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THE CLASH OF NATIONS 



THE CLASH OF NATIONS 

ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES 



An authentic narrative of the immediate and remote causes of the war, with a 

descriptive account of the countries involved, including statistics of 

armies, navies, aeroplanes, dirigibles, &c., bfc. Profusely 

illustrated from latest photographs, engravings y 

diagrams and maps 



Edited by 

ROSSITER JOHNSON, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Editor of '' Great Events in History," "Appleton's Encyclopcedia," &c. 




NEW YORK 

THOMAS NELSON AND SONS 

LONDON EDINBURGH TORONTO PARIS 



D5il3 



For much of the recent and accurate information in this volume the 
writers are indebted to Nelson's Perpetual Loose-leaf Encyclopaedia 



Copyright, iM4, by 
THOMAS NELSON & SONS 



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Illustrated with copyrighted and special photographs from American Press 
Association, Bain News Service, M. E. Bemer, Brown Bros., Internatoinal News 
Service, Press Illustrating Co., Paul Thompson and Underwood & Underwood 



THE FRANCO-GERMAN FRONTIER. 




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THE FRENCH AND GERMAN FRONTIER FORCES. 




\By ptrmission of the lUuitrattd London Neva. 

This map shows the diqxmtion and streng:th of the forces which in nonnal times guard the 

Franco-German frontier. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Roman historian, Livy, begins his account of the Second 
Punic War with this declaration: "I am about to describe the greatest 
of all the wars that ever were waged." Doubtless he told the truth as 
it was in his time ; but if he could revise his book to-day he would open 
it with a different sentence. The solemn duty of narrating the great- 
est of all wars that ever were waged now devolves upon our journal- 
ists, and a few years hence it will tax the powers of the ablest historian 
that the world can produce. 

Whatever may be the prejudices, the opinions, or the original na- 
tionality of an American, he cannot seriously consider this tremen- 
dous, complicated conflict without feeling that he is a citizen of the 
world, profoundly affected by European wars and sincerely desirous 
of world-wide peace. 

This book is intended to enable the reader to scan the daily bulle- 
tins with something of an intelligent understanding of the despatches. 
No one, as yet, can tell him how it will all end ; but we endeavor here 
to tell him why it began ; to indicate, as nearly as possible, the various 
ends that are striven for; and to show him the resources and imple- 
ments that come into play — many of them for the first time. There is 
no intention here of according praise or blame to any of the combat- 
ants, or expressing any opinion as to the merits of the conflict or the 
truth or falsehood of those that wage it. We hope we have presented, 
simply and clearly, as many of the pertinent facts as our space allows 
— only adding that when Byron expressed his enthusiasm for "Livy's 
pictured page" neither he nor that brilliant historian ever had seen 
such pictured pages as these. R. J. 



\ 



921585 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 

I. The Immediate Causes of the War . 
II. The Original Causes — Boundaries and Races 
III. Mobilization ...... 

IV. The New Warfare ..... 

V. Military Implements of War . 
VI. Warships and Naval Implements of War 
Vll. Coast-defenses and Fortifications . 
VIII. Aircraft and Wireless in War 
IX. European Wars Since 1815: 

The Greek War for Independence (1821) 
The Insurrection in France (1830) 
The Revolutionary Movements of 1818 
The Crimean War (1854.-'55) . 
The Franco- Austrian War (1859) 
The Liberation and Unification of Italy (1859- 
The Schleswig-Holstein War (1864) 
The Prusso- Austrian War (1866) 
The Franco-Prussian War (1870) 
The Russo-Turkish War (1877-78) 
The Greco-Turkish War (1897) 
War in the Balkan States (191 2-' 13) 
X. Countries at War and Involved: 
Austria-Hungary 
Belgium 
France 
Germany 

The British Empire 
Russia 
Servia 
Montenegro 
Albania 
Italy . 
Japan 
XI. The Hague Conference 
XII. The Effect of the War on the Western World 
XIII. State Papers and Official Correspondence 
Chronological List of Events .... 

2 



'60) 



page 

11 

31 
41 
65 

71 

87 

107 

115 

131 
133 
135 
145 
149 
151 
161 
165 
169 
185 

191 
196 

213 
225 
243 
275 
307 
343 
361 
364 
365 
367 
375 
379 
385 
403 
414 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I.— THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 



Assassination of the heir apparent to the 

throne of Austria. 
First blow of the international conflict 

struck at Servia. 
Austria's long-cherished design to extend her 

domain along the Adriatic. 
Her oppression of Servia in the past. 
The assassination of the heir apparent re- 



garded as a pretext for further oppres- 
sion and annexation of territory. 

Ignoring of Servia's request that the Aus- 
trian ultimatum be referred to the tribu- 
nal of The Hague. 

The Triple Alliance and the Triple En- 
tente. 

Opinions by experts, Servian and Austrian. 



CHAPTER II.— THE ORIGINAL CAUSES— BOUNDARIES AND RACES 



How to study these causes intelligently. 

The tendency of mankind to work toward 
centralization when natural boundaries are 
found. 

Why the natural law of geographical neces- 
sity holds a nation together. 

Other elements of union. 



Elements of separation. 

Difl'erent races, religions, and languages. 

Polyglot speech of Austria-Hungary. 

The "Eastern Question." 

The "Sick Man" of Europe. 

The usual outcome of modern wars. 



CHAPTER III.— MOBILIZATION 



Mobilization of the world in everyday life. 

Time is required for the mobilization of an 
army. 

The call to arms. 

Getting the commissary department ready. 

Provision made for cavalry as well as men. 

The medical corps and Red Cross nurses. 

Preparation of signal corps: field instru- 
ments and operators. 



Mobilization of an army in Germany. 
In France. 
In Russia. 
In England. 

Standing forces and incorporation of re- 
serves. 

Various classes of reserves. 

Diagram of a German army corps. 

Table showing fighting strength of nations. 



CHAPTER IV.— THE NEW WARFARE 



Inventive genius applied to war. 
Dreadnoughts and quick-firers. 
Alternations between improvements in attack 
and defense. 



Poetic prophecy of air-ships. 

The Red Cross Society and the advances 

made in medical and surgical science. 
George WiUiam Curtis's pathetic epigram. 



4 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER v.— MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 



Multiplicity of engines of slaughter since the 

Napoleonic wars. 
Offensive and defensive weapons. 
Various forms of explosives. 
Smokeless powder. 
Varieties of modern rifles. 
Sword and lance. 

Small caliber bullets; the "dum-dum" bullet. 
The machine guns used by different nations. 
Artillery guns. 
Field artillery. 
Horse artillery. 



Common shell and shrapnel 

Case shot. 

Hand grenades. 

Automobiles in warfare. 

Motor-cars fitted with surgical operating- 
rooms. 

Motor-vans for carrying commissary " sup- 
plies. 

Motor-trucks for transporting wireless teleg- 
raphy outfit. 

Bicycles and motorcycles. 



CHAPTER VI.— WARSHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 



Romance attached to historic sea-fights. 

Modern battle-ships. 

The British "Dreadnought," which effected a 
revolution in the construction of battle- 
ships. 

Pre-dreadnoughts and super-dreadnoughts. 

The new "Queen Elizabeth," 

Battle-ship cruisers. 

Ordinary cruisers. 



Destroyers. 

Submarines. 

Periscopes. 

Naval guns. 

The armor-piercing shell. 

How a large naval gun is operated. 

Range-finding. 

Torpedoes. 



CHAPTER VII.— COAST-DEFENSES AND FORTIFICATIONS 



The modern inland fort. 

The chains of interior fortifications in 

Europe. 
Construction of a tjpical fort. 
Mines. 



Theoretical invulnerability of a fort. 
Heaviest of all weapons used in coast forti- 
fications. 
Coast-defense guns. 
Range-finding of heavy guns. 



CHAPTER VIII.— AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY IN WAR 



Aircraft the most spectacular feature of 

modern warfare. 
The former talk of aircraft has passed from 

jest to earnest. 
Aviation established as an arm of military 

service in 1912. 
Air-ships, or dirigibles. 
The Zeppelin type. 
Semi-rigid and non-rigid types. 
Aeroplanes. 



Hydro-aeroplanes. 

Value of aircraft as a means of reconnois- 
sance. 

Wireless telegraphy. 

Great strides in the science of signaling since 
the War of 1812. 

From flags and semaphores to wireless 
telegraphy and telephony. 

Kites and balloons make connections by wire- 
less with stations at long distances. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IX.— EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 



The Greek War for Independence (1829-'30) 

The Greeks under Turkish rule for centuries. 

Revolt at Jassy in 18:21. 

Historic massacre at Chios. 

Lord Byron's part in the Greek war. 

Urahim Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, and his ef- 
fort to crush the Greek revolt. 

A protocol drawn by three great European 
Powers, demanding an armistice. 

Turkish and Egyptian forces routed at the 
battle of Navarino. 

Proclamation of Greece as an independent 
kingdom. 

The Kevolution of July (1830) 
Charles X on the throne of France. 
Polignac, the arbitrary head of the ministry: 

his craft and deception. 
Suppression of Algerian pirates. 
Offenses against the rights and liberties of 

the people. 
Revolt breaks out, and Charles X is driven 

out of France. 
Crowning of Louis Philippe. 

Revolutionary Movements of 1848 
Social conditions in Europe in the first half 

of the 19th century. 
Metternich, his autocratic rule, his fall and 

flight. 
Spirit of the French Revolution stirring in 

the people. 
Kossuth, Hecker, Garibaldi, collaborators 

for freedom. 
Beginnings of the new revolt in Paris. 
The March Laws. 
Independence of Hungary, 
Revolt in Milan; strife against Radetzky, 

Austria's general in charge. 
The battle of Prague. 
The fall of Kossuth. 
Resignation of Victor Emmanuel I. 

The Chrimean War (1854-'55) 
The desire of Russia to gain access to the 

sea. 
Russia's invasion of Turkey. 
Declaration of war on Russia by the allied 

Powers. 



Balaclava — Inkerman — the English Royal 

Guards. 
The siege of Sebastopol — Its fall. 
Treaty of Paris. 
Turkey admitted as a European Power. 

The Franco-Austrian War (1859) 

Ascendancy of Austria in Italy. 

Woeful condition of the people. 

Declaration of war against Austria by Na- 
poleon III. 

Battle of Magenta: Marshal MacMahon: 
battle of Solferino. 

The Peace of Villafranca. 

The Liberation and Unification of Italy 

(1859-'70) 
Long subservience of Italy to foreign rulers. 
Result of conquests of Napoleon I on Italian 

division of territory. 
Suppression of liberal thought in Italy. 
The Carbonari ("charcoal-burners"). 
Mutiny of the royal troops of Naples. 
The three great liberators: Mazzini, Garibaldi, 

Cavour. 
Insurrection in the two Sicilies. 
The Italian victory at Gaeta. 
Withdrawal of Napoleon Ill's troops from 

Italy. 
End of the temporal power of the papacy. 
"Italy free!" 

The Schleswig-Holstein War (1864) 

The Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. 

Origin of Schleswig dates from time of King 
Cnut (Canute). 

Origin of the Duchy of Holstein under Dan- 
ish rule. 

Union of the two duchies under Danish 
rule. 

The Danish King declared a member of the 
Germanic body. 

Prussian troops invade the united duchies. 

Courage of the Danes. 

Schleswig-Holstein annexed to Prussia. 

The Prusso-Austrian War (1866) 
Determination of Bismarck to consolidate 
the German States. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



Equally strong desire of Prussia and Aus- 
tria to become the dominant power in 
the German States. 

The clash called the Seven-Weeks' War. 

The battle of Sadowa. 

Austria's defeat. 

King of Prussia becomes also the German 
Emperor. 

The Franco-Prussian War (1870) 

The revolution in Spain of 1868. 

Deposition of Queen Isabella. 

An eligible candidate for the Spanish crown 
chosen in a German prince, Leopold of 
HohenzoUern. 

France, through Napoleon III, objects to 
possible increase of German power. 

The French Ambassador to Germany re- 
quests the German Emperor to forbid the 
prince to accept the crown. 

Germany takes offense. 

Mobilization of German army ordered, July 
15, 1870. 

France makes ready for war. 

A Berlin! 

Inadequate preparation of French army. 

German army in perfect condition for war- 
fare. 

The battle of Worth. 

The siege of Metz. 

Marshal MacMahon and Bazaine. 

The battle of Sedan. 

Napoleon III hands his sword to Emperor 
William I. 

The siege of Paris. 

Bismarck's triumph. 

The Russo-Turkish War (1877) 
Turkish misrule during four centuries. 
Rise of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1876. 
Massacre of Christians. 
Barbarous Bashi-Bazouks. 
Europe protests: Gladstone, Disraeli, the 
Russian Emperor, Alexander II. 



The siege of Plevna. 

The Russian army enters Adrianople* 

The Treaty of San Stefano. 

Independence of Servia, Montenegro, and 
Rumania. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina protected by Aus- 
tria. 

The Greco-Turkish War (1897) 

The Greek Government since 1863. 

King George I. 

Years of wrangling between Greece and Tur- 
key over boundary lines culminates in hos- 
tilities on the Island of Crete. 

Turkey overcomes Greece by better pre- 
paredness for war. 

Turkish atrocities horrify the world. 

Armistice demanded by Russia. 

Peace treaty at Constantinople. 

Settlement of the boundary line and ques- 
tion of territory. 

War in the Balkan Stiates (1912-'13) 

Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by 
Austria. 

Bulgarians in 1885 object to Russian 
domination and join the people of East- 
ern Rumelia against the Czar's min- 
isters. 

They repress the Servians, who protest 
against the expansion of Bulgaria. 

The prince of Bulgaria becomes king (1908) 
and throws off Turkish allegiance. 

The momentous year when the "Young 
Turks" wrested a constitution from the 
Sultan. 

Banishment of Abdul Hamid. 

Macedonia the seat of the trouble that fol- 
lowed. 

Uprisings in Albania. 

Greece joins in the general fray. 

Fall of Adrianople. 

Treaty of peace signed in London. 



CHAPTER X.— COUNTRIES AT WAR AND INVOLVED 



Austria-Hungary. Area and population 

of the dual monarchy. 
Boundaries, mountains, and rivers. 
Early history of Austria. 



Mode of government. 
Military service. 
Education. 
Religion. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



Variety of languages spoken in the two 
countries. 

Napoleon's career in Austria. 

Congress of Vienna, which decided Napo- 
leon's fate. 

Attractions of Vienna, the capital of Aus- 
tria. 

Early history of Hungary. 

Picturesqueness of Buda-Pest, its capital. 

Austrian declaration of war on Russia (Aug. 
6, 1914). 

Belgium. Area and population. 
Its provinces and peoples: 

The Flemings; the Walloons. 

The languages. 
Early history. 
Mode of government. 
Education. 
Religion. 

Agriculture and commerce. 
Rivers and canals. 
Military service. 
Various industries. 
Wealth per capita. 

Belgium the battle-ground of Europe. 
Attractions of celebrated cities and towns: 

Antwerp. 

Bruges. 

Brussels. 

Ghent. 

Ostend. 
The battlefield of Waterloo. 
The Belgian Congo. 

The British Empire. Area of the United 

Kingdom. 
Mountains and rivers. 

Climate; fertility of soil; picturesque scenery. 
Coal mines and manufacturing centers. 
London, the largest tity in the world. 
Oxford and Cambridge universities. 
Famous cathedrals. 
Early history. 
The American Revolution. 
Struggles with Napoleon. 
The Duke of Wellington. 
The Victorian reign. 
England's colonial possessions. 
Mode of government. 
Religion. 
Military and naval defenses. 



France. Area, boundaries, rivers, and 

mountains. 
Great variety and beauty of scenery 

throughout France. 
Historic castles and cathedrals. 
Medieval fortifications the most perfectly 

preserved in the world. 
The castles of Francis I. 
Early history. 
Sources of wealth: minerals, vineyards, 

manufactures. 
Mode of government. 
Population. 

Military and naval service. 
Colonial possessions. 

The German Empire. Boundaries, rivers, 
area and population. 

Beginning of the German Empire in its pres- 
ent form. 

History of Germany from the eighteenth 
century. 

Table of States composing the empire. 

Colonial acquisitions. 

Mode of government. 

Successful dealing with the problem of pau- 
perism. 

Religion. 

Education. 

Military and naval service and defenses. 

Military dirigibles and aeroplanes. 

Industries, manufactures, mining, fisheries. 

Railways and waterwaj's : 
The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal; 
its locks larger than those of the Panama 
Canal. 

Foreign possessions. 

Demand of the German Emperor that the 
mobilization of Russian troops be discon- 
tinued (July 31, 1914). His declaration 
of war on Russia. 

Russia. Area, boundaries, and climate. 

Population. 

Agriculture, mining, fisheries, and cattle. 

Mode of government. 

Religion. 

Education. 

Early history. 

Ivan the Terrible; the Cossack; the first of 

the Romanoffs, the founder of the present 

royal line. 



8 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



Peter the Great; Catherine II. 

Conquest of Poland. 

Napoleon I in Russia. 

Emancipation of the serfs. 

Stifling of free thought and speech Russia's 

policy from earliest times. 
Expansion of the empire. 
Troubles of the Jews. 
"Red Sunday" (Jan. 23, 1905). 
The first "Duma." 
Russian mobilization of troops to aid Servia 

against Austria. 

Servia: boundaries, area, and population. 

Mountains and rivers. 

Mining and other industries. 

Education. 

Absence of paupers. 

Military service. 

Early history. 

Independence of Turkey achieved in 1878. 

King Milan: his abdication. 

King Alexander: his assassination in 1903. 

Montenegro. Area, population, boundaries. 

Education. 

Religion. 

Change from a principality to a kingdom. 

Joins Servia and the Allies. 



Albania. The chief use of this State. 
Boundaries, rivers, and principal towns. 
Early history. 
A coimtry infested with bandits and warring 

tribes. 
A puppet in the hands of the European 

Powers. 

Italy. Boundaries, moimtains, and rivers. 

Population. 

Form of government. 

Education. 

Religion. 

Military and naval service. 

Equivocal position of Italy at opening of 

war. 
Proclamation of neutrality. 
Strong reasons inclining Italy to join the 

AUies. 

Japan. Boundaries, area, and population. 

Present government. 

Religion. 

Education. 

Military and naval service. 

Joins England against Germany. 

Ultimatum demanding evacuation of Kiau- 

Chou. 
Ill-feeling against Germany of long standing. 



CHAPTER XI.— THE HAGUE CONFERENCE 



"The capital of the world." 

The Peace Palace. 

The progress of a century in international 

morality. 
The first peace conference (1899). 
Chief accomplishment of the conference. 
The second peace conference (1907). 
.The first case tried before the tribunal. 



Other important cases. 

The international prize court. 

Provisions of the tribunal of The Hague. 

Ignoring of these provisions by some of the 
Powers. 

The "Drago Doctrine." 

The Hague Peace Palace a gift from An- 
drew Carnegie. 



CHAPTER XII.— THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON THE WESTERN WORLD 



How the disaster and desolation of war 
produce the paradox of prosperity. 

The money markets of the world just before 
"the clash of nations." 

Heavy shipments of gold from the United 
States to Europe. 



Unshakable stability of American finances. 

Temporary paralysis of business in the 
United States. 

The inevitable revival. 

Great opportunities for many lines of Amer- 
ican industry. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



9 



What the drawbacks to the prosperity of 
the United States are likely to be. 

FoodstuflFs. 

The fate of the American apple crop of 
1914. 

A hard blow at cotton manufacture. 

The metal trades strong. 

A new factor to help in bringing prosperity. 

Magnificent opportunity to reestablish the 
American merchant marine. 



A weak link in the chain of American citi- 
zenship. 

Great opportunity for United States trade in 
South America and Central America. 

Rare chance for enterprising men to act as 
"business scouts" in South America. 

Effect of months of stoppage of immigra- 
tion to our shores. 

America the land of worthy work, demo- 
cratic equality, and noble peace. 



CHAPTER XIII.— STATE PAPERS AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE 



Ultimatum sent by Austria-Hungary to 
Servia, July 23, 1914. 

Circular note to the powers issued by the 
Austro-Hungarian Foreign OflBice, July 24, 
1914. 

Reply of Servia to the Austro-Hungarian 
ultimatum, July 25, 1914. 

Circular note issued by Austria-Hungary de- 
nouncing Servia's reply, July 26, 1914. 

Austria-Hungary's Declaration of War 
against Servia, July 28, 1914. 

Note of the Russian Foreign Office, July 
28, 1914. 

Czar's personal note to the Kaiser, July 31, 
1914. 

Kaiser's reply to Czar's note, July 31, 1914. 

King George's personal appeal to the Czar, 
August 1, 1914. 

The Czar's reply to King George's appeal, 
August 1, 1914. 

Proclamation of President Poincare follow- 
ing the decree of French mobilization, 
August 1, 1914. 

Manifesto of the Czar to the Russian People 
upon Germany's declaration of war, Au- 
gust 3, 1914. 



Personal Message from King Albert of Bel- 
gium to King George, August 2, 1914. 

Telegram from Sir Edward Grey to British 
Ambassador instructing him to deliver ul- 
timatum to Germany, August 4, 1914. 

Statement of the British Foreign Office after 
the proclamation of war on Germany, 
August 4, 1914. 

President Wilson's tender of good offices 
made to each of the rulers of the states 
at war, August 5, 1914. 

Statement of the British Foreign Office fol- 
lowing the declaration of war on Austria- 
Hungary, August 13, 1914. 

Russia's Appeal to the Poles, August 14, 
1914. 

Japan's Ultimatum to Germany, August 16, 
1914. 

Japan's Declaration of War against Ger- 
many, August 24, 1914. 

Message from the Kaiser to President Wil- 
son charging the use of dum-dum bullets 
by the Allies and explaining the reasons 
for the destruction of Louvain. 

Reply of President Wilson to the Kaiser's 
Message, September 17, 1914. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EVENTS 




O 3! 

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< (8 



10 



THE CLASH OF NATIONS 

CHAPTER I 

THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 

On June 27, 1914, Francis Ferdinand, nephew of the emperor 
and heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, drove, with his wife, 
through Sarajevo, capital of the Province of Bosnia, which had been 
wrested from Servia by Austria. Suddenly a half-crazed Servian 
student forced his way through the protecting line of soldiers and 
fired a pistol with deadly aim at the royal carriage. The shots not 
only slew Francis Ferdinand and his consort, but gave the immediate 
provocation — or, at least, the pretext — for a still more hideous slaugh- 
ter; it set in motion a war that has wrecked the peace of Europe and 
embroiled the Powers in the most appalling conflict the modern world 
has known. 

This murder was not in itself sufficient to cause a world-catas- 
trophe. No one at the time could imagine its all-embracing conse- 
quences. Yet succeeding events have cast an illuminating light on 
the dark places of political affairs, and revealed to us a Europe 
mined with the animosities of contending races, and primed for the 
chance spark that should cause an explosion. 

Dispassionate students of world-politics, though cautious in fram- 
ing an indictment against the Powers that precipitated the conflict, 
seem agreed that its causes are rooted in Austria's resolve to weld the 
difl'erent factions of her empire at whatever result to the Slav, 
though she was well aware that in so doing she braved the inevitable 
opposition of Russia and all the martial hordes of the Balkan States. 
Austria's critics call her the oppressor and bully of Servia. They point 
to the many things she has done to impair the national integrity of 
the little kingdom — to make it, in fact, her vassal, in order that the 

11 




-I X 



12 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 13 

door may be open to her own expansion. In this never-wavering 
purpose of Austria to extend her domain along the Adriatic, in 1908 
she tore up the Treaty of Berhn (made in 1878), seized the Servian 
provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, sought Russia's sanction for 
the occupation of Salonica, and, f aiHng in this, would now take from 
Servia the sanjak of Novi Bazar, and so set at naught the alliance of 
Servia with Montenegro. 

But that is not all. Having, through her seizure of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, so bottled up Servia that the Serbs must seek a market 
for their products in Hungary, Austria, from time to time, has en- 
forced quarantine regulations that make it impossible for the Ser- 
vian farmer to live. This alone has driven the peasant to despera- 
tion. Inhabiting a rugged country, only one fourth of which can 
be cultivated, he is forced to raise pork that his Jewish and Moham- 
medan neighbors to the south cannot eat, and that he cannot send 
across the Danube at a profit. His very existence depends upon 
getting an outlet to the sea. For such an outlet he freely shed his 
blood in the two recent wars with the Turk, only to find that Austria 
had once more blocked his way by setting up the spurious principal- 
ity of Albania. 

So say the critics of Austrian ambitions and Austrian politics as 
played by the Hapsburgs. This arraignment (just recited above) of 
Austria-Hungary is founded partly on an assumption of sinister 
motives, partly on the facts of recorded history, and partly on a hos- 
tile interpretation of recent events. The more recent happenings 
are concerned with charges of political conspiracy to which Austria 
ascribes not only the actual murder of her heir apparent, but other 
crimes as well. The Servians, so Austro-Hungarians would ask the 
world to believe, are the scum of the earth — mentally and morally 
degraded. It is only under Austrian rule that they take on the 
ways of civilization — improving their farms, building up industries, 
and emerging from a shamefully illiterate condition. Lacking this 
benevolent supervision, they easily degenerate into assassins and 
poisoners. The very Government, we are told, has been in league 
with its citizens to plot against the peace of the troubled Austrian 
Empire, and to sow sedition among its vast population of Ser- 
vians. These charges are hotly resented by the Serbs. 




14 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 16 

Whatever facts concerning the murder of the heir apparent may 
ultimately be disclosed, Austria-Hungary's efforts to fasten the crime 
upon Servia had met with no success when, late in July, the Emperor 
Francis Joseph was persuaded to enforce the policy of coercion that 
was implied in his country's sweeping demands. Servia was dis- 
posed to comply with these demands, excepting that which provided 
for an inquiry by Austrian officials in Servia itself. To abase her- 
self in that particular involved the virtual abdication of her sov- 
ereignty. Servia asked that the matter be referred to The Hague, as 
fully provided for in the treaty signed by Austria-Hungary in com- 
mon with the other great European Powers in 1899. 

"The contracting powers," says this treaty, to which the peace 
advocates of the world had pinned their faith, "agree to use their 
best efforts to insure the pacific settlement of international differ- 
ences. In case of serious disagreement or conflict, before an ap- 
peal to arms, the contracting powers agree to have recourse, so far 
as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or 
more friendly powers." 

But Austria-Hungary, it appears, was in no temper for media- 
tion. It is generally believed, moreover, that she counted upon Ser- 
via's refusal, and was prepared to make good her own ultimatum. It 
is also assumed that in this she counted upon the cooperation of Ger- 
many, her chief partner in the Triple Alliance. Be this as it may, the 
German Emperor did not hold back. In vain did Great Britain ap- 
peal to him with offers of conciliation. The shadow of the Russian 
Bear obscured the sun; the fighting millions of the czar were in 
process of mobilization. Austria-Hungary declared war on Servia, 
and a horrified and bewildered western world saw chaos come again. 

The immediate causes contributing to the war are so overlapped 
with causes more remote that it is difficult to separate and distinguish 
them. The political tension of Europe within the past few j^ears is in 
most respects a sequence of conditions that have long obtained — 
some of them for many hundreds of years. What has happened in 
the Balkans is the climax of an old story. German aggression is the 
legitimate, though to some persons the unexpected, expression of a 
State that for many years has resembled an armed camp. The imme- 
diate relation of Austria-Hungary to the present crisis merges in the 




16 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 171 

period that began with 1878. Russia's designs are all but as old as 
the sea that she seeks, and the Slavs by any other name than Servia 
would as readily enlist her aid. France has been forced to fight, and 
so has Great Britain. 

What has really happened is a new alignment of the nations. 
For the first time in history, the Latins are a secondary consideration. 
Uppermost in this stupendous conflict loom two great antagonists — 
the Teuton and the Slav. The Germans of Austria-Hungary, with 
those of the German Empire, have pitted their strength against Rus- 
sia and the millions that are allied to her by race. Great Britain and 
France back the Slav, and the western world looks on. 

The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. — In political terms, 
Triple Alliance is arrayed against Triple Entente. International 
Alliances, or agreements between nations of independent rank, for 
the purpose of offense or defense, have been formed in Europe, 
from time to time, in order to maintain what is called "the balance of 
power." France, for example, without the political partnership of 
Russia, or her understanding with Great Britain, would be soon re- 
duced to subjection by Germany, and Germany, in turn, needs 
Austria-Hungary's support. In Europe the political scene is con- 
stantly shifting with the development of the various nations, and the 
national friend of to-day may be the national enemy of to-morrow. 
In the Triple Alliance of 1688, Britain, Sweden, and the Netherlands 
were arrayed against France, while in 1717 France found herself 
allied with England and Holland against Spain, and afterward Aus- 
tria united with them, making a quadruple alliance. In 1788 Eng- 
land, Prussia, and Holland formed an alliance, which was in effect 
four years. As late as 1854, England and France — to-day the allies 
of Russia — combined with Turkey and Sardinia against the czar. In 
1872 Russia, Austria, and Germany formed an alliance that was pop- 
ularly known as "the league of the three emperors." In 1879 Ger- 
many and Austria were allied, and Italy joined them in 1882. This 
was called the Dreibund (German for Triple Alliance). In 1902 
England began forming similar connections (called ententes, signi- 
fying "understanding"), first with France, then with Russia — now 
constituting the Triple Entente; and in 1901 England formed an alli- 
ance with Japan, which was renewed in 1911. Some of these alliances 




18 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 19 

are defensive only. Thus, in the present war, Italy, a member of the 
Triple Alliance, declines to join with Germany and Austria, on the 
ground that they are the aggressors, whereas she allied herself with 
them for defense only. At this moment we see Japan, Russia's recent 
conqueror, ready to aid King George, and incidentally the czar, in 
keeping Asia's coast in order by joining hands against the Germans. 
This alliance between Japan and Great Britain was formed in 1902, 
in the face of adverse criticism by many Americans, and still closer 
relations were established in 1905 ; but it is Germany, and not our own 
nation, that will suffer through the compact. 

It will be observed that Bismarck — Germany's chancellor of 
"blood and iron" — has had no successor. When the German ship of 
state dropped its pilot — as the London "Punch" once phrased it in 
the legend under a famous cartoon — the Kaiser took the helm. There 
are those who hold that, were Bismarck alive and in power to-day, 
German diplomacy, if it did not avert the war, would at least not have 
blundered in alienating Italy as a party to the Triple Alliance and 
inviting the vengeance of Great Britain by invading Belgium in 
defiance of The Hague Conference rules. 

It is interesting to recall that Bismarck, up to the time of his abdi- 
cation, did not relinquish the idea of renewing friendship with Russia. 
For Russia was bound with Austria-Hungary and Germany in the 
informal pact of 1872 known as the Dreibund, and if Russia even- 
tually withdrew from it, it was because her war against Turkey, five 
years later, did not accord with Austrian aims. With Russia an un- 
certain factor, Austria and Germany formed a defensive alliance in 
1879, though it was not made pubhc till 1887, and in 1882 Italy for- 
swore the friendship of France, owing to the French occupation of 
Tunis, and became the third member of what is now known as the 
Triple Alliance. 

Italy's participation seems to be that of a silent partner, and a 
displeased one at that. Since 1898 she has renewed her lost friendship 
for France, and she took occasion to show it when Germany threat- 
ened trouble in Morocco. In view of Austria's cruel oppression of 
Italy, ere the yoke was cast off by Cavour, Italy's alliance with the 
despotic Hapsburgs seems inexplicable. The news from Italy at the 
outbreak of the war showed that, whatever might be the views of the 



I 




(Q a> 



O 4) 



go 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 21 

Government, the Italian people were strongly opposed, not only to 
joining in a war against France, but to the strengthening of Austria's 
grip on the Balkans and the furtherance of her designs on the Adri- 
atic coast. 

Meanwhile, Italy has been on excellent terms with Great Britain 
ever since the alliance between Russia and France was effected in the 
period of 1887-'95. Strangely enough, this was brought about be- 
cause France and Russia took alarm at overtures made to Great Brit- 
ain by central Europe. The French fleet paid a visit to Cronstadt, 
the Russian fleet saluted the Republic at Toulon. The old cry of 
"perfidious Albion" was raised, and Russian loans were subscribed in 
Paris. Yet Russia and France, by formal compact, and Great Brit- 
ain, with acknowledgments less binding, form the Triple Entente 
that is now in a death-grip with the two Germanic Powers of the 
Triple Alliance. 

Two Expert Pleas — A brilliant representative of the Serbs is their 
honorary consul-general. Professor Michael I. Pupin, of Columbia 
University. Professor Pupin, who is a Serb of Austrian birth, 
holds that Austria's ultimatum to Servia is the most arrogant docu- 
ment ever flung in the face of a weaker nation by a powerful one. 
"It is true," he declared in a recent interview, "that there is a Pan- 
Serb propaganda in Austria; but this propaganda is among the 
Serbs and Croats in Austria, and not among the Serbs in Servia or 
Montenegro. These Austrian Serbs — and I am one of them — need 
no encouragement from Servia to carry on their national movement. 
Austrian violation of every principle of justice and fairness, Aus- 
trian tyranny, which cannot find its parallel in the darkest period 
of the Middle Ages, is responsible for this Pan- Serb movement 
in Austria. 

"In 1690 thirty-five thousand picked Serb families left Old Ser- 
via at the express invitation of Emperor Leopold I of Austria and 
settled along the southern Austrian frontier, which was then being 
devastated by the Turks. And now a refusal of the Austrian Empire 
to deal fairly with her Serb subjects is particularly hard in face of the 
fact that for two centuries they were the bravest and most loyal de- 
fenders of the empire. 

"In return for their splendid services to the empire, the Serbs 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 23 

of Austria became victims of the modern Austrian policy of ex- 
pansion toward the ^Egean Sea. The Serb is imaginative, fond 
of his national music and poetry and of his national costumes, and 
nothing in the world can prevent him from indulging in the sweet 
dreams of the Serb minstrel who sang of the return of the Serb 
glories of the fourteenth century. This is the only offense of which 
the Austrian Serb is guilty, and this offense constitutes high treason 
in the Austrian Empire. 

"The annexation by Austria of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the 
home of the flower of the Serb race, in 1908, drove the people to des- 
peration and resulted in the Sarajevo tragedy, for which Austria 
blames the Kingdom of Servia. The Servian youth who fired the 
shot is a member of the Pan- Serb propaganda in Austria, but every 
Serb in Austria is a member of this propaganda. I am a member of 
it, although I have lived in this country since my boyhood." 

To the testimony of Professor Pupin (quoted above) we add 
the illuminating comments of Professor Alfred L. Kroeber, the emi- 
nent anthropologist of the University of California : 

"The present European situation reveals several outstanding fea- 
tures which may seem paradoxically improbable, but which would 
yet be indorsed as facts by students of ethnology. Contrary to all 
appearances, the responsibility for the war is not to be laid to the Ger- 
man Emperor or any individual. In the present state of civilization 
no more blame attaches to one nation than to any other. Race dif- 
ferences and race conflicts are emphatically not at the bottom of the 
eruption; and certain far-reaching results can even now be set down 
as inevitable. 

"The characteristic rapid-fire and decisive ultimatums of the Kaiser 
have spread the impression throughout the impartial portion of the 
civilized world that it is his personality that has precipitated an 
otherwise preventable crisis. Americans in particular, to whom con- 
stitutional imperialism is almost unthinkable, and therefore greatly 
exaggerated, appear to feel keen sympathy for the unfortunate pre- 
dicament of so sterling a people as the Germans, and corresponding 
resentment toward their war lord. 

"Whatever blame there is attaches to the German nation, and 
not to the Kaiser. For nearly fifty years Germans as a mass have 




c o 



»4t 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 26 

made their own the blood-and-iron doctrine of Bismarck. In spite of 
organized socialist propaganda and much liberal theoretical opposi- 
tion, the German people have believed that their only hope as a 
nation lay in reliance on their sharp sword and strong arm. They 
have grumbled, but they have willingly supported armaments, con- 
scription, and an aggressive foreign policy. 

"To charge the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to the short-sighted 
ambition of Napoleon III or to give credit for it to the genius of Bis- 
marck is a favorite device of apologists for France and admirers 
of the great statesman, but it is far from profound. At the bottom 
of that brief but decisive conflict lay the rehabilitation of France 
from the Napoleonic catastrophe of 1815, the growth of Prussian 
efficiency, the slow solidification of the German national sense. Bis- 
marck only seized, as Napoleon bungled, an opportunity presented 
in the development of ethnic relations. Like poor Louis Napoleon, 
William I bids fair to be the world's scapegoat for a sweep of events 
utterly beyond his control. 

"Let Americans not imagine that public sentiment is less powerful 
and the popular will less fundamentally dominant, even though less 
directly expressed, in Germany than in the United States. It is Ger- 
many, and not the Kaiser, that for fifty years — in a sense for a hun- 
dred and fifty years — ^has by the mere fact of her growth and 
strengthening been bringing on the struggle of to-day; and it is 
Germany, the German people and nation, that for better or for worse 
will have to bear the responsibility. 

"On one side Germany is currently represented as fired by lust 
of conquest and a boundless ambition utterly disregardf ul of obliga- 
tions or the rights of others ; and the sentiment of most of the civilized 
world seems to sustain the verdict. On the other hand, Germans 
exalt the conduct of their country as influenced only by motives of 
self-preservation against the Russian desire for brutal world-do- 
minion, British cold-blooded calculation of profit, and the long-nur- 
tured, revengeful hatred of France. 

"Neither side is at fault. Germany has for years been hated by 
Russia, feared by France, hated and feared by England, as a men- 
ace is always hated and feared. No one, individual or nation, can love 
a winning or even a gaining rival. Germany has been well aware 




26 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR ^7 

of these national sentiments, and, conscious of her own strength, has 
not sought the vain task of dissipating them, but has fortified her- 
self against them. In their own power, the German people have 
believed, lay their salvation, and not in false friendships with dis- 
tanced competitors. Assured in their minds of the unavoidable ill 
will of their neighbors, they have come to disregard totally the opinion 
of these neighbors. Self-satisfaction to the point of arrogance and 
self-confidence amounting almost to insult have been the natural 
result. 

"When Athens was at the very summit of her unparalleled civiliza- 
tion, when she was producing Sophocles and Phidias and Socrates, the 
attitude of the Greek world toward her was absolutely like that of 
Europe toward Germany to-day. She was arrogant, she was over- 
weening, she was an intolerable menace to the peace and to the 
existence of every other Greek state. The Peloponnesian war was 
brought on by a direct and carefully considered act of interference by 
Athens in a quarrel between two cities with which she had no con- 
cern. Corcyra and Corinth parallel Austria and Servia exactly. 
When Sparta called the council of the allies there was no dissentient 
voice to the cry for the need of once-and-for-all curbing the over- 
bearing progress of the Athenians. Athens' own allies were re- 
luctant and forced, or actuated only by calculated self-interest. Be- 
fore the war was done they had either rebelled against her or left 
her coldly in the lurch. 

"The war of to-day is continental and million-wide; the Greek 
wars were between cities of thousands in one small peninsula. The 
scale has changed, but the actuating principles are identical. The 
cause of the war, then, lies in the unavoidable clash between nation 
and nation. 

"Human race means two things. In the strict sense of the phrase, 
it means only the inherited bodily type and mental predisposition com- 
mon to a group of people. A looser, popular extension makes race 
signify the vaguer traits shared by masses of men, that are larger 
than political boundaries. It is with this looser meaning that we 
speak of an Anglo-Saxon and a Slavic race. In the first or strict 
anthropological sense, there are only three races in Europe : the North- 
ern, the Alpine, and the Mediterranean. What do we find about the 



TWO POSSIBLE MAPS OF THE FUTURE 



THE FUTURE POLAND 

Suggtttid Boundarj of Poland 
•M<««^re«</7( InUmaliooal Bo(j)>d()rita 
SoUofM.lu 




Bj^tritfww. Edi*^ 



The Hope of a Restored Autonomous Poland May Become an Important Factor in the War. 

The Boundaries Indicated in the Map Represent the Probable New Poland, at Present 

Divided Between Russia, Austria, and Germany 




From Nelson's "War Atlas." 



Servia, Even with Its Recently Enlarged Boundaries, Represents Only a Part of the Kingdom 

Which Fell Before the Turl<ish Power in 1389. The Map Shows a Possible 

Readjustment of the Austro-Servlan Frontier 



ftS 



THE IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF THE WAR 29 

relation of these races to the political alignments ? Strange as it may- 
seem, they have nothing to do with each other. Every one of the 
nations involved includes millions of representatives of at least two 
of the racial types. And members of the same race are enthusias- 
tically fighting one another under different national flags. 

"Even in the looser interpretation of race, as due to a common 
language, religion, and trend of institutions, it is impossible to make 
the national grouping agree with the race divisions. Catholic Austria 
and Protestant Germany are leagued against Catholic France, 
Protestant England, and Greek Orthodox Russia." 



Tne German Zeppelin "Viktoria Luise" 




30 



CHAPTER II 

THE ORIGINAL CAUSES BOUNDARIES AND RACES 

If we would study intelligently the original, and perhaps inevi- 
table, causes of the great conflict that is devastating Europe, we 
must do it with a map of that continent before us. 

As civilization advances and population increases, the geographi- 
cal rule of nationality becomes more apparent and more insistent. 
That rule, briefly stated, is, that the tendency of mankind is to work 
toward union and centralization wherever these are indicated by natu- 
ral boundaries. Where once were the seven little kingdoms, known 
as the Heptarchy, is now England; and the Scotland that held aloof 
for seven centuries after the union of those petty kingdoms is now an 
inseparable member of the United Kingdom. On the other hand, a 
wide sea gives Ireland the natural boundaries that promise the inde- 
pendence she has always wished for, and she has been held to the 
United Kingdom only by military power. She herself is a combi- 
nation of four principalities. France also is the result of a union of 
several small kingdoms, and so is Spain. In each case the gravita- 
tion toward union was from the same cause, lack of any sufficient 
natural separation. But France and Spain never have come to- 
gether, and probably never will, because of the high boundary-wall 
of the Pyrenees. Much later occurred the uniflcation of Italy, and 
later still the consolidation of the German States. If we extend our 
inquiry into ancient times, we see — instead of the Kingdom of 
Greece — Attica, Sparta, Boeotia, Argolis, and Thessaly. If we turn 
to the map of our own continent, in modern times, we see a chain of 
great lakes and a wide river that form an emphatic natural boundary ; 
and familiar history narrates that the colonies south of this boundary 
separated from the mother country across the sea and bound them- 
selves together in a perpetual union, while the colonies on the north 
did not join in the Revolution, held aloof from the Union (though 

31 



ss 



ORIGINAL CAUSES 




The Franco-German Frontier 



invited to enter it), and ultimately federated themselves in a strong 
Dominion — and all this though the same language is spoken on both 
sides of the boundary, the same race prevails, and many interests are 
identical. The failure of the determined attempt to divide the 
American Union by the war of 1861-'65 was largely due to the fact 
that it was a struggle against the natural law of geographical neces- 
sity. The artificial cause of the war — slavery — being abolished, 
there is no further desire for disunion. 

Turning once more to Europe — the Kingdom of Poland went out 
of existence, the territory being divided among its powerful neigh- 



BOUNDARIES AND RACES 



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• Frontier Between Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary 

bors, because it had no natural boundaries ; but the smaller country of 
Switzerland maintains itself to this day, because it is buttressed about 
by great mountains. 

An interesting instance of the occasional imperfect application 
of the law is afforded by the Scandinavian peninsula. Sweden and 
Norway are separated by a range of mountains so moderate as to 
form a somewhat unsatisfactory boundary; and in consequence 
they are sometimes united and sometimes independent of each other, 
as natural advantages or political incompatibility may for the time 
dictate. 



34 



ORIGINAL CAUSES 



RlOA 
I.I8A.U 

MtMBW Ht \J g ^ I. A J^ 




^^l^^^*^^"^^"^^ 



Boundaries of Central Europe in 1816 

Two other elements make for union or separation, sometimes in 
harmony with the geographic law, and sometimes in conflict with it. 
These are race and religion. The assumption that a difference of 
race or tribe necessitates antagonism originated in primitive barbar- 
ism and has been only slowly outgrown in the progress of civilization. 
It was doubtless owing to this that when the Continent of North 
America was discovered the Indians that roamed over it were esti- 
mated at not more than three hundred thousand, as the tribes had 
been continuously at war with one another. A Casar or a Na- 
poleon may go out with great armies and conquer extensive terri- 
tories ; but if in doing so they overleap natural boundaries and ignore 



BOUNDARIES AND RACES 




Boundaries of Central Europe in 1866 



racial traits and traditions, all their conquests lapse back in a few 
years. William of Normandy crossed the Channel and conquered 
England; but his successors could not keep both England and 
Normandy; and the conquered Saxons and the conquering Normans 
soon merged into a new English nation. 

Desire for alienation, or a clannish spirit, because of difference 
or identity of religious belief, no longer plays the part that it once 
played in the comity of nations. Yet many peoples are still slow 
to learn the obvious truth that religion is purely an affair between 
each individual soul and its Creator, and State-prescribed religion 



se 



ORIGINAL CAUSES 




^^M TEUTONIC 
^m^ ANGLO-SAXON 



UTIN 
1 GREEK 



I SLAV 
RUMANIAN 



THE RACIAL MAP OF EUROPE 

Of the Areas Showing White, Switzerland Is a Mixture of French, Germans and Italians; Part 

cf Hungary Is Magyar, a Race Allied to the Finns; Turkey Is Inhabited by a Race 

of Asiatic Origin, and the Albanians Are a Mixture of the Descendants 

of the Ancient lllyrians with Greeks and Slavs 

is not really religion at all — is merely ecclesiasticism. Hence the 
blending of religious lines with political lines. 

Looking now at a map of Europe that is at once geographical and 
ethnological, we see how few are the natural boundaries, and how 
many the ethnical separations — the separations inciting to contest, 
and the lack of natural boundaries at once increasing this incitement 
and diminishing the means of self-defense. This smallest of the 
continents,- situated in the North Temperate Zone (most favorable 
for trade), and having an extensive sea-front (most favorable to 
soil and climate) possesses every condition for steady increase of 
population; and as this approaches congestion there is temptation 



BOUNDARIES AND RACES 



37 




^^^1 German 
I \ iMagyar 



Rumanian 



Bohemian 


L_J 


RUTflENIAN 


Croato-Serbian 




Italian 


Slovenian 


iii 


Polish 



The Racial Patchwork of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 



to seize upon pretexts for encroaching upon neighboring territory. 
This condition of things is intensified by the forms of government 
and structure of society that maintain class distinctions and tend to 
suppress individual ambition. The steady stream of emigration 
that has been in fullest flow for several years hardly relieves the 
pressure; because wherever living is made easier, increase of popula- 
tion is accelerated. Where civilization, as we know it, is not far ad- 
vanced, a mingling of races appears only to weaken the country that 
embraces them, because each race clings to its traditions and preju- 
dices. 

This is especially the case in southeastern Europe. Austria- 
Hungary includes in her population Bohemians, Moravians, Poles, 
Ruthenians, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Morlaks, Bulgarians, Italians, 
Armenians, Magyars, Germans, Rumanians, Jews, and Gipsies, and 
of all the great Powers Austria is notably the weakest, forever 
in danger of disruption. An American naturally contrasts this with 
our own country, where we have many races, but great strength — 



ORIGINAL CAUSES 




The German Possessions in the Pacific 



because we send their children, without distinction, to the same pub- 
lic schools, have the same opportunities open to every race and creed, 
and the same liberty and protection for all. The surprise of Ameri- 
cans when the Balkan States failed to confederate after they had 
virtually driven the Turk out of Europe — such a confederation seem- 
ing to us inevitable — would have been less if we had considered 
how those little States cling to their nice race distinctions and cher- 
ished traditions. And any criticism of their imwisdom must be tem- 
pered by remembrance of the difficulties that were encountered in 
bringing the thirteen American colonies together under a national con- 
stitution only a century and a quarter ago. 

To the circumstances here set forth, which keep Europe in a state 
of unstable equilibrium and have led to numerous armed conflicts, 
must be added one other, greater than any of them, and sometimes 
seemingly greater than all. It has been known as "the Eastern ques- 
tion." Russia is an enormous empire in the center of a huge con- 
tinent — for Europe and Asia are practically one continent — with no 
sufficient approach to the sea. She claims her share in the opportuni- 
ties of world-commerce, and seeks a proper outlet to the highway of 



BOUNDARIES AND RACES 39 

nations. This the European Powers have long combined to deny her. 
The costly Crimean War of 1854-'55, when she was assailed by Eng- 
land, France, Sardinia, and Turkey, had no other motive. Half a 
century later, when, with admirable enterprise, she had built a railroad 
across the then dreary length of Siberia, and sought an outlet on the 
Pacific, the ocean of the future, up rose nimble Japan to play in the 
East the same part, from the same motive, that England and France 
had played in the West. After each repulse Russia slowly and pa- 
tiently gathers her strength for another attempt. She is now double- 
tracking the Siberian railroad and improving it throughout; short 
branches extend on either side at frequent intervals, villages and farm- 
steads spring up all along the line, and the once forbidding territory 
is developing into a land of content. Russia never will cease her peri- 
odical attempts to secure a coastal outlet until one, at least, is accorded 
to her; and if her next trial is toward the Pacific, Japan is not likely to 
repeat the triumph of 1904. 

The difficulty of judging this gigantic and complicated war, whicK 
involves nearly all Europe — a difficulty that is almost made an impos- 
sibility by the daily receipt of contradictory reports- — may be relieved 
somewhat, if not fully, by remembering a principle taught us by 
nearly all modern wars — namely, that all modern wars end in the de- 
feat of the combatant in whose territory they are waged. 




40 



CHAPTER III 

MOBILIZATION 

Many readers are asking, "What is the meaning of the word 
'mobihzation,' which has occurred so often in the despatches and edi- 
torials concerning the war?" The answer "Look in the dictionary" 
is not satisfactory to all, and indeed the term deserves a more ex- 
tended explanation than can be found in any dictionary. 

To begin with a simple illustration, many of us, as individuals, 
are mobilized every morning. The brief definition of the word is, 
to put into complete condition for moving, or for being moved. When 
we say of an actor that "he has a mobile face," we are using the root 
of the same word; we mean that the muscles of his face are so com- 
pletely under his control that he can move them quickly from one 
aspect or expression to another. 

When a man rolls out of bed at the proper hour in the morning, 
he must be mobilized. First, he wants a bath; then he puts on his 
garments, or some of them; then he shaves, unless he wears a full 
beard ; then he has his breakfast, and looks at the morning paper ; then 
he consults his wife as to the domestic program for the day; then, 
if it is stormy, he gets his overcoat, his overshoes, his umbrella; 
then he fills his cigar-case; then he makes sure that he has a few 
nickels in his pocket for car-fares ; then he kisses his wife and children 
good-by for the day. Now that man is completely mobilized — ^that 
is to say, he is prepared to move from his home to his place of business. 

The mobilization of an army is essentially the same thing, on a 
vastly greater scale ; it is getting the army together, in perfect order, 
with all necessary outfits, so that it is prepared to move as a unit 
against the enemy, or, in a good position, withstand the assaults of 
its opponent. 

Even with the best prepared people, the mobilization of a large 
army requires an appreciable amount of time. Let us suppose that 

41 



42 



MOBILIZATION 




Canadian Soldier Kissing His Little Girl Good-bye 



every man of military age in the realm has been drilled and disciplined 
in the school of the soldier. This is the case in most of the countries 
of continental Europe. They are not all with the colors at the same 
time. A part have served there the required period, and returned to 
their homes, to be on call if wanted. When an emergency arises, and 
a large army is needed for active operations in the field, they are 
called out — ^many of them from distant points. Some are cultivating 
their farms, some are in workshops, some in trade, some in univer- 
sities, some are traveling abroad. If they have been drilled and 
apportioned properly, every man knows his place. 



MOBILIZATION 



43 



But calling the men together is only one item in the gigantic 
task. Some wise commander said long ago that "an army moves on 
its belly," which means that it can hardly move at all unless it is 
regularly and sufficiently fed. The great success of General Grant 
in the American Civil War was partly owing to the fact that he 
always saw to it that his army was properly fed. To feed a great 




Called to the Colors — German Reservists Going to Their Stations 



army, it is necessary not only to obtain the food (not all of which can 
be stored up beforehand) , but to get it where it is wanted and have 
it in the hands of competent, trained men, who know how to distribute 
it day by day, so that no soldier shall go hungry. This requires 
not only a special organization but great trains of wagons, with their 
horses or mules and their drivers. Animals eat, as well as men, and 
forage has to be provided for both the cavalry horses and the draft 
animals — those that draw the wagons and those that draw the guns. 
The amount of lead and iron that is fired away in every battle is 




"IT'S A LONG WAY TO TIPPERARY" 

Everywhere, on the March, in Camp and on the Field of Battle, English Troops Are Singing 

This Now Famous Song. It Has Even Been Caught up by Their French Allies, Who 

Have Rendered the First Line, "II y a bien loin d'ici a Tipperary." 

Here Is the Refrain of Britain's New Battle Song: 



It's a long way to Tipperary, 
It's a long: way to go. 

It's a long way to Tipperary 
To the sweetest girl I know. 



Good-by, Piccadilly! 

Farewell, Leicester Square! 
It's a long, long way to Tipperary, 

But my heart's right there. 



44 



MOBILIZATION 



45 



enormous. It has been estimated that this is nearly equal to a man's 
weight for every man that is killed. To keep an army supplied with 
ammunition requires another very large train. And these trains 
must be sufficiently guarded every day and hour ; for an enemy is al- 
ways looking for an opportunity to capture them or blow them up 
or burn them, which is quite as bad for the army as a defeat at the 




The "Queen's Own" Leaving Toronto for England 



front. To a certain extent an invading army can forage on the coun- 
trj'-; but this seldom lasts long, and supplies must be brought from 
home. 

In every army, however successful, large numbers of men are 
wounded in battle or fall ill by the wayside. Hence the medical 
corps, which must be as carefully organized and fully supplied as any 
other. One of the peculiar cruelties of war consists in shutting out 
from a blockaded country or an invested city the drugs and medi- 
cines that are necessary for the sick and the wounded. With the 




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46 



MOBn.IZATION 



47 



medical corps go the Red Cross and other nurses, for duty in the field 
or in hospitals. 

Usually there is need of a signal corps to accompany the army, 
and this must be organized and equipped. It is common, in modern 
times, for the wings of an army and the headquarters to be in con- 
stant communication by telegraph ; and this requires field instruments 
and a staif of expert operators. 

At the same time, the commander-in-chief and his staff must de- 
termine which troops to call together and which to leave where they 




ORDR£ 

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The French Order of Mobilization 



are; for it will often happen that some strategic points of great 
importance are already guarded, and their defenders must not be re- 
moved. Or, again, seasoned soldiers may be withdrawn from a forti- 
fied position and less experienced ones sent to take their place; and 
the army is made up of definite proportions of infantry, cavalry, 
and artillery — varying somewhat according to the country in which 
it is to operate. 

When all this complicated problem has been solved, and the re- 
sulting tasks accomplished, that army is completely mobilized — it is 
ready to move as a unit. 

The problem of mobilization presents some variations in each 
coimtry. Probably Germany's facilities for it are somewhat superior 
to any other. Her people do not speak various languages, as do those 
of Austria. Her territory is not so large as that of Russia, and is 
better provided with railways. She has a central position, which gives 




D) 5 



48 



MOBILIZATION 



49 




A Detachment of Uhlans in South Africa 



her the interior lines as compared with any neighbor — always an ad- 
vantage either in tactics or in grand strategy. She has adopted power- 
ful automobile trucks for moving her heavy guns, instead of draft 
animals, which is a great improvement as well as a great expense. 
And finally, if there is any difference in the approach to perfection in 
the drilling and discipline of the men, the advantage lies with Ger- 
many. 

France has not so many men of military age as Germany has, 
and she has not drilled them so strenuously; and there is a difference 
between the men themselves. The German is usually very much in 
earnest about everything he undertakes. He is always serious, and 
usually stubborn. The Frenchman is of lighter build intellectually, 
has more sense of humor, is inclined to think of other things besides 
the one immediately in hand. Consequently, he is seldom so terribly 
in earnest as the German. With his songs and his witty sayings he 




50 



MOBILIZATION 



51 




French Reservists Reporting at the IVIiiitary Bureau 



sometimes gives a fringe of lightness to the sober realities of war. 
Yet France does not always forget the lessons of experience, and 
the French are keen at invention. It is said, on good authority, that 
the field artillery of the French is markedly superior to that of the 
Germans. As France is a republic, her Government cannot be ex- 
pected to have quite so free a hand in preparing for possible war, or 
even in promptly meeting the necessities of actual war, as a strong 
monarchy. A ministry may fall, or a president lose his office, in 
consequence of an error that is not fatal; but a dynasty is not easily 
changed or abolished. Hence the rigor of the service, and the conse- 
quent rapidity of mobilization never can be the same in a republic 
as in an empire. 

Mobilization in Russia has the advantage of a completely auto- 
cratic government, together with some disadvantages, the chief of 
which are the greater extent of territory over which the troops are 
spread in time of peace, and the lower scale of intelligence of the 
private soldiers. These are usually heavy physically and apparently 
, somewhat stolid mentally. But they obey orders without hesitation. 




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MOBILIZATION 



63 



and when skilfully handled bear down on an enemy like a cyclone. It 
was said by observers of the recent war between Russia and Japan 
that the Russian service, as to its officers, was honej^combed with dis- 
loyalty. But so far as we can judge there has been no appearance 
of that in the present contest. Russia is a great country in men 
and material resources — a slow mover — but when her vast armies are 




French Girls Cheering Soldiers Leaving Paris for the Front 



in the field, she is a dread power to be reckoned with. Within her 
own borders she produces everything needed for an army. 

England, planted behind her "watery wall," and with a navy 
that makes her mistress of the seas, has felt safe in maintaining a 
comparatively small standing army of volunteers, with no compul- 
sory service. When a war breaks out in which she is involved, she has 
no trouble in getting volunteers, and from their general intelligence 
and knowledge of the world — consequent upon her world-wide em- 
pire — they can be converted into effective soldiers much quicker than 
most others. Nevertheless, her mobilization must necessarily be slow 
in comparison, because she must first make many of the soldiers 
from raw material before she can mobilize. One of the wonders of 



54 



MOBILIZATION 




German Reservists Leaving Their Village 



the present war is the fact that British troops serving in India are on 
their way to Europe, first crossing the Pacific and then passing 
through Canada, to take Atlantic shipping at ^lontreal. 

Belgium, a small countn,^ the most densely populated in Europe, 
would naturally find it comparatively easy to mobilize her forces for 
service on her own soil; and this was proved bj^ the celerity with 
M'hich she brought them together and presented a strong embattled 
front to the invading Germans. 

When a government announces that it maintains an attitude of 
neutrality, but will mobilize its forces, it is to be understood that no 
complete mobilization is to be expected, but only one that could be 
completed quickly in an emergency. 

In England the problem of the immediate mobilization of the 
regular army is comparatively simple. England's army is composed 
of professional soldiers, not a few of whom have served almost the full 
term of twenty-one years, though the ordinary period of enlistment is 
seven years "with the colors" and five years with the reserve. The mo- 
bilization of such troops consists largely in calling the reserves to the 
regular battalions to which they are attached and conveying. them to 



MOBILIZATION 



65 









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French Siege Artillery Mobilizing 



the great regular camps of the United Kingdom such as Aldershot, in 
England, and The Curragh, in Ireland, whence they are forwarded to 
the seaports from which they are to embark. Infantry can be trained 
to march, maneuver, and handle the rifle sufficiently well to be able to 
take the field in a few weeks ; but infantry is useless without cavalry, 
artillery, and engineers, and the training of men in these branches of 
the service requires much more time. It is highly important, also, that 
cavalry, infantry and artillery should become accustomed to coopera- 
tive tactics, necessitating practice maneuvers on a considerable scale. 
In continental Europe the problem of providing sufficient trained 
men to take the field on short notice has been solved by the highly 
efficient system of universal compulsory military service. Over the 
greater part of Europe, in each year on a specified date, all the young 
men who have just passed their twentieth birthday present themselves 
at various military depots. In France, which has been striving desper- 
ately for years, in the face of an increasing disparity in population, 
to keep her army on a footing nearly equal to that of Germany, no 




56 



MOBILIZATION 



67 




German Soldiers Resting After March in Beigium 



youth who is physically fit can escape his three years of militaiy serv- 
ice ; but Germany has a yearly surplus of recruits whom she places in 
a special class, known as the Ersatz, or "Compensatory," Reserve, to 
be used to supply the losses of war when the occasion arises. Russia 
is also in the enviable military situation of having more available 
soldiers than she knows what to do with. 

For two or three years these young men receive the grueling train- 
ing that is necessary to make a soldier. Then they pass, for a period 
varying from five to eleven years, according to the country in which 
they happen to be born, into the first reserve, and although they are 
free to pursue their callings in civil life, they are formally enrolled as 
members of some reserve regiment or battery during this whole time. 

Behind the active reserves are men of older years, who have set- 
tled down in business and home life. These men, until they have 
reached the age of forty-five or forty-eight years, are nevertheless 
included as members of second and third reserve organizations, and 
are liable to call in case the emergency demands their presence either 
at the front, in garrisons, or protecting lines of communication, thus 
releasing younger men for more active duty. 



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German Baggage Train 



Mobilization is primarily concerned with the regular forces and 
the incorporation into them of the active reserves. Just how each 
nation has solved its own problem has not yet been divulged, but cer- 
tain features connected with the regular peace organization make it 
likely that France formed a large part of her reserves into divisions, 
adding one reserve division to the two divisions of which each Army 
Corps is normally composed. Germany, on the other hand, probably 
mobilized her reserves in the smaller units of brigades, uniting one 
reserve brigade to the two brigades that form a division in time of 
peace. In order to provide for the ready assimilation of the reserves, 
the regular battalions are always proportionately over-ofRcered in 
time of peace. 

All the problems relating to mobilization and the massing of 
armies in their positions along the frontier are worked out by the Gen- 
eral Staff of each country. These highly educated and exceedingly 
able men, who are naturally officers of high rank, have for years been 
busy with plans for the contingency of war, and every detail of the 




60 



MOBILIZATION 



61 




The Camp at Vesoul, a French Mobilization Center 



preparation for invasion or counter-attack has long been made. 
Every general officer knows the task assigned to him and complete 
arrangements for transport of men, animals, guns, and provisions is 
made long in advance. Every soldier, when he receives notice to join 
the colors, instantly leaves his home with his little bundle, and, often 
with his wife and children beside him, walks to the barracks and dons 
the uniform. 

The German Army Corps system, copied by all the Continental 
nations, has made swift mobilization possible. Each army corps, 
which is really a small independent army, consisting of all arms — 
cavalry, artillery, infantry and engineers — is recruited in the region 
immediately surrounding its headquarters. Reserves have therefore, 
as a rule, only a short distance to go in order to join their regiments. 
When every man is with his army corps and the army corps is ready 
to. entrain or march to the place assigned it in the grand strategic 
plans of the Commander-in-chief — or Chief of the General Staff, as 
he is usually known in time of peace — the country's first-line forces 
are mobilized. It must be borne in mind that the active or mobile 



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This diatrram shows the composition of the German army 
corps, which all other nations have taken more or less closely 
as a pattern. The rectangles show the component units, 
but their comparative size bears no relation to the numerical 
strength of the units represented. In time of peace some 
German infantry divisions are composed of three brigades 
instead of two as shown in this diagram, which suggests that 
it was intended to expand all the army corps on the outbreak 
of war by incorporating one reserve brigade with the two 
regular brigades, with proportionate increase in the artillery. 
The number of cavalry apportioned to an army corps is 
variable, depending upon the nature of the country in which 
it is operating. The war-strength of an army corps of two 
divisions of two brigades each is about 30,000 combatants. 
The strength of an army corps of two divisions having three 
brigades each is about 43,000 combatants. From seven to 
nine thousand non-combatants are required in the supply train, 
hospital section, etc. The relative strength of each arm in 
men is roughly: infantry, 25,000; artillery, 4,500; cavalry, 
1,000. The small number of cavalry is accounted for by 
the fact that cavalry is not so closely associated with infantry 
as artillery, and is organized in independent divisions. 

