis de la Frezeliere, the head 
and representative of the Frezels or Frezeaus in France, and 
Lord Lovat, the representative of the Frezels or Erasers in 
the north and the Highlands of Scotlands, having happily 
encountered each other at Paris in the second journey that 
Lord Lovat made to France for the service of his king (i 702), 
were therefore both of them highly gratified with the oppor- 
tunity that offered itself of renewing their alliance and 
declaring their affinity in a common and authentic act of 
recognition drawn up for that purpose. 

" This record was executed on the one part by the Marquis 
de la Frezeliere himself, by the Duke de Luxembourg, the 



42 SCOTTISH DERl\ATION OF THE NAME. 

Duke de Chatillon and the Prince de Tingrie, the three 
worthy and illustrious children of the late Marshal de Lux- 
embourg Montmorenci, whose heroic exploits are not less 
glorious and celebrated than his descent is ancient and august. 
Several other lords of the house of Montmorenci, the Marquis 
de Rieux, and many noblemen related by blood and marriage 
to M. de la Frezeliere, joined with the Marquis in affixing 
their signatures to this act of recognition. On the other part 
it was executed by Simon Lord Lovat, Mr. John Fraser, his 
brother, and Mr. George Henry Fraser, Major of the Irish 
regiment of Bourke in the French service, for themselves, in 
the name of their whole family in Scotland. 

" By this deed the kindred of the two houses of the 
Frezels or Frasers is placed out of all possible doubt. 
Accordingly from the moment in which it was executed the 
Marquis de la Frezeliere regarded Lord Lovat rather as his 
brother and his child than as his remote relation ; and had 
his re-establishment in Scotland nearer his heart than his own 
elevation in France." 



The Scottish Origin of the Name. — Logan, author of 
the " Scottish Gael," agrees with those who claim a Scottish 
origin for the name. He derives it from F7'ith, ' a forest,' and 
siol — 'seed,' 'offspring.' His theory has at least the merit of 
great probability, and is certainly to be preferred to the Nor- 
man-French, unless the latter can be supported by better 
evidence than has yet been brought forward. In a most 
interesting volume on surnames by Mr. B. Homer Dixon, 
K.N.L., published in 1857, there are very suggestive notes 
on the surname " Fraser." He agrees with Logan, and he 
combats the Norman origin. His interest in the Clan Fraser 



MR. I!. HOMER DIXON S AROUMENT. 43 

is one of descent from a notable cadet family, and in con- 
nection with the origin of the name he has kindly furnished 
me with the following valuable statement : — 

" I differ from Skene and the older writers who derive the 
Frasers either from Pierre Fraser, who came to Scotland 
about the year Soo, and whose son Charles was made Thane 
of Man in 814, or from Julius de Berry, of Averme in the 
Bourbonnais, who, in the year 916, gave Charles the Simple 
so delicious a dish of strawberries that the king changed his 
name to ' de Fraize ' and gave him ' fraizes ' for arms. 

" According to the best authorities hereditary surnames 
were not used until about the year 1000, and Arms were cer- 
tainly not borne until after the Norman Conquest, being only 
introduced about four score years later at the time of the 
second Crusade, viz., A.D. 1 146, and therefore more than two 
centuries after the date of those ascribed to Julius de Fraize. 

" That the last Lord Lovat believed in his Norman 
descent I do not doubt. Early in the last century (A.D. 1702) 
he signed a bond of recognition with the Marquis Frezeau or 
Frezel de la Frezeliere, declaring that their name and origin 
were the same and acknowledging themselves as relations. 
The Frezeaus, however, were Anjevins from near Saumur, 
while the first Scotch Fraser was said to be a Bourbonnais ; 
still both parties were probably easily satisfied with their 
bond, which only went to prove apparently more clearly the 
antiquity of the families, however unnecessary, for the 
Frezeaus or Frezels were one of the most ancient houses in 
France, and the Frasers are undoubtedly one of the noblest 
families in Scotland. Burton, in his Life of Lord Lovat, 
London, 147, p. 104, throws discredit upon Lord Lovat's 
statement (Memoirs of Lord Lovat, London) of the antiquity 



44 THE KO.MANCE WORD " FRAYSSE." 

of the family of Frezeau de la Frezeliere, because, forsooth, 
there is no account of the family in ' le Fere Anselme,' but 
Moreri (Grand Dicte. Histe. Basle. 1740) says ' the family was 
one of the most ancient in the kingdom ' (almost the very 
words of Lord Lovat), ' and one of the most illustrious of 
the Province (Anjou), where they have possessed from time 
immemorial the seigniory of the Frezeliere.' Moreri adds 
that there were Chevaliers Frezel in 1030, and, commencing 
his pedigree with the Chevalier Geoffrey, living in 1270, 
carries it down uninterruptedly to the Marquis dela Frezeliere, 
et de Monsieur Baron de Lasse, Lieutenant-General in the 
army and first Lieutenant-General in the Artillery, who died 
in I 7 I 1. 

'• Both the Marquis and Lord Lovat were mistaken, 
however, for the Anjevin name does not signify ' strawberry,' 
neither does that family bear ' fraises ' in their arms, but 
Frezeau or Frezel de la Frezeliere signifies ' Ash of the Ash 
Plantation or Wood,' from the Romance word Frayssc, 'an ash 
tree ; ' and in Auvergne there is a family styled ' du P'raisse,' 
who bear an ash tree in their arms. Similar names to Frezel 
de la Frezeliere are le Bastard de la Bastardiere, Freslon de la 
Freslonnicre, Raband de la Rabandiere. 

" It is true that the name Frisell occurs in the Roll of 
Battle Abbey ; but even allowing that to be authentic, what 
proof is there that the Frisell who accompanied the Conqueror 
in 1066, was the ancestor of Gilbert de Fraser, who possessed 
large estates in Tweeddale and Lothian in the time of Alex- 
ander \. ( I 107- 1 174) ? 

" This Gilbert, the first of the family mentioned, is called 
' de,' but the name was more frequently written without 
that prefix. 



THE ARMORIAL liEARINGS. 45 

" I believe that the Frasers are Scotch ab 07'2gine and 
repeat that I consider the name to be GaeHc and older than 
the arms, which were canting arms, such as we have a royal 
example of as early as the time of Louis VII. (of 1180), who 
covered the shield of France with blue, the tincture of his 
royal robes, and then charged the same with lilies, derived 
originally from Isis, formerly worshipped in France. 

" T\\& fraise<i are quartered with three antique crowns, 
and here again authors differ, most writers saying they are ior 
Bisset. Even Nisbet makes this error, although on another 
page he gives the arms of Bisset of Beaufort as ' Azure a 
bend argent ! ' Others say they were granted to Sir Simon 
Fraser, the ' Flower of Chivalrie,' the friend of Wallace and 
Bruce, for having three times re-horsed his king at the Battle 
of Methven, in 1306. This may be their origin, but if so they 
were probably granted to or adopted by his grand nephew 
and heir, Sir Andrew Fraser, for Sir Simon Fraser was 
taken prisoner at this very battle, conveyed to London and 
beheaded. It is worthy of note, however, that the Grants, 
near neighbors and often allied to the Frasers, bear three 
antique crowns, though of a different tincture. Hugh, fifth 
Lord Lovat, married a daughter of the Laird of Grant, by 
whom, however, he had no issue. He died 1544." 

In another note Mr. Dixon says : " The court language 
of Scotland, at the time this family took their arms, which are 
totally different from those of the French house of Frezeau or 
Frezel, was a medley of Teutonic and F^rench." 

In the Lowlands of Scotland. — But whether the 
derivation be from the Romance fraysse, ' an ash tree,' 
or the Gaelic //'////, ' a forest,' we find the chief of the name 



46 IN THE LOWLANDS. 

firmly established as a powerful Scottish noble, manifesting 
the patriotism and national sentiment to be looked for in a 
native born baron, as early as 1109. 

H is name was Gilbert DE FRASER,who, in the year named, 
witnessed a charter known as the Cospatrick Charter. It is 
generally conceded that he is the first with whom documentary 
history begins. That there were Erasers in Tweeddale and 
Lothian before him is certain, and the names of some of them 
have survived, but with this Gilbert begins the unbroken 
record of lineage which comes down to our own day. The 
lands possessed by the Erasers in the south of Scotland were 
extensive, and the family power was great, as will be indicated 
in the course of the brief reference to it which will be here 
made. Gilbert had three sons, Oliver, Udard and another 
whose name is not now known. 

Oliver succeeded his father and built Oliver Castle, 
by which his name survives. There are many interesting 
descriptions of this old stronghold ; that in the Ordnance 
Survey Report I quote on account of its brevity : " An 
ancient baronial fortalice in Tweedsmuir parish, S. W. 
Peeblesshire, on the left side of the river Tweed. . . Crowning 
a rising ground which now is tufted with a clump ot 
trees, it was the original seat of the Frasers, ancestors of 
the noble families of Lovat and Saltoun, and passed from 
them to the Tweedies, who figure in the introduction to Sir 
Walter Scott's Betrothed, and whose maternal descendant, 
Thomas Tweedie-Stodart (b. 1S38; sue. 1869), of Oliver 
House, a plain modern mansion hard by, holds 1 144 acres in 
the shire. . .Oliver Castle was the remotest of a chain of strong 
ancient towers, situated each within view of the next all down 
the Tweed to Berwick, and serving both for defence and for 



IN THE LOWLANDS. 47 

beacon fires in the times of the border forays. It was eventu- 
ally relinquished and razed to the ground." Oliver died with- 
out issue, and, his brother Udard, evidently having predeceased 
him, the succession went to Udard's son, 

Adam, who was succeeded by his son, 

Lawrence, on record in 1261, and who was in turn 
succeeded by his son, 

Lawrence. The second Lawrence had no male issue, 
but had two daughters, one of whom married a Tweedie, 
carrying with her Fraser lands, and the other of whom married 
a Macdougall. The succession in the male line now reverted 
to Gilbert's third son, whose name is lost, but who had two 
sons, 

Simon and Bernard. Both these succeeded to the chief- 
ship, Simon's issue being female. It was after this Simon 
that Keith-Simon was named. 

Bernard raised the fortunes of the family considerably, 
and his name frequently occurs in connection with questions of 
first class importance. He was the first of the name to have 
been appointed Sheriff of Stirling. He was succeeded by 
his son, 

GiLHEKJ-, Styled " Vicecomes de Traquair,'' or Sheriff 
of Traquair, father of three historic personages, Sir Simon, Sir 
Andrew, and William, the Bishop of St. Andrew's and Chan- 
cellor of Scotland, an extended reference to whom I with 
difficulty refrain from making. As a prelate and a statesman 
he rendered high service to his country. His brother, 

Sir Simon, the Elder, succeeded his father, Gilbert. 
He is designated the Elder to distinguish him from his famous 
son, Sir Simon the Patriot. He took a leading part in the 
afiairs of the nation. He, his two brothers and a nephew, 



48 SIMON THE I'ATRIOT. 

Richard Fraser, Lord of Dumfries, were four of the arbiters 
in the BaHol claim to the Scottish Crown. He died in 1291, 
and was succeeded by 

Sir SnroN the Patriot, the greatest and most renowned 
of all the Fraser chiefs. All I can say of him is that he was 
the compatriot, the coadjutor and compeer of Sir William 
Wallace, and one of the noblest knights whose deeds are 
recorded on the page of history. He has furnished ancient 
and modern historians with a subject for patriotic eulogy and 
enthusiastic praise. As a soldier and statesman he was jacile 
princeps. He was the hero of Roslin ; he was the only Scot- 
tish noble who held out to the last with Sir William Wallace, 
and was one of the first to welcome and aid the Bruce, whom 
he re-horsed three times at the Battle of Methven, where he 
was taken prisoner ; and he was the only Scottish knight at 
that time whose patriotism entitled him to the brutal indigni- 
ties of Edward's court, and a death, in 1306, similar to that 
of Sir William Wallace. The Patriot's family consisted of two 
daughters; the elder married Sir Hugh Hay, ancestor of the 
noble house of Tweeddale, and the younger, Sir Patrick 
Fleming, ancestor of the Earls of Wigton. Male issue 
having again failed, the succession went back to 

Sir Andrew Eraser, Sheriff^ of Stirling, already men- 
tioned as second son of Sir Gilbert Fraser, Sheriff of Tra- 
quair. Sir Andrew was the Patriot's uncle. He is styled 
" of Caithness," on account of having married a Caithness 
heiress, and at that point begins the interest of the family in 
the North of Scotland. He was both a brave knight and a 
powerful lord, and, like his brothers, bore his part valorously 
and well in the senate and on the field. He lived to occupy 
the posIti(m of chief but two years. He was the first chief of 



MOVINc; NORTHWARD. 49 

the family who won large possessions in the north, while the 
headquarters were still in the southern countries. The well- 
known Neidpath castle was one of the family strongholds. It 
was a massive pile, of great strength, the walls being eleven 
feet thick. It is situated in Peeblesshire and is still to be seen. 
The strawberries appear in the crest of the Hays on the key- 
stone of the courtyard archway, a connecting link with the 
Frasers, from whom it passed to the Hays of Yester, in 1312, 
with the daughter of the Patriot. Before following the family 
to the Lovat estates, in Inverness-shire, it may not be amiss to 
recapitulate the succession in the south. It was as follows : 
I. Gilbert De Fraseh, II. Oliver Eraser, HI. Adam 
Eraser, IV. Laurence Eraser, V. Laurence Phraser, \T. 
Simon Eraser, VII. Bernard Eraser, VIII. Sir Gilbert 
Eraser, IX. Sir Simon Eraser, X. Sir Simon Phraser, XI. 
Sir Andrew Eraser. 



The Clan in the Highlands. — The family extended 
northward by the marriage of Sir Andrew to a Caithness 
heiress, through which he acquired large estates in that 
country. His was a notable family of sons. The eldest, 
named Simon, gave the family its patronymic of " Mac- 
Shimi " (pronounced Mac-Kimmie). He (Simon) married 
the daughter of the Earl of Orkney and Caithness, and it is 
believed by the family historians that this marriage brought 
the first Lovat property to the family. It would appear that 
the Countess of Orkney and Caithness, namely, Simon 
Eraser's mother-in-law, was the daughter of Graham of 
Lovat, and that her right in the Lovat property descended to 
her daughter, Simon's wife, in whose right he took possession. 
Thus, we see how the names Eraser and Lovat, now tor so 



50 ESTABLISHED IN THE HIGHLANDS. 

long a time almost synonymous, were first brought together, 
and how the Frasers obtained a footing on territory which 
has become indissolubly linked with their name. 