The relative strength of all classes of troops in the German 
armv is as follows: Infantry. 63.81^^^; cavalrj-, 11.56%; field 
artillery, 10.99%; foot artillery, 3.88%; coast artillery, 
0.33%; technical troops (engineers, etc.), 4.21%,; train, 1.26%; 
sanitary troops, 1.04%; miscellaneous, 2.02%. 

The rank of general officers assigned to various commands is 
somewhat arbitrary, and each nation has its own peculiar 
practice. In Germany, an officer bearing the title of General 
of Infantry, General of Artillery or General of Cavalrv 
commands an army corps. Above generals of this rank 
come Colonel-Generals and Marshal-Generals. Next be- 
low Generals of Infantry, etc., come Deutenant-Gen- 
erals (commanding divisions) and Major-Generals (com- 
manding brigades). In the French army the respective 
ranks are Generals, Generals of Division, and Generals of 
Brigade. In the British army, a brigade is usually command- 
ed by the senior colonel, Brigadier-General being only a 
temporary title and not a permanent rank; a division is 
commanded by a Major-General; an army corps by a Lieu- 
tenant-General; and two or more army corps, constituting an 
army, by a General or a P'ield Marshal. Field Marshal 
is an honorary rank bestowed upon distinguished generals. 
The commands of regimental officers also vary according to 
the country. In England, a Colonel commands a regiment; 
a Lieutenant-Colonel a battalion; a Major a half -battalion; 
a Captain, assisted by two Lieutenants, a company. In the 
French and German armies, where the regiments have three 
or more battalions, a Colonel, assisted by a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, commands a re^ment, with a Major to each 
battalion. Batteries of artillery are commanded by Majors. 



6^ 



MOBILIZATION 66 

||*eserves are all men who have been graduated from the regular army 
f/^not more than five or six years at the most, and who, after a few weeks 
of hardening, are just as good as the men with the colors. 

The mobilization of the reserves of the second and third line is 
naturally a much more deliberate proceeding than the feverish em- 
bodiment of the first army. Men from about twenty-seven to thirty- 
nine years form the second reserve. They may be mobilized in com- 
plete army corps if necessary, or may be forwarded in smaller detach- 
ments to make up war losses, in accordance with the strain at the 
front. 

As a last resort, the reserves of the third line, consisting of men 
from about forty to forty-five years of age, are called upon. The 
tactics of the last line are to some extent those of the guerilla. They 
wear no uniform and their aim is to harass the enemy whenever 
the opportunity offers, by sharpshooting, or "sniping," as it is called, 
by making night raids on lines of communication, cutting off strag- 
glers from the enemy's line of march, and in any other way that the 
ingenuity of men fighting desperately for their homes may suggest. 





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64 



CHAPTER IV 

THE NEW WAEFARE 

Wars have been waged since earliest history — ^bloody wars, de- 
structive wars, but never one hke this. The inventive genius of 
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has produced many things to 
shorten the hours of labor, ease the strain on the scholar, and bring 
both families and nations into closer communication; and of these 
achievements we constantly boast; but while with one hand the 
Genius of the Age has wrought for the happiness of mankind, with 
the other it has multiplied and perfected the instruments of destruc- 
tion, and all these have come into use in this fierce contest among the 
great nations of Europe — apparently destined not only to play their 
new part in the settlement of national disputes, but to increase the 
harvest of death and the desolation of a million homes. 

When the "wooden walls" of our fathers were shattered in the 
shock of the sea fight, at least there was something afloat for the van- 
quished mariner to cling to ; but now a thousand may go down in their 
great steel battle-ship — at once a fortress and a prison — and not one 
fragment of wreckage ever float above their "vast and wandering 
grave." Brave as ever their hardy ancestors were, they stand un- 
flinching at their posts of duty; but they may be denied the satis- 
faction of striking or even seeing their enemy, when a sneaking 
submarine vessel inflicts a fatal wound beneath the water-line, and all 
the elaborate and costly structure, with its thunderous armament, goes 
for naught. And, again, it need not surprise us if occasionally two 
of the new dreadnoughts sink each other and go down at the same 
moment. 

The stone balls that were hurled from the primitive cannon a lit- 
tle farther than the catapult could throw them are succeeded by rifled 
bombs that weigh hundreds of pounds and make a flight of miles 
or pierce a wall of solid steel and burst on the other side. The 

65 



A NEW PHASE OF WARFARE 




German Zeppelin of the Type Which Dropped Bombs on Antwerp 




Havoc Wrought by German Zeppelin at Antwerp 

66 



THE NEW WARFARE 67 

muzzle-loading musket, which decided many important conflicts, is 
succeeded by the breech-loading repeating rifle and the machine guri 
that pours out a continuous stream of bullets before which no troops 
can stand. And again a battalion may be hurled into the air by 
the explosion of mines and buried shells charged with a compound 
twenty times as powerful as gunpowder ; and into intrenchments may 
be thrown shells that emit fumes to choke or poison many who are not 
struck by the flying fragments. 

For centuries the comparative advantages of armor and weapons, 
fortifications and gun-fire, have alternated between the offensive and 
the defensive, as one device after another has been contrived or per- 
fected. Most of those here mentioned give the advantage to the de- 
fenders. In the day of the muzzle-loader the defenders could fire 
one volley at an approaching foe, and then the assailant, coming on 
the run, was among them with the bayonet before they could reload. 
That famous weapon is of little further use, except as a spade for 
throwing up hasty intrenchments. A steady fire of repeating guns 
will literally annihilate a charging column in a few minutes, as has 
been done in early engagements of this war. But, on the other hand, 
the recent inventions for navigating the air appear to throw the mar- 
gin of advantage again to the side of the assailants. There is far 
less use for spies and cavalry reconnoissances, when aviators can hover 
over the enemy and, out of easy reach, count his guns and his forces, 
map all his positions, and sometimes drop huge bombs upon camps 
and squadrons. Another aviator may be sent up to attack him; but 
the result is almost certain to be the destruction of both. Thus is 
realized the vision described by the poet more than seventy years ago : 

Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rained a ghastly dew 
From the nations' airy navies grappling in the central blue. 

The Genius of Invention is now called upon to throw the advan- 
tage again to the defensive by producing a gun that will send a 
seldom-erring shot through a machine that is hundreds of feet over- 
head. The ordinary large gun, if fired perpendicularly, is liable to 
burst. 

These are the novel elements in this tremendous contest ; yet, with 
all their appalling destructiveness, they hardly appear to diminish the 



THE NEW WARFARE 69 

ardor with which the men on either side rush to the field that may be 
the field of honor, but is less the field of gloiy than the field of death. 
The Red Cross of mercy and the wonderful advances in medical and 
surgical science do their utmost; but the stretchers and ambulances 
are heavily loaded, the hospitals are crowded, and the mourning 
homes are beyond counting. 

The old theory that the earth is finally to be destroyed by one 
vast conflagration is brought vividly to mind when we behold the 
flames of war bursting out at once over nearly the whole of Europe, 
as if civilization and all peaceful progress were doomed — not destroy- 
ing the land, to be sure, but demolishing the works of man with which 
the land has been cultivated and adorned, sweeping tens of thousands 
of men into untimely graves, like the dust to which they so suddenly 
return, and reducing to ashes the happy homes of their children. 

Thousands of men in these great armies must fall before peace is 
attained, and when peace does come it will leave thousands of homes 
desolate and the already heavy national debts enormously increased, 
while every people in the civilized world will feel the efl'ects of the 
contest. Said George William Curtis, one of our most eloquent ora- 
tors, "Every war is long, though it end to-morrow; every battle is 
terrible, though only your son perish." However this contest may 
terminate, it will leave an endless train of sorrows, hatreds, and 
despair. 




German Field Howitzer 



Anti-aeroplane Gl^ii 




One of the German 11-in. Howitzers That Battered the Forts at Li^ge 
SOME MODERN IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 

70 



CHAPTER V 

MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 

In the century that has elapsed since Waterloo, inventive genius 
has been incredibly busy in all departments of mechanics; but in the 
development of engines of slaughter it has fairly surpassed itself. 
Could the shades of Napoleon, Wellington, and Bliicher return to 
their old battleground, once more drenched with blood, they would 
be astounded at the extraordinary variety of the instruments of de- 
struction at the disposal of their successors in command and at their 
appalling precision, deadliness, and range. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that inventive skill has not confined itself to offensive meas- 
ures alone. Defensive tactics have kept pace with offensive ; and de- 
vices for protection have followed the introduction of new means of 
attack. Notwithstanding the terrific potentialities of modern war 
machinery, the present titanic conflict may prove therefore to be no 
more deadly in proportion to the numbers involved than those that 
have gone before. Lovers of peace have expressed the hope that those 
who were engaged in increasing the destructive capacity of war 
engines were most efl*ectively promoting the cause of universal peace 
by making war so deadly that human beings could no longer engage 
in it. This war will demonstrate whether this view is well founded or 
not. Be that as it may, we may at least express the hope that its 
ghastly spectacles will permanently sate the appetite of mankind for 
bloodshed. 

Explosives. — The motive power, so to speak, of all the major im- 
plements of modern warfare is explosive powder of one form or an- 
other, and before describing the implements themselves we will devote 
a paragraph to the uncanny substance in which such frightful powers 
of destruction are locked up. 

"Smokeless powder" is now in universal use. As a matter of fact, 
however, there is no such thing as an absolutely smokeless powder, and 

71 




AUTOMOBILE GUN, ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR ATTACKING AIRCRAFT 

Motor Tractors and Guns Mounted on Automobiles Were an Outstanding Feature of the Swift 

German Advance Through Belgium and France 

7^ 



RIFLES AND POWDER 



73 



considerable vapor is noticeable at the muzzles of all large pieces. 
This is partly due to the small charge of black powder necessary to 
explode them. The practical invisibility conferred by smokeless pow- 
der is obviously of immense importance to the combatants. Smoke- 




BREECM SHOVvflNG CARTRID&E& eNTER\N& MACAZINE- 



The New Short Rifle of the British Army 

lessness is brought about by the fact that these powders leave no un- 
consumed residuum to be blown out of the muzzle in the form of 
smoke. The chief ingredients of all modern powders are nitrocellu- 
lose and nitroglycerine — both compounds of nitric acid. Chemically, 
they are all complex compounds of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and 
oxygen, and their explosive power is due to the fact that they are 



74 MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 

capable of suddenly liberating volumes of their component gases vast 
in proportion to the bulk of the powder. Compared with old-fash- 
ioned gunpowder, they are "slow-burning" and instead of adminis- 
tering a single sudden blow to the projectile they push it, so to speak, 
along the barrel. This has made it possible to increase the power of 
the charge enormously without increasing the maximum pressure in 
the bore. 

Smokeless powders are made in the form of cubes, flakes, or cords, 
whence the name of the English powder "cordite." They are usu- 
ally exploded by means of fulminate of mercury caps. Most military 
smokeless powders burn harmlessly when merely ignited. For burst- 
ing shells several forms of picric acid (technicalh^ trinitrophenol) 
are used under various names, such as lyddite and melinite. Picric 
acid is a very high explosive. Recently a chemical substance known 
as "trinitrotoluol" has been introduced. Among the advantages 
that this has over picric acid is that it is less easily exploded, requir- 
ing a very heavy detonating shock. 

Rifles. — Inasmuch as the bulk of the world's fighting on land falls 
to the lot of the infantrymen, who far outnumber all other arms of the 
service, and as the rifle is the principal arm of the foot-soldier, we may 
justly regard it as the most important weapon now in use. In its 
shortened form — the carbine — the rifle is also used by the cavalry- 
man, and there is a tendency in modern tactics toward the frequent 
emploj^ment of cavalry as mounted infantry, fighting with firearms 
rather than with the typical cavalry weapons — the sword and the 
lance. These weapons may be noted in passing; but as they have 
been used for centuries we dismiss them by stating that the sword was 
abandoned by British infantry officers during the Boer War, and 
that the value of the clumsy lance is disputed. The entire German 
cavalry, including the Uhlans, who figure so frequently in the war 
news of the day, is armed with the lance. 

Although the name "rifle" is applied specifically to the small arm 
fired from the shoulder, all modern firearms, from the great sixteen- 
inch coast-defense guns down to the pocket-pistol, are essentially 
rifles, as they all have rifled bores. That is to say, they have shallow 
spiral grooves running the length of the inside of the barrel. These 
spiral grooves cause the bullet to revolve on its own axis at an exceed- 



RIFLES AND POWDER 



75 



ingly high rate (about 4,000 revolutions a second). The rotatory 
motion enables the bullet to travel over a much flatter arc of flight 
than one projected from a smooth-bore piece, keeps it truer in its 
flight, and gives it higher penetrating power. In a rifle the grooves 
make one complete turn of the barrel in about eight inches ; hence in 
flight the bullet revolves once for each eight inches it travels. All 
modern military rifles have a magazine holding from five to ten cart- 
ridges, and they are loaded by drawing back and thrusting forward a 



^^^A£!*» ., .... . .-.:..■. • • 




■ 




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f.:~::^^:r*'m^'^ ■'^'?5l*ff' If^^^^^gM^ 















German Infantry with Mauser Rifles 

bolt. These two movements eject the empty shell, throw a new cart- 
ridge into the chamber, and cock the piece ready for firing. The bolt 
can be removed, and it is so constructed that it can be rendered useless 
by a blow on some small but essential part. Soldiers are instructed 
thus to disable their weapons in case of a rout, in order to prevent 
them from being of immediate use to the enemy. Most rifle maga- 
zines are in the form of a metal box fitted belbw the chamber ; but the 
magazine of the French Lebel is formed by a tube in the wooden 
stock beneath the barrel. A "cut-ofl*" is usually provided, so that the 
weapon may be used as a single-shot piece, with the magazine held in 
reserve for an emergency. The modern rifle fires a small, long bullet 



76 



MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 



having about the diameter of a lead-pencil. As lead could not with- 
stand the pressure of the powerful powder charges now used, bullets 
aire made with a hard metal coating (usually nickeled copper) over a 
lead core. In order to make these hard bullets engage the spiral 
grooves of the barrel, they are made somewhat larger than the bore. 
The characteristic wound inflicted by the small modern bullet is a 




French Soldiers with "Label" Rifles 



clean-cut puncture, and often it will push aside the smaller blood- 
vessels. JNIodern bullet wounds, unless in a vital organ, are apt to 
heal quickly, and men have come out of a campaign as well as ever 
after being bored through by an astonishing number of these new 
"humane" projectiles. In warfare against savages a bullet with a 
soft nose (known as the "dum-dum") is used. This expands on im- 
pact and inflicts a wound of pecuhar atrocity. The same result may 
be achieved by filing off the end of those bullets that have a soft core. 

The fact that malicious individual soldiers cannot be prevented 
from shdy filing their bullets accounts for the inevitable charges that 
the enemy is using "dum-dums." 

The following table gives complete particulars of the rifles used 
by the chief military powers: 



RIFLES 



77 



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« .§ "I '» 1 



(M rH <« t~ O 



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■3 -a jj o« 



■* -H 00 !0 lO 



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g 2 



•* rH (X a* Tj 



>S "* 




>o o 



t» i-l o t- « 



S »« Hw (V OS »5 — 



if !a 



-H o» ^- M 



i 2 " S 



C8 JS 



i-c rt o O 



3 S^-3 3 



^ 9 



«5 25 



S 05 



a '^ 



= s a 
•2 ,1 .a "^ 






a -s 



5 S o 



e -^ 



£ "K "o -3 "o 

■^ o S3 S ^ 

•- -. j3 ^ -a 

- 2 a " .a> 
tj H Iz; 



'3 M 



&.2 .S .2 V 

d Cj O) U) *^ 



.^ bo «^ 
'3 a ftM 
5 _a; o 



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« pq ^ W ^ 



■^^ a !K I" ** OaS S 



"^ dja-a-s « (*<»•«"" 

^ ^ Bv o V ° o-Ti, 
cs g 2 a.S =8 Si-° t, 

a^ S— " t. S - "** 

" a 2:3 a 2 o =« " -- 

iS -*^ S 2 5 * " 

o rt o .So t> ^ t» M 
o.'S a ° ft"^ Si's 



.e-o 



£ja u a*; «•« S^H o 

ii 5 a.> b. fc* -a aj n1 ^ a 
!» — '^ a; a =8 t-S t-.S' 



=• SSJ 0.S ^« a;2--§ 

« ^S>^ O^ N o m-S a 

° M g-i-T3^ « <u-a 

I- S a 2 T- _o 1n C8 «flj3 

— a -^ja a t-'S a>'jH 
a a-SSwl^ g'^'^i- 
«)>>=aija o J, 5:*i o*i 

-o'S.?« « °'-a-_2 s a-d 

5-S52 ".a"® 2J « g^ 

■5-^ >£3-o-^ ^ rt^'- r^ 

« o jgxi.a .>,a-S& 

■^J^S cs^ a-ti.^'2-S 

J2.-W a _,^ 3 a--t!-^ 

S S o S'S^ 2^-a loc 
■" « fe S S « OJ3 g a 

J3cS3-"t,,.*jM *f 

_2« o M s a <« 

S-'S'a a « 
2'2^0"3 a 3 2<'o 






78 MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 

The companion weapon of the rifle is the bayonet, which, affixed to 
the muzzle, converts the rifle into a spear for use at close quarters. It 
is quite likely that when the story of the war is finally told, it will ap- 
pear that the decisive charges have been driven home by the bayonet 
even as in days of yore. 

Machine Guns — IMachine guns are loaded and fired mechanically 
at high speed. They are divided into two classes, those in Avhich the 




Cameron Highlanders Operating a Maxim Gun 

feed is maintained by the operation of a crank and those which are 
entirely automatic. The American Gatling is an example of the 
first type and the English Maxim of the second. The Gatling 
has ten barrels arranged in a circular group and is fed from a hopper. 
This hopper is filled with cartridges clipped side by side upon long 
metal strips. The turn of a crank throws a cartridge into the chamber 
of each barrel in succession and fires and ejects the empty shells in 
rotation. It is capable of firing at the terrific speed of 1,200 shots a 
minute. Although an excellent weapon, the Gatling has been super- 
seded in the world's armies and navies by the entirely automatic gun. 



MACHINE GUNS 



79 



These have only one barrel and the mechanism that actuates the 
loading, firing, and ejection of the empty shells is operated either 
(1) by the recoil of the barrel or (2) by a small amount of the pow- 
der-gas allowed to escape from a small hole near the muzzle after the 
passage of each bullet. Naturally these guns develop a tremendous 
amount of heat and most of them are cooled by a water-jacket or a 
radiator. Nevertheless they have to be allowed frequent intervals of 
rest for cooling. The English Maxim, which is the most widely used 




French Machine Gun — Gas Operated Type 



weapon of this type, is operated bj^ the recoil of the discharge at a 
rate of 600 shots a minute. It is fed by woven belts of 250 cartridges 
held side by side in loops. The end of the belt is placed into the lock 
and a single cartridge into the chamber. A pull of the trigger fires the 
first cartridge and starts the mechanism. Empty shells fall in a 
shower from the side. Holding the trigger for just one second will 
speed seven shots on their way. The ordinary infantry cartridge is 
used in the standard weapon; but automatic guns firing as large a 
missile as a one-pound explosive shell at the rate of 300 a minute are 
in use. The English Maxim-Nordenfeldt, which, during the Boer 
War, got the name of* the "pom-pom" from the peculiar drumming 



80 



MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 



sound it emits in action, is a one-pounder automatic. Semi-automatic 
guns are used extensively in the naval service. In weapons of this 
type the recoil of the gun ejects the empty shell and throws the breech 
block into position to receive a new shell inserted by hand. Guns as 
large as the three-inch thirteen-pounder are operated in this way. 
Machine guns are mounted on carriages, tripods, parapets of forts 
and rails of warships. They are light and portable, the Maxim weigh- 
ing only about thirty-five pounds. The tripod is the usual mounting. 
The French have recently adopted a machine gun which is hardly 
larger than a rifle and can be fired in the same way, by a man lying 
down, at the rate of 500 shots a minute. 




French Siege-gun on Truck of Armored Train 



Under favorable conditions the machine gun is capable of inflict- 
ing frightful damage; but like a great many other modern war de- 
vices it has an awful capacity for wasting costly ammunition. On 
account of their excessive vibration and "jump," they are very diffi- 
cult to aim and control and they have a bad habit of "jamming" at 
critical moments. The Maxim gun is used by the Russians and Ger- 
mans as well as by the English. France and Japan use the Hotch- 
kiss, a gas-operated radiator-cooled weapon. Austria uses the 
Schwarzlose, a remarkably fine weapon, water-cooled, and operated by 
the powder-gas. Italy has adopted the Permio, which operates on the 
recoil principle. The American Colt is operated by gas and relies for 
cooling on its very thick barrel. 

Artillery Guns. — The most important large weapon used by mod- 
ern armies in the field is the piece with which the field artillery is 
armed. Usually there are four or six of these guns to each battery, 



FIELD GUNS 



81 



as the tactical unit of field artillery is termed. While they diifer in 
detail in each army, the typical field piece of to-day has a caliber of 
about three inches and fires a shell weighing from twelve to fifteen 
pounds, at a velocity of about 2,000 feet a second, to a distance of 
about 7,500 yards. They have hydraulic and spring cylinders for 
checking recoil. A shield of hardened steel, placed between the 
wheels of the gun-carriage, protects the crew. French ordnance of- 
ficers have secretly developed their field artillery to an extraordinary 
pitch of perfection and, if the predictions of some authorities are 



1 




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PPI^ ^'^ ..^ 


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1 




HnPlflHHH/ .rtttctpt^^nWMW 


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■■-' ^■.■■' '■ ■ . . . . : : 







English 60-pounder Siege Guns 



borne out, the French artillery may prove a decisive factor in this war. 
Field batteries are also equipped with breech-loading mortars, which 
are short pieces intended for vertical firing against troops under cover 
from direct fire. Intermediate in length between the regular field 
guns and the short mortars are howitzers, which are used to fire shells 
at a high angle of elevation, with a small muzzle velocity. They vary 
in size from the small field howitzer to the great siege pieces 16 inches 
in caliber. Their shells carry heavy explosive charges, and are terribly 
eifective in plunging down upon intrenchments and fortifications. 

Horse artillery, which is expected to keep pace with cavalry, is 
equipped with lighter pieces than the field artillery, which operate 
usually in cooperation with infantry. In siege operations against 
strongly fortified places, special heavy guns have to be brought up 



82 



MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 






K^^^^yMH 


^vrK_ 


l«l 




^5SE 


H 


?r™«"" 


iff| 


fliiHTJi'i'^iiir 


^^gPP^^^^^K^ai 


H 




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^ 


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' 







English Artillerymen with Field-gun on 
Pontoons 



German 12-in. Mortar, for Use Against 
Fortifications 



from the siege train, as the heavy guns and their equipment, carried 
by every army in the field, are called. 

These field pieces are all breech-loading rifles. The principal pro- 
jectiles with which they are served are of two kinds — common shell 
and shrapnel. Common shells contain a heavy bursting-charge of 
some high explosive, such as lyddite or maximite. Shrapnel shells are 
filled with bullets. They contain a light charge of powder, just suffi- 
cient to burst the shell, allowing the bullets to spread out and continue 
their course. Shrapnel is directed against troops; common shell is 
used both against troops in close order and for destroying guns and 
other large objects. Shrapnel is particularly effective against troops 
behind earthworks and intrenclunents. 

Shells are exploded by fuses, which are designed so that an ex- 
ploding charge will be fired either immediately on impact, delaj^ed for 
a desired number of seconds after striking, or at any time in the flight 
of the missile. These fuses are screwed into the noses of the shells 
used by field pieces. They are ingenious and rather complicated de- 
vices. The safest fuse is one in which the mechanism of discharge 
cannot work until armed by the rotary motion of the shell leaving the 
gun. The shells of field pieces and of all large guns are made to 
engage the grooves of the rifled barrels of the guns by means of a 



HAND GRENADES 83 

band of copper at the base, which is driven into and fills up the 
grooves as the shell leaves the chamber. It thus receives the same 
rotary motion as the rifle bullet. 

At close quarters, artillery use case shot, which is merely a cylin- 
drical box of bullets, made so as to break up immediately on leaving 
the muzzle of the gun, scattering the bullets across a wide front. 
Star shells are sometimes used at night to illuminate the enemy's posi- 

c 
r-ROTATING BAND 5. 



-GRAPHITE AND TALLOW 




ROTATING BAND p 




Common Shell 

BOURRELET 



POINT OF CAP 



BODY OF SHELL 




Armor-piercing Shell 
Diagram Showing Structure of Common Shell, Shrapnel and Armor-piercing Shell 




tion. These shells will burn with a brilliant light for about forty 
seconds. 

The introduction of aircraft into warfare, a novel feature of the 
present conflict in Europe, has brought entirely new types of guns 
into prominence, both for ofl'ensive use by such craft and for defense 
against them. Aeroplanes and air-ships have been fitted with light 
weapons for use in air-fighting, and special types of carriages per- 
mitting vertical and high-angle fire have been devised for guns de- 
signed to bring down the enemy's aircraft. The automobile has been 
pressed into service as a means of transport for such weapons. 

Hand Grenades. — Though the reader may start when he sees hand 
grenades mentioned in an article on modern implements of war, it is a 
fact that these antiquated instruments were revived during the Russo- 
Japanese War and with such eff*ect that considerable attention has 
been devoted to perfecting them. A grenade is a bomb thrown by 



84 



MILITARY IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 



hand. They are effective at close range, particularly in storming 
forts and intrenchments. There are also devices for throwing gren- 
ades from small guns. A mine grenade has been invented recently. 
These are buried in the groimd over which troops are expected to pass,, 
and are fired at the right moment. The grenades rise a short dis- 
tance from the surface — being prevented from soaring into the air 
by small chains — then burst and shoot out a mass of projectiles par- 
allel to the ground in all directions. 



' 






)t0 







French Siege-gun with Motor Tractor 



Automobiles. — France has led in the adaptation of the motor-car 
to military purposes. Some time ago armored automobiles carrying 
machine and other light guns were built ; but it is doubtful whether the 
automobile will figure much in this capacity. Its field will be mainly 
that of transport. Powerful motor-cars have been built for hauling 
heavy guns and trains of wagons. These cars are equipped with cap- 
stans for drawing themselves out of holes and for pulling their trail- 
ers up steep inclines. They have endured severe tests over rough 
country. The public imagination has been touched by the news that 
the French commander-in-chief uses a swift automobile, driven by a 
famous racing-driver, as a means of rapid transport on the long line 
over which troops extend in modern warfare. The French have also 
recently introduced an automobile that is fitted as an X-ray operating- 
room, the motor being used to drive the dynamo of the photographic 



MOTOR VEHICLES 



85 



apparatus after the car has taken up its station. Automobiles have 
been fitted up as sleeping-cars and movable kitchens for officers 
of high rank. Special motor vans for the transport of wireless equip- 
ment, aeroplanes and gas-tanks for replenishing and filling dirigi- 
bles, have been constructed. In a country intersected by a network 
of good roads, as Europe is, the automobile may obviously be put to 




German Field Piece with Interlocking Wheels 

a variety of uses. Bicycles are used in modern armies mainly by 
despatch-bearers and members of the signal corps. 

The Spade. — The subject of military implements cannot be closed 
without a reference to the humble spade and shovel. Intrenchment 
plays a very important part in field operations and gives the spade a 
high rank as an implement of war. Ingenious light combination 
tools, which can be used either as a pick or a shovel, are carried bj'' 
European infantryman. Canadian infantry carry a spade, the blade 
of which has a hole through which the rifle barrel can be passed. A 
hinged handle makes it possible for a rifleman lying prone to utilize 
this spade as a very efl'ective head shield. In an emergency the foot- 
soldier resorts to his bayonet as a spade and throws up as large a 
heap of earth as he can, for protection against the enemy's fire. 




86 



CHAPTER VI 

WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS OF WAR 

The popular imagination is more deeply stirred by naval than by 
land operations, not only because of the ever fresh romance of the sea 
but because modern weapons of war have been carried to their ex- 
treme pitch of perfection, both of precision and of power, in marine 
construction, and also because of the awful concentration of destruc- 
tive forces which a great sea-fight under present conditions will entail. 

Battle-ships. — The most terrible engine of destruction that human 
ingenuity has been able to devise is the modern battle-ship. "Battle- 
ship" is a technical term applied to war-ships of the heaviest class, 
strongly protected by thick plates of the hardest and toughest steel 
that science has been able to produce, and armed with large guns of 
extreme range, throwing a gigantic shell of high penetrating power 
bearing a charge of appalling explosive force. For many years a 
bitter fight has been in progress between the gun-makers and the mak- 
ers of armor-plate. Many times the armor-plate makers have thought 
they had at last produced a plate that would withstand the shock of 
any projectile, only to face a new gun of still greater penetrating 
power. The victory rests to-day w^ith the gun-maker, for guns of the 
latest naval type can punch a clean hole through eighteen inches of 
the finest armor. 

The advent of the English "Dreadnought" in 1905 brought about 
a revolution in the construction of battle-ships. Previously, battle- 
ships had carried a main battery of four heavy guns in turrets fore 
and aft, and rows of lighter guns along each side. The American 
"Connecticut," of 16,000 tons, armed with four twelve-inch, eight 
eight-inch and twelve seven-inch guns, is a fine example of the earlier 
type. The "Dreadnought" ushered in the all-big-gun ship, carrying 
all heavy guns of uniform size in turrets on the deck, and a secondary 
armament of light guns for repelling torpedo craft. The dread- 
noughts are supposed to be so far superior to vessels of the older type 

87 



88 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 



( "pre-dreadnoughts," as they are termed) as to render them obsolete 
for use in the first line of battle. The present war may put to the 
test this famous controversy as well as many others that have raged in 
naval circles. The small battle-ship, \/ith few guns, has always had 
its advocates. 

In spite of hostile criticism, however, all the naval powers have 
been active in the construction of monster battle-ships, until we now 




Battle-ship "Neptune" — King George, Admiral Callaghan and the Prince of Wales on Decl< 



have a new class of "superdreadnoughts." England, in fact, has 
outdone the superdreadnought and with her "Queen Elizabeth" and 
her four sister-ships (some of which maj^ be completed in time to fig- 
ure in this war, as the}?- are due for completion in October, 1914, and 
early in 1915), she has begun a new era in battle-ship construction. 
The "Queen Elizabeth" is 650 feet long and will displace 27,500 tons. 
(The "displacement" of a ship is its dead weight, so called because a 
floating body displaces a volume of water equal to its own weight. 
It must not be confused with the "tonnage" of a merchant ship which 
is an entirely different measurement.) She will be protected by a belt 



DREADNOUGHTS 



89 



of 13%-inch armor on her water line and 10 inches on her middle belt. 
Her guns will be protected by 14-inch turrets. As with all battle- 
ships, parts of her bow and stern are unarmored, since it is not pos- 
sible for a ship to carry the weight of a complete suit of armor. She 
has the extreme speed of 25 knots. (The English Admiralty knot is 
6,080 feet, or about 1% miles. A speed of 25 knots means about 29 
land miles an hour.) Her eight 15-inch guns give her the most power- 
ful armament ever mounted on a warship. She will carry an auxiliary 




German Battle-Cruiser "Moltke' 



battery of 16 6-inch guns and — a significant sign of the times — 12 
3-inch anti-aeroplane guns. Five 21-inch torpedo-tubes complete her 
armament. Her 58,000-horse-power turbine engines, driving four 
screws, will be supplied with steam by oil-burning boilers. Such is the 
"last word" in naval construction at the time of the present European 
struggle. She will cost about $13,000,000. 

Battle-ship Cruisers — A recent development in naval construction 
is the battle-ship cruiser, or battle-cruiser, in which armor is sacri- 
ficed to speed. These ships are classed as dreadnoughts and are 
almost as heavily armed as battle-ships of that class. The English 
"Tiger" represents the extreme development of this extraordinary 
class of ships. She has the enormous displacement of 29,000 tons, 



90 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 





Plates Showing Disposition of Heavy Guns and Turrets in Recent All- Big-Gun 
Battle-ships and Battle Cruisers 

(Note. — A black dot In the center of a turret indicates that the guns of that turret are suflBclently elevated to fire over the 
adjacent turret.) 

I. Nevada. Oklahoma (U. S.), 14-lnch guns. 2. Michigan. South Carolina (U. S.), 12-ln. 3. Lion. Princess Royal, Queen Mary 
(British), 13.5-ln. 4. Inflexible. Invincible. Indomitable. Indefatigable. Australia. New Zealand (British), 12-ln. 5. Espana. Alfonso 
XIII.. Jaime I. (Spanish), 12-in.; Vonder Tann (German). 11-in. 6. GangiU. PoUava. Petropavlocsk. Sevastopol (Russian); Viribus 
Unitis. " V." (Austrian) ; Darue Allghlerl (Italian) : all 12-in. Plan 4 with triple-gun turrets has been suggested for Russian ships. 
7. Delauiare. North Dakota. Florida. Utah (U. S.), 12-ln. 8. Texas. New York (U. S.), 14-in.; Orion. Thunderer. Conqueror. Monarch, 
King George V., CerUurlon. Aiax. Audacious (British), 13.5-ln. 9. Plan suggested by Mr. J. McKechnie (Viclcers Co.) for 16.000- 
ton ship with internal-combustion engines. 10. Neptune, Hercules, Colossus (British), 12-ln. 11. Dreadnought. Bellerophon, 
Temeraire. Superb, St. Vincent, CoUlngtcood, Vanguard (British), 12-in. 12. Conte di Cavour, Leonardo da Vlncl, Giulio Cesare 
(Italian), 12-ln. 13. Wyoming, Arkansas (U. S.), 12-ln. 14. Moreno. Rivadavia (Argentine); Mlnas Geraes, San Paulo (Brazilian), 
12-ln. 15. Courbet, Jean Bart, France. Paris (FVench), 12-ln. 16. Kawachl, Settsu (Japanese), 12-ln.; Nassau, Westfalen, Rheinland, 
Posen (German), Il-in.; Ostfriesland, Helgoland, Thuringen, Oldenburg (German), 12.2-ln. 

although she carries an armor belt of only nine inches. Her main 
armament consists of eight 13.5-inch guns. She has engines of 
78,000 horse-power, giving her a speed of 28 knots. The "Lion," a 
somewhat smaller ship, has made 30 knots. The German "Goeben," 
whose elusive qualities were so frequently referred to in the early 
news of this war, is a battle-ship cruiser. All recent battle-ships have 



CRUISERS 



91 



an armored upper deck and armored gratings over the funnels for 
protection against aeroplanes. 

Cruisers. — Cruisers are light-armed swift vessels, used mainly for 
scouting, patrolling, and convoying merchant vessels. The great 
speed of the new battle-ships and battle-ship cruisers has relegated 
cruisers of the old type to a secondary place. Cruisers are classed as 
"unprotected cruisers," which are without armor of any kind except 
around their guns; "protected cruisers," which have no vertical armor 







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German Protected Cruiser "Breslau" in the Kiei Canal 

but are protected by an armored deck over their machinerj^ curving 
at each side below the water-line; and "armored cruisers," which have 
light side armor and are in effect light battle-ships. 

Destroyers. — Torpedo-destroyers, usually shortened to "destroy- 
ers," is the name applied to a class of exceedingly swift small vessels. 
They were originally designed to cope with torpedo-boats, vessels of a 
smaller and slower class, but have become the highest type of torpedo- 
boats themselves. They carry light guns, but their main weapon is the 
deadly torpedo. These vessels are large enough to maintain them- 
selves at sea for long periods, and in speed they exceed all other sea- 
going craft. Slipping stealthily over the water, they suggest some 



92 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 




British Destroyer "Nubian" — the Fastest Ship in the World 



beast of prey, and their swift night attacks are greatly dreaded by 
large ships. The English "Swift" maj' be taken as the extreme type 
of destroyer. She is 345 feet long and displaces 1,800 tons. With 
engines of 30,000 horse-power, which is a good deal more powerful 
than the engines of most Atlantic liners, this terrible little vessel can 
maintain a speed higher than 35 knots, or more than 40 miles an 
horn-, and faster than most express trains. She is armed with fom* 
4-inch guns and two deck torpedo-tubes. 

Submarines. — A new and peculiarly sinister type of craft, the sub- 
marine, is to receive its first test in this war. Although really practi- 
cal vessels of this type have been in use only about twenty-five years, 
they have been so far perfected that Admiral Sir Percy Scott asserts 
that they have already sounded the death-knell of the battle-ship. This 
assertion has been sharply contested; but the recent astounding feat 
of a German submarine, or submarines, in sending to the bottom three 
British armored ci-uisers within a few minutes seems to vindicate the 
prophecy of the English admiral. Nevertheless, the earlier exploit 



SUBMARINES 93 

of a British cruiser in destroying a German submarine, the where- 
abouts of which was disclosed by the appearance of its periscope above 
the surface, with two shots, shows that the operations of this class of 
boats are attended with grave peril. Submarines are made to dive 
by pumping water into ballast tanks, in co-operation with the action 
of horizontal rudders, and they are operated by gasoline engines 
when running on the surface. Before diving, the gasoline engine is 
cut off, and all surface openings are closed by valves. An electric 




British Submarine Running Awash 

motor, driven by a current stored up in accumulators while the craft 
has been running awash, is then thrown into operation. It would be 
unsafe to use gasoline engines below the surface because of escaping 
gas, and the telltale trail of bubbles that the exhaust would throw up 
to the surface. Air for respiration and for operating the torpedo- 
tube at the bow is stored up under high pressure in suitable tanks. 
Chemicals for purifying the air are carried. White mice, which 
squeak when they smell escaping gases, are regular members of the 
submarine's crew. The weapon of the submarine is the torpedo. 

Under favorable conditions, the destructive capacity of the sub- 
marine is enormous ; but these vessels labor under many serious disad- 



94 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 



vantages. Fatal accidents among them have been very frequent in all 
navies. They are exceedingly uncomfortable to the crew at all times, 
and for obvious reasons they are habitable only for a short time when 
submerged. The maintenance of balance is a difficult problem, and 
even though a submarine approaches close enough to a battle-ship to 
discharge a torpedo, she may not be able to direct it properly. 
When the vessel is below the surface, objects can be seen only a few 
feet away ; and even when the submarine is near the surface a battle- 
ship could not be seen at a distance 
of more than one hundred feet. 
The faster the boat is moving the 
more obscure becomes the sur- 
rounding water. The submarine, 
being practically blind, therefore, 
has been fitted with eyes in the 
form of "periscopes." The peri- 
scope is a mirror fitted at an angle 
in the top of a tubular mast and ca- 
pable of being revolved horizontal- 
ly to sweep the horizon. The im- 
age of objects on the surface is re- 
flected down this tube to a properly 
placed mirror below, so that the 
commander of the craft, by looking 
into the mirror before him, can see 
what is going on above the surface 
of the water so long as the periscope-box remains unsubmerged. Un- 
fortunately for the submarine, however, this periscope is a certain tell- 
tale of its whereabouts, and it was by a shot through its periscope that 
the British cruiser previously mentioned blinded the German subma- 
rine and brought it to the surface, when a second shot sent it to the 
bottom. At night, the handicaps of the submarine are obviously 
greatly increased. Despite its drawbacks, however, the submarine is 
a fiendish contrivance, and though it may not do all that its champions 
expect of it, it has been brought to a high degree of perfection and 
it has already given a sufficiently horrible account of itself. Eng- 
land has nearing completion the largest submarine in the world, the 




The Eyes of the Submarine 



SUBMARINES 



95 




British Cruiser Squadron — H. IVI. S. "Lion" Leading 



"JSTautilus." The extraordinary features of this craft are her size 
(1,500 tons) and her high speed on the surface (21 knots), enabling 
her to keep pace with the main fleet on the high seas. She will have a 
submerged speed of about 16 knots and will be armed with six 
torpedo-tubes. Most of the submarines now in service, however, are 
of an earlier, smaller, and much less efficient type than this dreadful 
engine of war. They are usually from 150 to 200 tons, and are from 
100 to 150 feet in length. They have a radius (distance that can be 
sailed without replenishing the stock of fuel) of about 1,000 miles on 
the surface and 100 to 150 miles under water. 

Naval Guns. — The battle-ship is essentially a floating platform for 
a battery of powerful guns. In fact, with the exception of a very 
few 16-inch American coast-defense guns, the heaviest weapons in 
existence are now afloat. We cannot here go into the disputes that 
have been waged over the respective merits of the big guns of the 
various nations, and it would be tedious to describe the guns of each 
nation in detail. In general, these guns are all very much alike, and 
in order to give the reader an idea of the size and power of the guns 
that constitute the main ofl'ensive armament of the modern battle-ship 
we may take the English 13.5 inch as typical. This gun weighs 76 
tons and is 45 calibers (60.75 feet) long. It will throw a projectile 
weighing 1,400 pounds a distance of more than ten miles with a muz- 



96 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 




The 11-inch Guns of the German Battle-Cruiser "IVIoitke' 



zle velocity of 2,821 feet a second. All ships of the dreadnought 
class carry as their main battery from eight to twelve guns of not less 
than 12-inch caliber, usually mounted in pairs in heavily armored re- 
volving turrets. Several nations have recently mounted three guns in 
a turret, and, in her four great dreadnoughts now building, France 
has taken the bold step of mounting four guns in a turret, believing 
the advantages of concentrated fire and simultaneous handling of 
the whole battery to be worth the risk of exposing all four to destruc- 
tion by one well-placed shot. 

The largest modern gun is simply a rifle on a large scale, embody- 
ing no essential principle not found in the small weapon. Powerful 
and swiftly operating machinery, either hydraulic or electric, raises 
its great muzzle in the air and swings it across the horizon in search of 
its prey. Its shell is raised into position and thrust into the breech 
by machinery, as a projectile w^eighing three quarters of a ton cannot 
be manipulated by hand. The great breech-block swings on hinges 
and is locked by a slight turn of a crank. The powder-charge, weigh- 
ing about 300 pounds, is packed in silk bags, as coarser fabrics may 
leave unburned fragments and explosions may ensue. They are usual- 
ly fired by closing an electric switch, though they can be fired by a per- 
cussion trigger. The cost of firing each charge is about $600. One 



NAVAL GUNS 



9T 



round can be fired in a little less than a minute. The gun itself costs 
about $50,000. The modern heavy gun is very short-lived, due to the 
erosive effect of the gases of smokeless powders and the terrifically 
high velocity of the shell. Some of these guns have a life of only one 
hundred rounds; but recent guns in which the velocity has been re- 
duced can deliver as many as 250 shots before they become so inaccu- 
rate as to necessitate relining. 




A 6-in. and Two 13.5-in. Guns of H, M. S. "Iron Duke" 



These guns fire a frightful engine of destruction called the armor- 
piercing shell. Reference has been made already to the battle between 
armor and gun which, for the present, the gun has won. An Ameri- 
can 14-inch gun will pierce 16 inches of the hardest armor made at a 
range of 10,000 yards, and European guns of similar type will do the 
same. All armor is now made by the Krupp process, which face- 
hardens a steel plate to an extraordinary degree. "Harveyized" steel, 
popularly supposed to be the acme of steel armor, is a thing of the 
past. A projectile hard enough to pierce a plate of Krupp armor — 
so hard, that is to say, that it will cut glass — will shatter itself to 
pieces like glass if fired in the form of an ordinary shell. The armor- 
piercing shell has a nose or cap of soft steel over its real "business 



98 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 



end." The effect of the impact of this soft nose is not clearly under- 
stood, but probably it is to dent and strain the plate so that the sharp 
point of the body of the shell, striking an instant later, is able to bore 
its way through, and also, and perhaps more important, to protect and 




Bow of a British Dreadnought with Launching Platform for Aeroplanes 

support the boring point. But the shell is ,not content merely with 
boring a hole through a ship's armor. Inside the projectile is a charge 
of about one hundred pounds of the most powerful explosives known, 
and screwed inside the base of the shell is a delayed-action fuse of the 
type already described, which is so timed that it will detonate the 



ARMOR PLATE 99 

















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German Battle-ship Squadron in Column 

charge at the exact instant when the projectile has made its way 
through the armor plate into the ship, and then — there is no more 
ship. Such is what would undoubtedly happen were a shell to ex- 
plode within a war vessel; but battles are not fought under the same 
conditions that prevail at gun proving-grounds. It is a fact that at 
the battle of Tsu-shima, between the Japanese and the Russians, the 
main armor belt of not a single ship on either side was pierced, even 
when the Japanese closed to within 3,300 yards. Hundreds of armor- 
piercing shells, carrying their frightful charges, of course struck, but 
they glanced on the rolling vessels and passed harmlessly on. It was 
the hurricane of smaller shot, with which the Japanese swept the decks 
and unarmored parts of the Russian ships, killing and demoralizing 
the crews, that gained the victory. 

Operating a Large Gun. — Large naval guns are pointed by 
means of telescopic sights. A small telescope of low magnifying 
power is set on a part of the carriage unaffected by the recoil so that it 
moves in exact unison with the gun both laterally and vertically, and 
is so constructed that it can be depressed the exact number of degrees 
necessary to elevate the muzzle of the gun for the desired range. 
The object-glass is scored with a vertical and a horizontal hair-line. 
If the range has been correctly estimated, and exact allowance has 
been made for various disturbing factors — such as the wind, speed of 
vessels, etc.— the shot will strike the target if the gun is fired at the 



100 



WAR-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 



t~~"; — \ 



French Battle-ships of the Pre-dreadnought Type 



exact instant the image of the target crosses the hair-Hnes on the 
telescope. Firing may be done in two ways: the sight may be de- 
pressed to the proper angle and by means of the powerful and flexible 
elevating gear m ith which modern guns are equipped the telescope 
may be kept trained exactly upon the target until the favorable mo- 
ment for shooting arrives ; or the gun maj^ be left stationary and fired 
when the roll of the ship sweeps the image of the target across the 
telescope sight, properly depressed for range. Naturally the pitch- 
ing and rolling of the vessel make accurate shooting very difficult 
even in ordinary weather, and quite impossible in a heavy sea. Indi- 
vidual gun-firing has given place in modern practice to methods of 
firing batteries simultaneously. This method, known as "director- 
firing," has been highly perfected by Admiral Sir Percy Scott, and 
phenomenal firing records of various British ships have been reported. 
Exact methods of fire-control are secret in all navies ; but in "director- 
firing" all the broadside guns of the ship can be made to follow the 
movements of one master gun. When the range has been found and 
proved by this gun, the others can be fired simultaneously. The 
simultaneous bursting of eight or ten 1,400-pound shells charged 



OPERATING LARGE GUNS 



lor 



with half a ton of trinitrotoluol, can be compared only to the sudden 
eruption of a volcano. 

Range-finding. — Knowledge of the exact range is essential to ac- 
curate shooting. Various means of calculating the distance of an in- 
accessible object are in use, all depending on the simple geometrical 
principle that if the length of the base of a triangle and the size of 




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Deck of the German Battle-Cruiser "Goeben' 



the two angles at the base are known, the distance of the apex from the 
base or the length of the other sides can readily be calculated. In land 
fortifications it is easy to lay off a long, permanent base for range- 
finding ; but on a war-ship this is obviously out of the question, and a 
very ingenious mechanical device, known as a "range-finder," is used. 
This is a tube, about nine feet in length, mounted horizontally. It 
has mirrors at each end, which can be made to converge by adjusting- 
screws. One of these mirrors reflects only the top half of the object 



iCf2''* ••"•'Wlll-SHIPS AND NAVAL IMPLEMENTS 

on which it is directed, and the other reflects the lower half. When 
these two half -images are made to "match" precisely, the mirrors are 
reflecting the exact angles between the target and the two ends of the 
range-finder. A pointer on a scale shows the range of the target in 
yards. , Range-finders are mounted on the tops of the military-masts. 
On United States ships the mihtary masts are in the shape of a lat- 
ticed column. European ships have tripod masts. Fortunately, the 
much-debated question of the value of the American type of mast is 
not likely to be decided in this war. 





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8-in, Gun, Showing Telescope Sight and Operating Gear 



Torpedoes. — The automobile torpedo is a cigar-shaped metallic 
boat, equipped with engines driven by superheated compressed air, 
and kept true to its course by lateral and horizontal rudders. It car- 
ries in its nose a heavy charge of some high explosive (formerly wet 
guncotton, now trinitrotoluol), which is detonated by a firing-pin 
when the torpedo strikes. Torpedo boats and destroyers launch their 
torpedoes from swiveling deck-tubes by means of compressed air. 
Larger ships have tubes below the water line through which they are 
launched. A sort of trigger on the top of the torpedo is caught and 
thrown back as it leaves the tube, and this starts the engines. There- 
after, the torpedo is to all intents and purposes a self-contained sub- 
marine boat. 



AUTOMOBILE TORPEDOES 



103 



The devices that keep the torpedo true to its course and at 
a proper depth are of great ingenuity. The torpedo can be set so that 
it will run either along the surface of the water or at any desired 
depth, down to about twenty feet. The steering-gear that keeps it 
true in the vertical plane is based on the principle that the pressure of 
water increases with the depth. A spring is set to the known pressure 
of the water at the depth at which it is desired to run the torpedo. 
Should it sink below that depth, the increased weight of the water will 
press the spring back and thus open a valve that operates a small 




Torpedo Boat Discharging a Torpedo 



steering-engine. Should the torpedo rise, the pressure will decrease 
and the spring will force the valve in the opposite direction, thus actu- 
ating a corresponding turn of the rudder. A pendulum, free to swing 
in the longitudinal plane, checks sudden upward and downward move- 
ments and over-application of rudder pressure by striking the valve 
mechanism when brought into play. 

The torpedo is kept true to a straight-ahead course by a gyroscopic 
device, known as the "Obry gear." The gyroscope tends strongly 
to revolve always in the same plane. If the torpedo should veer, it 
would throw the longitudinal axis of the torpedo to the right or the 
left of the plane of the gyroscope, thus actuating stern rudders 




DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUBMARINE 
This Plate Shows the Successive Types of Submarines Constructed for the British Navy 



104 



AUTOMOBILE TORPEDOES 



105 



which bring it back to its proper course. In time of war, torpedoes 
are set to sink in case they go wide of their mark. 

The most recent types of torpedoes are of long range, and are 
astonishingly accurate in their flight. The best known type is the 
English Whitehead. The German Schwartzkopf ("Blackhead") 
differs very slightly from the Whitehead. The typical torpedo in use 




[Slew Type of Torpedo Which Fires an Armor-piercing Shell. The Ordinary Torpedo 

Explodes on Impact. This Type Acts as a Gun the Muzzle of Which Is 

Brought Directly Against the Side of an Enemy's Ship 

to-day is from 15 to 17 feet long and 18 to 21 inches in diameter. It 
has a range of about 8,000 yards, though England reports a new type 
with a 10,000-yard range. Its initial speed is about 35 knots, running 
down to about 26 knots when nearing the end of its radius. The cost 
of a torpedo is between four and five thousand dollars. The increase 
in range of torpedoes has had a decisive effect on tactics, as a battle 
obviously cannot be begun within the zone covered by the torpedoes of 
the two opposing lines. Battle-ships are protected from torpedoes 
while at anchor by steel nets hung from booms. Torpedoes are 
equipped with shears for the purpose of making their way through 
such nets. 



GENERAL 




From Nelson's "War Attas." 
A FORT AT LlkoE 

These Drawings Show the External Appearance and Internal Structure of the Cupola Forts of 

Liege, Designed by General Brialmont, Which, Under the Command of General Leman, 

Offered so Determined a Resistance to the German Invaders Until They Were 

Able to Bring Their Terrible 420 Millimeter Guns to Bear 



106 



CHAPTER VII 

COAST-DEFENSES AND FORTIFICATIONS 

Compared with battle-ships, destroyers and automobile torpedoes, 
fortifications are a rather prosaic subject; but as they are the very 
backbone of a nation's defense a few words regarding them may be in- 
teresting. In this country we have only coast-defenses to consider ; but 
continental Europe is scored with chains of interior fortifications for 
the protection of frontiers, important cities, and strategic points. The 
modern inland fort is small and very unobtrusive. Its walls, bomb- 
proof shelters, redoubts, and gun emplacements are all concealed be- 
hind mounds and grassy slopes so that it merges modestly into the 
landscape. Its guns are masked as much as possible, and a cluster of 
pretty shrubs may conceal a battery of deadly mortars. 

A city such as Liege, which was so valiantly defended against the 
Germans in this war, is protected by a girdle of forts at a distance 
of five or six miles from the outskirts of the town. There are 
usually four or five main forts, with smaller redoubts between, set at 
such intervals that their fire-zones, intersect. In advance of the forts 
is a continuous line of infantry trenches, and in favorable spots are 
lines of barbed-wire entanglements, usually charged with electricity 
and other devices for obstructing the enemy, such as pits with sharp 
stakes at the bottom, felled trees entangled with wire, and rows of 
stout sharpened branches pegged into the ground. Behind the en- 
tanglements are mines, or "fougasses," that can be fired electrically 
from the forts. Between the forts, batteries of howitzers are placed 
in positions commanding the enemy's approach. A light railway, for 
keeping the forts provisioned and renewing supplies, running through 
a deep trench, connects the entire chain of forts. Until the enemy's 
attack becomes so fierce that it is no longer possible to keep the field, 
the defending troops, in the daytime, take up their positions behind 
these trenches and field defenses in the open country between the 

107 



108 



COAST-DEFENSES AND FORTIFICATIONS 



forts, retiring to the shelter of the fort at night, or in foggy weather. 
The last stage of the siege comes when the surrounding territory 
is so swept by the enemy's fire that the defenders are compelled to 
remain in the forts. 

In principle these forts are not unlike immovable battle-ships. 
They are usually triangular and their main protection — their side- 
armor, to use a naval term — lies in the thick embankment of sand and 
earth with which they are surrounded. This embankment — or "glacis," 
as its face is called — slopes gently toward the front, so that the enemy's 




German Officers in Artfully Constructed Shelter 

fire from the base will clear the top. Sand is very obdurate against 
gun-fire, and a thick bank of it will smother the most powerful shell. 
Behind this embankment — the whole of which is often called the 
"counterscarp," though that term is properly applied only to the sup- 
porting wall at the back of it — is a deep ditch, surrounding the inner 
citadel. Piercing this central structure from end to end is a long 
gallery, through which access to the fort is gained from the outside 
by a small tunnel-like gateway. From this central gallery, side pas- 
sages lead to the soldiers' quarters, magazines and store-rooms, and 
to the stairways leading up to the armored cupolas protecting gun- 
batteries, search-lights, range-finders, and the small observation 
chamber in which the commanding officer takes up his position. The 



COAST DEFENSES 



109 



inner citadel is constructed of massive concrete, and the large guns 
are mounted in heavily armored revolving disappearing turrets. 

Famous military engineers have exhausted every resource of tech- 
nical science in making the modern fort theoretically impregnable. 
They are seemingly able to resist the heaviest artillery that can be 
brought against them, and capable of unloosing an appalling hur- 
ricane of shot and shell. T^Tevertheless, the fate of Liege and Namur 
shows that it is possible to bring to bear upon them a fire severe 
enough to crush their resistance, and the new German 420 millimeter 




English Artillery Bringing Up Heavy Siege-guns 



(16% in.) siege howitzers seem to have sealed the fate of the inland 

fort.^ 

Coast Defenses — The heaviest weapons are mounted on coast for- 
tifications, though few exceed in power the guns carried by the new- 
est dreadnoughts. The 14-inch and 12-inch guns, which diifer only in 
the mounting from naval guns of the same size, already described, 
constitute the main armament of coast forts. The average 12-inch 
gun will strike a blow at the muzzle of about 45,000 foot-tons, while 
a 14-inch gun has a striking power of about 65,000 foot-tons, a foot- 
ton being the energy necessary to lift a ton one foot high in a second. 
As the largest dreadnought weighs only 30,000 tons, the terrific 
power of these guns may be realized. The long guns are supple- 



110 



COAST-DEFENSES AND FORTIFICATIONS 



mented by short 12-inch and smaller mortars, used for high-angle fire 
designed to plunge the shells downward upon the decks of the enemy's 
ships. The typical 12-inch mortar is a short, squat weapon, about 16 




Rear View of 12-inch Disappearing Carriage. Gun in Firing Position 



feet long. It will fire a shell weighing half a ton farther than a 14- 
inch gun will carry, at the rate of about one shot a minute. It is 
mounted on a tilted base, so that the muzzle can be pointed very high 
and throw the shells miles into the air. They are set in groups in deep 
pits. In Europe the large coast-defense guns are usually mounted in 
armored turrets, as on a battle-ship ; or in steel cupolas which rise and 



RANGE FINDING 



111 



sink after firing into concrete cylindrical chambers. In this country, 
the disappearing carriage, which rears the gun in the air and sinks it 
back out of sight below the parapet when fired, is favored. 

Range-finding. — Finding the range is a very important and inter- 
esting procedure. The principle of range-finding has already been re- 
ferred to in the discussion of naval guns. On land, two well-protected 
observing stations are selected at each end of a base about a mile long. 
When an enemy's ship comes into sight, she is observed simultaneously 
with suitable instruments from these stations, and the respective an- 
gles which the hull makes with the base-line are telephoned to what is 




German UTticer- Operating a Field Range-finder 



called the "plotting-room" within the fort. Thirty seconds later simi- 
lar observations are made, and from these two the ship's position, 
speed, and direction can be instantly obtained. But the exact range 
alone is not sufficient. Corrections must be made for wind-pressure, 
varying tide-levels, atmospheric pressure, variation of the powder en- 
ergy due to temperature, and, of course, the ship's speed and direction. 
All these corrections are made within a twinkling by ingenious me- 
chanical devices, and the exact angle at which the guns are to be ele- 
vated is telephoned to the officer in charge of the batterj^ Another 
form of range-finder has a vertical base provided by a high tower. 
This system has the advantage of being purely mechanical, as it is only 
necessary to train the telescope of the instrument upon the target and 
read off the range in yards on a scale below. This instrument is based 
on the same principle as the naval range-finder already described. 



llg 



COAST-DEFENSES AND FORTIFICATIONS 



-V Planting Buoy 
WATER LINE 



Usually both systems are used in combination, and should the enemy 
destroy the permanent observation stations, the naval range-finder 
may be pressed into service. In the last extremity, gunners would get 
the range by comparison with fixed objects on the land, buoys, etc., 

the range of which had already 
been ascertained and recorded. 

Submarine Mines. — Harbor ap- 
proaches and the channels in the 
vicinity of fortified naval bases are 
protected by fields of submarine 
mines. So ingeniously are these 
laid, and so terrible is their destruc- 
tive capacity, that it seems almost 
impossible for an attacking fleet 
ever to penetrate the zone they cov- 
er. The modern submarine mine is 
of three forms: (1) Automatic, 
which explodes when struck; (2) 
Observation, fired electrically from 
the shore when the ship is supposed 
to be sufficiently close, and (3) 
Electrical contact, which gives a 
signal when struck, and is prompt- 
ly exploded by a watchful operator. 
Submarine mines are laid in several 
parallel lines, usually in groups of 
three. They are hollow metal 
globes, filled with a sufficient quan- 
tity of explosives 
to destroj^ the lar- 
gest battle-s h i p. 
They are anchored 
to the bottom by 
cables in such a 
to othe7M inw' way that they float 
about ten feet be- 

of Anchored Submarine Mine loW the SUrfaCC. 




SUBMARINE MINES 



113 



The electrical wires by which they are operated run to what are 
known as "junction-boxes," controlHng a group, and thence to the 
shore in cables. They can be fired either singly, or in groups of 
three, or the whole field can be exploded at once. Or they can be set 
to explode on contact. In order to clear a mine field, countermining 
operations are resorted to, either by sending small boats into the field 
to sow it with new mines that explode the old ones by the shock of 
their own explosion, or by dragging with cables, fitted with grappling 
irons, drawn across the field between two boats of light draft. In 
order to repel countermining operations, batteries of rapid-fire guns 
are alwaj^s placed where they can command the field. The German 
fleet to-day is in all probability at anchor behind coast defenses and 
lines of submarine mines of the general type we have just described. 
The magnitude of the task confronting the English fleet which de- 
sires to bring it to bay may therefore be imagined. Contact floating 
mines are set in the open sea in the course of the enemy's ships. These 
are usually launched overboard in couples from a mine-layer connected 
by cables, so that when a ship's bow strikes this cable it swings the two 
mines sharply against the vessel's side. The British cruiser "Am- 
phion" was destroyed by one of these fiendish contrivances in the early 
days of the war. 




British Dreadnought "Orion" 





**AIR NAVIES'' 

OF THE 

NATIONS 

Dirig- Aero- 

Ibles planes 

Germany . . 40 1,000 

Austria . . 8 400 

France. . . 22 1,400 

Great Britain 9 400 

Russia ... 18 800 

Belgium ' . . 2 100 

Servia ... 60 

Italy ... 30 119 




'HEARD THE HEAVENS FILL WITH SHOUTING, AND THERE RAINED A GHASTLY DEW 
FROM THE NATIONS' AIRY NAVIES GRAPPLING IN THE CENTRAL BLUE."— Tennyson. 

114 



CHAPTER VIII 

AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY IN WAR 

The most spectacular feature of the present war, and the one on 
which popular interest is most intensely centered, is the part to be 
played by aircraft. The development of the flying-machine from an 
ancient jest to a decisive factor in warfare has been phenomenally 
rapid, and it has passed from conquest to conquest with astounding 
speed. In fact, it was only in 1912 that aviation was officially consti- 
tuted a new arm of the service by all the great Powers. The imagina- 
tion plays readily about the flying-machine and its new and startling 
powers of destruction. It is easy to picture great air-ships speeding 
by night and dropping tons of explosives upon doomed cities, armies, 
fortifications, and ships at sea.* Visions of flocks of aeroplanes, firing 
machine-guns and shooting clouds of explosive darts, may readily be 
conjured up. The imaginative talents of a war-correspondent, in 
search of material denied him by the callous censor, may delineate for 
us the thrilling scene of a devoted patriot hurling his aeroplane upon 
a huge air-ship and going to his death along with the enemy's craft 
and aeronauts in a blaze of flaming hydrogen. The popular fancy is 
running riot with pictures of this kind; but whether anything of the 
sort will really happen the war alone must determine. Ofl'ensive and 
defensive warfare keep a fairly close pace, and it is a fact that rela- 
tively fewer men are killed in modern warfare than in the days of 
battle-ax and cross-bow. At least, such has been the case in recent 
wars; and whether the present stl'uggle will show the same tendency 
toward killing fewer men at greater cost remains to be seen. The kill- 
ing of each Boer in the South African war cost the English $40,000 ; 
and as weapons have increased greatly in capacity and are correspond- 
ingly more wasteful, it is likely to cost much more to-day. Be that as 
it may, aircraft are a new and exceedingly important factor in mod- 
ern warfare, and the aeroplane at least has already demonstrated its 

115 



116 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



enormous value for reconnoitering, and in consequence has pro- 
foundly modified military tactics. 





Zeppelin Flying Over German Fleet in Kiel Harbor 



Aircraft, as is well known, are divided into two distinct classes — 
the aeroplane, or heavier-than-air machine; and the air-ship, or diri- 
gible balloon, which is maintained in the air by the buoyant force of 
hydrogen gas. 



DIRIGIBLES 117 

Air-ships. — Air-ships, or dirigibles, which are essentially elongated 
balloons, driven by propellers, are of three classes — rigid, semi-rigid, 
and non-rigid. In the rigid type, the gas-containing body, or hull, is 




Zeppelin at Rest in Its Huge "Air-dock" 

supported by a solid framework either of aluminum or of wood, con- 
taining several individual gas-bags, so that the craft will still remain 
in the air, even though several bags are torn. The cars containing the 
engines, crew-compartments, propellers, etc., are fitted to this frame- 
work close to the bottom of the hull. 



118 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 




Car of the Russian Dirigible "Russia" 



In the semi-rigid type, the bottom of the hull is strengthened so as 
to form a support for the car. This type shows a tendency to disap- 
pear in favor of the non-rigid, which has a flexible bodj^ without solid 
supports and capable of quick deflation for transport or when threat- 
ened with sudden danger. The Zeppelin, in which the framework is 
of aluminum; the Schiitte-Lanz, and the French Spiess, with wooden 
frames, are of the rigid type. The Gross and the Veeh are semi-rigid. 
The Parseval and the French Astra-Torres are non-rigid. The rigid 
type, while stronger and more efficient in many ways than the flexible 
type, which has nothing to support its gas-envelope but the fabric of 
which it is made, and internal ropes and bands from which the car is 
hung, has the disadvantage of a forced dependence upon huge fixed 
sheds for cover, and is exposed to the peril of destruction if forced to 
land in a high wind at a distance from its shed. A whole' battalion of 
men is required to maneuver it into its shed. Although the early 
career of the Zeppelin was marked by a series of heart-breaking disas- 
ters, it has redeemed itself recently and is to-day unquestionably a 



DIRIGIBLES 



119 



war-engine of formidable possibilities. The latest German Zeppelins 
have a gas capacity of 28,000 cubic meters (989,000 cubic feet), a 
lifting capacity of about 50 tons, and an average speed of 60 miles an 
hour. Their range is not known exactly, but it is probably not much 
short of 1,000 miles, and may be even greater. 