Sir Andrew Fraser's other sons were Sir Alexander, 
Andrew and James ; the first named, a powerful baron and 
statesman, who attained to the office of Chamberlain of Scot- 
land, held previously, as we have seen, by his uncle, Bishop 
Fraser. In consideration of distinguished services, he was 
given in marriage Mary, sister of King Robert Bruce, and 
widow of Sir Nigel Campbell, of Lochow\ He possessed 
lands in Kincardine, of which county he was sheriff. He 
was killed at the battle of Dupplin. Andrew and James, his 
brothers, with their brother, Simon of Lovat, were slain at the 
battle of Halidon Hill, July 22nd, 1333, and all four were in 
the front rank of the soldiers of their time. 

The chiefs of the Clan Fraser date from : 

I. Simon, Sir Andrew's eldest son. He had three sons 
— Simon and Huo-h, who both succeeded him in honors and 

o 

estates, and James, who was knighted on the occasion of the 
coronation of Robert HI. 

II. Simon succeeded his father, when still very young, 
and gave proof, in the field, that the n-iilitary genius of the 
family was inherited by him. He died unmarried, after a 
brief but brilliant career, and his estates and the chiefship 
went to his brother, 

HI. HuoH, styled " Dominus de Lovat." And, now, I 
shall keep briefiy to the line of chiefs, and shall not burden 
you with many i)ersonal incidents that have come down to 
us, with respect to any of thcnn, until we come to Lord Simon, 
wlio suffered death on Tower Hill. Hugh was succeeded by 



ADDING TO THE ESTATES. 5 1 

his two sons, first by Alexander, the eldest, then by Hugh, 
the second son. From his third son, John, sprang the Frasers 
of Knock, in Ayrshire ; and from Duncan, his fourth son, the 
Frasers of Morayshire. 

IV. Alexander is described as a "pattern of primitive 
piety and sanctity to all around him." He died unmarried 
An illegitimate son, named Robert, was the progenitor of 
^' Sliochd Rob, Mhic a Mhanaich." 

V. Hugh, his brother, who succeeded, acquired lands 
from the Fentons and Bissets, by marriage with the heiress 
of Fenton of Beaufort. The names of these lands, it will be 
interesting to note, forming as they do an important part of 
the estates long held by the Frasers. They are : Guisachan, 
now the property of Lord Tweedmouth ; Comar, Kirkton, 
Mauld, Wester Eskadale and Uchterach. This Hugh, the 
fifth chief, was the first to assume the title of Lord Lovat. 
He had three sons, Thomas, Alexander, who died unmarried, 
and Hugh. The first Lord Lovat was succeeded by his son, 

VL Thomas, whose assumption of the title is not men- 
tioned by the family historians, but of whose accession there 
is good documentary proof. The silence of the historians, 
however, has led to an error in the designation of his succes- 
sors. For instance, his brother, 

VH. Hugh, who succeeded him, is called Hugh, second 
Lord Lovat, instead of Hugh, third Lord Lovat. This Lord 
Lovat had two sons. Thomas and Hugh, the former of whom 
was Prior of Beauly, and died young and unmarried. He 
was succeeded by his son, 

VHI. Hugh, fourth Lord Lovat, who had a decisive 
brush with the Macdonalds, under the Lord of the Isles, when 



52 ORICIN OF SOME CADET FAMILIES. 

the latter besieged the Castle of Inverness in 1429. He was 
a peer of Parliament, and is supposed to have been the first 
Lord Lovat to have attained to that dignity, with the title. 
Lord Fraser of the Lovat. He had four sons, who deserve 
mention : Thomas, who succeeded ; Hugh, a brave soldier 
and accomplished courtier, who was slain at Flodden ; Alex- 
ander, from whom sprang the old cadets of Farraline, Lead- 
clune, etc. ; and John, the historian of Henry VHI., the learned 
Franciscan and astute ambassador. There were also two 
illegitimate sons — Thomas and Hugh, the latter, progeni- 
tor of the Frasers of Foyers, and of many other Fraser families, 
known as " Sliochd Huistein Fhrangaich." 

IX. Thomas, fifth Lord Lovat, added the lands of 
Phopachy, Englishton, Bimchrew and Culburnie, the last- 
named place from Henry Douglas, to the family estates, 
which were assuming very large proportions. He had a 
large family. The eldest son, named Hugh, succeeded to 
the estates. From the second son, William, sprang the 
Frasers of Belladrum, Culbokie, Little Struy, etc. ; from 
James, the Frasers of Foyness ; from Robert, the Frasers of 
Brakie, Fifeshire ; from Andrew, " Sliochd Anndra Ruadh 
a Chnuic " (Kirkhill) ; from Thomas, "Sliochd Ian 'Ic 

Fhomais " ; John married a daughter of Grant of Grant, with 
issue ; and from Hugh Ban of Reelick (an illegitimate son), 
came the Frasers of Reelick and Moniack. 

X. Hugh, sixth Lord Lovat, was the chief of the Clan 
at the time of the disastrous fight with the Macdonalds at 
Kinlochlochy, of which 1 shall read a short description later 
on.* At this afi'ray Lord Hugh and his eldest son, Simon, 
were slain. His second son, Alexander, succeeded, and his 

*Sce account In Rev. Allan Sinclair, A. M.. in Celtic Ma-azine. 



KEAULV PRIORY LANDS. 53 

third son, William, was ancestor of the Frasers of Struy. His 
fourth son, Hugh, died young and unmarried. 

XI. Alexander, seventh Lord Lovat^ a man of literary 
tastes, lived in comparative retirement. His three sons were : 
Hugh, his successor ; Thomas, first of Knockie and Strichen, 
from whom the present chief, whose family in 1815 succeeded 
to the Fraser estates, sprang, and James, ancestor of the 
Frasers of Ardachie, the Memoir and Correspondence of a 
scion of which, General James Stuart Fraser, of the Madras 
Army, was a few years ago, given to the world, as the dis- 
tinguished record of a soldier, a scholar and a statesman. 

XH. Hugh, the eighth Lord Lovat, succeeded at the 
age of fourteen. He was noted for his proficiency in archery, 
wrestling, and the athletics of the day ; he greatly encouraged 
the practice ot manly exercises on his estates. He was a 
staunch supporter of Regent Murray, and at the Reformation 
secured possession of the Priory of Beauly and the church lands 
pertaining to it, including the town lands of Beauly, and some 
of the best tacks on the low-lying part of the present estates, 
in the parishes of Kilmorack and Kiltarlity, the mere names 
indicating the value of the grant : Fanblair, Easter Glencon- 
vinth, Culmill, Urchany, Farley, Craigscorry, Platchaig, 
Teafrish, Annat, Groam, Inchrorie, Rhindouin, Teachnuic, 
Ruilick, Ardnagrask, Greyfield, the Mains of Beauly, as well 
as valuable river fishings. Mr. Chisholm Batten's book on 
Beauly Priory contains many interesting facts regarding the 
acquisition of these fertile and extensive lands, for which his 
Lordship paid a certain sum of money. He married a 
daughter of the Earl of Athol, and had two sons, Simon and 
Thomas, and a natural son, named Alexander, who married 
Janet, daughter of P>aser of Moniack. Thomas died in 



54 VICISSITUDES OK THE FAMILY. 

his ninth year. Lord Hugh died at Towie, in Mar, on his 
way home from Edinburgh. It was suspected that he had 
been poisoned. 

XIII. Simon, ninth Lord Lovat, succeeded at the tender 
age of five. Thomas of Knockie became tutor for the young 
chief, an office of power and responsibihty. He was married 
three times. By his first wife, Catherine Mackenzie, he had 
issue, a son and daughter, Hugh, his successor, and Ehzabeth. 
By his second wife, the daughter of James Stuart, Lord 
Doune, he had two sons and three daughters : Sir Simon of 
Inverallochy, Sir James of Brea, Anne, Margaret and Jean. 
His third wife was Catherine Rose of Kilravock. 

XIV. Hugh, tenth Lord Lovat, had already a large 
family when he succeeded to the estates. Three years after his 
accession his wife died, leaving him with nine children, six sons 
and three daughters. Her death cast agloom over his life, and, 
practically retiring from business, the management of the 
estates for a time fell on his son Simon, Master of Lovat, a 
young man of the brightest promise, whose untimely death 
was a second severe blow to his father. His dying address 
is a remarkable production. His next elder brother, Hugh, 
became Master of Lovat, and Sir James Eraser, of Brea, became 
tutor. The Master of Lovat married Lady Anne Leslie, and 
died a year afterwards, during his father's lifetime, leaving a 
son, Hugh, who succeeded to the titles and estates. Hugh 
the tenth Lord Lovat's issue were : Simon and Hugh, to 
whom reference has just been made ; Alexander, who became 
tutor ; Thomas of Beaufort, father of the celebrated Simon ; 
William, who died young ; James, who died without issue, and 
Mary, Anne and Catherine. 

XV. Hugh, grandson of the tenth Lord Lovat, succeeded 



SIMON OF BEAUFORT S ACCESSION. 55 

as eleventh Lord Lovat, when only three years old. At 
sixteen he was, to use the words of the chronicler, " decoyed 
into a match " with Anne, sister of Sir George Mackenzie of 
Tarbat, the famous lawyer, the lady being at the time of the 
marriage, about thirty years of age. There were born to 
them a son, named Hugh, who, from a black spot on his 
upper lip, was nick-named " Mac-Shimi, Ball Dubh," " Black- 
spotted Mackimmie ; " and three daughters. 

XVI. Hugh, " The Black-spotted," succeeded as twelfth 
Lord Lovat. He married a daughter of Murray, Marquis of 
Athole, a connection in which the pretensions of the Mur- 
rays, thwarted by Simon of Beaufort, find their source. This 
chief left four daughters, but no son, and having had no 
brothers or uncles on the father's side, the succession went 
to Thomas of Beaufort, surviving son of Hugh, the tenth 
Lord Lovat, and grand-uncle of Hugh, " The Black-spotted." 

XVH. Thomas of Beaufort assumed the title as thir- 
teenth Lord Lovat, and would probably have been left in 
undisputed possession but for the marriage contract made by 
the twelfth Lord, at the instance of the Athols, settling the 
estates on his eldest daughter, failing male heirs of his body. 
It is true that afterwards he revoked this settlement in favor 
of the nearest male heir, viz., Thomas of Beaufort, but the 
validity of the later document was contested, and it was onlv 
after a long and extraordinary struggle, in which plot, in- 
trigue and violence played a part, as well as protracted litiga- 
tion, that his son's title to the estates was confirmed. 

XVI 1 1. Simon of Beaufort succeeded his father, as four- 
teenth Lord Lovat, after, as has been stated, many years of 
fierce contest concerning his rights. He had an elder brother, 
named Alexander, who, according to report then current, died 



56 ALEXANDER OF BEAUFOKT. 

young in Wales, and without issue. His younger brothers 
were named Hugh, John, Thomas, and James. The cause 
of Alexander's flight to Wales forms one of the best known 
legends of the family. There are various versions of it, but 
I shall give that most commonly related by old people in the 
district of the Aird : Alexander arrived, somewhat late, at a 
wedding at Teawig, near Beauly. His appearance was the 
signal for the piper to strike up the tune, '' Tha Biodag air 
MacThomais," some of the lines of which run : 

Tha biodag air Mac Thomais, 
Tha biodag fhada, nihor, air ; 
Tha biodag air Mac Thomais, 
Ach's math a dh' fhoghnadh sgian da. 

Tha biodag arms a chliobadaich, 
Air mac a bhodaich leibidich ; 
Tha biodag anns a chhobadaich, 
Air mac a bhodaich romaich. 

Tha bhiodag deanadh gliogadaich, 
'Si ceami'lt ri bami na briogais aig'; 
Tha bucallan 'n a bhrogan, 
Ged 's math a dh' fhoghnadh ial daibh. 

It was whispered to Alexancier that the piper selected 
this tune to cause merriment at his expense, and the youth, to 
turn the jest against the piper, determined to rip open the 
bafj- of the pipes, with his dirk. But in doing so, his foot 
slipped, and he fell heavily towards the piper with the naked 
dirk in his outstretched arm. The piper was fatally wounded, 
and Alexander, who had been an extreme partizan of the 
Jacobites, believed that were he tried for the murder of the 
piper, the hostility of Sir George Mackenzie, of Tarbat, 
would inevitably secure a sentence of death against him. He 
fled to Wales, where he was befriended by Earl Powis, under 
whose protection, it is said, he lived on, married, and had 
issue, while his next younger brother, Simon, enjoyed the 



ESTATES FORFEITED. 



57 



title and estates. Mr. John Fraser, of Mount Pleasant, Car- 
narvon, not long ago, laid claim to the chiefship, title and 
estates, on the ground that he is a lineal descendant of this 
Alexander, and although he lost his case in one trial, he is 
still gathering evidence, with the view of having it re-opened 
and further pushing his claim. 

For his share in the Jacobite rising of i 745, Simon, four- 
teenth Lord Lovat, was beheaded on Tower Hill, April 9th, 
I 747. Lord Simon's faults were not feW; but he has been a much 
maligned man ; his vices have been flaunted before the world, 
his virtues have been obscured. In extreme old age he gave 
up his life on the scaffold ; and his fate, believed by some to 
be richly deserved, by others has been characterized as mar- 
tyrdom. He left three sons, Simon, Alexander and Archibald 
Campbell Fraser. 