British Dirigible — Astra-Torres Type 



In her new mammoth Astra-Torres, France has a dirigible, of the 
non-rigid type, of 23,000 cubic meters' capacity, weighing only 16 
tons. It is 110 meters (360 feet) long by 19 meters (62 feet) greatest 
beam. Its engines are of 1,000 horse-power, and because of its light- 
ness it is expected to prove faster than the new Zeppelins. 

All military dirigibles carry searchlights, wireless outfits, and ma- 
chine guns in their cars. They also have funnels leading from the car 
through the gas envelope, so that men may mount to the top of the 
body and operate machine guns mounted thereon, and thus repel 
attacks from above. 

Aeroplanes. — Little need be said by way of description of the aero- 



120 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



plane. The public has been so fascinated by its exploits during the 
past few years and has followed its developments so keenly that nearly 
everj^one is familiar with its details and its various types. We need 
onlj^ say here that the monoplane is the better adapted for speed, while 




French Air-ship — ^Zeppelin Type 



the biplane, on account of its superior structural strength, has greater 
lifting power. Recent military aeroplanes have been quite heavily 
armored, men, rudders, and engines being covered. They are armed 
with machine guns usually operated by a gunner who sits below the 
aviator with the gun fixed between his legs, and very fair aeroplane 
shooting records have been reported. The recoil of the gun does not 
noticeably disturb the balance of the machine. Various bomb-drop- 
ping devices have been invented ; but so far nothing of that kind has 



AEROPLANES 



121 



proved reliable. Bombs, of course, can be thrown overboard at ran- 
dom from any aircraft, and may by accident do great damage, but to 
plant them surely upon a given spot under war conditions is quite 
another matter. Anyone who has ever tried to hit a stationary target, 
at a known range, with a rifle, can easily imagine the difficulty of 
firing from an air-ship going at the rate of fifty miles an hour, either 
at a stationary object or at an aeroplane darting about the heavens 
like a great dragon-fly. On the other hand, before the war began. 




The Car of a French Armored Aeroplane 



very successful records were made with guns and rifles from the 
ground against kite-targets representing aeroplanes and drawn b}'' 
automobiles; and despatches have frequently mentioned the destruc- 
tion of both aeroplanes and air-ships by gun-fire. No aircraft can 
operate efl'ectually at a greater altitude than 5,000 feet, and though 
that is nearly a mile in the air, it is well within rifle-range, not to men- 
tion howitzers, which can throw shrapnel shells, belching clouds of 
bullets, three times that distance. Guns specially designed for use 
against aircraft can be made to shoot vertically if necessary. 

The air-ship has two great advantages over the aeroplane — two 
advantages, in fact, which make it greatly to be dreaded. It can sail 
at night and, in favorable weather, remain almost stationary over a 
cl^osen spot. The aeroplane, on the other hand, will fall to the ground 
unless its speed is fully twenty miles an hour, and an aviator cannot 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



steer his aeroplane without some guiding hghts and cannot land safely 
unless he can see the ground before him. In order to ward off air-ships 
from fortifications, fleets, and other vital spots, it has been proposed to 
sow the air with aerial mines, held aloft by balloons, in a manner 
analogous to the sea mine-field. 

In aerial tactics, the air-ship holds the same relative position that 
the dreadnought holds on the sea — indeed, in length, air-ships do not 




Dirigible Flying Over French Artillery 

faU far short of the smaller battle-ships — and, as the sea-dreadnought 
is protected while at anchor by a restless shoal of torpedo-destroyers, 
so the air-dreadnought will be accompanied hj a flock of aeroplanes 
to protect her against the raids of the enemy's aeroplanes or to drive 
them away before attacking. 

A very interesting development of the aeroplane is the flying boat, 
or hydro-aeroplane. These craft are like huge ducks, taking their 
flight from and landing upon the water with the utmost ease. Real- 
izing the great value of such craft in naval operations, England has 
been especially active in their development and construction, and her 
fleets to-day are accompanied by flocks of hydro-aeroplanes. She has 



HYDRO-AEROPLANES 



123 




British Armored Hydro-ae'poplane with Machine Gun 

done very little with dirigibles, and she places her main reliance upon 
her sea-plane fleet. The newest form of sea-plane used in the British 
navy has folding wings, so that it can be tucked snugly away on the 
deck of a war-ship, like a big moth at rest. An aeroplane ship is now 
under construction w^hich will "mother" twenty or thirty machines of 
this type. They can be launched from and reshipped to a battle-ship 
in quite rough weather in the open sea. 

On land, the automobile has been pressed into service for the 
transport both of aeroplanes and of the tanks of compressed hydro- 
gen used for inflating dirigibles. 

Whatever may be the result of the test of aircraft as weapons 
of war, the airship with its great lifting capacity can certainly be put 
to very effective use as a means of transport of war supplies to the 
front, and of wounded to the rear; while the aeroplane has already 
demonstrated its preeminence as a means of reconnoissance over all 



124 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



methods hitherto known. The latest British army maneuvers pre- 
ceding this war were said to have come to a deadlock because the 
opposing army commanders knew the enemy's dispositions so exactly 
and were so promptly notified of strategical movements by aeroplane 
observers that neither side could strike effectively. In all previous 




Aeroplane Taking Flight from British Battle-ship 



wars, the onty means of finding the enemy's position was by cavalry 
scouts thrown out in advance of the army, and frequently "recon- 
noissances in force," tentative attacks made for the purpose of draw- 
ing the enemy's fire and making him disclose his forces, were resorted 
to. Now, the eagle-eyed aeroplane observes and reports every move 
of the enemy, and modern warfare has become a game of chess in 
which all moves are made in the presence of both players, and strata- 
gems and surprises are relegated to a minor role. 



AEROPLANES AS SCOUTS 



125 



A very important task of the aeroplane is to observe and report by 
wireless upon the effect of gun-fire. Modern field guns are operated 
at high angles and long ranges. The aeroplane observer can direct 
changes in range and direction, if necessary, and can instruct the 
gunners how to bring their fire to bear upon an object, invisible to 
them, such as a body of troops behind a hill, for example. It is 
thought, also, that the aeroplane may be used to spy out submarines. 




Aeroplane Circling H. M. S. "Conqueror" 



As is well known, it is possible from a high altitude, under favorable 
circumstances, to see for some distance below the surface of water 
beneath. Advantage will be taken of this fact by sea-planes, which 
will hover around a fleet at sea, watching for submarines, like an 
eagle on the lookout for fish. 

Wireless Telegraphy in War. — On January 8, 1815, was fought 
the battle of New Orleans, both sides being ignorant that a treaty of 
peace was signed fifteen days before. Just a century later, Ger- 
man ships on the high seas in all parts of the world, warned that war 
had been declared by messages flying through the air, suddenly turned 
about and fled for the nearest port of safety, lest they should fall a 



126 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



prey to lurking British cruisers. Nothing could more graphically 
illustrate the great strides that have been made bj^ science in the space 
of one hundred years. As has happened with so many other wonder- 
ful modern inventions, wureless telegraphy and telephony have been 
promptly pressed into military service, so that they are now the chief 
means of communication between ships and distant sections of great 




French Automobile V, .:_.--_ Station 



armies in the field. In former days, flags and semaphores w^ere the 
sole means of communicating between ships. Now, though signals 
are still necessary and are constantly used in maneuvering, war-sliips 
can not only communicate readily and at great distances by wireless, 
but each ship (in the British navy, at least) is an independent wire- 
less telephone exchange, and officers may talk from ship to ship. 
Aeroplanes and dirigibles are also equipped with wireless outfits, and 
can keep constantly in touch with their bases. In the field, kites or 
small balloons, bearing the antennae of wireless apj^aratus, may be 
sent up and connection thus be made with similar aerial stations along 



WIRELESS ON SEA AND LAND 



127 



the far-extended front of the modern army, or with permanent sta- 
tions in the rear. 

During the siege of Adrianople, a lonely little wireless instrument 
kept up an uninterrupted communication with Constantinople, despite 
the eiforts of the besiegers to smother it with their more powerful 




British Field Telegraph Station 



currents. Secrecy in military wireless telegraphy is accomplished by 
"tuning" two or more instruments sympathetically. The "tune," or 
wave-length, can be changed easily at will, and the sending operator, 
having sent a few words at one wave-length, sends a code signal that 
means he is going to alter his machine to a new tune. The receiving 
operator, knowing the code, immediately changes his instrument to 
correspond, and the interchange continues without interruption. In 
this way, an enemy who happened to "cut in" would be baffled. It is 
this variety of wave-length that makes possible the uninterrupted com- 
munication of the great European land wireless stations, although 



128 



AIRCRAFT AND WIRELESS 



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Battery of German Field Kitchens 



the operating spheres of English, French, German, and Russian sys- 
tems overlap in a veritable aerial tangle. 

Such are the implements with which modern war is waged. In 
ingenuity they are fiendish; in capacity for destruction, appalling. 
The mind reels in contemplating their awful havoc-wreaking possi- 
bilities. Whether their performances in actual service will equal their 
mechanical potentialities, or whether many of them prove to be more 
potent in their moral effect than in their actual execution, the opera- 
tions of the next few months will tell. 



M^^OK 




Horiioni 
Rudde 



Shock Absorber 

ScabilityPiftnea ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE. 




Tips 



BLfiRIOT MONOPLANE. 



From Nelson's "War Atlas. 
AEROPLANES 
This Diagram Shows the Structure of the Leading Types of IVIilitary Aeroplanes 



129 





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130 



CHAPTER IX 

EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

When the first Napoleon had overrun Europe, left the bones of 
his devoted soldiers on every field, overturned nearly every govern- 
ment, and set his relatives on thrones, the nations that had been "made 
pale by his cannons' rattle" realized that a combined effort to crush 
his power was necessary to their very existence. The final result 
was Waterloo, with St. Helena in the distance. All Europe then 
needed a breathing-spell; but, for all its severe lessons, that was by 
no means the end of European wars, for the hills and plains and rivers 
of the crowded continent were unchanged, and human nature re- 
mained the same. After six years the guns began to boom again, and 
the European historian must count twelve considerable wars since 
that time — an average, of one in less than eight years. The reader 
will probably be interested in the following brief narratives of those 
contests, and thus will be able the better to understand the greater 
one that is now in progress. 

The Greek War for Independence (1821-'30) — In March, 1821, 
the Greeks, weary of the oppressive rule of Turkey, which had lasted, 
with brief intervals under Venetian rule, from 1460, became filled with 
a new and ardent desire for national independence and broke out in 
revolt against the Ottoman Empire at Jassy, Moldavia. The Turks 
tried to crush the insurrectionists in their usual barbarous way, by 
summary executions, murders, and massacres, one of the worst of 
which occurred in Chios (Scio), an island in the ^Egean Sea, where a 
population of about 100,000 was reduced to 2,000. But even these 
savage measures could not suppress the rising tide of Greek national- 
ism, and in January, 1822, a constitution for a new Greece was drawn 
up at Epidaurus by the national assembly. 

The noble patriotism and heroic fighting of the long-suffering 
Greeks, and the frightful massacres committed by their Turkish op- 
pressors, awakened the sympathy and indignation of the civilized 

131 



132 



EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 




The charge of the Scots Greys at Waterloo in 1815 



world, and men of other countries offered their services to Greece in 
her righteous revolt. The most celebrated man among these alien al- 
lies was Lord Byron, the English poet, who joined the Greek army in 
1824 but died within the j^ear. 

Early in 1825, the Turkish sultan, in a determined effort to deal a 
crushing blow to the Greek rebellion, called to his aid Ibrahim Pasha, 
Viceroy of Egypt, who, with an army of twenty thousand Egyptians, 
landed on the peninsula of the ]Morea (the Peloponnesus, as it was 
known in the ancient world) . For a time the struggle of Greece for 
freedom seemed hopeless, but European interest in her plight in- 
creased rather than diminished, and at last England, France, and Rus- 
sia determined to intervene. A protocol was drawn up in London, 
July 6, 1827, demanding an armistice, and at the same time these 
Powers augmented their own forces in the INIediterranean Sea. Turkey 
would not listen to the warnings or demands of the three Powers, how- 
ever, but, reljdng on the aid of Ibrahim Pasha and his troops, contin- 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1830 



133 







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The regiment fought in Belgium again in 1914 



ued her oppression of the Greeks until the international dispute came 
to a climax in the decisive naval bMtle of Navarino (October 20, 
1827), in which the allied forces annihilated the combined fleet of 
Turkish and Egyptian vessels. In the following year (1828-'29) 
Russia attacked Turkey with land forces and advanced victoriously 
as far as Adrianople, where peace was finally declared after Turkey 
had yielded to the demands of the allied Powers ; and by another pro- 
tocol, issued in London in 1830, Greece was proclaimed an indepen- 
dent kingdom, her first monarch under the new order of things being 
Otho, the second son of Louis I of Bavaria. 

The Revolution of July (1830). — ^After the death of Louis 
XVIII (1824) his brother, Charles X, ascended the throne of France. 
These kings were brothers of Louis XVI, executed in the French 
Revolution of 1792-'93. Louis XVIII accomplished much good for 
his realm, and under his reign the country enjoyed a high degree of 
prosperity. But his successor did not follow his brother's moderate 




134 



REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS OF 1848 135 

and liberal policy. He called Prince Polignac to power as the head 
of an extreme royalist ministry. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Deputies in 1830 an assurance 
was given to the French people that the constitutional charter, which 
granted public liberties, would be respected. But, to divert the pub- 
lic mind from a demand for greater political liberty, Polignac made 
an appeal to the French love of military glory by organizing an expe- 
dition to northern Africa to suppress the Algerian pirates along the 
coast. The army took possession of the city of Algiers and then of the 
whole of Algeria, and put an end to piracy in the neighboring waters. 

In France certain ordinances were passed somewhat later (July 
25, 1830) which were intended to muzzle the liberty of the press; meet- 
ings of the Chamber of Deputies were dissolved, and a new mode of 
election was established, all former elections being declared illegal. 

The success of the army in Algiers did not dazzle the French so 
much as to oif set these oiFenses against their comparatively new-found 
rights and liberties, and the people rose in protest, which soon in- 
creased to riot and open revolt. The revolution lasted only three days 
(July 27-29) , but while it raged the palace of the Tuileries was again 
invaded, as in the great Revolution, and Charles X was driven out of 
France. The crown was immediately offered to Louis Philippe, a 
great-grandnephew of Louis XIV, and was accepted, which act closed 
the brief but stormy Revolution of July. 

The Revolutionary Movements of 1848. — A hundred years ago, 
throughout Central Europe, began a political movement which, gath- 
ering strength in the middle of the nineteenth century, brought about 
a profound change in systems of government. Up to that time the 
spirit of absolutism had prevailed. Emperors and kings apparently 
waged wars to please themselves, and when a peace was concluded the 
people over whom they ruled found themselves little better off than 
before. Constitutional government was still a dream. Free speech 
and a free press were unknown. Feudalism was still in force, and ap- 
parently there was no relief from tyranny and excessive taxation. 

One of the chief causes in maintaining these conditions was the 
lack of national solidarity. The voluntary union of men speaking 
the same language, animated by the same ideals, and bound by ties of 
blood, had not been accomplished. The destinies of races were at the 




THE RUINS OF LOUVAIN 
The Hotel de Ville Is Standing Intact Among the Ruins of the Beautiful Cathedral of St. Pierre 



13$ 



REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS OF 1848 137 

mercy of conquerors and statesmen, and countries were partitioned, 
re-united and again partitioned, without reference to the laws of natu- 
ral development or to the consent of the governed. The Austrian 
rulers in the early nineteenth century, preceding the ascension of 
Francis Joseph, were men of small capacity, yet one statesman. 
Prince Metternich — with the prestige of the empire to support him — 
was able to impose his will upon Central Europe, and to smother the 
expression of all liberal ideas. 

The popular uprising that resulted, among other things, in the 
fall of Metternich, his flight and exile, was twofold. Its aim was, in 
the first place, to reform the intolerable abuses of the State, local and 
general, and in the second place, so to arouse the spirit of freedom that 
men united by common ties of race and language would rally under 
the same banner. 

Thus it came about that, though much blood was shed to little im- 
mediate purpose, and though the revolutions of these years ended in 
failure, Europe witnessed the birth of nationalism. In Italy, Maz- 
zini and Garibaldi, in Hungary, Kossuth and Francis Deak, in Ger- 
many, Hecker and Robert Blum, collaborated with speech and sword 
to shatter the traditions of despotism and prepare the way for free- 
dom and unity. 

This is the significance of the revolutionary movements in Italy, 
Austria, Germany, and to a less degree in France, in 1848-'49. From 
the first outbreak of the people at Messina, in September, 1847, and 
the speech of Kossuth at Presburg, in the following March, till the 
late summer of 1849, with despotism in the saddle once more, is a 
period embodying an idea that has left its mark on European civiliza- 
tion. Finally, it bears a very special relation to the terrible war of 
1914. For the triumph of the national principle which made pos- 
sible a united Italy and a unified Germany has at the same time inten- 
sified the feeling of race, and put patriotism on close terms with 
contempt and hatred for neighbors who speak another language. In 
the European war now raging it seems that national jealousies and 
national prejudices and ambitions weigh heavy in the balance against 
the good results we associate with the triumph of the national 
principle. 

After the fall of Napoleon the representatives of the great 




138 



REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS OF 1848 139 

Powers assembled at Vienna to reconstruct the map of Europe 
and divide the spoils of war. This assemblage was called a congress, 
yet really it was not a parliament at all. Its proceedings were vested 
in a committee that marked out boundaries and apportioned kingdoms 
by the rule of might. The dominating nations took as much as they 
could get without actually coming to blows, and the little States of 
Europe were obliged to be content with what was given them. As 
Prince Metternich was the controlling spirit of the congress, the 
Hapsburg dominions did not suffer, and Italy once more came under 
Austria's control. But, although absolutism in Europe had regained 
its old ascendancy, the leaven of the first French Revolution was at 
work. During the thirty years of peace that followed the Napoleonic 
wars, liberal ideas were generated in the minds of Magyar and Slav, 
Teuton and Italian, and there came a time when the demand for re- 
form began to find expression in acts. In Italy especially were the 
reformers at work, and the flame of insurrection had already been kin- 
dled in some of the Italian States. From that time it became a con- 
test between freedom and repression, between the modernism of 
Mazzini and the stifling system of Metternich. The world was to 
witness the strange spectacle of Italy's spiritual liberator, proscribed 
by his native land, controlling from his cheap lodgings in London the 
forces that were to overthrow the autocrat of Austria. 

The immediate impulse to the general revolution came from 
France — in other words, from Paris. The French people, by the 
Revolution of July, had driven out King Charles, only to set up 
Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, with the old title of King of the 
French. With him came a freer constitution; but he did not prove 
to be a popular ruler, and neither he nor his chief minister, Guizot, 
who succeeded Thiers, understood the temper of the people or the eco- 
nomic needs of the times. The crisis came when a great public ban- 
quet was arranged by the Opposition to proclaim the nature of its 
demands. The king fortunately forbade the people to assemble in 
this manner, and so there was no banquet. Instead, there were bar- 
ricades, and from behind these barricades an aroused republicanism 
suddenly sprang to arms. This was on February 21-22, 1848. Two 
days later the "Citizen King," rudely awakened from his false sense 
of security by this unexpected demonstration of the popular will, 



140 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

stepped down from his throne and made way for the Second Republic. 

It was as if the Goddess of Liberty, incarnate in France, had 
tossed her cap in air for all Central Europe to see. Metternich could 
not gather in his fist the wind of destiny, and so the tempest broke. 

In Hungary, Louis Kossuth, the uncompromising, let loose his 
thunderbolts of oratory. His speech in the Diet, INIarch 3, 1848, not 
only inflamed his passionate compatriots with revolutionarj^ ardor, but 
aroused Vienna as well. Students and laborers clashed with soldiers, 
and blood was shed. Metternich, perceiving that his career was at an 
end, fled from the flames of his burning residence, and sought safety 
in England. Two weeks later the Hungarian Diet enacted the 
March laws that made Hungary independent, creating a ministry 
through which the Austrian monarch must exercise his royal author- 
ity. Hungary was to have her own army and her own flag. With 
Budapest, not Presburg, as the seat of government, she was to enjoy, 
with a modern constitution, a free press, religious liberty, and trial by 
jury. The people, not the nobility, were to elect the Diet. All this 
in a countrj^ whose 13,000,000 population embraced 11,000,000 serfs. 

Reformers in Vienna and the Austrian provinces seized their op- 
portunity to exact from the Government not only local reforms but a 
contribution for the empire as well. These demands were granted, 
as in Hungary, because the Austrian army was in Italy, and the 
House of Hapsburg could only bide its time. 

The same policy of craft and concession marked the emperor's at- 
titude toward the Czechs. Bohemia entertained national aspirations. 
While greatly in the majority, the Czechs feared the supremacy of the 
smaller but richer German population; therefore they sought to re- 
vive their own language, and, along with sweeping local reforms, to 
obtain the privilege of national self-government. 

Germany, too, soon fell into line. The loosely-knit Confedera- 
tion of German States, formed by the Congress of Vienna, had been 
a prop in the reactionary system devised and maintained by INIetter- 
nich, but now the time seemed ripe not merely for reforms but for 
realizing the Liberals' dream of unitj^ The Prussian King did not, 
for the time, dispel that dream. The Parisian custom of erecting 
barricades in certain emergencies was now adopted by the people of 
Berlin, and scenes of violence marked the week of March 15. So the 



REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS OF 1848 141 

king made certain provinces by proclamation ; the Liberals, by way of 
a beginning, assembled soon afterward at Heidelberg, to provide for 
a popular election of a constitutional assembly, and the parliament 
thus elected, with the reluctant consent of Diet and petty princes, met 
at Frankfort on May 18. Its deliberations were attended with great 
difficulties and dangers, but a better understanding of what hap- 
pened will be reached if we observe the state of things in Italy. 

The Italians, it must be borne in mind, were not a nation at all, 
politically speaking, and had not been since the time of the Romans. 
Actually, they were bound together by such ties of race, tradition, 
sentiment, and language as had no counterpart in the artificial king-, 
doms of the north, with their Babel of tongues and their appalling 
confusion of populations. It followed that in Italy there was little 
feeling of loyalty to the Hapsburgs — over-lords and cruel oppressors, 
with no natural right to their territory — and that the revolutionary 
movement in the peninsula was first of all aimed at their expulsion. 
Besides helping to keep the petty princes on their precious thrones, 
Austria was the owner of Lombardy and Venetia, with their principal 
cities of Milan and Venice. To the west was Piedmont, an indepen- 
dent State ruled by Charles Albert, King of Sardinia. Italy had 
long been a network of secret societies plotting Austria's ruin, but 
Mazzini founded in Young Italy an organization of greater import. 
Poetry, oratory, statesmanship became allies in a common movement. 
In 1846 Pius IX was elected pope, and his sympathy with measures 
of reform excited the highest expectations. The way seemed to be 
prepared. 

On March 18, 1848, Milan struck the first blow. The people rose 
against Radetzky, the savage and redoubtable general in command of 
Austria's army, and after five days of furious fighting they drove the 
troops from the city. The Austrians, in this encounter, committed 
incredible cruelties, spitting mere children on the points of their bayo- 
nets and torturing prisoners who fell into their hands. In Venice a 
republic was proclaimed. Charles Albert, who had shown some in- 
firmity of purpose, acted at last, and marched at the head of his army 
into Lombardy. Tuscany, Naples, and the papacy rallied, for the 
time, to his aid. But Radetzky, veteran of many bloody campaigns, 
commanded an army superior in organization and discipline. Forced 




s « 



Uft 



REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS OF 1848 143 

out of Milan, he made his way to the Quadrilateral of Venetia. 
Skilled in maneuver, he outgeneraled Charles Albert, and at the bat- 
tle of Custozza, July 25, the patriots of Piedmont were so badly de- 
feated that Austria recovered Lombardy. 

Meanwhile another victory had been won by Austria nearer home. 
In the revolution of 1848 the empire was able to uphold its suprem- 
acy less by feats of arms than by the diplomatic cunning that pitted 
one of the subject races against another. This is what happened in 
Bohemia. The Czechs were so determined to nationalize their coun- 
try at the expense of the Germans, and the Germans so vigorously op- 
posed the attempt, that the two races came to blows at Prague, June 
12. Windischgratz, the Austrian commander, saw his opportunity; 
Prague was promptly bombarded into subjection, and the aspirations 
of Bohemia were at an end. 

The Austrian Government then proceeded to play fast and loose 
with Hungary, where the Serbs, Croatians, and Rumanians were de- 
manding equal privileges with the Magyars, while the proud followers 
of Kossuth were opposed to anything short of complete Magyar 
domination. The Croats especially rebelled against the proposal that 
the Magyar language should become the official speech of the country. 
So the Vienna Government set up Gellachich, a Croatian army officer 
who hated the Magyars, as Governor of Croatia. Gellachich did what 
was probably expected of him by encouraging the antagonism of 
Croat and Magyar, and Hungary called upon Austria to keep her 
pledge and recall the governor. But Austria's policy was rooted in 
insincerity. Too weak to repudiate openly the sanction of the March 
laws, the emperor permitted a civil war of Croatian and Serb against 
Magyar. Then, growing bolder, on October 3, he dissolved the Hun- 
garian Diet. Thereupon Vienna itself rose against him, and he was 
compelled to seek safety in Olmiitz, only to return when the army, in 
command of Windischgratz, laid siege to Vienna, and, after five days 
of fighting, forced an entrance to the capital, October 31, 1848. 

But force of arms had not made legal the abrogation of the March 
laws, so Metternich's worthy successors in diplomacy resorted to a ruse. 
The Emperor Ferdinand was called upon to abdicate in favor of his 
nephew, Francis Joseph I. His accession, December 2, 1848, enabled 
the Government, headed by Schwarzenberg, to repudiate the 



144 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

acts of Ferdinand, and this led, in 1849, to Hungary's open revolt. 
The Magyars now found themselves arrayed not only against the 
power of Austria, but agaii)st Serb and Rumanian, Croat and Sla- 
vonian. But this did not daunt them. Fired by the zeal of Kossuth, 
and aroused to reckless courage by his impetuous followers, the Diet, 
on April 14, 1849, proclaimed the independence of Hungary. 

It seemed as if the ominous word, "republic," might actually be 
uttered. But despotism, with an earthquake rumbling in its ears, is not 
without resources. The youthful Francis Joseph saw a light in the 
East. He called upon the Emperor of Russia for aid, and Nicholas 
I, sympathizing with the predicament of a neighboring monarch, did 
not turn a deaf ear. Then Magyar appealed in vain to Slav, and 
even to the Turk. 

Such are the ironies of history, especially when the perspective 
ranges back from the battle-fields of 1914. The rest is soon told. 
Russians and Rumanians on the east, Austrians on the west, Serbs, 
Croatians, and Slavonians on the south, all combined to crush the 
forces of Hungary. At Vilagos, August 13, 1849, the Hungarian 
general, Gorgei, surrendered. Kossuth took refuge with the Turks, 
who treated him with kindness. The Austrians, with less considera- 
tion, hanged many of the friends he had left behind, and Francis 
Joseph and Nicholas exchanged felicitations. The peace of Europe 
had been preserved, and the last state of Hungary was worse than the 
first. 

Meanwhile the German struggle for unity was making little head- 
way, for the parliament at Frankfort faced grave perplexities. The 
problem was to replace the lax confederation by a kingdom with one 
ruler and a common parliament, and to do this without offense to 
Austria or Prussia. It was finally agreed to include in the Confed- 
eration only the German provinces of Austria, and to erect a heredi- 
tary empire with the King of Prussia as ruler. But Austria declined 
the suggestion to part with these provinces or to be ousted from the 
German Confederation; and Frederick William of Prussia, partly 
because the offer came from a mere parliament, and partly because of 
Austria's attitude, would not accept the crown. So the Parliament 
of Frankfort, early in 1849, after a year of deliberating, came to noth- 
ing; and German unity awaited a stronger hand. 



THE CRIMEAN WAR 145 

About this time the greater struggle of Italy was drawing to its 
tragic close. Austria and Piedmont had made a temporary truce, and 
Lombardy was beneath the heel of military oppression. The Italians, 
divided by rivalries, could no longer take the field with Charles Albert, 
who nevertheless felt himself pledged to another campaign. This 
was brief and decisive. Radetzky won the day at the battle of No- 
vara, March 23, 1849, and the king, denied the death he sought at the 
enemy's hands, resigned his throne to his son, Victor Emmanuel II. 
He had risked all in the cause of liberty, and the sacrifice had not been 
in vain. The constitution he gave Piedmont is to-day the constitu- 
tion of Italy, and his memory as that of a martyr is kept green. 

Absolutism still had a few tasks to discharge, and it discharged 
them thoroughly. In Tuscany and Florence the little Republics that 
had been set up were promptly demolished. The Roman Republic re- 
mained, for Pius IX had fled to Naples, and Mazzini ruled there as 
a triumvir. It will be recalled that republican France contributed the 
shock that has galvanized Central Europe into the semblance of na- 
tional life. Still a republic, it now became her role to rescue the pope, 
who was certainly no tyrant, and to restore him to Rome, at whatever 
inconvenience to the occupants of his dominions. So the French laid 
siege to the city, and as they were much stronger than the Romans, it 
took them only about three weeks to do what Louis Bonaparte had 
sent them to do. This was on June 30, 1849. Two months later the 
Austrians entered Venice. 

The Crimean War of 1854- '55 After Waterloo, the Powers 

waged no great war for thirty-nine years. As we have seen, the 
flames kindled by the mid-century revolutionists were speedily extin- 
guished, and what had promised to be a conflagration proved to be 
little more than signal fires for posterity. The peace of Europe had 
been threatened by men ready to die for a just cause; and now, in 
1854, that peace was lightly shattered, and without abiding results. 

Nicholas I of Russia had been casting covetous eyes on Turkey, 
looking for an opportunity to gain, through the Bosphorus, his 
proper and much needed access to the sea. England, he thought, 
might aid him. So he made overtures to that Government, in the 
course of which he referred to the sultan as "the sick man of Europe," 
whose estates might profitably be divided without further delay. 



146 



EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 




Roll Call After a Crimean Battle 



But Queen Victoria's advisers looked coldly upon the plan, for, 
with a good outlet to the highway of nations, Russia's commerce 
would be a strong rival to her own. Nicholas then hit upon another 
plan, which he hoped to carry out on his own account. In the Turk- 
ish domains were some millions of Greek Catholics, whose spiritual 
head was the czar. Russia, France, and Turkey had quarreled over 
the question of protecting pilgrims in the Holy Land, and though the 
dispute was settled, Russia suddenly asserted a right of guardianship 
over all Greek Christians in the sultan's empire. As this would 
open the way to Russia's obvious ambition, Turkey, acting on the ad- 
vice of France and England, refused to comply with the czar's de- 
mand. Russia immediately invaded the Turkish provinces of Mol- 
davia and Wallachia. 

Russia, with her enormous army and immense prestige, had 
counted on an easy conquest. Despotism had built up an empire 



THE CRIMEAN WAR 



147 




The English Soldiers Suffered Severely in the Crimea 



whose forces seemed invincible; but actually, it was honeycombed 
with official corruption and incompetence, and doomed to defeat. 
The czar had fastened a duel upon a "sick man," only to find him- 
self opposed to England, France, and little Sardinia, who all took a 
hand as Turkey's allies : England, from mixed motives, of which the 
uppermost was perhaps the ever-abiding fear for India; Napoleon 
III for reasons personal and inherited; Sardinia, because Cavour 
coveted admission to the councils of the Powers. 

War upon Russia was declared by the allies, March 27, 1854, and 
after a brief campaign the Russians were driven north across the 
Danube and forced to retire from the two Turkish provinces. Rus- 
sia was now ready to cry quits ; but France and England were eager 
to cripple her, and so preclude the peril of future pretensions. 

Thus, in September, 1854, the Crimean war began on a great 
scale. It will always be memorable for the battles along the river 




BELGIAN SOLDIERS IN THE TRENCHES 
This Photograph, Taken Near Malines, Shows How Carefully Riflemen Protect Themselves 

Against the Enemy's Fire 

148 



THE FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR 149 

Alma — Balaclava (October 25) and Inkerman (November 5) — 
where the English Royal Guards held at bay a body of Russians 
outnumbering them five to one. But eclipsing these in courage was 
the long and terrible siege of Sebastopol, Russia's chief naval station 
on the Crimean peninsula of the Black Sea. There the allies sought 
to crush her sea power, and began an investment that lasted eleven 
months. It was a murderous siege — one of the most horrible in 
modern military annals — 250,000 Russians lost their lives. In the 
cruel winter the campaign by land had been hardly less dreadful. 
Bad food and bitter weather and mismanagement played havoc with 
both armies. Mankind has seldom paid such tithes for military glory. 

Sebastopol fell on September 8, 1855. But for the genius of 
Russia's engineer with a German name — Todleben — the fortress 
might have fallen sooner. The war did not last much longer, but 
the Treaty of Paris was not signed until March 30, 1856. 

Russia emerged from this useless war broken and humiliated. By 
the terms of the treat}', she renounced all claims affecting the Turkish 
provinces, and was even obliged to fall back from the Danube by 
yielding to Moldavia a protecting wedge of territory. The Black 
Sea was declared neutral. It was to be stripped of all fortifications, 
opened to the world's commerce, and closed to all battle-ships. Tur- 
key, for the first time, was admitted to the concert of the Powers. 

In the course of twenty years these agreements were violated, 
and thus the permanent gains of the war were slight. It did, how- 
ever, teach a moral lesson to Russia, as the reforms enacted there in 
the reign of Alexander II w^ere a sequel to the humbling of her pride. 

The Franco- Austrian War (1859). — Early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury Italy, which was rav^aged by the wars of different nations that 
coveted possession of her beauty, had sunk into a state of political 
aj)ath}^ She had long been a bone of contention among Austrian 
aggressors, Swiss mercenaries, German invaders, and French and 
Spanish men-at-arms, all of whom trampled her underfoot. The 
brilliant Italians passed under the rule of a succession of foreign 
princes, who, with utter disregard of the welfare of the people, 
treated the whole country as conquered territory and her separate 
States as mere pawns in their games of diplomacy. 

The war over the Spanish succession (1700-'13) led to the ascen- 



150 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

dancy of Austria in Italy; and, while her rule was comparatively 
just and humane, the general condition of the people was neglected, 
and they were in an apparently hopeless state of laziness, ignorance, 
and poverty. 

The invasion of Napoleon brought the first incentive that stirred 
the insensate masses into a consciousness of life and awakened a de- 
sire for change. The brilliant conqueror dashed into Italy in 1796, 
driving the usurping Austrians before him, breaking their oppres- 
sive yoke for a time, and spreading among the people some of the 
emancipated ideas of the French Revolution. 

When Napoleon fell (1815) Italy, of which he had made him- 
self king, fell with him, and soon the old governments regained pos- 
session, Austria assuming control of Venetia. The restored rulers 
determined to crush all popular manifestations by enforcing laws of 
unusual severity, and the Austrian Government prosecuted all per- 
sons even suspected of a tendency toward liberalism. But the Ital- 
ians had heard too much about the doings of the populace in the great 
Revolution and the smaller uprisings that came later to submit 
tamely. In Rome a republic had been organized under the influence 
of Giuseppe Mazzini, the young republican patriot, and Giuseppe 
Garibaldi, the celebrated soldier, both of whom wished to improve 
and elevate the masses and fit them for real liberty. But papal rule 
was restored, and the old policy of proscription and persecution held 
full sway again in the Austrian dominions of Italy. 

Only Sardinia kept her constitutions, and under the rule of King 
Victor Emmanuel I she had regained her prosperity, reorganized 
her finances and her army, and prepared for a new effort to liberate 
Italy from her Austrian bondage. In 1858 Victor Emmanuel and 
Cavour induced Napoleon III to enter into an alliance with Italy 
against Austria. War was declared in 1859, and Napoleon brought 
the French army to the assistance of his allies. The combined armies 
of France and Sardinia invaded Lombardy, and on June 4, 1859, de- 
feated the Austrians in a great battle at Magenta, a little town about 
sixteen miles west of Milan, and entered the city of Milan, the trium- 
phal procession headed by the Emperor Napoleon III and Victor 
Emmanuel. The French and Italian (Sardinian) troops numbered 
about 55,000 men and the Austrians about 35,000. Napoleon him- 



THE FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR 151 

self took command of the allied armies, but a large share of the credit 
of the brilliant victory belonged to General MacMahon, who was re- 
warded by being created, on the battle-field itself, Marshal of France 
and Duke of Magenta. The loss of the allies was 4,000; Austria 
lost 10,000 killed and prisoners. 

The Austrians retreated to the Quadrilateral — the four fort- 
resses of Legagno, Mantua, Peschiera, and Verona — and were again 
defeated (June 24) in a battle at Solferino, a small village of the 
Province of Mantua in northern Italy, in which the allied armies lost 
18,000 men, and Austria, under Francis Joseph I, then twenty-nine 
years old, lost 20,000. Throughout this conflict Napoleon issued 
orders to the allied troops from the tower of the Church of Cas- 
tiglione. 

But Napoleon, though he desired to free Italy from Austria and 
unite her several States, did not wish to do so under the rulers of 
the House of Savoy, the royal house of Italy, the heads of which have 
been dukes of Savoy since 1416, kings of Sardinia since 1720, and 
kings of Italy since 1861. He realized that this would be the proba- 
ble result should he wholly defeat Austria, whereas his own plan was 
to form eventually an Italian federation under the presidency of 
the pope and make all Italy virtually dependent on France. Hence 
he brought about a meeting with the Austrian emperor at Villaf ranca 
(a town in the Province of Verona, eleven miles southwest of the city 
of Verona) on June 11, 1859, and arranged preliminaries which 
greatly displeased and disappointed the Italian people, whose hopes 
and enthusiasm had been kindled by Napoleon's magnificent promise 
to set "Italy free from the Alps to the Adriatic!" The terms of 
peace gave Lombardy alone to Sardinia and left Venetia in the hands 
of Austria. Victor Emmanuel was compelled to assent; but soon 
Tuscany, Modena, and Parma expelled their rulers and asked to be 
united to Sardinia. This request Victor Emmanuel was ready to 
grant, but, in order to obtain Napoleon's acquiescence, Savoy and 
Nice were ceded to him; and so the boundary line between France 
and Italy was finally fixed at the Alps. The terms of these agree- 
ments of peace were finally embodied in the Treaty of Zurich, drawn 
in October, 1859. 

The Liberation and Unification of Italy in 1859-70, — The un- 



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Belgian Soldier Digging Shelter Trencli for Machine Gun 




Belgian Infantry Awaiting German Cavalry Near l-ouvain 

152 



THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 153 

wholesome and ominous tranquillit}^ of Italy, when ruled by Austrian 
and French tyrants under whom the people lived in a state of stolid 
and hopeless endurance, received a severe shock from the events of 
the French Revolution. 

The Treaty of Campo Formio, a village in the Province of Udina 
in northeastern Italy, was signed in 1797 between France and Aus- 
tria whereby Austria, the Belgium provinces, recognized the Cisal- 
pine Republic, and took over the greater part of the territory of Ven- 
etia, France retaining the Ionian Islands and receiving the left bank 
of the river Rhine. Northern and Central Italy were divided into 
four republics — the Cisalpine, the Ligurian, the Cispadine, and the 
Tiberine. 

In 1798 Lower Italy became a fifth republic, with Naples as its 
capital. Charles Emmanuel, King of Sardinia, abdicated his throne, 
and the existing pope (Pius VI) decamped from Rome. Thus the old 
order of the whole peninsula was suddenly changed. Yet for some 
time the unhappy Italian people gained nothing by it but new des- 
pots, higher taxes, and enforced interest in the uncertain triumphs 
of the still new and shaky French Republic. After Napoleon's vic- 
tory at Marengo (June 14, 1800) his conquest of northern Italy 
was complete, and four years later, when he became Emperor of the 
French, he assumed the crown of Lombardy also, and called all Italy 
his kingdom. 

In 1804 a new division of the Italian provinces had to be made. 
The pope was allowed to remain in Rome, and the Bourbon king, Fer- 
dinand I, to continue as King of Naples. Napoleon renamed Tus- 
cany the Kingdom of Etruria and handed it over to the Bourbons of 
the House of Parma; while the Ligurian and Cisalpine republics re- 
ceived a viceroy, none other than Eugene Beauharnais, Napoleon's 
stepson by the Empress Josephine. 

Following Napoleon's great victory at Austerlitz (December 2, 
1805), he added Venetia to these north Italian possessions, and in 
1806 drove from the throne of Naples the Bourbon Ferdinand in or- 
der to seat upon it his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte. 

In 1809 Napoleon removed the pope from Rome, sent him to 
France, and declared Rome a part of the French Empire. Soon 
the new-made Kingdom of Etruria was no more, but was rechris- 



154 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

tened Tuscany, over which Napoleon, ever sohcitous for the worldly 
welfare of his family, placed his sister, EHza Bacciocchi, as Duchess 
of Tuscany and Princess of Piombino. 

Temporary as were these new partitions and sub-partitions of 
Italian territory, they had a marked influence on the people. A new 
feeling — the pride of nationality — arose among them, springing from 
the military service of the recruits that were drawn from all districts 
from the armies of Napoleon, by the breaking down of ancient boun- 
dary lines, the welcome riddance of the old tyrannical foreign rulers, 
the just administration of the code of Napoleonic laws, and largely 
by the emancipated spirit that had emanated from the French Revo- 
lution and still permeated all French institutions. 

But after the battle of Waterloo the Congress of Vienna swept 
away Bonaparte's new creations, and by 1816 some of the Italian 
sovereigns had returned to their former States; the pope had re- 
turned to Rome, education was no longer liberal and was in the hands 
of the clerics. Rigid press censorship was established, and every per- 
son that had played any public part under the Napoleonic regime 
was watched, followed, and all his movements were reported. The Na- 
poleonic Code was abolished in the provinces that had formed part 
of the Italian kingdom, and in the Papal States the administration 
of laws was placed in the control of the priesthood. 

All these measures, which were intended to suppress the rising 
tide of liberal thought in Italy, were encouraged by Austria. Every 
duke and princeling took his orders from the Austrian emperor, who 
promised each one the retention of his place and power. In Lom- 
bardy and Venetia, fortresses were filled with armed men who held 
the people in constant fear. As years went on, these intolerable con- 
ditions enraged the Italians, who had been sadly disappointed in 
their hopes of a new freedom by the unsatisfactory peace treaty made 
at Villafranca between Napoleon III and the Emperor of Austria, 
and many of the bolder spirits joined secret revolutionary societies, 
for naturally tyranny fostered conspiracy; and, beginning in 1808, a 
society calling itself the Carbonari ("charcoal-burners") was holding 
meetings throughout Italy as champions of the national Liberal cause 
against the reactionary governments. Other similar societies were 
organized, and for five years the wrath of the Italians was aug- 



THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 166 

merited by continued outrages on their rights and liberties and at last 
(in 1820) broke out into open flame. In that year the Spaniards, 
who in their turn longed for greater political freedom, proclaimed 
their constitution of the Cortes, which was formed after the one 
drawn up during the French Revolution. Spurred by this example 
of their neighbors, the royal army of Naples mutinied, and this revolt 
was followed by others more and more threatening until, in 1821, the 
allied European Powers authorized Austria to crush the rising revolu- 
tion in Lower Italy. Austrian soldiers entered Naples, and presently 
there were state trials and executions, and tyranny established a new 
reign of terror which succeeded in intimidating the people and hold- 
ing them in check until 1846, during which time the Italians remained 
sullenly quiet and submissive, while inwardly they raged at the bad 
government and tyranny of the aristocrats and the misery of the 
people. 

Such a state of things could not last, and meanwhile the three 
great men whose glorious fortune it was to liberate their unfortunate 
compatriots appeared in public life and by writing and oratory, mili- 
tary genius, and masterly statesmanship kindled afresh the fires of 
patriotism and hope. The first of these three was Giuseppe Maz- 
zini, sometimes called "the prophet of freedom." He was a young 
Genoese of good family and education, whose ambition it was to lead 
a revolution that should establish a permanent and indivisible republic 
not only in Italy but including all Europe. To this end he formed 
an organization calling itself the "Young Italy" party, which de- 
signed to found first a republic in their own country by the aid of vol- 
unteers drawn from all parts of the Italian peninsula. They thought 
it necessary, as an aid in achieving independence, to obtain the cooper- 
ation of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Many books and treatises were 
written and many fiery speeches were made by these young enthusi- 
asts, all of whom were inspired by the grand idea of establishing a 
confederation of Italian powers. Many of these men differed 
widely in their ideas as to details, but the three marked out by des- 
tiny to give coherence and practical form to the general plan, and 
finally to win the grand prize of independence, gradually made their 
way to the front. 

The second of the famous trio of liberators was Giuseppe Gari- 




156 



THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 157 

baldi, called the "knight-errant of the cause of freedom." Garibaldi 
was a man of the common people, a sailor in early youth, but a born 
soldier and leader of men. After an exciting and adventurous mili- 
tary career in young manhood, having always at heart a desire to see 
his beloved Italy free from foreign rulers and with all her States 
united, he dedicated his sword to her service to bring about this end, 
and, after the unpopular peace treaty of Villafranca, which boded 
so ill for Italy's future, he organized, as commander, a band of a 
thousand soldiers called "the chasseurs (hunters) of the Apennines," 
and drilled them with the intention of descending on the Papal States 
and liberating Rome at least. At that time this former dominion of 
the Roman Catholic Church comprised the Provinces of the Romagna, 
the Marches, Umbria, and the now existing Province of Rome. 

The political situation in Piedmont prevented Garibaldi from 
carrying out this plan, but he enlisted the interest and sympathy and 
gained the assistance of the third and the most powerful of the three 
liberators, the Count di Cavour, the eminent Italian statesman and 
benefactor of his country, the ultimate independence and unity of 
which was the dearest wish of his heart. 

After the change of government in 1848 following the general 
European upheaval called "the revolution" of that year, the Lib- 
eral party took the reins of power in Sardinia and framed a consti- 
tutional form of government, in the cabinet of which, under Mas- 
simo d'Azeglio, Cavour became successively minister of commerce 
(1850), minister of finance (1851), and premier (1852). He de- 
termined to do his utmost to bring about political consolidation in 
Italy, hence he was ready to assist his fellow-patriot. Garibaldi, in 
1860, in forming an expedition to annex Sicily, which was then in a 
state of insurrection. In March of that year Central Italy had been 
annexed to Sardinia, under King Victor Emmanuel I, a measure ap- 
proved and assisted by Napoleon III. 

The insurrection in the Two Sicilies against the Bourbon rule of 
Francis II (son of Ferdinand I) raged chiefly in Naples, Palermo, 
and Messina. The Two Sicilies (consolidated by Ferdinand I in 
1816) comprised the Island of Sicily and that part of southern Italy 
which, when considered separately from the island, was called Sicily 
on the hither side of Cape Faro (the northeastern promontory of the 




168 



THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY 159 

island) or the Kingdom of Naples. Over this domain Francis II 
ruled with so much severity, cruelty, and cowardly oppression that 
his Sicilian subjects were quite ready to join Garibaldi when he 
landed on the island in 1860 and with his army of a thousand men 
defeated the Bourbon army at Marsala on the 15th of that month. 
After several smaller but successful battles the Garibaldian troops 
entered Palermo, the capital, and the gallant commander assumed 
the dictatorship of the island. Other brilliant battles followed: on 
July 29 he won a great victory over the Bourbon troops; on July 
28 the fortress of Messina fell into his hands; on August 25 he 
fought a triumphant battle at Reggio in Calabria, and marched at 
once upon Naples, where he entered as conqueror, proclaimed him- 
self dictator of the Two Sicilies, and drove out the tyrant Francis I, 
who fle,d to Gaeta, in the Province of Caserta. This splendid ad- 
vance was followed by the victory of Volturno in October, after which 
a universal vote was passed to annex the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
to that part of Italy then governed by King Victor Emmanuel. 

The Bourbon supporters of Francis regathered their military 
forces at Gaeta, forty miles northwest of Naples, and for several 
months resisted the efforts of Victor Emmanuel's troops to drive 
them out. But Gaeta fell at last in February, 1861, and Victor 
Emmanuel was proclaimed King of Italy at Turin. Europe now 
gave an unspoken assent to Italian independence, and only Rome 
and Venetia remained to be set free. 

Once more Garibaldi, who had sworn never to rest until these two 
States should be liberated, raised a volunteer army and led it to Sicily. 
But now Napoleon III, who wished to have the Papal States and the 
Church power at Rome preserved, instructed Rattazzi, then the Ital- 
ian premier, to check Garibaldi's further activities. The royal troops 
met him and his volunteer army on September 22, 1862, when, not the 
soldiers of Italy's foreign oppressors but the riflemen of the Italian 
king shot him and took him prisoner. All Europe so strongly con- 
demned this action and expressed so much sympathy for the Italian 
people, who had struggled so long for independence, that in a con- 
vention held in September, 1864, Napoleon III agreed to withdraw 
his French troops from Rome if Italy would promise to respect the 
temporal power of the pope. At the same time the city of Florence 




FATHER AND SON 
The Kaiser Embracing His Eldest Son, the Crown Prince 

160 



THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN WAR 161 

was named as the capital of Italy. This move on the part of 
Napoleon was regarded by the Liberals as favorable toward accom- 
plishing the annexation of Rome to Italy, and the war between Aus- 
tria and Prussia in 1866 gave them a new opportunity. They allied 
themselves with Prussia, and the Prussian victory of Koniggratz 
gave them one of the chief objects they had fought for ; and Venetia, 
including the Quadrilateral, was then added to the Kingdom of Italy. 

According to the terms of the convention of 1864, Napoleon with- 
drew his troops from Rome in 1866. The Liberals at once sprang 
into action. Mazzini, always an inspirer, called on the people to seize 
the prize then and there, and Garibaldi vowed to succeed in doing so 
or die. But again Napoleon interfered. Alarmed for the rule of 
the pope and the integrity of the Papal States, he reinstated the gar- 
rison at Rome for their protection, and there the French troops re- 
mained until the fall of the Second Empire in France in 1870, when 
the agreement made between Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel in 
1862 was declared at an end. The Italian king was released from the 
promises incurred thereby, and on September 20, 1870, he trium- 
phantly entered the Eternal City, which was no longer the capital of 
the pope and the Papal States but thenceforth the royal capital of 
"Italy free!" 

The Schleswig-Holstein War (1864) — Schleswig-Holstein, which 
belongs to Prussia, was formed out of the once Danish duchies of 
Schleswig, Holstein, and Liineburg. It is about 140 miles long 
and varies in breadth from ninety miles in Holstein to thirty-five miles 
in the narrowest parts of Schleswig. It is a miniature reproduction 
of the great German plain: the central part is a continuation of the 
vast Liineburg Heath ; the North Sea coast consists of marshes much 
like those of Holland and, like those of Holland, is protected by arti- 
ficial dikes, for much of the land is below the sea-level; while the 
Baltic Coast has steep, irregular banks pierced by numerous long and 
narrow fjords, which, running very deep into the land, afford excel- 
lent harbors. The islands of Alsen and Fehmarn lie off this coast, 
from which they are separated by narrow channels. 

The marsh land on the west affords such excellent pasture that 
here the special breed of Holstein cattle has been developed. But this 
district is more interesting to the historian, because it was from this 



THE AEROPLANE IN WARFARE 




Military Aeroplane Reconnoitering 




Photograph Taken from an Aeroplane in Flight 

162 



THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN WAR 163 

spot that the Jutes and Angles emigrated across the North Sea to the 
southern shores of England to found a new race in Kent and Surrey. 

The whole history of the Cimbric peninsula is the record of a 
struggle between the Danes and the Germans, resulting ultimately in 
favor of the Germans. 

In 1027 the Danish Knut (King Canute, who bade the waves 
stand still) obtained from Conrad (then emperor) the recognition 
of Schleswig's independence of the empire that spread over all 
Europe at this time — the Holy Roman Empire. Then the Eider be- 
came the recognized boundarj^ between Denmark and what is now 
Germany. 

Knud Laward (1115-1131) extended his sway and became the 
first ruler of Schleswig to hold the singular double relationship to the 
King of Denmark and the emperor, which afterward became an im- 
portant factor in the history of the country. In 1232 the King of 
Denmark conferred the Duchy of South Jutland (Schleswig) on his 
son; and thereafter the terms of this investment became a fertile sub- 
ject of dispute between the dukes and the crown, the former maintain- 
ing that they held their land in hereditary fief, while the kings main- 
tained that the fief was revocable at pleasure. The dukes, aided by 
their kinsmen, the counts of Holstein, succeeded in establishing their 
position. In 1326 Duke Valdemar V of Schleswig was made King 
of Denmark through the influence of his cousin, Count Gerhard of 
Holstein, upon whom he bestowed the Duchy of Schleswig. The two 
territories were united under Margaret of Denmark in 1386; and 
thereafter the same prince ruled over Schleswig and Holstein. 

Many were the shiftings, divisions, and reunions of the two duchies 
of Schleswig and Holstein because of this complicated state of afl'airs. 
The duchies were inseparably connected, but owed feudal allegiance 
to different sovereigns. The situation became more complicated be- 
cause of the division of the royal line into two branches — the royal 
house of Denmark and that of the dukes of Holstein- Gottorp and sev- 
eral collateral branches. 

After the Congress of Vienna (1815) the King of Denmark was 
declared a member of the Germanic body on account of Holstein and 
Lauenburg, and was invested with three votes in the General Assem- 
bly. After the restoration of peace, however, Holstein, which never 



164 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

had been so thoroughly a part of Denmark as Schleswig, grew restive 
regarding the continued non-convocation of its own assembhes The 
troubled year of 1830 brought forth a mutual animosity between the 
Danish and German populations, and many long-neglected local laws 
and privileges were dug up and their revival was urged. The troubles 
culminated in the invasion by an army from Prussia in 1849; but the 
Danes were victorious at the battle of Idsted (July 23), and peace 
was concluded with Prussia in 1850. Then the duchies began to set- 
tle the question of their ruler, and a treaty relative to this succession, 
signed in London, May 8, 1852, gave the crown of Frederick VII to 
Prince Christian of Gliicksburg ; but when Frederick VII died sud- 
denly in 1863 in the castle of Gliicksburg in Schleswig (the seat of his 
heir) , Prince Christian of Gliicksburg was proclaimed King of Den- 
mark as Christian IX. However, the young Duke of Augustenburg 
claimed the title as Frederick VIII, although his father had re- 
nounced his rights. 

"The claims of the pretender were supported by Prussia, Austria, 
and other German States, and before the year was out Generals Gab- 
lenz and Wrangel occupied the duchies in command of Austrian and 
Prussian troops, and Denmark was called upon to give up Schleswig- 
Holstein to military occupation by Prussia and Austria until the 
claims of the Duke of Augustenburg were settled. In its dilemma 
the Danish Government applied to England and to France, and, re- 
ceiving from these Powers what it considered as encouragement, it 
declared war against Germany early in 1864. The Danes sent their 
general, De Meza, with forty thousand men to defend the Danne- 
werk, the ancient line of defenses stretching across the peninsula from 
the North Sea to the Baltic. But the Dannewerk, popularly sup- 
posed to be impregnable, was first outflanked and then stormed, and 
the Danish army fell back on the heights of Dybbol, near Flensborg, 
which was strongly fortified, and took up a position behind it, across 
the Little Belt, in the island of Alsen. It became evident that Eng- 
land and France had no intention of aiding Denmark; but the cour- 
age of the Danes was heroic, and they made a splendid stand against 
their powerful opponents. General Gerlach was sent to replace the 
unlucky De Meza. The heights of Dybbol were harder to take than 
the Germans had supposed, but they fell at last, and with them the 



THE PRUSSO-AUSTRIAN WAR 165 

strong position of Sonderburg, in the Island of Alsen. The Germans 
pushed northward until they overran every part of the mainland, as 
far as the extreme north of Jutland, and it seemed as if Denmark 
must cease to exist among the nations of Europe; but the Danes at 
last gave way, and accepted the terms of the Peace of Vienna, in 
October, 1864, by which Christian IX renounced all claim to Lauen- 
burg, Holstein and Schleswig, and agreed to have no voice in the final 
disposal of those provinces." 

Prussia became enriched, therefore, with the neck of land that 
separates the North Sea from the Baltic. The true value of this 
province was shown when the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal was opened in 
June, 1895. This, also called the North- Sea-Baltic Canal, is sixty- 
one miles long and extends from a point near Brunsbiittel on the Elbe 
to Holtenau on Kiel Bay, thus forming a waterway between the 
North Sea and the Baltic. Kiel has been made the chief naval station 
of the German Empire and the center of trade with Denmark and 
Scandinavia. 

The Prusso- Austrian War (1866) — In 1866 a war occurred which, 
though it was very short, was most important. It reached its 
climax in the Battle of Koniggratz, or Sadowa, decided the suprem- 
acy of Prussia over all the German States and led to the acquisition 
of Venetia by Italy and the constitutional independence of Hungary. 
At the outbreak of this war, William I had been on the throne of 
Prussia five years. Bismarck had been his prime minister since 1862. 
A united fatherland was their ambition, and the supremacy of Prussia 
their determination. 

At this period Prussia and Austria were the two strongest Powers 
of the German States. Austria, having inherited the torn purple 
mantle and the broken scepter of the Holy Roman Empire, had long 
been contending with Prussia. As early as 1849 efforts had been 
made at Frankfort to form Germany into one empire, excluding 
Austria, and the imperial crown had been offered to the King of 
Prussia. To counteract this sentiment, Austria had invited the dif- 
ferent States to send representatives to Frankfort, where she as- 
sumed the lead; and when Austria and Prussia brought all the 
representatives of the confederacy to the Diet at Frankfort, Aus- 
tria proposed that all her provinces, including Hungary and 



166 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

Lombardo-Venetia, should be absorbed into the German confed- 
eracy. Great changes had taken place. Austria had warred with 
France and Sardinia; the battles of Magenta (June 4, 1859) and 
Solferino (June 24, 1859) had been fought, and the Peace of Villa- 
franca (July 11, 1859) had been signed. By this, Austria, though 
forced to give up Lombardy, retained Venetia, which permitted her 
to be a member of the new Italian confederation. 

Next followed the Schleswig-Holstein affair, in which Prussia 
persuaded Austria to join with her. The territory was more con- 
venient for Prussia to govern than for Austria, and Austria was 
willing to part with it ; but they could not come to terms. At a con- 
vention held in Gastein (August, 1865) it was agreed that Liine- 
burg was to be Prussia's; Austria was to have the administration of 
Holstein and Prussia that of Schleswig. Austria favored forming 
the duchies into a separate State and supported the claim of the 
Duke of Augustenburg. Prussia opposed this and regarded the 
public meetings that Austria had permitted in Holstein as a breach of 
the agreement. Then Austria referred the matter to the Frankfort 
Diet, which decided in favor of the duke. 

It was evident that a clash must come, sooner or later, to decide 
which should be the dominant Power in the German States; and, 
although both Prussia and Austria professed a desire for peace, both 
began to prepare for active war. On March 27, 1866, Prussia en- 
tered into an alliance with Victor Emmanuel, who agreed to declare 
war against Austria as soon as Prussia began hostilities, and Prus- 
sia promised to gain Venetia for Victor Emmanuel. In May, Fran- 
cis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, ordered his whole army to prepare 
for war and he concentrated many troops on the Bohemian and Sile- 
sian frontiers. Prussia called out her full war strength, and forced 
the Austrians out of Holstein — fortunately without bloodshed! The 
Prussian force was thoroughly equipped. It consisted of three arm- 
ies: the first, commanded by Prince Frederick Charles, numbered 
93,000 and was destined for Saxony and Bohemia; the second, un- 
der the crown prince (afterward the Emperor Frederick), of 
115,000 men, was ordered to Silesia; and the third, or Army of the 
Elbe, commanded by General Herwarth, numbering 46,000, was to 
accompany the first army on its right flank. In addition to these 



THE PRUSSO-AUSTRIAN WAR 167 

254,000 men, there was a reserve corps of 24,300 at Berlin. The 
Austrian comprised 271,000 men, for besides its 247,000 men the 
Saxon army of Dresden numbered 24,000. General Benedek 
was made commander-in-chief. He distributed his men along the 
frontier, separating Moravia from Saxony and Silesia. On June 
16 the Prussians entered Saxony, and two days later they took 
possession of Dresden. On the same day the Austrians entered 
Silesia. The three Prussian armies then advanced into Bohemia 
and on June 26 and 28 won victories over the Austrians. Not- 
withstanding the difficult marches through the long and narrow 
mountain-passes of Bohemia and Silesia and the sharp defense from 
the Austrians, the Prussians were victorious in various minor battles 
that took place. General Benedek, who had taken up a strong posi- 
tion at Dubenetz to oppose the crown prince's army, was now forced 
to retreat toward Koniggratz, a town in Bohemia seventy-nine miles 
east of Prague, on the Elbe. By this time the Austrians had lost 
nearly 40,000 men. Both armies now concentrated and prepared for 
a critical contest. The King of Prussia arrived on June 30, and 
General Benedek took a strong position on the heights between 
Koniggratz and Sadowa. The Austrians numbered about 220,000 
and the Prussians about 240,000. 

At eight o'clock on the morning of July 3, the first army 
opened the attack on the Austrian center and left. The morning 
passed without any decisive advantage on either side; but the arrival 
of the Second Army and its attack on the Austrian right, combined 
with the renewed efforts of Frederick Charles's troops, resulted in an 
overwhelming defeat for the Austrians in the middle of the after- 
noon. The Austrians lost in all about 44,200 men, of whom 19,800 
were prisoners. The Prussians lost 8,794 men and 359 officers. 
The Austrians retreated to Zwittan and Olmiitz pursued by a body 
of Prussians; but the King of Prussia marched with 100,000 men 
toward Vienna, and reached Nikolsburg, July 18. 

Francis Joseph was now ready to make terms. He ceded Vene- 
tia to Italy, as well as the fortresses of the Quadrilateral — Peschiera, 
Mantua, Verona, and Legnano — and was willing to recognize a new 
German Confederation; he gave up all claims to Schleswig-Holstein 
and paid a heavy war indemnity. 




168 



THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 169 

The war of 1866 gave the death-blow to the Germanic Confedera- 
tion of 1815. In its place appeared the North German Confedera- 
tion under the lead of Prussia. The transformation was completed 
five years later, when, after the successful war with France, the 
South German States joined the union and the King of Prussia be- 
came the German Emperor. 

The Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) — After 1866, when Prus- 
sia became the strongest power in Europe and Austria was almost ex- 
cluded from Germany, M. Thiers predicted the coming German Em- 
pire. M. Magne addressed Napoleon III with the bold words: "The 
national feelings would be profoundly wounded if the final result 
should be that France has only gained by her intervention the estab- 
lishment on her two flanks of two neighbors of abnormally increased 
strength. Greatness is, after all, a relative affair ; and a country that 
in itself is no weaker than it was may be diminished by the accumu- 
lation of new forces around it." However, at the beginning of July, 
1870, the horizon of Europe seemed without a cloud. On June 30, 
M. Emile Ollivier, the prime minister, declared that "the peace of 
Europe never rested on a more secure basis." 

The idea entertained by a great part of the French nation and 
kept alive by poets, historians, and the press, of the re-conquest of the 
left bank of the Rhine {les frontiers naturelles) had a great influence 
in bringing about the Franco-Prussian war. Other contributory 
causes were: The involved state of affairs occasioned by the govern- 
ment of Napoleon; the rejection of the "compensation" demanded 
after 1866 from the cabinet of Berlin for the growth of Prussia in 
extent and population; news of the introduction of an improved 
weapon for the North German infantry, which threatened the supe- 
riority of the famous chassepot rifle of the French ; and last, but not 
least, the election of the Prince of Hohenzollern to the throne of 
Spain, which was regarded in Paris as a Prussian intrigue endanger- 
ing the safety of France. 

In 1868 a revolution in Spain drove Queen Isabella from the 
throne. She took refuge in France, where she became a favored guest 
of the Emperor Napoleon and his Spanish wife, Eugenie. In 1869 
General Prim, who had become president of the council of ministers 
in the Provisional Government at Madrid, began to search for an 



170 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

eligible candidate for the crown. His choice fell upon Prince Leo- 
pold, of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, to whom he offered the crown 
of Spain. Prince Leopold informed the head of the House of Hohen- 
zollern, William I of Prussia, who authorized him to accept the offer. 
Fearful of this increase of German power, the French cabinet decided 
to intervene, and ordered the French ambassador, Benedetti, to see 
William I, who was in Ems, and request him to forbid the Prince of 
Hohenzollern's acceptance of the Spanish crown. William referred 
Benedetti to the regular method of communication through the min- 
istry at Berlin. Prince Leopold, not wishing to offend France, with- 
drew; but the telegraphic announcement of the proceeding was con- 
sidered insulting to France; and the Duke of Gramont thereupon 
made an inflammatorj^ speech in the Assembly. 

The King of Prussia was next pressed to promise that he never 
would support Prince Leopold in the future as a claimant for the 
Spanish crown, which was equivalent to saying that war was deter- 
mined. The Liberal party, headed by Thiers, opposed the war vehe- 
mently. That great statesman considered France "unprepared for 
war." The Imperialists, on the other hand, wanted war. The em- 
press thought if it were successful the throne would be secured to 
her son, and she would appear as the champion of Roman Catholic 
principles in Europe. The Imperialists pushed the matter. Refusing 
the good offices of the other States of Europe, they declared that 
France was ready — "ready to the last gaiter-button." Germany was 
more quiet, but very firm. Count Bismarck, who was on his estate at 
Varzin, went to Berlin July 12, and on the same day General von 
Moltke arrived from Schweidnitz, to meet William I, who was en- 
thusiastically received on July 15. That same day mobilization of 
the North German army and the convention of the Reichstag were 
ordered. On July 19 the French declaration of war was delivered. 
On July 23 the North German Reichstag was opened, and it unani- 
mously voted a war credit. The internal troubles of France were 
great: there were virtually two courts — that of the empress, desir- 
ing war, and the more patriotic party, representing the true interests 
of the country, opposed to it. Paris became frenzied with excite- 
ment. The delirious populace mobbed Thiers's house and raised the 
famous cry: "A Berlin!^' 



THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 171 

Thus the war began. The Empress Eugenie was left as regent 
in Paris, while the emperor went to the front with the young prince 
imperial. The most astounding ignorance prevailed in Paris. No- 
body knew the real state of feeling in Germany, nor of her prepared- 
ness for war. The French had been led to believe that their army was 
in fine condition, whereas it was not organized, not supplied, and was 
without proper reserve force. Worse still, the incapacity of the lead- 
ers was appalling. No one understood the science of warfare; their 
maps were inadequate; and the use of railways had been improperly 
studied. The French army was brave, however, and was soon 
stretched in a frontier line facing Germany from Strassburg to Metz. 
Metz was selected as the French headquarters and Mainz (or May- 
ence) as the German. France M^as now to experience a great surprise, 
one so great that it forced upon her a new military plan. She had 
counted on the neutrality of the South German States ; but southern 
Germany, believing that the French attack was part of a plan to 
conquer German territory and establish a new Confederation of the 
Rhine, gave its support to the North German cause. Louis II of 
Bavaria mobilized his army immediately, and his action influenced 
Wiirtemburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Baden. 

The French had planned to divide the army into three groups. 
Two were to force neutrality upon the South Germans and hasten the 
hoped-for alliance between Austria and Italy. The other attack was 
to be made upon North Germany. Napoleon III was commander- 
in-chief, with Marshal Leboeuf as chief of the, general staff. The 
change of plan distributed the army as follows: First Corps, under 
Marshal MacMahon, at Strassburg ; Second Corps, under General de 
Failly, at Bitsch; Third Corps, under General Bazaine, at Metz; and 
Fourth Corps, under General Ladmirault, at Thionville. The Corps 
of. Marshal Canrobert at Chalons, that of General F. Douay at Bel- 
fort, and the Garde under General Bourbaki at Nancy formed the 
reserve of 320,000 men. 

The German force consisted of three armies: First, the right 
wing, under Steinmetz, at Coblentz, of 60,000 men; second, the cen- 
ter, under Prince Frederick Charles, at Mainz, of 131,000 men, with 
a reserve of 194,000; and, third, the left wing under the Crown Prince 
Frederick WiUiam, at Mannheim, of 130,000 men. The total strength 




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THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 175 

of the North German army numbered 750,000 men, of whom 198,000 
were Landwehr; and that of the South German equaled 100,000. 
King WilHam I of Prussia was commander-in-chief, and General von 
Moltke was chief of the general staff. 

Before the Germans could take the defensive, the French made 
an attack on Saarbriicken (August 2, 1870), but were forced to re- 
treat on August 6. On August 4 an engagement followed at Weis- 
senburg. On August 6 was fought the battle of Worth (Reich- 
shofen), where MacMahon, after a most courageous defense, was de- 
feated by the numerically superior army of the crown prince. 

' The French army now began its retreat to the Moselle. The 
crown prince detached a corps to attack Strasburg and other Alsatian 
frontiers, and advanced upon Nancy, where the French crushed 
Charles the Bold in 1477, bringing the great duchy of Burgundy 
under the crown of France. 

One army marched upon Metz ; another army upon Pont a Mous- 
son, hoping to surround the main body of the French about Metz and 
cut them off from Paris. 

Bazaine, upon whom Napoleon had conferred the chief command, 
decided to retreat to Chalons-sur-Marne and join what was left of 
MacMahon's army and also a newly formed army; but the Germans 
attacked Bazaine in the battle of Colombey-Nouilly and Vionville. 
Both suffered great losses. The French tried to retreat to Verdun, 
but were prevented. New arrivals strengthened the Germans, and, 
although the French had acquired well-chosen and fortified positions, 
they were attacked. 

During the period that led up to Napoleon's giving the command 
of the army to Bazaine, the German armies had been marching 
through the Vosges and Lorraine, their chiefs carrying out Moltke's 
orders for the invasion of France. The masses that rolled across the 
frontier consisted of 400,000 men — dense bodies of cavalry and artil- 
lery. The contingent from Baden was sent to besiege Strassburg, 
while the other three armies drew near the Moselle and Metz. The 
German advance, on the whole, however, had been slow. On August 
18 the battle of Gravelotte was fought, the most equally contested of 
the Franco-Prussian War and the most sanguinary. It is also called 
the battle of Saint-Privat. The French resisted bravely for eight 



174 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

hours, but it resulted in Bazaine's retreat to Metz. A critic says: 
"Gravelotte was not a masterpiece of the art of war; the victory was 
not due to the strategy of Moltke ; it was emphaticalh'- a soldiers' bat- 
tle. The energy, nevertheless, of the German chiefs in pressing home 
the attacks on St. Privat and Roncourt was admirable, and deserves 
the highest praise, and if the effort cost thousands of gallant lives the 
result more than repaid the sacrifice. The conduct of Bazaine was 
poor and unskilful ; it is said that he never left a spot in the vicinity of 
Metz, and if the army of the Rhine fought extremely well — the 
battle, in fact, resembles Malplaquet — we see no traces of the confi- 
dence of Worth. By August 19 the marshal had withdrawn his whole 
forces under the ramparts of Metz. In a few daj^s the victorious 
Germans invested ]\Ietz, an operation which should have been im- 
possible had Bazaine been a capable chief; and Europe at last beheld 
the spectacle of an army in possession of a great fortress surrender- 
ing to one scarcely superior in numbers, disseminated upon a circle of 
sixty-odd miles, and divided by the broad stream of the INIoselle." 

Next occurred the siege of Metz (August 19 to October 27), a 
series of bloody battles that separated the French force into two parts, 
and locked up their main army in and about a fortress that was not 
sufficiently provisioned for such a siege. At this juncture, also, oc- 
curred the siege of Strassburg (August 14 to October 27) , by General 
von Werder. 

MacMahon evacuated Chalons and attempted to liberate Bazaine, 
choosing a circuitous flank march to the northeast. The Germans, 
getting news of this, made a detour north. Bazaine now attempted to 
break through the German lines and join MacMahon; but the engage- 
ments at Noisseville (August 31) frustrated the desperate venture. 
MacMahon now concentrated his forces at Sedan, where the famous 
battle was fought on September 1, 1870. The Germans numbered 
250,000, and the French 140,000; and, notwithstanding the brilliant 
charges of the French cavalry, the Germans were victorious. Taking 
the battle as a whole, and remembering the disorganized state of the 
army before the fight began, the presence of a large number of raw 
recruits, the overwhelming superiority of the enemy, the crushing 
artillery fire coming from the four points of the compass, to which 
no adequate reply was possible, there can be no question that the 



THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 175 

French stood their ground magnificently . But, as is usual with 
troops when they give way, there was no restraining the French from 
flight. Marshal MacMahon, wounded very early in the day, was 
compelled to leave the field. He gave the command to Ducrot. It 
was MacMahon who chose the position of Sedan, thinking his task, 
with 100,000 men against 70,000 Germans, was comparatively easy. 
Sedan was one of the worst positions ever selected for a battle. Two 
of MacMahon's corps faced westward ; the other two looked east. The 
Meuse prevented retreat southward. On the north, the ground domi- 
nated the French position, and this was quickly occupied by the Ger- 
man artillery in tremendous force. The ground separating the corps 
facing opposite ways was uneven, and was so thickly wooded that the 
First and Twelfth Corps could not see what was going on in front of 
the Fifth and Seventh. Neither could the Fifth and Seventh Corps 
see what was happening before them. Moreover, a very steep and 
deep ravine divided the two latter from the two former corps. 

"Would you mind telling me," asked General Lebrun of a colonel 
of the Prussian staff, the day after Sedan, "why throughout the 
battle I saw so few of your infantry in my front?" "The reason is 
very simple," he replied. "In our first engagements with the French 
army, we recognized the great superiority of your infantry arm, but 
at the same time we discovered the great superiority of our cannon 
over yours; therefore, orders were at once given to all the infantry 
commanders in the army to keep as much as possible out of the fire of 
your infantry, while we combated you with our guns." 

The battle began at five o'clock in the morning. A shell bursting 
beneath the horse of Marshal MacoVlahon wounded the rider, and 
he was carried off the field. General Ducrot succeeded to the post of 
commander-in-chief about half-past seven in the morning, and in- 
stantly resolved on retreat toward Mezieres, in a northwesterly direc- 
tion. The evening before, he was marching with his corps toward an 
elevation called the Calvaire d'lUy, the occupation of which would 
have allo^^'ed the army to retire on Mezieres, or to occupy a somewhat 
favorable position if forced into the fray, when JNIarshal MacMahon 
recalled him. It is said that that order of recall decided the fate of 
the French. The various corps had barely been set in motion west- 
ward when a fresh commander-in-chief was put over the men. Gen- 




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THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR ITt 

eral de WimpfFen, who had arrived from Africa at the scene of action 
the day before, knew nothing of the ground and nothing of the en- 
emy's movements. He suddenly produced a letter from the Minister 
of War in Paris, investing him with the supreme command, should 
MacMahon be disabled. This led a French author to exclaim: "Was 
any army ever so unfortunate as ours? In the space of about two 
hours the chief command was held by these different generals, each 
of whom had a different plan." General WimpfFen immediately 
turned the army right-about and moved eastward on Carignan and 
Montmedy. By this time every avenue of exit from the ground about 
Sedan was closed by an impassable barrier, and after this the battle 
became little more than a massacre, with the loss all on the side of the 
French. The emperor, soon finding that resistance was useless, 
hoisted his flag of truce over the fortress of Sedan. On September 2, 
just one month after "the baptism of fire" of the prince imperial — as 
Napoleon had telegraphed to Eugenie after Saarbriick — Napoleon 
handed his sword to William I. The emperor was sent to Wilhelms- 
hohe until the end of the war (March, 1871), when he joined the 
empress and his son at Camden House, Chiselhurst, Kent, England. 
When he died there, in 1873, his last words, spoken to his physician, 
were: Etiez-vous a Sedan? ("Were you at Sedan?") Two weeks 
after the fall of Sedan, a curious visitor wrote: "Libramont, a mis- 
erable little station on the Luxemburg line, has been suddenly raised 
to much importance; for since the railway has been stopped, which 
runs directly to Sedan, it is the nearest way of getting there. Wag- 
ons, dirty cabs, an omnibus, ambulance, carts, and every species of 
vehicle were assembled, waiting for hire, and most of them were em- 
ployed. About a mile beyond the station, thirty-one wagons and am- 
bulance carts, filled with wounded, passed on their way to the station, 
some without any attendant but the driver and postilions and tortured 
by every jolt of the clumsy carriages, with their faces exposed to the 
rays of the noonday sun. A drive of about sixteen miles along the 
straight, dreary road, by which the Emperor Napoleon was conveyed 
to Libramont on his way to Germany, brings us to Bouillon, once cele- 
brated as the birthplace of the famous crusader, Godfrey, but under 
present circumstances the very dirtiest of country towns and over- 
flowing with Belgian soldiers, French refugees, and tourists. Ambu- 



178 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

lance wagons, carts loaded with bread and hay, a perpetual succession 
of rickety drags, and pedestrians, passed continually day and night 
down the little narrow stone-paved streets, where some were pajang 
five and ten francs each for a share in a haj^-loft, and others, for even 
such a want of accommodation, were compelled to walk about all 
night. Many of the richer families from Sedan had retired there and 
were living most uncomfortably crowded, while their own homes were 
being used as hospitals. The castle of Bouillon stands in a com- 
manding situation on a hill overlooking the town, and a church, as 
plain externally as a Scotch kirk, lies immediately below it. The river 
Meuse, winding between high banks, divides the principal street, and 
is crossed* by an old stone bridge. The bright green woods around 
have been the resort of wolves since the beginning of the campaign, 
frightened away from the northeast of France. 

"The French frontier was crossed without any of the usual for- 
malities; for there are no custom-house officers to keep it now; and 
half a mile beyond, knapsacks, broken weapons, and cartouche-boxes 
were to be seen scattered on each side of the road, and graves marked 
by two sticks tied together with grass in the form of a cross. Every 
cottage in the village close round Sedan had hung out a Red Cross 
flag to show that a wounded man was being tended in it; and near 
the walls the remains of the fight were spread over the gardens and 
the fields — Prussian helmets, knapsacks, and bayonet-sheaths being 
most numerous, with two or three horses still left unburied. We met 
many of the inhabitants of Bazeilles with the property they had been 
able to rescue from the fire piled on their backs, or else seated on top of 
it in little carts. Some of them have also encamped in huts like Indian 
wigwams on the slope of a neighboring hill. 

"Sedan lies quite in a hollow, from which you have to ascend every 
way out of the town. It is surrounded by high fortifications and a 
moat formed from the river Meuse, which runs through the valley. 
A Prussian sentinel carrying a needle-gun was perched on the top of 
the fortification overlooking the Bouillon gate, which we entered 
over a drawbridge, conducting us into a stone-paved street. The 
houses are as high as is usual in old French towns, and rather narrow. 
Several had been destroyed by the bombardment, but these were at 
the back and not visible to the street. Some of the French wounded 



THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 179 

prisoners who were well enough to leave the hospital were sitting on 
the doorsteps as we entered, and there were numbers of Prussian sol- 
diers walking about. 

"At the time of the battle the district was soaked with rain, so that 
the fire did not extend to the trees or vegetation ; and when I saw the 
heap of blackened ruins which represents Bazeilles, the apple and 
damson trees at the backs of the houses were uninjured and were cov- 
ered with fruit. 

"The most unprofessional eye must marvel at the fortifications of 
Sedan being preserved since modern artillery was introduced. On 
one side the hill rises as high as the walls, and before the bombard- 
ment, after the defeat at Carignan, the French held this hill, but they 
abandoned it to retreat into the town ; upon which it was immediately 
occupied by the Prussians, who dragged their guns up to the top and 
at once commanded the entire place. A French eye-witness who had 
nobly assisted the wounded in an open square in front of her hous.e 
while the bombardment was at its height and the soldiers were being 
struck down by the shot and shell all round, described the cannonading 
as being like two tremendous thunderstorms going on at once. She 
saw the emperor ride out to the last battle, but he returned two hours 
after the defeat. I was assured that more than one of the generals 
could not leave his bed early enough in the morning to take any part 
in it, but that, while all the peaceful citizens had long been roused by 
the noise of the guns, they were still sleeping and their regiments were 
led into action by the subalterns. The first sign of the defeat of the 
French army was the wounded, riderless horses that rushed back into 
the town — first a few, then increasing chasseurs, lancers, all mingling 
together ; horses bearing the trappings of every regiment in the serv- 
ice, yet still no riders, and their flanks stained with blood. It was long 
before the citizens would believe but that the French had gained the 
victory. Surely it was impossible that any nation in the world could 
defeat 80,000 Frenchmen — till at last the fact began to dawn upon 
them, and was confirmed by the appearance of the disordered fugi- 
tives." 

The French lost at Sedan 39 generals, 2,300 officers, and 84,000 
men, while 10,000 escaped into Belgium. With the surrender of 
Sedan ends the first half of the story of the Franco-Prussian War. 




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THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 181 

The unfortunate news was concealed in Paris ; but as soon as it became 
known, the empire fell and the Empress Eugenie fled to England. 

During this campaign numbers of French peasants took up arms 
and formed irregular corps called francs-tireurs. The Germans re- 
fused to recognize them as forming part of the regular French force, 
and when members of this corps were captured they were immediately- 
shot. After the capitulation of Metz (October 27, 1870), and de- 
fensive operations were undertaken by Gambetta, the francs-tireurs 
were organized, and they proved a most efficient addition to the French 
army. 

One town after another now fell — Nancy, Strassburg, Metz, 
Rheims, Dijon, Laon, Soissons, Orleans, and Rouen. The new min- 
ister of war, Montauban Palikao, formed a new ministry composed 
of ultra-Bonapartists ; and the disastrous war news was doctored be- 
fore it reached the public. It was not long before Paris was in a 
state of siege. 

In the meantime, great changes had taken place in Europe. The 
temporal rule of the papacy came to an end in September, 1870, 
falling with the Imperial cause of France, which was its chief support. 
Victor Emmanuel, too, was now at Rome. At Tours, Gambetta was 
trying his best to raise fresh armies for France; and, now that im- 
perialism had fallen. Garibaldi had placed his sword at the disposal of 
the struggling republic. 

In transforming Paris by widening and straightening the streets, 
Napoleon III and Baron Haussmann had made external attack much 
easier than it had been in the days of old Paris. Consequently, the 
new and beautiful city on the Seine was not prepared to defend her- 
self against the approaching Prussians. Gradually the Germans 
closed in on Paris. No resistance was possible, because the French 
army was in Metz, or imprisoned in Sedan. The first siege of Paris 
began on September 19, 1870, with the occupation of the Germans on 
the heights on the left bank of the river and the capture of the unfin- 
ished redoubt of Chatillon. Two days later the investment was com- 
plete. 

The Third Republic had been proclaimed under the advice of M. 
Thiers, with a government of national defense, the chief members of 
which were Jules Favre, Jules Simon, and Leon Gambetta. General 



182 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

Trochu, its military head and governor of the city, had under his com- 
mand 400,000 men — a force that should have been able to hold out 
against the 240,000 German besiegers. But the soldiers were raw, 
and the officers inexperienced, and the National Guard excited the 
people instead of preserving order. On October 31 open revolt broke 
out. The besieged became demoralized, and the Prussians made de- 
mands. They soon captured all the best positions on both sides of 
the Seine, and held the armies in the southern and western provinces 
that were hoping to cooperate with the troubled Parisians. The sever- 
ity of the winter added to the general distress. The empire, having 
so confidently expected victory, had not provisioned Paris; and a 
great influx of refugees added to the distress of the citizens already 
menaced with famine. A sortie undertaken by the French ended in 
failure ; a second sortie toward the north, in December, was repulsed, 
and the besieged lost the key to the positions on this side. IMuch 
damage was done to the forts on the left of the Seine. A third and 
last sortie was attempted in January, 1871, which resulted in a hope- 
less retreat. An armistice was signed on January 27, and Paris capit- 
ulated on the following day. With great difficulty the city was sup- 
plied with provisions. Foreign nations contributed generously to the 
sufferers; but famine claimed many victims. 

One of the strange features of the siege was the fact that Paris 
kept up almost daily communications on a large scale with other parts 
of Europe. Nadar, a photographer and aeronautist, inaugurated a 
system of postal balloons. The first one, named "Neptune," was 
despatched on September 23, from the Place de Saint-Pierre at INIont- 
martre. Nadar became the hero of the hour, and his name, in enor- 
mous letters, decorated his house conspicuously. It was but a step to 
balloons for passengers, for which passage of even a short distance 
cost two thousand francs. Carrier pigeons were taken on each trip 
for the purpose of announcing the safe arrival of the balloon. Next 
it was decided to use them to carry private messages, and a regular 
"pigeon-post" was established. The "Lafayette" took out 100,000 
letters and thirty pigeons. Other balloons also made regular trips. 
The most noteworthy of the passenger balloons was the "Armand- 
Barbes." In addition to the aeronauts, the car contained two bags of 
letters, carrier-pigeons, and several passengers, among whom was M. 



THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR 183 

Gambetta, destined soon to inspire all with his fiery zeal as dictator of 
the French Republic. 

France soon busied herself with elections for a National Assembly 
to be held in Bordeaux to arrange terms of peace. The body was 
largely Republican. M. Thiers was the chief of the executive power, 
with M. Grevy as President of the Assembly. It was decided for this 
Assembly to hold its sittings in Versailles. 

The "Red Republicans" now asserted themselves; and on March 18 
the Commune, consisting largely of artisans, opposed the Versailles 
Assembly. 

In March, 1871, the Germans entered Paris. This event may be 
said to mark the close of the siege, and at the same time the beginning 
of the Commune. Taking advantage of the general confusion and 
the inefficiency of the regular army, the National Guard carried guns 
to the heights of Montmartre and Belleville. President Thiers, seeing 
the danger, attempted to remove the ordnance on March 18, but imme- 
diately an insurrection broke out, and during the outrages two 
generals, Lecomte and Thomas, were murdered. Then ensued a con- 
flict between the Government and the National Guard. The Govern- 
ment held Mont Valerien. The insurgents made several unsuccessful 
sorties in the direction of Versailles, and lost two of their leaders. Gen- 
erals Flourens and David. The Versailles Assembly instructed Mar- 
shal Mac]VIahon to reduce the insurgents to order. Then followed the 
second siege of Paris, which lasted from April 2 to May 21, 1871. 

On Sunday, May 21, the government forces under Marshal Mac- 
Mahon, having captured the forts on the right side of the river, made 
their way within the walls. But they had to fight from barricade to 
barricade before they could take the city. Belleville, the special Red 
Republican quarter, was not assaulted and taken until Friday. Dur- 
ing the week the Communists committed the most horrible excesses. 
Archbishop Darboy, President Bonjeau, priests, magistrates, jour- 
nalists, and private citizens, who had been seized as hostages, were shot 
in the prisons. A dreadful scheme of destruction was carried on by 
men and women with petroleum, from which they were called petro- 
leurs and petroleuses. 

Flames soon spread over Paris. The Hotel de Ville, the Palais de 
Justice, the Tuileries, the Ministry of Finance, the Palaces of the Le- 




MlBi 




184 



THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR 185 

gion of Honor and of the Council of State, and part of the Rivoli 
were ravaged. Barrels of gunpowder were placed in Notre-Dame 
and the Pantheon, ready to blow up those buildings. On May 28, the 
national troops gained a victory in the neighborhood of La Roquette 
and Pere-la-Chaise, and many insurgents were captured and shot. 
Others were condemned to death, or penal servitude, or transported to 
the colonies. 

During the siege, Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, proposed that the 
President of the German Confederation should receive the title of 
Emperor of Germany. William agreed, and in the Hall of Mirrors, 
Versailles, in the presence of a brilliant company that contrasted 
strongly with the distress of the people outside, the King of Prussia 
was j)i'oclaimed "William I, King of Prussia and Emperor of Ger- 
many." The sovereign is now known as "the German Emperor" and 
the confederated States as "the German Empire." 

Bismarck's work was finished. He had severed the duchies from 
Denmark ; he had thrown Austria out of Germany, and placed Prus- 
sia 9,t the head of the State ; he had changed the Northern Confedera- 
tion into the German Confederation with the King of Prussia as 
President; and now, by means of the Franco-Prussian War, he had 
placed Germany among /the first great Powers of Europe. The 
Treaty of Frankfort was signed on May 10, 1871, by which Alsace 
and Lorraine were ceded back to Germany, while Belf ort was restored 
to France. A money indemnity of $1,000,000,000 in gold was paid 
to Germany for the costs of the war. 

The Russo-Turkish War (1877-78).— When Russia, in 1877, 
once more took up arms against Turkey, it was to renew a conflict 
rooted in Turkish misrule during four centuries, and it was linked 
with events leading to the war of 1914. 

Early in the fourteenth century the Ottoman Turks began an 
invasion of southeastern Europe that gradually gained in strength 
until it became a menace to the nations north of the Danube. Re- 
cruiting their ranks from conquered Christian States, whose strongest 
children were brought up as soldiers called Janissaries, they subdued 
the Slavs south of the Balkans, overran Greece, occupied Syria, Ara- 
bia, and Egypt, invaded Hungary, and even laid siege to Vienna. In 
1453 they took possession of Constantinople, and the Church of Saint 




186 



THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR 187 

Sophia was turned into a Mohammedan mosque. The tide turned 
with the rise of Russia in the reign of Catherine the Great. About 
the close of the eighteenth century the Russians wrested the Crimea 
from the Turks, gaining access to the Black Sea, pushed the Turkish 
frontier back to the Dniester, and established that right to protect the 
sultan's Christian subjects which has changed the whole complexion 
of affairs in the East. In 1812, Russia, backed by Napoleon, took 
over Bessarabia, on the Black Sea. In 1828 Nicholas I, for causes 
arising from the sultan's wrath following the battle of Navarino, de- 
clared war against the Porte, crossed the Balkans, and forced Moham- 
med II to sign the Treaty of Adrianople, September 14, 1829. 

Greece was now a kingdom; Moldavia and Wallachia (the Ru- 
mania of to-day) were virtually independent, with Russia as a kind 
of overlord. Finally, Servia, which had rebelled against Ottoman 
oppression in 1804, achieved autonomy in 1830, with Milosch Obreno- 
vitch as hereditary prince of the Servians. Thus the way was pre- 
pared for what came to pass forty-five years later — the reopening of 
the Eastern question and the beginning of real independence in the 
blood-stained Balkan States. 

The history of these States, from the time they fell under the do- 
minion of the Turk, is a continuous chronicle of murder and savage 
oppression. At last, in 1876, the burden became intolerable. The 
peasants of Bosnia and Herzegovina rose against the tyrant, and the 
Christian Bulgars, rallying to the common cause, slew some of the 
Turkish officials. Retaliation by the Turks took the form of mas- 
sacres that in some regions bordered on annihilation. Southeastern 
Europe supped full with horror, while modern civilization looked on 
aghast. With sword and torch the barbarous Bashi-Bazouks ravaged 
the villages of the Moritza valley, burning and murdering until sixty- 
five villages, with most of their population, had been destroyed. Al- 
ready the peasants had suffered repeated tortures. Tithe-collectors 
who could not collect taxes in advance had bound naked men to trees, 
smeared their skins with honey, and left them to the ants. In freez- 
ing weather, they let the frost do its work. Sometimes the peasants 
were driven into trees, or hiding-places, and were smoked out with 
green wood, as hunters smoke out wild animals. The actual massa- 
cres seemed hardly worse. At Batak, Achmet Aga swore by the 




188 



THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR 189 

beard of the prophet that he would not harm the villages who yielded 
up their arms. The arms were surrendered, and the Turks took all 
their money, too. Then they slew them — men, women, and children — 
to the number of five thousand. 

An English government agent sent a report of this affair to his 
home authorities, telling how a church filled with refugees had 
been fired by Bashi-Bazouks, and the people therein extermin- 
ated. This, and similar accounts, sent a sTittdder throughout Eng- 
land, eliciting from Gladstone a celebrated pamphlet in which he de- 
nounced "the unspeakable Turk," and called for his expulsion from 
Europe, "bag and baggage." But Disraeli was in power; and, as he 
was a statesman who feared Russia more than he loved the Slav, Great 
Britain did nothing at all. 

Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, for a time entertained hopes 
that the other Powers would join with him in restraining the Turk. 
But when he saw that England set trade above sentiment and public 
opinion he resolved to act for himself and go to the aid of Russia's 
coreligionists in the Balkans. War was declared upon Turkey, April 
24, 1877. 

Rumania, which had realized its national ambitions, and was mak- 
ing good progress under its chosen ruler, Charles I, joined hands with 
Russia and proclaimed its own complete independence. Russia also 
had as allies Servia and the petty principality of Montenegro. 

Bulgaria became the seat of war, and Adrianople beckoned from 
beyond the Balkans to Russian ambition. Plevna barred the way. 
This town was in the hands of the Turks, under Osman Pasha, who 
had strengthened his position and was prepared to make a stubborn 
resistance. If the Russians could not take Plevna, they could not 
pass beyond the Balkans ; therefore they assembled an army thrice the 
size of the defenders' army, and pushed forward. Three times Os- 
man Pasha drove them back with great losses. In this emergency 
they had recourse to Todleben, the brilliant engineer who had proved 
himself the genius of Sebastopol. Under his direction Plevna was 
besieged and starved into surrender. On December 10 the Crescent 
was hauled down, and the Russian army of 120,000 took possession. 

With the fall of Plevna, nothing but snow could block the Balkan 
passes to the victorious army. On January 20, 1878, the Russians en- 




190 



THE GRECO-TURKISH WAR 191 

tered Adrianople, and the dominion of the Turks in Europe was tem- 
porarily at an end. 

England, having looked on, now came forward to protest. The 
Russians were getting too near Constantinople, and the nightmare of 
India in the claws of the Bear once more began to haunt the English 
brain. The Treaty of San Stefano was signed, under the terms of 
which — as there was no Metternich to intervene — the sultan acknowl- 
edged the complete independence of Servia, Montenegro, and Ru- 
mania, and not only granted autonomy to Bulgaria, but permitted an 
extension of its boundaries that all but expelled the Turk from 
Europe. 

But Rumania, Servia, and Greece were all opposed to this agree- 
ment, and so, of course, was Great Britain. The Powers then ar- 
ranged a general European Congress at Berlin, with Bismarck in the 
chair, and proceeded to modify the treaty. They did not tamper with 
the independence of the three Balkan States, but Bulgaria, as defined 
by the treaty, was cut into three parts, and Rumania was obliged to 
cede Bessarabia to Russia. Bulgaria's boundaries were confined to a 
region between the Danube and the Balkans, and, though granted 
autonomy, the State was still, in a measure, under Turkish control. 
Macedonia was to remain a part of Turkey, and Eastern Rumania 
became a Turkish province with a Christian Governor- General. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina were taken under the "protection" of 
Austria. The Powers could not, of course, foresee what would hap- 
pen in 1914. 

The Greco-Turkish War (1897) — At the close of the Greek War 
for Independence in 1821, the government of Greece was placed in 
the hands of Count Capodistrias as temporary president, pending the 
agreement of the protecting Powers as to who should be permanent 
rulers of the new independent kingdom. 

The throne of Greece was offered first to Prince John of Saxony, 
but he declined the honor. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was the 
next choice, but he, too, declined. In October, 1831, the temporary 
president was assassinated, which event hastened the action of the 
Powers in choosing Prince Otho, second son of Louis, King of Ba- 
varia. 

Thus Greece virtually fell under government by Bavaria, since no 



HAVOC WROUGHT BY 2EPPELIN BOMBS IN ANTWERP 




Wall of House Ten Yards from Where Bomb Struck Pierced by Fragments 






I 







The Men Are Standing in the Hole Made by the Exploding Bomb 

192 



THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR 193 

constitution was made for the new kingdom. This state of things was 
not to the hking of the Greeks, who, after expressing discontent and 
breaking out into minor insurrections, at last, at the end of ten years, 
manifested their desire for a constitution in a way not to be ignored. 
One night in September, 1843, the royal palace was surrounded by 
the whole garrison of Athens and a mob of excited citizens, who de- 
manded that the king should heed their wishes. The heads of the 
military forces informed King Otho that the people were determined 
to have a constitution and that they intended to remain where they 
were until they should obtain a promise of one. The king yielded; a 
national assembly was called to frame a constitution, and thus in one 
night Greece became a constitutional kingdom, the important docu- 
ment itself being signed in March, 1844. Otho's reign continued for 
eighteen years longer, but many complaints were made of his gov- 
ernment and several conspiracies were hatched against him. At last, 
in October, 1862, during the brief absence of Otho and his queen, on 
a pleasure trip aboard the royal yacht, the leaders of Greek political 
affairs decided to make another change in rulers. On attempting to 
land from his excursion, the king met a deputation who informed him 
that the throne of Greece had been declared vacant and that he and 
his queen would not only not be allowed to return to the palace but 
that they could not even come ashore. The deposed and discomfited 
royal pair were compelled to hail a passing British man-o'-war, which 
took them to Venice. From Venice they made their way to Bavaria, 
Otho's native country, where they dwelt thereafter in comparative 
obscurity. 

But it was necessary that the affairs of Greece should be kept in 
order, and another king must be had. A protocol of three Powers 
offered the crown to Prince George of Denmark, second son of King 
Christian IX and younger brother of Alexandra, the Princess of 
Wales, now the Dowager Queen of England and widow of Edward 
VII. Prince George accepted the crown on the condition that the 
Ionian Isles — since 1814 a small, nominal republic under the protec- 
tion of Great Britain — should be annexed to Greece proper. This 
condition was agreed on, and in 1863 King George I entered Athens 
and mounted the throne. During his reign, Greece joined the march 
of modern progress among the nations, and she has developed rapidly. 




194 



THE GRECO-TURKISH WAR ;195 

Athens became once more a seat of learning and of efficient govern- 
ment. 

The Congress of Berlin, assembled in 1878, proposed a readjust- 
ment of the boundary line between Greece and Turkey, which for a 
long time had been a source of wrangling and threatening between 
the two nations. But the new proposition of the congress was not 
satisfactory to either country, and it was not until 1881, when the 
Turkish Government offered a compromise proposal, that the matter 
was settled for the time being. By this readjustment of the boun- 
dary, Greece received all of Thessaly (long under Turkish control) 
south of the northern watershed of the Salambria, and the country to 
the boundary of the Neta River. 

Greece accepted this rearrangement only under strong protest, for 
in addition she claimed Crete (formerly known as Candia) , regarding 
that island as her natural possession. The dissatisfaction of the 
Greeks broke out frequently in minor quarrels with the Turks, who 
held firm possession of Crete, and by 1897 the popular unrest became 
rampant. Meantime, the Christian population of Crete were heartily 
tired of the Mohammedan rule of the Turks, and, longing to be rid 
of it, called upon Greece to help them. 

But the European Powers were then negotiating with Turkey in 
regard to the rights of Armenia and the Armenians; they warned 
Greece that she must not interfere between Turkey and Crete, block- 
aded the Cretan ports, and fired on the insurgents of the island when 
they attacked Turkish forts and garrisons. 

The autonomy that had been promised by the Powers was not sat- 
isfactory to either the Turks or the Christian Cretans, and the latter 
still called for aid from Greece. That nation declared w^ar on Turkey 
in April, 1897, and landed troops beyond the disputed boundary. 

Unfortunately for Greece, she was not prepared for a conflict; 
her army was badly officered and totally inefficient, whereas the Turk- 
ish troops were comparatively well organized. The Greeks were com- 
pelled to yield to the savage mastery of a barbarous foe, and presently 
were completely at their mercy. A sharp demand from Russia 
stopped the outrageous warfare, and compelled an armistice to be de- 
clared. In the negotiations for peace that followed, in December, 
1897, a treaty was signed at Constantinople whereby Greece was com- 



196 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

pelled to pay to Turkey an indemnity of $18,000,000, to submit to 
another readjustment of the boundary that should be satisfactory to 
the Turks, and to accept international financial control. Turkey de- 
manded the sole possession of Thessaly again, which had been held by 
Greece since 1881 ; but the Powers would not consent to that, and the 
treaty gave to Turkey, besides the money indemnity, only a small part 
of Greek territory and allowed Greece to retain her beloved Thessaly, 
whose cities, valleys, and mountains have been celebrated for centuries 
in song and story. 

War in the Balkan States (1912-'13)., — When Francis Joseph, in 
1908, showed contempt for a treaty by annexing Bosnia and Herze- 
govina — thus making Servia an inland State like Switzerland — ^he 
came near to provoking that general war which his policy in 1914 
finally brought to pass. Then, as now, he had the support of Ger- 
many, and had it not been that Russia was weakened by her conflict 
with Japan, he could not so easily have defied the Triple Entente. 

But events in southeastern Europe were so shaping themselves 
that the problems involved in the Eastern Question were about to un- 
dergo a complete readjustment. The territory comprised in the 
Balkan States had long been the shuttlecock of the Powers. While 
the Turk remained in Europe, and while Russian interference found 
a check in the opposing interests of Great Britain, the subject nations 
south of the Danube were doomed to be the playthings of contending 
kings. So the lack of a remedy from without awaited a remedy from 
within. All through the closing years of the nineteenth century the 
germ of this remedy was developing with the growth of national aspi- 
rations and the spread of liberalism. Despotism no longer hindered, 
but quickened and intensified the passionate desire of an oppressed 
people to work out their own destinies in their own way. The time 
came when no tyranny, and no combinations of selfish statesmen, 
could retard it: the "Balkan war-cloud" — long a hackneyed headline 
in the newspaper press — really did burst at last, and the rain of fire 
descended. 

That piece of political patchwork, the Treaty of Berlin (1878), 
was an attempt to weave cloth of gold into the same texture with cloth 
of frieze. As a garment designed to cover the moral and social 
nakedness of southeastern Europe, it turned out to be a piece of 



THE BALKAN WAR 



197 



shoddy that presently began to split at the seams. The first rent was 
made by Bulgaria, which had chosen Alexander of Battenberg as its 
ruler. Objecting to Russian domination, as they had previously re- 
sented Turkish misrule, the Bulgarians ousted the czar's ministers, 
and then, in 1885, joined hands with their countrymen south of the 
Balkans. By this daring stroke. Eastern Roumelia became a part 
of Bulgaria, from which it had been unnaturally parted by the 




Turkish Troops on the March 



Powers. Russia resented an act of impudence that actually set con- 
siderations of true national ties above the arbitrary arrangement of 
boundaries defined by despotic principles. Russian military officers, 
having schooled the Bulgars in war, now left Bulgaria to take care of 
itself; and Bulgarian capacity to do so was immediately demonstrated 
in a complete repulse of the Servians, who had risen in jealous protest 
of Bulgarian expansion. Then followed the kidnapping of Prince 
Alexander by the Russians, his return and abdication, the election of 
Prince Ferdinand (1887), and the rise of the great statesman, Stam- 



198 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

buloff. Until 1894, the year of his fall from power and a year pre- 
ceding his assassination in Sofia, he was the real ruler of Bulgaria, 
which rapidly took its place among modern and prosperous countries. 
The climax of this movement came in 1908, when Bulgaria proclaimed 
her complete independence of Turkey, and her prince took on the title 
of king. 

Servia has been less fortunate. Denied expansion by Austria, 
harried commercially by the House of Hapsburg, and unhappy in her 
rulers, she has yet to solve the problem of self-government. She has 
been a kingdom since 1882, and for seven years she suffered the scan- 
dalous reign of King Milan, followed by the despotism of Alexander, 
only to enthrone in 1903 a king who owes his crown to murder. Yet 
the nation has tremendous vitality, and it took the lead in the over- 
throw of the Turk. 

The year 1908 was momentous in southeastern Europe. Bul- 
garia became a kingdom ; Austria-Hungary seized two Turkish prov- 
inces; and the Young Turks, in the Revolution of July, startled the 
whole world by wresting a constitution from the sultan and espous- 
ing the cause of reform. This upheaval in Asiatic Turkey where, of 
all countries of the world, despotism seemed to sit secure, supplies an 
extraordinary chapter in modern history. It is significant as show- 
ing the widespread agitation of liberal ideas, and the surprising ease 
with which these ideas may be communicated and acted upon in the 
most uncongenial atmosphere. The sultan's name had ever been a 
synonym for absolute rule upheld by private murder and adminis- 
tered without remorse. Suddenly a secret party among his subjects 
sprang up as if by magic in Istamboul (Constantinople), rallying to 
the cause their brother exiles in Paris. When Abdul Hamid called 
upon his army it did not obey. For even the army had gone over to 
the conspirators, and absolutism, outwitted, now graciously permitted 
a parliament. The revolution had been accomplished with little dis- 
order, and all classes and creeds, forgetting hereditary hatreds, be- 
came as brothers who had overthrown the common enemy. Never be- 
fore in the world's history had infidel and Christian, purified of ran- 
cor, met on the neutral ground of humanity and embraced within 
sight of the Crescent. 

It was perhaps this triumph of the Young Turks that precipitated 



THE BALKAN WAR 



199 



Austria-Hungary's rapacious actipn the following October, that in- 
spired the Greeks of Crete to announce their allegiance to Greece, and 
that hastened the proclamation of independence by Bulgaria. Yet 
the Young Turks survived these successive shocks to their prestige. 
They were even able to regain the upper hand in Constantinople when 
the army mutinied in April, civil war was threatened, and massacres 
took place in Asia Minor. 




Christians Fleeing from Turkish Territory 



Once more in control, after a brief campaign involving the cap- 
ture of Constantinople by loyal soldiers from afar, the Young Turks 
deposed Abdul Hamid and placed Mohammed V on the throne. But 
against the violations of the Treaty of Berlin they protested to the 
Powers in vain. It seems that, for all their good intent, Turkish re- 
form had come too late to avert a catastrophe brought about by cen- 
turies of cruelty throughout the Ottoman Empire. 

When the Powers in 1878 had endeavored to lay the ghost of the 
Eastern Question by an artificial and ineffectual arrangement of 
boundaries, they had begged the little question within the greater — ■ 
the question of what should be done with Macedonia, the last redoubt 



200 



EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 



of the Turks in Europe. Macedonia, with an area about equal to 
that of IlUnois, stretches from Thrace on the Black Sea westward to 
Albania on the Adriatic. The Lord of Misrule, possessed by the 
spirit of malign mischief, could not have assembled a population 
more diverse or more torn by contending interests. Macedonia has 
been at once a tragedy and a farce. As an experiment in political 
chemistry, it presents an aggregation of human atoms flying vio- 
lently apart. It is less homogeneous than the east side of New York 
City, and its government has been more corrupt than a ward politi- 












Turkish Guns Protected by Sand Bags 



cian could imagine in his dearest dreams. Its races are a mixture of 
Slav, Bulgar, Bulgar-Slav, degenerate Roman, conquered Greek, 
Albanian bandit, and unclassified mongrel. Massacre has for genera- 
tions been a pastime, and injustice and oppression a matter of course. 
Why it should remain inhabited at all, by people strong enough to 
walk out of it, is a conundrum that only over-populated Europe can 
answer. Yet Macedonia, taken over bj^ the various Balkan States in 
rational relation to its races, would undergo the usual transforma- 
tion, and emerge from its disorder. As the Powers of Europe did 
not know what to do with Macedonia, in 1878 they once more turned it 
over to the Turk. 

The distress of this unhappy country was not alleviated under the 



THE BALKAN WAR 



201 




Turkish Soldiers D^ing of the Cholera Near Constantinople 



regime of the Young Turks. Among their number was no man of 
that commanding statesmanship essential to the reconstruction of the 
empire. Neither in Europe nor in Asia were the reforms proposed 
by the new political party carried out by its controlling committee of 
reunion and progress. There were uprisings in Albania and Arabia, 
and a massacre of Armenians by Kurds, and on September 29, 1911. 



202 



EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 



war broke out between Turkey and Italy as a sequel to the ultimatum 
demanding Turkish recognition of an Italian protectorate in Tripoli. 
This war lasted a year. The Italians were able to occupy the coast of 
Tripoli and to hold it, and in 1912 their fleet captured some of the 
Mgean Islands and sank two Turkish warships in the harbor of 
Beirut. By this time popular discontent in Turkey had increased; 




Aviator Reporting His Trip Over Adrianople to the Buigarian General Yankoff 



the political power of the Young Turks was overthrown by members 
of the Liberal Union, the parliament was dissolved, and freedom of 
the press was denied. Also, there were rumblings of impending war 
the Balkans. So Turkey hastened to make peace with Italy 



m 



(October 18, 1912), leaving the Italians free to administer civil af- 
fairs in Tripoli. 

Turkey was now confronted by a far more serious situation, aris- 
ing from chronic failure to effect long-promised reforms in Mace- 
donia. The Powers have guaranteed these reforms, just as they had 



THE BALKAN WAR 

guaranteed to Turkey the integrity of possessions held under the 
flimsy Treaty of Berlin. But it had really suited their purpose bet- 
ter to let things in Macedonia take their course. Good government 
in that country meant indefinite occupation by the Turk, while bar- 
barous government might some day provide the excuse for partition- 
ing the Ottoman Empire among themselves in a friendly way. 




In the Turkish Trenches Near TchataIJa 

But the Christian States in the Balkan Peninsula had become 
weary of waiting. Early in 1912 they proposed to settle the question 
for themselves, without asking leave of Europe. For the time being, 
rivalries were buried, and in February, 1912, Servia, Bulgaria, Greece 
and Montenegro formed an alliance to promote the common interests. 
This alliance aimed first of all to enforce neglected reforms, and mili- 
tary preparations were made without further delay. So rapidly did 
the war spirit spread that in September Turkey took alarm and as- 
sembled an army near Adrianople, under the thin pretext of army 
maneuvers. Thereupon Servia and Bulgaria launched at the Porte 
an ultimatum for administrative reform. This was rejected, and the 



204 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

Powers strove to avert a conflict. But it was too late. Macedonia, 
from the Euxine to the Adriatic, and from Servia to Thessaly, almost 
immediately became the scene of an amazing war in which the Turks — 
invincible against Greece in 1897 — repeatedly gave way to their 
aggressors. 

Little Montenegro was the first to act, declaring war against Tur- 
key on October 8. It was still hoped that the Turks would come 
to terms, but they would not brook the interference of the Balkan 
States in their internal affairs, and on October 17 war was declared 
by Turkey against Servia and Bulgaria. On the same day Greece, 
whose ships had been seized in Turkish waters, declared war against 
the Porte. 

In the general conflict that ensued, Servia may be said to have 
taken the leading part. Yet her allies performed prodigies as well. 
Two columns of the Montenegrin army pressed south toward Scutari, 
in northern Albania; and a third column, under General Vukovitch, 
marched eastward to join the Servians. In Albania, Lazovitch led a 
column that reduced several Turkish fortresses and cleared the way 
to the capital, Scutari. Here the western army, under JVIartinovitch, 
combined with him in beginning the siege of the city, garrisoned by 
eighteen thousand troops. To cut off its supplies, Martinovitch suc- 
cessfully attacked the seaport towns on the west, and, driving the 
Turks down the Adriatic coast, forced them into Alessio. Here the 
Montenegrins were joined by a Servian column that had managed to 
push its guns from Prizrend through the snow of the Albanian Moun- 
tains. Four hours later the Turkish garrison surrendered (Novem- 
ber 18). 

The Servian army was two hundred thousand strong. Two of its 
columns, commanded by Crown Prince Alexander and General Ste- 
fanovich, set out to capture Uskiib, garrisoned by a Turkish army 
corps. At Kumanovo they encountered the Sixth Corps of the Turks 
under Zekki Pasha. The Servian artillery proved to be too much for 
the enemy in a furious battle that raged for two days, and five thou- 
sand Turks were slain. What was left of Zekki's army fled to Uskiib, 
only to be routed once more by the victorious Serbs (October 26). 
This time his troops found refuge with the Seventh Corps at Mona- 
stir, engaged in resisting the Greeks. Here again the Servians fell 



THE BALKAN WAR 



205 



upon and utterly routed the enemy. Monastir, with more than forty 
thousand troops, surrendered on November 15. 

The Bulgars, with three hundred and forty thousand men, had 
taken the field in Thrace. At first Abdullah Pasha, with two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand troops, awaited the Bulgarian advance at a 
point north of Adrianople ; but he soon fell back upon a fortified zone 
with Adrianople at one extremity and Kirk Kilisseh at the other. 
From Kirk Kilisseh the Third Corps, under Mukhtar Pasha, was 




Guns Captured from the Turks by the Bulgars 



routed on October 24 by Dimitrieff, and fled in a panic to Viza. 
Five days later the Bulgars, under Kutincheff, reenforced by three 
brigades from IranoiF, took Liile Burgas by assault. Viza, how- 
ever, with its one hundred and sixty thousand troops, resisted Dimi- 
trieff 's attack, and Abdullah was emboldened to take the aggressive. 
But his army, weakened by the withdrawal of one hundred thousand 
men for the defense of Constantinople, short of ammunition, and 
fasting for three days, could not cope with the Bulgars. It retreated 
in disorder, without food, transports or ambulances, to the Tchataldja 
lines that form the land defense of Constantinople, across the penin- 
sula, about twenty miles from the capital. Here the Turks rallied, 



206 EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 

and with the aid of heavy siege guns that outranged the opposing 
artillery held their own in a two days' battle (November 17-19). 

Meanwhile Greece had not been idle. The greater part of her 
one hundred and ten thousand troops marched against Salonica. On 
November 8 the Turkish commander, finding himself besieged by 
greatly superior armies that virtually surrounded him, surrendered 
the city to the Greeks, Serbs, and Bulgars. The allies took thirty 
thousand prisoners, and Greece brought her navy into play, blocking 
Turkish ports and seizing islands of the northern ^gean. Another 
Greek army had pushed north into Epirus, with Janina as the objec- 
tive ; still another had taken part in the successful assault of the Serbs 
on JMonastir. 

But now, with cholera in the Turkish camp and Albania proclaim- 
ing her independence, an armistice was declared, in which Greece 
alone refused to participate. A peace conference held in London 
came to nothing, and on Febi*uary 3 the war was renewed. 

Abdullah had left forty thousand men in Adrianople, and the 
Bulgars now bent their energies to reducing it and to breaking 
through the line of two hundred thousand men that protected Con- 
stantinople. IranofF, in his siege of Adrianople, now had the assist- 
ance of forty-five thousand Serbs. The city had stoutly resisted the 
attacks of the Bulgars alone, but on March 26 it fell before the com- 
bined assault of Serb and Bulgar. The siege cost the allies seven 
thousand men. The Turks had lost one thousand, and they yielded 
up thirty thousand prisoners. On the peninsula the Bulgars fell back, 
hoping the Turks would follow them inland. 

The Greeks, ignoring the armistice, endeavored to take Janina, 
and on March 6 it surrendered to the crown prince. At Scutari, 
too, the armistice had been ignored, and on February 6 the Monte- 
negrins, aided by fifteen thousand Serbs under Colonel Popovich, be- 
gan a furious assault. A few weeks later the Powers, who had once 
more began to meddle in Balkan affairs, came to an agreement con- 
cerning the boundaries of Albania, and called upon King Nicholas to 
raise the siege. The Serbs responded to this demand, but stubborn 
Montenegro would not release its grip till the city fell (April 23), 
though Austria threatened invasion and the battle-ships of the Powers 
assembled on the coast. 



THE BALKAN WAR 207 

Peace came at last, after repeated requests by Turkey for media- 
tion; representatives of the five States met in London, and on May 
30 the Treaty of London was signed. By the terms of this treaty 
Turkey turned over all Macedonia to her new conquerors, retiring to 
the east of a line drawn from Enos on the Sea of Marmora to Midia 
on the Black Sea. Crete, too, was abandoned; and Albania and the 
captured iEgean Islands were left to the wisdom of the Powers. 
Mr. Gladstone's wish had virtually been fulfilled : the Turks were in- 




Turkish Troops on the Firing Line 

deed expelled from Europe, "bag and baggage." But Great Britain 
had had no part in the transaction. 

Having gained a glorious victory, the Balkan States now pro- 
ceeded to quarrel over the spoils. Servia had been deprived of Alba- 
nia by the Powers, and was not disposed to live up to her private 
bargain with Bulgaria respecting new boundaries. Rumania, which 
had done no fighting, came forward with a demand for a Southern 
strategic frontier to be carved from Bulgarian territory. Greeks and 
Serbs had formed a new alliance. Then, suddenly, without declara- 
tion of war, Bulgaria hurled an army against these foes. Servia, 
though unprepared, not only met the attack, but put the Bulgars to 
rout. The Greeks, too, were successful in several fights, and on July 
10 Montenegro went to Servia's assistance. Bulgaria was battling 
alone, and the Turks took advantage of her predicament. The Turk- 
ish army was still mobilized, and sixty thousand Bulgarians en- 



208 



EUROPEAN WARS SINCE 1815 




Flags of the Powers Flying Over Scutari After Its Surrender 



camped near Rodesto were no match for it. Liile Burgas, Viza, 
Adrianople — all were recaptured (July 22). 

Serbs and Greeks pressed their campaign, and meanwhile the 
King of Rumania marched upon Sofia. Bulgaria could but yield. 
The strategical frontier was promised, and a Bulgarian envoy set out 
for Nish, to negotiate with Servia and Greece. 

On August 10, 1913, the treaty signed at Bucharest doubled the 
domain of Servia. Greece received parts of Albania, JNIacedonia and 
Thrace. Rumania acquired two thousand square miles of Bulga- 
ria's northwestern territory. To Bulgaria was allotted seven thou- 
sand square miles to the south and west. Montenegro received a 
small reward. In September the Turk was formally reinstated in an 
area comprising Adrianople and Kirk Kilisseh; and in November 
Greece and Turkey came to an agreement. 



WAR ST RENGTH OF THE GREAT POWERS 

ARMIES 





RUS S I A FRANCE bwi^n GERMANY AUSTRIA 

600.0 OO 

5,500,000 4",000,000 4.500,000 2.S00.0O0 



ITALY 

2.000,000 



NAVIES 



OTHER 
DDEAISNOUGUTS BATTLESHIPS 



GREAT 
BRITAIN 



FRANCE "^^ 
4 




CRUISERS 



MKN 

PCACe a-THtMCiTM 

DESTRQYEBS SUBMARINES 



TOS«»EDO-BOAT 




NONE 



RUSSIA 

GERMANY ^^V|^ 



AUSTRIA ,^ 

3 



M. 



14 



ITALY 
TURKEY 



4 



11 



4 



52. 

% \ 
II 

2» 




M 

2 



.Alb 
IS 



TAoeo 



soxoo 



Id 



szooo 



laoeo 



The army diagrams represent the relative strength el the forces available for the virar, estimated on a conservative 
basis. The naval figfures are only approximate, as no single classification can be strictly applied to all navies. 
Several ships have been added to the British Navy since the outbreak of the war. 

— From Nelson's "War Atias." 

209 




AIRCRAFT 



AUSTRIA 



*^ 150 
ITALY 



jAHT.LLERY PEACE STRENGTH OF THE GREAT POWERS 

100.000 ■ 



I CAVALRY 
120.000 



I INFANTRY 
UDOOOOO 

OTHER 
DETAILS 

I30.00C 






ARTILLERY k- 
97.571 "4 

CAVALRY zz 
73.360 °* 

mrANTRV 2^ 

36I.34S 55 



AHTILLCRV 

aCAVALRV 
I 14,700 
■iNFANTRV 
I 9S.799 




RUSSIA 

1.350.000 



FRANCE G""^ BRITAIN 

645.644 169^00 



GERMANY AUSTRIA ITALY 

790.9B5 414.156 a04,b72. 



ARMIES OF OTHER EUROPEAN STATES 

^ ^ O ON A WAR FOOTING 



R13MANIA SPAIN BULGARIA TURKEY SERVIA BELGIUM HOLLAND MONTENECW) 
700.000 600,000 550.000 500.000 300.000 300.000 175.000 50.000 




These diagrams represent graphically the peace strengfth of the Great Powers and the war strength of the 
smaller states. The aircraft are given as at the beginning of the war. 



—From Nelson's "War Atlas.' 



210 




211 




FRANCIS JOSEPH (FRANZ JOSEF— FERENCZ j6zSEF) I 

Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Jerusalem, etc. Born at Schonbruunn, 

August 18, 1830. Son of the Archduke Francis Charles, and of Sophie, Princess of 

Bavaria. Succeeded to the throne, December 2, 1848. Crowned King of 

Hungary, June 8, 1867. Married, April 24, 1854, Elizabeth, 

Duchess of Bavaria 

212 



CHAPTER X 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED AND AT WAR 



Austria-Hungary. — Austria-Hungary, the largest country in 
Europe except Russia, embraces the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom 
of Hungary, and the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, annexed 
in 1908. The western, or Austrian, half of the monarchy includes 
the Kingdom of Bohemia, the margraviate of Moravia, the duchy of 
Silesia, the archduchies of Upper and Lower Austria, the duchies of 
Styria, Salzburg, Carinthia, and Carniola, the county of Tyrol, the 
dependenc}^ of Vorarlberg, the county of Goez and Gradisea, the mar- 
graviate of Istria, the city of Trieste, and the strip of land along the 
coast of the Adriatic Sea known as Dalmatia. North and northeast 
of Hungary are the Kingdom of Galicia and the Duchy of Bukowina, 
both included in the imperial dominions. This half of the empire is 
called the Cisleithania division, meaning the lands on the western side 
of the river Leitha. The area of Austria alone is 115,903 miles, and 
its latest census gives 26,150,708 of population. 

Hungary, the Transleithan division of the dual monarchy, lies 
east of Austria, with Austrian Galicia on the north, Rumania on the 
east and south, and Servia, Dalmatia, and Bosnia also on the south, 
and Transylvania in the west. It is comprised of Hungary proper, 
with an area of 108,229 square miles, Croatia-Slavonia (16,418 square 
miles), and the city of Fiume, the total area being 124,655. The 
population of Hungary is 19,254,559. 

On the northeast and the southeast, the territory of Austria is en- 
circled for nearly 900 miles by the Carpathian Mountains. In the 
west and southwest extend ramifications of the Tyrolean Alps a long 
distance in the country. The characteristic geographical feature is 
the great central plain of the Alfold, covering about 37,500 square 
miles, and consisting of wide, open, treeless tracts where great herds 
of horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and even buffaloes, graze. Many acres 

213 



214 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



of this vast plain have been cultivated, and they produce enormous 
crops of various grains. In Transylvania fine horses are bred. 

Next to the Volga River, in Russia, the Danube, of Austria, is 
the largest river of Europe, 820 miles long, and navigable by very 
large ships. Its canals, connected with the Rhine and the Elbe, are 




A Detachment of Cadets from Austria's West Point 



important waterways for commerce. Before 1492, this river was the 
trade route from Europe to Asia, goods being brought by camels to 
the Mediterranean ports of Asia and sent to either Venice or Con- 
stantinople; they were then taken across the Black Sea to the mouth 
of the Danube and thence brought up into Central Europe. No 
longer is the Danube the chief route to Asia, but it is the great artery 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



215 



of Austro-Hungarian life, and commercial products of all kinds are 
carried over its waters to flourishing towns and cities along its banks. 
In its valleys is the finest fertile land in the country, the southernmost 
regions of which grow grapes, corn, and olives. Unlike most of 
Europe, the united lands produce enough food for their own people. 
From the days of Charlemagne, who reigned from 768 to 814, the 




Funeral Procession of the Archduke Ferdinand Passing Through Sarajevo 



territory lying south of the Danube River was a margraviate, or "bor- 
der country," under the rule of a margrave ("keeper of the border") 
until the year 1156; when it was raised to a duchy, later becoming an 
archduchy. By 1438 the rulers of this territory had annexed the 
provinces north of the Danube, and in that year began in Germany 
the continuous reign of the House of Hapsburg, which took its name 
from a German princely family dwelling in the castle of Hapsburg 
("hawk's castle") on the banks of the Aar River, the founder of 
which house being Count Rudolf, who was elected Emperor of Ger- 
many in 1273 and later acquired Austria and established his line there. 




216 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



217 



In Hungary the Hapsburg rule began in 1526, when Bohemia, Mo- 
ravia, and Silesia were added to Hungarian dominions, over which 
JVIaximilian II was the first emperor to receive the imperial crown, in 
1564. In 1716 a successful war against Turkey made the monarchy 
still stronger. A loose kind of federation held the States together 
until Napoleon made himself Emperor of the French in 1804, when 
Francis I, son of Leopold II, of the Holy Roman Empire, pro- 
claimed himself hereditary Emperor of Austria, and united all the 
States in the Empire of Austria-Hungary. He could not check the 




Austrian Marines at Trieste 



career of the conquering Napoleon, and was compelled to make peace 
with the French Emperor after the battle of Wagram, whereby Aus- 
tria lost 32,000 square miles of land. This did not prevent the auda- 
cious Napoleon from presenting himself as a suitor for the hand of 
Austria's princess, Maria Louisa, whom he married in 1810, having 
divorced the Empress Josephine the previous year. The present 
reign, under Francis Joseph I, who acceded to the throne in 1848, has 
been reasonably peaceful and very prosperous. 

Hungary had a stormy career until 1867, when an independent 
Hungarian ministry was formed under the leadership of Count 
Andrassy. The first Hungarian Constitution was made in 891 when 
the country was occupied by the Magyars. Before this time the ter- 





218 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 219 

ritory had been a Roman possession. And at the fall of the Roman 
Empire it was overrun by different peoples, among whom the Huns 
and the Avars lived the longest period and from whom the name 
"Hungary" is supposed to be derived. The Magyars are believed to 
be of Turanian blood — that is, descended from the ancient Scythians. 
In Hungary they settled along the borders of the Danube, but went 
on marauding expeditions as far as Greece and Italy. In 985 Geya, 
their leader, became a Christian and took the name of Stephen. His 
son married a daughter of the House of Bavaria, thus connecting 
Hungary with one of the kingdoms of Europe. The first charter 
granting rights to the people was made in the year 1222, and was 
called the "Bulla Aurea." In 1848 the dealings of the Austrian 
court with Hungary drove the Hungarians to insurrection, led by 
Louis Kossuth. The insurrection was quelled, and the charter rights 
were not restored until 1867, when the crown of Hungary was of- 
fered to the present Austrian Emperor, who vowed to maintain for 
the Hungarians all the rights allowed by the ancient constitution. 

This chief bond of connection between the two peoples is in their 
possessing the same ruler. He takes separate oaths of office and has 
a coronation ceremony at both Vienna and Budapest, the Hungarian 
capital. It was agreed in 1867 that both countries should have a 
common administration for certain state business, although each 
should retain absolute independence, with its own constitution and leg- 
islative bodies. Certain financial matters, such as taxes and coinage, 
as well as the duties of public officials and the system of weights and 
measures, are discussed and settled by the legislatures of the two 
countries once in ten years. 

The legislative bodies — known as the Delegations — of each coun- 
try deliberate separately, and exchange necessary business communi- 
cations in letters. If, after these interchanges, the two Delegations 
cannot agree, they meet in person and vote upon vexed questions 
without debate. 

In both monarchies military service is compulsory, beginning at 
twenty-one years of age and continuing for three years in the regular 
army, followed by seven years among the reserves. One year of ac- 
tive service is required by men belonging to the educated class. Until 
1914 six cavaliy divisions were maintained. The peace strength of 




VIEWS IN VIENNA 

1. Franzensring. 2. The Kursaal. 3. The Rathaus. 4. Museum. 5. St. Stephen's Cathedral. 

6. Tegethoff Monument and Praterstrasse. 7. University. 8. Opera House. 

9. Schwarzenberg Palace 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY ^21 

the whole army was estimated as follows: Infantry, 110 regiments, 
10,800 officers and 183,000 men; cavalry, 42 regiments, 1,926 officers 
and 45,996 men. Besides these troops, the Austrian Landwehr and 
the Hungarian Honved must be included, numbering about 45,000 
and 32,000 respectively, which brought the total of officers and men 
up to almost 400,000 before 1914. 