XIX. Simon succeeded to the chiefship, but that honor 
was unaccompanied by the estates and title, which had been 
forfeited to the crown. For his services as commandant of 
Fraser's Highlanders in the service of the House of Hanover, 
he was specially thanked by Parliament, and the paternal 
estates restored to him. I have been informed by the Grand 
Master Mason of Ontario that this Colonel Simon (afterwards 
General Simon Fraser of Lovat) was the first Provincial 
Master Mason in Upper Canada, the order having been 
established there at the time of the stirring events in which 
Fraser's Highlanders participated while in Quebec. General 
Simon married, but without issue, and his brother Alexander 
having predeceased him without issue, he was succeeded in 
possession of the estates by his half-brother, 

XX. Colonel Archibald CAMrrsELL Fraser of Lovat. 
The title was still held in abeyance. Colonel Archibald was 



58 THE STRICHEN SUCCESSION- 

a man of erratic habits, but a kind-hearted Highlander, and 
a man of no mean abihty. An account of his honors and public 
services he embodied in an inscription on his tombstone, but 
while the production is typical of his well-known eccentricity, 
as a matter of fact, not a little of the praise which he takes to 
himself for services to his country and his county, was well 
deserved. He had five sons, all of whom predeceased him. 
His eldest son was named Simon Frederick. He became 
member of Parliament for Inverness-shire. He died in 1803, 
unmarried, but left one son, Archibald Thomas Frederick 
F'raser, well-known in our own day as "Abertarf," from 
havino; resided there. None of the other sons of Colonel 
Archibald left legitimate issue, and at his death, in 181 5, the 
succession reverted to the Frasers of Strichen, descended, as 
already observed, from Thomas Fraser of Knockie and 
Strichen, second son of Alexander, the sixth Lord Lovat, 
represented, at the time of Colonel Archibald's death, by 

XXI. Thomas Alexander Fraser, of Strichen, who 
succeeded to the estates, and was created Lord Lovat by Act 
of Parliament, in 1837 ; and, in 1857, succeeded in having the 
old title restored to him. The succession of the Strichen 
family created a strong hostile feeling among the Clansmen 
and the old tenants generally, many of them believing that 
other aspirants who appeared had stronger claims. The 
Frasers of Strichen, however, were able to satisfy the 
courts as to the validity of their claim, and they were 
confirmed in the possession of the estates. A curious 
incident of the time may be briefly related, to illustrate both 
the feeling then prevailing concerning the succession, and the 
religious beliefs which were held then in the Highlands. It 
was, and to some extent yet is, believed that the Divine pur- 



A CURIOUS " PROniECY. " 59 

pose, with respect to every-day events, may be disclosed in 
appropriate portions of Scripture which impress themselves 
intensely on the mind of the devout believer. Two tenant- 
farmers, whose names, it given, would at once be a guarantee 
of their good faith, and of their respectability, went from 
the vicinity of Belladrum to the neighborhood of Red- 
castle, to a man whose piety gave him an eminent place among 
The Men of Ross-shire. They went to confer with him 
about the Lovat estates, and to find out whether he had any 
*' indication "' of the " mind of the Lord " as to whether the 
Frasers of Strichen would be established in their tenure of 
the estates against all comers. They were hospitably wel- 
comed, and, their errand having been made known, their host 
replied that he had had no such indication. They remained 
that night, the next day and the night following, but during 
all this time did not see their host. On the morning of the 
third day he joined them at the frugal breakfast, after which 
he led them to a window overlooking the Beauly Firth and 
said : " Since your arrival I have pled hard for light at the 
Throne. If God ever did reveal His Will to me by His 
Word, He did so last night. You see a fishing-smack before 
you on the firth ; as sure as you do observe her there, with 
her sail spread, catching the wind, so sure will, in God's good 
time, the Strichens pass away from the possession of the 
Lovat estates, and the rightful heir will come to his own. My 
warrant, given to me in my wrestling with God. is this pro- 
phetic passage : 'And thou, profane, wicked prince of Israel, 
whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end, thus 
saith the Lord God : Remove the diadem, and take off the 
crown : this shall not be the same : exalt him that is low, and 
abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn 



6o "fear donn an fheilidh." 

it : and it shall be no more, until he come whose right it is ; 
and I will give it him.' (Ezek. XXI., 25-27 ) God's pur- 
pose thus revealed will not be fulfilled in our day, nor likely 
in the day of our children, but our grandchildren will likely 
see it accomplished." The old nian's words made a deep im- 
pression ; but only a few friends were informed of them, not 
only because they were held as a sacred message, but also 
because of the " power of the estate office." Whatever 
may be thought of beliefs thus formed, no one who knew 
the devout, simple-hearted Highlander of the generation just 
gone, will fail to appreciate the humility and sincerity with 
which such beliefs were entertained. 

But to return to the fortunes of the House of Lovat. 
Thomas Alexander, fifteenth Lord Lovat, married a daughter 
of Sir George Jerningham, afterwards Baron Stafford, and 
had male issue, Simon, Allister Edward, George Edward 
Stafford (b. 1834, d. 1854), and Henry Thomas. His second 
son, Allister Edward, rose to the rank of Colonel in the 
army ; was married, with issue, one son. Hon. Henry 
Thomas attained to the rank of Colonel of the ist battalion 
Scots Guards. Lord Lovat died in 1885, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

XX H. Simon, sixteenth Lord Lovat, who, born in 1828, 
and married to the daughter of Thomas Weld Blundell, was 
already a man of mature years at the time of his accession. 
He was known in song as " Fear Donn an F'heilidh." He 
was noted for his generous qualities and his kindness to 
the poor. He was a keen sportsman, expert with rod, gun 
and rifie, a marksman of repute. He did much to encourage 
the militia movement, and commanded the Inverness-shire 
regiment for many years. The circumstances of his sad and 



THE SEVENTEENTH LORD LOVAT. 6 1 

sudden death, from an affection of the heart, while grouse- 
shooting on the Moy Hall moors, in 1887, are fresh in our 
minds. An extract from a newspaper article, written on the 
occasion of his death, may be taken as a fair estimate of his 
character : " By this sudden and painful blow a nobleman 
has been taken away who filled a conspicuous place in this 
vicinity, and who was held in the highest respect. Having 
succeeded to his father in 1875, he has enjoyed the title and 
estates for only twelve years (1887). But as Master of Lovat 
he was known for many years before that time as a worthy 
and popular representative of a great and ancient Highland 
house. No county gathering seemed to be complete without 
his presence. . . . Homely in his manner, he was 
never difficult to approach, and his kindness of spirit showed 
itself in many ways. Conscientious and sober in judgment, 
he steadily endeavored to do his duty ; and his lamented 
death caused a blank which cannot easily be filled." He left 
a family of nine, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

XXI H. Simon Joseph, seventeenth Lord Lovat, to 
whose health, as our chief, we have drained our glasses this 
evening. That he may have a long and happy life is our 
fervent prayer; and may God grant him wisdom and grace that 
he may be a useful and a prosperous chief; that he may add 
new lustre to the distinguished name he bears, and prove 
worthy of the ancestry of which he is the proud representative. 

We have now traced the long line of chiefs from the 
beginning down to the present day, and I must thank you 
for the wonderful patience with which you have listened to 
the dry bones of genealogy ; in what remains* I hope I shall 
prove less tedious than in that which I have concluded. 

*This part of the speech, being- of a s-enerai character, has been omitted for consideration of space. 



62 THE vice-chairman's reply. 

The speaker then referred briefly to the Aberdeenshire 
Frasers, and to some of the principal Cadet families of the 
Clan. He gave an explanation of the coat of arms, related a 
number of interesting Clan incidents, including forays, Clan 
feuds, and anecdotes of a local character. At some length 
he described the Home of the Clan, pointing out its extent 
on a map of Inverness-shire, colored to show the gradual 
increase and decrease of territory, which kept pace with the 
varying fortunes of the Clan ; expatiating on the great 
variety and beauty of its scenery, tributes to which he quoted 
from Christopher North, David Macrae, Robert Carruthers 
and Evan MacColl. 



Mr. Robert Lovat Fraser, Vice-chairman, replied 
to the toast. He said : My duty, through the kindness of the 
committee, is certainly not so arduous in replying to the toast 
of the evening, as that which has been imposed upon the Chair- 
man in proposing it. The length of his address, the facts 
regarding the origin and the outlines of the history ot the Clan 
which he gave, make it unnecessary for me to dwell at length 
on this interesting topic. Indeed, I found on listening to the 
Chairman, that I had a great deal to learn about our Clan, and 
I am sure that I express not only my own thanks, but yours 
to him, in placing before us, so clearly and minutely, the lead- 
ing facts regarding our ancestry and kindred. All my life long 
I have been an ardent admirer of some of the more promin- 
ent Frasers who have figured in our Clan history. My own 
connection with the Clan in the Highlands is somewhat re- 
mote, the last of my forefathers who resided there having had 
to leave his home and friends, on account of the part which he 
took with his Clan in the uprising of '45. But although we 



THE STUDY OF TPIE CLAN HISTORY. 



63 



have been cut off from that close connection which is thought 
necessary to keep alive a sentimental interest in such things, 
I can assure you that no clansman born within the 
shadow of Castle Downie can boast with greater truth of 
possessing more enthusiasm and interest than I in all that 
pertains to the Clan Fraser. 
The Clan has a history 
which we as clansmen should 
so study as to become per- 
fectly familiar with it. Its 
record has been written in 
the events of the times as 
well as on the page of his- 
tory, and no more inspiring 
or patriotic duty lies to our 
hand than the study of that 
record. I firmly believe that 
the influence of the clan feel- 
ing was a good influence, 
and that the idea of kinship 
and responsibility to each 
other for good behavior, as 

to kinsmen, had much to do in bringing about the high 
moral tone which distinguishes the Highland clans. It did 
much also to prepare the minds of those people for the enlight- 
enment and love which Christianity brought with it, and 
which are so strikingly exemplified in the Highland character. 
I would say therefore to the young men, ' employ part of your 
evenings in the reading of the Clan history,' and to the older 
people, ' devote a little of the time of your remaining years to 
a like purpose.' I do not think it necessary, after what we 




ROBERT LO\AT FRASER, 

1st ^'ICE-CHAIRMAN. 



64 A COMMENDABLE RECORD. 

have just heard, to enter into historic details; neither is it neces- 
sary to defend the honor of the Clan where there are no 
assailants. The Clan has taken its place honorably among 
its contemporaries and neighbors. It invariably performed 
its duty in a manner highly creditable to the public spirit of 
its members and to their high standard of justice. There 
were it is true at times in the Clan, as in every other body of 
people, men whose names have been perpetuated because of evil 
rather than good. These, however, have been singularly few 
in the Clan Fraser, and even where statements are found to 
their discredit, the malice of interested foes not infrequently 
lends a heightened color to charges which might to some 
extent have been founded on fact. This I believe to be 
true in the case of Simon Lord Lovat, who had the misfortune 
to be the subject of biographical sketches by his enemies, but 
of whom a juster view now prevails. Happily the prominent 
clansmen, whose characteristics needed no defence, but called 
forth admiration and emulation, were many. To name them 
would be but to recite a long and distinguished list Their 
characteristics were such as to challenge public commend- 
ation. With them as examples no clansman need feel 
ashamed of the name. But what I should like to impress 
most of all upon our Clan throughout the country is the 
necessity for a sentiment of loyalty to the Clan name and 
its traditions. Seeing that we have such a history let us 
prize it. Let every clansman feel proud of it, and let him 
see to it that his conduct and ambition are in every way 
in keeping with the record of the past, and in this way prove 
himself not only a good citizen, a good neighbor and a good 
friend, but a good clansman, and hand down the charac- 
ter of the Clan unsullied to posterity. This would be a most 



A GUEST HONORED. 65 

laudable ambition and one which I feel sure every Fraser 
worthy of the name will strive earnestly to attain. 

Two gentlemen, Frasers all but in name, had been in- 
vited as guests. They were Mr. B. Homer Dixon, Consul 
General for the Netherlands, and Mr. Hugh Miller, J. P., 
both of Toronto. Their health was proposed by the chair- 
man, who paid a high compliment to Mr. Homer Dixon, 
who, he said, had taken the warmest interest in matters re- 
lating to the Clan, and who was a living encyclopedia of in- 
formation regarding its history and affairs. Mr. Dixon's 
connection was derived from his maternal side, and not a few 
Clan relics were in his possession. His absence from the 
gathering was on account of indifferent health, and it was 
regretted very much by those present. In coupling Mr. 
Miller's name with the toast, the Chairman referred to that 
gentleman's long connection with the business interests of the 
city of Toronto. Mr. Hugh Miller was a relative of his name- 
sake, the famous geologist, and his name was as well known 
in Ontario business and national circles, as was that ot his dis- 
tinguished namesake in the field of literature and science. 
Mr. Miller rightly claimed to be of Fraser stock — he certainly 
had the Fraser spirit. He sat with them as an honored guest, 
but none the less an honored clansman. 

Mr. Miller, in reply, expressed the great satisfaction 
with which he had received an invitation to be present at 
what he might truly describe as a gathering of his own clans- 
men. It was well known that in Scotland, as in other coun- 
tries, men were often named after the occupations which 
they followed, and it was not a mere tradition but a fact 
within the knowledge of his immediate forebears that they 
were of pure Fraser stock. They had worn the Fraser tar- 



66 



REMINISCENCES OF EARLY DAYS. 



tan, and had always taken a deep interest in whatever per- 
tained to the affairs of the Clan. When the Chairman, in 
giving the toast of the Clan, had referred to the places asso- 
ciated with the name, he was brought back in memory over 
a long period of time. At his age, the sweep of memory to 
boyhood's days was a long one, and he could well recall the 
events in the Highlands of Scotland over sixty years ago. 
He had a loving and familiar recollection of scenes, than which 
there were none more beautiful under the sun, and of people 
who had animated these fair surroundings. The I'Vaser estates 
were among the finest in Britain, affording examples of 
beauty calculated to leave a very vivid impression on the 
youthful mind, and during his long life his early impressions 
had ever remained fresh and green. He remembered the 
time when the succession to the chiefship and estates was 
in hot dispute, and he knew how deeply the clansmen 
were moved by that contest. Down to that day the feeling 
of the clans was as strong as of old, and doubtless if occasion 
arose, it would prove to be strong still. At that time there 
were various claimants for the honors and possessions of the 
ancient house of Lovat, and as a boy he saw a good deal of those 
who were prominently concerned in the case. The Frasers 
were very anxious that the true heir by blood should succeed, 
and much was privately as well as openly done on behalf of 
the various contestants, according as the clansmen believed 
in the various claims put forward. As to the main object of 
their re-union that evening, he could do nothing but express 
his sincere hope that a strong association of the Frasers 
would be formed. There was no reason whatever why 
such an organization should not flourish in Canada, where 
those bearing the name could be numbered by thousands. 