Education is compulsory in both States: in Austria, between the 
ages of six and fourteen ; in Hungary between six and twelve. Full 
religious liberty is allowed in both States, although members of the 
Roman Catholic Church outnumber all others. 

In Austria the government is controlled by the Reichsrath, or Par- 
liament, divided into an Upper and a Lower House. The Upper 
House consists of princes of the imperial family, noblemen, owners of 
great tracts of land and the higher clergy. Members of the Lower 
House are elected by direct popular vote, every male citizen more than 
twenty-four years old having the privilege of voting. The emper- 
or's representative is the premier and the cabinet of ten members. 

Public matters not under the jurisdiction of the parliament are 
dealt with by local governments ; and each commune or district has its 
own governmental boards, elected by popular vote. 

In Hungary the king's representative is the president of the 
Council and a cabinet of ten members. As in Austria, there is an 
Upper and a Lower House, composed of men of the same ranks, lack- 
ing princes of the royal house. 

The vast area of these two countries contains more different peo- 
ples speaking different languages than are found anywhere else un- 
der one government. It is a common error to suppose that the people 
and the prevailing languages are chiefly German. This is true of the 
western provinces and of Vienna, the capital of Austria, but in the 
north a variety of languages is found. Near the Russian border 
Polish is spoken, near Italy the people speak Italian. Then there are 
the widely used Czech (Bohemian) and Slav tongues, spoken by 
many thousands; and in Hungary Magyar (pronounced "Mod'yer") 
is the common speech, though many dialects of other peoples also are 
heard. 

In many of the towns, Germans and Bohemians, Magyars, Wal- 
lachs, and Saxons have lived for generations near one another, yet 



222 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



each of these peoples retains its own language, customs, and costume. 
The beginning of the history of Vienna, the brilliant capital of 
Austria, is found in records of the fifth century, when the barbaric 
Winden occupied the territory on which Vienna now stands. These 
people were driven out by the Romans, who in the course of years 
developed their early camp settlements into a city, which for a long 
time possessed no particular interest or importance. It was under 




Austrian Infantry Receiving Tlieir IVIorning Coffee 



the control of a succession of dukes and archdukes, and twice was be- 
sieged by the Turks, the last siege being in 1716 in the Austro- 
Turkish war. 

In the days of Napoleon's triumphs, his troops occupied Vienna 
in 1805-'06 and again in 1809; but after his downfall in 1815 the city 
was the scene of the gathering of the European Powers, in the Con- 
gress of Vienna, to decide what should be done with the fallen 
emperor. 

Representatives of all nations visit Vienna, which has been aptly 
called "the crossroads of the Continent," and they may always be seen 
promenading or driving in Ring Street, a wide avenue in the heart of 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 223 

the city, lined with beautiful trees and stately buildings, among the 
finest of which are the vast House of Parliament of white marble, 
the Court Theater, the sculptured marble of which portrays scenes 
from the greatest dramas of the world, and the famous University of 
Vienna, with its nine courts, stately halls, spacious reading-rooms and 
hterary treasures. 

Specially favored visitors at the imperial palace obtain a sight of 
rare treasures, which are under strict guard, as well they may be, since 
among them are the crown of Charlemagne; a wonderful diamond 
supposed to have been lost on a battle-field by Charles the Bold, which 
in later years was picked up by a soldier who sold it for two dollars as 
a bit of bright glass; and the silver cradle, studded with jewels, in 
which slept Napoleon II, the ill-fated infant son of Napoleon I and 
his second wife, the Austrian princess Maria Louisa. 

The Cathedral of St. Stephen is one of the finest examples of early 
German architecture; its enormous bell was made from the cannon 
used by the Turks in one of their unsuccessful sieges (1683) . 

One of the most beautiful parks in Europe is the Prater of 
Vienna, which is formed by two branches of the Danube, inclosing 
nearly four thousand acres of land, planted with trees and lawns. 

The capital of Hungary is no less gay and brilliant than that of 
Vienna. Budapest is composed of Buda, on the right bank of the 
Danube, and Pest on the left, the two being connected by several 
handsome bridges, one a suspension bridge 1,200 feet long. Up to 
the year 1873 the two divisions were independent cities. The situa- 
tion of Buda is extremely picturesque. A lock a thousand feet high 
rises abruptly from the river and is crowned by an ancient citadel; a 
lower eminence forms the striking site for the royal palace; and the 
city circles in an amphitheatric form about the base. Pest is situated 
on a sandy plain, but its location on the river gives it great shipping 
advantages and large fleets of grain boats go from its shores. 

Budapest is an important railway center, and from it different 
lines connect with nearly all parts of Europe. 

Throughout this capital are evidences of wealth, culture, and com- 
fort. Like the Viennese, the people appear happy and prosperous. 
Both countries are satisfied with their government, and regard their 
rulers with genuine patriotic affection. 




ALBERT I 

King of the Belgians. Born in Brussels, April 8, 1875. Son of Philip, Count of Flanders. 

Succeeded His Uncle, Leopold II, December 23, 1909. Married October 2, 1900, 

Elizabeth, a Bavarian Duchess 

2M 



BELGIUM 



225 




Belgian Lancers, with Pennons Tattered by German Shells 



Belgium — The Kingdom of Belgium is one of the smaller coun- 
tries of Europe, although the most densely populated on the Conti- 
nent, having a population of 7,317,561 to a total area of 11,373 square 
miles, giving 636 inhabitants to a square mile. The whole country 
is only 165 miles long and 120 miles wide. On the east it is bounded 
by Germany, on the north by the North Sea and Holland, and on the 
west and south by France. 

Belgium is comprised of nine provinces: Antwerp, Brabant, 
Flanders (East and West), Liege, Limburg, Luxemburg, Namur, 
and Hainaut. The people of these provinces belong to two different 
nationalities, the Flemish (German) and the Walloon (French), 
each division occupying its own part of the territory and speaking its 
own language. The Flemings (people of Flanders) use a form of 
that Low German of which the Dutch is a type, the main difference 
between the Flemish and the Dutch being in the spelling. The Wal- 




226 



BELGIUM 22T 

loons, a mixed Italic-Teutonic-Celtic people, descended from the 
ancient Gallic Belgse, with a mingling of Roman elements, speak a 
peculiar patois of the French tongue, which is nearly related to the 
old langue dfoil. 

The name "Belgium" is derived from the Celtic people, the Bel- 
gse, or Belgi, mentioned in Caesar's "Commentaries," who occupied 
that region up to the sixth century. In the days of ancient Roman 
rule Belgium formed a part of Gaul, and later it became a possession 
of the Franks (the name assumed in the third century by a confed- 
eration of German tribes). 

By the Treaty of Verdun, made in 843, the ancient provinces of 
Artois and Flanders were annexed to France. Belgium proper was 
dependent on the old German Empire, though ruled by Lothair, a 
grandson of Charlemagne. The Belgian people continued prosper- 
ous for several centuries, during which, as now, the little kingdom* 
was always industrious and thriving. It passed under the rule of ^ 
Spain in 1555, but in 1831, after centuries of successive Spanish, 
Austrian, French, and Dutch domination, Belgium threw off the rule 
of foreigners and established a monarchy of her own under King 
Leopold I, youngest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg, since 
which date she has maintained that station among the kingdoms of 
Europe, the reigning monarch to-day (1914) being Albert I (ac- 
ceded 1909), son of Leopold 11. 

In 1884-'85 Belgium extended her possessions by annexing the 
vast region in Central Africa known as the Congo Free State, fronfr' 
which she obtains immense wealth in ivory, rubber, gums, oil, coffee, 
tobacco, and fruits. 

By the constitution of 1831, the government was made a constitu- 
tional, representative, and hereditary monarchy. The king governs 
through a council of ministers, or cabinet. The king, the Senate, 
and the Chamber of Representatives hold the power to legislate. 
Every citizen is guaranteed equality before the law, and every male 
citizen more than twenty-five years old, who has lived more than a 
year in the same place, is entitled to a vote ; citizens more than thirty- ' 
five years old, who pay a house tax and are married, have the privilege 
of another vote. Such citizens as are more than twenty-five years 
old, who own real estate to the value of four hundred dollars, or a cor- 




BRUSSELS 
The Palais de Justice, the Most Conspicuous Building in Belgium's Capital 

228 



BELGIUM 



229 



responding income from property, have also two votes. Citizens 
more than twenty-five years old that have received a diploma of the 
higher education or are engaged in professional work resulting from 
such education, have three votes, which is the highest number allowed. 
If a citizen fails to vote he is liable to punishment by law. 




Some of the Forts at Namur 



The Belgian Senate and the Chamber of Representatives meet 
every year in November and are in session for a period of forty days. 

The provinces are divided into communes, numbering 2,629, and 
these districts largely govern their own business, under a burgomas- 
ter, a president, and a board of aldermen. Besides these councils for 
the communes, each province has its own council, all of which are 
elected in the same way. 

At least one elementary school in every commune is required by 
law. The latest school statistics report 15,039 public schools, with a 



230 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

total attendance of 1,450,310 pupils. Besides these, the Roman 
Catholic Church conducts a considerable number of schools. Bel- 
gium contains six commercial high schools, eighty-six schools of de- 
sign, numerous schools of music, and a royal academy of fine arts. 
Brussels, Liege, Ghent, and Louvain each boasts a university. 

The religion of the Belgians is almost wholly Roman Catholic. 
There are more than six thousand churches and chapels, and two 
thousand convents and monasteries. But the Government allows 
full religious liberty to all sects and creeds. The number of Protest- 
ants in the country is 30,000 and of Jews 15,000. 

The country is almost equally divided in the pursuits of agricul- 
ture, manufacture, and commerce. Nearly all the land is well fitted 
for cultivation and the Belgians of the rural districts have so well 
availed themselves of their natural advantages that they have long 
been regarded as the model farmers of Europe. Vegetables thrive 
particularly well in this climate and soil, and much beet sugar is 
manufactured, the centers of this industry being in Louvain, Mons, 
St. Nicholas, Soignies, and the neighborhood of Liege. 

Small as she is, Belgium lias succeeded, thanks to the energy, the 
determination, and the thriftiness of her people, in ranking with the 
greatest manufacturing countries. In the commerce of the world, 
5 including imports and exports, she occupies fifth place, being ex- 
ceeded only by the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, 
and France. 

If we consider the per capita ratio, the commerce of Belgium is 
proportionately larger by one third than that of the United King- 
dom, her nearest competitor. 

The two pillars of this prosperity are agriculture and industry. 
Belgium is, above all, a land of small farming. In the Flemish part 
of the country, the agricultural laborer devotes his leisure hours dur- 
ing the winter to weaving at home, while his wife and daughters 
manufacture lace, which is known all over the world. They keep one 
or two cows, a few goats, and raise a large number of rabbits intended 
for the London market. Belgian hares are a staple. 

The great horticultural center of the kingdom has been from the 
sixteenth century the suburbs of Ghent. There are about three hun- 
dred large nurseries in that locality, besides a multitude of small horti- 



BELGIUM 



231 



culturists. Horticulture is practised largely also in the suburbs of 
Brussels, Bruges, Liege, Antwerp, and other cities. 

Although part of the soil is exceedingly fertile, in the east it is 
somewhat sandy and marshy. The only mountains are some off- 
shoots of the Ardennes in the south. The coast is forty miles long, 
and the whole country is well watered by the rivers Meuse and 
Scheldt, and their affluents, the Sambre, Ourthe, Werze, Lys, Den- 




Belgian Machine-gun Drawn by Dog Team 



der, and Rupel. There are no lakes of any considerable size, but 
many canals have been constructed. 

In the Walloon part of the country, the city of Liege, the scene 
of the great battles and siege in the international conflict, is the cen- 
ter of great coal and iron industries, from which this heretofore for- 
tunate nation has derived much of its wealth. The coal-fields cover 
an area of five hundred square miles, and the product averages about 
24,000,000 tons a year, valued at more than $60,000,000. The shafts 
of some of the mines are three thousand six hundred feet deep in the 



2S2 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

vertical and the comparative thinness of the seams and the presence 
of fire-damp preclude the use of explosives. 

Among the more important industries are iron and steel and glass. 
Liege is one of the centers of the iron industry ; Charleroi is another. 

One of the more important establishments, employing fifteen 
thousand men, is the John Cockerill works, near Liege, where 
coal-mining, iron and steel metallurgy, rail and structural steel manu- 
facturing, foundry and machine shops, and even shipbuilding, are 
represented. 

There is no country in the world that is not a customer of Bel- 




Forts at Dinant 



gium for window and plate glass. The factories are in Hainaut, and 
especially in the vicinity of Charleroi. In glassware and crystal the 
annual production exceeds 130,000,000 pieces. The value of exports 
of glass products is $10,000,000 a year. 

All manufacturing and mining industries are under the control 
of special departments, and the diamond-cutting industry is very im- 
portant, most of the finest grades of diamonds being cut in Antwerp, 
which ranks all other European cities as a diamond market, its only 
rival being Amsterdam. 

The making of lace employs about 45,000 persons, mostly women. 
Other industries also are in a flourishing condition, and all the world 
knows of the fine linens and cloths manufactured in different parts of 
the country. 

Despite Belgium's smallness, she ranks fifth among the nations in 



BELGIUM 



233 



commerce and industries, and is one of the richest countries per capita 
in the world. The total imports are reported in the last census as 
amounting in value to $900,000,000 in round numbers, and her total 
exports to $700,000,000. The three important Belgian ports are 
Antwerp, Ghent, and Ostend. 

Previous to the outbreak of the present international conflict 




Belgian Infantry on the Firing-line at Tiriemont 



the Belgian military law (reorganized on the basis of personal service 
in 1909) fixed the terms of service as fifteen months for infantry, 
fortress, and artillery; twenty-four months for cavalry and horse ar- 
tillery, and the period of service up to thirty-six months, according to 
station. 

The German army, invading Belgium and the adjoining Dutch 
Province of Limburg, is traveling in the print of olden wars; it is 
wading through wheat-fields that grow deep with many waterings of 
blood. No land on earth has been so prolific of battle-fields ; for mod- 
ern Belgium, the older Flanders, lies and always has lain between the 
greatest nations of Europe. Partly because of its geographical loca- 




SCENE ON THE MEUSE, SHOWING THE BEAUT4F-W- COUNTRY RAVAGED 

BY THE WAR ' '"";." "' 

234 



BELGIUM 235 

tion, partly because the topography of the country lends itself ideally 
to purposes of defense, Belgium has seemed to be fixed upon by mili- 
tary men as a place in which to fight their battles ; and when these na- 
tions fight, this pleasant, peaceful, green, and busy land is crushed as 
between the upper and nether millstones. 

Historically, it all began with Caesar; but who can tell how many 
unchronicled and unremembered battles of savage warriors were 
fought in the deep and mysterious forests before the dawn of civiliza- 




Dynamited Bridge Across the Meuse, at Vise, Belgium 

tion? Caesar, at any rate, found the Belgas already "the bravest of all 
the people of Gaul"; and every schoolboy has learned with what bitter 
pains the Roman legions overcame the Nervii on this very ground. In 
later ages the struggles of east and west were fought out here. Cour- 
tray witnessed the awful slaughter of the French when, in 1302, the 
Flemings hurled them, horse and men, into a canal and butchered 
them there without mercy. 

'No less than six times the town Of Maastricht, in Limburg, close 
by Liege, in Belgium, has been the scene of desperate battles — in 
1579, in 1632, in 1673, in 1748, in 1794— down to 1830, when the 
Dutch fought with the Belgians there. Namur, a little farther south, 
which began its recorded battlings when the Aduatici withstood Cse^ar 




LOUVAIN— THE TOWN HALL 
This Fine Gem of IVIedieval Art Fortunately Escaped Destruction When the Town Was Fired 

by the Germans 

236 



BELGIUM 



237 




Part of Malines Cathedral, Riddled by German Shells 



there, has seen battles between the forces of ahnost all the neighboring 
powers. Roulers, Hasselt, Turnhout, Wavre, Arlon, Dinant — these 
and other places have listened to the clash of arms through the cen- 
turies, and many times known the welter of blood. 

Last of all, in 1815, the great and final struggle between the war- 
ring power of Napoleon and the allied powers of Europe, under Well- 
ington and Bliicher, was fought out on this "dark and bloody ground" 
— at Wavre, at Quatre Bras, at Waterloo. More souls than all those 
who march with the invading Germans, or the defending Belgians, 
British, or French, will swing across these historic fields; the wraiths 
of ancient thousands will envelop them. 

Strangest of all things is the fact that, in this gentler age of the 
world, the deep-growing corn of the Belgian fields will again be tram- 
pled by the feet of armed and fighting men, and the red currents will 
once more fertilize the dark soil. In this twentieth century of higher 
enlightenment the "old, unhappy, far-off things and battles long ago" 
are called into a new and still more terrible being by the ambitions of 
men and nations. 

In 1914 it is the valiant Belgians themselves who are engaged in 
the struggle. Whatever discussion there may be of the rights or 
wrongs of the present war, certainly none can charge Belgium with 



238 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



even an intimation of wrong. She is stoutly defending her territory 
against unwarranted and unjust invasion by an armed power which 
was one of those guaranteeing her against such invasion. 

A much traveled route from England to Belgium is by way of 
Dover to Calais, on the French coast, thence a few miles north to 
Ostend, on the North Sea. No watering-place in the world is more 




The War-ravaged Valley of the Meuse 



celebrated than this fashionable resort. Its charms are like those of 
Brighton in England, Trouville in France, and Newport in the 
United States ; but in addition the wide variety in the type of its visi- 
tors renders it a sort of human kaleidoscope-show of all nations, rep- 
resentations of which may be seen every evening at the Kursaal, a 
concert-hall and ballroom, and every day while strolling on the 
Digue, a stone dike a mile long and twenty-five feet high. 

Half an hour's railway journey from Ostend brings the traveler 
to Bruges, in the Province of West Flanders, eight miles from the 



:3ELGIUM 



239 



North Sea, Some of Belgium's old dties have awakened and joined 
the march of the; world's' progress, but ancient Bruges remains ever 
the same. The town Was once a great manufacturing center, but 
quarrels between her rulers and the manufacturers led to the down- 
fall of prosperity.; In it§ best days it belonged to the Hanseatic 
League, a confederation of cjtjes of northern Germany and adjoin- 




British Marines Marching Tlirougli Ostend 

ing countries organized in 1241 for the promotion of commerce by 
sea and land, and for their protection against pirates, robbers, and 
hostile governments. But the glory of the past has not vanished from 
the celebrated shrines of old Bruges. The cathedral, built in the 
twelfth century, is a beautiful structure, and the Church of Notre 
Dame is filled with romantic asfsOciations. In the middle of the city 
stands the building now used as- ^ market and a town-hall. Its won- 
derful tower, three hundred and fifty feet high, has a belfry in which 
hangs a chime of bells, made famous by our poet Longfellow. 



240 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

When one visits the city of Ghent he is on the scene of many a 
desperate fight of the Middle Ages, though in recent years it has been 
one of the most peaceful and prosperous of towns, with numerous 
canals traversing it in every direction, giving it an appearance that 
suggests an unromantic Venice. Ghent is especially interesting to 
Americans for the reason that, at the close of the War of 1812-'14 
between the United States and Great Britain, the treaty of peace 
was negotiated and signed there. 

The verj^ ancient city of Antwerp, the chief port of the country, 
is situated on the Scheldt River, and is one of the busiest towns in all 
the busy land. Approaching it by water, one sees first the superb 
spire of Notre Dame Cathedral, begun in 1422. It contains the 
most magnificent set of chimes in the world, composed of ninety- 
nine bells, the smallest of which is the size of a tea-bell and the 
largest weighs eight tons. The carving of the spire, 402 feet high, 
is a marvel of beauty, the designs in the stone looking like delicate 
lace or embroidery. 

Historians say that Brussels, the gay capital city, was founded 
in the seventh century, on an island in the river Senne, and that its 
assemblage of huts was called the hrocksles ("marsh dwellings"), 
from which name the word Brussels was derived. Its growth was 
slow until after the twelfth century; when the new monarchy was 
formed it became the seat of government and the royal residence. 

There are several fine palaces in the capital. King Albert has 
one overlooking the park and another in the suburb of Lacken. 
The former palace of the Prince of Orange is now the Museum of 
the Royal Academy of Letters, Arts, and Sciences. 

Few persons visit the capital without making a pilgrimage to 
the historic battle-field of Waterloo, fought on June 18, 1815. The 
surroundings are not especially impressive or picturesque, and when 
the traveler has ascended the Lion's Mound, seen the relics in the 
Museum, and gone over the farm lands on which was waged the 
great battle that marked the downfall of Napoleon I, he has seen 
all there is to see. The Mound is an odd structure erected by the 
Belgians in memory of their countrymen that lent aid in the battle 
against Napoleon's army. 

The field still keeps its outhnes. At the left is Planchenoit, 



BELGIUM 



241 



where the Duke of Wellington watched to see the smoke of the Prus- 
sian guns. Opposite is the slope down which D'Erlon's troops 
marched to the attack on La Haye Sainte ; and on the left also is the 
ground over which the Life Guards and Enniskillens and the Scots 
Greys galloped in their great charge. At the right is Hougomont, 
the orchard-walls of which still show the loopholes made by the 
Guards. Victors and vanquished passed away long ago, and from 
that day, when Napoleon's Old Guard broke on the slopes of Mont 
St. Jean, French and British soldiers never have met as enemies on 




Belgian Infantry Resting Near Liege 

the field of battle. Now they meet again, not as enemies, but as 
friends and allies to aid Belgium in resisting the invasion of her 
territory by the armed forces of the German Empire. 

The only colonial possession of Belgium is the Belgian Congo, 
founded in 1882 by Leopold II as the Congo Independent State, and 
annexed to Belgium in 1907. Its area is estimated at 909,654 square 
miles and its population at 15,000,000. Its chief product is rubber, 
which it exported in 1912 to the value of over $17,500,000. Ivory, 
copal and gold are also important products. The seat of government 
is at Boma. 




RAYMOND POINCARE 

President of the French Republic Since January 17, 1913. Born In Bar-le-Duc, August 20, 1860. 

Represented the Department of the IVieuse In the Senate. Was IVIinister of Public 

Education In 1893 and 1895; Minister of Finance, 1894 and 1906; 

and Premier of France, 1911-1913 

242 



FRANCE 



243 







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rFii^lii&iWW 


4^ ■ ♦ 




4 'Jr;-v' 









Trumpeters in Advance of a French Regiment 



France. — France gives much character to the map. If it were 
not for the wedge called Brittany that projects into the Atlantic, the 
country would be almost a square. France is separated from her 
neighbors by strong natural boundaries. On the west the coast is 
washed by the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic; on the north the 
English Channel and the Strait of Dover guard her from Great 
Britain; on the south the high and rugged Pyrenees form a bulwark 
against Spain ; and beyond them the Mediterranean carries along the 
line of natural defense. The southeast is protected from Italy by 
the Alps; and the Jura and the Vosges form a snowy wall cutting 
off Switzerland. The boundary line on the side of Belgium is the 
only one that nature has left unprotected. 

The superficial area of France is estimated at 207,054 square 
miles — smaller than Texas. The coast line is 3,250 miles long. The 
department of Seine-In ferieure, from Havre to Dieppe, shows high 
chalk cliffs like those of the southern shore of England. The irregu- 
lar western coast, from Pointe Saint-Mathieu at the end of Brittany 
to the Gironde, is broken by many bays and the mouths of the Loire 




M4i 



FRANCE 



M5 



and Gironde, while the low, sandy shore of La Vendee is fringed with 
small islands. South of the Gironde and the Garonne stretch sand 
dunes and behind them the celebrated "Landes," or marshes. 

The Pyrenees range is two hundred and seventy miles long and 
varies in width from ninety miles to about twenty-five at the Mediter- 
ranean extremity. The formation is an almost continuous knife- 
ridged arete ^ broken by elevated passes (locally called ports). The 
highest peaks are on the great transverse ridges at right angles to the 




President Poincare Inspecting a Heavy Siege-gun 



chain. The transverse valleys between these vast buttresses form the 
most characteristic feature of the Pyrenees. The great gullies, called 
cirques, running into the chain and inclosed on all sides by towering 
crags, are a phenomenon almost peculiar to this chain. Numerous 
transverse valleys form deep ravines, at the bottom of which gush the 
mountain-torrents called gaves. Wild and wonderful, with sharp 
snowy peaks, and strange valleys thrown off like the fronds of a fern 
on both sides of the chain, the Pyrenees form a great contrast to the 
Alps. The limit of perpetual snow is nine thousand feet, about two 
thousand feet higher than that of the Alps ; and the limit of vegeta- 
tion is about five hundred feet higher than that of the Alps. The 



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246 



FRANCE 247 

slopes are magnificently wooded with forests of box, fir, pine, and, 
on the lower elevations, evergreen oak. In the Pyrenees- Orientales 
Mont Canigou (9,137 feet), in an offshoot of the Pyrenees, called 
Corbieres, stands out from the plain with great distinctness, remark- 
able as showing its zones of vegetation: first, orange, aloe, oleander, 
olive, and pomegranate; then, the vine; then, the chestnut, rhododen- 
dron, pine, and birch; and lastly, the stunted junipers reaching to 
the summit. 

On the south the Mediterranean coast, sweeping boldly from the 
Pyrenees to the Maritime Alps, is very rocky on the extreme west, but 
becomes low and sandy, enclosing several lagoons. About the mid- 
dle of the curve the Rhone enters the sea by various mouths. East of 
this delta the coast is broken by capes and promontories which leave 
between them and the shore a narrow riviera, broken by the harbors 
of Marseilles, Toulon, Cannes, and Nice. A few islands mark the 
line of the ancient coast. 

On the eastern boundary are the Alps of Provence; the Alps of 
Dauphine, the Maritime Alps, the Cottian Alps, the mountains of 
Maurienne, containing Mont Cenis, pierced by the first tunnel 
(opened in 1871) ; the Graian Alps, and the Pennine Alps, famous 
for Mont Blanc (15,782 feet), the highest mountain in Europe. 
Here is the celebrated Chamouni and the Hospice of St. Bernard. 
Interrupted by the valley of the Rhone, the line of mountains is con- 
tinued by the Jura range, a chain extending between the Rhine and 
the Rhone from northeast to southwest. Gradually they bend to the 
east and run into Switzerland, reaching their greatest height there and 
on the French frontier. Politically the Jura is French and Swiss, 
but at its northern extremity it takes in a small piece of Alsace. 

The northern face of the Jura dominates the famous Trouee, or 
trench, of Belfort. This is one of the great geographical centers 
of Europe, for here routes run southwest into France and to the 
Mediterranean; southeast to the Danube basin and the Black Sea; 
and north down the Rhine to the North Sea. The great central pla- 
teau of the Jura is, therefore, a network of roads and railways. It 
is a place of vast strategical importance, and is strongly fortified. 
On the other side the Jura overhangs the Trouee of the Black Forest 
towns on the Rhine, through which Switzerland may be gained. On 



248 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

this slope are two openings — the Valley of the Doubs, which belongs 
to France, and the valley of the Birs, which belongs to Switzerland. 
Belfort is the military center of this district, Miilhausen the indus- 
trial, and Basel the commercial. 

Most of the neighboring country was held by the House of Savoy 
until it was gradually annexed by Bern. The Chasseron (5,286 
feet) is the central point, commanding the two great railways that 
unite Neuchatel and Pontarlier. Dole is the only important town of 
the central Saone basin. South of the Val d'Orbe the rocky wall 
uplifts the highest peaks of the Jura. Here, too, run the great roads 
of the Col de St. Cergnes (4,159 feet) and the Col de la Fancille 
(4,314 feet), the latter leading through the Vallee des Dappes, which 
was divided between France and Switzerland after many negotiations. 

On the south the Jura stretches out toward the great mass of the 
Dauphine Alps; and, as it commands the routes from France into 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, it has always been of extreme his- 
toric importance. The three chief rivers of the Jura — the Doubs, 
the Loue and the Ain — ^flow through deep gorges. On the plateau 
between the Doubs and the Aar, several picturesque towns are situ- 
ated, such as Locle and La Chaux de Fonds, where watchmaking is 
the chief industry. This is also the chief occupation of Besan9on, 
which is situated on the plateau north of the Loue. South of Besan- 
9on lies the Pontarlier Plateau, of immense strategical and commer- 
cial importance, because here roads converge from every direction. 
The keys to this important plateau are the Fort de Joux (east), un- 
der the walls of which meet the two railway lines from Neuchatel and 
S alius (west), the meeting-place of the routes from the Col de la 
Fancille, from Besan9on and from the French plain. 

On the southern edge of the Pontarlier Plateau are two points of 
great military importance : Nozeroy and Champagnole. The latter is 
especially important, because the road that leads from Champagnole 
to Geneva traverses the chief valleys that run down into the South 
Jura and thus command the southern routes. It also commands those 
from Geneva by St. Cergnes and the Col de la Fancille and a branch 
road from Jougne, running beside the river Orbe. The Fort of Les 
Rousses, near the foot of the D61e, serves as an advanced post to 
Champagnole, just as the Fort de Joux serves Pontarlier, 



FRANCE 



24f9 



Far more complicated is the southern part of the Jura, intersected 
also by a network of roads — the valleys of the Valouse and of the 
Surand cut through the plateaus west of the Ain, the chief river. 
The Ain receives three tributaries from the east: the Albarine; the 
Oignon, which drains the lake of Nantua (the town of Nantua is 
noted for its silks and combs ) , and the Bienne, which flows from the 
foot of Les Rousses by St. Claude, the industrial center of the South 
Jura, noted for its toys made from the boxwood so plentiful in this 




A Company of French Infantry 



neighborhood. Watches and spectacles are made at Morez, and gems 
are cut at Septmoncel. 

Important railways traverse the gorges or cluses of Nantua 
and Virieu and make the saying even truer than of old that the keys 
of the South Jura are Lyons and Geneva. The gorges, however, can 
be turned by following the Rhone in its great bend to the south. 

The eastern and western faces are pierced by many transverse 
gorges, or "cluses," by which access is gained to the great central 
plateau of Pontarlier. On the east side Neuchatel commands all the 
routes on the west side. Besan^on is the chief military center, and, 
moreover, has to defend the route from Bel fort down the Doubs. 
This, in medieval times, was a part of the great duchy of Burgundy, 



THE WAR CHIEFS OF FRANCE 




R6ne Viviani, Premier of France 



General Pau, Commanding in Alsace 




General Joffre, Commander-in-chief General Gallieni, Military Governor of Paris 

250 



FRANCE 251 

which rivaled the Crown of France, until its power was broken at 
the battle of Nancy, where Charles the Bold fell in 1477. Lorraine 
was then subjugated. 

The gap at Belfort separates the Jura from the Vosges, now a 
part of the French frontier. Their eastern slopes front upon Alsace, 
and their southern portion from the Ballon d' Alsace to Mont Donon, 
forms the boundary between France and Germany. There is much 
similarity between the Vosges and the corresponding range of the 
Black Forest on the other side of the Rhine. Both have a steep fall 
to the Rhine, and both decline gently on the other side. There are 
four sections — the Grandes Vosg^, the Central Vosges, the Lower 
Vosges, and the Hardt. The JBOunded summits of the Grandes 
Vosges are called "ballons." Th&Depiartments of Vosges and Haute 
Saone are divided from Alsace ^li Belfort by the Ballon d' Alsace, or 
St. Maurice (4,100 feet). Northward the Grandes Vosges extend, 
averaging 3,000 feet, and reach their greatest height in the Ballon de 
Guebwiller, or Soultz (4,680 feet). Their ramifications are the hills 
of Belfort, the Monts Fancilles. The railway from Paris to Strass- 
burg, and the Rhine-and-Marne Canal traverse the Col de Saverne 
(1,085 feet). The Lower Vosges forms a plateau, which is defended 
by the fort of Bitchie. The Hardt is sterile, and is covered with 
heath and brushwood. Through deep ravines railways run from Deux- 
Ponts to Landau and from Kaiserslantern to Spires and Worms. 

On the eastern slope the 111 is the chief river, which has a rapid fall, 
but is not an abundant stream. On the Lorraine side rise the Moselle, 
to enter the Rhine, and the Meurthe and the Saar, to enter the Mo- 
selle. The scenery is both noble and charming. There are high 
peaks with wooded slopes, moraines, and boulders; numerous lakes 
surrounded by pines, maples, and beeches ; green meadows, where hun- 
dreds of cows with tinkling bells graze peacefully; and quaint houses 
and churches, many of great age. Extended views of the Rhine Val- 
ley and the Black Forest, with the distant snowy Alps for a frame, 
add to the traveler's delight and make him sympathize with the in- 
tense love of the natives for their beautiful country. On the Alsa- 
tian side the mountain slopes are dotted with ancient castles, many 
of which are in ruins, and all of which are noted for their romantic 
legends and historical stories. , 




1. Opera House. 
6. Madeleine. 



NOTABLE BUILDINGS IN PARIS 
2. Trocad^ro. 3. Palais de Justice. 4. He de la Cit£. 5. Luxemburg. 
7. Invalldes. 8. Notre Dame. 9. Pantheon. 10. Hotel de Ville. 



11. Mus6e de Cluny 

^52 



FRANCE 253 

On the northeast boundary lie Luxemburg, Namur, Hainault, 
and West Flanders. The important towns near the borders are 
Nancy, Metz, Sedan, and Lille. Calais, in the Pas de Calais, is only 
twenty-six miles from Dover in England. 

Calais entered the Hanseatic League in 1303, and, in 1347, after 
a heroic defense, was taken by Edward III. Edward blockaded the 
port and starved the town into surrender. Calais then remained in 
the hands of the English for two hundred years, during which it 
became an important mart for English traders. In 1558 the Duke 
of Guise with 30,000 men expelled the English, after a siege of seven 
days. Queen Mary felt its loss so keenly that she said after her 
death the name Calais would be found engraven on her heart. In 
1561 Mary Stuart sailed from Calais to take the Scottish crown, bid- 
ding farewell in a touching poem to its receding shore. The Span- 
iards captured Calais in 1596; but the Treaty of Verduns (1598) re- 
stored it permanently to France. Through Calais the English troops 
passed during the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453), when Cre9y 
(1346), Poitiers (1356), and Agincourt (1415) were won by the 
English, and during the siege of Orleans, when Jeanne d'Arc was 
put to death in Rouen (1431) . 

The quick eye of a bird viewing France would see a country re- 
markable for its beautiful and diversified scenery. La belle France 
consists of mountainous districts with high peaks crowned with snow, 
thick forests abounding in rare plants, noble rivers flowing through 
deep gorges; dashing waterfalls; coasts with jagged rocks wreathed 
in violet mists and encircled by seagulls ; sandy shores ; low plains with 
long lines of poplars; smiling meadow lands sprinkled with ancient 
abbeys; magnificent cathedrals; exquisite chateaux of the Renais- 
sance period; interesting old towns that transport the dreamer into 
the Middle Ages; and tiny villages, where the life is simple and the 
architecture quaint. 

No country offers more wonderful architecture. Ruskin called 
the abbey church of St. Ouen, in Rouen, "the most beautiful speci- 
men of Gothic in the world," and critics agree that Chartres, with its 
marvelous glass, is the most glorious of all cathedrals. The cathe- 
drals of Amiens, Beauvais, Bayeux, Notre Dame of Paris, Notre 
Dame of Rheims, Laon, Sens, Tours, and Rouen, the Palais de Jus- 



254 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



tice in Rouen, the house of Jacques Coeur in Bourges, the chateaux 
of Chantilly, Chinon, Loches, Amboise, Blois, and Fontainebleau, and 
the Papal Palace at Avignon head a long list of architectural gems 
from the Twelfth Century to the Renaissance. Beautiful forests 
cover about one sixth of the country. Lower Normandy contains 
several of considerable extent. Compiegne, near Pierrefonds, was 
the favorite hunting-ground of the kings of France and is often men- 
tioned by Froissart. The Merovingian kings had a palace here. 
Fontainebleau, forty-five miles from Paris, covering sixty-five square 




ent of French Zouaves 



miles, is famous ; and one of its villages, Barbizon, has given its name 
to a school of landscape painters. A larger forest lies north of the 
Loire, near Orleans; and Ardennes and the tract bordering Switzer- 
land abound in dense woods. The scenery of the CeVennes is full of 
interest and beauty. 

The Ardennes have been a bulwark of defense, invasions having 
come east through the valley of the Moselle, and west through that of 
the Oise and by the plains of Flanders. 

France offers noble and beautiful river scenery. The Rhone, in 
its course of five hundred miles, discharging the snows of St. Goth- 
ard into the Gulf of Lyons, has a curious course. It is joined by the 
Saone at Lyons and ends in a fan-like delta; the winding course of 
the Seine, which, with its many historic bridges, is one of the attrac- 



FRANCE 255 

tions of Paris, enters the English Channel by a wide estuary on which 
stand the ports of Honfleur, Harfleur, and Havre. The Garonne, 
rising in the Pyrenees, flows past Toulouse and into the Bay of Bis- 
cay after leaving Bordeaux. Perhaps of all French rivers the Loire 
is the most famous. It is the longest (620 miles), and in its course 
from the Cevennes to the Bay of Biscay it flows through Touraine, 
"the garden of France." The Loire and its tributaries are famous 
for their ancient castles and modern mansions. At Tours the scenery 
is entrancing. The riverside meadows, of brightest emerald, are 
broken by trees and winding roads; vineyards spread out a sea of 
green and purple grapes; tiny cottages stand in tiny gardens bright 
with flowers and ripening peaches — a quiet, peaceful, sylvan land- 
scape. Blois, with its noble castle, is famed for its lilacs. The val- 
ley of the JNIarne with its pretty rivers and winding canals, undulating 
pastures, wheatfields, woods, vineyards, orchards, gardens, and vil- 
lages has furnished many subjects for the pictures of Corot, Millet, 
and Daubigny. 

Traveling northwest, we pass Dieppe; Maintes; the ruins of 
Richard Coeur de Lion's Chateau Gaillard; Rouen, with its glorious 
Gothic buildings ; Fecamp ; Le Havre ; Anet ; Evreux ; Falaise ; Caen ; 
Bayeux; Cherbourg; St. Malo; Chartres; Le Mans; Rennes; Mor- 
leix; Brest; Dinan; Quimper; Carnac, with its curious stones of Dru- 
idical times ; picturesque Mont*St. Michel perched on its rock ; Douar- 
enez, famed for its legends of Tristan and Yseult and also its more 
prosaic sardines; and Ploermel, near which is the Forest of Broce- 
liande, with the magic fountain of Baranton, the Vol sans retour, and 
the Tomb of JVIerlin. Thus Normandy and Brittany present much 
to charm the lover of scenery and romance. 

Southwest we enter the valley of the Loire with the castles of 
Blois, Amboise, Loches, Chinon, Saumur, Chambord and Chenon- 
ceaux; pass Orleans, Angers, Nantes, Bordeaux, La Rochelle, Li- 
moges, Toulouse, Carcassonne, Narbonne, Perpignan, Aignes-Mortes 
(the most perfect circle of medieval fortifications in existence, built 
by Philip the Bold in the Fourteenth Century) ; and finally reach Pau, 
Lourdes, and Biarritz in the Basse-Pyrenees. 

Northeast lies the valley of the Marne ; Nancy, the ancient capital 
of the Duchy of Lorraine, associated with Charles the Bold; Laon, 




SCENE IN BORDEAUX 
As the German Invasion Approached Paris the Seat of Government Was Temporarily 

Moved to Bordeaux 

256 



FRANCE 257 

with its many-towered cathedral on the rock; Rheims, with its glori- 
ous Notre Dame, where Jeanne d'Arc crowned Charles VII, and 
Domremy on the Meuse, where her little house is still standing ; Lille, 
once the capital of French Flanders, which capitulated to Louis XIV 
in 1667; Arras, the capital of Artois, famed for its tapestry; Sedan, 
with its battle-field of 1870; Douai; Cambrai; the lovely valleys of the 
Moselle; and the Rhine country so delightfully described by Victor 
Hugo. 

From Paris on the Seine we pass southeast to Fontainebleau ; 
Moret; Sens; Dijon; Citeaux; Cluny; Lyons; Nemours; Bourges; 
beautiful Puy de Dome, the most conspicuous of seventy volcanic 
cones that rise from the high upland; Dole; Besan9on; Nantua; Belle- 
garde, where the Rhone suddenly disappears; Chamouni and Mont 
Blanc; Aix-les-Bains; Le Grande Chartreuse; Avignon, the old seat 
of the Papacy ; Tarascon ; Aries, with its forum ; Nimes ; Grenoble in 
the high Alps; Aix, the ancient capital of Provence; Toulon, Mar- 
seilles, France's greatest seaport ; Hyeres ; Cannes, and Nice. 

Prior to 1790 France was divided into thirty-two great and eight 
small military provinces. The old divisions are so important to the 
lover of literature and the historian that the American and English 
reader thinks of France by these 'more descriptive names rather than 
by those of the modern departmentiS. 

After Charles Martel stopped at Tours (732), the invasion of the 
Arabs, who threatened to overrun Europe, he extended the frontier 
of the Prankish power in the north and east by the conquest of Fri- 
sia. Saxony, and Swabia. His successor, Pepin (741-768), entered 
Italy, broke the Lombard power, which threatened to destroj^ the in- 
dependence of the papacy; and granted to the pope territories that 
formed the beginning of the Papal States. Pepin's son, Charle- 
magne (768-814) , brought Germany into the circle of European civi- 
lization. With him the construction of the modern world began. On 
the appeal of the pope he conquered Lombardy, broke the Saxon 
power, and incorporated it in his dominions. He also conquered Ba- 
varia, the Slavs on the Baltic, the Hungarians, and the Mohamme- 
dans of Spain. On Christmas Day, 800, Leo III crowned him in St. 
Peter's, Rome, and thereafter Charlemagne styled himself "Emperor 
of the Holy Roman Empire." In 843 the Treaty of Verdun parti- 



^58 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



tioned Charlemagne's great empire among three claimants. Charles 
had the west (now France) ; and Louis, the east (now Germany). 
Between them was the middle kingdom of Lotharingia (Lorraine). 
In 885 the Northmen began to make inroads. They took Rouen, 
Bordeaux and Aix-la-Chapelle. The monarchy gradually decayed 




French Infantry Blocking a Road to Paris 



and the feudal powers of the great nobles developed. In 987 a mem- 
ber of one of these families, Hugh Capet, seized the throne (987-996) 
and began a new dynasty. 

Louis VI (1108-1137) united the Duchy of Aquitaine to the 
crown and strengthened the monarchy against the feudal nobles; but 
a blow was inflicted on the monarchy by Louis VII (1137-1180) 
when he divorced his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and allowed her to 
marry Henry II of England. By this marriage England became 
possessor of many French provinces. 



FRANCE 



259 



Philip Augustus (1180-1223), one of the chief founders of the 
French monarchy, by diplomacy and hard fighting at the Battle of 
Bouvines (1214), expelled the English from Brittany, Normandy, 
Maine, Anjbu, Touraine, and most of Poitou. 

In the reign of Louis IX (1226-1270) smiling Languedoc, which 




Members of the 19th Algerian Corps — France's Terrible "Turcos" 



had been devastated by the Albigensian wars, was annexed to the 
crown of France. 

In the reign of PhiHp III "the Bold" (1270-1285) the rich dis- 
trict of Flanders was added in 1300; but the Flemings rebelled and 
gained a victory at Courtrai, known as "the battle of the spurs." 
Then Philip had to abandon the lands beyond the Scheldt. After the 
death in quick succession of Philip's three sons, who all died without 
male heirs, Edward III of England claimed the throne as the son of 
Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. This occasioned the Hundred 
Years' War (1337-1453). 




^60 



FRANCE 



261 



After France had been torn by internal strife between the Bur- 
gundians and the Orleanists, and Henry IV of England had won 
Agincourt (1415), France became mistress of her own dominions. 
The English were driven out of Normandy and Bordeaux; and in 




French Motor-trucks for the Transport of Aeroplanes 



1439 the States-General granted to the monarchy a tax to maintain 
a standing army. 

Louis XI (1461-1483) crushed the great nobles and strengthened 
the monarchy. The chief incident of his reign was the long struggle 
with Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, whose great possessions 
made him ruler over a district corresponding to the old Kingdom of 
Lotharingia as defined by the Treaty of Verdun. The Burgundian 
power was broken in its attack on the Swiss Confederacy, and Charles 
the Bold fell on the battle-field of Nancy (1477). 




RHEIMS CATHEDRAL 
Wrecked by German shells. The scaffolding shown in the picture was standing at the time of 

the bombardment and took fire 

262 



FRANCE 263 

Charles VIII (1483-1498), marrying" Anne of Brittany, brought 
that province under the crown in 1491. Francis I raised the prestige 
of France in the Battle of Marignano (1515) . Calais was lost to the 
Spanish in 1596 and was recovered in 1598. The religious wars, 
which lasted thirty years, began in 1562. With Henry of Navarre 
(1594-1610) the Bourbon dynasty began. He was successful in 
beating down the power of the nobility, aided by his minister. Sully. 
His great act was the Edict of Nantes (1598) granting religious 
toleration to the Huguenots. 

During the reign of Louis XIII (1610-1643), his minister, 
Richelieu, pursued his aims by centralizing and unifying all France 
under the crown and by establishing France as the dominant power in 
Europe, fighting hard against the allied houses of Spain and Austria. 
The magnificent reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) was largely the 
result of the Cardinal's action. As a result of Richelieu's policy, 
France became engaged in two wars against Austria and Spain. 
Mazarin proved to be a worthy successor to Richelieu. Conde broke 
the Spanish infantry in the great battle of Rocroy in the Low Coun- 
tries (1643) and gained a victory at Freiburg on the Upper Rhine 
(1644). Turenne invaded Bavaria in 1646. The Thirty Years' 
War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia (1648) , by which France 
gained greatly. Her claim to Metz, Toul, and Verdun was recog- 
nized, and Alsace was added to her possessions. Mazarin called on 
Cromwell for aid, and the English and French entered Spain. The 
Spaniards were defeated at the Battle of the Dunes (1658) and the 
Peace of the Pyrenees was signed (1659), Spain ceding territory on 
the northern frontier of France. In 1665 Louis claimed certain por- 
tions of the Spanish Netherlands as his inheritance and secured a 
small strip of land by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) . By the 
Peace of Nemiguen (1678) France gained Franche Comte from 
Spain. Large districts on the eastern frontier, including Strassburg, 
were annexed. 

France was now the dominating power in Europe. She became 
stronger when Charles II of Spain, in 1700, gave by will his Spanish 
possessions to Louis XIV. This brought about the War of the 
Spanish Succession. The other European nations formed a great 
coalition. England sent Marlborough to the Continent to cooperate 



264 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

with Prince Eugene of the House of Savoy, and the allies proved vic- 
torious in the battle of Blenheim (1704). Other important engage- 
ments were: Ramillies (1706), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet 
(1709), all defeats for the French. Peace was signed in Utrecht in 
1713. 

In the reign of Louis XV (1715-1774) the War of the Pohsh 




Dogs Trained by French Hospital Corps to Hunt for Wounded Soldiers 

Succession was undertaken in 1733. France was defeated; but by 
the Peace of Vienna (1738) Lorraine was converted into a recog- 
nized and legal power. Then came the War of the Austrian Suc- 
cession, in which France, in alliance with Frederick of Prussia, fought 
against Maria Theresa of Austria and England. In 1745 the French 
won Fontenoy and in 1747 Laffeldt. Thus the French gained pos- 
session of Holland and the Netherlands. Next followed the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), and in 1756 the Seven Years' War, humiliat- 
ing to France, for the English triumphed in India and America. 
The monarchy fell in the days of Louis XVI (1774-1792) and 



FRANCE 265 

France passed through many and violent changes. The opening of 
the States-General (May, 1789) marks the beginning of the French 
Revolution. In 1791 its name was changed to the National Assem- 
bly and later to the Constitutional Assembly. Feudalism was abol- 
ished; the church was put under control of the state and its property 
was confiscated; and France was divided into departments, the old 
provinces being abolished. 

The outbreak of a great war against Prussia and the empire was 
one of the contributory causes of the Reign of Terror. In 1792 war 
was declared against Austria. Prussia joined Austria, and on Sep- 
tember 20 Kellermann and Dumouriez won a great victory for the 
French at Valmy. 

Napoleon began his career in the year 1794, and carried the French 
arms into every part of Europe. He also entered Egypt, having an 
ambition to subjugate India. 

On the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine (July 
12, 1806), the emperor was forced to surrender the title which his 
family had held for five hundred years, and now took the title of 
Francis I, Emperor of Austria. The great Holy Roman Empire, 
which had existed for five hundred years, was ended. In 1806-1808 
Napoleon gathered in so many petty German sovereigns that at the 
close of 1808 he owned a new territory of 122,236 square miles, with a 
population of 14,608,877 and an army of 119,180 men. 

Ever since the Stone Age, when Gaul was a chief center, a slow 
fusion of races has been taking place, so that the French people may 
almost be called homogeneous. In remote times the south was occu- 
pied by Iberians and Ligurians from North Africa, and all the land 
north of the Garonne by Celts from Central Europe. These were 
followed by Phoenicians from North Africa, Greeks from Asia Mi- 
nor, Romans from Italy, Teutons (Visigoths, Burgundians and 
Franks) from Germany, and Norsemen from Scandinavia. A few 
Basques and Flemings in the extreme south and north still preserve 
their racial characteristics, and the Celts in Brittany survive as a dis- 
tinct race. In the fifth century they were reenf orced by their Cymric 
kinsmen from Britain, which accounts for the fact that many of the 
Celtic legends are similar in the two countries. All the other races 
were merged in the Gallo-Roman nation, which had its Neo-Latin 



^66 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



language, consisting of two divisions — the langue d'oc of the south 
and the langue d'dil north of the Loire. Not until the end of the 
eleventh century did the French language become a full, varied, and 
completely organized medium of expression. 

The French people are quick-witted and are gifted with high in- 
telligence. They stand supreme in art and science, while their skilled 
fingers and beautiful finish give them high rank among artisans. For 




One of the Scores of Heavy Forts Protecting Paris 



four hundred years they have been the leaders of the world in taste 
and fashion. The peasantry are thrifty and industrious, and all 
classes and conditions are noted for their devotion to their country. 
There is no exact English equivalent for their word patrie. The say- 
ing Dieu protege la France is believed by every one. 

France is rich in minerals. In iron and coal she stands next to 
Great Britain, the United States and Germany. Valuable mines of 
zinc, lead, copper, manganese, nickel, antimony, sulphur, gold, silver, 
and asphalt are also found. Marble and slate quarries exist in the 
mountains. The fisheries are valuable: sardines, herring, mackerel, 
tunny, lobsters, and anchovies yield large returns. Fruit trees also 



FRANCE 267 

abound. Chestnuts and walnuts are a great source of revenue. 
France is famed for her wines. In 1912 the vine-growers were esti- 
mated at 1,519,884, and the vintage, estimated at 1,306,448,000 gal- 
lons of wine, reached $357,085,000. During the last hundred years 
France has made great strides in agriculture. Cereals are cultivated 
over large areas. Potatoes and beets are raised. Wheat and the 
vine are the chief industries of the French peasant. The most exten- 
sive agriculture is carried on in the basins of the Seine, the Garonne, 
the upper Saone, and the middle Allier. Stock-raising is also pro- 
ductive: the fine draught-horses of Normandy are famous. In the 
departments bordering the Pyrenees mules are bred chiefly for 
Spain. Cattle are numerous on the Swiss borders, where cheese- 
making is a local occupation. Twenty-one departments are engaged 
in the rearing of silkworms and production of silk. Of late years 
southern France has engaged largely in bulb-raising, and her ex- 
ports to the United States alone amount to $200,000 yearly. The 
industrial centers are situated near the coal basins, on account of the 
low price of fuel, or at the seaports, where English coal is landed. 
Paris, Lyons, and Nancy take the lead in manufactures. The center 
of the silk industry is Lyons, whence large exports are sent to Great 
Britain and the United States. Nancy is famed for its artificial flow- 
ers, cottons, woolens, and embroideries. Limoges is the principal seat 
of the porcelain manufacture, as well as for gloves and paper. 
Watches and clocks are made in the Jura and Vosges districts. Paris 
is the chief center of the manufacture of artistic gold and silver work. 

The northern departments are largely engaged in the manufac- 
ture of cotton and linen; Paris makes shawls, damasks, gauzes and 
muslins; lace and gloves contribute large sums to the public wealth, 
as do also perfumes and fine soaps, and other toilet articles. Paris 
exports many fine costumes, hats, feathers, artificial flowers and jew- 
elry to Great Britain and the United States. 

Ever since the overthrow of Napoleon III in 1870 France has 
been a republic governed by a president and an assembly consisting 
of two houses — the senate (300 members) and the chamber of depu- 
ties (597 members). The assembly elects the president for a term 
of seven years. The latter appoints the cabinet ministers and makes 
all civil and military appointments. The cabinet consists of a prime 



S68 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



minister and eleven ministers of justice, public instruction, war, ma- 
rine, foreign affairs, finance, colonies, agriculture, commerce, public 
works, and labor. 

The president of the republic, M. Raymond Poincare (born in 
1858), was elected on January 17, 1913. 

For administrative purposes France is divided into eighty-six de- 
partments (eighty-seven, if the territory of Belfort is considered 



• .^ «j^^^^^^l 


1; '^^' ,^P^B 

jB'- i ,sm%ssiSL*iM.. ^^k <|r^H >'_■ ^^^H 


\"'' mm 


% ip^' mmm 


ilil 





Trooper of French Signal Corps releasing a message-bearing carrier pigeon 



separate from the Haut-Rhin). Since 1881 the three departments 
of Algeria are generally considered as a part of France proper. The 
unit of local government is the commune, the local affairs being un- 
der a municipal council. Each municipal council elects a mayor. In 
Paris the municipal council is composed of eighty members. The 
city's twenty arrondissements^ or districts, each having its own mayor, 
are presided over by the prefect of the Seine. 

No religion is now recognized by the State. 

In 1911 the population was given as 39,601,509. 

War can be declared by the president only with the consent of the 
two houses. His every act must be countersigned by a minister, A 



FRANCE 269 

special body, the Conseil d'Etat, appointed by the president and pre- 
sided over by the minister of justice, gives advice upon administrative 
points submitted by the Government. 

The French army is administered by the war department, or min- 
istry of war, assisted by an under secretary, a military cabinet and the 
chiefs of the various bureaus. A superior council, consisting of ex- 
perienced officers and presided over by the commander-in-chief, gives 
expert advice. The chief of the general staff is responsible to the 
minister for plans, maneuvers, and preparations for war, and controls 
the directors of infantry, cavalry, engineers, artillery, finance, etc. 

The national forces consist of the metropolitan army (703,000 
men) and the colonial army (87,000 men), making a total of 790,000 
men. The field army is reckoned at 20 army corps, the Lyons bri- 
gade of 14 battalions and 10 cavalry divisions, a total of about 800,000 
combatants. The reserve (including cavalry) amounts to about 
500,000 men — altogether a strength of about 1,300,000 combatants. 
The Algerian troops and troops of the colonial army, with the Alge- 
rian cavalry, adding about 80,000 men, would make a grand total of 
about 1,380,000 combatants. The peace strength, according to the 
budget for 1912-'13, has a total of 645,644. 

The headquarters are: Lille, Amiens, Rouen, Le Mans, Orleans, 
Chalons-sur-Marne, Besan9on, Bourges, Tours, Rennes, Nantes, 
Limoges, Clermont-Ferrand, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Tou- 
louse, Bordeaux, Algiers, and Nancy. 

Military service is compulsory, liability to it extending from the 
age of twenty to forty-eight. 

Until the outbreak of war in 1914, the strength by arms was: In- 
fantry, 590 battalions, 24 Zouaves, 24 Algerian tirailleurs, 5 African 
light infantry, and 1 Saharan tirailleur. The fighting strength of 
the army, exclusive of Algiers and Tunis, was 490,000 men, with 42 
coast batteries, 47 fortress batteries, 14 mountain batteries, 15 horse 
batteries, 619 field batteries, and 21 field howitzer batteries. The 
aeronautical corps is organized in three territorial groups. There 
are 27 sections of 8 aeroplanes, 10 cavalry sections of 3 aeroplanes 
each, and 11 fortress sections of 8 aeroplanes each, represent- 
ing a total of 334 aeroplanes. The aeronautical corps also owns 
14 dirigibles. The gendarmerie is a force of military police recruited 



270 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



from the army but performing civil duties in time of peace. Their 
strength is about 21,700 men. The Garde Republicaine, another 
police force, performs duties in Paris similar to those of the gen- 
darmerie in the departments. Its strength is about 3,000, of whom 
about 800 are mounted. 

In 1913 there was a great development of the Boy Scouts. They 




A Battery of France's Wonderful Field Artillery 



are recruited from all members of society and participate in the re- 
unions and exercises organized by the Comite Central. 

The military law of 1913 made the length of service three years 
in the active army; eleven years in the reserve; seven years in the 
territorial army; and seven years in the reserve of the territorial 
army. 

The peace strength of the metropolitan army comprises 25,695 
officers, 483,768 men; the colonial army (in France), 1,891 officers 
and 25,672 men. The gendarmerie, Garde Republicaine, etc., bring 



FRANCE 271 

the force up to 673 officers and 25,672 men. Algeria and Tunis fur- 
nish 2837 officers and 69,191 men. 

The colonial army, distinct from the metropolitan, consists of 
both white and native troops. The colonial troops at home consist of 
12 regiments of infantry and 3 regiments of artillery. The troops in 
the colonies consist of three battalions of the Foreign Legion; 13 
battalions and 4 companies of colonial infantry, 32 batteries of artil- 
lery, 1 squadron or native cavalry; 3 companies of native sappers; 49 
battalions of native infantry. The officers and most of the non- 
commissioned officers are French. The total number of troops in 
oversea garrisons is about 134,000, of whom 75,000 are Europeans. 

France's navy ranks fifth among the world's naval Powers. The 
minister of marine, who is a vice-admiral, is its head. The navy 
council consists of five vice-admirals occupying the position of the 
maritime prefect, the two vice-admirals commanding in home waters, 
and vice-admirals that have commanded the two home fleets within the 
past two years. There are also four inspectors-general. The navy 
is manned partly by conscription and partly by voluntary enlistment. 
The Inscription Maritime dates from 1683, originating with Colbert, 
minister of marine under Louis XIV. 

The navy is composed of twenty battleships; forty-five armored 
cruisers and protected cruisers, 213 torjiedo-boats and destroyers; 
sixty-five submarines ; and a great number of transports, mine-layers, 
etc. There are four dreadnoughts, each of 23,400 tons displacement 
and 36,000 horse-power, and carrying twelve twelve-inch guns and 
twenty-two five-inch guns. There are three superdreadnoughts of 
23,500 tons displacement, carrying ten thirteen-inch and twenty-two 
five-inch guns. The naval architects have carried ingenuity of con- 
struction to a high degree, in the four superdreadnoughts, launched 
but not yet in commission, of 25,387 tons displacement, having 
twelve thirteen-inch and twenty- four five-inch guns in groups of four 
in the turrets. 

The minor cruisers include the aerial depot ship "Foudre." The 
navy has two centers of aviation — one at Frejus-St.-Raphael, the 
other at Montpellier. There is an efficient corps of hydroplanes. 

For purposes of administration, the French coasts are divided into 
five arrondissements, with headquarters at Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, 



272 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



Rochefort and Toulon, at each of which there are shipyards. Each 
arrondissement is presided over by a vice-admiral with the title of 
maritime prefect. The chief torpedo-stations are Cherbourg, Brest, 
Dunkirk, Lorient, Rochefort, Toulon, Corsica, Bizerta, Oran, Al- 
giers and Bona. The forces afloat are: the Mediterranean Squad- 
ron, the Northern Squadron in the Channel; and the divisions of the 
Atlantic, Pacific, Far East, Cochin China, and the Indian Ocean. 




Removing the Dead After the Battle of Charleroi 



The personnel of the navy includes 4,128 officers, 60,153 sailors, 
and 35,000 workmen for the construction and repair of ships. 
France is provided with a reserve of 114,000 men, of whom about 
25,500 are serving with the fleet. 

In 1911 the French mercantile marine included 15,949 sailing- 
vessels, and 1,780 steamers, of 838,118 tons. 

France's colonial possessions in the East are Pondicherry in India 
(about 196 square miles, population 276,484) ; Annam (52,100 square 
miles, population 5,554,822) ; Cambodia (45,000 square miles, popu- 
lation 1,634,252). Cochin China (20,000 square miles, population 



FRANCE 



273 



•^>#* -■ 



3,050,785) ; Tonking (46,400 square miles, population 6,119,720) ; the 
Laos Territory (98,000 squai^e miles, population 640,877) ;ah(iHhe 
territory of Kwang Chau Wan on the coast of China, leased from 
China in 1898, which, with two islands in the bay, was placed under 




French Mountain Battery 

the authority of the governor-general of Indo-China (190 square 
miles, population about 150,000) . 

On the evening of August 1, 1914, following the action of Ger- 
many in mobilizing her army against Russia, France ordered the 
mobilizing of her own army. On August 12 she declared war on 
Austria-Hungary, and two days later (August 14) her troops 
entered Belgium to assist in the defense of Brussels, penetrating as 
far as Gembloux, north of the Sambre. 




WILLIAM (WILHELM) II 

German Emperor, King of Prussia. Born in Berlin, January 27, 1859. Son of the Emperor 

Frederick III and of Victoria, Sister of Edward VII. Succeeded to the Throne on the 

Death of His Father, June 15, 1888. Married, February 27, 1881, Augusta 

Victoria, Princess of Schleswig-Holstein 

274 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



275 



The German Empire — Germany, the storm-center of the war, oc- 
cupies the central part of Europe, having for its geographical neigh- 
bors Russia, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxemburg, 
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark. Within twenty- four hours 
its war-ships can reach Great Britain across the North Sea. Its coast- 
line is about 1,200 miles in length, and it has 3,500 miles of land fron- 
tier to guard. Southern Germany is elevated, and, in certain regions, 
mountainous, though the highest peak in the empire (Zugspitze, in 




Kaiser Reviewing the Imperial Guards at Potsdam 



Bavaria) reaches an elevation of only 9,725 feet. The northern part, 
embracing about one third of the country, is a low-lying plain. Ger- 
many has no well-defined natural borders except on her Austro-Hun- 
garian and Swiss frontiers, and for a few miles in Alsace, where the 
Vosges Mountains rise between her and France. The rest of the 
French boundary is an arbitrary line, while the coast plain that 
stretches across Northern Germany merges into Holland and Bel- 
gium on the west and Russian Poland on the east. The country slopes 
to the North Sea and the Baltic, to which four great rivers find their 
way, running roughly in parallel courses. The Rhine, which courses 
through Holland, the Weser, and the Elbe flow into the North Sea; 




276 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 277 

the Oder and the Vistula into the Baltic. The smaller Niemen runs 
through Russia and cuts into German territory a few miles west of 
the frontier. Hamburg, Germany's great port, is on the estuary of 
the Elbe; Bremen is on the Weser. Not far from Hamburg lies one 
entrance of the great Kaiser- Wilhelm Canal, which joins the North 
Sea and the Baltic, across territory wrested from Denmark in 1864, 
and gives the fleet the great strategic advantage of quick and safe ac- 
cess to both seas. Germany has no great lakes ; but east of the Elbe, 
along the Baltic plain, across which the Russian army of invasion will 
operate, there are hundreds of small and medium-sized lakes. The 
area of Germany is 208,780 square miles. Its population, according 
to the census of 1910, was 64,925,993, an average of 310.4 to the 
square mile. In 1816 the population of the same area was 24,831,396. 
The present German Empire is one of the youngest of the nations, 
as it dates only from 1871, and though the history of the various States 
that comprise it begins at the time of the break-up of the western 
Roman Empire, it was only after the fall of Napoleon in 1815 that the 
group of Teutonic States that now form the empire took political 
shape. During the eighteenth centiuy what is now Germany had 
been a jumble of more than three hundred independent States; and 
Germany owes to the conqueror Napoleon the first impetus toward 
consolidation, for he roughly swept most of them out of existence, and 
at his fall they numbered only thirty-nine. The Congress of Vienna, 
which in 1815 carefully picked up and cemented the pieces into which 
Napoleon had shattered Europe, constituted the German Confedera- 
tion, a clumsy organization, under the leadership of Austria. A prom- 
ising liberal movement toward the establishment of a German empire 
took place in 1848, when a national parliament was called; but the 
movement was doomed when in 1849 the weak King of Prussia re- 
fused to accept the office of German Emperor to which he had been 
chosen. There was not room in Germany for both Prussia and Aus- 
tria, and their rivalries made a real union impossible. Prince Bismarck, 
to whose ruthless but sagacious and successful statesmanship Germany 
owes the greatness she has now so rashly placed in jeopardy, took ad- 
vantage of quarrels with Austria over the administration of Schleswig- 
Holstein, which was taken from Denmark in 1864 by the combined 
forces of the two Powers, to force a final clash between the rivals. 




278 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



279 



Austria was completely vanquished in the seven weeks' war that fol- 
lowed (1866), and Europe awoke to the realization that a new power 
of extraordinary military efficiency was thereafter to be reckoned 
with. Prussia, greatly increased in territory by the Austrian war, 
now became the dominant power in the new North German Confed- 
eration, with offensive and defensive treaties of alliance with three 




The Kaiser as a Country Gentleman 



southern States — Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden. The growing 
power of Prussia brought her into rivalry with France, then ruled by 
Napoleon III, the mediocre nephew and namesake of the great em- 
peror. Bismarck took the same skilful and unscrupulous advantage 
of the fatuity of the French emperor that he previously had taken of 
Austria, and a pretext for war was easily found. On July 19, 1870, 
Napoleon III declared war, and his army set out for Berlin. On 
September 2, the unfortunate Emperor Napoleon was a prisoner. 




PRINCE OSCAR 
Fifth Son of the Kaiser, in Command of One of the GerlVian Armies 



250 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



281 



and on January 18, 1871, in the ancient palace of the French kings at 
Versailles, William I, King of Prussia, was proclaimed German Em- 
peror. On April 16, 1871, the constitution of the new empire was 
promulgated. In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main (May 10, 1871), which closed the Franco-Prussian 
war, France ceded Alsace and German-speaking Lorraine to Ger- 
many and paid a war indemnity of 5,000,000,000 francs ($1,000,000,- 
000). Since then the conquests of Germany have been intellectual. 




German Soldiers Jeered by French at the Frontier before the War 



scientific, industrial, and commercial, and she has aroused the admira- 
tion of the whole world by her achievements in all lines of human prog- 
ress — with the exception of liberal government. The medieval au- 
tocracy of the emperor and the odious militarism of the ruling classes 
undoubtedly were the most powerful influences in impelling Germany 
to challenge the world in arms. Since 1871 Germany has devoted her- 
self to the task of building up her industries and foreign trade with 
extraordinary energy and skill and with such success that at the out- 
break of the war her foreign trade and her magnificent merchant 
marine were second only to those of Great Britain. At the same time, 
she had the most formidable military machine that the world had ever 



!282 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



seen, and her navy had reached such proportions as to cause great un- 
easiness to the mistress of the seas across the North Sea. 

In 1884, with the acquisition of some small territories in Africa, 
Germany entered upon her career as a colonial power, and her pos- 
sessions at the opening of the war had an area of more than a million 
square miles, with a population of twelve millions. The "Triple Alli- 
ance" (Dreihund), between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, 
negotiated by Bismarck in 1883, has just fallen apart by the defection 
of Italy, probably actuated by her inveterate hatred against Austria 
and her desire to redeem the Italian-speaking provinces that are still 
held by Austria. The following table shows the States that compose 
the empire, and gives important information regarding them: 



Prussia 

Bavaria 

Saxony 

Wurttemberg 

Baden 

Hesse 

Mecklenburg-Schwerin 

Saxony 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz 

Oldenburg 

Brunswick 

Saxe-Meiningen 

Saxe-Altenburg 

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 

Anbalt 

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. . 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 

Waldeck 

Reuss Aelteres Linie 

Reuss Jungerer Linie 

Schaumburg-Lippe 

Lippe 

Lubeck 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

Alsace-Lorraine 



Kingdom . 



Grand Duchy. 



Duchy . 



Principality . 



Free Town 



Reichsland. . . , 



Capital 



Berlin 

Munich 

Dresden 

Stuttgart 

Carlsruhe 

Darmstadt. . . . 

Wismar 

Weimar 

Neu-Strelitz. . . 
Oldenburg. . . . 
Brunswick.. . . 
Meiningen .... 
Altenburg .... 
Coburg-Gotha. 
Dessau. . . . 
Sondershausen 
Rudolstadt . . 

Arolsen 

Greiz 

Gera 

Buckeburg 

Detmold . . 



Strassburg. 



Area, 
Square 
^liles 



134,616 

29,292 

5,789 

7,534 

5,823 

2,966 

5,068 

1,397 

1,131 

2,482 

1,418 

953 

511 

764 

888 

333 

363 

433 

122 

319 

131 

469 

115 

99 

160 

5,604 



Population 



40,165,219 

6,887,291 

4,806,661 

2,437,547 

2,142,833 

1,282,051 

639.958 

417,149 

106,442 

483,042 

494,339 

278,762 

216,128 

257,177 

331,128 

89,917 

100,702 

61,707 

72,769 

152,752 

46,652 

150,937 

116.599 

299,526 

1,014,664 

1,874,014 



Religion 

by 

Percentages 



66 Prot. 
70 R.C. 

95 Prot. 

68 Prot. 
59 R.C. 

69 Prot. 

96 Prot. 
94 Prot. 

Prot. 
79 Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 

Prot. 
96 Prot. 
87 Prot. 
92 Prot 
76 R.C. 



Mem- 
bers in 
Bundes- 
rath 



17 
6 
4 
4 

3 
3 

2 



Deputies 
in Reich- 
stag 



236 
48 
23 
17 
14 
9 
6 
3 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
S 
15 



The four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven princi- 
palities, three free towns, and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lor- 
raine bear somewhat the same relation to the empire that the various 
States bear to the Federal Government of the United States. Some 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



283 




Friedrich Wilhelm, Crown Prince of Prussia 

of the principalities are very tiny, and with their well-nigh feudal 
governments are anachronistic survivals of medieval times. The au- 
tonomy of the free cities also dates from the Middle Ages, when these 
cities were at the head of the Hanseatic League, a powerful union 
of the commercial cities of the coast. By the constitution, the King 
of Prussia is also the German Emperor. The present King of Prus- 
sia and German Emperor is William II, grandson of the emperor 
who was proclaimed at Versailles. The hegemony of the Kingdom 
of Prussia lies not alone in the honor of the presidency of the Empire 




Admiral von Tirpitz 
Minister of iVIarine 



Dr. von Bethmann-Hoilweg 
Chancellor of the Empire 



A GROUP OF HIGH GERMAN OFFICIALS 
S84 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 285 

conferred upon her king. Her vote in the Bundesrath is sufficiently- 
large to prevent the passage of any constitutional amendments which 
she (that is to say, the emperor) may not favor. Certain special privi- 
leges were granted to Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden also, to in- 
duce them to join the empire. The two former, for example, have 
their own railway and postal systems, and their armies are separate 
military organizations. Local patriotism is especially strong in Ba- 
varia. The emperor has the power of declaring war, if def efisive, mak- 
ing peace, and entering into treaties with foreign nations, j He is also 
commander-in-chief of the army and the navy, and the supreme di- 
rection of the affairs of the empire is vested in him. King George of 
England is also the commander-in-chief of the British army -and 
navy, and all government nominally centers in him. As a matter of; 
fact, however, he is a mere shadow of royalty, whereas the German 
emperor is the head and front of the government. 

All laws passed by the legislature must be promulgated by the 
emperor, and their administration is entrusted to him. The executive' 
power of the^ emperor is exercised by the imperial chancellor, who 
is responsible, not to the legislature, but to the emperor, and holds 
office at his pleasure. Under the supervision of the chancellor are 
fourteen secretaries (of foreign affairs, admiralty, army, post-office, 
etc. ) ; but these secretaries are in no sense comparable with the British 
cabinet, which is responsible to parliament and over which the king 
has not a vestige of authority. The imperial chancellor is president 
of the Bundesrath, and has a seat in the Reichstag, where he acts as 
the mouthpiece of the government. 

The legislature is composed of two chambers : the Bundesrath, or 
Federal Council, and the Reichstag, or National Diet. The Bun- 
desrath represents the federal principle, as does our Senate, and all the 
States, however petty, are represented in it. The table on page 282 
shows the apportionment of the sixty-one members of the Bundesrath 
among the various States. The members are appointed by their re- 
spective State governments, and each State delegation must vote as a 
unit in accordance with instructions from its government. The 
Bundesrath shares with the emperor certain powers of nominating and 
appointing imperial officials. Its members are regarded as ambassa- 
dors from the States they represent — they have, in fact, the same 



^86 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



privilege of ex-territoriality and rank with them officially — and may 
address the Reichstag in favor of measures advocated by their gov- 
ernments. 

Under the direction of the imperial chancellor, the Bundesrath 
acts as a supreme administrative and consultative board, its powers in 
this respect being exercised through twelve standing committees with 




Kaiser William II and His Five Sons 



authority over various departments of government — the army, navy, 
tariff, trade, railways, finance, civil and criminal law, foreign affairs, 
Alsace and Lorraine, the constitution, standing orders, and railway 
tariffs. The Bundesrath also exercises the functions of our Supreme 
Court, in legal and constitutional controversies between States. 

The Reichstag is composed of three hundred and ninety-seven 
deputies elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years, the 
representation of each State being determined by its population. The 
result naturally is that the Reichstag is mainly Prussian. The mem- 
bers receive 3,000 marks ($714) for each session, with a deduction of 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE S8Y 

twenty marks for each day's absence. They receive also free passes 
over the railroads. The Reichstag has equal powers of initiating leg- 
islation with the Bundesrath, and the two bodies have constitutional 
jurisdiction over many things which in the United States fall within 
the province of the several States. Laws, when passed by the im- 
perial legislature, are administered by the various State governments 
under the emperor's supervision. 




Gun Factory at the Krupp Works, Essen 

Germany enjoj^s uniform codes of civil and criminal law through- 
out the empire. The courts are of three grades, with successively wider 
jurisdiction and powers in cases of appeal from lower courts, the 
highest being the Supreme Court of one hundred members {Reichs- 
gericht), which sits at Leipzig. Bavaria has a supreme court of its 
own (Oherstes Landesgericht) , composed of twenty-two members, 
with revising jurisdiction over the lower Bavarian courts. The Ger- 
man jury consists of twelve members, and usually three judges occu- 
py the bench. The shameful entanglement with politics which dis- 




288 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 289 

graces and corrupts our lower courts does not exist there, and the 
German judge is placed in a position of absolute independence, be- 
cause, once appointed, there is no power to remove, transfer, or retire 
him against his will, so long as he properly discharges his duties. 
With the exception of the members of the Supreme Court, appointed 
by the emperor upon the nomination of the Bundesrath, the judges 
are appointed and paid by the various States. Since 1907 the number 
of causes tried in the various courts of Germany has not increased as 
rapidly as the population. In 1911, the latest year for which figures 
are available, 1,446,472 persons were tried by German courts, and 
552,560 were convicted. This was equal to 119.8 convictions for each 
10,000 inhabitants. In 1907 the ratio was 122.2. 

Germany has grappled with the problem of pauperism in a very 
intelligent way, though the growth of socialism, at which such meas- 
ures were aimed, has not been checked thereby, as 112 socialist depu- 
ties — ^nearly one third of its membership — sit in the Reichstag. The 
German national compulsory insurance of workingmen against sick- 
ness, accident, and old age is a very comprehensive scheme for the 
alleviation of those evils on a scale vastly larger than any nation had 
ever before attempted. In fact, nothing yet approaches it except the 
English old-age pension system. For insurance against sickness, 
workmen must pay two thirds and the employer one third of the con- 
tribution, or premium. The employers must pay the total charges for 
the insurance of their workmen against accident. For old-age and 
infirmity pensions the employer must pay half, and the beneficiary 
half, the State contributing $12 to each pension when it is paid. The 
employer is responsible for the payment of all the authorized contri- 
butions, both his own and the employee's, but the latter's charges may 
be deducted from his wages. Premiums are paid by affixing postage- 
stamps to official cards weekly. Old-age and infirmity pensions are 
paid after contributions have been kept up regularly for 1,200 weeks 
(twenty-five and one half years). Pensions are divided into five 
classes, according to wages received. The lowest class is on wages of 
about $84 a year. On this the weekly contribution is about three and 
one half cents, and the yearly pension about $38. The highest class is 
based on yearly wages between $275 and $480. In this class the 
weekly contributions are about eight and one half cents, and the yearly 



290 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




A Brigade of German Horse Artillery 



pension about $77. In the year 1911 the total amount of compensa- 
tion paid by the State for insurance of the three classes was $206,- 
179,000. 

In religion, Germany is 61 per cent. Protestant and 36 per cent. 
Catholic. Jews form about 1 per cent, of the population. The table 
on page 282, giving statistical information regarding the component 
States of the Empire, reveals sharp contrasts in the religious make-up 
of the country, Prussia and Saxony, for example, being strongly 
Protestant, and Bavaria and Baden largely Catholic. 

Education is compulsor}^ throughout Germany, and so thoroughly 
have the elementarj^ schools done their work that the number of illiter- 
ates in the empire is astonishingly small. In 1912 only one twentieth 
of one per cent, of the army recruits were reported as illiterate. There 
are twenty-one universities in the empire, four of which are Catholic, 
four mixed, and thirteen Protestant. These universities have a total 
of 3,450 professors and teachers and 59,312 students. The largest is 
Berlin, with 502 professors and teachers and 10,274 students. The 
technical and agricultural schools of Germany are highly efficient and 
have contributed powerfully to Germany's wonderful commercial ad- 
vance. The naval academy is at Kiel, and the two military academies 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



29T 




German Horse Artillery on the March 



are at Berlin and Munich. According to a school census taken in 
1911, there were in the empire 61,557 elementary public schools, with 
a total attendance of 10,309,949. Differences of religious opinion 
are officially recognized by the educational authorities in Germany, 
and special schools are provided for Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. 
While German is the language of the greater part of the population, 
there are still nearly 4,500,000 subjects of the empire who cannot 
speak its language. About 3,500,000 Poles in Eastern Prussia, 200,- 
000 French in Alsace and Lorraine, and 140,000 Danes in Schleswig- 
Holstein still obstinately reject the language of the conquering race. 

The imperial revenues are derived from customs duties, excise 
taxes on spirits, tobacco, etc., and profits of the railways, postal serv- 
ice, and telegraphs. In addition, the various States are assessed in 
proportion to their population. The estimated revenue for the year 
ending March 31, 1915, is $831,979,854. The total expenditure dur- 
ing the year ending March 31, 1914, was $879,656,301. The expenses 
of the war, of course, will increase enormously the expenditure for 
1914. 

Germany is divided, for national defense, into ten "fortress dis- 
tricts," as follows: On the eastern Baltic, Konigsberg; on the Bus- 



292 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



sian and Austrian borders, Thorn and Posen; in the interior, Berlin; 
in the south, Munich and Mainz; on the French frontier, Metz and 
Strassburg; on the Belgian frontier, Cologne; on the North Sea and 
western Baltic, Kiel. Konigsberg contains the first-class fortresses 
of Konigsberg and Danzig, the latter one of the coast-defense sj'^s- 
tem, with the minor defenses of Pillau, ]Memel, and Boyen. Posen 




The Julius Tower at Spandau, Where Germany Kept Her Great War Treasure 



contains the first-class fortresses of Posen and Neisse, together with 
Glogau and Glatz. Berlin contains the heavy fortresses of Spandau, 
Magdeburg, and Kiistrin, with Torgau. Mainz contains IMainz, Ulm, 
and Rastatt — all of the first class. Metz has Diedenhofen and Bitsch, 
besides the powerful fortress of Metz. Cologne contains Cologne 
and Coblenz of the first class, with Wesel and Saarlouis. Kiel con- 
tains, besides the heavily fortified naval bases of Kiel and Wilhelms- 
haven, the coast fortifications of Friedrichsort, Cuxhaven, Geeste- 
miinde, and Swinemiinde. Thorn contains Thorn, Graudenz, Vistula 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 293 

Passages, and Dirschau — all of the second class. Strassburg contains 
New Breisach and the formidable fortress of Strassburg. Munich has 
Germersheim and the first-class fortress of Ingolstadt. 

It is impossible to find some of these fortified places upon an 
ordinary commercial map; but they now overshadow the great cities 
of the empire in importance, and some of them will probably become 
historic spots before the close of the war. 

The German army is undoubtedly the most formidable military 
machine with which mankind has so far burdened itself. Last year it 
cost the German people $206,347,000. Military service is universal 
and unescapable, except for physical disability or through special ex- 
emption. At the age of seventeen, the boy becomes liable for serv- 
ice, but in time of peace does not actually join the army until the 
beginning of his twentieth year. From that time until his forty-fifth 
year every German is a soldier, either with the colors or in one division 
or another of the reserve. He first serves two years continuously in 
the ranks, and then passes for five years into the first line of the re- 
serve. While in the reserve, he is still attached to his corps, and must 
return to it twice for periods of training not exceeding eight weeks. 
Having completed the first stage of his military career at twenty- 
seven years of age, the German then passes into the Landwehr, which 
constitutes Germany's second army. For five years he serves with the 
first "ban," during which time he must report twice for training for 
one or two weeks. Having completed this term, he passes into the 
second ban of the Landwehr until his thirty-ninth year ; but he is not 
liable to be called for training in this period. Still the State is not 
through with him. Between the ages of thirty-nine and forty-five 
he is enrolled in the Landsturm, or home-defense army, which con- 
tains, in addition to those who have completed their military service, all 
those who have been exempted for any reason. 

The foregoing is the military career of an infantryman or a field- 
artilleryman. In the cavalry and the horse-artillery, the men serve 
three years in the ranks, four years with the reserve, and then three 
years with the first "ban" of the Landwehr. As Germany is fortu- 
nate in having more boys arriving at military age each year than she 
needs, there is organized to provide for them what is known as the 
"Ersatz" reserve. Those enrolled in this division receive special short 



294 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



periods of training, and a large portion of them are destined for non- 
combatant military duties in time of war. Besides the conscripts, who 
are soldiers whether they will or no, there are two classes of volun- 
teers in the army. One is composed of well-to-do and well-educated 
young men who serA'^e for one year and pay their own expenses, many 
of them being graduated as officers of the reserve and Landwehr; the 






The Colors of the Guards Passing in Review Before the Emperor 



other includes those who have a liking for military life, remain in the 
army permanently, and for the most part provide it with its non- 
commissioned officers. 

The officers are professional soldiers, who are destined for a mili- 
tary career from an early age. They are drawn from the sons of the 
well-to-do classes, and are mainly nobles. They are highly educated, 
and thoroughly trained in everything that pertains to the military art. 
They are animated by an intense military patriotism and a devotion 
to the emperor, and are possessed of a fierce determination that success 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



^95 



shall crown the German arms at whatever cost to themselves and the 
men under their comjnand. 

In case of war, the reserves are immediately called to the colors, 
and the men of the Landwehr, in such numbers as may be necessary, 




Germans Removing Their Wounded from a Belgium Battlefield 



are concentrated in depots, to be drawn upon to supply the losses at 
the front, to man forts, to defend lines of communication, and to per- 
form such other duties as the military situation may require. Should 
a last desperate defense be necessary, the members of the Landsturm 
must take their places at the front. 

The German army is divided mto twenty-five army corps, each 
corps being an independent unit consisting of all arms of the service — 




296 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



297 



cavalry, artillery, engineers, and infantry — numbering in all about 
43,000 men when on a war footing. The peace establishment, or 
standing army, for the year 1913 was 36,304 officers, 754,681 men, and 
157,816 horses. To this must be added about 470,000 reserves, mak- 
ing the total strength of the field army about 1,250,000 men. The 
Landwehr can yield about 600,000 men ready for early action. The 
remaining available forces, before resorting to the Landsturm, are 
variously estimated, but probably do not fall short of 1,500,000. 
Hence, Germany can put into the field, for offensive warfare, about 
3,350,000 men. 




Mobilizing the Landsturm at Leipsic 

The infantry is armed with the Mauser magazine rifle, of a caliber 
of .311 inch, model 1898. The field and horse artillery are equipped 
with 15-pounder Krupp guns, model of 1896. Their light howitzer 
throws a 30-pound shell. The heavy siege howitzer is a 94-pounder. 
These guns are described in the chapter on military weapons. The 
cavalry are armed throughout with the lance. Not all German cav- 
alrymen are Uhlans, however, as current war despatches appear to in- 
dicate, though there is little difference among the various classes of 
cavalry, except in name. 

The German fleet is manned by compulsory service in the same 
manner that the army is recruited. Young men who have followed 
any calling connected with the sea are drafted into the navy instead 




MAINZ ON THE RHINE 
A Heavily Fortified City, and the German Headquarters During the Early Part of the War 

298 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 299 

of into the army, and volunteers are numerous among the sea-faring 
classes. The German navy is now rated as second only to that of 
Great Britain. Great Britain is incomparably more powerful in the 
number and tonnage of her ships; but since she made the fatal error 
of building her "Dreadnought" the fighting strength of the world's 
navies has been reckoned mainly in terms of that class, and in the 
building of dreadnoughts Germany has been feverishly active ever 
since 1907. At the end of 1914, Germany will have completed 21 
dreadnoughts, against England's 31 ; 20 pre-dreadnought battleships, 
against England's 40; 47 cruisers, against England's 126; 152 de- 
stroyers, against England's 248; and at least 37 submarines, against 
England's 85. In addition, many of the fast ships of the North Ger- 
man Lloyd and the Hamburg- American lines were rated as auxiliary 
cruisers. Most of these ships, however, are now out of the reach of 
English cruisers, in New York, Hamburg, and Bremen, and some 
have been sunk during hostilities. The most important naval bases are 
Kiel, Sonderburg, and Dantzig, in the Baltic, and Wilhelmshaven 
and Cuxhaven on the North Sea. The small island of Heligoland, 
facing the mouths of the Weser and the Elbe in the North Sea, is 
heavily fortified. 

It is known that Germany possesses far more dirigibles, and those 
of greater size, power, and cruising range than any other nation. Just 
how many she actually has constructed has not been divulged, but she 
undoubtedly has not fewer than forty. Germany is very proud of and 
places great confidence in these craft, which are peculiarly of her own 
contriving. The number of aeroplanes in her naval and military serv- 
ice is also a matter of conjecture; but she probably has about 700 ma- 
chines, in addition to those which civilians may place at the disposal of 
the government. In the army there are five aeroplane battalions, 
numbering 4,619 officers and men. The naval estimates for the year 
1914 called for an expenditure of $118,735,000 contrasted with Eng- 
land's $250,877,000. 

Passing from military and naval affairs to peaceful pursuits, now 
so sadly disrupted, an occupation-census taken in 1907 showed that, of 
a population of 31,497,000, 9,732,000 were engaged in agriculture; 
11,256,000 in industries and mining; 3,478,000 in commerce; 1,736,000 
in domestic service; while 1,738,000 were classed as professional. 




THE WAR LORD AT MANEUVERS 
The Kaiser in IMimic Warfare a Few (Months before the Outbreak of Real War 

300 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



301 



About 86,000,000 acres of land are under cultivation, while 34,569,000 
acres are in timber-producing forests, carefully nurtured by the State 
in accordance with scientific forestry methods. The war situation 
gives particular significance to the following agricultural statistics: 
In 1913 the production of wheat was 4,656,000 metric tons; of rye, 
12,222,000 tons; of barley, 3,673,000 tons; of potatoes, 54,000,000 
tons; of hay, 29,000,000 tons; of oats, 9,700,000 tons. The metric 




German Artillerymen Pushing Tiieir Guns up a Hill 



ton is almost the same as our "long ton," being 2,204 pounds. An 
animal census taken in 1912 showed 4,516,000 horses, 20,158,000 cat- 
tle, 5,788,000 sheep, 22,000,000 swine, and 3,390,000 goats. 

In 1912 there were mined 174,875,000 metric tons of coal, 80,934,- 
000 tons of lignite, 27,000,000 tons of iron ore, 975,000 tons of copper 
ore, 143,000 tons of lead ore, 1,296,000 tons of rock salt, and 11,000,- 
000 tons of potassic salts. The total value of the minerals mined in 
1912 was $564,000,000. In 1913 the furnaces of the empire produced 
19,292,000 tons of pig iron. 




-I (0 

i-" 

> « 

D 
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o 



o 



< : 

)£ o 

f5 



302 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 303 

The fisheries of Germany employ about 35,000 persons, and their 
yearly product is valued at nearly $100,000,000. 

The manufactures of Germany have reached colossal proportions, 
and the Germans excel in nearly every department of industry. In 
some lines, such as chemicals and drugs, they have almost a monopoly, 
as Americans have discovered to their cost. They have been very ag- 
gressive in the conquest of foreign trade, and they attribute Eng- 
land's participation in this war to her jealousy of their rapidly grow- 
ing foreign commerce and of their splendid merchant marine. It 
would be tedious to enumerate the items of German exports and im- 
ports, but we will give some significant statistics. In 1908 the total 
value of Germany's exports was $1,577,075,000; of imports, $1,965,- 
000,000. In 1913 the exports amounted to $2,212,000,000, and the im- 
ports to $2,602,450,000. By way of comparison we may say that dur- 
ing the same year Great Britain's exports amounted to $3,090,900,000, 
and her imports to $3,742,628,000. The corresponding figures for the 
United States are: Exports, $2,363,740,000, and imports, $1,764,500,- 
000. By reason of this war Germany has placed in jeopardy a total 
yearly trade with England of $477,000,000; with France, $295,596,- 
000; and with Russia, $521,504,000. Whatever be the military out- 
come of the war, the shock sustained by German commerce must be 
terrific. 

In 1914 there were registered under the German flag 2,321 vessels 
exceeding 100 tons measurement, with a total tonnage of 5,082,061, 
compared with 11,287 vessels under the British flag, with a tonnage of 
20,431,543. At this writing there is hardly a German ship upon the 
high seas. 

The railways of Germany are nearly all State-owned. Out of a 
total mileage of 39,065, all but 2,926 belong to the various State sys- 
tems. Of these, 44 miles are classed as "royal military." The rail- 
ways represent a capital investment of $4,380,000,000. In 1913 their 
combined receipts were $799,740,000, and they yielded to the Govern- 
ment profits of $272,982,000 (6.23 per cent.). They carry annually 
about 1,643,000,000 passengers and 570,741,000 metric tons of 
freight. 

Germany has a magnificent system of interior waterways,' her 
rivers having been augmented by many canals, among which the 



304 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



Kaiser- Wilhelm Canal, 611/4 miles long, connecting the Baltic with 
the North Sea between Kiel and the estuary of the Elbe, is the most 
interesting at present because of its great naval significance. Inci- 
dentally, we may mention that the locks of the Kaiser- Wilhelm Canal 
are about 70 per cent, larger than those of the Panama Canal. Other 
great interior artificial waterways are the Dortmund-Ems Canal 
(161^ miles), and the Elbe-Trave Canal (42 miles). In all, the in- 




German Cavalry Crossing a Stream, Horses Propelling tine Boat 



ternal navigable waterways, canals, and rivers of the German Empire 
have a total length of 8,832 miles. 

The German Empire does not form a postal unit, as Bavaria and 
Wurttemberg have their own postal systems. The rest of the em- 
pire, however, forms an "imperial postal district." In the empire 
there are 41,192 post offices, of which 5,308 are in Bavaria and 1,194 
in Wurttemberg. In 1912, 10,149,726,670 pieces of mail-matter — of 
which 3,405,372,400 were letters and 2,045,192,610 post-cards — passed 
through German post offices, and $13,404,000,000 was sent in money- 
orders. The postal service yielded the empire (Bavaria and Wurt- 
temberg included) the handsome surplus of $28,110,717, which is in 
striking contrast with the operations of our own department. 

The empire has about 144,000 miles of telegraph line, with 449,600 
miles of wire, and 4,175,000 miles of telephone wire. The telephone 
was used in Germany last year to the extent of about 2,327,000,000 
conversations. 

The standard coin of Germany is the mark, the equivalent of 
which in American money is $0,238. 



THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



305 




German Zeppelin Maneuvering 



Inasmuch as the German colonies are now exposed to attack 
the following list of the German possessions will be of interest : 

In Africa — Togo, Kamerun, German Southwest Africa, German 
East Africa — with a total estimated area of 931,460 square miles and 
an estimated population of 11,422,000, of whom only 22,405 are 
white. 

In Asia — Kiauchau, Kaiser Wilhelm's Land, Bismarck Archipel- 
ago, Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Marianne Islands, Salomon 
Islands, Marshall Islands, and the Samoan Islands — with a total area 
of about 96,000 square miles and a population of about 635,000. 

In all, the German colonial possessions have an estimated area of 
1,027,820 square miles, and a population of 12,041,603, of whom only 
24,389 are white. 

The capital of the German Empire is Berlin (population 2,071,- 
257). Other large cities are: Hamburg (931,035), Munich (596,- 
467), Leipsic (589,850), Dresden (548,308), Cologne (516,527), 
Breslau (512,105), Frankfort-on-the-Main (414,576), Dusseldorf 
(358,728), Niirnberg (333,142), Charlottenburg (305,978). 

On July 31, 1914, the emperor demanded that mobilization in 
Russia be discontinued, and immediately martial law was proclaimed 
throughout the German Empire. The next day war was declared 
against Russia, and on August 2 Russian forces entered Germany. 
On August 3 three German armies were set in motion against France, 
and the next day Germany declared war against that country. 




GEORGE V 

King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions Beyond 

the Seas, Emperor of India. Born in London, June 3, 1865. Son of Edward VII and of 

Alexandra, Princess of Denmark. Succeeded on the death of his father, 

May 6, 1910. Married, July 6, 1893, Victoria Mary, Princess of Teck 

306 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 307 

The British Empire — The British Empire occupies about one 
quarter of the known land-surface of the globe. Its population ex- 
ceeds one quarter of the estimated number of the human beings, and 
includes nearly every race and every religion. 

The United Kingdom consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland. 

England, comprising, with Wales, the southern portion of the 
island of Great Britain, covers an area of 58,320 square miles, and 
corresponds in latitude with Northern Germany and the Netherlands. 
It is nearly triangular, and is surrounded by the sea, except for a 
distance of seventy miles on the Scottish border. The coast is much 
indented, particularly on the Atlantic side. The total length of the 
coast-line is estimated at 2,000 miles. No part of the country is far- 
ther than fifty miles from the sea, or from one of its arms. Of the 
inlets, the most important are the Humber, the Wash, and the mouth 
of the Thames on the east coast; Portsmouth Harbor, Southampton 
Water, Tor Bay, and Plymouth Sound on the south; and the Bristol 
Channel, IVIilford Haven, the Mersey, and Morecambe Bay on the 
west. Off the coast there are several islands, or groups of islands, the 
most important of which are the Channel Islands (Jersey, Guernsey, 
Alderney, and Sark) ; the Scilly Islands off Land's End; and the Isle 
of Man, in the Irish Sea. The Isle of Wight and Anglesey are so 
close to the mainland that they almost touch the coast. 

The coast is constantly changing. ]Many old towns, such as Ra- 
venspur in Yorkshire — where Bolingbroke, afterward Henry IV, 
landed in 1399 — are now submerged; and it is a common occurrence 
for the pedestrian rambling over the cliffs of Kent, Yorkshire, or 
Sussex to find the path ending abruptly, interrupted by a precipice. 
In some places the action of the waves is so rapid that the changes 
may be followed from week to week. "Over a distance of thirty-six 
miles between Bridlington and Kilnsea," says Professor Phillips, "the 
materials which fall from the wasting cliff are sorted by the tide ; the 
whole shore is in motion; every cliff is hastening to its fall; the par- 
ishes are contracted, the churches wasted away." 

As regards physical structure, England has been described as "an 
epitome of the geology of almost the whole of Europe." Nearly all 
the formations of the earth's crust, from the Silurian upward to the 



ENGLAND & WALES 




Jaha BartLalomcw A Ca 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 309 

most recent deposits, are found in layers in different parts of the 
country — ^mainly in order from north to south. 

In conformity with the geological structure of England, its moun- 
tains lie in the north and west, rolling gently toward the center and 
south. The Cheviot Hills, running alnlost directly east and west, 
form a gentle natural boundary between England and Scotland. 

Their highest summit, Cheviot Peak in Northumberland, rises 
2,676 feet above the sea. This chain merges southwestward into the 
mountain ranges of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and within 
these ranges is the celebrated Lake District, where lie the only notable 
lakes in England, the largest of which, Windermere, covers only 
eight square miles. From the Cheviots the Pennine Range runs at 
right angles, continuing south into Derbyshire, where the famous 
Peak rises (2,088 feet), five miles northwest of Castleton, with its 
celebrated caverns. South of the Peak district extends the central 
plain, or plateau, about five hundred feet above the sea-level. On the 
south are Salisbury Plain, a tract of rolling downs with barrows and 
ancient remains, including the famous Stonehenge; the Chilterns; the 
Marlborough Downs; the North Downs; and the South Downs. The 
mountains rise again in Wales, attaining their greatest height in the 
Snowdon Range (3,571 feet). Then the chain running through 
Gloucestershire, Wilts, and Somerset rises into a high tableland in 
Devonshire, reaching its height in Dartmoor Forest (1,500 feet), and 
declining gradually to the Land's End. As the mountains are chiefly 
in the west, the principal rivers flow toward the east. Of the navigable 
streams, the most important is the Thames. Rising in the Cotswold 
Hills above Oxford, where it is known as the Isis, it flows through 
sylvan scenery, a narrow, silvery thread of water; but at London 
Bridge it has a width of 266 yards, and below Gravesend it expands 
into an estuary five miles wide at the Nore. The tide ascends to Ted- 
dington, the upper limit of the port of London. Vessels of 4,000 tons 
reach Blackwall; river steamers go, by means of locks, to Oxford; 
barges to Lechlade ; and small barges to Cricklade. The great forests 
of masts and lines of smokestacks in the miles of docks are a never- 
forgotten sight. The stretch between the Tower and Wapping Old 
Stairs, called the Pool, is always full of shipping. The Thames, 
therefore, is a river of contrasts. Essentially a pleasure stream in its 




BRITISH ADMIRAL AND DISTINGUISHED POLITICAL LEADERS 

310 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



811 



upper reaches, winding through meadows and past lordly homes, an- 
cient castles, and such historic places as Windsor, Runnymede, Eton, 
and Hampton Court, always bright and alive with row-boats, and 
often the scene of regattas, as at Henley and Kingston, it becomes at 
London a dark and somber river, spanned by great bridges and at- 
tracting to its heart the varied shipping of the world. Every imag- 
inable craft gathers here, from coal-barges with their heavy, bronzed 
red sails to the East-India merchantman and the ocean liner. 




Bank of England — London 



Royal Exchange — London 



Next in importance to the Thames comes the Humber, formed by 
the Trent and the Ouse, draining about one sixth of England. The 
Witham, the Welland, and the Nen flow into the estuary of the Wash. 

On the wTst the chief river is the Severn, its headwaters parted 
from the Thames by the Cotswold Hills. Like the Thames, it begins 
its career of two hundred miles in gentle meadows, and flows through 
historic and romantic scenery. Then it winds through Shropshire and 
Worcestershire to Tewkesbury and Gloucester, to which point ascends 
a tidal wave, or "bore." 

One of the Severn's tributaries is the peaceful Warwickshire Avon, 
which joins it at Tewkesbury, after passing Stratford, famous as the 
birthplace of Shakespeare. The Avon, entering the Bristol Charmel 
six miles below Bristol, is subject to spring tides of forty feet. 




FIELD MARSHAL EARL KITCHENER OF KHARTUM 
British Secretary of State for War 

312 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 313 

Next in commercial importance to the Thames comes the Mersey, 
winding through Lancashire and Cheshire, receiving the Irwell, and 
expanding at Liverpool into a wide estuary. 

Into the English Channel flow the Sussex Ouse, the Itchen, and 
the Axe, Teign, Dart, Tamar, and Exe — all remarkable for pictur- 
esque scenery. 

Internal communication is served to some extent by canals and 
rivers, but mainly by railways. The canal system connects the west 
of England with the north, and the east with the south. Together it 
presents, with the navigable rivers, a waterway of 5,000 miles, the 
canals amounting to about 3,200 miles. The Bridgewater system and 
the Ship Canal give Liverpool and Manchester water connection. 

The long coast-line is marked by numerous and easily accessible 
harbors. Some of these are purely natural; others have been im- 
j^roved by artificial harbor-works. The greatest ports are London 
and Liverpool. 

The continental ports are Hull, Grimsby, Harwich, Folkestone, 
and Dover. The chief fishing-ports are Grimsby, Boston, Dover, 
Yarmouth, and Lowestoft. London, Liverpool, and Bristol are great 
marts for American cotton ; while the coal and metal ports are Cardiff, 
Newport, and Swansea (in Wales), and, on the Tyne and the north- 
east coast, Newcastle, the Shields, Sunderland, and Middlesborough. 

The coal of Great Britain (about 230,000,000 tons annually) is 
mined mainly in Yorkshire, South Durham, Glamorgan, Monmouth, 
Derby, Nottingham, Northumberland, Lancashire, Staffordshire, and 
Lanarkshire. Iron is mined in South Stafford, North Yorkshire, 
South Durham, South Wales, Barrow, Middlesborough, and the 
Black Country ; tin is worked in Devon and Cornwall ; and salt is pro- 
duced in Cheshire and Worcestershire. 

The chief manufactures have grown up mainly on the great coal- 
fields, the woollen industry in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the 
cotton industry in Lancashire; hosiery, etc., in Derby and Notting- 
ham ; potteries and iron in Staffordshire ; iron and metal industries in 
Middlesborough, South Durham, South Staffordshire, and South 
Wales; chemical and other industries in St. Helen's, Newcastle, and 
Birmingham; shipbuilding on the Tyne. To these may be added the 
manufacture of machinery in Birmingham, Manchester, Bolton, and 



S14< 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



other industrial centers; agricultural machinery in Ipswich, Lincoln, 
and Bedford; railway engines and stock in the railway centers of 
Crew^e, Derby, and Swindon; leather in Northampton, Bristol, Lei- 
cester, Birmingham, Walsall, and London; and cutlery in Sheffield. 
Notwithstanding its natural advantages, England has been re- 
garded as backward in its agriculture. This is owing to the great 
advantages the -country possesses for the prosecution of manufacture. 
Its wheat capacity is high, however — thirty bushels to an acre. Wheat 




British troops at maneuvers. The band around the cap shows they are of the "White Army" 



is grown chiefly in the eastern counties, Shropshire, and the south- 
west. Other cereals grow well in the north. Cattle and dairy-farm- 
ing form an occupation of the counties of Cheshire, Devonshire, and 
Staffordshire. Sheep are plentiful in the counties of Nottingham, 
Leicester, Rutland, Northampton, Lincoln, Yorkshire, Devonshire, 
and other southern counties. 

Aif ected by its insular position and by the Gulf Stream, the cli- 
mate of England is much milder than that of any other country in 
the same latitude on the Continent of Europe, or in America. Eng- 
land has been therefore described as "a great hothouse kept above the 
surrounding temperature by never-ending currents of warm air." The 
Gulf Stream brings both warmth and moisture, and as warm, moist 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 315 

winds from the southwest prevail, much rain is discharged all over the 
land. All these causes render the ground extremely fertile. Notwith- 
standing the wonderful greenness of the grass, the luxuriance of the 
foliage, and the brightness of the colors of many flowers that make 
the gardens of England dreams of beauty, the sun shines feebly, and 
many fruits and vegetables ripen only upon walls and trellises, or 
under glass. Peaches, tomatoes, nectarines, and apricots, common 
enough in America, are, therefore, luxuries in the British Isles. 

Nearly all England is settled and cultivated, although well-wooded 
land is common; but such districts belong to old estates, or to royal 
domains, or are reservations belonging to the public and known as 
"Forests," such as Epping Forest, the New Forest, Dean, and Sal- 
cey. These might be more appropriately called parks, as they are 
carefully superintended by "forest-rangers" and are in fact extensive 
pleasure-grounds, with little suggestion of native wildness. They are 
diversified with patches of heath between the groves of trees, stretches 
of emerald sward, and occasional hamlets. Epping Forest, ten miles 
from London, for example, comprises 5,300 acres, being onl}^ a rem- 
nant of the great Waltham Forest. New Forest, in Hampshire, cov- 
ers 62,648 acres of woodland, interspersed with open glades and 
stretches of moor and marsh, quaint old villages, churches, and ruins 
of abbeys and monasteries. It was enclosed by William the Con- 
queror in 1079. In the extreme west and in Yorkshire the bleak 
moorlands, and in the southern counties the downs, are characteristic, 
as are the chalk-clifFs on the southern shore, broken by gaps and 
topped with verdure. 

Altogether, with its mountains, rivers, valleys, lakes, moors, dales, 
meadows, marshes (such as the Norfolk Broads), forests, parks, 
chalk-clifFs, and downs, England makes a strong appeal to the lover 
of beautii'ul scenery that possesses the additional charm of historic 
and legendary interest. Ancient and splendid architecture — cathe- 
drals, castles, old abbeys, and ancestral homes of lords and country 
gentlemen, as well as picturesque inns and cottages of the lowly — all 
enclosed in soft frames of trees and hedges — combine in i)roducing a 
series of delightful pictures, unlike those offered by any other coun- 
try, to which the peculiar mistiness of the atmosphere gives an inde- 
scribable delicacy and depth of tint and color. 



BRITISH COMMANDERS ON LAND AND SEA 




Field Marshal Sir John French, Regarded as Admiral Sir George Callaghan, of the War Staff 
the Greatest Living Cavalry ComiViander Of the Admiralty 

316 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 317 

London, with its population of more than seven millions, is the 
largest city in the world. Its age is lost in antiquity. What is known 
as the City — the district enclosed within a wall in olden days — lies on 
the north bank of the Thames, stretching between the river and Fins- 
bury, and from the Tower to the site of Temple Bar (now removed) . 
In both size and shape it corresponds very nearly to ancient Roman 
London, and its chief thoroughfares — Cannon Street, Cheapside, 
Bishopsgate Street, and others — run over the sites of Roman roads. 
Four bridges — Blackfriars, Southwark, London, and Tower — con- 
nect the City with the Borough of Southwark. The Tower of Lon- 



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English Recruits Drilling in Hyde Park 

don is an epitome of English history. Within the City are such famous 
buildings as St. Paul's Cathedral, the Mansion House (the official 
residence of the Lord Mayor), the Bank of England, the Post-office 
(enclosing a portion of the old Roman wall), St. Bartholomew's 
Church in Smithfield (the finest example of Norman architecture in 
London) , and the Monument commemorating the Great Fire of 1666. 
Temple Bar, at the junction of Fleet Street and the Strand, 
marked the beginning of the City of Westminster, the greatest bor- 
ough of Greater London. Architecturally and historically, Westmin- 
ster ranks next in interest to the City. On its river-front in the old 
days stood the great houses of princes and nobles, now occupied by 
the Victoria Embankment between Blackfriars and Westminster 
bridges. At the west end of the Strand is Trafalgar Square, contain- 
ing Nelson's column guarded by Landseer's four lions, not far from 
the National Gallery and St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. The Houses of 
Parhament, Westminster Abbey, and Whitehall lie south of Trafal- 



318 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

gar Square, and north of it one passes up the Haj-market to the great 
"west end" circle — Piccadillj^ Circus, from which radiate various thor- 
oughfares. In this district Pall Mall leads to Buckingham Palace, 
with its spacious grounds. Vast London is not only interesting be- 
cause of its monuments and historical associations, but for its swarm- 
ing crowds of humanitj% ever moving in a steady stream and repre- 
senting eveiy class from persons of the most magnificent state to those 
of the most sodden and squalid condition. 

Among England's greatest treasures is Oxford, the seat of the 
oldest ^English university, with a history dating from 912, when it 
was recovered by King Edward from the Danes. It began to be a 
college town in 1214. With its churches of St. Michael, St. Peter's 
in the East, St. Cross, and Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford would be 
renowned for architecture of great beauty; but to these are added 
more than twenty colleges that are gems of medieval art. The cele- 
brated Bodleian Library, restored bj^ Sir Thomas Bodley in 1598, 
with its magnificent collection of manuscript volumes (30,000 to 
40,000) and 700,000 books — the public library of Oxford University 
— ranks with the British JVIuseum as one of England's most glorious 
possessions. 

Cambridge vies with Oxford in splendid architecture. King's Col- 
lege and Queen's College, founded in 1441 and 1448, are beautiful 
specimens of stone work, wood work, and glass. Clare College is even 
more admired by some critics. 

The great cathedrals of Canterbury, Durham, Ely, Exeter, Glou- 
cester, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Norwich, Peterborough, Ripon, 
Rochester, St. Albans, Salisbury, Southwark, Wells, Winchester, 
Worcester, and York exhibit many features that are unlike the archi- 
tecture of the Continent. All have been built and rebuilt on sites 
consecrated to religious uses even before the days of Christianity. 

In the days of King Cnut (or Canute) England began to enter 
into the aiFairs of the outside world. Cnut, like most great conquer- 
ors, was an able administrator. Once safely on the throne, he began 
to govern. Sending back to Denmark his famous army, he kept a 
body of chosen housecarls — Danes, English, artd others, noted for 
bravery — around his throne, the first standing army known in Eng- 
land. Up to this time the title had been King of the English, never 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



319 



King of England. Cnut used the special style of King of all Eng- 
land {Reoo totius Anglice). In his reign, too, the relations between 
England and Normandy began to be of great importance, and the 
seeds were sown that ripened into the Norman Conquest. The enor- 
mous empire that obeyed Cnut's scepter, consisting of scattered 
islands and peninsulas, was too large and disconnected to hold to- 
fifether. The election of Edward the Confessor to the throne was in 




A Detachment of English Infantry 



some measure the beginning of the Norman Conquest. Edward had 
been educated in Normandy, spoke the Norman tongue; and more 
Norman than English, he filled every post at court with Norman fa- 
vorites, who soon plotted against Englishmen; and a Norman monk, 
Robert of Jumieges, was made Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The actual Norman Conquest came in 1066. The spirit of Eng- 
lishmen was aroused by the return of Godwine and his sons, and the 
nation rose to receive them. The army that the king called together 
refused to fight against the deliverers, the citizens of London decreed 




320 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 321 

the banishment of the archbishop and other Normans in power, and 
Norman influence in pubhc afl*airs was ended. "England for the 
English" was the cry. Under Harold, England held a high place at 
home and abroad. The story of his relations with Duke William of 
Normandy is variously told; but it is generally accepted that he was 
shipwrecked on the coast of Normandy, was imprisoned there, and 
was released by the aid of William, to whom he swore an oath that 
he would help William to obtain the succession. Thus the crown of 
England became a personal matter between William of Normandy 
and Harold. 

The Norman Conquest was a great revolution for England. It 
rooted up ancient traditions and changed the European position of 
the realm. Britain was ruled by a continental prince, who introduced 
foreign ideas and customs into a country partially prepared to accept 
them. French became the fashionable language, as Latin was the 
language of the learned. Architecture was changed. The Norman 
abbots and bishops pulled down old minsters and erected churches on 
a gigantic scale never before seen in England; and Norman castles, 
begun in the days of Edward the Confessor, were multiplied. The 
Tower of Lbndon reared its massive keep ; great changes were made 
in the art of fortification ; and new fashions in dress and diet, as well 
as in manners, regulated society. The Normans also brought in for- 
eign merchants and scholars and much that added to the arts and 
graces of life. It was largely owing to the Norman influence upon 
society that England took part in the Crusades. In fact, Normandy 
and the Normans mean so much in the relation of England to the 
history of the European Continent that some knowledge of the old 
French duchy is necessary for a full understanding of the question. 
The Norman (a softened form of the name Northmen) is distin- 
guished from the latter by his adoption of the French language and 
the Christian religion. Normandy, which, in its strict sense, was the 
seaboard of France between Brittanj'- on one side and Flanders on the 
other, therefore lies directly opposite Great Britain. It was occupied 
early in the tenth century by the Northmen. To the original territory 
William I added more land ; and thus the settlement of Rolf at Rouen 
grew into the Duchy of Normandy. France was but a rival duke- 
dom, and as long as the Norman duchy had an independent being, it 



322 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

was interposed between England and France. France and Nor- 
mandy were two great rival duchies. No diplomacy could adjust their 
troubles ; and this rivalry was a most important element in the history 
of Europe. England took up Normandy's cause. France was di- 
vided in speech and sentiment; the kings of Laon, on the east, were 
Germanic; the great country of Flanders spoke Low Dutch; Breton, 
in the west, was Celtic ; the lands south of the Loire had a variety of 
the Romance language ; while in the center lay the Duchy of France, 
of which Paris was the center and cradle — land of the newborn 
French speech and French nationality. 

The rise of Normandy, a power torn from the side of France 
which cut off Paris and the whole Duchy of France from the sea, had 
been a great blow to French interest. Both were vassal States of the 
Carlovingian king at Laon, who, notwithstanding his dignity, was a 
prince of smaller power than either of his mighty vassals. In the 
tenth century, Normandy rose against Laon, and Rouen, once friendly 
to Laon and hostile to Paris, changed her policy. Normandy became 
the faithful and powerful ally of France ; and the Norman duchy had 
a large share in helping Hugh Capet of Paris to the crown. Nor- 
mandy thus turned the balance of power in favor of the French, rul- 
ing that France should be the chief power in Gaul ; that the Duke of 
the French and King of France be one and the same person, and 
Paris the ruling city. The Duke of Normandy thus became the most 
cherished vassal of the king. Though Normandy owed to France its 
introduction to the Christian and Romance-speaking world, and 
France owed to Normandy its new position among the Powers of 
Gaul, feelings of rivalry and dislike cropped up now and then. The 
old border district, Vexin, between Rouen and Paris, was often a bone, 
of contention. 

After the accession of William I, periods of enmity alternated 
with periods of friendship. William established his authority over 
rival factions in the fight of Val-es-dunes, and thereafter made his 
Duchy of Normandy not only one of the most flourishing parts of 
Gaul, but of Europe as well. He repaid the King of France's help 
at Val-es-dunes by assistance in his wars with Geoffrey of Anjou. 
This led to a long rivalry between Anjou and Normandj^ which re- 
sulted in a struggle for Maine, lying between the two. In 1048 Wil- 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



323 



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A Detachment of England's "Women's Nursing Yeomanry Corps" 



liam extended his frontier there, and in 1063 he obtained possession of 
Le Mans. 

The conquest of England by William changed the position of 
the duchy as a European Power. In one sense its position was low- 
ered; but, on the other hand, it became part of a Power far greater 
than the Duchy of Normandy had ever been. For a long time the 
sovereign of the two lands was able to use the strength of England for 
Norman purposes. Much of the best that was in Normandy, as re- 
gards blood, talent, and performance, crossed the Channel into the 
conquered kingdom. Under the Angevin house, Normandy and Eng- 
land became parts of one of those heterogeneous dominions like that 
of Burgundy under the Valois dukes. Normandy handed on to Eng- 
land its old enmity toward France. 

After the death of William the Conqueror, Normandy fell into 
anarchy ; and after various parts of the duchy were lost and won and 
lost again, Henry invaded it, and, at the Battle of Tinchbrai, in 1106, 
united the kingdom and duchy once again. 

It was now not the Duke of Normandy who ruled in England, 
but the King of the Enghsh who ruled in Normandy. It is notice- 



824 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

able that the two great Norman rulers — Henry of England and Rob- 
ert of Sicily — each kept his island kingdom in perfect peace while he 
used his continental territory as a battle-ground. 

Henry absorbed another duchj^ to his possessions by marrying his 
daughter to Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Falk, Count of Anjou and 
Maine. 

Geoffrey gradually possessed himself of Normandy, and in 1150 
resigned the duchj^ to his son Henry, who in 1152 married Eleanor, the 
divorced wife of Louis VII, Countess in her own right of Poitou and 
Duchess of Aquitaine. Henry, through his father, mother, and wife, 
had a collection of dominions that made him more powerful than his 
overlord, the King of the French. In 1154, therefore, began the 
memorable thirty-five years' reign of Henry II, King of England. 
During his reign and that of his eldest son, the connection between 
England and the Continent was closer than ever. On the death of 
Richard in 1199, John's succession was admitted in both England 
and Normandy. The French king, Philip Augustus, seized Nor- 
mandy in 1203-'04!; but the Channel Islands — Jersey, Guernsey, Al- 
derney, and Sark — still held to the duke and have since remained in the 
possession of the kings of England, though they never have been in- 
corporated into the United Kingdom. 

Freeman writes : "The fact that the English kings kept Aqui- 
taine after the loss of Normandy — for the inheritance of Eleanor was 
not forfeited by the crime of her son — was the immediate occasion of 
many of the later disputes between England and France ; but the tra- 
ditional feeling was handed on from the days when Englishmen and 
Normans fought side by side against Frenchmen. In Normandy it- 
self, the memory of the connection with England soon died out. We 
read — and it seems strange as we read — of the quarrels which, in the 
days of Edward I, arose between the crowns of England and France 
out of the disputes between Norman subjects of France and Gascon 
subjects of England." 

On the reign of Henry II the fusion of English and Norman was 
complete ; the English nation was united. The fame of England was 
spread throughout all lands by her share in the Crusades, and another 
jewel was added to the crown by the conquest, or half -conquest, of 
Ireland. Henry also took back the earldoms of Northumberland and 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 325 

Cumberland on the Scottish frontier, and warred endlessly on the 
Welsh frontier. Wales was conquered and made a part of the king- 
dom in the reign of Edward I. The Scottish crown was more diffi- 
cult to acquire. The struggles were long and full of romantic inci- 
dent, producing such heroes as William Wallace and Robert Bruce, 
and a host of border ballads and songs. The old saying that if the 
King of England would win and preserve French territory, he must 
first suppress Scotland, sent the flower of English chivalry to Ban- 
nockburn and Flodden Field. The French aided the Scots; and the 
English made alliance with the Flemings. Then followed the Hun- 
dred Years' War. 

With the loss of Bordeaux in 1453, after the death of the great 
Earl of Shrewsbury, the tie of three hundred years which united Eng- 
land and Aquitaine was broken. England now held no continental 
possessions but Calais, Boulogne, Dunkirk, and Gibraltar. The en- 
tire relations of France and England were changed, and their modern 
relations date from this period. 

England now gradually drew into shape; but not without great 
and bloody internal dissensions, such as the Wars of the Roses, Henry 
VIII's overthrow of papal supremacy and instituting himself as "Su- 
preme Head on Earth of the Church of England" ; the persecutions 
alternately of Roman Catholics and Protestants; the suppression of 
the monasteries, and the consequent pilgrimage of grace, doubly a po- 
litical and religious movement; the rise of the Puritan party; the 
overthrow of Charles I and his execution; the Protectorate, anarchy, 
and restoration of the monarchy ; the rise of the Whigs and Tories ; 
and the revolution that transformed the ultimate decision from the 
king to parliament. 

William, Prince of Orange, invited in 1689 to take the throne with 
his wife Mary (a Stuart), by the advice of the Earl of Sunderland, 
called into existence a body destined to be of great importance in gov- 
ernment — the cabinet — selected from the leading members of both 
houses of parliament. 

In the reign of Queen Anne, the Duke of Marlborough, by his 
supreme genius won great prestige for English arms at Blenheim, 
which drove the French out of Germany (1704) ; and at Ramillies, 
which drove them out of the Netherlands (1706) . The incapacity of 



326 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




The Grenadier Guards Passing Buckingham Palace — Members of the Royal Family at the Gate 



the foreign-born Hanoverians — George I and George II — was bal- 
anced by the efficiency of Walpole, prime minister in both reigns. He 
gradually altered the English constitution from a hereditary mon- 
archy into a parliamentary government, the forms of the constitu- 
tion becoming in all essentials what they are now. 

England went through a great period of change during the Seven* 
Years' War (1756-1763). England and Prussia formed an aUiance 
against Austria, France, Russia, and the Overman princes. Pitt's 
object, to make England the foremost colonial and maritime power in 
the world, was accomplished. 

The Battle of Plassey gave Bengal into Clive's hands in 1757; 
Quebec fell before Wolfe in 1759; and Sir E\Te Coote's victory at 
Wandewash in 1760 crushed French authority in southern India. 

At the coronation of George III a jewel fell from his crown. It 
was a bad omen. The passage of the Stamp Act (1765) eventually 
led to the American War for Independence, and the thirteen populous 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 327 

and important colonies were lost forever. In 1783 the Treaties of 
Paris and Versailles ended the war, and the independence of the 
United States of America was recognized. Before peace was made, 
Lord North had fallen and the Whigs had again taken office. The 
death of their leader. Lord Rockingham, in 1782, threw them into con- 
fusion, and then the coalition of Fox and North was formed. This 
proved unpopular; William Pitt was placed at the head of affairs, 
and he remained prime minister until 1801. His ministry witnessed 
the industrial revolution that made England the first manufacturing 
country in the world, and this coincided with a remarkable develop- 
ment of England's imperial responsibilities. Numerous India bills, a 
more enlightened view with regard to Ireland, and a tendency toward 
reform, financial, political, and social, represent the principal effects 
of the American war upon home politics. Pitt, to keep the peace of 
Europe as far as possible and to restore England's prestige, formed, 
in 1788, with Prussia and Holland, the Triple Alliance. Pitt's re- 
forming and peace policy was much checked by the French Revolu- 
tion. In 1793 France forced England into a war; and until the 
Peace of Amiens, in 1802, hostilities with France continued in all 
parts of the world. A rebellion in Ireland in 1798 led to the union of 
England and Ireland in 1800. War was renewed in 1803 between 
England and France, on account of Napoleon's ambition to gain com- 
mand of the sea arid to ruin England's commercial and colonial 
policy. 

In 1810 Wellesley (now known as the Duke of Wellington) beat 
back the masses of French forces under Massena, and in 1812 he won 
the Battle of Salamanca. In that year, too. Napoleon wrecked his 
finest army in the snows of Russia. The failure of the Moscow expe- 
dition was followed by the defeat at Leipsic and the invasion of 
France by the allies. In 1814 Napoleon was driven into exile at Elba. 
His escape and his seizure of the throne, in 1815, began with good 
auspices for a third period of triumph ; but fortune deserted him. All 
Europe declared against him, and the crushing blow was given by 
Wellington at Waterloo in 1815. 

England came out of the Napoleonic wars with increased prestige 
and additional possessions. Nelson's battle of the Nile, in 1798, 
marked an epoch in British naval history; and Trafalgar (1805), 



328 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




A Scottish Regiment Passing Through London 

dearly bought with the hfe of the great admiral, ended once for all 
Napoleon's plan for invading England. The army that afterward 
subdued the Continent had been concentrated along the cliffs of Bou- 
logne and the descent was to be covered by a great fleet under Ville- 
neuve. Nelson gave chase to Villeneuve, and caught him oiF the Cape 
of Trafalgar. 

To the laurels won at sea by Nelson England added those won on 
land by the Duke of Wellington in the campaign in Spain as well as 
at Waterloo. 

The Victorian age, under the ministry of Peel, Russell, Palmer- 
ston, Disraeli, Gladstone, and Salisbury, saw a remarkable develop- 
ment in every department of national life. The United Kingdom 
expanded into an empire. British possessions in India and Africa 
were extended; Hongkong was acquired; the Australian Colonies 
rose to importance; a rising of the Zulus in 1879 resulted in the con- 
quest of Zululand; and a war with the Boers in 1899-1902 brought 
about the annexation of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. 




329 



8S0 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

The chief events in the reign of Edward VII (1901-'10) were 
the departure from traditional foreign policy in the alliance with 
Japan; the entente between Great Britain and France; numerous ar- 
bitration policies; the formation of the Union of South Africa; and 
the king's strong peace policy. 

In 1908, on the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's proclama- 
tion transferring the government of India from the East India Com- 
pany to the Crown, a message from King Edward VII to the princes 
and peoples of India reviewed the progress made during the half 
century and promised an extension of representative government. In 
the following year Lord INIorley, Secretary of State for India, an- 
nounced a scheme for native representation in the executive councils 
of the viceroy and of the provinces and in the council of the secretary 
of state at Whitehall. 

The Durbar at which King George V in person was proclaimed 
Emperor of India (December, 1911), was noticeable for the an- 
nouncement of the removal of the imperial capital from Calcutta to 
Delhi. 

The division of England into tithings, hundreds, and counties is 
generally attributed to King Alfred. English country names occur 
in historj^ before the extinction of the Heptarchy. Each of the forty 
counties of England and twelve of Wales is still divided into hun- 
dreds, although the name ceases to have its exact meaning in many 
cases. Originally the division signified a district containing a hun- 
dred families. To-day some "hundreds" count their population by 
hundreds of thousands, while others have not gone far beyond the 
number that gave rise to the name. 

One of the most ancient and celebrated jurisdictions of the coun- 
try is the Cinque Ports. These were self-governing boroughs from 
an early date. The records in Rye mention that "the five Ports were 
enfranchised in the time of King Edward the Confessor." These five 
were: Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich. To these 
were added Rye and Winchelsea. The Cinque Ports possess peculiar 
privileges in return for services that they rendered during the early 
Danish invasions. In 1300 Gen^ase Alard first took the title of "ad- 
miral of the fleet of the Cinque Ports." The Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports, with ofiicial residence at Walmer Castle, near Dover, 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



331 



still exercises maritime jurisdiction and has certain other official func- 
tions. 

The small area of the British Isles has necessitated England's 
finding for her people homes and occupations beyond the seas. Her 
list of colonial possessions is large. The Dominion of Canada occu- 



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Field Marshal Earl Roberts Inspecting Volunteers 



pies the northern part of the North American Continent, with the 
exception of Alaska and Labrador. Newfoundland, the oldest Eng- 
lish colony, is about three hundred miles long and three hundred miles 
broad; Australia, with the islands of Tasmania and New Guinea, con- 
tains 3,063,041 square miles; New Zealand, about 104,751 square 
miles ; and South Africa, 473,100 square miles. The Indian Empire 
extends over a territory larger than the Continent of Europe without 
Russia, an area of 1,773,168 square miles. Within the Indian "sphere 



332 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

of influence" lie the self -governed States of Afghanistan, Nepal, and 
Bhutan. The Imperial British Dominions and Protectorates that have 
not yet received "responsible government" are: Ascension, the Ba- 
hamas, the Barbados, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, Bermuda, Borneo, 
Brunei, British Guiana, British Honduras, British East and Central 
Africa (Somaliland, East Africa, Uganda, Zanzibar, Nyassaland), 
British West Africa (Gambia, the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and 
Nigeria), the British West Indies, Cayman Islands, Ceylon, Cyprus, 
East Africa Protectorate, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gibraltar, Hong- 
kong, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Malta, ^lauritius, Rhodesia, St. 
Helena, Sarawak, Seychelles, Straits Settlements, The Federated 
Malay States, Johor, Swaziland, Trinidad, Tobago, Tristan da Cunlia, 
Turks and Caicos Islands, Weihaiwei, and the Windward Islands. 

The British Constitution is mainly unwritten and customary. It 
is based on and has developed from certain laws, of which the chief are 
the Magna Charta (1215), which secured annual court sessions and 
the equal administration of justice; the Habeas Corpus Act (1769), 
which established liberty of person; the Act of Settlement (1701), 
which provided for the Protestant succession to the throne ; the Act of 
Union with Scotland (1707) and the Act of Union with Ireland 
(1800), which created the United Kingdom; and the Parliament Act 
(1911), which enabled the Commons to pass certain acts without the 
adherence of the other chamber (House of Lords). 

The crown (the king in council) "makes peace and war, issues 
charters, increases the peerage, is the fountain of honor, of office, and 
of justice." Though the executive government of Great Britain and 
Ireland is vested nominallj- in the crown, the monarchy, being consti- 
tutional and limited, is practically vested in a cabinet or a committee 
of nineteen ministers, whose existence is dependent on the possession 
of a majority in the House of Commons. As a rule, the first lord of 
the treasury is also the prime minister and secretary of state. The 
cabinet is therefore an inner council under the presidency of the prime 
minister. The cabinet, as a whole, is responsible to parliament for its 
joint and several administrations. The ministry includes minor posts, 
whose occupants have no seat in the cabinet. INIinisters hold their of- 
fice during the sovereign's pleasure. The supreme legislative power 
of the British Empire is given to parliament, which is summoned by 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 




A Battalion of the Grenadier Guards 



the writ of the sovereign out of chancery, hy advice of the privy coun- 
cil, at least thirty-five days before its assembling. The present form 
of parliament — divided into two houses, the Lords and the Commons 
— dates from the middle of the fourteenth century. The House of 
Lords consists of peers, who hold their seats by ( 1 ) hereditary right, 
(2) by creation of the sovereign, (3) by virtue of office — law lords 
and English archbishops and bishops, (4) by election for life — Irish 
peers, ( 5 ) by election for the duration of parliament — Scottish peers. 
The full House in 1913 consisted of 613 peers. The House of Com- 
mons consists of 670 members, elected by registered male electors in 
county, borough and university constituencies. All clergymen are 
disqualified, as are also English and Scottish peers. Non-representa- 
tive Irish peers are eligible. In August, 1911, provision was made 
for the payment of a salary of four hundred pounds a year to mem- 
bers of the House of Commons. 