CANADIAN CLANSMEN. 67 

He had the good fortune to know not a few Erasers in 
Canada, and he could honestly say that none of them, so far 
as he knew, ever did anything that in any way tarnished the 
good name of the Clan. He had great hopes of the success 
of the movement from the enthusiasm of the gathering, and 
from the fact that those who had taken the matter in hand 
were men of energy and capacity. He could now only thank 
them for having honored the toast in such a hospitable man- 
ner, and wish them all success in the projected organization. 



" The Clan in Canada." 
Mr. R. Lovat Fraser, Vice-chairman, in proposing the 
toast of " The Clan in Canada," said : The Clan in Canada 
is not, of course, as important as the Clan at large, but it has 
an importance altogether its own, and has a record not 
unworthy the parent stem. It is a branch of a goodly tree, 
and bears fruit of the finest quality. No clan has done more, 
if as much; for Canada as the Clan Fraser. Coming with the 
famous Seventy-Eighth regiment they did their duty at Louis- 
burg and Quebec, and stamped the Clan name indelibly on the 
history of Canada, from ocean to ocean. Not only did they ren- 
der services in the east, but in pioneer work helped to open up 
the west by travel, trade and commerce. A distinguished 
clansman and a relation of my friend on the right (Fraserfield) 
was the discoverer of the Fraser River. To those of us who 
highly prize the integrity of the British Empire it must be a 
source of pride to know that the part taken by the Seventy- 
Eighth in Lower Canada helped very much to keep the Ameri- 
can continent for the British Crown. The history of that 
time clearly proves that had the fortunes of war been 
adverse in Canada to the British arms, the French would 



68 ERASERS AS PIONEERS. 

have been in a position to overrun and seize the whole of 
North America. This is a fact which is sometimes lost sight 
of, but is one of much satisfaction to us as clansmen. To 
those whose names have been coupled with this interesting 
toast, I must leave the duty of dealing at length with it, and 
I rejoice that both of them are gentlemen thoroughly 
familiar with the subject and of recognized ability as speakers. 
I refer to Mr. E. A. Fraser, barrister, of Detroit, and our 
worthy friend, Mr. G. B. Fraser, of Toronto. 

Mr. E. a. Eraser said : Mr. Vice-chairman, Chairman 
and Clansmen, althouo-h hailino- from the other side of the 
line, I am a Canadian-born clansman, my native place being 
Bowmanville, near this beautiful Queen City. I passed my 
younger days in this province, attended the schools here, and 
am as familiar with the affairs of the country and with our 
clansmen in the country as those who have not left it to reside 
under another flag. I can therefore speak with confidence 
to this toast, but you will excuse me if I speak briefly, as the 
honor was unexpected, and I do not wish to make it appear 
that any words of mine that may come on the spur of the 
moment would be sufficient to lay before you, in proper form, 
what our Clan has done for Canada and the position which it 
occupies to-day in the affairs of the country. It is easy to 
speak of Louisburg and Quebec ; it is easy to dilate on the 
names of distins^uished clansmen familiar to us all for the 
prominent positions they have taken among their fellows, but 
the work performed by the Clan in Canada would not then 
be half told. We must go back to the hoary forests, to the 
backwoods, where the early settlers bent their energies to 
the opening up of the country. That noble pioneer work in 
which our clansmen shared, and shared in large numbers, it 



THEIR SUCCESS IN BUSINESS. 69 

seems to me, has an importance that is not as often recognized 
as it ought to be. It is difficult for the imagination even to 
grasp the pecuHar task that lay before the early settlers of 
this vast, heavily-timbered, unbroken, unopened, untravelled 
country. Now that we can take a seat in the railway car at 
Halifax and leave it at Vancouver, we can form but the very 
faintest conception of what this country was one hundred 
years ago, when those hardy mountaineers ranged themselves 
alongside the Lowland Scot, the Englishman, the Irishman, 
the German and the Frenchman, to hew down the lords of 
the forest, to turn the wilderness into well cultivated fields, to 
turn the log cabins into the mansions that now adorn the plains, 
and to form, as they do, a sturdy peasantry second to none 
in the world. When the pen of a genius has dealt with those 
times, a chapter will be written for the civilized world more 
interesting, probably, than any yet penned. We have to leave 
the high places of military fame and statesmanship and enter 
the factory and the counting-house to trace there the career of 
the pioneers of industry and commerce, and among them we find 
our clansmen performing those duties which the necessities of 
the country demanded. If we turn to the professions, our Clan 
is found to hold its own. To the church, to law, to medicine, 
to art, to politics, we have given men of whom we are proud. 
The walk of life in Canada that has not been trodden by a clans- 
man would be only an undesirable one for any man to tread. 
If I may be permitted to say it — coming as I do from the 
great State of Michigan — I would say that in that State, 
where our clansmen are very numerous, they not only hold 
their own, but have attained to eminence in business and in 
the professions. We have men of distinguished ability at the 
head of the legal fraternity of our State ; we have men whose 



JO DISCOVERER OF THE ERASER RIVER. 

genius in business has secured them weakh and position ; we 
have men who in humbler spheres have rendered patriotic 
services to the State, and who, one and all, show that they 
have not lost the characteristics of the Clan in new associa- 
tions and calHngs. Before sitting down I should like to ex- 
press the great pleasure I have experienced at this gathering 
of clansmen. I would have come twice as far to be present, 
and trust that the organization, the formation of which will 
undoubtedly be sanctioned here to-night, will be the means 
of bringing us together frequently to enjoy ourselves as we 
are now doing. 

Mr. G. B. Fraser, of Toronto, followed, in response to 
the same toast. He said : Mr. Vice-chairman, Chairman and 
Clansmen, I frequently have to regret my lack of ability to 
discharge a duty of this nature to my own satisfaction. The 
subject allotted to me is one with which I cannot claim to be 
unfamiliar. It is a subject of great interest, and on such an 
occasion as the present, a subject which ought to be treated 
with some detail in order to perpetuate the names and deeds 
of clansmen who have done their duty nobly and well by 
this the land of our adoption. I find myself, however, not 
lacking in material, but in that ability — which seems to be 
born in some men — to place my information lucidly and 
briefly before you. Some speakers have already referred, 
and others will, later on, refer to the origin of the Clan 
Fraser in Canada. I shall not trespass on that part of the 
subject, but coming down to this century we find a clansman 
whose name will e\'er live in Canada. I refer to Simon 
Fraser, the discoverer of the Fraser River, whose life, when 
it comes to be written, will certainly shed lustre on the 
Clan name. He was descended from a cadet family of the 



A MILITARY PROJECT. 7 1 

Lovats, came with his parents to Canada from the Eastern 
States, and settled at Glengarry. His worthy relative, Fraser 
of Fraserfield, sits here on my right, and proud I am to 
welcome him to this feast. John Fraser de Berry, the founder 
of the New Clan Fraser, was a man of extraordinary person- 
ality, whose acquaintance I first made at the time of the 
Trent affair. I happened to be in Montreal at that time, and 
received a telegram from De Berry that he wished to see me. 
He came from Quebec city, and we met in the St. Lawrence 
Hall. I was very much impressed with the singular inter- 
view which took place between us. Of course he was full of 
the project of his Clan Fraser, full of the history and genealogy 
of the Clan. He was an enthusiast, and in common with 
many enthusiasts could look but with impatience on the prac- 
tical, prosaic side of things. With due formality, acting by 
what he believed to be his authority as a chieftain of the 
Clan, he invested me with power to raise a company of 
Frasers, in an allotted district in Western Ontario, which was 
delineated on a military plan in his possession. I could not 
do otherwise than accept the commission, which was that of 
captain, from this venerable-looking and earnest chief. Had 
I been able to withdraw from business, I have no doubt that 
I should have been, in a very short time, at the head of a 
company numbering at least one hundred stalwart clansmen, 
who would have given a good account of themselves in the 
field. But, as you are aware, the occasion for defence quickly 
passed away, and no more was heard of the proposed regi- 
ment of Frasers. of which my company was to have formed 
a part. The most remarkable fact which impressed itself 
upon me then, and one that I yet consider remarkable, was 
the manner in which De Berry had the Province di\-ided into 



72 



DE BERRY S ENTHUSIASM. 



military districts on his maps, the exact information which he 
had regarding the locations in which the clansmen resided, 
and the mass of details with which he seemed to be perfectly 
familiar. I could not understand how he acquired all this in- 
formation, but have been informed since, by some who were 
associated with him, that he spared no means to trace out 
every Fraser in the country, through the voters' lists^ the 
township registration books and the village directories. The 
amount of work involved in such research must have been 
enormous, and I can well believe that for many years De Berry 
devoted his time, as a man of leisure, to this project. He 
also appointed me as one of the one hundred and eleven 
chieftains of the New Clan, the chief of which was a descend- 
ant of a cadet of the Lovat family, residing in Nova Scotia, but 
the organization was too unwieldy, and its objects were rather 
vague for practical purposes. For a number of years meet- 
ings were held in Montreal of a very interesting character, 
but with De Berry's death and that of a number of those 
more prominently associated with him interest died out, and 
now we hear of the New Clan no more. We can profit by 
their experience in our own undertaking, and doubtless we 
shall be able to form an organization which will live, and which 
will perpetuate the name and traditions associated with the 
name and with this new country. I have practically confined 
myself to De Berry's name, not because there is a lack of 
clansmen on my list, whose memories deserve to be perpetu- 
ated, such as, for instance, the founder of the Fraser Institute, 
in Montreal ; John Fraser, the author ; John A. Fraser, the 
artist; Judge Fraser and Colonel Fraser, of Glengarry ; but be- 
cause some of these will doubtless be alluded to by other 
speakers, and, because having devoted so much time to a man 



DISTINGUISHED CLANSMEN. >] -i) 

whose name and personality I cannot but regard as of pe- 
culiar interest to us, I have left myself but little time to refer 
to those clansmen whom I held, and still hold, in high esteem, 
and in whose name I thank you for the toast proposed and 
honored in such a fitting manner. 

" Distinguished Clansmen." 

Mr. R. L. Fraser, the Vice-chairman, then proposed the 
toast of " Distinguished Clansmen in Art, Science, Literature, 
Theology, Arms and Politics." He said : I had almost con- 
cluded that all Erasers are distinguished clansmen, and dis- 
tinguished in the highest sense of the word, though it were 
better, perhaps, to be more modest, and hence the division 
into which this toast has been divided. While we rightly 
draw much of our inspiration from the seat of the Clan across 
the sea, it is well that we should remember, and remember 
generously, those of our Clan in this country who have secured 
high positions In life. Among our artists the name " Fraser" 
takes high rank. Some of the Fraser artists 1 have known 
personally, and can bear testimony not only to their fame, but 
to their personal qualities. Canadian art owes much to Mr. 
J. A. Fraser and Mr, W. Lewis Fraser, now sojourning in 
Europe. Literature claims the names of James Lovat Fraser, 
the distinguished classical scholar, of John Fraser, of Donald 
Fraser, and others well known in Canada. Science also has 
its devotees and distinguished students, especially medical 
science and theology. Erasers both in Canada and in the 
old land have taken front rank in the profession of arms, 
and have distinguished themselves from the time of Sir Simon 
Fraser, the compeer and companion of Wallace and the 
savior of Scotland, down to the present day. In politics the 



74 



THE FRASERS IN ART. 



Clan has certainly won its share of such honors as the public 
delight to bestow. The reply to this toast has been entrusted 
to a splendid array of able clansmen. For clansmen distin- 
guished in arts, Ex- Mayor Fraser, of Petrolea, will reply ; for 
those in science, Dr. J. B. Fraser ; for those in theology, Dr. 
Mungo Fraser ; for those in literature, Professor W. H. 
Fraser; for Frasers in war, Mr. Alexander Fraser (Fraser- 
field) ; and for those in politics, Mr. W. P. Fraser. 

Ex-Mayor Eraser, replying for the " Frasers in Art," 
said : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, — Your committee, in 
selecting me to speak for our clansmen in Art, acted of 
course on the assumption that I possessed the necessary 
qualifications for the task. At the outset, however, I must, 
in justice to all concerned, but more especially to the Frasers 
who have won distinction in art, confess that my attainments 
in that department are hardly such as to entitle me to a hear- 
ing in response to this important toast. But I am to some 
extent emboldened and sustained by the reflection that, as 
this is in a sense a family gathering, the shortcomings of 
a Fraser will pass, if not unobserved, at least without 
provoking unfriendly comment. Permit me then, on be- 
half of the artists of our Clan, to thank you for the 
cordial and enthusiastic manner in which you have received 
this toast. Among the many distinguished clansmen who 
have, in almost every sphere of human endeavor and useful- 
ness, shed unfading lustre, not only upon our Clan, but upon 
humanity in general, our artists have secured an honored 
place. Of necessity, those of our Clan who have excelled in 
art are few in number ; indeed, the artists of the world and 
of the ages might almost find standing room in this banquet 
hall. But our Clan has perhaps produced its quota, and some 



CHARLES AND JOHN A. FRASER. 



75 



of them have taken high rank. It is not my purpose to men- 
tion the names of all ; in fact, I am unable to name more than 
two, viz., Charles Fraser and John A. Fraser. The former 
was a distinguished portrait 
painter of South Carolina 
who died in i860 at the age 
of yS years. He left a large 
number of portraits, all of 
which are said to have much 
artistic merit, and some ot 
which have acquired consid- 
erable historic value. Of 
Mr. John A. Fraser it is 
hardly necessary to speak 
here. By his works we know 
him. A collection of Cana 
dian paintings without one 
or more of his masterly re- 
presentations of Canadian 
scenery would assuredly be 
incomplete. Let that suffice 
for our modern artists. It 
occurs to me, as it must have 
done to us all at one time or 
another, that our Clan must have produced great artists 
in the bygone ages. Assuredly Greece and Italy did 
not produce a// the old masters. The Fraser Clan 
flourished then and was of course represented in art ; but, 
just as in the newspaper — the product of the "art preser- 
vative " — there is to be found an occasional artist who, im- 
pelled by modesty or an exaggerated regard for his personal 




Ex-MAYOR JOHN FRASER, 
2nd Vice-Chairman. 