The three main principles underlying the administration of the 



334. COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

empire are: self-government, self-support, and self-defense. The 
third is of modern growth largely the outcome of the imperial confer- 
ence. This has become recognized as the cabinet of the empire.' Its 
origin is traced to the presence in London in 1887 of the premiers of 
the various self-governing dominions representing their countries at 
the jubilee of Queen Victoria. In 1907 the name of the subsequent 
gatherings of this nature was changed from "Colonial Conference" 
to "Imperial Conference." The conference is composed of: presi- 
dent, the prime minister of the United Kingdom ; chairman, the secre- 
tary of state for the colonies; members — the prime ministers of Can- 
ada, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, and Newfound- 
land, and two secretaries. The laws in England and Wales are ad- 
ministered by judges appointed by the crown, holding office for life. 
They cannot be removed, save on petition presented by both Houses of 
Parliament. The high court comprises the king's bench, chancery 
and probate divorce and admiralty divisions. Appeal from all courts 
in the United Kingdom is to the House of Lords. 

The civil courts in Ireland are similar to the English courts; but 
the Scots civil law is entirely different. This is administered by the 
court of session, a court of law and equity. The high court of 
justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The sheriff in 
each county is the proper criminal judge in pett^'^ cases. 

The Established Church of England is the Protestant Episcopal. 
The king is its head by law regulated in the time of Henry VIII, and 
he possesses the right to nominate archbishops and bishops. For 
twelve centuries England has been divided into two archbishoprics: 
Canterbury and York. The Archbishop of Canterbury, "the primate 
of all England," has as his province the whole of England except the 
six northern counties and Cheshire. These are the province of the 
Archbishop of York, "the primate of England." The Archbishop of 
Canterbury ranks next after the royal princes, and is the first peer of 
England. He has the right of placing the crown on the sovereign's 
head at the coronation. There are thirty-eight bishops, under whom 
are thirty-two deans and a hundred archdeacons. In 1911 the number 
of civil parishes was 14,614. The Roman Catholics in England and 
Wales are estimated at 1,800,000, with three archbishops (one of 
whom is a cardinal) and thirteen bishops. Other denominations — 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



335 




English Territorials, Who Correspond to the American "National Guard" 



Baptists, Presbyterians, Wesleyan Methodists, etc. — number about 
2,428,933. The Jews represent 245,000, with two hundred syna- 
gogues. The Salvation Army has about 76,400 members, and 9,340 
corps and outposts. 

The Church of Scotland (established in 1560 and confirmed in 
1688) is Presbyterian. The clergy are all equal. Its supreme court 
is a general assembly. The number of churches, chapels, etc., is 1,693. 
The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland numbers about 550,000, pre- 
sided over by two archbishops. The Roman Catholics in Ireland 
number 3,242,670, against 576,611 Episcopalians, 440,525 Presby- 
terians, 62,382 Methodists, and 68,031 others. Four archbishops — of 
Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam — with twenty-three bishops, rule 
the Church. 

In England the highest education is given in the ancient universi- 
ties of Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford has twenty-two colleges and' 
three private halls; Cambridge, seventeen colleges and one private 
hall. The University of Durham, with its college of medicine, ranks 
high; the College of Science at Newcastle, the University of London 
(with twenty- four colleges), and the universities of Victoria (Man- 
chester), Birmingham, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, and Bristol and 



336 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




Battle-cruiser "Inflexible" Saluting 

the university colleges at Exeter, Nottingham, Reading, and South- 
ampton, are most efficient. There are special agricultural colleges at 
Carlisle, Cirencester, Glasgow, Newport, Kingston-on-Soar, Wye, 
Uckfield, and Ripley. There are four universities in Scotland: St. 
Andrew's, founded in 1411; Glasgow, 1450; Aberdeen, 1494; and 
Edinburgh, 1582. The Carnegie Trust (1901) devotes half its in- 
come of £100,000 to the equipment and expansion of Scottish uni- 
versities, and half to assisting students. Ireland has its University of 
Dublin, founded in 1591 ; the National University of Ireland (1909) ; 
and the Queen's University of Belfast. 

The general defense of the empire is undertaken by the Imperial 
Government, aided by the Government of India, and the self-govern- 
ing Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. 
The first line of defense is the royal navy ; the second line of defense 
is the regular and auxiliary troops of the British navy. Questions 
regarding general strategy are considered and determined by the de- 
fense committee, which secures coordination between the sea and land 
forces of the empire. 

The defense committee consists of the prime minister of the 
United Kingdom, secretary of state for war, first lord of the admir- 
alty, secretaries of state for foreign affairs, colonies and India, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, chief of the imperial general staff, first sea- 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



537 



lord of the admiralty, director of military operations, and director of 
naval intelligence. Naval and military officers of experience are also 
invited to the conferences. 

The royal navy is recruited by voluntary enlistment, and is ad- 
ministered by the commissioners for executing the office of the lord 
high admiral of the United Kingdom ("lords of the admiralty") con- 




One of Canada's Crack Regiments — "The Queen's Own Rifles" 



trolled by the king-emperor in Parliament. The admiralty office is in 
the historic district of Whitehall, London. The officers and men num- 
ber 115,052; the marines, 18,235; and the coast-guard, 3,130. For 
1914-'15 an increase of 5,000 was provided for. On January 1, 1913, 
the royal naval reserve numbered 20,169; the royal fleet reserve, 
25,794 ; and the royal naval volunteers, 4,114. The total reserves num- 
bered 50,077. The British fleet consists of about 16 super-dread- 
noughts; 15 dreadnoughts; 40 pre-dreadnought battleships; 50 cruis- 
ers; 76 light cruisers; 18 torpedo gunboats; 23 sloops, gunboats, etc.; 



338 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




Group of Sikhs, One of England's Finest Indian Corps 



248 destroyers; 100 torpedo boats; and 85 submarines. Certain fast 
Cunarders are subsidized for use in case of war. In 1912 the naval 
wing of the royal flying corps was founded. The number of naval 
aeroplanes is about fifty, including school machines. There are naval 
air stations at the Isle of Grain, Calshott, Felixstowe, Yarmouth, 
Cromarty, and the Firth of Forth. Farnborough has an air-ship sta- 
tion, and there is a special air department at the admiralty. 

The land forces of the United Kingdom consist of the regular 
army and the territorial army. The British army is recruited by 
voluntary enlistment, and is administered by an army council under 
the authority of the king-emperor in parliament. The training and 
efficiency of the army are under the inspector-general of the home 
forces, and a similar office has been organized recently for the oversea 
forces. 

The war office is in Whitehall, London. The secretary of state for 
war is at the head, with the chief of the imperial general staff, adju- 
tant-general to the forces, quartermaster-general to the forces, and 
master-general of the ordnance as first, second, third, and fourth IVIili- 
tary Members. The service is for twelve years, with permission to 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 339 

extend it to twenty-one years. The grand total of the British army 
is 711,575 men, including the troops serving in India (78,476). 

The tropical areas of the British Empire include southern India, 
west and central Africa, parts of the West Indies, British Guiana 
and Honduras, northern Australia, Borneo, and the various settle- 
ments in the Malay Peninsula. 

The estimated white population in 1911 — mainly Anglo-Saxon, 
but including French, Dutch, Spanish, and a few Jews — is 60,000,000. 
The remaining 370,000,000 include: 315,000,000 of the natives of 
India and Ceylon, 40,000,000 of the black races, 6,000,000 Arabs, 
6,000,000 Malays, 1,000,000 Chinese, 1,000,000 Polynesians, and 100,- 
000 Red Indians in Canada. 

The Indian Empire is governed by the king and emperor, acting 
on the advice of the secretary of state for India, who is assisted by a 
council appointed by that secretary. In all matters he can impose his 
orders on the Government of India. Indian Government business in 
England is transacted at the Indian office, Whitehall. The king- 
emperor appoints the viceroy and governor-general of India, in whom 
the supreme authority is vested, subject to the control of the secretary 
of state in England. The viceroy's council consists of seven members. 
Since March, 1909, one of these has been a native of India. British 
India is divided into provinces, with varying degrees of independence. 
A governor from England, appointed by the king-emperor, adminis- 
ters the presidencies of Madras^ Bengal, and Bombay. Each has an 
executive and legislative council. The United Provinces of Agra 
and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Bihar and Orissa are adminis- 
tered by lieutenant-governors appointed by the governor-general, 
with the approval of the crown. The Central Provinces and Berar 
and Assam are administered by chief commissioners. In the 250 dis- 
tricts in British territory the highest executive official is a collector- 
magistrate. 

On August 4, 1914, following the action of the Emperor of 
Russia in ordering (August 1) partial mobilization of his troops, in 
an intention to support Servia against Austria, and the mobilizing 
of the French and the German troops on the evening of the same 
day, Great Britain sent an ultimatum to Berlin, demanding unquali- 



340 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



fied observance of the neutrality of Belgium, which had refused free 
passage to German troops through her domain. Germany rejected 
Great Britain's ultimatum and began an attack on Liege; and on 
the following day (August 5) Great Britain declared war on Ger- 




English Hospital Sergeant and Wounded Soldiers 



many, which action was followed on the 13th by a declaration of war 
on Austria also. On August 17 the first British troops landed in 
France. 

They were immediately hurried to the front, and stubbornly held 
the left of the alhed line under a series of ferocious attacks launched 
against them by the Germans in the now famous retreat from the 
Belgian frontier to within a few miles of Paris. 




S4il 




NICHOLAS (NICOLA!) II 

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias. Born in St. Petersburg, May 18, 1868. Son of the 

Emperor Alexander III and of Princess Dagmar (Mary Feodorovna) of Denmark. 

Succeeded, on the Death of His Father, November 1, 1894. Married, 

November 26, 1894, Alexandra Alix (Alexandra Feodorovna), 

Princess of Hesse 

342 



RUSSIA 



343 



Russia — To get a mental picture of the immensity of the Russian 
Empire look at a map that covers Asia and Europe. Thus regarded, 
the western kingdoms of Europe seem suddenly to have shrunk. 
France, Italy, the British Isles, the German Empire even — all these, 
it appears, would rest easily in the lap of Siberia alone. 

Or, if you prefer to think in figures, Russia means one seventh of 
all the dry land on the globe. Its extreme length from west to east is 
6,000 miles — one fourth of the earth's circumference. When a peas- 




A Russian Regiment Passing In Review Before the Czar and His Staff 



ant, taking at St. Petersburg a train of the Trans-Siberian Railway, 
arrives at Irkutsk, he has already traveled twelve hundred miles far- 
ther than if he had made the trip from New York to San Francisco ; 
and he has paid in fare only the equivalent of fifteen dollars. From 
North to South Russia, where it is widest, measures 2,300 miles. It is 
bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean ; on the east by the seas of 
the Pacific; on the south by China, Afghanistan, Persia, and Turkey 
in Asia; on the west by the Black Sea, Rumania, Austria, Germany, 
the Baltic, and the Scandinavian Peninsula. Its area, including the 
inland lakes, together with Khiva and Bokhara, is 8,770,703 square 
miles. 




Vice-Admiral Grigorovich, Minister of 
the Navy 



M. Goremykin, President of tiie 
Councii of Ministers 



DISTINGUISHED RUSSIAN OFFICIALS 
344 



RUSSIA 345 

Russian expansion has been neither colonial nor maritime, but 
purely continental. The empire has grown from within by a series of 
accretions in which one contiguous country after another has been an- 
nexed and absorbed. It has been a great land monster, whose appetite 
grows with what it feeds on. Yet, geographically, its aggressions 
have but followed the natural "lay of the land." In other words, it is 
a great, unbroken plain ; for even the Ural Mountains, between Euro- 
pean and Asiatic Russia, do not contribute a continuous or a formid- 
able barrier. In European Russia, the only breaks are the small table- 
lands. Excepting the Urals and an isolated chain in the Crimea, the 
mountains are of no importance. In the southern region stretch the 
barren steppes; vast forests and many lakes are in the north; in the 
heart of the country, and extending to the west, are the great wheat 
lands. Of the rivers, the Neva and the Vistula flow into the Baltic; 
the Dniester, the Dnieper, and the Don into the Black Sea; and the 
Ural and the Volga into the Caspian. 

Russia has a polar region, a cold region, a temperate region, and a 
warm region ; so particulars of its climate cannot well be set forth in 
brief. At St. Petersburg (now called Petrograd) the mean annual 
temperature is above 40°. In "cold" Russia, the thermometer sinks to 
30° below zero and rises to 80° above. Midsummer heat in the warm 
region means a normal temperature of 100°, yet the Sea of Azov 
freezes early in November, and does not thaw till April. On the 
whole, it is a healthful country, though it suffers from drouths in the 
south and an excess of snow and rain in the far north. Nearly all the 
waters maintain fisheries. Russian sables are among the most luxur- 
ious furs known to civilization. Bears, wolves, wild hogs, elk, bison, 
and lynx abound. 

Russia, until lately, got all its living from the land. It is a great 
agricultural country, producing cotton and rice in northern latitudes 
commonly unfavorable to such culture. The profitable farming lands 
lie mostly between the Baltic and the Black Sea. In 1912 the whole 
area under cultivation was 361,000,000 acres. Of this, about 78,000,- 
000 acres were sown in wheat, yielding about 21,500,000 tons; 72,000,- 
000 acres in rye, yielding nearly 26,000,000 tons ; together with barley, 
oats, hemp, maize, flax, tobacco, and 37,000,000 tons of potatoes. 
Herds and flocks embrace nearly 49,000,000 head of cattle, 74,000,000 



346 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



sheep and goats, 13,500,000 pigs, and more than 33,000,000 horses. 
Russia ranks third among the sea-food producing countries of the 
globe. It exports caviar, and imports codfish and herrings to feed a 
population that cannot live on a year's catch of fish approximating 
1,500,000,000 pounds. 

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Some of Russia's World-famous Cossacks 



iron, marble, rock salt, and lead. Russia leads the world in the pro- 
duction of petroleum, the annual output approximating 515,500,000 
poods — a pood being 36 pounds. From immeasurable coal-beds, near 
the Dnieper and elsewhere, was taken, in 1910, coal weighing 1,600,- 
000 poods. In the same year Avas produced 3,606 poods of pure gold. 
In 1906 the output of steel and rails reached 2,000,000 tons. 

Russia's total imports in 1912 were valued at more than $600,000,- 
000 ; the exports at more than $800,000,000. Her commercial marine 
in 1913 included 716 steamers (790,000 tons) and 500 sailing-vessels 
^184,000 tons). 



RUSSIA 347 

The railways aggregated about 50,000 miles in length — a large 
portion being under government control. In 1912 they carried more 
than 235,000,000 passengers, and more than 229,000,000 tons of 
freight — yielding a gross revenue of about $600,000,000. The build- 
ing of the Trans-Siberian Railway has cut in half the time required 
to reach the Pacific via the Suez Canal, and has spread the Russian 
influence along the borders of China. 

The whole empire's population in 1912 was estimated at 173,360,- 
000. These figures included 122,550,000 in European Russia proper, 
exclusive of Poland and Finland. Siberia's population was 9,600,000, 
and that of Central Asia nearly 11,000,000. The Russian language 
is everywhere dominant, and the Russ represents two thirds of the 
whole population. The Poles represent about 6 per cent.; the Jews 
about 4 per cent.; Finns, 4.5 per cent.; Lithuanians, 2.4 per cent.; 
Turco-Tartars, 10.6 per cent. It is estimated that about 80 per cent, 
of the inhabitants dwell on about 25 per cent, of the surface. Despite 
famine, wars, poverty, and cruel oppression, Russia grows and grows. 
The natural annual increase is placed at more than 1,700,000. The 
average proportion of the sexes is 99.8 women to 100 men; but in Fin- 
Und and the Russian provinces the women outnumber the men by 
more than two per cent. 

Russia's capital, St. Petersburg (now Petrograd), has a popula- 
tion of a little more than 2,000,000. The city is built on the marsh- 
land of the Neva River, 20 miles east of its port, Cronstadt. The 
average winter temperature is 18°. It was founded by Peter the 
Great in 1703, and Catherine II made it one of the most brilliant 
capitals in Europe. When the emperor occupies his wonderful Win- 
ter Palace, it houses 6,000 persons. This building is one of the 
world's largest palaces, and is lavishly decorated and furnished. 
Moscow's population is 1,174,000. Nijni Novgorod, on the Trans- 
Siberian Railway, has a population of only 90,000, but its annual fair 
is the largest in the world. 

Russia nominally ceased to be an absolute monarchy in 1905, with 
the establishment of the Duma ; but the emperor has not dropped his 
title of Autocrat, although the Duma has registered a protest, and in 
him are still lodged, in a great measure, the executive, judicial, and 
legislative functions of the government. The fourth Duma has been 



348 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




Russian Infantry 

sitting since November, 1912. By a change made in the electoral law 
in June, 1907, the members of the Duma, representing the provinces 
and the greater cities, are chosen (for five years) by electoral bodies 
created by the voters. The council of the empire, established in 1810, 
became in 1906 a legislative council, made up equally of elected mem- 
bers and the emperor's nominees, and annually convoked and pro- 
rogued by imperial decree (ukase) . No act of legislation is submitted 
for the emperor's approval unless it has been passed by both bodies. 
Equal powers of initiative and legislation are vested in the Council and 
the Duma, but neither body is empowered to receive petitions or depu- 
tations. 

Four additional councils, controlled by the emperor's private cab- 
inet, conduct the administration. All the legal tribunals are con- 
trolled by the high court of justice, known as the Ruling Senate. This 
was established by Peter I in 1711. There are six sections, repre- 
senting the various provinces, presided over collectively by the min- 
ister of justice. The Holy Synod — also established by Peter I — 
superintends the empire's religious affairs. It is composed of the 
metropolitans of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kiev, the archbishops 
of Georgia and Poland, and several bishops sitting in turn. Its deci- 
sions are of no effect unless approved by the emperor. A third gov- 
ernment board, reorganized in the autumn of 1905, is the committee 
of ministers, while the Council of Ministers constitutes a fourth board 
composed of all the ministers and the general directors of important 
administrations. 

The established religion is the Russo-Greek Church, officially called 
the Greek "Orthodox faith," of which the emperor is the head. He 



RUSSIA 



349 




Passing in Review 



does not presume to decide questions of theology or dogma, but he 
makes appointments and exercises certain powers of transfer and 
dismissal. Members of the Orthodox faith represent about 70 per 
cent, of all; Mussulmans, 10 per cent.; Roman Catholics, 9 per cent.; 
Protestants, 5 per cent. ; Jews, 4 per cent. 

Advanced education has been sternly repressed in Russia, even in 
the time of the present emperor. Professors have been persecuted and 
suspended for teaching fundamental scientific laws, standard text- 
books have been banned, and other repressive measures have been put 
in force. Statistically speaking, European Russia in 1913 had 90,418 
elementary schools — high, middle, and primary — with a total attend- 
ance of 5,794,922. Ten per cent, of the total population have received 
no instruction whatever, and it is said that many schools in the remote 
districts exist only on paper. The primary instruction in these dis- 
tricts is very backward. University students in St. Petersburg num- 
ber 8,224; in Moscow, 9,242; in Kiev, 4,931. On January 1, 1912, 
the whole number in the empire was 36,147. There are also secondary 
institutions, in number somewhat insignificant con^pared with the area 
and population. The special schools embrace: theological, 470, with 
more than 77,000 pupils; pedagogical, 323, with more than 21,000 
pupils; medical, 72, with 9,112 pupils; technical, 627, with 40,000 pu- 
pils; commercial and industrial, 178, with about 38,000 pupils; fine 
arts, 75, with 10,500 pupils. 

Russia's national debt has not varied much since 1902; in 1913 it 
was 8,845,717,768 roubles. 

The Russian Empire had its real beginning in the year 862, when 
the northern Slavs, tired of their civil wars, invited Rurik, the Norse- 



350 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

man, to govern them. So Rurik came to Novgorod; but some of his 
Varangian brethren pushed on south to the Dnieper and set up their 
government at Kiev. Then Rurik's successors took possession of 
Kiev also, embracing Christianity in the reign of the Queen Regent 
Olga (950). Olga's son, SviatoslafF, divided the empire among his 
three sons, and the dissensions that arose continued until the reign of 
Vladimir (980-1015), who married a sister of the Byzantine emper- 
ors. Under his rule the Russian people became Greek Christians, 
passing under the influence of the Byzantine civilization ; and by this 
time the Norsemen — as often happens with conquerors or invaders — 
had lost their identity as Scandinavians and taken on the character of 
their subjects, the Slavs. The new empire now stretched eastward to 
the Volga, and embraced the country from the northern lakes to the 
Dnieper; but again it was divided among too many heirs, and again 
came quarrels that disrupted the kingdom. It became a group of 
principalities, and some of these States made good progress under 
their princes — notably Novgorod, which acquired wealth and even a 
liberal form of government. Nevertheless, the empire had lost its 
strength and solidity, and it was as a leaf in the storm of the Mongol 
invasion. 

This set in early in the thirteenth century, when the Tartars (Mon- 
gols, or Moguls), under the terrible Genghiz Khan, came like an ant- 
swarm from Asia, sweeping through the greater part of both Asia 
and EfUrope, and threatening to submerge Mahometan and Christian 
alike. For two centuries Russia was trodden under the heel of the 
Tartars, and was quite cut off from contact with western Europe. 
Kiev was altogether destroj^ed, and the principality of Vladimir in the 
north became tributary. In the last quarter of the thirteenth century 
came a shifting of the seat of power from Novgorod to oSIoscow. In 
1328 it became the capital. Ivan I, strongest of the subject princes, 
reigned there, and, gaining favor with the INIongol khans, was per- 
mitted to retain the succession in his own line. It was Ivan who built 
The Kremlin — most famous of Russia's citadels, including within its 
walls the imperial palace, the arsenal, churches, and monasteries. 

The Mongols made a mistake in giving so much power to Ivan. 
From his loins sprang a line of kings, and among the first of these 
was Dmitri, who organized a valiant but vain rebellion. Better for- 



RUSSIA 



351 



tune attended the efforts of Ivan III the Great (1462-1505), who 
subdued Novgorod and overthrew the Khan of the Golden Horde 
(1480). His conquest quadrupled the Russian domain; but it re- 
mained for his grandson, Ivan IV, to complete the subjection of the 
Moguls. This ruler — Ivan the Terrible, as he has come to be called — 
carried the war to the Caucasus, and overcame the Khan of Kazan. 




The Czar and President Poincar6 at Peterhof 



Thus the only lasting dynasty established by the Moguls in their 
attempted conquest of all Europe came to an end. 

Russia now began anew. On the south, Ivan, who called himself 
czar, waged war against the Tartars of the Crimea. On the Baltic he 
sought to obtain a seaport for Russia, but Poland and Sweden blocked 
his way. When Novgorod joined hands with Poland in resisting him, 
he stormed the city and massacred its people. Everywhere he over- 
came opposition with cruelty; yet he could not prevail against the 
Swedes and their allies, and he was obliged to give up Livonia. Ivan 
established commercial intercourse with England, by way of the 



352 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

White Sea, introduced the printing-press, encouraged the coming of 
western artists and mechanics, and sought the friendship of Queen 
Ehzabeth. For England was now in the spacious EHzabethan age, 
while Russia was just awakening from the long nightmare of Turan- 
ian rule. 

In Ivan's reign we first hear of the Cossacks. These robber bands 
of the Dnieper and the Don were pressed into service by Ivan, and 
readily made war. for Russia against the weaker nomads of the sur- 
rounding regions. Ivan sent one of the Cossack chiefs, with a hand- 
ful of followers, across the Ural Mountains, and in doing so began 
the conquest of Siberia. Russia had now entered upon her march to 
the Pacific. The Tartars still opposed her progress to the Euxine, 
and her only ports were on the White Sea and the Caspian. From the 
port of Archangel, her outpost on the frozen Arctic, she began to ply 
a trade with the nations to the west. This port was founded by 
Feodor, son of Ivan, and it remained Russia's chief haven till the 
coming of Peter the Great. 

The royal line that began with Rurik, the Norseman, came to an 
end in 1589. The Poles brought forward a pretender to the throne, 
and a condition approaching anarchy ensued. Then, in 1613, a repre- 
sentative assembly of Russians elected the youthful jNIichael Roman- 
off (1613- '45) to rule over them; and from him springs the present 
royal family. 

With the coming of Peter the Great (1682-1725) , Russian civihza- 
tion made its first distinct progress. In 1696 he took AzofF from the 
Turks, and Russia acquired her coveted port on the Black Sea. He 
made war against Charles XII, and acquired Sweden's possessions 
east of the Baltic. On the Caspian Sea he extended his dominions at 
the expense of Persia. St. Petersburg was made the capital, in place 
of Moscow. Peter was determined to make Russia a great Power, 
and he assumed the title of Emperor of All the Russias, which meant 
that Poland should not retain her hold upon her Russian provinces. 
Peter was half barbarian, half modern. He performed manual labor 
in the navy yards. He was a traveler and a linguist, and, like Ivan, 
he opened the door to foreign arts and inventions. Russia was an 
inferior country when Peter became its ruler, and when his reign was 
over it had become a Power. 



RUSSIA 

Peter's policy was continued by Catherine, his widow, who reigned 
for only two years. From 1725 until 1796 Russia's rulers were chiefly 
women: Anna, Elizabeth, and Catherine II. In the reign of Cath- 
erine II (1762-'96), the Crimea was conquered, the Tartars were 
driven out, and Russia once more had access to the Black Sea. A 
more momentous event of her reign was the spoliation of Poland, 
whereby Russia acquired 180,000 square miles of territory, with 6,000,- 
000 inhabitants. This brought her into close contact with western 




A Group of Russian Artillery Officers 



Europe, and made her a force in European affairs. In Catherine's 
reign, also, the Turks were forced back to the Dniester, and Russia 
began her policy of interference in Turkey's internal affairs. 

The brief reign of the autocratic Paul I (1796-1801) , ending with 
his assassination, was succeeded by that of Alexander I (1801-'25). 
Russia's remarkable rise in the nineteenth century now began in ear- 
nest, and its events are closely linked with those of our own time. 
Alexander was first at peace and then at war with Napoleon. When 
Austria and Prussia had been conquered, he joined issues with Na- 
poleon once more, and received some territory in Lithuania, at Prus- 
sia's expense. Russia also deprived Sweden of Finland, pushed her 



354 COUNTRIES INVOLVED 

way to the Danube against the Turks, and annexed certain Persian 
territory between the Black and Caspian seas. After ^N^apoleon's 
fatal invasion of Russia, in 1812, Alexander took the leading part in 
his overthrow; with INIetternich, in 1815, he was largely instru- 
mental in remaking the map of Europe and creating the Kingdom 
of Poland under the Russian scepter. It was he who inspired the 
Holy Alliance. 

Meanwhile Russia's internal affairs did not prosper. In the be- 
ginning of his reign the emperor displayed liberal ideas. Under 
the inspiration of the tutor of his youth. La Herpe, new universities 
: were established,' scholarship was encouraged, and numerous im- 
portant reforms were planned. But later Alexander fell under the 
influence of JSletternich's reactionary viewsj and came to believe that 
political freedom and the education of the masses were opposed to the 
laws of God. Russia immediatelj^ reverted to conditions approaching 
those of the Middle Ages. Science was suppressed, dissection of the 
dead was banned, and German universities were forbidden to Russian 
students. » •' - 

Nicholas I (1825-''55) likewise did his best to crush liberalism. 
He was in all respects despotic. Under his rule, Poland was humbled 
in the dust and became virtually a Russian province. A strict cen- 
sorship of books was put into effect, and the secret department of 
police became odious to all citizens that entertained the most innocent 
ideas of libert3^ Russia's oflicial corruption and incompetence were 
exposed in the Crimean war ; but Nicholas did not live to profit by his 
mistakes. 

Alexander II (1855-'81), touched by the deplorable condition of 
the Serfs, and perceiving, too, that repressive measures might lead 
to further uprisings, resolved to set them free. This was done in 1861, 
when 40,000,000 peasants were, in a manner, released from bondage; 
yet, under the terms of the new freedom, they were to some extent 
subjected to tyranny and expensive taxation at the hands of the State. 

In 1863 there was another revolt in Poland, which was suppressed 
with cruel completeness, and Alexander declined to grant his sub- 
jects any greater liberties. His persistence in a course of despotism 
led to the movement known as nihilism, in which every educated and 
peacefully inclined person took part, and this in turn led to terrorism 



RUSSIA 



355 



and the employment of explosives in "removing" obnoxious officials. 
Early in 1878 a young woman, Vera Zassulitch, tried to kill General 
Trepoff, St. Petersburg's cruel and corrupt chief of police, and, fol- 
lowing her acquittal by a jury packed by the government, yet in sym- 
pathy with her wrongs, sixteen persons were hanged and many others 
were sent to Siberia. This led to such acts of violence by the stu- 
dents, together with an attempt to kill the emperor, that Alexander 
was prevailed upon to grant the people at least some approach to a 
popular assembly. He consented to the compromise, but was assassi- 
nated while driving to his palace, early in 1881. 




House of the Senate and Holy Synod, Petrograd 



Alexander III (1881-'94) did not swerve from the example of his 
predecessors in crushing all experiments toward liberty. In this 
course he was strengthened by Pobiedonosteif , Procurator of the 
Holy Synod, yet a new era had set in — ^the era of industrial enterprise, 
encouraged by Count Witte ; and this began to affect the social order 
in Russia by drawing the peasants from the farms to the cities. Many 
of them then heard, for the first time, of republican institutions, and 
came to know that there was a Germany and a France, and other 
strange States, to the west of Russia. Hearing these things, they 
too began to talk of liberty. This so alarmed the advisers of the 
emperor that afterward the factory hands were sent back to the farms, 
and were replaced by farmers ; but this only had the effect of spread- 
ing the news, and so nothing was gained by it. 

Meanwhile Russia continued to expand. Turkestan was taken intp 



356 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



the fold, and so were Samarkand, Bokhara, and Khiva, until only- 
Afghanistan remains as a buffer between Russia and Great Britain's 
Empire of India. Even in Persia the Russian influence is pre- 
dominant. 

Nicholas II, the present emperor, ascended the throne in 1894. 
The events of his reign are familiar to readers of our own day who 
will recall that Nicholas has pursued a wavering policy, even in the 
case of Finland, whose independence he stifled, only to restore her 




Russian Infantrymen, Veterans of the War with Japan 



rights when Russia felt the strain that came with the war with Japan 
in 1904. By this conflict, arising from Russia's occupation of Man- 
churia and Port Arthur, the corruption and incompetence of oflicial 
Russia was once more revealed. Japan destroyed the Russian navy, 
and captured the supposedly impregnable Port Arthur after one of 
the bloodiest sieges in history. Mukden fell in March, 1905, and in 
September a treaty was signed, under the terms of which Manchuria 
was evacuated by both nations. 

Meanwhile, in 1903, there was a terrible war-scare of Jews at 
Kishineff*, and von Plehve, Minister of the Interior, began the exercise 
of that ruthless policy which led to his assassination in July, 1904. 



RUSSIA 



357 



This period marks the rise of the Liberals, the Social Democrats, and 
the Socialist revolutionary party. During 1904 and 1905 Russia was 
in the throes of incipient revolution. Reforms had been promised; 
but on "Red Sunday" (January 22, 1905) an army of humble, un- 
armed petitioners — including men, women and children — on the way 
to the Winter Palace were shot down by the imperial troops. It ap- 




Russian Soldiers with Field Wireless Apparatus 

peared, for a time, as if all Russia might revolt; but torture, im- 
prisonment, and exile to Siberia carried the day. The Grand Duke 
Sergius, uncle of the emperor, was, however, "removed" by means of 
a bomb. 

In August, 1905, the emperor was prevailed upon to summon a 
Duma — a representative body or council whose powers should be lim- 
ited to advice — and general strikes followed the announcement of this 
perfunctory arrangement. At Moscow revolutionists fought the 
troops and more Jews were murdered. The Duma eventually met in 



358 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



May, 1906; but the addresses made by its members did not please 
the emperor, who dissolved it and appointed a date for another meet- 
ing. Various disorders followed, several thousand persons were killed 
or maimed in the name of good government, and, incidentally, the 
Jews suffered again. In 1907 the second Duma met, and this, too, 
was dissolved, after it refused to expel some of its members and sur- 
render others to the police. The third Duma, which met in 1907, 
dared to declare that the title "autocrat" is "incompatible with the 




Russian Supply Detachment, with IViotor Transports 



system put into effect by the emperor's manifesto of October 29, 
1905." 

On July 29, 1914, following the declaration of war by Austria on 
Servia, Russia began mobilizing her army to go to the aid of Servia, 
whereupon the German emperor, after demanding that mobilization 
of the Russian armies be discontinued, declared war on Russia, 
August 1, 1914. On August 6 Russia declared war against Aus- 
tria. A promise to reunite Poland and give it autonomy secured the 
loyalty of the Poles in the war, and all opposition to the Govern- 
ment was put aside, to present a united front to the enemy. On 
August 17 the first Russian troops invaded German territory in. 
Eydtkuhnen, Prussia, which action was soon followed by the Russian 
occupation of Insterharg, on the way to the fortress of Koenigsberg. 




BALKAN 
PENINSULA 




PETER (PETAR) I 

King of Servla. Born in Belgrade, Juiy 12, 1844. Son of Prince Alexander I, Kara-Georgevitch. 

Fought with Distinction in the French Army, in the Franco-Prussian War. Proclaimed 

King June 15, 1903, After the Assassination of King Alexander, of the Rival 

Dynasty of Obrenovitch. Married Zorka, Princess of Montenegro, 

Sister of the Queen of Italy, August 11, 1883 

360 



SERVIA 361 

Servia. — Servia, south of Hungary, is divided from her Austro- 
Magyar enemies by the Danube and the Save. On the east lies Bul- 
garia; on the south, Greece; on the west, Albania and Montenegro. 
Servia is thus an inland State, her march to the sea by way of Albania 
having been checked by the Powers, who are not friendly to Slav ad- 
ventures in the Adriatic. 

By the war of 1912 Servia's area was doubled. Her expansion to 
the south embraces the whole of Macedonia under her occupation, and 
some territory east of the old vilayet of Kossovo. Her area now ap- 
proximates 34,000 square miles, and her population is about 5,000,000. 
The wars with Turkey and Bulgaria cost her, in money alone, more 
than $90,000,000. 

Servia is a tableland, cut up by mountains and valleys. The high- 
lands in the east link the Transylvania Alps with the Balkans. From 
the southeast to the middle of the northern boundary line runs the 
broad and fertile valley of the JNIorava River, and near the center of 
the country the southern and western forks of this river come together. 
Still another river, the Drina, a tributary of the Save, forms much of 
the western boundary. Well-watered and fertile, with perhaps 70 per 
cent, of its area productive, it is a country of small farms, few of them 
exceeding thirty acres. More than 4,500,000 acres are under culti- 
vation, mostly in cereals. Plums and prunes are exported in large 
quantities. The timber of the forests supplies stores for casks ex- 
ported to Austria and France. In 1911 the country contained more 
than 150,000 horses and nearly 1,000,000 head of cattle. Silk culture 
employed more than 30,000 persons. Servian industries are progress- 
ing. These include flour-milling, brewing and distilling, and the an- 
cient industry of carpet-weaving — a specialty of the southeastern sec- 
tion, where the secrets of colors and dyeing are handed down from 
father to son. The mines of copper, coal and lead are largely under 
government control. 

In 1910, the capital, Belgrade, on the Danube, had a population of 
90,000. Next to this in size are Monastir and Uskiib, newly acquired 
from the Turks, with populations approximating 60,000 and 47,000 
respectively. Belgrade has a university; the State supports public 
schools, and makes elementary education compulsory. Yet in 1900 
only 17 per cent, of the total population could read and write. 



362 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 







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Belgrade, the Capital of Servia, Austrian Territory In the Distance 



It is interesting to note that, unlike the advanced States of Eu- 
rope, Servia is without paupers. Even in its capital, Belgrade, the 
very poor are so few that a workhouse is unnecessary. Thus every 
Servian who goes forth to fight for his country does not battle for an 
abstract cause or idea, but fights to protect land of which he is the 
actual owner. This perhaps helps to explain that prowess in war 
which has so recently elicited the admiration of the world. Yet war is 
the great burden under which the Servian labors. Previous to the 
struggle for independence in 1876, there was no public debt. In 
1903, owing largely to the liabilities imposed by the Powers under the 
Treaty of Berlin, the public debt had become $81,500,000; on Janu- 
ary 1, 1913, it was more than $131,000,000. 

In order to pay the interest, the Government, acting through a 
licensed company organized for the purpose, controls the revenue 
from the manufacture of tobacco, salt, petroleum, matches, cigarette- 
paper, and alcohol. 

Every man between 18 and 50 years of age is liable for military 



SERVIA 



363 



service. The war strength is about 175,000, with 95,000 additional 
soldiers in reserve. 

The country was conquered by the Turks at the battle of Kossovo 
(the "Field of Blackbirds") in 1389. In the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries, a great number of Servians left their native land and 
settled in Hungary, where their descendants live to-day. In the open- 
ing years of the nineteenth century, Kara (Black) George led a revolt 
against Turkish rule, but he was assassinated in 1817 by Obrenovich. 




Servian Women-soldiers, Members of the "League- of Death" 



The princes of this house ruled Servia until 1842, when Alexander, 
son of Black George, was chosen prince by the National Assembly. 
In 1859 he was forced to abdicate, and was succeeded first by the aged 
Milosh, and then by Michael of the same house, who, in turn, was 
murdered in 1868. Michael's cousin, Milan, then mounted the throne, 
and in 1878 Servia achieved its independence of Turkey, and he was 
proclaimed king. Upon his abdication in 1899, he was succeeded by 
his son, Alexander. Four years later King Alexander and Queen 
Draga were murdered by army officers representing the old Kara 
George dynasty; and thus, after a century of feuds, Peter I, the 
reigning king, is the third of his house to rule over Servia. 



364. 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 




Nicholas I, King of Montenegro 

Montenegro — Montenegro is 8 miles in width and 100 miles in 
length, from north to south. Since the war of 1912-'13, it has pos- 
sessed a seaboard about 28 miles in length; otherwise, it is shut off 
from the Adriatic on the west by the tip of Austrian Dalmatia. Bos- 
nia bounds it on the northwest, Servia on the east, Albania on the 
south. Under the new dispensation, it takes in a little slice of Turkey, 
and it has an area of 5,800 square miles (a little larger than Con- 
necticut), with a population of 500,000. It is rugged and mountain- 
ous, and its people are mostly farmers belonging to the Servian branch 
of the Slavs, and, in the main, to the Greek Church. Crime is rare. 



ALBANIA 365 

There is free, compulsory education; at Cettinje, the capital (popula- 
tion, 5,000) , there are a boys' college and a girls' high school. Danilo 
Petrovic, prince-bishop, overturned Turkish rule in 1697, and obtained 
Russian support. Montenegro was a principality up to 1910, and was 
then proclaimed a kingdom. A constitution, with popular representa- 
tion, was granted in 1905 by the present ruler, King Nicholas I, a 
collateral descendant of Petrovich. 

A Montenegrin may be called upon to bear arms at any time from 
his eighteenth to his sixty-second year. Montenegro has no cavalry. 
Its war strength does not exceed 40,000 men, but King Nicholas made 
a brave showing in the recent conflict with the Turks. On August 
8 Montenegro declared war on Austria. 

Albania — The chief use of Albania is its employment by the Pow- 
ers in preventing Servia from reaching the sea. It lies south of 
Montenegro, with the Strait of Otranto on the west, and Greece and 
Servia on the east. Its estimated area is 12,000 square miles, and its 
population, of Czechs in the north and Tosks in the south, is estimated 
at 2,000,000. It is a neglected and undeveloped country, with much 
of the arable land untilled. Its interior is rugged, and its coast land 
is swampy and unhealthful. Bandits and warring tribes keep the 
country free of tourists; besides, there are no railways and the few 
bridges are unsafe. The best known towns are Scutari and Durazzo. 
The chief river is the Drin. It was called lUyria in ancient times. In 
the second century b. c.^ it was a Roman province. Slav tribes settled 
it in the Middle Ages, and the Turks subdued it in 1478. Early in the 
eighteenth century it became virtually independent under Ali Pasha — 
one of Lord Byron's heroes. The Powers have made an independent 
State of Albania, vesting the government in the hands of a prince 
supported and advised by an international commission of control. 
Prince William Frederick Henry of Wied, a nephew of Rumania's 
Queen Elizabeth, whose name in literature is "Carmen Sylva," has 
accepted the crown. The future of the country is problematical. 







ITALY 



i{«nLali»ac* Ldu»' 



S66 



ITALY 



367 




The Kings of Italy and Servia 



Italy. — From the beginning of the earliest historical records, Italy 
has been an "earthly paradise," for no country combining such beauti- 
ful scenery, delightful climate, fertile land, and picturesque waters is 
found elsewhere. Italy to-day may be regarded as divided into three 
sections: the northern, including Piedmont, Venetia, Liguria, and 
Lombardy, and bounded bj^ Austria-Hungary and Switzerland; the 
central part, embracing the ancient Etruscan, Latium, and Umbrian 
divisions ; and the southern, which includes the Samnite, Apulian, and 
Calabrian districts, with Sardinia and Sicily, the islands in the Bay of 
Naples, the Lipari group, and the Trentini Islands in the Adriatic 
Sea. On the east it is bounded by the eastern Alps, separating it from 
the Austrian provinces of Carinthia and Carniola and the Adriatic ; on 
the south by the Ionian Sea ; on the west by the Tyrrhene and Ligur 
rian Seas and the western Alps, which, together with the river Var, sep- 
arate it from France. From north to south, the length of the country 
is about 718 miles; its breadth varies from 90 to 350 miles. The 
total area of Italy proper is 110,659 square miles. The coast-line, 
which is washed by five seas, is 2,272 miles long, and that of the islands 




HIS HOLINESS POPE BENEDICT XV 

The New Pope Owes His Election indirectly to the War, Which Bore so Heavily on Hic 

PredecessoPi Plus X, That the Days of the Late Pontiff Were Shortened 

368 



ITALY 369 

1,944 miles. The population of Italy, with her islands, is 34,686,653. 
Among the Alpine heights, 6,000 feet above the sea-level, rises 
the river Po, 360 miles long, the largest river in Italy, the tributaries 
of which drain an area of 27,000 square miles'. From the western end 
of the Alps the Apennine Mountains begin, and thence they extend 
south like a backbone throughout the length of the peninsula. 




Officers of Many Nations at Italian Maneuvers 

Besides Italy proper and her surrounding islands, her provinces 
and dependencies include San Marino, the oldest and smallest inde- 
pendent republic in the world, situated far up on a steep ledge of 
the Apennines, and covering an area of only thirty-two square miles ; 
Eritrea, in northwestern Africa, which exports pearls, mother-of- 
pearl, and hides; Somaliland, the Italian part of which occupies the 
central tip of Africa on the eastern coast between the equator and 
Lat. 12° N.; the Tientsin concession in China, which was leased by 
Italy in 1902, and covers an area of eighteen square miles; and Trip- 
oli, in northern Africa, which was under Turkish government from 



370 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



the sixteenth century until the year 1912, when Italy annexed the 
territory and declared war on Turkey, the result of which was the 
ratification by Turkey of the annexation, embodied in the Treaty of 
Ouchy in October, 1912. 

Over these dominions reigns Victor Emmanuel III, great-grand- 
son of Victor Enmianuel I, the first king of United Italy after her 
liberation in 1860. Victor Enmianuel III ascended the throne in 




Italian Cavalry, Among the Best In Europe 



July, 1900. The king possesses executive power but is represented by 
responsible ministers. Legislative power is exercised by the king and 
the parliament, the latter divided into two bodies — the Senate and 
the House of Deputies. The Senate is formed from princes of the 
royal blood and from life members appointed by the king. The king's 
cabinet of ministers is composed of eleven members. 

Members of the House of Deputies are elected to office by male 
citizens over the age of twenty-one. Citizens more than thirty years 
old, who are not priests or who do not hold any other public office, are 
eligible as members of the House of Deputies. Their term of office 



ITALY 



371 



lasts five years. Parliament meets every year, and the king has au- 
thority to dissolve it at any time. 

The country is divided, for administrative purposes, into twelve 
provinces. These are subdivided into 197 territories, and these again 
are divided into communes, the number of which, according to the last 
report, is 8,320. 

Education in Italy is compulsory up to the age of twelve, and 




A Group of Italian Officers, One of the Famous Bersaglieri on the Left 



every commune must have at least one elementary school for boys and 
one for girls. The schools are graded as elementary, secondary, and 
higher. There are numerous private schools, technical schools, and in- 
stitutions for special branches of study. 

The State religion is Roman Catholic, but all denominations are 
free to hold their private opinions and public religious services. The 
civil Government was once connected with the Catholic clergy, but has 
not been so since 1870. The seat of the Roman Catholic government 
is in Rome, where its affairs are directed from the Palace of the Vati- 
can by the pope, assisted by archbishops and cardinals. 



372 



COUNTRIES INVOLVED 



Service in the Italian army is compulsory. As soon as a young 
man reaches the age of nineteen, he is liable to be called on to enter 
the army at any time up to the age of thirty-nine. The period of 
service is two years in the ranks, eight years in the reserves, four years 
in the active militia, and seven years in the territorial militia. The 
total organized strength of the army is 400,000, the standing army 
numbering 291,679. 

Italy possesses some of the largest ships in the world, including 8 




Type of Armored Automobile Used in Italian Army 

battleships, 10 armored cruisers, 13 gun-boats, 22 destroyers, 6 pro- 
tected cruisers, 83 torpedo-boats, and 9 submarines, with a naval per- 
sonnel of 1 admiral, 22 vice- and rear-admirals, 1,875 officers of 
various ranks, and 33,000 men. 

The opening of the war placed Italy in a decidedly equivocal posi- 
tion. Ever since 1882 she has been a member of the Triple Alliance 
with Germany and Austria, and was expected by her two allies to 
join them in the struggle. Italy, however, cherishes an enmity of long 
standing against Austria, which at one time held and tyrannized over 
a large part of what is now Northern Italy. Italy joined Prussia in 
the war against Austria in 1866, and her forces were badly beaten at 



ITALY 



373 



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Custozza on land and at Lissa on the sea; but victorious Prussia 
forced Austria to give up her Italian province of Venetia. An ex- 
tensive Austrian territory adjoining Venetia at the head of the Adri- 
atic Sea is inhabited by Italian-speaking people, however, and Italy 
looks upon those provinces in much the same way as the French upon 
Alsace and Lorraine. Italy, moreover, is deeply indebted to France 
for her aid in the liberation of the country from Austria in 1859, when 
the armies of Napoleon III, in alliance with Sardinia, won the bat- 
tles of Magenta and Solferino. Finally, Italy has a traditional 
friendship with England, who has given her many evidences of sin- 
cere sympathy. 

On the outbreak of the war the Italian Government, instead of 
joining Austria and Germany, declared its neutrality, on the ground 
that the treaty of alliance bound Italy to throw her military resources 
into the scale only in case her allies were attacked by other powers, 
and she was under no obligation to join Germany and Austria in a 
war in which they were the aggressors. At the same time a partial 
mobilization of the army was ordered. Popular feeling in favor of 
the Allies gave rise to violent demonstrations; and the eagerness of 
nearly all classes to take advantage of the opportunity to wrest from 
Austria the long-coveted "Italia irredenta" was strongly manifested. 



/ 




374 



JAPAN -^75 

Japan. — The old geographers used to^ say that Japan lay off the 
coast of China at the far eastern end of* the world; but to Americans 
of to-day Japan lies to the far west. Its boundaries run along differ- 
ent lines to the Japanese themselves, for on the north they have Rus- 
sian neighbors in half of Saghalien and in Siberia; on the south, North 
Americans and Filipinos ; and Formosa and Korea, known officially 
as Chosen, once belonging to China, are now part of the Empire of 
Japan. 

The whole empire is made up of about four thousand islands, of 
which thirteen are reckoned as great islands, the largest being Hondo, 
on which live about four fifths of the Japanese people. Other large 
islands are Shikoku, Kiushiu, Sado, Oki, Awaji, Iki, and Tsuchima. 
Yezo and the so-called "Thousand Isles" are far to the north. These 
isles of the long-continued archipelago are farther north than the 
northernmost part of the United States, and those farthest south are in 
the tropic region. Japanese territory altogether covers 163,000 square 
miles, making a total area a little larger than California. Including 
the Asiatic peninsula of Korea, annexed to Japan in 1910, and of 
Formosa, annexed in 1904, the population is about 66,000,000. 

The constitution of Japan is that of a monarchy with represen- 
tative institutions, based on German forms. Executive power is 
vested in the emperor, under the advice of his cabinet ministers, chosen 
by him and responsible to him. The Imperial Diet consists of the 
House of Peers and the House of Representatives. The former is 
composed of all adult men of the imperial family, other persons ap- 
pointed by the emperor, and certain public officials in each city of the 
first class. The House of Representatives is composed of members 
elected from each district of the empire. The country is divided and 
subdivided, for local administration, into prefectures, municipalities, 
and counties, towns, and villages. 

In 1871 a national system of education was established, largely 
with the aid of American teachers. Instead of the old teaching, given 
in temples or in private houses, where the children sat on the floor and 
learned only the rudiments of arithmetic and literature, the pupils 
are taught in .graded classes in schoolhouses built and arranged in 
modern western style. Japan has three universities, more than 26,000 
elementary schools, and numerous middle, high, and normal schools, 




JAPANESE TRENCHES IN MANCHURIA 
European soldiers are now scoring the countryside with hundreds of miles of trenches Just 

like these 

376 



JAPAN 377 

many schools for special studies, such as music, science, commerce, 
agriculture, the fine arts, and naval and military instruction. 

As in many countries of Europe, military service is compulsory. 
Service is for two or three years in the ranks, and then five years and 
four months in the reserves. After serving seven years and four 
months in the first line, the men are transferred to the kohi, which cor- 
responds to the German Landwehr, or first reserves. This service is 
for ten years, and the men next enter the territorial or home-defense 
army, serving two years and eight months. Up to 1914 the total peace 
strength was 225,000 officers and men; the war footing 740,000. 

The navy consists of four dreadnoughts, ten battle-ships of the 
first class and four of the second class, twenty-nine steel cruisers, 
ninety-five torpedo-boat destroyers, sixty-four torpedo boats, and six- 
teen submarines. About 36,000 officers and men are on the active list. 

Japan became involved in the war because of her treaty of alli- 
ance with Great Britain. On August 4, 1914, Great Britain asked 
Japan what she could expect in the way of naval assistance for the 
protection of British shipping in the Pacific. Japan agreed to join 
Great Britain, provided that she be allowed to demand and enforce 
the evacuation by Germany of Kiau-Chau, a territory embracing 
about 200 square miles, "leased" from China for ninety-nine years, 
March 6, 1898, after its seizure by force in November, 1897. Great 
Britain assented, on the condition that the territory be returned 
to China after the war. Japan consented, and sent an ulti- 
matum, expiring at noon on August 24, to Germany, "advis- 
ing" the evacuation of the port of Tsing-tau, and the disarma- 
ment of warships in that harbor. Germany ignored the ultimatum, 
war was immediately declared, and Japanese forces promptly dis- 
patched to invest Tsing-tau. Such is the official history of Japan's 
participation in the war; but it is doubtful if the treaty with Great 
Britain would have brought Japan into the fray had it not been for 
the bitter feeling against Germany which Japan has nursed since 
1895, when Germany's threats forced her to give up Port Arthur 
after her victory over China. A grievance of a more sentimental 
character, but perhaps none the less strong for that, is the kaiser's 
flaunting of the "Yellow Peril," and the treatment of the Japanese 
by the Germans in conformity with that insulting watchword. 




VIEWS IN THE HAGUE 
1. Place du Grand March^, 2. Le Mus^e (Maurits Huls). 3. Royal Palace. 4. The Vijver 

378 



CHAPTER XI 

THE HAGUE CONFERENCE 

At a time when almost the whole of Europe and the most power- 
ful military nation of Asia are in arms, and a war of staggering di- 
mensions is in progress, it may seem that a reference to The Hague 
Conference and the efforts hitherto made to promote universal peace 
can be met only with derision. The peace palace at The Hague, "the 
capital of the world," appears for the time being like a monument to 
the fatuity of those who have had faith in the nobler side of mankind, 
and the tomb of the blasted hopes of impracticable visionaries. The 
outlook certainly is gloomy; but, Utopian as the idea may seem, the 
cause of peace may nevertheless be powerfully advanced by this war. 
Civilization cannot be dissolved in blood ; and there is ground for the 
hope that the frightful catastrophe which has befallen mankind by its 
insane competition in war-ships and armament may bring it to its 
senses, and lead the people who have had to pay the cost of this war 
in the lives of their loved ones to determine once for all that they will 
no longer submit to the chiefs whose frantic greed for territory and 
military glory have plunged them into misery and ruin. 

In 1801, England, fearing that Napoleon would coerce the Danes 
into placing their powerful fleet in his hands, sent Lord Nelson to 
Copenhagen. Although Denmark was then at peace with England 
and had as yet done her no injury, Nelson destroyed the Danish fleet. 
In 1914 Germany, though pledged by treaty to respect the neutrality 
of Belgium, invaded that country and overran it with a huge army. 
Such has been the progress of a century in international morality. To 
those who wage war, the solemn obligations of a treaty are as lightly 
regarded as human lives, and it is evident that the conventions of The 
Hague Conference, to which the nations of the world have bound 
themselves, are likely to receive scant courtesy while the war is in 
progress. We cannot help feeling, nevertheless, that The Hague 

379 



380 THE HAGUE CONFERENCE 

Conference was a distinct achievement of civilization, shining still like 
a good deed in a naughty world, and a brief account of it may have 
more than an academic interest. 

The first peace conference, called at the instance of the Emperor 
of Russia, sat at The Hague — the seat of the government of the Neth- 
erlands, though not its official capital — from May 18 to July 29, 1899. 
One hundred delegates from the European Powers, the United 
States, Mexico, China, Japan, Siam, and Persia were in session. The 
smaller American republics were not invited to attend. The Confer- 
ence discussed the limitation of armaments, the adjustment by arbi- 
tration of international disputes, and measures for rendering land 
warfare more humane. It was agreed that the principles of the Ge- 
neva Convention regarding war on land should be applied to naval 
warfare. The chief accomplishment of the convention was the estab- 
lishment of a permanent court of arbitration, M^hich provides the ma- 
chinery for arbitration of such disputes as anj^ of the nations may 
desire to submit to it, and the foundation of an international bureau 
of this court, under the control of a permanent administrative coun- 
cil consisting of the diplomatic representatives of the signatory Pow- 
ers to the government of the Netherlands, and presided over by the 
Dutch minister of foreign affairs. 

A second conference was called by the Emperor of Russia in 1907, 
and it sat from June 15 to October 18, two hundred and fifty-six dele- 
gates being present. In the second conference the smaller Powers, 
excluded from the first conference, were represented ; and their claims 
to equal representation with the great Powers were a cause of dis- 
sension. It was finally decided that all the signatory Powers, large 
and small, shall have the right to nominate not more than four mem- 
bers to the permanent court of arbitration. 

The signatory powers are under no obligation to resort to the 
court of arbitration, and two countries may choose whom they please 
to act as arbitrators in any dispute between them ; but if they decide to 
submit their diff'erences to The Hague tribunal, the judges or arbi- 
trators must be chosen from among the members of the permanent 
court. This court, of course, has no means of enforcing its decisions, 
and very little to guide it in the way of a definite body of international 
law commanding general respect. We are still far from the time 



THE HAGUE CONFERENCE 381 

when a great Power may be haled to the court at The Hague and 
forced to do justice to a small one, by legal injunction. 

The Hague tribunal, nevertheless, has by no means been a dead 
letter. In the year 1902 it tried its first case, the issue of the pious 
fund of the Calif ornias, between the United States and Mexico, and 
in 1904 it adjusted the vexed question of the preferential claims of 
the creditor nations of Venezuela. In 7l910 it settled the famous dis- 
pute of long standing between Great Britain and the United States 
over the North Atlantic fisheries. Its latest decisions, rendered May 
6, 1913, were in the "Carthage" and "Manouba" cases, between France 
and Italy. In all, it has rendered judgment in thirteen cases — an 
average of nearly one a year since its establishment, some of which 
might easily have led to war had it not been for its friendly inter- 
vention. 

The second conference also provided for the establishment of an 
international prize court, to act as a court of appeal from national 
marine courts, upon decisions relating to vessels taken as prizes during 
war. Great Britain strongly objected to a court in which questions 
involving her great maritime interests might be decided by "the vote 
of Santo Domingo or Turkey." 

The question of disarmament was brought up, but was discussed 
in a perfunctory and half-hearted way, as it was felt to be beyond the 
sphere of practical consideration. Consent — though not unanimous in 
every instance — was won for the following provisions : 

(1) Neutral territory shall be inviolable, and combatants may 
take refuge therein under custody. 

(2) Belligerents shall not establish wireless stations in neutral 
territory. 

(3) Belligerent ships shall take only sufficient supplies and suf- 
ficient fuel in a neutral port to take them to the nearest port in their 
own country. 

(4) Nations shall not begin war without a previous declaration 
of war, stating the causes. 

(5) Neutral Powers must be promptly notified of a state of war. 

(6) Explosives must not be dropped from balloons ; and expand- 
ing bullets ("dum-dums") and projectiles purposely designed to give 
off deadly fumes must not be used. 




"Mauretania." of the Cunard Line 




. nia," of the Cunard Line 



ONCE COMMERCE CONVEYERS, NOW COMMERCE DESTROYERS 

These famous transatlantic liners are all in the naval service, and the "Carmania" has been 

victorious in action vt^ith a hostile ship 

S82 



THE HAGUE CONFERENCE 383 

(7) Indemnification may be exacted from a nation that violates 
any of the rules of war. 

(8) Merchant vessels must be allowed a fixed time in which to 
clear from an enemy's port at the opening of hostilities. 

(9) Submarine floating mines and automobile torpedoes which 
do not quickly become harmless after they are set, discharged, or break 
away from their moorings must not be employed. 

(10) Undefended towns and buildings and those ports whidh 
are defenseless or defended only by mines, must not be bombarded. 

(11) Fishing-boats and those engaged upon a scientific, relig- 
ious, or charitable mission are not liable to capture. 

(12) The inviolability of the postal service must be respected. 
Since this war began the Powers, or some of them, have played 

fast and loose with many of the foregoing provisions. The humane 
spirit to which they give expression is utterly foreign to the instinct 
of war. Nations go to war for the purpose of destroying one another, 
and it is of little use to ask them to abide by any rules that might de- 
prive them of an opportunity to cripple the enemy. 

Another principle afiirmed by the second Hague Convention is of 
great significance in American affairs, but has no bearing on the pres- 
ent European war. This was the recognition of the so-called "Drago 
Doctrine," which maintains that no government can collect debts due 
its nationals from the government of another Power, unless an offer 
to submit the question to arbitration be first made, or the delinquent 
government refuse to abide by the judgment of the court of arbitra- 
tion. 

The money for the building of the handsome peace palace that is 
the permanent home of the international court and is designed to 
provide an assembly hall for future conferences, was the gift of An- 
drew Carnegie. 

Discouraging as the prospect now seems, we may venture to hope 
that The Hague has by no means seen its last peace conference, and 
that representatives of the nations now at war will some day meet 
there again to adopt measures that will make impossible another such 
contest as that which is now shaking the world. 




384 



CHAPTER XII f 

THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON THE WESTERN WORU) 

War^ viewed in its widest perspective, is a disaster; viewed from 
the aspect of personal bereavement, it is a desolation; yet it is invaria- 
ble that, at certain points between these two, war produces prosperity. 
The western world, though not directly embroiled in the European 
conflict, is keenly affected thereby, suffering in certain fields of activ- 
ity and being greatly benefited in others. Rightly to determine what 
will be the favorable and the unfavorable results of the war is a vital 
issue to Americans in every branch of business life. 

For more than a year preceding the actual outbreak of hostilities, 
trade conditions in the United States had been below the mean of an 
equal balance, and by June 30, 1914, the conditions of money and of 
industry, considered jointly, showed business to have reached a lower 
point than had been recorded since the panic of 1907. At the same 
time, confidence had been reestablished in the country, owing to re- 
ports of a large cotton yield, a bumper grain crop, and a beginning of 
returning financial strength after the currency turmoil of the spring. 
Upon this condition of steady decline and heralded strength the dec- 
laration of war in Europe fell as a thunderbolt. 

In considering the effect of the tremendous conflict, conditions in 
Europe during the months preceding the actual mobilization of the 
armies should be brought into their due relation. The markets in 
Germany, France, and England were even more unsound and pan- 
icky than were those of the United States, and, in addition, they 
lacked the strength which, in America, was anticipated from the crop 
reports. Since 1912 the bourses of Europe had been liquidating 
American securities, at a sacrifice, indeed, in order to secure as much 
gold as possible. Partly this selection of American securities as the 
best to sell was due to the stereotyped maxim of the seller that it is 
wise to unload first securities belonging to lands at a distance, and the 

385 




386 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 38T 

knowledge that American gold was easy to secure added a consider- 
able impetus to the liquidation. 

The United States, therefore, was bled of her stock of gold. In 
1914, up to July 25, $79,800,000 in gold bars had been shipped to 
Europe from the United States. Of this quantity, $63,800,000 had 
been shipped in the ten weeks prior to the last week in July. In the 
three days, July 27-30, $28,600,000 more was shipped, much of this 
being for unlisted securities delivered on the "Olympic," their charac- 
ter and total value not being accurately known. This pressure upon 
the gold reserve of the United States, especially coming when it was 
necessary to move the crop, rendered economic conditions such as to 
require the issuance of an emergency currency of $80,000,000 to 
$90,000,000. The principal feature of this movement of gold to 
Europe was the astounding stability shown by American finances un- 
der the strain. 

Not only did the European bourses find it necessary to realize on 
United States securities, but, as far as possible, they did the same 
with those of other countries. This drew gold from those sources also 
and produced elsewhere the same tightening of money. Not having 
such opportunity for releasing the stringency as the United States 
possessed in the emergency-currency legislation, these neutral coun- 
tries became greatly in need of money. Herein lay an immediate 
chance for the investment of American capital, in the buying of high- 
grade foreign securities which had been held preferentially for 
Europe. The interest is high, the risks are not great, and this field 
of investment, long withheld from American capitalists, is now thrown 
open. 

Immediately upon the opening of the war, there was in certain 
lines a natural paralysis of American business, which is likely to give a 
false idea as to the adverse eiFect of the European situation. All in- 
dustries that depend on Europe for their raw materials, or ship raw 
material to foreign manufacturers, or find in European countries the 
best markets for their products, are bound to suffer heavily at first. 
Naturally, the war conditions raised the price of those articles that 
appear in the tables of imports as having come from Europe in large 
quantities. At the same time, if it continues, it will cause a drop in 
prices of all those articles that are produced in America in quantities. 




388 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 389 

which have formed the largest part of our exports. This follows the 
general rule of supply and demand — the supply being reduced in the 
former case and increased in the latter. 

From this temporary numbing of business there must be a rebound, 
and the American manufacturer has already perceived the opportu- 
nity that is afforded him by the cessation of imports from his Euro- 
pean competitors. Houses which heretofore have only been able to 
secure a small share of the trade of the United States, by reason of 
foreign competition from countries where the wage-rate is low, now 
are able to win the whole domestic trade. Numerous examples might 
be quoted. To take a small case — yet one which appeals to every 
household — the manufacturers of toys and games of every kind will 
reap a rich harvest. The "made in Germany" novelties for the 
Christmas trade will be replaced by "made in America" articles. 