76 THE CLAN IN SCIENCE. 

safety, uses -Anomde plume — for instance, "Junius," Vox Popttli 
or " A Disgusted Subscriber" — so there were, I fancy, in the 
days of long ago, Frasers in art who unmindful of posterity 
or perchance distrustful of their own powers, as genius so 
frequently is, worked under cover of such names as Raphael, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Canova, etc. A slight 
effort of the imagination will enable a Fraser to accept this 
theory. 

The Fraser has ever been great on the " tented field." 
There, indeed, he has won renown, for his "fierce, native 
daring " has never been surpassed. But there are still vic- 
tories to be won, infinitely greater than any achieved in battle. 
The grandest painting is yet to be painted, and we who are 
the first in Canada to assemble in honor of our ancient and 
beloved Clan shall ever fondly cherish the hope that the first 
place in art will be occupied by a Fraser. But from whatever 
clan or country the master shall come, the F"rasers will be 
among the first to do him honor. 

1 thank you, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, for the patient 
hearing you have given me. 



The reply to the part of this toast referring to " Science" 
was made by Dr. J. B. Fraser, M. I)., C. M., R. C. P. and 
S. K,, Toronto. He said : Mr. Chairman, Vice-chairman, 
and Brother Clansmen, it gives me a great deal of pleasure 
to meet such a representative gathering of the old and dis- 
tinguished "Clan Fraser" as we have here to-night. It 
arouses one's enthusiasni to think of the leading position our 
forefathers took in the history of Scotland, and the many 
deeds of valor performed on the battle field ; and although 
they were pre-eminently noted as warriors, still we have many 



JOHN FRASER, THE BOTANIST. '^'J 

instances in which they shone in the realms of science. In 
replying to the toast of " The Frasers in Science," allow me 
to give you a few brief biographical sketches of a few of our 
ancestors. 

Sir Alexander Fraser, of Philorth, was born in 1537, and 
died in 1623. He succeeded his grandfather to the estates 
in 1569, and at once began to improve the estate and advance 
the welfare of his clansmen. At this time Philorth was the 
baronial burgh, and boasted of a commodious harbor ; but after 
the improvements referred to he changed the name to Fraser- 
burgh. Having conceived the idea of founding a university, 
in spite of the strenuous opposition of the town of Aberdeen, 
he obtained powers to build a university at Fraserburgh, with 
all the privileges of the older universities. The remains of 
this building still existed in 1888. On account of his interest 
in education and high scholastic attainments he was knighted 
in 1594. His motto was " The glory of the honorable is to 
fear God." 

John Fraser, F.L.S., was born in 1750, and died in 181 1 . 
He was a noted botanist, and visited North America five 
times in search of new and unknown specimens. He collected 
a great many plants in Newfoundland and later on at Charles- 
ton, Virginia. In 1796 he visited St. Petersburg, where he 
was introduced to the notice of the Empress Catherine, who 
purchased his entire collection of plants. In 1798 he was 
appointed botanical collector to the Czar Paul, and by him 
sent to America for a fresh collection. As a tribute to his 
ability he was elected a Fellow of Linnean Society (F.L.S.) 

Sir Alexander Fraser, M. D., belonged to the Durris 
branch of the family. He was educated at Aberdeen Uni- 
versity, and having risen by his skill high in the ranks of 



78 ROBERT FRASEK, THE STATISTICIAN. 

physicians and surgeons he was appointed physician to 
Charles II., whom he accompanied in his travels through 
Scotland. Spotswood, in his history of Scotland, speaks 
highly of his learning and skill. He died in 1681. 

Robt. Fraser, F. R. S., son of Rev. Geo. Fraser, was 
born in 1760, and educated in Glasgow University, where he 
obtained the degree of M. A., when he was but 1 5 years of age. 
He studied for the Church of Scotland, and was appointed in 
an official capacity to the Prince of Wales, afterward George 
IV. In I 79 1 the Earl of Breadalbane asked him to accom- 
pany him on a tour through the Western Isles and the High- 
lands of Scotland, undertaken with the view of improving the 
state of the people. The Prince of Wales gave him leave, and 
at the same time stated his faith in his ability to plan some means 
by which the people would be benefited, and wished him suc- 
cess. He succeeded so well that he was chosen to conduct a 
statistical survey of Ireland, and was the means of originating 
several important works, among others the harbor of Kings- 
town, sometimes called Oueenstown. He published several 
works on agriculture, mines, mineralogy, fish, etc. He 
died in 1831. 

Simon Fraser was an explorer of some note, and was 
sent by the Hudson's Bay Company to establish new trading 
posts, and prospect for minerals, etc. He wrote many papers 
from 1806 to 1808. The P>aser river was named after him. ^ 

Lewis Fraser was a zoologist of some note, and was 
appointed as curator of the Zoological Society of London. 
He travelled through South America, studying the character 
and habits of different animals and birds, and as the result 
of his travels published a work called " Zoologia Typica," or 

* Sec sketch of his Hfe later on. 



PKOP^ESSOR A. C. FRASER. 



79 



figures of rare and new animals. In 1888 his son was curator 
of the Zoological and General Sections of the Indian Museum 
of Calcutta. 

William Fraser, LL. D., was born in 18 17 in Banff- 
shire, and was ordained pas- 
tor of the Free Middle con- 
gregation of Paisley in 1849. 
In 1872 the University of 
Glasgow conferred on him 
the degree of LL. D., on 
account of his scientific at- 
tainments. In 1873, i'"^ ^^" 
cognition of his long servi- 
ces as President of the Phil- 
osophical Society, he was 
presented with a microscope 
and purse of sovereigns. He 
died in 1879. 

Alexander Campbell Fra- 
ser, U. C. L., LL. D., was 
born in 1819. His father 
was a minister and his mother 
a sister of Sir Duncan Camp- 
bell. He was educated in 
the U niversities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in 1 842 won a 
prize for his essay on " Toleration." In 1859 he was Dean 
of the Faculty in Arts, University of Edinburgh, and in 1871 
was appointed Examiner in Moral Science ; the same year he 
received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Glasgow. 
Later he was appointed Examiner in Moral Science and Logic 
at the India Civil Service Examinations. He was elected a 




MR. ^\ ILLl \M \ 1 K \^l 

SeCRETARV-TrEASI RER. 



8o PROFESSOR T. R. FRASER. 

member of the Athenian Club — without a ballot — for emi- 
nence in literature and philosophy. He afterward received 
the Degree of D. C. L., Oxford University. 

Professor Thos. Richard Fraser, M. D., F. R. S., was 
born in Calcutta, India, in 1841, and graduated in medicine 
in Edinburgh in 1862. In 1863 he acted as Assistant Pro- 
lessor of Materia Medica, and in 1869 was appointed as 
Assistant Physician in the Royal Infirmary. He was after- 
ward appointed Examiner in Materia Medica in London 
University, and was elected Medical Health Officer for Mid- 
Cheshire ; he was also appointed Examiner in Public Health 
by London University. He was Dean of the P^aculty in 
1880 He is a F. R. S., F. R. C. P., Edinburgh; mem- 
ber of the Pharmaceutical Society, Britain ; corresponding 
member of the Therapeutical Society of Paris, and of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. When the Interna- 
tional Medical Congress met in London in 1881 he was 
appointed president of one section, and again president of one 
section in 1885. His work has been chiefly in the direction 
of determining the physiological effects of medicinal sub- 
stances, with the view of establishing an accurate and rational 
basis for the treatment of disease. 

I have now mentioned some of the names recorded in 
history of Erasers that were distinguished in Science, and as 
I have occupied more than my share of time, I will take my 
seat, conscious that I have been able to mention but a few 
of the many clansmen distinguished for their scientific 
attainments. As I said at the outset I have enjoyed a 
great deal of pleasure in this gathering of clansmen. 
In looking over the record of a few of our brethren dis- 
tinguished in science, so as to glean a few facts for this 



CLANSMEN IN LITERATURE. 51 

occasion, I recognized more than ever before the substantial 
services rendered to mankind by men bearing our name, and 
now that we have foregathered a small company, it may be, 
but a select one, I feel that you share with me the pride with 
which we regard our Clan and name. 



Professor W. H. Fraser, in replying to the sentiment, 
" Distinguished Clansmen in Literature," said : Gentlemen, 
^I thank you heartily for the way in which you have receiv- 
ed this toast, and for the honor you confer on me in asking 
me to answer for our distinguished literary clansmen living 
and dead. 

Literature is the mirror of life. Life is action : litera- 
ture is contemplation and words. My knowledge of the 
history of the Clan leads me to the conclusion that most of 
its distinguished members were men of deeds rather than 
words, and that they lived at times and under circumstances 
when deeds rather than words had value — men like Sir 
Alexander, who fought by Robert Bruce's side at Ban- 
nockburn, or that other Sir Alexander Mackenzie Fraser of 
the last century, described by contemporaries as ''mild as 
a lamb and strong as a lion," who had said to him in public 
by his General, "Colonel Fraser, you and your regiment 
have this day saved the British army," or the Fraser who 
fought with Wolfe before Quebec, and a host of others- 
These men did not write literature, but perhaps they were 
better employed. I think they were, but at any rate they 
are the men who furnish the basis for literature — heroism, 
fidelity and devotion. 

The Clan has, however, not been wanting in scholars and 



82 SIR ALEXANDER OF PHILORTH. 

writers, nor in those who patronized and furthered learning. 
What think you of a Fraser — Sir Alexander of Philorth — 
who in the i6th century built a grand University ? It is 
getting to be the fashion now for rich men to build and 
endow seats of learning, but a man with such foresight and 
generosity in those early times in Scotland is surely deserv- 
ing of all praise. 

Although not a few of the early Frasers won fame by 
the sword, some wielded to good purpose that mightier 
weapon, the pen. Such was James Fraser of Brea, in Ross- 
shire, who wrote copiously on theology, and who went to 
prison, by orders of Archbishop Sharpy as a preacher at conven- 
ticles. Another divine and scholar was James Fraser, of Pitcal- 
zian, in Ross-shire, a son of the manse ; a famous controver- 
sialist he was, and wrote a book against the Arminianism of 
Grotius that has kept its ground in Scotland till the present 
day, although he died as long ago as 1769. 

These are some of our older literary celebrities. Time 
will not permit me to mention all those who belong to the 
present century, or whose lives extended into it. There was 
Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat, 38th McShimi, who 
died in 181 5. As a school-boy he saw the fight at Culloden, 
and was afterwards Foreign Consul in Barbary, and was 
author of the " Annals of the patriots of the family of Fraser, 
Frizell, Simson or Fitzsimson." It must in truth have been 
a mighty book if it recorded them all, A curious piece of liter- 
ature from his pen was the very long and very laudatory 
epitaph for his own tomb erected by himself. 

Robert Fraser, of Pathhead, Fifeshire, lived up till 1839. 
He was an ironmonger, but of such remarkable literary and 
linguistic tastes that in leisure moments he acquired Latin, 



eraser's magazine, 85 

Greek, French, German, Italian and Spanish. His poetry^ 
which I regret is not accessible to me, was, it is said, charac- 
terized by fine feeling and nicety of touch. Truly a remark- 
able man. His ruling passion was strong in death, for he 
passed out of life dictating some translations of Norwe- 
gian and Danish poems. 

There are other ways of making literature besides writing 
it yourself. James Fraser, an Inverness man, was one of those 
who have made literature by proxy. Who does not know 
Fraser's Magazine ? that pioneer publication in this field of 
literature, dating from 1830, with its famous contributors like 
Thackeray, Carlyle, J. A. Froude and Father Pi-out. This 
Fraser was also a famous publisher, a man of taste and 
judgment, and did more to advance literature than almost 
any man of his time, notwithstanding Carlyle's reference to 
him as " that infatuated Fraser with his dog's-meat tart of a 
magazine." 

Contemporary with Fraser of the magazine was James 
Baillie Fraser, also an Inverness man and a famous traveller 
who explored the Himalaya Mountains, and who was the first 
European to reach the sources of the Jumna and Ganges. He 
came home, and wrote an account of his travels. A little later 
he donned Persian costume, explored the larger part of 
Persia, and wrote a two-volume account of his journey. 
Turning to romance, he wrote " Kuggilbas," a tale of 
Khorasain ; and this was the first of a long list of Eastern 
tales, histories and travels, the mere enumeration of which 
would take us on pretty far towards to-morrow morning. 

A beautiful and sympathetic literary figure is that of 
Lydia Falconer Fraser, the wife of Hugh Miller. Here are 



84 LYDIA FALCONER FRASER . 

some lines from a poem of hers on the death of their first- 
born child : 

" Thou'rt awa, awa, from thy mother's side, 

And awa, awa, from thy father's knee ; 
Thou'rt awa from our blessing-, our care, our caressing, 

But awa from our hearts thou'lt never be. 

Thou'rt awa, awa, from the bursting spring time, 

Tho' o'er thy head its green boughs wave ; 
The lambs are leaving their little foot-prints 

On the turf of thy new-made grave." 

What gentleness and sweetness in these lines ! One 
of her prose works, ''Cats and Dogs," still holds its own as 
one of the minor classics of natural history. 

Rev. Robert William Fraser, a Perthshire man, succeeded 
Rev. Dr. Guthrie in St. John's Church, Edinburgh, in 1847, 
and was a learned and eloquent divine and a diligent pastor. 
He found time to write all but one of a dozen of important 
works on divinity, history, physical and natural science. He 
was a solid man. 

I must not omit William Fraser, the educational reformer 
who helped David Stow to carry out his training system for 
teachers in Scotland, and who later investigated Scottish edu- 
cation, and wrote an important book on the subject of which 
the results were afterwards embodied in legislation. He 
died in 1879. 

Along with him may well be mentioned the late James 
Fraser, Bishop of Manchester, a very famous man from 
Forfarshire, one of the Frasers of Durris, of whom it has 
been said that there has not been In this generation a more 
simple or noble soul. He interests us especially for his work 
in education, and forms a connecting link between our school 
system and English educational reform, for he visited Canada 
and the United States in 1865, and drew up a report which 



REV. DONALD FRASEK, D.D. 85 

his biographer, Thomas Hughes, calls "a superb, an almost 
unique piece of work." It was the basis of the Foster Act 
of 1870, by which enormous changes were introduced in the 
direction of the American system. 

Worthy of being put by his side was Rev. Donald Fraser, 
D.D., who died two years ago, of whom we should hear 
more under the head of theology. He received part of 
his education in old Knox College, Toronto, and was pastor 
of the Cote Street Church, Montreal, from which he was 
called to Inverness, thence to London, England. 

In my mass of material, I had almost forgotten Patrick 
Lord Fraser, who died only five years ago. He was a very 
great man of the law, one of Scotland's greatest, and wrote 
extensively on legal subjects. 

The Frasers, however, were not all heavy writers. Many 
of us remember John Fraser, who met his death by accident in 
Ottawa in 1872. He was best known as "Cousin Sandy." 
He had been a chartist before coming to Canada. He was 
a tailor by trade, and laid aside the needle for that other sharp 
pointed instrument, the pen. Most of his work was contro- 
versial and sarcastic. Here is a sample of his rollicking verse, 
reminding one strongly of the Ingoldsby legends : 

" William Blyth was a scape-grace — a.s many boys are — 
Who with prudence and forethougfht was always at war; 
His g-enius was active; I've heard, or have read, 
That his grandma was nervous ; his father was dead ; 
And his mother, released from connubial vows, 
Brought home to her dwelling a second-hand spouse, 
Who gave her a heart, somewhat hard and obtuse. 
In exchange for her furniture ready for use. 
Now William like others, without leave would roam, 
And be absent when father the second came home ; 
So he of the step, which step-father should be, 
Said 'To save the lad's morals we'll send him to sea.'" 



86 "COUSIN SANDY.'' 

The boy was confined in a water-cask for bad conduct. 

"And the wave cleared the deck of the vessel, and she 
Like one half 'seas over' rolled about in the sea. 
Then a shriek was heard, and the boatswain roar'd 
' There's Bill and the tub gone overboard !' " 

He floated to shore after an interview with a shark, a 
cow switched her tail against the tub, and Bill caught it while 
the cow fled, and wrecked the tub, but saved Bill's life, although 
he remained unconscious. 

" But was roused from his swoon by a beautiful Yankee 

Who brought dough-nuts and tea, it was genuine Twankay. 

An angel of light in the garb of humanity. 

And that garb of the Saxony's best superfine, 

^Vhat her countrymen term the 'real genuine.' 

Bill was charmed and concluded, with some show of reason. 

That to her annexation could never be treason." 

And he was annexed in due time. 

We have some poets still living, Gordon Fraser, John W' 
Fraser, and others; on them I must touch lightly. Gordon is 
a writer on " Lowland Lore," and writes good ballads of his 
own, like the one beginning : 

" 'Twas an eerie nicht, an' the storm-cluds lower'd, 

An the lichtnin's glent was keen. 
An' the thunner roU'd, but nane were cower'd 

r the clachan till-hous bien." 

It is a fearsome ghost story well told. 
John W. is a very charming writer. His ballad of the 
courtship of " Bell " is first-rate, and it begins: 

" Sin' Bell cam' to bide in our toun, 

The warl' has a' gaen ajee ; 
She has turned a' the heads o' the men, 

And the women wi' envy will dea. 
O, but Bell's bonnie ! 

Dink as a daisy is she ; 
Her e'en are as bricht as the starnies 

That shine in the lift sae hie." 

Such are some of our literary men, and they are very 
creditable specimens. I know that I have left out more than 
I have given. I have not said a word about all the 



ERASERS IN THEOLOGY. 87 

Frasers in Gaelic literature, whose name must be legion, 
because I cannot follow them in that language. 

Our Clan has a good proportion of the literary in it, and 
I believe we are all literary critics. I never knew a Fraser 
yet who had not excellent literary taste and judgment. The 
reasons why more literature has not been produced is very 
clear to my mind, and depends on a prominent characteristic 
of the Clan — great modesty. This must be thrown aside if 
you are going to rush into literature. Many a Fraser has 
had it in him to produce the highest sort of literature, who 
from this cause has never written a line for the public. When 
the Clan succeeds in throwing off this defect, we may expect 
the production of literary works on a par with the best that 
has been written. 



The reply to the toast of " Frasers in Theology " was 
entrusted to the Rev. Mungo Fraser, D.D., of Hamilton, 
who had to leave by train for home before this toast was 
reached. His reply summarised is as follows : '' There are 
many clansmen who stand high in theology, if we be allowed 
to understand by that term the wider and more comprehen- 
sive sphere of work in the Church of Christ. In the memory 
of those who admire subjective writings of an extremely 
searching character, the name of the Rev. James Fraser, of 
Brea, will occupy an undying place. To those who give the 
highest rank among ministers to pulpit ability, the Frasers of 
Kirkhill, for three generations, will afford examples of 
eloquence and those gifts of oratorical power that appeal so 
irresistibly to the popular ear. By those who regard the 
administrative functions of the pastor as of importance, the 
name of Bishop Fraser, of Manchester, is justly esteemed, 



88 FRASERS IN WAR. 

and in a less prominent, but not less important degree, the 
name of Dr. William Fraser, for a long period the senior clerk 
of the Presbyterian Church in Canada; and theological litera- 
ture finds a writer of ability and copiousness in Dr. Donald 
Fraser, at one time of Montreal and afterwards of London, 
England. The Clan contributed a great many names to the 
roll of distinguished clergymen, men who, in their different 
spheres, rendered noble service to the cause of Christ. And 
among them are men, some of whose names have been men- 
tioned by the Vice-chairman, of ability, of high character, 
whose personal influence over the people was strongly felt. 
In Canada the name of Fraser has an honored place among the 
ministers of the churches. They are doing their duty nobly 
and well, and if the names of some of them be not widely 
known outside of their own country, it must not be for- 
gotten that a clergyman's best fame and best reward is his 
good name among those for whom he directly labors, and for 
whose welfare he gives his best endeavors. Did time j^ermit, 
it would be comparatively easy to speak at length of those 
who have held their own in the theological sphere, but suffi- 
cient has probably been said to indicate that the Clan has 
done its duty in one of the most interesting and important 
fields of human effort open for the welfare of man. 



The part of the toast dealing with "the Frasers in War," 
was replied to by Mr. Alexander Fraser (of Fraserfiekl, 
(jlengarry). He said : After what we have heard of the Clan 
this evening we must come to the conclusion that it has alwa)s 
been distinguished for its military spirit, and I regret on that 
account, all the more, that the duty has fallen upon me to 
reply to the " Frasers in War." Not that I do not appre- 



MILITARY CHARACTER OF THE CLAN. 89 

ciate to the fullest extent that spirit which distinguished them 
and probably in no small degree share it, but I am not a man 
of words, and I feel I shall not be able, even in a small way, 
to do justice to this theme. Undoubtedly the military char- 
acter of the Clan goes back to its very origin, for if the 
Frasers did come from Normandy, they must have been 
selected on account of their military ability, for those were 
the days when length and strength of arm and good general- 
ship were the most valuable qualifications a man could 
possess. But, coming down to the earlier times in Scotland, 
we find our clansmen heading the warlike and chivalrous 
nobles of that country, in their devotion to the Crown, and 
in their exploits in the field in defence of country and 
patrimony. I need not enter into a detailed description of 
the times when the Lowland Frasers served their country 
and their king with an unswerving devotion whose lustre time 
will not dim, nor the researches of modern historians tarnish. 
Down through history in the Highlands they have ever shown 
themselves to be a brave and warlike race, furnishing indi- 
viduals of conspicuous ability and distinction in arms. No 
treatment of this toast would be complete that should omit a 
reference to Fraser's Highlanders that embarked under the 
command of the Chief of the Clan in i 757, and took part with 
Wolfe's army in all the engagements, from Louisburg to the 
close of the war. At Quebec the Frasers distinguished 
themselves in an especial manner. In the struggles which 
took place early in the century, between the Canadians 
and Americans, the Frasers did their duty, proving that 
down to our own times they maintained their old reputa- 
tion. In the British army, from the formation of the 
Highland regiments, in 1739, to the present day, the 



90 HON. CHRISTOPHER F. ERASER, M.P.P. 

Clan has given many distinguished officers and many brave 
men to its country's service, and I know I can speak with 
truth when I say that the old spirit still prevails, whether 
you look at home or abroad. So true is this that I may 
conclude these remarks in the stereotyped words of the after- 
dinner speaker by saying that should the occasion ever demand 
it, the Erasers will be ever ready to draw their claymores 
and shed their blood in the country's service as of yore. 

Mr. W. p. Fraser spoke for "The Erasers in Politics." 
He said : Mr. Chairman, Vice-chairman and Brother Clans- 
men, it would seem that the toast of distinguished clans- 
men is quite an inexhaustible one. Much has been said of 
our clansmen in the various ranks of life, but I believe no 
more than is deserved. As a matter of course the Erasers 
have ranked high in politics. We have not had a Prime 
Minister of the name in the Dominion of Canada, but we 
have given to the Legislatures of Ontario, Quebec, and the 
Lower Provinces, many of their most useful members, their 
most eloquent speakers, and their most responsible states- 
men. We have borne our share of public duty in this coun- 
try, both in the rank and file of political workers, and as 
leaders. I do not need to go far afield to find some 
of the more striking examples. There is one name so 
long and honorably associated with the fortunes of this Pro- 
vince that it merits premier recognition. I refer to that of 
the Hon. Christopher Finlay Fraser, who would have 
responded to this toast himself to-night, were it not that he 
has been suffering from severe illness for some time, and has 
not sufficiently recovered to take his place among us. Refer- 
ence has been made to his letter of regret, and I feel sure 
that every word in it is true — that it is the outcome of his 



D. C. FRASER, M.P. 9 1 

sincere feeling ; for Mr. Fraser is as much a clansman as he 
is a politician, and has ever manifested the same deep interest 
in matters connected with his Clan, as he has displayed in the 
public duties which he is called upon to perform. The posi- 
tion which he occupies, the services which he has rendered, 
his wide sphere of influence, his sterling honesty and unblem- 
ished record — these lie as an open book before you. For 
me to expatiate upon them would be quite superfluous. His 
name will go down in the annals of our statesmen 
as one of the most competent Ministers of the Crown 
who ever held office in this Province, as one of subtle 
intellect who served his country and his party in great 
crises, as one who gave his talents generously and disin- 
terestedly to the welfare of his fellow-beings, and in a pecu- 
liar manner helped to lay the foundations of a great 
nationality in this country. Another of our clansmen, whose 
telegram of regret shows that he has been intercepted on the 
way from the far east to our gathering, has made the name 
famous in the politics of Canada, and is likely to attain 
to still greater eminence in the future. At his home in Nova 
Scotia he has long been known as a man of probity, ability, 
and capacity for public duty. It is not so long ago that he 
was first heard of in these western parts, but already he has 
sprung into notice, and his services are in request at many 
public gatherings. I am sure we all regret the absence of 
Mr. D. C. Fraser, M.P. for Guysboro', to-night. He is not 
only a politician but a patron of learning and Celtic literature. 
To his generous heart and open hand many a struggling High- 
lander owes much, and through his encouragement not a few 
scholarly productions have seen the light of day. Were I to 
venture beyond Canada I should find Frasers playing a prom- 



92 SHOULDER TO SHOULDER. 

inent part in the field of politics in South Africa, in the Aus- 
tralias, in the East Indies, and even in South America. It 
was only the other day we heard of a clansman born in Nova 
Scotia, but of good Inverness stock, who had been appointed 
delegate to the Inter-colonial Conference to be held in Ottawa 
this summer. I refer to the Hon. Simon Fraser, of Victoria. 
I have no doubt his clansmen here will be glad to welcome 
him, and to wish the utmost success to his mission. I must 
refrain at this hour from any reference to what Frasers have 
done in political life in the old land. The chiefs of the Clan 
numbered among them many men of eminence in politics. 
Of these we have heard something already to-night, and 
when the call of public duty comes, I feel sure a Fraser will be 
ready to step forward to perform his part in a worthy manner. 



ORGANIZATION. 

A resolution was carried in favor of the formation of an 
organization of clansmen in Canada, having for its main ob- 
jects the promotion of social intercourse among the members^ 
the collection of facts from which to prepare a biographical 
album of the members and other clansmen, and the promo- 
tion of objects which may be of interest to the Clan ; and that 
those present form a general committee to act in the matter, 
the Committee of this gathering to act as an Executive Com- 
mittee, for the purpose of drafting a constitution for the Clan 
to be submitted to the next gathering of the Clan. 

The Clan songf, composed by request, for this gathering, by Mrs. Gforgiiia Fraser Newhall, and 
set to music composed by Mr. J. Lewis Browne, will be found, with a biographical sketch and portrait of 
the authoress, on pages 93 to 97. 



GEORGINA ERASER NEWHALL. 

AUTHORESS OF "FRASER'S DRINKING SONG." 

"The Erasers of Stratherrick, where are they ?" To 
this pensive question by Charles Eraser Mackintosh comes 
an oft echoed and lusty answer from many distant lands. 
Indeed the question is, "Where are they not ?" for it 
is safe to say that there is no country where the English 
language to-day prevails, in which Stratherrick may not 
claim a son. Their new homes have not the historical charm 
of the old, but wherever the Erasers have gone, away from 
the home of their fathers, they have acquitted themselves 
well. A scion of a Stratherrick house was James George 
Eraser, who many years ago settled at Gait, Ontario. Like 
his brother Capt. Charles Eraser, now residing in Glasgow, 
Scotland, he was attached to a Highland regiment in his 
younger days, but withdrawing from the service, he came to 
Canada with his young wife, Christina MacLeod. At Gait 
was born a family of three sons, William, Charles and Andrew, 
and four daughters, Christina, Jessie, Elizabeth and Geor- 
gina, the youngest of whom is the subject of this brief sketch. 
On the maternal side her descent is traced from the families 
of Lochend and Braemore. Her great-grand parents were 
George Mackenzie, second son of John Mackenzie L of 
Lochend (of the Gairloch family), and Christina, daughter of 
Captain Hector .Munro of Braemore. George Mackenzie 
was a distinguished officer, and attained to the rank of Lieut.- 
Colonel of the famous Rosshire Buffs, the 78th Highlanders. 
His daughter Christina married Angus MacLeod of Banff with 
issue, two sons, Donald and George, and several daughters, 



4 



^""^SpF 



MRS. GEOKGINA FRASEK NEWllAL 



A BUSY CAREER. 95 

of whom Christina, as already stated, married James G. 
Fraser of Gait, Ontario. 