The watch-and-clock industry has received a considerable stimu- 
lation from the cessation of Swiss competition. All the textiles, de- 
spite their loss of French workmen, show signs of taking advan- 
tage of the situation. California wines will secure a public notice 
which the overshadowing effect of foreign vintages has partly hid- 
den until this time. In many lines of industry, Americans have be- 
gun the production of American-made goods, and it is expected that 
before long a domestic article will have a reputation as high as that 
of the imported product. 

The export of cheap manufactured articles from the United 
States into the European commerce fields has been done only on a 
small scale, as the bulk of the export has been of articles classified as 
luxuries; but the opportunity is good as soon as the war comes to an 
end. Then the countries of Europe will desire to resume life upon 
its former scale, and some time will elapse before their industries are 
again in perfected condition. It is to be remembered, however, that 
if the war should continue for any considerable length of time, 
Europe would be too poor to buy any but the cheapest articles, and 
usually the cheapest grades are the least profitable to the producers. 

Even these opportunities, however, though allied to the extension 
of European custom, do not promise a suflSciently permanent trade 
to justify the building of a plant, since the conflict may be brief. 
In such case, the European manufactory would immediately begin 




A DESTROYER IN THE PANAMA CANAL 

The Opening of This Great Waterway Comes at a Time When the United States May Divert 

Some of South America's Trade Which Formerly Went to Europe 

390 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 391 

operations again, and the capitalist in the United States who had 
begun the new venture might find himself with a useless or losing 
factory on his hands. By running a present plant to full force, 
however, he might make a considerable sum of money, and then, when 
normal conditions returned, those who had helped him would share 
in the benefit and regain the former situation. 

International relations have become so complicated in modern 
times, and the articles that are now deemed to be essentials are so 
vastly more numerous than they were a century ago, that the ques- 
tion of military supplies is on an entirely new basis. 

An example of the immediate importance of the progress of the 
war is seen in its relation to the naval situation. As long as the con- 
trol of the seas is in the hands of England, it stands to reason that 
facilities will be provided for the safe-conduct of ships handling our 
export trade. English factories, therefore, may be regarded as ele- 
ments leading directly to Ihe prosperity of the United States. On 
the other hand, as Germany's part in naval warfare is rather that of 
forcing England to the defensive than of endeavoring to secure ab- 
solute control of the seas, her activities upon the water are much 
more likely to be those of a commerce-destroyer. Accordingly, in 
this light, German naval victories may be considered as factors tend- 
ing to hinder the prosperity of the United States. 

Realization of the close interdependence of nations brings 
prominently into view the fact that the profits received by one nation 
at the expense of another form at bottom a fictitious prosperity. 
The depression following the immediate announcement of the war is 
likely to give place to a long, slow advance in the commodities that 
the United States can produce and in the securing of fair prices for 
them. At the same time, after this upward movement has been 
consummated, the actual pinch will begin to appear, for millions of 
our customers will have been slain on the field of battle, thousands of 
our best artisans, who returned to the Fatherland to join the colors, 
will remain there to take the vacant places of the men that were 
killed in battle. The United States thus will lose by reason of the 
depletion in numbers of her European consumers, and also since the 
war will have been the prime cause in the loss of an efficient section 
of her producing population. 




392 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 393 

The cessation of certain exports during the continuance of the 
war will have a deadening effect on certain industries. For exam- 
ple, the Standard Oil Company laid off fifteen thousand men within 
a few days after the declaration of war by Germany, owing to the 
fact that a large part of her oil exports go to that country. The ex- 
ports and imports of automobiles — which may be classed as a luxury 
— have fallen practically to nothing, and automobile manufacturers 
are reducing their outputs to fit the needs of the domestic trade as 
well as developing their opportunities in South American countries. 

One of the fields of business that have been the first to be affected 
by the war conditions is that of agricultural implements. The an- 
nual exports of agricultural machinery from the United States have 
been more than $30,000,000, and this business — in which America is 
supreme among the nations of the world — has dwindled proportion- 
ately. In Europe this season the crops will have to be garnered by 
the women and children; indeed, so urgent has become the need of 
gathering in • the harvest that the governments of the respective 
States have issued a call to the women, urging them to sacrifice every- 
thing and become field hands, for the purpose of saving food. The 
fear of starvation is an ever-present menace in times of war. The 
difficulty of securing the grain crop is certain to be gl"eatly in- 
creased by reason of the lack of ability to manage the farm machin- 
ery. Not only is this owing to the lack of men to work the machines, 
but also because the horses have been commandeered from most of 
the farms for military purposes. 

The crops of the United States hold this year a unique place. 
With a demand for foodstuffs, especially cereals and meat, almost at 
the highest point possible, the country has secured a buhiper crop and 
the packers also foretell a good season. Yet, though the crop is so 
large and the opportunity of actually sending wheat to Europe is so 
small, causing the holding up of large supplies, the domestic price 
increases. It is pointed out by J. Ward Warner, President of the 
Produce Exchange, that there has been an exorbitant amount of 
speculative buying of foodstuffs. 

It has long been a custom of the European nations to keep sup- 
plies of money on deposit in New York for buying corn, wheat, and 
flour. For several weeks prior to the declaration of war, orders for 



394. EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 

foodstuffs came in thick and fast, and the first two weeks after war 
was declared a vast amount of material was ready for shipment to 
Europe and waiting for bottoms in which to move it. Canada's 
gift to the empire of one million bags of flour saved England from 
an awkward situation, as her actual supplies were running low. The 
rapid action of the British fleet in clearing the North Atlantic and 
safeguarding her own interests at the same time relieved the tie-up 
in American ports and allowed the movement of the foodstuffs from 
the congested areas. 

The situation with regard to foodstuffs possesses certain compU- 
cations by reason of the fact that these are classed among the group 
of subjects to be considered as conditional contraband. Absolute 
contraband consists of articles that are used in warfare, such as guns, 
ammunition, and military vehicles. The principal articles listed as 
conditional contraband are foodstuffs, forage, clothing, boots and 
shoes, bullion, ships and boats, railway and telegraph material, bal- 
loons and flying machines, fuels and lubricants, barbed wire, and 
scientific instruments. AU these, it will be noted, are substances that 
would be likely to be of service in an extended war. 

How thoroughly this embargo applies is strongly evidenced by 
the fate that has befallen the apple crop. The International Apple- 
Shippers' Association held its regular annual convention at Boston 
in the first week of August, immediately after the outbreak of the 
war. At this convention orders usually are received representing the 
movement of about half the apple crop. The shippers for years 
have been enabled to place their crop by this means, and it has been 
their custom to go home, after the convention, with the final arrange- 
ments made concerning shipments, and to rush the fruit away. But 
at the convention this year there was not a single large order, and 
no apples are being packed for European shipment. 

Cotton is another crop that is hard hit by the war. Despite of 
the fact that the crop is of unusual excellence in the United States, 
this will be of little service to cotton-growers immediately. By far 
the largest amount of the raw cotton produced in this country is ex- 
ported to English mills, only one fourth of it, and that of the lower 
grades, being retained in the United States. There has been a large 
over-production of cotton goods, and for some time past the cotton 




395 



396 EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 

mills in the United Kingdom have been running on half time. As 
the warehouses in the Orient and elsewhere are filled with manufac- 
tured cotton goods, no profit worth considering will accrue to Ameri- 
can cotton-growers. But, should the war last long enough to deplete 
the stocks now on hand, there will be the opportunity of a lifetime in 
the cotton business. Not only will the American manufacturer be 
able to dispose of his output at a good profit, but he will have also 
the opportunity of manufacturing a higher grade of goods than has 
heretofore been produced in the United States. 

In the metal trades the market is strong. With a widespread and 
possibly a long war in prospect, pig iron, sheet steel, bars, tubes, bil- 
lets, semi-finished iron and steel products are in demand. The de- 
mand on this department is intense, as much of this material can be 
utilized in the manufacture of munitions of war. Copper, which is 
used far more in building construction than in war material, shows a 
decline, mines are shutting down, and there is a general depression 
through the industry. A recovery of price, followed by a steadying, 
is anticipated. 

With the conditions in the several industries as they have been out- 
lined, the next consideration that determines the eiFect of the war upon 
the western world is that of shipping. The days have long passed 
since the American clipper was the queen of the seas. During the 
first thirty-five years of the nineteenth century, no nation was more 
justly proud of its merchant marine than the American. But about 
1840 occurred the change from wooden ship to iron, and thence to 
steel. That was the knell of the American commercial power on the 
sea. Having resources of coal and iron and cheaper labor than could 
be secured in the United States, England plunged into the manufac- 
ture of steel vessels. A high protection was put upon iron, and this 
doubly handicapped the American shipbuilder. In addition to this, 
the prohibition which refused to foreign-built vessels the right to fly 
the American flag had the efl*ect of driving the stars and stripes 
from the sea. 

Since those days a new factor has entered into the situation. This 
is the fact that improved machinery and efficiency of handling now 
enable the United States to make steel as cheaply here as anywhere. 
Moreover, while the wages are higher than in any other shipbuilding 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 397 

country, the American is a much more rapid workman. Many forces 
are at work making arrangements to seize the bulk of the carrying 
trade, if possible. Experts are unanimously agreed that the pur- 
chase of every foreign vessel that is seaworthy should be made, that 
the laws should be amended to admit the American registry of such 
. purchases and in every way possible to consider American vessels as a 
commercial factor. 

For a considerable time the advance of the United States to the 
position of one of the first Powers of the world has made it evident 
that an American mercantile marine is a necessity, and that this coun- 
try is distinctly failing to fulfil a part of its mission in neglecting 
this feature of its development. One sidelight was thrown on this 
question in the battle-ship cruise around the world, when it was found 
that an American battle-ship fleet could not be moved without the 
assistance of foreign colliers. The present war has thrown the need 
of a mercantile marine into still clearer light. From the point of 
view of commerce, but also with the question of national prestige at 
stake, there is no denying the importance of this development. 

Under circumstances similar to those which .confronted the 
United States at the opening of the war, viz., the knowledge that 
thousands of her citizens were stranded in the countries of belliger- 
ents, almost any nation in the world could have sent to their assist- 
ance vessels under her own neutral flag. Great hardships were 
endured, and serious loss of property resulted, from the fact that 
America had no ships to send. It is true that a situation such as this 
might never occur again ; but that it could occur at all shows a weak 
link in the chain of American citizenship. It hardly needs a prophet 
to declare that one of the lasting efl*ects of the European war upon 
the western world will be the development of a great mercantile 
marine on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 

Intimately connected with the question of ships, and also with 
the loss of foreign trade by European nations now grappled in con- 
flict and spending certainly not less than $30,000,000 a day (the sta- 
tisticians declare that it is $50,000,000), is the opportunity in South 
and Central America. The Monroe Doctrine, since the mediation 
question in Mexico, is largely giving place to the so-called "A. B. C." 




398 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 

policy, and the effect of this among the republics of South America 
has been marked. 

"All South America," says John Barrett, director-general of the 
Pan-American Union, "is an enormous purchaser of manufactured 
products, and she secures by far the greatest part of them from 
Europe, buying $700,000,000 v/orth annually. Of this sum, almost 
two thirds is from Germany alone. She also sells $800,000,000 worth 
of her products to Europe." 

Whatever may be the final result of the war, so far as territorial 
changes of the map of Europe are concerned, there is no question 
that the manufacturing interests of Germany will be seriously crip- 
pled. The trade of South America, therefore, may be handed over 
to the merchants of the United States as if on a golden platter. All 
that is needed to establish a relation of great mutual advantage is to 
accept this in the spirit in which it is tendered, on our part undertak- 
ing to do what Europe does — ^handle her trade in the manner that 
South America wants and not by the methods to which many big 
corporations and business firms are hidebound. A billion and a half 
dollars' worth of trade is there waiting for the United States to pick 
up, and this volume of commerce is being increased year by year with 
the rapid development of the Latin- American republics. 

"The war will do much to increase our trade prospects in South 
America and to enable us to tighten our grip on the business oppor- 
tunities in this country," said Frank A. Vanderlip, president of the 
National City Bank. "Much depends on whether we take advantage 
of our opportunity to establish steamship lines and other means of 
transport for carrying our products to South America, bringing 
back their goods in our own ships." 

While it must be remembered that Brazil and Argentina and 
Chile are not quite a Tom Tiddler's ground, where gold and silver 
may be picked up for the stooping, at least it is certain that one of 
the rarest opportunities for a young man is that of a business scout 
in South America, representing the United States with the same 
vigor and skill that have deen displayed Iby the German scouts. The 
scout system, which was devised by Germany to secure preferential 
trade with countries all over the world, has been the most effective 
form of salesmanship ever seen. It is America's chance to do it now. 



400 EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 

The consular reports are of great assistance ; but the scout, travehng 
far and wide through a country, with his eye keen for business condi- 
tions and with his intentions set on making his firm the dominating 
one in the business in South America, is of tenfold more service. 

With the establishment of a merchant marine, the seizure of the 
South American trade, and the extension of American trade into the 
Orient, the evil effects of the war upon America will be minimized, 
and, at the last, may be turned into permanent benefits. The open- 
ing of these avenues to trade will serve to reduce the disaster that 
this war brings upon the labor world. Hundreds of thousands of men 
will be thrown out of work because the factories lack an outlet for 
their wares ; hundreds of thousands of families will be left starving in 
America because of the war in Europe; millions will suffer depriva- 
tion of their accustomed state of living because the cost of commodi- 
ties is rising to a point that will be almost prohibitive. 

On the other hand, as soon as business resumes again, there will 
be an era of unexampled prosperity for the workingman. Large 
numbers of reservists have left the United States for their ow^n coun- 
tries, many of them skilled workers of great value to America. 
Thousands never will return, but in their home land will take the 
places of the men who have been killed or disabled on the battle-field. 
JNIoreover, immigration has stopped absolutely, and even a few 
months of such a stoppage, with the natural increase of opportunity 
in this country, will afford abundant employment to all on the resump- 
tion of normal conditions. 

The western world will suffer, since in these modern times all 
nations are more of kin than ever before in the history of the world. 
In the United States, members of racial stocks now battling against 
one another live in peace and friendship side by side. There is no cor- 
ner in all this wide land where news of triumph on the one side does 
not carry sorrow to others. 

"Reactionary autocracy," says Samuel Gompers, "cannot perma- 
nently stay progress. The peoples of Europe will emerge from the 
carnage and smoke of battle with renewed determination to establish 
principles and institutions that are in harmony with industrial, social, 
and political development. This war will constitute a more urgent 
reason to destroy monarchical institutions, autocratic power, and to 



EFFECT OF WAR ON WESTERN WORLD 401 

banish militarism — a reason forced upon the consciousness of all by 
maimed and dead bodies of fathers and sons, husbands and brothers, 
by the starved under-development of women and children, and by 
terrible desolation brooding over the continent like an evil spirit." 

In such a conflict, in such a time of stress, America indeed may be 
neutral, may be outside the field of expressed participation, but 
Americans are not. There are few men who will feel the pinch of 
the impending adversity as keenly as they feel the haunting burden 
of the death-tool on the battle-fields of Europe, few men who will re- 
joice more in the prosperity that will so soon follow, as they will 
rejoice that peace has come again upon the earth. There is no 
American who will wish to batten upon the spoils of the dreadful 
feast. In no country in the world will the thankfulness be greater 
when the sword is again beaten into the plowshare than in these 
Linited States, whose population is formed largely of elements that 
elsewhere are in discord, and who have found worthy work and noble 
peace in a land of democratic institutions. 




Copyright, 1912, by Pack Bros. 
WOODROW WILSON 

The Good Will of the United States Has Been Eagerly Sought by All the Powers Now at War. 

President Wilson Has Handled Delicate Questions Involving the Neutrality of the 

United States with Great Firmness and Skill, and His Official Utterances 

Have Been Notable for the Elegance of Their Literary Form 

402 



CHAPTER XIII 



STATE PAPERS AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE 



In the following pages the reader will find the full text of a num- 
ber of important state papers bearing upon the war — ultimatums, 
declarations of war, manifestos, and messages exchanged by eminent 
personages. Because of their solemn import, these documents pos- 
sess a profound interest; and they will form an historical record of 
great value. 



Ultimatum Sent by AustriarHungaxy 
to Servia, July 23, 1914 

On March 31, 1909, the Royal Servian Min- 
ister in Vienna on the instructions of the 
Servian Government, made the following 
statements to the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernment : 

"Servia recognizes that the fait accompli 
regarding Bosnia has not affected her rights, 
and consequently she will conform to the de- 
cisions that the Powers will take in con- 
formity with Article XXV of the Treaty of 
Berlin. At the same time that Servia sub- 
mits to the advice of the Powers she under- 
talies to renounce the attitude of protest and 
opposition which she has adopted since Octo- 
ber last. She undertakes on the other hand 
to modify the direction of her policy with 
regard to Austria-Hungary and to live in 
future on good neighborly terms with the 
latter." 

The history of recent years, and in par- 
ticular the painful events of June 27 last, 
have shown the existence in Servia of a sub- 
versive movement with the object of detach- 
ing a part of Austria-Hungary from the 
monarchy. The movement, which had its 
birth under the eyes of the Servian Govern- 
ment, has had consequences on both sides of 
the Servian frontier in the shape of acts of 
terrorism and a series of outrages and 
murders. 

Far from carrying but the formal under- 
takings contained in the declaration of March 
31, 1909, the Royal Servian Government has 
done nothing to repress these movements. 
It has permitted the criminal machinations 
of various societies and associations, and has 
tolerated unrestrained language on the part 

403 



of the press, apologies for the perpetrators 
of outrages, and participation of officers and 
functionaries in subversive agitation. It has 
permitted an unwholesome propaganda in 
public Instruction. In short, it has permitted 
all the manifestations which have incited the 
Servian population to hatred of the mon- 
archy and contempt of its institutions. 

This culpable tolerance of the Royal Ser- 
vian Government had ceased at the moment 
when the events of June 28 last proved its 
fatal consequence to the whole world. 

It results from the disposition and con- 
fessions of the outrage of June 28 that the 
Sarajevo assassinations were hatched in Bel- 
grade, that the arms and explosives with 
which the murderers were provided had been 
given to them by Servian officers and func- 
tionaries belonging to the Narodna Obrava, 
and, finally, that the passage into Bosnia of 
the criminals and their arms was organized 
and effected by the chiefs of the Servian 
frontier service. 

The above-mentioned results of the magis- 
terial investigation do not permit the Aus- 
tro-Hungarian Government to pursue any 
longer the attitude of expectant forbearance 
which it has maintained for years in face 
of the machinations hatched in Belgrade and 
thence propagated in the territories of the 
monarchy. These results, on the contrary, 
impose on it the duty of putting an end to 
intrigues which form a perpetual menace to 
the tranquillity of the monarchy. 

To achieve this end, the Imperial and 
Royal Government sees itself compelled to 
demand from the Servian Government a for- 
mal assurance that it condemns this danger- 
ous propaganda against the monarchy and 
the territories belonging to it, and that the 



404 



STATE PAPERS 



Royal Servian Government shall no longer 
permit these machinations and this criminal 
and perverse propaganda. 

In order to give a formal character to this 
undertaking the Royal Servian Government 
shall publish on the front page of its official 
journal for July 26 the following declara- 
tion: 

"The Royal Government of Servia con- 
demns the propaganda directed against Aus- 
tria-Hungary, i. e., the ensemble of tendencies 
of which the final aim is to detach from the 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy territories be- 
longing to it, and it sincerely deplores the 
fatal consequences of these criminal proceed- 
ings. 

"The Royal Government regrets that Ser- 
vian officers and functionaries participated in 
the above-mentioned propaganda and thus 
compromised the good, neighborly relations 
to which the Royal Government was solemnly 
pledged by its declaration of March 31, 1909. 
The Royal Government, which disapproves 
and repudiates all idea of interfering or at- 
tempt to interfere with the destinies of the 
inhabitants of any part whatsoever of Aus- 
tria-Hungary, considers it its duty formally 
to warn officers and functionaries, and the 
whole population of the kingdom, that hence- 
forth it will proceed with the utmost rigor 
against persons who may be guilty of such 
machinations, which it will use all its efforts 
to anticipate and suppress." 

This declaration shall simultaneously be 
communicated to the Royal Army as an order 
of the day by His Majesty the King, and 
shall be published in the official bulletin of 
the army. 

The Royal Servian Government further un- 
dertakes : 

1. To suppress any publications which in- 
cite to hatred and contempt of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy and the general ten- 
dency of which is directed against its terri- 
torial integrity. 

2.. To dissolve immediately the society 
styled Narodna Obrana, to confiscate all its 
means of propaganda and to proceed in the 
same manner against other societies and their 
branches in Servia which are addicted to 
propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy. The Royal Government shall take 



the necessary measures to prevent the so- 
cieties dissolved from continuing their activ- 
ity under another name and form. 

3. To eliminate without delay from public 
instruction in Servia, not only as regards the 
teaching body, but also as regards the meth- 
ods of instruction, everything that serves 
or might serve to foment the propaganda 
against Austria-Hungary. 

4. To remove from military service and 
from the Administration in general all offi- 
cers and functionaries guilty of propaganda 
against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, 
whose names and deeds the Austro-Hun- 
garian Government reserves to itself the right 
of communicating to the Royal Government. 

5. To accept the collaboration in Servia of 
representatives of the Austro-Hungarian 
Government in the suppression of the subver- 
sive movement directed against the territorial 
integrity of the monarchy. 

6. To take judicial proceedings against ac- 
cessories to the plot of June 28 who are on 
Servian territory. Delegates of the Austro- 
Hungarian Government will take part in the 
investigation relating thereto. 

7. To proceed without delay to the arrest 
of Major Voija Tankositch and of the in- 
dividual named Milan Ciganovitch, a Servian 
State employee, who have been compromised 
by the results of the magisterial inquiry at 
Sarajevo. 

8. To prevent by effective measures the co- 
operation of the Servian authorities in the 
illicit traffic in arms and explosives across 
the frontier, to dismiss and punish severely 
officials of the frontier service at Achabatz 
and Loznica guilty of having assisted the 
perpetrators of the Sarajevo crime by facili- 
tating the passage of the frontier for them. 

9. To furnish the Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment with explanations regarding the un- 
justifiable utterances of high Servian officials 
both in Servia and abroad, who, notwith- 
standing their official, position, did not hesi- 
tate after the crime of June 28 to express 
themselves in interviews in terms of hostility 
to the Austro-Hungarian Government; and 
finally, 

10. To notify the Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment without delay of the execution of 



STATE PAPERS 



405 



the measures comprised under the proceeding 
heads. 

The Austro-Hungarian Government ex- 
pects the reply of the Servian Government at 
the latest by 6 o'clock on Saturday evening, 
the 25th of July. 

Circular Note to the Powers Issued 
by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign 
Office, July 24, 1914 

The Imperial and Royal Government has 
felt itself compelled to forward on Thurs- 
day the 23d inst., to the Royal Servian Gov- 
ernment through its Imperial and Royal Min- 
ister in Belgrade the following note: 

[The Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Ser- 
via was here inserted.] 

I have the honor to request your Excel- 
lency to bring the contents of this note be- 
fore the Government to which you are ac- 
credited, and to accompany this with the 
following explanations: On the 31st March, 
1909, the Royal Servian Government ad- 
dressed a statement to Austria-Hungary, the 
text of which is repeated above. Almost on 
the following day Servia's policy took a 
direction tending to rouse ideas subversive 
to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in the 
minds of Servian subjects, and thereby to 
prepare for the detachment of those districts 
of Austria-Hungary which adjoin the Ser- 
vian frontier. 

A large number of agents are employed 
in furthering by all possible means the agi- 
tation against Austria-Hungary to corrupt 
the youth of those territories of Austria- 
Hungary bordering on Servia. The spirit of 
conspiracy which animates Servian political 
circles and which has left its bloody traces 
in the history of Servia has grown since the 
last Balkan crisis. Members of bands who 
up to the time had found occupation in 
Macedonia have since placed themselves at 
the disposal of the terrorist propaganda 
against Austria-Hungary. The Servian Gov- 
ernment has never considered itself obliged 
to take steps of any kind against the in- 
trigues to which Austria-Hungary has been 
exposed for years. 

The patience which the Imperial and Royal 



Government has observed toward the provoca- 
tive attitude of Servia is to be attributed to 
the fact that she knew herself to be free from 
all territorial interests and to the hope which 
she did not abandon that the Servian Gov- 
ernment would eventually prize at its worth 
the friendship of Austria-Hungary. The Im- 
perial and Royal Government thought that 
a benevolent attitude toward the political in- 
terests of Servia would eventually call for a 
similar attitude from that kingdom. 

Austria-Hungary expected an evolution of 
this nature in the political ideas of Servia 
more especially at the time following the 
events of the year 1912, when the Imperial 
and Royal Government, by its disinterested 
attitude from any suggestion of ill-will made 
possible the important extension of Servia. 

The sympathy which Austria-Hungary 
demonstrated in its neighbor nevertheless 
made no change in the conduct of that king- 
dom, which continued to permit on its terri- 
tory a propaganda, the lamentable conse- 
quences of which were made evident to the 
whole world on June 28 this year, when the 
heir apparent of the dual monarchy and his 
illustrious consort fell the victims to a plot 
hatched in Belgrade. 

In view of this state of affairs the Imper- 
ial and Royal Government found itself com- 
pelled to take a fresh and energetic step in 
Belgrade, of such a nature as to induce the 
Servian Government to put an end to a 
movement which threatened the security and 
integrity of Austria-Hungary. The Imperial 
and Royal Government is convinced that in 
taking this step it is acting in complete har- 
mony with the feelings of all civilized na- 
tions, which cannot agree that royal assassina- 
tions can be made a weapon to be used un- 
punished in political struggles, and that the 
peace of Europe may be incessantly disturbed 
by intrigues which emanate from Belgrade. 

In support of these statements, the Im- 
perial and Royal Government holds at the 
disposal of the Government to which you are 
accredited a dossier dealing with the Servian 
propaganda, and showing the connection of 
this propaganda with the assassination of 
June 28. 



406 



STATE PAPERS 



The Reply of Servia to the Austro- 
Hungarian Ultimatum, July 25, 
1914 

The Royal Servian Government received 
the communication of the Imperial and Royal 
Austro-Hungarian Government of the 23d of 
this month, and it is persuaded that its reply 
will remove all misunderstanding tending to 
threaten or to prejudice the friendly and 
neighborly relations between the Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy and the Kingdom of Servia. 

The Royal Government is aware that the 
protests made both at the tribune of the 
National Skupshtina and in the declarations 
and the acts of the State — protests which 
were cut short by the declaration of the 
Servian Government made on March 18 — 
have not been renewed toward the great 
neighboring monarchy on any occasion, and 
that since this time, both on the part of the 
Royal Governments which have followed on 
one another, and on the part of their organs, 
no attempt has been made with the purpose 
of changing the political and judicial state 
of things in this respect. 

The Imperial and Royal Government has 
made no representations save concerning a 
scholastic book regarding which the Imperial 
and Royal Government has received an en- 
tirely satisfactory explanation. Servia has 
repeatedly given proofs of her pacific and 
moderate policy during the Balkan crises, 
and it is thanks to Servia and the interest 
of the peace of Europe that this peace has' 
been preserved. The Royal Government can- 
not be held responsible for manifestations of 
a private nature, such as newspaper articles 
and the peaceful work of societies — manifes- 
tations which occur in almost all countries 
as a matter of course, and which, as a gen- 
eral rule, escape oflBcial control — all the less 
in that the Royal Government, when solving 
a whole series of questions which came up 
between Servia and Austria-Hungary, has 
displayed a great readiness to treat, and in 
this way succeeded in settling the greater 
number to the advantage of the progress of 
the two neighboring countries. 

It is for this reason that the Royal Gov- 
ernment has been painfully surprised by the 
statements, according to which persons of the 



kingdom of Servia are said to have taken 
part in the perpetration of the outrage com- 
mitted at Sarajevo. It is expected that it 
would be invited to collaborate in the investi- 
gation of everything bearing on this crime, 
and it was ready to prove by its actions its 
entire readiness to take steps against all per- 
sons with regard to whom communications 
had been made to it, thus acquiescing in the 
desire of the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment. 

The Royal Government is disposed to hand 
over to the courts any Servian subject, with- 
out regard to his situation and rank, for 
whose complicity in crime of Sarajevo it shall 
have been furnished with proofs, and espe- 
cially it engages itself to have published on 
the front page of the Official Journal of July 
13-;36 the foUdwing announcement: 

"The Royal Servian Government condemns 
all propaganda directed against Austria- 
Hungary, that is to say, all tendencies as a 
whole of which the ultimate object is to de- 
tach from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy 
territories which form a part of it, and it 
sincerely deplores the fatal consequences of 
these criminal actions. The Royal Govern- 
ment regrets that Servian officials should, 
according to the communication of the Im- 
perial and Royal Government, have par- 
ticipated in the above-mentioned propaganda, 
thereby comprising the good neighborly re- 
lations to which the Royal Government sol- 
emnly pledged itself by its declaration of 
the 31st March, 1909. The Government 
which disapproves and repudiates any idea 
or attempt to interfere in the destinies of 
the inhabitants of any part of Austria-Hun- 
gary whatsoever, considers it its duty to utter 
a formal warning to the officers, the officials, 
and the whole population of that kingdom 
that henceforth it will proceed with the ut- 
most rigor against persons who render them- 
selves guilt^y of such actions, which it will 
use aU its eflForts to prevent and repress." 

This announcement shall be brought to 
the cognizance of the Royal Army by an 
order of the day issued in the name of His 
Majesty the King by H. R. H. the Crown 
Prince Alexander, and shall be published in 
the next official bulletin of the arm)\ 

1. The Royal Government engages itself. 



STATE PAPERS 



407 



furthermore, to lay before the next regular 
meeting of the Skupshtina an amendment 
of the press law, punishing in the severest 
manner incitements to hate and contempt of 
the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and also 
all publications of which the general ten- 
dency is directed against the territorial in- 
tegrity of the monarchy. It undertakes at 
the forthcoming revision of the Constitution 
to introduce in Article XXII of the Con- 
stitution an amendment whereby the above 
publications may be confiscated, which is at 
present categorically forbidden by the terms 
of Article XXII of the Constitution. 

2. The Government does not possess any 
proof, nor does the note of the Imperial and 
Royal Government furnish such, that the 
society Narodna Obrana and other similar 
societies have up to the present committed 
any criminal acts of this kind through the 
instrumentality of one of their members. 
Nevertheless, the Royal Government will ac- 
cept the demand of the Imperial and Royal 
Government and will dissolve the Narodna 
Obrana Society and any other society which 
shall agitate against Austria-Hungary. 

3. The Royal Servian Government engages 
itself to eliminate without delay for public 
instruction in Servia everything which aids 
or might aid in fomenting the propaganda 
against Austro-Hungary when the Imperial 
and Royal Government furnishes facts and 
proofs of this propaganda. 

4. The Royal Government also agrees to 
remove from the military service (all per- 
sons) whom the judicial inquiry proves to 
have been guilty of acts directed against the 
integrity of the territory of the Austro-Hun- 
garian monarchy, and it expects the Imperial 
and Royal Government to communicate at a 
later date the names and the deeds of 
these officers and officials, for the purpose of 
the proceedings which will have to be taken. 

5. The Royal Government must confess 
that it is not quite clear as to the sense and 
object of the demands of the Imperial and 
Royal Government that Servia should under- 
take to accept on her territory the collabora- 
tion of delegates of the Imperial and Royal 
Government, but it declares that it will admit 
whatever collaboration which may be in ac- 
cord with the principles of international law 



and criminal procedure, as well as with good 
neighborly relations. 

6. The Royal Government, as goes without 
saying, considers it to be its duty to open an 
inquiry against all those who are, or shall 
eventually prove to have been, involved in 
the plot of June 28, and who are in Servian 
territory. As to the participation at this in- 
vestigation of agents of the Austro-Hun- 
garian authorities delegated for this purpose 
by the Imperial and Royal Government, the 
Royal Government cannot accept this de- 
mand, for it would be a violation of the Con- 
stitution and of the law of criminal pro- 
cedure. Nevertheless, in concrete cases it 
might be found possible to communicate the 
results of the investigation in question to the 
Austro-Hungarian representatives. 

7. On the very evening that the note was 
handed in the Royal Government arrested 
Major Voija Tankositch, As for Milan 
Ciganovitch, who is a subject of the Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy, and who, until June 
15, was employed as a beginner in the ad- 
ministration of the railways, it has not yet 
been possible to (arrest) him. In view of 
the ultimate inquiry the Imperial and Royal 
Government is requested to have the goodness 
to communicate in the usual form as soon as 
possible the presumptions of guilt as well as 
the eventual proofs of guilt against these 
persons which have been collected up to the 
present in the investigations at Sarajevo. 

8. The Servian Government will strengthen 
and extend the measures taken to prevent the 
illicit traffic of arms and explosives across 
the frontier. It goes without saying that it 
will immediately order an investigation, and 
will severely punish the frontier officials along 
the line Schabatz-Losnitza who have been 
lacking in their duties and who allowed the 
authors of the crime of Sarajevo to pass. 

9. The Royal Government will willingly 
give explanations regarding the remarks 
made in interviews by its officials, both in 
Servia and abroad, after the attempt, and 
which, according to the statement of the 
Imperial and Royal Government, were hos- 
tile toward the monarchy, as soon as the Im- 
perial and Royal Government has (forward- 
ed) it the passages in question of these re- 
marks and as soon as it has shown that the 



408 



STATE PAPERS 



remarks made were in reality made bj the 
officials regarding whom the Royal Govern- 
ment itself will see about collecting proofs. 

10. The Royal Government will inform the 
Imperial and Royal Government of the exe- 
cution of the measures comprised in the pre- 
ceding points, in as far as that has not 
already been done by the present note, as 
soon as each measure has been ordered and 
executed. 

In the event of the Imperial and Royal 
Government not being satisfied with this re- 
ply, the Royal Servian Government, consider- 
ing that it is to the common interest not to 
precipitate the solution of this question, is 
ready, as always, to accept a pacific under- 
standing, either by referring this question to 
the decision of The Hague International 
Tribunal or to the great powers which took 
part in the drawing up of the declaration 
made by the Servian Government on the 
18-31 March, 1909. 

Circular Note Issued by Austria-Hun- 
gary Denouncing Servia's Reply, 
July 26, 1914 

The object of the Servian note is to create 
the false impression that the Servian Gov- 
ernment is prepared in great measure to 
comply with our demands. 

As a matter of fact, however, Servia's note 
is filled with the spirit of dishonesty, which 
clearly lets it be seen that the Servian Gov- 
ernment is not seriously determined to put 
an end to the culpable tolerance it hitherto 
has extended to intrigues against the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy. 

The Servian note contains such far-reach- 
ing reservations and limitations not only re- 
garding the general principles of our action, 
but also in regard to the individual claims 
we have put forward that the concessions 
actually made by Servia become insignificant. 

In particular our demand for the partici- 
pation of the Austro-Hungarian authorities 
in the conspiracy on Servian territory has 
been rejected, while our request that meas- 
ures be taken against that section of the 
Servian press hostile to Austro-Hungary has 
been declined, and our wish that the Servian 
Government take the necessary measures to 



present the dissolved Austro-phobe associa- 
tions continuing their activity under another 
name and under another form has not even 
been considered. 

Since the claims in the Austro-Hungarian 
note of July 23, regard being had to the 
attitude hitherto adopted by Servia, repre- 
sent the minimum of what is necessary for 
the establishment of permanent peace with 
the Southeastern monarchy, the Servian an- 
swer must be regarded as unsatisfactory. 

That the Servian Government itself is con- 
scious that its note is not acceptable to us 
is proved by the circumstance that it pro- 
poses at the end of the note to submit the 
dispute to arbitration — an invitation which is 
thrown into its proper light by the fact that 
three hours before handing in the note, a 
few minutes before the expiration of the 
time limit, the mobilization of the Servian 
Army took place. 

Austria-Hungary's Declaration of 
War Against Servia, July 28, 1914 

The Royal Government of Servia not hav- 
ing replied in a satisfactory manner to the 
note remitted to it by the Austro-Hungarian 
Minister in Belgrade on July 23, 1914, the 
Imperial and Royal Government finds itself 
compelled to proceed to safeguard its rights 
and interests and to have recourse for this 
purpose to force of arms. 

Austria-Hungary considers itself, there- 
fore, from this moment in a state of war 
with Servia. 

Note of the Russian Foreign Office, 
July 28, 1914 

Numerous patriotic demonstrations of the 
last few days in St. Petersburg and other 
cities prove that the firm pacific policy of 
Russia finds a sympathetic echo among all 
classes of the population. 

The Government hopes, nevertheless, that 
the expression of feeling of the people will 
not be tinged with enmity against the powers 
with whom Russia is at peace, and with whom 
she wishes to remain at peace. 

While the Government gathers strength 
from this wave of popular feeling and ex- 



STATE PAPERS 



409 



pects its subjects to retain their reticence and 
tranquillity, it rests confidently on the guar- 
dianship of the dignity and the interests of 
Russia. 

The Czar's Personal Note to the 
Kaiser, July 31, 1914 

I thank thee from my heart for thy media- 
tion, which leaves a gleam of hope that even 
now all may end peacefully. It is technically 
impossible to discontinue our military opera- 
tion, which has been rendered necessary by 
Austrian mobilization. We are far from 
wishing for war, and so long as negotiations 
with Austria regarding Servia continue my 
troops will not undertake any provocative 
action. 

I give thee my word upon it, and I trust 
with my strength in God's grace and hope 
for the success of thy mediation at Vienna, 
and for our countries' peace and the peace 
of Europe. 

The Kaiser's Reply to the Czar's Note, 
July 31, 1914 

In answer to thy appeal to my friendship 
and thy prayer for my help, I undertook 
mediatory action between the Austro-Hun- 
garian Government and thine. While this 
action was in progress thy troops were mo- 
bilized against my ally, Austria-Hungary, 
in consequence of which", as I have already 
informed thee, my mediation was rendered 
nearly illusory. Nevertheless, it continued. 
But now I am in possession of trustworthy 
advices concerning the serious war prepara- 
tions on my eastern frontier as well. 

My responsibility for the safety of my 
empire compels me to counter-measures of 
defense. In my endeavors for the mainte- 
nance of the peace of the world I have gone 
to the extreme limit of the possible. It is 
not I that shall bear the responsibility for 
the peril which now threatens the civilized 
world. I lay it to thy hand to avert it, even 
at this moment. 

No one menaces the honor and might of 
Russia, which well could have waited upon 
the result of my mediation. The friendship 
for thee and thy empire bequeathed to me 



by my grandfather on his deathbed has al- 
ways been sacred to me, and I have re- 
mained true to Russia when it was in grave 
distress, especially in your last war. The' 
peace of Europe can yet be conserved by 
thee if Russia decides to discontinue her 
military measures which threaten Germany 
and Austria-Hungary. 

King George's Personal Appeal to the 
Czar, August 1, 1914 

"I cannot help thinking that some mis- 
understanding has produced this deadlock. I 
am most anxious not to miss any possibility 
of avoiding the terrible calamity which at 
present threatens the whole world. I there- 
fore make a personal apppeal to you to re- 
move the misapprehension which I feel must 
have occurred, and to leave still open grounds 
for negotiation and possible peace. 

"If you think I can in any way contribute 
to that all-important purpose, I will do every- 
thing in my power to assist in reopening the 
interrupted conversations between the powers 
concerned. I feel confident that you are as 
anxious as I am that all that is possible 
should be done to secure the peace of the 
world." 

The Czar's Reply to King George's 
Appeal, August 1, 1914 

"I would gladly have accepted your pro- 
posals had not the German Ambassador this 
afternoon presented a note to my Govern- 
ment declaring war. Ever since the presenta- 
tion of the ultimatum at Belgrade, Russia 
has devoted all her efforts to finding some 
pacific solution of the question raised by 
Austria's action. The object of that action 
was to crush Servia and make her a vassal 
of Austria. The effect of this would have 
been to upset the balance of power in the 
Balkans, which is of such vital interest to 
my empire. 

"Every proposal, including that of your 
Government, was rejected by Germany and 
Austria, and it was only when the favorable 
moment for bringing pressure to bear on 
Austria had passed that Germany showed any 
disposition to mediate. Even then she did 



410 



STATE PAPERS 



not put forward any precise proposal. Aus- 
tria's declaration of war on Servia forced 
me to order a partial mobilization, though, 
in view of the threatening situation, my mili- 
tary advisers strongly advised a general mob- 
ilization owing to the quickness with which 
Germany can mobilize in comparison with 
Russia. 

"I was eventually compelled to take this 
course in consequence of complete Austrian 
mobilization, of the bombardment of Bel- 
grade, of concentration of Austrian troops 
in Galicia, and of secret military prepara- 
tions being made in Germany. That I was 
justified in doing so is proved by Germany's 
sudden declaration of war, which was quite 
unexpected by me, as I had given most cate- 
gorical assurances to the Emperor William 
that my troops would not move so long as 
mediation negotiations continued. 

"In this solemn hour I wish to assure you 
once more that I have done all in my power 
to avert war. Now that it has been forced 
on me, I trust your country will not fail 
to support France and Russia. God bless 
and protect you." 

Proclamation of. President Poincare 
Following the Decree of French 
Mobilization, August 1, 1914 

"For some days the States of Europe have 
been considerably aggravated, and, notwith- 
standing the eflForts of diplomacy, the horizon 
has darkened. At the present hour a greater 
part of the nations have mobilized their 
forces. Even the countries protected by neu- 
trality conventions have deemed it their duty 
to take this measure as a precaution. 

"The powers whose constitutional or mili- 
tary legislation differs from ours have, with- 
out issuing a decree of mobilization, begun 
and carried on preparations which, in reality, 
are equivalent to mobilization, and are but 
the anticipated execution of it. 

"France, who always has affirmed her de- 
sire for peace, who on many a tragic day 
has given to Europe counsels of moderation 
and a living example of decorum, and who 
has multiplied her efforts to maintain the 
peace of the world, has now prepared her- 
self for all eventualities, and has taken her 



first indispensable dispositions for the safe- 
guarding of her territory. 

"But our legislation does not permit the 
completion of these preparations without a 
decree of mobilization. Conscious of its high 
responsibility, and feeling that it would fail 
in its sacred duty if it did not take this 
measure, the Government has signed the de- 
cree. 

"Mobilization is not war. Under the pres- 
ent circumstances it would appear, on the 
contrary, to be the best means of assuring 
peace with honor. 

"Strong in its ardent desire of arriving 
at a peaceful solution of this crisis, the 
Government under cover of these essential 
precautions will continue its diplomatic ef- 
forts, and still hopes to succeed. It counts 
upon the coolness of the people not to give 
up to unjustified emotion. It counts upon 
the patriotism of every Frenchman, and it 
knows that there is not a single one who 
is not ready to do his duty at this hour. 

"There are no longer any parties. There 
is an eternal France — a France peaceful and 
resolute. There is a fatherland of peace 
and justice, all united in calm vigilance and 
dignity." 

Manifesto of the Czar to the Russian 
People upon Germany's Declara- 
tion of War, August 3, 1914 

"By the grace of God, we, Nicholas II, 
Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, 
King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland, 
&c., to all our faithful subjects make known 
that Russia, related by faith and blood to 
the Slav peoples and faithful to her histori- 
cal traditions, has never regarded their fates 
with indifference. 

"But the fraternal sentiments of the Rus- 
sian people for the Slavs have been awak- 
ened with perfect unanimity and extraordi- 
nary force in these last few days, when 
Austria-Hungary knowingly addressed to 
Servia claims inacceptable for an indepen- 
dent State. 

"Having paid no attention to the pacific 
and conciliatory »eply of the Servian Gov- 
ernment, and ha^ ing rejected the benevolent 
intervention of Russia, Austria-Himgary 



STATE PAPERS 



411 



made haste to proceed to an armed attack, 
and began to bombard Belgrade, an open 
place. 

"Forced by the situation thus created to 
take necessary measures of precaution, we 
ordered the army and the navy put on a 
war footing, at the same time using every 
endeavor to obtain a peaceful solution. Pour- 
parlers were begun amid friendly relations 
with Germany and her ally, Austria, for the 
blood and the property 9f her subjects were 
dear to us. 

"Contrary to our hopes in our good neigh- 
borly relations of long date, and disregard- 
ing our assurances that the mobilization 
measures taken were in pursuance of no ob- 
ject hostile to her, Germany demanded their 
immediate cessation. Being rebuffed in this 
demand, Germany suddenly declared war on 
Russia. 

"Now it is not only protection of a coun- 
try related to us and unjustly attacked 
that must be accorded, but we must safe- 
guard the honor, the dignity, and the integ- 
rity of Russia and her position among the 
great powers. 

"We believe unshakably that all our faith- 
ful subjects will rise with unanimity and 
devotion for the defense of Russian soil; that 
internal discord will be forgotten in this 
threatening hour; that the unity of the Em- 
peror with his people will become still more 
close, and that Russia, rising like one man, 
will repulse the insolent attack of the 
enemy. 

"With a profound faith in the justice of 
our work, and with a humble hope in om- 
nipotent Providence in prayer, we call God's 
blessing on holy Russia and her valiant 
troops. 

"Nicholas." 

Personal Message from King Albert of 
Belgium to King George, August 2, 
1914 

"Remembering the numerous proofs of 
your Majesty's friendship and that of your 
predecessor, of the friendly attitude of Eng- 
land in 1870, and the proof of the friendship 



which she has just given us again, I make 
a supreme appeal to the diplomatic interven- 
tion of your Majesty's Government to safe- 
guard the integrity of Belgium. 

"Albert." 

Telegram from Sir Edward Grey to 
British Ambassador Instructing 
Him to Deliver an Ultimatum to 
Germany, August 4, 1914 

"We hear that Germany has addressed note 
to Belgian Minister for Foreign AflFairs 
stating that German Government will be 
compelled to carry out, if necessary by force 
of arms, the measures considered indispen- 
sable. 

"We are also informed that Belgian ter- 
ritory has been violated at Gemmenich. 

"In these circumstances, and in view of 
the fact that Germany declined to give the 
same assurance respecting Belgium as France 
gave last week in reply to our request made 
simultaneously at Berlin and Paris, we must 
repeat that request, and ask that a satisfac- 
tory reply to it and to my telegram of this 
morning be received here by 12 o'clock to- 
night. If not, you are instructed to ask 
for your passports, and to say that His 
Majesty's Government feel bound to take all 
steps in their power to uphold the neutrality 
of Belgium and the observance of a treaty 
to which Germany is as much a party as 
ourselves. 

"Edward Ghey." 

Statement of the British Foreign Of- 
fice after the Proclamation of War 
on Germany, August 4, 1914 

"Owing to the summary rejection by the 
German Government of the request made by 
His Britannic Majesty's Government that the 
neutrality of Belgium should be respected. 
His Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin has re- 
ceived his passports and His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment has declared to the German Gov- 
ernment that a state of war exists between 
Great Britain and Germany from 11 o'clock 
P. M., Aug. 4." 



412 



STATE PAPERS 



President Wilson's Tender of Good 
OflBces, Made to Each of the Rulers 
of the States at War, August 5, 
1914 

"As oiBcial head of one of the Powers sig- 
natory to The Hague Convention, I feel it 
to be my privilege and my duty, under Ar- 
tide III of that Convention, to say to 
you in a spirit of most earnest friendship 
that I should welcome an opportunity to act 
in the interest of European peace, either 
now or any other time that might be thought 
more suitable, as an occasion to serve you 
and all concerned in a way that would afford 
me lasting cause for gratitude and happiness. 
"WooDEow Wilson." 

Statement of the British Foreign Of- 
fice Following the Declaration of 
War on Austria-Hungary, August 

13, 1914 

"After having declared war on Servia and 
having thus taken the initiative in the hos- 
tilities in Europe, the Austro-Hungarian 
Government has placed itself, without any 
provocation from the Government of the 
French Republic, in a state of war with 
France; and after Germany has successively 
declared war against Russia and France she 
has intervened in this conflict by declaring 
war on Russia, who is already fighting on the 
side of France. 

"According to information worthy of be- 
lief Austria has sent troops over the German 
frontier in such manner as to constitute a 
direct menace against France. In the face 
of these facts the French Government finds 
itself obliged to declare to the Austro-Hun- 
garian Government that it will take all meas- 
ures permitted to reply to these acts and 
menaces." 

Russia's Appeal to the Poles, August 

14, 1914 

"The hour has sounded when the sacred 
dream of your fathers may be realized. A 
hundred and fifty years ago the living body 
of Poland was torn to pieces, but her soul 
survived, and she lived in hope that for the 



Polish people would come an hour of regen- 
eration and reconciliation with Russia. 

"The Russian Army brings you the solemn 
news of this reconciliation, which effaces the 
frontiers severing the Polish people, whom 
it unites conjointly under the scepter of the 
Czar of Russia. Under this scepter Poland 
will be born again, free in her religion, her 
language, and autonomous. 

"Russia expects from you only the loyalty 
to which' history has bound you. "With open 
heart and a brotherly hand extended, great 
Russia comes to meet you. She believes that 
the sword which struck her enemies at Grune- 
wald is not yet rusted. 

"Russia, from the shores of the Pacific 
Ocean to the North Sea, marches in arms. 
The dawn of a new life begins for you. In 
this glorious dawn is seen the sign of the 
Cross — the symbol of sufi'ering and the resur- 
rection of a people." 

Japan's Ultimatum to Germany, Au- 
gust 16, 1914 

"M^e consider it highly important and nec- 
essary in the present situation to take meas- 
ures to remove the causes of all disturbances 
of the peace in the Far East, and to safe- 
guard the general interests as contemplated 
by the agreement of alliance between Japan 
and Great Britain. 

"In order to secure a firm and enduring 
peace in Eastern Asia, the establishment of 
which is the aim of said agreement, the Im- 
perial Japanese Government sincerely be- 
lieves it to be its duty to give the advice 
to the Imperial German Government to carry 
out the following two provisions: 

"First — To withdraw immediately from 
Japanese and Chinese waters German men- 
of-war and armed vessels of all kinds, and 
to disarm at once those which cannot be so 
withdrawn. 

"Second — To deliver on a date not later 
than September 15 to the Imperial Japanese 
authorities, without condition or compensa- 
tion, the entire leased territory of Kiao-chau, 
with a view to the eventual restoration of 
the same to China. 

"The Imperial Japanese Government an- 
nounces at the same time that in the event 



STATE PAPERS 



41S 



of it not receiving by noon on August 24, 
1914, an answer from the Imperial German 
Government, signifying its unconditional ac- 
ceptance of the above advice offered by the 
Imperial Japanese Government, Japan will be 
compelled to take such action as she may 
deem necessary to meet the situation." 

Japan's Declaration of War Against 
Germany, August 24, 1914 

"We, by the Grace of Heaven, Emperor of 
Japan, seated on the Throne occupied by the 
same Dynasty from time immemorial, do 
hereby make the following proclamation to 
all our brave and loyal subjects: 

"We hereby declare war against Germany, 
and We command our army and navy to 
carry on hostilities against that empire with 
all their strength, and We also command all 
Our competent authorities to make every 
effort, in pursuance of their respective duties, 
to attain the national aim, by all the means 
within the limits of the law of nations. 

"Since the outbreak of the present war 
in Europe, the calamitous effects of which 
We view with grave concern. We, on Our 
part, have entertained hopes of preserving 
the peace of the Far East by the mainte- 
nance of strict neutrality. But the action 
of Germany has at length compelled Great 
Britain, Our Ally, to open hostilities against 
that country; and Germany is, at Kiao-chau, 
its leased territory in China, busy with war- 
like preparations, while its armed vessels, 
cruising the seas of eastern Asia, are threat- 
ening Our commerce and that of Our Ally. 
The peace of the Far East is thus in jeop- 
ardy. Accordingly, Our Government and 
that of His Britannic Majesty, after full and 
frank communication with each other, agreed 
to take such measures as may be necessary 
for the protection of the general interests 
contemplated in the Agreement of Alliance; 
and We, on Our part, being desirous to at- 
tain that object by peaceful means, com- 
manded Our Government to offer, with sin- 
cerity, an advice to the Imperial German 
Government. By the last day appointed for 
the purpose, however. Our Government failed 
to receive an answer accepting the advice. 

"It is with profound regret that We, in 



spite of Our ardent devotion to the cause of 
peace, are thus compelled to declare war; 
especially at this early period of Our reign, 
and while We are still in mourning for Our 
lamented Mother. 

"It is Our earnest wish that, by the valor 
and loyalty of Our faithful subjects, peace 
may soon be restored and the glory of the 
Empire enhanced." 

Message from the Kaiser to President 
Wilson, Charging the Use of Dum- 
dum Bullets by the Allies, and Ex- 
plaining the Reasons for the De- 
struction of Louvain, September 7, 
1914 

"I consider it my duty, sir, to inform you, 
as the most notable representative of the 
principles of humanity, that after the cap- 
ture of the French fort of Longwy my troops 
found in that place thousands of dum-dum 
bullets which had been manufactured in spe- 
cial works by the French Government. Such 
bullets were found not only on French killed 
and wounded soldiers and on French pris- 
oners, but also on English troops. You know 
what terrible wounds and awful suffering 
are caused by these bullets, and that their 
use is strictly forbidden by the generally 
recognized rules of international warfare. 

"I solemnly protest to you against the way 
in which this war is being waged by our op- 
ponents, whose methods are making it one 
of the most barbarous in history. Besides the 
use of these awful weapons, the Belgian Gov- 
ernment has openly incited the civil popula- 
tion to participate in the fighting, and has 
for a long time carefuUy organized their re- 
sistance. The cruelties practised in this 
guerilla warfare, even by women and priests, 
toward wounded soldiers and doctors and 
hospital nurses were such that eventually my 
generals were compelled to adopt the strong- 
est measures to punish the guilty and fright- 
en the bloodthirsty population from contin- 
uing their shameful deeds. 

"Some villages and even the old town of 
Louvain, with the exception of its beautiful 
town hall [H6tel de Ville], had to be de- 
stroyed for the protection of my troops. 



414! 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EVENTS 



"My heart bleeds when I see such meas- 
ures inevitable, and when I think of the 
many innocent people who have lost their 
houses and property as a result of the mis- 
deeds of the guilty. 

"WiLHELM." 

Reply of President Wilson to the 
Kaiser's Message, September 17, 
1914 

"I received your imperial Majesty's im- 
portant communication of the 7th, and have 
read it with gravest interest and concern. 
I am honored that you should have turned 
to me for an impartial judgment as the rep- 
resentative of a people truly disinterested 
as respects the present war and truly de- 
sirous of knowing and accepting the truth. 

"You will, I am sure, not expect me to say 
more. Presently, I pray God very soon, the 
war will be over. The day of accounting 
will then come when, I take it for granted, 
the nations of Europe will assemble to deter- 



mine a settlement. Where wrongs have been 
committed their consequences and the rela- 
tive responsibility involved will be assessed. 

"The nations of the world have fortunately 
by agreement made a plan for such a reck- 
oning and settlement. What such a plan 
cannot compass the opinion of mankind, the 
final arbiter in all such matters, will supply. 
It would be premature for a single Govern- 
ment, however fortimately separated from 
the present struggle, it would even be incon- 
sistent with the neutral position of any na- 
tion which like this has no part in the con- 
test, to form or express a final judgment. 

"I speak thus frankly because I know that 
you will expect and wish me to do so as one 
friend should do to another and because I 
feel sure that such a reservation of judg- 
ment until the end of the war, when all its 
events and circumstances can be seen in their 
entirety and in their true relations, will com- 
mend itself to you as a true expression of 
sincere neutrality. 

"WOODEOW WiLSOK." 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EVENTS 



The following Chronology was compiled from the best sources available at the 
time «f writing; but on account of the strict censorship it is subject to modification. 
Official reports have been scanty and vague as to dates and places of important 
operations^ and definite announcements of decisive actions have often been delayed 
for days. Consequently there is confusion as to the exact sequence of events and 
the war will probably be far advanced before a strictly accurate account of its 
early stages can be given. 



1914 

June 28. — Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the 
Austrian throne, assassinated in Sara- 
jevo. 

July 23. — Austria sends an ultimatum to 
Servia. 

July 27. — Sir Edward Grey proposes an in- 
ternational conference, but Austria and 
Germany decline. 

July 28. — Austria declares war on Servia. 

July 31. — The Kaiser demands that Russia 
discontinue mobilization. 

August 1. — Germany declares war on Rus- 
sia. Mobilization begun in France. 



1914 

August 2. — German forces enter Luxemburg, 
and Germany demands that Belgium give 
free passage for her troops to the 
French frontier. The demand is refused, 
and Belgium appeals to England. 

August 4. — England sends an ultimatum to 
Germany, demanding that she respect 
Belgian neutrality. Germany refuses, and 
begins to attack Lifege. She declares 
war on France. — President Wilson issues 
a proclamation of neutrality, and ten- 
ders the good offices of the United States 
to the nations at war. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EVENTS 



415 



1914 

August 5. — England proclaims a state of 
war with Germany. Lord Kitchener is 
appointed Secretary of State for War. — 
German mine-layer "Koenigin Luise" 
sunk by British cruiser "Amphion." 

August 6. — Austria declares war on Russia. 
German warships drive the Russian fleet 
from the western part of the Baltic. — 
British cruiser "Amphion" sunk by mine 
in North Sea. 

August 7. — German troops enter Liege. — The 
French invade Alsace. 

August 8. — Montenegro declares war on 
Austria. Portugal declares that she is 
an ally of Great Britain. Italy pro- 
claims her neutrality. Austrian troops 
sent to the assistance of the Germans, 
and. British troops to assist the French. 

August 10. — France proclaims a state of 
war with Austria. 

August 13. — England declares war on Aus- 
tria. — German cruisers "Goeben" and 
"Breslau" take refuge in Constantinople. 

August 15. — Japan sends an ultimatum to 
Germany, demanding evacuation of Kiao- 
chau in China. 

August 17. — English forces begin landing in 
France. Belgian capital removed from 
Brussels to Antwerp. 

August 20. — Belgian army retreats to Ant- 
werp and German forces enter Brussels. 
Russians occupy Gumbinnen. Servians 
defeat Austrians at Loznitza. 

August 21. — French forces withdraw from 
Lorraine. — The Germans begin the in- 
vestment of Namur. 

August 23. — Allied forces fall back to 
French frontier. Austria discontinues 
military operations against Servia. Ja- 
pan declares war on Germany. 

August 24. — German air-ship drops bombs 
into Antwerp, killing or wounding many 
persons. — British driven out of Mons. 

August 25. — Austria declares war on Japan. 
— Germans reduce five of the nine forts 
protecting Namur. 

August 26. — French cabinet resigns, and a 
new non-partisan cabinet is formed. 
Germans destroy Louvain, in revenge for 
alleged hostilities by the citizens. British 
take possession of the German colony of 



1914 

Togoland in West Africa. The British 
cruiser "Highflyer" sinks the "Kaiser 
Wilhelm der Grosse." 

August 27. — Japanese blockade Tsing-Tau. 
— Russians capture Tilsit. 

August 28. — French forces withdraw from 
Alsace. — British cruiser squadron near 
Helgoland sinks three German cruisers 
and two destroyers. 

August 29. — British expedition from New 
Zealand captures Germany's share of the 
Samoan Islands. Germans capture La 
F^re. 

August 30. — Germans occupy Amiens. — Von 
Hindenberg defeats Russians under Ren- 
nenkampf in East Prussia. 

September 1. — Name of St. Petersburg 
changed to Petrograd. — Army of General 
Von Kluck reaches Senlis, its nearest 
point to Paris, while his outposts come 
in touch with the outer forts of the cap- 
ital. Russians at the end of a week's 
fighting defeat Austrians at Lemberg, 
and claim the capture of 82,000 pris- 
oners. 

September 2. — Japanese forces sent against 
Kiao-chau land at Lung-kow. 

September 3. — Von Kluck swings southward 
to Meaux. — Rheims taken by the Ger- 
mans. — -Bordeaux becomes the temporary 
capital of France. — Russians enter Lem- 
berg. 

September 4. — Germans advance from Brus- 
sels and occupy Ghent and Termonde. 

September 5. — Great Britain, France and 
Russia sign an agreement not to make 
peace with the enemy except by common 
consent. — British cruiser "Pathfinder" 
sunk by German submarine. 

September 6. — French push back German 
right near Compi^gne. — Army under the 
Duke of Wiirttemberg begins a series of 
assaults on the French position between 
La Fere and Vitry-le-Fran?ois. 

September 7. — Von Kluck's army forced 
back still further from the Marne, neces- 
sitating a retreat of Von Billow's army 
upon his left. — Maubeuge taken by Ger- 
mans after a bombardment beginning 
August 26. — Austrian left wing defeated 
with heavy loss at Ravarusska. 



416 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EVENTS 



1914 

September 8. — Allies deliver fierce attack 
against armies of Von Kluck and Von 
Biilow. 

September 9. — Von Kluck, hard pressed, es- 
capes toward Soissons. 

September 10. — German armies on the right 
in full retreat, while the Crown Prince 
delivers counter attack at Revigny. — Ser- 
vians capture Semlin. 

September 11.— Entire German army falls 
back to strong defensive positions, heavy 
rains impeding operations on both sides. 
— Australian expedition seizes Bismarck 
Archipelago and Solomon Islands. 

September 12. — Army under the Crown 
Prince of Bavaria retires into Lorraine 
after an unsuccessful attack upon 
Nancy. 

September 13. — British submarine "E-9" 
sinks German cruiser "Hela." 

September 14. — Allied army crosses theAisne 
and reoccupies Rheims. — Belgian army 
sallies forth from Antwerp as far as 
Malines and Louvain. 

September 16. — Belgian Commissioners sent 
to Washington to protest against the de- 
struction of Louvain and other alleged 
German atrocities received by President 
Wilson. 

September 17. — Servians retire from Semlin. 

September 18. — Rheims Cathedral wrecked 
by German shells. 

September 20. — British cruiser "Pegasus" 
surprised in Zanzibar harbor by German 
cruiser "Koenigsberg" and destroyed. 

September 22. — Russians capture Jaroslav 
and invest fortress of Przemysl. — British 
armored cruisers "Aboukir," "Hogue" 
and "Cressy" torpedoed and sunk by 
German submarine "U-9" with a loss of 
about 60 oflBcers and 1,400 men. 

September 23. — French carry Peronne by 
storm. 

September 24. — Zeppelin drops bombs at 
Ostend, inflicting slight damage. — Out- 
break of Asiatic cholera among Austrian 
troops admitted in Vienna. — Germans try 
unsuccessfully to land forces from trans- 
ports at Windau on the Russian Baltic 
coast. 



1914 

September 25. — German army under Von 
Hindenberg forces the Russians back as 
far as the Niemen. — Montenegrin troops 
enter Mostar. 

Septesiber 26. — British Indian troops land at 
Marseilles. — Outer forts of Antwerp at- 
tacked by Germans. 

September 28. — Passes over the Carpathian 
Mountains into Hungary occupied by 
Russian advance troops. 

September 29. — Allies hotly attacked by Ger- 
mans at Noyon. — French make forward 
movement between Toul and Verdun. 

October 1. — Heavy fighting north of Cracow, 

October 3. — Russians state that the battle of 
Augustowo, in progress for a week, has 
ended in the complete rout of Germans, 
and their retreat to the Prussian fron- 
tier. Russians reach valley of the Magy 
in Hungary. 

October 4. — Berlin admits an outbreak of 
cholera among German troops, but says 
there is no danger of an epidemic. — The 
flanking movement of the Allies against 
the German right still continues without 
decisive results. Slight advances on their 
right flank claimed by French. — Several 
forts taken and Termonde occupied by 
German forces besieging Antwerp. — 
Prayers for peace and special services 
held in churches of all denominations in 
the United States in conformity with the 
proclamation of President Wilson. 

October 8. — The situation along the battle 
line in France is reported as stationary. 
In the north the right wing of the Ger- 
mans and the left wing of the Allies 
have been extended beyond Lille, almost 
as far as the North Sea. — The Germans 
claim that the outer forts of Antwerp 
have been reduced, that the inner line is 
weakening. 

October 9. — Antwerp occupied by Germans. — 
The Russian War Office announces that 
Russia has conquered and occupied 39,000 
square miles of Austrian territory. The 
Germans and Austrians have joined 
forces in Southwestern Poland, and are 
obstinately opposing the advance of the 
Russians toward Breslau and Cracow. 



921585 






THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY 








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