Georgina Fraser was born about the beginning of the 
sixties, and was educated in the public and high schools of 
her native town. After the death of her parents she removed 
to Toronto, and taking up the study of shorthand entered 
upon the life of an amanuensis and teacher of stenography. 
She taught large classes in the towns surrounding Toronto, 
and in Victoria University, when that institution was located 
at Cobourg, She was the first woman in Canada to adopt 
this profession as a means of self-support, and to her belongs 
the honor of adding a new vocation to those upon which 
Canadian women may enter. In addition to these duties 
Miss Fraser undertook journalistic work, and was the first 
lady writer in Toronto to conduct the department devoted to 
woman's interests, now so important a weekly feature in the 
great dailies in Canada. 

In 18S4, while occupying the important position of Assist- 
ant Secretary to General Manager Oakes of the Northern 
Pacific Railway at St. Paul, Minn., she became the wife of 
Mr. E. P. Newhall, of the Pacific Express Co. in Omaha. 

Notwithstanding household cares and ill-health Mrs. 
Newhall still finds time to indulge in her old taste for litera- 
ture, wielding an earnest pen in advocacy of those reforms 
which most interest women of advanced thought. She has 
achieved considerable fame as a writer of short stories, and 
her compositions of verse bear the mark of the true poet's touch . 

As a clans woman Mrs. Newhall is fond of claiming the 
right to call herself a "black" Fraser, nature having endowed 
her with that darkness of hair and eyebrow which is supposed 
to stamp all the possessors thereof as "true Erasers." 



FRASER'5 DRINKING SONG. 

(The Fraser Motto is " Jf. Surs Prest"--" I am Ready.") 



Words by Georgina Fraser Newhali. 
With vigor. tnf 






Music by J. Lewis Urowne. 



^^-i?ll=i^ilifigE^=a-i^3i 



Let us drink to the wo - man who 



/ All read - y? 

(Clwrus\fA\\ read - y? "^-^^ ' 



_N > 



•:ziz=-* 1Z-* r.:z* _ * -zr«z=*^ zd 

lies us to - night— To her 



rules us to - night— To her lands ; to her laws ; 'neath her 



«f^.-?Ep^ 



^ >— > .— n— • •_-— -5— S_1»L 

Sb*~zzrzi«z:zSr.i~7i^z^'_z^*z= z=q 3=*izir^3r*-z::L:-~~r ~-z:zi_ j 



-4 — » — » zz5z;dz:z~ — -^ — - ^ <^ * ^"-j 

flag we will smite Ev - 'ry foe, Hip and thigh, Eye for 









m 






eye, Blow for blow— Are you read - y? All read - y? All 



^ m f :? U S!, k' ? ^ !! ^„ 



Chorus 




FRASER'S DRIXKING SONG. 

1 
All ready ? 

Let us drink to the woman who rules 

us to-night — 
To her lands ; to her laws ; 'neath her 

flag we will smite 
Ev'ry foe, 
Hip and thigh, 
Eye for eye, 
Blow for blow — 

Are you ready ? 



All ready ? 

Then here's to the mothers who bore 

us, my men ; 
To the shieling that sleeps in the 

breast of the glen 
Where the stag 
Drinks it fill 
From the rill 
By the crag — 

Are you ready ? 



All ready ? 

Fill your glass to the maid you adore, 

my boys ; 
Wish her health, wish her wealth, long 

life, and all joys ; 
Full measure 
(May it swim 
To the brim) 
Of pleasure — 

Are you ready ? 



All ready ? 

And here's to the country we live in, 

my lads ; 
It is here we have struggled and 

thriven, my lads ? 
God bless it, 



May Beauty 
And Duty 
Poss-ss it- 



Are you ready ? 



All ready ? 

A Fraser ! A Fraser forever, my 

friends ; 
While he lives how lie hates, how he 

loves till life ends ; 
He is first, 
Here's my hand, 
Into grand 
Hurrah burst — 

Are you ready ? 



SIMON FRASER. 

DISCOVERER OF THE FRASER RIVER. 

The life-work of the discoverer of the Fraser River illus- 
trates the pioneer spirit which animated the early settlers of 
Canada. There was the pluck, the love of adventure, the 
endurance, the prompt response to the call of duty, the ex- 
pansive idea which kept abreast of ever opening possibilities, 
and the rare tact displayed in new, embarrassing and import- 
ant transactions. Simon Fraser was in many respects a great 
man and one of whom his clansmen may well feel proud. 
His grandfather was William Fraser, of Culbokie, whose wife 
Margaret Macdonell, of Glengarry, was the possessor of the 
famous Balg Solair in which was stowed away a manuscript 
of Ossianic poetry, which figures in the dissertations on the 
authenticity of MacPherson's Ossian, and regarding which 
the following interesting passage occurs in the correspond- 
ence of the late Bishop Alexander Macdonell : "I myself saw 
a large MS. of Ossian's poems in the possession of Mrs. 
Fraser of Culbokie, in Strathglass, which she called ''am Balg 
Solair' (a bag of fortuitous goods). This lady's residence 
being between my father's house and the school where I used 
to attend with her grandchildren, at her son's, Culbokie 
House, by way of coaxing me to remain on cold nights at 
her own house, she being cousin to my father, she used to 
take up the Bale. Solair, and read pieces of it to me. 
Although a very young boy at the time, I became so much 
enraptured with the rehearsal of the achievements of the heroes 
of the poem, and so familiar with the characters, especially of 
Oscar, Cathmor, and Cuthchullin, that when MacPherson's 



HIS EARLY DAVS. 99 

translation was put into my hands in the Scotch college of 
Valladolid in Spain, many years afterwards, it was like meet- 
ing old friends with whom I had been intimately acquainted. 
Mrs. Eraser's son, Simon, who had a classical education, and 
was an excellent Gaelic scholar, on emigrating to America in 
the year 1774, took the Balg Solair with him as an invalu- 
able treasure. On the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
war, Mr. Eraser joined the Royal Standard, was taken 
prisoner by the Americans and thrown into jail, where he 
died." 

William, of Culbokie, and his wife Margaret Macdonell 
had nine sons. Of these, Archibald and John fought under 
Wolfe at Quebec. John settled at Montreal, and became 
Chief Justice of the Montreal district. In 1774, or more 
probably in 1773, Simon left home, and settled near Benning- 
ton, Vermont. Here his son, the subject of this sketch, was 
born in 1776. His mother and her family came to Canada 
after the death of his father (as stated above), and settled in 
Glengarry. Simon was the youngest of the family. He 
was placed in school in Montreal, where he resided with his 
uncle, the Chief Justice. In 1792, at the age of sixteen, he 
became an articled clerk with McTavish, Frobisher & Co., 
to the North-West Fur Trading Co., which had its head- 
quarters in Montreal. In 1802 he became a partner, and 
subsequently went out to the far North. In 1S05 he came 
down from Fort Athabasca to Fort William, and was then 
nominated to cross the Rocky Mountains, to extend out-posts 
and form trading connections with the Indians. He re- 
sponded at once to the call. He said he would undertake 
the expedition provided they gave him a sufficient outfit. 
This the Company were only too glad to do. It was a very 



lOO DISCOVERY OF THE ERASER RIVER. 

hazardous undertaking. He crossed the mountains with 
thirty men — clerks, axemen, guides and interpreters. He 
soon found himself in a wild and desolate region. As he 
went on he built block-houses, and took possession of the 
country in the name of the King. In iSo6 he discovered 
the river which takes its name from him. He discovered 
many rivers and lakes which he named after different mem- 
bers of the Company. He traced the Fraser ri\ er to its 
source, and met many different tribes of Indians, some 
friendly, others hostile. At one time they met different 
tribes who were very friendly and made a great feast for 
them ; they killed \)i\€\x fattest dog for him, which of course 
he feigned to eat ; but at the same feast the chiefs held a 
council and decided to put him to death, which the interpre- 
ter, who understood their language, told him, and they stole 
quietly away. He first named the river now known as the 
Fraser river, the "Great River," and called the place "New- 
Caledonia." Here he left some of the party, and crossed 
westerly into the open country, and built another house near 
a ake, which he called Fraser's Lake. He was now with 
four men in the midst of Indians who had never before either 
seen or heard of the "pale face." On the border of this lake 
he witnessed an Indian ceremony. He was brought by the 
Indians to where they had a large burying-ground, where 
one of the Chiefs of their tribe was being buried. An im- 
mense number of warriors were assembled, and after a most 
solemn and impressive ceremony, Mr. Fraser was invited by 
signs to approach the grave. He did so, and gave immense 
satisfaction by engraving his name on a post which had been 
planted over the remains of the departed warrior. In July, 
1807, he received fresh supplies from the North-West Co., 



TRACED TO THE SEA. TO I 

who at the same time urged him to trace with all possible 
speed the "Great River" to the Sea, they being apprehensive 
that the Americans would get ahead of the British in that 
quarter, as in the previous year 1806, Captains Lewis and 
Clarke had gone down the "Columbia," and were extending 
American authority along the western coast of America, and 
Astor, on the part of the Americans, was also looking 
anxiously towards the northern section. 

The North-West Co. therefore urged Mr, Fraser to 
spare no expense in achieving the object of their desires. 

Mr. Fraser built another trading-house on the "Great 
River" in 1807, and reached the Ocean in July, 1808. He 
remained but a short time there on account of the hostility of 
the Indians. 

Returning he again met numerous and large bodies of 
Indians speaking several different languages. They assem- 
bled to see the wonderful pale faces who had come among 
them. An idea of how they regarded white men may be 
formed from the fact that when hundreds of them were con- 
gregated together, at the discharge of a single rifle they 
would fall prostrate on the ground, so great was their aston- 
ishment. Had it not been for Mr. Fraser's wonderful energy 
and enterprise, there would not be a railroad to-day from 
ocean to ocean over British territory. 



^S^^^M 



SIMON, LORD LOVAT. 



BEHEADED ON TOWER HILL. 



No Fraser chief has achieved more notoriety than 
Simon, the fourteenth Lord Lovat. His enemies avenofed 
themselves for the failure of their nefarious plots against him 
by supplying, at a cheap rate, the charcoal with which preju- 
diced historians have blackened his memory. But while 
his fate is still held up as a warning to evil doers, it 
has been proved, beyond peradventure, that his character has 
been much maligned, and that he appears rather as a man of 
inexhaustible resources, availing himself of whatever means 
lay nearest to his hand to extricate himself from enormous 
difficulties and to attain objects which, though of personal 
advantage to himself and Clan, were as honorable as they 
were just, and wholly in keeping with the customs of his day. 
His efforts to secure the chiefship and the honors of his 
house, and to extend the power of the Clan, were genuinely 
patriotic. His Lordship certainly was a man of learning 
and ability. He was an admirable letter writer, and passages 
in his correspondence show that he had wonderful facility in 
writing and a capital style. 

The picture here given is from a mezzo-tint in possession 
of Mr. B. Homer Dixon, from a painting of Lord Lovat, 
by David Le Clerc, a Swiss who was in England in 
I 7 1 5 and i 7 1 6. The picture which is supposed to have been 
taken in 1715, when Lord Lovat was about forty-eight years 
old, is marked : "Le Clare, pinxt. J. Simon, fecit ^ 
Although armour had been disused before Lord Lovat's 
time, it was the fashion at that period for gentlemen to be 
painted in armour. The mezzo-tint is very rare. 



BRIGADIER SIMON FRASER. 

Among the officers of Eraser's Highlanders were several 
clansmen destined to rise high in military distinction. Of 
them few are better known in the Clan than Captain Simon 
Eraser of Balnain, afterwards Quarter- Master General in 
Ireland, a post which he quitted to serve as Brigadier-Gen- 
eral in Burgoyne's Army in America. He had served in the 
Scotch regiment in the Dutch service, and was wounded at 
Bergen-op-Zoom. He spoke Erench perfectly and to this 
accomplishment and his coolness was due his signal service at 
Quebec, where he saved the transports from discovery at a 
critical moment before the precipice was scaled. 

Smollet relates the incident as follows: — "The Erench 
had posted sentries along shore to challenge boats and 
vessels and give the alarm occasionally. The first boat 
that contained the English troops being questioned accord- 
ingly, a captain of Eraser's regiment, who had served 
in Holland, and who was perfectly well acquainted with the 
Erench language and customs, answered without hesitation 
to qui vive ? — which is their challenging word — La France ; 
nor was he at a loss to answer the second question, which 
was much more particular and difficult. When the sentinel 
demanded, a quel regiment ? the captain replied, de la reine, 
which he knew by accident to be one of those that composed 
the body commanded by Bougainville. The soldier took it 
for granted this was the expected convoy (a convoy of provi- 
sions expected that night for the garrison of Quebec), and, 
saying passe, allowed all the boats to proceed without further 
question. In the same manner the other sentries were deceived; 
though one, more wary than the rest, came running down to 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL ERASER, 
Younger of Balnain. 



I06 BRIGADIER SIMON FRASER- 

the water's edge and called, pou7' qtwi est ce que votts ne par- 
ley pas haiit ? ' Why don't you speak with an audible voice ? ' 
To this interrogation, which implied doubt, the captain 
answered with admirable presence of mind, in a soft tone 
of voice, tai toi nous sei-ens enf endues ! ' Hush ! we shall be 
overheard and discovered.' Thus cautioned the sentry retired 
without further altercation." 

At the time of the Revolutionary War, Brigadier- 
General Simon Fraser was second in command of the British 
army, under Burgoyne. He fell at Saratoga under circum- 
stances which prove his great ability as an officer. The 
American historians say that General Burgoyne had lost his 
head, and the American General Morgan perceiving it, called 
two of his best ritlemen and said : " You see that fine fellow 
on the white horse? It goes against my heart to do it, but 
you must pick him off, or we lose the battle." They watched 
their opportunity, shot General Fraser, and the Americans 
won the day. 

The picture here given is said to be a good likeness. It 
has been produced from a mezzo-tint in the possession of 
Mr. B. Homer Dixon, Toronto. 






SFXOND ANNUAL GATHERING. 

'Three triuinplis in a dav ; three hosts subdued in one : 
Three armies scattered hke the spray, beneath one common sun." 

^^HE second Annual Gathering and Dinner of the Clan 
^^^ Eraser in Canada was held on the 25th day of Eebruar\ , 
1895. that date having been selected in honor of the Scots' 
victory at Roslin on February 25th, 1303, when the army 
was commanded by Sir Simon Eraser, the patriot (p. 48). 
The place of meeting was the Rossin House, Toronto. The 
gentlemen were accompanied by lady friends, a departure 
from the custom generally observed on similar festive occa- 
sions, that contributed greatly to the pleasure of the even- 
ing. The committee in charge of the arrangements was 
composed of Dr. J. B. Eraser (Chairman of Programme 
Committee), Professor W. H. Eraser, Messrs. G. B. Eraser, 
R L. Eraser, Alexander Phraser (Eraserfield), Alexander R. 
Eraser, W. P. Eraser, Andrew P"'raser, Alexander Eraser 
(MacEhionnlaidh), Chairman ; and W. A. Eraser, Secretary. 
Those present were Rev. Dr. Mungo Eraser, Hamilton ; 
Mr. W. Lewis Eraser, New York ; Mr. Donald Eraser, 
Kingston ; Mr. R. L Eraser, Barrie ; Mr. Andrew Phraser, 
Barrie ; Messrs. Robert Lovat Eraser, George B. Eraser, 
and Miss P^-aser ; Professor W. H. Eraser and Mrs. Eraser ; 
Dr. J. B. Eraser and Mrs. Eraser ; Alexander Eraser 
(Eraserfield), Mrs. Eraser and Miss Kate Eraser ; Alexan- 
der R. Eraser and Mrs. P'^raser ; Alexander Eraser (Mac- 
Ehionnlaidh). Mrs. Eraser, Miss Phraser, Mrs. Georgina 
Eraser- Newhall, and Mrs. Ramsay ; Mr. W. A. P'raser and 
Mrs. Eraser ; Dr. Pyne and Mrs. Pyne ; Alexander PVaser 



I08 SECOND ANNUAL CATIIERING. 

(Parkdale), and Miss Fraser ; W. P. Fraser, Donald Fraser, 
Charles Fraser, Mrs. C. G. Fraser and Master Norman 
I'Vaser, James Fraser, Henry Sandham Fraser. 

Letters of regret at their inability to attend were read 
from Messrs. E. A. Fraser, Detroit ; D. Fraser, Montreal ; 
Ex-Mayor Fraser, Petrolea ; O. K. Fraser, Brockville ; A. 
Fraser, Hamilton ; P. M. Fraser, St. Thomas ; Rev. R. D. 
Fraser, Bovvmanville ; and Rev. Dr. J. B. Fraser, Annan. 

Mr. Alexander Fraser (MacFhionnlaidh) presided, and 
the vice-chairs were occupied by Messrs. George B. Fraser 
and R. L. Fraser, and Mr. W. A. Fraser acted as Secretary. 

The after-dinner programme was interesting and varied. 
Besides the usual toasts it included the "Phaser's Drinking 
Song," composed by Mrs Georgina Fraser-Newhall, and sung 
by Mrs. Alexander Fraser ; readings by Prof. W. H. Fraser, 
bagpipe selections by Pipe-Major MacSwayed, and Highland 
dancing by Master Norman Fraser. 

The speeches c(3ntained a great deal of information re- 
garding the Clan, and were very interesting. Most eloquent 
was the speech delivered by Mr. W. Lewis P>aser, of New 
York, who entered into the history of the Clan at consider- 
able length ; and that by Mrs. Georgina P"raser-Newhall, in 
response to the toast of her health. 

A group photograph was successfully taken of the com- 
pany by the aid of a flash-light, which will remain a memento 
of a very pleasant gathering. 

Before dispersing the report of the Committee on the 
Organization of the Clan was read. It set forth that meet- 
ings had been held at which the Clan had been organized, 
and lh(; annexed Constitution and l)y-la\vs prepared : 




THE CLAN FRASER IN CANADA. 



{Instituted May 5th, iSg4.) 



CONSriTUTION AND BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. —Name.— The name of this org-anization shall be : "The Clan 
Fraser in Canada." 

ARTICLE IL— Objects— The objects of the Clan shall be : 

The cultivation of friendly intercourse and social relations among those bearing- 
the surname "Fraser," and the promotion among- its members of love for the Clan. 
and increased interest in its history and traditions : 

The collection of Clan records, traditions and anecdotes ; ot documents bearing- 
upon the Clan history ; of information relating- to notable clansmen, especially with 
reference to the early history of the Clan in Canada ; and the compilation of an 
album of portraits and biographical sketches of Clansmen in Canada : 

The furtherance of the interests of clansmen, whether in Scotland or in Canada, 
and the giving of such assistance to clansmen in need as may be within the power of 
the Clan. 

ARTICLE III.— Membership.— Persons bearing^ the surname "Fraser," by 
birth or by marriag-e, shall be eligible for membership in the Clan. Honorary memr 
bership may be conferred on disling-uished clansmen, or on persons, not clansmen, 
who have rendered conspicuous service to the Clan. 

ARTICLE IV.— Arms, Motto and Badge.— The arms of the Clan Fraser in 
Canada shall be the same as those of the Clan proper, with the difference of a wreath 
of Canadian maple leaves intertwined (a fac-simile of which is impressed on this 
Constitution) ; the "Motto" and "Badge" shall be that of the Clan Fraser — motto, 
"Ju Suis Prest" ; badge, a sprg- of yew — I axiis Baicata. 

ARTICLE v.— (a) Executive Officers.— The Executive Officers shall consist 
of a Chief, Chieftains (as hereinunder provided for), Secretary-Treasurer, Historians, 
Curator, and a Bard. 

(Zi)— Trustees and Councillors.— There shall be three Trustees, six Council- 
lors, a Pipe-Major and Pipers. 

(c)— Honorary Chief and CniEFTAiNS.-The Chief of the Clan Fraser, "Mac- 
Shimi," shall be the Honorary Chief, and Honorary Chieftainship may be bestowed on 
clansmen who merit very high clan honor. 

ARTICLE VI.— Gatherings.— The Clan shall gather once a year, on a day to 
be decided upon by the Executive Committee, for the transaction of business. That 
gathering shall be known as the Annual Business Meeting of the Clan. On the 
evening of the same day a Clan Dinner, or other form of Entertainment, shall take 
place. 

ARTICLE VII. At the Annual Business Meeting of the Clan the Executive 
Officers, Trustees, Councillors and Pipers, Honorary Chief (when vacant), and Honorarj' 
Chieftains (when Honorary Chieftainship is conferred), shall be elected ; and the roll 
of members, prepared by the Executive Committee, shall be revised. 

ARTICLE VIII. — The principle upon which Chieftains and Councillors shall be 
elected shall be as follows : The Province of Ontario shall be divided into five Dis- 



I lO THE CLAN FRASER IN CANADA. 

Iricts, viz. : Ottawa, Kingston, Toronto, Hamilton and London, from each of which 
a,nd from each of the other Provinces of Canada, a Chieftain shall be elected. A 
Chieftain msLV be also elected from each of the States of the American Union, as an 
interest in the Clan may be manifested . The Ontario Districts shall comprise the 
following; counties : 

O I TAWA. — Glengarry, Prescott, Stormont, Dundas, Grenville, Carleton, Russell, 
Renfrew. 

Kingston. — Addington, Lennox, Frontenac, Hastings, Prince Edward, Leeds, 
Lanark. 

Toronto. — Northumberland, Peterborough, Haliburton, Victoria, Durham, 
Ontario, Muskoka, Parry Sound, Nipissing, York, Peel, Toronto. 

Hamilton, — Wentworlh, Lincoln, Welland, I^rant, Waterloo, Simcoe, Dufferin, 
Grey, Wellington, Halton. 

London. — Middlesex, Elgin, Oxtbrd, Norfolk, H;ildiniand, Kent, Lambton, 
Essex, Bruce, Huron, Perth. 

There shall be at least one Councillor elected to represent each District in 
Ontario. 

ARTICLE IX. — The Executive Ofticers, Trustees and Councillors shall form a 
General Committee, which shall prepare the business for the Annual Meeting. The 
Executive Officers shall form the Executive Committee of the General Committee. 
The General Committee and the Executive Committee may appoint Sub-Coniniittees 
with power to transact business on behalf oi the Clan. 

ARTICLE X.— Dri lES of Officers.— The Chief shall preside at all the meet- 
ings of Committees, at the Annual Business Meeting, and at the Annual Entertain- 
ment of the Clan ; in his absence the duties of the Chief shall devolve upon the 
Chieftains in order of seniorit}-, and in the absence of all of them the clansmen 
present shall elect a Chairman pro tern. The Secretarv-Treasl-rer shall keep a 
correct minute of the business transacted at the meetings of Committees and at the 
Annual Meeting of the Clan ; he shall keep a roll of the membership of the Clan ; 
with the Chief he shall convene the meetings, and shall conduct the correspondence 
and general business of the Clan ; he shall submit his accounts to an audit annually 
or on the demand of the Executive Committee. The Historians shall compile the 
Clan Album, and shall edit any papers containing information regarding the Clan or 
clansmen which may be secured for the Clan . The ClRATOii shall have the custody 
of all property belonging to the Clan, including papers and books not in use by the 
proper officers, and shall account for the same to the Ti<rsTEEsin whom the property 
shall be vested on behalf of the Clan, and who shall submit a report of their steward- 
ship to the Annual Meeting of the Clan. 

ARTICLE XI. — The roll of membership shall be compiled by the Executive 
Committee, and shall be subject to revision at the Annual Business Meeting. 

ARTICLE XII. — The officers shall wear insignia of office ; and an officer hold- 
ing the same office for three terms (not necessarily consecutively) shall become the 
possessor of the insignia as his own proper!}'. 

ARTICLE XIII. — The Constitution and By-l.iws may be altered or amended 
at the Annual Business Meeting of the Clan, by ;i two-thirds vote of the membership, 
personally or b\- mandate ; but notice ot any such alteration of amendment in specific 
terms must be lodged with the Secretary-Treasurer at least two months before the 
date of the Annual Business Meeting so that members may be notifieil when the 
announcement of the Annu;il Business Meeting shall be made. 



THE CLAN FRASER IN CANADA. 



BV-l.AWS. 



1. Tlie fee of nioiiibership shall be one dollar annurilh' for gentlemen, and the 
sum of fifty cents for ladies and minors. 

2. The Annual Meeting of the Clan shall be held on a date to be decided upon 
by the Executive Committee. ; in deciding upon the date, however, the convenience 
of the greatest number of the membership shall be the chief consideration. 

T,. Twelve members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at 
the Annual Meeting. 

4. A member may be expelled from the Clan for a transgression of any of its 
rules, or any other sufficient cause. Notice of intended expulsion must be given to 
the Secretary-Treasurer, who shall lay it before the Executive Committee for report 
at the Annual Business Meeting, and to the member whom it is proposed to expel. 
X'oting shall be by ballot, and a majority must vote "yea" before a member can be 
expelled. The annual revision of the roll of membership referred to in the Constitu- 
tion, Article XI., shall in no way be understood to imply expulsion from membership. 

5. The following shall be the order of business : 1st. Reading of minutes ot 
previous meeting ; 2nd. Reading of communications and action thereon ; 3rd. Unfin- 
ished business of previous meeting ; 4th, New business ; 5th. Election of officers ; 
6th. Adjournment. 

Signed on behalf of the Committee. 

ALEXANDER FRASER, C/uiirwan. W. A. FRASER, Secretary. 

The above Constitution and By-laws were duly adopted 
and ordered to be printed. 



112 THE CLAN FRASER IN CANADA. 



THE OFFICERS. 
The following Officers were elected for the term iS95-'96 : 

Honorary Chief, 
Lord Lovat. 

Honorary Chieftain, 
Mr. Ch.vrles Kr.\ser Mackintosh, Inverness 

Chief, 
Mr. Alex. Eraser (MacFhionnlaidh), Toronto. 

Chieftains, 
Distrkt of Ottawa : Mr. Alex. Eraser, Westmeath. 

Kingston : Mr. Donald Eraser, Kingston. 

Toronto : Mr. G. B. Eraser, Toronto. 

Hamilton : Rev. Dr. Mungo Eraser, Hamilton. 

London : Ex-Mayor Eraser, Petrolea. 
Provinces — Maritime Provinces : D.C. Eraser, M. P.,NewGlasgo\v,N.S. 

Quebec : Mr. Donald Eraser, Montreal. 

Northwest Territories : Mr. J. G. Eraser, Regina,N.\V.T. 

British Columbia : Mr. W. Eraser, V^ancouver, B.C. 
State of Michigan : Mr. E. A. Eraser, Detroit, U.S.A. 

New York : Mr. W. Lewis Eraser, New York. 

CoiDuillors, 
Ottawa : Mk. A. W. Eraser, Ottawa. 
Kingston : Mr. O. K. Eraser, Brockville. 

(■ Mr. Alex. Eraser (Eraserfield), Toronto, 
oron o -^ ^^ J g Eraser, Toronto. 
Hamilton : Mr. R. I. Eraser, Barrie. 
London : Mr. W.m. Eraser, of Port .Stanlev. 

Secretary- Treasurer, 
Mr. W. .\. Eraser. Toronto. 

Cliaplain, 
Rev. Dk. Mi nco F"kaser, Hamilton. 

Historians, 
Pkoi . W. H. PHRASER ;ind Mr. Alex. Eraskr, Toronto. 

C unit or, 
.Mr. .Vlexandkr Eraser, Tori>r.to. 

Trustees, 
Messrs. R. L. Eraser, Toronto ; .\hnek Eraser, Hamilton ; A. c;. Eraser, London. 

Bani, 
Geokc;ina Eras:'-.k-\ewiiai.i., Omaha.